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Gavin Douglas's Prologues to his Eneados : the narrator in quest of a new homeland Canitz, Auguste Elfriede Christa 1988

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GAVIN DOUGLAS'S PROLOGUES TO HIS EJNEADOS: THE NARRATOR IN QUEST OF A NEW HOMELAND By AUGUSTE ELFRIEDE CHRISTA CANITZ B.A. (Hons.), The University of Birmingham, 1980 M.A., The University of Birmingham, 1981 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of English)  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March 1988 Auguste Elfriede Christa Canitz, 1988  In  presenting  degree  at  this  the  thesis  in  University of  partial  fulfilment  of  British Columbia, I agree  freely available for reference and study. I further copying of  this  department  or  publication of  thesis for by  his  or  her  DE-6(3/81)  that the  for  an advanced  Library shall make it  It  is  granted  by the  understood  that  head of copying  my or  this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written  English  The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date  representatives.  requirements  agree that permission for extensive  scholarly purposes may be  permission.  Department of  the  29 A p r i l 1988  ABSTRACT  In t r a n s l a t i n g t h e A e n e i d as f a i t h f u l l y as p o s s i b l e , G a v i n Douglas saw  h i m s e l f as an  innovator, breaking with the t r a d i t i o n of adaptation  instead presenting a f a i t h f u l  literary translation.  In t h e P r o l o g u e s  h i s Eneados Douglas d i s c u s s e s h i s t h e o r e t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s , comments on work o f h i s p r e d e c e s s o r s  in the transmission of V i r g i l  the  Aeneid.  a l s o r e f l e c t Douglas's p e r c e p t i o n o f a c o n f l i c t  between h i s r e l i g i o u s and a r t i s t i c r e s o l u t i o n of t h i s c o n f l i c t and  to  i n E n g l i s h , and  r a i s e s i s s u e s p e r t i n e n t t o t h e c o n t e n t s o f t h e Books o f t h e However, t h e P r o l o g u e s  and  i m p u l s e s , and show h i s gradual  i n h e r e n t i n h i s dual r o l e as c r i t i c a l  artist  churchman. By p l a c i n g Douglas's P r o l o g u e s  i n the context of prologues  medieval w r i t e r s , Chapter I shows t h a t Douglas's new  by  other  approach t o f a i t h f u l  l i t e r a r y t r a n s l a t i o n i s matched by h i s independence i n t h e employment o f conventional  l i t e r a r y d e v i c e s , which he r e v i t a l i z e s by u s i n g them i n a  meaningful way  r a t h e r t h a n a p p l y i n g them because custom so d i c t a t e s .  Chapter II f o c u s e s on t h e n a r r a t o r i n h i s v a r i o u s and d i v e r g e n t e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e o f t h e poet and p r i e s t ; w h i l e t h e s e two r o l e s  roles, initially  seem t o make c o n f l i c t i n g demands on t h e t r a n s l a t o r - n a r r a t o r , he e v e n t u a l l y r e s o l v e s t h e c o n f l i c t and r e c o g n i z e s a sublime  harmony between d i v i n e and  human a r t i s t r y .  Chapter I I I examines Douglas's p r a c t i c e o f t r a n s l a t i o n i n  l i g h t o f h i s own  t h e o r y ; even though Douglas t e n d s t o "modernize" V i r g i l ,  he produces a genuine t r a n s l a t i o n i n which h i s avowed aims a r e realized. Prologues  Chapter IV f o c u s e s on t h e connexions o f t h e  largely  individual  w i t h t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e Books and demonstrates t h a t even though  the t r a n s l a t i o n i t s e l f i s g e n e r a l l y accurate, the i n t e r p o l a t i o n of the ii  P r o l o g u e s w i t h t h e i r r e - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f common a r c h e t y p e s as f o r e s h a d o w i n g s o f C h r i s t i a n d o c t r i n e causes a r a d i c a l t r a n s v a l u i n g o f A e n e i d as a C h r i s t i a n a l l e g o r y . l i n k a g e between t h e P r o l o g u e s and  Chapter V shows t h a t t h e r e  the  i s not o n l y a  Books, but t h a t t h e P r o l o g u e s a r e a l s o  connected t o each o t h e r by t h e n a r r a t o r ' s s e a r c h f o r a t h e o l o g i c a l l y acceptable work.  yet a l s o a r t i s t i c a l l y s a t i s f y i n g r e - c r e a t i o n of a  non-Christian  Aeneas and t h e t r a n s l a t o r - n a r r a t o r a r e t h u s engaged i n p a r a l l e l  q u e s t s d u r i n g which t h e y have t o overcome p h y s i c a l o b s t a c l e s and i n n e r c o n f l i c t s b e f o r e t h e y can r e a c h t h e i r f i n a l  destinations.  resolve  Contents  Abstract  ii  Abbreviations  v  Acknowledgements  vi  introduction Chapter 1: Part  1:  P a r t 2:  1 New Uses o f E s t a b l i s h e d C o n v e n t i o n s  13  The L a r g e l y N e g l e c t e d P r o l o g u e s  17  The S p e c i a l Problem o f t h e * Nature' P r o l o g u e s  37  Chapter 11:  The N a r r a t o r  58  Chapter I I I :  The T r a n s l a t i o n  85  Chapter IV:  The L i n k a g e between P r o l o g u e s and Books  114  Chapter V:  The Double P r o g r e s s  142  Conclusion  170  Bibliography  174 ft  iv  Abbreviations  CA  Gower, C o n f e s s i o Amant i s  E.E.T.S.(e.s.)  E a r l y E n g l i s h Text S o c i e t y  P.O.S.T.  D i c t i o n a r y o f t h e O l d e r S c o t t i s h Tongue  FP  L y d g a t e , The Fal1 o f P r i n c e s  HF  Chaucer, The House o f Fame  LGW  Chaucer, The Legend o f Good Women  ME  Middle English  MF  Henryson, The Mora11 Fabi11 i s o f Esope t h e P h r y g i a n  Q.E.D.  Oxford English  PF  Chaucer, The P a r l i a m e n t o f Fowls  PH  Douglas, The Pa 1ice o f Honour  TB  L y d g a t e , The Troy Book  T&C  Chaucer, T r o i l u s and C r i s e y d e  TC  Henryson, The Testament o f C r e s s e i d  STS  S c o t t i s h Text S o c i e t y  (extra series)  Dictionary  v  Acknowledgements I would like to thank Professor Ian S. Ross and Professor Mahmoud A. Manzalaoui for their advice and guidance.  I am also grateful  to  Professors James Russell and J . Kieran Kealy for their comments and suggestions.  My greatest indebtedness, however, is to the late Wolfgang  Albrecht, to whose memory I dedicate this thesis.  vi  Introduction  In t h e c o u r s e o f t h e P r o l o g u e s t o h i s Eneados. G a v i n Douglas r e f e r s s e v e r a l t i m e s t o "grave m a t t e r s " which d e l a y e d t h e p r o g r e s s o f h i s t r a n s l a t i o n o f V i r g i l ' s A e n e i d i n t o ' S c o t t i s , ' y e t he s t i l l e n t i r e work i n a mere e i g h t e e n months.  completed t h e  On t h e o t h e r hand, he a l s o f i n d s  t h a t h i s work o f w r i t i n g t h e Eneados had o c c u p i e d him f o r a l l t o o long a w h i l e , t h u s d i v e r t i n g h i s a t t e n t i o n from more important b u s i n e s s . two  contrasting perspectives  regarding  These  1  the propriety o f devoting  h i s time  t o a p o e t i c e n t e r p r i s e a r e i n many ways t y p i c a l o f t h e c o n f l i c t s which c h a r a c t e r i z e t h i s w r i t e r and h i s l o n g e s t work.  Douglas i n h i s  various  r o l e s i s f r e q u e n t l y a t odds w i t h h i m s e l f , b u t t h e t e n s i o n which r e s u l t s from t h e o f t e n c o n f l i c t i n g c l a i m s o f h i s d i v e r s e r o l e s and v i e w - p o i n t s h e i g h t e n s t h e v i t a l i t y o f h i s p o e t r y and g i v e s  i t increased  energy and  v i gour. In s p e a k i n g o f Douglas's " h a u n t i n g c o n s c i o u s n e s s t h a t a man i s n o t made a b i s h o p i n o r d e r t o t r a n s l a t e V i r g i l , " C S . Lewis i n d i c a t e d one o f 2 t h e fundamental c o n f l i c t s t r o u b l i n g Douglas t h e poet.  Douglas's  v o c a t i o n , on t h e one hand, and h i s l i t e r a r y e n t e r p r i s e , on t h e o t h e r , i n v o l v e him i n a c o n f l i c t o f i n t e r e s t s , f o r t h e one demands t h a t he p l a c e his s k i l l  i n t h e s e r v i c e o f h i s f a i t h by u s i n g h i s a r t i s t i c t a l e n t s  p r o f i t a b l y t o t e a c h t h e d o c t r i n e s o f C h r i s t i a n i t y and t o c e l e b r a t e h i s L o r d , whose c r e a t i v e a c t i s t h e model t o be " i m i t a t e d " by t h e c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t y o f t h e p o e t ; t h e o t h e r i n t e r e s t , however, leads him t o expend h i s t i m e and energy on t h e t r a n s l a t i o n o f a pagan w r i t e r ' s work, and t h u s on what might be r e g a r d e d as a d i s s e m i n a t i o n  o f h e r e s y and s u p e r s t i t i o n .  P a r a d o x i c a l l y , i t i s p r e c i s e l y h i s t r a i n i n g as a s c h o l a s t i c 1  theologian  which must have made the undertaking of the Aeneid t r a n s l a t i o n p a r t i c u l a r l y a t t r a c t i v e to Douglas.  Time and time again, he stresses that  accuracy and precision are among the main p r i n c i p l e s guiding his work, and he does not v e i l h i s indignation at William Caxton, one of h i s predecessors in the transmission of the Aeneid, f o r having f a i l e d to pay attention to these fundamentals of t r a n s l a t i o n .  At the same time, the  demand for accuracy in the t r a n s l a t i o n also i d e n t i f i e s Douglas as immersed in a new current—new, at least, in the context of the B r i t i s h namely, that of Renaissance humanism.  Isles—  Unlike Caxton, Chaucer, and others  who have r e t o l d the Aeneas story in t h e i r own ways yet claim to be following V i r g i l , Douglas endeavours a c t u a l l y to reproduce the Aeneid itself.  This implies that he sees himself (and wishes to be seen by  others) not only as a poet but also as a l i t e r a r y scholar.  While Douglas  the poet struggles with what he perceives to be the inadequacy of his native tongue to r e f l e c t the s t y l e of the o r i g i n a l , Douglas the scholar consults the accumulated V i r g i l i a n commentaries,  in addition to his own  l i n g u i s t i c taste and inventiveness, to select the one word—or two or even three words—which  sometimes  comes closest to V i r g i l ' s in meaning,  connotations, and even sound q u a l i t y . Moreover, Douglas i s not s a t i s f i e d with t r a n s l a t i n g V i r g i l as closely as h i s s k i l l and h i s medium w i l l allow; he also renders a precise account of h i s theoretical p r i n c i p l e s and methods, defends the p a r t i c u l a r enterprise, and, indeed, j u s t i f i e s the writing of secular poetry per se. The foremost among h i s p r i n c i p l e s is the demand f o r utmost accuracy, which includes precision in technical aspects, such as word choice and retention of the proportions of the work, as well as the f a i t h f u l rendering of the  2  o r i g i n a l a u t h o r ' s p h i l o s o p h i c a l s t a n c e , even i f t h i s s t a n c e may not a c c o r d w i t h t h e t r a n s l a t o r ' s own p r e f e r e n c e s .  Douglas c o n s e q u e n t l y  chides  Chaucer f o r h a v i n g m i s r e p r e s e n t e d Aeneas a s a p e r j u r e r whereas V i r g i l had p o r t r a y e d him a s f a u l t l e s s .  N o n e t h e l e s s , Douglas does n o t p e r c e i v e any  c l a s h between t h i s p o s t u l a t e o f t o t a l a c c u r a c y and h i s own p r a c t i c e o f r e i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e A e n e i d as a C h r i s t i a n a l l e g o r y which may s e r v e a s a m i r r o r f o r p r i n c e s and a s a guidebook f o r t h e average b e l i e v e r .  For  Douglas, t h i s k i n d o f " p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t o n " seems t o have come n a t u r a l l y ; not once does he seek t o defend g r a n t e d t h a t t h i s approach  it.  On t h e c o n t r a r y , he t a k e s i t f o r  i s f u l l y j u s t i f i e d and p o i n t s t o V i r g i l ' s  d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e underworld a s e v i d e n c e t h a t V i r g i l unconscious  spokesman f o r s t i l l  "modernizing" V i r g i l  h i m s e l f was an  unrevealed C h r i s t i a n d o c t r i n e . F r e e l y  i n o t h e r r e s p e c t s t o o , Douglas shows h i s l a c k o f any  sense o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l d i s t a n c e between V i r g i l ' s t i m e and h i s own.  While  Douglas can be e x t r e m e l y f a i t h f u l t o t h e l e t t e r o f V i r g i l ' s t e x t and w h i l e he i s w e l l aware t h a t he i s b r e a k i n g new ground w i t h h i s s c h o l a r l y approach  t o t h e c r a f t o f t r a n s l a t i o n , he n o n e t h e l e s s  thoroughly  t r a n s v a l u e s t h e A e n e i d w i t h o u t b e i n g c o n s c i o u s o f h a v i n g made t h e s i i g h t e s t change. A l t h o u g h Douglas i s f u l l y committed t o making t h e A e n e i d a c c e s s i b l e t o h i s own countrymen, l e t t e r e d and u n l e t t e r e d a l i k e , he i s a c u t e l y c o n s c i o u s o f t h e o b j e c t i o n s which might be r a i s e d a g a i n s t h i s u n d e r t a k i n g . In f a c t , t h e s e r i e s o f t h e t h i r t e e n P r o l o g u e s , i n t e g r a t e d i n t o t h e t r a n s l a t i o n , p r o v i d e s ample e v i d e n c e t h a t he h i m s e l f i s i n t h i s r e s p e c t h i s own s e v e r e s t judge and c r i t i c . s t r u g g l e w i t h two c o n f l i c t i n g  The P r o l o g u e s document  Douglas's  i m p u l s e s : on t h e one s i d e , h i s s c h o l a r l y and 3  a r t i s t i c interests urge him to use a l l his poetic s k i l l and learned resourcefulness to preserve the integrity of V i r g i l ' s work in reproducing i t f o r a new audience with a d i f f e r e n t l i n g u i s t i c and cultural background; on the other side, his moral and r e l i g i o u s impulses warn him that he i s engaged in a questionable pursuit when he appears to promulgate the existence and active agency of pagan d e i t i e s .  However, the Prologues also  show the gradual resolution of t h i s c o n f l i c t and, eventually, the sublime harmony between the poet's r e l i g i o u s and a r t i s t i c concerns.  In t h i s  respect, Douglas's progress mirrors that of Aeneas, who also has to overcome severe psychological and physical obstacles before he can give his Trojans t h e i r new homeland.  These two journeys of the poet-translator  and of the hero of the work are linked to each other not only by means of a general p a r a l l e l i s m in the development of the two series of the Prologues and the Books, but also by means of i n t r i c a t e connexions between the individual Prologues and the Books which they introduce; thematic or structural elements in the Prologues often adumbrate those found in the Books and link the narrator's inner state with events in Aeneas' career. This linkage of the Prologues with their respective Books and of the two series with each other has, however, only recently been recognized. From the late nineteenth century u n t i l the 1960's, editors and compilers as well as l i t e r a r y c r i t i c s have emphasized the so-called  'Nature'  Prologues (VII, XII, and XIII) in t h e i r anthologies and d i s c u s s i o n s .  3  Although these three Prologues, set in December, May, and June respectively, unite descriptions of the seasonal  landscape with short  sketches of the poet himself in various states of c r e a t i v i t y , c r i t i c s in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century commonly regarded these 4  P r o l o g u e s as pure n a t u r e p o e t r y . claimed  i n 1933 t h a t "Douglas  Agnes Mure Mackenzie,  i s the f i r s t poet  i n any form o f t h e  language d e l i b e r a t e l y t o p a i n t w i l d w e a t h e r — i n d e e d a considerable s c a l e — f o r  i t s own  f o r example,  to paint  landscape on  sake, t o f i n d the a e s t h e t i c p l e a s u r e i n  i t as such, not merely as the a p p r o p r i a t e s e t t i n g f o r some t h r i l l adventure among w i l d n e s s .  He  i s thus a f i g u r e o f c a r d i n a l  importance  the development o f a l l n a t u r e - p o e t r y , not o n l y i n E n g l i s h . " 'Nature' Prologues were, and s t i l l of  a r e , almost u n i v e r s a l l y  lauded,  had t h r i f t i l y  most  David  l a s t and on t h e whole r a t h e r unsympathetic  even went so f a r as t o suggest t h a t Douglas  F.C.  editor,  s a l v a g e d poems  w r i t t e n f o r o t h e r o c c a s i o n s and "draped them on the Aeneid because s u i t a b l e one o c c u r r e d . "  no more  O e s p i t e i t s shortcomings, the p u b l i c a t i o n o f  C o l d w e l l ' s e d i t i o n made t h e Eneados a c c e s s i b l e a g a i n , r e s u l t i n g wave o f c r i t i c a l  in  While t h e  4  the o t h e r Prologues used t o r e c e i v e o n l y c u r s o r y mention;  C o l d w e l l , Douglas's  of  appraisals.^  in a  new  While s c h o l a r s such as John S p e i r s and K u r t g  W i t t i g had d i s c u s s e d Douglas writing  i n the  approached  1970's and  p r i m a r i l y as a S c o t t i s h poet,  1980's have r e a d Douglas as a poet t o be  as one would approach Chaucer  o r Lydgate.  S a l t e r and Derek P e a r s a l l , f o r example, p l a c e d Douglas international  critics  In 1973,  Elizabeth  i n t h e more  c o n t e x t o f a r t in general and drew a t t e n t i o n t o t h e  striking  s i m i l a r i t i e s between h i s seasonal d e s c r i p t i o n s and t h e d e p i c t i o n s o f outdoor scenes by F l e m i s h landscape p a i n t e r s and by t h e C o n t i n e n t a l i l l u m i n a t o r s o f C a l e n d a r s and Books o f Hours, thus q u e s t i o n i n g t h e p r e v i o u s l y s t a n d a r d argument t h a t Douglas's d e s c r i p t i o n s were based  on  d i r e c t , f i r s t - h a n d observation o f nature, e s p e c i a l l y S c o t t i s h nature in Prologue V I I .  9  Three y e a r s l a t e r ,  5  i n 1976,  the f i r s t  (and, so f a r , the  o n l y ) book-length  study of  Douglas and h i s work appeared  P r i s c i l l a Bawcutt's Gavin Douglas: several  A Critica1  Study,  in p r i n t :  which c o n t a i n s  c h a p t e r s on t h e Eneados, i n c l u d i n g one e n t i r e l y devoted t o t h e  Prologues. her f u l l  1 0  Bawcutt's book i s t r u l y a p i o n e e r work, i n which she b r i n g s  s c h o l a r s h i p t o bear on  her s u b j e c t , b r e a k i n g with c o n v e n t i o n a l  views and p r o v i d i n g a comprehensive and e n t i r e l y new  on  d i s c u s s i o n based  p a i n s t a k i n g r e s e a r c h and e x t e n s i v e knowledge not o n l y o f Douglas and h i s own  work but a l s o o f h i s sources and  1979, and,  L o i s E b i n was  intellectual  environment.  the f i r s t scholar t o consider a l l t h i r t e e n  i n a d d i t i o n , t o r e l a t e them t o each o t h e r .  1 1  In 1981  A l i c i a K. N i t e c k i a g a i n s i n g l e d out the t h r e e s o - c a l l e d P r o l o g u e s , but demonstrated t h a t the Prologues d e r i v e from  and  Writing in Prologues 1982,  'Nature'  landscape d e s c r i p t i o n s i n t h e s e  l i t e r a r y sources more than from d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n  and t h a t they do not e x i s t f o r t h e i r own  sake but s e r v e as  images o f t h e  p o e t - t r a n s l a t o r ' s inner s t a t e as he g r a p p l e s w i t h t h e problems i n v o l v e d the t r a n s l a t i o n o f V i r g i l ' s work.  12  Three y e a r s  later again, Professor  Ian S. Ross argued t h a t t h e Prologues and Books o f the Eneados a r e to  each o t h e r by " p a t t e r n s o f comparison  as a u n i f i e d  'long poem.'  13  in  linked  and c o n t r a s t " and s h o u l d be  Most r e c e n t l y , David J . P a r k i n s o n  taken  has  p r o v i d e d t h e f i r s t e x t e n s i v e d i s c u s s i o n o f the a l l i t e r a t i v e Prologue V I I I , s u r e l y t h e most d i f f i c u l t  and most p u z z l i n g o f al1 Douglas's  Other a r t i c l e s p u b l i s h e d in concerned  with a v a r i e t y of  the  Prologues.  l a s t twenty t o t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s have been  o t h e r a s p e c t s o f the Eneados, e s p e c i a l l y  the  15  translation  itself.  1 4  Although t h e r e has been a marked i n c r e a s e i n t h e  l i v e l i n e s s and q u a l i t y o f the c r i t i c a l  d i s c u s s i o n f o l l o w i n g the  p u b l i c a t i o n o f Bawcutt's t r e n d - s e t t i n g book, t h e q u a n t i t y o f p u b l i s h e d 6  m a t e r i a l on the Eneados i s s t i H  v e r y s m a l l — L y d g a t e , Henryson,  and even Gower have r e c e i v e d f a r more a t t e n t i o n from c r i t i c s publishers.  Dunbar,  and  1 6  The p r e s e n t study f o c u s e s p r i m a r i l y on t h e t h i r t e e n Prologues t o the Eneados and examines them from a v a r i e t y o f a n g l e s . c o n t e x t u a l i z e s Douglas's o t h e r medieval Douglas's  w r i t e r s , e s p e c i a l l y Chaucer  use o f c e r t a i n  literary tradition. new,  Prologues by comparing  comparable independence  Chapter  way  independence  t o the c r a f t o f t r a n s l a t i o n  i s matched by a topoi,  v i t a l i t y by a v a i l i n g h i m s e l f o f them i n a  r a t h e r t h a n a p p l y i n g them because Douglas's  custom d i c t a t e s them. independence  as a  a r t i s t , whose p o e t i c e x p r e s s i o n i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a h i g h degree  o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s r e g a r d i n g h i s source and h i s p o e t i c and materials.  Chapter  linguistic  II f o c u s e s on t h e n a r r a t o r o f the Prologues as  s t e p s b e f o r e h i s audience t h o s e o f t h e emancipated  in a variety of divergent roles,  While t h e s e two  especially  r o l e s o f poet and  seem t o make c o n f l i c t i n g demands on Douglas  priest  the t r a n s l a t o r ,  e v e n t u a l l y r e s o l v e s t h e c o n f l i c t and j o i n s t h e s e and o t h e r r o l e s supreme harmony o f the f i n a l translation  itself  forth especially  he  a r t i s t and o f t h e churchman bound by the demands  o f h i s f a i t h and v o c a t i o n . initially  in choosing a  i n h i s employment o f s t a n d a r d d e v i c e s and  I f u r t h e r seeks t o demonstrate  critical  placing  l i t e r a r y c o n v e n t i o n s i n the c o n t e x t o f the  which he endows w i t h new meaningful  them w i t h p r o l o g u e s by  and Lydgate, and by  I t shows t h a t Douglas's  s c h o l a r l y approach  Chapter I  Prologues.  Chapter  he  in the  III t r e a t s a s p e c t s o f the  in conjunction with the p r i n c i p l e s t h e o r e t i c a l l y s e t  in Prologue  I, where Douglas  p o e t - t r a n s l a t o r t o be f a i t h f u l  emphasizes t h e need f o r a  and a c c u r a t e i n h i s t r a n s l a t i o n and t o  7  r e s p e c t the  i n t e g r i t y and  i n v i o l a b i l i t y o f h i s source.  examines Douglas's p r a c t i c e o f t r a n s l a t i o n demonstrates  T h i s chapter  i n l i g h t o f h i s own  the means by which he a c h i e v e s h i s avowed aims.  Douglas t a k e s o c c a s i o n a l  liberties  i n "modernizing" V i r g i l ,  t h e o r y and Even  though  he produces  a  genuine t r a n s l a t i o n o f a c l a s s i c , not t h e k i n d o f a d a p t a t i o n which had p r e v i o u s l y been customary. h i s own  However, w h i l e Douglas  demand o f f i d e l i t y t o the s o u r c e , Douglas  t h e t r a n s l a t o r meets the poet-narrator f e e l s  f r e e t o i n t e r s p e r s e t h e Books o f the Aeneid w i t h t h e s e r i e s o f t h e P r o l o g u e s — h i s own,  original  c o m p o s i t i o n s — t h u s compromising  c o n t i n u i t y o f V i r g i l ' s t e x t and  i n f l u e n c i n g the audience's  o f t h e e p i c by p r e f a c i n g each Book w i t h h i s own  comments.  examines t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p between the i n d i v i d u a l r e s p e c t i v e Books, and seeks t o demonstrate translation  itself  only  interpretation Chapter  Prologues and  t h a t even though  IV  their  the  i s g e n e r a l l y a c c u r a t e , the i n t e r p o l a t i o n o f t h e  Prologues causes a r a d i c a l allegory.  the  t r a n s v a l u i n g o f t h e Aeneid as a C h r i s t i a n  Chapter V attempts t o demonstrate  t h a t t h e Prologues a r e not  l i n k e d t o t h e Books which t h e y i n t r o d u c e , but t h a t t h e y a r e a l s o  connected t o each o t h e r i n a s e r i e s p a r a l l e l structural  p a r a l l e l i s m between the two  t o t h a t o f t h e Books.  The  s e r i e s o f t h e Prologues and Books  suggests a p a r a l l e l i s m between t h e quest o f Aeneas and t h a t o f the narrator.  Aeneas' p h y s i c a l  and p s y c h o l o g i c a l  p r o g r e s s o f t h e p o e t - t r a n s l a t o r , who  j o u r n e y i s m i r r o r e d by t h e  a l s o v e n t u r e s i n t o new  territory  and  e v e n t u a l l y accomplishes h i s enormous t a s k ; i n t h e p r o c e s s , he not o n l y r e s o l v e s t h e c o n f l i c t s d i s c u s s e d i n c h a p t e r III but a l s o a c h i e v e s h i s goal o f p r o d u c i n g a work which i s both a genuine t r a n s l a t i o n and a poem i n i t s own  r i g h t , and which f u r t h e r m o r e extends the range o f t h e p o e t -  8  translator's national  language j u s t as Aeneas' quest f o r t h e new  l a y s t h e f o u n d a t i o n s f o r the reburgeoning In t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n , then, t o the study o f Gavin Douglas's Douglas's  conscious  homeland  o f T r o j a n power.  I hope t o make a t h r e e f o l d Eneados; I s h a l l  contribution  seek t o demonstrate  independence i n h i s a p p l i c a t i o n o f c o n v e n t i o n a l  d e v i c e s w i t h i n h i s P r o l o g u e s , r e f l e c t i n g t h e independence i n h i s e n t i r e approach t o t r a n s l a t i o n ; s e c o n d l y , by examining  the t r a n s l a t i o n  itself  and  by e x p l o r i n g the l i n k a g e between the t r a n s l a t i o n and t h e P r o l o g u e s , I expect t o show t h a t even though Douglas's  p r a c t i c e g e n e r a l l y accords  h i s t h e o r y , h i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f the Prologues o f t h e Aeneid as a C h r i s t i a n a l l e g o r y ; and, v a r i o u s r o l e s o f t h e n a r r a t o r and by t h a t o f Aeneas as suggested  leads t o a  re-interpretation  l a s t l y , by a n a l y z i n g t h e  l i n k i n g the n a r r a t o r ' s p r o g r e s s  by the u n i n t e r r u p t e d p a r a l l e l i s m o f the  s e r i e s o f P r o l o g u e s and Books, I s h a l l p a r a l l e l i s m between t h e double  attempt  t o e s t a b l i s h the  journey o f Aeneas and the s i m i l a r  progress o f the p o e t - t r a n s l a t o r .  9  with  with two  conscious double  Notes  Q u o t a t i o n s from Douglas's Eneados a r e taken from V i r g i l ' s Aeneid T r a n s l a t e d i n t o S c o t t i s h Verse by Gavin Douglas, Bishop o f Dunkeld, ed. David F.C. C o l d w e l l , 4 v o l s . , STS 25, 27, 28, 30 (Edinburgh & London: B l a c k w e l l , 1957-64). References a r e g i v e n i n t h e form ' I , i , 1' ( i . e . , Book I, c h a p t e r i , l i n e 1 ) . The v a r i o u s s h o r t p i e c e s o f w r i t i n g f o l l o w i n g t h e t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h e t h i r t e e n t h Book a r e r e f e r r e d t o a s " C o n c l u s i o n ' ( v o l . IV, p.187), ' D i r e c t i o n ' ( v o l . IV, pp.188-91), ' E x c l a m a t i o n ' ( v o l . IV, pp.192-93), and 'Time, Space and Date' ( v o l . IV, pp.194-95). In q u o t i n g from C o l d w e l l ' s e d i t i o n , I have s i l e n t l y removed h i s i t a l i c s ; a l l i t a l i c s which appear i n t h e q u o t a t i o n s from t h e Eneados a r e my own, used t o emphasize c e r t a i n words, phrases o r usages, as a p p r o p r i a t e . Douglas r e f e r s t o h i s language as ' S c o t t i s ' i n I, P r o l . , 118. In Prologue V I I , he mentions t h e d e l a y which had o c c u r r e d because o t h e r m a t t e r s had o c c u p i e d him: I hynt a pen i n hand, F o r t i l perform t h e poet grave and s a d , Quham s a f e r f u r t h o r than begun I had. For byssynes, q u h i l k o c c u r r i t on cace, O u r v o l u y t I t h i s volume, l a y a space. (VII, P r o l . ,  144-49)  In Prologue X I I I , a f t e r p r o m i s i n g Maphaeus Vegius t o t r a n s l a t e t h e t h i r t e e n t h Book, Douglas t h e n a r r a t o r h u r r i e s back t o h i s w r i t i n g : And mak vpwark h e i r o f , and c l o y s s our buke, That I may syne b o t on grave mater i s l u k e . (XIII, P r o l . ,  187-88)  2 C S . Lewis, Engl i s h L i t e r a t u r e i n t h e S i x t e e n t h Century, Exc 1 uding Drama (Oxford: Clarendon, 1954), p.87. The o b s e r v a t i o n i s v a l i d even though Douglas was not a c t u a l l y made Bishop o f Dunkeld u n t i l 1516, t h r e e y e a r s a f t e r t h e completion o f t h e Eneados. The f o l l o w i n g a n t h o l o g i e s demonstrate t h e t y p i c a l s e l e c t i o n p a t t e r n : S e l e c t i o n s from t h e E a r l y S c o t t i s h Poets, ed. Wi11iam Hand Browne ( B a l t i m o r e : Johns Hopkins P r e s s , 1896), pp.154-65, i n c l u d e s e x c e r p t s from Prologues VII and X I I ; The Book o f S c o t t i s h P o e t r y , Being an Antho1ogy o f t h e Best S c o t t i s h Verse from t h e E a r l i e s t Times t o t h e P r e s e n t , e d . George Douglas (London: T. F i s h e r Unwin, 1911), pp.132-37 p r e s e n t s most o f Prologue VII under t h e t i t l e "A D e s c r i p t i o n o f Winter;" The O x f o r d Book o f S c o t t i s h Verse, e d s . John MacQueen and Tom S c o t t ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n , 1966), pp.158-71, i n c l u d e s most o f Prologue VII and a l l o f P r o l o g u e X I I I . Mediaeval S c o t t i s h P o e t r y : K i n g James t h e F i r s t , Robert Henryson, Wi11iam Dunbar, Gavin Douglas, ed. George Eyre-Todd (London & E d i n b u r g h : Sands, n.d.), pp.235-69, s e l e c t s most o f Prologues V I I , XII and XIII (except f o r t h e dream passage) as w e l l as IV, i , 1-10, IV, i i , 47-78, and IV, i v , 1-90 (Dido's h u n t i n g p a r t y ) , i n a d d i t i o n t o passages from The Pa 1ice o f Honour d  10  and K i n g H a r t . Books else  I-VI,  Apart  Coldwell  f r o m Books  VII-XII  Clarendon Medieval  4  to  from a s u b s t a n t i a l includes the three  selection 'Nature'  in h i s (ed.) Selections  and Tudor S e r i e s  Maclehose,  1933),  from Gavin  (Oxford: Clarendon,  A g n e s Mure M a c k e n z i e , An H i s t o r i c a 1  1714 ( L o n d o n : 5  from Prologues and  Prologues  Survey  but nothing Doug1 a s ,  1964).  of Scottish  Literature  p.103.  John S p e i r s , "Gavin D o u g l a s ' s ' A e n e i d ' , " i n h i s The S c o t s L i t e r a r y T r a d i t i o n : An E s s a y i n C r i t i c i s m , ( 1 9 4 0 ; 2nd e d n . L o n d o n : F a b e r & F a b e r , 1962), p . 7 4 , f i n d s P r o l o g u e s XII a n d XIII t o o d e r i v a t i v e t o be s u c c e s s f u l . C h a r l e s R. B l y t h , " G a v i n D o u g l a s ' P r o l o g u e s o f N a t u r a l D e s c r i p t i o n , " P h i l o l o g i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , 4 9 ( 1 9 7 0 ) , 1 6 4 - 7 7 , l a b e l s t h e May P r o l o g u e "Douglas' f a i l u r e " (p.171). 6  Coldwell,  "Introduction,"  VirgiI's  Aeneid, v o l . 1 ,  p.88.  ^ S u b s e q u e n t t o C o p l a n d ' s 1553 p r i n t , t h e E n e a d o s h a s b e e n e d i t e d four times j n t o t o , C o l d w e l l ' s e d i t i o n being t h e l a s t . The p r e c e d i n g three e d i t i o n s a r e V i r g i 1 ' s Aeneis Translated into S c o t t i s h Verse, e d . Thomas R u d d i m a n ( E d i n b u r g h , 1 7 1 0 ) ; T h e A E n e i d o f V i r g i l , T r a n s 1 a t e d i n t o S c o t t i s h V e r s e : By Gawin D o u g l a s , B i s h o p o f D u n k e l d , e d s . Andrew, L o r d R u t h e r f o r d , a n d G e o r g e D u n d a s , L o r d Manor ( E d i n b u r g h : B a n n a t y n e C l u b , 1 8 3 9 ) ; T h e P o e t i c a 1 Works o f G a v i n D o u g l a s , B i s h o p o f D u n k e l d : W i t h Memoir, N o t e s , a n d G l o s s a r y , e d . John S m a l l , 4 v o l s . ( E d i n b u r g h : W i l l i a m P a t e r s o n ; L o n d o n : H. S o t h e r a n , 1 8 7 4 ) . g John S p e i r s , The S c o t s L i t e r a r y T r a d i t i o n . Kurt W i t t i g , The S c o t t i s h T r a d i t i o n i n L i t e r a t u r e (Edinburgh & London: O l i v e r and Boyd, 1958). 9 Derek P e a r s a l 1 a n d E l i z a b e t h S a l t e r , Medieval World (London: E l e k , 1973). ^ P r i s c i l l a Bawcutt, Gavin Edinburgh U n i v . P r e s s , 1976).  Landscapes a n d Seasons  Douglas: A C r i t i c a l  Study  ofthe  (Edinburgh:  ^ L o i s E b i n , "The Role o f t h e N a r r a t o r i n t h e Prologues D o u g l a s ' s E n e a d o s , " C h a u c e r R e v i e w , 14 ( 1 9 7 9 / 8 0 ) , 3 5 3 - 6 5 .  t o Gavin  12 A l i c i a K. N i t e c k i , " T h e Theme o f Renewal i n D o u g l a s ' P r o l o g u e 1 2 , " B a l 1 S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y F o r u m , 22 ( 1 9 8 1 ) , 9 - 1 3 ; a n d h e r " M o r t a l i t y a n d P o e t r y i n D o u g l a s ' P r o l o g u e 7 , " P a p e r s o n L a n g u a g e a n d L i t e r a t u r e , 18 (1982), 81-7. N i t e c k i r e p e a t s much o f t h e m a t e r i a l f r o m t h e a b o v e t w o a r t i c l e s , b u t a l s o adds a s e c t i o n on Prologue X I I I , i n h e r "Gavin D o u g l a s ' s Rural Muse," i n Proceedings o f t h e T h i r d International C o n f e r e n c e on S c o t t i s h Language and L i t e r a t u r e (MedievaI a n d R e n a i s s a n c e ) , eds. Roderick J . L y a l l andF e l i c i t y Riddy ( S t i r l i n g & Glasgow: n . p . , 1981), pp.383-95. ^ Ian S. R o s s , " ' P r o l o u g ' a n d ' B u k e ' i n t h e Eneados o f G a v i n D o u g l a s , " i n S c o t t i s h Language a n d L i t e r a t u r e , Medieval a n d R e n a i s s a n c e :  11  F o u r t h I n t e r n a t i o n a 1 Conference 1 9 8 4 — P r o c e e d i n g s , eds. D i e t r i c h S t r a u s s and H o r s t W. D r e s c h e r ( F r a n k f u r t a.M.: P e t e r Lang, 1986), p.393. D a v i d J . P a r k i n s o n , "Gavin Douglas's I n t e r l u d e , " S c o t t i s h J o u r n a l , 14 (1987), 5-17.  Literary  15 Among o t h e r s : P r i s c i l l a Bawcutt, "Douglas and S u r r e y : T r a n s l a t o r s o f V i r g i l , " Essays and S t u d i e s , n.s. 27 ( 1 9 7 4 ) , 52-67; Hans Kasmann, "Gavin Douglas' A e n e i s - U b e r s e t z u n g , " i n F e s t s c h r i f t f u r W a l t e r Hijbner, eds. D i e t e r R i e s n e r and Helmut Gneuss ( B e r l i n : E r i c h Schmidt V e r l a g , 1964), pp.164-76; R.W.B. L e w i s , "On T r a n s l a t i n g t h e A e n e i d : Y i f That I Can," Yearbook o f Comparative and General L i t e r a t u r e , 10 ( 1 9 6 1 ) , 7-15. A p a r t from Bawcutt's monograph, t h e o n l y f u l l - l e n g t h s t u d i e s o f the Eneados a r e t h e f o l l o w i n g s i x u n p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n s : George B. D e a r i n g , "Gavin Douglas: A R e - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , " D i s s . U. o f Iowa 1943. C h a r l e s Ramsay B l y t h J r . , "'The K n y c h t l y k e S t i l e ' : A Study o f Gavin Douglas' A e n e i d , " D i s s . H a r v a r d 1963. G e r a l d Byron K i n n e a v y , "Gavin Douglas, Poet and C r i t i c : A Study o f h i s P o e t r y and C r i t i c a l Theory i n R e l a t i o n t o Medieval P o e t i c s , " D i s s . P e n n s y l v a n i a S t a t e 1967. Quentin George Johnson, "Gavin Douglas as P o e t - T r a n s l a t o r : Eneados and A e n e i d IV," D i s s . U. o f Oregon 1967. Penelope S c h o t t S t a r k e y , "Douglas's Eneados: V i r g i l i n ' S c o t t i s ' , " D i s s . CUNY 1971. Thomas B l a n c h a r d Dewey, "The V o c a b u l a r y o f G a v i n Douglas," v o l s . I - I I I , D i s s . UCLA 1973.  12  Chapter  I - New  When Gavin Douglas  Uses o f E s t a b l i s h e d  Conventions  began h i s t r a n s l a t i o n o f V i r g i l ' s Aeneid, t h e r e  a l r e a d y e x i s t e d an e x t e n s i v e corpus o f works i n E n g l i s h based on epic.  Indeed, as P r o l o g u e  Virgil's  I o f t h e Eneados t e s t i f i e s , Douglas was  well  a c q u a i n t e d w i t h some o f them, f o r he c r i t i c i z e s them on a v a r i e t y o f grounds.  But the v e r y f a c t t h a t he uses a p r o l o g u e as t h e v e h i c l e f o r h i s  c r i t i c i s m shows t h a t he regarded another t r a d i t i o n as f u l l y  established  t o o , namely t h a t o f t h e p r o l o g u e form as a means f o r t h e w r i t e r t o s e t f o r t h the t h e o r e t i c a l  u n d e r p i n n i n g s o f h i s work, t o c l a r i f y h i s c r i t i c a l  p e r s p e c t i v e , t o s e t t h e tone f o r t h e ensuing work, t o f o c u s t h e r e a d e r ' s a t t e n t i o n and t o shape t h e r e a d e r ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e main p a r t of the w o r k — i n  a word, t o make some announcement w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e  n a t u r e o f t h e u n d e r t a k i n g and w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e w r i t e r himself.  The p a r t i c u l a r s o f t h e n a t u r e , terms, and c h i e f purposes o f t h i s  announcement may  v a r y from p r o l o g u e t o p r o l o g u e and from w r i t e r t o w r i t e r ,  but t h e t r a d i t i o n o f making i t by means o f t h i s d e v i c e has by the e a r l y s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y become t h o r o u g h l y c o n v e n t i o n a l .  Within English  l i t e r a t u r e , t h e p r o l o g u e has been used by Chaucer,  Gower, and  c l o s e r t o home, i n S c o t t i s h a f i e l d , Douglas  has encountered  and r e f e r s t o ; i t i s used Latin,  l i t e r a t u r e , Henryson has used  Lydgate;  i t ; further  i t i n B o c c a c c i o , whom he so o f t e n  quotes  i n t h e v e r n a c u l a r l i t e r a t u r e s as well as i n  i n e n t i r e l y s e c u l a r works w r i t t e n f o r t h e e n t e r t a i n m e n t o f l a y  a u d i e n c e s as well as  i n s c h o l a s t i c works.  Indeed, one o f t h e most  a s t o n i s h i n g aspects o f the device o f the prologue v e r s a t i l i t y and f l e x i b i l i t y i t s f u n c t i o n and purpose.  i n terms o f both Douglas's  13  i s i t s extreme  i t s form and s t r u c t u r e and  Eneados i t s e l f p r o v i d e s ample  evidence of the multifarious uses of the form, for no two of its thirteen Prologues are alike, yet all are supported by a long tradition which stretches back through medieval writing ultimately to classical forms, reshaped and adapted in the course of centuries to f u l f i l new and different tasks. When Douglas prefaces every single Book of his Eneados with its own, separate Prologue, he is nonetheless doing something quite extraordinary. For although prologues are common enough in Middle English literature, o  unbroken series of prologues for every main section of a work are rare. Even Chaucer, whom Douglas hails as 'principal poet but peir' (I, Prol., 339), does not keep up the practice he began in the Canterbury Tales of having each Tale begin with a prologue. Half a century later, in the 1430's, Lydgate also uses a series of prologues in his Fal1 of Princes, which is in many ways comparable to Douglas's own monumental work, yet Lydgate, too, breaks the series so that only five out of the nine Books of the Fal1 are preceded by a Prologue.  Lydgate's Fal1 Prologues also do not  show the extreme variety of Douglas's, either in form and structure or in content and tone.  In this respect, Chaucer's development of the form in  the Canterbury Prologues approximates the versatility of the device in Douglas's work much more closely, but here the range of function and purpose is narrower than i t is in the Eneados Prologues. Douglas thus stretches the range of the Prologue form and pushes its 1imits beyond what had previously been done. Nevertheless, one of the similarities between Chaucer's Prologues in the Canterbury Tales and Douglas's Prologues in the Eneados provides a good point of comparison.  In the General Prologue, Chaucer introduces the 14  /  various pilgrims assembled at the Tabard Inn and then t e l l s his audience that he will t e l l e of oure viage And al the remenaunt of oure pilgrimage. But f i r s t I pray yow, of youre curteisye, That ye n'arette i t nat my vileynye, Thogh that I pleynly speke in this mateere, To telle yow hir wordes and hir cheere, Ne though I speke hir wordes proprely. For this ye knowen al so wel as I, Whoso shal telle a tale after a man. He moot reherce as ny as evere he kan Everich a word, i f i t be in his charge, Al speke he never so rudeliche and large, Or el l i s he moot telle his tale untrewe, Or feyne thyng, or fynde wordes newe. He may nat spare, a1thogh he were his brother; He moot as wel seye o word as another. (I (A) 723-38)  1  In other words, Chaucer proposes a twofold approach: f i r s t , he will report the pilgrimage with its story-telling as vt happens, that is, he will show his audience the pilgrimage in progress, as something that is developing and taking shape under his reader's eyes, not as an event which lies in the past and is completed; and second, he will use the language of his characters, that is, he will set the tales down in styles chosen for their appropriateness to the individual narrators and thus be faithful to his "exemplars."  In both aspects, Douglas's approach is similar.  He, too,  shows us not only a journey—Aeneas' double progress, a physical one from the ruins of Troy to the banks of the Tiber, and a psychological one from being the fugitive Trojan to having become the model man and prince—but he shows i t to us while i t is s t i l l  in the making, giving us glimpses of  the process of his own creative work in translating the tale of Aeneas' journey and thus involving us in the creative process, as opposed to 15  presenting us with the finished, completed product.  In the progress,  Douglas, too, makes very precise statements regarding his word choice, style, critical approach, and other theoretical issues involved in a work in which accuracy and faithfulness are the avowed yet often taxing goals. As Chaucer had made his statements near the opening of his work, so Douglas, too, uses the f i r s t of his Prologues to propound his critical framework, while later adding further details to the discussion as they arise.  Indeed, the issue of the critical approach occupies almost all of  Prologues I, II, III, V, and IX, and parts of Prologues VIII, XII, and XIII, as well as most of the end matter following Book XIII, where Douglas treats his pen like a votive offering to a saint: Thus vp my pen and instrument is full -ror On Virgi11 is post I f i x for evirmor, (Conclusion, 13-4) thus putting the classical exordial topos of dedication or "consecration"  2 to new use.  After the rising morning sun had welcomed the pilgrim on the  last leg of his pilgrimage (XIII, Prol., 169-70), the pilgrimage of the translation here becomes complete, and Douglas's pledge to Virgil 3 i t with thy l e i f , Virgile, to follow the, I wald into my rural 1 wlgar gross Wryte sum savoryng of thyne Eneados (I, Prol., 42-3) is finally redeemed. But the journey has been an arduous one, forcing the translator to give careful and intense consideration to his methods and even requiring him from time to time to make a great effort to overcome a certain weariness in order to carry on with his toilsome  16  1abour.  Part 1:  The Largely Neglected Prologues  At the beginning of the work Douglas seems to be f u l l of zest and enthusiasm.  He starts his f i r s t Prologue with a long apostrophe to  V i r g i l , on whom he heaps the most extravagant yet quite sincere praises. What Douglas singles out in Virgil's work above a l l is the Mantuan's combination of ingenuity and eloquence which makes his crafty warkis curyus Sa quyk, lusty and maist sentencyus, Plesand, perfyte and f e i l a b i l l in all degre, • •• Surmontyng fer a11 other maner endyte, Sa wysly wrocht with nevir a word invane. (I, Prol., 11-3,16,30) In contrast, Douglas deplores his own lack of these qualities: Quhy suld I than with dull forhed and vayn, With rude engyne and barrand emptyve brayn, With bad, harsk spech and lewit barbour tong Presume to write quhar thy sweit bell is rung. (I, Prol., 19-22) This contrast indicates what is important for Douglas: verse must satisfy both in terms of its intellectual aspects and on account of the melodiousness of its sounds and richness of its texture, and the poet must be 'crafty' or skilful in eloquence so that his verse will please both mind and emotion—it must be both 'sentencyus' and ' f e i l a b i l l . '  These  qualities are partly to be achieved through skilful composition, partly through selectivity and precision in word choice; other criteria are a  17  certain poetical quality ('sang poetical'; IX, Prol., 55) and a general freshness of expression, which includes both vividness and originality ("fresch sapour new from the berry run'; V, Prol., 54; also IX, Prol., 55 and 72).  Yet these aimed-for qualities pose particular problems for  Douglas who sees himself as writing in a 'lewit barbour tang' which does not command the 'polyst termys redymyte' (I, Prol., 34) available in Virgi1's Latin. But even though the d i f f i c u l t i e s inherent in the project are great, Douglas remains unabashed.  He takes the time-honoured stance of humility  before the 'Maister of master is' (I, Prol., 9), For quhat compair betwix mydday and nycht? Or quhat compair betwix myrknes and lycht? Or quhat compar is betwix blak and quhyte? (I, Prol., 25-7) and includes the traditional topos of the protestation of his own i ncapac i ty My waverand wyt, my cunnyng febi11 at a l l . My mynd mysty, thir may nocht myss a f a l l — (I, Prol., 31-2). Yet the correctio in the very next line already indicates Douglas's impatience not only with his own limitations but also with the conventional self-effacement of the translator and humble follower; altering his tone, he exclaims, '\  Stra for thys ignorant blabryng imperfyte Besyde thy polyst termys redymyte. (I, Prol., 33-4)  18  The conventional terms of humility have become stale, and the attitude they are meant to express is inadequate for one who has set himself the task of not merely translating but re-creating the work of this master of poetry—even in using traditional topoi Douglas aims at freshness.  How  independent Douglas's attitude indeed is—despite his deep admiration for V i r g i l — w i l l become clear i f Oouglas's stance is compared with Lydgate's abject se1f-degradation vis-a-vis Boccaccio: And theih my s t i l e nakid be and bare, In rethorik myn auctour for to sue, Yit fro the trouthe shal I nat remue, But on the substance bi good leiser abide Afftir myn auctour lik as I may atteyne, And for my part sette eloquence aside, But, o alias! who shal be my muse, Or onto whom shal I for helpe calle? Calliope my callyng will refuse. And on Pernaso here worthi sustren alle; Thei will ther sugre tempre with no galle. (Fall of Princes, I, Prol., 229-43) Although both poets protest their own lack of ability and lament the insufficiency of their language to reflect the effects of their Latin exemplars precisely or even adequately, the attitudes of the two translators are worlds apart. What Lydgate perceives as a given limitation in which he has no choice but acquiece. Seyn howh that Ynglyssh in ryme hath skarsety, (FP IX, 3312) Douglas takes as a challenge on which his powers of innovation and creativity can thrive:  19  Nor j i t s a c l e y n a l l sudron I r e f u s s , Bot sum word I pronunce a s n y g h t b o u r i s doys: Lyke as i n L a t y n beyn Grew termys sum, So me b e h u f y t quhi1um o r t h a n be dum Sum b a s t a r d L a t y n , French o r I n g l y s oyss Quhar s c a n t was S c o t t i s — I had nane o t h e r choys. Nocht f o r o u r t o n g i s i n t h e selwyn skant Bot f o r t h a t I t h e fowth o f langage want. ( I , P r o l . , 113-20) A p a r t from announcing  h i s i n t e n t i o n o f b o r r o w i n g words o r p r o n u n c i a t i o n s ,  which he sometimes needs ' t o l y k l y my ryme' ( I , P r o l . , 124), Douglas here a l s o r a i s e s the issue o f l i n g u i s t i c accuracy i n h i s t r a n s l a t i o n .  What he  s t r i v e s f o r i s t h e 'fowth' o f language, and t h e more v a r i e d h i s r e s o u r c e s a r e , t h e more l i k e l y  i s t h i s f u n d o f p o s s i b i l i t i e s t o p r o v i d e him w i t h  e x a c t l y t h e r i g h t word o r phrase f o r t h e p a r t i c u l a r c o n t e x t .  Douglas  borrows f r e e l y from o t h e r languages, n o t o n l y F r e n c h , L a t i n and Greek, b u t a l s o Dutch and F l e m i s h .  In a d d i t i o n , h i s v o c a b u l a r y i n c l u d e s words drawn  from S c a n d i n a v i a n s t o c k , n a t i v e c o l l o q u i a l i s m s made l i t e r a r y by t h e i r use i n t h e Eneados, a l l i t e r a t i v e c o l l o c a t i o n s , and a u r e a t e neologisms coined f o r the occasion.  newly  T h i s c o p i o u s n e s s o f v o c a b u l a r y and t h e v a r i e t y  i n t h e l e v e l o f d i c t i o n make i t p o s s i b l e , a t l e a s t t h e o r e t i c a l l y , t o emulate V i r g i l ' s l i n g u i s t i c e f f e c t s , and t h u s t o s a t i s f y h i s " a m b i t i o n t o r a i s e h i s own language t o an equal p i t c h o f e l o q u e n c e ; " o f Douglas's  4  i t i s the breadth  r e s o u r c e s which a l l o w s him t o choose terms n o t o n l y f o r t h e i r  d e n o t a t i o n s b u t a l s o f o r t,heir c o n n o t a t i o n s , a s s o c i a t i o n s , sound q u a l i t i e s , and e t y m o l o g i c a l c o n n e x i o n s . h i s demand f o r a c c u r a c y and f i d e l i t y aspects of the t r a n s l a t i o n .  i n even t h e more s u b t l e  stylistic  L i n g u i s t i c b o r r o w i n g and, i f need be, even  i n v e n t i o n a r e i n t e g r a l p a r t s o f Douglas's it  The v a r i e d v o c a b u l a r y t h u s s e r v e s  s t a t e d methodology, whose goal  i s t o c a p t u r e as much as p o s s i b l e o f V i r g i l ' s t e x t u r e , t o n e , and v e r b a l  20  effects.  While succeeding translators could previously have fallen back  on Lydgate's statement that 'Ynglyssh . . . hath skarsety', Douglas develops and comments on methods to overcome such 'skarsety.'  The  discussion of linguistic d i f f i c u l t i e s perceived by the translator as objective rather than subjective limitations had already become a new exordial topos itself, but Douglas's innovation is to discuss and demonstrate the means to meet such challenges. Another method in striving for f i d e l i t y in recreating the Aeneid is to aim at the utmost accuracy in retaining the 'sentence' in its original balance and proportions.  In his flyting with Caxton (I, Prol., 137-282),  Douglas indignantly charges the earlier writer with having translated the Aeneid at second hand, from a French recension, rather than directly from the original Latin (I, Prol., 141);^ in consequence, there are serious distortions in the texture of the verse (I, Prol., 147-52), and confusions in the locations and characters stemming from misspellings of place names and proper names (I, Prol., 221-48), besides perversions of parts of the plot (I, Prol., 155-67).  However, important as they are, these are minor  charges compared with the two major ones, namely that Caxton has, by means of undue abbreviations and considerable omissions, distorted the structural balance and proportions of Virgil's work (I, Prol., 154-56, 168-76, 249-59), and that he utterly f a i l s to understand the significance of the pagan gods and of the underworld.  Douglas also accuses Caxton of  failing to perceive that 'vnder the clowdis of dyrk poecy / Hyd lyis thar mony notabi11 history' (I, Prol., 194-95).  In consequence of this  deplorable lack of perception and sympathetic understanding, Caxton calls Book VI 'fenjeit and nocht forto b e l e i f 21  (I, Prol., 179), being thus  inconsistent, as a g e n t s . passages in turn  since other  parts  A translation  setting  forth  inform the  o m i t s one q u a r t e r  that  the  entire of  the  all  than the cannot  but  aspects  is  devill  advances  way t o  this  of a  author's  the  of  the  of  the  original, to  work,  reduces  that  Austyne'  of  it  a translation another  is  half  that  lyke  in censuring Caxton,  in the  such a  spelling of  itself  of  its  that  on  Aeneid]  translation Douglas  faithfulness  interpretation  which  entirely  [the  But  namely  central  to one-sixth  Prol.,  comprehension and  143),  gods  views  a translation  'no mair  translation,  which  author's  (I,  from accuracy  philosophic stance,  original  become o n e h a l f ,  Douglas's wrath.  sympathetic  contain  framework  inaccurate  original,  also  show a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f  own p r i n c i p l e s  the  translation  to  rest  and Sanct  incur  his  so  his  fails  l e n g t h and expands o n e - t w e l f t h top of  of  also  to  all  names a l l the  must be r e f l e c t e d  the  original in  the  translation. In  a second passage o f  Chaucer,  the  'principal  'standis  beneth Virgi11  criticism of  Caxton,  treatment  the  of  launch h i s of  is  Legend,  Chaucer  the  (I,  just  to  Douglas d i r e c t s (I,  Prol.,  charge  407).  E v e n more s o t h a n  22  poet.  criticizes  At the  however,  a means  indeed, the  (I,  to  in  his  Chaucer's  G o o d Women a s  w o r d b y w o r d V i r g i l 1'  writes,  who,  he b r i n g s a g a i n s t  Legend o f  elder  attention  339),  When D o u g l a s g e n t l y  the  his  Prol.,  impossibility and,  couth f o l l o w  quite  peir'  in the  translation.  'he  not  but  in g r e '  Dido s t o r y  word-for-word  actually  poet  he u s e s t h e  discussion of  claiming that  criticism,  to  unclesirabiIity Chaucer  Prol.,  opening of  for  345),  he  the  Dido  G1orye and honour, Virgil Mantoan, Be to thy name! and I shaI, as i_ can, Folwe thy lanterne, as thow gost byforn, • •• In Naso and Eneydos wol I take The tenor, . . . (LGW, 924-29; italics mine) Far from claiming to write a literal translation, Chaucer explicitly disclaims such an ability and is content with following 'the tenor' not of Virgil's work only, but of both Virgil's and Ovid's handling of the story of Dido.  Nonetheless, the point serves Douglas well to begin his argument  against literal translation, in which he provides examples to support his thesis that different languages often have no exact equivalents, and even if words with the same denotations may be found, the connotations of such words will not be the same, so that i t is often necessary to use circumlocutions or other collocations in order at least to approximate the import of the original word or phrase.  In addition, there are the  prosodic problems of having to find pairs of rhyming words to end the 'Scottis' couplets and of writing in a language with far fewer inflectional  endings than Latin has.  And, of course, there are those of  our tungis penuryte, I meyn into compar of fair Latyn That knawyn is maste perfite langage fyne. (I, Prol., 380-82) Apart from his observations on the lack of exact equivalents in the two languages, Douglas also seems to be conscious, at least in part, of the problems connected with the transference of a literary work from one culture into another.  When he writes,  23  Sum tyme the text mon haue ane expositioun. Sum tyme the collour will causs a l i t i l l additioun, (I, Prol., 347-48) he appears to be alluding to the difficulty which the translator faces in trying to make graphic and even to make thinkable what is originally outside the audience's range of cultural experience and perception.  On  the basis of his own observation and on the additional authority of St. Gregory and Horace (I, Prol., 395-402), Douglas therefore rejects slavish adherence to the letter of the original in favour of capturing what he perceives to be the s p i r i t , the tone, the atmosphere, the i d e a — i n short, the "sentence' of the work. He also accuses Chaucer of having misrepresented Aeneas as a perjuror, thus doing violence to Virgil's systematic and consistent portrayal of the hero as one who offens' (I, Prol., 420).  is without 'spot of cryme, reproch or ony  Since Chaucer is not concerned with the whole of  the Aeneid, however, but only with one small part, Douglas graciously and tongue-in-cheek will 'excuss Chauser fra a l l maner repruffis' (I, Prol., 446) on the grounds that Chaucer 'was evir (God wait) a l l womanis frend' (I, Prol., 449). In using the Prologue as a platform for his criticism of Caxton and Chaucer and thence developing his own principles as a translator, Douglas may be recalling not only Chaucer himself but also Lydgate.  In the  Prologue to his Troy Book, Lydgate discusses the r e l i a b i l i t y of the available sources, criticizing some for partiality (essentially the same charge which Douglas brings against Chaucer), some for omissions and extreme brevity (one of Douglas's charges against Caxton), and some for lack of accuracy.  Others he accuses of perverting the story altogether 24  (again one of Douglas's criticisms of Caxton) (Troy Book, Prol., 259-352). While Lydgate's evaluation of the works of his predecessors is of a rather general character and may not always be based on first-hand acquaintance with the individual works so criticized, i t already shows the rudiments of a c r i t i c a l evaluation of other treatments of the same topic, a process which Douglas develops much further.  Compared with Lydgate's criticism,  Douglas's is far more detailed and informed, far more probing, and altogether far more sophisticated.  Yet when Lydgate, at the end of the  Troy Prologue, praises Guido delle Colonne on the twin grounds of accuracy of transmission and mastery of the 'sovereign style' (Troy Book, Prol., 354-74), he distinctly foreshadows Douglas's two main concerns of accuracy and style, although Douglas i s , of course, concerned with textual rather than historical accuracy.  However, on this issue too, Lydgate elsewhere  anticipates Douglas's stance; in the final Envoy to his Danse Macabre, Lydgate comments, Out of the French I drough i t of entent, Not word by word but folowing in substaunce, (665-6)  6  an issue which Douglas addresses at much greater length and with much greater awareness of its complexity. In other Prologues Douglas frequently makes reference to the difficulty, the length, and the occasional tediousness of his labour, depicting himself as resharpening his pen, dragging himself out of bed on a cold winter morning, and forcing himself back to his writing desk; Prologues V and IX, however, like Prologue I, are almost entirely devoted to discussions of a particular problem of the translator, namely that of 25  recapturing the style and tone of the original.  Both these prologues make  substantial contributions to the development of Douglas's theory of translation, in that both of them contain analytical discussions of style, thus expounding further aspects of the theoretical foundations of Douglas's approach to a faithful translation.  In using not just one, but  a series of prologues for the gradual refinement of the c r i t i c a l basis of his translation, Douglas may again be harking back to John Lydgate, who also employed a series of prologues in his Fal1 of Princes to consider various aspects and definitions of Fortune.  But while Lydgate is content  with adding one aspect and one definition to the next without even reacting to their often mutually contradictory nature, Douglas gradually builds up a theory of translation, progressing in finesse every time he touches the issue and relating his theoretical discourse to the practical undertaking in progress, while now and then seasoning i t with a dash of humour, usually at his own expense. By the time Douglas approaches Prologue V, he has translated Virgil's description of the Trojans' arrival at Carthage, exhausted after their long and arduous voyage, apprehensive for their shipwrecked comrades, and then relieved at finding hospitality in Dido's city and palace; Douglas has also translated Aeneas' account of the destruction of Troy, of the loss of his wife, friends and comrades, and of his own narrow escape, as well as his narrative of the voyage full of dangers and further partings from friends; and he has recreated the poignantly brief time of love and happiness between Dido and Aeneas, closing with Aeneas' departure and even taking a sympathetic stance in portraying Dido's despair and suicide. After these f i r s t four books with a l l their variety in subjects and moods, 26  and while now preparing for the translation of Book V with its funeral games, Douglas has tasted enough of Virgil's 'craft' to know that He altyrris hys style sa mony way. Now dreid, now stryfe, now lufe, now wa, now play, Langeir in murnyng, now in melody, To satyfy ilk wightis fantasy; Lyke as he had of euery thyng a f e i l l , And the willys of euery wight dyd f e i l l . (V, Prol.,  33-8)  It is a d i f f i c u l t task to recapture the nuances of so varied a style in another language and to recreate the same moods, tones, feelings, atmospheres with words which have different connotations and different sound qualities.  Virgil's extreme s t y l i s t i c range and his f l e x i b i l i t y of  diction thus create a threefold problem for the sensitive translator: he has to follow Virgil both into the minds and hearts of his characters,  who  experience these thoughts and feelings; he must be able to gauge and direct the emotional and  intellectual reaction of his audience, in whom  the style must create an appropriate response; and he also has to recognize the means by which the particular effect was originally achieved in order to be able to find analogous means in his different medium to create a similar effect in an audience with a different cultural background.  This difficulty is severe enough for Douglas to exclaim that  the hie wysdome and maist profund engyne Of myne author Virgile, poete dyvyne. To comprehend, makis me a1maist forvay. (V, Prol., 28-30) However, having called for grace not on Bacchus, nor on Proserpina, nor on 27  Victoria, with the and  but on God, Douglas funeral  games f o r  is  ready  Anchises, a  begin the  next  Book,  dealing  sacred occasion simultaneously  sad  joyful. A discussion of  most o f  Prologue  literary  IX;  theory.  audience,  to  though at  again,  Douglas o f f e r s  the  patron;  After  culminating  having  the just  in a d e t a i l e d  V u l c a n has d e p i c t e d t h e  course of  Book,  which  relates  single-handed f i g h t chooses later  "the  also  ryall  refers  example t o  illustrate  an e p i c t o  heroic  style  techniques; (IX,  end o f  jokes  for  heroycal1'  also  24-5),  example IX  although  in other in the  itself,  b e i n g t o o enamoured o f  the  loose  in other  contexts  Pax  and  must  Aeneas'  s h i e l d on  sally  Douglas Prol.,  (IX,  which Romana  in  contexts  w h e r e he p o k e s f u n a t own  as  for royal with  he an  the  form  or each  rhetorical  they  out  of  may b e employs  XIII  himself  labours.  which  31),  This  language a r e  in Prologue  his  21),  diction,  its  the  appropriately  necessity  of  new  and T u r n u s '  Prol.,  Douglas h i m s e l f  r o u g h comedy  28  account of  heroic  by n o b i l i t y  even  product of  he s a y s ,  audience.  demands g r a v i t y or  matter  subject  up t o t h e  (IX,  stile'  and p r i m a r y  and f r i v o l o u s  indeed,  Prologue  It  to  the  d i s c u s s i o n regarding the  both content  his  variety,  the  encampment,  the knychtlyke  his  weight.  Prol.,  appropriate; freely,  suit  N  clepyt  in  opponents, and b e f o r e t u r n i n g t o  Trojan  s h o u l d be c h a r a c t e r i z e d  word c a r r y i n g  here  style,  occupies  range and  writing,  Roman h i s t o r y  N i s u s and E u r y a l u s ' s  inside the  t o as  in r e l a t i o n  translated  also  refinements  stylistic  manner o f  all  length,  further  description of  succeeding Augustus' triumph over next  much g r e a t e r  considering style  especially  accord with both. armour,  style,  From a d m i r i n g V i r g i l ' s  D o u g l a s now t u r n s  of  to  perfectly them  and a l s o for  place  at  the  possibly  However,  gravity  and weightiness a tone do not suffice as criteria for the heroic style; the royal style should also be aesthetically pleasing, in accordance with the ethically pleasing, noble content. And, i t may be inferred from Douglas's frequent commendatory comments on Virgil's 'fresch endyte' here (IX, Prol., 55) and elsewhere, the heroic s t y l e — j u s t like any other—should show originality, transcending conventional formulae and standard collocations and using new ways to evoke vivid images, a quality which Douglas is confident he, in contrast to Caxton, has captured (V, Prol., 49-54).  Furthermore, the royal style is not confined to the narration and  depiction of heroic deeds and other subjects which are almost by their very nature associated with knightly conduct and concerns.  i  If a work is  written for a noble patron, then the royal style can, according to 'myne authour,' also be used for entirely neutral subjects.  But, Douglas adds,  the more elevated aspects of such subjects would be of greater intrinsic interest to a noble audience than the more lowly ones, and thus i t behoves the writer to make careful distinctions to select only elevated aspects of neutral subjects for treatment in this most sovereign of styles, so that nothing t r i f l i n g will be allowed to disrupt the threefold harmony between form, content and recipient or audience (IX, Prol., 27-40).^ This postulate had of course long been observed in practice, but here it is actually stated in a most succinct fashion: we aucht tak tent That baith accord, and bene conuenient. The man, the sentence, and the knychtlyke s t i l e . (IX, Prol., 29-31) Whether Douglas's Prologues in fact "represent the beginnings of literary  29  criticism," as Kurt Wittig so unconditionally claims, is questionable,^ but within the literature of the Middle Ages in Britain Douglas's analytical approach to poetry is certainly a sign of great independence.  9  Some of the critical issues he discusses had been approached by Chaucer and Lydgate too, although far less systematically and, in Lydgate's case, also much more d i f f u s e l y .  10  Douglas shows a corresponding degree of independence in his numerous requests and even commands that his readers read attentively (Time, Space and Date, 23) and that they 'reid oftar than anys' (I, Prol., 107), indeed that they 'reid, reid agane, this volume, mair than twyss' (VI, Prol., 12), in order to comprehend the work's subt1eties before beginning to criticize i t .  1 1  It hardly even seems to occur to Douglas that there may  be grounds for any justified criticism at a l l : his references to potential c r i t i c s tend to be derogatory and dismissive.  Even when he, at the very  close, asks Henry Lord Sinclair to defend the work against possible attacks, they are a pr i or i assumed to come from 'corruppit tungis viol ens' who 'can nocht amend, and ^ i t a fait wald spy' (Direction, 12-13). When Douglas does on occasion use one of the conventional humility topoi of incapacity, the context immediately belies i t as no more than a pose which Douglas knows a writer is expected to strike, but which he does not seriously consider f i t t i n g for himself.  The self-assurance he shows vis-  a-vis his audience at large is also reflected in his stance vis-a-vis his patron and kinsman, whom he addresses in terms of equality, both in Prologue I and in the end matter.  And furthermore, i t also informs his  estimate of the future of his 'wlgar Virgi11': the work is to be nothing less than immortal, and by being so will confer immortality on Douglas's  30  name, too.  One and a quarter centuries earlier, Chaucer had been  sufficiently concerned for the integrity and accurate transmission of his work to insert an appropriate comment into the Envoy to his Troilus and Criseyde (V, 1793-96) and to write "Chaucers Wordes unto Adam, His Owne Scriveyn," admonishing careless Adam to pay proper attention to his task so that the work might be preserved uncorrupt.  Lydgate, too, had  considered the issue of the preservation of a writer's work and its immortalizing effect on the writer's name, citing V i r g i l , Seneca, Persius and others as examples of continued renown based on their work (Fal1 of Princes, IV, Prol., 50-70), although he is far from making such a claim for himself.  Douglas, however, has no such qualms; for him i t is a matter  of course that his Eneados will neither be destroyed by force nor forgotten in the process of time (Conclusion, 1-4),  and he is equally  certain that after his death, heir my naym remane, but emparyng; Throw owt the i l e yclepit Albyon Red sal I I be, . . . (Conclusion, 10-12) Such a degree of confidence  in the immortalizing power of one's own  poetry  is unparalleled among the works of other major writers of Middle English or Middle Scottish l i t e r a t u r e .  12  Douglas's critical and philosophical independence, however, is rather less evident in those Prologues in which he treats moral and theological issues; there, he is an exponent of traditional, accepted doctrine, as accords with his vocation and his position within the Church hierarchy. To this group of Prologues belong those prefacing Books IV, X, and XI, defining Christian love, explaining the nature of the Trinity, and 31  expounding C h r i s t i a n  fortitude  a l s o two o t h e r  Prologues,  myth  in poetry  and d e f e n d s  "ane  hie  thelog  and P r o l o g u e form o f  which  a dream v i s i o n ,  Douglas  is  VI  Virgil  the  but a l s o is  not a  in which  readers.  In  tenets  Christian teaching,  of  exegesis;  interpretation  Virgil  to  however,  the are  one o f  fundamental  to  the  namely t h a t  literature fact,  human e x p e r i e n c e , intellect similar of  and  point  Esope the  very  in the  St.  is  those  while  purport to it of  Robert lines  Phrygian:  32  is the  his  the on  the  in a  the  long  view:  this  here, and  as opposed t o be an a c c u r a t e  basic  an a u t h o r i t y  of  writer  literary  work  Prologue  to  for  of Prologue,  Douglas audience  historiography, recording  s p r i n g from made a  his  of  tradition  comparison  stanzas  between  which  c o n c e r n e d w i t h human n a t u r e  the  and  and methods  foreshadows  H e n r y s o n had a l r e a d y of  in  congregation  Hippo as  of  in  theory  rooted  few  point  literature  of  doctrine,  lament  Prologues  Ascensius'  The f i r s t  agreements  does not  specifics  firmly  to  are  fruitful.  Augustine of  literary  being of  stock  use  (1.38)  criticism  developing his  and r e f e r s  tacit  opening  such a  a s o n e whose work  Douglas  from a  imagination.  that  between  artist  Virgil  but t h a t , the  implies  social  group  the  " p h i l o s o p h o u r n a t u r a l 1'  conventional  (11.73-4).  the  justifies  churchman p r e a c h i n g t o  (11.61-4)  interesting  which  who f o r e s h a d o w e d C h r i s t i a n  link  he c i t e s  Apostles  recapitulates  historical  the  representing  Christian  this  is  connected with t h i s  VI,  particularly  critical  and t h o s e  of  he  as a  (1.75)  constitutes  chiefly  Prologue  presents  theme o t e m p o r a , o mores Prologue  namely  sentencyus'  VIII,  respectively;  of and  the  very  M o r a 11 F a b i 1 1 i s  Thocht fein3eit fabils of aid poetre Be not al grunded vpon truth, 31't than, Thair polite termes of sweit rhetore Richt plesand ar vnto the eir of man. (MF,  1-4)  13  The writer therefore does not represent the world in its observable, recordable details, but represents a world—in Sidney's words, A perfect picture I say, for he yieldeth to the powers of the mind an image of that whereof the philosopher bestoweth but a wordish description, which doth neither strike, pierce, nor possess the sight of the soul so much as that other doth.  4  Literature, including the Aeneid and the Eneados, is not "ful of leys or aid ydolatryis' (1.10), but represents that which is abstract and general in terms and images which are concrete and specific as a method for aiding the audience's perception and comprehension by involving the senses rather than relying on purely cognitive understanding.  For V i r g i l , the specific  means to this end was myth; for Douglas, and for the medieval mind in general, i t is allegory, especially Christian allegory, so that Virgil's underworld, for instance, is but another image of Christian a f t e r l i f e , differing from the Christian image in form but not in substance.  Douglas  is asking his readers not to be deterred by the unfamiliar method and not to close their minds to i t , but to make the transference from myth to allegory, and by explaining the details of Book VI in Christian allegorical terms, he facilitates this step from the image itself to the idea which, for him, the image represents. While Prologue VI is in the main a Christian re-interpretation of V i r g i l , Prologues IV, X and XI consist of unambiguous sermons on Christian themes; leaving the occasional references to Aeneas and Dido in Prologues 33  IV and XI aside, these Prologues can be paralleled, at least in their details, by any number of medieval sermons.  15  Indeed, Prologue X is  almost a complete service by itself, beginning with a glorification of God the Creator and of the beauty and perfection of His Creation (11.1-15), followed by a sermon explicating the nature of the Trinity  (11.16-85),  using the conventional analogies of man's tripartite soul and of the flame which radiates light and heat without decreasing in light and heat itself; very similar analogies are also used in Piers Plowman (B-text, Passus XVII, 137-279) to explain the paradox of tri-unity.  After the long  sermon, Douglas admonishes his audience not to strive vainly to understand God by means of reason, but simply to have faith (11.86-100); he then goes on to a prayer recalling God's compassion despite man's disobedience, giving thanks for the mercies of the Incarnation, the Redemption, the Harrowing of Hell, and the Eucharist, and asking for Grace  (11.101-50);  and he ends with a Creed (11.151-75), formally closing with Amen.' x  Prologues IV and XI are structurally less strict and less complete, consisting only of the sermon itself.  Both these Prologues take their  themes from the Books they preface—Prologue IV, love; Prologue XI, fortitude—and treat them from a Christian perspective.  Prologue IV, a  sermon against luxuria, progresses from exempla of the destructiveness of "inordinate love"—that i s , erotic love—and from negative and positive definitions of human love to the topic of love towards God, while Prologue XI advances from exempla of the lawful use of force—that is, the use of force based on right—and a definition of secular fortitude, which among nobles must be tempered by magnanimity, to one of the Christian fortitude which is necessary to withstand the temptations of the flesh, of the 34  1  world, and of the powers of darkness, but which is insufficient without Grace, again illustrated with exemp1a.  In both these Prologues, the  transition from the sermon to the subsequent Book is expressly made, in the one case by reference to Dido, who in her inordinate love—and worse, in her 'fulych lust' (1.228)—has herself brought on her "dowbill wound' (1.215), a phrase recalling Troilus' "double sorwe' at the opening of Troilus and Criseyde, and who becomes proof of the dictum that ""Temporal ioy endis wyth wo and pane"' (1.221), and in the other case by reference to Aeneas, whose prowess is enobled by magnanimity and who, as a type of pre-Christian hero already possessing certain Christian virtues, can sustain the dangers of the voyage and of the conquest and can defeat Turnus, who in contrast to Aeneas has to rely on secular fortitude only. In both Prologues, the last stanza is devoted to admonishing the reader to "Ensew vertu, and eschew euery vyce' (XI, Prol., 195), especially the particular virtue and the particular vice just discussed in the sermon itself. In Prologue VIII, Douglas is less concerned with vices and virtues in a s t r i c t l y religious sense, but places them into a social context, so that the largest part of this Prologue becomes a criticism of contemporaneous society and its mores. This entire Prologue is written in rhyming alliterative long lines, with a wheel at the end of each 13-line stanza. The social criticism, contained in a dream vision written in this particular verse form, is strongly reminiscent of that in, for instance, the Prologue to Piers Plowman, where the members of the clergy, incidentally, are also singled out for particularly detailed criticism. However, there is a twist: the social criticism is presented by a 35  ' s e l c o u t h seg  [.  . .] / Swownand as he swelt wald, sowpyt i n s y t e '  5) whom t h e t r a n s l a t o r - n a r r a t o r sees i n a dream he dreams " i n Lent l a s t nycht' 1.118  (1.2)  and who  a c c u s e s t h e poet-dreamer o f b e i n g an book.  i d l e r and  He g i v e s him a s c r o l l  t o read  however, f i n d s but g i b b e r i s h and doggerel o f the u n i v e r s e . where a t r e a s u r e  t o such v a i n  l i e s b u r i e d , and  w a s t i n g h i s time w r i t i n g a i n s t e a d , which t h e dreamer,  about t h e motions o f t h e  vanished,  s e a r c h i n g , he rebukes h i m s e l f f o r having  dike  and  given  after credence  fantasy. i s eager t o brush t h e dream v i s i o n  as soon as he f i n d s h i m s e l f d i s a p p o i n t e d  i n h i s hope t o r e d i s c o v e r  t r e a s u r e , Douglas t h e poet seems t o t a k e a s l i g h t l y  stance towards i t . For one  t r u e , an oraculum c o n c e r n i n g  t h e d e s t i n y o f Rome.  on t h e o t h e r hand, has  the  with  Aeneas  which a c t u a l l y comes The  dreamer o f  the  had a dream which seemed t o promise t h e  e f f o r t l e s s a c q u i s i t i o n o f w o r l d l y goods, a promise i n which he eager t o b e l i e v e , thus showing h i m s e l f t o be no b e t t e r than c r i t i c i z e d by t h e dream f i g u r e .  aside  different  t h i n g , t h e subsequent Book begins  h a v i n g a p r o p h e t i c dream i n which a god appears and  Prologue,  parts  d i g s up c o i n a f t e r c o i n , but when t h e  the hoard o f pennies has  While Douglas t h e n a r r a t o r  vanished  Then t h e dream f i g u r e  F i n a l l y , t h e dream f i g u r e t a k e s t h e dreamer t o a  1 6  d r e a m e r - n a r r a t o r wakes up, some u n s u c c e s s f u l  this  does not n o t i c e t h e dreamer's presence u n t i l  while a l l the while t a l k i n g t o himself.  worthless  (11.4-  i s only  too  those  Having v a i n l y mistaken h i s dream f o r a  v i s i o , a t y p e o f dream comparable t o Aeneas' oraculum, he  is after his  f r u i t l e s s s e a r c h e q u a l l y eager t o blame t h e v a n i t y o f dreams i n general r a t h e r than h i s own Besides,  v a n i t y and  t h e n a r r a t o r had  a c q u i s i t i v e n e s s f o r h i s embarrassment.  e a r l i e r p o i n t e d out t h a t t h i s dream o c c u r r e d  36  in  Lent,  a p e r i o d when h i s  spiritual books.  rather  On t h e  and w h i l e  his  conventional,  thoughts  than material  other  hand, the  criticism of it  cannot  but  presents  presence a f t e r to  Douglas's in  it  to  the  dreamer in  lies  the  pursuit  "poetry  as  his  Poetry the even  third here  at  the  translator  yoke icy  lying winter  lines.  the  "ane  dream o f  the  than  the  wealth of  its  purest  is  what h a s  Prologues,  VII,  the the  who h a s o n l y on h i s  m o r n i n g ; and  Problem o f  Vegius about  the  lesson'  search  gain also  in his  has in  leads  conventional  the  "Nature'  its  the  the  confidence  knowledge  and  Prologues  he p o r t r a y s  of  the  Maphaeus'  at  weariness  p o i n t a n d who f e e l s with his  June P r o l o g u e ,  in  although  concern so f a r :  he c o n t i n u e s the  predominant  Prologues,  greatest  half-way  relevance  37  (1.158)  world.  Prologue,  XIII,  of  response  issues of  in Prologue  criticism  he  dream f i g u r e ' s  two  as  scroll  perceive  s o - c a l l e d Nature  (1.150)  while  his  an  of  the  long been r e g a r d e d as  reached the  neck  not a d d r e s s i n g  who  the  Winter  quite  addition,  reinforced  than  the  is  fruitless  material  translation-in-progress,  The S p e c i a l  heavily  other  follows  certainly  becomes aware  In  the  secular  'selcouth,'  'detractouris,'  However, him  is  he  unintelligible,  which  2:  Prologue  w i t h Maphaeus  teach  since  things  claims,  d e s c r i b e d as  indeed o n l y  resembles t h a t o f  Douglas r e t a i n s  end o f  ineffective,  a hundred  a worldly  is  may b e s o u n d a n d  practically  to  dream f i g u r e  c o n t a i n i n g a wisdom g r e a t e r  group o f  the  the  dream f i g u r e  speech and  vexation  of  b e i n g more v a l u a b l e  Part  be  over  request  initial  back t o  as  and s u p e r s t i t i o n s .  dreamer's  temporary  is  translation  only  effect:  Douglas  or,  society  a u d i e n c e when he makes h i s Douglas's  s h o u l d have been f o c u s e d on  he  thirteenth  task  of  the on  an  argues Book,  but  e v e n t u a l l y has t o y i e l d t o Maphaeus' s t r o n g e s t a r g u m e n t — m a i n f o r c e .  In  P r o l o g u e X I I , t h e May P r o l o g u e , a l l n a t u r e seems t o c e l e b r a t e a s t h e b i r d s r e a c t t o t h e r i s i n g sun w i t h a hymn t o t h e L o r d o f L i g h t , w h i l e man a l o n e d i s h o n o u r s t h e wholesomeness and f e s t i v e s p i r i t o f t h i s r e g e n e r a t i v e season w i t h "bawdry' (1.210) and "schameful1  p l a y ' (1.225); a t t h e end o f  t h i s P r o l o g u e , Douglas a g a i n p o r t r a y s h i m s e l f w i t h pen i n hand, ready t o b e g i n t h e next Book. Of t h e t h i r t e e n P r o l o g u e s , o n l y t h e s e t h r e e "Nature P r o l o g u e s ' have been f r e q u e n t l y d i s c u s s e d and o f t e n i n c l u d e d i n a n t h o l o g i e s , b u t u n t i l r e c e n t l y , t h e emphasis i n t h e s e d i s c u s s i o n s was on Douglas's c l o s e observation o f nature i n Scotland.  presumed  F o r more t h a n a c e n t u r y , t h e  c h i e f argument p u t f o r w a r d by commentators was t h a t i n t h e s e t h r e e P r o l o g u e s , D o u g l a s — u n l i k e h i s p r e d e c e s s o r s — d e s c r i b e d what he c o u l d a c t u a l l y see, t h a t i s , t h a t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n s o f n a t u r e i n t h e v a r i o u s seasons and a t t h e v a r i o u s t i m e s o f t h e day were d e t e r m i n e d by genuine o b s e r v a t i o n o f t h e d e t a i l s o f t h e weather, o f t h e v e g e t a t i o n , o f animal l i f e , and o f man's s e a s o n a l p u r s u i t s i n t h e r e a l environment but n o n e t h e l e s s charming, S c o t t i s h landscape. 1887 by John V e i t c h , who i s f u l l  o f the harsh,  T h i s view was e x p r e s s e d i n  o f a d m i r a t i o n f o r t h e s e " p i c t u r e s and  words t a k e n d i r e c t l y from t h e a s p e c t s o f t h e Lowland h i l l s — t h a t  i s , the  lower h e i g h t s — a n d from t h e d e s i g n a t i o n s p e c u l i a r a l m o s t t o t h e v a l l e y s o f t h e Tweed and t h e Y a r r o w — a t Scotland."  1 8  least t o t h e southern d i s t r i c t o f  Although t h e S c o t t i s h n a t i o n a l i s m r e s o n a t i n g i n these  lines  gave r i s e t o a renewed i n t e r e s t i n S c o t t i s h l i t e r a t u r e , i t a l s o c l o u d e d genuinely c r i t i c a l  judgement and i n s t e a d f a c i l i t a t e d r e v e r i e s b e t r a y i n g  r o m a n t i c n o s t a l g i a and w i s t f u l n e s s .  38  Even K u r t W i t t i g i s s t i l l  sufficiently  i n f l u e n c e d by the S c o t t i s h n a t i o n a l i s t s ' mode o f p e r c e p t i o n  t o f i n d t h a t " a p a r t from a p a s s i n g r e f e r e n c e t o Boreas and E o l u s t h e whole o f t h e w i n t e r poem ( P r o l . VII) and t h a t t h e "scene  i s founded  s o l e l y on S c o t t i s h e x p e r i e n c e "  [ i n Prologues XII and X I I I ] i s d e c i d e d l y S c o t t i s h . "  1 9  More r e c e n t l y , however, John S p e i r s observed s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e s o f Provencal and May  I t a l i a n p o e t r y as w e l l as echoes o f V i r g i l ' s G e o r g i c s i n t h e  and June P r o l o g u e s ,  u  and E l i z a b e t h S a l t e r and Derek P e a r s a l l  shown t h e p a r a l l e l i s m between Douglas's word p a i n t i n g s and t h e  have  landscape  21 tradition  in a r t , p a r t i c u l a r l y  in calendar paintings.  Further  i n v a l i d a t i n g t h e c l a i m t h a t Douglas wrote p r i m a r i l y from d i r e c t , hand e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e seasons o f S c o t l a n d , A l i c i a N i t e c k i of the d e t a i l s  [.  i n "the common s t o c k o f r e l i g i o u s  writings,  . .] t h e l i t e r a t u r e on t h e s u b j e c t o f D o o m s d a y " ^ — w i t h 2  which Douglas as churchman was through t h e  shows t h a t many  in Prologue VII, while c e r t a i n l y observable i n a S c o t t i s h  w i n t e r , have s t r o n g p a r a l l e l s in p a r t i c u l a r  first-  d o u b t l e s s no  l e s s f a m i l i a r than w i t h nature  seasons.  What has o f t e n been o v e r l o o k e d i n the argument f o r o r a g a i n s t Douglas's o r i g i n a l i t y and r e a l i s m , however, i s t h a t t h e s e t h r e e Prologues do not o n l y form a group among themselves, connected by the common t o p i c of  landscape d e s c r i p t i o n a t d i f f e r e n t seasons, but t h a t t h e y a r e a l s o  p a r t s o f t h e l a r g e r s e r i e s o f t h e t h i r t e e n Prologues  i n which Douglas  w r i t e r comes t o terms w i t h i s s u e s r e l a t e d t o t r a n s l a t i o n and t o in g e n e r a l .  the  literature  Far from b e i n g r e a l i s t i c n a t u r e poems " i n which landscape i s  d e p i c t e d s o l e l y f o r i t s own  sake," as W i t t i g a s s e r t s , o r which "take  landscape i n i t s e l f and f o r i t s e l f as a s u b j e c t , " as Agnes Mure MacKenzie m a i n t a i n s , t h e landscape d e s c r i p t i o n s  39  in these three Prologues are  carefully balanced against the two issues of the relations between God and His Creation and between the writer and his work.  23  Prologue VII, the Winter Prologue, harmonizes in its theme with the movement of the Aeneid.  It follows Aeneas' descent into the underworld,  the realm of the shades—as Douglas himself points out, "thys proloug smell is new cum furth of hell' (1.163)—and precedes the account of the grim wars in Latium in the subsequent Book. Appropriately, the environment at this dead time of the year looks as i f i t were on the sward a symylitude of hell, Reducyng to our mynd, in euery sted, Gousty schaddois of eild and grisly ded. (Prol. VII, 44-6) Except for the autobiographical sketch at the end, this Prologue consists almost entirely of images of death, mortality and lifelessness at the time of the winter solstice, with the cold, leaden  24  sun having just entered  Capricorn and being about to rise over a colourless, lifeless landscape where the sky is 'ourcast with rokis blak' (1.36) and 'the grond fadyt' (1.37), where 'Bewte was lost, and barrand schew the landis' (1.41), where even the ferns have withered and where "Bank, bra and boddum blanch it wolx and bar' (1.57), where the "grond stud barrant, widderit, dosk or gray' (1.63), and where the 'smale byrdis' (1.69) and the " s i l l y scheip and thar l i t i l hyrd gromys' (1.77) have to seek shelter and hide from the onslaught of winter in order to survive "this congelit sesson scharp and c h i l l ' (1.86).  The planets and constellations, too, appear in their most  inhospitable aspects, Mars provoking strife, Orion bringing rain and gales, and cold Saturn causing disease and "mortal pestilens' (1.31).  40  Under t h e i r i n f l u e n c e , t h e c r e a t e d o r d e r on e a r t h i s r e v e r s e d , and t h e elements seem t o r e v e r t t o Chaos: d r y land and water m i x — ' T h e s o y l y s o w p i t i n t o w a t i r wak' d i s t i n c t from one  ( 1 . 3 5 ) ; and  l i g h t and d a r k n e s s a r e no l o n g e r  another—  T h i k drumly s k u g g i s d y r k n y t so t h e hevyn, Dym s k y i s o f t f u r t h w a r p i t f e i r f u l l l e v y n , F l a g g i s o f f i r e , and mony f e l l o u n f l a w , Scharpe soppys o f s l e i t and o f t h e snypand snaw. ( V I I , P r o l . , 47-50) The " m i x t u r e o f v i o l e n t and extreme weathers"  in the preceding l i n e s ,  A l i c i a N i t e c k i p o i n t s o u t , " r e c a l l s not so much a S c o t t i s h w i n t e r day as t h e C u r s o r Mundi where t h e same c o m b i n a t i o n o f snow and l i g h t n i n g t h e p e n u l t i m a t e t o k e n o f Doom."  25  forms  Other images o f d i s o r d e r , such as t h o s e  o f t h e streams washing t h e i r banks away, o f t h e t e r r i b l e u p r o a r a t s e a , and o f r i v e r s r u n n i n g r e d , a r e a l s o s i g n s which both i n t h e B i b l e and  i n medieval a p o c a l y p t i c w r i t i n g h e r a l d Judgement Day.26  itself  A f t e r the  t r a n s i t i o n from t h e b l e a k and b a r r e n landscape t o Douglas's chamber i n t h e c i t y , t h e b i r d c a l l which Douglas hears b e f o r e f a l l i n g a s l e e p i s t h e ' e l r i c h s c r e k e ' (1.108) o f t h e o w l , t r a d i t i o n a l l y r e g a r d e d as a h a r b i n g e r o f d e a t h and t w i c e used as such by V i r g i l  himself in the Aeneid. ^ 2  However, a p a r t from r e l i g i o u s t e x t s , Douglas a l s o had an a r r a y o f l i t e r a r y s o u r c e s t o c a l l on f o r h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e w i n t e r landscape. The h e a v i l y a l l i t e r a t i v e d i c t i o n i n P r o l o g u e VII s u g g e s t s t h a t Douglas  had  o t h e r a l l i t e r a t i v e w i n t e r d e s c r i p t i o n s i n mind, among which t h o s e i n S i r Gawain and t h e Green K n i g h t o f f e r c l a s s i c p a r a l l e l s .  Here, c l o u d s a l s o  c o v e r t h e sky and t h e "wylde wederez' (1.2000) makes l i f e o u t d o o r s almost impossible:  41  Clowdes k e s t e n k e n l y ye c o l d e t o pe erpe, Wyth n y j e innoghe o f pe norjbe, ps naked t o t e n e ; PB snawe s n i t e r e d f u ) s n a r t , j&at snayped wylde? pe werbelande wynde wapped f r o pe hy?e, And d r o f vche d a l e f u l o f d r y f t e s f u l g r e t e . (11.2001-5)  28  Here t o o , t h e a n g l e o f v i s i o n s h i f t s from t h e landscape t o Gawain i n h i s chamber, s h i v e r i n g from c o l d and b e i n g reminded by t h e cockcrow o f t h e i n e x o r a b l e passage o f t i m e as h i s a p p o i n t e d hour draws n e a r e r :  pe leude l y s t e n e d f u l wel pat ]e$ i n h i s bedde, pa$ he lowkez h i s l i d d e z , f u l l y t t e l he s l e p e s ; Bi vch kok Z?at c r u e he knwe wel pe s t e u e n . (11.2006-8) Henryson's b r i e f w i n t e r d e s c r i p t i o n i n "The P r e a c h i n g o f t h e Swallow" l i k e w i s e emphasizes t h e b a r r e n n e s s  o f t h e l a n d , h o s t i l e t o a l l forms o f  1 ife: Than f l o u r i s f a i r f a i d i t w i t h f r o i s t man f a l l . And b i r d i s b l y i t h c h a n g e i s t h a i r n o i t i s s w e i t In s t y l 1 murning, n e i r s l a n e w i t h snaw and s l e i t . (Moral 1 Fabi11 i s ,  1696-98)  An even c l o s e r p a r a l l e l , however, i s p r o v i d e d by Dunbar's poem " I n Winter."  Dunbar's o p e n i n g d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e d e p r e s s i n g w i n t e r weather, In t o t h i r d i r k and d r u b l i e d a y i s Quhone sabi11 a l l t h e h e v i n a r r a y i s , With m y s t i e v a p o u r i s , c l u d d i s and s k y i s , Nature a l l curage me d e n y i s O f f s a n g i s , b a l l a t i s and o f p l a y i s . Quhone t h a t t h e nycht d o i s t e n t h i n hour i s With wind, w i t h h a i l l and havy s c h o u r i s , (11.1-7)  2 9  seems t o be r e c a l l e d i n some o f Douglas's l i n e s , b u t t h e a n a l o g y  42  goes  beyond v e r b a l echoes.  Both w r i t e r s use t h e s e t t i n g o f t h e long w i n t e r  n i g h t as an image f o r t h e temporary s u s p e n s i o n o f t h e i r c r e a t i v e powers. However, i n t h e House o f Fame w i t h i t s d a t e o f 10 December and  i t s barren  d e s e r t landscape r e p r e s e n t i n g a w a s t e l a n d o f t h e c r e a t i v e i m a g i n a t i o n , Chaucer  had a l r e a d y experimented w i t h images s i m i l a r t o t h o s e more f u l l y  d e v e l o p e d by Douglas  i n h i s Winter P r o l o g u e .  much i n d e b t e d t o t h e a l l i t e r a t i v e  Even though P r o l o g u e VII i s  and n o r t h e r n t r a d i t i o n s ,  i t i s Chaucer  who p r o v i d e s t h e s o u r c e f o r one o f t h e most moving images c o n v e y i n g t h e s e v e r i t y o f t h e season.  In h i s l i n e s  The s i l l y s c h e i p and t h a r l i t i l h y r d gromys Lurk i s vndre l e o f b a n k i s , woddis and bromys; (VII, P r o l . , Douglas undoubtedly r e c a l l s  \ 77-8)  Chaucer's  t h i s e l y t e l herde-gromes. That kepen b e s t i s i n t h e bromes. (HF, 1225-26) A l l t h e s e images o f b a r r e n n e s s and d e s t r u c t i o n , moreover, a r e t h e exact opposite of those i n t r a d i t i o n a l t h e l o c u s amoenus.  s p r i n g openings and d e s c r i p t i o n s o f  In t h e s p r i n g o p e n i n g , t h e sun has e n t e r e d A r i e s o r  Taurus, and t h e weather  i s p l e a s a n t l y warm o r s o f t r a i n i s n o u r i s h i n g  p l a n t growth; a t t h e o p e n i n g o f Chaucer's C a n t e r b u r y Ta1es, Z e p h i r u s " w i t h his  sweete b r e e t h ' b r i n g s warmth, not Boreas c o l d , as i n t h e W i n t e r  Prologue.  But Henryson  had a l r e a d y a l t e r e d t h i s p l e a s a n t o p e n i n g i n o r d e r  t o f i t "Ane d o o l i e sessoun t o ane c a i r f u l l Cresseid.  d y t e ' , t h e Testament o f  Henryson's p o r t r a i t o f S a t u r n (TC, 151-68) seems t o be  recalled  i n Douglas's b r i e f s k e t c h o f t h e same p l a n e t as w e l l as i n some o f t h e  43  d e t a i l s o f Douglas's b l i g h t e d w i n t e r landscape.  T h i s landscape i s an  i n v e r s i o n o f t h e l o c u s amoenus w i t h i t s c l e a r , murmuring brook and f r e s h meadow o v e r s p r e a d  soft,  w i t h f l o w e r s o f v a r i o u s c o l o u r s and shaded by a  t r e e i n whose l u s h f o l i a g e b i r d s a r e s i n g i n g o f l o v e and  regeneration.  L i k e t h e n a r r a t o r i n a dream v i s i o n , Douglas a l s o f a l l s a s l e e p ,  but  i n s t e a d o f m e r e l y h a v i n g a dream which might g i v e temporary r e l i e f from insomnia and to  i t s accompanying r e s t l e s s n e s s , upon waking up Douglas t u r n s  t h e work he had n e g l e c t e d f o r t o o long a w h i l e , h i s t r a n s l a t i o n o f  V i r g i l , and w i t h i t t o t h e permanence and literature.  lasting inspiration of  In t h e a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l s k e t c h a t t h e end o f t h e  Douglas p o r t r a y s h i m s e l f as overcoming h i s p e r s o n a l  Prologue,  low-point:  And, as I bownyt me t o t h e f y r e me by, B a i t h vp and down t h e howss I dyd a s p y , And seand V i r g i 1 1 on a l e t t r o n s t a n d , To w r i t e onone I hynt a pen i n hand, F o r t i l p e r f o r m t h e poet g r a v e and s a d , Quham sa f e r f u r t h o r t h a n begun I had, And wolx ennoyt sum d e i l l i n my h a r t Thar r e s t i t o n c o m p l e t i t sa g r e t a p a r t . And t o my s e l f I s a i d : " I n gud e f f e c t Thou mon draw f u r t h , t h e 30k l y i s on t h y nek." W i t h i n my mynde compasyng t h o c h t I so, Na t h i n g i s done q u h i I o c h t remanys ado; For b y s s y n e s , q u h i I k o c c u r r i t on cace, O u r v o l u y t I t h i s volume, l a y a space; And, t h o c h t I wery was, me l i s t not t y r e , F u l l l a i t h t o l e i f our wark swa i n t h e myre. Or / ? i t t o s t y n t f o r b i t t e r storm o r rane. (11.141-57) This personal  l o w - p o i n t c o i n c i d e s w i t h t h e d e s c e n t o f t h e sun towards t h e  w i n t e r s o l s t i c e j u s t as t h e l i f e l e s s , d a r k , and c o l d w o r l d o u t s i d e m i r r o r s Aeneas' d e s c e n t i n t o t h e u n d e r w o r l d . re-emerged i n t o t h e w o r l d o f l i g h t and Prologue  But a t t h e end o f Book VI Aeneas had l i f e , j u s t as Douglas a t t h e end  VII p i c k s up h i s pen a g a i n and resumes h i s c r e a t i v e work. 44  of  banishing the wasteland XII,  t h e May  from h i s mind, and  Prologue, w i l l  landscape and w i l l  j u s t as t h e sun by  Prologue  have t a k e n t h e shadow o f d e a t h o f f t h e  be welcomed by t h e chorus o f b i r d s i n t h e i r hymn t o t h e  L o r d o f L i g h t , t h a t i s , not m e r e l y t h e sun, but God  the Creator.  For  D o u g l a s , l i t e r a r y c r e a t i o n w i t h i t s permanence i s t h u s a p o w e r f u l l y affirming activity.  As he does a g a i n a t t h e end o f P r o l o g u e  t u r n s from a h o s t i l e and t h r e a t e n i n g o u t s i d e w o r l d f i l l e d  life-  V I I I , Douglas  w i t h images o f  d e a t h and p r o g n o s t i c a t i o n s o f doom, t o t h e permanence o f l i t e r a t u r e which creates  i t s own  l i f e and p o s i t s i t s own  v a l u e s and w h i c h t r i u m p h s by i t s  3D permanence.  Douglas sees h i m s e l f as more t h a n a w r i t e r — h e  is a  'rnakar,' a c r e a t o r . Prologue Prologue  X I I , t h e May  Prologue,  VII: everything i s reversed.  i s an a l m o s t e x a c t m i r r o r image o f Here t h e sky i s c l e a r , w i t h Dyonea,  t h e morning s t a r Venus, d r i v i n g t h e l a s t o f t h e s t a r s away, w i t h C y n t h i a , t h e moon, s i n k i n g i n t o t h e s e a , and w i t h Mars and S a t u r n , t h e two which had been dominant i n W i n t e r , w i t h d r a w i n g  as A u r o r a opens t h e windows  o f her h a l l , p i e r c i n g t h e s a b l e n i g h t sky w i t h l i g h t and s p r e a d i n g over the e a r t h .  planets  colour  When Phoebus h i m s e l f approaches i n a l l h i s i m p e r i a l  majesty, there i s The new  c u l l o u r alychtnyng a l l the  landis. (1.59)  From t h e f i r s t  c o u p l e t onwards, t h i s P r o l o g u e  is full  o f movement and  activity, full  o f groups o f b e i n g s each p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e communal y e t  spontaneous response t o t h e sun, whereas a c t i v i t y had ceased i n t h e W i n t e r P r o l o g u e and a l l b e i n g s were i s o l a t e d from each o t h e r .  45  There t h e verbs  were u s u a l l y s t a t i c and c a s t i n t h e p a s s i v e v o i c e d a g g e r i t  leyis,  b l a n c h i t wolx, s t u d e s t r i p y t ) , i n d i c a t i n g o n l y t h e r e s u l t o f an a c t i o n on t h o s e a c t e d upon and p o r t r a y i n g t h e b e i n g s on e a r t h as h e l p l e s s o b j e c t s r a t h e r t h a n a g e n t s t h e m s e l v e s , whereas t h e v e r b s i n t h e May P r o l o g u e a r e a c t i o n verbs, u s u a l l y i n the a c t i v e voice (sprang, lappys, f u r t h s p r e d , oppynnyt, s p r e n t ) o r i n t h e form o f p r e s e n t p a r t i c i p l e s strekand) emphasizing a c t i v i t y i n progress.  (ourspredand,  The p r e d o m i n a n t l y  end-stopped  l i n e s o f t h e Winter P r o l o g u e , g i v i n g a sense o f p a r a l y s i s , a r e here r e p l a c e d by l i n e s w i t h f e m i n i n e e n d i n g s , c o n v e y i n g a f e e l i n g o f such and f u l l n e s s t h a t i t can h a r d l y be c o n t a i n e d .  life  The d i c t i o n , t o o , i s  r e m a r k a b l y changed, w i t h t h e s t r o n g l y a l l i t e r a t i v e tempered by t h e d e n s e l y a u r e a t e , a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e Golden Age and w i t h p e r f e c t i o n g e n e r a l l y . L i g h t and c o l o u r , and w i t h them, l i f e , soon permeate t h e l a n d s c a p e , and images o f r e b i r t h and r e g e n e r a t i o n r e p l a c e t h o s e o f death and m o r t a l i t y . However, t h e May P r o l o g u e i s no c l o s e r t o r e a l i s m t h a n t h e W i n t e r Prologue.  The c o l o u r s a r e not t h o s e o f n a t u r e , but t h o s e o f h e r a l d r y  (11.22, 107), t h e n a t u r a l phenomena a r e d e s c r i b e d i n terms t a k e n from astronomy,  a s t r o l o g y , and u l t i m a t e l y myth, t h a t i s , l i t e r a t u r e , and t h e  images crowning t h e i n i t i a l  d e s c r i p t i o n a r e t a k e n from a r t :  The s w a r d i t s o y l 1 enbrovd w i t h s e l c o u t h hewys Ourspredand  leyvis of naturis tapestrei s (11.65,  102)  T h i s k i n d o f landscape r e c a l l s o t h e r l i t e r a r y works, such as Pear 1,  but  a l s o the a r t o f manuscript i l l u m i n a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y o f the hortus conclusus with i t s flower-studded t u r f 3  1  and o f c a l e n d a r and hour-book  i l l u s t r a t i o n s , complete w i t h t h e "Town's, t u r e t t i s , k y r n e l l i s , p y n n a c l y s 46  h i e / Of k y r k i s , c a s t e l l i s and illuminations  i l k e f a i r c i t e ' ( l i . 6 9 - 7 0 ) which i n such  o f t e n grace the h o r i z o n .  As he does i n t h e Winter P r o l o g u e , d e s c r i p t i o n o f inanimate means o f p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n ,  Douglas t u r n s f r o m t h e  initial  n a t u r e , though here a l r e a d y i n f u s e d w i t h l i f e t o animate n a t u r e , f i r s t t o t h e new  by  growth i n  F l o r a ' s realm and from t h e r e t o t h e d o m e s t i c and w i l d a n i m a l s , a l l seen t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e i r young (11.175-86).  A l l o f n a t u r e , animate and  inanimate a l i k e , responds t o t h e b e n e f i c e n t  i n f l u e n c e o f t h e sun  with  renewed a c t i v i t y , c r e a t i v i t y , and p r o c r e a t i o n , j u s t as i t does i n response to  "the yonge sonne' a t t h e opening o f Chaucer's C a n t e r b u r y T a l e s — e v e n  t h e 'Towris, t u r e t t i s ' e t c . (1.69) r e g e n e r a t e  t h e m s e l v e s by c r e a t i n g " t h a r  awyn vmbrage' ( 1 . 7 2 ) , t h e i r shadow images on t h e ground.  At t h e same  t i m e , a l l animate n a t u r e does o b e i s a n c e t o Phoebus as he emerges from palyce r y a l l '  (1.35) i n a l l t h e s p l e n d o u r  o f "hys r e g a l e h i e  "hys  magnificens'  ( 1 . 4 3 ) : F l o r a spreads her f l o w e r s 'Vnder t h e f e i t o f Phebus s u l j a r t  steid'  ( 1 . 6 4 ) , and t h e f l o w e r s t h e m s e l v e s " S u b m i t t i s t h a r h e d i s ' (1.96) t o  him  and exude t h e i r f r a g r a n c e (1.141).  "Forgane t h e cummyn o f t h i s p r y n c e p o t e n t '  Only among mankind a r e t h e r e t h o s e whose a c t i v i t i e s a r e  d i s c o r d a n t w i t h t h e c e l e b r a t i o n and g l o r i f i c a t i o n o f t h e b r i n g e r o f and  l i g h t ; w h i l e some, q u i t e p r o p e r l y , c e l e b r a t e May  (1.195) and c o u r t s h i p , o t h e r s  with  invane'  which i s g i v e n them ' C h i l d i r t o engendir  their  [. . . ] , and  (IV, P r o l . , 98); these a l s o f l e e the l i g h t — a f t e r the  rendezvous a t n i g h t , one p r o m i s e s t o "quynch t h e l y c h t ' other's  'caralyng'  "hant bawdry' (1.210) and p l a c e t h e m s e l v e s  i n d i s c o r d a n t o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e c r e a t i v e s p i r i t by m i s u s i n g sexuality  "schamefull  life  p l a y ' (1.225). 47  not initial  (1.222) f o r t h e  However, Douglas a l l o w s h i m s e l f  no  more t h a n a q u i c k s i d e g l a n c e a t t h i s s i n g l e d i s h a r m o n i o u s element i n t h e p a r a d i s a l garden  (1.149) b e f o r e f o c u s i n g h i s a t t e n t i o n a g a i n on t h e  g e n e r a l c e l e b r a t i o n which c u l m i n a t e s i n a hymn o f t h e b i r d s s i m i l a r t o t h a t a t t h e end o f Chaucer's  Par 1iament o f Fowls.  As Chaucer's  birds  welcome t h e a r r i v a l o f t h e r e g e n e r a t i v e season, so Douglas's b i r d s s i n g a hymn t o t h e l i f e - g i v i n g sun and, by i m p l i c a t i o n , t o i t s C r e a t o r .  J u s t as  Douglas had e a r l i e r made t h e t r a n s f e r e n c e from Orpheus t o C h r i s t , " t h a t h e v y n l y Orpheus' ( I , P r o l . , 4 6 9 ) , so here t h e hymn i s u l t i m a t e l y to  God H i m s e l f , t h e C r e a t o r o f t h a t "lamp o f day'  addressed  (1.252).  Having heard t h e b i r d s ' song, Douglas t h e poet i s unable t o remain i n bed any l o n g e r and i s i r r i t a t e d when t h e dove's c a l l  s u g g e s t s t o "come  hydder t o wow' (1.298): t h i s k i n d o f c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t y i s n o t f o r t h e ' c l e r k ' — h e has a d i f f e r e n t one i n mind, and i t b e i n g s t i l l  too early to  emulate n a t u r e i n i t s homage by w o r s h i p p i n g d u r i n g t h e c e l e b r a t i o n o f mass (1.304), Douglas t a k e s up h i s pen and b e g i n s t h e f i n a l book o f t h e A e n e i d . By t r a n s l a t i n g t h i s t w e l f t h Book, he n o t o n l y p l a c e s h i m s e l f i n harmony w i t h n a t u r e ' s c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s , b u t a l s o r e f l e c t s t h e e x a c t s t a g e a t which he has j u s t o b s e r v e d n a t u r e t o be: n o t a t t h e p o i n t o f c o m p l e t i o n , b u t d u r i n g one o f t h e f i n a l moments i n t h e a c t i v e p r o c e s s by which i s approached.  completion  A t t h e end o f Book X I I , t h i s c o m p l e t i o n i s r e a c h e d .  There, Aeneas has won I t a l y and t h u s f u l f i l l e d h i s d e s t i n y , and Douglas i n his  r e c r e a t i o n o f V i r g i l ' s work has reached t h e end o f h i s t a s k , s i g n i n g  off  w i t h a l i t t l e r i d d l e on h i s name. However, even though t h e t r a n s l a t i o n o f V i r g i l ' s work i t s e l f has come  to  an end, t h e r e s t i l l  remains t h e t h i r t e e n t h Book, an a d d i t i o n t o t h e  A e n e i d by t h e f i f t e e n t h - c e n t u r y humanist Maphaeus Vegius d e s c r i b i n g t h e 48  wedding o f Aeneas and L a v i n i a and t h e e v e n t u a l a p o t h e o s i s o f Aeneas, t h u s l e t t i n g t h e A e n e i d end on a happy note r a t h e r t h a n w i t h t h e gruesome s l a u g h t e r o f war and t h e d e a t h o f Turnus a t t h e hand o f Aeneas. t h i r t e e n t h Book was u s u a l l y i n c l u d e d i n l a t e f i f t e e n t h and  This  sixteenth-  c e n t u r y e d i t i o n s o f t h e A e n e i d , but Douglas appears t o have been i n two minds about h i s own  inclusion of a non-Virgi1ian addition in a translation  i n which he promises t o be f a i t h f u l t o t h e g r e a t model.  Prologue X I I I ,  t h e June P r o l o g u e w i t h i t s c e n t r a l dream v i s i o n i n which Maphaeus V e g i u s appears t o Douglas and r a t h e r f o r c e f u l l y persuades t h e s t i l l  d o u b t f u l poet  t o t r a n s l a t e h i s Book t o o , t h u s c o n s t i t u t e s an e l a b o r a t e j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h e i n c l u s i o n o f Book X I I I . Dream v i s i o n s t e n d t o o c c u r t o p o e t s when t h e y s i t under t r e e s i n b e a u t i f u l , p e a c e f u l p l a c e s , e s p e c i a l l y i n l a t e s p r i n g when t h e weather i s m i l d ; June i s a r a r e t i m e f o r such an o c c u r r e n c e , ^  2  but not unheard  of—  Robert Henryson's "Tai11 o f t h e Lyoun and t h e Mous," t h e s e v e n t h o f h i s t h i r t e e n Mora 11 Fabi11 i s o f Esope t h e P h r y g i a n , i s s e t M n t h a t i o l y s w e i t seasoun'  (1.1321), and  m i d d i s o f Iune,  i t a l s o c o n t a i n s a dream v i s i o n  w i t h a s t r u c t u r a l l y e x a c t l y p a r a l l e l meeting between t h e p o e t - t r a n s l a t o r and t h e a u t h o r o f t h e o r i g i n a l .  E v e n i n g i s a l s o not a u s u a l t i m e f o r  p o e t s t o be o u t s i d e and have dream v i s i o n s , but here i t i s e m i n e n t l y appropriate.  The e v e n i n g s e t t i n g o f t h e June P r o l o g u e s u i t s t h e sense o f  f u l f i l m e n t and c o m p l e t i o n , Douglas h a v i n g f i n i s h e d t r a n s l a t i n g t h e f i n a l Book o f V i r g i l ' s work.  I t s i g n a l s t h e t i m e o f r e s t a f t e r t h e work i s  done, a t i m e t o l a y down t h e pen and go f o r a walk i n a n a t u r a l environment w h i c h , u n l i k e t h a t o f t h e May P r o l o g u e , has now  actually  reached t h e p r e c i s e p o i n t o f m a t u r i t y — t h e f i e l d s " r e p l e n y s t s t u d ' ( 1 . 6 ) .  49  In p o r t r a y i n g h i m s e l f a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s P r o l o g u e a s t a k i n g an a f t e r - d i n n e r walk i n t h e c o u n t r y , Douglas d e s c r i b e s an a l t o g e t h e r s e r e n e l y i d y l l i c r a t h e r t h a n r e a l i s t i c scene.  The f a l l i n g cadences o f t h e m o s t l y  end-stopped l i n e s m i r r o r t h e sense o f t h e c l o s e o f day and o f t h e w o r l d l y i n g down " t o s l e p e , and r e s t i s '  (1.55).  Almost a l l motion i s downward:  t h e sun V o l l i s doun' ( 1 . 1 8 ) , d e w — c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y d e s c r i b e d a s " b e r y a l l d r o p p i s ' (1.26) and ' c r i s t a l ( 1 . 2 8 ) — " b e g y n n y s doun t o s c a i l l ' t h e day has begun t o " d e c l y n e '  k n o p p i s o r smal s i l u e r b e d i s '  ( 1 . 2 2 ) , t h e sun "was...declyne'  (1.30), f o g " f a l l i s '  l a r k ' d i s c e n d i s from t h e s k y i s h y c h t '  (1.24),  ( 1 . 3 1 ) , and even t h e  ( 1 . 3 4 ) , and a s n a t u r e  l i e s down f o r  t h e n i g h t , t h e l i g h t f a i l s and t h e landscape g r a d u a l l y d a r k e n s .  Sounds  a l s o become q u i e t e r and e v e n t u a l l y cease a l t o g e t h e r , so t h a t t h e n i g h t i n g a l e ' s song o n l y emphasizes t h e s u r r o u n d i n g  stillness.  Douglas, i n  harmony w i t h h i s environment, s i t s down among some sedge a n d , i n t h e s t i l l n e s s o f t h e n i g h t , l o o k s up t o t h e c o n s t e l l a t i o n s , which send down t h e i r beams o f l i g h t .  L i k e a l l l i v i n g c r e a t u r e s around him, he soon f a l l s  a s l e e p , l u l l e d by t h e e x q u i s i t e song o f t h e n i g h t i n g a l e , who i s t h e o n l y one  still  awake.  But a s b e f o r e , t h i s v e r i s i m i l i t u d e s h o u l d n o t be  i n t e r p r e t e d a s a s i g n o f r e a l i s m o r even d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n ; on t h e c o n t r a r y , t h e evening  s e t t i n g i s a time-honoured c o n v e n t i o n , which V i r g i l  h i m s e l f has f o l l o w e d i n l e t t i n g t h r e e o f h i s E c l o g u e s end w i t h  evening  scenes ( I I , IX, X ) . The approach o f n i g h t , a c c o r d i n g t o C u r t i u s , i s a l s o the o n l y antique concluding topos s t i l l use o f t h e e v e n i n g  used i n t h e M i d d l e A g e s .  3 3  The  s e t t i n g t h u s emphasizes t h a t t h e work Douglas had s e t  out t o do i s done, and t h a t what f o l l o w s i s n o t p r o p e r l y a p a r t e i t h e r o f t h e t a s k o r o f t h e p i e c e o f l i t e r a t u r e , b u t an e x t r a n e o u s , 50  inorganic  appendage. When liaphaeus  i n t h e dream v i s i o n demands t h a t Douglas add  the  t h i r t e e n t h Book t o t h e Eneados, he c o n s e q u e n t l y needs p o w e r f u l arguments t o persuade him.  Such dream i n t e r v i e w s , i n which a poet i s a s k e d o r  o c c a s i o n a l l y f o r c e d t o w r i t e a c e r t a i n work, a r e a s t o c k d e v i c e medieval w r i t i n g .  Douglas t h e dreamer h i m s e l f r e f e r s t o Jerome's  i n t e r v i e w w i t h K i n g D a v i d f o r b i d d i n g Jerome t o c o n t i n u e l i t e r a t u r e (11.122-26); B o c c a c c i o , has such an  in  reading  i n h i s De c a s i b u s v i r o r u m  i n t e r v i e w w i t h P e t r a r c h , who  pagan  illustrium,  persuades him t o c o n t i n u e  the  work; L y d g a t e , i n h i s F a l 1 o f P r i n c e s , s i m i l a r l y r e c e i v e s encouragement from Boccaccio;  Chaucer i s i n a dream v i s i o n o r d e r e d by C u p i d t o w r i t e  Legend o f Good Women; and  Henryson has a meeting w i t h Aesop i n a dream i n  which Aesop t e l l s him a f a b l e which Henryson w r i t e s down a f t e r waking The  c o n t r a s t between Henryson's dream i n t e r v i e w w i t h Aesop i n "The  o f t h e Lyoun and t h e Mous" and  Douglas's f o r m a l l y p a r a l l e l  liaphaeus, however, i s s t r i k i n g . impressive  the  up.  Taill  interview with  Aesop has d i g n i t y , a p p e a r i n g i n  garments, g r e e t i n g Henryson w i t h c o u r t e o u s a u t h o r i t y , and  being  i n t u r n t r e a t e d by t h e younger poet w i t h t h e r e v e r e n c e o f a p u p i l . Maphaeus, on t h e o t h e r hand, i s a t r a v e s t y o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l f i g u r e i n t h e o r a c u l u m: he appears i n odd,  authority  t h r e a d b a r e c l o t h e s but wears a  l a u r e l crown, he rebukes Douglas f o r s i t t i n g under a l a u r e l t r e e which Maphaeus c l a i m s as h i s own, g r e e t i n g , he too.  and  i n s t e a d o f r e t u r n i n g Douglas's p o l i t e  i n s t a n t l y f i n d s f a u l t w i t h him f o r not t r a n s l a t i n g h i s Book  In h i s d e f e n c e , Douglas advances p a r t l y s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d , p a r t l y  f a c e t i o u s arguments, namely t h a t he has a l r e a d y spent t o o much t i m e on work, t h a t Maphaeus' a d d i t i o n i s about as n e c e s s a r y t o t h e A e n e i d as  51  the  the  f i f t h wheel t o t h e c a r t (1.118), and t h a t a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h e work would p l a c e him i n a p o s i t i o n analogous t o t h a t o f Jerome. ready answers t o t h e s e arguments:  But Maphaeus has  t h e a n a l o g y w i t h Jerome i s f a l s e , f o r  Maphaeus i s a C h r i s t i a n , not a pagan w r i t e r , and i n t h i s r e s p e c t has t h e advantage even o v e r V i r g i l , and b e s i d e s , Maphaeus' work i s j u s t as "moral 1' (1.142) as V i r g i l ' s — e s s e n t i a l l y Douglas's own argument d e v e l o p e d in Prologue VI. to  When t h e s e r e f u t a t i o n s , augmented by a vague t h r e a t ,  fail  sway Douglas, Maphaeus r e s o r t s t o f o r c e , g i v i n g Douglas twenty blows  w i t h h i s c l u b , u n t i l he a g r e e s t o spend t h e r e q u e s t e d f o r t n i g h t on t h e t h i r t e e n t h Book, w r y l y r a t i o n a l i z i n g t h e d e c i s i o n on t h e b a s i s t h a t t h e number o f Books w i l l t h e n a c c o r d w i t h t h a t o f C h r i s t and t h e t w e l v e A p o s t l e s — a t h r u s t which Maphaeus, however, t a k e s as r a t h e r a f i n e comp1i ment. T h i s comedy o f c o e r c i o n o v e r , Douglas wakes up t o t h e new dawn, when the  p r e v i o u s e v e n i n g ' s g r a d u a l c e s s a t i o n o f a c t i v i t y i s r e p l a c e d by a  renewal o f busy-ness and now upward movement. is the l a s t of the stars s t i l l been t h e f i r s t .  The  L u c i f e r , t h e morning  star,  t o be seen, j u s t as Hesperus had p r e v i o u s l y  l a r k now r i s e s t o g r e e t t h e new morning, and t h e  new  l i g h t o v e r s p r e a d s t h e f i e l d s , r e p l a c i n g t h e dim shadows o f t h e e v e n i n g . Human a c t i v i t y and human v o i c e s now a l s o f i l l  t h e l a n d s c a p e , t h e reeve  c a l l i n g t h e l a b o u r e r s t o work, t h e cowherd t e l l i n g h i s boy t o d r i v e t h e c a t t l e t o p a s t u r e , and t h e h e n w i f e c a l l i n g up "Katheryn and G i l l ' who w i l l i n g l y comply w i t h t h e summons. colloquial  (1.175)  A l l t h e s e u t t e r a n c e s have a  r i n g t o them, but no more so t h a n t h e comments made by t h e  goose and t h e duck i n Chaucer's P a r i i a m e n t o f F o w l s , so t h a t i n t h i s r e s p e c t , t o o , i t cannot be argued t h a t Douglas's l i n e s a r e n e c e s s a r i l y a  52  d i r e c t r e s u l t o f keen o b s e r v a t i o n o f t h e everyday w o r l d around him. F i n a l l y t h e morning haze l i f t s and t h e b i r d s s i n g t h e i r morning again minstrel-fashion.  song,  A l l t h i s new a c t i v i t y and i n d u s t r y i s s u f f u s e d  w i t h e n e r g y — i t a l l happens so q u i c k l y t h a t one i s h a r d l y aware o f a p r o c e s s o f change from n i g h t t o day, but o n l y p e r c e i v e s t h e a l m o s t i n s t a n t a n e o u s r e s u l t s o f t h e change.  Douglas, t o o , w i l l b e g i n h i s work  i m m e d i a t e l y , b a s i c a l l y so as t o get i t out o f t h e way t o make room f o r "grave m a t e r i s ' (1.188). Douglas's a m b i v a l e n c e w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e t h i r t e e n t h Book i s , t h u s , far  from p r o p e r l y r e s o l v e d .  He i s s t i l l  k e e n l y aware t h a t Maphaeus' s t y l e  i s q u i t e u n l i k e V i r g i l ' s , and b e a r i n g i n mind what Douglas has had t o say about s t y l e i n P r o l o g u e s V and IX, t h i s argument i s a w e i g h t y one; but market c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f p o p u l a r appeal c a r r y t h e day: F u l l w e i l l 1 wayt my t e x t s a i l mony l i k e . Sen e f t i r ane my t u n g i s and my pen, Q u h i l k may s u f f y s s as f o r our w l g a r men, (XIII, Prol., never mind t h a t ' c l e r k i s ' w i l l  be a b l e t o t e l l  the d i f f e r e n c e .  190-92) Douglas,  knowing t h a t more i s not n e c e s s a r i l y b e t t e r , n e v e r t h e l e s s bows t o t r a d i t i o n and adds t h e f i f t h wheel t o t h e c a r t . In h i s s e r i e s o f P r o l o g u e s , Douglas i s t h u s concerned w i t h two main i s s u e s , which he approaches from e v e r new a n g l e s .  The one i s s u e i s  l i t e r a r y , t h e o t h e r r e l i g i o u s , and b o t h a r e combined for  as a ' c l e r k ' he i s b o t h poet and p r i e s t .  i n h i s own p e r s o n ,  But t h e two c o n c e r n s a r e  even more i n t i m a t e l y c o n n e c t e d , as becomes a p p a r e n t i n P r o l o g u e s V I I , X I I , and X I I I , f o r which t h e l a b e l  'Nature P r o l o g u e s ' i s c l e a r l y no l o n g e r  53  a p p r o p r i a t e : both i s s u e s a r e concerned w i t h c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t y , b u t w h i l e t h e C r e a t o r demands f a i t h and obedience and w h i l e H i s methods o f C r e a t i o n a r e beyond human u n d e r s t a n d i n g , t h o s e o f t h e "makar' can be a n a l y z e d , c r i t i c i z e d , d i s c u s s e d , d e v e l o p e d and d e f i n e d .  As a "makar,' Douglas  e x p l o r e s e v e r new v e r s i o n s o f making use o f o l d c o n v e n t i o n s t o c r e a t e new e f f e c t s , and o f knowing and u s i n g what i s t r a d i t i o n a l , b u t d o i n g i t w i t h t h e independence o f one who c r e a t e s r a t h e r t h a n merely r e p r o d u c e s .  The  t w i n i s s u e s , however, a l s o p o s i t problems which a r e even more s e v e r e t h a n t h o s e o f w r i t i n g and ( r e - ) c r e a t i n g l i t e r a t u r e .  As a C h r i s t i a n and a  p r i e s t , Douglas i s e x h o r t e d t o " d e s p i s e t h e w o r l d ' and t o r e s i s t t h e t e m p t a t i o n s o f p r i d e , b u t as a poet he s t r i v e s f o r an immortal r e p u t a t i o n d e r i v e d from h i s p o e t r y .  T h i s s p l i t between s u b m i s s i o n t o t h e contemptus  mundi d o c t r i n e , on t h e one hand, and c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e r i g h t o f t h e poet t o c l a i m l a s t i n g renown, on t h e o t h e r hand, comes t o t h e f o r e i n P r o l o g u e s V I I I and X I I I , where Douglas's a t t i t u d e i s a t b e s t a m b i v a l e n t .  54  Notes  Q u o t a t i o n s from Chaucer's works a r e t a k e n from The Works o f G e o f f r e y Chaucer, ed. F.N. R o b i n s o n , 2nd edn. ( O x f o r d : O x f o r d U n i v . P r e s s , 1957). 2 E r n s t Robert C u r t i u s , European L i t e r a t u r e and t h e L a t i n M i d d l e Ages, t r a n s . W i l l a r d R. Tnask (London: R o u t l e d g e & Kegan P a u l , 1953), pp.86-7. 3 Q u o t a t i o n s from Lydgate's works a r e t a k e n from L y d g a t e ' s F a l 1 o f P r i n c e s , ed. Henry Bergen, 4 v o l s . , E.E.T.S. 121-4 (London: O x f o r d U n i v . P r e s s , 1924-27), and Lydgate's Troy Book: A.D. 1412-20, ed. Henry Bergen, 2 v o l s . , E.E.T.S. e.s. 97 & 103, 106 (London: Kegan P a u l , T r e n c h , Triibner & Co., 1906-10). 4 Denton Fox, "The S c o t t i s h C h a u c e r i a n s , " i n Chaucer and C h a u c e r i a n s : C r i t i c a 1 S t u d i e s i n Midd1e E n g 1 i s h L i t e r a t u r e , ed. D.S. Brewer, 2nd edn. (Alabama: U n i v . o f Alabama P r e s s , 1967), p.190. 5 U n l e s s o t h e r w i s e i n d i c a t e d , t h e words " f l y t e ' and ' f l y t i n g ' a r e , t h r o u g h o u t t h i s t h e s i s , used i n t h e g e n e r a l sense o f " a b u s i v e l y v i t u p e r a t i v e a t t a c k ' r a t h e r t h a n as terms d e n o t i n g a s p e c i f i c p o e t i c form. 6 Lydgate's Danse Macabre i s i n c l u d e d i n t h e 3 r d v o l . o f Bergen's edn. o f t h e F a l 1 o f P r i n c e s , c i t e d above. ^ Assuming t h a t "myne a u t h o u r ' r e f e r s t o V i r g i l , t h e V i r g i l i a n passage which most c l o s e l y resembles Douglas's q u o t a t i o n seems t o be G e o r g i c s I I , 434-8: q u i d m a i o r a sequar?  s a l i c e s humilesque g e n i s t a e ,  et i u v a t undantem buxo s p e c t a r e Cytorum Naryciaeque p i c i s lucos, ... V i r g i 1 : E c l o g u e s , G e o r g i c s , A e n e i d , The Minor Poems, ed. & t r a n s . H. Rushton Fa i r e lough, 2 v o l s . , The Loeb C l a s s i c a l L i b r a r y , r e v . edn. (Cambridge, Mass.: H a r v a r d U n i v . P r e s s , 1978). Subsequent q u o t a t i o n s from V i r g i l ' s works a r e a l s o t a k e n from t h i s e d i t i o n . g  K u r t W i t t i g , The S c o t t i s h T r a d i t i o n ,  p.77.  9 G e r a l d B. K i n n e a v y , "An A n a l y t i c a l Approach t o L i t e r a t u r e i n t h e L a t e M i d d l e Ages," N e u p h i l o l o g i s c h e M i t t e i l u n g e n , 75 (1974), 126-42. For Lydgate's c r i t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n s see L o i s E b i n , "Lydgate's Views on P o e t r y , " Annuale M e d i a e v a l e , 18 (1977), 76-105. 1 0  Douglas's r e q u e s t s f o r r e p e a t e d r e a d i n g s o f h i s work seem t o echo 55  s i m i l a r r e q u e s t s made by B o c c a c c i o i n t h e f i n a l two books o f h i s De genea1ogia deorum g e n t i 1 i u m , i n B o c c a c c i o on P o e t r y , ed. C.G. Osgood ( P r i n c e t o n , 1930), quoted a f t e r A.C. S p e a r i n g , Medieva1 t o R e n a i s s a n c e i n E n g l i s h P o e t r y (Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v . P r e s s , 1985), p.7. 12 Even Dunbar's c l a i m t o immortal fame, made i n h i s poem i n c . "Schir, have mony s e r v i t o u r i s " , 11.25-34, i s f a r l e s s b l u n t , a l t h o u g h t h e o s t e n s i b l y humble p h r a s i n g has a marked i r o n i c t w i s t . 13 Q u o t a t i o n s from Henryson's works a r e t a k e n from The Poems o f Robert Henryson, ed. Denton Fox ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n , 1981). 14 S i r P h i l i p S i d n e y , "A Defence o f P o e t r y , " Mi s e e l l a n e o u s P r o s e o f S i r P h i 1 i p S i d n e y , ed. K a t h e r i n e Duncan-Jones ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n , 1973), p.85. 15 G.R. Owst, L i t e r a t u r e and P u l p i t i n Medieva1 E n g l a n d : A N e g l e c t e d Chapter i n t h e H i s t o r y o f E n g l i s h L e t t e r s and o f t h e E n g 1 i s h P e o p l e (Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1933). A l t h o u g h t h e resemblance i s not t o o c l o s e i n terms o f i n d i v i d u a l d e t a i l s , t h e dreamer's r e j e c t i o n o f t h e s c r o l l i n P r o l o g u e V I I I i s g e n e r a l l y r e m i n i s c e n t o f P i e r s ' t e a r i n g up t h e f a l s e pardon i n P i e r s Plowman, B - t e x t , Passus V I I , 106-16. 1 6  1 7  Ross, " ' P r o l o u g ' and 'Buke',"  p.401.  18 John V e i t c h , The F e e l i n g f o r N a t u r e i n S c o t t i s h P o e t r y , 2 v o l s . ( E d i n b u r g h & London: Blackwood, 1887), v o l . I , p.273. 19 W i t t i g , The S c o t t i s h T r a d i t i o n , pp.85, 87. 20 John S p e i r s , "Gavin Douglas's ' A e n e i d ' , " i n h i s The S c o t s L i t e r a r y T r a d i t i o n : An Essay i n C r i t i c i s m , 2nd edn. (London: Faber & F a b e r , 1962), pp.71, 74. 21 P e a r s a l l and S a l t e r , Landscapes and Seasons, pp.200-5. 22 N i t e c k i , " M o r t a l i t y and P o e t r y , " p.82. 23 W i t t i g , The S c o t t i s h T r a d i t i o n , p.85; Mackenzie, An H i s t o r i c a 1 S u r v e y , p.102. Hugh MacDiarmid, "Gavin Douglas and t h e A E n e i d , " Agenda, 14, i i ( 1 9 7 6 ) , 92, a l s o r e g a r d s Douglas's " n a t u r e poems" as "the f i r s t i n S c o t s o r E n g l i s h i n which landscape i s d e p i c t e d s o l e l y f o r i t s own s a k e . " 2 4  Ross, " ' P r o l o u g ' and 'Buke',"  2 5  N i t e c k i , " M o r t a l i t y and P o e t r y , " p.83.  56  p.399.  N i t e c k i , " M o r t a l i t y and P o e t r y , " p.82; i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e C u r s o r Mundi, N i t e c k i uses R i c h a r d R o l l e o f Hampole's The P r i e k e o f C o n s c i e n c e and t h e poem "De D i e J u d i c i i , " a t t r i b u t e d t o both Bede and A l c u i n , t o s u p p o r t h e r argument. 2  6  27 Dido, p r a y i n g f o r h e r d e a t h , i s t e r r i f i e d by t h e lone f l i g h t arid i l l - b o d i n g w a i l o f t h e owl ( I V , 462-63), and Turnus i s t e r r o r - s t r u c k when A l e c t o , t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o an o w l , f l i t s p a s t him d u r i n g t h e f i n a l b a t t l e ( X I I , 861-68). 28 S i r Gawain and t h e Green K n i g h t , e d . J.R.R. T o l k i e n and E.V. Gordon, 2nd edn. r e v . by Norman D a v i s ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n , 1967). 29 Q u o t a t i o n s from Dunbar's works a r e t a k e n from The Poems o f W i l l i am Dunbar, ed. James K i n s l e y ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n , 1979). 3  0  N i t e c k i , " M o r t a l i t y and P o e t r y , " p.87.  31 P e a r s a l 1 and S a l t e r , Landscapes and Seasons, p p . 7 6 f f . 32 June would n o r m a l l y not have been thought o f a s p r i m a r i l y a s p r i n g month. A c c o r d i n g t o M a r g u e r i t e Stobo, "The Date o f t h e Seasons i n M i d d l e E n g l i s h P o e t r y , " American Notes & Q u e r i e s , 22, n r . 1/2 (1983), 2-3, c a l e n d a r s o f t h e M i d d l e E n g l i s h p e r i o d tended t o p l a c e t h e b e g i n n i n g o f s p r i n g around 22 F e b r u a r y , b u t w h i l e t h e V e n e r a b l e Bede s e t 7 F e b r u a r y a s t h e b e g i n n i n g o f s p r i n g , some v e r s i o n s o f t h e S e c r e t a Secretorum g i v e d a t e s a s l a t e a s 11 o r even 21 March. In Chaucer's Par 1iament o f F o w l s , however, s p r i n g b e g i n s on o r b e f o r e S t . V a l e n t i n e ' s Day. 33 C u r t i u s , pp.90-1  57  Chapter  11 - The N a r r a t o r  The t w i n i s s u e s o f C h r i s t i a n t r u t h and l i t e r a r y endeavour,  which i n  so many d i f f e r e n t g u i s e s form t h e main t o p i c s o f t h e s e r i e s o f P r o l o g u e s , a l s o i n f o r m t h e s t a n c e s Douglas t a k e s a s t h e n a r r a t o r o f t h e s e P r o l o g u e s . He i s both t h e t h e o l o g i a n who preaches on t h e r e s p e c t i v e consequences o f v i c e and v i r t u e ( P r o l . IV) o r who expounds t h e i n d i v i s i b i l i t y o f t h e T r i n i t y ( P r o l . X ) , and t h e poet who i s a n x i o u s t h a t n o t o n l y V i r g i l ' s b u t a l s o h i s own t e x t be t r e a t e d w i t h r e s p e c t .  These two r o l e s , however, a r e  not s e p a r a t e d by a v o i d which would make i t p o s s i b l e t o a s s i g n t h e persona o f t h e n a r r a t o r a t any g i v e n t i m e c l e a r l y t o e i t h e r t h e one o r t h e o t h e r o f t h e s e two p o s i t i o n s .  On t h e c o n t r a r y , t h e many o t h e r r o l e s which  Douglas momentarily assumes c l o s e t h e f i s s u r e and j o i n t h e s e two d i v e r g e n t r o l e s so t h a t t h e y do not r e p r e s e n t o p p o s i n g impulses b u t a r e s i m p l y t h e extreme ends o f a s i n g l e spectrum.  A t t i m e s , Douglas's two c o n c e r n s o f  p r i e s t and poet j o i n i n such supreme harmony t h a t p o e t r y l i k e t h a t i n t h e May P r o l o g u e r e s u l t s , b u t such an i n t e n s e u n i f i c a t i o n o f t h e two r o l e s i s r a r e ; more commonly, t h e m i d d l e ground  i s t a k e n up by t h e urbane Scotsman  whose language and imagery a r e s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by h i s environment and who e n j o y s a b i t o f f l y t i n g whenever o p p o r t u n i t y o f f e r s , by t h e s c h o l a r o f b o t h C l a s s i c a l s e c u l a r and medieval r e l i g i o u s l i t e r a t u r e , by t h e c o n n o i s s e u r o f contemporaneous c o u r t l y p o e t r y , by t h e c r i t i c a l  translator  whose goal i t i s t o do j u s t i c e t o b o t h t h e s t y l e and t h e c o n t e n t o f h i s t e x t , by t h e l i t e r a r y c r i t i c who f o r m u l a t e s a t h e o r y o f t r a n s l a t i o n and a d e f e n c e o f p o e t r y , and by t h e man who, t i r i n g o f h i s enormous t a s k , p r a y s t o h i s Maker f o r s t r e n g t h and e v e n t u a l l y heaves a s i g h o f r e l i e f when t h e l a s t word i s t r a n s l a t e d .  D i v e r s e a s t h e s e personae may seem, t h e y — l i k e  58  the Prologue f o r m s — a r e deeply rooted provides  i n a l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n which  Douglas sometimes w i t h d i r e c t models, sometimes w i t h  immediate i n f l u e n c e s , and which he reshapes t o s e r v e h i s own At t h e b e g i n n i n g  less purposes.  o f t h e f i r s t P r o l o g u e , Douglas s t e p s b e f o r e  his  a u d i e n c e i n t h e r o l e o f t h e t r a n s l a t o r o f a g r e a t work and a d m i r e r o f a great poet, without, follower. Virgil,  however, p o r t r a y i n g h i m s e l f as t h a t p o e t ' s humble  He shows h i s s e l f - a s s u r a n c e  even i n h i s e f f u s i v e c e l e b r a t i o n o f  f o r he s i n g l e s out v e r y s p e c i f i c q u a l i t i e s and  poetry f o r p r a i s e rather than l o s i n g himself Despite the conventional  v i r t u e s of  Virgil's  in indiscriminate adulation.  g e n u f l e c t i o n t o t h e g r e a t model i n d i c a t e d i n t h e  t o p i c a l p r o t e s t a t i o n s o f i n c a p a c i t y , Douglas makes i t q u i t e c l e a r t h a t V i r g i l ' s e p i c i s not an o b j e c t o f u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d a d o r a t i o n f o r him, a work f o r which he has  " n a t u r a l 1 l u f e and  but  frendely affectioun' ( I , Prol.,  3 6 ) — t e r m s which suggest c o m p a r a b i l i t y r a t h e r t h a n g r a d a t i o n , and  thus  confidence  r a t h e r t h a n meekness v i s - a - v i s t h e honoured p r e d e c e s s o r .  confidence  i s a l s o r e f l e c t e d i n Douglas's p l e d g e t o  This  Virgil,  And t h a t t h y f a c u n d sentence mycht be song In our langage a l s w e i l l as L a t y n t o n g — A l s w e i l l ? na, na, i m p o s s i b i l l war, per d e — i t with thy l e i f , V i r g i l e , t o follow the, wald i n t o my r u r a l 1 w l g a r g r o s s Wryte sum s a v o r y n g o f t h y n e Eneados. ( I , P r o l . , 39-44) The  f i r s t aim here i s t o o h i g h , and  Douglas q u i c k l y c o r r e c t s  he had a l r e a d y s t r e s s e d e a r l i e r , he f i n d s t h a t t h e two not c a p a b l e o f c o m p a r i s o n . of these external  himself—as  languages a r e j u s t  Yet Douglas has no doubt t h a t he w i l l  in spite  l i m i t a t i o n s have ' c r a f t ' enough t o r e t a i n t h e f l a v o u r o f  t h e o r i g i na1.  59  Douglas d i s p l a y s a s i m i l a r s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e i n h i s a d d r e s s t o h i s p a t r o n , 'My was  s p e c i a l 1 gud L o r d Henry, L o r d Sanct C l a i r '  both h i s f r i e n d and kinsman.  ( I , P r o l . , 86),  who  J u d g i n g by Douglas's a t t i t u d e , Henry  L o r d S i n c l a i r ' s ' r e q u e s t ' ( 1 . 83) f o r a t r a n s l a t i o n o f a c l a s s i c a l  work  seems t o have r e a l l y been j u s t t h a t — i f even t h a t — b u t c e r t a i n l y not a demand o r even command; S i n c l a i r " p r a y f A e n e i d , and  ( 1 . 88) him t o t r a n s l a t e t h e  i s i n t u r n commended f o r h i s c o u r t e s y and o t h e r  v i r t u e s , and  l a s t — a n d thus m o s t — f o r  chivalric  h i s l o v e o f books:  B u k i s t o r e c o l l e c t , t o r e i d and s e , Hass g r e t d e l y t e as euer had Ptholome. ( I , P r o l . , 99-100)  Douglas here speaks about a man and he w i l l master"  1  i s h i s s o c i a l and  intellectual  equal,  not l e t t h e " r e g u l a t i o n t o n e o f h u m i l i t y towards a p a t r o n o r  i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h i s e q u a l i t y , but t u r n s t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l  o f submission t h e work.  who  formula  i n t o a statement o f p e r s o n a l f r i e n d s h i p f o r t h e r e c i p i e n t o f  Lydgate's d e d i c a t i o n o f h i s Fal1 o f P r i n c e s t o  another  b i b l i o p h i l e , Humphrey Duke o f G l o u c e s t e r , p r o v i d e s t h e o p p o s i t e end o f t h e spectrum; h a v i n g sung G l o u c e s t e r ' s p r a i s e s i n t h e p r e c e d i n g  fifty-seven  l i n e s , Lydgate p o r t r a y s h i m s e l f as e n t i r e l y unworthy o f t h e commission, indeed p r a c t i c a l l y i n c a p a b l e o f f u l f i l l i n g i t , but n o n e t h e l e s s a t t e m p t i t , though o n l y w i t h t h e g r e a t e s t t r e p i d a t i o n s :  He g a f f t o me i n comaundement, As hym sempte i t was r i h t weel s i t t y n g , That 1 shuIde, a f f t i r my cunnyng. T h i s book t r a n s l a t e , hym t o do p l e s a u n c e ,  60  willing to  And w i t h s u p p o r t o f f h i s m a g n i f i c e n c e , V n d i r t h e wyngis o f f h i s c o r r e c c i o u n , Thouh t h a t I haue l a k o f f e l o q u e n c e , I s h a l procede i n t h i s t r a n s l a c i o u n , F r o me auoidyng a l presumpcioun, L o w l i submyttyng e u e r i hour & space Mi reud language t o my l o r d i s g r a c e . (FP, I , P r o l . , 430-41) Lydgate's a n x i o u s h u m i l i t y cannot be e x p l a i n e d o n l y by r e f e r e n c e t o t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n s t a t u s between h i m s e l f and h i s p a t r o n ; he more t h a n f o l l o w s t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l d e d i c a t i o n — h e expands them.  Virgil  had a l s o spoken o f a p a t r o n ' s command as t h e cause f o r w r i t i n g t h e G e o r g i c s , a work which Douglas o f t e n r e f e r s t o ; but V i r g i l , g i v e s a l l o f two  in contrast,  l i n e s t o the request topos:  i n t e r e a Dryadum s i l v a s s a l t u s q u e sequamur i n t a c t o s , t u a , Maecenas, haud m o l l i a i u s s a . t e s i n e n i l a 1 turn mens i n c o h a t : en age, s e g n i s rumpe moras; . . . (Georgics, I I I , 40-3)  2  Both Lydgate and Douglas, d e s p i t e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r t o n e , a r e a t p a i n s to  emphasize t h a t t h e p a t r o n ' s r e q u e s t and not "presumpcioun'  p a r t was t h e p r i m a r y cause f o r t h e i r t r a n s l a t i o n s .  on t h e i r  own  Douglas s t r e s s e s t h a t  he undertook t h e work f o r t h e sake o f S i n c l a i r ' s " t e n d i r r e q u e s t and amyte' ( D i r e c t i o n , 7 4 ) , And not o n l y o f my c u r a g e , God w a i t . D u r s t i n t e r p r y s s syk owtrageus f o l y . (I, Prol.,  76-7)  Robert Henryson uses t h e same g e s t u r e o f h u m i l i t y i n t h e P r o l o g u e t o h i s Mora 11 F a b i 1 1 i s i n j u s t i f y i n g h i s t r a n s l a t i o n as h a v i n g been w r i t t e n  61  Nocht o f my s e l f , f o r vane presumptioun, Bot be r e q u e i s t and p r e c e p t o f ane l o r d , Of quhome t h e name i t n e i d i s not r e c o r d . (MF,  33-5)  With Henryson's p a t r o n r e m a i n i n g nameless, t h e use o f t h e r e q u e s t t o p o s seems a l l t h e more a g e s t u r e . for  3  For Douglas,  i t certainly i s just that,  he l a t e r avows o t h e r and s t r o n g e r reasons f o r h a v i n g w r i t t e n t h e  t r a n s l a t i o n o f V i r g i l ' s work.  While t h e s c h o o l m a s t e r o f D u n f e r m l i n e does  not a c t u a l l y say t h a t h i s t r a n s l a t i o n o f Aesop's f a b l e s was connected w i t h t h e i r a l m o s t u n i v e r s a l use i n s c h o o l s t o t e a c h L a t i n t o b e g i n n e r s and t o p r o v i d e r h e t o r i c a l e x e r c i s e s f o r more advanced s t u d e n t s , t h e p r o v o s t o f 4  St  G i l e s ' i s c o n f i d e n t t h a t h i s Eneados s a l be r e p u t a n e i d f u l l wark To thame wa1d V i r g i11 t o ch i 1 d r y n expone; Thank me t h a r f o r , master i s o f grammar s c u l y s , Quhar s y t t e c h a n d on ^ o u r b e n k i s and s t u l y s . {Direction,  But even more i m p o r t a n t i s t h a t t h e Eneados w i l l t h o s e who d e l i g h t i n l i t e r a t u r e but who to  42-8)  make V i r g i l a c c e s s i b l e t o  have no L a t i n o r not enough o f i t  r e a d t h e o r i g i n a l w i t h ease and t h u s w i t h p l e a s u r e ; i n d e e d , t h e  t r a n s l a t i o n might even be r e a d out t o t h o s e who a r e a l t o g e t h e r i l l i t e r a t e ( E x c l a m a t i o n , 43-5).  T h i s goal i s a k i n t o t h e topos which C u r t i u s sums up  i n t h e i n j u n c t i o n "'The it'"—a  p o s s e s s i o n o f knowledge makes i t a d u t y t o impart  f a v o u r i t e t o p o s among medieval w r i t e r s , who  but a l s o s c r i p t u r a l a u t h o r i t y f o r i t .  5  For Douglas,  had not o n l y c l a s s i c a l i t must have g a i n e d  a d d i t i o n a l appeal by a l s o s u p p o r t i n g t h e humanist aim o f t h e p u r s u i t and d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f knowledge, p r e f e r a b l y ex f o n t i b u s . Having shown c o n s i d e r a b l e independence i n h i s a t t i t u d e towards h i s 62  " a u c t o u r ' and h i s p a t r o n , Douglas t a k e s t h e same s t a n c e v i s - a - v i s h i s l i t e r a r y models.  Caxton, o f course,  i s a l m o s t beneath contempt, but even  Chaucer, w h i l e acknowledged as Douglas's ' m a s t i r ' ( I , P r o l . , 410), does not escape c r i t i c i s m . p e i r ' although admiration  Douglas r e g a r d s Chaucer as t h e ' p r i n c i p a l poet but  'beneth V i r g i 1 1 i n g r e ' ( I , P r o l . , 339,  407), and  his  i s based on a t h o r o u g h knowledge o f Chaucer's work.  p a r t i c u l a r , he knows Chaucer's c o u r t l y works e x t r e m e l y  In  w e l l and  often  a l l u d e s t o them w i t h v e r b a l , s t r u c t u r a l and p r o s o d i c echoes and whole l i n e s o r c o u p l e t s .  6  But Chaucer's i n f l u e n c e on Douglas's work goes  beyond mere i m i t a t i o n o r r e w o r k i n g  o f l i n e s and w e l l - t u r n e d  Douglas i s a l s o most r e s p o n s i v e t o Chaucer's t e c h n i q u e s lively  speaking  v o i c e o f a n a r r a t o r endowed w i t h  characteristics.  The  quotes  phrases;  f o r a c h i e v i n g the  individual  r h e t o r i c a l d e v i c e o f c o r r e c t i o , one o f Chaucer's  h a l l m a r k s , s e r v e s Douglas's purposes p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l , not o n l y i n t h a t i t c r e a t e s an e f f e c t o f immediacy, o f a man  thinking to himself  sometimes even a r g u i n g w i t h h i m s e l f o v e r t h e b e s t way  and  of expressing  an  i d e a , but a l s o i n t h a t i t accommodates Douglas's need t o f i n d e x a c t l y t h e r i g h t w o r d — a n d t o l e t h i s a u d i e n c e know t h a t t h i s and no o t h e r jjs t h e right one—in  t h e p u r s u i t o f t h a t p r e c i s i o n which he o u t l i n e s i n h i s  ' p r o t e s t a t i o u n ' i n Prologue  I.  The  e f f e c t o f a v i v a c i o u s and  n a r r a t o r i s f u r t h e r enhanced by Douglas's C h a u c e r i a n in tone o f v o i c e .  alert  range and  flexibility  In h i s p r a i s e o f Chaucer, f o r i n s t a n c e , he b e g i n s  a f o r m a l , e u l o g i z i n g a p o s t r o p h e , w h i c h , however, i s immediately by t h e c o n c e s s i v e  'thoght'  qualified  ( I , P r o l . , 339-46); and a f t e r t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f  t h e l a c k o f E n g l i s h e q u i v a l e n t s f o r c e r t a i n L a t i n t e r m s , Douglas his  with  s u b s t a n t i v e c r i t i c i s m o f Chaucer w i t h a ha I f - i r o n i c though 63  begins  still  respectful  'I say nocht t h i s o f Chauser f o r o f f e n s ' ( I , P r o l . , 405)  m o d u l a t i n g h i s t o n e t o one o f a f f e c t i o n a t e and allowances  indulgent  before  i r o n y i n making  f o r t h e acknowledged m a s t e r ' s weaknesses:  Bot s i k k y r l y o f r e s s o n me b e h u f i s Excuss Chauser f r a a l l maner r e p r u f f i s In 1ovyng o f t h i r 1adeis 1y11y q u h i t e He s e t on V i r g i n and Eneas t h i s wyte, For he was e v i r (God w a i t ) a l l womanis f r e n d . ( I , P r o l . , 445-49)  I f Douglas can g e n t l y mock Chaucer, he has a l s o l e a r n e d Chaucer's humorous self-mockery. to  Prologue X I I I , although  s t r u c t u r a l l y more d i r e c t l y  indebted  Henryson, seems t o d e r i v e i t s t o n e from Chaucer's House o f Fame, where  the r e t i c e n t Geffrey  i s manhandled by t h e s e n t e n t i o u s E a g l e and  willy-  n i l l y p r o v i d e d w i t h m a t e r i a l t o w r i t e a b o u t , j u s t as Douglas's dreamer, d e s p i t e h i s f a c e t i o u s p r o t e s t s , f i n d s himself pressed f i g u r e i n t o w r i t i n g more t h a n he had  intended.  by a sham a u t h o r i t y -  A f t e r t h i s t o u r de  o f C h a u c e r i a n s e l f - i r o n y , Douglas modulates h i s t o n e once more and i n t h e end-matter t o t h e more s e r i o u s y e t j u s t as with h i s "auctour', which has,  s i n c e the very beginning o f the f i r s t Prologue,  critics  been a mode o f  independent, and  disputatious  7  For a l l Douglas has p h r a s i n g , he n o n e t h e l e s s  l e a r n e d from Chaucer i n terms o f t e c h n i q u e does not r e g a r d t h e  f e e l s f r e e t o c r i t i c i s e him. and  returns  quasi-dialogue  w i t h h i s p a t r o n , and w i t h h i s r e a d e r s and  discourse c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h i s s c e p t i c a l , narrator.  lively  force  ' m a s t i r ' as  infallible,  Henryson l i k e w i s e , w h i l e a d m i r i n g  u s i n g h i s work as a s p r i n g b o a r d ,  master:  64  and but  Chaucer  reserves the r i g h t t o question  the  Quha w a i t g i f a l l  t h a t C h a u c e i r w r a i t was trew? (TC. 64)  Both w r i t e r s d i s p l a y "a s c e p t i c a l is t r u l y Chaucerian.  8  independence o f judgment" which  itself  For Douglas, however, i t i s l e s s a q u e s t i o n o f  t r u t h t h a n one o f method.  In Douglas's eyes, Chaucer's h a n d l i n g o f t h e  V i r g i l i a n s t o r y o f Dido and Aeneas does not c o n s t i t u t e a t r a n s l a t i o n ; indeed, i t v i o l a t e s V i r g i l ' s o v e r a l l d e s i g n o f t h e e p i c .  Douglas  no  l o n g e r sees h i m s e l f as a medieval s t o r y - t e l l e r whose f u n c t i o n i t i s t o adapt and r e t e l l  n a r r a t i v e m a t e r i a l out o f i t s o r i g i n a l c o n t e x t i n o r d e r  t o e n t e r t a i n o r e d i f y h i s a u d i e n c e ; on t h e c o n t r a r y , he r e g a r d s h i m s e l f as a poet i n t h e new,  R e n a i s s a n c e meaning o f t h e word.  P o e t r y , f o r Douglas,  q  has " i n t r i n s i c beauty and l a s t i n g v a l u e " transmitted in i t s integrity.  which demand t h a t i t be  W h i l e Chaucer a t t h e end o f t h e T r o i l u s  p l e a d e d w i t h t h e s c r i b e s not t o c o r r u p t h i s t e x t (V, 1793-99), he y e t f e l t a t l i b e r t y t o reshape a n o t h e r w r i t e r ' s work; Douglas, however, p r i d e s h i m s e l f i n t h e a c c u r a c y w i t h which he has r e c r e a t e d V i r g i l ' s work, a l t h o u g h he i s f a r l e s s concerned w i t h such p r e c i s i o n when he comes t o t r a n s l a t e Maphaeus V e g i u s ' t h i r t e e n t h Book t o which he a t t r i b u t e s  little,  i f any, l i t e r a r y v a l u e and which he i n c l u d e s i n d e f e r e n c e t o e s t a b l i s h e d c o n v e n t i o n but a g a i n s t h i s own b e t t e r judgement.  T h i s independence o f  judgement, t o g e t h e r w i t h Douglas's c e r t a i n t y t h a t he i s making a c o n t r i b u t i o n t o a r t r a t h e r t h a n m e r e l y s e r v i n g h i s r e a d e r s by e n t e r t a i n i n g them, e x p l a i n s t h e n a r r a t o r ' s s e l f - a s s u r e d , a t t i m e s even  haughty  a t t i tude. G i v e n t h i s independent and s e l f - a s s u r e d s t a n c e v i s - a - v i s h i s " a u c t o u r , ' h i s p a t r o n , and h i s mentor, Douglas not s u r p r i s i n g l y shows none 65  o f t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l h u m i l i t y e i t h e r when i t comes t o a d d r e s s i n g h i s audience a t large.  Even though he b i d s h i s "wlgar V i r g i l 1' t o  Beseyk a l l n o b i 1 1 y s t h e c o r e c t and amend, (Exlamation,  39)  he r e p e a t e d l y warns h i s r e a d e r s not t o be t o o h a s t y w i t h t h e i r but t o " r e i d o f t a r than anys' ( I , P r o l . , nocht t a y n i s ' ( I , P r o l . , 108).  criticism,  107), f o r a t a b l e n k s l e p o e t r y %  Lydgate a g a i n p r o v i d e s t h e o p p o s i t e  a t t i t u d e i n i n v i t i n g a l l and sundry t o make whatever changes t h e y i n t h e Troy Book wh i ch he ends by t e l l i n g  And Be p\ And  his M i t e l  please  bok,'  who-so-euere i n pe f y n d e o f f e n c e , nat t o bo1d f o r no presumpc i o u n — s i 1 f e enarme ay i n pac i ence, -pe s u b m i t t e t o her c o r r e c c i o u n . •  •  •  Ageynes hem p i n e r r o u r nat d i f f e n d e . But humblely with-drawe & go a-bak, Requerynge hem a l Jhat i s mys t o amende. (TB, V, Lenvoye, 96-107) Having spent f a r more t i m e on t h e Troy Book t h a n Douglas was t o spend on t h e Eneados, a n d — j u d g i n g financial  by h i s d e s p e r a t e  r e l i e f — h a v i n g undergone f a r g r e a t e r a n x i e t y over  Lydgate i s s e l f - e f f a c i n g t o a f a u l t . than  pleas t o Gloucester f o r i t , too,  In t h e F a l 1 o f P r i n c e s even more  i n t h e Troy Book, he p r o s t r a t e s h i m s e l f not m e r e l y b e f o r e h i s p a t r o n  and b e f o r e t h o s e r e a d e r s on whose d i s c r i m i n a t i n g judgement he can but b e f o r e a l 1 h i s r e a d e r s .  rely,  Douglas i n c o n t r a s t i n v i t e s o n l y " a l l  n o b i l l y s ' t o make c o r r e c t i o n s , but even t h i s r e q u e s t  i s s u r r o u n d e d by  enough warnings not t o c r i t i c i z e t h e work u n l e s s one  i s equal t o a  ' comparable t a s k ( e . g . , I , P r o l . , 478; 66  D i r e c t i o n , 111-14) t h a t o n l y t h e  most b r a z e n o f r e a d e r s can p o s s i b l y t a k e i t f o r more t h a n t h e merest s u g g e s t i o n o f a bow t o c o n v e n t i o n .  On t h e o t h e r hand, Douglas  s u s c e p t i b l e t o Chaucer's a p p r e h e n s i v e  i s most  lines.  So p r e y I God t h a t non m y s w r i t e t h e , Ne t h e mysmetre f o r d e f a u t e o f t o n g e , (T&C, V, but t r a n s f o r m s t h i s a p p r e h e n s i o n  1795-96)  i n t o a f o r c e f u l r e q u e s t , a d d r e s s e d not  o n l y t o c o p y i s t s but t o t h e a u d i e n c e g e n e r a l l y : 3he w r i t a r i s a l l , and g e n t i l l r e d a r i s eyk. O f f e n d i s nocht my volum, I b e s e i k , Bot r e d i s l e i l l , and t a k gud t e n t i n tyme. 3he n o t h e r m a g g i l l nor mysmetyr my ryme, Nor a l t e r not my w o r d i s , I ^ou p r a y . (Time, Space & Date, S i m i l a r l y , Chaucer's a d d r e s s t o h i s T r o i 1 us as M i t e l  21-5)  bok', a phrase which  Lydgate had t a k e n ad absurdum i n r e f e r e n c e t o h i s 36,393 l i n e s long F a l 1 o f P r i n c e s , becomes "wlgar V i r g i 1 1 ' when Douglas speaks o f h i s work. T h i s d i f f e r e n c e i s more t h a n a mere v a r i a t i o n i n t h e p h r a s i n g : i t e x p r e s s e s a r a d i c a l change i n a t t i t u d e . t h a t t h e work may  There  i s not even any p r e t e n c e  be but a t r i f l e ; on t h e c o n t r a r y , by s t y l i n g h i s work  "wlgar V i r g i 1 1 , ' Douglas a s s e r t s t h a t t h e Eneados e q u a l s t h e A e n e i d , and that V i r g i l  remains V i r g i l  no m a t t e r whether r e a d i n L a t i n o r i n  "Scottis'.  I t i s a h i g h c l a i m , but Douglas has made i t b e f o r e , i n  Prologue I:  A l l t h o c h t he [ V i r g i l ] s t a n t i n L a t y n m a i s t p e r f y t e , 3 i t s t u d e he n e v i r w e i l l i n our t u n g endyte Less t h a n i t be by me now a t t h i s tyme. ( I , P r o l . , 493-95)  67  He  i s c e r t a i n t h a t t h e soundness o f h i s t h e o r e t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s t o g e t h e r  w i t h h i s s u c c e s s i n p u t t i n g them i n t o p r a c t i c e w i l l w a r r a n t t h i s Being almost a g g r e s s i v e l y defensive " d e t r a c t o u r i s and o n c u r t a s s  when he a d d r e s s e s t h e  r e d a r i s t h a t beyn our s t u d y u s '  t i t l e ) , Douglas, on t h e o t h e r hand, t r e a t s "euery g e n t i 1 1 (Exclamation, his  43)  (Exclamation, Scot'  r e s p e c t f u l l y though c e r t a i n l y not humbly.  r e a d e r s t o be about as w e l l - r e a d as he  e x p o s i t i o n s c o n t a i n an  subtle  who  is fully  has chosen each word and p h r a s e w i t h  l i f t s p h r a s e s o r even complete l i n e s o r  from Chaucer's c o u r t l y works, presumably f u l l y e x p e c t i n g recognize  great  couplets  h i s audience t o  t h e a l l u s i o n , g i v e n t h a t he a l s o seems t o presuppose i n h i s  r e a d e r s a s u f f i c i e n t f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h Chaucer f o r them t o be a b l e f o l l o w h i s c r i t i c i s m o f Chaucer's approach t o V i r g i l . his  to  i m p l i e d j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f Douglas's c l a i m t o fame as  c o n s c i o u s o f h i s a r t and who O f t e n he  expects  At t h e same t i m e , however, such  a t r a n s l a t o r and w r i t e r , s i n c e he h e r e shows h i m s e l f as one  deliberation.  He  i s h i m s e l f and t o be a b l e  f o l l o w h i s t h e o r e t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n s , even when he d e a l s w i t h d i f f e r e n c e s in L a t i n semantics.  claim.  c r i t i c i s m o f Chaucer and  w e l l as t h e d e f e n c e o f p o e t r y  The  to  p o i n t s made i n  i n t h e f l y t i n g w i t h Caxton i n P r o l o g u e I as i n P r o l o g u e VI and t h e t h e o r e t i c a l  d i s c u s s i o n s o f s t y l e i n P r o l o g u e s V and  IX c e r t a i n l y demand a  s o p h i s t i c a t e d a u d i e n c e , but such an a u d i e n c e would i n t u r n a l s o the s o p h i s t i c a t i o n of the n a r r a t o r of these Prologues,  appreciate  so t h a t t h e s e  e x p o s i t o r y and a r g u m e n t a t i v e passages s e r v e t o c o n s o l i d a t e t h e  implicit  c l a i m o f t h e n a r r a t o r ' s persona t o be a t l e a s t t h e p o l i t e r e a d e r s '  equal,  i f not t h e i r b e t t e r , based on h i s s t a t u s as a c o n s c i o u s a r t i s t who  no  longer sees h i m s e l f  in the r o l e of a " d e f e r e n t i a l e n t e r t a i n e r , h i s  68  a u d i e n c e ' s humble s e r v a n t , "  1 0  b u t who has a s s i m i l a t e d  Boccaccio's  d e f i n i t i o n o f p o e t s as "men o f g r e a t l e a r n i n g , endowed w i t h a s o r t o f d i v i n e i n t e l l i g e n c e and s k i l l ,  [. . .] t h e r a r e s t o f men."  11  Not o n l y does Douglas d i s p l a y t h e range o f h i s e r u d i t i o n i n a l l u s i o n s t o and b o r r o w i n g s from Chaucer's work, but he a l s o e x h i b i t s a thorough a c q u a i n t a n c e w i t h t h e works o f L y d g a t e , Henryson and Dunbar as w e l l a s w i t h works from t h e a l l i t e r a t i v e t r a d i t i o n .  In a d d i t i o n , he shows h i m s e l f  v e r s e d i n t h e w r i t i n g s o f t h e best-known Roman p o e t s , such as V i r g i l and O v i d , as w e l l as t h e s t a n d a r d c u r r i c u l u m  a u t h o r s , such a s L i v y , Lucan,  S u e t o n i u s , and S t a t i u s , and t h e l a t e Roman w r i t e r M a c r o b i u s ; however, he a l s o c i t e s much l e s s known a u t h o r s , such as V a r r o and even t h e t h e n recently rediscovered t o Douglas.  only  C a t u l l u s , whose wryness seems t o have been c o n g e n i a l  F u r t h e r m o r e , he knows and uses t h e V i r g i l i a n commentators  from t h e f o u r t h - c e n t u r y  Servius  t o Jodocus B a d i u s A s c e n s i u s and t h e  I t a l i a n humanists L o r e n z o V a l l a and C r i s t o f o r o L a n d i n o , and r e f e r s t o Guido d e l l e Colonne and f r e q u e n t l y his  quotes from B o c c a c c i o , t h u s  intimating  f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h a wide range o f l i t e r a t u r e and, indeed, e s t a b l i s h i n g  himself as a l i t e r a r y s c h o l a r , t h a t o f an a u t h o r i t y  i n t e n d i n g t h a t h i s own work be r e g a r d e d as  i n t h e f i e l d , who bases h i s c r i t i c a l  d e t a i l e d knowledge o f and e x t e n s i v e o f a 11 per i o d s .  judgement on  e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h e known l i t e r a t u r e  1 2  N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h i s c o s m o p o l i t a n a u r a , Douglas a l s o endows h i s narrator with a d i s t i n c t l y S c o t t i s h i d e n t i t y . the  "beaw s c h i r r i s '  In h i s ' p r o t e s t a t i o u n ' t o  ( I , P r o l . , 105), Douglas speaks w i t h p r i d e o f h i s  "awyn langage' which he M e r n y t quhen [he] was page' ( 1 1 . 111-12), namely the S c o t s as spoken and r e a d i n c o u r t l y s o c i e t y .  69  A l t h o u g h he f i n d s i t  n e e d f u l t o use "Sum b a s t a r d L a t y n , French o r I n g l y s ' i n s u p p l e m e n t i n g h i s n a t i v e language "Quhar s c a n t was S c o t t i s ' ( 1 1 . 117-18), he  immediately  c o r r e c t s h i m s e l f and i n s i s t s t h a t when he uses f o r e i g n terms and pronunciations  i t i s 'Nocht f o r o u r t o n g  i s i n t h e selwyn s k a n t '  ( 1 . 119).  However, i t i s not o n l y t h e language i t s e l f which i d e n t i f i e s t h e n a r r a t o r as a Scotsman; t h e p o i n t s o f r e f e r e n c e , t o o , a r e a t t i m e s Scottish.  unmistakably  Thus, each o f t h e b u r n i n g s h i p s i n t h e T r o j a n camp has a  "payntyt t a r g e ' (V, x i , 122); A c e s t e s ' newly founded c i t y has ' m e r k a t t i s ' and a " f a i r ' where ' a l l t h e hedismen g a d d e r i s '  (V, x i i , 174-75); when t h e  s o u l s o f t h e dead a s k Charon t o f e r r y them a c r o s s t h e S t y x , i t " c o s t i s thame n o t a g r o t e ' ( V I , v, 7 2 ) ; P l u t o d w e l l s i n a "chymmys' ( V I , x, 6 ) ; and A n c h i s e s , h a v i n g f i r s t m i s t a k e n C r e t e f o r t h e T r o j a n s ' a n c e s t r a l home, then recognizes  "of our c l a n t h e d o w b i l l stok' ( I I I , i i i ,  imagery o f P r o l o g u e  6 2 ) . The  V I I , t h e Winter P r o l o g u e , t o o , w h i l e indebted t o  Chaucer's and Henryson's works f o r some o f t h e l i n e s and images and f u r t h e r t r a c e a b l e t o t h e l i t e r a t u r e o f Doomsday,  13  has i t s e q u i v a l e n t s i n  t h e S c o t t i s h landscape a t t h a t s e a s o n — c e r t a i n l y more so t h a n i n t h e southern  E n g l i s h environment which t h e E n g l i s h C h a u c e r i a n s might have  seen; indeed, a s I have d i s c u s s e d  i n chapter  enough t o have m i s l e d g e n e r a t i o n s o f c r i t i c s  I, the equivalents are close into b e l i e v i n g that  images were based p u r e l y on d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n o f n a t u r e . t i m e , Douglas a l s o draws h e a v i l y on t h e n o r t h e r n  1 4  these  A t t h e same  literary tradition.  He  pays Robert Henryson a t a c i t compliment by a d a p t i n g t h e s t r u c t u r e o f Henryson's P r o l o g u e t o "The T a i l l  o f t h e Lyoun and t h e Mous" t o s u i t h i s  own purposes i n P r o l o g u e X I I I and by a b b r e v i a t i n g Henryson's p l a n e t p o r t r a i t s i n t h e w i n t e r o p e n i n g o f t h e Testament o f C r e s s e i d f o r use i n  70  Prologue VII. tradition  Douglas a l s o makes use o f t h e n o r t h e r n a l l i t e r a t i v e  i n d e s c r i b i n g t h e f i e r c e n e s s o f t h e weather i n t h e  P r o l o g u e i n s t a n d a r d a l l i t e r a t i v e c o l l o c a t i o n s and Prologue VIII  i n a l l i t e r a t i v e long  Winter  i n w r i t i n g t h e whole o f  l i n e s , a form which had  Dunbar come t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s o c i a l s a t i r e and  long b e f o r e  invective.  In  c r i t i c i z i n g Caxton i n P r o l o g u e I , Douglas a l s o h o l d s w i t h t h e S c o t t i s h t r a d i t i o n of the L a t i n and  l i t e r a r y " f l y t i n g ' , which, while p o s s i b l y influenced  Provencal  invective poetry,  G a e l i c b a r d s , i n b o t h I r e l a n d and  by  r e s t s on t h e " p r a c t i c e o f s a t i r e by  Scotland"  1 5  and  i s i n Dunbar's " F l y t i n g  o f Dunbar and Kennedie" e x p l i c i t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h such " b a i r d [ s ] ' (11. 17-8,  49,  120).  1 6  T h i s e r i s t i c mode seems t o have been not u n c o n g e n i a l  Douglas, f o r , as P r i s c i l l a Bawcutt remarks, he was debate and was The  always ready f o r a d i s p u t e ,  polemical  "a man  i n l i f e as  in  who  enjoyed  literature."  1 7  t o n e a l s o comes t o t h e f o r e i n Douglas's r a t h e r b r a s h  t r e a t m e n t o f p o t e n t i a l b a c k b i t e r s and  "detractouris.'  J u s t as he  a n x i o u s t o p r e s e r v e V i r g i l ' s work i n i t s p r o p e r p r o p o r t i o n s i t s s t y l e and  to  s u b s t a n c e i n t a c t , so he  t e x t be t r e a t e d w i t h t h e r e g a r d  due  is  and t o keep  i s a l s o most concerned t h a t h i s  t o the f i r s t  own  "scholarly' translation  o f t h e work a n d — o n e might a d d — w i t h t h e r e s p e c t owed t o a Douglas, whose f a m i l y was  one  of the f i r s t  i n t h e r e a l m and  u n j u s t i f i e d a m b i t i o n s f o r a r i s e t o one S c o t t i s h Church h i e r a r c h y . ^ may  mar  h i s t e x t and  hopes but  fail  who  h i m s e l f had h i g h and  of the highest  not  p o s i t i o n s i n the  Despite h i s a n x i e t y t h a t "oncurtass redan's'  to appreciate  i t s s u b t l e t i e s , Douglas not m e r e l y  i s c e r t a i n t h a t t h e Eneados w i l l p r o c u r e immortal fame f o r  71  him:  Quhen t h a t onknawyn day s a l hym a d d r e s s , Q u h i l k not bot on t h i s body power hess, And e n d i s t h e da i t o f myn o n c e r t a n e l d . The b e t t i r p a r t o f me s a l be v p h e l d Abufe t h e s t a r n y s p e r p e t u a l y t o r y n g , And h e i r my naym remane, but enparyng; (Conclusion,  Douglas here echoes a l m o s t word f o r word t h e f i n a l  5-10)  l i n e s of Ovid's  Metamorphoses; Iamque opus e x e g i , quod nec I o v i s i r a nec i g n i s nec p o t e r i t f e r r u m nec edax a b o l e r e v e t u s t a s . cum v o l e t , i l i a d i e s , quae n i l n i s i c o r p o r i s h u i u s i u s habet, i n c e r t i spatium mi h i f i n i a t a e v i : p a r t e tamen me I i o r e mei super a l t a p e r e n n i s a s t r a f e r a r , nomenque e r i t i n d e l e b i l e nostrum, quaque p a t e t d o m i t i s Romana p o t e n t i a t e r r i s , o r e l e g a r p o p u l i , perque omnia s a e c u l a fama, s i q u i d habent v e r i vatum p r a e s a g i a , vivam. (XV, 8 7 1 - 7 9 )  1 9  In t h e e p i l o g u e t o Chaucer's T r o i l u s and C r i s e y d e , i t i s T r o i l u s ,  not  Chaucer, whose l i g h t e g o o s t f u l b l i s f u l l y i s went Up t o t h e holughnesse o f t h e e i g h t h e s p e r e , (V, 1808-9) but Douglas's n a r r a t o r w i t h supreme s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e f o r e s e e s b e i n g h i m s e l f p l a c e d among t h e s t a r s o f t h e l i t e r a r y heaven, t h u s a n t i c i p a t i n g an e x a l t a t i o n which p a r a l l e l s t h e a p o t h e o s i s o f Aeneas i n Maphaeus' d i r e c t l y p r e c e d i n g t h i r t e e n t h Book as w e l l as t h e a s c e n s i o n e n v i s a g e d  f o r Augustus  a t t h e end o f t h e f i n a l book o f O v i d ' s Metamorphoses (XV, 868-70). The  s t r i v i n g f o r t h e e x a l t a t i o n o f t h e s e l f , however, s t a n d s  in stark  c o n t r a s t t o t h e n a r r a t o r ' s p r e a c h i n g o f t h e o l o g i c a l l y sound dogma elsewhere,  i n c l u d i n g t h e d o c t r i n e o f contemptus mundi. 72  In t h e  Prologues  concerned w i t h r e l i g i o u s t o p i c s , but p a r t i c u l a r l y P r o l o g u e s X and X I , t h e n a r r a t o r l a r g e l y l o s e s h i s i n d i v i d u a l i t y , and w h i l e he speaks w i t h g r e a t a u t h o r i t y , he recedes i n t o a s t y l i s t i c anonymity which i s comparable t h a t p r e v a i l i n g i n t h e m a j o r i t y o f medieval r e l i g i o u s l y r i c s .  to  Imagery  2 u  i s here a l m o s t e n t i r e l y a b s e n t , e x c e p t i n s o f a r as i t h e l p s t o make a b s t r a c t c o n c e p t s more e a s i l y i n t e l l i g i b l e w i t h o u t , however, a f f e c t i n g t h e senses and emotions.  L i n e - f i l l i n g t a g s , such as ' t r a s t e me'  ( I , Prol.,  319) o r " s u y t h l y as I weyn' ( I , P r o l . , 3 6 9 ) , d o u b l e t s , a l l i t e r a t i v e  pairs,  i n t e n s i f y i n g p h r a s e s and s i m i l a r d e v i c e s which c r e a t e t h e e f f e c t o f an i n d i v i d u a l s p e a k i n g v o i c e a l s o o c c u r o n l y w i t h extreme i n f r e q u e n c y . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e e l s e w h e r e s t r o n g C h a u c e r i a n i n f l u e n c e on t h e n a r r a t o r i s reduced t o one o r two echoes o f Chaucer's p h r a s i n g ,  2 1  although i t  r e s u r f a c e s a t t h e end o f P r o l o g u e IV, where t h e n a r r a t o r l a s h e s o u t against e r o t i c love.  The n a r r a t o r o f t h e s e P r o l o g u e s i s g e n e r a l l y a u s t e r e  and i m p e r s o n a l ; even when he d i r e c t l y a d d r e s s e s t h e r e a d e r as T r e n d '  (X,  P r o l . , 8 6 ) , t h i s a d d r e s s does not l e a d t o t h e u s u a l l i v e l y q u a s i - d i a l o g u e but t o a s t e r n  lesson.  N o n e t h e l e s s , t h r e e o f t h e most t y p i c a l t r a i t s o f t h e n a r r a t o r a r e d i s c e r n i b l e even i n t h e s e P r o l o g u e s : he adheres t o t h e p r i n c i p l e o f s t r i v i n g f o r utmost a c c u r a c y and p r e c i s i o n i n word c h o i c e , as he had d i s c u s s e d i n P r o l o g u e I , and he cannot l e t go o f any o p p o r t u n i t y t o become a r g u m e n t a t i v e , y e t even here he shows a remarkable range i n t h e modulations o f h i s speaking voice. the  G e r a l d Kinneavy has drawn a t t e n t i o n t o  unusual " p r e c i s i o n and d i s t i n c t i o n o f d i c t i o n which Douglas employs t o  d e s c r i b e t h e c r e a t i v e power o f t h e F a t h e r " i n t h e "orthodox and  even  conventional t h e o l o g i c a l teaching regarding the T r i n i t y " i n Prologue 73  X:  2 2  Not makis, c r e a t i s , b o t e n g e n d r i s . . . (X, P r o l . , 43) In c o n t r a s t t o t h i s l i n e a r l y foward-moving t r i c o l o n c r e s c e n d o , Douglas e l s e w h e r e uses t h e b a c k - t r a c k i n g d e v i c e o f c o r r e c t i o , a s f o r example i n his  initial  compliment t o V i r g i l :  But s a i r I d r e i d f o r t o d i s t e y n t h e q u y t e Throu my c o r r u p p i t cadens i m p e r f y t e — D i s t e y n t h e ? nay f o r s u y t h , t h a t may I n o c h t . ( I , P r o l . , 45-7)  Here, t o o , a p r e c i s e p o i n t i s b e i n g made, namely t h a t V i r g i l ' s a r t i s so g r e a t t h a t even t h e rougher d i c t i o n o f t h e t r a n s l a t o r cannot d i s c o l o u r i t . Yet t h e d i f f e r e n t d e v i c e s used i n t h e above two passages c r e a t e different effects.  In t h e one, a l e a r n e d t h e o l o g i a n  completely  lectures  a u t h o r i t a t i v e l y on a fundamental dogma o f C h r i s t i a n i t y , whereas i n t h e o t h e r , a w i l y poet d i s p l a y s h i s a r t i n s l y l y d e c l a r i n g t h a t he, i n contrast t o h i s source, while s t i l l  lacks a r t , thus complimenting t h e o r i g i n a l  author  a s s e r t i n g h i s own worth i n an a c c o m p l i s h e d r h e t o r i c a l  flourish. The  second t r a i t , t h e n a r r a t o r ' s d i s p u t a t i o u s n e s s , marks p a r t i c u l a r l y  P r o l o g u e s IV and X I .  In t h e l a s t t h r e e s t a n z a s f o l l o w i n g t h e sermon on  C h r i s t i a n f o r t i t u d e i n Prologue X I , t h e n a r r a t o r t u r n s from t h e e x p o s i t o r y and d i s c u r s i v e modes t o a d d r e s s i n g Here, i m p e r a t i v e s , e x c l a m a t i o n s ,  t h e universal sinner i n the reader.  and r h e t o r i c a l q u e s t i o n s  outnumber  s t a t e m e n t s a s t h e n a r r a t o r t h u n d e r s a t t h e reader and shakes and shames t h e members o f h i s c o n g r e g a t i o n  i n t o an awareness t h a t l a x i t y w i l l n o t  s u f f i c e , b u t t h a t s t r e n g t h , courage, and c o n s t a n t 74  struggle are required  i n t h e a t t e m p t t o w i n t h e h e a v e n l y kingdom.  In P r o l o g u e IV, i n c o n t r a s t ,  t h e n a r r a t o r b e g i n s w i t h a long a p o s t r o p h e t o Venus a s C y t h e r e a and denounces t h e d i s a s t r o u s e f f e c t s o f h e r p o w e r f u l i n f l u e n c e b e f o r e d e f i n i n g l o v e i n e x c l u s i v e l y C h r i s t i a n terms and r e l e g a t i n g a l l l e v e l o f l u s t and animal p a s s i o n .  e r o t i c love t o t h e  Having completed t h e d i s c u s s i o n and  d e f i n e d h i s t e r m s , t h e n a r r a t o r changes h i s t o n e from t h a t o f s t e r n f o r m a l d i s c o u r s e t o one o f f l y t i n g , t a k i n g h i s cue from t h e t e r m i n o l o g y o f c o u r t l y l o v e , which he u n d e r c u t s and d i s c r e d i t s i n a s e r i e s o f r h e t o r i c a l q u e s t i o n s a d d r e s s e d t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l r e a d e r , who i s presumed t o have approved o f o r even t o have h i m s e l f used t h e s e t e r m s .  The n a r r a t o r t h u s  speaks a u t h o r i t a t i v e l y from a m o r a l l y s u p e r i o r p o s i t i o n , y e t when he advances from e x t r a m a r i t a l a f f a i r s t o p r o s t i t u t i o n , he i s no l o n g e r s i m p l y c a s t i g a t i n g from above t h o s e among t h e r e a d e r s who have done "Venus w a r k i s ' ( 1 . 168), b u t p o r t r a y s h i m s e l f a s p e r s o n a l l y e x a s p e r a t e d w i t h "syk bawdry' ( 1 . 186); i n a s i n g l e s t a n z a , Of b r o k k a r i s and syk bawdry quhou s u l d I w r i t e . Of quham t h e f y l t h s t y n k i s i n Godis neyss? With Venus h e n w y f f i s quhat wyss may I f l y t e , That s t r a k i s t h i r wenschis h e d i s thame t o p i e s s ? " D o u c h t i r , f o r t h y l u f e t h i s man hes g r e t d y s e y s s , " Quod t h e bysmeyr w i t h t h e s l e k y t speche, "Rew on hym, i t i s meryte hys pane t o meyss". Syk poyd m a k e r e l l i s f o r L u c i f e r byn l e c h e . ( I V , P r o l . , 186-93) r h e t o r i c a l q u e s t i o n s on a v a r i a t i o n o f t h e i n e x p r e s s i b i 1 i t y t o p o s , ^ t h e 2  use o f t h e f i r s t - p e r s o n pronoun, d i r e c t speech a f f e c t i n g and a p i n g t h e bawd's manner, and a most s u c c i n c t f i n a l c r e a t e an e f f e c t o f r a p i d , c o l l o q u i a l the narrator's personal indignation.  75  statement a l l  work t o g e t h e r t o  speech and produce an i m p r e s s i o n o f  The t h i r d t r a i t , t h e n a r r a t o r ' s range i n t h e m o d u l a t i o n s o f h i s s p e a k i n g v o i c e , i s a l s o p r e s e n t i n P r o l o g u e s IV and X I , b u t i s e s p e c i a l l y striking  i n P r o l o g u e X.  A f t e r t h e sermon on t h e T r i n i t y , t h e n a r r a t o r ' s  t o n e o f v o i c e changes from a u t h o r i t a t i v e t o s u b m i s s i v e a s he a d d r e s s e s h i s Maker i n p r a y e r and r e - a f f i r m s h i s o b e d i e n c e t o t h e F i r s t Commandment r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e r e f e r e n c e s t o pagan d e i t i e s i n h i s work.  These t h r e e  s h o r t s t a n z a s ( 1 1 . 146-60), i n t e r p o l a t e d between a b r i e f m e d i t a t i o n on t h e P a s s i o n and a f i n a l C r e e d , s t a n d o u t from t h e i r s u r r o u n d i n g s by t h e i n t e n s e l y p e r s o n a l and p l e a d i n g tone o f t h e p r a y e r , which i s concerned e x a c t l y w i t h t h e dilemma which Douglas had t h e o r e t i c a l l y d i s c u s s e d i n Prologue VI.  There, t h e use o f pagan myth had been t r e a t e d a s an  a b s t r a c t , l i t e r a r y c o n c e r n , and Douglas had defended i t s use i n t h e c o u r s e o f h i s c r i t i c i s m o f Caxton i n P r o l o g u e I a s p e r f e c t l y c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e d i d a c t i c purpose o f w r i t i n g : Bot t r a s t i s w e i l l , quha t h a t i l k e s a x t buke knew, V i r g i l l t h a r i n ane h i e p h i l o s o p h o u r hym schew, And vnder t h e c l o w d i s o f d y r k poecy Hyd l y i s t h a r mony n o t a b i 1 1 h i s t o r y — For so t h e p o e t i s be t h e c r a f t y c u r y s In s i m i l i t u d e s and v n d i r quent f i g u r i s The s u y t h f a s t m a t e r i s t o hyde and t o c o n s t r e y n ; A l l i s nocht f a l s , t r a s t e w e i l l , i n cace t h a i f e y n . ( I , P r o l . , 191-98) In P r o l o g u e X, however, Douglas seems t o f e e ) c o m p e l l e d n o t m e r e l y t o r e j e c t t h e charge o f i d o l a t r y b u t e x p l i c i t l y t o a b j u r e i t . clear that the affirmation of f a i t h  Yet i t i s  i n t h e C h r i s t i a n God a l o n e i s a l s o  made w i t h an eye t o h o s t i l e c r i t i c s , f o r t h e n a r r a t o r modulates h i s e a r n e s t t o n e o f f o r m a l s u p p l i c a t i o n t o end t h i s s e c t i o n on a n o t e o f wry b a r n y a r d humour: 76  Is nane bot t h o u , t h e Fader o f g o d d i s and men, Omnipotent e t e r n a l l o v e I ken; O n l y t h e , he1 p l y F a d e r , t h a r i s nane o t h e r : I compt not o f t h i r paygane g o d d i s a f u d d e r , Quhais power may nocht h e l p a h a l t a n d hen. (X, P r o l . ,  156-60)  The c o n t r a s t between t h e impotence o f t h e pagan gods and t h e of  omnipotence  t h e 'he 1 p l y F a d e r ' i s here so a b s u r d l y overdrawn t h a t even t h e most  adept f a u l t - f i n d e r s would o n l y heap r i d i c u l e on t h e m s e l v e s i f t h e y m a i n t a i n e d t h e charge which Douglas's n a r r a t o r h e r e so a d r o i t l y a v e r t s . A f t e r y e t one f u r t h e r m o d u l a t i o n i n h i s t o n e , t h e n a r r a t o r completes P r o l o g u e X i n a p e r s o n a l v o i c e which i s u n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y q u i e t and subdued.  24  Having r e - a f f i r m e d h i s f a i t h , t h e n a r r a t o r i n P r o l o g u e XI uses t h e hero o f h i s l i t e r a r y work t o e x e m p l i f y h i s t h e o l o g i c a l t e a c h i n g , t h u s r e a s s e r t i n g t h e u n i o n between t h e t h e o l o g i c a l and l i t e r a r y c o n c e r n s o f h i s work a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d i n P r o l o g u e V I .  T h i s done, he t r a n s c e n d s t h i s  p r e d o m i n a n t l y i n t e l l e c t u a l awareness o f t h e u n i o n and harmonizes b o t h t h e r e l i g i o u s and t h e a r t i s t i c XII, to  i s s u e s i n t h e supreme achievement o f P r o l o g u e  t h e May P r o l o g u e , where t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e s e t w i n c o n c e r n s l e a d s t h e i r t r u e u n i f i c a t i o n , not o n l y i n t e l l e c t u a l l y r e c o g n i z e d , but  i n t i m a t e l y f e l t and known. The a s c e n t t o t h i s h e i g h t , however, has not been easy: i n t h e p r o c e s s , Douglas has shown h i s n a r r a t o r f i r s t f u l l  o f energy, but soon  t i r i n g and weary from t h e sheer enormousness o f h i s t a s k .  No m a t t e r  how  r e a l i s t i c and how c r e d i b l e t h e image o f t h e n a r r a t o r worn o u t by h i s l a b o u r may be, i t i s a l s o a s t a n d a r d pose adopted by o t h e r w r i t e r s b e f o r e Douglas; C u r t i u s , i n f a c t , l i s t s t h e w e a r i n e s s t o p o s as one o f t h e 77  classical  concluding t o p o i .  2 S  B o c c a c c i o had a l r e a d y p o r t r a y e d h i m s e l f i n  t h a t a t t i t u d e i n t h e proemia t o t h e Books o f h i s De c a s i b u s  virorum  i 1 l u s t r i u m , and Lydgate r e p r o d u c e s t h e s e t a b l e a u x o f t h e weary B o c c a c c i o i n t h e P r o l o g u e s t o Books I I I and V I I I as w e l l as i n t h e o p e n i n g o f Book VII o f h i s F a l 1 o f P r i n c e s . his  But Douglas's n a r r a t o r knows how t o overcome  f a t i g u e even w i t h o u t a v i s i t from P e t r a r c h .  Sometimes, i t i s sheer  dogged d e t e r m i n a t i o n which makes him c o n t i n u e , as a t t h e end o f P r o l o g u e VII a f t e r t h e d a u n t i n g v i s i o n o f t h e s u r r o u n d i n g f r i g i d  bleakness:  And, t h o c h t I wery was, me l i s t not t y r e . F u l l l a i t h t o l e i f our wark swa i n t h e myre. Or ? i t t o s t y n t f o r b i t t e r storm o r rane ° (VII, Prol..  155-57)  o r a l s o i n P r o l o g u e V I I I , a f t e r t h e " s e l c o u t h s e g ' w i t h h i s long harangue has become t e d i o u s : "I l a n g t o haue o u r buke done, I t e l ) t h e my p a r t . " (VIII, Prol.,  142-43)  More o f t e n , however, t h e n a r r a t o r invokes God o r Mary and c a l l s on them for  help, guidance,  and s t r e n g t h :  God g r a n t me g r a c e hym [ V i r g i l ] d y n g l y t o ensew! ( I I , P r o l . , 7) And a g a i n : From Harpyes f e l l and b l y n d C y c l o p e s h a n d i s Be my l a i d s t a r , v i r g y n e moder b u t maik; Thocht storm o f t e m p t a t i o u n my s c h i p o f t s c h a i k , F r a s w e l t h o f S y l l a and dyrk C a r i b d i s b a n d i s , I meyn from h e l l , sa1ue a 1 go n o t t o wra i k. ( I l l , Prol., 78  41-5)  Or  even: Hornyt Lady, p a i l C y n t h i a , not b r y c h t , •  •  •  Thy s t r a n g e went i s t o w r i t e God g r a n t me s i y c h t , T w i c h i n g t h e t h r y d buke o f Eneadon. ( I l l , Prol.,  1-9)  Douglas t h u s i n v o k e s God and Mary where o t h e r p o e t s would have c a l l e d t h e Muses o r a p p r o p r i a t e gods o r goddesses, his  i n v o c a t i o n s but immediately  on  whom Douglas a l s o mentions  in  rejects:  Melpomene, on t h e wald c l e r k i s c a l l F o r t i l l compyle t h i s d e d l y t r a g e d y T w i c h i n g o f Troy t h e s u b u e r s i o u n and f a l l ; Bot sen I f o l l o w t h e poete p r i n c i p a l I , Quhat ned i s purches f e n ^ e i t termys new? God g r a n t me g r a c e hym d y n g l y t o ensew! (II, Prol.,  Z-7)  W h i l e o t h e r w r i t e r s c a l l on Melpomene t o h e l p them w i t h t h e ' t r a g e d y ' o f the f a l l  o f Troy, Douglas has no need f o r h e r ; as l o n g as h i s own God  consent t o g i v e Douglas t h e means, V i r g i l ' s t e x t i t s e l f w i l l guidance.  goes one s t e p f u r t h e r and  is a  so t h e i r r e j e c t i o n  by Douglas's t i m e a l s o a l r e a d y become a c o n v e n t i o n a l d e v i c e .  Christian  g i v e enough  J u s t as t h e i n v o c a t i o n o f t h e Muses and o t h e r d e i t i e s  s t o c k f i g u r e o f p r o l o g u e s and o t h e r b e g i n n i n g s ,  will  had  But Douglas  l i n k s t h i s convention with the t r a d i t i o n a l  e x e g e s i s o f V i r g i l , w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h t he can invoke Mary i n  the guise of the Sibyl  f o r guidance  i n h i s work:  To f o l l o w V i r g i l i n t h i s d y r k poyse Convoy me, S i b i l , t h a t I ga nocht wrang. Thow a r t our S i b i l 1, C r y s t i s moder d e i r . ( V I , P r o l . , 7-8  79  &  145)  Such c a l l s f o r d i v i n e g u i d a n c e , however, a r e f a r l e s s f r e q u e n t i n t h e second h a l f o f t h e s e r i e s o f P r o l o g u e s , where t h e o l o g i c a l  issues  predominate o v e r l i t e r a r y ones, and where Douglas e v e n t u a l l y , i n P r o l o g u e X I I , harmonizes t h e two c o n c e r n s .  At t h e end o f P r o l o g u e X I I , t h e  May  P r o l o g u e , t h e s t r u g g l e i s o v e r and t h e s u p p l i c a t i o n s a r e no l o n g e r n e c e s s a r y , not s i m p l y because t h e t r a n s l a t i o n o f V i r g i l ' s work i s completed, but because t h e concerns o f t h e s e c u l a r poet and o f t h e C h r i s t i a n no l o n g e r oppose each o t h e r s i n c e t h e s y m p a t h e t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e A c t o f C r e a t i o n and t h e c r e a t i o n o f l i t e r a t u r e , between t h e C r e a t o r and t h e "makar', i s now p e r c e i v e d .  In P r o l o g u e I , Douglas  needed t o e x p l a i n t h e metaphors used t o i n d i c a t e t h i s  still  correlation:  Thou prynce o f poet i s , I t h e mercy c r y , I meyn t h o u Kyng o f K y n g i s , L o r d E t e r n , Thou be my muse, my gydar and l a i d s t e r n , On t h e I c a l l , and Mary V i r g y n m y I d — •  •  *  A l b e i t my sang t o t h y h i e m a i e s t e A c c o r d i s n o c h t , 3 i t c o n d i s c e n d t o my w r i t e . For t h e s w e i t 1iqour o f t h y p a p p i s q u h i t e F o s t e r i t t h a t P r y n c e , t h a t h e v y n l y Orpheus, Grond o f a l I gude, our S a l u y o u r Ihesus. ( I , P r o l . , 452-70) By t h e end o f t h e work, however, t h e s e i n g e n i o u s l y c o n c e i v e d metaphors have moved beyond t h e l e v e l o f p u r e l y i n t e l l e c t u a l c o g n i t i o n and a r e , instead, f u l l y  i n t e r n a l i z e d and known, r a t h e r t h a n o n l y t h o u g h t , by t h e  n a r r a t o r o f P r o l o g u e X I I so t h a t he j o y f u l l y r e c e i v e s t h e  intuitive  i n s p i r a t i o n s e n t f o r t h by t h e Sun and t h u s by God, an e q u a t i o n f o r which Douglas has not o n l y l i t e r a r y but a l s o s c r i p t u r a l a u t h o r i t y . e q u a t i o n between t h e sun and  2 7  This  i t s C r e a t o r i s t h e n no l o n g e r i n need o f  80  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , but i s so t h o r o u g h l y  embedded i n h i s c o n s c i o u s n e s s ,  indeed  i n h i s b e i n g , t h a t no r a t i o n a l p r o c e s s needs t o i n t e r v e n e between sensual p e r c e p t i o n and i n s t i n c t i v e r e a l i z a t i o n . i n s p i r a t i o n , f o r which he had p l e a d e d lyrically literary  sublime p o e t r y ;  On t h e c o n t r a r y , t h e d i v i n e  e a r l i e r , now m a n i f e s t s  itself in  i n s t e a d o f h a v i n g t o be l a b o r i o u s l y  justified,  endeavour i s now a f i t t i n g p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e c e l e b r a t i o n o f  op Mass, ° a f t e r t h e l i t e r a l l y e n l i g h t e n i n g v i s i o n o f t h e Sun has c l e a r e d away t h e m i s t s from t h e May landscape as w e l l as from t h e n a r r a t o r ' s p e r c e p t i o n and c o g n i t i o n .  81  Notes E l e a n o r P r e s c o t t Hammond, E n g l i s h Verse between Chaucer and S u r r e y (Durham, N.C.: Duke U n i v . P r e s s , and London: Cambridge U n i v . P r e s s , 1927), p.90. 2 "Meantime l e t us pursue t h e Dryads' woods and v i r g i n g l a d e s — n o easy behest o f t h i n e , Maecenas. A p a r t from t h e e , my mind e s s a y s no l o f t y theme; a r i s e t h e n , break t h r o u g h slow d e l a y s ! " James K i n s l e y argues t h a t t h e Mora 11 F a b i 1 1 i s a r e l i k e l y t o have been " w r i t t e n t o s e r v e t h e purposes o f some powerful p o l i t i c i a n who had good r e a s o n f o r r e m a i n i n g anonymous." "The Mediaeval Makars," i n h i s (ed.) S c o t t i s h P o e t r y : A C r i t i c a l Survey (London: C a s s e l l , 1955), p.16. 4 Denton Fox ( e d . ) , The Poems o f Robert Henryson ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n , 1981), p p . x i i i - x l ? i i . 5 C u r t i u s , p.87. Matthew 5:15 and 25:18: The p a r a b l e s o f t h e l i g h t which must not be hidden under t h e b u s h e l , and o f t h e t a l e n t which must not be b u r i e d . 3  P r i s c i l l a Bawcutt, "Douglas and S u r r e y , " pp.406-18, shows t h e range o f Douglas's p a r a p h r a s e s and q u o t a t i o n s o f l i n e s and phrases t a k e n from Chaucer's T r o i l u s and C r i s e y d e , K n i g h t ' s T a l e , Legend o f Good Women, Comp1aint o f Mars, House o f Fame, and Par 1iament o f Fow1s, but a l s o l e s s f r e q u e n t a l l u s i o n s t o o r r e m i n i s c e n c e s o f t h e C a n t e r b u r y Ta1es, e s p e c i a l l y t h e General P r o l o g u e , t h e F r a n k 1 i n ' s T a l e and t h e S q u i r e ' s T a l e . In t h e p r e c e d i n g p a r a g r a p h , I am i n d e b t e d t o Bawcutt, "Gavin Douglas and Chaucer," Review o f E n g l i s h S t u d i e s , n.s. 21, (1970), 404-6, 417-18, 421. 7  8 A.C.  S p e a r m g . Medieval t o R e n a i s s a n c e , p.110.  q S p e a r i n g , Medieva1 t o R e n a i s s a n c e ,  p.5.  10 S p e a r i n g , Medieva1 t o R e n a i s s a n c e ,  p.22.  B o c c a c c i o on P o e t r y , quoted a f t e r S p e a r i n g , Medieval t o R e n a i s s a n c e , p.6. 1 1  12  In h i s Pa 1ice o f Honour (11. 895-924), Douglas p r o v i d e s a c a t a l o g u e o f t h e w r i t e r s and p o e t s whom h i s dreamer sees i n t h e C o u r t o f t h e Muses. P r i s c i l l a Bawcutt d i s c u s s e s t h e e x t e n t and depth o f Douglas's r e a d i n g and e r u d i t i o n i n her a r t i c l e "The " L i b r a r y ' o f G a v i n Douglas," i n Bards and M a k a r s — S c o t t i s h Language and L i t e r a t u r e : Medieval and R e n a i s s a n c e , eds. Adam J . A i t k e n , Matthew P. McDiarmid, and D e r i c k S. Thomson (Glasgow: U n i v . o f Glasgow P r e s s , 1977), pp.107-26. E.M.W. T i l l y a r d . The E n g l i s h E p i c and i t s Background (London: C h a t t o and Windus,  82  1954), p.344, comments on " t h e r e m a r k a b l y h i g h l e v e l o f [ D o u g l a s ' s ] scholarship." 1 3  N i t e c k i , " M o r t a l i t y and P o e t r y , " pp.82-5.  14 V e i t c h , The F e e l i n g f o r N a t u r e , v o l . I , pp.270-75; M.M. Gray ( e d . ) , S c o t t i s h P o e t r y from Barbour t o James VI (London: Dent, 1935), p. x i i i - x i v ; W i t t i g , The S c o t t i s h T r a d i t i o n , p.85. 15 James K i n s l e y ( e d . ) , The Poems o f Wi11 jam Dunbar ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n , 1979), p.283. 16 The Poems o f Wi11iam Dunbar, e d . James K i n s l e y , pp.76-95. 17 18  Bawcutt, G a v i n Douglas, p.2.  For b i o g r a p h i c a l D o u g l a s , pp.1-22.  i n f o r m a t i o n on Douglas, see Bawcutt, G a v i n  19 "And now my work i s done, which n e i t h e r t h e w r a t h o f J o v e , nor f i r e , nor sword, nor t h e gnawing t o o t h o f t i m e s h a l l e v e r be a b l e t o undo. When i t w i l l , l e t t h a t day come which has no power save o v e r t h i s m o r t a l frame, and end t h e span o f my u n c e r t a i n y e a r s . S t i l l i n my b e t t e r p a r t I s h a l l be borne immortal f a r beyond t h e l o f t y s t a r s and I s h a l l have an u n d y i n g name. Wherever Rome's power extends o v e r t h e conquered w o r l d , I s h a l l have mention on men's l i p s , and, i f t h e p r o p h e c i e s o f b a r d s have any t r u t h , t h r o u g h a l l t h e ages s h a l l I l i v e i n fame." O v i d : Metamorphoses, e d . & t r a n s . Frank J u s t u s M i l l e r , The Loeb C l a s s i c a l L i b r a r y (London: Heinemann, 1968). 20 Rosemary Woolf o b s e r v e s t h a t l i k e w i s e Dunbar's r e l i g i o u s poems a r e t h o s e i n which Dunbar's i n d i v i d u a l v o i c e i s l e a s t n o t i c e a b l e ; The E n g 1 i s h R e l i g i o u s L y r i c i n t h e Midd1e Ages ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n , 1968), p.5. 21 Bawcutt h e a r s "a p o s s i b l e echo o f t h e p h r a s i n g o f Chaucer's Boece i n XI P r o l . 145-7;" " G a v i n Douglas and Chaucer," p.403. 22 K i n n e a v y , "An A n a l y t i c a l Approach," pp.138-39. 23 A c c o r d i n g t o C u r t i u s , t h e i n e x p r e s s i b i 1 i t y t o p o s d e r i v e s from p a n e g y r i c o r a t o r y , i n which " t h e o r a t o r " f i n d s no words' which can f i t l y p r a i s e t h e p e r s o n c e l e b r a t e d " (European L i t e r a t u r e , p.159). Douglas here t u r n s t h e topos i n t o a r h e t o r i c a l q u e s t i o n i n v i t u p e r a t i o n o f t h e " i n d e s c r i b a b l e " i m m o r a l i t y o f panders. 24 Joan Hughes and W.S. Ramson, P o e t r y o f t h e S t e w a r t C o u r t ( C a n b e r r a : A u s t r a l i a n N a t i o n a l U n i v . P r e s s , 1982), pp.49-51, a l s o hear a number o f v e r y d i s t i n c t s p e a k i n g v o i c e s i n P r o l o g u e X, namely, one " o f r e a s o n i n g " (11.1-85), one " o f g e n e r a l t h a n k s g i v i n g " (11.86-140), and one "of personal s u p p l i c a t i o n . " 25 C u r t i u s , p.90. 83  S p e a r i n g , Medieva1 t o R e n a i s s a n c e . pp.23-5, p o i n t s o u t t h a t Chaucer's i n v o c a t i o n o f t h e Muses i n t h e proem t o Book I I o f h i s House o f Fame i s t h e f i r s t use o f t h i s d e v i c e w i t h i n E n g l i s h p o e t r y . 27  L a n g l a n d r e f e r s t o C h r i s t d y i n g on t h e C r o s s a s "be l o r d o f l y f & o f l i ^ t e " . P i e r s Plowman, B - t e x t , X V I I I , 59. Psalm 84:11: "For t h e LORD God i s a sun and a s h i e l d . . ."; Rev. 1:16: "and h i s [ t h e Son o f man's] countenance was a s t h e sun s h i n e t h i n his strength." 28 When Douglas w r i t e s t h a t i t i s "or tyme o f mess' ( X I I , P r o l . , 304), he seems t o be p l a y i n g on t h e two meanings "a meal" and "Mass."  84  Chapter I I I —  The  Translation  In t h e c o u r s e o f t h e t h i r t e e n P r o l o g u e s t o h i s Eneados, Douglas s p e c i f i e s v e r y p r e c i s e l y what he r e g a r d s as t h e t a s k o f t h e t r a n s l a t o r . He r e j e c t s t h e medieval view o f t h e t r a n s l a t o r as one who c u l l s  narrative  m a t e r i a l s from o t h e r w r i t e r s ' works i n o r d e r t o r e t e l l them i n h i s own manner, and i n s t e a d emphasizes t h e t r a n s l a t o r ' s o b l i g a t i o n t o t r e a t t h e t e x t with the s t r i c t e s t f i d e l i t y . still  While v i v i d n e s s and o r i g i n a l i t y a r e  i m p o r t a n t t o Douglas, h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i r p r o p e r a p p l i c a t i o n  i s new:  i t i s not t h e t a s k o f t h e t r a n s l a t o r t o produce an o r i g i n a l  r e n d e r i n g o f well-known m a t e r i a l s and t o reshape them i n such a way t h e p r o d u c t becomes d i s t i n c t l y h i s own, but t o be o r i g i n a l even i n t h e c r e a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s which w i l l  that  i n t h e use and  e n a b l e him t o r e p r o d u c e t h e  t e x t as f a i t h f u l l y and as a c c u r a t e l y as i s p o s s i b l e i n a n o t h e r language, recapturing the "freshness' of the o r i g i n a l  f o r a new a u d i e n c e w i t h a  d i f f e r e n t l i n g u i s t i c and c u l t u r a l background.  The t r a n s l a t o r ' s c l a i m t o  fame t h u s does not r e s t on t h e e x t e n t t o which he has c r e a t e d h i s own v e r s i o n o f t h e s t o r y m a t e r i a l , but on t h e degree t o which he has r e created the o r i g i n a l author's t e x t i n a l l  i t s a s p e c t s , from  isolated  s t y l i s t i c e f f e c t s t o t h e p h i l o s o p h y and t h e o v e r a l l d e s i g n u n d e r l y i n g t h e e n t i r e work.  In p r o p o s i n g a t h e o r y o f t r a n s l a t i o n based on t h e p o s t u l a t e  o f a c c u r a c y and f i d e l i t y , Douglas s e p a r a t e s h i m s e l f from Chaucer and o t h e r medieval a d a p t e r s , and a d o p t s t h e humanist view o f genuine t r a n s l a t i o n w i t h i t s s t r e s s on t h e i n t e g r i t y and i n v i o l a b i l i t y o f t h e t e x t . T h i s k i n d o f t r a n s l a t i o n , as Douglas i m p l i e s i n h i s c r i t i c i s m o f Caxton i n P r o l o g u e I , ought not o n l y t o be a c c u r a t e i n s p e c i f i c but must a l s o f a i t h f u l l y reproduce t h e p r o p o r t i o n s o f t h e work. 85  details, The  t r a n s l a t o r i s n o t a t l i b e r t y t o a b b r e v i a t e o r even o m i t some p a r t s w h i l e expanding o t h e r s depending on h i s own i n t e r e s t , b u t must r e t a i n t h e d e s i g n g o v e r n i n g t h e sequence and p r o p o r t i o n s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l p a r t s i n t h e original.  While Douglas c e n s u r e s Caxton on t h e grounds o f h a v i n g  d i s t o r t e d t h e scheme and b a l a n c e o f t h e A e n e i d , he might have brought t h e same charge a g a i n s t Chaucer, who had reworked t h e A e n e i d m a t e r i a l  twice,  i n t h e House o f Fame and i n t h e Legend o f Good Women, b o t h t i m e s e m p h a s i z i n g V i r g i l ' s Book IV w h i l e c o n d e n s i n g t h e r e s t t o t h e b a r e minimum of the plot l i n e .  In t h e Legend o f Good Women Chaucer  i s , i n accordance  w i t h A l c e s t e ' s command t o w r i t e 'a g l o r y o u s legende / Of goode women, maydenes and wyves' (LGW, P r o l . G 473-74), i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e A e n e i d o n l y i n s o f a r a s i t c o n c e r n s Dido and t h u s r e t e l l s o n l y Books I t o IV, d e v o t i n g a l m o s t h a l f t h e t o t a l number o f l i n e s o f t h e "Legend o f D i d o " t o t h e a d a p t a t i o n o f Book IV i t s e l f .  In t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f Venus' temple i n t h e  House o f Fame, Chaucer p a r a p h r a s e s t h e complete A e n e i d , i n c l u d i n g O v i d ' s r e f e r e n c e t o Aeneas' wedding and h i s a c c o u n t o f Aeneas' a p o t h e o s i s , i n 325 l i n e s (HF, 143-467), o u t o f which t o t a l  he t a k e s 126 l i n e s t o r e n d e r  V i r g i l ' s Book IV a l o n e w h i l e he compresses t h e c o n t e n t s o f t h e s u c c e e d i n g Books and o f O v i d ' s c o n t i n u a t i o n i n t o t h i r t y - f i v e l i n e s (HF, 433-67). W h i l e Chaucer r e p r o d u c e s V i r g i l ' s opening l i n e s v e r b a t i m , he does n o t p r e t e n d , a s Douglas c l a i m s , t o be a c t u a l l y t r a n s l a t i n g ;  i n d e e d , he even  i n s e r t s an e x p l i c i t d i s c l a i m e r i n t o t h e i n s c r i p t i o n which t h e n a r r a t o r f i n d s i n Venus' t e m p l e :  86  dreamer-  "I wol now s i n g e n , y i f J_ kan, The armes, and a l s o t h e man That f i r s t cam, t h u r g h h i s d e s t i n e e , F u g i t y f o f Troy contree, In I t a y l e , w i t h f u l moche pyne Unto t h e s t r o n d e s o f Lavyne." (HF, 142-48;  i t a l i c s mine)  A l t h o u g h Chaucer changes t h e p r o p o r t i o n s o f t h e A e n e i d — h e w i l l  not  t r a n s l a t e "word f o r word V i r g i l e ' because t h a t "wolde l a s t e n a l t o longe w h i l e ' (LGW, of  1002-3)—he  i s a t l e a s t not g u i l t y o f Caxton's o t h e r o f f e n c e  h a v i n g t r a n s l a t e d a t second hand r a t h e r t h a n h a v i n g gone ad fontem, as  Douglas i n t h e s p i r i t o f humanism demands a t r a n s l a t o r must do. However, Douglas f i n d s Chaucer g u i l t y o f a d i f f e r e n t t r a n s g r e s s i o n . In d e p i c t i n g Aeneas as f a l s e t o Dido and as h a v i n g broken h i s o a t h t o h e r , Chaucer has, as Douglas s a y s , " g r e t l y V i r g i 1 1 o f f e n d i t ' ( I , P r o l . , 410). Virgil  p o r t r a y s Aeneas as a man who, b e i n g reminded by Mercury o f h i s  m i s s i o n t o found Rome, p l a c e s h i s d i v i n e l y o r d a i n e d t a s k above h i s own o r any o t h e r p e r s o n ' s w i s h e s and who t r i e s t o d e p a r t s e c r e t l y so as not t o endanger t h e s u c c e s s o f h i s m i s s i o n ; but w h i l e r e t a i n i n g t h e i n d i v i d u a l n a r r a t i v e e l e m e n t s , Chaucer a l t o g e t h e r changes Aeneas' c h a r a c t e r i n l e t t i n g him use Mercury's v i s i t as a mere p r e t e x t f o r a d e p a r t u r e which has l e s s h o n o u r a b l e c a u s e s .  In Chaucer's p o r t r a y a l Aeneas  m o t i v a t e d by p i e t a s but by s e l f - i n t e r e s t .  i s t h u s not  In a d d i t i o n , Chaucer's Aeneas  swears an u n - V i r g i l i a n o a t h o f e t e r n a l f a i t h f u l n e s s t o Dido (LGW, and l e a v e s C a r t h a g e even though Dido i s w i t h c h i l d (LGW,  1234),  1323) and even  though he has caused her t o be i n danger o f imminent a t t a c k by t h e neighbouring lords.  In Chaucer's a d a p t a t i o n Aeneas has t h u s become a most  c a l l o u s p e r j u r e r who  i s ready t o s a c r i f i c e Dido f o r t h e momentary  s a t i s f a c t i o n o f h i s own p l e a s u r e .  87  Virgil,  i n c o n t r a s t , i s concerned t o  p o r t r a y Aeneas as s a c r i f i c i n g a l l human d e s i r e s , i n c l u d i n g h i s own, i n f o l l o w i n g the e t h i c a l l y highest of motivations  i n o r d e r t o obey t h e  commands o f f a t e , t h u s becoming t h e innocent cause o f D i d o ' s d e a t h as t h e gods use him as t h e i r t o o l .  What Douglas c r i t i c i z e s  i n Chaucer's  r e t e l l i n g i s t h a t i n i s o l a t i n g t h e Dido and Aeneas s t o r y and s e e i n g i t from Dido's p o i n t o f view Chaucer may have g i v e n i t more s p i c e , but has a l t e r e d t h e c h a r a c t e r o f " p i u s ' Aeneas so much t h a t Aeneas can no  longer  emerge as t h e model man and model p r i n c e whom t h e R e n a i s s a n c e came t o see i n V i r g i l ' s hero as he i s g r a d u a l l y f u r t h e r and f u r t h e r r e f i n e d by t h e t r i a l s which h i s d e s t i n y has i n s t o r e f o r him; i n Chaucer's a d a p t a t i o n Aeneas human.  l o s e s h i s l a r g e r - t h a n - l i f e s t a t u r e as a hero and becomes a l l t o o Seen from t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e A e n e i d as a whole, Chaucer's  changes i n Aeneas' b e h a v i o u r and m o t i v a t i o n amount t o a d i s t o r t i o n o f Aeneas' c h a r a c t e r and, i n consequence, t o a s u b v e r s i o n o f V i r g i l ' s  design  f o r Aeneas' development and growth as a hero and as t h e p r o g e n i t o r o f t h e Roman i m p e r i a l 1 i n e . Douglas's own p r a c t i c e c o n c e r n i n g  faithfulness to Virgil  i n terms o f  c h a r a c t e r p o r t r a y a l g e n e r a l l y matches h i s t h e o r e t i c a l p r e c e p t s , but w h i l e accusing others o f having d i s t o r t e d the proportions o f the o r i g i n a l Douglas h i m s e l f i s not e n t i r e l y innocent t r a n s l a t i n g V i r g i l ' s hexameter  in t h i s respect, either.  work, In  l i n e s i n t o d e c a s y l l a b i c c o u p l e t s he g r e a t l y  i n c r e a s e s t h e t o t a l number o f l i n e s ; on t h e average t h e r a t i o i s approximately  one L a t i n l i n e t o j u s t o v e r one ' S c o t t i s ' c o u p l e t , but t h e  r a t i o i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l Books v a r i e s : i n Book I Douglas r e n d e r s V i r g i l ' s 756 l i n e s i n o n l y 661 c o u p l e t s , but i n Book X, f o r i n s t a n c e , he the o r i g i n a l  expands  908 l i n e s t o 1108 c o u p l e t s ; Book X i s t h u s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y  88  more t h a n o n e - t h i r d l o n g e r t h a n Book I .  Many o f Douglas's e x p a n s i o n s and  a d d i t i o n s a r e caused by t h e demands o f h i s d i f f e r e n t m e t r e — a s 1  he  c h a r m i n g l y a d m i t s , he o c c a s i o n a l l y needs some padding " t o l y k l y my ryme' (I, Prol.,  124).  Often, these small a d d i t i o n s simply c o n s i s t of  line-  f i l l i n g t a g s such as "I g e s s ' , "but dowt', "but d r e i d ' , "but l e s s ' , "I w i s s ' , ' a l and sum',  "sans f a i l l ' , and  t i m e s , Douglas completes  ' s c h o r t l i e t o conclude'.  At o t h e r  l i n e s by u s i n g d o u b l e t s , f o r i n s t a n c e , ' t o f i e  and t o d e p a r t ' , 'fame and gude renown', " t r e w t h and v e r i t e ' , 'eneuch and s u f f i c i e n t ' , and  ' h a b i t a t i o u n and r e s i d e n s ' , whose c h i e f l y m e t r i c a l  f u n c t i o n becomes a l l  t o o o b v i o u s when t h e y a r e l i n k e d w i t h ' o r ' i n s t e a d o f  'and', as i n 'depart o r ga / F u r t h ' , "grund o r e r t h ' , 'helmstok o r g u b e r n a k i l o f t r e ' , and  'bowel l i s o r e n t r a l i s ' .  2  In a d d i t i o n t o b e i n g  u s e f u l f o r m e t r i c a l p u r p o s e s , such p a i r s o f synonyms seem t o accommodate Douglas's d e s i r e f o r "the fowth o f langage' ( I , P r o l . ,  120), a l t h o u g h t h e y  a l s o t e n d t o sound somewhat p e d a n t i c and s c h o o l m a s t e r l y ; i n t h i s r e s p e c t Douglas seems a t t i m e s more d e d i c a t e d t o s a t i s f y i n g t h e needs o f t h e " m a s t e r i s o f grammar s c u l y s ' who  "wald V i r g i l l  t o c h i l d r y n expone'  ( D i r e c t i o n , 47 & 43) t h a n t o a p p r o x i m a t i n g V i r g i l ' s d e n s e l y packed  style  as c l o s e l y as p o s s i b l e . Other a d d i t i o n s , t o o , seem t o have been made f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f an u n l e a r n e d a u d i e n c e u n a c q u a i n t e d w i t h t h e w o r l d o f Augustan Rome. Douglas s a y s , "Sum  tyme t h e t e x t mon  As  haue ane e x p o s i t i o u n ' ( I , P r o l . ,  3 4 7 ) , and t h u s he r e g u l a r l y e x p l a i n s r e f e r e n c e s , terms and names w i t h which he c o u l d assume h i s a u d i e n c e t o be u n f a m i l i a r . t a k e up 1 ess t h a n a l i n e , as i n  89  Such e x p a n s i o n s  may  myrthus, t h e t r e f u n e r a l e  (III.  t h e l o c h Cameryna,  ( I I I , x, 89)  i,  47)  but a t o t h e r t i m e s , such e x p l a n a t o r y a d d i t i o n s may occupy an e n t i r e  line  o r more:  Quhi1k  Avernus t h e w e l 1 , lowch i s s i t u a t e a t t h e mouth o f h e l 1 . ( I V , i x , 81-2)  Syryvs, the frawart s t a r , Quhi1k c l e p i t i s t h e syng c a n i c u l a r , (III, i i ,  149-50)  T h i s p r a c t i c e becomes i n t r u s i v e when, f o r example, t h e ghost o f H e c t o r i n t h e m i d s t o f h i s i n s t r u c t i o n s t o Aeneas, w h i l e Troy i s b u r n i n g , t a k e s t h e t i m e t o e x p l a i n t o him what t h e Penates a r e : In t h i k e p i n g c o m m i t t i s Troy but l e s s H i r kynd1y g o d d i s c 1 e p i t P e n a t e s . ( I I , v,  83-4)  However, as P r i s c i l l a Bawcutt shows, t h e d e s i r e t o h e l p t h e r e a d e r i s not t h e o n l y cause f o r such i n t e r p o l a t i o n s .  Both e x p l a n a t i o n s and d o u b l e t s  a r e o f t e n s u g g e s t e d by t h e L a t i n g l o s s e s which by t h e e a r l y s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y u s u a l l y accompanied  V i r g i l ' s t e x t — a n d Douglas seems t o have been  unable t o r e s i s t the t e m p t a t i o n t o d i s p l a y h i s s c h o l a r s h i p . ^ t o Book I Douglas f r e q u e n t l y c i t e s C r i s t o f o r o L a n d i n o and  In t h e n o t e s  explicitly  q u o t e s S e r v i u s , f o r example i n e x p l a i n i n g t h e etymology o f t h e v e r b " o p p e t e r e ' as " w i t h mowth t o s e i k o r b y t e t h e e r d ' (note t o I , P r o l . , 3 5 0 ) , which he s u b s e q u e n t l y a l s o uses i n h i s t r a n s l a t i o n ( I , i i i , Aeneid, I, 96).  Here as i n many o t h e r c a s e s , Douglas 90  silently  6;  i n c o r p o r a t e s t h e commentators'  glosses into the text.  When he, f o r  instance, writes  By mu11 i t u d e and nowmyr apon wss s e t Al1 t e i d t o w r a i k (II, v i i , he i s t r a n s l a t i n g n o t o n l y V i r g i l idest multitudine ingruentium."  109-10)  b u t a l s o A s c e n s i u s , who g l o s s e s "numero:  4  Douglas does, however, n o t depend on V i r g i l i a n commentators a l o n e i n o r d e r t o f i n d t h e r i g h t word o r p h r a s e ; on t h e c o n t r a r y , he a l s o seems t o c o i n e n t i r e l y new words and t o make c o l l o q u i a l e x p r e s s i o n s l i t e r a r y .  Some  o f t h e onomatopoeic words, such a s v e r b s m i m i c k i n g b i r d c a l l s o r nouns i m i t a t i n g t h e sound o f water o r t h e n o i s e o f c l a s h i n g weapons, a r e l i k e l y t o have a l r e a d y e x i s t e d i n c o l l o q u i a l t i m e been used i n l i t e r a t u r e .  5  usage and t o have now f o r t h e f i r s t  But t h e same i s l e s s p r o b a b l e f o r  Douglas's a u r e a t e t e r m s ; words such a s " c o n j u g a l 1', "deambulatour',  "contegwyte',  " e t h e r y a l l ' , " f r e n e t t i c a l ' , " m a l i v o l o u s ' , "producear', and  "redymyte' seem r a t h e r t o be Douglas's own c r e a t i o n s .  According t o the  e v i d e n c e p r o v i d e d by O.E.D. and P.O.S.T., none o f t h e s e terms a r e r e c o r d e d p r i o r t o t h e i r usage by P o u g l a s .  In c r e a t i n g such n e o l o g i s m s P o u g l a s  shows h i m s e l f e n t i r e l y a t t u n e d t o t h e " i d e a o f t h e poet a s t h e r e f i n e r and e n r i c h e r o f h i s n a t i v e and n a t i o n a l R e n a i s s a n c e t h o u g h t about p o e t r y . "  language [, which] i s c e n t r a l t o 6  Having p r a i s e d V i r g i l ' s " f l u d e o f  e l o q u e n s ' and Chaucer's "MyIky f o n t a n e ' ( I , P r o l . , 4 & 3 4 2 ) , Douglas  tries  t o emulate b o t h h i s models s o t h a t t h e p e r c e i v e d p o v e r t y o f t h e " S c o t t i s ' language might be t u r n e d i n t o "fowth', n o t o n l y t h r o u g h an i n c r e a s e d c o p i o u s n e s s o f v o c a b u l a r y , f o r which he a l s o draws on F r e n c h , L a t i n and 91  Greek as w e l l as Norse, Dutch and F l e m i s h , but a l s o by means o f added 7  v a r i e t y i n t h e r e g i s t e r s o f d i c t i o n , which range from t h e e x t r e m e l y c o l l o q u i a l t o t h e most a u r e a t e . The use o f t h e c o l l o q u i a l element becomes p a r t i c u l a r l y pronounced i n the  s h o r t u n - V i r g i l i a n u t t e r a n c e s which Douglas f r e q u e n t l y p u t s i n t o t h e  mouths o f h i s c h a r a c t e r s .  In t h e t r a n s l a t i o n o f Book V, f o r example,  Douglas i n c r e a s e s t h e e x c i t e m e n t o f t h e v a r i o u s r a c e s o f t h e f u n e r a l games by making t h e s p e c t a t o r s and t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s c a l l t o one a n o t h e r where V i r g i l o n l y i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e i s much s h o u t i n g .  V i r g i l ' s general  expressions  turn p l a u s u f r e m i t u q u e v i r u m s t u d i i s q u e faventum consonat omne nemus, . . . (V, 148-49) consurgunt nautae e t magno clamore morantur (V, 207) Sergestum b r e v i b u s q u e v a d i s f r u s t r a q u e auxilia . . .  vocantem (V,  221-22)  turn v e r o ingeminat c l a m o r , c u n c t i q u e sequentem i n s t i g a n t s t u d i i s , resonatque f r a g o r i b u s a e t h e r . (V, 227-28) signum clamore p a r a t i s E p y t i d e s longe d e d i t i n s o n u i t q u e f l a g e l l o . (V, 578-79) become f a r more s p e c i f i c i n Douglas's t r a n s l a t i o n and a d d i t i o n : The e g y r n e s s o f t h a r f r e n d i s thame b e h e l d , Schowtand "Row f a s t " , a l l t h e woddis r e s o u n d i s . (V, i i i , 86-7) 92  The m a r y n e r i s s t a r t on f u t w i t h a s c h o u t , Cryand, "Byde, how", . . . (V, i v , 92-3) And f y r s t S e r g e s t behynd sone l e f t hess he, *  »  •  And c r y a n d , " H e l p ! " bot t h a t was a l i n v a n e . (V, i v , 113-16) The noyss and b r u t e t h o dowblys lowd on h y c h t , For, on t h e c o s t i s syde, f a s t e u e r y w i g h t Spurn's t h e p e r s e w a r i s t o r o l l b i s s e l y : "Set on hym now! Haue a t hym t h a r , " t h a i c r y . That huge clamour f o r d y n n y t a l t h e a y r . (V, i v , 123-27)  E p y t i d e s on f a r a syng gan mak, Smait w i t h a c l a p , and c r y i s , "Go  togidder!" (V, x, 60-1)  In each case Douglas p a r t i c u l a r i z e s t h e c h a r a c t e r ' s u t t e r a n c e and t h e r e b y r e d u c e s t h e d i s t a n c e between c h a r a c t e r s and r e a d e r s by g i v i n g t h e a u d i e n c e the  a c t i o n as i f i t were u n f i l t e r e d by t h e n a r r a t o r ' s c o n s c i o u s n e s s .  8  By  s u p p l y i n g t h e words o f t h e shout i n d i r e c t speech, Douglas i n c r e a s e s t h e n a r r a t i v e ' s immediacy and v i g o u r and " a c t u a l i z e s " t h e h a p p e n i n g s .  9  The  r e s u l t i s o f t e n a change i n t o n e and mood, i n t e n s i f y i n g t h e n o i s e and b u s t l e i n t h e scene r e p o r t e d . Douglas a l s o t e n d s towards a s i m i l a r c o n c r e t i z a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r s ' emotions.  Where V i r g i l  has a c h a r a c t e r s i g h , Douglas not o n l y  r e p o r t s t h e s i g h i t s e l f but a l s o s p e c i f i e s i t s k i n d and cause; where Virgil  l e a v e s i t t o t h e r e a d e r t o imagine t h e p r e c i s e m i x t u r e o f emotions  e x p r e s s e d by t h e c h a r a c t e r , Douglas o f t e n removes any vagueness a m b i g u i t y , t h u s f o r c i n g h i s own  or  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and h i s own e m o t i o n a l  93  r e s p o n s e on h i s a u d i e n c e and p r e v e n t i n g h i s r e a d e r s from e f f e c t i n g t h e i r independent  i m a g i n a t i v e a p p r e h e n s i o n o f t h e c h a r a c t e r ' s s t a t e o f mind.  When Dido a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f Book IV l e t s Anna see h e r s t a t e o f mind r e g a r d i n g Aeneas and r e p r o a c h e s h e r s e l f f o r b e t r a y i n g t h e memory o f h e r f i r s t husband, V i r g i l ' s Dido a l l u d e s most d e l i c a t e l y t o t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f an a l l i a n c e w i t h Aeneas:  s i non pertaesum t h a i a m i taedaeque f u i s s e t , h u i c u n i f o r s a n p o t u i succumbere c u l p a e . ( I V , 18-9) U s i n g t h e r e l a t i v e l y broad term ' c u l p a , ' whose meaning i n c l a s s i c a l  Latin  can be a s weak a s ' e r r o r ' o r "weakness,' Dido v a i n l y t r i e s t o g l o s s o v e r the perceived impropriety o f her f e e l i n g s .  Douglas's D i d o , i n c o n t r a s t ,  i s f a r l e s s t e n d e r i n h e r word c h o i c e and s p e l l s o u t p r e c i s e l y what i s on her mind:  War n o t a l s s o t o me i s d i s p l e s a n t Genyvs chalmyr o r matrymone t o h a n t ; Perchans I mycht be v e n q u i s t i n t h i s r a g e , Throu t h i s a cryme o f secund mariage. (IV, i ,  37-40)  In h e r l a t e r d e n u n c i a t i o n o f Aeneas a f t e r she has heard t h a t he i s p r e p a r i n g f o r h i s d e p a r t u r e . Dido does n o t j u s t a s k , "num lumina f l e x i t ? " (IV, 369), but f i n d s a cause, t o o : Q u h i d d i r g i f he s t e r y t h i s eyn, a s o c h t hym a l y t ? ( I V , v i i , 16) A f t e r w a r d s Aeneas i s d e p i c t e d n o t o n l y "multa gemens" ( I V , 3 9 5 ) , b u t "Bewalyng m e k i l l h y r sorow and d i s t r e s s " ( I V , v i i , 6 7 ) .  When Aeneas meets  Dido a g a i n i n t h e u n d e r w o r l d , he swears by t h e s t a r s , by t h o s e above and 94  by " s i qua f i d e s t e i l u r e sub ima e s t " ( V I , 4 5 9 ) , b u t Douglas l e t s  Aeneas  swear more s p e c i f i c a l l y  By a l t h e s t a r n y s schynys abone o u r hed, And be t h e g o d d i s abone, t o t h e I swer, And be t h e f a i t h and l a w t e , g i f ony h e i r Trewth may be f u n d d e i p v n d i r e r d . . . ( V I , v i i , 70-3) In t h i s l a s t c a s e Douglas's p a r t i c u l a r i z a t i o n h e l p s t o b r i n g about a s l i g h t change i n t h e scene, e s p e c i a l l y as r e g a r d s t h e p o r t r a y a l o f Aeneas. Whereas V i r g i l appears t o have equal sympathy f o r Dido and Aeneas, Douglas, w h i l e b e i n g more s y m p a t h e t i c towards b o t h , seems t o have s p e c i a l compassion f o r Aeneas, who i n consequence appears warmer and more t e n d e r t h a n he does i n t h e A e n e i d .  The i n d i v i d u a l changes a r e s l i g h t , b u t t h e i r  cumulative e f f e c t i s considerable.  Near t h e b e g i n n i n g o f h i s speech  Aeneas a s k s , " f u n e r i s heu!  tibi  o f t e n does e l s e w h e r e t o o ,  t r e a t s t h e q u e s t i o n s as a s t a t e m e n t — " A 1 l a c e ,  1 0  c a u s a f u i ? " ( V I , 4 5 8 ) , b u t D o u g l a s , as he  I was t h e c a u s a r o f t h y ded!" ( V I , v i i , 6 9 ) — a n d t h u s a s a r e m o r s e f u l self-accusation.  In Aeneas' appeal t o Dido n o t t o t u r n away, Douglas  i n s e r t s "so sone' and changes t h e p o s s e s s i v e pronoun from p l u r a l t o s i ngu1ar, . . . teque a s p e c t u ne s u b t r a h e n o s t r o .  ( V I , 465)  Withdraw t h e n o t s a sone f u r t h o f my s i g h t !  ( V I , v i i , 86)  t h u s making t h e scene much more i n t i m a t e l y p e r s o n a l and l e t t i n g Aeneas a s k f o r a much s m a l l e r f a v o u r : he knows t h a t Dido wi11 l e a v e , and he o n l y a s k s her n o t t o l e a v e j u s t y e t .  An i n s e r t i o n i n t h e p r e c e d i n g l i n e a l s o s e r v e s  t o i n c r e a s e t h e i m p r e s s i o n o f Aeneas' t e n d e r n e s s and compassion towards 95  D i d o : Douglas changes t h e n e u t r a l i m p e r a t i v e " s i s t e gradum" ( V I , 465) a l o v i n g p l e a , "Abide, thou genti1 wight" (VI, v i i , 85). the  And  l a s t 1ine o f Aeneas' speech, Douglas t r a n s l a t e s "quod t e  ( V I , 466)  as " t h a t w i t h t h e speke I may'  s u b s t i t u t i o n o f ' w i t h ' f o r 'ad-' e f f e c t i s no  into  finally,  in  adloquor"  (VI, v i i , 88); although  the  i s i n i t s e l f o n l y a minute change, t h e  longer t h a t o f a o n e - s i d e d a d d r e s s t o which Dido i s e x p e c t e d  on 1y t o 1i s t e n , but t h a t o f a des i r e f o r mutua1 commun i c a t i on, so t h a t Aeneas' r e q u e s t b o t h he and  i s no  longer a demand t h a t he be h e a r d , but a p l e a t h a t  Dido be on s p e a k i n g  terms once more.  a w a y — n o t " i n i m i c a " ( V I , 472), but  Even when she  'aggrevit' (VI, v i i ,  turns  100)—Aeneas i s  not "casu concussus i n i q u o " ( V I , 475), but - ' p e r p l e x i t o f h i r s o r y c a c e ' (VI, v i i ,  105).  By  i n s e r t i n g t h e pronoun Douglas has a g a i n  V i r g i l ' s amb i gu i t y , mak i ng Aeneas fee1 on1y  removed  compass i on f o r D i do and  her  p a i n , and e x c l u d i n g t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f Aeneas' f e e l i n g h u r t h i m s e l f by  the  a p p a r e n t h a u g h t i n e s s w i t h which Dido t r i e s t o p r o t e c t her d e e p l y i n j u r e d feelings.  No m a t t e r whether one a g r e e s w i t h John S p e i r s ' s judgement t h a t  "Douglas' r e n d e r i n g  [ o f t h i s meeting] d i s a p p o i n t s , "  1 1  i t is certain that  Douglas's v e r s i o n i s s u f f i c i e n t l y d i f f e r e n t from V i r g i l ' s t o c r e a t e a changed image o f t h e two  characters.  Such extreme i n s t a n c e s o f t e n d e n t i o u s i n t h e Eneados.  t r a n s l a t i o n , however, a r e  Douglas i s u s u a l l y much more f a i t h f u l  t o V i r g i l , not  rare only  i n h i s word c h o i c e and p h r a s i n g , but a l s o i n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f h i s sympathies.  Two  f a c t o r s may  passage i n Aeneas' f a v o u r . P r o l o g u e s I and  have i n f l u e n c e d t h e t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h e above F i r s t , t h r o u g h o u t t h e Eneados, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n  IV, Douglas has been a t p a i n s t o e x o n e r a t e Aeneas from t h e  s t a n d a r d medieval charge o f h a v i n g been a t r a i t o r t o Dido by b r e a k i n g 96  an  o a t h which V i r g i l , however, never makes him g i v e . ^ 1  The p o r t r a y a l  of  Aeneas as "maynsworn fowl e l y ' ( I , P r o l . , 422) i s p r e c i s e l y t h e p o i n t on which Douglas c r i t i c i z e s Chaucer as h a v i n g " g r e t l y V i r g i l l  offendit' ( I ,  P r o l . , 410); i n h i s advocacy o f Aeneas Douglas here t e n d s towards t h e opposite pole.  A second i n f l u e n c e seems t o stem from t h e l a r g e r c u l t u r a l  environment, e s p e c i a l l y t h e C h r i s t i a n d u t y t o f o r g i v e t h o s e who forgiveness with a c o n t r i t e heart. occasionally  ask  Such C h r i s t i a n o v e r t o n e s a r e  p r e s e n t e l s e w h e r e i n t h e t r a n s l a t i o n t o o , a l t h o u g h Douglas  appears c o n s c i o u s l y t o a v o i d a C h r i s t i a n i z a t i o n o f t h e t r a n s l a t i o n  itself  and t o c o n f i n e t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f C h r i s t i a n views t o t h e P r o l o g u e s . N o n e t h e l e s s , when Aeneas e x p l a i n s t o Dido i n Book IV t h a t he l e a v e s not o f h i s own c h o i c e but a t t h e command o f t h e gods, Douglas t w i c e t r a n s l a t e s "sponte' as " f r e w i l l ' little  ( I V , v i , 121 & 160).  Dido here appears perhaps a  l e s s r e s t r a i n e d l y d i g n i f i e d and a l i t t l e more e m o t i o n a l t h a n i n  V i r g i l , m a i n l y because o f f r e q u e n t i n t e r p o l a t i o n s o f t h e "a1 l a c e ! '  line-filling  i n t o her speeches; she a l s o seems a l i t t l e more b i t t e r , f o r  a f t e r Dido has a d d r e s s e d Aeneas as her " g e s f , no l o n g e r her Douglas g i v e s her t h e u n - V i r g i l i a n  My g e s t , ha God!  "spowss',  line  quhou a l t h y n g now  invane i s , ( I V , v i , 85)  making her echo t h e s e n t i m e n t o f t h e v a n i t y o f t h e w o r l d f a m i l i a r from medieval r e l i g i o u s l y r i c s .  O t h e r w i s e , however, t h e t r a n s l a t i o n o f Book IV  is extremely close t o the o r i g i n a l .  1 3  Having based h i s c e n s u r e o f Chaucer  and Caxton c h i e f l y on t h e i r h a n d l i n g o f t h i s Book, Douglas i s l i k e l y t o have t a k e n p a r t i c u l a r c a r e t o ensure t h a t h i s own t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h e same  97  passage would be above c r i t i c i s m . Book IV, however, a l s o p r o v i d e s t y p i c a l examples o f t h e  cultural  t r a n s f e r e n c e which Douglas a c c o r d i n g t o h i s pronouncements i n P r o l o g u e considers part of the t r a n s l a t o r ' s task.  G i v e n t h a t Douglas's  a u d i e n c e c o n s i s t e d o f c o u r t l y r e a d e r s , who acquainted  primary  c o u l d not be assumed t o be  w i t h t h e customs and t h e geography and mythology o f t h e a n c i e n t  w o r l d beyond what i s r e g u l a r l y mentioned i n E n g l i s h , S c o t t i s h and vernacular  French  l i t e r a t u r e , Douglas i n c o r p o r a t e s e x p l a n a t o r y n o t e s i n t o t h e  t e x t o f t h e t r a n s l a t i o n , i d e n t i f y i n g , f o r example, t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l topographical  f e a t u r e s mentioned by  that h o r r i b i l l i n t h e wod If V i r g i l  I  or  Virgil:  mont, Cawcasus ha i t  Hyrcany.  ( I V , v i i , 9) ( I V , v i i , 12)  uses a k e n n i n g o r o t h e r p e r i p h r a s t i c e x p r e s s i o n f o r a god  or  p e r s o n , Douglas a l s o p r o v i d e s t h e p r o p e r name:  Saturnys  son, h i e I u p i t e r  ( I V , v i i , 21)  t o An, h i r d e i r s y s t i r ,  (IV, v i i i ,  102)  and he r e p l a c e s t h e l e s s s t a n d a r d names o f gods, p e o p l e s , and p l a c e s w i t h t h e i r more u s u a l  ones:  p a t r i q u e Lyaeo ( I V , 58)  : and t o Bachus p a r t a l s o ( I V , i i , 13)  Lenaeum l i b a t honorem ( I V , 207)  : Offeryng  L i b y c a e g e n t e s ( I V , 320)  : t h e pepi11 o f A f f r i k  98  . . . t h e honour o f Bachus (IV, v, 64) ( I V , v i , 77)  nec . . . p i g e b i t E l i s s a e ( I V , 335}  : Dido t o h a l d i n . . . memory (IV, v i , 109)  Pergama ( I V , 344)  : Priamus p a l y c e ( I V , v i , 126)  A u s o n i a ( I V , 349)  : I t a l e ( I V , v i , 138)  S i m i l a r l y , t h r o u g h o u t t h e Eneados, Douglas a l m o s t i n v a r i a b l y a v o i d s t h e v a r i o u s names, such as A c h i v i , A r g i v i , A r g o l i c i , Danai and P e l a s g i , and D a r d a n i d e s , Phryges and T e u c r i , which V i r g i l uses f o r t h e Greeks and t h e Trojans r e s p e c t i v e l y . f o r p i e c e o f h i s own  But Douglas i s a l s o n o t above a d d i n g an u n c a l l e d l e a r n i n g i f t h e o c c a s i o n a r i s e s and p r o s o d y a l l o w s ,  so t h a t  . . summoque u l u l a r u n t v e r t i c e Nymphae (IV,  168)  becomes  And on t h e h i l l y s h i e t o p p i s , but l e s s , Sat murnand nymphis, ha i t Oreades. (IV,  i v , 81-2)  When Douglas uses p h r a s e s such as "quhik ha i t . . . " o r " q u h i l k c l e p y n g we . . .", he d e f e a t s h i s own p u r p o s e .  Interpolated explanations l i k e the  f o l l o w i n g do not produce t h e g r e a t e r immediacy which he e l s e w h e r e a c h i e v e s , but o n l y d i s t a n c e t h e A e n e i d f u r t h e r from h i s a u d i e n c e ; h a v i n g summarized t h e metamorphosis o f k i n g P i c u s i n t o a woodpecker, t h e n a r r a t o r adds. c l e p i t a Speicht with Q u h i l k i n L a t y n h a i t Pycus Marcyus,  ws, (VII,  99  iii,  91-2)  and s p e a k i n g o f t h e 'gamrnys C i r c e n s e s ' , he e x p l a i n s , Q u h i l k i u s t y n g o r than turnament c l e i p  we. ( V I I I , x,  96)  Such e x p l a n a t i o n s p a r t i c u l a r l y draw a t t e n t i o n t o t h e m s e l v e s when t h e y occur  i n t h e speeches o f V i r g i l i a n c h a r a c t e r s ; t h e n , t h e a b s u r d  situation  a r i s e s i n which pre-Roman c h a r a c t e r s e x p l a i n t o each o t h e r what c e r t a i n t h i n g s are c a l l e d i n Middle Scots.  A n c h i s e s , a d d r e s s i n g Aeneas, hopes  that Jupiter  w i t h h i s f y r y l e v i n me omberauch, That we i n t i l l our langage c l e p e f y r e f l a u c h , ( I I , x,  155-56)  and Evander t e l l s Aeneas about t h e 'nymphis and fawnys' i n t h e  surrounding  woods, Q u h i l k f a i r f o l k i s , o r t h a n e l v y s , c l e p y n g we. ( V I I I , v i , 7) Although  t h e purpose o f such e x p l a n a t o r y  i n t e r p o l a t i o n s i s t o h e l p non-  e x p e r t r e a d e r s b r i d g e t h e gap between V i r g i l ' s and t h e i r own  cultural  environment and e x p e r i e n c e , t h e s e e x p l a n a t i o n s o f t e n have e x a c t l y t h e opposite e f f e c t .  Even i f i t c o u l d be assumed t h a t t h e r e a d e r was  expected  t o p l a c e unseen "square b r a c k e t s " around such passages and r e g a r d them as a u t h o r i a l g l o s s e s t o be r e a d i n a d i f f e r e n t tone o f v o i c e , t h e  running  commentary o n l y emphasizes t h e presence o f t h e s e c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s , f o r t h e t r a n s l a t o r ' s i n t r u s i o n b r i n g s t h e f l o w o f t h e speech o r o f t h e n a r r a t i v e t o an a b r u p t h a l t , and  i t o n l y resumes a f t e r t h e s c h o l a r l y  t r a n s l a t o r has, f i r s t , p o i n t e d out t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a p o s s i b l e o b s t a c l e i n  100  the  r e a d e r ' s p r o g r e s s and, second, p e d a n t i c a l l y and o s t e n t a t i o u s l y  e x p l a i n e d i t away i n s t e a d o f r e l y i n g on t h e r e a d e r t o form some image o f h i s own,  however i n c o m p l e t e i t may be.  Too much a t t e n t i o n t o d e t a i l s i n  such cases s p o i l s t h e p o s s i b l y l e s s a c c u r a t e , but c e r t a i n l y more u n i f i e d and more s p o n t a n e o u s l y c o n c e i v e d i m p r e s s i o n i n t h e r e a d e r ' s mind. W h i l e such e x p l a n a t o r y n o t e s a r e woven i n t o t h e t e x t c h i e f l y i n o r d e r t o a s s i s t t h e n o n - s c h o l a r l y r e a d e r , t h e t r a n s l a t o r ' s remarks on T r o j a n , C a r t h a g i n i a n and Ausonian r i t e s appear t o s e r v e a d i f f e r e n t purpose. the  t r a n s l a t o r seems t o be a t l e a s t as much t h e t h e o l o g i a n , who  Here  i s anxious  t o p r e s e r v e h i s c o n g r e g a t i o n o f r e a d e r s from h e r e t i c a l usages, as he i s the  humanist, whose main o b j e c t i v e i s t o r e n d e r an a c c u r a t e t r a n s l a t i o n o f  a work from c l a s s i c a l  antiquity.  I t has been argued t h a t  Douglas  " d i m i n i s h e s " t h e s a c r e d r i t e s which V i r g i l d e p i c t s i n t h e w o r k .  1 4  At  t i m e s he does, as when he downplays t h e r e l i g i o u s s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e 'pueri  . . . innuptaeque p u e l l a e ' who  " s a c r a canunt' { I I , Z38-39) as t h e y  s u r r o u n d t h e T r o j a n h o r s e , which has been newly brought i n t o t h e c i t y . Douglas's image o f " c h i l d e r and madis ^yng / Syngand k a r r e l l i s and  dansand  i n a r y n g ' ( I I , i v , 69-70) removes t h e " p o s s i b l e V e s t a l v i r g i n i t y " o f t h e g i r l s and "compromises somewhat t h e e f f e c t o f V i r g i l ' s a w e - i n s p i r i n g mysteries,"  1 5  but t h e s e l i n e s a r e preceded by a passage i n which Douglas's  expansion o f V i r g i l ' s the  l i n e s , now e x p r e s s e d i n C h r i s t i a n t e r m i n o l o g y , g i v e s  a c t i v i t i e s an i n c r e a s e d h o l i n e s s .  V i r g i l ' s g e n e r a l 'ducendum ad sedes  simulacrum orandaque d i v a e / numina conclamant' ( I I , 232-33) g a i n s f u r t h e r r e l i g i o u s s e r i o u s n e s s i n Douglas's t r a n s l a t i o n because  Douglas  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y s p e c i f i e s t h e i n d i v i d u a l a c t i o n s , and t h u s the  duration, of the s u p p l i c a t i o n :  101  indicates  Onto t h e h a l l o w i t s t e d bryng i n , ' t h a i c r y , "The g r e t f y g u r j And l a t wss s a c r y f y The h a i y goddes, and magnyfy h y r mycht With o r y s o n y s and o f f e r a n d i s day and n y c h t ! ' ( I I , i v , 57-60)  However, i n s t e a d o f s u b s t i t u t i n g C h r i s t i a n terms o f d i v i n e s e r v i c e as he does h e r e , Douglas more commonly t e n d s t o t a k e a s l i g h t l y p a t r o n i z i n g a t t i t u d e towards t h e s a c r e d r i t e s o f t h e T r o j a n s and o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s .  When V i r g i l  d e s c r i b e s c h a r a c t e r s i n v o l v e d i n r e l i g i o u s r i t u a l s , Douglas a l m o s t adds a comment l i k e "on t h a r g y s s ' ( I V , v i i i , gyss' (IV, v i , 43).  always  107) o r even "on t h a r payane  The e f f e c t o f t h e s e i n t r u s i o n s by t h e n a r r a t o r i s  a g a i n a d i s t a n c i n g o f t h e n a r r a t i v e from t h e a u d i e n c e and an a b r u p t i n t e r r u p t i o n o f t h e . n a r r a t i v e f l o w , f o r t h e r e a d e r i s each t i m e  reminded  t h a t t h e c h a r a c t e r s b e l o n g t o a d i f f e r e n t t i m e and c u l t u r e , and t o an inferior culture at that, for in a l l remarks sound c o n d e s c e n d i n g , who  t h e i r purported o b j e c t i v i t y these  i m p l y i n g a c e r t a i n degree o f p i t y f o r t h o s e  have not y e t seen t h e l i g h t o f C h r i s t i a n i t y but a r e s t i l l  caught i n  t h e i r pagan e r r o r w i t h o u t h a v i n g reached t h e h i g h degree o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s which Douglas i n P r o l o g u e VI a t t r i b u t e s t o V i r g i l  himself.  The  narrator,  however, outdoes h i m s e l f when he has Dido invoke P r o s e r p i n a 'by our g e n t i l e lawys' ( I V , x i , 50) j u s t b e f o r e u t t e r i n g her c u r s e .  Dido i s here  a n a c h r o n i s t i c a l l y c o g n i z a n t o f her own p r e - C h r i s t i a n paganism. o t h e r hand. Dido's  On  the  l i b a t i o n p r e c e d i n g t h e f i r s t banquet f o r Aeneas i s  c o m p l e t e l y C h r i s t i a n i z e d i n Douglas's t r a n s l a t i o n o f ' i n mensam l i b a v i t honorem' ( I , 736) as 'the cowpe w i t h t h e r i c h wyne / Apon t h e b u r d blyssit'  scho  ( I , x i , 85-6).  Such anachronisms  g e n e r a l l y do not cause Douglas any c o n c e r n .  102  On t h e  c o n t r a r y , Douglas t e n d s t o c o n j e c t u r e t h e purposes o f u n f a m i l i a r and c u l t u r a l  customs  symbols and u s u a l l y t r i e s t o f i n d c u l t u r a l e q u i v a l e n t s f o r  Roman usages which would have no i m m e d i a t e l y o b v i o u s meaning f o r a medieval S c o t t i s h a u d i e n c e .  His p r a c t i c e of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l  late-  translation,  i n c l u d i n g a d d i t i o n s and e x p l a n a t o r y s u b s t i t u t i o n s , a c c o r d s e x a c t l y w i t h h i s t h e o r e t i c a l statements i n Prologue I, e s p e c i a l l y t h a t  W e i l l a t a b l e n k s l e p o e t r y nocht t a y n i s . And 3 i t f o r s u y t h I s e t my b i s s y pane As t h a t I c o u t h t o mak i t b r a i d and p l a n e . (I, Prol.,  108-10)  For t h e "thaiami taedaeque' ( t h e " b r i d a l bed and b r i d a l t o r c h e s ' ; IV, 18) o f which Dido used t o t h i n k h e r s e l f weary, Douglas s u b s t i t u t e s "Genyvs chalmyr' (IV, i ,  38) and l a t e r f o r ' t a e d a s ' a l o n e ( I V , 339) "the band o f  m a r i a g e ' ( I V , v i , 117); Mercury i s b i d d e n t o descend not " c l a r o . . . Olympo' ( I V , 268) but s i m p l y 'throw t h e s k y i s ' ( I V , v, 173); i n s t e a d o f a d o r n i n g her f i r s t husband's temple w i t h " v e l l e r i b u s n i v e i s ' ("snowy f l e e c e s ' ; IV, 4 5 9 ) , Dido i n t h e Eneados d r e s s e s i t i n 'snaw w h i t e b e n d i s , c a r p e t t i s and ensens' ( I V , v i i i ,  106); p r a y i n g i n f r o n t o f t h e a l t a r by  t h e p y r e , Dido s t a n d s not "unum e x u t a pedem v i n e l i s '  ( I V , 518), but w i t h  " H i r t a f u t e b a y r ' ( I V , i x , 9 1 ) ; and when Anna l a t e r wipes t h e b l o o d from Dido's wound, Douglas i m a g i n a t i v e l y p i c t u r e s t h e s i t u a t i o n and l e t s her use t h e p a r t o f her garment which i s b o t h s o f t e s t and n e a r e s t t o hand as she bends o v e r her s i s t e r , c h a n g i n g V i r g i l ' s g e n e r a l  ' v e s t e ' ( I V , 687) t o  s p e c i f i c a l l y " h i r wympi1' ( I V , x i i , 8 8 ) , t h e r e b y g i v i n g t h e a c t i o n even greater tenderness. When Douglas speaks o f Anna's wimple and l e t s Dido admit t h a t she has changed her mind about G e n i u s ' chamber, what he sees w i t h h i s mind's eye 103  a r e not a C a r t h a g i n i a n queen and her s i s t e r , but two c o u r t l y l a d i e s o f late-medieval  Scotland, f u l l y conversant  1 i t e r a t u r e such as t h e Roman de  with c o u r t l y vernacular  l a r o s e o r Gower's C o n f e s s i o Amantis .  A g a i n , when Douglas e n v i s i o n s t h e c a p t a i n s i n t h e boat r a c e s t h e y and t h e i r s h i p s a r e somewhat t r a n s f o r m e d ; puppibus a u r o / d u c t o r e s "The  patronys  in t r a n s l a t i n g "ipsique in  longe e f f u l g e n t o s t r o q u e  i n e f t c a s t e l 1 i s , f r e s c h and gay,  purpour schynand b r y c h t ' (V, i i i , c a p t a i n s shed t h e i r  i n Book V,  d e c o r i ' (V, 132-33) as  / Stude, a l i n g o l d  and  5 8 - 9 ) , Douglas not o n l y makes t h e s h i p  i r i d e s c e n t and s t a t u e s q u e  q u a l i t y and b r i n g s them t o  l i f e as r e a l human b e i n g s , but he a l s o p l a c e s them a t t h e s t e r n o f r e a l medieval c o g s , whose r i g g i n g he had a l r e a d y d e s c r i b e d i n t h e storm scene in  I , i i , 53-60 ( I , 8 4 - 7 ) .  S i m i l a r l y , b e f o r e meeting Aeneas o u t s i d e  C a r t h a g e , Venus adopts a much more t h o r o u g h d i s g u i s e i n t h e Eneados t h a n she does i n t h e A e n e i d ;  V i r g i l ' s Venus remains a goddess p r e t e n d i n g t o be  a T y r i a n h u n t r e s s , but Douglas's Venus becomes a T y r i a n c o u n t r y l o o k i n g l i k e a "stowt wench' ( I , v i , 20) whose s i m p l e " k i l t i t t i l h i r b a i r kne' Venus, a l t h o u g h  gathered  girl,  " s k y r f is sensibly  ( I , v i , 27) w h i l e t h e f l o w i n g robes o f  Virgil's  i n a k n o t , p r o c l a i m t h e goddess i n d i s g u i s e  ("nuda genu nodoque s i n u s c o l l e c t a f l u e n t i s '  I , 320).  And when Douglas  comes t o t r a n s l a t e Turnus' s i e g e o f t h e T r o j a n camp d u r i n g Aeneas' absence, he adds enough c o n c r e t e d e t a i l t o V i r g i l ' s d e s c r i p t i o n t o evoke a vivid  image o f a f o r t i f i e d c i t y a s s a u l t e d and defended by medieval  In Douglas's t r a n s l a t i o n t h e T r o j a n camp g a i n s "fowcy d i c h i s ' and  "boss t u r e t t i s '  ( I X , i i , 24)  ( I X , i i , 3 0 ) , and t h e a s s a u l t i n g f o r c e s under Turnus  approach i t " w i t h browdyn b a n e r i s gay' Virgil.  armies.  ( I X , i i , 45) not mentioned by  W h i l e t h e s e added d e t a i l s a r e e s s e n t i a l l y a n a c h r o n i s m s , t h e i r 104  p r e s e n c e i n c r e a s e s t h e v i v i d n e s s and i n t e n s i t y o f Douglas's t r a n s l a t i o n and makes h i s images f a r more dynamic and v i b r a n t t h a n t h e o r i g i n a l In  all  t h e s e c a s e s Douglas a c t u a l l y sees t h e c h a r a c t e r s and  ones.  situations  w i t h h i s mind's eye, and not s u r p r i s i n g l y he p i c t u r e s them i n t h e o n l y manner a v a i l a b l e t o h i s c o n c r e t e e x p e r i e n c e .  In John S p e i r s ' s words, " t h e  c i v i l i z e d Roman w o r l d p r e s e n t s no c h a l l e n g e t o Douglas' medieval C h r i s t i a n w o r l d ; he s i m p l y does not r e c o g n i z e i t as d i f f e r e n t and a l i e n . " still  lacks the h i s t o r i c a l  sense o f t h e p a s t and t h e new  He  1 6  Renaissance  "sense o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l d i s t a n c e and d i f f e r e n c e i n h e r e n t i n c l a s s i c a l texts," still  1 7  w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t he can f r e e l y "modernize" V i r g i l  remaining f a i t h f u l t o the 1etter of the t e x t .  T r o j a n s , C a r t h a g i n i a n s and A u s o n i a n s , whom V i r g i l  while  In t h e p r o c e s s , t h e  had brought f o r w a r d i n t o  i m p e r i a l Rome, now make a second l e a p i n space and t i m e t o adapt t o a late-medieval S c o t t i s h m i l i e u .  Even though t h e y s t i l l  follow  "thar  (payane) g y s s ' , t h e y conform t o what Douglas and h i s a u d i e n c e know from f i r s t - h a n d e x p e r i e n c e o r a t l e a s t from h e a r s a y . J u s t as Douglas sees c h a r a c t e r s and s i t u a t i o n s b e f o r e he t r a n s l a t e s any p a r t i c u l a r passage, so he a l s o h e a r s t h e accompanying  sounds.  In t h i s  r e s p e c t t o o , h i s t r a n s l a t i o n i s f a r more c o n c r e t e and s p e c i f i c t h a n Virgil's original.  The f i r s t  p r o v i d e a t y p i c a l example.  l i n e s o f t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f A e o l u s ' cave  The f o r c e o f t h e winds i s a l r e a d y i n d i c a t e d i n  V i r g i l ' s r e p e a t e d v o i c e d and u n v o i c e d s i b i l a n t s and  labio-dental  f r i cat i v e s , i  hie v a s t o r e x A e o l u s a n t r o l u c t a n t i s v e n t o s tempestatesque sonoras imperio premit (I, 52-4)  105  b u t Douglas i n c r e a s e s t h e n o i s e by r e p l a c i n g V i r g i l ' s r e l a t i v e l y a b s t r a c t and c o l o u r l e s s a d j e c t i v e s and v e r b s w i t h more s p e c i f i c and d e s c r i p t i v e ones, e x p r e s s i n g v a s t f o r c e s b a r e l y h e l d i n check:  quhar E o l u s t h e k i n g In gowsty c a v y s t h e wyndis lowde q u h i s s i l l i n g And b r a i t h l y tempest i s by h i s power r e f r e n y s In b a n d i s h a r d s c h e t i n presoun c o n s t r e n y s . ( I , i i , 5-8)  In t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e subsequent storm a t s e a , i n which a p a r t o f Aeneas' company i s s h i p w r e c k e d , Douglas a g a i n i n c r e a s e s t h e fearsome t u m u l t o f t h e s t o r m , a d d i n g c o n c r e t e , e x p r e s s i v e d e t a i l s as he r e l i e s on V i r g i l ' s t e x t as w e l l as on h i s own  i m a g i n a t i v e f a c u l t y and on  d e s c r i p t i o n s o f tempests i n a l l i t e r a t i v e p o e t r y i n c r e a t i n g t h e image o f a s h i p i n a storm.  Virgil's  lines  i n c u b u e r e man" totumque a s e d i b u s i m i s una Eurusque Notusque r u u n t c r e b e r q u e p r o c e l l i s A f r i c u s e t v a s t o s v o l v u n t ad 1 i t o r a f l u c t u s ; i n s e q u i t u r clamorque v i r u m s t r i d o r q u e rudentum ( I , 84-7) e x p r e s s much l e s s f o r c e , u p r o a r and danger t h a n Douglas's Thai ombeset t h e seys b u s t u u s l y , Q u h i l f r a t h e d e i p t i l e u e r y c o s t f a s t by The huge w a i l i s w e l t r i s apon h i e , Ro11i t a t anys w i t h s t o r m o f wynd i s t h r e , •  •  »  Sone e f t e r t h i s , o f men t h e clamour r a y s s , The t a k i l l i s g r a s l i s , c a b i l l i s can f r e t and f r a y s . ( I , i i , 53-60) By s u b s t i t u t i n g s p e c i f i c , t e c h n i c a l terms C t a k e l l i s ' and ' c a b i l l i s ' ) f o r a g e n e r i c one ('rudentes') and by s p e c i f y i n g t h e e x a c t sound i n d e t a i l 106  " g r a s l i s ' and " f r e t ' ) as w e l l as p i c t u r i n g t h e r e s u l t ( " f r a y s ' ) i n d i c a t e d by t h o s e sounds, Douglas b r i n g s t h e A e n e i d down t o t h e l e v e l o f every-day l i f e , making images,"  i t more human and l e s s h e r o i c by removing V i r g i l ' s  "blurred  which g i v e e p i c grandeur and d i g n i t y t o t h e c h a r a c t e r s and  19  their actions.  L a t e r , Douglas c o n c r e t i z e s V i r g i l ' s g e n e r a l i n d i c a t i o n s o f  Aeneas' commands on how t o a c t d u r i n g h i s absence.  W h i l e Aeneas m e r e l y  warns t h e T r o j a n s " s i qua i n t e r e a f o r t u n a f u i s s e t , / neu s t r u e r e auderent aciem neu c r e d e r e campo' ( I X , 4 1 - 2 ) , i n Douglas's t r a n s l a t i o n t h e s e a b s t r a c t i n s t r u c t i o n s become c o n c r e t e and s p e c i f i c ; here Eneas G a i f thame command, g i f t h a i a s s a l ^ e i t wer Or hys r e t u r n y n g , be h a r d f o r t o u n o f w e i r , That t h a i ne s u l d i n b a t a l e thame a r r a y , Nor i n t h e p l a n e t h a r ennemys a s s a y . (IX, i i , Douglas's p a r t i c u l a r i z a t i o n  17-20)  i s , o f c o u r s e , l o g i c a l l y c o r r e c t , but t h e r e  s h o u l d be no need f o r Aeneas t o g i v e h i s T r o j a n s such s p e c i f i c commands: t h e l a r g e r - t h a n - l i f e heroes i n h i s f o r c e s know w i t h o u t b e i n g t o l d , but Douglas reduces them t o a company o f p r e s s e d men who do not know what t o do u n l e s s t h e y have been g i v e n p r e c i s e i n s t r u c t i o n s . Camilla.  The same w i t h  W h i l e V i r g i l t e l l s t h e r e a d e r t h a t C a m i l l a ' s bow  "sonat' a g a i n s t  her "arma Dianae' ( X I , 6 5 2 ) , Douglas r e a l i s t i c a l l y and u n p r e t e n t i o u s l y translates, Apon h i r s c h u l d e r t h e g i l t y n bow T u r c a s , With Dyanys arowys c l a t t e r a n d i n hyr c a y s s , (XI, x i i i ,  11-12)  g i v i n g her contemporary weapons, f i n d i n g a reason f o r t h e n o i s e , and s p e c i f y i n g t h e e x a c t sound, t h u s c r e a t i n g a much f u l l e r , c l e a r e r and more  107  detailed the  image which any r e a d e r can i m m e d i a t e l y r e c o n s t r u c t , b u t g i v i n g up  d e l i c a t e s u b t l e t y w i t h which V i r g i l b u i l d s C a m i l l a ' s s t a t u r e — D i a n a ' s  weapons sound l i k e k i t c h e n k n i v e s . On t h e o t h e r hand, Douglas's b a t t l e d e s c r i p t i o n s a r e on t h e verge o f ga i n i ng add i t i onaI f o r c e and v i gour from t h e i n f I u e n c e o f a l i i t e r a t i ve h e r o i c p o e t r y , which m o d i f i e s h i s word c h o i c e and h i s rhythms.  In t h i s  r e s p e c t Douglas's s i g h  Quha i s a t t a c h i t o n t i l l a s t a i k , we s e , May go na f e r t h i r b o t w r e i l about t h a t t r e ( I , P r o l . , 297-98) r i n g s more t r u e t h a n i n any o t h e r .  I f Douglas had t r a n s l a t e d t h e b a t t l e  scenes passage by passage r a t h e r t h a n " a l maste word by word' ( D i r e c t i o n , 46),  the a l l i t e r a t i v e  pentameter  i d i o m might have a s s e r t e d i t s e l f even i n t h e  l i n e s and i n f u s e d t h e n a r r a t i v e w i t h an energy which might have  made up f o r t h e l o s s o f V i r g i l ' s smooth s u p p l e n e s s .  But h a v i n g t o conform  as c l o s e l y as p o s s i b l e t o V i r g i l ' s s t r u c t u r e and p h r a s i n g , Douglas cannot f u l l y exploit t h i s latent resource.  V i r g i l ' s epic similes, especially,  l e a v e t h e i m p r e s s i o n o f b e i n g w h o l l y i n o r g a n i c p a r t s when t h e y re-appear i n Douglas's t r a n s l a t i o n , f o r i n t r a n s l a t i o n t h e y break t h e a r c o f t h e n a r r a t i v e and hamper i t s f l i g h t , becoming u n d e s i r a b l e elements which i n t e r r u p t r a t h e r t h a n e x t e n d t h e p a r t i c u l a r image because t h e y a r e a l i e n t o t h e i r new, a l m o s t a l l i t e r a t i v e s u r r o u n d i n g s .  In t h e scenes d e s c r i b i n g  storms a t s e a , however, Douglas uses a l l i t e r a t i o n f r e e l y and e x p l o i t s i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p o t e n t i a l f o r onomatopoeia.  Onomatopoeic a l l i t e r a t i o n ,  t o g e t h e r w i t h h i s h a b i t o f s p e c i f y i n g and c o n c r e t i z i n g , makes Douglas's sea  f a r more r e a l t h a n V i r g i l ' s .  "Aeneas's boat becomes a ' b a l l i n g a r e ' 108  ( o r i g i n a l l y a w h a l i n g s h i p ) and t h e booms, masts, and r i g g i n g a r e r e a r r a n g e d t o make sense, r a t h e r t h a n l e f t i n d i s a r r a y i n o r d e r t o t e r r i f y . B u t  i n consequence, t h e p e r s p e c t i v e changes.  Virgil's  tempest i s seen from t h e p o i n t o f view o f one o f t h e h o r r i f i e d m a r i n e r s , who  hears t h e sound o f t h e b r e a k i n g o a r s and has j u s t enough t i m e t o t a k e  i n t h e g e n e r a l view o f t h e d i s a s t e r b e f o r e he i s e n g u l f e d by t h e water:  stridens Aquilone p r o c e l l a velum a d v e r s a f e r i t , f l u c t u s q u e ad s i d e r a t o l 1 i t ; f r a n g u n t u r r e m i ; turn p r o r a a v e r t i t e t u n d i s d a t l a t u s ; i n s e q u i t u r cumulo p r a e r u p t u s aquae mons. h i summo i n f l u c t u pendent; h i s unda d e h i s c e n s terram inter f l u c t u s a p e r i t ; f u r i t aestus harenis. ( I . 10Z-7) Douglas's s t o r m , i n c o n t r a s t , i s n a r r a t e d by an o b j e c t i v e , d i s i n t e r e s t e d o u t s i d e r who  has t i m e t o observe and r e c o r d e v e r y i n d i v i d u a l s t a g e o f t h i s  f a s c i n a t i n g s h i p w r e c k and who  e n j o y s making t h e most o f i t s d e s c r i p t i o n :  A b l a s t r a n d bub out from t h e n o r t h brayng Gan our t h e f o r s c h i p i n t h e b a k s a i l l dyng, And t o t h e s t e r n y s vp t h e f l u d e gan c a s t . The a r i s, hech i s and t h e t a k i 1 1 i s b r a s t , The s c h i p p i s s t e v i n f r a w a r t hyr went gan w r y t h , And t u r n y t h i r b r a i d syde t o t h e w a l l i s swyth. H e i c h as a h i l l t h e iaw o f w a t i r brak And i n ane hepe cam on thame w i t h a swak. Sum h e s i t hoverand on t h e w a l l i s h y c h t , And sum t h e swowchand sey so law g a r t l y c h t Thame semyt t h e e r d oppynnyt amyd t h e f l u d e — The s t o u r vp b u l l y r r i t sand as i t war wode. ( I , i i i , 15-26) Douglas has t i d i e d up t h e wreckage even w h i l e d e s c r i b i n g t h e d i s a s t e r ;  but  t h e r e s u l t o f h i s v i s u a l and a c o u s t i c p r e c i s i o n i s t h a t t h e i m p r e s s i o n c r e a t e d i n t h i s scene  i s r a d i c a l l y changed.  Douglas would have j u s t i f i e d a l l 109  h i s v a r i o u s ways o f s u b t l y  changing  t h e t e x t u r e o f V i r g i l ' s work by r e f e r e n c e t o h i s d e s i r e ' t o mak and p l a n e '  ( I , P r o l . , 110), f o r "Sum  tyme t h e t e x t rnon haue ane  e x p o s i t i o u n ' ( I , P r o l . , 347); and he would have p o i n t e d out t h a t i s a f t e r a l l a "bad,  harsk spech and  g r o s s ' ( I , P r o l . , 21 & 43) and p o l i s h e d L a t i n .  l e w i t barbour t o n g ' and  "Scottis'  "rural 1 wlgar  incapable of the s u b t l e t i e s of V i r g i l ' s  elegant  Indeed, g i v e n t h e s o v e r e i g n ease w i t h which Douglas  makes h i s changes, he p r o b a b l y would not even have r e g a r d e d as such.  i t braid  However, Douglas i s not t h e r e f o r e i n c a p a b l e o f  many o f them  literal  t r a n s l a t i o n ; on t h e c o n t r a r y , he o f t e n , though o n l y b r i e f l y , i m i t a t e s V i r g i l ' s sentence s t r u c t u r e and,  i f p o s s i b l e , even h i s word o r d e r .  But  r a r e l y i s Douglas's v e r s i o n as c l o s e t o V i r g i l ' s o r i g i n a l as i n t h e t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h e scene w i t h which t h e e p i c c l o s e s .  Aeneas has  just  recogn i zed Pa 11as' ba1dr i c on Turnus' shou1der:  "tune h i n c s p o i l i s i n d u t e meorum e r i p i a r e mihi? P a l l a s t e hoc v o l n e r e , P a l l a s immolat e t poenam s c e l e r a t o ex sanguine s u m i t , " hoc d i c e n s f e r r u m a d v e r s o sub p e c t o r e c o n d i t f e r v i d u s . a s t i l l i s o l v u n t u r f r i g o r e membra v i t a q u e cum gemitu f u g i t i n d i g n a t a sub umbras. ( X I I , 947-52) " S a i l t h o u eschape me o f t h i s s t e d away, C l e d w i t h t h e s p u l j e o f my f r e n d i s d e i r ? P a l l a s , P a l l a s , w i t h t h i s wond r y c h t h e i r Of t h e ane o f f e r a n d t o t h e goddys m a k k i s , And o f t h y w i kk i t b1ude punyt i oun t a k k i s . " And sayand t h u s , f u l l f e r s s , w i t h a l l hys mayn. Law i n hys b r e i s t o r c o s t , l a y hym f o r g a y n , Hys swerd hess hyd f u l l h a i t ; and t h a r w i t h a l l The c a l d o f d e t h d i s s o l u y t hys membris a l l . The s p r e i t o f l y f e f l e d murnand w i t h a grone And w i t h d i s d e y n vnder dyrk e r t h i s goyn. ( X I I , x i v , 144-54) Even though Douglas i s here o b v i o u s l y t r y i n g t o f o l l o w t h e t e x t as 110  closely  as p o s s i b l e , hys  h i s h a b i t s of double t r a n s l a t i o n  mayn' f o r ' f e r v i d u s ' ;  "murnand' and translation  " i n hys  as  b r e i s t or c o s t '  ' w i t h a grone' f o r "cum  of  umbras'; 'the  Nonetheless, the  f e r s s ' and  f o r "sub  gemitu') and  ("vnder d y r k e r t h ' f o r 'sub  ' v i t a ' ) a s s e r t themselves.  ('full  "with a l l  pectore';  explanatory s p r e i t of  lyfe'  for  passage i s e s s e n t i a l l y  left  i t i s — T u r n u s ' d e a t h scene i s not t o u c h e d up w i t h s p e c i f i c , c o n c r e t e  d e t a i l s : D o u g l a s , f o r once, r e f r a i n s . a n y t h i n g , he r e t a i n s t h e Virgil's  by r e f r a i n i n g from a d d i n g  starkness of t h i s slaying.  However, w h i l e  t e x t ends j u s t a t t h e p o i n t where t h e T r o j a n s ' s t r u g g l e t o  t h e i r d e s t i n y has Book, w i t h t h e  reached c o m p l e t i o n , Douglas adds Maphaeus'  r e s u l t t h a t the  wedding and Virgil's a f t e r the  in the f i n a l  end.  J u s t as he  g l o s s e s i n t o h i s t e x t , so he there.'"  2 1  Despite his f i d e l i t y  l i n e s o f Book X I I , Douglas f o r s a k e s interpolates  oppressive  f e s t i v e atmosphere o f Aeneas'  eventually to his apotheosis.  text  fulfil  thirteenth  r e a d e r i s t a k e n from t h e f i n a l ,  scene o f u n r e l i e v e d s l a u g h t e r i n t o t h e  i t was  And  translations  of the  to Virgil  commentators'  i n c o r p o r a t e s Maphaeus' s u p p l e m e n t — " ' b e c a u s e  Notes C S . L e w i s , Engl i s h L i t e r a t u r e i n t h e S i x t e e n t h C e n t u r y , p.85, comments t h a t "one o f t h e t h i n g s t h a t t e s t a t r a n s l a t o r ' s q u a l i t y i s t h a t mass o f s m a l l a d d i t i o n s which metre i n e v i t a b l y demands. Priscilla Bawcutt, "Douglas and S u r r e y , " pp.52-67, shows t h a t S u r r e y i n h i s o n l y s l i g h t l y l a t e r t r a n s l a t i o n o f A e n e i d II and IV manages t o r e t a i n V i r g i l ' s t a u t n e s s and economy by a v o i d i n g t h e v a r i o u s l i n e - f i l l i n g d e v i c e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e d o u b l e t s , which Douglas uses f r e e l y . S u r r e y ' s use o f b l a n k v e r s e , however, f r e e s him from t h e need t o f i n d rhyme w o r d s — a need which f o r Douglas o c c a s i o n a l l y poses g r e a t problems, as when he has Iuno c r y ""Ho!"" ( I l l , v i , 52) because he has t o f i n d a word which rhymes w i t h Muno' i n the preceding l i n e ; t h i s p a r t i c u l a r instance, together w i t h s e v e r a l o t h e r s , i s d i s c u s s e d by Hans Kasmann, "Gavin Douglas' A e n e i s U b e r s e t z u n g , " p.175. 2 Hans Kasmann l i s t s f u r t h e r examples o f such p a i r s o f synonyms i n h i s a r t i c l e "Gavin Douglas' A e n e i s - U b e r s e t z u n g , " pp.175-6. Priscilla Bawcutt, G a v i n Douglas, p.124, p o i n t s out t h a t synonym p a i r s l i n k e d w i t h o r ' o f t e n d e r i v e from d i s c r e p a n c i e s among t h e commentators o r even from i n d e c i s i o n s i n a s i n g l e commentary, where a l t e r n a t i v e g l o s s e s a r e g i v e n i n an "aut . . . a u t ' c o n s t r u c t i o n . x  The t h e n new s c h o l a r l y h a b i t o f a n n o t a t i n g a t e x t i s t a k e n t o an a b s u r d extreme i n t h e note p u r p o r t i n g t o e l u c i d a t e "the iugement o f P a r y s ' ( I , i , 4 5 ) : "The Iugement o f P a r i s i s common t o a l l knawis t h e sege o f Troy." 3  4 Bawcutt, "Douglas and S u r r e y , " p.64. 5 Bawcutt, G a v i n Douglas, pp.158, 162. 6  S p e a r i n g , Medieval t o R e n a i s s a n c e , p.61.  For a d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n o f Douglas's Dutch and F l e m i s h b o r r o w i n g s see D a v i d M u r i s o n , "The Dutch Element i n t h e V o c a b u l a r y o f S c o t s , " i n : E d i n b u r g h S t u d i e s i n E n g l i s h and S c o t s , eds. A . J . A i t k e n , Angus M c i n t o s h , and Hermann P a l s s o n (London: Longman, 1971), pp.159-76. 7  8 Other i n s t a n c e s o c c u r a t I I I , v i , 192-93 ( I I I , 454) and IV, v i , 38 (IV, 299). g T i l l y a r d . The E n g l i s h E p i c , pp.340-41, p r o v i d e s a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f t h e s m a l l a d d i t i o n s and changes w i t h which Douglas i n c r e a s e s t h e immediacy o f t h e a c t i o n i n V I I I , i x , 113-24 ( t h e d e p a r t u r e o f t h e A r c a d i a n c a v a l r y from Evander's s e t t l e m e n t ; V I I I , 592-96). ^ Douglas a l s o l e t s c h a r a c t e r s answer t h e i r own r h e t o r i c a l q u e s t i o n s , e.g. IV, v i i , 18. In t h e quoted c a s e , however, Douglas's e d i t i o n o f V i r g i l may w e l l have been d i f f e r e n t l y p u n c t u a t e d ; V i r g i l ' s s e n t e n c e can be t a k e n as b o t h q u e s t i o n o r e x c l a m a t i o n . P r i s c i l l a J .  112  Bawcutt d i s c u s s e s t e x t u a l problems i n h e r a r t i c l e "Gavin Douglas and t h e T e x t o f V i r g i l , " E d i n b u r g h B i b 1 i o g r a p h i c a 1 S o c i e t y T r a n s a c t i o n s , v o l . IV (1955-71), 211-31. Bawcutt c o n c l u d e s t h a t many o f Douglas's seeming i n a c c u r a c i e s and m i s - t r a n s l a t i o n s a r e a c t u a l l y f a i t h f u l and a c c u r a t e t r a n s l a t i o n s o f e r r o r s i n A s c e n s i u s ' 1501 e d i t i o n o f V i r g i l , which Douglas must have used a s h i s w o r k i n g t e x t . John S p e i r s , "The S c o t s 'Aeneid' o f G a v i n Douglas," i n h i s The S c o t s L i t e r a r y T r a d i t i o n ; An E s s a y i n C r i t i c i s m , 2nd edn. (London: Faber & F a b e r , 1962), p.177. 1 1  12 Even though Douglas's Aeneas does n o t make a vow o f e t e r n a l f a i t h f u l n e s s t o D i d o , t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h i s t r a d i t i o n seems t o have been s t r o n g enough t o cause Douglas t o bow t o c o n v e n t i o n and, i n a h a I f - l i n e which has no e q u i v a l e n t i n t h e A e n e i d , l e t Dido a c c u s e Aeneas o f h a v i n g broken h i s o a t h ( I V , v i i , 4 2 ) . 13 John S p e i r s , "The S c o t s ' A e n e i d ' , " p. 178, argues t h a t Douglas "views [ t h e Dido and Aeneas s t o r y ] a s a medieval C h r i s t i a n m o r a l i s t , f o r whom human l o v e must always be s u b o r d i n a t e t o o b e d i e n c e t o t h e d i v i n e will. T h i s may not be e x a c t l y what V i r g i l meant by p i e t a s , [. . .] b u t i t i s t h e medieval C h r i s t i a n e q u i v a l e n t o r development from i t . " 14 A l a n Hager, " B r i t i s h V i r g i l : Four R e n a i s s a n c e D i s g u i s e s o f t h e Laocoon Passage o f Book 2 o f t h e Aene i d , " S t u d i e s i n E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e , 22 (19BZ), 27. 15 ibid. 16 17  S p e i r s , "The S c o t s 'Aeneid'," p.169. S p e a r i n g , Medieval t o R e n a i s s a n c e , p.13.  18  Kasmann, "Gavin Douglas' A e n e i s - U b e r s e t z u n g , " p.170, however, argues t h a t "Belege f u r d i e M e d i a e v a l i s i e r u n g d e r A e n e i s h a l t e n e i n e r genaueren Uberprufung n i c h t s t a n d , " and m a i n t a i n s t h a t t h e t e x t i t s e l f remains u n a f f e c t e d by t h e medieval c o n c e p t s which Douglas i n t r o d u c e s i n the P r o l o g u e s and t h a t t r a n s l a t i o n s such a s 'nun' f o r " s a c e r d o s ' a r e caused by gaps i n t h e ME v o c a b u l a r y r a t h e r t h a n by any " s p e z i f i s c h m i t t e l a l t e r 1 i c h e B l i n d h e i t " on Douglas's p a r t . 19 The e x p r e s s i o n i s t a k e n from W.R. Johnson, Darkness V i s i b l e : A 5tudy o f V e r g i 1 ' s A e n e i d ( B e r k e l e y : U n i v . o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1976), p.75. Johnson, however, uses t h e e x p r e s s i o n p a r t i c u l a r l y t o d i s t i n g u i s h the " d e l i b e r a t e b l u r r i n g " i n V i r g i l ' s e p i c s i m i l e s from t h e " c l a r i t y o f p i c t u r e " i n Homer's ( p . 5 5 ) . 2 0  Hager, " B r i t i s h V i r g i l , " p.24.  21 Bawcutt, "Douglas and S u r r e y , " p.61.  113  Chapter  IV —  The L i n k a g e between t h e P r o l o g u e s and Books  Douglas endeavours  t o be f a i t h f u l  A e n e i d , and he even expounds h i s own  to Virgil  in t r a n s l a t i n g the  c r i t i c a l theory of t r a n s l a t i o n , yet  he does what no modern t r a n s l a t o r would d a r e : he i n t e r s p e r s e s t h e t r a n s l a t i o n o f V i r g i l ' s work w i t h h i s own, Prologues.  original compositions—the  In each o f t h e t h i r t e e n P r o l o g u e s he comments i n one way  or  a n o t h e r on t h e subsequent and sometimes a l s o on t h e p r e c e d i n g Book, but t h e P r o l o g u e s do more t h a n j u s t f u l f i l  the f u n c t i o n of t r a n s l a t o r ' s notes.  Read i n sequence w i t h t h e Books o f t h e A e n e i d r a t h e r t h a n i n i s o l a t i o n as i n d i v i d u a l poems, t h e P r o l o g u e s o f f e r a g u i d e t o t h e A e n e i d , y e t t h e y a l s o s u b s t a n t i a l l y change t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f r e a d i n g i t .  For one t h i n g , t h e  i n t e r p o l a t i o n o f t h e P r o l o g u e s means t h a t t h e c o n t i n u i t y o f t h e e p i c i s s a c r i f i c e d , s i n c e t h e Books a r e s e p a r a t e d from each o t h e r , each now i n t r o d u c e d and commented on by i t s i n d i v i d u a l P r o l o g u e .  being  And s e c o n d l y ,  Douglas's comments i n t h e P r o l o g u e s c o l o u r t h e c o n t e n t s o f t h e Books, draw t h e r e a d e r ' s a t t e n t i o n t o c e r t a i n i s s u e s and r a i s e p e r t i n e n t q u e s t i o n s , w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t t h e Books appear  i n a new  but V i r g i l seen t h r o u g h Douglas's eyes.  l i g h t — n o longer V i r g i l ,  At t h e same t i m e , t h e P r o l o g u e s  p r o v i d e a t h e o r e t i c a l a p p a r a t u s i n which Douglas d i s c u s s e s h i s p r i n c i p l e s and methods, and debates t h e v a l u e o f p o e t r y and j u s t i f i e s t h e r o l e o f t h e literary artist.  The r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f t h e P r o l o g u e s t o t h e i r  Books a r e complex and a t f i r s t r e a d i n g sometimes o b s c u r e , but  respective Douglas  h i m s e l f admonishes h i s r e a d e r s t o " R e i d , r e i d agane, t h i s volume, mair t h a n t w y s s ' ( V I , P r o l . , 12), and c l o s e r s c r u t i n y indeed r e v e a l s a s t o n i s h i n g l y s u b t l e l i n k s between t h e P r o l o g u e s and t h e Books t o which they p e r t a i n . 114  The f i r s t P r o l o g u e f u l f i l s t h e f u n c t i o n o f a g e n e r a l p r e f a c e t o t h e e n t i r e Eneados. Virgil,  I t contains the p r e l i m i n a r y matters o f the p r a i s e of  t h e d e d i c a t i o n o f t h e work, and t h e a u t h o r ' s a p o l o g y f o r e r r o r s  and b l u n d e r s .  I t a l s o s e r v e s as a p l a t f o r m f o r Douglas t o g i v e an  account  of  h i s p r i n c i p l e s and methods and t o r e v i e w t h e work o f h i s p r e d e c e s s o r s  at  translating Virgil.  In a d d i t i o n , Douglas o f f e r s a f i r s t p r e v i e w o f h i s  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e r o l e o f Aeneas as t h e model p r i n c e .  Prologue I thus  c o n s i s t s o f a g e n e r a l i n t r o d u c t i o n , a d d r e s s i n g m a t t e r s which r e l a t e t o t h e work as a whole r a t h e r t h a n s p e c i f i c a l l y t o Book I . The second P r o l o g u e , however, i s a l r e a d y c l e a r l y f o c u s e d on t h e p a r t i c u l a r Book which already evident.  i t p r e c e d e s , and t h e c o l o u r i n g mentioned  above i s  I t i s the s h o r t e s t Prologue i n the e n t i r e s e r i e s ,  c o n s i s t i n g o f o n l y t h r e e s t a n z a s o f r i m e - r o y a l , t h e v e r s e form Chaucer had used f o r h i s Troy s t o r y .  which  In t h e f i r s t s t a n z a Douglas t o y s  w i t h t h e i d e a o f i n v o k i n g Melpomene, t h e dark Muse a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e n a r r a t i o n o f t h e 'dedly t r a g e d y ' ( 1 . 3) o f t h e f a l l immediately r e j e c t s t h i s idea: V i r g i l d i v i n e Grace w i l l  himself w i l l  o f T r o y , but he g i v e guidance,  g i v e Douglas t h e power t o f o l l o w where V i r g i l  t h a t " f e n j e i t termys new'  (1. 6 ) , t h a t i s , the f a n c i f u l  n o n - e x i s t e n t Muse, a r e not n e c e s s a r y .  l e a d s , so  invocation of a  The second s t a n z a h a r k s back t o t h e  f i r s t P r o l o g u e and t h e i s s u e o f f a i t h f u l standards i n the t r a n s l a t i o n o f V i r g i l  and  t r a n s l a t i o n , promising  into English.  new  In t h e t h i r d s t a n z a ,  however, Douglas p o i n t s t h e l e s s o n t o be drawn from t h e e n s u i n g Book. each text.  i n d i v i d u a l p o i n t Douglas t a k e s h i s cue d i r e c t l y from V i r g i l ' s  In  own  When he reminds t h e l a d i e s among t h e a u d i e n c e t h a t i t was a woman's  beauty t h a t u l t i m a t e l y caused t h e f a l l 115  of T r o y — " H a r k i s , ladeis, j o u r  bewte was  t h e cawss' ( 1 . 1 5 ) — h e g i v e s a condensed, though somewhat  s l a n t e d , v e r s i o n o f Aeneas' t h o u g h t s a t s e e i n g Helen h i d i n g a t V e s t a ' s altar  ( I I , 567-82), i l i a s i b i i n f e s t o s e v e r s a ob Pergama Teucros e t Danaum poenam e t d e s e r t i c o n i u g i s i r a s praemetuens, T r o i a e e t p a t r i a e communis E r i n y s , a b d i d e r a t sese atque a r i s i n v i s a sedebat. e x a r s e r e i g n i s animo; . . . " s c i l i c e t haec Spartam i n c o l u m i s p a t r i a s q u e Mycenas a s p i c i e t partoque i b i t r e g i n a triumpho, ( I I , 571-78)  though he  i g n o r e s Venus' e x p l i c i t d e n i a l "non t i b i  i n v i s a Lacaenae / c u l p a t u s v e P a r i s ' ( I I , 601-2). " k n y c h t i s ' and r e m i n d i n g man  Tyndaridis f a c i e s Next a d d r e s s i n g  them t h a t t h e f r e n z y o f war  outside the c i r c l e of r a t i o n a l b e i n g s — " H a r k i s ,  the  i s madness, p l a c i n g a k n y c h t i s , t h e wod  fury  o f Mars' ( 1 . 1 6 ) — D o u g l a s r e c a l l s Aeneas' image o f "Marts] i n d o m i t [ u s ] ' ( I I , 4 4 0 ) , which e n c a p s u l a t e s  t h e h o r r o r o f t h e p a n i c and o f t h e  i m p u l s i v e , u n p r e m e d i t a t e d f i g h t i n g d u r i n g t h e a s s a u l t on Priam's s t r o n g h o l d when a l l r a t i o c i n a t i o n i s suspended and a c t i o n i s g u i d e d r e f l e x rather than  by  reason.  s i c am*mis iuvenum f u r o r a d d i t u s . i n d e , l u p i ceu r a p t o r e s a t r a i n n e b u l a , quos improba v e n t r i s e x e g i t caecos r a b i e s c a t u l i q u e r e l i c t i f a u c i b u s e x s p e c t a n t s i c c i s , per t e l a , per host i s vadimus haud dubiam i n mortem mediaeque tenemus u r b i s i t e r ; nox a t r a cava c i r c u m v o l a t umbra, qu i s c1adem i 1 1 i us noct i s , qu i s f u n e r a fando e x p l i c e t aut p o s s i t l a c r i m i s aequare l a b o r e s ? ( I I , 355-62) Having p o i n t e d h i s f i n g e r a t t h e p a r t i c u l a r v i c e s t o which t h e k n i g h t s t h e l a d i e s a r e supposed t o be prone, Douglas f i n d s p r o o f  116  i n Book II f o r  and  the general  l e s s o n t h a t " A l l e r d l y g l a i d n e s s f y n y s i t h w i t h wo'  which has a p a r t i a l V i r g i l i a n c o u n t e r p a r t  (1. 21),  i n Aeneas' r e f l e c t i o n s  on  Priam's f o r t u n e s :  haec f i n i s P r i a m i f a t o r u m ; h i e e x i t u s i l i u m s o r t e t u l i t , Troiam incensam e t p r o l a p s a videntem Pergama, t o t quondam p o p u l i s t e r r i s q u e superbum regnatorem A s i a e . i a c e t ingens l i t o r e t r u n c u s , avolsumque umeris caput e t s i n e nomine c o r p u s . ( I I , 554-58)  Yet Aeneas' t h o u g h t s have none o f t h e m o r a l i z i n g q u a l i t y o f Douglas's 'proverbe.'  There i s no q u e s t i o n  i n the L a t i n l i n e s of r e s t i t u t i o n , of  " e r d l y g l a i d n e s s ' h a v i n g t o be p a i d f o r w i t h "wo,'  and t h e r e i s no  s u g g e s t i o n t h a t such a r e v e r s a l o f f o r t u n e i s i n e v i t a b l e . i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Priam's (and t h e T r o j a n s ' ) f a t e as a f a l l  The p e s s i m i s t i c stands  in the  F a l l o f P r i n c e s t r a d i t i o n o f t h e s t e r n and p i t i l e s s j u s t i c e o f Lady F o r t u n e and evokes none o f t h e h o r r o r and c o n s t e r n a t i o n a t t h e unfathomable f a t e o f t h e f a t h e r l y k i n g which Aeneas f e e l s a t w a t c h i n g t h e s l a u g h t e r o f Priam.  By p r e s e n t i n g Book II i n t h e c o n t e x t o f such  m o r a l i z i n g p r e c e p t s , Douglas r e i n t e r p r e t s Aeneas' n a r r a t i o n o f t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f Troy as a moral  lesson t o l d f o r the i n s t r u c t i o n of the  r e a d e r r a t h e r t h a n an a c c o u n t o f Aeneas' sorrows and h a r d s h i p s t o l d  i n the  i n t e r e s t o f f e e d i n g Dido's l o v e and sympathy or even f o r t h e sake o f e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e m o r a l l y impeccable c h a r a c t e r o f t h e legendary o f t h e Roman i m p e r i a l Prologue  progenitor  line.  I I I i s concerned w i t h more g e n e r a l m a t t e r s a g a i n ,  touching  t h e work o f t h e t r a n s l a t o r r a t h e r t h a n o f f e r i n g a s p e c i f i c i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r Book. by means o f t h e m a t i c  However, even t h i s P r o l o g u e connexions.  i s l i n k e d w i t h i t s Book  P r e c e d i n g t h e a c c o u n t o f Aeneas' 117  sea-wanderings from Troy t o T h r a c e , D e l o s , C r e t e , E p i r u s , I t a l y ,  Sicily,  and e v e n t u a l l y t o C a r t h a g e , P r o l o g u e I I I opens w i t h an a p o s t r o p h e t o C y n t h i a , t h e goddess o f t h e moon who c o n t r o l s t h e sea's ebb and f l o w and i s ha 11 owed by **Schipmen and p i 1 grymys' c a t e g o r i e s Aeneas can be s a i d t o b e l o n g .  ( 1 . 5 ) , t o b o t h o f which But even though C y n t h i a has  power t o r u l e t h e w a t e r s , she needs t o borrow h e r 1 i g h t from t h e s u n ,  Hornyt Lady, p a i l C y n t h i a , n o t b r y c h t , Q u h i l k from t h i b r o d e r b o r r o w i s a l t h i l y c h t , Rewlare o f passage and ways mony one, M a i s t r e s o f s t r e m y s , and g l a i d a r o f t h e n y c h t , ( I I I , P r o l . , 1-4)  j u s t as t h e Eneados s h i n e s w i t h l i g h t borrowed from V i r g i l ' s work, a l t h o u g h i t i s Douglas who c o n t r o l s t h e f l o w o f t h e " S c o t t i s ' v e r s e . t h e f i r s t P r o l o g u e , Douglas had a l r e a d y e x p r e s s e d t h i s  In  notion—  So lamp o f day t h o u [ V i r g i l ] a r t and schynand son A l l o t h e r i s on f o r s s mon t h a r l y c h t beg o r borrow; •  • •  Thow Phebus l i g h t n a r o f t h e p l a n e t i s a l l — ( I , P r o l . , 60-3) and i t was c l e a r l y i n Douglas's mind here a g a i n , f o r h a v i n g made t h e c o n n e x i o n between t h e i n v o c a t i o n o f C y n t h i a and t h e c o n t e n t o f Book I I I , Douglas i m m e d i a t e l y a l l u d e s t o t h e r e s p e c t i v e p o s i t i o n s o f t h e o r i g i n a l a u t h o r and t h e t r a n s l a t o r v i s - a - v i s t h e c r i t i c s : V i r g i l  i s so f a r above  c r i t i c i s m t h a t he cannot be h u r t by i t , and Douglas, who f o l l o w [ s ] ,  Virgill  i n s e n t e n s ' ( 1 . 3 3 ) , does n o t c a r e about i t .  Disdaining t o enter  an argument w i t h such f a u l t - f i n d e r s , Douglas f r e e l y a d m i t s t h a t he i s u n a c q u a i n t e d w i t h many o f V i r g i l ' s p l a c e names and may t h e r e f o r e have made occasional errors i n t h i s respect.  118  H i s comment t h a t 'Few knawis a l l  thir  c o s t i s sa f a r hens' ( 1 . 34) c o n t a i n s a p a r t i c u l a r l y s l y b a r b : not even t h e wise Anchises  knew " a l l t h i r c o s t i s ' and, one may  c r i t i c s have no more s p e c i f i c knowledge, e i t h e r . d i r e c t l y from Book I I I and u s i n g i t i n h i s own t a b l e s on h i s a t t a c k e r s .  In t h e f i n a l  assume, most o f t h e In b o r r o w i n g  defence,  an  image  Douglas t u r n s t h e  l i n e s o f Prologue  I I I , however,  Douglas b e g i n s t o use a method o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n which he i s g o i n g t o d e v e l o p much f u r t h e r i n subsequent P r o l o g u e s , namely, t h e a l l e g o r i z a t i o n o f m y t h i c a l and m y t h o l o g i c a l b e i n g s , here S c y l l a and C h a r y b d i s , whom he uses as a f i g u r e o f  hell:  From Harpyes f e l l and b l y n d C y c l o p e s h a n d i s Be my l a i d s t a r , v i r g y n e moder but maik; Thocht storm o f t e m p t a t i o u n my s c h i p o f t s c h a i k , F r a s w e l t h o f S y l l a and dyrk C a r i b d i s b a n d i s , I meyn from h e l l , s a l u e a l go not t o w r a i k . ( I l l , Prol.,  41-5)  In p r a y i n g t o t h e V i r g i n f o r guidance t o h e l p him escape t h i s d o u b l e danger, he l i k e n s h i m s e l f t o t h e 'Schipmen and p i l g r y m y s ' as w e l l as t o Aeneas, who  can o n l y a v o i d S c y l l a and C h a r y b d i s  because o f t h e d i v i n e  g u i d a n c e g i v e n by t h e s e e r Helenus ( I I I , 410-32). allegorical  Although the C h r i s t i a n  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s here o n l y h i n t e d a t , i t a l r e a d y s e r v e s t o  g i v e Aeneas' o r d e a l s a t sea a c o l o u r i n g not o n l y o f p e r s o n a l t r i a l s which t e s t and s t r e n g t h e n h i s c h a r a c t e r and h i s l e a d e r s h i p q u a l i t i e s , but a l s o of temptations  i n which h i s moral and r e l i g i o u s s t r e n g t h a r e t e s t e d .  k i n d o f c o l o u r i n g p r o g r e s s i v e l y i n c r e a s e s i n subsequent P r o l o g u e s , Aeneas e v e n t u a l l y becomes a t y p e o f C h r i s t i n P r o l o g u e  This  until  XI.  A s i m i l a r but much more f o r c e f u l r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t a k e s p l a c e i n Prologue  IV.  The  v e r s e form i t s e l f i s a l r e a d y s i g n i f i c a n t .  119  I t i s again  rime r o y a l , and s u r e l y e v e r y c o u r t l y r e a d e r i n Douglas's a u d i e n c e would have remembered t h e f i r s t few words o f Chaucer's T r o i l u s : 'The d o u b l e sorwe' caused by l o v e .  T h i s a l l u s i o n i m p l i c i t i n t h e chosen form  provides  one o f t h e themes f o r t h i s P r o l o g u e , t h a t i s , t h a t l o v e which i s based on e r o t i c passion w i l l  i n e v i t a b l y l e a d t o p a i n , m i s e r y , and l o s s .  exemplifies t h i s precept,  Dido  and Book IV becomes an extended exemp1um t o be  added t o t h e l i s t o f t h e t a l e s o f o t h e r s ,  i n c l u d i n g t h o s e o f Solomon,  Samson, A r i s t o t l e , A l e x a n d e r , H e r c u l e s and many o t h e r s more. v  From t h e i n i t i a l d e n u n c i a t i o n  o f Venus and C u p i d , Douglas t u r n s t o a  d e f i n i t i o n o f p r o p e r l o v e a s warmth, t h a t i s , a l o v e which i s n e i t h e r e x c e s s i v e , and t u r n i n g i n t o h e a t , nor d e f i c i e n t , and becoming In u s i n g t h i s s i m i l e , Douglas foreshadows t h e f i r e  coldness.  imagery r u n n i n g  through  Book IV i n t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f Dido's e m o t i o n a l s t a t e , b u t he extends t h e range o f meaning s u p p o r t e d by t h i s image, d e f i n i n g a s c o l d t h e s t a t e o f not b e i n g touched by any k i n d o f l o v e a t a l l , and d e s c r i b i n g a s warm t h e p e r f e c t s t a t e i n which l o v e i s c h a r i t y r a t h e r t h a n e r o t i c l o v e .  Having  equated p r o p e r l o v e w i t h c a r i t a s , Douglas a l l u d e s i n a s e r i e s o f puns t o t h e supreme i n s t a n c e o f l o v e , d i v i n e Grace, and c o n t r a s t s t h e s i n c e r e p l e a for  Grace and Mercy w i t h t h e w o r l d l y  l o v e r ' s r e q u e s t t o h i s lady t o 'haue  mercy' ( 1 . 145): Faynt l u f e , b u t g r a c e , f o r a l l t h i f e n ^ e i t l a y i s , Thy wantoun w i l l i s a r v e r r a y v a n y t e ; G r a s l e s s t h o u ask i s g r a c e , and t h u s t h o u p r a y i s : "Haue mercy, l a d y , haue r e u t h and sum p i e t e ! " And scho, r e u t h l e s s , agane rewys on t h e : H e i r i s na paramour i s f u n d , b o t a l l h a i t r e n t , Quhar n o w t h i r t o w e i l l nor r e s s o n t a k t h a i t e n t .  120  C a l l y s t h o u t h a t r e u t h t , q u h i l k o f t h a r s e l f ne r a k k i s ? Or i s i t g r a c e t o f a l l f r a grace? nay, nay. Thou s e k i s mercy, and t h a r o f m y s c h e i f makkis (IV, P r o l . , 142-51 This j u x t a p o s i t i o n of r i g h t f u l  l o v e , namely,  love which i s d i r e c t e d  towards God, and e r o t i c p a s s i o n b o r d e r i n g on l u x u r i a r e l i e s f o r i t s impact on t h e s i m i l a r i t y between t h e f o r m u l a s used i n t h e i n v o c a t i o n o f Mary as the  Queen o f Mercy and t h e i r r e - a p p l i c a t i o n i n t h e idiom o f c o u r t l y  love.  The i m p l i c a t i o n o f t h e i r r e c o n c i l a b i l i t y o f t h e s e two c o n c e p t s o f l o v e amounts t o an u n q u a l i f i e d d e n u n c i a t i o n o f f i n e amour, which i s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g e i g h t s t a n z a s e x p r e s s l y l i n k e d w i t h a d u l t e r y and for  even t h e pander and t h e bawd employ  prostitution,  i t s euphemisms:  " D o u c h t i r , f o r t h y l u f e t h i s man hes g r e t d y s e y s s , " Quod t h e bysmeyr w i t h t h e s l e k y t speche, "Rew on hym, i t i s meryt hys pane t o meyss." (IV, P r o l . , 190-92) In  t h i s c o n t e x t Dido's l o v e must appear not o n l y unwise but p o s i t i v e l y  s i n f u l , a l t h o u g h Douglas r e f r a i n s from l a b e l l i n g i t as s u c h .  Yet when he  e x p l i c i t l y r e f e r s t o Dido a t t h e end o f P r o l o g u e IV, Douglas's condemnation o f e a r t h l y l o v e as " f o w l e d e l y t e ' ( 1 . 113) i s s t i l l f r e s h i n the  r e a d e r ' s mind.  S t i l l , Douglas's assessment o f Dido's case seems  c o m p a r a t i v e l y r e s t r a i n e d : "Throw f u l y c h l u s t ' she has brought about her "awyn ondoyng' fall  ( 1 . 2 2 8 ) , and her "honeste b a i t h and gude fame' ( 1 . 255)  v i c t i m t o her " b l y n d l u f f i s i n o r d i n a t e d e s y r e ' ( 1 . 250); she i s  a n o t h e r one i n t h e long l i n e o f p r i n c e s f a l l e n from h i g h t o low degree, and she i s a l s o an exemp1um f o r t h e adage t h a t "Temporal and pane' ( 1 . 221). the  affair.  Very l i t t l e ,  however,  i o y e n d i s wyth  wo  i s s a i d about Aeneas' p a r t i n  By making Dido a l o n e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r her own t r a g e d y , Douglas 121  removes t h e burden from Aeneas' s h o u l d e r s which medieval heaped on him.  t r a d i t i o n had  He i s no l o n g e r t h e p e r j u r e d seducer b u t t h e i n n o c e n t  means by which Dido works her own d o w n f a l l .  Dido t h u s a p p e a r s t o deserve  her f a t e , w h i l e Aeneas, more by o m i s s i o n t h a n by e x p l i c i t comment, i s p o r t r a y e d as b l a m e l e s s  i n her death and unblemished  by i t .  Douglas has  t h u s p r e p a r e d t h e ground f o r a new and v e r y d i f f e r e n t r e a d i n g o f Book IV. P r o l o g u e V, composed f o r t h e most p a r t i n t h e same s t a n z a form as Prologue  I I I , i s a g a i n c o m p a r a t i v e l y l o o s e l y l i n k e d t o i t s Book.  f i r s t three stanzas catalogue a l l  The  manner o f people r e s p o n d i n g t o Nature's  new growth i n s p r i n g by d o i n g what g i v e s each t h e most p l e a s u r e .  These  l i n e s c a p t u r e t h e v a r i e t y o f p o s s i b l e responses and t h e j o y and new hope i n h e r e n t i n t h e new b e g i n n i n g , which Douglas sums up i n t h e adage t h a t "'A b l i t h s p r e i t makis greyn and f l o r y s t age"' ( 1 . 2 1 ) . company i n a s i m i l a r mood.  The i n i t i a l  Book V f i n d s Aeneas'  t w o - t h i r d s o f t h e Book p i c t u r e t h e  T r o j a n s engaged i n a v a r i e t y o f h e r o i c a t h l e t i c p u r s u i t s i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h e f u n e r a l games f o r A n c h i s e s w i t h which t h e y hope t o mark t h e end o f t h e i r seven y e a r s ' wandering b e f o r e s e t t i n g o u t on t h e l a s t l e g o f t h e i r j o u r n e y t o I t a l y , t h e i r promised b u t as y e t e l u s i v e l a n d o f d e s t i n y .  When  t h e y l e a v e A c e s t e s ' c o u n t r y a t t h e end o f Book V, t h e y a r e ready t o make a new b e g i n n i n g , h a v i n g j u s t r e f r e s h e d themselves  and proven t h e i r m e t t l e .  Even t h e subsequent c a l a m i t y i n f l i c t e d by Juno, t h e p a r t i a l b u r n i n g o f t h e f l e e t , o n l y s e r v e s t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e company f u r t h e r , i n t h a t o n l y t h o s e w i t h t h e s t r o n g e s t commitment choose and a r e chosen t o c o n t i n u e t h e voyage and  l a y t h e f o u n d a t i o n s f o r t h e new Troy.  On t h e eve o f t h e i r e n t r y i n t o  I t a l y , a l l omens seem h o p e f u l f o r t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e i r m i s s i o n and f o r t h e r e b u r g e o n i n g o f T r o j a n power i n a new l a n d .  122  The s p r i n g scene b r i e f l y  e n c a p s u l a t e d i n Douglas's v e r y f i r s t  l i n e i s t h u s an a p t metaphor  i n d i c a t i n g t h e h o p e f u l and j o y o u s mood i n which t h e T r o j a n s s e t o u t f o r Italy. I f Douglas t h e poet has so f a r c e l e b r a t e d t h e e n d l e s s v a r i e t y o f human responses t o new b e g i n n i n g s and t h e " P l e s a n c e and i o y ' ( 1 . 19) t o be found i n them, i n t h e second t h r e e s t a n z a s o f P r o l o g u e V Douglas t h e t r a n s l a t o r f i n d s t h a t t h e v a r i e t y and f l e x i b i l i t y o f V i r g i l ' s s t y l e a r e a l m o s t t o o much o f a good t h i n g f o r h i m s e l f .  Y e t w h i l e "The c l e r k r e i o s y s  hys b u k i s o u r t o s e y n ' ( I . 5 ) , Douglas t h e c r i t i c a l  t r a n s l a t o r and s c h o l a r  a l w a y s e n j o y s a l i t t l e f l y t i n g , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h C a x t o n , whose p r o s e i n Book V and e l s e w h e r e he f i n d s "mank and m u t u l a t e ' ( 1 . 5 1 ) , w h i l e h i s own propyne com from t h e p r e s s f u t e h a i t , O n f o r l a t i t , n o t iawyn f r a t u n t o t u n , In f r e s c h sapour new from t h e b e r r y r u n . (V, P r o l . , 52-4) Douglas here uses a f u r t h e r image o f f r e s h n e s s and r e b i r t h , t h i s t i m e s h i f t i n g from t h e r e g e n e r a t i o n o f Nature and from t h e renewal o f Troy's dominion t o h i s own new approach t o t r a n s l a t i o n .  In c o n t r a s t t o h i s  p r e d e c e s s o r s , he b r e a k s w i t h t h e t r a d i t i o n o f r e c e n s i o n and goes back d i r e c t l y t o the original translation.  s o u r c e , t h u s making a new b e g i n n i n g i n t h e a r t o f  Douglas's m o t i o n i s n o t u n l i k e t h a t o f t h e T r o j a n s , who a r e  a l s o s e e k i n g o u t t h e i r f o r e f a t h e r s ' o r i g i n a l homeland i n H e s p e r i a i n o r d e r to  found t h e new T r o y , h a v i n g d i s c o v e r e d i n t h e meantime t h a t none o f t h e  i n t e r m e d i a t e s t a t i o n s , such a s C r e t e i n p a r t i c u l a r , w i l l b a s i s f o r t h e r e a l m y e t t o be r e b o r n .  s u f f i c e as a  J u s t a s Book V ends w i t h Venus'  appeal t o Neptune t o p r o s p e r Aeneas' e n t e r p r i s e , so Douglas c o n c l u d e s  123  P r o l o g u e V w i t h a p r a y e r , r e j e c t i n g Bacchus, P r o s e r p i n a and V i c t o r i a ,  the  d i v i n i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f t h e f u n e r a l games, and calling  i n s t e a d on h i s own  L o r d w i t h t h e p l e a t o g r a n t him t h e a b i l i t y t o  f o r e g o such e a r t h l y p l e a s u r e as might j e o p a r d i z e h i s e t e r n a l  Sen e r d l y p l e s o u r e n d i s o f t w i t h sorow, we s e , As i n t h i s buke nane exemplys ^e want, L o r d , our p r o t t e c t o u r t o a l l t r a s t i s i n t h e , Bot quham na t h i n g i s worthy nor p y s s a n t . To ws t h y grace and a l s g r e t mercy g r a n t . So f o r t o wend by temporal b l y t h n e s s That our e t e r n a l e i o y be nocht t h e l e s s ' (V, P r o l . ,  happiness:  62-8)  P r o l o g u e V t h u s s e r v e s t o i n t r o d u c e Book V, but i t i s a l s o an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e t r a n s l a t o r t o make f u r t h e r r e f i n e m e n t s the act of c r i t i c a l  regarding  translation.  P r o l o g u e V I , even more so t h a n P r o l o g u e s " r e a d e r ' s g u i d e " t o t h e Book i t precedes.  y d o l a t r y i s ' (11. 9-10), but t o p e n e t r a t e  II and  IV, i s a g a i n a  Douglas here a s k s h i s r e a d e r s  not t o d i s m i s s Book VI as c o n t a i n i n g 'bot  Prol.,  i n h i s statements  i a p i s , / . . . leys or a i d 'the c l o w d i s o f dyrk poecy' ( I ,  193) t o f i n d t h e u n d e r l y i n g ' s u y t h f a s t m a t e r i s ' ( I , P r o l . ,  U s i n g an o c c u p a t i o t o p o s as h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n — ' W a l d thou t o t h e d e c l a r e , / Q u h i l k war  impossibil t i l  197).  I s u I d t h i s buke  expreme a t s c h o r t ? ' (11.  25-  6 ) — D o u g l a s p r e s e n t s a f u l l - s c a l e e x p o s i t i o n o f t h e p a r a l l e l i s m between V i r g i l ' s underworld  and t h e C h r i s t i a n a f t e r l i f e , c o r r e l a t i n g T a r t a r u s w i t h  H e l l and t h e E l y s i a n F i e l d s w i t h Heaven, and f i n d i n g space, t o o , f o r a P u r g a t o r y and a Limbo i n Hades.  As f o r t h e v i c e s f o r w h i c h , as Aeneas i s  t o l d , T a r t a r u s i s t h e p r i c e , Douglas f i n d s t h a t t h e y a r e t h e same as synnys c a p i t a l '  (1. 41).  'the  L e s t any r e a d e r f i n d t h i s r e a d i n g f a r - f e t c h e d ,  Douglas c i t e s S e r v i u s , A u g u s t i n e and A s c e n s i u s as a u t h o r i t i e s f o r h i s  124  interpretation.  F u r t h e r m o r e , he even f i n d s e v i d e n c e i n V i r g i l ' s r e f e r e n c e  t o t h e anima mundi ( V I , 724-32), t h a t V i r g i l  espoused t h e concept o f one  God t h e F a t h e r o r , i n a n o t h e r a s p e c t , o f one God t h e C r e a t o r . other gods—"hey i n l y wight i s '  Virgil's  ( 1 . 83) — i n Douglas's r e a d i n g become  " h e v i n l y s p i r e t i s ' and 'angel l i s '  (11. 82, 8 4 ) , and S i b y l , who i s 'a maid  o f g o d d i s s e c r e t p r e v e ' ( 1 . 138), i s equated w i t h Mary, w h i l e P l u t o , t h e "Prynce i n t h a t d o l o r u s den o f wo and pane' ( I . 151), becomes Satan i n Douglas's  interpretation.  However, a l t h o u g h V i r g i l was 'ane h i e t h e o l o g  s e n t e n c y u s ' ( 1 . 75) a n t i c i p a t i n g many o f t h e d o c t r i n e s o f C h r i s t i a n i t y , he "was  na C r i s t y n man, p e r De' ( 1 . 7 8 ) , s o t h a t i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t he  o c c a s i o n a l l y " e r r e d , " as i n h i s t e n e t o f t h e t r a n s m i g r a t i o n o f t h e s o u l s . C e n t r a l a s t h i s concept i s t o t h e develoment o f t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f Book V I , Douglas d e v o t e s o n l y f o u r l i n e s t o i t s r e f u t a t i o n (11.  129-32),  p o i n t i n g o u t t o o t h a t i t i s n o t a l t o g e t h e r d i s s i m i l a r from t h e C a t h o l i c concept o f t h e r e u n i f i c a t i o n o f body and s o u l a f t e r Doomsday. Even though Douglas o f f e r s a c l o s e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Book V I , he n o n e t h e l e s s s h i f t s t h e f o c u s away from t h e h i g h - p o i n t which t h e e n t i r e Book l e a d s up t o .  V i r g i l ' s Book VI f a l l s  i n t o t h r e e almost e q u a l l y  but p r o g r e s s i v e l y i m p o r t a n t p a r t s : t h e p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r t h e d e s c e n t  long, into  t h e u n d e r w o r l d ( V I , 1-263); Aeneas' e n t r y i n t o t h e u n d e r w o r l d and h i s j o u r n e y t h r o u g h t h e n e u t r a l r e g i o n s o f n e i t h e r punishment  nor j o y  ( i n c l u d i n g h i s meeting w i t h Dido i n t h e Mourning F i e l d s , and a g l a n c e a t T a r t a r u s i n p a s s i n g ) ( V I , 264-636); and, f i n a l l y , t h e meeting o f Aeneas with Anchises i n t h e B l i s s f u l o f t h e Roman Empire  Groves, where A n c h i s e s f o r e t e l l s t h e g l o r y  ( V I , 637-901).  Douglas's P r o l o g u e , however,  c o n c e n t r a t e s a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y on t h e m i d d l e s e c t i o n , r e l e g a t i n g  125  A n c h i s e s ' p r o p h e c i e s t o a mere f o u r l i n e s o f b e n e v o l e n t  criticism:  I s a y nocht a l l hys [ V i r g i l ' s ] w a r k i s beyn p e r f y t e , Nor t h a t sawlys t u r n y s i n o t h i r bodeys agane Thocht we t r a s t e , and may p r e i f be h a l y w r i t e , Oure sawle and body s a l anys t o g i d d i r remane. ( V I , P r o l . , 129-32)  By emphasizing  one p a r t a t t h e expense o f t h e o t h e r two,  d e t e r m i n e s what t h e r e a d e r  i s t o r e g a r d a s important  Douglas  i n Book V I .  In  Douglas's o p i n i o n , t h e prime concern o f t h e Book i s t o show " " E f t i r t h a r deth,  i n quhat p l y t e s a u l i s s a l s t a n d ' ( V I , P r o l . , 3 7 ) , b u t t h i s seems t o  be a t v a r i a n c e w i t h V i r g i l ' s d e s i g n , i n which t h e f o c a l p o i n t o f t h e Book i s t h e r i s e o f Rome.  Douglas's r e a d i n g does suggest a sense o f awe and  wonder, though n o t a t t h e d e s t i n e d g l o r y o f t h e Roman Empire, b u t a t t h e s t r e n g t h o f C h r i s t i a n T r u t h , a b l e t o a s s e r t i t s e l f i n a pagan w r i t e r even prior to i t s revelation.  Douglas's P r o l o g u e t h u s r e i n t e r p r e t s Book V I ,  d r a w i n g t h e r e a d e r ' s a t t e n t i o n away from t h e a l r e a d y d i s c r e d i t e d t h i r d and p r e s e n t i n g t h e m i d d l e t h i r d a s a foreshadowing  final  of the conditions  f o l l o w i n g t h e L a s t Judgement. P r o l o g u e V I I , t h e ' t r i s t i s p r o l o g u s ' which "smell i s new cum f u r t h o f hell'  ( 1 1 . 162a, 163), b e i n g t h e n u m e r i c a l  c e n t r e o f t h e work, i s c l o s e l y  c o n n e c t e d w i t h both t h e p r e c e d i n g and t h e subsequent Book. thematic  A p a r t from t h e  l i n k s w i t h Book V I , v e r b a l echoes a l s o e s t a b l i s h a c l o s e  c o n t i n u i t y between V i r g i l ' s v i s i o n o f t h e r e a l m o f t h e shades and Douglas's image o f t h e h e l l - l i k e w i n t e r landscape.  A t t h e same t i m e , t h e  chaos i n n a t u r e foreshadows t h e t u r m o i l caused by Juno i n Book V I I . Juno's i n s t i g a t i o n , A l e c t o r i s e s from h e r h e l l i s h d w e l l i n g p l a c e t o o v e r t u r n t h e p e a c e f u l and b e n e f i c e n t r u l e o f L a t i n u s ; h e r a s p e c t 126  At  terrifies,  and  her  i n f l u e n c e f r e n z i e s t h e c h a r a c t e r s who  w i t h her.  She  t u r n s t h e w o r l d upside-down, p r o v o k i n g t h e p o p u l a c e t o  d i s r e g a r d t h e r u l e r , goading t h e queen and  come i n c o n t a c t  her matrons t o s e t t h e m s e l v e s  a g a i n s t t h e d e c r e e s o f t h e sage, d i v i n e l y - g u i d e d k i n g , and on t o r e b e l a g a i n s t h i s o v e r l o r d and t o go t o war e x p r e s s command t o t h e c o n t r a r y . and  The  despite his liege's  images o f u n n a t u r a l  v i o l e n c e i n Douglas's ' d r e r y p r e a m b i l l ' ( V I I , P r o l . ,  t h e upheaval  i n L a t i u m where p o l i t i c a l  ordinances are temporarily overturned victims.  and  d i s o r d e r , death 166)  s o c i a l bonds and  and where war  anticipate  even d i v i n e  i s soon t o demand i t s  Douglas's w i n t e r n i g h t c o n s t i t u t e s an " o b j e c t i v e c o r r e l a t i v e "  t o the benightedness of the Laurentines calm and  l a s h i n g Turnus  as t h e i r adherence t o L a t i n u s '  r e a s o n a b l e r u l e i s suspended under A l e c t o ' s  c l a r i t y o f v i s i o n f a i l s them.  The  1  i n f l u e n c e and  as  h o s t i l i t y o f t h e c o l d season, which  makes even b a r e s u r v i v a l p r e c a r i o u s , c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e s h a t t e r i n g o f L a t i n u s ' and t h e T r o j a n embassy's mutual o f f e r i n g o f peace and p a r t i c u l a r l y o f L a t i n u s ' r e q u e s t f o r a m a r r i a g e between L a v i n i a Aeneas.  In b o t h s c e n a r i o s b e n e f i c e n t  growth and f r u i t f u l  c u t o f f , b l i g h t e d , and a c t i v e l y s u p p r e s s e d .  and  development a r e  Nonetheless, the  winter  s o l s t i c e i s a l s o a t u r n i n g p o i n t , and t h e harsh p e r i o d d i r e c t l y f o l l o w i n g it will the  e v e n t u a l l y be superseded by a t i m e o f renewed growth d u r i n g  image o f man  ' j o k f j i n g ] our p l e u c h agane' ( 1 . 158)  will  which  be more t h a n a  metaphor; so, t o o , t h e T r o j a n s have t h e a s s u r a n c e t h a t a f t e r t h e p e r i o d war,  death and d e s t r u c t i o n a t i m e o f f l o u r i s h i n g development w i l l  begin.  For Douglas t h e t r a n s l a t o r , f o r t h e b e i n g s mentioned i n t h e P r o l o g u e , for  the  i n h a b i t a n t s o f A u s o n i a , n a t i v e and  foreign alike, this  a l r e a d y h o l d s t h e promise o f f u l f i l m e n t f o l l o w i n g a p e r i o d o f 127  of  crisis intense  and  trial  and h a r d s h i p , and i n t h i s t h e images o f t h e P r o l o g u e and o f t h e Book  c o r r e s p o n d i n h a r s h harmony. P r o l o g u e V I I I , a t o u r de f o r c e i n a l l i t e r a t i v e w r i t i n g i n which a h o s t i l e dream f i g u r e p r e s e n t s c o n v e n t i o n a l s o c i a l c r i t i c i s m and r e p r o a c h e s t h e d r e a m e r - n a r r a t o r f o r w a s t i n g h i s t i m e on t h e w r i t i n g o f p o e t r y , has v a r i o u s l y been c a l l e d "a most a l i e n i n t e r p o l a t i o n "  2  and "a p i e c e o f comic  r e l i e f t o . t h e h e r o i c s u b j e c t m a t t e r o f t h e A e n e i d [• . . ] , a g r o t e s q u e parody o f t h e o p e n i n g l i n e s o f book V I I I . "  3  Although t h i s Prologue a l s o  s e r v e s o t h e r f u n c t i o n s a s d i s c u s s e d i n c h a p t e r s I and I I , i n terms o f t h e l i n k a g e between P r o l o g u e and Book, C o l d w e l l ' s statement t h a t P r o l o g u e V I I I , "on t h e d i s t o r t i o n o f t h e t r u e p o 1 i s , i s a f o i l s t a t e o f t h e noble Evander"  4  t o the idealized  seems t o come c l o s e s t t o t h e t r u t h .  While  t h e d r e a m - v i s i o n form l i n k s t h i s P r o l o g u e t o t h e f i r s t p a r t o f Book V I I I , where t h e god o f t h e r i v e r T i b e r appears t o Aeneas i n an o r a c u l u m , t h e d i s l o c a t e d , c h a o t i c s t a t e o f s o c i e t y c r i t i c i z e d by t h e " s e l c o u t h seg' ( 1 . 4) c o n t r a s t s s h a r p l y w i t h t h e harmonious,  l a w - a b i d i n g and devout ways o f  Evander's n a t i o n d e s c r i b e d i n t h e main p a r t o f t h e Book. Evander emphasizes to  Even though  t h a t t h e Golden Age under S a t u r n i s p a s t , by c o n t r a s t  t h e u t t e r s o c i a l t u r m o i l d e p i c t e d i n t h e P r o l o g u e , Evander's own s t a t e  n o n e t h e l e s s appears  i d e a l , w i t h t h e one e x c e p t i o n o f t h e s m o u l d e r i n g  h o s t i l i t y towards t h e R u t u l i a n s .  Indeed, a l m o s t e v e r y statement made i n  t h e d r e a m - f i g u r e ' s harangue can be p a i r e d w i t h i t s o p p o s i t e i n V i r g i l ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f Evander's A r c a d i a . two  As a r e s u l t , t h e j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f t h e  images o f s o c i e t y e n f o r c e s r e f l e c t i o n on what _[s and what s h o u l d be;  i t urges t h e a u d i e n c e t o c o n s i d e r t h e a l t e r n a t i v e s and t o make a moral and social choice.  As Douglas  i m p l i e s i n P r o l o g u e IX, p r e a c h i n g i s 128  i n e f f e c t i v e , however, and t h e d i a t r i b e o f t h e " s e l c o u t h s e g ' c o n s e q u e n t l y has much l e s s o f an impact t h a n does t h e p o r t r a y a l o f a wel1-governed,  i n t h e f o l l o w i n g Book  harmonious s o c i e t y i n a c t i o n , whose image Douglas  p r e s e n t s as an a l t e r n a t i v e t o t h e "mysery' ( 1 . 101) which h i s speaker p e r c e i v e s i n contemporaneous S c o t l a n d .  Prologue VIII thus i s less a  "grotesque parody" t h a n an exposfe o f t h e s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and moral t r a v e s t y which may  y e t go by t h e name o f s o c i e t y .  P r o l o g u e IX i s a g a i n a l e s s d i r e c t i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e Book.  subsequent  Book IX c o n t a i n s t h e f i r s t s u s t a i n e d b a t t l e s c e n e s , e s p e c i a l l y  N i s u s and E u r y a l u s ' h e r o i c s o r t i e and Turnus' s i n g l e - h a n d e d combat i n s i d e t h e T r o j a n camp.  In both t h e s e p a s s a g e s , V i r g i l  emphasizes  the high  h e r o i s m o f t h e t h r e e young w a r r i o r s .  However, no l e s s i m p o r t a n t a r e  E u r y a l u s ' speech d e m o n s t r a t i n g f i l i a l  p i e t y and A s c a n i u s ' speech  e x e m p l i f y i n g magnanimous governance.  In h i s P r o l o g u e , Douglas t a k e s up  t h e theme o f high-minded it  c o n d u c t — b o t h k n i g h t l y and r o y a l — a n d t r a n s f o r m s  i n t o an expose on t h e k i n d o f s t y l e which a l o n e can do j u s t i c e t o t h i s  subject matter.  The d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e " k n y c h t l y k e s t i l e '  (IX, P r o l . , 31),  however, i s i t s e l f preceded by t h r e e h i g h l y e m b e l l i s h e d s i x - l i n e s t a n z a s on t h e v i r t u e s o f honesty and j u d i c i o u s m o d e r a t i o n :  T h i r 1usty w a r k i s o f h i e n o b i 1 y t e A g i l y t e dyd w r y t e o f worthy c l e r k i s . And t h a r i n m e r k i s wysdome, v t i l y t e , Na v i i y t e , nor s i c o n t h r y f t y s p e r k i s ; S c u r i l y t e i s bot f o r d o g g i s a t b a r k i s , Quha t h a r t o hark i s f a l l y s i n f r a g i l y t e . Honeste i s t h e way t o w o r t h y n e s s , Vertu, doutless, the perfyte g a i t t o b l y s s ; Thou do na myss, and eschew i d i l n e s s , Persew prowes, ha Id na t h i n g a t i s hys; Be nocht r a k l e s s t o say sone 3a, I wyss, And syne o f t h i s t h e c o n t r a r wyrk e x p r e s s .  129  Do t y l 1 i l k w i g h t as t h o u done t o waldbe; Be n e v i r s l e and d o u b i l l , nor ^ i t our l y g h t ; Oyss not t h y mycht a b u f e t h y n e awin d e g r e , Clym n e v i r our h i e , nor 31't t o law t h o u l y c h t ; Wirk na m a l g r e , t h o c h t t h o u be n e v i r sa wyght, Ha Id w i t h t h e r y c h t , and p r e s s t h e n e v i r t o l e . (IX, P r o l . ,  1-18)  C r i t i c s have o c c a s i o n a l l y commented on a l a c k o f c o h e s i o n between t h e s t y l i s t i c a l l y v e r y d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f P r o l o g u e IX, o r have i g n o r e d f i r s t t h r e e s t a n z a s a l t o g e t h e r and  t r e a t e d t h e P r o l o g u e as  o f the  5  longer c o u p l e t  section only.  i m p o r t a n t c o n n e x i o n when she  two  the  i f i t consisted  L o i s E b i n , however, p o i n t s t o  an  writes,  L i k e Henryson, who had suggested i n h i s Fabi11 i s t h a t p o e t i c s t y l e was a more e f f e c t i v e response t o the i l l s of the time than "haly p r e i c h i n g , ' Douglas i m p l i e s by h i s c o n t r a s t between moral and V y a l l ' s t y l e s i n P r o l o g u e IX a s i m i l a r c h o i c e o f a p o e t i c medium r a t h e r t h a n an e x p l i c i t l y moral one as " b u t e . ' 6  When Douglas a b r u p t l y b r e a k s o f f a f t e r t h e f i r s t t h r e e s t a n z a s  and  c o n t i n u e s t h e P r o l o g u e i n a d i f f e r e n t v e r s e form, he e x p l i c i t l y r e j e c t s t h e p r e v i o u s manner o f w r i t i n g , but he a l s o i m p l i e s a r e j e c t i o n o f p o e t i c s t y l e i n which i t i s p h r a s e d . t h i s , ws n e d i s p r e c h na mor'  the  H i s t r a n s i t i o n a l l i n e , "Eneuch o f  ( 1 . 19), makes i t c l e a r t h a t Douglas f i n d s  t h e m o r a l i z i n g t o n e i n e f f e c t i v e , and t h a t i f any d i d a c t i c i s m i s i n t e n d e d , i t had  b e t t e r be m e r e l y i m p l i e d i n t h e harmony between s u b j e c t m a t t e r  s t y l e , both o f which t o g e t h e r must a l s o be a p p r o p r i a t e r e c i p i e n t o f t h e work.  t o the  and  intended  By s w i t c h i n g t o p l a i n c o u p l e t s , Douglas a l s o  r e j e c t s the extremely ornate s t y l e of the preceding three stanzas; complex rhyme scheme o f f i n a l and  the  i n t e r n a l , f e m i n i n e and m a s c u l i n e rhymes,  130  and t h e f l o r i d word c h o i c e and l a b o u r e d word o r d e r draw a t t e n t i o n t o t h e m s e l v e s and t h e r e b y make t h e communication ineffective.  7  Moreover,  o f moral  concepts  i t goes c o u n t e r t o t h e i d e a o f "magnanymyte' ( X I ,  P r o l . , 35) e x e m p l i f i e d i n Book IX and d i s c u s s e d i n P r o l o g u e XI a s an e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e o f t r u e k n i g h t h o o d , f o r a s soon as h e r o i s m o r o t h e r high-mindedness  becomes as s e l f - c o n s c i o u s a s i s t h e s t y l e o f t h e o p e n i n g  s t a n z a s o f P r o l o g u e I X , i t becomes o s t e n t a t i o u s and l o s e s p r e c i s e l y t h e q u a l i t y which gave i t n o b i l i t y i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e . " a g i l y t e ' ( 1 . 2) demonstrated  The k i n d o f v e r b a l  i n t h e s t a n z a i c s e c t i o n thus d i s r e g a r d s  a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s and degree, f o r w h i l e i t c e r t a i n l y a v o i d s ' s c u r i l y t e ' and 'lowuss langage' (11. 5, 2 5 ) , i t seems t o "Clym [ . . . ] o u r h i e ' ( 1 . 16) and  i s t h e r e f o r e lacking i n "grauyte' (1. 26). Read i n c o n j u n c t i o n , b o t h s e c t i o n s o f t h e P r o l o g u e t h u s make t h e same  p o i n t : t h e form o f w r i t i n g must harmonize w i t h i t s c o n t e n t and i t s a d d r e s s e e ; w i t h o u t such harmony, " F u l l using the " r y a l l  litill  i t wald d e l y t e ' ( 1 . 3 6 ) . In  s t y l e , c l e p y t h e r o y c a l l ' ( 1 . 21) a s an example t o  i l l u s t r a t e h i s d i s c u s s i o n , Douglas  i m p l i c i t l y draws a t t e n t i o n t o t h e  d i s t i n g u i s h i n g q u a l i t i e s which t h e a u d i e n c e may e x p e c t t o f i n d i n t h e a c t i o n s and speeches n a r r a t e d i n t h e Book t h a t f o l l o w s .  I f preaching i s  i n e f f e c t i v e — a s t h e r a n t i n g o f t h e " s e l c o u t h seg' i n P r o l o g u e V I I I has s u f f i c i e n t l y d e m o n s t r a t e d — t e a c h i n g by example may be b e t t e r s u i t e d t o a c h i e v i n g t h e v i r t u e s c a l l e d f o r i n t h e opening s t a n z a s . becomes a s u b j e c t l e s s o n i n m o r a l l y unimpeachable  Book IX t h u s  c o n d u c t , t o be p r e s e n t e d  i n t h e k i n d o f s t y l e t o which t h e a u d i e n c e i s most l i k e l y t o respond favourably. P r o l o g u e X, p r i n c i p a l l y a sermon on t h e T r i n i t y , o f f e r s a s t r o n g  131  C h r i s t i a n r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e Book t h a t f o l l o w s and i m p l i e s t h e r e f u t a t i o n o f t h e Olympian gods, which Douglas had d e n i e d h i m s e l f i n P r o l o g u e V I : To a c h i e v e t h i s e f f e c t Douglas here r e l i e s e x c l u s i v e l y on a j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f t h e c o n c e p t s developed presented  i n t h e Book.  i n t h e P r o l o g u e and t h e scenes  Book X opens w i t h J u p i t e r convening a c o u n c i l o f  t h e gods and commanding them t o d e s i s t from t h e i r a c t i v e d i s c o r d and from further contravention o f h i s ordinances.  But n e i t h e r Juno nor Venus i s  ready t o y i e l d h e r p o s i t i o n , and o t h e r d e i t i e s c o n t i n u e t o t a k e s i d e s , so t h a t J u p i t e r has t o t a k e t h e awesome p a t h o f an o a t h i n v o k i n g S t y x i n o r d e r t o q u e l l t h e d i s c o r d and e n f o r c e h i s decree t h a t n e i t h e r s i d e i n t h e L a t i a n war s h a l l be f a v o u r e d , b u t t h a t F a t e s h a l l t a k e i t s c o u r s e .  While  t h e gods a r e f o r c e d t o submit t o J u p i t e r ' s command, he h i m s e l f i s a l s o bound by F a t e , h a v i n g power o n l y t o d e l a y b u t n o t t o a l t e r  it.  From here  on, t h e f o c u s o f t h e Book s h i f t s from Olympus down t o t h e T r o j a n camp and t h e s e a s h o r e , where T r o j a n s and Ausonians a r e l o c k e d i n a b a t t l e which i s t h e d i r e c t r e s u l t o f t h e d i s c o r d among t h e gods and which moves even them to  p i t y (X, 758-59).  Douglas's  P r o l o g u e , i n c o n t r a s t , s t r e s s e s u n i t y and  l o v e and, r e s u l t i n g from them, peace.  In h i s l e a r n e d d i s c o u r s e on t h e  T r i n i t y , he emphasizes t i m e and a g a i n t h e c o - e t e r n a l , c o - e v a l , c o - e q u a l , and  inseparable nature o f t h i s t r i - u n i t y .  U n l i k e J u p i t e r , who has t o  r e s o r t t o f o r c e t o make t h e Olympian gods submit t o h i s supremacy, t h e T r i n i t y emanates l o v e , g r a n t s man f r e e w i l l , and even a f t e r man's d i s o b e d i e n c e seeks t o r e s t o r e u n i t y , harmony and l o v e t h r o u g h t h e o f f e r o f Grace, a n o t h e r form o f l o v e . W h i l e t h e f i r s t p a r t o f both P r o l o g u e and Book i s t h u s o c c u p i e d w i t h t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f C h r i s t i a n and pagan d i v i n e r e l a t i o n s h i p s , t h e  132  second p a r t g l o r i f i e s t h e love which i s p r e p a r e d f o r s e l f - s a c r i f i c e i n o r d e r t o redeem i t s o b j e c t .  I.S. Ross speaks o f Book X a s " i n p a r t an  anthem f o r t h e doomed h e r o i c youths Lausus and P a l l a s , "  8  b o t h o f whom  s a c r i f i c e t h e i r l i v e s , t h e one t o save t h a t o f h i s f a t h e r M e z e n t i u s , and the  o t h e r t o a v e r t d i s a s t e r from t h e r o u t e d T r o j a n and A r c a d i a n f o r c e s .  P e r s o n i f i e d i n t h e s e two young heroes a r e t h e h i g h e s t p u b l i c and p r i v a t e Roman v i r t u e s .  J u s t as Aeneas i s i n P r o l o g u e XI made a t y p e o f C h r i s t i n  l e a d i n g h i s p e o p l e home t o t h e " f a t a l e c u n t r e o f b e h e s t ' ( X I , P r o l . , 178), so P a l l a s and Lausus a r e t y p e s o f C h r i s t i n p l a c i n g t h e supreme v i r t u e s o f t h e i r v a l u e system above t h e i r own l i v e s .  Douglas's m e d i t a t i o n on t h e  I n c a r n a t i o n and t h e P a s s i o n i s t h u s a c o u n t e r p a r t t o V i r g i l ' s "anthem," yet  i t a l s o s t r e s s e s t h e i r e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e : w h i l e 'A drop had bene  s u f f i c i e n t o f [ C h r i s t ' s ] b l u d e / A thousand war 1dis (X,  Prol.,  redemyt...'  132-33), t h e s a c r i f i c e s o f P a l l a s and Lausus have no r e d e m p t i v e  c a p a c i t y o r o n l y a v e r y l i m i t e d one. to  t o haue  A f t e r P a l l a s ' d e a t h Aeneas s t i l l has  e x e r t h i s utmost power t o keep Turnus and h i s f o r c e s a t bay, and a f t e r  Lausus i s s l a i n , t h e wounded M e z e n t i u s r e t u r n s f o r a d e s p e r a t e duel w i t h Aeneas, n o t w a n t i n g t o l i v e a f t e r h i s son has d i e d . P r o l o g u e VI s t i l l  W h i l e Douglas had i n  been a b l e t o a l l e g o r i z e V i r g i l ' s pantheon, i n P r o l o g u e X  he l i t e r a l l y r e j e c t s V i r g i l ' s 'mawmentis' ( 1 . 153), whose s t r i f e  causes  d i s c o r d on e a r t h and demands t h e p r i c e o f such f r u i t l e s s s a c r i f i c e s .  He  r e a p p l i e s V i r g i l ' s phrase 'divum p a t e r atque hominum r e x ' (X, 2) t o h i s own God, "the Fader o f g o d d i s and men' ( 1 . 156), who a l s o ""haldis c o u r t our c r i s t a 11  hevynnys c l e i r '  ( 1 . 166; c f . X, 1-5), b u t i n whose r e a l m  t h e r e i s 'Concord f o r e v e r , ' a n d hence "myrth, r e s t and e n d l e s b l y s s , / [...] a l l w i l f a i r , eyss and e u e r l e s t a n d i o y ' (11. 171, 174).  133  Book X t h u s  becomes an elf  i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e s t a t e o f man  ( 1 . 154)  w i t h o u t d i v i n e " l u f and  r u l e d by  cheryte'  (1.  'ydol1, stok  [or]  126).  P r o l o g u e X I , d i s c u s s i n g t r u e c h i v a l r y , f o l l o w s t h e same b a s i c as P r o l o g u e IV, t r a n s f o r m i n g  t h e f o l l o w i n g Book i n t o a moral  pattern  lesson.  Douglas a g a i n t a k e s h i s cue from t h e c o n t e n t s o f t h e subsequent Book, but a l s o from t h e p r e c e d i n g  one,  each o f which c o n s i s t s t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y h a l f  i t s l e n g t h o f a n a r r a t i o n o f t h e b a t t l e s f o u g h t on t h e p l a i n o u t s i d e Latinus' c i t y .  I t i s s t r i k i n g , however, t h a t w h i l e Aeneas i s t h e main  hero o f t h e combats i n Book X, he  i s not shown f i g h t i n g a t a l l i n Book X I .  On t h e c o n t r a r y . Book XI shows Aeneas as statesman and  guardian of h i s  p e o p l e , w h i l e t h e b a t t l e scenes c e n t r e on Vol scan C a m i l l a .  Coldwell's  statement t h a t P r o l o g u e XI " j o i n s t h e p r a i s e o f t r u e k n i g h t h o o d , o r spiritual  chivalry, to Vergil's fiercest f i g h t i n g , "  9  t h u s seems t o m i s s  t h e p o i n t , c o n s i d e r i n g t o o t h a t t h e rage o f b a t t l e i s no Books IX, X and X I I .  less intense  When Douglas f o c u s e s on Aeneas i n t h e f i n a l  in  three  s t a n z a s o f the P r o l o g u e , what he s t r e s s e s i s not so much Aeneas' outstanding  h e r o i s m on t h e b a t t l e f i e l d and d u r i n g o t h e r t i m e s o f danger  but r a t h e r Aeneas' moral q u a l i t i e s , namely, t h a t he knows t o "Ensew v e r t u , and  eschew euery v y c e ' ( 1 . 195)  ( 1 . 194)  who  even though he  i s one o f t h e  d i d not have t h e promise o f "the kynryk ay  "paganys a i d '  l e s t y n g ' (1.  S i n c e Books VII t o XII have a tendency t o be remembered as one account, i t w i l l  be u s e f u l t o r e c a l l  183).  long b a t t l e  here t h a t Book XI opens a t daybreak  w i t h Aeneas f u l f i l l i n g h i s p u b l i c d u t y t o t h e gods even though he would have p r e f e r r e d f i r s t t o honour h i s f a l l e n f r i e n d s and them b u r i a l .  While s t i l l  comrades by g i v i n g  engaged i n t h e s a c r e d r i t e s o f Mars, he  a d d r e s s e s t h e c h i e f t a i n s o f h i s f o r c e s , t r y i n g t o renew t h e i r courage.  134  t h e i r hope o f v i c t o r y , and t h e i r f a i t h i n t h e b e n e v o l e n c e o f t h e gods. Immediately t h e r e a f t e r , he t a k e s g r e a t c a r e t o honour t h e dead P a l l a s and t o a r r a n g e a f i t t i n g , even l a v i s h p r o c e s s i o n t o have P a l l a s ' body t a k e n home t o Evander.  O n l y t h e n , a f t e r t h e d u t i e s owed t o t h e gods and t o t h e  a l l y a r e d i s c h a r g e d , does Aeneas t u r n t o t h e b u r i a l r i t e s f o r t h e T r o j a n s ' own dead.  He i s , however, i n t e r r u p t e d by envoys from L a t i n u s , a s k i n g f o r  a t r u c e t o e n a b l e t h e L a t i n s t o b u r y t h e i r even g r e a t e r number o f dead. "Bonus Aeneas,' "heynd, c u r t a s s and gud,' g r a n t s t h e i r r e q u e s t ( X I , 106-7; XI, i i i ,  13) and a d d r e s s e s t h e enemy envoys w i t h c o n s i d e r a t i o n and  sympathy, c a u s i n g aged Drances, t h e head o f t h e embassy, t o wonder a l o u d whether Aeneas' " g r e t g e n t r y c e and sa i u s t e q u y t e , / Or [ h i s ] g r e t f o r s and laubour b e l l i c a l l '  (XI, i i i ,  60-1) a r e more t o be admired  ( " i u s t i t i a e n e p r i u s m i r e r b e l l i n e laborum?' X I , 126).  After this act of  magnanimous c a r i t a s on t h e p a r t o f Aeneas, t h e f o c u s o f Book XI s h i f t s away from Aeneas t o Evander, L a t i n u s and f i n a l l y C a m i l l a , and Aeneas i s s c a r c e l y even mentioned a g a i n u n t i l t h e f i n a l  l i n e s , which p r e p a r e f o r t h e  c l a s h between Aeneas and Turnus i n Book X I I . Aeneas' c h a r i t y , p i e t y and j u s t i c e , and h i s , on t h e whole, m o r a l l y and e t h i c a l l y unimpeachable conduct a r e t h e f e a t u r e s which a r e s t r e s s e d h e r e , a f t e r h i s h e r o i s m and w a r l i k e q u a l i t i e s have been demonstrated i n t h e p r e c e d i n g Book.  In t h e P r o l o g u e , Douglas uses t h e same p a t t e r n :  m a r t i a l prowess a l o n e i s not e n o u g h — i t must be used o n l y i n t h e p u r s u i t o f j u s t i c e , and i t must be tempered by "magnanymyte' ( X I , P r o l . , 3 5 ) . Beyond t h a t , Aeneas i s a l s o made an exemp1um f o r t h e C h r i s t i a n s o l d i e r , i n q u e s t f o r "hys f a t a l e c u n t r e o f b e h e s t ' ( 1 . 178).  I f Aeneas can c u l t i v a t e  t h e above q u a l i t i e s i n o r d e r t o g a i n h i s d e s t i n e d "temporal 1 r y n g ' ( 1 .  135  182), how  much more ought even t h e o r d i n a r y C h r i s t i a n be ready t o p r a c t i s e  j u s t i c e , magnanimity, c h a r i t y and v i r t u e i n g e n e r a l kynryk ay 199).  l e s t y n g , ' which "was  hecht t i l l  P r o l o g u e XI t h u s o f f e r s a s p i r i t u a l  i n order t o gain  "the  Abraham and hys s e y d ' (11.  183,  key t o t h e subsequent Book,  r e i n t e r p r e t i n g i t as a C h r i s t i a n a l l e g o r y . P r o l o g u e X I I , t h e joyous P r o l o g u e  which Douglas h i m s e l f c a l l s a  ' l u s t y c r a f t y preambi11' and which he e n t i t l e s " ' p e r l e o f May'"  ( 1 . 307),  must a t f i r s t r e a d i n g seem e n t i r e l y unconnected w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g Book, r e l a t i n g t h e f i n a l , b l o o d y s t r u g g l e s i n which Aeneas wins t h e b a t t l e f o r Italy.  However, even though t h e atmosphere o f t h e P r o l o g u e  c o n t r a s t s most  s h a r p l y w i t h t h a t o f t h e Book, t h e two p a r t s a r e connected by t h e m a t i c and s t r u c t u r a l  links.  As  strong  I have proposed e a r l i e r . P r o l o g u e  XII  i s e s s e n t i a l l y a hymn t o t h e Sun and t o i t s C r e a t o r , c e l e b r a t i n g t h e triumph  ( 1 . 275)  o f t h e L o r d o f L i g h t and showing a l l n a t u r e  obeisance t o i t s Lord. wintery  Knowing t h a t t h e y  doing  l a c k t h e power t o p r o l o n g  their  i n f l u e n c e , t h e h o s t i l e p l a n e t s f l e e from t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e  r i s i n g Sun, whose b e n e f i c e n t r u l e b r i n g s r e b i r t h and harmony on a cosmic plane. death,  I f Prologue  V I I , w i t h i t s images o f d i s o r d e r , b a r r e n n e s s  and  i n t r o d u c e s not m e r e l y Book VII but t h e e n t i r e I l i a d i c h a l f o f t h e  Aeneid, then Prologue  X I I , f i l l e d w i t h images o f u n i t y , renewed v i t a l i t y  and r e g e n e r a t i o n , h e r a l d s t h e end o f t h e wars and a n t i c i p a t e s t h e subsequent peace under I t a l y ' s new c o u n t e r p a r t t o Aeneas, who  ruler.  The  Sun  i s the  Prologue's  i n Book X, on h i s r e t u r n from Evander's c i t y ,  had been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e sun  i n the magnificent  s t a n d i n g a t t h e s t e r n o f h i s s h i p w i t h h i s 'clipeum 261-62) c a t c h i n g t h e r a y s o f t h e sun a t dawn.  136  The  image o f Aeneas . . . ardentem' (X, h a s t y withdrawal  of  O r i o n and t h e o t h e r p l a n e t s and c r e a t u r e s o f n i g h t a t t h e emergence o f t h e Sun  i n t h e opening l i n e s o f Prologue XII p a r a l l e l s t h e r o u t o f t h e  R u t u l i a n s and Turnus' t e r r i f i e d  f l i g h t from Aeneas, whose t r i u m p h o v e r  Turnus and u l t i m a t e l y o v e r war i t s e l f i s a s p r e d e s t i n e d a s i s t h e t r i u m p h o f t h e Sun o v e r n i g h t and w i n t e r .  After the destruction o f the o r i g i n a l  T r o y , a f t e r t h e o r d e a l s o f t h e T r o j a n s ' wanderings a c r o s s t h e s e a , and a f t e r t h e d e a t h - d e a l i n g wars i n L a t i u m , Aeneas' v i c t o r y o v e r Turnus b r i n g s t h e p r e - o r d a i n e d b e g i n n i n g o f t h e r e b u r g e o n i n g o f t h e T r o j a n empire, soon t o be merged w i t h t h e L a t i n s .  Whereas P r o l o g u e V I I , t h e W i n t e r P r o l o g u e ,  used t h e w i n t e r s o l s t i c e a s an image o f t h e c r i s i s p o i n t i n t h e w o r k i n g out o f t h e T r o j a n s ' d e s t i n y . P r o l o g u e X I I i s based on t h e theme o f s p r i n g — n o t s u m m e i — a s an image o f a new b e g i n n i n g r a t h e r t h a n c o m p l e t i o n . P r o l o g u e X I I t h u s l o o k s beyond Book X I I ' s s t a r k f i n a l of  scene o f t h e k i l l i n g  Turnus, and g i v e s an i n d i c a t i o n o f what i s t o come a f t e r t h e b a r r e n ,  dead 1y and he 11i sh n i ght o f t h e war i s o v e r . In Book VII t h e i n i t i a l  peace agreement between Aeneas and L a t i n u s  was broken by t h e L a t i n s a s a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f t h e a c t i o n s o f A l e c t o , i n Virgil's  v e r s i o n t h e daughter o f N i g h t ( V I I , 331) and o f P l u t o ( V I I , 327),  whom Douglas  i n P r o l o g u e VI equates w i t h S a t a n ; i n Book X I I A l e c t o appears  a g a i n , t h i s t i m e t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o an o w l , c a u s i n g Turnus t o be p a r a l y s e d with horror.  The owl i s a l s o t h e o n l y animal mentioned  i n the opening  l i n e s o f P r o l o g u e X I I (11. 11-12) a s h i d i n g i n s t e a d o f r e j o i c i n g a t t h e approach o f t h e sun, which here r e p r e s e n t s i t s C r e a t o r a s w e l l a s t h e L o r d of L i g h t , t h e Son, w i t h whom Aeneas has been a s s o c i a t e d s i n c e P r o l o g u e X I , where Aeneas became a t y p e o f C h r i s t .  Aeneas' v i c t o r y i s t h u s  r e i n t e r p r e t e d by Douglas a s a metaphor f o r t h e i n e v i t a b l e v i c t o r y o f l i g h t  137  and goodness over t h e powers o f death and d e s t r u c t i o n ; i n d e e d , one might even go so f a r as t o argue t h a t s i n c e Aeneas i n Douglas's  reading i s a  p r o t o t y p e o f t h e model C h r i s t i a n s o l d i e r , who o f h i s f r e e w i l l s t a n d s f i r m a g a i n s t t h e o n s l a u g h t s o f t h e F l e s h , t h e World, and t h e D e v i l  (XI, P r o l . ,  81-104), h i s t r i u m p h over Turnus, whose o p p o s i t i o n stems from  infernal  influences p e r s o n i f i e d i n A l e c t o , represents the f i n a l over E v i l preceding E t e r n i t y .  v i c t o r y o f Good  In any c a s e , t h e P r o l o g u e c e r t a i n l y l e s s e n s  t h e s t a r k n e s s o f t h e Book's l a s t scene and t r a n s f o r m s i t from an image o f a v e n g i n g r e t r i b u t i o n i n t o one o f t r i u m p h a n t  victory.  P r o l o g u e X I I I , w i t h i t s dream i n t e r v i e w w i t h Maphaeus V e g i u s , l i e s on a d i f f e r e n t p l a n e a l t o g e t h e r . Here Douglas a l l o w s h i m s e l f t h e comedy which he had so f a r r e j e c t e d as i n a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e work i n p r o g r e s s ( I X , Prol.).  T h i s comedy, however, goes deeper t h a n i s u s u a l l y assumed, and  Douglas i s even more under-handed i n h i s j o k e a t Maphaeus' expense t h a n i s usually recognized. The P r o l o g u e ' s s e t t i n g o f t h e summer e v e n i n g , as a l l n a t u r e l i e s down t o s l e e p and r e s t , i n d i c a t e s t h e f i n a l  c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e work i n hand.  But Douglas i s not y e t p e r m i t t e d t o l a y down h i s pen, f o r Maphaeus V e g i u s f o r c e f u l l y demands t h a t Douglas add a t r a n s l a t i o n o f Maphaeus' own  'schort  C r i s t y n wark' ( 1 . 140), p o i n t i n g o u t t h a t such an u n d e r t a k i n g would be f a r more m e r i t o r i o u s t h a n t h e e n t i r e t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h e poem o f V i r g i l , was a f t e r a l l but 'a g e n t i l e c l e r k ' ( 1 . 139).  A f t e r Prologues  who  11—X11  have o f f e r e d a s y s t e m a t i c r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e A e n e i d a l o n g C h r i s t i a n l i n e s , t h i s argument o b v i o u s l y cannot f a i l both i n t h e dream and promise  "to t r a n s 1 a i t  i n waking  life.  t o amuse Douglas,  Douglas's f a c e t i o u s l y  phrased  [Maphaeus'] buke, i n honour o f God / And  138  hys  A p o s t o l i s t w e l f , i n t h e numbir od'  (11. 151-52) i s not o n l y a f i n e  l e a r n e d t h r u s t d i r e c t e d a t Maphaeus' v a n i t y , but argument t h a t s e c u l a r l i t e r a t u r e has writing.  Considering V i r g i l  "ane  and  i t a l s o undercuts  the  less value than p a t e n t l y r e l i g i o u s  h i e theolog sentencyus'  (VI, P r o l . ,  Douglas has worked out t h e C h r i s t i a n r e a d i n g which he b e l i e v e s t h e s u p p o r t s , but he knows t o o t h a t t h e ' C r i s t y n ' w r i t e r who  75),  Aeneid  composed Book  X I I I had no such s u b t e x t i n mind f o r h i s s e q u e l ; indeed, Maphaeus' c l a i m r e s t s s o l e l y on t h e C h r i s t i a n i t y o f t h e man, d i d a c t i c c h a r a c t e r o f t h e work i t s e l f .  not on any r e l i g i o u s o r  Not knowing j u s t how  Christian  V i r g i l ' s work has become as a r e s u l t o f Douglas's i n t e r p o l a t i o n o f t h e P r o l o g u e s , Maphaeus does not r e c o g n i z e t h a t h i s own t o approach t h e same l e v e l o f h i g h s e r i o u s n e s s . for  i n s i d e r s — t h o s e who  fails  Douglas's j o k e i s t h u s  have f o l l o w e d h i s a d v i c e t o " R e i d , r e i d agane,  t h i s volume, m a i r t h a n t w y s s ' X I I I s e t s a new  w r i t i n g simply  (VI, P r o l . ,  12).  At t h e same t i m e ,  Prologue  t o n e f o r t h e r e a d i n g o f t h e remainder o f t h e Eneados.  The  c o n c e n t r a t i o n and c l o s e a t t e n t i o n which Douglas had so f a r deemed a b s o l u t e l y n e c e s s a r y a r e no l o n g e r r e q u i r e d ; i n s t e a d , t h e r e s t o f t h e work may  be read a t f a c e v a l u e , and a l t h o u g h Douglas p r o m i s e s t o t r a n s l a t e  Maphaeus' work i n a s t y l e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e p r e c e d i n g t w e l v e Books, he explicitly  d e f l a t e s a l l c l a i m s f o r t h e v a l u e which t h e supplement might  h a v e — l i t e r a r y , r e l i g i o u s , or o t h e r w i s e — a n d i n c l u d e s t h e t h i r t e e n t h Book o n l y w i l l y - n i l l y p o p u l a r t a s t e and p u b l i c demand.  makes i t p l a i n t h a t he i n o r d e r not t o run a f o u l o f  P r o l o g u e X I I I t h u s makes i t p e r f e c t l y  c l e a r t h a t , as f a r as Douglas i s c o n c e r n e d , t h e S c o t t i s h Aeneid  is  complete a t t h e end o f Book X I I , and even though t h e Eneados c o n t i n u e s . Book X I I I does not p r o p e r l y b e l o n g t o t h e t e x t .  139  While o f f e r i n g a p a r t i a l  j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r i n c l u d i n g the sequel, Prologue XIII  i s a l s o an e x t r e m e l y  t a c t f u l way o f t e l l i n g t h e more p e r c e p t i v e and s o p h i s t i c a t e d r e a d e r s not t o b o t h e r r e a d i n g on.  140  Notes  1  Ross, " " P r o l o u g ' and 'Buke'," p.399.  2 L a u c h l a n MacLean Watt, Douglas's A e n e i d , (Cambridge: U n i v . P r e s s , 1920; r p t . New York: AMS P r e s s , 1975), p.109. 3  Bawcutt, G a v i n Douglas, p.173.  4  C o l d w e l l , " I n t r o d u c t i o n , " v o l . I , p.88.  5 P r i s c i l l a Bawcutt d e a l s w i t h P r o l o g u e IX i n j u s t two s e n t e n c e s , f i n d i n g t h a t t h e r e a r e " s i g n s o f e a r l i e r work b e i n g used i n P r o l o g u e IX, where t h e f i r s t e i g h t e e n l i n e s form a s e p a r a t e m o r a l i z i n g s e c t i o n i n a d i f f e r e n t metre from t h e r e s t o f t h e P r o l o g u e . L i n e 19 [ . . . ] effects the t r a n s i t i o n t o a c r i t i c a l passage r e l a t e d t o t h e book t h a t f o l l o w s . " (Gavin Douglas, p.164). I. S. Ross b r i e f l y comments on t h e s t a n z a i c i n i t i a l s e c t i o n and s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e i s no c o n n e x i o n between i t and t h e second p a r t o f t h e P r o l o g u e : "The main theme [ o f t h e s t a n z a i c p a r t ] i s p r a i s e o f v i r t u e but Douglas does not w i s h t o s u s t a i n t h i s . " ("'Proloug' and "Buke'," p.401.) C o l d w e l l , i n h i s c h e c k l i s t o f t h e P r o l o g u e s , o m i t s any mention o f t h e i n i t i a l s e c t i o n and f i n d s t h a t P r o l o g u e IX, " i n which Douglas t u r n s on h i s c r i t i c s , echoes Turnus' a t t a c k on t h e T r o j a n s , " t h u s s u g g e s t i n g a p a r a l l e l i s m between t h e r e - c r e a t o r o f t h e f o r t u n e s o f Aeneas, on t h e one hand, and Aeneas' f o r e m o s t opponent, on t h e o t h e r . (Coldwell, v o l . I , p.88.) 6  L o i s E b i n , "The R o l e o f t h e N a r r a t o r , " pp. 358-59.  C o l d w e l l ' s m i s c o n c e p t i o n t h a t "the c o m p l i c a t e d i n t e r l o c k i n g r i m e scheme [ i s ] so i n t r i c a t e t h a t t h e sense i s s a c r i f i c e d t o i t " proves t h e point. ( C o l d w e l l , v o l . I , p. 225, note on IX, P r o l . , 1-18.) Watt, Douglas's A e n e i d , p . I l l , d e s c r i b e s t h e complex rhyme scheme as "a k i n d o f weaving rhyme" w h i c h , " l i k e t h e swing o f a pendulum," l i n k s t h e i n t e r n a l rhyme word w i t h t h e t a i l rhyme word o f t h e p r e c e d i n g l i n e . 7  8  Ross, " ' P r o l o u g ' and "Buke'," p.402.  9 C o l d w e l 1 , v o l . I , p.88.  141  Chapter V —  The Double P r o g r e s s  W h i l e t h e r e a r e s t r o n g l i n k s between t h e i n d i v i d u a l P r o l o g u e s and t h e Books which t h e y i n t r o d u c e , t h e P r o l o g u e s o f t h e Eneados a r e a l s o t o each o t h e r . the  linked  Read a s a s e r i e s by t h e m s e l v e s — t h a t i s , i n i s o l a t i o n from  B o o k s — t h e Prologues o f f e r glimpses a t the progress o f t h e t r a n s l a t o r  a t work, h i s p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s e s t o t h e work, h i s a r t i s t i c problems, h i s f e e l i n g o f c o n f l i c t between h i s a r t i s t i c p u r s u i t and h i s r e l i g i o u s c a l l i n g , h i s temporary f a t i g u e , and h i s f i n a l t r i u m p h when t h e work i s completed.  In s e v e r a l p l a c e s i n t h e P r o l o g u e s and end-matter,  Douglas  l i k e n s t h e work o f t r a n s l a t i n g t h e A e n e i d t o a p e r i l o u s voyage w h i c h , i n the  final  E x c l a m a t i o n , i s s a i d t o have come t o an end, w i t h t h e s h i p now  s a f e l y anchored  i n the harbour.  1  The metaphor s u g g e s t s t h a t Douglas  sees  a correspondence between h i s own p r o g r e s s and Aeneas' voyage from t h e r u i n s o f T r o y , t h r o u g h many d a n g e r s , t o t h e banks o f t h e T i b e r : b o t h j o u r n e y s a r e q u e s t s — t h e one f o r t h e " f a t a l e c u n t r e o f b e h e s t ' ( X I , P r o l . , 178), t h e o t h e r f o r a new, c r i t i c a l approach t o t r a n s l a t i o n ; when t h e two j o u r n e y s a r e completed, t h e outcome o f each i s an e n t i r e l y new c r e a t i o n — the  f o u n d i n g o f a new n a t i o n , and a d e f e n c e o f p o e t r y t o g e t h e r w i t h a  t h e o r y o f t r a n s l a t i o n accompanied  by i t s p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n .  As Aeneas  l e a v e s Troy b e h i n d i n s e a r c h o f Rome, so Douglas c a s t s o f f t h e t r a d i t i o n o f t h e medieval t r e a t m e n t s o f t h e Troy legend and t u r n s t o t h e new v i s i o n of  R e n a i s s a n c e humanism i n d e v e l o p i n g t h e p r i n c i p l e s on which h i s work i s  based. In t h e R e n a i s s a n c e v i e w , Aeneas' p r o g r e s s , however, a l s o has a second aspect. the  He i s seen t o d e v e l o p i n t o a model p r i n c e a n d — w h a t i s m o r e — i n t o  good man p e r s e , who has been t e s t e d and, s t r e n g t h e n e d by h a r d s h i p and  s u f f e r i n g , has emerged v i c t o r i o u s from h i s t r i a l s .  Douglas's n a r r a t o r , as  L o i s E b i n has o b s e r v e d , undergoes a s i m i l a r t e m p e r i n g as he w r e s t l e s t h e problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e f a i t h f u l  r e n d e r i n g o f a work o f  with  the  h i g h e s t e x c e l l e n c e from one medium i n t o a n o t h e r , and w i t h t h e problems i n v o l v e d i n b e i n g a C h r i s t i a n poet t r a n s l a t i n g a pagan w o r k . t h e n a r r a t o r , t o o , emerges equal  Eventually  2  t o h i s t r i a l s — s o much so t h a t he  can  e a s i l y s u s t a i n t h e s l a p s t i c k comedy o f t h e t h i r t e e n t h P r o l o g u e . The  s e r i e s of Prologues,  distinct parts.  l i k e t h e s e r i e s o f Books, f a l l s  P r o l o g u e s I t o V show t h e n a r r a t o r f u l l  s t r u g g l i n g w i t h h i s a r t i s t i c problems and questions  he poses i n t h e f i r s t P r o l o g u e .  presented  i n h i s dual  from ever new  r o l e as  angles.  themes and t o p i c s a l t e r n a t e and and p o e t i c s t y l e and t e c h n i q u e and  of uncertainty,  s e a r c h i n g f o r answers t o t h e In t h e s e f i r s t f i v e  t h e c o n f l i c t between Douglas's a r t i s t i c and moral c o n f l i c t inherent  Prologues,  impulses—that  " c l e r k , ' b o t h p r i e s t and  i s , the poet—is  In t h e s e P r o l o g u e s a r t i s t i c and  religious  intertwine; discussions of a r t i s t i c  goals  a r e s e t o f f a g a i n s t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f moral  r e l i g i o u s i s s u e s , w i t h l i t t l e a c t u a l c o n t i n u i t y from one  the next.  i n t o two  Prologue t o  Another s i g n o f t h e n a r r a t o r ' s s t r u g g l i n g u n c e r t a i n t y i s t h a t  i n v o c a t i o n s o f God  and  Mary f o r g u i d a n c e i n t h e work a r e f r e q u e n t  here — 3  t h e n a r r a t o r seems t o be c r y i n g out f o r h e l p w i t h a t a s k which i s not difficult  only  i n i t s e l f , but which i s a l s o f e l t t o be somewhat i n a p p r o p r i a t e  f o r a provost.  W h i l e Douglas i s k e e n l y aware o f t h e c u l t u r a l  o f V i r g i l ' s work, he  i s a l s o a c u t e l y conscious  be r a i s e d by h i s c r i t i c s as w e l l as by h i s own  importance  o f t h e o b j e c t i o n s which conscience,  namely, t h a t  t h e A e n e i d can be r e g a r d e d as a work i n which a pagan w r i t e r g l o r i f i e s p u r s u i t o f w o r l d l y e n d s — t h e conquest o f a temporal r e a l m , g u i d e d by 143  can  the non-  C h r i s t i a n d e i t i e s and conducted w i t h , t o t h e medieval mind, a t t i m e s questionable  ethics.  Douglas, t o o , c e l e b r a t e s e a r t h l y p l e a s u r e s — i n  P r o l o g u e V, f o r e x a m p l e — b u t  never w i t h o u t b e i n g c o n s c i o u s o f t h e i r  t r a n s i t o r i n e s s , which he e x p r e s s e s i n h i s r e p e a t e d warnings t h a t e a r t h l y joy  w i l l end i n woe, and t h a t i n d u l g e n c e i n e a r t h l y j o y s w i l l  one's chance o f a t t a i n i n g e t e r n a l b l i s s . inherent  These problems and  endanger conflicts  i n Douglas's quest a r e r e f l e c t e d , t o o , i n t h e n a r r a t o r ' s a l l u s i o n  t o t h e long i n t e r r u p t i o n which had d e l a y e d t h e p r o g r e s s o f h i s work, and which was p a r t l y a consequence o f h a v i n g more p r e s s i n g m a t t e r s t o a t t e n d to (VII, Prol.,  153-4), and p a r t l y , one may assume, a r e s u l t o f t h e p o e t ' s  i n n e r c o n f l i c t which had l e f t him s t r a n d e d i n t h e a r t i s t i c w a s t e l a n d r e f l e c t e d i n the Winter Prologue.  A f t e r the struggles o f the f i r s t f i v e  Prologues, the narrator f i n d s a p a r t i a l  s o l u t i o n t o h i s e t h i c a l dilemma i n  P r o l o g u e V I , where he a c h i e v e s a t h e o r e t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n o f h i s a r t i s t i c and moral c o n c e r n s by p r e s e n t i n g a C h r i s t i a n a l l e g o r i c a l Aeneid.  reading of the  Prologue VII f u r t h e r r e s o l v e s the c o n f l i c t s , w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t  a t t h e end o f t h i s P r o l o g u e t h e n a r r a t o r f i n a l l y emerges from h i s own i n n e r h e l l , ready t o b e g i n t h e second h a l f o f t h e t r a n s l a t i o n w i t h renewed c r e a t i v e energy based on a newly found i n n e r e q u i l i b r i u m and harmony.  As  Book VI c o n s t i t u t e s t h e t u r n i n g p o i n t i n t h e A e n e i d , so t h e two P r o l o g u e s s u r r o u n d i n g i t show t h e two p a r t s o f t h e j u n c t u r e i n t h e n a r r a t o r ' s progress.  In b o t h j o u r n e y s , t h e q u e s t i t s e l f i s now o v e r , and t h e d e s c e n t  i n t o t h e u n d e r w o r l d and t h e p a r a l l e l  exposure t o t h e w a s t e l a n d o f t h e  p o e t i c i m a g i n a t i o n r e s p e c t i v e l y b r i n g a v i s i o n which g i v e s d i r e c t i o n t o t h e second p a r t .  Both Aeneas and t h e n a r r a t o r o f t h e P r o l o g u e s can  now  t u r n from t h e q u e s t t o t h e c o n q u e s t , t h a t i s , t o t h e a c t i v e accomplishment 144  of t h e i r tasks. t h e i r d e s i g n s and  P r o l o g u e s V I I I t o XI11  become i n c r e a s i n g l y complex i n  i n t h e i r i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f , and a l l u s i o n s t o , p r e v i o u s l y  employed m o t i f s , themes, f o r m s , and t h e i r c o n t i n u i t y and  issues, strengthening  internal linkage.  absence o f i n v o c a t i o n s o f God  and  Moreover, t h e now  a r t i s t i c powers and  emphasizing  almost t o t a l  Mary f o r s u p p o r t and a i d i n t h e c r e a t i v e  p r o c e s s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e n a r r a t o r has reached a new h i s own  and  in the  confidence  l e g i t i m a c y o f h i s work.  both i n  With t h e  c o n f l i c t s r e s o l v e d and t h e main work s u c c e s s f u l l y c o m p l e t e d , t h e  narrator  a c h i e v e s a m a s t e r p i e c e o f u n i f i c a t i o n i n t h e t h i r t e e n t h P r o l o g u e , which combines f o r m a l , s t r u c t u r a l and t h e m a t i c elements from a l m o s t a l l preceding  Prologues,  but g i v e s them a new  t u r n by p r e s e n t i n g them i n a  comic mode. The  general  movement o f t h e P r o l o g u e s t h u s a n t i c i p a t e s and  follows  t h a t o f t h e Books, but t h e p a r a l l e l i s m i n t h e p r o g r e s s o f Aeneas and t h e n a r r a t o r a l s o extends t o t h e  l e v e l o f i n d i v i d u a l P r o l o g u e s and  even i n t h e d e t a i l e d s t e p s , b o t h s e r i e s advance i n harmony w i t h  of  Books;  one  another. At t h e b e g i n n i n g  o f Book I, Aeneas i s s h i p w r e c k e d a t an unknown  c o a s t , h a v i n g a l r e a d y t r a v e r s e d t h e sea d e s t i n e d homeland and f u r t h e r hardships  i n an u n c e r t a i n s e a r c h f o r h i s  knowing t h a t t h e q u e s t i s f a r from complete and  a w a i t him;  that  a t t h e end o f t h e Book, Venus' scheme o f a  l o v e a f f a i r between Dido and Aeneas i n v o l v e s him c o n f l i c t between h i s p r i v a t e w i s h e s and  i n the a d d i t i o n a l  his public function.  The  first  P r o l o g u e shows Douglas r e s p o n d i n g t o V i r g i l ' s p o r t r a y a l o f Aeneas' c r i s i s by s e t t i n g out t h e problems o f h i s own approach t o f a i t h f u l  i n h i s a r t i s t i c search f o r a  t r a n s l a t i o n . Douglas's problems a r e no 145  new  less severe  t h a n Aeneas', and he, t o o , t a c k l e s them w i t h undaunted  courage.  There i s  f i r s t t h e i s s u e o f V i r g i l ' s e x c e l l e n c e , which cannot be a d e q u a t e l y r e f l e c t e d i n t h e S c o t t i s h t r a n s l a t i o n , p a r t l y because V i r g i l ' s p o e t i c and s t y l i s t i c e l e g a n c e f a r o u t s t r i p s Douglas's own Douglas f r e e l y a d m i t s i n t h e i n i t i a l  s k i l l s as a p o e t , as  apostrophe t o V i r g i l :  For quhat compair b e t w i x mydday and nycht? Or quhat compair b e t w i x myrknes and l y c h t ? Or quhat compar i s b e t w i x b l a k and quhyte? F a r g r e t t a r d i f f e r e n c e b e t w i x my b l u n t endyte And t h y s c h a r p s u g u r a t e sang V i r g i l i a n e , Sa w y s l y wrocht w i t h n e v i r a word invane. My waverand wyt, my cunnyng f e b i 1 1 a t a l l . My mynd mysty, t h i r may nocht myss a f a l l — ( I , P r o l . , 25-32)  B e s i d e s , t h e s o p h i s t i c a t i o n o f t h e L a t i n language  i s f e l t t o be f a r  s u p e r i o r t o t h a t o f Douglas's own v e r n a c u l a r :  And t h a t t h y [ V i r g i l ' s ] f a c u n d sentence mycht be song In o u r langage a l s w e i l l as L a t y n t o n g — A l s w e i l l ? na, na, i m p o s s i b i l l war, per d e — 3it w i t h t h y l e i f , V i r g i l e , t o f o l l o w t h e , I wald i n t o my r u r a l 1 w l g a r g r o s s Wryte sum savoryng o f thyne Eneados. ( I , P r o l . , 39-44) Then t h e r e i s t h e problem o f V i r g i l ' s d i f f i c u l t y : many passages o f h i s work a r e so ' s l e ' ( I , P r o l . ,  108) and "mysty' ( V I , P r o l . ,  166;  Direction,  105) t h a t even g r e a t s c h o l a r s have found i t hard t o p e n e t r a t e t h e " c l o w d i s o f d y r k poecy'  (I, Prol.,  193) which sometimes o b s c u r e t h e meaning:  The worthy c 1 e r k hecht Lawrens o f t h e Va i l l , Amang L a t y n y s a g r e t p a t r o n sans f a i l l , Grant i s quhen twe1f j h e r i s he had beyn d i 1 i gent To s t u d y V i r g i l l , s k a n t knew quhat he ment. Than thou o r I , my f r e n d , quhen we b e s t weyn To haue V i r g i l e r e d , v n d e r s t a n d and seyn. 146  The r y c h t sentens perchance  i s fer to seik. (I, Prol.,  127-33)  F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e r e i s t h e g e n e r a l problem t h a t t h e v a l u e o f p o e t r y per se i s not r e c o g n i z e d , and t h a t t h e poet s t i l l  has t o defend h i s work i f he  aims f o r g o a l s h i g h e r t h a n e d i f i c a t i o n and e n t e r t a i n m e n t :  4  For so t h e p o e t i s be t h e c r a f t y c u r y s In s i m i l i t u d e s and v n d i r quent f i g u r i s The s u y t h f a s t mater i s t o hyde and t o c o n s t r e y n ; A l l i s nocht f a l s , t r a s t e w e i l l , i n cace t h a i f e y n . Thar a r t i s so t o mak t h a r w a r k i s f a j j r . ( I , P r o l . , 195-99) And  l a s t , t h e r e a r e t h e problems p e c u l i a r t o t r a n s l a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y t h e  t r a n s l a t o r ' s b e i n g bound by t h e o r i g i n a l and b e i n g t h u s p r e v e n t e d from g i v i n g f r e e r e i n t o h i s own produce a f a i t h f u l  c r e a t i v i t y i n c o m p o s i t i o n i f he wishes t o  rendering of the o r i g i n a l  text:  I knaw quhat payn was t o f o l l o w hym f u t h a i t A l b e i t t h o u t h i n k my sayng i n t r i c a t e . T r a s t e w e i l l t o f o l l o w a f i x t sentens o r mater Is mair p r a c t i k e , d e f i c i l l and f a r s t r a t e r , Thocht thyne engyne beyn e l e u a t e and h i e . Than f o r t o w r i t e a l l ways a t l i b e r t e . •  •  •  Quha i s a t t a c h i t o n t i l l a s t a i k , we s e , May go na f e r t h i r bot w r e i l about t h a t t r e . (I, Prol., P a r t i c u l a r l y t h e l a s t two  287-98)  5  issues, the recognition of the inherent merit o f  l i t e r a t u r e and t h e d e d i c a t i o n t o t r a n s l a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n r e - t e l l i n g , a r e new d e p a r t u r e s from t h e a c c e p t e d l i t e r a r y norm. e a r l i e r , Douglas  i s i n b o t h t h e s e i n s t a n c e s d i s t a n c i n g h i m s e l f from  medieval s t a n d a r d s and i s i n s t e a d embracing s t i l l of  As I have d i s c u s s e d  new R e n a i s s a n c e  concepts  t h e poet as an a r t i s t r a t h e r t h a n an e n t e r t a i n e r and o f t h e t r a n s l a t o r  147  as a s c h o l a r r a t h e r t h a n a story-tel1er.° new  and  Both t h e s e i s s u e s a r e s t i l l  r e l a t i v e l y unencountered w i t h i n M i d d l e S c o t s (and M i d d l e  so  English)  l i t e r a t u r e t h a t Douglas w i l l come back t o them s e v e r a l more t i m e s i n t h e course of h i s Prologues. t h e e n t i r e work t h a n an concepts of the  Here, i n P r o l o g u e I , which i s more a p r e f a c e i n t r o d u c t i o n t o Book I , Douglas i n t r o d u c e s  i n h e r e n t a r t i s t i c m e r i t o f p o e t r y and o f f i d e l i t y  to  the in  t r a n s l a t i o n , t o be r e t u r n e d t o and t o be r e f i n e d i n f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n s l a t e r on, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n P r o l o g u e s VI and  IX, where he o f f e r s a d e f e n c e  o f p o e t r y and an a n a l y t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n o f s t y l e . f i n d s h i m s e l f e x p l o r i n g new  L i k e Aeneas, Douglas  t e r r i t o r y , w h i l e b e i n g f o r c e d by  c i r c u m s t a n c e s t o r e l y a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y on h i s own  the  devices.  In t h e second, e x t r e m e l y b r i e f P r o l o g u e , Douglas f o c u s e s on t h e of f i d e l i t y he  i n t r a n s l a t i o n : he needs no  i s c l o s e l y f o l l o w i n g V i r g i l ' s own  compose h i s own  i n s p i r a t i o n from t h e Muses s i n c e  t e x t rather than attempting  v e r s i o n o f t h e a c c o u n t o f t h e s i e g e and  Douglas i s p e r f e c t l y c o n s c i o u s t h a t he a p p r o a c h ; i n d e e d , he  i s breaking  new  fall  burning  this  versions o f the V i r g i l i a n m a t e r i a l :  departure,  10-12)  however, Douglas a l s o f o l l o w s V i r g i l  in  In Book I I , Aeneas r e c o u n t s h i s t u r n i n g away from t h e  Troy t o seek a new  country  f o r h i s company o f f o l l o w e r s .  here r e j e c t s t h e t y p e o f e p i c hero who personal  of Troy.  ground w i t h  Bot f o l l o w a n d V i r g i l , g i f my w i t war a b i 1 1 , Ahe o t h i r wyss now s a l t t h a t b e l l berong Than euer was t o f o r hard i n our t o n g . (II, Prol.,  a n o t h e r way.  to  i s c e r t a i n t h a t h i s method w i l l c o n s t i t u t e an  improvement o v e r p r e c e d i n g  In announcing t h i s new  issue  g l o r y t h a t he must c o n t i n u e  148  i s so d e d i c a t e d  to fight t i l l  Virgil  t o t h e concept o f  e i t h e r v i c t o r y or  d e a t h , and i n s t e a d he l e t s Aeneas c a s t o f f t h e o l d and b e g i n a r e g e n e r a t i n g s e a r c h f o r t h e new.  7  In t h e medieval  t r a d i t i o n , which  f a v o u r e d heroes such a s H e c t o r , Aeneas' s e n s i b l e f l i g h t from t h e Greek massacre and h i s d e p a r t u r e from t h e r u i n e d Troy, a s w e l l a s h i s e a r l i e r attempt ( t o g e t h e r w i t h A n t e n o r ) t o n e g o t i a t e t h e l i f t i n g o f t h e Greek g siege,  had brought him t h e r e p u t a t i o n o f a t r a i t o r , an a s p e r s i o n which  Douglas has a l r e a d y been a t p a i n s t o r e f u t e i n P r o l o g u e  I. Like V i r g i l  and h i s p r o t a g o n i s t , Douglas a l s o t a k e s a courageous s t e p i n a new d i r e c t i o n , knowing v e r y w e l l t h a t h e — l i k e A e n e a s — w i l l n o t escape censure.  N o n e t h e l e s s , o l d concepts a s s e r t themselves  a t t h e end o f t h i s  P r o l o g u e , where Douglas r e v e r t s t o t h e n o t i o n o f t h e p r e d o m i n a n t l y d i d a c t i c v a l u e o f l i t e r a t u r e and t u r n s Book I I i n t o an exemp1um i n s u p p o r t o f t h e adage t h a t " A l l e r d l y g l a i d n e s s f y n y s i t h w i t h wo' ( 1 . 2 1 ) . P r e c e d i n g t h e Book which r e l a t e s Aeneas and A n c h i s e s ' u n s u c c e s s f u l a t t e m p t s t o f i n d t h e e l u s i v e land o f t h e f o r e f a t h e r s promised o r a c l e , Prologue  I I I employs t h e theme o f u n c e r t a i n t y and e r r o r i n t h e  quest f o r t h e b e s t p o s s i b l e t r a n s l a t i o n . ever-changing  i n Apollo's  C y n t h i a , t h e goddess o f t h e  moon and s e a , i s invoked a s p a t r o n e s s o f t h i s  a l t h o u g h Douglas's two p l e a s f o r guidance d i r e c t e d t o God (1.8) and Mary (11.41-5). w i t h t h r e e problems.  Prologue,  i n h i s work a r e a c t u a l l y Douglas i s here s e e k i n g h e l p  F i r s t , h i s knowledge o f t h e e x a c t geography o f  Aeneas' voyage i s a s i m p e r f e c t as i s A n c h i s e s ' knowledge o f t h e p r e c i s e l o c a t i o n o f t h e T r o j a n s ' l a n d o f o r i g i n , and Douglas i s t h e r e f o r e conscious o f the l i k e l i h o o d that h i s t r a n s l a t i o n w i l l  contain errors,  w h i c h , however, s h o u l d n o t d e t r a c t from t h e g e n e r a l q u a l i t y o f t h e work:  149  And g e n t i l l c u r t a s s r e d a r i s o f gude -?ei 11 * I 30W b e s e i k t o g e v i n a d u e r t e n s s ; T h i s t e x t i s fu11 o f s t o r y s euery d e i 1 1 , Realmys and l a n d i s , quharof I haue na f e i 1 1 Bot as I f o l l o w V i r g i l l i n s e n t e n s ; Few knawis a l l t h i r c o s t i s sa f a r hens; To p i k e thame vp perchance ^ o u r eyn s u l d r e i l l — Thus aucht t h a r nane blame me f o r smal o f f e n s . ( I l l , P r o l . , 29-36)  On t h e l i t e r a l  l e v e l , t h e r e i s t h u s a p e r f e c t p a r a l l e l i s m between Aeneas'  t r y i n g t o i d e n t i f y t h e d e s t i n a t i o n o f h i s voyage and t h e n a r r a t o r ' s attempt t o f o l l o w him addressed  i m a g i n a t i v e l y on t h e voyage.  The second  i n t h i s Prologue i s t h a t o f the s p i r i t u a l c o n f l i c t s  s t u m b l i n g b l o c k s , both i n t h e l a r g e r j o u r n e y o f  problem and  life,  W i l d a v e n t u r i s , m o n s t r e i s and quent e f f r a y s — Of onkowth danger i s t h i s n i x t buke ha i1 i s f u 1 1 ; Nyce L a b o r y n t h , quhar Mynotawr t h e b u l l Was k e p t e , had nev i r sa f e i1 c a h u t t i s and ways. I d r e i d men c l e p e thame f a b l i s now on days; T h a r f o r wa1d God I had t h a r e r y s t o pu11 Mysknawis t h e e r e i d , and t h r e p i s o t h e r i s f o r v a y i s , ( I I I , P r o l . , 12-18) and  i n t h e n a r r a t o r ' s p r e s e n t quest f o r a t h e o l o g i c a l l y a c c e p t a b l e  t r a n s l a t i o n o f a pagan work: By s t r a n g e channel l i s , f r o n t e r i s and f o r l a n d i s , Onkouth c o s t i s and mony w i l s u m s t r a n d i s Now g o i t h our barge, f o r nowder howk nor c r a i k May h e i r bruke s a i l , f o r s c h a l d b a n k i s and s a n d i s . From Harpyes f e l l and b l y n d C y c l o p e s h a n d i s Be my l a i d s t a r , v i r g y n e moder but maik. ( I l l , P r o l . , 37-42) As t h e f i n a l  s t a n z a (11. 37-45) makes c l e a r , such an u n d e r t a k i n g s t i l l  i t s r i s k s , and Mary's h e l p i s needed t o p r e s e r v e "our barge'  has  (1.39) from  t h e s p i r i t u a l dangers t o which both t r a n s l a t o r and a u d i e n c e a r e exposed i n  150  a work which t a k e s pagan d e i t i e s n o t a s c o n v e n i e n t l i t e r a r y metaphors and symbols b u t a s a c t u a l gods and goddesses w i t h power o v e r man's l i f e and soul.  The t h i r d problem, an a r t i s t i c one, i s connected w i t h both t h e  f i r s t and t h e second. the l i t e r a l  Douglas f e a r s t h a t h i s r e a d e r s might n o t see beyond  l e v e l o f meaning o f Aeneas' j o u r n e y i n Book I I I and t h a t t h e y  might c o n s e q u e n t l y d i s m i s s t h e a d v e n t u r e s encountered d u r i n g t h e voyage as d e l i b e r a t e f a l s e h o o d and l i e s — " I days'  (III,  Prol.,  d r e i d men c l e p e thame f a b l i s now on  16) — i n s t e a d o f i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e " f e i r f u l  stremys and  c o s t i s w o n d y r f u l 1 ' (1.10) and " s t r a n g e channel l i s , f r o n t e r i s and f o r l a n d i s ' ( 1 . 3 7 ) , where ' m o n s t r e i s ' (1.12) and o t h e r "onkowth d a n g e r i s ' (1.13) a w a i t t h e unwary voyager, a s i m a g i n a t i v e r e n d e r i n g s o f t h e human condition.  In i d e n t i f y i n g t h i s problem, P r o l o g u e I I I e l a b o r a t e s on t h e  same p o i n t made i n P r o l o g u e I and foreshadows of  poetry.  P r o l o g u e VI w i t h i t s defence  In t h e t h i r d P r o l o g u e and Book, both t h e n a r r a t o r and Aeneas  a r e b a r e l y c o g n i z a n t o f t h e n a t u r e o f t h e i r problem, b u t by t h e end o f t h e s i x t h P r o l o g u e and Book b o t h have found s o l u t i o n s , w i t h Aeneas b e i n g a b l e t o advance towards a r e a l i z a t i o n o f h i s v i s i o n o f t h e f u t u r e Rome, and w i t h t h e t r a n s l a t o r h a v i n g f o r m u l a t e d h i s p o e t i c t h e o r y i n which he, among o t h e r t h i n g s , j u s t i f i e s t h e use o f myth a s a l e g i t i m a t e l i t e r a r y  vehicle,  which e n a b l e s him s u b s e q u e n t l y t o i n t e g r a t e h i s r e l i g i o u s and a r t i s t i c concerns. Book IV f i n d s Aeneas t e m p o r a r i l y abandoning  h i s p u b l i c f u n c t i o n as  l e a d e r o f t h e T r o j a n s f o r t h e sake o f h i s p r i v a t e attachment  t o Dido.  The  f o u r t h P r o l o g u e , t o o , shows t h e n a r r a t o r l e s s o c c u p i e d w i t h a r t i s t i c i s s u e s , which have so f a r been t h e prime concern o f t h e P r o l o g u e d i s c u s s i o n s , and i n s t e a d p r e s e n t s him a s a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y i n t e r e s t e d i n  151  t h e r e l i g i o u s and moral q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d by Book IV i n t h e mind o f a C h r i s t i a n r e a d e r and t h e o l o g i a n .  Thus, t h e hero o f t h e A e n e i d and t h e  n a r r a t o r o f t h e P r o l o g u e s both t u r n away, f o r a w h i l e , from t h e i r main o b j e c t i v e s and pursue  i n t e r e s t s which a r e , o r seem, c o n t r a r y t o t h e  a t t a i n m e n t o f t h e i r g o a l s : t h e s o j o u r n i n Carthage d e l a y s and even appears to  j e o p a r d i z e t h e f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e T r o j a n s ' d e s t i n y , and t h e n a r r a t o r ' s  moral  concerns  i n v o l v e him i n a c o n f l i c t o f i n t e r e s t s when he comes t o  t r a n s l a t e Book IV, i n which he, as t r a n s l a t o r , has t o a p p l y t h e same s t a n d a r d s o f f i d e l i t y t o t h e o r i g i n a l as e l s e w h e r e , but whose c o n t e n t s he, i n h i s r o l e as churchman, cannot condone.  W h i l e Douglas cannot  censure  Aeneas w i t h o u t i m p a i r i n g Aeneas' c h a r a c t e r as t h e model p r i n c e , h i s d i s a p p r o v a l o f t h e e p i s o d e i s more t h a n o b v i o u s i n t h e P r o l o g u e ' s comments on Dido's  final  conduct:  Se, quhou b l y n d l u f f i s i n o r d i n a t e d e s y r e D e g r a d i s honour, and r e s s o n d o i t h e x i l e ! D i d o , o f C a r t a g e f l o u r and lamp o f T y r e , Quha.is h i e renoun na s t r e n t h nor g i f t mycht f y l e . In h i r f a y n t l u s t sa m a i t , w i t h i n s c h o r t q u h i l e , That honeste b a i t h and gude fame war adew, Syne f o r d i s d e y n , a l l a c e ! h i r s e l v y n s l e w . (IV, P r o l . , 250-56) There i s no q u e s t i o n t h a t t h e s e l i n e s a l s o imply a r e f l e c t i o n on Aeneas, who  i s , a f t e r a l l , one o f t h e " s t r a n g e r i s o f onkouth n a t i o u n ' (1.267), o f Q  whom l a d i e s a r e a d v i s e d t o beware. The f i f t h P r o l o g u e and Book, however, show both t h e hero and h i s n a r r a t o r f i r m l y f o c u s e d on t h e i r main t a s k s a g a i n .  Having f i n i s h e d t h e  t r a n s l a t i o n o f Book IV w i t h i t s , t o him, so m o r a l l y o f f e n s i v e c o n t e n t , Douglas seems t o r e j o i c e i n t h e p r o s p e c t o f t r a n s l a t i n g Book V.  The  P r o l o g u e r e f l e c t s t h e p u r i f i c a t i o n and r e g e n e r a t i o n which t h e T r o j a n s 152  undergo i n t h e c e l e b r a t i o n o f t h e f u n e r a l games f o r A n c h i s e s and s e l e c t i o n o f a s m a l l e r , more d e t e r m i n e d company, f o l l o w i n g t h e d i s a s t e r of the burning of the f l e e t .  i n the  near-  A f t e r t h e y had been i d l e a t  C a r t h a g e f o r a y e a r , Aeneas' f o l l o w e r s r e j o i c e i n t h e i r renewed a c t i v i t y , which w i l l  b r i n g them b o t h p h y s i c a l l y and  destination.  s p i r i t u a l l y closer to their  T h i s mood a l s o communicates i t s e l f t o t h e n a r r a t o r , who  c e l e b r a t e s t h e wholesome r e g e n e r a t i o n when a l l n a t u r e and mankind a r e life-affirming  impulse and  accompanying t h e a r r i v a l o f  i n a f e s t i v e mood, f o l l o w i n g a  d r a w i n g new  s t r e n g t h and  himself  strongly  the  o f j o y a t t h e a r r i v a l o f s p r i n g t o t h e s t y l i s t i c range  e m o t i o n a l f l e x i b i l i t y w i t h which V i r g i l f e e l i n g s and  spring,  v i t a l i t y from i t .  H a v i n g modulated h i s theme from t h e harmonious d i v e r s i t y o f manifestations  activities  now  and  c a p t u r e s t h e v a r i e t y o f human  i n the Aeneid, the n a r r a t o r a s s e r t s t h a t  he  i s a i m i n g f o r a renewal which p a r a l l e l s t h a t brought by s p r i n g  and  t h a t soon t o be undergone by Aeneas' company:  Now h a r k i s s p o r t i s , m y r t h i s and myrry p l a y s , Ful g u d l y p a s t a n s on mony s y n d r y ways, Endyte by V i r g i l , and h e i r by me t r a n s l a t e , Q u h i l k W i l l i a m Caxton knew n e v i r a l hys d a y s , F o r , as I sayd t o f o r , t h a t man f o r v a y s ; (V, P r o l . , 46-50)  i n d e e d , he f e e l s a member o f t h e s e l e c t group who t h e j o u r n e y and  search f o r the f i n a l  d e s t r o y e d V i r g i l ' s t e x t i n 'Hys  febil  destination. proyss'  m u t u l a t e ' (V, P r o l . , 51); Caxton ' f o r v a y s ' Trojan  women had  erred  a r e chosen t o c o n t i n u e Caxton had  virtually  which 'beyn mank and  (1.50) j u s t as much as  i n almost d e s t r o y i n g t h e i r f l e e t .  the  But C a x t o n , t o o ,  i s l e f t behind i n the c o n t i n u i n g t r a d i t i o n of V i r g i l i a n t r a n s l a t i o n , f o r  153  only the purest w i l l  be good enough, b o t h i n t h e s e a r c h f o r t h e o l d and  new homeland and i n t h e q u e s t f o r a s a t i s f a c t o r y r e n d e r i n g o f t h e elusively difficult  t e x t u r e o f V i r g i l ' s work.  Douglas t h u s i m p l i e s a v e r y  h i g h c l a i m f o r h i m s e l f i n t h e p h r a s i n g o f t h e c o n t r a s t between h i s own work and C a x t o n ' s :  For, as I sayd t o f o r , t h a t man [Caxton] f o r v a y s ; Hys f e b i 1 p r o y s s beyn mank and m u t u l a t e , Bot my propyne com from t h e p r e s s f u t e h a i t , O n f o r l a t i t , not iawyn f r a t u n t o t u n , In f r e s c h sapour new from t h e b e r r y r u n . (V, P r o l . , In making h i s "propyne,' h i s o f f e r i n g o f new, untampered  50-4)  wine, t o V i r g i l ,  Douglas seems t o a l l u d e t o t h e l i b a t i o n o f " c l e a r wine" ("vina l i q u e n t i a ' V, 776) which Aeneas pours i n t o t h e sea i n s a c r i f i c e t o Neptune j u s t b e f o r e resuming t h e voyage. in p a r a l l e l  Aeneas and t h e t r a n s l a t o r - n a r r a t o r a r e t h u s  p o s i t i o n s ; Aeneas needs Neptune's  p r o t e c t i o n on t h e voyage,  but by means o f t h e voyage he makes p o s s i b l e t h e s u r v i v a l o f t h e P e n a t e s , which had been e n t r u s t e d t o him by t h e ghost o f H e c t o r ; s i m i l a r l y , t h e t r a n s l a t o r r e q u i r e s t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f V i r g i l , h i s p a t r o n - s a i n t , t o whom he here makes h i s o f f e r i n g and on whose p o s t he l a t e r a f f i x e s h i s pen as a v o t i v e o f f e r i n g ( C o n c l u s i o n , 13-14), b u t whose s u r v i v a l have been d o u b t f u l  i f i t were not f o r f a i t h f u l  h i m s e l f i n c o n t r a s t t o Caxton.  i n E n g l i s h would  f o l l o w e r s such as Douglas  In consequence, t h e d o u b l e p r o g r e s s can  c o n t i n u e — b o t h Aeneas' t o I t a l y , and V i r g i l ' s i n E n g l i s h . though f o l l o w i n g V i r g i l from a r t i s t i c  However, even  as c l o s e l y as p o s s i b l e may p r o t e c t t h e t r a n s l a t o r  h a z a r d s , he s t i l l  appears t o have doubts r e g a r d i n g t h e moral  and r e l i g i o u s i m p l i c a t i o n s o f h i s u n d e r t a k i n g :  154  Sen e r d l y p l e s o u r e n d i s o f t w i t h sorow, we s e , As i n t h i s buke nane exemplys ^e want. L o r d , our p r o t t e c t o u r t o a l 1 t r a s t i s i n t h e , Bot quham na t h i n g i s worthy nor p y s s a n t , To ws t h y g r a c e and a l s g r e t mercy g r a n t , So f o r t o wend by temporal b l y t h n e s s That our e t e r n a l e i o y be nocht t h e l e s s ! (V, P r o l . , For t h e n a r r a t o r t h e s a i l i n g i s s t i l l a t t h e end o f Book V,  as rough as  i t i s f o r Aeneas,  who,  l o s e s h i s helmsman P a l i n u r u s i n t h e calm sea o f f t h e  shore o f I t a l y , j u s t b e f o r e r e a c h i n g t h e t r e a c h e r o u s For t h e n a r r a t o r , t h e q u e s t i o n  is s t i l l  c l i f f s o f the S i r e n s .  whether t h e p u r s u i t o f a r t i s t i c  e x c e l l e n c e detached from e x p l i c i t l y r e l i g i o u s g o a l s w i l l soul's attainment  62-8)  of eternal  not  imperil his  bliss.  In P r o l o g u e V I , however, t h e n a r r a t o r succeeds i n i n t e g r a t i n g h i s a r t i s t i c and h i s moral c o n c e r n s .  S t r i p p i n g the Aeneid of the apparatus of  myth, he argues t h a t V i r g i l ' s " t e a c h i n g s " a c c o r d with C h r i s t i a n doctrine. V i r g i l ' s work and  In s t r e s s i n g t h e d o c t r i n a l c o r r e c t n e s s  s u p e r s t i t i o n y s a g a n y s t our r i c h t b e l e v e ' conscience  i s perpetuating  'Vayn  (1.22); s i m u l t a n e o u s l y ,  w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e q u e s t i o n which had  t r o u b l e d him a t t h e end o f t h e p r e v i o u s P r o l o g u e .  an  i d e a which i s f a i r l y new  he a l s o still  In e x p l a i n i n g V i r g i l ' s  use o f myth as a wrapping f o r h i s d i d a c t i c aims, Douglas seems t o developing  of  i n e m p h a s i z i n g i t s h i g h d i d a c t i c v a l u e , Douglas defends  h i m s e l f a g a i n s t h i s c r i t i c s ' charge t h a t he  assuages h i s own  i n almost every p o i n t  even t o h i m s e l f .  be  When he  c r i t i c i z e d C a x t o n , i n P r o l o g u e I , f o r o m i t t i n g Book VI because i t i s " f e n j e i t and nocht f o r t o b e l e i f  ( I , P r o l . , 179), he w r o t e :  Sa i s a l l V i r g i l l p e r c h a n s , f o r by hys Iuno nor Venus g o d d e s s s i s neuer wer,  155  leif  Bot t r a s t i s w e i l l , quha t h a t i l k e s a x t buke knew, V i r g i l l t h a r i n ane h i e p h i l o s o p h o u r hym schew. And vnder t h e c l o w d i s o f dyrk poecy Hyd l y i s t h a r mony n o t a b i l l h i s t o r y — For so t h e p o e t i s be t h e c r a f t y c u r y s In s i m i l i t u d e s and v n d i r quent f i g u n ' s The s u y t h f a s t m a t e r i s t o hyde and t o c o n s t r e y n ; A l l i s nocht f a l s , t r a s t e w e i l l , i n cace t h a i f e y n . ( I , P r o l , 180-98)  In t h i s passage from P r o l o g u e I , Douglas had a l r e a d y d e v e l o p e d t h e g e n e r a l o u t l i n e o f t h e argument he i s now  u s i n g i n P r o l o g u e V I , but he had  not y e t worked o u t t h e d e t a i l s , f o r he adds, medieval  clearly  i n f l u e n c e d presumably  by t h e  legend o f V i r g i l as a s o r c e r e r :  Quha w a i t g y f he [Aeneas] i n v i s i o u n t h y d d e r went By a r t magike, s o c e r y o r enchantment. And w i t h hys f a d e r sawle dyd speke and meyt, Or i n t h e l y k n e s w i t h sum o t h e r s p r e i t , Lyke as t h e s p r e i t o f Samuel 1, I g e s s , Rays i t t o Kyng Saul was by t h e P h i t o n e s ? I w i l l nocht say a l l V i r g i l l beyn a l s t r e w Bot a t syk t h y n g i s a r p o s s i b i l l t h i s I schew, A l s i n t h a days war ma i l l u s i o n y s By d e w i l l i c h w a r k i s and c o n j u r a t i o n s Than now t h a r beyn, . . . ( I , P r o l . , 207-17) At t h a t p o i n t Douglas was s t i l l a literal  p e r p l e x e d by t h e q u e s t i o n how  he might  l e v e l e x p l a i n Aeneas' d e s c e n t i n t o t h e u n d e r w o r l d , but when he  w r i t e s P r o l o g u e VI he has come t o r e c o g n i z e t h i s i s s u e as i r r e l e v a n t . i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n i s not how Aeneas g e t s i n t o t h e u n d e r w o r l d but Virgil  on  why  i n t r o d u c e s t h i s e p i s o d e a t a l l , and t o t h i s q u e s t i o n Douglas  h i s own answer i n P r o l o g u e V I .  In e x p l a i n i n g t o h i s r e a d e r s t h a t  Book VI i s a d i s g u i s e d v i s i o n o f t h e C h r i s t i a n a f t e r l i f e , Douglas comes t o terms w i t h t h i s t r o u b l i n g Book h i m s e l f .  finds  Virgil's also  He i s t h u s i n a p o s i t i o n  p a r a l l e l t o t h o s e o f both A n c h i s e s and Aeneas, b o t h e x p l a i n i n g and  156  The  comprehending.  However, w h i l e Aeneas i s s t r e n g t h e n e d by h i s v i s i o n o f t h e  f u t u r e o f Rome and w h i l e he passes t h r o u g h t h e i v o r y g a t e i n a s p i r i t  of  renewed c e r t a i n t y and c o n f i d e n c e though wel1 aware o f t h e h a r d s h i p s y e t t o come, t h e n a r r a t o r has not y e t found t h e g o l d e n bough which w i l l a l l o w him, t o o , t o ascend from t h e "dym his  dilemma has c a s t h i m .  1 0  dongeoun' ( V I , P r o l . ,  165)  i n t o which  Even a f t e r h i s e l a b o r a t e r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f  Book VI as an a l l e g o r y f o r e s h a d o w i n g C h r i s t i a n d o c t r i n e , t h e n a r r a t o r still  f e e l s t h e need t o appeal t o Mary f o r h e l p :  The dym dongeoun o f D i t i s t i l l a s s a i l j e , Or i n t h e l y k n e s t h i s mysty p o e t r y , Help me, Mare; f o r c e r t i s , v a i l que v a i l j e , War a t P l u t o , I s a l hym hunt o f s t y . (VI, P r o l . ,  165-68)  Having i n P r o l o g u e VI a c h i e v e d a t h e o r e t i c a l though not y e t a t o t a l integration of h i s a r t i s t i c  and r e l i g i o u s i m p u l s e s , i n P r o l o g u e VII t h e  n a r r a t o r advances f u r t h e r i n t h e p r o c e s s from a p u r e l y c o g n i t i v e comprehension  t o t h e h i g h e r l e v e l o f thorough knowing which c o r r e s p o n d s t o  Aeneas' e n l i g h t e n m e n t .  In t h e f i r s t p a r t o f P r o l o g u e V I I , t h e n a r r a t o r  f i n d s h i m s e l f i n a dark and h o s t i l e environment where c o n f l i c t i n g  forces—  " F l a g g i s o f f i r e , and mony f e l l o u n f l a w , / Scharpe soppys o f s l e i t and o f t h e snypand snaw' ( 1 1 . 4 9 - 5 0 ) — c o n t e n d threaten to extinguish l i f e  itself,  f o r supremacy and s i m u l t a n e o u s l y  j u s t as t h e c o n f l i c t w i t h i n h i m s e l f  had compromised t h e p r o g r e s s o f h i s c r e a t i v e work.  However, t h e b a r r e n  w i n t e r landscape and t h e c a l a m i t o u s d i s o r d e r i n n a t u r e o n l y spur man g r e a t e r p r o v i d e n c e i n s u s t a i n i n g l i f e , so t h a t even under t h e h a r s h c o n d i t i o n s o f w i n t e r , l i f e can c o n t i n u e :  157  on t o  The s i l l y s c h e i p and t h a r l i t i l h y r d gromys L u r k i s vndre l e o f b a n k i s , woddis and bromys; And o t h e r d a n t i t g r e t t a r b e s t i a l 1, Within thar s t a b i l l i s sesyt into s t a l l , S i k as m u l i s , h o r s s i s , o x i n and ky, Fed t u s k y t b a r y s and f a t swyne i n s t y , S u s t e n y t war by mannys governance On h e r v i s t and on symmeris purvyance. ( V I I , P r o l . , 77-84)  The n a r r a t o r ' s v i s i o n o f t h e w i n t e r landscape t h u s ends on a h o p e f u l n o t e . Images o f t h e N a t i v i t y — t h e shepherds; t h e mule and ox i n t h e s t a b l e ; t h e l i f e - s u s t a i n i n g f o r c e o f p r o v i d e n c e (human o r d i v i n e ) — h i n t a t t h e c o n t i n u a t i o n and,  indeed, r e g e n e r a t i o n which w i l l succeed t h e b a r r e n n e s s  and d e a t h - l i k e c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e w i n t e r landscape o u t s i d e and o f t h e i n n e r s t a t e of the narrator himself.  In u n i s o n w i t h t h e s e examples o f human and  d i v i n e ways t o ensure c o n t i n u a n c e , i n t h e f o l l o w i n g a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l sketch the narrator returns t o h i s ' l e t t r o n ' hand, / F o r t i l  (11.144-6).  shepherds'] governance, (82).  "hynt a pen i n  p e r f o r m t h e poet grave and s a d , / Quham sa f e r f u r t h o r  t h a n begun I had'  war'  (1.143) and  As A l i c i a N i t e c k i o b s e r v e s , "Through [ t h e  "Fed t u s k y t b a r y s and f a t swyne i n s t y , / S u s t e n y t  Through Douglas' governance  the c o l l e c t i v e c u l t u r e i s  p r e s e r v e d a g a i n s t t i m e , decay, d e s t r u c t i o n . "  1 1  At t h e same t i m e ,  f i n a l l y r e s o l v e s t h e dilemma o f h i s moral and a r t i s t i c  Douglas  impulses i n  e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e correspondence between t h e C r e a t o r and t h e "makar' by i n d i c a t i n g t h e p a r a l l e l i s m between t h e r e g e n e r a t i o n r e s u l t i n g from t h e I n c a r n a t i o n and t h e renewed l i f e g i v e n t o one o f t h e p i n n a c l e s o f t h e " c o l l e c t i v e c u l t u r e " by r e - c r e a t i n g i t i n a n o t h e r language and t h u s e x t e n d i n g i t s v i t a l i t y i n t o a f u r t h e r c u l t u r a l sub-group.  In  subsequent  P r o l o g u e s , t h i s correspondence between God t h e F a t h e r ( o r God t h e C r e a t o r ) and t h e l i t e r a r y  artist  i s g o i n g t o be d e v e l o p e d f u r t h e r , but here t h e  158  initial  p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e e x i s t e n c e o f such a p a r a l l e l i s m i s a l r e a d y  enough t o a l l o w t h e n a r r a t o r t o escape from h i s i n n e r w a s t e l a n d and t o c o n t i n u e 'our wark' (1.156) a f t e r i t had been l e f t ' i n t h e myre' (1.156) for  a considerable time. I f Douglas's d a t i n g o f some o f t h e P r o l o g u e s i s t o be t a k e n a t f a c e  v a l u e , t h e r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e i n n e r c o n f l i c t causes h i s work t o proceed a t a much f a s t e r pace from here on.  Prologue V begins w i t h a s p r i n g s e t t i n g ;  t h e n more t h a n h a l f a y e a r e l a p s e s b e f o r e P r o l o g u e VII i s w r i t t e n , s e t on 'the t h r i d morn' i n C a p r i c o r n ( V I I , P r o l . , 7-8), t h a t i s , C h r i s t m a s Eve 1512;  P r o l o g u e V I I I f o l l o w s i n L e n t , which  12  i n 1513 f e l l  particularly  e a r l y , c o v e r i n g t h e second h a l f o f F e b r u a r y and most o f M a r c h ; a f t e r w a r d s , i n May and  1 3  soon  l a t e June 1513, P r o l o g u e s X I I and X I I I a r e w r i t t e n ,  w h i l e t h e e n t i r e work i s completed on 22 J u l y , 'the f e s t o f Mary Magdelan,' 1513  (Time, Space & Date, 2-4), j u s t e i g h t e e n months a f t e r i t s  i n c e p t i o n (Time, Space & Date, 12).  In o t h e r words, w r i t i n g t h e f i r s t s i x  P r o l o g u e s and Books t o o k Douglas a l m o s t an e n t i r e y e a r , from J a n u a r y t o e a r l y December 1512, w h i l e he composed t h e r e m a i n i n g seven P r o l o g u e s and Books i n o n l y seven months.  Once he has found a s o l u t i o n t o t h e problem  o f t h e p e r c e i v e d c l a s h between h i s a r t i s t i c and s c h o l a r l y i n t e r e s t s and his  r e l i g i o u s c a l l i n g , t h e n a r r a t o r e x p e r i e n c e s t h e same renewal o f h i s  powers as does Aeneas i n consequence o f t h e i n t e r v i e w w i t h A n c h i s e s i n Book V I .  Both a r e now  ready t o complete t h e home-coming—Aeneas i n o r d e r  t o r e s u r r e c t Troy i n Rome, and t h e t r a n s l a t o r - n a r r a t o r i n o r d e r t o r e s t o r e Virgil  and h i s t e x t i n E n g l i s h .  In t h e e i g h t h P r o l o g u e and Book, t h e n a r r a t o r and Aeneas each have a dream v i s i o n , which i n v e r y d i f f e r e n t ways c o n f i r m t h e i r purposes  159  and  s t r e n g t h e n t h e i r commitment. oraculum  Whereas Aeneas' dream i s an unambiguous  i n which t h e b e n e v o l e n t r i v e r god T i b e r i n u s g i v e s c l e a r  d i r e c t i o n s f o r a c t i o n and p r o p h e s i e s p o s i t i v e e v e n t s , t h e n a r r a t o r ' s v i s i o i s d i s t u r b i n g , w i t h a h o s t i l e dream f i g u r e mocking t h e dreamer's a m b i t i o n s and q u e s t i o n i n g t h e v a l u e o f h i s u n d e r t a k i n g . i n c r e a s e t h e dreamers' chances o f s u c c e s s .  N o n e t h e l e s s , b o t h dreams  In consequence o f t h e oraculum  Aeneas f i n d s new a l l i e s among t h e A r c a d i a n s and E t r u s c a n s , and t h e dreamer-narrator  i s confirmed i n h i s b e l i e f i n t h e inherent value o f  l i t e r a t u r e a s a good which t r a n s c e n d s c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f t h e m a t e r i a l world.  A t t h e end o f Book V I I I , Aeneas sees t h e c o u r s e o f Roman h i s t o r y  d e p i c t e d on h i s new s h i e l d , n o t knowing t h e w o r l d shown i n t h i s work o f V u l c a n ' s a r t , b u t r e j o i c i n g i n i t s s i g h t and b e i n g buoyed by i t s i m p l i e d promise. art,  Douglas ends t h e P r o l o g u e w i t h an analogous  i n t h i s case l i t e r a t u r e ,  i d e a , namely, t h a t  i s t h e o n l y a v a i l a b l e remedy, both f o r t h e  i l l s o f t h e w o r l d and f o r t h e dreamer's p e r s o n a l t r o u b l e s :  quhen I saw nane o t h e r b u t e , I s p r e n t s p e d e l y on f u t e , And vndre a t r e r u t e Begouth t h i s aucht buke. (VIII, Prol., The e i g h t h P r o l o g u e and Book t h u s come a t a c r i t i c a l t h e p r o c e s s begun i n t h e s i x t h P r o l o g u e and Book.  179-82)  juncture, completing <  Both Aeneas and t h e  n a r r a t o r a r e now p o i s e d f o r t h e conquest, h a v i n g gone t h r o u g h t h e e n l i g h t e n i n g p r o c e s s o f c o g n i t i v e p r e p a r a t i o n i n Book VI and P r o l o g u e s VI and V I I and t a k i n g t h e f i r s t p r a c t i c a l s t e p s ( i n P r o l o g u e V I I I and t h e s u r r o u n d i n g Books V I I and V I I I ) towards t h e f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e i r t a s k s . P r o l o g u e IX c o n f i r m s t h i s view o f l i t e r a t u r e a s t h e o n l y c u r e f o r a  160  corrupt world.  While t h e i n i t i a l  t h r e e s t a n z a s e x t o l v i r t u e and  honesty,  Douglas soon r e j e c t s such e x p l i c i t m o r a l i z i n g — " E n e u c h o f t h i s , ws n e d i s p r e c h na mor'  ( 1 . 1 9 ) — a s no more e f f e c t i v e t h a n t h e r a n t i n g o f t h e  " s e l c o u t h s e g , ' t h e dream f i g u r e i n P r o l o g u e V I I I .  In c o n t r a s t t o t h e  "seg,' who d i s p l a y e d a t o t a l d i s r e g a r d f o r both h i s a u d i e n c e and h i s method, t h e n a r r a t o r now a n a l y z e s l i t e r a r y s t y l e i n r e l a t i o n t o s u b j e c t m a t t e r and a u d i e n c e .  S i n c e I have a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f  t h e s h i f t from t h e s t a n z a i c t o t h e c o u p l e t s e c t i o n a t g r e a t e r l e n g t h i n c h a p t e r IV, i t w i l l "ryall  here s u f f i c e t o say t h a t i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e  s t y l e , c l e p y t h e r o y c a l l ' ( 1 . 2 1 ) , Douglas d e v e l o p s a method towards  an e f f e c t i v e communication  o f e t h i c a l v a l u e s which l e a v e s b o t h p r e v i o u s l y  demonstrated methods f a r b e h i n d .  The c o n c l u s i o n t o be drawn from  Douglas's expose on s t y l e i s t h a t i f a w r i t e r harmonizes h i s s t y l e and s u b j e c t m a t t e r w i t h h i s i n t e n d e d a u d i e n c e , t h e n t h e v a l u e s he wishes t o convey a r e l i k e l y t o be r e c e i v e d and t h e work o f l i t e r a t u r e can f u n c t i o n as a 'bute,' t h u s f u r t h e r l e g i t i m i z i n g t h e r o l e o f t h e l i t e r a r y about which Douglas c l e a r l y no l o n g e r has any  artist  doubts.  However, P r o l o g u e IX not o n l y d e v e l o p s a p o i n t r a i s e d i n P r o l o g u e V I I I , but a l s o opens t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f a l a r g e r group o f t o p i c s . Virgil  uses Books IX t o X I I t o show t h e war  While  i n L a t i u m from a wide range  o f a n g l e s and v i e w - p o i n t s as w e l l as t o d i s p l a y t h e many o u t s t a n d i n g q u a l i t i e s o f Aeneas i n h i s v a r i o u s c a p a c i t i e s as s t a t e s m a n , ambassador, n e g o t i a t o r , r e l i g i o u s l e a d e r , g e n e r a l , w a r r i o r , p a r e n t , f r i e n d and  ally,  Douglas o f f e r s an e x a m i n a t i o n o f v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f t h e "making" o f p o e t r y i n t h e accompanying P r o l o g u e s .  A p a r t from c o n s i d e r i n g s u b j e c t m a t t e r ,  s t y l e and purpose, t h e s e P r o l o g u e s a l s o r e d e f i n e t h e t r a n s l a t o r - n a r r a t o r ' s  161  s o u r c e s o f i n s p i r a t i o n and c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s .  4  From t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f l i t e r a r y a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s , harmony and u n i t y i n P r o l o g u e IX, t h e n a r r a t o r proceeds i n P r o l o g u e X t o a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e a r t i s t ' s need f o r d i v i n e i n s p i r a t i o n .  In c o n t r a s t t o t h e a p p r e h e n s i v e  t o n e o f h i s e a r l i e r p l e a s f o r d i v i n e g u i d a n c e , he now no l o n g e r p e r c e i v e s any s p i r i t u a l danger  i n h i s work.  On t h e c o n t r a r y , h a v i n g i n P r o l o g u e VII  t e n t a t i v e l y i m p l i e d a p a r a l l e l i s m between t h e C r e a t o r and t h e "makar,' t h e n a r r a t o r now c e l e b r a t e s t h e b e a u t y , o r d e r , harmony and d i v e r s i t y o f C r e a t i o n i n terms which suggest t h a t he l o o k s a t n a t u r e as i f i t were a work o f a r t — a s e r i e s o f m i n i a t u r e s i n a Book o f Hours, f o r example, d e p i c t n a t u r e a t d i f f e r e n t seasons and a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s o f day.  which  The  n a r r a t o r ' s e a r l i e r images o f God t h e F a t h e r as t h e 'prynce o f poet i s ' { I , P r o l . , 452) and o f C h r i s t as ' t h a t h e v y n l y Orpheus'  ( I , P r o l . , 469) a r e  here r e - a p p l i e d t o God t h e C r e a t o r as t h e supreme a r t i s t , whose C r e a t i o n i s informed by H i s own p e r f e c t i o n and by t h e harmony o f t h e T r i - u n i t y .  In  t h i s P r o l o g u e Douglas draws new s t r e n g t h from h i s m e d i t a t i o n on t h e mystery o f d i v i n e l o v e , but i t a l s o becomes p e r f e c t l y c l e a r t o him t h a t all  a r t must be i n s p i r e d by t h e a r t i s t ' s d e s i r e f o r harmony w i t h h i s  Creator.  Even though t h e t r a n s l a t o r - n a r r a t o r w i l l  continue t o follow the  l e t t e r o f V i r g i l ' s t e x t , he wi1) do so i n a d i f f e r e n t s p i r i t and t o a d i f f e r e n t purpose t h a n h i s ' a u t o u r ' (1.155).  That such an a d a p t a t i o n i s  p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t c h a n g i n g t h e s u r f a c e t e x t u r e o f t h e work, Douglas demonstrates i n " r e - a p p l y i n g t o t h e C h r i s t i a n God p h r a s e s and which V i r g i l  had used o f J u p i t e r "  1 5  epithets  a t the beginning of the d i r e c t l y  f o l l o w i n g t e n t h Book. In P r o l o g u e X I , Douglas's r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e A e n e i d a c c o r d i n g t o  162  C h r i s t i a n p r i n c i p l e s becomes, i n consequence, more o v e r t t h a n ever b e f o r e . The whole o f t h e Aeneid i s here t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o an a l l e g o r y o f t h e s t r u g g l e which t h e C h r i s t i a n f a c e s e v e r y day.  The b e l i e v e r , j u s t l i k e t h e  t r u l y c h i v a l r o u s w a r r i o r , must a p p l y t h e f o u r c a r d i n a l v i r t u e s i n h i s d a i l y b a t t l e a g a i n s t t h e t e m p t a t i o n s o f t h e F l e s h , t h e World and "aduersar p r i n c i p a l ! '  (1. 97); h i s conduct,  the  l i k e that of the knight in  war, must be based on j u s t i c e (11. 17-24) and must be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by f o r t i t u d e ( 1 . 3 3 ) , which  i t s e l f must l a c k n e i t h e r prudence (11. 37-8)  temperance (11. 41-44).  However, i n o r d e r t o succeed  nor  i n h i s struggle, the  b e l i e v e r a l s o r e q u i r e s t h e t h r e e t h e o l o g i c a l v i r t u e s , which a r e here r e f e r r e d t o i n metaphors t a k e n from t h e m i l i t a r y sphere a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e ongoing account o f t h e wars i n L a t i u m .  The C h r i s t i a n must  Rayss h i e t h e t a r g e o f f a i t h vp i n [ h i s ] hand, On hed t h e halsum helm o f h o i p o n l a c e , In c h e r y t e [ h i s ] body a l l embrace (XI, P r o l . ,  101-3)  Equipped w i t h t h e s h i e l d o f F a i t h , t h e helmet o f Hope, and t h e c o r s l e t o f C h a r i t y , he o n l y needs t h e a d d i t i o n a l sword o f d e v o t i o n ( 1 . 104) t o defend himself a g a i n s t the onslaughts of the Adversary. Given t h i s k i n d o f i n t r o d u c t i o n , Aeneas' p r o t r a c t e d b a t t l e i n L a t i u m must come t o be seen by t h e r e a d e r as analogous w i t h h i s own spiritual  continuous  w a r f a r e , w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t a t l e a s t t h e s u c c e e d i n g Books XI  and X I I w i l l  be r e a d on both t h e l i t e r a l  and t h e a l l e g o r i c a l  level.  This  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s f u r t h e r s t r e n g t h e n e d by t h e opening scene o f Book X I , where Aeneas i s shown i n h i s c a p a c i t y as a devout r e l i g i o u s l e a d e r , d i s c h a r g i n g f i r s t h i s d u t y t o t h e gods, a l b e i t a f t e r h i s 'payane g y s s , ' b e f o r e he a t t e n d s t o h i s o t h e r , c i v i c and m i l i t a r y c o n c e r n s . 163  However,  w h i l e Aeneas i s on one l e v e l t h e a l l e g o r i c a l e q u i v a l e n t o f t h e s t r u g g l i n g C h r i s t i a n , he i s on a n o t h e r l e v e l a l s o t h e a l l e g o r i c a l  equivalent of  C h r i s t , f o r i t i s Aeneas who leads h i s s e l e c t company o f f a i t h f u l f o l l o w e r s a c r o s s t h e water t o t h e i r promised homeland.  The f i n a l  three  s t a n z a s , w i t h t h e i r p a r a l l e l i s m between t h e "temporal r y n g ' ( 1 . 182) which Aeneas s t r i v e s t o w i n and 'the kynryk ay l e s t y n g ' ( 1 . 183) and t h e i r j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f t h e T r o j a n s ' ' f a t a l e c u n t r e o f b e h e s t ' ( 1 . 178) w i t h ' t h a t r e a l m . . . / The q u h i I k was hecht t i l l  Abraham and hys s e y d ' ( 1 .  199), l i n k Aeneas' l e a d i n g t h e T r o j a n s t o A u s o n i a w i t h Moses' l e a d i n g t h e I s r a e l i t e s t o t h e Promised Land and t h u s , i n l i n e w i t h t h e t y p o l o g i c a l r e a d i n g o f t h e O l d Testament, w i t h C h r i s t ' s making i t a g a i n p o s s i b l e f o r man t o r e a c h ' t h a t r e a l m . . . / The q u h i l k was hecht t i l l s e y d ' (11.198-9).  Abraham and hys  What t h e n a r r a t o r had t h e o r e t i c a l l y i n d i c a t e d i n  P r o l o g u e X becomes p r a c t i c a l f a c t i n P r o l o g u e X I : t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e A e n e i d i s now p r o p e r C h r i s t i a n conduct and no l o n g e r t h e j u s t i f i c a t i o n and c e l e b r a t i o n o f t h e Roman J u l i a n l i n e l e a d i n g up t o Augustus; t h e work has become a k i n d o f " P i l g r i m ' s P r o g r e s s , " h o l d i n g Aeneas up a s a s p i r i t u a l model f o r t h e C h r i s t i a n r e a d e r t o f o l l o w . Having t h u s re-examined  h i s s t y l e , r e c o n s i d e r e d h i s source o f  i n s p i r a t i o n and r e d e f i n e d h i s purpose and s u b j e c t m a t t e r , t h e n a r r a t o r b e g i n s P r o l o g u e X I I i n an e n t i r e l y new s p i r i t , f r e e d from t h e s t r a i n which t h e u n r e s o l v e d c o n f l i c t between h i s a r t i s t i c and moral  l e a n i n g s had  p r e v i o u s l y p l a c e d on him. As he had done i n P r o l o g u e s VI and V I I , t h e n a r r a t o r r e p e a t s i n P r o l o g u e XI t h e i n s i g h t s won i n P r o l o g u e X b u t p r e s e n t s them i n an i m a g i n a t i v e l y t r a n s f o r m e d manner, p r a i s i n g h i s Maker in  p o e t i c images r a t h e r t h a n i n t h e o l o g i c a l d i s c o u r s e . 164  Indeed, a f t e r t h e  r e d i r e c t i o n i n s t y l e , purpose, and s u b j e c t m a t t e r , and t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f what i s f o r him t h e o n l y a c c e p t a b l e  source o f i n s p i r a t i o n , t h e n a r r a t o r  now p e r c e i v e s t h e two impulses o f a r t and r e l i g i o n t o be i n such harmony t h a t t h e w r i t i n g o f s e c u l a r p o e t r y can proceed w i t h t h e p r i e s t ' s b l e s s i n g :  I i r k y t o f my bed, and mycht n o t l y , Bot gan me b l y s s , syne i n my wedis d r e s s . And, f o r i t was a y r morow, o r tyme o f mess, I hynt a s c r i p t o u r and my pen f u r t h t u k e , Syne t h u s begouth o f V i r g i 1 1 t h e t w e l t buke. ( X I I , P r o l . , 302-6)  G i v e n t h e d o u b t l e s s l y intended  pun i n "mess' on "a meal" and "Mass," t h e  w r i t i n g o f s e c u l a r p o e t r y may now even be r e g a r d e d a s an e n t i r e l y appropriate  preparation  Christian faith.  f o r Mass, a s long a s i t i s i n harmony w i t h t h e  P r o l o g u e X I I t h u s c o n s t i t u t e s an a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e  i s s u e s e x p l i c i t l y r a i s e d i n P r o l o g u e s V I I I and t h e o r e t i c a l l y c o n s i d e r e d i n P r o l o g u e s IX t o X I .  Having come t o terms w i t h t h e problems he f a c e d a s an  a r t i s t , t h e narrator presents  an a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l  sketch again,  depicting  h i m s e l f a s a man who r e j o i c e s i n t h e p u r i t y o f t h e May morning and who draws from t h a t scene t h e i n s p i r a t i o n which w i l l a l l o w him t o b r i n g h i s long labour t o i t s c o m p l e t i o n .  A t t h e end o f P r o l o g u e X I I , t h e p o e t -  t r a n s l a t o r ' s r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e harmony between a r t and C r e a t i o n has renewed h i s c r e a t i v e energy so t h a t he i s eager t o t r a n s l a t e V i r g i l ' s final  Book.  D i f f e r e n t a s t h e y a r e , t h e t w e l f t h P r o l o g u e and Book b o t h end  w i t h a v i c t o r y : t h a t o f Aeneas o v e r h i s opponent and o v e r war i t s e l f , and t h a t o f t h e n a r r a t o r over h i s d i s r u p t i v e inner c o n f l i c t s ; but given t h e r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e Aeneid provided  i n Prologue X I , both these  v i c t o r i e s a r e d i r e c t l y based on t h e t r i u m p h o f t h e Son c e l e b r a t e d  165  i n the  main p a r t o f P r o l o g u e X I I a s t h e t r i u m p h o f t h e sun o v e r d a r k n e s s . C o m p l e t i n g t h e s e r i e s . P r o l o g u e X I I I combines t h e m a t i c , s t r u c t u r a l and formal elements from most o f t h e p r e c e d i n g P r o l o g u e s i n a m a s t e r p i e c e of  unification.  Framed by a c o u n t e r p a r t t o t h e p r e c e d i n g two season  d e s c r i p t i o n s i n P r o l o g u e s V I I and X I I , t h e c e n t r a l s e c t i o n o f P r o l o g u e X I I I r e p e a t s t h e d r e a m - v i s i o n form a l r e a d y employed i n P r o l o g u e V I I I , b u t r e d i r e c t s t h e s a t i r i c t h r u s t from t h e s o c i a l t o t h e l i t e r a r y  sphere.  Thematica11y, t h i s c e n t r a l s e c t i o n r e c a l l s t h e d i s c u s s i o n s o f t h e v a l u e o f s e c u l a r p o e t r y i n P r o l o g u e s I , I I I , V I , and IX, and p r o v i d e s d e f i n i t i v e answers t o t h e q u e s t i o n s and u n c e r t a i n t i e s which had t r o u b l e d t h e n a r r a t o r in  P r o l o g u e s I I I , V and V I I .  The t h i r t e e n t h P r o l o g u e t h u s s e r v e s a s a  c a p s t o n e , c o m p l e t i n g and f u r t h e r h e i g h t e n i n g t h e s t r u c t u r e .  What s t i l l  remains t o be d o n e — t h e t r a n s l a t i o n o f Maphaeus' s u p p l e m e n t — w i l l occupy the dreamer-narrator f o r but a short f o r t n i g h t .  By t h e end o f P r o l o g u e  X I I I , t h e p o e t - t r a n s l a t o r has e s s e n t i a l l y f i n i s h e d h i s work; f o r Douglas as f o r Aeneas, t h e s t r u g g l e i s o v e r , and t h e b a t t l e won.  As L o i s E b i n  observes,  t h e two s t r u g g l e s , t h e e f f o r t o f t h e poet t o produce a worthy poem and t h e j o u r n e y o f Aeneas t o f u l f i l l h i s d e s t i n y and found Rome, d e f i n e d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f t h e quest f o r honor and v i r t u e which Douglas i n t r o d u c e s i n t h e Pa 1ice o f Honour a s t h e h i g h e s t goal o f man i n t h e w o r l d [PH, 1972-2007]. [. . .] In i t s c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the r e l a t i o n o f t h e poet's a c t i v i t y t o h i s c o n f l i c t s as a C h r i s t i a n , t h e n a r r a t o r ' s e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e good poet and t h e v a l u e o f p o e t r y i n t h e t h i r t e e n p r o l o g u e s become [ s i c ] t h e a r t i s t i c c o u n t e r p a r t o f Eneas' r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e good man.* 6  Aeneas has n o t o n l y found t h e e l u s i v e homeland a n d , by f i g h t i n g a war t o  166  end war, won L a t i u m f o r a new n a t i o n , b u t he h i m s e l f has grown from a mere hero i n t o a good man, who i s commended f o r h i s c a r i t a s and p i e t a s , and i n t o a model p r i n c e , who has t o endure t h e l o s s o f h i s k i n g , h i s home, h i s w i f e , h i s f r i e n d s and comrades,  h i s f a t h e r and, f i n a l l y , h i s l o v e r , w h i l e  g u i d i n g h i s p e o p l e and n u r t u r i n g t h e new n a t i o n .  In a p a r a l l e l  double  q u e s t , Douglas has n o t o n l y r e c r e a t e d t h e whole o f V i r g i l ' s A e n e i d i n " S c o t t i s , ' which he had t o temper  i n such a way t h a t i t would become  e l a s t i c and f l e x i b l e enough t o f o l l o w V i r g i l ' s v e r s e , b u t he has a l s o d e f i n e d and j u s t i f i e d h i s s t a n c e a s a poet and t r a n s l a t o r and defended t h e v a l u e o f l i t e r a t u r e as a r t .  167  Notes  I I I , P r o l . , 37-45, and E x c l a m a t i o n , 1-6; a r e l a t e d image o c c u r s i n the D i r e c t i o n (11.104-5), where Douglas compares h i s labour t o wading t h r o u g h t h e deep sea shrouded i n m i s t . 2  E b i n , "The R o l e o f t h e N a r r a t o r , " p.353.  3 In t h e f i r s t , h a l f , t h e n a r r a t o r invokes God f o u r t i m e s ( I , P r o l . , 452-59; I I , P r o l . , 7; I I I , P r o l . , 8; V, P r o l . , 60-68) and Mary t h r e e t i m e s ( I , P r o l . , 459-70; I I I , P r o l . , 42; V I , P r o l . , 167), whereas i n t h e second h a l f , he o n l y i n v o k e s God once, i n X, P r o l . , 146-50. 4 However, t h i s problem i s a p e r e n n i a l one; a t t h e end o f t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y , S i d n e y s t i l l argued t h e same p o i n t i n h i s Defence o f Poetry. 5 C o l d w e l l ' s statement t h a t Douglas c l a i m s he "would have done b e t t e r i f he had not been l i m i t e d by t h e e x i s t i n g t e x t " seems t o m i s i n t e r p r e t Douglas's l i n e s ( S e l e c t i o n s from G a v i n Douglas, p . x v ) . F a r from v i e w i n g V i r g i l ' s t e x t as a h i n d r a n c e as Coldwel1 i m p l i e s , Douglas p o i n t s o u t t h a t an a c c u r a t e t r a n s l a t o r must e x e r c i s e g r e a t d i s c i p l i n e and r e s t r a i n t i n o r d e r t o be t r u e t o t h e o r i g i n a l . I c e r t a i n l y do not mean t o suggest t h a t Chaucer, f o r example, was not a c o n s c i o u s a r t i s t o r saw h i m s e l f as m e r e l y a c o u r t e n t e r t a i n e r . The d i s t i n c t i o n i s r a t h e r t h a t Chaucer does not need t o emphasize h i s a r t i s t r y , w h i l e Douglas v e r y e m p h a t i c a l l y w i s h e s t o be seen by o t h e r s as a conscious a r t i s t . Chaucer seems t o t a k e h i s a r t f o r g r a n t e d , whereas Douglas makes i t an i s s u e . 6  7  CM.  Bowra, From V i r g i 1 t o Mi 1 t o n (London: M a c m i l l a n , 1957), pp.9-  11. g In Gower's a c c o u n t o f t h i s i n c i d e n t (CA, I , 1077-1128), Aeneas and A n t e n o r ' s t r e a c h e r y c o n s i s t s o f a c c e p t i n g " y i f t e s g r e t e / Of g o l d ' (11.1100-1) i n r e t u r n f o r p e r s u a d i n g P r i a m t o agree t o a peace t r e a t y which t h e y know t o be f a l s e . A c c o r d i n g t o L y d g a t e , however, Aeneas and A n c h i s e s ( t o g e t h e r w i t h Antenor) a r e so eager t o save t h e i r own l i v e s t h a t t h e y a t l e n g t h persuade P r i a m t o a g r e e t o a f a l s e peace t r e a t y i n which the Greeks promise t o l i f t t h e s i e g e i n r e t u r n f o r n e a r l y a l l t h e g o l d and t r e a s u r e o f T r o y . Antenor a l o n e l a t e r hands o v e r t h e P a l l a d i o n t o t h e Greeks i n o r d e r t o t a k e revenge f o r h i s banishment from Troy which Aeneas had p r o c u r e d ( J B , IV, 4531-5832). 9 Chaucer i s f a r more outspoken i n h i s c r i t i c i s m o f Aeneas, a c c u s i n g him o f u n n a t u r a l t r e a c h e r y (HF, 293-95), o f f a l s e h o o d (LGW, 1234-36), o f f i c k l e n e s s (LGW, 1285-87), and o f j i l t i n g Dido f o r L a v i n i a (LGW, 1326-30). Gower, on t h e o t h e r hand, i n c l u d e s t h e Dido-and-Aeneas s t o r y i n h i s C o n f e s s i o Amantis as an exemplum i l l u s t r a t i n g t h e v i c e o f S l o t h i n love (CA, IV, 77-146). There i s no mention o f t r e a c h e r y ; Aeneas i s o n l y 168  c r i t i c i z e d f o r b e i n g 'siowe' (1.137). Penelope S c h o t t S t a r k e y , "Gavin Douglas's Eneados; Dilemmas i n t h e Nature P r o l o g u e s , " S t u d i e s i n S c o t t i s h L i t e r a t u r e , 11 (1973/74), 87, i n t e r p r e t s t h e Y - f o r m a t i o n o f t h e c r a n e s , which t h e n a r r a t o r sees a t t h e end o f P r o l o g u e V I I , as h i s g o l d e n bough. N i t e c k i , " M o r t a l i t y and P o e t r y , " p.87. 12 T h i s d a t e , however, seems u n r e a l i s t i c , s i n c e Douglas as p r o v o s t o f t h e i m p o r t a n t c o l l e g i a t e c h u r c h o f S t G i l e s , E d i n b u r g h , would have been u n l i k e l y t o have had t i m e and l e i s u r e f o r w r i t i n g p o e t r y j u s t b e f o r e as busy a day as C h r i s t m a s . * In 1513, E a s t e r f e l l 16 F e b r u a r y . 3  1 4  on 27 March, so t h a t Lent would have begun on  E b i n , "The R o l e o f t h e N a r r a t o r , " pp.358, 360.  15 Bawcutt, G a v i n Douglas, p.174. 1 6  E b i n , "The R o l e o f t h e N a r r a t o r , " p.363.  169  Cone 1 us i on  Having t r a n s l a t e d t h e l a s t word o f t h e t h i r t e e n t h Book, Douglas seems to for  f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t t o t a k e h i s l e a v e o f t h e work which had o c c u p i e d t h e p r e c e d i n g year and a h a l f .  him  In f o u r a d d i t i o n a l passages o f v e r s e ,  the Conclusion, the D i r e c t i o n , the Exclamation  a g a i n s t D e t r a c t o r s , and  the  s e c t i o n e n t i t l e d Time, Space and Date, Douglas r e v i e w s h i s p o s i t i o n as a p o e t , t r a n s l a t o r and s c h o l a r .  He w r i t e s as a man  work be p r o p e r l y a p p r e c i a t e d and who i t might be tampered w i t h .  who  i s anxious t h a t h i s  f e a r s , more t h a n a n y t h i n g e l s e , t h a t  H i s envoy, a d d r e s s e d t o t h e book i t s e l f , sums  up Douglas's a t t i t u d e towards h i s work: Go, w l g a r V i r g i l l , t o euery c h u r l y c h w i g h t Say, I avow t h o u a r t t r a n s 1at i t r y c h t Beseyk a l l n o b i 1 1 y s t h e c o r e c t and amend, Beys not a f f e r y t tocum i n p r y s a r i s s y c h t ; The n e d i s nocht t o aschame o f t h e l y c h t . For I haue b r o c h t t h y purposs t o gud end: Now s a l t t h o u w i t h euery g e n t i l l Scot be kend, And t o on l e t t e r i t f o l k be r e d on h i g h t , That e r s t was bot w i t h c l e r k i s comprehend. (Exclamation, Virgil  remains V i r g i l , r e g a r d l e s s o f whether he be r e a d  37-45)  i n the  L a t i n o r i n Douglas's 'wlgar' t r a n s l a t i o n — t h e r e i s not t h e  original  slightest  doubt i n Douglas's mind t h a t he has done j u s t i c e t o h i s 'autour,' and  he  i s c e r t a i n t h a t t h e c o u r t e s y which he extends t o h i s c o u r t l y r e a d e r s  will  not be m i s t a k e n f o r a n y t h i n g but a f o r m u l a ; c r i t i c s , on t h e o t h e r hand, whom he more commonly c a l l s f a u l t - f i n d e r s o r b a c k b i t e r s , w i l l reasonable  have no  cause f o r c o m p l a i n t , f o r Douglas i s s u r e t h a t he has  V i r g i l w e l l and t h a t h i s own achievement.  served  work c o n s t i t u t e s a h i g h l y m e r i t o r i o u s  T h i s c l a i m i s p a r t l y based on t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e  170  t r a n s l a t i o n , and p a r t l y on t h e i n c r e a s e d a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f t h e A e n e i d r e s u l t i n g from i t s t r a n s l a t i o n i n t o " S c o t t i s . '  While o n l y t r a i n e d  s c h o l a r s had p r e v i o u s l y been a b l e t o r e a d V i r g i l and, i t i s u n d e r s t o o d , t o p r o f i t from such a r e a d i n g , t h e work i s now a v a i l a b l e t o a l l , l e t t e r e d and u n l e t t e r e d , l a y and l e a r n e d a l i k e .  At l e a s t t h e o r e t i c a l l y , there are thus  no l o n g e r any l i m i t s t o where V i r g i l , now  ' w l g a r , ' might "go.'  Indeed,  w h i l e t h e above passage r e f e r s e x c l u s i v e l y t o a S c o t t i s h a u d i e n c e , Douglas e l s e w h e r e e n v i s i o n s an even w i d e r one:  Throw owt t h e i l e y c l e p i t A l b y o n Red s a i l I be, and sung w i t h mony one.  ( C o n c l u s i o n , 11-12)  These two l i n e s a l s o b r i n g Douglas's c o n v i c t i o n o f t h e d u r a b i l i t y o f h i s own fame i n t o even c l e a r e r f o c u s . To a l a r g e e x t e n t , Douglas i s j u s t i f i e d renown.  in his claim to lasting  He has c r e a t e d a genuine t r a n s l a t i o n , not an a d a p t a t i o n , o f an  o u t s t a n d i n g work o f c l a s s i c a l a n t i q u i t y . Judged by any s t a n d a r d s , t h e q u a l i t y o f t h i s t r a n s l a t i o n i s h i g h , not o n l y because o f i t s g e n e r a l a c c u r a c y , but a l s o because o f i t s own m e r i t s as a work o f l i t e r a t u r e .  It  i s t r u e t h a t Douglas o c c a s i o n a l l y a l t e r s t h e f l a v o u r o f V i r g i 1 i a n p a s s a g e s , e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e which d e s c r i b e v i g o r o u s a c t i o n , but changes o f t h i s k i n d a r e due t o a p a r t i c u l a r p e r c e p t i o n o f V i r g i l l a c k o f competence on t h e p a r t o f t h e t r a n s l a t o r .  r a t h e r t h a n t o any  Douglas s i m p l y does not  seem t o have been aware o f any e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e between t h e /  civilization Scotland.  o f i m p e r i a l Rome and t h a t o f e a r l y s i x t e e n t h - c e n t u r y  As a r e s u l t , he o f t e n makes s p e c i f i c what V i r g i l  o r ambiguous, he a c t u a l i z e s and c o n c r e t i z e s what V i r g i l  171  leaves  vague  l e a v e s remote and  a b s t r a c t , and he "modernizes" and " S c o t t i c i z e s " what seems a r c h a i c o r alien in Virgi1. A more s e r i o u s i n t e r v e n t i o n i s t h a t he a l s o C h r i s t i a n i z e s V i r g i l , b u t t h i s d i f f e r e n c e i n the underlying philosophy translation  itself.  rarely affects the  On t h e c o n t r a r y , s i n c e Douglas sees V i r g i l  not only  as a poet o f p e e r l e s s e x c e l l e n c e b u t a l s o a s a sage p h i l o s o p h e r and t h e o l o g i a n f o r e s h a d o w i n g C h r i s t i a n d o c t r i n e , he t r e a t s V i r g i l ' s work w i t h t h e g r e a t e s t r e s p e c t and r e g a r d s i t s i n t e g r i t y a s i n v i o l a b l e . r e l i g i o u s r i t e s described  i n t h e e p i c o f t e n g a i n i n t e n s i t y i n Douglas's  t r a n s l a t i o n , they a r e not c o n s c i o u s l y transformed However, a l t h o u g h  While t h e  into Christian r i t u a l s .  t h e t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h e Books o f t h e A e n e i d remains  l a r g e l y u n a f f e c t e d by t h e t r a n s l a t o r ' s r e l i g i o u s and moral s t a n c e , t h e s e r i e s o f P r o l o g u e s i n t r o d u c i n g t h e i n d i v i d u a l Books p r e s e n t s a r e a d i n g o f t h e work a s a C h r i s t i a n a l l e g o r y .  In t h i s r e - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , Aeneas n o t  o n l y appears a s t h e good man and model p r i n c e , b u t he a l s o r e p r e s e n t s t h e C h r i s t i a n b e l i e v e r i n h i s c o n t i n u o u s s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t t h e powers o f d a r k n e s s , and he f u r t h e r m o r e comes t o be a t y p e o f C h r i s t H i m s e l f , h i s p e o p l e home t o t h e land promised by d i v i n e r e v e l a t i o n .  leading  The s e r i e s o f  t h e P r o l o g u e s t h u s t r a n s v a l u e s t h e A e n e i d by r e - i n t e r p r e t i n g i t s common archetypes as foreshadowings o f C h r i s t i a n t e a c h i n g . W h i l e t h e P r o l o g u e s i n one r e s p e c t c o n s t i t u t e a " r e a d e r ' s  guide" t o  t h e A e n e i d , t h e y a l s o s e r v e a s a p l a t f o r m f o r Douglas t o expound h i s t h e o r e t i c a l approach t o t h e genre o f t r a n s l a t i o n , t o d i s c u s s t h e p r i n c i p l e s and methods which he i n t e n d s t o a p p l y  i n h i s own t r a n s l a t i o n o f  t h e p a r t i c u l a r work, and t o examine t h e s h o r t c o m i n g s o f e a r l i e r t r e a t m e n t s of t h e Aeneid i n E n g l i s h .  Douglas's main g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e i s t h e demand  172  f o r utmost a c c u r a c y i n e v e r y r e s p e c t , from p r e c i s i o n i n t h e word c h o i c e all  t h e way t o f i d e l i t y  in the rendering of the p h i l o s o p h i c a l  and  i d e o l o g i c a l p o s i t i o n o f t h e o r i g i n a l a u t h o r as i t i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e work itself.  T h i s demand, however, i n v o l v e s Douglas i n a c o n t r a d i c t i o n i n  which h i s two r o l e s as p o e t - s c h o l a r and as churchman seem t o make m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e c l a i m s , f o r t h e C h r i s t i a n i n Douglas i s e x h o r t e d t o p l a c e h i s a r t i s t i c t a l e n t s i n t h e s e r v i c e o f h i s f a i t h , w h i l e t h e s c h o l a r wishes  to  be as a c c u r a t e as p o s s i b l e i n making t h e work o f V i r g i l , a l t h o u g h a pagan w r i t e r , a c c e s s i b l e t o the widest audience. s e r i e s , Douglas s t i l l between t h e s e two  In t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h e  seems t o l a b o u r under t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f a c l a s h  i m p u l s e s , but i n a p r o c e s s p a r a l l e l t o t h e  tempering  which Aeneas undergoes as a r e s u l t o f h i s t r i a l s and s u f f e r i n g s , t h e n a r r a t o r a l s o g r a d u a l l y r e s o l v e s t h e seeming c o n f l i c t and emerges strengthened  i n t h e awareness t h a t t h e two r o l e s o f t h e poet and  priest  can be complementary even when t h e p o e t ' s m a t e r i a l i s n o n - C h r i s t i a n . While t h e Books n a r r a t e Aeneas' double j o u r n e y — t h e p h y s i c a l one from  the  r u i n e d Troy t o t h e s i t e o f t h e f u t u r e Rome, and t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l one i n which h i s p r i v a t e and p u b l i c v i r t u e s a r e t e s t e d and  strengthened—the  P r o l o g u e s r e f l e c t t h i s movement i n a s i m i l a r p r o g r e s s o f t h e n a r r a t o r and p o e t - t r a n s l a t o r , who a new approach  a l s o undertakes a s u c c e s s f u l q u e s t , i n t h i s case f o r  to translation;  l i k e Aeneas, t h e n a r r a t o r a l s o r e s o l v e s t h e  c o n f l i c t s i n h e r e n t i n h i s dual r o l e and  i n the process lays the  t h e o r e t i c a l f o u n d a t i o n s f o r h i s u n d e r t a k i n g by examining methods.  In t h e c o u r s e o f t h i s p a r a l l e l  i t s v a l u e and i t s  p r o g r e s s , both Aeneas and  n a r r a t o r o f t h e P r o l o g u e s have been tempered and emerge v i c t o r i o u s their  trials.  173  the from  B i b1iography  P r i m a r y Sources Editions V i r g i I ' s A e n e i d T r a n s l a t e d i n t o S c o t t i s h Verse by G a v i n Douglas, B i s h o p o f Dunkeld. Ed. D a v i d F.C. C o l d w e l l . 4 v o l s . , STS 25, 27, 28, 30. Edinburgh & London: B l a c k w e l l , 1957-64. The P o e t i c a 1 Works o f G a v i n Douglas, B i s h o p o f Dunkeld: With Memoir, Notes, and G l o s s a r y . Ed. John S m a l l . 4 v o l s . E d i n b u r g h : P a t e r s o n ; London: S o t h e r a n , 1874. The AEneid o f V i r g i l , T r a n s l a t e d i n t o S c o t t i s h V e r s e : By Gawin Douglas, B i s h o p o f Dunkeld. Eds. Andrew, L o r d R u t h e r f o r d , and George Dundas, L o r d Manor. E d i n b u r g h : Bannatyne C l u b , 1839. V i r g i l ' s Aeneis T r a n s l a t e d i n t o S c o t t i s h Verse. E d i n b u r g h , 1710.  Ed. Thomas Ruddiman.  S e l e c t i o n s from G a v i n Douglas. Ed. D a v i d F.C. C o l d w e l l . Clarendon Medieval and Tudor S e r i e s . O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n , 1964. Anthologies The Book o f S c o t t i s h P o e t r y , B e i n g an A n t h o l o g y o f t h e B e s t S c o t t i s h Verse from t h e Ear 1 i e s t Times t o t h e P r e s e n t . Ed. George Douglas. London: T. F i s h e r Unwin, 1911. Mediaeval S c o t t i s h P o e t r y : K i n g James t h e F i r s t , Robert Henryson, W i l l i a m Dunbar, G a v i n Douglas. Ed. George Eyre-Todd. London & E d i n b u r g h : Sands, n.d. The O x f o r d Book o f S c o t t i s h V e r s e . O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n , 1966.  Eds. John MacQueen and Tom  S c o t t i s h P o e t r y from Barbour t o James V I . 1935.  Ed. M.M.  Gray.  Scott.  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