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Alternate phonologies and morphologies Bagemihl, Bruce 1988

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ALTERNATE PHONOLOGIES AND MORPHOLOGIES By BRUCE BA6EMIHL A., The University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 1981 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Linguistics) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1988 (?) Bruce Bageaihl, 1988 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Liftqui'ziICS The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date October- 17, 1^88 DE-6(3/81) i i ALTERNATE PHONOLOGIES AND MORPHOLOGIES ABSTRACT This thesis investigates two types of alternate languages: LUDLINGS (also known as language games, speech disguises, etc.), which involve primarily nonconcatenative morphological manipulation of their source languages, and SURROGATE LANGUAGES, which substitute alternative sound-producing mechanisms (whistling or a musical instrument) for the larynx. Chapter 2 explores the autonomy of surrogate systems in relation to both their own modalities and their source language phonologies. After presenting a formal analysis of Akan drum speech, I develop a complete model of the surrogate component. I argue that many properties which distinguish whistle surrogates from instrumental surrogates can only be attributed to the modular organization of this component. The last part of the chapter provides an inventory of the types of processes present in each module of the surrogate component. Chapter 3 presents theoretical treatments of representatives of each of the three major categories of ludlings (templatic, infixing, and reversing), beginning with the katajjait (throat games) of the Canadian Inuit. Although customarily regarded as a form of music, the katajjait are actually a well-developed form of templatic ludling. The implications of an infixing ludling in Tigrinya for tiered and planar geometry are then investigated. The chapter concludes with a detailed analysis of reversing ludlings, based on a parametrized version of the Crossing Constraint. In Chapter 4 I develop an integrated model of alternate linguistic systems, starting with an investigation of where in the grammar the ludling component is located. Drawing on data from more than fifty languages, I i i i propose that there are three conversion modules in this component, each taking a well-defined level of representation as its input. In the last portion of the chapter I explore the possibility that one or more of these modules overlaps with the last module of the surrogate component. I conclude that the similarities exhibited by ludlings and surrogates are not due to a shared conversion module, but rather reflect the interaction of three factors: 1) the salience of certain levels of representation within the grammar; 2) general properties of the domains in which conversion takes place; and 3) membership in a common alternate linguistic component. iv ALTERNATE PHONOLOGIES AND MORPHOLOGIES Table of Contents Abstract i i Table of Contents iv Acknowledgements ix List of Abbreviations x I. INTRODUCTION 1 1. Languages Within Languages.... 4 1.1. Functional Definitions 4 1.2. Formal Definitions F-2. On the Notion of 'External Evidence* 18 2.1. Neither 'External' Nor Merely 'Evidence' 18 2.2. But Is It Language? 26 3. Organization of the Thesis .....31 NOTES 39 II. A THEORY OF SURROGATE LANGUAGE 45 0. Introduction 45 1. Surrogate Languages and Grammatical Theory 48 1.1. Phonology as a Cognitive Domain. 4B 1.2. General Characteristics of Surrogates 53 1.2.1. Distribution and Genesis ...53 1.2.2. Acquisition and Use ....55 2. Akan Speech Drumming 57 2.1. Background 58 2.2. Drummed Speech.... 58 2.2.1. Tone of Beats 60 2.2.2. Number of Beats 60 2.2.3. Length of Beats 62 2.3. Some Questions 66 3. Developing a Model of the Surrogate Component 70 3.1. The Impossibility of Surface Conversion..... 71 3.1.1. Intonational Elements 72 3.1.2. Functional Explanations 73 3.1.3. Against the TDH 75 3.1.4. Against the MLH 80 3.2. Evidence for Postlexical Conversion ...87 3.2.1. Postlexical Phonological Rules 87 3.2.2. Pauses 88 3.2.3. Tonal Interpretation of Metrical Structures 89 3.2.4. Sentence-Peripheral Modifications 90 3.3. Instrumental and Whistle Modules 90 3.3.1. Whistle Surrogates 91 3.3.2. Postlexical Levels.... ....93 i V 3.3.3. Conversion Sites SB 3.4. Segments (Or Lack Thereof) 103 3.4.1. Functional Explanations 104 3.4.2. A Structural Explanation .110 3.5. Summary 118 4. The Autonomy of the Surrogate Component .....122 4.1. Transfer Rules 122 4.1.1. Beat Assignment 123 4.1.2. Skeletal Projection 130 4.1.3. Tonal Realization 131 4.1.4. Whistle Transfer Rules 134 4.1.4.1. Voiceless Transfer 135 4.1.4.2. Linguistic Transfer Rules 136 4.2. Phonological Rules 139 4.2.1. Articulated Whistles 139 4.2.1.1. Glottalization 140 4.2.1.2. Denasalization 141 4.2.1.3. Palatalization 142 4.2.1.4. Continuant ization 142 4.2.1.5. Devoicing 143 4.2.1.6. Deletion and Epenthesis 144 4.2.1.7. Gemination 144 4.2.2. Whistled Tone Languages: Syllabic Restructuring... 146 4.2.2.1. Mazateco 146 4.2.2.2. Gurma 148 4.2.3. Instrumental Surrogates... 152 4.2.3.1. Replacement/Insert ion 153 4.2.3.2. Contour Simplification 154 4.2.3.3. Tonal Reconstruction 155 4.2.4. Summary i 157 5. Concluding Remarks 160 5.1. Akan Revisited 160 5.2. Non-speech Sounds 162 5.3. Summary., 164 APPENDIX 166 NOTES 168 III. LUDLING SYSTEMS IN THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVE: Three Case Studies ..181 0. Introduction • 181 1. Katajjait and Empty Morphology 182 1.1. Language or Music? ..185 1.1.1. Distinctive Features 186 1.1.1.1. Voicing 186 1.1.1.2. Airstream Mechanism 187 1.1.1.3. Tone 189 1.1.2. Units of Organization 190 1.1.3. Open-Endedness • • 193 1.2. Motif Structure 194 1.2.1. Independence of Features 194 vi 1.2.2. Notational Conversion and the Skeleton 196 1.2.3. Multi-Tiered Representation 197 1.3. Voicing, Breath, and Timing Patterns - 199 1.3.1. Patterns of C-vceD 193 1.3.2. Patterns of C-expl 203 1.3.3. Timing Patterns 205 1.4. Phonological Domains 207 1.4.1. C-vcel 208 1.4.2. C-exp] 212 1.4.3. OCP Effects .214 1.4.4. Some Problems 215 1.5. Morphological Domains 217 1.5.1. Total Reduplication in Warlpiri and Katajjait 217 1.5.2. Triplication and Defective Simplexes 222 1.5.3. Summary 227 1.6. Empty Morphology • 229 1.6.1. Meaningless Morphemes 229 1.6.2. Special Registers and Lexical Classes ...230 1.6.2.1. Affixation 230 1.6.2.2. Reduplication 232 1.6.3. Ludlings 233 1.7. Summary .• 239 2. Tigrinya Ludlings and Phonological Architecture 241 2.1. Ludling Phonology 242 2.1.1. Syllabification and Epenthesis 242 2.1.2. Ludling Formation and Project N' 246 2.1.3. Final Fronting 249 2.2. Constraints on Spreading Rules 253 2.2.1. Laryngeal Assimilation .254 2.2.2. Ludling Forms 256 2.2.3. Assimilated g 262 2.2.4. Formalizing the Constraint... 264 2.2.5. Further Evidence for the Highest Node Setting 267 2.2.5.1. Whole Segment Spreading 268 2.2.5.2. Anunaasikaatiprasaram 269 2.2.5.3. The Elsewhere Condition Within A Parametric Rule Format 273 2.3. Plane Conflation and the Morpheme Plane Hypothesis 275 2.3.1. Geminates and Spirantization. 276 2.3.1.1. Evidence for the MPH. 276 2.3.1.2. PC and Ludling Conversion. 281 2.3.2. Heteromorphemic Spreading 284 2.3.3. Ludling Morphology and the MPH 287 2.4. Summary • 293 3. The Crossing Constraint and 'Backwards Languages' 295 3.1. Against 'Reverse' as a Ludling Operation 298 3.1.1. The Constrained Nature of Ludling Reversals 300 3.1.2. A Typology of Backwards Languages 302 3.1.3. Ludlings a