UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Strangers and pilgrims in Lotus Land : conservative Protestantism in British Columbia, 1917-1981 Burkinshaw, Robert Kenneth 1988

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1988_A1 B87_4.pdf [ 21.99MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0097957.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0097957-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0097957-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0097957-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0097957-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0097957-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0097957-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0097957-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0097957.ris

Full Text

STRANGERS AND PILGRIMS IN LOTUS LAND: CONSERVATIVE PROTESTANTISM IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1917-1981 By ROBERT KENNETH BURKINSHAW B. TH., Vancouver B i b l e C o l l e g e B. A. (Hons.), The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia M. A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f Waterloo A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of H i s t o r y We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1988 (c) Robert Kenneth Burkinshaw , 1988 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of History  The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date 27 Apr i 1 , 1 988  DE-6G/81) A B S T R A C T T h i s study examines the growth of c o n s e r v a t i v e P r o t e s t a n t i s m , or e v a n g e l i c a l i s m , i n B r i t i s h Columbia from 1917, the beginning of open c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e o l o g i c a l l i b e r a l i s m , t o 1981. The p e r i o d witnessed the development of e v a n g e l i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s from rudimentary beginnings b e f o r e 1920 to the r i s e of a complex network by the 1970's. Nume r i c a l l y , c o n s e r v a t i v e denominations i n B r i t i s h Columbia countered a n a t i o n a l t r e n d and n e a r l y doubled t h e i r p r o p o r t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n from 1921 to 1981. Towards the end of the p e r i o d , weekly attendance at c o n s e r v a t i v e churches surpassed t h a t i n m a i n l i n e P r o t e s t a n t denominations. T h i s study has a t w o - f o l d purpose. The n a r r a t i v e seeks to recount s i g n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e s of the denominational, i n s t i t u t i o n a l and numerical development of e v a n g e l i c a l i s m i n B r i t i s h Columbia. At the same time, the c r u c i a l f a c t o r s i n i t s development w i l l be analyzed, p a r t i c u l a r l y those which e x p l a i n i t s growth. E x p l a n a t i o n s which focus e x c l u s i v e l y on socio-economic f a c t o r s or American i n f l u e n c e s are r e j e c t e d . Both p l a y e d s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e s but n e i t h e r are able to f u l l y e x p l a i n the growth and other f a c t o r s must be c o n s i d e r e d i n a d d i t i o n to them. Four are i d e n t i f i e d as p l a y i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e s : 1. a l o y a l t y to values and emphases which appeared endangered by modernism; 2. p a t t e r n s of immigration which added r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e numbers of e v a n g e l i c a l s who soon i d e n t i f i e d with the wider e v a n g e l i c a l i s m , 3. l a r g e r than average f a m i l y s i z e s and h i g h r a t e s of r e t e n t i o n of c h i l d r e n w i t h i n c o n s e r v a t i v e churches and 4. i n s t i t u t i o n a l f a c t o r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the strenuous e f f o r t s spent i n e s t a b l i s h i n g l a r g e numbers of new congregations throughout the p r o v i n c e . Common to a l l four f a c t o r s i s the sense shared by c o n s e r v a t i v e P r o t e s t a n t s t h a t they were separate from the "world." U n l i k e r e l i g i o u s l i b e r a l s who sought to p r e s e r v e C h r i s t i a n i t y by accommodating to modernism, c o n s e r v a t i v e s were a l i e n a t e d by modernism and sought to p r e s e r v e t r a d i t i o n a l e v a n g e l i c a l i s m i n the face of massive c u l t u r a l change. In B r i t i s h Columbia, which was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by an unusual degree of t r a n s i e n c y , m a t e r i a l i s m and s e c u l a r i s m , the c o n s e r v a t i v e approach proved more s u c c e s s f u l . N e i t h e r branch of P r o t e s t a n t i s m grew as r a p i d l y as the "no r e l i g i o n " segment of the p o p u l a t i o n but, while m a i n l i n e P r o t e s t a n t i s m d e c l i n e d p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y , e v a n g e l i c a l s evidenced a c e r t a i n t y and s i m p l i c i t y of c o n v i c t i o n and a c t i o n t h a t appealed t o an i n c r e a s i n g m i n o r i t y of the p o p u l a t i o n . - i v -T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES v i CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION . 1 D e f i n i t i o n s 5 H i s t o r i o g r a p h y 12 The Case of B r i t i s h Columbia 20 Notes 47 CHAPTER 2: 1917, OPENING THE CHASM: THE BEGINNINGS OF CONSERVATIVE PROTESTANT RESISTANCE IN B. C 56 P r o t e s t a n t i s m to 1917 i n B r i t i s h Columbia 56 O l i v e r E v a n g e l i s t i c Campaigns 77 Notes 99 CHAPTER 3: 1917 - 1928, LAYING THE FOUNDATIONS -MAINLINE CONSERVATIVES 107 Notes 134 CHAPTER 4: 1917 - 1928, LAYING THE FOUNDATIONS -SEPARATIST BAPTISTS AND PENTECOSTALS 139 S e p a r a t i s t B a p t i s t s 139 P e n t e c o s t a l s 145 Notes. 177 CHAPTER 5: 1928 - 1941, BROADENING THE INSTITUTIONAL BASE 183 M e t r o p o l i t a n Tabernacle 185 Regular ( s e p a r a t i s t ) B a p t i s t s 195 P e n t e c o s t a l s 198 Mennonites 209 Notes 219 CHAPTER 6: 1941 - 1960, PERIOD OF TRANSITION -INSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT 227 M a i n l i n e C o n s e r v a t i v e s 230 B a p t i s t General Conference and E v a n g e l i c a l Free 234 Regular ( s e p a r a t i s t ) B a p t i s t s 248 P e n t e c o s t a l s 253 Notes 261 CHAPTER 7: 1941 - 1960, PERIOD OF TRANSITION -IMMIGRANT CHURCHES 268 The C h r i s t i a n and M i s s i o n a r y A l l i a n c e 268 Dutch Immigrant Reformed Churches 2 74 Other Immigrant Churches 281 Mennonites 282 S i g n i f i c a n c e of the p e r i o d o f t r a n s i t i o n 295 Notes 298 - V -CHAPTER 8: 1961 - 1981, EMERGENCE OF INSTITUTIONAL AND NUMERICAL STRENGTH 305 Numerical Growth 307 I n s t i t u t i o n a l Development 317 T r i n i t y Western C o l l e g e 318 Regent C o l l e g e . . 326 Other E d u c a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n s 334 Notes. 3 38 CHAPTER 9: 1961 - 1981, CONTINUING ALIENATION 345 Socio-economic F a c t o r s . 345 American I n f l u e n c e s 349 Other E x p l a n a t i o n s 351 P r e s e r v a t i o n o f R e l i g i o u s Values and Emphases 354 Immigrant Groups 365 Family S i z e and Reten t i o n o f C h i l d r e n 368 E s t a b l i s h i n g New Congregations 372 Growing Accomodation? 381 Notes 385 BIBLIOGRAPHY 386 APPENDICES 416 - v i -L I S T OF T A B L E S TABLE I - GALLUP POLL (J u n e 28, 1 9 8 0 ) : " D i d you a t t e n d a c h u r c h o r synagogue i n t h e p a s t s e v e n d a y s ? " 306 TABLE I I - B.C. POPULATION BY SELECTED RELIGIONS, CENSUS OF CANADA, 1921, 1941, 1961, 1981 308 TABLE I I I - B.C PROTESTANTISM: CONGREGATIONS AND MEMBERSHIP, 1961 & 1981 310 TABLE IV - SUNDAY SCHOOL ENROLLMENT, 1961 & 1981, AND AVERAGE SUNDAY MORNING WORSHIP ATTENDANCE, 1981 312 TABLE V - FINANCIAL CONTRIBUTIONS, PER MEMBER FOR DENOMIN-ATIONS MAKING INFORMATION AVAILABLE, 1961 & 1981 314 TABLE V I - EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT AND PARTICIPATION RATES, SELECTED RELIGIOUS GROUPS, POPULATION OVER 15 YEARS.... 347 TABLE V I I - PROPORTION OF POPULATION UNDER 15 YEARS OLD, BY DENOMINATION, 1941, 1961 & 1981 369 1 CHAPTER ONE Introduction S i n c e W orld War I c o n s e r v a t i v e P r o t e s t a n t i s m has become s u f f i c i e n t l y i m p o r t a n t i n t h e r e l i g i o u s , s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l l i f e o f B r i t i s h Columbia t o w a r r a n t c l o s e e x a m i n a t i o n . However, l i t t l e s c h o l a r l y work has been done on t h e h i s t o r y o f c o n s e r v a t i v e P r o t e s t a n t i s m , o r more commonly, e v a n g e l i c a l i s m , i n t h e p r o v i n c e . There have been s e v e r a l t h e s e s d e a l i n g w i t h i n d i v i d u a l d e n o m i n a t i o n s 1 b u t n o t h i n g w h i c h l o o k s a t t h e b r o a d e r p i c t u r e . I t i s n e c e s s a r y f o r a t l e a s t t h r e e r e a s o n s , however, t o examine e v a n g e l i c a l i s m i n B r i t i s h Columbia as a b r o a d e r phenomenon. One i s the sheer c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e wide range o f d e n o m i n a t i o n s , o r g a n i z a t i o n s and emphases i n t h e p r o v i n c e . T h i s c a l l s f o r e x p l a n a t i o n because i t so b a f f l e s most o b s e r v e r s , whether o u t s i d e r s o r i n s i d e r s , and has c r e a t e d t h e problem o f d e v e l o p i n g a comprehensive e x p l a n a t o r y framework. I n N o r t h A m e r i c a as a whole, e v a n g e l i c a l i s m has been s u f f i c i e n t l y u n i t e d i n o p p o s i t i o n t o l i b e r a l i s m i n defence o f what were seen as key elements o f h i s t o r i c P r o t e s t a n t i s m t o be v a r i o u s l y l a b e l l e d "the t h i r d f o r c e " i n C h r i stendom, th e t r a d i t i o n a l i s t component o f the " t w o - p a r t y P r o t e s t a n t system" o r 2 "the E v a n g e l i c a l Denomination." I t never has, however, been a m o n o l i t h i c movement but i n s t e a d needs t o be seen as composed o f a number o f s e p a r a t e s t r a n d s c o n v e r g i n g a t c e r t a i n key p o i n t s b u t d i v e r g i n g a t o t h e r s . T h e o l o g i c a l , e c c l e s i a s t i c a l , e t h n i c and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c f a c t o r s have c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e development o f t h e s e s e p a r a t e s t r a n d s . The r e s u l t has been not o n l y t h e 2 e x i s t e n c e o f a wide v a r i e t y o f d e n o m i n a t i o n s bu t a l s o a spectrum o f o p i n i o n , sometimes c u t t i n g a c r o s s d e n o m i n a t i o n a l l i n e s on a number o f i s s u e s . These i n c l u d e t h e m i l i t a n c y o f t h e f i g h t a g a i n s t l i b e r a l i s m ; s e p a r a t i o n from t h e " w o r l d " and from m a i n l i n e P r o t e s t a n t d e n o m i n a t i o n s ; e s c h a t o l o g y ; t h e r o l e o f t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l i n contemporary r e l i g i o u s e x p e r i e n c e ; s t y l e s o f w o r s h i p , c h u r c h o r d e r and government; the i m p o r t a n c e and n a t u r e o f h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n ; t h e methods and a g g r e s s i v e n e s s o f e v a n g e l i s m and the degree and n a t u r e o f i n v o l v e m e n t i n s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l i s s u e s . Much o f t h i s broad and c o n f u s i n g range o f d e n o m i n a t i o n s and emphases w i t h i n N o r t h American e v a n g e l i c a l i s m f i n d s e x p r e s s i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia and c a l l s f o r e x p l a n a t i o n . A second r e a s o n i s the marked d i f f e r e n c e between c o n s e r v a t i v e P r o t e s t a n t i s m ' s n u m e r i c a l growth i n B r i t i s h Columbia and i t s a p parent r e l a t i v e d e c l i n e i n Canada as a whole. I n Fragmented Gods, h i s landmark work on r e l i g i o n i n Canada, R e g i n a l d B i b b y p r o v i d e s census d a t a i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h o s e i d e n t i f y i n g themselves w i t h c o n s e r v a t i v e P r o t e s t a n t d e n o m i n a t i o n s d e c l i n e d as a p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e Canadian p o p u l a t i o n as a whole from a p p r o x i m a t e l y 8% i n 1921 t o 7% i n 3 1981. Census d a t a p r e s e n t e d i n C hapter 8 o f t h i s s t u d y , however, i n d i c a t e s t h a t i n B r i t i s h Columbia the t r e n d was q u i t e s t r o n g l y i n the o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n . The p r o p o r t i o n i n t h e same c o n s e r v a t i v e P r o t e s t a n t groups n e a r l y doubled from 4.5% i n 1921 t o j u s t o v e r 8% i n 1981. I n t h e p r o c e s s , B r i t i s h Columbia became a l e a d i n g s t r o n g h o l d o f a number o f t h e n a t i o n ' s more s i g n i f i c a n t e v a n g e l i c a l groups. The S a l v a t i o n Army and C h r i s t i a n (Plymouth) 3 B r e t h r e n were a l r e a d y r e l a t i v e l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n the p r o v i n c e i n 1921 and remained so throughout the p e r i o d . The f i r s t formal denominational schism i n B a p t i s t ranks i n North America over the m o d e r n i s t / f u n d a m e n t a l i s t i s s u e took p l a c e i n 1927 i n B r i t i s h Columbia and subsequent B a p t i s t growth i n the p r o v i n c e was more vigorous than elsewhere i n Canada, p a r t i c u l a r l y among the homogenously c o n s e r v a t i v e Regular ( F e l l o w s h i p ) B a p t i s t churches. P e n t e c o s t a l i s m , which added a dynamic element of s u p e r n a t u r a l i s m t o the defense o f c o n s e r v a t i v e P r o t e s t a n t i s m , spread more r a p i d l y i n B r i t i s h Columbia from the 1920's onward than i n any p r o v i n c e o f Canada west of the Maritime p r o v i n c e s . Beginning i n the l a t e 1920's and c o n t i n u i n g w e l l i n t o the post-war p e r i o d , the predominantly B r i t i s h e v a n g e l i c a l p o p u l a t i o n was h e a v i l y augmented by the immigration of European e v a n g e l i c a l s . By 1981, n e a r l y h a l f of the Canadian membership o f the s t r o n g l y e v a n g e l i c a l Mennonite Brethren Conference, the l a r g e s t of such immigrant groups i n B r i t i s h Columbia, r e s i d e d i n the west coa s t p r o v i n c e . F i n a l l y , the l a t e 1960's and the 1970's saw B r i t i s h Columbia become the l e a d i n g c e n t r e of the c h a r i s m a t i c movement i n Canada and the home of a l a r g e number of s i z e a b l e independent c h a r i s m a t i c c o n gregations. By 1981, census and denominational f i g u r e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t B r i t i s h Columbia's e v a n g e l i c a l p o p u l a t i o n , estimated to number over 200,000, was p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y as numerous as t h a t of A l b e r t a , o f t e n r e f e r r e d 4 t o as Western Canada's " B i b l e B e l t . " In a d d i t i o n , B r i t i s h Columbia c o n s e r v a t i v e P r o t e s t a n t s l e d t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s elsewhere i n Canada i n e s t a b l i s h i n g new types of i n s t i t u t i o n s of h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . For example, T r i n i t y Western C o l l e g e , founded i n L a n g l e y i n 1962, de v e l o p e d t o become Canada's o n l y autonomous, e v a n g e l i c a l , d e g r e e - g r a n t i n g l i b e r a l a r t s c o l l e g e i n the l a t e 1970's. Regent C o l l e g e , founded i n Vancouver i n 1968, was t h e f i r s t e v a n g e l i c a l g r a d u a t e s c h o o l i n the w o r l d t o s p e c i a l i z e i n o f f e r i n g advanced b i b l i c a l t r a i n i n g t o the l a i t y and by t h e mid-1980's had become t h e l a r g e s t g r a d u a t e s c h o o l o f t h e o l o g y i n Canada. The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f e v a n g e l i c a l i s m i n B r i t i s h Columbia r e l a t i v e t o Canada as a whole was due not o n l y t o growth on i t s own p a r t but a l s o t o t h e weakness o f mainstream P r o t e s t a n t i s m and the s t r e n g t h o f s e c u l a r i s m i n t h e p r o v i n c e . A g a i n s t t h e backdrop o f t h e most s e c u l a r s o c i e t y i n Canada, t h e p r e v i o u s l y l e s s v i s i b l e e v a n g e l i c a l community began s t a n d i n g out more s h a r p l y and i t s i n s t i t u t i o n a l and n u m e r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e became i n c r e a s i n g l y a p p a r e n t . A t h i r d r e a s o n f o r a s t u d y o f B r i t i s h Columbia's e v a n g e l i c a l community i s t h a t i t has p l a y e d an i n c r e a s i n g l y s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n t h e p r o v i n c e ' s p o l i t i c a l l i f e s i n c e 1950. S e v e r a l s t u d i e s q u i t e c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e S o c i a l C r e d i t p a r t y has r e c e i v e d d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e , though not e x c l u s i v e , s u p p o r t from t h e o l o g i c a l l y c o n s e r v a t i v e P r o t e s t a n t s . A s t u d y o f r e l i g i o n and p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s i n t h e 1950's l e d t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t "The advent o f S o c i a l C r e d i t has w i t n e s s e d t h e r i s e o f t h e new f u n d a m e n t a l i s t d e n o m i n a t i o n s as f a c t o r s i n 5 p r o v i n c i a l a f f a i r s . " Some e v i d e n c e a l s o p o i n t s t o a g e n e r a l p r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e f e d e r a l P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y among B r i t i s h Columbia e v a n g e l i c a l s b e g i n n i n g a t l e a s t as e a r l y as t h e mid-1950's.6 5 T h i s s t u d y has a t w o - f o l d p urpose. The n a r r a t i v e w i l l f o c u s on the d e n o m i n a t i o n a l / i n s t i t u t i o n a l development o f e v a n g e l i c a l i s m i n B r i t i s h Columbia from th e major o u t b r e a k o f r e s i s t a n c e t o l i b e r a l t h e o l o g y b e g i n n i n g i n 1917, t h r o u g h v a r i o u s phases o f change and e x p a n s i o n , t o the complex, m u l t i -f a c e d network becoming e v i d e n t by t h e 1960's and 1970's. N. K. C l i f f o r d argued r e c e n t l y t h a t the i n s t i t u t i o n a l f o u n d a t i o n s o f c o n s e r v a t i v e P r o t e s t a n t i s m (he uses th e term "Two-Party P r o t e s t a n t " system) had been l a i d i n t h e Canadian West by 1930. C l i f f o r d i n d i c a t e s he does not have the e v i d e n c e t o s u b s t a n t i a t e a d a t e as e a r l y as 1930 b u t i t w i l l be shown h e r e t h a t i n B r i t i s h Columbia the b a s i c i n s t i t u t i o n a l f o u n d a t i o n s were i n p l a c e by t h e l a t e 1920's. I n t h e decades s i n c e t h a t t ime t h e f o u n d a t i o n s have been broadened and a f a r more complex i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e has been added. S e c o n d l y , the c r u c i a l f a c t o r s i n t h e development o f e v a n g e l i c a l i s m i n t o a s i g n i f i c a n t , complex f o r c e i n t h e p r o v i n c e w i l l be a n a l y z e d . The f o c u s o f the a n a l y s i s w i l l be t o d e t e r m i n e why a s t r o n g c o n s e r v a t i v e r e s i s t a n c e t o l i b e r a l i s m d e v e l o p e d and why the c o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y has grown t o such s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n s i n B r i t i s h Columbia D e f i n i t i o n s B e f o r e p r o c e e d i n g f u r t h e r some d e f i n i t i o n s a r e n e c e s s a r y . Because n e i t h e r t h e o l o g i c a l l i b e r a l i s m nor c o n s e r v a t i s m was a m o n o l i t h i c movement, the making o f p r e c i s e d e f i n i t i o n s i s a r i s k y u n d e r t a k i n g . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between the two v i e w p o i n t s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t enough t o w a r r a n t s k e t c h i n g 6 d e s c r i p t i v e d e f i n i t i o n s . Sydney A h l s t r o m terms t h e c o n s e r v a t i v e - l i b e r a l debate "the most fundamental c o n t r o v e r s y t o g wrack t h e churches s i n c e the age o f t h e R e f o r m a t i o n , " w h i l e G b l d w i n F r e n c h d e s c r i b e s the s p l i t as a v e r i t a b l e chasm when compared w i t h t h e d i f f e r e n c e s w h i c h had e x i s t e d between 9 P r o t e s t a n t s i n t h e m i d - n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . I n t h e h e a t o f c o n t r o v e r s y i n the mid-1920's the e d i t o r o f the l e a d i n g v o i c e o f N o r t h American l i b e r a l i s m , the C h r i s t i a n C e n t u r y , w r o t e : The p r e s e n c e o f t h e f u n d a m e n t a l i s t and t h e m o d e r n i s t i n t h e same i n s t i t u t i o n i s t h e most o u t s t a n d i n g phenomenon o f t h e p r e s e n t day. They d i f f e r so r a d i c a l l y as t o appear i n c a p a b l e o f l i v i n g i n t h e same i n t e l l e c t u a l w o r l d . I t i s not t o o much t o say t h a t t h e y can o n l y be c l a s s i f i e d w i t h a c c u r a c y as 10 r e p r e s e n t i n g two d i f f e r e n t r e l i g i o n s . The c l e a v a g e i s t h e r e s u l t o f r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r i n g approaches t o t h e c u r r e n t s o f change stemming from t h e E n l i g h t e n m e n t and sweeping t h e Western w o r l d w i t h renewed v i g o u r a f t e r t h e m i d - n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . T h e o l o g i c a l l i b e r a l i s m , o r modernism, grew out o f and responded t o t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y m i l i e u o f r a t i o n a l i s m , r o m a n t i c i s m and p r o g r e s s i v i s m . L i b e r a l s tended t o a c c e p t the concept o f e v o l u t i o n a r y development and l a u d e d p r o g r e s s i n t h e c u l t u r a l r e a l m . Under t h e i n f l u e n c e o f H e g e l , many s t r e s s e d God's immanence r a t h e r t h a n H i s t r a n s c e n d e n c e , and argued t h a t he was c o n t i n u a l l y r e v e a l i n g h i s n a t u r e t h r o u g h t h e h i s t o r i c a l development o f human c i v i l i z a t i o n . ^ " ' ' They thus welcomed most s c i e n t i f i c and i n t e l l e c t u a l changes i n t h e e a r l y p a r t o f the t w e n t