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Questionnaire development and validation for re-entry women in a federal government training program Brawley, Beverly Ann 1988

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QUESTIONNAIRE  DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION  FOR RE-ENTRY WOMEN IN A FEDERAL GOVERNMENT TRAINING PROGRAM BY BEVERLY ANN BRAWLEY  B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f Western O n t a r i o , 1978 B.Ed., The U n i v e r s i t y o f Western O n t a r i o , 1979  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR A DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department o f E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology and S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o t h e r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March, 1988 ©  B e v e r l y Ann Brawley, 1988  In  presenting  degree  at  this  the  thesis  in  University of  partial  fulfilment  of  British Columbia, I agree  freely available for reference and study. I further copying  of  department  this or  publication of  thesis for by  his  or  the  representatives.  that the  It  is  granted  by the that  it  extensive  head of copying  my or  this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written  Department of Educational Psychology & Special Education The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3  DE-6(3/81)  an advanced  Library shall make  understood  permission.  Date  for  agree that permission for  scholarly purposes may be her  requirements  A p r i l 6, 1988.  ABSTRACT  The  purpose  designed  of this  study  was t o develop  to obtain  valid  and r e l i a b l e  might c o n t r i b u t e t o an e x p l a n a t i o n women make s u c c e s s f u l t r a n s i t i o n s others  do n o t .  t h r e e phases,  gleaned  from  from home t o work development  while  entailed  judges.  t o determine what v a r i a b l e s  they  process.  questionnaire  from t h e l i t e r a t u r e  In  surveyed  the l i t e r a t u r e  the t r a n s i t i o n  resulting  which  phase, Re-entry p r o j e c t c o o r d i n a t o r s i n  Columbia were  expert  information  each b u i l d i n g on t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e p r e v i o u s  British  generating  questionnaire  as t o why some Re-entry  The q u e s t i o n n a i r e  phase. I n t h e f i r s t  to  a  items  felt  were most  The s e c o n d  important  phase  involved  f o r the v a r i a b l e s r e s u l t i n g  and v a l i d a t i n g t h e items  The q u e s t i o n n a i r e  by a panel o f  was c o n s t r u c t e d  of the  items.  the third  questionnaire  phase was  empirical  determined  validation  by t h e r e s p o n s e s  o f 106  Re-entry  women who were  the  q u a r t e r o f t h e i r t r a i n i n g program. Item and f a c t o r  last  analyses  were  conducted  administered  of the  the questionnaire i n  on t h e responses  and d i s c r i m i n a n t  f u n c t i o n a n a l y s i s was employed t o determine which v a r i a b l e s distinguished  between  those  women  t r a n s i t i o n s and those who d i d n o t .  who  made s u c c e s s f u l  Five in  main  f a c t o r s - a)  the current  esteem; d) were  found  between  to  distinguish who  appropriate job  market; b) m a r i t a l s t a t u s ; c)  e d u c a t i o n a l attainment  women  completing  labour  a t t i t u d e regarding  made  a  with  and e) support a  7 6.4%  transition  from mate  accuracy  within  t h e i r t r a i n i n g program and those who  self-  56  rate,  days  d i d not.  of  -ivTABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES ACKNOWLEDGMENTS CHAPTER 1  SCOPE AND FOCUS OF THE STUDY  Background o f t h e Problem Re-entry T r a i n i n g Statement o f t h e Problem The Need f o r a Q u e s t i o n n a i r e D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms Thesis Organization CHAPTER 2  i i iv v i i viii ix  REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE PERTINENT TO RE-ENTRY WOMEN  1 5 7 8 13 14 15  B i o g r a p h i c a l Background Age M a r i t a l Status E d u c a t i o n a l Attainment Health Ethnic Origin  18 18 19 20 21 22  M a r i t a l and Family R e l a t i o n s Number o f C h i l d r e n Ages o f C h i l d r e n Childcare Support o f Family  23 23 24 25 26  Personality Characteristics Self-Confidence Self-Esteem Fears and A n x i e t i e s  27 27 28 30  S k i l l s and Work-Related Knowledge Skills Work-Related Knowledge  30 30 31  F i n a n c i a l and Economic F a c t o r s Financial Stability Being Head o f t h e Household L i m i t e d Labour Market O p p o r t u n i t i e s Salary Expectations  32 33 33 34 36  Summary  37  -vPage CHAPTER 3  METHODOLOGY  39  Phase I - I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and V e r i f i c a t i o n of P o t e n t i a l V a r i a b l e s Phase I R e s u l t s  40 42  Phase I I - Item Generation and V a l i d a t i o n by Panel o f Expert Judges Item Generation Panel o f Expert Judges Task A d m i n i s t r a t i o n A n a l y s i s o f Data: Panel Member Responses Phase I I R e s u l t s Phase I I I Q u e s t i o n n a i r e : The F i n a l Form  44 44 45 46 47 48 53  Phase I I I - E m p i r i c a l V a l i d a t i o n by Re-entry P a r t i c i p a n t s Sample S e l e c t i o n Task A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Phase I I I Data P r e p a r a t i o n and A n a l y s i s  55 55 56 57  CHAPTER 4  RESULTS  D e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e Sample T e s t Analyses Item A n a l y s i s Sense o f Competence Subtest Self-Assessment and A t t i t u d e Toward Work Subtests Family A f f a i r s Subtest F i n a n c i a l Matters Subtest  58 58 66 67 67 69 70 70  Factor Analysis I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e Four Factor Solution  71  Discriminant Analysis D i r e c t Method R e s u l t s C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Results Stepwise Method R e s u l t s A t t i t u d e Regarding A p p r o p r i a t e Job M a r i t a l Status Self-Esteem ( F a c t o r 1) E d u c a t i o n a l Attainment Support From Mate ( F a c t o r 4)  77 79 83 83 86 87 87 88 89  73  -viPage CHAPTER 5  SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND IMPLICATIONS  90  Summary L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e Study Conclusions A t t i t u d e Regarding A p p r o p r i a t e Job M a r i t a l Status Self-Esteem E d u c a t i o n a l Attainment Support from Mate Implications f o r Practise Suggestions f o r Future Research  90 91 92 93 94 96 97 97 98 99  REFERENCES  102  APPENDICES  112  A.  Phase I Q u e s t i o n n a i r e - I n i t i a l of  Re-entry  Survey  Project Coordinators  112  B.  Phase I I R a t i n g Package  116  C. D.  Phase I I I Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Package F a c t o r Loadings f o r I n i t i a l Three F a c t o r Solution  141  E.  F a c t o r Loadings f o r Four F a c t o r Oblimin S o l u t i o n  150  Contingency T a b l e s f o r F i v e Discriminating Variables  152  F.  148  -viiLIST OF TABLES PAGE Table 1  Phase I V a r i a b l e R a t i n g R e s u l t s  43  Table 2  Phase I I R a t i n g R e s u l t s  50  Table 3  Biodemographic I n f o r m a t i o n on Re-entry P a r t i c i p a n t s  60  D i s t r i b u t i o n of Participants By O c c u p a t i o n a l Type and Geographic L o c a t i o n  65  Table 5  Subtest Item A n a l y s i s R e s u l t s  68  Table 6  C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x f o r Three Subtests  71  Table 7  P a t t e r n M a t r i x f o r Three S u b t e s t s  74  Table 8  D i r e c t Method D i s c r i m i n a n t F u n c t i o n Analysis Structure Coefficients  80  Table 9  D i r e c t Method D i s c r i m i n a n t F u n c t i o n Analysis C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Matrix  82  T a b l e 10  Stepwise Method D i s c r i m i n a n t Function Analysis Structure Coefficient  85  Stepwise Method D i s c r i m i n a n t Function Analysis C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Matrix  85  Table F - l  C r o s s t a b u l a t i o n o f A t t i t u d e Regarding A p p r o p r i a t e Job By T r a n s i t i o n  153  T a b l e F-2  Crosstabulation of M a r i t a l Status By T r a n s i t i o n  154  T a b l e F-3  Crosstabulation of Self-esteem By T r a n s i t i o n  155  T a b l e F-4  Crosstabulation of Educational Attainment By T r a n s i t i o n  156  T a b l e F-5  C r o s s t a b u l a t i o n o f Support From Mate By T r a n s i t i o n  157  Table 4  T a b l e 11  -vm-  LIST OF FIGURES Page Figure 1  Frequency Histogram o f Days Required t o Make T r a n s i t i o n  78  -ix-  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  I  wish  Rogers, and  t o extend  my  my  supervisor,  thesis  assistance.  Robert  Conry  sincere  I would  also  and Dr. Jane  appreciation  t o Dr. Todd  f o r h i s guidance, like  t o give  Gaskell  support,  thanks t o Dr.  for their  a d v i c e and  c o n t r i b u t i o n s throughout t h i s p r o j e c t .  To  my  colleagues  Immigration grateful  and f r i e n d s  i n the Job Entry  a t Canada Program,  Employment and I  am  f o r your encouragement and a s s i s t a n c e .  appreciative  of the e f f o r t s  and a s s i s t a n c e  Re-entry p a r t i c i p a n t s and t h e i r p r o j e c t  extremely I am a l s o  provided  by t h e  coordinators.  For t h e many hours spent t y p i n g t h e pages o f t h i s t h e s i s , I am v e r y g r a t e f u l t o Kathy Doyle and h e r l i m i t l e s s  Most  importantly,  Without  I would  h i s support,  like  t o thank my husband  encouragement,  p r o j e c t may have never r e a l i z e d  patience.  and reassurance,  fruition.  Brian. this  CHAPTER 1  SCOPE AND FOCUS OF THE STUDY  Background o f t h e Problem  Regardless years  o f a woman's age, e d u c a t i o n ,  she has spent working  re-entering  the labour  bewildering  one.  employment a f t e r homemaker, the s k i l l s their  wife,  their life is  market  can be a  and mother  to  have  new  i n s e c u r e and g u i l t y ;  f o r themselves  t o succeed  primary  appreciation  skills.  they  tend  They  families.  the t r a n s i t i o n  from  home t o t h e  Literature  from t h e 1970's d e s c r i b e s t h e " t y p i c a l "  better  aged  it  Re-entry  4 0 y e a r s o f age, married, w i t h two o r t h r e e s i x t o eighteen.  educated  (Canadian)  feel  T h e i r common g o a l  (Berman, 1980).  children  for  t o under-rate  work f o r c e  woman as about  r o l e was  These women a r e s e e k i n g a b e t t e r  and t h e i r  i n making  little  to re-enter  Nor do they have a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r  acquire  own accomplishments.  f r i g h t e n i n g and  women who wish  y e a r s d u r i n g which t h e i r  potential  frightened,  i n t h e home, t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f  Typically,  they possess.  o r t h e number o f  and e a r n i n g  per year  i s more d i f f i c u l t  (Pearson,  Husbands a r e d e s c r i b e d as a  salary  1979).  o f about  Now,  t o describe the t y p i c a l  $14,000  i n t h e 1980's, Re-entry  -2-  woman. Many women making a t r a n s i t i o n single  mothers  i n their  late  w i t h v e r y young c h i l d r e n . that  from home t o work a r e  twenties  and e a r l y  S t a t i s t i c s Canada  i n 1983, f o r example,  thirties,  (1985) r e p o r t s  50.8% o f female l a b o u r  force  p a r t i c i p a t i o n was by women w i t h p r e s c h o o l age c h i l d r e n and no  husband  single  mothers w i t h  (p.49). women  whose  well,  their  and t h a t  children  The m a j o r i t y  separation  As  a t home,  the p a r t i c i p a t i o n  aged  6 t o 15 y e a r s was 65.5%  (56%) o f female s i n g l e  marriages  rate of  h a d ended  parents  were  either  i n d i v o r c e or  children  are increasing  (p.l).  married  labour  women w i t h  young  force participation  i n t h e 1980's.  Boothby  (1986) r e p o r t s t h a t i n t h e t e n y e a r p e r i o d between 1971 and 1981,  married  rapid  growth  category  1983,  i n their  of married  women w i t h force  women w i t h  children  (p.7).  34.1% years  women.  had a  rates  than  By 1981, over  Canada  women w i t h  (1985)  M a r r i e d women w i t h  labour  participation  i n c r e a s i n g t o 61.4% i n 1983 (p.49).  i n the labour  aged  that i n children  T h i s compares with  children rate  any other  reports  preschool  i n the labour force.  had more  45% o f married  aged two and under were  51.5% o f married  i n 1975.  age c h i l d r e n  participation  Statistics  were p a r t i c i p a t i n g  preschool  aged  6 t o 15  o f 47.0% i n 1975  -3-  Another  category  return In  o f Re-entry  t o work t o support  women i s t h e widow, who must  herself  and o f t e n h e r c h i l d r e n .  1981, 33.3% o f a l l s i n g l e mothers i n Canada were widows  (Statistics claims  that  Canada,  1985, p.7).  widows  constitute  classes  of c i t i z e n s  pension  often provides  Pension  Plan  provides  payment i s minimal.  Moreover,  one o f t h e most  i n Canada. little  Pearson  destitute  The deceased  o r no r e l i e f .  a widow's pension,  (1979)  husband's The Canada  b u t t h e maximum  Very few widows g e t t h e maximum pension  b e n e f i t ; some g e t none a t a l l (p.12).  While  t h e background  characteristics  women a r e v a s t and. v a r i e d ,  their  o f today's  reasons  Re-entry  f o r returning to  p a i d employment appear t o be shared: T h e r e a r e two major, and n o t m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e f a c t o r s m o t i v a t i n g m a r r i e d women t o r e - e n t e r t h e l a b o u r f o r c e , f i n a n c i a l n e c e s s i t y and t h e d e s i r e f o r s e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t (Ray, 1979, p.14). Of these two reasons, f i n a n c i a l exigency  predominates.  While women e n t e r t h e l a b o u r f o r c e f o r a complex v a r i e t y o f reasons, and w h i l e p e r s o n a l and f a m i l y circumstances i n f l u e n c e a l l women i n t h e i r s e a r c h f o r p a i d j o b s , i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e most important m o t i v a t i o n i s f i n a n c i a l n e c e s s i t y and t h a t f o r most the o c c u p a t i o n a l a l t e r n a t i v e s are r e s t r i c t e d to women's work (Armstrong & Armstrong, 1983, p.34).  -4-  A  secondary  workforce status  factor  impelling  i s the desire  dependence, s o c i a l  identity,  result  to re-enter  for self-fulfillment.  o f t h e unpaid o c c u p a t i o n  financial  women  the  The low  o f homemaker accompanied by  i s o l a t i o n and l a c k o f p e r s o n a l  i n a void  - a personal,  psychological  dependency i n these women: Margaret E i c h l e r d i s c u s s e s p e r s o n a l dependence, an a t t r i b u t e w h i c h women, e s p e c i a l l y h o u s e w i v e s , share w i t h c h i l d r e n and s l a v e s and which c r e a t e s an economic, s o c i a l and/or l e g a l bond between t h e woman and another person who has a u t h o r i t y over her. Although such dependence i s n o t e x c l u s i v e t o t h e h o u s e w i f e , she runs a much g r e a t e r r i s k o f b e i n g i t s v i c t i m (Proulx, 1978, p.17). The  obstacles  are  also  hiring  women face when r e t u r n i n g  shared. women  attempting view s k i l l s  Employers'  operate  t o re-enter  as  t o paid  attitudes strong  employment.  and experience a c q u i r e d  employment  and r e s i s t a n c e t o  barriers Employers  f o r women tend  not t o  i n t h e home as v a l u a b l e  i n the workplace. Most e m p l o y e r s seem t o b e l i e v e t h a t a m a r r i e d woman i s a p t t o be an u n r e l i a b l e employee as f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s l e a d t o h i g h absenteeism and t u r n o v e r r a t e s (Pearson, 1979, p.20). Obligations  to f u l f i l l  family  responsibilities  w i t h t h e demand o f employment r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . expected men.  t o be committed  However, they  to their  are also  work e q u a l l y  required  t o give  conflict Women a r e  as much as p r i o r i t y to  -5-  their the  families.  They  homemaker r o l e .  additional  do  not s u b s t i t u t e t h e work r o l e f o r  They u s u a l l y  responsibility  home-career  conflict  operate  discriminatory  as  take on p a i d work as an  (Di Sabatino,  combined  with  1976).  attitudes  obstacles  to  of  This  employers  employment  for  Commission  was  Re-entry women.  Re-entry T r a i n i n g  The  Canadian  established terms  of  Employment  and  i n 1977 by A c t o f P a r l i a m e n t reference  to  policy,  development  and u t i l i z a t i o n  t r a i n i n g programs  part  i n Canada of  the  establish  employment  policy  Immigration  and  Commission  objectives designed  and  to  Canadians. the  efforts  of  With  national f o r the  Vocational  a r e an important instrument o f employment and the Commission  Canadian Jobs to  develop  provide The  implement  i s responsible  funds t h e s e programs  (Canada,  Employment and Immigration, 1977). the  C-27).  o f human r e s o u r c e s .  i t s responsibility  implemented  (Bill  training  Strategy the  to  implement and  includes  federal  In 1985, t h e  Strategy  and  Department  skill  new  new  programs  development  government,  of  Commission  establish  s i x programs  as  that  for unite  provincial  -6-  governments,  business,  labour  and community  a s s i s t i n g men and women t o develop  skills  groups i n  needed t o compete  i n t h e c u r r e n t and a n t i c i p a t e d Canadian j o b market.  Job  Entry  within  i s one o f t h e s i x programs  this  provided. women  activities  the  have  been  three years  t h e workforce  facilitate  training  f o r women i s  component i s designed  primarily  f o rat least  workforce.  market  J o b Re-entry  This p a r t i c u l a r  who  entering  program  i n t h e S t r a t e g y and  engaged  to assist  i n homemaking  and who a r e now e i t h e r  f o r the f i r s t  time  or re-entering  The s o l e o b j e c t i v e o f Job Re-entry  i s to  t h e t r a n s i t i o n o f women from home t o t h e l a b o u r  (EIC, Re-entry:  Guide  t o Proposal  Development,  1985).  This t r a n s i t i o n projects skills  designed  training  provides  specific  through  t h e use o f Re-entry  an i n t e g r a t e d combination  work e x p e r i e n c e .  t o t h e changing  t o develop  j o b search  skills  training,  build  training  offers  on, and expand  and e x p e r i e n c e .  of  Each p r o j e c t  labour  skills,  c o u n s e l l i n g and group support  Re-entry  skills  and d i r e c t  occupational  Individual  review,  t o provide  orientation  opportunities  Job  i s facilitated  f o r c e and  g e n e r a l and  and l i f e  skills.  are also provided.  women  the opportunity to  their  employment-related  P r o j e c t content and d e l i v e r y  -7-  mechanisms  reflect  recognizing  and accommodate  the personal  women's l e a r n i n g  and f a m i l y  needs,  adjustments women must  make when r e - e n t e r i n g t h e work f o r c e .  Statement o f t h e Problem  It  i s estimated  Immigration the  Job  Canada  P.  from  60-65%  program  March  training,  while  There well  weeks o f a c t i v e j o b search.  Still  of  these  equivalent that  that  t r a i n i n g opportunities  they  constraints, this  Given  are  faced  what  factors  observed v a r i a b i l i t y  employment s i t u a t i o n ?  eight  with  and  weeks R.  make of  Frame and  t h e end o f  an o f f e r u n t i l  others  a  their  are p a r t i c i p a n t s  before  some do not r e c e i v e  employment.  Columbia  communication,  1987).  o f f e r s o f employment  a t Employment  o f women p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n  within  (personal 5,  staff  in British  home t o work  completion  Hagerman,  receive  administrative that  Re-entry  transition project's  by  who  their after  r e c e i v e no o f f e r s  women a r e a l l p r o v i d e d and work  the  contribute  same  experience, labour  and  market  t o an e x p l a n a t i o n  of  i n t r a n s i t i o n from t h e home t o an  -8-  The  specific  and  v a l i d a t e a self-administered questionnaire  obtain be  purpose o f t h e p r e s e n t  i n f o r m a t i o n needed t o answer t h i s  described  questionnaire  i n the following by which  characteristics successful void,  r e s e a r c h was t o develop  of Re-entry  development  thereby  question  information  than  would  question.  section,  As w i l l  no s u i t a b l e  women was a v a i l a b l e .  a more  be o b t a i n e d  to  descriptive of essential  of a questionnaire  permitting  designed  would  complete  using  Thus,  fill  answer  this  t o the  presently available  instruments.  The Need f o r a Q u e s t i o n n a i r e  Although  a number  pertinent  t o t h e Re-entry  instruments  o f i n v e s t i g a t o r s have  specifically  o f women i n t o  designed  upon  P r e v i o u s l y completed  available  count  and  the labour  data force,  t o measure p e r s o n o l o g i c a l  f a c t o r s which may i n f l u e n c e t h e t r a n s i t i o n available.  examined  process  studies r e l i e d  frequency  data,  supplemented w i t h q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and i n t e r v i e w  were not  principally sometimes  schedules.  -9-  For  example,  (198 6)  i n t h e most  examined  the p a r t i c i p a t i o n  government's  training  statistical  summaries  Census,  Statistics  programs.  Canada  1983-84.  No  study,  o f women He based  tabulated  Employment and Immigration for  r e c e n t Canadian  from  Labour  Canada Annual  i n the federal h i s a n a l y s i s on  t h e 1981  Force  Boothby  Canadian  Surveys,  and t h e  Statistics  Bulletin  questionnaire or interview  data  were  collected.  In  an e a r l i e r  Canadian  study, t h e A b e l l a  on E q u a l i t y  i n Employment  Statistics  Canada.  information administered  to  Corporations. participation and  systems,  data  data  by  a  were  supplemented  officials  of  questionnaire yielded  11  than  was Crown  workforce  and i n f o r m a t i o n on employment  rather  with  q u e s t i o n n a i r e which  management  The  Report  (1984) r e l i e d h e a v i l y on d a t a from  . These  provided  Commission  practices  i n f o r m a t i o n concerning  factors  i n f l u e n c i n g women's r e t u r n t o employment.  Armstrong  and Armstrong  from  Statistics  that  women  perform. to  Canada  (1983) to learn  i n t h e Canadian  In addition  also  relied  about  labour  they developed  on count  the nature force  most  an i n t e r v i e w  data  o f work commonly schedule  i n v e s t i g a t e t h e q u a l i t a t i v e nature and c o n d i t i o n o f  -10-  women's work. learn  about  women were between home.  They i n t e r v i e w e d women i n t h e l a b o u r f o r c e t o  t h e c o n d i t i o n s and rewards treated  as workers,  t h e women's Their  paid  o f work,  and about  work  about how  the relationship  and t h e i r  unpaid  work a t  i n t e n t i o n was not t o l e a r n how women emerged  from unpaid work i n t h e home t o p a i d employment.  Two  international  the  labour  France, United  forces  Germany, States  France,  198 0)  appropriate  distribute  countries the  t h e Netherlands, 1971; F e d e r a l  the United  (Canada,  Denmark,  Sweden,  and the  Republic  on count  investigators visited  surveys  o f Germany,  Kingdom and t h e U n i t e d  likewise r e l i e d  government  statistics. problems  Italy,  countries  data  m i n i s t r i e s i n the p a r t i c i p a t i n g  studies,  interview  of different  - Seear,  Sweden,  Yohalem,  both  s t u d i e s on t h e r e i n t e g r a t i o n o f women i n t o  officials  provided  by  c o u n t r i e s . In  each  country  and employers  which were used t o compile  States -  to  and t o  t h e government  The i n v e s t i g a t o r s were a b l e t o i d e n t i f y common experienced and were  studies  were  able  by  Re-entry  to raise  women  policy  i n different  issues.  However,  i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c , as no i n f o r m a t i o n was  c o l l e c t e d from Re-entry women themselves.  -11-  McGraw  (1982)  reviewed  two American  questionnaires  t o evaluate  for  women.  Re-entry  participants program  questionnaires  administration  and assess  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were not intended  When  searching  reasonable  unvalidated. use  were  designed  program  to e l i c i t  t o evaluate  efficacy.  The  information  about  f o r Re-entry women.  for a  suitable  o r an  informal  I n q u i r i e s regarding  made  informal  o f t h e workshops,  questionnaire  t o investigate the p o s s i b i l i t y  questionnaire  using  t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f workshops  At the close  completed  the t r a n s i t i o n process  studies  i t was  o f an unreviewed  questionnaire  that  was  informal questionnaires i n  o f 14 p r a c t i t i o n e r s ,  located  i n Victoria,  Vancouver, Regina, and Toronto, who work w i t h Re-entry women i n programs o t h e r  than t h e f e d e r a l government's Job Re-entry  program. The p r a c t i t i o n e r s c o n t a c t e d the urgent  requirement f o r such an instrument.  Questionnaires purposes  were i n agreement as t o  c u r r e n t l y i n use had been developed  of assessing  specific  programs.  A  f o r the  questionnaire  t h a t would p r o v i d e  information  about f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g t h e  transition  would  to identify  process  help  t o be addressed by program content  issues that  and c u r r i c u l a .  need  -12-  Th e  Job Re-entry  Immigration Since has  program  Canada  i s delivered  i t s inception been  with future  validity  program  The development and r e l i a b i l i t y  development  for  Administration  the detection  Canada.  o f t h e program  of a could  questionnaire contribute to information to  t o t h e success o f Re-entry  of the questionnaire of  across  thereby p r o v i d i n g  make t h e program more b e n e f i c i a l women.  t o women  i n 1985, no e v a l u a t i o n  undertaken.  sound  s p o n s o r e d by Employment and  individual  shortcomings which might go undetected  c o u l d be h e l p f u l  problems,  needs, o r  i n t h e dynamics o f a  l a r g e r group.  Identification  o f f a c t o r s which  contribute  to successful  t r a n s i t i o n s c o u l d have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r p r o j e c t and p e o p l e i n v o l v e d changes  coordinators  i n the d e l i v e r y of t r a i n i n g ,  i n the present  training  plans  leading to  and c u r r i c u l a t o  b e t t e r address t h e needs o f Re-entry women.  Further, women  this  i n Canada.  transition toward areas.  study c o u l d prove s i g n i f i c a n t By i d e n t i f y i n g  and those t h a t  overcoming  factors that  impede t r a n s i t i o n ,  negative  f o r a l l Re-entry facilitate  women can work  characteristics  and p r o b l e m  -13-  D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms  The f o l l o w i n g terms a r e used throughout t h e study.  Re-entry women Re-entry women a r e women who: 1.  have been years;  out o f t h e workforce  at least  three  2.  were engaged i n homemaking a c t i v i t i e s absence from t h e workforce;  3.  a r e c u r r e n t l y unemployed o r working more than 20 hours p e r week;  4.  a r e l e g a l l y e n t i t l e d t o work i n Canada; and  5.  a r e p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e F e d e r a l Government's Job Re-entry t r a i n i n g program f o r women.  during t h e i r p a r t - t i m e not  Transition  Transition  i s defined  as t h e number o f days  required,  a f t e r t h e t r a i n i n g program, t o b e g i n employment. weeks with  (56 days) Employment  i s stipulated  i n Job Re-entry  and I m m i g r a t i o n  Canada  contracts  as t h e time  frame t o determine what percentage o f p a r t i c i p a n t s transitions'  into  the workplace  Eight  make  (EIC Agreement,  Schedule B - EMP 3658, O b j e c t i v e s c l a u s e " C " ) .  -14-  Thesis  The a  chapters to description  analysis,  follow of  and  Organization  contain  a  future  summation  the  literature  illuminates  questionnaire terms  of  gleaned  from  of  the  to  considered The  categories  literature.  findings  Chapter  pertaining  variables  main  the  statistical  r e s u l t s of  research.  development.  five  the  discussion  for  which  literature,  methodology,  implications of  a review o f the  presents  Re-entry  is  Within  each  the  organized  variables  that  main  a  women  throughout  chapter of  2  with  in were  category,  i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b l e s are examined.  Chapter  3  outlines  development describes  and the  procedures, Phases results  discriminant 5  implications of  administration references.  item  the for  the are  future  of  research  questionnaire included  data  i n the  The  factor  results  study  projects. and  and  of  Phase I I I  analysis  i n Chapter 4.  the  the  collection  chapter.  analysis,  findings  in  questionnaire,  in this  a n a l y s i s , are p r e s e n t e d  summarizes  phases  the  involved  analysis.  presented  include  of  phases  population,  statistical  I I are  which  three  validation sample  and  I and  the  and The  and  Chapter suggests various  directions  appendices f o l l o w i n g  for the  -15-  CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE PERTINENT TO RE-ENTRY WOMEN  The  need  f o r proper  development  planning  of a v a l i d  1978;  1971; H o i n v i l l e  Moser  &  Pierre-Pierre, Tinkleman, situation world  1971). Moser  as one i n which  inconvenience  long process  the  wording,  involved  measurement,  which  tion,  derived  1982;  a r e many  and the  carried  out at  and  (p.v).  unnecessary  L i (1981) agreed  t o design.  the entire  i s found  There i s refining  questionnaire.  i s just like a faulty t o produce  "A tool  erroneous and  (p.51).  Cronbach (1971) advised, from  Platek,  & Bradburn,  i n w r i t i n g the questions,  questionnaire  unreliable results"  starts  sponsor  is difficult  and t e s t i n g  poorly constructed of  the  surveys,  t o t h e respondents"  t h a t a good q u e s t i o n n a i r e a  poor  to  1966;  f o r example, d e s c r i b e d t h e  "the p i t f a l l s  with  cost  1978; L i , 1981; Moser,  1985; Sudman  (1978),  i s well  & A l g i n a , 1986;  1971; Oppenheim,  & Stevens,  considerable  (e.g. Crocker  & Jowell,  Kalton,  i s littered  a t t e n t i o n t o the  and r e l i a b l e q u e s t i o n n a i r e  documented i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e Cronbach,  and c a r e f u l  a theory  "construction of a t e s t  about  behaviour  o r mental  itself organiza-  from p r i o r r e s e a r c h , t h a t suggests t h e ground  -16-  plan  f o r the test"  chapter,  this  (p. 4 4 3 ) .  review  I n t h e remainder  o f the p r i o r  research  of the  on  Re-entry  women and women i n t h e l a b o u r market i s p r e s e n t e d .  In  Chapter  1,  predominant force.  financial  factor  "IfI  Similarly,  Robinson,  that  with  women t o r e - e n t e r t h e work  this  idea,  i n t h e Armstrong  commented,  found  compelling  Continuing  interviewed  n e c e s s i t y was d e s c r i b e d as t h e  didn't  and Armstrong  work,  we wouldn't  Longfellow,  t h e overwhelming  desire  factor  (1983)  study  e a t " (p.34). (1982)  m a j o r i t y o f women work f o r they need t h e money.  f o r s e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t was suggested  motivating  o f t h e women  R o t t e r , and W i l s o n  e x a c t l y t h e same reason most men do:  The  many  women t o r e t u r n t o work.  as t h e second Ray  (1979)  d e s c r i b e d t h e source o f t h i s d e s i r e f o r s e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t as being  related  routine being  t o the fact  o f housework,  a housewife,  i d e n t i t y independent  that  women were bored  disliked  and f e l t  the s o c i a l  t h e need  with the  i s o l a t i o n of  t o e s t a b l i s h an  o f t h e i r w i f e and mother r o l e s  (p.18).  I f t h e s e a r e t h e reasons women r e t u r n t o work, how do these two  motivating  successful  factors  transitions  account  from  f o r some  home t o work  women  making  and not others?  What v a r i a b l e s comprising these f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c e t h e  -17-  transition many  process?  variables  considered variables  The l i t e r a t u r e  from  influential  previous  reviewed  studies  which  identified could  i n the t r a n s i t i o n process.  and t h e review t o f o l l o w  are organized  be  These  into  five  main c a t e g o r i e s :  a)  Biographical  b)  M a r i t a l and Family  c)  Personality Characteristics  d)  S k i l l s and Work-Related Knowledge  e)  F i n a n c i a l and Economic F a c t o r s .  Within  each  main  Background Relations  category,  studies  v a r i a b l e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h female labour are give  examined. rise  I t was reasoned  that  are cited  i n which  force p a r t i c i p a t i o n  these v a r i a b l e s  might  t o f a c t o r s o f f e r i n g i n s i g h t as t o why some women  make s u c c e s s f u l t r a n s i t i o n s w h i l e o t h e r s  do n o t .  -18-  Biocfraphical Background  Five biographic the  re-entry  status,  v a r i a b l e s have been found t o be r e l a t e d t o  o f women i n t o t h e l a b o u r  educational  attainment,  force:  health,  age, m a r i t a l  and e t h n i c  origin.  Age  Labour  force  p a r t i c i p a t i o n has been  increasing  s i n c e 1970  f o r women o f a l l ages except those 65 and over.  I n Canada,  between 1975 and 1983, t h e l a r g e s t i n c r e a s e s were f o r women aged 25-54; t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n by women between t h e ages o f 2 5 and 44 rose the  increase  15 p e r c e n t , was  while  12 p e r c e n t  f o r women aged  (Statistics  45 t o 54  Canada, 1985,  p.41).  Although not i n d i c a t e d by simple l a b o u r rates,  age has been  employers  when  found  hiring  force p a r t i c i p a t i o n  t o be a f a c t o r  female  employees.  considered Seear  (1971)  interviewed  employers o f Re-entry women and found t h a t  considered  older  employees.  Thursby  a  successful  program  Re-entry  women more  they  and l o y a l  (1974) found t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s who made  t r a n s i t i o n from  t o paid  reliable  by  employment  unsuccessful p a r t i c i p a n t s .  a work  were  incentives  several  years  training  older  than  -19-  Marital  Ray  Status  (1979),  (1984)  Armstrong  examined  function  and Armstrong  female  of marital  labour  status.  married  women i n t h e labour  married  women  (1983),  and A b e l l a  force p a r t i c i p a t i o n According  t o Ray, i n 1972  force represented  i n the population;  as a  only  i n 1977, t h i s  34% o f  percentage  r o s e t o 44% (p.4).  Between 19 7 2 and 1977 married women showed t h e g r e a t e s t i n c r e a s e both i n t h e i r representation r e l a t i v e t o women o f other m a r i t a l s t a t u s e s i n t h e female l a b o u r f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n , as w e l l as i n t h e i r rate of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the labour force (Ray, 1979, p . 4 ) .  It  i s p o s s i b l e t h a t marriage  system  (emotional  successful share  a  an i n h e r e n t  support  and f i n a n c i a l ) t h a t i s r e q u i r e d t o make a  transition  common  provides  goal  from home t o work. i n the wife's  f a c i l i t a t e the t r a n s i t i o n process.  I f both  employment,  spouses this  may  -20-  Divorce status  i s another p o i n t  a t i s s u e when c o n s i d e r i n g  as a f a c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g Re-entry women.  have f u n c t i o n e d  Women who  p r i m a r i l y as homemakers may s u f f e r economic  p e n a l t i e s when t h e i r marriages d i s s o l v e . support.  marital  These women need  I t i s often v i t a l t o t h e i r family's s u r v i v a l :  For many women t h e d i s s o l u t i o n o f t h e i r marriage means t h e l o s s o f t h e i r o n l y source o f income and f u r t h e r an income l o s s which i s not l i k e l y t o be recouped. Although t h e c o u r t may award t h e woman m a i n t e n a n c e f o r h e r s e l f and h e r c h i l d r e n , t h e F e d e r a l Law Reform Commission has s t a t e d t h a t one o f t h e most s e r i o u s problems f a c i n g a d i v o r c e d s p o u s e i s t h e i n a b i l i t y t o e n f o r c e an e x i s t i n g maintenance order (Pearson, 1979, p.11). Educational  Rauhala  Attainment  (1986)  reported  on a  study  of the status  Canadian women i n employment, t r a i n i n g , and e d u c a t i o n . study  showed  some i n r o a d s poorly it  that  while  highly  educated  i n t o t h e j o b market, t h i s  educated women.  "Poorly  of The  women, a r e making  i s not t h e case f o r  educated women a r e f i n d i n g  as tough t o f i n d work i n t h e e i g h t i e s as they d i d i n t h e  fifties"  (p.A5).  Jones  (1983)  found  that  t h e more  education  and t h e h i g h e r  t h e l e v e l o f c e r t i f i c a t i o n a woman  achieved,  t h e l e s s time  she r e q u i r e d  t o make a t r a n s i t i o n  -21-  from  home  commented,  t o work.  "Women w i t h u n i v e r s i t y  participation Women have  with  rates  eight  unemployment r a t e s "  and A r m s t r o n g degrees  and t h e l o w e s t  o r fewer  the lowest  Pearson  Armstrong  years  participation  (1983)  have t h e h i g h e s t  unemployment  of recognized rates  rates.  education  and t h e h i g h e s t  (p.23).  (1979) s p e c u l a t e d t h a t  A w e l l - e d u c a t e d women may tend t o view employment as h i g h l y r e w a r d i n g , c o m b i n i n g responsibility, h i g h p r e s t i g e and pay and mastery over t h e work environment. Furthermore, t h e r e may be s o c i a l p r e s s u r e not t o "waste" h e r s k i l l s (p.14). Health  Pray  (1982),  health  Jones  i s a  employment considering  (1983),  factor  potentially  prospects.  According  nontraditional  chance  of success  regular  f i t n e s s program.  as  a definite  women.  Berman  determinant  School o f M e d i c i n e .  have  Jones  t o Pray have  developed  suggested women's  (1982),  women  the greatest strength  in a  (1983) r e p o r t e d poor h e a l t h  of high  reported  (1980)  influencing  occupations  i f they  (1980)  and Berman  unemployment  on a study  from  rates f o r t h e Yale  I t was found t h a t 70% o f women l o o k i n g  -22-  for  jobs  were  suffering  woman's h e a l t h in  from  depressive  symptoms.  If a  i s poor, t h e chances o f h e r p e r f o r m i n g  an i n t e r v i e w  o r pre-employment  well  s i t u a t i o n seem u n l i k e l y ,  thereby making i t more d i f f i c u l t t o f i n d employment.  Ethnic Origin  Armstrong female origin.  and Armstrong  labour  (1983)  and A b e l l a  p a r t i c i p a t i o n as a  The d a t a  examined  (1984)  function  by A r m s t r o n g  examined  of  ethnic  and Armstrong  (1983) i n d i c a t e d t h a t one out o f f i v e women working f o r pay in  this  c o u n t r y has immigrated t o Canada.  concentrated paid and  i n service  and f a c t o r y  and l e a s t rewarded work. textile  minorities  complained o f r a c i s m  Domestic workers a r e a l s o  their  and n a t i v e  lack  dispropor-  (p.22).  people  a l l across  t o t h e A b e l l a Commission o f employment  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and p r e j u d i c e . reported  i n t h e lowest  "Almost h a l f o f t h e garment  t i o n a t e l y drawn from immigrant groups"  attributed  jobs,  i n d u s t r y workers a r e immigrant women, p r i m a r i l y  from southern Europe.  Visible  These women a r e  Canada  (1984).  opportunities  They to  T h e i r unemployment r a t e s , as  by t h e A b e l l a Commission, a r e more than t w i c e  that  -23-  of  other  force  Canadians.  Based  p a r t i c i p a t i o n , low  segregation,  the  Abella  on  such  income  low  levels  levels,  and  of  labour  occupational  Commission r e c o g n i z e d  the  need  for  government i n t e r v e n t i o n t o  improve the  equitable p a r t i c i p a -  tion  by  people  in  the  minorities. that  work  Further,  visible  recognized promoted  force the  native  Abella  minorities,  including  q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and or  given  the  Commission  same  and  visible  (1984)  claimed  native  proven  job  people,  skills  opportunities  as  with  were  whites  not with  s i m i l a r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s (p.47).  M a r i t a l and  Four  variables  family  status  decisions  to  children,  ages  her  Family  associated were  return of  with  Relations  marital  identified to  the  children,  as  paid  relationships  influencing  work  childcare,  force: and  the  and  women's  number  of  support  of  family.  Number of  Canadian  Children  families  are  becoming  S t a t i s t i c s Canada (1985) data.  smaller  In 1971,  according  husband-wife  to  families  had 1.7 c h i l d r e n on average; by 1981, t h e f i g u r e  had  fallen  of  women,  t o 1.3.  The r i s i n g  e s p e c i a l l y married  explanation  f o r the decline  Canada, 1985, p.4).  Thursby  labour women,  force p a r t i c i p a t i o n was  i n family  cited  size  as one  (Statistics  (1974), i n h e r study o f female  t r a i n e e s making a t r a n s i t i o n from a work i n c e n t i v e s program to paid one  employment, found t h a t s u c c e s s f u l t r a i n e e s  c h i l d fewer than u n s u c c e s s f u l  averaged  trainees.  Ages o f C h i l d r e n  Pearson  (1979)  labour  force  children described children before  and Boothby  (1986) s t u d i e d  p a r t i c i p a t i o n by women  the patterns of  linked  and t h e demands o f c h i l d r e a r i n g . labour  t o age o f  Pearson  (1979)  f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n by m a r r i e d women w i t h  as a two stage  childbearing.  process.  The f i r s t  stage  occurs  The second stage occurs  . . . t y p i c a l l y when t h e woman i s about 35 y e a r s o f age; h e r c h i l d r e n a r e a b i t o l d e r and no l o n g e r need c l o s e s u p e r v i s i o n s o she can take on t h e e x t r a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f a j o b (p.3). Boothby  (198 6)  describes  how t h e l a b o u r  force  e n t r i e s and  e x i t s o f a woman a r e l i n k e d t o t h e b i r t h o f h e r f i r s t  child  -25-  and  the point  age.  Using  found  statistics  that  marriage  a t which  most  h e r youngest  child  reaches  from t h e Census o f Canada  women  b u t withdraw  school  (1981), he  enter  t h e labour  force  prior to  from  i t a t some  point  between  marriage and t h e b i r t h o f t h e f i r s t  child.  L a t e r , when t h e  demands o f c h i l d r e a r i n g decrease a t t h e time c h i l d r e n reach school  a g e , many  Participation  women  rates  re-enter  increase  the labour  as t h e youngest  market.  child  ages  (P-7).  Data  from  Statistics  observation.  at least  with  youngest  f o r women w i t h their  (1985)  illustrates  I n 1983, p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s r o s e  women w i t h their  Canada  this  from 49% f o r  one c h i l d under t h r e e t o 56% f o r women child  between  three  and f i v e ,  c h i l d r e n between s i x and f i f t e e n  c h i l d r e n increase  i n age, women  seem  t o 62%  (p.5).  t o have  As more  impetus t o r e - e n t e r t h e l a b o u r market.  Childcare  Abella that  (1984),  Pearson  t h e absence  quality  inhibits  workforce. economically  (1979),  and Ray (1979)  of affordable women  from  childcare  maintained  o f adequate  participating  i n the  The c o s t o f q u a l i t y c h i l d c a r e makes working not v i a b l e f o r many women.  -26-  The A b e l l a Commission (1984) r e p o r t e d : There a r e those who argue t h a t t h e need f o r c h i l d care i s n o t demonstrated; otherwise more women would be s t a y i n g home. The absence o f adequate childcare, they claim, d o e s n o t seem t o be i n h i b i t i n g women from p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e workforce. T h i s i s simply untrue. Women a r e n o t o n l y i n h i b i t e d from w o r k i n g by t h e absence o f t h i s support system b u t t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s impaired. C h i l d c a r e i s t h e ramp t h a t p r o v i d e s equal access t o t h e workforce f o r mothers (p.178). If  affordable,  with  children,  quality then  childcare  the lack  i s not a v a i l a b l e  o f economic  t o women  feasibility  may  i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e t r a n s i t i o n o f Re-entry women.  Support o f Family  D i Sabatino social  approval,  vocational sacrifice need  (1976) has shown t h a t women more than men seek especially  decisions.  their  sense  for affiliation.  from  Women have  their  mate,  for their  a g r e a t e r tendency t o  o f competence i n o r d e r t o meet I f D i Sabatino's  claim  their  i s valid,  l a c k o f s p o u s a l support c o u l d impede a woman's t r a n s i t i o n .  The  A b e l l a Commission  perceive their  one another  parents  (1984) claimed as spouses  determines  what  t h a t how men and women  and how c h i l d r e n p e r c e i v e happens  t o women  in  the  workforce. I f women a r e c o n s i d e r e d e c o n o m i c and s o c i a l dependents i n t h e home, they w i l l c o n t i n u e t o be t r e a t e d as s u b s e r v i e n t i n t h e workforce. I f on the o t h e r hand, they a r e p e r c e i v e d as s o c i a l and economic equals i n a p a r t n e r s h i p i n t h e home, t h i s w i l l be t r a n s l a t e d i n t o t h e p r a c t i s e s o f t h e workplace (p.25).  Personality Characteristics  For d i s c u s s i o n purposes, t h i s subsections  section i s divided into  corresponding  to  three  the variables:  s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e , s e l f - e s t e e m , and f e a r s and a n x i e t i e s .  Self-Confidence  "Lack and  o f s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e i s perhaps  pervasive  attaining further  a t t i t u d e which  their  remarked  goals" that  hampers  (Pearson,  this  t h e most  fundamental  Re-entry  women i n  1979, p.23).  Pearson  was not s u r p r i s i n g  most Re-entry women l a c k r e c e n t work experience  given  that  or training  -28-  as  well  as s a t i s f a c t o r y  i n f o r m a t i o n about  t h e j o b market.  The y e a r s a t home may not have p e r m i t t e d a woman t o form an o b j e c t i v e view o f h e r c a p a b i l i t i e s .  In  a study  women, King  o f an employment (1976) found  ment  problems  their  families  Canadian (1984)  t o be g u i l t  on L e a r n i n g  that  because  i t i s devalued  themselves.  This  confidence  and a  women  both  undervaluing real  are less  decision-making,  f o r married  about  and l a c k o f s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e .  proposed  result,  program  t h e main p s y c h o l o g i c a l and a d j u s t -  to re-entry  Congress  unpaid,  training  As w e l l , t h e  Opportunities the role by leads  a n d women  to a lack  of s e l f -  dependency.  t o have  problem-solving,  f o r Women  o f housewife i s  society  or perceived likely  abandoning  and  As a  well-developed goal-setting  abilities.  Self-Esteem  According only  to Spitzer,  have  identities" historic  Couch, and S t r a t t o n (1971),  self-esteem (cited  and l e g a l l y  i n terms  i n Wells  o f an i d e n t i t y  & Marwell,  "One can or set  1976, p.59).  of  The  s a n c t i o n e d i d e n t i t y o f women i n Canada  -29-  has  been as homemaker.  F o r more than a c e n t u r y , i n every  p r o v i n c e , t h e l e g a l d o c t r i n e s around the  legal  personae  the  husband.  independent t o escape  o f husband  This obliterated legal  entity.  and w i f e merge i n t o the wife's  that of  identity  as an  from t h e p e r c e p t u a l f a l l o u t o f t h e t r a d i t i o n and s u p p o r t i v e l y  that  toward  ( A b e l l a , 1984, p.25).  Taylor and  that  "Many men and women seem unable  expects women t o behave dependently men"  marriage r e q u i r e d  (1985)  invisible  economy. certain  argued  as a r e s u l t  The cash  types  that  o f work, s e t t i n g  t h e homemaker  has become  o f t h e development  economy..• o n l y  of work above t h e r e s t . rather  homemaking  pays  o f t h e cash  certain  those people  unvalued  people f o r  and t h a t  type  Homemaking i s not p a i d  employment;  i s e c o n o m i c a l l y dependent  on someone  e l s e ' s p a i d work (p.5).  Women  suffering  independent skills,  identity  abilities,  unlikely image  from  that  these  also  tend  to lack  and p o s i t i v e women would  o f an e f f i c i e n t ,  employers.  low s e l f - e s t e e m  competent  and l a c k i n g  respect  attributes.  an  for their I t seems  be a b l e  t o portray the  employee  t o prospective  -30-  F e a r s and A n x i e t i e s  O'Leary is  (1974) suggested t h a t women's achievement behaviour  d i f f e r e n t from  that  failure.  Berman  re-entering  the labour  only  suffer  rejection,  from fear  o f men's due t o a g r e a t e r  (1980) ,  fear  fear of  i n h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f women  f o r c e , found t h a t Re-entry women not of f a i l u r e ,  o f competition,  but a l s o  fear  from  of taking  fear of  t e s t s , and  f e a r o f appearing incompetent.  Yohalem  (198 0)  logically  unprepared  uncertainty their  cautioned  about  anxiety  detrimental  t o assume  their  about being  responsibilities.  that  women  a work  reception able  Such  are often role  psycho-  because of  i n t h e workplace, and  t o combine work w i t h  fears  and a n x i e t i e s  family  could  be  t o the t r a n s i t i o n process.  S k i l l s and Work-Related Knowledge  Skills  The  literature  skills  or lack  reviewed of skills  d i d n o t emphasize f o r Re-entry  the issue of  women.  Personal  -31-  discussions  with  Re-entry  coordinators  l e d t o the following  considered  when  transition  process  skills  (oral  goal-setting Canadian  investigating  ability.  required  t o develop  these  project  of s k i l l s  communication skills,  same  Opportunities  a career plan  success i n f i n d i n g and r e t a i n i n g employment"  and  s k i l l s , the f o r Women  a r e some o f t h e g e n e r i c  and pursue  t o be  influencing the  women:  Regarding  "these  list  decision-making  on L e a r n i n g  that,  and t h e i r  factors  f o r Re-entry  and w r i t t e n ) ,  Congress  (1984) s t a t e d  women  skills  and achieve  (p.12).  Work-Related Knowledge  Lack an  of sufficient obstacle  determined reliable Ontario  f o r many  this labour  study  responsibility  abilities; universal to  was  ability  women.  Pearson  (1979)  due t o i n e x p e r i e n c e and absence o f information.  Pearson  r e p o r t e d how Re-entry  a) t h e work that  t h e work world may p r e s e n t  Re-entry  market  that  over-estimate;  employer's  r e a l i s m about  hours,  t o recognize  an  women tended t o  salary  they were q u a l i f i e d  cited  and l e v e l o f  t o command; b) t h e  undemonstrated  "latent"  and c) t h e v a l u e o f work as an entertainment o r problem-solver.  underestimate;  The same Re-entry  women  tended  (a) t h e amount o f t r a i n i n g o r r e - t r a i n i n g  -32-  they would need t o r e a c h t h e i r g o a l s ; and b) t h e importance of  health,  stamina  and good  grooming  (Pearson,  1979, pp.  24,25).  The  Ontario  study  cited  by Pearson  some women had been u n d e r r a t i n g applying  f o r work a t a v e r y  (1979) a l s o  noted  that  t h e i r own q u a l i f i c a t i o n s by  low l e v e l .  T h i s was t r u e more  o f t e n o f o l d e r women than younger women.  F i n a n c i a l and Economic  Financial  necessity  predominant  force motivating  literature  reviewed  financial process:  necessity financial  household. labour also  Two  market  identified  was  previously  could  additional  impact  and s a l a r y  i n the l i t e r a t u r e  The  relating to  on t h e t r a n s i t i o n  and b e i n g  economic  as t h e  t o work.  two v a r i a b l e s  stability  opportunities  described  women t o r e t u r n  identified that  Factors  head  of the  variables,  limited  expectations,  were  as p l a y i n g a r o l e i n t h e  t r a n s i t i o n o f Re-entry women i n t o p a i d employment.  -33-  Financial  Pearson  Stability  (1979) claimed t h a t many m a r r i e d  employment of  i n order  supporting  inflation, maintain  families  are  family.  two incomes economic  security.  husband  a  t o share  the f i n a n c i a l  She suggested are essential  stability  She f u r t h e r  stated that,  because o f  for a  family to  future  "... many  line  a r e p a i d workers.  breadwinners  Clearly,  and t h e f i n a n c i a l  from  Statistics  Canada  i n 1982, t h e husband was t h e s o l e  in  16% o f husband-wife  husband  and w i f e  families. sources  Other  was  families.  relied  upon  these  both women  of t h e i r  (p.10).  supports  claim: only  low-income  stability  (1985)  financial  o n l y because  f a m i l i e s depends i n p a r t on t h e i r s a l a r i e s "  Data  responsibility  that  and p r o v i d e  may be beyond t h e p o v e r t y and w i f e  women resume p a i d  Pearson's  income r e c i p i e n t  The income o f both i n 56% o f two-parent  husband-wife f a m i l i e s had a l t e r n a t e  income  ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1985, p.69).  Being Head o f t h e Household  In  1981, a l m o s t  headed  by. a  one o f every  single  parent  t e n Canadian  female.  This  families  was  r e p r e s e n t s an  -34-  i n c r e a s e o f 59% from 1971.  D i v o r c e o r s e p a r a t i o n accounted  f o r t h i s s i t u a t i o n i n 56% o f t h e cases. single  parent  females  third  were  widowed  Abella  Commission  single-parent  a  married. Canada,  The  85% o f a l l Canadian  living  below  (p.27).  for their  successful  the other  1985, p . l ) .  female-headed f a m i l i e s were  mothers w i t h  children  transition  into  have  hand,  single  mothers  sole  financial  an urgent  t h e work  m o t i v a t i n g circumstances may f a c i l i t a t e On  The remaining  i n 1981 were headed by a woman, and  women who a r e s i n g l e  responsibility make  (Statistics  families  the p o v e r t y l i n e  never  (1984) r e p o r t e d t h a t  t h r e e out o f f i v e  Re-entry  were  E l e v e n p e r cent o f  need t o  force.  a rapid  Such  transition.  receiving  financial  a s s i s t a n c e t o support t h e i r c h i l d r e n may l a c k t h e i n c e n t i v e to enter paid  employment.  L i m i t e d Labour Market O p p o r t u n i t i e s  Although 1985, they  t h e number  most have  example,  o f women w i t h  jobs  increased  women c o n t i n u e t o work i n o c c u p a t i o n s traditionally  been  77% o f a l l female  the majority.  through i n which  I n 1983,  employees i n Canada worked  for  in a  -35-  narrow range o f occupations —  clerical,  service, sales, teaching,  participation dropped  g e n e r a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h women  i n this  three  limited  percentage  and h e a l t h .  occupational  points  from  Female  range has o n l y  what  the proportion  had been i n 1975 ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1985, p.43). . . . The n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l categories-clerical, s e r v i c e and s a l e s - were t h e l a r g e s t o f t h e " f e m a l e " o c c u p a t i o n a l groups, a c c o u n t i n g f o r 62% o f a l l f e m a l e w o r k e r s i n 1983 and 57% o f t h e o v e r a l l growth i n female employment between 1975 and 1983. The l a r g e s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f women i n t h e l a b o u r f o r c e was c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s . I n 1983, almost one o u t o f e v e r y t h r e e employed women h e l d a c l e r i c a l p o s i t i o n i n comparison w i t h j u s t one out of s i x t e e n employed men ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1985, p.43) . Armstrong pushed are  and Armstrong  into  drawn  the labour into  specifically jobs  women s j obs,  the  that while  by economic female  women a r e  necessity,  occupations,  work, because t h a t  they more  i s where most new  " I n o t h e r words, more o f t h e jobs were needed t h e  (p.32).  Unfortunately clerical,  found  and women took them because they  1  income"  force  traditional  clerical  are created.  (1983)  f o r t h e l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f women who work i n  s e r v i c e , o r s a l e s p o s i t i o n s , these  lowest  paying  jobs  but they  also  tend  a r e not o n l y t o be  jobs  -36-  limited  i n opportunities  p.30).  Ray (1979) d e s c r i b e d  job  i n which  there  f o r promotion clerical  (Abella,  work  a r e few promotional  1984,  as a dead-end  o p p o r t u n i t i e s and  wages a r e v e r y low (p.7).  Salary  Expectations  Women earn l e s s than men.  I n 1982, t h e average earnings o f  women who were employed f u l l - t i m e were o n l y 64% o f those o f f u l l - t i m e male employees; $16,100 compared w i t h men  (Statistics  employed year.  The  women  1985, p.46).  (54%) were  earning  More less  than  than  h a l f of  $10,000 a  T h i s was t r u e f o r o n l y 31% o f employed men.  lowest  women,  paid  while  occupied  in a  occupations  over  by men  David-McNeil women  Canada,  $25,100 f o r  are t r a d i t i o n a l l y  80% o f t h e h i g h e s t - p a i d  (Economic  Council  dominated by p o s i t i o n s are  o f Canada,  1984, p.7) .  (1984) a s s e r t e d t h a t t h e h i g h c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f small  occupational women  Since  supply  exceeds demand, an employer i s able t o  lower  candidates  wages  than  i f there  were  f o r a v a i l a b l e p o s i t i o n s (p.7).  number  fierce  among  offer  limited  creates  competition labour  for a  sector  a  of jobs.  shortage  of  -37-  If  Re-entry  expectations,  women  have  unrealistically  t h e i r motivation  high  salary  t o make a t r a n s i t i o n from  home t o work c o u l d be impaired by t h e r e a l i t y o f t h e s a l a r y s c a l e s f o r women.  Summary  Each  of the variables  could  influence  identified  t h e success  i n the l i t e r a t u r e  o f Re-entry  transition  from home t o t h e work f o r c e .  for  variable  each  potentially variables  facilitate  educational  fears  which  were c i t e d  variables  self-esteem,  The v a r i a b l e s  of children, and a n x i e t i e s ,  and  salary  The  studies  the  variables  the variables  attainment,  might  o r which  ages  knowledge —  of children, labour  might  c i t e d provided age and b e i n g  marital  of  family,  might  poor h e a l t h ,  limited  expectations  support  —  need f o r f i n a n c i a l  and w o r k - r e l a t e d  transition. number  Studies  t h e t r a n s i t i o n process  to the l i t e r a t u r e  self-confidence, skills,  women making t h e  might p o t e n t i a l l y a c t as b a r r i e r s t o employment.  According status,  to indicate  review  facilitate  ethnic  origin,  lack  of childcare,  market  opportunities,  a c t as employment  contradictory head  stability,  barriers.  information f o r  o f t h e household.  This  -38-  may role  imply  t h a t these  variables  i n the t r a n s i t i o n p r o c e s s .  do not p l a y an i n f l u e n t i a l To c l a r i f y t h i s  these v a r i a b l e s t o g e t h e r w i t h those facilitators  or i n h i b i t o r s ,  q u e s t i o n n a i r e development.  situation,  i d e n t i f i e d as p o t e n t i a l  served as the framework  f o r the  -39-  CHAPTER 3  METHODOLOGY  The  purpose  designed  to obtain  transition The  study  of this  process  study  was t o develop  i n f o r m a t i o n on f a c t o r s  an  instrument  i n f l u e n c i n g the  o f women r e - e n t e r i n g t h e l a b o u r  c o n s i s t e d o f t h r e e phases,  each b u i l d i n g  force. on t h e  r e s u l t s o f t h e p r e v i o u s phase:  Phase I  -  Identification  and  Verification  of  Potential Variables Phase I I -  Item  Generation  and V a l i d a t i o n  by a  Panel  o f Expert Judges Phase I I I -  Empirical  Validation  by  Re-entry  Participants.  The  three  phases  are described  i n this  w i t h t h e r e s u l t s f o r Phases I and I I . I I I a r e p r e s e n t e d i n Chapter 4.  chapter,  together  The r e s u l t s o f Phase  -40-  Phase I - I d e n t i f i c a t i o n  and V e r i f i c a t i o n  of P o t e n t i a l V a r i a b l e s  With 25  the information variables  Re-entry  project  thought  women  coordinators  obtained  were  from  to influence presented  i n British  coordinators,  the l i t e r a t u r e  Columbia  who worked  review,  the transition  to Re-entry  project  for verification. directly  with  of  The  Re-entry  women, were asked t o c o n s i d e r whether each v a r i a b l e was an important  i n f l u e n c e upon t h e t r a n s i t i o n  o f Re-entry  women  (see Appendix A f o r t h e Phase I q u e s t i o n n a i r e ) .  In  the spring  Bowen tors allow  Island,  o f 1986, a two-day British  i n the province. coordinators  Columbia  conference  was h e l d on  f o r a l l Re-entry  coordina-  The i n t e n t o f t h i s conference  an o p p o r t u n i t y  to discuss  was t o  concerns and  i d e a s about t h e Re-entry program, and t o network w i t h  other  coordinators.  At  t h e end o f t h e f i r s t  distributed  day, t h e Phase I q u e s t i o n n a i r e was  t o t h e 32 c o o r d i n a t o r s i n attendance.  -41-  C o o r d i n a t o r s were asked t o point Very  scale  (1 = Not  Important,  important their  4  =  Extremely  goals  to  of  was  Important)  deemed t o  work f o r c e . suggest and  they b e l i e v e d t o be  The  variables  i n terms of making a  from home t o the coordinators  the  using  a  four  Important, 2 = S l i g h t l y Important, 3 =  each v a r i a b l e  projects,  rate  according  be  f o r the  successful  Space was rate  to  how  women i n  transition  also provided  additional variables  for  which  i n f l u e n t i a l i n the t r a n s i t i o n p r o c e s s .  t h i s task  were t o  determine  if  coordinators  the  transition  considered:  a)  such  variables  process, b)  whether  were  influential  in  and some v a r i a b l e s  were o f  greater  r e s u l t s of  the  importance  than  others.  Prior  to  c a l c u l a t i n g the  naire,  i t was  rating  of  decided  l e s s than  2.0  that was  any  Phase I  variable  relatively  receiving  unimportant  t r a n s i t i o n p r o c e s s and would not be g i v e n f u r t h e r tion.  questiona to  mean the  considera-  -42-  Phase I R e s u l t s  Eighteen  questionnaires  conference.  Five  returned  coordinators  their  questionnaires  these  five,  four  were  home  returned  a t t h e end o f t h e  i n d i c a t e d a need  t o take  f o r further consideration. their  questionnaires  Of  by m a i l ,  y i e l d i n g an o v e r a l l response r a t e o f 68.8%.  The mean r a t i n g s f o r t h e 25 i n i t i a l l y are p r e s e n t e d  i n Table from  1.  identified variables  These v a r i a b l e s a r e arranged i n  rank  order  t h e highest  mean r a t i n g  Nine  a d d i t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s suggested  t o t h e lowest.  by c o o r d i n a t o r s a r e  l i s t e d a t t h e bottom o f t h e t a b l e .  As  shown  i n Table  questionnaire since  were  1, a l l v a r i a b l e s l i s t e d retained  f o r further  i n t h e Phase I consideration,  a l l r e c e i v e d a mean r a t i n g g r e a t e r than  initial  v a r i a b l e s plus  t h e nine  suggested  2.0.  The 25  by c o o r d i n a t o r s  p r o v i d e d 34 v a r i a b l e s f o r f u r t h e r development i n Phase I I .  TABLE 1 PHASE I VARIABLE RATING RESULTS (N = 22)  VARIABLE  MEAN RATING  VARIABLE  MEAN RATING  Self-Confidence Employment O p p o r t u n i t i e s Self-image Anxiety Stress Type o f T r a i n i n g A v a i l a b l e O r a l Communication S k i l l s Assertiveness Fear o f Appear Incompetent A v a i l a b i l i t y o f C h i l d Care Being Head o f Household W r i t t e n Communication S k i l l s Self-Acceptance  3 .45 3 .41 3 .27 3 .14 3 .14 3 .14 3 .09 3 .00 2 .95 2 .93 2 .91 2 .91 2 .86  D e c i s i o n Making A b i l i t i e s Family Issues Willingness to Travel Support o f Family S k i l l Level Ages o f C h i l d r e n Access t o T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Depression M a r i t a l Status Number o f C h i l d r e n Years Previous Exp. Age  2 .86 2 .86 2 .86 2 .78 2 .77 2 .76 2 .68 2 .48 2 .36 2 .36 2 .23 2 .14  VARIABLE  MEAN RATING  VARIABLE  MEAN RATING  Appearance F i n a n c i a l Need Education H e a l t h (Mental) Health (Physical)  3.5 3.5 3.0 3.0 3.0  Motivation S a l a r y Expectations Spousal Support Long Term Goal S e t t i n g  3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0  A d d i t i o n a l V a r i a b l e s Suggested  -44-  PHASE I I - Item G e n e r a t i o n and V a l i d a t i o n by a Panel o f E x p e r t Judges  Item G e n e r a t i o n  Given the r e s u l t s from Phase I, the 34 v a r i a b l e s thought t o influence  Re-entry women were o r g a n i z e d i n t o the f i v e  categories  established  Background,  b) M a r i t a l and Family R e l a t i o n s ,  Characteristics, Financial  in  d) S k i l l s  Chapter  2:  a)  main  Biographical  c)  Personality  and A t t i t u d e Toward Work, and  and Economic M a t t e r s .  e)  Then, employing t e c h n i q u e s  and methods p r e s e n t e d i n Aero and Weiner  (1981), B e r d i e and  Anderson  Kane  (1985),  Moser  and  Bradburn  (1982),  a pool  of  Kalton 111 of  (1974),  (1971),  items was  and  Kagan  (1985),  Sudman and  established  the v a r i a b l e s .  The  t o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n about  number o f items developed  c a t e g o r y i s l i s t e d below. B i o g r a p h i c a l Background M a r i t a l and Family R e l a t i o n s Personality Characteristics S k i l l s and A t t i t u d e Toward Work F i n a n c i a l and Economic M a t t e r s  - 8 - 23 - 63 - 9 - 8  each  f o r each  -45-  Panel o f Expert Judges  The  first  items  i n the validation  was t o o b t a i n t h e r e a c t i o n  judges this  stage  with  task  experience  a group  working  o f seven  of the questionnaire  from with  highly  a panel Re-entry  qualified  o f expert women. F o r  experts  with  d i v e r s i f i e d backgrounds was used:  1)  A Family and Marriage C o u n s e l l o r ,  2)  A Career C o u n s e l l o r ,  3)  A D i r e c t o r o f a Personnel Agency,  4)  A  Social  Worker  from  the Ministry  of  Social  S e r v i c e s and Housing, 5)  A  Job Re-entry  and Immigration 6)  A Re-entry  Program  Officer  from  Employment  Canada,  woman i n v o l v e d i n Job Re-entry  Program  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and 7)  Each  A W r i t e r who i s c u r r e n t i n Women's I s s u e s .  o f the panel  expertise Re-entry  and was  program.  members  represented  currently  working  a unique with  women  area o f in  the  -46-  Task A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  The of  p a n e l members were asked t o independently r a t e t h e p o o l 111 items  using  a  i n two ways.  four  Slightly  point  Likert  Relevant,  Relevant) ,  3  t h e degree  =  First, scale Very  each  Relevant,  f o r each  f i v e main c a t e g o r i e s i d e n t i f i e d they f e l t suggest items  the t i t l e s  they  =  2 =  Extremely  item  t o the  Second, t h e members  item s e l e c t e d  from t h e  from t h e l i t e r a t u r e  or,  i f  were i n a p p r o p r i a t e , they were asked t o  an a l t e r n a t i v e . which  4  o f r e l e v a n c e o f each  a category t i t l e  indicated  (1 = Not Relevant,  t r a n s i t i o n p r o c e s s f o r Re-entry women. indicated  member  felt  They were a l s o were  worded  asked  in a  to identify  confusing or  o f f e n s i v e manner, and t o suggest improvements i n wording.  The r a t i n g package c o n s i s t e d o f t h e f o l l o w i n g m a t e r i a l s : 1)  An i n s t r u c t i o n sheet e x p l a i n i n g t h e r a t i n g procedures,  2)  D e f i n i t i o n s o f t h e f i v e main suggested c a t e g o r i e s , and  3)  The r a t i n g  Since  form.  the r a t i n g  package was d i s t r i b u t e d  and c o l l e c t e d i n  person, t h e r e was no need t o i n c l u d e a c o v e r i n g l e t t e r o r a r e t u r n envelope. i n Appendix B.)  (The Phase I I r a t i n g package i s presented  -47-  A n a l y s i s o f Data:  The  Panel Members Responses  method o f a n a l y s i s  similar  f o r the panel  t o t h a t developed  by Horvath  members' r a t i n g s (1981).  Two  was  summary  s t a t i s t i c s were c a l c u l a t e d f o r each item: 1)  The mean r a t i n g o r a r i t h m e t i c mean o f t h e r a t i n g s a s s i g n e d by t h e panel members.  2)  Percent  agreement  percentage  on c a t e g o r y  of panel  members  - defined who  as the  classified  an  item i n t h e same c a t e g o r y .  For  each  based  item,  t h e mean r a t i n g  upon t h e t o t a l  were used  following An  number o f r a t i n g s made.  form  rephrased,  The r e s u l t s  of the questionnaire. or eliminated  Items were  according  to the  criteria:  item  than  agreement were  t o r e v i s e t h e item p o o l p r i o r t o c o n s t r u c t i n g t h e  Phase I I I o r f i n a l retained,  and p e r c e n t  was  r e t a i n e d i f i t s mean  o r equal  rating  t o 2.75 and i t s p e r c e n t  g r e a t e r than o r equal t o 70%.  was  greater  agreement  was  -48-  An  item  was  rephrased  criterion,  but  improvements  i n the  mean r a t i n g percent  was  two  i f  or  a)  i t met  the  more  raters  suggested  phrasing of  the  item  or  g r e a t e r than or equal t o 2.75  agreement  was  less  than  70%  but  first  b) i t s and i t s  g r e a t e r than  or  equal t o  57%.  An  item was  r e j e c t e d i f i t had a mean r a t i n g l e s s  2.75  o r a p e r c e n t agreement l e s s than  than  57%.  Phase I I R e s u l t s  The  results  of  the  above  analysis  are  listed  t o g e t h e r w i t h the a c t i o n taken f o r each item. items were r e t a i n e d items were i n i t i a l l y  Rewording was the  indicated judges  with  preferred  the items.  an  As shown, 50  i s , 11 items were rephrased, and  by  two  or more judges  r e c e i v e d mean r a t i n g s  agreements  2  50  rejected.  suggested  items t h a t  percent  as  i n Table  greater asterisk  positive  than  on  seven  g r e a t e r than 2.75  70%.  i n Table  These 2.  items  examples:  and are  G e n e r a l l y , the  r a t h e r than n e g a t i v e wording  The f o l l o w i n g are two  of  for  -49-  Item 14  Judges P r e f e r e n c e  There i s no sense o f  There i s a r e a l sense o f  c l o s e n e s s i n my f a m i l y .  c l o s e n e s s i n my f a m i l y .  Item 17  Judges P r e f e r e n c e  L i f e i n my f a m i l y i s  L i f e i n my f a m i l y i s  g e n e r a l l y unhappy.  g e n e r a l l y happy.  The a  f o u r remaining  items  requiring  rephrasing  (marked  with  " t " i n T a b l e 2) were g e n e r a l l y changed t o a more simple,  l e s s c o m p l i c a t e d wording.  The f o l l o w i n g a r e two examples:  Item 1  Rephrased  For how many years have  How many y e a r s ago  you been without p a i d  were you l a s t employed?  employment?  Item 38  Rephrased  For you p e r s o n a l l y , how  For you p e r s o n a l l y , how  important  important  i s getting a job  ( f o r o t h e r than economic reasons)?  job?  i s getting a  -50Table 2 Phase I I R a t i n g R e s u l t s (n = 7 Judges) Item #  Mean Rating  Category  Percent Agreement  1 2 ' 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10  3.43 2.57 3.00 3.43 3.00 3 .29 1.71 3.43 2.57 3.43  BB FE PC SA PC PC PC PC MF PC  57.1 57.1 85.7 85.7 71.4 57.1 42.9 85.7 100.0 100. 0  11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20  3.29 3 .57 2.43 3.14 3.29 3.14 3 .14 2.57 2.36 1.57  MF MF MF MF MF MF MF PC PC BB  100.0 100. 0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100. 0 100.0 100.0 100. 0 71.4  21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30  2.50 2.86 3 .14 3.29 3.00 2.43 2.86 2 .29 2.00 3.00  MF MF MF MF FE PC SA PC PC PC  57.1 85.7 100.0 100. 0 42.9 85.7 42.9 100.0 100.0 85.7  Rej e c t Retain Retain Retain Reject Rej e c t Reject Reject Rej e c t Retain  31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40  3.29 2.71 2.57 3.00 3.71 2.86 3.00 3 .86 2 . 00 2.86  PC PC PC PC MF MF PC SA PC PC  100. 0 100. 0 100. 0 100. 0 100. 0 100.0 100.0 57.1 85.7 71.4  Retain Reject Rej e c t Retain Retain Retain Retain t Rephrase Reject Retain  Action t  Rephrase Reject Retain Retain Retain t Rephrase Reject Retain Reject Retain  * * *  Retain Retain Reject Rephrase Rephrase Retain Rephrase Rej e c t Rej e c t Rej e c t  (Table continues)  -51(Table 2  continued)  41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50  2.71 2.71 3.00 2.86 2.14 2.43 1.71 2.86 2.71 2.71  PC PC PC PC PC PC PC PC MF BB  85.7 71.4 85.7 85.7 85.7 71.4 100. 0 100.0 57.1 85.7  Reject Rej e c t Retain Retain Reject Reject Reject Retain Reject Rej e c t  51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60  2.57 3 .14 3.00 2.86 2.67 2 .57 3.14 3.14 3.86 2.50  PC MF SA SA MF MF FE PC MF PC  100.0 71.4 71.4 71.4 71.4 42.9 100.0 71.4 85.7 85.7  Rej e c t Retain Retain Retain Reject Rej e c t Retain Retain Rephrase Reject  61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70  3 .14 2.71 2.71 3.00 3 .14 2.71 3.29 2.86 3.14 3.14  PC PC PC PC PC PC SA PC SA PC  85.7 100.0 100.0 85.7 100. 0 100.0 100. 0 71.4 85.7 100.0  71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80  2.86 2 .57 3.00 2 .57 3 . 00 2.86 3.29 3.33 3.00 2 .86  PC PC PC PC PC PC PC PC PC PC  85.7 85.7 • 85.7 85.7 100. 0 85.7 100.0 85.7 100. 0 100.0  81 82 83 84 85 86  3.14 3.14 2.14 2.14 2.00 3.43  PC PC FE FE FE SA  100.0 71.4 57.1 100.0 100. 0 85.7  *  Retain Reject Reject Retain Retain Rej e c t Retain Retain Retain Retain  *  Retain Reject Retain Rej e c t Rephrase Retain Retain Retain Retain Retain Retain Retain Reject Reject Reject Retain  (Table c o n t i n u e s )  -52(Table 2 continued) 87 88 89 90  2 .71 1.29 2.14 2.71  MF MF BB BB  71.4 71.4 85.7 71.4  91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100  2.57 3.57 2.86 2.83 1.86 2.71 2.36 2.43 2.29 2.29  MF SA BB MF BB PC PC PC PC PC  85.7 100.0 71.4 85.7 85.7 71.4 85.7 85.7 85.7 85.7  101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111  3 .57 3 . 00 3.00 3.14 3.71 1.86 2.86 2.14 1.71 1.71 3.17  PC PC PC PC PC PC BB PC FE PC FE  100.0 71.4 85.7 85.7 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 71.4 57.1  Reject Rej e c t Rej e c t Reject  * *  Reject Retain Rephrase Rephrase Reject Rej e c t Rej e c t Rej e c t Rej e c t Rej e c t Retain Retain Retain Retain Retain Reject Retain Reject Reject Rej e c t t Rephrase  Summary Retained  50  Rephrased  11  Rejected  50  Categories BB MF PC SA FE  = = = = =  * r e p h r a s i n g suggested by 2 o r more judges, " t " required rephrasing  B i o g r a p h i c a l Background M a r i t a l & Family R e l a t i o n s Personality Characteristics S k i l l s & A t t i t u d e Toward Work F i n a n c i a l & Economic F a c t o r s  -53-  Of  the  50  items  panel  ratings,  these  items  -  responsibility Marital (item the  four  50)  were  marital  rejected  was  status  (item  there  was  items was  high  based  variability  of these items. reported  Factors  items,  87)  of the Two  of  financial  were  from the item - age  Background  category;  (item 2) was from t h e  category.  The d e c i s i o n t o  on two o b s e r v a t i o n s .  i n t h e judges'  First,  r a t i n g s on each  Second, t h e s t r e n g t h o f these v a r i a b l e s as  i n the l i t e r a t u r e  be i n f l u e n t i a l  and  the t h i r d  the Biographical  and Economic  these  88)  R e l a t i o n s category;  from  retained.  (item  f o u r t h item - s a l a r y e x p e c t a t i o n s  retain  on t h e b a s i s  subsequently  f o r t h e household  and Family  Financial  four  initially  suggested these v a r i a b l e s  i n the t r a n s i t i o n  there  process.  Including  could these  were 65 items r e t a i n e d f o r t h e Phase I I I  questionnaire.  Phase I I I Q u e s t i o n n a i r e :  The  65  items  comprised  were  t h e Phase  The F i n a l Form  organized  into  the f i v e  I I I questionnaire.  subtests  The f i r s t  that  subtest  c o n s i s t e d o f t r u e / f a l s e items measuring s k i l l s and' a t t i t u d e toward  work.  consisted  The  second,  of m u l t i p l e  characteristics,  third,  choice  marital  items and  f i n a n c i a l and economic f a c t o r s .  and  fourth  concerning  family  subtests  personality  r e l a t i o n s , and  The f i n a l s u b t e s t o f t h e  -54-  questionnaire information.  requested  The  U.B.C. graduate testing  and  design  questionnaire  students  and  was  was  then  They  i n the  provided and  background  reviewed  experience  organization),  Revisions  questionnaire  with  measurement.  (spacing  directions.  biographical  two  field  of  comments  on  the  were made a c c o r d i n g l y .  then p i l o t  by  tested with  on  the  clarity The  of  revised  a group  of  eight  Re-entry women.  Participants  i n the  minutes  complete  to  pilot  group r e q u i r e d  the  following  difficulty  understanding Since  participant,  the  o f the  pilot  group was  easier  to  the  this  directions. the  difficulty  This  expressed  by  members of the  question  i n q u i r i n g about  From t h e i r p e r s p e c t i v e ,  was  pilot  the  speaking  a definite  a s s e t when attempting  result  this  was  of  added  to  discussion  the  final version).  final  a  had  and  unique  A general  to  this  consensus  a larger print Another  group was  the  opinion  l a c k of  languages  more than one  language  questionnaire  regarding (see  a  spoken.  t o g a i n employment.  question  no  optimistic  was  of  30  had  made.  number  of  women  t h a t they would f i n d change  They One  terms  terms were r e t a i n e d .  read.  average  questionnaire.  difficulty  pessimistic.  an  was As  a  languages  Appendix  C  for  -55-  PHASE I I I - E m p i r i c a l V a l i d a t i o n by Re-entry P a r t i c i p a n t s  Sample S e l e c t i o n  The  target  chose  population  to participate  sponsored  primarily  and Immigration  f o r Re-entry p r o j e c t s  o f the labour  force  women who  training  projects  Canada.  Eligible  a r e women who have been  f o r a t l e a s t three  years,  engaged i n homemaking a c t i v i t i e s ,  assistance  who a r e  and who r e q u i r e  i n making t h e t r a n s i t i o n i n t o t h e l a b o u r  Participants  must  be unemployed  more than 2 0 hours p e r week. t o work i n Canada ment,  included  i n J o b Re-entry  by Employment  participants out  f o r t h e study  p a r t - t i m e not  They must be l e g a l l y  (EIC, Re-entry: Guide t o Proposal  1985, p . 6 ) .  allowance  o r working  as income  A l l participants support  force.  receive  entitled Develop-  a training  f o r t h e duration  of their  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e program.  Due  to limitations  projects,  the actual  validation participants Columbia.  i n travel sample  and a c c e s s used  of the questionnaire i n the Greater  The q u e s t i o n n a i r e  Lower  t o Re-entry  f o r the empirical was  restricted  Mainland  was administered  to  of British  to a l l  -56-  available quarter June  Re-entry  of  to  their  p a r t i c i p a n t s who  Re-entry  September,  program  1987.  This  e i g h t d i f f e r e n t p r o j e c t s who training  in  accounting,  the  fields  during  in  the  involved  the  final  period  from  women  from  108  were r e c e i v i n g s p e c i f i c  of  computers, and  were  secretarial,  retail  skills sales,  automotive s k i l l s .  Task A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  The  finalized  the  Job  A  presentation  study  before  III questionnaire  was  each  asked t o  i n which  described  sign a l e t t e r  advised  their  that  confidentially,  for  Appendix verbal  Following was  this  purposes  of  C) .  I t was  felt  explanation,  and  and v a l i d i t y of  the  tracked  the  completion for  up  to  the  anonymity  of  investigator then to  the  p a r t i c i p a n t s were  would  questionnaire  that  purpose  responding  protected,  present  to  settings.  p a r t i c i p a n t was  the  responses  from the  and  principal  Each  anonymity would be  collected  nature  letter,  the  reliability  the  administered  classroom  of consent b e f o r e  In  information  by  the  administration.  questionnaire.  only  was  Re-entry p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e i r  verbal  the  Phase  be and  would  that  would be  research familiar  treated  study  the used (see  environment, enhance  the  responses.  of t h e i r p r o j e c t , each p a r t i c i p a n t eight  weeks  to  determine  if a  -57-  transition period  into  used  by  determining transition (EIC  employment Employment  into  Each  from  B - EMP  participant  weeks  was  who  a Job Re-entry 3658,  i s the  Canada when  of participants  t h e workplace Schedule  Eight  and I m m i g r a t i o n  the percentage  Agreement,  "C") .  was made.  make a program  Objectives clause  c o n t a c t e d by telephone  once  every two weeks u n t i l they e i t h e r a c q u i r e d a j o b o r f o r t h e maximum p e r i o d  o f e i g h t weeks.  The telephone  interviewing  form i s p r e s e n t e d i n Appendix C.  Phase I I I Data P r e p a r a t i o n and A n a l y s i s  Responses t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e and telephone i n t e r v i e w were entered  into  Centre.  a  computer  The f i l e  was  interdependent  analyses  were  Initially,  the panel  analyses  o f expert  were then  distinguished transitions procedures  and those involved  those who  completed  and  factor  o f items  Discriminant function  t o determine women  d i d not.  i n these  p r e s e n t e d i n Chapter 4.  item  (.10%)  from t h e l i t e r a t u r e and  judges.  performed  between  errors  t o c o n f i r m t h e placement  into the f i v e categories i d e n t i f i e d from  nine  Computing  The data a n a l y s e s were  stages.  conducted  a t t h e U.B.C.  100% v e r i f i e d ;  were found and c o r r e c t e d . in  file  who  which made  variables successful  A description  o f the  a n a l y s e s and t h e r e s u l t s a r e  -58-  CHAPTER 4  RESULTS  The  results  from  study a r e r e p o r t e d First  a  results  o f t h e item next,  discriminated employment those  analysis  between  within  variables  were  by p r e s e n t a t i o n  further  explored  The  analysis are  variables  t h e women who s u c c e s s f u l l y eight  identified.  order.  of the r e s u l t s of  i n which  the stipulated  who d i d not were  of the  i s presented.  and t h e f a c t o r  analysis  phase  i n the following  o f t h e sample  followed  discriminant  validation  i n t h i s chapter  description  reported the  the empirical  week  These  that gained  p e r i o d and  discriminating  i n a series  of bivariate  a n a l y s e s , t h e r e s u l t s o f which conclude t h e c h a p t e r .  Description  The Of  questionnaire this  number,  participant's  o f t h e Sample  was a d m i n i s t e r e d  t o 108 Re-entry women.  106 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  questionnaire  was withdrawn  because t h e p a r t i c i p a n t  entered  second  was w i t h d r a w n  questionnaire  were  school  retained. from  t h e study  and n o t a j o b . since  One  The  i t was n o t  -59-  possible  t o obtain  investigator locate  this  follow-up  nor the project participant  information; coordinator  following  n e i t h e r the were  able t o  t h e end o f h e r t r a i n i n g  program.  A  biodemographic  participants the  description  i s provided  women were  between  20  i n Table t h e ages  were between 35 and 44. of  o f t h e group 3.  o f 106 Re-entry  As shown,  3 6.8%  of  o f 25 and 34, and 40.6%  Less than 5% were between t h e ages  and 24, and o n l y  two p a r t i c i p a n t s  (1.9%) were  older  than 54 y e a r s .  The  largest  further than  group  o f women  9.4% r e p o r t e d  41% were  (24.5%).  Nine  (37.7%)  were  l i v i n g with a partner.  either women  separated  (8.5%)  (17.0%)  had never  married  and a  S l i g h t l y more or  divorced  married;  3  (2.8%)  were widowed.  The  majority  o f t h e women  one  to five  children.  children. reported  Eight  The m a j o r i t y that  their  (92.4%) were p a r e n t s  eldest  participants  o f women w i t h child  with  (7.6%)  children  was o f s c h o o l  from  had no (82.5%)  age; f i v e  -60Table 3 Biodemographic Information on Re-entry (n = 106)  Variable  Participants  Frequency  % of Total  5 39 43 17 2  4.7 36.8 40.6 16.0 1.9  9 10 40 18 26 3  8 9, 37 17, 24 2  Age 20-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 > 54 M a r i t a l Status S i n g l e , Never M a r r i e d L i v i n g With P a r t n e r Married Separated Divorced Widowed Parental Status  (Number o f C h i l d r e n a t Home)  0 1 2 3 4 5 (No C h i l d r e n ) Age o f E l d e s t  7 23 44 16 7 1 8  6.6 21.7 41.5 15.1 6.6 0.9 7.6  5 35 40 11 8 7  5.5 38.5 44.0 12.1  (or only) C h i l d a t Home  P r e - s c h o o l Age Elementary School Age Secondary School Age O l d e r than 18 Years (No c h i l d r e n ) (No c h i l d r e n a t home)  (Table continues)  -61(Table 3 continued) Variable  Frequency  % of Total  8 45 14 1 8 23  11.8 66.2 20.6 1.5  0 30 36  0.0 28.3 34.0  25  23.6  13 2  12.3 1.9  83 17 3 1 2  78.3 16.0 2.8 0.9 1.9  15 24 29 13 25  14.2 22.6 27.4 12.3 23.6  Age o f Youngest C h i l d a t Home P r e - s c h o o l Age Elementary School Age Secondary School Age O l d e r than 18 Years (No c h i l d r e n ) (Only c h i l d a t home) Education Grade School Some High School High School Graduate Some C o l l e g e or U n i v e r s i t y College or University Graduate Graduate School Number o f Languages Spoken 1 2 3 4 5 P r e v i o u s Work E x p e r i e n c e >1 Year 1-3 Years 4-6 Years 7-10 Years >10 Years  (Table continues)  -62(Table 3 continued)  Variable  Frequency  % of Total  39 18 10 13 26  36.8 17.0 9.4 12.3 24.5  64 14 8 3 13 4  60.4 13.2 7.5 2.8 12.3 3.8  97 9  91.5 8.5  69 37  65.1 34.9  Number o f Years Since L a s t Employment 3-4 Years 5-6 Years 7-8 Years 9-10 Years > 10 Years Type o f Work Sought Secretarial R e t a i l Sales Accounting Computers Corrections Automotive Hours o f Work Sought Full-Time Part-Time Transition Successful Unsuccessful  -63-  (5.5%) Most  reported  their  eldest child  (86.8%) o f t h e youngest  of  school  age; e i g h t  was o f p r e - s c h o o l age.  c h i l d r e n were  (11.8%)  were  reported  reported  t o be  t o be o f  p r e - s c h o o l age.  All  t h e women had some secondary  (71.8%) had graduated post-secondary attended  from h i g h  school  one language.  school  training.  graduate s c h o o l .  school  education.  Most  and 37.8% had some  Two  women  (1.9%) had  Most o f t h e women (78.3%) spoke  The remaining  were  either bilingual  (16.3%)  or m u l t i l i n g u a l (5.6%).  The number o f years they  withdrew  largest to  from  percentage  s i x years,  p r e v i o u s work  24.5%  since  t h e work  o f t h e women b e f o r e  force varied  greatly.  (27.4%) had p r e v i o u s l y worked  while  23.6% h a d more  than  The  from  four  10 y e a r s  of  experience.  Three t o f o u r years time  o f work experience  these  was t h e most  women were  o f t h e women, more than  they were l a s t employed.  last  frequent  (36.8%) l a p s e o f  employed.  t e n years  However, f o r  had e l a p s e d  since  -64-  The  majority  employment type  (60.4%)  of the participants  i n the s e c r e t a r i a l  o f work  sought  field.  were  seeking  Regardless  of the  91.5% o f t h e women wanted  full-time  employment.  In  a l l , 69 women  within  56  days  program.  Thirty  (65.1%)  made  a  successful transition  f o l l o w i n g t h e end o f t h e i r seven  women  (34.9%)  training  d i d n o t make a  t r a n s i t i o n during that period.  The  106  different geographic British  participants types  of  Columbia.  the small  projects  of occupational t r a i n i n g ,  locations  participants  attended  w i t h i n the Greater  offering s i x  and w i t h i n t h r e e Lower Mainland o f  Shown i n T a b l e 4 i s t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f  by p r o j e c t  and geographic  number o f p a r t i c i p a n t s  the v a r i o u s o c c u p a t i o n s  location.  i n each  i n v o l v e d , t h i s study  Because  p r o j e c t , and  focused on t h e  data o b t a i n e d from t h e group as a whole f o r t h e purposes o f v a l i d a t i n g the questionnaire.  -65-  Table 4  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f P a r t i c i p a n t s By O c c u p a t i o n a l Type and Geographic L o c a t i o n  Geographic L o c a t i o n  Occupation  Urban  Suburban  Secretarial  38  18  8  64  R e t a i l Sales  0  11  3  14  Accounting  7  1  0  8  Computers  1  0  3  Corrections  0  0  13  13  Automotive  _0  _4  0  4  Total  46  36  24  2  Rural  Total  106  -66-  Test  The  first  step  involved  a  analyses.  As  were  1974). with  or  factor  The  with  discriminant  the  Questionnaire  and  discriminant  to  program  correlations  were  item-subtest items  further  high  To  of  confirm  internal  factors  was or  made a  were  each  variables  to this  subtest  examined  was  (Nelson, and  items  correlations  were  then the  to  confirm  LERTAP  subjected  presence  consistency.  performed  items  corresponding  literature.  consistency  retained  women who  d i d not.  III  subtests  computer  analysis  identified  Re-entry  Phase  factor,  five  i n the  negative  analysis  clusters  in  internal  using  removed.  item,  grouped  Item-subtest low  of  the  d e s c r i b e d i n the p r e v i o u s chapter, the  the  determined  who  series  identified  grouping,  the  in validating  initially  variables  Analyses  of  to  item  Finally,  determine  a  which  a of  d i s t i n g u i s h e d between  successful transition  and  those  -67-  Item A n a l y s i s  The  results  of  the  summarized, i n T a b l e the  subtests  the r e s u l t s  as  item 5.  analyses  Panel  A  administered.  of  each  contains The  the  second  subtest  are  results  for  panel  contains  f o l l o w i n g removal o f items w i t h low o r n e g a t i v e  correlations.  taken  not  t o d i s b u r b or otherwise a l t e r the "content" assessed by  the  subtest,  In removing these  following  the  items,  suggestion  c a r e was  of  Cronbach  (1971,  p.458).  Sense of Competence Subtest  As  shown  in  consistency  Table of  administration)  5,  the was  Hoyt's  Sense 0.69.  correlations revealed f i v e —  items  performed lacking = 0.23).  1,2,9,16, and  17.  of  Estimate  of  Competence  Inspection of  the  internal  subtest  (initial  the  item-subtest  items w i t h v a l u e s l e s s than An a d d i t i o n a l  on  these  five  items but  (M =  5.62,  SD = 0.80,  item a n a l y s i s  internal  Hoyt E s t i m a t e  consistency of  0.20 was was  Reliability  Removal of these items r e s u l t e d i n an i n c r e a s e i n  i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y t o 0.75  ( c f . T a b l e 5, p a n e l B).  -68-  Table 5 Subtest Item A n a l y s i s R e s u l t s  Subtest  No. o f Items  Mean  Standard Deviation  Hoyt Estimate of Internal Consistency  A. I n i t i a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Sense o f Competence Self-Assessment Attitude Toward Work Family A f f a i r s Financial Matters  17  22.91  2.96  0.69  9  15.82  4.41  0.83  14 11  29.30 18.48  3.70 5.56  0. 63 0.73  13.32  3 .48  0.27  12 21  17.28 34.96  2.85 7.33  0.75 0.85  11  18.48  5.56  0.73  6  13.32  3.48  0.27  6  B. Items w i t h Low C o r r e l a t i o n s Removed Sense o f Competence Personal Strength Self-Assessment and A t t i t u d e Toward Work Family A f f a i r s Financial Matters  -69-  Self-Assessment and A t t i t u d e Toward Work  The  internal  0.83;  consistency  a l l nine  0.40.  The  items  item-subtest  internal  Work s u b t e s t ,  0.63,  comprising  was  these  20  measures  toward  work.  consistency  Given  1  the  two  for  and the  subtests  Estimate  formed s u b t e s t  of  entitled  no  the of  Question measures could  effect  =  2.06, on  remained a t 0.85  the  items  relatively Toward  explored.  Personal  c o r r e l a t i o n s (23A, M  the  Reliability  item-subtest  had  22  confidence  number of  was  from t h i s  23B,  of  t h a t many  example,  Question  Attitude  were removed  0.10;  For  and  small  subtest  (0.63)  combining the Hoyt s  capability  Toward  Inspection  revealed  i n content. and  Attitude  than  be  p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as w e l l as a t t i t u d e s  Self-Assessment  a  f o r the  subtests  capability Both  was  c o r r e l a t i o n s were g r e a t e r  somewhat lower. two  items were s i m i l a r  confidence.  Self-Assessment s u b t e s t  consistency  the  considered  of the  Subtests  of  in  the  low  internal  Work  subtest,  This resulted i n  0.85  Strength.  (9)  for  the  Items 23A  newly and  newly formed s u b t e s t because of  SD  =  0.94,  M  =  3.40,  ST  = 0.13).  Hoyt's Estimate  ( c f . Table 5, panel  ST  of  B).  =  1.14, This  Reliability  B low  ST  =  action which  -70-  Family A f f a i r s  The  internal  0.73;  Subtest  c o n s i s t e n c y o f t h e Family  a l l 11 i t e m - s u b t e s t  Affairs  s u b t e s t was  c o r r e l a t i o n s exceeded t h e c u t - o f f  v a l u e o f 0.20.  F i n a n c i a l Matters  Subtest  Unlike the previous  four subtests, the i n t e r n a l consistency  of t h e F i n a n c i a l Matters this  case,  s u b t e s t , 0.27, was q u i t e low.  each item was r e t a i n e d and t r e a t e d s e p a r a t e l y i n  the subsequent d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s e s . that  each o f these  aspect  of  In  the  items  tapped  financial  a separate  well-being  I t was  felt  and d i s c e r n i b l e  and  stability  of  Re-entry women.  An  item  a n a l y s i s on t h e 44  subtests Family  Sense  Affairs,  of 0.42  o f Competence,  resulted  correlations  the c o r r e l a t i o n  Personal  Strength  contained Personal  i n a Cronbach's  (M = 70.73, SD = 11.33).  corresponding While  items  was  Strength,  Stratified  and Alpha  Shown i n T a b l e 6 a r e t h e  among  between  i n the three  these  Sense  moderate  three  subtests.  o f Competence and  (0.48),  only  weak  -71-  correlation  were  Family  Affairs  Affairs  (0.12).  Stratified  observed (0.20)  between  and  Sense  Personal  of  Competence  Strength  and  and  Family  Together w i t h the low v a l u e f o r Cronbach's  Alpha,  these  correlations  suggested  a  three  f a c t o r model.  Table 6  C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x f o r Three S u b t e s t s  1 Subtest 1 Subtest 2 Subtest 3  Sense of Competence Personal Strength Family A f f a i r s  1 2 3  2  1.00 0.48 0.20  0. 48 1. 00 0.12  3 0.20 0. 12 1. 00  Factor Analysis  To  confirm  the  corresponding on  the  basis  presence  of  three  identifiable  t o the t h r e e s u b t e s t s , the of  the  item  analysis  were  44  items  factor  factors retained analyzed.  -72-  The  procedure a p p l i e d  (Harman,  1967)  1958 ) .  The  be  a p r i n c i p a l components  followed  by  a  Kaiser-Guttman  d e t e r m i n i n g the should  was  number o f  rotated;  that  identified The  three  the  results  Appendix D, on 1  any and  one 3,  factors  subtests, of  three  this  revealed o f the  and  3  Scree  items on  variables,  two  and the  solution,  which was  ascertain  whether  oblique 1958) .  Inspection  correlations  the  were  44  not  the among  of  the  four  f o u r f a c t o r s were independent  1966)  number  are  2.  presented  To  were  were  using  analysis  factors  in  this  the  15  rotated  four  retained.  factors  factors  separately The  in load  clarify  observed  of  rotated.  items loaded on  was  applied  this  to  factor  Lastly,  to  independent,  an  Oblimin  are  i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n matrix the  factors  initially  criterion.  the  was  17  for  items, 8 f a i l e d t o  1 and  factors  more simple, or  1960)  (Cattell,  which  complexity  varimax  results of  factors  four  transformation The  factors  t h r e e f a c t o r s , 12  reduce  to  Test  corresponded  t h a t of the  and  (Kaiser,  (Kaiser,  four.  analysis,  situation,  according  rule  rotation  factors indicated that  suggested t h r e e or, p o s s i b l y ,  Given  varimax  extraction  in  (Carroll,  Appendix  revealed  indicating  (see Appendix E ) .  that  E.  weak the  -73-  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the Four F a c t o r S o l u t i o n  S i x o f the 44 items  (3, 5, 26b, 27, 28, and 29) f a i l e d t o  l o a d on any one o f the f o u r f a c t o r s . (15,  F i v e a d d i t i o n a l items  18h, 25, 26a, and 26e) were o f complexity  Appendix E) .  The remaining  two ( c f .  33 items were f a c t o r  analyzed;  all  were o f complexity  one and r e t a i n e d .  As shown i n Table  7,  Factor  o f 16  measure  related  1 consists  to  Internal  confidence, "Self-Esteem. parts  3,  Factor  11  to  personal  strength  external  optimism).  each  four of  four  factor  was  0.90, 0.82, and .84.  titled  2, which c o n s i s t s s o l e l y  o f the s i x  i s a measure  Cohesion."  of  nine  o f "Family  items,  measures  variables  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of personality  The  qualities,  was  internal  determined  factors  internal  variables  ( i . e . self-worth,  titled  "Personality  as  consistency  using  LERTAP  separate  consistencies  were,  and  assertiveness,  The f o u r t h f a c t o r , a doublet,  f a c t o r s was  corresponding  This  factor  From Mate."  the  that  Strength  ( i . e . personal  This  Characteristics."  the  32,  consisting  related  "Support  Personal  competence).  of Question  Factor  items  was  titled  o f each of by t r e a t i n g  subtests. i n order,  The .83,  -74Table 7 P a t t e r n M a t r i x Four F a c t o r Oblique S o l u t i o n  Item  Factor 1 Factor 2 S e l f - E s t e e m Family Cohesion  Factor 3 Factor 4 Personality Support C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s From Mate  4. I would never worry about... f a i l i n g t o meet work s t a n d a r d s . . .  .58  .17  .05  -.15  6. I would never worry about appearing t o be... beyond my capabilities...  .56  -.01  .14  -.15  7. I f someone i s e v a l u a t i n g me I tend to expect the worst  .46  -.16  .06  -.22  8. A f t e r completing an assignment... I am prone t o have doubts...  .67  .16  .09  .21  10. I am u s u a l l y .60 confident t h a t others w i l l have a f a v o u r a b l e o p i n i o n of me.  .21  .06  -.11  11. I tend t o f e a r .45 t h a t o t h e r s may see me as not s u f f i c i e n t l y self-disciplined.  .16  .08  -.18  12. I seem t o have a .52 r e a l inner strength...  .08  -.22  .12  13. I tend t o worry .55 t h a t o t h e r s may t h i n k I don * t know what 1 m doing.  -.16  -.03  .21  1  (Table continues)  (Table 7 continued) 14. I would v e r y much l i k e t o be l e s s apprehensive about my c a p a b i l i t i e s  .42  -.01  -.06  .11  -.05  -.57  .03 . 03  .16  18a.  Optimisim  18b.  Independence  -.07  . 05  -.76  18c.  Self-Reliance  -.03  .13  -.78  -.11  18d.  Assertiveness  -.01  -.02  -.54  .05  18e.  Motivation  -.06  .17  -.70  -.20  .10  -.07  -.66  .00  -.67  -.01  -.57  . 17  18f. C l e a r  Thinking  . 05  18g.  Concentration  -.04  18i.  Humor  -.13  19a.  O r a l Commun. Skills  .43  .20  .29  . 15  19b.  W r i t t e n Commun. Skills  .44  -.22  -.24  . 10  20. Would you say t h a t you f e e l . . . capable...  .51  -.21  -.30  . 12  21. A t t i t u d e r e : likelihood of finding a job  .46  -.21  -.16  .08  22. Confidence r e : a b i l i t y t o be a good employee  .41  -.08  .24  24. O p t i m i s t i c / Pessimistic  .24  -.43  .05  2 6c. I sometimes worry... worthwhile person  .51  .12  -.29  .02  26d. I g e n e r a l l y take a p o s i t i v e attitude...  .35  .23  -.20  .26  .12  -.08  (Table  -.16  continues)  -76(Table 7 continued) 30. A t t i t u d e o f spouse r e : r e t u r n t o work  -.08  .03  .11  .89  31. Support from relationship  -.01  .11  .10  .87  3 2a. The members o f -.02 my f a m i l y r e a l l y care about each o t h e r  .78  -.07  .01  32b. I can r e a l l y depend on my f a m i l y  .08  .75  .01  .06  32c. There i s a r e a l sense o f c l o s e n e s s i n my f a m i l y  .02  .89  .01  .06  32d. There seems t o be a l o t o f f r i c t i o n i n my f a m i l y  -.04  .68  -.13  -.04  32e. My f a m i l y i s a r e a l source o f comfort  .10  .84  .03  .02  32f. L i f e i n my family i s generally happy  .05  .89  -.02  .08  I n t e r n a l Consistency(a).83  .90  .82  .84  (a) Hoyt's E s t i m a t e o f I n t e r n a l  Consistency  Discriminant  The  four  factors plus  financial analysis who  variables  t o determine  made  Canada for  Analysis  successful  Employment  "transition"  participants transitions end  into  t h e biodemographic were  entered  i f they  into  Consideration  discriminant between women  t r a n s i t i o n s and those  and Immigration  ( d e f i n e d on p.13) two groups  training was  a  distinguished  given  who d i d  Commission's  definition  - those  program,  who made  successful  56 days f o l l o w i n g t h e  and those  to replacing  who d i d  this  the actual  frequency Figure  distribution for this  1.  As  immediately required  number o f days taken  upon  shown,  36  completion  a trend  required  or pattern  2 - 5 6  frequencies were  variable  women  a job.  The  i s displayed i n  assumed  of t h e i r  defined  a  program;  position 33 women  from 2 t o 56 days t o make a t r a n s i t i o n ; and 37 d i d  not make a t r a n s i t i o n w i t h i n of  t o obtain  not.  dichotomous  v a r i a b l e w i t h t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g continuous v a r i a b l e by  not.  was used t o o r g a n i z e t h e  from home t o work w i t h i n  of t h e i r  v a r i a b l e s and t h e  over  grouped  days  Because o f t h e l a c k  f o r t h e group  of 33  t o make a t r a n s i t i o n ,  t h e number  with  56 days.  the 36  o f days r e q u i r e d , women  who  made  women who  and t h e low these women an  immediate  t r a n s i t i o n t o form t h e t r a n s i t i o n group o f 69 women.  -78-  Figure 1  Frequency Histogram o f Days Required t o Make T r a n s i t i o n  NO OF FREQUENCY  DAYS  36  0  ************************************  8  1 - 4  ********  1  0  *  - 9  5  10-14  *****  4  15-19  ****  2  20-24  **  1  25 - 29  *  1  30 - 34  *  3  35-39  ***  1  40 - 44  *  1  45 - 49  *  2  50-54  **  4  55-56  ****  37  No t r a n s i t i o n  ************************************* 0  10  20  30  -79-  The  four  factors  t o g e t h e r w i t h the financial  conditions  for  of  used  belonged t o more than one  In completing the examined.  This a  and  First, entered  stepwise  solution  the  the  20  no  satisfied  three  individual  direct  function  was  two  obtained,  The  times  i n the  the  sample  p.38).  in  which  examined. in  two  s o l u t i o n s were  solution was  six  analysis.  least  analysis,  the  potentially  discriminant at  analysis  and  group (Tatsuoka, 1970,  discriminant  variables  factor  arrangement  (n=106) was  variables  the  constituted  conducting  size  from  biodemographic v a r i a b l e s  variables.  sample  number  ten  variables  discriminating  total  resulting  all  Second,  which  the  a  best  d i s c r i m i n a t i n g v a r i a b l e s were i d e n t i f i e d .  D i r e c t Method  The  structure  Discriminant the  Results  structure  relative  c o e f f i c i e n t s yielded  Analysis  are  discrimination.  of The  the  shown i n T a b l e 8.  c o e f f i c i e n t s were  importance  by  each  examined variable  variable  Direct The  to  Method  values  determine  in  attitude  of the  determining regarding  -80-  appropriate followed  j o b i n the labour  by  expectations (Question  marital (Question  status  market  (Question  (Question  49),  38), years  42), and s e l f - e s t e e m  o f work  salary  experience  ( F a c t o r 1 ) , c o n t r i b u t e d most  to the discriminant function.  Table 8 D i r e c t Method D i s c r i m i n a n t Function Analysis Structure C o e f f i c i e n t s Transition  36),  (n=69) v s . No T r a n s i t i o n (n=37)  Variable  Structure Coefficient  A t t i t u d e Regarding A p p r o p r i a t e Job M a r i t a l Status Expected Earnings No o f Years Worked Before Withdrawal Self-Esteem ( F a c t o r 1) Age o f E l d e s t C h i l d Number o f Languages Spoken P e r s o n a l i t y C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( F a c t o r 3) Age C o n t r o l Over F i n a n c i a l S i t u a t i o n E d u c a t i o n a l Attainment Support from Mate ( F a c t o r 4) No. o f C h i l d r e n a t Home Change i n Economic S i t u a t i o n Primary Reason f o r Wanting t o Work No. o f C h i l d r e n No o f Years S i n c e L a s t Employment Family Cohesion (Factor 2) Age o f Youngest C h i l d F i n a n c i a l R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r Household  -.350 .331 .286 .281 -.271 -.241 -.223 .203 .175 . 174 . 166 . 153 -.145 -.139 -.080 .077 -.074 -.052 -.020 -.010  -81-  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Results  To a s s e s s  the efficacy  of the d i r e c t  method  s o l u t i o n , the  p r e d i c t e d group membership was compared t o t h e a c t u a l  group  membership.  Although researchers generally engage i n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a s a means o f p r e d i c t i n g group membership f o r cases o f "unknown" membership, we can a l s o use i t t o t e s t t h e accuracy of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n procedure. We do t h i s by t a k i n g "known" c a s e s ( t h o s e used t o d e r i v e t h e classification functions) and applying the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n r u l e t o them. The p r o p o r t i o n o f cases c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f i e d i n d i c a t e s t h e a c c u r a c y o f t h e p r o c e d u r e and i n d i r e c t l y c o n f i r m s t h e degree o f group s e p a r a t i o n (Klecka, 1980, p.49). The  prior  subsample results  probabilities sizes.  predicted  t h e 20  Transition).  method  t o i n d i c a t e the  9, t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  solution  discriminating  membership  (Transition)  adjusted  As shown i n T a b l e  of the direct  together,  were  indicated  that  variables  correctly  f o r 89.0% o f t h e women  i n Group 1  and f o r 59.5% o f t h e women  i n Group  The o v e r a l l accuracy was 77.4%.  2 (No  -82-  Table 9 D i r e c t Method D i s c r i m i n a n t F u n c t i o n A n a l y s i s C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Matrix  Actual Group  No. o f Cases  P r e d i c t e d Group Membership  1 Transition  69  60 (87.0%)  2 No T r a n s i t i o n  37  15 (40.5%)  1  2 9 (13.0%) 22  (59.5%)  Percent o f "Grouped" Cases C o r r e c t l y C l a s s i f i e d :  77.4%  -83-  By  calculating a proportional  (tau) ,  it  can  be  seen  twenty  discriminating  that  In the  order to most  lambda  entering  the The  and  of  job  in  (Factor  .05  level  54.72%  on  fewer  the  errors  was  stepwise  performed.  Wilks's  employed  analysis —  as  criterion  self-esteem  resulted  languages (Question  36),  1) ,  spoken 47).  The a  regarding  (Question (Factor  in  for  used f o r both  (F=1.71).  attitude  were  a  of s i g n i f i c a n c e was  market  attainment  twenty v a r i a b l e s  variables,  variables  variables  4) , number o f  educational  analysis  statistic  labour  49) ,  the  discriminating  discriminant  the  (Question  which of  deleting  discriminating  based  chance.  discriminant  selection.  method  investigate  was  made  statistics  Results  useful  procedure  in error  classification  variables  than would be expected by  Stepwise Method  reduction  stepwise  set  of  six  appropriate  marital  support (Question  status  from 46) ,  mate and  -84-  Klecka an  (1980) suggested  optimal  not  (p.  (maximal) combination.  Following  Klecka's  produce  This  s e t may  To secure a maximal  suggestion,  combinations"  combinations o f  s e t o f s i x d i s c r i m i n a t i n g v a r i a b l e s were e x p l o r e d  series  of stepwise  produced  a maximal  regarding  support  status  from  (Question five  47) .  mate  classification  of five  analyses.  market  (Question 49) , s e l f - e s t e e m (Factor  variables  4),and  i na This  variables—attitude  j o b i n the labour  (Question  (Factor  educational  1) ,  attainment  c o e f f i c i e n t s of t h i s set of a r e shown i n T a b l e  r e s u l t s a r e shown i n T a b l e  discriminating  membership  discriminant  combination  The s t r u c t u r e  discriminating  five  method  appropriate  36) , m a r i t a l  and  variables.  one would have t o t e s t a l l p o s s i b l e  53).  the  "Stepwise procedures  set of discriminating  be t h e best  solution,  that,  variables  11.  correctly  f o r 92.8% o f t h e women i n Group  1  10.  The s e t o f predicted (Transition)  f o r 45.9% o f t h e women i n Group 2 (No T r a n s i t i o n ) .  o v e r a l l accuracy r a t e was 76.4%.  The  The  -85-  Table  10  Stepwise Method D i s c r i m i n a n t Function Analysis Structure C o e f f i c i e n t s  Variables  Structure Coefficient  A t t i t u d e Regarding A p p r o p r i a t e Job M a r i t a l Status S e l f - E s t e e m ( F a c t o r 1) E d u c a t i o n a l Attainment Support from Mate ( F a c t o r 4)  -.52 0 .491 -.403 .246 .227  Table  11  Stepwise Method D i s c r i m i n a n t F u n c t i o n A n a l y s i s C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Matrix  Actual Group  No. o f Cases  1  Transition  69  64 (92.8%)  5 ( 7.2%)  2  No T r a n s i t i o n  3?  20 (54.1%)  17 (45.9%)  Percent  P r e d i c t e d Group Membership 1 2  o f "Grouped" Cases C o r r e c t l y C l a s s i f i e d :  76.4%  -86-  By  again  statistic on  calculating (tau) ,  the f i v e  would  be  efficiently  proportional  i t can be seen t h a t  variables  reduction  by  chance.  variables  predicts  and almost  i n error  classification  alone made 52.83%  expected  discriminating  a  fewer e r r o r s  The group  as e f f e c t i v e l y  based  s e t of  than five  membership  more  (76.42% accuracy) as  the e n t i r e s e t o f 20 v a r i a b l e s .  To  further  series  explore  the f i v e  of descriptive  constructed  discriminating  bivariate  f o r each v a r i a b l e .  i n Appendix F; a d i s c u s s i o n  variables,  contingency  These t a b l e s  of the r e s u l t s  tables  a  were  are presented  follows.  A t t i t u d e Regarding A p p r o p r i a t e Job  Participants that  asked  the extent  t h e r e was an a p p r o p r i a t e  labour job  were  market  search  they  (Question 36).  transitions, statement,  provided  t o which  they  agreed  j o b f o r them i n t h e c u r r e n t apply  themselves  i n an a c t i v e  Of t h e women who made  49  (71.0%)  strongly  and a  further  15  (21.7%)  agreed  successful with  indicated  this  moderate  -87-  agreement.  In contrast,  more  than  half  (59.4%)  of the  women who d i d not make a t r a n s i t i o n , d i d n o t s t r o n g l y agree that  t h e labour  market  held  an a p p r o p r i a t e  j o b f o r them  (see T a b l e F - l ) .  Marital  Of  Status  t h e women who made s u c c e s s f u l t r a n s i t i o n s ,  e i t h e r married who  with  transitions did  a partner. was g r e a t e r  never married  single  only  35.1% were  The percentage than  not i n a l l categories  single, was  o r l i v i n g w i t h a p a r t n e r , w h i l e o f t h e women  d i d n o t make t r a n s i t i o n s  living  53.6% were  category.  and never married  or  o f women who made  t h e percentage of marital  married  o f women who  status  except t h e  Only one women (1.4%) who  made a s u c c e s s f u l  transition  w h i l e e i g h t (21.6%) d i d not (see Table F-2).  Self-Esteem  ( F a c t o r 1)  Self-esteem  was a l s o  Women who s c o r e d low s e l f - e s t e e m , success.  found  high  on t h i s  subtest  which a d v e r s e l y  F o r example,  t r a n s i t i o n s ,  t o be a c o n t r i b u t i n g v a r i a b l e .  18  a r e deemed t o have  affected their  transition  o f t h e women who made s u c c e s s f u l (26.1%)  rated  their  oral  -88-  communication their  oral  skills  as e x c e l l e n t  communication s k i l l s  self-esteem).  as good  I n comparison, o n l y  who d i d n o t make t r a n s i t i o n s r a t e d skills  as e x c e l l e n t  and 17  and 35  3  (50.7%)  rated  (indicating  high  (8.1%) o f t h e women  t h e i r o r a l communication  (45.9%)  gave  self-esteem  was  a rating  o f good  (see T a b l e F-3).  Another  example  of  c o n f i d e n c e about f i n d i n g who made s u c c e s s f u l or  moderately  a job.  t h e measure o f  S i x t y - s e v e n women  t r a n s i t i o n s were e i t h e r  confident  about  finding  very  (97.1%)  confident  a job after  their  t r a i n i n g program (see T a b l e F - 3 ) .  E d u c a t i o n a l Attainment  Women  who  attained  made  higher  levels  make  successful  made  successful  whereas had were  27  some  successful  transitions. transitions  college  generally  had  o f e d u c a t i o n than women who d i d not Sixteen  school  or university  or university  women  had some h i g h  (39.1%) were h i g h  college  transitions  school  graduates;  training;  graduates.  (23.2%)  who  training  15  (21.7%)  and 11  (15.9%)  By c o n t r a s t ,  14  -89-  (37.8%)  of  transitions high  t h e women  who  had some h i g h  school  graduates; 4  school 10  university  and  graduates.  The h i g h e s t  training;  (27.0%)  (10.8)  were  (24.3%) were  h a d some c o l l e g e or  college  or  university  had completed some h i g h  o r some c o l l e g e o r u n i v e r s i t y  graduate  9  successful  percentage o f women who  make s u c c e s s f u l t r a n s i t i o n s (37.8%)  d i d n o t make  did  not  school  (27.0%) b u t d i d not  (see Table F-4).  Support from Mate ( F a c t o r 4)  Of  t h e women who  had  made  successful transitions,  42  (60.9%)  a spouse o r p a r t n e r who approved o f t h e i r t r a i n i n g and  employment  efforts.  Only 16  (43.1%) o f t h e women who d i d  not make s u c c e s s f u l t r a n s i t i o n s had a spouse o r p a r t n e r who approved women  of their  who  made  relationship supportive make  with  whereas,  efforts.  successful their 15  (40.5%)  (55.1%)  transitions  spouse  successful transitions  warm and s u p p o r t i v e  Thirty-eight  o r partner  rated  (see Table F-5).  their  the  as warm and  o f t h e women who  rated  of the  did  not  r e l a t i o n s h i p s as  -90-  CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND IMPLICATIONS Summary  The  purpose  of this  study  was t o develop  designed  to obtain  valid  and r e l i a b l e  variables  which  might  why  some Re-entry  the  work  force  development results  women make  while  of the previous project  surveyed  t o determine  literature  they  process.  felt  In  items  the third  last  about  transitions  each  into  b u i l d i n g on t h e  In the f i r s t  i n British  variables  phase  as t o  phase,  Columbia  gleaned  were  from t h e  t o the t r a n s i t i o n  involved  generating  f o r t h e v a r i a b l e s and v a l i d a t i n g t h e  were  judges.  based  The items i n c l u d e d i n  upon  the results  o f the  opinions.  questionnaire  the  information  The q u e s t i o n n a i r e  were most important  o f expert  questionnaire  Re-entry  phase.  second  items by a p a n e l  experts'  phases,  coordinators  The  questionnaire  do n o t .  what  questionnaire  t o an e x p l a n a t i o n  successful  others  e n t a i l e d three  Re-entry  the  contribute  a  phase was  determined  women who were quarter  empirical  by t h e r e s p o n s e s  administered  of their  validation  training  of the o f 106  the questionnaire i n program.  Item and  -91-  factor  analyses  discriminant  were  conducted  on t h e r e s p o n s e s and  f u n c t i o n a n a l y s i s was employed  which v a r i a b l e s d i s t i n g u i s h e d between those  t o determine  women who made  s u c c e s s f u l t r a n s i t i o n s and those who d i d not.  F i v e main f a c t o r s - a) in  the current  self-esteem  a t t i t u d e regarding appropriate job  labour  d) e d u c a t i o n a l  mate were found  market  b)  marital  attainment  to distinguish  and e) support  an o v e r a l l  76.4%, between women who made a t r a n s i t i o n of completing  status  c) from  accuracy  rate of  within  56 days  t h e i r t r a i n i n g program and those who d i d not.  L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e Study  This  study  r e s u l t e d i n a q u e s t i o n n a i r e designed  information transition  regarding process  limitations employed  what  factors are i n f l u e n t i a l  f o r Re-entry women.  t o be c o n s i d e r e d  forpractical  t o provide  when  purposes.  in  the  However, t h e r e a r e  the questionnaire i s  Empirical v a l i d a t i o n of  the  q u e s t i o n n a i r e was based on t h e responses o f a sample o f  106  Re-entry  among  participants.  training  The p a r t i c i p a n t s were d i v i d e d  i n s i x different  occupational  types and  -92-  located  within  circumstances participants  three  geographic  resulted  i n each  locations.  i n very  occupational  small type  These  numbers  and  of  geographic  location.  With t h e s m a l l numbers o f p a r t i c i p a n t s i n each group i t was not  p o s s i b l e t o determine t h e e f f e c t s  o r geographic  Although  l o c a t i o n on t r a n s i t i o n a l  Job Re-entry  Government  Until  from  were  the Greater  sampled  type  success.  sponsored  i s d e l i v e r e d throughout  participants Columbia  training  of occupational  by t h e F e d e r a l  Canada, o n l y  Lower Mainland  f o r t h e purposes  Re-entry  of B r i t i s h  of this  study.  f u r t h e r s t u d i e s a r e conducted i n o t h e r r e g i o n s , i t i s  difficult  t o determine t h e g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y  and r e l i a b i l i t y  of the v a l i d i t y  o f the questionnaire t o other regions.  Conclusions  Of  t h e 106 R e - e n t r y  65.1% force  women  participating  made a s u c c e s s f u l t r a n s i t i o n while  34.9% d i d n o t .  i n this  study,  from home t o t h e labour  Empirical validation  of the  -93-  questionnaire influencing  developed  t o obtain  transition  identified  f a c t o r s which d i s t i n g u i s h e d with  76.4% a c c u r a c y .  consists current  market  a  on  factors  set of five  main  between t h e two groups o f women  The s e t o f d i s t i n g u i s h i n g  o f a) a t t i t u d e labour  information  regarding  b) m a r i t a l  appropriate status  factors  job i n  the  c) s e l f - e s t e e m d)  e d u c a t i o n a l attainment and e) support from mate.  While  none  factors  of the l i t e r a t u r e  as a s e t ,  there  surveyed  examined these  i s some c o n s i s t e n c y  with  five  previous  s t u d i e s which examined s i m i l a r f a c t o r s i n d i v i d u a l l y .  A t t i t u d e Regarding A p p r o p r i a t e Job  The from  factor  - attitude  the variable  employment  work.  attitude  opportunities  important v a r i a b l e Pearson  regarding  (1979)  She s t a t e d  that  work world may p r e s e n t (p.24).  Whether  attitude  about  toward  which  work  Re-entry  job,  t h e second  coordinators  realistic  women's a t t i t u d e  toward  about t h e  f o r many Re-entry women  o r not, l a c k  the availability  most  i n Phase I .  lack of s u f f i c i e n t realism an o b s t a c l e  evolved  and t h e v a r i a b l e  was r a t e d  by t h e p r o j e c t  discussed  appropriate  o f work  of a  positive  i n the current  -94-  labour  market  Re-entry  appears  women.  availability  A  of  distinguishing  t o be a d e f i n i t e  positive  an  attitude  appropriate  characteristic  obstacle f o r regarding the  j o b was  between  t h e most  women  who  made  s u c c e s s f u l t r a n s i t i o n s and those who d i d not.  Marital  Ray  Status  (1979)  women  reported  showed  participation  that  the greatest i n the labour  other m a r i t a l statuses study  between  support  Ray's  h i g h e s t percentage  (p.4). claim.  1972 and 1977 married  increase force  i n their  relative  rate of  t o women o f  The f i n d i n g s o f t h e p r e s e n t Married  women  showed t h e  (75.0%) o f t r a n s i t i o n s r e l a t i v e t o women  of o t h e r m a r i t a l s t a t u s e s .  Single  women  successful supports  young  paid  work  minimum  have  had never  a t making  earlier  that  would  who  single (p.21) . been  of three  claims  married  transitions.  This  were  the least  finding  by Armstrong and Armstrong  women have The s i n g l e involved years  been  t h e most  (1983) finding  women i n t h e p r e s e n t  i n homemaking  prior  difficulty  activities  t o beginning  their  also  study fora  training  -95-  program.  This  was  an a d m i s s i o n  requirement  Employment and Immigration Canada. assume t h a t homemaking a c t i v i t i e s children; It  however,  i s possible,  providing  care  this  I t seems reasonable t o i n v o l v e t h e care o f t h e i r  may not n e c e s s a r i l y  f o r example,  that  f o r an a i l i n g  imposed by  they  be t h e case.  could  relative.  have  been  Perhaps  some  Re-entry women who a r e s i n g l e and have never been are  alone  without  sufficient  children  motivation  t o support  t o make  married  and t h e r e f o r e  lack  a transition into  paid  employment.  Another p o s s i b i l i t y  i s that  mothers l a c k s u f f i c i e n t affordable  daycare  Re-entry  project  financial  assistance  with the  several  support systems.  i s an i s s u e  coordinator (welfare)  employment, children.  may  be  more  and i t allows  Lack o f s u i t a b l e ,  f o r these  suggested afforded  c h i l d r e n may be a c t i n g  t r a n s i t i o n process.  assistance  Re-entry women who a r e s i n g l e  that  One  provincial  to single  mothers  as a d i s i n c e n t i v e t o  In c e r t a i n lucrative t h e mother  women.  cases, than  financial  entry-level  t o be home w i t h h e r  -96-  Self-Esteem  Re-entry  women  self-assured than  made  participants  reviewed factor  lends  who  felt  successful with  support  capable,  transitions  more  low s e l f - e s t e e m .  process.  The l i t e r a t u r e  self-esteem  (1979), and Yohalem  and l a c k  most fundamental  influential  S t u d i e s by t h e Canadian  on L e a r n i n g O p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r Women  (1976), Pearson  and  frequently  f o r s e l f - e s t e e m as an  i n the t r a n s i t i o n  Congress  confident,  (1984),  King  (1980) suggest t h a t low  of self-confidence  a r e perhaps t h e  a t t i t u d e s which h i n d e r Re-entry women from  a t t a i n i n g t h e i r employment g o a l s .  Many women  events  and c i r c u m s t a n c e s  could  contribute  participating of  o f Re-entry  t o low s e l f - e s t e e m .  The women  i n t h e p r e s e n t study have i n v e s t e d  a minimum  t h r e e y e a r s i n t h e unpaid o c c u p a t i o n o f homemaker.  emerge from to  i n the l i v e s  novel  a somewhat i s o l a t e d  and c h a l l e n g i n g  experiences  programs and t h e work world. unprepared about  f o r such  leaving  responsibilities. abilities.  drastic their They  environment  i n their  i n their  They homes  training  They may be p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y change  and they  parental underestimate  or their  feel  guilty  household s k i l l s and  -97-  E d u c a t i o n a l Attainment  The  fourth factor i n f l u e n t i a l  level  of educational  educational successful supports Jones  The h i g h e r  the greater  t r a n s i t i o n was t h e g e n e r a l  earlier  educational  claims  t h e chances  by Armstrong and Armstrong  (1983),  (1986) .  accounted  trend.  of a finding  participation.  education,  the l e v e l of  This  and R a u h a l a ,  attainment  market  formal  attainment.  attainment,  (1983) ,  labour  i n t h e t r a n s i t i o n process was  In these  f o r v a r i a t i o n s i n female The h i g h e r  t h e more  studies  likely  her l e v e l of  a woman  i s t o be  employed.  Support From Mate  The  fifth  found  factor influential  t o be support  from  i n the t r a n s i t i o n  mate.  Re-entry  and s u p p o r t i v e  r e l a t i o n s h i p s where  was  women who made  successful t r a n s i t i o n s generally reported being warm  process  involved i n  t h e spouse o r  p a r t n e r approves o f t h e woman's e f f o r t s t o r e t u r n t o work.  Di  Sabatino  their that  mate women  (1976)  claimed  f o r their have  that  vocational  a tendency  women need  approval  decisions,  to sacrifice  from  and f u r t h e r ,  their  sense o f  -98-  competence  i n o r d e r t o meet t h e i r  need f o r a p p r o v a l .  The  f i n d i n g s o f t h e p r e s e n t study tend t o support D i Sabatino's (197 6)  claim.  Lack  of support  process.  A h i g h e r percentage  achieved  by women w i t h  women  who r e p o r t e d  impeded  o f s u c c e s s f u l t r a n s i t i o n s was  no spouse  they  the t r a n s i t i o n  were  or partner,  than  those  involved i n a rejecting or  disapproving relationship.  Implications f o r Practise  The  q u e s t i o n n a i r e developed  study  could  have  coordinators,  curriculum Re-entry  practical  people  administration  f o r project  i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t and  programs,  people  and t h e d e l i v e r y  themselves.  i n the present  implications  involved  o f Re-entry  development  women  and v a l i d a t e d  involved i n  o f t r a i n i n g , and  By i d e n t i f y i n g  enhance t h e chances o f women making s u c c e s s f u l  factors  that  transitions,  program content can be f o c u s s e d on t h e f a c t o r s t h a t a r e amenable  t o change  attitude,  and support  administered  early  such  as, self-esteem,  systems.  Re-entry  positive  I f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was  i n the t r a i n i n g  employed as a d i a g n o s t i c t o o l .  a  program,  i t c o u l d be  S p e c i f i c needs o f groups o f  women c o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d  so t h a t program  c o u l d be designed t o address those needs.  content  -99-  The  r e s u l t s of the present  study  indicate that  a t t i t u d e about f i n d i n g a j o b and h i g h be  self-esteem  appear t o  b e n e f i c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r women making a t r a n s i t i o n  into  t h e work  force.  made  successful  with  positive  the  a positive  The i s s u e  t r a n s i t i o n s entered  attitudes  t r a i n i n g program  characteristics, Re-entry status,  women  o f whether t h e women who  and h i g h  t h e t r a i n i n g program  self-esteem,  was i n s t r u m e n t a l  should that  i n developing  be addressed.  focuses  Also,  on m a r i t a l  and age, needs t o be conducted  understand why m a r i t a l  status  plays  o r whether such  a study o f  status,  parental  i n order  to better  an i n f l u e n t i a l  role i n  the t r a n s i t i o n p r o c e s s .  Suggestions f o r Future Research  When p e r f o r m i n g f a c t o r analyses  on t h e Phase I I I responses,  items  Self-Esteem  loading  Personality  on t h e f a c t o r s  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (Factor  closer  inspection,  tended  t o measure  confidence,  attitude),  measure more  external  evaluation,  personal  that  Factor  characteristics  while  1) and  3) were s i m i l a r .  i t was observed internal  (Factor  Factor  3  1 items  (self-worth,  items  tended t o  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (assertiveness, qualities).  might examine "Locus o f C o n t r o l "  A future  Upon  research  peer study  ( i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l ) as  -100-  a  factor  influencing  administration compared  with  transition.  of the present results  from  a  Results  from t h e  questionnaire  might  be  scale  measuring  locus of  of the questionnaire  developed  for this  control.  The  construction  study  incorporated  questions the  —  True/False  two types  processes  types  different  could  may r e q u i r e  potentially  i n t h e questionnaire.  of questions  questionnaire  methods  and M u l t i p l e Choice.  of questions  which  variance"  two  requires  i s employed  of  Responding t o  different  create  a  The e f f e c t  thought "methods  o f t h e two  consideration  for practical  posing  when t h e  p u r p o s e s and  f u r t h e r e x p l o r a t i o n may be r e q u i r e d .  The  sample  of Re-entry  women  i n this  study  were a l l  p a r t i c i p a n t s o f t h e Job Re-entry t r a i n i n g program sponsored by  t h e F e d e r a l Government.  of  "transition"  this of  study.  Future  alternate  time  required  shorter  than  transition  defined  s t u d i e s might  t o complete days) .  employed  the definition  by t h e government was adopted f o r  definitions  56  F o r t h a t reason,  investigate the effects  of t r a n s i t i o n transition Further,  i n the present  Re-entry women o b t a i n i n g employment.  ( i . e . periods of  that  are longer or  the d e f i n i t i o n  of  study  on  focussed  No measure was taken  -101-  to  determine  time.  i f employment was r e t a i n e d over  A follow-up  about  what  study  factors  a period of  i s needed t o p r o v i d e  influence  long-term  information  employment f o r  Re-entry women.  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Brekke,  The study o f  P a r t I Women:  An a n a l y s i s .  In J .  A Davis, A D e s a i , B. Emecheta, M. French, G. Greer,  E. Poniatouska, N. e l Saadawi, M. S h i r a z i , J . Tweedie, Women:  A world r e p o r t .  D. T a y l o r , and  (pp. 1-98).  London:  Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s .  Thursby,  L. (1974).  female t r a i n e e s . (1),  13-15.  The WIN program:  I t s success w i t h  J o u r n a l o f Employment C o u n s e l l i n g , 11  -111-  Tinkleman, S. N. R.L.  Thorndike  (Chapter 3).  (1971).  Planning  (Ed.), E d u c a t i o n a l Washington, D.C.:  the o b j e c t i v e t e s t . measurement (2nd  In  ed.)  American  Educational  (1983).  Perspectives  Research C o u n c i l .  Turner, J . , & Emery, L. women i n the Manitoba  Wells,  1980's.  (Eds.).  Manitoba, Canada:  U n i v e r s i t y of  Press.  L.E.,  and Marwell, G.  (1976).  c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n and measurement. California:  Yohalem, A.M. p o l i c i e s and Jersey:  The  on  Self-esteem: Beverly  Its  Hills,  Sage P u b l i c a t i o n s .  (Ed).  (1980).  Women r e t u r n i n g t o work -  progress i n f i v e countries.  A l l a n h e l d , Osmun, & Co.  Montclair,  Publishers,  Inc.  New  -112-  Appendix A  Phase I Q u e s t i o n n a i r e I n i t i a l Survey o f Re-entry  Project  Coordinators  - 114 RE-ENTRY SURVEY OF PARTICIPANT  VARIABLES  How important are the follov;ing f a c t o r s f o r the women i n your project, i n terms of making the t r a n s i t i o n from home t o the workforce. Please c i r c l e the appropriate  rating:  1 Not Important Age  1  Number o f Children  1  Ages o f Children  1  M a r i t a l Status  1  Being head of Household Family  Slightly Important  3 Very . Important  Extremely Lnportar.t  3  4  3  A  3  4  2  3  A  X  2  3  A  1  2  3  4  Supportiveness of Family  1  2  4  Years of Previous  1  3 3  Issues  Employment  2 2  4  Access t o Transportation  1  2  3  4  Willingness t o T r a v e l t o Work  1  2  3  A  S e l f Confidence  1  2  3  4  Anxiety  Level  1  2  3  A  Assertiveness  1  2  4  1  2  3 3  4  Written Conmunication S k i l l s  ].  2  3  4  Decision Making A b i l i t i e s  1  2  4  J.  2  i  2  of C h i l d Care  ]  2  Type of T r a i n i n g A v a i l a b l e  1  2  Employment  1  2  S k i l l Level  1  2  Depression  1  2  1 1  2 2  3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3  1  2  3  4  1  2  3  4  1  2  3  4  1  2  3  4  Oral Cannunication  Skills  Stress Self-Image Availability  Opportunities  Self-Acceptance  '  Fear of Appearing incompetent  4 4 4  Others  - 115 -  - 2 GENERAL INFORMATION How many p a r t i c i p a n t s are i n your project? What type(s) of t r a i n i n g are offered i n your project?  What i s the location of your project?  Urban  . , (Check one)  Suburban Rural  In what d i s t r i c t i s your project  located? Vancouver Island Metro Vancouver  (Check one)  Eraser Valley Olianagan / Kcot enay North Central Skeena  How many weeks has your project been running?  -116-  Appendix B  Phase I I R a t i n g Package  - 117  -  Phase II INSTRUCTIONS TO PANEL OF EXPERTS The enclosed package contains many questions that could p o t e n t i a l l y be presented  to re-entry women i n order to obtain  information about factors i n f l u e n c i n g the t r a n s i t i o n  process.  Your task i s to read each question and rate i t i n two ways. 1.  Rate each question i n terms of how  relevant you  feel  the e l i c i t e d information would be to the t r a n s i t i o n process of re-entry women.  Indicate your r a t i n g by c i r c l i n g  the appropriate number on the scale to the r i g h t of each question. (l=Not Relevant,  2=Slightly Relevant,  3=Very  Relevant,  4=Extremely Relevant) 2.  In the far r i g h t column, indicate to what category of factors you f e e l the question r e l a t e s . been suggested.  However, you may  categories and may category.  Five category  t i t l e s have  suggest any number of  put any number of question into a  Be c r i t i c a l .  If i t i s your judgement that  questions tap information from d i f f e r e n t categories, give them d i f f e r e n t category  titles.  Keep i n mind that the questions are not organized as they would be i n a f i n a l i z e d questionnaire. They are in random order. As you read the questions, please make written comments or change words that you f e e l are confusing, o f f e n s i v e , or inappropriate. appreciated. Thank you for your help.  Suggestions for improvement would be  - 11.8 -  DEFINITIONS OF SUGGESTED CATEGORIES  Biographical  Background:  v a r i a b l e s r e l a t i n g t o the  woman's l i f e h i s t o r y .  V a r i a b l e s which i d e n t i f y  the women. M a r i t a l and Family R e l a t i o n s :  variables relating  to the r o l e s and i n t e r t w i n e d  relationships  between spouses, c h i l d r e n and p a r e n t s , and members o f extended Personality Constructs: various  family. v a r i a b l e s that  a s p e c t s and t e n d e n c i e s o f a person's  i n d i v i d u a l character  and b e h a v i o r .  S k i l l s and A t t i t u d e Toward Work: t o the woman's p e r c e p t i o n and  investigate  variables relating  o f the s k i l l s she possesses  her a t t i t u d e toward the r o l e o f employee.  F i n a n c i a l and Economic F a c t o r s : to money or economics.  variables relating  PHASE I I Panel of Experts' Rating Form Suggested Category T i t l e s 1 2 3 4 Biographical Background (BB) Not Slightly Very Extremely M a r i t a l & Family Relevant Relevant Relevant Relevant Relations (MSF) P e r s o n a l i t y C o n s t r u c t s (PC) S k i l l s & A t t i t u d e Toward to the T r a n s i t i o n Process Work (S6A) F i n a n c i a l 6 Economic Factors (FfiE) Other 1. For how many years have you been without paid employment? 1. 3-4 2. 5-6 3. 7-8 4. 9-10 5. more than 10 2. How much do you r e a l i s t i c a l l y expect t o earn per year a t your maximum earning capacity? 1. Less than $10,000 2. From $10,000 t o $15,000 3. From $15,000 t o $20,000 4. From $20,000 t o $30,000 5. From $30,000 t o $50,000 6. From $50,000 t o $100,000 3. How o p t i m i s t i c o r p e s s i m i s t i c about your l i f e would you say you are? 1. Very o p t i m i s t i c 2. Moderately o p t i m i s t i c 3. Slightly optimistic 4. S l i g h t l y pessimistic 5. Moderately p e s s i m i s t i c 6. Very p e s s i m i s t i c  2 Suggested Category T i t l e s Biographical Background (BB) 1 2 3 4 Not Slightly Very Extremely M a r i t a l & Family Relations (M&F) Relevant Relevant Relevant Relevant P e r s o n a l i t y Constructs (PC) S k i l l s & A t t i t u d e Toward Work (S&A) to the T r a n s i t i o n Process F i n a n c i a l ft Economic Factors (F&E) Other 4. How confident do you f e e l about your a b i l i t y t o be a good employee? 1. Not confident at a l l 2. S l i g h t l y unconfident 3. S l i g h t l y confident 4. Confident 5. Extremely confident 5. How much c o n t r o l do you f e e l you have to have over your f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n ( i n terms of your power to change i t ) ? 1. Almost no c o n t r o l 2. A l i t t l e b i t of c o n t r o l 3. A moderate amount of c o n t r o l 4. Quite a l o t of c o n t r o l 5. Almost t o t a l c o n t r o l 6. What i s your primary reason f o r wanting t o work outside the home? 1. To support myself and/or family 2. To earn a d d i t i o n a l family income 3. I t i s expected of me 4. Personal s a t i s f a c t i o n ; salary i s irrelevant 5. Personal s a t i s f a c t i o n ; and a d d i t i o n a l income 6. Personal s a t i s f a c t i o n ; and economic need 7. To a l l e v i a t e boredom  3 Suggested Category T i t l e s 1 2 3 4 B i o g r a p h i c a l Background (BB) Not Slightly Very Extremely M a r i t a l & Family Relevant Relevant Relevant Relevant Relations (M&F) P e r s o n a l i t y Constructs (PC) S k i l l s & A t t i t u d e Toward ... t o the T r a n s i t i o n Process Work (S&A) F i n a n c i a l & Economic Factors (F&E) Other 7. R a i s i n g a c h i l d provides many rewards, but cannot keep most women s a t i s f i e d as a f u l l - t i m e job. 1. Strongly agree 2. Moderately agree 3. S l i g h t l y agree 4. S l i g h t l y disagree 5. Moderately disagree 6. Strongly disagree 8. I g e n e r a l l y take a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward myself. 1. s t r o n g l y agree 2. Agree 3. Disagree 4. Strongly disagree  1  2  1  9. How would you describe your r e l a t i o n s h i p with your children? 1. Warm and stable, with few 1 conflicts 2. Cool and s t a b l e , with few conflicts 3. Emotional ups and downs; periods o f closeness a l t e r n a t e with arguments 4. Moderately c o n f l i c t e d ; we argue a l o t 5. Cool and r e j e c t i n g  2  2  3  4  3  4  3  4  4 Suggested Category T i t l e s 1 2 3 4 B i o g r a p h i c a l Background (BB) Not Slightly Very Extremely M a r i t a l fi Family Relevant Relevant Relevant Relevant Relations (MfiF) P e r s o n a l i t y Constructs (PC) S k i l l s & A t t i t u d e Toward to the T r a n s i t i o n Process Work (SfiA) F i n a n c i a l 6 Economic Factors (FfiE) Other 10. Would you say that you f e e l 1. p r e t t y capable most o f the time 2. sometimes capable 3. panicky and incapable most of the time 1 Rarely o r none o f the time  2 A little o f the time  3 4 Some A good of the part o f time the time  11. The members o f my family r e a l l y care about each other. 12. I can r e a l l y depend on my family. 13. Members o f my family argue too much. 14. There i s no sense o f closeness i n my family. 15. There seems t o be a l o t o f f r i c t i o n i n my family. 16. My family i s a r e a l source of comfort t o me. 17. L i f e i n my family i s generally unhappy.  5 Most or a l l of the time  to  5 Suggested Category T i t l e s 1 2 3 4 Biographical Background (BB) Not Slightly Very Extremely M a r i t a l & Family Relevant Relevant Relevant Relevant Relations (M&F) P e r s o n a l i t y Constructs (PC) S k i l l s & A t t i t u d e Toward ... t o the T r a n s i t i o n Process Work (S&A) F i n a n c i a l & Economic Factors (F&E) Other 18. When you begin the day, do you g e n e r a l l y a n t i c i p a t e that i t w i l l be: 1. Very s a t i s f y i n g 2. Moderately s a t i s f y i n g 3. Neither s a t i s f y i n g o r unsatisfying 4. Moderately u n s a t i s f y i n g 5. Very u n s a t i s f y i n g 19. When I notice that things have been going well f o r me, I get the f e e l i n g that i t j u s t can't last. 1. Disagree 2. Moderately Disagree 3. S l i g h t l y Disagree 4. S l i g h t l y Agree 5. Moderately Agree 6. Agree 20. When your 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  you were growing up, was family: Lower c l a s s Lower middle c l a s s Middle c l a s s Upper middle c l a s s Upper c l a s s  6 Suggested Category T i t l e s 1 2 3 4 B i o g r a p h i c a l Background (BB) Not Slightly Very Extremely M a r i t a l & Family Relevant Relevant Relevant Relevant Relations (M&F) P e r s o n a l i t y Constructs (PC) S k i l l s & A t t i t u d e Toward ... t o the T r a n s i t i o n Process Work (S&A) F i n a n c i a l & Economic Factors (F&E) Other 21. A mother's place i s : 1. i n the home 2. i n the working world 3. both o f the above 22. How many c h i l d r e n do you have? 1. None 2. One 3. Two 4. Three 5. Four 6. Five o r more 23. The number o f c h i l d r e n l i v i n g at home i s 24. Of the c h i l d r e n l i v i n g a t home, A. the age of the eldest (or only c h i l d ) i s B. The age o f the youngest is • 25. Arranging transportation t o t r a v e l t o work i s a problem. 1. Rarely o r none of the time 2. A l i t t l e o f the time 3. Some of the time 4. A good part o f the time 5. Most of the time  1  2  3  4  1  2  3  4  .  ,  J ~ * £  1  1  2  3  4  1  2  3  4  1  2  3  4  7 Suggested Category T i t l e s 1 2 3 4 Biographical Background (BB) Not Slightly Very Extremely M a r i t a l & Family Relevant Relevant Relevant Relevant Relations (M&F) P e r s o n a l i t y Constructs (PC) S k i l l s & A t t i t u d e Toward ... t o the T r a n s i t i o n Process Work (S&A) F i n a n c i a l 6 Economic Factors (F&E) Other . 26. How s a t i s f i e d are you with your o v e r a l l p h y s i c a l appearance? 1. Extremely d i s s a t i s f i e d 2. Somewhat d i s s a t i s f i e d 3. Somewhat s a t i s f i e d 4. Extremely s a t i s f i e d 27. Which statement do you most agree with? 1. A job i s only a way t o make enough money t o keep yourself alive. 2. A job i s mainly a way o f making money, but should be s a t i s f y i n g as p o s s i b l e . 3. A job i s a whole way of l i f e . 28. Would you rate y o u r s e l f as: A. Very ambitious? B. Unambitious? C M i l d l y ambitious? 29. How aggressive are you s o c i a l l y ? Not a t a l l 1. Slightly 2. Somewhat 3. Very 4. 5. Extremely  Suggested Category T i t l e s 1 2 3 4 B i o g r a p h i c a l Background (BB) Not Slightly Very Extremely M a r i t a l & Family Relevant Relevant Relevant Relevant Relations (M&F) P e r s o n a l i t y Constructs (PC) S k i l l s & A t t i t u d e Toward ... t o the T r a n s i t i o n Process Work (SSA) F i n a n c i a l & Economic Factors (F&E) Other How w e l l do these statements describe you? 1 2 3 Very Somewhat Not a t Well All 30. I f e e l that ay s i t u a t i o n i s hopeless.  1  2  3  4  31. I am q u i t e content with my l i f e as I am now l i v i n g i t .  1  2  3  4  32. Z am frequently bothered by f e e l i n g s of i n f e r i o r i t y .  1  2  3  4  33. When I look back on what's happened t o me, I can't help feeling mildly resentful.  1  2  3  4  34. I sometimes worry whether I am a worthwhile person.  1  2  3  4  3  4  35. I f you have c h i l d r e n r e q u i r i n g daycare, how s a t i s f i e d are you with your c h i l d c a r e arrangements? 1. Very s a t i s f i e d 2. Somewhat s a t i s f i e d 3. Somewhat d i s s a t i s f i e d 4. Very d i s s a t i s f i e d 5. Not a p p l i c a b l e  1  2  9 Suggested Category T i t l e s 1 2 3 4 B i o g r a p h i c a l Background (BB) Not Slightly Very Extremely M a r i t a l & Family Relevant Relevant Relevant Relevant Relations (M&F) P e r s o n a l i t y Constructs (PC) S k i l l s & A t t i t u d e Toward ... t o the T r a n s i t i o n Process Work (S&A) F i n a n c i a l & Economic Factors (F&E) Other 36. How s a t i s f i e d are you with the d i v i s i o n o f household tasks i n your home? 1. Very s a t i s f i e d 2. Somewhat s a t i s f i e d 3. Somewhat d i s s a t i s f i e d 4. Very d i s s a t i s f i e d 5. Not a p p l i c a b l e 37. I f I d i d n ' t always have such hard luck, I'd accomplish much more than I have. 1. Completely true 2. Mostly true 3. Half t r u e / h a l f f a l s e 4. Mostly f a l s e 5. Completely f a l s e 38. For you personally, how important i s g e t t i n g a job ( f o r other than economic reasons)? 1. Very important 2. Moderately important 3. S l i g h t l y important 4. S l i g h t l y unimportant 5. Moderately unimportant 6. Very unimportant  1  2  3  4  :  1  1  2  3  4  1  2  3  4  to ~° I  10 Suggested Category T i t l e s 1 2 3 4 B i o g r a p h i c a l Background (BB) Not Slightly Very Extremely M a r i t a l & Family Relevant Relevant Relevant Relevant Relations (M&F) P e r s o n a l i t y Constructs (PC) S k i l l s & A t t i t u d e Toward ... t o the T r a n s i t i o n Process work (S&A) F i n a n c i a l & Economic Factors (F&E) Other Mark the q u a l i t i e s you think are your best points. 39. a.  Sympathy  1  2  3  40. b.  Clear-thinking  1  2  3  41. c.  Calmness  1  2  3  42. d.  Good memory  1  2  3  43. e.  Concentration  1  44. f .  Physical stamina  1  2  3  45. g.  Inventiveness  1  2  3  46. h.  Expertise  1  2  3  47. i .  Charm  1  2  3  48. j .  Humor  1  2  3  2  3  11 Suggested Category T i t l e s 1 2 3 4 B i o g r a p h i c a l Background (BB) Not Slightly Very Extremely M a r i t a l & Family Relevant Relevant Relevant Relevant Relations (M&F) P e r s o n a l i t y Constructs (PC) S k i l l s & A t t i t u d e Toward to the T r a n s i t i o n Process Work (S&A) F i n a n c i a l & Economic Factors (F&E) Other 49. C h i l d r e n of working mothers tend t o be l e s s w e l l adjusted than c h i l d r e n o f unemployed mothers. 1. Strongly agree 2. Moderately agree 3. S l i g h t l y agree 4. S l i g h t l y disagree 5. Moderately disagree 6. Strongly disagree 50. What 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.  i s your age? Under 20 From 20 t o 24 From 25 t o 34 From 35 t o 44 From 45 t o 54 Over 54  51. I t i s easy f o r me t o make decisions? 1. Rarely or none of the time 2. A l i t t l e o f the time 3. Some of the time 4. A good part o f the time 5. Most of the time  1  2  3  4 i ^  vo 1  1  2  2  3  4  3  4  [  1  12 Suggested Category T i t l e s 1 3 4 B i o g r a p h i c a l Background (BB) Not Slightly Very Extremely M a r i t a l & Family Relevant Relevant Relevant Relevant Relations (M&F) P e r s o n a l i t y Constructs (PC) S k i l l s & A t t i t u d e Toward t o the T r a n s i t i o n Process Work (S&A) F i n a n c i a l & Economic Factors (F&E) Other 52. In a c o n f l i c t between job and home, l i k e an i l l n e s s of a family member, which would win? 1. the family every time 2. the j o b every time 3. the family i n a r e a l emergency, but otherwise probably the job  1  2  3  4  1  I—• to °  How would you rate your communication s k i l l s ? 53. Oral 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  Excellent Good Fair Poor Very poor  54. Written 1. Excellent 2. Good 3. Fair 4. Poor 5. Very poor  1  1  2  2  3  4  3  4  [  '  13 Suggested Category T i t l e s 1 2 3 4 B i o g r a p h i c a l Background (BB) Not Slightly Very Extremely M a r i t a l & Family Relevant Relevant Relevant Relevant Relations (M&F) P e r s o n a l i t y Constructs (PC) S k i l l s & A t t i t u d e Toward ... t o the T r a n s i t i o n Process Work (S&A) F i n a n c i a l & Economic Factors (F&E) Other How happy have you been with each of the following during the past s i x months? 1 2 Very Unhappy Unhappy  3 Neutral (Neither Happy nor Unhappy)  5 Very Happy  4 Happy  55. Marriage o r love r e l a t i o n s h i p  1  2  3  4  56. Friends and s o c i a l  1  2  3  4  57. F i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n  1  2  3  4  58. Personal growth & development  1  3  4  3  4  life  59. What i s your spouse o r partner's a t t i t u d e toward your r e t u r n t o work? 1. I n s i s t s on i t 2. Strongly approves 3. Somewhat approves 4. Neutral o r i n d i f f e r e n t 5. Somewhat disapproves 6. Strongly disapproves 7. Not a p p l i c a b l e  1  2  2  14 Suggested Category T i t l e s 1 2 3 4 B i o g r a p h i c a l Background (BB) Not Slightly Very Extremely M a r i t a l & Family Relevant Relevant Relevant Relevant Relations (M&F) P e r s o n a l i t y Constructs (PC) S k i l l s & A t t i t u d e Toward ... t o the T r a n s i t i o n Process Work (S&A) F i n a n c i a l £ Economic Factors (F&E) Other TRUE OR FALSE 60. I o f t e n do what makes me f e e l c h e e r f u l here and now, even a t the c o s t o f some d i s t a n t g o a l . 61. On a few occasions, I have given up something because I thought too l i t t l e o f my a b i l i t y . 62. I f e e l that most o f the time i t doesn't pay t o t r y hard because things never turn out r i g h t anyway. 63. I tend t o worry that others w i l l think I am not keeping up with my work. 64. I f e e l that when good things happen, they happen because o f hard work. 65. I am the kind of person who b e l i e v e s that planning ahead makes things turn out b e t t e r . 66. No matter who I'm with, I'm always a good l i s t e n e r .  15 Suggested Category T i t l e s 1 2 3 4 B i o g r a p h i c a l Background (BB) Not Slightly Very Extremely M a r i t a l & Family Relevant Relevant Relevant Relevant Relations (M&F) P e r s o n a l i t y Constructs (PC) S k i l l s & A t t i t u d e Toward ... t o the T r a n s i t i o n Process Work (S&A) F i n a n c i a l & Economic Factors (F&E) Other 67. I would never worry about the p o s s i b i l i t y of f a i l i n g t o meet the work standards a t my place of employment. 68. I see myself as an e f f i c i e n t , b u s i n e s s l i k e person. 69. I would never worry about appearing t o be i n over my head or beyond my c a p a b i l i t i e s i n my l i n e of work or course of study. 70. I f someone i s evaluating me, tend t o expect the worst.  I  71. A f t e r completing an assignment o r task, I am prone t o have doubts about whether I d i d i t right. 72. People l i k e t o be around  me.  73. I f i n d i t hard t o keep my mind on a task or job unless i t i s t e r r i b l y interesting. 74. I have a tendency t o sidestep my problems.  2  3  4  1  1  2  3  4  1  2  3  4  1  2  3  4  1  2  3  2  3  4  1  2  3  4  1  2  3  4  1  16 Suggested Category T i t l e s 1 3 4 B i o g r a p h i c a l Background (BB) Slightly Not Very Extremely M a r i t a l & Family Relevant Relevant Relevant Relevant Relations (M&F) P e r s o n a l i t y Constructs (PC) S k i l l s & A t t i t u d e Toward to the T r a n s i t i o n Process Work (S&A) F i n a n c i a l & Economic Factors (F&E) Other 75. 1 am u s u a l l y confident that others w i l l have a favourable opinion of me.  1  2  3  4  76. I tend t o fear t h a t others may see me as not s u f f i c i e n t l y self-disciplined.  1  2  3  4  77. I seem t o have a r e a l inner strength i n handling things. I'm on p r e t t y s o l i d foundation and i t makes me p r e t t y sure of myself.  1  2  3  4  78. I tend t o worry that others may t h i n k I don't know what I'm doing.  1  2  3  4  79. I would very much l i k e t o be l e s s apprehensive about my capabilities.  1  2  3  4  80. I don't question my worth as a person even i f I t h i n k others do.  1  2  3  4  81. I f e e l confident that I can do something about the problems that may a r i s e i n the future.  1  2  3  4  82. I am known as a hard and steady worker.  1  2  3  4  ;  I u> (  17 Suggested Category T i t l e s B i o g r a p h i c a l Background (BB) 1 2 3 4 Not Slightly Very Extremely M a r i t a l & Family Relations (M&F) Relevant Relevant Relevant Relevant P e r s o n a l i t y Constructs (PC) S k i l l s & A t t i t u d e Toward Work (S&A) to the T r a n s i t i o n Process F i n a n c i a l & Economic Factors (F&E) Other 83. Generally, I would p r e f e r a job with a modest s a l a r y , but guaranteed s e c u r i t y , rather than one with large but uncertain earnings. 84. What i s the approximate annual income of your family? 1. Less than $5,000 2. From $5,000 t o $10,000 3. From $10,000 t o $15,000 4. From $15,000 t o $25,000 5. From $25,000 t o $50,000 6. More than $50,000 85. R e l a t i v e t o your present income, how deeply i n debt are you? 1. Way over my head 2. Enough t o f e e l uncomfortable 3. Not too much that I can't handle i t 4. Very l i t t l e o r not a t a l l 86. What i s your a t t i t u d e about the l i k e l i h o o d of f i n d i n g a job s h o r t l y a f t e r your Re-entry program? 1. Very confident 2. Moderately confident 3. Moderately unconfident 4. Very unconfident  1  2  3  4  1  2  3  4  1  2  3  4  1  2  3  4  18 Suggested Category T i t l e s 1 2 3 4 Biographical Background (BB) Not Slightly Very Extremely M a r i t a l & Family Relevant Relevant Relevant Relevant Relations (M&F) P e r s o n a l i t y Constructs (PC) S k i l l s & A t t i t u d e Toward to the T r a n s i t i o n Process Work (S&A) F i n a n c i a l ft Economic Factors (F&E) Other 87. The person who responsibility is i 1. Me 2. My spouse 3. One of my 4. Other  has primary f o r the household or partner children  88. What i s your current m a r i t a l status? 1. Single, never married 2. L i v i n g with someone 3. Married 4. Separated 5. Divorced 6. Widowed In general, how would you r a t e your h e a l t h over the l a s t year? 89. P h y s i c a l health 1. Excellent 2. Good 3. Fair 4. Poor 5. Very poor 90. Mental health 1. Excellent 2. Good 3. Fair 4. Poor 5. Very poor  Suggested Category T i t l e s 1 2 3 4 B i o g r a p h i c a l Background (BB) Not Slightly Very Extremely M a r i t a l & Family Relevant Relevant Relevant Relevant Relations (M&F) P e r s o n a l i t y Constructs (PC) S k i l l s & A t t i t u d e Toward ... to the T r a n s i t i o n Process Work (S&A) F i n a n c i a l & Economic Factors (F&E) Other 91. I f you are married or have a r e g u l a r partner, how s a t i s f i e d are you with the r e l a t i o n s h i p ? 1. Very s a t i s f i e d 2. Somewhat s a t i s f i e d 3. Somewhat d i s s a t i s f i e d 4. Very d i s s a t i s f i e d 92. I f e e l there i s an appropriate job f o r me i n the current labour market i f I apply myself i n an a c t i v e job search. 1. Strongly agree 2. Moderately agree 3. S l i g h t l y agree 4. S l i g h t l y disagree 5. Moderately disagree 6. Strongly disagree 93. For how many years d i d you work f u l l - t i m e before withdrawing from the workforce t o become a homemaker? 1. 0 2. 1-2 3. 3-4 4. 5-6 5. 7-8 6. 9-10 7. More than 10 i  1  1  1  2  2  2  3  4  3  4  3  4  20 Suggested Category T i t l e s 1 2 3 4 B i o g r a p h i c a l Background (BB) Not Slightly Very Extremely M a r i t a l & Family Relevant Relevant Relevant Relevant Relations (M&F) P e r s o n a l i t y Constructs (PC) S k i l l s & A t t i t u d e Toward ... t o the T r a n s i t i o n Process Work (S&A) F i n a n c i a l & Economic Factors (F&E) Other 94.  95.  How would you describe your current r e l a t i o n s h i p with your spouse or partner? 1. Very warm and supportive 2. Generally warm and supportive 3. A l t e r n a t e l y warm and withdrawn 4. Somewhat cool and r e j e c t i n g 5. Very cool and r e j e c t i n g You 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.  are: ! Black White Oriental Native Hispanic None o f the above  1  2  3  4  1  2  3  4  In general, how would you rate y o u r s e l f on each o f the following qualities? (Numbers between 1 and 5 i n d i c a t e degree t o which they seem c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of you) 1  2  3  4  Very c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  5 Not a t a l l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  96.  Intelligence  1  2  3  4  97.  P h y s i c a l attractiveness  1  2  3  4  21 Suggested Category T i t l e s 1 2 3 4 B i o g r a p h i c a l Background (BB) Not Slightly Very Extremely M a r i t a l & Family Relevant Relevant Relevant Relevant Relations (M&F) P e r s o n a l i t y Constructs (PC) S k i l l s & A t t i t u d e Toward ... t o the T r a n s i t i o n Process Work (S&A) F i n a n c i a l 6 Economic Factors (F&E) Other 98.  Warmth, a f f e c t i o n  1  2  3  4  99.  Supportiveness  1  2  3  4  100. Loyalty  1  2  3  4  101. Optimism  1  2  3  4  102. Independence  1  2  3  4  103. S e l f - R e l i a n c e  1  3  4  104. Assertiveness  1  2  3  4  105. Motivation  1  2  3  4  106. S e l f - D i s c i p l i n e  1  2  3  4  1  2  3  4  1  2  3  4  107. What i s your highest l e v e l of education? 1. Grade school 2. Some high school 3. High school graduate 4. Some c o l l e g e o r u n i v e r s i t y 5. College or u n i v e r s i t y graduate 6. Graduate school 108. How 1. 2. 3.  competitive are you? Very competitive Somewhat competitive Not very competitive  2  22 Suggested Category T i t l e s 3 B i o g r a p h i c a l Background (BB) 1 Very Extremely M a r i t a l & Family Not Slightly Relations (M&F) Relevant Relevant Relevant Relevant P e r s o n a l i t y Constructs (PC) S k i l l s & A t t i t u d e Toward to the T r a n s i t i o n Process Work (S&A) F i n a n c i a l 6 Economic Factors (F&E) Other 109. Which o f the following best describes the way i n which you t h i n k about your present economic status? 1. Rich 2. Comfortably A f f l u e n t 3. Up and Coming 4. Doing Okay 5. S t r u g g l i n g 6. Poor 110. I f e e l l o n e l y 1. Never 2. Rarely 3. Sometimes 4. Often 111. How much do you expect your economic s i t u a t i o n t o change i n the next f i v e years? 1. I t w i l l become much b e t t e r 2. I t w i l l become somewhat better 3. I t w i l l stay the same way 4. I t w i l l become somewhat worse 5. I t w i l l become worse  1  1  1  -141-  Appendix C  Phase I I I Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Package  - 142 -  CONSENT FORM  The purpose of t h i s research project has been explained  t o me.  I understand that the project w i l l 6 t u d y f a c t o r s influencing Re-entry women as they make a t r a n s i t i o n from home t o the paid labour market.  The  information  I supply i s c o n f i d e n t i a l and under no  circumstances w i l l my name be released.  Signature  - 143 -  Making a Transition from Home to Work A Questionnaire When facing the current labour market conditions, there may be factors in the lives of Re-entry women that enhance the chances of making a successful transition from home to the work force. Other factors may make the transition process difficult. Completing this questionnaire gives you an opportunity to provide information on what factors contribute to a successful transition for Re-entry women. Such information could help ensure that the needs of Re-entry women are recognized and addressed. This is not a test so there are no right or wrong answers. Check one E answer for each question as honestly and accurately as you can. TRUE 1. I a m the k i n d of p e r s o n w h o b e l i e f s that p l a n n i n g a h e a d m a k e s t h i n g s turn o u t better.  •  FALSE  Q  •  3. O n a few o c c a s i o n s . I have g i v e n up s o m e t h i n g b e c a u s e 1 thought t o o little of m y ability.  •  •  4. 1 w o u l d never w o r n ' a b o u t the p o s s i b i l i t y of failing to meet the w o r k s t a n d a r d s at m y p l a c e of employment.  16. 1 feel c o n f i d e n t that I c a n d o s o m e t h i n g a b o u t the p r o b l e m s that m a y a r i s e in the future.  •  •  17. I a m k n o w n a s a h a r d a n d s t e a d y worker.  •  •  •  •  7. If s o m e o n e is e v a l u a t i n g m e . 1 tend to e x p e c t the worst.  •  9. I find it h a r d to k e e p m y m i n d o n a task o r j o b u n l e s s it is terribly interesting.  •  10. I a m u s u a l l y c o n f i d e n t that o t h e r s w i l l have a f a v o u r a b l e o p i n i o n of m e . 11.1 t e n d to fear that o t h e r s m a y s e e m e a s not sufficiently selfdisciplined. 12. I s e e m to have a real i n n e r strength in h a n d l i n g things. I'm o n pretty s o l i d f o u n d a t i o n a n d it m a k e s m e pretty s u r e of myself.  1 — Very characteristic 2 — Somewhat characteristic 3 — Somewhat uncharacteristic 4  •  Independence Self-reliance Motivation Clear thinking Concentration  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  1  • • • • • • • • •  Assertiveness  8. After c o m p l e t i n g a n a s s i g n m e n t o r task, 1 a m p r o n e to have d o u b t s a b o u t w h e t h e r I d i d it right.  •  •  18. Rate y o u r s e l f o n a s c a l e of 1 to 4 for e a c h of the following qualities.  *  •  •  15. I d o n ' t q u e s t i o n m y w o r t h a s a p e r s o n e v e n if I think o t h e r s d o .  Optimism  •  •  14. I w o u l d very m u c h like to b e less a p p r e h e n s i v e a b o u t m y capabilities.  •  6. 1 w o u l d never w o r r y a b o u t a p p e a r i n g to b e in over m y h e a d or b e y o n d m y c a p a b i l i t i e s in m y l i n e of w o r k o r c o u r s e of study.  FALSE  13. I t e n d to w o r r y that o t h e r s m a y think I d o n ' t k n o w w h a t I'm d o i n g .  2. I feel that w h e n g o o d things h a p p e n , they h a p p e n b e c a u s e of h a r d w o r k .  5. I s e e myself a s a n efficient, businesslike person.  TRUE  Physical stamina Humor  2  • • • • • • • • •  3  • • • • • • • • •  19. H o w w o u l d y o u rate y o u r c o m m u n i c a t i o n s k i l l s ? A. Oral " B. Written Excellent Good Fair Poor Very p o o r  • • • J •  Excellent Good Fair Poor Very p o o r  20. W o u l d y o u s a y that y o u f e e l . . . Pretty c a p a b l e m o s t of the t i m e Sometimes capable P a n i c k y a n d inca|>able m o s t of the t i m e  4  • • • • • • • • •  - 144 -  Family Affairs  21. W h a t is y o u r attitude a b o u t the l i k e l i h o o d of f i n d i n g a j o b shortly after y o u r Re-entry p r o g r a m ? Very c o n f i d e n t D Moderately confident • Moderately unconfident •  27. If y o u have c h i l d r e n r e q u i r i n g d a y c a r e , h o w satisfied are y o u with y o u r c h i l d c a r e a r r a n g e m e n t s ?  O  Very u n c o n f i d e n t  22. H o w c o n f i d e n t to y o u feel a b o u t y o u r ability to b e a good employee? Very c o n f i d e n t  D  Moderately confident  D  Moderately unconfident  23. H o w h a p p y have y o u b e e n w i t h e a c h of the f o l l o w i n g d u r i n g the past six m o n t h s ? A. Financial Situation D  Very u n h a p p y  •  Unhappy  nor unhappy  •  nor unhappy'  D  •  Happy  •  Happy  •  Very h a p p y  •  Very h a p p y  •  •  Neither happy  24. H o w o p t i m i s t i c or p e s s i m i s t i c a b o u t y o u r life are y o u ? D D  Slightly o p t i m i s t i c  D  Slightly p e s s i m i s t i c  D  Not a p p l i c a b l e  D  Very satisfied  D  S o m e w h a t satisfied  D  Somewhat dissatisfied  D  Very d i s s a t i s f i e d  30. W h a t is y o u r s p o u s e o r partner's attitude t o w a r d y o u r return to w o r k ? Insists o n it  •  Strongly a p p r o v e s  Very p e s s i m i s t i c  D  Somewhat approves  25. For y o u personally, h o w important is getting a job? D Q  Slightly i m p o r t a n t  D  Slightly u n i m p o r t a n t  O  Very u n i m p o r t a n t  D  Not a p p l i c a b l e  O  Very w a r m a n d s u p p o r t i v e  _ •  • • • • • • •  31. If y o u have a s p o u s e o r partner, h o w s u p p o r t i v e is y o u r relationship?  26. H o w w e l l d o t h e s e statements d e s c r i b e y o u ? . Verywell Somewhat Not at all I feel that m y s i t u a t i o n is h o p e l e s s . • • • I a m quite c o n t e n t w i t h m y life a s l a m n o w living it. • • • I sometimes worry whether I a m a worthwhile person. U D U I g e n e r a l l y take a p o s i t i v e attitude t o w a r d myself. • • • If 1 i l i d n t a l w a y s have s u c h h a r d l u c k . I'd a c c o m p l i s h m u c h m o r e t h a n I have.  Neutral or indifferent Somewhat dissaproves Strongly d i s s a p r o v e s  •  Moderately unimportant  • D  Not a p p l i c a b l e  D  Moderately important  D  29. H o w satisfied are y o u w i t h the d i v i s i o n of h o u s e h o l d tasks in y o u r h o m e ?  Moderately pessimistic  Very important  D  but o t h e r w i s e p r o b a b l y the j o b  Unhappy  Moderately optimistic  D  Very d i s s a t i s f i e d  T h e family in a real e m e r g e n c y .  Very u n h a p p y  Very o p t i m i s t i c  D  Somewhat dissatisfied  T h e j o b every time  B. P e r s o n a l G r o w t h & Development  Neither h a p p y  D  28. In a c o n f l i c t b e t w e e n j o b a n d h o m e , like a n i l l n e s s of a family m e m b e r , w h i c h w o u l d w i n ? T h e family every t i m e •  • D  Very u n c o n f i d e n t  Very satisfied S o m e w h a t satisfied  •  •  O  Generally warm and supportive Alternately w a r m a n d w i t h d r a w n S o m e w h a t c o o l a n d rejecting  •  D  Very c o o l a n d rejecting  •  I have n o s p o u s e o r p a r t n e r  •  - 145 -  36. I feel there is a n a p p r o p r i a t e j o b for m e in the c u r r e n t l a b o u r m a r k e t if I a p p l y m y s e l f in a n active job s e a r c h .  32. O n a s c a l e of 1 to 5. rale h o w w e l l t h e s e statements d e s c r i b e y o u r family. 1 2 3 A 5  — — — —  R a r e l v o r n o n e of the t i m e A little of the t i m e S o m e of t h e t i m e A g o o d part of the t i m e M o s t o r all of the t i m e  Strongly agree Moderately agree Slightly a g r e e  1 2 3 4 5 T h e m e m b e r s o f m y f a m i l y really c a r e a b o u t e a c h other. I c a n really d e p e n d o n m y family. T h e r e is a real s e n s e of c l o s e n e s s in m y family. T h e r e s e e m s to be a lot of friction in m y family.  •  • • • •  •  • • • •  •  • • • •  •  M y f a m i l y is a real s o u r c e of c o m f o r t to m e . Life in m y f a m i l y is g e n e r a l l y happy.  • • • •  •  • • • •  •  • • • •  Financial Matters 33. H o w m u c h c o n t r o l d o y o u feel y o u have o v e r y o u r f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n ( i n t e r m s of y o u r p o w e r to c h a n g e it)? • Almost no control A little bit of c o n t r o l A m o d e r a t e a m o u n t of c o n t r o l  D  •  A l m o s t total c o n t r o l  •  It w i l l stay the s a m e w a y  • O •  It w i l l b e c o m e s o m e w h a t w o r s e  D  It w i l l b e c o m e w o r s e  D  35. W h a t is y o u r p r i m a r y r e a s o n for w a n t i n g to w o r k o u t s i d e "the h o m e ? ( C h e c k o n e o n l y ) To support myself a n d . o r family To earn additional family i n c o m e It is e x p e c t e d of m e Personal satisfaction Personal satisfaction: a n d additional i n c o m e , Personal satisfaction: a n d e c o n o m i c n e e d T o alleviate b o r e d o m  Strongly d i s a g r e e  • • • • • • •  D • Q  37. T h e p e r s o n w h o h a s primary f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for the h o u s e h o l d i s : Me  •  O n e of m y c h i l d r e n  •  M v s p o u s e or partner  •  Other  •  38. H o w m u c h d o y o u r e a l i s t i c a l l y e x p e c t to e a r n in y o u r first full-time job? L e s s t h a n S10.000  •  F r o m S10.000 to S15.000  •  F r o m S15.000 to S20.000  •  F r o m $20,000 to 530.000  •  F r o m 530,000 to S50.000  •  F r o m S50.000 to S100.000  •  Please complete Information section.  34. H o w m u c h d o y o u feel y o u r e c o n o m i c s i t u a t i o n w i l l c h a n g e in the next five y e a r s ? It w i l l b e c o m e s o m e w h a t better  Moderately disagree  • D  Q u i t e a lot of c o n t r o l  It w i l l b e c o m e m u c h better  Slightly d i s a g r e e  - 146 -  Information Please Telephone.  39. N a m e 40.  Re-entry Project E n d D a t e .  41.  W h a t type o f j o b are y o u s e e k i n g  42.  F o r h o w m a n y y e a r s d i d y o u w o r k f u l l - t i m e b e f o r e w i t h d r a w i n g f r o m the w o r k f o r c e to b e c o m e a h o m e m a k e r ? Less than o n e vear 1-3  *  4-6  • •  7-10  •  M o r e t h a n 10  •  H o w manv children do vou have?.  44.  T h e n u m b e r o f c h i l d r e n l i v i n g at h o m e i s O f t h e c h i l d r e n l i v i n g at h o m e , B. T h e a g e of t h e y o u n g e s t i s .  A . T h e a g e of t h e e l d e s t ( o r o n l y c h i l d ) is 46.  What languages d o you speak other than English?.  47.  W h a t is y o u r h i g h e s t level of e d u c a t i o n ? Grade school S o m e high s c h o o l H i g h s c h o o l graduate  48.  :  •  43.  45.  .  1  49.  W h a t is y o u r c u r r e n t m a r i t a l status?  D  S i n g l e , never m a r r i e d  D  •  Living with s o m e o n e  D  Married  D  •  S o m e c o l l e g e or university  D  Separated  •  College or university  D  Divorced  D  Graduate s c h o o l  D  Widowed  •  50.  W h a t is y o u r a g e ?  H o w m a n y y e a r s a g o w e r e y o u last e m p l o y e d ?  U n d e r 20  •  3-4  F r o m 2 0 to 2 4  •  5-6  •  From 25 to 34  •  7-8  •  F r o m 3 5 to 4 4  D  9-10  •  F r o m 4 5 to 5 4  D  M o r e t h a n 10  •  O v e r 54  •  •  If y o u h a v e a n y c o m m e n t s a b o u t t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e o r a b o u t f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g R e - e n t r y w o m e n , p l e a s e feel free to e x p r e s s y o u r t h o u g h t s i n w r i t i n g a n d i n c l u d e t h e m w i t h this q u e s t i o n n a i r e . •<£  - 147 -  TELEPHONE INTERVIEWING FORM  P a r t i c i p a n t ' s Name: Telephone Number: Type of work being sought: Follow Up Dates: 1.  2.  Have you accepted a job o f f e r ?  "YES"  3._ Yes  4. No  (CONGRATULATIONS)  What date d i d you s t a r t your job? What type of work d i d you accept?_ Are you happy with your new job? Are you s t i l l  looking f o r another job?  (Best wishes)  "NO" Are you s t i l l  looking f o r work?  Are you taking a break over the summer holidays? (Good Luck with your job search)  -148Appendix D F a c t o r Loadings f o r I n i t i a l Three F a c t o r S o l u t i o n  Factors Subtest  Question  Sense o f Competence  No.  1  2  3  3 4 5 6 7 8 10 11 12 13 14 15  .33 .37 .26 .27 .19 .53 .43 .27 .63 .50 .44 .37  -.02 . 17 .16 .02 -.15 .11 .18 . 16 -.01 -.19 -.05 . 08  -.09 .35 -.04 .40 .35 . 38 . 34 .30 .19 .31 .16 . 13  Personal Strength  18a 18b 18c 18d 18e 18f 18g 18h 18i 19a 19b 20 21 22 24 25 26a 26b 26c 26d 26e  .50 .54 .57 .42 .47 .58 .43 .49 .36 .54 .50 . 61 .45 .48 .52 .17 .44 .24 .65 .56 .31  -.21 -.15 -.06 -.16 . 01 -.25 -.17 -.06 -.16 -.31 -.31 -.31 -.28 . 05 -.19 -.17 -.08 .02 .01 . 14 -.01  -.22 -.47 -.50 -.26 -.45 -.37 -.44 -.36 -.44 . 03 .14 . 13 . 19 . 17 . 06 -.07 . 34 .04 .20 . 04 .15  FamilyAffairs  27 28 29 30  . 10 .20 .15 .01  -.06 . 14 .20 -.14  -.07 .05 .21 .17  (Table  continues)  -149(Appendix D  continued) Factors  Subtest  Question  31 32a 32b 32c 32d 32e 32f  No.  2  26 ,21  25 22 ,19 25 27  .09 .74 .71 .86 . 62 .81 .85  3  -.06 -.16 -.04 -.11 -.15 -.04 -.08  -150Appendix E F a c t o r Loadincrs f o r Four F a c t o r Obliirtin S o l u t i o n Factors Subtest  Question  Sense of Competence  3 4 5 6 7 8 10 11 12 13 14 15  Personal Strength  FamilyAffairs  1  2  3  4  .12 .52 .12 .50 .42 .64 .54 .40 .54 .58 .41 .32  . 05 . 17 .22 -.01 -.18 .14 .19 .14 .07 -.15 .02 . 09  -.28 . 09 -.12 . 18 . 10 .05 .07 .05 -.24 -.07 -.08 -.20  -.00 .04 . 13 . 05 .08 .14 .04 -.18 . 03 .14 .25 -.32  18a 18b 18c 18d 18e 18f 18g 18h 18i 19a 19b 20 21 22 24 25 26a 2 6b 26c 26d 26e  .14 -.06 -.04 .04 -.10 .06 -.10 -.00 -.14 .37 .44 .50 .46 .43 .06 .38 .56 .18 .56 .36 .31  -.08 . 03 . 12 -.04 . 17 -.07 -.01 .11 . 01 -.19 -.24 -.22 -.22 .11 -.10 -.12 -.08 .05 .07 .24 -.02  -.54 -.78 -.78 -.54 -.68 -.68 -.66 -.48 -.53 -.29 -.24 -.30 -.13 -.12 -.09 -.40 -.13 -.12 -.29 -.21 -.24  .01 -.06 -.12 -.07 -.05 . 16 . 06 .42 .23 .23 .12 . 16 .23 .10 .40 .22 -.35 -.03 -.16 -.24 -.54  27 28 29 30 31 32a  0.10 .14 .28 -.01 .10 -.06  .09 . 18 .14 .09 .17 .79  -.04 . 15 .05 -.03 -.05 -.06  -.18 .04 -.06 .60 .48 .04  (Table  continues)  -151(Appendix E continued) Factors Subtest  Question  1  32b 32c 32d 32e 32f  .07 -.02 -.06 .06 .04  Four F a c t o r C o r r e l a t i o n  Factor Factor Factor Factor  1 2 3 4  Factor 1  Factor 2  Factor 3  1.00 .11 .26 .07  1.00 .01 . 03  1.00 . 10  2  3  .74 .90 .66 .84 .89  -.01 .00 -.14 .03 -.03  Matrix  Factor 4  1.00  4 .00 .06 -.14 .03 -.01  -152-  Appendix F Contingency T a b l e s f o r F i v e D i s c r i m i n a t i n g 1 2 3 4 5  -  Variables  A t t i t u d e Regarding A p p r o p r i a t e M a r i t a l Status S e l f - E s t e e m ( F a c t o r 1) E d u c a t i o n a l Attainment Support From Mate ( F a c t o r 4)  Job  -153-  Table F - l C r o s s t a b u l a t i o n of A t t i t u d e Regarding A p p r o p r i a t e Job By T r a n s i t i o n  A t t i t u d e Regarding A p p r o p r i a t e Job  Transition Yes  No  S t r o n g l y Agree  49  Moderately Agree  15  S l i g h t l y Agree  3  (4. 3)  3  (8. 1)  S l i g h l y Disagree  0  (0. 0)  3  (8. 1)  Moderately  1  (1. 4)  0  (0. 0)  S t r o n g l y Disagree  1  (1. 4)  0  (0. 0)  Total  69  Disagree  "X = 14.78, p < .05 a = frequency b = column percentage 2  ^ 1  (71. 0) (21. 7)  (100.0)  b  15 16  37  £ 1  (40. 5) (43. 2)  (100.0)  -154T a b l e F-2 Crosstabulation of M a r i t a l S t a t u s by T r a n s i t i o n  M a r i t a l Status  Transition No  Yes  ^  S i n g l e , never m a r r i e d  1  L i v i n g With Someone  7  (10. 1)  3  Married  30  (43. 5)  10  (27. 0)  Separated  10  (14. 5)  8  (21. 6)  Divorced  18  (26. 1)  8  (21. 6)  Widowed  3  (4. 3)  0  (0. 0)  Total  69 (100.0)  = 15.9, p < .01 a = freguency b = column percentage 2  a  (1. 4)  b  8  37  a  (21. 6) (8. 1)  (100.0)  b  Table F-3 C r o s s t a b u l a t i o n of Self-Esteem  Oral Communication Skills  (Factor 1) by T r a n s i t i o n  Transition Yes No  Excellent Good Fair Poor  18 (26.1) 35 (50.7) 14 (20.3) 2 (2.9)  3 17 12 5  Total  69 (100.0)  37 (100.0)  %  = 9.6, p < .01 a = frequency b = column percentage 2  a  (8.1) (45.9) (32.4) (13.5)  Confidence About F i n d i n d a Job  b  Transition Yes  Very Confident 46 Mod Confident 21 Mod Unconfident 2 V.Unconfident 0 a  Total  "X  2  (66.7) (30.4) (2.9) (0.0) b  69 (100.0)  No  14 (37.8) 17 (45.9) 4 (10-8) 2 (5.4) a  37  (100.0)  = 11.6, p < .01  Note. O r a l Communication S k i l l s and Confidence About F i n d i n g a Job are two examples o f the 16 v a r i a b l e s t h a t comprise the f a c t o r Self-Esteem.  -156-  Table F-4 Crosstabluation of E d u c a t i o n a l Attainment By T r a n s i t i o n  Education Attainment  Grade School  Transition Yes  No  0 '  a  (0.0)  b  0  a  ( 0 . o)  Some High School  16  (23.2)  14  ( 3 7 . 8)  High School Graduate  27  (39.1)  9  (24. 3)  Some C o l l e g e o r University  15  (21.7)  10  ( 2 7 . 0)  College or University Graduate  9  (13.0)  4  (10. 8)  Graduate School  2  (2.9)  0  ( 0 . 0)  69  (100.0)  37  (100. 0)  Total 2 = 4 . 8 , p <. 10 a = frequency b = column percentage  b  Table F-5 C r o s s t a b u l a t i o n of Support From Mate (Factor 4) By T r a n s i t i o n  Attitude of Spouse or Mate  Transition Yes No  Insists 5 (7.2) Strong App. 29 (42.0) Somewhat App. 8 (11.6) Indifferent 2 (2.9) Somewhat Disapproves 0 (0.0) Not A p p l i c . 25 (36.2) a  Total  69 (100.0)  *X = 5 . 6 , p < .10 a = frequency b = column percentage  b  1 (2.7) 10 (27.0) 5 (13.5) 2 (5.4) 3  1 (2.7) 18 (48.6) 37 (100.0)  Supportiveness of Relationship  b  Transition Yes  Very Warm 21 (30.4) G e n e r a l l y Warm 17 (24.6) A l t e r n a t e l y Warm 4 (7.2) Somewhat Cool 1 (1.4) a  b  Very Cool, R e j . 1 (1.4) Not A p p l i c a b l e 25 (34.8) Total %  2  69 (100.0) = 3 . 0 , p < .10  No  9 (24.3) 6 (16.2) 3 (8.1) 0 (0.0) s  b  1 (2.7) 18 (48.6) 37 (100.0)  

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