UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Cities in the international system Winchester, David J. 1988

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1989_A8 W57.pdf [ 5.36MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0097942.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0097942-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0097942-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0097942-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0097942-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0097942-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0097942-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0097942-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0097942.ris

Full Text

CITIES  IN THE INTERNATIONAL  SYSTEM  By DAVID J . WINCHESTER B.A.,  Concordia University,  A THESIS SUBMITTED  1987  IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF POLITICAL SCIENCE  We a c c e p t t h i s to  t h e s i s as conforming  the required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October  1988  © David J . Winchester,  1988  In  presenting this  degree at the  thesis  in  partial  fulfilment  University  of  British Columbia,  of  the  requirements for an  advanced  I agree that the Library shall make it  freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying  of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my  department  or  by  his  or  her  representatives.  It  is  understood  that  copying  or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of ft>\?ircA.\ <,d*M.ce. The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date  DE-6 (2/88)  OcV . I>  If g g  ii  Abstract Municipal development  through  sufficiently governments analyzes changes for  actions  as  actors  conflict  quality  simultaneously Recent hypothesized  of  system  subsystems. economic  work  in  not  This  the aim  Because  i s rather  civic  potential  precludes  system  paper  of ongoing  the  state.  conflict  which  that  the  and  urban  geography  geographical systems  changes  and  a  the  direct  to  juxtapose  the  evolving  governments  role  the s t a t e s  municipalities  of  of  cities  cities  must  that  be  a  is likely,  they  formal  the  economy a r e these  the  system. affecting  international international  relationship  a r e imbedded.  i t i s suggested  have  articulate  economic  devolution  has  linkages  the changing  altering  i n which  economics  which  world  within that  and  economic  i n the g l o b a l  The a n a l y s i s p o s i t s  suggested  and  capitalist-dominated  e n v i r o n m e n t may  and  to  and  state  municipal  system.  assessing  become  conform.  T h i s p a p e r shows how nature  the  of  the d i r e c t i o n  s y s t e m and city  economic  have  consideration  by d e s c r i b i n g  of  local  cases  international  between  logics  international  expansion  in certain  methodology,  economic  created  promoting  o f the h y p o t h e s i z e d  conflicting  cities  may  i n the  that p o s s i b i l i t y  political  global  at  developed to warrant  hypothesis-testing  the  trade  i n the i n t e r n a t i o n a l  nascent  the  aimed  between  While of  that  i t is  power  to  structural  iii requirements governments from of  development  i n the d i r e c t i o n  of  the sphere of i n t e r n a t i o n a l  the Vancouver  stance to  f o r economic  municipal  i n t h e development  illustrate  governments relationships  the  i s beginning  be p u s h i n g  national  removing  themselves  somewhat  economic  government's  relations. increasingly  o f commercial l i n k s  contention  to determine  may  that  to increase.  case  proactive  with China i s used  t h e power  the features  The  o f many  of  municipal  international  iv  Table of  Contents  Introduction. I.  II.  III.  IV.  V.  1  Conceptual Frameworks A. The P o l i t i c a l Economy A p p r o a c h B. Two Systems o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l R e l a t i o n s ... C. E c o n o m i c Development i n an I n t e r d e p e n d e n t W o r l d . . . . . D. C i t i e s , S t a t e s , and M u l t i n a t i o n a l C o r p o r a t i o n s E. Conclusion C i t i e s i n the World P o l i t i c a l Economy A. C i t i e s a s C e n t r e s o f Change B. The Economy o f C i t i e s C. The C o n s t i t u t i o n a l and F i s c a l Dependence D. C i r c u i t s and Networks o f C a p i t a l E. Conclusion Canada and the China Trade A. C h i n a ' s H i s t o r i c a l Impact on Canada B. Contemporary Canada-China Trade P o l i t i c a l Dimensions The T a i w a n P r o b l e m Economic Dimensions C. C o m p l e m e n t a r i t y and C o m p a r a t i v e A d v a n t a g e D. Conclusion The A. B. C. D.  P o l i t i c s of Trade and Investment F e d e r a l Trade I n i t i a t i v e s Provincial Activities Municipal A c t i v i t i e s Conclusion  Conclusion  ,  of  14 16 20 25 31  36 38 Cities...45 51 56 60 65 65 67 70 73 79 82 85 91 102 104  Bibliography  108  Tables  112  1  Introduction The foreign  notion  of  the  politics" can  local  of  prior  of be  first  Diplomatic  purview  universally  case  municipal  p o l i c y seems a t  contradictions. under  a  the  to  government  glance  and  nation-state  that  economic  that  of  civic  municipal  development  contain  security  issues  and  actions  through  trade  may  municipal  international actors.  analysis  interest  as  of  a t t e m p t s s u c h an The  the  are  The  of  potential nascent  ongoing for  conflicting  global  at  that  If  a  promoting cases  consideration this  international relations.  economic  theoretical  very This in  recent venture  nature.  changes  political  quality  hypothesis-testing the  on  speculative  direction the  based  and  w o r l d ' s economy.  somewhat  believe  "low  is  so,  be  This  of  of  paper  analysis.  practical  approach  the  c i t y - t o - f o r e i g n - c i t y r e l a t i o n s h i p s may  a subsystem of  fall  interest is  in certain  warrant  own  course  In  aimed  developed  then  to  I  have become s u f f i c i e n t l y g o v e r n m e n t s as  of  national  however,  its  insurmountable  government.  i n t e r n a t i o n a l trade, made  to  making  of  in  of  system  changes  this  the to  in  the  for  this  structure  of  i s therefore  exploratory  and  It  to  describe  the  i n t e r n a t i o n a l system  and  attempts  the  conflict  methodology.  logics  justifications  between  conflict The  aim  state which  city  and  state.  a  direct  precludes i s rather  system civic  and  to  juxtapose  the  evolving  governments  must  2 simultaneously that the  conform.  should  t h i s e n d e a v o u r b r e a k s new writer's  knowledge,  attempted  before.  attempting  to  broad of  It  changing  One about  the  of  agents  corporations,  should  in  its  To been  conception, paint for  t o make  politics  is  within  the  in  study  of  --  are  and  account  over  and  above a l l  of  rapidly  relationships  global  a l l of  time.  diffusion,  capable  of  sovereignty  multinational  political  Theories  of  international  stable  innovation  and  problem  Westphalian  change  economic  statements  the  the  relatively  --  into  has  l i t e r a t u r e s and  ability  markets  take  outset  science.  this  interconnectedness,  system.  the  government.  is  elements  social,  interaction  eclectic  of  border,  world  state  like  our  feature  military  the  quite  change o c c u r r i n g  and  and  transforming  on  at  h e u r i s t i c framework  technological  interdependent  within  of  political  environmental  a  international  essential  the  However,  of  stressed  in political  disparate  r o l e of m u n i c i p a l  rates  The  system,  highly  outlines  contemporary  system.  is  many c o n s t r a i n t s  differential  ground  nothing  draw t o g e t h e r  strokes  the  It  be  these  political elements  of  change. In the  recent  role  of  years  emphasis  markets  versus  multilateral, negotiations explained market  by  tends  governments  to  the to  fact adapt  rapid  has  the  among  that  change,  increasingly  role  states.  the  more  been  This  impersonal  quickly  of  and  technological  placed  on  government  in  may  be  partially  phenomenon  of  efficiently shocks,  or  the  the than rise  3 of  new  competitors.  countries,  while  increasingly  Even  not  pursuing  economic  with  interest  governments  may  a l s o be  classical the  t h e o r i e s of  The  basic  Ricardo course  and  standard  theory of on  expertise come  to  does  not  industry produced theories  the  of  and  known  labour  grips  The  economic  are  through  increased  coordination  Marxist  t r a d e , which  and  and  have  neo-  provided  complexity  international  as  of  the  but  to the  19th  modern  the  developed  century  economists.  1980s  Newer  of  the  is  is  that  of The  based  on  a  (H-O) focus  i n c l u d e management  t h e o r i e s are  problems  e x p l a i n , e.g. these  to  by  has  Hecksher-Ohlin-Samuelson  1  g e n e r a l l y accepted however,  by  n a t u r a l resources  some  adequately  in  the  trade  t r a d e w h i c h expands t h e c u s t o m a r y  and  with  in  modified  technology.  trade,  objectives  of both  dynamics  position  international  and  ideologies,  f o r the post-war economic o r d e r ,  contemporaries  liberal  capital,  socialist  economy.  refined  reformulation  old  economy.  inability  international  model  his  been  the  with  contemporary world  world  in international  foundation  adequately  their  development  capitalist  e x p l a i n e d by  intellectual  deal  the  traditionally  abandoning  integration of  the  which  intra-firm  attempting the  trade  competing  analyses  theorems.  The  "trade  theory  and  have  essence is  H-0  the  model intra-  not  of  to  the  study  yet new of  ^Robert G i l p i n . The P o l i t i c a l Economy o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l R e l a t i o n s , P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , N.J., 1987, pg. 175.  4  international  industrial  organization"  i n c r e a s i n g importance of the corporations the  involved  modern s t a t e s  Marxist analysis  the  state  i n t e r n a t i o n a l trade  In  subordinate  the  marketplace. socialist often  powerful  In  to  the  by  problematic  role  and  in  the  addition,  the  the  based on  problems  class  inherent  in  interests  of  capital  of (a  of  states  in  p o l i c i e s which  the  world  the  large  i n t h e i r t r a d i n g p r a c t i c e s have  nationalistic,  both  are  e r r s i n the other d i r e c t i o n of  in contradiction  of p r o l e t a r i a n i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m . developed  the  influence  s t a t e s have f o l l o w e d  been h i g h l y  investment  p r a c t i c e , however, t h e i r view  "committee of the b o u r g e o i s i e " ) , undervaluing  the  past.  analyses.  as  stress  a much more a c t i v e  t h e o r e t i c a l l y avoid  state-centric  they  i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l trade and  models of  and  and  r e l a t i o n s h i p between o l i g o p o l i s t i c  which p l a y  economy than i n the  2  liberal  and  ideal  these reasons the  models  Marxist  become  schools  i n t e r n a t i o n a l rather  than a  While i t i s p e r f e c t l y s e n s i b l e to base a n a l y s e s of  global  national  when c a p i t a l seeks an  For  to the  equilibrium.  p o l i t i c s on a r e l a t i v e l y f i x e d f e a t u r e w i t h i n a changing world, i.e.  the  obscure not  nation-state, important  initiated,  responses. notion 2  The  this traditional  changes w i t h i n  but  to  which  the  f o c u s of  inquiry  system which s t a t e s  they must  formulate  I b i d . pg.  176.  have  political  a l t e r n a t i v e focus o f f e r e d here i s based on  that s e t s of c i t i e s , bounded e i t h e r by n a t i o n a l  may  the  borders,  5  geographical p r o x i m i t y , or economic l i n k a g e s , a r e interrelated There has cities help  to form systems, i . e . to a c t as coherent  been  within  a long  standing  national  states  d e t e r m i n e the n a t u r e  state.  Within  3  labour  sufficiently  exists  Canada,  recognition  play  that  a variety  among p o l i t i c a l  systems of  of r o l e s  o f the p o l i t i c a l  f o r example,  economy  a division  (capital)  wholes.  cities,  of  port  which o f the social cities,  regional c i t i e s , etc. Recent  work  hypothesized created put  that  i n urban  geographical  international  together  in a  world  cities  factors,  within  analysis  these  posits  environment may states  the  e x p a n s i o n of  system.  are a f f e c t i n g  a  they  that  devolution  of p o l i t i c a l  formal  that may  be  have  the  purpose o f  c h o i c e , o t h e r s by  the nature and r o l e of  systems  of  cities.  the changing i n t e r n a t i o n a l  suggested  development  The  are  imbedded.  ( i . e .legal  While or  i t i s not  is likely, i t  requirements f o r  pushing national  and  institutional)  power t o m u n i c i p a l i t i e s  structural  The  economic  be a l t e r i n g .the r e l a t i o n s h i p between c i t i e s  i n which  suggested  linkages  has  changes i n the g l o b a l economy, some  international  that  economics  which a r t i c u l a t e ( i . e .  which are produced by conscious p o l i t i c a l  "non-political"  is  economic  and  economic  c o n n e c t e d way)  t h i s paper i s to show how  the  and  systems of c i t i e s  capitalist-dominated  of  geography  governments  economic i n the  See L.S. Bourne and J . Simmons. Systems of C i t i e s : Readings on S t r u c t u r e , Growth and P o l i c y , Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New York, 1978. 3  6  direction  o f removing  international governments  economic  relations.  t o determine  relationships, The  themselves somewhat from  pro-active China  of municipal  of many  i t i s hypothesized, w i l l  international  therefore  m u n i c i p a l government's  stance i n the development  i s used  The power  the f e a t u r e s  case o f the Vancouver  the sphere of  to i l l u s t r a t e  increasingly  of commercial  the c o n t e n t i o n  increase.  that  l i n k s with  t h i s process  has a l r e a d y begun. Political  scientists  customarily  analyze  municipal  p o l i t i c s e i t h e r by examining r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n a s i n g l e or comparing d i f f e r e n c e s between c i t i e s . to  conceptually  international interests allocate level  insulate  environment  which  compete  v a l u e s which  of a n a l y s i s  substantially world  cities  used  analysis  from  their  t o make  the l o c a l i t y  here  i s quite from  from  scientists  will  o f economics.  find  r u l e s and  i n question.  different  The  and draws  outside  the d i s c i p l i n e —  sociology,  the "World-City  Hypothesis" from urban p l a n n i n g and geography, work i n t h e f i e l d  r e g i o n a l and  on t h e p l u r a l i t y o f  f o r t h e power  on l i t e r a t u r e  systems  These approaches tend  by f o c u s i n g  affect  city  I t i s hoped  and from that  recent  political  the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of these c o n t r i b u t i o n s  from other d i s c i p l i n e s u s e f u l and germane. The s u b j e c t and methodology conjunction  of observations:  interdependence  appears  of t h i s paper was sparked by a that  international  t o be i n c r e a s i n g l y  economic  a c o n s t r a i n t and  source of demands on p o l i c y makers world-wide,  that  officials  in  a  number  into  of  cities  transnational  appear  matched  relationships  by  feature  of  a r e a on  which a t t e n t i o n  While  the  sufficiently cities  as  contrasts of  Cities into  unalike basic  to  cities can the  urban  be  number  political The  unit  of  linked  of  affairs  basis  and  has  historical  considered,  the  economic  context  both  of  the  their  to  is  the  Canada  are  difficult, some  almost  interesting  universal  lot  integration  Within  this  will  seen  be  also  framework to  share  conscious  to  now  and  will  be  due  to  Vancouver of  a  choice.  relationship  difficulties is  state.  economically  and  mostly  which  taking  t h e i r mode o f  trading  and  and  describing  undergoing  rapid  Vancouver-Guangzhou  trade  changes.  within  which  developed and  essential  the  are  relate  PRC,  an  a r t i f a c t s of  circumstance  information  not  p o l i t i c a l  relations,  allows  economy.  data  as  (PRC)  comparisons  They  of  the  in  China  Guangzhou, C h i n a  economy  although  of  according  through  local  focused.  dependent  political  for  apparently the  Trade,  analysis  the  classified  relationship from  make  be  unavailability current  be  Republic  politically  political  explored,  international  similarities.  culturally The  and  as  of  of  life  aggressively  quest  these changes are  state.  will  more  their  and  to  V a n c o u v e r , Canada and  in  restructuring  made on  world  moving  city  People's  the  that  any  between  both  be  negotiations  e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t , and being  to  the  i s c r u c i a l to  locational  cities'  position  this analysis.  factors, within  the  which emerging  Aside  will  be  Pacific  8 Rim  economy  their  i s hypothesized  relationship.  the  relationship  the  PRC,  (ROC)  on  impact  still  ROC  and  two  i s now All  as de  a first  facto  on  within  of  to  writing  China  have  by C a n a d a ,  by  the  of Taiwan w i t h  and Hong  PRC  the  f o r both  nine  mainland  t h e PRC  and  Evidence  rapprochement  an  a l l three  economies.  absorbed  a  city  Republic  o u t a t some f u t u r e d a t e . that  i s focused a  states  order p r i o r i t y  indicates  in  considered  this  politically  and  predicated  engenders explaining  At  e c o n o m i e s and  economy,  dilemma  nature  n a t i o n s u c h as  domestic  many of  of  will  between  which  elements China's  Canada.  economic  the  the  relatively competing  which effect  are on  global  to  and/or secure  complex less high  and  still degree  priorities  significant a  to  autonomy  dependence  i s none  these  and  i n the  increasing  forces a  which  ways,  a l l t h r e e attempt  w i t h i n an  a l l o w i n g market  encompasses the  same t i m e  niches  world  The  different  depredations  the  strategic  freedom.  domestic  in  to p r o t e c t t h e i r  perceived  on  interfere  in their  i n order  unpredictable  trading  the  also At  and  three q u i t e separate  states  interdependence.  of  city  feature  occurring.  the  stable  are  reunification  ruled  which  degrees,  economy, from  be  three  varying  Canadian  Kong  be  The  determining  s o v e r e i g n t y of  having  officially  provided  one  Hong  will  a  although a t t e n t i o n  are t r e a t e d  as  now.  cannot  be  relationship.  course,  from  is  and  this  particular,  years  be  ambiguous  of China  Kong, o f  Secondly,  between  Taiwan on  "facets" in  the  to  in  middle-power,  9 In with and  1978,  the  the  PRC  capitalist  west  its historic  ending  i d e o l o g i c a l committment  self-sufficiency. as  began  i t adapts  Europe  and  country,  the  toward  albeit  potentially economy, account which  to  This  with  vast  on  market  the  surplus  Canada  investment. interest  shift  very at  extreme  As  the  backward  hand,  has  to  Kong's  of  world's  $80 in  to  to  the  Canada  away  PRC  from  populous offers  a  Taiwan's  dynamic  a  current  large  billion)  vibrant  especially  national  most  economy, t h e  attract  equally  of  patterns  date.  trade  semi-autarchy  form  generated  US  of  importance  i n trade  some f u t u r e  like  Canada,  an  period  increasing  (approximately  would  long  Pacific.  other  Hong  to  a  to  i s of  historic the  a  expansion  a  portion  form  economy  British  of  of  capital  i s of  great  Columbia  and  underscores  the  Vancouver. The  perspective  importance  of  relations. it and  municipal  v a r i e t y of on  have  limited  national  pressures.  An  offered  here  network  a  as  "a  of  utility  these subnational the  this  theories  societal  within  in  paper  institutions in  State-centric  i s argued,  emphasis  taken  international  international relations , 4  in  explaining  transactions,  state's  unity  and  a l t e r n a t i v e conception  c o n s t e l l a t i o n of  of  economic  institutions,  ancillary  the  richness  because of  their  autonomy  from  of  the  deeply  institutions  state  imbedded associated  F o r example most " r e a l i s t " t h e o r i e s (see M o r g e n t h a u , W a l t z , G i l p i n ) which l o o k to a d j u s t m e n t s w i t h i n the b a l a n c e - o f - p o w e r system to e x p l a i n p o l i t i c a l change. 4  is  10 with  society  paradigm systems of  a  and  which  the  may  economic  be  used  transactions  capable  theory,  that  general light  on  world  systems  about  units w i l l  theory  remaining  This  at  the  and  to  failing are  take  neither  economic  nature.  analysis  i s useful  data,  induced  only  subnational  of being  as  analysis  the  i f based  on  shed  operating  on  dimension of  system  nor  that  World  detailed  for  unreliable,  processes  hold  World  criticized  historical  world  criticisms  to  be c a l l e d  been  relying an  in overly  f o r m o f t h e modern i t s basic  has  lacking  by  too broad a  economy  T h i s may  consideration  These  7  world  development  t o o much, and  takes c i t i e s  into  f o r the  A modified  macro-level,  statistical  In  parts.  form o f  uncomparable  competing  analysis,  political  be d e v e l o p e d and e m p l o y e d .  analysis.  particular  explain  "global"  which  of  accommodating  runs the r i s k  6  the  i t s constituent  sort  major  way.  i s t o s a y , i t may  terms,  The  5  of departure  of  i n a meaningful  A systems p e r s p e c t i v e  which  for this  theory, o f f e r s a point  framework  City  system."  change of  an  City  analysis  of  city.  response  'Peter H a l l . J e r s e y , 1986.  to  these  Governing  criticisms,  the  Economy,  this  paper  takes  Prentice-Hall,  the  New  s e e Immanuel W a l l e r s t e i h , The Modern W o r l d System. V o l . I , A c a d e m i c P r e s s , N.Y., 1974; The M o d e r n W o r l d S y s t e m . V o l . I I , 1980; The C a p i t a l i s t World-Economy, Cambridge P r e s s , N.Y., 1977. 6  . R. K o r f f . "The W o r l d C i t y H y p o t h e s i s : A C r i t i q u e " , Development a n d C h a n g e , Sage P u b l i c a t i o n s , B e v e r l y H i l l s , V o l . 18, (1987), pp. 483-495. 7  a  position  that  a  relations  of a particular  sub-system w i t h i n economy)  meso-level  approach aims individual  city  the g l o b a l  p r o v i d e s unique  political  n a t u r e o f t h e s y s t e m as a w h o i e .  are  several  first  i s that  state  as a u n i t  that  the g l o b a l  functional it  cities  o f economic  regional  i s argued  argued  that  may  these  regarding  the degree  this  of  the  state  o f autonomy  from  important i n t h i s  of the p o l i t i c a l  dynamic  economy.  changes  The argument  economy  descriptive  and  second  The  to the  assumption,  Thirdly,  developed  system  that  pressure  i s that  relations the  which  paper. concerns of  state-centric  of i n t e r n a t i o n a l  state-centred  analytical  Questions  the state  international  although a  goes  theories, may  dualistic  some d i s t a n c e  international  framework  relations  to account f o r  and a d a p t a t i o n s i n t h e  accurate modelling of  economy t h a n p r e v a i l i n g  approach  alternative  the t h e o r e t i c a l  intellectual  conception of i n t e r n a t i o n a l more  about  I and I I .  system.  I t begins with the observation  increasing  studies of  from the f i r s t .  paper.  recent  a  follows  I continues to discuss  under  This  be m e a n i n g f u l l y d i s a g g r e g a t e d i n t o  Chapter  analyses are  The  Rim  processes are beginning to operate  independently  e n j o y become  important  analysis.  economies,  somewhat  cities  level.  i n this  f o r i n Chapters  p r o v i d e an  system  regional  Implicit  to a  (the P a c i f i c  and m a c r o t h e o r e t i c a l a r g u m e n t s  the  the  case Vancouver)  economy  on a  describes  t h e gap between m i c r o l e v e l  units  assumptions,  which  (in this  insights  at bridging  operating  framework  be  toward  political  a more a c c u r a t e derived  from  a  12 modified  form  the w o r l d  of world  systems a n a l y s i s .  I t i s argued  that  economy e v o l v e s , methods o f a n a l y z i n g i t must  as  undergo  a similar evolution. Chapter loci  of  II  surplus  transactions cities  and  may  be  transnational state  interaction  the  economy.  This and  municipal national  places  the  the  are  rather  social, with  subject  to  which in  the This  political  i n terms  states, and  political  dependency  with  a  international  than  economic  the  in  manner. world  the  these  nodes  g l o b a l economy  cities,  of  interacts  powerful  s t r u c t u r e of  i n modelling  governments  which  as  as  economic  Many  d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the  constitutional  of  in  a  political  position  virtually  relation  to  of a l l  their  states. III  contemporary  provides  background  dimensions  of  from  a  prospects  of  the  context  this  trade  state-centric  current  historical  the  trade  China within  the  with  point  of  about  trade which  Canadian  to  with view  the  and  It  and  political  China.  long-term  historical  and  nature,  Canada.  the  historical  economic  relations  thinking  and  reader  m a t e r i a l on  Canada's  summarize  between  be  change.  flows  increasingly  i s contrasted  Chapter  written  capital  cities  global  conceptualized  Conceiving  system  position  change. fiscal  an  w h i c h may  former  central  political  usefully of  metropolitan  generation,  i n f l u e n c e s the  (WPE)  political  related  in  large  capital  system  system  economy  identifies  It  is  attempts  to  value provides  and an  relationship  development  may  be  13 assessed. British period to  T h i s b r i e f economic h i s t o r y and  of  Canadian  Canada's  indigenous  Canadian  efforts and  provincial on  on a r e a s  attributing  e f f o r t s than  the  less  autonomously  are  the  a  case  study  of  trade with China.  activities  were  examined.  imperial  i s customary  in  Canadian After  general  i n most  governmental  describing  terms,  efforts, especially  Economic  i n the  ramifications  activities.  of  significance  programs  Development O f f i c e .  international  sphere  for intergovernmental  Municipal  links  hypothesized  to  with  exist  the  federal  this  The  i n w h i c h t h e V a n c o u v e r m u n i c i p a l government  act  which  is  Vancouver's  the m u n i c i p a l  during  the impact  writing.  t o promote  focuses by  IV  activities  development,  nation-building  history  Chapter  trade  f o c u s e s on  and  chapter developed  emphasis  is  i s able  to  what, i f  relations  of  international  i n Chapters  I  and  any, these  system II  are  14  Chapter  A.  The  Political  For  and  another  the  Approach  and  theoretical  international  have  research.  is incontrovertible,  mutual  clarity  economics  i n much a c a d e m i c  this division that  C o n c e p t u a l Frameworks  Economy  analytical  politics one  I  permeability  of  been  While  by t h e m o d e l s o f one  the  Historical  and  interventions  in  transient  nor  record  corporations, exercised  of  right.  allows  even  debate  sides  state  and  the  market  researchers and  of  to  relatively  suggests  that  economy  such  power  as  subsumed  political  are  neither  to  of  alter  such  argument  i s an  the  at  the  of  agree,  course  the  other  that  convenience  times  they  a  and  however,  Sometimes  of  are  left  c o m p l e x i t i e s of  relationship.  autonomously,  periodically  interventions  analytical  of  multinational have  theoreticians  downplay  cyclical  interdependence  entirely  individuals,  scope  among  the  Conversely, i t i s a matter  economic The  weakens  discipline.  actors  wealthy  events.  some  interactive operate  or  The  away nor  evidence  i n nature.  from  the u s e f u l n e s s of  disciplines  international  non-state  Both  isolating  the  sufficient  international matter  empirical  random  that  be w i s h e d  or the other  isolated  most r e s e a r c h e r s a c k n o w l e d g e  e x p l a n a t o r y and p r e d i c t i v e powers o f b o t h . o f s t a t e and m a r k e t c a n n o t  international  which their  the  two  exhibit  15 high  degrees  therefore  i s necessary problems.  The  political  our  era  of  all  states  one  compels  an  such  us  to  economic  blinkers  of t h i s  these  two  economy  of  the  means o f  understanding  politics  of  mutual  organizing  of  trade,  many one  interdependence  assess  the  and human  substantive  focus  of  this  as  without  political  Gilpin  virtually  implications  of  undervaluing  non-political  visualize  Robert  relations in  among  political  transactions  which  approach  area.  matters  superstructure.  definition  political  consideration  economic  commercial  ideological  A  s i g n i f i c a n c e o f g l o b a l economic  increased  international "merely"  to The  i s obviously  "mere"  that  i n t e r a c t i o n s of  political paper,  interaction.  assumes  contingent activity  of  nor  with  activity  provides  a  as  basic  approach:  In the a b s e n c e of s o c i a l , p h y s i c a l , and other c o n s t r a i n t s , a m a r k e t economy has an e x p a n s i v e a n d dynamic q u a l i t y . I t tends to cause economic growth, t o expand t e r r i t o r i a l l y , and t o b r i n g a l l segments o f s o c i e t y i n t o i t s embrace. G r o u p s and s t a t e s seek t o r e s t r a i n the o p e r a t i o n o f a market b e c a u s e i t has t h e p o t e n t i a l t o e x e r t a c o n s i d e r a b l e f o r c e on s o c i e t y ; e f f o r t s to c o n t r o l markets g i v e r i s e t o the p o l i t i c a l economy o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s . 8  The broad  political  types.  application  economy l i t e r a t u r e may  The of  the  first  defines  methodology  be  political of  the  "public  choice"  models  economy  economics,  " r a t i o n a l a c t o r " m o d e l s o f human b e h a v i o u r or  divided into  employed  for  as  ^ R o b e r t G i l p i n . The Political Economy o f R e l a t i o n s , P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , N.J., 1987,  Bruno  the  example  (e.g. Anthony by  three  Downs)  Frey  and  International pg. T9~.  others.  These  politics  t o economic  rationality. or  approaches  The  third  empirical state  wealth  approach  interests  third A  broad have  I t asks affect  the state  political behaviour.  g e n e r a t e d by  and i t s a s s o c i a t e d  the production  of the costs  how  and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f  political  and b e n e f i t s  c u t a t the problem  categories offered  "state"  decisions  of these  which  Others  requires  provide  and t h e  activities.  some  refining  Various  slightly  of the  definitions  different  insights.  " a u t h o r i t y " and "exchange" a s t h e c e n t r a l  have  used  "coercion"  and " e x c h a n g e " ,  and " m a r k e t s " . 9  "power"  For reasons  become c l e a r I p r e f e r R o s e c r a n c e ' s c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n "market" and  argues "has  that  been  9  Rosecrance since  poised  which  Relations  i n The R i s e  of the Trading  t h e end o f t h e Second between  S e e R. G i l p i n ,  which  "territoriality".  Two Systems o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l Richard  and  inquiry.  and "market".  "money", o r " h i e r a r c h y "  contrasts  B.  a specific  approach forms t h e b a s i s o f t h i s  concepts.  will  how  in particular,  L i n d b l o m has proposed  and  maximizing)  i n f l u e n c e t h e l o c a t i o n o f economic a c t i v i t i e s  first  been  employs  of  o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n and i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e o f  processes  distribution This  or pleasure  i s b a s e d on a s e t o f q u e s t i o n s  observation  and,  approach  the l o g i c  such as Marxism t o e x p l a i n s o c i a l  and market.  political  t o reduce  (i.e. profit  The s e c o n d  economic theory  attempt  World  two f u n d a m e n t a l l y  o p . c i t . , pg 46.  War  different  State,  the world modes o f  17 organizing hearkens over  in and  back  by  oceanic the  international relations: a  the or  the  1850s and  Pacific view  aimed  at  system  world  USSR and trading  which  to  which  Basins". power  Louis  XIV  and  some e x t e n t  the  United  system  in  that  is  organized  former of  territory  closely  to  the  differing  of  British  policy  the  and  conquest.  anarchical states  world  through  interdependent relatively of  f r e e and  status  Industrial  through countries  effectively production low-cost,  open  within  of high  trade  world"  is  contrasted  and,  therefore  This and  such  as  this  system  some  of  a  and  zero-  by  and  of  self-  national  functions  kind  the  in  an  relies  on  equality  differentiation.  Switzerland  extent,  that  promote  provides  and  Italy  concentrating  q u a l i t y g o o d s , K o r e a and  to  many  with  system o b v i o u s l y  specialization  h i g h - e f f i c i e n c y products  extraction  of  aggrandizement.  national differentiation  g l o b a l economy.  This  i n the  and  objectives  are  are o n t o l o g i c a l l y  sufficiency  illusion  states  whose p o l i c i e s  which s t a t e s r e c o g n i z e  an  an  Atlantic  i s composed o f  " t r a d i n g world" system w i t h i n is  presided and  c a p a c i t i e s competing  "military-political  is  which  States,  around  through  territorial  game o f n a t i o n a l s u r v i v a l and This  system  system  which  legacy  self-sufficiency  t h e o r i s t s wherein u n i t s of  i s the  today  terms  attaining  identical  of  The  1 0  corresponds  realist  sum  to  territorial  T a i w a n by  Canada  capital  through and  operate on  the  producing resource  technology-  Richard R o s e c r a n c e , The R i s e o f t h e T r a d i n g State: Commerce and C o n q u e s t i n t h e Modern W o r l d , B a s i c B o o k s , N.Y., 1986. pg. 16 1 0  18 intensive closely  manufacturing.  to the world  theorists  wherein  international in  which  which  view  division  divisive  mitigated  by  trading  of labour may  nature  the mutual  latter  system  of contemporary  t h e open  a l l participants  the  This  corresponds  liberal  system  gives  economic  rise  t o an  b a s e d on c o m p a r a t i v e a d v a n t a g e gain,  of  a variable-sum  international  benefits  of  game i n  politics  trade  and  is  economic  cooperation. These ideal  two " w o r l d s " o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l  types,  entirely  of course,  knife-edge  c a n n o t be s u s t a i n e d imperatives technological ecological attack  —  and i t i s u n l i k e l y  a d o p t one s y s t e m o r t h e o t h e r .  contemporary  of  equipoise  indefinitely"  1 1  developments  world  a smaller  and more  more and more i n terms o f t h e t r a d i n g  of  today which  likely  Germany the  have  economic  to define  the c o s t - b e n e f i t  i s considering military  self-sufficiency  very  1 1  consider  or i n t e r n a t i o n a l  to find, done, welfare  as  that  Japan  more  and  p g . 211.  world —  their  are  national  system. calculus  facing  and w e a l t h .  the Federal  a  It i s  Republic  results  of i t s people are l e s s  R o s e c r a n c e , op. c i t . ,  to nuclear  expansion i n p u r s u i t  status  spectacular  that the  communication,  dangerous  interest  nation  the world  systems  markets,  vulnerability  the states  example,  t h e two  i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and  will  hand " t h e  capital  forcing  For  the world  On t h e o t h e r  between  i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e and m u t u a l  of  that  a r e p o l a r or  a n d i t seems c l e a r  interdependent  i n short,  relations  costly  of  i n terms o f to achieve  19 through  p e a c e f u l economic  atavistic  ways  disheartening  of  the  development  territorial  frequency,  direction  of  interdependence recent  emergence  element  of  giants,  t h e US  for  of  "analytically b u y i n g and  selling in  reference  to i t s desire  the  US,  independent forced world  Soviet  which  action  in  China  economic i n t e g r a t i o n measure  by  technology territory century  the  no  and count  than  into  had  the  world  pursuing  for  less  t h e y might  upon a  Its in  have  the  huge  d i m e n s i o n a l g r e a t power i n t h e e m e r g i n g  Ho, S a m u e l , and Huenemann, R., The Q u e s t for Foreign Technology Vancouver, 1984. 12  compete  without  restructuring  understood  now  without  internationally. capacity  since  1945,  trading policy  years  for  is  now  strategy of  population  i n the past;  decline become  development,  closing  an  territorial  of  in large foreign  and the  i t i s at best a  international  C h i n a ' s Open Door a n d C a p i t a l , UBC  in  increased  economy m o t i v a t e d  economic  1 2  a  the  have  greatest  system  the g l o b a l  capital. for  be  the  is  economic  they  longer  cannot  in  by  There  The  t o be more c o m p e t i t i v e  i s now  quest  market.  and  to consider greater r e l i a n c e politics.  with  in particular  revolutionary  Union  the  the  developed  driven  in relative  can  The  has  recur  less  process.  now,  They  abroad.  occuring  Even  the  in this  decades  small."  the  and  capital  USSR, have been  two  still  system,  economy  world  learning  and  to  world  the  in  Although  o f some m a g n i t u d e i s c l e a r l y  trading  the  of  social  close  the  trade.  system  especially  world, the d i r e c t i o n of a s h i f t the  and  vast 20th one-  system.  Policy: Press,  20 The  trading  equivalents conflict,  different.  In  rather  place  challenges  of  the  i n the the  The  and  political  problematic  political  system  power  of  i s war;  it,  sustain  aimed  at  generating  economic  within  two  it,  a  essential  systems  are  i n the  system  i t is  and manage i t s  elites  and  strategies  industrialization  philosophy  of  autarkic, protectionist  almost u n i v e r s a l l y  and  economic  a  growth  as  are  expressed  Whatever  either  market  less  in  emulate  freedom or  The  political  the the  i f they  to  or dependency  perspective that  state.  to  liberalism,  Marxist  accepted  given  populations  or c o n f r o n t a t i o n a l  to c l a s s i c a l  of unequal exchange.  development  has had a d e m o n s t r a t i o n  w o r l d , e n c o u r a g i n g them  is  The  of  i n d i c a t o r s w h i c h measure t h e r a t e o f  activity  p o l i t i c a l  subscribe  that  criterion  relations  economic  underdeveloped  they  finds  and  i n an I n t e r d e p e n d e n t W o r l d  upon  if  political  i n the t r a d i n g  effect  the  the  international  wealth o f the developed world  adopt  contains  hierarchy.  relative  of  Each system  i s the  a d d r e s s e d i n terms o f e c o n o m i c  of  simple  and e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n s e q u e n c e s .  by a s e r i e s o f s t a t i s t i c a l expansion  not  t h o u g h , one  economy of  are  i n both  system  to create  E c o n o m i c Development  practically  former  international  economic growth — h o w  Policies  cooperation  than m i l i t a r y ,  military-political  C.  systems  t o n a t i o n a l market and s t a t e .  terms.  economic,  social,  military  competition  economic  state's  and  pursue  strategies theories  i s t a k e n however, i t developed  economies  21 are  by  and  economy  large  and  production  being  changing through  incorporated from  the  into  an  traditional  diffusion  of  expanding  to  modern  trade,  world  modes  technology  of and  investment. Without merits  or  (liberal, growth no  entering  assumptions  overriding  autarchy  in  to  of  particularly growth  has into  political  reject,  economic  Gilpin,  to  on  the  the  how  may  the  competing  relative viewpoints  international  still  the  about  be  made  expansion  g i v e s the  right  that of  and  the  the  The  however,  p o p u l a t i o n of  there i s global  capacity  i f they wish.  world,  economic  price  is a  to of  reduced  autarchic  state.  e x p e r i e n c e s o f C h i n a , Burma, A l b a n i a and this  demonstrated the  out. the  The  through  an  impact  in international or  interdependence  o p . c i t . , pg.264.  of  possible  for  of  the  NICs,  benefits  of  system,  NICs  i s "already  b a l a n c e o f e c o n o m i c power could  Western  economics".  the  of  economic  the  that  attempt  rise  t h e a d o p t i o n o f an e x p o r t -  success  emergence  encourage  The  international  the i n t e r n a t i o n a l  economy,  as  of  i t alone"  f o r the  strategy.  dominant f o r c e  1 3  "go  i n recent times  impact  significant  point  t h e USSR, b e a r  integration  may  underlie  autonomy  recent h i s t o r i c a l  h a v i n g an  discussion  contemporary  living  conversely,  and  to  the  some e x t e n t  led  the  Political states  The  which  determinism  sovereign  standard  a  M a r x i s t , dependency)  i s achieved,  economy.  into  to  prove  civilization Sovereign  13  manipulate  benefit  to  of  their  and  be as  as the  states manage  elites  or  22 their  populations  interdependence arguably their  i n the  alters  society.  policy-making  as  the  the  governed  and  limits  fiat",  goods and  and  raw  interest  presently  are  of  of  the  among s t a t e s  coordination  constrained have  entered  their beyond for  OECD, W o r l d by  the  into  borders.  web in  The  to  m e d i a t i n g between t h e the  1 4  demands and  Rosecrance,  of  other  out  options.  one  writer  no  longer  is  negotiation."  of a s o c i e t y  flows  parties  Bank,  of  and —  IMF,  function  influence  amount  secure  necessarily  requires  Member  agreements economic  economic economic  states which  growth  such are they  within  i n t e r n a t i o n a l r o l e of p r o v i d i n g  security  as  imperatives  expectations  o p . c i t . , pg.  of  208.  state  a  enlarges  on  the  of  therefore  take  of  Rapid  transboundary  i s not  etc.  1 4  rely  through m u l t i l a t e r a l f o r a  contractual to  to  societies.  inflation  and  domestic  l e d nations  interdependence  order  its traditional  its citizens  "policy  has  by  what  of  however,  managers  i n c r e a s i n g l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of world  policy  GATT,  of  matter  transnational  Managing  the  "a  i n t o or  interdependence.  as  which  produced  rate  one  state  rise  structured  capital  i n which  government —  in  i s rather  Such  terms  range of d o m e s t i c p o l i c y  state,  rates,  unemployment. transactions  the  materials  the  imposes c o n s t r a i n t s on  p r e c i p i t a t e s the  but  massive flows of  its  Accepting  f o r economic development,  Interdependence  I n t e r d e p e n d e n c e as on  quest  "mediative" by  whole.  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  Interdependence calls  a  well  the  of  global  role  of  negotiatior,  competitiveness  i t s society.  The  state  and  is (in  23 democratic will,  countries at  however  global  imperfectly  interdependence.  "cannot  assure  It  only  can  Economic  more  hand,  also  or w e l f a r e  these  hand,  economic  efficient  international  may  therefore The  opposing  of  demands  self-sufficiency economic  be  state  and  reducing  and  economic  generating  the above  a weakening reverse  capital  production  Canada,  500  1 5  i s true  should  be  i n the arena  accumulation. the  the  the  fiscal  1970s  level  of  f o r example,  industrial  Ibid  asymetric,  the  The  may  growth  vulnerability growth  a  best  t o m e d i a t e between  economic  On  through  labour.  1 5  state's  forces.  of the  through through  interpreted  as  an  indication  o f t h e power o f t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y s t a t e .  and  in  increased In  mind."  growth  of geoeconomic  where t h e s t a t e has become an a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t  occured  in  increases a  of  state  interdependence.  None o f  of  the  of  for i t s citizens.  encourage said  popular  manager  political  division  c a n be  a  world  i f not o v e r l y  to  the  objectives  t h e one  interdependence,  interdependence.  the  on  but  of  t h e b e s t means f o r a c h i e v i n g e c o n o m i c  strategy  of  with  to external  instrument  interdependent  security  interdependence,  other  provide  economic  an  expressed,  I n an  negotiate  vulnerability the  least)  in  The crisis  the  state  Indeed,  competition,  i n the process  internationalization of  the w e l f a r e  industrialized intervention  the F i n a n c i a l  c o r p o r a t i o n s f o r 1985  state  by  has  marketplace.  Post's l i s t i n g ranked  which  countries  i n the  of  of the top  sales  included  32  companies  provincial) investment. companies had  wholly  and a n o t h e r I n 1980  1 6  (nine  of  accumulation  "state  as  private a  dynamic  policies) to  interdependent  policy  change  producer.  of d i r e c t  exist  which  which recent  capital  nor e v i d e n c e s  called  support  regulates  by  the  the market  "capture"  by In  i n t e r n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of  a  seek  of comparative product  greater  the d i r e c t  Increasingly,  advantage  of corporate  to counteract  and a s s e r t  r e s o u r c e s by e x t e n d i n g and  as  makers  seven  c a p i t a l m a r k e t s and t h e i n c r e a s i n g l y  nature  advantage  owned  M a r x i a n t h o u g h t would p r e d i c t .  characterized  and a r b i t r a r y  external  22 w h o l l y  i n f r a s t r u c t u r e , l o a n s and  data  hope,  16  government  The r e l a t i v e l y  1 7  no l o n g e r m e r e l y  would  and  a c c u m u l a t i o n ) has been  Extensive  1 8  the state  economy  comparative  only  the sphere  to a s s i s t private  economists  production,  listed  to providing  c a p i t a l as c l a s s i c a l  world  (16 f e d e r a l  had s u b s t a n t i a l  investment. into  (as o p p o s e d  that  liberal  the Post  state  capitalism".  contention  22 w h i c h  government  the  tax-incentives  by g o v e r n m e n t  f e d e r a l and 13 p r o v i n c i a l ) and o n l y  substantial  entrance  owned  state  their vulnerability  control  over  r o l e of the s t a t e  the state  and  (i.e.  domestic  as  investor  i s producing  f o r the  market.  J e a n n e L a u x a n d M.A. M o l o t . State Capitalism: Public E n t e r p r i s e i n Canada, C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , I t h a c a , 1988, p g . 61. i b  The Hunter. 1 7  18  Financial  L a u x and M o l o t .  Post  5 0 0 , Summer  op. c i t .  1980, T o r o n t o ,  Maclean-  25 Canada the  again  OECD c o u n t r i e s .  intervention to  in  As  the  a  a  Canadian  i t s staples  "public  often  used  liberalism" the  one  levels  dealing  export  length into  products.  i n Chapter  the  great  world  power  i s an  In  the now  has  trend  among  pointed  out,  state  historical  to  a  from  the  area  state's  the  providing  IV.  economy  are  in  of  history,  which  the  "free-enterprise  of  international firms  financing will  in  firms  of  t a p e " ) and  at  trading  buyers  discussed  interventions cases  to  foreign  be  an  world  by  at  the  antidote by  All  firms  cost "red  to  trade,  activities.  the  is  i s , however,  Canadian  (cutting  i n many  the  exigencies  long  reducing  These d i r e c t  due  identity  assist  These a c t i v i t i e s  fact  Canada's  trading  actively  bureaucracies  wielded  this  economy.  i t  opportunities,  level,  has  response  nation"  of  owned m u l t i n a t i o n a l  of  foreign  federal  Canadian  state  government  with  in  south.  dimension  of  locating  of  Innes  economy  distinguish the  existence  only  the  to  example  extracting  enterprise to  good  Harold  p o l i c i e s promulgated  developing as  provides  of  some state  to  the  multinational  corporations.  D.  Cities, The  States,  Multinational  relationship  corporations between  and  constitutes  municipal  Cities  which  offices  will  between one  of  government  and  understand be. t h e  ones  the to  need  Corporations  cities the the of  and  two  multinational of  contact  international  system.  MNCs  points  for  a t t r a c t corporate  more  tenants  regional and  thus  26  integrate  themselves  more  fully  into  the g l o b a l  B e n e f i t s which accrue t o a c i t y may be p u r e l y jobs,  additional  tax revenues  diversification  -- or s o c i a l  cultural  erosion  and d i m i n i s h i n g  likewise  be e i t h e r  point of entry  economic  states.  MNCs as being or  more  decay,  Costs may a r e a major  for transnational c a p i t a l into a national  f a c t , they a r e the o n l y  individual  o f urban  Cities  i n the world p o l i t i c a l  actors  more  industrial  q u a l i t y of l i f e .  or s o c i a l .  MNCs a r e p o w e r f u l a c t o r s in  economic —  and g r e a t e r  -- t h e h a l t  economy.  state.  economy;  whose power r i v a l s  that o f  I f we take a simple working d e f i n i t i o n o f  firms  countries,  that  own and manage economic u n i t s  we f i n d  a great  deal  i n two  of v a r i a t i o n , of  course, i n the c a p a c i t i e s of these firms t o i n f l u e n c e or remain uninfluenced Shell,  by, s t a t e s .  IBM, N i s s a n , N e s t l e ,  Shanghai  resources  greater  Philips,  NatWest, Hong Kong and —  are c l e a r l y  economic terms, having f i n a n c i a l ,  technological  states.  Michelin,  however —  Bank, C i t i c o r p , Exxon, and the l i k e  powerful i n p u r e l y and  The l a r g e s t  than  industrial  the majority  Although these f i r m s a r e n o n - t e r r i t o r i a l , t h e i r  jurisdictional  activities  have  powerful  of  trans-  and c o n t r o v e r s i a l  impacts on n a t i o n a l economies and trade. Internationalization  of production,  rapid  and massive  t r a n s f e r of funds and a more dynamic i n t e r n a t i o n a l d i v i s i o n of labour  have occurred  i n l a r g e p a r t because of the a c t i v i t i e s of  MNCs.  The c a p i t a l and technology which these f i r m s possess and  d i f f u s e a r e i n c r e a s i n g l y mobile while labour  remains  relatively  27 immobile.  Their  production  confers  degree  and form  investment MNCs  may  claim  decisions  activities  political  attitudes  their  territories  Having  no p o l i t i c a l  basis  among  accountable population, The  will  what  only  their  relevance  recognized  that  ideological  There MNCs  their  world  relatively  located  economic  governments, small  fortheir  activities  within  futures. serve  as  orf o r  MNCs a r e  percentage  of a  actions.  to p o l i t i c a l  by n o n g o v e r n m e n t a l  them  i s widespread  however, MNCs c a n n o t  Unlike  as  to efforts to  of international p o l i t i c s  shareholders, o f MNC  countries  they present  policies  having  influence  societies. to a  national  e f f o r t s to attract  o f domestic  legitimacy,  to  In t h e underdeveloped  extraordinary  states  importance.  divergent  a l l i a n c e s against  f o r a new s y s t e m  cooperation  been  with  their  to multinational  o f MNCs  them a s n e o - c o l o n i a l i s t e x p l o i t e r s . by n a t i o n  While  Conversely,  In the developed  elephant".  from  through  functional,  and outcomes.  in relation  debated.  the modification  recognition  the  agendas  consequences o f profound  uneasy  range  states  to purely  of  the rate,  profit-oriented "logic",  and p a r t i e s  rogue  factors  to affect within  of the contribution  form  vital  of a state's borders.  according  by s t a t e s  i s hotly  "capitalist  expell  taken  activists  preferences  through  political  value  development  taken o u t s i d e  has p o l i t i c a l  development  a  o f economic  disinterested,  position  of these  the capacity  to operate  shape  The  o n MNCs  decisions  politically  the  possession  and  outcomes h a s  intergovernmental  28 a g e n c i e s , w h i c h have a t t e m p t e d  t o work o u t  MNCs r e g a r d i n g  national  and  such  working  protection the  part  issues  as  conditions,  and of  many  transnational  states  negotiate  c a p i t a l through  The  1 9  a  relations. MNCs a r e as  a  Critics  i n the  source  countries. that  the  final  same  MNCs and  has  those  The  of  problem  in  t h e i r host  dimension of  objectives  stable  and  regional  however, their to  be  operations  move  capital,  integrated  are  far the  full  transnational  production  sites  with  by  the in  and  necessarily  to  appears  than of  they MNCs,  nation-states,  reconciling purely and  their  scope  host  recognition  nature  the  host  viewed  result  employment,  MNCs into  of  that  their  more o f t e n dual  one  state-MNC  are  by  not The  external  these firms  restructuring.  cannot  by  terms  currency,  do  with  forget  and  power  states.  i n t e r n a l i n and  practical  to  i s widespread  cooperate  created  transnational of  there  and  multinationals  states  similtaneously become  of  time  appear  on  is indicative  model o f  n a t i o n a l l y based  the  to  being  instance  At  to  conflict.  sometimes  international prestige  interests  that  MNCs  of  correspond be  of  vivendi  multilateral fora  o f a need t o r e j e c t a s i m p l i s t i c c o n f l i c t u a l  consumer  willingness  modus  for  employment  transfers,  protection.  to  conduct  sovereignty,  technology  environmental  codes of  the  national industrial  very  nature,  economy.  Because  they  be  must  personnel  around  able the  S e e M a r t i n e l l i , A l b e r t o , "The P o l i t i c a l and S o c i a l Impact of T r a n s n a t i o n a l Corporations", The New I n t e r n a t i o n a l Economy, M a k l e r , H., Martinelli, A., and S m e l s e r , N., eds., Sage P u b l i c a t i o n s , B e v e r l y H i l l s , 1982, pp. 79-116. 19  29 globe  to  a world  remain  competitive.  political  In  this  sense  they  are  a part  economy whose s t r u c t u r e i s g l o b a l r a t h e r  of  than  national. An world  expression  economy  Labour  is  (NIDL).  but  labor  of  large, be  which  In  the  declining  goods  in  impact firm of  of  trade  or  this  traditional  firms  producing  goods  value  of  joint  vast  i s the  on  w h i c h was  to  ventures  and  of  useful  under  the  of  on  forms  of  aegis  of  conception b a s e d on  may  of  an  differences  in different  trading  the  nations. trade  occuring  is  between  of g l o b a l c o r p o r a t i o n s  producing  the  profound  largely  world. uncharted  i n t e g r a t i o n of  The  most  increase  qualitatively  (i.e. culturally,  into e i t h e r corporate  world  This  20  international inter-firm  intra-firm  parts  the  of  hierarchical  i n t e r n a t i o n a l companies."  of  the  matrix  specifically  types  carried  of  "a complex  labour  different  labourers  distinct)  the  in a  organization  different  the  division  component  attention  producers  g l o b a l i z a t i o n of  I n t e r n a t i o n a l D i v i s i o n of  one  the  the  been d e f i n e d as  with  relative  subsidiaries  in focus  integrated  between  NIDL  i s only  to  I t has  contrasted  trade  NIDL  integrates  highly  in  s o - c a l l e d New  serves  individual  international  i n f l u e n c e on  changes  multinationals. system  the  The  interconnected economy,  o f MNC  different  historically,  organizations  in  intratypes  economically  which  operate  on  C o h e n , R.B., "The New I n t e r n a t i o n a l D i v i s i o n o f L a b o u r " , i n Dear M. and S c o t t , A., e d s . , U r b a n i z a t i o n and U r b a n P l a n n i n g i n C a p i t a l i s t S o c i e t y , Sage P u b l i c a t i o n s , B e v e r l y H i l l s , 1983, pg. 289. zu  30  a world  level  MNCs  or into firms  initiate  these  more p r o f i t a b l e ways They  are also  states  part  responding  of selected  of developing  sectors  changes  the future industries  states  and these  of p r o f i t a b i l i t y  developed  world  On  devising  "national  adjustment" severe.  their  A full points  political  about  future  important  to shifts  o f MNCs e x c e e d s  them a r e germane.  economy  and " s t r u c t u r a l  c a n be p a r t i c u l a r l y may  they  have an i m p o r t a n t are located.  hinge choose  actors. paper.  t h e y s h o u l d be g i v e n  i n any a n a l y s i s  f o r the reasons  i nthe  i n t h e NIDL by  the b r i e f of t h i s  First,  in a  countries.  of individual cities  transnational  a n a l y t i c a l weight  their a c t i v i t i e s which  industrialized  impact  global  sites  on t h e way i n w h i c h m u n i c i p a l g o v e r n m e n t s  discussion  considerable  of MNCs  t o the developing  strategies"  The u r b a n  of export  has r e s u l t e d  relocation  respond  developed  p o l i c i e s on t h e  f o r many p r o d u c t i o n  industrial  The economic  to deal w i t h these  in  policies  scale.  competitive  t h e growth  The c o m b i n a t i o n  states  policies.  substantially  Two  to stimulate  and hence,  level,  p o l i c i e s by  international  i n p a r t i c u l a r , t o t h e newly  a national  new m a r k e t s a n d  and n a t i o n a l  national  reduction  world,  to national  b y a t t r a c t i n g MNCs.  strategies  by s e e k i n g  t o o r g a n i z e p r o d u c t i o n on a w o r l d  to strengthen  position  w h i c h e x i s t t o s e r v e t h e s e MNCs.  discussed  of the g l o b a l  above.  r e l a t i o n s h i p with  Competition  among  Second, the c i t i e s  cities for  31 regional  offices  o f MNCs  MNCs  are also  they  are limited  politics:  important  MNC  agents  i n their  assessments  and  i n t e r and i n t r a - s t a t e  E.  Conclusion: Dividing  trading  us  f a r enough  international play on  of inter  represents economic  away trade  from  concerning  the r o l e  international  Adam  Smith  certain  since  which  has been  not take  theories  concepts  especially  cities based  those  international  1970s.  virtually  of  international  by t h e new  The f i e l d  defined  since  o f i m p o r t s and  specialization  factors.  step i n  the role  of  o f the flow  and sale  a r e consumed  view  the early  f o r the i n t e r n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n  production  i t does  questions,  of international  purchase  evolutionary  Analytical  posed  as t h e e x p l a n a t i o n  international  stability,  the m i l i t a r y and  neoclassical  centred  of c i t i e s ,  into  constructively  the d i s t r i b u t i o n of production  account  of  Economy t o WPE  However  economy.  economics  e x p o r t s on t h e b a s i s by  system  prevailing  environment which has e v o l v e d of  by t h e e x i g e n c i e s  Political  activity.  state  do n o t a d d r e s s  interdependence, but  and i n t r a - s t a t e  a valuable  to analyze  the t r a d i t i o n a l l y  above,  regulation.  i n the world p o l i t i c a l  relations  activities  the i n t e r n a t i o n a l  global  As d i s c u s s e d  2 1  of global  From I n t e r n a t i o n a l  worlds  modelling  i s intense.  determined  T h i s model does n o t  of production of various  i n the creation  ( i . e . the  factors  of  o f one end  D . Heenan and H. P e r l m u t t e r . M u l t i n a t i o n a l Organization Development, A d d i s o n - W e s l e y , R e a d i n g Mass., 1979, p p . 91-106. Z1  32 product,  often  conglomerate avoiding  give  and  and  by  do  an  the  basic  The  substantially  To  the  of  scale  which  and  now  investment  sites  are  that  therefore  this  I  of  the  have  and does  MNCs.  by  terms)  of  the  describing  nation  WPE  which  the  choices  makes  structure  been  is is  problem In  the  lies  to now  differs  " i n t e r n a t i o n a l economy"  The  economy.  nor  a l l constrained economic  state-based  of  of  decision-making  in purely  implications. types  purposes  to contemporary  flows,  reality  which the  for  integrated  exists,  for theoretical analysis  the  WPE  two  assume  unit  from  complexity  existence of  capital  i n j u s t i c e to  emerging.  its  the  ( i . e . non-rational states.  vertically  t r a n s n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of monetary  l o c a t i o n of production  political  states  the  one  "invisible"  adequate a n a l y t i c a l weight  the  made  within  remaining  c i r c u l a t i o n on  Transnational and  place  thus  taxation)  financial it  taking  in  i n the  dual  state-centric  view  " i n t e r n a t i o n a l economy":  I t i s the w o r l d economic system t h a t would d e t e r m i n e the r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n of the n a t i o n - s t a t e s . As a w h o l e , i t i s d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e sum o f i t s component parts. T a k i n g n a t i o n a l u n i t s as as b a s i s d o e s n o t a l l o w f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g the a c t u a l s t r u c t u r e t h a t i s being developed. On the o t h e r hand, t a k i n g t h e w o r l d economy, w h i c h i s s t i l l a d e v e l o p i n g s y s t e m , as a p o i n t o f d e p a r t u r e makes what h a p p e n s a t t h e state level unintelligible. To stress the growing i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e o f t h e s t a t e s d o e s not sufficiently q u a l i f y t h e s p e c i a l f e a t u r e s o f t h e w o r l d economy. I n t e r n a t i o n a l s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i s c l e a r l y accompanied by interdependence. The parts of a whole are n e c e s s a r i l y i n t e r d e p e n d e n t as t h e y t a k e on m e a n i n g o n l y i n r e l a t i o n t o one a n o t h e r . But t h e l a w s o f " i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e " a r e , i n the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , t h o s e of the r e p r o d u c t i o n of the s y s t e m . The problem t h e r e f o r e l i e s i n a b a s i c d i s p a r i t y i n the a n a l y s i s o f t h e n a t i o n - s t a t e w i t h r e g a r d t o the economy. Affirming the greater i m p o r t a n c e of the world  33 economic system over t h a t of the n a t i o n - s t a t e s s h o u l d n o t be i n t e r p r e t e d a s s h o w i n g t h a t t h e l a t t e r are e c l i p s e d : t h e y c o n t i n u e t o e x i s t , but t h e i r s t r u c t u r e and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s a r e d e t e r m i n e d by t h e w h o l e o f which they are p a r t . 2 2  The  WPE,  then,  disaggregable  into  appropriate  way  economy  in  a  without  reference  should  Cities into  way  begin  growth.  by  This and  the  WPE  to  —  a  "nest  functional, disaggregate which to  makes  the  been  Wealth of  done  of  structures  sectoral or  or  "model"  national  in  basic  Jane  Nations,  the  world  actions  parts.  of  approach economic  a  new  work actor  cities.  M i c h i a l e t , C.A., "From I n t e r n a t i o n a l T r a d e t o W o r l d Economy: A New P a r i d i g m " , The New I n t e r n a t i o n a l Economy, M a k l e r , M a r t i n e l l i and S m e l s e r , e d s . , Sage P u b l i c a t i o n s , B e v e r l y Hills, 1982, p. 49. 2 2  Tooze, R., "Implementation i n a Complex Arena: I n t e r n a t i o n a l Economic P o l i c y i n a World P o l i t i c a l Economy", F o r e i g n P o l i c y I m p l e m e n t a t i o n , S m i t h , S., and C l a r k e , M. , e d s . , A l l e n & Unwin, London, 1985, pp. 95-122. 2 3  An  political  pathbreaking  introduces  is  intelligible  economy"  source(s)  Jacobs'  which  which  1 , 2 3  national  "international  i d e n t i f y i n g the  has  the  is  34  Chapter  A.  II  Cities  Cities  as C e n t r e s  i n the World P o l i t i c a l  of  Economy  Change  U r b a n i z a t i o n i s a c r i t i c a l p r o c e s s i n the development of the modern n a t i o n s t a t e . Historically, a l l c o m p l e x and a d v a n c e d c i v i l i z a t i o n s have s p r u n g f r o m t h e c i t y , and i n t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y w o r l d , u r b a n l i f e i s t h e dynamic b a s i s f o r most o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s and p r o c e s s e s we a s s o c i a t e w i t h m o d e r n i t y and economic progress. — Lucien Pye 2 4  The  importance of  technological scarcely the  late  based, city  be  providing outside  as  through during  Asian  centres  of  growth  redistributive the  Maoist not  Industrial  Revolution  centuries  period  been l o s t  on  essentially  Revolution  of  for  economic  resource and  states  migration provides  and  good  most d e v e l o p i n g  of  the the  activities, or  both)  the  hinterland  example) countries  and  equalize  control policies a  The  with  consciously  metropole  of  development,  research  may  can  urban-  era.  development  creation, diffusion,  the  our  transportation links  educational  or  was  regional  through  between  political,  European  for  Territorial  of  history  19th  (through  a centre  throughout  markets  for  as  change  Industrial  points  capital  labour.  l e s s o n has  (China but  the  that  L u c i e n Pye. "The P o l i t i c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s o f U r b a n i z a t i o n the Development P r o c e s s " , S o c i a l Problems of Development U r b a n i z a t i o n , V o l . 7, 1963, pg. 84. 2 4  and and  early  technologies  rate  The  mainspring  world,  skilled the  a  access  hinterland, new  and  i s the  acts  economic  overstated.  18th  as  and  the m e t r o p o l i s  industrial  development  correlated The  with  t o goods and  storehouses  of  emerging  in  in  WPE  are  based  on  to  cost  labour  that  a host  highly  of  2 7  cities  role  demonstrably  and  and  WPE  has  in  but  The  principal  of  computing. of  by  capacity  an  s e r v i c e s , s u c h as  communicators, centralized in city:  of  and  analysts  value  to  added  understand  sites  space.  economy those  and  This  i t generates c a p i t a l  and  the  low-  may  i n c r e a s i n g l y to o f f s h o r e ,  information-driven  and  Industrial  scale  supplanted  be low-  requires  provided  by  processors i s the  role  information  of of and  "John V. Henderson. I n t e r n a t i o n a l E xper i e n c e in U r b a n i z a t i o n and I t s R e l e v a n c e f o r C h i n a , W o r I d Bank Staff Working P a p e r s , No. 758, W a s h i n g t o n D.C., 1986, pp. 3-5. 26  Henderson,  Ibid,  pp  Michael Goldberg. V a n c o u v e r , 1985, p. 67. 2 7  7-25. The  Chinese  Connection,  .  ascending  technologies  economics  2 6  physical  centres-  i n v a r i o u s ways. M a n u f a c t u r i n g  but  sectors  better  communication  the  declined  service  providing  and  economic  contemporary  as  h i n t e r l a n d , or  be  the modern w o r l d  of  r e l a t e d to  specialized  educated  information ,  information  i n c r e a s i n g l y being  sites,  the  s e r v i c e s remains important  material  the  in  Manufacturing  mass p r o d u c t i o n ,  are  is  urbanization  telecommunications  information  relocated  the  scale  2 5  character  information.  resources  use  national  past.  to  their  transforming  and  the  function of  is  cost  different  relative  relevance  growth  a  had  historical  access  urbanization.  has  i t has  importance The  a  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  development than  on  UBC  Press,  36 is  the  wellspring  A life  useful  is  which  of  local,  notion  which  contained  defines  in  the  urban  "brainpower-driven,  and  indirectly,  compresses concept  economic  therefore  of  which  foundation  stone  transactional  in  Cities  isolation,  within  but  their  They  cooperate belongs  include focus  of  i s rather  Jean University xiv. 29  City,  of on  urban  within,  and  with  and  one  a nation  an  systems  sets  at  the  of The  economic  c i t • , pg.  as  increasingly  self-generating." provide  making  and  across  another. i t also  14.  highly separated  contexts.  Although  "belongs  in  of  single  operate  potential  the  such a  each  3 0  cannot  city.  together  range of of,  WPE  to  The make  growth  and  system  the T r a n s a c t i o n a l City, U r b a n S t u d i e s , 1983, pg.  Myth o f  the  North  2 9  other  configuration."  a  way  international  historical  structure  urban  network,  e n t i t i e s ,  level  2 8  the  in this  metropolitan  within  cities  Gottman. The Coming of of Maryland I n s t i t u t e for  G o t t m a n , op.  a  international  systems. and  city"  in cities,  distinct  M. G o l d b e r g and J . M e r c e r , The UBC P r e s s , V a n c o u v e r , 1986.  30  and  relationships  how  "transactional  i n t e r e s t s w h i c h c a n n o t be  compete  urban  urban  decision  of  cultural,  to a region  international  2 8  and  analyses  prosperity  are  i n c r e a s i n g l y of  Studies  nodes  territories  political,  aspects  indeed cannot, f u n c t i o n  groupings of  from  concentrate  the  Cities  individualized  circuits,  not,  form  national  boundaries.  city  do  the  growth. of  r e n e w a b l e and  services,  centrality.  these  activities  Information  of  national  American  is  : limited each  by t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e n a t i o n a l  constituent  whole. system  city  i s a part  The. h y p o t h e s i z e d generally  advantage  --  metropolitan exploitation growth  involve  a process  exploitation  based  monopolies.  largely  city  and i t s s u r r o u n d i n g  Within  constituent  u n i t o f the system.  (services)  relative and  to  region,  city  governmental Most  and  acknowledge  and t h e e x i s t e n c e  economic  the concepts  as  of the  together.  on a c i t y ,  (services  power  that  of  The  i s the basic  stems  an  f r o m an  activities—  to services)  —  economies  corporate  of feedback  The  systems  interactions that  within  they  cannot  and  strong  i n a bounded  o f some k i n d  of c i t i e s  include  of  e f f e c t s which  be d e s c r i b e d  terms b e c a u s e t h e y  linguistic  the presence  (cities)  the existence  variation,  of  among r e g i o n s ,  are joined  growth and change i m p l i e s  or p o l i t i c a l  by  enterprises.  researchers  complexity  regions  i n the growth o f l o c a l  i n t e r a c t i o n s among a s e t o f e l e m e n t s (state)  the f r u i t s  role of urban-centre  size  this  The c o n c e r n w i t h d e v e l o p i n g  and quaternary  increasing  within  exchange and  networks a r e o r g a n i z e d  to primary a c t i v i t i e s the  as a  combined,  framework  centred  of the increasing  tertiary  how  hinterland  or nodal  awareness  When  this  functional  o f how  by t h e WPE  peripheral  are d i s t r i b u t e d s p a t i a l l y  as s o c i a l l y .  which  o f exchange v i a c o m p a r a t i v e of  determine  well  economies  r e l a t i o n s h i p s among c i t i e s  or  (or d e c l i n e )  understanding  o f and i n t u r n  37  are of  and r e l i g i o u s d i f f e r e n c e s  regulate  of system. sufficient  in strictly  cultural  area  economic  and g e o g r a p h i c and t h e l i k e .  38 They  are  complex  therefore  social  systems,  conveniently operating  reduced  parts.  systems,  best  to  cities for  Nor  deduce  described  social  systems of  purposes  is  the  and  as  of  cities  analysis  i t possible,  response  systems.  as  in  cannot  to  by  be  discrete  most  conditioned  As  natural  any  given  change.  B.  The  Economy o f  In  the  economist observed theory which trade price  Bertil that  of  no  address  which  flows.  delivered  serious  attempt  borders  He  theory,  which  of  that  its  consequences  international  economics."  apparently most  c o n c e r n s the  macro-economic  necessarily contained  his  death  the on  effects  the  of  accepted  by  little  point  that  Five  years  he  of  to  volume  of  changes  economic  economists,  his  in  criticism the  part  borders  economic u n i t s , i . e . this  in  attention  political  later  a  interdependence  u n q u e s t i o n i n g a s s u m p t i o n on theorists  1979  extent  international  given  The  3 1  in  d i r e c t i o n and  known and are  political  been made t o d e v e l o p  although mutual  congruent with d i v i s i b l e "economies".  winning  expressed  the  circumstances well  yet  which  emphasizes  i s generally  prize  before  had  modified  commented  economic  relations,  Nobel  Ohlin  i n t e r n a t i o n a l trade  national  internal  "many  last  Cities  of are  self-  assumption  was  B e r t i l O h l i n . "Some I n s u f f i c i e n c i e s i n t h e T h e o r i e s of I n t e r n a t i o n a l Economic R e l a t i o n s " , Essays i n I n t e r n a t i o n a l F i n a n c e , No. 134, S e p t . 1979 , P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y D e p t . o f E c o n o m i c s , I n t e r n a t i o n a l F i n a n c e S e c t i o n , P r i n c e t o n , N.J. pg. 2 J 1  39 challenged  by  t h e work o f J a n e  Jacobs  argues  macroeconomic are  theory:  u s e f u l and  life  works  economies data  of  not  seen  is  about  of  what  i n an  some  she  hundred  of  propounded  the  gold  i s amassed  when  course  i f wealth  automatically  become  idea  i s merely  this  case the In  1776  production sought labour, failed  a  t o do  (supply)  for not  i n domestic  pg.  treasure."  i n mines as  30  of  repetition  of  well  as  and  by  the  with  the  gold  than  it  and buys.  economies life;  another  work r e d e f i n e d  gold  foreign  Wealth  idea  treasure.  of  economic  must  The  national  of  the  that  idea,  in  wealth  as  3 3  reformulation  the  trade  consumption  or  of  formulated  consists  way,  units  purpose  fundamental  tautology"  more goods  in this  the  national  preoccupied  for  wealth  salient  in his b r i l l i a n t  3 2  Ibid.  were  powers  i s defined  that  economic  appreciated.  originally  sells  how  the  in  economies  pervasiveness  be  who  nation  Jane Jacobs. C i t i e s and e s s , New Y o r k , 1984, pg. 29. 33  to  that  national  provide  Adam S m i t h s ' s i n f l u e n t i a l  i t s sources and  theory  be:  "mercantalist  old,  tautology,  idea of  the  wrong  national  may  The  1 , 3 2  imperial  the  that  entity  context  years  a  idea  is  for understanding  economists  They  "Of  other  calls  European  assumption  structure  analysis.  mercantalist  rivalries  its  historical  four  basic  entities  what  economic  be  early  and  a  " I t i s the  salient  and  acceptance  that  Jacobs.  of  but  in  (demand)  and  capital  and  trade. of  What  economic  Nations,  Smith  thought  Viking  40 was  question  title of  of  the  mercantalist  h i s great  Wealth of  labour  of  began  the  every  with  product  Nations,  we  and  have  proceeded  Although  Inquiry  Karl  Marx  nations  In  come  from  based  than  and  state,  i n p r a c t i c e Marxist  to  his  analysis the  economists  on  the  continue  to  describe  language  of  q u a n t i t a t i v e measurement  i s often I f we  some  of  intellectual  natural  and  of  inflated  evidence any  of  it  is  the  i s not normal  unemployment  this  nearly  Ibid.  pg.  For  structure (the  notion  that  congruence upon  the  phenomenon  high  3 4  the  known m a c r o - e c o n o m i c  stagflation  on  only  structure of  base  the  most  of  a  the their  part  they  society  an  in  a  abstraction  political  borders  economies  a l l schools  combination  should  theory,  but  possible  high  self-evident  32.  national  away to  GNP),  with  which  which  condition and  "Smith  class  of  rising  of  does.  but  go  has  of  has  She  macro-  hand  the  as  according  to  out  been  that  common—  economies,  i n hand.  escaped  to  1970s —  points  always  the  unemployment  exist  underdeveloped  prices truth  not  have  then  Jacobs p o i n t s  p r i c e s which appeared worldwide i n the a  says,  gross  continued  r e s t becomes p r o b l e m a t i c .  stagflation —  annual  reality.  foundation  economic theory case  economic  dispense with  sort  Causes  "The  withering  p r e v a i l i n g assumption.  taken f o r  the  the  3 4  research  which  Jacobs  as  in  N a t u r e and  sentence  as  know  predicted  the  is implicit  i n t o the  short,  there."  rather  as  h i s opening  nation...".  what  and  work, An  tautology,  One  economists  where reason  is  that  41 they  have  taken  the  nation-state  as  their  basic  unit  for  economic a n a l y s i s . What  alternative  analysis? and  Regional  who  i s not  t a k e s as  Once  her  be  analysis  sectoral analysis  approaches  can  as  has  offered  i s coming  for  increasingly into  i t s proponents.  c l e a r , t h o u g h , as  starting  point  the  macro-economic  The  that  logic  offered  l o c u s of wealth  vogue  of  by  these  Jacobs,  generation.  we remove the b l i n d e r s of the m e r c a n t a l i s t tautology and t r y l o o k i n g a t t h e w o r l d i n i t s own r i g h t r a t h e r t h a n as a d e p e n d e n t a r t i f a c t o f p o l i t i c s , we can't avoid seeing t h a t most n a t i o n s are composed of c o l l e c t i o n s or g r a b bags o f v e r y d i f f e r e n t e c o n o m i e s , r i c h r e g i o n s and poor ones w i t h i n t h e same n a t i o n . 3 5  This  i s hardly  importance  of  initiatives,  and  s u r p r i s i n g to transfer the  a d d r e s s the Jacobs  i s s u e o f how is  quite  d e v e l o p s by  grace of  replacing.  These  related, provides fully  both  on and  being  recent  growth  I b i d . pg.  32.  Ibid,  39.  pg  of  the  the  on  this  master  and  in  of  logical in  recent  the  development  still  does  "Economic grace of  processes  A not  closely 3 6  arguments w h i c h global or  economy. the  life  import-  are  economies."  years  the  created.  point.  city  to  confederation.  t r a c k but  economic  developments Japan  of  i t expands by  functions  i s used  regional  sinews  right  who  where w e a l t h i s  clear  detailed historical  with  dynamic  as  innovating; two  Canadian,  payments,  like  r e g i o n a l a p p r o a c h p u t s us  a  She accord The  truncated  42 development analysis.  i n t h e PRC There  are e a s i l y  is a  clear  explainable  c o r r e l a t i o n between  and e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t , b u t c a u s a t i o n to p r o v e .  This  3 7  city  causal  link  import-substitution  This  i n terms o f  may  at  now  the  urbanization  has been more  difficult  be e s t a b l i s h e d by p l a c i n g  root  expansion c o n s i s t s s p e c i f i c a l l y  this  of  economic  of f i v e  expansion.  forms of  growth : 3 8  1. Abruptly enlarged c i t y m a r k e t s f o r new and d i f f e r e n t i m p o r t s c o n s i s t i n g l a r g e l y o f r u r a l goods and o f i n n o v a t i o n s b e i n g p r o d u c e d i n o t h e r c i t i e s . 2. A b r u p t l y i n c r e a s e d numbers and k i n d s o f j o b s i n the i m p o r t - r e p l a c i n g c i t i e s . 3. I n c r e a s e d t r a n s p l a n t s o f c i t y work i n t o n o n - u r b a n l o c a t i o n s a s o l d e r e n t e r p r i s e s a r e crowded o u t . 4. New u s e s f o r t e c h n o l o g y , p a r t i c u l a r l y t o i n c r e a s e r u r a l p r o d u c t i o n and p r o d u c t i v i t y . 5. It  Growth  should  be  of c i t y  added  capital.  that  import  domestically  ( p e r h a p s more  imports.  strategy  which  The  can  be  recent least,  years  The  would  encouraging  Jacob's preference universally be a d d r e s s e d not  provide  the  NICs  the  might  appear  the s u b s t i t u t i o n of  running  to  important foreign  substitution i s a prescription counter  of export-led indicate  interdependence  to  the growth  economic  that,  f o r t h e NICs  i s a v i a b l e growth  I t i s a complex  I t does  been  not  units  42.  question  however,  f o r economic  equally,  See H e n d e r s o n , op. c i t . , pp. J a c o b s , op. c i t . , p g .  imply,  of  growth i n at  strategy.  f o r an i m p o r t - s u b s t i t u t i o n p o l i c y may  salient  have  as  success  applicable. here.  as  of import  construed  interdependence.  so)  s u b s t i t u t i o n i s as  not  be  which cannot  that  cities  do  analysis,  nor  that  or more, s u c c e s s f u l  had  they  9-14.  43 followed  an  The  import-substitution strategy.  failure  framework,  to  rather  frequently  than  developed  place  needs  that  results.  unleashed  by  transplants,  help  at  supply  demand  The  Ignoring  and  them  national  up  with  changes  problematic  area  concerns  figures,  which  monitoring  flows  of  that  assets  trade  across  and of  money  are  borders,  of  the  macro-economic  3 9  Ibid.  4 0  T h e E c o n o m i s t , Aug.  --  the  five  of  in  1988,  jobs,  can  we  amorphous  difficulties  economy.  have  of  of  The  4 0  out  The  an  changing  economy,  intra-firm meaningful  usefulness  establish a  61-62.  new  of  ownership  hands,  generation  state's  problems  a l l developing the  most  payments  overstated  surpluses .  pp.  forces  abstracted  the  having  world  above  to  any  countries  this  about  around  also  statistics is  in  markets,  "None  1980s  i n and  setting  uniformly  bankrupted  44. 20,  the  the  39  in services, call  suggestion  almost  this  of  projects")  with  has  of  i n t e r n a t i o n a l balance  and  methods o f  pg.  in  the  theories  is  continuously  of trade  popular  on  understated  indicators  One  —  prosper.  statistics  throughout  national deficits  —  economies."  of  basis  root  themselves  science  keeping  the  dwelling  chasing  is  ("turnkey  capital  to  within  policy  import-replacing  a l l by  known as  one,  growth  implemented  enterprises  city  comprehend and  national  and  technology  than  economic  r e g i o n a l development  disastrous  blurs  a  advocated  completely  rather  analyze  into  of  current  question.  "information"  44 c a t e g o r y which c u t s a c r o s s e x i s t i n g  boundaries  and  involved  services,  to include  a l l those  storage,  retrieval  and  computer  engineers  to teachers  countries  this  may a l r e a d y a c c o u n t  sector  distribution to  of manufacturing  i n the p r o d u c t i o n ,  of  information  journalists.  from  In  some  f o r one i n e v e r y  two  jobs . 4 1  The  importance  and  the world  in  capitalist  in  accumulation  of c i t i e s  i s well  oligopoly one  capital  critic  at  of accumulation"  expansion  places...in  of social  assumptions extractive them  as  provides way  4 1  and  which  a  urban which  central  economic  underlay  of the h i n t e r l a n d  creating  regional,  surplus  an i n t e r e s t i n g  to reconciling  national  state,  change."  the negative  4 2  "  and local  writes cities  of  capitalist  i n any  predictive  4 3  The  view  or the p o s i t i v e  competing  of c i t i e s  view  to the  which  and L i b e r a l  as sees  hinterland  f o r r e s e a r c h which might  the Marxian  elements  calling  "the nature position  role  national  development,  for diffusion  topic  of their  for transnationals,  and the m o d e r n i z i n g World  of nations  are "the c r u c i a l  a l llevels,  "theatres  models  Cities  locus operandi  of Third  life  r e c o g n i z e d e v e n by c r i t i c s  accumulation.  t r a n s n a t i o n a l . . . the  t o t h e economic  go some  viewpoints  4 4  Ibid  T e r r y McGee and W. A r m s t r o n g . Theatres of Accumulation: S t u d i e s i n A s i a n and L a t i n A m e r i c a n U r b a n i z a t i o n , M e t h u e n , London and New Y o r k , 1985, p g . 4. 4 2  4 3  Ibid.  pg 224 .  4 4  E x p o s i t i o n on t h e myth o f a g r i c u l t u r a l  primacy...  .  45 Without  entering  cities,  the  point  most i m p o r t a n t place.  In  into a may  normative debate about  still  be  made t h a t  transformations  view  of  this  and  vital  almost u n i v e r s a l l y powerless  C.  The  Cities which  they  cannot have  integrated.  be  or  Fiscal  the  With t h i s caveat  observed  that  majority  of  the  constitutional "government"  to  assigns  and  fiscal  describe  administrative  national) of  two  units  governmental states  respects,  China  which and  is  municipal  in  The  context  in  they  are  which  within  a  often  larger  structure.  A  are  dissimilar  quite  Canada, w i l l  a  the  the  be  vast  position of  the  better  is  described  (provincial  in  of  word  structures  cross-national  support  still  of  use  political  they are  cities  Cities  government  municipal  take  terms?  structure  dependency.  the  WPE  i t that  political  societies  of  i s where  i n mind, however, i t may  a r g u a b l y a misnomer; i n r e a l i t y as  the  feature  i n the  Dependence o f  political-economic  states  why  in political  i s o l a t e d from  grown  city  transactions  function,  are  C o n s t i t u t i o n a l and  the  this  or  comparison most  validity  other of  this  contention. Canada political 92  of  is  power  the  typical over  of  Act  for  municipal  legislatures.  Under  Section  powers  r e v e n u e by  to  raise  states  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s to  Constitution  responsibility  federal  of  the  in  provinces.  1867  assigns  institutions 92(C)  the  i t s cession  to  Section specific  provincial  provinces  direct taxation,  of  therefore  are the  given only  46 sources  of  revenue  g r a n t e d by include  the  real  available  province. property  ."In  to  the  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s are  general  taxation,  t e r m s , t h e s e have come  licensing fees,  and  progenitor  relations for  of  was  an  local  local  system  government  and  government  municipal  Because  There  is  a  intergovernmental misleading  "  at  to  image . 48  4 6  "the of  division important  " n o n - p o l i t i c a l " agencies,  the  the  locus  of  government majority  independence severely  a l l l e v e l s of  utilize  a  In  s e c t o r a l or  many  were  character .  assignment  Senior  are  of  is  "layer  local  transfer municipal  crucial  to  circumscribed.  government  cake"  to  see  I t may  rather  functional  than  L. F e l d m a n and K. G r a h a m . Bargaining For Cities: M u n i c i p a l i t i e s and I n t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l R e l a t i o n s , An A s s e s s m e n t , I n s t i t u t e f o r R e s e a r c h on P u b l i c P o l i c y , M o n t r e a l , 1979, pg. 5. C. T i n d a l and S. T i n d a l . M c G r a w - H i l l R y e r s o n , T o r o n t o , 1984, 47  F e l d m a n and  Graham, op.  Morton Grodzins. C h i c a g o , 1966, pg 14. 4 8  The  L o c a l Government pp. 11-33.  c i t . , pg.  American  in  Canada,  7.  System, Rand M c N a l l y  &  be a  issues  4 5  4 6  4 5  blueprint  institutions  political  from  provide  a  r e l a t i o n s i n h i e r a r c h i c a l terms.  however,  cake"  4 7  options  tendency  a  and  remote  financial  autonomy, l o c a l  established  i n p r a c t i c e l e d to  to independent  c o n d i t i o n a l and  revenues.  than  level."  provincial-municipal  municipal  organization  responsibility.  of  1849  which  rather  commissions  payments a r e  "marble  in  model  in  t h i s model has  responsibilities  boards  which  administrative  Conformity with of  Canadian  Ontario,  the. p r e s e n t  given  the  to  transfer  payments f r o m p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t s t o the m u n i c i p a l The  those  Co.,  47  civic with  i n s t i t u t i o n s have a v a r i e t y of channels of the  senior  levels  of  government a v a i l a b l e to  p r a c t i c e , however, they u s u a l l y act i n concert orders and  defer to t h e i r wishes.  of c i v i c p o l i t i c i a n s s e r v i c e s on local  behalf  autonomy  the  terms  of  governments. divorce  senior  levels  even more c o m p l e t e l y  effect,  than  "The  tendency of  local  the  political  on  a  not  parties,  have  office,  very  little  49  system. " 49  one.  service  They  political  In  seek  platforms,  "political"  content.  As  late  may  be  co-opted  well,  stone to by  their  ambitions.  19th and  and  early  20th  large, l e f t  alone  economic problems.  Feldman and  the  administrative  local  muncipal p o l i t i c i a n s  governments were, by s o c i a l and  of  government  p o l i t i c s i s o f t e n seen as a s t e p p i n g  p r o v i n c i a l or f e d e r a l the  p u b l i c l y to  based on a f f i l i a t i o n s with p r o v i n c i a l or f e d e r a l  because m u n i c i p a l  In  described  politicians  a political and  limits  municipal  immaturity  than  part  structural  been  word) from m u n i c i p a l  "service" basis  which are  higher  rather  senior  of  governments take an  approach  election  T h i s has  In  of d e l i v e r i n g  their  "immaturity"  (a d i r t y  the  government  political  municipal  delivery  of  the  "politics"  perpetuates  with  r o l e as one  dependency on p r o v i n c i a l governments. in  them.  T h i s w i l l i n g n e s s on the  to d e f i n e t h e i r of  communication  Graham, op.  50  centuries to d e a l  with  local local  Senior governments as a matter  c i t . , pg.  101.  J.H. T a y l o r . "Urban Autonomy i n Canada: I t s E v o l u t i o n and D e c l i n e " , The Canadian C i t y : Essays i n Urban and S o c i a l H i s t o r y , A r t i b i s e and S t e l t e r , eds., C a r l e t o n L i b r a r y S e r i e s , C a r l e t o n 50  48 of  policy  political  were  which  functions  placed  and  had  (e.g.  the  under  a  effect  this  control  the  authority.  This  accelerated  of  placed in  the  this  and  Drainage  World  local  matters  programs.  provincial undertaken  By  1940  I,  during  governments on  behalf  to  of  its citizens  c o n s u l t a t i o n a p o r t i o n of In  the  postwar  legislative government legal and of  and  power,  real  centre. the  University  actions,  local  Press,  which  these costs  themselves,  and  i n the  or  diluted  time  pass  should on  of for be  without  to the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s .  while  not  formally  removing  created  a  provincial  divergence  accruing evolution  to  the  was  b a s e , where p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s  478-495.  senior  practice  of  latter  local  regulation  services to  long-  jurisdictions  which and  in  provincial  outburst  effectively  pp.  powers  an  A major v e h i c l e f o r t h i s  1984,  agencies  period  power, w i t h t h e  tax  and  and  was  become s t a n d a r d  decide  city  this  fragmenting municipal  i t had  uneven certain  and  under  governments assumed c o n t r o l o v e r most f u n d i n g service  the  Districts)  functional  fragmented  War  and  Although  muncipalities certain  effect,  of  time  (e.g. metro b o a r d s ) ,  more  process of  around  At  jurisdictions.  concentrating  and,  been a l o n g  s p e c i a l i z e d boards  associations  process  supervision  of  erosion  from d i r e c t c o n t r o l of  Water  of  request  of  1880.  were removed  number  larger municipal term  around  Vancouver  the  done a t  the  began  offices  representing often  The  autonomy o f m u n i c i p a l i t i e s has  process  council  non-interventionist.  local between  provinces  the  erosion  eliminated  49 local  income  eliminated vehicle the  taxes,  or reduced  taxes,  property  transfer  power  I t ended  "champion"  sharing  insufficient  "chorus  on t h e  support  from  a  the  "tri-  by t h e F e d e r a t i o n o f i n order by  to secure  senior  levels  a of  no b e n e f i t t o  be d e m o n s t r a t e d .  Despite  5 2  i n the M i n i s t r y o f State  f o r Urban  f o r a decision-making  f o r u m on  consultative process,  they had  the federal Finance  government,  ministry,  especially  and from t h e  The f e d e r a l p e r c e p t i o n was t h a t i t w o u l d add t o t h e 5 3  challenge i n 1979.  institutionalized even  municipal  was  i n 1976 b e c a u s e  could  and more v i t a l  of v o i c e s "  disbanded  from  the provinces  to their  prerogatives.  Constitutional  the "immaturity"  the large c i t i e s  and t h e p r o v i n c e s  from  fatalism  of municipal developing  5 1  Ibid.  52  F e l d m a n a n d Graham, o p . c i t . , pp. 29-46. Ibid.  dependent  example  interests  quest  the a l l important  provinces.  5 3  taxes,  and motor  to increase  i n t h e 1970s  or the centre  a federal  made  in failure  revenue  kept  of liquor  became  initiated  of their  (MSUA) i n t h e i r  as  property  on t h e e x p l o i t a t i o n o f  One s u c h  approach,  Affairs  it  been  i n Canada.  awareness  provinces  within  restrictions  have  Municipalities  government.  having  share  Municipalities  5 1  conference  Canadian  the  tax.  and p e r s o n a l  the l o c a l  and p l a c e d  attempts  bargaining  better  taxes  payment, u s u a l l y i n t h e f o r m o f t h e c o n d i t i o n a l g r a n t .  Some  level"  sales  p g . 51.  T h e MSUA seems  saw was  t o have  governments and  the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  50 and  resource  requirements  intergovernmental The  to  on m u n i c i p a l  process,  master p l a n s  through  well  vacuum  municipalities  a series  and  sufficient strategic (e.g.  to a  government  generally  financial  a n d human have  the  other  isolate  of  plan  often  serve  rather  structural  than  reasons  plans.  initiate. f o r urban  No e x e c u t i v e c o m m i t t e e o f c o u n c i l ;  p g . 118.  5 5  Ibid.  p p . 112-113.  The  5 4  and  term  or  change  described i n  more  command  autonomy  55  Ibid.  have  at their  long-range  policy  future  Columbia  terms,  fill.  l e v e l s has  i n long  for anticipated  longer  resources  intent,  the resources  t o engage  for British  tends  to  initiative."  have  or  i n reaction  p o l i t i c i a n s at the senior  of their  5 4  made  by s e n i o r  weakness : 1.  of  to a r t i c u l a t e  local  the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l  hand, r e a c t four  lack  i n preparation  Elected  implementation  tended  autonomy  see t h e 10-year IV) .  "have  government  political  importantly,  The  of general  l e v e l s o f government  "unilateral action  federal  planning  Chapter  i s clear.  out statements  of s p e c i f i c decisions,  i n response  provinces  making  i n the lack  thought  f o r other  t o e v e n t s , " and i n t u r n been  i n the  f o r the development o f urban i n f r a s t r u c t u r e ,  a policy  Canadian  policy  as m a n i f e s t e d  be a d h o c , w i t h o u t  leaving  t o compete  arena.  effect  planning  sufficient  levels  of  extensive and,  most  to ensure the  Municipalities,  on  Feldman a n d Graham intergovernmental  51  2. 3. 4.  A weak mayor system; Absence of p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s ; Fragmentation of l o c a l government with i t s r e l i a n c e on s p e c i a l purpose b o d i e s . 56  This l a s t  weakness i s p a r t i c u l a r l y important because m u n i c i p a l  relations  with the  largely  at  a  functional viewpoint effects The  functional  which  is  of  in civic  n o t i o n of  the  a  interest  decisions as  the  logic  into  and  in  have on  a bargaining  political in a  out This  parochial  the  profound  municipalities.  unit.  It  has  no  irrelevance  to  The  WPE,  low  voter  Capital system of market  theories  economic price,  ignoring  national  forth  and  by  exchange matrix  of  a  regional  to  a  lead  to  tendency  to  solely  in  rates  of  grounded rates of  or  neo-classical  because of  relations,  the  relations  i f i t i s not  put  become p r o b l e m a t i c  capital,  the  municipal  characteristically  handled c a r e f u l l y  of  of  elections.  a world  must be  references  level.  limited  marketplace which o v e r r i d e s  economists o f t e n  return,  limited  Networks of  abstractions.  extend  a  reflected  C i r c u i t s and  differences  political  fosters  organized  perception  globalized  a  carried  independence.  participation  arid  breeds  i s not  governments  The  rather  specialization  s o v e r e i g n t y or  D.  l e v e l s of government are  intergovernmental  city  The  senior  and  specific  socio-  T h e s e are g e n e r a l l y a p p l i c a b l e i n Canada but there are exceptions. Vancouver, f o r example, has a t y p i c a l l y e x t e n s i v e powers, granted through the v e h i c l e of the Vancouver C h a r t e r . 56  52 cultural  and  transnational equally the  political capitalist  serious  WPE,  when  transnational omitted  from  consider as  problems  class their  provides of  the  may  clearly  "That  have  analysis  into  triumphed human  Marxists  but each  is  continue to factors  fundamental  Both  1 , 5 7  over  agency  t o one o f t h e most  are real,  with  scholars  a s c o n c r e t e and " e x t e r n a l "  perspective  be  relations  actors  studied.  local  obeys  and  i t s own  1  City"  by t h i s  analysis  reasons d i s c u s s e d  exist  model.  i s to avoid  above.  model w h i c h  among  within  trade  systems  dependency.  radically  unequal  the world  system, are not  the i n t e n t i o n  state-centric  of  view f o r  The p r o b l e m may be a v o i d e d by u s i n g views  t h e WPE  as a s t r u c t u r a l  a  reality  R. Chase-Dunn. " U r b a n i z a t i o n i n the World-System: New D i r e c t i o n s f o r R e s e a r c h , " C i t i e s i n T r a n s f o r m a t i o n , e d . M. P e t e r , Sage P u b l i c a t i o n s , B e v e r l y H i l l s , 1984, p g . 111. 57  S e e The M o d e r n W o r l d S y s t e m . V o l . I . , (1974) and The Modern W o r l d System. V o l . I I , ( 1 9 8 0 ) , A c a d e m i c P r e s s , N.Y. Also The C a p i t a l i s t W o r l d Economy, Cambridge P r e s s , N.Y., 1977. 5 8  5 8  however,  relationship,  Further, a  Wallerstein  model,  of s t r u c t u r a l  relationships  the China-Canada  by  international  Wallerstein s  undoubtedly  b u t many  explained  present  developed  o f d e p a r t u r e from which  the problematic thesis  example  "World  factors  structures  a point  Dependency  usefully  has  class  c o n s c i o u s n e s s a n d when  world-system  includes  for  Neo-Marxist  they p r o j e c t  formulations.  co-exists  logic.  cities  state  which  o f t h e modern w o r l d - s y s t e m .  world-economic  The  when  i s a capitulation  mystifications  internal  expansion.  nationalism  "internal"  abstract  relations  53 w i t h i n which  the p r o c e s s of c a p i t a l  takes place p r i m a r i l y The world  World  economic  production, its  City  market  of  affected  by  shifts  short  and  5 9  .  a  This  b y  Hall,  a  most  is a  of  variable Moscow,  but New  and  writers  size  of  a  centrality  of  P e t e r , The W o r l d  for a  i n the The  includes:  Tokyo, : San  Hong  city  does  the  world  list  not  These market  capital  state  and  King  system  and  of c i t i e s  is  Paris,  and  Mexico  Sao  Paulo,  and H o u s t o n . 6 0  directly  economy,  in  being  London,  Francisco,  F r a n k f u r t , Miami  closely  over  affecting  are  finite  finance.  control  of  specific  regions  and  system,  actors  include  in  name  into  system  the world's a c t i v e  usually  world  of t h i s  a of  system  locationally  effects  system  of  York,  of  majority  worldwide  collective  dynamic  fortunes  existence  vast  urbanized  wide  S i n g a p o r e , Bombay, Sydney,  functional  and  this  i n comparative advantage.  Some  population  the  communications  world  which  the  accumulation a c t i v i t i e s  t o ground  City,  through  the  global  Randstaad,  capital  intensively  within  concentrated.  brings  transactions  articulate  assumes  historically  i n the World  large,  expansion,  City  i n an  major  interconnected cities  which  I t attempts  The  manifested set  perspective  system  relations  context.  in cities.  m a r k e t i n g and  embrace.  g e n e r a t i o n and a c c u m u l a t i o n  The  reflect i t s  but  there  is  City  J o h n Friedmann and Goetz W o l f f . N o t e s on t h e F u t u r e o f t h e W o r l d C i t y , S c h o o l o f A r c h i t e c t u r e and Urban P l a n n i n g , UCLA, Los A n g e l e s , 1981. 6 0  54 probably cities be  a  as  n o t h i n g more  wrong  well  because  into  places  correlation  they  existing  two .  To  points"  i n the  6 1  than  "control  have  two  political  percentages  industrial  plant.  with  political  urban  t o f o c u s on A  second  focus,  is a  Cities).  aspects, being  systems  a  national cities  skewed  at  circuit,  national  state  or  must  and  than  twice  (e.g. France,  respectively,  fourth primate  level  6 2  city  .  a  cities while  Because  formation  Chase-Dunn,  62  McGee, op.  op.  we  made between  and  deals  the  paper  the  p o p u l a t i o n of  the US).  former  would  form  market and  116.  a  China  do  the  Also  see  largest  any  other a more states  uneven  manner  distribution)  would not model  and M a r k e t  which  In  second  towns  simplify  Cities,  city  will  (Secondary  states  i n which  i n the  may  55-60.  this  T a i w a n , T h a i l a n d ) and  Canada  c i t . , pg.  c i t . , pp.  specific  which  centres  "primate"  the  R e g i o n a l or Secondary  bi  as  system p e r s p e c t i v e  ( e . g . Canada, C h i n a ,  is called  regional  exists  regional be  urbanization is localized what  integrated  population  upon w h i c h  population distribution more  would  r o l e s and c o n t a i n  national  the world  these  WPE  historically  literature  from  regard  cities. or  of  distribution  national  Cities,  has  i n the  (exhibiting  level  these  system  the  little  economy  network,  city  balanced where  What  of  Here a d i s t i n c t i o n  exhibit  cit.  the  i n which they c a r r y out a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  significant  tends  between  and  third  become exhibit to  a  World  Towns.  Henderson,  a  op.  55 Determining or  secondary  officials, it  city  not  exists  ,  6 3  d a t a and of  use  in  fact,  analysts  population  empirical  data  rank o f  are  for  c o r r e l a t i o n between  functions  would  place  i n the  global  system of  The cities  WPE,  important  circuit),  function rely  on  sorts  Does or  as  no  world  the  trade  of  back  F r i e d m a n n and  6 4  for  and  until  must  on  market or as  available The  lack  within  this  but  the  of  further  research  be  a  city  city's the  asked  MNC  or  is  major  c i t . , pg.  5.  to  locate  Is a c i t y  an  corporations  (1st  headquarters  (2nd  (3rd  circuit)?  its  chief  administrative a  type  integration with  multinational  representation  (either  op.  this  the  variety  this analysis.  regional  world  in  .  questions  have  Wolff,  No  criterion.  point  centre? of  "Denis Rondirielli. Secondary C i t i e s in C o u n t r i e s , Sage P u b l i c a t i o n s , B e v e r l y H i l l s , 1983. 64  above.  a l l researchers,  i s i t s mode o f  of  marketplace  but  v a r i a b l e which d e t e r m i n e s  d i r e c t MNC  for a  it  city,  lists  categories  i t s use  economic r e l a t i o n s  headquarters  produce  by  a framework b a s e d on  circuit)?  it  however,  following  within  initial  population  justify  critical  fall  delimiting  intuitive  The  an  recognized  to  the  to  useful  seem  listed  in  city  Vancouver  a world  cities  included  forced  world  difficult.  are  s i z e as  problem  called a  information  is a  conducted.  be  aggregate  framework  is  should  t o V a n c o u v e r as  first  Little  thus  city  refer  i n the  cities,  literature.  a  i s i n some c a s e s q u i t e  f o r example,  is clearly  Canadian  whether  Does  economic Does i t  transshipment  Developing  56 or  i n i t s sale  serve and  a  of  regional  (i.e.  t o ask  whether  circuit city.  of Are  specifies  Does  a  city  or  i t contain Perhaps  i n a determination moving  into  forces  economic  transplants, within  research  most  away  the  of  the  or  i t i s an  i t primarily  significant  emerging  i s whether  five  does  of  cities),  (markets, jobs,  important  world  from  cities,  the  global  import-substituting growth  which  technology  a given c i t y ' s  and  local  Jacobs capital)  economy?  Conclusion Large  ideas  and  urban centres intellectual  therefore  the  political to  services)  activities?  e n l a r g i n g or c o n t r a c t i n g E.  and  market?  development  question  goods  actual  change.  in  differentiates political are  this  constellation has  historically  ferment.  of  transformation  hotbeds of They  harbingers  of  are  economy  and  industrial  i s most  acutely  One  thing  from p a s t  socio-economic or  i s the speed w i t h which t h e s e  throughout  often  social  f r o m an  new  cities.  systems  that of  the  relationship  interrelated  of  cities  to  do  with  been a n a l y z e d .  analysis,  then  the  way  I f we  we  between  changes  which  changes  which  must  has  cities  cross  and  received  economic  accept  t h e n a t i o n - s t a t e does not p r o v i d e  economic  been  boundaries.  reason  attention  potential  economies  transformations  international  that  or  political  (or information)  the  transmitted  One  and  historically  In our e r a t h e t r a n s i t i o n  post-industrial  manifested  have  little  activity  Jane J a c o b ' s  this  has  argument  the fundamental u n i t f o r  question  the  fundamental  57 premise is  upon  correct,  w h i c h modern macroeconomic t h e n many  employed  by  Economic  development  which  can  the  be  small-scale, activities small  of  the economic  world's  states  should  organized  on  increase  "symbiotic  touchstone capable  a  of  of spreading  based  longer  process  help of  growth,  economic  rests.  development  national  collections  economic  are  versatility  m a n u f a c t u r e r s which  that  no  do-it-yourself  that  theory  on  be  of  change  and  create  little  as  but  innovation.  strategies  faulty  seen  scale,  something as  consisting networks  In  systems  development  theory.  rather  the  enterprises"  regional  I f she  of  6 5  a of  among  same are  the  cities  throughout the  way  are  world  economy. Because widely  exist.  This  urban  must  creates  therefore  which  be  of  theories  often of  statistical  methodological  data  i s new,  based  on  the  logical  The and  political  for research  method  of  historical  little  political  economy. geography  emphasis  and. e c o n o m i c  in  not for  does n o t y e t into  analysis arguments  o f urban economic a c t i v i t y  importance of  too  and  appropriate  problems  discussion.  given  life  r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e WPE  the g l o b a l  both  economic  under  account of  are  of  to the c e n t r a l i t y  articulation take  the  the c i t y ' s  systems  which p o i n t  can  theory  accepted,  understanding  the  this  i n the  This  approach  and  history,  state-centric international  relations. The  6 5  constitutional  and  J a c o b s , op. c i t . , pg.  84.  fiscal  dependence  of c i t i e s  within  58 virtually  a l l states  network o f into  a  cities.  giant  "misinforms" economic  feedback  of  local such  parts  is  of  detrimental.  The  Canada  country  this  where,  broad  developments  "circuitry" The notions  health  i s of for  in  ability  the  to  not  example,  i f  The  Singapore accurate  appropriate  be  which  possible the  i n t e r e s t rates  no  which  WPE.  get  through  course  up  --  interest rates  to  in  Toronto in  other  inappropriate  power  The  and  transformations located  economies, produce and  will  information  require  along in  and  respond  to  economy  and  the  further will  these  these c i r c u i t s ,  where  world  economy  which  and  attempt  to  have and  levels  take stable  research  capital.  various  research  above i n s p e c i f i c  which  educational  information between  multi-leveled  through  in cities  abundant  linkages  remaining chapters discussed  the  m a r k e t s have c r e a t e d  nodal points  overwhelmingly  and  of  international "circuits"  flow.  relationships  emerging  nature.  based  resources  this  Hong Kong and  where s u c h a c t i o n may  complementary  and  status  city's  i t drives  and  are  a  This  g l o b a l i z a t i o n of c a p i t a l  transactions  of  currency  r e v a l u a t i o n s and  the  place,  their  M u n i c i p a l i t i e s have  parallel  commodities  national  economic  and  "overheated"  the  changes of  of  realities. as  development  c i t y - s t a t e s of  i t s relative  reflect  economy  the  importance  devaluations  the  e c o n o m i e s combine a l l t r a n s a c t i o n s  about  the  currency  states  --  cities  the  on  National  stew  success  underscore  distorts  The  of  this  uncover.  to ground  relationships.  the The  abstract Canada-  China so  r e l a t i o n s h i p was  dissimilar.  examine features  "comparing World-City made on a  While  differences should  be  apples  states,  most  shared,  thereby  avoiding  oranges." i s that  a more u n i v e r s a l  perspective,  to  assume  allow  Chapter  provide  background  IV,  which  similarities.  certain  problem  value  of  comparisons  I I I , because material,  returns  to  are  obviously  that  the  possible  basis.  Chapter  stresses  One  i t may  countries  perspectives  between  perspective  differences.  because the  comparative  and  s t a t e - c e n t r i c view  the  chosen i n part  the  to  of the be  i t takes stresses municipal  60  Chapter  A.  III  China's In  Canada early  Canada and  Historical  an  important,  has  always  explorers  Frobisher  and  Lachine  Impact On  been  of  to  with  World,  a  suburb  route is  that  he  the  17th  century,  commercially and to  the  attention In  viable Arctic  and  rekindled to  the  i t had  trade  the  vast  the the  Orient.  new  of  Allan  realize  implications for  railway.  6 6  A. MacKay. N a t i o n a l Railway, bb  He  Macdonell,  solicited  a  Toronto  cavalryman, the  West  Hudson,  to  an  enduring  was  the  was  For  Cathay.  close  the  350  years of  Orient.  evident  unlikely  Canada,  By  that  t o be  been g r a n t e d of  to  a  found  the  right  turned  its  spices.  English  dream A  had  and  to  become  r o u t e was  i n s t e a d of s i l k  1840s  waters  Company, w h i c h  exploit  to furs the  railway Europe  however,  Hudson's Bay  explore  Arctic  River.  The  Columbus e x p e d i t i o n s were r e p e a t e d l y mounted i n s e a r c h through  Lawrence  trade.  Cabot,  Montreal,  of  after  passage  St.  China  a new  belief  history  as  northwest  the  the  Columbus,  of  Cartier's  explored  the  were a l l s e e k i n g  now  Jacques  up  sense,  China  a  he  New  Canada  limited  bound  the  Cartier,  (China),  testament  albeit  the China Trade  invention  new  commercial  promoter,  of  government  the  steam  route  lawyer  apparently  trade  of  the  and  from  former  first  to  a transcontinental of  the  province  The A s i a n Dream: The P a c i f i c Rim and C a n a d a ' s D o u g l a s & M c l n t y r e , V a n c o u v e r , 1986, p g . 108.  of  Canada  for a  Railway,  charter  i n order  communication the  day  1851  to create  him  indicated  quarters.  build  f o r Europe  turned  proposal  to  An  that  editorial  expressed fears  be more s e n s i b l e  that  t h a n one  a l l Asia."  but  he  Lake  S u p e r i o r and  "the s h o r t e s t ,  and  down  the  the  was  The  6 7  American  being  i n the  cheapest  New  and  safest  government  reaction  taken  York  Pacific  to  seriously  Tribune of  a route through B r i t i s h  of his  i n some 27  March  America  might  through the U n i t e d S t a t e s :  H a v i n g i t s A t l a n t i c s e a p o r t a t H a l i f a x and i t s P a c i f i c d e p o t near V a n c o u v e r ' s I s l a n d , i t would i n e v i t a b l y draw t o i t t h e commerce o f E u r o p e , A s i a and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , so t h u s , B r i t i s h A m e r i c a , f r o m a mere c o l o n i a l d e p e n d e n c y , w o u l d assume a c o n t r o l l i n g r a n k i n t h e w o r l d . To h e r , o t h e r n a t i o n s w o u l d be t r i b u t a r y , and i n v a i n would t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a t t e m p t t o be h e r r i v a l ; f o r we c o u l d n e v e r d i s p u t e w i t h h e r t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e A s i a t i c commerce, o r t h e power w h i c h t h a t commerce c o n f e r s . 6 8  The  disinterest  controlled America vision  virtually  west from  of  the  prompting  by  backed the  the Great  threat wealthy  Union  next  fight  Hudson's the  Lakes,  reality was New  i n the short  Pacific  three  Railway  link  traders,  and  a  half  16  to get the t r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l  Ibid, 'Quoted  pg.  42.  i n I b i d • pg.  19.  In the  and  after  Congress  much  coast,  i n completing  years b e f o r e the i n Canada,  railway b u i l t  U.S.  finally  t o the P a c i f i c  succeeded  decades  North  Macdonnell's  term.  the  which  British  kept  seriously  (which  i n 1869,  Company, of  effectively  taken York  Bay  territory  a scheme t o o u t r a c e t h e C a n a d i a n s  transcontinental the  the  a l l of  becoming a  however,  of  the would  CPR).  a  For  political involve  62 politicians represent  in a  the  The  played  development  of  importance  that  from  by  and  the  i t has The  taken  to  the  railroad iron  territories  north  of  reading  Canadian the  absorption  in  almost  the  held  of  a  made  of  the  linking  49th  the  of  possible,  in  i t is  Canadian  construct  This  a  British  conventional  the  expansionist-minded  such  extending  disparate  emphasizes  and  prominence  Canada  v i s i o n a r y proto-Canadian  by  t o be  to  parallel.  history  history.  fledgling  entrepreneurs  which  unification  mythic  was  efforts  road  the  of Canadian  i s widely  Pacific  the  of  years  " n a t i o n a l dream"  cooperative  expansionism"  h e r o i c endeavors  railroad  state  the  of  and  formative  by  transcontinental  feared  scandals  Canadian  Atlantic  alleged, state  the  history.  the  of  fascinating  role  Canadian  series  "defensive  politicians Americans  who  to  the  i t was  the  south. What lure  of  West,  this  trade  which  railway. integral large  account with  the  Orient,  provided  The part  fleet  immediately  does not  the  oceanic of  this  of  the  Pacific  between  on  1860s. the  That  railway  the  of  to  already  of  active  British  the  accession  being  built,  than  impetus this  the fleet  and  BC the  of  the  building  the  was The  always CPR  and  the  built  to  which and  had  the  role  a  link,  plied  Orient  Canada was  an  Orient  transcontinental  Columbia of  route  China  opening  for  strategy.  service  completion  an  the  rather  development  supplementing routes  i s that  initial  portion  ships  after  acknowledge  the since  contingent  i t played  in  the  63 settlement also  saw  of  t h e west  i s well  the  benefits  of  commerce  had  introduction travel taken  been  of  expanding  more  the  clipper  e x p o r t s o f lumber the coming 1886  but  land  boom up  of  and  t o 80  vast  1860s,  and  1890s,  under  t h e Canada  full-time  trade  officers  East  to  "remove  one  of  the  representation]  i n t h e way  with  now  which  we  communication."  I s l a n d and a q u a n t i t y Laurier's Railway, with by  of  extended  China  of p r a i r i e  battles  to  the  Trade  and  sent  the  four  of or  trade five  with  hundred  the O r i e n t millions"  and  which  70  McKay, op. c i t . , pg.  111.  the  Commerce  of  Vancouver year.  Trunk  he  of  countries  Pacific sustained  spoke he  of  the  assumed  P . K e l l e r . "How The C a n a d i a n G o v e r n m e n t P r o m o t e s B u s i n e s s " , The C h i n a B u s i n e s s Review, J a n - F e b , 1988. 6 9  the  [lack  from  Grand  to  a  steamship  wheat t h e f o l l o w i n g  build  in  to the Far  with  frequent coal  on  routes  traffic  bought  until  government  obstacles  and  Columbia  i n part  CPR  were  principle  regular  1891  of  days  after,  i t s t e r m i n u s a t P r i n c e R u p e r t , had been  the prospects  "market  of  have In  7 0  portion  reduced  minor  Shortly  The  6 9  Orient  first  sea  market.  the  the  which  the  of Vancouver  predicated  subsidized  Act,  since  British  of the c i t y  diversified.  China  This  f r o m t h e 120  The  Canada  i n the  trade.  s a l m o n were r e l a t i v e l y  and  Columbians  continuous  days.  i n Vancouver,  the  Pacific  late  founding  expanded  occurred  British  to the China coast  ships  o f t h e CPR  But  the  less  i n the  and s a l t e d  quickly  opening  or  steamships  time from V i c t o r i a by  known.  China  to  be  waiting  Columbia  lumber.  lessening history, were  eagerly  dependence on t h e U n i t e d Laurier's  take  Canada's  much  three  Northern),  belief  t o compete  that  longer  than  railways  Minister  amalgamate  t o Canada  ( t h e CPR,  with  Borden  this  still  The  national  significant tariff  The  structure  conviction  market  forces  regional define  t o China  The new  will  Canadian  not s o l v e  stems  from  i n the world  making  i t the  ten-fold,  although  of Canadian  was  an  with  the n a t i o n a l the current  of the country.  governments  period  Canada's " p u b l i c e n t e r p r i s e " p o l i t i c a l  trade.  enormously  i n shaping  pervasive  this  Canadian  1913 and  and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f w e a l t h  of successive  was t o  Between  and, along  influence  unable  appointed  the problem  portion  system  among  i n the P a c i f i c  system  increased  a miniscule  a strong  disparities  but i t  Canadian  commission  i n the country.  enterprise  alone  and  Rim  o f t h e Panama  99,000 p e o p l e ,  transportation  p o l i c y , was  economic  employer  public  Trunk  the r a i l r o a d s .  employing  represented  correct,  Competition  i n 1916 t o s t u d y  of Russia,  exports  was  by t h e r o y a l  outside  Canada's  view o f  of the P a c i f i c  t h e U.S. and o t h e r s  R a i l w a y became t h e l a r g e s t r a i l w a y  1921  a s a means o f  a s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h Canada was  and n a t i o n a l i z e  industrial  British  In the long  Grand  National  largest  and  o f 1913 and t h e o p e n i n g  to create  effectively  States.  anticipated.  The s o l u t i o n o f f e r e d  Prime  and f l o u r  the markets  importance  the recession  C a n a l combined  trade.  wheat  He saw t h e t r a n s - P a c i f i c t r a d e  of inevitable  would  by  for Prairie  that  free  and p e r s i s t e n t which  helped  culture.  to  65  B.  Contemporary  Political  ties  World  communist  The  retreat the  between C h i n a and  War,  the  from  were  forces  mainland  to  During  government  often  took  confrontational  United  States,  island  of  an  U.S.,  Canada  the  from the western up  and  Beijing  as  contributed  from the  Chiang's  to  for their  France  in  not  of  state own  1964 , b u t  a  communist and  anti-  to  self-  goals.  This  committment  of B e i j i n g bloc,  helped to l e d by  regime  People's  on  Republic  the the of  economy.  join  the  embargo  Western  of a f f a i r s .  reasons,  was  refusal  A  of few  until  the  by  the  relatively to  China  n o t a b l y the  not  l o g j a m began t o b r e a k .  promoted  trade  government  i t was  new  egalitarian  the  bilateral  jure  the  security  with  satisfactorily  pro-western  isolate  1949-71.  de  to t h i s  Beijing  diplomatic  did  volume  insignificant  and  1949.  K a i Shek  world  anti-capitalist  ideological  from the d e v e l o p e d world While  1960s  in  Chiang  be  the  a g a i n when  power  the  to  a t t i t u d e on t h e p a r t  to prop  Formosa,  yet  and  non-material incentives  prompt a committment  China  has  stridently  on  into  presented  1950s a  swept  forged  K u o m i n t a n g under  which  s t a n c e , based  reliance,  Zedong  Taiwan  the  t h e West, s e v e r e d d u r i n g  b e g i n n i n g t o be  o f Mao  conundrum  resolved.  often  just  of the n a t i o n a l i s t  diplomatic  western  Trade.  Dimensions  Trade Second  Canada-China  recognize doubtless  states recognized U.K.  in  1970s  1950  and  that  the  Canada r e c o g n i z e d B e i j i n g  in  66 1970  and  decade  most o f  with  the  this  writing,  of  China  on act  of  of  Although between the  only  for  but the  1970  of  internal once  and  would  of  by  allow  China,  the  dogmatic China for  as  a  a  radical  outside  world  implications political built  possible,  an  to  the  the  and  about  trade  adherence  to  The  trade  to  a  no  economic  doctrinaire  of  $40  billion,  often  tumultuous  Marxist  economic  g r e a t l y expanded historically  case.  policy  interregnum. restructuring  The now  foundation,  with  than  and  1978  in  the i t s  process  appears and  approach each  in  toward  revolutionary  ideological  in  economic s t r a t e g y  Chinese  diminishes  for.  tenfold  under Deng X i o p i n g  less  firm  hoped  an  i n any  reformers  levels  d e c a d e were more  variegated  Maoist  i t s likelihood  been  high  h e a v i l y weighted  wheat. this  raised  increased  was  1979.  Republic  increased  billion  the  institutional  and  had  trade $4  during  on  is  of  China.  c o n t i n e n t a l power, has  increasingly a  than  PRC  transformation  than  trade  from s t r u c t u r i n g  great  which  reform  upon  reversal  of  a more  ascendance of  the  the  for vastly  less  this  PRC  n e v e r been g r e a t l y r e l i a n t  began  was  foodstuffs, primarily of  recognize  provided  circles  from  component  politics  The  still  bilateral  volume  1978,  remainder  l e g i t i m a t e government o f  reality  i d e o l o g y which kept  trade.  the  business  total  reflected  which  nations  increased  the  Canadian  favour  22  the  formalizing recognition in  r e c o g n i t i o n i n 1970  i n Canadian  trade,  followed during  finally  T a i w a n as  underpinning hopes  west  U.S.  At  The  the  to  although  of be a  is  still  passing  year.  67  Because  China  i s now  in political  flux,  undergoing a  true  r e v o l u t i o n i n p r o d u c t i o n r e l a t i o n s , p r e d i c t i o n s about the scope and  direction  hazardous. recent  There  i t strading a r e many  are extremely  i n d i c a t i o n s however,  (GATT) , t h e a p p a r e n t  Door"  foreign  policy,  rapprochement  and above  t e c h n o l o g y and c a p i t a l ,  inexorably  moving  capitalist  dominated  is  activities  such as i t s  i n t e r e s t i n j o i n i n g t h e G e n e r a l A g r e e m e n t on T r a d e a n d  Tariffs "Open  of  possible  reverse  Taiwan, the  a l l t h e s t r u c t u r a l need f o r that  t h e PRC i s c a u t i o u s l y b u t  i n the d i r e c t i o n of i n t e g r a t i o n global  economy.  (but increasingly  examines t h e p r o c e s s o f t h i s o f a medium s i z e t r a d i n g  unlikely)  that  Canada,  g e o p o l i t i c a l problems  the  t h e PRC  decade,  this  i n t e g r a t i o n from t h e p o i n t  nation,  a t t e n t i o n on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t  with  With the caveat that i t  the p o l i c y d i r e c t i o n of the l a s t  downplay  with  with  may paper  of view  which would p r e f e r China  of b i l a t e r a l  and  to  focus i t s  trade.  The Taiwan Problem The  political  relations issue.  d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e PRC's  are often  linked  with  foreign  the Taiwan-PRC  The PRC h a s n o t r e n o u n c e d f o r m a l l y  economic  recognition  i t s claim  t o Taiwan  as a p r o v i n c e o f C h i n a and t h e o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n i n B e i j i n g i s that  any means,  including  u n i f i c a t i o n o f t h e homeland. has  never  government  renounced  force,  reserved  f o r the  The R e p u b l i c o f C h i n a (ROC)  i t sclaim  of the mainland.  are s t i l l  Even  t o be  the sole  i n the context  also  legitimate of  political  68 liberalization  and d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n  new p r e s i d e n t , L e e T e n g - h u i , vis  Beijing  systems"  Neither  proposed  the  (presently) small ruling  group  position  by t h e communist  t o the system being  Resolution") the  other 423  which  1984 O l y p i c s  Taipei"  has been made t o r e c o n c i l e  views.  The O l y m p i c  allowed  international  international  formula  under  extended  forums.  7 2  by  c r e a t e d by  these  apparently  o f 1979 ( t h e "Nagoya t o compete i n  the rubrics  somewhat  "Chinese  precariously  into  I n 1983 t h e PRC was a member o f  organizations while  have co-memberships  on t h e  7 1  t h e PRC a n d t h e ROC  a t Los Angeles  a n d PRC, has been  regime  two  s t a t e as advocated  t h e KMT a s a model f o r t h e f u t u r e o f a l l C h i n a .  irreconcilable  vis-a-  of secessionists i s acceptable to  KMT a s an a l t e r n a t i v e  Some p r o g r e s s  Taiwan's  t h e "one c o u n t r y ,  m a i n l a n d n o r making Taiwan an i n d e p e n d e n t the  i n under  Taipei's o f f i c i a l  i s unequivocal.  doctrine  ushered  t h e ROC was i n 499.  i n 132 o r g a n i z a t i o n s , a l l NGO's.  Of  They these  132  o r g a n i z a t i o n s , 32 were s p o r t s and r e c r e a t i o n o r i e n t e d , b u t  the  remaining  technology, however. May  100 e n c o m p a s s e d economics,  politics,  At the 21st meeting  1988, T a i w a n e s e  as v a r i e t y  delegates  etc.  of f i e l d s : 7 3  of the Asian broke  science,  Problems Development  a two-year  boycott  remain Bank i n of the  ^ S e e f o r example A s i a n O u t l o o k , a m o n t h l y p u b l i c a t i o n w h i c h r e f l e c t s t h e o f f i c i a l T a i p e i p o s i t i o n on t h e s e i s s u e s , e s p . A p r i l 1988 and June 1988. G. Chan. Formula", P a c i f i c 7 2  Ibid,  pg.  "The T w o - C h i n a s P r o b l e m and t h e A f f a i r s , V o l . 58, No. 3, F a l l 1985.  Olympic  69 annual  meetings,  member  regional  to  wear  instead their  The  over Taiwan's  of  the  "unofficial"  government accepted bad  of  by  from  read  like  a l l China,  but  the  47-  refused  "Taipei-China"  the mainland  appears  Chamber  with  to  registered  t o be  of  does  through  the  r e c o g n i z e d as  the  declining  Commerce,  as  present  as  be  Canada,  of  Taipei  the  a l l concerned  maintains  U.S.  the  possible  While  legitimate  arrangements  best  the  seem  to  solution  be  to  a  situation. Mixed  President puts  messages Lee,  reason  confirmation  before address  "evil  nature  and  subversion"  preparedness rapid  of  from  characterized passion,  to the  warned  f o r war."  as  felt  13th  communism"  and  Taipei.  national with  that  "we  d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n and  the  ruling  member  of  A s i a n Outlook,  week a f t e r  Taiwan's  The Globe & M a i l , r e l e v a n c e as a l e n d e r . " /4  A  Lee  Parliament  Taipei.  Taiwan  KMT's  Bank  1988  in  is  grip  of  our  undergoing on  power  comments  China  faces  his  deception  slacken  these  who  t o speak of  not  to v i s i t  " A s i a n Development May 4,1988.  June 1988,  necessary  congress  made  July  non-extremist  must  same t i m e  markedly.  In  i t s "tricks  the  75  as  i t  At  slackening first  emanate  usually  the  7 5  which  i n 1986,  trade matters.  Canadian  certainly  a c c e s s i o n to  protests.  issue  relations  would  PRC's  organization  Officials  74  in bilateral  expedient  the  badges,  recognition  importance  Taipei  official  "Taiwan".  protest  by  development  their of  prompted  arrived  declining  is the in  70 Beijing  i n defiance  o f government  trade  through  going  on f o r y e a r s ,  investment,  intermediaries,  which  Fujian  Province.  impose  fewer  PRC  New  also  primarily  i s now  t o go  on  guarantee  who  who  interests  a t home.  Taipei's  activities that  will  visits  Chinese  The  from  Taiwanese proximate  i n July  Taiwan  placed  been  1988  (called  on Hong  Kong  on t h e m a i n l a n d .  secret  attempts  The  the i d e n t i t i e s  anonymity  be e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t  to protect  to control i n light  t o t h e m a i n l a n d a r e now p e r m i t t e d  of  their  business  of the fact  f o r Taiwanese o f  Dimensions People's Republic  o f C h i n a i s Canada's  trading  partner,  behind  Federal  Republic  o f Germany  overwhelming activities, consequence supplying  Globe  invest  request  has  origin.  Economic  7 6  those  t o keep  businessmen  Kong,  promulgated  investors  Taiwanese  77  Hong  Taiwan-PRC  to geographically  than  foreigners  While  7 6  openly courting  regulations  by B e i j i n g )  or other  will  tends  restrictions  "compatriots" Chinese  t h e PRC  orders.  this  dominance position  t o Canada  the vast  and M a i l ,  t h e U.S.,  Japan,  t h e U.S.  i s inevitably  as a whole.  population  United  a n d t h e USSR.  of  MP  largest Kingdom,  Because  of the  i n Canada's  trade  one o f r e l a t i v e l y  minor  Although the prospect  of China with  "Taiwanese  sixth  visits  of  C a n a d i a n goods h a s  China."  July  19,  1988. Globe Taiwanese." 7 7  and M a i l , "China J u l y 7, 1988.  Unveils  Measures  to  Attract  71 been of  as symbol  trade  of great  linkages  disappointment  has  and  hopes  f o r over  been  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  periodic  a century,  revision  the  reality  frustration,  of o v e r o p t i m i s t i c  expectations. From Beijing  the time  regime  o f Canada's  i n 1971, t r a d e  unspectacularly,  until  1983  in  trade  rose  1970, two-way  fold  showing  a marked  Canada's f a v o u r . the  volume  t o over  China  decade  suggest  Canada  accounting The  2.5%  under  from  pattern  than of  of  4.5%  less  f o r up t o 80% o f Canada's  of  a trade  fabricated  metal  by f o o d  each  of  trade  in  decade  p i c t u r e marked  half  o f Canada-China  links  to China, exports.  During  exports  as n e w s p r i n t ,  and h i g h l y m a n u f a c t u r e d  C h e h , o p . c i t . , and C u r t i s ,  op. c i t .  79  H o and Huenemann, op. c i t . , p g . 14.  and i s  exports  were  t h e 1970s  wheat  to China.  has expanded  by g r e a t  Canada  7 9  changed,  Canadian  78  of the trade  trade  products.  that  m a t e r i a l s such  concentrates  i n 1983,  If national  total  i n the 1980s.  accounted  into  half.  China  dominated  1980s  six-  the terms  importance  initially  during  million  i n 1980, a  i n the f i r s t  1% o f C h i n a ' s  Canada's  t o change  From  $2 b i l l i o n  i n the l a t t e r  i t i s o f even  diversification  $160  a p e r i p h e r a l importance  for less  continuing  I).  t h e 1970s however, Canada's s h a r e o f  declined  t o about  figures for  trade  steadily, i f  $1 b i l l i o n  imbalance  During  7 8  r e c o g n i t i o n of the  increased  (See T a b l e  i n c r e a s e , and t o s l i g h t l y  year  formal  Modest  during  increases  the  i n sales  s y n t h e t i c rubber  and  technology-intensive  72 products  ("end  trucks,  aircraft,  switching export  item  end  $13  million  the  just  as  drilling  earth  wheat  growth  sector.  i n 1983  three  While  major  product  such  satellite  equipment.  the  in  products")  Sales  This  8 0  in this  between  and  to  $2.2  absolute  billion, terms,  c a t e g o r y mix  to  account  Unfortunately, not  eligible  under  the  household under is  the  from  by  and  and  trade  main  light  China's  limiting  i s Canada's  80  C h e h , op. c i t .  81  C h e h , op. c i t .  make  from  of  only  product trade  rebounded  (excluding with  or  up  a  about  textiles half  point  Preferential  therefore increasingly The  now  China's  rose  is in  mix  levels in  1987  1983)  more  in  balanced  (See T a b l e I ) .  about  in  ever  single  exports  i n aggregate  importantly  for  Canada  goods GPT  year  telephone  a 23-fold increase  trade l e v e l s  including  f o r exemption  General  bilaterally  more  products  Canada,  themselves  best  i n the past  Manufactured exports  the but  than  although  mining  largest  sector  diversification  a c c o m p a n i e d by a d e c l i n e 1986,  the  i n 1986,  however, was 1983  and  f o r Canadian  t o $305 m i l l i o n  years.  stations  is still  area  equipment,  of  and of  China's  clothing,  these  view,  of  these  products  d u t i e s which  Tariff  treatment  (GPT)  Food  industrial exports  of  and  in  continuing trade  the  are  apply  toys,  are u n r e s t r a i n e d  finished  composed o f t h i s  8 1  extended  beverages,  wares  which  exports.  reduction of  1980.  factor  75%  goods  class  of  expansion  s u r p l u s with  of  to  Canada  goods. bilateral  China.  This  73 may  be  China  contrasted maintains a  affairs  i n the  principal  industry.  larger  exchange  have  the l e v e l  of t h i s  historical "open  and  been  development. economy"  imports  C a n a d i a n s owe China, since  always  one  third  of  i n contrast,  the 18th c e n t u r y .  century which  left  cannot  adduced economy.  bilateral  has  not  and  feature  one  in  trading  clothing that  third  a  with  of a l l i t produces Three  to i n t e r n a t i o n a l been  Canada's  nation,  great  million  trade.  trading  8 2  nation  Europe's commercial expansion i n t h a t  be  few  I t was  policy  Advantage  historical  however.  trade  stressed  C h i n a f a r b e h i n d f o r numerous fully  the  trade.  a l l i t consumes.  jobs d i r e c t l y  are  must make a d j u s t m e n t s  remains a  exports  of  the Canadian  repeatedly  central  Canada  which  their  a  state  and b i l a t e r a l  by  and t h a t Canada  i n which  clothing  indigenous t e x t i l e  C o m p l e m e n t a r i t y and C o m p a r a t i v e has  and  constrained  o f Canada's  t o expand  satisfactory  Textiles  foreign  are therefore  PRC-US t r a d e ,  f a r more  Chinese negotiators  Trade  an  a  Chinese view.  i s a two-way s t r e e t  in order  C.  surplus,  the p r o t e c t i o n  trade  t h e much  means o f e a r n i n g  possibilities on  with  considered  Agriculture  here.  formed  the  A  core  points of  p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y more p r o d u c t i v e  and r e v e n u e f r o m t r a d e was  less  necessary.  reasons may  be  the C h i n e s e  than i n Europe  Thus,  P e k i n g t h u s d i d n o t need t h e m e r c h a n t s as t h e K i n g had n e e d e d them i n Europe t o f i n a n c e t h e a s c e n d e n c y  Vancouver 9, 1988": 8 2  Sun, ~~  "Look  to Asian  trade,  Carney  says."  July  74 o f t h e n a t i o n a l s t a t e , t o pay s t a t e s , o r t o meet i t s n o r m a l were n e c e s s a r y ; t h e m e r c h a n t s and were, w i t h no harm t o t h e The  largely  expression  of  formed  prospered  and  European  an  urban-based independent  imperial  capitalists  of  focus  of  the  power  in  part  under  traders  Shanghai  and  rural-based as  international  a  was  was  treaty-port  the  institution  PRC  toward  1949  and  of  the  isolation 1978  may  fluctuations  in  complex  this  points  than during  contracted The in  be  treaty  trade  this  to trade  in  this  this  trade  with  the  given  Chinese  accepted to  the  officials  economic  the  11th as  the  Open Door announced  had  cooperation  on  of  the  of  the  Actual  were  far  At  more  various  expanded  and  conditions.  at  the  CCP  which  official  Under  this  strategy.  terms  of  between  Committee o f  point  into  made i t  light.  west was  they  as  economy  period  Central  rode  tendency  world  i n r e s p o n s e t o changes i n i n t e r n a l  was  expanding  capitalist  the  distrust  c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n suggests.  period  i s normally  sanction  the  were  Mao  by  merchant  course,  The  had  imposed  ports  This of  which  The  and  them.  exploitation.  p o l i c y during  brief  wrath  forced  understood  T h i r d Plenum o f  1979  policy  from  system  other  against  political  class  century.  understandable,  foreign  first  19th  u n e q u a l terms under w h i c h C h i n a was an  the  entrepreneurial  communists'  crusade  trade  8 3  KMT  the in  f o r i t s wars w i t h r i v a l bills. No concessions c o u l d be s q u e e z e d d r y , state.  would  be  new  "actively  e q u a l i t y and  mutual  M u r p h e y , R. , "The C i t y as a C e n t e r o f Change: W e s t e r n Europe and C h i n a , " A n n a l s , A s s o c i a t i o n o f A m e r i c a n G e o g r a p h e r s , P e n n s y l v a n i a , V o l . 7, No. 4, 1953. SJ  75 benefit the  with  world's  trade  extent to  before  the t o t a l  size  expected  to trade  applicability comparative  of  following (including  very  through  this  five  have  t o income  much.  idea,  benefits  which  should  of  According  tends  economy,  should  important  n o t be i s the  the d o c t r i n e  the l i b e r a l  theory  of of  to the n e o - c l a s s i c a l  a t t r i b u t e d to Ricardo,  accrue  the  negatively  of the  China  most  underpins  To  f o r e i g n trade  to the size  economy  usually  Levels of  can develop.  p e r c a p i t a and  Perhaps  trade.  84  t o adopt  t o be s u b s t a n t i a l l y  o r by p o p u l a t i o n ,  the Chinese  advantage  benefit  version  by GNP  to  still  basis)  "striving  and e q u i p m e n t . "  of a country's  (on a p e r c e n t a g e either  be  interdependence  related  measured  mutual  will  true  be p o s i t i v e l y  and w o u l d  technologies  t h e West  that  related  countries,  advanced  with  expanded  other  t o any d o m e s t i c  the  economy  a s t a t e - t r a d i n g one):  1. T e c h n o l o g i c a l d i f f u s i o n , which c o n t r i b u t e s t o the economic w e l f a r e o f a l l p e o p l e s . 2. A demand o r K e y n e s i a n e f f e c t o n t h e economy t h a t , through the o p e r a t i o n of the " m u l t i p l i e r " , stimulates e c o n o m i c g r o w t h a n d t h e o v e r a l l e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e economy. 3. B e n e f i t s f o r i n d i v i d u a l f i r m s as t r a d e i n c r e a s e s the s i z e o f t h e market, promotes economies o f s c a l e and i n c r e a s e s t h e r e t u r n on i n v e s t m e n t w h i l e a l s o s t i m u l a t i n g t h e o v e r a l l l e v e l o f e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t y i n t h e economy as a whole. 4. An i n c r e a s e d r a n g e o f consumer c h o i c e s . 5. R e d u c t i o n i n t h e c o s t s o f i n p u t s s u c h a s raw m a t e r i a l s and m a n u f a c t u r e d components, w h i c h t h e n l o w e r s t h e o v e r a l l cost of production. Serious article  theoretical  i n a Chinese  social  Ho and Huenemann,  consideration science  followed  j o u r n a l w h i c h was  op. c i t . , p g . 1 4 .  in a  1980  the f i r s t  76 to  assert  that  apologetics insightful labour  has a  was  have  kernel  of t o t a l  value  of a g r i c u l t u r e  domestic  and i n d u s t r y  predicts  a comparative  export  of  standardized  advantage  heavy  and t o o l s  cautiously  share o f manufactured  What  8 5  theory of  with  results.  f o r China  Foreign trade The  percentage output  8.05% and 3.83% i n Ricardian  theory  i n the manufacture  exports  such  as sewing  products i n t o t a l  liberal  to the gross  i n 1984.  such  social  discourse.  rose from  industrial  machinery  of saving  of l a b o u r . "  relative  t o 11.2% a n d 5.38% r e s p e c t i v e l y  bourgeous  i t p r o v i d e s an  production.  t r a d e and e x p o r t s  as  to a Marxian  experimented  than  share  and  this  division  v a l u e through d i a l e c t i c a l  faster  regarded  because  i n t h e t r a d e arena w i t h mixed  grown  1980  kernel"  international  Chinese  economics  "long  of the p o s s i b i l i t y  t o adapt  international The  "rational  explanation  through  remained  has  Ricardo's theory,  as  simple  machines.  As a  exports these products  r o s e f r o m 10.4% i n 1978 t o 22% i n 1 9 8 3 . 86  Problems in  many  developed  Chinese  liberalization issue  gap  p l a n n e r s ' minds  based  between  regime domestic  however,  which  by many  of f l o a t i n g  cast  as t o the e f f i c a c y  on t h e law o f c o m p a r a t i v e  i s complicated  international  i n 1984-85,  factors  such  of trade  advantage. as  exchange r a t e s ,  p r o d u c t i o n of manufactured  doubt  The  the present  a productivity p r o d u c t s and  Woo Tunoy a n d T s a n g S h u k i , " C o m p a r a t i v e A d v a n t a g e a n d T r a d e L i b e r a l i z a t i o n i n C h i n a , " Economy and S o c i e t y , V o l . 17, No. 1, F e b r u a r y 1988, R o u t e l e d g e , G r e a t B r i t a i n , p g . 22. 85  8 6  Ibid,  p p . 24-25.  77 imports,  and  profitable than  to  rising  f o r Chinese  to  China  rise  trading  rapidly  debate  being  economies,  powerful  which  the  trade  and  to  I t was  increase  causing  of  the  exports  of  the  the  Provinces the SEZ s 1  with  more  imports  value  of  declined  in  wealth.  This  less  central  possibility  of  coastal  through  market  freedom  both  i n the  and  levels.  the  Economic  to  case  in  Zones  are  is  operate and  China,  i n which  conducted,  are rest  integrated  government  policy.  recipients  international  of a i d  agencies  while  Canada  deals  a d u a l economy.  Development  model  income t h a n t h e  central  is  alleged  distribution  is primarily  Aid  exchange,  the  Ricardian  interior  creating  extended  through  the  Agency  (CIDA)  and  25.  G l o b e & M a i l , June k C h i n e s e Body P o l i t i c . " 8 8  Pursuing  capita  developed  unequal  r e g i o n s a r e becoming  developed  thus  on  the  Special  h i g h e r per  International  pg.  of  f o r export  government  compete,  Ibid,  on  of  is precisely  the  economy  i n the  Canadian  B /  The  8 8  world  on  theorists  trade  The  dependent  creates inequalities  manufacturing  China  by  degree  p o p u l a t i o n s of  country.  i n China.  implications.  allowing a  enjoying a s u b s t a n t i a l l y  the  that  becoming  liberalized  inevitably  where  and  political  on  consumption  from  exports,  heated  i s predicted  of  predicated  into  demand.  enterprises  while  is still  exploited  as  advantages  of  aggregate  87  The  has  rapidly  i n c r e a s e p r o d u c t i o n of  imports 1985.  a  24,  1988,  "Disparities  a  Strain  on  78 nongovernmental both  the  notion  China  and  first  approach  communication faces  shortages  has  set  of  a  ($1000 CDN) massive  The the  system core, above, after  even  the  base capable  world  offer  semi-periphery modified  detaching  the W o r l d example,  City may  the  per  and  of  t h e s i s of  usefully  as  Canada's goal  and  China well  place  of  probably to  of  i n the  framework  this  conceptualized  China  3000  yuan  require  two  a an  the  states world  form of  As is  strengths  wealth.  of  concepts.  of  service  the  insights  structural  as The  which  amount o f  framework  Within  elevated  requirements  program  The  this  mix.  have  income  will  the  periphery  version  product  sectors  training  people  a valuable  The  technical personnel.  capita  economy.  of  ways.  position.  development  assesses  perspective. be  and  of c r e a t i n g t h i s  political  theorists  these  development  approach  of  in, transportation  prominent in  modest  billion  economies  different  p r o j e c t s match  annual  i t s 1.1  second  a  a  personnel  development  at  imperatives  expertise to  and  national  for  i n two  bottlenecks  infrastructure  industrial  in  therefore  i s pursued  the  complementarity  t r a i n e d managerial  reach  between  geographical  infrastructure  To  the  technologies  proposed  well.  on  trade  levels.  addressed  and  severe  of  physical  be  i s based  f o r , and  private  while  complementarity  may  historical  need  China's  of  Canada  Canada's  still  organizations  g o v e r n m e n t a l and  The  the  aid  the  discussed  still  useful  d e p e n d e n c y and  adding  framework Canada, as  a  for  geographically  79 large  zone  within  territorially on  large,  the  occupies  the semi-periphery  Tokyo.  China's  pursuit  of  been.  economic U.S.,  of  autarchic  Japan  conceptualized  also  s m a l l economic  Asian  economic  China,  8 9  economy  potential  have  centred i n  and  kept  space  political  i t from  being  o r d e p e n d e n t on any o t h e r power as C a n a d a  from  and  a relatively  policies  Nevertheless, distance  economy.  the East  enormous  economically absorbed has  U.S.  they  a r e both  the cores  Western  as b e i n g  equivalent i n  of economic  Europe.  on  roughly  Both  activity:  states  the semi-periphery  of  the  may  be  the  world  from  older  n o t be  taken  economy.  E.  Conclusion Although  t h e e m e r g i n g WPE  forms o f t h e c a p i t a l i s t to  mean  impact  that  historical  to  enlarge  expansion British China  this  transnational capital  has  of  on  global  development  substantially  altered the  scope  by  of  imperial  economic both  of  their  i s now  Canada.  n o t had  a  profound  organization. and  British  trading  world  dominance a c t e d  should  China  19th centrury  the c a p i t a l i s t  a n d what  i n many ways  economy  i n the past  world  differs  economy  Canada MNCs  The were  attempts  activities.  The  i n the p e r i o d of  as a c o n n e c t i v e The m y t h o l o g y  f o r c e between  of the n a t i o n -  s t a t e promotes the i d e a t h a t s t a t e s a r e e x p r e s s i o n s o f c u l t u r a l  G l e n W i l l i a m s , "Canada's P l a c e i n t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l P o l i t i c a l E c o n o m y " , S t u d i e s i n P o l i t i c a l Economy, No. 25, S p r i n g 1988, p g . 109. 8 9  80 unity  and  with  an  communitarian  ideals.  appreciation  formation  and  of  case  conflict  conflict simplifies China  by  trade. in  "political"  Basin view,  "gateway"  attributed  i d e o l o g i e s , based  labour,  What  how  the  although  on  this  will  do  to  trade  the  greatly  reflect Canada  from  among  Kong  is  (See  relevance  a  Table  Canada's  the  three  substantial II)  although  i t s importance  has  a  as  desirable  like  p i c t u r e look  Chinese  to  jurisdiction?  for  account  an o p t i m a l  the e q u a t i o n  for  occur  balances  in  Hong  Kong the  the  solution.  the  PRC  how  and  the  complexities  i n 1997,  out  i n 1997 While  i t is  terms  i n the P a c i f i c  and when  simply PRC  is  of  the  interesting  of  trade  I f Taiwan will  a  trade  trade  i t s investment  relationship alter  declining  w i t h Hong Kong  i t roughly  Canada, t h e o r e t i c a l l y  of  from  have t r a d e d e f i c i t s  i n t e g r a t i o n which w i l l that  trade  not  figures  insufficient  Hong  While  the  are  interdependence  Pacific  we  facilitate  i s more i m p o r t a n t ,  trade.  PRC.  t h e PRC,  returns  aggregating  divisions  figures  the  What  Kong  is  Canada's  to  surplus with  trade.  affect  trade  expand  partially  international  absolute  to  least  to  of  note  at  d i v i s i o n s which l e d  i n order  component  to  their  n a t i o n a l might  will  mode o f  be  and  on  detached  of  obviously  capital  development.  competing  capital  tempered  Hong Kong was  economies  Hong  of  be  history.  Pacific  Taiwan.  impact  should  a complicated  These  point  may  between  between  view  t h e complex h i s t o r i c a l  t o t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e ROC the  the  subsequent p o l i t i c a l  In C h i n a ' s  to  This  this  Basin?  with  continues dynamic  81 The and  differences  that  of  "openness" modes  of  the  between  PRC  production.  of  i n trade  such  i t i s not  western-style best  experimenting and  indeed  world  can at  based  with  these  system  r e l a t i o n s h i p with  i d e a s and  choose will  Canada.  to  an  trading on  the  of  modern  policy.  national that  are While  differences  r e p l i c a t i o n of policy  are s t i l l  g e t t i n g mixed  integrate  between  urbanization  open t r a d i n g  Chinese  determine  economy  relationship  a l l clear  The  Canada's  high u t i l i z a t i o n  open  be  interests.  i f , they  trading  an  i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and  serve China's  of  I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and  aspects  these,  the  economy and  complementarity as  structure  illustrate  i n the w o r l d  complementary  the  will  cautiously  results.  themselves structure  How,  into of  the  their  82  Chapter  IV  The P o l i t i c s  Before promoting  moving trade  at  the senior  is  twofold:  on t o d e s c r i b e  and i n v e s t m e n t ,  levels  i n e q u a l i t y o f means  Federal The  Trade  orders  national  one  area  specific  promotion a c t i v i t i e s , of national  that  and V a n c o u v e r .  journals  These  i n trade bids.  of  This  section  i t s trade  activities  provides  missions These  and  investment  trade.  This i s  may  be d i v i d e d  statistical  services  into  and f i n a n c i a l . s e c t o r and  the p u b l i c a t i o n of  and f a i r s ,  and  o f the paper  f o r the p r i v a t e  include:  reports,  trade  interest to B r i t i s h  services, diplomatic  Ottawa  sector  tender  the  development  promotes  but o f s i n g u l a r  o f government  and  participation project  which  levels  localized  r e l a t e d to the China  import  broad c a t e g o r i e s :  junior  government  and t o i l l u s t r a t e  government  addresses  Services  of  The a i m  o f government.  o f ways.  three  level  aimed a t  undertaken  be o u t l i n e d .  t o promote  i n a multitude  Columbia  programs  Initiatives  Canadian  only  will  the high  investment  not  Promotion  related a c t i v i t i e s  i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l trade,  among t h e d i f f e r e n t  A.  municipal  o f government  to demonstrate  involvement radical  o f Trade and Investment  trade  information,  and p r e p a r a t i o n  are usually  free  of and  83 available  to v i r t u a l l y  Diplomatic representative embassy  with  using  possibilities. the  CIDA's  of  The  Industrial be  shown  that  of  the  This  a  type  vast of  efforts  i s the i n China.  is  commercial  Agency  from  (CIDA)  Canada,  Branch in  in  by  as  well  for and  developing  the  and  by  1984,  cooperation with  local  branch's  p r o j e c t s must as  of  with  forms  a  and  view  meet  constitute  assistance.  major The  component Export  to promoting the  In  terms  of  federal  Development  of  most  CIDA's  trade  export  take  important  funding,  export  promotion  Corporation  G l o b e & M a i l , S e p t e m b e r 13, 1988, "CIDA A s i a n Programs So They A i d C a n a d i a n B u s i n e s s . " a u  stimulate  services required  INC.)  business  fora  been f o r m a l i z e d  activity  (CIDA  active  conducting  Canadian  implemented  Division  (the  economic  which  Cooperation  long-term  of  criteria.  governmental  financing  through  activities  variety  enhance  business  an  i n mind,  come p r i m a r i l y  Business  Canadian  economic development  on  traders  to  level  c o u n t r i e s , has  m a t e r i a l s and  policy  benefit  Financial  embassy  o f a i d t o t r a d e has  Canadian  Cooperation  to  or  s i g n i n g agreements  p r o j e c t s i n China  9 0  them.  establishment  I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development  countries, principally partners.  other  Canadian  "tying"  requirement  promotes  consular  a i d programs  establishment  which  include:  the  i n most  requests  negotiation in multilateral  Canadian  assistance the  at  n e g o t i a t i o n s and  and  within  as  interests  bilateral trade,  offices  section),  the  C a n a d i a n who  a c t i v i t i e s  i n China,  commercial  any  Changes  (EDC)  Its  84 provides  financing  (including technology  turnkey  agreement in  between  which  Ottawa  which a l l  has  and  development  are  and b u y e r .  with  financing activities i n part  which  These  to China  equipment  principle"  supplier  have  EDC  The  sales,  by  a t "consensus aimed  at  separate sets  countries,  rates".  national  principles  of  economic regional  from n e g o t i a t i o n s  p a p e r o f June  1985.  or  arrangements  OECD  were e x p l i c i t l y  states  a  terms w h i c h EDC  the major  emerged  service  credits,  funds  constrained  by  principles  position  of  i n which  negotiated  development  most i m p o r t a n t  form  are  guided  intergovernmental  capital  agreements  related  the p r o v i n c e s .  the  credits,  agree to o f f e r  These  economic  in  exporter  i t s financing  of Canadian exports  t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s , and management  usually  i n buyer  types  projects,  transfers,  contracts), sometimes  f o r most  stated  The  with i n an  "first  and  that:  The g o a l o f more e q u a l e c o n o m i c o p p o r t u n i t y i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h s t r o n g e r economic growth f o r the c o u n t r y as a whole. E f f o r t s to reduce ( r e g i o n a l ) d i s p a r i t i e s t h r o u g h sound economic d e v e l o p m e n t a r e an i n v e s t m e n t f o r f u t u r e p r o s p e r i t y and i n c r e a s e d s e l f r e l i a n c e f o r each r e g i o n . They s t r e n g t h e n t h e u n i t y of the c o u n t r y . 9 1  Soth  orders  cooperate, with one in t h e i r Cabinet  of  government  consult  and  a n o t h e r and  on  discuss  Within  Economic  in  economic  to recognize  approaches. Committee  pledge,  document,  development  t h e need  the and  this  policies  f o r complementarity  federal  Regional  to  government, Development  Government o f Canada, " I n t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l A f f a i r s P a p e r : On t h e P r i n c i p l e s and F r a m e w o r k F o r R e g i o n a l Development." June 1985.  is  the the  Position Economic  85 focal body  point and  for federal  "every  government" terms  of  both  on  regional  development.  Like  the  provinces  strategies.  the  British  Columbia  made t h e f o l l o w i n g  to  International  national at  fair  basis  orders  of  policies in  and  meet  balanced regularly,  to review  and  White  of  are able  t h e most  that  strengthen  will  be  regional  Paper  will  plan  economic  will  be  for  recent  and  Throne  that  of  continue  to  Toward  i n 1988  province  —  as  and  sell  these  will  f o r the  yet f l e x i b l e  be an  trading  outlining a  which  objectives  will  sector  market  to  export-  Vancouver  private  to help  produced  "comprehensive  will  legislation  the world.  social  Speech  zones" t o encourage  development  the  the  long-term economic  h i s government  encouraged  be  unlike  Lieutenant-Governor Rogers  "trading  around  but  to plan  development;  services  strategic  government's  government,  F i n a n c i a l C e n t r e ; and t h a t  activity  which  bilateral  In  points:  industrial  introduced  and  aim  both  end. m i n i s t e r s  Legislature,  the development  oriented  term  and  this  national  trading  draft  impact To  and  products  within  This  Activities  municipalities,  house  agency  policies.  concerns.  Provincial  pursue  and  development  judge a l l major  a m u l t i l a t e r a l and  economic  B.  department  i n t h e o r y must  their  regional  regional  ends  BC a  long-  " l a y out decade,"  enough  so  BC  86 can  respond This  speech  to external  outward  with  forces.  looking  a list  9 2  "  posture  i s complemented  of complaints  about  BC's- " s h a r e  i n t h e same  BC's p l a c e  federal  structure.  spending  r e m a i n s d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y low" and we have  many i n e q u i t i e s , " "BC's e f f o r t s by  the Federal  Government,"  " m o n i t o r and e v a l u a t e "identify  "make p u b l i c . . . a n Confederation." present  therefore  the f e d e r a l system,"  o f our s t a t u s  Fed-bashing  two e l e m e n t s  perspective  i s very  and t r e a t m e n t  much  within  the s t y l e  of the  on  trade  o f BC p o l i c y , an i n c r e a s i n g l y and  hostility  to a perceived  the  of  part  motivation  behind  policy"  complex  "paradiplomacy" extent  by  of Central reflect  o f an a t t e n u a t e d  Victoria  form  made p o s s i b l e  interdependence,  the nature  and  global  ongoing  C a n a d a on  much  of the  o f BC's i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s .  and indeed  which  matters  i n favour  government,  the s t y l e  i s prompted,  world-wide  investment  bias  the f e d e r a l  provincial pursuit  great  will  support  i n t h e F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l system" and  evaluation  9 3  and  "seen t o o  minimal  and t h e p r o v i n c e within  resources  provincial leaders.  These  While  have been g i v e n  BC's s t a n d i n g  shortcomings  of f e d e r a l  w i t h i n the  of  "foreign  by t h e f a c t  of  the p a r t i c u l a r form  of  practices  i s determined  o f BC's p l a c e  to a  i n the Canadian  federation.  0 p e n i n g S p e e c h o f t h e s e c o n d s e s s i o n o f t h e 3 4 t h BC Parliament, by L t . G o v e r n o r R.G. R o g e r s , M a r c h 1 5 , 1 9 8 8 . Mimeo. 9 2  9 3  Ibid.  87 By  tradition  final  authority  government. always  been  Section  thus  free of  The  over  foreign  does  n o t mean  create  local  reserves  the  central  the provinces  of their Act of  municipalities,  firms,  relations.  have not  interests 1867  abroad.  granted  license  and have a u t h o r i t y  the  l a n d s (and activities,  over a l l matters o f  A c t d i d not s i g n i f i c a n t l y a l t e r  With  this  and t h e e x t e n s i v e to the provinces,  power lack  the  sharing  i n the realm of  of clear  constitutional  r a n g e o f powers w h i c h have de an a d v e r s a r i a l  relationship  facto  between  c e n t r e and p r o v i n c e s was bound t o d e v e l o p . Kim  Nossal  interests"  lists  which  international  may  four  activities.  bureaucratic,  provincial  interests  interest" defined a  which  primarily  result,  input  "distinct,  propel  functional,  As  that  to  t o b o r r o w money, manage p r o v i n c i a l  Constitution  authority accrued  states,  relations  certain  quo i n f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l  foreign  federal  nature".  1982  status  most  the Constitution  resources),  "local  like  t o pursue  powers  incorporate  the  This  92  provinces  a  Canada,  9  provincial These  4  are  and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c  must  i n federal  be d e f e n d e d theory  by O t t a w a ,  consultation  on t h e l a t t e r s ' s  but not  part  with  interests. the  policy  These  "national  by C a n a d a i s  provincial  the provinces,  into  into  constitutional,  against  assistance.  i f not d i r e c t  formation,  K. N o s s a l , The P o l i t i c s o f Canadian P r e n t i c e - H a l l , S c a r b o r o u g h , 1985. p g . 192. y 4  governments  as p r a c t i c e d  but with  unrelated  Foreign  becomes a  Policy,  88  prerequisite  for  the  maintenance  of  harmony  in  the  federal  structure. If  Ottawa  provinces, (for  as  pursues was  example,  provinces  it  the  puts  "Western  over  the  alleged  federal  which  a  position,  accord  Ottawa  of  national  adopting,  policies  constitutional  the  potential  for  conflict  the  "Canadian  compromise,"  and  shared  part  second of  because  the  are of t h i s  of  the of  of  gives  rise be  interest  on  other  Agency), strain. role  in  blamed hand,  on too  the  Meech  Lake  to  fears  that  formulated  and  i s thus  structural  present  in  component  of  constitutional  which  These  geographical  of  activities  location  c o n s u l t a t i o n and  proximity  actual, type.  c a t e g o r i e s concerns  provinces.  that  transgovernmental states  Nossal's  the  needs  governments" of  based  the  with  d e a l of  critics  is a  or  imprecision  sovereignty.  functional  Most  which  era  is usually the  the  Trudeau  significant  cannot  The  interests  a  with  Review  a great  On  as  implemented.  The  pricing,  politics,  such  the  Investment  plays  intransigence.  accommodating  coherent  during  energy  Federal  intergovernmental  accuse  case  a r r a n g e m e n t s under  alienation," BC  the  A l b e r t a over  federal  defining  confrontational line  sometimes  with  western  a  to  day-to-day  Therefore  on  functional  arise  the  in large  "mundane  c o o r d i n a t i o n with  other  jurisdictions  international  are  bilateral  activities  British  contacts  Columbia.  but  other  entails.  the overwhelming m a j o r i t y of  linkages  border  and  the  of  BC  these  with  US  Functional  89 arrangements therefore premiers refer  take  constitutionally and  to  normally  a r e not  procedures"  officials.  consultations normally  n e g o t i a t e d by  technical  specialists. third  lower-level  category of  interest,  is particularly  question  of  which  governmental syndrome.  interest  Increased  generates  transgovernmental capability  and  activities. with  Provincial years in and  and  many  the  appears  need  functions;  at  international  b u r e a u c r a c i e s have the  ways  more h i g h l y approach  developed  are  periodic and  are  bureaucrats  or  because  same  more links  the in  time  form  of  or a  international to  perform  bureaucratic  extensive  external  b u r e a u c r a t i c growth of  steadily of  the  bureaucracy  take  activity  grown  forth  and  writing  bureaucracy  the  which  and  ministerial-  assess  the  to  a  prompt  i s evidence  by  into  interest  for  states  involve  to  --  governmental  expertise  There  increased  --  first  by  motivation, bureaucratic  difficult  comes  and  officials,  provincial  concluded  nonetheless set  put  and  Understandings  concluded,  being  formal  communiques  procedures  anything  are  officials.  provinces  least  Informal  without  type,  s i g n e d but  between at  t h e most  resolutions,  jointly  n e g o t i a t e d , or  matters  significant  "correspondence,  regularized  The  Agreements,  upper-level provincial  memoranda t h a t  level  t h r e e forms.  these  the over  provinces. the  last  (including  their  federal  counterparts in  officials  comment  that  25  BC' s )  expertise  sophistication. BC  government  the  structure  of  the  90 bureaucracy model. BC  tends  While  9 5  external  to  i t would  relations  mirror-image  of  reorganization resonances responses in  world  develop  in  be  the  federal  External BC  to the  heightened  affairs,  i . e . to  competitive,  complex and  final  imperatives,  activity.  of  nature,  arising  diversity  centre  to  of  the  1982  foreign  I t was  as  interests, o f BC's  certain Both  were  relations as  a  need  increasingly  socio-economic  above  that  is a  and  i t does  the  not  importance  the  functional  proximity  this  interests  transactions,  has  non-regularized  demonstrated  While  is a  environment.  geographical  relative  i n an  the  federal  well  l i n k a g e s were  US.  or  economic  stimuli,  greater part  that  the  1985-87.  of communications  functional  their  in of  federal  to  and  reflection  of  quantity  of  structure to  in  them  overarching  interests.  Canada for  virtually  from  with,  transgovernmental  In  of  the  imitates,  bureaucracy,  external  transgovernmental  interdependence  provincial  merely  Affairs  role  to  f a r to suggest  interdependent  e x p l a i n s the  majority  according  too  category of p r o v i n c i a l  international  the  patterns  restructurings  to i n c r e a s e the e f f i c i e n c y  The  going  establishment  the of  similar  the  provinces  economic  demanded  share  development;  transgovernmental  responsibility that  with  jurisdiction  relations  in a  the has  country  B a s e d on i n t e r v i e w s w i t h B.C. government officials, e s p e c i a l l y K i m b e r l y C o o k e , l a w y e r and p o l i c y a n a l y s t f o r t h e T r a d e P o l i c y B r a n c h , B.C. M i n i s t r y o f E c o n o m i c D e v e l o p m e n t , A p r i l 10, 1988.  91 p r o f o u n d l y d e p e n d e n t on e x p o r t s and t r a d e . r e l e g a t i o n of such i n t e r n a t i o n a l importance  i n foreign  affairs  to develop t o the p o i n t a  legitimate  too  late  cause  without going  economic a c t i v i t y allowed  federal  to extraordinary  economic  ensure that  C.  endeavors, while  Canada  Municipal  authorities  to  lengths.  t o c o o p e r a t e w i t h , c o - o p t and sometimes their  capabilities  I t i s , however,  government  at  assist  now  very  reverse  Ottawa  the  historical  to secondary  provincial  where t h e c e n t r a l  for concern.  f o r the  Ottawa's  have likely  this  trend  therefore  seeks  the p r o v i n c e s i n  same  time working  to  s p e a k s " w i t h one v o i c e " a b r o a d .  Activities  Expo 86 f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d V a n c o u v e r a s a c i t y r e a d y t o assume a p r i m a r y r o l e i n t h e e m e r g i n g network o f t h e G l o b a l C i t i e s t h a t w i l l d e c i d e t h e economy o f t h e future. -Gordon C a m p b e l l The economic scope  of  change.  larger  development their  increasingly they  offices  activities  emphasis  across  Canada  f o r decades, but  have  had  the nature  and  i s undergoing something  on a t t r a c t i n g  s u p p l e m e n t e d by already  have  community.  This  "incubators",  i n which  partially  governments  T h r e e o f these changes a r e worthy o f n o t e .  traditional  bases  municipal  subsidized  by  assisting  local  growth  usually  They  on  sea  First,  the  the  from  takes  entrepreneurs  the c i t y .  a  investment i s being  attempts to b u i l d  activity  by  outside  of  are also  within  the  have  economic the  form  their provided  of  rents with  92 low-cost  consultants, experienced  professionals  p a i d by t h e c i t y .  not  provide  financial  tax  breaks,  methods w h i c h  these a r e p r a c t i c e d Secondly,  shows and o t h e r  firms  which  locality.  a r e common  invest  Thirdly,  officials  business  have been The  Vancouver agency,  officers,  and charged  development municipal  centre;  staffed  council.  centre  city  work  of attending contact  with  produced by, t h e  through  and  exploit  ( o r Twin C i t y ) p r o g r a m s  with  April  Development  which  Office  (EDO) i s a  economic  development  realizing  the o b j e c t i v e s  o f economic  to principles The e c o n o m i c  and s t r a t e g i e s development  d e v i s e d by  objectives  1986) a r e t o " s t r e n g t h e n " V a n c o u v e r service,  industrial  f o r r e s e a r c h and d e v e l o p m e n t  a n d a s a major  regional,  national  f o r transportation/communication  principle  a point  f u n c t i o n s t o make  by p r o f e s s i o n a l  and i n t e r n a t i o n a l  industries; gateway  Economic  according  (circa  domestic  o f government.  developed.  municipal  council  make  officials  the a d v a n t a g e s o f t h e s i s t e r  land or  i n t h e US, b u t i n C a n a d a  i n , o r buy p r o d u c t s  these  g e n e r a l l y do  i n the form of f r e e  o n l y by t h e s e n i o r l e v e l s  trade  e x e c u t i v e s and  Canadian c i t i e s  inducements  municipal  might  business  of the city's  economic  as: a  tourism  and t h e knowledge and i n t e r n a t i o n a l  and t r a d e .  strategy  i s to  Vancouver's comparative  advantage i n the r e g i o n a l ,  international  ( i . e .location,  setting  and  of  major  The  first  'build  on  n a t i o n a l and  facilities  and  93 infrastructure, programmes trading,  embodied  are  aimed  business  "where  there  avoid  costly  overlap,  sector, ends  community  the  itself  "good  are  perceived  at  and  areas  is a  a  centre  clear  strive  of  bringing  and  "niche"  are oriented  for City  government t h e Mayor  catalyst  Council  management  and  and  i n Port  labour  a  toward  private  To  9 7  f o r development, e.g.  as  action ( i . e .  agencies)."  and  and  image  f o r complementarity with  commonalities of i n t e r e s t s ,  development,  Policies  9 6  1  and s e n i o r  as  etc.)*  enhancing Vancouver s  tourism  offices"  used  expertise,  these  the  city  acting and  together,  on  Airport and  the  like. Economic Vancouver's normally  trade  economic  "twins"  by  with  relationship  f o u n d e d has e x p l i c i t l y  relationships. the  several  These  Strategic  key  cities  have  for a EDO.  number On  Odessa  a  of  Sept. City  (1944),  feature  years 1,  and  1987  Program,  Yokohama  upon been  which  enlarged  Program,  i n the  the s i s t e r  t o encompass  links  a program  Pacific  cities  Region  are  now  which and  of are  these which  (1965),  (1984) and L o s A n g e l e s ( 1 9 8 6 ) .  transnational  City  been  with the S i s t e r  ( 1 9 7 7 ) , Guangzhou  "friendship"  under  the  were amalgamated  Vancouver  Edinburgh  missions  strategy  coordinated  activities  was  and  The  program economic subsumed  "identifies envisages  a  ° R e p o r t t o V a n c o u v e r C i t y C o u n c i l , S t a n d i n g Committe o f C o u n c i l on Economic D e v e l o p m e n t , O c t o b e r 31, 1985, A p p e n d i x 2, " C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r Economic G o a l s , O b j e c t i v e s and P r i n c i p l e s . " Mimeo, E c o n o m i c Develpment O f f i c e , C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r . y  9 7  Ibid.  94 combination  o f economic  missions  to,  Edinburgh  a r e not  the  basis  of  old  sister  includes twinned  from  through  Pacific  longstanding  city  eight with,  Shanghai,  and  missions,  The  outside  they  have  Hong  on  City  which  the P a c i f i c  Kong,  been  Kuala  cultural  under  program  Vancouver  Rim:  Lumpur,  and  retained  established  Strategic Canada  and  A l t h o u g h Odessa  relationships  a l l located  Chongqing,  them."  cities,  program. cities  trade missions,  on the  also  i s not  Tokyo,  Osaka,  S i n g a p o r e and  Bangkok. During Development hoc  basis  they  and  1986  integration  S t r a t e g y and t h e S i s t e r t h r o u g h the development  Guangzhou results.  1985  and  Los  Angeles  and  They a r e t h e t o p p r i o r i t y  best  fulfill  These c r i t e r i a  criteria  are that  of  the  Economic  C i t y p r o g r a m began on an ad of  their  relationships  quickly  produced  cities  f o r t h e EDO,  for selecting  with  positive  strategic  because cities.  they:  1. Complement the p r i o r i t i e s of the federal government's t r a d e development program, i . e . m a i n t a i n market share, i n c r e a s e value added, encourage i n v e s t m e n t and enhance C a n a d i a n t e c h n o l o g y g r o w t h . 2. P r o v i d e a d i s c e r n i b l e and s i g n i f i c a n t n i c h e f o r t h e V a n c o u v e r b u s i n e s s community. 3. Have p o t e n t i a l a s g a t e w a y s t o o t h e r c i t i e s and n a t i o n a l and r e g i o n a l e c o n o m i e s , w i t h p a r t i c u l a r e m p h a s i s on t h e A s i a - P a c i f i c a r e a . 4. Possess o r g a n i z a t i o n s with a d e s i r e to foster c u l t u r a l and c o m m e r c i a l r e l a t i o n s , and 5. Have t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r g e n e r a t i n g frequent p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t b e t w e e n a c o n s i d e r a b l e number of. V a n c o u v e r and o v e r s e a s b u s i n e s s p e o p l e . 9 8  For  a  9 8  detailed  Ibid.  assessment  of  a l l strategic  cities  see  Table  95 III. In  a  adoption  city  manager's  o f the S t r a t e g i c  h i s arguments  report City  to council  program  recommending  the c i t y  on t h e need f o r t h e p r o g r a m  manager  by s a y i n g  based  that,  it i s g e n e r a l l y acknowledged t h a t most o f t h e i m p o r t a n t d e c i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g w o r l d t r a d e and i n v e s t m e n t a r e made t h r o u g h a network o f c i t i e s w i t h international stature. V a n c o u v e r i s a j u n i o r member o f t h a t i m p o r t a n t n e t w o r k a n d a s p i r e s t o become Canada's gateway f o r t h e A s i a - P a c i f i c R e g i o n and a b r i d g e between A s i a , N o r t h A m e r i c a a n d E u r o p e . " Municipal  officials  secondary  level  economic  The  cities  strategies  advantages  framework.  identified  o f world  development  comparative  have  discussed  within  an  identification  i n which Vancouver  forms the b a s i s  forpolicy  f o r studying  notoriously Vancouver of  goods  were  difficult  commodity through  produced  commodities  location  of  selected  "ibid.  to find. shipment  transnational sectors  and  comparative advantages a r e  An example  data  which  without  which  Vancouver  o f t h e Vancouver  by  economy,  location  of this  pertain  specifying  entirely  supplemented  non-economic  and p u r s u e  has a c o m p a r a t i v e advantage  t h e r e f o r e be c o n s t r u c t e d  analysis,  considerations  integrated o f economic  metropolitan  from m e t r o p o l i t a n  E s t i m a t e s must  above,  on t h e  initiatives.  the port and  being  b a s e d on t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f  characteristics  Data  Vancouver  ignore  i s Port of  t o the export  where  shipments  to the rest largely  t h e goods of  o f Canada.  on t h e b a s i s o f  broader,  qualitative  including  an a p p r a i s a l  factors.  96 As would  an be  important expected  activities. employment of  CMA  port to  This  i n an  derive  is  open t r a d i n g substantial  indeed  the  f i g u r e s disaggregated  Vancouver  workers  are  case  by  in  as  sectors  the  trade  economy, V a n c o u v e r revenue an  from  trade  examination  shows t h a t sector,  of  over  20%  second  only  to services. British of  The  estimated  Columbia  which  were  recognized enhance  transhipped in  the  EDO  competitiveness  of  r a p i d l y growing  to  the  expansion  facilities  Vancouver number  of  advantage location concluded  the  municipal  projects in  at  the  quotient  billion  for  The  handling  the  emerging analysis  Vancouver.  seaport  that  modernization  Vancouver  its  build  upon  Pacific eight  of  Rim  cities  the  to  city's  economy.  and  seen cargo  Airport.  attempting the  a  operating  is also  International  are  is  modernize  and  in  many  There  r o l e of a i r cargo  and  of  originating  d o l l a r s i n 1986,  policies  officials  which  exports  through  procedures. require  of  amounted t o 12.7  need  the  value  promote  a  comparative A  comparative  including  Vancouver  that  Vancouver's comparative advantages (are) o v e r w h e l m i n g l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n the s e r v i c e s e c t o r s . In p a r t i c u l a r , the c i t y has d e v e l o p e d significant a d v a n t a g e s i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and communication a c t i v i t i e s , a phenomenon u n d o u b t e d l y a t t r i b u t a b l e i n l a r g e p a r t t o t h e c i t y ' s s t r a t e g i c l o c a t i o n on the P a c i f i c Rim. The c i t y ' s a d v a n t a g e s e x t e n d as w e l l i n t o the a c t i v i t i e s of t r a d e , f i n a n c e , i n s u r a n c e and r e a l e s t a t e , which f u r t h e r enhance Vancouver's p o t e n t i a l major r o l e i n the p o s t - i n d u s t r i a l f u t u r e of  97 the. A s i a P a c i f i c  Basin.  In  information  the  economy  emerging  Vancouver's  communication  to  York  working  during  advantage  worthy  phenomenon "a  big  advantage  city  North  place  of  location,  is  also  strategically  with  This  s u c c e s s f u l l y touted era  of  the on  Tokyo,  24-hour  Great  Seoul,  Hong  enables  to  New  be  an  "time-bridge"  by  Los  Route  a i r and  world  T o k y o and  finiancial  Circle  a l l major  which  considered  exploitation.  i n an  to  "transactional")  similataneously  hours,  l o c a t i o n on  America  (or  time-zone  i s a l s o being  Vancouver's the  take  1 0 0  Angeles  as  markets."  to  Asia  sea  places  routes  Kong, T a i w a n ,  1 0 1  Shanhai  from and  Singapore. Cultural, Pacific  historical  region  which are  are  Asia  Pacific  University of  of  research  and  act  global  UBC  network  Institute  Simon  Pacific  of  Asian  the  Asia  institutions  Pacific  advantages Basin.  The  Research  and  University  significant  facilities  with  to c r e a t e  of  Fraser  constitute a  teaching  city  a  synergistically  at  Victoria  and  linkages  f u n c t i o n i n g w i t h i n the  units  disciplinary Asian The  to  Foundation,  complementary  economic  e x p l o i t e d through  expected  in understanding  and  and  the  concentration  specializing  in  cross-  research.  literature  makes  fequent  mention  of  the  M i c h a e l G o l d b e r g and C r a i g D a v i s , " D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e C o m p a r a t i v e A d v a n t a g e s o f V a n c o u v e r as an I n t e r n a t i o n a l C i t y . " U n p u b l i s h e d p a p e r . J u l y 1988, UBC. i U U  1 0 1  Smog."  Globe  & M a i l , August  9,  1988,  "L.A. : S h r u g g i n g  Off  the  98 "quality  of l i f e "  investment have  purposes.  This  the greatest role.  Pacific the  criterion,  Festival,  performing  attractiveness also  serve  looking  Japanese  f o r corporate  i s the area  Cultural  arts  language  provide  school  incentives  boards  requirements.  i s limited  which  must  investors.  B r o a d l y based  of an i n t e r n a t i o n a l  city  an  itself.  culture  community  i s another  outward  are therefore their  to certain support  They  Programs i n  to the a c t i v i t i e s  conform  museums,  t o enhance t h e  e n n c o u r a g e d by t h e m u n i c i p a l g o v e r n m e n t , a l t h o u g h to  as t h e A s i a -  of promoting  and  officials  Garden,  f o r commercial  v i e w w i t h i n t h e community  and C h i n e s e  civic  are believed  purpose  l o c a t i o n and  such  Classical  and t h e l i k e ,  of Vancouver  which  activities  t h e Sun Y a t - s e n  the secondary  global  both  ability of  local  provincial  f o r the c r e a t i o n  important c o n s i d e r a t i o n .  T h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h a n y human s e t t l e m e n t b e c o m e s g l o b a l i n s c o p e d e p e n d s , i n l a r g e p a r t , on i t s citizenry. T h i s g l o b a l i z a t i o n o c c u r s o n l y when t h e p e r m a n e n t r e s i d e n t s o f t h e community a r e c o n v i n c e d that a t t r a c t i n g r e g i o n a l o f f i c e s and c o r p o r a t e headquarters i s e s s e n t i a l f o r the c i t y ' s future s u r v i v a l and growth. Communities that attempt t o g l o b a l i z e without co-opting the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of i t s permanent c i t i z e n r y c o u r t t r o u b l e . 1 0 2  Modern potential  medical  for future exploitation  international relation and  a  and h e a l t h f a c i l i t i e s  city.  to China.  Guangzhou  This  hospital,  i n promoting  has been  An agreement  provide  concluded  by  pg. 1 1 2 .  civic  a s an  important  a Vancouver  e x c h a n g e s p e r s o n n e l and t e c h n o l o g i e s t h e r e b y  Heenan and P e r l m u t t e r , op. c i t . ,  Vancouver  especially  between  significant  in  hospital  officials,  strengthening  ties  99 between the  the  China  which  two  cities.  trade  has  enjoyed  with  described president  phenomenal equipment  the  help  trade  i n the  given  to  such  tourist  short-term goal  officials  of  special  of  Chinese  with  China. labour  in One  to  of  the  was  as  a  put selfthe  institutional  Consideration i s other other  being they  cities joint  now  in  the  activities  discussed.  a l s o have  working  of  fundamental  a  While longer-  relationships  this  way  for building of  largely  marked  the  i s now  with  the  with  racial  the  history  has of  importation  discrimination,  forgotten, beginning  substantial.  direct  Vancouver  i t s long links,  to  transcontinental railroad,  however, and  "Asianization"  importance  national borders.  of the o r i g i n a l  to Vancouver,  descent  talk  on-going  of  accompanied  solid  with  obvious,  overtones  been  Chinese  a  and  sales  deal  acted  Logic,  several occasions.  program.  fairs  on  in  network.  advantage  It  have  story  Quadra  The  officials  Angeles),  l i n k a g e s are  fortunately  emigration  Los  establishing  a l l i t s  discussed.  trade  negotiation across  with  success  based  which  promotion packages are  i n the  city-to-city  contact  EDO, EDO  city  b e n e f i t s are  Cultural  a  the  missions  joint  (in particular  term  of  strategic  program  the  growth  o f Quadra L o g i c t o Guangzhou on  foundation  as  local  i n Guangzhou.  "marriage-broker".  Municipal  being  greatest  i s a h e a l t h sector manufacturer,  pregnancy-testing together  The  or of  the  at  least  is  continued city's  While  of Vancouver,  the  be  not  Chinese  population  i t may  has  of  premature  current  levels  100 of  investment  contacts  by o v e r s e a s C h i n e s e  with  Columbia  the  large  a l l point  extensive business  numbers o f Hong Kong a l u m n i  universities,  Guangzhou,  investors,  and  ot  the  recent  substantial  of  British  "twinning"  cultural  with  linkages  with  China. In given  a  October  of  1985  boost  when  a  civic  involvement  provincial  municipal assistance.  crown  During a c o u n c i l  with  Guangzhou  corporation  was  requested  meeting  The Mayor a d v i s e d that o f f i c i a l s of the B.C. Telephone Company h a v e r e q u e s t e d A l d e r m a n Yee accompany them t o Guangzhou as t h e Company i s h o p i n g t o be awarded a c o n t r a c t o f two m i l l i o n d o l l a r s f o r a telecommunications system i n a new suburb of Guangzhou. CARRIED UNANIMOUSLY. 103  This  l e d to  being  a  "quite  Chinese  important,  as  October  they  common It  1 0 5  liaison  the EDO  the  substantial  problems;  with  be  Minutes of C i t y of 22, 1985, pg. 3.  noted  I n t e r v i e w w i t h C. M c G u i n e s s ,  1 0 5  Interview  because  1 0 4  as  of  enterprise power  we  these  Regular  development S e p t . 12,  will  days,  mayor-  the do  same not of  Meeting,  o f f i c e r , July 1988.  "we  approach  Council  be are  because  events  1988. w i t h Gordon C a m p b e l l  commercial  speak  The  as  the  chairmen  these  sense  that  of  contract  authorities.  Vancouver  1 0 4  of  described  i n g r e a t measure  i n that  provincial  year,  approval  with  matters,  should  officials  terms  discussions enjoy  following  official  that  contact also  language."  i U J  ensures While  many  require  by  perception that  fulfilled.  share  visit  important"  transactions  to-mayor  mayoral  16,  101 provincial differs  and  municipal  substantially  officials  at  Civic efforts  the  two  into  demand o f  can  be  best  thus  the  the  important  the  a  (See  transnational  stability sector  Table  i s the  by  this  refers  communication  services.  refers  to  In  legal,  expertise.  ranked  15th  Several  slight  out  of  the  clearly  s u B s i d i e s and  over  a  over  16  plant  to  tenants  t h i s manner  i s not  1 0 7  H e e n a n and Ibid.  location  engage  Perlmutter,  in  the  necessarily  op.  c i t . , pg  public  services resources were  executives. incentives:  have a t  best  and  of  appreciated  1 0 6  tax  only  even  propensity  "buying"  111.  and  incentives  MNC  The  and  education  decision, 1 0 7  16  political the  finance  location  headquarters.  governments  106  that  of  locations  supporting  related by  and  transportation  and  i n t e r e s t loans  provincial in  and  to In  quality  categories  low  office  second  sector,  tax  stability,  government  services.  high  for most  examination  close  marketing  indicate  move of  federal  developed  private  accounting,  influence  influence  highly  the  a  their  The  political  An  in  necessary  cities.  regional  supporting  Interestingly,  studies  holidays,  of  i n f r a s t r u c t u r e and  health  and  to  the  hostility.  approach  of  purview.  shows t h a t  q u a l i t y of  responsible  capital,  directly  IV),  between  tenants  network  f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g corporate choice however  development  b o r d e r e d on  corporate  municipal  economic  supply-side  global  addressed  escapes  relations  take  attract  integration  and  to  l e v e l s have o f t e n  officials  to  officials  a  less of  corporate by  civic  102 governments.  E.  Conclusion Changes  i n  "globalization" like,  have  their  economic  to  the  of markets,  elevated  futures  the  traditionally nearly  levels  o f government  served  by  interest this  as d e f i n e d  statement  interest with  i s defined  the state  economic  of  petitioning  mental  exercise from  exchanges  among  to the  national  that  government  the  national  i n consultation unity,  of  their  officials  political  share" of national  of  erasing  and c i t i e s  energies  distorts I f we  national  t h e network  the  perform  political  o f commodity  of the world  the p a t t e r n  i n the  wealth.  profoundly  and o b s e r v e  b o r d e r s do i n f l u e n c e  o f Canada,  national  government  of temporarily  t h e towns  junior  d i s t r i b u t i v e and r e d i s t r i b u t i v e  structure  the globe  relations  governments,  (In the ease  to maintain  local  much  events  are best  concerns  t o read  that  interests  and e c o n o m i c d e t e r m i n a n t s o f t r a d e .  boundaries  state  implements  political  geographical  that  In order  for their "fair  This  local  be m o d i f i e d  expending  and t h e  f o r c i t i z e n s and  their  the centre.  p o l i c i e s leaving  position  that  by t h e f e d e r a l  the provinces.)  course,  the  must  of  of national  h a s been  t o assume  by  international  the preserve  subordinaton  economy:  on i n t e r n a t i o n a l  Because  tendency  world  interdependence,  are contingent  been  the  f o r c i t i e s , to understand  degree.  universal  of  increased  t h e need  an u n p r e c e d e n t e d  have  structure  of trade  we  can see  flows.  In  10 3 terms o f e c o n o m i c very  little  power a  sense.  to this  network  states. military  efficiency  I f we r e i n t r o d u c e  m e n t a l map  of c i t i e s Political  the world  organization  relations  between  The hegemony  has ensured  that  citizens  part  of a local  world the  a l i k e lack  network  these  other  require  hand, that  perspective engender  a  bargaining economic  i f they  the c i t y  take  system.  based  of  human  in international  bargain  effectively  Thus c i v i c  officials  o f themselves as  community w h i c h i s a n o d a l p o i n t  an  organized of global  on  of  communities. economic  increasingly  to flourish.  consciousness power,  nation-  i n two d i f f e r e n t  issues  cannot  politically  wish  have  universally a  forms  governments  of security  the exigencies  cities  two  a self-consciousness  political  of l o c a l ,  but rather  i s almost  with e i t h e r the state or the corporation. and  no l o n g e r  event.  may be p u l l i n g c i v i c  directions.  t o make  the dimension of m i l i t a r y  points  boundary-making  discontinuity  would a p p e a r  s y s t e m would  as i t s nodal  or l e g a l - d i p l o m a t i c  The  the patterns  their  urban  This  ina On  change  international perspective  largely  centrality  may  unexploited i n the world  104  Conclusion  The  time  when  responsibilities  municipal for local  passive  recipients  drawing  to a close.  global  network  strategies, allow  them  opportunities the  most  their  WPE  take  Chapter  IV  structure  they  of  o f the world  system.  discontinuity  on t h e i r  the i n s t i t u t i o n a l  national  imperatives,  military  committments,  policies  detrimental  force  becuase of  on s e n i o r  that  to c i t i e s  the l o g i c s  l e v e l s of  described  t o the w e l f a r e  in  the changing t o move  in,  as  to respond t o these system. o f t h e two power.  systems  The s t a t e  to act i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y , regional  national  and  incapable  ability  f o r example may  which  Although they a r e  vacuum f o r p o l i t i c a l capacity  the  economic  trends  o f t h e programs  forces  be  i n the the  the d i r e c t i o n  between  has c r e a t e d an i n c i p i e n t  may  role  dependence  scope  economy  being  joining  pursue  to perform this  and f i s c a l  illustrates  by  emerging  are institutionally  The l i m i t e d  by  programs  actively  imposed by t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s t a t e  The  has  development  their  and m a r k e t i n g programs  economic  actors  fulfill  to prosper  must  advantage  as the c o n s t r a i n t s  changes  wish  they  i n the g l o b a l  could  and p r o v i n c i a l  use p o l i c i e s  constitutional  government.  well  i f they  appropriate  emerging  economic  of federal  of c i t i e s  land to  officials  development  governments  of c i t i e s ,  and  but or  t o adopt therefore,  105 ultimately, power  to  of  the  optimize  international perform The  state. their  context  functions  to  method  the  of  reserve  f o r which is a  nurturing  human  depriving  cities  economic  they  Westphalian state  comes  By  they  themselves  lcoal  organization  political within  the  in a  i t was  when i t  development.  designed  to  unsuited.  round h o l e "  economic  an  right  institutionally  " s q u a r e peg  of  the  development  to  are  of  for  As  a  different  purposes. If  the  direction between  described  the  structure to  hold  for  any  occurring  say  form  responding  at  the  a  the  The  this  response It  national sphere  the  of  indicates  nor  the  prospect  to  provincial-level units  only  for  the  international  capital,  created  by  government is  the  latter  of  that  power  this  reformers  the  the  possible,  but  state  to  economic  withdraw relations.  w h i c h c a n n o t be  likely.  politically  are  of  i n t e r n a t i o n a l labour. very  is  restructuring  exigencies be  lead  relinquish i t s  Chinese  not  good  to  never  the  the  institutional  deconcentration  to  may  by  world  in  contradiction  suited  will  time  While  vacuum w o u l d be  of  continues  present  better  state  Thus a p o l i t i c a l transnational  WPE  t o d o m e s t i c needs, some o f  necessary  the  the  present  case.  economy.  from  of  the  power.  clearly  for  the  need f o r e c o n o m i c g r o w t h c o u l d  of  the  of  chapters,  actors  that  international  somewhat  earlier  political  i n China  equally  in  universal  necessarily  clearly is  the  Many would on  development  inappropriateness  and  demands  task.  not  historical  Devolving  filled Nor  is  power  dangerous  as  106 secessionist number  of  states.  political  an  i s the  major  emerging  by  the  phrase  is  superimposed  states. exists that  cities  in  have  a  paper  a  tends  of  dual  the  simultaneously multinational world  argued, structure three uneasy  but  highly  economic  in  and  of  The  WPE  and  in  the  as  only  appropriate  development  world  static  that  a  with  that  interests  is  both  are  and  locationally  Thus  these  being  world  integrated  by  this  economy,  and  situated,  to  the  interests  state,  would  of be  been  of  co-exist  of the  Thus  relations  politics  are  in  i t has  opposed.  must  WPE  the  are  the  who  The  production  they  and  and  actors  to  relationship  principal actors  city  united  equilibrium. peculiar  world  the  determined  economy," territorial  whose mode o f  opposed  of  subsumed  lines.  i n which  are  in  complex  huan o r g a n i z a t i o n ,  aspect,  the  and  be  system of  cities.  cities  into  a  political  interaction  world  on  dialectical  territorial  them  based  w h i c h may  forms of  of  interdependent  dynamic  system,  the  their  those  united  the  surface  system  viable  contradictory  similarly  of  and  argued  corporations  are  of  nation-states  economy.  state  transformations  system(s)  integrate  interests  a  the  have become n o d a l p o i n t s  This  relatively  points  interests  to  present  world  competing  along both f u n c t i o n a l The  the  has  these  the  below  offers  system.  over  "stress"  grounded  the  "globalization  between  the  of  socio-economic  This  far  city.  economic  of  not  which  cities  matrix  are  Within  association  alternative The  movements  the these  in  trade  an and  obliterated  107 of.  course  i f nation-states  "conventional" economic decades into  or m i l i t a r y continue,  relations  warfare.  however,  the primacy  through  I f the trends  this  interstate  o f the l a s t  model may p r o v i d e  of  some  few  insight  the t e c t o n i c s of history-in-the-making. The  foreign as  international  reasserted  transboundary  g o v e r n m e n t s and MNCs o b v i o u s l y c a n n o t  having  economic that  more  than  relations.  these  indication  that  in  the realm  The  precise  a  very  What  transnational  substantially  logic  actions of municipal  minor  I have  years  of intergovernmental form  of p o l i t i c a l  o f t h e framework  research t o uncover.  they  (and t h e r e  here  to  every effects  relations.  consonant  will  expand  i s  interesting  and i n t e r n a t i o n a l  consequences  developed  international  alternatively, i s  were  c o u l d have v e r y  with  y e t be c o n s t r u e d on  proposed,  contacts,  i n the coming they w i l l ) ,  impact  officials  require  with the further  108  Bibliography  BOOKS B l a k e , D., and W a l t e r s , R.S., The P o l i t i c s o f R e l a t i o n s , P r e n t i c e - H a l l I n c . , New J e r s e y ,  Global 1976.  Economic  B o u r n e , L.S., and Simmons, J . , S y s t e m s o f C i t i e s : R e a d i n g s on S t r u c t u r e , Growth and P o l i c y , O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New York, 1978. Dear,  M i c h a e l and S c o t t , A l l e n , e d s . , U r b a n i z a t i o n and U r b a n P l a n n i n g i n C a p i t a l i s t S o c i e t y , Methuen, N.Y. and L o n d o n , 1981.  Dogan, M., and K a s a r d a , J . , The M e t r o p o l i s E r a V o l . I: A World o f G i a n t C i t i e s , Sage P u b l i c a t i o n s , B e v e r l y H i l l s , 1988. E g y e d , P., N a t i o n a l Aproaches to the Development of Economic R e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e USSR and C h i n a : C o m p a r i s o n o f R e c e n t C a n d i a n and F r e n c h E x p e r i e n c e , C a r l e t o n U n i v e r s i t y , O t t a w a , 1981. Feldman, L. and Graham, K., B a r g a i n i n g F o r C i t i e s , R e s e a r c h on P u b l i c P o l i c y , M o n t r e a l , 1979.  Institute  for  F r i e d m a n n , J . and W o l d , G., N o t e s on t h e F u t u r e o f t h e W o r l d C i t y , S c h o o l o f A r c h i t e c u t r e and U r b a n P l a n n i n g , UCLA, Los Angeles, 1981. G i l p i n , R., The P o l i t i c a l Economy o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l R e l a t i o n s , P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New J e r s e y , 1987. G o l d b e r g , M.A., 1986. City,  UBC  The  Chinese  Connection,  and M e r c e r , J . , The M y t h Press, Vancouver, 1986.  UBC of  Press, the  G o t t m a n , J . , Coming o f t h e T r a n s a c t i o n a l C i t y , M a r y l a n d I n s t i t u t e f o r Urban S t u d i e s , 1983. G r o d z i n s , M., 1966. Harding,  H.,  The  American  China's  System, Rand M c N a l l y  Second  Revolution:  Vancouver,  North  American  University & Co.,  Reform  of  Chicago,  After  Mao,  109 Brookings  Institution,  Washington  D.C,  1987.  Heenan and P e r l m u t t e r , M u l t i n a t i o n a l O r g a n i z a t i o n a l A d d i s o n - W e s l e y P u b l i s h i n g Co., R e a d i n g , Mass., Hein, J . , From Summit Interdependent World, 1980.  Development, 1979.  t o Summit: P o l i c y m a k i n g In An C o n f e r e n c e B o a r d o f Canada, Ottawa,  H e n d e r s o n , J.V., I n t e r n a t i o n a l E x p e r i e n c e i n U r b a n i z a t i o n a n d I t s R e l e v a n c e f o r C h i n a , W o r l d Bank S t a f f W o r k i n g P a p e r s , No. 758, W a s h i n g t o n D . C , 1986. Ho,  S., and Huenemann, R. , C h i n a ' s Open Door f o r F o r e i g n T e c h n o l o g y and C a p i t a l , UBC 1984.  P o l i c y : The Q u e s t Press, Vancouver,  H o p k i n s , T., and W a l l e r s t e i n , I . , W o r l d Systems A n a l y s i s : T h e o r y and M e t h o d o l o g y , Sage P u b l i c a t i o n s , B e v e r l y H i l l s , 1982. Jacobs, Jane, 1969. New  York,  The  Economy  Cities 1984.  The D e a t h House, New Y o r k ,  and  of  Cities,  the Wealth  and L i f e 1961.  V i n t a g e Books, of  New  N a t i o n s , Random  of Great American  Cities,  York, House, Random  K l e n n e r , W. and K. W i e s e g a r t , The C h i n e s e Economy: S t r u c t u r e and Reform i n t h e D o m e s t i c Economy and F o r e i g n Trade, T r a n s a c t i o n Books, Hamburg, 1983. M a c k a y , A, The A s i a n Dream: The P a c i f i c Rim and Canada's N a t i o n a l R a i l w a y , D o u g l a s & M c l n t y r e , V a n c o u v e r , 1986. McGee, T., and A r m s t r o n g W., Theatres of Accumulation: Studies i n A s i a n and L a t i n A m e r i c a n U r b a n i z a t i o n , Metheun, L o n d o n and New Y o r k , 1985. McGee, T., Canada and t h e C h a n g i n g Economy o f t h e P a c i f i c B a s i n : An I n t r o d u c t o r y O v e r v i e w , I n s t i t u t e o f A s i a n R e s e a r c h , UBC, V a n c o u v e r , 1983. Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, B r i t i s h Columbia's Trade P r o s p e c t s in Asia, Ministry of Industry and Small Business Development, V i c t o r i a , 1981. R o n d i n e l l i , D.A., Secondary C i t i e s i n Developing C o u n t r i e s : P o l i c i e s f o r D i f f u s i n g U r b a n i z a t i o n , Sage P u b l i c a t i o n s , B e v e r l y H i l l s , 1983.  110 R o s e c r a n c e , R., The R i s e o f t h e C o n q u e s t i n t h e Modern W o r l d , S c h n o r e , L. 1967.  Social  Science  and  T r a d i n g S t a t e : Commerce B a s i c Books, N.Y., 1986. the  City,  Whyte, M. a n d P a r i s h , W. , U r b a n L i f e U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1984.  Praeger,  New  and  York,  i n Contemporary  China,  S m i t h , M.P., Cities i n Transformation: Class Capital, S t a t e , Sage P u b l i c a t i o n s , B e v e r l y H i l l s , 1984  and  S m i t h , S. and C l a r k e , M., F o r e i g n P o l i c y Unwin, London, 1985.  Allen  Implementation,  Whitely, Paul, ed., Models of P o l i t i c a l Publications, Beverly H i l l s , 1980.  Economy,  the  &  Sage  JOURNALS B a r l o w M. and B. S l a c k , " I n t e r n a t i o n a l C i t i e s : Some G e o g r a p h i c a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s and a Case Study o f M o n t r e a l , " Geoforum, V o l . 1 6 , No. 3, 1985. Chan,  G., "The T w o - C h i n a s P r o b l e m a n d t h e O l y m p i c P a c i f i c A f f a i r s , V o l . 58, No., 3, F a l l 1985.  Formula",  C h a n , S t e v e , "The Mouse T h a t R o a r e d : T a i w a n ' s Management o f Trade R e l a t i o n s w i t h the U n i t e d S t a t e s , " Comparative PoliticalStudies, S a g e P u b l i c a t i o n s , V o l . 20, No. 3, O c t o b e r 1987. Cheh,  John, Jan-Feb  "Canada's 1988.  China  Trade",  The  China  Business  Review,  F r i e d m a n n , J . and W o l f f , G., " W o r l d C i t y F o r m a t i o n : An Agenda f o r R e s e a r c h and A c t i o n " , I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l o f U r b a n a n d R e g i o n a l R e s e a r c h , V o l . 6, No. 3, S e p t e m b e r 1982, Edward A r n o l d L t d . , L o n d o n . H e e n a n , D., " G l o b a l C i t i e s o f Tomorrow", H a r v a r d R e v i e w , V o l . 55, No. 3, May-June 1977, B o s t o n . Keller,  Perry,  "How  the  Canadian  Government  Business  Promotes  China  Ill B u s i n e s s " , The C h i n a B u s i n e s s Review, J a n - F e b . 1988. K o r f f , R., "The W o r l d C i t y H y p o t h e s i s : A C r i t i q u e " , and Change, V o l . 17, No. 1, J a n u a r y 1987.  Development  Murphey, Rhoads, "The C i t y a s a C e n t e r o f Change: W e s t e r n E u r o p e and C h i n a , " A n n a l s , A s s o c i a t i o n o f A m e r i c a n Geographers, P e n n s y l v a n i a , V o l . 24, No. 1, 1953. S a v o i e , Donald J . , " P o l i t i c i a n s and Approaches to Regional D e v e l o p m e n t : The C a n a d i a n E x p e r i e n c e , " C a n a d i a n J o u r n a l o f R e g i o n a l S c i e n c e , V o l . 10, No. 2, Summer 1987. Su-Hoon L e e , " E c o n o m i c D e v e l o p m e n t a n d C i t y - s y s t e m s i n E a s t A s i a , 1 8 8 0 - 1 9 8 0 , " A s i a n P e r s p e c t i v e , V o l . 1 1 , No. 1, Spring-Summer 1987. W i l l i a m s , G l e n . , "On D e t e r m i n i n g C a n a d a ' s L o c a t i o n W i t h i n t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l P o l i t i c a l Economy," Studies i n P o l i t i c a l Economy, No. 25, S p r i n g 1988. Woo  Tunoy and T s a n g S h u k i , " C o m p a r a t i v e A d v a n t a g e and T r a d e L i b e r a l i z a t i o n i n C h i n a , " Economy and S o c i e t y , V o l 17, No. 1, R o u t l e d g e , G r e a t B r i t a i n , F e b r u a r y 1988.  Zheng  Tuobin "The P r o b l e m o f R e f o r m i n g C h i n a ' s F o r e i g n T r a d e S y s t e m " C h i n e s e E c o n o m i c S t u d i e s , M.E. S h a r p e I n c . , New Y o r k , V o l . 20, No. 4, Summer 198987.  PROPOSED 19 Vancouver As  May B u s i n e s s / Cultural Mission $1,000  1.  Los Angeles  2.  Yokohama/ Tokyo/ Osaka  3.  Host  Guangzhou  VIPs (5) Trade M1ss1on(5)  VIPs Trade  4.  5.  6.  Hong  Kong  Singapore  (5) M1ss1on(5)  VIPs (5) Trade M1ss1on(5)  VIPs  (5)  Trade  M1ss1on(5)  1987  -  1989  STRATEGIC CITY  8 7 Vancouver As V i s i t o r  INITIATIVE PROGRAM 19  Vancouver As  Sept.  re: 1988 mission Oct. re: Caltech Forum $ 1 , 0 0 0 e a . ( 2 )  Host  Business/Cultural Mission $2,000  Nov. E c o n o m i c / T r a d e M1ss1on$20,000( )  V I P s (5) Trade M i s s i o n  Nov.  VIPs  3  Friendship  delegation & trade Trade mission $?5.OO0v3)(4) Mayor's v i s i t In a s s o c . w i t h #3 ($ I n c l . In #3)13)  (5)  (5) M1ss1on(5)  VIPs  (5)  Trade  M1ss1on(5)  VIPs (5) Trade M i s s i o n ( 5 )  AND  COST  ESTIMATES* ) 1  19  8 8 Vancouver As V i s i t o r  Vancouver  Business/Cultural Mission $5,000(3)  Business/Cultural Mission $2,000  As  Host  8 9 Vancouver As V i s i t o r Business/Cultural Mission $5,000(3)  Economic/Trade Mission $20,000(3)  V I P s (5) Trade M1ss1on(5)  Economic/Trade Mission $20,000( )  Trade M i s s i o n $15,000(3)  V I P s (5) Trade M1ss1on(5)  Trade M i s s i o n $15,000(3)  V I P s (5) Trade M1ss1on(5)  Mayor's v i s i t In a s s o c . w i t h #3 ($ i n c l . i n 13)  V I P s (5) Trade Miss1on(5)  Trade m i s s i o n to I n c l . e i t h e r Bangkok o r K u a l a Lumpur $15,000(3)  Business mission a s s o c . w i t h HKCBA Vancouver In a s s o c . w i t h #5 $10,000(3)  of  Trade m i s s i o n t o I n c l . e i t h e r Bangkok o r K u a l a Lumpur $15,000(3)  3  Odessa  7.  Edinburgh  8.  Miscellaneous  TOTALS NOTES:  $ 1) 2) 3)  VIPs Trade M i s s i o n s $15,000 $ 17,000  46,000  P r i v a t e s e c t o r members p a y a l l VIPs EDO s t a f f members c o s t s o n l y  their  C o s t s f o r Mayor and one EDO s t a f f T e and M i s s im o inssc e l l a n e o u s g ri af dt s $ 15,000 $ 16.000  own  member,  expenses plus  receptions,  VIPs  $  Trade M i s s i o n s $ 15,000 $ 17,000  66,000 4) 5)  Plus  three other  guest  of  Costs  included  city  $  representatives  Guangzhou w h i l e In  #8  65,000  in  China  to  be  113  Table I I  Canada  Canada  Imports  Exports  (000's)  (000's)  1984  $966,199  218,823  1985  886,820  334,012  1986  1040,967  315,167  1984  $333,502  1,236,477  1985  403,475  1,278,477  1986  566,594  1,100,278  Country  Hong Kong  PRC  Source:  Statistics  Canada, Imports  by  Country- and  Exports  Country,  J u n e - D e c . 1984, J u n e - D e c . 1985, J u n e - D e c . 1986.  by  114  TABLE III ASSESSMENT OF VANCOUVER'S RELATIONSHIP.WITH SELECTED CITIES Accords with Federal Priorities Guangzhou* Yokohama* Tokyo Osaka Los Angeles* Odessa* Edinburgh* Shanghai Chongqing Hong Kong Kuala Lumpur Singapore Bangkok  Potential Potential Keen Niche for niche as OrganlVancouver As1a-Pac1f1c zatlons Businesses Gateway Exist  Frequent Personal Contact Potential  I  0 e  •  •  e o o e 0  0 0 •  o 0  0  LEGEND • 0 0 *  0 0 0 0  0 0 e  0 0 0  •  0  o 0 e  •  0 0 0 0  0  •  " Strong * Emerging • None at this time Denotes Vancouver Sister Cities  TABLE 1 OVERVIEW OF VANCOUVER'S SISTER CITY RELATIONSHIPS Broad Private Based Sector Society Commltment  Sister Alder- Frequent Commercial Cultural City manic Contact Ties Ties Keen Support Growing Growing (comm & cult)  Guangzhou  •  •  1  Los Angeles  1  0  I  Yokohama  0  •  •  Odessa  0  . *  Edinburgh  0  *  Legend:  I in place/yes 9 growing 0 emerging  EDO Support  I  I  •  •2  I  1  0  02  e  •  0  0  9  •  0  *  *  0  0  0  0  *  *  0  0  |1  0 uncertain * lacking  1. In place during formative stage 2. EDO resources are stretched to the limit, especially regarding following-up.  Overview  Vane'r As Host  of  1985 Vane r As Guest 1  1985  and  1986  Sister  . 1986 Vane r Vane'r As As Host Guest 1  City/Economic  and T r a d e  Visit Results Commercial Cultural Projects Projects (1ncl. medical)  Mission  Degree  of  Vancouver Community  Programs  Interest  Remarks  Other City  i  I  Good P r o s p e c t s  9  I  Good P r o s p e c t s  •Osaka  0  9  Good P r o s p e c t s  Tokyo  I  0  Good P r o s p e c t s / I m p o r t a n t I n t ' l . HQ  •Guangzhou •Yokohama  S E T t S T S  SE  TTT  S  S  6  e  I  1  Good P r o s p e c t s  •Odessa  S  0  o  9  9  Unknown  Prospects  •Edinburgh  S  0  o  0  9  Unknown  Prospects  Shanghai  T  9  o  9  0  Montreal  Chongqlnq  T  0  o  0  0  Toronto  Hongkong  G  I  o  (  1  Special relationship/good prospects  0  o  0  0  Long Term  0  o  9  9  Good P r o p s e c t s / K e y t o ASEAN B u s i n e s s  0  Long Term  *Los  Kuala  Angeles  ETT  Lumpur  Singapore  Bangkok  LEGEND S = Sister City Delegation T = Trade M i s s i o n " E = Economic M i s s i o n t = Technical Mission G = Government M i s s i o n  LEGEND t = strong  LEGEND t = many  • ••  0 = several  9 = some  0 = uncertain  0 = weak  denotes (company  Vancouver to  Sister  company  Cities  focus)  Link Link  Prospects  Prospects  H H H  CO  Utility s c o r e * Utility factors  Fig. 6.2 Factors affecting the choice of regional office cities. (From David A. Heenan, "Global Cities of Tomorrow," Harvard Business Review, May-June 1977, p. 85. Copyright © 1977 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College.)  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0097942/manifest

Comment

Related Items