UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Tu Fu and his nineteen hepta-syllabic regulated verses Winters, Alison Kit Ping 1989

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1989_A8 W59.pdf [ 5.61MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0097932.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0097932-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0097932-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0097932-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0097932-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0097932-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0097932-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0097932-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0097932.ris

Full Text

TU FU AND  HIS NINETEEN  HEPTA-  SYLLABIC REGULATED VERSES By ALISON K I T PING WINTERS B.A.,  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  A THESIS SUBMITTED  Columbia,  IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f A s i a n  We  accept  this thesis  to the required  Studies)  as  conforming  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Novebmber,  ©  1986  1989  A l i s o n K i t Ping Winters,  1989  In  presenting this  degree at the  thesis  in  partial  fulfilment  of  the  requirements  University  of  British  Columbia,  I agree that the  freely available for reference and study. I further agree that copying  of  department  this thesis for scholarly or  by  his  or  her  for  It  is  permission for extensive  understood  head of my  that  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without permission.  Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  DE-6 (2/88)  advanced  Library shall make it  purposes may be granted by the  representatives.  an  copying  or  my written  ii  ABSTRACT Though Tu  Fu  was  one  of China's  most p r o l i f i c  poets,  h i s a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s and c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o C h i n e s e p o e t r y were not widely  or f u l l y  r e c o g n i z e d by  scholars during h i s l i f e This thesis portion  of  Tu  and  time.  provides  Fu's  contemporary w r i t e r s  a detailed  work—nineteen  study  o f a manageable  poems—related  by  their  form, which i s h e p t a - s y l l a b i c r e g u l a t e d v e r s e , t h e i r p e r i o d , approximately  two  years  of  and  by  nostalgia, Chapter  it  focuses  context  one on  presents  bear  author's  three poetic  those  which  i n the  I review  century  a biographical sketch  aspects  of  his  directly  on  an  approaches this  an  19th  which  chapter  poetry,  p a s t c r i t i c i s m o f Tu  to the  I  century  have also  and  life  discuss  my  theme  and  and  Fu's  767 A.D.  own  In  of  the  the  chapter  three  12th major  scholarship.  approach on  Fu;  historical  works f r o m t h e  summarize t h e  i s based  o f Tu  understanding  characterized past  approach which  their  techniques.  p o e t r y he w r o t e i n K ' u e i - c h o u i n 766 two  life,  to  Tu  Fu's  assumption  that  h i s works a r e p e r h a p s b e s t c o n s i d e r e d i n t e r m s o f theme poetic Tu an  techniques.  Fu e x p r e s s e s and,  insofar  In the  nineteen  poems w h i c h  I  h i s deep s e n s e o f n o s t a l g i a t o w a r d as  they  b e l i e v e t h e r e i s much t o be  are  In  thematically  and  analyse, Ch'ang-  connected,  l e a r n e d from t a k i n g these  I  poems  iii and  analysing the  one  time  another, by  the  with and  another,  t e c h n i q u e s — a s s o c i a t i o n of  association  world,  which  Tu  three  is a  study  of  syllabic  regulated verses written  767  In t h i s  A.D.  chapter, I c i t e  I discuss the  of each  one  place  Fu  uses  to  with  informed  express  the  nostalgia.  Chapter  then  of  transformation of the external world  subjective  theme o f  three poetic  imagery,  Tu  Fu's  nineteen  i n K'uei-chou  hepta-  i n 766  and  e a c h poem i n t r a n s l a t i o n ;  meaning,  and  poetic  technique  poem.  In chapter f o u r  I summarize Tu Fu's  poetic  techniques  e m p l o y e d i n t h e s e poems. I c o n c l u d e t h a t Tu F u e x p r e s s e s h i s spiritual poetic  torment  techniques  standards of today  e l o q u e n t l y and a r e as  gracefully,  i m p r e s s i v e and  that  his  i n n o v a t i v e by  the  as t h e y were i n h i s own  and  time.  iv  TABLE OF  CONTENTS  Page C h a p t e r One:  Biographical  C h a p t e r Two:  G e n e r a l Review Of P a s t C r i t i c i s m Statement  Chapter  Three: A Study Syllabic  Of My  List  Four:  Bibliography  Abstract  And 29  Nineteen  Hepta-  Regulated Verses W r i t t e n In  Conclusion  Of A b b r e v i a t i o n s  1  Approach  Of Tu Fu's  K'uei-chou Chapter  Sketch  I n 766  & 767  A.D  46 102  I l l ...112  i  1  CHAPTER  ONE  BIOGRAPHICAL  SKETCH  A study o f Tu Fu's l i f e nature  of  his  frustrations central desire  poetry—and  to  return  to  his later  One  Ch'ang-an—a life  of China's  desire  but also  ideals,  informed  which  successful  which  constituted I will  g r e a t e s t poets  the best of h i s a b i l i t y ; than  particular  which  many s c h o l a r s , T u F u ( 7 1 2 - 7 7 0 ) w i s h e d  less  i n e l u c i d a t i n g the  i t . Of  t o T u F u ' s w r i t i n g was h i s l o n g s t a n d i n g  o f t h e n i n e t e e n poems  essay.  the  disappointments  importance  dominated theme  and  i s helpful  only  t h e major  analyze  i n this  by t h e c o n s e n s u s  of  t o serve the state to  however, h i s p o l i t i c a l  and he f a i l e d  not  to realize  c a r e e r was his life's  i d e a l . The r e s u l t i n g d i s a p p o i n t m e n t and f r u s t r a t i o n e x e r t e d a s t r o n g i m p a c t on T u F u . U n t i l h i s l a s t y e a r s , he s u s t a i n e d t h e dream o f r e t u r n i n g t o t h e c a p i t a l state.  He  expressed  vivid,  and e l o q u e n t  his nostalgia works.  emotion  employed  impressive.  But i n order t o understand  relevant  first  to  review  his  i n a number  techniques  helpful  in  The  i n order t o serve the  poems  and t h e  are  artistic  compelling  these  the h i s t o r i c a l  events o f Tu Fu's l i f e  o f moving,  poems,  context  and p o l i t i c a l  and i t is  and t h e  career.  2 II.  TU FU'S L I F E AND HIS P O L I T I C A L CAREER Tu  F u was b o r n  uncertain. Ch'ang-an himself or  i n 712, t h o u g h h i s p l a c e  I n any e v e n t ,  1  a s h i s home  i t seems  because  he  that  of birth i s  Tu Fu t h o u g h t o f  consistently  refers to  a s T u F u o f C h i n g - c h a o and an o l d r u s t i c o f T u - l i n g  Shao-ling.  2  A. EARLY YEARS  ( From 712 t o 745 )  We l e a r n f r o m T u F u ' s own w r i t i n g s t h a t t h e e a r l y y e a r s of  his life  were  generally  happy. I n a l o n g  A d v e n t u r e s , ii  "Young  reminiscences  o f h i s y o u t h . He s a y s  poem  ) Tu Fu records  many  i n t h e poem t h a t  when  he was s e v e n y e a r s o l d , h i s t h o u g h t s were h e r o i c ; f i r s t s o n g was c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e f a b u l o u s when  he  was  nine  years  o l d , he  entitled  that h i s  phoenix; and t h a t  began  to  practise  c a l l i g r a p h y . He r e c a l l s how h i s w r i t i n g s " f i l l e d a b a g , " and how when he was between f o u r t e e n  a n d f i f t e e n , he h a d a l r e a d y  a p p e a r e d i n t h e l i t e r a r y a r e n a . He a l s o r e c a l l s T s ' u i and  Wei  Ch'i-hsin,  two  famous  writers  Shang  of the time,  who  r e m a r k e d t h a t T u F u ' s l i t e r a r y s k i l l s r e s e m b l e d t h o s e o f Pan Ku  and  Yang  Hsiung—the  greatest  literary  masters  a n t i q u i t y . From 731 t o 735, when T u F u was i n h i s l a t e and e a r l y t w e n t i e s ,  he b e g a n t o t r a v e l e x t e n s i v e l y ,  of  teens  crossing  t h e Y e l l o w R i v e r a n d v i s i t i n g S u - c h o u , Hang-chou, Yueh-chou, and  T ' a i - c h o u . I n 735, he r e t u r n e d  t o Ch'ang-an and t o o k t h e  3 "Presented S c h o l a r s " Examination. Although his  he  suffered  a setback,  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , he i t seems t h a t he  failed.  recovered  s p i r i t s q u i c k l y b e c a u s e he s t a r t e d t o t r a v e l a g a i n . T h i s  time  he  chou, his  journeyed  and  Chao-chou. A p p a r e n t l y  life,  birds,  see  writing, career  he  around  wild in  animals,  Tu  evidence  Fu's  and  early  which  this  p e r i o d of  he r e c a l l s how  he  shot  went h u n t i n g . years  of h i s s k i l l s ,  disappointment  Yen-chou, C h ' i -  enjoyed  f o r i n "Young A d v e n t u r e s , "  chased  We  to various areas  and  would  his  pleasure  the  beginning  later  affect  with  of h i s him  so  greatly.  B.  LATER YEARS AND  make later  From  746  ends  meet,  in  until  detail.  and  since  The  the  more  Fu  to  770)  struggled to  directly  on life  his in  c a r e e r came i n  recognized h i s l i t e r a r y  ability,  and  Hsuan-tsung's s u c c e s s o r , a p p o i n t e d  Tu  Tu Fu r e t u r n e d t o Ch'ang-an f r o m C h ' i - c h o u .  In  Reminder. 746,  same y e a r ,  previously  Emperor  failed  another chance; only  i t bears  Tu  peaks o f h i s p o l i t i c a l  757 when S u - t s u n g ,  In  i n 770,  (From 746  d i s c u s s t h i s p e r i o d o f Tu F u ' s  when H s u a n - t s u n g  Fu L e f t  P O L I T I C A L CAREER  h i s death  poems, I w i l l  greater 751  HIS  because  of  the  Hsuan-tsung "Presented  however, he was the  offered Scholar"  those  who  Examinations  f a i l e d again though  corruption of  Li  had  Lin-fu,  the  perhaps Grand  4 Councilor. civil  I n any e v e n t ,  3  back  749. Then  career.  and f o r t h  He p r e s e n t e d  impressed. poem  i n Ch'ang-an  between t h e c a p i t a l  i n 751, he h a d an o p p o r t u n i t y  "Young A d v e n t u r e s , "  this  t o serve  three  a n d was  and L o - y a n g  t o advance h i s  f u t o Emperor H s u a n - t s u n g . "  In  Tu Fu m e n t i o n s t h a t Emperor H s u a n - t s u n g  The f i f t y - s i x t h  read:  i n the  again.  747 t o 750, T u F u s t a y e d  travelling  was  F u ' s dream  s e r v i c e was s h a t t e r e d once From  in  Tu  and f i f t y - s e v e n t h  lines of  5  I presented the f u i n the Imperial Palace. The emperor s t o p p e d t a k i n g h i s meal a n d s e n t  me  a  summons. I n t h e s e c o n d and t h i r d l i n e s o f a n o t h e r "Do N o t S u s p e c t this  Me,"  (  poem  entitled  ^ v x ^ ^ ) Tu Fu a l s o d e s c r i b e s  i n c i d e n t . The l i n e s  read:  6  A  I remember when I p r e s e n t e d l a i Palace,  t h e t h r e e f u i n t h e P'eng-  Even I was a s t o n i s h e d t o f i n d m y s e l f  famous o v e r n i g h t .  H s u a n - t s u n g made T u Fu an a w a i t i n g E d i c t A t t e n d a n t t h e Academy o f S c h o l a r l y W o r t h i e s , any  p o s t ; he h a d t o a w a i t In  752,  examination. satisfactory  7  Hsuan-tsung This  time  b u t he was n o t a s s i g n e d  further orders. ordered  Tu  be g i v e n a j o b . T h a t  be  given  a post.  Fu  t o take  h i s examination  b e c a u s e T u F u was a s k e d  to  was  t o wait  another  apparently  f o r h i s turn  autumn, T u F u was s t i l l  Perhaps  of  waiting to  he was d e s p e r a t e ,  f o r i n 753 he  s e n t t o a p r o m i n e n t g e n e r a l a poem e n t i t l e d  "Twenty Rhymes  sent In  to  the  like Tu  General last  to  Fu  two  had  to  Tu  but  Fu  of  Ho-hsi,  draft  and  Tu  "To  Tease  fy^l  )  Tu  from was  after  the  Myself  of as  the  the  and  left  Ch'ang-an  in  the  job  Tu  as  was  refuse  offer. I  Was  would  to  be  no  only  to  learn  h i s absence.  In the  and  absence getting  i n 755,  Tu  to  whippings  administer The  the  this  the  i n the 9  His  keys. he  young  of  son  released  Ho-hsi  were  his  to  this  the  return had  poem  and  Commandant's  Although  c e l e b r a t i o n upon h i s  the  I was  duties  visit  system  ^  Right  accepted to  of  ( "j?  District  to  appointment,  title  time  Fu  District  T'ang  unsuitable  "At  Feng-hsien  his  the  the  an  of  of  hope of  Later  Appointed,"  desired,  that  leave  in  Commandant o f  Under  note:  arrived  Fu's  delinquents.  armour,  for  Tu  once again.  Section."  Fu  Han  indefinite  Administrator  Helmets  weapons,  Ko-shu  an  Commandant  of  arrived  755,  tax  appended t h i s  kind  was  he  family  duty  After  the  there  that  t o Ch'ang-an, l e a v i n g h i s  a posting  and  declined  post  of  hints  K o - s h u Han  i l l health.  appointee to  assigned  Office  but  he  reply.  disappointed  whose c h i e f  Fu  the  spring  offered  an  Fu  poem  ^  d i d not  requested  evaders  permitted  general,  because of  e m p l o y m e n t was finally  the  returned  In  he  from h i s post  was  of  ($$f<fj"^  8  wait.  Feng-hsien.  capital,  Han."  lines  work f o r t h e  I n 755, in  Ko-shu  look  was  not  assignment family.  home, f o r  died  of  poem " F i v e H u n d r e d Words f r o m  But he  hunger Ch'ang-  6  \ %^U^%%%. %%•  an t o F e n g - n s i e n , " { Fu  tells  part  o f t h e agony t h i s  o f t h e poem  reads:  caused  t h e Tu f a m i l y . The  latter  1 0  I h a v e l e f t my w i f e i n a s t r a n g e d i s t r i c t . Natural d i s a s t e r s separated our household o ft e n . Who c a n l e a v e t h e m a n y l o n g e r w i t h o u t care? I h a v e come t o s h a r e t h e i r h u n g e r a n d t h i r s t . W a i l s r i s e when I e n t e r t h e h o u s e . My i n f a n t c h i l d h a s d i e d o f h u n g e r . Why s h o u l d I s u p p r e s s my g r i e f , T h a t e v e n t h e n e i g h b o u r s i n t h e v i l l a g e a l s o weep f o r us? I am a s h a m e d o f b e i n g a f a t h e r ; So p o o r t h a t c a u s e d h i s s o n t o d i e f o r l a c k o f f o o d . How w o u l d I know t h a t t h e g o o d h a r v e s t o f a u t u m n ; S t i l l c o u l d n o t r e l i e v e t h e poor from s u f f e r i n g such a misfortune? I am a l r e a d y o n e o f t h e p r i v i l e g e d , Free from t a x a t i o n and d r a f t . I f my l i f e i s b i t t e r , T h e n t h e l i f e o f a common man m u s t b e w o r s e . When I t h i n k o f t h o s e who l o s t t h e i r p r o p e r t y , And o f t h o s e r e c r u i t e d a n d s t a t i o n e d a t t h e f a r frontiers, My w o r r i e s a n d a n x i e t y r i s e a s h i g h a s t h e S o u t h e r n Mountains, L i k e mad s w e l l s i m p o s s i b l e t o s u b s i d e .  H e r e , we g l i m p s e sympathy seemed  f o rt h e wretchedness o f t h e poor.  t o be t u r n i n g i n T u F u ' s f a v o u r ,  terrible see  life  and s h a t t e r i n g  t h a t Tu Fu's g r i e f  laments and  not o n l y Tu Fu's sorrow,  more  tries  extends  f o r the less  t o comfort  i s not the At  experience.  beyond  with  J u s t as  he l o s t  the tide  h i s son, a  But i ti s remarkable  fortunate  himself  but also h i s  h i s own and t h e  loss,  to  f o r he  impoverished,  t h e knowledge  that h i s  worst.  t h e end o f 755, t h e An L u - s h a n R e b e l l i o n b r o k e o u t .  ) Tu  7 Art's t r o o p s o v e r t o o k t h e i m p e r i a l fell,  the  rebels  Hsiian-tsung,  captured the  Kuei-fei,  and  B e f o r e T'ung-kuan f e l l ,  forces.  two  Yang  Later  capitals,  Kuo-chung  Tu Fu was  visiting  T'ung-kuan  and  Emperor  fled  to  Shu.  the D i s t r i c t  P o - s h u i . B e c a u s e o f t h e r e b e l l i o n , t h e r o a d s were c l o s e d Tu  Fu c o u l d  not g e t back  t o Ch'ang-an. From h i s poems,  of and we  know t h a t i n 756  Tu Fu s e t t l e d h i s w i f e and c h i l d r e n i n t h e  Ch'iang V i l l a g e ,  a d i s t r i c t o f San-ch'uan o f t h e P r e f e c t u r e  of  Fu-chou. After  exiled  11  settling  court  when  h i s family, he  heard  known as S u - t s u n g , was way  to  join  and  brought back  and b e a u t i f u l  Tu  12  Fu s e t o f f t o  the  crown  join  prince,  emperor a t L i n g - w u .  F u was  t o Ch'ang-an.  capital  The p a l a c e was  that  declared  t h e emperor,  Tu  c a p t u r e d by t h e  Ch'ang-an was  the  later On  the  rebels  not the o l d  he remembered b u t a d e v a s t a t e d r u i n .  b u r n e d and t h e l i v e s o f t h e p e o p l e were more  wretched than ever. In  757,  Tu  Fu  was  able  to  slip  away  and  soon  after  a r r i v e d a t F e n g - h s i a n g where S u - t s u n g was r e s i d i n g .  1 3  of  Tu  Reminder,  a  remonstrance  Fu's  loyalty,  Su-tsung  official,  an  a p p o i n t e d him appointment  Left which  Because  greatly  p l e a s e d Tu F u . As an a d v i s e r , h i s d u t i e s were t o r e m i n d H i s Majesty of e r r o r s  of substance or s t y l e  i n state  documents  and t o mend H i s M a j e s t y ' s b r e a c h e s i n s t a t e c r a f t . However,  Tu  Fu's  appointment  proved  short-lived.  In  8  757,  he became i n v o l v e d i n an i n c i d e n t w h i c h e a r n e d  emperor's d i s p l e a s u r e . That Kuan,  who  capital seat  had  and  was  i n the  excuse."  led  later  again  this,  attempts  defeated  council,  using  however,  Tu  was  by  a  to  the  r e b e l s , from  his  admonished n o t be  furious,  the  chief  officials  of  and  T s ' u i Kuang-yuan. Wei  t h o u g h Tu  was  too  to  Fu  h i s d u t i e s . But  Grand  Councilor,  magnanimous, sentenced Fu was In near the  late  two  ordered  Tu  Hao,  finally was  still  Fu,  pardoned.  15  not  the  who  An's  troops  After this  capitals. i n 758,  i m p e r i a l army  Su-tsung and  the  suffered a  and  Tu  after  to  have  be been  incident,  Tu  decisive defeat  forces  Fu  The  his family.  Hsuan-tsung  same y e a r ,  that  faithful  emperor  might  to  Yen  appeased.  t o go b a c k t o F u - c h o u t o v i s t 757,  was  a  Judicial  reported  h i s words, he  advised  Tu  Chih  Fu  Chih,  recaptured  returned  a l s o went  t h e c a p i t a l , where he c o n t i n u e d t o work as t h e  He s t i l l  in  Chang  and  with  emperor was  Ch'ang-an. Soon, t h e  Ch'ang-an to  the  t o death,  allowed  free  an  d i s m i s s e d on  w h i c h were Wei  Chen-ch'ing,  as  Su-tsung,  be p l a c e d u n d e r a r r e s t and t o be t r i e d by t h e T h r e e Agencies,  Fang  recover  b r i b e r y charge  Fu  arguing that a s t a t e minister should p e t t y o f f e n s e . S u - t s u n g , who  the  Emperor Su d i s m i s s e d  unsuccessful  state  For  year  him  to  back  Reminder.  t o o k h i s d u t i e s as a R e m i n d e r v e r y " s e r i o u s l y " e v e n  his precarious  the Spring at the  experience.  From t h e  Eastern D i v i s i o n , "  poem  "Overnight  (/£• *fo h,  )  we  9 l e a r n t h a t T u F u worked t h e w h o l e day and s t a y e d writing  a  written  by T s ' e n  gently  memorial A  advised  remonstrate  I n one  of  t h e poems A  A  Shen  Tu  less  t o the throne.  overnight  Fu  and a d d r e s s e d  t o Tu Fu, T s ' e n  that  i t would  perhaps  be  f r e q u e n t l y , b u t Tu Fu o b v i o u s l y  A  Shen  best  to  d i dnot  t a k e T s ' e n ' s a d v i c e . From t h e poem " D r i n k i n g by t h e C r o o k e d River"  (  '>  i%  ) we know t h a t t h e p o e t was n o t v e r y  happy a b o u t h i s p o s t . The l a s t f o u r l i n e s o f t h e poem r e a d :  1 6  I i n d u l g e m y s e l f i n d r i n k i n g ; f o r a l o n g t i m e I have g i v e n up my p o s s e s s i o n s , and I do n o t c a r e i f a l l p e o p l e abandon me. I am l a z y t o a t t e n d t o c o u r t ; I am r e a l l y i n c o m p a t i b l e with t h i s world. As a mundane o f f i c i a l , I f e e l t h a t t h e f a i r y l a n d i s f u r t h e r away. I am t o o o l d t o r e g r e t n o t b e i n g a r e c l u s e . In prefect and  m i d 758, Fang o f Pin-chou,  was demoted  to the position  and F a n g ' s f r i e n d s ,  T u F u were a l s o b a n i s h e d .  Yen Wu,  T u F u was s e n t  of the  L i u Chih,  t o Hua-chou,  a b o u t s i x t y m i l e s e a s t o f Ch'ang-an, t o be t h e A d m i n i s t r a t o r o f Hua-chou, i n w h i c h c a p a c i t y he was t o l o o k a f t e r s c h o o l s , temples, time  examinations,  on, T u F u n e v e r  Ch'ang-an.  ceremonies again  and so f o r t h .  had t h e chance  From  that  t o go b a c k t o  17  I n 759, T u F u w r o t e "Day a f t e r ) In t h i s  t h e Autumn E q u i n o x . "  poem, he s a y s  that  (jL  he i n t e n d s t o  10 g i v e up h i s p o s t a s A d m i n i s t r a t o r . The  poem r e a d s :  1 6  Time does n o t make a l l o w a n c e s . Another season succeeded s i n c e l a s t n i g h t . Dark c i c a d a s do n o t s t o p b u z z i n g . Autumn s w a l l o w s a r e l i k e f l u t t e r i n g g u e s t s . T h r o u g h o u t my l i f e I a l w a y s wanted t o be i n d e p e n d e n t . I am a p p r o a c h i n g f i f t y s a d l y . I am f r e e t o q u i t w o r k i n g as an o f f i c i a l . Why do I f o r c e m y s e l f t o be b u r d e n e d w i t h t r i v i a l tasks? In  the  last  frustration job.  line  and  of  dismay  this  poem,  Tu  Fu  expresses  his  with the b u r e a u c r a t i c nature of h i s  L a t e r he d i d g i v e up h i s p o s t and moved t o C h ' i n - c h o u . In  autumn  stayed  for a  poems.  In  759,  month  late  Tu  Fu  and  a  759,  he  arrived half,  went  at Ch'in-chou  and  to  there  T'ung-ku  he and  where  wrote then  he  many on  to  A  Ch'eng-tu.  From  the  General's O f f i c e r , B r i n g Me the to  poem  Comes Out  "Cousin  Wang,  of the C i t y  the  t o See  Governor Me  and  to  Money f o r t h e C o n s t r u c t i o n o f my T h a t c h e d H u t , " ( X ) we l e a r n t h a t w i t h  generosity  of h i s cousin  A i n Ch'eng-tu,  p u r c h a s e some l a n d and t o b u i l d  Flower Washing Stream.  Tu  Fu was  able  a t h a t c h e d hut near A  He r e m a i n e d  i n Ch'eng-tu  f r o m 760  the to  762. In governor  762,  to  employed,  Tu F u w r o t e Yen,  Fu's  friend,  Yen  g e n e r a l of Ch'eng-tu,  officially 762,  Tu  which  Yen  asked  and Tu  a memorandum "On is  collected  Wu,  in  was  a s s i g n e d as  a l t h o u g h Tu Fu  t o work  Drought" his  Fu was f o r him.  (,;5_  prose  works.  ^  the not In )  Since  11 November  of the previous  snow and a s a r e s u l t , According  to  disorders  to a  advised  Yen Wu  disapproval Tu  t o take  concerning  there  had been  no r a i n o r  were s u f f e r i n g f r o m a d r o u g h t .  traditions,  government  heaven  t o express  t h e drought  sent  natural  disapproval.  as a s i g n  some m a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  Yen Wu t o o r d e r  a l l c r i m i n a l cases.  a speedy  T u Fu  o f heaven's of  justice.  adjudication of  I n summer 762, b o t h H s u a n - t s u n g and S u -  d i e d , and Yen Wu was summoned t o Ch'ang-an. S i n c e he  worked  f o r Yen Wu,  recalled the  people  Confucian  Fu admonished  tsung  year,  Tu Fu t h o u g h t  t o Ch'ang-an,  capital  and t h u s  that  he m i g h t  h i s hope o f g o i n g  r e v i v e d . The s e v e n t e e n t h  also  be  back t o  and e i g h t e e n t h  lines  o f t h e poem e n t i t l e d : "Ten Rhymes t o Send H i s E x c e l l e n c y Yen to  return t o Court"  (J^^^'*  "t'lJl  ) read:"  I s t h i s body o f mine t o be s t a y i n g i n Shu f o r good? I f I d i d n o t d i e , I m i g h t be a b l e t o go b a c k t o Ch'angan . Unfortunately, initiated  during t h i s  a rebellion.  time,  Tu Fu f l e d  General  Hsu  t o Tzu-chou,  Chih-tao  and  later  A  r e t u r n e d t o Ch'eng-tu. In  764,  Yen  Wu  20  returned  from  Ch'ang-an.  He  was  a p p o i n t e d M i l i t a r y Commissioner o f t h e whole Chien-nan a r e a . Tu to  Fu then court  went b a c k t o C h ' e n g - t u . Yen w r o t e a memorandum recommending  that  Tu  Fu  be  made  his military  c o u n s e l o r . I n r e s p o n s e t o Yen's r e q u e s t , t h e c o u r t c o n f e r r e d on  Tu Fu t h e t i t l e  of Acting Vice-Director of the Ministry  12 of  P u b l i c W o r k s . He was e n t i t l e d  t o wear r o b e s  i n green  was a l s o g r a n t e d t h e p r i v i l e g e o f w e a r i n g t h e r e d r o b e the  r e d bag c o n t a i n i n g  honour of o f f i c i a l s .  a silver  fish-tally,  the  Tu F u ' s rank d i d not  change.  However,  i n the  with  decorative  T h i s was an h o n o u r a r y t i t l e ,  2 1  but  poem  although entitled  "Do Not S u s p e c t M e , " T u F u e x p r e s s e s d i s m a y o v e r w o r k i n g i n Yen's o f f i c e him.  The poem  b e c a u s e some young c o l l e a g u e s were j e a l o u s reads:  of  2 2  A man l i k e me a c h i e v e s n o t h i n g e v e n when h i s h a i r grows w h i t e . Oh! What a p i t y I My t e e t h a r e a b o u t t o f a l l o u t . I remember when I p r e s e n t e d t h e t h r e e f u i n t h e P ' e n g l a i Palace, Even I was a s t o n i s h e d t o f i n d m y s e l f famous o v e r n i g h t . The e r u d i t e men o f t h e Academy o f S c h o l a r l y W o r t h i e s s u r r o u n d e d me l i k e a w a l l , And w a t c h e d me w r i t e i n t h e H a l l o f t h e S e c r e t a r i a t . I n t h o s e d a y s my w r i t i n g s c o u l d move t h e e m p e r o r . B u t now h u n g e r and c o l d have d r i v e n me t o t h e s t r e e t . I n my l a t e y e a r s , I have t o s e e k t h e f r i e n d s h i p o f the young. They c o m p l i m e n t me i n my p r e s e n c e b u t mock me b e h i n d my b a c k . L e t me s e n d an a p o l o g y t o y o u a l l , p e o p l e o f t h e smart w o r l d : I do n o t l i k e t o c o m p e t e . Do n o t s u s p e c t me I A  I n t h e poem to  ) the  Yen Wu"  Wu t o two  "Twenty Rhymes t o E x p e l D e s p o n d e n c y :  let  lines  h i m s p e n d more t i m e of  the  poem r e a d :  in his  Presented  p o e t a s k e d Yen  thatched hut.  The  2 3  I hope y o u w i l l c o n s i d e r my n a t u r e , And g r a n t f r e q u e n t l e a v e s t o e n a b l e me t o against the firmiana t r e e .  lean  last  13 In the  e a r l y s p r i n g of  Fu t h e t i m e o f f he had Yen  Wu  died,  and  Yen's d e a t h , Tu J u n g - c h o u and l.ines ines c of <^  the  felt  he  Wu  finally  had  lost  a  granted  Tu  year.  Later  friend.  After  Fu wandered a b o u t , g o i n g t o Chung-chou f r o m arriving  poem "Moving t o x  Yen  requested i n the previous Fu  finally  -*rj» /  detained  Tu  765,  j  ) TU  :  i n Yiin-an by  Fu  a t Yun-an. I n t h e  live  i n K'uei-chou  tells  illness.  first  the  The  reader  lines  City"  that  read:  two  he  was  2 4  I was l y i n g i n bed i n Y i i n - a n . I h a v e moved t o l i v e i n W h i t e Emperor C i t y . I n s p r i n g 766, went t o  K'uei-chou  tung u n t i l the 767,  Tu  Fu r e c o v e r e d ,  C i t y . He  and  autumn o f 766.  Tu Fu s t a y e d  and  his  so f r o m Yun-an,  family  health, during  i n Jang-hsi  f o r t h between t h e s e two following  is a  short  o n e - y e a r and  of  leaving  the s p r i n g of  E a s t V i l l a g e and  768, moved  places.  summary o f  a s s e t s , work, s o c i a l l i f e , the  and  Jang-  spring  i n West Chamber f o r t h e most p a r t ,  Tu Fu b o u g h t p r o p e r t y  The  in  From t h e n u n t i l t h e  h i s f a m i l y i n J a n g - t u n g . Between t h e n and  b a c k and  lived  he  and  Tu  Fu's  emotional  physical well-being  t e n - m o n t h p e r i o d w h i c h he  spent  in  K'uei-chou.  I . PHYSICAL HEALTH:  766  In  the  to  767,  poems w h i c h Tu he  describes  Fu  wrote  his  i n K'uei-chou  failing  physical  between health,  14 reporting malaria,  that  he  i s fragile  and s i c k ,  r h e u m a t i s m , and d e a f n e s s  failing  physical condition.  lungs,  i n h i s l e f t ear.  I n t h e poem " O l d and S i c k , " his  h a s weak  ) Tu Fu d e s c r i b e s 2 5  I am o l d and s i c k i n t h e Wu M o u n t a i n s , D e t a i n e d among t h e t r a v e l l e r s i n Ch'u. Some o l d m e d i c i n e s a r e l e f t f r o m t h e o t h e r d a y s ; F l o w e r s b l o o m a g a i n on l a s t y e a r ' s b u s h e s . The r a i n l a s t n i g h t s e e p e d t h r o u g h t h e b e a c h . The wind i n s p r i n g i s a g a i n s t t h e c u r r e n t o f t h e stream. Had I b e e n i n Ch'ang-an, I w o u l d have b e e n g i v e n two w r i t i n g brushes. However, I am o n l y a t h i s t l e d o w n f l y i n g i n t h e w i n d . In  the  Clearness,"  first  (  three '/^  l u n g s . The l i n e s  read:  lines  of  the  poem  "Autumn  ) T u F u m e n t i o n s t h a t he h a s weak  2 6  A t t h e peak o f autumn, t h e d i s c o m f o r t o f my l u n g s i s relieved. I am a b l e t o comb my w h i t e h a i r . I h a t e t o i n c r e a s e o r t o reduce t h e dosage o f m e d i c i n e . In  the seventeenth  "Send t o H s i e h  and e i g h t e e n t h  Chu,"  t h a t he h a s b e e n s u f f e r i n g  %fy ^  the t h i r d  T  and f o u r t h  a l l winter  lines  Tsung-wen t o S e t Up t h e Hen C o o p s , " Tu  )  u  o f t h e poem F  u  mentions  f r o m m a l a r i a . The l i n e s  I f e l l s i c k i n t h e Gorge. I was s u f f e r i n g f r o m m a l a r i a In  1 W ~  £\  lines  2 7  and s p r i n g . "  o f t h e poem (fji  read:  "Urging  %J~iti%hi$~ )  F u m e n t i o n s t h a t he h a s r h e u m a t i s m . The l i n e s  read:  2 8  The meat o f b l a c k hens i s s a i d t o be good f o r rheumatism. The eggs w h i c h a r e l a i d i n autumn a r e g o o d t o e a t . In the \^  last  two  lines  of the  poem " C l o u d y  ) Tu Fu s a y s t h a t h i s l e f t e a r i s d e a f . The  Again," lines  read:  2 9  Don't you s e e t h a t t h e o l d man f r o m T u - l i n g s t a y i n g in K'uei-chou, I s a man whose t e e t h a r e h a l f gone and h i s l e f t e a r i s deaf? From t h e Fu was  II.  five  poems c i t e d  quite fragile  and  above,  s i c k d u r i n g 766  767  t o s p r i n g 768,  hsi  and  for  i n the  t'ang  Tu  East V i l l a g e end  Gorge,"  Governor  Po  of  to  see  that  Tu  767.  hsi  a t Dusk," ( 8^"^  "About  to  hsiung  the  managed t o buy  second ) Tu  From t h e  Depart  Fu  5$C  from  i-4  the  Wu  &^h'<%-^%^  ^  o f 767,  house,  and  a  help  of  Po  "The  Mouth  ) "The Gorge,  Garden,"  Jang-  Mao-lin, of  in  ( l£\  I present  Ch'u-  with Jang) and  Nan-ch'ing  (^  Vj JlL  )  we  I' bk.  in  salary  t o the H a l l  orchard,"  spring  saying that  h i s monthly  ^/v.  know  that  T u Fu b o u g h t a h o u s e , a s p a c i o u s o l d  s o u t h o f i t , a s m a l l f l o w e r and the  property  appended a note  poems " C l i m b i n g  six-acre Jang-hsi  t o w a r d t h e end  the  poem o f  f r e q u e n t l y shared  poet.  30  a l s o know t h a t f r o m  perhaps w i t h  ( < Z  had  Fu  the  the  to  may  ASSETS: From some o f t h e poems, we  hall  one  six-acre  vegetable  orchard.  In  garden  another  next poem  16 entitled  " I n t h e Autumn I s e n t  Chang Wang t o S u p e r v i s e  the  Weeding on t h e R i c e F i e l d s i n t h e E a s t V i l l a g e . The Work i s Almost  Finished.  Servant, about  Early  A-chi,  it,"  <fc  ijt n^t^-k-hL  and  i n the Morning,  the  Boy  Servant,  I  Sent  the  A-tuan,  to  Female inquire  % %, f *f 1£ £ ^ H # fyjf if®l^\1 ft] ) we know t h a t  ^  J-J  he  a c q u i r e d r i c e f a r m s , a h o u s e , and two s e r v a n t s , and f r o m t h e poems "To Chop Wood," ( T^. Repair and also  had  ( ^  <f"  )  F a r Away," ( \ t  t h e Water P i p e s  "To A - t u a n "  i\  ^  three  other  the  above,  "Hsin-hsing i']^ ) we  servants—Po-i,  Went t o  ^  |?)  )  know t h a t Tu  Hsin-hsiu  and  Fu  Hsin-  hsing. From  p r o b l e m s T u Fu was  we  see  that  despite  some  health  q u i t e w e l l o f f and c e r t a i n l y h a d m a t e r i a l  c o m f o r t and s e c u r i t y by  768.  I I I . WORK: During spent  t h e one  year  and  i n K ' u e i - c h o u , he was  ten-month p e r i o d engaged  which  Tu  i n w r i t i n g poetry  Fu and  f a r m i n g . A l t o g e t h e r , he w r o t e a b o u t f o u r h u n d r e d poems w h i c h survive  i n the  extant  collection.  On  average  Tu  Fu  wrote  c l o s e t o t w e n t y poems a month. From t h e f o u r poems "To Grow Lettuce," "The to  ( " f f %)  Garden,"  and  \  )  "The  Bound C h i c k e n s , "  "To Chop Wood," we  grow v e g e t a b l e s ,  raise  chickens,  )  know t h a t Tu Fu mend f e n c e s ,  and  tried chop  wood. I n a n o t h e r Wang  poem e n t i t l e d  to Supervise  " I n t h e Autumn I s e n t Chang  t h e Weeding  on t h e R i c e  Farms  i n East  V i l l a g e . The Work i s A l m o s t  F i n i s h e d . E a r l y i n t h e Morning,  I  A-chi,  s e n t t h e Female S e r v a n t ,  tuan, his  to inquire  about  servants t o plough  harvest. Tu  it,"  we  and t h e Boy S e r v a n t ,  also  fields,  know t h a t  he  A-  directed  plant,  weed, i r r i g a t e ,  farmer  during  and  3 1  Fu became a g e n t l e m a n  On t h e s u r f a c e , h i s l i f e  seemed t o be w e l l  this  period.  settled  here.  I V . SOCIAL L I F E : Among K'uei-chou seventy his  the four and  which  o f them  hundred  poems  survive  are addressed  relatives,  and  twenty  which  Tu  Fu wrote i n  i n the extant  collection,  to h i s friends,  thirteen to  one  to  his  old  friends.  A l t o g e t h e r , t h e s e poems amount t o one q u a r t e r o f t h e t o t a l . From t h e s e poems, we know t h a t  T u F u h a d many f r i e n d s . I n  numerous poems, he m e n t i o n s t h a t he g o e s o u t a n d d r i n k s wine with  h i s friends.  Moved  to  Stay  In t h e second  Temporarily  poem  o f "From J a n g - h s i  i n t h e Thatched  Hut  c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h some o f h i s v i s i t o r s . He p r e f e r s The  poem r e a d s :  i n East  solitude.  3 2  In East V i l l a g e o r i n J a n g - h s i , We l i v e c l o s e b y t h e same k i n d o f c l e a r  I  stream.  18  I go b a c k and f o r t h t o b o t h t h a t c h e d h u t s . I stayed f o r a while t o look a f t e r the r i c e f i e l d s . I t was c l o s e t o t h e n o i s y m a r k e t and was c o n v e n i e n t t o make some p r o f i t s . In t h e s e c l u d e d woods h e r e , one c a n h a r d l y f i n d a path. I f v i s i t o r s come and t r y t o t a l k t o t h e f r a g i l e o l d man, They w i l l  get lost  a n d g i v e up t h e e f f o r t .  Tu F u a l s o went o u t s i g h t s e e i n g . He went t o v i s i t t h e Temples P'ei,  commemorating  Chu-ko  the Eight Battle  Liang,  Kung-sun  Dispositions,  White S a l t Mountains, Yellow  Grass  Shu a n d L i u  the Old Cypress, the  G o r g e , and t o w a t c h t h e  sword pantomime d a n c e o f t h e p u p i l o f Madame Kung-sun F i r s t . On t h e s u r f a c e , i t seems t h a t T u Fu h a d a b u s y s o c i a l  V.  life.  EMOTIONAL WELL-BEING: In  study  many poems and p a r t i c u l a r l y  i n Chapter  Three  i n greater  h i m s e l f a s a s a d a n d l o n e l y man.  t h e ones w h i c h we detail,  Tu Fu p o r t r a y s  I n t h e l a s t poem o f " L a t e  S p r i n g I i n s c r i b e d on t h e W a l l o f t h e Newly R e n t e d Hut  i n Jang-hsi  Tu  Fu e x p r e s s e s  c o u r t . The poem  (five  Thatched  poems), II  h i s sadness reads:  will  at being  too o l d t o serve the  3 3  I want t o p r e s e n t a p r o p o s a l t o s a v e t h e c o u n t r y . However, I am o n l y an a g i n g o f f i c i a l i n t h e Department o f S t a t e A f f a i r s . The r e b e l s a r e f i g h t i n g e n d l e s s l y . I am ashamed t o j o i n t h e f l o c k s o f d u c k s a n d e g r e t s . The t i m e s a r e d a n g e r o u s ; human r e l a t i o n s a r e t e n s e . The h e a d w i n d b l o w s ; t h e f e a t h e r s o f a b i r d a r e h u r t . The s i g h t o f t h e s e t t i n g s u n o v e r t h e r i v e r i s s a d . I weep t i l l m i d n i g h t , and my b e d i s wet w i t h t e a r s .  19 In  the  and  (s>- Ju  Solstice," The  third  lines  fourth  lines  of  ) Tu Fu d e p i c t s how  the  poem  "Winter  a l i e n a t e d he  feels.  read: " 3  Of a l l t h e p e o p l e on t h e r i v e r , I am t h e o n l y whose c o u n t e n a n c e l o o k s o l d . A t t h e w o r l d ' s end t h e c u s t o m s p l e a s e a l l b u t  one me.  I n t h e l a s t two l i n e s o f t h e same poem, Tu Fu d e s c r i b e s how much he m i s s e s Ch'ang-an. The l i n e s r e a d : 3 5  My h e a r t i s b r o k e n i n t o p i e c e s o f l e s s t h a n an i n c h . The r o a d a h e a d i s b l u r r e d and I am l o s t . Where i s Ch'ang-an? Tu  Fu  feels  too  K ' u e i - c h o u , and  All  in  failing, He  was  on a  the  and  surface  went  by  brother,  ling,  then  farmer  Fu's  life who  court,  back t o  Tu  his  he  out  sightseeing.  the  Tu  fact  t h a t he  fairly able  However,  to  Tu Fu d e c i d e d  Kuan.  Yo-chou,  36  and  In  in  was  well-settled. purchase  some  functions, sometimes  In  wrote he  was  alienated,  and  serve  the  court.  t o l e a v e i n o r d e r t o meet  e a r l y 768, finally  not  health  do t h e c h o r e s .  lonely,  could  place  Ch'ang-an.  social  feeling  of  physical  was  was  attended  nostalgia,  I n s p r i n g 768, his  the  y e a r n s t o go  time,  by  distressed  serve  t o h i r e s e r v a n t s t o h e l p him  and  consumed  to  a l l , although  leisure  poetry,  he  gentleman  property his  old  he  went t o  T'an-chou.  In  Chiang770,  he  A  travelled  to  Heng-chou  because  of  the  outbreak  of  a  20 .A  rebellion. where Tu's sailing rain.  After  intended  to  m a t e r n a l u n c l e , T s ' u i Wei,  was  3 7  about Later  3 8  a  that,  he  hundred  in  770,  go  to  Ch'en-chou  living,  miles,  he  was  detained  poet  died  of  sickness,  the  d e s i r e t o r e t u r n t o Ch'ang-an n e v e r  fulfilled.  but  after  by  heavy  with  his  3 9  T h r o u g h o u t h i s l i f e Tu Fu had an u n s a t i s f y i n g p o l i t i c a l career  and  "Presented a  chance  again.  was  Scholar to  write  Even  impressed assigned  struck  by any  another  In  mentions  the  he  presented  fu  755.  District  He  to  b u t t h e p o s t was  he  i n 746 he  that in  was  finally  the  when Tu  Fu  was  chosen  the  751,  failed  not  had  emperor Tu  Fu  was  was  assigned  not  as  the  duty  was  the  tax  so u n s a t i s f a c t o r y t o him  that  of  whippings  he d e c l i n e d t h e o f f e r . The  735,  examination,  he  administer  Administrator  luck.  E x a m i n a t i o n , " and  post u n t i l  delinquents,  bad  though  Commandant o f t h e to  by  H o - h s i whose c h i e f draft  evaders  and  c o u r t t h e n r e - a s s i g n e d him  i n t h e R i g h t Commandant O f f i c e o f t h e  as  Helmets  S e c t i o n whose d u t i e s were t o l o o k a f t e r weapons, armour, k e y s . Though t h e j o b seems n o t t o h a v e b e e n v e r y  the  and  fulfilling, A  he  accepted  to  tell  the  offer.  h i s f a m i l y , he  h u n g e r . When t h e An two wu  However, when he found  join  t h a t h i s son  Lu-shan R e b e l l i o n broke out  c a p i t a l s were c a p t u r e d , to  out  went t o  Su-tsung,  he  was  and  Feng-hsien had  died  i n 755,  of the  l a t e r when he went t o L i n g -  captured  and  brought  back  to  Ch'ang-an. A l t h o u g h i n 757 T u F u was a b l e t o j o i n t h e e x i l e d c o u r t and was a p p o i n t e d and  as L e f t R e m i n d e r , a-more s a t i s f y i n g  c h a l l e n g i n g p o s t , he s t a y e d  a year  and was  duties  were  and  demoted  to look  ceremonies.  to Administrator  after  Later  i n t h i s post  he  schools, gave  up  f o r only  about  o f Hua-chou  whose  temples, this  post  examinations, and  moved  to  A  C h ' i n - c h o u . S u b s e q u e n t l y he went t o C h ' e n g - t u . I n 762, Yen Wu a s k e d Tu F u t o work f o r him; however, Yen Wu was back  to  although the  Ch'ang-an  in  the  Tu Fu was a p p o i n t e d  Ministry  of  Public  summer.  When  Yen  summoned  came  back,  as t h e A c t i n g V i c e - D i r e c t o r o f  Works,  an  honorary  title,  whose  d u t i e s were t o g i v e Yen m i l i t a r y c o u n s e l , he d i s c o v e r e d  that  y o u n g c o l l e a g u e s were j e a l o u s o f h i m and f e l t s o i l l a t e a s e that  he r e q u e s t e d  Yen t o g r a n t  him f r e q u e n t  leaves.  After  Yen d i e d i n 765, T u Fu wandered a r o u n d . A l t h o u g h he b o u g h t some p r o p e r t y  i n K'uei-chou  and on t h e s u r f a c e  was  fairly  w e l l - s e t t l e d t h e r e , i n v a r i o u s poems he p o r t r a y s h i m s e l f an o l d , f r a g i l e ,  l o n e l y , and unhappy man.  in  758 and u n t i l  h i s very  to  return.  last  He l e f t  as  Ch'ang-an  day i n 770, he s t i l l  wanted  ENDNOTES:  1. Some s u g g e s t t h a t Tu Fu was p r o b a b l y b o r n i n Y e n - s h i h , a b o u t t h r e e h u n d r e d m i l e s t o t h e e a s t o f Ch'ang-an, s i n c e Tu Fu's g r a n d p a r e n t s and h i s a n c e s t o r , Tu Yu, were b u r i e d a t t h e f o o t o f t h e Shou-yang H i l l s , and i n 813, Tu Fu's g r a n d s o n , Tu S s u - y e h , b r o u g h t t h e r e m a i n s o f Tu Fu t o t h e family graveyard i n Yen-shih f o r b u r i a l . The O l d T'ang H i s t o r y and t h e New T'ang H i s t o r y , however, s a y t h a t H s i a n g - y a n g i s t h e n a t i v e l a n d o f Tu F u , even t h o u g h i n h i s poems Tu Fu n e v e r m e n t i o n s H s i a n g - y a n g as h i s h o m e . [ L i u Hsu, O l d T'ang H i s t o r y , r e p r i n t , ( S h a n g h a i : Chung Hua Book Co., 1 9 7 5 ) , c h u a n 190 p.5055; Ou-yang H s i u & Sung C h ' i , New T'ang H i s t o r y , r e p r i n t , ( S h a n g h a i : Chung Hua Book Co. 1 9 7 5 ) , c h u a n 201, p.5736.] Many s c h o l a r s r e g a r d Kung, a p l a c e c l o s e t o Y e n - s h i h , as h i s b i r t h p l a c e p r o b a b l y b e c a u s e Tu Fu's great-grandfather was t h e m a g i s t r a t e o f Kung, and so t h e f a m i l y c o n t i n u e d t o l i v e t h e r e f o r q u i t e some t i m e . However, Tu Fu makes no m e n t i o n i n h i s w r i t i n g s o f Kung as t h e p l a c e o f h i s b i r t h . v  2. C h i n g - c h a o was t h e f i r s t p r e f e c t u r e o f t h e T'ang E m p i r e , e n c o m p a s s i n g Ch'ang-an and some t w e n t y d i s t r i c t s . The f i r s t o f t h e s e d i s t r i c t s was Wan-nien, w h i c h a l s o i n c l u d e d Tul i n g . T u - l i n g was o n l y a few m i l e s t o t h e s o u t h o f Ch'anga n . [ W i l l i a m Hung, Tu F u : C h i n a ' s G r e a t e s t Poet,, (New Y o r k : R u s s e l l & R u s s e l l , 1 9 6 9 ) , p.19.] 3. L i L i n - f u , t h e G r a n d C o u n c i l o r , f e a r e d some c a n d i d a t e s m i g h t use t h e e x a m i n a t i o n s as a f o r u m i n w h i c h t o v o i c e t h e i r c r i t i c i s m s o f him t o t h e emperor, so he p e r s u a d e d H i s Majesty not to conduct the examinations i n person but i n s t e a d t o a p p o i n t some o f f i c i a l s t o examine t h e c a n d i d a t e s . L i l a t e r r e p o r t e d t o t h e emperor t h a t a l l t h e c a n d i d a t e s had f a i l e d and t h a t he s h o u l d c o n g r a t u a l a t e His Majesty f o r having a l r e a d y d i s c o v e r e d a l l the t a l e n t s i n the empire. [Ssu-ma Kuang, T z u C h ' i h T'ung C h i e n , r e p r i n t , (Hong Kong: Chung Hua Book Co., 1 9 7 6 ) , v o l . 3 , c h u a n 215, p.6876.) 4. The three fu were to commemorate three stately c e r e m o n i e s — s a c r i f i c e s o f f e r e d by t h e emperor on s p e c i a l l y c h o s e n d a t e s i n 751 to the Temple o f L a o - t z u , t o the I m p e r i a l A n c e s t r a l Temple, and t o t h e A l t a r s o f Heaven and E a r t h . In the t h r e e f u Tu Fu t e l l s H i s M a j e s t y t h a t he i s i n h i s f o r t i e t h y e a r ; t h a t s i n c e h i s l a t e t e e n s he has  23 t r a v e l l e d f a r and h a s l i v e d humbly; t h a t w h i l e m a k i n g a meagre living i n the capital through selling herbal m e d i c i n e s and t h r o u g h t h e g e n e r o s i t y o f h i s f r i e n d s , he h a s had t h e u n u s u a l o p p o r t u n i t y t o w i t n e s s and r e c o r d t h e s e wonderful ceremonies. 5. The  Chinese t e x t  reads:  6. The  Chinese t e x t  reads:  7. The f o u r t h , f i f t h , and s i x t h l i n e s o f "Do Not S u s p e c t Me" r e a d : The e r u d i t e men o f t h e Academy o f S c h o l a r l y W o r t h i e s s u r r o u n d e d me l i k e a w a l l , And w a t c h e d me w r i t e i n t h e H a l l o f t h e S e c r e t a r i a t . I n t h o s e d a y s my w r i t i n g s c o u l d move t h e emperor.  \l % ki f* * i {  . V  8. The I n s t i t u t e o f L i t e r a t u r e and H i s t o r y o f S s u - c h u a n e d . , A__Bioqraphy of Tu Fu. (Ch'eng-tu: Ssu-chuan Jen Min P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1 9 5 8 ) , pp.30-31. 9.  The  Chinese t e x t  %t 10. The  ^  *  hi h  Chinese t e x t  j>.Mh A:k r  reads:  A ify f  n  £ -t  reads:  ihUh^  24  t*&mK  JrvucM 11.  Ibid.,  pp.37-38.  12.  Ibid.,  p.39.  13.  Ibid.,  pp.42-43.  JMM&^lf >%%$t\%  14. Fang had v o l u n t e e r e d t o l e a d an army t o r e c o v e r t h e c a p i t a l , b u t t h e b a t t l e a t C h ' e n - t ' a o was a g r e a t d i s a s t e r . [From Tu Fu's poem "The T r a g e d y o f C h ' e n - t ' a o " ( ) we know t h a t t h e c a s u l t i e s were o v e r f o r t y t h o u s a n d . ] L a t e r , F a n g f o u g h t a g a i n and was o n c e more d e f e a t e d by t h e r e b e l s . V  15. The I n s t i t u t e o f L i t e r a t u r e A B i o g r a p h y o f Tu F u , pp.43-44. 16. The  17.  Chinese t e x t  Ibid.,  18. The  K 19. The  reads:  p.49.  Chinese t e x t  reads:  ft. Chinese t e x t  reads:  and  History  of  Ssu-chuan, ,  25 20. Hung, T u F u : C h i n a ' s G r e a t e s t P o e t ,  pp.189-190.  21. The I n s t i t u t e o f L i t e r a t u r e a n d H i s t o r y e d . , A B i o g r a p h y o f T u F u , p.84. 22.  The C h i n e s e t e x t  reads:  23. The C h i n e s e t e x t  reads:  24.  The C h i n e s e t e x t  reads:  25. The C h i n e s e t e x t  reads:  26.  reads:  The C h i n e s e t e x t  of  Ssu-chuan  26 27. The  Chinese t e x t  reads:  28.  Chinese t e x t  reads:  The  f >aj|ill 29. The  Chinese t e x t  30.  The  note  -1  ft  ^*f*jJL. reads:  i n Chinese  <f *  reads:  & > y  ^  31. The poem r e a d s : In t h e E a s t V i l l a g e , t h e r a i n i s p l e n t i f u l by now. I s t a n d h e r e and a w a i t t h e f r a g r a n t s m e l l o f r i c e . Heaven up a b o v e d o e s n o t p r a c t i s e f a v o u r i t i s m . B o t h r e e d s and weeds w i l l grow. P e o p l e c o n s i d e r t h e s e p l a n t s n o t t o be good, And a r e a f r a i d t h a t t h e y m i g h t s p o i l t h e work o f farming. No e f f o r t w i l l be s p a r e d . We p u l l up t h e weeds and p u t them by t h e s i d e o f t h e r i v e r bank. The g r a i n i s t h e r o o t s u s t a i n i n g l i f e . How w i l l a t r a v e l l e r f o r g e t t h i s ? In t h e s p r i n g , t h e f a r m s were a t t e n d e d . T h e y were t h o r o u g h l y p l o u g h e d a c c o r d i n g t o r u l e . The w a t e r b u f f a l o e s were s t r o n g and e a s y t o manage. We d r o v e them o v e r t h e f i e l d s . R i c h s t a l k s had begun t o b e a r . R a i n f e l l and f o r m e d s q u a r e p o o l s i n t h e f i e l d s . E v e r y t h i n g t h a t grows w i l l come o u t . This required care. I t i s n o t t h a t I d i d n o t have a s u p e r v i s o r t o s u p e r v i s e t h e works s y s t e m a t i c a l l y . In C h i n g and Yang, t h e c l i m a t e was warm. W h i l e I was w a i t i n g f o r a s l i g h t f r o s t , I was s t i l l a f r a i d t h a t t h e k e e p e r m i g h t be s l a c k , and w o u l d n o t be v i g i l a n t enough. So on a c l e a r m o r n i n g , I s e n t my maid and s e r v a n t , t o c o n v e y my message o v e r t h e h i g h r i d g e s . A f t e r t h e h a r v e s t , I w o u l d g i v e away some o f what I had c o l l e c t e d .  27 The  Chinese  text  reads:  fettaf ,€ t ^  £ *- JR i*%  The  Chinese  text  If - f  reads:  £ 4 il •'%-* - & K $ 'H # ii-*• 4 A & # 4 « •! The  Chinese  text  f 4 1 i i 4') *figf  reads:  &  28  34.  The  Chinese t e x t  * ± *S % £ 35.  The  Chinese t e x t  reads:  k  A^-il^t^E  reads:  36. The I n s t i t u t e o f L i t e r a t u r e and e d . , A B i o g r a p h y o f Tu F u , p.126. 37.  Ibid.,  History  of  Ssu-chuan  p.141.  38. Hung, Tu F u : C h i n a ' s G r e a t e s t P o e t , pp.273,  275.  39. " S i c k w i t h F e v e r on t h e B o a t : I Wrote T h e s e T h i r t y - S i x Rhymes i n Bed to. P r e s e n t t o R e l a t i v e s and F r i e n d s i n Hu-nan"  ( i&fc4r't  4< Kt  *  3 1 * %l  jfl HQ ^  H I  )  i s the  l a s t poem i n Tu Fu's e x t a n t c o l l e c t i o n . P r o b a b l y , as Hung and The I n s t i t u t e o f L i t e r a t u r e and H i s t o r y o f S s u - c h u a n s u g g e s t , Tu Fu m i g h t h a v e d i e d o f t h i s f e v e r . (The I n s t i t u t e o f L i t e r a t u r e and H i s t o r y o f S s u - c h u a n e d . , A B i o g r a p h y o f Tu Fu, pp.144-145; Hung, Tu F u : C h i n a ' s G r e a t e s t P o e t , p.278. )  29  CHAPTER  TWO  GENERAL  REVIEW  OF  PAST  CRITICISM  AND  STATEMENT  OF  MY  appreciated  by  APPROACH  A.  INTRODUCTION: Tu  Fu's p o e t r y  was n o t w i d e l y o r f u l l y  c o n t e m p o r a r y w r i t e r s and s c h o l a r s d u r i n g h i s l i f e t i m e . Yuan A  Chen was among t h e f i r s t contributions fourteeenth  t o Chinese poetry.  line  of "Funeral  Acting Vice-Director preface) , " Chen  t o d i s c e r n t h e g r e a t n e s s o f Tu Fu's  &  In the l a t t e r  part of the  I n s c r i p t i o n s , o f t h e Deceased  o f t h e M i n i s t r y o f P u b l i c Works  $  1 ^  £  tf  U£  % 1% #  ff^  (with ) Yuan  writes: He ( T u Fu) a t t a i n e d a l l t h e s t y l e s o f s c h o l a r s o f antiquity and c a p t u r e d t h e u n i q u e and d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f men o f l e t t e r s o f t h e p r e s e n t . 1  As Yuan Chen and p o e t s l i k e Han Yu b e g a n t o p r o m o t e T u F u ' s poetry,  more  commentaries; Thus,  only  figure  scholars some  after  i n Chinese  The  Nine  Huang  tried  h i s death  his  work  to imitate  d i d Tu  Tu  Fu become  and  wrote  Fu's  style.  a  towering  poetry.  criticisms  extensive. An-shih,  even  studied  noted  of  Tu  Fu's  scholars,  T'ing-chien,  works  are  varied  and  Wang Chu, Sung C h ' i , Wang  Hsieh  Meng-fu,  Tu T ' i e n ,  Pao  30 P i a o , S h i n Y i n , and Fu's  poetry  views  of  from  Chao Y e n - t s ' a i w r o t e c o m m e n t a r i e s on  the  these  eleventh  scholars,  to  popularly  Commentators, were c o m p i l e d by Kuo Wang  Ssu-shih,  a  Ming  twelfth centuries.  dynasty  known  as  wrote  F e e l i n g s o f Tu Fu) , a commentary on Tu Fu's  The  the  Nine  In  1645,  I  (The  C h i h - t a i n 1181. scholar  Tu  Tu  p o e t r y . In  1667,  C h ' i e n C h ' i e n - i , an a r d e n t h i s t o r i c a l r e s e a r c h e r , p u b l i s h e d his  commentary C h ' i e n  P o e t r y by compiled  Chu  C h ' i e n ) on Tu h i s and  In  interpretations  Fu's  (A Commentary o f Tu  poems. I n 1703,  Chu  Lun  1724, on  P'u  Tu  published  Evaluations released  of  his  Chao-ao  (A D e t a i l e d Commentary o f Tu  Fu's  Ch'i-lung works  i n Tu  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f E m o t i o n s o f Tu Fu's Yang  Ch'iu  Fu's  p r e v i o u s c o m m e n t a t o r s ' comments i n a book  c a l l e d Tu S h i h H s i a n q Poetry).  Tu S h i h  Tu  Tu  Shih  Fu's  commentary  Commentary o f Tu Fu's  Chinq  Poetry). entitled  Poetry)  published Tu  Hsin  Ch'uan  his  Chieh  P o e t r y ) , and  In  Fu's  in  (An 1792,  ( R e f l e c t i o n s and  1870  Shih  Hung-pao  Tu  Shih  Shuo  Tu  i n response  (A  t o C h ' i u Chao-ao's  comments. The comments made by t h e s e c r i t i c s , t h o u g h v a r i e d , tend to f o l l o w three c o n s i s t e n t approaches. I w i l l  summarize  t h e i r m e t h o d o l o g y as f o l l o w s .  B. GENERAL OVERVIEW OF 19TH  PAST C R I T I C I S M (FROM 12TH  CENTURY TO  CENTURY) Many o f Tu Fu commentators t e n d t o a d o p t a l i n e - b y - l i n e  31 t e x t u a l a n a l y s i s o f t h e poems. The such  a method.  ^^-^ the  For  N i n e Commentators employ  i n s t a n c e , i n "Autumn M e d i t a t i o n s I I "  ) Chao Y e n - t s ' a i p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e s e c o n d l i n e  poem  Dipper,  should I  gaze  argues t h a t Dipper,  "Each  toward  i t should  I gaze  Ch'ang-an  read:  the  i s north  of  the  Shih  by  the  Yin,  "Each n i g h t g u i d e d capital."  K'uei-chou,  o v e r h e a d i n Ch'ang-an. As  guided  capital."  read:  toward  night  Shih  and  by  Big  f o r the remarks of the  f o u r t h l i n e s , one o f t h e commentators e x p l a i n s two w h i c h Tu Fu e m p l o y s . One sources  Small  however,  points  the  the out  "Chang C h ' i e n ' s  expressed Emperor that  B u i l d i n g w h i c h Tu  a l s o p o i n t s out in  City.  the  that  sixth  Chao  that  Dipper  is  third  and  allusions  mission to  West." Chao d i s c u s s e s t h e u s e o f t h e i n c e n s e b u r n e r s  and  Big  o f t h e commentators e l u c i d a t e s t h e  o f " g i b b o n s c r y " and  State A f f a i r s  of  "the line  comments  Fu u s e s i n t h e turrets  is a on  the  s i n c e i v y grows i n summer and  fifth  against the  reference last reed  of  to  the  line, hills"  the  couplet,  the  White arguing  b l o s s o m s bloom  in  autumn, t h e p o e t must be r i d i n g i n a b o a t and d e s c r i b i n g t h e scenery  of the changing  Secondly,  o f s e a s o n s f r o m summer t o autumn.  some c r i t i c s ,  2  Ch'ien Ch'ien-i i n p a r t i c u l a r ,  c o n c e n t r a t e on t h e h i s t o r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f i m a g e s . C h ' i e n explains historical  the  history  figures,  and  of  certain  incidents  places, in  great  allusions, detail.  For  32 i n s t a n c e , i n "Autumn M e d i t a t i o n s V," when t h e p a l a c e was detail.  He  suggests  emperor  in  that  explains  751.  how  Hsuan-tsung's  Mother  and  Yang  common. C h ' i e n fourth  line  this  Ch'ien  Yang  became  in  first  line,  t h e p l a c e he p r e s e n t e d  Mother," a T a o i s t f i g u r e , and  e x p l a i n s how  and  b u i l t , and d e s c r i b e s i t s b e a u t y i n g r e a t  r e c a l l s t h e t i m e and the  Ch'ien  also  says  once  he  a  argues,  the three  fu to  the  t o Yang  "Queen  Kuei-fei,  T a o i s t nun,  f a v o u r i t e concubine.  Kuei-fei,  poet  that  i s a reference  Kuei-fei,  the  Both  have  later  the  Queen  something  in  a l s o p o i n t s out t h a t the poet a l l u d e s i n the  to  Hsuan-tsung,  superstitutions  during  the  and  to  his  later  interest  part  of  his  in Taoist reign,  an  i n t e r e s t w h i c h d i s t r a c t e d him f r o m p r o p e r l y m a n a g i n g a f f a i r s of  state.  Ch'ien  "pheasant-tail the  goes  screens"  to  explain  i n great  the  detail.  He  reference  to  explicates  how  " p h e a s a n t - t a i l s c r e e n s " were u s e d d u r i n g t h e  of Hsiian-tsung. describes  the  presentation couplet,  In t h e f i f t h ceremonies  to  Ch'ien  Finally,  and  he  saw  Hsuan-tsung  as  thinks  s h o r t t i m e when he was  some  approach, concerning are  on  t h a t Tu  late reign  s i x t h l i n e s , he in a Fu  court  as  well  commoner. recalls  s a y s Tu  In  and  as  the  Fu his  last  laments  the  t h e Reminder d u r i n g Su-tsung's r e i g n .  critics  adopt  themselves with  b e s t u n d e r s t o o d . Though t h e s e  a  3  more  interpretive  the  poems' images  how  critics  attempt t o  throw  l i g h t on t h e t h o u g h t s a n d f e e l i n g s o f T u F u , t h e i r  analyses  frequently  critic's  personal  seem  t o be  based  on  the individual  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f a poem r a t h e r t h a n on a r a t i o n a l  and l o g i c a l f r a m e w o r k . Sometimes t h e y c o n c e n t r a t e on m a t t e r s w h i c h do n o t d i r e c t l y o f Tu Fu's p o e t i c is  difficult  Ch'i-lung, of  this  understanding  t e c h n i q u e s a n d sometimes what t h e y ..argue  to verify.  Wang S s u - s h i h , C h ' i u Chao-ao, P'u  Yang L u n , a n d S h i h Hung-pao a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  approach,  of t h a t approach, of  contribute t o a better  and i n o r d e r t o e l u c i d a t e  the character  I w i l l c i t e an example f r o m t h e commentary  each. • Wang S s u - s h i h p o i n t s o u t t h a t T u F u ' s e m o t i o n  in  t h e second  because  line  the poet's  expressed  o f "Autumn M e d i t a t i o n s I I " i s v e r y s a d homeland  i s i n the c a p i t a l ,  a n d y e t he  c a n o n l y g a z e a t i t b u t c a n n o t go b a c k . Wang a l s o s a y s  that  the  that  third  line  conveys  the poet's  actual  experience,  Tu Fu i s moved b y t h e c r i e s o f t h e g i b b o n s a n d he s h e d s h i s t e a r s . He n o t e s t h a t i n t h e f i f t h a n d s i x t h l i n e s , tells  the reader  that  he r e f u s e d t o t a k e  the  t h e poet  assignment  b e c a u s e o f i l l n e s s . I n Wang's o p i n i o n , " t h e m o u r n f u l  bugles"  in the sixth  remarks  l i n e a r e an a l l u s i o n t o war. Wang a l s o  t h a t t h e l a s t two l i n e s r e f e r t o t h e s w i f t p a s s i n g o f t i m e , and  that  the  accomplished  poet  feels  o l d but  as  though  he  has  nothing."  Commenting on "Autumn M e d i t a t i o n s V I I , " C h ' i u Chao-ao  c l a i m s t h a t Tu F u i s e x p r e s s i n g h i s n o s t a l g i a f o r L a k e K'unming, and l a m e n t s t h a t he i s t o o f a r away t o be a b l e t o s e e the is  lake. Concerning the f i r s t comparing  Han w i t h  Hsuan-tsung b u i l t his  claim  t h e T'ang E m p i r e .  h i s ships  by c i t i n g  two  s e n t t o Mr. C h i a C h i h ,  two l i n e s ,  Ch'iu Ch'iu  i n t h e l a k e . He  lines  o f t h e poem,  the Adjutant  says Tu Fu argues  that  substantiates "Fifty  Rhymes  o f Y o - c h o u , and Mr. Yen  r e g a l i a no l o n g e r c a n be s e e n / Our f l e e t r e m a i n e d u s e l e s s . " Ch'iu  thinks  that  i n the t h i r d  and f o u r t h l i n e s ,  5  the poet  d e p i c t s t h e g r a n d e u r o f t h e l a k e he remembers and i n t h e two l i n e s that follow, describes i t s d i s t r e s s i n g scenery. last  two l i n e s ,  laments capital.  that  T u F u compares h i m s e l f  t o a fisherman  he d o e s n o t know when he c a n go b a c k  and  to the  6  P'u  Ch'i-lung  "Autumn M e d i t a t i o n s in  In the  t h e second  line  "above t h e p a s s e s "  comments  that  i n the  first  line  I " T u F u d e p i c t s t h e autumn s c e n e r y , describes K'uei-chou.  of and  " R i v e r b a n k s " and  are the poet's references t o K'uei-chou,  and  "waves r a g e up t h e t h e s k y " a n d "shadows o f t h e c l o u d s "  are  t h e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e autumn s c e n e r y .  sixth  lines  thoughts.  are the poet's  P'u  points  general  out that  The f i f t h  descriptions  the poet  and  of h i s  elaborates  d a y s " i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e v e n poems, a n d t h a t by " o t h e r  "other days"  he  refers  to  the  time  time  he  Building,  the  period  Ch'ang-an's  past  of  events,  chained  the  saw,  the  his  fu to  instability, he  the  with the  answered  remembered,  emperor.  also elaborates  in  State the  throne,  hundred  the  Affairs  court  the  years'  by  the  P'u  and  the  t i m e he  f u r t h e r remarks  " h i s home" i n t h e  of  blue-  door, the time of the b e a u t i f u l palace  b a n n e r s he the  spent  remonstrated  time  patterned  he  he  presented  that  the  poet  f o l l o w i n g poems: t h e  Big  A  Dipper,  the  F i v e Tombs, Ch'ang-an, t h e m a n s i o n s ,  P'eng-lai  P a l a c e , t h e C r o o k e d R i v e r , L a k e K'un-ming, and L a k e P'u  perceives  that  sheds h i s t e a r s . detail, such a  he  poet  thinks  expounds " t h e  e x p l a i n what c r i t e r i a  his  past,  other  he  he  days" i n  uses t o  p o i n t s o u t t h a t i n "Autumn M e d i t a t i o n s the  Crooked  River  e m p i r e . Yang d i s a g r e e s  "imperial resplendence relationship  between  the  draw  with  laments the Wang Ho  the  deems t h a t  i s the poet  thinks  that  intimate  emperor's  route  Yang  finds  cause of the expands  i n the  who  only demonstrates the that  f o u r t h l i n e s the poet h i n t s t h a t indulgence pleasures  devastation  Yang  River.  and  the  brothers.  to  emperor  V"  his  line  Crooked  and  came" i s a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e  t h i n k s that the  which  of  conclusion.  poet misses  the  the  A l t h o u g h P'u  7  does not  Yang Lun  of the  when  Mei-pei.  fifth  the  following lines.  sixth  lines,  third  and  in materialistic  empire's d o w n f a l l ,  i n the and  in  the  a  thought  Yang  poet  also  recalls  36 t h e b e a u t y o f t h e C r o o k e d R i v e r i n t h e p a s t , and two  lines,  he  destruction. Shih years"  laments the  fact  only  be  taken  disagrees  a general too  bring  last forth  8  with  Ch'iu's  i n "Autumn M e d i t a t i o n s  as  that pleasures  i n the  IV."  rough estimate  literally.  Shih  ideas  about  the  Shih regards of time  argues  which  that  "hundred  the  phrase  should  i f we  not  take  i t  literally,  t h e n t h e r e i g n s o f p o l i t i c a l u n r e s t o f Ch'ang-an  cannot  applied  be  tsung's Shao  reference  to  officials.  the  who  times  in  think  improper  of  T'ai-tsung  and  T'ai-  that  the  promotion of  third civil  line and  is  those  "caps  poems  and  the  robes."  phrase  Shih  concludes  consistently  are p r o p e r l y chosen, the poet  refers  otherwise  i n t h i s poem. S h i h a l s o d i s a g r e e s w i t h C h ' i e n  Su-tsung's  court  miscalculated  who  were o f  d i d wear t h e  when t h e y  served  the  the  empire.  and  taken  argues  employed  by  those  the  T'ang others  caps  and  robes  as  He  sees  the  third  line  as  a  seems t o  the poet  does n o t  and  that  of  p l a c e ; he  who  on H s u a n - t s u n g ' s  fourth lines  to  c o u l d n o t mean  i n e x p e r i e n c e d o f f i c i a l s and  t h a t i n the t h i r d  changes which had  Shih  foreign blood  same k i n d  r e f e r e n c e t o y o u n g and suggest  trust.  the that  who  t h i n k s t h a t the t h i r d l i n e i s a s a t i r e  a  military  officials  warriors  and  S h i h c i t e s t h e l i n e s o f o t h e r poems i n w h i c h  a l s o mentions  since  the  f a t h e r . S h i h a l s o d i s a g r e e s w i t h Wang S s u - s h i h  Ch'ang-heng  poet  to  mourns  think  that  37 Tu  Fu r e f e r s t o a p a r t i c u l a r  Given  this  long  group of  tradition  of  people.  9  criticism,  s u r p r i s i n g t h a t d i s c u s s i o n s o f T u Fu's  poetry  i t  are  is  sometimes  c o n t r o v e r s i a l . F o r i n s t a n c e , Chao Y e n - t s ' a i p o i n t s o u t the is  "turrets a  reference  Ts'ung,  to  however,  Chamber. the  a g a i n s t the h i l l s " White think  Wang S s u - s h i h  City.  i t  is  a  t h i n k s t h a t the  same poem, i s a r e f e r e n c e  that  i n "Autumn M e d i t a t i o n s  Emperor that  not  t o the  Yang  Lun  and  reference  II"  Chang  to  West  " f u t i l e mission"  work i n t h e  Personal  E v a l u a t i o n S e c t i o n a s s i g n e d t o t h e p o e t by t h e c o u r t i n Ch'iu post  and of  P'u,  Works a s s i g n e d  t o the  p o e t by  Yen  Wu  in  the  g r e a t v a l u e . T h e s e commentators had  thoroughly figures, poems. the  In  allusions  references. critics to the  their  p l a c e s w h i c h Tu  commentaries, employed  Some o f  by  the  i s u s e f u l and  they  Tu  Fu  undoubtedly  r e a d Tu Fu's  ground-work  makes r e a d i n g  poetry  historical  Fu m e n t i o n s i n h i s  assiduously and  also  elucidate  explain  e s t a b l i s h e d by Tu  of  764.  and were v e r y k n o w l e d g e a b l e a b o u t t h e  i n c i d e n t s , and  the  Minister  The t r a d i t i o n a l c r i t i c i s m o f Tu Fu's p o e t r y has  763.  however, t h i n k t h a t i t i s a r e f e r e n c e t o  Counselor A c t i n g V i c e - D i r e c t o r of  in  Fu's  poetry  his these  easier  u n d e r s t a n d . However, f r o m a modern p e r s p e c t i v e , much o f commentary  perceptive  and  lacks  force  convincing  and  seems  analyses.  to  More  fall often  short than  of not,  38 these  qritics  concerning  the  t e l l us l i t t l e of  provide  images w i t h o u t  a  statement  offering  of  opinion  explanations.  a b o u t t h e a r t i s t i c q u a l i t i e s and  Tu Fu's w o r k s . Modern c r i t i c i s m  and  achievements  s h o u l d be more  impartial  Fu's  poetry  theme and  i s perhaps b e t t e r c o n s i d e r e d  h i s poetic technique.  During  the  i n terms  one-year  t e n - m o n t h p e r i o d t h a t Tu Fu r e s i d e d i n K ' u e i - c h o u , 55  hepta-syllabic  with  a  great  addresses  eagles,  regulated verses.  variety  friends,  also expresses  lives  of  themes.  These  In  36  generals, relatives,  he  were of  and  t h i r d of these verses  besieged  Tu  Fu  a servant.  by r e b e l s .  his But  ( n i n e t e e n poems), Tu Fu  a s i m i l a r t h e m e — h i s deep s e n s e  wrote  them,  s p r i n g , h i s s i c k n e s s , and  of people  and  concerned  r e f l e c t i o n s on h i s t o r i c s i t e s , r a i n ,  a pavillion,  about the one  They  analytical.  Tu of  simply  He  floods, concern i n about  expresses  o f n o s t a l g i a t o w a r d Ch'ang-  an. T h e r e i s , I b e l i e v e , much t o be g a i n e d f r o m t a k i n g t h e s e poems as a g r o u p and a n a l y s i n g t h e s p e c i f i c t e c h n i q u e Tu  Fu  e m p l o y e d t o e x p r e s s t h e theme o f n o s t a l g i a , w h i c h d o m i n a t e d s o much o f h i s p o e t i c e n d e a v o u r . What i s most s t r i k i n g their  common  techniques. another,  reliance  These  are  a b o u t T u Fu's upon  the  three  association  n o s t a l g i a poems i s particular of  one  poetic  time  t h e a s s o c i a t i o n o f one p l a c e w i t h a n o t h e r ,  and  with the  reflection described thoughts  and in  and  nostalgia  the  poems  feelings  as  are  he  together  in  1 ) A s s o c i a t i o n o f P a s t and w h i c h Tu  three  external i t with  a  world  his  own  c a r e e r and  his  techniques  a l l nineteen  e x p r e s s i o n o f n o s t a l g i a most  Scenery  the  informs  These  throughout  used  of  about h i s u n f u l f i l l e d  f o r Ch'ang-an.  used uniformly three  transformation  are  not  poems. However a l l  manner  which  makes  the  effective.  Present:  Fu s e e s  i n K ' u e i - c h o u i n c i t e s him  t h i n k o f t h e p a s t . Memories o f t h e p a s t s i m u l t a n e o u s l y  to  occur  i n t h e p o e t ' s m i n d when he s e e s t h e s c e n e r y b e f o r e h i s e y e s . T h r o u g h o u t t h e poems Tu Fu u s e s t h i s  "flash-back"  technique  t o a s s o c i a t e t h e p a s t w i t h t h e p r e s e n t and t o c o r r e l a t e present with the  past.  2) A s s o c i a t i o n o f One Tu  Fu d i m i n i s h e s  P l a c e w i t h Another: t h e p h y s i c a l b a r r i e r between Ch'ang-  a n — w h e r e he w a n t s t o be is.  He  the  and  K ' u e i - c h o u — w h e r e he  a s s o c i a t e s t h e t h i n g s he  i n K ' u e i - c h o u w i t h what he  saw  actually  s e e s o r t h e s o u n d s he o r what he h e a r d  hears  when he  was  i n t h e c a p i t a l . What he s e e s and what he h e a r s  i n K'uei-chou  is  i n Ch'ang-an.  The  a l s o what he  visualized  t h i n g s t h a t he  as v e h i c l e s t o t a k e  sees him  and  and  what he  hears  heard  i n K'uei-chou a l s o  b a c k i n memory t o  Ch'ang-an.  serve  40  3)  Transformation of  the  External World Informed by  the  Subjective World: In  thirteen  transforms h i s own  these  external world  thoughts  Hung {P£ v!>-)  the  of  Tu  Fu  described  reflects  and  i n t h e poems w i t h  and f e e l i n g s i n a manner d e s c r i b e d by Chung — 7 - 5 1 8 ? A.D.)  Chung Hung d e f i n e s  feelings  poems  arising  human e x p e r i e n c e s .  from the 1 0  i n h i s Grades of P o e t r y .  poetry  as  response  a product  of  of mind t o  I n h i s p r e f a c e , he  says:  11  (  genuine  nature  and  "  C h ' i ( s p i r i t ) t o u c h e s m a t t e r , and m a t t e r moves men, t h e r e b y s t i r r i n g up f e e l i n g s w h i c h a r e t h e n m a n i f e s t e d i n s o n g and d a n c e . " In another writes:  p a r t he  e l u c i d a t e s t h e meaning of  "matter."  12  The b i r d s and b r e e z e s o f s p r i n g , t h e moon a n d c i c a d a o f autumn, t h e c l o u d s and r a i n s o f summer, the c h i l l of the winter s e a s o n — t h e s e are the four s e a s o n a l a s p e c t s t h a t move t h e p o e t . A t f e s t i v e g a t h e r i n g s he t u r n s t o p o e t r y t o e x p r e s s his f e e l i n g s o f i n t i m a c y ; a t s e p a r a t i o n s he e x p r e s s e s h i s g r i e f i n v e r s e . The e x i l i n g o f t h e m i n i s t e r o f Ch'u, t h e Han c o n c u b i n e t a k i n g l e a v e o f t h e palace, or s k e l e t o n s spread out over the northern w i l d n e s s , o r t h e s o u l f l o w n away among t h e t a n g l e d grasses, or spears c a r r i e d t o the far-flung regions, the spirit of combat f l o o d i n g the b o r d e r l a n d s , t h e t r a v e l l e r on t h e f r o n t i e r w i t h c l o t h e s t o o t h i n , t h e l a d y i n h e r chamber w i t h t e a r s r u n d r y , o r t h e s c h o l a r - o f f i c i a l who g i v e s up h i s o f f i c e and t a k e s l e a v e o f t h e c o u r t w i t h no t h o u g h t o f e v e r r e t u r n i n g , o r t h e woman who w i n s f a v o u r b y t h e r a i s i n g o f a b r o w , and t o p p l e s a k i n g d o m w i t h a mere s e c o n d g l a n c e — a l l t h e s e t h i n g s t o u c h t h e h e a r t and s t i r t h e s o u l . How e l s e c a n one g i v e v e n t t o t h e s e f e e l i n g s t h a n by e x p r e s s i n g t h e m i n p o e t r y ? How e l s e c a n one g i v e f r e e r e i g n t o h i s emotions than t h r o u g h t h e Long Song?  He  41 Tu F u i s moved by t h e n a t u r a l he  is  overwhelmed  nostalgia Chung's  toward  portray  Ch'ang-an  suggests  the c l o s e  and  life  that  unfulfilled in a  immediate  career  manner w h i c h  and  his  exemplifies  modes  of  e x p r e s s i o n used  between p o e t r y and  ( p i ) . These  factual  imagery  a r e p r i m a r i l y b a s e d upon  r e s p o n s e o f mind t o m a t t e r and d i r e c t upon  to  season,  e x p e r i e n c e are the use o f e v o c a t i v e  i s based  depiction.  the  relationship  ( h s i n g ) and c o m p a r i s o n  which  his  and  ideas.  Chung  scene  by  s c e n e s w h i c h he s e e s  narration  and  description  straightforward  1 3  Tu Fu d e s c r i b e s and n a r r a t e s t h e n a t u r a l s c e n e and h i s life  experience  evident h i s  own  r e s p o n s e t o them. The w o r l d and e x p e r i e n c e so d e s c r i b e d  and  narrated  in  Tu  thoughts  and  in a  Fu's  manner  poems  feelings.  They  which  are  makes  transformed  are  actively  by  Tu  Fu's  involved  a c h i e v i n g a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f what he h e a r s and what he through  the  unfulfilled  filter  of h i s thoughts  c a r e e r and n o s t a l g i a  and  feelings  in sees  about  his  f o r Ch'ang-an.  I n c o n c l u s i o n , t h e s c e n e r y b e f o r e Tu Fu's e y e s  provokes  h i m t o t h i n k o f t h e p a s t and t h e p l a c e where he w a n t s t o be. Tu  Fu  uses  i n f o r m e d by  his grief  and  h i s thoughts  nostalgia and  to  create  a  mood. I t i s t h e u s e  backdrop of  these  t e c h n i q u e s , I b e l i e v e , w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e s one o f t h e s o u r c e s  of  Tu F u ' s p o e t i c  of  nostalgia,  and  brilliance.  They c o i n c i d e  are i n fact  inextricably  w i t h t h e theme bound t o  i t ;  structure  r e i n f o r c e s and h e l p s t o c r e a t e theme and f o r m ; i t  coincides  w i t h t h e c o n t e n t . T h u s , i n s o f a r as t e c h n i q u e  theme a r e meshed i n T u F u ' s n i n e t e e n n o s t a l g i a  poems,  and they  a r e b e s t comprehended i n t e r m s o f t h e i r common theme a n d t h e technique  Tu Fu uses t o express i t .  ENDNOTES:  1. The C h i n e s e  text  reads:  2. W i l l i a m Hung & o t h e r s e d . , Tu S h i h Y i n T e , r e p r i n t , ( S h a n g h a i : Ku C h i P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1 9 8 3 ) , Ju pp.498-499. 3. C h ' i e n C h ' i e n - i , C h ' i e n Chu T u S h i h . r e p r i n t , (Shanghai: Ku C h i P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1 9 7 9 ) , v o l . 2 , pp.507-508. 4. Wang S s u - s h i h , T u I , r e p r i n t , Co., 1 9 6 3 ) , pp. 274-275. 5. The C h i n e s e  text  (Shanghai:  Chung Hua  Book  reads:  6. C h ' i u Chao-ao, Tu S h i h H s i a n q Chu, r e p r i n t , Chung Hua Book Co., 1 9 8 1 ) , v o l . 3, p.644. 7. P'u C h ' i - l u n g , Tu T u H s i n C h i e h . r e p r i n t , Hua Book Co., 1 9 8 1 ) , v o l . 3 , p.644.  (Peking:  ( P e k i n g : Chung  •*  8. Yang L u n , T u S h i h C h i n a Ch'uan. Cheng Book Co. ,1986), p.596.  reprint,  9. S h i h Hung-pao, Tu Tu S h i h Shuo, r e p r i n t , C h i P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1 9 8 3 ) , p.144.  (Taipei:  (Shanghai:  Hua  Ku  44  10. Yen C h i a - y i n g & J a n W. W a l l s , " T h e o r y , S t a n d a r d s , And P r a c t i c e o f C r i t i c i z i n g P o e t r y i n Chung Hung's S h i h P ' i n . " R e p r i n t . M i a o , R o n a l d C , e d . , C h i n e s e P o e t r y and P o e t i c s , V o l . 1 , CMC A s i a n L i b r a r y S e r i e s No. 8 ( S a n F r a n c i s c o : C h i n e s e M a t e r i a l s C e n t e r . , I n c . , 1 9 7 8 ) , pp. 50-51. 11. Chung Hung, Wang Chung e d . , S h i h - p ' i n . T a i p e i : Chung Book Co., 1969. p . l . The t e x t i n C h i n e s e r e a d s :  Cheng  12. I b i d . , p.17. The t e x t i n C h i n e s e  reads:  t h k $-k %,  ** a ¥ *f . 1 1 1 &>> *if  i\ 11 3f  i. 1 \& i *i , :% %r l\ t.  ^ I $ ft p(, A 'A it & JUf 4 ,  if  ft]  4 •& H ;»L  1  .  .  X  H JM'> il% . )•{. jfej # # , A I  ^  45 13. Yeh C h i a - y i n g & J a n W. W a l l s , " T h e o r y , S t a n d a r d s , And P r a c t i c e o f C r i t i c i z i n g P o e t r y i n Chung Hung's S h i h P ' i n . " p. 53.  46  CHAPTER THREE A STUDY OF TU FU'S NINETEEN HEPTA-SYLLABIC REGULATED VERSES WRITTEN IN K'UEI-CHOU IN 766 AND 767 A.D. This chapter  w i l l d e m o n s t r a t e how  poetic techniques verses  w h i c h he  i n the wrote  nineteen  imagery to  and  meaning o f  comments  made  representative The  text  each  by  the  Tu  Fu  such  as  Ch'ou Chao-ao  I  do  not  poems  want  cited  to  and  use  regulated  767  A.D.  then I discuss  critics  A the  where h e l p f u l  whom  I  consider  which  the  translations  are  v e r s i o n s w h i c h many c o m m e n t a t o r s ,  and  many d i f f e r e n t v e r s i o n s  first;  and  three  scholarship.  poems on  based are the c o n v e n t i o n a l  i n 766  poem, r e f e r r i n g  those  of past of  hepta-syllabic  i n K'uei-chou  t r a n s l a t i o n o f e a c h poem i s g i v e n  Tu Fu u s e s t h e  Yang  and  too  analyzed  Lun,  have  used.  some d i s c r e p a n c i e s  much s p a c e are  in  are  among them.  discussing  arranged  There  them.  The  chronological  order. The  poems a r e t r a n s l a t e d i n a manner w h i c h I t h i n k  best  r e v e a l s the poet's i n t e n t i o n . A caesura  is a rhetorical  extrametrical  within  line. to  1  pause  or  phrasal  These c a e s u r a s cause the  take  a moment t o  contemplate  break reader and  has  in  manner t o r e f l e c t  an u n c o n v e n t i o n a l  t o p a u s e and  better  p o e t ' s meaning. T h i s  p r o m p t e d me  the  to  how  poetic think,  appreciate  arrange the a poem i s  and  the lines read.  Where p o s s i b l e , meaning  i n the translation  grammatical Chinese note  requirements  language  t o suggest  POEMS W R I T T E N 1. 1  2  3  4  5  I t r yt o convey  and where  do n o t a l l o w t h i s , different  8  language  I will  include  i nthe and t h e an end-  interpretations.  I N 7 6 6 : N o s . 1 t o 15  The H i g h e s t Tower Of White Emperor C i t y From t h e p o i n t e d r a m p a r t s the paths narrow the banners a r e s a d . Standing alone on t h e l o f t y tower I gaze a t t h e s i g h t s , far o f f indistinct. T h e G o r g e s seem t o r n ; the clouds a r e dark, like sleeping dragons and t i g e r s . The r i v e r embraced by t h es u n looks clear; large t u r t l e s and water l i z a r d s a r e d r i f t i n g . The Fu-sang Tree, i t s western branch pointing, faces t h e broken c l i f f s . T h e Weak S t r e a m of t h e east is flowing into the b i g r i v e r . Who i s i t t h a t h o l d s a w a l k i n g - s t i c k laments the world, Weeps blood strikes at the a i r and shakes his white head? 3  7  of the poet's  differences  of the English  2  6  the ambiguity  «§>^M('^\^^. ) '  48  ^  £ if K il itf  ft  ii ^  i i\A 'A  -A ie. i l '£ In is of  the f i r s t  v5 6  f o u r l i n e s , the poet d e s c r i b e s where he  and what he sees from h i s p o s i t i o n . In the d e s c r i p t i o n the  scenery  Tu  Fu  transforms  the  objects  which  d e s c r i b e s around him, i n f o r m i n g them w i t h h i s own We  > |  see i n the l a s t two  laments shakes  feelings.  l i n e s t h a t the poet i s o l d , s i c k ,  the world, weeps blood, s t r i k e s h i s head." The  he  world  around  the  a t the poet  a i r , and  seems  also  informed with the poet's u n c e r t a i n t y , f e a r , and sadness. The pointed paths  shape o f the ramparts  described  i n the  first  and line  the narrowness portray  a  of  the  jagged  and  cramped image. The banners "are sad" and the view as a whole is  " f a r o f f " and The  "indistinct."  dark c l o u d s and  gorges, making the gorges  perhaps  rocks cover p a r t o f the  look t o r n .  From a d i s t a n c e  the  dark c l o u d s a l s o look l i k e s l e e p i n g dragons and t i g e r s .  The  e x p r e s s i o n s "the gorges seem t o r n , " "the dark c l o u d s , " and " s l e e p i n g dragons  and t i g e r s "  g i v e the reader a sense  of  49  strain,  unease,  a n d f o r e b o d i n g . The p h r a s e s  w i t h and d e v e l o p  t h e cramped f e e l i n g  are connected  conveyed  i n the f i r s t  line. The extensive Tree, the  fifth  and s i x t h  lines  suggest  i m a g i n a t i o n . The w e s t e r n  a legendary  sun r i s e s .  mythical tree,  The Weak  Stream  the poet's  branch  v a s t and  o f t h e Fu-sang  grows i n t h e p l a c e where is a  legendary  mythical  s t r e a m w h i c h o r i g i n a t e s f r o m a p l a c e v e r y f a r away. I t seems t h a t t h e poet  i m p l i e s t h a t t h e gorges  a r e so t a l l  broken  f a c e t h e western  o f t h e Fu-sang  cliffs  and t h a t t h e r i v e r  exaggerated  a s t h e y may seem, a r e  i n preparing f o r the climax revealed i n the l a s t  couplet—expressions  o f an i m m e d i a t e  standing  alone  off  indistinct.  and  Tree,  f l o w s s o f a r t h a t t h e Weak S t r e a m merges  w i t h i t . T h e s e two l i n e s , important  branch  that the  scene.  on a v e r y h i g h tower, g a z i n g The  drama  of  The p o e t i s at sights f a r  the physical  setting  embodies t h e d r a m a t i c p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e p o e t ' s t h o u g h t s a n d feelings. The in  poet's  distressed  the description  f r a m e o f mind  of himself i n the l a s t  i s shown  clearly  two l i n e s .  It is  an i n t e n s e a n d p o w e r f u l d e s c r i p t i o n o f a man whose d r a m a t i c emotions a r e t h e energy  source i n t h i s v i s t a from which i t s  c h a r a c t e r i s d e r i v e d . When T u F u , an o l d man, l o o k s b a c k o n what h a s h a p p e n e d , angry  and sad,  he h a s r e a s o n  t o be p a s s i o n a t e , t o be  e i t h e r w i t h h i s own l i f e ,  the circumstances  50 o f t h e w o r l d , o r b o t h . C e r t a i n l y i t i s n o t what he o b s e r v e s i m m e d i a t e l y which b r i n g s him t o t h i s s t a t e o f mind. Perhaps scenes o f t h e p a s t — t h e s u f f e r i n g s o f t h e people, t h e golden age  and  the downfall  unsucessful p o l i t i c a l -unfold  of  t h e T'ang  Empire,  c a r e e r , a n d h i s home n e a r  the  poet's  Ch'ang-an-  i n h i s mind.  2. O v e r l o o k i n g S c e n e r y Of The G o r g e (J.j^ T gf_, 1 Once a s an o f f i c i a l I journeyed i n haste t o San-fu. 2 I r e c a l l i n T'ung Kuan I was i n s p i r e d t o w r i t e many poems. 3 L o o k i n g a t t h e Wu Gorge I suddenly b e h o l d Mt. Hua 4 G a z i n g a t t h e r i v e r o f Shu I see the Yellow R i v e r . 5 F a l l i n g i l l on t h e b o a t I moved my b e d t o t h e l a n d . 6 I passed t h e s p r i n g i n t h e g r o t t o a p l a c e l u s h w i t h f i g s and i v y . 7 The s i g h t s a r e b e a u t i f u l b u t t h e customs and t h e c l i m a t e of t h e p l a c e d i s p l e a s e me. 8 When w i l l I r e t u r n and s i n g my s o n g s aloud?  )  5  •ft A  *  $ --A  « k  4  i$ i | i *  %W  I  IA in 11\ %  * -  51 Tu F u b e g i n s by r e m i n i s c i n g a b o u t t h e t i m e when he in  T'ung-kuan,  thinks  that  K'uei-chou  he as  a  place  will he  of  inspiration  n o t be did  in  T'ung-kuan,  shows t h a t he was  a place of  stimulation.  the  next  two  The  lines,  though  his  wrong. K ' u e i - c h o u  Tu  Fu  was  of  t h e n o r t h w h i c h he m i s s e s . The Wu  River,  and  showing  perception.  immediately the  T h e s e two  thought—thinking merging In present. stayed,  the  perhaps  become Mt  of  lines  Tu  scenery  Gorge and t h e r i v e r Hua  Fu's  show t h a t  and  the  thoughts the poet  o f t h e t i m e when he was  Yellow  over  lines Tu  five  Fu  and  e x p l a i n s why  and what he  north.  six  the he  i n the north  in and  poet  comes  back  l a n d e d , where, how  to long  Although  space,  poem  he  l i n e s , Tu Fu s t a t e s h i s w i s h t o r e t u r n  more b e a u t i f u l  this  the  saw.  Tu  Fu  admits  that  K'uei-chou  the  associates  is  than the north, the p l a c e , with i t s  home-town o u t s h i n e s K ' u e i - c h o u  and  his  i s lost  b a d c l i m a t e and u n p l e a s a n t c u s t o m s , d o e s n o t a p p e a l him.  In  of  t h a t time past with h i s present r e a l i t y .  I n t h e l a s t two to  power  fact  continues to reminisce.  a s s o c i a t e s the scenery b e f o r e h i s eyes w i t h the  suddenly  extant in  He  Shu  poet  a b l e t o w r i t e as many poems i n  collection  In  f o r him.  was  poet the  His  i n h i s mind.  shifts  h i s f o c u s between  present with  the  past,  and  time the  natural places  scenes he  has  reminisces  before been  a s s o c i a t e s the  of  t h e n o r t h he  poet  comes  lines, was  past.  In  scenes  the  he  first  In the  third  remembers  two and  lines,  misses.  back  to  In the  the  real  h i s wish  perhaps  fifth  and  sixth  world,  and  i n the  from Tu  fourth  s c e n e r y b e f o r e h i s eyes w i t h the  expresses  and  with  before.  about the  he  him  lines, scenery  lines,  the  last  two  t o go b a c k t o t h e p l a c e where  wishes  to  return  also  to  Fu  his  he  past  experience. The the  end:  contrasts and  focus  of t h i s  when w i l l the  climate  return to  inspiration  of  rather  than  he  i l l . The  was  he  poem i s t h e  full  scene  of  m e r g i n g and f l o a t i n g  which life  before  r i v e r o f Shu b r i n g Mt Hua  sing  he  him  with  dislikes,  i n the of  Fu  h i s songs  o f T'ung Kuan  K'uei-chou,  being  q u e s t i o n Tu  creation the  Wu  asks  at  aloud?  He  the and of  Gorge  customs where, poetry, and  the  and t h e Y e l l o w R i v e r t o m i n d . T h i s  o f a s s o c i a t i o n s between where he i s and  where he has b e e n , between p a s t and p r e s e n t , and between  one  scene  the  poet's  and  another  mind. While  e m o t i o n a l l y he  combine he  to  give  i s physically  i s i n Ch'ang-an.  a  vivid  present  image in  of  K'uei-chou,  53 3. A t N i g h t ( ) 1 T h e dew f o r m s b e l o w the sky i s overhead and t h e autumn a i r is clear. 2 A l o n e i n t h e empty mountains the s t a r t l e d traveller cannot sleep. 3 Scattered l i g h t s a r e dim the f o r l o r n s a i l i s h o i s t e d . 4 T h e new moon is s t i l l hanging and two p e s t l e s beat. 5 T h e s i c k man i s l y i n g d o w n i n t h e s o u t h h e saw the chrysanthemums bloom for the second time. 6 Unsympathetic geese b r i n g no l e t t e r s from t h e n o r t h . 7 The t r a v e l l e r walks under the eaves leaning against h i s walking-stick g a z i n g a t t h e Ox and t h e B i g D i p p e r . 8 T h e M i l k y Way s h o u l d b e a b l e t o r e a c h the Phoenix Capital f r o iti af ai  t J. # A. & A f to H A l t ^ °h  t  at \ &  h  4 it K  %  9h  4 * H  The  technique  informing in  this  i twith  line  such  transforming  the poet's  poem. We a r e t o l d  travelling, in  of  a state,  in line  creates a solitary  i s "startled.  "alone;" l i g h t s  and  White  and t h e moon  The p o e t ,  who i s i n  line establishes a quiet,  hangs  the boat,  the f i r s t  line  i n which t h e  City"—"From  g i v e s t h e r e a d e r a sense  feels  isolated  t h e p o i n t e d ramparts second  i n the l a t t e r  and s i x t h  so i l l a t ease.  t h e moon, and t h e s o u n d s and a l o n e  line  Tower o f the paths  of this  poem  o f u n e a s e and f o r e b o d i n g w h i c h T u  Fu expounds i n more d e t a i l the f i f t h  i n the sky. Like the  o f t h e poem "The H i g h e s t  narrow, t h e banners a r e s a d " — t h e  feels  he i s s i c k a n d  The m o u n t a i n s a r e "empty," t h e p o e t  1 1  the lights,  Emperor  In  that  and f o r e b o d i n g a t m o s p h e r e  t h e p e s t l e s he h e a r s , t h e p o e t like  evident  a r e few, " s c a t t e r e d " a n d "dim," t h e h o i s t e d  "forlorn,"  mountains, of  i s also  mood w h i c h c o n t r a s t s w i t h t h e s e c o n d  traveller  sail  five  t h a t he i s o l d and s i c k .  i n t h e f i r s t f o u r l i n e s . The f i r s t solitary  feelings  reality,  i n l i n e two t h a t t h e p o e t , who i s  i s startled,  seven  own  objective  lines,  lines.  T u F u r e v e a l s why  H e r e he a s s o c i a t e s p a s t w i t h  he  present  and where he i s w i t h where he h a s b e e n . He t e l l s t h e r e a d e r t h a t he s e e s t h e chrysanthemums i n t h e s o u t h bloom f o r t h e s e c o n d t i m e . The chrysanthemums t h a t he s e e s r e m i n d h i m t h a t he  i s n o t a t home. He e x p r e s s e s  flying  by from  the north  h i s dismay. Even t h e geese  are indifferent  t o h i s hope and  feelings Again, his  the  poet  they  bring  him  transforms the  s u b j e c t i v e w o r l d . The  quite The  because  some t i m e .  The  no  external  p o e t has  world  from  world  not heard  i s unkind,  even  the  north.  informed  by  f r o m home f o r unsympathetic.  f a c t t h a t he h a s h e a r d n o t h i n g f r o m t h e n o r t h makes him  feel  abandoned and In  which  the  also  imaginary  last  forlorn. two  shine  on  lines, the  the  capital  poet and  underscores  at the  f o r him  serve  following  the  K'uei-chou  poems, n o s . 4 - 1 1 ,  poems w r i t t e n u n d e r t h e same t i t l e w h i c h Tu F u e x p r e s s e s h i s n o s t a l g i a  are a  as  an  t o Ch'ang-an.  p a i n which causes  series  and the  him.  of  eight  "Autumn M e d i t a t i o n s " i n f o r Ch'ang-an.  4. Autumn M e d i t a t i o n s I c f X - ^ % - \ ^ 1 Dew-drops ' wilt and wound t h e maple t r e e s i n t h e wood. 2 A sombre d e s o l a t e atmosphere i s spreading f r o m t h e Wu Mountain and t h e Wu G o r g e . 3 The waves on t h e r i v e r b a n k s r a g e up to the sky. 4 Above t h e p a s s e s x  stars  and i n s u b s t a n t i a l  h i s h e l p l e s s n e s s and  d i s t a n c e between Ch'ang-an and  The  gazes  l i n k w i t h o r a v e h i c l e t o t a k e him  T h i s c o n n e c t i o n , however, i s n e b u l o u s only  news  56  5  6  7 8  t h e shadows o f t h e c l o u d s i n t h e w i n d converge on t h e g r o u n d . C l u s t e r e d chrysanthemums have b l o o m e d twice t h e y b r i n g me tears o f o t h e r d a y s ' memories. To a l o n e l y boat I tie my homeward thoughts. Everywhere w i n t e r c l o t h e s u r g e on t h e s c i s s o r s and r u l e r s . How r a p i d l y the people pound t h e i r l a u n d r y m a l l e t s i n W h i t e Emperor C i t y i n the evening!  fS\ ML *  i A -;| IK I - % Hi >S .c  &  %k  In t h e f i r s t  four  t h e gloomy, sombre,  1$  lines  *  A .  of this  and d e s o l a t e  <9  ^ *^ &>  %-it.  poem, Tu F u d e s c r i b e s  s c e n e r y w h i c h matches h i s  own f e e l i n g s r e v e a l e d i n t h e s e c o n d h a l f o f t h e poem. I n t h e first  line,  Tu Fu uses " w i l t "  and "wound" t o d e s c r i b e t h e  d a m a g i n g e f f e c t o f dew-drops on t h e maple t r e e s . By c o n t r a s t  "dew" n o r m a l l y s y m b o l i z e s g r a c e o r a k i n d o f d i v i n e t h a t can e x t e n d one's l i f e . this  symbol  perceptions reinforces  exemplifies are affected  f o l l o w . The d e s c r i p t i o n s lack  of order  e a r t h appears sky  reader  a  the  extent  to  his feelings.  disorder of lines  which The  i n t h e two  Tu  Fu's  depiction lines  that  t h r e e and f o u r p o r t r a y a  and a t h r e a t e n i n g image.  In l i n e  three the  t o i n v a d e t h e s k y a s t h e waves r a g e up t o t h e  and i n l i n e  the ground.  The u n u s u a l l y n e g a t i v e s e n s e o f  by  t h e impending  elixir  f o u r t h e shadows o f t h e c l o u d s c o n v e r g e  This confusion of the natural sense  of  apprehension.  As  we  on  order gives the shall  see the  d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e damaging e f f e c t o f t h e dew-drops a n d t h e waves  highlight  sense  of lifelessness, In  t h e impending  t h e second  feelings.  half  In t h e f i f t h  chrysanthemums w i t h  disorder  disarray,  f l o w e r s remind  still  wandering.  informing expresses return.  line  h i s past  he  him t h a t  and h e a r t - b r e a k .  he  associates  i n another bloom  the clustered  p l a c e . He  recalls  i n a previous  year.  he i s n o t i n Ch'ang-an b u t i s  h i s own  h i s hopelessness ride  t i e s h i s thoughts In  a  In l i n e s i x , t h e poet transforms the boat,  i t with  He c a n n o t  convey  o f t h e poem, T u F u r e v e a l s h i s own  when he saw t h e chrysanthemums The  but also  feeling  along with  of  loneliness.  He  h i s s t r o n g wish t o  on t h e b o a t b a c k t o t h e c a p i t a l ,  so  to i t .  t h e l a s t c o u p l e t t h e poet i s back i n t h e r e a l  world.  58 He shows h i s f e e l i n g o f i m p e n d i n g  threat—"everywhere  winter  c l o t h e s u r g e on t h e s c i s s o r s and r u l e r s " and t h e p e o p l e a r e "rapidly" "urge,"  "pounding"  "rapidly,"  intimidating perhaps,  The  their  and  laundry  "pounding"  atmosphere.  The  first  portray  sounds  that  poet's  focus  shifts  from  four lines,  a  order,  lines, and  he  Tu  Fu  and  hears,  the clustered  of the  by h i s own f e e l i n g s . I n  he d e p i c t s t h e s c e n e r y b e f o r e h i m , a o f unease, a  and a t h r e a t e n i n g image. I n t h e f i f t h  h i s loneliness  lines,  words  an u n e a s y  description  p o r t r a y a l which g i v e s t h e reader a sense of  The  f u r t h e r w e i g h down h i s a n x i e t y .  surroundings which a r e transformed the  mallets.  lack  and s i x t h  chrysanthemums b r i n g h i s p a s t t o mind  f o r h i s home. I n t h e s e v e n t h  and e i g h t h  he i s b a c k t o t h e p r e s e n t a g a i n a s he d e s c r i b e s what  hears  and y e t he  unhappiness  expresses  and s o l i t u d e .  5. Autumn M e d i t a t i o n s I I On t h e 1 solitary c i t y w a l l s o f K'uei-chou slant the rays o f the s e t t i n g sun. 2 Each n i g h t g u i d e d by t h e B i g D i p p e r I gaze toward the c a p i t a l .  h i s feelings  of  impending  59  3  True t o t h e o l d song we s h e d o u r t e a r s when we h e a r the g i b b o n s c r y thrice. My m i s s i o n of d r i f t i n g on t h e r a f t w h i c h came by i n t h e e i g h t h month was f u t i l e . Incense burners in the painted h a l l s of the State A f f a i r s are distant from t h e s i c k - b e d . The s o u n d o f t h e m o u r n f u l b u g l e s drifts vaguely from t h e white-washed p a r a p e t s of t h e t u r r e t s against the h i l l s . Behold! The moon t h a t l i t t h e i v y on t h e r o c k s I s now s h i n i n g on t h e r e e d b l o s s o m s by t h e s h o r e s o f t h e i s l e . 6  4  7  5  6  7 8  # -I '4 £  i  -r  yjk  Building  1 %  A K *c  J.  4  to  4  The s e c o n d poem i s a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h e f i r s t Tu  Fu d i s c l o s e s  h i s feelings  toward  Ch'ang-an  ?| t & i n which  in a  deeper  fashion. Tu eyes  Fu f i r s t  describes  i n a manner t h a t  the evening scenery before h i s  i n f o r m s i t w i t h h i s own f e e l i n g s .  He  60 finds  the  t h e way Fu  city  he  feels.  i s . Instead  watch the he  walls solitary, L i n e two  of  stars  going  every  seems t o be  corresponding  shows how  t o bed,  a b l e t o see  a r d e n t and  he  n i g h t . By  exactly  s t a y s up  anxious  and  gazing at the  with  waits  Big  to  Dipper,  Ch'ang-an i n h i s m i n d . The  D i p p e r , an u n e a r t h l y body l i k e t h e M i l k y Way  Tu  Big  i n t h e poem " A t  N i g h t , " becomes a v e h i c l e w h i c h c a n t a k e him where he wants to  go,  the  link  with  Ch'ang-an  about  which  he  i s lost  in  thought. In cries  of  gibbons reasons the  line  three  the cry  gibbons and  a r e he  end-note  he  to  to the m i l i t a r y  Perhaps,  in  the  awakened  reasons  to  line,  Tu  Fu  a l l u s i o n s c a n be  real  him.  cry  world,  the  hears  the  He  too.  What  l i n e . As m e n t i o n e d i n  employs  taken  two  allusions:  a man's r i d i n g  on  a  as r e f e r e n c e t o h i s  "The m i s s i o n " c a n be t a k e n as a r e f e r e n c e  c o u n s e l o r p o s t a s s i g n e d by Yen Wu  he m i g h t  on  to  take  him  summoned b a c k t o t h e the r a f t " proved  back  to  and  Tu Fu t h o u g h t t h a t by w o r k i n g w i t h Yen Wu, be  means  i n 764  capital.  drifting  the  those  the  eventually of  has  to  m i s s i o n t o t h e w e s t and  T h e s e two  "raft,"  i s back  having  this  s e r v i c e t o Yen Wu.  the  Fu  r e v e a l s i n the f o u r t h  Chang C h ' i e n ' s raft.  Tu  capital.  "The  mission  f u t i l e b e c a u s e Yen  Wu  died  765. In  present.  line  five  He  recalls  the  poet  contrasts his  what h i s l i f e  was  past  with  l i k e when he  his  served  61 in  Ch'ang-an  as t h e L e f t  Reminder.  In those  days,  incense  b u r n e d a l l n i g h t l o n g a s T u F u s t a y e d up t o w r i t e m e m o r i a l s to  h i s s u p e r i o r . Tu Fu mentions t h a t t h e i n c e n s e  burners,  an a l l u s i o n t o h i s s e r v i c e i n t h e S e c r e t a r i a t , a r e f a r away from  K'uei-chou,  a p l a c e where he i s now s i c k .  In l i n e s i x  t h e p o e t i s b a c k i n t h e p r e s e n t . He i s awakened by t h e s o u n d of  bugles. This l i n e  c o n t r a s t s w i t h t h e p r e v i o u s one a s he  mentions t h a t t h e incense burners yet  he c a n h e a r  bugles poet,  t h e sound o f t h e b u g l e s .  corresponds an o l d , s i c k ,  c i t y , watching  t o h i s emotions.  can envisage  the  t h e s t a r s every n i g h t , r e m i n i s c i n g about h i s t h a t he may n o t be a b l e t o r e t u r n  t h e l a s t two l i n e s t i m e h a s p a s s e d  i s surprised  In blends  this  times,  spaces,  The moon h a s  blossoms.  poem, a s i n t h e p r e v i o u s  different  u n n o t i c e d and T u  a t t h e quick passage o f time.  come o u t and i s s h i n i n g on t h e r e e d  two  We  h i s home. In  Fu  The s o u n d o f t h e  and l o n e l y man i n a s t r a n g e and f o r l o r n  p a s t , t o r n by t h e t h o u g h t to  a r e f a r away f r o m h i m and  examples,  t h e poet  and emotions. I n t h e f i r s t  l i n e s , he d e s c r i b e s t h e w o r l d a r o u n d h i m t r a n s f o r m e d b y  his  own  feelings.  In  a s s o c i a t e s what he h e a r s fifth  line,  the  third  and  fourth  lines,  he  with h i s past experiences.  In the  he c o n t r a s t s t h e p a s t w i t h t h e p r e s e n t ,  and i n  the s i x t h l i n e ,  d e s c r i b e s t h e m u s i c he h e a r s  i n the present  62 that  corresponds  describing different  the  to  his  scenery  from  that  of  emotions.  he the  sees  in  He the  beginning  ends  the  present, of  the  3  4  8  6  9  7 8  by-  time The  of time.  on t h e h i l l s a r e s t a n d i n g quietly in the morning l i g h t . Day a f t e r day on t h e v e r a n d a by t h e r i v e r I s i t amid nature's b r i l l i a n t greens and b l u e s . The b o a t s where t h e f i s h e r m e n s l e p t f o r two n i g h t s a r e s t i l l bobbing on t h e waves. I n t h e c o o l autumn swallows are s t i l l flying t o and f r o as u s u a l . L i k e K'uang Heng I also r e m o n s t r a t e d w i t h t h e emperor b u t my fame i s meagre. Like L i u Hsiang I wanted t o p r o m o t e l e a r n i n g b u t t h a t too failed to m a t e r i a l i z e . Most o f my s c h o o l - m a t e s f r o m c h i l d h o o d a r e now prominent. I n t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d o f t h e F i v e Tombs they r i d e t h e i r sleek horses in l i g h t cloaks. A  5  a  poem.  s c e n e r y he s e e s makes him r e a l i z e t h e q u i c k p a s s a g e  2  poem  63  1* ft ;t.  A  % & f ^ ;L ; i  5 % 4 4 •3 f 'JT ^ t  In the  I  iK  #.  # )  4 ?  1|  J-  -f i l  t  v $  the f i r s t  p e a c e f u l and  i |  $  c o u p l e t on t h e s u r f a c e t h e p o e t s e r e n e s c e n e w h i c h he  depicts  s e e s . However, t h e  p h r a s e "day a f t e r d a y " s u g g e s t s t h e p o e t ' s i d l e n e s s and h i s sense of f u t i l i t y . in  L i k e t h e use o f t h e words "each  t h e s e c o n d l i n e o f t h e p r e v i o u s poem, he h a s n o t h i n g t o  do b u t t o s i t on t h e v e r a n d a e v e r y d a y and a t n i g h t he at  night"  the  stars.  nostalgia.  The  Both poet  activites sits  idle  buttress a l l day  t h i n k i n g of nothing but the c a p i t a l . ceased to l i v e  the and  gazes  theme  a l l night,  I t i s a s t h o u g h he  i n t h e p r e s e n t w o r l d and  has  the focus of h i s  l i f e i s c e n t r e d on r e c o l l e c t i o n s o f t h e p a s t . He p o n d e r s o b s e r v e s what i s around him  of  and  i n a manner w h i c h r e v e a l s h i s  n o s t a l g i a and s a d n e s s . As o f t e n h a p p e n s i n t h e s e poems t h e b o u n d a r y b e t w e e n p a s t and p r e s e n t seems t o d i s s o l v e f o r Tu Fu. T h i s i s d e m o n s t r a t e d a g a i n i n l i n e s t h r e e and f o u r .  The  64  description "flying  of  t o and  "bobbing  of  the  boats"  f r o " are the e f f e c t  and  birds  still  of the uneasiness and  u n s e t t l e d c o n d i t i o n of the poet h i m s e l f . P a i n f u l memories expounded i n the f o l l o w i n g l i n e s are j u s t below the s u r f a c e . He  moves e a s i l y  sees through  and n o t i c e a b l y  the  lens  from the p r e s e n t which  he  of these memories t o the memories  themselves i n the remainder of the poem. In l i n e s f i v e and s i x Tu Fu compares h i s s e r v i c e t o the emperor w i t h t h a t reprimanded  of K'uang Heng. He  and y e t K'uang Heng was  wonders why  promoted  he  was  and why  his  e f f o r t s t o promote l e a r n i n g f a i l e d t o m a t e r i a l i z e w h i l e L i u Hsiang succeeded. In l i n e s seven and e i g h t he t h i n k s of h i s class-mates who  are now  prominent and are e n j o y i n g l i f e i n  Ch'ang-an w h i l e he has accomplished n o t h i n g and to  make ends  ghostly  meet.  about t h i s  There last  i s , however,  struggles  something  rather  image read i n the c o n t e x t of the  poem, r a t h e r l i k e a person who  l o o k s at the sunny sky from  a dark room.  Tu Fu's o b s e r v a t i o n o f the p r e s e n t are transformed by h i s thoughts and emotions r e l a t e d t o h i s p a s t i n Ch'ang-an. His  thoughts  drift  from  the  past  as  though  d i s t i n g u i s h e s one from the o t h e r . 7. Autumn M e d i t a t i o n s IV ( 1 I t i s said that Ch'ang-an i s l i k e a chess-board.  i$  /jf &  ^  )  he  barely  65 2  For a hundred years t h e e v e n t s have been t o o sad to r e c a l l . The manors o f p r i n c e s and n o b l e s f r o m t h e o l d e n d a y s a l l have new m a s t e r s . The c a p s and r o b e s o f t h e c i v i l and m i l i t a r y o f f i c i a l s a r e d i f f e r e n t from t h o s e o f o l d . S t r a i g h t n o r t h on t h e m o u n t a i n p a s s e s t h e gongs and drums rumble. To t h e c h a r i o t s and h o r s e s campaigning i n t h e west feathered dispatches are r u s h e d . F i s h and d r a g o n s a r e quiet i n t h e c o o l autumn r i v e r . The p e a c e f u l t i m e s o f my o l d n a t i v e c o u n t r y a r e always i n my thoughts.  3  4  5  6  1 0  7 8  If] '4 %~ Jt- *u -k * x\k  $  £  %  *• J U U  Jfcf i  I iv. $}>] J, i il %. ft * $ .*. -u-i.it  t it & i * The l i n k i n g o f part is  of  the  ^  the  aesthetic  c l o s e and c o n s t a n t .  «L  past with the  beauty  of  this  •« t  present poem.  n*  jfc  i  is  a central  The  The b o u n d a r y b l u r s . In t h e  connection first  two  66  l i n e s t h e h i s t o r y o f Ch'ang-an i s r e f e r r e d t o i n d i s c u s s i o n and  recalled  years  i n the present.  are r e c a l l e d  consciousness and  nobles  by  he observes  Events  the poet  of the past  and  hundred  are p a r t  o f the  i n the present s o c i e t y . P r i n c e s  o f o l d are juxtaposed w i t h new masters of t h e  manors of t h e c i t y  as though from t h e p a s t they look  their  s h o u l d e r s . The c l o t h i n g  descendant's  over  of t h e day i s  viewed by t h e standard o f the p a s t . In l i n e s f i v e and s i x the boundary between past and present d i s s o l v e  completely.  He l i s t e n s t o t h e rumble of gongs and drums and t h e r u s h i n g chariots these  and horses  are  as though he a c t u a l l y hears  actually  references  to  the  them y e t  distant  past.  Simultaneously he l i s t e n s t o t h e c o o l autumn r i v e r . Tu Fu begins by d e s c r i b i n g Ch'ang-an w i t h t h e metaphor of a "chess-board"  t o d e s c r i b e t h e many changes which have  o c c u r r e d t h e r e and the u n c e r t a i n t y and danger which Ch'angan and i t s people have had t o face d u r i n g t h e v i c t o r i e s and d e f e a t s of t h e s t r u g g l e s f o r power throughout Ch'ang-an, peaceful Rebellion burned  once  city,  a  bustling,  was l a t e r  thriving,  devastated  i t s history.  beautiful,  and  by t h e An Lu-shan's  and t h e i n v a s i o n by t h e T i b e t a n s  and i t s people  11  s l a u g h t e r e d . The t h i r d  when  i t was  and f o u r t h  l i n e s f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t e the many changes which Ch'ang-an has undergone. To t h e poet, i t seems t h a t e v e r y t h i n g i n Ch'angan and i n the c o u r t has changed.  67 In  the  last  couplet  Tu  Fu  r e m i n i s c e n c e s o f Ch'ang-an's p a i n f u l the  cool  native  autumn r i v e r  and s t a t e s  c o u n t r y i s always  accidental  that  has  lost.  been  misfortune  history  nostalgia  3  4  affected  of the c i t y  w i t h which  h i s personal l i f e  6 7  8  with  h i s view  intertwined.  faces t h e Southern Mountains. The g o l d e n p i l l a r s t h a t c o l l e c t dew rise into t h e M i l k y Way. L o o k i n g westward one r e c a l l s t h e Queen M o t h e r d e s c e n d i n g from t h e J a s p e r Lake. Looking eastward a p u r p l i s h haze f i l l s t h e Han-ku p a s s one r e c a l l s the coming o f Lao Tzu. L i k e moving c l o u d s the p h e a s a n t - t a i l screens a r e fanned. I recognized H i s Majesty a t sunrise i n h i s embroidered robe o f d r a g o n - s c a l e s . I l i e down by t h e r i v e r ; when I wake up I realize how l a t e t h e t i m e i s . How many t i m e s d i d I answer t h e r o l l o f c o u r t li  5  corresponds  similarily  v  ofh i s  age w h i c h  I t may be t h a t h i s v i e w  1 2  his  I t i s , perhaps, not  has  so c l o s e l y  2  t h e p e a c e f u l time  Tu Fu sees t h e p a s t as a g o l d e n This  from  p a s t a s he l i s t e n s t o  on h i s m i n d .  c h r o n o l o g y o f h i s own l i f e . own  returns  the  of h i s of the  has been  68  by  the blue-chained  patterned  ^x-#  ^ f +1  t- f  A r$ £ 4  #  -  8(- # -> f  &&  Tu  this  Palace, the very f i r s t  4$  a i£  f  Fu b e g i n s  door?  * 41  A « * *j 3* ft ^  poem  by  describing the  image t h a t o c c u r s  P'eng-lai  i n the poet's  mind  when he t h i n k s o f Ch'ang-an. The p o e t h a s v e r y f o n d memories of  the P'eng-lai  capital  Palace,  not just  because  i t i s i n the  and t h e d w e l l i n g p l a c e o f t h e emperor, b u t p e r h a p s  a l s o b e c a u s e i t was t h e p l a c e where he i m p r e s s e d when he p r e s e n t e d he  attended  the  Left  success  Hsuan-tsung  h i s f u t o t h e emperor and t h e p l a c e where  c o u r t , p a r t i c u l a r l y d u r i n g t h e t i m e when he was  Reminder.  I t i s also  i n the past.  a symbol  f o r T u Fu o f h i s  The d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e p a l a c e  with  r e f e r e n c e t o g r a n d myths e x e m p l i f i e s t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f reality  as t h e poet  informs  i t with  h i s own t h o u g h t s a n d  A  feelings. such "The  The P ' e n g - l a i  a lofty golden  golden  place  that  Palace  i s said  i t faces  t o be s i t u a t e d i n  t h e Southern  Mountains.  p i l l a r s t h a t c o l l e c t dew" i n l i n e two r e f e r s t o  pillars  built  by  Emperor  Wu  o f Han  to hold  the  p l a t t e r s t h a t c o l l e c t dew life. *  They a r e  1  the  Milky  evident Taoist  d e s c r i b e d as  Way."  i n the figure,  w h i c h he w o u l d d r i n k t o e x t e n d  The third  so  high  mythological and  t h a t they  flavour  fourth lines:  descends  from the  Jasper  Tu  d e p i c t i o n of a f a i r y  p a l a c e , t h a t one  a  so  beautiful  palace as  which  is  lived and  ephemeral  as  this  a description  of the  actually  saw  the  h i s s e r v i c e as  palace  emperor the  palace.  saw  and  when  Left  Tzu, haze.  see  in a  grand,  and  immortals  by memories o f h i s  reminiscence  o f what he  grand  a  p e r h a p s a l s o as s h o r t -  dream-like  s i x c o n t a i n a more r e a l i s t i c  during  Lao  i f i t were a d w e l l i n g p l a c e f o r t h e  i n t h e i m p e r i a l c o u r t and  poet  more  may  magnificent,  i n t h e p a s t . H i s s u c c e s s was  and  even  is  a p p e a r s amid a p u r p l i s h  i n s t e a d o f a n y t h i n g r e a l , seems m o t i v a t e d success  into  L a k e and  mythological  dream,  "rise  t h e Queen M o t h e r ,  another Fu's  figure,  his  Lines of  his  t h e n . They  of the time court  was  Reminder i n t h e  five time  provide when  in  the  session  early  part  of Su-tsung's r e i g n . In  the  present  and  that  he  service  has  last  lines  the  t o the r e a l world. been  i n the  expresses  two  lost  in  court i n the  poet  He  r e a l i z e s where he  thought past  and  and  h i s longing t o r e t u r n t o the  the present  court.  f l a s h e s back  laments  at the  his  to is  and  short  same t i m e ,  capital  the  to serve  he in  70 In t h i s past court he  of he  a  poem Tu  fairy  2  3  4  5 6  7 8  palace,  thoughts to  remembers t o t h e  realizes  that  t h a t p a s t and  9. 1  Fu's  the  present  from the  r e a l i t i e s of  present  i t i s late,  drift  the  imagined imperial  real  world  where he i s ;  t h a t the  dream  is lost,  are unavoidably  and  Autumn M e d i t a t i o n s VI # »- \ The mouth o f t h e C h ' i i - t ' a n g Gorge and t h e h e a d of the Crooked R i v e r A r e j o i n e d t o g e t h e r by thousands of m i l e s o f w i n d and m i s t o f t h e p a l e autumn. T h r o u g h t h e w a l l e d passageway o f t h e C a l y x Chamber the i m p e r i a l resplendence came. To t h e s m a l l H i b i s c u s P a r k the sad news of the f r o n t i e r a r r i v e d . Yellow cranes c i r c l e d the palace garnished with pearl b l i n d s and p a i n t e d p i l l a r s . Embroidered cords and i v o r y m a s t s startled the s e a - g u l l s . One r e c a l l s w i t h p i t y this jolly site o f s i n g i n g and d a n c i n g . The C h ' i n R e g i o n has b e e n t h e c a p i t a l o f k i n g s and p r i n c e s since ancient times. u  )  sadly  and  distinct.  & >fi ^  41.  4 .  4  I n t h i s poem Tu Fu r e m i n i s c e s another place In  the  * #  * 4  about the Crooked  River,  i n Ch'ang-an. first  two  lines,  he  observes  the  Ch'u-t'ang  G o r g e b u t i s r e m i n d e d o f t h e C r o o k e d R i v e r and t h a t t h e y  are  j o i n e d t o g e t h e r by t h o u s a n d s o f m i l e s o f w i n d and m i s t . Wang Chu  of  the  Nine  t ' a n g G o r g e and the  same  which  although  Ch'u-  the Crooked R i v e r are f a r a p a r t , they  share  colours  results  identified  Commentators  in  i n the  with  the  autumn.  remarks  I t may  15  Ch'u-t'ang  that  be  this  Gorge b e c o m i n g  Crooked R i v e r  i n the  poet's  similarity so  closely  eyes.  The  p o e t r e d u c e s o r e l i m i n a t e s t h e d i s t a n c e between where he and where he wants t o be. He distances  and  In l i n e s are  and  the  three  In  the  lines  and  f o u r Tu  t o the  Fu's  p a s t . As  he  thoughts of the recalls  the  news  of  An  Lu-shan's  river  beauty  remembers t h e e m p e r o r ' s f l i g h t down t h e  painful  paralyzed  the  differences dissolve.  l i k e a bridge  t h e r i v e r , he  i s l o s t i n thought i n which  is  Rebellion  of  river that  country. five  and  s i x he  describes  the  Crooked  River  72 as he  remembers  garnished  with  i t . The "pearl  p a l a c e was  blinds"  grand  and  and  "painted  magnificent, pillars."  The  boats i n the r i v e r are e m b e l l i s h e d w i t h "embroidered  cords"  and  i t  "ivory  visited  m a s t s " and  by  the  p l a c e was  "yellow cranes"  and  i s of the view t h a t the beauty a r e gone. The to  in  the  devastated  flamboyant last  beautiful  the  contrast  with  of  images the  feels.  contrast  i s so  distinct  observes  i s transformed  The  earlier  immediate  d i s h e a r t e n e d the poet  glorious past  "reminders"  place.  of  or  was  of  more  referred  the  present  resplendent  and  times,  the  more  they  realities  and  the  more  Again  one  whether  wonders w h e t h e r  the  vista  by h i s n o s t a l g i a  which  about the  to  another  the time  distant from  Crooked  his  describes the h i s t o r y  past.  and  River  and  without  From  lines  beautiful  scenes  two  his  the poet  pity  about  past.  2  the to  six  he  to  associated with state.  f l a s h e s b a c k t o t h e p r e s e n t and  expresses  the  which  devastation  of  the  cherishes.  10. 1  Fu  pause  t h e C r o o k e d R i v e r and c o n t r a s t s them w i t h i t s p r e s e n t Finally  the  Tu  The p o e t a g a i n moves f r o m t h e i m m e d i a t e r e a l i t y o f gorge  Fu  and l i f e o f t h e C r o o k e d R i v e r  are  the  l i v e l y as  " s e a - g u l l s . " However, T u  images and  line  state  also  Autumn M e d i t a t i o n s V I I L a k e K'un-ming i s i n d e b t e d t o t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e Han D y n a s t y . The b a n n e r s  place  he  3  4  5  6  7  8  of Emperor Wu are here b e f o r e my eyes. The m a i d a t h e r loom stopped weaving on a b e a u t i f u l moon-lit night. The s c a l e s o f t h e s t o n e wave i n t h e autumn b r e e z e . The waves toss zizania seeds as c o u n t l e s s as t h e c l o u d s . The c o l d o f t h e dew chills the lotus, the red petals drop. Only b i r d s can f l y over the pass t h a t reaches so h i g h . I am o n l y a fisherman who r o a m s a m o n g r i v e r s and lakes.  ft  ^  -:>£  %  whales  •A  A ^  place  this  4 tfc f  % it ft-  i$ % In  n 3*  -; iif{ z  poem ; T U  i n Ch'ang-an  FU r e c a l l s  which  comes t o  Lake his  i&  K'un-ming, mind.  another  In the filing  first  which  was  successful  and  nine  the  Wu  powerful.  When he  thinks  to the  past  years  are  the  banners  observations  t h o u g h t s and  The  fluttering  about  perception  is  Han  of  the  lake,  his  Han  Han  Dynasty.  and  T'ang  are  of  these  two  s t r o n g and  powerful  of t r a n s c e n d i n g  the  time  he  past  and  present  feelings  and  those  i n the  six.  glorious  and  of the  his  eyes.  underlined  some,  past  of  The  when  described  as  "sad."  Tu  seem a f f e c t e d by  realities  observed  Fu's  by  contrast  have  past,  differ  history i t  is  T'ang and  the  his  transformed. symbolize feelings  determined  the  Tu a the  concerning Fu  what  describes  description beauty of  period  in lines of  the  grandeur  of  the  lake,  of  three  the  earlier  lake  as  o f t h a t g l o r y . Wang S s u - s h i h w r i t e s t h a t Tu Fu d e s c r i b e s abundant  one  object.  opinions  lake's  For  place  time  H i g h e s t Tower o f W h i t e Emperor  b a n n e r s o f Emperor Wu  Scholars'  to  made  s u c c e s s and power. I t seems t h a t t h e p o e t ' s  description  time  who  before  saw  of both  own  f o r him  he  K'un-  banners which flew about n i n e  fluttering  this  Lake  Han  thinks  technique  r e c a l l s t h a t i n t h e poem "The City"  he  s i n c e t h e y were b o t h  i s c l e a r h e r e f o r Emperor Wu's  of  although  apart,  f o r a p e r i o d o f t i m e . Tu Fu's  before  of  p r o s p e r i t y of the  dissolve, for  dynasties together  subjectivity  describes  Emperor  hundred  centuries  poet  by  boundaries  about  lines  built  thoughts d r i f t Time  two  and  the  part the rich  75  produce state  of the region.  that  previous them  must  Ch'ien  be  Ch'ien-i  describing  a n d P'u  what  he  Ch'i-lung  saw  at  t i m e b e c a u s e he i s t o o f a r away t o be a b l e  when he w r i t e s .  three and  he  1 6  Ch'ou  1 7  Chao-ao  states  that  some  t o see  i n lines  and f o u r , T u F u d e p i c t s t h e p a s t g r a n d e u r o f t h e l a k e  i n lines  of the lake It  and s i x , laments t h e d i s t r e s s i n g s c e n e r y  of the present.  i s my  present. stone  five  view  that  1 8  Tu Fu d e s c r i b e s  the lake  i n the  I n t h e s e f o u r l i n e s T u F u r e c a l l s t h e m a i d and t h e  whales  melancholic  of  the lake.  and d e p r e s s i n g ,  The  descriptions  f o r t h e poet  seem  states  t o be  that the  m a i d " s t o p p e d w e a v i n g , " " t h e dew c h i l l s , " and " p e t a l s d r o p . " T h e s e images c r e a t e with  which  couplet. period  the poet  These and  perception  a desolate identifies  phrases  the  and g r i e f - s t r i c k e n ambience  also  beginning  a s he r e v e a l s  suggest of  i n the l a s t  t h e e n d o f one  another.  The  time  distressing  o f L a k e K'un-ming i n t h e s e l i n e s c o n t r a s t s  with  the  s y m b o l s o f s u c c e s s a n d power o f t h e d i s t a n t p a s t  Han  d y n a s t y and o f t h e e a r l i e r T'ang h i s t o r y o f t h e p a s t and  therefore  most  likely  refer  to  the  d i s c u s s e d T u F u ' s n o s t a l g i a and p r e s e n t to realize  barriers  We  last  two  ofh i s  observations.  lines  as t h e poet  have  c i r c u m s t a n c e s enough  a l s o t h a t t h e s e may be a s much c r e a t i o n s  own mind a s t h e y a r e The  present.  i n the  exemplify  flashes  back  the  dissolving  t o the present.  time Tu Fu  o b s e r v e s b i r d s f l y i n g o v e r a m o u n t a i n p a s s and r e a l i z e s he  cannot  follow.  He  envies  t h e y want t o . A l t h o u g h  he  the  birds  i s not  which  can  a fisherman,  he  go  that where  portrays  h i m s e l f as one t o s y m b o l i z e h i s s o l i t u d e , i s o l a t i o n , and h i s c o n s t a n t s e a r c h . He and  r e g r e t s t h a t he  l a k e s , a w a n d e r e r w i t h no  that  he  cannot  separation  of  go  back  K'uei-chou  p l a c e t o go  to  the  and  l i k e t h e M i l k y Way  serve  or  a  link  a  vehicle  or t o s e t t l e  capital.  The  Ch'ang-an  definite. Birds, as  i s r o a m i n g among r i v e r s  by  is  1  2 3  4 5  6  7  physical clear  and  i n t h e poem " A t N i g h t , " which  he  trancends  physical separation.  11.  and  Autumn M e d i t a t i o n s V I I I ( J ^ " % j\. \ P a s s i n g by way o f Y i i - s u ^ t h e r o a d t o K'un-wu was long and w i n d i n g . N o r t h o f t h e P u r p l e Tower Peak i s Lake M e i - p e i . Pecked from t h e f r a g r a n t r i c e - s t a l k s by t h e p a r r o t s t h e g r a i n s were dropped. A branch of the green f i r m i a n a t r e e was aged by a p e r c h i n g p h o e n i x . Pretty g i r l s gathered the k i n g f i s h e r ' s f e a t h e r s and p r e s e n t e d them as s p r i n g g i f t s . In the evening we s a i l e d on and on with the immortals i n t h e same b o a t . My c o l o u r f u l pen which I once p l a y e d w i t h complimented the b e a u t i f u l scenery.  )  that  Now gazing i n anguish my white head  8  droops.  &  % ft *  In t h i s Tu  Fu  and he  final  writes  * ^ + '* ^ & ^  poem o f t h e  about Yii-su,  Lake M e i - p e i  which are  "Autumn M e d i t a t i o n s "  K'un-wu, t h e other  Purple  places  series,  Tower  Peak,  i n Ch'ang-an  that  misses. The  poet  recalls  the  trip  he  took  Mei-pei  i n a manner w h i c h e x e m p l i f i e s  reality  i s transformed  line  remembers t h a t t h e  he  the  Purple  six  he  or  Tower Peak was  recalls  t h a t he  and  even  years  the  extent  transcended.  route "long  past and  ago  In  Yii-su,  to  Lake  to  which  the  first  K'un-wu,  winding,"  his friends "sailed  and on  in  and line  and  on"  a s t h o u g h d e s c e n d i n g i n a s l e e p y r h y t h m t h r o u g h a dream. d e s c r i b e s t h e r i c h n e s s and which transcends parrots,"  "the  b e a u t y o f t h e r e g i o n i n a manner  reality—"the green  He  firmiana  fragrant rice-stalks,"  "the  tree,"  "the  "the  phoenix,"  78 pretty the  girls,"  and  "the k i n g f i s h e r ' s  e x t r a o r d i n a r y beauty,  and g a i e t y r e m i n d  life,  feathers."  richness,  Images  colour,  of  bounty,  one o f t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e m a g n i f i c e n t A  and  beautiful  poem  of  recalls  the  "Autumn  the  friends  P'eng-lai Palace  pleasure  whom  demonstrate  he  d e s c r i b e d i n the  Meditations" of  sailing  describes  the  he  intensely  as  series.  on  and  romantic  images o f f a n t a s y and This  dream  o t h e r p o e t s who  w o u l d be  life  good  has  both  of  the  i s expressed i n  He  may  be  of  those  referring  he  here  H i s memories o f t h a t  and power b u t o f t h e f e r m e n t  expressed  by  those  who,  like  to  last the  to  time of  himself,  i m m o r t a l i z e d by work s u c h as t h a t w h i c h he s a y s  the  returns  his  These  he  perception  a c c o m p a n i e d him.  wrote a f t e r the In  the  "immortals."  are not only of i t s wealth intellectual  also  with  vision and  poet  dream.  includes  t r a v e l l e d w i t h as  on  "immortals."  e x p e r i e n c e which goes beyond n o s t a l g i a the  The  fifth  he  trip. line real  Tu  Fu  world.  awakens The  from  vividness  his of  dream the  and  dream  c o n t r a s t s w i t h h i s v i e w o f h i m s e l f as a s a d and p a t h e t i c o l d man.  The  better that  description  said  of h i m s e l f i s perhaps  "Autumn  the  past  to transcend r e a l i t y  Tu Fu's the  of  in this  than  poem  might  be  t o t r a n s f o r m i t and  a shadow o f  reality.  c e n t r a l c o n c e r n i n e a c h o f t h e e i g h t poems o f Meditations"  series  is  to  express  his  deep  longing  f o r the past.  In the f i r s t  series,  Tu F u t r a n s f o r m s  and s e c o n d poems o f t h e  the e x t e r n a l world  and i n f o r m s i t  w i t h h i s own n o s t a l g i c f e e l i n g s a s he s a y s i n t h e f i r s t that  the boat  "bring walls  i s "lonely"  him t e a r s " of  and  clustered  and i n t h e s e c o n d  K'uei-chou  are  poem,  "solitary."  He  poem  chrysanthemums that  the c i t y  gives  primary  a t t e n t i o n t o d e s c r i p t i o n s of K'uei-chou i n t h e f i r s t  three  poems o f t h e s e r i e s b u t f r o m t h e f o u r t h poem t o t h e e i g h t h , his  f o c u s s h i f t s t o Ch'ang-an, w h i c h i s p r e s e n t e d  i n greater  d e t a i l . I n t h e s e f i v e poems he r e c a l l s f i v e d i f f e r e n t sites  i n Ch'ang-an  reflects  from  the past.  This  t h e degree t o which t h e poet's  structural  thoughts  t h e p a s t . Tu Fu i s c o n t i n u o u s l y t r a n s c e n d i n g time  famous shift  switch to boundaries  and m o v i n g h i s f o c u s t o t h e p a s t . He i s aware o f t h e p r e s e n t mostly  b y c o n t r a s t . He  recalls  the glory  of the past i n  Ch'ang-an and a s s o c i a t e s t h e s c e n e r y o f K ' u e i - c h o u w i t h t h a t of  Ch'ang-an.  dramatically, far  1  Past  and p r e s e n t ,  though  they  c o n t r a s t so  K ' u e i - c h o u a n d Ch'ang-an, t h o u g h t h e y  apart, are blended  I t i s dusk the s e t t i n g sun is shining  together.  a r e so  80  2  3  4  5  6  7 8  on t h e n o r t h of K i n g Ch'u's P a l a c e . The r a i n has passed leaving i t s traces on t h e west of White Emperor c i t y . The r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e s e t t i n g sun glows on t h e r i v e r and deflects o f fthe c l i f f s . The r e t u r n i n g c l o u d s embrace t h e t r e e s and t h e m o u n t a i n v i l l a g e is lost from sight. I am o l d a n d my l u n g s a r e s i c k for me t h e r e w i l l be o n l y h i g h p i l l o w s . In t h e remote border lands I am s a d a n d I c l o s e my d o o r s early. I cannot stay here long for the bandits rebel. Truly there i s a soul w h i c h h a s n o t b e e n summoned from t h e south.  | i  t  t  UL JR. ^ -> to * *MT"  In external  ff*  the f i r s t world  half  and  <9 $ *Mi  %-  * sk.  9f-  £ ^  of this  informs  poem  i t with  Tu  Fu transforms  h i s own  thoughts  the and  81 f e e l i n g s though t h i s i s not immediately  a p p a r e n t . The  beauty  and s e r e n i t y s t a n d somewhat a p a r t f r o m t h e s a d n e s s and of  the  last  four  lines.  The  first  g l i m m e r i n g and t r a n q u i l e v e n i n g v i s t a g l o w s as t h e river  and  The by  l i g h t o f t h e s e t t i n g s u n r e f l e c t s on  the  and  i n the d i s t a n c e  s e c o n d h a l f o f t h e poem c a t c h e s t h e r e a d e r Fu  rather  c l o s e s h i s door  whose s o u l w i l l  abruptly  n o t be  e a r l y and  turns  and  his i l l health, worries, A f t e r r e a d i n g the  effect  the  poet's  describing  man  and  day  reflects  and  last  first  he  himself  with  the  upon t h e  pending  lines.  ending end  sense of r e s i g n a t i o n , t r a n q u i l i t y , w i t h a t r a c e o f u n e a s e and a r a i n s t o r m w h i c h has t h e s l o w , q u i e t end resulted embracing  in the  and  and  reflects  reflects  has Fu  life  on  on  what he  associates He  with  nobility,  disappointment.  The  i s an a  the is the old  certain  and  later  sunset  after  l e f t i t s marks i s a f i t t i n g symbol f o r  of a l i f e ,  failure.  Tu  his  and  death.  of h i s l i f e .  of  and  i s summoned b a c k t o  of himself  four  somewhat  in isolation,  f o u r l i n e s one  perception  i n the  c l o s e of the  the  perhaps nervous o l d  lives  at rest u n t i l  to  t h e n o r t h . He i s u n e a s y a b o u t h i s c i r c u m s t a n c e s on  a  disappears.  s u r p r i s e . Tu  who  depict  the  d i s p l a y s h i m s e l f as a s a d , f r a g i l e , man  lines  scene. A f t e r a rainstrom  d e f l e c t s o f f the c l i f f s ,  mountain v i l l a g e  four  worry  The  t r e e s , and  which a f t e r years of  reflection the  of  disappearing  the of  sun, the  effort, clouds mountain  82 village inner  from  s i g h t denote  a tenderness of s p i r i t  r e s o l u t i o n o f Tu F u ' s s e n s e  ideals  and r e a l i t y .  disappointed,  of c o n f l i c t  He i s a t p r e s e n t  and uneasy  and some  between h i s  s i c k and d y i n g , s a d ,  and as a consequence  t h e scene,  t h o u g h one o f l i g h t and b e a u t y l e a v e s a v i s i o n t h a t i s p a l e , distant,  and hazy.  corresponds with with  the colour,  previous with  13. 1  2  3  4  5  The d e s c r i p t i o n  h i s present life,  rich  state  of this  contrasts  detail,  scene  which  dramatically  and g a i e t y  i n the  poem "Autumn M e d i a t i o n s V I I I " w h i c h i s a s s o c i a t e d  h i s own g l o r i o u s p a s t  a s he s e e s i t .  F l u t e P l a y i n g (k. % ) From t h e m o u n t a i n s someone is playing a flute i n the moonlight of t h i s c l e a r and b r e e z y autumn n i g h t . Who i s p l a y i n g these heart-breaking tunes so s k i l l f u l l y ? The b l o w i n g w i n d and t h e m e l o d i e s h a r m o n i z e w i t h one a n o t h e r and t h e y move me. How many p l a c e s are brightened by t h e moon l e a n i n g a g a i n s t t h e mountain pass? The mounted b a r b a r i a n t r o o p s 9  83 c o u l d not bear the s o r r o w f u l sound of t h e music and a t m i d - n i g h t t h e y h a s t e n e d home t o t h e n o r t h . The W u - l i n g s o n g makes me t h i n k of the e x p e d i t i o n to the south. The w i l l o w s a t home are now withered. Why do t h e y grow to t h e i r f u l l e s t when I am i n t h e m i d s t o f my g r i e v i n g ?  6  7 8  "k. H t*i  M  i\  m  fc. J* i * l  t.  i  1  a^  *o' % $ i $  to  if-  4  A L  *J  i$ 'If- ^ &  ii  -  <*  J. %  kk  *i  * it  ft >fi 4 ^ % & % &\ \\ 11 ^ i x I n t h i s poem, t h e p o e t e c l i p s e s t h e l i m i t s o f t i m e space.  In the f i r s t  b r e a k i n g music night  four  lines  o f a f l u t e a c r o s s t h e m o u n t a i n s on a m o o n l i t  bugle  music  played  c e n t u r i e s e a r l i e r . L i u K'un his  Tu Fu l i s t e n s t o t h e h e a r t -  above t h e b l o w i n g w i n d . T h i s  sorrowful  by  b r i n g s t o h i s mind Liu  p l a y e d music  K'un  about  flute  home. music  Then  Tu  Fu  remembers  played  by  Ma  Yuan  19  about  the four  from the r e g i o n of  e n e m i e s and c a u s e d them t o l o s e t h e i r w i l l  return  and  another seven  to f i g h t sad  piece  hundred  and of  years  84 earlier. joined  Ma  the  branches  withered.  final  One  While  he  3  4  5  missed  Tu  Fu  home  describes  thinks at  i s i n the  this  time  midst  of  when  and  may  flute  wonder  whether  "heart-breaking"  or  thoughts  the  whether and  A N i g h t I n The Chamber ( Toward t h e y e a r ' s end nature's forces coerce the short d a y l i g h t . A t t h e w o r l d ' s end t h e f r o s t and snow clear the evening i s cold. The drums and b u g l e s of the f i f t h watch sound m e l a n c h o l i c and f o r c e f u l . The r e f l e c t i o n s o f t h e M i l k y Way over the Three Gorges tremble. In the c o u n t r y - s i d e  lush  he  20  willow  i n h i s home town of  year  grief  e v e n more d i s t u r b e d and  s e p a r a t i o n of K'uei-chou  t a i n t e d by h i s own  2  he  him t h a t he i s f a r away f r o m home. The  physical  14. 1  couplet,  c o n t r a s t he  a r e l u s h makes him  really  because  he s e e s and remembers t h o s e he saw  by  remind  played  an e x p e d i t i o n t o a r e m o t e p l a c e i n t h e s o u t h .  In  which  Yuan  the  must  be  willows  fact that  they  accentuates  the  Ch'ang-an. music  this  feelings.  )  he  is his  hears  is  response  85 thousands o f f a m i l i e s weep when t h e y h e a r of the f i g h t i n g . H e r e and t h e r e f i s h e r m e n and w o o d - c u t t e r s s i n g b a r b a r i a n songs. Sleeping Dragon—Chu-ko Liang and t h e H o r s e L e a p e r — K u n g - s u n Shu ended in the yellow dust. I g i v e up on receiving news o f my f r i e n d s and k i n s m e n .  k  &  if  &  Vf %• * %-  % tit /f] <K A  \i\ % % .1 In Fu's  has  *Ai  V) it  J-  to the previous  description of the external  leads in  contrast  i  poem  "Flute  i n the f i r s t  Playing" seven  Tu  lines  a l m o s t i n e v i t a b l y t o and i s d r i v e n b y t h e d i s c l o s u r e  line  e i g h t t h a t he i s d e s p a i r i n g ,  given  up  hope  of receiving  i n p a r t i c u l a r t h a t he  news  of h i s friends  and  kinsmen. These emotions a r e t h e source t h a t t r a n s f o r m w h i c h he d e s c r i b e s .  The f i r s t  s i x lines  the world  are a depiction of  a t r a n q u i l b u t somewhat d i s t u r b i n g n i g h t s c e n e i n t h e r e m o t e  86 place  where T u  Fu  from the  familiar  a  cold  clear  unpleasant  i s staying w o r l d . The  night  the  portrayal  as  a  natural  where he  year  poet  feels  shut  stays  up.  This  Tu  Fu's  negative despair.  o f t h e d a y s t o w a r d t h e end  phenomenon.  off  i s e n d i n g q u i c k l y and  demonstrates  would view the s h o r t e n i n g year  and  A  view  of  a  on and  Most of  clear  the  night  l o o k i n g a t t h e r e f l e c t i o n s o f t h e s t a r s on t h e T h r e e G o r g e s and  listening  to  bugles,  drums,  noises  s i d e , and t h e s o n g s s u n g by f i s h e r m e n w e l l be t h o u g h t i n v i t i n g and that and  nature's bugles  stars  on  the  short  he h e a r s a r e m e l a n c h o l i c ,  the  Gorges tremble;  the  s i d e are the weeping of f a m i l i e s , fishermen  and  the  wood-cutters  "melancholy," "tremble,"  d a y l i g h t ; the  from the  suggests a t the In  as  he  line  visits  seven, the  end he  of the  of  on  barbarian.  "Coerce,"  "barbarian"  correspond  and  Kung-sun  Shu  who  anxiety  what comes t o  Chu-ko L i a n g  i n K ' u e i - c h o u . B o t h Chu-ko L i a n g who wise,  one  behaviours.  of h e l p l e s s n e s s  and  that  The  h i s mind  Kung-sun  Shu  i s upright, loyal,  and  is deceitful,  and  aggressive,  o p p o r t u n i s t i c s h a r e t h e same d e s t i n y d e s p i t e t h e i r a s p i r a t i o n s and  the  poem.  reflects  shrines  the  country-  t h e s o n g s s u n g by  t o h i s d i s t r e s s , p e r t u r b a t i o n , a l i e n a t i o n , and he  drums  the r e f l e c t i o n s of  and  "weep," and  country-  However, Tu Fu f i n d s  noises  are  the  and w o o d - c u t t e r s m i g h t  enjoyable.  f o r c e s coerce  from  and  different  tone of the l a s t c o u p l e t i s  p e r h a p s b i t t e r n e s s . Tu  Fu  suggests  87 that  somehow  i t does  not r e a l l y  alienated  from h i s f r i e n d s  will  share the f a t e  also  He g i v e s  up h o p i n g  matter  and kinsmen  whether  because  he i s  one d a y he  o f Chu-ko L i a n g a n d Kung-sun Shu.  to receive  news f r o m  home  and  l e t s t h i n g s h a p p e n i n t h e i r own c o u r s e .  15. The Day A f t e r The W i n t e r S o l s t i c e 1 Day a f t e r day the weather and t h e b u s i n e s s o f men u r g e one a n o t h e r . 2 I t i s the winter s o l s t i c e the l i g h t i s born and s p r i n g i s h e r e again. 3 The d e l i c a t e five-coloured threads a r e added t o t h e e m b r o i d e r y . 4 The s e d g e - a s h flies blown f r o m t h e s i x j a d e - p i p e s . 5 I n t h e t w e l f t h month t h e w i l l o w buds grow changing t h e complexion of t h e s h o r e l i n e . 6 In the h i l l s t h e plum t r e e s brave t h e c o l d wishing t o release t h e i r blossoms. 7 The w e a t h e r a n d s i g h t s are not d i f f e r e n t but t h i s i s not the country o f my home. 8 I t e l l my s o n s t o f i n i s h o f f t h e i r wine.  (  ) "  instead  88  k % ft  4 » a \% ft i f  A  4i  The  observations  of  I *. &  the  unusual  manner. The  present  i n K ' u e i - c h o u as he  poet  % it ^ j | *  A  here  begin  in  a  s c e n e he d e s c r i b e s i s a p p a r e n t l y  i n the  "spring i s here  again."  To be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h h i s most common p e r c e p t i o n o f  present  time  there  one  apprehensive  comes  and  is colourful,  to  i m m e d i a t e , and  expectation  is  of  appears to break the perceptions would  i n the  appear  expect  descriptions  gloomy. However t h e  t h e r o a d t o Lake M e i - p e i the  writes  most  even  s c e n e Tu  which  Fu  portrays  l i v e l y , much l i k e t h e s c e n e  warmth  previous to  and  beauty.  poems.  disprove  expresses  Ch'ang-an and  despair  the  nostalgia about the  seems t o s e e b e a u t y a r o u n d him.  Finally  Tu  Lines  one  proposition that for  glory  in  i n K'uei-chou.  He  past  However l i n e s e v e n  presents  that  different"  s i g h t s are  says  weather  and  of both  i n Ch'ang-an t h a t t h e d e s c r i p t i o n i n t h e  s i x l i n e s c a n be and  probably  not  six Fu  his  present  his  Tu  r e a l i z e when he  first  Fu  through  a r a t h e r a s t o n i s h i n g t u r n o f e v e n t s . We  experience  on  i n "Autumn M e d i t a t i o n s V I I I . " E v e n  c o n s t r a i n t s which c o n s t a n t l y b i n d  consistently  "The  are  than  i s , i n the poet's  his  mind,  89 a  description  the  boundaries  completely know w i t h the  time  K'uei-chou,  as  on  he  different. he  into  says the  2  p l a c e s . He  space  in a  when has  he in  No  and  the  matter  how  4  5  perhaps  same for  lovely  the  Nos.  from  16 t o  S p r i n g E q u i n o x ( JL fi£ On t h e d a y of the spring equinox I eat a platter of f i n e l y sliced vegetables. Suddenly I recall a time when t h e p l u m s were b l o o m i n g i n t h e two c a p i t a l s . The w e a l t h y s e r v e d t h e i r with platters of white jade. The v e g e t a b l e s a r e c u t and t h e i r g r e e n slices served with d e l i c a t e hands. How can I endure looking at t h e Wu Gorge  i t that  19  guests  he  us  accept  the  things him  more  lets  not  in  i s n o t t h e c o u n t r y o f my  detachment  he  will  Even  other,  2 1  3  soul  the  transcended  Finally  terms.  sees  has  manner  poems.  h i s mind i t s own  "this  POEMS WRITTEN IN 767:  16. 1  and  previous  that  circumstances  completely  and  i n the  world  place  times  time  certainty  and  slips  both  of  than  external  extreme  he  of  most  in  one  they  are  sights  in  home"  and  insists  on.  90 and t h e c o l d r i v e r ? The g r i e f o f t h e d i s t a n t t r a v e l l e r from unbearable. T h i s body o f mine d o e s n o t know where t o s e t t l e . I a s k my c h i l d t o f i n d me s o m e p a p e r t o w r i t e t h i s poem.  6  7  8  k- o £  4  A*  % i h f) ri  Tu-ling i s  & tl *  I % b  % ii %. i |  W  % \ \ m .  A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e poem T u F u t a k e s p a r t a  platter  of  finely  spring  equinox  season  i t seems  suddenly yang. Such he  positive relates  reminiscing  he  likely  blossoms  that  and  to has  the  plum  t h e day  h i s time.  blossoms  of the  During  bloom,  the  f o r he  e x p e r i e n c e s i n Ch'ang-an and L o -  seem  only  past,  and  shifted  and t o t h e beauty  of  on  represent beauty,  associations  them  vegetables  i s t h e custom  remembers s i m i l a r  The plum  places,  as  sliced  i n eating  focus  life,  to affect so,  and  peace.  Tu Fu  suddenly  t o the past,  he  to  of those experiences. In line  r e t u r n s t o t h e p r e s e n t . He c a n n o t  when i s  those five  e n d u r e t h e Wu G o r g e a n d  the  cold  river.  determines  Just  as  Tu  what he remembers  e a r l i e r time,  Fu's  relentless  a n d how he c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e  so h i s o b s e r v a t i o n s o f t h e p r e s e n t a r e t o t h e  same e x t e n t n e g a t i v e by c o n t r a s t . The p o e t ' s expressed contrast grief  2  3  4  5  6  7  g r i e f and l o s s  i n l i n e s i x and s e v e n a r e a n a t u r a l r e s u l t o f t h i s and he s t a t e s c l e a r l y  and l o s s  i n the l a s t  are h i s motivation  t h e means o f h i s e s c a p e .  17. 1  nostalgia  Sadness ( ) The g r a s s growing by t h e r i v e r each day saddens me. T h e r e i s no comfort i n t h e sound of t h e s p r i n g stream i n t h e Gorges. What do t h e e g r e t s mean by b a t h i n g t h e m s e l v e s i n the s w i r l i n g eddies? On a lone t r e e flowers are blooming making t h e m s e l v e s distinct. There has been f i g h t i n g for ten years i n the southern state. Alone i n t h i s strange land the o l d traveller i s forlorn. W i l l he s e e t h e R i v e r Wei and t h e m o u n t a i n s of t h e Ch'in Region?  line  that  such  f o r w r i t i n g and perhaps  92 8  People are s i c k ; they are t i r e d of the r e b e l s .  %  ',1  I  »  ft  , |  » |  v% •  •1 In t h i s  poem,  A  A.  £  r e a l i t y which  transformed  by  demonstrate  that  Tu F u ' s  perception  mind a s  he t e l l s  that  frame  of  saddens  him,  irritable, him.  his  the  %  that  and t h a t  grief.  the  The  the  k  four is  bathing  the  of  a  k M'l  observes  lines  egrets  4  is  clearly by  growing  running  the  *  dominated  e a c h day t h e of  i\  ih  the poet  first  sound  ft  his  grass  water  is  aggravates  Even i n t h e f l o w e r i n g t r e e he s e e s no b e a u t y b u t s i m p l y  states  that  it  contrasts  by  i m p l i c a t i o n are  of  the  not  spring stream,"  with the  others  beautiful. "egrets,"  w h i c h do n o t  "Growing g r a s s , " and " f l o w e r s "  w h i c h w o u l d t o most o b s e r v e r s d e n o t e  life  contrast  sadden,  the  poet  finds  second  half  that  they  are  and  "sound images  and b e a u t y b u t by irritate,  and  aggravate him. In source  the of  his  of  overpowering  the  poem,  sadness.  f i g h t i n g ; he i s o l d and l o n e l y ,  Tu F u t e l l s There  is  us  the  continuous  and a l i e n a t e d f r o m home. H i s  93 future  i s uncertain  and t h e a r e a i s t h r e a t e n e d b y  rebels.  He s t a t e s e x p l i c i t l y h i s w i s h t o s e e , and h i s d o u b t t h a t he will  ever  see, the r i v e r  and m o u n t a i n s  around  Ch'ang-an.  T h i s poem seems i f a n y t h i n g d i s t i n g u i s h e d b y t h e f a c t he  does  not transcend the limitations  of time  and  that space  t h r o u g h p o e t i c c o n t e m p l a t i o n a n d e x p r e s s i o n a s he s o o f t e n does.  18. C l i m b i n g on D o u b l e N i n t h (\|_ cT) ) 1 High i n the sky t h e wind i s h o w l i n g and t h e g i b b o n s a r e c r y i n g pitifully. 2 The s a n d - b a r s a r e c l e a r ; t h e sand gleams and b i r d s c i r c l e a b o v e . 3 In the boundless f o r e s t s f a l l i n g leaves are r u s t l i n g rustling down. 4 The b i l l o w s of t h e e v e r f l o w i n g Yangtze are surging s u r g i n g on. 5 F a r away f r o m home I lament m e l a n c h o l y autumn and t h i s constant t r a v e l l i n g . 6 L i f e i s b u t a hundred y e a r s ' span. I have h a d many s i c k n e s s e s and h a v e c l i m b e d t h i s m o u n t a i n alone. 7 A d v e r s i t y and a f f l i c t i o n have w h i t e n e d the h a i r on my t e m p l e s . 8 Despondent v  94 I have j u s t finished my c u p o f u n s e t t l e d wine.  5$  4 * *"  U'J  The s c e n e w h i c h T u Fu d e s c r i b e s i n t h e f i r s t f o u r is  clearly  expresses  i n f o r m e d b y t h e t h o u g h t s and f e e l i n g s i n the rest  d e p i c t a downcast  o f t h e poem.  The f i r s t  lines  which  four  he  lines  and sombre f a l l s c e n e s e e n and h e a r d f r o m  a h i g h v a n t a g e p o i n t . The h o w l i n g o f t h e w i n d , t h e m o u r n f u l cries  o f t h e gibbons, t h e wandering  of the birds  above t h e  s a n d - b a r s , t h e r u s t l i n g and t h e f a l l i n g o f t h e l e a v e s i n t h e forests, downcast  and t h e s u r g i n g o f t h e b i l l o w s p o r t r a y a gloomy and atmosphere  "adversity,"  which  "affliction,"  t h a t the poet e x p l i c i t l y  blends  with  the  "melancholy,"  "sickness,"  and  "despondency"  expresses i n t h e second h a l f o f t h e  poem. Tu  Fu a l s o  K'uei-chou depict  moves a c r o s s  boundaries o f space  and Ch'ang-an. He u s e s t h e word  between  "boundless" t o  t h e e x p a n s i v e s c e n e on one hand, a n d p e r h a p s on t h e  other  hand  he  may  suggest that  by  this  time  of  the  year  f a l l i n g l e a v e s and t h e r u s t l i n g l e a v e s c a n be s e e n and h e a r d e v e r y w h e r e , i n c l u d i n g i n Ch'ang-an. He may  a l s o u s e t h e word  to  passage  denote  passage  the  inevitability  in this  w o r l d . He  of  employs  time's  the phrase  "surging,  surging  on"  which  we  know  travels,  traverses  d i s t a n c e between K ' u e i - c h o u and Ch'ang-an. The  Yangtze  take  link  him  back  t o the c a p i t a l  and  serves  past.  19. Impromptu ( I* J 3 ) 1 There i s a f o r l o r n thatched hut among t h e m o u n t a i n s a t t h e edge of the sky. 2 On t h e r i v e r w i n d and waves a r e r a g i n g rain falls drearily. Two w h i t e f i s h 3 do n o t take the b a i t . Large t h r e e - i n c h oranges are s t i l l 4 green. 5 I am as s i c k as Ssu-ma C h a n g - c h ' i n g u n a b l e t o g e t up f o r even a day. I am 6 a t t h e end o f t h e r o a d l i k e Juan C h i when v  as  a  his  "everflowing  Yangtze" to underscore the d i s t a n c e t h a t the r i v e r and  and  the can  to his  96 will I become sober? I have n o t heard whether t h e s o l d i e r s of Small Willow have yet l a i d down t h e i r a r m s . I n C h ' i n Ch'uan the Ching River flows d i r t y water my h e a r t i s broken.  7  8  with  * «!f ^ J , *V if ^  4 & £ *f  describes in as  i n the f i r s t four  "forlorn"  road  and  which  the  raging  wind  the white  able  like  lines  In line  with  the hut which  t o see that  they  the bait  he  he  expresses  among t h e  i s a t t h e end o f  s i x . The d e p i c t i o n  and t h e dreary  o f an i n a u s p i c i o u s that  T |  reality  i s located  o f t h e s k y , he a l s o  and waves  fish  those  hi  one Tu Fu d e s c r i b e s t h e h u t  he d e s c r i b e s i n l i n e  reader t h e sense to  four  lines.  a t t h e edge  the  4 i( 4 ••) 4  poem T u F u t r a n s f o r m s t h e o b j e c t i v e  the last  mountains  -f i*l # <*> & X  JR. » &  #r # £ j  .* ci] In t h i s  ;z-  rain  gives the  omen. He i s c l o s e  are i n clear  i s i n front  sight  o f them.  of  enough  and he i s  Y e t even i n  97 this  seemingly  advantageous  situation  the f i s h  b i t e . The o r a n g e s a r e l a r g e a n d t h e r e f o r e c o u l d provide  plenty  yet  ripe.  the  large  constant  not  potentially  b u t i n t h e e n d c a n n o t because' t h e y a r e n o t  The w h i t e f i s h  which w i l l  b u t as y e t u n r i p e struggle  of l i f e .  n o t t a k e t h e b a i t and  oranges  These  are symbolic  perceptions  c o n n e c t e d t o h i s own s t a t e o f h e a l t h at  will  and mind.  of the  are clearly He i s s i c k ,  t h e e n d o f h i s r o a d , h i s own e m o t i o n s r a g e l i k e t h e w i n d  and w a t e r , a n d h i s h e a r t  i s broken.  ENDNOTES:  1. A l e x P r e m i n g e r ( e d . ) , P r i n c e t o n E n c y c l o p e d i a o f P o e t r y and P o e t i c s , ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 4 ) , E n l a r g e d e d i t i o n , p.95. 2. The F u - s a n g T r e e i s a l e g e n d a r y m y s t i c a l t r e e . I t i s s a i d t h a t i t grows i n t h e p l a c e where t h e s u n r i s e s and t h a t t h e t r e e i s a few t h o u s a n d y a r d s t a l l . [ T u n g - f a n g So a t t r i b u t e d , S h i h Chou C h i c o l l e c t e d i n Lung Wei P i Shu, ( a p h o t o c o p y o f the o r i g i n a l f r o m T a i w a n U n i v e r s i t y L i b r a r y , 1 9 7 0 ) , pp.6061; a l s o i n Hsu Shen, Tuan Y u - t s ' a i e d . , Shuo Wen C h i e h T z u Chu, V o l . 6 , KHCPCS, Wan Yo Wen K'u, ( S h a n g h a i : C o m m e r c i a l P r e s s , 1937), p . l . 3. The Weak S t r e a m i s a l e g e n d a r y m y s t i c a l s t r e a m w h i c h i s s a i d t o be s i t u a t e d a t t h e f o o t h i l l s o f Mount K u n - l u n ; i t s w a t e r i s s o weak t h a t e v e n a f e a t h e r c a n n o t f l o a t on i t . [Ssu-ma C h ' i e n comp., S h i h C h i , V o l . 1 0 , " T a i Wan L i e h Chuan, No.63, ( P e k i n g : Chung Hua Book Co., 1 9 6 2 ) , p.3164; a l s o i n T u n g - f a n g So a t t r i b u t e d S h i h Chou C h i , c o l l e c t e d i n Lung Wei P i Shu, p.4 a n d i n L i u H s i u , Kuo P'u and Ho I - h s i n g e d . , 11  f  98 Shan H a i C h i n a . No. 11, " H a i N e i T ' i e n Book Co., 1 9 8 2 ) , p.298.]  Hsi  Ching,"  (Taipei:  Lo  4. A l t h o u g h t h e p o e t d e s c r i b e s a w h i t e - h a i r e d man c a r r y i n g a w a l k i n g - s t i c k i n t h e t h i r d p e r s o n , he c e r t a i n l y d e s c r i b e s h i m s e l f . Tu Fu h i m s e l f was o l d and s i c k a t t h e t i m e he w r o t e t h i s poem, j u s t as t h i s w h i t e - h a i r e d man who carries a w a l k i n g - s t i c k a p p e a r s t o be. T h e r e a r e many o t h e r poems i n w h i c h Tu Fu d e s c r i b e s h i m s e l f as one who i s s i c k and o l d , h a s w h i t e h a i r , and c a r r i e s a w a l k i n g - s t i c k : " O v e r l o o k i n g S c e n e r y o f t h e G o r g e s , " " A t N i g h t , " "Autumn M e d i t a t i o n s , " "Sunset," "Sadness," "Climbing on Double Ninth," and "Impromptu." I n any e v e n t , f r o m s u c h a d i s t a n t p h y s i c a l v a n t a g e p o i n t , i t w o u l d seem u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e p o e t w o u l d be a b l e t o o b s e r v e " t h e o l d man" i n s u c h d e t a i l so as t o draw c o n c l u s i o n s a b o u t h i s e m o t i o n a l s t a t e . 5. A t t h e t i m e , Tu Fu was w o r k i n g i n t h e P e r s o n a l E v a l u a t i o n S e c t i o n i n Hua-chou. (Ch'ou Chao-ao, Tu S h i h H s i a n g Chu, V o l . 3 , p.1289.) San-fu refers t o Ching-chao, Fu-feng, and Feng-i, the c e n t r a l p a r t o f p r e s e n t day S h e n s i P r o v i n c e . A  A  6. The f i s h e r m a n ' s s o n g r e a d s : "Of t h e t h r e e g o r g e s i n P a t o n g , t h e Wu G o r g e i s t h e l o n g e s t ; when one h e a r s t h e g i b b o n s c r y t h r i c e , o n e ' s c l o t h e s a r e wet w i t h t e a r s . " ( £ ) [ L i Taoy u a n , S h u i C h i n g C h u , " C h i a n g S h u i Chu", ( S h a n g h a i : S h a n g h a i Kuo Hsiieh Cheng L i She, 1936), c h u a n 34, p. 6.] 7.In t h i s l i n e , T u F u employs two a l l u s i o n s . Chang Hua's Po Wu C h i h s a y s t h a t i n t h e r e c e n t w o r l d , t h e r e was a man who l i v e d by t h e s e a . On t h e e i g h t h month of e v e r y y e a r , he saw a r a f t c o m i n g by. T h i s man was c u r i o u s ; t h e r e f o r e , he r o d e on t h e r a f t f o r one y e a r . A f t e r r i d i n g on t h e r a f t f o r more t h a n t e n months, he a r r i v e d a t a p l a c e where t h e r e were c i t y w a l l s . I n s i d e t h e c i t y w a l l s , he saw some w e a v i n g m a i d s and a man d r a g g i n g a cow. He a s k e d the man where he was. The man who was d r a g g i n g t h e cow a n s w e r e d : 'Go and v i s i t Yen C h u n - p ' i n g and y o u w i l l know.' The man r e t u r n e d home and went t o v i s i t Yen. Yen a n s w e r e d : 'In a c e r t a i n month o f a c e r t a i n y e a r , t h e r e was a man went t o t h e M i l k y Way. ' The man l a t e r f o u n d o u t t h e t i m e and y e a r w h i c h Yen r e f e r r e d t o . To h i s s u r p r i s e , i t was t h e same t i m e and t h e same y e a r when t h i s man a r r i v e d a t t h e p l a c e . [Chang Hua e d . , Po Wu C h i . TSCCCP, V o l . 1342, [ S h a n g h a i : C o m m e r c i a l P r e s s , 1 9 3 9 ) , c h u a n 3, p.19.]  99 I n T s u n g L i n ' s C h i n g Chu S u i S h i n C h i , i t s a y s t h a t Emperor Wu o f Han a s s i g n e d Chang C h ' i e n t o go t o T a i H s i a ( B a c t r i a , now n o r t h o f A f g h a n i s t a n ) t o t r a c e t h e s o u r c e s o f t h e r i v e r . Chang C h ' i e n r o d e on a r a f t . A f t e r s e v e r a l months, he a r r i v e d a t a p l a c e . However, t h e p r e s e n t - d a y v e r s i o n o f t h e C h i n g Chu S u i S h i h C h i d o e s n o t m e n t i o n t h a t Chang C h ' i e n was r i d i n g on a r a f t . [ T s u n g L i n comp., C h i n g Chu S u i S h i h C h i , PPTSCC, V o l . 104, Pao Yen T'ang P i C h i , ( S h a n g h a i : I Wen P u b l i s h i n g Co., p.22.] 8. "The B i o g r a p h y o f K'uang Heng" i n Han Shu s a y s t h a t s h o r t l y a f t e r Emperor Yuan had come t o t h e t h r o n e , t h e r e were s u n e c l i p s e s and e a r t h q u a k e s . Emperor Yuan a s k e d f o r an e v a l u a t i o n o f h i s p o l i c i e s . K'uang Heng s e n t h i s a d v i c e . The emperor was p l e a s e d w i t h what K'uang Heng s a i d . The emperor p r o m o t e d K'uang Heng t o be t h e Duke o f Kuang L u and also t o be the tutor o f t h e crown p r i n c e . [Pan Ku a t t r i b u t e d , Yen S h i h - k u comm., Han Shu, ( P e k i n g : Chung Hua Book Co., 1962), V o l . 7 , c h u a n 81, "The B i o g r a p h y o f K'uang Heng, No. 51" pp.3331-3338.] 9. "The B i o g r a p h y o f Emperor Yuan o f Ch'u" i n Han Shu s a y s t h a t L i u H s i a n g was a s k e d by t h e Emperor Ch'eng o f Han t o e d i t t h e F i v e C l a s s i c s . ( I b i d . , c h u a n 36,"The B i o g r a p h y o f Emperor Yuan o f Ch'u, No.6." pp.1928-1929.) 10. A n o t h e r v e r s i o n r e a d s : " f e a t h e r d i s p a t c h e s a r e d e l a y e d . " ( W i l l i a m Hung & o t h e r s , T u S h i h Y i n T e , - t , p. 468.) T h i s a m b i g u i t y a r i s e s f r o m t h e word " c h ' i h " w h i c h i s a homonym i n C h i n e s e , w i t h two d i s t i n c t m e a n i n g s . means t o p a s s q u i c k l y l i k e a g a l l o p i n g h o r s e and means t o d e l a y . The f i r s t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n w o u l d mean t h a t t h e r e h a v e b e e n many c a m p a i g n s . When we l o o k a t T'ang h i s t o r y , we w i l l f i n d t h a t t h i s i s t h e c a s e . The l a t t e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n c a n be t a k e n a s a r e f e r e n c e t o c o r r u p t and i n e f f i c i e n t o f f i c i a l s s u c h as Ch'eng Y u a n - c h e n who d i d n o t r e p o r t t o t h e emperor p r o m p t l y when t h e T i b e t a n s i n v a d e d Ch'ang-an a b o u t two y e a r s b e f o r e T u Fu w r o t e t h e s e r i e s . As a r e s u l t , t h e emperor r u s h e d t o l e a v e t h e p a l a c e w i t h o u t much p r e p a r a t i o n . [ S s u ma Kuang, T z u C h ' i h T'ung C h i e n . (Hong Kong: Chung Hua Book Co., 1976), V o l . 3 , c h u a n 223, pp.7150, 7151, 7155.] B o t h i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s a r e p o s s i b l e , f o r b o t h c a n be s u b s t a n t i a t e d by h i s t o r i c a l e v i d e n c e . 11. Ch'ang-an f e l l i n 756 as a r e s u l t o f t h e ^An L u - s h a n R e b e l l i o n and t h e T i b e t a n s ' i n v a s i o n o f 763. [Ssu-ma Kuang, Tz"u C h ' i h T'ung C h i e n , (Hong Kong: Chung Hua Book Co. , 1976), V o l . 3 , c h u a n 218, p.6994; c h u a n 223, p.7151.]  100 12. J a s p e r L a k e i s s a i d t o be s i t u a t e d on Mount K u n - l u n where Queen M o t h e r o f t h e West r e s i d e s . (Ssu-ma C h ' i e n comp., S h i h C h i , V o l . 1 0 , " T a i Wan L i e h Chuan, No. 6 3," p.3164, p.3179.) A c c o r d i n g t o Chang Hua's Po Wu C h i h , Emperor Wu o f Han l o v e s T a o i s m . Queen M o t h e r o f t h e West s e n t a m e s s e n g e r who came t o Emperor Wu r i d i n g on a w h i t e d e e r and t o l d Emperor Wu t h a t Queen M o t h e r w o u l d be a r r i v i n g s o o n . On t h e n i g h t o f t h e s e v e n t h day o f t h e s e v e n t h month Queen M o t h e r o f t h e West came r i d i n g on t h e c l o u d s . [Chang Hua e d . , Po Wu C h i h , TSCCCP, V o l . , 1342, chiian 3, p. 17; a l s o i n Pan Ku Han Wu T i N e i Chuan. PPTSCC, V o l . 5 2 , Shou Shan Ko T s ' u n g Shu, V o l . 86, pp.1-2.] 13. A c c o r d i n g t o L i e h H s i e n C h u a n . i t s a y s t h a t L a o - t z u l e f t t h e P a s s f o r t h e w e s t r i d i n g on a g r e e n ox-cart. The d i r e c t o r o f t h e P a s s , Y i n H s i , saw a h a z e . He knew a s a g e w o u l d come b y . He r e c e i v e d and welcomed Lao T z u him and r e q u e s t e d him t o w r i t e two v o l u m e s o f T a o - t e C h i n g . [Ch'an Hsuan H s i e n e d . , L i e h H s i e n Chuan. TSCCCP, V o l . , 3347, ( S h a n g h a i : C o m m e r c i a l P r e s s , 1 9 3 6 ) , "Lao T z u , " pp.7-8; "The D i r e c t o r o f t h e P a s s , Y i n , " pp.8-9.] A l s o [Ssu-ma C h ' i e n (comp.), S h i h C h i , V o l . 7 , "The B i o g r a p h y o f Lao T z u , No. 3, p.2141. ] 11  14. Pan Ku a t t r i b u t e d , Yen s h i h - k u comm., Han Shu, chiian 25, V o l . 3 , " C h i a o S s u C h i h , " No.5, p.1220.) A l s o Ssu-ma C h ' i e n comp., S h i h C h i . V o l . 2 , c h u a n 12, " H s i a o Wu Pen C h i , " p.459. 15.  W i l l i a m Hung & o t h e r s e d . , Tu  16.  Wang S s u - s h i h , T u  I,  S h i h Y i n T e . j p . 468.  p.276.  17. C h ' i e n C h ' i e n - i , C h ' i e n Chu Tu S h i h . V o l . 2 , p.510; C h ' i - l u n g , Tu T u H s i n C h i e h . V o l . 3 , p.655. 18.  Ch'ou Chao-ao, Tu  Shih Hsianq  Chu  . Vol.4,  P'u  p.1495.  19. A c c o r d i n g t o S h i h Shuo H s i n Yu, L i u K'un was a P r e f e c t of Ping-chou. He was b e s i e g e d by t h e mounted b a r b a r i a n t r o o p s . One m o o n l i t n i g h t , L i u c l i m b e d t o a t o w e r and p l a y e d t h e f l u t e . The t r o o p s h e a r d t h e m u s i c and t h e y s i g h e d . A t m i d - n i g h t , L i u p l a y e d b u g l e m u s i c . T h i s t i m e when t h e t r o o p s heard the music, they a l l c r i e d . Next evening, L i u p l a y e d t h e b u g l e m u s i c a g a i n . When t h e t r o o p s h e a r d i t , t h e y f l e d home. [ L i u I - c h ' i n g , Yang Yung e d . , S h i h Shuo H s i n Yu C h i a o C h i e n . "Ya L i a n g No. 6," (Hong Kong: T a Chung P u b l i s h i n g C o . ) , 1969, p.291.]  101 20. T s ' u i Pao, Ku C h i n Chu. TSCCCP, V o l . 2 7 4 , C o m m e r c i a l P r e s s , 1 9 3 7 ) , " M u s i c , " No.3, p.9.  (Shanghai:  21. A n o t h e r v e r s i o n r e a d s : " S u d d e n l y I r e c a l l a t i m e when t h e two c a p i t a l s a r e a t t h e i r p e a k s . " [ i% vk> X- ^ # i 8<j] (Ch'ou Chao-ao, Tu Shih Hsiana Chu. Vol.4, p.1597.) 22. The other interpretation reads: "Adding to my d e s p o n d e n c y , l a t e l y I have had t o q u i t d r i n k i n g my cup o f u n s e t t l e d w i n e . " Ch'ou, P'u, and Yang p r e f e r t h i s r e a d i n g b e c a u s e a t t h e t i m e , t h e p o e t was s u f f e r i n g f r o m a weak l u n g and had t o q u i t d r i n k i n g . (Ch'ou Chao-ao, Tu S h i h H s i a n g Chu, V o l . 4 , p.1766; P'u C h ' i - l u n g , Tu Tu H s i n C h i e h . V o l . 3 , p.671; Yang Lun, Tu S h i h C h i n g C h ' i i a n , p.842.) I t h i n k i n t h i s poem t h e p o e t means t h a t he has just f i n i s h e d d r i n k i n g h i s cup o f w i n e . I t i s a c u s t o m t o c a r r y a bag f i l l e d w i t h dogwood and t o d r i n k chrysanthemum w i n e on t h e n i n t h day o f t h e n i n t h month. The l i n e seems t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e p o e t a c t u a l l y sees t h e wine r e s i d u e s i n k i n g t o t h e b o t t o m w h i l e he d r i n k s .  102  CHAPTER FOUR CONCLUSION:  Tu hundred  F u was and f i f t y  a prolific  His poetry  style,  form,  look  have  at a  poems,  who  wrote  about  fourteen  poems o v e r a p e r i o d o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y  years.  I  poet  i s widely  recognized  forty  as i n n o v a t i v e i n  and i t s tremendous b r e a d t h o f c o n t e n t . attempted  to provide  manageable  related  by  portion  their  a detailed  o f Tu  form,  and i n - d e p t h  Fu's  work—nineteen  is  hepta-syllabic  which  r e g u l a t e d v e r s e , t h e i r p e r i o d , a b o u t a p p r o x i m a t e l y two y e a r s in  the author's  wrote  about  life,  and t h e i r  151 h e p t a - s y l l a b i c  theme o f n o s t a l g i a .  r e g u l a t e d v e r s e s . Of t h e s e  he w r o t e t h e n i n e t e e n poems c o n s i d e r e d h e r e f r o m A.D. T h e s e poems a r e a l s o c l o s e l y all  part df a portrayal  T u Fu  related  i n t h a t they are  o f Tu Fu's s p i r i t u a l  t i m e . T u F u was a p p r o x i m a t e l y f i f t y - f i v e  766 t o 767  being at that  y e a r s o l d , an o l d  man by t h e s t a n d a r d s o f h i s t i m e and b y h i s own d e s c r i p t i o n . I s o l a t e d among s t r a n g e r s , he was l i v i n g to  h i m was a f o r e i g n  land. His l i f e  i n K'uei-chou,  which  a n d c a r e e r were a t an  end, and h i s i s o l a t i o n a l l t h e g r e a t e r when h i s p r e s e n t  life  was compared t o h i s y o u n g e r d a y s a s an o f f i c i a l a n d s c h o l a r in  Ch'ang-an, t h e s e a t o f t h e e m p i r e .  in the p o l i t i c a l  He h a d b e e n  involved  and c u l t u r a l f e r m e n t o f t h a t t i m e and p l a c e  103 w h i c h , due t o t h e a c c i d e n t s o f f o r t u n e and c a r e e r , h a d b e e n lost by  t o him. F i n a l l y  the three  poetic  poetic  techniques  these  nineteen  techniques  employed  a r e t h e most  significant  poems and a r e t h e s u b j e c t o f t h i s  1.  A s s o c i a t i o n O f One Time W i t h  In  t h e poems  i n which  poems a r e a l s o  related  i n them. link  These  to  these  thesis.  Another:  t h e poet  uses  the particular  t e c h n i q u e o f t r a n s c e n d i n g t h e b o u n d a r y o f t i m e , we f i n d t h a t present to  i s of l i t t l e  i n the present  interest  h e a r s o n l y r e m i n d h i m o f and f o c u s h i s mind on h i s p a s t  life  mostly  i n i t s past.  What  He  he a c t u a l l y  ceases and  on Ch'ang-an  world.  t o T u F u . He  sees  and  live  reality  i s aware o f t h e p r e s e n t  by c o n t r a s t .  In " O v e r l o o k i n g the  river  the  Yellow  Scenery  o f Shu b e f o r e River  Of The G o r g e " t h e Wu G o r g e and  h i s e y e s r e m i n d h i m o f Mt Hua and  he saw when  Hua-chou e i g h t y e a r s  earlier.  he was t h e A d m i n i s t r a t o r o f I n "Autumn M e d i t a t i o n s  a s s o c i a t e s t h e c l u s t e r e d chrysanthemums he s e e s he h a s s e e n .  with  I " he those  I n "Autumn M e d i t a t i o n s I I " he r e l a t e s t h e c r i e s  of  g i b b o n s he h e a r s  to  Yen Wu  to h i s futile  some y e a r s  a s he o b s e r v e s  earlier.  s e r v i c e s t o t h e s t a t e and  I n "Autumn M e d i t a t i o n s I I I "  t h e v i l l a g e h o u s e s on t h e h i l l s ,  t h e bobbing  104 o f t h e b o a t s , and t h e f l y i n g o f s w a l l o w s , only  on  c o n t r a s t i n g h i s past  successes and to  and  the  and  rumble  horses  unfulfilled  accomplishments  h i s class-mates.  his  Ch'u-t'ang "Autumn  listens  he  to  drums and  actually  Han  thinks  and  of  from  the  Meditations  although  VII"  the  hears  rushing  them, and  chariots yet  these  p a s t . I n "Autumn M e d i t a t i o n s the  immediate  reality  Crooked  River  the  time  in  boundaries  of  two  dynasties  the  past.  dissolve,  T'ang a r e a b o u t n i n e h u n d r e d y e a r s  these  the  I n "Autumn M e d i t a t i o n s IV" he  move  Gorge  with  Hsiang,  as t h o u g h he  thoughts  career  focus  K'uang Heng, L i u  o f gongs and  of  are references t o the d i s t a n t VI"  h i s thoughts  together.  In for  apart,  Emperor  Wu's  banners which f l e w about nine c e n t u r i e s e a r l i e r are s a i d  to  be  he  fluttering  before  his  eyes.  In  "Flute  Playing"  a s s o c i a t e s t h e f l u t e m u s i c he h e a r s w i t h t h e s o r r o w f u l b u g l e music with  played another  about  seven  Winter space with  by  L i u K'un  sad  hundred  Solstice"  he  certainty  i s o r c a n be, him  utterly  the  of  years  than  "this  his  played "The  and  by  Day  boundaries  i n o t h e r poems. He soul w i l l  Ma  The  of time  and  mind.  In  enchanted "Spring  know  accept  l o v e l y the present  i s an  Yuan  l e t s us  not  and  After  i s n o t t h e c o u n t r y o f my  i n Ch'ang-an  captivates  In  the  f o r no m a t t e r how  he s a y s  music  before.  t h a t h i s mind  past  four centuries e a r l i e r  flute  transcends  more c o m p l e t e l y  w o r l d a r o u n d him,  To  piece  about  place  the  world home." which  Equinox"  he  105 associates sliced  the  plum  vegetables  blossoms before  and  his  the  eyes  e x p e r i e n c e s i n Ch'ang-an and L o - y a n g  platter with  i n the  of  his  finely similar  past.  2. Association Of One Place With Another:  Tu F u t r a n s c e n d s i n h i s t h o u g h t s t h e p h y s i c a l  distance  between K ' u e i - c h o u and Ch'ang-an. What he s e e s and what  he  hears  he  i n K'uei-chou  bring  t o h i s mind memories o f what  h a s s e e n and h e a r d i n Ch'ang-an. In  " O v e r l o o k i n g S c e n e r y Of The  G o r g e and t h e r i v e r  o f Shu  as Mt Hua  Gorge"  he  sees the  Wu  and t h e Y e l l o w R i v e r .  I n "Autumn M e d i t a t i o n s V I " he o b s e r v e s t h e C h ' u - t ' a n g  Gorge  but i s reminded o f the Crooked R i v e r . In " F l u t e P l a y i n g " the l u s h w i l l o w s i n K ' u e i - c h o u r e m i n d h i m o f t h e w i t h e r e d ones i n h i s home-town. I n "The Day A f t e r The W i n t e r S o l s t i c e " t h e s p r i n g s c e n e o f K ' u e i - c h o u b r i n g s him memories o f a p a r a l l e l s c e n e he saw i n Ch'ang-an. I n " S p r i n g E q u i n o x " he the  plum  blossoms  and  the  platter  of  associates  finely  sliced  v e g e t a b l e s w i t h h i s s i m i l a r e x p e r i e n c e s i n Ch'ang-an and L o y a n g , and i n " C l i m b i n g On D o u b l e N i n t h " he i m p l i e s t h a t t h e scene of the f a l l i n g of  a similar  scene  and  rustling  leaves  also  reminds  him  i n Ch'ang-an.  Tu Fu a l s o u s e s m o v i n g o r c o n n e c t i n g o b j e c t s as  symbols  106 of  escape  or  flight,  vehicles  through  w h i c h he  t o Ch'ang-an. I n " A t N i g h t " t h e s t a r s , the c a p i t a l , at  and  w h i c h he  links  with  can r e t u r n  which a l s o  shine  i n "Autumn M e d i t a t i o n s I I " t h e B i g D i p p e r ,  gazes  every  Ch'ang-an.  night, serve  In  f o r him  as  "Autumn M e d i t a t i o n s  imaginary  I"  the  s e r v e s as a v e h i c l e t o w h i c h he t i e s h i s homeward In  "Autumn M e d i t a t i o n s V I I "  over  a  mountain  transcend Double  the  K'uei-chou  pass  serve  physical  Ninth"  on  the  the  birds  as  a  link  separation,  Yangtze  he  and  which  in  t r a v e r s e s the  thoughts.  observes by  boat  flying he  can  "Climbing  distance  On  between  and Ch'ang-an and s e r v e s f o r him as a l i n k t o t h e  capital.  3.  Transformation  Subjective  Tu torment.  Fu  E x t e r n a l World  Informed  By  His  is  absorbed  obsessively  with  his  spiritual  T h i s e m o t i o n d i c t a t e s what he remembers and how  transforms  the  that  behind  outside  The  World:  characterizes  force  Of  world  outside  which  his is  he  efforts  world. sees to  It  and  escape  consistently  he  is  the  source  hears  and  the  driving  reality.  The  present  depicted  as  negative  that  and  unpleasant. In  "The  Highest  Tower  Of  White  Emperor  City"  he  transforms  the  o b j e c t s which  i n f o r m s them w i t h h i s own as  "sad."  The  ramparts, dark  he  d e s c r i b e s around  him  f e e l i n g s . He d e s c r i b e s t h e b a n n e r s  descriptions  of  the  pointed  the narrowness o f the paths,  clouds p o r t r a y a jagged  and  shape  the gorges,  cramped  of  the  and  the  image w h i c h g i v e s  t h e r e a d e r a s e n s e o f s t r a i n and u n e a s e w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d his In  sadness  and  to  as he e x p l i c i t l y r e v e a l s a t t h e end o f t h e poem.  "At N i g h t "  he  p o r t r a y s h i m s e l f as  startled,  old,  sick,  and a l o n e . He  d e s c r i b e s i n p a r a l l e l t h e m o u n t a i n s as empty,  the  few,  lights  as  scattered,  and  dim,  the h o i s t e d s a i l  " f o r l o r n , " and t h e g e e s e as " u n s y m p a t h e t i c " feelings  because  they  Although  one  consider that  may  bring  him  no  news  dew-drops  t o h i s hope from  the  as and  north.  gathered  on  the  maple t r e e s as a n a t u r a l phenomenon, i n "Autumn M e d i t a t i o n s I"  he u s e s  "wilt"  and  "wound" t o d e p i c t t h e damaging  of  dew-drops on t h e maple t r e e s . By c o n t r a s t "dew"  effect  normally  symbolizes grace or a k i n d of d i v i n e e l i x i r  t h a t can  one's  e x e m p l i f i e s the  life.  Such u n u s u a l l y n e g a t i v e usage  e x t e n t t o w h i c h Tu feelings. impending his says  sense the  The  extend  Fu t r a n s f o r m s t h e e x t e r n a l w i t h h i s  damaging  effect  of  the  dew-drops  and  own the  d i s o r d e r and t h r e a t e n i n g images he p o r t r a y s c o n v e y of  lifelessness,  clustered  transforms the boat loneliness.  d i s s a r a y , and  chrysanthemums and  informs  bring  heart-break.  him  tears,  i t w i t h h i s own  I n "Autumn M e d i t a t i o n s I I " he  He  and  he  feeling  of  is idle,  lonely,  108 and f o r l o r n , and he d e s c r i b e s t h e e v e n i n g s c e n e r y b e f o r e h i s eyes  i n a manner t h a t  i n f o r m s i t w i t h h i s own  feelings.  He  d e s c r i b e s t h e c i t y w a l l s he s e e s as " s o l i t a r y " and t h e b u g l e music  he  evening  hears scene  as  "sad."  and  In  informs  "Sunset"  i t with  he  his  transforms  the  thoughts  and  own  f e e l i n g s t h o u g h t h i s i s n o t i m m e d i a t e l y a p p a r e n t . The though that  one o f l i g h t  i s pale,  description  and b e a u t y ,  distant,  of  his  and  own  scene,  i s tranformed i n t o a v i s i o n  hazy  and  pending  corresponds  death,  old  with  age,  sense  the of  c o n f l i c t , u n e a s i n e s s , and d i s a p p o i n t m e n t . I n " F l u t e P l a y i n g " h i s response t o t h e f l u t e music own  thoughts  and  feelings.  he h e a r s i s t a i n t e d by h i s  He  grieves  for  his  physical  s e p a r a t i o n f r o m Ch'ang-an, and he d e s c r i b e s t h e f l u t e he  listens  to  as  "heart-breaking.  1 1  In  "A  Night  music  In  The  Chamber" he t r a n s f o r m s a s e r e n e and t r a n q u i l a t m o s p h e r e depicts because  i t as he  a  disturbing  i s distressed,  and  irritating  p e r t u r b e d , and  night  and  scene  deserted. Another  o b s e r v e r might r e g a r d a view of a c l e a r n i g h t l o o k i n g a t the reflections  o f t h e s t a r s on t h e T h r e e  to  drums,  bugles,  songs  sung  enjoyable.  by  fishermen  In "Sadness"  f r a m e o f mind sound  noises  as he  from and  irritate,  c o u n t r y - s i d e , and  wood-cutters  complains  and  listening  as  inviting  h i s p e r c e p t i o n i s dominated  o f the r u n n i n g water,  sadden,  the  G o r g e s and  that  and  aggravate  the growing  although  and  by h i s  grass, the  the bathing of the him  the  by  egrets, contrast  109 these  are  the  life  and  that  he  that  his life  images w h i c h w o u l d t o most o b s e r v e r s  beauty.  In  "Climbing  On  Double N i n t h "  he  denote laments  i s f a r away f r o m home, i n p o o r h e a l t h , l o n e l y ,  scene seen  is difficult,  and  downcast,  and  as  at  sick,  and  he  depicts a natural  heard  from  sombre.  In  "Impromptu" he  of  the  the  end  parallelling this,  and  a h i g h v a n t a g e p o i n t as  road,  describes  and  fall  gloomy, himself  heart-broken  he d e s c r i b e s a h u t he s e e s as  and  "forlorn,"  l o c a t e d among t h e m o u n t a i n s a t t h e edge o f t h e s k y , t h e w i n d and  waves as r a g i n g , and  The  past,  prosperous,  by  the r a i n  c o n t r a s t , Tu  as  Fu  dreary.  envisages  as  glorious,  e x h i l a r a t i n g , and sometimes m y t h i c a l . I n "Autumn A  Meditations  V!'  the  r e f e r e n c e t o grand reality. a  symbol  The of  magnificent, dwelling  depiction  success  Palace  f o r the  s e a t o f t h e T'ang E m p i r e and i n the  dream-like,  place  P'eng-lai  and  past,  resplendent,  immortals.  In  e a r l i e r t o Lake M e i - p e i  is  feelings transform  one  bounty,  The  of extraordinary splendour, and  g a i e t y . He  also  as  i f i t were  "Autumn  recalls  the  p o r t r a y a l of the  life,  a  Meditations years  a l s o e x h i b i t the extent t o which reality.  of  i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d as  V I I I " h i s r e c o l l e c t i o n s o f t h e memorable t r i p he t o o k  Fu's  with  myths e x e m p l i f i e s t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n  palace, the his  of  Tu  trip  richness, colour,  pleasure  of  sailing  on  110 and  on  with  his  "immortals."  good  These  intensely  romantic  nostalgia  and  friends  whom  descriptions  both  vision  of  i s manifested  dream. I n " S p r i n g E q u i n o x "  the  i n the  him  when he  that  images  the p o s i t i v e  s o u n d s and thoughts essence time  i n h i s poems. As  and  inform He talent  e m o t i o n s t o s o a r , and  the  space  and  seem  past.  f i n d t h a t Tu Fu i s  self  h i s thoughts  their  transcend  thoughts  and  feelings.  skill.  He  crushes  i s endowed w i t h  his  myriad  emotions  a g a i n s t t h e t i p o f h i s b r u s h as t h o u g h t h e y a r e g u s h i n g a  spring.  grace.  His  These  and  to allow h i s  encapsulates  i s a l s o a p o e t o f d e e p f e e l i n g s who great  peace  h i s e m o t i o n s t r a n s f o r m t h e e x t e r n a l and  i t w i t h h i s own  and  and  external sights  then  a result,  beyond  a s s o c i a t i o n of  life,  transforms  the  and  turns to his inner s p i r i t u a l  and  of  r e l a t e s them t o t h e  o f c o n t e m p l a t i o n . He  goes  as  fantasy  From t h e a n a l y s e s o f t h e s e poems we a poet  addresses  demonstrate  past  plum b l o s s o m s w h i c h r e p r e s e n t b e a u t y , only to a f f e c t  he  grief  flows  eloquently  n i n e t e e n poems e x p r e s s  and  with  ease  his spiritual  from and  torment  s u c c i n c t l y w i t h l i n g e r i n g and p e n e t r a t i n g m o u r n f u l n e s s .  The  three  are  poetic  arresting,  techniques  i m p r e s s i v e , and  employed ingenious  in not  these  poems  only considering  when t h e y were w r i t t e n b u t a l s o by t h e s t a n d a r d s o f  today.  Ill  L I S T OF ABBREVIATIONS  KHCPCS  PPTSCC  TSCCCP  TSTK  ii  i\ % H  112 BIBLIOGRAPHY I. Primary  Sources:  Chang Hua, \f\-^ Reprint,  Ch'u Chu  Po Wu  Shanghai:  Ch'u  J*<^,  Wen  Press,  K'u. Jj^  "j^jL  C h i comm.,^  J^f;  Shan T a i  ^  A  l^f  ^  ^  Ku  Shih  Cheng Chung Book Co.,  Tuan Y i i - t s ' a i V  ed. , ^ £  ''2- vol.1,  c h u a n 6,  Reprint,  Ke Chi  Shanghai:  P'in  1969.  Shuo  Wen  KHCPCS,  Wen  Commercial  1937.  Li Tao-yiian,^! S h u i Chu."  ;  Cheng L i She,  L i u Hsieh, ^ ] Tiao  1939.  Wang Chung e d . ,  Taipei:  Chieh Tzu C h u . ^ Yo  1342.  1984.  Hung,J^  Shen, £^  TSCCCP, v o l . ,  R e p r i n t , Shanghai:  Chu.  Hsu  Chiang  Tz'u.  P u b l i s h i n g Co.,  Chung  j{±  Commercial P r e s s ,  fy-  Yuan,  C h i h . "f<^ Ify  S h u i C h i n g Chu.  «fc  R e p r i n t , Shanghai:  "Chiang S h a n g h a i Kuo  Hsueh  1936.  Fan  ¥>%j,  L u n g Chu. £  /<c  Kong: C o m m e r c i a l P r e s s ,  Wen-Ian $21986.  e d . , : X A. ^ ] 2  vols.  Wen  Hsin  R e p r i n t , Hong  113 Liu  H s i u , %\  £\  ^^C^ )  $T  7  Reprint,  Liu  s  Kuo P'u h  a  n  H  a  i  Ching  Taiwan: Lo T ' i e n  9»7  Hsu, %\  f\  i%  Liu  Book Co.,  ed.,  i-L'ti-  1981.  O l d T'ang H i s t o r y . ^  %  %  chuan  1-11,  S h a n g h a i : Chung Hua Book  1975.  I - c h ' i n g , %A  Hsin  %r  Yang Yung e d . ,  Yu C h i a o C h i e n .  Chung Book Co.,  Lu  I-Hsing  Chu. IU  Chiao  c h u a n 190, chiian 195-196. R e p r i n t , Co.,  and Ho  C h i , I^Z ^  Ou-yang  "Wen-fu" jL|£^  Reprint,  Hsiu  Peking:  l^/l ^"  Hong Kong: T a  \  collected  i n Lu C h i C h i .  Chung Hua Book Co., 1982, pp. 1-7.  & Sung C h i , ^  1  /\  ^  Shuo  1969.  ^JY;  History. j j ^  %^ f J ^  Shih  Reprint,  Peking:  New  T'ang  Chung Hua Book  Co.,  1975.  Pan  Ku a t t r i b u t e d , i/l  Shu.  Reprint,  , Han Wu 52.  Reprint,  v o l . 86.  I3  Yen S h i h - k u e d . , ^ j } t^t  Peking:  Chung Hua Book Co.,  T i N e i Chuan. • £ % \  Shou  Shan Ko  T s ' u n g Shu, ^  \^  Han 1962.  PPTSCC, v o l .  J, J^j ^  ^  114 P'eng T i n g - c h ' i u e t a l ,  ^cTt^^  7  t  h  v  o  1  -  Reprint, Peking:  J?  ^)  Ssu-ma C h ' i e n ,  Ch'uan T ' a n g  Chung Hua Book Co.,  Shih  Shih.  Chung Hua Book Co., 1960.  Chi.^L^u  Reprint,  Peking:  1962.  Ssu-ma Kuang,  Tzu Ch'ih  T'ung  Chien.Jt'6  R e p r i n t , Hong Kong: Chung Hua Book Co., 1976, 2 n d - 4 t h v o l s .  Ts'ui  Pao, li  Reprint,  %\)  Ku C h i n  Shanghai: Commercial P r e s s ,  Tsung L i n , ^ PPTSCC,  Chu.^^ i £  vol.18.  Ching  vol.264.  1937.  Chu S u i S h i h C h i . J ' J  R e p r i n t , Pao Yen T'ang P i  S h a n g h a i : I Wen  $J  J b  Ch.i.t^^^^'fyJE  P u b l i s h i n g Co.,  jf- i  Tung-fang  So a t t r i b u t e d ,  collected  i n L u n g Wei P i Shu,  of the o r i g i n a l  TSCCCP  S h i h Chou C h i  .*t-H*)f&  a photocopy  f r o m T a i w a n U n i v e r s i t y L i b r a r y , 1970.  Yang Pu, H s i e n Chuan. /• 'J Commercial P r e s s ,  Ch'an Hsiian H s i e n  e d . , ^ ^ ^ | .  TSCCCP. v o l . 3 3 4 7 . 1936.  Reprint,  Lieh  Shanghai:  II.  Secondary Sources i n Chinese  Chang C h ii nn , & 7f/- / (9^ t% Taipei:  Tu Shu T'ang Tu S h i h C h i Chu  ^jfr  fyfy  4* i^f.^i  Chao  R e p r i n t , TSTK, 1 s t c h i ,  Tu Kung-pu  Shih  iM$"JrV  l ^ l ^ i l j  vol.13,  Tu L u Yen I & Tu L u Yu Chu c o m b i n e d .  T a i T'ung Book Co.,  Chang Yen, ^-fe 3-  1974.  £1^^  & 8, T a i p e i :  Taipei:  1974.  T'ung  Fu Pen I .  R e p r i n t , TSTK, 2nd c h i ,  T a i T'ung Book Co.,  P'ang, ^  1974.  Tu L u Chao  R e p r i n t , TSTK,  Chieh.  R e p r i n t , TSTK, 4 t h c h i , v o l . 2 8 ,  T a i T'ung Book Co.,  Chang H s i n g , $ L T j t  vol.7  and J a p a n e s e :  Chu  2nd c h i , v o l . 9 , T a i p e i :  T a i T'ung Book  Co.,  1974.  Chen E n - l i a n g ,  ^Z^%i^~^^^\\^ Chi).  Hong Kong: Kuang Wah  Chen Wei, t<J  LU C h i Wen (  A  s  t  u  d  Y  Book Co.,  o  f  Hsiieh Yen t  h  Literary  e  Wen  Shih  Che  C h i Ch'eng, £  t  A  Taipei:  Wen  S h i h Che P u b l i s h i n g Co.,  Works o f L u  1969.  T u Fu S h i h Hsiieh T'an  41  Chiu.  1985.  Wei.yj^: #  %  ^  116 Chen Y i - H s i n , vol.  Tu Fu P ' i n g Chuan.  S h a n g h a i : Ku C h i P u b l i s h i n g Co.,  Cheng C h e n - t o , ^ Hsiieh S h i h .  j y ^ - 1^  Ch'eng H s i ,  1982.  Reprint,  Hong  Wen  Kong:  1973.  "^y^  ^  Shu, ^  1st  Ch'a T'u Pen Chung Kuo  '  Commercial P r e s s ,  fa  Fu.'ptw  Tu  <L \  Shuang T z u H s i n g  Ts'ung  T a i p e i : H s i n g Kuang P u b l i s h i n g  Co.,  1979  C h ' e n g - t u Tu Fu Yen C h i u  Hsueh H u i e d . ,  ^ T s ' a o T'ang, The T h a t c h e d C o t t a g e , ^ * ^  l  c  '  '  J.  an<^  ;  X 1 1 U  L U l l C U  Du F u ' s P o e t i c W r i t i n g s vol.2,  Chu.^f-t\|) k^Z^ Co.,  0J7J  "Ji  Tu  %^ %X  n  l l l ^ > W O  J. HILL  Reprint,  FU  C h i L u Yen C h ' i u T a i p e i : Wu  Chou  Reprint,  C h ' i e n Chu Tu S h i h .  S h a n g h a i : Ku C h i P u b l i s h i n g Co.,  S h e n g - t ' an, ^  on V  1985.  Yu  Chien  Publishing  1973.  Ch'ien Ch'ien-i  Chin  "A Symposium  i n K u i Zhou."  1984; v o l . 1 , v o l . 2 ,  C h i e n Ming-yung,  ^  U U L U a V j C ^  |£ » ^  Tu  Shih  S h a n g h a i : Ku C h i P u b l i s h i n g Co.,  4^  1979.  Chieh. 1984.  faulty  117 C h ' o u C h a o - a o , j^J^^ Reprint,  Peking:  Chou Meng I  Tu S h i h Hsiang  Chung Hua Book C o . ,  |p-  & Feng Y u , < ^ Harbin:  fr Publishing  Co.,  Hei  Chinese  of  Chiang  Jen  Min  Tu F u Yen C h ' i u L u n vols.  University  Peking:  N i e n - y u n , / C ?P  S  Reprint,  T ' u n g Book C o . ,  of  Chung Hua  Shantung  Tu Fu S h i h Hsuan.  J e n M i n Wen Hsueh P u b l i s h i n g  vjl  Fan  Lung  3  the  ^ % . ^ ^ ' L %  Fan  1979.  1962.  Department of  Peking:  |J  T u F u S h i h Hsuan T u .  &~J  ^  'iLJ^i^  Chi.^)r-t  Book C o . ,  fr  1980.  Chung Hua Book C o . e d . , ^ Wen  ^  Chu.  u  TSTK,  i  H  a  4th  n  Co.,  fr  $  1984.  T'ang Tu chi,  ed.,  Tu.^jk.^  vol.35,  Taipei;  Tai  1974.  P ' e n g comm. ^  $\  Wang W e i - c h e n  e d . , jL  ^J[.  Tu Kung-pu S h i h Fan T e - c h i P ' i Hsuan, Tu Lu P ' o C h i e h , & L i Lu P ' o  fr$&ty TSTK,  ^f4  Chieh combined,  1st  chi, vol.  fr  5 & 6,  Z £f ^  ^  ft  *k  *H Reprint,  T a i p e i : T a i T ' u n g Book C o . ,  1974.  118  F a n g Yu, %  'I Fu  T u Fu K ' u e i - c h o u S h i h 4^\^>  T a i p e i : Yu S h i h  H s u a ni- -t s t 'su'nug ,n  P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1 9 8 5 .  g l | ^ ^ f x T'i f  ^ A L ^ J T  T'ang T a i S h i h J e n T s ' u n g K'ao.  P e k i n g : Chung Hua Fu  Keng-sheng,  Reprint,  Hsiao  Sian:  Tu Shensi  Shih  , T u Fu S h i h Hsuan M i n Wen  Hsueh  San  TU F u  S h a n g t u n g : C h i L u P u b l i s h i n g Co.,  Jen  Hung, W i l l i a m ,  ^  T s ' e n Yang  Peking:  wo  JL  3 vols.  Hsieh  Tu  Fu.-f\>  i ^ -  Hong Kong: O r i e n t a l P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1 9 6 8 .  I n s t i t u t e o f L i t e r a t u r e and H i s t o r y ")  Zj^  Chiu. ^  T u F u Chuan. 1964.  <Q  Yen  1980  Chu.  Book Co.,  The  I.  1980.  P e k i n g : Chung Hua  4^  1980.  P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1 9 7 9 .  Hua Wen-hsuan e d . , 3-F A. *\  4%.  Book Co.,  J e n M i n P u b l i s h i n g Co.,  ^JL^|S  Ti-fei,  H s i Lun.^f-t|^  'Lit  of Ssu-chuan  A B i o g r a p h y o f Tu F u . 5  C h ' e n g - t u : S s u - c h u a n J e n Mm  ?1  ^  P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1 9 5 8 .  ?  ed. ,  119  Tsung-i,^t,  Jao  Discussion  Chugoku Bungaku Ho.  o f Tu F u ' s poems w r i t t e n *\  Kuo  1962, v o l . 1 7 ,  if  Chih-ta,  tf, collected  vols. Reprint,  Publishing  Kuo  S h a n g h a i : Ku C h i P u b l i s h i n g Co.,  1983.  tij  Reprint,  ^j"  f^j>  2  Lun Hsuan.  Shanghai:  Ku  Chi  Co., 1985, 4 v o l s .  Tu Tu Cha C h i . Z  ^>  Tu Fu T s o P ' i n g  ^  A New  Hsi Nien.'^  Hong Kong: J o i n t  /\  1977.  Biography  P e i p i n g : L a i Hsun Ko Book Co.,  Chien-Chiang, ^  % fr >-J %b  1984.  T a i p e i : Tung T a i Book Co.,  Ch'un-p'ing ed. ^ ^  Y i n Te.  Chung Kuo L i T a i Wen  1  Ch'en-tung,  Liang 1^$^  v i^L  fr>  C h i Chu Tu S h i h . 7 L > | ^  S h a n g h a i : Ku C h i P u b l i s h i n g Co.,  \^  Li  Chia  ?l4\  Tseng-hsin,  Reprint,  11  "A  pp. 104-118.  i n Tu S h i h  jLf&lH  ^  i n K'uei-chou.  fr  Kuo S h a o - y u ,  Li  Chiu  ^I^X^'fe  o f Tu F u .  1935.  Tu Fu S h i h Hsuan  P u b l i s h i n g Co.,  1984.  fy)  120 Liu  Ch'en-weng e d . , / ^ i j Jfy. $\  Shi  Shu.^4  Shu Senke Chu To Kobu  1%f$%%  &  2  vols.  (a p h o t o - r e p r i n t o f  Yuan e d i t i o n w i t h e x p l a n a t o r y t e x t i n J a p a n e s e . ) T o k y o : Y a g i S h o t e n , / V iit  i98i.  , Chi Ch'ien  Chi .  1| ^ if-B M  chi,  Liu ^  f  l  Co.,  Lo  % WJ&rpL*^  vol.2, Taipei:  Ta-chieh, ^  i  ^  l  k  ^  C h i a Chu P ' i T i e n Pu I T u Kung-pu  ^  Chung Kuo Wen 3 vols.  -  /"fjf  Hsiaeh  F a Chan  Shih.  Hong Kong: Ku Wen  Chung Kuo Wen vol.2.  Lu  1974.  Book  1976,  K e n - t s e , ,ijt  Chi  R e p r i n t , TSTK, 1 s t  T a i T'ung Book Co.,  %^ f^fc* -  ?|%  Shih  P u b l i s h i n g Co.,  Y i i a n - c h ' a n g , JL  Hsueh P ' i P i n g Reprint,  Shih.  Shanghai:  Ku  1984.  TU S h i h  %J J?  Ch'an. ^  f <f  ^ \  R e p r i n t , TSTK, 3 r d c h i , v o l . 2 4 , T a i p e i : T a i T'ung Book Co., 1974  Min Tu  2nd  Chin  Y i n g - p i comm S h i h Hsiian & Ch'ang C h i n g  Sheng-t'an ed.  T'ang T u S h i h C h i e h  c h i , v o l . 14 & 15, T a i p e i :  combined.  T a i T'ung Book Co.,  1974.  121 P'eng I , | ^ |<£.  C h ' i e n Mu C h a i C h i e n Chu T u S h i h Pu. T a i p e i : Faculty of Arts of  The  N a t i o n a l U n i v e r s i t y o f Taiwan,  P'u C h ' i - l u n g , T^Ai/feReprint,  Peking:  Shao Fu ,  1}  T  u  T  u  H  s  i  n  1964.  Chieh.  f^_^  Chung Hua Book Co., 1981.  \%  Tu L u C h i C h i e h . ^ t ^  Reprint,  TSTK, 3 r d c h i , v o l . 2 0 , T a i p e i : T a i T'ung Book Co., 1974.  Shih  Hung-pao,  Reprint,  Tu Tu S h i h  Shanghai:  Suzuki Torao Shi.^>t Japan,  tfy  ^ j^yt-jt 8 vols.  & Kurokawa Y o i c h i , ^ , >')'"/%^  Iwanami Bunko,  Iwanami S h o t e n , fa '1$*% 7ti  Shanghai:  t%J>  Ku C h i P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1983.  Teng K ' u e i - y i n g e d , ^  The  Shuo. |J  fa  i  To  Tokyo:  1963-1966.  T u F u Hsiian C h i . ^  $>\^.  l|.  Ku C h i P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1983.  S h a n g h a i Book Co e d . ,  T s ' u n g Shu,  T s o C h i a Yu T s o P ' i n Tu F u . ^ t  Hong Kong: The  S h a n g h a i Book Co., 1963.  Tsuzaka  Toy6,7l»  %  Ajj-  Toritsu  Shokai.  ^  ^  R e p r i n t , TSTK, 4 t h c h i , v o l . 3 4 , T a i p e i : T a i T'ung Book Co., 1974.  Wang S s u - s h i h ,  Tu I .  Reprint,  Shanghai:  Chung Hua Book Co., 1963.  Wu  Lu-shan,  Tu S h i h  Hang-chou: Che C h i a n g  Yang L u n ,  I P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1983.  Tu S h i h C h i n g  Reprint, Taipei:  L u C h i Wen  ^fjL.  Ch'uan.  Hua Cheng Book Co., 1978.  Yang Mu,  Yeh  Wen  Lun T s ' u n g .  Taipei:  Chia-ying,  Fu C h i a o  Hung F a n Book Co., 1985.  *\  Tu Fu C h ' i u H s i n g  Shuo. Co.,  Taipei:  chi,  Yu  $p  Pa Shou C h i  Chung Hua Book  1966.  Yi Sik, )fc It  Shih.  \  T s u a n Chu Tu S h i h T s e - f e n g X  vol.24,  ^  l  ^ *t ^  Taipei:  Yu-miao e t . a l  k£&dl^j  Reprint,  TSTK,  3rd  T a i T'ung Book Co., 1974.  ed. , W  Chin  lM  T'ang P ' i C h i e h .  Jt'ilXb ^  T a i Wen  T u F u Ho T ' a T i S h i h . f - i  S h i h L u n Wen  Lei  Chi,l£W^jL  123 T a i p e i : Hsueh Sheng Book Co. , 1971.  III.  O t h e r Works i n E n g l i s h :  Aristotle, Theory  Poetics.  trans,  o f P o e t r y and. F i n e  Publications, Critical  by S. H.  A r t . 4 t h e d . , New  I n c . , 1955;  Theory  Since  Butcher,  reprint,  Plato.  Hazard  Chicago:  Aristotle's York:  Dover  Adams  ed.,  The U n i v e r s i t y  of  C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1975.  Brady,  Frank,  John  Theory  & Structure,  Palmer  &  Martin  Price  ed. ,  E s s a y s i n Honor o f W i l l i a m K.  Literary Wimsatt.  New Haven, C o n n e c t i c u t : Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1973.  Butcher,  S.H,  Essay  Francis  by  Aristotle's  Poetics.  Ferqusson.  With  Reprint,  New  An  Introductory  York:  Hill  and  Wang, 1987.  Chan S h i h - h s i a n g , " E s s a y on L i t e r a u r e . " c o l l e c t e d B i r c h ed. Anthology o f Chinese L i t e r a t u r e  in Cyril  From E a r l y  Times  To The F o u r t e e n C e n t u r y . New Y o r k : G r o v e P r e s s I n c . , v o l . 1 , 1965.  pp.204-214.  Chan  Wing-tsit,  A  Source  Book  Princeton: Princeton University  in  Chinese  P r e s s , 1963.  Philosophy.  124 Eagleton, Terry, L i t e r a r y England:  Eliot,  Basil  T h e o r y , An I n t r o d u c t i o n . O x f o r d ,  B l a c k w e l l P u b l i s h e r L i m i t e d , 1983.  T.S. "Hamlet  and H i s P r o b l e m s . " The S a c r e d  Wood.  L o n d o n : Methuen, 1920.  Fang A c h i l l e s , Chi."  "Rhymeprose  Studies  Massachusetts:  Fung  Yu-lan,  in  Harvard  A  Short  on L i t e r a t u r e ,  Chinese  Literature.  University  History  The Wen-fu o f L u Cambridge,  P r e s s , 1965. pp.3-42.  of Chinese  Philosophy.  New  Y o r k : The F r e e P r e s s , 1948.  G i l e s , Herbert, A Chinese-English Dictionary. T a i p e i :  Ch'eng  Wen P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1972.  Graham, A.C., Poems o f L a t e T ' a n g . B a l t i m o r e : P e n g u i n Books Inc.,  1965.  Hawkes,  David,  A  Little  Primer  o f Tu Fu. London:  Oxford  U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1967.  , Ch'u T z ' u . L o n d o n : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1959.  Hirsch,  E.D. J r . , V a l i d i t y  i n Interpretation.  New  Haven,  125 Connecticut:  Yale U n i v e r s i t y Press,  1967.  H u c k e r , C h a r l e s , A D i c t i o n a r y Of O f f i c i a l T i t l e s I n China.  Hung,  Stanford:  William,  Russell  Liu, The  Stanford U n i v e r s i t y Press,  Tu  Fu,  & Russell,  James J . Y.,  China's  Greatest  Chinese Theories  Poet.  New  of L i t e r a t u r e .  York:  Chicago:  1975.  A r t of Chinese Poetry.  Chicago Press,  1985.  1969.  U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press,  , The  Imperial  Chicago:  U n i v e r s i t y of  1962,  , "Time, S p a c e , And L i t e r a t u r e Essays,  S e l f In Chinese P o e t r y . "  A r t i c l e s , R e v i e w s . V o l . 1 , no.2,  Chinese pp.  137-  156,  McElderly,  B.  Correlative."  R.  Jr.,  "Satayana  and  Eliot's  Boston U n i v e r s i t y Studies  Objective  in English.  Vol.3,  1957.  Olson, Essays.  Elden,  On  Chicago:  Value The  Judgments  In  The  Arts  And  U n i v e r s i t y of Chicage Press,  Other 1976.  126 Owen, S t e p h e n , T ' a n g . New  The  Great  of  Chinese  Poetry:  "Book X."  f  L o n d o n : P e n g u i n Books,  Pound, E z r a , The  t r a n s , by  Desmond L e e .  Poetics.  1981,  Reprint,  1988.  S p i r i t o f Romance. N o r f o l k : New  Directions  Alex  ed. , P r i n c e t o n E n c y c l o p e d i a  of  Poetry  Princeton: Princeton U n i v e r s i t y Press,  Edition,  Harcourt  Shih, Vincent,  Brace  Hong Kong.  Shusterman,  Jovanovich,  Yu-chung, The  Dragons. R e p r i n t ,  Enlarged  Criticism.  Publishers,  L i t e r a r y M i n d And  Hong Kong: The  Chinese  1985.  The  Carving  U n i v e r s i t y of  1983.  Richard,  The  Object  of  Literary  Criticism.  Amsterdam: R o d o p i ; W u r z b u r g : K o n i g s h a u s e n und Neumann,  Soong,  and  1974.  Richards, Ivor Armstrong, P r i n c i p l e s of L i t e r a r y  Of  High  1952.  Preminger,  Orlando:  The  Haven, C o n n e c t i c u t : Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ,  Plato, Republic  Books,  Age  Stephen  Tradition."  A  C,  "Introduction:  Brotherhood  in  Song,  The  Chinese  Chinese  1984.  Poetic  Poetry  and  127 Poetics.  Hong Kong: C h i n e s e U n i v e r s i t y o f Hong Kong,  1985,  pp.1-17.  Stallman,  Robert  M i n n e a p o l i s : The  Sutton,  Walton  & Practice.  Tanaka, of  & Richard  New  Wellek,  of  Odyssey  the  Rene,  University  1950.  Modern C r i t i c i s m , Press Inc.  Theory  1963.  Tokyo:  Japan,  Keigaku  Correlative  o f T.S.  Eliot."  1976.  "The  Objective  &  Austin  pp.7-18.  Warren,  Theory  York: H a r c o u r t Brace J o v a n o v i c h , Inc.,  Wellek,  Notebook.  ed., Tanaka's E n c y c l o p a e d i a  World.  Bookman. N o . l , 1944,  Rene  Critic's  of Minnesota Press,  Naka Sasuke  Plants  Eliseo,  The  Foster,  Y o r k : The  P u b l i s h i n g Co.,  American  ed.,  University  Tyozaburo,  Edible  Vivas,  W. ,  Concepts  Press,  of  Criticism.  of  Literature.  1977.  New  Haven:  Literature."  Languages  Yale  1963.  Yang H s i e n - y i and G l a d y s Yang, " C a r v i n g A Dragon A t The Of  New  Chinese  P r e s s , Aug.  1962.  Literature. pp.58-71.  Peking:  Core  Foreign  128 Yeh  Chia-ying  Practice  &  Jan  W.  of C r i t i c i z i n g  R e p r i n t . Miao, Ronald  Poetry  C.,  Vol.1,  CMC  Chinese  M a t e r i a l s Center,  Yoshikawa,  Asian  Walls,  Kojiro,  "Tu  Chinese  Series Inc.,  Fu's  Standards,  i n Chung Hung's S h i h  ed.,  Library  "Theory,  No.  Poetry 8.  and  San  P'in."  Poetics,  Francisco:  1978.  Poetics  and  Poetry."  A s i a t i c a . B u l l e t i n o f I n s t i t u t e o f E a s t e r n C u l t u r e . No. The  ToHo G a k k a i ,  Winters,  Yvor,  T o k y o , 1969,  The  Function  E x e r c i s e s . London: Routledge  And  Acta 16.  pp.1-26.  of  Criticism,  Problems  & Kegan P a u l L t d ,  1962.  and  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0097932/manifest

Comment

Related Items