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Questionnaire development and validation for re-entry women in a federal government training program Brawley, Beverly Ann 1988

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QUESTIONNAIRE DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR RE-ENTRY WOMEN IN A FEDERAL GOVERNMENT TRAINING PROGRAM BY BEVERLY ANN BRAWLEY B.A., The University of Western Ontario, 1978 B.Ed., The University of Western Ontario, 1979 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR A DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Educational Psychology and Special Education We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March, 1988 © Beverly Ann Brawley, 1988 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Educational Psychology & Special Education The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date A p r i l 6, 1988.  DE-6(3/81) ABSTRACT The purpose of t h i s study was to develop a questionnaire designed to o b t a i n v a l i d and r e l i a b l e information which might contribute to an explanation as to why some Re-entry women make successful t r a n s i t i o n s from home to work while others do not. The que s t i o n n a i r e development entailed three phases, each building on the r e s u l t s of the previous phase. In the f i r s t phase, Re-entry project coordinators i n B r i t i s h Columbia were surveyed to determine what variables gleaned from the l i t e r a t u r e they f e l t were most important to the t r a n s i t i o n process. The second phase involved generating questionnaire items for the variables r e s u l t i n g from the l i t e r a t u r e and v a l i d a t i n g the items by a panel of expert judges. The questionnaire was constructed of the re s u l t i n g items. In t h e t h i r d p h a s e e m p i r i c a l v a l i d a t i o n of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was determined by the responses of 106 Re-entry women who were administered the questionnaire i n the l a s t quarter of t h e i r t r a i n i n g program. Item and factor analyses were conducted on the responses and discriminant function analysis was employed to determine which variables d i s t i n g u i s h e d between those women who made su c c e s s f u l t r a n s i t i o n s and those who did not. Five main factors - a) attitude regarding appropriate job i n the current labour market; b) marital status; c) s e l f -esteem; d) educational attainment and e) support from mate were found to d i s t i n g u i s h with a 7 6.4% accuracy rate, between women who made a t r a n s i t i o n within 56 days of completing t h e i r t r a i n i n g program and those who did not. - i v -TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS i v LIST OF TABLES v i i LIST OF FIGURES v i i i ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ix CHAPTER 1 SCOPE AND FOCUS OF THE STUDY Background of the Problem 1 Re-entry Training 5 Statement of the Problem 7 The Need for a Questionnaire 8 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms 13 Thesis Organization 14 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE PERTINENT TO RE-ENTRY WOMEN 15 Biographical Background 18 Age 18 Marital Status 19 Educational Attainment 2 0 Health 21 Ethnic Origin 22 Mari t a l and Family Relations 2 3 Number of Children 23 Ages of Children 24 Childcare 25 Support of Family 2 6 Personality C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 27 Self-Confidence 27 Self-Esteem 28 Fears and Anxieties 3 0 S k i l l s and Work-Related Knowledge 3 0 S k i l l s 30 Work-Related Knowledge 31 Fin a n c i a l and Economic Factors 32 Fina n c i a l S t a b i l i t y 3 3 Being Head of the Household 33 Limited Labour Market Opportunities 34 Salary Expectations 3 6 Summary 37 -v-Page CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY 39 Phase I - I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and V e r i f i c a t i o n of Potential Variables 40 Phase I Results 42 Phase II - Item Generation and V a l i d a t i o n by Panel of Expert Judges 44 Item Generation 44 Panel of Expert Judges 45 Task Administration 46 Analysis of Data: Panel Member Responses 47 Phase II Results 48 Phase I I I Questionnaire: The F i n a l Form 53 Phase III - Empirical V a l i d a t i o n by Re-entry Participants 55 Sample Selection 55 Task Administration 56 Phase III Data Preparation and Analysis 57 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS 58 Description of the Sample 58 Test Analyses 66 Item Analysis 67 Sense of Competence Subtest 67 Self-Assessment and Attitude Toward Work Subtests 69 Family A f f a i r s Subtest 70 Finan c i a l Matters Subtest 70 Factor Analysis 71 Interpretation of the Four Factor Solution 7 3 Discriminant Analysis 77 Direct Method Results 79 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Results 83 Stepwise Method Results 83 Attitude Regarding Appropriate Job 86 Marital Status 87 Self-Esteem (Factor 1) 87 Educational Attainment 88 Support From Mate (Factor 4) 89 - v i -Page CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND IMPLICATIONS 90 Summary 9 0 Limitations of the Study 91 Conclusions 92 Attitude Regarding Appropriate Job 93 Marital Status 94 Self-Esteem 96 Educational Attainment 97 Support from Mate 97 Implications for Practise 98 Suggestions for Future Research 99 REFERENCES 102 APPENDICES 112 A. Phase I Questionnaire - I n i t i a l Survey of Re-entry Project Coordinators 112 B. Phase II Rating Package 116 C. Phase III Questionnaire Package 141 D. Factor Loadings for I n i t i a l Three Factor Solution 148 E. Factor Loadings for Four Factor Oblimin Solution 150 F. Contingency Tables for Five Discriminating Variables 152 - v i i -LIST OF TABLES Table 1 Table 2 Table 3 Table 4 Table 5 Table 6 Table 7 Table 8 Table 9 Table 10 Table 11 Table F - l Table F-2 Table F-3 Table F-4 Table F-5 PAGE Phase I Variable Rating Results 43 Phase II Rating Results 50 Biodemographic Information on Re-entry Participants 60 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Participants By Occupational Type and Geographic Location 65 Subtest Item Analysis Results 68 Correlation Matrix for Three Subtests 71 Pattern Matrix for Three Subtests 74 Direct Method Discriminant Function Analysis Structure C o e f f i c i e n t s 80 Direct Method Discriminant Function Analysis C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Matrix 82 Stepwise Method Discriminant Function Analysis Structure C o e f f i c i e n t 85 Stepwise Method Discriminant Function Analysis C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Matrix 85 Crosstabulation of Attitude Regarding Appropriate Job By Tr a n s i t i o n 153 Crosstabulation of Marital Status By Transition 154 Crosstabulation of Self-esteem By Transition 155 Crosstabulation of Educational Attainment By Transition 156 Crosstabulation of Support From Mate By Tr a n s i t i o n 157 - v m -LIST OF FIGURES Page Figure 1 Frequency Histogram of Days 78 Required to Make Tra n s i t i o n - i x -ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I wish to extend my s i n c e r e a p p r e c i a t i o n to Dr. Todd Rogers, my thesis supervisor, f o r h i s guidance, support, and assistance. I would also l i k e to give thanks to Dr. Robert Conry and Dr. Jane Gaskell f o r t h e i r advice and contributions throughout t h i s project. To my co l l e a g u e s and f r i e n d s at Canada Employment and Immigration i n the Job Entry Program, I am extremely g r a t e f u l f o r your encouragement and assistance. I am also appreciative of the e f f o r t s and assistance provided by the Re-entry p a r t i c i p a n t s and t h e i r project coordinators. For the many hours spent typing the pages of t h i s thesis, I am very g r a t e f u l to Kathy Doyle and her l i m i t l e s s patience. Most importantly, I would l i k e to thank my husband Brian. Without h i s support, encouragement, and reassurance, t h i s project may have never r e a l i z e d f r u i t i o n . CHAPTER 1 SCOPE AND FOCUS OF THE STUDY Background of the Problem Regardless of a woman's age, education, or the number of years she has spent working i n the home, the experience of r e - e n t e r i n g the labour market can be a frightening and b e w i l d e r i n g one. T y p i c a l l y , women who wish to re-enter employment a f t e r years during which t h e i r primary r o l e was homemaker, wife, and mother have l i t t l e appreciation for the s k i l l s they possess. Nor do they have appreciation for t h e i r p o t e n t i a l t o a c q u i r e new s k i l l s . They f e e l f r i g h t e n e d , insecure and g u i l t y ; they tend to under-rate t h e i r own accomplishments. These women are seeking a better l i f e f or themselves and t h e i r f a m i l i e s . Their common goal i s to succeed i n making the t r a n s i t i o n from home to the work force (Berman, 1980). Li t e r a t u r e from the 1970's describes the " t y p i c a l " Re-entry woman as about 4 0 years of age, married, with two or three childre n aged s i x to eighteen. Husbands are described as b e t t e r educated and earning a s a l a r y of about $14,000 (Canadian) per year (Pearson, 1979). Now, i n the 1980's, i t i s more d i f f i c u l t to describe the t y p i c a l Re-entry -2-woman. Many women making a t r a n s i t i o n from home to work are single mothers i n t h e i r l a t e twenties and early t h i r t i e s , with very young children. S t a t i s t i c s Canada (1985) reports t h a t i n 1983, for example, 50.8% of female labour force p a r t i c i p a t i o n was by women with preschool age children and no husband at home, and that the p a r t i c i p a t i o n rate of single mothers with children aged 6 to 15 years was 65.5% (p.49). The majority (56%) of female singl e parents were women whose marriages had ended e i t h e r i n d i v o r c e or separation ( p . l ) . As well, married women with young children are increasing t h e i r labour force p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the 1980's. Boothby (1986) reports that i n the ten year period between 1971 and 1981, married women with preschool age children had more rapid growth i n t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n rates than any other category of married women. By 1981, over 45% of married women with children aged two and under were i n the labour f o r c e (p.7). S t a t i s t i c s Canada (1985) reports that i n 1983, 51.5% of married women with preschool aged children were p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the labour force. This compares with 34.1% i n 1975. Married women with childr e n aged 6 to 15 years had a labour p a r t i c i p a t i o n rate of 47.0% i n 1975 increasing to 61.4% i n 1983 (p.49). -3-Another category of Re-entry women i s the widow, who must return to work to support h e r s e l f and often her children. In 1981, 33.3% of a l l single mothers i n Canada were widows ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1985, p.7). Moreover, Pearson (1979) claims t h a t widows constitute one of the most destitute c l a s s e s of c i t i z e n s i n Canada. The deceased husband's pension often provides l i t t l e or no r e l i e f . The Canada Pension Plan provides a widow's pension, but the maximum payment i s minimal. Very few widows get the maximum pension benefit; some get none at a l l (p.12). While the background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of today's Re-entry women are vast and. varied, t h e i r reasons f o r returning to paid employment appear to be shared: There are two major, and not mutually exclusive factors motivating married women to re-enter the labour force, f i n a n c i a l necessity and the desire fo r s e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t (Ray, 1979, p.14). Of these two reasons, f i n a n c i a l exigency predominates. While women enter the labour force f o r a complex va r i e t y of reasons, and while personal and family circumstances influence a l l women i n t h e i r search for paid jobs, i t i s cl e a r that the most important motivation i s f i n a n c i a l necessity and that for most the o c c u p a t i o n a l a l t e r n a t i v e s are r e s t r i c t e d to women's work (Armstrong & Armstrong, 1983, p.34). -4-A s e c o n d a r y f a c t o r i m p e l l i n g women to r e - e n t e r the workforce i s the d e s i r e f or s e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t . The low status of the unpaid occupation of homemaker accompanied by f i n a n c i a l dependence, s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n and lack of personal i d e n t i t y , r e s u l t i n a v o i d - a personal, psychological dependency i n these women: Margaret E i c h l e r discusses personal dependence, an a t t r i b u t e which women, e s p e c i a l l y housewives, share with children and slaves and which creates an economic, s o c i a l and/or l e g a l bond between the woman and another person who has authority over her. Although such dependence i s not exclusive to the housewife, she runs a much greater r i s k of being i t s v i c t i m (Proulx, 1978, p.17). The obstacles women face when returning to paid employment are also shared. Employers' attitudes and resistance to h i r i n g women o p e r a t e as s t r o n g b a r r i e r s f o r women attempting to re-enter employment. Employers tend not to view s k i l l s and experience acquired i n the home as valuable i n the workplace. Most employers seem to b e l i e v e that a married woman i s apt to be an u n r e l i a b l e employee as fa m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s lead to high absenteeism and turnover rates (Pearson, 1979, p.20). O b l i g a t i o n s to f u l f i l l f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s c o n f l i c t with the demand of employment r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . Women are expected to be committed to t h e i r work equally as much as men. However, they are also required to give p r i o r i t y to -5-t h e i r f a m i l i e s . They do not substitute the work r o l e for the homemaker r o l e . They usually take on paid work as an a d d i t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y (Di Sabatino, 1976). This home-career c o n f l i c t combined with attitudes of employers operate as d i s c r i m i n a t o r y o b s t a c l e s to employment for Re-entry women. Re-entry Training The Canadian Employment and Immigration Commission was established i n 1977 by Act of Parliament ( B i l l C-27). With terms of r e f e r e n c e to e s t a b l i s h and implement national employment p o l i c y , the Commission i s responsible for the development and u t i l i z a t i o n of human resources. Vocational t r a i n i n g programs are an important instrument of employment p o l i c y i n Canada and the Commission funds these programs as p a r t of i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y (Canada, Department of Employment and Immigration, 1977). In 1985, the Commission implemented the Canadian Jobs Strategy to e s t a b l i s h new o b j e c t i v e s and to develop and implement new programs designed to provide t r a i n i n g and s k i l l development for Canadians. The Strategy includes s i x programs that unite the e f f o r t s of the f e d e r a l government, p r o v i n c i a l -6-governments, business, labour and community groups i n a s s i s t i n g men and women to develop s k i l l s needed to compete i n the current and anticipated Canadian job market. Job Entry i s one of the s i x programs i n the Strategy and w i t h i n t h i s program Job Re-entry t r a i n i n g f or women i s provided. This p a r t i c u l a r component i s designed to a s s i s t women who have been p r i m a r i l y engaged i n homemaking a c t i v i t i e s f or at lea s t three years and who are now either entering the workforce for the f i r s t time or re-entering the workforce. The sole objective of Job Re-entry i s to f a c i l i t a t e the t r a n s i t i o n of women from home to the labour market (EIC, Re-entry: Guide to Proposal Development, 1985). This t r a n s i t i o n i s f a c i l i t a t e d through the use of Re-entry projects designed to provide an integrated combination of s k i l l s t r a i n i n g and d i r e c t work experience. Each project p r o v i d e s o r i e n t a t i o n t o the changing labour force and o p p o r t u n i t i e s to develop job search s k i l l s , general and s p e c i f i c o c c u p a t i o n a l s k i l l s t r a i n i n g , and l i f e s k i l l s . Individual counselling and group support are also provided. Job Re-entry t r a i n i n g o f f e r s women the opportunity to review, b u i l d on, and expand t h e i r employment-related s k i l l s and experience. Project content and del i v e r y -7-mechanisms r e f l e c t and accommodate women's learning needs, recognizing the personal and family adjustments women must make when re-entering the work force. Statement of the Problem I t i s estimated by administrative s t a f f at Employment and Immigration Canada that 60-65% of women p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the Job Re-entry program i n B r i t i s h Columbia make a t r a n s i t i o n from home to work within eight weeks of t h e i r project's completion (personal communication, R. Frame and P. Hagerman, March 5, 1987). There are p a r t i c i p a n t s who receive o f f e r s of employment well before the end of t h e i r t r a i n i n g , while some do not receive an o f f e r u n t i l a f t e r weeks of active job search. S t i l l others receive no of f e r s of employment. Given that these women are a l l provided equivalent t r a i n i n g opportunities and work experience, and t h a t t h e y a r e f a c e d w i t h the same l a b o u r market constraints, what factors contribute to an explanation of t h i s observed v a r i a b i l i t y i n t r a n s i t i o n from the home to an employment situation? - 8 -The s p e c i f i c purpose of the present research was to develop and v a l i d a t e a self-administered questionnaire designed to obtain information needed to answer t h i s question. As w i l l be d e s c r i b e d i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n , no s u i t a b l e questionnaire by which information d e s c r i p t i v e of ess e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Re-entry women was ava i l a b l e . Thus, s u c c e s s f u l development of a questionnaire would f i l l t h i s v o i d , thereby p e r m i t t i n g a more complete answer to the question than would be obtained using presently available instruments. The Need for a Questionnaire Although a number of i n v e s t i g a t o r s have examined data pertinent to the Re-entry of women into the labour force, instruments s p e c i f i c a l l y designed to measure personological factors which may influence the t r a n s i t i o n process were not ava i l a b l e . Previously completed studies r e l i e d p r i n c i p a l l y upon a v a i l a b l e count and f r e q u e n c y d a t a , sometimes supplemented with questionnaires and interview schedules. -9-For example, i n the most recent Canadian study, Boothby (198 6) examined the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of women i n the federal government's t r a i n i n g programs. He based h i s analysis on s t a t i s t i c a l summaries t a b u l a t e d from the 1981 Canadian Census, S t a t i s t i c s Canada Labour Force Surveys, and the Employment and Immigration Canada Annual S t a t i s t i c s B u l l e t i n f o r 1983-84. No q u e s t i o n n a i r e or i n t e r v i e w data were co l l e c t e d . In an e a r l i e r Canadian study, the Abella Commission Report on Equality i n Employment (1984) r e l i e d heavily on data from S t a t i s t i c s Canada. . These data were supplemented with i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d by a q u e s t i o n n a i r e which was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o management o f f i c i a l s of 11 Crown C o r p o r a t i o n s . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e y i e l d e d w o r k f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n data and information on employment practices and systems, r a t h e r than i n f o r m a t i o n concerning factors influencing women's return to employment. Armstrong and Armstrong (1983) also r e l i e d on count data from S t a t i s t i c s Canada to learn about the nature of work th a t women i n the Canadian labour f o r c e most commonly perform. In addition they developed an interview schedule to investigate the q u a l i t a t i v e nature and condition of -10-women's work. They interviewed women i n the labour force to learn about the conditions and rewards of work, about how women were treated as workers, and about the rel a t i o n s h i p between the women's p a i d work and t h e i r unpaid work at home. Their intention was not to learn how women emerged from unpaid work i n the home to paid employment. Two int e r n a t i o n a l studies on the reintegration of women into the labour forces of d i f f e r e n t countries (Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, I t a l y , the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United States - Seear, 1971; Federal Republic of Germany, France, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States -Yohalem, 198 0) likewise r e l i e d on count data provided by ap p r o p r i a t e m i n i s t r i e s i n the p a r t i c i p a t i n g countries. In both s t u d i e s , i n v e s t i g a t o r s v i s i t e d each country to i n t e r v i e w government o f f i c i a l s and employers and to d i s t r i b u t e surveys which were used to compile the government s t a t i s t i c s . The investigators were able to i d e n t i f y common problems e x p e r i e n c e d by R e - e n t r y women i n d i f f e r e n t countries and were able to ra i s e p o l i c y issues. However, the s t u d i e s were i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c , as no information was co l l e c t e d from Re-entry women themselves. -11-McGraw (1982) reviewed two American studies using informal q u e s t i o n n a i r e s to evaluate the effectiveness of workshops f o r R e - e n t r y women. At the c l o s e of the workshops, p a r t i c i p a n t s completed questionnaires designed to evaluate program a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and assess program e f f i c a c y . The questionnaires were not intended to e l i c i t information about the t r a n s i t i o n process f o r Re-entry women. When s e a r c h i n g f o r a s u i t a b l e q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t was reasonable to investigate the p o s s i b i l i t y of an unreviewed q u e s t i o n n a i r e or an i n f o r m a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h a t was unvalidated. Inquiries regarding informal questionnaires i n use were made of 14 p r a c t i t i o n e r s , located i n V i c t o r i a , Vancouver, Regina, and Toronto, who work with Re-entry women i n programs other than the federal government's Job Re-entry program. The p r a c t i t i o n e r s contacted were i n agreement as to the urgent requirement for such an instrument. Questionnaires currently i n use had been developed for the purposes of assessing s p e c i f i c programs. A questionnaire that would provide information about factors influencing the t r a n s i t i o n process would help to i d e n t i f y issues that need to be addressed by program content and c u r r i c u l a . -12-Th e Job R e - e n t r y program sponsored by Employment and Immigration Canada i s d e l i v e r e d to women across Canada. Since i t s inception i n 1985, no evaluation of the program has been undertaken. The development of a questionnaire with sound v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y could contribute to future program development thereby providing information to make the program more b e n e f i c i a l to the success of Re-entry women. Administration of the questionnaire could be help f u l f o r t h e d e t e c t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l problems, needs, or shortcomings which might go undetected i n the dynamics of a larger group. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of f a c t o r s which contribute to successful t r a n s i t i o n s could have implications for project coordinators and people involved i n the delivery of t r a i n i n g , leading to changes i n the present t r a i n i n g plans and c u r r i c u l a to better address the needs of Re-entry women. Further, t h i s study could prove s i g n i f i c a n t f o r a l l Re-entry women i n Canada. By i d e n t i f y i n g factors that f a c i l i t a t e t r a n s i t i o n and those that impede t r a n s i t i o n , women can work toward overcoming negative c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and problem areas. -13-D e f i n i t i o n of Terms The following terms are used throughout the study. Re-entry women Re-entry women are women who: 1. have been out of the workforce at l e a s t three years; 2. were engaged i n homemaking a c t i v i t i e s during t h e i r absence from the workforce; 3. are currently unemployed or working part-time not more than 20 hours per week; 4. are l e g a l l y e n t i t l e d to work i n Canada; and 5. are p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the Federal Government's Job Re-entry t r a i n i n g program for women. Tran s i t i o n T r a n s i t i o n i s defined as the number of days required, a f t e r the t r a i n i n g program, to begin employment. Eight weeks (56 days) i s stip u l a t e d i n Job Re-entry contracts with Employment and Immigration Canada as the time frame to determine what percentage of par t i c i p a n t s make t r a n s i t i o n s ' i n t o t he wo r k p l a c e (EIC Agreement, Schedule B - EMP 3658, Objectives clause "C"). -14-Thesis Organization The chapters to follow contain a review of the l i t e r a t u r e , a d e s c r i p t i o n of methodology, the r e s u l t s of s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s , and a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e f i n d i n g s w i t h i m p l i c a t i o n s for future research. Chapter 2 presents a summation of the l i t e r a t u r e pertaining to Re-entry women which i l l u m i n a t e s v a r i a b l e s considered throughout the q u e s t i o n n a i r e development. The chapter i s organized i n terms of f i v e main c a t e g o r i e s of v a r i a b l e s t h a t were gleaned from the l i t e r a t u r e . Within each main category, i n d i v i d u a l variables are examined. C h a p t e r 3 o u t l i n e s the three phases i n v o l v e d i n the development and v a l i d a t i o n of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , and d e s c r i b e s t h e sample p o p u l a t i o n , d a t a c o l l e c t i o n procedures, and s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s . The r e s u l t s of Phases I and II are presented i n t h i s chapter. Phase III r e s u l t s which include item analysis, factor analysis and discriminant analysis, are presented i n Chapter 4. Chapter 5 summarizes the f i n d i n g s of the study and suggests i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r future research projects. The various p h a s e s o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e and d i r e c t i o n s f o r administration are included i n the appendices following the references. -15-CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE PERTINENT TO RE-ENTRY WOMEN The need for proper planning and car e f u l attention to the development of a v a l i d and r e l i a b l e questionnaire i s well documented i n the l i t e r a t u r e (e.g. Crocker & Algina, 1986; Cronbach, 1971; H o i n v i l l e & Jowell, 1978; L i , 1981; Moser, 1978; Moser & Kalton, 1971; Oppenheim, 1966; Platek, P i e r r e - P i e r r e , & Stevens, 1985; Sudman & Bradburn, 1982; Tinkleman, 1971). Moser (1978), for example, described the s i t u a t i o n as one i n which "the p i t f a l l s are many and the w o r l d i s l i t t e r e d with poor surveys, c a r r i e d out at c o n s i d e r a b l e c o s t t o the s p o n s o r and u n n e c e s s a r y inconvenience to the respondents" (p.v). L i (1981) agreed that a good questionnaire i s d i f f i c u l t to design. There i s a long process involved i n writing the questions, r e f i n i n g the wording, and t e s t i n g the e n t i r e questionnaire. "A poorly constructed questionnaire i s j u s t l i k e a f a u l t y t o o l of measurement, which i s found to produce erroneous and unrel i a b l e r e s u l t s " (p.51). Cronbach (1971) advised, "construction of a t e s t i t s e l f s t a r t s from a theory about behaviour or mental organiza-t i o n , derived from p r i o r research, that suggests the ground -16-p l a n f o r the t e s t " (p. 443). In the remainder of the chapter, t h i s review of the p r i o r research on Re-entry women and women i n the labour market i s presented. In Chapter 1, f i n a n c i a l necessity was described as the predominant factor compelling women to re-enter the work f o r c e . Continuing with t h i s i dea, many of the women inte r v i e w e d i n the Armstrong and Armstrong (1983) study commented, " I f I d i d n ' t work, we wouldn't eat" (p.34). S i m i l a r l y , Robinson, Longfellow, Rotter, and Wilson (1982) found t h a t the overwhelming majority of women work for exactly the same reason most men do: they need the money. The desire f o r s e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t was suggested as the second f a c t o r m o t i v a t i n g women to return to work. Ray (1979) described the source of t h i s desire f o r s e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t as being r e l a t e d to the fac t that women were bored with the r o u t i n e of housework, d i s l i k e d the s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n of being a housewife, and f e l t the need t o e s t a b l i s h an i d e n t i t y independent of t h e i r wife and mother roles (p.18). I f these are the reasons women return to work, how do these two m o t i v a t i n g f a c t o r s account f o r some women making successful t r a n s i t i o n s from home to work and not others? What variables comprising these factors influence the -17-t r a n s i t i o n process? The l i t e r a t u r e reviewed i d e n t i f i e d many v a r i a b l e s from previous s t u d i e s which could be considered i n f l u e n t i a l i n the t r a n s i t i o n process. These variables and the review to follow are organized into f i v e main categories: a) Biographical Background b) Marital and Family Relations c) Personality C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s d) S k i l l s and Work-Related Knowledge e) F i n a n c i a l and Economic Factors. Within each main category, s t u d i e s are c i t e d i n which variables associated with female labour force p a r t i c i p a t i o n are examined. I t was reasoned that these variables might give r i s e to factors o f f e r i n g insight as to why some women make successful t r a n s i t i o n s while others do not. -18-Biocfraphical Background Five biographic variables have been found to be related to the re-entry of women into the labour force: age, marital status, educational attainment, health, and ethnic o r i g i n . Age Labour force p a r t i c i p a t i o n has been increasing since 1970 for women of a l l ages except those 65 and over. In Canada, between 1975 and 1983, the largest increases were for women aged 25-54; the p a r t i c i p a t i o n by women between the ages of 2 5 and 44 rose 15 percent, while f o r women aged 45 to 54 the i n c r e a s e was 12 percent ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1985, p.41). Although not indicated by simple labour force p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s , age has been found to be a factor considered by employers when h i r i n g female employees. Seear (1971) interviewed employers of Re-entry women and found that they considered o l d e r Re-entry women more r e l i a b l e and l o y a l employees. Thursby (1974) found that p a r t i c i p a n t s who made a s u c c e s s f u l t r a n s i t i o n from a work incentives t r a i n i n g program to paid employment were several years older than unsuccessful p a r t i c i p a n t s . -19-Marital Status Ray (1979), Armstrong and Armstrong (1983), and Abella (1984) examined female labour force p a r t i c i p a t i o n as a f u n c t i o n of m a r i t a l status. According to Ray, i n 1972 married women i n the labour force represented only 34% of married women i n the population; i n 1977, t h i s percentage rose to 44% (p.4). Between 19 7 2 and 1977 married women showed the g r e a t e s t i n c r e a s e both i n t h e i r representation r e l a t i v e to women of other marital statuses i n the female labour force p a r t i c i p a t i o n , as well as i n t h e i r rate of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the labour force (Ray, 1979, p.4). I t i s possible that marriage provides an inherent support system (emotional and financial) that i s required to make a successful t r a n s i t i o n from home to work. I f both spouses share a common goal i n the wife's employment, t h i s may f a c i l i t a t e the t r a n s i t i o n process. -20-Divorce i s another point at issue when considering marital status as a factor influencing Re-entry women. Women who have functioned primarily as homemakers may s u f f e r economic penalties when t h e i r marriages dissolve. These women need support. I t i s often v i t a l to t h e i r family's s u r v i v a l : For many women the d i s s o l u t i o n of t h e i r marriage means the loss of t h e i r only source of income and further an income loss which i s not l i k e l y to be recouped. Although the court may award the woman maintenance f o r h e r s e l f and her c h i l d r e n , the Federal Law Reform Commission has stated that one of the most s e r i o u s problems facing a divorced spouse i s the i n a b i l i t y to enforce an e x i s t i n g maintenance order (Pearson, 1979, p.11). Educational Attainment Rauhala (1986) reported on a study of the s t a t u s of Canadian women i n employment, t r a i n i n g , and education. The study showed that while highly educated women, are making some inroads into the job market, t h i s i s not the case for poorly educated women. "Poorly educated women are finding i t as tough to f i n d work i n the eighties as they did i n the f i f t i e s " (p.A5). Jones (1983) found t h a t the more education and the higher the l e v e l of c e r t i f i c a t i o n a woman achieved, the less time she required to make a t r a n s i t i o n -21-from home t o work. Armstrong and Armstrong (1983) commented, "Women with u n i v e r s i t y degrees have the highest p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s and the lowest unemployment rates. Women with eight or fewer years of recognized education have t h e l o w e s t p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s and the hig h e s t unemployment rates" (p.23). Pearson (1979) speculated that A well-educated women may tend to view employment as h i g h l y rewarding, combining r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , high prestige and pay and mastery over the work environment. Furthermore, there may be s o c i a l pressure not to "waste" her s k i l l s (p.14). Health Pray (1982), Jones (1983), and Berman (1980) suggested h e a l t h i s a f a c t o r p o t e n t i a l l y i n f l u e n c i n g women's employment p r o s p e c t s . According to Pray (1982), women c o n s i d e r i n g n o n t r a d i t i o n a l occupations have the greatest chance of success i f they have developed strength i n a regular f i t n e s s program. Jones (1983) reported poor health as a d e f i n i t e determinant of high unemployment rates for women. Berman (1980) reported on a study from the Yale School of Medicine. I t was found that 70% of women looking -22-f o r jobs were su f f e r i n g from depressive symptoms. I f a woman's health i s poor, the chances of her performing well i n an interview or pre-employment s i t u a t i o n seem un l i k e l y , thereby making i t more d i f f i c u l t to f i n d employment. Ethnic O r i g i n Armstrong and Armstrong (1983) and Abella (1984) examined female l a b o u r p a r t i c i p a t i o n as a f u n c t i o n of e t h n i c o r i g i n . The data examined by Armstrong and Armstrong (1983) indicated that one out of f i v e women working for pay i n t h i s country has immigrated to Canada. These women are concentrated i n service and factory jobs, i n the lowest paid and l e a s t rewarded work. "Almost h a l f of the garment and t e x t i l e industry workers are immigrant women, pri m a r i l y from southern Europe. Domestic workers are also dispropor-t i o n a t e l y drawn from immigrant groups" (p.22). V i s i b l e m i n o r i t i e s and n a t i v e people a l l across Canada complained of racism to the Abella Commission (1984). They a t t r i b u t e d t h e i r l a c k of employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s to discrimination and prejudice. Their unemployment rates, as reported by the Abella Commission, are more than twice that -23-of other Canadians. Based on such low l e v e l s of labour f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n , low income l e v e l s , and occupational segregation, the Abella Commission recognized the need for government intervention to improve the equitable p a r t i c i p a -t i o n i n the work f o r c e by n a t i v e people and v i s i b l e m i n o r i t i e s . Further, the Abella Commission (1984) claimed t h a t v i s i b l e m i n o r i t i e s , i n c l u d i n g native people, with recognized q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and proven job s k i l l s were not promoted or given the same opportunities as whites with s i m i l a r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s (p.47). Marital and Family Relations Four v a r i a b l e s associated with marital r e l a t i o n s h i p s and f a m i l y s t a t u s were i d e n t i f i e d as i n f l u e n c i n g women's d e c i s i o n s to return to the paid work force: number of children, ages of children, childcare, and the support of her family. Number of Children C a n a dian f a m i l i e s are becoming s m a l l e r a c c o r d i n g to S t a t i s t i c s Canada (1985) data. In 1971, husband-wife f a m i l i e s had 1.7 children on average; by 1981, the figure had f a l l e n to 1.3. The r i s i n g labour force p a r t i c i p a t i o n of women, e s p e c i a l l y married women, was c i t e d as one ex p l a n a t i o n f o r the d e c l i n e i n family s i z e ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1985, p.4). Thursby (1974), i n her study of female trainees making a t r a n s i t i o n from a work incentives program to paid employment, found that successful trainees averaged one c h i l d fewer than unsuccessful trainees. Ages of Children Pearson (1979) and Boothby (1986) studied the patterns of labour f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n by women l i n k e d to age of children and the demands of ch i l d r e a r i n g . Pearson (1979) described labour force p a r t i c i p a t i o n by married women with childre n as a two stage process. The f i r s t stage occurs before childbearing. The second stage occurs . . . t y p i c a l l y when the woman i s about 35 years of age; her children are a b i t older and no longer need c l o s e s u p e r v i s i o n so she can take on the extra r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of a job (p.3). Boothby (198 6) describes how the labour force entries and exi t s of a woman are linked to the b i r t h of her f i r s t c h i l d -25-and the point at which her youngest c h i l d reaches school age. Using s t a t i s t i c s from the Census of Canada (1981), he found t h a t most women enter the labour force p r i o r to m a r r i a g e but withdraw from i t at some p o i n t between marriage and the b i r t h of the f i r s t c h i l d . Later, when the demands of c h i l d r e a r i n g decrease at the time childr e n reach s c h o o l age, many women r e - e n t e r the labour market. P a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s increase as the youngest c h i l d ages (P-7). Data from S t a t i s t i c s Canada (1985) i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s observation. In 1983, p a r t i c i p a t i o n rates rose from 49% for women with at le a s t one c h i l d under three to 56% for women with t h e i r youngest c h i l d between three and f i v e , to 62% for women with children between s i x and f i f t e e n (p.5). As t h e i r c h i l d r e n increase i n age, women seem to have more impetus to re-enter the labour market. Childcare A b e l l a (1984), Pearson (1979), and Ray (1979) maintained t h a t the absence of a f f o r d a b l e c h i l d c a r e of adequate q u a l i t y i n h i b i t s women from p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the workforce. The cost of qu a l i t y childcare makes working not economically v i a b l e for many women. -26-The Abella Commission (1984) reported: There are those who argue that the need f o r c h i l d -care i s not demonstrated; otherwise more women would be staying home. The absence of adequate c h i l d c a r e , t h e y c l a i m , does not seem to be i n h i b i t i n g women from p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the work-force. This i s simply untrue. Women are not only i n h i b i t e d from working by the absence of t h i s support system but the qua l i t y of t h e i r p a r t i c i p a -t i o n i s impaired. C h i l d c a r e i s the ramp that provides equal access to the workforce f o r mothers (p.178). I f affordable, q u a l i t y childcare i s not ava i l a b l e to women with children, then the lack of economic f e a s i b i l i t y may in t e r f e r e with the t r a n s i t i o n of Re-entry women. Support of Family Di Sabatino (1976) has shown that women more than men seek s o c i a l approval, e s p e c i a l l y from t h e i r mate, for t h e i r v o c a t i o n a l decisions. Women have a greater tendency to s a c r i f i c e t h e i r sense of competence i n order to meet t h e i r need f o r a f f i l i a t i o n . I f Di Sabatino's claim i s v a l i d , lack of spousal support could impede a woman's t r a n s i t i o n . The Abella Commission (1984) claimed that how men and women perceive one another as spouses and how children perceive t h e i r parents determines what happens to women i n the workforce. I f women are c o n s i d e r e d economic and s o c i a l dependents i n the home, they w i l l continue to be treated as subservient i n the workforce. I f on the other hand, they are perceived as s o c i a l and economic equals i n a partnership i n the home, t h i s w i l l be t r a n s l a t e d i n t o the p r a c t i s e s of the workplace (p.25). Personality C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s For discussion purposes, t h i s section i s divided into three s u b s e c t i o n s c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e v a r i a b l e s : self-confidence, self-esteem, and fears and anxieties. Self-Confidence "Lack of self-confidence i s perhaps the most fundamental and p e r v a s i v e a t t i t u d e which hampers Re-entry women i n a t t a i n i n g t h e i r g o a l s " (Pearson, 1979, p.23). Pearson further remarked that t h i s was not sur p r i s i n g given that most Re-entry women lack recent work experience or t r a i n i n g -28-as well as s a t i s f a c t o r y information about the job market. The years at home may not have permitted a woman to form an objective view of her c a p a b i l i t i e s . In a study of an employment t r a i n i n g program f o r married women, King (1976) found the main psychological and adjust-ment problems to r e - e n t r y to be g u i l t about abandoning t h e i r f a m i l i e s and lack of self-confidence. As well, the Canadian Congress on Learning O p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r Women (1984) proposed t h a t because the r o l e of housewife i s u n p a i d , i t i s d e v a l u e d b o t h by s o c i e t y and women themselves. This undervaluing leads to a lack of s e l f -confidence and a r e a l or p e r c e i v e d dependency. As a r e s u l t , women are l e s s l i k e l y t o have well-developed d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g , and g o a l - s e t t i n g a b i l i t i e s . Self-Esteem According to Spitzer, Couch, and Stratton (1971), "One can only have self-esteem i n terms of an i d e n t i t y or set of i d e n t i t i e s " (cited i n Wells & Marwell, 1976, p.59). The h i s t o r i c and l e g a l l y sanctioned i d e n t i t y of women i n Canada -29-has been as homemaker. For more than a century, i n every province, the l e g a l doctrines around marriage required that the l e g a l personae of husband and wife merge into that of the husband. This o b l i t e r a t e d the wife's i d e n t i t y as an independent l e g a l e n t i t y . "Many men and women seem unable to escape from the perceptual f a l l o u t of the t r a d i t i o n that expects women to behave dependently and supportively toward men" (Abella, 1984, p.25). T a y l o r (1985) argued that homemaking has become unvalued and i n v i s i b l e as a r e s u l t of the development of the cash economy. The cash economy..• only pays c e r t a i n people f o r ce r t a i n types of work, se t t i n g those people and that type of work above the res t . Homemaking i s not paid employment; rather the homemaker i s economically dependent on someone else's paid work (p.5). Women s u f f e r i n g from low sel f - e s t e e m and l a c k i n g an independent i d e n t i t y also tend to lack respect for t h e i r s k i l l s , a b i l i t i e s , and p o s i t i v e a t t r i b u t e s . I t seems u n l i k e l y t h a t these women would be able to portray the image of an e f f i c i e n t , competent employee to prospective employers. -30-Fears and Anxieties O'Leary (1974) suggested that women's achievement behaviour i s d i f f e r e n t from that of men's due to a greater fear of f a i l u r e . Berman (1980) , i n her inve s t i g a t i o n of women re-entering the labour force, found that Re-entry women not only s u f f e r from fear of f a i l u r e , but also from fear of re j e c t i o n , fear of competition, fear of taking t e s t s , and fear of appearing incompetent. Yohalem (198 0) cautioned t h a t women are often psycho-l o g i c a l l y unprepared t o assume a work r o l e because of u n c e r t a i n t y about t h e i r reception i n the workplace, and t h e i r anxiety about being able to combine work with family r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . Such f e a r s and a n x i e t i e s c o u l d be detrimental to the t r a n s i t i o n process. S k i l l s and Work-Related Knowledge S k i l l s The l i t e r a t u r e reviewed did not emphasize the issue of s k i l l s or l a c k of s k i l l s f or Re-entry women. Personal -31-d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h R e - e n t r y women and t h e i r p r o j e c t c o o r d i n a t o r s l e d to the following l i s t of s k i l l s to be con s i d e r e d when i n v e s t i g a t i n g f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g the t r a n s i t i o n process f o r Re-entry women: communication s k i l l s ( o r a l and w r i t t e n ) , decision-making s k i l l s , and g o a l - s e t t i n g a b i l i t y . Regarding these same s k i l l s , the Canadian Congress on Learning O p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r Women (1984) stated that, "these are some of the generic s k i l l s required to develop and pursue a career plan and achieve success i n fin d i n g and retai n i n g employment" (p.12). Work-Related Knowledge Lack of s u f f i c i e n t realism about the work world may present an o b s t a c l e f o r many Re-entry women. Pearson (1979) determined t h i s was due to inexperience and absence of r e l i a b l e labour market i n f o r m a t i o n . Pearson c i t e d an Ontario study that reported how Re-entry women tended to over-estimate; a) the work hours, s a l a r y and l e v e l of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y that they were q u a l i f i e d to command; b) the employer's a b i l i t y t o recognize undemonstrated "latent" a b i l i t i e s ; and c) the value of work as an entertainment or universal problem-solver. The same Re-entry women tended to underestimate; (a) the amount of t r a i n i n g or r e - t r a i n i n g -32-they would need to reach t h e i r goals; and b) the importance of health, stamina and good grooming (Pearson, 1979, pp. 24,25). The Ontario study c i t e d by Pearson (1979) also noted that some women had been underrating t h e i r own q u a l i f i c a t i o n s by applying for work at a very low l e v e l . This was true more often of older women than younger women. Fina n c i a l and Economic Factors F i n a n c i a l n e c e s s i t y was p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d as the predominant force motivating women to return to work. The l i t e r a t u r e reviewed i d e n t i f i e d two variables r e l a t i n g to f i n a n c i a l n e c e s s i t y that could impact on the t r a n s i t i o n p r o c e s s : f i n a n c i a l s t a b i l i t y and being head of the household. Two a d d i t i o n a l economic variables, l i m i t e d labour market opportunities and salary expectations, were also i d e n t i f i e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e as playing a r o l e i n the t r a n s i t i o n of Re-entry women into paid employment. -33-F i n a n c i a l S t a b i l i t y Pearson (1979) claimed that many married women resume paid employment i n order to share the f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of s u p p o r t i n g a family. She suggested that because of i n f l a t i o n , two incomes are e s s e n t i a l f o r a f a m i l y to maintain economic s t a b i l i t y and provide future f i n a n c i a l security. She further stated that, "... many low-income families may be beyond the poverty l i n e only because both husband and wife are paid workers. Clearly, these women are breadwinners and the f i n a n c i a l s t a b i l i t y of t h e i r f a m i l i e s depends i n part on t h e i r s a l a r i e s " (p.10). Data from S t a t i s t i c s Canada (1985) supports Pearson's claim: i n 1982, the husband was the sole income r e c i p i e n t i n only 16% of husband-wife fam i l i e s . The income of both husband and wife was r e l i e d upon i n 56% of two-parent fa m i l i e s . Other husband-wife families had alternate income sources ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1985, p.69). Being Head of the Household In 1981, almost one of every ten Canadian families was headed by. a s i n g l e parent female. This represents an -34-increase of 59% from 1971. Divorce or separation accounted for t h i s s i t u a t i o n i n 56% of the cases. Eleven per cent of single parent females were never married. The remaining t h i r d were widowed ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1985, p . l ) . The Abella Commission (1984) reported that 85% of a l l Canadian single-parent families i n 1981 were headed by a woman, and three out of f i v e female-headed families were l i v i n g below the poverty l i n e (p.27). Re-entry women who are single mothers with sole f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f or t h e i r children have an urgent need to make a successful t r a n s i t i o n into the work force. Such motivating circumstances may f a c i l i t a t e a rapid t r a n s i t i o n . On the other hand, s i n g l e mothers r e c e i v i n g f i n a n c i a l assistance to support t h e i r children may lack the incentive to enter paid employment. Limited Labour Market Opportunities Although the number of women with jobs increased through 1985, most women continue to work i n occupations i n which they have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been the majority. In 1983, for example, 77% of a l l female employees i n Canada worked i n a -35-narrow range of occupations generally associated with women — c l e r i c a l , service, sales, teaching, and health. Female p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s l i m i t e d occupational range has only dropped three percentage points from what the proportion had been i n 1975 ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1985, p.43). . . . The n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s - c l e r i c a l , s e r v i c e and s a l e s - were the l a r g e s t of the "female" occupational groups, accounting f o r 62% of a l l female workers i n 1983 and 57% of the ov e r a l l growth i n female employment between 1975 and 1983. The largest concentration of women i n the labour force was c l e r i c a l occupations. In 1983, almost one out of every three employed women held a c l e r i c a l p o s i t i o n i n comparison with j u s t one out of sixteen employed men ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1985, p.43) . Armstrong and Armstrong (1983) found that while women are pushed into the labour force by economic necessity, they are drawn i n t o t r a d i t i o n a l female occupations, more s p e c i f i c a l l y c l e r i c a l work, because that i s where most new jobs are created. "In other words, more of the jobs were women1s j obs, and women took them because they needed the income" (p.32). Unfortunately for the large proportion of women who work i n c l e r i c a l , service, or sales positions, these are not only the lowest paying jobs but they a l s o tend to be jobs -36-l i m i t e d i n o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r promotion ( A b e l l a , 1984, p.30). Ray (1979) described c l e r i c a l work as a dead-end job i n which there are few promotional opportunities and wages are very low (p.7). Salary Expectations Women earn l e s s than men. In 1982, the average earnings of women who were employed f u l l - t i m e were only 64% of those of fu l l - t i m e male employees; $16,100 compared with $25,100 for men ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1985, p.46). More than h a l f of employed women (54%) were earning l e s s than $10,000 a year. This was true for only 31% of employed men. The lowest paid occupations are t r a d i t i o n a l l y dominated by women, while over 80% of the highest-paid positions are occupied by men (Economic Council of Canada, 1984, p.7) . David-McNeil (1984) asserted that the high concentration of women i n a s m a l l o c c u p a t i o n a l s e c t o r c r e a t e s f i e r c e c ompetition among women f o r a l i m i t e d number of jobs. Since labour supply exceeds demand, an employer i s able to o f f e r lower wages than i f there were a shortage of candidates for available positions (p.7). -37-I f R e - e n t r y women have u n r e a l i s t i c a l l y high s a l a r y expectations, t h e i r motivation to make a t r a n s i t i o n from home to work could be impaired by the r e a l i t y of the salary scales f o r women. Summary Each of the variables i d e n t i f i e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e review could influence the success of Re-entry women making the t r a n s i t i o n from home to the work force. Studies were c i t e d f o r each v a r i a b l e to i n d i c a t e which v a r i a b l e s might p o t e n t i a l l y f a c i l i t a t e the t r a n s i t i o n process or which variables might p o t e n t i a l l y act as b a r r i e r s to employment. A c c o r d i n g to the l i t e r a t u r e the v a r i a b l e s — m a r i t a l s t a t u s , e d u c a t i o n a l a t t a i n m e n t , s u p p o r t of fa m i l y , self-confidence, self-esteem, need f o r f i n a n c i a l s t a b i l i t y , s k i l l s , and w o r k - r e l a t e d knowledge might f a c i l i t a t e t r a n s i t i o n . The variables — poor health, ethnic o r i g i n , number of children, ages of children, lack of childcare, fears and anxieties, l i m i t e d labour market opportunities, and salary expectations might act as employment b a r r i e r s . The s t u d i e s c i t e d provided contradictory information for the variables age and being head of the household. This -38-may imply that these variables do not play an i n f l u e n t i a l r o l e i n the t r a n s i t i o n process. To c l a r i f y t h i s s i t u a t i o n , these variables together with those i d e n t i f i e d as pote n t i a l f a c i l i t a t o r s or i n h i b i t o r s , served as the framework for the questionnaire development. -39-CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY The purpose of t h i s study was to develop an instrument designed to obtain information on factors influencing the t r a n s i t i o n process of women re-entering the labour force. The study consisted of three phases, each b u i l d i n g on the re s u l t s of the previous phase: Phase I - I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and V e r i f i c a t i o n o f Potential Variables Phase II - Item Generation and Va l i d a t i o n by a Panel of Expert Judges Phase I I I - E m p i r i c a l V a l i d a t i o n by R e - e n t r y Participants. The three phases are described i n t h i s chapter, together with the r e s u l t s for Phases I and I I . The r e s u l t s of Phase III are presented i n Chapter 4. -40-Phase I - I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and V e r i f i c a t i o n  of Potential Variables With the information obtained from the l i t e r a t u r e review, 2 5 v a r i a b l e s thought to i n f l u e n c e the t r a n s i t i o n of R e - e n t r y women were p r e s e n t e d t o R e - e n t r y p r o j e c t c o o r d i n a t o r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia for v e r i f i c a t i o n . The p r o j e c t c o o r d i n a t o r s , who worked d i r e c t l y with Re-entry women, were asked to consider whether each v a r i a b l e was an important influence upon the t r a n s i t i o n of Re-entry women (see Appendix A for the Phase I questionnaire). In the spring of 1986, a two-day conference was held on Bowen Island, B r i t i s h Columbia for a l l Re-entry coordina-tors i n the province. The intent of t h i s conference was to allow coordinators an opportunity to discuss concerns and ideas about the Re-entry program, and to network with other coordinators. At the end of the f i r s t day, the Phase I questionnaire was di s t r i b u t e d to the 32 coordinators i n attendance. -41-Coordinators were asked to rate the variables using a four point scale (1 = Not Important, 2 = S l i g h t l y Important, 3 = Very Important, 4 = Extremely Important) according to how important each variable was deemed to be f o r the women i n t h e i r projects, i n terms of making a successful t r a n s i t i o n from home to the work force. Space was also provided for coordinators to suggest and rate additional variables which they believed to be i n f l u e n t i a l i n the t r a n s i t i o n process. The goals of t h i s task were to determine i f coordinators considered: a) such v a r i a b l e s were i n f l u e n t i a l i n the t r a n s i t i o n process, and b) whether some variables were of greater importance than others. P r i o r to c a l c u l a t i n g the r e s u l t s of the Phase I question-naire, i t was decided that any variable receiving a mean ra t i n g of l e s s than 2.0 was r e l a t i v e l y unimportant to the t r a n s i t i o n process and would not be given further considera-t i o n . -42-Phase I Results Eighteen questionnaires were returned at the end of the conference. Five coordinators indicated a need to take t h e i r questionnaires home for further consideration. Of these f i v e , four returned t h e i r questionnaires by mail, y i e l d i n g an o v e r a l l response rate of 68.8%. The mean ratings for the 25 i n i t i a l l y i d e n t i f i e d variables are presented i n Table 1. These variables are arranged i n rank order from the highest mean ra t i n g to the lowest. Nine a d d i t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s suggested by coordinators are l i s t e d at the bottom of the table. As shown i n Table 1, a l l variables l i s t e d i n the Phase I q u e s t i o n n a i r e were r e t a i n e d f o r f u r t h e r consideration, since a l l received a mean ra t i n g greater than 2.0. The 25 i n i t i a l v a r iables plus the nine suggested by coordinators provided 34 variables for further development i n Phase I I . TABLE 1 PHASE I VARIABLE RATING RESULTS (N = 22) VARIABLE MEAN RATING VARIABLE MEAN RATING Self-Confidence 3 .45 Decision Making A b i l i t i e s 2 .86 Employment Opportunities 3 .41 Family Issues 2 .86 Self-image 3 .27 Willingness to Travel 2 .86 Anxiety 3 .14 Support of Family 2 .78 Stress 3 .14 S k i l l Level 2 .77 Type of Training Available 3 .14 Ages of Children 2 .76 Oral Communication S k i l l s 3 .09 Access to Transportation 2 .68 Assertiveness 3 .00 Depression 2 .48 Fear of Appear Incompetent 2 .95 Marital Status 2 .36 A v a i l a b i l i t y of Child Care 2 .93 Number of Children 2 .36 Being Head of Household 2 .91 Years Previous Exp. 2 .23 Written Communication S k i l l s 2 .91 Age 2 .14 Self-Acceptance 2 .86 Additional Variables Suggested VARIABLE MEAN RATING VARIABLE MEAN RATING Appearance Financial Need Education Health (Mental) Health (Physical) 3.5 3.5 3.0 3.0 3.0 Motivation 3.0 Salary Expectations 3.0 Spousal Support 3.0 Long Term Goal Setting 3.0 -44-PHASE II - Item Generation and V a l i d a t i o n  by a Panel of Expert Judges Item Generation Given the r e s u l t s from Phase I, the 34 variables thought to influence Re-entry women were organized into the f i v e main c a t e g o r i e s e s t a b l i s h e d i n Chapter 2: a) Biographical Background, b) Marital and Family Relations, c) Personality C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , d) S k i l l s and Attitude Toward Work, and e) F i n a n c i a l and Economic Matters. Then, employing techniques and methods presented i n Aero and Weiner (1981), Berdie and Anderson (1974), Kagan (1985), Kane (1985), Moser and Kalton (1971), and Sudman and Bradburn (1982), a pool of 111 items was established to provide information about each of the v a r i a b l e s . The number of items developed for each category i s l i s t e d below. Biographical Background - 8 Ma r i t a l and Family Relations - 23 Personality C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s - 63 S k i l l s and Attitude Toward Work - 9 Fi n a n c i a l and Economic Matters - 8 -45-Panel of Expert Judges The f i r s t stage i n the v a l i d a t i o n of the questionnaire items was to obtain the reaction from a panel of expert judges with experience working with Re-entry women. For t h i s task a group of seven highly q u a l i f i e d experts with d i v e r s i f i e d backgrounds was used: 1) A Family and Marriage Counsellor, 2) A Career Counsellor, 3) A Director of a Personnel Agency, 4) A S o c i a l Worker from the M i n i s t r y of S o c i a l Services and Housing, 5) A Job Re-entry Program O f f i c e r from Employment and Immigration Canada, 6) A Re-entry woman involved i n Job Re-entry Program Administration, and 7) A Writer who i s current i n Women's Issues. Each of the panel members represented a unique area of e x p e r t i s e and was c u r r e n t l y working with women i n the Re-entry program. -46-Task Administration The panel members were asked to independently rate the pool of 111 items i n two ways. F i r s t , each member indicated u s i n g a four point L i k e r t scale (1 = Not Relevant, 2 = S l i g h t l y Relevant, 3 = Very Relevant, 4 = Extremely Relevant) , the degree of relevance of each item to the t r a n s i t i o n process for Re-entry women. Second, the members indicated a category t i t l e f o r each item selected from the f i v e main categories i d e n t i f i e d from the l i t e r a t u r e or, i f they f e l t the t i t l e s were inappropriate, they were asked to suggest an a l t e r n a t i v e . They were also asked to i d e n t i f y items which they f e l t were worded i n a co n f u s i n g or offensive manner, and to suggest improvements i n wording. The r a t i n g package consisted of the following materials: 1) An i n s t r u c t i o n sheet explaining the r a t i n g procedures, 2) D e f i n i t i o n s of the f i v e main suggested categories, and 3) The r a t i n g form. Since the r a t i n g package was d i s t r i b u t e d and c o l l e c t e d i n person, there was no need to include a covering l e t t e r or a return envelope. (The Phase II r a t i n g package i s presented i n Appendix B.) -47-Analysis of Data: Panel Members Responses The method of analysis for the panel members' ratings was s i m i l a r to that developed by Horvath (1981). Two summary s t a t i s t i c s were calculated for each item: 1) The mean r a t i n g or arithmetic mean of the ratings assigned by the panel members. 2) Percent agreement on category - defined as the percentage of panel members who c l a s s i f i e d an item i n the same category. For each item, the mean r a t i n g and percent agreement were based upon the t o t a l number of ratings made. The re s u l t s were used to revise the item pool p r i o r to constructing the Phase I I I or f i n a l form of the questionnaire. Items were r e t a i n e d , r e p h r a s e d , or e l i m i n a t e d a c c o r d i n g to the following c r i t e r i a : An item was retained i f i t s mean r a t i n g was greater than or equal to 2.75 and i t s percent agreement was greater than or equal to 70%. -48-An i t e m was r e p h r a s e d i f a) i t met the f i r s t c r i t e r i o n , b u t two o r more r a t e r s s u g g e s t e d improvements i n the phrasing of the item or b) i t s mean ra t i n g was greater than or equal to 2.75 and i t s percent agreement was le s s than 70% but greater than or equal to 57%. An item was rejected i f i t had a mean r a t i n g less than 2.75 or a percent agreement less than 57%. Phase II Results The r e s u l t s of the above analysis are l i s t e d i n Table 2 together with the action taken f o r each item. As shown, 50 items were retained as i s , 11 items were rephrased, and 50 items were i n i t i a l l y rejected. Rewording was suggested by two or more judges on seven of the items that received mean ratings greater than 2.75 and percent agreements g r e a t e r than 70%. These items are i n d i c a t e d with an a s t e r i s k i n Table 2. Generally, the judges preferred p o s i t i v e rather than negative wording for the items. The following are two examples: -49-Item 14 There i s no sense of closeness i n my family. Judges Preference There i s a r e a l sense of closeness i n my family. Item 17 L i f e i n my family i s generally unhappy. Judges Preference L i f e i n my family i s generally happy. The four remaining items requiring rephrasing (marked with a " t " i n Table 2) were generally changed to a more simple, le s s complicated wording. The following are two examples: Item 1 For how many years have you been without paid employment? Item 38 For you personally, how important i s getting a job (for other than economic reasons)? Rephrased How many years ago were you l a s t employed? Rephrased For you personally, how important i s getting a job? -50-Table 2 Phase II Rating Results (n = 7 Judges) Mean Percent Item # Rating Category Agreement Action 1 3.43 BB 57.1 t Rephrase 2 ' 2.57 FE 57.1 Reject 3 3.00 PC 85.7 Retain 4 3.43 SA 85.7 Retain 5 3.00 PC 71.4 Retain 6 3 .29 PC 57.1 t Rephrase 7 1.71 PC 42.9 Reject 8 3.43 PC 85.7 Retain 9 2.57 MF 100.0 Reject 10 3.43 PC 100. 0 Retain 11 3.29 MF 100.0 Retain 12 3 .57 MF 100. 0 Retain 13 2.43 MF 100.0 Reject 14 3.14 MF 100.0 * Rephrase 15 3.29 MF 100.0 * Rephrase 16 3.14 MF 100. 0 Retain 17 3 .14 MF 100.0 * Rephrase 18 2.57 PC 100.0 Rej ect 19 2.36 PC 100. 0 Rej ect 20 1.57 BB 71.4 Rej ect 21 2.50 MF 57.1 Rej ect 22 2.86 MF 85.7 Retain 23 3 .14 MF 100.0 Retain 24 3.29 MF 100. 0 Retain 25 3.00 FE 42.9 Reject 26 2.43 PC 85.7 Rej ect 27 2.86 SA 42.9 Reject 28 2 .29 PC 100.0 Reject 29 2.00 PC 100.0 Rej ect 30 3.00 PC 85.7 Retain 31 3.29 PC 100. 0 Retain 32 2.71 PC 100. 0 Reject 33 2.57 PC 100. 0 Rej ect 34 3.00 PC 100. 0 Retain 35 3.71 MF 100. 0 Retain 36 2.86 MF 100.0 Retain 37 3.00 PC 100.0 Retain 38 3 .86 SA 57.1 t Rephrase 39 2 . 00 PC 85.7 Reject 40 2.86 PC 71.4 Retain (Table continues) -51-(Table 2 continued) 41 2.71 PC 85.7 Reject 42 2.71 PC 71.4 Rej ect 43 3.00 PC 85.7 Retain 44 2.86 PC 85.7 Retain 45 2.14 PC 85.7 Reject 46 2.43 PC 71.4 Reject 47 1.71 PC 100. 0 Reject 48 2.86 PC 100.0 Retain 49 2.71 MF 57.1 Reject 50 2.71 BB 85.7 Rej ect 51 2.57 PC 100.0 Rej ect 52 3 .14 MF 71.4 Retain 53 3.00 SA 71.4 Retain 54 2.86 SA 71.4 Retain 55 2.67 MF 71.4 Reject 56 2 .57 MF 42.9 Rej ect 57 3.14 FE 100.0 Retain 58 3.14 PC 71.4 Retain 59 3.86 MF 85.7 * Rephrase 60 2.50 PC 85.7 Reject 61 3 .14 PC 85.7 Retain 62 2.71 PC 100.0 Reject 63 2.71 PC 100.0 Reject 64 3.00 PC 85.7 Retain 65 3 .14 PC 100. 0 Retain 66 2.71 PC 100.0 Rej ect 67 3.29 SA 100. 0 Retain 68 2.86 PC 71.4 Retain 69 3.14 SA 85.7 Retain 70 3.14 PC 100.0 Retain 71 2.86 PC 85.7 Retain 72 2 .57 PC 85.7 Reject 73 3.00 PC • 85.7 Retain 74 2 .57 PC 85.7 Rej ect 75 3 . 00 PC 100. 0 * Rephrase 76 2.86 PC 85.7 Retain 77 3.29 PC 100.0 Retain 78 3.33 PC 85.7 Retain 79 3.00 PC 100. 0 Retain 80 2 .86 PC 100.0 Retain 81 3.14 PC 100.0 Retain 82 3.14 PC 71.4 Retain 83 2.14 FE 57.1 Reject 84 2.14 FE 100.0 Reject 85 2.00 FE 100. 0 Reject 86 3.43 SA 85.7 Retain (Table continues) -52-(Table 2 continued) 87 2 .71 MF 71.4 Reject 88 1.29 MF 71.4 Rej ect 89 2.14 BB 85.7 Rej ect 90 2.71 BB 71.4 Reject 91 2.57 MF 85.7 Reject 92 3.57 SA 100.0 Retain 93 2.86 BB 71.4 * Rephrase 94 2.83 MF 85.7 * Rephrase 95 1.86 BB 85.7 Reject 96 2.71 PC 71.4 Rej ect 97 2.36 PC 85.7 Rej ect 98 2.43 PC 85.7 Rej ect 99 2.29 PC 85.7 Rej ect 100 2.29 PC 85.7 Rej ect 101 3 .57 PC 100.0 Retain 102 3 . 00 PC 71.4 Retain 103 3.00 PC 85.7 Retain 104 3.14 PC 85.7 Retain 105 3.71 PC 100.0 Retain 106 1.86 PC 100.0 Reject 107 2.86 BB 100.0 Retain 108 2.14 PC 100.0 Reject 109 1.71 FE 100.0 Reject 110 1.71 PC 71.4 Rej ect 111 3.17 FE 57.1 t Rephrase Summary Retained 50 Rephrased 11 Rejected 50 * rephrasing suggested by 2 or more judges, " t " required rephrasing Categories BB = Biographical Background MF = Mar i t a l & Family Relations PC = Personality C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s SA = S k i l l s & Attitude Toward Work FE = F i n a n c i a l & Economic Factors -53-Of the 5 0 items i n i t i a l l y rejected on the basis of the panel r a t i n g s , four were subsequently retained. Two of these items - m a r i t a l s t a t u s (item 88) and f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for the household (item 87) were from the Mar i t a l and Family Relations category; the t h i r d item - age (item 50) was from the Biographical Background category; the fourth item - salary expectations (item 2) was from the Fi n a n c i a l and Economic Factors category. The decision to r e t a i n these items was based on two observations. F i r s t , there was high v a r i a b i l i t y i n the judges' ratings on each of these items. Second, the strength of these variables as reported i n the l i t e r a t u r e suggested these variables could be i n f l u e n t i a l i n the t r a n s i t i o n process. Including these four items, there were 65 items retained f o r the Phase III questionnaire. Phase III Questionnaire: The F i n a l Form The 65 items were organized into the f i v e subtests that comprised the Phase III questionnaire. The f i r s t subtest consisted of t r u e / f a l s e items measuring s k i l l s and' attitude toward work. The second, t h i r d , and f o u r t h subtests consisted of multiple choice items concerning personality c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , m a r i t a l and f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s , and f i n a n c i a l and economic factors. The f i n a l subtest of the -54-q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e q u e s t e d b i o g r a p h i c a l b a c k g r o u n d information. The questionnaire was then reviewed by two U.B.C. graduate students with experience i n the f i e l d of t e s t i n g and measurement. They provided comments on the design (spacing and organization), and on the c l a r i t y of d i r e c t i o n s . Revisions were made accordingly. The revised questionnaire was then p i l o t tested with a group of eight Re-entry women. Participants i n the p i l o t group required an average of 3 0 minutes t o complete the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . They had no d i f f i c u l t y f o l l o w i n g the d i r e c t i o n s . One women had d i f f i c u l t y u n d e r s t a n d i n g the terms o p t i m i s t i c and p e s s i m i s t i c . Since t h i s d i f f i c u l t y was unique to t h i s p a r t i c i p a n t , the terms were retained. A general consensus of the p i l o t group was that they would f i n d a larger p r i n t easier to read. This change was made. Another opinion expressed by members of the p i l o t group was the lack of a question i n q u i r i n g about the number of languages spoken. From t h e i r perspective, speaking more than one language was a d e f i n i t e asset when attempting to gain employment. As a r e s u l t of t h i s discussion a question regarding languages was added to the f i n a l questionnaire (see Appendix C for f i n a l version). -55-PHASE III - Empirical V a l i d a t i o n by  Re-entry Participants Sample Selection The t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n f o r the study included women who chose to p a r t i c i p a t e i n Job Re-entry t r a i n i n g projects sponsored by Employment and Immigration Canada. E l i g i b l e p a r t i c i p a n t s for Re-entry projects are women who have been out of the labour force for at l e a s t three years, who are pri m a r i l y engaged i n homemaking a c t i v i t i e s , and who require assistance i n making the t r a n s i t i o n into the labour force. P a r t i c i p a n t s must be unemployed or working part-time not more than 2 0 hours per week. They must be l e g a l l y e n t i t l e d to work i n Canada (EIC, Re-entry: Guide to Proposal Develop-ment, 1985, p.6). A l l p a r t i c i p a n t s receive a t r a i n i n g allowance as income support f o r the duration of t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the program. Due t o l i m i t a t i o n s i n t r a v e l and access to Re-entry p r o j e c t s , t h e a c t u a l sample used f o r the e m p i r i c a l v a l i d a t i o n o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was r e s t r i c t e d to p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the Greater Lower Mainland of B r i t i s h Columbia. The questionnaire was administered to a l l -56-a v a i l a b l e Re-entry p a r t i c i p a n t s who were i n the f i n a l quarter of t h e i r Re-entry program during the period from June t o September, 1987. This involved 108 women from eight d i f f e r e n t projects who were receiving s p e c i f i c s k i l l s t r a i n i n g i n the f i e l d s of s e c r e t a r i a l , r e t a i l s a l e s , accounting, computers, and automotive s k i l l s . Task Administration The f i n a l i z e d Phase III questionnaire was administered to the Job Re-entry p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e i r classroom settings. A verbal presentation i n which the nature and purpose of the study was d e s c r i b e d by the p r i n c i p a l i n vestigator before each a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Each p a r t i c i p a n t was then asked to sign a l e t t e r of consent before responding to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . In t h i s l e t t e r , the p a r t i c i p a n t s were a d v i s e d t h a t t h e i r r e s p o n s e s w o u l d be t r e a t e d c o n f i d e n t i a l l y , anonymity would be protected, and that the information c o l l e c t e d from the questionnaire would be used only f o r the purposes of the present research study (see Appendix C) . I t was f e l t that the f a m i l i a r environment, v e r b a l e x p l a n a t i o n , and anonymity would enhance the r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of responses. Following the completion of t h e i r project, each p a r t i c i p a n t was t r a c k e d f o r up to e i g h t weeks to determine i f a -57-t r a n s i t i o n into employment was made. Eight weeks i s the p e r i o d used by Employment and Immigration Canada when determining the percentage of p a r t i c i p a n t s who make a t r a n s i t i o n into the workplace from a Job Re-entry program (EIC Agreement, Schedule B - EMP 3658, Objectives clause "C") . Each p a r t i c i p a n t was contacted by telephone once every two weeks u n t i l they eith e r acquired a job or f o r the maximum period of eight weeks. The telephone interviewing form i s presented i n Appendix C. Phase III Data Preparation and Analysis Responses to the questionnaire and telephone interview were entered i n t o a computer f i l e a t the U.B.C. Computing Centre. The f i l e was 100% v e r i f i e d ; nine errors (.10%) were found and corrected. The data analyses were completed i n interdependent stages. I n i t i a l l y , item and factor analyses were conducted to confirm the placement of items into the f i v e categories i d e n t i f i e d from the l i t e r a t u r e and from the panel of expert judges. Discriminant function analyses were then performed to determine which variables d i s t i n g u i s h e d between those women who made s u c c e s s f u l t r a n s i t i o n s and those who did not. A desc r i p t i o n of the procedures involved i n these analyses and the r e s u l t s are presented i n Chapter 4. -58-CHAPTER 4 RESULTS The r e s u l t s from the empirical v a l i d a t i o n phase of the study are reported i n t h i s chapter i n the following order. F i r s t a d e s c r i p t i o n of the sample i s presented. The re s u l t s of the item analysis and the fact o r analysis are reported next, followed by presentation of the r e s u l t s of the d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s i n which v a r i a b l e s t h a t d i s c r i m i n a t e d between the women who succe s s f u l l y gained employment w i t h i n the s t i p u l a t e d eight week period and those who did not were i d e n t i f i e d . These discriminating v a r i a b l e s were further explored i n a series of b i v a r i a t e analyses, the r e s u l t s of which conclude the chapter. Description of the Sample The questionnaire was administered to 108 Re-entry women. Of t h i s number, 106 questionnaires were retained. One p a r t i c i p a n t ' s questionnaire was withdrawn from the study because the pa r t i c i p a n t entered school and not a job. The second q u e s t i o n n a i r e was withdrawn s i n c e i t was not -59-p o s s i b l e t o o b t a i n follow-up i n f o r m a t i o n ; n e i t h e r the i n v e s t i g a t o r nor the p r o j e c t c o o r d i n a t o r were able to locate t h i s p a r t i c i p a n t following the end of her t r a i n i n g program. A biodemographic description of the group of 106 Re-entry pa r t i c i p a n t s i s provided i n Table 3. As shown, 3 6.8% of the women were between the ages of 25 and 34, and 40.6% were between 35 and 44. Less than 5% were between the ages of 2 0 and 24, and only two par t i c i p a n t s (1.9%) were older than 54 years. The l a r g e s t group of women (37.7%) were married and a further 9.4% reported l i v i n g with a partner. S l i g h t l y more tha n 41% were e i t h e r s e p a r a t e d (17.0%) or d i v o r c e d (24.5%). Nine women (8.5%) had never married; 3 (2.8%) were widowed. The majority of the women (92.4%) were parents with from one to f i v e children. Eight p a r t i c i p a n t s (7.6%) had no c h i l d r e n . The m a j o r i t y of women with c h i l d r e n (82.5%) reported that t h e i r eldest c h i l d was of school age; f i v e -60-Table 3 Biodemographic Information on Re-entry Participants (n = 106) Variable Frequency % of Total Age 20-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 > 54 Mar i t a l Status Single, Never Married L i v i n g With Partner Married Separated Divorced Widowed 5 39 43 17 2 9 10 40 18 26 3 Parental Status (Number of Children at Home) 0 1 2 3 4 5 (No Children) Age of Eldest (or only) Child at Home Pre-school Age Elementary School Age Secondary School Age Older than 18 Years (No children) (No c h i l d r e n at home) 7 23 44 16 7 1 8 5 35 40 11 8 7 4.7 36.8 40.6 16.0 1.9 8 9, 37 17, 24 2 6.6 21.7 41.5 15.1 6.6 0.9 7.6 5.5 38.5 44.0 12.1 (Table continues) -61-(Table 3 continued) Variable Frequency % of Total Age of Youngest Child at Home Pre-school Age Elementary School Age Secondary School Age Older than 18 Years (No children) (Only c h i l d at home) Education 8 45 14 1 8 23 11.8 66.2 20.6 1.5 Grade School Some High School High School Graduate Some College or University College or University Graduate Graduate School 0 30 36 25 13 2 0.0 28.3 34.0 23.6 12.3 1.9 Number of Languages Spoken 1 2 3 4 5 83 17 3 1 2 78.3 16.0 2.8 0.9 1.9 Previous Work Experience >1 Year 1-3 Years 4-6 Years 7-10 Years >10 Years 15 24 29 13 25 14.2 22.6 27.4 12.3 23.6 (Table continues) -62-(Table 3 continued) Variable Frequency % of Total Number of Years Since Last Employment 3-4 Years 5-6 Years 7-8 Years 9-10 Years > 10 Years 39 18 10 13 26 36.8 17.0 9.4 12.3 24.5 Type of Work Sought S e c r e t a r i a l R e t a i l Sales Accounting Computers Corrections Automotive 64 14 8 3 13 4 60.4 13.2 7.5 2.8 12.3 3.8 Hours of Work Sought Full-Time Part-Time 97 9 91.5 8.5 Tra n s i t i o n Successful Unsuccessful 69 37 65.1 34.9 -63-(5.5%) reported t h e i r eldest c h i l d was of pre-school age. Most (86.8%) of the youngest children were reported to be of school age; e i g h t (11.8%) were r e p o r t e d to be of pre-school age. A l l the women had some secondary school education. Most (71.8%) had graduated from high school and 37.8% had some post-secondary school t r a i n i n g . Two women (1.9%) had attended graduate school. Most of the women (78.3%) spoke one language. The remaining were eithe r b i l i n g u a l (16.3%) or m u l t i l i n g u a l (5.6%). The number of years of work experience of the women before they withdrew from the work force varied greatly. The larges t percentage (27.4%) had previously worked from four to s i x years, while 23.6% had more than 10 years of previous work experience. Three to four years was the most frequent (36.8%) lapse of time since these women were l a s t employed. However, for 24.5% of the women, more than ten years had elapsed since they were l a s t employed. -64-The m a j o r i t y (60.4%) of the p a r t i c i p a n t s were seeking employment i n the s e c r e t a r i a l f i e l d . Regardless of the type of work sought 91.5% of the women wanted f u l l - t i m e employment. In a l l , 69 women (65.1%) made a su c c e s s f u l t r a n s i t i o n w i t h i n 56 days f o l l o w i n g the end of t h e i r t r a i n i n g program. T h i r t y seven women (34.9%) d i d not make a t r a n s i t i o n during that period. The 106 p a r t i c i p a n t s attended p r o j e c t s o f f e r i n g s i x d i f f e r e n t types of occupational t r a i n i n g , and within three geographic locations within the Greater Lower Mainland of B r i t i s h Columbia. Shown i n Table 4 i s the d i s t r i b u t i o n of par t i c i p a n t s by project and geographic l o c a t i o n . Because of the small number of par t i c i p a n t s i n each project, and the various occupations involved, t h i s study focused on the data obtained from the group as a whole fo r the purposes of v a l i d a t i n g the questionnaire. -65-Table 4 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Participants By Occupational  Type and Geographic Location Geographic Location Occupation Urban Suburban Rural Total S e c r e t a r i a l 38 18 8 64 R e t a i l Sales 0 11 3 14 Accounting 7 1 0 8 Computers 1 2 0 3 Corrections 0 0 13 13 Automotive _0 _4 0 4 Total 46 36 24 106 -66-Test Analyses The f i r s t step i n v a l i d a t i n g the Phase III Questionnaire i n v o l v e d a s e r i e s of item, f a c t o r , and d i s c r i m i n a n t analyses. As described i n the previous chapter, the items were i n i t i a l l y grouped i n f i v e subtests corresponding to variables i d e n t i f i e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e . To confirm t h i s grouping, the i n t e r n a l consistency of each subtest was determined u s i n g the computer program LERTAP (Nelson, 1974). Item-subtest correlations were examined and items w i t h low o r n e g a t i v e item-subtest c o r r e l a t i o n s were removed. The r e t a i n e d items were then subjected to a f a c t o r a n a l y s i s to further confirm the presence of item c l u s t e r s with high i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y . F i n a l l y , a discriminant analysis was performed to determine which of the i d e n t i f i e d factors or variables distinguished between Re-entry women who made a successful t r a n s i t i o n and those who did not. -67-Item Analysis The r e s u l t s of the item analyses of each subtest are summarized, i n Table 5. Panel A contains the r e s u l t s for the subtests as administered. The second panel contains the r e s u l t s following removal of items with low or negative c o r r e l a t i o n s . In removing these items, care was taken not to disburb or otherwise a l t e r the "content" assessed by the s u b t e s t , f o l l o w i n g the suggestion of Cronbach (1971, p.458). Sense of Competence Subtest As shown i n Table 5, Hoyt's Estimate of the i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y of the Sense of Competence subtest ( i n i t i a l administration) was 0.69. Inspection of the item-subtest c o r r e l a t i o n s revealed f i v e items with values less than 0.20 — items 1,2,9,16, and 17. An additional item analysis was performed on these f i v e items but i n t e r n a l consistency was lacking (M = 5.62, SD = 0.80, Hoyt Estimate of R e l i a b i l i t y = 0.23). Removal of these items resulted i n an increase i n i n t e r n a l consistency to 0.75 (cf. Table 5, panel B). -68-Table 5 Subtest Item Analysis Results Subtest No. of Mean Standard Hoyt Estimate Items Deviation of Internal Consistency A. I n i t i a l Administration Sense of 17 22.91 2.96 0.69 Competence Self-Assessment 9 15.82 4.41 0.83 Attitude Toward Work 14 29.30 3.70 0. 63 Family A f f a i r s 11 18.48 5.56 0.73 Fin a n c i a l Matters 6 13.32 3 .48 0.27 B. Items with Low Correlations Removed Sense of Competence 12 17.28 2.85 0.75 Personal Strength 21 34.96 7.33 0.85 Self-Assessment and Attitude Toward Work Family A f f a i r s 11 18.48 5.56 0.73 Fi n a n c i a l Matters 6 13.32 3.48 0.27 -69-Self-Assessment and Attitude Toward Work Subtests The i n t e r n a l consistency of the Self-Assessment subtest was 0.83; a l l nine item-subtest correlations were greater than 0.40. The i n t e r n a l consistency f o r the Attitude Toward Work subtest, 0.63, was somewhat lower. Inspection of the items comprising these two subtests revealed that many of the items were s i m i l a r i n content. For example, Question 20 m e a s u r e s c a p a b i l i t y and Q u e s t i o n 22 measures c o n f i d e n c e . Both c a p a b i l i t y and confidence c o u l d be considered personality c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as well as attitudes toward work. Given the small number of items (9) i n the Self-Assessment subtest and the r e l a t i v e l y low i n t e r n a l consistency (0.63) for the Attitude Toward Work subtest, combining the two subtests was explored. This resulted i n a Hoyt 1 s Estimate of R e l i a b i l i t y of 0.85 f o r the newly formed subtest e n t i t l e d Personal Strength. Items 23A and B were removed from t h i s newly formed subtest because of low item-subtest correlations (23A, M = 3.40, ST = 1.14, ST = 0.10; 23B, M = 2.06, SD = 0.94, ST = 0.13). This action had no e f f e c t on the Hoyt's Estimate of R e l i a b i l i t y which remained at 0.85 (cf. Table 5, panel B). -70-Family A f f a i r s Subtest The i n t e r n a l consistency of the Family A f f a i r s subtest was 0.73; a l l 11 item-subtest correlations exceeded the cut-off value of 0.20. Fin a n c i a l Matters Subtest Unlike the previous four subtests, the i n t e r n a l consistency of the Fi n a n c i a l Matters subtest, 0.27, was quite low. In t h i s case, each item was retained and treated separately i n the subsequent discriminant function analyses. I t was f e l t that each of these items tapped a separate and d i s c e r n i b l e a s p e c t of t h e f i n a n c i a l w e l l - b e i n g and s t a b i l i t y of Re-entry women. An item analysis on the 44 items contained i n the three s u b t e s t s Sense of Competence, Personal Strength, and Family A f f a i r s , resulted i n a Cronbach's S t r a t i f i e d Alpha of 0.42 (M = 70.73, SD = 11.33). Shown i n Table 6 are the corresponding c o r r e l a t i o n s among these three subtests. While the c o r r e l a t i o n between Sense of Competence and P e r s o n a l S t r e n g t h was moderate (0.48), o n l y weak -71-c o r r e l a t i o n were observed between Sense of Competence and Family A f f a i r s (0.20) and Personal Strength and Family A f f a i r s (0.12). Together with the low value f o r Cronbach's S t r a t i f i e d Alpha, these c o r r e l a t i o n s suggested a three factor model. Table 6 Correlation Matrix for Three Subtests 1 2 3 Subtest 1 Sense of Competence Subtest 2 Personal Strength Subtest 3 Family A f f a i r s 1 2 3 1.00 0.48 0.20 0. 48 1. 00 0.12 0.20 0. 12 1. 00 Factor Analysis To c o n f i r m the presence of three i d e n t i f i a b l e factors corresponding to the three subtests, the 44 items retained on the basis of the item analysis were factor analyzed. -72-The procedure applied was a p r i n c i p a l components extraction (Harman, 1967) followed by a varimax r o t a t i o n (Kaiser, 1958 ). The K a i s e r - G u t t m a n r u l e ( K a i s e r , 1960) f o r determining the number of factors indicated that 17 factors s h o u l d be r o t a t e d ; t h e Scree Test ( C a t t e l l , 1966) suggested three or, possibly, four. Given t h a t three f a c t o r s corresponded to the number of i d e n t i f i e d subtests, three factors were i n i t i a l l y rotated. The r e s u l t s of t h i s a n a l y s i s , which are presented i n Appendix D, revealed that of the 44 items, 8 f a i l e d to load on any one of the three factors, 12 items loaded on factors 1 and 3, and 3 items on factors 1 and 2. To c l a r i f y t h i s s i t u a t i o n , and reduce the complexity observed i n the 15 v a r i a b l e s , two and four factors were separately rotated a c c o r d i n g to the varimax c r i t e r i o n . The four f a c t o r solution, which was more simple, was retained. Lastly, to ascertain whether or not the factors were independent, an oblique transformation was applied using Oblimin ( C a r r o l l , 1958) . The r e s u l t s of t h i s analysis are i n Appendix E. I n s p e c t i o n of the i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n matrix revealed weak c o r r e l a t i o n s among the four factors i n d i c a t i n g that the four factors were independent (see Appendix E). -73-Interpretation of the Four Factor Solution Six of the 44 items (3, 5, 26b, 27, 28, and 29) f a i l e d to load on any one of the four factors. Five a d d i t i o n a l items (15, 18h, 25, 26a, and 26e) were of complexity two (cf. Appendix E) . The remaining 33 items were factor analyzed; a l l were of complexity one and retained. As shown i n Table 7, Factor 1 consists of 16 items that measure variables r e l a t e d to I n t e r n a l Personal Strength ( i . e . self-worth, c o n f i d e n c e , competence). T h i s f a c t o r was t i t l e d "Self-Esteem. 1 1 Factor 2, which consists s o l e l y of the six parts of Question 32, i s a measure of "Family Cohesion." F a c t o r 3, c o n s i s t i n g of nine items, measures variables r e l a t e d to e x t e r n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of personality and personal strength ( i . e . personal q u a l i t i e s , assertiveness, o p t i m i s m ) . T h i s f a c t o r was t i t l e d " P e r s o n a l i t y C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . " The fourth factor, a doublet, was t i t l e d "Support From Mate." The i n t e r n a l consistency of each of the four factors was determined using LERTAP by t r e a t i n g each of the four f a c t o r s as separate s u b t e s t s . The corresponding i n t e r n a l consistencies were, i n order, .83, 0.90, 0.82, and .84. -74-Table 7 Pattern Matrix Four Factor Oblique Solution Item Factor 1 Factor 2 Factor 3 Factor 4 Self-Esteem Family Personality Support Cohesion C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s From Mate 4. I would never worry about... f a i l i n g to meet work standards... 6. I would never worry about appearing to be... beyond my c a p a b i l i t i e s . . . 7. I f someone i s evaluating me I tend to expect the worst 8. A f t e r completing an assignment... I am prone to have doubts... 10. I am usually confident that others w i l l have a favourable opinion of me. 11. I tend to fear .45 .16 .08 -.18 that others may see me as not s u f f i c i e n t l y s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e d . 12. I seem to have a .52 .08 -.22 .12 r e a l inner strength... 13. I tend to worry .55 -.16 -.03 .21 that others may think I don * t know what 11m doing. .58 .17 .05 -.15 .56 -.01 .14 -.15 .46 -.16 .06 -.22 .67 .16 .09 .21 .60 .21 .06 -.11 (Table continues) (Table 7 continued) 14. I would very much l i k e to be less apprehensive about my c a p a b i l i t i e s .42 -.01 -.06 .16 18a. Optimisim .11 -.05 - .57 .03 18b. Independence -.07 . 05 - .76 . 03 18c. Self-Reliance -.03 .13 - .78 -.11 18d. Assertiveness -.01 -.02 - .54 .05 18e. Motivation -.06 .17 - .70 -.20 18f. Clear Thinking .10 -.07 - .66 . 05 18g. Concentration -.04 .00 - .67 -.16 18i. Humor -.13 -.01 - .57 . 17 19a. Oral Commun. S k i l l s .43 .20 .29 . 15 19b. Written Commun. S k i l l s .44 -.22 -.24 . 10 20. Would you say that you f e e l . . . capable... .51 -.21 -.30 . 12 21. Attitude re: l i k e l i h o o d of finding a job .46 -.21 -.16 .08 22. Confidence re: a b i l i t y to be a good employee .41 .12 -.08 .24 24. Optimistic/ Pessimistic .24 -.08 - .43 .05 2 6c. I sometimes worry... worthwhile person .51 .12 -.29 .02 26d. take I generally a p o s i t i v e .35 .23 -.20 .26 a t t i t u d e . . . (Table continues) (Table 7 continued) 30. Attitude of -.08 spouse re: return to work 31. Support from -.01 re l a t i o n s h i p 3 2a. The members of -.02 my family r e a l l y care about each other 32b. I can r e a l l y .08 depend on my family 32c. There i s a r e a l .02 sense of closeness i n my family 32d. There seems to -.04 be a l o t of f r i c t i o n i n my family 32e. My family i s a .10 r e a l source of comfort 32f. L i f e i n my .05 family i s generally happy Internal Consistency(a).83 -76-.03 .11 .89 .11 .10 .87 .78 -.07 .01 .75 .01 .06 .89 .01 .06 .68 -.13 -.04 .84 .03 .02 .89 -.02 .08 .90 .82 .84 (a) Hoyt's Estimate of Internal Consistency Discriminant Analysis The four factors plus the biodemographic variables and the f i n a n c i a l v a r i a b l e s were entered i n t o a d i s c r i m i n a n t analysis to determine i f they distinguished between women who made s u c c e s s f u l t r a n s i t i o n s and those who d i d not. Canada Employment and Immigration Commission's d e f i n i t i o n for " t r a n s i t i o n " (defined on p.13) was used to organize the par t i c i p a n t s into two groups - those who made successful t r a n s i t i o n s from home to work within 56 days following the end of t h e i r t r a i n i n g program, and those who did not. Co n s i d e r a t i o n was given to r e p l a c i n g t h i s dichotomous va r i a b l e with the corresponding continuous v a r i a b l e defined by the actual number of days taken to obtain a job. The frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n f or t h i s v a r i a b l e i s displayed i n F i g u r e 1. As shown, 36 women assumed a p o s i t i o n immediately upon completion of t h e i r program; 33 women required from 2 to 56 days to make a t r a n s i t i o n ; and 37 did not make a t r a n s i t i o n within 56 days. Because of the lack of a t r e n d or p a t t e r n f o r the group of 3 3 women who re q u i r e d 2 - 5 6 days to make a t r a n s i t i o n , and the low frequencies over the number of days required, these women were grouped with the 3 6 women who made an immediate t r a n s i t i o n to form the t r a n s i t i o n group of 69 women. -78-Figure 1 Frequency Histogram of Days  Required to Make Tra n s i t i o n NO OF FREQUENCY DAYS 36 0 ************************************ 8 1 - 4 ******** 1 0 - 9 * 5 1 0 - 1 4 ***** 4 1 5 - 1 9 **** 2 2 0 - 2 4 ** 1 25 - 29 * 1 30 - 34 * 3 3 5 - 3 9 *** 1 40 - 44 * 1 45 - 49 * 2 5 0 - 5 4 ** 4 5 5 - 5 6 **** 37 No t r a n s i t i o n ************************************* 0 10 20 30 -79-The f o u r f a c t o r s r e s u l t i n g from the f a c t o r a n a l y s i s together with the ten biodemographic variables and the s i x f i n a n c i a l v a r i a b l e s c o n s t i t u t e d 20 p o t e n t i a l l y discriminating variables. This arrangement s a t i s f i e d two c o n d i t i o n s f o r conducting a discriminant analysis. The t o t a l sample s i z e (n=106) was at l e a s t three times the number of variables used and no i n d i v i d u a l i n the sample belonged to more than one group (Tatsuoka, 1970, p.38). In completing the discriminant analysis, two solutions were examined. F i r s t , the d i r e c t s o l u t i o n i n which a l l v a r i a b l e s entered the function was examined. Second, a s t e p w i s e s o l u t i o n was o b t a i n e d , i n which the best discriminating variables were i d e n t i f i e d . Direct Method Results The s t r u c t u r e c o e f f i c i e n t s yielded by the Direct Method Discriminant Analysis are shown i n Table 8. The values of the structure c o e f f i c i e n t s were examined to determine the r e l a t i v e i m p ortance of each v a r i a b l e i n determining d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . The v a r i a b l e a t t i t u d e r e g a r d i n g -80-a p p r o p r i a t e j o b i n the labour market (Question 36), f o l l o w e d by m a r i t a l s t a t u s ( Q u e s t i o n 49), s a l a r y e x p e c t a t i o n s (Question 38), years of work experience (Question 42), and self-esteem (Factor 1), contributed most to the discriminant function. Table 8 Direct Method Discriminant  Function Analysis Structure C o e f f i c i e n t s T r a n s i t i o n (n=69) vs. No Tra n s i t i o n (n=37) Variable Structure C o e f f i c i e n t Attitude Regarding Appropriate Job -.350 M a r i t a l Status .331 Expected Earnings .286 No of Years Worked Before Withdrawal .281 Self-Esteem (Factor 1) -.271 Age of Eldest C h i l d -.241 Number of Languages Spoken -.223 Personality C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (Factor 3) .203 Age .175 Control Over Fi n a n c i a l Situation . 174 Educational Attainment . 166 Support from Mate (Factor 4) . 153 No. of Children at Home -.145 Change i n Economic Situation -.139 Primary Reason for Wanting to Work -.080 No. of Children .077 No of Years Since Last Employment -.074 Family Cohesion (Factor 2) -.052 Age of Youngest Child -.020 F i n a n c i a l R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r Household -.010 -81-C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Results To assess the e f f i c a c y of the d i r e c t method solution, the predicted group membership was compared to the actual group membership. A l t h o u g h r e s e a r c h e r s g e n e r a l l y engage i n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n as a means of pre d i c t i n g group membership for cases of "unknown" membership, we can a l s o use i t to t e s t the accuracy of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n procedure. We do t h i s by taking "known" c a s e s ( t h o s e used t o d e r i v e t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f u n c t i o n s ) and a p p l y i n g the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n rule to them. The proportion of cases c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f i e d indicates the accuracy of the procedure and i n d i r e c t l y confirms the degree of group separation (Klecka, 1980, p.49). The p r i o r p r o b a b i l i t i e s were adjusted to ind i c a t e the subsample s i z e s . As shown i n Table 9, the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n r e s u l t s of the d i r e c t method s o l u t i o n i n d i c a t e d t h a t t o g e t h e r , t h e 20 d i s c r i m i n a t i n g v a r i a b l e s c o r r e c t l y p r e d i c t e d membership for 89.0% of the women i n Group 1 ( T r a n s i t i o n ) and f o r 59.5% of the women i n Group 2 (No Tra n s i t i o n ) . The o v e r a l l accuracy was 77.4%. -82-Table 9 Direct Method Discriminant Function Analysis  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Matrix Actual No. of Predicted Group Membership Group Cases 1 2 1 T r a n s i t i o n 69 60 (87.0%) 9 (13.0%) 2 No T r a n s i t i o n 37 15 (40.5%) 22 (59.5%) Percent of "Grouped" Cases Correctly C l a s s i f i e d : 77.4% -83-By c a l c u l a t i n g a proportional reduction i n error s t a t i s t i c s (tau) , i t can be seen that c l a s s i f i c a t i o n based on the twenty d i s c r i m i n a t i n g variables made 54.72% fewer errors than would be expected by chance. Stepwise Method Results In order to investigate which of the twenty variables were the most u s e f u l d i s c r i m i n a t i n g v a r i a b l e s , a stepwise procedure d i s c r i m i n a n t analysis was performed. Wilks's lambda was the s t a t i s t i c employed as c r i t e r i o n f o r s e l e c t i o n . The .05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e was used for both e n t e r i n g and d e l e t i n g variables (F=1.71). The stepwise method of discriminant analysis resulted i n a set of s i x discriminating variables — attitude regarding appropriate job i n the labour market (Question 36), marital status (Question 49) , self-esteem (Factor 1) , support from mate (Factor 4) , number of languages spoken (Question 46) , and educational attainment (Question 47). -84-Klecka (1980) suggested that, "Stepwise procedures produce an optimal set of discriminating v a r i a b l e s . This set may not be the best (maximal) combination. To secure a maximal solution, one would have to t e s t a l l possible combinations" (p. 53). Following Klecka's suggestion, combinations of the set of s i x discriminating variables were explored i n a s e r i e s of stepwise method discriminant analyses. This produced a maximal combination of f i v e v a r i a b l e s — a t t i t u d e regarding appropriate job i n the labour market (Question 36) , marital status (Question 49) , self-esteem (Factor 1) , support from mate (Factor 4),and educational attainment (Question 47) . The structure c o e f f i c i e n t s of t h i s set of f i v e discriminating variables are shown i n Table 10. The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n r e s u l t s are shown i n Table 11. The set of f i v e d i s c r i m i n a t i n g v a r i a b l e s c o r r e c t l y p r e d i c t e d membership f o r 92.8% of the women i n Group 1 (Transition) and f o r 45.9% of the women i n Group 2 (No T r a n s i t i o n ) . The ov e r a l l accuracy rate was 76.4%. -85-Table 10 Stepwise Method Discriminant  Function Analysis Structure C o e f f i c i e n t s Variables Structure C o e f f i c i e n t Attitude Regarding Appropriate Job -.52 0 Mar i t a l Status .491 Self-Esteem (Factor 1) -.403 Educational Attainment .246 Support from Mate (Factor 4) .227 Table 11 Stepwise Method Discriminant Function Analysis  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Matrix Actual No. of Predicted Group Membership Group Cases 1 2 1 T r a n s i t i o n 69 64 (92.8%) 5 ( 7.2%) 2 No T r a n s i t i o n 3? 20 (54.1%) 17 (45.9%) Percent of "Grouped" Cases Correctly C l a s s i f i e d : 76.4% -86-By again c a l c u l a t i n g a p r o p o r t i o n a l reduction i n error s t a t i s t i c (tau) , i t can be seen that c l a s s i f i c a t i o n based on the f i v e variables alone made 52.83% fewer errors than w o u l d be e x p e c t e d by c h a n c e . The s e t of f i v e d i s c r i m i n a t i n g v a r i a b l e s p r e d i c t s group membership more e f f i c i e n t l y and almost as e f f e c t i v e l y (76.42% accuracy) as the e n t i r e set of 20 variab l e s . To f u r t h e r explore the f i v e discriminating variables, a s e r i e s of d e s c r i p t i v e b i v a r i a t e contingency tables were constructed for each v a r i a b l e . These tables are presented i n Appendix F; a discussion of the r e s u l t s follows. Attitude Regarding Appropriate Job P a r t i c i p a n t s were asked the extent to which they agreed that there was an appropriate job f o r them i n the current labour market provided they apply themselves i n an active job search (Question 36). Of the women who made successful t r a n s i t i o n s , 49 (71.0%) s t r o n g l y a g reed w i t h t h i s statement, and a f u r t h e r 15 (21.7%) indicated moderate -87-agreement. In contrast, more than h a l f (59.4%) of the women who did not make a t r a n s i t i o n , did not strongly agree t h a t the labour market held an appropriate job for them (see Table F - l ) . M a r i t a l Status Of the women who made successful t r a n s i t i o n s , 53.6% were eit h e r married or l i v i n g with a partner, while of the women who d i d not make t r a n s i t i o n s only 35.1% were married or l i v i n g with a partner. The percentage of women who made tr a n s i t i o n s was greater than the percentage of women who d i d not i n a l l categories of marital status except the single, never married category. Only one women (1.4%) who was singl e and never married made a successful t r a n s i t i o n while eight (21.6%) did not (see Table F-2). Self-Esteem (Factor 1) Self-esteem was also found to be a contributing v a r i a b l e . Women who scored high on t h i s subtest are deemed to have low self-esteem, which adversely affected t h e i r t r a n s i t i o n success. For example, of the women who made successful t r a n s i t i o n s , 18 ( 2 6 . 1 % ) r a t e d t h e i r o r a l -88-communication s k i l l s as e x c e l l e n t and 35 (50.7%) rated t h e i r o r a l communication s k i l l s as good (indicating high self-esteem). In comparison, only 3 (8.1%) of the women who d i d not make t r a n s i t i o n s rated t h e i r o r a l communication s k i l l s as excellent and 17 (45.9%) gave a r a t i n g of good (see Table F-3). A n o t h e r example o f s e l f - e s t e e m was t h e measure of confidence about finding a job. Sixty-seven women (97.1%) who made successful t r a n s i t i o n s were ei t h e r very confident or moderately confident about finding a job a f t e r t h e i r t r a i n i n g program (see Table F-3). Educational Attainment Women who made s u c c e s s f u l t r a n s i t i o n s g e n e r a l l y had attained higher l e v e l s of education than women who did not make s u c c e s s f u l t r a n s i t i o n s . Sixteen women (23.2%) who made successful t r a n s i t i o n s had some high school t r a i n i n g whereas 27 (39.1%) were high school graduates; 15 (21.7%) had some c o l l e g e or u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g ; and 11 (15.9%) were c o l l e g e or u n i v e r s i t y graduates. By contrast, 14 -89-(37.8%) o f the women who d i d not make s u c c e s s f u l t r a n s i t i o n s had some high school t r a i n i n g ; 9 (24.3%) were high s c h o o l graduates; 10 (27.0%) had some college or u n i v e r s i t y and 4 (10.8) were c o l l e g e or u n i v e r s i t y graduates. The highest percentage of women who did not make successful t r a n s i t i o n s had completed some high school (37.8%) or some college or u n i v e r s i t y (27.0%) but did not graduate (see Table F-4). Support from Mate (Factor 4) Of the women who made successful t r a n s i t i o n s , 42 (60.9%) had a spouse or partner who approved of t h e i r t r a i n i n g and employment e f f o r t s . Only 16 (43.1%) of the women who did not make successful t r a n s i t i o n s had a spouse or partner who approved of t h e i r e f f o r t s . Thirty-eight (55.1%) of the women who made s u c c e s s f u l t r a n s i t i o n s r a t e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p with t h e i r spouse or partner as warm and supportive whereas, 15 (40.5%) of the women who did not make s u c c e s s f u l t r a n s i t i o n s rated t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s as warm and supportive (see Table F-5). -90-CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND IMPLICATIONS Summary The purpose of t h i s study was to develop a questionnaire designed to o b t a i n v a l i d and r e l i a b l e information about variables which might contribute to an explanation as to why some Re-entry women make successful t r a n s i t i o n s into the work f o r c e while others do not. The questionnaire development e n t a i l e d three phases, each b u i l d i n g on the r e s u l t s of the previous phase. In the f i r s t phase, Re-entry p r o j e c t c o o r d i n a t o r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia were surveyed to determine what v a r i a b l e s gleaned from the l i t e r a t u r e they f e l t were most important to the t r a n s i t i o n p r o c e s s . The s e c o n d p h a s e i n v o l v e d g e n e r a t i n g questionnaire items for the variables and v a l i d a t i n g the items by a panel of expert judges. The items included i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e were based upon the r e s u l t s of the experts' opinions. In t h e t h i r d p h a s e e m p i r i c a l v a l i d a t i o n o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was determined by the responses of 106 Re-entry women who were administered the questionnaire i n the l a s t q uarter of t h e i r t r a i n i n g program. Item and -91-f a c t o r a n a l y s e s were conducted on the responses and d i s c r i m i n a n t function analysis was employed to determine which variables distinguished between those women who made successful t r a n s i t i o n s and those who did not. Five main factors - a) attitude regarding appropriate job i n t h e c u r r e n t l a b o u r market b) m a r i t a l s t a t u s c) self-esteem d) educational attainment and e) support from mate were found to di s t i n g u i s h an o v e r a l l accuracy rate of 76.4%, between women who made a t r a n s i t i o n within 56 days of completing t h e i r t r a i n i n g program and those who did not. Limitations of the Study This study resulted i n a questionnaire designed to provide information regarding what factors are i n f l u e n t i a l i n the t r a n s i t i o n process for Re-entry women. However, there are l i m i t a t i o n s t o be considered when the questionnaire i s employed f o r p r a c t i c a l purposes. Empirical v a l i d a t i o n of the questionnaire was based on the responses of a sample of 106 Re-entry p a r t i c i p a n t s . The pa r t i c i p a n t s were divided among t r a i n i n g i n s i x d i f f e r e n t occupational types and -92-l o c a t e d w i t h i n t h r e e g e o g r a p h i c l o c a t i o n s . These c i r c u m s t a n c e s r e s u l t e d i n v e r y s m a l l numbers of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n each o c c u p a t i o n a l type and geographic l o c a t i o n . With the small numbers of par t i c i p a n t s i n each group i t was not possible to determine the e f f e c t s of occupational type or geographic l o c a t i o n on t r a n s i t i o n a l success. Although Job Re-entry t r a i n i n g sponsored by the Federal Government i s delivered throughout Canada, only Re-entry p a r t i c i p a n t s from the Greater Lower Mainland of B r i t i s h Columbia were sampled f o r the purposes of t h i s study. U n t i l further studies are conducted i n other regions, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to determine the g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of the v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y of the questionnaire to other regions. Conclusions Of the 106 Re-entry women p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h i s study, 65.1% made a successful t r a n s i t i o n from home to the labour f o r c e while 34.9% did not. Empirical v a l i d a t i o n of the -93-q u e s t i o n n a i r e developed to obtain information on factors i n f l u e n c i n g t r a n s i t i o n i d e n t i f i e d a s e t of f i v e main factors which distinguished between the two groups of women with 76.4% accuracy. The set of dis t i n g u i s h i n g factors consists of a) attitude regarding appropriate job i n the current labour market b) marital status c) self-esteem d) educational attainment and e) support from mate. While none of the l i t e r a t u r e surveyed examined these f i v e factors as a set, there i s some consistency with previous studies which examined s i m i l a r factors i n d i v i d u a l l y . Attitude Regarding Appropriate Job The f a c t o r - attitude regarding appropriate job, evolved from the v a r i a b l e attitude toward work and the variable employment opportunities which was rated the second most important variable by the project coordinators i n Phase I. Pearson (1979) discussed Re-entry women's attitude toward work. She stated that lack of s u f f i c i e n t realism about the work world may present an obstacle for many Re-entry women (p.24). Whether r e a l i s t i c or not, lack of a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e about the a v a i l a b i l i t y of work i n the current -94-l a b o u r market appears to be a d e f i n i t e o b s t a c l e f o r R e - e n t r y women. A p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e r e g a r d i n g the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f an a p p r o p r i a t e j o b was the most d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c between women who made successful t r a n s i t i o n s and those who did not. Mar i t a l Status Ray (1979) r e p o r t e d t h a t between 1972 and 1977 married women showed the g r e a t e s t i n c r e a s e i n t h e i r r a t e of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the labour force r e l a t i v e to women of other marital statuses (p.4). The findings of the present study support Ray's c l a i m . Married women showed the highest percentage (75.0%) of t r a n s i t i o n s r e l a t i v e to women of other marital statuses. S i n g l e women who had never been married were the least s u c c e s s f u l at making t r a n s i t i o n s . T h i s f i n d i n g a l s o supports e a r l i e r claims by Armstrong and Armstrong (1983) that young single women have the most d i f f i c u l t y finding paid work (p.21) . The single women i n the present study would have been involved i n homemaking a c t i v i t i e s f or a minimum of three years p r i o r to beginning t h e i r t r a i n i n g -95-program. T h i s was an admission requirement imposed by Employment and Immigration Canada. I t seems reasonable to assume that homemaking a c t i v i t i e s involve the care of t h e i r c h i l d r e n ; however, t h i s may not necessarily be the case. I t i s p o s s i b l e , f o r example, that they could have been p r o v i d i n g care f o r an a i l i n g r e l a t i v e . Perhaps some Re-entry women who are single and have never been married are alone without children to support and therefore lack s u f f i c i e n t m o t i v a t i o n to make a t r a n s i t i o n i n t o p a i d employment. Another p o s s i b i l i t y i s that Re-entry women who are single mothers lack s u f f i c i e n t support systems. Lack of suitable, a f f o r d a b l e daycare i s an i s s u e f o r these women. One Re-entry p r o j e c t c o o r d i n a t o r suggested t h a t p r o v i n c i a l f i n a n c i a l assistance (welfare) afforded to single mothers with several children may be acting as a disi n c e n t i v e to the t r a n s i t i o n process. In c e r t a i n cases, f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e may be more l u c r a t i v e t h a n e n t r y - l e v e l employment, and i t allows the mother to be home with her children. -96-Self-Esteem R e - e n t r y women who f e l t c o n f i d e n t , c a p a b l e , and s e l f - a s s u r e d made successful t r a n s i t i o n s more frequently than p a r t i c i p a n t s with low self-esteem. The l i t e r a t u r e reviewed lends support for self-esteem as an i n f l u e n t i a l f actor i n the t r a n s i t i o n process. Studies by the Canadian Congress on Learning Opportunities f o r Women (1984), King (1976), Pearson (1979), and Yohalem (1980) suggest that low sel f - e s t e e m and lack of self-confidence are perhaps the most fundamental attitudes which hinder Re-entry women from at t a i n i n g t h e i r employment goals. Many events and circumstances i n the l i v e s of Re-entry women coul d c o n t r i b u t e to low self-esteem. The women p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the present study have invested a minimum of three years i n the unpaid occupation of homemaker. They emerge from a somewhat i s o l a t e d environment i n t h e i r homes to novel and c h a l l e n g i n g experiences i n t h e i r t r a i n i n g programs and the work world. They may be psychologically unprepared f o r such d r a s t i c change and they f e e l g u i l t y a b o u t l e a v i n g t h e i r p a r e n t a l o r h o u s e h o l d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . They underestimate t h e i r s k i l l s and a b i l i t i e s . -97-Educational Attainment The fourth factor i n f l u e n t i a l i n the t r a n s i t i o n process was l e v e l of educational attainment. The higher the l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n a l attainment, the g r e a t e r the chances of a successful t r a n s i t i o n was the general trend. This finding supports e a r l i e r claims by Armstrong and Armstrong (1983), Jones (1983) , and Rauhala, (1986) . In these studies educational attainment accounted for va r i a t i o n s i n female labour market p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The higher her l e v e l of f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n , the more l i k e l y a woman i s to be employed. Support From Mate The f i f t h factor i n f l u e n t i a l i n the t r a n s i t i o n process was found to be support from mate. Re-entry women who made successful t r a n s i t i o n s generally reported being involved i n warm and sup p o r t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s where the spouse or partner approves of the woman's e f f o r t s to return to work. Di Sabatino (1976) claimed that women need approval from t h e i r mate f o r t h e i r vocational decisions, and further, t h a t women have a tendency to s a c r i f i c e t h e i r sense of -98-competence i n order to meet t h e i r need f o r approval. The findings of the present study tend to support Di Sabatino's (197 6) c l a i m . Lack of support impeded the t r a n s i t i o n process. A higher percentage of successful t r a n s i t i o n s was achieved by women with no spouse or partner, than those women who reported they were involved i n a r e j e c t i n g or disapproving r e l a t i o n s h i p . Implications f o r Practise The questionnaire developed and validated i n the present s t u d y c o u l d have p r a c t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r p r o j e c t c o o r d i n a t o r s , people i n v o l v e d i n the development and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Re-entry programs, people involved i n curriculum development and the del i v e r y of t r a i n i n g , and Re-entry women themselves. By i d e n t i f y i n g factors that enhance the chances of women making successful t r a n s i t i o n s , program content can be focussed on the factors that are amenable t o change such as, self-esteem, a p o s i t i v e attitude, and support systems. I f the questionnaire was administered early i n the t r a i n i n g program, i t could be employed as a diagnostic t o o l . S p e c i f i c needs of groups of Re-entry women could be i d e n t i f i e d so that program content could be designed to address those needs. -99-The r e s u l t s of the present study indicate that a p o s i t i v e attitude about finding a job and high self-esteem appear to be b e n e f i c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r women making a t r a n s i t i o n into the work force. The issue of whether the women who made s u c c e s s f u l t r a n s i t i o n s entered the t r a i n i n g program with p o s i t i v e attitudes and high self-esteem, or whether the t r a i n i n g program was instrumental i n developing such c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , should be addressed. Also, a study of Re-entry women t h a t focuses on marital status, parental status, and age, needs to be conducted i n order to better understand why marital status plays an i n f l u e n t i a l r o l e i n the t r a n s i t i o n process. Suggestions for Future Research When performing factor analyses on the Phase III responses, items l o a d i n g on the factors Self-Esteem (Factor 1) and Personality C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (Factor 3) were s i m i l a r . Upon c l o s e r i n s p e c t i o n , i t was observed that Factor 1 items tended to measure i n t e r n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (self-worth, confidence, a t t i t u d e ) , while F a c t o r 3 items tended to measure more external c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (assertiveness, peer evaluation, personal q u a l i t i e s ) . A future research study might examine "Locus of Control" (internal and external) as -100-a f a c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g t r a n s i t i o n . R e s u l t s from the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the present q u e s t i o n n a i r e might be compared with r e s u l t s from a s c a l e measuring locus of cont r o l . The construction of the questionnaire developed for t h i s s t u d y i n c o r p o r a t e d two d i f f e r e n t methods of posing questions — True/False and Multiple Choice. Responding to the two types of questions may require d i f f e r e n t thought p r o c e s s e s which c o u l d p o t e n t i a l l y c r e a t e a "methods v a r i a n c e " i n the questionnaire. The e f f e c t of the two t y p e s of q u e s t i o n s r e q u i r e s c o n s i d e r a t i o n when the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s employed f o r p r a c t i c a l purposes and further exploration may be required. The sample of Re-entry women i n t h i s study were a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s of the Job Re-entry t r a i n i n g program sponsored by the Federal Government. For that reason, the d e f i n i t i o n of " t r a n s i t i o n " defined by the government was adopted for t h i s study. Future studies might investigate the eff e c t s of a l t e r n a t e d e f i n i t i o n s of t r a n s i t i o n ( i . e . periods of time r e q u i r e d to complete t r a n s i t i o n that are longer or s h o r t e r t h a n 56 days) . Further, the d e f i n i t i o n of t r a n s i t i o n employed i n the present study focussed on Re-entry women obtaining employment. No measure was taken -101-to determine i f employment was retained over a period of time. A follow-up study i s needed to provide information about what f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c e long-term employment for Re-entry women. For the purposes of t h i s study, the questionnaire was administered i n the l a s t quarter of the t r a i n i n g program. Administering the questionnaire at d i f f e r e n t times i n the course of the t r a i n i n g may produce d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s . Researching the timing of the questionnaire administration might o f f e r i n s i g h t i n t o changes women undergo while attempting a t r a n s i t i o n . Administering the questionnaire (or s i m i l a r forms of the questionnaire) at d i f f e r e n t times might also o f f e r insight as to whether the t r a i n i n g program was instrumental i n a f f e c t i n g p o s i t i v e changes. -102-References Abella, R.S. (1984). Equality i n employment: A  commission report (Cat. No. MP43-157/1-1984E). Ottawa, Canada: Canadian Government Publishing Centre, Supply and Services Canada. Aero, R., & Weiner, E. (1981). The mind t e s t . New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc. Armstrong, P., & Armstrong, H. (1983). A working  majority: What women must do for pay (Cat. No. LW31-11/1983E). Canadian Advisory Council on the Status of Women. Ottawa, Canada: Canadian Government Publishing Centre, Supply and Services Canada. Berdie, D.R., & Anderson, J.F. (1974). 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Women returning to work - p o l i c i e s and progress i n f i v e countries. Montclair, New Jersey: Allanheld, Osmun, & Co. Publishers, Inc. -112-Appendix A Phase I Questionnaire I n i t i a l Survey of Re-entry Project Coordinators - 114 -RE-ENTRY SURVEY OF PARTICIPANT VARIABLES How important are the follov;ing factors for the women in your project, in terms of making the transition from home to the workforce. Please c i r c l e the appropriate rating: Age Number of Children Ages of Children Marital Status Being head of Household Family Issues Supportiveness of Family Years of Previous Employment Access to Transportation Willingness to Travel to Work Self Confidence Anxiety Level Assertiveness Oral Cannunication S k i l l s Written Conmunication S k i l l s Decision Making A b i l i t i e s Stress Self-Image Av a i l a b i l i t y of Child Care Type of Training Available Employment Opportunities S k i l l Level Depression Self-Acceptance ' Fear of Appearing incompetent Others 1 Not Important 1 1 1 1 X 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ]. 1 J. i ] 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Slightly Important 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 Very . Important 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 Extremely Lnportar.t 4 A 4 A A 4 4 4 4 A 4 A 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 - 115 -- 2 -GENERAL INFORMATION How many participants are in your project? What type(s) of training are offered in your project? What i s the location of your project? Urban . , Suburban (Check one) Rural In what d i s t r i c t i s your project located? Vancouver Island Metro Vancouver (Check one) Eraser Valley Olianagan / Kcot enay North Central Skeena How many weeks has your project been running? -116-Appendix B Phase II Rating Package - 117 -Phase II INSTRUCTIONS TO PANEL OF EXPERTS The enclosed package contains many questions that could potentially be presented to re-entry women in order to obtain information about factors influencing the transition process. Your task i s to read each question and rate i t in two ways. 1. Rate each question in terms of how relevant you feel the e l i c i t e d information would be to the transition process of re-entry women. Indicate your rating by c i r c l i n g the appropriate number on the scale to the right of each question. (l=Not Relevant, 2=Slightly Relevant, 3=Very Relevant, 4=Extremely Relevant) 2. In the far right column, indicate to what category of factors you feel the question relates. Five category t i t l e s have been suggested. However, you may suggest any number of categories and may put any number of question into a category. Be c r i t i c a l . If i t is your judgement that questions tap information from different categories, give them different category t i t l e s . Keep in mind that the questions are not organized as they would be in a finalized questionnaire. They are in random order. As you read the questions, please make written comments or change words that you feel are confusing, offensive, or inappropriate. Suggestions for improvement would be appreciated. Thank you for your help. - 11.8 -DEFINITIONS OF SUGGESTED CATEGORIES Biographical Background: variables r e l a t i n g to the woman's l i f e h i s t o r y . Variables which i d e n t i f y the women. Mari t a l and Family Relations: variables r e l a t i n g to the roles and intertwined r e l a t i o n s h i p s between spouses, children and parents, and members of extended family. Personality Constructs: variables that investigate various aspects and tendencies of a person's i n d i v i d u a l character and behavior. S k i l l s and Attitude Toward Work: variables r e l a t i n g to the woman's perception of the s k i l l s she possesses and her attitude toward the role of employee. F i n a n c i a l and Economic Factors: variables r e l a t i n g to money or economics. PHASE II Panel of Experts' Rating Form 1 2 3 4 Not Slightly Very Extremely Relevant Relevant Relevant Relevant to the Transition Process Suggested Category T i t l e s Biographical Background (BB) Marital & Family Relations (MSF) Personality Constructs (PC) S k i l l s & Attitude Toward Work (S6A) Financial 6 Economic Factors (FfiE) Other 1. For how many years have you been without paid employment? 1. 3-4 2. 5-6 3. 7-8 4. 9-10 5. more than 10 2. How much do you r e a l i s t i c a l l y expect to earn per year at your maximum earning capacity? 1. Less than $10,000 2. From $10,000 to $15,000 3. From $15,000 to $20,000 4. From $20,000 to $30,000 5. From $30,000 to $50,000 6. From $50,000 to $100,000 3. How optimistic or pessimistic about your l i f e would you say you are? 1. Very optimistic 2. Moderately optimistic 3. S l i g h t l y optimistic 4. Sli g h t l y pessimistic 5. Moderately pessimistic 6. Very pessimistic 2 1 2 3 4 Not Slightly Very Extremely Relevant Relevant Relevant Relevant to the Transition Process Suggested Category T i t l e s Biographical Background (BB) Marital & Family Relations (M&F) Personality Constructs (PC) S k i l l s & Attitude Toward Work (S&A) Financial ft Economic Factors (F&E) Other 4. How confident do you feel about your a b i l i t y to be a good employee? 1. Not confident at a l l 2. S l i g h t l y unconfident 3. S l i g h t l y confident 4. Confident 5. Extremely confident 5. How much control do you feel you have to have over your financial situation (in terms of your power to change i t ) ? 1. Almost no control 2. A l i t t l e b i t of control 3. A moderate amount of control 4. Quite a lot of control 5. Almost total control 6. What i s your primary reason for wanting to work outside the home? 1. To support myself and/or family 2. To earn additional family income 3. It i s expected of me 4. Personal satisfaction; salary i s irrelevant 5. Personal satisfaction; and additional income 6. Personal satisfaction; and economic need 7. To alleviate boredom 3 Suggested Category T i t l e s 1 2 3 4 Biographical Background (BB) Not Slightly Very Extremely Marital & Family Relevant Relevant Relevant Relevant Relations (M&F) Personality Constructs (PC) S k i l l s & Attitude Toward . . . to the Transition Process Work (S&A) Financial & Economic Factors (F&E) Other 7. Raising a ch i l d provides many rewards, but cannot keep most women s a t i s f i e d as a full-time job. 1. Strongly agree 1 2 3 4 2. Moderately agree 3. Sl i g h t l y agree 4. Sli g h t l y disagree 5. Moderately disagree 6. Strongly disagree 8. I generally take a positive attitude toward myself. 1. strongly agree 1 2 3 4 2. Agree 3. Disagree 4. Strongly disagree 9. How would you describe your relationship with your children? 1. Warm and stable, with few 1 2 3 4 con f l i c t s 2. Cool and stable, with few con f l i c t s 3. Emotional ups and downs; periods of closeness alternate with arguments 4. Moderately conflicted; we argue a l o t 5. Cool and rejecting 4 1 2 3 4 Not Slightly Very Extremely Relevant Relevant Relevant Relevant to the Transition Process Suggested Category T i t l e s Biographical Background (BB) Marital fi Family Relations (MfiF) Personality Constructs (PC) S k i l l s & Attitude Toward Work (SfiA) Financial 6 Economic Factors (FfiE) Other 10. Would you say that you feel 1. pretty capable most of the time 2. sometimes capable 3. panicky and incapable most of the time 1 2 3 4 5 Rarely or A l i t t l e Some A good Most or none of of the of the part of a l l of the time time time the time the time to 11. The members of my family real l y care about each other. 12. I can really depend on my family. 13. Members of my family argue too much. 14. There i s no sense of closeness in my family. 15. There seems to be a l o t of f r i c t i o n in my family. 16. My family i s a real source of comfort to me. 17. L i f e in my family i s generally unhappy. 5 Suggested Category T i t l e s 1 2 3 4 Biographical Background (BB) Not Sl i g h t l y Very Extremely Marital & Family Relevant Relevant Relevant Relevant Relations (M&F) Personality Constructs (PC) S k i l l s & Attitude Toward . . . to the Transition Process Work (S&A) Financial & Economic Factors (F&E) Other 18. When you begin the day, do you generally anticipate that i t w i l l be: 1. Very satisfying 2. Moderately satisfying 3. Neither satisfying or unsatisfying 4. Moderately unsatisfying 5. Very unsatisfying 19. When I notice that things have been going well for me, I get the feeling that i t just can't l a s t . 1. Disagree 2. Moderately Disagree 3. Slightly Disagree 4. Slightly Agree 5. Moderately Agree 6. Agree 20. When you were growing up, was your family: 1. Lower class 2. Lower middle class 3. Middle class 4. Upper middle class 5. Upper class 6 Suggested Category T i t l e s 1 2 3 4 Biographical Background (BB) Not Sl i g h t l y Very Extremely Marital & Family Relevant Relevant Relevant Relevant Relations (M&F) Personality Constructs (PC) S k i l l s & Attitude Toward . . . to the Transition Process Work (S&A) Financial & Economic Factors (F&E) Other 21. A mother's place i s : 1. i n the home 1 2 3 4 . 2. i n the working world 3. both of the above 22. How many children do you have? 1. None 1 2 3 4 , 2. One 3. Two J ~ * 4. Three £ 5. Four 6. Five or more 1 23. The number of children l i v i n g 1 2 3 4 at home i s 24. Of the children l i v i n g at home, A. the age of the eldest (or 1 2 3 4 only child) i s B. The age of the youngest i s • 25. Arranging transportation to travel to work i s a problem. 1. Rarely or none of the time 1 2 3 4 2. A l i t t l e of the time 3. Some of the time 4. A good part of the time 5. Most of the time 7 Suggested Category T i t l e s 1 2 3 4 Biographical Background (BB) Not Sl i g h t l y Very Extremely Marital & Family Relevant Relevant Relevant Relevant Relations (M&F) Personality Constructs (PC) S k i l l s & Attitude Toward . . . to the Transition Process Work (S&A) Financial 6 Economic Factors (F&E) Other . 26. How s a t i s f i e d are you with your overall physical appearance? 1. Extremely d i s s a t i s f i e d 2. Somewhat d i s s a t i s f i e d 3. Somewhat s a t i s f i e d 4. Extremely s a t i s f i e d 27. Which statement do you most agree with? 1. A job i s only a way to make enough money to keep yourself alive. 2. A job i s mainly a way of making money, but should be satisfying as possible. 3. A job i s a whole way of l i f e . 28. Would you rate yourself as: A. Very ambitious? B. Unambitious? C Mildly ambitious? 29. How aggressive are you socially? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Not at a l l Sli g h t l y Somewhat Very Extremely Suggested Category T i t l e s 1 2 3 4 Biographical Background (BB) Not Slightly Very Extremely Marital & Family Relevant Relevant Relevant Relevant Relations (M&F) Personality Constructs (PC) S k i l l s & Attitude Toward . . . to the Transition Process Work (SSA) Financial & Economic Factors (F&E) Other How well do these statements describe you? 1 2 3 Very Somewhat Not at Well A l l 30. I feel that ay situation i s hopeless. 31. I am quite content with my l i f e as I am now l i v i n g i t . 32. Z am frequently bothered by feelings of i n f e r i o r i t y . 33. When I look back on what's happened to me, I can't help feeling mildly resentful. 34. I sometimes worry whether I am a worthwhile person. 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 35. If you have children requiring daycare, how s a t i s f i e d are you with your childcare arrangements? 1. Very s a t i s f i e d 1 2 3 4 2. Somewhat s a t i s f i e d 3. Somewhat di s s a t i s f i e d 4. Very d i s s a t i s f i e d 5. Not applicable 9 Suggested Category T i t l e s 1 2 3 4 Biographical Background (BB) Not Slightly Very Extremely Marital & Family Relevant Relevant Relevant Relevant Relations (M&F) Personality Constructs (PC) S k i l l s & Attitude Toward . . . to the Transition Process Work (S&A) Financial & Economic Factors (F&E) Other 36. How s a t i s f i e d are you with the di v i s i o n of household tasks in your home? 1. Very s a t i s f i e d 1 2 3 4 : 2. Somewhat s a t i s f i e d 3. Somewhat di s s a t i s f i e d 4. Very d i s s a t i s f i e d 5. Not applicable 1 37. I f I didn't always have such hard to luck, I'd accomplish much more ~° than I have. I 1. Completely true 1 2 3 4 2. Mostly true 3. Half true/half false 4. Mostly false 5. Completely false 38. For you personally, how important i s getting a job (for other than economic reasons)? 1. Very important 1 2 3 4 2. Moderately important 3. Sl i g h t l y important 4. Sli g h t l y unimportant 5. Moderately unimportant 6. Very unimportant 10 Suggested Category T i t l e s 1 2 3 4 Biographical Background (BB) Not Slightly Very Extremely Marital & Family Relevant Relevant Relevant Relevant Relations (M&F) Personality Constructs (PC) S k i l l s & Attitude Toward . . . to the Transition Process work (S&A) Financial & Economic Factors (F&E) Other Mark the qualities you think are your best points. 39. a. Sympathy 1 2 3 40. b. Clear-thinking 1 2 3 41. c. Calmness 1 2 3 42. d. Good memory 1 2 3 43. e. Concentration 1 2 3 44. f. Physical stamina 1 2 3 45. g. Inventiveness 1 2 3 46. h. Expertise 1 2 3 47. i . Charm 1 2 3 48. j . Humor 1 2 3 11 1 2 3 4 Not Slightly Very Extremely Relevant Relevant Relevant Relevant to the Transition Process Suggested Category T i t l e s Biographical Background (BB) Marital & Family Relations (M&F) Personality Constructs (PC) S k i l l s & Attitude Toward Work (S&A) Financial & Economic Factors (F&E) Other 49. Children of working mothers tend to be less well-adjusted than children of unemployed mothers. 1. Strongly agree 1 2 3 4 2. Moderately agree 3. Slightly agree 4. Slightly disagree i 5. Moderately disagree 6. Strongly disagree ^ vo 50. What i s your age? 1. Under 20 1 2 3 4 [ 1 2. From 20 to 24 3. From 25 to 34 4. From 35 to 44 5. From 45 to 54 6. Over 54 51. It i s easy for me to make decisions? 1. Rarely or none of the time 1 2 3 4 2. A l i t t l e of the time 3. Some of the time 4. A good part of the time 5. Most of the time 12 1 Not Slightly Relevant Relevant Relevant Relevant to the Transition Process Suggested Category T i t l e s 3 4 Biographical Background (BB) Very Extremely Marital & Family Relations (M&F) Personality Constructs (PC) S k i l l s & Attitude Toward Work (S&A) Financial & Economic Factors (F&E) Other 52. In a c o n f l i c t between job and home, l i k e an i l l n e s s of a family member, which would win? 1. the family every time 1 2 3 4 2. the job every time 3. the family i n a real emergency, but otherwise probably the job 1 I—• How would you rate your to communication s k i l l s ? ° 53. Oral 1 2 3 4 [ ' 1. Excellent 2. Good 3. Fair 4. Poor 5. Very poor 54. Written 1 2 3 4 1. Excellent 2. Good 3. Fair 4. Poor 5. Very poor 13 Suggested Category T i t l e s 1 2 3 4 Biographical Background (BB) Not Sl i g h t l y Very Extremely Marital & Family Relevant Relevant Relevant Relevant Relations (M&F) Personality Constructs (PC) S k i l l s & Attitude Toward . . . to the Transition Process Work (S&A) Financial & Economic Factors (F&E) Other How happy have you been with each of the following during the past six months? 1 2 3 4 Very Unhappy Neutral Happy Unhappy (Neither Happy nor Unhappy) 55. Marriage or love relationship 56. Friends and social l i f e 57. Financial situation 58. Personal growth & development 59. What i s your spouse or partner's attitude toward your return to work? 1. Insists on i t 2. Strongly approves 3. Somewhat approves 4. Neutral or indifferent 5. Somewhat disapproves 6. Strongly disapproves 7. Not applicable 5 Very Happy 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 14 Suggested Category T i t l e s 1 2 3 4 Biographical Background (BB) Not Slightly Very Extremely Marital & Family Relevant Relevant Relevant Relevant Relations (M&F) Personality Constructs (PC) S k i l l s & Attitude Toward . . . to the Transition Process Work (S&A) Financial £ Economic Factors (F&E) Other TRUE OR FALSE 60. I often do what makes me feel cheerful here and now, even at the cost of some distant goal. 61. On a few occasions, I have given up something because I thought too l i t t l e of my a b i l i t y . 62. I feel that most of the time i t doesn't pay to try hard because things never turn out right anyway. 63. I tend to worry that others w i l l think I am not keeping up with my work. 64. I feel that when good things happen, they happen because of hard work. 65. I am the kind of person who believes that planning ahead makes things turn out better. 66. No matter who I'm with, I'm always a good listener. 15 Suggested Category T i t l e s 1 2 3 4 Biographical Background (BB) Not Slightly Very Extremely Marital & Family Relevant Relevant Relevant Relevant Relations (M&F) Personality Constructs (PC) S k i l l s & Attitude Toward . . . to the Transition Process Work (S&A) Financial & Economic Factors (F&E) Other 67. I would never worry about the p o s s i b i l i t y of f a i l i n g to meet the work standards at my place of employment. 1 2 3 4  68. I see myself as an e f f i c i e n t , businesslike person. 1 2 3 4 69. I would never worry about appearing to be in over my head or beyond my capabilities in my line of work or course of study. 1 2 3 4 70. If someone i s evaluating me, I tend to expect the worst. 1 2 3 4  71. After completing an assignment or task, I am prone to have doubts about whether I did i t right. 1 2 3 72. People l i k e to be around me. 1 2 3 4 73. I find i t hard to keep my mind on a task or job unless i t i s t e r r i b l y interesting. 1 2 3 4 74. I have a tendency to sidestep my problems. 1 2 3 4 16 1 Not Slightly Relevant Relevant Relevant Relevant to the Transition Process Suggested Category T i t l e s 3 4 Biographical Background (BB) Very Extremely Marital & Family Relations (M&F) Personality Constructs (PC) S k i l l s & Attitude Toward Work (S&A) Financial & Economic Factors (F&E) Other 75. 1 am usually confident that 1 2 3 4 ;  others w i l l have a favourable opinion of me. 76. I tend to fear that others may 1 2 3 4 see me as not s u f f i c i e n t l y s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e d . I 77. I seem to have a real inner 1 2 3 4 strength in handling things. u> I'm on pretty s o l i d foundation and i t makes me pretty sure of ( myself. 78. I tend to worry that others may 1 2 3 4 think I don't know what I'm doing. 79. I would very much l i k e to be 1 2 3 4 less apprehensive about my ca p a b i l i t i e s . 80. I don't question my worth as a 1 2 3 4 person even i f I think others do. 81. I feel confident that I can do 1 2 3 4 something about the problems that may arise in the future. 82. I am known as a hard and steady 1 2 3 4 worker. 17 1 2 3 4 Not Slightly Very Extremely Relevant Relevant Relevant Relevant to the Transition Process Suggested Category T i t l e s Biographical Background (BB) Marital & Family Relations (M&F) Personality Constructs (PC) S k i l l s & Attitude Toward Work (S&A) Financial & Economic Factors (F&E) Other 83. Generally, I would prefer a 1 2 3 4 job with a modest salary, but guaranteed security, rather than one with large but uncertain earnings. 84. What i s the approximate annual income of your family? 1 2 3 4 1. Less than $5,000 2. From $5,000 to $10,000 3. From $10,000 to $15,000 4. From $15,000 to $25,000 5. From $25,000 to $50,000 6. More than $50,000 85. Relative to your present income, how deeply in debt are you? 1 2 3 4 1. Way over my head 2. Enough to feel uncomfortable 3. Not too much that I can't handle i t 4. Very l i t t l e or not at a l l 86. What i s your attitude about the likelihood of finding a job shortly after your Re-entry program? 1. Very confident 1 2 3 4 2. Moderately confident 3. Moderately unconfident 4. Very unconfident 18 1 2 3 4 Not Sl i g h t l y Very Extremely Relevant Relevant Relevant Relevant to the Transition Process Suggested Category T i t l e s Biographical Background (BB) Marital & Family Relations (M&F) Personality Constructs (PC) S k i l l s & Attitude Toward Work (S&A) Financial ft Economic Factors (F&E) Other 87. The person who has primary responsibility for the household i s i 1. Me 2. My spouse or partner 3. One of my children 4. Other 88. What i s your current marital status? 1. Single, never married 2. Living with someone 3. Married 4. Separated 5. Divorced 6. Widowed In general, how would you rate your health over the l a s t year? 89. Physical health 1. Excellent 2. Good 3. Fair 4. Poor 5. Very poor 90. Mental health 1. Excellent 2. Good 3. Fair 4. Poor 5. Very poor Suggested Category T i t l e s 1 2 3 4 Biographical Background (BB) Not Slightly Very Extremely Marital & Family Relevant Relevant Relevant Relevant Relations (M&F) Personality Constructs (PC) S k i l l s & Attitude Toward . . . to the Transition Process Work (S&A) Financial & Economic Factors (F&E) Other 91. If you are married or have a regular partner, how s a t i s f i e d are you with the relationship? 1. Very s a t i s f i e d 1 2 3 4 2. Somewhat s a t i s f i e d 3. Somewhat di s s a t i s f i e d 4. Very d i s s a t i s f i e d 92. I feel there i s an appropriate job for me in the current labour market i f I apply myself in an active job search. 1. Strongly agree 1 2 3 4 2. Moderately agree 3. Sl i g h t l y agree 4. Sl i g h t l y disagree 5. Moderately disagree 6. Strongly disagree 93. For how many years did you work full-time before withdrawing from the workforce to become a 1 2 3 4 homemaker? 1. 0 2. 1-2 3. 3-4 4. 5-6 5. 7-8 6. 9-10 7. More than 10 i 20 Suggested Category T i t l e s 1 2 3 4 Biographical Background (BB) Not S l i g h t l y Very Extremely Marital & Family Relevant Relevant Relevant Relevant Relations (M&F) Personality Constructs (PC) S k i l l s & Attitude Toward . . . to the Transition Process Work (S&A) Financial & Economic Factors (F&E) Other 94. How would you describe your current relationship with your spouse or partner? 1 2 3 4 1. Very warm and supportive 2. Generally warm and supportive 3. Alternately warm and withdrawn 4. Somewhat cool and rejecting 5. Very cool and rejecting 95. You are: ! 1 2 3 4 1. Black 2. White 3. Oriental 4. Native 5. Hispanic 6. None of the above In general, how would you rate yourself on each of the following qualities? (Numbers between 1 and 5 indicate degree to which they seem characteristic of you) 1 2 3 4 5 Very characteristic Not at a l l characteristic 96. Intelligence 1 2 3 4 97. Physical attractiveness 1 2 3 4 21 Suggested Category T i t l e s 1 2 3 4 Biographical Background (BB) Not S l i g h t l y Very Extremely Marital & Family Relevant Relevant Relevant Relevant Relations (M&F) Personality Constructs (PC) S k i l l s & Attitude Toward . . . to the Transition Process Work (S&A) Financial 6 Economic Factors (F&E) Other 98. Warmth, affection 1 2 3 4 99. Supportiveness 1 2 3 4 100. Loyalty 1 2 3 4 101. Optimism 1 2 3 4 102. Independence 1 2 3 4 103. Self-Reliance 1 2 3 4 104. Assertiveness 1 2 3 4 105. Motivation 1 2 3 4 106. Self-Discipline 1 2 3 4 107. What i s your highest level of education? 1 2 3 4 1. Grade school 2. Some high school 3. High school graduate 4. Some college or university 5. College or university graduate 6. Graduate school 108. How competitive are you? 1 2 3 4 1. Very competitive 2. Somewhat competitive 3. Not very competitive 22 1 Not Relevant Slightly Relevant 3 Very Relevant Extremely Relevant to the Transition Process Suggested Category T i t l e s Biographical Background (BB) Marital & Family Relations (M&F) Personality Constructs (PC) S k i l l s & Attitude Toward Work (S&A) Financial 6 Economic Factors (F&E) Other 109. Which of the following best describes the way in which you think about your present economic status? 1 1. Rich 2. Comfortably Affluent 3. Up and Coming 4. Doing Okay 5. Struggling 6. Poor 110. I feel lonely 1. Never 2. Rarely 3. Sometimes 4. Often 1 111. How much do you expect your economic situation to change in the next five years? 1 1. It w i l l become much better 2. It w i l l become somewhat better 3. It w i l l stay the same way 4. It w i l l become somewhat worse 5. It w i l l become worse -141-Appendix C Phase III Questionnaire Package - 142 -CONSENT FORM The purpose of this research project has been explained to me. I understand that the project w i l l 6tudy factors influencing Re-entry women as they make a transition from home to the paid labour market. The information I supply i s confidential and under no circumstances w i l l my name be released. Signature - 143 -Making a Transition from Home to Work A Questionnaire When facing the current labour market conditions, there may be factors in the lives of Re-entry women that enhance the chances of making a successful transition from home to the work force. Other factors may make the transition process difficult. Completing this questionnaire gives you an opportunity to provide information on what factors contribute to a successful transition for Re-entry women. Such information could help ensure that the needs of Re-entry women are recognized and addressed. This is not a test so there are no right or wrong answers. Check one E answer for each question as honestly and accurately as you can. 1. I a m the k ind of pe rson w h o b e l i e f s that p l ann ing a h e a d makes th ings turn out better. 2. I feel that w h e n g o o d things h a p p e n , they h a p p e n b e c a u s e of hard work. 3. O n a few o c c a s i o n s . I have given up some th ing b e c a u s e 1 thought too little of m y ability. 4. 1 w o u l d never w o r n ' about the poss ib i l i ty of fai l ing to meet the work s tandards at my p lace of emp loymen t . 5. I see myself as an eff icient, bus iness l i ke pe rson . 6. 1 w o u l d never worry abou t appear ing to be in over m y h e a d or beyond my capabi l i t ies in m y l ine of work or c o u r s e of study. 7. If s o m e o n e is evaluat ing me . 1 tend to expec t the worst . 8. After c o m p l e t i n g a n ass ignment or task, 1 a m prone to have doub ts about whether I d i d it right. 9. I f ind it hard to keep my m i n d o n a task or job un less it is terribly interest ing. 10. I a m usual ly con f iden t that o thers w i l l have a favourable o p i n i o n of me . 11.1 tend to fear that o thers may see me as not suf f ic ient ly self-d i sc i p l i ned . 12. I s e e m to have a real inner strength in hand l i ng things. I'm o n pretty so l i d foundat ion a n d it m a k e s m e pretty sure of myself. T R U E FALSE • Q • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • TRUE FALSE • • • • 13. I tend to wor ry that others may think I don ' t k n o w what I'm do ing . 14. I w o u l d very m u c h l ike to be less app rehens i ve abou t m y capab i l i t ies . 15. I don ' t ques t i on m y wor th as a pe rson even if I th ink others do . 16. 1 feel con f iden t that I c a n d o some th i ng about the p rob lems that may ar ise in the future. 17. I a m k n o w n as a hard a n d steady worker. 18. Rate yourse l f o n a sca le of 1 to 4 for e a c h of the fo l lowing qual i t ies. 1 — Very character is t ic 2 — S o m e w h a t character is t ic 3 — S o m e w h a t uncharacter is t ic 4 • • • • • • * 1 2 3 4 O p t i m i s m • • • • I ndependence • • • • Sel f - re l iance • • • • Asser t i veness • • • • Mot ivat ion • • • • Clear th ink ing • • • • Concen t ra t i on • • • • Phys ica l s t am ina • • • • H u m o r • • • • 19. H o w w o u l d y o u rate you r c o m m u n i c a t i o n sk i l ls? A . O ra l " B. Writ ten Exce l len t • Exce l len t G o o d • G o o d Fair • Fair Poo r J Poor Very p o o r • Very poo r 20. W o u l d y o u say that y o u feel . . . Pretty c a p a b l e most of the t ime Some t imes c a p a b l e Pan icky a n d inca|>able most of the t ime - 144 -21. What is your att i tude about the l i ke l ihood of f ind ing a job short ly after your Re-entry program? Very conf ident D Moderate ly con f iden t • Modera te ly uncon f iden t • Very unconf iden t O 22. H o w conf ident to y o u feel about you r abi l i ty to be a g o o d emp loyee? Very conf ident D Moderate ly con f iden t D Moderate ly uncon f iden t • Very unconf ident D 23. H o w happy have y o u been wi th e a c h of the fo l lowing dur ing the past six months? A. F inanc ia l S i tuat ion B. Persona l Growth & Deve lopment Very unhappy D Very unhappy D U n h a p p y • U n h a p p y • Nei ther happy Nei ther happy nor unhappy • nor u n h a p p y ' • H a p p y • H a p p y • Very happy • Very happy • 24. H o w opt imis t ic or pess im is t i c about you r life are you? Very opt imis t ic D Moderate ly opt imis t ic D Slightly opt imis t ic D Slightly pess imis t i c • Moderate ly pess im is t i c D Very pess imis t ic D 25. For you personal ly, h o w important is gett ing a job? Very important D Moderate ly important Q Slightly important D Slightly un impor tant • Moderate ly un impor tan t O Very un impor tant D 26. H o w wel l d o these statements desc r i be you? . Verywell Somewhat Not at all I feel that my s i tuat ion is hope less . • • • I a m quite content wi th my life as l a m n o w l iv ing it. • • • I s o m e t i m e s wor ry whe ther I a m a wor thwh i le person . U D U I general ly take a posi t ive att i tude toward myself. • • • If 1 i l i dn t a lways have s u c h hard luck. I'd a c c o m p l i s h _ m u c h more than I have. • • • Family Affairs 27. If you have ch i ld ren requi r ing daycare, how satisf ied are y o u with your ch i l dca re ar rangements? Very sat isf ied D Somewhat sat isf ied D Somewhat d issat is f ied D Very d issat is f ied D Not app l i cab le D 28. In a conf l ic t be tween job a n d h o m e , l ike a n i l lness of a family member , w h i c h w o u l d win? T h e family every t ime • T h e job every t ime D T h e family in a real emergency. but o therwise p robab ly the job D 29. H o w satisf ied are y o u wi th the d iv is ion of h o u s e h o l d tasks in you r h o m e ? Very sat isf ied D Somewha t sat isf ied D Somewhat d issat is f ied D Very d issat is f ied • Not app l i cab le D 30. What is your spouse or partner 's att i tude toward your return to work? Insists o n it • Strongly approves • Somewha t approves • Neutral or indifferent • Somewha t d issaproves • Strongly d issaproves • Not app l i cab le • 31. If y o u have a spouse or partner, how suppor t ive is you r relat ionship? Very wa rm a n d suppor t ive O Genera l l y w a r m a n d suppor t ive O Alternately wa rm a n d w i thd rawn • -Somewha t c o o l a n d reject ing D Very c o o l a n d rejecting • I have n o s p o u s e or partner • - 145 -32. O n a sca le of 1 to 5. rale h o w wel l these statements desc r i be your family. 1 — Rarelv or none of the t ime 2 - A little of the t ime 3 — S o m e of the t ime A — A g o o d part of the t ime 5 — Most o r al l of the t ime T h e m e m b e r s o f my fami ly real ly ca re about e a c h other. I c a n really d e p e n d o n my family. There is a real sense of c l o s e n e s s in my family. There s e e m s to be a lot of f r ic t ion in m y family. M y fami ly is a real s o u r c e of comfor t to me . Life in my fami ly is general ly happy. 1 2 3 4 5 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Financial Matters 33. H o w m u c h con t ro l d o y o u feel y o u have over you r f inancia l s i tuat ion ( i n terms of you r p o w e r to change it)? • A lmos t no con t ro l D A little bit of con t ro l • A moderate a m o u n t of con t ro l D Qui te a lot of con t ro l • A lmos t total con t ro l • 34. H o w m u c h d o you feel you r e c o n o m i c s i tuat ion wi l l change in the next five years? It w i l l b e c o m e m u c h better • It wi l l b e c o m e s o m e w h a t better O It w i l l stay the s a m e way • It w i l l b e c o m e s o m e w h a t w o r s e D It w i l l b e c o m e w o r s e D 35. What is your pr imary reason for wan t ing to w o r k ou ts ide "the h o m e ? ( C h e c k o n e o n l y ) To suppor t mysel f a n d . o r fami ly To earn add i t iona l fami ly i n c o m e It is expec ted of m e Persona l sat is fact ion Persona l sat is fact ion: a n d add i t i ona l i n c o m e , Persona l sat is fact ion: a n d e c o n o m i c n e e d To al leviate b o r e d o m • • • • • • • 36. I feel there is an appropr ia te job for m e in the current l abour market if I app l y mysel f in an act ive job s e a r c h . Strongly agree Modera te ly agree Sl ight ly agree Sl ight ly d isagree D Modera te ly d isagree • Strongly d isagree Q 37. T h e pe rson w h o has pr imary f i nanc ia l respons ib i l i t y for the h o u s e h o l d is : M e • O n e of my ch i l d ren • M v s p o u s e o r par tner • O the r • 38. H o w m u c h d o y o u real is t ica l ly expec t to earn in you r first ful l - t ime job? Less than S10.000 • F rom S10.000 to S15.000 • F r o m S15.000 to S20.000 • F r o m $20,000 to 530.000 • F rom 530,000 to S50.000 • F r o m S50.000 to S100.000 • Please complete Information section. - 146 -Information Please 39. N a m e 40. Re-ent ry Pro ject E n d D a t e . 41 . 42. T e l e p h o n e . 43 . 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. W h a t type o f j ob are y o u s e e k i n g 1 . : Fo r h o w m a n y years d i d y o u w o r k fu l l - t ime before w i t hd raw ing f rom the w o r k f o r c e to b e c o m e a h o m e m a k e r ? L e s s than o n e vear • 1-3 * • 4-6 • 7-10 • M o r e than 10 • H o w m a n v c h i l d r e n d o v o u h a v e ? . T h e n u m b e r of c h i l d r e n l iv ing at h o m e is O f the c h i l d r e n l iv ing at h o m e , A . T h e age of the e ldest ( o r o n l y c h i l d ) is W h a t l a n g u a g e s d o y o u s p e a k o the r than E n g l i s h ? . W h a t is you r h ighest level of e d u c a t i o n ? G r a d e s c h o o l D S o m e h igh s c h o o l • H i g h s c h o o l g radua te • S o m e c o l l e g e or univers i ty D C o l l e g e or un ivers i ty D G r a d u a t e s c h o o l D W h a t is you r age? U n d e r 20 • F r o m 20 to 24 • F r o m 25 to 34 • F r o m 35 to 44 D F r o m 45 to 54 D O v e r 54 • B. T h e age of the younges t i s . 49. Wha t is you r cur rent mar i ta l status? S ing le , never ma r r i ed D L iv ing w i th s o m e o n e D Mar r i ed D Separa ted • D i v o r c e d D W i d o w e d • H o w m a n y years a g o were y o u last emp loyed? 3-4 • 5-6 • 7-8 • 9-10 • M o r e than 10 • 50. If y o u have any c o m m e n t s abou t the q u e s t i o n n a i r e o r abou t factors i n f l uenc ing Re-entry w o m e n , p l ease feel free to e x p r e s s y o u r t hough ts in wr i t ing a n d i n c l u d e them wi th this ques t i onna i re . •<£ - 147 -TELEPHONE INTERVIEWING FORM Participant's Name: Telephone Number: Type of work being sought: Follow Up Dates: 1. 2. 3._ 4. Have you accepted a job offer? Yes No "YES" (CONGRATULATIONS) What date did you start your job? What type of work did you accept?_ Are you happy with your new job? Are you s t i l l looking for another job? (Best wishes) "NO" Are you s t i l l looking for work? Are you taking a break over the summer holidays? (Good Luck with your job search) -148-Appendix D Factor Loadings for I n i t i a l Three Factor Solution Subtest Question No. 1 Factors 2 3 Sense of 3 .33 -.02 -.09 Competence 4 .37 . 17 .35 5 .26 .16 -.04 6 .27 .02 .40 7 .19 -.15 .35 8 .53 .11 . 38 10 .43 .18 . 34 11 .27 . 16 .30 12 .63 -.01 .19 13 .50 -.19 .31 14 .44 -.05 .16 15 .37 . 08 . 13 Personal 18a .50 -.21 -.22 Strength 18b .54 -.15 -.47 18c .57 -.06 -.50 18d .42 -.16 -.26 18e .47 . 01 -.45 18f .58 -.25 -.37 18g .43 -.17 -.44 18h .49 -.06 -.36 18i .36 -.16 -.44 19a .54 -.31 . 03 19b .50 -.31 .14 20 . 61 -.31 . 13 21 .45 -.28 . 19 22 .48 . 05 . 17 24 .52 -.19 . 06 25 .17 -.17 -.07 26a .44 -.08 . 34 26b .24 .02 .04 26c .65 .01 .20 26d .56 . 14 . 04 26e .31 -.01 .15 Family- 27 -.07 . 10 -.06 A f f a i r s 28 .05 .20 . 14 29 .21 .15 .20 30 .17 .01 -.14 (Table continues) -149-(Appendix D continued) Subtest Question No. Factors 2 3 31 32a 32b 32c 32d 32e 32f 26 ,21 25 22 ,19 25 27 .09 .74 .71 .86 . 62 .81 .85 -.06 -.16 -.04 -.11 -.15 -.04 -.08 -150-Appendix E Factor Loadincrs for Four Factor Obliirtin Solution Factors Subtest Question 1 2 3 4 3 .12 . 05 -.28 -.00 4 .52 . 17 . 09 .04 5 .12 .22 -.12 . 13 6 .50 -.01 . 18 . 05 7 .42 -.18 . 10 .08 8 .64 .14 .05 .14 10 .54 .19 .07 .04 11 .40 .14 .05 -.18 12 .54 .07 -.24 . 03 13 .58 -.15 -.07 .14 14 .41 .02 -.08 .25 15 .32 . 09 -.20 -.32 18a .14 -.08 -.54 .01 18b -.06 . 03 -.78 -.06 18c -.04 . 12 -.78 -.12 18d .04 -.04 -.54 -.07 18e -.10 . 17 -.68 -.05 18f .06 -.07 -.68 . 16 18g -.10 -.01 -.66 . 06 18h -.00 .11 -.48 .42 18i -.14 . 01 -.53 .23 19a .37 -.19 -.29 .23 19b .44 -.24 -.24 .12 20 .50 -.22 -.30 . 16 21 .46 -.22 -.13 .23 22 .43 .11 -.12 .10 24 .06 -.10 -.09 .40 25 .38 -.12 -.40 .22 26a .56 -.08 -.13 -.35 2 6b .18 .05 -.12 -.03 26c .56 .07 -.29 -.16 26d .36 .24 -.21 -.24 26e .31 -.02 -.24 -.54 27 0.10 .09 -.04 -.18 28 .14 . 18 . 15 .04 29 .28 .14 .05 -.06 30 -.01 .09 -.03 .60 31 .10 .17 -.05 .48 32a -.06 .79 -.06 .04 Sense of Competence Personal Strength Family-A f f a i r s (Table continues) -151-(Appendix E continued) Factors Subtest Question 1 2 3 4 32b .07 .74 -.01 .00 32c -.02 .90 .00 .06 32d -.06 .66 -.14 -.14 32e .06 .84 .03 .03 32f .04 .89 -.03 -.01 Four Factor Correlation Matrix Factor Factor Factor Factor 1 2 3 4 Factor 1 Factor 2 Factor 3 Factor 4 1.00 .11 .26 .07 1.00 .01 . 03 1.00 . 10 1.00 -152-Appendix F Contingency Tables for Five Discriminating Variables 1 - Attitude Regarding Appropriate Job 2 - Marital Status 3 - Self-Esteem (Factor 1) 4 - Educational Attainment 5 - Support From Mate (Factor 4) -153-Table F - l Crosstabulation of Attitude Regarding Appropriate Job By T r a n s i t i o n Attitude Regarding T r a n s i t i o n Appropriate Job Yes No Strongly Agree 49 ^ 1 (71. 0) b 15 £ 1 (40. 5) Moderately Agree 15 (21. 7) 16 (43. 2) S l i g h t l y Agree 3 (4. 3) 3 (8. 1) S l i g h l y Disagree 0 (0. 0) 3 (8. 1) Moderately Disagree 1 (1. 4) 0 (0. 0) Strongly Disagree 1 (1. 4) 0 (0. 0) Total 69 (100.0) 37 (100.0) "X 2 = 14.78, p < .05 a = frequency b = column percentage -154-Table F-2 Crosstabulation of  Marital Status by Tra n s i t i o n M a r i t a l Status T r a n s i t i o n Yes No Single, never married 1 a (1. 4) b 8 a (21. 6) b L i v i n g With Someone 7 (10. 1) 3 (8. 1) Married 30 (43. 5) 10 (27. 0) Separated 10 (14. 5) 8 (21. 6) Divorced 18 (26. 1) 8 (21. 6) Widowed 3 (4. 3) 0 (0. 0) Total 69 (100.0) 37 (100.0) ^ 2 = 15.9, p < .01 a = freguency b = column percentage Table F-3 Crosstabulation of Self-Esteem (Factor 1) by Transition Oral Transition Confidence About Transition Communication Yes No Findind a Job Yes No S k i l l s Excellent 18 (26.1) 3 a ( 8 . 1 ) b Very Confident 46 a (66.7) b 14 a(37.8) Good 35 (50.7) 17 (45.9) Mod Confident 21 (30.4) 17 (45.9) F a i r 14 (20.3) 12 (32.4) Mod Unconfident 2 (2.9) 4 (10-8) Poor 2 (2.9) 5 (13.5) V.Unconfident 0 (0.0) 2 (5.4) Total 69 (100.0) 37 (100.0) Total 69 (100.0) 37 (100.0) % 2 = 9.6, p < .01 "X2 = 11.6, p < .01 a = frequency b = column percentage Note. Oral Communication S k i l l s and Confidence About Finding a Job are two examples of the 16 variables that comprise the factor Self-Esteem. - 1 5 6 -Table F-4 Crosstabluation of  Educational Attainment By Tran s i t i o n Education Attainment Tr a n s i t i o n Yes No Grade School 0 ' a (0.0) b 0 a (0. o) b Some High School 16 (23.2) 14 (37. 8) High School Graduate 27 (39.1) 9 (24. 3) Some College or University 15 (21.7) 10 (27. 0) College or University Graduate 9 (13.0) 4 (10. 8) Graduate School 2 (2.9) 0 (0. 0) Total 69 (100.0) 37 (100. 0) 2 = 4 . 8 , p <. 10 a = frequency b = column percentage Table F-5 Crosstabulation of Support From Mate (Factor 4) By Transition Attitude Transition Supportiveness Transition of Spouse Yes No of Relationship Yes No or Mate Ins i s t s 5 a ( 7 . 2 ) b 1 3 (2.7) b Very Warm 21a (30.4) b 9 s (24.3) b Strong App. 29 (42.0) 10 (27.0) Generally Warm 17 (24.6) 6 (16.2) Somewhat App. 8 (11.6) 5 (13.5) Alternately Warm 4 (7.2) 3 (8.1) Indifferent 2 (2.9) 2 (5.4) Somewhat Cool 1 (1.4) 0 (0.0) Somewhat Disapproves 0 (0.0) 1 (2.7) Very Cool, Rej. 1 (1.4) 1 (2.7) Not Applic. 25 (36.2) 18 (48.6) Not Applicable 25 (34.8) 18 (48.6) Total 69 (100.0) 37 (100.0) Total 69 (100.0) 37 (100.0) *X = 5.6, p < .10 a = frequency b = column percentage % 2 = 3.0, p < .10 

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