UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Tu Fu and his nineteen hepta-syllabic regulated verses Winters, Alison Kit Ping 1989

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1989_A8 W59.pdf [ 5.61MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0097932.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0097932-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0097932-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0097932-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0097932-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0097932-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0097932-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0097932-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0097932.ris

Full Text

TU FU AND HIS NINETEEN HEPTA-SYLLABIC REGULATED VERSES By ALISON KIT PING WINTERS B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1986 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of A s i a n S t u d i e s ) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Novebmber, 1989 © A l i s o n K i t Ping Winters, 1989 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2/88) i i ABSTRACT Though Tu Fu was one of China's most p r o l i f i c poets, h i s accomplishments and c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o Chinese p o e t r y were not widely or f u l l y r e c o g n i z e d by contemporary w r i t e r s and s c h o l a r s d u r i n g h i s l i f e time. T h i s t h e s i s p r o v i d e s a d e t a i l e d study of a manageable p o r t i o n of Tu Fu's w o r k — n i n e t e e n p o e m s — r e l a t e d by t h e i r form, which i s h e p t a - s y l l a b i c r e g u l a t e d v e r s e , t h e i r p e r i o d , approximately two years i n the author's l i f e , t h e i r theme of n o s t a l g i a , and by t h r e e p o e t i c techniques. Chapter one p r e s e n t s a b i o g r a p h i c a l s k e t c h of Tu Fu; i t f ocuses on those aspects of h i s l i f e and h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t which bear d i r e c t l y on an understanding of the p o e t r y he wrote i n K'uei-chou i n 766 and 767 A.D. In chapter two I review p a s t c r i t i c i s m of Tu Fu's works from the 12th century to the 19th century and summarize the t h r e e major approaches which have c h a r a c t e r i z e d past s c h o l a r s h i p . In t h i s chapter I a l s o d i s c u s s my own approach t o Tu Fu's p o e t r y , an approach which i s based on the assumption t h a t h i s works are perhaps b e s t c o n s i d e r e d i n terms of theme and p o e t i c t e c h n i q u e s . In the n i n e t e e n poems which I analyse, Tu Fu expresses h i s deep sense of n o s t a l g i a toward Ch'ang-an and, i n s o f a r as they are t h e m a t i c a l l y connected, I b e l i e v e t h e r e i s much t o be l e a r n e d from t a k i n g these poems i i i and a n a l y s i n g the t h r e e p o e t i c t e c h n i q u e s — a s s o c i a t i o n of one time w i t h another, a s s o c i a t i o n of one p l a c e w i t h another, and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the e x t e r n a l world informed by the s u b j e c t i v e world, which Tu Fu uses to express the theme of n o s t a l g i a . Chapter t h r e e i s a study of Tu Fu's n i n e t e e n hepta-s y l l a b i c r e g u l a t e d v e r s e s w r i t t e n i n K'uei-chou i n 766 and 767 A.D. In t h i s chapter, I c i t e each poem i n t r a n s l a t i o n ; then I d i s c u s s the imagery, meaning, and p o e t i c technique of each poem. In chapter f o u r I summarize Tu Fu's p o e t i c techniques employed i n these poems. I conclude t h a t Tu Fu expresses h i s s p i r i t u a l torment e l o q u e n t l y and g r a c e f u l l y , and t h a t h i s p o e t i c techniques are as impressive and i n n o v a t i v e by the standards of today as they were i n h i s own time. iv TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Chapter One: B i o g r a p h i c a l Sketch 1 Chapter Two: General Review Of Past C r i t i c i s m And Statement Of My Approach 29 Chapter Three: A Study Of Tu Fu's Nineteen Hepta-S y l l a b i c Regulated Verses W r i t t e n In K'uei-chou In 766 & 767 A.D 46 Chapter Four: C o n c l u s i o n 102 L i s t Of A b b r e v i a t i o n s I l l B i b l i o g r a p h y ...112 A b s t r a c t i 1 CHAPTER ONE BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH A study of Tu Fu's l i f e i s h e l p f u l i n e l u c i d a t i n g the nature of h i s p o e t r y — a n d the p a r t i c u l a r i d e a l s , f r u s t r a t i o n s and disappointments which informed i t . Of c e n t r a l importance t o Tu Fu's w r i t i n g was h i s l o n g s t a n d i n g d e s i r e t o r e t u r n t o Ch'ang-an—a d e s i r e which not on l y dominated h i s l a t e r l i f e but a l s o c o n s t i t u t e d the major theme of the n i n e t e e n poems which I w i l l a nalyze i n t h i s essay. One of China's g r e a t e s t poets by the consensus of many s c h o l a r s , Tu Fu ( 7 1 2 - 7 7 0 ) wished t o serve the s t a t e t o the b e s t of h i s a b i l i t y ; however, h i s p o l i t i c a l c a r e e r was l e s s than s u c c e s s f u l and he f a i l e d t o r e a l i z e h i s l i f e ' s i d e a l . The r e s u l t i n g disappointment and f r u s t r a t i o n e x e r t e d a s t r o n g impact on Tu Fu. U n t i l h i s l a s t y e a r s , he s u s t a i n e d the dream of r e t u r n i n g t o the c a p i t a l i n order t o serve the s t a t e . He expressed h i s n o s t a l g i a i n a number of moving, v i v i d , and eloquent works. The emotion and the a r t i s t i c t echniques employed i n h i s poems are c o m p e l l i n g and impre s s i v e . But i n order t o understand these poems, i t i s h e l p f u l f i r s t t o review the h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t and the r e l e v a n t events of Tu Fu's l i f e and p o l i t i c a l c a r e e r . 2 I I . TU FU'S LIFE AND HIS POLITICAL CAREER Tu Fu was born i n 712, though h i s p l a c e of b i r t h i s u n c e r t a i n . 1 In any event, i t seems t h a t Tu Fu thought of Ch'ang-an as h i s home because he c o n s i s t e n t l y r e f e r s t o h i m s e l f as Tu Fu of Ching-chao and an o l d r u s t i c of T u - l i n g or S h a o - l i n g . 2 A. EARLY YEARS ( From 712 t o 745 ) We l e a r n from Tu Fu's own w r i t i n g s t h a t the e a r l y years of h i s l i f e were g e n e r a l l y happy. In a long poem e n t i t l e d r eminiscences o f h i s youth. He says i n the poem t h a t when he was seven years o l d , h i s thoughts were h e r o i c ; t h a t h i s f i r s t song was concerned with the fabulous phoenix; and t h a t when he was nine years o l d , he began t o p r a c t i s e c a l l i g r a p h y . He r e c a l l s how h i s w r i t i n g s " f i l l e d a bag," and how when he was between f o u r t e e n and f i f t e e n , he had a l r e a d y appeared i n the l i t e r a r y arena. He a l s o r e c a l l s T s ' u i Shang and Wei C h ' i - h s i n , two famous w r i t e r s of the time, who remarked t h a t Tu Fu's l i t e r a r y s k i l l s resembled those of Pan Ku and Yang H s i u n g — t h e g r e a t e s t l i t e r a r y masters of a n t i q u i t y . From 731 t o 735, when Tu Fu was i n h i s l a t e teens and e a r l y t w e n t i e s , he began t o t r a v e l e x t e n s i v e l y , c r o s s i n g the Yellow R i v e r and v i s i t i n g Su-chou, Hang-chou, Yueh-chou, and T'ai-chou. In 735, he r e t u r n e d t o Ch'ang-an and took the "Young Adventures, ii ) Tu Fu r e c o r d s many 3 "Presented S c h o l a r s " Examination. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , he f a i l e d . Although he s u f f e r e d a setback, i t seems t h a t he recovered h i s s p i r i t s q u i c k l y because he s t a r t e d t o t r a v e l a g a i n . T h i s time he journeyed t o v a r i o u s areas around Yen-chou, C h ' i -chou, and Chao-chou. Apparently he enjoyed t h i s p e r i o d of h i s l i f e , f o r i n "Young Adventures," he r e c a l l s how he shot b i r d s , chased w i l d animals, and went hunting. We see i n Tu Fu's e a r l y years h i s p l e a s u r e w i t h w r i t i n g , evidence of h i s s k i l l s , and the b e g i n n i n g of h i s c a r e e r disappointment which would l a t e r a f f e c t him so g r e a t l y . B. LATER YEARS AND HIS POLITICAL CAREER (From 746 t o 770) From 746 u n t i l h i s death i n 770, Tu Fu s t r u g g l e d t o make ends meet, and s i n c e i t bears more d i r e c t l y on h i s l a t e r poems, I w i l l d i s c u s s t h i s p e r i o d of Tu Fu's l i f e i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l . The peaks of h i s p o l i t i c a l c a r e e r came i n 751 when Hsuan-tsung r e c o g n i z e d h i s l i t e r a r y a b i l i t y , and i n 757 when Su-tsung, Hsuan-tsung's suc c e s s o r , appointed Tu Fu L e f t Reminder. In 746, Tu Fu r e t u r n e d to Ch'ang-an from Ch'i-chou. In the same year, Emperor Hsuan-tsung o f f e r e d those who had p r e v i o u s l y f a i l e d the "Presented S c h o l a r " Examinations another chance; however, he was f a i l e d again though perhaps o n l y because of the c o r r u p t i o n of L i L i n - f u , the Grand 4 C o u n c i l o r . 3 In any event, Tu Fu's dream t o serve i n the c i v i l s e r v i c e was s h a t t e r e d once again. From 747 t o 750, Tu Fu stayed i n Ch'ang-an and was t r a v e l l i n g back and f o r t h between the c a p i t a l and Lo-yang i n 749. Then i n 751, he had an o p p o r t u n i t y t o advance h i s c a r e e r . He presented t h r e e f u t o Emperor Hsuan-tsung." In "Young Adventures," Tu Fu mentions t h a t Emperor Hsuan-tsung was impressed. The f i f t y - s i x t h and f i f t y - s e v e n t h l i n e s of t h i s poem read: 5 I presented the f u i n the Imp e r i a l P a l a c e . The emperor stopped t a k i n g h i s meal and sent me a summons. In the second and t h i r d l i n e s o f another poem e n t i t l e d "Do Not Suspect Me," ( ^ v x ^ ^ ) Tu Fu a l s o d e s c r i b e s t h i s i n c i d e n t . The l i n e s read: 6 A I remember when I presented the t h r e e f u i n the P'eng-l a i P a l a c e , Even I was a s t o n i s h e d t o f i n d myself famous o v e r n i g h t . Hsuan-tsung made Tu Fu an a w a i t i n g E d i c t Attendant of the Academy of S c h o l a r l y Worthies, but he was not assign e d any p o s t ; he had t o await f u r t h e r o r d e r s . In 752, Hsuan-tsung ordered Tu Fu to take another examination. 7 T h i s time h i s examination was a p p a r e n t l y s a t i s f a c t o r y because Tu Fu was asked t o wait f o r h i s t u r n t o be g i v e n a job. That autumn, Tu Fu was s t i l l w a i t i n g t o be g i v e n a pos t . Perhaps he was desperate, f o r i n 753 he sent t o a prominent g e n e r a l a poem e n t i t l e d "Twenty Rhymes s e n t t o G e n e r a l K o-shu Han." 8 ( $ $ f < f j " ^ ^ I n t h e l a s t two l i n e s o f t h e poem he h i n t s t h a t he w o u l d l i k e t o work f o r t h e g e n e r a l , b u t Ko-shu Han d i d n o t r e p l y . T u Fu h a d t o w a i t . I n 755, Tu Fu r e t u r n e d t o Ch'ang-an, l e a v i n g h i s f a m i l y i n F e n g - h s i e n . I n s p r i n g 755, Ko-shu Han a r r i v e d i n t h e c a p i t a l , b u t he r e q u e s t e d an i n d e f i n i t e l e a v e o f a b s e n c e f r o m h i s p o s t b e c a u s e o f i l l h e a l t h . T u F u ' s hope o f g e t t i n g employment was d i s a p p o i n t e d o n c e a g a i n . L a t e r i n 755, Tu Fu was f i n a l l y o f f e r e d a p o s t i n g as Commandant o f t h e D i s t r i c t o f H o - h s i , whose c h i e f d u t y was t o a d m i n i s t e r w h i p p i n g s t o d r a f t e v a d e r s and t a x d e l i n q u e n t s . The T'ang s y s t e m p e r m i t t e d an a p p o i n t e e t o r e f u s e an u n s u i t a b l e a p p o i n t m e n t , and T u Fu d e c l i n e d t h e o f f e r . U n der t h e t i t l e o f t h e poem "To T e a s e M y s e l f A f t e r I Was A p p o i n t e d , " ( "j? ^ fy^l ) Tu Fu a ppended t h i s n o t e : " A t t h i s t i m e I was r e l e a s e d f r o m t h e p o s t o f Commandant o f t h e D i s t r i c t o f H o - h s i and was a s s i g n e d as t h e A d m i n i s t r a t o r i n t h e R i g h t Commandant's O f f i c e o f t h e H e l m e t s S e c t i o n . " 9 H i s d u t i e s were t o l o o k a f t e r t h e weapons, armour, and k e y s . A l t h o u g h t h i s was n o t t h e k i n d o f j o b Tu Fu d e s i r e d , he a c c e p t e d t h e a s s i g n m e n t and l e f t Ch'ang-an f o r F e n g - h s i e n t o v i s i t h i s f a m i l y . B u t t h e r e was t o be no c e l e b r a t i o n upon h i s r e t u r n home, f o r he a r r i v e d o n l y t o l e a r n t h a t h i s y o u n g s o n had d i e d o f h u n g e r i n h i s a b s e n c e . I n t h e poem " F i v e H u n d r e d Words f r o m Ch'ang-6 an to Feng-nsien," {\ %^U^%%%. %%• ) Tu Fu t e l l s o f t h e agony t h i s c a u s e d t h e Tu f a m i l y . The l a t t e r p a r t o f t h e poem r e a d s : 1 0 I h ave l e f t my w i f e i n a s t r a n g e d i s t r i c t . N a t u r a l d i s a s t e r s s e p a r a t e d o u r h o u s e h o l d o f t e n . Who c a n l e a v e them any l o n g e r w i t h o u t c a r e ? I have come t o s h a r e t h e i r h u n g e r and t h i r s t . W a i l s r i s e when I e n t e r t h e h o u s e . My i n f a n t c h i l d h a s d i e d o f h u n g e r . Why s h o u l d I s u p p r e s s my g r i e f , T h a t e v e n t h e n e i g h b o u r s i n t h e v i l l a g e a l s o weep f o r us ? I am ashamed o f b e i n g a f a t h e r ; So p o o r t h a t c a u s e d h i s s o n t o d i e f o r l a c k o f f o o d . How w o u l d I know t h a t t h e good h a r v e s t o f autumn; S t i l l c o u l d n o t r e l i e v e t h e p o o r f r o m s u f f e r i n g s u c h a m i s f o r t u n e ? I am a l r e a d y one o f t h e p r i v i l e g e d , F r e e f r o m t a x a t i o n and d r a f t . I f my l i f e i s b i t t e r , T h en t h e l i f e o f a common man must be w o r s e . When I t h i n k o f t h o s e who l o s t t h e i r p r o p e r t y , And o f t h o s e r e c r u i t e d and s t a t i o n e d a t t h e f a r f r o n t i e r s , My w o r r i e s and a n x i e t y r i s e a s h i g h a s t h e S o u t h e r n M o u n t a i n s , L i k e mad s w e l l s i m p o s s i b l e t o s u b s i d e . H e r e , we g l i m p s e n o t o n l y Tu F u ' s s o r r o w , b u t a l s o h i s sympathy f o r t h e w r e t c h e d n e s s o f t h e p o o r . J u s t a s t h e t i d e seemed t o be t u r n i n g i n T u F u ' s f a v o u r , he l o s t h i s s o n , a t e r r i b l e and s h a t t e r i n g e x p e r i e n c e . B u t i t i s r e m a r k a b l e t o s e e t h a t Tu F u ' s g r i e f e x t e n d s b e y o n d h i s own l o s s , f o r he l a m e n t s more f o r t h e l e s s f o r t u n a t e and t h e i m p o v e r i s h e d , and t r i e s t o c o m f o r t h i m s e l f w i t h t h e knowledge t h a t h i s l i f e i s n o t t h e w o r s t . A t t h e end o f 755, t h e An L u - s h a n R e b e l l i o n b r o k e o u t . 7 Art's t r o o p s overtook the i m p e r i a l f o r c e s . L a t e r T'ung-kuan f e l l , the r e b e l s captured the two c a p i t a l s , and Emperor Hsiian-tsung, K u e i - f e i , and Yang Kuo-chung f l e d t o Shu. Before T'ung-kuan f e l l , Tu Fu was v i s i t i n g the D i s t r i c t of Po-shui. Because of the r e b e l l i o n , the roads were c l o s e d and Tu Fu c o u l d not get back t o Ch'ang-an. From h i s poems, we know t h a t i n 756 Tu Fu s e t t l e d h i s w i f e and c h i l d r e n i n the Ch'iang V i l l a g e , a d i s t r i c t of San-ch'uan of the P r e f e c t u r e of Fu-chou. 1 1 A f t e r s e t t l i n g h i s f a m i l y , Tu Fu s e t o f f to j o i n the e x i l e d c o u r t when he heard t h a t the crown p r i n c e , l a t e r known as Su-tsung, was d e c l a r e d emperor a t Ling-wu. On the way t o j o i n the emperor, Tu Fu was captured by the r e b e l s and brought back t o Ch'ang-an. 1 2 Ch'ang-an was not the o l d and b e a u t i f u l c a p i t a l he remembered but a devastated r u i n . The p a l a c e was burned and the l i v e s of the people were more wretched than ever. In 757, Tu Fu was a b l e t o s l i p away and soon a f t e r a r r i v e d a t Feng-hsiang where Su-tsung was r e s i d i n g . 1 3 Because of Tu Fu's l o y a l t y , Su-tsung appointed him L e f t Reminder, a remonstrance o f f i c i a l , an appointment which g r e a t l y p l e a s e d Tu Fu. As an a d v i s e r , h i s d u t i e s were t o remind H i s Majesty of e r r o r s of substance or s t y l e i n s t a t e documents and t o mend Hi s Majesty's breaches i n s t a t e c r a f t . However, Tu Fu's appointment proved s h o r t - l i v e d . In 8 757, he became i n v o l v e d i n an i n c i d e n t which earned him the emperor's d i s p l e a s u r e . That year Emperor Su d i s m i s s e d Fang Kuan, who had l e d u n s u c c e s s f u l attempts t o r e c o v e r the c a p i t a l and was l a t e r again d e f e a t e d by r e b e l s , from h i s s e a t i n the s t a t e c o u n c i l , u s i n g a b r i b e r y charge as an excuse." For t h i s , however, Tu Fu admonished Su-tsung, arguing t h a t a s t a t e m i n i s t e r should not be d i s m i s s e d on a p e t t y o f f e n s e . Su-tsung, who was f u r i o u s , ordered Tu Fu t o be p l a c e d under a r r e s t and t o be t r i e d by the Three J u d i c i a l Agencies, the c h i e f o f f i c i a l s o f which were Wei Chih, Yen Chen-ch'ing, and T s ' u i Kuang-yuan. Wei Chih r e p o r t e d t h a t though Tu Fu was too f r e e with h i s words, he was f a i t h f u l t o h i s d u t i e s . But the emperor was s t i l l not appeased. The Grand C o u n c i l o r , Chang Hao, a d v i s e d the emperor t o be magnanimous, and f i n a l l y Tu Fu, who might have been sentenced t o death, was pardoned. 1 5 A f t e r t h i s i n c i d e n t , Tu Fu was allowed t o go back t o Fu-chou t o v i s t h i s f a m i l y . In l a t e 757, An's t r o o p s s u f f e r e d a d e c i s i v e d e f e a t near Ch'ang-an. Soon, the i m p e r i a l army f o r c e s r e c a p t u r e d the two c a p i t a l s . Su-tsung and Hsuan-tsung r e t u r n e d t o Ch'ang-an i n 758, and the same year, Tu Fu a l s o went back t o the c a p i t a l , where he continued t o work as the Reminder. He s t i l l took h i s d u t i e s as a Reminder very " s e r i o u s l y " even a f t e r h i s p r e c a r i o u s experience. From the poem "Overnight i n the S p r i n g a t the E a s t e r n D i v i s i o n , " (/£• *fo h, ) we 9 l e a r n t h a t Tu Fu worked the whole day and stayed o v e r n i g h t w r i t i n g a memorial t o the throne. In one of the poems g e n t l y a d v i s e d Tu Fu t h a t perhaps i t would be bes t t o remonstrate l e s s f r e q u e n t l y , but Tu Fu o b v i o u s l y d i d not take Ts'en's a d v i c e . From the poem " D r i n k i n g by the Crooked R i v e r " ( '> i% ) we know t h a t the poet was not very happy about h i s p o s t . The l a s t f o u r l i n e s of the poem read: 1 6 I i n d u l g e myself i n d r i n k i n g ; f o r a long time I have g i v e n up my p o s s e s s i o n s , and I do not care i f a l l people abandon me. I am l a z y to a t t e n d to c o u r t ; I am r e a l l y i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h i s world. As a mundane o f f i c i a l , I f e e l t h a t the f a i r y l a n d i s f u r t h e r away. I am too o l d to r e g r e t not being a r e c l u s e . In mid 758, Fang was demoted t o the p o s i t i o n of the p r e f e c t of Pin-chou, and Fang's f r i e n d s , Yen Wu, L i u Chih, and Tu Fu were a l s o banished. Tu Fu was sent t o Hua-chou, about s i x t y m i l e s e a s t o f Ch'ang-an, t o be the A d m i n i s t r a t o r of Hua-chou, i n which c a p a c i t y he was t o look a f t e r s c h o o l s , temples, examinations, ceremonies and so f o r t h . From t h a t time on, Tu Fu never again had the chance t o go back t o Ch'ang-an. 1 7 In 759, Tu Fu wrote "Day a f t e r the Autumn Equinox." (jL A A A A w r i t t e n by Ts'en Shen and addressed t o Tu Fu, Ts'en Shen ) In t h i s poem, he says t h a t he in t e n d s t o 10 g i v e up h i s post as A d m i n i s t r a t o r . The poem reads: 1 6 Time does not make allowances. Another season succeeded s i n c e l a s t n i g h t . Dark c i c a d a s do not stop b u z z i n g . Autumn swallows are l i k e f l u t t e r i n g g uests. Throughout my l i f e I always wanted t o be independent. I am approaching f i f t y s a d l y . I am f r e e t o q u i t working as an o f f i c i a l . Why do I f o r c e myself t o be burdened w i t h t r i v i a l t a s k s ? In the l a s t l i n e of t h i s poem, Tu Fu expresses h i s f r u s t r a t i o n and dismay w i t h the b u r e a u c r a t i c nature of h i s job. L a t e r he d i d g i v e up h i s p o s t and moved to Ch'in-chou. In autumn 759, Tu Fu a r r i v e d a t Ch'in-chou where he stayed f o r a month and a h a l f , and t h e r e he wrote many poems. In l a t e 759, he went t o T'ung-ku and then on t o A Ch'eng-tu. From the poem "Cousin Wang, the Governor General's O f f i c e r , Comes Out of the C i t y t o See Me and t o B r i n g Me Money f o r the C o n s t r u c t i o n of my Thatched Hut," (X the g e n e r o s i t y of h i s c o u s i n i n Ch'eng-tu, Tu Fu was able t o purchase some l a n d and t o b u i l d a thatched hut near the Flower Washing Stream. He remained i n Ch'eng-tu from 760 t o 762. In 762, Tu Fu's f r i e n d , Yen Wu, was a s s i g n e d as the governor g e n e r a l of Ch'eng-tu, and although Tu Fu was not o f f i c i a l l y employed, Yen asked Tu Fu t o work f o r him. In 762, Tu Fu wrote a memorandum "On Drought" (,;5_ ^ ) t o Yen, which i s c o l l e c t e d i n h i s prose works. Since A ) we l e a r n t h a t w i t h A 11 November of the p r e v i o u s year, t h e r e had been no r a i n o r snow and as a r e s u l t , people were s u f f e r i n g from a drought. A c c o r d i n g t o Confucian t r a d i t i o n s , heaven sent n a t u r a l d i s o r d e r s t o a government t o express d i s a p p r o v a l . Tu Fu ad v i s e d Yen Wu t o take the drought as a s i g n of heaven's d i s a p p r o v a l concerning some m a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of j u s t i c e . Tu Fu admonished Yen Wu t o order a speedy a d j u d i c a t i o n of a l l c r i m i n a l cases. In summer 762, both Hsuan-tsung and Su-tsung d i e d , and Yen Wu was summoned t o Ch'ang-an. Since he worked f o r Yen Wu, Tu Fu thought t h a t he might a l s o be r e c a l l e d t o Ch'ang-an, and thus h i s hope of going back t o the c a p i t a l r e v i v e d . The seventeenth and e i g h t e e n t h l i n e s of the poem e n t i t l e d : "Ten Rhymes t o Send H i s E x c e l l e n c y Yen t o r e t u r n t o Court" (J^^^'* "t'lJl ) r e a d : " Is t h i s body of mine t o be s t a y i n g i n Shu f o r good? I f I d i d not d i e , I might be ab l e t o go back t o Ch'ang-an . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , d u r i n g t h i s time, General Hsu Chih-tao i n i t i a t e d a r e b e l l i o n . Tu Fu f l e d t o Tzu-chou, and l a t e r A r e t u r n e d t o Ch'eng-tu. 2 0 In 764, Yen Wu r e t u r n e d from Ch'ang-an. He was appointed M i l i t a r y Commissioner of the whole Chien-nan area. Tu Fu then went back t o Ch'eng-tu. Yen wrote a memorandum t o c o u r t recommending t h a t Tu Fu be made h i s m i l i t a r y c o u n s e l o r . In response t o Yen's request, the c o u r t c o n f e r r e d on Tu Fu the t i t l e of A c t i n g V i c e - D i r e c t o r of the M i n i s t r y 12 o f P u b l i c Works. He was e n t i t l e d t o wear robes i n green but was a l s o g r a n t e d the p r i v i l e g e o f wear ing the r e d robe w i t h the r e d bag c o n t a i n i n g a s i l v e r f i s h - t a l l y , the d e c o r a t i v e honour o f o f f i c i a l s . 2 1 T h i s was an honourary t i t l e , a l t h o u g h T u F u ' s rank d i d not change. However, i n the poem e n t i t l e d "Do Not Suspect M e , " Tu Fu expresses dismay over work ing i n Y e n ' s o f f i c e because some young c o l l e a g u e s were j e a l o u s o f h i m . The poem r e a d s : 2 2 A man l i k e me a c h i e v e s n o t h i n g even when h i s h a i r grows w h i t e . Oh! What a p i t y I My t e e t h a r e about t o f a l l o u t . A I remember when I p r e s e n t e d the t h r e e f u i n the P ' e n g -l a i P a l a c e , Even I was a s t o n i s h e d t o f i n d m y s e l f famous o v e r n i g h t . The e r u d i t e men of the Academy of S c h o l a r l y Worth i e s surrounded me l i k e a w a l l , And watched me w r i t e i n the H a l l of the S e c r e t a r i a t . In those days my w r i t i n g s c o u l d move the emperor. But now hunger and c o l d have d r i v e n me t o the s t r e e t . In my l a t e y e a r s , I have to seek the f r i e n d s h i p o f the young. They compliment me i n my presence but mock me b e h i n d my b a c k . L e t me send an apo logy t o you a l l , people o f the smart w o r l d : I do not l i k e to compete. Do not s u s p e c t me I In the poem "Twenty Rhymes t o E x p e l Despondency: P r e s e n t e d Wu t o l e t him spend more t ime i n h i s t h a t c h e d h u t . The l a s t two l i n e s of the poem r e a d : 2 3 I hope you w i l l c o n s i d e r my n a t u r e , And g r a n t f r e q u e n t l e a v e s t o enable me t o l e a n a g a i n s t the f i r m i a n a t r e e . t o Yen Wu" ) the poet asked Yen 13 In the e a r l y s p r i n g of 765, Yen Wu f i n a l l y granted Tu Fu the time o f f he had requested i n the p r e v i o u s year. L a t e r Yen Wu d i e d , and Tu Fu f e l t he had l o s t a f r i e n d . A f t e r Yen's death, Tu Fu wandered about, going to Chung-chou from Jung-chou and f i n a l l y a r r i v i n g a t Yun-an. In the f i r s t two .ines c l i n of the poem "Moving to l i v e i n K'uei-chou C i t y " <^ -*rj» /x j: ) TU Fu t e l l s the reader t h a t he was d e t a i n e d i n Yiin-an by i l l n e s s . The l i n e s read: 2 4 I was l y i n g i n bed i n Yiin-an. I have moved t o l i v e i n White Emperor C i t y . In s p r i n g 766, Tu Fu recovered, and so from Yun-an, he went t o K'uei-chou C i t y . He and h i s f a m i l y l i v e d i n Jang-tung u n t i l the autumn of 766. From then u n t i l the s p r i n g of 767, Tu Fu stayed i n West Chamber f o r the most p a r t , l e a v i n g h i s f a m i l y i n Jang-tung. Between then and the s p r i n g of 768, Tu Fu bought p r o p e r t y i n Jang-hsi and East V i l l a g e and moved back and f o r t h between these two p l a c e s . The f o l l o w i n g i s a s h o r t summary of Tu Fu's p h y s i c a l h e a l t h , a s s e t s , work, s o c i a l l i f e , and emotional w e l l - b e i n g d u r i n g the one-year and ten-month p e r i o d which he spent i n K'uei-chou. I. PHYSICAL HEALTH: In the poems which Tu Fu wrote i n K'uei-chou between 766 t o 767, he d e s c r i b e s h i s f a i l i n g p h y s i c a l h e a l t h , 14 r e p o r t i n g t h a t he i s f r a g i l e and s i c k , has weak lungs, m a l a r i a , rheumatism, and deafness i n h i s l e f t ear. In the poem "Old and S i c k , " ) Tu Fu d e s c r i b e s h i s f a i l i n g p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n . 2 5 I am o l d and s i c k i n the Wu Mountains, Detained among the t r a v e l l e r s i n Ch'u. Some o l d medicines are l e f t from the oth e r days; Flowers bloom again on l a s t year's bushes. The r a i n l a s t n i g h t seeped through the beach. The wind i n s p r i n g i s a g a i n s t the c u r r e n t of the stream. Had I been i n Ch'ang-an, I would have been g i v e n two w r i t i n g brushes. However, I am onl y a t h i s t l e d o w n f l y i n g i n the wind. In the f i r s t t h r e e l i n e s of the poem "Autumn C l e a r n e s s , " ( '/^ ) Tu Fu mentions t h a t he has weak lungs. The l i n e s r e ad: 2 6 At the peak of autumn, the d i s c o m f o r t o f my lungs i s r e l i e v e d . I am able t o comb my white h a i r . I hate t o i n c r e a s e or t o reduce the dosage of medicine. In the seventeenth and e i g h t e e n t h l i n e s of the poem "Send t o Hsieh Chu," %fy ^ £ \ 1 W ~ ) T u F u mentions t h a t he has been s u f f e r i n g from m a l a r i a . The l i n e s read: 2 7 I f e l l s i c k i n the Gorge. I was s u f f e r i n g from m a l a r i a a l l winter and s p r i n g . " In the t h i r d and f o u r t h l i n e s of the poem "Urging Tsung-wen t o Set Up the Hen Coops," ( f j i %J~iti%hi$~ ) Tu Fu mentions t h a t he has rheumatism. The l i n e s read: 2 8 The meat of b l a c k hens i s s a i d t o be good f o r rheumatism. The eggs which are l a i d i n autumn are good t o e a t . In the l a s t two l i n e s of the poem "Cloudy Again," \ ^ ) Tu Fu says t h a t h i s l e f t ear i s deaf. The l i n e s read: 2 9 Don't you see t h a t the o l d man from T u - l i n g s t a y i n g i n K'uei-chou, Is a man whose t e e t h are h a l f gone and h i s l e f t ear i s deaf? From the f i v e poems c i t e d above, one may see t h a t Tu Fu was q u i t e f r a g i l e and s i c k d u r i n g 766 t o 767. I I . ASSETS: From some of the poems, we a l s o know t h a t from s p r i n g 767 t o s p r i n g 768, Tu Fu managed t o buy p r o p e r t y i n Jang-h s i and East V i l l a g e perhaps w i t h the help of Po Mao-lin, f o r i n the end of the second poem of "The Mouth of Ch'u-t'ang Gorge," ( < Z ) Tu Fu appended a note s a y i n g t h a t Governor Po had f r e q u e n t l y shared h i s monthly s a l a r y with the poet. 3 0 From the poems "Climbing t o the H a l l i n Jang-h s i a t Dusk," ( 8^"^ 5$C i - 4 ) "The Garden," ( l£\ ) and "About t o Depart from the Wu Gorge, I pr e s e n t Nan-ch'ing hsiung the s i x - a c r e Jang-hsi o r c h a r d , " ( ^ Vj JlL ^/v. &^h'<%-^%^ ^ I' bk. ) we know t h a t toward the end of 767, Tu Fu bought a house, a spacious o l d h a l l south of i t , a s m a l l flower and vegetable garden next t o the house, and a s i x - a c r e o r c h a r d . In another poem 16 e n t i t l e d "In the Autumn I sent Chang Wang t o Supervise the Weeding on the R i c e F i e l d s i n the East V i l l a g e . The Work i s Almost F i n i s h e d . E a r l y i n the Morning, I Sent the Female Servant, A - c h i , and the Boy Servant, A-tuan, to i n q u i r e about i t , " < f c ^ % %, f *f 1£ £ ^ H # fyjf ijt n^t^-k-hL J-J if®l^- \1 ft] ) we know t h a t he a c q u i r e d r i c e farms, a house, and two s e r v a n t s , and from the poems "To Chop Wood," ( T^. i\ <f" ) " H s i n - h s i n g Went t o Repair the Water Pipes Far Away," ( \ t i']^ ^ |?) ) and "To A-tuan" ( ^ ^ ) we know t h a t Tu Fu a l s o had t h r e e other s e r v a n t s — P o - i , H s i n - h s i u and H s i n -h s i n g . From the above, we see t h a t d e s p i t e some h e a l t h problems Tu Fu was q u i t e w e l l o f f and c e r t a i n l y had m a t e r i a l comfort and s e c u r i t y by 768. III. WORK: During the one year and ten-month p e r i o d which Tu Fu spent i n K'uei-chou, he was engaged i n w r i t i n g p o e t r y and farming. A l t o g e t h e r , he wrote about f o u r hundred poems which s u r v i v e i n the extant c o l l e c t i o n . On average Tu Fu wrote c l o s e t o twenty poems a month. From the f o u r poems "To Grow L e t t u c e , " ( " f f %) \ ) "The Bound Chickens," ) "The Garden," and "To Chop Wood," we know t h a t Tu Fu t r i e d t o grow v e g e t a b l e s , r a i s e c h i c k e n s , mend fences, and chop wood. In another poem e n t i t l e d "In the Autumn I sent Chang Wang to Supervise the Weeding on the R i c e Farms i n East V i l l a g e . The Work i s Almost F i n i s h e d . E a r l y i n the Morning, I sent the Female Servant, A - c h i , and the Boy Servant, A-tuan, t o i n q u i r e about i t , " we a l s o know t h a t he d i r e c t e d h i s s e r v a n t s t o plough f i e l d s , p l a n t , weed, i r r i g a t e , and h a r v e s t . 3 1 Tu Fu became a gentleman farmer d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . On the s u r f a c e , h i s l i f e seemed t o be w e l l s e t t l e d here. IV. SOCIAL LI F E : Among the f o u r hundred poems which Tu Fu wrote i n K'uei-chou and which s u r v i v e i n the extant c o l l e c t i o n , seventy of them are addressed t o h i s f r i e n d s , t h i r t e e n t o h i s r e l a t i v e s , and twenty one t o h i s o l d f r i e n d s . A l t o g e t h e r , these poems amount t o one q u a r t e r of the t o t a l . From these poems, we know t h a t Tu Fu had many f r i e n d s . In numerous poems, he mentions t h a t he goes out and d r i n k s wine w i t h h i s f r i e n d s . In the second poem of "From Ja n g - h s i I Moved t o Stay Temporarily i n the Thatched Hut i n East c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h some of h i s v i s i t o r s . He p r e f e r s s o l i t u d e . The poem reads: 3 2 In East V i l l a g e or i n J a n g - h s i , We l i v e c l o s e by the same k i n d of c l e a r stream. 1 8 I go back and f o r t h t o both th a t c h e d huts. I stayed f o r a while t o look a f t e r the r i c e f i e l d s . I t was c l o s e t o the n o i s y market and was convenient t o make some p r o f i t s . In the sec l u d e d woods here, one can h a r d l y f i n d a path. I f v i s i t o r s come and t r y to t a l k to the f r a g i l e o l d man, They w i l l g et l o s t and g i v e up the e f f o r t . Tu Fu a l s o went out s i g h t s e e i n g . He went t o v i s i t the Temples commemorating Chu-ko L i a n g , Kung-sun Shu and L i u P ' e i , the E i g h t B a t t l e D i s p o s i t i o n s , the Old Cypress, the White S a l t Mountains, Yellow Grass Gorge, and t o watch the sword pantomime dance of the p u p i l of Madame Kung-sun F i r s t . On the s u r f a c e , i t seems t h a t Tu Fu had a busy s o c i a l l i f e . V. EMOTIONAL WELL-BEING: In many poems and p a r t i c u l a r l y the ones which we w i l l study i n Chapter Three i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l , Tu Fu p o r t r a y s h i m s e l f as a sad and l o n e l y man. In the l a s t poem of "Late S p r i n g I i n s c r i b e d on the Wall of the Newly Rented Thatched Tu Fu expresses h i s sadness a t being too o l d t o serve the c o u r t . The poem reads: 3 3 I want t o pr e s e n t a p r o p o s a l t o save the country. However, I am onl y an aging o f f i c i a l i n the Department of St a t e A f f a i r s . The r e b e l s are f i g h t i n g e n d l e s s l y . I am ashamed t o j o i n the f l o c k s of ducks and e g r e t s . The times are dangerous; human r e l a t i o n s are te n s e . The headwind blows; the f e a t h e r s of a b i r d are h u r t . The s i g h t of the s e t t i n g sun over the r i v e r i s sad. I weep t i l l midnight, and my bed i s wet wit h t e a r s . Hut i n Ja n g - h s i ( f i v e poems), II 19 In the t h i r d and f o u r t h l i n e s of the poem "Winter S o l s t i c e , " (s>- Ju ) Tu Fu d e p i c t s how a l i e n a t e d he f e e l s . The l i n e s read: 3" Of a l l the people on the r i v e r , I am the o n l y one whose countenance looks o l d . At the world's end the customs pl e a s e a l l but me. In the l a s t two l i n e s of the same poem, Tu Fu d e s c r i b e s how much he misses Ch'ang-an. The l i n e s read: 3 5 My h e a r t i s broken i n t o p i e c e s of l e s s than an i n c h . The road ahead i s b l u r r e d and I am l o s t . Where i s Ch'ang-an? Tu Fu f e e l s too o l d t o serve the c o u r t , out of p l a c e i n K'uei-chou, and he yearns t o go back t o Ch'ang-an. A l l i n a l l , although Tu Fu's p h y s i c a l h e a l t h was f a i l i n g , on the s u r f a c e h i s l i f e was f a i r l y w e l l - s e t t l e d . He was a gentleman farmer who was able to purchase some pr o p e r t y and t o h i r e s e r v a n t s t o h e l p him do the chores. In h i s l e i s u r e time, he attended s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s , wrote poetry, and went s i g h t s e e i n g . However, sometimes he was consumed by n o s t a l g i a , f e e l i n g l o n e l y , a l i e n a t e d , and d i s t r e s s e d by the f a c t t h a t he c o u l d not serve the c o u r t . In s p r i n g 768, Tu Fu decided t o leave i n order to meet h i s b r o t h e r , Tu Kuan. 3 6 In e a r l y 768, he went t o Chiang-l i n g , then Yo-chou, and f i n a l l y T'an-chou. In 770, he A t r a v e l l e d t o Heng-chou because of the outbreak of a 20 . A r e b e l l i o n . 3 7 A f t e r t h a t , he intended to go to Ch'en-chou where Tu's maternal u n c l e , T s ' u i Wei, was l i v i n g , but a f t e r s a i l i n g about a hundred m i l e s , he was d e t a i n e d by heavy r a i n . 3 8 L a t e r i n 770, the poet d i e d of s i c k n e s s , with h i s d e s i r e t o r e t u r n t o Ch'ang-an never f u l f i l l e d . 3 9 Throughout h i s l i f e Tu Fu had an u n s a t i s f y i n g p o l i t i c a l c a r e e r and was s t r u c k by bad l u c k . In 735, he f a i l e d the "Presented S c h o l a r Examination," and i n 746 when Tu Fu had a chance t o w r i t e another examination, he was not chosen a g a i n . Even though he mentions t h a t the emperor was impressed by the f u he presented i n 751, Tu Fu was not a s s i g n e d any p o s t u n t i l 755. He was f i n a l l y a s s i g n e d as the Commandant of the D i s t r i c t of Ho-hsi whose c h i e f duty was t o a d m i n i s t e r whippings t o d r a f t evaders and the tax d e l i n q u e n t s , but the post was so u n s a t i s f a c t o r y t o him t h a t he d e c l i n e d the o f f e r . The c o u r t then r e - a s s i g n e d him as the A d m i n i s t r a t o r i n the R i g h t Commandant O f f i c e of the Helmets S e c t i o n whose d u t i e s were to look a f t e r weapons, armour, and keys. Though the job seems not t o have been very f u l f i l l i n g , A he accepted the o f f e r . However, when he went to Feng-hsien t o t e l l h i s f a m i l y , he found out t h a t h i s son had d i e d of hunger. When the An Lu-shan R e b e l l i o n broke out i n 755, the two c a p i t a l s were captured, and l a t e r when he went t o L i n g -wu to j o i n Su-tsung, he was captured and brought back to Ch'ang-an. Although i n 757 Tu Fu was able t o j o i n the e x i l e d c o u r t and was appointed as L e f t Reminder, a-more s a t i s f y i n g and c h a l l e n g i n g post, he stayed i n t h i s post f o r on l y about a year and was demoted t o A d m i n i s t r a t o r of Hua-chou whose d u t i e s were t o look a f t e r s c h o o l s , temples, examinations, and ceremonies. L a t e r he gave up t h i s post and moved t o A Ch'in-chou. Subsequently he went t o Ch'eng-tu. In 762, Yen Wu asked Tu Fu to work f o r him; however, Yen Wu was summoned back t o Ch'ang-an i n the summer. When Yen came back, although Tu Fu was appointed as the A c t i n g V i c e - D i r e c t o r of the M i n i s t r y of P u b l i c Works, an honorary t i t l e , whose d u t i e s were t o g i v e Yen m i l i t a r y c o u n s e l , he d i s c o v e r e d t h a t young c o l l e a g u e s were j e a l o u s of him and f e l t so i l l a t ease t h a t he requested Yen t o grant him frequent l e a v e s . A f t e r Yen d i e d i n 765, Tu Fu wandered around. Although he bought some p r o p e r t y i n K'uei-chou and on the s u r f a c e was f a i r l y w e l l - s e t t l e d t h e r e , i n v a r i o u s poems he p o r t r a y s h i m s e l f as an o l d , f r a g i l e , l o n e l y , and unhappy man. He l e f t Ch'ang-an i n 758 and u n t i l h i s very l a s t day i n 770, he s t i l l wanted t o r e t u r n . ENDNOTES: 1. Some suggest t h a t Tu Fu was probably born i n Yen-shih, about t h r e e hundred m i l e s t o the e a s t of Ch'ang-an, s i n c e Tu Fu's grandparents and h i s a n c e s t o r , Tu Yu, were b u r i e d a t the f o o t of v t h e Shou-yang H i l l s , and i n 813, Tu Fu's grandson, Tu Ssu-yeh, brought the remains of Tu Fu t o the f a m i l y graveyard i n Yen-shih f o r b u r i a l . The Old T'ang H i s t o r y and the New T'ang H i s t o r y , however, say t h a t Hsiang-yang i s the n a t i v e l a n d of Tu Fu, even though i n h i s poems Tu Fu never mentions Hsiang-yang as h i s home.[Liu Hsu, Old T'ang H i s t o r y , r e p r i n t , (Shanghai: Chung Hua Book Co., 1975), chuan 190 p.5055; Ou-yang H s i u & Sung C h ' i , New T'ang H i s t o r y , r e p r i n t , (Shanghai: Chung Hua Book Co. 1975), chuan 201, p.5736.] Many s c h o l a r s r e g a r d Kung, a p l a c e c l o s e t o Yen-shih, as h i s b i r t h p l a c e probably because Tu Fu's g r e a t - g r a n d f a t h e r was the m a g i s t r a t e of Kung, and so the f a m i l y c o n t i n u e d t o l i v e t h e r e f o r q u i t e some time. However, Tu Fu makes no mention i n h i s w r i t i n g s of Kung as the p l a c e of h i s b i r t h . 2. Ching-chao was the f i r s t p r e f e c t u r e of the T'ang Empire, encompassing Ch'ang-an and some twenty d i s t r i c t s . The f i r s t o f these d i s t r i c t s was Wan-nien, which a l s o i n c l u d e d Tu-l i n g . T u - l i n g was o n l y a few m i l e s t o the south of Ch'ang-an. [ W i l l i a m Hung, Tu Fu: China's G r e a t e s t Poet,, (New York: R u s s e l l & R u s s e l l , 1969), p.19.] 3. L i L i n - f u , the Grand C o u n c i l o r , f e a r e d some candidates might use the examinations as a forum i n which t o v o i c e t h e i r c r i t i c i s m s of him t o the emperor, so he persuaded His Majesty not t o conduct the examinations i n person but i n s t e a d t o a p p o i n t some o f f i c i a l s t o examine the c a n d i d a t e s . L i l a t e r r e p o r t e d t o the emperor t h a t a l l the c a n d i d a t e s had f a i l e d and t h a t he should c o n g r a t u a l a t e His Majesty f o r having a l r e a d y d i s c o v e r e d a l l the t a l e n t s i n the empire. [Ssu-ma Kuang, Tzu Ch'ih T'ung Chien, r e p r i n t , (Hong Kong: Chung Hua Book Co., 1976), v o l . 3 , chuan 215, p.6876.) 4. The t h r e e f u were to commemorate t h r e e s t a t e l y c e r e m o n i e s — s a c r i f i c e s o f f e r e d by the emperor on s p e c i a l l y chosen dates i n 751 to the Temple of Lao-tzu, to the I m p e r i a l A n c e s t r a l Temple, and t o the A l t a r s of Heaven and E a r t h . In the t h r e e f u Tu Fu t e l l s H i s Majesty t h a t he i s i n h i s f o r t i e t h year; t h a t s i n c e h i s l a t e teens he has 23 t r a v e l l e d f a r and has l i v e d humbly; t h a t w h i l e making a meagre l i v i n g i n the c a p i t a l through s e l l i n g h e r b a l medicines and through the g e n e r o s i t y of h i s f r i e n d s , he has had the unusual o p p o r t u n i t y t o witness and r e c o r d these wonderful ceremonies. 5. The Chinese t e x t reads: 6. The Chinese t e x t reads: 7. The f o u r t h , f i f t h , and s i x t h l i n e s of "Do Not Suspect Me" read: The e r u d i t e men of the Academy of S c h o l a r l y Worthies surrounded me l i k e a w a l l , And watched me w r i t e i n the H a l l of the S e c r e t a r i a t . In those days my w r i t i n g s c o u l d move the emperor. \l % k {i f* * i . V 8. The I n s t i t u t e of L i t e r a t u r e and H i s t o r y of Ssu-chuan ed. , A__Bioqraphy of Tu Fu. (Ch'eng-tu: Ssu-chuan Jen Min P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1958), pp.30-31. 9. The Chinese t e x t reads: % t ^ * hi h A ify f n £ -t 10. The Chinese t e x t reads: j>.MhrA:k ihUh^ 24 t*&mK JMM&^lf J r v u c M >%%$t\% 11. I b i d . , pp.37-38. 12. I b i d . , p.39. 13. I b i d . , pp.42-43. 14. Fang had v o l u n t e e r e d to l e a d an army to r e c o v e r the c a p i t a l , but the b a t t l e at Ch'en-t'ao was a g r e a t d i s a s t e r . [From Tu Fu's poem "The Tragedy of Ch'en-t'ao" ( ) we know t h a t the c a s u l t i e s were over f o r t y thousand. ] L a t e r , Fang fought a g a i n and was once more def e a t e d by the r e b e l s . V 15. The I n s t i t u t e of L i t e r a t u r e and H i s t o r y of Ssu-chuan, A Biography of Tu Fu, pp.43-44. 16. The Chinese t e x t reads: , 17. I b i d . , p.49. 18. The Chinese t e x t reads: K ft. 19. The Chinese t e x t reads: 25 20. Hung, Tu Fu: China's G r e a t e s t Poet, pp.189-190. 21. The I n s t i t u t e o f L i t e r a t u r e and H i s t o r y of Ssu-chuan ed., A Biography of Tu Fu, p.84. 22. The Chinese t e x t reads: 23. The Chinese t e x t reads: 24. The Chinese t e x t reads: 25. The Chinese t e x t reads: 26. The Chinese t e x t reads: 26 27. The Chinese t e x t reads: 28. The Chinese t e x t reads: f >aj | i l l ^*f*jJL. 29. The Chinese t e x t reads: 30. The note i n Chinese reads: -1 ft <f * & y> ^ 31. The poem reads: In the E a s t V i l l a g e , the r a i n i s p l e n t i f u l by now. I stand here and await the f r a g r a n t s m e l l of r i c e . Heaven up above does not p r a c t i s e f a v o u r i t i s m . Both reeds and weeds w i l l grow. People c o n s i d e r these p l a n t s not to be good, And are a f r a i d t h a t they might s p o i l the work of farming. No e f f o r t w i l l be spared. We p u l l up the weeds and put them by the s i d e of the r i v e r bank. The g r a i n i s the r o o t s u s t a i n i n g l i f e . How w i l l a t r a v e l l e r f o r g e t t h i s ? In the s p r i n g , the farms were attended. They were thoroughly ploughed a c c o r d i n g t o r u l e . The water b u f f a l o e s were s t r o n g and easy t o manage. We drove them over the f i e l d s . R i c h s t a l k s had begun t o bear. Rain f e l l and formed square p o o l s i n the f i e l d s . E v e r y t h i n g t h a t grows w i l l come out. T h i s r e q u i r e d c a r e . I t i s not t h a t I d i d not have a s u p e r v i s o r t o s u p e r v i s e the works s y s t e m a t i c a l l y . In Ching and Yang, the c l i m a t e was warm. While I was w a i t i n g f o r a s l i g h t f r o s t , I was s t i l l a f r a i d t h a t the keeper might be s l a c k , and would not be v i g i l a n t enough. So on a c l e a r morning, I sent my maid and s e r v a n t , t o convey my message over the h i g h r i d g e s . A f t e r the h a r v e s t , I would g i v e away some of what I had c o l l e c t e d . 27 The Chinese t e x t reads: fettaf £ *- JR i*% ,€ t ^  If - f The Chinese t e x t reads: £ 4 il •'%-* -&K $ 'H # ii-*• 4 A & # 4 « •! f 4 1 i i 4') *figf & The Chinese t e x t reads: 2 8 34. The Chinese t e x t reads: * ± *S % £ k A ^ - i l ^ t ^ E 35. The Chinese t e x t reads: 36. The I n s t i t u t e of L i t e r a t u r e and H i s t o r y of Ssu-chuan ed., A Biography of Tu Fu, p.126. 37. I b i d . , p.141. 38. Hung, Tu Fu: China's G r e a t e s t Poet, pp.273, 275. 39. " S i c k w i t h Fever on the Boat: I Wrote These T h i r t y - S i x Rhymes i n Bed to. Present t o R e l a t i v e s and F r i e n d s i n Hu-nan" ( i & f c 4 r ' t 4< Kt * 3 1 * %l jfl HQ ^ H I ) i s the l a s t poem i n Tu Fu's extant c o l l e c t i o n . Probably, as Hung and The I n s t i t u t e of L i t e r a t u r e and H i s t o r y of Ssu-chuan suggest, Tu Fu might have d i e d of t h i s f e v e r . (The I n s t i t u t e of L i t e r a t u r e and H i s t o r y of Ssu-chuan ed., A Biography of  Tu Fu, pp.144-145; Hung, Tu Fu: China's G r e a t e s t Poet, p.278. ) 29 CHAPTER TWO GENERAL REVIEW OF PAST CRITICISM AND STATEMENT OF MY APPROACH A. INTRODUCTION: Tu Fu's po e t r y was not widely or f u l l y a p p r e c i a t e d by contemporary w r i t e r s and s c h o l a r s d u r i n g h i s l i f e time. Yuan A Chen was among the f i r s t t o d i s c e r n the greatness of Tu Fu's c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o Chinese p o e t r y . In the l a t t e r p a r t of the fo u r t e e e n t h l i n e of "Funeral I n s c r i p t i o n s , of the Deceased A c t i n g V i c e - D i r e c t o r of the M i n i s t r y of P u b l i c Works (with p r e f a c e ) , " & $ £ 1 ^ tf U£ % 1% # f f ^ ) Yuan Chen w r i t e s : 1 He (Tu Fu) a t t a i n e d a l l the s t y l e s of s c h o l a r s of a n t i q u i t y and captured the unique and d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of men of l e t t e r s of the pr e s e n t . As Yuan Chen and poets l i k e Han Yu began t o promote Tu Fu's poet r y , more s c h o l a r s s t u d i e d h i s work and wrote commentaries; some even t r i e d t o i m i t a t e Tu Fu's s t y l e . Thus, o n l y a f t e r h i s death d i d Tu Fu become a towering f i g u r e i n Chinese p o e t r y . The c r i t i c i s m s of Tu Fu's works are v a r i e d and e x t e n s i v e . Nine noted s c h o l a r s , Wang Chu, Sung C h ' i , Wang An-shih, Huang T ' i n g - c h i e n , Hsieh Meng-fu, Tu T ' i e n , Pao 30 Piao, Shin Y i n , and Chao Y e n - t s ' a i wrote commentaries on Tu Fu's poetry from the e l e v e n t h t o t w e l f t h c e n t u r i e s . The views of these s c h o l a r s , p o p u l a r l y known as the Nine Commentators, were compiled by Kuo C h i h - t a i n 1181. In 1645, Wang Ssu-shih, a Ming dynasty s c h o l a r wrote Tu I (The F e e l i n g s of Tu Fu) , a commentary on Tu Fu's p o e t r y . In 1667, Ch'ien C h ' i e n - i , an ardent h i s t o r i c a l r e s e a r c h e r , p u b l i s h e d h i s commentary Ch'ien Chu Tu Shih (A Commentary of Tu Fu's Poetry by Ch'ien) on Tu Fu's poems. In 1703, Ch'iu Chao-ao compiled h i s and p r e v i o u s commentators' comments i n a book c a l l e d Tu Shih Hsianq Chu (A D e t a i l e d Commentary of Tu Fu's P o e t r y ) . In 1724, P'u C h ' i - l u n g p u b l i s h e d h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s on Tu Fu's works i n Tu Tu H s i n Chieh (An I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Emotions of Tu Fu's P o e t r y ) , and i n 1792, Yang Lun p u b l i s h e d Tu Shih Chinq Ch'uan ( R e f l e c t i o n s and E v a l u a t i o n s of Tu Fu's P o e t r y ) . In 1870 S h i h Hung-pao r e l e a s e d h i s commentary e n t i t l e d Tu Tu Shih Shuo (A Commentary of Tu Fu's Poetry) i n response to Ch'iu Chao-ao's comments. The comments made by these c r i t i c s , though v a r i e d , tend t o f o l l o w t h r e e c o n s i s t e n t approaches. I w i l l summarize t h e i r methodology as f o l l o w s . B. GENERAL OVERVIEW OF PAST CRITICISM (FROM 12TH CENTURY TO 19TH CENTURY) Many of Tu Fu commentators tend t o adopt a l i n e - b y - l i n e 31 t e x t u a l a n a l y s i s of the poems. The Nine Commentators employ such a method. For i n s t a n c e , i n "Autumn M e d i t a t i o n s I I " ^ ^ - ^ ) Chao Y e n - t s ' a i p o i n t s out t h a t the second l i n e of the poem should read: "Each n i g h t guided by the Small Dipper, I gaze toward the c a p i t a l . " Shih Y i n , however, argues t h a t i t should read: "Each n i g h t guided by the B i g Dipper, I gaze toward the c a p i t a l . " Shih p o i n t s out t h a t Ch'ang-an i s n o r t h of K'uei-chou, and the B i g Dipper i s overhead i n Ch'ang-an. As f o r the remarks of the t h i r d and f o u r t h l i n e s , one of the commentators e x p l a i n s two a l l u s i o n s which Tu Fu employs. One of the commentators e l u c i d a t e s the sources of "gibbons c r y " and "Chang Ch'ien's m i s s i o n to the West." Chao d i s c u s s e s the use of the incense burners of the S t a t e A f f a i r s B u i l d i n g which Tu Fu uses i n the f i f t h l i n e , and a l s o p o i n t s out t h a t "the t u r r e t s a g a i n s t the h i l l s " expressed i n the s i x t h l i n e i s a r e f e r e n c e t o the White Emperor C i t y . Chao comments on the l a s t c o u p l e t , arguing t h a t s i n c e i v y grows i n summer and reed blossoms bloom i n autumn, the poet must be r i d i n g i n a boat and d e s c r i b i n g the scenery of the changing of seasons from summer t o autumn. 2 Secondly, some c r i t i c s , Ch'ien C h ' i e n - i i n p a r t i c u l a r , c o n c e n t r a t e on the h i s t o r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of images. Ch'ien e x p l a i n s the h i s t o r y of c e r t a i n p l a c e s , a l l u s i o n s , h i s t o r i c a l f i g u r e s , and i n c i d e n t s i n g r e a t d e t a i l . For 32 i n s t a n c e , i n "Autumn M e d i t a t i o n s V," Ch'ien e x p l a i n s how and when the p a l a c e was b u i l t , and d e s c r i b e s i t s beauty i n g r e a t d e t a i l . He suggests t h a t i n t h i s f i r s t l i n e , the poet r e c a l l s the time and the p l a c e he presented the t h r e e f u to the emperor i n 751. Ch'ien a l s o says t h a t the "Queen Mother," a T a o i s t f i g u r e , i s a r e f e r e n c e to Yang K u e i - f e i , and e x p l a i n s how Yang K u e i - f e i , once a T a o i s t nun, l a t e r became Hsuan-tsung's f a v o u r i t e concubine. Both the Queen Mother and Yang K u e i - f e i , he argues, have something i n common. Ch'ien a l s o p o i n t s out t h a t the poet a l l u d e s i n the f o u r t h l i n e t o Hsuan-tsung, and t o h i s i n t e r e s t i n T a o i s t s u p e r s t i t u t i o n s d u r i n g the l a t e r p a r t of h i s r e i g n , an i n t e r e s t which d i s t r a c t e d him from p r o p e r l y managing a f f a i r s of s t a t e . Ch'ien goes on t o e x p l a i n the r e f e r e n c e to " p h e a s a n t - t a i l s c r e e n s " i n g r e a t d e t a i l . He e x p l i c a t e s how the " p h e a s a n t - t a i l s c r e e n s " were used d u r i n g the l a t e r e i g n of Hsiian-tsung. In the f i f t h and s i x t h l i n e s , he says Tu Fu d e s c r i b e s the ceremonies he saw i n c o u r t as w e l l as h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n t o Hsuan-tsung as a commoner. In the l a s t c o u p l e t , Ch'ien t h i n k s t h a t Tu Fu r e c a l l s and laments the s h o r t time when he was the Reminder d u r i n g Su-tsung's r e i g n . 3 F i n a l l y , some c r i t i c s adopt a more i n t e r p r e t i v e approach, c o n c e r n i n g themselves wi t h how the poems' images are b e s t understood. Though these c r i t i c s attempt t o throw l i g h t on the thoughts and f e e l i n g s of Tu Fu, t h e i r analyses f r e q u e n t l y seem t o be based on the i n d i v i d u a l c r i t i c ' s p e r s o n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of a poem r a t h e r than on a r a t i o n a l and l o g i c a l framework. Sometimes they c o n c e n t r a t e on matters which do not d i r e c t l y c o n t r i b u t e t o a b e t t e r understanding of Tu Fu's p o e t i c techniques and sometimes what they ..argue i s d i f f i c u l t t o v e r i f y . Wang Ssu-shih, Ch'iu Chao-ao, P'u Ch ' i - l u n g , Yang Lun, and Shih Hung-pao are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h i s approach, and i n order t o e l u c i d a t e the c h a r a c t e r of t h a t approach, I w i l l c i t e an example from the commentary of each. • Wang Ssu-shih p o i n t s out t h a t Tu Fu's emotion expressed i n the second l i n e of "Autumn M e d i t a t i o n s I I " i s very sad because the poet's homeland i s i n the c a p i t a l , and y e t he can o n l y gaze a t i t but cannot go back. Wang a l s o says t h a t the t h i r d l i n e conveys the poet's a c t u a l experience, t h a t Tu Fu i s moved by the c r i e s of the gibbons and he sheds h i s t e a r s . He notes t h a t i n the f i f t h and s i x t h l i n e s , the poet t e l l s the reader t h a t he r e f u s e d t o take the assignment because of i l l n e s s . In Wang's o p i n i o n , "the mournful bugles" i n the s i x t h l i n e are an a l l u s i o n t o war. Wang a l s o remarks t h a t the l a s t two l i n e s r e f e r t o the s w i f t p a s s i n g o f time, and t h a t the poet f e e l s o l d but as though he has accomplished nothing." Commenting on "Autumn M e d i t a t i o n s V I I , " Ch'iu Chao-ao c l a i m s t h a t Tu Fu i s e x p r e s s i n g h i s n o s t a l g i a f o r Lake K'un-ming, and laments t h a t he i s too f a r away to be ab l e to see the l a k e . Concerning the f i r s t two l i n e s , Ch'iu says Tu Fu i s comparing Han with the T'ang Empire. Ch'iu argues t h a t Hsuan-tsung b u i l t h i s s h i p s i n the l a k e . He s u b s t a n t i a t e s h i s c l a i m by c i t i n g two l i n e s o f the poem, " F i f t y Rhymes sent t o Mr. Chia Chih, the Adj u t a n t of Yo-chou, and Mr. Yen r e g a l i a no longer can be seen/ Our f l e e t remained u s e l e s s . " 5 Ch'iu t h i n k s t h a t i n the t h i r d and f o u r t h l i n e s , the poet d e p i c t s the grandeur of the lake he remembers and i n the two l i n e s t h a t f o l l o w , d e s c r i b e s i t s d i s t r e s s i n g scenery. In the l a s t two l i n e s , Tu Fu compares h i m s e l f t o a fisherman and laments t h a t he does not know when he can go back t o the c a p i t a l . 6 P'u C h ' i - l u n g comments t h a t i n the f i r s t l i n e of "Autumn M e d i t a t i o n s I" Tu Fu d e p i c t s the autumn scenery, and i n the second l i n e d e s c r i b e s K'uei-chou. " R i v e r banks" and "above the passes" are the poet's r e f e r e n c e s t o K'uei-chou, and "waves rage up the the sky" and "shadows of the c l o u d s " are the d e s c r i p t i o n s of the autumn scenery. The f i f t h and s i x t h l i n e s are the poet's g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n s of h i s thoughts. P'u p o i n t s out t h a t the poet e l a b o r a t e s "other days" i n the f o l l o w i n g seven poems, and t h a t by "other days" he r e f e r s t o the time he spent i n the S t a t e A f f a i r s B u i l d i n g , the time he remonstrated with the throne, the p e r i o d of Ch'ang-an's i n s t a b i l i t y , the hundred y e a r s ' of p a s t events, the time he answered the c o u r t by the b l u e -chained p a t t e r n e d door, the time of the b e a u t i f u l palace he saw, the banners he remembered, and the time he presented h i s f u t o the emperor. P'u f u r t h e r remarks t h a t the poet a l s o e l a b o r a t e s " h i s home" i n the f o l l o w i n g poems: the B i g A Dipper, the F i v e Tombs, Ch'ang-an, the mansions, P ' e n g - l a i Palace, the Crooked R i v e r , Lake K'un-ming, and Lake M e i - p e i . P'u p e r c e i v e s t h a t when the poet t h i n k s of h i s p a s t , he sheds h i s t e a r s . 7 Although P'u expounds "the o t h e r days" i n d e t a i l , he does not e x p l a i n what c r i t e r i a he uses t o draw such a c o n c l u s i o n . Yang Lun p o i n t s out t h a t i n "Autumn M e d i t a t i o n s V" the poet misses the Crooked R i v e r and laments the d e v a s t a t i o n of the empire. Yang d i s a g r e e s with Wang Ho who t h i n k s t h a t " i m p e r i a l resplendence came" i s a r e f l e c t i o n of the i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the emperor and h i s b r o t h e r s . Yang t h i n k s t h a t the l i n e o n l y demonstrates the emperor's route t o the Crooked R i v e r . Yang f i n d s t h a t i n the t h i r d and f o u r t h l i n e s the poet h i n t s t h a t indulgence i n m a t e r i a l i s t i c p l e a s u r e s i s the cause of the empire's d o w n f a l l , a thought which the poet expands i n the f o l l o w i n g l i n e s . Yang a l s o deems t h a t i n the f i f t h and s i x t h l i n e s , the poet r e c a l l s 36 the beauty of the Crooked R i v e r i n the p a s t , and i n the l a s t two l i n e s , he laments the f a c t t h a t p l e a s u r e s b r i n g f o r t h d e s t r u c t i o n . 8 Shih d i s a g r e e s with Ch'iu's ideas about the "hundred y e a r s " i n "Autumn M e d i t a t i o n s IV." Shih regards the phrase as o n l y a g e n e r a l rough estimate of time which should not be taken too l i t e r a l l y . Shih argues t h a t i f we take i t l i t e r a l l y , then the r e i g n s of p o l i t i c a l u n r e s t of Ch'ang-an cannot be a p p l i e d t o the times of T ' a i - t s u n g and T ' a i -tsung's f a t h e r . Shih a l s o d i s a g r e e s with Wang Ssu - s h i h and Shao Ch'ang-heng who t h i n k t h a t the t h i r d l i n e i s a r e f e r e n c e to the improper promotion of c i v i l and m i l i t a r y o f f i c i a l s . Shih c i t e s the l i n e s of o t h e r poems i n which the poet a l s o mentions "caps and robes." Shih concludes t h a t s i n c e i n those poems the phrase c o n s i s t e n t l y r e f e r s t o o f f i c i a l s who are p r o p e r l y chosen, the poet c o u l d not mean otherwise i n t h i s poem. Shih a l s o d i s a g r e e s w i t h Ch'ien who t h i n k s t h a t the t h i r d l i n e i s a s a t i r e on Hsuan-tsung's and Su-tsung's m i s c a l c u l a t e d t r u s t . S h i h argues t h a t those w a r r i o r s who were of f o r e i g n b l o o d employed by the T'ang c o u r t d i d wear the same k i n d of caps and robes as others when they served the empire. He sees the t h i r d l i n e as a r e f e r e n c e t o young and i n e x p e r i e n c e d o f f i c i a l s and seems t o suggest t h a t i n the t h i r d and f o u r t h l i n e s the poet mourns the changes which had taken p l a c e ; he does not t h i n k t h a t 37 Tu Fu r e f e r s t o a p a r t i c u l a r group of people. 9 Given t h i s l o n g t r a d i t i o n of c r i t i c i s m , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t d i s c u s s i o n s of Tu Fu's p o e t r y are sometimes c o n t r o v e r s i a l . For i n s t a n c e , Chao Y e n - t s ' a i p o i n t s out t h a t the " t u r r e t s a g a i n s t the h i l l s " i n "Autumn M e d i t a t i o n s I I " i s a r e f e r e n c e to White Emperor C i t y . Yang Lun and Chang Ts'ung, however, t h i n k t h a t i t i s a r e f e r e n c e t o West Chamber. Wang Ssu-shih t h i n k s t h a t the " f u t i l e m i s s i o n " i n the same poem, i s a r e f e r e n c e t o the work i n the P e r s o n a l E v a l u a t i o n S e c t i o n a s s i g n e d t o the poet by the c o u r t i n 763. Ch'iu and P'u, however, t h i n k t h a t i t i s a r e f e r e n c e t o the p o s t of Counselor A c t i n g V i c e - D i r e c t o r of the M i n i s t e r of Works as s i g n e d t o the poet by Yen Wu i n 764. The t r a d i t i o n a l c r i t i c i s m of Tu Fu's p o e t r y undoubtedly has g r e a t v a l u e . These commentators had read Tu Fu's poetry thoroughly and were very knowledgeable about the h i s t o r i c a l f i g u r e s , i n c i d e n t s , and p l a c e s which Tu Fu mentions i n h i s poems. In t h e i r commentaries, they a s s i d u o u s l y e l u c i d a t e the a l l u s i o n s employed by Tu Fu and a l s o e x p l a i n h i s r e f e r e n c e s . Some of the ground-work e s t a b l i s h e d by these c r i t i c s i s u s e f u l and makes r e a d i n g Tu Fu's p o e t r y e a s i e r t o understand. However, from a modern p e r s p e c t i v e , much of the commentary l a c k s f o r c e and seems t o f a l l s h o r t of p e r c e p t i v e and c o n v i n c i n g a n a l y s e s . More o f t e n than not, 38 these q r i t i c s simply p r o v i d e a statement of o p i n i o n concerning the images without o f f e r i n g e x p l a n a t i o n s . They t e l l us l i t t l e about the a r t i s t i c q u a l i t i e s and achievements of Tu Fu's works. Modern c r i t i c i s m should be more i m p a r t i a l and a n a l y t i c a l . Tu Fu's p o e t r y i s perhaps b e t t e r c o n s i d e r e d i n terms of theme and h i s p o e t i c technique. During the one-year and ten-month p e r i o d t h a t Tu Fu r e s i d e d i n K'uei-chou, he wrote 55 h e p t a - s y l l a b i c r e g u l a t e d v e r s e s . These were concerned w i t h a g r e a t v a r i e t y of themes. In 36 of them, Tu Fu addresses f r i e n d s , g e n e r a l s , r e l a t i v e s , and a s e r v a n t . He a l s o expresses r e f l e c t i o n s on h i s t o r i c s i t e s , r a i n , f l o o d s , e a g l e s , a p a v i l l i o n , s p r i n g , h i s s i c k n e s s , and h i s concern about the l i v e s of people besieged by r e b e l s . But i n about one t h i r d of these v e r s e s (nineteen poems), Tu Fu expresses a s i m i l a r t h e m e — h i s deep sense of n o s t a l g i a toward Ch'ang-an. There i s , I b e l i e v e , much t o be gained from t a k i n g these poems as a group and a n a l y s i n g the s p e c i f i c technique Tu Fu employed t o express the theme of n o s t a l g i a , which dominated so much of h i s p o e t i c endeavour. What i s most s t r i k i n g about Tu Fu's n o s t a l g i a poems i s t h e i r common r e l i a n c e upon t h r e e p a r t i c u l a r p o e t i c t e c h n i q u e s . These are the a s s o c i a t i o n of one time w i t h another, the a s s o c i a t i o n of one p l a c e w i t h another, and the r e f l e c t i o n and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the e x t e r n a l world d e s c r i b e d i n the poems as he informs i t w i t h h i s own thoughts and f e e l i n g s about h i s u n f u l f i l l e d c a r e e r and h i s n o s t a l g i a f o r Ch'ang-an. These t h r e e techniques are not used u n i f o r m l y throughout a l l n i n e t e e n poems. However a l l t h r e e are used t o g e t h e r i n a manner which makes the e x p r e s s i o n of n o s t a l g i a most e f f e c t i v e . 1) Association of Past and Present: Scenery which Tu Fu sees i n K'uei-chou i n c i t e s him t o t h i n k of the p a s t . Memories of the p a s t s i m u l t a n e o u s l y occur i n the poet's mind when he sees the scenery b e f o r e h i s eyes. Throughout the poems Tu Fu uses t h i s " f l a s h - b a c k " technique t o a s s o c i a t e the p a s t w i t h the p r e s e n t and t o c o r r e l a t e the p r e s e n t w i t h the p a s t . 2) Association of One Place with Another: Tu Fu d i m i n i s h e s the p h y s i c a l b a r r i e r between Ch'ang-an—where he wants t o be and K'uei-chou—where he a c t u a l l y i s . He a s s o c i a t e s the t h i n g s he sees or the sounds he hears i n K'uei-chou w i t h what he saw or what he heard when he was i n the c a p i t a l . What he sees and what he hears i n K'uei-chou i s a l s o what he v i s u a l i z e d and what he heard i n Ch'ang-an. The t h i n g s t h a t he sees and hears i n K'uei-chou a l s o serve as v e h i c l e s t o take him back i n memory t o Ch'ang-an. 40 3 ) Transformation of the External World Informed by the Subjective World: I n t h i r t e e n o f t h e s e poems Tu Fu r e f l e c t s and t r a n s f o r m s t h e e x t e r n a l w o r l d d e s c r i b e d i n t h e poems w i t h h i s own t h o u g h t s and f e e l i n g s i n a manner d e s c r i b e d by Chung Hung {P£ — 7 - 5 1 8 ? A.D.) i n h i s Grades o f P o e t r y . ( v!>-) Chung Hung d e f i n e s p o e t r y as a p r o d u c t o f genuine f e e l i n g s a r i s i n g from t h e r e sponse of mind t o n a t u r e and human e x p e r i e n c e s . 1 0 I n h i s p r e f a c e , he s a y s : 1 1 " C h ' i ( s p i r i t ) t o u c h e s m a t t e r , and m a t t e r moves men, t h e r e b y s t i r r i n g up f e e l i n g s which a r e t h e n m a n i f e s t e d i n song and dance." I n a n o t h e r p a r t he e l u c i d a t e s t h e meaning o f " m a t t e r . " He w r i t e s : 1 2 The b i r d s and b r e e z e s o f s p r i n g , t h e moon and c i c a d a o f autumn, t h e c l o u d s and r a i n s o f summer, the c h i l l o f t h e w i n t e r s e a s o n — t h e s e a r e t h e f o u r s e a s o n a l a s p e c t s t h a t move t h e poet. A t f e s t i v e g a t h e r i n g s he t u r n s t o p o e t r y t o e x p r e s s h i s f e e l i n g s of i n t i m a c y ; a t s e p a r a t i o n s he e x p r e s s e s h i s g r i e f i n v e r s e . The e x i l i n g o f t h e m i n i s t e r o f Ch'u, t h e Han c o n c u b i n e t a k i n g l e a v e o f t h e p a l a c e , o r s k e l e t o n s s p r e a d out over t h e n o r t h e r n w i l d n e s s , o r t h e s o u l f l o w n away among t h e t a n g l e d g r a s s e s , o r s p e a r s c a r r i e d t o t h e f a r - f l u n g r e g i o n s , t h e s p i r i t o f combat f l o o d i n g t h e b o r d e r l a n d s , t h e t r a v e l l e r on t h e f r o n t i e r w i t h c l o t h e s t o o t h i n , t h e l a d y i n h e r chamber w i t h t e a r s r u n d r y , o r t h e s c h o l a r - o f f i c i a l who g i v e s up h i s o f f i c e and t a k e s l e a v e o f t h e c o u r t w i t h no t h o u g h t o f e v e r r e t u r n i n g , or t h e woman who wins f a v o u r by t h e r a i s i n g o f a brow, and t o p p l e s a kingdom w i t h a mere second g l a n c e — a l l t h e s e t h i n g s t o u c h t h e h e a r t and s t i r t h e s o u l . How e l s e can one g i v e v e n t t o t h e s e f e e l i n g s t h a n by e x p r e s s i n g them i n p o e t r y ? How e l s e can one g i v e f r e e r e i g n t o h i s emotions t h a n t h r o u g h t h e Long Song? 41 Tu Fu i s moved by the n a t u r a l scenes which he sees and he i s overwhelmed by h i s u n f u l f i l l e d c a r e e r and h i s n o s t a l g i a toward Ch'ang-an i n a manner which e x e m p l i f i e s Chung's i d e a s . Chung suggests t h a t the modes of e x p r e s s i o n used to p o r t r a y the c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between poetry and season, scene and l i f e e xperience are the use of e v o c a t i v e imagery (hsing) and comparison ( p i ) . These are p r i m a r i l y based upon immediate response of mind to matter and d i r e c t d e s c r i p t i o n which i s based upon f a c t u a l n a r r a t i o n and s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d d e p i c t i o n . 1 3 Tu Fu d e s c r i b e s and n a r r a t e s the n a t u r a l scene and h i s l i f e experience i n a manner which makes e v i d e n t h i s own response to them. The world and experience so d e s c r i b e d and n a r r a t e d i n Tu Fu's poems are transformed by Tu Fu's thoughts and f e e l i n g s . They are a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n a c h i e v i n g a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of what he hears and what he sees through the f i l t e r of h i s thoughts and f e e l i n g s about h i s u n f u l f i l l e d c a r e e r and n o s t a l g i a f o r Ch'ang-an. In c o n c l u s i o n , the scenery b e f o r e Tu Fu's eyes provokes him t o t h i n k of the past and the p l a c e where he wants t o be. Tu Fu uses h i s g r i e f and n o s t a l g i a t o c r e a t e a backdrop informed by h i s thoughts and mood. I t i s the use of these te c h n i q u e s , I b e l i e v e , which c o n s t i t u t e s one of the sources of Tu Fu's p o e t i c b r i l l i a n c e . They c o i n c i d e w i t h the theme of n o s t a l g i a , and are i n f a c t i n e x t r i c a b l y bound t o i t ; s t r u c t u r e r e i n f o r c e s and h e l p s t o c r e a t e theme and form; i t c o i n c i d e s with the content. Thus, i n s o f a r as technique and theme are meshed i n Tu Fu's nineteen n o s t a l g i a poems, they are b e s t comprehended i n terms of t h e i r common theme and the technique Tu Fu uses t o express i t . ENDNOTES: 1. The Chinese t e x t reads: 2. W i l l i a m Hung & o t h e r s ed. , Tu Shih Y i n Te, r e p r i n t , (Shanghai: Ku Chi P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1983), Ju pp.498-499. 3. Ch'ien C h ' i e n - i , Ch'ien Chu Tu Shih. r e p r i n t , (Shanghai: Ku Chi P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1979), v o l . 2 , pp.507-508. 4. Wang Ssu-shih, Tu I, r e p r i n t , (Shanghai: Chung Hua Book Co., 1963), pp. 274-275. 5. The Chinese t e x t reads: 6. Ch'iu Chao-ao, Tu Shih Hsianq Chu, r e p r i n t , (Peking: Chung Hua Book Co., 1981), v o l . 3, p.644. 7. P'u C h ' i - l u n g , Tu Tu Hsin Chieh. r e p r i n t , (Peking: Chung Hua Book Co., 1981), v o l . 3 , p.644. • * 8. Yang Lun, Tu Shih China Ch'uan. r e p r i n t , ( T a i p e i : Hua Cheng Book Co. ,1986), p.596. 9. Shih Hung-pao, Tu Tu Shih Shuo, r e p r i n t , (Shanghai: Ku Chi P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1983), p.144. 44 10. Yen C h i a - y i n g & Jan W. W a l l s , "Theory, Standards, And P r a c t i c e of C r i t i c i z i n g Poetry i n Chung Hung's Shih P ' i n . " R e p r i n t . Miao, Ronald C , ed., Chinese Poetry and P o e t i c s , V o l . 1 , CMC A s i a n L i b r a r y S e r i e s No. 8 (San F r a n c i s c o : Chinese M a t e r i a l s Center., Inc., 1978), pp. 50-51. 11. Chung Hung, Wang Chung ed., S h i h - p ' i n . T a i p e i : Cheng Chung Book Co., 1969. p . l . The t e x t i n Chinese reads: 12. I b i d . , p.17. The t e x t i n Chinese reads: t h k $-k %, ** a ¥ *f . 111 &>> *if i\ 11 3f i. 1 \& i *i , :% %r l\ t. ^ I $ ft p(, A 'A it if 4 • & H . & JUf 4 , ft] ; » L 1 . X ^ H JM'> il% . )•{. jfej # # , A I 45 13. Yeh C h i a - y i n g & Jan W. Walls, "Theory, Standards, And P r a c t i c e of C r i t i c i z i n g Poetry i n Chung Hung's Shih P ' i n . " p. 53. 46 CHAPTER THREE A STUDY OF TU FU'S NINETEEN HEPTA-SYLLABIC REGULATED VERSES WRITTEN IN K'UEI-CHOU IN 766 AND 767 A.D. T h i s chapter w i l l demonstrate how Tu Fu uses the t h r e e p o e t i c techniques i n the nineteen h e p t a - s y l l a b i c r e g u l a t e d v e r s e s which he wrote i n K'uei-chou i n 766 and 767 A.D. A t r a n s l a t i o n of each poem i s g i v e n f i r s t ; then I d i s c u s s the imagery and meaning of each poem, r e f e r r i n g where h e l p f u l t o comments made by those c r i t i c s whom I c o n s i d e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of p a s t Tu Fu s c h o l a r s h i p . The t e x t of the poems on which the t r a n s l a t i o n s are based are the c o n v e n t i o n a l v e r s i o n s which many commentators, such as Ch'ou Chao-ao and Yang Lun, have used. There are many d i f f e r e n t v e r s i o n s and some d i s c r e p a n c i e s among them. I do not want t o use too much space d i s c u s s i n g them. The poems c i t e d and analyzed are arranged i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r d e r . The poems are t r a n s l a t e d i n a manner which I t h i n k b e s t r e v e a l s the poet's i n t e n t i o n . A caesura i s a r h e t o r i c a l and e x t r a m e t r i c a l pause or p h r a s a l break w i t h i n the p o e t i c l i n e . 1 These caesuras cause the reader to pause and t h i n k , t o take a moment t o contemplate and b e t t e r a p p r e c i a t e the poet's meaning. T h i s has prompted me t o arrange the l i n e s i n an u nconventional manner t o r e f l e c t how a poem i s read. Where p o s s i b l e , I t r y t o c o n v e y t h e a m b i g u i t y o f t h e p o e t ' s m e aning i n t h e t r a n s l a t i o n and where d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e g r a m m a t i c a l r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e and t h e C h i n e s e l a n g u a g e do n o t a l l o w t h i s , I w i l l i n c l u d e an en d -n o t e t o s u g g e s t d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . POEMS WRITTEN IN 766: Nos. 1 t o 15 1. The H i g h e s t Tower Of Wh i t e Emperor C i t y «§>^M( '^ \^^. ) 1 From t h e p o i n t e d r a m p a r t s ' t h e p a t h s n a r r o w t h e b a n n e r s a r e s a d . 2 S t a n d i n g a l o n e on t h e l o f t y t o w e r I g a z e a t t h e s i g h t s , f a r o f f i n d i s t i n c t . 3 The G o r g e s seem t o r n ; t h e c l o u d s a r e d a r k , l i k e s l e e p i n g d r a g o n s and t i g e r s . 4 The r i v e r embraced by t h e s u n l o o k s c l e a r ; l a r g e t u r t l e s a nd w a t e r l i z a r d s a r e d r i f t i n g . 5 The F u - s a n g T r e e , i t s w e s t e r n b r a n c h p o i n t i n g , f a c e s t h e b r o k e n c l i f f s . 2 6 The Weak S t r e a m o f t h e e a s t i s f l o w i n g i n t o t h e b i g r i v e r . 3 7 Who i s i t t h a t h o l d s a w a l k i n g - s t i c k l a m e n t s t h e w o r l d , 8 Weeps b l o o d s t r i k e s a t t h e a i r and s h a k e s h i s w h i t e head? 48 ii ^ i i\A 'A -A ie. i l '£ v5 6 > | In the f i r s t four l i n e s , the poet describes where he i s and what he sees from his p o s i t i o n . In the description of the scenery Tu Fu transforms the objects which he describes around him, informing them with his own f e e l i n g s . We see i n the l a s t two l i n e s that the poet i s old, sick, laments the world, weeps blood, s t r i k e s at the a i r , and shakes his head." The world around the poet seems also informed with the poet's uncertainty, fear, and sadness. The pointed shape of the ramparts and the narrowness of the paths described i n the f i r s t l i n e portray a jagged and cramped image. The banners "are sad" and the view as a whole i s "far o f f " and " i n d i s t i n c t . " The dark clouds and perhaps rocks cover part of the gorges, making the gorges look torn. From a distance the dark clouds also look l i k e sleeping dragons and t i g e r s . The expressions "the gorges seem torn," "the dark clouds," and "sleeping dragons and t i g e r s " give the reader a sense of ^ £ if K il itf ft 49 s t r a i n , unease, and fo r e b o d i n g . The phrases are connected with and develop the cramped f e e l i n g conveyed i n the f i r s t l i n e . The f i f t h and s i x t h l i n e s suggest the poet's v a s t and ex t e n s i v e i m a g i n a t i o n . The western branch of the Fu-sang Tree, a legendary m y t h i c a l t r e e , grows i n the p l a c e where the sun r i s e s . The Weak Stream i s a legendary m y t h i c a l stream which o r i g i n a t e s from a p l a c e very f a r away. I t seems t h a t the poet i m p l i e s t h a t the gorges are so t a l l t h a t the broken c l i f f s f a c e the western branch of the Fu-sang Tree, and t h a t the r i v e r flows so f a r t h a t the Weak Stream merges wit h i t . These two l i n e s , exaggerated as they may seem, are important i n p r e p a r i n g f o r the climax r e v e a l e d i n the l a s t c o u p l e t — e x p r e s s i o n s o f an immediate scene. The poet i s st a n d i n g alone on a very h i g h tower, g a z i n g a t s i g h t s f a r o f f and i n d i s t i n c t . The drama of the p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g embodies the dramatic p r o p o r t i o n of the poet's thoughts and f e e l i n g s . The poet's d i s t r e s s e d frame of mind i s shown c l e a r l y i n the d e s c r i p t i o n of h i m s e l f i n the l a s t two l i n e s . I t i s an i n t e n s e and powerful d e s c r i p t i o n o f a man whose dramatic emotions are the energy source i n t h i s v i s t a from which i t s c h a r a c t e r i s d e r i v e d . When Tu Fu, an o l d man, looks back on what has happened, he has reason t o be p a s s i o n a t e , t o be angry and sad, e i t h e r w i t h h i s own l i f e , the circumstances 50 of the world, or both. C e r t a i n l y i t i s not what he observes immediately which b r i n g s him to t h i s s t a t e of mind. Perhaps scenes of the p a s t — t h e s u f f e r i n g s of the people, the golden age and the d o w n f a l l of the T'ang Empire, the poet's u n s u c e s s f u l p o l i t i c a l c a r e e r , and h i s home near Ch'ang-an-- u n f o l d i n h i s mind. 2. O v e r l o o k i n g Scenery Of The Gorge (J.j^ T gf_, ) 1 Once as an o f f i c i a l I journeyed i n haste t o San-fu. 5 2 I r e c a l l i n T'ung Kuan I was i n s p i r e d t o w r i t e many poems. 3 Looking a t the Wu Gorge I suddenly behold Mt. Hua 4 Gazing a t the r i v e r of Shu I see the Yellow R i v e r . 5 F a l l i n g i l l on the boat I moved my bed t o the la n d . 6 I passed the s p r i n g i n the g r o t t o a p l a c e l u s h w i t h f i g s and i v y . 7 The s i g h t s are b e a u t i f u l but the customs and the c l i m a t e of the p l a c e d i s p l e a s e me. 8 When w i l l I r e t u r n and s i n g my songs aloud? • f t A * i $ i | i * I $ --A % W IA in « 11\ % k 4 * -51 Tu Fu begins by r e m i n i s c i n g about the time when he was i n T'ung-kuan, a p l a c e of i n s p i r a t i o n f o r him. The poet t h i n k s t h a t he w i l l not be able t o w r i t e as many poems i n K'uei-chou as he d i d i n T'ung-kuan, though h i s extant c o l l e c t i o n shows t h a t he was wrong. K'uei-chou was i n f a c t a p l a c e of s t i m u l a t i o n . In the next two l i n e s , Tu Fu c o n t i n u e s t o r e m i n i s c e . He a s s o c i a t e s the scenery b e f o r e h i s eyes w i t h the scenery of the n o r t h which he misses. The Wu Gorge and the r i v e r of Shu suddenly and immediately become Mt Hua and the Yellow R i v e r , showing the power of Tu Fu's thoughts over h i s p e r c e p t i o n . These two l i n e s show t h a t the poet i s l o s t i n t h o u g h t — t h i n k i n g of the time when he was i n the n o r t h and merging t h a t time past with h i s present r e a l i t y . In l i n e s f i v e and s i x the poet comes back to the p r e s e n t . Tu Fu e x p l a i n s why he landed, where, how long he stayed, and what he saw. In the l a s t two l i n e s , Tu Fu s t a t e s h i s wish to r e t u r n t o the n o r t h . Although Tu Fu admits t h a t K'uei-chou i s perhaps more b e a u t i f u l than the n o r t h , the p l a c e , w i t h i t s bad c l i m a t e and unpleasant customs, does not appeal him. H i s home-town ou t s h i n e s K'uei-chou i n h i s mind. In t h i s poem the poet s h i f t s h i s focus between time and space, a s s o c i a t e s the p r e s e n t w i t h the p a s t , and the n a t u r a l scenes b e f o r e him w i t h scenes he remembers from p l a c e s he has been b e f o r e . In the f i r s t two l i n e s , Tu Fu r e m i n i s c e s about the p a s t . In the t h i r d and f o u r t h l i n e s , he a s s o c i a t e s the scenery b e f o r e h i s eyes with the scenery of the n o r t h he misses. In the f i f t h and s i x t h l i n e s , the poet comes back t o the r e a l world, and i n the l a s t two l i n e s , expresses h i s wish t o go back t o the p l a c e where he was and perhaps wishes to r e t u r n a l s o t o h i s p a s t e x p e r i e n c e . The focus of t h i s poem i s the q u e s t i o n Tu Fu asks a t the end: when w i l l he r e t u r n to s i n g h i s songs aloud? He c o n t r a s t s the i n s p i r a t i o n of T'ung Kuan with the customs and c l i m a t e of K'uei-chou, which he d i s l i k e s , and where, r a t h e r than being f u l l of l i f e i n the c r e a t i o n of poetry, he was i l l . The scene b e f o r e him of the Wu Gorge and the r i v e r of Shu b r i n g Mt Hua and the Yellow R i v e r t o mind. T h i s merging and f l o a t i n g of a s s o c i a t i o n s between where he i s and where he has been, between pas t and present, and between one scene and another combine t o g i v e a v i v i d image of the poet's mind. While he i s p h y s i c a l l y present i n K'uei-chou, e m o t i o n a l l y he i s i n Ch'ang-an. 53 3. A t N i g h t ( ) 1 The dew f o r m s b e l o w t h e s k y i s o v e r h e a d and t h e autumn a i r i s c l e a r . 2 A l o n e i n t h e empty m o u n t a i n s t h e s t a r t l e d t r a v e l l e r c a n n o t s l e e p . 3 S c a t t e r e d l i g h t s a r e dim t h e f o r l o r n s a i l i s h o i s t e d . 4 The new moon i s s t i l l h a n g i n g and two p e s t l e s b e a t . 5 The s i c k man i s l y i n g down i n t h e s o u t h he saw t h e chrysanthemums blo o m f o r t h e s e c o n d t i m e . 6 U n s y m p a t h e t i c g e e s e b r i n g no l e t t e r s f r o m t h e n o r t h . 7 The t r a v e l l e r w a l k s u n d e r t h e e a v e s l e a n i n g a g a i n s t h i s w a l k i n g - s t i c k g a z i n g a t t h e Ox and t h e B i g D i p p e r . 8 The M i l k y Way s h o u l d be a b l e t o r e a c h t h e P h o e n i x C a p i t a l f r o i ti a f a i t t J. # A. & A f at \ & to H A l t ^ °h h 4 it K 9h % 4 * H The technique of t r a n s f o r m i n g o b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y , i n f o r m i n g i t w i t h the poet's own f e e l i n g s i s a l s o e v i d e n t i n t h i s poem. We are t o l d i n l i n e two t h a t the poet, who i s t r a v e l l i n g , i s s t a r t l e d , i n l i n e f i v e t h a t he i s s i c k and i n l i n e seven t h a t he i s o l d and s i c k . The poet, who i s i n such a s t a t e , c r e a t e s a s o l i t a r y and f o r e b o d i n g atmosphere i n the f i r s t f o u r l i n e s . The f i r s t l i n e e s t a b l i s h e s a q u i e t , s o l i t a r y mood which c o n t r a s t s with the second i n which the t r a v e l l e r i s " s t a r t l e d . 1 1 The mountains are "empty," the poet "alone;" l i g h t s are few, " s c a t t e r e d " and "dim," the h o i s t e d s a i l " f o r l o r n , " and the moon hangs i n the sky. L i k e the mountains, the l i g h t s , the boat, the moon, and the sounds of the p e s t l e s he hears, the poet f e e l s i s o l a t e d and alone and l i k e the f i r s t l i n e of the poem "The Highest Tower of White Emperor C i t y " — " F r o m the p o i n t e d ramparts the paths narrow, the banners are s a d " — t h e second l i n e o f t h i s poem g i v e s the reader a sense of unease and fo r e b o d i n g which Tu Fu expounds i n more d e t a i l i n the l a t t e r l i n e s . In the f i f t h and s i x t h l i n e s , Tu Fu r e v e a l s why he f e e l s so i l l a t ease. Here he a s s o c i a t e s p a s t w i t h p r e s e n t and where he i s wit h where he has been. He t e l l s the reader t h a t he sees the chrysanthemums i n the south bloom f o r the second time. The chrysanthemums t h a t he sees remind him t h a t he i s not a t home. He expresses h i s dismay. Even the geese f l y i n g by from the n o r t h are i n d i f f e r e n t t o h i s hope and f e e l i n g s because they b r i n g him no news from the n o r t h . Again, the poet transforms the e x t e r n a l world informed by h i s s u b j e c t i v e world. The poet has not heard from home f o r q u i t e some time. The world i s unkind, even unsympathetic. The f a c t t h a t he has heard n o t h i n g from the n o r t h makes him f e e l abandoned and f o r l o r n . In the l a s t two l i n e s , the poet gazes a t the s t a r s which a l s o s h i n e on the c a p i t a l and f o r him serve as an imaginary l i n k with or a v e h i c l e t o take him t o Ch'ang-an. T h i s c o n nection, however, i s nebulous and i n s u b s t a n t i a l and o n l y underscores h i s h e l p l e s s n e s s and the p a i n which the d i s t a n c e between Ch'ang-an and K'uei-chou causes him. The f o l l o w i n g poems, nos.4-11, are a s e r i e s of e i g h t poems w r i t t e n under the same t i t l e "Autumn M e d i t a t i o n s " i n which Tu Fu expresses h i s n o s t a l g i a f o r Ch'ang-an. 4. Autumn M e d i t a t i o n s I c f X - ^ % - \ ^ 1 Dew-drops x ' w i l t and wound the maple t r e e s i n the wood. 2 A sombre d e s o l a t e atmosphere i s s p r e a d i n g from the Wu Mountain and the Wu Gorge. 3 The waves on the r i v e r banks rage up t o the sky. 4 Above the passes 56 the shadows of the clouds i n the wind converge on the ground. 5 C l u s t e r e d chrysanthemums have bloomed twice they b r i n g me t e a r s of other days' memories. 6 To a l o n e l y boat I t i e my homeward thoughts. 7 Everywhere winter c l o t h e s urge on the s c i s s o r s and r u l e r s . 8 How r a p i d l y the people pound t h e i r laundry m a l l e t s i n White Emperor C i t y i n the evening! fS\ ML * i A -;| & % k 1 $ * A . IK I - % Hi >S .c <9 ^ *^ &> %-it. In the f i r s t f o u r l i n e s o f t h i s poem, Tu Fu d e s c r i b e s the gloomy, sombre, and d e s o l a t e scenery which matches h i s own f e e l i n g s r e v e a l e d i n the second h a l f of the poem. In the f i r s t l i n e , Tu Fu uses " w i l t " and "wound" t o d e s c r i b e the damaging e f f e c t o f dew-drops on the maple t r e e s . By c o n t r a s t "dew" normally symbolizes grace o r a k i n d of d i v i n e e l i x i r t h a t can extend one's l i f e . The u n u s u a l l y n e g a t i v e sense of t h i s symbol e x e m p l i f i e s the extent t o which Tu Fu's p e r c e p t i o n s are a f f e c t e d by h i s f e e l i n g s . The d e p i c t i o n r e i n f o r c e s the impending d i s o r d e r i n the two l i n e s t h a t f o l l o w . The d e s c r i p t i o n s of l i n e s t h r e e and f o u r p o r t r a y a l a c k of order and a t h r e a t e n i n g image. In l i n e t h r e e the e a r t h appears t o invade the sky as the waves rage up t o the sky and i n l i n e f o u r the shadows of the cloud s converge on the ground. T h i s c o n f u s i o n of the n a t u r a l order g i v e s the reader a sense of apprehension. As we s h a l l see the d e s c r i p t i o n s o f the damaging e f f e c t o f the dew-drops and the waves h i g h l i g h t the impending d i s o r d e r but a l s o convey a sense of l i f e l e s s n e s s , d i s a r r a y , and heart-break. In the second h a l f of the poem, Tu Fu r e v e a l s h i s own f e e l i n g s . In the f i f t h l i n e he a s s o c i a t e s the c l u s t e r e d chrysanthemums wi t h h i s past i n another p l a c e . He r e c a l l s when he saw the chrysanthemums bloom i n a p r e v i o u s year. The f l o w e r s remind him t h a t he i s not i n Ch'ang-an but i s s t i l l wandering. In l i n e s i x , the poet transforms the boat, i n f o r m i n g i t with h i s own f e e l i n g of l o n e l i n e s s . He expresses h i s hopelessness along w i t h h i s s t r o n g wish t o r e t u r n . He cannot r i d e on the boat back t o the c a p i t a l , so he t i e s h i s thoughts t o i t . In the l a s t c o u p l e t the poet i s back i n the r e a l world. 58 He shows h i s f e e l i n g of impending t h r e a t — " e v e r y w h e r e w i n t e r c l o t h e s urge on the s c i s s o r s and r u l e r s " and the people are " r a p i d l y " "pounding" t h e i r laundry m a l l e t s . The words "urge," " r a p i d l y , " and "pounding" p o r t r a y an uneasy and i n t i m i d a t i n g atmosphere. The sounds t h a t Tu Fu hears, perhaps, f u r t h e r weigh down h i s a n x i e t y . The poet's focus s h i f t s from a d e s c r i p t i o n of the surroundings which are transformed by h i s own f e e l i n g s . In the f i r s t f o u r l i n e s , he d e p i c t s the scenery b e f o r e him, a p o r t r a y a l which g i v e s the reader a sense of unease, a l a c k of order, and a t h r e a t e n i n g image. In the f i f t h and s i x t h l i n e s , the c l u s t e r e d chrysanthemums b r i n g h i s p a s t t o mind and h i s l o n e l i n e s s f o r h i s home. In the seventh and e i g h t h l i n e s , he i s back t o the presen t again as he d e s c r i b e s what he hears and y e t he expresses h i s f e e l i n g s of impending unhappiness and s o l i t u d e . s o l i t a r y c i t y w a l l s of K'uei-chou s l a n t the rays o f the s e t t i n g sun. 2 Each n i g h t guided by the B i g Dipper I gaze toward the c a p i t a l . 5. 1 Autumn M e d i t a t i o n s I I On the 5 9 3 True t o the o l d song we shed our t e a r s when we hear the gibbons c r y t h r i c e . 6 4 My m i s s i o n of d r i f t i n g on the r a f t which came by i n the e i g h t h month was f u t i l e . 7 5 Incense burners i n the p a i n t e d h a l l s of the S t a t e A f f a i r s B u i l d i n g are d i s t a n t from the s i c k - b e d . 6 The sound of the mournful bugles d r i f t s vaguely from the white-washed parapets of the t u r r e t s a g a i n s t the h i l l s . 7 Behold! The moon t h a t l i t the i v y on the rocks 8 Is now s h i n i n g on the reed blossoms J . 4 to 4 ?| t & The second poem i s a c o n t i n u a t i o n of the f i r s t i n which Tu Fu d i s c l o s e s h i s f e e l i n g s toward Ch'ang-an i n a deeper f a s h i o n . Tu Fu f i r s t d e s c r i b e s the evening scenery b e f o r e h i s eyes i n a manner t h a t informs i t wi t h h i s own f e e l i n g s . He by the shores of the i s l e . # -I - r 1 % i '4 £ yjk A K *c 60 f i n d s the c i t y w a l l s s o l i t a r y , c o r r e s p o n d i n g e x a c t l y w i t h the way he f e e l s . L i n e two shows how ardent and anxious Tu Fu i s . Instead of going t o bed, he s t a y s up and waits t o watch the s t a r s every n i g h t . By g a z i n g a t the B i g Dipper, he seems t o be a b l e t o see Ch'ang-an i n h i s mind. The B i g Dipper, an u n e a r t h l y body l i k e the M i l k y Way i n the poem "At Night," becomes a v e h i c l e which can take him where he wants t o go, the l i n k w i t h Ch'ang-an about which he i s l o s t i n thought. In l i n e t h r e e Tu Fu i s back to the r e a l world, the c r i e s of the gibbons having awakened him. He hears the gibbons c r y and he has reasons t o c r y too. What those reasons are he r e v e a l s i n the f o u r t h l i n e . As mentioned i n the end-note t o t h i s l i n e , Tu Fu employs two a l l u s i o n s : Chang Ch'ien's m i s s i o n t o the west and a man's r i d i n g on a r a f t . These two a l l u s i o n s can be taken as r e f e r e n c e to h i s s e r v i c e t o Yen Wu. "The m i s s i o n " can be taken as a r e f e r e n c e t o the m i l i t a r y c o u n s e l o r post a s s i g n e d by Yen Wu i n 764 and the " r a f t , " the means t o take him back t o the c a p i t a l . Perhaps, Tu Fu thought t h a t by working with Yen Wu, he might e v e n t u a l l y be summoned back t o the c a p i t a l . "The m i s s i o n of d r i f t i n g on the r a f t " proved f u t i l e because Yen Wu d i e d i n 765. In l i n e f i v e the poet c o n t r a s t s h i s p a s t w i t h h i s p r e s e n t . He r e c a l l s what h i s l i f e was l i k e when he served 61 i n Ch'ang-an as the L e f t Reminder. In those days, incense burned a l l n i g h t long as Tu Fu stayed up t o w r i t e memorials t o h i s s u p e r i o r . Tu Fu mentions t h a t the incense burners, an a l l u s i o n t o h i s s e r v i c e i n the S e c r e t a r i a t , are f a r away from K'uei-chou, a p l a c e where he i s now s i c k . In l i n e s i x the poet i s back i n the prese n t . He i s awakened by the sound of bugles. T h i s l i n e c o n t r a s t s with the p r e v i o u s one as he mentions t h a t the incense burners are f a r away from him and ye t he can hear the sound of the bugles. The sound of the bugles corresponds t o h i s emotions. We can envisage the poet, an o l d , s i c k , and l o n e l y man i n a strange and f o r l o r n c i t y , watching the s t a r s every n i g h t , r e m i n i s c i n g about h i s pa s t , t o r n by the thought t h a t he may not be ab l e t o r e t u r n to h i s home. In the l a s t two l i n e s time has passed u n n o t i c e d and Tu Fu i s s u r p r i s e d a t the quick passage of time. The moon has come out and i s s h i n i n g on the reed blossoms. In t h i s poem, as i n the pr e v i o u s examples, the poet blends d i f f e r e n t times, spaces, and emotions. In the f i r s t two l i n e s , he d e s c r i b e s the world around him transformed by h i s own f e e l i n g s . In the t h i r d and f o u r t h l i n e s , he a s s o c i a t e s what he hears with h i s past e x p e r i e n c e s . In the f i f t h l i n e , he c o n t r a s t s the past w i t h the present, and i n the s i x t h l i n e , d e s c r i b e s the music he hears i n the present 62 t h a t corresponds t o h i s emotions. He ends the poem by-d e s c r i b i n g the scenery he sees i n the present, a time d i f f e r e n t from t h a t of the beginning of the poem. The scenery he sees makes him r e a l i z e the quick passage of time. on the h i l l s are s t a n d i n g q u i e t l y i n the morning l i g h t . 2 Day a f t e r day on the veranda by the r i v e r I s i t amid nature's b r i l l i a n t greens and b l u e s . 3 The boats where the fishermen s l e p t f o r two n i g h t s are s t i l l bobbing on the waves. 4 In the c o o l autumn swallows are s t i l l f l y i n g t o and f r o as u s u a l . A 5 L i k e K'uang Heng I a l s o remonstrated w i t h the emperor but my fame i s meagre. 8 6 L i k e L i u Hsiang I wanted t o promote l e a r n i n g but t h a t too f a i l e d t o m a t e r i a l i z e . 9 7 Most of my school-mates from c h i l d h o o d are now prominent. 8 In the neighbourhood of the F i v e Tombs they r i d e t h e i r s l e e k horses i n l i g h t c l o a k s . 63 % & f 1* ft ;t. A ^ ;L ; i 5 % 4 4 I i | •3 f 'JT ^ t v $ $ iK #. J -# ) 4 ? 1| t -f i l I n t h e f i r s t c o u p l e t on t h e s u r f a c e t h e p o e t d e p i c t s t h e p e a c e f u l and s e r e n e scene w h i c h he s e e s . However, t h e phrase "day a f t e r day" s u g g e s t s t h e p o e t ' s i d l e n e s s and h i s sense o f f u t i l i t y . L i k e t h e use o f t h e words "each n i g h t " i n t h e second l i n e o f t h e p r e v i o u s poem, he has n o t h i n g t o do b u t t o s i t on t h e veranda e v e r y day and a t n i g h t he gazes a t t h e s t a r s . B oth a c t i v i t e s b u t t r e s s t h e theme o f n o s t a l g i a . The poet s i t s i d l e a l l day and a l l n i g h t , t h i n k i n g o f n o t h i n g b u t t h e c a p i t a l . I t i s as though he has c e a s e d t o l i v e i n t h e p r e s e n t w o r l d and t h e f o c u s o f h i s l i f e i s c e n t r e d on r e c o l l e c t i o n s o f t h e p a s t . He ponders and o b s e r v e s what i s around him i n a manner which r e v e a l s h i s n o s t a l g i a and sadness. As o f t e n happens i n t h e s e poems t h e boundary between p a s t and p r e s e n t seems t o d i s s o l v e f o r Tu Fu. T h i s i s demonstrated a g a i n i n l i n e s t h r e e and f o u r . The 64 description of "bobbing of the boats" and birds s t i l l " f l y i n g to and f r o " are the e f f e c t of the uneasiness and unsettled condition of the poet himself. Painful memories expounded i n the following l i n e s are just below the surface. He moves e a s i l y and noticeably from the present which he sees through the lens of these memories to the memories themselves i n the remainder of the poem. In l i n e s f i v e and s i x Tu Fu compares his service to the emperor with that of K'uang Heng. He wonders why he was reprimanded and yet K'uang Heng was promoted and why his e f f o r t s to promote learning f a i l e d to materialize while L i u Hsiang succeeded. In l i n e s seven and eight he thinks of his class-mates who are now prominent and are enjoying l i f e i n Ch'ang-an while he has accomplished nothing and struggles to make ends meet. There i s , however, something rather ghostly about t h i s l a s t image read i n the context of the poem, rather l i k e a person who looks at the sunny sky from a dark room. Tu Fu's observation of the present are transformed by his thoughts and emotions related to his past i n Ch'ang-an. His thoughts d r i f t from the past as though he barely distinguishes one from the other. 7. Autumn Meditations IV ( i$ /jf & ^ ) 1 I t i s said that Ch'ang-an i s l i k e a chess-board. 65 2 F o r a hundred y e a r s the events have been too sad t o r e c a l l . 3 The manors o f p r i n c e s and nob les from the o l d e n days a l l have new m a s t e r s . 4 The caps and robes o f the c i v i l and m i l i t a r y o f f i c i a l s are d i f f e r e n t from those o f o l d . 5 S t r a i g h t n o r t h on the mountain passes the gongs and drums r u m b l e . 6 To the c h a r i o t s and horses campaigning i n the west f e a t h e r e d d i s p a t c h e s are r u s h e d . 1 0 7 F i s h and dragons are q u i e t i n the c o o l autumn r i v e r . 8 The p e a c e f u l t imes o f my o l d n a t i v e c o u n t r y are always i n my t h o u g h t s . If] '4 %~ Jt- *u -k * *• x\k $ £ % Jfcf i J U U I iv. $}>] J, i il %. ft * $ .*. -u-i.it t it & i * ^ «L •« t j f c i n * The l i n k i n g o f the p a s t w i t h the p r e s e n t i s a c e n t r a l p a r t o f the a e s t h e t i c beauty o f t h i s poem. The c o n n e c t i o n i s c l o s e and c o n s t a n t . The boundary b l u r s . In the f i r s t two 66 l i n e s the history of Ch'ang-an i s referred to i n discussion and r e c a l l e d i n the present. Events of the past hundred years are r e c a l l e d by the poet and are part of the consciousness he observes i n the present society. Princes and nobles of old are juxtaposed with new masters of the manors of the c i t y as though from the past they look over t h e i r descendant's shoulders. The clothing of the day i s viewed by the standard of the past. In l i n e s f i v e and six the boundary between past and present dissolve completely. He l i s t e n s to the rumble of gongs and drums and the rushing chariots and horses as though he actually hears them yet these are act u a l l y references to the distant past. Simultaneously he l i s t e n s to the cool autumn r i v e r . Tu Fu begins by describing Ch'ang-an with the metaphor of a "chess-board" to describe the many changes which have occurred there and the uncertainty and danger which Ch'ang-an and i t s people have had to face during the v i c t o r i e s and defeats of the struggles for power throughout i t s history. 1 1 Ch'ang-an, once a bustling, t h r i v i n g , b e a u t i f u l , and peaceful c i t y , was l a t e r devastated by the An Lu-shan's Rebellion and the invasion by the Tibetans when i t was burned and i t s people slaughtered. The t h i r d and fourth l i n e s further elaborate the many changes which Ch'ang-an has undergone. To the poet, i t seems that everything i n Ch'ang-an and i n the court has changed. 67 In the l a s t c o u p l e t Tu Fu r e t u r n s from h i s reminiscences of Ch'ang-an's p a i n f u l p a s t as he l i s t e n s t o the c o o l autumn r i v e r and s t a t e s the p e a c e f u l time of h i s n a t i v e country i s always on h i s mind. I t i s , perhaps, not a c c i d e n t a l t h a t Tu Fu sees the pas t as a golden age which has been l o s t . T h i s n o s t a l g i a corresponds with the chronology of h i s own l i f e . I t may be t h a t h i s view of h i s own misfort u n e has s i m i l a r i l y a f f e c t e d h i s view of the h i s t o r y of the c i t y with which h i s p e r s o n a l l i f e has been so c l o s e l y i n t e r t w i n e d . 7 8 6 4 5 2 3 f a c e s the Southern Mountains. The golden p i l l a r s t h a t c o l l e c t dew r i s e i n t o the M i l k y Way. Looking westward one r e c a l l s the Queen Mother descending from the Jasper Lake. 1 2 Looking eastward a p u r p l i s h haze f i l l s the Han-ku pass one r e c a l l s v the coming of Lao Tzu. l i L i k e moving clouds the p h e a s a n t - t a i l screens are fanned. I r e c o g n i z e d His Majesty a t s u n r i s e i n h i s embroidered robe of drag o n - s c a l e s . I l i e down by the r i v e r ; when I wake up I r e a l i z e how l a t e the time i s . How many times d i d I answer the r o l l o f c o u r t 6 8 by the b l u e - c h a i n e d p a t t e r n e d door? ^ f +1 ^x-# t- f f # A r$ £ 4 a i£ 4 $ * 41 - 8(- # -> f & & A « * *j 3* ft ^ Tu Fu begins t h i s poem by d e s c r i b i n g the P ' e n g - l a i P a l a c e , the ve r y f i r s t image t h a t occurs i n the poet's mind when he t h i n k s of Ch'ang-an. The poet has very fond memories of the P ' e n g - l a i Palace, not j u s t because i t i s i n the c a p i t a l and the d w e l l i n g p l a c e of the emperor, but perhaps a l s o because i t was the p l a c e where he impressed Hsuan-tsung when he presented h i s f u to the emperor and the p l a c e where he attended c o u r t , p a r t i c u l a r l y d u r i n g the time when he was the L e f t Reminder. I t i s a l s o a symbol f o r Tu Fu of h i s success i n the p a s t . The d e s c r i p t i o n of the pal a c e w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o grand myths e x e m p l i f i e s the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of r e a l i t y as the poet informs i t with h i s own thoughts and A f e e l i n g s . The P ' e n g - l a i Palace i s s a i d t o be s i t u a t e d i n such a l o f t y p l a c e t h a t i t f a c e s the Southern Mountains. "The golden p i l l a r s t h a t c o l l e c t dew" i n l i n e two r e f e r s t o golden p i l l a r s b u i l t by Emperor Wu of Han t o h o l d the p l a t t e r s t h a t c o l l e c t dew which he would d r i n k t o extend h i s l i f e . 1 * They are d e s c r i b e d as so h i g h t h a t they " r i s e i n t o the M i l k y Way." The m y t h o l o g i c a l f l a v o u r i s even more e v i d e n t i n the t h i r d and f o u r t h l i n e s : the Queen Mother, a T a o i s t f i g u r e , descends from the J a s p e r Lake and Lao Tzu, another m y t h o l o g i c a l f i g u r e , appears amid a p u r p l i s h haze. Tu Fu's d e p i c t i o n of a f a i r y p a l a c e , t h a t one may see i n a dream, a p a l a c e which i s so m a g n i f i c e n t , grand, and b e a u t i f u l as i f i t were a d w e l l i n g p l a c e f o r the immortals i n s t e a d of anything r e a l , seems motivated by memories of h i s success i n the p a s t . H i s success was perhaps a l s o as s h o r t -l i v e d and ephemeral as t h i s dream-like p a l a c e . L i n e s f i v e and s i x c o n t a i n a more r e a l i s t i c reminiscence of h i s time i n the i m p e r i a l c o u r t and of what he saw then. They p r o v i d e a d e s c r i p t i o n of the grand p a l a c e and of the time when the poet a c t u a l l y saw the emperor when c o u r t was i n s e s s i o n d u r i n g h i s s e r v i c e as the L e f t Reminder i n the e a r l y p a r t of Su-tsung's r e i g n . In the l a s t two l i n e s the poet f l a s h e s back t o the p r e s e n t and t o the r e a l world. He r e a l i z e s where he i s and t h a t he has been l o s t i n thought and laments h i s s h o r t s e r v i c e i n the c o u r t i n the p a s t and a t the same time, he expresses h i s l o n g i n g t o r e t u r n t o the c a p i t a l t o serve i n the p r e s e n t c o u r t . 70 In t h i s poem Tu Fu's thoughts d r i f t from the imagined p a s t of a f a i r y p a l a c e , t o the r e a l i t i e s of the i m p e r i a l c o u r t he remembers t o the present r e a l world where he i s ; he r e a l i z e s t h a t i t i s l a t e , t h a t the dream i s l o s t , and t h a t past and p r e s e n t are unavoidably and s a d l y d i s t i n c t . 9. Autumn M e d i t a t i o n s VI # »u- \ ) 1 The mouth of the Ch'ii-t'ang Gorge and the head of the Crooked R i v e r 2 Are j o i n e d t o g e t h e r by thousands of m i l e s of wind and m i s t of the p a l e autumn. 3 Through the w a l l e d passageway of the Calyx Chamber the i m p e r i a l resplendence came. 4 To the s m a l l H i b i s c u s Park the sad news of the f r o n t i e r a r r i v e d . 5 Yellow cranes c i r c l e d the p a l a c e g a r n i s h e d w i t h p e a r l b l i n d s and p a i n t e d p i l l a r s . 6 Embroidered cords and i v o r y masts s t a r t l e d the s e a - g u l l s . 7 One r e c a l l s w i t h p i t y t h i s j o l l y s i t e of s i n g i n g and dancing. 8 The Ch'in Region has been the c a p i t a l of kings and p r i n c e s s i n c e a n c i e n t times. 4 1 . & >fi ^ 4 4 . * # * 4 In t h i s poem Tu Fu r e m i n i s c e s about the Crooked R i v e r , another p l a c e i n Ch'ang-an. In the f i r s t two l i n e s , he observes the Ch'u-t'ang Gorge but i s reminded of the Crooked R i v e r and t h a t they are j o i n e d t o g e t h e r by thousands of m i l e s of wind and m i s t . Wang Chu of the Nine Commentators remarks t h a t although Ch'u-t'ang Gorge and the Crooked R i v e r are f a r a p a r t , they share the same c o l o u r s i n autumn. 1 5 I t may be t h i s s i m i l a r i t y which r e s u l t s i n the Ch'u-t'ang Gorge becoming so c l o s e l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the Crooked R i v e r i n the poet's eyes. The poet reduces or e l i m i n a t e s the d i s t a n c e between where he i s and where he wants t o be. He i s l o s t i n thought i n which the d i s t a n c e s and d i f f e r e n c e s d i s s o l v e . In l i n e s t h r e e and f o u r Tu Fu's thoughts of the r i v e r are l i k e a b r i d g e t o the p a s t . As he r e c a l l s the beauty of the r i v e r , he remembers the emperor's f l i g h t down the r i v e r and the p a i n f u l news of An Lu-shan's R e b e l l i o n t h a t p a r a l y z e d the country. In l i n e s f i v e and s i x he d e s c r i b e s the Crooked R i v e r 72 as he remembers i t . The palace was grand and m a g n i f i c e n t , g a r n i s h e d with " p e a r l b l i n d s " and " p a i n t e d p i l l a r s . " The boats i n the r i v e r are e mbellished w i t h "embroidered c o r d s " and " i v o r y masts" and the p l a c e was a l s o l i v e l y as i t was v i s i t e d by "yellow cranes" and " s e a - g u l l s . " However, Tu Fu i s of the view t h a t the beauty and l i f e of the Crooked R i v e r are gone. The flamboyant images and g l o r i o u s p a s t r e f e r r e d t o i n the l a s t l i n e are "reminders" of the p r e s e n t devastated s t a t e of the p l a c e . The more r e s p l e n d e n t and b e a u t i f u l the images of e a r l i e r times, the more they c o n t r a s t w i t h the immediate r e a l i t i e s and the more d i s h e a r t e n e d the poet f e e l s . Again one wonders whether the c o n t r a s t i s so d i s t i n c t or whether the v i s t a which Tu Fu observes i s transformed by h i s n o s t a l g i a about the p a s t . The poet again moves from the immediate r e a l i t y of the gorge t o the d i s t a n t Crooked R i v e r and without pause t o another time from h i s p a s t . From l i n e s two t o s i x he d e s c r i b e s the h i s t o r y and b e a u t i f u l scenes a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the Crooked R i v e r and c o n t r a s t s them w i t h i t s p r e s e n t s t a t e . F i n a l l y the poet f l a s h e s back t o the p r e s e n t and expresses h i s p i t y about the d e v a s t a t i o n of the p l a c e which he c h e r i s h e s . 10. Autumn M e d i t a t i o n s VII 1 Lake K'un-ming i s indebted t o the success of the Han Dynasty. 2 The banners o f Emperor Wu a r e h e r e b e f o r e my e y e s . 3 The m a i d a t h e r loom s t o p p e d w e a v i n g on a b e a u t i f u l m o o n - l i t n i g h t . 4 The s c a l e s o f t h e s t o n e w h a l e s wave i n t h e autumn b r e e z e . 5 The waves t o s s z i z a n i a s e e d s as c o u n t l e s s as t h e c l o u d s . 6 The c o l d o f t h e dew c h i l l s t h e l o t u s , t h e r e d p e t a l s d r o p . 7 O n l y b i r d s c a n f l y o v e r t h e p a s s t h a t r e a c h e s s o h i g h . 8 I am o n l y a f i s h e r m a n who roams among r i v e r s and l a k e s . ft ^ •A A ^ n 3* 4 tfc f -:>£ % % it ft-i $ % -;z iif{ i& I n t h i s poem ; TU FU r e c a l l s L a k e K'un-ming, a n o t h e r p l a c e i n Ch'ang-an w h i c h comes t o h i s mind. In the f i r s t two l i n e s the poet d e s c r i b e s Lake K'un-filing which was b u i l t by Emperor Wu of Han who made Han s u c c e s s f u l and powerful. When he t h i n k s of the l a k e , h i s thoughts d r i f t t o the p a s t p r o s p e r i t y of the Han Dynasty. Time boundaries d i s s o l v e , f o r although Han and T'ang are about nine hundred years a p a r t , he t h i n k s of these two d y n a s t i e s t o g e t h e r s i n c e they were both s t r o n g and powerful f o r a p e r i o d of time. Tu Fu's technique of t r a n s c e n d i n g time i s c l e a r here f o r Emperor Wu's banners which flew about nine c e n t u r i e s b e f o r e are f l u t t e r i n g b e f o r e h i s eyes. The s u b j e c t i v i t y of t h i s p e r c e p t i o n i s u n d e r l i n e d when one r e c a l l s t h a t i n the poem "The Hi g h e s t Tower of White Emperor C i t y " the banners he saw he d e s c r i b e d as "sad." Tu Fu's o b s e r v a t i o n s of both p a s t and p r e s e n t seem a f f e c t e d by h i s own thoughts and f e e l i n g s and those r e a l i t i e s transformed. The f l u t t e r i n g banners of Emperor Wu by c o n t r a s t symbolize f o r him success and power. I t seems t h a t the poet's f e e l i n g s about the time and p l a c e observed have determined the d e s c r i p t i o n of the o b j e c t . S c h o l a r s ' o p i n i o n s d i f f e r c o n c erning what p e r i o d of time i n the l a k e ' s h i s t o r y Tu Fu d e s c r i b e s i n l i n e s t h r e e t o s i x . For some, i t i s a d e s c r i p t i o n of the e a r l i e r g l o r i o u s p a s t of T'ang and the beauty of the l a k e as p a r t of t h a t g l o r y . Wang Ssu-shih w r i t e s t h a t Tu Fu d e s c r i b e s the abundant pas t , the grandeur of the l a k e , and the r i c h 75 produce of the r e g i o n . 1 6 Ch'ien C h ' i e n - i and P'u C h ' i - l u n g s t a t e t h a t he must be d e s c r i b i n g what he saw a t some pre v i o u s time because he i s too f a r away t o be abl e t o see them when he w r i t e s . 1 7 Ch'ou Chao-ao s t a t e s t h a t i n l i n e s t h r e e and f o u r , Tu Fu d e p i c t s the past grandeur of the lake and i n l i n e s f i v e and s i x , laments the d i s t r e s s i n g scenery of the lake of the pr e s e n t . 1 8 I t i s my view t h a t Tu Fu d e s c r i b e s the l a k e i n the presen t . In these f o u r l i n e s Tu Fu r e c a l l s the maid and the stone whales of the l a k e . The d e s c r i p t i o n s seem t o be me l a n c h o l i c and de p r e s s i n g , f o r the poet s t a t e s t h a t the maid "stopped weaving," "the dew c h i l l s , " and " p e t a l s drop." These images c r e a t e a d e s o l a t e and g r i e f - s t r i c k e n ambience w i t h which the poet i d e n t i f i e s as he r e v e a l s i n the l a s t c o u p l e t . These phrases a l s o suggest the end of one time p e r i o d and the be g i n n i n g of another. The d i s t r e s s i n g p e r c e p t i o n of Lake K'un-ming i n these l i n e s c o n t r a s t s with the symbols of success and power of the d i s t a n t p a s t i n the Han dynasty and of the e a r l i e r T'ang h i s t o r y of the past and t h e r e f o r e most l i k e l y r e f e r t o the pr e s e n t . We have d i s c u s s e d Tu Fu's n o s t a l g i a and presen t circumstances enough t o r e a l i z e a l s o t h a t these may be as much c r e a t i o n s of h i s own mind as they are o b s e r v a t i o n s . The l a s t two l i n e s exemplify the d i s s o l v i n g time b a r r i e r s as the poet f l a s h e s back t o the p r e s e n t . Tu Fu observes b i r d s f l y i n g over a mountain pass and r e a l i z e s t h a t he cannot f o l l o w . He envies the b i r d s which can go where they want t o . Although he i s not a fisherman, he p o r t r a y s h i m s e l f as one to symbolize h i s s o l i t u d e , i s o l a t i o n , and h i s constant s e a r c h . He r e g r e t s t h a t he i s roaming among r i v e r s and l a k e s , a wanderer with no p l a c e t o go or t o s e t t l e and t h a t he cannot go back t o the c a p i t a l . The p h y s i c a l s e p a r a t i o n of K'uei-chou and Ch'ang-an i s c l e a r and d e f i n i t e . B i r d s , l i k e the M i l k y Way i n the poem "At Night," serve as a l i n k or a v e h i c l e by which he trancends t h a t p h y s i c a l s e p a r a t i o n . 7 1 1 . 1 4 6 5 3 2 Autumn M e d i t a t i o n s V I I I ( J ^ " % j\. \ ) P a s s i n g by way of Yii-su ^ the road t o K'un-wu was long and winding. North of the Purple Tower Peak i s Lake M e i - p e i . Pecked from the f r a g r a n t r i c e - s t a l k s by the p a r r o t s the g r a i n s were dropped. A branch of the green f i r m i a n a t r e e was aged by a p e r c h i n g phoenix. P r e t t y g i r l s gathered the k i n g f i s h e r ' s f e a t h e r s and presented them as s p r i n g g i f t s . In the evening we s a i l e d on and on with the immortals i n the same boat. My c o l o u r f u l pen which I once pl a y e d w i t h complimented the b e a u t i f u l scenery. 8 Now g a z i n g i n anguish my white head droops. & % ft * * ^ + ' * ^ & ^ In t h i s f i n a l poem of the "Autumn M e d i t a t i o n s " s e r i e s , Tu Fu w r i t e s about Yii-su, K'un-wu, the Purple Tower Peak, and Lake Mei-pei which are other p l a c e s i n Ch'ang-an t h a t he misses. The poet r e c a l l s the t r i p he took years ago t o Lake Mei-pei i n a manner which e x e m p l i f i e s the e x t e n t t o which r e a l i t y i s transformed or even transcended. In the f i r s t l i n e he remembers t h a t the route p a s t Yii-su, K'un-wu, and the P u r p l e Tower Peak was " l o n g and winding," and i n l i n e s i x he r e c a l l s t h a t he and h i s f r i e n d s " s a i l e d on and on" as though descending i n a s l e e p y rhythm through a dream. He d e s c r i b e s the r i c h n e s s and beauty of the r e g i o n i n a manner which transcends r e a l i t y — " t h e f r a g r a n t r i c e - s t a l k s , " "the p a r r o t s , " "the green f i r m i a n a t r e e , " "the phoenix," "the 78 p r e t t y g i r l s , " and "the k i n g f i s h e r ' s f e a t h e r s . " Images of the e x t r a o r d i n a r y beauty, l i f e , r i c h n e s s , c o l o u r , bounty, and g a i e t y remind one of the d e s c r i p t i o n of the m a g n i f i c e n t A and b e a u t i f u l P ' e n g - l a i Palace he d e s c r i b e d i n the f i f t h poem of the "Autumn M e d i t a t i o n s " s e r i e s . The poet a l s o r e c a l l s the p l e a s u r e of s a i l i n g on and on with h i s good f r i e n d s whom he d e s c r i b e s as "immortals." These both demonstrate the i n t e n s e l y romantic v i s i o n he has of the experience which goes beyond n o s t a l g i a and i s expressed i n the images of f a n t a s y and dream. T h i s dream i n c l u d e s the p e r c e p t i o n of those he t r a v e l l e d w i t h as "immortals." He may be r e f e r r i n g here t o o t h e r poets who accompanied him. His memories of t h a t time are not only of i t s wealth and power but of the ferment of i n t e l l e c t u a l l i f e expressed by those who, l i k e h i m s e l f , would be immortalized by work such as t h a t which he says he wrote a f t e r the t r i p . In the l a s t l i n e Tu Fu awakens from h i s dream and r e t u r n s t o the r e a l world. The v i v i d n e s s of the dream c o n t r a s t s with h i s view of h i m s e l f as a sad and p a t h e t i c o l d man. The d e s c r i p t i o n of the p a s t i n t h i s poem might be b e t t e r s a i d t o t r a n s c e n d r e a l i t y than to t r a n s f o r m i t and t h a t of h i m s e l f i s perhaps a shadow of r e a l i t y . Tu Fu's c e n t r a l concern i n each of the e i g h t poems of the "Autumn M e d i t a t i o n s " s e r i e s i s t o express h i s deep l o n g i n g f o r the p a s t . In the f i r s t and second poems of the s e r i e s , Tu Fu transforms the e x t e r n a l world and informs i t wi t h h i s own n o s t a l g i c f e e l i n g s as he says i n the f i r s t poem t h a t the boat i s " l o n e l y " and c l u s t e r e d chrysanthemums " b r i n g him t e a r s " and i n the second poem, t h a t the c i t y w a l l s of K'uei-chou are " s o l i t a r y . " He g i v e s primary a t t e n t i o n t o d e s c r i p t i o n s of K'uei-chou i n the f i r s t t h r e e poems of the s e r i e s but from the f o u r t h poem t o the e i g h t h , h i s focus s h i f t s t o Ch'ang-an, which i s presented i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l . In these f i v e poems he r e c a l l s f i v e d i f f e r e n t famous s i t e s i n Ch'ang-an from the p a s t . T h i s s t r u c t u r a l s h i f t r e f l e c t s the degree t o which the poet's thoughts s w i t c h t o the p a s t . Tu Fu i s c o n t i n u o u s l y t r a n s c e n d i n g time boundaries and moving h i s focus t o the p a s t . He i s aware of the pr e s e n t mostly by c o n t r a s t . He r e c a l l s the g l o r y of the past i n Ch'ang-an and a s s o c i a t e s the scenery of K'uei-chou with t h a t of Ch'ang-an. Past and present, though they c o n t r a s t so d r a m a t i c a l l y , K'uei-chou and Ch'ang-an, though they are so f a r a p a r t , are blended t o g e t h e r . 1 I t i s dusk the s e t t i n g sun i s s h i n i n g 80 on t h e n o r t h o f K i n g Ch'u's P a l a c e . 2 The r a i n h a s p a s s e d l e a v i n g i t s t r a c e s on t h e w e s t o f W h i t e Emperor c i t y . 3 The r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e s e t t i n g s u n g l o w s on t h e r i v e r and d e f l e c t s o f f t h e c l i f f s . 4 The r e t u r n i n g c l o u d s embrace t h e t r e e s and t h e m o u n t a i n v i l l a g e i s l o s t f r o m s i g h t . 5 I am o l d and my l u n g s a r e s i c k f o r me t h e r e w i l l be o n l y h i g h p i l l o w s . 6 I n t h e r e m o t e b o r d e r l a n d s I am s a d and I c l o s e my d o o r s e a r l y . 7 I c a n n o t s t a y h e r e l o n g f o r t h e b a n d i t s r e b e l . 8 T r u l y t h e r e i s a s o u l w h i c h h a s n o t been summoned f r o m t h e s o u t h . | i t t %-UL JR. ^ -> to * £ * M T " ff* ^ <9 $ *Mi * sk. 9f-I n t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h i s poem Tu Fu t r a n s f o r m s t h e e x t e r n a l w o r l d and i n f o r m s i t w i t h h i s own t h o u g h t s and 81 f e e l i n g s though t h i s i s not immediately apparent. The beauty and s e r e n i t y stand somewhat apart from the sadness and worry of the l a s t f o u r l i n e s . The f i r s t f o u r l i n e s d e p i c t a glimmering and t r a n q u i l evening scene. A f t e r a r a i n s t r o m the v i s t a glows as the l i g h t of the s e t t i n g sun r e f l e c t s on the r i v e r and d e f l e c t s o f f the c l i f f s , and i n the d i s t a n c e the mountain v i l l a g e d i s a p p e a r s . The second h a l f of the poem catches the reader somewhat by s u r p r i s e . Tu Fu r a t h e r a b r u p t l y t u r n s t o h i m s e l f and d i s p l a y s h i m s e l f as a sad, f r a g i l e , and perhaps nervous o l d man who c l o s e s h i s door e a r l y and l i v e s i n i s o l a t i o n , and whose s o u l w i l l not be a t r e s t u n t i l he i s summoned back to the n o r t h . He i s uneasy about h i s circumstances and r e f l e c t s on h i s i l l h e a l t h , w o r r i e s , and pending death. A f t e r r e a d i n g the l a s t f o u r l i n e s one r e f l e c t s on the e f f e c t the poet's p e r c e p t i o n of h i m s e l f has on what he i s d e s c r i b i n g i n the f i r s t f o u r l i n e s . Tu Fu a s s o c i a t e s the c l o s e of the day w i t h the ending of h i s l i f e . He i s an o l d man and r e f l e c t s upon the end of h i s l i f e w ith a c e r t a i n sense of r e s i g n a t i o n , t r a n q u i l i t y , and n o b i l i t y , and l a t e r w i t h a t r a c e of unease and disappointment. The sunset a f t e r a r a i n s t o r m which has l e f t i t s marks i s a f i t t i n g symbol f o r the slow, q u i e t end of a l i f e , which a f t e r y e ars of e f f o r t , r e s u l t e d i n f a i l u r e . The r e f l e c t i o n of the sun, c l o u d s embracing the t r e e s , and the d i s a p p e a r i n g of the mountain 82 v i l l a g e from s i g h t denote a tenderness of s p i r i t and some i n n e r r e s o l u t i o n of Tu Fu's sense of c o n f l i c t between h i s i d e a l s and r e a l i t y . He i s a t pr e s e n t s i c k and dying, sad, d i s a p p o i n t e d , and uneasy and as a consequence the scene, though one of l i g h t and beauty leaves a v i s i o n t h a t i s p a l e , d i s t a n t , and hazy. The d e s c r i p t i o n of t h i s scene which corresponds w i t h h i s present s t a t e c o n t r a s t s d r a m a t i c a l l y w i t h the c o l o u r , l i f e , r i c h d e t a i l , and g a i e t y i n the pr e v i o u s poem "Autumn Mediations V I I I " which i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i s own g l o r i o u s p a s t as he sees i t . 13. F l u t e P l a y i n g ( 9k. % ) 1 From the mountains someone i s p l a y i n g a f l u t e i n the moonlight of t h i s c l e a r and breezy autumn n i g h t . 2 Who i s p l a y i n g these h e a r t - b r e a k i n g tunes so s k i l l f u l l y ? 3 The blowing wind and the melodies harmonize with one another and they move me. 4 How many p l a c e s are b r i g h t e n e d by the moon l e a n i n g a g a i n s t the mountain pass? 5 The mounted b a r b a r i a n t r o o p s 83 c o u l d not bear the s o r r o w f u l sound of the music and a t mid-night they hastened home t o the n o r t h . 6 The Wu-ling song makes me t h i n k of the e x p e d i t i o n t o the south. 7 The willows a t home are now withered. 8 Why do they grow to t h e i r f u l l e s t when I am i n the midst of my g r i e v i n g ? "k. H fc. J* i * l a ^  i$ 'If- ^  * J| t*i M t. to i f - *o' % $ i $ J . k k *i i\ m 1 i 4 A L i i & - <* % * i t ft >fi 4 ^  % & % &\ \\ 11 ^  i x In t h i s poem, the poet e c l i p s e s the l i m i t s of time and space. In the f i r s t f o u r l i n e s Tu Fu l i s t e n s t o the h e a r t -b r e a k i n g music of a f l u t e a c r o s s the mountains on a m o o n l i t n i g h t above the blowing wind. T h i s b r i n g s t o h i s mind the s o r r o w f u l bugle music p l a y e d by L i u K'un about f o u r c e n t u r i e s e a r l i e r . L i u K'un p l a y e d music from the r e g i o n of h i s enemies and caused them to l o s e t h e i r w i l l t o f i g h t and r e t u r n home.19 Then Tu Fu remembers another sad p i e c e of f l u t e music p l a y e d by Ma Yuan about seven hundred years 84 e a r l i e r . Ma Yuan pl a y e d because he missed home when he j o i n e d an e x p e d i t i o n t o a remote p l a c e i n the south. 2 0 In the f i n a l c o u p l e t , Tu Fu d e s c r i b e s l u s h willow branches he sees and remembers those he saw i n h i s home town which by c o n t r a s t he t h i n k s a t t h i s time of year must be withered. While he i s i n the midst of g r i e f the w i l l o w s remind him t h a t he i s f a r away from home. The f a c t t h a t they are l u s h makes him even more d i s t u r b e d and accentuates the p h y s i c a l s e p a r a t i o n of K'uei-chou and Ch'ang-an. One may wonder whether the f l u t e music he hears i s r e a l l y " h e a r t - b r e a k i n g " or whether t h i s i s h i s response t a i n t e d by h i s own thoughts and f e e l i n g s . 14. A Night In The Chamber ( ) 1 Toward the year's end nature's f o r c e s coerce the s h o r t d a y l i g h t . 2 At the world's end the f r o s t and snow c l e a r the evening i s c o l d . 3 The drums and bugles of the f i f t h watch sound m e l a n c h o l i c and f o r c e f u l . 4 The r e f l e c t i o n s of the M i l k y Way over the Three Gorges tremble. 5 In the c o u n t r y - s i d e 85 thousands of f a m i l i e s weep when they hear of the f i g h t i n g . Here and t h e r e fishermen and wood-cutters s i n g b a r b a r i a n songs. S l e e p i n g Dragon—Chu-ko L i a n g and the Horse Leaper—Kung-sun Shu ended i n the y e l l o w dust. I g i v e up on r e c e i v i n g news of my f r i e n d s and kinsmen. k & i f & % tit Vf %• * %- /f] <K A \i\ % % .1 J-i * A i V) it In c o n t r a s t t o the pr e v i o u s poem " F l u t e P l a y i n g " Tu Fu's d e s c r i p t i o n of the e x t e r n a l i n the f i r s t seven l i n e s l e a d s almost i n e v i t a b l y t o and i s d r i v e n by the d i s c l o s u r e i n l i n e e i g h t t h a t he i s d e s p a i r i n g , i n p a r t i c u l a r t h a t he has g i v e n up hope of r e c e i v i n g news of h i s f r i e n d s and kinsmen. These emotions are the source t h a t t r a n s f o r m the world which he d e s c r i b e s . The f i r s t s i x l i n e s are a d e p i c t i o n of a t r a n q u i l but somewhat d i s t u r b i n g n i g h t scene i n the remote 86 p l a c e where Tu Fu i s s t a y i n g and where he f e e l s shut o f f from the f a m i l i a r world. The year i s ending q u i c k l y and on a c l e a r c o l d n i g h t the poet s t a y s up. T h i s n e g a t i v e and unpleasant p o r t r a y a l demonstrates Tu Fu's d e s p a i r . Most would view the s h o r t e n i n g of the days toward the end of the year as a n a t u r a l phenomenon. A view of a c l e a r n i g h t l o o k i n g a t the r e f l e c t i o n s of the s t a r s on the Three Gorges and l i s t e n i n g t o bugles, drums, n o i s e s from the co u n t r y -s i d e , and the songs sung by fishermen and wood-cutters might w e l l be thought i n v i t i n g and e n j o y a b l e . However, Tu Fu f i n d s t h a t nature's f o r c e s coerce the s h o r t d a y l i g h t ; the drums and bugles he hears are m e l a n c h o l i c , the r e f l e c t i o n s of the s t a r s on the Gorges tremble; the n o i s e s from the co u n t r y -s i d e are the weeping of f a m i l i e s , and the songs sung by the fishermen and the wood-cutters are b a r b a r i a n . "Coerce," "melancholy," "tremble," "weep," and " b a r b a r i a n " correspond t o h i s d i s t r e s s , p e r t u r b a t i o n , a l i e n a t i o n , and a n x i e t y t h a t he suggests a t the end of the poem. In l i n e seven, he r e f l e c t s on what comes t o h i s mind as he v i s i t s the s h r i n e s of Chu-ko L i a n g and Kung-sun Shu i n K'uei-chou. Both Chu-ko L i a n g who i s u p r i g h t , l o y a l , and wise, and Kung-sun Shu who i s d e c e i t f u l , a g g r e s s i v e , and o p p o r t u n i s t i c share the same d e s t i n y d e s p i t e t h e i r d i f f e r e n t a s p i r a t i o n s and behaviours. The tone of the l a s t c o u p l e t i s one of h e l p l e s s n e s s and perhaps b i t t e r n e s s . Tu Fu suggests 87 t h a t somehow i t does not r e a l l y matter whether he i s a l i e n a t e d from h i s f r i e n d s and kinsmen because one day he w i l l a l s o share the f a t e of Chu-ko L i a n g and Kung-sun Shu. He g i v e s up hoping t o r e c e i v e news from home and i n s t e a d l e t s t h i n g s happen i n t h e i r own course. 15. The Day A f t e r The Winter S o l s t i c e ( ) 1 Day " a f t e r day the weather and the busi n e s s of men urge one another. 2 I t i s the winter s o l s t i c e the l i g h t i s born and s p r i n g i s here ag a i n . 3 The d e l i c a t e f i v e - c o l o u r e d threads are added t o the embroidery. 4 The sedge-ash f l i e s blown from the s i x ja d e - p i p e s . 5 In the t w e l f t h month the w i l l o w buds grow changing the complexion of the s h o r e l i n e . 6 In the h i l l s the plum t r e e s brave the c o l d w ishing t o r e l e a s e t h e i r blossoms. 7 The weather and s i g h t s are not d i f f e r e n t but t h i s i s not the country of my home. 8 I t e l l my sons t o f i n i s h o f f t h e i r wine. 88 k % A 4 » a \% I % ft 4i ft i f *. & A i t ^ j | * The o b s e r v a t i o n s of the poet here begin i n a most unusual manner. The scene he d e s c r i b e s i s a p p a r e n t l y i n the p r e s e n t i n K'uei-chou as he w r i t e s " s p r i n g i s here a g a i n . " To be c o n s i s t e n t with h i s most common p e r c e p t i o n of p r e s e n t time t h e r e one comes t o expect d e s c r i p t i o n s which are apprehensive and gloomy. However the scene Tu Fu p o r t r a y s i s c o l o u r f u l , immediate, and l i v e l y , much l i k e the scene on the road t o Lake Mei-pei i n "Autumn M e d i t a t i o n s V I I I . " Even the e x p e c t a t i o n i s of warmth and beauty. F i n a l l y Tu Fu appears t o break the c o n s t r a i n t s which c o n s t a n t l y b i n d h i s p e r c e p t i o n s i n the p r e v i o u s poems. L i n e s one through s i x would appear even t o d i s p r o v e the p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t Tu Fu c o n s i s t e n t l y expresses n o s t a l g i a f o r h i s p a s t g l o r y i n Ch'ang-an and d e s p a i r about the p r e s e n t i n K'uei-chou. He seems t o see beauty around him. However l i n e seven p r e s e n t s a r a t h e r a s t o n i s h i n g t u r n of events. We r e a l i z e when he says t h a t "The weather and s i g h t s are not d i f f e r e n t " than h i s experience of both i n Ch'ang-an t h a t the d e s c r i p t i o n i n the f i r s t s i x l i n e s can be and probably i s , i n the poet's mind, 89 a d e s c r i p t i o n o f b o t h t i m e s and p l a c e s . He h a s t r a n s c e n d e d t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f t i m e and s p a c e i n a manner p e r h a p s more c o m p l e t e l y t h a n i n t h e p r e v i o u s poems. F i n a l l y he l e t s us know w i t h c e r t a i n t y t h a t h i s mind and s o u l w i l l n o t a c c e p t t h e e x t e r n a l w o r l d on i t s own t e r m s . E v e n i n t h e most e x t r e m e c i r c u m s t a n c e s when he s e e s t h e same t h i n g s i n one t i m e and p l a c e as he has i n t h e o t h e r , f o r him t h e y a r e c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t . No m a t t e r how l o v e l y t h e s i g h t s i n K ' u e i - c h o u , he s a y s " t h i s i s n o t t h e c o u n t r y o f my home" and he s l i p s i n t o t h e d e t a c h m e n t f r o m i t t h a t he i n s i s t s o n . POEMS WRITTEN IN 767: Nos. 16 t o 19 I r e c a l l a t i m e when t h e plums were b l o o m i n g i n t h e two c a p i t a l s . 2 1 3 The w e a l t h y s e r v e d t h e i r g u e s t s w i t h p l a t t e r s o f w h i t e j a d e . 4 The v e g e t a b l e s a r e c u t and t h e i r g r e e n s l i c e s s e r v e d w i t h d e l i c a t e h a n d s . 5 How c a n I e n d u r e l o o k i n g a t t h e Wu G o r g e 16. 1 S p r i n g E q u i n o x ( JL fi£ On t h e day o f t h e s p r i n g e q u i n o x I e a t a p l a t t e r o f f i n e l y s l i c e d v e g e t a b l e s . S u d d e n l y 2 90 and t h e c o l d r i v e r ? 6 The g r i e f o f t h e d i s t a n t t r a v e l l e r f r o m T u - l i n g i s u n b e a r a b l e . 7 T h i s body o f mine do e s n o t know where t o s e t t l e . 8 I a s k my c h i l d t o f i n d me some p a p e r t o w r i t e t h i s poem. k- o £ 4 A * I % & tl * % ii %. i | % i h f) ri b % \ \ m . W A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e poem Tu Fu t a k e s p a r t i n e a t i n g a p l a t t e r o f f i n e l y s l i c e d v e g e t a b l e s on t h e day o f t h e s p r i n g e q u i n o x a s i s t h e c u s t o m o f h i s t i m e . D u r i n g t h e s e a s o n i t seems l i k e l y t h a t plum b l o s s o m s bloom, f o r he s u d d e n l y remembers s i m i l a r e x p e r i e n c e s i n Ch'ang-an and L o -y a n g . The plum b l o s s o m s r e p r e s e n t b e a u t y , l i f e , and p e a c e . S u c h p o s i t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n s seem o n l y t o a f f e c t Tu Fu when he r e l a t e s them t o t h e p a s t , and s o , s u d d e n l y he i s r e m i n i s c i n g and has s h i f t e d f o c u s t o t h e p a s t , t o t h o s e p l a c e s , and t o t h e b e a u t y o f t h o s e e x p e r i e n c e s . I n l i n e f i v e he r e t u r n s t o t h e p r e s e n t . He c a n n o t e n d u r e t h e Wu Gorge and the c o l d r i v e r . J u s t as Tu Fu's r e l e n t l e s s n o s t a l g i a determines what he remembers and how he c h a r a c t e r i z e s the e a r l i e r time, so h i s o b s e r v a t i o n s of the presen t are t o the same extent n e g a t i v e by c o n t r a s t . The poet's g r i e f and l o s s expressed i n l i n e s i x and seven are a n a t u r a l r e s u l t of t h i s c o n t r a s t and he s t a t e s c l e a r l y i n the l a s t l i n e t h a t such g r i e f and l o s s are h i s m o t i v a t i o n f o r w r i t i n g and perhaps the means of h i s escape. 17. 1 Sadness ( ) The grass growing by the r i v e r each day saddens 7 5 6 3 4 2 me. There i s no comfort i n the sound of the s p r i n g stream i n the Gorges. What do the e g r e t s mean by b a t h i n g themselves i n the s w i r l i n g eddies? On a lone t r e e f l o w e r s are blooming making themselves d i s t i n c t . There has been f i g h t i n g f o r t e n years i n the southern s t a t e . Alone i n t h i s s trange l a n d the o l d t r a v e l l e r i s f o r l o r n . W i l l he see the R i v e r Wei and the mountains of the Ch'in Region? 92 8 People are s i c k ; they are t i r e d of the r e b e l s . ',1 % » ft ft i\ * a I , | » | v% • % A •1 A . £ k ih k M'l 4 In t h i s poem, the r e a l i t y which the poet observes i s t r a n s f o r m e d by h i s g r i e f . The f i r s t f o u r l i n e s c l e a r l y demonstrate t h a t Tu F u ' s p e r c e p t i o n i s dominated by h i s frame of mind as he t e l l s t h a t each day the growing g r a s s saddens h im, t h a t the sound o f the r u n n i n g water i s i r r i t a b l e , and t h a t the b a t h i n g o f the e g r e t s aggravate s h i m . Even i n the f l o w e r i n g t r e e he sees no beauty but s i m p l y s t a t e s t h a t i t c o n t r a s t s w i t h the o t h e r s which do not and by i m p l i c a t i o n are not b e a u t i f u l . "Growing g r a s s , " "sound of the s p r i n g s t r e a m , " " e g r e t s , " and "f lowers" are images which would t o most o b s e r v e r s denote l i f e and beauty but by c o n t r a s t the poet f i n d s t h a t t h e y sadden, i r r i t a t e , and aggravate h i m . In the second h a l f o f the poem, Tu Fu t e l l s us the source o f h i s overpower ing sadness . There i s c o n t i n u o u s f i g h t i n g ; he i s o l d and l o n e l y , and a l i e n a t e d from home. H i s 93 f u t u r e i s u n c e r t a i n and the area i s t h r e a t e n e d by r e b e l s . He s t a t e s e x p l i c i t l y h i s wish t o see, and h i s doubt t h a t he w i l l ever see, the r i v e r and mountains around Ch'ang-an. T h i s poem seems i f anything d i s t i n g u i s h e d by the f a c t t h a t he does not tr a n s c e n d the l i m i t a t i o n s of time and space through p o e t i c contemplation and e x p r e s s i o n as he so o f t e n does. 18. Climbing on Double N i n t h (\|_ vcT) ) 1 High i n the sky the wind i s howling and the gibbons are c r y i n g p i t i f u l l y . 2 The sand-bars are c l e a r ; the sand gleams and b i r d s c i r c l e above. 3 In the boundless f o r e s t s f a l l i n g l e a v e s are r u s t l i n g r u s t l i n g down. 4 The b i l l o w s of the e v e r f l o w i n g Yangtze are s u r g i n g s u r g i n g on. 5 Far away from home I lament melancholy autumn and t h i s c o nstant t r a v e l l i n g . 6 L i f e i s but a hundred y e a r s ' span. I have had many s i c k n e s s e s and have climbed t h i s mountain alone. 7 A d v e r s i t y and a f f l i c t i o n have whitened the h a i r on my temples. 8 Despondent 94 I have j u s t f i n i s h e d my cup of u n s e t t l e d wine. 5$ U'J 4 * *" The scene which Tu Fu d e s c r i b e s i n the f i r s t f o u r l i n e s i s c l e a r l y informed by the thoughts and f e e l i n g s which he expresses i n the r e s t of the poem. The f i r s t f o u r l i n e s d e p i c t a downcast and sombre f a l l scene seen and heard from a h i g h vantage p o i n t . The howling of the wind, the mournful c r i e s of the gibbons, the wandering of the b i r d s above the sand-bars, the r u s t l i n g and the f a l l i n g of the l e a v e s i n the f o r e s t s , and the s u r g i n g of the b i l l o w s p o r t r a y a gloomy and downcast atmosphere which blends w i t h the "melancholy," " a d v e r s i t y , " " a f f l i c t i o n , " " s i c k n e s s , " and "despondency" t h a t the poet e x p l i c i t l y expresses i n the second h a l f of the poem. Tu Fu a l s o moves across boundaries of space between K'uei-chou and Ch'ang-an. He uses the word "boundless" t o d e p i c t the expansive scene on one hand, and perhaps on the o t h e r hand he may suggest t h a t by t h i s time of the year f a l l i n g l e a v e s and the r u s t l i n g l eaves can be seen and heard everywhere, i n c l u d i n g i n Ch'ang-an. He may a l s o use the word t o denote the i n e v i t a b i l i t y of time's passage and h i s passage i n t h i s world. He employs the phrase " e v e r f l o w i n g Yangtze" to underscore the d i s t a n c e t h a t the r i v e r t r a v e l s , and " s u r g i n g , s u r g i n g on" which we know t r a v e r s e s the d i s t a n c e between K'uei-chou and Ch'ang-an. The Yangtze can take him back t o the c a p i t a l and serves as a l i n k t o h i s p a s t . 19. 1 Impromptu ( I* J 3 ) There i s a f o r l o r n t h a t c h e d hut among the mountains a t the edge of the sky. On the r i v e r wind and waves are r a g i n g r a i n f a l l s d r e a r i l y . Two white f i s h do not take the b a i t . Large t h r e e - i n c h oranges are s t i l l green. I am v as s i c k as Ssu-ma Chang-ch'ing unable t o get up f o r even a day. I am a t the end of the road l i k e Juan Chi when 2 3 4 5 6 96 w i l l I become s o b e r ? 7 I have n o t h e a r d w h e t h e r t h e s o l d i e r s o f S m a l l W i l l o w have y e t l a i d down t h e i r arms. 8 I n C h ' i n Ch'uan t h e C h i n g R i v e r f l o w s w i t h d i r t y w a t e r my h e a r t i s b r o k e n . * «!f ^  J , *V if ^  ; z - -f i*l # <*> & X 4 & £ *f JR. » & hi .* ci] #r # £ j 4 i( 4 •) 4 T | I n t h i s poem Tu Fu t r a n s f o r m s t h e o b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y he d e s c r i b e s i n t h e f i r s t f o u r l i n e s w i t h t h o s e he e x p r e s s e s i n t h e l a s t f o u r l i n e s . I n l i n e one Tu F u d e s c r i b e s t h e h u t as " f o r l o r n " and l i k e t h e h u t w h i c h i s l o c a t e d among t h e m o u n t a i n s a t t h e edge o f t h e s k y , he a l s o i s a t t h e end o f t h e r o a d w h i c h he d e s c r i b e s i n l i n e s i x . The d e p i c t i o n o f t h e r a g i n g w i n d and waves and t h e d r e a r y r a i n g i v e s t h e r e a d e r t h e s e n s e o f an i n a u s p i c i o u s omen. He i s c l o s e enough t o t h e w h i t e f i s h t h a t t h e y a r e i n c l e a r s i g h t and he i s a b l e t o s e e t h a t t h e b a i t i s i n f r o n t o f them. Y e t ev e n i n 97 t h i s seemingly advantageous s i t u a t i o n the f i s h w i l l not b i t e . The oranges are l a r g e and t h e r e f o r e c o u l d p o t e n t i a l l y p r o v i d e p l e n t y but i n the end cannot because' they are not ye t r i p e . The white f i s h which w i l l not take the b a i t and the l a r g e but as y e t un r i p e oranges are symbolic of the co n s t a n t s t r u g g l e of l i f e . These p e r c e p t i o n s are c l e a r l y connected t o h i s own s t a t e of h e a l t h and mind. He i s s i c k , a t the end of h i s road, h i s own emotions rage l i k e the wind and water, and h i s h e a r t i s broken. ENDNOTES: 1. Alex Preminger (ed.), P r i n c e t o n E n c y c l o p e d i a of Poetry  and P o e t i c s , ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1974), Enlarg e d e d i t i o n , p.95. 2. The Fu-sang Tree i s a legendary m y s t i c a l t r e e . I t i s s a i d t h a t i t grows i n the p l a c e where the sun r i s e s and t h a t the t r e e i s a few thousand yards t a l l . [Tung-fang So a t t r i b u t e d , S h i h Chou Chi c o l l e c t e d i n Lung Wei P i Shu, (a photocopy of the o r i g i n a l from Taiwan U n i v e r s i t y L i b r a r y , 1970), pp.60-61; a l s o i n Hsu Shen, Tuan Y u - t s ' a i ed., Shuo Wen Chieh Tzu  Chu, Vol.6, KHCPCS, Wan Yo Wen K'u, (Shanghai: Commercial Pr e s s , 1937), p . l . 3. The Weak Stream i s a legendary m y s t i c a l stream which i s s a i d t o be s i t u a t e d a t the f o o t h i l l s of Mount Kun-lun; i t s water i s so weak t h a t even a f e a t h e r cannot f l o a t on i t . [Ssu-ma Ch'ien comp., Shih C h i , Vol.10, " T a i Wan L i e h Chuan, No.63, 1 1 (Peking: Chung Hua Book Co., 1962), p.3164; a l s o i n Tung-fang So a t t r i b u t e d f Shih Chou C h i , c o l l e c t e d i n Lung  Wei P i Shu, p.4 and i n L i u Hsiu, Kuo P'u and Ho I - h s i n g ed., 98 Shan Hai China. No. 11, "Hai Nei H s i Ching," ( T a i p e i : Lo T ' i e n Book Co., 1982), p.298.] 4. Although the poet d e s c r i b e s a w h i t e - h a i r e d man c a r r y i n g a w a l k i n g - s t i c k i n the t h i r d person, he c e r t a i n l y describes h i m s e l f . Tu Fu h i m s e l f was o l d and s i c k a t the time he wrote t h i s poem, j u s t as t h i s w h i t e - h a i r e d man who c a r r i e s a w a l k i n g - s t i c k appears t o be. There are many o t h e r poems i n which Tu Fu d e s c r i b e s h i m s e l f as one who i s s i c k and o l d , has white h a i r , and c a r r i e s a w a l k i n g - s t i c k : "Overlooking Scenery of the Gorges," "At N i g h t , " "Autumn M e d i t a t i o n s , " "Sunset," "Sadness," "Climbing on Double N i n t h , " and "Impromptu." In any event, from such a d i s t a n t p h y s i c a l vantage p o i n t , i t would seem u n l i k e l y t h a t the poet would be a b l e to observe "the o l d man" i n such d e t a i l so as to draw c o n c l u s i o n s about h i s emotional s t a t e . 5. At the time, Tu Fu was working i n the P e r s o n a l E v a l u a t i o n S e c t i o n i n Hua-chou. (Ch'ou Chao-ao, Tu Shih Hsiang Chu, Vol.3, p.1289.) A A San-fu r e f e r s t o Ching-chao, Fu-feng, and F e n g - i , the c e n t r a l p a r t of p r e s e n t day Shensi P r o v i n c e . 6. The fisherman's song reads: "Of the t h r e e gorges i n Pa-tong, the Wu Gorge i s the l o n g e s t ; when one hears the gibbons c r y t h r i c e , one's c l o t h e s are wet with t e a r s . " (£ yuan, Shui Ching Chu,"Chiang Shui Chu", (Shanghai: Shanghai Kuo Hsiieh Cheng L i She, 1936), chuan 34, p. 6.] 7.In t h i s l i n e , Tu Fu employs two a l l u s i o n s . Chang Hua's Po Wu Chih says t h a t i n the r e c e n t world, t h e r e was a man who l i v e d by the sea. On the e i g h t h month of every year, he saw a r a f t coming by. T h i s man was c u r i o u s ; t h e r e f o r e , he rode on the r a f t f o r one year. A f t e r r i d i n g on the r a f t f o r more than t e n months, he a r r i v e d a t a p l a c e where t h e r e were c i t y w a l l s . I n s i d e the c i t y w a l l s , he saw some weaving maids and a man dragging a cow. He asked the man where he was. The man who was dragging the cow answered: 'Go and v i s i t Yen Chun-p'ing and you w i l l know.' The man r e t u r n e d home and went t o v i s i t Yen. Yen answered: 'In a c e r t a i n month of a c e r t a i n year, t h e r e was a man went t o the M i l k y Way. ' The man l a t e r found out the time and year which Yen r e f e r r e d t o . To h i s s u r p r i s e , i t was the same time and the same year when t h i s man a r r i v e d a t the p l a c e . [Chang Hua ed., Po Wu C h i . TSCCCP, V o l . 1342, [Shanghai: Commercial P r e s s , 1939), chuan 3, p.19.] ) [ L i Tao-99 In Tsung L i n ' s Ching Chu S u i Shin C h i , i t says t h a t Emperor Wu of Han a s s i g n e d Chang Ch'ien t o go t o T a i H s i a ( B a c t r i a , now n o r t h of Afghanistan) t o t r a c e the sources of the r i v e r . Chang Ch'ien rode on a r a f t . A f t e r s e v e r a l months, he a r r i v e d at a p l a c e . However, the present-day v e r s i o n of the Ching Chu Sui Shih Chi does not mention t h a t Chang Ch'ien was r i d i n g on a r a f t . [Tsung L i n comp., Ching  Chu S u i Shih C h i , PPTSCC, V o l . 104, Pao Yen T'ang P i C h i , (Shanghai: I Wen P u b l i s h i n g Co., p.22.] 8. "The Biography of K'uang Heng" i n Han Shu says t h a t s h o r t l y a f t e r Emperor Yuan had come to the throne, t h e r e were sun e c l i p s e s and earthquakes. Emperor Yuan asked f o r an e v a l u a t i o n of h i s p o l i c i e s . K'uang Heng sent h i s a d v i c e . The emperor was p l e a s e d w i t h what K'uang Heng s a i d . The emperor promoted K'uang Heng t o be the Duke of Kuang Lu and a l s o t o be the t u t o r of the crown p r i n c e . [Pan Ku a t t r i b u t e d , Yen Shih-ku comm., Han Shu, (Peking: Chung Hua Book Co., 1962), Vol.7, chuan 81, "The Biography of K'uang Heng, No. 51" pp.3331-3338.] 9. "The Biography of Emperor Yuan of Ch'u" i n Han Shu says t h a t L i u Hsiang was asked by the Emperor Ch'eng of Han t o e d i t the F i v e C l a s s i c s . ( I b i d . , chuan 36,"The Biography of Emperor Yuan of Ch'u, No.6." pp.1928-1929.) 10. Another v e r s i o n reads: " f e a t h e r d i s p a t c h e s are del a y e d . " ( W i l l i a m Hung & o t h e r s , Tu Shih Y i n Te,-t , p. 468.) T h i s ambiguity a r i s e s from the word " c h ' i h " which i s a homonym i n Chinese, w i t h two d i s t i n c t meanings. means t o pass q u i c k l y l i k e a g a l l o p i n g horse and means t o d e l a y . The f i r s t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n would mean t h a t t h e r e have been many campaigns. When we look a t T'ang h i s t o r y , we w i l l f i n d t h a t t h i s i s the case. The l a t t e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n can be taken as a r e f e r e n c e t o c o r r u p t and i n e f f i c i e n t o f f i c i a l s such as Ch'eng Yuan-chen who d i d not r e p o r t t o the emperor promptly when the T i b e t a n s invaded Ch'ang-an about two years b e f o r e Tu Fu wrote the s e r i e s . As a r e s u l t , the emperor rushed t o lea v e the palace without much p r e p a r a t i o n . [Ssu-ma Kuang, Tzu Ch'ih T'ung Chien. (Hong Kong: Chung Hua Book Co., 1976), Vol.3, chuan 223, pp.7150, 7151, 7155.] Both i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s are p o s s i b l e , f o r both can be s u b s t a n t i a t e d by h i s t o r i c a l evidence. 11. Ch'ang-an f e l l i n 756 as a r e s u l t of the ^An Lu-shan R e b e l l i o n and the T i b e t a n s ' i n v a s i o n of 763. [Ssu-ma Kuang, Tz"u Ch'ih T'ung Chien, (Hong Kong: Chung Hua Book Co. , 1976), V o l . 3 , chuan 218, p.6994; chuan 223, p.7151.] 100 12. Jasper Lake i s s a i d t o be s i t u a t e d on Mount Kun-lun where Queen Mother of the West r e s i d e s . (Ssu-ma Ch'ien comp., Shih C h i , Vol.10, " T a i Wan L i e h Chuan, No. 6 3," p.3164, p.3179.) A c c o r d i n g to Chang Hua's Po Wu Chih, Emperor Wu of Han l o v e s Taoism. Queen Mother of the West sent a messenger who came t o Emperor Wu r i d i n g on a white deer and t o l d Emperor Wu t h a t Queen Mother would be a r r i v i n g soon. On the n i g h t of the seventh day of the seventh month Queen Mother of the West came r i d i n g on the c l o u d s . [Chang Hua ed., Po Wu Chih, TSCCCP, V o l . , 1342, chiian 3, p. 17; a l s o i n Pan Ku Han Wu T i  Nei Chuan. PPTSCC, Vol.52, Shou Shan Ko Ts'ung Shu, V o l . 86, pp.1-2.] 13. A c c o r d i n g to L i e h Hsien Chuan.it says t h a t Lao-tzu l e f t the Pass f o r the west r i d i n g on a green o x - c a r t . The d i r e c t o r of the Pass, Y i n H s i , saw a haze. He knew a sage would come by. He r e c e i v e d and welcomed Lao Tzu him and requested him t o w r i t e two volumes of Tao-te Ching. [Ch'an Hsuan Hsien ed. , L i e h Hsien Chuan. TSCCCP, V o l . , 3347, (Shanghai: Commercial Press, 1936), "Lao Tzu," pp.7-8; "The D i r e c t o r of the Pass, Y i n , " pp.8-9.] A l s o [Ssu-ma Ch'ien (comp.), Shih C h i , Vol.7, "The Biography of Lao Tzu, No. 3,11 p.2141. ] 14. Pan Ku a t t r i b u t e d , Yen shih-ku comm., Han Shu, chiian 25, Vol.3, "Chiao Ssu Chih," No.5, p.1220.) A l s o Ssu-ma Ch'ien comp., Shih Chi . Vol.2, chuan 12, "Hsiao Wu Pen C h i , " p.459. 15. W i l l i a m Hung & o t h e r s ed. , Tu Shih Y i n Te.jp. 468. 16. Wang Ssu-shih, Tu I, p.276. 17. Ch'ien C h ' i e n - i , Ch'ien Chu Tu Shih . Vol.2, p.510; P'u C h ' i - l u n g , Tu Tu Hsin Chieh. V o l . 3 , p.655. 18. Ch'ou Chao-ao, Tu Shih Hsianq Chu . Vol.4, p.1495. 19. A c c o r d i n g t o S h i h Shuo H s i n Yu, L i u K'un was a P r e f e c t of Ping-chou. He was besieged by the mounted b a r b a r i a n t r o o p s . One m o o n l i t n i g h t , L i u climbed t o a tower and p l a y e d the f l u t e . The t r o o p s heard the music and they s i g h e d . At mid-night, L i u p l a y e d bugle music. T h i s time when the t r o o p s heard the music, they a l l c r i e d . Next evening, L i u played the bugle music a g a i n . When the t r o o p s heard i t , they f l e d home. [ L i u I - c h ' i n g , Yang Yung ed., Shih Shuo H s i n Yu Chiao  Chien. "Ya L i a n g No. 6," (Hong Kong: Ta Chung P u b l i s h i n g Co.), 1969, p.291.] 101 20. T s ' u i Pao, Ku Chin Chu. TSCCCP, Vol.274, (Shanghai: Commercial Press, 1937), "Music," No.3, p.9. 21. Another v e r s i o n reads: "Suddenly I r e c a l l a time when the two c a p i t a l s are a t t h e i r peaks." [ i% vk> X- ^ # i 8<j- ] (Ch'ou Chao-ao, Tu Shih Hsiana Chu. Vol.4, p.1597.) 22. The other i n t e r p r e t a t i o n reads: "Adding t o my despondency, l a t e l y I have had t o q u i t d r i n k i n g my cup of u n s e t t l e d wine." Ch'ou, P'u, and Yang p r e f e r t h i s r e a d i n g because a t the time, the poet was s u f f e r i n g from a weak lung and had t o q u i t d r i n k i n g . (Ch'ou Chao-ao, Tu Shih Hsiang Chu, Vol.4, p.1766; P'u C h ' i - l u n g , Tu Tu H s i n Chieh. Vol.3, p.671; Yang Lun, Tu Shih Ching Ch'iian, p.842.) I t h i n k i n t h i s poem the poet means t h a t he has j u s t f i n i s h e d d r i n k i n g h i s cup of wine. I t i s a custom t o c a r r y a bag f i l l e d w i t h dogwood and t o d r i n k chrysanthemum wine on the n i n t h day of the n i n t h month. The l i n e seems t o suggest t h a t the poet a c t u a l l y sees the wine r e s i d u e s i n k i n g t o the bottom while he d r i n k s . 102 CHAPTER FOUR CONCLUSION: Tu Fu was a p r o l i f i c poet who wrote about f o u r t e e n hundred and f i f t y poems over a p e r i o d of approximately f o r t y y e a r s . His p o e t r y i s widely r e c o g n i z e d as i n n o v a t i v e i n s t y l e , form, and i t s tremendous breadth of content. I have attempted t o p r o v i d e a d e t a i l e d and in-depth look a t a manageable p o r t i o n of Tu Fu's w o r k — n i n e t e e n poems, r e l a t e d by t h e i r form, which i s h e p t a - s y l l a b i c r e g u l a t e d v e r s e , t h e i r p e r i o d , about approximately two years i n the author's l i f e , and t h e i r theme of n o s t a l g i a . Tu Fu wrote about 151 h e p t a - s y l l a b i c r e g u l a t e d v e r s e s . Of these he wrote the n i n e t e e n poems c o n s i d e r e d here from 766 t o 767 A.D. These poems are a l s o c l o s e l y r e l a t e d i n t h a t they are a l l p a r t df a p o r t r a y a l of Tu Fu's s p i r i t u a l b e i n g a t t h a t time. Tu Fu was approximately f i f t y - f i v e y e a rs o l d , an o l d man by the standards of h i s time and by h i s own d e s c r i p t i o n . I s o l a t e d among s t r a n g e r s , he was l i v i n g i n K'uei-chou, which t o him was a f o r e i g n l a n d . His l i f e and c a r e e r were a t an end, and h i s i s o l a t i o n a l l the g r e a t e r when h i s p r e s e n t l i f e was compared t o h i s younger days as an o f f i c i a l and s c h o l a r i n Ch'ang-an, the seat of the empire. He had been i n v o l v e d i n the p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l ferment of t h a t time and p l a c e 103 which, due t o the a c c i d e n t s of f o r t u n e and c a r e e r , had been l o s t t o him. F i n a l l y these n i n e t e e n poems are a l s o r e l a t e d by the t h r e e p o e t i c techniques employed i n them. These p o e t i c techniques are the most s i g n i f i c a n t l i n k t o these poems and are the s u b j e c t of t h i s t h e s i s . 1. A s s o c i a t i o n Of One Time With Another: In the poems i n which the poet uses the p a r t i c u l a r technique of t r a n s c e n d i n g the boundary of time, we f i n d t h a t p r e s e n t r e a l i t y i s of l i t t l e i n t e r e s t t o Tu Fu. He ceases t o l i v e i n the presen t world. What he a c t u a l l y sees and hears o n l y remind him of and focus h i s mind on h i s p a s t l i f e and on Ch'ang-an i n i t s p a s t . He i s aware of the presen t mostly by c o n t r a s t . In "Overlooking Scenery Of The Gorge" the Wu Gorge and the r i v e r of Shu b e f o r e h i s eyes remind him of Mt Hua and the Yellow R i v e r he saw when he was the A d m i n i s t r a t o r of Hua-chou e i g h t years e a r l i e r . In "Autumn M e d i t a t i o n s I " he a s s o c i a t e s the c l u s t e r e d chrysanthemums he sees w i t h those he has seen. In "Autumn M e d i t a t i o n s I I " he r e l a t e s the c r i e s of gibbons he hears t o h i s f u t i l e s e r v i c e s t o the s t a t e and to Yen Wu some years e a r l i e r . In "Autumn M e d i t a t i o n s I I I " as he observes the v i l l a g e houses on the h i l l s , the bobbing 104 of the boats, and the f l y i n g of swallows, h i s thoughts focus o n l y on c o n t r a s t i n g h i s past u n f u l f i l l e d c a r e e r with the successes and accomplishments of K'uang Heng, L i u Hsiang, and h i s class-mates. In "Autumn M e d i t a t i o n s IV" he l i s t e n s t o the rumble of gongs and drums and the r u s h i n g c h a r i o t s and horses as though he a c t u a l l y hears them, and y e t these are r e f e r e n c e s t o the d i s t a n t p a s t . In "Autumn M e d i t a t i o n s VI" h i s thoughts move from the immediate r e a l i t y of the Ch'u-t'ang Gorge t o the Crooked R i v e r i n the p a s t . In "Autumn M e d i t a t i o n s V I I " time boundaries d i s s o l v e , f o r although Han and T'ang are about nine hundred years a p a r t , he t h i n k s of these two d y n a s t i e s t o g e t h e r . Emperor Wu's banners which flew about nine c e n t u r i e s e a r l i e r are s a i d t o be f l u t t e r i n g b e f o r e h i s eyes. In " F l u t e P l a y i n g " he a s s o c i a t e s the f l u t e music he hears w i t h the s o r r o w f u l bugle music played by L i u K'un about f o u r c e n t u r i e s e a r l i e r and w i t h another sad p i e c e of f l u t e music p l a y e d by Ma Yuan about seven hundred years b e f o r e . In "The Day A f t e r The Winter S o l s t i c e " he transcends the boundaries of time and space more completely than i n other poems. He l e t s us know wi t h c e r t a i n t y t h a t h i s mind and s o u l w i l l not accept the world around him, f o r no matter how l o v e l y the p r e s e n t world i s or can be, he says " t h i s i s not the country of my home." To him the p a s t i n Ch'ang-an i s an enchanted p l a c e which u t t e r l y c a p t i v a t e s h i s mind. In " S p r i n g Equinox" he 105 a s s o c i a t e s the plum blossoms and the p l a t t e r of f i n e l y s l i c e d v e g e t a b l e s b e f o r e h i s eyes with h i s s i m i l a r e x p eriences i n Ch'ang-an and Lo-yang i n the p a s t . 2. Association Of One Place With Another: Tu Fu transcends i n h i s thoughts the p h y s i c a l d i s t a n c e between K'uei-chou and Ch'ang-an. What he sees and what he hears i n K'uei-chou b r i n g t o h i s mind memories of what he has seen and heard i n Ch'ang-an. In "Overlooking Scenery Of The Gorge" he sees the Wu Gorge and the r i v e r of Shu as Mt Hua and the Yellow R i v e r . In "Autumn M e d i t a t i o n s VI" he observes the Ch'u-t'ang Gorge but i s reminded of the Crooked R i v e r . In " F l u t e P l a y i n g " the l u s h w i l l o w s i n K'uei-chou remind him of the withered ones i n h i s home-town. In "The Day A f t e r The Winter S o l s t i c e " the s p r i n g scene of K'uei-chou b r i n g s him memories of a p a r a l l e l scene he saw i n Ch'ang-an. In " S p r i n g Equinox" he a s s o c i a t e s the plum blossoms and the p l a t t e r of f i n e l y s l i c e d v e g e t a b l e s w i t h h i s s i m i l a r experiences i n Ch'ang-an and Lo-yang, and i n "Climbing On Double N i n t h " he i m p l i e s t h a t the scene of the f a l l i n g and r u s t l i n g l eaves a l s o reminds him of a s i m i l a r scene i n Ch'ang-an. Tu Fu a l s o uses moving or c o n n e c t i n g o b j e c t s as symbols 106 of escape or f l i g h t , v e h i c l e s through which he can r e t u r n t o Ch'ang-an. In "At Night" the s t a r s , which a l s o shine on the c a p i t a l , and i n "Autumn M e d i t a t i o n s I I " the B i g Dipper, a t which he gazes every n i g h t , serve f o r him as imaginary l i n k s with Ch'ang-an. In "Autumn M e d i t a t i o n s I " the boat serves as a v e h i c l e t o which he t i e s h i s homeward thoughts. In "Autumn M e d i t a t i o n s V I I " the b i r d s he observes f l y i n g over a mountain pass serve as a l i n k by which he can t r a n s c e n d the p h y s i c a l s e p a r a t i o n , and i n "Climbing On Double N i n t h " the Yangtze t r a v e r s e s the d i s t a n c e between K'uei-chou and Ch'ang-an and s e r v e s f o r him as a l i n k t o the c a p i t a l . 3. T r a n s f o r m a t i o n Of The E x t e r n a l World Informed By H i s S u b j e c t i v e World: Tu Fu i s absorbed o b s e s s i v e l y w i t h h i s s p i r i t u a l torment. T h i s emotion d i c t a t e s what he remembers and how he c h a r a c t e r i z e s the o u t s i d e world. I t i s the source t h a t t r a nsforms t h a t which he sees and hears and the d r i v i n g f o r c e behind h i s e f f o r t s t o escape r e a l i t y . The p r e s e n t o u t s i d e world i s c o n s i s t e n t l y d e p i c t e d as n e g a t i v e and unpleasant. In "The Highest Tower Of White Emperor C i t y " he transforms the o b j e c t s which he d e s c r i b e s around him and informs them wi t h h i s own f e e l i n g s . He d e s c r i b e s the banners as "sad." The d e s c r i p t i o n s of the p o i n t e d shape of the ramparts, the narrowness of the paths, the gorges, and the dark clouds p o r t r a y a jagged and cramped image which g i v e s the reader a sense of s t r a i n and unease which correspond t o h i s sadness as he e x p l i c i t l y r e v e a l s a t the end of the poem. In "At Night" he p o r t r a y s h i m s e l f as s t a r t l e d , o l d , s i c k , and alone. He d e s c r i b e s i n p a r a l l e l the mountains as empty, the l i g h t s as few, s c a t t e r e d , and dim, the h o i s t e d s a i l as " f o r l o r n , " and the geese as "unsympathetic" t o h i s hope and f e e l i n g s because they b r i n g him no news from the n o r t h . Although one may c o n s i d e r t h a t dew-drops gathered on the maple t r e e s as a n a t u r a l phenomenon, i n "Autumn M e d i t a t i o n s I" he uses " w i l t " and "wound" t o d e p i c t the damaging e f f e c t of dew-drops on the maple t r e e s . By c o n t r a s t "dew" normally symbolizes grace or a k i n d of d i v i n e e l i x i r t h a t can extend one's l i f e . Such u n u s u a l l y n e g a t i v e usage e x e m p l i f i e s the e x t e n t t o which Tu Fu transforms the e x t e r n a l w i t h h i s own f e e l i n g s . The damaging e f f e c t of the dew-drops and the impending d i s o r d e r and t h r e a t e n i n g images he p o r t r a y s convey h i s sense of l i f e l e s s n e s s , d i s s a r a y , and heart-break. He says the c l u s t e r e d chrysanthemums b r i n g him t e a r s , and he transforms the boat and informs i t w i t h h i s own f e e l i n g of l o n e l i n e s s . In "Autumn M e d i t a t i o n s I I " he i s i d l e , l o n e l y , 108 and f o r l o r n , and he d e s c r i b e s the evening scenery b e f o r e h i s eyes i n a manner t h a t informs i t w i t h h i s own f e e l i n g s . He d e s c r i b e s the c i t y w a l l s he sees as " s o l i t a r y " and the bugle music he hears as "sad." In "Sunset" he transforms the evening scene and informs i t w i t h h i s own thoughts and f e e l i n g s though t h i s i s not immediately apparent. The scene, though one of l i g h t and beauty, i s tranformed i n t o a v i s i o n t h a t i s p a l e , d i s t a n t , and hazy and corresponds with the d e s c r i p t i o n of h i s own pending death, o l d age, sense of c o n f l i c t , uneasiness, and disappointment. In " F l u t e P l a y i n g " h i s response t o the f l u t e music he hears i s t a i n t e d by h i s own thoughts and f e e l i n g s . He g r i e v e s f o r h i s p h y s i c a l s e p a r a t i o n from Ch'ang-an, and he d e s c r i b e s the f l u t e music he l i s t e n s t o as " h e a r t - b r e a k i n g . 1 1 In "A Night In The Chamber" he transforms a serene and t r a n q u i l atmosphere and d e p i c t s i t as a d i s t u r b i n g and i r r i t a t i n g n i g h t scene because he i s d i s t r e s s e d , p e r t u r b e d , and d e s e r t e d . Another observer might r e g a r d a view of a c l e a r n i g h t l o o k i n g a t the r e f l e c t i o n s of the s t a r s on the Three Gorges and l i s t e n i n g t o bugles, drums, n o i s e s from the c o u n t r y - s i d e , and the songs sung by fishermen and wood-cutters as i n v i t i n g and e n j o y a b l e . In "Sadness" h i s p e r c e p t i o n i s dominated by h i s frame of mind as he complains t h a t the growing g r a s s , the sound of the running water, and the b a t h i n g of the e g r e t s , sadden, i r r i t a t e , and aggravate him although by c o n t r a s t 109 these are the images which would t o most observers denote l i f e and beauty. In "Climbing On Double N i n t h " he laments t h a t he i s f a r away from home, i n poor h e a l t h , l o n e l y , and t h a t h i s l i f e i s d i f f i c u l t , and he d e p i c t s a n a t u r a l f a l l scene seen and heard from a h i g h vantage p o i n t as gloomy, downcast, and sombre. In "Impromptu" he d e s c r i b e s h i m s e l f as s i c k , at the end of the road, and heart-broken and p a r a l l e l l i n g t h i s , he d e s c r i b e s a hut he sees as " f o r l o r n , " l o c a t e d among the mountains at the edge of the sky, the wind and waves as r a g i n g , and the r a i n as d r e a r y . The p a s t , by c o n t r a s t , Tu Fu envisages as g l o r i o u s , prosperous, e x h i l a r a t i n g , and sometimes m y t h i c a l . In "Autumn A M e d i t a t i o n s V!' the d e p i c t i o n of P ' e n g - l a i Palace w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o grand myths e x e m p l i f i e s the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of r e a l i t y . The p a l a c e , the seat of the T'ang Empire and a l s o a symbol of h i s success i n the past, i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d as m a g n i f i c e n t , dream-like, and r e s p l e n d e n t , as i f i t were a d w e l l i n g p l a c e f o r the immortals. In "Autumn M e d i t a t i o n s V I I I " h i s r e c o l l e c t i o n s of the memorable t r i p he took years e a r l i e r t o Lake Mei-pei a l s o e x h i b i t the extent t o which Tu Fu's f e e l i n g s t r a n s f o r m r e a l i t y . The p o r t r a y a l of the t r i p i s one of e x t r a o r d i n a r y splendour, l i f e , r i c h n e s s , c o l o u r , bounty, and g a i e t y . He r e c a l l s the p l e a s u r e of s a i l i n g on 110 and on w i t h h i s good f r i e n d s whom he addresses as "immortals." These d e s c r i p t i o n s both demonstrate the i n t e n s e l y romantic v i s i o n of the past t h a t goes beyond n o s t a l g i a and i s manifested i n the images of f a n t a s y and dream. In " S p r i n g Equinox" the p o s i t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n of the plum blossoms which r e p r e s e n t beauty, l i f e , and peace seem only t o a f f e c t him when he r e l a t e s them t o the p a s t . From the analyses of these poems we f i n d t h a t Tu Fu i s a poet of contemplation. He transforms e x t e r n a l s i g h t s and sounds and t u r n s to h i s i n n e r s p i r i t u a l s e l f t o a l l o w h i s thoughts and emotions to soar, and then encapsulates t h e i r essence i n h i s poems. As a r e s u l t , h i s thoughts t r a n s c e n d time and space and h i s emotions t r a n s f o r m the e x t e r n a l and inform i t w i t h h i s own thoughts and f e e l i n g s . He i s a l s o a poet of deep f e e l i n g s who i s endowed wi t h t a l e n t and g r e a t s k i l l . He crushes h i s myriad emotions a g a i n s t the t i p of h i s brush as though they are gushing from a s p r i n g . His g r i e f flows e l o q u e n t l y and w i t h ease and grace. These n i n e t e e n poems express h i s s p i r i t u a l torment s u c c i n c t l y w i t h l i n g e r i n g and p e n e t r a t i n g mournfulness. The t h r e e p o e t i c techniques employed i n these poems are a r r e s t i n g , i m p r e s s i v e , and ingenious not o n l y c o n s i d e r i n g when they were w r i t t e n but a l s o by the standards of today. I l l LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS KHCPCS PPTSCC TSCCCP TSTK ii i\ % H 112 BIBLIOGRAPHY I. Primary Sources: Chang Hua, \f\-^ Po Wu Chih. "f<^  Ify j{± TSCCCP, v o l . , 1342. R e p r i n t , Shanghai: Commercial Press, 1939. Ch'u Yuan, fy- Chiang Chi comm.,^ J^f; Shan T a i Ke Chu Ch'u Tz'u. R e p r i n t , Shanghai: Ku Chi P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1984. Chung Hung,J^ J*<^, Wang Chung ed. , ^ Shih P ' i n Chu. T a i p e i : Cheng Chung Book Co., 1969. Hsu Shen, £^ "j^jL Tuan Y i i - t s ' a i ed. , ^ £ Shuo Wen Chieh Tzu C h u . ^ A l^f V ''2- vol.1, chuan 6, KHCPCS, Wen Yo Wen K'u. Jj^  ^ ^ R e p r i n t , Shanghai: Commercial Pr e s s , 1937. L i T a o - y i i a n , ^ ! Shui Ching Chu. "Chiang Shui Chu." ; «fc R e p r i n t , Shanghai: Shanghai Kuo Hsueh Cheng L i She, 1936. L i u Hsieh, ^ ] ¥>%j, Fan Wen-Ian ed . , : X A. ^ ] Wen Hsin T i a o Lung Chu. £ /<c $2- 2 v o l s . R e p r i n t , Hong Kong: Commercial Press, 1986. 113 L i u H s i u , %\ $T Kuo P'u f\ i% and Ho I-Hsing ed., £\ ^^C^7) s h a n H a i Ching Chiao Chu. IU i-L'ti-R e p r i n t , Taiwan: Lo T ' i e n Book Co., 1981. L i u Hsu, %\ 9»7 Old T'ang H i s t o r y . ^  % % chuan 1-11, chuan 190, chiian 195-196. R e p r i n t , Shanghai: Chung Hua Book Co., 1975. L i u I - c h ' i n g , %A %r Yang Yung ed., Shih Shuo Hs i n Yu Chiao Chien. %^ f J ^  ^ Hong Kong: Ta Chung Book Co., 1969. Lu C h i , I^Z ^JY; "Wen-fu" jL|£^  c o l l e c t e d i n Lu Chi C h i . ^ R e p r i n t , Peking: Chung Hua Book Co., 1982, pp. 1-7. Ou-yang Hsiu l ^ / l 1 ^ " & Sung C h i , ^  New T'ang H i s t o r y . j j ^ / \ \ R e p r i n t , Peking: Chung Hua Book Co., 1975. Pan Ku a t t r i b u t e d , i/l I 3 Yen Shih-ku ed.,^j} t^t Han Shu. R e p r i n t , Peking: Chung Hua Book Co., 1962. , Han Wu T i Nei Chuan. • £ % \ \ ^ PPTSCC, v o l . 52. R e p r i n t , Shou Shan Ko Ts'ung Shu, ^ J, J^j ^ ^ v o l . 86. 114 P'eng T i n g - c h ' i u e t a l , Ch'uan T'ang Shih. ^cTt^^ 7 t h v o 1 - R e p r i n t , Peking: Chung Hua Book Co., 1960. Ssu-ma Ch'ien, )^ J? Shih Chi.^L^u R e p r i n t , Peking: Chung Hua Book Co., 1962. Ssu-ma Kuang, Tzu Ch'ih T'ung C h i e n . J t ' 6 R e p r i n t , Hong Kong: Chung Hua Book Co., 1976, 2nd-4th v o l s . T s ' u i Pao, li %\) Ku Chin C h u . ^ ^ i £ TSCCCP vol.264. R e p r i n t , Shanghai: Commercial Press, 1937. Tsung L i n , ^  Ching Chu S u i Shih Chi . J ' J $ J J b PPTSCC, vol.18. R e p r i n t , Pao Yen T'ang P i Ch.i.t^^^^'fyJE Shanghai: I Wen P u b l i s h i n g Co., Tung-fang So a t t r i b u t e d , jf- i Shih Chou Chi .*t-H*)f& c o l l e c t e d i n Lung Wei P i Shu, a photocopy of the o r i g i n a l from Taiwan U n i v e r s i t y L i b r a r y , 1970. Yang Pu, Ch'an Hsiian Hsien e d . , ^ ^ ^ | . L i e h Hsien Chuan. /• 'J TSCCCP. vol.3347. R e p r i n t , Shanghai: Commercial Press, 1936. I I . Secondary Sources i n Chinese and Japanese: i n , & ^ Chang Ch 7f/- / (9 Tu Shu T'ang Tu Shih Chi Chu Chieh. t% ^jfr fyfy R e p r i n t , TSTK, 4th c h i , vol.28, T a i p e i : T a i T'ung Book Co., 1974. Chang Hsing, $ L T j t Tu Lu Yen I & Tu Lu Yu Chu combined. 4* i^f.^i £ 1 ^ ^  R e p r i n t , TSTK, 1st c h i , v o l . 7 & 8, T a i p e i : T a i T'ung Book Co., 1974. Chang Yen, ^-fe Tu Kung-pu Shih T'ung Fu Pen I. 3- l ^ l ^ i l j iM$"JrV R e p r i n t , TSTK, 2nd c h i , v o l . 1 3 , T a i p e i : T a i T'ung Book Co., 1974. Chao P'ang, ^ Tu Lu Chao Chu R e p r i n t , TSTK, 2nd c h i , v o l . 9 , T a i p e i : T a i T'ung Book Co., 1974. Chen E n - l i a n g , LU Chi Wen Hsiieh Yen Chiu. ^Z^%i^~^^^\\^ ( A s t u d Y o f t h e L i t e r a r y Works of Lu C h i ) . Hong Kong: Kuang Wah Book Co., 1969. Chen Wei, Tu Fu Shih Hsiieh T'an Wei.yj^: t<J 41 Wen Shih Che Chi Ch'eng, £ t # % ^ A T a i p e i : Wen Shih Che P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1985. 116 Chen Y i - H s i n , Tu Fu P'ing Chuan. fa 1 s t v o l . Shanghai: Ku Chi P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1982. Cheng Chen-to, ^ jy^- 1^  Ch'a T'u Pen Chung Kuo Wen Hsiieh Shih. ' R e p r i n t , Hong Kong: Commercial Pr e s s , 1973. Ch'eng H s i , "^y^ Tu Fu.'ptw Shuang Tzu Hsing Ts'ung Shu, ^ ^ <L \ T a i p e i : Hsing Kuang P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1979 Ch'eng-tu Tu Fu Yen Chiu Hsueh Hui ed., ^ * ^ l c ' ' J. a n < ^ ; X 1 1 U L U l l C U U U L U a V j C ^ n l l l ^ > W O J . H I L L V T s ' a o T' ng, The Thatched Cottage, ^ "A Symposium on Du Fu's P o e t i c W r i t i n g s i n Kui Zhou." v o l . 2 , 1984; v o l . 1 , v o l . 2 , 1985. Chien Ming-yung, 0J7J "Ji Tu F U C h i Lu Yen Ch'iu Yu Chien Chu.^f-t\|) k^Z^ %^ %X T a i p e i : Wu Chou P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1973. Ch'ien C h ' i e n - i Ch'ien Chu Tu Sh i h . 4^ R e p r i n t , Shanghai: Ku Chi P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1979. Chin Sheng-t' an, ^ |£ » ^ Tu Shih Chieh. faulty R e p r i n t , Shanghai: Ku Chi P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1984. 117 C h ' o u C h a o - a o , j^J^^ Tu S h i h H s i a n g Chu . fr |J R e p r i n t , P e k i n g : Chung Hua Book C o . , 1979. Chou Meng I | p - & Feng Y u , <^ ^ Tu Fu S h i h Hsuan T u . fr H a r b i n : H e i Lung C h i a n g J e n Min P u b l i s h i n g C o . , 1980. Chung Hua Book C o . e d . , ^ ^ &~J Tu Fu Yen C h ' i u Lun Wen Chi.^ )r-t ' i L J ^ i ^ 3 v o l s . P e k i n g : Chung Hua Book C o . , 1962. Department o f Ch inese o f the U n i v e r s i t y o f Shantung e d . , ^ % . ^ ^ ' L % Tu Fu S h i h Hsuan. fr $ P e k i n g : Jen Min Wen Hsueh P u b l i s h i n g C o . , 1984. Fan Nien - y u n , / C ?P S u i H a n T ' a n g Tu Tu.^jk.^ v j l R e p r i n t , TSTK, 4 th c h i , v o l . 3 5 , T a i p e i ; T a i T ' u n g Book C o . , 1974. Fan P 'eng comm. ^ $ \ Wang Wei-chen e d . , jL ^J[. T u Kung-pu S h i h Fan T e - c h i P ' i Hsuan, Tu Lu P ' o C h i e h , & L i Lu P ' o C h i e h combined, fr Z £ f ft *k *H fr$&ty ^ f 4 ^ ^ R e p r i n t , T S T K , 1s t c h i , v o l . 5 & 6, T a i p e i : T a i T ' u n g Book C o . , 1974. 118 'I Fang Yu, % Tu Fu K'uei-chou Shih H s i Lun.^f-t|^ 4^\^> T a i p e i : Yu Shih P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1985. i - t s ' u n g f l | ^ ^ f x T'i Tu Shih San I. Fu Hsuan-ts'ung, ^ A L ^ J T T'ang T a i Shih Jen Ts'ung K'ao. Peking: Chung Hua Book Co., 1980. Fu Keng-sheng, R e p r i n t , S i a n : Shensi Jen Min P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1980 Hsiao T i - f e i , ^ J L ^ | S TU Fu Yen Chiu. ^ Zj^ Shangtung: Chi Lu P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1980. , Tu Fu Shih Hsuan Chu. Peking: Jen Min Wen Hsueh P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1979. Hua Wen-hsuan ed. , 3-F A. *\ Tu Fu Chuan. 3 v o l s . Peking: Chung Hua Book Co., 1964. Hung, W i l l i a m , ^ wo Ts'en Yang Hsieh Tu Fu . - f \ > i ^ -4%. 4^ Hong Kong: O r i e n t a l P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1968. The I n s t i t u t e of L i t e r a t u r e and H i s t o r y of Ssu-chuan ed. , <Q " ) J L 'Lit A Biography of Tu Fu. 5 ?1 ^ ? Ch'eng-tu: Ssu-chuan Jen Mm P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1958. 119 Jao T s u n g - i , ^ t , Chugoku Bungaku Ho. ^ I^X^'fe "A D i s c u s s i o n of Tu Fu's poems w r i t t e n i n K'uei-chou. 1 1 fr> * \ 1962, vol . 1 7 , pp. 104-118. Kuo C h i h - t a , if t f , Chiu C h i a Chi Chu Tu Shih.7L>|^ c o l l e c t e d i n Tu Shih Y i n Te. fr ? l 4 \ 2 v o l s . R e p r i n t , Shanghai: Ku Chi P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1983. Kuo Shao-yu, v1 i^L Chung Kuo L i T a i Wen Lun Hsuan. ^ jLf&lH R e p r i n t , Shanghai: Ku Chi P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1985, 4 v o l s . Kuo Tseng-hsin, Tu Tu Cha C h i . Z % fr >-J %b R e p r i n t , Shanghai: Ku Chi P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1984. L i Ch'en-tung, >^ Tu Fu Tso P'ing H s i N i e n . ' ^ \ ^ ^j" T a i p e i : Tung T a i Book Co., 1977. L i Ch'un-p'ing ed. ^  ^ A New Biography of Tu Fu. tij ^ f^ j> P e i p i n g : L a i Hsun Ko Book Co., 1935. L i a n g Chien-Chiang, ^  /\ Tu Fu Shih Hsuan fy) 1^ $^  Hong Kong: J o i n t P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1984. 120 L i u Ch'en-weng ed.,/^ij Jfy. $\ Shu Senke Chu To Kobu Sh i Shu. ^ 4 & 1%f$%% 2 v o l s . (a p h o t o - r e p r i n t of Yuan e d i t i o n w i t h e x p l a n a t o r y t e x t i n Japanese.) Tokyo: Yagi Shoten, / V iit i 9 8 i . , Chi Ch'ien Chia Chu P ' i T i e n Pu I Tu Kung-pu Shih C h i . 1| ^  if-B M % WJ&rpL*^ ? | % R e p r i n t , TSTK, 1st c h i , v o l . 2 , T a i p e i : T a i T'ung Book Co., 1974. L i u Ta-chieh, %^ f^fc* Chung Kuo Wen Hsiaeh Fa Chan Sh i h . ^ f l ^ i ^ l k ^ - ^ - 3 v o l s . Hong Kong: Ku Wen Book Co., 1976, Lo Ken-tse, ,ijt /"fjf Chung Kuo Wen Hsueh P ' i P i n g S h i h . v o l . 2 . R e p r i n t , Shanghai: Ku Chi P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1984. Lu Yiian-ch'ang, JL %J J? TU Shih Ch'an. ^ f <f ^ \ R e p r i n t , TSTK, 3rd c h i , vol.24, T a i p e i : T a i T'ung Book Co., 1974 Min Y i n g - p i comm Chin Sheng-t'an ed. Tu Shih Hsiian & Ch'ang Ching T'ang Tu Shih Chieh combined. 2nd c h i , v o l . 14 & 15, T a i p e i : T a i T'ung Book Co., 1974. 121 P'eng I, |^ |<£. Ch'ien Mu Chai Chien Chu Tu Shih Pu. T a i p e i : F a c u l t y of A r t s of The N a t i o n a l U n i v e r s i t y of Taiwan, 1964. P'u C h ' i - l u n g , T^Ai/fe- T u T u H s i n Chieh. f^_^ R e p r i n t , Peking: Chung Hua Book Co., 1981. Shao Fu , 1} \% Tu Lu Chi C h i e h . ^ t ^ R e p r i n t , TSTK, 3rd c h i , v o l . 2 0 , T a i p e i : T a i T'ung Book Co., 1974. Shih Hung-pao, Tu Tu Shih Shuo. |J t%J> R e p r i n t , Shanghai: Ku Chi P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1983. Suzuki Torao ^ j^yt-jt & Kurokawa Y o i c h i , ^ , >') '"/% ^ To Shi.^>t tfy 8 v o l s . Iwanami Bunko, fa i Tokyo: Japan, Iwanami Shoten, fa '1$*% 7ti 1963-1966. Teng K ' u e i - y i n g e d , ^ Tu Fu Hsiian Chi . ^  $>\^. l|. Shanghai: Ku Chi P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1983. The Shanghai Book Co ed., Tso Ch i a Yu Tso P ' i n Ts'ung Shu, Tu F u . ^ t Hong Kong: The Shanghai Book Co., 1963. Tsuzaka Toy6,7l» % Ajj- T o r i t s u Shokai. ^ ^ R e p r i n t , TSTK, 4th c h i , vol.34, T a i p e i : T a i T'ung Book Co., 1974. Wang Ssu-shih, Tu I. R e p r i n t , Shanghai: Chung Hua Book Co., 1963. Wu Lu-shan, Tu Shih Lun Ts'ung. Hang-chou: Che Chiang Wen I P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1983. Yang Lun, Tu Shih Ching Ch'uan. R e p r i n t , T a i p e i : Hua Cheng Book Co., 1978. Yang Mu, Lu Chi Wen Fu Chiao Shih. ^fjL. T a i p e i : Hung Fan Book Co., 1985. Yeh C h i a - y i n g , *\ Tu Fu Ch'iu Hsing Pa Shou Chi Shuo. T a i p e i : Chung Hua Book Co., 1966. Y i S i k , Tsuan Chu Tu Shih Tse-feng T'ang P ' i Chieh. )fc It \ X ^ l ^ * t ^ lM R e p r i n t , TSTK, 3rd c h i , vol.24, T a i p e i : T a i T'ung Book Co., 1974. Yu Yu-miao e t . a l ed. , W Jt'ilXb ^  Tu Fu Ho T'a T i Shih. f - i $p k£&dl^j Chin T a i Wen Shih Lun Wen L e i Chi,l£W^jL 123 T a i p e i : Hsueh Sheng Book Co. , 1971. I I I . Other Works i n E n g l i s h : A r i s t o t l e , P o e t i c s . t r a n s , by S. H. Butcher, A r i s t o t l e ' s  Theory of Poetry and. Fine A r t . 4 t h ed. , New York: Dover P u b l i c a t i o n s , Inc., 1955; r e p r i n t , Hazard Adams ed., C r i t i c a l Theory Since P l a t o . Chicago: The U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1975. Brady, Frank, John Palmer & M a r t i n P r i c e ed. , L i t e r a r y  Theory & S t r u c t u r e , Essays i n Honor of W i l l i a m K. Wimsatt. New Haven, C o n n e c t i c u t : Yale U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1973. Butcher, S.H, A r i s t o t l e ' s P o e t i c s . With An I n t r o d u c t o r y  Essay by F r a n c i s Ferqusson. R e p r i n t , New York: H i l l and Wang, 1987. Chan Shih-hsiang, "Essay on L i t e r a u r e . " c o l l e c t e d i n C y r i l B i r c h ed. Anthology of Chinese L i t e r a t u r e From E a r l y Times  To The Fourteen Century. New York: Grove Press Inc., v o l . 1 , 1965. pp.204-214. Chan W i n g - t s i t , A Source Book i n Chinese Philosophy. P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1963. 124 Eagleton, T e r r y , L i t e r a r y Theory, An I n t r o d u c t i o n . Oxford, England: B a s i l B l a c k w e l l P u b l i s h e r L i m i t e d , 1983. E l i o t , T.S. "Hamlet and His Problems." The Sacred Wood. London: Methuen, 1920. Fang A c h i l l e s , "Rhymeprose on L i t e r a t u r e , The Wen-fu of Lu C h i . " S t u d i e s i n Chinese L i t e r a t u r e . Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P ress, 1965. pp.3-42. Fung Yu-lan, A Short H i s t o r y of Chinese P h i l o s o p h y . New York: The Free Press, 1948. G i l e s , Herbert, A C h i n e s e - E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y . T a i p e i : Ch'eng Wen P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1972. Graham, A.C., Poems of Late T'ang. B a l t i m o r e : Penguin Books Inc., 1965. Hawkes, David, A L i t t l e Primer of Tu Fu. London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1967. , Ch'u Tz'u. London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1959. H i r s c h , E.D. J r . , V a l i d i t y i n I n t e r p r e t a t i o n . New Haven, 125 C o n n e c t i c u t : Yale U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1967. Hucker, C h a r l e s , A D i c t i o n a r y Of O f f i c i a l T i t l e s In Imperial  China. S t a n f o r d : S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1985. Hung, W i l l i a m , Tu Fu, China's G r e a t e s t Poet. New York: R u s s e l l & R u s s e l l , 1969. L i u , James J . Y., Chinese T h e o r i e s of L i t e r a t u r e . Chicago: The U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1975. , The A r t of Chinese Poetry. Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , 1962, , "Time, Space, And S e l f In Chinese Poetr y . " Chinese L i t e r a t u r e Essays, A r t i c l e s , Reviews. V o l . 1 , no.2, pp. 137-156, M c E l d e r l y , B. R. J r . , "Satayana and E l i o t ' s O b j e c t i v e C o r r e l a t i v e . " Boston U n i v e r s i t y S t u d i e s i n E n g l i s h . V o l . 3 , 1957. Olson, Elden, On Value Judgments In The A r t s And Other  Essays. Chicago: The U n i v e r s i t y of Chicage P r e s s , 1976. 126 Owen, Stephen, The Great Age of Chinese Poetry: The High  T'ang. New Haven, C o n n e c t i c u t : Yale U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1981, P l a t o , R e p u b l i c f "Book X." t r a n s , by Desmond Lee. R e p r i n t , London: Penguin Books, 1988. Pound, E z r a , The S p i r i t of Romance. N o r f o l k : New D i r e c t i o n s Books, 1952. Preminger, Alex ed. , P r i n c e t o n E n c y c l o p e d i a of Poetry and  P o e t i c s . P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , E n l a r g e d E d i t i o n , 1974. R i c h a r d s , Ivor Armstrong, P r i n c i p l e s of L i t e r a r y C r i t i c i s m . Orlando: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, P u b l i s h e r s , 1985. Shih, V i n c e n t , Yu-chung, The L i t e r a r y Mind And The C a r v i n g  Of Dragons. R e p r i n t , Hong Kong: The Chinese U n i v e r s i t y of Hong Kong. 1983. Shusterman, R i c h a r d , The Object of L i t e r a r y C r i t i c i s m . Amsterdam: Rodopi; Wurzburg: Konigshausen und Neumann, 1984. Soong, Stephen C , " I n t r o d u c t i o n : The Chinese P o e t i c T r a d i t i o n . " A Brotherhood i n Song, Chinese Poetry and 127 P o e t i c s . Hong Kong: Chinese U n i v e r s i t y of Hong Kong, 1985, pp.1-17. Stallman, Robert W. , ed., The C r i t i c ' s Notebook. M i n n e a p o l i s : The U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota Press, 1950. Sutton, Walton & R i c h a r d F o s t e r , Modern C r i t i c i s m , Theory  & P r a c t i c e . New York: The Odyssey Press Inc. 1963. Tanaka, Tyozaburo, Naka Sasuke ed., Tanaka's E n c y c l o p a e d i a  of E d i b l e P l a n t s of the World. Tokyo: Japan, Keigaku P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1976. V i v a s , E l i s e o , "The O b j e c t i v e C o r r e l a t i v e of T.S. E l i o t . " American Bookman. No.l, 1944, pp.7-18. Wellek, Rene & A u s t i n Warren, Theory of L i t e r a t u r e . New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc., 1977. Wellek, Rene, Concepts of C r i t i c i s m . New Haven: Yale U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1963. Yang H s i e n - y i and Gladys Yang, "Carving A Dragon A t The Core Of L i t e r a t u r e . " Chinese L i t e r a t u r e . Peking: F o r e i g n Languages Press, Aug. 1962. pp.58-71. 128 Yeh C h i a - y i n g & Jan W. Walls, "Theory, Standards, And P r a c t i c e of C r i t i c i z i n g Poetry i n Chung Hung's Shih P ' i n . " R e p r i n t . Miao, Ronald C., ed., Chinese Poetry and P o e t i c s , V o l . 1 , CMC A s i a n L i b r a r y S e r i e s No. 8. San F r a n c i s c o : Chinese M a t e r i a l s Center, Inc., 1978. Yoshikawa, K o j i r o , "Tu Fu's P o e t i c s and P o e t r y . " Acta  A s i a t i c a . B u l l e t i n of I n s t i t u t e of E a s t e r n C u l t u r e . No. 16. The ToHo Gakkai, Tokyo, 1969, pp.1-26. Winters, Yvor, The F u n c t i o n of C r i t i c i s m , Problems and  E x e r c i s e s . London: Routledge & Kegan Paul L t d , 1962. 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0097932/manifest

Comment

Related Items