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Gavin Douglas's Prologues to his Eneados : the narrator in quest of a new homeland Canitz, Auguste Elfriede Christa 1988

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GAVIN DOUGLAS'S PROLOGUES TO HIS EJNEADOS: THE NARRATOR IN QUEST OF A NEW HOMELAND By AUGUSTE ELFRIEDE CHRISTA CANITZ B.A. (Hons.), The University of Birmingham, 1980 M.A., The University of Birmingham, 1981 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of English) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March 1988 Auguste Elfriede Christa Canitz, 1988 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of English  The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date 29 A p r i l 1988  DE-6(3/81) ABSTRACT In t r a n s l a t i n g the Aeneid as f a i t h f u l l y as p o s s i b l e , Gavin Douglas saw h i m s e l f as an innovator, breaking with the t r a d i t i o n o f adaptation and instead p r e s e n t i n g a f a i t h f u l l i t e r a r y t r a n s l a t i o n . In the Prologues t o h i s Eneados Douglas discusses h i s t h e o r e t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s , comments on the work of h i s predecessors i n the t r a n s m i s s i o n of V i r g i l i n E n g l i s h , and r a i s e s issues p e r t i n e n t t o the contents of the Books of the Aeneid. However, the Prologues a l s o r e f l e c t Douglas's perception of a c o n f l i c t between h i s r e l i g i o u s and a r t i s t i c impulses, and show h i s gradual r e s o l u t i o n of t h i s c o n f l i c t inherent i n h i s dual r o l e as c r i t i c a l a r t i s t and churchman. By p l a c i n g Douglas's Prologues i n the context of prologues by other medieval w r i t e r s , Chapter I shows t h a t Douglas's new approach t o f a i t h f u l l i t e r a r y t r a n s l a t i o n i s matched by h i s independence i n the employment of conventional l i t e r a r y d e v i c e s , which he r e v i t a l i z e s by using them i n a meaningful way r a t h e r than a p p l y i n g them because custom so d i c t a t e s . Chapter II focuses on the n a r r a t o r i n h i s various and divergent r o l e s , e s p e c i a l l y those of the poet and p r i e s t ; w h i le these two r o l e s i n i t i a l l y seem t o make c o n f l i c t i n g demands on the t r a n s l a t o r - n a r r a t o r , he e v e n t u a l l y r e s o l v e s the c o n f l i c t and recognizes a sublime harmony between d i v i n e and human a r t i s t r y . Chapter I I I examines Douglas's p r a c t i c e of t r a n s l a t i o n i n l i g h t o f h i s own theory; even though Douglas tends t o "modernize" V i r g i l , he produces a genuine t r a n s l a t i o n i n which h i s avowed aims are l a r g e l y r e a l i z e d . Chapter IV focuses on the connexions of the i n d i v i d u a l Prologues w i t h t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e Books and demonstrates t h a t even though the t r a n s l a t i o n i t s e l f i s g e n e r a l l y accurate, the i n t e r p o l a t i o n o f the i i Prologues with t h e i r r e - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of common archetypes as foreshadowings of C h r i s t i a n d o c t r i n e causes a r a d i c a l t r a n s v a l u i n g of the Aeneid as a C h r i s t i a n a l l e g o r y . Chapter V shows th a t there i s not only a linkage between the Prologues and Books, but t h a t the Prologues are a l s o connected t o each other by the n a r r a t o r ' s search f o r a t h e o l o g i c a l l y acceptable yet a l s o a r t i s t i c a l l y s a t i s f y i n g r e - c r e a t i o n of a n o n - C h r i s t i a n work. Aeneas and the t r a n s l a t o r - n a r r a t o r are thus engaged i n p a r a l l e l quests during which they have t o overcome p h y s i c a l o b s t a c l e s and r e s o l v e inner c o n f l i c t s before they can reach t h e i r f i n a l d e s t i n a t i o n s . Contents A b s t r a c t i i A b b r e v i a t i o n s v Acknowledgements v i i n t r o d u c t i o n 1 Chapter 1: New Uses of E s t a b l i s h e d Conventions 13 Part 1: The Largely Neglected Prologues 17 Part 2: The Special Problem of the * Nature' Prologues 37 Chapter 11: The Narrator 58 Chapter I I I : The T r a n s l a t i o n 85 Chapter IV: The Linkage between Prologues and Books 114 Chapter V: The Double Progress 142 Conclusion 170 B i b l i o g r a p h y 174 ft i v Abbreviations CA Gower, Confessio Amant i s E.E.T.S.(e.s.) E a r l y E n g l i s h Text So c i e t y ( e x t r a s e r i e s ) P.O.S.T. D i c t i o n a r y o f the Older S c o t t i s h Tongue FP Lydgate, The Fal1 of Prin c e s HF Chaucer, The House o f Fame LGW Chaucer, The Legend o f Good Women ME Middle E n g l i s h MF Henryson, The Mora11 Fabi11 i s o f Esope the Phrygian Q.E.D. Oxford E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y PF Chaucer, The Parliament of Fowls PH Douglas, The Pa 1ice of Honour TB Lydgate, The Troy Book T&C Chaucer, T r o i l u s and Criseyde TC Henryson, The Testament o f Cr e s s e i d STS S c o t t i s h Text S o c i e t y v Acknowledgements I would like to thank Professor Ian S. Ross and Professor Mahmoud A. Manzalaoui for their advice and guidance. I am also grateful to Professors James Russell and J . Kieran Kealy for their comments and suggestions. My greatest indebtedness, however, is to the late Wolfgang Albrecht, to whose memory I dedicate this thesis. vi I n t r o d u c t i o n In the course of the Prologues t o h i s Eneados. Gavin Douglas r e f e r s s e v e r a l times t o "grave matters" which delayed the progress o f h i s t r a n s l a t i o n of V i r g i l ' s Aeneid i n t o ' S c o t t i s , ' yet he s t i l l completed the e n t i r e work i n a mere eighteen months. On the other hand, he a l s o f i n d s t h a t h i s work of w r i t i n g the Eneados had occupied him f o r a l l too long a w h i l e , thus d i v e r t i n g h i s a t t e n t i o n from more important b u s i n e s s . 1 These two c o n t r a s t i n g p e r s p e c t i v e s regarding the p r o p r i e t y of devoting h i s time t o a p o e t i c e n t e r p r i s e are i n many ways t y p i c a l o f the c o n f l i c t s which c h a r a c t e r i z e t h i s w r i t e r and h i s longest work. Douglas i n h i s various r o l e s i s f r e q u e n t l y a t odds with h i m s e l f , but the t e n s i o n which r e s u l t s from the o f t e n c o n f l i c t i n g claims of h i s d i v e r s e r o l e s and view-points heightens the v i t a l i t y of h i s poetry and gives i t increased energy and v i gour. In speaking o f Douglas's "haunting consciousness t h a t a man i s not made a bishop i n order t o t r a n s l a t e V i r g i l , " C S . Lewis i n d i c a t e d one of 2 the fundamental c o n f l i c t s t r o u b l i n g Douglas the poet. Douglas's v o c a t i o n , on the one hand, and h i s l i t e r a r y e n t e r p r i s e , on the other, involve him in a c o n f l i c t of i n t e r e s t s , f o r the one demands th a t he place h i s s k i l l i n the s e r v i c e of h i s f a i t h by using h i s a r t i s t i c t a l e n t s p r o f i t a b l y t o teach the d o c t r i n e s of C h r i s t i a n i t y and t o c e l e b r a t e h i s Lord, whose c r e a t i v e a c t i s the model t o be " i m i t a t e d " by the c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t y o f the poet; the other i n t e r e s t , however, leads him t o expend h i s time and energy on the t r a n s l a t i o n of a pagan w r i t e r ' s work, and thus on what might be regarded as a dis s e m i n a t i o n o f heresy and s u p e r s t i t i o n . P a r a d o x i c a l l y , i t i s p r e c i s e l y h i s t r a i n i n g as a s c h o l a s t i c t h e o l o g i a n 1 which must have made the undertaking of the Aeneid translation particularly attractive to Douglas. Time and time again, he stresses that accuracy and precision are among the main principles guiding his work, and he does not veil his indignation at William Caxton, one of his predecessors in the transmission of the Aeneid, for having failed to pay attention to these fundamentals of translation. At the same time, the demand for accuracy in the translation also identifies Douglas as immersed in a new current—new, at least, in the context of the British I s l e s — namely, that of Renaissance humanism. Unlike Caxton, Chaucer, and others who have retold the Aeneas story in their own ways yet claim to be following V i r g i l , Douglas endeavours actually to reproduce the Aeneid i t s e l f . This implies that he sees himself (and wishes to be seen by others) not only as a poet but also as a literary scholar. While Douglas the poet struggles with what he perceives to be the inadequacy of his native tongue to reflect the style of the original, Douglas the scholar consults the accumulated Virgilian commentaries, in addition to his own linguistic taste and inventiveness, to select the one word—or sometimes two or even three words—which comes closest to Virg i l ' s in meaning, connotations, and even sound quality. Moreover, Douglas is not satisfied with translating Virgil as closely as his s k i l l and his medium will allow; he also renders a precise account of his theoretical principles and methods, defends the particular enterprise, and, indeed, ju s t i f i e s the writing of secular poetry per se. The foremost among his principles is the demand for utmost accuracy, which includes precision in technical aspects, such as word choice and retention of the proportions of the work, as well as the faithful rendering of the 2 o r i g i n a l author's p h i l o s o p h i c a l stance, even i f t h i s stance may not accord w i t h the t r a n s l a t o r ' s own preferences. Douglas consequently chides Chaucer f o r having misrepresented Aeneas as a p e r j u r e r whereas V i r g i l had portrayed him as f a u l t l e s s . Nonetheless, Douglas does not perceive any c l a s h between t h i s p o s t u l a t e o f t o t a l accuracy and h i s own p r a c t i c e o f r e -i n t e r p r e t i n g the Aeneid as a C h r i s t i a n a l l e g o r y which may serve as a mir r o r f o r p r i n c e s and as a guidebook f o r the average b e l i e v e r . For Douglas, t h i s k i n d of " p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t o n " seems t o have come n a t u r a l l y ; not once does he seek t o defend i t . On the c o n t r a r y , he takes i t f o r granted t h a t t h i s approach i s f u l l y j u s t i f i e d and p o i n t s t o V i r g i l ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f the underworld as evidence t h a t V i r g i l h i m s e l f was an unconscious spokesman f o r s t i l l unrevealed C h r i s t i a n d o c t r i n e . F r e e l y "modernizing" V i r g i l in other respects too, Douglas shows h i s lack o f any sense o f the h i s t o r i c a l d i s t a n c e between V i r g i l ' s time and h i s own. While Douglas can be extremely f a i t h f u l t o the l e t t e r o f V i r g i l ' s t e x t and while he i s well aware t h a t he i s breaking new ground with h i s s c h o l a r l y approach t o the c r a f t o f t r a n s l a t i o n , he nonetheless thoroughly t r a n s v a l u e s the Aeneid without being conscious o f having made the s i i g h t e s t change. Although Douglas i s f u l l y committed t o making the Aeneid a c c e s s i b l e t o h i s own countrymen, l e t t e r e d and u n l e t t e r e d a l i k e , he i s a c u t e l y conscious o f the o b j e c t i o n s which might be r a i s e d a g a i n s t h i s undertaking. In f a c t , the s e r i e s of the t h i r t e e n Prologues, i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the t r a n s l a t i o n , provides ample evidence t h a t he hims e l f i s i n t h i s respect h i s own severest judge and c r i t i c . The Prologues document Douglas's s t r u g g l e w i t h two c o n f l i c t i n g impulses: on the one s i d e , h i s s c h o l a r l y and 3 a r t i s t i c interests urge him to use a l l his poetic s k i l l and learned resourcefulness to preserve the integrity of Vir g i l ' s work in reproducing i t for a new audience with a different linguistic and cultural background; on the other side, his moral and religious impulses warn him that he is engaged in a questionable pursuit when he appears to promulgate the existence and active agency of pagan deities. However, the Prologues also show the gradual resolution of this conflict and, eventually, the sublime harmony between the poet's religious and a r t i s t i c concerns. In this respect, Douglas's progress mirrors that of Aeneas, who also has to overcome severe psychological and physical obstacles before he can give his Trojans their new homeland. These two journeys of the poet-translator and of the hero of the work are linked to each other not only by means of a general parallelism in the development of the two series of the Prologues and the Books, but also by means of intricate connexions between the individual Prologues and the Books which they introduce; thematic or structural elements in the Prologues often adumbrate those found in the Books and link the narrator's inner state with events in Aeneas' career. This linkage of the Prologues with their respective Books and of the two series with each other has, however, only recently been recognized. From the late nineteenth century until the 1960's, editors and compilers as well as literary c r i t i c s have emphasized the so-called 'Nature' Prologues (VII, XII, and XIII) in their anthologies and discussions. 3 Although these three Prologues, set in December, May, and June respectively, unite descriptions of the seasonal landscape with short sketches of the poet himself in various states of creativity, c r i t i c s in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century commonly regarded these 4 Prologues as pure nature poetry. Agnes Mure Mackenzie, for example, claimed in 1933 that "Douglas is the f i r s t poet in any form of the language d e l i b e r a t e l y to paint wild weather—indeed to paint landscape on a considerable s c a l e — f o r i t s own sake, to f i n d the aesthetic pleasure in i t as such, not merely as the appropriate s e t t i n g f o r some t h r i l l of adventure among wildness. He is thus a figure of cardinal importance in the development of a l l nature-poetry, not only in E n g l i s h . " 4 While the 'Nature' Prologues were, and s t i l l are, almost u n i v e r s a l l y lauded, most of the other Prologues used to receive only cursory mention; David F.C. Coldwell, Douglas's last and on the whole rather unsympathetic e d i t o r , even went so far as to suggest that Douglas had t h r i f t i l y salvaged poems written f or other occasions and "draped them on the Aeneid because no more sui t a b l e one occurred." Oespite i t s shortcomings, the p u b l i c a t i o n of Coldwell's e d i t i o n made the Eneados accessible again, r e s u l t i n g in a new wave of c r i t i c a l a p p r a i s a l s . ^ While scholars such as John Speirs and Kurt g W i t t i g had discussed Douglas p r i m a r i l y as a Sc o t t i s h poet, c r i t i c s w r i t i n g in the 1970's and 1980's have read Douglas as a poet to be approached as one would approach Chaucer or Lydgate. In 1973, Elizabeth S a l t e r and Derek P e a r s a l l , f o r example, placed Douglas in the more international context of a r t in general and drew att e n t i o n to the s t r i k i n g s i m i l a r i t i e s between his seasonal descriptions and the depictions of outdoor scenes by Flemish landscape painters and by the Continental illuminators of Calendars and Books of Hours, thus questioning the previously standard argument that Douglas's descriptions were based on d i r e c t , f i r s t - h a n d observation of nature, e s p e c i a l l y S c o t t i s h nature in Prologue V I I . 9 Three years l a t e r , in 1976, the f i r s t (and, so f a r , the 5 only) book-length study of Douglas and his work appeared in p r i n t : P r i s c i l l a Bawcutt's Gavin Douglas: A C r i t i c a 1 Study, which contains several chapters on the Eneados, including one e n t i r e l y devoted to the Prologues. 1 0 Bawcutt's book is t r u l y a pioneer work, in which she brings her f u l l scholarship to bear on her subject, breaking with conventional views and providing a comprehensive and e n t i r e l y new discussion based on painstaking research and extensive knowledge not only of Douglas and his own work but a l s o of his sources and i n t e l l e c t u a l environment. Writing in 1979, Lois Ebin was the f i r s t scholar to consider a l l t h i r t e e n Prologues and, in a d d i t i o n , to r e l a t e them to each o t h e r . 1 1 In 1981 and 1982, A l i c i a K. Nitecki again singled out the three s o - c a l l e d 'Nature' Prologues, but demonstrated that the landscape descriptions in these Prologues derive from l i t e r a r y sources more than from d i r e c t observation and that they do not e x i s t f or t h e i r own sake but serve as images of the poet-translator's inner state as he grapples with the problems involved in 12 the t r a n s l a t i o n of V i r g i l ' s work. Three years la t e r again, Professor Ian S. Ross argued that the Prologues and Books of the Eneados are linked to each other by "patterns of comparison and contrast" and should be taken as a u n i f i e d 'long poem.' 1 3 Most recently, David J . Parkinson has provided the f i r s t extensive discussion of the a l l i t e r a t i v e Prologue VIII, surely the most d i f f i c u l t and most puzzling of al1 Douglas's P r o l o g u e s . 1 4 Other a r t i c l e s published in the l a s t twenty to twenty-five years have been concerned with a v a r i e t y of other aspects of the Eneados, e s p e c i a l l y the 15 t r a n s l a t i o n i t s e l f . Although there has been a marked increase in the l i v e l i n e s s and q u a l i t y of the c r i t i c a l discussion following the p u b l i c a t i o n of Bawcutt's trend-setting book, the quantity of published 6 material on the Eneados i s s t i H very small—Lydgate, Henryson, Dunbar, and even Gower have received f a r more attention from c r i t i c s and p u b l i s h e r s . 1 6 The present study focuses p r i m a r i l y on the t h i r t e e n Prologues to the Eneados and examines them from a v a r i e t y of angles. Chapter I contextualizes Douglas's Prologues by comparing them with prologues by other medieval writers, e s p e c i a l l y Chaucer and Lydgate, and by placing Douglas's use of c e r t a i n l i t e r a r y conventions in the context of the l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n . It shows that Douglas's independence in choosing a new, s c h o l a r l y approach to the c r a f t of t r a n s l a t i o n i s matched by a comparable independence in his employment of standard devices and topoi, which he endows with new v i t a l i t y by a v a i l i n g himself of them in a meaningful way rather than applying them because custom d i c t a t e s them. Chapter I further seeks to demonstrate Douglas's independence as a c r i t i c a l a r t i s t , whose poetic expression is characterized by a high degree of consciousness regarding his source and his poetic and l i n g u i s t i c materials. Chapter II focuses on the narrator of the Prologues as he steps before his audience in a v a r i e t y of divergent r o l e s , e s p e c i a l l y those of the emancipated a r t i s t and of the churchman bound by the demands of h i s f a i t h and vocation. While these two role s of poet and p r i e s t i n i t i a l l y seem to make c o n f l i c t i n g demands on Douglas the t r a n s l a t o r , he eventually resolves the c o n f l i c t and j o i n s these and other role s in the supreme harmony of the f i n a l Prologues. Chapter III t r e a t s aspects of the t r a n s l a t i o n i t s e l f in conjunction with the p r i n c i p l e s t h e o r e t i c a l l y set f o r t h e s p e c i a l l y in Prologue I, where Douglas emphasizes the need f o r a poet-translator to be f a i t h f u l and accurate in his t r a n s l a t i o n and to 7 respect the i n t e g r i t y and i n v i o l a b i l i t y of his source. This chapter examines Douglas's p r a c t i c e of t r a n s l a t i o n in l i g h t of h i s own theory and demonstrates the means by which he achieves h i s avowed aims. Even though Douglas takes occasional l i b e r t i e s in "modernizing" V i r g i l , he produces a genuine t r a n s l a t i o n of a c l a s s i c , not the kind of adaptation which had previously been customary. However, while Douglas the t r a n s l a t o r meets his own demand of f i d e l i t y to the source, Douglas the poet-narrator f e e l s free to intersperse the Books of the Aeneid with the seri e s of the P r o l o g u e s — h i s own, o r i g i n a l compositions—thus compromising the con t i n u i t y of V i r g i l ' s text and influencing the audience's in t e r p r e t a t i o n of the epic by prefacing each Book with h i s own comments. Chapter IV examines t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p between the individual Prologues and t h e i r respective Books, and seeks to demonstrate that even though the t r a n s l a t i o n i t s e l f i s generally accurate, the i n t e r p o l a t i o n of the Prologues causes a rad i c a l transvaluing of the Aeneid as a C h r i s t i a n a l l e g o r y . Chapter V attempts to demonstrate that the Prologues are not only linked to the Books which they introduce, but that they are a l s o connected to each other in a seri e s p a r a l l e l to that of the Books. The str u c t u r a l p a r a l l e l i s m between the two seri e s of the Prologues and Books suggests a p a r a l l e l i s m between the quest of Aeneas and that of the narrator. Aeneas' physical and psychological journey i s mirrored by the progress of the poet-translator, who a l s o ventures into new t e r r i t o r y and eventually accomplishes his enormous task; in the process, he not only resolves the c o n f l i c t s discussed in chapter III but a l s o achieves his goal of producing a work which i s both a genuine t r a n s l a t i o n and a poem in i t s own r i g h t , and which furthermore extends the range of the poet-8 t r a n s l a t o r ' s national language just as Aeneas' quest f o r the new homeland lays the foundations for the reburgeoning of Trojan power. In t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n , then, I hope to make a t h r e e f o l d contribution to the study of Gavin Douglas's Eneados; I s h a l l seek to demonstrate Douglas's conscious independence in his a p p l i c a t i o n of conventional devices within his Prologues, r e f l e c t i n g the independence in his e n t i r e approach to t r a n s l a t i o n ; secondly, by examining the t r a n s l a t i o n i t s e l f and by exploring the linkage between the t r a n s l a t i o n and the Prologues, I expect to show that even though Douglas's p r a c t i c e generally accords with his theory, his integration of the Prologues leads to a r e - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the Aeneid as a C h r i s t i a n a l l e g o r y ; and, l a s t l y , by analyzing the various rol e s of the narrator and by l i n k i n g the narrator's progress with that of Aeneas as suggested by the uninterrupted p a r a l l e l i s m of the two s e r i e s of Prologues and Books, I s h a l l attempt to e s t a b l i s h the conscious p a r a l l e l i s m between the double journey of Aeneas and the s i m i l a r double progress of the poet-translator. 9 Notes Quotations from Douglas's Eneados are taken from V i r g i l ' s Aeneid  Translated into S c o t t i s h Verse by Gavin Douglas, Bishop of Dunkeld, ed. David F.C. Coldwell, 4 vols., STS 25, 27, 28, 30 (Edinburgh & London: Blackwell, 1957-64). References are given in the form ' I , i , 1' ( i . e . , Book I, chapter i , l i n e 1). The various short pieces of wr i t i n g following the t r a n s l a t i o n of the th i r t e e n t h Book are ref e r r e d to as "Conclusion' (v o l . IV, p.187), 'Direction' ( v o l . IV, pp.188-91), 'Exclamation' ( v o l . IV, pp.192-93), and 'Time, Space and Date' ( v o l . IV, pp.194-95). In quoting from Coldwell's e d i t i o n , I have s i l e n t l y removed h i s i t a l i c s ; a l l i t a l i c s which appear in the quotations from the Eneados are my own, used to emphasize c e r t a i n words, phrases or usages, as appropriate. Douglas r e f e r s to his language as ' S c o t t i s ' in I, P r o l . , 118. In Prologue VII, he mentions the delay which had occurred because other matters had occupied him: I hynt a pen in hand, F o r t i l perform the poet grave and sad, Quham sa f e r fu r t h or than begun I had. For byssynes, quhilk o c c u r r i t on cace, Ourvoluyt I t h i s volume, lay a space. (VII, P r o l . , 144-49) In Prologue XIII, a f t e r promising Maphaeus Vegius to t r a n s l a t e the thi r t e e n t h Book, Douglas the narrator hurries back to his w r i t i n g : And mak vpwark he i r o f , and cloyss our buke, That I may syne bot on grave mater is luke. (XIII, P r o l . , 187-88) 2 C S . Lewis, Engl ish L i t e r a t u r e in the Sixteenth Century, Exc 1 uding Drama (Oxford: Clarendon, 1954), p.87. The observation i s v a l i d even though Douglas was not a c t u a l l y made Bishop of Dunkeld u n t i l 1516, three years a f t e r the completion of the Eneados. d The following anthologies demonstrate the t y p i c a l s e l e c t i o n pattern: Selections from the Early S c o t t i s h Poets, ed. Wi11iam Hand Browne (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1896), pp.154-65, includes excerpts from Prologues VII and XII; The Book of Sc o t t i s h Poetry, Being an Antho1ogy of  the Best S c o t t i s h Verse from the E a r l i e s t Times to the Present, ed. George Douglas (London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1911), pp.132-37 presents most of Prologue VII under the t i t l e "A Description of Winter;" The Oxford Book of  Sc o t t i s h Verse, eds. John MacQueen and Tom Scott (Oxford: Clarendon, 1966), pp.158-71, includes most of Prologue VII and a l l of Prologue XIII. Mediaeval S c o t t i s h Poetry: King James the F i r s t , Robert Henryson, Wi11iam  Dunbar, Gavin Douglas, ed. George Eyre-Todd (London & Edinburgh: Sands, n.d.), pp.235-69, s e l e c t s most of Prologues VII, XII and XIII (except f o r the dream passage) as well as IV, i , 1-10, IV, i i , 47-78, and IV, i v , 1-90 (Dido's hunting party), in addition to passages from The Pa 1ice of Honour 10 and K i n g H a r t . A p a r t f rom a s u b s t a n t i a l s e l e c t i o n f rom P r o l o g u e s and Books I-VI, C o l d w e l l i n c l u d e s t h e t h r e e ' N a t u r e ' P r o l o g u e s bu t n o t h i n g e l s e f rom Books VII-XII i n h i s ( ed . ) S e l e c t i o n s f rom G a v i n Doug1 a s , C l a r e n d o n Med ieva l and Tudor S e r i e s ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n , 1964) . 4 Agnes Mure M a c k e n z i e , An H i s t o r i c a 1 Su r vey o f S c o t t i s h L i t e r a t u r e t o 1714 ( London : M a c l e h o s e , 1933) , p . 1 0 3 . 5 John S p e i r s , " G a v i n D o u g l a s ' s ' A e n e i d ' , " i n h i s The S c o t s L i t e r a r y  T r a d i t i o n : An E s s a y i n C r i t i c i s m , (1940; 2nd e d n . L o n d o n : Faber & F a b e r , 1962) , p . 7 4 , f i n d s P r o l o g u e s XII and XI I I t o o d e r i v a t i v e t o be s u c c e s s f u l . C h a r l e s R. B l y t h , " G a v i n D o u g l a s ' P r o l o g u e s o f N a t u r a l D e s c r i p t i o n , " P h i l o l o g i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , 49 (1970 ) , 164-77, l a b e l s t h e May P r o l o g u e " D o u g l a s ' f a i l u r e " ( p . 1 7 1 ) . 6 C o l d w e l l , " I n t r o d u c t i o n , " V i r g i I ' s A e n e i d , v o l . 1 , p . 8 8 . ^ Subsequent t o C o p l a n d ' s 1553 p r i n t , t h e Eneados has been e d i t e d f o u r t i m e s j n t o t o , C o l d w e l l ' s e d i t i o n b e i n g t h e l a s t . The p r e c e d i n g t h r e e e d i t i o n s a r e V i r g i 1 ' s A e n e i s T r a n s l a t e d i n t o S c o t t i s h V e r s e , e d . Thomas Ruddiman ( E d i n b u r g h , 1710) ; The A E n e i d o f V i r g i l , T r a n s 1ated i n t o  S c o t t i s h V e r s e : By Gawin D o u g l a s , B i s h o p o f D u n k e l d , e d s . Andrew, L o r d R u t h e r f o r d , and George Dundas , L o r d Manor ( E d i n b u r g h : Bannatyne C l u b , 1839) ; The Poe t i c a1 Works o f G a v i n D o u g l a s , B i s h o p o f D u n k e l d : Wi th  Memoir , N o t e s , and G l o s s a r y , e d . John S m a l l , 4 v o l s . ( E d i n b u r g h : W i l l i a m P a t e r s o n ; London : H. S o t h e r a n , 1874) . g John S p e i r s , The S c o t s L i t e r a r y T r a d i t i o n . K u r t W i t t i g , The  S c o t t i s h T r a d i t i o n i n L i t e r a t u r e ( E d i n b u r g h & L o n d o n : O l i v e r and Boyd , 1958) . 9 Derek P ea r s a l 1 and E l i z a b e t h S a l t e r , L andscapes and Seasons o f t h e Med ieva l Wor ld ( London : E l e k , 1973) . ^ P r i s c i l l a Bawcu t t , G a v i n D o u g l a s : A C r i t i c a l S tudy ( E d i n b u r g h : E d i n b u r g h U n i v . P r e s s , 1976) . ^ L o i s E b i n , "The R o l e o f t h e N a r r a t o r i n t h e P r o l o g u e s t o G a v i n D o u g l a s ' s E n e a d o s , " Chauce r Rev iew, 14 (1979/80 ) , 353-65 . 12 A l i c i a K. N i t e c k i , "The Theme o f Renewal i n D o u g l a s ' P r o l o g u e 1 2 , " Bal1 S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y Forum, 22 (1981 ) , 9-13; and he r " M o r t a l i t y and P o e t r y in D o u g l a s ' P r o l o g u e 7 , " Pape rs on Language and L i t e r a t u r e , 18 (1982 ) , 8 1 - 7 . N i t e c k i r e p e a t s much o f t h e m a t e r i a l f r om t h e above two a r t i c l e s , bu t a l s o adds a s e c t i o n on P r o l o g u e X I I I , i n he r " G a v i n D o u g l a s ' s Ru ra l M u s e , " i n P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e T h i r d I n t e r n a t i o n a l  C o n f e r e n c e on S c o t t i s h Language and L i t e r a t u r e (MedievaI and R e n a i s s a n c e ) , e d s . R o d e r i c k J . L y a l l and F e l i c i t y R iddy ( S t i r l i n g & G lasgow: n . p . , 1981) , p p . 3 8 3 - 9 5 . ^ Ian S. R o s s , " ' P r o l o u g ' and ' B u k e ' i n t h e Eneados o f G a v i n D o u g l a s , " i n S c o t t i s h Language and L i t e r a t u r e , Med ieva l and R e n a i s s a n c e : 11 Fourth Internationa1 Conference 1984—Proceedings, eds. D i e t r i c h Strauss and Horst W. Drescher ( F r a n k f u r t a.M.: Peter Lang, 1986), p.393. David J . Parkinson, "Gavin Douglas's I n t e r l u d e , " S c o t t i s h L i t e r a r y  J o u r n a l , 14 (1987), 5-17. 15 Among ot h e r s : P r i s c i l l a Bawcutt, "Douglas and Surrey: T r a n s l a t o r s o f V i r g i l , " Essays and S t u d i e s , n.s. 27 (1974), 52-67; Hans Kasmann, "Gavin Douglas' Aeneis-Ubersetzung," i n F e s t s c h r i f t f u r Walter Hijbner, eds. D i e t e r Riesner and Helmut Gneuss ( B e r l i n : E r i c h Schmidt V e r l a g , 1964), pp.164-76; R.W.B. Lewis, "On T r a n s l a t i n g the Aeneid: Y i f That I Can," Yearbook of Comparative and General L i t e r a t u r e , 10 (1961), 7-15. Apart from Bawcutt's monograph, the only f u l l - l e n g t h s t u d i e s of the Eneados are the f o l l o w i n g s i x unpublished do c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n s : George B. Dearing, "Gavin Douglas: A R e - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , " D i s s . U. of Iowa 1943. Charles Ramsay B l y t h J r . , "'The Knychtlyke S t i l e ' : A Study of Gavin Douglas' Aeneid," D i s s . Harvard 1963. Gerald Byron Kinneavy, "Gavin Douglas, Poet and C r i t i c : A Study of h i s Poetry and C r i t i c a l Theory i n R e l a t i o n t o Medieval P o e t i c s , " D i s s . Pennsylvania State 1967. Quentin George Johnson, "Gavin Douglas as P o e t - T r a n s l a t o r : Eneados and Aeneid IV," D i s s . U. of Oregon 1967. Penelope Schott Starkey, "Douglas's Eneados: V i r g i l i n ' S c o t t i s ' , " D i s s . CUNY 1971. Thomas Blanchard Dewey, "The Vocabulary of Gavin Douglas," v o l s . I - I I I , D i s s . UCLA 1973. 12 Chapter I - New Uses of Established Conventions When Gavin Douglas began his t r a n s l a t i o n of V i r g i l ' s Aeneid, there already existed an extensive corpus of works in English based on V i r g i l ' s epic. Indeed, as Prologue I of the Eneados t e s t i f i e s , Douglas was well acquainted with some of them, f o r he c r i t i c i z e s them on a v a r i e t y of grounds. But the very f a c t that he uses a prologue as the vehicle f or h i s c r i t i c i s m shows that he regarded another t r a d i t i o n as f u l l y established too, namely that of the prologue form as a means f o r the writer to set f o r t h the t h e o r e t i c a l underpinnings of h i s work, to c l a r i f y h i s c r i t i c a l perspective, to set the tone f o r the ensuing work, to focus the reader's att e n t i o n and to shape the reader's expectations regarding the main part of the w o r k — i n a word, to make some announcement with respect to the nature of the undertaking and with regard to the p o s i t i o n of the writer himself. The p a r t i c u l a r s of the nature, terms, and c h i e f purposes of t h i s announcement may vary from prologue to prologue and from writer to writer, but the t r a d i t i o n of making i t by means of t h i s device has by the e a r l y sixteenth century become thoroughly conventional. Within English l i t e r a t u r e , the prologue has been used by Chaucer, Gower, and Lydgate; closer to home, in S c o t t i s h l i t e r a t u r e , Henryson has used i t ; further a f i e l d , Douglas has encountered i t in Boccaccio, whom he so often quotes and ref e r s to; i t i s used in the vernacular l i t e r a t u r e s as well as in L a t i n , in e n t i r e l y secular works written f o r the entertainment of lay audiences as well as in s c h o l a s t i c works. Indeed, one of the most astonishing aspects of the device of the prologue is i t s extreme v e r s a t i l i t y and f l e x i b i l i t y in terms of both i t s form and structure and i t s function and purpose. Douglas's Eneados i t s e l f provides ample 13 evidence of the multifarious uses of the form, for no two of its thirteen Prologues are alike, yet all are supported by a long tradition which stretches back through medieval writing ultimately to classical forms, reshaped and adapted in the course of centuries to f u l f i l new and different tasks. When Douglas prefaces every single Book of his Eneados with its own, separate Prologue, he is nonetheless doing something quite extraordinary. For although prologues are common enough in Middle English literature, o unbroken series of prologues for every main section of a work are rare. Even Chaucer, whom Douglas hails as 'principal poet but peir' (I, Prol., 339), does not keep up the practice he began in the Canterbury Tales of having each Tale begin with a prologue. Half a century later, in the 1430's, Lydgate also uses a series of prologues in his Fal1 of Princes, which is in many ways comparable to Douglas's own monumental work, yet Lydgate, too, breaks the series so that only five out of the nine Books of the Fal1 are preceded by a Prologue. Lydgate's Fal1 Prologues also do not show the extreme variety of Douglas's, either in form and structure or in content and tone. In this respect, Chaucer's development of the form in the Canterbury Prologues approximates the versatility of the device in Douglas's work much more closely, but here the range of function and purpose is narrower than it is in the Eneados Prologues. Douglas thus stretches the range of the Prologue form and pushes its 1imits beyond what had previously been done. Nevertheless, one of the similarities between Chaucer's Prologues in the Canterbury Tales and Douglas's Prologues in the Eneados provides a good point of comparison. In the General Prologue, Chaucer introduces the 14 / various pilgrims assembled at the Tabard Inn and then tells his audience that he will telle of oure viage And al the remenaunt of oure pilgrimage. But first I pray yow, of youre curteisye, That ye n'arette it nat my vileynye, Thogh that I pleynly speke in this mateere, To telle yow hir wordes and hir cheere, Ne though I speke hir wordes proprely. For this ye knowen al so wel as I, Whoso shal telle a tale after a man. He moot reherce as ny as evere he kan Everich a word, if it be in his charge, Al speke he never so rudeliche and large, Or el lis he moot telle his tale untrewe, Or feyne thyng, or fynde wordes newe. He may nat spare, a1thogh he were his brother; He moot as wel seye o word as another. (I (A) 723-38)1 In other words, Chaucer proposes a twofold approach: fir s t , he will report the pilgrimage with its story-telling as vt happens, that is, he will show his audience the pilgrimage in progress, as something that is developing and taking shape under his reader's eyes, not as an event which lies in the past and is completed; and second, he will use the language of his characters, that is, he will set the tales down in styles chosen for their appropriateness to the individual narrators and thus be faithful to his "exemplars." In both aspects, Douglas's approach is similar. He, too, shows us not only a journey—Aeneas' double progress, a physical one from the ruins of Troy to the banks of the Tiber, and a psychological one from being the fugitive Trojan to having become the model man and prince—but he shows it to us while it is s t i l l in the making, giving us glimpses of the process of his own creative work in translating the tale of Aeneas' journey and thus involving us in the creative process, as opposed to 15 presenting us with the finished, completed product. In the progress, Douglas, too, makes very precise statements regarding his word choice, style, critical approach, and other theoretical issues involved in a work in which accuracy and faithfulness are the avowed yet often taxing goals. As Chaucer had made his statements near the opening of his work, so Douglas, too, uses the first of his Prologues to propound his critical framework, while later adding further details to the discussion as they arise. Indeed, the issue of the critical approach occupies almost all of Prologues I, II, III, V, and IX, and parts of Prologues VIII, XII, and XIII, as well as most of the end matter following Book XIII, where Douglas treats his pen like a votive offering to a saint: Thus vp my pen and instrument is full -ror On Virgi11 is post I fix for evirmor, (Conclusion, 13-4) thus putting the classical exordial topos of dedication or "consecration" 2 to new use. After the rising morning sun had welcomed the pilgrim on the last leg of his pilgrimage (XIII, Prol., 169-70), the pilgrimage of the translation here becomes complete, and Douglas's pledge to Virgil 3 i t with thy leif, Virgile, to follow the, I wald into my rural 1 wlgar gross Wryte sum savoryng of thyne Eneados (I, Prol., 42-3) is finally redeemed. But the journey has been an arduous one, forcing the translator to give careful and intense consideration to his methods and even requiring him from time to time to make a great effort to overcome a certain weariness in order to carry on with his toilsome 16 1abour. Part 1: The Largely Neglected Prologues At the beginning of the work Douglas seems to be full of zest and enthusiasm. He starts his first Prologue with a long apostrophe to Virgil, on whom he heaps the most extravagant yet quite sincere praises. What Douglas singles out in Virgil's work above all is the Mantuan's combination of ingenuity and eloquence which makes his crafty warkis curyus Sa quyk, lusty and maist sentencyus, Plesand, perfyte and feilabill in all degre, • • • Surmontyng fer a11 other maner endyte, Sa wysly wrocht with nevir a word invane. (I, Prol., 11-3,16,30) In contrast, Douglas deplores his own lack of these qualities: Quhy suld I than with dull forhed and vayn, With rude engyne and barrand emptyve brayn, With bad, harsk spech and lewit barbour tong Presume to write quhar thy sweit bell is rung. (I, Prol., 19-22) This contrast indicates what is important for Douglas: verse must satisfy both in terms of its intellectual aspects and on account of the melodiousness of its sounds and richness of its texture, and the poet must be 'crafty' or skilful in eloquence so that his verse will please both mind and emotion—it must be both 'sentencyus' and ' f e i l a b i l l . ' These qualities are partly to be achieved through skilful composition, partly through selectivity and precision in word choice; other criteria are a 17 certain poetical quality ('sang poetical'; IX, Prol., 55) and a general freshness of expression, which includes both vividness and originality ("fresch sapour new from the berry run'; V, Prol., 54; also IX, Prol., 55 and 72). Yet these aimed-for qualities pose particular problems for Douglas who sees himself as writing in a 'lewit barbour tang' which does not command the 'polyst termys redymyte' (I, Prol., 34) available in Virgi1's Latin. But even though the difficulties inherent in the project are great, Douglas remains unabashed. He takes the time-honoured stance of humility before the 'Maister of master is' (I, Prol., 9), For quhat compair betwix mydday and nycht? Or quhat compair betwix myrknes and lycht? Or quhat compar is betwix blak and quhyte? (I, Prol., 25-7) and includes the traditional topos of the protestation of his own i ncapac i ty My waverand wyt, my cunnyng febi11 at a l l . My mynd mysty, thir may nocht myss a fall — (I, Prol., 31-2). Yet the correctio in the very next line already indicates Douglas's impatience not only with his own limitations but also with the conventional self-effacement of the translator and humble follower; altering his tone, he exclaims, '\ Stra for thys ignorant blabryng imperfyte Besyde thy polyst termys redymyte. (I, Prol., 33-4) 18 The conventional terms of humility have become stale, and the attitude they are meant to express is inadequate for one who has set himself the task of not merely translating but re-creating the work of this master of poetry—even in using traditional topoi Douglas aims at freshness. How independent Douglas's attitude indeed is—despite his deep admiration for Virgi l — w i l l become clear i f Oouglas's stance is compared with Lydgate's abject se1f-degradation vis-a-vis Boccaccio: And theih my stile nakid be and bare, In rethorik myn auctour for to sue, Yit fro the trouthe shal I nat remue, But on the substance bi good leiser abide Afftir myn auctour lik as I may atteyne, And for my part sette eloquence aside, But, o alias! who shal be my muse, Or onto whom shal I for helpe calle? Calliope my callyng will refuse. And on Pernaso here worthi sustren alle; Thei will ther sugre tempre with no galle. (Fall of Princes, I, Prol., 229-43) Although both poets protest their own lack of ability and lament the insufficiency of their language to reflect the effects of their Latin exemplars precisely or even adequately, the attitudes of the two translators are worlds apart. What Lydgate perceives as a given limitation in which he has no choice but acquiece. Seyn howh that Ynglyssh in ryme hath skarsety, (FP IX, 3312) Douglas takes as a challenge on which his powers of innovation and creativity can thrive: 19 Nor j i t sa c l e y n a l l sudron I r e f u s s , Bot sum word I pronunce as nyghtbouris doys: Lyke as i n Latyn beyn Grew termys sum, So me behufyt quhi1um or than be dum Sum bastard Latyn, French or Inglys oyss Quhar scant was Scott i s — I had nane other choys. Nocht f o r our tong i s i n the selwyn skant Bot f o r t h a t I the fowth o f langage want. ( I , P r o l . , 113-20) Apart from announcing h i s i n t e n t i o n o f borrowing words or pr o n u n c i a t i o n s , which he sometimes needs 'to l y k l y my ryme' ( I , P r o l . , 124), Douglas here a l s o r a i s e s the issue o f l i n g u i s t i c accuracy i n h i s t r a n s l a t i o n . What he s t r i v e s f o r i s the 'fowth' o f language, and the more v a r i e d h i s resources a r e , the more l i k e l y i s t h i s fund o f p o s s i b i l i t i e s t o provide him with e x a c t l y the r i g h t word or phrase f o r the p a r t i c u l a r context. Douglas borrows f r e e l y from other languages, not only French, L a t i n and Greek, but a l s o Dutch and Flemish. In a d d i t i o n , h i s vocabulary includes words drawn from Scandinavian stock, n a t i v e c o l l o q u i a l i s m s made l i t e r a r y by t h e i r use i n the Eneados, a l l i t e r a t i v e c o l l o c a t i o n s , and aureate neologisms newly coined f o r the occasion. This copiousness o f vocabulary and the v a r i e t y i n the l e v e l o f d i c t i o n make i t p o s s i b l e , a t l e a s t t h e o r e t i c a l l y , t o emulate V i r g i l ' s l i n g u i s t i c e f f e c t s , and thus t o s a t i s f y h i s "ambition t o r a i s e h i s own language t o an equal p i t c h of eloquence;" 4 i t i s the breadth of Douglas's resources which a l l o w s him t o choose terms not only f o r t h e i r denotations but a l s o f o r t,heir connotations, a s s o c i a t i o n s , sound q u a l i t i e s , and etymological connexions. The v a r i e d vocabulary thus serves h i s demand f o r accuracy and f i d e l i t y i n even the more s u b t l e s t y l i s t i c aspects of the t r a n s l a t i o n . L i n g u i s t i c borrowing and, i f need be, even in v e n t i o n are i n t e g r a l p a r t s o f Douglas's s t a t e d methodology, whose goal i t i s t o capture as much as p o s s i b l e o f V i r g i l ' s t e x t u r e , tone, and verbal 20 effects. While succeeding translators could previously have fallen back on Lydgate's statement that 'Ynglyssh . . . hath skarsety', Douglas develops and comments on methods to overcome such 'skarsety.' The discussion of linguistic difficulties perceived by the translator as objective rather than subjective limitations had already become a new exordial topos itself, but Douglas's innovation is to discuss and demonstrate the means to meet such challenges. Another method in striving for fidelity in recreating the Aeneid is to aim at the utmost accuracy in retaining the 'sentence' in its original balance and proportions. In his flyting with Caxton (I, Prol., 137-282), Douglas indignantly charges the earlier writer with having translated the Aeneid at second hand, from a French recension, rather than directly from the original Latin (I, Prol., 141);^ in consequence, there are serious distortions in the texture of the verse (I, Prol., 147-52), and confusions in the locations and characters stemming from misspellings of place names and proper names (I, Prol., 221-48), besides perversions of parts of the plot (I, Prol., 155-67). However, important as they are, these are minor charges compared with the two major ones, namely that Caxton has, by means of undue abbreviations and considerable omissions, distorted the structural balance and proportions of Virgil's work (I, Prol., 154-56, 168-76, 249-59), and that he utterly fails to understand the significance of the pagan gods and of the underworld. Douglas also accuses Caxton of failing to perceive that 'vnder the clowdis of dyrk poecy / Hyd lyis thar mony notabi11 history' (I, Prol., 194-95). In consequence of this deplorable lack of perception and sympathetic understanding, Caxton calls Book VI 'fenjeit and nocht forto beleif (I, Prol., 179), being thus 21 i n c o n s i s t e n t , s i n c e o t h e r p a r t s o f h i s t r a n s l a t i o n a l s o c o n t a i n t h e gods as a g e n t s . A t r a n s l a t i o n t h a t f a i l s t o show an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f c e n t r a l pa s sages s e t t i n g f o r t h t h e framework o f t h e o r i g i n a l a u t h o r ' s v iews which i n t u r n i n f o r m t h e e n t i r e r e s t o f t h e work , a t r a n s l a t i o n t h a t e n t i r e l y o m i t s one q u a r t e r o f t h e o r i g i n a l , r e d u c e s a n o t h e r h a l f t o o n e - s i x t h i t s l e n g t h and expands o n e - t w e l f t h t o become one h a l f , a t r a n s l a t i o n t h a t on t o p o f a l l t h i s i s so i n a c c u r a t e t h a t i t i s ' n o ma i r l y k e [ t h e A e n e i d ] t h a n t h e d e v i l l and Sanc t A u s t y n e ' ( I , P r o l . , 143 ) , such a t r a n s l a t i o n canno t bu t i n c u r D o u g l a s ' s w r a t h . But i n c e n s u r i n g C a x t o n , Doug las a l s o advances h i s own p r i n c i p l e s o f t r a n s l a t i o n , namely f a i t h f u l n e s s t o a l l a s p e c t s o f t h e o r i g i n a l , f r om a c c u r a c y i n t h e s p e l l i n g o f names a l l t h e way t o a s y m p a t h e t i c comprehens ion and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e o r i g i n a l a u t h o r ' s p h i l o s o p h i c s t a n c e , wh ich i t s e l f must be r e f l e c t e d i n t h e t r a n s l a t i o n . In a s e cond p a s s a g e o f c r i t i c i s m , Doug las d i r e c t s h i s a t t e n t i o n t o C h a u c e r , t h e ' p r i n c i p a l poe t bu t p e i r ' ( I , P r o l . , 3 3 9 ) , who, however , ' s t a n d i s bene th V i r g i 1 1 i n g r e ' ( I , P r o l . , 4 0 7 ) . Even more so t han i n h i s c r i t i c i s m o f C a x t o n , he uses t h e c h a r g e he b r i n g s a g a i n s t C h a u c e r ' s t r e a t m e n t o f t h e D ido s t o r y i n t h e Legend o f Good Women a s a means t o l aunch h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e i m p o s s i b i l i t y a n d , i n d e e d , t h e u n c l e s i r a b i I i t y o f word- fo r-word t r a n s l a t i o n . When Doug las g e n t l y c r i t i c i z e s Chaucer f o r c l a i m i n g t h a t ' he c o u t h f o l l o w word by word V i r g i l 1' ( I , P r o l . , 3 4 5 ) , he i s a c t u a l l y no t q u i t e j u s t t o t h e e l d e r p o e t . At t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e D ido L e g e n d , Chaucer w r i t e s , 22 G1orye and honour, Virgil Mantoan, Be to thy name! and I shaI, as i_ can, Folwe thy lanterne, as thow gost byforn, • • • In Naso and Eneydos wol I take The tenor, . . . (LGW, 924-29; italics mine) Far from claiming to write a literal translation, Chaucer explicitly disclaims such an ability and is content with following 'the tenor' not of Virgil's work only, but of both Virgil's and Ovid's handling of the story of Dido. Nonetheless, the point serves Douglas well to begin his argument against literal translation, in which he provides examples to support his thesis that different languages often have no exact equivalents, and even if words with the same denotations may be found, the connotations of such words will not be the same, so that it is often necessary to use circumlocutions or other collocations in order at least to approximate the import of the original word or phrase. In addition, there are the prosodic problems of having to find pairs of rhyming words to end the 'Scottis' couplets and of writing in a language with far fewer inflectional endings than Latin has. And, of course, there are those of our tungis penuryte, I meyn into compar of fair Latyn That knawyn is maste perfite langage fyne. (I, Prol., 380-82) Apart from his observations on the lack of exact equivalents in the two languages, Douglas also seems to be conscious, at least in part, of the problems connected with the transference of a literary work from one culture into another. When he writes, 23 Sum tyme the text mon haue ane expositioun. Sum tyme the collour will causs a l i t i l l additioun, (I, Prol., 347-48) he appears to be alluding to the difficulty which the translator faces in trying to make graphic and even to make thinkable what is originally outside the audience's range of cultural experience and perception. On the basis of his own observation and on the additional authority of St. Gregory and Horace (I, Prol., 395-402), Douglas therefore rejects slavish adherence to the letter of the original in favour of capturing what he perceives to be the spirit, the tone, the atmosphere, the idea—in short, the "sentence' of the work. He also accuses Chaucer of having misrepresented Aeneas as a perjuror, thus doing violence to Virgil's systematic and consistent portrayal of the hero as one who is without 'spot of cryme, reproch or ony offens' (I, Prol., 420). Since Chaucer is not concerned with the whole of the Aeneid, however, but only with one small part, Douglas graciously and tongue-in-cheek will 'excuss Chauser fra all maner repruffis' (I, Prol., 446) on the grounds that Chaucer 'was evir (God wait) all womanis frend' (I, Prol., 449). In using the Prologue as a platform for his criticism of Caxton and Chaucer and thence developing his own principles as a translator, Douglas may be recalling not only Chaucer himself but also Lydgate. In the Prologue to his Troy Book, Lydgate discusses the reliability of the available sources, criticizing some for partiality (essentially the same charge which Douglas brings against Chaucer), some for omissions and extreme brevity (one of Douglas's charges against Caxton), and some for lack of accuracy. Others he accuses of perverting the story altogether 24 (again one of Douglas's criticisms of Caxton) (Troy Book, Prol., 259-352). While Lydgate's evaluation of the works of his predecessors is of a rather general character and may not always be based on first-hand acquaintance with the individual works so criticized, it already shows the rudiments of a critical evaluation of other treatments of the same topic, a process which Douglas develops much further. Compared with Lydgate's criticism, Douglas's is far more detailed and informed, far more probing, and altogether far more sophisticated. Yet when Lydgate, at the end of the Troy Prologue, praises Guido delle Colonne on the twin grounds of accuracy of transmission and mastery of the 'sovereign style' (Troy Book, Prol., 354-74), he distinctly foreshadows Douglas's two main concerns of accuracy and style, although Douglas is, of course, concerned with textual rather than historical accuracy. However, on this issue too, Lydgate elsewhere anticipates Douglas's stance; in the final Envoy to his Danse Macabre, Lydgate comments, Out of the French I drough it of entent, Not word by word but folowing in substaunce, (665-6)6 an issue which Douglas addresses at much greater length and with much greater awareness of its complexity. In other Prologues Douglas frequently makes reference to the difficulty, the length, and the occasional tediousness of his labour, depicting himself as resharpening his pen, dragging himself out of bed on a cold winter morning, and forcing himself back to his writing desk; Prologues V and IX, however, like Prologue I, are almost entirely devoted to discussions of a particular problem of the translator, namely that of 25 recapturing the style and tone of the original. Both these prologues make substantial contributions to the development of Douglas's theory of translation, in that both of them contain analytical discussions of style, thus expounding further aspects of the theoretical foundations of Douglas's approach to a faithful translation. In using not just one, but a series of prologues for the gradual refinement of the critical basis of his translation, Douglas may again be harking back to John Lydgate, who also employed a series of prologues in his Fal1 of Princes to consider various aspects and definitions of Fortune. But while Lydgate is content with adding one aspect and one definition to the next without even reacting to their often mutually contradictory nature, Douglas gradually builds up a theory of translation, progressing in finesse every time he touches the issue and relating his theoretical discourse to the practical undertaking in progress, while now and then seasoning it with a dash of humour, usually at his own expense. By the time Douglas approaches Prologue V, he has translated Virgil's description of the Trojans' arrival at Carthage, exhausted after their long and arduous voyage, apprehensive for their shipwrecked comrades, and then relieved at finding hospitality in Dido's city and palace; Douglas has also translated Aeneas' account of the destruction of Troy, of the loss of his wife, friends and comrades, and of his own narrow escape, as well as his narrative of the voyage full of dangers and further partings from friends; and he has recreated the poignantly brief time of love and happiness between Dido and Aeneas, closing with Aeneas' departure and even taking a sympathetic stance in portraying Dido's despair and suicide. After these first four books with all their variety in subjects and moods, 26 and while now preparing for the translation of Book V with its funeral games, Douglas has tasted enough of Virgil's 'craft' to know that He altyrris hys style sa mony way. Now dreid, now stryfe, now lufe, now wa, now play, Langeir in murnyng, now in melody, To satyfy ilk wightis fantasy; Lyke as he had of euery thyng a f e i l l , And the willys of euery wight dyd f e i l l . (V, Prol., 33-8) It is a difficult task to recapture the nuances of so varied a style in another language and to recreate the same moods, tones, feelings, atmospheres with words which have different connotations and different sound qualities. Virgil's extreme stylistic range and his flexibility of diction thus create a threefold problem for the sensitive translator: he has to follow Virgil both into the minds and hearts of his characters, who experience these thoughts and feelings; he must be able to gauge and direct the emotional and intellectual reaction of his audience, in whom the style must create an appropriate response; and he also has to recognize the means by which the particular effect was originally achieved in order to be able to find analogous means in his different medium to create a similar effect in an audience with a different cultural background. This difficulty is severe enough for Douglas to exclaim that the hie wysdome and maist profund engyne Of myne author Virgile, poete dyvyne. To comprehend, makis me a1maist forvay. (V, Prol., 28-30) However, having called for grace not on Bacchus, nor on Proserpina, nor on 27 V i c t o r i a , bu t on God , Doug las i s r e ady t o b e g i n t h e next Book, d e a l i n g w i t h t h e f u n e r a l games f o r A n c h i s e s , a s a c r e d o c c a s i o n s i m u l t a n e o u s l y s ad and j o y f u l . A d i s c u s s i o n o f s t y l e , though a t much g r e a t e r l e n g t h , a l s o o c c u p i e s most o f P r o l o g u e IX; a g a i n , Doug las o f f e r s f u r t h e r r e f i n e m e n t s i n h i s l i t e r a r y t h e o r y . From a d m i r i n g V i r g i l ' s s t y l i s t i c r ange and v a r i e t y , Doug las now t u r n s t o c o n s i d e r i n g s t y l e i n r e l a t i o n t o s u b j e c t ma t t e r and a u d i e n c e , e s p e c i a l l y t h e p a t r o n ; t h e manner o f w r i t i n g , he s a y s , must a c c o r d w i t h b o t h . A f t e r h a v i n g j u s t t r a n s l a t e d t h e a c c o u n t o f A e n e a s ' new a rmour , c u l m i n a t i n g i n a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s h i e l d on wh ich V u l c a n has d e p i c t e d t h e c o u r s e o f Roman h i s t o r y up t o t h e Pax Romana s u c c e e d i n g A u g u s t u s ' t r i u m p h o v e r a l l o p p o n e n t s , and b e f o r e t u r n i n g t o t h e nex t Book, wh ich r e l a t e s N i s u s and E u r y a l u s ' s h e r o i c s a l l y and T u r n u s ' s i n g l e - h a n d e d f i g h t i n s i d e t h e T r o j a n encampment, Doug las a p p r o p r i a t e l y chooses " t h e r y a l l s t y l e , c l e p y t h e r o y c a l 1 ' ( IX, P r o l . , 2 1 ) , wh ich he l a t e r a l s o r e f e r s t o as N t h e k n y c h t l y k e s t i l e ' ( IX, P r o l . , 3 1 ) , as an example t o i l l u s t r a t e h i s d i s c u s s i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r t h e fo rm o f an e p i c t o s u i t b o t h c o n t e n t and p r i m a r y a u d i e n c e . T h i s r o y a l o r h e r o i c s t y l e s h o u l d be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by n o b i l i t y o f d i c t i o n , w i t h each word c a r r y i n g w e i g h t . I t a l s o demands g r a v i t y i n i t s r h e t o r i c a l t e c h n i q u e s ; j o k e s and f r i v o l o u s o r even l o o s e language a r e ou t o f p l a c e he r e ( IX, P r o l . , 2 4 - 5 ) , a l t h o u g h i n o t h e r c o n t e x t s t h e y may be p e r f e c t l y a p p r o p r i a t e ; i n d e e d , i n o t h e r c o n t e x t s Doug las h i m s e l f employs them f r e e l y , f o r example i n t h e rough comedy i n P r o l o g u e XI I I and a l s o a t t h e end o f P r o l o g u e IX i t s e l f , where he pokes f u n a t h i m s e l f f o r p o s s i b l y b e i n g t o o enamoured o f t h e p r o d u c t o f h i s own l a b o u r s . However , g r a v i t y 28 and weightiness a tone do not suffice as criteria for the heroic style; the royal style should also be aesthetically pleasing, in accordance with the ethically pleasing, noble content. And, it may be inferred from Douglas's frequent commendatory comments on Virgil's 'fresch endyte' here (IX, Prol., 55) and elsewhere, the heroic style—just like any other—should show originality, transcending conventional formulae and standard collocations and using new ways to evoke vivid images, a quality which Douglas is confident he, in contrast to Caxton, has captured (V, Prol., 49-54). Furthermore, the royal style is not confined to the narration and depiction of heroic deeds and other subjects which are almost by their very nature associated with knightly conduct and concerns.i If a work is written for a noble patron, then the royal style can, according to 'myne authour,' also be used for entirely neutral subjects. But, Douglas adds, the more elevated aspects of such subjects would be of greater intrinsic interest to a noble audience than the more lowly ones, and thus it behoves the writer to make careful distinctions to select only elevated aspects of neutral subjects for treatment in this most sovereign of styles, so that nothing trifling will be allowed to disrupt the threefold harmony between form, content and recipient or audience (IX, Prol., 27-40).^ This postulate had of course long been observed in practice, but here it is actually stated in a most succinct fashion: we aucht tak tent That baith accord, and bene conuenient. The man, the sentence, and the knychtlyke stile. (IX, Prol., 29-31) Whether Douglas's Prologues in fact "represent the beginnings of literary 29 criticism," as Kurt Wittig so unconditionally claims, is questionable,^ but within the literature of the Middle Ages in Britain Douglas's analytical approach to poetry is certainly a sign of great independence.9 Some of the critical issues he discusses had been approached by Chaucer and Lydgate too, although far less systematically and, in Lydgate's case, also much more diffusely. 1 0 Douglas shows a corresponding degree of independence in his numerous requests and even commands that his readers read attentively (Time, Space and Date, 23) and that they 'reid oftar than anys' (I, Prol., 107), indeed that they 'reid, reid agane, this volume, mair than twyss' (VI, Prol., 12), in order to comprehend the work's subt1eties before beginning to criticize i t . 1 1 It hardly even seems to occur to Douglas that there may be grounds for any justified criticism at a l l : his references to potential critics tend to be derogatory and dismissive. Even when he, at the very close, asks Henry Lord Sinclair to defend the work against possible attacks, they are a pr i or i assumed to come from 'corruppit tungis viol ens' who 'can nocht amend, and ^ i t a fait wald spy' (Direction, 12-13). When Douglas does on occasion use one of the conventional humility topoi of incapacity, the context immediately belies it as no more than a pose which Douglas knows a writer is expected to strike, but which he does not seriously consider fitting for himself. The self-assurance he shows vis-a-vis his audience at large is also reflected in his stance vis-a-vis his patron and kinsman, whom he addresses in terms of equality, both in Prologue I and in the end matter. And furthermore, it also informs his estimate of the future of his 'wlgar Virgi11': the work is to be nothing less than immortal, and by being so will confer immortality on Douglas's 30 name, too. One and a quarter centuries earlier, Chaucer had been sufficiently concerned for the integrity and accurate transmission of his work to insert an appropriate comment into the Envoy to his Troilus and  Criseyde (V, 1793-96) and to write "Chaucers Wordes unto Adam, His Owne Scriveyn," admonishing careless Adam to pay proper attention to his task so that the work might be preserved uncorrupt. Lydgate, too, had considered the issue of the preservation of a writer's work and its immortalizing effect on the writer's name, citing Virgil, Seneca, Persius and others as examples of continued renown based on their work (Fal1 of  Princes, IV, Prol., 50-70), although he is far from making such a claim for himself. Douglas, however, has no such qualms; for him it is a matter of course that his Eneados will neither be destroyed by force nor forgotten in the process of time (Conclusion, 1-4), and he is equally certain that after his death, heir my naym remane, but emparyng; Throw owt the ile yclepit Albyon Red sal I I be, . . . (Conclusion, 10-12) Such a degree of confidence in the immortalizing power of one's own poetry is unparalleled among the works of other major writers of Middle English or Middle Scottish literature. 1 2 Douglas's critical and philosophical independence, however, is rather less evident in those Prologues in which he treats moral and theological issues; there, he is an exponent of traditional, accepted doctrine, as accords with his vocation and his position within the Church hierarchy. To this group of Prologues belong those prefacing Books IV, X, and XI, defining Christian love, explaining the nature of the Trinity, and 31 expound ing C h r i s t i a n f o r t i t u d e r e s p e c t i v e l y ; c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h i s g roup a r e a l s o two o t h e r P r o l o g u e s , namely P r o l o g u e V I , wh ich j u s t i f i e s t h e use o f myth i n p o e t r y and d e f e n d s V i r g i l as a " p h i l o s o p h o u r n a t u r a l 1' (1 .38 ) and "ane h i e t h e l o g s e n t e n c y u s ' (1 .75 ) who fo reshadowed C h r i s t i a n d o c t r i n e , and P r o l o g u e V I I I , wh ich p r e s e n t s c o n v e n t i o n a l s o c i a l c r i t i c i s m i n t h e f o rm o f a dream v i s i o n , bu t a l s o i m p l i e s t h a t such a s t o c k lament on t h e theme o t e m p o r a , o mores i s no t p a r t i c u l a r l y f r u i t f u l . P r o l o g u e VI c o n s t i t u t e s a l i n k between t h o s e P r o l o g u e s i n wh ich Doug las i s c h i e f l y t h e c r i t i c a l a r t i s t d e v e l o p i n g h i s t h e o r y and methods and t h o s e i n wh ich he i s t h e churchman p r e a c h i n g t o h i s c o n g r e g a t i o n o f r e a d e r s . In r e p r e s e n t i n g V i r g i l a s one whose work fo reshadows t h e b a s i c t e n e t s o f C h r i s t i a n t e a c h i n g , Doug las i s f i r m l y r o o t e d i n a l ong t r a d i t i o n o f C h r i s t i a n e x e g e s i s ; he c i t e s S t . A u g u s t i n e o f H ippo as an a u t h o r i t y f o r t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n (11 .61-4) and r e f e r s t o A s c e n s i u s ' c o m p a r i s o n o f V i r g i l t o t h e A p o s t l e s ( 1 1 . 7 3 - 4 ) . The f i r s t few s t a n z a s o f t h i s P r o l o g u e , however , a r e i n t e r e s t i n g f rom a l i t e r a r y p o i n t o f v i ew : h e r e , Doug las r e c a p i t u l a t e s one o f t h e t a c i t agreements between w r i t e r and a u d i e n c e fundamenta l t o t h e v e r y b e i n g o f l i t e r a t u r e as opposed t o h i s t o r i o g r a p h y , namely t h a t l i t e r a t u r e does not p u r p o r t t o be an a c c u r a t e r e c o r d i n g o f h i s t o r i c a l f a c t , bu t t h a t , w h i l e i t i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h human n a t u r e and human e x p e r i e n c e , t h e s p e c i f i c s o f t h e l i t e r a r y work s p r i n g f rom t h e i n t e l l e c t and i m a g i n a t i o n . Robe r t Henryson had a l r e a d y made a v e r y s i m i l a r p o i n t i n t h e o p e n i n g l i n e s o f t h e P r o l o g u e t o h i s Mora 11 F a b i 1 1 i s  o f Esope t h e P h r y g i a n : 32 Thocht fein3eit fabils of aid poetre Be not al grunded vpon truth, 31't than, Thair polite termes of sweit rhetore Richt plesand ar vnto the eir of man. (MF, 1-4)13 The writer therefore does not represent the world in its observable, recordable details, but represents a world—in Sidney's words, A perfect picture I say, for he yieldeth to the powers of the mind an image of that whereof the philosopher bestoweth but a wordish description, which doth neither strike, pierce, nor possess the sight of the soul so much as that other doth. 4 Literature, including the Aeneid and the Eneados, is not "ful of leys or aid ydolatryis' (1.10), but represents that which is abstract and general in terms and images which are concrete and specific as a method for aiding the audience's perception and comprehension by involving the senses rather than relying on purely cognitive understanding. For Virgil, the specific means to this end was myth; for Douglas, and for the medieval mind in general, it is allegory, especially Christian allegory, so that Virgil's underworld, for instance, is but another image of Christian afterlife, differing from the Christian image in form but not in substance. Douglas is asking his readers not to be deterred by the unfamiliar method and not to close their minds to i t , but to make the transference from myth to allegory, and by explaining the details of Book VI in Christian allegorical terms, he facilitates this step from the image itself to the idea which, for him, the image represents. While Prologue VI is in the main a Christian re-interpretation of Virgil, Prologues IV, X and XI consist of unambiguous sermons on Christian themes; leaving the occasional references to Aeneas and Dido in Prologues 33 IV and XI aside, these Prologues can be paralleled, at least in their details, by any number of medieval sermons.15 Indeed, Prologue X is almost a complete service by itself, beginning with a glorification of God the Creator and of the beauty and perfection of His Creation (11.1-15), followed by a sermon explicating the nature of the Trinity (11.16-85), using the conventional analogies of man's tripartite soul and of the flame which radiates light and heat without decreasing in light and heat itself; very similar analogies are also used in Piers Plowman (B-text, Passus XVII, 137-279) to explain the paradox of tri-unity. After the long sermon, Douglas admonishes his audience not to strive vainly to understand God by means of reason, but simply to have faith (11.86-100); he then goes on to a prayer recalling God's compassion despite man's disobedience, giving thanks for the mercies of the Incarnation, the Redemption, the Harrowing of Hell, and the Eucharist, and asking for Grace (11.101-50); and he ends with a Creed (11.151-75), formally closing with xAmen.' Prologues IV and XI are structurally less strict and less complete, consisting only of the sermon itself. Both these Prologues take their themes from the Books they preface—Prologue IV, love; Prologue XI, fortitude—and treat them from a Christian perspective. Prologue IV, a sermon against luxuria, progresses from exempla of the destructiveness of "inordinate love"—that is, erotic love—and from negative and positive definitions of human love to the topic of love towards God, while Prologue XI advances from exempla of the lawful use of force—that is, the use of force based on right—and a definition of secular fortitude, which among nobles must be tempered by magnanimity, to one of the Christian fortitude which is necessary to withstand the temptations of the flesh, of the 34 1 world, and of the powers of darkness, but which is insufficient without Grace, again illustrated with exemp1a. In both these Prologues, the transition from the sermon to the subsequent Book is expressly made, in the one case by reference to Dido, who in her inordinate love—and worse, in her 'fulych lust' (1.228)—has herself brought on her "dowbill wound' (1.215), a phrase recalling Troilus' "double sorwe' at the opening of Troilus and Criseyde, and who becomes proof of the dictum that ""Temporal ioy endis wyth wo and pane"' (1.221), and in the other case by reference to Aeneas, whose prowess is enobled by magnanimity and who, as a type of pre-Christian hero already possessing certain Christian virtues, can sustain the dangers of the voyage and of the conquest and can defeat Turnus, who in contrast to Aeneas has to rely on secular fortitude only. In both Prologues, the last stanza is devoted to admonishing the reader to "Ensew vertu, and eschew euery vyce' (XI, Prol., 195), especially the particular virtue and the particular vice just discussed in the sermon itself. In Prologue VIII, Douglas is less concerned with vices and virtues in a strictly religious sense, but places them into a social context, so that the largest part of this Prologue becomes a criticism of contemporaneous society and its mores. This entire Prologue is written in rhyming alliterative long lines, with a wheel at the end of each 13-line stanza. The social criticism, contained in a dream vision written in this particular verse form, is strongly reminiscent of that in, for instance, the Prologue to Piers Plowman, where the members of the clergy, incidentally, are also singled out for particularly detailed criticism. However, there is a twist: the social criticism is presented by a 35 'selcouth seg [. . .] / Swownand as he swelt wald, sowpyt in syte' (11.4-5) whom the t r a n s l a t o r - n a r r a t o r sees in a dream he dreams " i n Lent t h i s l a s t nycht' (1.2) and who does not notice the dreamer's presence u n t i l 1.118 while a l l the while t a l k i n g to himself. Then the dream f i g u r e accuses the poet-dreamer of being an i d l e r and wasting hi s time w r i t i n g a worthless book. He gives him a s c r o l l to read instead, which the dreamer, however, finds but gibberish and doggerel about the motions of the parts of the u n i v e r s e . 1 6 F i n a l l y , the dream f i g u r e takes the dreamer to a dike where a treasure l i e s buried, and digs up coin a f t e r coin, but when the dreamer-narrator wakes up, the hoard of pennies has vanished, and a f t e r some unsuccessful searching, he rebukes himself f o r having given credence to such vain fantasy. While Douglas the narrator i s eager to brush the dream v i s i o n aside as soon as he finds himself disappointed in his hope to rediscover the vanished treasure, Douglas the poet seems to take a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t stance towards i t . For one thing, the subsequent Book begins with Aeneas having a prophetic dream in which a god appears and which a c t u a l l y comes true, an oraculum concerning the destiny of Rome. The dreamer of the Prologue, on the other hand, has had a dream which seemed to promise the e f f o r t l e s s a c q u i s i t i o n of worldly goods, a promise in which he i s only too eager to believe, thus showing himself to be no better than those c r i t i c i z e d by the dream f i g u r e . Having v a i n l y mistaken his dream f o r a v i s i o , a type of dream comparable to Aeneas' oraculum, he i s a f t e r h i s f r u i t l e s s search equally eager to blame the vanity of dreams in general rather than hi s own vanity and acquisitiveness f o r his embarrassment. Besides, the narrator had e a r l i e r pointed out that t h i s dream occurred in 36 L e n t , a p e r i o d when h i s t h o u g h t s s h o u l d have been f o c u s e d on t h i n g s s p i r i t u a l r a t h e r t h a n m a t e r i a l o r , as t h e dream f i g u r e c l a i m s , s e c u l a r b o o k s . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e dream f i g u r e i s d e s c r i b e d as ' s e l c o u t h , ' and w h i l e h i s c r i t i c i s m o f s o c i e t y may be sound and i s c e r t a i n l y q u i t e c o n v e n t i o n a l , i t c anno t but be i n e f f e c t i v e , s i n c e he i s no t a d d r e s s i n g an a u d i e n c e when he makes h i s speech and indeed o n l y becomes aware o f D o u g l a s ' s p r e s e n c e a f t e r o v e r a hundred l i n e s . In a d d i t i o n , t h e s c r o l l he p r e s e n t s t o Doug las i s p r a c t i c a l l y u n i n t e l l i g i b l e , w h i l e h i s c r i t i c i s m o f D o u g l a s ' s t r a n s l a t i o n r e semb l e s t h a t o f t h e ' d e t r a c t o u r i s , ' who p e r c e i v e i n i t o n l y l i e s and s u p e r s t i t i o n s . However , t h e dream f i g u r e ' s r e s p o n s e t o t h e d r e a m e r ' s r e q u e s t t o t e a c h him "ane o t h e r l e s s o n ' (1 .158 ) has i t s e f f e c t : t h e i n i t i a l v e x a t i o n wh ich f o l l o w s t h e f r u i t l e s s s e a r c h i n t h e t e m p o r a r y p u r s u i t o f a w o r l d l y dream o f m a t e r i a l g a i n a l s o l e ads t h e dreamer back t o h i s t r a n s l a t i o n - i n - p r o g r e s s , r e i n f o r c e d i n h i s c o n f i d e n c e i n " p o e t r y a s c o n t a i n i n g a wisdom g r e a t e r t han c o n v e n t i o n a l knowledge and b e i n g more v a l u a b l e t h a n t h e w e a l t h o f t h e w o r l d . P a r t 2: The S p e c i a l P rob lem o f t h e " N a t u r e ' P r o l o g u e s P o e t r y a t i t s p u r e s t i s what has l ong been r e g a r d e d as p redominan t i n t h e t h i r d g roup o f P r o l o g u e s , t h e s o - c a l l e d Na tu re P r o l o g u e s , a l t h o u g h even h e r e Doug l a s r e t a i n s t h e two i s s u e s o f g r e a t e s t c o n c e r n so f a r : a t t h e end o f P r o l o g u e V I I , t h e W in te r P r o l o g u e , he p o r t r a y s t h e w e a r i n e s s o f t h e t r a n s l a t o r who has o n l y r e a c h e d t h e ha l f -way p o i n t and who f e e l s t h e yoke l y i n g h e a v i l y on h i s neck (1 .150) as he c o n t i n u e s w i t h h i s t a s k on an i c y w i n t e r m o r n i n g ; and i n P r o l o g u e X I I I , t h e June P r o l o g u e , he a r g u e s w i t h Maphaeus V e g i u s about t h e r e l e v a n c e o f Maphaeus ' t h i r t e e n t h Book, bu t 37 e v e n t u a l l y has t o y i e l d t o Maphaeus' strongest argument—main f o r c e . In Prologue X I I , the May Prologue, a l l nature seems t o c e l e b r a t e as the b i r d s r e a c t t o the r i s i n g sun with a hymn t o the Lord o f L i g h t , w h i l e man alone dishonours the wholesomeness and f e s t i v e s p i r i t o f t h i s r e generative season w i t h "bawdry' (1.210) and "schameful1 p l a y ' (1.225); a t the end o f t h i s Prologue, Douglas again p o r t r a y s h i m s e l f with pen i n hand, ready t o begin the next Book. Of the t h i r t e e n Prologues, only these three "Nature Prologues' have been f r e q u e n t l y discussed and o f t e n included i n a n t h o l o g i e s , but u n t i l r e c e n t l y , the emphasis i n these d i s c u s s i o n s was on Douglas's presumed c l o s e o b s e r v a t i o n o f nature i n Scotland. For more than a century, the c h i e f argument put forward by commentators was t h a t i n these three Prologues, D o u g l a s — u n l i k e h i s p r e d e c e s s o r s — d e s c r i b e d what he could a c t u a l l y see, t h a t i s , t h a t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n s o f nature i n the various seasons and a t the various times o f the day were determined by genuine o b s e r v a t i o n o f the d e t a i l s o f the weather, o f the ve g e t a t i o n , o f animal l i f e , and o f man's seasonal p u r s u i t s i n the r e a l environment o f the harsh, but nonetheless charming, S c o t t i s h landscape. This view was expressed i n 1887 by John V e i t c h , who i s f u l l o f admiration f o r these " p i c t u r e s and words taken d i r e c t l y from the aspects o f the Lowland h i l l s — t h a t i s , the lower h e i g h t s — a n d from the desig n a t i o n s p e c u l i a r almost t o the v a l l e y s o f the Tweed and the Y a r r o w — a t l e a s t t o the southern d i s t r i c t o f S c o t l a n d . " 1 8 Although the S c o t t i s h n a t i o n a l i s m r e s o n a t i n g i n these l i n e s gave r i s e t o a renewed i n t e r e s t i n S c o t t i s h l i t e r a t u r e , i t a l s o clouded genuinely c r i t i c a l judgement and instead f a c i l i t a t e d r e v e r i e s b e t r a y i n g romantic n o s t a l g i a and w i s t f u l n e s s . Even Kurt W i t t i g i s s t i l l 38 s u f f i c i e n t l y influenced by the S c o t t i s h n a t i o n a l i s t s ' mode of perception to f i n d that "apart from a passing reference to Boreas and Eolus the whole of the winter poem (Pr o l . VII) is founded s o l e l y on S c o t t i s h experience" and that the "scene [ i n Prologues XII and XIII] is decidedly S c o t t i s h . " 1 9 More recently, however, John Speirs observed strong influences of Provencal and I t a l i a n poetry as well as echoes of V i r g i l ' s Georgics in the May and June Prologues, u and Eli z a b e t h S a l t e r and Derek Pearsall have shown the p a r a l l e l i s m between Douglas's word paintings and the landscape 21 t r a d i t i o n in a r t , p a r t i c u l a r l y in calendar paintings. Further i n v a l i d a t i n g the claim that Douglas wrote p r i m a r i l y from d i r e c t , f i r s t -hand experience of the seasons of Scotland, A l i c i a Nitecki shows that many of the d e t a i l s in Prologue VII, while c e r t a i n l y observable in a Sc o t t i s h winter, have strong p a r a l l e l s in "the common stock of r e l i g i o u s writings, in p a r t i c u l a r [. . .] the l i t e r a t u r e on the subject of Doomsday"^ 2—with which Douglas as churchman was doubtless no less f a m i l i a r than with nature through the seasons. What has often been overlooked in the argument f o r or against Douglas's o r i g i n a l i t y and realism, however, is that these three Prologues do not only form a group among themselves, connected by the common to p i c of landscape d e s c r i p t i o n at d i f f e r e n t seasons, but that they are a l s o parts of the larger s e r i e s of the t h i r t e e n Prologues in which Douglas the writer comes to terms with issues r e l a t e d to t r a n s l a t i o n and to l i t e r a t u r e in general. Far from being r e a l i s t i c nature poems " i n which landscape is depicted s o l e l y f o r i t s own sake," as Wi t t i g a s s e r t s , or which "take landscape in i t s e l f and f o r i t s e l f as a subject," as Agnes Mure MacKenzie maintains, the landscape descriptions in these three Prologues are 39 carefully balanced against the two issues of the relations between God and His Creation and between the writer and his work.23 Prologue VII, the Winter Prologue, harmonizes in its theme with the movement of the Aeneid. It follows Aeneas' descent into the underworld, the realm of the shades—as Douglas himself points out, "thys proloug smell is new cum furth of hell' (1.163)—and precedes the account of the grim wars in Latium in the subsequent Book. Appropriately, the environment at this dead time of the year looks as if it were on the sward a symylitude of hell, Reducyng to our mynd, in euery sted, Gousty schaddois of eild and grisly ded. (Prol. VII, 44-6) Except for the autobiographical sketch at the end, this Prologue consists almost entirely of images of death, mortality and lifelessness at the time of the winter solstice, with the cold, leaden 2 4 sun having just entered Capricorn and being about to rise over a colourless, lifeless landscape where the sky is 'ourcast with rokis blak' (1.36) and 'the grond fadyt' (1.37), where 'Bewte was lost, and barrand schew the landis' (1.41), where even the ferns have withered and where "Bank, bra and boddum blanch it wolx and bar' (1.57), where the "grond stud barrant, widderit, dosk or gray' (1.63), and where the 'smale byrdis' (1.69) and the "s i l l y scheip and thar l i t i l hyrd gromys' (1.77) have to seek shelter and hide from the onslaught of winter in order to survive "this congelit sesson scharp and c h i l l ' (1.86). The planets and constellations, too, appear in their most inhospitable aspects, Mars provoking strife, Orion bringing rain and gales, and cold Saturn causing disease and "mortal pestilens' (1.31). 40 Under t h e i r i n f l u e n c e , the created order on earth i s reversed, and the elements seem t o r e v e r t t o Chaos: dry land and water mix—'The soyl ysowpit i n t o w a t i r wak' (1.35); and l i g h t and darkness are no longer d i s t i n c t from one a n o t h e r — Thik drumly skuggis dyrknyt so the hevyn, Dym s k y i s o f t f u r t h warpit f e i r f u l l levyn, F l a g g i s o f f i r e , and mony f e l l o u n f l a w , Scharpe soppys of s l e i t and of the snypand snaw. ( V I I , P r o l . , 47-50) The "mixture of v i o l e n t and extreme weathers" i n the preceding l i n e s , A l i c i a N i t e c k i p o i n t s out, " r e c a l l s not so much a S c o t t i s h winter day as the Cursor Mundi where the same combination of snow and l i g h t n i n g forms the penultimate token of Doom."25 Other images of d i s o r d e r , such as those of the streams washing t h e i r banks away, of the t e r r i b l e uproar at sea, and of r i v e r s running red, are a l s o signs which both i n the B i b l e i t s e l f and i n medieval a p o c a l y p t i c w r i t i n g h e r a l d Judgement Day.26 A f t e r the t r a n s i t i o n from the bleak and barren landscape t o Douglas's chamber i n the c i t y , the b i r d c a l l which Douglas hears before f a l l i n g a sleep i s the ' e l r i c h screke' (1.108) of the owl, t r a d i t i o n a l l y regarded as a harbinger of death and twice used as such by V i r g i l h i m s e l f i n the A e n e i d . 2 ^ However, apart from r e l i g i o u s t e x t s , Douglas a l s o had an a r r a y of l i t e r a r y sources t o c a l l on f o r h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f the winter landscape. The h e a v i l y a l l i t e r a t i v e d i c t i o n i n Prologue VII suggests t h a t Douglas had other a l l i t e r a t i v e winter d e s c r i p t i o n s i n mind, among which those i n S i r Gawain and the Green Knight o f f e r c l a s s i c p a r a l l e l s . Here, clouds a l s o cover the sky and the "wylde wederez' (1.2000) makes l i f e outdoors almost impossible: 41 Clowdes kesten kenly ye colde t o pe erpe, Wyth nyje innoghe o f pe norjbe, ps naked t o tene; PB snawe s n i t e r e d fu) s n a r t , j&at snayped wylde? pe werbelande wynde wapped f r o pe hy?e, And drof vche dale f u l o f d r y f t e s f u l g r e t e . (11.2001-5) 2 8 Here too, the angle o f v i s i o n s h i f t s from the landscape t o Gawain i n h i s chamber, s h i v e r i n g from c o l d and being reminded by the cockcrow of the inexorable passage o f time as h i s appointed hour draws nearer: pe leude lystened f u l wel pat ]e$ in h i s bedde, pa$ he lowkez h i s l i d d e z , f u l l y t t e l he s l e p e s ; Bi vch kok Z?at crue he knwe wel pe steuen. (11.2006-8) Henryson's b r i e f winter d e s c r i p t i o n i n "The Preaching o f the Swallow" l i k e w i s e emphasizes the barrenness of the land, h o s t i l e t o a l l forms o f 1 i f e : Than f l o u r i s f a i r f a i d i t w i t h f r o i s t man f a l l . And b i r d i s b l y i t h changeis t h a i r n o i t i s sweit In s t y l 1 murning, n e i r slane w i t h snaw and s l e i t . (Moral 1 Fabi11 i s , 1696-98) An even c l o s e r p a r a l l e l , however, i s provided by Dunbar's poem "In Winter." Dunbar's opening d e s c r i p t i o n o f the depressing winter weather, In t o t h i r d i r k and d r u b l i e d a y i s Quhone sabi11 a l l the hevin a r r a y i s , With mystie vapouris, c l u d d i s and s k y i s , Nature a l l curage me denyis Off s a n g i s , b a l l a t i s and of p l a y i s . Quhone t h a t the nycht d o i s tenth i n hour i s With wind, with h a i l l and havy s c h o u r i s , ( 1 1 . 1 - 7 ) 2 9 seems t o be r e c a l l e d i n some of Douglas's l i n e s , but the analogy goes 42 beyond verbal echoes. Both w r i t e r s use the s e t t i n g of the long winter n i g h t as an image f o r the temporary suspension of t h e i r c r e a t i v e powers. However, i n the House of Fame with i t s date of 10 December and i t s barren desert landscape r e p r e s e n t i n g a wasteland of the c r e a t i v e imagination, Chaucer had a l r e a d y experimented w i t h images s i m i l a r t o those more f u l l y developed by Douglas i n h i s Winter Prologue. Even though Prologue VII i s much indebted t o the a l l i t e r a t i v e and northern t r a d i t i o n s , i t i s Chaucer who provides the source f o r one of the most moving images conveying the s e v e r i t y o f the season. In h i s l i n e s The s i l l y scheip and thar l i t i l hyrd gromys Lurk i s vndre l e of bankis, woddis and bromys; \ ( V I I , P r o l . , 77-8) Douglas undoubtedly r e c a l l s Chaucer's t h i s e l y t e l herde-gromes. That kepen best i s i n the bromes. (HF, 1225-26) A l l these images of barrenness and d e s t r u c t i o n , moreover, are the exact opposite of those i n t r a d i t i o n a l s p r i n g openings and d e s c r i p t i o n s o f the locus amoenus. In the s p r i n g opening, the sun has entered A r i e s or Taurus, and the weather i s p l e a s a n t l y warm or s o f t r a i n i s n o u r i s h i n g p l a n t growth; at the opening of Chaucer's Canterbury Ta1es, Zephirus "with h i s sweete breeth' brings warmth, not Boreas c o l d , as i n the Winter Prologue. But Henryson had a l r e a d y a l t e r e d t h i s pleasant opening i n order t o f i t "Ane d o o l i e sessoun t o ane c a i r f u l l dyte', the Testament of  C r e s s e i d . Henryson's p o r t r a i t of Saturn (TC, 151-68) seems t o be r e c a l l e d i n Douglas's b r i e f sketch of the same planet as w e l l as i n some of the 43 d e t a i l s o f Douglas's b l i g h t e d winter landscape. This landscape i s an i n v e r s i o n of the locus amoenus with i t s c l e a r , murmuring brook and s o f t , f r e s h meadow overspread w i t h flowers of various c o l o u r s and shaded by a t r e e i n whose lush f o l i a g e b i r d s are s i n g i n g of love and regeneration. L i k e the n a r r a t o r i n a dream v i s i o n , Douglas a l s o f a l l s a s l e e p , but instead of merely having a dream which might give temporary r e l i e f from insomnia and i t s accompanying r e s t l e s s n e s s , upon waking up Douglas turns t o the work he had neglected f o r too long a w h i l e , h i s t r a n s l a t i o n o f V i r g i l , and w i t h i t t o the permanence and l a s t i n g i n s p i r a t i o n o f l i t e r a t u r e . In the a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l sketch a t the end of the Prologue, Douglas p o r t r a y s h i m s e l f as overcoming h i s personal low-point: And, as I bownyt me t o the f y r e me by, B a i t h vp and down the howss I dyd aspy, And seand V i r g i 1 1 on a l e t t r o n stand, To w r i t e onone I hynt a pen i n hand, F o r t i l perform the poet grave and sad, Quham sa f e r f u r t h or than begun I had, And wolx ennoyt sum d e i l l i n my hart Thar r e s t i t oncompletit sa g r e t a p a r t . And t o my s e l f I s a i d : "In gud e f f e c t Thou mon draw f u r t h , the 30k l y i s on thy nek." Within my mynde compasyng thocht I so, Na t h i n g i s done quhiI ocht remanys ado; For byssynes, quhiIk o c c u r r i t on cace, Ourvoluyt I t h i s volume, lay a space; And, thocht I wery was, me l i s t not t y r e , F u l l l a i t h t o l e i f our wark swa i n the myre. Or /?it t o s t y n t f o r b i t t e r storm or rane. (11.141-57) This personal low-point c o i n c i d e s with the descent o f the sun towards the winter s o l s t i c e j u s t as the l i f e l e s s , dark, and c o l d world o u t s i d e m i r r o r s Aeneas' descent i n t o the underworld. But a t the end of Book VI Aeneas had re-emerged i n t o the world of l i g h t and l i f e , j u s t as Douglas a t the end of Prologue VII p i c k s up h i s pen again and resumes h i s c r e a t i v e work. 44 banishing the wasteland from h i s mind, and j u s t as the sun by Prologue X I I , the May Prologue, w i l l have taken the shadow o f death o f f the landscape and w i l l be welcomed by the chorus of b i r d s i n t h e i r hymn t o the Lord of L i g h t , t h a t i s , not merely the sun, but God the Creator. For Douglas, l i t e r a r y c r e a t i o n w i t h i t s permanence i s thus a p o w e r f u l l y l i f e -a f f i r m i n g a c t i v i t y . As he does again a t the end of Prologue V I I I , Douglas turns from a h o s t i l e and t h r e a t e n i n g o u t s i d e world f i l l e d w i t h images of death and p r o g n o s t i c a t i o n s of doom, t o the permanence of l i t e r a t u r e which creates i t s own l i f e and p o s i t s i t s own values and which triumphs by i t s 3D permanence. Douglas sees him s e l f as more than a w r i t e r — h e i s a 'rnakar,' a c r e a t o r . Prologue X I I , the May Prologue, i s an almost exact m i r r o r image of Prologue V I I : everything i s reversed. Here the sky i s c l e a r , w i t h Dyonea, the morning s t a r Venus, d r i v i n g the l a s t o f the s t a r s away, with Cynthia, the moon, s i n k i n g i n t o the sea, and w i t h Mars and Saturn, the two planets which had been dominant i n Winter, withdrawing as Aurora opens the windows o f her h a l l , p i e r c i n g the sable night sky with l i g h t and spreading colour over the e a r t h . When Phoebus hims e l f approaches i n a l l h i s imperial majesty, there i s The new c u l l o u r alychtnyng a l l the l a n d i s . (1.59) From the f i r s t couplet onwards, t h i s Prologue i s f u l l o f movement and a c t i v i t y , f u l l of groups o f beings each p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the communal yet spontaneous response t o the sun, whereas a c t i v i t y had ceased i n the Winter Prologue and a l l beings were i s o l a t e d from each other. There the verbs 45 were u s u a l l y s t a t i c and cast i n the passive voice dagger i t l e y i s , blanch i t wolx, stude s t r i p y t ) , i n d i c a t i n g o n ly the r e s u l t o f an a c t i o n on those acted upon and p o r t r a y i n g the beings on earth as h e l p l e s s o b j e c t s r a t h e r than agents themselves, whereas the verbs i n the May Prologue are a c t i o n verbs, u s u a l l y i n the a c t i v e voice (sprang, lappys, f u r t h s p r e d , oppynnyt, sprent) or i n the form of present p a r t i c i p l e s (ourspredand, strekand) emphasizing a c t i v i t y i n progress. The predominantly end-stopped l i n e s of the Winter Prologue, g i v i n g a sense of p a r a l y s i s , are here replaced by l i n e s with feminine endings, conveying a f e e l i n g o f such l i f e and f u l l n e s s t h a t i t can h a r d l y be contained. The d i c t i o n , t o o , i s remarkably changed, with the s t r o n g l y a l l i t e r a t i v e tempered by the densely aureate, a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the Golden Age and with p e r f e c t i o n g e n e r a l l y . L i g h t and c o l o u r , and w i t h them, l i f e , soon permeate the landscape, and images of r e b i r t h and regeneration replace those of death and m o r t a l i t y . However, the May Prologue i s no c l o s e r t o r e a l i s m than the Winter Prologue. The c o l o u r s are not those of nature, but those of h e r a l d r y (11.22, 107), the natural phenomena are described i n terms taken from astronomy, a s t r o l o g y , and u l t i m a t e l y myth, t h a t i s , l i t e r a t u r e , and the images crowning the i n i t i a l d e s c r i p t i o n are taken from a r t : The swardit soyl1 enbrovd with selcouth hewys Ourspredand l e y v i s o f n a t u r i s t a p e s t r e i s (11.65, 102) This k i n d of landscape r e c a l l s other l i t e r a r y works, such as Pear 1, but a l s o the a r t of manuscript i l l u m i n a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y o f the hortus  conclusus w i t h i t s flower-studded t u r f 3 1 and of calendar and hour-book i l l u s t r a t i o n s , complete with the "Town's, t u r e t t i s , k y r n e l l i s , pynnaclys 46 h i e / Of k y r k i s , c a s t e l l i s and i l k e f a i r c i t e ' ( l i . 6 9 - 7 0 ) which i n such i l l u m i n a t i o n s o f t e n grace the h o r i z o n . As he does in the Winter Prologue, Douglas turns from the i n i t i a l d e s c r i p t i o n of inanimate nature, though here already infused with l i f e by means of p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n , t o animate nature, f i r s t t o the new growth i n F l o r a ' s realm and from there t o the domestic and w i l d animals, a l l seen together w i t h t h e i r young (11.175-86). A l l of nature, animate and inanimate a l i k e , responds t o the beneficent i n f l u e n c e of the sun with renewed a c t i v i t y , c r e a t i v i t y , and p r o c r e a t i o n , j u s t as i t does i n response t o "the yonge sonne' at the opening of Chaucer's Canterbury T a l e s — e v e n the 'Towris, t u r e t t i s ' e t c . (1.69) regenerate themselves by c r e a t i n g "thar awyn vmbrage' (1.72), t h e i r shadow images on the ground. At the same time, a l l animate nature does obeisance t o Phoebus as he emerges from "hys palyce r y a l l ' (1.35) i n a l l the splendour of "hys regale h i e magnificens' (1.43): F l o r a spreads her f l o w e r s 'Vnder the f e i t o f Phebus s u l j a r t s t e i d ' (1.64), and the flowers themselves "Submittis t h a r h e d i s ' (1.96) t o him and exude t h e i r fragrance "Forgane the cummyn of t h i s prynce potent' (1.141). Only among mankind are there those whose a c t i v i t i e s are d i s c o r d a n t w i t h the c e l e b r a t i o n and g l o r i f i c a t i o n o f the b r i n g e r of l i f e and l i g h t ; w h i l e some, q u i t e p r o p e r l y , c e l e b r a t e May w i t h 'caralyng' (1.195) and c o u r t s h i p , others "hant bawdry' (1.210) and place themselves i n d i s c o r d a n t o p p o s i t i o n t o the c r e a t i v e s p i r i t by misusing t h e i r s e x u a l i t y which i s given them ' C h i l d i r t o engendir [. . . ] , and not invane' (IV, P r o l . , 98); these a l s o f l e e the l i g h t — a f t e r the i n i t i a l rendezvous at n i g h t , one promises t o "quynch the l y c h t ' (1.222) f o r the other's "schamefull p l a y ' (1.225). However, Douglas a l l o w s h i m s e l f no 47 more than a quick s i d e glance a t t h i s s i n g l e disharmonious element i n the p a r a d i s a l garden (1.149) before f o c u s i n g h i s a t t e n t i o n again on the general c e l e b r a t i o n which culminates i n a hymn of the b i r d s s i m i l a r t o t h a t a t the end o f Chaucer's Par 1iament o f Fowls. As Chaucer's b i r d s welcome the a r r i v a l o f the regenerative season, so Douglas's b i r d s s i n g a hymn t o the l i f e - g i v i n g sun and, by i m p l i c a t i o n , t o i t s Creator. J u s t as Douglas had e a r l i e r made the tra n s f e r e n c e from Orpheus t o C h r i s t , "that hevynly Orpheus' ( I , P r o l . , 469), so here the hymn i s u l t i m a t e l y addressed t o God Himself, the Creator o f t h a t "lamp o f day' (1.252). Having heard the b i r d s ' song, Douglas the poet i s unable t o remain i n bed any longer and i s i r r i t a t e d when the dove's c a l l suggests t o "come hydder t o wow' (1.298): t h i s k i n d o f c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t y i s not f o r the ' c l e r k ' — h e has a d i f f e r e n t one i n mind, and i t being s t i l l too e a r l y t o emulate nature i n i t s homage by worshipping during the c e l e b r a t i o n o f mass (1.304), Douglas takes up h i s pen and begins the f i n a l book o f the Aeneid. By t r a n s l a t i n g t h i s t w e l f t h Book, he not o n l y places h i m s e l f i n harmony with nature's c r e a t i v e process, but a l s o r e f l e c t s the exact stage a t which he has j u s t observed nature t o be: not a t the p o i n t o f completion, but during one of the f i n a l moments i n the a c t i v e process by which completion i s approached. At the end o f Book X I I , t h i s completion i s reached. There, Aeneas has won I t a l y and thus f u l f i l l e d h i s d e s t i n y , and Douglas i n hi s r e c r e a t i o n o f V i r g i l ' s work has reached the end of h i s t a s k , s i g n i n g o f f w i t h a l i t t l e r i d d l e on h i s name. However, even though the t r a n s l a t i o n o f V i r g i l ' s work i t s e l f has come to an end, there s t i l l remains the t h i r t e e n t h Book, an a d d i t i o n t o the Aeneid by the f i f t e e n t h - c e n t u r y humanist Maphaeus Vegius d e s c r i b i n g the 48 wedding of Aeneas and L a v i n i a and the eventual apotheosis of Aeneas, thus l e t t i n g the Aeneid end on a happy note r a t h e r than with the gruesome slaughter o f war and the death of Turnus a t the hand o f Aeneas. This t h i r t e e n t h Book was u s u a l l y included i n l a t e f i f t e e n t h and s i x t e e n t h -century e d i t i o n s o f the Aeneid, but Douglas appears t o have been i n two minds about h i s own i n c l u s i o n o f a n o n - V i r g i 1 i a n a d d i t i o n i n a t r a n s l a t i o n i n which he promises t o be f a i t h f u l t o the great model. Prologue X I I I , the June Prologue w i t h i t s c e n t r a l dream v i s i o n i n which Maphaeus Vegius appears t o Douglas and r a t h e r f o r c e f u l l y persuades the s t i l l doubtful poet t o t r a n s l a t e h i s Book too, thus c o n s t i t u t e s an e l a b o r a t e j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the i n c l u s i o n o f Book X I I I . Dream v i s i o n s tend t o occur t o poets when they s i t under t r e e s i n b e a u t i f u l , peaceful p l a c e s , e s p e c i a l l y i n l a t e s p r i n g when the weather i s m i l d ; June i s a r a r e time f o r such an o c c u r r e n c e , ^ 2 but not unheard o f — Robert Henryson's "Tai11 of the Lyoun and the Mous," the seventh of h i s t h i r t e e n Mora 11 Fabi11 i s of Esope the Phrygian, i s set Mn middis of Iune, t h a t i o l y sweit seasoun' (1.1321), and i t a l s o contains a dream v i s i o n w i t h a s t r u c t u r a l l y e x a c t l y p a r a l l e l meeting between the p o e t - t r a n s l a t o r and the author of the o r i g i n a l . Evening i s a l s o not a usual time f o r poets t o be o u t s i d e and have dream v i s i o n s , but here i t i s eminently a p p r o p r i a t e . The evening s e t t i n g o f the June Prologue s u i t s the sense of f u l f i l m e n t and completion, Douglas having f i n i s h e d t r a n s l a t i n g the f i n a l Book of V i r g i l ' s work. I t s i g n a l s the time o f r e s t a f t e r the work i s done, a time t o lay down the pen and go f o r a walk i n a n a t u r a l environment which, u n l i k e t h a t o f the May Prologue, has now a c t u a l l y reached the p r e c i s e p o i n t of m a t u r i t y — t h e f i e l d s "replenyst stud' (1.6). 49 In p o r t r a y i n g h i m s e l f a t the beginning o f t h i s Prologue as t a k i n g an a f t e r - d i n n e r walk i n the country, Douglas describes an a l t o g e t h e r serenely i d y l l i c r a t h e r than r e a l i s t i c scene. The f a l l i n g cadences o f the mostly end-stopped l i n e s m i r r o r the sense o f the c l o s e o f day and o f the world l y i n g down "to s l e p e , and r e s t i s ' (1.55). Almost a l l motion i s downward: the sun V o l l i s doun' (1.18), d e w — c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y d e s c r i b e d as " b e r y a l l d r o p p i s ' (1.26) and ' c r i s t a l knoppis or smal s i l u e r b e d i s ' (1.28)—"begynnys doun t o s c a i l l ' (1.22), the sun "was...declyne' (1.24), the day has begun t o "declyne' (1.30), f og " f a l l i s ' (1.31), and even the l a r k ' d i s c e n d i s from the s k y i s hycht' (1.34), and as nature l i e s down f o r the n i g h t , the l i g h t f a i l s and the landscape g r a d u a l l y darkens. Sounds a l s o become q u i e t e r and e v e n t u a l l y cease a l t o g e t h e r , so t h a t the n i g h t i n g a l e ' s song only emphasizes the surrounding s t i l l n e s s . Douglas, i n harmony with h i s environment, s i t s down among some sedge and, i n the s t i l l n e s s o f the n i g h t , looks up t o the c o n s t e l l a t i o n s , which send down t h e i r beams of l i g h t . L i k e a l l l i v i n g c reatures around him, he soon f a l l s a s l e e p , l u l l e d by the e x q u i s i t e song o f the n i g h t i n g a l e , who i s the only one s t i l l awake. But as before, t h i s v e r i s i m i l i t u d e should not be i n t e r p r e t e d as a s i g n o f r e a l i s m or even d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n ; on the co n t r a r y , the evening s e t t i n g i s a time-honoured convention, which V i r g i l h i m s e l f has f o l l o w e d i n l e t t i n g three o f h i s Eclogues end w i t h evening scenes ( I I , IX, X ) . The approach o f n i g h t , according t o C u r t i u s , i s a l s o the o n l y antique concluding topos s t i l l used i n the Middle A g e s . 3 3 The use o f the evening s e t t i n g thus emphasizes t h a t the work Douglas had set out t o do i s done, and t h a t what f o l l o w s i s not p r o p e r l y a pa r t e i t h e r o f the task or of the piece o f l i t e r a t u r e , but an extraneous, inorganic 50 appendage. When liaphaeus i n the dream v i s i o n demands t h a t Douglas add the t h i r t e e n t h Book t o the Eneados, he consequently needs powerful arguments t o persuade him. Such dream i n t e r v i e w s , i n which a poet i s asked or o c c a s i o n a l l y f o r c e d t o w r i t e a c e r t a i n work, are a stock device i n medieval w r i t i n g . Douglas the dreamer hims e l f r e f e r s t o Jerome's in t e r v i e w w i t h King David f o r b i d d i n g Jerome t o continue reading pagan l i t e r a t u r e (11.122-26); Boccaccio, i n h i s De casibus virorum i l l u s t r i u m , has such an i n t e r v i e w w i t h P e t r a r c h , who persuades him t o continue the work; Lydgate, i n h i s Fal1 of P r i n c e s , s i m i l a r l y r e c e i v e s encouragement from Boccaccio; Chaucer i s i n a dream v i s i o n ordered by Cupid t o w r i t e the Legend of Good Women; and Henryson has a meeting with Aesop i n a dream i n which Aesop t e l l s him a f a b l e which Henryson w r i t e s down a f t e r waking up. The c o n t r a s t between Henryson's dream i n t e r v i e w w i t h Aesop i n "The T a i l l o f the Lyoun and the Mous" and Douglas's f o r m a l l y p a r a l l e l i n t e r v i e w w i t h liaphaeus, however, i s s t r i k i n g . Aesop has d i g n i t y , appearing i n impressive garments, g r e e t i n g Henryson with courteous a u t h o r i t y , and being in t u r n t r e a t e d by the younger poet with the reverence of a p u p i l . Maphaeus, on the other hand, i s a t r a v e s t y o f the t r a d i t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e i n the oraculum: he appears i n odd, threadbare c l o t h e s but wears a l a u r e l crown, he rebukes Douglas f o r s i t t i n g under a l a u r e l t r e e which Maphaeus claims as h i s own, and instead of r e t u r n i n g Douglas's p o l i t e g r e e t i n g , he i n s t a n t l y f i n d s f a u l t w i t h him f o r not t r a n s l a t i n g h i s Book too. In h i s defence, Douglas advances p a r t l y s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d , p a r t l y f a c e t i o u s arguments, namely t h a t he has a l r e a d y spent too much time on the work, t h a t Maphaeus' a d d i t i o n i s about as necessary t o the Aeneid as the 51 f i f t h wheel t o the c a r t (1.118), and t h a t a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f the work would place him i n a p o s i t i o n analogous t o t h a t o f Jerome. But Maphaeus has ready answers t o these arguments: the analogy with Jerome i s f a l s e , f o r Maphaeus i s a C h r i s t i a n , not a pagan w r i t e r , and i n t h i s respect has the advantage even over V i r g i l , and besides, Maphaeus' work i s j u s t as "moral 1' (1.142) as V i r g i l ' s — e s s e n t i a l l y Douglas's own argument developed i n Prologue VI. When these r e f u t a t i o n s , augmented by a vague t h r e a t , f a i l t o sway Douglas, Maphaeus r e s o r t s t o f o r c e , g i v i n g Douglas twenty blows with h i s c l u b , u n t i l he agrees t o spend the requested f o r t n i g h t on the t h i r t e e n t h Book, wryly r a t i o n a l i z i n g the d e c i s i o n on the b a s i s t h a t the number of Books w i l l then accord w i t h t h a t o f C h r i s t and the twelve A p o s t l e s — a t h r u s t which Maphaeus, however, takes as r a t h e r a f i n e comp1i ment. This comedy of co e r c i o n over, Douglas wakes up t o the new dawn, when the previous evening's gradual c e s s a t i o n o f a c t i v i t y i s replaced by a renewal of busy-ness and now upward movement. L u c i f e r , the morning s t a r , i s the l a s t o f the s t a r s s t i l l t o be seen, j u s t as Hesperus had p r e v i o u s l y been the f i r s t . The l a r k now r i s e s t o greet the new morning, and the new l i g h t overspreads the f i e l d s , r e p l a c i n g the dim shadows of the evening. Human a c t i v i t y and human voices now a l s o f i l l the landscape, the reeve c a l l i n g the labourers t o work, the cowherd t e l l i n g h i s boy t o d r i v e the c a t t l e t o pasture, and the henwife c a l l i n g up "Katheryn and G i l l ' (1.175) who w i l l i n g l y comply wit h the summons. A l l these utterances have a c o l l o q u i a l r i n g t o them, but no more so than the comments made by the goose and the duck i n Chaucer's Pariiament of Fowls, so t h a t i n t h i s r e s p e c t , t o o , i t cannot be argued t h a t Douglas's l i n e s are n e c e s s a r i l y a 52 d i r e c t r e s u l t o f keen observation o f the everyday world around him. F i n a l l y the morning haze l i f t s and the b i r d s s i n g t h e i r morning song, again m i n s t r e l - f a s h i o n . A l l t h i s new a c t i v i t y and i n d u s t r y i s suffused w i t h e n e r g y — i t a l l happens so q u i c k l y t h a t one i s h a r d l y aware of a process of change from n i g h t t o day, but o n l y perceives the almost instantaneous r e s u l t s of the change. Douglas, t o o , w i l l begin h i s work immediately, b a s i c a l l y so as t o get i t out of the way t o make room f o r "grave m a t e r i s ' (1.188). Douglas's ambivalence with respect t o the t h i r t e e n t h Book i s , thus, f a r from p r o p e r l y r e s o l v e d . He i s s t i l l keenly aware t h a t Maphaeus' s t y l e i s q u i t e u n l i k e V i r g i l ' s , and bearing i n mind what Douglas has had t o say about s t y l e i n Prologues V and IX, t h i s argument i s a weighty one; but market c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f popular appeal c a r r y the day: F u l l w e i l l 1 wayt my t e x t s a i l mony l i k e . Sen e f t i r ane my tung i s and my pen, Quhilk may s u f f y s s as f o r our wlgar men, ( X I I I , P r o l . , 190-92) never mind t h a t ' c l e r k i s ' w i l l be a b l e t o t e l l the d i f f e r e n c e . Douglas, knowing t h a t more i s not n e c e s s a r i l y b e t t e r , nevertheless bows t o t r a d i t i o n and adds the f i f t h wheel t o the c a r t . In h i s s e r i e s of Prologues, Douglas i s thus concerned with two main i s s u e s , which he approaches from ever new angles. The one issue i s l i t e r a r y , the other r e l i g i o u s , and both are combined i n h i s own person, f o r as a ' c l e r k ' he i s both poet and p r i e s t . But the two concerns are even more i n t i m a t e l y connected, as becomes apparent i n Prologues V I I , X I I , and X I I I , f o r which the label 'Nature Prologues' i s c l e a r l y no longer 53 a p p r o p r i a t e : both issues are concerned with c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t y , but while the Creator demands f a i t h and obedience and while His methods o f Creation are beyond human understanding, those o f the "makar' can be analyzed, c r i t i c i z e d , d i s c u s s e d , developed and d e f i n e d . As a "makar,' Douglas explores ever new versions o f making use of o l d conventions t o create new e f f e c t s , and of knowing and using what i s t r a d i t i o n a l , but doing i t w i t h the independence o f one who creates r a t h e r than merely reproduces. The twin i s s u e s , however, a l s o p o s i t problems which are even more severe than those of w r i t i n g and ( r e - ) c r e a t i n g l i t e r a t u r e . As a C h r i s t i a n and a p r i e s t , Douglas i s exhorted t o "despise the world' and t o r e s i s t the temptations o f p r i d e , but as a poet he s t r i v e s f o r an immortal r e p u t a t i o n d e r i v e d from h i s poetry. This s p l i t between submission t o the contemptus  mundi d o c t r i n e , on the one hand, and confidence i n the r i g h t o f the poet t o c l a i m l a s t i n g renown, on the other hand, comes t o the f o r e i n Prologues VIII and X I I I , where Douglas's a t t i t u d e i s a t best ambivalent. 54 Notes Quotations from Chaucer's works are taken from The Works of  Geoffrey Chaucer, ed. F.N. Robinson, 2nd edn. (Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1957). 2 Ernst Robert C u r t i u s , European L i t e r a t u r e and the L a t i n Middle Ages, t r a n s . W i l l a r d R. Tnask (London: Routledge & Kegan P a u l , 1953), pp.86-7. 3 Quotations from Lydgate's works are taken from Lydgate's Fal1 of P r i n c e s , ed. Henry Bergen, 4 v o l s . , E.E.T.S. 121-4 (London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1924-27), and Lydgate's Troy Book: A.D. 1412-20, ed. Henry Bergen, 2 v o l s . , E.E.T.S. e.s. 97 & 103, 106 (London: Kegan P a u l , Trench, Triibner & Co., 1906-10). 4 Denton Fox, "The S c o t t i s h Chaucerians," i n Chaucer and Chaucerians: C r i t i c a 1 Studies i n Midd1e Eng1ish L i t e r a t u r e , ed. D.S. Brewer, 2nd edn. (Alabama: Univ. of Alabama Press, 1967), p.190. 5 Unless otherwise i n d i c a t e d , the words " f l y t e ' and ' f l y t i n g ' a r e , throughout t h i s t h e s i s , used i n the general sense of "abusively v i t u p e r a t i v e a t t a c k ' r a t h e r than as terms denoting a s p e c i f i c p o e t i c form. 6 Lydgate's Danse Macabre i s included i n the 3rd v o l . of Bergen's edn. of the Fal1 of P r i n c e s , c i t e d above. ^ Assuming t h a t "myne authour' r e f e r s t o V i r g i l , the V i r g i l i a n passage which most c l o s e l y resembles Douglas's quotation seems t o be Georgics I I , 434-8: quid maiora sequar? s a l i c e s humilesque g e n i s t a e , et iuvat undantem buxo spectare Cytorum Naryciaeque p i c i s lucos, . . . V i r g i 1 : Eclogues, Georgics, Aeneid, The Minor Poems, ed. & t r a n s . H. Rushton Fa i r e lough, 2 v o l s . , The Loeb C l a s s i c a l L i b r a r y , rev. edn. (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press, 1978). Subsequent quotations from V i r g i l ' s works are a l s o taken from t h i s e d i t i o n . g Kurt W i t t i g , The S c o t t i s h T r a d i t i o n , p.77. 9 Gerald B. Kinneavy, "An A n a l y t i c a l Approach t o L i t e r a t u r e i n the Late Middle Ages," Neuphilologische M i t t e i l u n g e n , 75 (1974), 126-42. 1 0 For Lydgate's c r i t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n s see L o i s Ebin, "Lydgate's Views on Poetry," Annuale Mediaevale, 18 (1977), 76-105. Douglas's requests f o r repeated readings of h i s work seem t o echo 55 s i m i l a r requests made by Boccaccio i n the f i n a l two books of h i s De  genea1ogia deorum genti1ium, i n Boccaccio on Poetry, ed. C.G. Osgood ( P r i n c e t o n , 1930), quoted a f t e r A.C. Spearing, Medieva1 t o Renaissance i n  E n g l i s h Poetry (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1985), p.7. 12 Even Dunbar's c l a i m t o immortal fame, made i n h i s poem i n c . " S c h i r , have mony s e r v i t o u r i s " , 11.25-34, i s f a r l e s s b l u n t , although the o s t e n s i b l y humble phrasing has a marked i r o n i c t w i s t . 13 Quotations from Henryson's works are taken from The Poems of  Robert Henryson, ed. Denton Fox (Oxford: Clarendon, 1981). 14 S i r P h i l i p Sidney, "A Defence o f Poetry," Mi seellaneous Prose of  S i r Phi 1ip Sidney, ed. Katherine Duncan-Jones (Oxford: Clarendon, 1973), p.85. 15 G.R. Owst, L i t e r a t u r e and P u l p i t i n Medieva1 England: A Neglected  Chapter i n the H i s t o r y o f E n g l i s h L e t t e r s and of the Eng1ish People (Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r ess, 1933). 1 6 Although the resemblance i s not too c l o s e i n terms o f i n d i v i d u a l d e t a i l s , the dreamer's r e j e c t i o n of the s c r o l l i n Prologue VIII i s g e n e r a l l y reminiscent o f P i e r s ' t e a r i n g up the f a l s e pardon i n P i e r s  Plowman, B-text, Passus V I I , 106-16. 1 7 Ross, "'Proloug' and 'Buke'," p.401. 18 John V e i t c h , The F e e l i n g f o r Nature i n S c o t t i s h Poetry, 2 v o l s . (Edinburgh & London: Blackwood, 1887), v o l . I, p.273. 19 W i t t i g , The S c o t t i s h T r a d i t i o n , pp.85, 87. 20 John S p e i r s , "Gavin Douglas's 'Aeneid'," i n h i s The Scots L i t e r a r y  T r a d i t i o n : An Essay i n C r i t i c i s m , 2nd edn. (London: Faber & Faber, 1962), pp.71, 74. 21 P e a r s a l l and S a l t e r , Landscapes and Seasons, pp.200-5. 22 N i t e c k i , " M o r t a l i t y and Poetry," p.82. 23 W i t t i g , The S c o t t i s h T r a d i t i o n , p.85; Mackenzie, An H i s t o r i c a 1  Survey, p.102. Hugh MacDiarmid, "Gavin Douglas and the AEneid," Agenda, 14, i i (1976), 92, a l s o regards Douglas's "nature poems" as "the f i r s t i n Scots or E n g l i s h i n which landscape i s depicted s o l e l y f o r i t s own sake." 2 4 Ross, "'Proloug' and 'Buke'," p.399. 2 5 N i t e c k i , " M o r t a l i t y and Poetry," p.83. 56 2 6 N i t e c k i , " M o r t a l i t y and Poetry," p.82; i n a d d i t i o n t o the Cursor  Mundi, N i t e c k i uses Richard R o l l e o f Hampole's The P r i e k e o f Conscience and the poem "De Die J u d i c i i , " a t t r i b u t e d t o both Bede and A l c u i n , t o support her argument. 27 Dido, praying f o r her death, i s t e r r i f i e d by the lone f l i g h t arid i l l - b o d i n g wail o f the owl (IV, 462-63), and Turnus i s t e r r o r - s t r u c k when A l e c t o , transformed i n t o an owl, f l i t s past him during the f i n a l b a t t l e ( X I I , 861-68). 28 S i r Gawain and the Green Knight, ed. J.R.R. T o l k i e n and E.V. Gordon, 2nd edn. rev. by Norman Davis (Oxford: Clarendon, 1967). 29 Quotations from Dunbar's works are taken from The Poems of W i l l i am  Dunbar, ed. James K i n s l e y (Oxford: Clarendon, 1979). 3 0 N i t e c k i , " M o r t a l i t y and Poetry," p.87. 31 Pearsal 1 and S a l t e r , Landscapes and Seasons, pp.76ff. 32 June would normally not have been thought o f as p r i m a r i l y a s p r i n g month. According t o Marguerite Stobo, "The Date o f the Seasons i n Middle E n g l i s h Poetry," American Notes & Queries, 22, nr. 1/2 (1983), 2-3, calendars o f the Middle E n g l i s h p e r i o d tended t o place the beginning o f s p r i n g around 22 February, but while the Venerable Bede set 7 February as the beginning of s p r i n g , some ve r s i o n s of the Secreta Secretorum give dates as l a t e as 11 or even 21 March. In Chaucer's Par 1iament o f Fowls, however, s p r i n g begins on or before S t . V a l e n t i n e ' s Day. 33 C u r t i u s , pp.90-1 57 Chapter 11 - The Narrator The twin issues o f C h r i s t i a n t r u t h and l i t e r a r y endeavour, which i n so many d i f f e r e n t guises form the main t o p i c s o f the s e r i e s o f Prologues, a l s o inform the stances Douglas takes as the n a r r a t o r o f these Prologues. He i s both the t h e o l o g i a n who preaches on the r e s p e c t i v e consequences o f v i c e and v i r t u e ( P r o l . IV) or who expounds the i n d i v i s i b i l i t y o f the T r i n i t y ( P r o l . X ) , and the poet who i s anxious t h a t not o n l y V i r g i l ' s but a l s o h i s own t e x t be t r e a t e d w i t h respect. These two r o l e s , however, are not separated by a v o i d which would make i t p o s s i b l e t o a s s i g n the persona of the n a r r a t o r a t any given time c l e a r l y t o e i t h e r the one or the other of these two p o s i t i o n s . On the c o n t r a r y , the many other r o l e s which Douglas momentarily assumes c l o s e the f i s s u r e and j o i n these two divergent r o l e s so t h a t they do not represent opposing impulses but are simply the extreme ends o f a s i n g l e spectrum. At times, Douglas's two concerns o f p r i e s t and poet j o i n i n such supreme harmony t h a t poetry l i k e t h a t i n the May Prologue r e s u l t s , but such an intense u n i f i c a t i o n o f the two r o l e s i s r a r e ; more commonly, the middle ground i s taken up by the urbane Scotsman whose language and imagery are s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by h i s environment and who enjoys a b i t o f f l y t i n g whenever op p o r t u n i t y o f f e r s , by the sc h o l a r o f both C l a s s i c a l s e c u l a r and medieval r e l i g i o u s l i t e r a t u r e , by the connoisseur o f contemporaneous c o u r t l y poetry, by the c r i t i c a l t r a n s l a t o r whose goal i t i s t o do j u s t i c e t o both the s t y l e and the content o f h i s t e x t , by the l i t e r a r y c r i t i c who formulates a theory o f t r a n s l a t i o n and a defence o f poetry, and by the man who, t i r i n g o f h i s enormous t a s k , prays t o h i s Maker f o r s t r e n g t h and e v e n t u a l l y heaves a s i g h o f r e l i e f when the l a s t word i s t r a n s l a t e d . Diverse as these personae may seem, t h e y — l i k e 58 the Prologue f o r m s — a r e deeply rooted i n a l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n which provides Douglas sometimes with d i r e c t models, sometimes with l e s s immediate i n f l u e n c e s , and which he reshapes t o serve h i s own purposes. At the beginning o f the f i r s t Prologue, Douglas steps before h i s audience i n the r o l e of the t r a n s l a t o r of a great work and admirer of a great poet, without, however, p o r t r a y i n g h i m s e l f as t h a t poet's humble f o l l o w e r . He shows h i s s e l f - a s s u r a n c e even i n h i s e f f u s i v e c e l e b r a t i o n of V i r g i l , f o r he s i n g l e s out very s p e c i f i c q u a l i t i e s and v i r t u e s of V i r g i l ' s poetry f o r p r a i s e r a t h e r than l o s i n g h i m s e l f i n i n d i s c r i m i n a t e a d u l a t i o n . Despite the conventional g e n u f l e c t i o n t o the great model i n d i c a t e d i n the t o p i c a l p r o t e s t a t i o n s of i n c a p a c i t y , Douglas makes i t q u i t e c l e a r t h a t V i r g i l ' s e p i c i s not an o b j e c t of u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d a d o r a t i o n f o r him, but a work f o r which he has "natural 1 l u f e and f r e n d e l y a f f e c t i o u n ' ( I , P r o l . , 3 6 ) — t e r m s which suggest c o m p a r a b i l i t y r a t h e r than g r a d a t i o n , and thus confidence r a t h e r than meekness v i s - a - v i s the honoured predecessor. This confidence i s a l s o r e f l e c t e d i n Douglas's pledge t o V i r g i l , And t h a t thy facund sentence mycht be song In our langage a l s w e i l l as Latyn t o n g — A l s w e i l l ? na, na, i m p o s s i b i l l war, per d e — i t w i t h thy l e i f , V i r g i l e , t o f o l l o w the, wald i n t o my r u r a l 1 wlgar gross Wryte sum savoryng o f thyne Eneados. ( I , P r o l . , 39-44) The f i r s t aim here i s too high, and Douglas q u i c k l y c o r r e c t s h i m s e l f — a s he had a l r e a d y s t r e s s e d e a r l i e r , he f i n d s t h a t the two languages are j u s t not capable of comparison. Yet Douglas has no doubt t h a t he w i l l i n s p i t e o f these external l i m i t a t i o n s have ' c r a f t ' enough t o r e t a i n the f l a v o u r of the or i g i na1. 59 Douglas d i s p l a y s a s i m i l a r s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e i n h i s address t o h i s patron, 'My s p e c i a l 1 gud Lord Henry, Lord Sanct C l a i r ' ( I , P r o l . , 86), who was both h i s f r i e n d and kinsman. Judging by Douglas's a t t i t u d e , Henry Lord S i n c l a i r ' s 'request' (1. 83) f o r a t r a n s l a t i o n o f a c l a s s i c a l work seems t o have r e a l l y been j u s t t h a t — i f even t h a t — b u t c e r t a i n l y not a demand or even command; S i n c l a i r " p r a y f (1. 88) him t o t r a n s l a t e the Aeneid, and i s i n t u r n commended f o r h i s courtesy and other c h i v a l r i c v i r t u e s , and l a s t — a n d thus m o s t — f o r h i s love of books: Bukis t o r e c o l l e c t , t o r e i d and se, Hass gr e t d e l y t e as euer had Ptholome. ( I , P r o l . , 99-100) Douglas here speaks about a man who i s h i s s o c i a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l equal, and he w i l l not l e t the " r e g u l a t i o n tone of h u m i l i t y towards a patron or master" 1 i n t e r f e r e with t h i s e q u a l i t y , but turns the conventional formula o f submission i n t o a statement of personal f r i e n d s h i p f o r the r e c i p i e n t o f the work. Lydgate's d e d i c a t i o n of h i s Fal1 of P r i n c e s t o another b i b l i o p h i l e , Humphrey Duke o f Gloucester, provides the opposite end of the spectrum; having sung Gloucester's p r a i s e s i n the preceding f i f t y - s e v e n l i n e s , Lydgate p o r t r a y s h i m s e l f as e n t i r e l y unworthy of the commission, indeed p r a c t i c a l l y incapable of f u l f i l l i n g i t , but nonetheless w i l l i n g t o attempt i t , though only w i t h the g r e a t e s t t r e p i d a t i o n s : He g a f f t o me i n comaundement, As hym sempte i t was r i h t weel s i t t y n g , That 1 shuIde, a f f t i r my cunnyng. This book t r a n s l a t e , hym t o do plesaunce, 60 And w i t h support o f f h i s magnificence, Vndir the wyngis o f f h i s c o r r e c c i o u n , Thouh t h a t I haue lak o f f eloquence, I shal procede i n t h i s t r a n s l a c i o u n , Fro me auoidyng a l presumpcioun, Lowli submyttyng eueri hour & space Mi reud language t o my l o r d i s grace. (FP, I, P r o l . , 430-41) Lydgate's anxious h u m i l i t y cannot be explained o n l y by reference t o the d i f f e r e n c e i n s t a t u s between him s e l f and h i s patron; he more than f o l l o w s the requirements of the conventional d e d i c a t i o n — h e expands them. V i r g i l had a l s o spoken of a patron's command as the cause f o r w r i t i n g the Georgics, a work which Douglas o f t e n r e f e r s t o ; but V i r g i l , i n c o n t r a s t , gives a l l o f two l i n e s t o the request topos: i n t e r e a Dryadum s i l v a s saltusque sequamur i n t a c t o s , t u a , Maecenas, haud m o l l i a i u s s a . t e s i n e n i l a 1 turn mens incohat: en age, segnis rumpe moras; . . . (Georgics, I I I , 40-3) 2 Both Lydgate and Douglas, d e s p i t e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r tone, are a t pains t o emphasize t h a t the patron's request and not "presumpcioun' on t h e i r own part was the primary cause f o r t h e i r t r a n s l a t i o n s . Douglas s t r e s s e s t h a t he undertook the work f o r the sake of S i n c l a i r ' s " t e n d i r request and amyte' ( D i r e c t i o n , 74), And not only of my curage, God w a i t . Durst i n t e r p r y s s syk owtrageus f o l y . ( I , P r o l . , 76-7) Robert Henryson uses the same gesture of h u m i l i t y i n the Prologue t o h i s Mora 11 F a b i 1 1 i s i n j u s t i f y i n g h i s t r a n s l a t i o n as having been w r i t t e n 61 Nocht of my s e l f , f o r vane presumptioun, Bot be r e q u e i s t and precept of ane l o r d , Of quhome the name i t n e i d i s not record. (MF, 33-5) With Henryson's patron remaining nameless, the use of the request topos seems a l l the more a g e s t u r e . 3 For Douglas, i t c e r t a i n l y i s j u s t t h a t , f o r he l a t e r avows other and stronger reasons f o r having w r i t t e n the t r a n s l a t i o n o f V i r g i l ' s work. While the schoolmaster of Dunfermline does not a c t u a l l y say t h a t h i s t r a n s l a t i o n o f Aesop's f a b l e s was connected with t h e i r almost u n i v e r s a l use i n schools t o teach L a t i n t o beginners and t o provide r h e t o r i c a l e x e r c i s e s f o r more advanced s t u d e n t s , 4 the provost of St G i l e s ' i s confident t h a t h i s Eneados sal be reput a n e i d f u l l wark To thame wa1d V i rg i11 t o ch i1dryn expone; Thank me t h a r f o r , master i s o f grammar s c u l y s , Quhar sy t techand on ^our benkis and s t u l y s . { D i r e c t i o n , 42-8) But even more important i s t h a t the Eneados w i l l make V i r g i l a c c e s s i b l e t o those who d e l i g h t i n l i t e r a t u r e but who have no L a t i n or not enough of i t t o read the o r i g i n a l with ease and thus w i t h pleasure; indeed, the t r a n s l a t i o n might even be read out t o those who are a l t o g e t h e r i l l i t e r a t e (Exclamation, 43-5). This goal i s a k i n t o the topos which C u r t i u s sums up in the i n j u n c t i o n "'The possession of knowledge makes i t a duty t o impart i t ' " — a f a v o u r i t e topos among medieval w r i t e r s , who had not only c l a s s i c a l but a l s o s c r i p t u r a l a u t h o r i t y f o r i t . 5 For Douglas, i t must have gained a d d i t i o n a l appeal by a l s o supporting the humanist aim of the p u r s u i t and d i s s e m i n a t i o n of knowledge, p r e f e r a b l y ex f o n t i b u s . Having shown considerable independence i n h i s a t t i t u d e towards h i s 62 "auctour' and h i s patron, Douglas takes the same stance v i s - a - v i s h i s l i t e r a r y models. Caxton, of course, i s almost beneath contempt, but even Chaucer, while acknowledged as Douglas's 'mastir' ( I , P r o l . , 410), does not escape c r i t i c i s m . Douglas regards Chaucer as the ' p r i n c i p a l poet but p e i r ' although 'beneth V i r g i 1 1 i n gre' ( I , P r o l . , 339, 407), and h i s admiration i s based on a thorough knowledge of Chaucer's work. In p a r t i c u l a r , he knows Chaucer's c o u r t l y works extremely w e l l and o f t e n a l l u d e s t o them with v e r b a l , s t r u c t u r a l and prosodic echoes and quotes whole l i n e s or c o u p l e t s . 6 But Chaucer's i n f l u e n c e on Douglas's work goes beyond mere i m i t a t i o n or reworking of l i n e s and w e l l - t u r n e d phrases; Douglas i s a l s o most responsive t o Chaucer's techniques f o r a c h i e v i n g the l i v e l y speaking voice of a n a r r a t o r endowed with i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The r h e t o r i c a l device of c o r r e c t i o , one of Chaucer's hallmarks, serves Douglas's purposes p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l , not o n l y i n t h a t i t c reates an e f f e c t o f immediacy, of a man t h i n k i n g t o h i m s e l f and sometimes even arguing with h i m s e l f over the best way o f expressing an idea, but a l s o i n t h a t i t accommodates Douglas's need t o f i n d e x a c t l y the r i g h t word—and t o l e t h i s audience know t h a t t h i s and no other jjs the r i g h t o n e — i n the p u r s u i t of t h a t p r e c i s i o n which he o u t l i n e s i n h i s ' p r o t e s t a t i o u n ' i n Prologue I. The e f f e c t of a v i v a c i o u s and a l e r t n a r r a t o r i s f u r t h e r enhanced by Douglas's Chaucerian range and f l e x i b i l i t y i n tone o f v o i c e . In h i s p r a i s e of Chaucer, f o r instance, he begins with a f o r m a l , e u l o g i z i n g apostrophe, which, however, i s immediately q u a l i f i e d by the concessive 'thoght' ( I , P r o l . , 339-46); and a f t e r the d i s c u s s i o n of the lack of E n g l i s h e q u i v a l e n t s f o r c e r t a i n L a t i n terms, Douglas begins h i s s u b s t a n t i v e c r i t i c i s m o f Chaucer with a ha I f - i r o n i c though s t i l l 63 r e s p e c t f u l 'I say nocht t h i s o f Chauser f o r o f f e n s ' ( I , P r o l . , 405) before modulating h i s tone t o one of a f f e c t i o n a t e and indulgent irony i n making allowances f o r the acknowledged master's weaknesses: Bot s i k k y r l y o f resson me behufis Excuss Chauser f r a a l l maner r e p r u f f i s In 1ovyng of t h i r 1adeis 1y11y q u h i t e He set on V i r g i n and Eneas t h i s wyte, For he was e v i r (God wait) a l l womanis f r e n d . ( I , P r o l . , 445-49) I f Douglas can g e n t l y mock Chaucer, he has a l s o learned Chaucer's humorous self-mockery. Prologue X I I I , although s t r u c t u r a l l y more d i r e c t l y indebted t o Henryson, seems t o d e r i v e i t s tone from Chaucer's House o f Fame, where the r e t i c e n t Geffrey i s manhandled by the sententious Eagle and w i l l y -n i l l y provided w i t h m a t e r i a l t o w r i t e about, j u s t as Douglas's dreamer, d e s p i t e h i s f a c e t i o u s p r o t e s t s , f i n d s h i m s e l f pressed by a sham a u t h o r i t y -f i g u r e i n t o w r i t i n g more than he had intended. A f t e r t h i s t o u r de f o r c e of Chaucerian s e l f - i r o n y , Douglas modulates h i s tone once more and r e t u r n s i n the end-matter t o the more s e r i o u s yet j u s t as l i v e l y quasi-dialogue w i t h h i s "auctour', with h i s patron, and w i t h h i s readers and c r i t i c s which has, s i n c e the very beginning o f the f i r s t Prologue, been a mode o f d i s c o u r s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h i s s c e p t i c a l , independent, and d i s p u t a t i o u s n a r r a t o r . 7 For a l l Douglas has learned from Chaucer i n terms o f technique and phrasing, he nonetheless does not regard the 'mastir' as i n f a l l i b l e , but f e e l s f r e e t o c r i t i c i s e him. Henryson l i k e w i s e , w h i l e admiring Chaucer and using h i s work as a springboard, reserves the r i g h t t o question the master: 64 Quha wait g i f a l l t h a t Chauceir w r a i t was trew? (TC. 64) Both w r i t e r s d i s p l a y "a s c e p t i c a l independence of judgment" which i t s e l f i s t r u l y Chaucerian. 8 For Douglas, however, i t i s l e s s a question of t r u t h than one o f method. In Douglas's eyes, Chaucer's handling of the V i r g i l i a n s t o r y of Dido and Aeneas does not c o n s t i t u t e a t r a n s l a t i o n ; indeed, i t v i o l a t e s V i r g i l ' s o v e r a l l design of the e p i c . Douglas no longer sees h i m s e l f as a medieval s t o r y - t e l l e r whose f u n c t i o n i t i s t o adapt and r e t e l l n a r r a t i v e m a t e r i a l out of i t s o r i g i n a l context i n order t o e n t e r t a i n or e d i f y h i s audience; on the c o n t r a r y , he regards him s e l f as a poet i n the new, Renaissance meaning of the word. Poetry, f o r Douglas, q has " i n t r i n s i c beauty and l a s t i n g value" which demand t h a t i t be t r a n s m i t t e d i n i t s i n t e g r i t y . While Chaucer at the end of the T r o i l u s pleaded wit h the s c r i b e s not t o corrupt h i s t e x t (V, 1793-99), he yet f e l t a t l i b e r t y t o reshape another w r i t e r ' s work; Douglas, however, p r i d e s h i m s e l f i n the accuracy with which he has recreated V i r g i l ' s work, although he i s f a r less concerned with such p r e c i s i o n when he comes t o t r a n s l a t e Maphaeus Vegius' t h i r t e e n t h Book t o which he a t t r i b u t e s l i t t l e , i f any, l i t e r a r y value and which he includes i n deference t o e s t a b l i s h e d convention but a g a i n s t h i s own b e t t e r judgement. This independence of judgement, together with Douglas's c e r t a i n t y t h a t he i s making a c o n t r i b u t i o n t o a r t r a t h e r than merely s e r v i n g h i s readers by e n t e r t a i n i n g them, e x p l a i n s the n a r r a t o r ' s s e l f - a s s u r e d , a t times even haughty a t t i tude. Given t h i s independent and s e l f - a s s u r e d stance v i s - a - v i s h i s "auctour,' h i s patron, and h i s mentor, Douglas not s u r p r i s i n g l y shows none 65 o f the conventional h u m i l i t y e i t h e r when i t comes t o addressing h i s audience a t l a r g e . Even though he bids h i s "wlgar V i r g i l 1' t o Beseyk a l l nobi11ys the c o r e c t and amend, (Exlamation, 39) he repeatedly warns h i s readers not t o be too hasty w i t h t h e i r c r i t i c i s m , but t o " r e i d o f t a r than anys' ( I , P r o l . , 107), f o r % a t a blenk s l e poetry nocht tayn i s ' ( I , P r o l . , 108). Lydgate again provides the opposite a t t i t u d e i n i n v i t i n g a l l and sundry t o make whatever changes they please i n the Troy Book wh i ch he ends by t e l l i n g h i s M i t e l bok,' And who-so-euere i n pe fynde of f e n c e , Be nat t o bo1d f o r no presumpc i o u n — p\ s i 1 f e enarme ay i n pac i ence, And -pe submitte t o her c o r r e c c i o u n . • • • Ageynes hem p i n errour nat d i f f e n d e . But humblely with-drawe & go a-bak, Requerynge hem a l Jhat i s mys t o amende. (TB, V, Lenvoye, 96-107) Having spent f a r more time on the Troy Book than Douglas was t o spend on the Eneados, a n d — j u d g i n g by h i s desperate pleas t o Gloucester f o r f i n a n c i a l r e l i e f — h a v i n g undergone f a r greater a n x i e t y over i t , t oo, Lydgate i s s e l f - e f f a c i n g t o a f a u l t . In the Fal1 of P r i n c e s even more than i n the Troy Book, he p r o s t r a t e s h i m s e l f not merely before h i s patron and before those readers on whose d i s c r i m i n a t i n g judgement he can r e l y , but before al1 h i s readers. Douglas i n c o n t r a s t i n v i t e s o n l y " a l l n o b i l l y s ' t o make c o r r e c t i o n s , but even t h i s request i s surrounded by enough warnings not t o c r i t i c i z e the work unless one i s equal t o a ' comparable task (e.g., I, P r o l . , 478; D i r e c t i o n , 111-14) t h a t o n l y the 66 most brazen of readers can p o s s i b l y take i t f o r more than the merest suggestion of a bow t o convention. On the other hand, Douglas i s most s u s c e p t i b l e t o Chaucer's apprehensive l i n e s . So prey I God t h a t non myswrite the, Ne the mysmetre f o r defaute of tonge, (T&C, V, 1795-96) but transforms t h i s apprehension i n t o a f o r c e f u l request, addressed not o n l y t o c o p y i s t s but t o the audience g e n e r a l l y : 3he w r i t a r i s a l l , and g e n t i l l r e d a r i s eyk. Offend i s nocht my volum, I beseik, Bot r e d i s l e i l l , and tak gud t e n t i n tyme. 3he nother maggill nor mysmetyr my ryme, Nor a l t e r not my wordis, I ^ou pray. (Time, Space & Date, 21-5) S i m i l a r l y , Chaucer's address t o h i s Troi1 us as M i t e l bok', a phrase which Lydgate had taken ad absurdum i n reference t o h i s 36,393 l i n e s long Fal1 of P r i n c e s , becomes "wlgar V i r g i 1 1 ' when Douglas speaks of h i s work. This d i f f e r e n c e i s more than a mere v a r i a t i o n i n the phrasing: i t expresses a r a d i c a l change i n a t t i t u d e . There i s not even any pretence t h a t the work may be but a t r i f l e ; on the c o n t r a r y , by s t y l i n g h i s work "wlgar V i r g i 1 1 , ' Douglas a s s e r t s t h a t the Eneados equals the Aeneid, and t h a t V i r g i l remains V i r g i l no matter whether read i n L a t i n or i n " S c o t t i s ' . I t i s a high c l a i m , but Douglas has made i t before, i n Prologue I: A l l thocht he [ V i r g i l ] s t a n t i n Latyn maist p e r f y t e , 3 i t stude he n e v i r w e i l l i n our tung endyte Less than i t be by me now at t h i s tyme. ( I , P r o l . , 493-95) 67 He i s c e r t a i n t h a t the soundness of h i s t h e o r e t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s together w i t h h i s success i n p u t t i n g them i n t o p r a c t i c e w i l l warrant t h i s c l a i m . Being almost a g g r e s s i v e l y defensive when he addresses the " d e t r a c t o u r i s and oncurtass r e d a r i s t h a t beyn our studyus' (Exclamation, t i t l e ) , Douglas, on the other hand, t r e a t s "euery genti11 Scot' (Exclamation, 43) r e s p e c t f u l l y though c e r t a i n l y not humbly. He expects h i s readers t o be about as w e l l - r e a d as he i s h i m s e l f and t o be a b l e t o f o l l o w h i s t h e o r e t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n s , even when he deals w i t h s u b t l e d i f f e r e n c e s i n L a t i n semantics. At the same time, however, such e x p o s i t i o n s c o n t a i n an implied j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f Douglas's c l a i m t o fame as a t r a n s l a t o r and w r i t e r , s i n c e he here shows himse l f as one who i s f u l l y conscious of h i s a r t and who has chosen each word and phrase with great d e l i b e r a t i o n . Often he l i f t s phrases or even complete l i n e s or couplets from Chaucer's c o u r t l y works, presumably f u l l y expecting h i s audience t o recognize the a l l u s i o n , given t h a t he a l s o seems t o presuppose i n h i s readers a s u f f i c i e n t f a m i l i a r i t y with Chaucer f o r them t o be a b l e t o f o l l o w h i s c r i t i c i s m o f Chaucer's approach t o V i r g i l . The p o i n t s made i n h i s c r i t i c i s m o f Chaucer and i n the f l y t i n g with Caxton i n Prologue I as w e l l as the defence of poetry i n Prologue VI and the t h e o r e t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n s of s t y l e i n Prologues V and IX c e r t a i n l y demand a s o p h i s t i c a t e d audience, but such an audience would i n t u r n a l s o a p p r e c i a t e the s o p h i s t i c a t i o n of the n a r r a t o r of these Prologues, so t h a t these e x p o s i t o r y and argumentative passages serve t o c o n s o l i d a t e the i m p l i c i t c l a i m of the n a r r a t o r ' s persona t o be a t l e a s t the p o l i t e readers' equal, i f not t h e i r b e t t e r , based on h i s s t a t u s as a conscious a r t i s t who no longer sees hims e l f i n the r o l e of a " d e f e r e n t i a l e n t e r t a i n e r , h i s 68 audience's humble s e r v a n t , " 1 0 but who has a s s i m i l a t e d Boccaccio's d e f i n i t i o n o f poets as "men of great l e a r n i n g , endowed with a s o r t o f d i v i n e i n t e l l i g e n c e and s k i l l , [. . .] the r a r e s t o f men." 1 1 Not o n l y does Douglas d i s p l a y the range o f h i s e r u d i t i o n i n a l l u s i o n s t o and borrowings from Chaucer's work, but he a l s o e x h i b i t s a thorough acquaintance with the works o f Lydgate, Henryson and Dunbar as well as with works from the a l l i t e r a t i v e t r a d i t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , he shows himse l f versed i n the w r i t i n g s o f the best-known Roman poets, such as V i r g i l and Ovid, as well as the standard c u r r i c u l u m authors, such as L i v y , Lucan, Suetonius, and S t a t i u s , and the l a t e Roman w r i t e r Macrobius; however, he a l s o c i t e s much less known authors, such as Varro and even the then only r e c e n t l y rediscovered C a t u l l u s , whose wryness seems t o have been congenial t o Douglas. Furthermore, he knows and uses the V i r g i l i a n commentators from the fo u r t h - c e n t u r y Servius t o Jodocus Badius Ascensius and the I t a l i a n humanists Lorenzo V a l l a and C r i s t o f o r o Landino, and r e f e r s t o Guido d e l l e Colonne and f r e q u e n t l y quotes from Boccaccio, thus i n t i m a t i n g h i s f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h a wide range o f l i t e r a t u r e and, indeed, e s t a b l i s h i n g h i m s e l f as a l i t e r a r y s c h o l a r , intending t h a t h i s own work be regarded as th a t o f an a u t h o r i t y i n the f i e l d , who bases h i s c r i t i c a l judgement on d e t a i l e d knowledge o f and extensive experience with the known l i t e r a t u r e of a 11 per i o d s . 1 2 Notwithstanding t h i s cosmopolitan aura, Douglas a l s o endows h i s n a r r a t o r with a d i s t i n c t l y S c o t t i s h i d e n t i t y . In h i s ' p r o t e s t a t i o u n ' t o the "beaw s c h i r r i s ' ( I , P r o l . , 105), Douglas speaks with p r i d e o f h i s "awyn langage' which he Me r n y t quhen [he] was page' (11. 111-12), namely the Scots as spoken and read i n c o u r t l y s o c i e t y . Although he f i n d s i t 69 needful t o use "Sum bastard Latyn, French or Ing l y s ' i n supplementing h i s n a t i v e language "Quhar scant was Scott i s ' (11. 117-18), he immediately c o r r e c t s h i m s e l f and i n s i s t s t h a t when he uses f o r e i g n terms and pronunciations i t i s 'Nocht f o r our tong i s i n the selwyn skant' (1. 119). However, i t i s not only the language i t s e l f which i d e n t i f i e s the n a r r a t o r as a Scotsman; the p o i n t s o f reference, t o o , are at times unmistakably S c o t t i s h . Thus, each o f the burning ships i n the Trojan camp has a "payntyt t a r g e ' (V, x i , 122); Acestes' newly founded c i t y has 'merkattis' and a " f a i r ' where ' a l l the hedismen gadderis' (V, x i i , 174-75); when the souls o f the dead ask Charon t o f e r r y them across the Styx, i t " c o s t i s thame not a grote' (VI, v, 72); P l u t o dwells i n a "chymmys' (VI, x, 6 ) ; and Anchises, having f i r s t mistaken Crete f o r the Trojans' a n c e s t r a l home, then recognizes "of our c l a n the do w b i l l stok' ( I I I , i i i , 62). The imagery o f Prologue V I I , the Winter Prologue, too, while indebted t o Chaucer's and Henryson's works f o r some of the l i n e s and images and f u r t h e r t r a c e a b l e t o the l i t e r a t u r e o f Doomsday, 1 3 has i t s e q u i v a l e n t s i n the S c o t t i s h landscape a t t h a t s e a s o n — c e r t a i n l y more so than i n the southern E n g l i s h environment which the E n g l i s h Chaucerians might have seen; indeed, as I have discussed i n chapter I, the eq u i v a l e n t s are c l o s e enough t o have misled generations o f c r i t i c s i n t o b e l i e v i n g t h a t these images were based pu r e l y on d i r e c t o b servation of n a t u r e . 1 4 At the same time, Douglas a l s o draws h e a v i l y on the northern l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n . He pays Robert Henryson a t a c i t compliment by adapting the s t r u c t u r e o f Henryson's Prologue t o "The T a i l l o f the Lyoun and the Mous" t o s u i t h i s own purposes i n Prologue X I I I and by a b b r e v i a t i n g Henryson's planet p o r t r a i t s i n the winter opening of the Testament o f Cre s s e i d f o r use i n 70 Prologue V I I . Douglas a l s o makes use of the northern a l l i t e r a t i v e t r a d i t i o n i n d e s c r i b i n g the f i e r c e n e s s of the weather i n the Winter Prologue i n standard a l l i t e r a t i v e c o l l o c a t i o n s and i n w r i t i n g the whole of Prologue VIII i n a l l i t e r a t i v e long l i n e s , a form which had long before Dunbar come t o be a s s o c i a t e d with s o c i a l s a t i r e and i n v e c t i v e . In c r i t i c i z i n g Caxton i n Prologue I, Douglas a l s o holds with the S c o t t i s h t r a d i t i o n o f the l i t e r a r y " f l y t i n g ' , which, while p o s s i b l y i n f l u e n c e d by L a t i n and Provencal i n v e c t i v e poetry, r e s t s on the " p r a c t i c e of s a t i r e by G a e l i c bards, i n both I r e l a n d and S c o t l a n d " 1 5 and i s i n Dunbar's " F l y t i n g of Dunbar and Kennedie" e x p l i c i t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h such " b a i r d [ s ] ' (11. 17-8, 49, 1 2 0 ) . 1 6 This e r i s t i c mode seems t o have been not uncongenial t o Douglas, f o r , as P r i s c i l l a Bawcutt remarks, he was "a man who enjoyed debate and was always ready f o r a d i s p u t e , i n l i f e as i n l i t e r a t u r e . " 1 7 The polemical tone a l s o comes t o the f o r e i n Douglas's r a t h e r brash treatment of p o t e n t i a l b a c k b i t e r s and " d e t r a c t o u r i s . ' J u s t as he i s anxious t o preserve V i r g i l ' s work i n i t s proper propor t i o n s and t o keep i t s s t y l e and substance i n t a c t , so he i s a l s o most concerned t h a t h i s own t e x t be t r e a t e d w i t h the regard due t o the f i r s t " s c h o l a r l y ' t r a n s l a t i o n of the work and—one might a d d — w i t h the respect owed t o a Douglas, whose f a m i l y was one of the f i r s t i n the realm and who h i m s e l f had high and not u n j u s t i f i e d ambitions f o r a r i s e t o one of the highest p o s i t i o n s i n the S c o t t i s h Church h i e r a r c h y . ^ Despite h i s a n x i e t y t h a t "oncurtass redan's' may mar h i s t e x t and f a i l t o a p p r e c i a t e i t s s u b t l e t i e s , Douglas not merely hopes but i s c e r t a i n t h a t the Eneados w i l l procure immortal fame f o r him: 71 Quhen t h a t onknawyn day s a l hym address, Quhilk not bot on t h i s body power hess, And endis the da i t o f myn oncertan e l d . The b e t t i r part of me s a l be vpheld Abufe the starnys perpetualy t o ryng, And h e i r my naym remane, but enparyng; (Conclusion, 5-10) Douglas here echoes almost word f o r word the f i n a l l i n e s o f Ovid's Metamorphoses; Iamque opus e x e g i , quod nec I o v i s i r a nec i g n i s nec p o t e r i t ferrum nec edax abolere vetustas. cum v o l e t , i l i a d i e s , quae n i l n i s i c o r p o r i s huius ius habet, i n c e r t i spatium mi hi f i n i a t a e v i : parte tamen me I i o r e mei super a l t a perennis a s t r a f e r a r , nomenque e r i t i n d e l e b i l e nostrum, quaque patet d o m i t i s Romana p o t e n t i a t e r r i s , ore legar p o p u l i , perque omnia saecula fama, s i q u i d habent v e r i vatum praesagia, vivam. (XV, 8 7 1 - 7 9 ) 1 9 In the epilogue t o Chaucer's T r o i l u s and Criseyde, i t i s T r o i l u s , not Chaucer, whose l i g h t e goost f u l b l i s f u l l y i s went Up t o the holughnesse of the eighthe spere, (V, 1808-9) but Douglas's n a r r a t o r w i t h supreme s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e foresees being himself placed among the s t a r s of the l i t e r a r y heaven, thus a n t i c i p a t i n g an e x a l t a t i o n which p a r a l l e l s the apotheosis o f Aeneas i n Maphaeus' d i r e c t l y preceding t h i r t e e n t h Book as well as the ascension envisaged f o r Augustus at the end of the f i n a l book of Ovid's Metamorphoses (XV, 868-70). The s t r i v i n g f o r the e x a l t a t i o n o f the s e l f , however, stands i n s t a r k c o n t r a s t t o the n a r r a t o r ' s preaching of t h e o l o g i c a l l y sound dogma elsewhere, i n c l u d i n g the d o c t r i n e of contemptus mundi. In the Prologues 72 concerned with r e l i g i o u s t o p i c s , but p a r t i c u l a r l y Prologues X and XI, the n a r r a t o r l a r g e l y loses h i s i n d i v i d u a l i t y , and w h i l e he speaks with great a u t h o r i t y , he recedes i n t o a s t y l i s t i c anonymity which i s comparable t o t h a t p r e v a i l i n g i n the m a j o r i t y of medieval r e l i g i o u s l y r i c s . 2 u Imagery i s here almost e n t i r e l y absent, except i n s o f a r as i t helps t o make a b s t r a c t concepts more e a s i l y i n t e l l i g i b l e without, however, a f f e c t i n g the senses and emotions. L i n e - f i l l i n g t a g s , such as ' t r a s t e me' ( I , P r o l . , 319) or "suythly as I weyn' ( I , P r o l . , 369), doublets, a l l i t e r a t i v e p a i r s , i n t e n s i f y i n g phrases and s i m i l a r devices which create the e f f e c t o f an i n d i v i d u a l speaking voice a l s o occur o n l y with extreme infrequency. Furthermore, the elsewhere strong Chaucerian i n f l u e n c e on the n a r r a t o r i s reduced t o one or two echoes o f Chaucer's p h r a s i n g , 2 1 although i t re s u r f a c e s a t the end of Prologue IV, where the n a r r a t o r lashes out a g a i n s t e r o t i c love. The n a r r a t o r o f these Prologues i s g e n e r a l l y austere and impersonal; even when he d i r e c t l y addresses the reader as T r e n d ' (X, P r o l . , 86), t h i s address does not lead t o the usual l i v e l y q uasi-dialogue but t o a s t e r n lesson. Nonetheless, three o f the most t y p i c a l t r a i t s o f the n a r r a t o r are d i s c e r n i b l e even i n these Prologues: he adheres t o the p r i n c i p l e o f s t r i v i n g f o r utmost accuracy and p r e c i s i o n i n word c h o i c e , as he had discussed i n Prologue I, and he cannot l e t go of any o p p o r t u n i t y t o become argumentative, yet even here he shows a remarkable range i n the modulations of h i s speaking v o i c e . Gerald Kinneavy has drawn a t t e n t i o n t o the unusual " p r e c i s i o n and d i s t i n c t i o n o f d i c t i o n which Douglas employs t o d e s c r i b e the c r e a t i v e power of the Father" i n the "orthodox and even conventional t h e o l o g i c a l t eaching regarding the T r i n i t y " i n Prologue X: 2 2 73 Not makis, c r e a t i s , bot engendris . . . (X, P r o l . , 43) In c o n t r a s t t o t h i s l i n e a r l y foward-moving t r i c o l o n crescendo, Douglas elsewhere uses the back - t r a c k i n g device o f c o r r e c t i o , as f o r example i n h i s i n i t i a l compliment t o V i r g i l : But s a i r I d r e i d f o r t o d i s t e y n the quyte Throu my c o r r u p p i t cadens i m p e r f y t e — Disteyn the? nay f o r s u y t h , t h a t may I nocht. ( I , P r o l . , 45-7) Here, t o o , a p r e c i s e p o i n t i s being made, namely t h a t V i r g i l ' s a r t i s so great t h a t even the rougher d i c t i o n o f the t r a n s l a t o r cannot d i s c o l o u r i t . Yet the d i f f e r e n t devices used i n the above two passages c r e a t e completely d i f f e r e n t e f f e c t s . In the one, a learned t h e o l o g i a n l e c t u r e s a u t h o r i t a t i v e l y on a fundamental dogma o f C h r i s t i a n i t y , whereas i n the othe r , a w i l y poet d i s p l a y s h i s a r t i n s l y l y d e c l a r i n g t h a t he, i n co n t r a s t t o h i s source, lacks a r t , thus complimenting the o r i g i n a l author w h i l e s t i l l a s s e r t i n g h i s own worth i n an accomplished r h e t o r i c a l f l o u r i s h . The second t r a i t , the n a r r a t o r ' s d i s p u t a t i o u s n e s s , marks p a r t i c u l a r l y Prologues IV and XI. In the l a s t three stanzas f o l l o w i n g the sermon on C h r i s t i a n f o r t i t u d e i n Prologue X I , the n a r r a t o r t u r n s from the e x p o s i t o r y and d i s c u r s i v e modes t o addressing the u n i v e r s a l sinner i n the reader. Here, imperatives, exclamations, and r h e t o r i c a l questions outnumber statements as the n a r r a t o r thunders a t the reader and shakes and shames the members o f h i s congregation i n t o an awareness t h a t l a x i t y w i l l not s u f f i c e , but t h a t s t r e n g t h , courage, and constant s t r u g g l e are re q u i r e d 74 i n the attempt t o win the heavenly kingdom. In Prologue IV, i n c o n t r a s t , the n a r r a t o r begins with a long apostrophe t o Venus as Cytherea and denounces the d i s a s t r o u s e f f e c t s o f her powerful i n f l u e n c e before d e f i n i n g love i n e x c l u s i v e l y C h r i s t i a n terms and r e l e g a t i n g a l l e r o t i c love t o the l e v e l of l u s t and animal passion. Having completed the d i s c u s s i o n and defi n e d h i s terms, the n a r r a t o r changes h i s tone from t h a t o f s t e r n formal d i s c o u r s e t o one of f l y t i n g , t a k i n g h i s cue from the terminology of c o u r t l y love, which he undercuts and d i s c r e d i t s i n a s e r i e s o f r h e t o r i c a l questions addressed t o the i n d i v i d u a l reader, who i s presumed t o have approved of or even t o have himself used these terms. The n a r r a t o r thus speaks a u t h o r i t a t i v e l y from a mora l l y s u p e r i o r p o s i t i o n , yet when he advances from e x t r a m a r i t a l a f f a i r s t o p r o s t i t u t i o n , he i s no longer simply c a s t i g a t i n g from above those among the readers who have done "Venus warkis' (1. 168), but po r t r a y s h i m s e l f as p e r s o n a l l y exasperated with "syk bawdry' (1. 186); i n a s i n g l e stanza, Of b r o k k a r i s and syk bawdry quhou s u l d I w r i t e . Of quham the f y l t h s t y n k i s i n Godis neyss? With Venus henwyffis quhat wyss may I f l y t e , That s t r a k i s t h i r wenschis hedis thame t o pi ess? "Douchtir, f o r thy l u f e t h i s man hes gre t dyseyss," Quod the bysmeyr with the s l e k y t speche, "Rew on hym, i t i s meryte hys pane t o meyss". Syk poyd m a k e r e l l i s f o r L u c i f e r byn leche. (IV, P r o l . , 186-93) r h e t o r i c a l questions on a v a r i a t i o n o f the i n e x p r e s s i b i 1 i t y t o p o s , 2 ^ the use o f the f i r s t - p e r s o n pronoun, d i r e c t speech a f f e c t i n g and aping the bawd's manner, and a most s u c c i n c t f i n a l statement a l l work together t o create an e f f e c t o f r a p i d , c o l l o q u i a l speech and produce an impression o f the n a r r a t o r ' s personal i n d i g n a t i o n . 75 The t h i r d t r a i t , the n a r r a t o r ' s range i n the modulations o f h i s speaking v o i c e , i s a l s o present i n Prologues IV and X I , but i s e s p e c i a l l y s t r i k i n g i n Prologue X. A f t e r the sermon on the T r i n i t y , the n a r r a t o r ' s tone o f voi c e changes from a u t h o r i t a t i v e t o submissive as he addresses h i s Maker i n prayer and r e - a f f i r m s h i s obedience t o the F i r s t Commandment rega r d l e s s o f the references t o pagan d e i t i e s i n h i s work. These three short stanzas (11. 146-60), i n t e r p o l a t e d between a b r i e f m e d itation on the Passion and a f i n a l Creed, stand out from t h e i r surroundings by the i n t e n s e l y personal and pleading tone o f the prayer, which i s concerned e x a c t l y w i t h the dilemma which Douglas had t h e o r e t i c a l l y discussed i n Prologue VI. There, the use of pagan myth had been t r e a t e d as an a b s t r a c t , l i t e r a r y concern, and Douglas had defended i t s use i n the course o f h i s c r i t i c i s m o f Caxton i n Prologue I as p e r f e c t l y compatible with the d i d a c t i c purpose o f w r i t i n g : Bot t r a s t i s w e i l l , quha t h a t i l k e saxt buke knew, V i r g i l l t h a r i n ane h i e philosophour hym schew, And vnder the clowdis of dyrk poecy Hyd l y i s t h a r mony notabi11 h i s t o r y — For so the p o e t i s be the c r a f t y curys In s i m i l i t u d e s and v n d i r quent f i g u r i s The s u y t h f a s t materis t o hyde and t o constreyn; A l l i s nocht f a l s , t r a s t e w e i l l , i n cace t h a i feyn. ( I , P r o l . , 191-98) In Prologue X, however, Douglas seems t o fee) compelled not merely t o r e j e c t the charge o f i d o l a t r y but e x p l i c i t l y t o abjure i t . Yet i t i s c l e a r t h a t the a f f i r m a t i o n o f f a i t h i n the C h r i s t i a n God alone i s a l s o made w i t h an eye t o h o s t i l e c r i t i c s , f o r the n a r r a t o r modulates h i s earnest tone o f formal s u p p l i c a t i o n t o end t h i s s e c t i o n on a note o f wry barnyard humour: 76 Is nane bot thou, the Fader of goddis and men, Omnipotent e t e r n a l love I ken; Only t h e , he1 p l y Fader, t h a r i s nane ot h e r : I compt not of t h i r paygane goddis a fudder, Quhais power may nocht help a haltand hen. (X, P r o l . , 156-60) The c o n t r a s t between the impotence of the pagan gods and the omnipotence of the 'he 1 p l y Fader' i s here so absurdly overdrawn t h a t even the most adept f a u l t - f i n d e r s would only heap r i d i c u l e on themselves i f they maintained the charge which Douglas's n a r r a t o r here so a d r o i t l y a v e r t s . A f t e r yet one f u r t h e r modulation i n h i s tone, the n a r r a t o r completes Prologue X i n a personal voice which i s u n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y q u i e t and subdued. 2 4 Having r e - a f f i r m e d h i s f a i t h , the n a r r a t o r i n Prologue XI uses the hero of h i s l i t e r a r y work t o exemplify h i s t h e o l o g i c a l t e a c h i n g , thus r e -a s s e r t i n g the union between the t h e o l o g i c a l and l i t e r a r y concerns of h i s work al r e a d y discussed i n Prologue VI. This done, he transcends t h i s predominantly i n t e l l e c t u a l awareness of the union and harmonizes both the r e l i g i o u s and the a r t i s t i c issues i n the supreme achievement of Prologue X I I , the May Prologue, where the i n t e g r a t i o n o f these twin concerns leads t o t h e i r t r u e u n i f i c a t i o n , not only i n t e l l e c t u a l l y recognized, but i n t i m a t e l y f e l t and known. The ascent t o t h i s h e i g h t , however, has not been easy: i n the process, Douglas has shown h i s n a r r a t o r f i r s t f u l l o f energy, but soon t i r i n g and weary from the sheer enormousness of h i s t a s k . No matter how r e a l i s t i c and how c r e d i b l e the image of the n a r r a t o r worn out by h i s labour may be, i t i s a l s o a standard pose adopted by other w r i t e r s before Douglas; C u r t i u s , i n f a c t , l i s t s the weariness topos as one o f the 77 c l a s s i c a l concluding t o p o i . 2 S Boccaccio had a l r e a d y portrayed h i m s e l f i n t h a t a t t i t u d e i n the proemia t o the Books of h i s De casibus virorum  i 1 l u s t r i u m , and Lydgate reproduces these tableaux o f the weary Boccaccio i n the Prologues t o Books I I I and VIII as well as i n the opening o f Book VII o f h i s Fal1 of P r i n c e s . But Douglas's n a r r a t o r knows how t o overcome h i s f a t i g u e even without a v i s i t from P e t r a r c h . Sometimes, i t i s sheer dogged determination which makes him continue, as a t the end of Prologue VII a f t e r the daunting v i s i o n o f the surrounding f r i g i d bleakness: And, thocht I wery was, me l i s t not t y r e . F u l l l a i t h t o l e i f our wark swa i n the myre. Or ? i t t o s t y n t f o r b i t t e r storm or rane ° ( V I I , P r o l . . 155-57) or a l s o i n Prologue V I I I , a f t e r the "selcouth seg' with h i s long harangue has become t e d i o u s : "I lang t o haue our buke done, I t e l ) the my p a r t . " ( V I I I , P r o l . , 142-43) More o f t e n , however, the n a r r a t o r invokes God or Mary and c a l l s on them f o r h elp, guidance, and s t r e n g t h : God grant me grace hym [ V i r g i l ] dyngly t o ensew! ( I I , P r o l . , 7) And again: From Harpyes f e l l and blynd Cyclopes handis Be my l a i d s t a r , virgyne moder but maik; Thocht storm o f temptatioun my s c h i p o f t schaik, Fra swelth o f S y l l a and dyrk C a r i b d i s bandis, I meyn from h e l l , sa1ue a 1 go not t o wra i k. ( I l l , P r o l . , 41-5) 78 Or even: Hornyt Lady, p a i l C y nthia, not b r y c h t , • • • Thy strange went i s t o w r i t e God grant me s i y c h t , Twiching the t h r y d buke of Eneadon. ( I l l , P r o l . , 1-9) Douglas thus invokes God and Mary where other poets would have c a l l e d on the Muses or a p p r o p r i a t e gods or goddesses, whom Douglas a l s o mentions i n h i s i nvocations but immediately r e j e c t s : Melpomene, on the wald c l e r k i s c a l l F o r t i l l compyle t h i s dedly tragedy Twiching of Troy the subuersioun and f a l l ; Bot sen I f o l l o w the poete p r i n c i p a l I, Quhat ned i s purches f e n ^ e i t termys new? God grant me grace hym dyngly t o ensew! ( I I , P r o l . , Z-7) While other w r i t e r s c a l l on Melpomene t o help them w i t h the 'tragedy' of the f a l l o f Troy, Douglas has no need f o r her; as long as h i s own God w i l l consent t o give Douglas the means, V i r g i l ' s t e x t i t s e l f w i l l g i v e enough guidance. J u s t as the i n v o c a t i o n o f the Muses and other d e i t i e s i s a stock f i g u r e of prologues and other beginnings, so t h e i r r e j e c t i o n had by Douglas's time a l s o a l r e a d y become a conventional device. But Douglas goes one step f u r t h e r and l i n k s t h i s convention w i t h the t r a d i t i o n a l C h r i s t i a n exegesis of V i r g i l , w i t h the r e s u l t t h t he can invoke Mary i n the guise of the S i b y l f o r guidance i n h i s work: To f o l l o w V i r g i l i n t h i s dyrk poyse Convoy me, S i b i l , t h a t I ga nocht wrang. Thow a r t our S i b i l 1, C r y s t i s moder d e i r . (VI, P r o l . , 7-8 & 145) 79 Such c a l l s f o r d i v i n e guidance, however, are f a r less frequent i n the second h a l f o f the s e r i e s o f Prologues, where t h e o l o g i c a l issues predominate over l i t e r a r y ones, and where Douglas e v e n t u a l l y , i n Prologue X I I , harmonizes the two concerns. At the end of Prologue X I I , the May Prologue, the s t r u g g l e i s over and the s u p p l i c a t i o n s are no longer necessary, not simply because the t r a n s l a t i o n o f V i r g i l ' s work i s completed, but because the concerns o f the s e c u l a r poet and of the C h r i s t i a n no longer oppose each other s i n c e the sympathetic r e l a t i o n s h i p between the Act of C r e a t i o n and the c r e a t i o n o f l i t e r a t u r e , between the Creator and the "makar', i s now perceived. In Prologue I, Douglas s t i l l needed t o e x p l a i n the metaphors used t o i n d i c a t e t h i s c o r r e l a t i o n : Thou prynce of poet i s , I the mercy c r y , I meyn thou Kyng of Kyngis, Lord E t e r n , Thou be my muse, my gydar and l a i d s t e r n , On the I c a l l , and Mary Virgyn m y I d— • • * A l b e i t my sang t o thy h i e maieste Accordis nocht, 3it condiscend t o my w r i t e . For the sweit 1iqour o f thy pappis quhite Foster i t t h a t Prynce, t h a t hevynly Orpheus, Grond of a l I gude, our Saluyour Ihesus. ( I , P r o l . , 452-70) By the end of the work, however, these ingeni o u s l y conceived metaphors have moved beyond the l e v e l o f p u r e l y i n t e l l e c t u a l c o g n i t i o n and are, i n s t e a d , f u l l y i n t e r n a l i z e d and known, rat h e r than o n l y thought, by the n a r r a t o r o f Prologue XII so t h a t he j o y f u l l y r e c e i v e s the i n t u i t i v e i n s p i r a t i o n sent f o r t h by the Sun and thus by God, an equation f o r which Douglas has not only l i t e r a r y but a l s o s c r i p t u r a l a u t h o r i t y . 2 7 This equation between the sun and i t s Creator i s then no longer i n need of 80 i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , but i s so thoroughly embedded i n h i s consciousness, indeed i n h i s being, t h a t no r a t i o n a l process needs t o intervene between sensual p e r c e p t i o n and i n s t i n c t i v e r e a l i z a t i o n . On the c o n t r a r y , the d i v i n e i n s p i r a t i o n , f o r which he had pleaded e a r l i e r , now manifests i t s e l f i n l y r i c a l l y sublime poetry; instead o f having t o be l a b o r i o u s l y j u s t i f i e d , l i t e r a r y endeavour i s now a f i t t i n g p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the c e l e b r a t i o n o f op Mass, ° a f t e r the l i t e r a l l y e n l i g h t e n i n g v i s i o n o f the Sun has c l e a r e d away the mists from the May landscape as well as from the n a r r a t o r ' s p e r c e p t i o n and c o g n i t i o n . 81 Notes Eleanor P r e s c o t t Hammond, E n g l i s h Verse between Chaucer and Surrey (Durham, N.C.: Duke Univ. Press, and London: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1927), p.90. 2 "Meantime l e t us pursue the Dryads' woods and v i r g i n g l a d e s — n o easy behest of t h i n e , Maecenas. Apart from thee, my mind essays no l o f t y theme; a r i s e then, break through slow d e l a y s ! " 3 James K i n s l e y argues t h a t the Mora 11 Fabi11i s are l i k e l y t o have been " w r i t t e n t o serve the purposes of some powerful p o l i t i c i a n who had good reason f o r remaining anonymous." "The Mediaeval Makars," i n h i s (ed.) S c o t t i s h Poetry: A C r i t i c a l  Survey (London: C a s s e l l , 1955), p.16. 4 Denton Fox (ed.), The Poems of Robert Henryson (Oxford: Clarendon, 1981), p p . x i i i - x l ? i i . 5 C u r t i u s , p.87. Matthew 5:15 and 25:18: The parables of the l i g h t which must not be hidden under the bushel, and of the t a l e n t which must not be b u r i e d . P r i s c i l l a Bawcutt, "Douglas and Surrey," pp.406-18, shows the range of Douglas's paraphrases and quotations of l i n e s and phrases taken from Chaucer's T r o i l u s and Criseyde, Knight's T a l e , Legend of Good Women, Comp1aint of Mars, House o f Fame, and Par 1iament of Fow1s, but a l s o less frequent a l l u s i o n s t o or reminiscences of the Canterbury Ta1es, e s p e c i a l l y the General Prologue, the Frank1in's Tale and the Squire's Tale. 7 In the preceding paragraph, I am indebted t o Bawcutt, "Gavin Douglas and Chaucer," Review of E n g l i s h S t u d i e s , n.s. 21, (1970), 404-6, 417-18, 421. 8 A.C. Spearmg. Medieval t o Renaissance, p.110. q Spearing, Medieva1 t o Renaissance, p.5. 10 Spearing, Medieva1 t o Renaissance, p.22. 1 1 Boccaccio on Poetry, quoted a f t e r Spearing, Medieval t o Renaissance, p.6. 12 In h i s Pa 1ice o f Honour (11. 895-924), Douglas provides a catalogue of the w r i t e r s and poets whom h i s dreamer sees i n the Court o f the Muses. P r i s c i l l a Bawcutt discusses the extent and depth o f Douglas's reading and e r u d i t i o n i n her a r t i c l e "The " L i b r a r y ' o f Gavin Douglas," i n Bards and M a k a r s — S c o t t i s h Language and L i t e r a t u r e : Medieval and  Renaissance, eds. Adam J . A i t k e n , Matthew P. McDiarmid, and Derick S. Thomson (Glasgow: Univ. of Glasgow Press, 1977), pp.107-26. E.M.W. T i l l yard. The E n g l i s h Epic and i t s Background (London: Chatto and Windus, 82 1954), p.344, comments on "the remarkably high l e v e l o f [Douglas's] s c h o l a r s h i p . " 1 3 N i t e c k i , " M o r t a l i t y and Poetry," pp.82-5. 14 V e i t c h , The F e e l i n g f o r Nature, v o l . I, pp.270-75; M.M. Gray (ed.), S c o t t i s h Poetry from Barbour t o James VI (London: Dent, 1935), p. x i i i - x i v ; W i t t i g , The S c o t t i s h T r a d i t i o n , p.85. 15 James K i n s l e y (ed.), The Poems of Wi11 jam Dunbar (Oxford: Clarendon, 1979), p.283. 16 17 18 The Poems of Wi11iam Dunbar, ed. James K i n s l e y , pp.76-95. Bawcutt, Gavin Douglas, p.2. For b i o g r a p h i c a l information on Douglas, see Bawcutt, Gavin  Douglas, pp.1-22. 19 "And now my work i s done, which n e i t h e r the wrath o f Jove, nor f i r e , nor sword, nor the gnawing t o o t h o f time s h a l l ever be ab l e t o undo. When i t w i l l , l e t t h a t day come which has no power save over t h i s mortal frame, and end the span o f my u n c e r t a i n years. S t i l l i n my b e t t e r part I s h a l l be borne immortal f a r beyond the l o f t y s t a r s and I s h a l l have an undying name. Wherever Rome's power extends over the conquered world, I s h a l l have mention on men's l i p s , and, i f the prophecies o f bards have any t r u t h , through a l l the ages s h a l l I l i v e i n fame." Ovid: Metamorphoses, ed. & t r a n s . Frank Justus M i l l e r , The Loeb C l a s s i c a l L i b r a r y (London: Heinemann, 1968). 20 Rosemary Woolf observes t h a t l i k e w i s e Dunbar's r e l i g i o u s poems are those i n which Dunbar's i n d i v i d u a l voice i s l e a s t n o t i c e a b l e ; The Eng1ish  R e l i g i o u s L y r i c i n the Midd1e Ages (Oxford: Clarendon, 1968), p.5. 21 Bawcutt hears "a p o s s i b l e echo o f the phrasing o f Chaucer's Boece i n XI P r o l . 145-7;" "Gavin Douglas and Chaucer," p.403. 22 Kinneavy, "An A n a l y t i c a l Approach," pp.138-39. 23 According t o C u r t i u s , the i n e x p r e s s i b i 1 i t y topos d e r i v e s from panegyric o r a t o r y , i n which "the o r a t o r " f i n d s no words' which can f i t l y p r a i s e the person c e l e b r a t e d " (European L i t e r a t u r e , p.159). Douglas here turns the topos i n t o a r h e t o r i c a l question i n v i t u p e r a t i o n o f the " i n d e s c r i b a b l e " immorality o f panders. 24 Joan Hughes and W.S. Ramson, Poetry o f the Stewart Court (Canberra: A u s t r a l i a n National Univ. Press, 1982), pp.49-51, a l s o hear a number of very d i s t i n c t speaking voices i n Prologue X, namely, one "of reasoning" (11.1-85), one "of general t h a n k s g i v i n g " (11.86-140), and one "of personal s u p p l i c a t i o n . " 25 C u r t i u s , p.90. 83 Spearing, Medieva1 t o Renaissance. pp.23-5, p o i n t s out t h a t Chaucer's i n v o c a t i o n o f the Muses i n the proem t o Book II o f h i s House o f  Fame i s the f i r s t use of t h i s device w i t h i n E n g l i s h poetry. 27 Langland r e f e r s t o C h r i s t dying on the Cross as "be l o r d o f l y f & of l i ^ t e " . P i e r s Plowman, B- t e x t , X V I I I , 59. Psalm 84:11: "For the LORD God i s a sun and a s h i e l d . . ."; Rev. 1:16: "and h i s [the Son of man's] countenance was as the sun shine t h i n h i s s t r e n g t h . " 28 When Douglas w r i t e s t h a t i t i s "or tyme o f mess' ( X I I , P r o l . , 304), he seems t o be p l a y i n g on the two meanings "a meal" and "Mass." 84 Chapter I I I — The T r a n s l a t i o n In the course o f the t h i r t e e n Prologues t o h i s Eneados, Douglas s p e c i f i e s very p r e c i s e l y what he regards as the task o f the t r a n s l a t o r . He r e j e c t s the medieval view of the t r a n s l a t o r as one who c u l l s n a r r a t i v e m a t e r i a l s from other w r i t e r s ' works i n order t o r e t e l l them i n h i s own manner, and instead emphasizes the t r a n s l a t o r ' s o b l i g a t i o n t o t r e a t the t e x t with the s t r i c t e s t f i d e l i t y . While v i v i d n e s s and o r i g i n a l i t y are s t i l l important t o Douglas, h i s understanding of t h e i r proper a p p l i c a t i o n i s new: i t i s not the task o f the t r a n s l a t o r t o produce an o r i g i n a l rendering o f well-known m a t e r i a l s and t o reshape them i n such a way t h a t the product becomes d i s t i n c t l y h i s own, but t o be o r i g i n a l i n the use and even i n the c r e a t i o n of resources which w i l l enable him t o reproduce the t e x t as f a i t h f u l l y and as a c c u r a t e l y as i s p o s s i b l e i n another language, r e c a p t u r i n g the "freshness' o f the o r i g i n a l f o r a new audience with a d i f f e r e n t l i n g u i s t i c and c u l t u r a l background. The t r a n s l a t o r ' s c l a i m t o fame thus does not r e s t on the extent t o which he has created h i s own v e r s i o n o f the s t o r y m a t e r i a l , but on the degree t o which he has r e -created the o r i g i n a l author's t e x t i n a l l i t s aspects, from i s o l a t e d s t y l i s t i c e f f e c t s t o the philosophy and the o v e r a l l design u n d e r l y i n g the e n t i r e work. In proposing a theory o f t r a n s l a t i o n based on the p o s t u l a t e o f accuracy and f i d e l i t y , Douglas separates him s e l f from Chaucer and other medieval adapters, and adopts the humanist view of genuine t r a n s l a t i o n w i t h i t s s t r e s s on the i n t e g r i t y and i n v i o l a b i l i t y o f the t e x t . This kind o f t r a n s l a t i o n , as Douglas implies i n h i s c r i t i c i s m o f Caxton i n Prologue I, ought not only t o be accurate i n s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s , but must a l s o f a i t h f u l l y reproduce the propor t i o n s o f the work. The 85 t r a n s l a t o r i s not a t l i b e r t y t o abbreviate or even omit some pa r t s while expanding others depending on h i s own i n t e r e s t , but must r e t a i n the design governing the sequence and proporti o n s o f the i n d i v i d u a l p a r t s i n the o r i g i n a l . While Douglas censures Caxton on the grounds o f having d i s t o r t e d the scheme and balance o f the Aeneid, he might have brought the same charge a g a i n s t Chaucer, who had reworked the Aeneid m a t e r i a l t w i c e , i n the House o f Fame and in the Legend of Good Women, both times emphasizing V i r g i l ' s Book IV while condensing the r e s t t o the bare minimum of the p l o t l i n e . In the Legend o f Good Women Chaucer i s , i n accordance with A l c e s t e ' s command t o w r i t e 'a gloryous legende / Of goode women, maydenes and wyves' (LGW, P r o l . G 473-74), i n t e r e s t e d i n the Aeneid only i n s o f a r as i t concerns Dido and thus r e t e l l s o n l y Books I t o IV, devoting almost h a l f the t o t a l number of l i n e s of the "Legend of Dido" t o the adaptation of Book IV i t s e l f . In the d e s c r i p t i o n of Venus' temple i n the House o f Fame, Chaucer paraphrases the complete Aeneid, i n c l u d i n g Ovid's reference t o Aeneas' wedding and h i s account o f Aeneas' apotheosis, i n 325 l i n e s (HF, 143-467), out of which t o t a l he takes 126 l i n e s t o render V i r g i l ' s Book IV alone while he compresses the contents o f the succeeding Books and of Ovid's c o n t i n u a t i o n i n t o t h i r t y - f i v e l i n e s (HF, 433-67). While Chaucer reproduces V i r g i l ' s opening l i n e s verbatim, he does not pretend, as Douglas c l a i m s , t o be a c t u a l l y t r a n s l a t i n g ; indeed, he even i n s e r t s an e x p l i c i t d i s c l a i m e r i n t o the i n s c r i p t i o n which the dreamer-n a r r a t o r f i n d s i n Venus' temple: 86 "I wol now singen, y i f J_ kan, The armes, and a l s o the man That f i r s t cam, thurgh h i s d e s t i n e e , F u g i t y f o f Troy contree, In I t a y l e , w i t h f u l moche pyne Unto the strondes of Lavyne." (HF, 142-48; i t a l i c s mine) Although Chaucer changes the proportions o f the Aeneid—he w i l l not t r a n s l a t e "word f o r word V i r g i l e ' because t h a t "wolde l a s t e n a l t o longe w h i l e ' (LGW, 1002-3)—he i s at l e a s t not g u i l t y of Caxton's other offence of having t r a n s l a t e d a t second hand r a t h e r than having gone ad fontem, as Douglas i n the s p i r i t o f humanism demands a t r a n s l a t o r must do. However, Douglas f i n d s Chaucer g u i l t y o f a d i f f e r e n t t r a n s g r e s s i o n . In d e p i c t i n g Aeneas as f a l s e t o Dido and as having broken h i s oath t o her, Chaucer has, as Douglas says, " g r e t l y V i r g i 1 1 o f f e n d i t ' ( I , P r o l . , 410). V i r g i l p o r t r a y s Aeneas as a man who, being reminded by Mercury o f h i s mission t o found Rome, places h i s d i v i n e l y ordained task above h i s own or any other person's wishes and who t r i e s t o depart s e c r e t l y so as not t o endanger the success of h i s mi s s i o n ; but while r e t a i n i n g the i n d i v i d u a l n a r r a t i v e elements, Chaucer a l t o g e t h e r changes Aeneas' character i n l e t t i n g him use Mercury's v i s i t as a mere p r e t e x t f o r a departure which has less honourable causes. In Chaucer's p o r t r a y a l Aeneas i s thus not motivated by pi etas but by s e l f - i n t e r e s t . In a d d i t i o n , Chaucer's Aeneas swears an u n - V i r g i l i a n oath o f e t e r n a l f a i t h f u l n e s s t o Dido (LGW, 1234), and leaves Carthage even though Dido i s with c h i l d (LGW, 1323) and even though he has caused her t o be i n danger of imminent a t t a c k by the neighbouring l o r d s . In Chaucer's adaptation Aeneas has thus become a most c a l l o u s p e r j u r e r who i s ready t o s a c r i f i c e Dido f o r the momentary s a t i s f a c t i o n o f h i s own pleasure. V i r g i l , i n c o n t r a s t , i s concerned t o 87 p o r t r a y Aeneas as s a c r i f i c i n g a l l human d e s i r e s , i n c l u d i n g h i s own, i n f o l l o w i n g the e t h i c a l l y highest o f motivations i n order t o obey the commands of f a t e , thus becoming the innocent cause of Dido's death as the gods use him as t h e i r t o o l . What Douglas c r i t i c i z e s i n Chaucer's r e t e l l i n g i s t h a t i n i s o l a t i n g the Dido and Aeneas s t o r y and seeing i t from Dido's p o i n t o f view Chaucer may have given i t more s p i c e , but has a l t e r e d the character o f "pius' Aeneas so much t h a t Aeneas can no longer emerge as the model man and model p r i n c e whom the Renaissance came t o see in V i r g i l ' s hero as he i s g r a d u a l l y f u r t h e r and f u r t h e r r e f i n e d by the t r i a l s which h i s d e s t i n y has i n s t o r e f o r him; i n Chaucer's adaptation Aeneas loses h i s l a r g e r - t h a n - l i f e s t a t u r e as a hero and becomes a l l too human. Seen from the p e r s p e c t i v e o f the Aeneid as a whole, Chaucer's changes i n Aeneas' behaviour and m o t i v a t i o n amount t o a d i s t o r t i o n o f Aeneas' character and, i n consequence, t o a subversion o f V i r g i l ' s design f o r Aeneas' development and growth as a hero and as the pr o g e n i t o r o f the Roman imperial 1ine. Douglas's own p r a c t i c e concerning f a i t h f u l n e s s t o V i r g i l i n terms of character p o r t r a y a l g e n e r a l l y matches h i s t h e o r e t i c a l precepts, but while accusing others o f having d i s t o r t e d the proportions o f the o r i g i n a l work, Douglas him s e l f i s not e n t i r e l y innocent i n t h i s r e s p e c t , e i t h e r . In t r a n s l a t i n g V i r g i l ' s hexameter l i n e s i n t o d e c a s y l l a b i c couplets he g r e a t l y increases the t o t a l number of l i n e s ; on the average the r a t i o i s approximately one L a t i n l i n e t o j u s t over one ' S c o t t i s ' c o u p l e t , but the r a t i o i n the i n d i v i d u a l Books v a r i e s : i n Book I Douglas renders V i r g i l ' s 756 l i n e s i n only 661 c o u p l e t s , but i n Book X, f o r instance, he expands the o r i g i n a l 908 l i n e s t o 1108 c o u p l e t s ; Book X i s thus p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y 88 more than o n e - t h i r d longer than Book I. Many of Douglas's expansions and a d d i t i o n s are caused by the demands of h i s d i f f e r e n t m e t r e 1 — a s he charmingly admits, he o c c a s i o n a l l y needs some padding "to l y k l y my ryme' ( I , P r o l . , 124). Often, these small a d d i t i o n s simply c o n s i s t of l i n e -f i l l i n g tags such as "I gess', "but dowt', "but d r e i d ' , "but l e s s ' , "I wis s ' , ' a l and sum', "sans f a i l l ' , and ' s c h o r t l i e t o conclude'. At other times, Douglas completes l i n e s by using doublets, f o r instance, 'to f i e and t o depart', 'fame and gude renown', "trewth and v e r i t e ' , 'eneuch and s u f f i c i e n t ' , and ' h a b i t a t i o u n and r e s i d e n s ' , whose c h i e f l y m e t r i c a l f u n c t i o n becomes a l l too obvious when they are l i n k e d w i t h 'or' instead o f 'and', as i n 'depart or ga / F u r t h ' , "grund or e r t h ' , 'helmstok or gubernakil of t r e ' , and 'bowel l i s or e n t r a l i s ' . 2 In a d d i t i o n t o being usef u l f o r m e t r i c a l purposes, such p a i r s o f synonyms seem t o accommodate Douglas's d e s i r e f o r "the fowth of langage' ( I , P r o l . , 120), although they a l s o tend t o sound somewhat pedantic and schoolmasterly; i n t h i s respect Douglas seems at times more dedicated t o s a t i s f y i n g the needs of the "masteris of grammar s c u l y s ' who "wald V i r g i l l t o c h i l d r y n expone' ( D i r e c t i o n , 47 & 43) than t o approximating V i r g i l ' s densely packed s t y l e as c l o s e l y as p o s s i b l e . Other a d d i t i o n s , t o o , seem t o have been made f o r the b e n e f i t o f an unlearned audience unacquainted with the world of Augustan Rome. As Douglas says, "Sum tyme the t e x t mon haue ane e x p o s i t i o u n ' ( I , P r o l . , 347), and thus he r e g u l a r l y e x p l a i n s r eferences, terms and names with which he could assume h i s audience t o be u n f a m i l i a r . Such expansions may take up 1 ess than a l i n e , as i n 89 myrthus, the t r e f u n e r a l e ( I I I . i , 47) the loch Cameryna, ( I I I , x, 89) but at other times, such explanatory a d d i t i o n s may occupy an e n t i r e l i n e or more: Avernus the wel1, Quhi1k lowch i s s i t u a t e a t the mouth of h e l 1 . (IV, i x , 81-2) Syryvs, the frawart s t a r , Quhi1k c l e p i t i s the syng c a n i c u l a r , ( I I I , i i , 149-50) This p r a c t i c e becomes i n t r u s i v e when, f o r example, the ghost of Hector i n the midst of h i s i n s t r u c t i o n s t o Aeneas, while Troy i s burning, takes the time t o e x p l a i n t o him what the Penates a r e : In t h i keping committis Troy but l e s s H i r kynd1y goddis c 1 e p i t Penates. ( I I , v, 83-4) However, as P r i s c i l l a Bawcutt shows, the d e s i r e t o help the reader i s not the only cause f o r such i n t e r p o l a t i o n s . Both explanations and doublets are o f t e n suggested by the L a t i n glosses which by the e a r l y s i x t e e n t h century u s u a l l y accompanied V i r g i l ' s t e x t — a n d Douglas seems t o have been unable t o r e s i s t the temptation t o d i s p l a y h i s s c h o l a r s h i p . ^ In the notes t o Book I Douglas f r e q u e n t l y c i t e s C r i s t o f o r o Landino and e x p l i c i t l y quotes S e r v i u s , f o r example i n e x p l a i n i n g the etymology o f the verb "oppetere' as "with mowth t o s e i k or byte the erd' (note t o I, P r o l . , 350), which he subsequently a l s o uses i n h i s t r a n s l a t i o n ( I , i i i , 6; Aeneid, I, 96). Here as i n many other cases, Douglas s i l e n t l y 90 incorporates the commentators' glosses i n t o the t e x t . When he, f o r instance, w r i t e s By mu11 i tude and nowmyr apon wss set Al1 t e i d t o wraik ( I I , v i i , 109-10) he i s t r a n s l a t i n g not only V i r g i l but a l s o Ascensius, who glosses "numero: i d e s t m u l t i t u d i n e ingruentium." 4 Douglas does, however, not depend on V i r g i l i a n commentators alone i n order t o f i n d the r i g h t word or phrase; on the co n t r a r y , he a l s o seems t o c o i n e n t i r e l y new words and t o make c o l l o q u i a l expressions l i t e r a r y . Some of the onomatopoeic words, such as verbs mimicking b i r d c a l l s or nouns i m i t a t i n g the sound of water or the noise o f c l a s h i n g weapons, are l i k e l y t o have al r e a d y e x i s t e d i n c o l l o q u i a l usage and t o have now f o r the f i r s t time been used i n l i t e r a t u r e . 5 But the same i s le s s probable f o r Douglas's aureate terms; words such as "conjugal 1', "contegwyte', "deambulatour', " e t h e r y a l l ' , " f r e n e t t i c a l ' , "malivolous', "producear', and "redymyte' seem r a t h e r t o be Douglas's own c r e a t i o n s . According t o the evidence provided by O.E.D. and P.O.S.T., none o f these terms are recorded p r i o r t o t h e i r usage by Pouglas. In c r e a t i n g such neologisms Pouglas shows hims e l f e n t i r e l y attuned t o the "idea o f the poet as the r e f i n e r and en r i c h e r o f h i s n a t i v e and n a t i o n a l language [, which] i s c e n t r a l t o Renaissance thought about p o e t r y . " 6 Having p r a i s e d V i r g i l ' s " f l u d e o f eloquens' and Chaucer's "MyIky fontane' ( I , P r o l . , 4 & 342), Douglas t r i e s t o emulate both h i s models so t h a t the perceived poverty o f the " S c o t t i s ' language might be turned i n t o "fowth', not only through an increased copiousness o f vocabulary, f o r which he a l s o draws on French, L a t i n and 91 Greek as well as Norse, Dutch and F l e m i s h , 7 but a l s o by means of added v a r i e t y i n the r e g i s t e r s o f d i c t i o n , which range from the extremely c o l l o q u i a l t o the most aureate. The use of the c o l l o q u i a l element becomes p a r t i c u l a r l y pronounced i n the short u n - V i r g i l i a n utterances which Douglas f r e q u e n t l y puts i n t o the mouths of h i s c h a r a c t e r s . In the t r a n s l a t i o n o f Book V, f o r example, Douglas increases the excitement o f the various races o f the fun e r a l games by making the sp e c t a t o r s and the p a r t i c i p a n t s c a l l t o one another where V i r g i l o n l y i n d i c a t e s t h a t there i s much shouting. V i r g i l ' s general expressions turn plausu fremituque virum s t u d i i s q u e faventum consonat omne nemus, . . . (V, 148-49) consurgunt nautae et magno clamore morantur (V, 207) Sergestum brevibusque vadis f r u s t r a q u e vocantem a u x i l i a . . . (V, 221-22) turn vero ingeminat clamor, cunctique sequentem i n s t i g a n t s t u d i i s , resonatque f r a g o r i b u s aether. (V, 227-28) signum clamore p a r a t i s Epytides longe d e d i t insonuitque f l a g e l l o . (V, 578-79) become f a r more s p e c i f i c i n Douglas's t r a n s l a t i o n and a d d i t i o n : The egyrness o f th a r f r e n d i s thame beheld, Schowtand "Row f a s t " , a l l the woddis resoundis. (V, i i i , 86-7) 92 The maryneris s t a r t on f u t w i t h a schout, Cryand, "Byde, how", . . . (V, i v , 92-3) And f y r s t Sergest behynd sone l e f t hess he, * » • And cryand, "Help!" bot t h a t was a l invane. (V, i v , 113-16) The noyss and brute tho dowblys lowd on hycht, For, on the cost i s syde, f a s t euery wight Spurn's the persewaris t o r o l l b i s s e l y : "Set on hym now! Haue a t hym t h a r , " t h a i c r y . That huge clamour fordynnyt a l the ayr. (V, i v , 123-27) Epytides on f a r a syng gan mak, Smait with a c l a p , and c r y i s , "Go t o g i d d e r ! " (V, x, 60-1) In each case Douglas p a r t i c u l a r i z e s the ch a r a c t e r ' s utterance and thereby reduces the d i s t a n c e between characters and readers by g i v i n g the audience the a c t i o n as i f i t were u n f i l t e r e d by the n a r r a t o r ' s c o nsciousness. 8 By supplying the words of the shout i n d i r e c t speech, Douglas increases the n a r r a t i v e ' s immediacy and vigour and " a c t u a l i z e s " the happenings. 9 The r e s u l t i s o f t e n a change i n tone and mood, i n t e n s i f y i n g the noise and b u s t l e i n the scene reported. Douglas a l s o tends towards a s i m i l a r c o n c r e t i z a t i o n regarding the c h a r a c t e r s ' emotions. Where V i r g i l has a character s i g h , Douglas not only r e p o r t s the s i g h i t s e l f but a l s o s p e c i f i e s i t s k i n d and cause; where V i r g i l leaves i t t o the reader t o imagine the p r e c i s e mixture of emotions expressed by the c h a r a c t e r , Douglas o f t e n removes any vagueness or ambiguity, thus f o r c i n g h i s own i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and h i s own emotional 93 response on h i s audience and preventing h i s readers from e f f e c t i n g t h e i r independent imaginative apprehension of the character's s t a t e o f mind. When Dido a t the beginning of Book IV l e t s Anna see her s t a t e o f mind regarding Aeneas and reproaches h e r s e l f f o r b e t r a y i n g the memory of her f i r s t husband, V i r g i l ' s Dido a l l u d e s most d e l i c a t e l y t o the p o s s i b i l i t y o f an a l l i a n c e w i t h Aeneas: s i non pertaesum thaiami taedaeque f u i s s e t , huic uni forsan potui succumbere culpae. (IV, 18-9) Using the r e l a t i v e l y broad term 'culpa,' whose meaning i n c l a s s i c a l L a t i n can be as weak as ' e r r o r ' or "weakness,' Dido v a i n l y t r i e s t o gl o s s over the perceived impropriety o f her f e e l i n g s . Douglas's Dido, i n c o n t r a s t , i s f a r less tender i n her word choice and s p e l l s out p r e c i s e l y what i s on her mind: War not a l s s o t o me i s d i s p l e s a n t Genyvs chalmyr or matrymone t o hant; Perchans I mycht be venquist i n t h i s rage, Throu t h i s a cryme o f secund mariage. (IV, i , 37-40) In her l a t e r denunciation o f Aeneas a f t e r she has heard t h a t he i s preparing f o r h i s departure. Dido does not j u s t ask, "num lumina f l e x i t ? " (IV, 369), but f i n d s a cause, too: Quhiddir g i f he s t e r y t h i s eyn, as ocht hym a l y t ? (IV, v i i , 16) Afterwards Aeneas i s d e p i c t e d not o n l y "multa gemens" (IV, 395), but "Bewalyng m e k i l l hyr sorow and d i s t r e s s " (IV, v i i , 67). When Aeneas meets Dido again i n the underworld, he swears by the s t a r s , by those above and 94 by " s i qua f i d e s t e i l u r e sub ima e s t " (VI, 459), but Douglas l e t s Aeneas swear more s p e c i f i c a l l y By a l the starnys schynys abone our hed, And be the goddis abone, t o the I swer, And be the f a i t h and lawte, g i f ony h e i r Trewth may be fund de i p v n d i r erd . . . (VI, v i i , 70-3) In t h i s l a s t case Douglas's p a r t i c u l a r i z a t i o n helps t o b r i n g about a s l i g h t change i n the scene, e s p e c i a l l y as regards the p o r t r a y a l o f Aeneas. Whereas V i r g i l appears t o have equal sympathy f o r Dido and Aeneas, Douglas, while being more sympathetic towards both, seems t o have s p e c i a l compassion f o r Aeneas, who i n consequence appears warmer and more tender than he does i n the Aeneid. The i n d i v i d u a l changes are s l i g h t , but t h e i r cumulative e f f e c t i s c o n s i d e r a b l e . Near the beginning o f h i s speech Aeneas asks, " f u n e r i s heu! t i b i causa f u i ? " (VI, 458), but Douglas, as he o f t e n does elsewhere t o o , 1 0 t r e a t s the questions as a statement—"A1 l a c e , I was the causar o f thy ded!" (VI, v i i , 6 9 )— a n d thus as a remorseful s e l f - a c c u s a t i o n . In Aeneas' appeal t o Dido not t o t u r n away, Douglas i n s e r t s "so sone' and changes the possessive pronoun from p l u r a l t o s i ngu1ar, . . . teque aspectu ne subtrahe nostro. (VI, 465) Withdraw the not sa sone f u r t h of my s i g h t ! (VI, v i i , 86) thus making the scene much more i n t i m a t e l y personal and l e t t i n g Aeneas ask f o r a much smaller favour: he knows t h a t Dido wi11 leave, and he o n l y asks her not t o leave j u s t y e t . An i n s e r t i o n i n the preceding l i n e a l s o serves t o increase the impression o f Aeneas' tenderness and compassion towards 95 Dido: Douglas changes the n e u t r a l imperative " s i s t e gradum" (VI, 465) i n t o a l o v i n g p l e a , "Abide, thou genti1 wight" (VI, v i i , 85). And f i n a l l y , i n the l a s t 1ine of Aeneas' speech, Douglas t r a n s l a t e s "quod t e adloquor" (VI, 466) as "that w i t h the speke I may' (VI, v i i , 88); although the s u b s t i t u t i o n o f 'with' f o r 'ad-' i s i n i t s e l f o n l y a minute change, the e f f e c t i s no longer t h a t of a one-sided address t o which Dido i s expected on 1y t o 1i s t e n , but t h a t of a des i re f o r mutua1 commun i cat i on, so t h a t Aeneas' request i s no longer a demand th a t he be heard, but a p l e a t h a t both he and Dido be on speaking terms once more. Even when she turns away—not " i n i m i c a " (VI, 472), but ' a g g r e v i t ' (VI, v i i , 100)—Aeneas i s not "casu concussus i n i q u o " (VI, 475), but -'perplexit of h i r sory cace' (VI, v i i , 105). By i n s e r t i n g the pronoun Douglas has again removed V i r g i l ' s amb i gu i t y , mak i ng Aeneas fee1 on1y compass i on f o r D i do and her p a i n , and e x c l u d i n g the p o s s i b i l i t y o f Aeneas' f e e l i n g hurt h i m s e l f by the apparent haughtiness with which Dido t r i e s t o p r o t e c t her deeply i n j u r e d f e e l i n g s . No matter whether one agrees with John S p e i r s ' s judgement t h a t "Douglas' rendering [of t h i s meeting] d i s a p p o i n t s , " 1 1 i t i s c e r t a i n t h a t Douglas's v e r s i o n i s s u f f i c i e n t l y d i f f e r e n t from V i r g i l ' s t o create a changed image of the two c h a r a c t e r s . Such extreme instances of tendentious t r a n s l a t i o n , however, are r a r e in the Eneados. Douglas i s u s u a l l y much more f a i t h f u l t o V i r g i l , not only in h i s word choice and phrasing, but a l s o i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f h i s sympathies. Two f a c t o r s may have in f l u e n c e d the t r a n s l a t i o n of the above passage i n Aeneas' favour. F i r s t , throughout the Eneados, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n Prologues I and IV, Douglas has been at pains t o exonerate Aeneas from the standard medieval charge of having been a t r a i t o r t o Dido by breaking an 96 oath which V i r g i l , however, never makes him g i v e . 1 ^ The p o r t r a y a l o f Aeneas as "maynsworn fowl e l y ' ( I , P r o l . , 422) i s p r e c i s e l y the p o i n t on which Douglas c r i t i c i z e s Chaucer as having " g r e t l y V i r g i l l o f f e n d i t ' ( I , P r o l . , 410); i n h i s advocacy of Aeneas Douglas here tends towards the opposite pole. A second i n f l u e n c e seems t o stem from the l a r g e r c u l t u r a l environment, e s p e c i a l l y the C h r i s t i a n duty t o f o r g i v e those who ask fo r g i v e n e s s w i t h a c o n t r i t e heart. Such C h r i s t i a n overtones are o c c a s i o n a l l y present elsewhere i n the t r a n s l a t i o n too, although Douglas appears c o n s c i o u s l y t o a v o i d a C h r i s t i a n i z a t i o n o f the t r a n s l a t i o n i t s e l f and t o confine the expression of C h r i s t i a n views t o the Prologues. Nonetheless, when Aeneas e x p l a i n s t o Dido i n Book IV t h a t he leaves not o f h i s own choice but a t the command of the gods, Douglas t w i c e t r a n s l a t e s "sponte' as " f r e w i l l ' (IV, v i , 121 & 160). Dido here appears perhaps a l i t t l e l e s s r e s t r a i n e d l y d i g n i f i e d and a l i t t l e more emotional than i n V i r g i l , mainly because o f frequent i n t e r p o l a t i o n s o f the l i n e - f i l l i n g "a1 l a c e ! ' i n t o her speeches; she a l s o seems a l i t t l e more b i t t e r , f o r a f t e r Dido has addressed Aeneas as her " g e s f , no longer her "spowss', Douglas gives her the u n - V i r g i l i a n l i n e My gest, ha God! quhou a l thyng now invane i s , (IV, v i , 85) making her echo the sentiment of the v a n i t y o f the world f a m i l i a r from medieval r e l i g i o u s l y r i c s . Otherwise, however, the t r a n s l a t i o n o f Book IV i s extremely c l o s e t o the o r i g i n a l . 1 3 Having based h i s censure of Chaucer and Caxton c h i e f l y on t h e i r handling of t h i s Book, Douglas i s l i k e l y t o have taken p a r t i c u l a r care t o ensure t h a t h i s own t r a n s l a t i o n o f the same 97 passage would be above c r i t i c i s m . Book IV, however, a l s o provides t y p i c a l examples o f the c u l t u r a l t r a n s f e r e n c e which Douglas according t o h i s pronouncements i n Prologue I considers p a r t of the t r a n s l a t o r ' s t a s k . Given t h a t Douglas's primary audience c o n s i s t e d of c o u r t l y readers, who could not be assumed t o be acquainted w i t h the customs and the geography and mythology o f the a n c i e n t world beyond what i s r e g u l a r l y mentioned i n E n g l i s h , S c o t t i s h and French vernacular l i t e r a t u r e , Douglas incorporates explanatory notes i n t o the t e x t of the t r a n s l a t i o n , i d e n t i f y i n g , f o r example, the geographical or topographical f e a t u r e s mentioned by V i r g i l : t h a t h o r r i b i l l mont, Cawcasus ha i t (IV, v i i , 9) i n the wod Hyrcany. (IV, v i i , 12) I f V i r g i l uses a kenning or other p e r i p h r a s t i c expression f o r a god or person, Douglas a l s o provides the proper name: Saturnys son, h i e I u p i t e r (IV, v i i , 21) t o An, h i r d e i r s y s t i r , (IV, v i i i , 102) and he replaces the less standard names o f gods, peoples, and places w i t h t h e i r more usual ones: p a t r i q u e Lyaeo (IV, 58) : and t o Bachus pa r t a l s o (IV, i i , 13) Lenaeum l i b a t honorem (IV, 207) : Offeryng . . . the honour of Bachus (IV, v, 64) Libycae gentes (IV, 320) : the pepi11 of A f f r i k (IV, v i , 77) 98 nec . . . p i g e b i t E l i s s a e (IV, 335} : Dido t o hald i n . . . memory (IV, v i , 109) Pergama (IV, 344) : Priamus palyce (IV, v i , 126) Ausonia (IV, 349) : I t a l e (IV, v i , 138) S i m i l a r l y , throughout the Eneados, Douglas almost i n v a r i a b l y avoids the various names, such as A c h i v i , A r g i v i , A r g o l i c i , Danai and P e l a s g i , and Dardanides, Phryges and T e u c r i , which V i r g i l uses f o r the Greeks and the Trojans r e s p e c t i v e l y . But Douglas i s a l s o not above adding an u n c a l l e d -f o r p iece o f h i s own l e a r n i n g i f the occasion a r i s e s and prosody a l l o w s , so t h a t . . summoque u l u l a r u n t v e r t i c e Nymphae (IV, 168) becomes And on the h i l l y s h i e t o p p i s , but l e s s , Sat murnand nymphis, ha i t Oreades. (IV, i v , 81-2) When Douglas uses phrases such as "quhik ha i t . . . " o r " q u h i l k clepyng we . . .", he defeats h i s own purpose. I n t e r p o l a t e d explanations l i k e the f o l l o w i n g do not produce the greater immediacy which he elsewhere achieves, but only d i s t a n c e the Aeneid f u r t h e r from h i s audience; having summarized the metamorphosis of k i n g Picus i n t o a woodpecker, the n a r r a t o r adds. c l e p i t a Speicht with ws, Quhilk i n Latyn h a i t Pycus Marcyus, ( V I I , i i i , 91-2) 99 and speaking of the 'gamrnys Ci r c e n s e s ' , he e x p l a i n s , Quhilk iustyng or than turnament c l e i p we. ( V I I I , x, 96) Such explanations p a r t i c u l a r l y draw a t t e n t i o n t o themselves when they occur i n the speeches of V i r g i l i a n c h a r a c t e r s ; then, the absurd s i t u a t i o n a r i s e s i n which pre-Roman characters e x p l a i n t o each other what c e r t a i n t h i n g s are c a l l e d i n Middle Scots. Anchises, addressing Aeneas, hopes t h a t J u p i t e r with h i s f y r y l e v i n me omberauch, That we i n t i l l our langage clepe f y r e f l a u c h , ( I I , x, 155-56) and Evander t e l l s Aeneas about the 'nymphis and fawnys' i n the surrounding woods, Quhilk f a i r f o l k i s , or than e l v y s , clepyng we. ( V I I I , v i , 7) Although the purpose of such explanatory i n t e r p o l a t i o n s i s t o help non-expert readers bridge the gap between V i r g i l ' s and t h e i r own c u l t u r a l environment and experience, these explanations o f t e n have e x a c t l y the opposite e f f e c t . Even i f i t could be assumed t h a t the reader was expected t o p l a c e unseen "square brackets" around such passages and regard them as a u t h o r i a l glosses t o be read i n a d i f f e r e n t tone of v o i c e , the running commentary only emphasizes the presence of these c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s , f o r the t r a n s l a t o r ' s i n t r u s i o n b r ings the f l o w of the speech or o f the n a r r a t i v e t o an abrupt h a l t , and i t only resumes a f t e r the s c h o l a r l y t r a n s l a t o r has, f i r s t , pointed out the e x i s t e n c e of a p o s s i b l e o b s t a c l e i n 100 the reader's progress and, second, p e d a n t i c a l l y and o s t e n t a t i o u s l y explained i t away instead of r e l y i n g on the reader t o form some image of h i s own, however incomplete i t may be. Too much a t t e n t i o n t o d e t a i l s i n such cases s p o i l s the p o s s i b l y l e s s accurate, but c e r t a i n l y more u n i f i e d and more spontaneously conceived impression i n the reader's mind. While such explanatory notes are woven i n t o the t e x t c h i e f l y i n order t o a s s i s t the no n - s c h o l a r l y reader, the t r a n s l a t o r ' s remarks on Trojan, Carthaginian and Ausonian r i t e s appear t o serve a d i f f e r e n t purpose. Here the t r a n s l a t o r seems t o be a t l e a s t as much the t h e o l o g i a n , who i s anxious t o preserve h i s congregation of readers from h e r e t i c a l usages, as he i s the humanist, whose main o b j e c t i v e i s t o render an accurate t r a n s l a t i o n o f a work from c l a s s i c a l a n t i q u i t y . I t has been argued t h a t Douglas "diminishes" the sacred r i t e s which V i r g i l d e p i c t s i n the work. 1 4 At times he does, as when he downplays the r e l i g i o u s s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the 'pueri . . . innuptaeque p u e l l a e ' who "sacra canunt' { I I , Z38-39) as they surround the Trojan horse, which has been newly brought i n t o the c i t y . Douglas's image o f " c h i l d e r and madis ^yng / Syngand k a r r e l l i s and dansand i n a ryng' ( I I , i v , 69-70) removes the " p o s s i b l e Vestal v i r g i n i t y " o f the g i r l s and "compromises somewhat the e f f e c t o f V i r g i l ' s a w e - i n s p i r i n g m y s t e r i e s , " 1 5 but these l i n e s are preceded by a passage i n which Douglas's expansion of V i r g i l ' s l i n e s , now expressed i n C h r i s t i a n terminology, gives the a c t i v i t i e s an increased h o l i n e s s . V i r g i l ' s general 'ducendum ad sedes simulacrum orandaque divae / numina conclamant' ( I I , 232-33) gains f u r t h e r r e l i g i o u s seriousness i n Douglas's t r a n s l a t i o n because Douglas c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y s p e c i f i e s the i n d i v i d u a l a c t i o n s , and thus i n d i c a t e s the d u r a t i o n , o f the s u p p l i c a t i o n : 101 Onto the h a l l o w i t s ted bryng i n , ' t h a i c r y , "The g r e t f y g u r j And l a t wss s a c r y f y The haiy goddes, and magnyfy hyr mycht With orysonys and o f f e r a n d i s day and nycht!' ( I I , i v , 57-60) However, instead o f s u b s t i t u t i n g C h r i s t i a n terms o f d i v i n e s e r v i c e as he does here, Douglas more commonly tends t o take a s l i g h t l y p a t r o n i z i n g a t t i t u d e towards the sacred r i t e s o f the Trojans and other c h a r a c t e r s . When V i r g i l d e s c r i b e s c h a r a c t e r s involved i n r e l i g i o u s r i t u a l s , Douglas almost always adds a comment l i k e "on t h a r gyss' (IV, v i i i , 107) or even "on t h a r payane gyss' (IV, v i , 43). The e f f e c t o f these i n t r u s i o n s by the n a r r a t o r i s again a d i s t a n c i n g o f the n a r r a t i v e from the audience and an abrupt i n t e r r u p t i o n o f t h e . n a r r a t i v e f l o w , f o r the reader i s each time reminded t h a t the c h a r a c t e r s belong t o a d i f f e r e n t time and c u l t u r e , and t o an i n f e r i o r c u l t u r e a t t h a t , f o r i n a l l t h e i r purported o b j e c t i v i t y these remarks sound condescending, implying a c e r t a i n degree o f p i t y f o r those who have not yet seen the l i g h t o f C h r i s t i a n i t y but are s t i l l caught i n t h e i r pagan e r r o r without having reached the high degree of consciousness which Douglas i n Prologue VI a t t r i b u t e s t o V i r g i l h i m s e l f . The n a r r a t o r , however, outdoes h i m s e l f when he has Dido invoke Proserpina 'by our g e n t i l e lawys' (IV, x i , 50) j u s t before u t t e r i n g her curse. Dido i s here a n a c h r o n i s t i c a l l y cognizant of her own p r e - C h r i s t i a n paganism. On the other hand. Dido's l i b a t i o n preceding the f i r s t banquet f o r Aeneas i s completely C h r i s t i a n i z e d i n Douglas's t r a n s l a t i o n o f ' i n mensam l i b a v i t honorem' ( I , 736) as 'the cowpe with the r i c h wyne / Apon the burd scho b l y s s i t ' ( I , x i , 85-6). Such anachronisms g e n e r a l l y do not cause Douglas any concern. On the 102 c o n t r a r y , Douglas tends t o conjecture the purposes of u n f a m i l i a r customs and c u l t u r a l symbols and u s u a l l y t r i e s t o f i n d c u l t u r a l e q u i v a l e n t s f o r Roman usages which would have no immediately obvious meaning f o r a l a t e -medieval S c o t t i s h audience. His p r a c t i c e o f c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a n s l a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g a d d i t i o n s and explanatory s u b s t i t u t i o n s , accords e x a c t l y w i t h h i s t h e o r e t i c a l statements i n Prologue I, e s p e c i a l l y t h a t W e i l l a t a blenk s l e poetry nocht tayn i s . And 3 i t f o r s u y t h I set my b i s s y pane As t h a t I couth t o mak i t b r a i d and plane. ( I , P r o l . , 108-10) For the "thaiami taedaeque' (the " b r i d a l bed and b r i d a l t o r c h e s ' ; IV, 18) of which Dido used t o t h i n k h e r s e l f weary, Douglas s u b s t i t u t e s "Genyvs chalmyr' (IV, i , 38) and l a t e r f o r 'taedas' alone (IV, 339) "the band of mariage' (IV, v i , 117); Mercury i s bidden t o descend not " c l a r o . . . Olympo' (IV, 268) but simply 'throw the s k y i s ' (IV, v, 173); instead o f adorning her f i r s t husband's temple with " v e l l e r i b u s n i v e i s ' ("snowy f l e e c e s ' ; IV, 459), Dido i n the Eneados dresses i t i n 'snaw white bendis, c a r p e t t i s and ensens' (IV, v i i i , 106); praying i n f r o n t o f the a l t a r by the pyre, Dido stands not "unum exuta pedem vine l i s ' (IV, 518), but with "Hir t a f u t e bayr' (IV, i x , 91); and when Anna l a t e r wipes the blood from Dido's wound, Douglas i m a g i n a t i v e l y p i c t u r e s the s i t u a t i o n and l e t s her use the p a r t o f her garment which i s both s o f t e s t and nearest t o hand as she bends over her s i s t e r , changing V i r g i l ' s general 'veste' (IV, 687) t o s p e c i f i c a l l y " h i r wympi1' (IV, x i i , 88), thereby g i v i n g the a c t i o n even greater tenderness. When Douglas speaks of Anna's wimple and l e t s Dido admit t h a t she has changed her mind about Genius' chamber, what he sees with h i s mind's eye 103 are not a Carthaginian queen and her s i s t e r , but two c o u r t l y l a d i e s of late-medieval Scotland, f u l l y conversant with c o u r t l y vernacular 1 i t e r a t u r e such as the Roman de l a rose or Gower's Confessio Amantis. Again, when Douglas e n v i s i o n s the captains i n the boat races i n Book V, they and t h e i r ships are somewhat transformed; i n t r a n s l a t i n g " i p sique i n puppibus auro / ductores longe e f f u l g e n t ostroque d e c o r i ' (V, 132-33) as "The patronys i n e f t c a s t e l 1 i s , f r e s c h and gay, / Stude, a l i n gold and purpour schynand brycht' (V, i i i , 58-9), Douglas not only makes the s h i p captains shed t h e i r i r i d e s c e n t and statuesque q u a l i t y and b r i n g s them t o l i f e as r e a l human beings, but he a l s o places them a t the s t e r n o f r e a l medieval cogs, whose r i g g i n g he had already described i n the storm scene i n I, i i , 53-60 ( I , 84-7). S i m i l a r l y , before meeting Aeneas o u t s i d e Carthage, Venus adopts a much more thorough d i s g u i s e i n the Eneados than she does i n the Aeneid; V i r g i l ' s Venus remains a goddess pretending t o be a T y r i a n huntress, but Douglas's Venus becomes a T y r i a n country g i r l , l o o k i n g l i k e a "stowt wench' ( I , v i , 20) whose simple " s k y r f i s s e n s i b l y " k i l t i t t i l h i r b a i r kne' ( I , v i , 27) while the f l o w i n g robes of V i r g i l ' s Venus, although gathered i n a knot, p r o c l a i m the goddess i n d i s g u i s e ("nuda genu nodoque sinus c o l l e c t a f l u e n t i s ' I, 320). And when Douglas comes t o t r a n s l a t e Turnus' siege o f the Trojan camp during Aeneas' absence, he adds enough concrete d e t a i l t o V i r g i l ' s d e s c r i p t i o n t o evoke a v i v i d image of a f o r t i f i e d c i t y a s s a u l t e d and defended by medieval armies. In Douglas's t r a n s l a t i o n the Trojan camp gains "fowcy d i c h i s ' (IX, i i , 24) and "boss t u r e t t i s ' (IX, i i , 30), and the a s s a u l t i n g f o r c e s under Turnus approach i t "with browdyn baneris gay' (IX, i i , 45) not mentioned by V i r g i l . While these added d e t a i l s are e s s e n t i a l l y anachronisms, t h e i r 104 presence increases the v i v i d n e s s and i n t e n s i t y o f Douglas's t r a n s l a t i o n and makes h i s images f a r more dynamic and v i b r a n t than the o r i g i n a l ones. In a l l these cases Douglas a c t u a l l y sees the characters and s i t u a t i o n s w i t h h i s mind's eye, and not s u r p r i s i n g l y he p i c t u r e s them i n the only manner a v a i l a b l e t o h i s concrete experience. In John S p e i r s ' s words, "the c i v i l i z e d Roman world presents no challenge t o Douglas' medieval C h r i s t i a n world; he simply does not recognize i t as d i f f e r e n t and a l i e n . " 1 6 He s t i l l lacks the h i s t o r i c a l sense of the past and the new Renaissance "sense of the h i s t o r i c a l d i s t a n c e and d i f f e r e n c e inherent i n c l a s s i c a l t e x t s , " 1 7 w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t he can f r e e l y "modernize" V i r g i l w h i l e s t i l l remaining f a i t h f u l t o the 1etter o f the t e x t . In the process, the Trojans, Carthaginians and Ausonians, whom V i r g i l had brought forward i n t o imperial Rome, now make a second leap i n space and time t o adapt t o a late-medieval S c o t t i s h m i l i e u . Even though they s t i l l f o l l o w "thar (payane) gyss', they conform t o what Douglas and h i s audience know from f i r s t - h a n d experience or a t l e a s t from hearsay. J u s t as Douglas sees c h a r a c t e r s and s i t u a t i o n s before he t r a n s l a t e s any p a r t i c u l a r passage, so he a l s o hears the accompanying sounds. In t h i s respect too, h i s t r a n s l a t i o n i s f a r more concrete and s p e c i f i c than V i r g i l ' s o r i g i n a l . The f i r s t l i n e s o f the d e s c r i p t i o n o f Aeolus' cave provide a t y p i c a l example. The f o r c e o f the winds i s a l r e a d y i n d i c a t e d i n V i r g i l ' s repeated voiced and unvoiced s i b i l a n t s and l a b i o - d e n t a l f r i cat i ves, i h i e vasto rex Aeolus a n t r o l u c t a n t i s ventos tempestatesque sonoras imperio premit ( I , 52-4) 105 but Douglas increases the noise by r e p l a c i n g V i r g i l ' s r e l a t i v e l y a b s t r a c t and c o l o u r l e s s a d j e c t i v e s and verbs with more s p e c i f i c and d e s c r i p t i v e ones, expressing vast f o r c e s b a r e l y h e l d i n check: quhar Eolus the k i n g In gowsty cavys the wyndis lowde q u h i s s i l l i n g And b r a i t h l y tempest i s by h i s power r e f r e n y s In bandis hard schet i n presoun constrenys. ( I , i i , 5-8) In the d e s c r i p t i o n o f the subsequent storm a t sea, i n which a p a r t o f Aeneas' company i s shipwrecked, Douglas again increases the fearsome tumult o f the storm, adding concrete, expressive d e t a i l s as he r e l i e s on V i r g i l ' s t e x t as we l l as on h i s own imaginative f a c u l t y and on d e s c r i p t i o n s o f tempests i n a l l i t e r a t i v e poetry i n c r e a t i n g the image of a s h i p i n a storm. V i r g i l ' s l i n e s incubuere man" totumque a sedibus imis una Eurusque Notusque ruunt creberque p r o c e l l i s A f r i c u s e t vastos volvunt ad 1 i t o r a f l u c t u s ; i n s e q u i t u r clamorque virum s t r i d o r q u e rudentum ( I , 84-7) express much less f o r c e , uproar and danger than Douglas's Thai ombeset the seys bustuusly, Quhil f r a the dei p t i l euery cost f a s t by The huge w a i l i s w e l t r i s apon h i e , Ro11i t a t anys w i t h storm of wynd i s t h r e , • • » Sone e f t e r t h i s , o f men the clamour r a y s s , The t a k i l l i s g r a s l i s , c a b i l l i s can f r e t and f r a y s . ( I , i i , 53-60) By s u b s t i t u t i n g s p e c i f i c , t e c h n i c a l terms C t a k e l l i s ' and ' c a b i l l i s ' ) f o r a generic one ('rudentes') and by s p e c i f y i n g the exact sound i n d e t a i l 106 " g r a s l i s ' and " f r e t ' ) as w e l l as p i c t u r i n g the r e s u l t ("frays') i n d i c a t e d by those sounds, Douglas b r i n g s the Aeneid down t o the l e v e l o f every-day l i f e , making i t more human and l e s s h e r o i c by removing V i r g i l ' s " b l u r r e d images," 1 9 which give e p i c grandeur and d i g n i t y t o the ch a r a c t e r s and t h e i r a c t i o n s . L a t e r , Douglas c o n c r e t i z e s V i r g i l ' s general i n d i c a t i o n s o f Aeneas' commands on how t o a c t during h i s absence. While Aeneas merely warns the Trojans " s i qua i n t e r e a f o r t u n a f u i s s e t , / neu s t r u e r e auderent aciem neu credere campo' (IX, 41-2), i n Douglas's t r a n s l a t i o n these a b s t r a c t i n s t r u c t i o n s become concrete and s p e c i f i c ; here Eneas G a i f thame command, g i f t h a i a s s a l ^ e i t wer Or hys returnyng, be hard fortoun o f weir, That t h a i ne s u l d i n b a t a l e thame a r r a y , Nor i n the plane t h a r ennemys assay. (IX, i i , 17-20) Douglas's p a r t i c u l a r i z a t i o n i s , of course, l o g i c a l l y c o r r e c t , but there should be no need f o r Aeneas t o give h i s Trojans such s p e c i f i c commands: the l a r g e r - t h a n - l i f e heroes i n h i s f o r c e s know without being t o l d , but Douglas reduces them t o a company of pressed men who do not know what t o do unless they have been given p r e c i s e i n s t r u c t i o n s . The same with C a m i l l a . While V i r g i l t e l l s the reader t h a t Camilla's bow "sonat' a g a i n s t her "arma Dianae' (XI, 652), Douglas r e a l i s t i c a l l y and u n p r e t e n t i o u s l y t r a n s l a t e s , Apon h i r schulder the g i l t y n bow Turcas, With Dyanys arowys c l a t t e r a n d i n hyr cayss, (XI, x i i i , 11-12) g i v i n g her contemporary weapons, f i n d i n g a reason f o r the n o i s e , and s p e c i f y i n g the exact sound, thus c r e a t i n g a much f u l l e r , c l e a r e r and more 107 d e t a i l e d image which any reader can immediately r e c o n s t r u c t , but g i v i n g up the d e l i c a t e s u b t l e t y w i t h which V i r g i l b u i l d s C a m i l l a ' s s t a t u r e — D i a n a ' s weapons sound l i k e k i t c h e n knives. On the other hand, Douglas's b a t t l e d e s c r i p t i o n s are on the verge o f ga i n i ng add i t i onaI f o r c e and v i gour from the i nfIuence o f a l i i t e r a t i ve he r o i c poetry, which modifies h i s word choice and h i s rhythms. In t h i s respect Douglas's s i g h Quha i s a t t a c h i t o n t i l l a s t a i k , we se, May go na f e r t h i r bot w r e i l about t h a t t r e ( I , P r o l . , 297-98) r i n g s more t r u e than i n any other. I f Douglas had t r a n s l a t e d the b a t t l e scenes passage by passage r a t h e r than " a l maste word by word' ( D i r e c t i o n , 46), the a l l i t e r a t i v e idiom might have a s s e r t e d i t s e l f even i n the pentameter l i n e s and infused the n a r r a t i v e w i t h an energy which might have made up f o r the loss o f V i r g i l ' s smooth suppleness. But having t o conform as c l o s e l y as p o s s i b l e t o V i r g i l ' s s t r u c t u r e and phrasing, Douglas cannot f u l l y e x p l o i t t h i s l a t e n t resource. V i r g i l ' s e p i c s i m i l e s , e s p e c i a l l y , leave the impression o f being wholly inorganic p a r t s when they re-appear in Douglas's t r a n s l a t i o n , f o r i n t r a n s l a t i o n they break the arc of the n a r r a t i v e and hamper i t s f l i g h t , becoming undesirable elements which i n t e r r u p t r a t h e r than extend the p a r t i c u l a r image because they are a l i e n t o t h e i r new, almost a l l i t e r a t i v e surroundings. In the scenes d e s c r i b i n g storms a t sea, however, Douglas uses a l l i t e r a t i o n f r e e l y and e x p l o i t s i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p o t e n t i a l f o r onomatopoeia. Onomatopoeic a l l i t e r a t i o n , together with h i s h a b i t o f s p e c i f y i n g and c o n c r e t i z i n g , makes Douglas's sea f a r more r e a l than V i r g i l ' s . "Aeneas's boat becomes a ' b a l l i n g a r e ' 108 ( o r i g i n a l l y a whaling ship) and the booms, masts, and r i g g i n g are rearranged t o make sense, r a t h e r than l e f t i n d i s a r r a y i n order t o t e r r i f y . B u t i n consequence, the p e r s p e c t i v e changes. V i r g i l ' s tempest i s seen from the p o i n t of view of one of the h o r r i f i e d mariners, who hears the sound of the breaking oars and has j u s t enough time t o take i n the general view of the d i s a s t e r before he i s engulfed by the water: s t r i d e n s Aquilone p r o c e l l a velum adversa f e r i t , f l u c t u s q u e ad s i d e r a t o l 1 i t ; franguntur remi; turn prora a v e r t i t et undis dat l a t u s ; i n s e q u i t u r cumulo praeruptus aquae mons. hi summo in f l u c t u pendent; h i s unda dehiscens terram i n t e r f l u c t u s a p e r i t ; f u r i t aestus h a r e n i s . ( I . 10Z-7) Douglas's storm, i n c o n t r a s t , i s narrated by an o b j e c t i v e , d i s i n t e r e s t e d o u t s i d e r who has time t o observe and record every i n d i v i d u a l stage o f t h i s f a s c i n a t i n g shipwreck and who enjoys making the most o f i t s d e s c r i p t i o n : A b l a s t r a n d bub out from the north brayng Gan our the f o r s c h i p i n the b a k s a i l l dyng, And t o the sternys vp the f l u d e gan c a s t . The ar i s, hech i s and the tak i 1 1 i s b r a s t , The s c h i p p i s s t e v i n frawart hyr went gan wryth, And t u r n y t h i r b r a i d syde t o the w a l l i s swyth. Heich as a h i l l the iaw of w a t i r brak And i n ane hepe cam on thame with a swak. Sum h e s i t hoverand on the w a l l i s hycht, And sum the swowchand sey so law gart l y c h t Thame semyt the erd oppynnyt amyd the f l u d e — The stour vp b u l l y r r i t sand as i t war wode. ( I , i i i , 15-26) Douglas has t i d i e d up the wreckage even w h i l e d e s c r i b i n g the d i s a s t e r ; but the r e s u l t o f h i s v i s u a l and a c o u s t i c p r e c i s i o n i s t h a t the impression created i n t h i s scene i s r a d i c a l l y changed. Douglas would have j u s t i f i e d a l l h i s various ways o f s u b t l y changing 109 the t e x t u r e of V i r g i l ' s work by reference t o h i s d e s i r e 'to mak i t b r a i d and plane' ( I , P r o l . , 110), f o r "Sum tyme the t e x t rnon haue ane e x p o s i t i o u n ' ( I , P r o l . , 347); and he would have pointed out t h a t " S c o t t i s ' i s a f t e r a l l a "bad, harsk spech and l e w i t barbour tong' and " r u r a l 1 wlgar gross' ( I , P r o l . , 21 & 43) incapable of the s u b t l e t i e s of V i r g i l ' s elegant and p o l i s h e d L a t i n . Indeed, given the sovereign ease w i t h which Douglas makes h i s changes, he probably would not even have regarded many of them as such. However, Douglas i s not t h e r e f o r e incapable of l i t e r a l t r a n s l a t i o n ; on the c o n t r a r y , he o f t e n , though only b r i e f l y , i m i t a t e s V i r g i l ' s sentence s t r u c t u r e and, i f p o s s i b l e , even h i s word order. But r a r e l y i s Douglas's v e r s i o n as c l o s e t o V i r g i l ' s o r i g i n a l as i n the t r a n s l a t i o n of the scene with which the e p i c c l o s e s . Aeneas has j u s t recogn i zed Pa 11as' ba1dr i c on Turnus' shou1der: "tune hinc s p o i l i s indute meorum e r i p i a r e mihi? P a l l a s t e hoc volnere, P a l l a s immolat et poenam s c e l e r a t o ex sanguine sumit," hoc dicens ferrum adverso sub pectore c o n d i t f e r v i d u s . a s t i l l i s o lvuntur f r i g o r e membra vitaque cum gemitu f u g i t indignata sub umbras. ( X I I , 947-52) " S a i l thou eschape me of t h i s sted away, Cled w i t h the s p u l j e of my f r e n d i s d e i r ? P a l l a s , P a l l a s , w i t h t h i s wond rycht h e i r Of the ane o f f e r a n d t o the goddys makkis, And of thy w i kk i t b1ude punyt i oun takk i s . " And sayand thus, f u l l f e r s s , w i t h a l l hys mayn. Law i n hys b r e i s t or c o s t , lay hym forgayn, Hys swerd hess hyd f u l l h a i t ; and t h a r w i t h a l l The c a l d of deth d i s s o l u y t hys membris a l l . The s p r e i t o f l y f e f l e d murnand with a grone And w i t h disdeyn vnder dyrk e r t h i s goyn. ( X I I , x i v , 144-54) Even though Douglas i s here o b v i o u s l y t r y i n g t o f o l l o w the t e x t as c l o s e l y 110 as p o s s i b l e , h i s h a b i t s of double t r a n s l a t i o n ( ' f u l l f e r s s ' and "with a l l hys mayn' f o r ' f e r v i d u s ' ; " i n hys b r e i s t or c o s t ' f o r "sub pectore'; "murnand' and 'with a grone' f o r "cum gemitu') and o f explanatory t r a n s l a t i o n ("vnder dyrk e r t h ' f o r 'sub umbras'; 'the s p r e i t of l y f e ' f o r ' v i t a ' ) a s s e r t themselves. Nonetheless, the passage i s e s s e n t i a l l y l e f t as i t i s — T u r n u s ' death scene i s not touched up w i t h s p e c i f i c , concrete d e t a i l s : Douglas, f o r once, r e f r a i n s . And by r e f r a i n i n g from adding anything, he r e t a i n s the starkness of t h i s s l a y i n g . However, w h i l e V i r g i l ' s t e x t ends j u s t at the p o i n t where the Trojans' s t r u g g l e t o f u l f i l t h e i r d e s t i n y has reached completion, Douglas adds Maphaeus' t h i r t e e n t h Book, with the r e s u l t t h a t the reader i s taken from the f i n a l , oppressive scene of u n r e l i e v e d slaughter i n t o the f e s t i v e atmosphere o f Aeneas' wedding and e v e n t u a l l y t o h i s apotheosis. Despite h i s f i d e l i t y t o V i r g i l ' s t e x t i n the f i n a l l i n e s o f Book X I I , Douglas forsakes V i r g i l a f t e r the end. J u s t as he i n t e r p o l a t e s t r a n s l a t i o n s of the commentators' glosses i n t o h i s t e x t , so he incorporates Maphaeus' supplement—"'because i t was t h e r e . ' " 2 1 Notes C S . Lewis, Engl i s h L i t e r a t u r e i n the S i x t e e n t h Century, p.85, comments t h a t "one of the t h i n g s t h a t t e s t a t r a n s l a t o r ' s q u a l i t y i s t h a t mass o f small a d d i t i o n s which metre i n e v i t a b l y demands. P r i s c i l l a Bawcutt, "Douglas and Surrey," pp.52-67, shows t h a t Surrey i n h i s o n l y s l i g h t l y l a t e r t r a n s l a t i o n o f Aeneid II and IV manages t o r e t a i n V i r g i l ' s tautness and economy by a v o i d i n g the various l i n e - f i l l i n g d e v i c e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the doublets, which Douglas uses f r e e l y . Surrey's use of blank verse, however, f r e e s him from the need t o f i n d rhyme w o r d s — a need which f o r Douglas o c c a s i o n a l l y poses great problems, as when he has Iuno c r y ""Ho!"" ( I l l , v i , 52) because he has t o f i n d a word which rhymes with Muno' i n the preceding l i n e ; t h i s p a r t i c u l a r instance, together w i t h several o t h e r s , i s discussed by Hans Kasmann, "Gavin Douglas' Aeneis-Ubersetzung," p.175. 2 Hans Kasmann l i s t s f u r t h e r examples of such p a i r s o f synonyms i n h i s a r t i c l e "Gavin Douglas' Aeneis-Ubersetzung," pp.175-6. P r i s c i l l a Bawcutt, Gavin Douglas, p.124, p o i n t s out t h a t synonym p a i r s l i n k e d with x o r ' o f t e n d e r i v e from d i s c r e p a n c i e s among the commentators or even from i n d e c i s i o n s i n a s i n g l e commentary, where a l t e r n a t i v e glosses are given i n an "aut . . . aut' c o n s t r u c t i o n . 3 The then new s c h o l a r l y h a b i t o f annotating a t e x t i s taken t o an absurd extreme i n the note p u r p o r t i n g t o e l u c i d a t e "the iugement of Parys' ( I , i , 45): "The Iugement of P a r i s i s common t o a l l knawis the sege of Troy." 4 Bawcutt, "Douglas and Surrey," p.64. 5 Bawcutt, Gavin Douglas, pp.158, 162. 6 Spearing, Medieval t o Renaissance, p.61. 7 For a d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n o f Douglas's Dutch and Flemish borrowings see David Murison, "The Dutch Element i n the Vocabulary of Scots," i n : Edinburgh Studies i n E n g l i s h and Scots, eds. A.J. A i t k e n , Angus Mcintosh, and Hermann Palsson (London: Longman, 1971), pp.159-76. 8 Other instances occur a t I I I , v i , 192-93 ( I I I , 454) and IV, v i , 38 (IV, 299). g T i l l yard. The E n g l i s h E p i c , pp.340-41, provides a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f the small a d d i t i o n s and changes with which Douglas increases the immediacy of the a c t i o n i n V I I I , i x , 113-24 (the departure of the Arcadian c a v a l r y from Evander's settlement; V I I I , 592-96). ^ Douglas a l s o l e t s c haracters answer t h e i r own r h e t o r i c a l q uestions, e.g. IV, v i i , 18. In the quoted case, however, Douglas's e d i t i o n o f V i r g i l may w e l l have been d i f f e r e n t l y punctuated; V i r g i l ' s sentence can be taken as both question or exclamation. P r i s c i l l a J . 112 Bawcutt discusses t e x t u a l problems i n her a r t i c l e "Gavin Douglas and the Text o f V i r g i l , " Edinburgh Bib1iographica1 S o c i e t y Transactions, v o l . IV (1955-71), 211-31. Bawcutt concludes t h a t many of Douglas's seeming i n a c c u r a c i e s and m i s - t r a n s l a t i o n s are a c t u a l l y f a i t h f u l and accurate t r a n s l a t i o n s o f e r r o r s i n Ascensius' 1501 e d i t i o n o f V i r g i l , which Douglas must have used as h i s working t e x t . 1 1 John S p e i r s , "The Scots 'Aeneid' o f Gavin Douglas," i n h i s The  Scots L i t e r a r y T r a d i t i o n ; An Essay i n C r i t i c i s m , 2nd edn. (London: Faber & Faber, 1962), p.177. 12 Even though Douglas's Aeneas does not make a vow o f e t e r n a l f a i t h f u l n e s s t o Dido, the i n f l u e n c e o f t h i s t r a d i t i o n seems t o have been strong enough t o cause Douglas t o bow t o convention and, i n a h a I f - l i n e which has no equ i v a l e n t i n the Aeneid, l e t Dido accuse Aeneas o f having broken h i s oath (IV, v i i , 42). 13 John S p e i r s , "The Scots 'Aeneid'," p. 178, argues t h a t Douglas "views [the Dido and Aeneas s t o r y ] as a medieval C h r i s t i a n m o r a l i s t , f o r whom human love must always be subordinate t o obedience t o the d i v i n e w i l l . This may not be e x a c t l y what V i r g i l meant by pi e t a s , [. . .] but i t i s the medieval C h r i s t i a n e q u i v a l e n t or development from i t . " 14 Alan Hager, " B r i t i s h V i r g i l : Four Renaissance Disguises o f the Laocoon Passage o f Book 2 of the Aene i d , " Studies i n E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e , 22 (19BZ), 27. 15 16 17 18 i b i d . S p e i r s , "The Scots 'Aeneid'," p.169. Spearing, Medieval t o Renaissance, p.13. Kasmann, "Gavin Douglas' Aeneis-Ubersetzung," p.170, however, argues t h a t "Belege f u r d i e Med i a e v a l i s i e r u n g der Aeneis h a l t e n e i n e r genaueren Uberprufung n i c h t stand," and maintains t h a t the t e x t i t s e l f remains unaffected by the medieval concepts which Douglas introduces i n the Prologues and t h a t t r a n s l a t i o n s such as 'nun' f o r "sacerdos' are caused by gaps i n the ME vocabulary r a t h e r than by any " s p e z i f i s c h m i t t e l a l t e r 1 i c h e B l i n d h e i t " on Douglas's p a r t . 19 The expression i s taken from W.R. Johnson, Darkness V i s i b l e : A 5tudy o f Vergi1's Aeneid (Berkeley: Univ. of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1976), p.75. Johnson, however, uses the expression p a r t i c u l a r l y t o d i s t i n g u i s h the " d e l i b e r a t e b l u r r i n g " i n V i r g i l ' s e p i c s i m i l e s from the " c l a r i t y o f p i c t u r e " i n Homer's (p.55). 2 0 Hager, " B r i t i s h V i r g i l , " p.24. 21 Bawcutt, "Douglas and Surrey," p.61. 113 Chapter IV — The Linkage between the Prologues and Books Douglas endeavours t o be f a i t h f u l t o V i r g i l i n t r a n s l a t i n g the Aeneid, and he even expounds h i s own c r i t i c a l theory of t r a n s l a t i o n , yet he does what no modern t r a n s l a t o r would dare: he i n t e r s p e r s e s the t r a n s l a t i o n o f V i r g i l ' s work with h i s own, o r i g i n a l c o m p o s i t i o n s — t h e Prologues. In each o f the t h i r t e e n Prologues he comments i n one way or another on the subsequent and sometimes a l s o on the preceding Book, but the Prologues do more than j u s t f u l f i l the f u n c t i o n o f t r a n s l a t o r ' s notes. Read i n sequence with the Books of the Aeneid r a t h e r than i n i s o l a t i o n as i n d i v i d u a l poems, the Prologues o f f e r a guide t o the Aeneid, yet they a l s o s u b s t a n t i a l l y change the experience of reading i t . For one t h i n g , the i n t e r p o l a t i o n o f the Prologues means t h a t the c o n t i n u i t y o f the e p i c i s s a c r i f i c e d , s i n c e the Books are separated from each o t h e r , each now being introduced and commented on by i t s i n d i v i d u a l Prologue. And secondly, Douglas's comments i n the Prologues colour the contents of the Books, draw the reader's a t t e n t i o n t o c e r t a i n issues and r a i s e p e r t i n e n t q u estions, with the r e s u l t t h a t the Books appear i n a new l i g h t — n o longer V i r g i l , but V i r g i l seen through Douglas's eyes. At the same time, the Prologues provide a t h e o r e t i c a l apparatus i n which Douglas discusses h i s p r i n c i p l e s and methods, and debates the value of poetry and j u s t i f i e s the r o l e o f the l i t e r a r y a r t i s t . The r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f the Prologues t o t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e Books are complex and a t f i r s t reading sometimes obscure, but Douglas h i m s e l f admonishes h i s readers t o "Reid, r e i d agane, t h i s volume, mair than twyss' (VI, P r o l . , 12), and c l o s e r s c r u t i n y indeed r e v e a l s a s t o n i s h i n g l y s u b t l e l i n k s between the Prologues and the Books t o which they p e r t a i n . 114 The f i r s t Prologue f u l f i l s the f u n c t i o n o f a general preface t o the e n t i r e Eneados. I t contains the p r e l i m i n a r y matters of the p r a i s e of V i r g i l , the d e d i c a t i o n of the work, and the author's apology f o r e r r o r s and blunders. I t a l s o serves as a p l a t f o r m f o r Douglas t o give an account of h i s p r i n c i p l e s and methods and t o review the work of h i s predecessors at t r a n s l a t i n g V i r g i l . In a d d i t i o n , Douglas o f f e r s a f i r s t preview of h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the r o l e o f Aeneas as the model p r i n c e . Prologue I thus c o n s i s t s of a general i n t r o d u c t i o n , addressing matters which r e l a t e t o the work as a whole r a t h e r than s p e c i f i c a l l y t o Book I. The second Prologue, however, i s already c l e a r l y focused on the p a r t i c u l a r Book which i t precedes, and the c o l o u r i n g mentioned above i s a l r e a d y evident. I t i s the s h o r t e s t Prologue i n the e n t i r e s e r i e s , c o n s i s t i n g o f o n l y three stanzas of r i m e - r o y a l , the verse form which Chaucer had used f o r h i s Troy s t o r y . In the f i r s t stanza Douglas toys with the idea o f invoking Melpomene, the dark Muse app r o p r i a t e f o r the n a r r a t i o n o f the 'dedly tragedy' (1. 3) of the f a l l o f Troy, but he immediately r e j e c t s t h i s idea: V i r g i l h i m s e l f w i l l g i v e guidance, and d i v i n e Grace w i l l g i v e Douglas the power t o f o l l o w where V i r g i l leads, so t h a t " f e n j e i t termys new' (1. 6 ) , t h a t i s , the f a n c i f u l i n v o c a t i o n o f a non-existent Muse, are not necessary. The second stanza harks back t o the f i r s t Prologue and the issue of f a i t h f u l t r a n s l a t i o n , promising new standards i n the t r a n s l a t i o n o f V i r g i l i n t o E n g l i s h . In the t h i r d stanza, however, Douglas p o i n t s the lesson t o be drawn from the ensuing Book. In each i n d i v i d u a l p o i n t Douglas takes h i s cue d i r e c t l y from V i r g i l ' s own t e x t . When he reminds the l a d i e s among the audience t h a t i t was a woman's beauty t h a t u l t i m a t e l y caused the f a l l of T r o y — " H a r k i s , l a d e i s , j o u r 115 bewte was the cawss' (1. 1 5 )—he gives a condensed, though somewhat s l a n t e d , v e r s i o n of Aeneas' thoughts at seeing Helen h i d i n g a t Vesta's a l t a r ( I I , 567-82), i l i a s i b i i n f e s t o s eversa ob Pergama Teucros et Danaum poenam et d e s e r t i c o n i u g i s i r a s praemetuens, Troiae et p a t r i a e communis E r i n y s , abdiderat sese atque a r i s i n v i s a sedebat. exarsere i g n i s animo; . . . " s c i l i c e t haec Spartam incolumis patriasque Mycenas a s p i c i e t partoque i b i t r e g ina triumpho, ( I I , 571-78) though he ignores Venus' e x p l i c i t d e n i a l "non t i b i T y n d a r i d i s f a c i e s i n v i s a Lacaenae / culpatusve P a r i s ' ( I I , 601-2). Next addressing the " k n y c h t i s ' and reminding them t h a t the f r e n z y of war i s madness, p l a c i n g a man o u t s i d e the c i r c l e o f r a t i o n a l b e i n g s — " H a r k i s , k n y c h t i s , the wod f u r y of Mars' (1. 16)—Douglas r e c a l l s Aeneas' image of "Marts] indomit[us]' ( I I , 440), which encapsulates the horror of the panic and of the impulsive, unpremeditated f i g h t i n g d u r ing the a s s a u l t on Priam's stronghold when a l l r a t i o c i n a t i o n i s suspended and a c t i o n i s guided by r e f l e x r a t h e r than reason. s i c am*mis iuvenum f u r o r a d d i t u s . inde, l u p i ceu raptores a t r a i n nebula, quos improba v e n t r i s e x e g i t caecos r a b i e s c a t u l i q u e r e l i c t i f aucibus exspectant s i c c i s , per t e l a , per host i s vadimus haud dubiam i n mortem mediaeque tenemus u r b i s i t e r ; nox a t r a cava circumvolat umbra, qu i s c1adem i 1 1 i us noct i s , qu i s funera fando e x p l i c e t aut p o s s i t l a c r i m i s aequare labores? ( I I , 355-62) Having pointed h i s f i n g e r at the p a r t i c u l a r v i c e s t o which the knights and the l a d i e s are supposed t o be prone, Douglas f i n d s proof i n Book II f o r 116 the general lesson t h a t " A l l e r d l y g l a i d n e s s f y n y s i t h w i t h wo' (1. 21), which has a p a r t i a l V i r g i l i a n counterpart i n Aeneas' r e f l e c t i o n s on Priam's f o r t u n e s : haec f i n i s Priami fatorum; h i e e x i t u s i l i u m s o r t e t u l i t , Troiam incensam et prolapsa videntem Pergama, t o t quondam p o p u l i s t e r r i s q u e superbum regnatorem Asiae. i a c e t ingens l i t o r e t r uncus, avolsumque umeris caput et s i n e nomine corpus. ( I I , 554-58) Yet Aeneas' thoughts have none o f the m o r a l i z i n g q u a l i t y o f Douglas's 'proverbe.' There i s no question i n the L a t i n l i n e s o f r e s t i t u t i o n , o f " e r d l y g l a i d n e s s ' having t o be paid f o r with "wo,' and there i s no suggestion t h a t such a r e v e r s a l of f o r t u n e i s i n e v i t a b l e . The p e s s i m i s t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Priam's (and the Trojans') f a t e as a f a l l stands i n the F a l l o f P r i n c e s t r a d i t i o n o f the s t e r n and p i t i l e s s j u s t i c e o f Lady Fortune and evokes none of the horror and c o n s t e r n a t i o n a t the unfathomable f a t e of the f a t h e r l y k i n g which Aeneas f e e l s a t watching the slaughter of Priam. By presenting Book II i n the context of such m o r a l i z i n g precepts, Douglas r e i n t e r p r e t s Aeneas' n a r r a t i o n of the d e s t r u c t i o n of Troy as a moral lesson t o l d f o r the i n s t r u c t i o n o f the reader r a t h e r than an account of Aeneas' sorrows and hardships t o l d i n the i n t e r e s t of feeding Dido's love and sympathy or even f o r the sake of e s t a b l i s h i n g the m o r a l l y impeccable character of the legendary progenitor of the Roman imperial l i n e . Prologue I I I i s concerned with more general matters again, touching the work of the t r a n s l a t o r r a t h e r than o f f e r i n g a s p e c i f i c i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the p a r t i c u l a r Book. However, even t h i s Prologue i s l i n k e d w i t h i t s Book by means of thematic connexions. Preceding the account of Aeneas' 117 sea-wanderings from Troy t o Thrace, Delos, Crete, E p i r u s , I t a l y , S i c i l y , and e v e n t u a l l y t o Carthage, Prologue I I I opens with an apostrophe t o Cynthia, the goddess o f the moon who c o n t r o l s the sea's ebb and flow and i s ha 11 owed by **Schipmen and p i 1 grymys' (1. 5 ) , t o both o f which c a t e g o r i e s Aeneas can be s a i d t o belong. But even though Cynthia has power t o r u l e the waters, she needs t o borrow her 1ight from the sun, Hornyt Lady, p a i l Cynthia, not brycht, Quhilk from t h i broder borrowis a l t h i l y c h t , Rewlare o f passage and ways mony one, Maistres o f stremys, and g l a i d a r o f the nycht, ( I I I , P r o l . , 1-4) j u s t as the Eneados shines with l i g h t borrowed from V i r g i l ' s work, although i t i s Douglas who c o n t r o l s the flow o f the " S c o t t i s ' verse. In the f i r s t Prologue, Douglas had alr e a d y expressed t h i s n o t i o n — So lamp o f day thou [ V i r g i l ] a r t and schynand son A l l o t h e r i s on f o r s s mon t h a r l y c h t beg or borrow; • • • Thow Phebus l i g h t n a r o f the p l a n e t i s a l l — ( I , P r o l . , 60-3) and i t was c l e a r l y i n Douglas's mind here again, f o r having made the connexion between the in v o c a t i o n o f Cynthia and the content o f Book I I I , Douglas immediately a l l u d e s t o the r e s p e c t i v e p o s i t i o n s o f the o r i g i n a l author and the t r a n s l a t o r v i s - a - v i s the c r i t i c s : V i r g i l i s so f a r above c r i t i c i s m t h a t he cannot be hurt by i t , and Douglas, who , f o l l o w [ s ] V i r g i l l i n sentens' (1. 33), does not care about i t . D i s d a i n i n g t o enter an argument with such f a u l t - f i n d e r s , Douglas f r e e l y admits t h a t he i s unacquainted with many of V i r g i l ' s p lace names and may t h e r e f o r e have made occasional e r r o r s i n t h i s respect. His comment t h a t 'Few knawis a l l t h i r 118 cost i s sa f a r hens' (1. 34) contains a p a r t i c u l a r l y s l y barb: not even the wise Anchises knew " a l l t h i r c o s t i s ' and, one may assume, most o f the c r i t i c s have no more s p e c i f i c knowledge, e i t h e r . In borrowing an image d i r e c t l y from Book I I I and using i t i n h i s own defence, Douglas turns the t a b l e s on h i s a t t a c k e r s . In the f i n a l l i n e s o f Prologue I I I , however, Douglas begins t o use a method of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n which he i s going t o develop much f u r t h e r i n subsequent Prologues, namely, the a l l e g o r i z a t i o n o f mythical and mythological beings, here S c y l l a and Charybdis, whom he uses as a f i g u r e o f h e l l : From Harpyes f e l l and blynd Cyclopes handis Be my l a i d s t a r , virgyne moder but maik; Thocht storm of temptatioun my s c h i p o f t s c h a i k , Fra swelth of S y l l a and dyrk C a r i b d i s bandis, I meyn from h e l l , salue a l go not t o wraik. ( I l l , P r o l . , 41-5) In praying t o the V i r g i n f o r guidance t o help him escape t h i s double danger, he l i k e n s h i m s e l f t o the 'Schipmen and pilgrymys' as w e l l as t o Aeneas, who can o n l y a v o i d S c y l l a and Charybdis because of the d i v i n e guidance given by the seer Helenus ( I I I , 410-32). Although the C h r i s t i a n a l l e g o r i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s here o n l y h i n t e d a t , i t a l r e a d y serves t o g i v e Aeneas' or d e a l s a t sea a c o l o u r i n g not only of personal t r i a l s which t e s t and strengthen h i s character and h i s leadership q u a l i t i e s , but a l s o o f temptations i n which h i s moral and r e l i g i o u s s t r e n g t h are t e s t e d . This k i n d of c o l o u r i n g p r o g r e s s i v e l y increases i n subsequent Prologues, u n t i l Aeneas e v e n t u a l l y becomes a type of C h r i s t i n Prologue X I . A s i m i l a r but much more f o r c e f u l r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n takes place i n Prologue IV. The verse form i t s e l f i s a l r e a d y s i g n i f i c a n t . I t i s again 119 rime r o y a l , and s u r e l y every c o u r t l y reader i n Douglas's audience would have remembered the f i r s t few words o f Chaucer's T r o i l u s : 'The double sorwe' caused by love. This a l l u s i o n i m p l i c i t i n the chosen form provides one o f the themes f o r t h i s Prologue, t h a t i s , t h a t love which i s based on e r o t i c passion w i l l i n e v i t a b l y lead t o p a i n , misery, and l o s s . Dido e x e m p l i f i e s t h i s precept, and Book IV becomes an extended exemp1um t o be added t o the l i s t o f the t a l e s o f o t h e r s , i n c l u d i n g those o f Solomon, Samson,v A r i s t o t l e , Alexander, Hercules and many others more. From the i n i t i a l denunciation o f Venus and Cupid, Douglas turns t o a d e f i n i t i o n of proper love as warmth, t h a t i s , a love which i s n e i t h e r e x c e s s i v e , and t u r n i n g i n t o heat, nor d e f i c i e n t , and becoming coldness. In using t h i s s i m i l e , Douglas foreshadows the f i r e imagery running through Book IV i n the d e s c r i p t i o n o f Dido's emotional s t a t e , but he extends the range o f meaning supported by t h i s image, d e f i n i n g as c o l d the s t a t e o f not being touched by any kind of love a t a l l , and d e s c r i b i n g as warm the p e r f e c t s t a t e i n which love i s c h a r i t y r a t h e r than e r o t i c love. Having equated proper love w i t h c a r i t a s , Douglas a l l u d e s i n a s e r i e s o f puns t o the supreme instance o f love, d i v i n e Grace, and c o n t r a s t s the s i n c e r e p l e a f o r Grace and Mercy with the w o r l d l y l o v e r ' s request t o h i s lady t o 'haue mercy' (1. 145): Faynt l u f e , but grace, f o r a l l t h i f e n ^ e i t l a y i s , Thy wantoun w i l l i s ar verray vanyte; Gr a s l e s s thou ask i s grace, and thus thou p r a y i s : "Haue mercy, lady, haue reuth and sum p i e t e ! " And scho, r e u t h l e s s , agane rewys on the: Heir i s na paramour i s fund, bot a l l h a i t r e n t , Quhar nowthir t o w e i l l nor resson tak t h a i t e n t . 120 C a l l y s thou t h a t r e u t h t , q u h i l k o f t h a r s e l f ne r a k k i s ? Or i s i t grace t o f a l l f r a grace? nay, nay. Thou s e k i s mercy, and t h a r o f myscheif makkis (IV, P r o l . , 142-51 This j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f r i g h t f u l love, namely, love which i s d i r e c t e d towards God, and e r o t i c passion bordering on l u x u r i a r e l i e s f o r i t s impact on the s i m i l a r i t y between the formulas used i n the i n v o c a t i o n o f Mary as the Queen o f Mercy and t h e i r r e - a p p l i c a t i o n i n the idiom o f c o u r t l y love. The i m p l i c a t i o n o f the i r r e c o n c i l a b i l i t y o f these two concepts of love amounts t o an u n q u a l i f i e d denunciation of f i n e amour, which i s i n the f o l l o w i n g e i g h t stanzas e x p r e s s l y l i n k e d w i t h a d u l t e r y and p r o s t i t u t i o n , f o r even the pander and the bawd employ i t s euphemisms: "Douchtir, f o r thy l u f e t h i s man hes gret dyseyss," Quod the bysmeyr with the s l e k y t speche, "Rew on hym, i t i s meryt hys pane t o meyss." (IV, P r o l . , 190-92) In t h i s context Dido's love must appear not only unwise but p o s i t i v e l y s i n f u l , although Douglas r e f r a i n s from l a b e l l i n g i t as such. Yet when he e x p l i c i t l y r e f e r s t o Dido at the end of Prologue IV, Douglas's condemnation of e a r t h l y love as "fowle d e l y t e ' (1. 113) i s s t i l l f r e s h i n the reader's mind. S t i l l , Douglas's assessment of Dido's case seems comparatively r e s t r a i n e d : "Throw f u l y c h l u s t ' she has brought about her "awyn ondoyng' (1. 228), and her "honeste b a i t h and gude fame' (1. 255) f a l l v i c t i m t o her "blynd l u f f i s i n o r d i n a t e desyre' (1. 250); she i s another one i n the long l i n e o f p r i n c e s f a l l e n from high t o low degree, and she i s a l s o an exemp1um f o r the adage t h a t "Temporal ioy endis wyth wo and pane' (1. 221). Very l i t t l e , however, i s s a i d about Aeneas' p a r t i n the a f f a i r . By making Dido alone r e s p o n s i b l e f o r her own tragedy, Douglas 121 removes the burden from Aeneas' shoulders which medieval t r a d i t i o n had heaped on him. He i s no longer the perjure d seducer but the innocent means by which Dido works her own d o w n f a l l . Dido thus appears t o deserve her f a t e , w h i l e Aeneas, more by omission than by e x p l i c i t comment, i s portrayed as blameless i n her death and unblemished by i t . Douglas has thus prepared the ground f o r a new and very d i f f e r e n t reading o f Book IV. Prologue V, composed f o r the most part i n the same stanza form as Prologue I I I , i s again comparatively l o o s e l y l i n k e d t o i t s Book. The f i r s t three stanzas catalogue a l l manner of people responding t o Nature's new growth i n s p r i n g by doing what gives each the most pleasure. These l i n e s capture the v a r i e t y o f p o s s i b l e responses and the joy and new hope inherent i n the new beginning, which Douglas sums up i n the adage t h a t "'A b l i t h s p r e i t makis greyn and f l o r y s t age"' (1. 21). Book V f i n d s Aeneas' company i n a s i m i l a r mood. The i n i t i a l t w o - t h i r d s o f the Book p i c t u r e the Trojans engaged i n a v a r i e t y o f h e r o i c a t h l e t i c p u r s u i t s i n the course o f the f u n e r a l games f o r Anchises with which they hope t o mark the end of t h e i r seven years' wandering before s e t t i n g out on t h e l a s t leg of t h e i r journey t o I t a l y , t h e i r promised but as yet e l u s i v e land o f d e s t i n y . When they leave Acestes' country a t the end of Book V, they are ready t o make a new beginning, having j u s t r efreshed themselves and proven t h e i r m e t t l e . Even the subsequent c a l a m i t y i n f l i c t e d by Juno, the p a r t i a l burning o f the f l e e t , o n l y serves t o strengthen the company f u r t h e r , i n t h a t only those w i t h the strongest commitment choose and are chosen t o continue the voyage and lay the foundations f o r the new Troy. On the eve of t h e i r e n t r y i n t o I t a l y , a l l omens seem hopeful f o r the success o f t h e i r mission and f o r the reburgeoning o f Trojan power i n a new land. The s p r i n g scene b r i e f l y 122 encapsulated i n Douglas's very f i r s t l i n e i s thus an apt metaphor i n d i c a t i n g the hopeful and joyous mood i n which the Trojans set out f o r I t a l y . I f Douglas the poet has so f a r c e l e b r a t e d the endless v a r i e t y o f human responses t o new beginnings and the "Plesance and io y ' (1. 19) t o be found i n them, i n the second three stanzas o f Prologue V Douglas the t r a n s l a t o r f i n d s t h a t the v a r i e t y and f l e x i b i l i t y o f V i r g i l ' s s t y l e are almost too much of a good t h i n g f o r h i m s e l f . Yet wh i l e "The c l e r k r e i o s y s hys bukis our t o seyn' ( I . 5 ) , Douglas the c r i t i c a l t r a n s l a t o r and sch o l a r always enjoys a l i t t l e f l y t i n g , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h Caxton, whose prose i n Book V and elsewhere he f i n d s "mank and mutulate' (1. 51), w h i l e h i s own propyne com from the press f u t e h a i t , O n f o r l a t i t , not iawyn f r a tun t o tun, In f r e s c h sapour new from the berry run. (V, P r o l . , 52-4) Douglas here uses a f u r t h e r image o f freshness and r e b i r t h , t h i s time s h i f t i n g from the regeneration o f Nature and from the renewal o f Troy's dominion t o h i s own new approach t o t r a n s l a t i o n . In c o n t r a s t t o h i s predecessors, he breaks with the t r a d i t i o n of recension and goes back d i r e c t l y t o the o r i g i n a l source, thus making a new beginning i n the a r t o f t r a n s l a t i o n . Douglas's motion i s not u n l i k e t h a t o f the Trojans, who are a l s o seeking out t h e i r f o r e f a t h e r s ' o r i g i n a l homeland i n Hesperia i n order t o found the new Troy, having discovered i n the meantime t h a t none o f the intermediate s t a t i o n s , such as Crete i n p a r t i c u l a r , w i l l s u f f i c e as a b a s i s f o r the realm yet t o be reborn. J u s t as Book V ends with Venus' appeal t o Neptune t o prosper Aeneas' e n t e r p r i s e , so Douglas concludes 123 Prologue V with a prayer, r e j e c t i n g Bacchus, Proserpina and V i c t o r i a , the d i v i n i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d with the various aspects of the f u n e r a l games, and c a l l i n g instead on h i s own Lord w i t h the p l e a t o grant him the a b i l i t y t o forego such e a r t h l y pleasure as might jeopardize h i s e t e r n a l happiness: Sen e r d l y plesour endis o f t w i t h sorow, we se, As i n t h i s buke nane exemplys ^e want, Lord, our p r o t t e c t o u r t o a l l t r a s t i s i n the, Bot quham na t h i n g i s worthy nor pyssant. To ws thy grace and a l s g r e t mercy grant. So f o r t o wend by temporal blythness That our e t e r n a l e ioy be nocht the l e s s ' (V, P r o l . , 62-8) Prologue V thus serves t o introduce Book V, but i t i s a l s o an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the t r a n s l a t o r t o make f u r t h e r refinements i n h i s statements regarding the a c t of c r i t i c a l t r a n s l a t i o n . Prologue VI, even more so than Prologues II and IV, i s again a "reader's guide" t o the Book i t precedes. Douglas here asks h i s readers not t o dismiss Book VI as c o n t a i n i n g 'bot i a p i s , / . . . leys or a i d y d o l a t r y i s ' (11. 9-10), but t o penetrate 'the clowdis of dyrk poecy' ( I , P r o l . , 193) t o f i n d the u n d e r l y i n g 'suythfast materis' ( I , P r o l . , 197). Using an occupatio topos as h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n — ' W a l d thou I suId t h i s buke t o the d e c l a r e , / Quhilk war i m p o s s i b i l t i l expreme at s c h o r t ? ' (11. 25-6 ) — D o u g l a s presents a f u l l - s c a l e e x p o s i t i o n of the p a r a l l e l i s m between V i r g i l ' s underworld and the C h r i s t i a n a f t e r l i f e , c o r r e l a t i n g Tartarus with H e l l and the E l y s i a n F i e l d s w i t h Heaven, and f i n d i n g space, too, f o r a Purgatory and a Limbo i n Hades. As f o r the v i c e s f o r which, as Aeneas i s t o l d , Tartarus i s the p r i c e , Douglas f i n d s t h a t they are the same as 'the synnys c a p i t a l ' (1. 41). Lest any reader f i n d t h i s reading f a r - f e t c h e d , Douglas c i t e s S e r v i u s , Augustine and Ascensius as a u t h o r i t i e s f o r h i s 124 i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Furthermore, he even f i n d s evidence i n V i r g i l ' s reference t o the anima mundi (VI, 724-32), t h a t V i r g i l espoused the concept o f one God the Father o r , i n another aspect, o f one God the Creator. V i r g i l ' s other gods—"hey i n l y wight i s ' (1. 83) — in Douglas's reading become "he v i n l y s p i r e t i s ' and 'angel l i s ' (11. 82, 84), and S i b y l , who i s 'a maid of goddis s e c r e t preve' (1. 138), i s equated with Mary, while P l u t o , the "Prynce i n t h a t dolorus den of wo and pane' ( I . 151), becomes Satan i n Douglas's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . However, although V i r g i l was 'ane h i e theolog sentencyus' (1. 75) a n t i c i p a t i n g many of the d o c t r i n e s o f C h r i s t i a n i t y , he "was na C r i s t y n man, per De' (1. 78), so t h a t i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t he o c c a s i o n a l l y " e r r e d , " as i n h i s tenet o f the t r a n s m i g r a t i o n o f the s o u l s . Central as t h i s concept i s t o the develoment o f the l a t t e r p a r t o f Book VI, Douglas devotes only four l i n e s t o i t s r e f u t a t i o n (11. 129-32), p o i n t i n g out too t h a t i t i s not a l t o g e t h e r d i s s i m i l a r from the C a t h o l i c concept o f the r e u n i f i c a t i o n o f body and soul a f t e r Doomsday. Even though Douglas o f f e r s a c l o s e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Book VI, he nonetheless s h i f t s the focus away from the high-point which the e n t i r e Book leads up t o . V i r g i l ' s Book VI f a l l s i n t o t h ree almost e q u a l l y long, but p r o g r e s s i v e l y important p a r t s : the preparations f o r the descent i n t o the underworld (VI, 1-263); Aeneas' entry i n t o the underworld and h i s journey through the neu t r a l regions o f n e i t h e r punishment nor joy ( i n c l u d i n g h i s meeting with Dido i n the Mourning F i e l d s , and a glance a t Tartarus i n passing) (VI, 264-636); and, f i n a l l y , the meeting o f Aeneas with Anchises i n the B l i s s f u l Groves, where Anchises f o r e t e l l s the g l o r y o f the Roman Empire (VI, 637-901). Douglas's Prologue, however, concentrates almost e x c l u s i v e l y on the middle s e c t i o n , r e l e g a t i n g 125 Anchises' prophecies t o a mere four l i n e s o f benevolent c r i t i c i s m : I say nocht a l l hys [ V i r g i l ' s ] warkis beyn p e r f y t e , Nor t h a t sawlys turnys i n o t h i r bodeys agane Thocht we t r a s t e , and may p r e i f be haly w r i t e , Oure sawle and body s a l anys t o g i d d i r remane. (VI, P r o l . , 129-32) By emphasizing one par t a t the expense o f the other two, Douglas determines what the reader i s t o regard as important i n Book VI. In Douglas's o p i n i o n , the prime concern of the Book i s t o show " " E f t i r t h a r deth, i n quhat p l y t e s a u l i s s a l stand' (VI, P r o l . , 37), but t h i s seems t o be a t variance w i t h V i r g i l ' s design, i n which the f o c a l p o i n t o f the Book i s the r i s e o f Rome. Douglas's reading does suggest a sense o f awe and wonder, though not a t the des t i n e d g l o r y o f the Roman Empire, but at the streng t h o f C h r i s t i a n Truth, a b l e t o a s s e r t i t s e l f i n a pagan w r i t e r even p r i o r t o i t s r e v e l a t i o n . Douglas's Prologue thus r e i n t e r p r e t s Book VI, drawing the reader's a t t e n t i o n away from the alr e a d y d i s c r e d i t e d f i n a l t h i r d and presenting the middle t h i r d as a foreshadowing o f the c o n d i t i o n s f o l l o w i n g the Last Judgement. Prologue V I I , the ' t r i s t i s prologus' which "smell i s new cum f u r t h o f h e l l ' (11. 162a, 163), being the numerical centre o f the work, i s c l o s e l y connected with both the preceding and the subsequent Book. Apart from the thematic l i n k s w i t h Book VI, verbal echoes a l s o e s t a b l i s h a c l o s e c o n t i n u i t y between V i r g i l ' s v i s i o n o f the realm o f the shades and Douglas's image o f the h e l l - l i k e winter landscape. At the same time, the chaos i n nature foreshadows the tu r m o i l caused by Juno i n Book V I I . At Juno's i n s t i g a t i o n , A l e c t o r i s e s from her h e l l i s h d w e l l i n g place t o overturn the peaceful and beneficent r u l e of L a t i n u s ; her aspect 126 t e r r i f i e s , and her i n f l u e n c e f r e n z i e s the characters who come i n contact w i t h her. She turns the world upside-down, provoking the populace t o d i s r e g a r d the r u l e r , goading the queen and her matrons t o set themselves ag a i n s t the decrees of the sage, d i v i n e l y - g u i d e d k i n g , and l a s h i n g Turnus on t o rebel a g a i n s t h i s o v e r l o r d and t o go t o war d e s p i t e h i s l i e g e ' s express command t o the c o n t r a r y . The images of unnatural d i s o r d e r , death and v i o l e n c e i n Douglas's 'drery p r e a m b i l l ' ( V I I , P r o l . , 166) a n t i c i p a t e the upheaval i n Latium where p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l bonds and even d i v i n e ordinances are t e m p o r a r i l y overturned and where war i s soon t o demand i t s v i c t i m s . Douglas's winter night c o n s t i t u t e s an " o b j e c t i v e c o r r e l a t i v e " 1 t o the benightedness of the Laurentines as t h e i r adherence t o L a t i n u s ' calm and reasonable r u l e i s suspended under A l e c t o ' s i n f l u e n c e and as c l a r i t y o f v i s i o n f a i l s them. The h o s t i l i t y o f the c o l d season, which makes even bare s u r v i v a l p r e c a r i o u s , corresponds t o the s h a t t e r i n g of L a t i n u s ' and the Trojan embassy's mutual o f f e r i n g of peace and p a r t i c u l a r l y o f L a t i n u s ' request f o r a marriage between L a v i n i a and Aeneas. In both scenarios beneficent growth and f r u i t f u l development are cut o f f , b l i g h t e d , and a c t i v e l y suppressed. Nonetheless, the winter s o l s t i c e i s a l s o a t u r n i n g p o i n t , and the harsh p e r i o d d i r e c t l y f o l l o w i n g i t w i l l e v e n t u a l l y be superseded by a time of renewed growth during which the image of man 'jokfjing] our pleuch agane' (1. 158) w i l l be more than a metaphor; so, too, the Trojans have the assurance t h a t a f t e r the p e r i o d of war, death and d e s t r u c t i o n a time of f l o u r i s h i n g development w i l l begin. For Douglas the t r a n s l a t o r , f o r the beings mentioned i n the Prologue, and f o r the i n h a b i t a n t s of Ausonia, n a t i v e and f o r e i g n a l i k e , t h i s c r i s i s a l r e a d y holds the promise of f u l f i l m e n t f o l l o w i n g a p e r i o d of intense 127 t r i a l and hardship, and i n t h i s the images o f the Prologue and o f the Book correspond i n harsh harmony. Prologue V I I I , a tour de f o r c e i n a l l i t e r a t i v e w r i t i n g i n which a h o s t i l e dream f i g u r e presents conventional s o c i a l c r i t i c i s m and reproaches the dreamer-narrator f o r wasting h i s time on the w r i t i n g o f poetry, has v a r i o u s l y been c a l l e d "a most a l i e n i n t e r p o l a t i o n " 2 and "a piece of comic r e l i e f t o.the h e r o i c subject matter o f the Aeneid [• . . ] , a grotesque parody of the opening l i n e s o f book V I I I . " 3 Although t h i s Prologue a l s o serves other f u n c t i o n s as discussed i n chapters I and I I , i n terms o f the linkage between Prologue and Book, Coldw e l l ' s statement t h a t Prologue V I I I , "on the d i s t o r t i o n o f the t r u e po1is, i s a f o i l t o the i d e a l i z e d s t a t e o f the noble Evander" 4 seems t o come c l o s e s t t o the t r u t h . While the dream-vision form l i n k s t h i s Prologue t o the f i r s t p a r t o f Book V I I I , where the god of the r i v e r T i ber appears t o Aeneas i n an oraculum, the d i s l o c a t e d , c h a o t i c s t a t e o f s o c i e t y c r i t i c i z e d by the "selcouth seg' (1. 4) c o n t r a s t s s h a r p l y w i t h the harmonious, law-abiding and devout ways o f Evander's n a t i o n described i n the main part o f the Book. Even though Evander emphasizes t h a t the Golden Age under Saturn i s past, by c o n t r a s t t o the u t t e r s o c i a l t u r m o i l d e p i c t e d i n the Prologue, Evander's own s t a t e nonetheless appears i d e a l , w i t h the one exception o f the smouldering h o s t i l i t y towards the R u t u l i a n s . Indeed, almost every statement made i n the dream-figure's harangue can be p a i r e d w i t h i t s opposite i n V i r g i l ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f Evander's A r c a d i a . As a r e s u l t , the j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f the two images o f s o c i e t y enforces r e f l e c t i o n on what _[s and what should be; i t urges the audience t o consider the a l t e r n a t i v e s and t o make a moral and s o c i a l choice. As Douglas implies i n Prologue IX, preaching i s 128 i n e f f e c t i v e , however, and the d i a t r i b e o f the "selcouth seg' consequently has much le s s of an impact than does the p o r t r a y a l i n the f o l l o w i n g Book o f a wel1-governed, harmonious s o c i e t y i n a c t i o n , whose image Douglas presents as an a l t e r n a t i v e t o the "mysery' (1. 101) which h i s speaker perceives i n contemporaneous Scotland. Prologue VIII thus i s less a "grotesque parody" than an exposfe of the s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and moral t r a v e s t y which may yet go by the name of s o c i e t y . Prologue IX i s again a l e s s d i r e c t i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the subsequent Book. Book IX contains the f i r s t s u stained b a t t l e scenes, e s p e c i a l l y Nisus and Euryalus' h e r o i c s o r t i e and Turnus' single-handed combat i n s i d e the Trojan camp. In both these passages, V i r g i l emphasizes the high heroism of the three young w a r r i o r s . However, no l e s s important are Euryalus' speech demonstrating f i l i a l p i e t y and Ascanius' speech e x e m p l i f y i n g magnanimous governance. In h i s Prologue, Douglas takes up the theme of high-minded c o n d u c t — b o t h k n i g h t l y and r o y a l — a n d transforms i t i n t o an expose on the kind o f s t y l e which alone can do j u s t i c e t o t h i s s u b j e c t matter. The d i s c u s s i o n o f the "knychtlyke s t i l e ' (IX, P r o l . , 31), however, i s i t s e l f preceded by three h i g h l y embellished s i x - l i n e stanzas on the v i r t u e s o f honesty and j u d i c i o u s moderation: T h i r 1usty warkis of h i e nobi1yte A g i l y t e dyd wryte of worthy c l e r k i s . And t h a r i n merkis wysdome, v t i l y t e , Na v i i y t e , nor s i c o n t h r y f t y s p e r k i s ; S c u r i l y t e i s bot f o r doggis a t b a r k i s , Quha t h a r t o hark i s f a l l y s i n f r a g i l y t e . Honeste i s the way t o worthyness, Vertu, d o u t l e s s , the p e r f y t e g a i t t o b l y s s ; Thou do na myss, and eschew i d i l n e s s , Persew prowes, ha Id na t h i n g a t i s hys; Be nocht r a k l e s s t o say sone 3a, I wyss, And syne of t h i s the c o n t r a r wyrk express. 129 Do t y l 1 i l k wight as thou done t o waldbe; Be n e v i r s l e and d o u b i l l , nor ^ i t our l y g h t ; Oyss not thy mycht abufe thyne awin degre, Clym n e v i r our h i e , nor 31't t o law thou l y c h t ; Wirk na malgre, thocht thou be n e v i r sa wyght, Ha Id with the r y c h t , and press the n e v i r t o l e . (IX, P r o l . , 1-18) C r i t i c s have o c c a s i o n a l l y commented on a lack of cohesion between the two s t y l i s t i c a l l y very d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of Prologue IX, or have ignored the f i r s t three stanzas a l t o g e t h e r and t r e a t e d the Prologue as i f i t c o n s i s t e d o f the longer couplet s e c t i o n o n l y . 5 L o i s Ebin, however, p o i n t s t o an important connexion when she w r i t e s , L i k e Henryson, who had suggested i n h i s Fabi11 i s t h a t p o e t i c s t y l e was a more e f f e c t i v e response t o the i l l s o f the time than "haly p r e i c h i n g , ' Douglas implies by h i s c o n t r a s t between moral and V y a l l ' s t y l e s i n Prologue IX a s i m i l a r choice of a p o e t i c medium r a t h e r than an e x p l i c i t l y moral one as "bute.' 6 When Douglas a b r u p t l y breaks o f f a f t e r the f i r s t three stanzas and continues the Prologue i n a d i f f e r e n t verse form, he e x p l i c i t l y r e j e c t s the previous manner of w r i t i n g , but he a l s o implies a r e j e c t i o n o f the p o e t i c s t y l e i n which i t i s phrased. His t r a n s i t i o n a l l i n e , "Eneuch of t h i s , ws nedis prech na mor' (1. 19), makes i t c l e a r t h a t Douglas f i n d s the m o r a l i z i n g tone i n e f f e c t i v e , and t h a t i f any d i d a c t i c i s m i s intended, i t had b e t t e r be merely implied i n the harmony between subject matter and s t y l e , both of which together must a l s o be a p p r o p r i a t e t o the intended r e c i p i e n t of the work. By s w i t c h i n g t o p l a i n c o u p l e t s , Douglas a l s o r e j e c t s the extremely ornate s t y l e of the preceding three stanzas; the complex rhyme scheme of f i n a l and i n t e r n a l , feminine and masculine rhymes, 130 and the f l o r i d word choice and laboured word order draw a t t e n t i o n t o themselves and thereby make the communication o f moral concepts i n e f f e c t i v e . 7 Moreover, i t goes counter t o the idea o f "magnanymyte' (XI, P r o l . , 35) e x e m p l i f i e d i n Book IX and discussed i n Prologue XI as an e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e o f t r u e knighthood, f o r as soon as heroism or other high-mindedness becomes as s e l f - c o n s c i o u s as i s the s t y l e o f the opening stanzas o f Prologue IX, i t becomes o s t e n t a t i o u s and loses p r e c i s e l y the q u a l i t y which gave i t n o b i l i t y i n the f i r s t p l a c e . The k i n d o f verbal " a g i l y t e ' (1. 2) demonstrated i n the s t a n z a i c s e c t i o n thus d i s r e g a r d s appropriateness and degree, f o r while i t c e r t a i n l y avoids ' s c u r i l y t e ' and 'lowuss langage' (11. 5, 25), i t seems t o "Clym [ . . . ] our h i e ' (1. 16) and i s t h e r e f o r e l a c k i n g i n "grauyte' (1. 26). Read i n c o n j u n c t i o n , both s e c t i o n s o f the Prologue thus make the same p o i n t : the form o f w r i t i n g must harmonize with i t s content and i t s addressee; without such harmony, " F u l l l i t i l l i t wald d e l y t e ' (1. 36). In using the " r y a l l s t y l e , c l e p y t h e r o y c a l l ' (1. 21) as an example t o i l l u s t r a t e h i s d i s c u s s i o n , Douglas i m p l i c i t l y draws a t t e n t i o n t o the d i s t i n g u i s h i n g q u a l i t i e s which the audience may expect t o f i n d i n the a c t i o n s and speeches narrated i n the Book t h a t f o l l o w s . I f preaching i s i n e f f e c t i v e — a s the r a n t i n g o f the "selcouth seg' i n Prologue VIII has s u f f i c i e n t l y demonstrated—teaching by example may be b e t t e r s u i t e d t o a c h i e v i n g the v i r t u e s c a l l e d f o r i n the opening stanzas. Book IX thus becomes a subject lesson i n mora l l y unimpeachable conduct, t o be presented in the kind o f s t y l e t o which the audience i s most l i k e l y t o respond favourably. Prologue X, p r i n c i p a l l y a sermon on the T r i n i t y , o f f e r s a strong 131 C h r i s t i a n r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the Book t h a t f o l l o w s and implies the r e f u t a t i o n o f the Olympian gods, which Douglas had denied h i m s e l f i n Prologue VI: To achieve t h i s e f f e c t Douglas here r e l i e s e x c l u s i v e l y on a j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f the concepts developed i n the Prologue and the scenes presented i n the Book. Book X opens with J u p i t e r convening a c o u n c i l o f the gods and commanding them t o d e s i s t from t h e i r a c t i v e d i s c o r d and from f u r t h e r c ontravention o f h i s ordinances. But n e i t h e r Juno nor Venus i s ready t o y i e l d her p o s i t i o n , and other d e i t i e s continue t o take s i d e s , so t h a t J u p i t e r has t o take the awesome path o f an oath invoking Styx i n order t o q u e l l the d i s c o r d and enforce h i s decree t h a t n e i t h e r s i d e i n the L a t i a n war s h a l l be favoured, but t h a t Fate s h a l l take i t s course. While the gods are fo r c e d t o submit t o J u p i t e r ' s command, he himse l f i s a l s o bound by Fate, having power only t o delay but not t o a l t e r i t . From here on, the focus of the Book s h i f t s from Olympus down t o the Trojan camp and the seashore, where Trojans and Ausonians are locked i n a b a t t l e which i s the d i r e c t r e s u l t o f the d i s c o r d among the gods and which moves even them t o p i t y (X, 758-59). Douglas's Prologue, i n c o n t r a s t , s t r e s s e s u n i t y and love and, r e s u l t i n g from them, peace. In h i s learned d i s c o u r s e on the T r i n i t y , he emphasizes time and again the c o - e t e r n a l , c o - e v a l , co-equal, and inseparable nature o f t h i s t r i - u n i t y . U n l i k e J u p i t e r , who has t o r e s o r t t o f o r c e t o make the Olympian gods submit t o h i s supremacy, the T r i n i t y emanates love, grants man f r e e w i l l , and even a f t e r man's disobedience seeks t o r e s t o r e u n i t y , harmony and love through the o f f e r o f Grace, another form o f love. While the f i r s t p art o f both Prologue and Book i s thus occupied with the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f C h r i s t i a n and pagan d i v i n e r e l a t i o n s h i p s , the 132 second part g l o r i f i e s the love which i s prepared f o r s e l f - s a c r i f i c e i n order t o redeem i t s o b j e c t . I.S. Ross speaks o f Book X as " i n p a r t an anthem f o r the doomed h e r o i c youths Lausus and P a l l a s , " 8 both o f whom s a c r i f i c e t h e i r l i v e s , the one t o save t h a t o f h i s f a t h e r Mezentius, and the other t o av e r t d i s a s t e r from the routed Trojan and Arcadian f o r c e s . P e r s o n i f i e d i n these two young heroes are the highest p u b l i c and p r i v a t e Roman v i r t u e s . J u s t as Aeneas i s i n Prologue XI made a type o f C h r i s t i n leading h i s people home t o the " f a t a l e cuntre o f behest' (XI, P r o l . , 178), so P a l l a s and Lausus are types o f C h r i s t i n p l a c i n g the supreme v i r t u e s o f t h e i r value system above t h e i r own l i v e s . Douglas's meditation on the Incarnation and the Passion i s thus a counterpart t o V i r g i l ' s "anthem," yet i t a l s o s t r e s s e s t h e i r e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e : w h i le 'A drop had bene s u f f i c i e n t o f [ C h r i s t ' s ] blude / A thousand war 1dis t o haue redemyt...' (X, P r o l . , 132-33), the s a c r i f i c e s o f P a l l a s and Lausus have no redemptive c a p a c i t y or only a very l i m i t e d one. A f t e r P a l l a s ' death Aeneas s t i l l has to exert h i s utmost power t o keep Turnus and h i s f o r c e s a t bay, and a f t e r Lausus i s s l a i n , the wounded Mezentius returns f o r a desperate duel with Aeneas, not wanting t o l i v e a f t e r h i s son has d i e d . While Douglas had i n Prologue VI s t i l l been a b l e t o a l l e g o r i z e V i r g i l ' s pantheon, i n Prologue X he l i t e r a l l y r e j e c t s V i r g i l ' s 'mawmentis' (1. 153), whose s t r i f e causes d i s c o r d on eart h and demands the p r i c e o f such f r u i t l e s s s a c r i f i c e s . He r e a p p l i e s V i r g i l ' s phrase 'divum pater atque hominum rex' (X, 2) t o h i s own God, "the Fader o f goddis and men' (1. 156), who a l s o ""haldis court our c r i s t a 11 hevynnys c l e i r ' (1. 166; c f . X, 1-5), but i n whose realm there i s 'Concord f o r e v e r , ' a n d hence "myrth, r e s t and endles b l y s s , / [...] a l l w i l f a i r , eyss and euerlestand i o y ' (11. 171, 174). Book X thus 133 becomes an i l l u s t r a t i o n o f the s t a t e of man r u l e d by 'ydol1, stok [or] e l f (1. 154) without d i v i n e " l u f and cheryte' (1. 126). Prologue X I , d i s c u s s i n g t r u e c h i v a l r y , f o l l o w s the same b a s i c p a t t e r n as Prologue IV, transforming the f o l l o w i n g Book i n t o a moral lesson. Douglas again takes h i s cue from the contents of the subsequent Book, but a l s o from the preceding one, each of which c o n s i s t s t o approximately h a l f i t s length o f a n a r r a t i o n of the b a t t l e s fought on the p l a i n o u t s i d e L a t i n u s ' c i t y . I t i s s t r i k i n g , however, t h a t while Aeneas i s the main hero of the combats i n Book X, he i s not shown f i g h t i n g at a l l i n Book XI. On the c o n t r a r y . Book XI shows Aeneas as statesman and guardian of h i s people, w h i l e the b a t t l e scenes centre on Vol scan C a m i l l a . C o l d w e l l ' s statement t h a t Prologue XI " j o i n s the p r a i s e of t r u e knighthood, or s p i r i t u a l c h i v a l r y , t o V e r g i l ' s f i e r c e s t f i g h t i n g , " 9 thus seems t o miss the p o i n t , c o n s i d e r i n g too t h a t the rage of b a t t l e i s no l e s s intense i n Books IX, X and X I I . When Douglas focuses on Aeneas i n the f i n a l three stanzas of the Prologue, what he s t r e s s e s i s not so much Aeneas' outstanding heroism on the b a t t l e f i e l d and during other times of danger but r a t h e r Aeneas' moral q u a l i t i e s , namely, t h a t he knows t o "Ensew v e r t u , and eschew euery vyce' (1. 195) even though he i s one o f the "paganys a i d ' (1. 194) who d i d not have the promise of "the kynryk ay l e s t y n g ' (1. 183). Since Books VII t o XII have a tendency t o be remembered as one long b a t t l e account, i t w i l l be u s e f u l t o r e c a l l here t h a t Book XI opens a t daybreak w i t h Aeneas f u l f i l l i n g h i s p u b l i c duty t o the gods even though he would have p r e f e r r e d f i r s t t o honour h i s f a l l e n f r i e n d s and comrades by g i v i n g them b u r i a l . While s t i l l engaged i n the sacred r i t e s of Mars, he addresses the c h i e f t a i n s of h i s f o r c e s , t r y i n g t o renew t h e i r courage. 134 t h e i r hope o f v i c t o r y , and t h e i r f a i t h i n the benevolence of the gods. Immediately t h e r e a f t e r , he takes great care t o honour the dead P a l l a s and t o arrange a f i t t i n g , even l a v i s h procession t o have P a l l a s ' body taken home t o Evander. Only then, a f t e r the d u t i e s owed t o the gods and t o the a l l y are discharged, does Aeneas t u r n t o the b u r i a l r i t e s f o r the Trojans' own dead. He i s , however, i n t e r r u p t e d by envoys from L a t i n u s , a s k i n g f o r a t r u c e t o enable the L a t i n s t o bury t h e i r even greater number of dead. "Bonus Aeneas,' "heynd, c u r t a s s and gud,' grants t h e i r request (XI, 106-7; X I , i i i , 13) and addresses the enemy envoys with c o n s i d e r a t i o n and sympathy, causing aged Drances, the head of the embassy, t o wonder aloud whether Aeneas' "gret gentryce and sa i u s t equyte, / Or [ h i s ] gret f o r s and laubour b e l l i c a l l ' ( XI, i i i , 60-1) are more t o be admired ( " i u s t i t i a e n e p r i u s mirer b e l l i n e laborum?' X I , 126). A f t e r t h i s a c t of magnanimous c a r i t a s on the part o f Aeneas, the focus o f Book XI s h i f t s away from Aeneas t o Evander, La t i n u s and f i n a l l y C a m i l l a , and Aeneas i s s c a r c e l y even mentioned again u n t i l the f i n a l l i n e s , which prepare f o r the c l a s h between Aeneas and Turnus i n Book X I I . Aeneas' c h a r i t y , p i e t y and j u s t i c e , and h i s , on the whole, mor a l l y and e t h i c a l l y unimpeachable conduct are the f e a t u r e s which are s t r e s s e d here, a f t e r h i s heroism and w a r l i k e q u a l i t i e s have been demonstrated i n the preceding Book. In the Prologue, Douglas uses the same p a t t e r n : m a r t i a l prowess alone i s not e n o u g h — i t must be used only i n the p u r s u i t o f j u s t i c e , and i t must be tempered by "magnanymyte' (XI, P r o l . , 35). Beyond t h a t , Aeneas i s a l s o made an exemp1um f o r the C h r i s t i a n s o l d i e r , i n quest f o r "hys f a t a l e cuntre o f behest' (1. 178). I f Aeneas can c u l t i v a t e the above q u a l i t i e s i n order t o gain h i s destined "temporal 1 ryng' (1. 135 182), how much more ought even the o r d i n a r y C h r i s t i a n be ready t o p r a c t i s e j u s t i c e , magnanimity, c h a r i t y and v i r t u e i n general i n order t o gain "the kynryk ay l e s t y n g , ' which "was hecht t i l l Abraham and hys seyd' (11. 183, 199). Prologue XI thus o f f e r s a s p i r i t u a l key t o the subsequent Book, r e i n t e r p r e t i n g i t as a C h r i s t i a n a l l e g o r y . Prologue X I I , the joyous Prologue which Douglas hims e l f c a l l s a ' l u s t y c r a f t y preambi11' and which he e n t i t l e s " ' p e r l e o f May'" (1. 307), must a t f i r s t reading seem e n t i r e l y unconnected with the f o l l o w i n g Book, r e l a t i n g the f i n a l , bloody s t r u g g l e s i n which Aeneas wins the b a t t l e f o r I t a l y . However, even though the atmosphere of the Prologue c o n t r a s t s most sharp l y w i t h t h a t of the Book, the two p a r t s are connected by strong thematic and s t r u c t u r a l l i n k s . As I have proposed e a r l i e r . Prologue XII i s e s s e n t i a l l y a hymn t o the Sun and t o i t s Creator, c e l e b r a t i n g the triumph (1. 275) of the Lord of L i g h t and showing a l l nature doing obeisance t o i t s Lord. Knowing t h a t they lack the power t o prolong t h e i r w intery i n f l u e n c e , the h o s t i l e planets f l e e from the presence of the r i s i n g Sun, whose beneficent r u l e b r i n g s r e b i r t h and harmony on a cosmic plane. I f Prologue V I I , w i t h i t s images of d i s o r d e r , barrenness and death, introduces not merely Book VII but the e n t i r e I l i a d i c h a l f of the Aeneid, then Prologue X I I , f i l l e d w i t h images o f u n i t y , renewed v i t a l i t y and regeneration, heralds the end of the wars and a n t i c i p a t e s the subsequent peace under I t a l y ' s new r u l e r . The Sun i s the Prologue's counterpart t o Aeneas, who i n Book X, on h i s r e t u r n from Evander's c i t y , had been a s s o c i a t e d with the sun i n the magnificent image of Aeneas standing at the s t e r n of h i s s h i p w i t h h i s 'clipeum . . . ardentem' (X, 261-62) ca t c h i n g the rays of the sun a t dawn. The hasty withdrawal o f 136 Orion and the other p l a n e t s and creatures o f night a t the emergence o f the Sun i n the opening l i n e s of Prologue XII p a r a l l e l s the rout o f the Rut u l i a n s and Turnus' t e r r i f i e d f l i g h t from Aeneas, whose triumph over Turnus and u l t i m a t e l y over war i t s e l f i s as predestined as i s the triumph of the Sun over night and winter. A f t e r the d e s t r u c t i o n o f the o r i g i n a l Troy, a f t e r the ordeals of the Trojans' wanderings across the sea, and a f t e r the death-dealing wars i n Latium, Aeneas' v i c t o r y over Turnus brings the pre-ordained beginning o f the reburgeoning o f the Trojan empire, soon t o be merged with the L a t i n s . Whereas Prologue V I I , the Winter Prologue, used the winter s o l s t i c e as an image o f the c r i s i s p o i n t i n the working-out of the Trojans' d e s t i n y . Prologue XII i s based on the theme o f s p r i n g — n o t summei—as an image o f a new beginning r a t h e r than completion. Prologue XII thus looks beyond Book X I I ' s s t a r k f i n a l scene of the k i l l i n g of Turnus, and gives an i n d i c a t i o n of what i s t o come a f t e r the barren, dead 1y and he 11i sh n i ght o f the war i s over. In Book VII the i n i t i a l peace agreement between Aeneas and Latinus was broken by the L a t i n s as a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f the a c t i o n s o f A l e c t o , i n V i r g i l ' s v e r s i o n the daughter o f Night ( V I I , 331) and of P l u t o ( V I I , 327), whom Douglas i n Prologue VI equates w i t h Satan; i n Book XII A l e c t o appears again, t h i s time transformed i n t o an owl, causing Turnus t o be paralysed with h o r r o r . The owl i s a l s o the only animal mentioned i n the opening l i n e s o f Prologue XII (11. 11-12) as h i d i n g instead o f r e j o i c i n g a t the approach of the sun, which here represents i t s Creator as well as the Lord of L i g h t , the Son, w i t h whom Aeneas has been a s s o c i a t e d s i n c e Prologue X I , where Aeneas became a type o f C h r i s t . Aeneas' v i c t o r y i s thus r e i n t e r p r e t e d by Douglas as a metaphor f o r the i n e v i t a b l e v i c t o r y o f l i g h t 137 and goodness over the powers of death and d e s t r u c t i o n ; indeed, one might even go so f a r as t o argue t h a t s i n c e Aeneas i n Douglas's reading i s a prototype of the model C h r i s t i a n s o l d i e r , who of h i s f r e e w i l l stands f i r m a g a i n s t the onslaughts of the F l e s h , the World, and the Devil (XI, P r o l . , 81-104), h i s triumph over Turnus, whose o p p o s i t i o n stems from i n f e r n a l i n f l u e n c e s p e r s o n i f i e d i n A l e c t o , represents the f i n a l v i c t o r y o f Good over E v i l preceding E t e r n i t y . In any case, the Prologue c e r t a i n l y lessens the starkness of the Book's l a s t scene and transforms i t from an image of avenging r e t r i b u t i o n i n t o one of triumphant v i c t o r y . Prologue X I I I , with i t s dream i n t e r v i e w with Maphaeus Vegius, l i e s on a d i f f e r e n t plane a l t o g e t h e r . Here Douglas allo w s h i m s e l f the comedy which he had so f a r r e j e c t e d as i nappropriate t o the work i n progress (IX, P r o l . ) . This comedy, however, goes deeper than i s u s u a l l y assumed, and Douglas i s even more under-handed i n h i s joke at Maphaeus' expense than i s u s u a l l y recognized. The Prologue's s e t t i n g o f the summer evening, as a l l nature l i e s down to s l e e p and r e s t , i n d i c a t e s the f i n a l completion of the work i n hand. But Douglas i s not yet permitted t o lay down h i s pen, f o r Maphaeus Vegius f o r c e f u l l y demands t h a t Douglas add a t r a n s l a t i o n o f Maphaeus' own 'schort C r i s t y n wark' (1. 140), p o i n t i n g out t h a t such an undertaking would be f a r more m e r i t o r i o u s than the e n t i r e t r a n s l a t i o n o f the poem of V i r g i l , who was a f t e r a l l but 'a g e n t i l e c l e r k ' (1. 139). A f t e r Prologues 11—X11 have o f f e r e d a systematic r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the Aeneid along C h r i s t i a n l i n e s , t h i s argument o b v i o u s l y cannot f a i l t o amuse Douglas, both i n the dream and i n waking l i f e . Douglas's f a c e t i o u s l y phrased promise "to t r a n s 1 a i t [Maphaeus'] buke, i n honour of God / And hys 138 A p o s t o l i s t w e l f , i n the numbir od' (11. 151-52) i s not only a f i n e and learned t h r u s t d i r e c t e d a t Maphaeus' v a n i t y , but i t a l s o undercuts the argument t h a t s e c u l a r l i t e r a t u r e has less value than p a t e n t l y r e l i g i o u s w r i t i n g . Considering V i r g i l "ane h i e theolog sentencyus' (VI, P r o l . , 75), Douglas has worked out the C h r i s t i a n reading which he b e l i e v e s the Aeneid supports, but he knows too t h a t the ' C r i s t y n ' w r i t e r who composed Book XI I I had no such subtext i n mind f o r h i s sequel; indeed, Maphaeus' c l a i m r e s t s s o l e l y on the C h r i s t i a n i t y of the man, not on any r e l i g i o u s or d i d a c t i c character of the work i t s e l f . Not knowing j u s t how C h r i s t i a n V i r g i l ' s work has become as a r e s u l t o f Douglas's i n t e r p o l a t i o n o f the Prologues, Maphaeus does not recognize t h a t h i s own w r i t i n g simply f a i l s t o approach the same l e v e l o f high seriousness. Douglas's joke i s thus f o r i n s i d e r s — t h o s e who have f o l l o w e d h i s advice t o "Reid, r e i d agane, t h i s volume, mair than twyss' (VI, P r o l . , 12). At the same time, Prologue X I I I s e t s a new tone f o r the reading of the remainder of the Eneados. The c o n c e n t r a t i o n and c l o s e a t t e n t i o n which Douglas had so f a r deemed a b s o l u t e l y necessary are no longer r e q u i r e d ; i n s t e a d , the r e s t o f the work may be read a t face value, and although Douglas promises t o t r a n s l a t e Maphaeus' work i n a s t y l e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the preceding twelve Books, he e x p l i c i t l y d e f l a t e s a l l claims f o r the value which the supplement might h a v e — l i t e r a r y , r e l i g i o u s , or o t h e r w i s e — a n d makes i t p l a i n t h a t he includes the t h i r t e e n t h Book only w i l l y - n i l l y i n order not t o run a f o u l of popular t a s t e and p u b l i c demand. Prologue X I I I thus makes i t p e r f e c t l y c l e a r t h a t , as f a r as Douglas i s concerned, the S c o t t i s h Aeneid i s complete at the end of Book X I I , and even though the Eneados continues. Book X I I I does not p r o p e r l y belong t o the t e x t . While o f f e r i n g a p a r t i a l 139 j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r i n c l u d i n g the sequel, Prologue X I I I i s a l s o an extremely t a c t f u l way of t e l l i n g the more pe r c e p t i v e and s o p h i s t i c a t e d readers not t o bother reading on. 140 Notes 1 Ross, ""Proloug' and 'Buke'," p.399. 2 Lauchlan MacLean Watt, Douglas's Aeneid, (Cambridge: Univ. Press, 1920; r p t . New York: AMS Press, 1975), p.109. 3 Bawcutt, Gavin Douglas, p.173. 4 C o l d w e l l , " I n t r o d u c t i o n , " v o l . I, p.88. 5 P r i s c i l l a Bawcutt deals with Prologue IX i n j u s t two sentences, f i n d i n g t h a t there are "signs of e a r l i e r work being used i n Prologue IX, where the f i r s t eighteen l i n e s form a separate m o r a l i z i n g s e c t i o n i n a d i f f e r e n t metre from the r e s t o f the Prologue. Line 19 [ . . . ] e f f e c t s the t r a n s i t i o n t o a c r i t i c a l passage r e l a t e d t o the book t h a t f o l l o w s . " (Gavin Douglas, p.164). I. S. Ross b r i e f l y comments on the s t a n z a i c i n i t i a l s e c t i o n and suggests t h a t there i s no connexion between i t and the second p a r t o f the Prologue: "The main theme [of the s t a n z a i c p a r t ] i s p r a i s e o f v i r t u e but Douglas does not wish t o s u s t a i n t h i s . " ("'Proloug' and "Buke'," p.401.) C o l d w e l l , i n h i s c h e c k l i s t o f the Prologues, omits any mention of the i n i t i a l s e c t i o n and f i n d s t h a t Prologue IX, " i n which Douglas turns on h i s c r i t i c s , echoes Turnus' a t t a c k on the Trojans," thus suggesting a p a r a l l e l i s m between the r e - c r e a t o r o f the fortunes o f Aeneas, on the one hand, and Aeneas' foremost opponent, on the other. ( C o l d w e l l , v o l . I, p.88.) 6 L o i s Ebin, "The Role of the N a r r a t o r , " pp. 358-59. 7 C o l d w e l l ' s misconception t h a t "the complicated i n t e r l o c k i n g rime-scheme [ i s ] so i n t r i c a t e t h a t the sense i s s a c r i f i c e d t o i t " proves the p o i n t . ( C o l d w e l l , v o l . I, p. 225, note on IX, P r o l . , 1-18.) Watt, Douglas's Aeneid, p . I l l , d e s c r i bes the complex rhyme scheme as "a k i n d of weaving rhyme" which, " l i k e the swing of a pendulum," l i n k s the i n t e r n a l rhyme word with the t a i l rhyme word o f the preceding l i n e . 8 Ross, "'Proloug' and "Buke'," p.402. 9 Coldwel1, v o l . I, p.88. 141 Chapter V — The Double Progress While there are strong l i n k s between the i n d i v i d u a l Prologues and the Books which they introduce, the Prologues o f the Eneados are a l s o l i n k e d t o each other. Read as a s e r i e s by t h e m s e l v e s — t h a t i s , i n i s o l a t i o n from the B o o k s — t h e Prologues o f f e r glimpses a t the progress o f the t r a n s l a t o r a t work, h i s personal responses t o the work, h i s a r t i s t i c problems, h i s f e e l i n g o f c o n f l i c t between h i s a r t i s t i c p u r s u i t and h i s r e l i g i o u s c a l l i n g , h i s temporary f a t i g u e , and h i s f i n a l triumph when the work i s completed. In several places i n the Prologues and end-matter, Douglas l i k e n s the work o f t r a n s l a t i n g the Aeneid t o a p e r i l o u s voyage which, i n the f i n a l Exclamation, i s s a i d t o have come t o an end, with the s h i p now s a f e l y anchored i n the harbour. 1 The metaphor suggests t h a t Douglas sees a correspondence between h i s own progress and Aeneas' voyage from the r u i n s of Troy, through many dangers, t o the banks o f the T i b e r : both journeys are q u e s t s — t h e one f o r the " f a t a l e cuntre o f behest' (XI, P r o l . , 178), the other f o r a new, c r i t i c a l approach t o t r a n s l a t i o n ; when the two journeys are completed, the outcome o f each i s an e n t i r e l y new c r e a t i o n — the founding of a new n a t i o n , and a defence o f poetry together with a theory o f t r a n s l a t i o n accompanied by i t s p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n . As Aeneas leaves Troy behind i n search o f Rome, so Douglas c a s t s o f f the t r a d i t i o n of the medieval treatments of the Troy legend and turns t o the new v i s i o n o f Renaissance humanism i n developing the p r i n c i p l e s on which h i s work i s based. In the Renaissance view, Aeneas' progress, however, a l s o has a second aspect. He i s seen t o develop i n t o a model p r i n c e and—what i s m o r e — i n t o the good man per se, who has been t e s t e d and, strengthened by hardship and s u f f e r i n g , has emerged v i c t o r i o u s from h i s t r i a l s . Douglas's n a r r a t o r , as L o i s Ebin has observed, undergoes a s i m i l a r tempering as he w r e s t l e s with the problems a s s o c i a t e d with the f a i t h f u l rendering of a work of the highest e x c e l l e n c e from one medium i n t o another, and w i t h the problems involved i n being a C h r i s t i a n poet t r a n s l a t i n g a pagan work. 2 E v e n t u a l l y the n a r r a t o r , t o o , emerges equal t o h i s t r i a l s — s o much so t h a t he can e a s i l y s u s t a i n the s l a p s t i c k comedy of the t h i r t e e n t h Prologue. The s e r i e s o f Prologues, l i k e the s e r i e s o f Books, f a l l s i n t o two d i s t i n c t p a r t s . Prologues I t o V show the n a r r a t o r f u l l o f u n c e r t a i n t y , s t r u g g l i n g with h i s a r t i s t i c problems and searching f o r answers t o the questions he poses i n the f i r s t Prologue. In these f i r s t f i v e Prologues, the c o n f l i c t between Douglas's a r t i s t i c and moral i m p u l s e s — t h a t i s , the c o n f l i c t inherent i n h i s dual r o l e as " c l e r k , ' both p r i e s t and p o e t — i s presented from ever new angles. In these Prologues a r t i s t i c and r e l i g i o u s themes and t o p i c s a l t e r n a t e and i n t e r t w i n e ; d i s c u s s i o n s of a r t i s t i c goals and p o e t i c s t y l e and technique are set o f f a g a i n s t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of moral and r e l i g i o u s i s s u e s , with l i t t l e a c t u a l c o n t i n u i t y from one Prologue t o the next. Another s i g n of the n a r r a t o r ' s s t r u g g l i n g u n c e r t a i n t y i s t h a t invocations of God and Mary f o r guidance i n the work are frequent h e r e 3 — the n a r r a t o r seems t o be c r y i n g out f o r help w i t h a task which i s not only d i f f i c u l t i n i t s e l f , but which i s a l s o f e l t t o be somewhat inappropriate f o r a provost. While Douglas i s keenly aware of the c u l t u r a l importance of V i r g i l ' s work, he i s a l s o a c u t e l y conscious of the o b j e c t i o n s which can be r a i s e d by h i s c r i t i c s as well as by h i s own conscience, namely, t h a t the Aeneid can be regarded as a work i n which a pagan w r i t e r g l o r i f i e s the p u r s u i t of w o r l d l y e n d s — t h e conquest of a temporal realm, guided by non-143 C h r i s t i a n d e i t i e s and conducted w i t h , t o the medieval mind, a t times questionable e t h i c s . Douglas, too, c e l e b r a t e s e a r t h l y p l e a s u r e s — i n Prologue V, f o r example—but never without being conscious o f t h e i r t r a n s i t o r i n e s s , which he expresses i n h i s repeated warnings t h a t e a r t h l y joy w i l l end i n woe, and t h a t indulgence i n e a r t h l y joys w i l l endanger one's chance of a t t a i n i n g e t e r n a l b l i s s . These problems and c o n f l i c t s inherent i n Douglas's quest are r e f l e c t e d , too, i n the n a r r a t o r ' s a l l u s i o n t o the long i n t e r r u p t i o n which had delayed the progress of h i s work, and which was p a r t l y a consequence of having more pr e s s i n g matters t o attend t o ( V I I , P r o l . , 153-4), and p a r t l y , one may assume, a r e s u l t o f the poet's inner c o n f l i c t which had l e f t him stranded i n the a r t i s t i c wasteland r e f l e c t e d i n the Winter Prologue. A f t e r the s t r u g g l e s o f the f i r s t f i v e Prologues, the n a r r a t o r f i n d s a p a r t i a l s o l u t i o n t o h i s e t h i c a l dilemma i n Prologue VI, where he achieves a t h e o r e t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n o f h i s a r t i s t i c and moral concerns by presenting a C h r i s t i a n a l l e g o r i c a l reading of the Aeneid. Prologue VII f u r t h e r r e s o l v e s the c o n f l i c t s , w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t at the end of t h i s Prologue the n a r r a t o r f i n a l l y emerges from h i s own inner h e l l , ready t o begin the second h a l f o f the t r a n s l a t i o n w i t h renewed c r e a t i v e energy based on a newly found inner e q u i l i b r i u m and harmony. As Book VI c o n s t i t u t e s the t u r n i n g p o i n t i n the Aeneid, so the two Prologues surrounding i t show the two p a r t s o f the juncture i n the n a r r a t o r ' s progress. In both journeys, the quest i t s e l f i s now over, and the descent i n t o the underworld and the p a r a l l e l exposure t o the wasteland of the p o e t i c imagination r e s p e c t i v e l y b r i n g a v i s i o n which gives d i r e c t i o n t o the second p a r t . Both Aeneas and the n a r r a t o r of the Prologues can now t u r n from the quest t o the conquest, t h a t i s , t o the a c t i v e accomplishment 144 o f t h e i r t a s k s . Prologues VIII t o XI11 become i n c r e a s i n g l y complex i n t h e i r designs and i n t h e i r i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f , and a l l u s i o n s t o , p r e v i o u s l y employed m o t i f s , themes, forms, and i s s u e s , strengthening and emphasizing t h e i r c o n t i n u i t y and i n t e r n a l l i n k a g e . Moreover, the now almost t o t a l absence of invocations of God and Mary f o r support and a i d i n the c r e a t i v e process i n d i c a t e s t h a t the n a r r a t o r has reached a new confidence both i n h i s own a r t i s t i c powers and i n the l e g i t i m a c y of h i s work. With the c o n f l i c t s r e s o l v e d and the main work s u c c e s s f u l l y completed, the n a r r a t o r achieves a masterpiece of u n i f i c a t i o n i n the t h i r t e e n t h Prologue, which combines for m a l , s t r u c t u r a l and thematic elements from almost a l l preceding Prologues, but gives them a new t u r n by p r e s e n t i n g them i n a comic mode. The general movement of the Prologues thus a n t i c i p a t e s and f o l l o w s t h a t of the Books, but the p a r a l l e l i s m i n the progress of Aeneas and o f the n a r r a t o r a l s o extends t o the l e v e l o f i n d i v i d u a l Prologues and Books; even i n the d e t a i l e d steps, both s e r i e s advance i n harmony with one another. At the beginning of Book I, Aeneas i s shipwrecked a t an unknown coast, having a l r e a d y t r a v e r s e d the sea i n an u n c e r t a i n search f o r h i s d e s t i n e d homeland and knowing t h a t the quest i s f a r from complete and t h a t f u r t h e r hardships await him; at the end of the Book, Venus' scheme of a love a f f a i r between Dido and Aeneas involv e s him i n the a d d i t i o n a l c o n f l i c t between h i s p r i v a t e wishes and h i s p u b l i c f u n c t i o n . The f i r s t Prologue shows Douglas responding t o V i r g i l ' s p o r t r a y a l of Aeneas' c r i s i s by s e t t i n g out the problems of h i s own i n h i s a r t i s t i c search f o r a new approach t o f a i t h f u l t r a n s l a t i o n . Douglas's problems are no less severe 145 than Aeneas', and he, too, t a c k l e s them with undaunted courage. There i s f i r s t the issue o f V i r g i l ' s e x c e l l e n c e , which cannot be adequately r e f l e c t e d i n the S c o t t i s h t r a n s l a t i o n , p a r t l y because V i r g i l ' s p o e t i c and s t y l i s t i c elegance f a r o u t s t r i p s Douglas's own s k i l l s as a poet, as Douglas f r e e l y admits i n the i n i t i a l apostrophe t o V i r g i l : For quhat compair betwix mydday and nycht? Or quhat compair betwix myrknes and lycht? Or quhat compar i s betwix blak and quhyte? Far g r e t t a r d i f f e r e n c e betwix my b l u n t endyte And thy scharp sugurate sang V i r g i l i a n e , Sa wysly wrocht w i t h n e v i r a word invane. My waverand wyt, my cunnyng febi11 at a l l . My mynd mysty, t h i r may nocht myss a f a l l — ( I , P r o l . , 25-32) Besides, the s o p h i s t i c a t i o n o f the L a t i n language i s f e l t t o be f a r s u p e r i o r t o t h a t o f Douglas's own v e r n a c u l a r : And t h a t thy [ V i r g i l ' s ] facund sentence mycht be song In our langage a l s w e i l l as Latyn t o n g — A l s w e i l l ? na, na, i m p o s s i b i l l war, per d e — 3it w i t h thy l e i f , V i r g i l e , t o f o l l o w the, I wald i n t o my r u r a l 1 wlgar gross Wryte sum savoryng of thyne Eneados. ( I , P r o l . , 39-44) Then there i s the problem of V i r g i l ' s d i f f i c u l t y : many passages o f h i s work are so ' s l e ' ( I , P r o l . , 108) and "mysty' (VI, P r o l . , 166; D i r e c t i o n , 105) t h a t even great s c h o l a r s have found i t hard t o penetrate the "clowdis of dyrk poecy' ( I , P r o l . , 193) which sometimes obscure the meaning: The worthy c1erk hecht Lawrens of the Va i l l , Amang Latynys a gret patron sans f a i l l , Grant i s quhen twe1f jh e r i s he had beyn d i 1 i gent To study V i r g i l l , skant knew quhat he ment. Than thou or I, my f r e n d , quhen we best weyn To haue V i r g i l e red, vnderstand and seyn. 146 The rycht sentens perchance i s f e r t o s e i k . ( I , P r o l . , 127-33) Furthermore, there i s the general problem t h a t the value of poetry per se i s not recognized, and t h a t the poet s t i l l has t o defend h i s work i f he aims f o r goals higher than e d i f i c a t i o n and entertainment: 4 For so the p o e t i s be the c r a f t y curys In s i m i l i t u d e s and v n d i r quent f i g u r i s The s u y t h f a s t mater i s t o hyde and t o constreyn; A l l i s nocht f a l s , t r a s t e w e i l l , i n cace t h a i feyn. Thar a r t i s so t o mak t h a r warkis f a j j r . ( I , P r o l . , 195-99) And l a s t , there are the problems p e c u l i a r t o t r a n s l a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y the t r a n s l a t o r ' s being bound by the o r i g i n a l and being thus prevented from g i v i n g f r e e r e i n t o h i s own c r e a t i v i t y i n composition i f he wishes t o produce a f a i t h f u l rendering of the o r i g i n a l t e x t : I knaw quhat payn was t o f o l l o w hym f u t h a i t A l b e i t thou t h i n k my sayng i n t r i c a t e . Traste w e i l l t o f o l l o w a f i x t sentens or mater Is mair p r a c t i k e , d e f i c i l l and f a r s t r a t e r , Thocht thyne engyne beyn eleuate and h i e . Than f o r t o w r i t e a l l ways a t l i b e r t e . • • • Quha i s a t t a c h i t o n t i l l a s t a i k , we se, May go na f e r t h i r bot w r e i l about t h a t t r e . ( I , P r o l . , 287-98) 5 P a r t i c u l a r l y the l a s t two i s s u e s , the r e c o g n i t i o n of the inherent merit o f l i t e r a t u r e and the d e d i c a t i o n t o t r a n s l a t i o n r a t h e r than r e - t e l l i n g , are new departures from the accepted l i t e r a r y norm. As I have discussed e a r l i e r , Douglas i s i n both these instances d i s t a n c i n g h i m s e l f from medieval standards and i s instead embracing s t i l l new Renaissance concepts of the poet as an a r t i s t r a t h e r than an e n t e r t a i n e r and of the t r a n s l a t o r 147 as a s c h o l a r r a t h e r than a story-tel1er.° Both these issues are s t i l l so new and r e l a t i v e l y unencountered w i t h i n Middle Scots (and Middle English) l i t e r a t u r e t h a t Douglas w i l l come back t o them several more times i n the course of h i s Prologues. Here, i n Prologue I, which i s more a preface t o the e n t i r e work than an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o Book I, Douglas introduces the concepts of the inherent a r t i s t i c merit of poetry and of f i d e l i t y i n t r a n s l a t i o n , t o be returned t o and t o be r e f i n e d i n f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n s l a t e r on, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n Prologues VI and IX, where he o f f e r s a defence of poetry and an a n a l y t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n of s t y l e . L i k e Aeneas, Douglas f i n d s himself e x p l o r i n g new t e r r i t o r y , w h i l e being f o r c e d by the circumstances t o r e l y almost e x c l u s i v e l y on h i s own d e v i c e s . In the second, extremely b r i e f Prologue, Douglas focuses on the issue of f i d e l i t y i n t r a n s l a t i o n : he needs no i n s p i r a t i o n from the Muses s i n c e he i s c l o s e l y f o l l o w i n g V i r g i l ' s own t e x t r a t h e r than attempting t o compose h i s own v e r s i o n of the account of the siege and f a l l o f Troy. Douglas i s p e r f e c t l y conscious t h a t he i s breaking new ground with t h i s approach; indeed, he i s c e r t a i n t h a t h i s method w i l l c o n s t i t u t e an improvement over preceding versions o f the V i r g i l i a n m a t e r i a l : Bot followand V i r g i l , g i f my w i t war a b i 1 1 , Ahe o t h i r wyss now s a l t t h a t b e l l berong Than euer was t o f o r hard i n our tong. ( I I , P r o l . , 10-12) In announcing t h i s new departure, however, Douglas a l s o f o l l o w s V i r g i l i n another way. In Book I I , Aeneas recounts h i s t u r n i n g away from the burning Troy t o seek a new country f o r h i s company of f o l l o w e r s . V i r g i l here r e j e c t s the type of e p i c hero who i s so dedicated t o the concept o f personal g l o r y t h a t he must continue t o f i g h t t i l l e i t h e r v i c t o r y or 148 death, and instead he l e t s Aeneas cast o f f the o l d and begin a regenerating search f o r the new. 7 In the medieval t r a d i t i o n , which favoured heroes such as Hector, Aeneas' s e n s i b l e f l i g h t from the Greek massacre and h i s departure from the ru i n e d Troy, as wel l as h i s e a r l i e r attempt (together w i t h Antenor) t o negotiate the l i f t i n g o f the Greek g s i e g e , had brought him the r e p u t a t i o n o f a t r a i t o r , an asper s i o n which Douglas has al r e a d y been at pains t o r e f u t e i n Prologue I. L i k e V i r g i l and h i s p r o t a g o n i s t , Douglas a l s o takes a courageous step i n a new d i r e c t i o n , knowing very well t h a t h e — l i k e A e n e a s — w i l l not escape censure. Nonetheless, o l d concepts a s s e r t themselves a t the end of t h i s Prologue, where Douglas r e v e r t s t o the notion o f the predominantly d i d a c t i c value o f l i t e r a t u r e and turns Book II i n t o an exemp1um i n support of the adage t h a t " A l l e r d l y g l a i d n e s s f y n y s i t h w i t h wo' (1.21). Preceding the Book which r e l a t e s Aeneas and Anchises' unsuccessful attempts t o f i n d the e l u s i v e land o f the f o r e f a t h e r s promised i n A p o l l o ' s o r a c l e , Prologue I I I employs the theme o f u n c e r t a i n t y and e r r o r i n the quest f o r the best p o s s i b l e t r a n s l a t i o n . C ynthia, the goddess o f the ever-changing moon and sea, i s invoked as patroness o f t h i s Prologue, although Douglas's two pleas f o r guidance i n h i s work are a c t u a l l y d i r e c t e d t o God (1.8) and Mary (11.41-5). Douglas i s here seeking help wit h three problems. F i r s t , h i s knowledge o f the exact geography o f Aeneas' voyage i s as imperfect as i s Anchises' knowledge o f the p r e c i s e l o c a t i o n o f the Trojans' land o f o r i g i n , and Douglas i s t h e r e f o r e conscious of the l i k e l i h o o d t h a t h i s t r a n s l a t i o n w i l l c o n t a i n e r r o r s , which, however, should not d e t r a c t from the general q u a l i t y o f the work: 149 And g e n t i l l c u r t a s s r e d a r i s o f gude -?ei 11 * I 30W beseik t o gevin aduertenss; This t e x t i s fu11 of s t o r y s euery dei11, Realmys and l a n d i s , quharof I haue na f e i 1 1 Bot as I f o l l o w V i r g i l l i n sentens; Few knawis a l l t h i r cost i s sa f a r hens; To pike thame vp perchance ^our eyn s u l d r e i l l — Thus aucht t h a r nane blame me f o r smal o f f e n s . ( I l l , P r o l . , 29-36) On the l i t e r a l l e v e l , there i s thus a p e r f e c t p a r a l l e l i s m between Aeneas' t r y i n g t o i d e n t i f y the d e s t i n a t i o n o f h i s voyage and the n a r r a t o r ' s attempt t o f o l l o w him i m a g i n a t i v e l y on the voyage. The second problem addressed i n t h i s Prologue i s t h a t of the s p i r i t u a l c o n f l i c t s and stumbling b l o c k s , both i n the l a r g e r journey of l i f e , Wild a v e n t u r i s , monstreis and quent e f f r a y s — Of onkowth danger i s t h i s n i x t buke ha i1 i s fu11; Nyce Laborynth, quhar Mynotawr the b u l l Was kepte, had nev i r sa f e i1 cahutt i s and ways. I d r e i d men clepe thame f a b l i s now on days; Tharfor wa1d God I had t h a r erys t o pu11 Mysknawis the e r e i d , and t h r e p i s other i s f o r v a y i s , ( I I I , P r o l . , 12-18) and i n the n a r r a t o r ' s present quest f o r a t h e o l o g i c a l l y acceptable t r a n s l a t i o n of a pagan work: By strange channel l i s , f r o n t e r i s and f o r l a n d i s , Onkouth c o s t i s and mony wilsum s t r a n d i s Now g o i t h our barge, f o r nowder howk nor c r a i k May h e i r bruke s a i l , f o r schald bankis and sandis. From Harpyes f e l l and blynd Cyclopes handis Be my l a i d s t a r , virgyne moder but maik. ( I l l , P r o l . , 37-42) As the f i n a l stanza (11. 37-45) makes c l e a r , such an undertaking s t i l l has i t s r i s k s , and Mary's help i s needed t o preserve "our barge' (1.39) from the s p i r i t u a l dangers t o which both t r a n s l a t o r and audience are exposed i n 150 a work which takes pagan d e i t i e s not as convenient l i t e r a r y metaphors and symbols but as actu a l gods and goddesses with power over man's l i f e and s o u l . The t h i r d problem, an a r t i s t i c one, i s connected w i t h both the f i r s t and the second. Douglas f e a r s t h a t h i s readers might not see beyond the l i t e r a l l e v e l o f meaning o f Aeneas' journey i n Book I I I and t h a t they might consequently d i s m i s s the adventures encountered during the voyage as d e l i b e r a t e falsehood and l i e s — " I d r e i d men clepe thame f a b l i s now on days' ( I I I , P r o l . , 16) — instead o f i n t e r p r e t i n g the " f e i r f u l stremys and cost i s wondyrful1' (1.10) and "strange channel l i s , f r o n t e r i s and f o r l a n d i s ' (1.37), where 'monstreis' (1.12) and other "onkowth dangeris' (1.13) await the unwary voyager, as imaginative renderings o f the human c o n d i t i o n . In i d e n t i f y i n g t h i s problem, Prologue I I I elaborates on the same p o i n t made i n Prologue I and foreshadows Prologue VI with i t s defence of poetry. In the t h i r d Prologue and Book, both the n a r r a t o r and Aeneas are b a r e l y cognizant o f the nature o f t h e i r problem, but by the end of the s i x t h Prologue and Book both have found s o l u t i o n s , with Aeneas being able t o advance towards a r e a l i z a t i o n o f h i s v i s i o n o f the f u t u r e Rome, and with the t r a n s l a t o r having formulated h i s p o e t i c theory i n which he, among other t h i n g s , j u s t i f i e s the use of myth as a l e g i t i m a t e l i t e r a r y v e h i c l e , which enables him subsequently t o i n t e g r a t e h i s r e l i g i o u s and a r t i s t i c concerns. Book IV f i n d s Aeneas t e m p o r a r i l y abandoning h i s p u b l i c f u n c t i o n as leader o f the Trojans f o r the sake o f h i s p r i v a t e attachment t o Dido. The f o u r t h Prologue, too, shows the n a r r a t o r less occupied w i t h a r t i s t i c i s s u e s , which have so f a r been the prime concern of the Prologue d i s c u s s i o n s , and instead presents him as almost e x c l u s i v e l y i n t e r e s t e d i n 151 the r e l i g i o u s and moral questions r a i s e d by Book IV i n the mind of a C h r i s t i a n reader and t h e o l o g i a n . Thus, the hero of the Aeneid and the n a r r a t o r o f the Prologues both t u r n away, f o r a w h i l e , from t h e i r main o b j e c t i v e s and pursue i n t e r e s t s which are, or seem, co n t r a r y t o the attainment of t h e i r g o a l s : the sojourn i n Carthage delays and even appears t o j e o p a r d i z e the f u l f i l m e n t o f the Trojans' d e s t i n y , and the n a r r a t o r ' s moral concerns involve him i n a c o n f l i c t of i n t e r e s t s when he comes t o t r a n s l a t e Book IV, i n which he, as t r a n s l a t o r , has t o apply the same standards of f i d e l i t y t o the o r i g i n a l as elsewhere, but whose contents he, i n h i s r o l e as churchman, cannot condone. While Douglas cannot censure Aeneas without impairing Aeneas' character as the model p r i n c e , h i s disapproval of the episode i s more than obvious i n the Prologue's f i n a l comments on Dido's conduct: Se, quhou blynd l u f f i s i n o r d i n a t e desyre Degradis honour, and resson d o i t h e x i l e ! Dido, of Cartage f l o u r and lamp of Tyre, Quha.is h i e renoun na s t r e n t h nor g i f t mycht f y l e . In h i r faynt l u s t sa mait, w i t h i n schort q u h i l e , That honeste b a i t h and gude fame war adew, Syne f o r disdeyn, a l l a c e ! h i r selvyn slew. (IV, P r o l . , 250-56) There i s no question t h a t these l i n e s a l s o imply a r e f l e c t i o n on Aeneas, who i s , a f t e r a l l , one of the " s t r a n g e r i s o f onkouth natioun' (1.267), of Q whom l a d i e s are advised t o beware. The f i f t h Prologue and Book, however, show both the hero and h i s n a r r a t o r f i r m l y focused on t h e i r main tasks again. Having f i n i s h e d the t r a n s l a t i o n o f Book IV wi t h i t s , t o him, so m o r a l l y o f f e n s i v e content, Douglas seems t o r e j o i c e i n the prospect of t r a n s l a t i n g Book V. The Prologue r e f l e c t s the p u r i f i c a t i o n and regeneration which the Trojans 152 undergo i n the c e l e b r a t i o n of the f u n e r a l games f o r Anchises and i n the s e l e c t i o n of a s m a l l e r , more determined company, f o l l o w i n g the near-d i s a s t e r of the burning of the f l e e t . A f t e r they had been i d l e a t Carthage f o r a year, Aeneas' f o l l o w e r s r e j o i c e i n t h e i r renewed a c t i v i t y , which w i l l b r i n g them both p h y s i c a l l y and s p i r i t u a l l y c l o s e r t o t h e i r d e s t i n a t i o n . This mood a l s o communicates i t s e l f t o the n a r r a t o r , who now c e l e b r a t e s the wholesome regeneration accompanying the a r r i v a l o f s p r i n g , when a l l nature and mankind are i n a f e s t i v e mood, f o l l o w i n g a s t r o n g l y l i f e - a f f i r m i n g impulse and drawing new s t r e n g t h and v i t a l i t y from i t . Having modulated h i s theme from the harmonious d i v e r s i t y of the m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of joy a t the a r r i v a l o f s p r i n g t o the s t y l i s t i c range and emotional f l e x i b i l i t y w i t h which V i r g i l captures the v a r i e t y o f human f e e l i n g s and a c t i v i t i e s i n the Aeneid, the n a r r a t o r a s s e r t s t h a t he h i m s e l f i s aiming f o r a renewal which p a r a l l e l s t h a t brought by s p r i n g and t h a t soon t o be undergone by Aeneas' company: Now h a r k i s s p o r t i s , myrthis and myrry p l a y s , Ful gudly pastans on mony syndry ways, Endyte by V i r g i l , and h e i r by me t r a n s l a t e , Quhilk W i l l i a m Caxton knew n e v i r a l hys days, For, as I sayd t o f o r , t h a t man f o r v a y s ; (V, P r o l . , 46-50) indeed, he f e e l s a member of the s e l e c t group who are chosen t o continue the journey and search f o r the f i n a l d e s t i n a t i o n . Caxton had v i r t u a l l y destroyed V i r g i l ' s t e x t i n 'Hys f e b i l proyss' which 'beyn mank and mutulate' (V, P r o l . , 51); Caxton 'forvays' (1.50) j u s t as much as the Trojan women had erred i n almost d e s t r o y i n g t h e i r f l e e t . But Caxton, too, i s l e f t behind i n the c o n t i n u i n g t r a d i t i o n o f V i r g i l i a n t r a n s l a t i o n , f o r 153 o n l y the purest w i l l be good enough, both i n the search f o r the o l d and new homeland and i n the quest f o r a s a t i s f a c t o r y rendering o f the e l u s i v e l y d i f f i c u l t t e x t u r e o f V i r g i l ' s work. Douglas thus implies a very high c l a i m f o r him s e l f i n the phrasing of the c o n t r a s t between h i s own work and Caxton's: For, as I sayd t o f o r , t h a t man [Caxton] f o r v a y s ; Hys febi1 proyss beyn mank and mutulate, Bot my propyne com from the press f u t e h a i t , O n f o r l a t i t , not iawyn f r a tun t o tun, In f r e s c h sapour new from the berry run. (V, P r o l . , 50-4) In making h i s "propyne,' h i s o f f e r i n g of new, untampered wine, t o V i r g i l , Douglas seems t o a l l u d e t o the l i b a t i o n o f " c l e a r wine" ("vina l i q u e n t i a ' V, 776) which Aeneas pours i n t o the sea i n s a c r i f i c e t o Neptune j u s t before resuming the voyage. Aeneas and the t r a n s l a t o r - n a r r a t o r are thus in p a r a l l e l p o s i t i o n s ; Aeneas needs Neptune's p r o t e c t i o n on the voyage, but by means of the voyage he makes p o s s i b l e the s u r v i v a l o f the Penates, which had been entrusted t o him by the ghost of Hector; s i m i l a r l y , the t r a n s l a t o r r e q u i r e s the a s s i s t a n c e o f V i r g i l , h i s p a t r o n - s a i n t , t o whom he here makes h i s o f f e r i n g and on whose post he l a t e r a f f i x e s h i s pen as a v o t i v e o f f e r i n g (Conclusion, 13-14), but whose s u r v i v a l i n E n g l i s h would have been doubtful i f i t were not f o r f a i t h f u l f o l l o w e r s such as Douglas hims e l f i n c o n t r a s t t o Caxton. In consequence, the double progress can c o n t i n u e — b o t h Aeneas' t o I t a l y , and V i r g i l ' s i n E n g l i s h . However, even though f o l l o w i n g V i r g i l as c l o s e l y as p o s s i b l e may p r o t e c t the t r a n s l a t o r from a r t i s t i c hazards, he s t i l l appears t o have doubts regarding the moral and r e l i g i o u s i m p l i c a t i o n s o f h i s undertaking: 154 Sen e r d l y plesour endis o f t with sorow, we se, As i n t h i s buke nane exemplys ^e want. Lord, our p r o t t e c t o u r t o al1 t r a s t i s i n the, Bot quham na t h i n g i s worthy nor pyssant, To ws thy grace and a l s gret mercy grant, So f o r t o wend by temporal blythness That our e t e r n a l e ioy be nocht the l e s s ! (V, P r o l . , 62-8) For the n a r r a t o r the s a i l i n g i s s t i l l as rough as i t i s f o r Aeneas, who, a t the end o f Book V, loses h i s helmsman P a l i n u r u s i n the calm sea o f f the shore of I t a l y , j u s t before reaching the treacherous c l i f f s o f the S i r e n s . For the n a r r a t o r , the question i s s t i l l whether the p u r s u i t o f a r t i s t i c e x c e l l e n c e detached from e x p l i c i t l y r e l i g i o u s goals w i l l not i m p e r i l h i s soul's attainment of e t e r n a l b l i s s . In Prologue VI, however, the n a r r a t o r succeeds i n i n t e g r a t i n g h i s a r t i s t i c and h i s moral concerns. S t r i p p i n g the Aeneid of the apparatus of myth, he argues t h a t V i r g i l ' s "teachings" accord i n almost every p o i n t w i t h C h r i s t i a n d o c t r i n e . In s t r e s s i n g the d o c t r i n a l correctness of V i r g i l ' s work and in emphasizing i t s high d i d a c t i c value, Douglas defends hi m s e l f a g a i n s t h i s c r i t i c s ' charge t h a t he i s perpetuating 'Vayn s u p e r s t i t i o n y s aganyst our r i c h t beleve' (1.22); simultaneously, he a l s o assuages h i s own conscience w i t h regard t o the question which had s t i l l t r o u b l e d him at the end of the previous Prologue. In e x p l a i n i n g V i r g i l ' s use of myth as a wrapping f o r h i s d i d a c t i c aims, Douglas seems t o be developing an idea which i s f a i r l y new even t o h i m s e l f . When he c r i t i c i z e d Caxton, i n Prologue I, f o r o m i t t i n g Book VI because i t i s " f e n j e i t and nocht f o r t o b e l e i f ( I , P r o l . , 179), he wrote: Sa i s a l l V i r g i l l perchans, f o r by hys l e i f Iuno nor Venus goddesssis neuer wer, 155 Bot t r a s t i s w e i l l , quha t h a t i l k e saxt buke knew, V i r g i l l t h a r i n ane h i e philosophour hym schew. And vnder the clowdis of dyrk poecy Hyd l y i s t h a r mony n o t a b i l l h i s t o r y — For so the p o e t i s be the c r a f t y curys In s i m i l i t u d e s and v n d i r quent f i g u n ' s The s u y t h f a s t materis t o hyde and t o constreyn; A l l i s nocht f a l s , t r a s t e w e i l l , i n cace t h a i feyn. ( I , P r o l , 180-98) In t h i s passage from Prologue I, Douglas had already developed the general o u t l i n e o f the argument he i s now using i n Prologue VI, but he had c l e a r l y not yet worked out the d e t a i l s , f o r he adds, i n f l u e n c e d presumably by the medieval legend of V i r g i l as a s o r c e r e r : Quha wait gyf he [Aeneas] i n v i s i o u n thydder went By a r t magike, socery or enchantment. And w i t h hys fader sawle dyd speke and meyt, Or i n the lyknes w i t h sum other s p r e i t , Lyke as the s p r e i t of Samuel 1, I gess, Rays i t t o Kyng Saul was by the Phitones? I w i l l nocht say a l l V i r g i l l beyn a l s trew Bot a t syk thyngis ar p o s s i b i l l t h i s I schew, A l s i n tha days war ma i l l u s i o n y s By d e w i l l i c h warkis and c o n j u r a t i o n s Than now thar beyn, . . . ( I , P r o l . , 207-17) At t h a t p o i n t Douglas was s t i l l perplexed by the question how he might on a l i t e r a l l e v e l e x p l a i n Aeneas' descent i n t o the underworld, but when he w r i t e s Prologue VI he has come t o recognize t h i s issue as i r r e l e v a n t . The important question i s not how Aeneas gets i n t o the underworld but why V i r g i l introduces t h i s episode at a l l , and t o t h i s question Douglas f i n d s h i s own answer i n Prologue VI. In e x p l a i n i n g t o h i s readers t h a t V i r g i l ' s Book VI i s a d i s g u i s e d v i s i o n of the C h r i s t i a n a f t e r l i f e , Douglas a l s o comes t o terms w i t h t h i s t r o u b l i n g Book h i m s e l f . He i s thus i n a p o s i t i o n p a r a l l e l t o those of both Anchises and Aeneas, both e x p l a i n i n g and 156 comprehending. However, while Aeneas i s strengthened by h i s v i s i o n of the f u t u r e o f Rome and while he passes through the i v o r y gate i n a s p i r i t o f renewed c e r t a i n t y and confidence though wel1 aware o f the hardships yet t o come, the n a r r a t o r has not yet found the golden bough which w i l l a l l o w him, too, t o ascend from the "dym dongeoun' (VI, P r o l . , 165) i n t o which h i s dilemma has cast h i m . 1 0 Even a f t e r h i s elaborate r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Book VI as an a l l e g o r y foreshadowing C h r i s t i a n d o c t r i n e , the n a r r a t o r s t i l l f e e l s the need t o appeal t o Mary f o r help: The dym dongeoun of D i t i s t i l l a s s a i l j e , Or i n the lyknes t h i s mysty poetry, Help me, Mare; f o r c e r t i s , v a i l que v a i l j e , War a t P l u t o , I s a l hym hunt o f s t y . (VI, P r o l . , 165-68) Having i n Prologue VI achieved a t h e o r e t i c a l though not yet a t o t a l i n t e g r a t i o n of h i s a r t i s t i c and r e l i g i o u s impulses, i n Prologue VII the n a r r a t o r advances f u r t h e r i n the process from a p u r e l y c o g n i t i v e comprehension t o the higher l e v e l o f thorough knowing which corresponds t o Aeneas' enlightenment. In the f i r s t p a r t of Prologue V I I , the n a r r a t o r f i n d s h i m s e l f i n a dark and h o s t i l e environment where c o n f l i c t i n g f o r c e s — " F l a g g i s o f f i r e , and mony f e l l o u n f l a w , / Scharpe soppys of s l e i t and of the snypand snaw' (11.49-50)—contend f o r supremacy and simultaneously threaten t o e x t i n g u i s h l i f e i t s e l f , j u s t as the c o n f l i c t w i t h i n himself had compromised the progress of h i s c r e a t i v e work. However, the barren winter landscape and the calamitous d i s o r d e r i n nature only spur man on t o gre a t e r providence i n s u s t a i n i n g l i f e , so t h a t even under the harsh c o n d i t i o n s of w i n t e r , l i f e can continue: 157 The s i l l y scheip and t h a r l i t i l hyrd gromys L u r k i s vndre l e of bankis, woddis and bromys; And other d a n t i t g r e t t a r b e s t i a l 1, Within t h a r s t a b i l l i s sesyt i n t o s t a l l , S i k as m u l i s , h o r s s i s , o x i n and ky, Fed t u s k y t barys and f a t swyne i n s t y , Sustenyt war by mannys governance On h e r v i s t and on symmeris purvyance. ( V I I , P r o l . , 77-84) The n a r r a t o r ' s v i s i o n o f the winter landscape thus ends on a hopeful note. Images of the N a t i v i t y — t h e shepherds; the mule and ox i n the s t a b l e ; the l i f e - s u s t a i n i n g f o r c e of providence (human or d i v i n e ) — h i n t a t the c o n t i n u a t i o n and, indeed, regeneration which w i l l succeed the barrenness and d e a t h - l i k e c o n d i t i o n s o f the winter landscape o u t s i d e and o f the inner s t a t e o f the n a r r a t o r h i m s e l f . In unison w i t h these examples of human and d i v i n e ways t o ensure continuance, i n the f o l l o w i n g a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l sketch the n a r r a t o r returns t o h i s ' l e t t r o n ' (1.143) and "hynt a pen i n hand, / F o r t i l perform the poet grave and sad, / Quham sa f e r f u r t h or than begun I had' (11.144-6). As A l i c i a N i t e c k i observes, "Through [the shepherds'] governance, "Fed t u s k y t barys and f a t swyne i n s t y , / Sustenyt war' (82). Through Douglas' governance the c o l l e c t i v e c u l t u r e i s preserved against time, decay, d e s t r u c t i o n . " 1 1 At the same time, Douglas f i n a l l y r e s o l v e s the dilemma o f h i s moral and a r t i s t i c impulses i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the correspondence between the Creator and the "makar' by i n d i c a t i n g the p a r a l l e l i s m between the regeneration r e s u l t i n g from the Incarnation and the renewed l i f e given t o one of the p i n n a c l e s o f the " c o l l e c t i v e c u l t u r e " by r e - c r e a t i n g i t i n another language and thus extending i t s v i t a l i t y i n t o a f u r t h e r c u l t u r a l sub-group. In subsequent Prologues, t h i s correspondence between God the Father (or God the Creator) and the l i t e r a r y a r t i s t i s going t o be developed f u r t h e r , but here the 158 i n i t i a l p e rception of the e x i s t e n c e of such a p a r a l l e l i s m i s a l r e a d y enough t o a l l o w the n a r r a t o r t o escape from h i s inner wasteland and t o continue 'our wark' (1.156) a f t e r i t had been l e f t ' i n the myre' (1.156) f o r a considerable time. I f Douglas's d a t i n g o f some of the Prologues i s t o be taken a t face value, the r e s o l u t i o n o f the inner c o n f l i c t causes h i s work t o proceed a t a much f a s t e r pace from here on. Prologue V begins w i t h a s p r i n g s e t t i n g ; then more than h a l f a year elapses before Prologue VII i s w r i t t e n , set on 'the t h r i d morn' i n Capricorn ( V I I , P r o l . , 7-8), t h a t i s , Christmas Eve 1512; 1 2 Prologue VIII f o l l o w s i n Lent, which i n 1513 f e l l p a r t i c u l a r l y e a r l y , covering the second h a l f o f February and most of March; 1 3 soon afterwards, i n May and l a t e June 1513, Prologues XII and X I I I are w r i t t e n , w h i l e the e n t i r e work i s completed on 22 J u l y , 'the f e s t o f Mary Magdelan,' 1513 (Time, Space & Date, 2-4), j u s t eighteen months a f t e r i t s i n c e p t i o n (Time, Space & Date, 12). In other words, w r i t i n g the f i r s t s i x Prologues and Books took Douglas almost an e n t i r e year, from January t o e a r l y December 1512, while he composed the remaining seven Prologues and Books i n only seven months. Once he has found a s o l u t i o n t o the problem of the perceived c l a s h between h i s a r t i s t i c and s c h o l a r l y i n t e r e s t s and h i s r e l i g i o u s c a l l i n g , the n a r r a t o r experiences the same renewal of h i s powers as does Aeneas i n consequence o f the i n t e r v i e w w i t h Anchises i n Book VI. Both are now ready t o complete the home-coming—Aeneas i n order t o r e s u r r e c t Troy i n Rome, and the t r a n s l a t o r - n a r r a t o r i n order t o r e s t o r e V i r g i l and h i s t e x t i n E n g l i s h . In the e i g h t h Prologue and Book, the n a r r a t o r and Aeneas each have a dream v i s i o n , which i n very d i f f e r e n t ways confirm t h e i r purposes and 159 strengthen t h e i r commitment. Whereas Aeneas' dream i s an unambiguous oraculum i n which the benevolent r i v e r god T i b e r i n u s gives c l e a r d i r e c t i o n s f o r a c t i o n and prophesies p o s i t i v e events, the n a r r a t o r ' s v i s i o i s d i s t u r b i n g , with a h o s t i l e dream f i g u r e mocking the dreamer's ambitions and q u e s t i o n i n g the value o f h i s undertaking. Nonetheless, both dreams increase the dreamers' chances o f success. In consequence o f the oraculum Aeneas f i n d s new a l l i e s among the Arcadians and Etruscans, and the dreamer-narrator i s confirmed i n h i s b e l i e f i n the inherent value o f l i t e r a t u r e as a good which transcends c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f the ma t e r i a l world. At the end of Book V I I I , Aeneas sees the course o f Roman h i s t o r y d e p i c t e d on h i s new s h i e l d , not knowing the world shown i n t h i s work o f Vulcan's a r t , but r e j o i c i n g i n i t s s i g h t and being buoyed by i t s im p l i e d promise. Douglas ends the Prologue with an analogous idea, namely, t h a t a r t , i n t h i s case l i t e r a t u r e , i s the only a v a i l a b l e remedy, both f o r the i l l s of the world and f o r the dreamer's personal t r o u b l e s : quhen I saw nane other bute, I sprent spedely on f u t e , And vndre a t r e r u t e Begouth t h i s aucht buke. ( V I I I , P r o l . , 179-82) The e i g h t h Prologue and Book thus come at a c r i t i c a l j u n c t u r e , completing < the process begun i n the s i x t h Prologue and Book. Both Aeneas and the na r r a t o r are now poised f o r the conquest, having gone through the e n l i g h t e n i n g process of c o g n i t i v e p r e p a r a t i o n i n Book VI and Prologues VI and VII and t a k i n g the f i r s t p r a c t i c a l steps ( i n Prologue VIII and the surrounding Books VII and V I I I ) towards the f u l f i l m e n t of t h e i r t a s k s . Prologue IX confirms t h i s view o f l i t e r a t u r e as the o n l y cure f o r a 160 corrupt world. While the i n i t i a l t hree stanzas e x t o l v i r t u e and honesty, Douglas soon r e j e c t s such e x p l i c i t m o r a l i z i n g — " E n e u c h of t h i s , ws nedis prech na mor' ( 1 . 1 9 ) — a s no more e f f e c t i v e than the r a n t i n g o f the "selcouth seg,' the dream f i g u r e i n Prologue V I I I . In c o n t r a s t t o the "seg,' who d i s p l a y e d a t o t a l d i s r e g a r d f o r both h i s audience and h i s method, the n a r r a t o r now analyzes l i t e r a r y s t y l e i n r e l a t i o n t o subject matter and audience. Since I have a l r e a d y discussed the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the s h i f t from the s t a n z a i c t o the couplet s e c t i o n a t greater length i n chapter IV, i t w i l l here s u f f i c e t o say t h a t i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f the " r y a l l s t y l e , c l e p y t h e r o y c a l l ' (1.21), Douglas develops a method towards an e f f e c t i v e communication of e t h i c a l values which leaves both p r e v i o u s l y demonstrated methods f a r behind. The c o n c l u s i o n t o be drawn from Douglas's expose on s t y l e i s t h a t i f a w r i t e r harmonizes h i s s t y l e and subject matter w i t h h i s intended audience, then the values he wishes t o convey are l i k e l y t o be r e c e i v e d and the work of l i t e r a t u r e can f u n c t i o n as a 'bute,' thus f u r t h e r l e g i t i m i z i n g the r o l e o f the l i t e r a r y a r t i s t about which Douglas c l e a r l y no longer has any doubts. However, Prologue IX not only develops a p o i n t r a i s e d i n Prologue V I I I , but a l s o opens the d i s c u s s i o n o f a l a r g e r group of t o p i c s . While V i r g i l uses Books IX t o XII t o show the war i n Latium from a wide range of angles and view-points as well as t o d i s p l a y the many outstanding q u a l i t i e s o f Aeneas i n h i s various c a p a c i t i e s as statesman, ambassador, n e g o t i a t o r , r e l i g i o u s leader, g e n e r a l , w a r r i o r , parent, f r i e n d and a l l y , Douglas o f f e r s an examination of various aspects of the "making" of poetry i n the accompanying Prologues. Apart from c o n s i d e r i n g subject matter, s t y l e and purpose, these Prologues a l s o r e d e f i n e the t r a n s l a t o r - n a r r a t o r ' s 161 sources of i n s p i r a t i o n and c r e a t i v e process. 4 From the d i s c u s s i o n o f l i t e r a r y appropriateness, harmony and u n i t y i n Prologue IX, the n a r r a t o r proceeds i n Prologue X t o a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the a r t i s t ' s need f o r d i v i n e i n s p i r a t i o n . In c o n t r a s t t o the apprehensive tone of h i s e a r l i e r pleas f o r d i v i n e guidance, he now no longer perceives any s p i r i t u a l danger i n h i s work. On the c o n t r a r y , having i n Prologue VII t e n t a t i v e l y implied a p a r a l l e l i s m between the Creator and the "makar,' the n a r r a t o r now c e l e b r a t e s the beauty, order, harmony and d i v e r s i t y o f Cr e a t i o n i n terms which suggest t h a t he looks at nature as i f i t were a work of a r t — a s e r i e s o f miniatures i n a Book of Hours, f o r example, which d e p i c t nature a t d i f f e r e n t seasons and a t d i f f e r e n t times o f day. The n a r r a t o r ' s e a r l i e r images of God the Father as the 'prynce o f poet i s ' { I , P r o l . , 452) and of C h r i s t as 'that hevynly Orpheus' ( I , P r o l . , 469) are here r e - a p p l i e d t o God the Creator as the supreme a r t i s t , whose C r e a t i o n i s informed by His own p e r f e c t i o n and by the harmony of the T r i - u n i t y . In t h i s Prologue Douglas draws new str e n g t h from h i s meditation on the mystery of d i v i n e love, but i t a l s o becomes p e r f e c t l y c l e a r t o him t h a t a l l a r t must be i n s p i r e d by the a r t i s t ' s d e s i r e f o r harmony with h i s Creator. Even though the t r a n s l a t o r - n a r r a t o r w i l l continue t o f o l l o w the l e t t e r of V i r g i l ' s t e x t , he wi1) do so i n a d i f f e r e n t s p i r i t and t o a d i f f e r e n t purpose than h i s 'autour' (1.155). That such an adaptation i s p o s s i b l e without changing the surface t e x t u r e o f the work, Douglas demonstrates i n "r e - a p p l y i n g t o the C h r i s t i a n God phrases and e p i t h e t s which V i r g i l had used of J u p i t e r " 1 5 a t the beginning of the d i r e c t l y f o l l o w i n g t e n t h Book. In Prologue X I , Douglas's r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the Aeneid according t o 162 C h r i s t i a n p r i n c i p l e s becomes, i n consequence, more overt than ever before. The whole of the Aeneid i s here transformed i n t o an a l l e g o r y o f the s t r u g g l e which the C h r i s t i a n faces every day. The b e l i e v e r , j u s t l i k e the t r u l y c h i v a l r o u s w a r r i o r , must apply the four c a r d i n a l v i r t u e s i n h i s d a i l y b a t t l e a g a i n s t the temptations of the F l e s h , the World and the "aduersar p r i n c i p a l ! ' (1. 97); h i s conduct, l i k e t h a t of the knight i n war, must be based on j u s t i c e (11. 17-24) and must be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by f o r t i t u d e (1. 33), which i t s e l f must lack n e i t h e r prudence (11. 37-8) nor temperance (11. 41-44). However, i n order t o succeed i n h i s s t r u g g l e , the b e l i e v e r a l s o r e q u i r e s the three t h e o l o g i c a l v i r t u e s , which are here r e f e r r e d t o i n metaphors taken from the m i l i t a r y sphere a p p r o p r i a t e t o the context of the ongoing account of the wars i n Latium. The C h r i s t i a n must Rayss h i e the targe of f a i t h vp i n [ h i s ] hand, On hed the halsum helm o f hoip onlace, In cheryte [ h i s ] body a l l embrace (XI, P r o l . , 101-3) Equipped with the s h i e l d o f F a i t h , the helmet of Hope, and the c o r s l e t o f C h a r i t y , he o n l y needs the a d d i t i o n a l sword of devotion (1. 104) t o defend h i m s e l f a g a i n s t the onslaughts of the Adversary. Given t h i s k i n d o f i n t r o d u c t i o n , Aeneas' p r o t r a c t e d b a t t l e i n Latium must come t o be seen by the reader as analogous w i t h h i s own continuous s p i r i t u a l warfare, with the r e s u l t t h a t a t l e a s t the succeeding Books XI and XII w i l l be read on both the l i t e r a l and the a l l e g o r i c a l l e v e l . This i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s f u r t h e r strengthened by the opening scene of Book X I , where Aeneas i s shown i n h i s c a p a c i t y as a devout r e l i g i o u s leader, d i s c h a r g i n g f i r s t h i s duty t o the gods, a l b e i t a f t e r h i s 'payane gyss,' before he attends t o h i s o t h e r , c i v i c and m i l i t a r y concerns. However, 163 w h i l e Aeneas i s on one l e v e l the a l l e g o r i c a l e q u i v a l e n t o f the s t r u g g l i n g C h r i s t i a n , he i s on another l e v e l a l s o the a l l e g o r i c a l e q u i v a l e n t o f C h r i s t , f o r i t i s Aeneas who leads h i s s e l e c t company of f a i t h f u l f o l l o w e r s across the water t o t h e i r promised homeland. The f i n a l three stanzas, w i t h t h e i r p a r a l l e l i s m between the "temporal ryng' (1. 182) which Aeneas s t r i v e s t o win and 'the kynryk ay le s t y n g ' (1. 183) and t h e i r j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f the Trojans' ' f a t a l e cuntre o f behest' (1. 178) with 'that realm . . . / The quhiIk was hecht t i l l Abraham and hys seyd' (1. 199), l i n k Aeneas' leading the Trojans t o Ausonia w i t h Moses' leading the I s r a e l i t e s t o the Promised Land and thus, i n l i n e with the t y p o l o g i c a l reading o f the Old Testament, wit h C h r i s t ' s making i t again p o s s i b l e f o r man t o reach 'that realm . . . / The q u h i l k was hecht t i l l Abraham and hys seyd' (11.198-9). What the n a r r a t o r had t h e o r e t i c a l l y i n d i c a t e d i n Prologue X becomes p r a c t i c a l f a c t i n Prologue X I : the subject o f the Aeneid i s now proper C h r i s t i a n conduct and no longer the j u s t i f i c a t i o n and c e l e b r a t i o n o f the Roman J u l i a n l i n e leading up t o Augustus; the work has become a ki n d o f " P i l g r i m ' s Progress," h o l d i n g Aeneas up as a s p i r i t u a l model f o r the C h r i s t i a n reader t o f o l l o w . Having thus re-examined h i s s t y l e , reconsidered h i s source o f i n s p i r a t i o n and re d e f i n e d h i s purpose and subject matter, the n a r r a t o r begins Prologue XII i n an e n t i r e l y new s p i r i t , f r e e d from the s t r a i n which the unresolved c o n f l i c t between h i s a r t i s t i c and moral leanings had p r e v i o u s l y placed on him. As he had done i n Prologues VI and V I I , the na r r a t o r repeats i n Prologue XI the i n s i g h t s won i n Prologue X but presents them i n an i m a g i n a t i v e l y transformed manner, p r a i s i n g h i s Maker in p o e t i c images ra t h e r than i n t h e o l o g i c a l d i s c o u r s e . Indeed, a f t e r the 164 r e d i r e c t i o n in s t y l e , purpose, and subject matter, and the r e c o g n i t i o n o f what i s f o r him the only acceptable source o f i n s p i r a t i o n , the na r r a t o r now perceives the two impulses o f a r t and r e l i g i o n t o be i n such harmony t h a t the w r i t i n g o f s e c u l a r poetry can proceed with the p r i e s t ' s b l e s s i n g : I i r k y t of my bed, and mycht not l y , Bot gan me b l y s s , syne i n my wedis dress. And, f o r i t was ayr morow, or tyme o f mess, I hynt a s c r i p t o u r and my pen f u r t h tuke, Syne thus begouth o f V i r g i 1 1 the t w e l t buke. ( X I I , P r o l . , 302-6) Given the d o u b t l e s s l y intended pun i n "mess' on "a meal" and "Mass," the w r i t i n g o f s e c u l a r poetry may now even be regarded as an e n t i r e l y a p p r o p r i a t e p r e p a r a t i o n f o r Mass, as long as i t i s i n harmony with the C h r i s t i a n f a i t h . Prologue XII thus c o n s t i t u t e s an a p p l i c a t i o n o f the issues e x p l i c i t l y r a i s e d i n Prologues VIII and t h e o r e t i c a l l y considered i n Prologues IX t o XI. Having come t o terms with the problems he faced as an a r t i s t , the n a r r a t o r presents an auto b i o g r a p h i c a l sketch a g a i n , d e p i c t i n g h i m s e l f as a man who r e j o i c e s i n the p u r i t y o f the May morning and who draws from t h a t scene the i n s p i r a t i o n which w i l l a l l o w him t o b r i n g h i s long labour t o i t s completion. At the end of Prologue X I I , the poet-t r a n s l a t o r ' s r e c o g n i t i o n o f the harmony between a r t and Cr e a t i o n has renewed h i s c r e a t i v e energy so t h a t he i s eager t o t r a n s l a t e V i r g i l ' s f i n a l Book. D i f f e r e n t as they a r e , the t w e l f t h Prologue and Book both end with a v i c t o r y : t h a t o f Aeneas over h i s opponent and over war i t s e l f , and th a t of the n a r r a t o r over h i s d i s r u p t i v e inner c o n f l i c t s ; but given the r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the Aeneid provided i n Prologue X I , both these v i c t o r i e s are d i r e c t l y based on the triumph o f the Son c e l e b r a t e d i n the 165 main p a r t o f Prologue XII as the triumph of the sun over darkness. Completing the s e r i e s . Prologue X I I I combines thematic, s t r u c t u r a l and formal elements from most o f the preceding Prologues i n a masterpiece of u n i f i c a t i o n . Framed by a counterpart t o the preceding two season d e s c r i p t i o n s i n Prologues VII and X I I , the c e n t r a l s e c t i o n o f Prologue X I I I repeats the dream-vision form a l r e a d y employed i n Prologue V I I I , but r e d i r e c t s the s a t i r i c t h r u s t from the s o c i a l t o the l i t e r a r y sphere. Thematica11y, t h i s c e n t r a l s e c t i o n r e c a l l s the d i s c u s s i o n s o f the value o f se c u l a r poetry i n Prologues I, I I I , VI, and IX, and provides d e f i n i t i v e answers t o the questions and u n c e r t a i n t i e s which had t r o u b l e d the n a r r a t o r in Prologues I I I , V and V I I . The t h i r t e e n t h Prologue thus serves as a capstone, completing and f u r t h e r heightening the s t r u c t u r e . What s t i l l remains t o be do n e — t h e t r a n s l a t i o n o f Maphaeus' s u p p l e m e n t — w i l l occupy the dreamer-narrator f o r but a short f o r t n i g h t . By the end of Prologue X I I I , the p o e t - t r a n s l a t o r has e s s e n t i a l l y f i n i s h e d h i s work; f o r Douglas as f o r Aeneas, the s t r u g g l e i s over, and the b a t t l e won. As L o i s Ebin observes, the two s t r u g g l e s , the e f f o r t of the poet t o produce a worthy poem and the journey o f Aeneas to f u l f i l l h i s d e s t i n y and found Rome, d e f i n e d i f f e r e n t aspects o f the quest f o r honor and v i r t u e which Douglas introduces i n the Pa 1ice o f  Honour as the highest goal o f man i n the world [PH, 1972-2007]. [. . .] In i t s c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the r e l a t i o n o f the poet's a c t i v i t y t o h i s c o n f l i c t s as a C h r i s t i a n , the n a r r a t o r ' s examination of the good poet and the value o f poetry i n the t h i r t e e n prologues become [ s i c ] the a r t i s t i c counterpart of Eneas' r e a l i z a t i o n o f the good man.*6 Aeneas has not o n l y found the e l u s i v e homeland and, by f i g h t i n g a war t o 166 end war, won Latium f o r a new n a t i o n , but he himse l f has grown from a mere hero i n t o a good man, who i s commended f o r h i s c a r i t a s and pi e t a s , and i n t o a model p r i n c e , who has t o endure the loss o f h i s k i n g , h i s home, h i s w i f e , h i s f r i e n d s and comrades, h i s f a t h e r and, f i n a l l y , h i s l o v e r , while g u i d i n g h i s people and n u r t u r i n g the new n a t i o n . In a p a r a l l e l double quest, Douglas has not o n l y recreated the whole o f V i r g i l ' s Aeneid i n " S c o t t i s , ' which he had t o temper i n such a way t h a t i t would become e l a s t i c and f l e x i b l e enough t o f o l l o w V i r g i l ' s verse, but he has a l s o defined and j u s t i f i e d h i s stance as a poet and t r a n s l a t o r and defended the value of l i t e r a t u r e as a r t . 167 Notes I I I , P r o l . , 37-45, and Exclamation, 1-6; a r e l a t e d image occurs i n the D i r e c t i o n (11.104-5), where Douglas compares h i s labour t o wading through the deep sea shrouded i n mis t . 2 Ebin, "The Role of the N a r r a t o r , " p.353. 3 In the f i r s t , h a l f , the n a r r a t o r invokes God f o u r times ( I , P r o l . , 452-59; I I , P r o l . , 7; I I I , P r o l . , 8; V, P r o l . , 60-68) and Mary three times ( I , P r o l . , 459-70; I I I , P r o l . , 42; VI, P r o l . , 167), whereas i n the second h a l f , he o n l y invokes God once, i n X, P r o l . , 146-50. 4 However, t h i s problem i s a perennial one; a t the end of the s i x t e e n t h century, Sidney s t i l l argued the same p o i n t i n h i s Defence of  Poetry. 5 Coldwell's statement t h a t Douglas claims he "would have done b e t t e r i f he had not been l i m i t e d by the e x i s t i n g t e x t " seems t o m i s i n t e r p r e t Douglas's l i n e s ( S e l e c t i o n s from Gavin Douglas, p.xv). Far from viewing V i r g i l ' s t e x t as a hindrance as Coldwel1 i m p l i e s , Douglas p o i n t s out t h a t an accurate t r a n s l a t o r must e x e r c i s e great d i s c i p l i n e and r e s t r a i n t i n order t o be t r u e t o the o r i g i n a l . 6 I c e r t a i n l y do not mean t o suggest t h a t Chaucer, f o r example, was not a conscious a r t i s t or saw him s e l f as merely a court e n t e r t a i n e r . The d i s t i n c t i o n i s r a t h e r t h a t Chaucer does not need t o emphasize h i s a r t i s t r y , w h i l e Douglas very emphatically wishes t o be seen by others as a conscious a r t i s t . Chaucer seems t o take h i s a r t f o r granted, whereas Douglas makes i t an iss u e . 7 CM. Bowra, From V i r g i 1 t o Mi 1 ton (London: Macmillan, 1957), pp.9-11. g In Gower's account of t h i s i n c i d e n t (CA, I, 1077-1128), Aeneas and Antenor's tre a c h e r y c o n s i s t s of a c c e p t i n g " y i f t e s grete / Of g o l d ' (11.1100-1) i n r e t u r n f o r persuading Priam t o agree t o a peace t r e a t y which they know t o be f a l s e . According t o Lydgate, however, Aeneas and Anchises (together with Antenor) are so eager t o save t h e i r own l i v e s t h a t they a t length persuade Priam t o agree t o a f a l s e peace t r e a t y i n which the Greeks promise t o l i f t the siege i n r e t u r n f o r n e a r l y a l l the gold and t r e a s u r e o f Troy. Antenor alone l a t e r hands over the Pal l a d i o n t o the Greeks i n order t o take revenge f o r h i s banishment from Troy which Aeneas had procured (JB, IV, 4531-5832). 9 Chaucer i s f a r more outspoken i n h i s c r i t i c i s m o f Aeneas, accusing him of unnatural t r e a c h e r y (HF, 293-95), of falsehood (LGW, 1234-36), of f i c k l e n e s s (LGW, 1285-87), and of j i l t i n g Dido f o r L a v i n i a (LGW, 1326-30). Gower, on the other hand, includes the Dido-and-Aeneas s t o r y i n h i s Confessio Amantis as an exemplum i l l u s t r a t i n g the v i c e o f S l o t h i n love (CA, IV, 77-146). There i s no mention of treachery; Aeneas i s o n l y 168 c r i t i c i z e d f o r being 'siowe' (1.137). Penelope Schott Starkey, "Gavin Douglas's Eneados; Dilemmas i n the Nature Prologues," Studies i n S c o t t i s h L i t e r a t u r e , 11 (1973/74), 87, i n t e r p r e t s the Y-formation of the cranes, which the n a r r a t o r sees at the end of Prologue V I I , as h i s golden bough. N i t e c k i , " M o r t a l i t y and Poetry," p.87. 12 This date, however, seems u n r e a l i s t i c , s i n c e Douglas as provost of the important c o l l e g i a t e church of St G i l e s , Edinburgh, would have been u n l i k e l y t o have had time and l e i s u r e f o r w r i t i n g poetry j u s t before as busy a day as Christmas. * 3 In 1513, Easter f e l l on 27 March, so t h a t Lent would have begun on 16 February. 1 4 Ebin, "The Role of the N a r r a t o r , " pp.358, 360. 15 Bawcutt, Gavin Douglas, p.174. 1 6 Ebin, "The Role of the N a r r a t o r , " p.363. 169 Cone 1 us i on Having t r a n s l a t e d the l a s t word of the t h i r t e e n t h Book, Douglas seems t o f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t t o take h i s leave of the work which had occupied him f o r the preceding year and a h a l f . In four a d d i t i o n a l passages of verse, the Conclusion, the D i r e c t i o n , the Exclamation a g a i n s t D e t r a c t o r s , and the s e c t i o n e n t i t l e d Time, Space and Date, Douglas reviews h i s p o s i t i o n as a poet, t r a n s l a t o r and s c h o l a r . He w r i t e s as a man who i s anxious t h a t h i s work be p r o p e r l y appreciated and who f e a r s , more than anything e l s e , t h a t i t might be tampered w i t h . His envoy, addressed t o the book i t s e l f , sums up Douglas's a t t i t u d e towards h i s work: Go, wlgar V i r g i l l , t o euery ch u r l y c h wight Say, I avow thou a r t t r a n s 1at i t r y c h t Beseyk a l l nobi11ys the corect and amend, Beys not a f f e r y t tocum i n p r y s a r i s sycht; The nedis nocht t o aschame of the l y c h t . For I haue brocht thy purposs t o gud end: Now s a l t thou with euery g e n t i l l Scot be kend, And t o on l e t t e r i t f o l k be red on h i g h t , That e r s t was bot w i t h c l e r k i s comprehend. (Exclamation, 37-45) V i r g i l remains V i r g i l , r e g a r d l e s s o f whether he be read i n the o r i g i n a l L a t i n or i n Douglas's 'wlgar' t r a n s l a t i o n — t h e r e i s not the s l i g h t e s t doubt i n Douglas's mind t h a t he has done j u s t i c e t o h i s 'autour,' and he i s c e r t a i n t h a t the courtesy which he extends t o h i s c o u r t l y readers w i l l not be mistaken f o r anything but a formula; c r i t i c s , on the other hand, whom he more commonly c a l l s f a u l t - f i n d e r s or b a c k b i t e r s , w i l l have no reasonable cause f o r complaint, f o r Douglas i s sure t h a t he has served V i r g i l well and t h a t h i s own work c o n s t i t u t e s a h i g h l y m e r i t o r i o u s achievement. This c l a i m i s p a r t l y based on the q u a l i t y o f the 170 t r a n s l a t i o n , and p a r t l y on the increased a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f the Aeneid r e s u l t i n g from i t s t r a n s l a t i o n i n t o " S c o t t i s . ' While o n l y t r a i n e d s c h o l a r s had p r e v i o u s l y been a b l e t o read V i r g i l and, i t i s understood, t o p r o f i t from such a reading, the work i s now a v a i l a b l e t o a l l , l e t t e r e d and u n l e t t e r e d , lay and learned a l i k e . At l e a s t t h e o r e t i c a l l y , there are thus no longer any l i m i t s t o where V i r g i l , now 'wlgar,' might "go.' Indeed, wh i l e the above passage r e f e r s e x c l u s i v e l y t o a S c o t t i s h audience, Douglas elsewhere e n v i s i o n s an even wider one: Throw owt the i l e y c l e p i t Albyon Red s a i l I be, and sung with mony one. (Conclusion, 11-12) These two l i n e s a l s o b r i n g Douglas's c o n v i c t i o n o f the d u r a b i l i t y o f h i s own fame i n t o even c l e a r e r focus. To a large extent, Douglas i s j u s t i f i e d i n h i s c l a i m t o l a s t i n g renown. He has created a genuine t r a n s l a t i o n , not an a d a p t a t i o n , o f an outstanding work of c l a s s i c a l a n t i q u i t y . Judged by any standards, the q u a l i t y o f t h i s t r a n s l a t i o n i s high, not o n l y because o f i t s general accuracy, but a l s o because of i t s own merits as a work of l i t e r a t u r e . I t i s t r u e t h a t Douglas o c c a s i o n a l l y a l t e r s the f l a v o u r o f V i r g i 1 i a n passages, e s p e c i a l l y those which d e s c r i b e vigorous a c t i o n , but changes of t h i s k i n d are due t o a p a r t i c u l a r perception o f V i r g i l r a t h e r than t o any lack o f competence on the part of the t r a n s l a t o r . Douglas simply does not seem t o have been aware of any e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e between the / c i v i l i z a t i o n o f imperial Rome and t h a t o f e a r l y s i x t e e n t h - c e n t u r y Scotland. As a r e s u l t , he o f t e n makes s p e c i f i c what V i r g i l leaves vague or ambiguous, he a c t u a l i z e s and c o n c r e t i z e s what V i r g i l leaves remote and 171 a b s t r a c t , and he "modernizes" and " S c o t t i c i z e s " what seems a r c h a i c or a l i e n i n V i r g i 1 . A more se r i o u s i n t e r v e n t i o n i s t h a t he a l s o C h r i s t i a n i z e s V i r g i l , but t h i s d i f f e r e n c e i n the und e r l y i n g philosophy r a r e l y a f f e c t s the t r a n s l a t i o n i t s e l f . On the co n t r a r y , s i n c e Douglas sees V i r g i l not only as a poet o f peer l e s s e x c e l l e n c e but a l s o as a sage philosopher and th e o l o g i a n foreshadowing C h r i s t i a n d o c t r i n e , he t r e a t s V i r g i l ' s work with the g r e a t e s t respect and regards i t s i n t e g r i t y as i n v i o l a b l e . While the r e l i g i o u s r i t e s described i n the epi c o f t e n gain i n t e n s i t y i n Douglas's t r a n s l a t i o n , they are not c o n s c i o u s l y transformed i n t o C h r i s t i a n r i t u a l s . However, although the t r a n s l a t i o n o f the Books o f the Aeneid remains l a r g e l y unaffected by the t r a n s l a t o r ' s r e l i g i o u s and moral stance, the s e r i e s of Prologues i n t r o d u c i n g the i n d i v i d u a l Books presents a reading o f the work as a C h r i s t i a n a l l e g o r y . In t h i s r e - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , Aeneas not onl y appears as the good man and model p r i n c e , but he a l s o represents the C h r i s t i a n b e l i e v e r i n h i s continuous s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t the powers o f darkness, and he furthermore comes t o be a type o f C h r i s t Himself, leading h i s people home t o the land promised by d i v i n e r e v e l a t i o n . The s e r i e s o f the Prologues thus t r a n s v a l u e s the Aeneid by r e - i n t e r p r e t i n g i t s common archetypes as foreshadowings o f C h r i s t i a n t e a c h i n g . While the Prologues i n one respect c o n s t i t u t e a "reader's guide" t o the Aeneid, they a l s o serve as a p l a t f o r m f o r Douglas t o expound h i s t h e o r e t i c a l approach t o the genre o f t r a n s l a t i o n , t o d i s c u s s the p r i n c i p l e s and methods which he intends t o apply i n h i s own t r a n s l a t i o n of the p a r t i c u l a r work, and t o examine the shortcomings o f e a r l i e r treatments of the Aeneid i n E n g l i s h . Douglas's main guidi n g p r i n c i p l e i s the demand 172 f o r utmost accuracy i n every respect, from p r e c i s i o n i n the word choice a l l the way t o f i d e l i t y i n the rendering of the p h i l o s o p h i c a l and i d e o l o g i c a l p o s i t i o n of the o r i g i n a l author as i t i s r e f l e c t e d i n the work i t s e l f . This demand, however, involves Douglas i n a c o n t r a d i c t i o n i n which h i s two r o l e s as poet-scholar and as churchman seem t o make mutually e x c l u s i v e c l a i m s , f o r the C h r i s t i a n i n Douglas i s exhorted t o place h i s a r t i s t i c t a l e n t s i n the s e r v i c e o f h i s f a i t h , w h i l e the s c h o l a r wishes t o be as accurate as p o s s i b l e i n making the work of V i r g i l , although a pagan w r i t e r , a c c e s s i b l e t o the widest audience. In the f i r s t h a l f o f the s e r i e s , Douglas s t i l l seems t o labour under the perception of a c l a s h between these two impulses, but i n a process p a r a l l e l t o the tempering which Aeneas undergoes as a r e s u l t of h i s t r i a l s and s u f f e r i n g s , the n a r r a t o r a l s o g r a d u a l l y r e s o l v e s the seeming c o n f l i c t and emerges strengthened i n the awareness t h a t the two r o l e s o f the poet and p r i e s t can be complementary even when the poet's m a t e r i a l i s n o n - C h r i s t i a n . While the Books n a r r a t e Aeneas' double j o u r n e y — t h e p h y s i c a l one from the ruined Troy t o the s i t e o f the f u t u r e Rome, and the p s y c h o l o g i c a l one i n which h i s p r i v a t e and p u b l i c v i r t u e s are t e s t e d and s t r e n g t h e n e d — t h e Prologues r e f l e c t t h i s movement i n a s i m i l a r progress of the n a r r a t o r and p o e t - t r a n s l a t o r , who a l s o undertakes a successful quest, i n t h i s case f o r a new approach t o t r a n s l a t i o n ; l i k e Aeneas, the n a r r a t o r a l s o r e s o l v e s the c o n f l i c t s inherent i n h i s dual r o l e and i n the process lays the t h e o r e t i c a l foundations f o r h i s undertaking by examining i t s value and i t s methods. In the course of t h i s p a r a l l e l progress, both Aeneas and the n a r r a t o r of the Prologues have been tempered and emerge v i c t o r i o u s from t h e i r t r i a l s . 173 B i b1iography Primary Sources E d i t i o n s V i r g i I ' s Aeneid T r a n s l a t e d i n t o S c o t t i s h Verse by Gavin Douglas, Bishop o f  Dunkeld. Ed. David F.C. C o l d w e l l . 4 v o l s . , STS 25, 27, 28, 30. Edinburgh & London: B l a c k w e l l , 1957-64. The Poetica1 Works of Gavin Douglas, Bishop of Dunkeld: With Memoir, Notes, and Glossary. Ed. John Small. 4 v o l s . Edinburgh: Paterson; London: Sotheran, 1874. The AEneid of V i r g i l , T r a n s l a t e d i n t o S c o t t i s h Verse: By Gawin Douglas,  Bishop of Dunkeld. Eds. Andrew, Lord Rutherford, and George Dundas, Lord Manor. Edinburgh: Bannatyne Club, 1839. V i r g i l ' s Aeneis T r a n s l a t e d i n t o S c o t t i s h Verse. Ed. Thomas Ruddiman. Edinburgh, 1710. S e l e c t i o n s from Gavin Douglas. Ed. David F.C. C o l d w e l l . Clarendon Medieval and Tudor S e r i e s . Oxford: Clarendon, 1964. Anthologies The Book of S c o t t i s h Poetry, Being an Anthology of the Best S c o t t i s h Verse  from the Ear 1 i e s t Times t o the Present. Ed. George Douglas. London: T. F i s h e r Unwin, 1911. Mediaeval S c o t t i s h Poetry: King James the F i r s t , Robert Henryson, W i l l i a m  Dunbar, Gavin Douglas. Ed. George Eyre-Todd. London & Edinburgh: Sands, n.d. The Oxford Book of S c o t t i s h Verse. Eds. John MacQueen and Tom S c o t t . Oxford: Clarendon, 1966. S c o t t i s h Poetry from Barbour t o James VI. Ed. M.M. Gray. London: Dent, 1935. S e l e c t i o n s from the E a r l y S c o t t i s h Poets. Ed. Wi11iam Hand Browne. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1896. 174 Other Texts Caxton's Eneydos, 1490: E n g l i s h t from the French L i u r e des Eneydes, 1483. Ed. W.T. C u l l e y and F.J. F u r n i v a l l . E.E.T.S.e.s. 57. London: Triibner, 1890. The Works of Geoffrey Chaucer. Ed. F.N. Robinson. 2nd edn. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1957. The Poems of Wi11iam Dunbar. Ed. James K i n s l e y . Oxford: Clarendon, 1979. Lydgate's Fal1 of P r i n c e s . Ed. Henry Bergen. 4 v o l s . E.E.T.S. 121-4. London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1924-27. Lydgate's Troy Book: A.D. 1412-20. Ed. Henry Bergen. 2 v o l s . E.E.T.S. e.s. 97 & 103, 106. London: Kegan P a u l , Trench, Triibner & Co., 1906-10. The Complete Works of John Gower. Ed. G.C. Macaulay. V o l s . II and I I I : The E n g l i s h Works. Oxford: Clarendon, 1901. The Poems of Robert Henryson. Ed. Denton Fox. Oxford: Clarendon, 1981. Qvid: Metamorphoses. Ed. & t r a n s . Frank Justus M i l l e r . The Loeb C l a s s i c a l L i b r a r y . London: Heinemann, 1968. S i r Gawain and the Green Knight. Eds. J.R.R. T o l k i e n and E.V. Gordon. 2nd rev. edn. by Norman Davis. Oxford: Clarendon, 1967. S i r P h i l i p Sidney. "A Defence of Poetry." In Mi seellaneous Prose of S i r  P h i 1 i p Sidney. Ed. Katherine Duncan-Jones. Oxford: Clarendon, 1973, pp.73-121. V i r g i 1 : Eclogues, Georgics, Aeneid, The Minor Poems. Ed. & t r a n s . H. Rushton Fa i r e lough. 2 v o l s . The Loeb C l a s s i c a l L i b r a r y . Rev. edn. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press, 1978. Secondary Sources Works C i t e d Bawcutt, P r i s c i l l a . "Douglas and Surrey: T r a n s l a t o r s o f V i r g i l . " Essays  and S t u d i e s , n.s. 27 (1974), 52-67. Gavin Douglas: A C r i t i c a l Study. Edinburgh: Edinburgh Univ. Press, 1976. "Gavin Douglas and Chaucer." Review of E n g l i s h S t u d i e s , n.s. 21 (1970), 401-21. 175 "Gavin Douglas and the Text of V i r g i l . " Edinburgh  Bib1iographica1 S o c i e t y Transactions, v o l . IV (1955-71), 211-31. . "The ' L i b r a r y ' o f Gavin Douglas." In Bards and Makars— S c o t t i s h Language and L i t e r a t u r e : Medieval and Renaissance. Eds. Adarn J . A i t k e n , Matthew P. McDiarmid, and Derick S. Thomson. Glasgow: Univ. o f Glasgow Press, 1977, pp.107-26. B l y t h , Charles R. "Gavin Douglas' Prologues of Natural D e s c r i p t i o n . " P h i l o l o g i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , 49 (1970), 164-77. . "'The Knychtlyke S t i l e ' : A Study of Gavin Douglas' Aeneid." D i s s . Harvard 1963. Bowra, CM. From V i r g i l t o M i l t o n . London: Macmillan, 1957. C u r t i u s , Ernst Robert. European L i t e r a t u r e and the L a t i n Midd1e Ages. Trans. W i l l a r d R. Trask. London: Rout ledge & Kegan P a u l , 1953. Dearing, George B. "Gavin Douglas: A R e - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , " D i s s . U. o f Iowa 1943. Dewey, Thomas Blanchard. "The Vocabulary of Gavin Douglas." V o l s . I - I I I . D i s s . UCLA 1973. Ebin, L o i s . "Lydgate's Views on Poetry." Annuale Mediaevale, 18 (1977), 76-105. "The Role of the Narrator i n the Prologues t o Gavin Douglas's Eneados." Chaucer Review, 14 (1979/80), 353-65. Fox, Denton. "The S c o t t i s h Chaucerians." In Chaucer and Chaucerians: C r i t i c a 1 Studies i n Midd1e E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e . Ed. D.S. Brewer. 2nd edn. Alabama: Univ. of Alabama Press, 1967, pp.164-200. Hager, Alan. " B r i t i s h V i r g i l : Four Renaissance Disguises f o r the Laocoon Passage of Book 2 of the Aeneid." Studies i n E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e , 22 (1982), 21-38. Hammond, Eleanor P r e s c o t t . Eng 1 i s h Verse between Chaucer and Surrey. Durham, N.C.: Duke Univ. Press, and London: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1927. Hughes, Joan, and W.S. Ramson. Poetry of the Stewart Court. Canberra: A u s t r a l i a n National Univ. Press, 1982. Johnson, Quentin George. "Gavin Douglas as P o e t - T r a n s l a t o r : Eneados and Aeneid J_V." D i s s . U. of Oregon 1967. Johnson, W.R. Darkness V i s i b l e : A Study of Vergi1's Aeneid. Berkeley: 176 Univ. of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1976. Kasmann, Hans. "Gavin Douglas' Aeneis-Ubersetzung." In F e s t s c h r i f t f u r  Walter Hiibner. Eds. D i e t e r Riesner and Helmut Gneuss. B e r l i n : E r i c h Schmidt V e r l a g , 1964, pp.164-76. Kinneavy, Gerald B. "An A n a l y t i c a l Approach t o L i t e r a t u r e i n the l a t e Middle Ages." NeuphiIo1ogische Mittei1ungen, 75 (1974), 126-42. "Gavin Douglas, Poet and C r i t i c : A Study o f h i s Poetry and C r i t i c a l Theory i n R e l a t i o n t o Medieval P o e t i c s . " D i s s . Pennsylvania State 1967. K i n s l e y , James. "The Mediaeval Makars." In h i s (ed.) S c o t t i s h Poetry: A C r i t i c a l Survey. London: C a s s e l l , 1955, pp.1-32. Lewis, C S . E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e i n the S i x t e e n t h Century, Excluding Drama. Oxford: Clarendon, 1954. Lewis, R.W.B. "On T r a n s l a t i n g the Aeneid: Y i f That 1 Can." Yearbook of Comparative and General L i t e r a t u r e , 10 (1961), 7-15. MacDiarmid, Hugh. "Gavin Douglas and the AEneid." Agenda, 14, i i (1976), B9-92. Mackenzie, Agnes Mure. An H i s t o r i c a 1 Survey of S c o t t i s h L i t e r a t u r e t o 1714. London: Maclehose, 1933. Murison, David. "The Dutch Element i n the Vocabulary of Scots." In Edinburgh Studies i n Eng1ish and Scots. Eds. A.J. A i t k e n , Angus Mcintosh and Hermann Palsson. London: Longman, 1971, pp.159-76. N i t e c k i , A l i c i a K. "Gavin Douglas's Rural Muse." In Proceedings of the  T h i r d I n t e r n a t i o n a l Conference on S c o t t i s h Language and L i t e r a t u r e  (Medieva1 and Renaissance). Eds. Roderick J . L y a l l and F e l i c i t y Riddy ( S t i r l i n g & Glasgow: n.p., 1981), pp.383-95. " M o r t a l i t y and Poetry i n Douglas' Prologue 7." Papers on  Language and L i t e r a t u r e , 18 (1982), 81-7. . "The Theme o f Renewal i n Douglas' Prologue 12." Bal1 State U n i v e r s i t y Forum, 22 (1981), 9-13. Owst, G.R. L i t e r a t u r e and P u l p i t i n Medieva1 England: A Neglected Chapter  i n the H i s t o r y o f E n g l i s h L e t t e r s and of the E n g l i s h Peop1e. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1933. Parkinson, David J . "Gavin Douglas's I n t e r l u d e . " S c o t t i s h L i t e r a r y  J o u r n a l , 14 (1987), 5-17. P e a r s a l l , Derek, and E l i z a b e t h S a l t e r . Landscapes and Seasons of the Medieval World. London: Elek, 1973. 177 Ross, Ian S. "'Proloug' and "Buke' i n the Eneados of Gavin Douglas." In S c o t t i s h Language and L i t e r a t u r e , Medieva1 and Renaissance; Fourth  Internationa1 Conference 1984—Proceedings. Eds. D i e t r i c h Strauss and Horst W. Drescher. F r a n k f u r t a.M.: Peter Lang, 1986, pp.393-407. Spearing, A.C. Medieval t o Renaissance i n E n g l i s h Poetry. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1985. S p e i r s , John. "Gavin Douglas's 'Aeneid'." 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" T r a n s l a t i n g V i r g i l , Douglas t o Dryden: Some General C o n s i d e r a t i o n s . " In P o e t i c T r a d i t i o n s o f the E n g l i s h Renaissance. Ed. Maynard Mack and George deForest Lord. New Haven & London: Yale Univ. Press, 1982, pp.271-86. F u l t o n , Robin. "Douglas and V i r g i l . " Studies i n S c o t t i s h L i t e r a t u r e , 2 (1964) 125-28. Gordon, CD. "Gavin Douglas's L a t i n Vocabulary." Phoenix, 24 (1970), 54-73. H a l l , Louis Brewer. "An Aspect o f the Renaissance i n Gavin Douglas' Eneados." Studies i n the Renaissance, 7 (1960), 184-92. K r i s t e l l e r , Paul Oskar. The C l a s s i c s and Renaissance Thought. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press, 1955. MacQueen, John. "Some Aspects o f the E a r l y Renaissance i n Scotland." Forum f o r Modern Language S t u d i e s , 3 (1967), 201-222. Nicholson, Ranald. Scot 1 and: The Later Midd1e Ages. Edinburgh H i s t o r y o f Scotland. V o l . I I . 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