Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Interactive video : the effects of adaptivity and modality Wilson, James Stuart 1989

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1989_A8 W54_5.pdf [ 3.19MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0097936.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0097936-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0097936-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0097936-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0097936-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0097936-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0097936-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0097936-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0097936.ris

Full Text

INTERACTIVE VIDEO: THE EFFECTS OF ADAPTIVITY AND MODALITY By James S t u a r t W i l s o n B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1972 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department o f M a t h / S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August 1989 (g) James S t u a r t W i l s o n £ t In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT The e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f i n t e r a c t i v e v i d e o i n s t r u c t i o n i n i m p r o v i n g l e a r n e r p e r f o r m a n c e was compared w i t h computer a s s i s t e d i n s t r u c t i o n , v i d e o i n s t r u c t i o n and t e x t u a l i n s t r u c t i o n i n a 2 x 2 f a c t o r i a l d e s i g n . Two l e v e l s o f a d a p t i v i t y (low and h i g h ) were c r o s s e d w i t h two l e v e l s o f m o d a l i t y ( u n i m o d a l i t y and m u l t i m o d a l i t y ) . Four i n s t r u c t i o n a l t e c h n o l o g i e s were o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d as f o l l o w s : t e x t : low a d a p t i v i t y / u n i m o d a l i t y ; v i d e o : low a d a p t i v i t y / m u l t i m o d a l i t y ; computer a s s i s t e d i n s t r u c t i o n : h i g h a d a p t i v i t y / u n i m o d a l i t y ; i n t e r a c t i v e v i d e o : h i g h a d a p t i v i t y / m u l t i m o d a l i t y . F i f t y - t w o , n i n t h - t h r o u g h - t w e l f t h g r a d e r s were randomly a s s i g n e d t o the f o u r i n s t r u c t i o n a l t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s and were p r e s e n t e d w i t h p a r a l l e l forms o f t h e same computer hardware l e s s o n , d i f f e r i n g o n l y i n p r e s e n t a t i o n media ( t e x t , v i d e o , computer a s s i s t e d i n s t r u c t i o n , i n t e r a c t i v e v i d e o ) . The l e s s o n was i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w e d by a r e c a l l t e s t and a r e t e n t i o n t e s t was g i v e n two weeks l a t e r . Two i n t e r a c t i v e v i d e o s u b j e c t s were i n t e r v i e w e d about t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s . A n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e was p e r f o r m e d on t h r e e dependent v a r i a b l e s : i n s t r u c t i o n a l t i m e , p o s t t e s t s c o r e s and r e t e n t i o n t e s t s c o r e s . R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t i n t e r a c t i v e v i d e o i s not n e c e s s a r i l y a more e f f e c t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n a l t e c h n o l o g y t h a n t h e o t h e r t h r e e t e s t e d . The n a t u r e o f the a d a p t i v i t y b u i l t i n t o t h e c o n t r o l l i n g computer program was f o u n d t o be c r i t i c a l t o t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f i n t e r a c t i v e v i d e o . TABLE OF CONTENTS A b s t r a c t i T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s i L i s t o f T a b l e s v i L i s t o f F i g u r e s v i i 1 . INTRODUCTION 1 1 .1 Statement o f the Problem 2 1 .2 Overview o f the Method 5 1.3 Statement o f H y p o t h e s i s 6 2. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 8 2 .1 R e s e a r c h i n CAI 8 2.1.1 User E v a l u a t i o n o f CAI 8 2.1.2 E x p e r i e n t i a l G u i d e l i n e s 9 2.1.3 G u i d e l i n e s from Comparative S t u d i e s 10 2.1.4 E m p i r i c a l l y D e v e l o p e d G u i d e l i n e s 11 2.1.5 Summary o f CAI G u i d e l i n e s 12 2.2 R e s e a r c h on IV 13 2.2.1 G e n e r a l I n f o r m a t i o n A r t i c l e s .. 13 2.2.2 Case S t u d i e s 13 2.2.3 T h e o r e t i c a l / E m p i r i c a l R e s e a r c h 17 2.2.4 Summary o f IV R e s e a r c h 19 2.3 R e s e a r c h on A d a p t i v i t y 20 2.3.1 I n t e r a c t i v i t y 20 2.3.2 ICAI Research 22 2.3.3 Designing f o r A d a p t i v i t y 25 2.3.4 Summary of A d a p t i v i t y 26 2.4 Research on Modality 26 2.4.1 Comparing M o d a l i t i e s 27 2.4.2 Combining M o d a l i t i e s 29 2.4.3 T h e o r e t i c a l Explanations 30 2.4.3.1 Learning Theories 30 2.4.3.2 Information Processing Theories 31 2.4.4 Video Production C h e c k l i s t s ... 32 2.4.5 Modality Summary 33 2.5 Summary 33 METHOD 35 3.1 Subjects 35 3.2 Procedure 35 3.3 I n s t r u c t i o n a l Treatments s. . . 37 3.3.1 Text lesson 37 3.3.2 Video Lesson 37 3-3.3 Computer A s s i s t e d I n s t r u c t i o n Lesson 38 3.3-4 I n t e r a c t i v e Video Lesson 38 3.3-5 A d a p t i v i t y Algorithm 39 3.4 C r i t e r i o n Measures 43 3.4.1 R e c a l l Test 43 3.4.2 Retention Test 43 v i 3.4.3 Time 43 3.4.4 Interviews 44 3.5 Method of A n a l y s i s 45 4. RESULTS 47 4.1 E f f e c t of I n s t r u c t i o n a l Time 47 4.2 E f f e c t of I n s t r u c t i o n a l Technique 48 4.3 E f f e c t of Modality and A d a p t i v i t y 49 4.4 I n t e r a c t i o n between Modality and A d a p t i v i t y 50 4.5 Interview Results 50 5. DISCUSSION 55 5.1 IV Design Issues A r i s i n g from S t a t i s t i c a l R e s u l t s 55 5.1.1 F a m i l i a r i t y of I n s t r u c t i o n a l Media 55 5.1.2 A d a p t i v i t y Reconsidered 57 5.1.2.1 Locus of Control 58 5.1.2.2 Advisement 59 5.1.3 Textual R e f e r a b i l i t y 61 5.2 IV Design Issues A r i s i n g from Interviews 63 5.2.1 Content 64 5.2.2 S o c i a l I s o l a t i o n 65 5.3 Hypertext Model f o r IV Design 66 5.4 Conclusions 69 REFERENCES 71 APPENDIX 78 v i i LIST OF TABLES T a b l e 1 I n s t r u c t i o n a l Time i n M i n u t e s 81 T a b l e 2 R e c a l l T e s t S c o r e s 82 T a b l e 3 R e t e n t i o n T e s t S c o r e s 83 T a b l e 4 L o s s S c o r e s 84 V I 1 1 LIST OF FIGURES F i g u r e 1 R e s e a r c h D e s i g n 85 F i g u r e 2 I n t e r a c t i o n between M o d a l i t y and A d a p t i v i t y 86 F i g u r e 3 Overview o f an ICAI System 87 F i g u r e 4 A C o g n i t i v e S t r u c t u r e f o r an Imaginary C o g n i t i v e Domain 88 F i g u r e 5 A C o g n i t i v e S t r u c t u r e f o r the C e n t r a l P r o c e s s i n g U n i t L e s s o n 89 1 INTRODUCTION E d u c a t o r s have l o n g been f a s c i n a t e d by t h e image o f a r o b o t " t e a c h e r " . An omnipotent, o m n i s c i e n t machine immune t o the f a i l i n g s o f i t s human b r e t h r e n . The t e a c h i n g r o b o t may never m a t e r i a l i z e , but s e l f - p a c e d , t e a c h e r l e s s i n s t r u c t i o n t e c h n i q u e s do e x i s t and c o n t i n u e t o d e v e l o p . The b e h a v i o u r a l i s t i n s p i r e d t e a c h i n g machine o f the 1920's i s p r o b a b l y t h e f i r s t r e c o g n i z a b l e e d u c a t i o n a l t e c h n o l o g y i n t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . Modern computer and communications t e c h n o l o g i e s have g i v e n impetus t o the f i e l d . These t e a c h i n g t e c h n o l o g i e s have been a l t e r n a t e l y p r a i s e d as a pan a c e a f o r e v e r y t h i n g wrong w i t h e d u c a t i o n , and damned as one more example o f the dehumanizing i n f l u e n c e o f machines. I n t e r a c t i v e v i d e o ( I V ) i s one such t e c h n o l o g y . IV i s a m a r r i a g e o f computer and v i d e o t e c h n i q u e s . IV hardware c o n s i s t s o f some form o f v i d e o p l a y e r ( t a p e or d i s c ) c o n n e c t e d t o a mi c r o c o m p u t e r . The v i d e o p l a y e r f u n c t i o n s ( p l a y , r e w i n d , and f a s t f o r w a r d ) a r e under the c o n t r o l o f t h e mic r o c o m p u t e r , t h u s a l l o w i n g random a c c e s s t o any p a r t o f t h e v i d e o t a p e or v i d e o d i s c . V a r i o u s d e g r e e s o f computer c o n t r o l a r e p o s s i b l e , v a r y i n g f r o m none (sometimes r e f e r r e d t o as " l e v e l 1") up t o complete computer c o n t r o l ( " l e v e l 3 " ) . IV a l l o w s f o r a new t y p e o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e l i v e r y w hich i s , d e p e n d i n g on how you l o o k a t i t , v i d e o b a s e d i n s t r u c t i o n t h a t need not p r o c e e d i n the u s u a l l i n e a r f a s h i o n ; or computer a s s i s t e d i n s t r u c t i o n (CAI) t h a t has t h e " s u p e r g r a p h i c s " c a p a b i l i t y o f moving p i c t u r e s and sound. CAI c o n t a i n i n g v i d e o images p r o v i d e s an a u d i t o r y and v i s u a l r e a l i s m n o t y e t a v a i l a b l e w i t h computer g e n e r a t e d sound and g r a p h i c s a l o n e . V i d e o i n -s t r u c t i o n under computer c o n t r o l a l l o w s f o r a d a p t i v i t y t o the needs o f the u s e r not p o s s i b l e w i t h c o n v e n t i o n a l l i n e a r v i d e o m a t e r i a l . STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The f i e l d o f CAI has undergone c o n s i d e r a b l e r e s e a r c h i n r e c e n t y e a r s , f i r s t , t o t e s t t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the i n s t r u c t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e ; and sec o n d , t o d e v e l o p p r i n c i p l e s and g u i d e l i n e s f o r the d e s i g n and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f CAI. V e r y l i t t l e o f t h i s t y p e o f r e s e a r c h has been done w i t h IV. As H a n n a f i n , P h i l l i p s and T r i p p (1986) p o i n t o u t : 3 F u t u r e r e s e a r c h w i t h i n t e r a c t i v e v i d e o s h o u l d h e l p t o d e t e r m i n e the r e l a t i v e u n i q u e n e s s o f , and t h e s i m i l a r i t y among, i n t e r a c t i v e v i d e o and o t h e r i n s t r u c t i o n a l systems a c r o s s a f f e c t i v e , c o g n i t i v e , and p r a g m a t i c c o n c e r n s , p. 138. R e s e a r c h t o date has f o c u s e d on t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s among i n s t r u c t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s . W h i l e i t may be t r u e t h a t the g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s o f l e a r n i n g must a p p l y t o a l l i n s t r u c t i o n a l t e c h n o l o g i e s , a more p r o f i t a b l e l i n e o f r e s e a r c h may be t o examine what i s u n i q u e t o each. An u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e u n i q u e n e s s o f IV c o u l d l e a d t o more e f f e c t i v e d e s i g n and a p p l i c a t i o n o f IV t e c h n o l o g y . What i s i t about IV t h a t makes i t u n i q u e ? S u r e l y t h e f a c t t h a t i t i s a h y b r i d o f two o t h e r i n s t r u c t i o n a l t e c h n o l o g i e s : computer a s s i s t e d i n s t r u c t i o n and v i d e o . R e s e a r c h r e l a t e d t o t h e two component t e c h n o l o g i e s , computer a s s i s t e d i n s t r u c t i o n (CAI) and v i d e o - b a s e d i n s t r u c t i o n , may p r o v i d e i n s i g h t s i n t o the i n s t r u c t i o n a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f i n t e r a c t i v e v i d e o . ( S c h a f f e r & H a n n a f i n , 1986, p.89.) A d a p t i v i t y i s t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f IV t h a t i t s h a r e s w i t h i t s p a r e n t t e c h n i q u e , CAI. A d a p t i v i t y i s , i n f a c t , the r a i s o n d ' e t r e f o r CAI. I f CAI c o urseware c o u l d not adapt i n s t r u c t i o n t o t h e r e s p o n s e s o f t h e u s e r , i t would be no d i f f e r e n t f r o m a l e c t u r e or a t e x t book. V i d e o i n s t r u c t i o n t a k e s p l a c e v i a two s e n s o r y m o d a l i t i e s : v i s u a l and a u d i t o r y . The v i s u a l m o d a l i t y has two c h a n n e l s o f r e l e v a n c e : t e x t and p i c t u r e s . The a u d i t o r y c h a n n e l a l s o has two r e l e v a n t c h a n n e l s : v e r b a l and sound. IV s h a r e s t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f m u l t i m o d a l i t y w i t h i t s o t h e r p a r e n t : v i d e o i n s t r u c t i o n . T h i s s t u d y was d e s i g n e d t o answer t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : * I s IV an e f f e c t i v e method o f i n s t r u c t i o n when compared t o o t h e r forms o f " t e a c h e r l e s s " i n s t r u c t i o n ? * And i f so, does i t owe t h i s e f f e c t i v e n e s s t o : a. i t s a d a p t i v e n a t u r e , b. i t s m u l t i m o d a l n a t u r e , c. a c o m b i n a t i o n or i n t e r a c t i o n o f t h e s e two f a c t o r s ? 5 OVERVIEW OF METHOD To i n v e s t i g a t e the problems o u t l i n e d above, an e x p e r i m e n t was d e s i g n e d t o compare the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f f o u r i n s t r u c t i o n a l t e c h n o l o g i e s : t e x t , v i d e o , CAI and IV i n such a way as t o measure the r e l a t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f a d a p t i v i t y and m o d a l i t y . As F i g u r e 1 i l l u s t r a t e s , t h e s e f o u r i n s t r u c t i o n a l t e c h n o l o g i e s r e p r e s e n t t h e f o u r p o s s i b l e c o m b i n a t i o n s o f h i g h / l o w a d a p t i v i t y and u n i / m u l t i m o d a l i t y . I f t h e same l e s s o n was t a u g h t u s i n g each o f t h e s e f o u r i n s t r u c t i o n a l t e c h n o l o g i e s t h e n e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the t e c h n o l o g y c o u l d be measured as t h e amount o f l e a r n i n g p r o d u c e d . IV s h o u l d be most e f f e c t i v e because i t has t h e b e s t o f b o t h p a r e n t t e c h n i q u e s : h i g h a d a p t i v i t y and m u l t i m o d a l i t y . Text s h o u l d be t h e l e a s t e f f e c t i v e b e c a u s e i t has t h e worst c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e p a r e n t t e c h n i q u e s : low a d a p t i v i t y and u n i m o d a l i t y . The o t h e r two t e c h n i q u e s s h o u l d be o f i n t e r m e d i a t e e f f e c t i v e n e s s . As a g e n e r a l c a s e t h e h i g h a d a p t i v i t y t e c h n o l o g i e s s h o u l d p r o d u c e b e t t e r r e s u l t s t h a n t h e low a d a p t i v i t y t e c h n o l o g i e s ; and m u l t i m o d a l t e c h n o l o g i e s s h o u l d p r o d u c e b e t t e r r e s u l t s t h a n the uhimodal t e c h n o l o g i e s . STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS G i v e n t h e same l e s s o n p r e s e n t e d i n f o u r d i f f e r e n t media ( t e x t , v i d e o , CAI, I V ) , t o f o u r d i f f e r e n t t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s : 1 . E f f e c t o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l t e c h n o l o g y : There w i l l be a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e ( a l p h a = .05) between the f o u r i n s t r u c t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s ( t e x t , v i d e o , CAI, IV) f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g dependent v a r i a b l e s : a. immediate r e c a l l - s c o r e on a t e s t g i v e n i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r t r e a t m e n t . b. r e t e n t i o n - s c o r e on a p a r a l l e l v e r s i o n o f th e same t e s t g i v e n two weeks l a t e r . 2. E f f e c t o f a d a p t i v i t y : There w i l l be a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e ( a l p h a = .05) between low a d a p t i v i t y i n s t r u c t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s ( t e x t , v i d e o ) and h i g h a d a p t i v i t y i n s t r u c t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s (CAI, IV) f o r the f o l l o w i n g dependent v a r i a b l e s : a. immediate r e c a l l - s c o r e on a t e s t g i v e n i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r t r e a t m e n t . b. r e t e n t i o n - s c o r e on a p a r a l l e l v e r s i o n o f the same t e s t g i v e n two weeks l a t e r . 3. E f f e c t o f m o d a l i t y : There w i l l be a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e ( a l p h a = .05) between u n i - m o d a l i t y i n s t r u c t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s ( t e x t , CAI) and m u l t i m o d a l i t y g r o u p s ( I V , v i d e o ) f o r the f o l l o w i n g dependent v a r i a b l e s : a. immediate r e c a l l - s c o r e on a t e s t g i v e n i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r t r e a t m e n t . b. r e t e n t i o n - s c o r e on a p a r a l l e l v e r s i o n o f the same t e s t g i v e n two weeks l a t e r . I n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s between a d a p t i v i t y and m o d a l i t y : There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t ( a l p h a = .05) between m o d a l i t y and a d a p t i v i t y f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g dependent v a r i a b l e s : a. immediate r e c a l l - s c o r e on a t e s t g i v e n i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r t r e a t m e n t . b. r e t e n t i o n - s c o r e on a p a r a l l e l v e r s i o n o f the same t e s t g i v e n two weeks l a t e r . E f f e c t o f i n s t r u c t i o n t i m e : There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e ( a l p h a = .05) between the f o u r i n s t r u c t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s ( t e x t , v i d e o , CAI, IV) f o r the dependent v a r i a b l e i n s t r u c t i o n a l time - number o f m i n u t e s spent on t h e l e a r n i n g t a s k . 8 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE I n t e r a c t i v e v i d e o ( I V ) can be vi e w e d as a h y b r i d o f CAI and i n s t r u c t i o n a l v i d e o . The f o l l o w i n g r e v i e w w i l l f o c u s f i r s t on r e s e a r c h r e l a t e d t o CAI, t h e n on t h e s m a l l number o f IV s t u d i e s t o d a t e , and f i n a l l y on r e s e a r c h r e l a t e d t o two a t t r i b u t e s o f IV: a d a p t i v i t y and m o d a l i t y . RESEARCH IN CAI A major f o c u s o f CAI r e s e a r c h has been t h e development o f g u i d e l i n e s f o r t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f p e d a g o g i c a l l y sound i n s t r u c t i o n . These g u i d e l i n e s have e v o l v e d from many s o u r c e s : t h e u s e r s and d e v e l o p e r s o f CAI, e m p i r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s and c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d i e s . User E v a l u a t i o n o f CAI One major s o u r c e o f CAI development g u i d e l i n e s i s the u s e r e v a l u a t i o n o f e x i s t i n g s o f t w a r e . T h i s p r o c e s s has been c a r r i e d out l o c a l l y by the P r o v i n c i a l E d u c a t i o n a l Media C e n t r e (PEMC) o f the B.C. M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n and on an i n t e r n a t i o n a l s c a l e by E d u c a t i o n a l P r o d u c t s I n f o r m a t i o n Exchange ( E P I E ) a t C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y ( B i a l o & E r i c k s o n , 1985). The main p u r p o s e o f t h i s t y p e o f e v a l u a t i o n i s t o p r o v i d e t h e p o t e n t i a l t e a c h e r - u s e r w i t h p r o d u c t i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g c o n t e n t , g r a d e l e v e l , and p e d a g o g i c a l v a l u e o f t h e s o f t w a r e (Reeves & L e n t , 1984), (Walker & Hess, 1984). From t h e s e e v a l u a t i o n s , however, hundreds o f s p e c i f i c g u i d e l i n e s f o r CAI development can be e x t r a c t e d . They a r e r e m i n d e r s o f the p i n n a c l e s and p i t f a l l s o f CAI but p r o v i d e l i t t l e i n the way o f a s y s t e m a t i c a p p r o a c h t o CAI development. E x p e r i e n t i a l G u i d e l i n e s A n o t h e r a p p r o a c h t o g u i d e l i n e development i s t o f o c u s on t h e CAI d e v e l o p e r and not the u s e r . From t h i s a p p r o a c h can be d e v e l o p e d g u i d e l i n e s t o a i d t h e p r o g r a m m e r / i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e s i g n e r i n h i s j o b . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t h e s e g u i d e l i n e s a r e l a r g e l y e x p e r i e n t i a l and n o t e x p e r i m e n t a l l y s u b s t a n t i a t e d . Many a u t h o r s have d e v e l o p e d such g u i d e l i n e s f o r s p e c i f i c t y p e s o f CAI: s c i e n c e (Bork, 1981), i n t e l l i g e n t t u t o r i n g systems (Sleeman & Brown, 1982), s i m u l a t i o n s (Rowe, 1984), or one-computer /many-students a p p l i c a t i o n s ( H a t i v a , 1984). Other a u t h o r s have t a k e n a more g e n e r a l a p p r o a c h and have p r o d u c e d "how t o books" c o l l e c t i n g many-y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e i n t o one volume ( B u r k e , 1982), ( G o d f r e y & S t e r l i n g , 1982). C h e c k l i s t s f o r t h e d e s i g n o f CAI, b o t h g e n e r a l (Balman, 1984), ( J e n s e n , 1985), ( H a r t l e y & L o v e l l , 1984) and s p e c i f i c ( F r i e n d & M i l o j k o v i c , 1984), ( G a i n e s , 1984), ( G o l d , 1984) have been d e v e l o p e d . Some a u t h o r s b r i n g a d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e t o the development o f CAI g u i d e l i n e s . They have a p p r o a c h e d t h e q u e s t i o n from f i e l d s r e l a t e d t o CAI: i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e s i g n (Gagne, Wager & R o j a s , 1984), (Malone, 1981) and computer programming (Simpson, 1982). G u i d e l i n e s from Comparative S t u d i e s A t h i r d a p p r o a c h t o d e v e l o p i n g CAI g u i d e l i n e s has been t o c o n d u c t r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s comparing CAI t o s t a n d a r d i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e l i v e r y t e c h n i q u e s . T h i s a p p r o a c h has been u s e f u l i n t h a t i t s p e c i f i c a l l y i d e n t i f i e s t h o s e a s p e c t s o f i n s t r u c t i o n where CAI has p r o v e n e f f e c t i v e , t h u s p r o v i d i n g g u i d e l i n e s f o r f u t u r e f o c u s i n CAI development. These c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d i e s have been the s u b j e c t o f a s e r i e s o f meta-a n a l y s e s (Bangert-Downs e t a l , 1985), ( K u l i k e t a l , 1983). Some o f t h e major f i n d i n g s a r e t h a t CAI i s most e f f e c t i v e : - a t lower g r a d e s . - as s u p p l e m e n t a r y r a t h e r t h a n r e p l a c e m e n t i n -s t r u c t i o n . - when s t r u c t u r e d r a t h e r t h a n u n s t r u c t u r e d . - as an en r i c h m e n t a c t i v i t y . - t e a c h i n g math and s c i e n c e r a t h e r t h a n E n g l i s h . - w i t h p h y s i c a l l y and m e n t a l l y d i s a b l e d s t u d e n t s . - i n t u t o r i a l r a t h e r t h a n d r i l l mode. E m p i r i c a l l y D e v e l o p e d G u i d e l i n e s Perhaps t h e most p r o m i s i n g s o u r c e o f CAI g u i d e l i n e s i s r e s e a r c h o f the t y p e t y p i f i e d by t h a t o f Tennyson and h i s a s s o c i a t e s (Tennyson e t a l , 1984). Here t h e f o c u s i s on " f i n e t u n i n g " CAI by m a n i p u l a t i n g i n s t r u c t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s and m e a s u r i n g t h e l e a r n i n g t h a t t a k e s p l a c e . The M i n n e s o t a A d a p t i v e I n s t r u c t i o n a l System d e v e l o p e d by Tennyson and a s s o c i a t e s can use a v a r i e t y o f s t r a t e g i e s t o adapt CAI t o s t u d e n t needs. Important d i m e n s i o n s o f a d a p t a t i o n have i n c l u d e d : amount and sequence o f i n s t r u c t i o n , i n s t r u c t i o n a l d i s p l a y t i m e , f e e d b a c k or a d v i s e m e n t , and amount o f s t u d e n t c o n t r o l over t h e l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s . Summary o f CAI G u i d e l i n e s There seems t o be no l a c k o f d e t a i l e d g u i d e l i n e s when i t comes t o d e v e l o p i n g CAI i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s . G e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s , however, a r e l a c k i n g . The f o l l o w i n g i s a p a r t i a l l i s t o f p r e s c r i p t i o n s c o m p i l e d from the l i t e r a t u r e (much o f i t m e n t i o n e d above) by K e a r s l e y ( 1 9 8 5 ) . They c o n s t i t u t e a g e n e r a l s e t o f g u i d e l i n e s f o r d e v e l o p i n g CAI and by e x t e n s i o n , IV. 1 . Make i t i n t e r a c t i v e - Ask q u e s t i o n s and pose p r o b l e m s ; encourage l e a r n e r s t o make c h o i c e s . 2. Make i t m o t i v a t i n g - Use g r a p h i c s , c o l o r , sound e f f e c t s , f a n t a s y , e t c . t o make i t i n t e r e s t i n g . 3. P r o v i d e l e a r n e r c o n t r o l - A l l o w t h e s t u d e n t t o c o n t r o l s e q u e n c i n g v i a menus, c o n t r o l commands, f u n c t i o n k e y s , e t c . 4. Make s c r e e n d i s p l a y s r e a d a b l e and v i s u a l l y s t i m u l a t i n g . 5. M o d u l a r i z e as much as p o s s i b l e i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e t h e r i g h t l e v e l o f d i f f i c u l t y . 6. E n s u r e t h a t programs have i n s t r u c t i o n s and adequate h e l p s . RESEARCH ON IV G e n e r a l I n f o r m a t i o n A r t i c l e s One q u i c k l y n o t e s a d e v e l o p m e n t a l t r e n d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e d u r i n g t h e s h o r t h i s t o r y o f IV r e s e a r c h . E a r l i e r a r t i c l e s (Molnar (1979-80), C o p e l a n d ( 1 9 8 2 ) , D e B l o o i s (1982), Howe (1983), Glenn (1983), Brodeur (1985), K e a r s l e y & F r o s t , 1985)) were v e r y g e n e r a l as i s a p p r o p r i a t e when i n t r o d u c i n g a t o p i c f o r e i g n t o most r e a d e r s . These a r t i c l e s f o c u s e d on the t e c h n i c a l a s p e c t s o f IV systems; a d v o c a t e d the use o f IV as an i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e l i v e r y medium; and p r o v i d e d v e r y e l e m e n t a r y "cookbook" i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r p r o d u c i n g IV cour s e w a r e . These a r t i c l e s were p i o n e e r e f f o r t s b u t e x c e p t f o r i d e n t i f y i n g r e s e a r c h i s s u e s a r e o f l i t t l e v a l u e i n t h e e m p i r i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f IV i n s t r u c t i o n . Some a r t i c l e s o f t h i s t y p e c o n t i n u e t o be w r i t t e n ( S m i t h , 1987; H o s i e , 1987), p e r h a p s because IV i s s t i l l a f o r e i g n t o p i c t o many, i n s p i t e o f t h e f a c t t h a t i t i s no l o n g e r new. Case S t u d i e s Many a u t h o r s have d e v e l o p e d IV i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s and f i e l d t e s t e d them i n v a r y i n g s i t u a t i o n s . T h e i r c o n c e r n has been t o t a k e advantage o f t h e unique a t t r i b u t e s o f IV f o r a s p e c i f i c a p p l i c a t i o n , r a t h e r t h a n t o s y s t e m a t i c a l l y r e s e a r c h t h e medium i t s e l f . The f o l l o w i n g examples a r e c i t e d t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e b r e a d t h o f a p p l i c a t i o n IV can have. They a r e b a s i c a l l y c a s e s t u d i e s i n t h e use o f IV and not c r i t i c a l a n a l y s e s o f t h e t e c h n i q u e . IV has been u s e d e f f e c t i v e l y t o t e a c h a number o f s k i l l s t o m e n t a l l y h a n d i c a p p e d , s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t s . K e l l y e t a l (1986) f o u n d IV t o be a s u p e r i o r method o f t e a c h i n g f r a c t i o n s t o s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t s , but a t t r i b u t e d t h e d i f f e r e n c e t o i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e s i g n f e a t u r e s and not t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l medium per s e . IV was u s e d t o t e a c h o n - t h e - j o b s o c i a l s k i l l s t o m i l d l y h a n d i c a p p e d a d o l e s c e n t s , ( M a l o u f , 1986) and l i f e s k i l l s t o m i l d l y r e t a r d e d h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s (Browning e t a l , 1986). R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t IV p r o d u c e d h i g h e r p o s t t e s t r e s u l t s t h a n workbook methods. H a s s e l b r i n g e t a l (1987/88) a l s o compared the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t e a c h i n g e l e m e n t a r y f r a c t i o n s u s i n g a v i d e o d i s c v e r s u s t r a d i t i o n a l t e a c h e r c e n t r e d methods. They t e s t e d normal e l e m e n t a r y s t u d e n t s and f o u n d v i d e o d i s c t o p r o d u c e s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n s i n f r a c t i o n s k i l l s and c o m p u t a t i o n . However, t h e y c a u t i o n a g a i n s t c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d i e s l i k e t h i s b e c a u s e o f u n c o n t r o l l e d f a c t o r s l i k e t e a c h e r q u a l i t y . Not s u r p r i s i n g l y t h e v i s u a l a s p e c t o f IV has f o u n d i n s t r u c t i o n a l a p p l i c a t i o n i n the v i s u a l a r t s . A c k er & K l e i n , (1986) p e r f o r m e d a c o m p a r i s o n o f the e f f e c t s o f computer and v i d e o g r a p h i c s on p e r f o r m a n c e o f v i s u a l i z i n g s p a t i a l t a s k s . The main f o c u s o f the s t u d y was s t u d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n o f media. Computers were seen as more demanding, w h i l e v i d e o was seen as f r i e n d l i e r and more e n t e r t a i n i n g . The s u g g e s t i o n was made t h a t p e r h a p s e d u c a t i o n a l v i d e o p r o t o c o l s a r e needed t o s i g n a l t h e watcher t h a t " t h i s i s e d u c a t i o n a l so pay a t t e n -t i o n . " Abrams & S t r e i t (1986) compared th e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f IV and l i n e a r v i d e o t o t e a c h b a s i c p h o t o g r a p h y t o c o l l e g e l e v e l s t u d e n t s . H i g h e r f i n a l exam r e s u l t s were a t t r i b u t e d t o i n c r e a s e d c o n t r o l over i n s t r u c t i o n and i n c r e a s e d a t t e n t i o n i n d u c e d by the n o v e l t y e f f e c t o f IV. They n o t e d t h e need f o r more s y s t e m a t i c f u r t h e r s t u d y . IV has been t e s t e d and has f o u n d a n i c h e i n m e d i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n . H a r l e s s (1986) c r e a t e d an IV drama i n whi c h a group o f m e d i c a l s t u d e n t s , a l o n g w i t h an i n s t r u c t o r , i n t e r a c t v e r b a l l y w i t h a computer t o d i a g n o s e and p r e s c r i b e t r e a t m e n t f o r a " v i d e o p a t i e n t " i n a h o s p i t a l emergency ward. B r a n c h e t a l (1987) implemented an IV method o f t e a c h i n g a u s c u l t a t i o n o f the h e a r t ( i . e . d i a g n o s i n g h e a r t d e f e c t s b a s e d on the sound o f the h e a r t b e a t ) They f o u n d IV t o be a c o s t e f f e c t i v e a l t e r n a t i v e t o the t r a d i t i o n a l method o f u s i n g e x p e r i m e n t a l a n i m a l s . S mith e t a l (1986) f o u n d t h a t f i r s t - y e a r c o l l e g e c h e m i s t r y s t u d e n t s p e r f o r m e d b e t t e r on l a b w r i t e -ups and l a b t e s t s when IV l e s s o n s were u s e d f o r p r e l a b o r a t o r y i n s t r u c t i o n or as a r e p l a c e m e n t f o r t r a d i t i o n a l l a b o r a t o r y e x p e r i m e n t s . In an i n t e r e s t i n g group a p p l i c a t i o n o f IV, M i l h e i m & Evans (1987) f o u n d many advantages over normal i n s t r u c t i o n a l v i d e o i n c l u d i n g : the s t i m u l a t i o n o f group d i s c u s s i o n , the p o s s i b i l i t y o f program i n t e r r u p t i o n f o r group d i s c u s s i o n , the c a p a c i t y f o r program b r a n c h i n g t o m u l t i p l e s c e n a r i o e n d i n g s and the c a p a c i t y f o r c o m p u t e r i z e d d a t a g a t h e r i n g . W h i l e th e s t u d i e s q uoted above i l l u s t r a t e t h e b r e a d t h and i n n o v a t i o n o f c u r r e n t IV a p p l i c a t i o n s t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l commonalties t h a t i n d i c a t e a t t r i b u t e s o f a p p r o p r i a t e IV a p p l i c a t i o n s . These i n c l u d e s i t u a t i o n s t h a t r e q u i r e : s o c i a l s i m u l a t i o n s , h i g h l y v i s u a l m a t e r i a l , dangerous and/or e x p e n s i v e p r o c e d u r e s . In a d d i t i o n , t h e b e n e f i t s n o r m a l l y a t t r i b u t e d t o CAI a r e s t i l l en-j o y e d : i n c r e a s e d s t u d e n t i n v o l v e m e n t and i n t e r a c t i o n , a d a p t a t i o n o f c o n t e n t t o t h e needs o f t h e s t u d e n t . T h e o r e t i c a l / E m p i r i c a l R e s e a r c h IV has s u f f e r e d from a l a c k o f s e r i o u s t h e o r e t i c a l and e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h up t o t h i s p o i n t . The absence o f e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h i n computer-b a s e d i n t e r a c t i v e v i d e o (CBIV) has p r o v i d e d l i t t l e t h e o r e t i c a l s t r u c t u r e from which t o d e v e l o p e f f e c t i v e s o f t w a r e . (Ho, Savenye & Hass, 1986, p.126) The p u b l i s h e d l i t e r a t u r e . . . has c o n t r i b u t e d l i t t l e t o t h e c r e a t i o n o f a sound f o u n d a t i o n f o r t h e d e s i g n and a p p l i c a t i o n o f i n t e r a c t i v e v i d e o . ( H a n n a f i n , 1986, p.101) Wi t h o u t a t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s f o r IV development and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , a l l t h a t e x i s t s i s a random c o l l e c t i o n o f o b s e r v a t i o n s t h a t e v e n t u a l l y grow so l a r g e as t o be u s e l e s s . R e c e n t l y a few s t u d i e s have a p p e a r e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e which have begun t o f o c u s on t h e p r o b l e m o f d e v e l o p i n g a t h e o r e t i c a l and e m p i r i c a l base f o r f u t u r e IV development. D a l t o n (1986) i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f IV compared t o CAI, and t e x t p r e s e n t a t i o n s . F i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h a t the i n t e r a c t i v e n a t u r e o f IV c o u l d a c c o u n t f o r the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e s e two t e c h n i q u e s when compared t o t e x t . A t t i t u d e s t oward l e a r n i n g were a l s o b e t t e r w i t h t h e i n t e r a c t i v e l e a r n i n g t e c h n o l o g i e s . Ho, Savenye & Hass (1986) f o u n d t h a t IV l e s s o n s c o n t a i n i n g r e v i e w s e c t i o n s , whether u s e r or computer c o n t r o l l e d , p r o d u c e d b e t t e r l e a r n i n g t h a n t h o s e w i t h o u t . H a n n a f i n e t a l (1986) examined the combined e f f e c t s o f o r i e n t i n g , p r o c e s s i n g , and p r a c t i c i n g a c t i v i t i e s on l e a r n i n g from IV. They f o u n d t h a t the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p r a c t i c e which IV (and CAI) p r o v i d e s a c c o u n t e d f o r most o f the d i f f e r e n c e s between t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s . S h a f f e r and H a n n a f i n (1986) t e s t e d t h e e f f e c t s o f f o u r l e v e l s o f i n t e r a c t i v i t y on subsequent l e a r n i n g . R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t f u l l y i n t e r a c t i v a t e d v i d e o i s a more e f f e c t i v e means o f i n s t r u c t i o n t h a n l e s s e r a c t i v a t e d v e r s i o n s . However, n o n - i n t e r a c t i v e , l i n e a r v i d e o i s a more e f f i c i e n t s ystem when time i s c o n s i d e r e d . Gay (1986) i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e s u b j e c t s ' p r i o r l e v e l o f s u b j e c t u n d e r s t a n d i n g , degree o f u s e r c o n t r o l over the program and the subsequent e f f e c t on l e a r n i n g v i a IV. The r e s u l t s were c o n s i s t e n t w i t h s i m i l a r s t u d i e s o f CAI: s u b j e c t s who had some p r i o r c o n c e p t u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e m a t e r i a l l e a r n e d e q u a l l y w e l l whether t h e l e s s o n was c o n t r o l l e d by the computer or by t h e m s e l v e s . On the o t h e r hand, s u b j e c t s w i t h lower p r i o r c o n c e p t u a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g d i d not l e a r n as w e l l w i t h l e a r n e r c o n t r o l as w i t h program c o n t r o l . Summary o f IV R e s e a r c h Ebner e t a l (1984) and H a n n a f i n (1985) emphasized the amount o f IV r e s e a r c h t h a t needs t o be done. The a r t i c l e s c i t e d above have a p p e a r e d s i n c e 1986 and a r e b e g i n n i n g t o meet t h i s need. The a r t i c l e s have o b v i o u s l y e v o l v e d from CAI r o o t s . They f o c u s e d on t h r e e v a r i a b l e s t h a t have t r a d i t i o n a l l y o c c u p i e d CAI r e s e a r c h e r s : l o c u s o f c o n t r o l ( u s e r or co m p u t e r ) , advisement ( d e g r e e and t y p e ) , and degree o f i n t e r a c t i v i t y . As y e t l i t t l e has been done t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e v i s u a l and a u d i t o r y a t t r i b u t e s o f IV. RESEARCH ON ADAPTIVITY I n t e r a c t i v i t y K e a r s l e y ' s number one CAI development g u i d e l i n e l i s t e d above s a y s : "Make i t i n t e r a c t i v e . " Bork a g r e e s : ...the most v a l u a b l e a s p e c t o f t h e computer i n e d u c a t i o n i s t h a t i t a l l o w s us t o make l e a r n i n g i n t e r a c t i v e , w i t h s t u d e n t s c o n s t a n t l y c a s t as p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the p r o c e s s r a t h e r t h a n as s p e c t a t o r s . (Bork, 1981, p.275) I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o d i s t i n g u i s h t h e term i n t e r a c t i v i t y f r o m th e term a d a p t i v i t y . The term i n t e r a c t i v i t y , as i t u s e d above, r e f e r s not t o a d a p t i v i t y per se but s i m p l y r e f e r s t o t h e d i a l o g between the computer and s t u d e n t . T h i s d i a l o g may or may not be a d a p t e d t o the needs o f the s t u d e n t by t h e computer. A d a p t i v i t y has meant d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s t o r e s e a r c h e r s i n and out o f t h e f i e l d o f CAI. G l a s e r (1982) r e l a t e s a d a p t i v i t y t o l e a r n i n g s t y l e s . H a r t l e y and L o v e l l (1984) argue t h a t a d a p t i v i t y has t o do w i t h p s y c h o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the l e a r n e r . J o n a s s e n (1985) has a l s o n o t e d th e d i f f e r e n c e between a d a p t i v i t y and i n t e r a c t i v i t y . He expands t h e c o n c e p t o f a d a p t i v i t y t o i n c l u d e e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l a d a p t a t i o n . E x t e r n a l a d a p t a t i o n a d a p t s the d e l i v e r y system t o t h e l e a r n e r . I n t e r n a l a d a p t a t i o n a d a p t s th e c o n t e n t t o t h e l e a r n e r . A d a p t i v i t y o c c u r s i n and out o f the c l a s s r o o m . A m e d i c a l d o c t o r a d a p t s t r e a t m e n t t o t h e i l l n e s s o f h i s p a t i e n t . A mechanic a d a p t s h i s r e p a i r s t o t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c a r ' s d e f e c t . As d e s c r i b e d above, Tennyson and h i s f e l l o w r e s e a r c h e r s on the M i n n e s o t a A d a p t i v e I n s t r u c t i o n a l System (MAIS) have f o c u s e d on a d a p t i n g f o u r a s p e c t s o f i n s t r u c t i o n t o t h e l e a r n e r : amount o f i n s t r u c t i o n , sequence o f i n s t r u c t i o n , d i s p l a y t i m e , and advisement i n f o r m a t i o n . (Tennyson e t a l , 1984). A d a p t i v i t y o f i n s t r u c t i o n c o u l d be d e f i n e d as t h e d i a g n o s i s o f m i s c o n c e p t i o n s and p r e s c r i p t i o n o f r e m e d i a l a c t i o n . ICAI R e s e a r c h I t i s i n the f i e l d o f " i n t e l l i g e n t computer a s s i s t e d i n s t r u c t i o n " ( I C A I ) t h a t t h i s c o n c e p t o f a d a p t i v i t y has been most h i g h l y d e v e l o p e d . Programs t h a t use a r t i f i c i a l i n t e l l i g e n c e t e c h n i q u e s t o a i d t h e l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s have been l a b e l e d as ICAI. (See F i g u r e 3) In g e n e r a l the t u t o r i a l module u s e s t h e s t u d e n t module t o l e a r n what the s t u d e n t knows and i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h t h e e x p e r t module, d e c i d e s what t o t e a c h n e x t , a t what l e v e l t o p r e s e n t the m a t e r i a l and w i t h what t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g y . The t u t o r i a l module t h e n p r e s e n t s the s t u d e n t w i t h a t a s k and u s e s t h e s t u d e n t ' s r e s p o n s e t o update t h e s t u d e n t module, and t h e c y c l e r e p e a t s . ( R a m b a l l y , 1986, p.39) A s m a l l number o f ICAI programs have been d e v e l o p e d . Most have been e x p e r i m e n t a l r a t h e r c o m m e rcial v e n t u r e s . W e l l known examples i n c l u d e : "Debuggy", an a r i t h m e t i c t u t o r ( B u r t o n , 1982); and " L i s p T u t o r " , a L i s p programming t u t o r , ( A n d e r s o n e t a l . , 1985) The a s p e c t o f i n s t r u c t i o n o f most c o n c e r n when d i a g n o s i n g and p r e s c r i b i n g r e m e d i a t i o n i s t h e s i z e o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n "chunk". . . . i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s p r o d u c e d by the system f o r s t u d e n t ' s query or m i s t a k e s a r e o f t e n a t t h e wrong l e v e l o f d e t a i l . The s i z e o f i n f o r m a t i o n chunk t h a t a l e a r n e r can h a n d l e i n p r o c e s s i n g the knowledge v a r i e s as he/she p r o g r e s s e s i n l e a r n i n g : as he/she p r o g r e s s e s i n l e a r n i n g , he/she can h a n d l e a b i g g e r chunks o f knowledge u n i t s . T h e r e f o r e , i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s s h o u l d be o r g a n i z e d a t t h e a p p r o p r i a t e l e v e l o f c h u n k i n g b a s e d on the l e a r n e r ' s s t a g e s o f p r o g r e s s . (Kim, 1986, p.15) Some o f t h e c r i t i c i s m s l e v e l e d a g a i n s t CAI and e a r l y ICAI systems a r e t h a t t h e m a t e r i a l i s d i s c u s s e d a t t h e wrong l e v e l o f d e t a i l , t o o much or t o o l i t t l e knowledge i s assumed on b e h a l f o f t h e s t u d e n t , and a p a r t i c u l a r c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r i s assumed w i t h no attempt made by t h e system t o d i s c o v e r t h e c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n which t h e s t u d e n t h as. (Rambally, 1986, p.40.) When d e s i g n i n g f o r a d a p t i v i t y i n CAI i t i s u s e f u l t o imagine how a l i v e t e a c h e r would h a n d l e a t y p i c a l s i t u a t i o n . Most i n s t r u c t i o n goes t h r o u g h c o n t i n u o u s c y c l e s o f t e a c h i n g , e v a l u a t i o n and r e t e a c h i n g . E v a l u a t i o n can be tho u g h t o f as any t y p e o f d i a g n o s t i c a c t i v i t y . T h i s d i a g n o s t i c a c t i v i t y may be a t e s t , t h e d e t e c t i o n o f a g l a z e d l o o k i n a s t u d e n t ' s eyes, or s i m p l y a t e a c h e r ' s f e e l i n g about s t u d e n t comprehension. D i a g n o s i s may be t r i g g e r e d by a s t u d e n t ' s r e q u e s t t o "go over t h a t a g a i n . " In any c a s e , e v a l u a t i o n o f t e n l e a d s t o r e m e d i a t i o n o f the m a t e r i a l j u s t t a u g h t and t h e t e a c h e r may t a k e s e v e r a l a p proaches when p l a n n i n g a s t r a t e g y f o r t h i s r e m e d i a t i o n . One o f t h e common app r o a c h e s may be t o t e a c h the m a t e r i a l a g a i n b ut t h i s time t o b r e a k i t down i n t o s m a l l e r chunks. T h i s f a c i l i t y t o t e a c h t h e same l e s s o n or i n d e e d t h e same c o n c e p t w i t h v a r y i n g degrees o f f i n e n e s s , and t o a d j u s t t h i s degree o f f i n e n e s s t o t h e s t u d e n t ' s r a t e o f comprehension would be d e s i r a b l e i n any CAI. In t h i s r e g a r d , the computer may be p o t e n t i a l l y s u p e r i o r t o t h e l i v e t e a c h e r . W h i l e a l i v e t e a c h e r can o n l y p e r i o d i c a l l y d i a g n o s e and r e m e d i a t e , t h e computer can c o n t i n u o u s l y a s s e s s and a d j u s t t h e c o a r s e n e s s o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l chunk. Of c o u r s e t h e computer cannot d i a g n o s e more ambiguous forms o f f e e d b a c k l i k e t he " g l a z e d l o o k " i n a s t u d e n t ' s e y e s . F i g u r e 4 r e p r e s e n t s t h e c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e o f an i m a g i n a r y c o g n i t i v e domain. L o o k i n g a t i t from t o p down i t c o u l d s a i d t h a t c o n c e p t 1.0 can be a n a l y z e d i n t o two s u b - c o n c e p t s : c o n c e p t 1.1 and c o n c e p t 1.2. These c o n c e p t s can be f u r t h e r a n a l y z e d i n t o t h e i r component c o n c e p t s , and so-on. Two t h i n g s happen when moving from h i g h e r t o lower c o n c e p t s : the c o n c e p t s become l e s s g e n e r a l - more s p e c i f i c , and t h e c o n c e p t s become l e s s a b s t r a c t - more c o n c r e t e . At t h e l o w e s t l e v e l o f the c o n c e p t u a l h i e r a r c h y would be f o u n d the c o n c r e t e examplars upon which a l l h i g h e r l e v e l s a r e bas e d . In t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e t t i n g , whether t e a c h e r or computer based, n a i v e l e a r n e r s must r e c e i v e i n s t r u c t i o n a t the l o w e s t l e v e l i n t h e h i e r a r c h y . O t h e r s w i t h some w i t h a b s t r a c t i o n l e v e l . The most r e v i e w a t t h e v h i e r a r c h y . b a c k g r o u n d may b and g e n e r a l i t y o f advanced s t u d e n t s 3 r y top l e v e l o f e a b l e t o d e a l an i n t e r m e d i a t e may o n l y need a the c o n c e p t u a l O f t e n , however, a s t u d e n t has gaps i n h i s knowledge or u n d e r s t a n d i n g . He may have complete knowledge o f one b r a n c h o f the knowledge s t r u c t u r e b u t no knowledge o f a n o t h e r . In t h i s c a s e h i g h l e v e l r e v i e w s would be r e q u i r e d i n some a r e a s and low l e v e l , f i n e g r a i n e d i n s t r u c t i o n i n o t h e r s . D e s i g n i n g f o r A d a p t i v i t y How c o u l d an a d a p t i v e system o f t e a c h i n g , d i a g n o s i s and r e m e d i a t i o n be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o CAI? Knezek (1988) d e s c r i b e s one such i n t e l l i g e n t t u t o r i n g s y s t e m ( I T S ) : One can c o n c e i v e o f a t r a d i t i o n a l t u t o r i a l p r e s e n t e d i n S o c r a t i c form, such t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n i s as k e d f i r s t and t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n f o l l o w s , r a t h e r t h a n v i c e - v e r s a as i s the u s u a l c a s e i n t r a d i t i o n a l CAI. With s u c h a t u t o r i a l t he p r e s e n t a t i o n , r e s p o n s e , and f e e d b a c k might be i d e n t i c a l i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l t u t o r i a l and the ITS, p r o v i d e d e v e r y q u e s t i o n were answered c o r r e c t l y . The d i f f e r e n c e would a r i s e when t h e l e a r n e r e n t e r e d a wrong answer. R e m e d i a t i o n i n a t r a d i t i o n a l t u t o r i a l u s u a l l y i n v o l v e s r e p e a t i n g t h e s e t o f s c r e e n s c o v e r i n g t h e c o n t e n t n o t m a s t e r e d . T h i s i s somewhat l i k e a c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r r e p e a t i n g a s t a t e m e n t when a s t u d e n t f a i l s t o u n d e r s t a n d . The g r e a t hope f o r an ITS i s t o have t h e program comprehend the n a t u r e o f the s t u d e n t ' s m i s c o n c e p t i o n and s e l e c t a p p r o p r i a t e r e m e d i a t i o n , j u s t as i s c u r r e n t l y done by a good human t e a c h e r . (Knezek, 1988, p12) Summary o f A d a p t i v i t y In d e s i g n i n g t h e computer program t h a t d r i v e s t h e IV l e s s o n i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o make i t c a p a b l e o f a d a p t i n g t h e l e s s o n t o t h e needs o f t h e l e a r n e r . T h i s does n o t mean t h a t the l e a r n e r s h o u l d have no c o n t r o l over t h e l e s s o n . I d e a l l y t h e l e a r n e r s h o u l d be i n v o l v e d and aware enough t o d i r e c t h i s own l e a r n i n g . However, when the s u b j e c t a r e a i s so f o r e i g n t h a t t h e l e a r n e r i s u n a b l e t o d i r e c t t h e l e a r n i n g , t h e n the computer s h o u l d t a k e over t h a t f u n c t i o n . W h i l e a d a p t i v i t y i s most i m p o r t a n t , s i m p l e i n t e r a c t i v i t y has i t s p l a c e . I n t e r a c t i v i t y keeps t h e l e a r n e r from becoming p a s s i v e and g i v e s him a chance t o p r a c t i c e what he knows. RESEARCH ON MODALITY A d a p t i v i t y i s the major f e a t u r e t h a t IV s h a r e s w i t h CAI. The main d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e o f t h e s e two i s t h a t w h i l e CAI p r e s e n t s i n s t r u c t i o n t h r o u g h w r i t t e n t e x t and g r a p h i c s , IV can u t i l i z e b o t h o f t h e s e m o d a l i t i e s as w e l l as sound and h i g h q u a l i t y s t i l l and moving p i c t u r e s . T h i s i s a f e a t u r e t h a t IV s h a r e s w i t h i t s o t h e r p a r e n t t e c h n o l o g y . . . v i d e o i n s t r u c t i o n . When d e a l i n g w i t h the q u e s t i o n o f m o d a l i t y and i t s e f f e c t on i n s t r u c t i o n t h r o u g h media i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o f i r s t e s t a b l i s h what the v a r i o u s s e n s o r y m o d a l i t i e s a r e . In an e x h a u s t i v e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w on t h e s u b j e c t , Hartman (1961) p o i n t s out t h a t media c h a n n e l s c o r r e s p o n d t o the human s e n s o r y m o d a l i t i e s : h e a r i n g and v i s i o n . The v i s u a l c h a n n e l can be s u b d i v i d e d i n t o a p i c t o r i a l c h a n n e l and a p r i n t c h a n n e l ( v i s u a l v e r b a l ) , w h i l e t h e a u d i t o r y c h a n n e l can be d i v i d e d i n t o two c h a n n e l s : a u d i t o r y v e r b a l (spoken words) and a u d i t o r y n o n - v e r b a l ( s o u n d e f f e c t s and m u s i c ) . For the p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y , v i d e o i n s t r u c t i o n can u t i l i z e t h r e e m o d a l i t i e s : p i c t o r i a l , v i s u a l v e r b a l , and a u d i t o r y v e r b a l . Comparing M o d a l i t i e s What i s known about t h e s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses o f the p i c t o r i a l , v i s u a l v e r b a l and a u d i t o r y v e r b a l m o d a l i t i e s when v i e w e d i n i s o l a t i o n f r o m each o t h e r ? Hartman's r e v i e w i n d i c a t e s t h a t a u d i t o r y v e r b a l p r e s e n t a t i o n i s more e f f e c t i v e t h a n v i s u a l v e r b a l p r e s e n t a t i o n when the i n f o r m a t i o n i s e a s i l y u n d e r s t o o d . The r e v e r s e was f o u n d t o be t r u e when th e i n f o r m a t i o n i s complex. L i k e w i s e , i t i s e a s i e r t o a s s o c i a t e i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h a p i c t u r e t h a n i t i s t o a s s o c i a t e i t w i t h a word. H s i a ' s (1968) r e v i e w o f s i n g l e m o d a l i t y s u p e r i o r i t y c o n c l u d e s t h a t : . . . t h e r e a r e many f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g the r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f A ( a u d i o p e r c e p t i o n ) and V ( v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n ) , and t h a t n e i t h e r i s i n h e r e n t l y s u p e r i o r t o t h e o t h e r , p.249. The g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n about s i n g l e m o d a l i t y s u p e r i o r i t y seems t o be t h a t t h e r e i s no u n i v e r s a l l y s u p e r i o r s e n s o r y m o d a l i t y . The e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f i n s t r u c t i o n depends on the o p t i m i z a t i o n o f the match between t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e m o d a l i t y and the m a t e r i a l b e i n g t a u g h t . Much o f t h e i n s t r u c t i o n i n s t r u c t i o n . r e s e a r c h can be has conceded s u p e r i o r t o t h a t m u l t i m o d a l s i n g l e c h a n n e l . . t a n g i b l e e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t when the amount o f i n f o r m a t i o n t o be p r o c e s s e d i s o p t i m a l , the AV c h a n n e l may be a more e f f e c t i v e means o f communication t h a n e i t h e r s i n g l e c h a n n e l . ( H s i a , 1968, p245) I f t h e same i n f o r m a t i o n i s s t o r e d b o t h v e r b a l l y and p i c t o r i a l l y , i t i s more l i k e l y t o be r e t r i e v e d . (Kozma, 1986, p13) Comparisons o f p i c t o r i a l - v e r b a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s s t r o n g l y i n d i c a t e advantage f o r the c o m b i n a t i o n o f c h a n n e l s . (Hartman, 1961, p245) In s p i t e o f the c o n c e s s i o n t h a t m u l t i m o d a l i n s t r u c t i o n must be s u p e r i o r t o s i n g l e modal i n s t r u c t i o n , t h e l i t e r a t u r e i s f a r from- unanimous ( S e v e r i n , 1966). Much o f t h i s c o n t r a d i c t i o n e x i s t s b e c a u s e o f t h e l a c k o f c o n t r o l e x e r t e d over t h e i n t e r a c t i o n between the two m o d a l i t i e s . R e s e a r c h s u g g e s t s t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p between th e i n f o r m a t i o n i n the two c h a n n e l s can v a r y a l o n g a c o ntinuum from r e d u n d a n t , t o r e l a t e d , t o u n r e l a t e d , t o c o n t r a d i c t o r y . As common sense would d i c t a t e , f i n d i n g s s u g g e s t t h a t l e a r n i n g i s maximized by r e dundant i n f o r m a t i o n i n two m o d a l i t i e s and m i n i m i z e d by c o n t r a d i c t o r y i n f o r m a t i o n i n two m o d a l i t i e s (Hartman, 1961, S e v e r i n , 1966). The e f f e c t o f r e l a t e d i n f o r m a t i o n i s not a s i m p l e one however because o f the d i f f i c u l t y o f d e f i n i n g what r e l a t e d means. T h e o r e t i c a l E x p l a n a t i o n s A number o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r i e s have been p r o p o s e d t o e x p l a i n the e f f e c t s o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l m o d a l i t y on l e a r n i n g . 1 . L e a r n i n g T h e o r i e s Cue Summation Theory: Cue summation t h e o r y p r e d i c t s t h a t the amount o f l e a r n i n g i s d i r e c t l y p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e number o f s t i m u l i i or cues a v a i l a b l e . I f t h i s h o l d s t h e n m u l t i m o d a l i n s t r u c t i o n s h o u l d be s u p e r i o r t o s i n g l e modal i n s t r u c t i o n ( S e v e r i n , 1966). S t i m u l u s G e n e r a l i z a t i o n T h e o r y : S t i m u l u s g e n e r a l i z a t i o n t h e o r y p r e d i c t s t h a t t h e amount t o l e a r n i n g d e c r e a s e s as t h e r e c a l l s i t u a t i o n becomes l e s s s i m i l a r t o t h e l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n . In o t h e r words, measu r a b l e l e a r n i n g d e c r e a s e s as the r e q u i r e m e n t t o g e n e r a l i z e i n c r e a s e s . I f t h i s i s t r u e t h e n m u l t i m o d a l i n s t r u c t i o n s h o u l d be s u p e r i o r b e c a u s e th e r e c a l l s i t u a t i o n has two chances t o match t h e l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n i n s t e a d o f j u s t one ( S e v e r i n , 1966). I n f o r m a t i o n P r o c e s s i n g T h e o r i e s One p r i n c i p l e o f i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g t h e o r i e s i s t h a t t h e c e n t r a l n e r v o u s system has a p h y s i o l o g i c a l l y l i m i t e d i n p u t c a p a c i t y . I f t h i s i s c o r r e c t t h e n c a r e must be t a k e n not t o o v e r l o a d the c e n t r a l n e r v o u s system w i t h t o o much i n f o r m a t i o n as might be t h e ca s e w i t h m u l t i m o d a l i n s t r u c t i o n ( H s i a , 1968). Dual C o d i n g Theory D u a l c o d i n g t h e o r y i s b a s e d on the a s s u m p t i o n t h a t memory and c o g n i t i o n a r e s e r v e d by two s e p a r a t e s y m b o l i c systems, one s p e c i a l i z e d f o r d e a l i n g w i t h v e r b a l i n f o r m a t i o n and t h e o t h e r w i t h n o n - v e r b a l i n f o r m a t i o n . . . . I n t e r c o n n e c t e d n e s s means t h a t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s i n one system can a c t i v a t e t h o s e i n t h e o t h e r . . . ( P a v i o , 1981) I f t h i s t h e o r y i s c o r r e c t t h e n m u l t i m o d a l i n s t r u c t i o n would be s u p e r i o r t o s i n g l e c h a n n e l i n s t r u c t i o n because i n f o r m a t i o n gaps i n one system might be f i l l e d by i n f o r m a t i o n s t o r e d i n the o t h e r . S i n g l e Channel Theory: T h i s t h e o r y p o s t u l a t e s t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n i s p r o c e s s e d from o n l y one c h a n n e l a t a t i m e . D u r i n g m u l t i m o d a l i n s t r u c t i o n the c e n t r a l n e r v o u s system s w i t c h e s between t h e v i s u a l and. a u d i t o r y m o d a l i t i e s . I f t h i s i s t r u e , t h e n m u l t i m o d a l i n s t r u c t i o n t h a t i s not c o m p l e t e l y redundant i n b o t h m o d a l i t i e s w i l l cause p r o b l e m s . Important i n f o r m a t i o n may be m i s s e d because t h e c e n t r a l n e r v o u s system i s a t t e n d i n g t o t h e wrong m o d a l i t y . In a d d i t i o n , t h e r e i s the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e system may "jam" b e c a u s e i t c annot s i m u l t a n e o u s l y p r o c e s s e s two s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n ( B r o a d b e n t , 1957). V i d e o P r o d u c t i o n C h e c k l i s t s A n other a p p r o a c h t o i n s t r u c t i o n a l v i d e o p r o d u c t i o n g u i d e l i n e s has been t o t a k e a much more e m p i r i c a l a p p r o a c h . In o t h e r words, f i n d out what works and not worry so much about why i t works. One o f t h e most p r o l i f i c r e s e a r c h e r s i n t h e a r e a o f v i s u a l l e a r n i n g i s F r a n c i s Dwyer ( 1 9 7 8 ) . H i s f i n d i n g s have c o n s i s t e n t l y s u p p o r t e d t h e c o n t e n t i o n t h a t t h e use o f v i s u a l s s p e c i f i c a l l y d e s i g n e d t o complement o r a l and p r i n t e d i n s t r u c t i o n improves s t u d e n t a c h ievement. He has a l s o f o u n d t h a t t h i s i s n ot a s i m p l e , a u t o m a t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p and t h a t many v a r i a b l e s a f f e c t i t . These v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d e : - medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n - n a t u r e o f i n f o r m a t i o n a l c o n t e n t - time s p e n t v i e w i n g - g r a d e l e v e l o f s t u d e n t - use o f c o l o r - a s t h e t i c s o f v i s u a l s - r e a l i s m o f v i s u a l s - s i z e o f v i s u a l - f o c u s i n g q u e s t i o n s Braden (1986) o f f e r s a 2 page check l i s t c o n d e n s e d from what he c l a i m s t o be " t o n s " o f m a t e r i a l s t h a t s u g g e s t good p r a c t i c e i n v i s u a l d e s i g n . M o d a l i t y Summary In d e s i g n i n g the v i d e o component o f IV i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o keep i n mind t h e p o i n t s r e v i e w e d above. One would be w o r k i n g from t h e t h e o r e t i c a l a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e a u d i o and v i s u a l m o d a l i t i e s do have an complementary e f f e c t . And t h a t t h i s a d d i t i v e e f f e c t i s not a u t o m a t i c but i s a c h i e v e d when t h e m a t e r i a l p r e s e n t e d i n each m o d a l i t y c l o s e l y complements each o t h e r . One advantage o f IV over normal i n s t r u c t i o n a l v i d e o i s the p o s s i b i l -i t y o f r e p e a t i n g segments o f v i d e o on demand. T h i s makes t h e p r o b l e m o f i n f o r m a t i o n o v e r l o a d , and s i n g l e c h a n n e l p r o c e s s i n g l e s s s e r i o u s . The l e a r n e r can s i m p l y r e p e a t a v i d e o segment u n t i l he u n d e r s t a n d s the i n f o r m a t i o n . SUMMARY IV i s a c o m b i n a t i o n o f two i n s t r u c t i o n a l t e c h n o l o g i e s : CAI and i n s t r u c t i o n a l v i d e o . As such i t p o s s e s s e s s i m i l a r s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses. The d e s i g n o f IV courseware must t a k e i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e s i g n p a r t i c u l a r t o each o f i t s p a r e n t t e c h n o l o g i e s . The key f e a t u r e s o f CAI and v i d e o a r e a d a p t i v i t y and m u l t i m o d a l i t y r e s p e c t i v e l y . D e s i g n f e a t u r e s d i c t a t e d by t h e s e a t t r i b u t e s must a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d . In a d d i t i o n , IV i s a u n i q u e medium and d e s i g n p r i n c i p l e s a r e b e g i n n i n g t o e v o l v e t h a t a r e u n ique t o i t a l o n e . 35 METHOD Subj e c t s S u b j e c t s were 52 n i n t h - t h r o u g h - t w e l f t h g r a d e r s s e l e c t e d from f i v e computer s t u d i e s c o u r s e s o f f e r e d i n a s m a l l s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l . A l l s u b j e c t s were f a m i l i a r w i t h computer o p e r a t i o n and were f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e b a c k g r o u n d m a t e r i a l t o the a c t u a l l e s s o n p r e s e n t e d . P r o c e d u r e D u r i n g t h e month p r i o r t o the e x p e r i m e n t , a l l s u b j e c t s r e c e i v e d i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e f o l l o w i n g t o p i c s : 1 . G e n e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f a m i c r o c o m p u t e r , 2. Input d e v i c e s , 3. Output d e v i c e s , 4. D a t a s t o r a g e d e v i c e s : p r i m a r y and s e c o n d a r y . These l e s s o n s were t a u g h t i n a r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m , u s i n g a l e c t u r e f o r m a t , s u p p l e m e n t e d w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e v i s u a l s and d i s p l a y i t e m s . Each l e c t u r e was f o l l o w e d the next day w i t h a s h o r t q u i z t o m o n i t o r t h e s h o r t term r e t e n t i o n o f the m a t e r i a l . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s p r e l i m i n a r y i n s t r u c t i o n was t o p r o v i d e a c o n t e x t f o r the 36 e v e n t u a l e x p e r i m e n t a l l e s s o n , and t o f a m i l i a r i z e t h e s u b j e c t s w i t h t e s t i n g p r o c e d u r e s . Once t h e s e p r e l i m i n a r y l e s s o n s were c o m p l e t e d the a c t u a l e x p e r i m e n t a l l e s s o n was t a u g h t d u r i n g r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m h o u r s over a f i v e day, Monday-t h r o u g h - F r i d a y p e r i o d . The e x p e r i m e n t a l l e s s o n d e a l t w i t h the s t r u c t u r e and f u n c t i o n o f one p a r t o f a m i c r o c o m p u t e r : the c e n t r a l p r o c e s s i n g u n i t . The 52 s u b j e c t s were randomly a s s i g n e d t o one o f f o u r t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s and were t a u g h t t h e same m a t e r i a l u s i n g one o f f o u r " t e a c h e r l e s s " m e t h o d o l o g i e s : t e x t , v i d e o , CAI or IV. S m a l l g r o u p s o f t e x t s u b j e c t s s i l e n t l y s t u d i e d paper c o p i e s o f t h e l e s s o n m a t e r i a l . S m a l l g r o u p s o f v i d e o s u b j e c t s watched a v i d e o p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e l e s s o n m a t e r i a l . CAI s u b j e c t s c o m p l e t e d t h e i r l e s s o n s i n d i v i d u a l l y on an A p p l e I I computer r u n n i n g a t u t o r i a l - t y p e CAI program. IV s u b j e c t s c a r r i e d out t h e i r l e s s o n s i n d i v i d u a l l y , u s i n g an A p p l e I I computer i n t e r f a c e d w i t h a P a n a s o n i c AG 6200 v i d e o c a s s e t t e r e c o r d e r by a Whitney I n t e r a c t i v e V i d e o i n t e r f a c e . A l l s u b j e c t s were i n -formed t h a t t h e y c o u l d t a k e as much time as t h e y wanted w i t h the l e s s o n but i n r e a l i t y o n l y t h e t e x t s u b j e c t s c o u l d c o n t r o l the amount o f time s p e n t . 37 Each s u b j e c t was g i v e n a r e c a l l t e s t i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e l e s s o n and a r e t e n t i o n t e s t two weeks a f t e r the o r i g i n a l l e s s o n . The t i me r e q u i r e d t o complete the l e s s o n was a l s o r e c o r d e d . Two o f t h e IV t r e a t m e n t s u b j e c t s were i n t e r v i e w e d a f t e r t h e e x p e r i m e n t about t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e . I n s t r u c t i o n a l T r e a t m e n t s The s t r u c t u r e and f u n c t i o n o f t h e c e n t r a l p r o c e s s i n g u n i t , formed the c o n t e n t o f t h e f o u r e x p e r i m e n t a l l e s s o n s . See F i g u r e 5 f o r the c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e c o n c e p t s i n t h e c e n t r a l p r o c e s s i n g u n i t l e s s o n . The l e s s o n s d i f f e r e d o n l y i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l media: t e x t , v i d e o , CAI or IV. T e x t l e s s o n : A two page w r i t t e n e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e s t r u c t u r e and f u n c t i o n o f t h e c e n t r a l p r o c e s s i n g u n i t was d e v e l o p e d . The r e a d a b i l i t y l e v e l o f the t e x t l e s s o n was Grade 1 0 a c c o r d i n g t o t h e F l a i c h -K i n c a i d R e a d a b i l i t y S c a l e and t h u s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e s u b j e c t s . See The a p p e n d i x f o r a copy o f t h e t e x t l e s s o n . V i d e o l e s s o n : The t e x t l e s s o n p r o v i d e d t h e s c r i p t f o r t h e a u d i t o r y p o r t i o n o f t h e v i d e o l e s s o n . The v i d e o p o r t i o n o f the l e s s o n c o n s i s t e d o f a number o f moving, g r a p h i c a l images which i l l u s t r a t e d t h e a u d i t o r y m a t e r i a l . CAI l e s s o n : The CAI l e s s o n was e s s e n t i a l l y a t u t o r i a l " p a g e - t u r n e r " . The t e x t u a l c o n t e n t o f t h e CAI l e s s o n was t a k e n d i r e c t l y f rom t h e t e x t l e s s o n . P assages o f t e x t were p r e s e n t e d on t h e computer s c r e e n f o r t h e s u b j e c t t o r e a d . These p a s s a g e s were i n t e r s p e r s e d w i t h m u l t i p l e c h o i c e q u e s t i o n s d e s i g n e d t o a s s e s s t h e s u b j e c t s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the t e x t u a l p a s s a g e s . The computer program a d a p t e d t h e o r d e r o f t e x t p r e s e n t a t i o n b a s e d on t h e a c c u r a c y o f s u b j e c t r e s p o n s e s t o t h e q u e s t i o n s . An e x p l a n a t i o n o f the computer program and the l o g i c b e h i n d i t s a d a p t i v e n a t u r e w i l l f o l l o w t h e de-s c r i p t i o n o f t h e IV l e s s o n . IV l e s s o n : The IV l e s s o n combined t h e a d a p t i v e computer program d e s i g n e d f o r t h e CAI l e s s o n w i t h th e v i d e o t a p e d e v e l o p e d f o r the v i d e o l e s s o n . From t h e s u b j e c t s ' p e r s p e c t i v e , the o n l y d i f f e r e n c e between t h e CAI and IV l e s s o n was i n t h e l e s s o n m a t e r i a l : o n - s c r e e n t e x t i n the CAI l e s s o n ; v i d e o and v o i c e i n t h e IV l e s s o n . 39 A d a p t i v i t y A l g o r i t h m : The f o l l o w i n g i s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the a d a p t i v i t y a l g o r i t h m i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e computer program t h a t c o n t r o l l e d b o t h the CAI l e s s o n and t h e IV l e s s o n . I t s development f o l l o w s from m a t e r i a l p r e s e n t e d i n t h e L i t e r a t u r e Review under R e s e a r c h On A d a p t i v i t y . Assuming th e i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s ( t e x t , g r a p h i c s , a u d i o , v i d e o ) have been p r e p a r e d and a r e a v a i l a b l e i n computer a c c e s s i b l e form f o r each o b j e c t i v e i d e n t i f i e d by the i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e s i g n ( s e e F i g u r e 5 ) ; and assuming t h a t c r i t e r i o n r e f e r e n c e d q u e s t i o n s have been p r e p a r e d f o r each o b j e c t i v e ; t h e n t h e CAI/IV program can be coded a c c o r d i n g t o t h e f o l l o w i n g a l g o r i t h m : i n i t i a l i z e i n s t r u c t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e t o 1.0 r e p e a t d i s p l a y c r i t e r i o n q u e s t i o n f o r o b j e c t i v e i f answer i s c o r r e c t t h e n p r o v i d e p o s i t i v e f e e d b a c k i f i n s t r u c t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e i s 1.0 t h e n s e t i n s t r u c t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e t o "done" e l s e s e l e c t h i g h e r i n s t r u c t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e e l s e i f o b j e c t i v e m a t e r i a l a l r e a d y d i s p l a y e d t h e n s e l e c t lower i n s t r u c t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e e l s e d i s p l a y m a t e r i a l f o r o b j e c t i v e u n t i l i n s t r u c t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e i s "done" Note t h e f o l l o w i n g : 1. C r i t e r i o n r e f e r e n c e d q u e s t i o n s a r e p r e s e n t e d and answers a r e a s s e s s e d p r i o r t o p r e s e n t i n g i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l . In t h i s way u n n e c e s s a r y i n s t r u c t i o n can be a v o i d e d . T h i s a l s o a v o i d s a n o t h e r a p p r o a c h t o p r e s c r i p t i v e t u t o r i n g - the l e n g t h y p r e t e s t t o p r e d e t e r m i n e o b j e c t i v e s n e e d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . 2 . The f i n a l , most g l o b a l o b j e c t i v e ( 1 . 0 ) i s t e s t e d f i r s t . T h i s i s b a s e d on t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t i f t h i s o b j e c t i v e i s s a t i s f i e d t h e n a l l o t h e r s a t lower l e v e l s must have been m a s t e r e d . When t h i s o b j e c t i v e has been l e a r n e d , t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e i s s e t t o "done" and t h e l e s s o n t e r m i n a t e s whether t h i s i s on t h e f i r s t i t e r a t i o n o f t h e l o o p or t h e one t h o u s a n d t h . 3 . S e l e c t i o n o f t h e new i n s t r u c t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e a f t e r an i n c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e i s done by w o r k i n g down the i n s t r u c t i o n a l h i e r a r c h y ( i . e . : s e l e c t lower i n s t r u c t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e ) . For example ( r e f e r t o F i g u r e 5 ) an i n c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e t o t h e c r i t e r i o n t e s t f o r o b j e c t i v e 1 . 0 r e s u l t s i n t h e s e l e c t i o n o f o b j e c t i v e 1.1 as the new i n s t r u c t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e . An i n c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e on t h i s o b j e c t i v e r e s u l t s i n the s e l e c t i o n o f o b j e c t i v e 1.11. 4. S e l e c t i o n o f a new i n s t r u c t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e a f t e r a c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e i s done by w o r k i n g up t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l h i e r a r c h y ( i . e . : s e l e c t a h i g h e r i n s t r u c t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e ) . F o r example, a c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e t o t h e c r i t e r i o n q u e s t i o n f o r o b j e c t i v e 1.21 would r e s u l t i n the new i n s t r u c t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e b e i n g s e t t o 1.2. 5. S e l e c t i o n o f a new i n s t r u c t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e a f t e r a c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e i s c o m p l i c a t e d by t h e f a c t t h a t any o b j e c t i v e may have c o o r d i n a t e o b j e c t i v e s ( i . e . : o t h e r o b j e c t i v e s t h a t a r e s u b o r d i n a t e t o the same s u p e r o r d i n a t e o b j e c t i v e ) For example 1.11 and 1.12 a r e b o t h s u b o r d i n a t e t o 1 .1 . As d e s c r i b e d i n p o i n t 4 above, an i n c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s t o c r i t e r i o n q u e s t i o n 1.11 s e t s t h e o b j e c t i v e t o 1.111. A c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e h e r e s e t s t h e o b j e c t i v e t o 1.11. However a c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e h e r e does not a u t o m a t i c a l l y s e t the o b j e c t i v e t o 1.1. There may by an a d d i t i o n a l m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g i n o b j e c t i v e 1.21. T h i s must be d e a l t w i t h b e f o r e t e s t i n g o b j e c t i v e 1.1. Thus the new o b j e c t i v e i s s e t t o 1.12 and an i n c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e w i l l r e s u l t i n 1.121 b e i n g t h e new o b j e c t i v e and a c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e h e r e w i l l r e s u l t i n 1.1 b e i n g t h e new o b j e c t i v e b e c a u s e now a l l o f t h e o b j e c t i v e s a t the 1 . 1 x l e v e l have been met. The a l g o r i t h m o u t l i n e d above e n s u r e s t h a t t h e CAI program w i l l adapt t o the l e a r n e r and t e a c h him a t a l e v e l b a s e d upon h i s c u r r e n t l e v e l o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g . I t w i l l not b o r e him by r e t e a c h i n g what he a l r e a d y knows; i t w i l l not c o n f u s e him by t e a c h i n g c o n c e p t s f o r which he does not have th e p r e r e q u i s i t e knowledge. The program w i l l p r o v i d e d e t a i l e d i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h o s e a r e a s where the s t u d e n t ' s knowledge i s weak or n o n - e x i s t e n t and q u i c k l y r e v i e w t h o s e c o n c e p t s which he a l r e a d y knows. The a d a p t i v e programs t h a t g u i d e d b o t h t h e CAI and IV l e s s o n s i n t h i s s t u d y conformed t o t h e above a l g o r i t h m and were c r e a t e d u s i n g I n S i g h t 2 0 0 0 , a c o u r s e w a r e a u t h o r i n g system c r e a t e d by Whitney E n t e r p r i s e s t o complement t h e i r i n t e r a c t i v e v i d e o i n t e r f a c e . Both programs were c r e a t e d u s i n g t h e a u t h o r i n g system which t h e n t r a n s l a t e d them i n t o BASIC code. The o n l y d i f f e r e n c e between th e CAI and IV v e r s i o n s o f t h e program i s t h a t t h e CAI 4 3 v e r s i o n d i s p l a y s chunks o f t e x t , and t h e IV v e r s i o n d i s p l a y s c o r r e s p o n d i n g segments o f v i d e o t a p e . A l l program l o g i c i s i d e n t i c a l . C r i t e r i o n Measures R e c a l l T e s t : The p r i n c i p a l dependent measure was a 16 q u e s t i o n f i l l - i n - t h e - b l a n k t e s t u s e d t o measure r e c a l l o f l e s s o n m a t e r i a l . T h i s t y p e o f t e s t was u s e d t o a v o i d l i t e r a l r e p l i c a t i o n o f t h e m u l t i p l e c h o i c e q u e s t i o n s u s e d i n t h e IV and CAI l e s s o n s . S u b j e c t s wrote th e t e s t i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e l e s s o n . R e t e n t i o n T e s t : The s e c o n d dependent measure was a 16 q u e s t i o n f i l l - i n - t h e - b l a n k t e s t . I t was i d e n t i c a l t o t h e r e c a l l t e s t e x c e p t t h a t t h e o r d e r o f q u e s t i o n s had been changed. The r e t e n t i o n t e s t was w r i t t e n by the s u b j e c t i n t h e s e c o n d week f o l l o w i n g c o m p l e t i o n o f the l e s s o n . Time: A t h i r d dependent measure was the time needed t o complete th e l e s s o n . T h i s was measured fr o m th e p o i n t a t which th e s u b j e c t began work on t h e l e s s o n , up t o but not i n c l u d i n g t h e r e c a l l t e s t . I n s t r u c t i o n a l time measures c o u l d be u s e d l a t e r e i t h e r t o c o n f i r m t h a t t h e r e was no d i f f e r e n c e between the amount o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l time r e c e i v e d by each group; or p r o v i d e the d a t a t o c a l c u l a t e a " r a t e o f l e a r n i n g " s c o r e f o r each sub-j e c t i f i n s t r u c t i o n a l time d i d v a r y . I n t e r v i e w : Two o f the IV s u b j e c t s were i n t e r v i e w e d i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g t r e a t m e n t . The p u r p o s e o f t h e i n t e r v i e w s was t o i n v e s t i g a t e a s p e c t s o f IV w h i c h would n o t be made e v i d e n t by t h e narrow f o c u s o f t h i s e x p e r i m e n t . These two s u b j e c t s were p i c k e d b e c a u s e t h e y were o b s e r v e d t o be i n t e l l i g e n t and a r t i c u l a t e s t u d e n t s . T h i s c h o i c e o f s t u d e n t s u n d o u b t e d l y b i a s e d the r e s u l t s and t h e r e s u l t s were i n t e r p r e t e d i n t h i s l i g h t . I n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n s t u d e n t r e s p o n s e t o IV would be a u s e f u l a r e a o f f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . The i n t e r v i e w s l a s t e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 20 m i n u t e s . The q u e s t i o n s a s k e d f o c u s e d on f o u r main t o p i c s : 1 . Q u e s t i o n s about IV equipment and how i t works. 2. Q u e s t i o n s f o c u s i n g on the a c t u a l l e s s o n l e a r n e d u s i n g t h e IV system, t r y i n g t o a s s e s s d e p t h o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g and s o u r c e s o f p o s s i b l e c o n f u s i o n . 3. Q u e s t i o n s comparing IV t o t h e o t h e r methods. T h i s r e q u i r e d s u b j e c t s t o s p e c u l a t e about o t h e r m e t h o d o l o g i e s and t o s t a t e p r e f e r e n c e s and r e a s o n s f o r t h e s e p r e f e r e n c e s . 4-. S p e c u l a t i v e q u e s t i o n s about t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s , d e s i r a b i l i t y o f an IV i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . Method o f A n a l y s i s A 2 x 2 f a c t o r i a l d e s i g n was u s e d . Two l e v e l s o f a d a p t i v i t y (Low and H i g h ) were c r o s s e d w i t h two l e v e l s o f m o d a l i t y ( U n i m o d a l i t y and M u l t i m o d a l i t y ) . (See F i g u r e 1) The f o u r t r e a t m e n t s were o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d as f o l l o w s : - low a d a p t i v i t y / u n i m o d a l i t y : t e x t - low a d a p t i v i t y / m u l t i m o d a l i t y : v i d e o - h i g h a d a p t i v i t y / u n i m o d a l i t y : CAI - h i g h a d a p t i v i t y / m u l t i m o d a l i t y : IV S e v e n t e e n s u b j e c t s were a s s i g n e d t o each o f t h e f o u r t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s . The subsequent u n e q u a l numbers i n each group were the r e s u l t o f a t t r i t i o n due t o f a c t o r s such as s c h o o l absence or t e c h n i c a l p r o b l e m s . A n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e was p e r f o r m e d on s u b j e c t g r a d e l e v e l t o r u l e out g r a d e - r e l a t e d d i f f e r e n c e s . ( F ( 1 , 4 8 ) = .29, p > .05) Three dependent measures were made f o r each o f the f o u r g r o u p s : i n s t r u c t i o n a l t i m e , r e c a l l t e s t and 46 r e t e n t i o n t e s t . A n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e was p e r f o r m e d on each dependent measure. RESULTS EFFECT OF INSTRUCTIONAL TIME B e f o r e t h e d a t a c o u l d be a n a l y z e d i t had t o be d e t e r m i n e d i f t h e f o u r i n s t r u c t i o n a l t r e a t m e n t s had t a k e n a s i m i l a r or s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t amount o f time t o c o m p l e t e . I f t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n c o m p l e t i o n time t h e n i t c o u l d be a r g u e d t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n the o t h e r dependent measures r e f l e c t the d i f f e r e n c e i n time s p e n t l e a r n i n g and not the e f f e c t s o f t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e . Care had been t a k e n i n t h e d e s i g n s t a g e t o make t h e l e a r n i n g t a s k s as s i m i l a r as p o s s i b l e i n a l l r e s p e c t s e x c e p t media, b u t t h i s needed e m p i r i c a l c o n f i r m a t i o n . The r e s u l t s i n T a b l e 1 can be i n t e r p r e t e d t o mean t h a t t h e r e was no s i g n i f i -c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l time between the f o u r i n s t r u c t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s . (F(3,48)=1.161, p > .05) The o r i g i n a l n u l l h y p o t h e s i s can be a c c e p t e d . I n s t r u c t i o n a l time can be r u l e d out as a c o n t r i b u t o r t o the v a r i a n c e i n t h e o t h e r dependent v a r i a b l e s : r e c a l l s c o r e and r e t e n t i o n s c o r e . R e c a l l and r e t e n t i o n s c o r e s can be u s e d as i s , w i t h o u t c o n v e r t i n g them t o r a t e o f l e a r n i n g s c o r e s . 48 EFFECT OF INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNIQUE I n s t r u c t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e d i d have a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on i n s t r u c t i o n a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s as measured by r e c a l l s c o r e s . (See T a b l e 2, F(3,48)= 3.832, p < .05) However the e f f e c t was i n the e x a c t o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n p r e d i c t e d . The rank o r d e r o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e b a s e d on r e c a l l s c o r e s was: v i d e o , t e x t , CAI, IV. S e v e r a l p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r t h i s r e v e r s a l o f e x p e c t a t i o n s w i l l be o f f e r e d l a t e r . R e t e n t i o n t e s t s c o r e s d i d not show any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e f o r t h e e f f e c t o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e . (See T a b l e 3, F ( 3 , 4 8 ) = 1 .998, p > .05) In an e f f o r t t o e x p l a i n t h i s f a c t , l o s s s c o r e s were c a l c u l a t e d . The c a l c u l a t i o n o f l o s s s c o r e s was not p a r t o f t h e o r i g i n a l p l a n but i s good way o f d r a m a t i z i n g the g e n e r a l t r e n d . The l o s s s c o r e r e p r e s e n t s t h e amount o f m a t e r i a l f o r g o t t e n i n the t i me p e r i o d between th e r e c a l l t e s t and t h e r e t e n t i o n t e s t . The r e s u l t s o f t h e s e c a l c u l a t i o n s a r e summarized i n T a b l e 4. I n s t r u c t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e d i d not have a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on t h e amount o f m a t e r i a l f o r g o t t e n by the s u b j e c t but a t r e n d c o u l d be o b s e r v e d . ( F ( 3 , 4 8 ) = 1 .896, p > .05) The rank o r d e r i n g o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s by l o s s s c o r e s , p a r a l l e l s t h o s e o r i g i n a l l y p r e d i c t e d ( I V , CAI, v i d e o , t e x t ) . Two e x p l a n a t i o n s o f t h e s e r e s u l t s a r e p o s s i b l e . IV and CAI p r o d u c e more complete p r o c e s s i n g o f i n f o r m a t i o n and t h u s l e s s r e t e n t i o n l o s s . Or p e r h a p s t h e IV and CAI s u b j e c t s s i m p l y had l e s s t o f o r g e t . That i s , t h e r e t e n t i o n s c o r e s may r e p r e s e n t a k i n d o f r e t e n t i v e b a s e l i n e . EFFECT OF MODALITY AND ADAPTIVITY I t was o r i g i n a l l y p r e d i c t e d t h a t a d a p t i v i t y and m o d a l i t y would a c c o u n t f o r t h e v a r i a b i l i t y i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s between d i f f e r e n t i n s t r u c t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s . In l i g h t o f the f a c t t h a t t h e p r e d i c t e d v a r i a b i l i t y was not f o u n d , i t i s more a p p r o p r i a t e t o see i f an e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e s e r e s u l t s can be f o u n d i n t h e e f f e c t s o f m o d a l i t y and a d a p t i v i t y . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e s c o r e s summarized i n T a b l e s 2, 3 and 4, m o d a l i t y d i d not have a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on r e c a l l , r e t e n t i o n or l o s s s c o r e s . The same does not h o l d t r u e f o r t h e e f f e c t o f a d a p t i v i t y . A d a p t i v i t y d i d have an e f f e c t on r e c a l l s c o r e s (See T a b l e 2, F(1,48)=7.919, p < .01), and l o s s s c o r e s (See T a b l e 3, F( 1 ,48) = 4.861 , p < .05). T h i s can be i n t e r p r e t e d t o mean t h a t a d a p t i v i t y as d e f i n e d f o r t h i s e x p e r i m e n t had a n e g a t i v e e f f e c t on l e a r n i n g r a t h e r t h a n a p o s i t i v e one. A m o d i f i c a t i o n o f t h e a d a p t i v i t y a l g o r i t h m i n t h e l i g h t o f t h i s f a c t i s f o u n d i n t h e D i s c u s s i o n s e c t i o n . INTERACTION BETWEEN MODALITY AND ADAPTIVITY I t was o r i g i n a l l y p r e d i c t e d t h a t t h e r e would be no i n t e r a c t i o n between m o d a l i t y and a d a p t i v i t y . T h i s h y p o t h e s i s i s r e j e c t e d i n the c a s e o f r e t e n t i o n s c o r e s (See T a b l e 3, F(1,48=5.38, p < .05). F i g u r e 2 i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n . The i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t i s p r i m a r i l y due t o the f a c t t h a t IV was so much l e s s e f f e c t i v e t h a n CAI. A p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e s e r e s u l t s f o l l o w s i n t h e D i s c u s s i o n S e c t i o n . INTERVIEW RESULTS 1. Q u e s t i o n s about IV equipment and how i t works. 51 S u b j e c t s were not v e r y aware o f t h e how t h e IV equipment worked even though t h a t had been e x p l a i n e d t o them a t t h e time o f the e x p e r i m e n t and t h e y had u s e d the equipment i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t . 2. Q u e s t i o n s f o c u s e d on the a c t u a l l e s s o n l e a r n e d u s i n g t h e IV system, t r y i n g t o a s s e s s depth o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g and s o u r c e s o f p o s s i b l e c o n f u s i o n . I n t e r v i e w e d s u b j e c t s had h i g h s c o r e s on t h e r e c a l l t e s t b u t d i f f e r i n g o p i n i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e c l a r i t y o f i n s t r u c t i o n . One s u b j e c t made t h e p o i n t t h a t he o f t e n d i d n ' t know i f h i s p e r f o r m a n c e was good or n o t . When a s k e d t o c l a r i f y t h e p o i n t , he r e f e r r e d t o t h e f a c t t h a t when he g o t a c r i t e r i o n q u e s t i o n wrong he was never q u i t e c e r t a i n why. H i s p r o b l e m stems from t h e n a t u r e o f t h e a d a p t i v i t y a l g o r i t h m and w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n the next s e c t i o n . A nother s u b j e c t , w h i l e f e e l i n g c o n f i d e n t t h a t t h e IV system was eas y and s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d t o use had a gap i n her knowledge t h a t c o u l d have o r i g i n a t e d as a c o n f u s i o n w h i l e u s i n g the program. I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t she c o r r e c t l y g u e s s e d the answer t o a q u e s t i o n and t h u s was never exposed t o t h a t m a t e r i a l . As a 52 r e s u l t she was not aware t h a t she had m i s s e d a n y t h i n g . 3. Q u e s t i o n s compared IV t o t h e o t h e r i n s t r u c t i o n a l methods. T h i s r e q u i r e d s u b j e c t s t o s p e c u l a t e about o t h e r m e t h o d o l o g i e s , t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e s and t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h e s e p r e f e r e n c e s . S u b j e c t s were unanimous h e r e . Both s a i d t h e y would have f e l t most c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h t h e t e x t p r e s e n t a t i o n . They commented t h a t w i t h t e x t i t was p o s s i b l e t o r e f e r back i f n e c e s s a r y . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t h e s e were good s t u d e n t s and t h e r e f o r e v e r y good r e a d e r s . T h i s p r e f e r e n c e may not have h e l d f o r poor r e a d e r s . S u b j e c t s were u n a n i m o u s l y opposed t o t h e v i d e o p r e s e n t a t i o n because i t d o e s n ' t r e q u i r e any i n v o l v e m e n t . They commented t h a t t h e y may have become b o r e d and n o t p a i d a t t e n t i o n had t h e y seen t h e v i d e o p r e s e n t a t i o n The s u b j e c t s were a m b i v a l e n t t o CAI. They have p r o b a b l y had v e r y l i t t l e c o n t a c t w i t h t h a t t y p e o f i n s t r u c t i o n . One i n t e r e s t i n g comment was t h a t CAI would be good because u n l i k e v i d e o you would have t o do s o m e t h i n g . 4. Q u e s t i o n s h e r e r e q u i r e d t h e s u b j e c t t o s p e c u l a t e about th e e f f e c t i v e n e s s and d e s i r a b i l i t y o f IV i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . There was not much e n t h u s i a s m f o r an IV c l a s s r o o m . Comments c e n t r e d a r o und the d e s i r e f o r i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t e a c h e r s and o t h e r s t u d e n t s . Some comments s u g g e s t e d t h a t s t u d e n t s l i k e d t o be e n t e r t a i n e d . Other comments p o i n t e d out what would be l o s t i n an IV c l a s s r o o m : an a c c e s s i b l e r e f e r e n c e p e r s o n , s h a r i n g o f o p i n i o n s t h r o u g h group d i s c u s s i o n s , group p r o b l e m s o l v i n g and t h e l e a r n i n g and f e e d b a c k t h a t i t p r o v i d e s . There was no u n a n i m i t y about s u i t a b l e IV c o u r s e s . The s u b j e c t s d i d however p o i n t out a s p e c t s o f c o u r s e s t h a t would be a p p r o p r i a t e l y t a u g h t t h r o u g h IV. Two g e n e r a l c a t e g o r i e s emerged: v i s u a l l y o r i e n t e d s u b j e c t s l i k e Western C i v i l i z a t i o n , H i s t o r y , B i o l o g y , drama i n L i t e r a t u r e c o u r s e s ; and " d i f f i c u l t " c o u r s e s . That i s , c o u r s e s i n w hich e x p l a n a t i o n s , and examples may need r e p e t i t i o n . Math and p h y s i c s p r o b l e m s o l u t i o n s as w e l l as a r t 5 4 and a r c h i t e c t u r e s t u d y i n Western C i v i l i z a t i o n 12 were m e n t i o n e d i n t h i s c a t e g o r y . DISCUSSION IV DESIGN ISSUES ARISING FROM STATISTICAL RESULTS The p r i m a r y h y p o t h e s i s t h a t IV i s a more e f f e c t i v e method, o f t e a c h e r l e s s i n s t r u c t i o n t h a n t e x t , v i d e o or CAI due t o i t s a d a p t i v e , m u l t i m o d a l n a t u r e was no t s u p p o r t e d by the e v i d e n c e from t h i s s t u d y . W h i l e t h i s does not n e c e s s a r i l y d i s p r o v e t h e h y p o t h e s i s , i t does i n d i c a t e a number o f f a c t o r s t h a t i n f l u e n c e the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f IV. F a m i l i a r i t y o f I n s t r u c t i o n a l Media S t u d e n t s a r e v e r y f a m i l i a r w i t h r e a d i n g t e x t and w a t c h i n g v i d e o t a p e d m a t e r i a l . O u t s i d e o f t h e s c h o o l s e t t i n g , h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s a r e p r o b a b l y more f a m i l i a r w i t h v i d e o t h a n w i t h any o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n t e c h n o l o g y , i n c l u d i n g t e x t . T h i s may a c c o u n t f o r t h e f a c t t h a t r e c a l l s c o r e s were h i g h e r f o r t h e low a d a p t i v i t y g roups ( v i d e o and t e x t ) t h a n f o r t h e h i g h a d a p t i v i t y g r o u p s (CAI and I V ) . I t would seem t h a t t h e rank o r d e r i n g o f t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e f o u r d i f f e r e n t t r e a t m e n t s : v i d e o , t e x t , CAI, IV, p a r a l l e l s t h e s u b j e c t ' s normal f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the media. C a s u a l o b s e r v a t i o n o f s u b j e c t s d u r i n g t h e ex p e r i m e n t s u p p o r t the c o n t e n t i o n t h a t f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h an i n s t r u c t i o n a l medium make i t more e f f e c t i v e . I t was o b v i o u s t h a t t h e " t e c h i e s " , t h e computer "whiz k i d s " , were more r e l a x e d w i t h , more i n t e r e s t e d i n , and l e s s i n t i m i d a t e d by t h e IV equipment t h a n t h e i r l e s s - e x p e r i e n c e d c l a s s m a t e s . The r e s e a r c h on m o d a l i t y emphasizes t h e f a c t t h a t t h e c e n t r a l n e r v o u s system has a l i m i t e d p r o c e s s i n g c a p a c i t y ( H s i a , 1968). The s t u d e n t u s i n g a h i g h l y a d a p t i v e ( i . e . : i n t e r a c t i v e ) medium l i k e CAI or IV f o r t h e f i r s t time i s f a c e d w i t h two l e a r n i n g p r o b l e m s : l e a r n i n g t h e c o n t e n t m a t e r i a l and l e a r n i n g t o use t h e equipment. Use o f i n t e r a c t i v e t e c h n o l o g y r e q u i r e s knowledge o f k e y b o a r d use, menus and s t a n d a r d s c r e e n l a y o u t . I t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e f i r s t time u s e r f i n d s t h i s overwhelming and t h i s i n t e r f e r e s w i t h c o n t e n t l e a r n i n g . The d i f f e r i n g d e g r ees o f f a m i l i a r i t y o f t h e f o u r i n s t r u c t i o n a l t e c h n o l o g i e s has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r IV d e s i g n and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . From t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l p o i n t o f view, t h e u s e r i n t e r f a c e s h o u l d be k e p t as s i m p l e as p o s s i b l e and i n t i m e , some s t a n d a r d i z e d i n t e r f a c e s h o u l d be d e v e l o p e d . From t h e p o i n t o f view o f c l a s s r o o m use, IV s h o u l d o n l y he u s e d when a s i g n i f i c a n t amount o f t e a c h i n g w i l l t a k e p l a c e v i a IV. The r a t i o o f c o n t e n t l e a r n i n g t o system l e a r n i n g must be k e p t h i g h f o r any i n s t r u c t i o n a l t e c h n o l o g y t o be e f f e c t i v e . IV s h o u l d n o t be i n t r o d u c e d f o r i t s n o v e l t y or m o t i v a t i o n a l s i d e e f f e c t s . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h would d e t a i l t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between f a m i l i a r i t y o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l medium and i t s e f f e c t s on l e a r n i n g from t h e medium. A d a p t i v i t y R e c o n s i d e r e d A n o t h e r p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e poor r e c a l l s c o r e s o f t h e h i g h a d a p t i v i t y g r o u p s c o u l d l i e w i t h t h e a d a p t i v i t y a l g o r i t h m which c o n t r o l l e d t h e o r d e r o f m a t e r i a l p r e s e n t a t i o n . The a d a p t i v i t y a l g o r i t h m u s e d i n t h i s e x p e r i m e n t may be more a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e t e a c h i n g o f p r o c e d u r a l t h a n d e c l a r a t i v e c o n c e p t s . One c o u l d assume, f o r example, t h a t a s t u d e n t who can s o l v e q u a d r a t i c e q u a t i o n s ( h i g h e r l e v e l p r o c e d u r a l c o n c e p t ) must a l r e a d y u n d e r s t a n d t h e m u l t i p l i c a t i o n t a b l e s ( l o w e r l e v e l p r o c e d u r a l c o n c e p t ) . I t cannot be assumed t h a t a s t u d e n t who knows the c a p i t a l o f Canada i s Ottawa ( h i g h e r l e v e l d e c l a r a t i v e c o n c e p t ) knows t h a t t h e c a p i t a l o f B.C. i s V i c t o r i a ( l o w e r l e v e l d e c l a r a t i v e c o n c e p t ) . The c o n n e c t i o n s between d e c l a r a t i v e c o n c e p t s a r e l a r g e l y b a s e d on p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e so t h a t no i n f e r e n c e about " h i g h e r " vs " l o w e r " can l e g i t i m a t e l y be made. I t i s not h a r d t o imagine a s u b j e c t i n t h i s e x p e r i m e n t who makes an i n t e l l i g e n t g u e s s on t h e v e r y f i r s t ( h i g h e s t o r d e r ) c r i t e r i o n q u e s t i o n i n t h e l e s s o n and has the program t e r m i n a t e , l e a v i n g him unaware o f i n f o r m a t i o n a t lower l e v e l s o f t h e c o n c e p t u a l h i e r a r c h y . Two a s p e c t s o f t h e a d a p t i v i t y a l g o r i t h m r e q u i r e m o d i f i c a t i o n t o make i t more s u i t a b l e : l o c u s o f c o n t r o l and advisement c a p a c i t y . L o c u s o f c o n t r o l One o f t h e most t h o r o u g h l y r e s e a r c h e d a s p e c t s o f CAI and IV i s l o c u s o f c o n t r o l (Tennyson, 1984; Gay, 1986). S h o u l d i n s t r u c t i o n be c o n t r o l l e d by the computer or by t h e u s e r ? I t i s t h e commonly h e l d b e l i e f t h a t u s e r c o n t r o l i s p r e f e r a b l e but not always p o s s i b l e when the u s e r i s not f a m i l i a r w i t h the c o n t e n t m a t e r i a l . T h i s d e s i r a b i l i t y o f u s e r c o n t r o l was emphasized i n t h e s u b j e c t i n t e r v i e w s . The comment was made t h a t some mechanism s h o u l d have been i n c l u d e d t h a t would a l l o w t h e u s e r t o r e v i e w a segment o f t h e v i d e o t a p e on de-mand. T h i s c a p a b i l i t y was not i n c l u d e d i n t h e IV and CAI programs. I n c l u s i o n was not p o s s i b l e i f the a d a p t i v i t y a l g o r i t h m o u t l i n e d e a r l i e r was t o be s t r i c t l y a d h e r e d t o . An improved a d a p t i v i t y a l g o r i t h m would i n c l u d e such an o p t i o n . Advisement Another a s p e c t o f CAI d e s i g n on which t h e r e seems t o be agreement i s the f a c t t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s h o u l d be k e p t a d v i s e d o f h i s p r o g r e s s t h r o u g h o u t t h e l e s s o n (Tennyson, 1984). The IV and CAI programs u s e d i n t h i s e x p e r i m e n t d i d n o t do a good j o b o f a d v i s i n g t h e s u b j e c t o f h i s p r o g r e s s . I n t e r v i e w s w i t h IV s u b j e c t s u n c o v e r e d t h e f a c t t h a t s u b j e c t s were o f t e n c o n f u s e d by t h e o r d e r o f i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t a t i o n . They d i d n o t always know where t h e y were and where t h e y were g o i n g . S t u d e n t s n o r m a l l y e x p e c t t h a t an i n c o r r e c t l y answered q u e s t i o n w i l l be f o l l o w e d by an e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e c o r r e c t answer. That i s not n e c e s s a r i l y what happens w i t h the a d a p t i v i t y a l g o r i t h m u s e d h e r e . What s u b j e c t s o f t e n e n c o u n t e r e d was a n o t h e r q u e s t i o n d e s i g n e d t o pro b e deeper i n t o t h e i r m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g . These q u e s t i o n s c o u l d be n e s t e d up t o 4 l e v e l s deep. When the c o r r e c t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n was e n c o u n t e r e d , t h e q u e s t i o n t o which i t was r e l a t e d may have been f o r g o t t e n . The a d a p t i v i t y a l g o r i t h m i s not n e c e s s a r i l y wrong, i t i s s i m p l y not as s o -p h i s t i c a t e d as the t e a c h e r i t was d e s i g n e d t o mimic. A t e a c h e r , s e n s i n g a deeper m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g , would p r o v i d e t h e s t u d e n t w i t h o r i e n t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . The t e a c h e r would i n f o r m the s t u d e n t t h a t h i s p r o b l e m was deeper t h a n a s i m p l e m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g and t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s h o u l d s e t a s i d e h i s o r i g i n a l p r o b l e m u n t i l he l e a r n s some b a c k g r o u n d m a t e r i a l . T h i s d e t a i l e d advisement a l l o w s the s t u d e n t t o a c t i v e l y manage h i s own l e a r n i n g . I t p r o v i d e s t h e s t u d e n t w i t h a "mental c o a t hook" on which t o hang t h e immediate p r o b l e m u n t i l such time as t h e u n d e r l y i n g p r o b l e m i s d e a l t w i t h . Then, h a v i n g d e a l t w i t h t h e u n d e r l y i n g p r o b l e m , t h e t e a c h e r would l e a d t h e s t u d e n t back t o h i s o r i g i n a l p roblem, r e o r i e n t him, and p r o v i d e r e m e d i a l h e l p . Some e q u i v a l e n t mechanism must be b u i l t i n t o t h e a d a p t i v i t y a l g o r i t h m o f t h i s IV l e s s o n . A r e v i s e d a d a p t i v i t y a l g o r i t h m would i n c l u d e improved u s e r c o n t r o l and an improved advisement system t o keep s t u d e n t s o r i e n t e d w i t h i n the program. The q u e s t i o n becomes: What i s t h e b e s t way t o do t h i s ? One a p p r o a c h would be t o d e v e l o p a much more s o p h i s t i c a t e d program t h a t would g i v e t h e s t u d e n t more c o n t r o l over the l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n b u t have the c a p a c i t y t o i n t e r v e n e w i t h c l e a r , c o n c i s e a d v i c e when t h e s t u d e n t needed i t . Such a program would f a l l i n t h e r e a l m o f ICAI programming and would be more a p p r o p r i a t e l y programmed i n a language l i k e P r o l o g or L i s p , r a t h e r t h a n BASIC. However, a c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t a p p r o a c h t o a d a p t i v i t y might be more a p p r o p r i a t e and t h i s i s d i s c u s s e d l a t e r . T e x t u a l R e f e r a b i l i t y One o f t h e most d i f f i c u l t r e s u l t s t o e x p l a i n i s the a p p a r e n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t between m o d a l i t y and a d a p t i v i t y . (See F i g u r e 2 ) . A d a p t i v e t e c h n o l o g i e s may have c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which, when u n c o n t r o l l e d , i n h i b i t l e a r n i n g r a t h e r t h a n f a c i l i t a t e i t . But why would IV be so much l e s s e f f e c t i v e t h a n CAI? One p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n may l i e i n t h e d i f f e r i n g d e g r e e s o f r e f e r a b i l i t y between t e x t and a u d i o i n p u t . As H s i a (1968, p.247) i l l u s t r a t e s , t e x t i s h i g h l y r e f e r a b l e , a u d i o i s n o t . A s t u d e n t can r e r e a d a passage o f t e x t i f he does not u n d e r s t a n d i t on f i r s t r e a d i n g . He can a l s o skim back t h r o u g h a p a s s a g e o f t e x t t o r e v i e w the p e r t i n e n t p o i n t s . A u d i o i n p u t l a c k s t h i s a t t r i b u t e . Once t h e p a s s a g e has been h e a r d , i t u s u a l l y cannot be r e c a l l e d f o r r e v i e w . Because o f a d e s i r e t o i n c o r p o r a t e c l a s s r o o m r e a l i s m i n t o t h e t e x t and v i d e o t r e a t m e n t s o f t h i s e x p e r i m e n t , s u b j e c t s were a l l o w e d t o make n o t e s w h i l e r e a d i n g t e x t or w a t c h i n g the v i d e o t a p e . CAI s u b j e c t s c o u l d n ot make n o t e s b u t t h e y had v i s u a l t e x t on t h e s c r e e n t o r e a d and r e - r e a d as o f t e n as needed. The o n l y group t h a t l a c k e d r e f e r a b l e t e x t was t h e IV group . T h i s d e s i g n e r r o r may a c c o u n t f o r t h e f a c t t h a t the IV group had t h e p o o r e s t p e r f o r m a n c e o f the f o u r t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s . In t h i s e x p e r i m e n t CAI was c a t e g o r i z e d as b e i n g u n i m o d a l , i . e . : v i s u a l o n l y . IV was c a t e g o r i z e d as b e i n g m u l t i m o d a l , i . e . : v i s u a l and a u d i t o r y . R e s e a r c h has shown t h a t one o f t h e most e f f e c t i v e m u l t i m o d a l t e c h n i q u e s i s t o combine v e r b a l and v i s u a l t e x t . A l l o w the s t u d e n t t o r e a d and hear t h e t e x t b e i n g r e a d a t t h e same time (Hartman, 1961). T h i s may be a good t e c h n i q u e t o i n c o r p o r a t e i n t o IV d e s i g n . M u l t i m o d a l i t y would be expanded t o i n c l u d e t h r e e m o d a l i t i e s : v i s u a l p i c t u r e s , v i s u a l t e x t , and a u d i t o r y t e x t . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h c o u l d i d e n t i f y e f f e c t i v e ways o f c o m b i n i n g t h e s e t h r e e a s p e c t s o f m o d a l i t y . A n other way o f i n c o r p o r a t i n g r e f e r a b l e t e x t i n t o IV d e s i g n would be t o a l l o w t h e s t u d e n t t o make n o t e s w i t h t h e computer, w i t h i n t h e program. These n o t e s c o u l d be l i n k e d t o p a r t i c u l a r v i d e o c l i p s and be a c c e s s i b l e f o r r e v i e w p u r p o s e s . T h i s i d e a i s d i s c u s s e d l a t e r i n d e t a i l . IV DESIGN ISSUES ARISING FROM INTERVIEWS IV d e s i g n i s s u e s r a i s e d i n s u b j e c t i n t e r v i e w s t e n d e d t o be o f a more g l o b a l n a t u r e t h a n t h o s e r a i s e d by the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f p e r f o r m a n c e d a t a . C o n t e n t I n t e r a c t i v e v i d e o i s not a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e f u l l range o f l e a r n e r s , c o n t e n t t o be l e a r n e d , and t y p e s o f l e a r n i n g t a s k s . ...At t h e p r e s e n t t i m e , t h e scope o f a p p r o p r i a t e , d e s i r a b l e , or n e c e s s a r y a p p l i c a t i o n s o f IV i s s i m p l y unknown. H a n n a f i n , 1985, p.244 To h e l p c l a r i f y t h i s c o n t e n t i s s u e , I n t e r v i e w e d s u b j e c t s were a s k e d t o s p e c u l a t e about a r e a s f o r a p p r o p r i a t e a p p l i c a t i o n o f IV. S u b j e c t s i d e n t i f i e d s e v e r a l c u r r i c u l a r a r e a s . These a r e s can be g r o u p e d i n two g e n e r a l c a t e g o r i e s : v i s u a l l y o r i e n t e d d i s c i p l i n e s and d i s c i p l i n e s where e x p l a n a t i o n s and examples may need r e p e t i t i o n . Math and p h y s i c s were mentioned as f i t t i n g b o t h c a t e g o r i e s . The m a t e r i a l can be v i s u a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d , o f t e n i n t h e form o f o b s e r v a t i o n o f d e m o n s t r a t i o n s or g r a p h s . R e p e t i t i o n was seen as d e s i r a b l e b ut o f t e n l a c k i n g i n t h e c l a s s r o o m b e c a u s e o f t e a c h e r f r u s t r a t i o n w i t h r e p e a t e d d e m o n s t r a t i o n s and e x p l a n a t i o n s . S c h o o l s u b j e c t s m e n t i o n e d as f i t t i n g o n l y t h e h i g h l y v i s u a l c a t e g o r y were: a s p e c t s o f h i s t o r y , l i t e r a t u r e ( e s p e c i a l l y drama), a r t and a r c h i t e c t u r e as f o u n d i n t h e Western C i v i l i z a t i o n 12 c o u r s e . The a s p e c t s o f IV t h a t make i t a p p r o p r i a t e f o r v i s u a l and r e p e t i t i v e t e a c h i n g t a s k s a r e m u l t i m o d a l i t y and a d a p t i v i t y r e s p e c t i v e l y . Perhaps t h e s e two f a c t o r s c o u l d be u s e d as g u i d e l i n e s when d e t e r m i n i n g a p p r o p r i a t e c o n t e n t f o r IV. T h i s whole a r e a o f a p p r o p r i a t e c o n t e n t needs f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . S o c i a l I s o l a t i o n I n t e r v i e w e d s u b j e c t s were not e n t h u s i a s t i c about th e v i s i o n o f an IV c l a s s r o o m because i t would p ut them i n i s o l a t i o n from o t h e r s t u d e n t s and t e a c h e r s . T h i s may s i m p l y be an o t h e r example o f teenage " g r o u p i s h n e s s " b ut i t p r o b a b l y i s n o t . Tom Snyder, th e k e y n o t e speaker a t the 1988 f a l l c o n f e r e n c e o f the Computer U s i n g E d u c a t o r s o f B.C., made t h i s p o i n t when e x p l a i n i n g t h e p h i l o s o p h y t h a t g u i d e s h i s CAI development e f f o r t s . He q u o t e d a Rand C o r p o r a t i o n r e p o r t t h a t was commissioned by t h e US Department o f H e a l t h E d u c a t i o n and W e l f a r e t o i d e n t i f y t he r e a s o n s t h a t so many e d u c a t i o n a l t e c h n o l o g i e s have f a i l e d . The r e a s o n , t h e y d i s c o v e r e d , was r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e : Most e d u c a t i o n a l t e c h n o l o g i e s do not ta k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h e s o c i a l c o n t e x t i n which e d u c a t i o n t a k e s p l a c e . The i m p l i c a t i o n f o r IV d e s i g n and use i s o b v i o u s . I f IV i s u t i l i z e d , as most CAI has been, i n such a way as t o s o c i a l l y i s o l a t e the l e a r n e r t h e n i t s f i e l d o f a p p l i c a t i o n w i l l be l i m i t e d . HYPERTEXT MODEL FOR IV DESIGN I t has o f t e n been s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e h i d d e n agenda b e h i n d t h e development o f c o m p u t e r i z e d e d u c a t i o n a l t e c h n o l o g i e s i s the e l i m i n a t i o n t h e t e a c h e r . T h i s i s o f t e n seen as d e s i r a b l e b ecause o f t h e t e a c h e r v a r i a b i l i t y i n s k i l l , e x p e r i e n c e , t r a i n i n g , m o t i v a t i o n and g e n e r a l competence. But t h e r e a l h i d d e n agenda b e h i n d c o m p u t e r i z e d e d u c a t i o n a l t e c h n o l o g y i s the e l i m i n a t i o n o f t h e s t u d e n t . Thousands o f h o u r s a r e spent t o d e v e l o p s o -p h i s t i c a t e d computer t e c h n i q u e s t h a t t r y t o g u a r a n t e e t h a t a s t u d e n t w i l l l e a r n i n s p i t e o f h i m s e l f . No matter what r o a d b l o c k s t h e s t u d e n t may e r e c t : i g n o r a n c e , s t u p i d i t y , c u l t u r a l d e p r i v a t i o n , e m o t i o n a l i l l n e s s , or p l a i n o l d l a z i n e s s t h e computer w i l l c i r c u m v e n t them a l l . However, i t i s d o u b t f u l t h a t t h i s a p p r o a c h w i l l e v e r be s u c c e s s f u l . I t i s d o u b t f u l t h a t l e a r n i n g can t a k e p l a c e w i t h o u t t h e c o o p e r a t i o n and i n v o l v e m e n t o f t h e s t u d e n t . A much b e t t e r a p p r o a c h would be t o e n l i s t t h e s t u d e n t i n h i s own l e a r n i n g r a t h e r t h a n t r y i n g t o e l i m i n a t e him from the l e a r n i n g e q u a t i o n . H a n n a f i n (1985) arg u e s i n f a v o r o f a l e s s r e s t r i c t i v e a p p r o a c h t o IV d e s i g n when he s t a t e s t h a t : The manner i n which i n f o r m a t i o n i s i n t e g r a t e d by l e a r n e r s i s h i g h l y i n d i v i d u a l i z e d , and b a s e d upon b o t h i n d i v i d u a l l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s i n g e n e r a l and n o t i o n s o f t h e t o p i c under c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n p a r t i c u l a r , p.245 D e s i g n e r - i m p o s e d i n t e r a c t i v i t y does not c a p i t a l i z e on the u n i q u e mental p r o c e s s i n g c a p a b i l i t i e s o f i n d i v i d u a l l e a r n e r s , p.244. The o r i g i n a l d e s i g n f o r t h i s e x p e r i m e n t e v o l v e d from a m e c h a n i s t i c view o f t e a c h i n g . I n h e r e n t i n t h i s v i e w a r e t h e t w i n a ssumptions t h a t IF c o n c e p t s a r e a t o m i z e d t o a l e v e l a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the l e a r n e r , and IF t h e s e c o n c e p t s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e c o r r e c t o r d e r THEN l e a r n i n g w i l l p r o g r e s s as i n e x o r a b l y as t h e wheels o f any f a c t o r y . T h i s i s a v i e w h e l d by many t e a c h e r s , and f o r o b v i o u s r e a s o n s , h e l d by many a d v o c a t e s o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l t e c h n o l o g y . Perhaps what IV needs i s a d i f f e r e n t view o f i n s t r u c t i o n . One t h a t p u t s more emphasis on t h e s t u d e n t . One t h a t p u t s more emphasis on u s i n g the most p o w e r f u l p r o c e s s o r c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e : the human b r a i n and l e s s emphasis on s h i f t i n g t h i s p r o c e s s i n g t o a computer. One t h a t u s e s t h e computer as an "empowering t o o l " (Brown, 1985) r a t h e r t h a n m a n i p u l a t i v e i n s t r u m e n t . One o f t h e most p r o m i s i n g developments t h a t c o u l d a i d t h i s t y p e o f IV d e s i g n i s t h e c u r r e n t r e s u r r e c t i o n o f an o l d i d e a - h y p e r t e x t H y p e r t e x t a t i t s most b a s i c l e v e l , i s a DBMS [ d a t a base management system] t h a t l e t s you c o n n e c t s c r e e n s o f i n f o r m a t i o n u s i n g a s s o c i a t i v e l i n k s . . . . H y p e r t e x t p r o d u c t s mimic the b r a i n ' s a b i l i t y t o s t o r e and r e t r i e v e i n f o r m a t i o n by r e f e r e n t i a l l i n k s f o r q u i c k and i n t u i t i v e a c c e s s . ( F i d e r i o , 1988, p.256) U s i n g a commercial i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f h y p e r t e x t l i k e A p p l e ' s "HyperCard", IV d e s i g n can t a k e on a new, l e s s m e c h a n i s t i c q u a l i t y . V i s u a l m a t e r i a l becomes a v i s u a l d a t a base, randomly a c c e s s i b l e by the s t u d e n t . G r a p h i c maps showing t h e l o g i c a l or t r a d i t i o n a l l i n k a g e s between the c o n c e p t s r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e v i s u a l d a t a base become the advisement or g u i d a n c e system f o r t h e s t u d e n t . Notes can be w r i t t e n and a t t a c h e d t o p i c t u r e s and t e x t p a s s a g e s f o r f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e . And t h e adap-t i v e mechanism o f t h e system i s t h e mind o f t h e 69 s t u d e n t as he s t r u g g l e s t o o r g a n i z e , c l a s s i f y and comprehend t h i s new body o f m a t e r i a l . CONCLUSIONS In her a n a l y s i s o f IV i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n Canada T o b i n (1984) warns: The use o f v i s u a l s does not g u a r a n t e e t h e s t u -d e n t s ' a t t e n t i o n - much l e s s t h e i r c o n t i n u e d commitment once t h e i n i t i a l impact f a d e s . T e d i o u s , b a d l y d e s i g n e d , u n s u i t a b l e , or c o n f u s i n g c o m p u t e r - a s s i s t e d i n s t r u c t i o n i s no more p a l p a b l e when accompanying a v i d e o d i s c t h a n i t i s by i t s e l f . ... V i d e o d i s c s , w hich combine t e l e v i s i o n and CAI, can be t h e v i c t i m o f t h e weaknesses o f b o t h t h e s e media - or t h e y can combine t h e i r p r o m i s i n g s t r e n g t h s , p. 17 The r e l a t i o n s h i p between m o d a l i t y and a d a p t i v i t y , and i t s u l t i m a t e impact on t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l t e c h n o l o g i e s i s not as s i m p l e as f i r s t h y p o t h e s i z e d . While i t may be t r u e t h a t h i g h l y a d a p t i v e , m u l t i m o d a l t e c h n o l o g i e s l i k e IV s h o u l d be more e f f e c t i v e t h a n o t h e r s l i k e t e x t , v i d e o , and CAI, more r e s e a r c h i s needed t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e many f a c t o r s t h a t can have a n e g a t i v e impact on t h i s e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n c l u d i n g : t h e s t u d e n t ' s f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the t e c h n o l o g y , t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f t e x t u a l r e f e r e n c e s , and t h e c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f an a l g o r i t h m f o r a d a p t i v i t y . In a d d i t i o n t o the e m p i r i c a l i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between m o d a l i t y and a d a p t i v i t y , o t h e r d e s i g n c o n c e r n s l i k e i n s t r u c t i o n a l c o n t e n t , and c o n t e x t w i l l have an impact on t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f IV. More r e s e a r c h i s needed t o d e t e r m i n e the e f f e c t s o f c o n t e n t and s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n on IV e f f e c t i v e n e s s . And f i n a l l y , i t may be p r o f i t a b l e t o r e t h i n k t h e m e c h a n i s t i c model o f i n s t r u c t i o n t h a t d r i v e s so many i n s t r u c t i o n a l t e c h n o l o g i e s i n c l u d i n g IV. IV s h o u l d be v i e w e d as a e f f e c t i v e t o o l t o HELP a s t u d e n t u n d e r s t a n d r a t h e r t h a n FORCE him t o remember. 71 REFERENCES Abrams, A. & S t r e i t , L. (1986). E f f e c t i v e n e s s o f i n t e r a c t i v e v i d e o i n t e a c h i n g b a s i c p h o t o g r a p h y . T.H.E. J o u r n a l , Sep. 1986 92-96. A c k e r , S.R. & K l e i n , E.L. (1 9 8 6 ) . V i s u a l i z i n g s p a t i a l t a s k s : A com p a r i s o n o f computer g r a p h i c and f u l l - b a n d v i d e o d i s p l a y s . E d u c a t i o n a l  Communication and T e c h n o l o g y J o u r n a l , 3 4 ( 1 ) , 21-30. Anderson, J.R., B o y l e , C.F., & R e i s e r , B . J . (1985). I n t e l l i g e n t t u t o r i n g systems. S c i e n c e , 228, 456-462. B a i l o , E.R., E r i c k s o n , L.B. (1 9 8 5 ) . M i c r o c o m p u t e r c o u r s e w a r e : C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and d e s i g n t r e n d s . AEDS J o u r n a l , 1 9 ( 4 ) , 227-236. Balman, T. (1984). I m p l e m e n t a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s f o r i n t e r a c t i v e c o m p u t e r - a s s i s t e d l e a r n i n g programs, i n Walker, D.F. & Hess, R.D. ( e d s . ) ( 1 9 8 4 ) . I n s t r u c t i o n a l S o f t w a r e : P r i c i p l e s and  P e r s p e c t i v e s f o r D e s i g n and Use. Belmont C a l i f o r n i a : Wadsworth. Bangert-Drowns, R.L., K u l i k , J.A., & K u l i k , C.-L.C. (1 9 8 5 ) . E f f e c t i v e n e s s o f computer-based e d u c a t i o n i n s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s . J o u r n a l o f  Computer-Based I n s t r u c t i o n , 1 2 ( 3 ) , 59-68. Bork, A. (1 9 8 1 ) . L e a r n i n g w i t h Computers. B e d f o r d Mass.: D i g i t a l P r e s s . Braden, R.A. (1 9 8 6 ) . V i s u a l s f o r i n t e r a c t i v e v i d e o : Images f o r a new t e c h n o l o g y ( w i t h some g u i d e l i n e s ) . E d u c a t i o n a l T e c h n o l o g y , 2 6 ( 4 ) , 18-22. B r a n c h , C.E., L e d f o r d , B.R., R o b e r t s o n , B.T. & R o b i n s o n , L. (1987). The v a l i d a t i o n o f an i n t e r a c t i v e v i d e o d i s c as as a l t e r n a t i v e t o t r a d i t i o n a l t e a c h i n g t e c h n i q u e s : a u s c u l t a t i o n o f the h e a r t . E d u c a t i o n a l T e c h n o l o g y , 2 7 ( 3 ) , 16-22. Bro a d b e n t , D.E. (1957). Immediate memory and s i m u l t a n e o u s s t i m u l i i . Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l o f  E x p e r i m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y . 9, 1-11 B r o d e u r , D.R. (1985). I n t e r a c t i v e v i d e o : F i f t y - o n e p l a c e s t o s t a r t - an a n n o t a t e d b i b l i o g r a p h y . E d u c a t i o n a l T e c h n o l o g y , 2 5 ( 5 ) , 42-47. Brown, J.S. (1985). P r o c e s s v e r s u s p r o d u c t : A p e r s p e c t i v e on t o o l s f o r communal and i n f o r m a l e l e c t r o n i c l e a r n i n g . J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l  Computing R e s e a r c h , 1 ( 2 ) , 179-201. Browning, P., White, W.A.T., Nave, G., & B a r k i n , P.Z. ( 1 9 8 6 ) . I n t e r a c t i v e v i d e o i n t h e c l a s s r o o m : a f i e l d s t u d y . E d u c a t i o n and T r a i n i n g o f t h e  M e n t a l l y R e t a r d e d , June, 85-92. Burke, R.L. ( 1 9 8 2 ) . CAI Sourcebook. New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e H a l l . B u r t o n , R.R. (1982). D i a g n o s i n g bugs i n a s i m p l e p r o c e d u r a l s k i l l , i n Sleeman, D. & Brown, J.S. ( e d s . ) (1982). I n t e l l i g e n t T u t o r i n g Systems. London: Academic P r e s s . C o p e l a n d , P. (1983). An i n t e r a c t i v e v i d e o system f o r e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g . B r i t i s h J o u r n a l o f  E d u c a t i o n a l T e c h n o l o g y , 1 4 ( 1 ) , 59-65. D a l t o n , D.W. (1986). The e f f i c a c y o f computer-a s s i s t e d v i d e o i n s t r u c t i o n on r u l e l e a r n i n g and a t t i t u d e s . J o u r n a l o f Computer-Based  I n s t r u c t i o n . 1 5 ( 4 ) , 122-125. D a l t o n , D.W. & H a n n a f i n , M.J. ( 1 9 8 7 ) . The e f f e c t s o f knowledge- v e r s u s c o n t e x t - b a s e d d e s i g n s t r a g i e s on i n f o r m a t i o n and a p p l i c a t i o n l e a r n i n g from i n t e r a c t i v e v i d e o . J o u r n a l o f Computer- Based I n s t r u c t i o n . 1 4 ( 4 ) , 138-141. D e B l o o i s , M.L., ed. (1982) V i d e o d i s c / M i c r o c o m p u t e r  Courseware D e s i g n . New J e r s e y : E d u c a t i o n a l T e c h n o l o g y P u b l i c a t i o n s . Dwyer, F.M. ( 1 9 7 8 ) . S t r a t e g i e s For Improving V i s u a l  L e a r n i n g . P e n n s y l v a n i a : L e a r n i n g S e r v i c e s . Ebner, D.G., Danaher, B.G., Mahoney, J.V., L i p p e r t , H.T., B a l s o n , P.M. (1984). C u r r e n t i s s u e s i n i n t e r a c t i v e v i d e o d i s c and computer-based i n s t r u c t i o n . I n s t r u c t i o n a l I n n o v a t i o n . 2 9 ( 3 ) , 24-29. F i d e r i o , J . (1988). A g r a n d v i s i o n . B y t e , 13(10), 234-237. F r i e n d , J . & M i l o j k o v i c , J.D. (1984). D e s i g n i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s between s t u d e n t s and computers, i n Walker, D.F. & Hess, R.D. ( e d s . ) ( 1 9 8 4 ) . I n s t r u c t i o n a l S o f t w a r e : P r i c i p l e s and  P e r s p e c t i v e s f o r D e s i g n and Use. Belmont C a l i f o r n i a : Wadsworth. Gagne, R.M., Wager, W. & R o j a s , A. ( 1 9 8 4 ) . P l a n n i n g and a u t h o r i n g c o m p u t e r - a s s i s t e d i n s t r u c t i o n l e s s o n s , i n Walker, D.F. & Hess, R.D. ( e d s . ) (1984 ). I n s t r u c t i o n a l S o f t w a r e : P r i c i p l e s and  P e r s p e c t i v e s f o r D e s i g n and Use. Belmont C a l i f o r n i a : Wadsworth. G a i n s , B.R. (1984). The t e c h n o l o g y o f i n t e r a c t i o n -d i a l o g u e programming r u l e s , i n Walker, D.F. & Hess, R.D. ( e d s . ) (1984). I n s t r u c t i o n a l  S o f t w a r e : P r i c i p l e s and P e r s p e c t i v e s f o r D e s i g n  and Use. Belmont C a l i f o r n i a : Wadsworth. Gay, G. (1986). I n t e r a c t i o n o f l e a r n e r c o n t r o l and p r i o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g i n c o m p u t e r - a s s i s t e d v i d e o i n s t r u c t i o n . J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y , 7 8 ( 3 ) , 225-227. G l a s e r , R. ( 1 9 8 2 ) . I n s t r u c t i o n a l p s y c h o l o g y : P a s t , p r e s e n t , and f u t u r e . American P s y c h o l o g i s t , 37, 292-305. Gle n n , A.D. (1983). V i d e o d i s c s and the s o c i a l s t u d i e s c l a s s r o o m . S o c i a l E d u c a t i o n , 328-330. G o d f r e y , D. & S t e r l i n g , S. (1982). The E l e m e n t s o f  CAI. V i c t o r i a : P r e s s P o r c e p i c . G o l d , P.C. (1984). E d u c a t i o n a l s o f t w a r e - New g u i d e l i n e s f o r development. AEDS J o u r n a l , 1 8 ( 1 ) , 41-49. H a n n a f i n , M. ( 1 9 8 5 ) . E m p i r i c a l i s s u e s i n t h e s t u d y o f computer a s s i s t e d i n t e r a c t i v e v i d e o . E d u c a t i o n a l Communication and T e c h n o l o g y  J o u r n a l , 5 5 ( 4 ) , 235-247. H a n n a f i n , M.J. (1986). I n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e s p e c i a l i s s u e : R e s e a r c h and development i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l i n t e r a c t i v e v i d e o . J o u r n a l o f Computer-Based  I n s t r u c t i o n , 1 3 ( 4 ) , 101. H a n n a f i n , M.J. & Hughes, C.W. (1 9 8 6 ) . A framework f o r i n c o r p o r a t i n g o r i e n t i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n computer-based i n t e r a c t i v e v i d e o . I n s t r u c t i o n a l  S c i e n c e 15, 239-255. H a n n a f i n , M.J., P h i l l i p s , T.L., & T r i p p , S.D. (1 9 8 6 ) . The e f f e c t s o f o r i e n t i n g , p r o c e s s i n g , and p r a c t i c i n g a c t i v i t i e s on l e a r n i n g from i n t e r a c t i v e v i d e o . J o u r n a l o f Computer-Based  I n s t r u c t i o n . 1 3 ( 4 ) , 134-139. H a r l e s s , W.G. (1986). An i n t e r a c t i v e v i d e o d i s c drama: The case o f Fra n k H a l l . J o u r n a l o f  Computer-Based I n s t r u c t i o n . 1 3 ( 4 ) , 113-116. H a r t l e y , J.R. & L o v e l l , K. i n Walker, D.F. & Hess, R.D. ( e d s . ) (1984). I n s t r u c t i o n a l S o f t w a r e :  P r i c i p l e s and P e r s p e c t i v e s f o r D e s i g n and Use. Belmont C a l i f o r n i a : Wadsworth. Hartman, F.R. (1961). S i n g l e and m u l t i p l e c h a n n e l communication: a r e v i e w o f r e s e a r c h and a p r o p o s e d model. AV Communication Review. 9, 235 262. H a s s e l b r i n g , T., F l e e n o r , K., Sherwood, T., G r i f f i t h , D., B r a n s f o r d , J . & G o i n , L. (1987-8 8 ) . An e v a l u a t i o n o f a l e v e l - o n e i n s t r u c t i o n a l v i d e o d i s c program. J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l T e c h n o l o g y Systems, 1 6 ( 2 ) , 151-169. H a t i v a , N. (1984). D e s i g n i n g f l e x i b l e s o f t w a r e f o r the " e l e c t r o n i c b o a r d . " AEDS J o u r n a l , 1 8 ( 1 ) , 51 62. Ho, C P . , Savenye, W., & Haas, N. (1 9 8 6 ) . The e f f e c t s o f o r i e n t i n g o b j e c t i v e s and r e v e i w on l e a r n i n g from i n t e r a c t i v e v i d e o . J o u r n a l o f  Computer Based I n s t r u c t i o n , 1 3 ( 4 ) , 126-129. H o s i e . P . ( 1 9 8 7 ) . A d o p t i n g i n t e r a c t i v e v i d e d i s c t e c h n o l o g y f o r e d u c a t i o n . E d u c a t i o n a l  T e c h n o l o g y , 2 7 ( 6 ) , 5-10. H s i a , H.J. (1968). On c h a n n e l e f f e c t i v e n e s s . AV  Communication Review, 1 6 ( 3 ) , 245-267. Howe, S.F. (1983). I n t e r a c t i v e v i d e o . Media and  Methods, November 1983. 75 J e n s e n , C.B. (1985). U s i n g what we have l e a r n e d i n th e p a s t t o improve the f u t u r e o f courseware d e s i g n . AEDS J o u r n a l , 1 8 ( 1 ) , 28-48. J o n a s s e n , D.H. (1985). I n t e r a c t i v e l e s s o n d e s i g n s : a taxonomy. E d u c a t i o n a l T e c h n o l o g y , 2 5 ( 6 ) , 7-16. K e a r s l e y , G. ( 1 9 8 5 ) . Microcomputer s o f t w a r e : D e s i g n and development p r i n c i p l e s . J o u r n a l o f  E d u c a t i o n a l Computing R e s e a r c h , 1 ( 2 ) , 209-220. K e a r s l e y , G.P. & F r o s t , J . (1985). D e s i g n f a c t o r s f o r s u c c e s s f u l v i d e o d i s c - b a s e d i n s t r u c t i o n . E d u c a t i o n a l T e c h n o l o g y , 2 5 ( 3 ) , 7-13. K e l l y , B., C a r n i n e , D., G e r s t e n , R., & G r o s s e n , B. ( 1 9 8 6 ) . The e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f v i d e o d i s c i n s t r u c t i o n i n t e a c h i n g f r a c t i o n s t o l e a r n i n g -d i a b l e d and r e m e d i a l h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s . J o u r n a l o f S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n T e c h n o l o g y , 8 ( 2 ) , 5-17. Kim, O.L. (1986). I n s t r u c t i o n a l D e s i g n P r i n c i p l e s and A l T e c h n i q u e s f o r Development o f ICAI. Paper p r e s e n t e d t o the American E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h A s s o c i a t i o n , San F r a n c i s c o . Kozma, R.B. (1986). I m p l i c a t i o n s o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l p s y c h o l o g y f o r the d e s i g n o f e d u c a t i o n a l t e l e v i s i o n . E d u c a t i o n a l Communication and  T e c h n o l o g y J o u r n a l , 5 4 ( 1 ) , 11-19. Knezek, G.A. (1988). I n t e l l i g e n t t u t o r i n g systems and ICAI. The Computing T e a c h e r , 1 5 ( 6 ) , 11-13. K u l i k , J.A., B a n g e r t , R.L., & W i l l i a m s , G.W. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . E f f e c t s o f computer-based i n s t r u c t i o n on s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t s . J o u r n a l o f  E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y , 7 5 ( 1 ) , 19-26. Malone, T.W. (1981). Toward a t h e o r y o f i n t r i n s i c a l l y m o t i v a t i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . C o g n i t i v e  S c i e n c e 4, 333-369. M a l o u f , D.B., MacArthur, C.A., & R a d i n , S. ( 1 9 8 6 ) . U s i n g i n t e r a c t i v e v i d e o t a p e - b a s e d i n s t r u c t i o n t o t e a c h o n - t h e - j o b s o c i a l s k i l l s t o h a n d i c a p p e d a d o l e s c e n t s . J o u r n a l o f Computer Based  I n s t r u c t i o n , 1 3 ( 4 ) , 130-133. 76 M i l h e i m , W.D. & Evans, A.D. (1987). U s i n g i n t e r a c t i v e v i d e o f o r group i n s t r u c t i o n . E d u c a t i o n a l T e c h n o l o g y , 2 7 ( 6 ) , 35-37. Mo l n a r , A.R. (1979-80). I n t e l l i g e n t v i d e o d i s c and the l e a r n i n g s o c i e t y . J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l  T e c h n o l o g y Systems, 8 ( 1 ) , 31-39. P a v i o , A. & Lambert, W. (1981). Dual c o d i n g and b i l i n g u a l memory. J o u r n a l o f V e r b a l L e a r n i n g and  V e r b a l B e h a v i o r , 20, 532-539. Rambally, G.K. (1986). The A l Approach t o CAI. The  Computing T e a c h e r , 1 5 ( 7 ) , 39-42. Reeves, T.C. & L e n t , R.M. (1984). L e v e l s o f e v a l u a t i o n f o r computer-based i n s t r u c t i o n , i n Walker, D.F. & Hess, R.D. ( e d s . ) ( 1 9 8 4 ) . I n s t r u c t i o n a l S o f t w a r e : P r i c i p l e s and  P e r s p e c t i v e s f o r D e s i g n and Use. Belmont C a l i f o r n i a : Wadsworth. Rowe, N.C. (1 9 8 4 ) . Some r u l e s f o r good s i m u l a t i o n s , i n Walker, D.F. & Hess, R.D. ( e d s . ) ( 1 9 8 4 ) . I n s t r u c t i o n a l S o f t w a r e : P r i c i p l e s and  P e r s p e c t i v e s f o r D e s i g n and Use. Belmont C a l i f o r n i a : Wadsworth. S c h a f f e r , L.C. & H a n n a f i n , M.J. (1986). The e f f e c t s o f p r o g r e s s i v e i n t e r a c t i v i t y on l e a r n i n g from i n t e r a c t i v e v i d e o . E d u c a t i o n a l Communication and  T e c h n o l o g y J o u r n a l , 5 4 ( 2 ) , 89-96 S e v e r i n , W. (1967). Another l o o k a t cue summation. AV Communication Review, 1 5 ( 3 ) . Simpson, H. (1 9 8 2 ) . A h u m a n - f a c t o r s s t y l e g u i d e f o r program d e s i g n . BYTE, 7 ( 4 ) , 110-132. Sleeman, D. & Brown, J.S. ( e d s . ) (1982). I n t e l l i g e n t T u t o r i n g Systems. London: Academic P r e s s . Smith, E.E. (1987). I n t e r a c t i v e V i d e o : An e x a m i n a t i o n o f use and e f f e c t i v e n e s s . J o u r n a l o f  I n s t r u c t i o n a l Development, 1 0 ( 2 ) , 2-10. S m i t h , S.G., J o n e s , L.L., & Waugh, M.L. ( 1 9 8 6 ) . P r o d u c t i o n and E v a l u a t i o n o f I n t e r a c t i v e V i d e o d i s c L e s s o n s i n L a b o r a t o r y I n s t r u c t i o n . J o u r n a l o f Computer-Based I n s t r u c t i o n , 1 3 ( 4 ) , 117-121 Tennyson, R.D., C h r i s t e n s e n , D.L. & Park, S . I . ( 1 9 8 4 ) . The M i n n e s o t a A d a p t i v e I n s t r u c t i o n a l System: an i n t e l l i g e n t CBI system. J o u r n a l o f  Computer-Based I n s t r u c t i o n . 11(11), 2-13. T o b i n , J . (1984). E d u c a t i o n a l v i d e o d i s c i n Canada. New T e c h n o l o g i e s i n C a n a d i a n E d u c a t i o n , Paper  13. O f f i c e o f D e v e l o p m e n t a l R e s e a r c h , The O n t a r i o E d u c a t i o n a l Communications A u t h o r i t y . Walker, D.F. & Hess, R.D. (1984). E v a l u a t i o n i n courseware development, i n Walker, D.F. & Hess, R.D. ( e d s . ) (1984). I n s t r u c t i o n a l  S o f t w a r e : P r i c i p l e s and P e r s p e c t i v e s f o r  D e s i g n and Use. Belmont C a l i f o r n i a : Wadsworth. APPENDIX Sample Text L e s s o n CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT At t h i s p o i n t you s h o u l d know the f o l l o w i n g : * any computer i s composed o f f o u r p a r t s : 1. i n p u t d e v i c e s 2. o u t p u t d e v i c e s 3. s t o r a g e (o r memory) which c o n s i s t s o f two t y p e s - p r i m a r y s t o r a g e - s e c o n d a r y s t o r a g e 4. the CPU or c e n t r a l p r o c e s s i n g u n i t * you s h o u l d a l s o be f a m i l i a r w i t h v a r i o u s t y p e s o f i n p u t , o u t p u t , and s t o r a g e d e v i c e s . The h e a r t o f e v e r y computer i s i t s c e n t r a l p r o c e s s i n g u n i t or CPU. Perhaps we s h o u l d have s a i d "The b r a i n o f e v e r y computer i s i t s CPU." I t i s h e r e t h a t the a c t u a l p r o c e s s i n g o f d a t a t a k e s p l a c e . The CPU can be s t u d i e d i n two ways: 1 . s t r u c t u r a l l y : i n o t h e r words, "What p a r t s make up the CPU." 2. f u n c t i o n a l l y : i n o t h e r words, "How does a CPU work." S t r u c t u r a l l y t h e CPU i s composed o f two p a r t s : t h e c o n t r o l u n i t and the a r i t h m e t i c / l o g i c u n i t . The c o n t r o l u n i t i n the "boss" o f t h e computer. I t c o n t r o l s t h e o p e r a t i o n o f a l l p a r t s o f t h e computer, and d i r e c t s the f l o w o f d a t a p r o c e s s i n g . The a r i t h m e t i c / l o g i c u n i t or A/L u n i t p e r f o r m s two o p e r a t i o n s : a r i t h m e t i c and l o g i c . The a r i t h m e t i c / l o g i c u n i t p e r f o r m s t h e s t a n d a r d a r i t h m e t i c o p e r a t i o n s : a d d i n g , s u b t r a c t i n g , m u l t i p l y i n g , and d i v i d i n g . The a r i t h m e t i c / l o g i c u n i t a p p l i e s t h e Law o f T r i c h o t o m y t o d e t e r m i n e the t r u t h o f r e l a t i o n a l e q u a t i o n s . T h i s law s t a t e s t h a t g i v e n two v a l u e s a 79 and b , one o f 3 . r e l a t i o n s h i p s must e x i s t between the two v a l u e s : e i t h e r a=b or a>b or a<b. F u n c t i o n a l l y , the CPU p e r f o r m s i t s o p e r a t i o n s i n r e p e t i t i v e c y c l e s known as machine c y c l e s . These c y c l e s may t a k e p l a c e s e v e r a l m i l l i o n t i m e s per s e c o n d i n a l a r g e computer. A machine c y c l e c o n s i s t s o f two p a r t s : I n s t r u c t i o n time ( I - t i m e ) and E x e c u t i o n time ( E - t i m e ) . To u n d e r s t a n d how t h e CPU f u n c t i o n s , we must c l o s e l y examine what happens i n p r i m a r y s t o r a g e and i n b o t h p a r t s o f the CPU: the c o n t r o l u n i t and t h e a r i t h m e t i c / l o g i c u n i t . P r i m a r y s t o r a g e i s n o t p a r t o f t h e CPU but works c l o s e l y w i t h i t . I t i s i n p r i m a r y s t o r a g e t h a t t h e program i n s t r u c t i o n s and d a t a a r e s t o r e d . D u r i n g I-time t h e computer does th e f o l l o w i n g : the computer g e t s an i n s t r u c t i o n f rom p r i m a r y s t o r a g e , i n t e r p r e t s t h e i n s t r u c t i o n , g e t s t h e r e q u i r e d d a t a t o c a r r y out t h e i n s t r u c t i o n . The i n s t r u c t i o n and d a t a a r e t h e n p a s s e d t o t h e A/L u n i t . D u r i n g t h e e x e c u t i o n - t i m e p a r t o f the machine c y c l e t h e computer does the f o l l o w i n g : upon r e c e i v i n g t h e i n s t r u c t i o n and d a t a from the c o n t r o l u n i t , t h e a r i t h m e t i c / l o g i c u n i t e x e c u t e s t h e i n s t r u c t i o n and s t o r e s t h e r e s u l t back i n p r i m a r y s t o r a g e . To summarize: t h e CPU p e r f o r m s i t s j o b i n c y c l e s : - g e t an i n s t r u c t i o n from p r i m a r y s t o r a g e - e x e c u t e t h e i n s t r u c t i o n - s t o r e the r e s u l t - g e t an i n s t r u c t i o n from p r i m a r y s t o r a g e - e x e c u t e t h e i n s t r u c t i o n - s t o r e t h e r e s u l t - g e t an i n s t r u c t i o n from p r i m a r y s t o r a g e - e x e c u t e the i n s t r u c t i o n - s t o r e t h e r e s u l t - and so on m i l l i o n s o f t i m e s per s e c o n d O c c a s i o n a l l y the i n s t r u c t i o n s t o t h e CPU a r e a l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t . - d a t a may be r e q u i r e d from an i n p u t d e v i c e - d a t a or i n s t r u c t i o n s may be r e q u i r e d from s e c o n d a r y s t o r a g e - i n f o r m a t i o n i n p r i m a r y s t o r a g e may need t o be s t o r e d p e r m a n e n t l y i n s e c o n d a r y s t o r a g e - or i n f o r m a t i o n may be p a s s e d t o t h e u s e r t h r o u g h an o u t p u t d e v i c e . In any c a s e t h e CPU p r o c e s s e s i n f o r m a t i o n i n c y c l e and c o n t r o l s t h e f l o w o f t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h i n t h e v a r i o u s p a r t s o f t h e computer. Table 1 INSTRUCTIONAL TIME IN MINUTES MODALITY UNI- MULTI-A D A LOW P T TEXT N = 1 6 M = 12.56 S = 3.89 VIDEO N = 1 3 M = 14.54 S = 3.97 N = 29 M = 13.55 S = 4.05 I V I T HIGH Y CAI N = 1 1 M = 11.45 S = 4.56 IV N = 12 M = 12.25 S = 4.09 N = 23 M = 11.85 S = 4.34 N = 27 M = 12.01 S = 4.21 N = 25 M = 13.39 S = 4.19 N = 52 M = 12.75 S = 4.25 MAIN EFFECT OF TREATMENT F =1.161 DF = 3,48 P = .334 EFFECT OF ADAPTIVITY F = 2.014 DF = 1,48 P = .1587 EFFECT OF MODALITY F = 1.341 DF = 1,48 P = .2511 INTERACTION EFFECT F = .2434 DF = 1,48 P = .6294 82 Table 2 RECALL TEST SCORES MODALITY UNI-A D A P T I V I T Y LOW HIGH TEXT N = 16 M = 10, S = 3 5 97 CAI N = 1 1 M = 9 S = 2 64 1 9 N = 27 M = 1 0 S = 3 07 39 MULTI-VIDEO N = 1 3 M = 11.77 S = 3.14 IV N = 12 M = 7.42 S = 2.78 N = 25 M = 9.59 S = 3.68 N M S N M S N M S 29 11.13 3 . 68 23 8.53 2.75 52 9.92 3.52 MAIN EFFECT OF TREATMENT F = 3.832 DF = 3,48 P = .015 EFFECT OF ADAPTIVITY F = 7.919 DF = 1,48 P = .008 EFFECT OF MODALITY F = .2629 DF = 1,48 P = .616 INTERACTION EFFECT F = 3.542 DF = 1,48 P = .062 8 3 T a b l e 3 RETENTION TEST SCORES MODALITY A D A P T I V I T Y LOW HIGH N M S UNI-N = M = S = TEXT 1 6 6 .88 2.20 CAI = 1 1 8.18 2.72 MULTI-VIDEO N = 13 M = 8.98 S = 3.38 N M S IV 12 6.5 2 . 69 N M S N M S 29 7.90 2 . 98 23 7.34 2. 98 N = 27 M = 7.53 S = 2.51 N = 25 M = 7 S = 3 71 30 N M S 52 7.58 2.92 MAIN EFFECT OF TREATMENT F = 1.998 DF = 3,48 P = .125 EFFECT OF ADAPTIVITY F = .4823 DF = 1,48 P = .4976 EFFECT OF MODALITY F = .0519 DF = 1,48 P = .8052 INTERACTION EFFECT F = 5.3800 DF = 1,48 P = .0231 84 T a b l e 4 LOSS SCORES MODALITY A D A P T I V I T Y LOW HIGH N M S UNI-TEXT N = 16 M = 3.63 3.76 S = CAI = 1 1 1 .45 1 .88 MULTI-VIDEO N = 1 3 M = 2.85 S = 3.76 N M S IV 1 2 0.92 2 . 60 N M S N M S 29 3.24 3.76 23 1.19 2 . 30 N = 27 M = 2.54 S = 3.31 N = 25 ! N = 52 M = 1.88 ! M = 2.55 S = 3.39 ! S = 3.37 MAIN EFFECT OF TREATMENT F = 1.896 DF = 3,48 P = .142 EFFECT OF ADAPTIVITY F = 4.861 DF = 1,48 P = .0303 EFFECT OF MODALITY F = .5014 DF = 1,48 P = .4891 INTERACTION EFFECT F = .0167 DF = 1,48 P = .865 MODALITY UNI- MULTI-TEXT VIDEO CAI IV F i g u r e 1 RESEARCH DESIGN 86 1 -y Low High ADAPTIVITY Figure 2 Interaction between Modality and Ada p t i v i t y 87 F i g u r e 3 Overview of an ICAI System ( a f t e r Rambally, 1986) 88 CONCEPT 1.0 I 1 CONCEPT 1.1 CONCEPT 1.2 CONCEPT 1.11 CONCEPT 1.12 CONCEPT 1.13 CONCEPT 1.21 Fig u r e 4 A C o g n i t i v e S t r u c t u r e f o r an Imaginary C o g n i t i v e Domain 1.0 CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT •1.1 STRUCTURE 1.2 FUNCTION 1.11 CONTROL UNIT .1.111 "BOSS" 1.12 A/L UNIT 1.121 ARITHMETIC .ADD SUB MULT DIV d.21 MACHINE CYCLE 1.122 LOGIC .1.211 J-TIME 1.212 E—TIME A=B -A B A B get i n s t r u c t i o n and data pass t o A/L u n i t execute i n s t r u c t i o n s t o r e r e s u l t Figure 5 •A Co g n i t i v e S t r u c t u r e f o r the C e n t r a l Processing U n i t Lesson CD 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0097936/manifest

Comment

Related Items