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Images of women in André Gide's Les Faux-Monnayeurs : misogyny or feminism? Stein, Sharon 1989

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IMAGES OF WOMEN IN ANDRE GIDE'S LES FAUX-MONNAYEURS; MISOGYNY OR FEMINISM? by SHARON STEIN B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1983 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN THE REQUIREMENTS MASTER PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF FOR THE DEGREE OF OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of French) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA AUGUST 1989 (c) Sharon S t e i n , 1989 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of FRENCH'.  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada D a t e Sept. 1, 19,89 DE-6 (2/88) i i AB STRACT T h i s study c o n s i s t s of an a n a l y s i s of the major female c h a r a c t e r s i n Andre Gide's Les Faux-Monnayeurs. The theme of i n s u b o r d i n a t i o n , as e x e m p l i f i e d i n the personal growth of the novel's hero, Bernard, p r o v i d e s an important c o n t r a s t to the author's p o r t r a y a l of women. Bernard's r e f u s a l of s u b o r d i n a t i o n d r i v e s him toward d i s p o n i b i l i t e and a u t h e n t i c i t y . In G i d i a n terminology, to be d i s p o n i b l e i s to be r e c e p t i v e to the p l e n i t u d e of l i f e , to dare a l l . I t i s only a f t e r experimenting w i t h l i f e ' s excesses t h a t Bernard a r r i v e s at a personal r e g i e de v i e that r e s p e c t s both h i s na t u r a l impulses and con v e n t i o n a l moral standards. The d i s c u s s i o n of the female c h a r a c t e r s focuses on the female's s t a t u s i n the s o c i a l m i l i e u p o r t r a y e d i n the novel. S o c i e t y ' s t r a d i t i o n s appear to encourage and maintain women's s u b o r d i n a t i o n and suppress the female's n a t u r a l impulse f o r freedom; female d i s p o n i b i l i t e and a u t h e n t i c i t y seem u n a t t a i n a b l e . In a n a l y s i n g i n d i v i d u a l , female c h a r a c t e r s i n l i g h t of t h e i r s u b o r d i n a t i o n and d e n i a l of a u t h e n t i c i t y , they w i l l be c l a s s i f i e d i n t o three c a t e g o r i e s : myths, s t e r e o t y p e s and archetypes. Bronja and L i l i a n , who are d i a m e t r i c a l l y opposed p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s of good and e v i l , assume the r o l e s of mythical f i g u r e s . Sophroniska, Sarah and Rachel, who are t y p i f i e d d e p i c t i o n s of the female " i n t e l l e c t u a l " , the " f e m i n i s t " and the " r e l i g i o u s devotee" r e s p e c t i v e l y , c o n s t i t u t e s t e r e o t y p e s . The category of archetypes i s comprised of Pa u l i n e , Marguerite, Mme Vedel, Mme de La Perouse and Laura, who are a l l s i m i l a r i n t h e i r r o l e s as wives and mothers. They adhere to the con v e n t i o n a l r o l e of woman i n t h e i r s o c i e t y . Consequently, archetypes i l l u s t r a t e most p o i g n a n t l y the probl e m a t i c e x i s t e n c e of women i n the novel. A f t e r examining how the female c h a r a c t e r s are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r groups, we w i l l attempt to a s c e r t a i n why the author's p o r t r a y a l of them i s not only l i m i t e d , but a l s o p e j o r a t i v e . Conclusions w i l l be drawn i n l i g h t of the male c h a r a c t e r s ' a t t i t u d e s toward women. The male p o i n t of view i s dominant and tends to overshadow and e f f a c e the female presence i n the t e x t . Furthermore, females are d e n i g r a t e d and disparaged from two d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t male p e r s p e c t i v e s : t h a t of the homosexual and t h a t of the he t e r o s e x u a l . The homosexual male v i l i f i e s and r e f u s e s women i n t h e i r c a p a c i t y as o b j e c t s of male sexual d e s i r e . The heterosexual male advocates and adheres to t r a d i t i o n a l values t h a t tend to p r i v i l e g e men; h i s d e p r e c a t i o n of women i s rooted i n t r a d i t i o n a l , male chauvinism. It i s from t h i s second p e r s p e c t i v e that the f e m i n i s t statement emerges. The author's deference toward the male i s entwined w i t h h i s sympathy f o r women and the p l i g h t of t h e i r e x i s t e n c e . i v That the female c h a r a c t e r s are f o r b i d d e n personal freedom and a u t h e n t i c i t y i s never o v e r t l y s t a t e d ; y e t t h i s c o n c l u s i o n emerges c l e a r l y from a c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s of the images of women i n the novel and of male responses to the female c h a r a c t e r s . E x p l o r a t i o n of the subtext produces many i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t support the no t i o n t h a t the author sees a p o t e n t i a l f o r women's emancipation and f o r a r e s o l u t i o n of the problems of female e x i s t e n c e . The author's sympathy serves as an i n v i t a t i o n to the reader to r e c o n s t r u c t the f e m i n i s t statement and propose a personal s o l u t i o n . V TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS V ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i EPIGRAPH v i i INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTER I: MYTHS 7 CHAPTER I I : STEREOTYPES 26 CHAPTER I I I : ARCHETYPES . . 5 9 CHAPTER TV: MISOGYNY, HOMOSEXUALITY AND FEMINISM . . 101 CONCLUSION 138 BIBLIOGRAPHY OF WORKS CONSULTED 143 v i ACKNCWLEDG EMENTS G r a t e f u l acknowledgement i s made to my t h e s i s d i r e c t o r , Dr. V a l e r i e Raoul, whose encouragement and e x p e r t i s e have helped me to complete t h i s study. I would a l s o l i k e to thank Dr. A l i s t a i r MacKay f o r h i s kind a s s i s t a n c e . Q u i se d i r i g e v e r s 1 1 i n c o n n u , d o i t c o n s e n t i r a s ' a v e n t u r e r s e u l . C r e u s e , E u r y d i c e , A r i a n e , t o u j o u r s une femme s ' a t t a r d e , s ' i n q u i e t e , c r a i n t de l a c h e r p r i s e et de v o i r se rompre l e f i l q u i l a r a t t a c h e a son passe . E l i e t i r e en a r r i e r e Thesee, et f a i t se r e t o u r n e r Orphee. F i l e a peur . Andre Gide ( J o u r n a l , l e 12 mai , 1927) 1 INTRODUCTION One o f t h e m a j o r themes o f L e s F a u x - M o n n a y e u r s i s w h a t G i d e r e f e r s t o a s "11 i n s u b o r d i n a t i o n de l ' e n f a n t . " 1 The t r a d i t i o n s o f F r e n c h , b o u r g e o i s s o c i e t y a r e t h o u g h t t o s u p p r e s s o n e ' s u n i q u e n e s s , o r " a u t h e n t i c i t y " a n d c o n f i n e t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o a s i t u a t i o n f a u s s e . The a d o l e s c e n t ' s n a t u r a l r e s p o n s e t o t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s " i n s u b o r d i n a t i o n " o r r e v o l t . The n o v e l ' s h e r o , B e r n a r d , e x e m p l i f i e s t h i s theme. H i s d e v e l o p m e n t f o l l o w s a f a m i l i a r , G i d i a n p a t t e r n t h a t c a n be s u m m a r i z e d i n f o u r s t a g e s . The f i r s t s t a g e c o n s i s t s o f B e r n a r d ' s r a d i c a l d e p a r t u r e f r o m h i s f a m i l y a n d s o c i o - c u l t u r a l m i l i e u . T h i s i n i t i a l a c t i o n i s w h a t G i d e 2 c a l l s t h e d e p a s s e m e n t o r t h e p a s s e r o u t r e . D i s t a n t f r o m t h e i n f l u e n c e o f f a m i l y , c h u r c h and s t a t e , B e r n a r d e n t e r s s t a g e t w o ; he i s f r e e and e a g e r t o p l u n g e r e c k l e s s l y i n t o l i f e ; t o d a r e a l l , t o e x p e r i e n c e t h e " p l e n i t u d e de v i e . " L i k e M e n a l q u e o f L e s N o u r r i t u r e s T e r r e s t r e s , who i m p l o r e s ". . . que chaque a t t e n t e . . . s o i t . . . s i m p l e m e n t une d i s p o s i t i o n a 1 ' a c c u e i l ( . ) " B e r n a r d i s r e a d y f o r a d v e n t u r e , he i s d i s p o n i b l e . ^ S t a g e t h r e e i s m a r k e d by c a r e f u l i n t r o s p e c t i o n . A t t h i s p o i n t B e r n a r d ' s c o n s c i e n c e — h i s d i a l o g u e i n t e r i e u r , h i s v o i x i n t e r i e u r e s — b e g i n s i t s s t r u g g l e t o a c h i e v e a b a l a n c e b e t w e e n p a s s i v e s u b m i s s i o n a n d r a d i c a l f r e e d o m . He s e a r c h e s f o r a d i r e c t i o n i n l i f e , a 2 but, a r e g i e morale. (v. J d FM pp. 58-9) I n a d i s c u s -s i o n w i t h Edouard, he s t a t e s : C'est a l o r s que j e me s u i s demande comment e t a b l i r une r e g i e , p u i s q u e j e n ' a c c e p t a i s pas de v i v r e sans r e g i e , e t que c e t t e r e g i e j e ne l ' a c c e p t a i s pas d ' a u t r u i . g The answer, as fidouard p o i n t s o u t , i s t o " t r o u v e r c e t t e r e g i e en soi-meme; d ' a v o i r pour but l e developpement de s o i . " (LFM, pp. 494-5) B e r n a r d a c c e p t s fSdouard's d i c t u m t o l e a r n how t o l i v e by l i v i n g and t h e f o r m u l a : " I I e s t bon de s u i v r e sa pente, pourvu que ce s o i t en montant. " (LFM, p. 495) . Having c o n s t r u c t e d h i s own r e g i e morale, B e r n a r d 7 reaches th e f o u r t h and f i n a l s t a g e : 1 ' a u t h e n t i c i t y . H i s p e r s o n a l i t y i s unique, o r i g i n a l , s e l f - d e f i n e d r a t h e r t h a n a " c o u n t e r f e i t " , or h y p o c r i t i c a l response t o the d i c t a t e s of the s o c i a l o r d e r . In comparing t h e female c h a r a c t e r s of Les  Faux-Monnayeurs t o B e r n a r d , and c e r t a i n of the o t h e r male c h a r a c t e r s , t h e r e a r i s e s a s t r i k i n g d i s p a r i t y . Most of the women never move beyond t h e s i t u a t i o n f a u s s e t o s tage one — t h e depassement, the p a s s e r o u t r e . For the few who do — Sarah, L i l i a n , L a u r a , M a r g u e r i t e — t h e i r p r o g r e s s i o n toward a u t h e n t i c i t y i s t r u n c a t e d by one of two consequences. They e i t h e r become f i x e d i n a s t a t e of depassement t h a t p r o p e l s them toward hedonism and debauchery or they a r e d r i v e n by weakness and f e a r back t o s o c i a l c o n f o r m i t y — t h e c o u n t e r f e i t p e r s o n a l i t y , t h e s i t u a t i o n f a u s s e . Sarah and L i l i a n ' s depassement c o n s i s t s of a mandate t o 3 d e f y a l l c o n v e n t i o n s a n d assume t h e a t t i t u d e o f " l a t o i s o n d ' o r . . . a l a r e c h e r c h e d'un c o n q u e r e u r . " (LFM, p. 101) They a r e o p p o r t u n i s t i c a n d p r e d a t o r y i n t h e i r p u r s u i t o f l i c e n t i o u s n e s s m i s c o n s t r u e d a s f r e e d o m . As s u c h , t h e y become c o r r u p t o r s o f s o c i e t y a n d a r e e v e n t u a l l y e x i l e d o r a n n i h i l a t e d . L a u r a a n d M a r g u e r i t e , whose r e s p e c t i v e d e p a s s e m e n t s c o m p r i s e a n a d u l t e r o u s a f f a i r r e s u l t i n g i n i l l e g i t i m a t e p r e g n a n c y , r e g r e s s b a c k t o t h e s i t u a t i o n f a u s s e . They a r e r e i n s t a t e d t o t h e r a n k s o f t r a d i t i o n a l womanhood w h e r e t h e y a r e p r e s c r i b e d l i v e s o f r e s i g n a t i o n a n d s e l f - s a c r i f i c e . W i t h i n t h e s o c i a l c o n t e x t o f L e s F a u x - M o n n a v e u r s t h i s d r e a r y e x i s t e n c e a p p e a r s t o be t h e s t a t u s q u o o f t h e f e m a l e c o n d i t i o n . One o f s e v e r a l t e c h n i q u e s G i d e u s e s t o e x p o s e t h e f e m a l e c o n d i t i o n c o n s i s t s o f p r e s e n t i n g v a r i o u s t a b l e a u x o f t h e way women l i v e . The women who p o p u l a t e t h e s e t a b l e a u x c a n be r e c o g n i z e d a s s t o c k i m a g e s o f women t h a t r a n g e f r o m myth t o woman i n s o c i e t y . T h ose c h a r a c t e r s c l a s s i f i e d a s women i n s o c i e t y w i l l be f u r t h e r d i v i d e d i n t o s t e r e o t y p e s a n d g a r c h e t y p e s . A l t h o u g h m y t h s , s t e r e o t y p e s a n d a r c h e t y p e s d i f f e r , a s we s h a l l d i s c o v e r i n s u b s e q u e n t c h a p t e r s d e a l i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h e a c h c a t e g o r y , t h e r e i s one e l e m e n t t h a t a l l of t h e f e m a l e c h a r a c t e r s s h a r e : a c e r t a i n a r t i f i c i a l i t y , a l a c k o f d e v e l o p m e n t t h a t makes them s t a t i c , s t r a n g e l y t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l f i g u r e s . The r e i f i e d d e p i c t i o n o f women i n L e s F a u x - M o n n a y e u r s c o n f o r m s t o G i d e ' s l i t e r a r y e s t h e t i c s w h i c h i n c l u d e a n 4 adherence to the p r i n c i p l e s of c l a s s i c i s m . Edouard's a d m i r a t i o n of the di a l o g u e s i n R a c i n i a n t h e a t r e lends i n s i g h t i n t o Gide's p o r t r a y a l of women. He s t a t e s : (J)e n'admire en l i t t e r a t u r e r i e n t a n t que, par exemple, dans Racine, l a d i s c u s s i o n e n t r e M i t h r i d a t e et ses f i l s ; ou 1 1 on s a i t parfaitement b i e n que jamais un pere et des f i l s n'ont pu p a r l e r de l a s o r t e , et ou neanmoins (et j e d e v r a i s d i r e : d'autant plus) tous l e s peres e t tous l e s f i l s peuvent se r e c o n n a i t r e . . . . II n'y a de v e r i t e psychologique que p a r t i c u l i e r e , i l e st v r a i ; mais i l n'y a d ' a r t que g e n e r a l . ( L F M r p. 270) The austere, mask-like r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of women i n Les Faux  Monnayeurs r e f l e c t the elegant s i m p l i c i t y and a r t i f i c i a l i t y of the c h a r a c t e r s i n c l a s s i c a l t h e a t r e . T h e i r r e a l i s m r e s i d e s i n t h e i r u n i v e r s a l i t y . They are c o n t r i v e d , a b s t r a c t images i n which a l l women are expected t o recog n i z e themselves, even though no i n d i v i d u a l woman would ever speak or act i n such a way. Through h i s p a r t i c u l a r manner of exposing the female c o n d i t i o n Gide s y n t h e s i z e s two seemingly d i s p a r a t e m o t i f s . The s t a r k , gloomy p o r t r a y a l s of the t r a d i t i o n a l woman, her analogues and her co u n t e r p a r t s , enable the author to suppress the development and i n f l u e n c e of the female c h a r a c t e r s and thus b r i n g i n t o r e l i e f the inherent homosexual statement of the nove l . From the p e r s p e c t i v e of the female reader, however, the very nature of the p o r t r a y a l s a l s o s i g n i f i e s the author's empathy f o r women whose i n d i v i d u a l i t y , or a u t h e n t i c i t y i s c u r t a i l e d by s t i f l i n g and d e b i l i t a t i n g marriages. T h i s sympathetic viewpoint engenders an urgent, y e t s u b t l e f e m i n i s t statement. 5 G i d e r e f r a i n s f r o m p r o p o s i n g any s o l u t i o n s t o t h e f e m a l e p r e d i c a m e n t by m a k i n g e m a n c i p a t i o n , f r e e d o m , e x p l o r a t i o n a n d e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e " a u t h e n t i c " s e l f i d e a l s t h a t n e v e r f u l l y m a t e r i a l i z e . I n t h i s r e s p e c t , he a v o i d s d i d a c t i c i s m a nd e l i c i t s t h e r e a d e r ' s c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n c o n s t r u c t i n g a n d e l a b o r a t i n g t h e i n t r i n s i c f e m i n i s t m essage. The r e a d e r i s c o m p e l l e d t o move b e y o n d t h e t e x t , t o r e f l e c t , j u d g e a n d , l i k e B e r n a r d , p e r h a p s a c h i e v e a b a l a n c e i n h e r own l i f e b e t w e e n d o c i l e s u b m i s s i o n and r a d i c a l f r e e d o m , a b a l a n c e t h a t f o s t e r s t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f h e r a u t h e n t i c i t y . 6 NOTES ^ Andre G i d e , J o u r n a l des Faux-Monnayeurs, i n Oeuvres  Completes d'Andre G i d e , ed. L. M a r t i n - C h a u f f i e r , V o l . 13 ( P a r i s : G a l l i m a r d , 1937), p. 26; a l l f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s t o t h i s work appear i n t h e t e x t , h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as JdFM. 2 See Andre" G i d e , Les N o u r r i t u r e s T e r r e s t r e s , i n Oeuvres Completes d'Andre G i d e , ed. L. M a r t i n - C h a u f f i e r , V o l . 2 ( P a r i s : G a l l i m a r d , 1933), pp. 57-8. o See Andre G i d e , J o u r n a l d'Andre G i d e , B i b l i o t h e q u e de l a P l e i a d e , ( P a r i s : G a l l i m a r d , 1948), I, 20? 34; 39. ^ See G i d e , Les N o u r r i t u r e s , pp., 113-15. 5 See L o i s L i n d e r , "Le Roman du roman, " i n Andre Gide  5: sur l e s Faux-Monnayeurs, ed. Claude M a r t i n , RLM, Nos. 439-444 (1975), pp. 86-7; Claude M a r t i n , Andre Gide par  lui-m£me, < < E c r i v a i n s de toujours>> ( P a r i s ! E d i t i o n s du S e u i l , 1963), pp. 120-1; 130. ^ Andre" G i d e , Les Faux-Monnaveurs, i n Oeuvres  Completes d'Andre" G i d e , ed. L. M a r t i n - C h a u f f i e r , V o l . 12 ( P a r i s : G a l l i m a r d , 1937), p. 494; a l l f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s t o t h i s work appear i n t h e t e x t , h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as LFM. 7 See LFM, p. 291; B e r n a r d s t a t e s , "Je v o u d r a i s , t o u t l e l o n g de ma v i e , au moindre choc, rendre un son pur, probe, a u t h e n t i q u e . " 8 The terms myth, s t e r e o t y p e and a r c h e t y p e a r e used c o n v e n t i o n a l l y , and d i s t i n c t i o n s w i l l be d e f i n e d . They a r e not meant t o r e f l e c t t h e i r usage i n J u n g i a n t e r m i n o l o g y . 7 CHAPTER I MYTHS The two f e m a l e c h a r a c t e r s t h a t c o m p r i s e t h e c a t e g o r y o f m y t h i c a l p e r s o n a e r e p r e s e n t two p o l e s : t h e i d e a l o f i n n o c e n c e a n d p u r i t y ( B r o n j a ) , a n d t h e s y m b o l o f u l t i m a t e e v i l and c o r r u p t i o n ( L a d y G r i f f i t h ) . B r o n j a ' s y o u t h and r e l i g i o u s d e v o t i o n s u g g e s t c h a s t i t y , g o o d n e s s a nd p i e t y . She i s s o h i g h l y i d e a l i z e d t h a t s h e t r a n s c e n d s r e a l i t y and e n t e r s t h e r e a l m o f t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l . She i s p u r e s p i r i t — a s a i n t a n d a n a n g e l . As s u c h , s h e assumes t h e r o l e o f B o r i s * c o n f i d a n t e , p r o t e c t o r a n d g u i d i n g l i g h t . L i l i a n ' s w o r l d l i n e s s and c y n i c i s m , on t h e o t h e r hand, a r e i n d i c a t i v e o f h e r w i c k e d n e s s a n d v i l l a i n y . She i s a n e v i l s p i r i t , a demon. As V i n c e n t ' s c o n f i d a n t e a n d m e n t o r , s h e p l a y s t h e r o l e o f s e d u c e r and c o r r u p t e r . She g u i d e s h i m t o w a r d h e d o n i s m , l i c e n t i o u s n e s s a n d d e p r a v i t y . B r o n j a ' s name c a r r i e s a m a n i f o l d s y m b o l i s m . I n R u s s i a n , h e r name s i g n i f i e s " a r m o u r " o r " r e s e r v e d p l a c e " . 1 T h i s m e a n i n g i s c o n g r u e n t w i t h h e r p i e t y and s p i r i t u a l d e v o t i o n . I n t h e c o n t e x t o f C h r i s t i a n v i r t u e a n d f i d e l i t y , t h e armour i s i m p e n e t r a b l e ; i t c o n n o t e s f i r m n e s s , r e s i s t a n c e , r e s o l u t e n e s s a n d s h i e l d s t h e s o u l f r o m t e m p t a t i o n a n d e v i l . I n t h e E p i t r e a u x E p h e s i e n s , S a i n t P a u l w a r n s : " R e v e t e z 8 l ' a r m u r e de D i e u p o u r p o u v o i r r e s i s t e r aux m a n o e u v r e s du D i a b l e . " 2 The name B r o n j a a l s o e v o k e s t h e w o r d b r o n z e ( f r . ) a n d i t s synonym a i r a i n . I n G r e e k m y t h o l o g y , b r o n z e was r e v e r e d f o r i t s p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f s t r e n g t h , power, i m p e n e t r a -a b i l i t y and i n v u l n e r a b i l i t y . The t h i r d r a c e o f man, t h e " r a c e de b r o n z e " was c o m m i s s i o n e d by M i n o s t o be g u a r d s and p r o t e c t o r s o f C r e t e . I f s t r a n g e r s a t t e m p e d t o p e n e t r a t e C r e t e , o r i f i n h a b i t a n t s t r i e d t o l e a v e , T a l o s , t h e l a s t s u r v i v o r of t h e " r a c e de b r o n z e " , w o u l d h e a t h i s b r o n z e body t o b u r n i n g r e d and h u n t down, d i s e m b o w e l and b u r n t h e 3 i n v a d e r s o r t h e t r a i t o r s , known a s " l e s c o u p a b l e s . I n r e l i g i o u s t r a d i t i o n , b r o n z e , o r a i r a i n , i s c o n s i d e r e d a s a c r e d m e t a l . I t i s h a r d , s t r o n g , i m p e n e t r a b l e s y m b o l i z i n g i n f l e x i b l e j u s t i c e , i n c o r r u p t i b i l i t y and i m m o r t a l i t y . The " v o u t e du c i e l " i s g i l d e d i n b r o n z e . The " s e r p e n t d 1 a i r a i n " 4 i s a s y m b o l of d i v i n e p r o t e c t i o n . The i m a g e r y o f t h e a r m o u r and t h e s u i t o f b r o n z e i s c o m p l e m e n t a r y t o B r o n j a ' s a n g e l i c s y m b o l i s m ; i n r e l i g i o u s m y t h o l o g y , a n g e l s a r e b e l i e v e d t o f o r m t h e army o f God. As God's " m i n i s t r e s " , " m e s s a g e r s " , " g a r d i e n s " a n d " p r o t e c t e u r s d e s e i u s " , t h e y a r e i n t e r m e d i a r y b e i n g s b e t w e e n God and man. I t i s t h o u g h t t h a t : "Chaque f i d e l e e s t a s s i s t e d'un ange . . . ; c e t ange g u i d e s a v i e , i l e s t a l a f o i s s o n p e dagogue e t 5 s o n p r o t e c t e u r . " B r o n j a ' s a n g e l i c i s m i s a l l u d e d t o a t v a r i o u s p o i n t s t h r o u g h o u t t h e t e x t . E d o u a r d d e s c r i b e s B r o n j a i n t h e f o l l o w i n g m anner: 9 La p e t i t e B r o n j a e s t e x q u i s e ; e l i e d o i t a v o i r q u i n z e ans. E l i e p o r t e en n a t t e s d'£pais cheveux b l o n d s q u i descendent j u s q u ' a sa t a i l l e ; son r e g a r d e t l e son de sa v o i x semblent p l u t d t a n g e l i q u e s qu'humains. (LFM, pp. 253-4) B o r i s e x p r e s s e s h i s awe and c u r i o s i t y f o r B r o n j a ' s communion w i t h the a n g e l s : Moi, j e t ' a i b i e n crue l ' a u t r e j o u r , quand t u m'as p a r l e des anges. D i s , B r o n j a : t u c r o i s que s i j e p r i a i s t r e s f o r t , moi a u s s i e j e l e s v e r r a i s ? (LFM, pp. 254-5) That B o r i s seeks B r o n j a ' s guidance i n a c q u i r i n g t h e a b i l i t y t o see the a n g e l s i s s i g n i f i c a n t of the p r o v e r b i a l r o l e of " g u a r d i a n a n g e l " t h a t B r o n j a assumes. She becomes B o r i s ' g u i d e , p r e c e p t o r and p r o t e c t o r . Thomas C o r d l e a s s e r t s : "Under the a n g e l i c i n f l u e n c e of B r o n j a , B o r i s overcomes h i s co m p u l s i o n (onanism) B o r i s r e l i n q u i s h e s h i s t a l i s m a n t o S o p h r o n i s k a , t h e r e b y r e n o u n c i n g h i s "mauvaises h a b i t u d e s " . T h i s a c t a l l o w s him t o proceed not o n l y toward r e c o v e r y from mental i l l n e s s , but a l s o toward p i e t y and s p i r i t u a l i t y ( i . e . h i s m a s t u r b a t i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d s i n f u l ) . S£raphine's r a p p o r t w i t h G o n t r a n de Passavant p a r a l l e l s B r o n j a ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h B o r i s . The name S e r a p h i n e c a r r i e s an o b v i o u s a n g e l i c symbolism. I t i s the f e m i n i z e d v e r s i o n of the word s e r a p h i n , which s i g n i f i e s l e b r u l a n t . S e r a p h i n i s the b u r n i n g a n g e l of God who p u r i f i e s by f i r e ( c f . t h e burn-i n g , p u r i f y i n g p r o p e r t i e s of "bronze" i n Greek and b i b l i c a l m y t h o l o g y ) . Seraphim a n g e l s i n c i t e s p i r i t u a l e v o l u t i o n ; t h e i r f i r e c l e a n s e s and p u r i f i e s t h e s o u l . They p r o j e c t t h e i r own l i g h t , which i s i n d e s t r u c t i b l e , and i l l u m i n a t e the 10 way f o r o t h e r s . S e r a p h i m s s y n t h e s i z e a l l t h e p o w e r s o f f i r e : " a r d e u r , p u r i f i c a t i o n , i d e n t i t e a soi-meme, l u m i e r e e t i l l u m i n a t i o n , d i s s i p a t i o n d e s t e n e b r e s . " S e l f - i d e n t i t y a n d t h e a b i l i t y t o p r o j e c t o n e ' s own l i g h t emerge a s p r e -r e q u i s i t e s t o t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f a u t h e n t i c i t y . S e r a p h i n e ' s s y m b o l i c p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e s e t r a i t s , a l o n g w i t h h e r c a p a c i t y t o l i g h t t h e way f o r o t h e r s , makes h e r s u i t a b l e a s G o n t r a n ' s p r o t e c t o r , t u t o r and g u a r d i a n a n g e l . B r o n j a ' s s u d d e n d e a t h a t t h e i n c e p t i o n o f a d o l e s c e n c e h a s a m u l t i p l e s i g n i f i c a n c e . I n t h e c o n t e x t o f h e r a n g e l i c s y m b o l i s m , h e r p h y s i c a l d e a t h d e n o t e s h e r e x a l t a t i o n t o t h e s t a t u s o f a p u r e l y s p i r i t u a l e n t i t y . S i n c e B o r i s i s now " c u r e d " , he no l o n g e r n eeds B r o n j a ' s g u i d a n c e and p r o t e c t i o n . Her e a r t h l y m i s s i o n h a s b e e n f u l f i l l e d . B r o n j a ' s abandonment o f B o r i s , h owever, p r o v e s t o be p r e m a t u r e w i t h r e s p e c t t o B o r i s ' a b i l i t y t o t a k e c a r e of h i m s e l f , o r " p r o j e c t h i s own l i g h t " . He r e c o g n i z e s t h i s a f t e r r e c e i v i n g t h e l e t t e r i n w h i c h B r o n j a a n n o u n c e s h e r g r a v e i l l n e s s a n d t h e i m p r o b -a b i l i t y t h a t t h e y w i l l e v e r s e e e a c h o t h e r a g a i n : — 0 B r o n j a , t o i q u i v o i s l e s a n g e s , t o i q u i d e v a i s m ' o u v r i r l e s y e u x , t u me q u i t t e s ! S a n s t o i , B r o n j a , que d e v i e n d r a i - j e ? Q u ' e s t -c e que j e v a i s d e v e n i r ? (LFM, p. 490) B o r i s 1 d e s p a i r and f o r e b o d i n g b e t o k e n t h e now p a l p a b l e p r e s e n c e o f t h e d e v i l who w a i t s p a t i e n t l y f o r B o r i s 1 " g u a r d i a n a n g e l " t o d e p a r t . A f t e r S o p h r o n i s k a i n f o r m s t h e P e n s i o n V e d e l - A z a i s o f B r o n j a ' s d e a t h , B o r i s e x p e r i e n c e s t h e f o l l o w i n g r e a c t i o n : 11 Le monde e n t i e r l u i p a r a i s s a i t d e s e r t . . Les anges q u ' i l s o u h a i t a i t de v o i r , d e s o r mais, sans e l i e , comment y c r o i r e ? MeTne son c i e l a p r e s e n t se v i d a i t . B o r i s r e n t r a dans 1'etude comme on p l o n g e r a i t en e n f e r . (LFM, pp. 530-1) T h i s marks the commencement of B o r i s ' s p i r i t u a l d e c l i n e . The d e v i l and h i s helpmates, p e r s o n i f i e d by S t r o u v i l h o u and h i s c o u s i n , G h e r i d a n i s o l , a c c e l e r a t e B o r i s ' d escent t o h e l l t h r o ugh the m a n i p u l a t i o n of h i s t a l i s m a n (the emblem of h i s shameful s e c r e t , t h e d a r kness of h i s s o u l ) . The t a l i s m a n i s passed from S o p h r o n i s k a , who b e l i e v e s B o r i s t o be c u r e d , t o S t r o u v i l h o u and on t o G h e r i d a n i s o l , who e m b e l l i s h e s i t w i t h a " l a r g e b o r d u r e rouge e t n o i r e , l a q u e l l e e t a i t ornee de p e t i t s d i a b l o t i n s obscenes . . ." (LFM, p. 532) b e f o r e l e a v i n g i t t o be d i s c o v e r e d by an u n s u s p e c t i n g B o r i s . The e n t i r e passage f o l l o w i n g B o r i s ' d i s c o v e r y of the t a l i s m a n i s imbued w i t h d i a b o l i c a l imagery and innuendo. The n a r r a t o r r e l a t e s t h a t the p i e c e of paper has an "aspect f a n t a s t i q u e , ' i n f e r n a l ' " . To t h e b e w i l d e r e d and h o r r i f i e d B o r i s , i t seems as though the l o n g f o r g o t t e n paper has "tombe du c i e l , ou p l u t & t s u r g i de l ' e n f e r . " The prank i s r e f e r r e d t o as a " d i a b l e r i e ( s ) d ' e c o l i e r " . (LFM, p. 533) The a c t of p u t t i n g t h e t a l i s m a n away i n h i s p ocket s i g n a l s t h a t B o r i s has r e c l a i m e d h i s " e v i l " h a b i t . Memories of h i s "magie" b e g i n t o obsess him. L a t e r i n h i s room, a f t e r a l o n g s t r u g g l e , B o r i s succumbs t o t h e " s o l l i c i t a t i o n t e n e b r e u s e " , he " s i n k s " (v. " i l sombra", p. 5 3 3 ) . The n a r r a t o r d i s c l o s e s B o r i s ' s e n t i m e n t s r e g a r d i n g h i s s u r r e n d e r : 12 I I l u i s e m b l a i t q u ' i l se p e r d a i t , q u ' i l s ' e n f o n c a i t t r e s l o i n du c i e l ; m a i s i l p r e n a i t p l a i s i r a se p e r d r e e t f a i s a i t , de c e t t e p e r d i t i o n meme, s a volupt£. (LPM, p. 533) The r e c u r r e n c e o f t h e w o r d p e r d i t i o n ( t h e r e a r e t h r e e g r a m m a t i c a l v a r i a t i o n s ) a n d t h e image o f B o r i s s i n k i n g a n d r e t r e a t i n g f u r t h e r and f u r t h e r f r o m t h e s k y c o n n o t e s p i r i t u a l d a m n a t i o n . C o r d l e s t a t e s t h a t " B r o n j a ' s d e a t h l e a v e s B o r i s w i t h o u t a n i d e a l t o e x e r t a c o u n t e r p u l l a g a i n s t h i s d e m o n i c c o m p u l s i o n ( . ) " a n d s p e a k s o f B o r i s 1 " d e c l i n e a n d f a l l f o l l o w i n g h e r d e a t h . " W i t h o u t B r o n j a ' s s p i r i t u a l s u p p o r t , h e r g u i d i n g l i g h t a n d p r o t e c t i o n , B o r i s i s l e f t v u l n e r a b l e a n d w i t h o u t hope. He p l u n g e s i n t o c o m p l i c i t y w i t h t h e C o n f r e r i e d e s Hommes f o r t s , a s s i s t i n g them i n t h e d e s i g n o f h i s own m u r d e r . H i s d e c l i n e a n d f a l l t e r m i n a t e i n d e a t h . B r o n j a ' s d e a t h i s a l s o m e a n i n g f u l f r o m t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f h e r m y t h o l o g i c a l s y m b o l i s m . R e v e r t i n g b a c k t o t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e " r a c e de b r o n z e " ( r e n o w n e d , i n t e r e s t i n g l y , f o r i t s " d e m e s u r e " ) , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e t h a t T a l o s , t h e l a s t s u r v i v o r , was i m p e r v i o u s t o d e s t r u c t i o n e x c e p t a t t h e l o w e r h a l f o f h i s l e g . By u s i n g m a g i c c h a r m s , Medee s u c c e e d s i n p e n e t r a t i n g T a l o s ' v u l n e r a b i l i t y " l ' i n d i c e d'une f a i b l e s s e p s y c h i q u e e t m o r a l e " — and 9 b r i n g i n g a b o u t h i s d e m i s e . The d e s t r u c t i o n o f T a l o s by a s o r c e r e r ' s c h a r m s i s a n a l o g o u s t o B r o n j a a n d B o r i s ' d e s t r u c t i o n by t h e d e v i l ' s s t e a l t h and b e g u i l e m e n t . On a more p r o s a i c l e v e l , B r o n j a ' s s u d d e n d e a t h a t t h e o n s e t o f p u b e r t y a l l e g o r i z e s a g i r l ' s e n t r y i n t o womanhood. 13 The v e r y q u a l i t i e s t h a t make h e r so i n n o c e n t ( h e r g u i l e l e s s n e s s ) a n d p u r e ( h e r i n t e g r i t y ) a r e o b l i t e r a t e d a t p u b e r t y , w here s he b e g i n s a new s t a g e o f l i f e m a r k e d by c o n f o r m i t y and s e l f - d e n i a l . I n b e c o m i n g a n a d u l t , s h e i s o b l i g e d t o c o u n t e r f e i t h e r p e r s o n a l i t y i n o r d e r t o g a i n s o c i a l a c c e p t a n c e . The s i t u a t i o n f a u s s e t h a t t h e g i r l ' s new r o l e a s woman demands c a n be l i k e n e d t o d e a t h i n t h a t h e r p o t e n t i a l f o r a u t h e n t i c i t y h a s b e e n a r r e s t e d . From t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , B r o n j a ' s r o l e a s a n i n n o c e n t y o u t h who m e e t s a n u n t i m e l y d e a t h s e r v e s a s a n i n d i c t m e n t o f s o c i a l h y p o c r i s y . B r o n j a ' s r o l e a s b o t h an a n g e l i c and a l l e g o r i c a l f i g u r e s u p p o r t s t h e p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t s h e p r o j e c t s a m y t h i c a l , t h u s u n a t t a i n a b l e i d e a l . R a t h e r t h a n a r e a l i s t i c r o l e m o d e l , B r o n j a i s a p a r a g o n o f womanhood t h a t t h e e v e r y d a y woman w o u l d f i n d d i f f i c u l t t o e m u l a t e . Her s u p e r f i c i a l i t y a s a s y m b o l makes h e r e n i g m a t i c a n d u n f a t h o m a b l e a s a human b e i n g . Her p r e s e n c e i s s p i r i t u a l and e p h e m e r a l — s h e emerges t h e n r e c e d e s f r o m v i e w , h a v i n g s e r v e d h e r m e t a p h o r i c a l p u r p o s e . I f B r o n j a p e r s o n i f i e s " g o o d n e s s " a n d g o d l i n e s s t h e n L a d y G r i f f i t h , h e r s y m b o l i c c o u n t e r p a r t , e m b o d i e s " b a d n e s s " o r e v i l . The b r e v i t y and i n e f f i c a c y o f B r o n j a ' s i n f l u e n c e on B o r i s and t h e c o u r s e o f e v e n t s he u n d e r g o e s a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e a u t h o r ' s w i s h t o s t r e s s t h e p e r v a s i v e n e s s a n d o m n i p o t e n c e o f t h e d e v i l . I n t h e J o u r n a l d e s F a u x - M o n n a y e u r s , G i d e s t a t e s : J ' e n v o u d r a i s un ( l e d i a b l e ) q u i c i r c u l e r a i t i n c o g n i t o a t r a v e r s t o u t l e l i v r e e t d o n t l a r e a l i t e s 1 a f f i r m e r a i t d ' a u t a n t p l u s q u ' o n c r o i r a i t m o i n s e n l u i . ( p . 21) 14 The b a l a n c e b e t w e e n good and e v i l i s n o t h a r m o n i o u s . E v i l t a k e s p r e c e d e n c e o v e r g o o d n e s s and p i e t y . L i l i a n G r i f f i t h , t h e f e m a l e e m i s s a r y o f t h e d e v i l , t h u s a s s u m e s immense p r o p o r t i o n s a s a s y m b o l i c f i g u r e . B r o n j a ' s o s t e n s i b l e i n v i n c i b i l i t y a s a d i v i n e p r o t e c t o r o f v i r t u e d i s s i p a t e s a n d s h e emerges a s a p a l e shadow a l o n g s i d e L a d y G r i f f i t h , whose i n f l u e n c e i s r e l a t i v e l y p e r s i s t e n t and f o r m i d a b l e . L a d y G r i f f i t h ' s c a t a l y t i c e x p e r i e n c e a s a y o u n g g i r l a p p r o a c h i n g a d u l t h o o d s t a n d s i n c o n t r a s t t o B r o n j a ' s a d o l e s c e n t d e a t h ; i n L a d y G r i f f i t h ' s c a s e , we h a v e t h e b i r t h o f a new p e r s o n a t h a t i s t r i g g e r e d by h e r i n v o l v e m e n t a s a t e e n a g e r i n t h e s h i p w r e c k o f t h e B o u r g o g n e . She makes t h e f o l l o w i n g r e a l i z a t i o n a f t e r w i t n e s s i n g t h e h a nds o f h e r f e l l o w v i c t i m s b e i n g c h o p p e d o f f i n t h e i r d e s p e r a t e a t t e m p t s t o c l i m b i n t o t h e o v e r c r o w d e d l i f e b o a t s : E t q u a n d , a b o r d du X. q u i nous a r e c u e i l l i s , j e s u i s r e v e n u e a m o i , j ' a i c o m p r i s que j e n ' e t a i s p l u s , que j e ne p o u r r a i s p l u s j a m a i s d t r e l a meme, l a s e n t i m e n t a l e j e u n e f i l l e d ' a u p a r a v a n t ; j ' a i c o m p r i s que j ' a v a i s l a i s s e une p a r t i e de moi s o m b r e r a v e c l a B o u r g o g n e , q u ' a un t a s de s e n t i m e n t s d ^ l i c a t s , d e s o r m a i s , j e c o u p e r a i s l e s d o i g t s e t l e s p o i g n e t s p o u r l e s emp^cher de m o n t e r e t de f a i r e s o m b r e r mon c o e u r . (LFM, p. 101) From t h i s p o i n t i n h e r l i f e o n ward, Lady G r i f f i t h i s d e v o i d o f a m o r a l c o n s c i e n c e and l o s e s h e r h u m a n i t y . G i d e s t a t e s i n t h e J o u r n a l d e s F a u x - M o n n a y e u r s : 15 L e c a r a c t e r e de L a d y G r i f f i t h e s t e t d o i t r e s t e r comme h o r s du l i v r e . E l l e n'a p a s d ' e x i s t e n c e m o r a l e , n i meme a v r a i d i r e de p e r s o n n a l i t e . . . . ( JdFM, p. 52) The a u t h o r ' s c o n f i r m a t i o n o f L a d y G r i f f i t h ' s l a c k o f b o t h " e x i s t e n c e m o r a l e " a n d " p e r s o n n a l i t e " shows us t o w h a t e x t e n t he i n t e n d e d h e r t o be s y m b o l i c : h e r r o l e i n t h e n o v e l i s t h a t o f t h e f e m a l e p a r a g o n o f i n a u t h e n t i c i t y ( t o t a l d e n i a l o f s e l f ) , a m o r a l i s m and e v i l . I n h e r e s s a y , "Le roman du roman", L o i s L i n d e r c o r r o b o r a t e s t h e n o t i o n o f L a d y G r i f f i t h ' s m y t h i c a l n a t u r e w i t h an i l l u m i n a t i n g a n a l y s i s o f t h e f o l k l o r i c s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e name L i l i a n : L a d y G r i f f i t h , e l l e , n'a p a s de "roman". E l l e e s t d e j a un e t r e s a n s d i a l o g u e . L e n a u f r a g e de l a B o u r g o g n e a £touffe, i l y a l o n g t e m p s , t o u t e s s e s v o i x i n t e r i e u r e s . Des c e t i n c i d e n t , e l l e a c o n c l u que l a v i e e s t aux "f£roces", a c e u x q u i s a v e n t p r o f i t e r de l a c h a n c e e t e l l e s e r a de c e s g e n s - l a . L e r & l e q u ' e l l e t i e n t d d s o r m a i s , a i n s i que s o n nom ( L i l i a n G r i f f i t h ) , c o n t i n u e une l o n g u e t r a d i t i o n l i t t e r a i r e . Dans l a m y t h o l o g i e S e m i t e , L i l i t h ( L i l i t , L i l u ) e s t un demon, une e s p e c e de " s h e - d e v i l " , h o s t i l e s u r t o u t aux femmes e n c e i n t e s e t aux p e t i t s e n f a n t s (on se s o u v i e n t de 1 ' a t t i t u d e de L a d y G r i f f i t h e n v e r s l a s i t u a t i o n de L a u r a ) . Dans l e f o l k l o r e j u i f , L i l i t h e t a i t l a p r e m i e r e femme d'Adam. E l l e a p p a r a l t dans l a B i b l e e t d a n s l a l i t t e r a t u r e j u i v e s o u s d i v e r s noms: " s c r e e c h o w l " , " n i g h t  h a g " , m o n s t r e de l a n u i t . Dans ce s e n s , L a d y G r i f f i t h v i t un m y t h e . J Q I n l i g h t o f L i n d e r ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , L i l i a n G r i f f i t h p l a y s t h e r o l e o f d i a b o l i c a l t e m p t r e s s a n d s e d u c t r e s s . L i n d e r 16 p o s t u l a t e s t h a t , by h e r name a l o n e , L i l i a n r e p r e s e n t s a " s h e - d e v i l " , a " s c r e e c h o w l " , a " n i g h t h a g " . L i l i a n ' s s u r name, G r i f f i t h , h a s s i m i l a r c o n n o t a t i o n s . The " i t h " s u f f i x o f h e r l a s t name c a n be s e e n a s a c a r r y - o v e r f r o m t h e Hebrew s u f f i x o f t h e r o o t o f L i l i a n , L i l i t o r L i l i t h . The name G r i f f i t h i t s e l f s u g g e s t s g r i f f e , t h e F r e n c h noun f o r " c l a w " , and g r i f f e r , t h e v e r b t o c l a w o r s c r a t c h , b o t h o f w h i c h a r e s i g n i f i c a n t o f t h e t e n a c i o u s a n d d e v a s t a t i n g h o l d L i l i a n h a s on V i n c e n t ' s m i n d and s o u l . The name a l s o b e a r s a n u n m i s t a k a b l e r e s e m b l a n c e t o t h e w o r d s g r i f f i n a n d g r i f f o n , t h e f o r m e r b e i n g a G r e e k m y t h o l o g i c a l c r e a t u r e w i t h t h e h e a d an d w i n g s o f an e a g l e and t h e body o f a l i o n , w h i c h l a t e r came t o s y m b o l i z e c r u e l f o r c e and t h e devil.''""'" The l a t t e r i s t h e O l d W o r l d a p p e l l a t i o n f o r a l a r g e , s c a v e n g e r v u l t u r e 12 n o t e d f o r i t s r u t h l e s s , p r e d a t o r y n a t u r e . The L i l i a n -V i n c e n t a f f a i r , f u t h e r m o r e , m i r r o r s t h e p r o v e r b i a l Adam and Eve r e l a t i o n s h i p ( " L i l i t h e t a i t l a p r e m i e r e femme d'Adam") i n t h a t G r i f f i t h i s t h e i m p e t u s b e h i n d V i n c e n t ' s m o r a l d e g e n e r a t i o n , and i s t h u s a k i n t o E v e , t h e d e v i l ' s f i r s t h e l p m a t e i n t h e c o r r u p t i o n o f man. Two p r e d o m i n a n t f e a t u r e s o f L a d y G r i f f i t h ' s d e m o n i c p e r s o n a a r e h e r c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e a n d h e r e x o t i c n a t u r e . I n h i s e s s a y " L e s F a u x - M o n n a y e u r s ou l e mouvement p e r p e t u e l " , P i e r r e M a sson a t t r i b u t e s t h e f o l l o w i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e t o L a d y G r i f f i t h ' s A m e r i c a n o r i g i n s a n d t i e s w i t h A n g l o - S a x o n c u l t u r e . 17 [ L i e s pays anglo-saxons semblent marquer l e u r s r e s s o r t i s s a n t s d'un c e r t a i n aspect malefique; de l a t r e s l o i n t a i n e Am6rique, ver s l a q u e l l e Gide n'a jamais et6 a t t i r e Y v i e n t Lady G r i f f i t h , l a seu l e f i g u r e de femme vraiment i n q u i ^ t a n t e de son oeuvre; une f i g u r e q u i , en f a i t , p l u s que de l'Am£rique, r e v i e n t du fond des mers comme une d i a b o l i q u e V6nus anadyomene q u i a f a i t dans l e naufrage 1'apprentissage du crime, pour e n t r a i n e r a son tour V i n c e n t au fond de ces abimes auxquels i l r i v e s i b i e n . ! -> The world of Les Faux-Monnayeurs i s , f o r the most par t , l i m i t e d t o the narrow c o n f i n e s of one area of P a r i s ; a p a r t from Edouard, Bernard and Laura's b r i e f s o j ourn i n S w i t z e r l a n d — at the f i c t i t i o u s Saas-Fee - a l l of the a c t i o n immediate to the novel takes place i n the en v i r o n s of the Luxembourg Gardens. In re f e r e n c e to the novel's s e t t i n g , Germaine Br£e s t a t e s : Gide r e j e t t e deliberement a l a periph£rie de son roman ces " e x p l o r a t e u r s " , l e s personnages q u i . . . s'embarquent pour de t£nebreuses A f r i q u e s ; i l s d i s p a r a i s s e n t dans l e s regions obscures q u i s'etendent aux c o n f i n s du monde inconnu; ce n'est pas a ces e x i l e s que Gide s' i n t e r e s s e . -, A Lady G r i f f i t h ' s f o r e i g n n e s s thus stands i n s t a r k o p p o s i t i o n to the o v e r s t a t e d , bourgeois Frenchness of her acquaintances and surroundings: she has l i v e d i n San F r a n c i s c o , where we assume she was born and r a i s e d , has presumably spent some time i n England with a c e r t a i n Lord G r i f f i t h , and has t r a v e l l e d i n Europe enough to form a c l o s e acquaintance with the P r i n c e of Monaco. G r i f f i t h ' s c u l t u r a l displacement g i v e s 18 her an a f f i n i t y w i t h the d e v i l i n t h a t she a r r i v e s from a remote and u n s p e c i f i e d r e g i o n , and a r t f u l l y i n s i n u a t e s h e r s e l f i n t o t h e adopted m i l i e u where she i s i n a s t r a t e g i c p o s i t i o n t o a l i e n a t e and d e s t r o y her v i c t i m ( V i n c e n t ) . Lady G r i f f i t h ' s e x o t i c i s m i s i n s t r u m e n t a l i n her s e d u c t i o n of V i n c e n t . In r e f e r e n c e t o V i n c e n t ' s r e a c t i o n t o L i l i a n , t h e n a r r a t o r comments: On a p p e l l e <<exotisme>>, j e c r o i s , t o u t r e p l i d i a p r e de l a Maya, devant q u o i n o t r e ame se s e n t e t r a n g e r e ; q u i l a p r i v e de p o i n t s d'appui. P a r f o i s t e l l e v e r t u r ^ s i s t e r a i t , que l e d i a b l e avant d ' a t t a q u e r , depayse.... P r e s de L i l i a n , egalement, i l se s e n t a i t depayse. (LFM, p. 211) G r i f f i t h ' s perfume and l i q u e u r s , t h e sumptuous and c o l o u r f u l n a t u r e of her s u r r o u n d i n g s and a p p a r e l evoke an a i r of e x o t i c i s m t h a t has a d i z z y i n g , d i s o r i e n t i n g e f f e c t on her v i c t i m : " l e l a r g e l i t ou p r e s de L i l i a n i l repose" (LFM, p. 9 5 ) ; " L i l i a n etendue sur l e d i v a n bas" (LFM p. 2 1 1 ) ; " e l i e a v a i t rev§tu un pyjama pourpre lame" d ' a r g e n t " (LFM, p. 9 8 ) . The scenes which f o l l o w V i n c e n t ' s t r i u m p h a n t r e t u r n from Pedro's demonstrate the manner i n which L i l i a n d e p r i v e s V i n c e n t of h i s customary " p o i n t s d'appui", and r e n d e r s him b e w i l d e r e d , v u l n e r a b l e , thus r e c e p t i v e t o her m a n i p u l a t i o n : — B r a v o ! B r a v o ! B r a v o ! c r i a - t - e l l e . P u i s e l i e s a u t a au cou de V i n c e n t , q u i s e n t i t t o u t l e l o n g de son c o r p s l a s o u p l e s s e de ce c o r p s b r Q l a n t a 1'Strange parfum de s a n t a l , e t L i l i a n l'embrassa sur l e f r o n t , s u r l e s j o u e s , sur l e s l e v r e s . V i n c e n t , en c h a n c e l a n t , se degagea. I I s o r t i t de sa poche une l i a s s e de b i l l e t s de banque. 19 L i l i a n ' s " S t r a n g e p a r f u m de s a n t a l " a p p e a r s t o h a v e a h y p n o t i c e f f e c t on V i n c e n t . Her e x o t i c s c e n t e n v e l o p s a n d t r a n s f i x e s h i m , a s d o e s h e r " c o r p s b r u l a n t " t h a t he f e e l s " t o u t l e l o n g de s o n c o r p s " . H i s p o w e r l e s s n e s s i s r e f l e c t e d i n h i s p a s s i v i t y a s s h e k i s s e s h i s f o r e h e a d , c h e e k s a n d l i p s . Upon d i s e n g a g i n g h i m s e l f f r o m h e r e m b r a c e , he t o t t e r s , o r w a v e r s ("en c h a n c e l a n t " ) a s t h o u g h s t r u g g l i n g t o r e l e a s e h i m s e l f f r o m t h e t r a n c e l i k e s t a t e h e r p e r f u m e a n d p h y s i c a l c l o s e n e s s h a v e i n d u c e d . I n t h i s i n s t a n c e , V i n c e n t manages t o f r e e h i m s e l f and r e a f f i r m h i s i n d e p e n d e n c e and s e l f - c o n t r o l . F u r t h e r on, h o w e v e r , G r i f f i t h r e i n s t a t e s h e r power o v e r h i m when sh e o f f e r s d r i n k s t o t o a s t h i s s u c c e s s a t t h e g a m b l i n g h o u s e : L i l i a n s ' a p p r o c h a de l u i e t p o s a sa m a i n s u r s o n f r o n t q u ' i l r e l e v a ; s e s y e u x e t a i e n t s e e s e t a r d e n t s . — En a t t e n d a n t , nous a l l o n s t r i n q u e r t o u s l e s t r o i s , d i t - e l l e , e t e l l e r e m p l i t de t o k a y l e s t r o i s v e r r e s . A p r e s q u ' i l s e u r e n t b u : — M a i n t e n a n t , q u i t t e z - m o i . I I e s t t a r d , e t j e n'en p u i s p l u s . E l l e l e s accompagna v e r s 1 ' a n t i c h a m b r e , p u i s , comme R o b e r t p a s s a i t d e v a n t , g l i s s a d a n s l a m a i n de V i n c e n t un p e t i t o b j e t de m ^ t a l e t c h u c h o t a : — S o r s a v e c l u i , t u r e v i e n d r a s d a n s un q u a r t d ' h e u r e . ... L ' a u t o p a r t i t . V i n c e n t f i t q u e l q u e s p a s s u r l e q u a i , t r a v e r s a l a S e i n e , gagna c e t t e p a r t i e de T u i l e r i e s q u i se t r o u v e en d e h o r s de s g r i l l e s , s ' a p p r o c h a d'un p e t i t b a s s i n e t t r e m p a d a n s l ' e a u s o n m o u c h o i r q u ' i l a p p l i q u a s u r s o n f r o n t e t s e s t e m p e s . P u i s , l e n t e m e n t , i l r e v i n t v e r s l a demeure de L i l i a n . L a i s s o n s - l e , t a n d i s que l e d i a b l e amuse l e r e g a r d e g l i s s e r s a n s b r u i t l a p e t i t e c l e f dans l a s e r r u r e . . . (LFM, pp. 85-7) 20 The e x o t i c l i q u e u r L i l i a n g i v e s to V i n c e n t i s s i m i l a r i n e f f e c t to the "Strange parfum de s a n t a l " . I t behaves as a mysterious drug, or p o t i o n , t h a t d u l l s h i s senses and causes him to wander a i m l e s s l y onto the "quai", over the Seine, past the T u i l e r i e s . The a c t of dampening h i s "mouchoir" and p a s s i n g i t over h i s forehead suggests t h a t V i n c e n t i s attempting to r e g a i n h i s c l a r i t y of p e r c e p t i o n . V i n c e n t ' s d u t i f u l r e t u r n to L i l i a n ' s apartment a f t e r the d e s i g n a t e d l a p s e of time marks the f i r s t s tep i n h i s unconscious surrender to her a u t h o r i t y ; she has made him her pawn, as w e l l as an o b j e c t of the d e v i l ' s amusement. From t h i s p o i n t onward, her t o t a l c o n t r o l of h i s w i l l m a n ifests i t s e l f i n a l l aspects of her a t t i t u d e towards him. Her m a n i p u l a t i o n begins w i t h V i n c e n t ' s p h y s i c a l appearance: E l i e se penchait avec un i n s t i n c t d'amante e t de mere au-dessus de ce grand enfant q u ' e l l e p r e n a i t a tciche de former. E l i e en f a i s a i t son oeuvre, sa s t a t u e . E l i e l u i a p p r e n a i t a soigner ses ongles, a separer sur l e c&te" ses cheveux q u ' i l r e j e t a i t d'abord en a r r i e r e , e t son f r o n t , a demi cache" par eux, p a r a i s s a i t p l u s p i l e et p l u s haut. E n f i n , e l i e a v a i t remplace par des c r a v a t e s seyantes, l e s modestes p e t i t s noeuds tout f a i t s q u ' i l p o r t a i t . Decidement Lady G r i f f i t h a i m a i t V i n c e n t ; mais e l i e ne l e s u p p o r t a i t pas t a c i t u r n e , ou "maussade" comme e l i e d i s a i t . (LFM, pp. 95-6) In the above passage, L i l i a n not only d i c t a t e s V i n c e n t ' s manner of personal grooming, but a l s o p r e s c r i b e s h i s emotional behavior by r e f u s i n g to t o l e r a t e h i s n a t u r a l r e t i c e n c e , or what she p r e f e r s to c o n s i d e r h i s s u l l e n n e s s , or glumness. 21 V i n c e n t ' s submission to Lady G r i f f i t h ' s tyranny i s exaggerated as t h e i r time spent together i n c r e a s e s . His b l i n d obedience to her most o u t l a n d i s h commands i s taken t o the extreme i n the f o l l o w i n g episode: — Ecoute: t u vas passer dans l a s a l l e de b a i n e t tacher de l a i s s e r tes r e g r e t s sous l a douche.... — Ne te r h a b i l l e pas tout de s u i t e . Dans l ' a r m o i r e , a d r o i t e du c h a u f f e - b a i n , tu tro u v e r a s des burnous, des haiks , des pyjamas ... e n f i n tu c h o i s i r a s . V i n c e n t r e p a r a i t v i n g t minutes p l u s t a r d , couvert d'une d j e l l a b a h de s o i e v e r t p i s t a c h e . — Oh! a t t e n d s ! attends que j e t'arrange, s ' e c r i a L i l i a n r a v i e . E l l e s o r t i t d'un c o f f r e o r i e n t a l deux l a r g e s echarpes aubergine, c e i n t u r a V i n c e n t de l a plus sombre, l'enturbanna de 1 ' a u t r e . (LFM, pp. 97-8) The impression Lady G r i f f i t h g i v e s i n her treatment of Vi n c e n t i s t h a t of a domineering and c r i t i c a l mother. V i n c e n t ' s reappearance i n the burlesque " d j e l l a b a h de v e r t p i s t a c h e " , furthermore, not only confirms h i s meek compliance, but a l s o symbolizes an e a r l y stage i n h i s p r o g r e s s i v e estrangement from the French c u l t u r a l and moral m i l i e u : the o r i e n t a l costume foreshadows V i n c e n t ' s t r a v e l s with L i l i a n t o remote A f r i c a , and the e x o t i c banks of the Casamence. The extremity of V i n c e n t ' s moral and emotional d e t e r i o r a t i o n culminates i n h i s murder of L i l i a n and an out b u r s t of i n s a n i t y . Armand's estranged brother, Alexandre, r e p o r t s i n h i s l e t t e r : Je v i s depuis une q u i n z a i n e de j o u r s en compagnie d'un s i n g u l i e r i n d i v i d u que j ' a i r e c u e i l l i dans ma case. Le s o l e i l de ce pays a du l u i taper sur l e crane. J ' a i d'abord p r i s pour 22 du d e l i r e ce q u i e s t b e l e t b i e n de l a f o l i e . Cet e t r a n g e garcon...se c r o i t possede par l e d i a b l e ; ou p l u t & t i l se c r o i t l e d i a b l e lui-meme.... I I a du l u i a r r i v e r quelque a v e n t u r e , c a r , en reve ou dans l ' e t a t de demi-sommeil ou i l l u i a r r i v e souvent de t o m b e r . . . i l p a r l e sans cesse de mains coupees.... Un h i d e u x negre q u i 1 1 a c c o m p a g n a i t , remontant avec l u i l a Casamance, e t avec q u i j ' a i un peu cause, p a r l e d'une femme q u i 1'accompagnait e t q u i , s i j ' a i b i e n c o m p r i s , a dfi se noyer dans l e f l e u v e , c e r t a i n j o u r que l e u r e m b a r c a t i o n a chavir£. Je ne s e r a i s pas 6tonne" que mon compagnon a i t f a v o r i s e l a noyade. Dans ce pays, quand on veut se d e b a r r a s s e r de quelqu'un, on a grand c h o i x de moyens, et personne j a m a i s n'en a c u r e . (LFM, pp. 527-8) V i n c e n t ' s mental derangement denotes t h e a n n i h i l a t i o n of h i s o r i g i n a l s e l f , and consequent i n a b i l i t y t o a c t i n accordance w i t h h i s own c o n s c i e n c e and f r e e w i l l . T h i s b e i n g t h e case, i t would appear t h a t the d e v i l ' s v i c t o r y over V i n c e n t i s c o m p l e t e : " i l se c r o i t l e d i a b l e lui-meme". Furthermore, because Lady G r i f f i t h has a c c o m p l i s h e d t h e t a s k of f i g u r a t i v e l y d e l i v e r i n g V i n c e n t i n t o the d e v i l ' s hands, she i s no l o n g e r n e c e s s a r y , and i s , t h e r e f o r e , d i s p o s e d of w i t h o u t ceremony, becoming t h e drowned r e j e c t , h e r s e l f , and 15 r e p l a c e d as s u r v i v o r by V i n c e n t , who succumbs t o g u i l t . In r e l a t i o n t o B r o n j a , L i l i a n ' s murder has f u r t h e r s i g n i f i c a n c e i n t h a t they are the o n l y female c h a r a c t e r s i n t h e n o v e l who d i e . P i e r r e Masson makes the f o l l o w i n g o b s e r v a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e i r d e a t h : [ L ] ' a u t r e [ L i l i a n ] , s u i v a n t sa pente, s'enfonce de p l u s en p l u s v e r s ces t e r r e s sauvages oti t r i o m p h e n t l e s i n s t i n c t s . Un t e l e l o i g n e m e n t e s t synonyme de mort, morale pour V i n c e n t , p h y s i q u e pour L i l i a n e t pour B r o n j a , q u i , comme par h a s a r d , tombe malade a son r e t o u r : p e r s i s t e r dans une v o i e pour l a q u e l l e on n'est peut-§tre pas v r a i m e n t f a i t 23 e s t m o r t e l , e t c ' e s t l e r i s q u e que s ' e p a r g n e E d o u a r d . M a s s o n ' s a n a l y s i s m a i n t a i n s t h a t L i l i a n and B r o n j a r e p r e s e n t women who p e r s i s t e n t l y m o t i v a t e a s i n g l e a s p e c t o f t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t y t o w a r d a d a n g e r o u s e x t r e m e , and, i n so d o i n g , s u p p r e s s a l l t h e o t h e r a n g l e s o f t h e i r c h a r a c t e r t h a t a r e n e c e s s a r y t o t h e c r e a t i o n o f a h a r m o n i o u s a n d w e l l - b a l a n c e d w h o l e . L i l i a n ' s m o r t a l f l a w r e s i d e s i n h e r u t t e r l a c k o f a t t a c h m e n t t o t h e p a s t ; s h e h a s no h i s t o r y , no f a m i l y , no c u l t u r a l t i e s . B e i n g e x c e s s i v e l y a b s o r b e d i n t h e p u r s u i t o f n o v e l t y a n d a d v e n t u r e makes L i l i a n o n e - d i m e n s i o n a l , and u n r e a l i s t i c . B r o n j a i s e q u a l l y f l a t , o r o n e - s i d e d , i n t h a t she i s f a n a t i c a l l y o b s e s s e d w i t h r e l i g i o n . Her r i g o r o u s d e v o t i o n makes h e r i n c a p a b l e o f e x i s t i n g i n a s o c i e t y t h a t i s d e p e n d e n t upon i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h o t h e r human b e i n g s . I n r e f e r e n c e t o V i n c e n t , E.D. C a n c a l o n s t a t e s : Au f e r e t a m e s u r e que V i n c e n t se r e n d r a compte que s o n d e s i r de g l o i r e l e d e t r u i t / i l d e c i d e r a d'en a n e a n t i r t o u t e m a n i f e s t a t i o n . . . . C e t e f f o r t p o u r d e t r u i r e t o t a l e m e n t une p a r t i e de l u i - m e m e ne p e u t a b o u t i r q u ' a l a f o l i e . L e s s u j e t s v i c t o r i e u x m a i t r i s e n t un c 6 t e du c o n f l i t m a i s p o u r m a i n t e n i r l e u r e q u i l i b r e m e n t a l a d m e t t e n t 1 ' e x i s t e n c e e n eux de d e s i r s c o n t r a d i c t o i r e s . -^-j C a n c a l o n c l a i m s t h a t i t i s i m p o s s i b l e f o r V i n c e n t t o a c h i e v e a m e n t a l e q u i l i b r i u m w i t h o u t a l l o w i n g c o n t r a d i c t o r y a s p e c t s 18 o f h i s c h a r a c t e r t o c o - e x i s t . The p e r s o n a l i t y must be m u l t i - f a c e t e d t o be h e a l t h y , o r s a n e : t h i s c o n d i t i o n i s a l s o n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r f o r i t t o be human. L a d y G r i f f i t h and 24 Bronja 1s absolute single-mindedness thus makes them improbable models of real women, and their death connotes the impossibility of their existence in the real world. 25 NOTES I "Bronya, " T r a n s l i t e r a t e d D i c t i o n a r y of the R u s s i a n  Language, ed. Eugene G a r f i e l d ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : I S I P r e s s , 1979) . "Armes," D i c t i o n n a i r e des Symboles, 4 v o l s . , 2nd. ed. (1969; r p t . P a r i s : Ed. Seghers e t Ed. J u p i t e r , 1974). •3 "Bronze," D i c t i o n n a i r e des Symboles. 4 " A i r a i n , " D i c t i o n n a i r e des Symboles. 5 "Ange," D i c t i o n n a i r e des Symboles. Thomas C o r d l e , Andre" G i d e , Twayne's World A u t h o r s S e r i e s , 86 (New Y o rk: Twayne P u b l i s h e r s , I n c . , 1969), p. 130. 7 "S£raphin," D i c t i o n n a i r e des Symboles. 8 C o r d l e , p. 130. ^ "Bronze," D i c t i o n n a i r e des Symboles. 1 0 L i n d e r , p. 87 I I " G r i f f o n , " D i c t i o n n a i r e des Symboles; see a l s o t h e t r a d i t i o n a l , C h r i s t i a n symbolism d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s e n t r y : " I I ( l e g r i f f o n ) r e p r e s e n t e ... l a f o r c e c r u e l l e ... f i l l e s t l 1 i m a g e du demon, a t e l p o i n t que pour l e s e c r i v a i n s sacr£s, 1 ' e x p r e s s i o n h e s t i s e q u i e s t synonyme de S a t a n . " 1 2 " G r i f f o n , " Webster's C o l l e g i a t e D i c t i o n n a r y , 1977 ed. 1 3 P i e r r e Masson, "Les Faux-Monnayeurs ou l e mouvement p e r p e t u e l , " i n Andre" Qjde 5: s u r "Les Faux-Monnayeurs", ed. Claude M a r t i n , RLM, N 439-444 (1975), pp. 50-1. 1 4 Germaine Br£e, Andr^ G i d e : 1 ' I n s a i s i s s a b l e P r o t e e ( P a r i s : S o c i e t e d ' E d i t i o n <<Les B e l l e s - L e t t r e s > > , 1953), pp. 285-6. 1 5 L i n d e r , p. 87. 1 6 Masson, "Le Mouvement," p. 59. 1 7 E.D. C a n c a l o n , "La S t r u c t u r e de l ' e p r e u v e , " i n A n d r f 5 : sur l e s Faux -Mi 439-444 (1975), p. 42. Gide 5: sur l e s Monnayeurs, ed. Claude M a r t i n , RLM, N°^ 1 8 L i n d e r , p. 86. 26 CHAPTER I I STEREOTYPES Our s e c o n d c a t e g o r y o f f e m a l e i m a g e s i s t h a t o f s t e r e o t y p e s . B o t h s t e r e o t y p e s and a r c h e t y p e s a r e s i m i l a r i n t h a t , u n l i k e t h e m y t h i c a l women, t h e y a r e f u n c t i o n s o f t y p i c a l f e m a l e r o l e s ; a l t h o u g h t h e y seem r e a l i s t i c , t h e y a r e , n e v e r t h e l e s s , e l e m e n t a l m o d e l s w h i c h e x h i b i t a c e r t a i n f l a t n e s s a nd l a c k o f d e v e l o p m e n t . As s u c h , t h e y a r e o n l y s l i g h t l y more r e a l i s t i c t h a n t h e i r m y t h i c a l c o u n t e r p a r t s . I n h e r i n t r o d u c t i o n t o Images o f Women i n L i t e r a t u r e , Mary Anne F e r g u s o n d e f i n e s l i t e r a r y s t e r e o t y p e s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g m a nner: The t e r m s t e r e o t y p e u s e d i n i t s s o c i o l o g i c a l s e n s e i s m e r e l y d e s c r i p t i v e o f a m e n t a l image a r r i v e d a t by m a k i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f some i n d i v i d u a l s i n t o a p a t t e r n w h i c h i s t h e n assumed t o a p p l y t o o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s e x h i b i t i n g s e v e r a l of t h e c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s . S t e r e o t y p i c a l t h i n k i n g i s n e c e s s a r y i n t h e s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s o f f i n d i n g r o l e m o d e l s . B u t when s t e r e o t y p e s become so r i g i d t h a t i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n s a r e i g n o r e d o r d e n i g r a t e d , t h e y a c t a s b a r r i e r s t o r e c o g n i z i n g t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f human b e i n g s . F o r t h i s r e a s o n t h e w o r d s t e r e o t y p e i s commonly u s e d i n l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m p e j o r a t i v e l y t o a p p l y t o u n d e r d e v e l o p e d o r " f l a t " c h a r a c t e r s o r c a r i c a t u r e s r e c o g n i z a b l e i n o u t l i n e . - . The s t e r e o t y p e s i n o u r d i s c u s s i o n w i l l c o m p r i s e t h e women i n t h e n o v e l whose c h a r a c t e r s a r e s t o c k t y p e s o r " c a r i c a t u r e s " 27 s u c h a s t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l ( S o p h r o n i s k a ) , t h e f e m i n i s t ( S a r a h ) , and t h e s p i n s t e r ( R a c h e l ) . I n d e f i n i n g t h e s t e r e o t y p i c a l f e m a l e i n t e l l e c t u a l , F e r g u s o n s t a t e s : [ W l h e t h e r m a r r i e d o r s i n g l e , y o u n g o r o l d , a l e a r n e d woman h a s u s u a l l y b e e n s u s p e c t a n d t h e b u t t o f r i d i c u l e i n l i t e r a t u r e . . . . E v e n now t h e s t e r e o t y p e o f a h i g h l y e d u c a t e d woman i s o f an u n a t t r a c t i v e f e m a l e i n s t u r d y o x f o r d s a n d t a i l o r e d s u i t . . . . o A l t h o u g h S o p h r o n i s k a i s n o t e x a c t l y r i d i c u l e d f o r h e r b e l i e f s a n d p r a c t i c e s a s a p s y c h i a t r i s t , n o r f o r h e r i n t e l l i g e n c e i n g e n e r a l , i t becomes e v i d e n t t h r o u g h h e r d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h E d o u a r d on t h e t o p i c s o f b o t h l i t e r a t u r e a n d p s y c h o l o g y t h a t s h e i s d o g m a t i c a n d h e r c o n v i c t i o n s a r e o b j e c t i o n a b l e . P i e r r e M a s s o n r e l a t e s S o p h r o n i s k a * s i n t e l l e c t u a l r i g o u r t o h e r P o l i s h h e r i t a g e : [ C J e r t a i n s e t r e s v o n t t e n t e r d ' a p p o r t e r d a n s ce roman un peu d ' a i r p u r : c e s o n t B o r i s e t B r o n j a , a c c ompagnes de l a d o c t o r e s s e S o p h r o n i s k a , v e n u s du f r o i d , d'une P o l o g n e q u i s e m b l e e t r e i c i l e p a y s du s p i r i t u a l i s m e , de 1 ' a u s t e r i t y , m a i s a u s s i de l a r a i d e u r d ' e s p r i t e t du d o g m a t i s m e ; s i B o r i s e t B r o n j a , g r a c e a l e u r c a n d e u r e n f a n t i n e , n ' i n c a r n e n t que l e cSt£ p o s i t i f de c e t t e o r i g i n e , S o p h r o n i s k a e s t s a n s c o n t e s t e l a repr£sentante de 1 ' a s p e c t n e g a t i f , q u i ne l a i s s e p a s d ' i r r i t e r E d o u a r d , e t G i d e a t r a v e r s l u i . - , As we s h a l l s o o n d i s c o v e r , S o p h r o n i s k a ' s " f i x i t y de pens£e" a n d " f a n a t i s m e d ' i n t e l l e c t u e l l e que r i e n ne p o u r r a m o d i f i e r " n o t o n l y u n d e r m i n e h e r c r e d i b i l i t y a s a n i n t e l l e c t u a l a n d s c h o l a r , b u t a l s o p r o v e h a r m f u l , e v e n f a t a l , i n t h e c a s e o f 4 h e r m e d i c a l t r e a t m e n t o f B o r i s ' p s y c h o l o g i c a l i l l n e s s . 28 Our f i r s t i m p r e s s i o n of S o p h r o n i s k a comes t o us t h rough Edouard's eyes. He n o t e s i n h i s j o u r n a l : Mme S o p h r o n i s k a s ' e s t approch^e de moi.... J e f u s s u r p r i s de v o i r q u ' e l l e t e n a i t mon d e r n i e r l i v r e a l a main; e l i e m'a demanded en s o u r i a n t de l a maniere l a p l u s a f f a b l e , s i c ' e t a i t b i e n a l ' a u t e u r q u ' e l l e a v a i t l e p l a i s i r de p a r l e r ; p u i s a u s s i t d t s ' e s t lanc£e dans une longue a p p r e c i a t i o n de mon l i v r e . Son jugement, louanges e t c r i t i q u e s , m'a paru p l u s i n t e l l i g e n t que ceux que j ' a i coutume d'entendre, encore que son p o i n t de vue ne s o i t r i e n moins que l i t t e r a i r e . E l i e m'a d i t s ' i n t e r e s s e r presque e x c l u s i v e m e n t aux q u e s t i o n s de p s y c h o l o g i e e t a ce q u i peut e c l a i r e r d'un j o u r nouveau 1'§me humaine. (LFM, p. 256) We can judge from the above t h a t S o p h r i n s k a ' s a p p r e c i a t i o n of Edouard's n o v e l has been c u r t a i l e d by her e x c l u s i v e i n t e r e s t i n t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e a l i s m of t h e c h a r a c t e r s . At a l a t e r p o i n t , she r e p r o a c h e s not o n l y fidouard, but n o v e l i s t s i n g e n e r a l f o r t h e i r f a i l u r e t o d e l v e more d e e p l y i n t o the psyche of t h e i r c h a r a c t e r s : — Comme vous e n t r e z done peu a v ant dans l'Sme humaine, s ' e c r i a - t - e l l e ; p u i s e l i e a j o u t a brusquement en r i a n t : — Oh! j e ne p a r l e pas de vous s p e c i a l e m e n t ; quand j e d i s : vous, j ' e n t e n d s : l e s r o m a n c i e r s . La p l u p a r t de vos personnages semblent b S t i s sur p i l o t i s ; i l s n'ont n i f o n d a t i o n , n i s o u s - s o l . (LFM, p. 261) S o p h r o n i s k a s u b s c r i b e s t o t h e n o t i o n t h a t p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e a l i s m i s paramount t o t h e c r e a t i o n of f i c t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r s . Her c r i t i c i s m s i n t h e above passage imply t h a t she i s opposed t o t h e " p s y c h o l o g i e t o u t e f a i t e " t h a t i s t y p i c a l of most novelesque her o e s . In a d d i t i o n t o t h i s , she s t a t e s t h a t " t o u t ce q u i n'est cr£e que par l a s e u l e i n t e l l i g e n c e e s t 29 f a u x " (LFM f pp. 261-2), thereby i n t i m a t i n g t h a t l i t e r a r y a r t i f i c e i s d i s h o n e s t . Edouard, on t h e o t h e r hand, emphasizes th e importance of s t y l i s a t i o n : J e comprends de r e s t e ce que S o p h r o n i s k a r e p r o c h e au roman de ne p o i n t l u i o f f r i r ? mais i c i c e r t a i n e s r a i s o n s d ' a r t , c e r t a i n e s r a i s o n s s u p e r i e u r e s , l u i £chappent, q u i me f o n t penser que ce n'est pas d'un bon n a t u r a l i s t e qu'on peut f a i r e un r o m a n c i e r . (LFM, pp. 261-2) The debate t h a t i s s u e s from S o p h r o n i s k a and Edouard's o p p o s i n g p o i n t s of view on the modern n o v e l e s t a b l i s h e s S o p h r o n i s k a as Edouard's a d v e r s a r y . Her a t t i t u d e a d o p ts a p a t r o n i z i n g t o n e , f o l l o w e d by s k e p t i c i s m and mockery. When Edouard i n t r o d u c e s t h e n o t i o n of not h a v i n g a " s u b j e c t " f o r h i s n o v e l , t h a t he wants t o " t o u t y f a i r e e n t r e r ... i l ne m ' a r r i v e r i e n que j e n'y v e r s e " (LFM, p. 2 7 0 ) , her r e a c t i o n i s : — Et t o u t c e l a s t y l i s e ? d i t S o p h r o n i s k a , f e i g n a n t 1 * a t t e n t i o n l a p l u s v i v e , mais sans doute avec un peu d ' i r o n i e . (LFM, pp. 270-71) The i r o n i c and i n c r e d u l o u s tone t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e s S o p h r o n i s k a ' s q u e s t i o n , and her a f f e c t e d i n t e r e s t i n Edouard's response r e c u r t hroughout t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n : S i , s i ; j ' e n t r e v o i s , d i t p o l i m e n t S o p h r o n i s k a , que l e r i r e de L a u r a e t a i t b i e n p r e s de gagner.... (LFM, pp. 271-2) — Et l e p l a n de ce l i v r e e s t f a i t ? demanda S o p h r o n i s k a , en t a c h a n t de r e p r e n d r e son s e r i e u x . — N a t u r e l l e m e n t pas. — Comment! n a t u r e l l e m e n t pas? (LFM, p. 272) 30 In a d d i t i o n t o d i s b e l i e f and mockery, S o p h r o n i s k a c h a l l e n g e s Edouard's p r o p o s i t i o n s w i t h her own arguments. She c a u t i o n s him on h i s i n t e n t i o n t o d i s t a n c e h i m s e l f from " r e a l i t y " i n h i s f i c t i o n : Ne c r a i g n e z - v o u s pas, en q u i t t a n t l a r£alit£, de vous e g a r e r dans des r e g i o n s m o r t e n e m e n t a b s t r a i t e s e t de f a i r e un roman, non d'§tres v i v a n t s , mais d ' i d e e s ? demanda S o p h r o n i s k a c r a i n t i v e m e n t . — Et quand c e l a s e r a i t ! c r i a fidouard avec un redoublement de v i g u e u r . A cause des m a l a d r o i t s q u i s'y sont fourvoy£s, devons-nous condamner l e roman d ' i d e e s ? (LFM, p. 274) Furthermore, when fidouard r e v e a l s h i s d e s i r e t o a p p l y the p r i n c i p l e s of the " A r t de l a Fugue" t o h i s n o v e l , he provokes the f o l l o w i n g r e a c t i o n from h i s opponent: A q u o i S o p h r o n i s k a r i p o s t a i t que l a musique e s t un a r t mathematique, e t qu'au s u r p l u s , a n'en c o n s i d e r e r e x c e p t i o n n e l l e m e n t p l u s que l e c h i f f r e , a en b a n n i r l e pathos e t l ' h u m a n i t e , Bach a v a i t r e u s s i l e c h e f - d ' o e u v r e a b s t r a i t d e l ' e n n u i , une s o r t e de temple astronomique, ou ne p o u v a i e n t p£netrer que de r a r e s i n i t i o s . fidouard p r o t e s t a i t a u s s i t 6 t , q u ' i l t r o u v a i t ce temple a d m i r a b l e , q u ' i l y v o y a i t 1'aboutissement e t l e sommet de t o u t e l a c a r r i e r e de Bach. (LFM, pp. 275-6) In both of the above passages, S o p h r o n i s k a e x p r e s s e s contempt f o r a r t i f i c e , a c c u s i n g i t of r e n d e r i n g a r t a b s t r a c t , t e d i o u s and e s o t e r i c , w h i l e Edouard f i n d s i t a d m i r a b l e ; t h e i r v i e w s r e m a i n i n g d i a m e t r i c a l l y opposed, t h e i r argument does not 31 reach a r e s o l u t i o n . The n a r r a t o r i n t e r v e n e s a t t h i s p o i n t t o s t a t e t h a t : "La d i s c u s s i o n se p e r d a i t en a r g u t i e s " (LFM, p. 276) . S o p h r o n i s k a and Edouard's c o n t r a d i c t o r y p o i n t s of view on a r t and l i t e r a t u r e echo the p o l a r i t y i n G i d e ' s own s e t of s t a n d a r d s t h a t govern the w r i t i n g of a n o v e l . As we d i s c o v e r i n h i s J o u r n a l , and i n v a r i o u s o t h e r w r i t i n g s , h i s l i t e r a r y e s t h e t i c s a r e dominated by the p r i n c i p l e s of c l a s s i c i s m w h i c h , f o r G i d e , advocate a harmonious b a l a n c e of r e a l i t y and s t y l i s a t i o n : Ne j a m a i s p e i n d r e d'apres n a t u r e ; f a i r e d'apres n a t u r e ses p r e p a r a t i o n s ; mais ne pas f a i r e p a r t au l e c t e u r de ses p r e p a r a t i o n s . 5 I I n'y a pas, a proprement p a r l e r , un s e u l c e n t r e a ce l i v r e , a u t o u r de q u o i v i e n n e n t c o n v e r g e r mes e f f o r t s ; c ' e s t a u t o u r de deux f o y e r s , a l a maniere des e l l i p s e s , que ces e f f o r t s se p o l a r i s e n t . D'une p a r t , l'ev4nement, l e f a i t , l a donnee e x t e r i e u r e ; d ' a u t r e p a r t , 1 ' e f f o r t meme du romancier pour f a i r e un l i v r e avec c e l a . (JdFM, p. 31) Edouard's l i t e r a r y e s t h e t i c s resemble G i d e ' s i n some r e s p e c t s . A f t e r e x p r e s s i n g h i s a d m i r a t i o n of R a c i n e ' s d i a l o g u e between M i t h r i d a t e and h i s sons he f o r m u l a t e s t h e f o l l o w i n g o b j e c t i v e s f o r h i s own n o v e l : Tout l e probleme e s t l a , p r e c i s e m e n t ; e x p r i m e r l e g e n e r a l par l e p a r t i c u l i e r ; f a i r e e x p r i m e r par l e p a r t i c u l i e r l e g e n e r a l . . . . U l e v o u d r a i s un roman q u i s e r a i t a l a f o i s a u s s i v r a i , e t a u s s i 6 l o i g n e de l a r e a l i t e , a u s s i p a r t i c u l i e r e t a u s s i g e n e r a l a l a f o i s , a u s s i humain e t a u s s i f i c t i f q u ' A t h a l i e , que T a r t u f f e ou que C i n n a . . . . Ce que j e veux, c ' e s t p r e s e n t e r cPune p a r t l a r e a l i t e , p r e s e n t e r d ' a u t r e 32 p a r t c e t e f f o r t pour l a s t y l i s e r , dont j e vous p a r l a i s t o u t a l ' h e u r e . . . . Pour o b t e n i r c e t e f f e t , s u i v e z - m o i , j ' i n v e n t e un personnage de romancier, que j e pose en f i g u r e c e n t r a l e ; e t l e s u j e t du l i v r e , s i vous v o u l e z , c ' e s t p r e c i s e m e n t l a l u t t e e n t r e ce que l u i o f f r e l a r£alit£ e t ce que, l u i , p r e t e n d en f a i r e . (LFM, pp. 270-71) In comparing t h e above passage t o t h e p r e v i o u s e x c e r p t s from G i d e ' s J o u r n a l and the J o u r n a l des Faux-Monnayeurs, i t would seem t h a t fidouard's g o a l s as a n o v e l i s t a r e m i r r o r images of G i d e ' s own. D u r i n g t h e e p i s o d e i n which fidouard o f f e r s Georges M o l i n i e r a passage of h i s n o v e l t o read, however, i t becomes o b v i o u s t h a t fidouard f a l l s s h o r t of h i s i d e a l s . Edouard's w r i t i n g p r o v e s t o be s t i l t e d , u n n a t u r a l , o v e r - s t y l i z e d , t h e r e b y v a l i d a t i n g S o p h r o n i s k a ' s s u s p i c i o n s and e s t a b l i s h i n g a sh a r p d i s t i n c t i o n between Gide and Edouard as n o v e l i s t s (LFM, pp. 508-10). S o p h r o n i s k a ' s r o l e here i s t o a c t as c o u n t e r p o i n t t o G i d e ' s l i t e r a r y e s t h e t i c s , as e n v i s i o n e d and expounded by Edouard. S o p h r o n i s k a and fidouard can t h u s be seen t o p l a y the p a r t s of two c o n t r a d i c t o r y i d e a s i n G i d e ' s own mind, and t h e i r debate can be l i k e n e d t o a d i a l o g u e Gide might have w i t h i n h i m s e l f i n an e f f o r t t o c r y s t a l l i z e h i s own a m b i t i o n s as t h e author of Les Faux- Monnayeurs. S o p h r o n i s k a ' s r a i d e u r d ' e s p r i t m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f t o a much g r e a t e r degree i n her d i a g n o s i s and t r e a t m e n t of B o r i s ' mental i l l n e s s . Her unshakeable c o n f i d e n c e i n her t h e o r i e s p r o v e s t o have d i s a s t r o u s r e p e r c u s s i o n s on her p a t i e n t ' s 33 h e a l t h and s a f e t y . D u r i n g a c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h Edouard, she enumerates the causes of B o r i s ' p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n , c l a i m i n g he i s " t r e s d e l i c a t " and t h a t : L a s o c i e t e de sa mere ne l u i v a u t r i e n . . . . Sa mere l ' a i m e beaucoup; mais a v r a i d i r e , i l s e r a i t s o u h a i t a b l e q u ' i l ne vgcGt p l u s avec e l l e . (LFM, p. 257) T h i s passage not o n l y r e f l e c t s her dogmatism, but a l s o a r o u s e s s u s p i c i o n as t o t h e v a l i d i t y of a t r e a t m e n t which aims t o a l i e n a t e the c h i l d from h i s mother. Fu r t h e r m o r e , i t appears t h a t S o p h r o n i s k a has never d i s c u s s e d w i t h B o r i s h i s own p r e f e r e n c e s and d e s i r e s . Her s e l f - d e c l a r e d o m n i s c i e n c e has narrowed her v i e w p o i n t t o such a degree t h a t t h e r e i s no leeway f o r s p e c u l a t i o n as t o what might be b e n e f i c i a l or d e t r i m e n t a l t o B o r i s ' mental h e a l t h . Having c o n f i r m e d t h e s u r r o u n d i n g c i r c u m s t a n c e s of B o r i s * i l l n e s s , S o p h r o n i s k a i n f o r m s Edouard of the p r o c e d u r e s i n v o l v e d i n her t r e a t m e n t . Her main g o a l i s t o have B o r i s c o m p l e t e l y abandon h i s innermost t h o u g h t s t o h e r , t h e r e b y e n a b l i n g her t o d i s c o v e r the shameful s e c r e t he h a r b o u r s deep w i t h i n h i s c o n s c i o u s n e s s . She e x p l a i n s : L ' i m p o r t a n t e s t de gagner sa c o n f i a n c e . Deja j e s a i s beaucoup de choses. J'en p r e s s e n s beaucoup d ' a u t r e s . Mais l e p e t i t se defend e n c o r e , i l a h o n t e ; s i j ' i n s i s t a i s t r o p v i t e e t t r o p f o r t , s i j e v o u l a i s b rusquer sa c o n f i a n c e , j ' i r a i s a l a r e n c o n t r e de ce que j e s o u h a i t e o b t e n i r : un complet abandon. (LFM, pp. 258-9) 34 I n h e r e n t t o S o p h r o n i s k a * s method of d e l v i n g i n t o t h e i n n e r psyche i s the c o n v i c t i o n t h a t once the o r i g i n of B o r i s ' " q u a n t i t e de p e t i t s t r o u b l e s , de t i c s , de manies" has been d i s c l o s e d , he w i l l be on the road t o r e c o v e r y : J e c r o i s qu'on peut t o u j o u r s t r o u v e r l e u r o r i g i n e dans un p r e m i e r ebranlement de l ' d t r e du a quelque evenement q u ' i l importe de d e c o u v r i r . . . . Mais c e t t e cause l e p l u s souvent echappe a son s o u v e n i r ; on d i r a i t q u ' e l l e se d i s s i m u l e dans 1'ombre de l a m a l a d i e ; c ' e s t d e r r i e r e c e t a b r i que j e l a cherche, pour l a ramener en p l e i n j o u r , j e veux d i r e dans l e champ de l a v i s i o n . (LFM, pp. 257-8) I t i s i n r e a c t i o n t o t h i s method of r e l e n t l e s s p r o b i n g t h a t Edouard assumes the r o l e of d e v i l ' s a d v o c a t e . He c o n t i n u a l l y c h a l l e n g e s her t h e o r i e s w i t h q u e s t i o n s t h a t boarder on b e i n g o f f e n s i v e . He a s k s , f o r example: " S e r a i t - c e a d i r e que vous a t t e n d e z de ce p e t i t q u e l q u e s r e v e l a t i o n s impudiques?" (LFM, p. 2 5 9 ) . S o p h r o n i s k a t r i v i a l i z e s Edouard's s k e p t i c i s m by r e t o r t i n g t h a t her p r a c t i c e s a r e no more immodest or u n e t h i c a l than c h e c k i n g a p a t i e n t ' s p u l s e . She c l a i m s r e s o l u t e l y t h a t she must " t o u t s a v o i r " , e s p e c i a l l y t h a t which B o r i s wants most t o h i d e . T h i s s t r i k e s Edouard as b e i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y s u s p e c t . He responds: — Vous soupconnez done q u ' i l a des aveux a vous f a i r e ? E t e s - v o u s b i e n c e r t a i n e , excusez-moi, de ne pas l u i suggerer ce que vous v o u d r i e z q u ' i l avoue? (LFM, p. 259) The more Edouard i s s k e p t i c a l of S o p h r o n i s k a ' s t h e o r i e s , t h e more o b s t i n a t e l y she defends them. Her j u s t i f i c a t i o n i n response t o Edouard's q u e s t i o n above i s r e v e a l i n g i n r e s p e c t t o her c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n by the a u t h o r : C e t t e p r e o c c u p a t i o n ne d o i t pas me q u i t t e r e t c ' e s t e l i e q u i m'enseigne t a n t de l e n t e u r . . . . Mon r 6 l e e s t de l a i s s e r v e n i r e t s u r t o u t de ne r i e n s u g g e r e r . (LFM, p. 259) T h i s l a s t sentence echoes i n some ways Edouard's a f f i r m a t i o n s about th e w r i t i n g of h i s n o v e l . As Edouard w a i t s f o r r e a l i t y t o s u p p l y events f o r h i s n o v e l , so does S o p h r o n i s k a w a i t f o r B o r i s ' " s e c r e t " t o r e v e a l i t s e l f and p r o v i d e the b a s i s f o r h i s c u r e . They both b e l i e v e themselves t o be honest, i m p a r t i a l o b s e r v e r s who work w i t h what the f a c t s o f f e r them. In both of t h e i r c a s e s , however, t h e i r a c t u a l achievements f a l l s h o r t of t h e i r i d e a l s because both have c o n v i n c e d t h e m s e l v e s t h a t they are a c t i n g i n B o r i s ' b e s t i n t e r e s t when, i n r e a l i t y , they a r e m o t i v a t e d by s e l f - i n t e r e s t , or a d e s i r e t o s e r v e t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s as n o v e l i s t and p s y c h i a t r i s t . T h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l mauvaise f o i , or s e l f -d e c e p t i o n , becomes i n s t r u m e n t a l i n B o r i s ' s u i c i d e . Edouard's attempt t o shape what r e a l i t y o f f e r s him l e a d s him t o the f a t a l d e c i s i o n of h a v i n g B o r i s s e n t t o the V e d e l - A z a i s p e n s i o n . The n a r r a t o r ' s contempt f o r Edouard's c r u e l s e l f - i n t e r e s t i s e v i d e n t i n the f o l l o w i n g passage: I l c o n n a i t l a p e n s i o n A z a i s ; i l s a i t l ' a i r empeste qu'on y r e s p i r e , sous 1 ' e t o u f f a n t c o u v e r t de l a morale e t de l a r e l i g i o n . I I c o n n a i t B o r i s , 36 sa t e n d r e s s e , sa f r a g i l i t e . I I d e v r a i t p r e v o i r a q u e l s f r o i s s e m e n t s i l 1*expose.... Po u r q u o i c h e r c h e - t - i l a se p e r s u a d e r , a p r e s e n t , q u ' i l c o n s p i r e au b i e n de B o r i s ? M e n t i r aux a u t r e s , passe e n c o r e ; mais a soi-meme! Le t o r r e n t q u i n o i e un e n f a n t p r ^ t e n d - i l l u i p o r t e r a b o i r e . . . ? (LFM, p. 319) In h i s e f f o r t t o "pour" e v e r y t h i n g i n t o h i s n o v e l , Edouard i s d r i v e n by o p p o r t u n i t y and a n t i c i p a t i o n ; he hopes t h a t any eve n t , i n s t i g a t e d or not by h i m s e l f , w i l l f u r n i s h an i n t e r e s t i n g e p i s o d e f o r h i s n o v e l . T h i s i n s a t i a b l e c u r i o s i t y f o r consequences i s what t r i c k s Edouard i n t o b e l i e v i n g t h a t he i s a c t i n g out of benevolence w i t h r e g a r d t o B o r i s , when a c t u a l l y , h i s a c t i s a b e t r a y a l . S o p h r o n i s k a ' s mauvaise f o i i s s i m i l a r t o Edouard's i n t h a t she d e c e i v e s h e r s e l f by f a i l i n g t o r e c o g n i z e what i s d e t r i m e n t a l t o B o r i s ' w e l l - b e i n g . Her eager d e s i r e t o c o n f i r m her p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r i e s has c o n v i n c e d her t h a t , h a v i n g d i s c o v e r e d her p a t i e n t ' s " s e c r e t honteux", he i s cured. Her a b s o l u t e c o n f i d e n c e has b l i n d e d her t o t h e t r u t h , which Edouard p e r c e p t i v e l y p o i n t s out i n h i s j o u r n a l : <<Sophroniska va r e p e t a n t que l e p e t i t B o r i s e s t g u e r i ; c e t t e c u r e d o i t c o r r o b o r e r sa methode; mais j e c r a i n s q u ' e l l e n ' a n t i c i p e un peu. N a t u r e l l e m e n t j e ne veux pas l a c o n t r e d i r e ; e t j e r e c o n n a i s que l e s t i c s , l e s g e s t e s - r e p e n t i r s , l e s r e t i c e n c e s du l a n g a g e , ont a peu p r e s d i s p a r u ; mais i l me semble que l a m a l a d i e s ' e s t simplement refugi£e dans une r e g i o n p l u s profonde de l'§tre, comme pour 6chapper au r e g a r d i n q u i s i t e u r du m£decin; e t que c ' e s t a p r e s e n t l'Sme meme q u i e s t a t t e i n t e . (LFM, pp. 303-4) We see here t h a t , l i k e Edouard, S o p h r o n i s k a a n t i c i p a t e s what 37 she wants t h e r e s u l t s t o be. Germaine Br£e s t a t e s : Comme Pro f i t e n d i e u s u i t l e s t r a c e s du c r i m e , de m§me S o p h r o n i s k a d e p i s t e patiemment l e s t r a c e s du mal dont s o u f f r e B o r i s pour l ' e l i m i n e r du r e p l i i n t e r i e u r ou i l s ' e s t l o g e . . . . [ L i e mal, sous l a forme q u ' i l a p r i s e , d i s p a r a i t monentanement, mais c ' e s t pour se t e r r e r p l u s profondement dans une r e g i o n i n a c c e s s i b l e de 1'organisme.... S o p h r o n i s k a , s u r l e p l a n m o r a l , l e u r a p r e p a r e une v i c t i m e . g S o p h r o n i s k a ' s c o n v i c t i o n t h a t her t r e a t m e n t has succeeded, and Edouard's b e l i e f t h a t the p e n s i o n w i l l have s a l u t o r y e f f e c t s on B o r i s a r e both forms of s e l f - d e c e p t i o n which c o n s t i t u t e a p o t e n t c o m b i n a t i o n i n p r e p a r i n g B o r i s as a v i c t i m of the s i n i s t e r s u i c i d e p l o t d e v i s e d by G h e r i d a n i s o l and S t r o u v i l h o u . S o p h r o n i s k a ' s b e t r a y a l of B o r i s ' c o n f i d e n c e i s s y m b o l i c a l l y e n c a p s u l a t e d i n t h e events r e l a t i n g t o B o r i s ' t a l i s m a n — "un bout de parchemin ... sur l e q u e l e t a i e n t e c r i t C inq mots...: GAZ. TELEPHONE. CENT MILLE ROUBLES" (LFM, p. 299). S o p h r o n i s k a c o n f i d e s t o Edouard t h a t t h e a c t u a l r o l e of the t a l i s m a n , w i t h i t s e n i g m a t i c words, i s t o ser v e as a "formule i n c a n t a t o i r e , l e 'Sesame o u v r e - t o i ' du p a r a d i s honteux...." (LFM, p. 299) She b e l i e v e s , f u r t h e r m o r e , t h a t i t was a l a s t r e f u g e f o r h i s i l l n e s s , or shameful s e c r e t . The f a c t t h a t she has c o n v i n c e d him t o r e l i n q u i s h i t t o her s i g n i f i e s t h e f i n a l s t e p i n h i s "abandon complet". What i s not o n l y i r o n i c , but a l s o v e r i f i e s her b e t r a y a l of h i s c o n f i d e n c e i s t h a t once i n p o s s e s s i o n of B o r i s ' s t a l i s m a n — which has come t o r e p r e s e n t h i s s o u l — she c a s u a l l y g i v e s i t 38 t o t h e m o r a l l y d e g e n e r a t e S t r o u v i l h o u : <<Je l u i a i demande de me m o n t r e r ce fameux t a l i s m a n de B o r i s . E l l e m'a d i t q u ' e l l e ne l ' a v a i t p l u s , q u ' e l l e l ' a v a i t donne a q u e l q u ' u n q u i s ' i n t e r e s s a i t a B o r i s e t q u i l u i a v a i t demande de l e l u i l a i s s e r en s o u v e n i r . — <<Un c e r t a i n M. S t r o u v i l h o u , que j ' a i r e n c o n t r e i c i q u e l q u e temps a v a n t v o t r e a r r i v e e . " (LFM, p. 302) B o r i s ' d e a t h i s t h e l o g i c a l c o n c l u s i o n t o t h e a b o v e s e q u e n c e o f e v e n t s r e l a t i n g t o t h e t a l i s m a n . I t a l s o c o r r o b o r a t e s S o p h r o n i s k a 1 s i n c o m p e t e n c e and f a i l u r e a s a p s y c h i a t r i s t . B o r i s ' s d e a t h d e s t r o y s b o t h h e r t h e o r i e s a n d h e r c r e d i b i l i t y . The o n l y t h i n g l e f t i n t a c t i s , p e r h a p s , h e r c o n f i d e n c e . P i e r r e M a s s o n c l a i m s t h a t " S o p h r o n i s k a v e n u e de s a P o l o g n e , y r e t o u r n e s i m p l e m e n t , m o n t r a n t a i n s i s a f i x i t d de p e n s e e , s o n f a n a t i c i s m e d ' i n t e l l e c t u e l que r i e n ne p o u r r a 7 m o d i f i e r . . . . " S o p h r o n i s k a and E d o u a r d h a v e many s i m i l a r i t i e s i n t h e i r r o l e s a s i n t e l l e c t u a l s . They n o t o n l y s e r v e a s f o i l s t o e a c h o t h e r r e g a r d i n g t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l d o c t r i n e s , b u t a l s o s h a r e t h e r o l e o f t h e i n c o m p e t e n t , o r t h e r a t e i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e d o m a i n s : t h e y e a c h f a l l s h o r t o f t h e i r own i d e a l s by a l l o w i n g t h e i r a c t i o n s t o be d i c t a t e d by s e l f - i n t e r e s t and by f a i l i n g t o r e c o g n i z e t h e i r e r r o r s . E d o u a r d a n d S o p h r o n i s k a d i f f e r , h o w e v e r , i n t h a t S o p h r o n i s k a i s a " t y p i c a l " i n t e l l e c t u a l , i n t h e most p e j o r a t i v e s e n s e o f t h e w o r d ; s h e i s o n e - s i d e d , n a r r o w -m i n d e d a n d a r r o g a n t , w h e r e a s E d o u a r d ' s o p i n i o n s f l u c t u a t e . 3 9 E d o u a r d i s w h a t we m i g h t c a l l t h e c l a s s i c , G i d i a n fetre de  d i a l o g u e ; he d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t he i s a b l e t o a d m i t t h a t he i s w r o n g , and t o m o d i f y h i s p r i n c i p l e s . He r e a l i z e s t h e w e a k n e s s e s o f h i s n o v e l , f o r e x a m p l e , and d e c i d e s he must a b a n d o n w h a t he h a s w r i t t e n a n d b e g i n a g a i n . S o p h r o n i s k a , o n t h e o t h e r hand, seems d e v o i d o f a d i a l o g u e i n t g r i e u r . We s e e h e r s t r i c t l y a s a s c h o l a r and p s y c h i a t r i s t ; e v e n h e r r e a c t i o n t o h e r d a u g h t e r B r o n j a ' s d e a t h i s somewhat c l i n i c a l , l a c k i n g i n e m o t i o n . Her c o n c e r n i s more f o c u s e d o n how h e r p a t i e n t , B o r i s , a c c e p t s and d e a l s w i t h t h e t r a u m a . T h i s o n e - s i d e d p o r t r a y a l i n d i c a t e s t h e a b s e n c e o f a r e a l i s t i c , m u l t i - f a c e t e d p e r s o n a l i t y and e s t a b l i s h e s h e r a s a s t e r e o t y p e . S a r a h V e d e l i s a n o t h e r p r o m i n e n t f i g u r e i n t h e c a t e g o r y o f s t e r e o t y p e i n t h a t s h e e m b o d i e s e v e r y t h i n g t y p i c a l t o t h e r a d i c a l f e m i n i s t l i b e r t i n e . Her b e l i e f s a r e b a s e d on e x t r e m e s t h a t s e v e r h e r f r o m t h e t e m p e r i n g i n f l u e n c e s o f f a m i l y and t r a d i t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o G i d e , t h e p a s t p l a y s a p r i m e r o l e i n s h a p i n g o u r e x i s t i n g c o n v e n t i o n s a n d c ode o f e t h i c s ; t h e p a s t i s a l s o an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n t h e p r o c e s s o f b e c o m i n g a n i t r e a u t h e n t i q u e . R a d i c a l e x t r e m i s m c o n s t i t u t e s a c o m p l e t e d e n i a l o f t h e p a s t , and e n g e n d e r s a s i t u a t i o n f a u s s e w h e r e i n we a r e c o n s t a n t l y a t odds w i t h a t t i t u d e s , c o d e s o f m o r a l i t y and c o n d u c t , t h a t h a v e b e e n i n s t i l l e d i n us s i n c e c h i l d h o o d , and upon w h i c h o u r p e r s o n a l i t i e s h a v e b e e n c o n s t r u c t e d . S a r a h ' s r u p t u r e w i t h h e r f a m i l y and t h e t r a d i t i o n s i t i m p o s e s on h e r makes h e r 40 d e p a y s g e , r o b s h e r o f a m o r a l c o n s c i e n c e and l e a v e s h e r v u l n e r a b l e t o t h e d e v i l . We a r e f i r s t i n t r o d u c e d t o S a r a h ' s p e r s o n a l f e m i n i s t p h i l o s o p h y i n h e r c o n t e m p l a t i o n w h i l e w a i t i n g f o r E d o u a r d and B e r n a r d t o e s c o r t h e r t o t h e B a n q u e t des A r g o n a u t e s : P a r une s o r t e de p r o t e s t a t i o n p r e v e n t i v e , e l l e c u l t i v a i t e n e l l e un f a c i l e m e p r i s p o u r t o u t e s l e s v e r t u s d o m e s t i q u e s . L a c o n t r a i n t e f a m i l i a l e a v a i t t e n d u s o n e n e r g i e , e x a s p e r e s e s i n s t i n c t s de r e v o l t e . D u r a n t s o n s e j o u r en A n g l e t e r r e , e l l e a v a i t s u c h a u f f e r a b l a n c s o n c o u r a g e . . . . [ E l l l e e t a i t r£solue a c o n q u e r i r s a l i b e r t e , a s ' a c c o r d e r t o u t e l i c e n c e , a t o u t o s e r . . . . Dans s e s a v a n c e s a u p r e s d ' O l i v i e r , e l l e a v a i t t r i o m p h e d e j a de s a m o d e s t i e n a t u r e l l e e t de b i e n d e s p u d e u r s i n n e e s . L ' e x e m p l e de s e s deux s o e u r s l ' a v a i t i n s t r u i t e ; e l l e c o n s i d e r a i t l a p i e u s e r e s i g n a t i o n de R a c h e l comme une d u p e r i e ; ne c o n s e n t a i t a v o i r dans l e m a r i a g e de L a u r a q u ' u n l u g u b r e m a r c h e , a b o u t i s s a n t a l ' e s c l a v a g e . L ' i n s t r u c t i o n q u ' e l l e a v a i t r e c u e , c e l l e q u ' e l l e s ' e t a i t donnee, q u ' e l l e a v a i t p r i s e , l a d i s p o s a i t f o r t m a l , e s t i m a i t - e l l e , a ce q u ' e l l e a p p e l a i t : l a d e v o t i o n c o n j u g a l e . (LFM, pp. 414-15) H e r e we d i s c o v e r t h e m a i n r e a s o n f o r h e r r e b e l l i o n : t h e f a m i l y e n v i r o n m e n t . The s u f f o c a t i n g , p u r i t a n i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s o f t h e p e n s i o n , a l o n g w i t h t h e e x a m p l e s o f h e r two s i s t e r s , p r o m p t an a w a r e n e s s o f w h a t s h e d o es n o t want t o become. T h i s " s e l f - e d u c a t i o n " s h a p e s and e d i f i e s h e r new t o u t o s e r p h i l o s o p h y , and p r o m i s e s t o l i b e r a t e h e r f r o m h e r o p p r e s s i o n . S a r a h ' s f r i e n d s h i p w i t h M i s s A b e r d e e n , t h e A n g l a i s e , i s a n o t h e r m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e i n t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f h e r a m b i t i o n s . As was t h e c a s e w i t h V i n c e n t , h e r c o n n e c t i o n w i t h a f o r e i g n e r s i g n i f i e s t h a t S a r a h i s i n a s t a t e o f d e p a y s e m e n t , o r d e s e n c a d r e m e n t : s h e i s d e t a c h e d f r o m h e r p a s t , h o m e l a n d , 41 f a m i l y , a n d t r a d i t i o n a l s e t o f v a l u e s . The i n f l u e n c e o f t h e e t r a n g e r , e s p e c i a l l y E n g l a n d , s i g n a l s w e a k n e s s a n d v u l n e r a b i l i t y f o r S a r a h , a s i t d i d f o r V i n c e n t : s h e e v e n t u a l l y d e f e r s t o t h e d e v i l ' s a u t h o r i t y , a n d t o i n e v i t a b l e m o r a l c o r r u p t i o n a n d p e r d i t i o n . S a r a h ' s c h u t e i s a c t u a l i z e d i n h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h B e r n a r d . T h r o u g h o u t a l l o f t h e e p i s o d e s r e l a t i n g t o t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n , S a r a h ' s b r o t h e r , t h e d i s e a s e d a n d d e b a s e d Armand, p l a y s t h e i m p o r t a n t r o l e o f d e v i l ' s h e l p m a t e . He u t i l i z e s a b l e n d o f i n t i m i d a t i o n a n d e n t i c e m e n t t o g a i n c o n t r o l : S a r a h c r a i g n a i t de r e n c o n t r e r s o n f r e r e , d o n t e l i e r e d o u t a i t l e s m o q u e r i e s . Armand f a v o r i s a i t , i l e s t v r a i , s e s e n t r e p r i s e s l e s p l u s h a r d i e s ; on e u t d i t q u ' i l y p r e n a i t p l a i s i r , m a i s s e u l e m e n t p a r une s o r t e d ' i n d u l g e n c e p r o v i s o i r e , c a r c ' e t a i t p o u r l e s j u g e r e n s u i t e e t d ' a u t a n t p l u s s e v e r e m e n t ; de s o r t e que S a r a h n ' a u r a i t p a s s u d i r e s i s e s c o m p l a i s a n c e s memes ne f a i s a i e n t p a s e n f i n l e j e u du c e n s e u r . (LFM, p. 414) T h i s n o t i o n o f Armand l e a d i n g S a r a h i n t o t e m p t a t i o n i s d e m o n s t r a t e d f r o m S a r a h ' s f i r s t e n c o u n t e r w i t h B e r n a r d , t o t h e a b r u p t t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p . I t i s Armand who a r r a n g e s f o r S a r a h t o a t t e n d t h e B a n q u e t d e s A r g o n a u t e s a s B e r n a r d ' s p a r t n e r . S a r a h a c c e p t s t h e i n v i t a t i o n " j o y e u s e m e n t " i n d i c a t i n g h e r e a g e r n e s s t o e n t e r t h e d e v i l ' s game. A l l s c e n e s l e a d i n g up t o a n d i n c l u d i n g S a r a h ' s t r i u m p h i n t h e s e d u c t i o n o f B e r n a r d c o m p r i s e a c o n s t a n t p l a y o f s y m b o l i s m , w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r e m p h a s i s o n t h e c l a i r - o b s c u r . 42 It i s through a "porte condamnee", and subsequently through Armand's dark, empty room t h a t Sarah must pass i n order to meet Bernard a t the " e s c a l i e r de s e r v i c e " (LFM, p. 413) . When they meet, they do not "know" each other: "Bernard e t Sarah ne se c o n n a i s s a i e n t pas encore. Le c o u l o i r e t a i t sans lum i e r e . Dans l'ombre, i l s ne se d i s t i n g u a i e n t qu'a p e i n e " (LFM, p. 413) . The image of the dark, narrow hallway with i t s dark shadows imbues t h i s scene with an ominous, s i n i s t e r mood, foreshadowing e v i l . Once Sarah and Bernard a r r i v e a t the banquet, the scene changes to one of l i g h t and animation. For the f i r s t time, Bernard can a c t u a l l y see Sarah: Ses yeux amuses b r i l l a i e n t d'un e c l a t e x t r a o r d i n a i r e . Bernard, q u i dans l ' o b s c u r i t e n ' a v a i t pu l a v o i r , e t a i t frappe de sa ressemblance avec Laura. C e t a i t l e meme f r o n t , l e s memes l e v r e s . . . . Ses t r a i t s , i l est v r a i , r e s p i r a i e n t une grace moins a n g ^ l i q u e , et ses regards remuaient i l ne s a v a i t q u o i de t r o u b l e en son coeur. (LFM, p. 421) Sarah's e x t r a o r i n a r i l y b r i l l i a n t eyes give her a s u p e r n a t u r a l aura t h a t seems to f a s c i n a t e , then c a p t i v a t e Bernard. He i s a l s o s t r u c k by her resemblance to Laura, a resemblance which i s p a r a d o x i c a l i n t h a t the forehead, l i p s and p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s of the two s i s t e r s are the same, y e t provoke d i a m e t r i c a l l y opposed r e a c t i o n s i n Bernard. With Sarah, h i s a t t e n t i o n focuses on her l i p s , emphasizing her c a r n a l appeal, whereas Laura's appearance e l i c i t s Bernard's reverence f o r her p u r i t y and c h a s t i t y . Sarah's b o l d s e n s u a l i t y becomes the source of B e r n a r d ' s " t r o u b l e en son c o e u r " i n both an o b v i o u s , s e x u a l way as w e l l as s p i r i t u a l l y ; her " l e s s a n g e l i c " g r a c e i s somehow d i s t u r b i n g t o h i s moral c o n s c i e n c e . With the mock s h o o t i n g of B e r c a i l by J a r r y , t h e scene i s once a g a i n obscured. T h i s a l l o w s Sarah t o pursue her amorous i n t e n t i o n s : E t e i g n e z done! E t e i g n e z ! c r i a des B r o u s s e s . Sarah s ' e t a i t lev£e, s u i v a n t 1 ' i n j o n c t i o n de P a s s a v a n t ; e t s i t S t que l ' o n f u t dans l ' o b s c u r i t e , e l i e se p r e s s a c o n t r e B e r n a r d pour l ' e n t r a i n e r sous l a t a b l e avec e l i e . (LFM, p. 427) I t i s f i t t i n g l y under the t a b l e , and i n t h e d a r k n e s s , t h a t B e r n a r d e x p e r i e n c e s : " l e s l e v r e s b r u l a n t e s de Sarah s ' e c r a s e r voluptueusement sur l e s s i e n n e s " (LFM, p. 428). T h i s k i s s foreshadows th e e v e n t s t h a t f o l l o w l a t e r t h a t n i g h t i n Sarah's bedroom. When Sarah and B e r n a r d r e t u r n t o the p e n s i o n , a l l i s dark once a g a i n : "... t o u t e s l e s l u m i e r e s e t a i e n t e t e i n t e s ... i l s gagnerent a t a t o n s l ' e s c a l i e r de s e r v i c e . . . . " (LFM, pp. 431-2) . I t i s i r o n i c a l l y Armand who p r o v i d e s t h e l i g h t when they c l i m b t h e s t e p s t o h i s room, the s y m b o l i c a n t e -chamber and gateway t o Sarah's room of d a r k n e s s and s i n : "... i l s o r t i t sur l e p a l i e r , une lampe a l a main. — Prends l a lampe, d i t - i l a B e r n a r d . . . . E c l a i r e S a r a h ; i l n'y a pas de b o u g i e dans sa chambre..." (LFM, pp. 431-2). 44 Once they have c r o s s e d t h e t h r e s h o l d i n t o Sarah's room, we w i t n e s s Armand's r e a c t i o n : "Armand, penche d e r r i e r e eux, d'un grand s o u f f l e £teignit l a lampe ... i l referma sur eux l a p o r t e e t t i r a l e v e r r o u " (LFM, pp. 431-2). T h i s a c t i o n c o n f i r m s Armand's r o l e as Sarah's c o r r u p t o r , and t h e d e v i l ' s helpmate. H i s room i s a p t l y s i t u a t e d between the o u t e r w o r l d of t e m p t a t i o n and d e s i r e and t h e i n n e r w o r l d of c a r n a l p l e a s u r e and moral d e p r a v i t y . I t i s t o t h i s i n n e r w o r l d of d a r k n e s s t h a t he b a n i s h e s them, s y m b o l i c a l l y e x t i n g u i s h i n g t h e l i g h t and l o c k i n g t h e door. In t h e p r e v i o u s scenes, l i g h t seems t o connote t e m p t a t i o n , which i s p a s s i v e f o r the v i c t i m , whereas darkness e n t a i l s s i n , which r e q u i r e s a c t i v e i n v o l v e m e n t . L i g h t a l s o r e p r e s e n t s r e a l i z a t i o n and awareness, w h i l e d a r k n e s s i m p l i e s t h e i r absence. T h i s i s e v i d e n t i n t h e "morning a f t e r " scene w h i c h f o l l o w s Sarah and B e r n a r d ' s f i r s t n i g h t t o g e t h e r . B e f o r e awakening B e r n a r d t o c a u t i o n him t o r e t u r n t o h i s own room, Armand c o n t e m p l a t e s th e s l e e p i n g c o u p l e : L'aube n a i s s a n t e b l a n c h i t l a v i t r e . . . . Q u ' i l s sont beaux! Armand longuement l e s contemple. I I v o u d r a i t e t r e l e u r sommeil, l e u r b a i s e r . I l s o u r i t d'abord, p u i s , au p i e d du l i t , parmi l e s c o u v e r t u r e s rejet£es, s o u d a i n s ' a g e n o u i l l e . Quel d i e u p e u t - i l p r i e r a i n s i , l e s mains j o i n t e s ? Une i n d i c i b l e Amotion l ' e t r e i n t . Ses l e v r e s t r e m b l e n t . . . . I I a p e r c o i t sous l ' o r e i l l e r un mouchoir tache de sang; i l se l e v e , s'en empare, l'emporte e t , s u r l a p e t i t e t a c h e ambree, pose ses l e v r e s en s a n g l o t a n t . (LFM, pp. 433-4) The image of l i g h t f l o w i n g i n t o t h e room denotes Armand 1 s 45 r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e w i c k e d r o l e he h a s p l a y e d i n d e l i v e r i n g S a r a h i n t o t h e h a n d s o f t h e d e v i l . H i s t e a r s b e t o k e n h i s m o u r n i n g o f t h e d e a t h o f S a r a h ' s s o u l , w h i c h i s s y m b o l i z e d i n t h e b l o o d - s t a i n e d h a n d k e r c h i e f . F u r t h e r m o r e , i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t B e r n a r d i s awakened, w h i l e S a r a h i s l e f t t o s l e e p : s h e i s l e f t i n t h e d a r k n e s s , s h e d o e s n o t " s e e " . B e r n a r d ' s f l a s h of a w a r e n e s s i s d r a m a t i c a l l y s y m b o l i z e d by h i s s t r u g g l e w i t h t h e a n g e l , and becomes t h e m o t i v a t o r o f h i s r e j e c t i o n o f S a r a h . He i s b r o u g h t t o r e a l i z e t h a t t h e r e a r e two p a t h s t o c h o o s e b e t w e e n i n l i f e : t h e c o n s e r v a t i v e p a t h , c o n c e i v e d a n d b u i l t by h i s f o r e f a t h e r s , a n d upon w h i c h t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y s o c i a l , m o r a l and p o l i t i c a l s t a n d a r d s a r e b a s e d ; o r t h e p a t h w h i c h l e a d s t o t h e n u r t u r i n g o f t h e a u t h e n t i c s e l f , and by w h i c h o n e ' s own e t h i c a l s t a n d a r d s emerge a s a r e s u l t o f c a r e f u l i n t r o s p e c t i o n . B e r n a r d f i n a l l y c h o o s e s t h e l a t t e r p a t h , t h u s r e n o u n c i n g h i s r a d i c a l , " t o u t o s e r " p h i l o s o p h y , a n d , a l o n g w i t h i t , S a r a h : B e r n a r d ne d i n a pas ce s o i r - l a ; e t q u a n d i l r e n t r a a l a p e n s i o n , i l ne c h e r c h a p a s a r e j o i n d r e S a r a h a i n s i q u ' i l a v a i t f a i t l e s a u t r e s s o i r s , m a i s monta t o u t d r o i t a c e t t e chambre q u ' i l o c c u p a i t a v e c B o r i s . (LFM, p. 489) I t i s a p p r o p r i a t e a t t h i s p o i n t t h a t B e r n a r d r e t u r n s t o t h e room he s h a r e s w i t h t h e p u r e and i n n o c e n t B o r i s . T h a t same n i g h t he h a s t h e b a t t l e w i t h t h e a n g e l , a s y m b o l i c e n a c t m e n t o f h i s m o r a l d i l e m m a . B e r n a r d w i n s t h e b a t t l e , t h e r e b y a l l o w i n g good t o t r i u m p h o v e r e v i l , and o v e r c o m i n g S a r a h ' s 46 i n f l u e n c e . B e r n a r d ' s encounter w i t h Rachel the next day c o n s t i t u t e s t h e f i n a l s t e p i n h i s r e j e c t i o n and r e n u n c i a t i o n of Sarah: L o r s q u e , p l u s t a r d , B e r n a r d s o r t i t a son t o u r de l a chambre, i l c r o i s a R a c h e l dans l e c o u l o i r . — J ' a i a vous p a r l e r , l u i d i t - e l l e . Sa v o i x e t a i t s i t r i s t e que B e r n a r d c o m p r i t a u s s i t o t t o u t ce q u ' e l l e a v a i t a l u i d i r e . I I ne r g p o n d i t r i e n , courba l a t£te e t , par grande p i t i e pour R a c h e l , s o u d a i n p r i t Sarah en h a i n e e t l e p l a i s i r q u ' i l g o O t a i t avec e l l e en h o r r e u r . (LFM, p. 490) I t seems here t h a t B e r n a r d has v i n d i c a t e d h i m s e l f by c o n f e s s i n g , f a c i n g judgement and d e s p i s i n g Sarah, h i s t e m p t r e s s and the former o b j e c t of h i s " s i n f u l " d e s i r e s . When he d e f i n i t i v e l y l e a v e s t h e p e n s i o n t h a t n i g h t , the n a r r a t o r t e l l s us t h a t B e r n a r d " n ' a v a i t pas cherche a r e v o i r S a r a h " (LFM, p. 4 9 1 ) . By way of c o n t r a s t , B e r n a r d ' s a b s o l u t i o n and t r i u m p h over e v i l s e r v e t o magnify Sarah's complete s u b m i s s i o n t o moral d e g e n e r a t i o n . When she d i s c o v e r s B e r n a r d ' s d e p a r t u r e , she b i t t e r l y a c c u s e s R a c h e l , and p r o c l a i m s her contempt of v i r t u e , and s p i r i t u a l s a l v a t i o n : Que l e s remontrances de Rachel a i e n t £t£ cause du brusque d e p a r t de B e r n a r d , c ' e s t ce que Sarah comprenait s o u d a i n ; e t e l l e s ' i n d i g n a i t c o n t r e sa soeur q u i , d i s a i t - e l l e , e m p i c h a i t a u t o u r d ' e l l e t o u t e j o i e . E l l e n ' a v a i t pas l e d r o i t d'imposer aux a u t r e s une v e r t u que son exemple s u f f i s a i t a re n d r e o d i e u s e . R a c h e l . . . p r o t e s t a i t . . . : — J e ne p u i s pas t e l a i s s e r p e r d r e . Mais Sarah s a n g l o t a i t e t c r i a i t : — J e ne peux pas c r o i r e a t o n c i e l . J e ne veux pas §tre sauvee. (LFM, pp. 496-7) 47 T h i s d i s p u t e b e t w e e n t h e two s i s t e r s i n d i c a t e s t h a t S a r a h r e f u t e s t h e m e r c y of God, a n d r e p u d i a t e s R a c h e l ' s p i e t y . By r e f u s i n g t o a c k n o w l e d g e t h e s i n f u l n e s s o f h e r a c t i o n s , and by r e j e c t i n g r e d e m p t i o n a n d v i r t u e , s h e i s r e l i n q u i s h e d t o 1 ' e t r a n g e r : E l l e d e c i d a t o u t a u s s i t d t de r e p a r t i r p o u r 1 1 A n g l e t e r r e , ou l a r e c e v r a i t s o n a m i e . C a r , " a p r l s t o u t " , e l l e e t a i t l i b r e e t pr£tendait v i v r e comme bon l u i s e m b l a i t . C e t t e t r i s t e q u e r e l l e l a i s s a R a c h e l b r i s e e . (LFM, pp. 496-7) S a r a h ' s r a d i c a l i d e a s d i s t a n c e h e r f r o m t h e norms o f h e r own C h r i s t i a n , b o u r g e o i s s o c i e t y ; t h i s i n d e p e n d e n c e f r o m f a m i l y and s o c i e t y c u l m i n a t e s i n h e r f l i g h t t o E n g l a n d and r e u n i o n w i t h M i s s A b e r d e e n . As a d o l e s c e n t s a b o u t t o embark on a d u l t l i f e , S a r a h and B e r n a r d a r e c o n f r o n t e d by t h r e e o p t i o n s ; b a s i n g t h e i r a c t i o n s o n w h a t i s r i g h t e o u s by s o c i e t y ' s s t a n d a r d s ; f o r m i n g t h e i r own e t h i c a l s t a n d a r d s , t a k i n g i n t o a c c o u n t b o t h t h e l i m i t i n g e f f e c t s o f t h e s o c i a l m i l i e u a n d t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e a u t h e n t i c s e l f ; f i n a l l y , r e j e c t i n g t r a d i t i o n a l m ores e n t i r e l y f o r t h e p u r s u i t o f l i c e n t i o u s n e s s , m i s c o n s t r u e d a s f r e e d o m . S a r a h and B e r n a r d b o t h r e j e c t t h e f i r s t o p t i o n . B e r n a r d c h o o s e s t h e s e c o n d ; l i k e t h e d e e p - s e a f i s h V i n c e n t s p e a k s o f , i n t h e d a r k n e s s , B e r n a r d c a n p r o j e c t h i s own l i g h t . S a r a h c h o o s e s t h e t h i r d o p t i o n ; h e r f r e e d o m f i n d s e x p r e s s i o n i n a c o m p l e t e r u p t u r e w i t h v i r t u e , and t h e e s p o u s a l o f a s t e r e o t y p i c a l " f e m i n i s t " d o c t r i n e o f l i b e r t i n a q e . She a c t s 48 w i t h o u t m o r a l d i l e m m a , o r c r i s i s o f c o n s c i e n c e : s h e h a s no d i a l o g u e i n t g r i e u r . Her b r a n d o f f r e e d o m i s s o e x t r e m e t h a t , p a r a d o x i c a l l y , s h e becomes e n s l a v e d by i t . I n S a r a h a n d B e r n a r d , we w i t n e s s t h e r e s u l t s o f e x p e r i m e n t i n g w i t h o n e ' s d i s p o n i b i l i t e , o r r e c e p t i v e n e s s t o t h e m u l t i t u d e o f e x p e r i e n c e s l i f e o f f e r s . T h i s r e c e p t i v e n e s s g i v e s r i s e t o b e h a v i o u r a l e x t r e m e s . E a c h e x t r e m e c o n s t i t u t e s one s i d e i n t h e b a l a n c i n g p r o c e s s i n h e r e n t t o t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e " s e l f " . T h r o u g h o u t t h e n o v e l , B e r n a r d i s a n e t r e en f o r m a t i o n who, l i k e a p e n d u l u m , c o n s t a n t l y sways b a c k a n d f o r t h b e t w e e n v a r y i n g e x t r e m e s , e v e n t u a l l y a c h i e v i n g a n e q u i l i b r i u m w h i c h e n a b l e s h i m t o l i v e i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h b o t h t h e e s t a b l i s h e d m o r a l and e t h i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s o f s o c i e t y , a n d h i s a c q u i r e d , p e r s o n a l v a l u e s . The " s e l f " t h a t B e r n a r d c o n s t r u c t s i s " a u t h e n t i c " . H i s a b i l i t y t o r e c o g n i z e h i s e r r o r s , and r e c o i l f r o m e x t r e m e s redeems h i m on a m o r a l l e v e l , a n d g i v e s h i m d e p t h and h u m a n i t y . A l t h o u g h S a r a h i s d i s p o n i b l e , s h e d o e s n o t e x p e r i m e n t w i t h a v a r i e t y o f e x t r e m e s . She f o l l o w s o n l y one p a t h , and i s t h u s f i x e d i n t h e same c o n d i t i o n s t h a t bound B e r n a r d , p r i o r t o h i s " a w a k e n i n g " a n d r e t u r n t o t h e " l i g h t " . She r e m a i n s i n " d a r k n e s s " . Her c a p a c i t y f o r d i a l o g u e int£rieur i s a b a n d o n e d f o r t h e e x c l u s i v e p u r s u i t o f f r e e d o m and h e r e a g e r n e s s t o d e f y t h e t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e o f woman. I n t u r n , s h e f o r f e i t s h e r a u t h e n t i c s e l f and f o r g e s a c o u n t e r f e i t p e r s o n a l i t y . L i k e S o p h o n i s k a , h e r a t t i t u d e s a n d a m b i t i o n s n e v e r sway, and h e r r i g i d e x t r e m i s m makes h e r s u p e r f i c i a l , 49 o n e - s i d e d : she becomes a c a r i c a t u r e of the l i b e r t i n e p o s i n g as a f e m i n i s t . I f Sarah V e d e l i s t o r e p r e s e n t t h e f e m i n i s t l i b e r t i n e , t h en R a c h e l , her o l d e r s i s t e r , i s t h e e x a c t c o u n t e r p a r t : t h e c h a s t e , s e l f - s a c r i f i c i n g s p i n s t e r . Any s i n g l e a s p e c t of R a c h e l ' s p e r s o n a l i t y can be a t t r i b u t e d t o one of t h r e e fundamental c h a r a c t e r t r a i t s : v i r t u e , modesty and martyrdom. The c o r n e r - s t o n e upon which R a c h e l ' s c h a r a c t e r i s founded i s her v i r t u e . V i r t u e a p p l i e s t o R a c h e l i n both senses of the term: she has both c h a s t i t y and moral i n t e g r i t y . I t i s R a c h e l ' s s t r o n g moral sense t h a t makes her approach B e r n a r d r e g a r d i n g h i s l i a i s o n w i t h Sarah. She announces t o Sarah: "Je ne peux pas t e l a i s s e r p e r d r e " (LFM, p. 497) . R a c h e l ' s v i r t u e i s o f t e n a l l u d e d t o by Edouard and Armand. In both c a s e s , she appears t o be g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e d and admired f o r her c h a s t i t y and moral r e c t i t u d e . A f t e r h i s f i r s t m e e t i n g w i t h her a t t h e p e n s i o n , Edouard r e c o r d s i n h i s j o u r n a l : — J e s a v a i s que j e p o u v a i s compter sur vous, m ' a - t - e l l e d i t en me tendant l a main, avec une e x p r e s s i o n de t r i s t e s s e t e n d r e , r£signee, e t malgre t o u t s o u r i a n t e , p l u s t o u c h a n t e que l a beaute. t R J i e n n'est p l u s d i s c r e t , p l u s modeste que sa v e r t u . (LFM, pp. 339-40) Edouard's f r e q u e n t use of the s u p e r l a t i v e a t f i r s t s u g g e s t s t h a t he c o n s i d e r s R a c h e l to be almost s a i n t l y ; however, upon c l o s e r e x a m i n a t i o n , i t seems t h a t h i s r e v e r e n c e i s t o o 50 e x a g g e r a t e d t o be genuine. We can d e t e c t a c e r t a i n g l i b n e s s , and a d i s t i n c t l y i r o n i c tone t h a t i m p a r t s an a i r of mockery t o h i s e x c e s s i v e a d m i r a t i o n . In r e g a r d t o _douard's a t t i t u d e , Ferguson's statement about t h e image of the s i n g l e woman i n l i t e r a t u r e i s p e r t i n e n t t o R a c h e l : U n l i k e t h e o t h e r s t e r e o t y p e s , t h e image of the s i n g l e woman has not been a t a l l a m b i v a l e n t ; w i t h v e r y few e x c e p t i o n s t h e o l d maid - a s i n g l e woman beyond t h e m a r r i a g e a b l e age o f , say, 30 - has been e i t h e r p i t i e d or r i d i c u l e d i n l i t e r a t u r e . The e x c e p t i o n i s t h e nun, admired f o r g i v i n g h e r s e l f t o a s u p e r n a t u r a l cause as b r i d e of t h e ch u r c h . But a s i n g l e woman who remains i n s o c i e t y i s seen as queer, f r e q u e n t l y t h i n and emaciated t o s y m b o l i z e w i t h d r a w a l from l i f e , p r i m , h i g h l y c o n v e n t i o n a l 8 From Edouard's d e s c r i p t i o n a l o n e , i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t many of the q u a l i t i e s enumerated i n the above passage a r e a p p l i c a b l e t o R a c h e l . She has an a f f i n i t y w i t h the nun i n t h a t she i s t h e P r o t e s t a n t e q u i v a l e n t : she i s admired f o r her r e s i g n a t i o n , a b n e g a t i o n and "tender sadness", or s u f f e r i n g . These same c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a l s o i m p l y a w i t h d r a w a l from m a t e r i a l l i f e , and an adherence t o r e l i g i o u s c o n v e n t i o n . Armand's d e s c r i p t i o n of Rachel i s s i m i l a r t o Edouard's: Ra c h e l e s t , j e c r o i s b i e n , l a s e u l e personne de ce monde que j'aime e t que j e r e s p e c t e . J e l a r e s p e c t e parce q u ' e l l e e s t v e r t u e u s e . Et j ' a g i s t o u j o u r s de maniere a o f f e n s e r sa v e r t u . Pour ce q u i e s t de B e r n a r d e t de Sarah, e l l e ne se d o u t a i t de r i e n . C'est moi q u i l u i a i t o u t r a c o n t e . . . . Et l ' o c u l i s t e q u i l u i recommande de ne pas p l e u r e r ! (LFM, p. 524) W i t h i n Armand's a d m i r a t i o n r e s i d e s b i t t e r i r o n y and contempt. 51 He l o v e s and r e s p e c t s R a c h e l because she i s v i r t u o u s , y e t he t e l l s O l i v i e r t h a t he d e s p i s e s v i r t u e i t s e l f , and t h a t he makes every e f f o r t t o o f f e n d R a c h e l ' s moral s e n s i t i v i t y . I t appea r s , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t h i s l o v e and r e s p e c t a r e prompted by the sheer f o r t i t u d e she e x h i b i t s i n meeting v i r t u e ' s demands more than by the s i m p l e f a c t t h a t she i s v i r t u o u s . Armand i s s c o r n f u l of t h e d e b i l i t a t i n g e f f e c t s of v i r t u e on tho s e who r i g i d l y conform t o i t s d i c t a t e s . T h i s b i t t e r contempt i s i m p l i c i t i n h i s speech c o n c e r n i n g R a c h e l ' s r e t i n a l weakness: R a c h e l , ma soeur ain£e, d e v i e n t a v e u g l e . . . . Depuis deux ans e l i e ne peut p l u s l i r e sans l u n e t t e s . J ' a i c r u d'abord q u ' e l l e n ' a v a i t qu'a changer de v e r r e s . Ca ne s u f f i s a i t pas. Sur ma p r i e r e , e l i e a e t y c o n s u l t e r un s p e c i a l i s t e . I I p a r a i t que c ' e s t l a s e n s i b i l i t y r e * t i n i e n n e q u i f a i b l i t . Tu comprends q u ' i l y a l a deux choses t r e s diff£rentes: d'une p a r t une d£fectueuse accomodation du c r i s t a l l i n , a q u o i l e s v e r s rem£dient. Mais m§me apr e s q u ' i l s ont h e a r t y ou rapproche 1'image v i s u e l l e , c e l l e - c i peut i m p r e s s i o n n e r i n s u f f i s a m m e n t l a r y t i n e e t c e t t e image n'§tre p l u s t r a n s m i s e que confusement au ce r v e a u . Armand's d i s c o u r s e c o n t a i n s b l i n d n e s s t h a t i s a c q u i r e d as and r e l i g i o u s d e v o t i o n . Gide J o u r n a l des Faux-Monnayeurs: an a l l e g o r y of the mental a r e s u l t of e x c e s s i v e v i r t u e e x p l a i n s t h i s concept i n the A mesure que G. s'enfonce dans l a d e v o t i o n , i l p e r d l e sens de l a v y r i t e . E t a t de mensonge dans l e q u e l peut v i v r e une Sine p i e u s e ; un c e r t a i n y b l o u i s s e m e n t m y s t i q u e d y t o u r n e ses r e g a r d s de l a r e a l i t e ; i l ne cherche p l u s a v o i r ce q u i e s t ; i l ne peut p l u s l e v o i r . (JdFM, p. 32) 52 The c o n d i t i o n from w h i c h "G." s u f f e r s i s analagous t o R a c h e l ' s . Her e x c e s s i v e d e v o t i o n b l o c k s out the f a c t u a l t r u t h : she does not want t o see, and e v e n t u a l l y no l o n g e r can see what i s happening around her. T h i s e x p l a i n s why she had never s u s p e c t e d B e r n a r d and Sarah's i l l i c i t a f f a i r , and why Armand had t o i n f o r m her of i t . R a c h e l ' s " s e n s i b i l i t e r e t i n i e n n e q u i f a i b l i t " can, t h e r e f o r e , be c o n s t r u e d as t h e symbol of her b l i n d n e s s t o o b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y , and t o the s i t u a t i o n f a u s s e which has developed around her. R a c h e l ' s v i r t u e g i v e s r i s e t o both her modesty and her martyrdom. Her modesty i s m a n i f e s t e d i n her manner of s p e a k i n g , c l o t h i n g , p h y s i c a l appearance, and g e s t u r e s . As a p r e l u d e t o s o l i c i t i n g Edouard's f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e f o r the bankrupt p e n s i o n , she sends him a l e t t e r i n w h i c h she asks i n a r e s e r v e d , unassuming manner: " J ' a i de graves choses a vous d i r e . Pouvez-vous, sans t r o p vous d£ranger, p a s s e r a l a p e n s i o n demain a p r e s - m i d i ? Vous me r e n d r i e z grand s e r v i c e " (LFM, p. 337). As f o r R a c h e l ' s c l o t h i n g and g e n e r a l p h y s i c a l appearance, FJdouard r e l a t e s i n h i s j o u r n a l t h a t when he f i r s t sees h e r , she g r e e t s him "en t a b l i e r de s e r v a n t e , un t o r c h o n a l a main" (LFM, p. 339) . L a t e r on, when he r e t u r n s from h i s v i s i t w i t h Mme V e d e l , he f i n d s R a c h e l h e l p i n g w i t h the c l e a n i n g . He r e c o r d s : " E l l e a v a i t r e l e v e l e s manches de son co r s a g e pour a i d e r au rangement de l a s a l l e d'etudes; mais l e s r a b a i s s a p r e c i p i t a m m e n t en me v o y a n t a p p r o c h e r " (LFM, p. 348) . The g e s t u r e of l o w e r i n g her s l e e v e s when Edouard approaches emphasizes her c h a s t e , modest n a t u r e . A l l of the 53 above images, however, c o n t a i n such gross overs ta t ement s of h u m i l i t y and modesty t h a t they seem d e r i s i v e , l i k e E d o u a r d ' s a d m i r a t i o n of R a c h e l ' s v i r t u e . R a c h e l ' s s e l f - d e n i a l i s so pronounced t h a t i t becomes a source of martyrdom. She c o n s t a n t l y d e n i e s h e r s e l f a l l forms of enjoyment, s a c r i f i c i n g her own s e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t f o r the happ ines s and comfort of o t h e r s . In h i s j o u r n a l , Edouard makes the f o l l o w i n g g e n e r a l i z a t i o n : Par une s o r t e de pudeur, e l i e ne d i t j a m a i s : j e t r a v a i l l e . Rachel s ' e s t e f f a c e e toute sa v i e , et r i e n n ' e s t p l u s d i s c r e t , p l u s modeste que sa v e r t u . L ' a b n e g a t i o n l u i es t s i n a t u r e l l e qu 'aucun des s i e n s ne l u i s a i t g r £ de son p e r p e t u e l s a c r i f i c e . C ' e s t l a p l u s b e l l e Sme de femme que j e c o n n a i s s e . (LFJJ/ p . 340) R a c h e l ' s s e l f - s a c r i f i c e i s e x e m p l i f i e d i n the ep i sode f o l l o w i n g E d o u a r d ' s consent to l e n d her the necessary amount of money. Edouard t r i e s to conso l e her by r e q u e s t i n g t h a t she not be t r o u b l e d by hav ing to ask him f o r the money, s i n c e he i s eager to o b l i g e . She responds: — Ce q u i m'est p e n i b l e , c ' e s t de d e v o i r vous p r i e r de n 'en p a r l e r n i a g r a n d - p e r e , n i a maman. Depuis q u ' i l s m'ont c o n f i e l e s comptes de l a p e n s i o n , j e l e u r l a i s s e c r o i r e que . . . e n f i n i l s ne savent pas . Ne l e u r d i t e s r i e n , j e vous en s u p p l i e . G r a n d - p e r e es t v i e u x , et maman se donne t a n t de m a l . — R a c h e l , ce n ' e s t pas e l i e q u i se donne tou t ce mal . . . C ' e s t vous . — E l i e s ' e s t donne beaucoup de m a l . A p r e s e n t e l i e es t f a t i q u e e . C ' e s t mon t o u r . Je n ' a i r i e n d ' a u t r e a f a i r e . (LFM, p . 349) Above, we w i t n e s s an i n c o n g r u i t y i n the makeup of R a c h e l ' s 54 c h a r a c t e r . Her m a r t y r d o m f o r c e s h e r t o d e c e i v e h e r p a r e n t s . The a c t o f h a v i n g them b e l i e v e " o t h e r w i s e " , a l t h o u g h n o b l e i n m o t i v e , r e v e a l s a f l a w i n h e r m o r a l i n t e g r i t y . T h i s f l a w shows i t s e l f a g a i n when she i n a d v e r t e n t l y a d m i t s t h a t t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i f f i c u l t i e s s he h a s a s sumed a t t h e p e n s i o n a r e a b u r d e n . The s t a t e m e n t t h a t h e r m o t h e r has gone t o s u c h g r e a t p a i n s — t h e e x p r e s s i o n "se d o n n e r du m a l " i s r e i t e r a t e d t h r e e t i m e s — a n d t h a t i t i s now h e r t u r n t o do so r e v e a l s t h a t s h e c o n s i d e r s t h i s a s p e c t o f h e r l i f e u n p l e a s a n t , t h u s somewhat o p p r e s s i v e . F u r t h e r m o r e , h e r c o n c l u s i o n , " J e n ' a i r i e n d ' a u t r e a f a i r e " s u g g e s t s t h a t she f e e l s u n f u l f i l l e d , and p e r h a p s r e s e n t f u l . T h e s e f e e l i n g s , however m i l d o r s u b t l e , a r e i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l C h r i s t i a n p i e t y , and, a s s u c h , p u t i n q u e s t i o n t h e d e p t h o f R a c h e l ' s v i r t u e and r e l i g i o u s d e v o t i o n . A r e R a c h e l ' s v i r t u e , m o d e s t y and s e l f - s a c r i f i c e c o n n e c t e d t o a d e e p s p i r i t u a l c ommitment, o r a r e t h e y s i m p l y r e s p o n s e s c o n d i t i o n e d by an u p p e r m i d d l e -c l a s s , C h r i s t i a n s e n s e o f m o r a l d u t y ? The s u s p e c t n a t u r e o f R a c h e l ' s s p i r i t u a l c o m m i t t m e n t c a n a l s o be d e t e c t e d i n h e r e m o t i o n a l and p h y s i c a l r e a c t i o n p r i o r t o , and a f t e r a s k i n g E d o u a r d f o r t h e money. The a n x i e t y s h e f e e l s i n h a v i n g t o i n i t i t a t e t h i s d i s c u s s i o n i s e v i d e n t i n t h i s s c e n e : < < E l l e e t a i t t r e s p a l e , e t , comme e l l e d i s a i t c e s d e r n i e r s m o t s , s o n menton e t s e s l e v r e s f u r e n t a g i t e s d'un t r e m b l e m e n t c o n v u l s i f q u i 1'empecha q u e l q u e s i n s t a n t s de p a r l e r . . . . E l l e s ' a p p u y a c o n t r e l a p o r t e q u ' e l l e a v a i t r e n f e r m e e . J e v o u l u s l u i p r e n d r e l a m a i n , m a i s e l l e l ' a r r a c h a d ' e n t r e l e s m i e n n e s . E l l e r e p r i t e n f i n , l a v o i x c o n t r a c t e e p a r un immense e f f o r t . (LFM, p. 348) 55 When Edo u a r d o f f e r s R a c h e l what money he h a s a t t h e t i m e a s a p a r t i a l payment, s h e r e s p o n d s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g m anner: E l i e b a i s s a l a t§te e t f i t un " o u i " s i f a i b l e que j e l ' e n t e n d i s a p e i n e , p u i s gagna e n c h a n c e l a n t un b a n c d ' e c o l i e r s u r l e q u e l e l i e se l a i s s a t o m ber e t , l e s deux c o u d e s a p p u y e s s u r l e p u p i t r e d e v a n t e l i e , r e s t a q u e l q u e s i n s t a n t s l e v i s a g e d a n s l e s m a i n s . (LFM, pp. 349-50) I n t h e f i r s t p a s s a g e , R a c h e l m a n i f e s t s t h e p h y s i c a l symptoms o f m o r a l a n g u i s h . A s k i n g E d o u a r d f o r money i s c o n t r a r y t o h e r n a t u r a l r e s e r v e , o r m o d e s t y , a nd r e q u i r e s a n "immense e f f o r t " . I n t h e s e c o n d p a s s a g e we w i t n e s s t h e r e s u l t o f t h i s i n t r u s i o n on h e r m o d e s t y when she r e s p o n d s i n a meek, b a r e l y a u d i b l e way t o E d o u a r d ' s q u e s t i o n . Her r e p l y c a r r i e s a n i n d i c a t i o n o f shame w h i c h , i n t u r n , i m p l i e s s h e h a s a n i n h e r e n t p r i d e , a q u a l i t y t h a t c o n t r a d i c t s h e r h u m i l i t y and i s r e c o g n i z e d a s s i n f u l f r o m a C h r i s t i a n p e r s p e c t i v e . P r i d e , l i k e d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n a n d r e s e n t m e n t , i s f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e o f t h e w e a k e n i n g o f R a c h e l ' s s p i r i t u a l i n t e g r i t y . W e akness i s e c h o e d i n t h e a c t u a l w o r d s — t r e m b l e m e n t , s ' a p p u y a , f a i b l e , a p e i n e , c h a n c e l a n t , t omber — and i n R a c h e l ' s l a c k o f p h y s i c a l s t a m i n a . Her s t a g g e r i n g a n d f a l l i n g s y m b o l i z e h e r f a l t e r i n g v i r t u e , a n d , p e r h a p s , a n e v e n t u a l f a l l f r o m g r a c e . T h i s image c o u l d a l s o i n d i c a t e , h o w e v e r , a f a l l f r o m h e r own h u m a n i t y t h a t i s t h e r e s u l t o f e x c e s s i v e d e v o t i o n . R a c h e l ' s v i r t u e b l i n d s h e r a n d , p a r a d o x i c a l l y , t u r n s h e r i n t o a h y p o c r i t e , a c o u n t e r f e i t e r . 56 As a stereotype, Rachel d i f f e r s from Sophroniska and Sarah i n s e v e r a l ways. Sophroniska i s p o r t r a y e d through o b s e r v a t i o n s and remarks i n Edouard 1s j o u r n a l , n a r r a t o r i a l comments and, e s p e c i a l l y , lengthy d i a l o g u e between her and Edouard. Sarah's c h a r a c t e r i s e s t a b l i s h e d p r i m a r i l y through n a r r a t o r i a l r e p o r t i n g , and i n t e r i o r monologue. She appears very l i t t l e i n Edouard's j o u r n a l i n comparison to Sophroniska. Rachel, however, i s presented almost e n t i r e l y from the o p i n i o n a t e d p e r s p e c t i v e s of Edouard and Armand: we never know " f i r s t hand" what she i s t h i n k i n g . Rachel's a r t of s e l f - e f f a c e m e n t i s r e f i n e d to such a degree t h a t she e f f a c e s h e r s e l f r i g h t out of the n o v e l . What remains of her are the b i a s e d views of Edouard and Armand, who e i t h e r r i d i c u l e or p i t y her, and p r o f e s s to despise the v i r t u e upon which her c h a r a c t e r i s founded. Because of the narrowness of Edouard and Armand's p e r s p e c t i v e s , Rachel appears as a s t a t i c , two-dimensional t a b l e a u v i v a n t of the "pious s p i n s t e r " . T h i s l i f e l e s s q u a l i t y makes her seem symbolic, almost m y t h i c a l , l i k e Lady G r i f f i t h or B r o n j a ; however, her bourgeois v i r t u e , d e c e i t f u l n e s s , sense of shame and r o l e as a d m i n i s t r a t o r of the pension make her too w o r l d l y f o r t h i s category. She i s too i n e x t r i c a b l y l i n k e d with f a m i l y , s o c i e t y and q u o t i d i a n e x i s t e n c e to be m y t h i c a l . As s t e r e o t y p e s , Sophroniska, Sarah and Rachel a l s o have many t r a i t s i n common, the most prominent of these being the excess d i s p l a y e d by each i n the p u r s u i t of her goal or i d e a l . 57 T h e i r p e r s o n a l i t i e s r e s i d e s o l e l y w i t h i n t h e c o n f i n e s o f t h e r e s p e c t i v e e x t r e m e s o f " i n t e l l e c t u a l i s m " f " f e m i n i s m " a n d " v i r t u e " . T h e s e n a r r o w v i e w s d i s t o r t t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n o f r e a l i t y t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t e a c h s e e s o n l y t h a t w h i c h c o n f o r m s t o h e r l i m i t e d v i s i o n o f t h e w o r l d . A l l t h r e e a r e d e v o i d o f t h e G i d i a n d i a l o g u e i n t g r i e u r t h a t w o u l d s h a p e them i n t o m u l t i l a t e r a l , more l i f e l i k e c h a r a c t e r s . I n s t e a d , S o p h r o n i s k a , S a r a h and R a c h e l move r e l e n t l e s s l y t o w a r d t h e i r e x t r e m e s , e v e n t u a l l y b e c o m i n g e x a g g e r a t i o n s , o r c a r i c a t u r e s . 58 NOTES 1 Mary Anne Ferguson, Images of Women i n L i t e r a t u r e (Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n Company, 1973), pp. 5-6. o Ferguson, p. 9. 3 Masson, "Le Mouvement," p. 51. 4 Masson, "Le Mouvement, " p. 58-9. ^ Gide, J o u r n a l , I, 771. 6 Bree, p. 306. 7 Masson, "Le Mouvement," pp. 58-9. g Ferguson, pp. 8-9. 59 CHAPTER I I I ARCHETYPES The f e m a l e a r c h e t y p e s i n t h i s s t u d y a r e s i m i l a r t o t h e s t e r e o t y p e s i n t h a t t h e y a r e c a p s u l i z e d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s b e l o n g i n g t o a p a r t i c u l a r g r o u p o f women. They a r e d i f f e r e n t , h o w e v e r , i n t h a t t h e s t e r e o t y p e s c o n s i s t o f women who d e v i a t e f r o m t h e u s u a l r o l e p r e s c r i b e d by s o c i e t y , w h i l e t h e a r c h e t y p e s c o n f o r m t o s o c i a l s t a n d a r d s , o r t h e s t a t u s  q u o : t h e y a r e c a r i c a t u r e s o f t h e " e v e r y d a y " woman, w h i c h , i n t h e s o c i a l c o n t e x t o f L e s F a u x - M o n n a y e u r s , s i g n i f i e s w i f e a n d m o t h e r . They a r e t h e p r o d u c t s o f f i x e d r o l e s e s t a b l i s h e d by g e n e r a t i o n s o f t r a d i t i o n . F e r g u s o n f o r m u l a t e s t h e f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n o f a r c h e t y p e : [ C J e r t a i n s t e r e o t y p e s a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r o n g b e c a u s e t h e y a r e f o r m e d n o t by a s i n g l e s o c i e t y b u t by t h e e n t i r e e x p e r i e n c e o f m a n k i n d . . . . [ A ] r c h e t y p e s , g r o u n d e d i n e m o t i o n , a r e s t r o n g ; t h e y r e p r e s e n t man's d e s i r e s a n d f e a r s a b o u t h i s n a t u r e a n d t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e w o r l d . . . . A r c h e t y p e s s t r o n g l y r e s i s t m o d i f i c a t i o n by f a c t s a n d l o g i c a n d a r e o f t e n f o r t i f i e d by r e l i g i o n , w h i c h i n e v i t a b l y i n v o l v e s a l a r g e m e a s u r e o f m y t h , i The a r c h e t y p a l women o f L e s F a u x - M o n n a y e u r s r e f l e c t F e r g u s o n ' s d e f i n i t i o n . T h e i r r o l e a s w i f e a n d m o t h e r i s i n d e e d r e s i s t a n t t o c h a n g e , and i m p o s e d o n them by a C h r i s t i a n b o u r g e o i s c ode o f c o n d u c t . 60 The w i v e s a n d m o t h e r s c a n be c l a s s i f i e d by age i n t o t h r e e g r o u p s : y o u n g , m i d d l e - a g e d a n d o l d . The m i d d l e - a g e d women, P a u l i n e a n d M a r g u e r i t e , w i l l be e x a m i n e d f i r s t , f o l l o w e d by t h e o l d women, Mme V e d e l and Mme de L a Pe r o u s e . We w i l l t h e n r e t u r n t o L a u r a , whose c a s e i s o f c e n t r a l i m p o r t a n c e : b e i n g y o u n g , r e c e n t l y m a r r i e d a n d p r e g n a n t s i t u a t e s h e r a t t h e t h r e s h o l d o f t r a d i t i o n a l womanhood. She i s e n f o r m a t i o n , i n t h e p r o c e s s o f b e c o m i n g w h a t h e r p r e d e c e s s o r s a l r e a d y a r e . One c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t h a t a l l o f t h e s e women s h a r e i s r e s i g n a t i o n ; t h e y have a c c e p t e d t h e u n s u i t a b i l i t y , o r m e d i o c r i t y , o f t h e i r h u s b a n d s i n o r d e r t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e " h o n o r a b l e " t r a d i t i o n o f m a r r i a g e a n d f a m i l y l i f e . T h i s c o m p r o m i s e p u t s them i n a s i t u a t i o n f a u s s e t h a t e v e n t u a l l y e n g e n d e r s a c u t e r e s e n t m e n t , b i t t e r d i s c o n t e n t and, i n t h e e x t r e m e c a s e s o f Mme V e d e l and Mme de L a P e r o u s e , c o m p l e t e m e n t a l i n e r t i a o r i n s a n i t y , t h e u l t i m a t e s i g n o f t h e l o s s o f " s e l f " . A l t h o u g h P a u l i n e a n d M a r g u e r i t e h a v e b o t h r e s i g n e d t h e m s e l v e s t o d i s t r e s s i n g s i t u a t i o n s , t h e f a c t o r s t h a t m o t i v a t e t h e i r p a s s i v i t y d i f f e r g r e a t l y . P a u l i n e ' s r e s i g n a t i o n i s t h e r e s u l t o f h e r d e s p e r a t e a t t e m p t t o m a i n t a i n t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f m a r i t a l and f a m i l i a l harmony, w h e r e a s M a r g u e r i t e ' s s t e m s f r o m f e e l i n g s o f g u i l t a n d a f e a r o f s e l f - a s s e r t i o n a n d l i b e r t y . P a u l i n e h a s d e v o t e d h e r l i f e t o c o n c e a l i n g t h e i n s u f f i c i e n c i e s a n d e r r o r s o f h e r h u s b a n d a n d c r e a t i n g t h e 61 semblance of the bonne f a m i l l e . Edouard e x p l a i n s : P a u l i n e apporte tous ses s o i n s a p a l l i e r l e s i n s u f f i s a n c e s e t l e s d e f a i l l a n c e s d'Oscar, a l e s cacher aux yeux de tous; e t s u r t o u t aux yeux des e n f a n t s . E l i e s ' i n g ^ n i e a permettre a c e u x - c i d'estimer l e u r pere; et, vraiment, e l i e a f o r t a f a i r e ; . . . E l i e p a r l e de son mari sans m6pris, mais avec une s o r t e d 1 i n d u l g e n c e q u i en d i t long. (LFM, p.394) The word "cacher" appears here, and r e c u r s i n numerous passages r e l e v a n t to P a u l i n e ' s l i f e with Oscar. The above passage a l s o r e v e a l s t h a t P a u l i n e ' s c h i e f motive f o r h i d i n g Oscar's m e d i o c r i t y i s to p r o t e c t the happiness of her c h i l d r e n . She has b u i l t her own l i f e around f a l s e h o o d so t h a t they can respect and value t h e i r f a t h e r . P a u l i n e thus e s t a b l i s h e s h e r s e l f as the f a m i l i a r , s e l f - s a c r i f i c i n g mother. Oscar, a t one p o i n t , makes the c y n i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n : " E l i e e s t comme toutes l e s meres" (LFM, p. 327). The two s i t u a t i o n s around which P a u l i n e ' s e f f o r t s to conceal the t r u t h r e v o l v e are Oscar's l o n g - s t a n d i n g a d u l t e r o u s a f f a i r , and the t h i e v e r y and d e c e i t f u l n e s s of her son, Georges. In r e f e r e n c e to Oscar's a f f a i r , P auline c o n f i d e s to Edouard: Depuis longtemps j e s u i s au courant des r e l a t i o n s q u ' i l e n t r e t i e n t ... j e s a i s meme avec q u i . II c r o i t que j e l e s ignore et prend d'enormes p r e c a u t i o n s pour me l e s cacher; mais ces p r e c a u t i o n s sont s i apparentes que p l u s i l se cache, p l u s i l se l i v r e . Chaque f o i s que, sur l e p o i n t de s o r t i r , i l a f f e c t e un a i r a f f a i r e , c o n t r a r i e , soucieux, j e s a i s q u ' i l c ourt a son p l a i s i r . . . . J'en r i r a i s , s i j ' y a v a i s l e coeur. Ma s e u l e c r a i n t e , c ' e s t que l e s enfants ne s' aper c o i v e n t de quelque chose; ... je me v o i s f o r c e e de l ' a i d e r . . . . Je f i n i s par m'en amuser 62 presque...; j ' i n v e n t e pour l u i des excuses; j e remets dans l a poche de son pardessus des l e t t r e s q u ' i l l a i s s e t r a i n e r . (LFM, pp. 399-400) Pa u l i n e s t r e s s e s the importance of h i d i n g Oscar's i n f i d e l i t y from the c h i l d r e n ; however, c e r t a i n c l u e s here and elsewhere i n d i c a t e that P a u l i n e ' s a n x i e t y o r i g i n a t e s a t a more pers o n a l l e v e l . She hastens to mention, f o r example, that she knows the i d e n t i t y of Oscar's m i s t r e s s , i n a d v e r t e n t l y d i s c l o s i n g her c u r i o s i t y and j e a l o u s y . Futhermore, her a s s e r t i o n t h a t she f i n d s her own connivance laughable and sometimes e n t e r t a i n i n g seems b i t t e r l y i r o n i c and i m p l i e s a hidden sorrow. Her depth of f e e l i n g f o r Oscar i s e v e n t u a l l y v e r i f i e d i n the f o l l o w i n g d i a l o g u e with Edouard: [T]6t ou t a r d , on perd p r i s e , e t . . . l e p l u s tendre amour n'y peut r i e n . . . . J'en a r r i v e a cacher meme cet amour. <<— A present vous p a r l e z de vos f i l s . <<— Pourquoi d i t e s - v o u s c e l a ? Pr£tendez-vous que j e ne sache p l u s aimer Oscar? P a r f o i s j e me l e d i s ; mais j e me d i s a u s s i que c'est par c r a i n t e de t r o p s o u f f r i r que j e ne l'aime pas davantage. (LFM, pp. 395-6) The above c o n f e s s i o n supports the n o t i o n t h a t P a u l i n e ' s a r t i f i c e i s a c t u a l l y motivated by a d e s i r e to conceal the t r u t h from h e r s e l f : r e c o g n i t i o n of the t r u t h i s not only p a i n f u l , but could a l s o i n s t i g a t e c o n f r o n t a t i o n and r e s u l t i n the l o s s of Oscar and the d i s s o l u t i o n of f a m i l y u n i t y . P a u l i n e p r e f e r s t o remain p a s s i v e . She t e l l s Edouard: "Ce 63 que j e v o i s que j e ne p u i s pas empecher, j e p r e f e r e l ' a c c o r d e r de bonne grace" (LFM, p. 394). P a u l i n e ' s r e l u c t a n c e to co n f r o n t f a m i l y members reg a r d i n g t h e i r r e p r e h e n s i b l e behavior i s f u r t h e r demonstrated by the way i n which she deals with Georges. She maintains t h a t she s t r o n g l y suspects him of s t e a l i n g money from her c l o s e t , but in v e n t s a p r o f u s i o n of excuses t o v i n d i c a t e him and attenuate her own s u s p i c i o n s . The excuses vary i n nature, but a l l p o i n t t o her f e a r of the consequences, and her incompetence as a parent. Although she admits the l i k e l i h o o d of Georges' c u l p a b i l i t y , she cannot c o n f r o n t him f o r f e a r of seein g him add l i e s to misconduct. She i s a l s o unsure about her a b i l i t y to deal s e v e r e l y enough with him, should her a c c u s a t i o n be v a l i d a t e d . Her incompetence l i e s i n her p a s s i v i t y . She n a i v e l y b e l i e v e s t h a t Georges' s e l f - r e p r o a c h w i l l s u f f i c e as a punishment. Her g r e a t e s t d e t e r r e n t , however, seems to be the d e s i r e to b e l i e v e he d i d not s t e a l the money. She almost succeeds i n c o n v i n c i n g h e r s e l f of Georges' innocence with the comforting p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t i t i s a passerby i n the b u i l d i n g who i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the m i s s i n g money. P a u l i n e ' s e x c e s s i v e j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r her l a c k of a c t i o n becomes s a t i r i c a l . Edouard r e f l e c t s : "J'admirais avec q u e l l e ingeniosit£ e l l e m e t t a i t en avant tout ce q u i pouv a i t d i s c u l p e r son e n f a n t " (LFM, p. 399). P a u l i n e ' s a v e r s i o n to reprimanding Georges f o r h i s behavior i s the r e s u l t of her f e a r of a l i e n a t i n g h i s 64 a f f e c t i o n s . T h i s echoes t h e f e a r she has of l o s i n g O s c a r , s h o u l d he d i s c o v e r t h a t she knows about h i s m i s t r e s s . P a u l i n e ' s p a s s i v i t y i n r e l a t i o n t o her d e c a y i n g m a r r i a g e , and her i n a b i l i t y t o p r o p e r l y d i s c i p l i n e her c h i l d r e n a r e what r e s i g n her t o b e i n g a " c o u n t e r f e i t e r " . When Edouard a p t l y p o i n t s out t o her t h a t i n p r e t e n d i n g not t o "see" Oscar and her son's e r r o r s , she i n t u r n i s d e c e i v i n g them, she r e t o r t s : — Mais comment v o u l e z - v o u s que j e f a s s e ? C'est beaucoup, de ne pas me p l a i n d r e ; j e ne p u i s p o u r t a n t pas a p p r o u v e r ! (LFM, p. 395) For P a u l i n e the c h o i c e s a r e e i t h e r a c c e p t a n c e or a p p r o v a l : d i s a p p r o v a l i s not an o p t i o n . Her i n s t i n c t s t o h o l d f a s t t o Oscar, and t o t h e r e s p e c t a b i l i t y of m a r r i a g e and f a m i l y u n i t y d r i v e her t o b u i l d her l i f e on t h e dupery of o t h e r s and s e l f - d e c e p t i o n . P a u l i n e ' s predicament i s made p a r t i c u l a r l y p o i g n a n t by s e v e r a l f a c t o r s , the f i r s t b e i n g awareness of the compromise she has made of her l i f e , and of her " s e l f " . She c o n f i d e s t o Edouard: <<— Vous rendez-vous compte de ce que d e v i e n t ma v i e ? J ' a i r e s t r e i n t mon bonheur; d'annee en annee, j ' a i du en r a b a t t r e ; une a une, j ' a i r a c c o u r c i mes e s p e r a n c e s . J ' a i ced£; j ' a i toler£; j ' a i f e i n t de ne pas comprendre, de ne pas v o i r . . . . (LFM, p. 450) P a u l i n e ' s awareness has been h e i g h t e n e d by t h e sudden r e a l i z a t i o n of the f u t i l i t y of her e f f o r t s . Y e a r s of f e i g n i n g i g n o r a n c e and t o l e r a t i n g m e d i o c r i t y , i n f i d e l i t y 65 and d e c e i t f u l n e s s are made v a i n by the a c t u a l i z a t i o n of one of her g r e a t e s t f e a r s : the l o s s of Georges' a f f e c t i o n and res p e c t . P a u l i n e v e r b a l i z e s her i n d i g n a t i o n i n t h i s passage: Mais e n f i n , on se raccroche a quelque chose; e t quand encore ce peu vous echappe...! Le s o i r , i l v i e n t t r a v a i l l e r pres de moi, sous l a lampe; quand p a r f o i s i l l e v e l a t e t e de dessus son l i v r e , ce n'est pas de 1 * a f f e c t i o n que j e rencontre dans son regard; c'est du d e f i . J ' a i s i peu merite c e l a . . . . II me semble p a r f o i s brusquement que tout mon amour pour l u i tourne en haine; e t j e v o u d r a i s n ' a v o i r jamais eu d'enfants. (LFM, pp. 450-51) Th i s l a s t sentence shows the depth to which P a u l i n e ' s b i t t e r n e s s has plummeted, as Georges, the l a s t o b j e c t of her obse s s i v e maternal d r i v e , eludes her. Georges' d e f i a n c e , however, seems i n s i g n i f i c a n t i n comparison to the c r u e l irony of the episode which f o l l o w s . Georges d i s c o v e r s the hidden l o v e l e t t e r s from h i s f a t h e r ' s m i s t r e s s and uses them as an i n i t i a t i o n o f f e r i n g f o r admittance to the C o n f r ^ r i e des Hommes f o r t s . T h i s one act serves as the c u l m i n a t i n g p o i n t of P a u l i n e ' s most unnerving f e a r s : Georges i s made aware of h i s f a t h e r ' s l i c e n t i o u s n e s s , and Oscar t h i n k s h i s i n f i d e l i t y has been d i s c o v e r e d by Pa u l i n e . There i s a parodie, but a t the same time p a t h e t i c , q u a l i t y about the convoluted consequences of P a u l i n e ' s dupery and connivance. The denouement of P a u l i n e ' s predicament i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h a t i t corresponds w i t h Edouard's e a r l i e r e x p e c t a t i o n s . 66 Upon c o n t e m p l a t i n g t h e growth of what he terms t h e " t r a n c h e m y s t i q u e " Edouard remarks: Les r o m a n c i e r s nous abusent l o r s q u ' i l s d e v e l o p p e n t l ' i n d i v i d u sans t e n i r compte des c o m p r e s s i o n s d ' a l e n t o u r . La for£t faconne l ' a r b r e . A chacun, s i peu de p l a c e e s t laiss£e! Que de bourgeons a t r o p h i a s ! Chacun l a n c e ou i l peut sa ramure. La branche m y s t i q u e , l e p l u s souvent, c ' e s t a de 1'etouffement qu'on l a d o i t . On ne peut echapper qu'en h a u t e u r . Je ne comprends pas comment P a u l i n e f a i t pour ne pas pousser de branche m y s t i q u e , n i q u e l l e s compressions de p l u s e l l e a t t e n d . . . . J e ne soupconnais p a s . . . t o u t ce que, sous l e s apparences du bonheur, e l l e cache de d e b o i r e s e t de r e s i g n a t i o n . (LFM, p. 393) A l t h o u g h P a u l i n e ' s p a t h e t i c s i t u a t i o n provokes Edouard's c y n i c i s m * i t does not e l i c i t h i s contempt. He seems s y m p a t h e t i c w i t h r e g a r d t o the s u f f o c a t i n g e f f e c t s of P a u l i n e ' s l i f e . The image of the a t r o p h i e d bud i s a p p r o p r i a t e s i n c e P a u l i n e has never a l l o w e d h e r s e l f t o reach her p o t e n t i a l . E m o t i o n a l attachment, s e l f - s a c r i f i c e and s o c i a l c o n s t r a i n t s have c o n f i n e d her t o an u n s u c c e s s f u l , t h u s unrewarding c a r e e r as w i f e and mother. I t i s B o r i s ' s u i c i d e w h i c h , s u r p r i s i n g l y , f u r n i s h e s P a u l i n e ' s escape "en h a u t e u r " . In t h e a f t e r m a t h , Georges' a d m i r a t i o n f o r G h e r i d a n i s o l t r a n s f o r m s i n t o h o r r o r . T h i s m o t i v a t e s an e m o t i o n a l r e u n i o n w i t h h i s mother: L o r s q u ' i l r e v i n t ce s o i r chez ses p a r e n t s , i l se j e t a dans l e s bras de sa mere; e t P a u l i n e eut un e l a n de r e c o n n a i s s a n c e v e r s D i e u , q u i , par ce drame a f f r e u x , ramenait a e l l e son f i l s . (LFM, p. 546) 67 The recovery of Georges' a f f e c t i o n has a momentous impact on P a u l i n e . Her surge of g r a t i t u d e toward God i m p l i e s t h a t her "branche mystique" has taken ro o t . Marguerite P r o f i t e n d i e u ' s r o l e as w i f e and mother can be viewed as the reverse m i r r o r image of t h a t of P a u l i n e . They both p r o j e c t an o v e r a l l image of p a s s i v i t y and resentment, and a d u l t e r y i s a primary issue i n t h e i r f a i l i n g marriages. The r e v e r s a l of r o l e s comes i n t o play i n the rapport each has with her husband. In P a u l i n e ' s case, Oscar's g u i l t y conscience makes him somewhat obsequious toward her. In the P r o f i t e n d i e u union, however, i t i s Marguerite, the w i f e , who p l a y s the p a r t of the g u i l t - r i d d e n a d u l t e r e r ; her p e r p e t u a l repentance enslaves her to the s e l f - r i g h t e o u s a u t h o r i t y of her husband. Marguerite's s u b o r d i n a t i o n i s the i n d i r e c t r e s u l t of having confessed her act of a d u l t e r y . I t i s t h i s c o n f e s s i o n t h a t has empowered her husband wi t h the r o l e of judge and redeemer — h i s career as a m a g i s t r a t e i s a p p r o p r i a t e . P r o f i t e n d i e u c o n s i d e r s h i m s e l f to be the i n d u l g e n t judge, and v i c t i m , who has b e n e v o l e n t l y pardoned h i s o f f e n d e r : "II ne pouvait...pas . . . l i v r e r aux enfants l e s e c r e t de l'egarement passager de l e u r mere. Ah! tout e t a i t s i b i e n pardonne, o u b l i e , r£par£" (LFM, p. 41). Bernard's d i s c o v e r y of h i s i l l e g i t i m a c y , and subsequent departure, are proof, i n P r o f i t e n d i e u ' s e s t i m a t i o n , that Marguerite had never f u l l y repented f o r her a d u l t e r y . He f e e l s t h a t t h i s c r i s i s serves as a recompense f o r her s i n f u l p a s t : "II s a i t b i e n q u ' e l l e ne s'est jamais 68 que t r e s imparfaitement repentie...que c e t t e t r i s t e s s e , c e t t e epreuve pourra s e r v i r a son r a c h a t . . . " (LFM/ p. 45). P r o f i t e n d i e u * s manner of speaking t o Marguerite has a d i s t i n c t l y p a t e r n a l q u a l i t y a p p r o p r i a t e to h i s stance as the m e r c i f u l judge. When he announces to the f a m i l y that Bernard w i l l no longer be l i v i n g w i t h them/ he makes the f o l l o w i n g a s i d e to Marguerite: — Tache de te t e n i r , l u i d i t - i l a v o i x basse/ mais sur un ton imperieux; e t ne d i s pas un mot, tu m'entends. Nous causerons e n s u i t e tous l e s deux. Et t a n d i s q u ' i l p a r l e , i l garde une de ses mains a e l i e dans l e s siennes. (LFM, p. 43) P r o f i t e n d i e u * s imperious manner i s c o n s i s t e n t l y d i s p l a y e d by h i s a c t i o n s . Each d e s c r i p t i o n of h i s p h y s i c a l b e a r i n g w i t h respect to Marguerite i n v a r i a b l y renders the image of the husband e i t h e r towering over or st o o p i n g down t o h i s w i f e : II s'est l e v e , par i n s t i n c t i f b esoin de dominer; i l se t i e n t a present tout dress£...et pose gravement, tendrement, a u t o r i t a i r e m e n t l a main sur l ' e p a u l e de Marguerite.... II se penche v e r s e l i e . [ P ] u i s e l i e se p l i e comme pr e t e a s' a g e n o u i l l e r devant l u i , q u i se courbe v e r s e l i e et l a m a i n t i e n t . . . . II se penche jusqu'a ses l e v r e s . (LFM, pp. 45-6) Condescension remains the fo u n d a t i o n of P r o f i t e n d i e u ' s treatment of Marguerite up to the l a s t scene i n which they appear t o g e t h e r : he accompanies her to her room and g i v e s her a f a t h e r l y k i s s on the forehead b e f o r e r e t u r n i n g t o h i s study. 69 M a r g u e r i t e ' s customary r e a c t i o n t o P r o f i t e n d i e u ' s o v e r b e a r i n g demeanor i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by r e s i s t a n c e : L ' e p a u l e de M a r g u e r i t e r g s i s t e a l a douce p r e s s i o n de sa main. M a r g u e r i t e s a i t s i b i e n que t o u j o u r s , i n s u p p o r t a b l e m e n t , quelque enseignement moral d o i t s o r t i r , accouche par l u i , des moindres evenements de l a v i e ; i l i n t e r p r e t e t o u t s e l o n son dogme. (LFM, p. 45) T h i s p h y s i c a l r e s i s t a n c e i s analagous t o M a r g u e r i t e ' s mental and e m o t i o n a l r e s i s t a n c e t o P r o f i t e n d i e u ' s dogmatic n a t u r e . She does not submit w i l l i n g l y t o h i s s p i t e f u l t y r a n n y . Her resentment i s d e t a i l e d i n t h i s passage: Comment l u i e Q t - e l l e d i t q u ' e l l e se s e n t a i t emprisonn£e dans c e t t e v e r t u q u ' i l e x i g e a i t d ' e l l e ; q u ' e l l e e t o u f f a i t ; que ce n ' e t a i t pas t a n t sa f a u t e q u ' e l l e r e g r e t t a i t a p r e s e n t , que de s'en e t r e r e p e n t i e . (LFM, p. 46) In an e f f o r t t o c u r t a i l M a r g u e r i t e ' s r e s i s t a n c e , P r o f i t e n d i e u c a p i t a l i z e s on what he p e r c e i v e s t o be her g u i l t y c o n s c i e n c e . Whenever he senses t h a t h i s a u t h o r i t y i s d i m i n i s h i n g , he r e - e s t a b l i s h e s i t by d i r e c t i n g her t h o u g h t s toward p i e t y , v i r t u e and atonement: P r o f i t e n d i e u s e n t confusement l e u r s pensees a t o u s deux p r e n d r e une d i r e c t i o n d i v e r g e n t e . Et t a n d i s q u ' e l l e se p l a i n t , q u ' e l l e a c c u s e , q u ' e l l e r e v e n d i q u e , i l essaye d ' i n c l i n e r c e t e s p r i t r e t i f v e r s des s e n t i m e n t s p l u s p i e u x : V o i l a 1 ' e x p i a t i o n , d i t - i l . (LFM, p. 44) Because P r o f i t e n d i e u wants complete s u b m i s s i o n , he i s 70 f r u s t r a t e d by M a r g u e r i t e ' s o b s t i n a n c e and d e f i a n c e . In response t o her w i s h t h a t he had never pardoned her and her s t a t e m e n t , "Ah! j e n ' a u r a i s pas du r e v e n i r ! " , he abandons h i s e f f o r t s . He announces i n a c ondescending manner: "—Ma pauvre a m i e . . . j e c r a i n s que t u ne s o i s un peu butee ce s o i r . I I e s t t a r d . Nous f e r i o n s mieux d ' a l l e r nous c o u c h e r " (LFM, p. 4 6 ) . The mounting t e n s i o n engendered by M a r g u e r i t e ' s r e c a l c i t r a n c e and P r o f i t e n d i e u ' s d e s p o t i s m p o r t e n d s a c o n f r o n t a t i o n and d e f i n i t i v e r e s o l u t i o n . M a r g u e r i t e ' s r e s i s t a n c e i s prompted not o n l y by her husband's o v e r b e a r i n g demeanor, but a l s o by a n a t u r a l r e t a l i a t i o n a g a i n s t t h e e n s l a v i n g demands of the v i r t u e imposed on her by f a m i l y and s o c i e t y . Her f i n a l appearance i n t h e n o v e l c o n s i s t s of the f o l l o w i n g scene: E l l e ne p l e u r e pas: e l l e ne pense a r i e n . E l l e v o u d r a i t , e l l e a u s s i , s ' e n f u i r ; mais e l l e ne l e f e r a pas. Quand e l l e 6 t a i t avec son amant, l e pere de B e r n a r d , que nous n'avons pas a c o n n a i t r e , e l l e se d i s a i t : Va, t u a u r a s beau f a i r e ; t u ne s e r a s j a m a i s qu'une honnete femme. E l l e a v a i t peur de l a l i b e r t e , du c r i m e , de l ' a i s a n c e ; ce q u i f i t qu'au bout de d i x j o u r s e l l e r e n t r a i t r e p e n t a n t e au f o y e r . Ses p a r e n t s a u t r e f o i s a v a i e n t b i e n r a i s o n de l u i d i r e : Tu ne s a i s j a m a i s ce que t u veux. (LFM, pp. 47-8) "Honnete" i s synonymous w i t h v i r t u o u s , and has a d i s t i n c t l y d e r o g a t o r y c o n n o t a t i o n i n t h e above passage. I t i s not, however, M a r g u e r i t e ' s v i r t u e t h a t makes her f e a r freedom, but i n v e r s e l y , her f e a r of freedom t h a t makes her an "honest" woman. As was the case w i t h P a u l i n e , M a r g u e r i t e ' s f e a r c o n s t i t u t e s t h e c r u x of her dilemma and has s e n t her back as w e l l as kept her " r e p e n t a n t e au f o y e r " . 71 I n c o n t r a s t t o P a u l i n e ' s " b r a n c h e m y s t i q u e , " M a r g u e r i t e ' s e v e n t u a l e s c a p e i s n o t e n h a u t e u r , b u t e n l a r q e u r . A t t h e end o f t h e n o v e l , we l e a r n t h a t M a r g u e r i t e l e a v e s P r o f i t e n d i e u . The p r o b l e m p o s e d by h e r f e a r o f f r e e d o m i s n o t , h o w e v e r , c o m p l e t e l y r e s o l v e d . No d e t a i l s a r e f u r n i s h e d a s t o w h e r e s h e g o e s n o r w h a t s h e d o e s t o m a i n t a i n h e r s e l f . The f a c t t h a t s h e i s v i r t u a l l y b a n i s h e d f r o m t h e n o v e l — a s t h o u g h e f f a c e d o r , more a p p r o p r i a t e l y , e x c o m m u n i c a t e d — l e a v e s d o u b t a s t o t h e s u c c e s s o f h e r " e s c a p e . " We a r e t e m p t e d t o a s k q u e s t i o n s , s u c h a s : How w i l l s h e s u r v i v e ? What p r e p a r a t i o n h a s s h e f o r b e i n g f r e e , i n d e p e n d e n t ? W i l l t h e i n c o n g r u i t y o f f r e e d o m and s o c i e t y ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s o f women f o r c e h e r t o f o l l o w t h e p a t h s o f S a r a h and L i l i a n t o w a r d m o r a l d e g e n e r a t i o n a n d l i c e n t i o u s n e s s ? How l o n g w i l l i t be b e f o r e s h e i s o b l i g e d t o r e t u r n t o t h e f o y e r , o n c e more r e p e n t a n t ? As t h e r e s p e c t i v e d i l e m m a s o f P a u l i n e a n d M a r g u e r i t e c a n be v i e w e d a s r e v e r s e m i r r o r i m a g e s o f e a c h o t h e r , t h e c a s e s o f t h e a g e d Mme V e d e l and Mme de L a Pe r o u s e c a n be s e e n a s p r o j e c t i o n s i n t o t h e f u t u r e o f w h a t l i f e a s a w i f e and m o t h e r h a s t o h o l d f o r t h e m i d d l e - a g e d P a u l i n e a n d M a r g u e r i t e . Mme V e d e l i s a s u i t a b l e c o u n t e r p a r t t o P a u l i n e ; t h e l a t t e r ' s "£lan de r e c o n n a i s s a n c e v e r s D i e u " h a s t h e p o t e n t i a l t o e v o l v e i n t o t h e same e x t r e m e r e l i g i o u s f a n a t i c i s m a s t h a t o f t h e o l d Mme V e d e l . E d o u a r d t e l l s us t h a t Mme V e d e l i s " n i a i s e " , t h a t s h e i s "enfonc£e dan s une r d v e r i e po£tico-religieuse ou e l i e p e r d t o u t s e n s du r£el..." (LFM, 72 p. 1 5 8 ) . F u r t h e r on, he t e l l s us i n mock a d m i r a t i o n t h a t : Sa c o n v e r s a t i o n n ' e s t pas sans charme. I I l u i a r r i v e assez souvent de ne pas achever ses p h r a s e s , ce q u i donne a sa pensee une s o r t e de f l o u p o e t i q u e . E l i e f a i t de l ' i n f i n i avec l ' i m p r g c i s e t 1 1 inachev£. E l i e a t t e n d de l a v i e f u t u r e t o u t ce q u i l u i manque i c i - b a s ; c e c i l u i permet d ' e l a r g i r i n d e f i n i m e n t ses e s p o i r s . E l i e prend e l a n sur l e r£tr£cissement de son s o l . (LFM, p. 343) The image of the p h y s i c a l w o r l d of Mme V e d e l s h r i n k i n g or c l o s i n g i n on her i s i n d i c a t i v e of t h e c o n s t r a i n e d l i f e she l e a d s , of the i d e a e x p r e s s e d by P a u l i n e of l i f e o f f e r i n g l e s s and l e s s and one e x p e c t i n g l e s s and l e s s a t the same tim e . A b n e g a t i o n has s u f f o c a t e d her t o t h e p o i n t of e m o t i o n a l and mental a t r o p h y : a p a r t from mere p h y s i c a l e x i s t e n c e , she now f u n c t i o n s o n l y on a s p i r i t u a l l e v e l . Mme V e d e l has e x p e r i e n c e d a s p i r i t u a l e l a n . As a r e s u l t , a l l of her hopes and dreams a r e d e f e r r e d t o the " a f t e r l i f e " . In terms of her p r e s e n t e x i s t e n c e i n t h e m a t e r i a l w o r l d , t h i s i s the u l t i m a t e s t a t e of r e s i g n a t i o n . She p a s s i v e l y submits t o t h e n o t i o n t h a t l i f e has n o t h i n g t o o f f e r i n t h e here and now, t h a t i t s c o u r s e has been i r r e v o c a b l y f i x e d . Mme V e d e l ' s r e s i g n a t i o n has i n d u c e d a mental and p h y s i c a l i n e r t i a t h a t p r e v e n t s her from a c c o m p l i s h i n g a n y t h i n g . The i m p r e s s i o n of l i s t l e s s monotony i s emphasized by the way i n which she rambles on, never c o m p l e t i n g her s e n t e n c e s . Her a c t u a l l i f e , i f t r a n s p o s e d i n t o w r i t t e n form, would be p u n c t u a t e d by e l l i p s i s p o i n t s a t ev e r y t u r n , as i s her speech i n t h i s passage: 73 S i vous s a v i e z t o u t ce q u ' i l se l a i s s e m e t t r e sur l e s b r a s , d e p u i s que... Comme on s a i t q u ' i l ne se r e f u s e j a m a i s , t o u t l e monde l u i . . . Quand i l r e n t r e l e s o i r , i l e s t s i f a t i g u e p a r f o i s que j e n'ose presque pas l u i p a r l e r de peur de l e ... (LFM, p. 344) T h i s i n c o h e r e n t b a b b l i n g , which FJdouard m o c k i n g l y r e f e r s t o as a " f l o u p o e t i q u e " , i m p l i e s mental derangement. Mme V e d e l ' s i n t e l l e c t u a l powers have a t r o p h i e d due t o t h e mental i n a c t i v i t y which accompanies her w i t h d r a w a l from l i f e . In her d e l i r i u m she a l s o e x h i b i t s a p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h the m i n i m i z a t i o n of her husband's i n a d e q u a c i e s . T h i s p r e o c c u p a t i o n , a l o n g w i t h her w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d "branche m y s t i q u e , " r e i n f o r c e s t h e n o t i o n t h a t Mme V e d e l ' s e x i s t e n c e i s a p r o j e c t i o n of what l i f e w i l l be l i k e f o r P a u l i n e . M a r g u e r i t e and Mme de La Perouse's s i t u a t i o n s a r e s i m i l a r i n t h a t they s hare a sense of r e s i s t a n c e and r e b e l l i o n and a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of b i t t e r n e s s toward t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e husbands; however, t h e r e a r e a number of d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e ways i n which t h e i r resentment has e v o l v e d . W h i l e M a r g u e r i t e ' s m a r r i a g e was undermined from the s t a r t by her a d u l t e r y and t h e b i r t h of an i l l e g i t i m a t e son, the de La Perouse u n i o n appears t o have been the epitome of c o n j u g a l b l i s s . M. de La Perouse r e m i n i s c e s : Les p r e m i e r s temps de n o t r e menage a v a i e n t ete" charmants.... J e l ' a i m a i s avec i n n o c e n c e . . . o u i . . . e t j e ne c o n s e n t a i s a l u i r e c o n n a i t r e aucun d e f a u t . (LFM, p. 180) 74 I t i s n o t a n a c t o f i n f i d e l i t y , o r any o t h e r c r i s i s s i t u a t i o n t h a t h a s b r o u g h t a b o u t t h e d i s s o l u t i o n o f t h e i r m a r r i a g e . T h e i r " d e s u n i o n " i s due, r a t h e r , t o a s l o w p r o c e s s o f d e t e r i o r a t i o n . A l i f e t i m e o f p e t t y d i f f e r e n c e s a n d a n n o y a n c e s h a s a c c u m u l a t e d t o p r o d u c e c o m p l e x f e e l i n g s i n e a c h o f r e s e n t m e n t , i n t o l e r a n c e a n d e v e n h a t r e d . T h i s p r o c e s s i s r e f e r r e d t o by b o t h G i d e a nd E d o u a r d a s t h e d e e r i s t a l l i s a t i o n o f l o v e . I n t h e J o u r n a l d e s F a u x - M o n n a y e u r s , G i d e s t a t e s : S i l a " c r i s t a l l i s a t i o n " d o n t p a r l e S t e n d h a l e s t s u b i t e , c ' e s t l e l e n t t r a v a i l c o n t r a i r e de d g c r i s t a l l i s a t i o n , l e p a t h e t i q u e ; a £tudier.... [ L i e temps, l ' S g e , d e r o b e n t a l ' a m o u r , un a un, t o u s s e s p o i n t s d ' a p p u i . . . (JdFM, p.20) E d o u a r d ' s d e f i n i t i o n i s much t h e same: On p a r l e s a n s c e s s e de l a b r u s q u e c r i s t a l l i s a t i o n de l ' a m o u r . L a l e n t e de-e r i s t a l l i s a t i o n , d o n t j e n ' e n t e n d s j a m a i s p a r l e r , e s t un ph£nomene p s y c h o l o g i q u e q u i m'int£resse b i e n d a v a n t a g e . [ O l n l e p e u t o b s e r v e r , au b o u t d'un temps p l u s ou m o i n s l o n g , d a n s t o u s l e s m a r i a g e s d'amour. (LFM, p. I l l ) The d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f l o v e i s a theme of m a j o r i m p o r t a n c e i n t h e n o v e l . I t i s e x p l o r e d t o v a r y i n g d e g r e e s i n most o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s p o r t r a y e d : P a u l i n e a n d O s c a r ; M a r g u e r i t e and P r o f i t e n d i e u ; L a d y G r i f f i t h a n d V i n c e n t ; O l i v i e r a n d P a s s a v a n t ; L a u r a and E d o u a r d ; L a u r a a nd V i n c e n t . The r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f a l l o f t h e s e c o u p l e s " d e c r y s t a l l i z e " a s t h e n o v e l u n f o l d s . None, h o w e v e r , e x e m p l i f y t h e f i n a l 75 r e s u l t s of t h i s d e t e r i o r a t i o n more a p t l y than t h a t of M. and Mme de L a Perouse. A l t h o u g h i t becomes e v i d e n t t h a t both M. and Mme de L a Perouse a r e g u i l t y of making each o t h e r s u f f e r , M. de L a Perouse p l a c e s t h e blame e n t i r e l y on h i s w i f e , t h u s p r o m p t i n g her t o be c o n s t a n t l y on t h e d e f e n s i v e . He r e l a t e s t o Edouard t h a t t h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t of the d e t e r i o r a t i o n of t h e i r m a r r i a g e was Mme de La Perouse's o p p o s i t i o n t o him c o n c e r n i n g t h e e d u c a t i o n of t h e i r son: [ C J ' e s t seulement avec l ' e d u c a t i o n de mon f i l s que e e l a a commence a se g a t e r . [NJos i d e e s n ' e t a i e n t pas l e s m§mes sur l ' e d u c a t i o n des e n f a n t s . Chaque f o i s que j e v o u l a i s morigener mon f i l s , madame de L a Perouse p r e n a i t son p a r t i c o n t r e moi; a 1'entendre, i l a u r a i t f a l l u t o u t l u i p a s s e r . I l s se c o n c e r t a i e n t c o n t r e moi. E l l e l u i a p p r e n a i t a m e n t i r . . . . (LFM, pp. 179-80) T h i s s i n g l e p o i n t of c o n t e n t i o n becomes the s t i m u l u s f o r the p e t t y j e a l o u s i e s , i n t o l e r a n c e and s u s p i c i o n s t h a t t r a n s p i r e . M. de L a Perouse a c c u s e s h i s w i f e of j e a l o u s y r e g a r d i n g t h e time he spends r e a d i n g h i s deceased b r o t h e r ' s l e t t e r s . He s t a t e s : "Tout ce q u i s ' a t t a c h a i t a moi, e l l e a t o u j o u r s v o u l u me 1 ' e n l e v e r . . . " (LFM, p. 182). He i s r e p u l s e d by the way i n which she e a t s : "De l a v o i r a t a b l e , en f a c e de moi, se j e t e r sur l e s p l a t s , m'enleve t o u t a p p e t i t " (LFM, p. 237). H i s m i s t r u s t of h i s w i f e ' s a c t i o n s and m o t i v e s b o r d e r s upon p a r a n o i a . He c l a i m s t h a t she s p i e s on him, and t h a t e v e r y t h i n g she says and does i s i n t e n d e d t o c o n t r a d i c t and t h w a r t him: "La grande a f f a i r e pour e l l e , c ' e s t de me 76 c o n t r a r i e r . ... Tout ce q u ' e l l e f a i t de t r a v e r s dans l a v i e , c ' e s t a moi q u ' e l l e en f a i t g r i e f " (LFM, p. 236). These r e c r i m i n a t i o n s i n d i c a t e t h a t M. de La Perouse a t t r i b u t e s h i s s u f f e r i n g and d i s c o n t e n t t o what he p e r c e i v e s t o be w i l l f u l p e r s e c u t i o n on t h e p a r t of h i s w i f e . H i s a n i m o s i t y c u l m i n a t e s i n a d e s i r e t o r i d h i m s e l f of her by p l a c i n g her i n a r e t i r e m e n t home. Mme de L a P e r o u s e 1 s c o m p l a i n t s a r e n e i t h e r as p r o l o n g e d nor as vehement as t h o s e of her husband. W h i l e h i s r e p r o a c h f u l n e s s i s on a p e r s o n a l l e v e l , aimed a t her h a b i t s and demeanor, hers i s a r e f l e c t i o n of the d i s t r e s s she f e e l s a t her husband's contempt and m i s t r u s t of her every motive and a c t i o n . She i s i n d i g n a n t , f o r example, about h i s l a c k of a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r her c a r e and c o n c e r n f o r h i s h e a l t h . D u r i n g her b r i e f c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h Edouard, Mme de La Perouse enumerates th e s e c o n c e r n s , c l a i m i n g t h a t she has t o p l e a d w i t h her husband t o t a k e c a r e of h i m s e l f . Edouard r e p o r t s : "Et e l l e e n t r a l a - d e s s u s dans des r e c r i m i n a t i o n s i n f i n i e s : Le v i e u x r e f u s e de se s o i g n e r par s e u l b e s o i n de l a tourmenter. I l f a i t t o u t ce q u ' i l ne d e v r a i t pas f a i r e , e t ne f a i t r i e n de ce q u ' i l f a u d r a i t . I I s o r t par tous l e s temps, sans j a m a i s c o n s e n t i r a m e t t r e un f o u l a r d . I I r e f u s e de manger aux r e p a s : "Monsieur n'a pas f a i m " , e t e l l e ne s a i t q u o i i n v e n t e r pour s t i m u l e r son a p p e t i t ; mais l a n u i t , i l se r e l e v e e t met sens dessus dessous l a c u i s i n e pour se f r i c o t e r on ne s a i t q u o i . (LFM, p. 233) I t i s her husband's u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o a c c e p t her m i n i s t r a t i o n s and h i s i n d i f f e r e n c e toward her t h a t provoke her d i s p l e a s u r e . 77 Her i n d i g n a t i o n i s e s p e c i a l l y e v i d e n t when she d i s c l o s e s her f e e l i n g s about h i s d e s i r e t o send her away: <<Puis e l i e se p l a i g n a i t que l e v i e u x v o u l Q t l a f a i r e e n t r e r dans une maison de r e t r a i t e ; ce q u i l u i s e r a i t d'autant p l u s p e n i b l e , a j o u t a i t - e l l e , c ' e s t q u ' i l e t a i t p a r f a i t e m e n t i n c a p a b l e de v i v r e s e u l e t de se p a s s e r de ses s o i n s . (LFM, pp. 234-5) Mme de L a Perouse sees h e r s e l f as b e i n g i n d i s p e n s a b l e t o her husband and h i s w e l f a r e . H i s d i s r e g a r d f o r t h i s s e l f -s a c r i f i c e becomes a n o t h e r s o u r c e of her h o s t i l i t y . In r e t a l i a t i o n , she e x h i b i t s an u n r e a s o n a b l e , c h i l d i s h a t t i t u d e . When her husband i n s i s t s t h a t she l e a v e the room so t h a t Edouard and he can be a l o n e , she p r o t e s t s t h a t " l e f a u t e u i l sur l e q u e l e l i e r e s t a i t a s s i s e e t a i t a e l i e , e t q u ' e l l e ne l e q u i t t e r a i t pas" (LFM, p. 235). F u r t h e r on, M. de L a Perouse e x c l a i m s : <<— I m a g i n e r i e z - v o u s que, dans chacune de ces p i e c e s , i l y a des meubles q u i sont a e l i e e t d ' a u t r e s q u i s o n t a moi? Vous l ' a v e z vue t o u t a l ' h e u r e avec son f a u t e u i l . E l i e d i t a l a femme de j o u r n e e , l o r s q u e c e l l e - c i f a i t l e menage: <<Non; c e c i e s t a M o n s i e u r ; n'y touchez pas.>> (LFM, p. 237) T h i s t e r r i t o r i a l b e h a v i o r a r i s e s from Mme de L a P e r o u s e 1 s d e s i r e t o defend and a s s e r t h e r s e l f ; she does not meekly submit t o her husband's a t t e m p t s t o e f f a c e her by p l a c i n g her i n a r e t i r e m e n t home. The decry s t a l l i z a t i o n of the de La Perouse u n i o n i s p r e s e n t e d m a i n l y from the p e r s p e c t i v e s of M. de L a Perouse, 78 who speaks through Edouard's j o u r n a l , and Edouard. We must, t h e r e f o r e , be doubly c a u t i o u s about f o r m i n g an o p i n i o n of Mme de La Perouse's c h a r a c t e r . Other than i n a few d i r e c t l y q u o t e d s e n t e n c e s from her c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h Edouard (LFM, pp. 232-5) , we l e a r n n o t h i n g about her c h a r a c t e r " f i r s t hand" o r from an o b j e c t i v e p o i n t of view. When Mme de La Perouse i s not b e i n g m a l i c i o u s l y d e p i c t e d by her husband, her " r e c r i m i n a t i o n s i n f i n i e s " and c o m p l a i n t s — " e l l e se p l a i g n a i t " — a r e s c r u t i n i z e d and p r e s e n t e d from the b i a s e d v i e w p o i n t of Edouard. In f a c t , Edouard openly admits h i s p r e j u d i c e : "...mais ( e s t - c e parce que j e s u i s prevenu c o n t r e e l l e ) , s e s t r a i t s m'ont paru p l u s d u r s , son r e g a r d p l u s a i g r e , son s o u r i r e p l u s f a u x que j a m a i s " (LFM, p. 232). Edouard's w i l l t o v i l i f y Mme de L a Perouse and p l a c e her husband i n a f a v o u r a b l e l i g h t becomes o b v i o u s when he a f f i r m s h i s w i s h t o r e f r a i n from j u d g i n g t h e o l d c o u p l e , t h e n promptly c o n t r a d i c t s h i m s e l f i n t h e f o l l o w i n g p h y s i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n of Mme de L a Perouse: <<Sous sa perruque a bandeaux n o i r s q u i d u r c i t l e s t r a i t s de son v i s a g e b l a f a r d , avec ses lon g u e s m i t a i n e s n o i r e s d'ou s o r t e n t des p e t i t s d o i g t s comme des g r i f f e s , madame de L a Perouse p r e n a i t un a s p e c t de h a r p i e . (LFM, p. 234) The f a c t t h a t Edouard compares her t o a h a r p i e , which i n Greek mythology i s an e v i l , p r e d a t o r y c r e a t u r e , c r e a t e s the i m p r e s s i o n t h a t Mme de L a Perouse i s a s i n i s t e r shrew who pr e y s upon her i n n o c e n t husband. T h i s would conform t o 79 her husband's a s s e r t i o n t h a t e v e r y t h i n g she says and does i s i n t e n d e d t o c o n t r a d i c t and torment him. In r e a l i t y , however, i t i s Mme de L a Perouse who i s v i c t i m i z e d by her husband when he f i n a l l y succeeds i n h a v i n g her a d m i t t e d t o t h e r e t i r e m e n t home. A l t h o u g h Edouard's r e f e r e n c e t o Mme de La Perouse as a " h a r p i e " i s i r o n i c and u n f a i r and i t i s o b v i o u s t h a t he i s p a r t i a l t o h i s o l d music t e a c h e r , we a r e c o m p e l l e d t o agree w i t h the i d e a s he e x p r e s s e s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g commentary: I I r e s t e que v o i c i deux d t r e s , a t t a c h e s l ' u n a 1' a u t r e pour l a v i e , e t q u i se f o n t abominablement s o u f f r i r . J ' a i souvent remarque, chez des c o n j o i n t s , q u e l l e i n t o l e r a b l e i r r i t a t i o n e n t r e t i e n t chez l ' u n l a p l u s p e t i t e p r o t u b e r a n c e du c a r a c t e r e de 1 ' a u t r e , p a r c e que l a " v i e commune" f a i t f r o t t e r c e l l e - c i t o u j o u r s au meme e n d r o i t . Et s i l e f r o t t e m e n t e s t r£ciproque, l a v i e c o n j u g a l e n'est p l u s qu'un e n f e r . (LFM, p. 234) The mutual l i f e t h a t the de L a Perouses have e s t a b l i s h e d does in d e e d resemble " h e l l " i n t h a t i t i s u n d e r s c o r e d by d i s t r e s s , mental a n g u i s h and d e s p a i r . T h i s " h e l l i s h " e x i s t e n c e i s t h e end r e s u l t of the d e c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n of t h e i r l o v e and m a r i t a l harmony, the f i n a l s t age t h a t b r i n g s w i t h i t mental d e t e r i o r a t i o n . Mme de La Perouse ends up i n a r e t i r e m e n t home, s u f f e r i n g from the h y s t e r i c a l d e l u s i o n t h a t she has been i n c a r c e r a t e d i n an " a s i l e d ' a l i 6 n 6 s " , and t h a t her husband v i s i t s o n l y t o spy on her (LFM, p. 3 5 9 ) . S i m i l a r l y , M. de L a Perouse l i v e s out t h e f i n a l days of h i s e x i s t e n c e a t the p e n s i o n , where he i s kept awake a t n i g h t by an i n c e s s a n t , 80 u n i d e n t i f i a b l e noise from within the wall. (LFM, pp. 5 0 2 - 3 ) . The pathos of their s i t u a t i o n i s consummated i n M. de La Perouse's l a s t b i t t e r lament concerning love and marriage: <<— Eh bien! accordez-moi que c'est une t r i s t e chose, lorsque l'amour, au l i e u de f a i r e l a f£licite de l a vie, en devient l a calamity... (LFM, p. 360) A l i f e t i m e of distress and resignation culminates i n b i t t e r disappointment for Mme de La Perouse and i n mystical escapism for Mme Vedel. Both women have spent t h e i r l i v e s confined to a s i t u a t i o n fausse, or a s i t u a t i o n that impedes the expression and development of the s e l f . Mme Vedel's abnegation and Mme de La Perouse's s e l f - s a c r i f i c e have ultimately brought them to the point of exhibiting signs of mental derangement. Furthermore, there are many p a r a l l e l s i n the l i v e s of Marguerite and Pauline, the most obvious of which i s the evolution of t h i s same, r e s t r i c t i v e s i t u a t i o n  fausse. Their circumstances are so similar to those i n the l i v e s of th e i r older counterparts that, should they continue along their present voie, i t i s probable that they w i l l meet the same fate. Laura holds a special status i n our discussion of archetypes because the stage at which she has arrived i n l i f e puts her in the position of becoming what either Pauline, Marguerite, Mme Vedel or Mme de La Perouse already are. It i s easy to recognize that the basic t r a i t s of a l l the 81 a r c h e t y p a l women h a v e b e e n i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o L a u r a ' s c h a r a c t e r . L a u r a ' s " d e f a i l l a n c e p a s s a g e r e " i n P a u f t h e r e s u l t i n g i l l i g i t i m a t e p r e g n a n c y * a nd h e r r e p e n t a n t r e t u r n t o h e r h u s b a n d a r e a r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e same c o u r s e o f e v e n t s e x p e r i e n c e d by M a r g u e r i t e . A t t h e same t i m e , t h e c l e a r l y s t a t e d f a c t t h a t L a u r a h a s m a r r i e d a n i n f e r i o r , r e c o g n i z e s h i s m e d i o c r i t y a n d a t t e m p t s t o p a l l i a t e h i s d e f i c i e n c i e s i n b o t h h e r own e y e s a n d t h e e y e s o f o t h e r s e c h o e s a l m o s t p r e c i s e l y t h e same s c e n a r i o we w i t n e s s e d i n t h e c a s e o f P a u l i n e . L a u r a ' s r e t u r n t o D o u v i e r s n e a r t h e end o f t h e n o v e l n o t o n l y i n d i c a t e s r e s i g n a t i o n t o t h e same s o r t o f s i t u a t i o n f a u s s e e n d u r e d by P a u l i n e and M a r g u e r i t e , b u t a l s o s u g g e s t s t h a t s h e i s d e s t i n e d f o r t h e same f a t e a s Mme V e d e l and Mme de L a P e r o u s e : a t r o p h y a n d e v e n t u a l a n n i h i l a t i o n o f t h e a u t h e n t i c s e l f . A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e n o v e l , we l e a r n t h a t L a u r a h a s r e c e n t l y m a r r i e d a n d j u s t d i s c o v e r e d t h a t s h e i s p r e g n a n t . T h i s commonplace s i t u a t i o n i s c o m p l i c a t e d by c i r c u m s t a n c e s w h i c h come t o c o n s t i t u t e a m a j o r c r i s i s a n d t u r n i n g p o i n t i n h e r l i f e : t h e c h i l d i s t h e r e s u l t o f h e r i l l i c i t a f f a i r w i t h V i n c e n t . Her p r e d i c a m e n t p l a c e s h e r a t t h e c r o s s r o a d s o f t h e c l a s s i c , G i d i a n d i l e m m a o f c h o o s i n g b e t w e e n a u t h e n t i c i t y and f a u s s e m o n n a i e , f r e e d o m and s o c i a l c o n f o r m i t y . The manner i n w h i c h s h e v i e w s h e r o p t i o n s a n d c h o o s e s h e r p a t h i n l i f e becomes a n i m p o r t a n t v o y a g e o f s e l f - d i s c o v e r y , s y m b o l i z e d by h e r a c t u a l v o y a g e f r o m P a r i s , t o P au, t o S a a s - F e e , b a c k t o P a r i s a n d on t o h e r f i n a l 82 d e s t i n a t i o n : upon r e t u r n i n g t o England, she i s r e u n i t e d w i t h her husband and committed t o t h e m a r r i a g e and motherhood f o r which her r e l i g i o u s , upper m i d d l e - c l a s s e d u c a t i o n has p r e p a r e d h e r . I t i s t h e b o u r g e o i s i d e o l o g y of f e m i n i n e v i r t u e t h a t i s t h e f o c a l p o i n t of L a u r a ' s c h a r a c t e r , and t h e c r u x of her d i s t r e s s f u l p r e d i c a m e n t ; t h e r i g i d v i r t u e women a r e f o r c e d t o assume l e a v e s them h e l p l e s s , d e f e n s e l e s s when c o n f r o n t e d w i t h a dilemma t h a t i s a t odds w i t h s o c i e t y ' s r u l e s and v a l u e s . L a u r a ' s case, then, t i e s i n w e l l w i t h the concept of desencadrement, or depaysement, a s t a t e i n w h i c h the p e r s o n i s r e n d e r e d weak and d e f e n s e l e s s when o u t s i d e of the s e c u r e and f a m i l i a r framework of h i s or her s o c i a l m i l i e u . The n o t i o n of desencadrement i s a l l e g o r i z e d i n V i n c e n t ' s e x p l a n a t i o n of the two t y p e s of ocean f i s h — t h e s t e n o h a l i n s and t h e e u r y h a l i n s — and t h e i r a b i l i t y , or i n a b i l i t y , t o s u r v i v e i n water of v a r y i n g degrees of s a l i n i t y (LFM, pp. 221-2). L i l l i a n e x p l a i n s t o P a s s a v a n t : V i n c e n t d i t q u ' i l y a des especes de p o i s s o n s q u i c r e v e n t quand 1'eau d e v i e n t p l u s s a l e e , ou moins, e t q u ' i l y en a d ' a u t r e s au c o n t r a i r e q u i s u p p o r t e n t des degr£s de s a l a i s o n v a r i e e , e t q u i se t i e n n e n t au b o r d des c o u r a n t s , l a ou 1'eau d e v i e n t moins sal£e, pour manger l e s p r e m i e r s quand i l s f a i b l i s s e n t . (LFM, p. 79) T h i s a l l e g o r y extends t o L a u r a ' s case, d e p i c t i n g her s t a y a t t h e s a n i t o r i u m i n Pau, where she went t o r e c o v e r from t u b e r c u l o s i s . In Pau, she i s d i s c o n n e c t e d from her f a m i l y and her p a s t ; she i s o u t s i d e of her s e c u r e environment, i n a 83 new element t h a t i s d i s o r i e n t i n g , where she i s easy prey t o both her own i n s t i n c t s (her i n n e r d r i v e t o abandon h e r s e l f t o freedom, t o be d i s p o n i b l e ) and t o the w i l l of o t h e r s . The anonymity r e s u l t i n g from L a u r a ' s d i s p l a c e m e n t , c o u p l e d w i t h t h e b e l i e f t h a t she w i l l soon d i e of t u b e r c u l o s i s , make i l l i c i t sex w i t h V i n c e n t seem l i k e an a c t e g r a t u i t , an a c t whereby she can compromise v i r t u e and e x e r c i s e freedom w i t h o u t f e a r of r e p r o a c h or p e n a l t y . L a u r a f a i l s t o acknowledge, however, t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of both s u r v i v a l and pregnancy. Thus she f i n d s h e r s e l f back i n P a r i s , pregnant w i t h an i l l e g i t i m a t e c h i l d , abandoned by V i n c e n t , a l o n e and i n a s t a t e of d e s p a i r . When V i n c e n t , her " l a s t hope", abandons her, the s i t u a t i o n d e g e n e r a t e s r a t h e r than improves. Having v e n t u r e d i n t o an element t o which she cannot adapt, L a u r a f i n d s h e r s e l f s t r u g g l i n g t o s u r v i v e " s o c i a l l y " . She e v e n t u a l l y t i r e s , g i v e s up s t r u g g l i n g and a n x i o u s l y w a i t s f o r f a t e t o choose her outcome. I t i s i n such a s t a t e t h a t we f i n d her i n her h o t e l room, w a i t i n g and wondering i f and when Edouard w i l l a r r i v e t o a s s i s t h e r : [El l i e a t t e n d a i t confusement quelque chose ou quelqu'un q u i v i n t l a t i r e r de 1'impasse. E l l e a v a i t f a i t f a u s s e r o u t e , a n'en pas d o u t e r ; e l l e se s e n t a i t f o u r v o y e e . E l l e a v a i t l a t r i s t e h a b i t u d e de compter sur l'evenement p l u s que sur elle-nveme. E l l e n 1 e t a i t pas sans v e r t u , mais se s e n t a i t sans f o r c e aucune, abandonnee. (LFM, p. 189) A l t h o u g h c l e a r l y connected t o what has t r a n s p i r e d 84 between V i n c e n t and h e r s e l f , L a u r a ' s weakness and sense of abandonment l i e more i n t h e f a c t t h a t she cannot seek s o l a c e from her f a m i l y and t h e c o m f o r t a b l e f a m i l i a r i t y of home. The n a t u r e of her predicament f o r b i d s her t o l e a n on t h o s e whose s u p p o r t she would b e n e f i t from the most: "Ceux sur q u i j e v o u d r a i s p o u v o i r m'appuyer, c ' e s t a eux s u r t o u t que j e d o i s cacher ma d e t r e s s e . Mon ami, j e s u i s dans une grande d e t r e s s e " (LFM, p. 105). She f e e l s she cannot r e t u r n t o D o u v i e r s because she i s unworthy of h i s k i n d n e s s and mercy: "Je n'ose r e t o u r n e r p r e s de l u i . Je ne peux pas. Je ne veux pas. I I e s t bon. I I me p a r d o n n e r a i t sans doute e t j e ne m e r i t e pas, j e ne veux pas q u ' i l me pardonne" (LFM, p. 105) . As f o r her m o r a l l y i r r e p r o a c h a b l e f a m i l y , c o n f e s s i n g her t r a n s g r e s s i o n s t o them i s even more f o r m i d a b l e t h a n d o i n g so t o D o u v i e r s : "Mon p e r e . . . s e r a i t c a p a b l e de me maudire. I I me r e p o u s s e r a i t . Comment a f f r o n t e r a i s - j e sa v e r t u , son h o r r e u r du mal, du mensonge, de t o u t ce q u i e s t impur? J ' a i peur a u s s i de d e s o l e r ma mere e t ma s o e u r " (LFM, p. 105). The n a r r a t o r c o n f i r m s t h a t L a u r a ' s weakness and h e l p l e s s n e s s a r e the symptoms of b e i n g d isengaged from husband, f a m i l y and s o c i a l m i l i e u when he a l l u d e s t o t h e phenomenon of desencadrement and e x p l a i n s i t s e f f e c t on L a u r a : " . . . e l l e a v a i t b e s o i n , pour prendre a p p u i , des convenances, e t se s e n t a i t sans f o r c e d e p u i s q u ' e l l e e t a i t d e sencadree" (LFM, pp. 263). L a u r a ' s e m o t i o n a l weakness and dependency a r e conveyed t h r o u g h her p h y s i c a l r e a c t i o n s i n the scene i n which B e r n a r d 85 f i r s t f i n d s her i n her h o t e l room. He b o l d l y e n t e r s and announces h i m s e l f as O l i v i e r M o l i n i e r ' s f r i e n d , q u a l i f y i n g O l i v i e r as " f r e r e de V i n c e n t , v o t r e amant, q u i lSchement vous abandonne..." (LFM, p. 190). L a u r a ' s p h y s i c a l response r e v e a l s t h e e m o t i o n a l impact of t h i s brusque i n v a s i o n of her p r i v a c y : L a u r a c h a n c e l a i t . Ses deux mains rejet£es en a r r i e r e c h e r c h a i e n t anxieusement un a p p u i . Mais ce q u i b o u l v e r s a p a r - d e s s u s t o u t B e r n a r d , ce f u t l e gemissement q u ' e l l e poussa; une s o r t e de p l a i n t e a p e i n e humaine, s e m b l a b l e p l u t 6 t a c e l l e d'un g i b i e r blesse" ( e t s o u d a i n l e chasseur prend honte en se s e n t a n t b o u r r e a u ) , c r i s i b i z a r r e , s i d i f f e r e n t de t o u t ce que B e r n a r d p o u v a i t a t t e n d r e , qu' i l f r i s s o n a . . . . Mais L a u r a , h a l e t a n t e , se s e n t d e f a i l l i r . E l l e c herche des yeux ou s ' a s s e o i r . B e r n a r d . . . a c o m p r i s son r e g a r d . I I b o n d i t v e r s un p e t i t f a u t e u i l . . . . (LFM, pp. 190-1) In t h e v u l n e r a b l e p o s i t i o n of not knowing who B e r n a r d i s — helpmate or a d v e r s a r y ? — nor how he has d i s c o v e r e d t h e i n t i m a t e d e t a i l s of her s i t u a t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o V i n c e n t , L a u r a becomes p h y s i c a l l y weak. She sways and s t a g g e r s , l o o k i n g f o r an " a p p u i " . The v e r b " d e f a i l l i r " conveys th e sense of p h y s i c a l l y f a i n t i n g , or f e e l i n g f a i n t , as w e l l as weakening and f a l t e r i n g as a r e s u l t of l o s i n g one's moral s t r e n g t h and courage. T h i s p h y s i c a l imagery used t o d e p i c t L a u r a ' s mental and e m o t i o n a l s t a t e i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the a l l e g o r y of the f i s h i n v a r y i n g degrees of s a l t w a t e r . Her weakness and h e l p l e s s n e s s p l a c e h e r : "sur l e s c o n f i n s des grands c o u r a n t s , ou l a d e n s i t y des eaux change, l a ou 86 v i e n n e n t a g o n i s e r l e s s t e n o h a l i n s " (LFM f p. 222). I t i s , f u r t h e r m o r e , s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t B e r n a r d " l e a p s " t o L a u r a ' s r e s c u e as she i s about t o f a i n t . H i s s t a t u s as " f r i e n d " i s hereby e s t a b l i s h e d : he i s not one of the e u r y h a l i n s " q u i se t i e n n e n t au bord des c o u r a n t s " t o prey on t h e s t e n o h a l i n s "quand i l s f a i b l i s s e n t " (LFM, pp. 7 8 - 9 ) . A l t h o u g h B e r n a r d c o n f i r m s h i m s e l f as L a u r a ' s helpmate, i t i s fidouard who a c t u a l l y " s a ves" h er by p u l l i n g her out of the "impasse". When fidouard and she f i n a l l y have the o p p o r t u n i t y t o speak w i t h each o t h e r a l o n e , L a u r a ' s r e l i e f m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f i n t h i s e m o t i o n a l r e l e a s e : J ' a i v£cu seulement pour vous a t t e n d r e . Par moments, j e n'en p o u v a i s p l u s . . . . Et e l i e r e d o u b l a i t de s a n g l o t s en c r i a n t p resque, mais d'une v o i x t o u t e t r a n g l ^ e . — Emmenez-moi. Emmenez-moi. (LFM, p. 197) Edouard responds t o the above p l e a by becoming L a u r a ' s e m o t i o n a l and s p i r i t u a l chaperone on her voyage of s e l f -d i s c o v e r y , a voyage p a r a l l e l e d and s y m b o l i z e d by t h e i r a c t u a l voyage t o Saas-Fee. L a u r a ' s d e c i s i o n t o e n t r u s t Edouard w i t h t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of s o l v i n g her predicament becomes a f a t a l e r r o r w i t h r e s p e c t t o the s u r v i v a l of her a u t h e n t i c s e l f . T h i s i n n e r death i s s y m b o l i c a l l y foreshadowed by B e r n a r d ' s f i r s t image of L a u r a : "Laura e t a i t v§tue t r e s simplement, t o u t de n o i r ; on 1'eQt d i t en d e u i l " (LFM, p. 189). The e r r o r r e s i d e s i n L a u r a ' s f a i l u r e t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t Edouard i s 87 a f a u x ami who has b e t r a y e d and abandoned her i n the p a s t . T h i s same p a t t e r n of b e t r a y a l and abandonment r e c u r s i n h i s t r e a t m e n t of her d u r i n g t h e i r s t a y i n Saas-Fee, and p r e c i p i t a t e s her r e t u r n t o D o u v i e r s and subsequent l o s s of her a u t h e n t i c s e l f . Edouard f i r s t b e t r a y e d L a u r a by awakening i n her a l o v e t h a t he becomes r e l u c t a n t , and e v e n t u a l l y r e f u s e s , t o r e c i p r o c a t e . I t would appear i n h i s j o u r n a l e n t r y of October 18 t h a t , a t one t i m e , Edouard c o n s i d e r e d L a u r a to be h i s s o u l mate, the l o v e of h i s l i f e . H i s r e v e r e n c e f o r her and t h e n a t u r e of her p r o f o u n d i n f l u e n c e on him are e x p r e s s e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g passage: L a u r a ne semble pas se douter de sa p u i s s a n c e ; pour moi q u i p e n e t r e dans l e s e c r e t de mon coeur, j e s a i s b i e n que j u s q u ' a ce j o u r , j e n ' a i pas e c r i t une l i g n e q u ' e l l e n ' a i t i n d i r e c t e m e n t i n s p i r e e ... t o u t e l ' h a b i l e t e de mon d i s c o u r s , j e ne l a d o i s qu'a mon d e s i r c o n s t a n t de l ' i n s t r u i r e , de l a c o n v a i n c r e , de l a s e d u i r e . (LFM, p.108) Edouard ends t h i s eulogy t o L a u r a by c o n f i d i n g t h a t h i s p e r s o n a l i t y became i n v o l u n t a r i l y a l t e r e d by an overwhelming tendency t o shape, or f a s h i o n h i m s e l f a f t e r h e r : Par q u e l l e i l l u s i o n a i - j e pu c r o i r e j u s q u ' a ce j o u r que j e l a f a c o n n a i s a ma ressemblance? T a n d i s qu'au c o n t r a i r e c ' e s t moi q u i me p l i a i s a l a s i e n n e . . . (LFM, p. 108) He c o n c l u d e s : "Quiconque aime v r a i m e n t renonce a l a s i n c e r i t e . " (LFM, p. 108) In t h e next p a r a g r a p h , however, Edouard denounces L a u r a f o r p r e c i s e l y the same l a p s e of s i n c e r i t y t h a t he so a r d e n t l y r o m a n t i c i z e d when examing h i s own p e r s o n a l i t y . He w r i t e s : 88 <<C'est a i n s i q u ' e l l e m'a donne l e change . . . j e ne s a v a i s p a s que ce n ' e t a i t que p a r amour p o u r m o i q u ' e l l e s ' i n t e r e s s a i t s i p a s s i o n n e m e n t a t o u t c e d o n t e l l e me v o y a i t m ' e p r e n d r e . . . <<Je ne m ' o r n a i s e t ne me p a r a i s que p o u r t o i > > , d i r a - t - e l l e . P r e c i s e m e n t , j ' a u r a i s v o u l u q u e ce ne f u t que p o u r e l l e e t q u ' e l l e c e d a t , ce f a i s a n t , a q u e l q u e i n t i m e b e s o i n p e r s o n n e l . M a i s de t o u t c e l a , q u ' e l l e a j o u t a i t a e l l e p o u r m o i , r i e n ne r e s t e r a , p a s meme un r e g r e t , p a s meme l e s e n t i m e n t d'un manque. Un j o u r v i e n t ou l ' e t r e v r a i r e p a r a i t , que l e temps l e n t e m e n t d e s h a b i l l e de t o u s s e s v e t e m e n t s d ' e m p r u n t ; e t , s i c ' e s t de c e s o r n e m e n t s que 1 ' a u t r e e s t e p r i s , i l ne p r e s s e p l u s c o n t r e s o n c o e u r qu'une p a r u r e d e s h a b i t e e , qu'un s o u v e n i r . . . que du d e u i l e t du d e s e s p o i r . <<Ah! de c o m b i e n de v e r t u s , de c o m b i e n de p e r f e c t i o n s l ' a i - j e o r n e e ! (LFM, pp. 108-9) A p a r t f r o m t h e c r u e l t y o f t h i s a b r u p t r e v e r s a l o f E d o u a r d ' s f e e l i n g s , what i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e a r e h i s s e l f - d e c e p t i o n a n d d o u b l e s t a n d a r d ; i n c o n d e m n i n g L a u r a ' s " h y p o c r i s y " he d o e s n o t e v e n s e e h i s own r e f l e x i o n i n t h e p i c t u r e he h a s j u s t p a i n t e d o f h e r . E d o u a r d 1 s s e l f - d e c e p t i o n becomes more p r o n o u n c e d when he a t t e m p t s t o j u s t i f y and a g g r a n d i z e h i s d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t w i t h L a u r a by i m b u i n g i t w i t h p h i l o s o p h i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l i m p o r t t h r o u g h a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f t h e s l o w d e c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n v e r s u s t h e r a p i d c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n o f l o v e . 2 (LFM, pp. 110-12) E d o u a r d f u r t h e r b e t r a y s L a u r a by c o u n s e l l i n g h e r t o m a r r y D o u v i e r s . I n w r i t i n g a b o u t t h e s l o w d e c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n o f l o v e , E d o u a r d s t a t e s : I I n'y a u r a p as a c r a i n d r e c e l a p o u r L a u r a , c e r t e s ( e t c ' e s t t a n t m i e u x ) , s i e l l e e p o u s e F e l i x D o u v i e r s , a i n s i que l e l u i c o n s e i l l e n t l a r a i s o n , s a f a m i l l e e t moi-meme. D o u v i e r s e s t un t r e s h o n n e t e p r o f e s s e u r , p l e i n de m e r i t e s , e t t r e s c a p a b l e dans s a p a r t i e ( i l me r e v i e n t q u ' i l e s t t r e s a p p r e c i e p a r s e s e l e v e s ) — e n q u i L a u r a v a d e c o u v r i r , a 1 ' u s a g e , d ' a u t a n t p l u s de v e r t u s q u ' e l l e s 1 i l l u s i o n n e r a m o i n s p a r a v a n c e ; q u a n d e l l e p a r l e de l u i , j e t r o u v e meme q u e , d a n s l a 89 louange, e l i e r e s t e p l u t o t en deca. D o u v i e r s v a u t mieux que ce q u ' e l l e c r o i t . (LFM, p. I l l ) The q u a l i t i e s t h a t Edouard a t t r i b u t e s t o D o u v i e r s i n the above passage and h i s i m p l i e d d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o c o n v i n c e L a u r a of h i s w o r t h i n e s s a r e i n bad f a i t h . We l e a r n l a t e r t h a t Edouard i n f a c t h o l d s D o u v i e r s i n contempt. In h i s j o u r n a l e n t r y of November 2, f o r example, he openly admits D o u v i e r s ' " i n s u f f i c i e n c y " : "Je sens j e ne s a i s q u o i d ' i n s u f f i s a n t chez D o u v i e r s , d ' a b s t r a i t e t de j o b a r d . " (LFM, p. 143) I n r e l a t i n g the c o n v e r s a t i o n they shared, he makes a p o i n t of c o n v e y i n g D o u v i e r s ' o b s e q u i o u s n e s s and t h e b a n a l i t y of h i s s e n t i m e n t s . Edouard's tone i s condescending, p a r t i c u l a r l y when he s t a t e s : ". . . i l m'agacait. J ' a i neanmoins s e r r e l e p l u s chaleureusement que j ' a i pu l a main q u ' i l me t e n d a i t . " (LFM, p. 144) Toward th e end of t h i s r e p o r t , Edouard has t h e a r r o g a n c e and t h e g a l l t o pronounce: "Mais s i j e ne p u i s d e v e n i r son ami, du moins j e c r o i s q u ' i l f e r a un e x c e l l e n t m a r i pour L a u r a ; c a r , somme t o u t e , ce sont i c i s u r t o u t ses q u a l i t e s que j e l u i r e p r o c h e . " (LFM, p. 145) Edouard's t r u e o p i n i o n of D o u v i e r s not o n l y p u t s t o q u e s t i o n h i s l o y a l t y and s i n c e r i t y as a f r i e n d , but a l s o bears t h e stamp of a s e l f - s e r v i n g u l t e r i o r m o t i v e . We soon d i s c o v e r t h a t Edouard's sudden change of f e e l i n g was i n d e e d m o t i v a t e d by s e l f - i n t e r e s t r a t h e r than by a sudden f l a s h of r e a l i z a t i o n and n o b l e d e s i r e t o do what i s b e s t f o r L a u r a . E x a c t l y f i f t e e n days a f t e r the above e n t r i e s , Edouard w r i t e s on November 1: I I y a q u i n z e j o u r s . . . — j ' a i eu t o r t de ne pas n o t e r c e l a a u s s i t 6 t . Ce n'est pas que l e 90 temps m ' a i t manque* mais j ' a v a i s l e coeur encore p l e i n de L a u r a -- ou p l u s exactement j e v o u l a i s ne p o i n t d i s t r a i r e d ' e l l e ma pensee; . . . mais j e sens b i e n , e t j ' a i beau m'en de f e n d r e , que l a f i g u r e d ' O l i v i e r aimante a u j o u r d ' h u i mes pensees, q u ' e l l e i n c l i n e l e u r c o u r s e t que, sans t e n i r compte de l u i , j e ne p o u r r a i s n i t o u t a f a i t b i e n m ' e x p l i q u e r , n i t o u t a f a i t b i e n me comprendre. (LFM, pp. 129-30) In l i g h t of the above d i s c l o s u r e , i t becomes o b v i o u s t h a t Edouard's brusque r e j e c t i o n of Laura, h i s elaborate j u s t i f i c a t i o n and t h e d e c e i t f u l manner i n whi c h he persuades her t o marry D o u v i e r s c o n s t i t u t e no more than a c o n v e n i e n t means of d i s e n t a n g l i n g h i m s e l f from a c o m p l i c a t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t he, r a t h e r than L a u r a , i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i n i t i a t i n g ; t h e r e s u l t i n g s t a t e of a f f a i r s l e a v e s Edouard f r e e t o pursue h i s r o m a n t i c i n t e r e s t s i n O l i v i e r . The manner i n whi c h Edouard t r a n s f e r s h i s l o v e and re v e r e n c e from L a u r a t o O l i v i e r i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h i s passage from fidouard's j o u r n a l , November 1: Des que j e l e v i s , ce prem i e r j o u r , des q u ' i l se f u t a s s i s a l a t a b l e de f a m i l l e , des mon premier r e g a r d , ou p l u s exactement des son prem i e r r e g a r d , j ' a i s e n t i que ce r e g a r d s ' e m p a r a i t de moi e t que j e ne d i s p o s a l s p l u s de ma v i e . (LFM, p. 139) The p e r s i s t e n t r e c u r r e n c e of the word "des" emphasizes t h e r a p i d i t y and completeness of Edouard's a c t of s u b s t i t u t i o n . More i m p o r t a n t l y , t he above statement i s f o l l o w e d , on November 2, by t h i s b i t t e r l a m e n t a t i o n : <<Admirable p r o p e n s i o n au devouement, chez l a femme. L'homme q u ' e l l e aime n ' e s t , l e p l u s souvent, pour e l l e , qu'une s o r t e de p a t e r e a q u o i suspendre son amour. Avec q u e l l e s i n c e r e f a c i l i t e L a u r a opere l a s u b s t i t u t i o n ! J e comprends q u ' e l l e epouse D o u v i e r s ; j ' a i e t e un des p r e m i e r s a l e l u i c o n s e i l l e r . Mais j ' e t a i s en d r o i t d ' e s perer un peu 91 de c h a g r i n . L e m a r i a g e a l i e u d ans t r o i s j o u r s . (LFM, p. 145) I n r e l a t i o n t o t h e p r e v i o u s p a s s a g e , t h i s one b r i n g s E d o u a r d ' s s e l f - d e c e p t i o n and e g o i s m s h a r p l y i n t o f o c u s . H i s s e l f - i n d u l g e n c e , h i s p l e a f o r p i t y a r e i r o n i c , u n f a i r and a p p a l l i n g when we s t o p t o c o n s i d e r t h a t i t i s , c o n v e r s e l y , L a u r a who h a s b een a b r u p t l y d i s p o s s e s s e d o f l o v e and d e v o t i o n a n d h a s t i l y r e p l a c e d by O l i v i e r . The i n j u s t i c e on E d o u a r d ' s p a r t i s f u r t h e r h e i g h t e n e d by t h e f a c t t h a t he emerges t r i u m p h a n t : he h a s f o u n d a n o b j e c t w o r t h y o f h i s l o v e . Nowhere, on t h e o t h e r h a n d , do we w i t n e s s a s i m i l a r e x p r e s s i o n o f a d o r a t i o n f o r D o u v i e r s on t h e p a r t o f L a u r a a t m o s t , we s e n s e a c c e p t a n c e , r e s i g n a t i o n and p e r h a p s a c e r t a i n l e v e l o f e s t e e m . A l t h o u g h t h i s f i r s t s e q u e n c e o f b e t r a y a l and abandonment d r i v e s L a u r a t o w a r d m a k i n g t h e g r e a t m i s t a k e of h e r l i f e m a r r y i n g D o u v i e r s — i t a l s o p r o v o k e s i n a d v e r t e n t l y b o t h t h e d e s p a i r and s e n s e o f r e b e l l i o n n e c e s s a r y t o c o m p r o m i s e h e r v i r t u e and commit t h e l i b e r a t i n g a c t o f p a s s i o n ( h e r e x c e s , h e r p a s s e r o u t r e ) i n Pau. The n a r r a t o r comments: . . . l o r s q u ' e l l e se rem£morait l e p a s s e , i l l u i p a r a i s s a i t q u ' E d o u a r d l ' a v a i t tromp£e en e v e i l l a n t e n e l l e un amour q u ' e l l e s e n t a i t e n c o r e v i v a c e , p u i s e n se d e r o b a n t a c e t amour e t e n l e l a i s s a n t s a n s e m p l o i . N ' e t a i t - c e p a s l a l e s e c r e t m o t i f de s e s e r r e u r s , de s o n m a r i a g e a v e c D o u v i e r s , a u q u e l e l l e s ' e t a i t r£sign£e, a u q u e l E d o u a r d l ' a v a i t c o n d u i t e ; p u i s de s o n l a i s s e r a l l e r , s i t & t e n s u i t e , aux s o l l i c i t a t i o n s du p r i n t e m p s ? C a r , e l l e d e v a i t b i e n se l ' a v o u e r , d a n s l e s b r a s de V i n c e n t , c ' e t a i t E d o u a r d e n c o r e q u ' e l l e c h e r c h a i t . (LFM, p. 264) 92 The e m a n c i p a t i n g f o r c e o f t h i s a c t , h o w e v e r , becomes t r u n c a t e d by t h e m a g n i t u d e o f t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s ; i l l e g i t i m a t e p r e g n a n c y c a n n o t e a s i l y be accommodated a t t h e p r e c a r i o u s s t a g e s o f h e r f i r s t s t e p s t o w a r d f r e e d o m and s e l f - d i s c o v e r y . To r e v e r t b a c k t o t h e w a t e r a n a l o g i e s , t h e v a r i a t i o n i n s a l i n i t y h a s become t o o s e v e r e a n d c a n no l o n g e r be e n d u r e d . L a u r a g a s p s f o r h e l p ; s h e needs a s a v i o u r t o p u l l h e r up i n t o t h e l i f e b o a t . T h i s i s w h e r e E d o u a r d i n t e r v e n e s t o e x e c u t e h i s s e c o n d a c t o f b e t r a y a l — t o g u i d e h e r b a c k t o w a r d v i r t u e , p i e t y , D o u v i e r s and t h e f a m i l y h e a r t h , h e r p r o p e r p l a c e i n s o c i e t y . T h a t E d o u a r d c o n c e d e s t o " l e a d " L a u r a t o t h e r e s o l u t i o n o f h e r c r i s i s i s p e r h a p s t h e g r e a t i r o n y and t r a g e d y o f h e r l i f e . E d o u a r d p r o p o s e s t h a t s h e accompany him on t h e v o y a g e t o S a a s - F e e . H i s i n t e n t i o n s a r e t o a l l o w h e r a n i n t e r v a l o f t i m e t o r e g a i n h e r c o m p o s u r e so t h a t s h e c a n make t h e " r i g h t " d e c i s i o n s . F o r L a u r a , S a a s - F e e l i t e r a l l y becomes t h e p l a c e w h e r e ca se f a i t . Her s e n s e o f v i r t u e r e p o s s e s s e s h e r . She f e e l s u n e a s y b e i n g i n t h e h o t e l w i t h E d o u a r d a n d B e r n a r d u n d e r w h a t m i g h t a p p e a r t o be m o r a l l y q u e s t i o n a b l e c i r c u m s t a n c e s . T h i s m a l a i s e and f e a r k e e p h e r i n a s t a t e o f w e a k n e s s and v u l n e r a b i l i t y . L a u r a f i n a l l y succumbs t o t h e i n e v i t a b l e : She w r i t e s t o D o u v i e r s , c o n f e s s e s a l l , b e g s f o r g i v e n e s s and p r o m i s e s t o r e p e n t . T h i s l e t t e r c o n s t i t u t e s L a u r a ' s r e l i n q u i s h m e n t o f l i b e r t y and a u t h e n t i c i t y . D o u v i e r s 1 r e s p o n s e , t o f o r g i v e L a u r a and a c c e p t h e r b a c k u n c o n d i t i o n a l l y , i s f o r E d o u a r d a v i c t o r y . H i s a p p r o v a l and 93 s e l f - s a t i s f a c t i o n a r e e x e m p l i f i e d i n t h i s d i a l o g u e w i t h B e r n a r d : — J e ne p o u v a i s d o u t e r que D o u v i e r s ne p r i t l a chose comme i l f a u t , d i t Edouard en se met t a n t au l i t . C'est quelqu'un de t r e s b i e n . Un peu f a i b l e peut-§tre; mais t o u t de meme t r e s b i e n . I I va ad o r e r c e t e n f a n t , j ' e n s u i s s u r . Et l e p e t i t s e r a surement p l u s r o b u s t e q u ' i l n ' a u r a i t su l e f a i r e lui-meme j e s u i s heureux de v o i r se t e r m i n e r pour l e mieux c e t t e h i s t o i r e , q u i p a r a i s s a i t sans a u t r e i s s u e que l e d e s e s p o i r . Ca a r r i v e a n*importe q u i de f a i r e un f a u x d e p a r t . L ' i m p o r t a n t , c ' e s t de ne pas s ' e n t e t e r . . . (LFM, pp. 313-14) E d o u a r d 1 s a t t i t u d e toward L a u r a and the r e p r e h e n s i b l e way i n which he has t r e a t e d her throughout t h e n o v e l a r e f i n a l l y c e n s u r e d . I n r e a c t i o n t o the above commentary, B e r n a r d i s shocked and a p p a l l e d : "Bernard a i m a i t L a u r a beaucoup t r o p pour ne pas e t r e choque par l a d e s i n v o l t u r e d'Edouard; i l n'en l a i s s a neanmoins r i e n a p p a r a i t r e . " (LFM, p. 313) To e l i m i n a t e any f u r t h e r a m b i g u i t y , the n a r r a t o r i n t e r v e n e s w i t h the f o l l o w i n g pronouncement: Edouard m'a p l u s d'une f o i s i r r i t e ( l o r s q u ' i l p a r l e de D o u v i e r s , par exemple), i n d i g n e meme; j ' e s p e r e ne l ' a v o i r pas t r o p l a i s s e v o i r ; mais j e p u i s b i e n l e d i r e a p r e s e n t . Sa f a c o n de se comporter avec L a u r a , s i genereuse p a r f o i s , m'a paru p a r f o i s r e v o l t a n t e . (LFM, p. 318) T h i s s e r v e s t o c o r r o b o r a t e the i n s i d i o u s and n e f a r i o u s r o l e Edouard has p l a y e d i n p r o p e l l i n g L a u r a toward a s i t u a t i o n  f a u s s e and t h e demise of her a u t h e n t i c i t y . L a u r a ' s l o s s of s e l f i s s y m b o l i c a l l y e n c a p s u l a t e d i n t h e c o u n t e r f e i t c o i n she asks B e r n a r d t o g i v e t o her a f t e r 94 c o n f e s s i n g h e r i n t e n t i o n t o r e t u r n t o D o u v i e r s . Upon h e r f i r s t a t t e m p t t o a s k B e r n a r d f o r t h e c o i n , s h e f a l t e r s : " l e s l a r m e s m o n t a i e n t a s e s y e u x , e t , d a n s l 1 e f f o r t q u ' e l l e f i t p o u r l e s r e t e n i r , B e r n a r d v i t s e s l e v r e s t r e m b l e r . " (LFM, p. 292) She f i n a l l y s u c c e e d s i n v e r b a l i z i n g h e r r e q u e s t : "en s o u v e n i r de v o u s , l o r s q u e j e p a r t i r a i — e l i e se r a i d i t e t c e t t e f o i s p u t a c h e v e r s a p h r a s e — v o u d r i e z - v o u s me l a d o n n e r ? " The a c t o f a c c e p t i n g t h e c o i n s i g n i f i e s t h a t L a u r a h a s s o l d h e r s o u l f o r f a u s s e m o n n a i e ( i . e . h y p o c r i s y , i n a u t h e n t i c i t y ) . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t B e r n a r d — who e m b o d i e s c o u r a g e , s t r e n g t h , f r e e d o m , a u t h e n t i c i t y — g i v e s t h e c o i n t o h e r ; s i n c e s h e c a n n o t i n c o r p o r a t e h i m i n t o h e r l i f e , b o t h l i t e r a l l y and f i g u r a t i v e l y , s h e must e s p o u s e h i s a n t i t h e s i s : D o u v i e r s , who p e r s o n i f i e s w e a k n e s s , i m p o t e n c y , f e a r and s u b m i s s i o n t o t h e o r d r e e t a b l i . Her e m o t i o n a l o u t b u r s t r e f l e c t s t h e d e s p a i r s h e f e e l s i n a d m i t t i n g t h e d e f e a t of h e r i n t e g r i t y and t h e m o u r n i n g o f h e r a u t h e n t i c s e l f a s she succumbs t o a l i f e o f h y p o c r i s y w i t h D o u v i e r s . S h o r t l y a f t e r t a k i n g p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e f a l s e c o i n , L a u r a b e g i n s h e r j o u r n e y b a c k t o P a r i s w h e r e she i s p r o m p t l y r e i n t e g r a t e d i n t o f a m i l y and s o c i e t y . A t t h e end o f h e r j o u r n e y , what s h e h a s d i s c o v e r e d i s t h a t she i s u n a b l e t o s u r v i v e o u t s i d e o f t h e C h r i s t i a n - b o u r g e o i s m i l i e u . I n h i s book A n d r e G i d e : v o y a g e e t e c r i t u r e , P i e r r e M a s s o n s t a t e s t h e f o l l o w i n g a b o u t L a u r a ' s p s y c h o l o g i c a l v o y a g e : L ' i t i n e r a i r e de L a u r a , p a r t i de 1 ' A n g l e t e r r e , y ramene, p r o u v e n t s ' i l en e t a i t b e s o i n s a s o u m i s s i o n a 1 ' o r d r e e t a b l i , e f f a c a n t l ' e m b a r d e e de Pau d o n t e l i e n'a p a s s u f a i r e une e n v o i e e . ... 95 ... C ' e s t a i n s i que L a u r a ... t r a n s f o r m e t o u t e s o n a v e n t u r e en une v a s t e m a i s i n u t i l e p a r e n t h e s e : e l l e r e t o u r n e en A n g l e t e r r e , n ' a y a n t r i e n gagne, a y a n t au p a s s a g e p e r d u s a v e r t u ...4 L i k e h e r p r e d e c e s s o r , M a r g u e r i t e , L a u r a r e t u r n s " r e p e n t a n t e a u f o y e r " . I f , w h i l e b e i n g a n a r c h e t y p e , L a u r a ' s c h a r a c t e r a p p e a r s more d e v e l o p e d , more t e x t u r e d o r " r e a l i s t i c " , i t i s b e c a u s e we o b s e r v e h e r d u r i n g a p e r i o d o f c r i s i s when s h e i s c o n -t e m p l a t i n g h e r l i f e ' s o p t i o n s . The t r a g e d y r e s i d e s i n t h a t h e r o n l y v i a b l e o p t i o n i s t h e one she i s most r e l u c t a n t t o c h o o s e . Not y e t a c q u i e s c i n g , s h e i s a g o n i z i n g o v e r t h e i n t a n g i b i l i t y o f h e r a l t e r n a t i v e s ( i . e . a l l t h o s e r o a d s w h i c h l e a d t o f r e e d o m and a u t h e n t i c i t y ) . The r e a s o n s h e seems more c o m p l e x a n d d y n a m i c t h a n h e r c o u n t e r p a r t s i s t h a t we s e e h e r g r a d u a l p r o g r e s s i o n t o w a r d t h e f i x e d , o n e - d i m e n s i o n a l r o l e common t o t h e o t h e r a r c h e t y p e s . I t i s f i t t i n g t h a t a f t e r h e r r e t u r n t o E n g l a n d , s h e d i s a p p e a r s f r o m t h e n o v e l . T h i s c o u l d s i g n i f y t h a t s he i s a n o u t c a s t on a l i t e r a r y l e v e l : t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f h e r c h a r a c t e r h a s b e e n a r r e s t e d b o t h p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y and e s t h e t i c a l l y . As was t h e c a s e w i t h M a r g u e r i t e , whose p a s t s o r e m a r k a b l y m i r r o r s L a u r a ' s own, i t must be r e c o g n i z e d t h a t L a u r a ' s a c c e p t a n c e o f h e r s u b a l t e r n a t e a n d s e l f - a n n i h i l a t i n g r o l e i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y d e f i n i t i v e ( i . e . s h e i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y d e s t i n e d t o become a P a u l i n e , Mme V e d e l o r Mme de L a P e r o u s e ) ; l a f u i t e i s c o n c e i v a b l e . I n "La S t r u c t u r e de l ' e p r e u v e , " E.D. C a n c a l o n g i v e s c r e d e n c e t o t h e p o s s i b i l i t y 96 t h a t L a u r a ' s s u r r e n d e r t o t h e m o r a l o r d e r i s n o t i r r e v o c a b l e : S ' e t a n t s e p a r e e d'un amoureux e t d'un amant L a u r a r e v i e n t v e r s un m a r i , r a m e n a n t a v e c e l l e l e s i g n e de s o n e m a n c i p a t i o n ( s y m b o l i q u e m e n t l ' e n f a n t q u ' e l l e a t t e n d - p e u t - o n p a r l e r i c i de l ' a n n o n c e de G e n e v i e v e ? ) . L a femme de D o u v i e r s n ' e s t p l u s l a v e r t u e u s e V e d e l m a i s se s i t u e a m i - c h e m i n e n t r e s e s s o e u r s S a r a h e t R a c h e l . -C a n c a l o n i n t i m a t e s t h a t e m a n c i p a t i o n f o r L a u r a , who i s now d i s e n c u m b e r e d o f h e r o p p r e s s i v e " v i r t u e " ( b u t i s s h e r e a l l y ? ) , w i l l p e r h a p s m a t e r i a l i z e a t some p o i n t i n t h e f u t u r e . W h e t h e r L a u r a f o l l o w s t h e same p a t h as M a r g u e r i t e , o r t h a t o f h e r e q u a l l y p l a u s i b l e p r o t o t y p e , P a u l i n e , i s i m p o s s i b l e t o a s c e r t a i n a n d, m o r e o v e r , o f l i t t l e c o n s e q u e n c e i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e s t a t e o f women's e x i s t e n c e i n L e s F a u x - M o n n a y e u r s . F o r t h e i r s i s a s o c i e t y i n w h i c h t h e " t y p i c a l , " p a t h e t i c e x i s t e n c e women l e a d i s s e e m i n g l y w i t h o u t i s s u e . P i e r r e M a sson s t a t e s t h a t : ... l e s <<valeurs>> t r a d i t i o n n e l l e s , l e m a r i a g e , l a f a m i l l e , l a r e l i g i o n , e t p a r - d e s s u s t o u t une r e s i g n a t i o n q u i l e s c o n d u i t a f a i r e de l e u r v i e une p e r p e t u e l l e h y p o c r i s i e ...g .>* a r e w h a t l e a d t h e s e women t o a c c e p t c o m p r o m i s e a nd m e d i o c r i t y . He a l s o m a i n t a i n s t h a t t h e o n l y f o r m o f r e v o l t i s " l a f u i t e . " I f we w e i g h M a s s o n ' s p r o p o s e d s o l u t i o n o f " f l i g h t " a g a i n s t t h e d e s p a i r and e v e n t u a l s e n i l i t y t h a t r e s u l t s f r o m a l i f e o f " p e r p e t u a l h y p o c r i s y " , we a r r i v e a t t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h e a r c h e t y p a l women a r e i n a n i n s o l u b l e s i t u a t i o n : t h e y c a n n o t t r i u m p h u n t i l t h e y have s o l v e d t h e p r e d i c a m e n t o f w h e r e t o " f l e e " a n d w h a t t o do once t h e y h a v e 97 " f l e d . " P a u l i n e a p p e a r s t o r e c o g n i z e t h e f u t i l i t y o f r e b e l l i o n when she f a t a l i s t i c a l l y r e m a r k s t o E d o u a r d : <<- M a i s , mon a m i , v o u s s a v e z b i e n q u ' i l n'y a r i e n de t e l p o u r s ' e t e r n i s e r , que l e s s i t u a t i o n s f a u s s e s . ... Dans l a v i e , r i e n ne se r£sout; t o u t c o n t i n u e . On demeure da n s 1 ' i n c e r t i t u d e ; e t on r e s t e r a j u s q u ' a l a f i n s a n s s a v o i r a q u o i s ' e n t e n i r ; e n a t t e n d a n t , l a v i e c o n t i n u e , t o u t comme s i de r i e n n ' e t a i t . E t de c e l a a u s s i on p r e n d s o n p a r t i ; comme de t o u t l e r e s t e ... comme de t o u t . (LFM, p. 4 5 2 ) . The s i t u a t i o n f a u s s e t h a t t h e a r c h e t y p a l m o t h e r a nd w i f e e n d u r e s i n t h e n o v e l i s , a t t h e v e r y l e a s t , f o r m i d a b l e . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e n o v e l o f f e r s no a p p a r e n t s o l u t i o n r e g a r d i n g how t o s u c c e s s f u l l y e x t r i c a t e o n e s e l f f r o m t h i s s i t u a t i o n , a l t h o u g h P a u l i n e i m p l o r e s t h e " n o v e l i s t s " t o s u p p l y h e r w i t h one: " C ' e s t a f f a i r e a v o u s , r o m a n c i e r s , de c h e r c h e r a l e s [ s i t u a t i o n s f a u s s e s ] r e s o u d r e . " (LFM, p. 452) The m y t h i c a l c h a r a c t e r s o f P a r t One — B r o n j a and L i l i a n — r e p r e s e n t d i a m e t r i c a l l y o p p o s e d , a l l e g o r i c a l f i g u r e s o f good a n d e v i l ; t h e s t e r e o t y p e s o f P a r t Two — f e m i n i s t , s c h o l a r a n d c h a s t e , s e l f - s a c r i f i c i n g s p i n s t e r a r e c a r i c a t u r e s o f " t y p i c a l " i n d i v i d u a l s who h a v e d e v i a t e d f r o m t h e norm. The a r c h e t y p e s , on t h e o t h e r hand, a r e t h e o n l y c h a r a c t e r s t o c o m p r i s e a g r o u p o f i n d i v i d u a l s who a l l b e h a v e i n a s i m i l a r , " t y p i c a l " way. When e x a m i n e d s e p a r a t e l y , e a c h a r c h e t y p e r e p r e s e n t s t h e p r o f i l e o f e s s e n t i a l l y any woman a t t h a t p a r t i c u l a r s t a g e i n l i f e and b e l o n g i n g t o t h e same s o c i a l m i l i e u a s t h a t o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s o f L e s F a u x - M o n n a y e u r s . I f we a r r a n g e e a c h p r o f i l e s i d e by s i d e a n d i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r d e r , we c o u l d s a y t h a t t h e y 98 c o m p r i s e t h e h i s t o r i c a l f l o w c h a r t o f one woman f r o m m a r r i a g e t h r o u g h m o t h e r h o o d ( o r v i c e v e r s a ) a n d on t o o l d a g e . T h i s i n t e r r e l a t e d n e s s g e n e r a t e s a j e u d e s m i r o i r s w h e r e b y e a c h c h a r a c t e r r e c e i v e s a s w e l l a s p r o j e c t s s o m e t h i n g o f t h e o t h e r s i n h e r c a t e g o r y . I n L a u r a ' s c a s e , we ha v e a m a g n i f i e d image i n w h i c h t h e m u l t i p l e a s p e c t s o f h e r p a r t i c u l a r s t a g e a r e s e t f o r t h i n d e t a i l . The b a s i c i m a g e s t h a t t h e y a l l r e c e i v e f r o m o r p r o j e c t o n t o e a c h o t h e r a r e v i r t u e , r e s i g n a t i o n , a n g u i s h and l o s s o f i d e n t i t y . The p a t h o s u n d e r l y i n g e a c h s t a g e i s wh a t makes t h e i r s i m i l a r i t y and " n o r m a l i t y " s u s p e c t a n d o b j e c t i o n a b l e . A r c h e t y p e s a r e e x c e p t i o n a l n o t o n l y i n t h a t t h e y c o n s t i t u t e t h e o n l y " g r o u p " o f women, b u t a l s o b e c a u s e t h e y a r e more numerous (m y t h s - 2, s t e r e o t y p e s - 3, a r c h e t y p e s -5) a n d w i d e s p r e a d t h r o u g h o u t t h e n o v e l . T h e i r p r e d o m i n a n c e p a r a l l e l s t h e p r e v a l e n c e o f t h i s t y p e o f woman i n t h e s o c i e t y t h e a u t h o r i s p o r t r a y i n g a n d a f f i r m s t h e s t r e n g t h and i n f l u e n c e o f t h e a r c h e t y p a l r o l e i n b o t h s o c i e t y and t h e n o v e l . U n l i k e m y t h s and s t e r e o t y p e s , w h i c h p l a y r e l a t i v e l y m a r g i n a l r o l e s a n d f a d e i n t o t h e b a c k g r o u n d o n c e t h e i r t a s k i s c o m p l e t e , a r c h e t y p e s a r e o m n i p r e s e n t , p e r s i s t e n t l y i n t h e f o r e g r o u n d , and e x e r t a n e f f e c t on t h e e v e n t s a n d t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e n o v e l f r o m b e g i n n i n g t o end. I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t a l l o f t h e a r c h e t y p e s a r e c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o e i t h e r B e r n a r d , E d o u a r d o r O l i v i e r , w h e r e a s t h e m y t h s a nd s t e r e o t y p e s a r e e i t h e r u n r e l a t e d t o them e n t i r e l y , o r come i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h them f o r o n l y a b r i e f t i m e . I n a s s o c i a t i n g t h e a r c h e t y p e s w i t h B e r n a r d , E d o u a r d and O l i v i e r , i t i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t t h e i r i m a g e s , w h i c h seem c o m p l e x i n c o m p a r i s o n t o t h o s e of t h e m y t h s and s t e r e o -t y p e s , a r e n e v e r t h e l e s s o n e - d i m e n s i o n a l and m a r g i n a l when c o n t r a s t e d w i t h t h e c o m p l e x i t y and v a r i a b i l i t y i n t r i n s i c t o t h e p e r s o n a l i t i e s o f t h e t h r e e m a j o r m a l e c h a r a c t e r s . 100 NOTES 1 Ferguson, p. 4. 2 Edouard*s a n a l y s i s i s s e l f - d e c e p t i v e s i n c e i t appears t h a t the d e c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n of h i s l o v e f o r L a u r a o c c u r s r a p i d l y . ^ Edouard's s c o r n f o r D a u v i e r s ' " i n s u f f i c i e n c i e s " i s r e i t e r a t e d a t the end of the n o v e l when he s t a t e s w i t h o u t r e s e r v e : "Les j o i e s de l a p a t e r n i t y , q u i s a i t s i , sans l e s e d u c t e u r , i l a u r a i t pu j a m a i s l e s c o n n a i t r e (.) , LFM, p. 473. 4 P i e r r e Masson, Andre" G i d e : voyage e t £criture (Lyon: P r e s s e s U n i v e r s i t a i r e s ae Lyon, ±yb_>) , pT T70Z C a n c a l o n , p. 44. 6 Masson, "Le Mouvement," p. 50. 101 CHAPTER IV MISOGYNY, HOMOSEXUALITY AND FEMINISM A t t h i s p o i n t i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o po s e some c r u c i a l q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e d e p i c t i o n o f t h e f e m a l e c h a r a c t e r s i n L e s F a u x - M o n n a y e u r s . The f i r s t t h a t a r i s e s i s : Why a r e t h e women p o r t r a y e d f r o m s u c h a l i m i t e d a n d o f t e n p e j o r a t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e ? The o b v i o u s r e s p o n s e w o u l d be t h a t G i d e i s s i m p l y o f f e r i n g a v i s i o n o f t h e f e m i n i n e s e c t o r o f a p a r t i -c u l a r l e v e l o f s o c i e t y ; a f t e r a l l , A l b e r i q u e P r o f i t e n d i e u , O s c a r M o l i n i e r , M. V e d e l , M. de L a P e r o u s e , V i n c e n t a n d P a s s a v a n t a r e no l e s s l i m i t e d a n d c a r i c a t u r e d t h a n t h e f e m a l e s . T h i s b e i n g t h e c a s e , G i d e ' s c r i t i q u e o f women becomes i n c i d e n t a l , m e r e l y a s u b s e c t i o n o f h i s s o c i a l commentary on t h e w h o l e . T h e r e a r e , howe v e r , s e v e r a l f l a g r a n t i n e q u i t i e s i n t h e g e n e r a l d e p i c t i o n o f men and women w h i c h c o n f i r m t h a t t h e d e p r e c a t i o n o f women goes f a r b e y o n d a g e n e r a l commentary on s o c i e t y . B e r n a r d , O l i v i e r and E d o u a r d , f o r e x a m p l e , have many o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o e x p r e s s t h e i r d i a l o g u e i n t g r i e u r , e x p e r i e n c e t h e " p l e n i t u d e of e x i s t e n c e " a n d p r o g r e s s t o w a r d a u t h e n t i c i t y . Why, t h e n , a r e none o f t h e f e m a l e c h a r a c t e r s g r a n t e d t h e s e same p r i v i l e g e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y S a r a h , L a u r a a n d M a r g u e r i t e who d e m o n s t r a t e t h e w i l l t o r e s i s t o r r e f u s e t h e 102 t r a d i t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n f a u s s e ? T h a t t h e y c a n n o t p r o j e c t t h e i r own l i g h t n o r a d a p t t o v a r y i n g d e g r e e s o f s a l i n i t y s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e s e a l l e g o r i e s a r e meant t o i n s t r u c t t h e men e x c l u s i v e l y . A f u r t h e r i n e q u i t y i s t h a t t h e r e i s e x c e s s i v e e x a g g e r a t i o n i n t h e f e m a l e c a r i c a t u r e s . T h i s i s m a n i f e s t e d o n two l e v e l s : f i r s t , t h e r e i s t h e p r o m i n e n t m o t i f o f t h e g l o r i f i c a t i o n v e r s u s t h e v i l i f i c a t i o n a n d m o c k e r y o f women, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e c a t e g o r i e s o f myth a nd s t e r e o t y p e ; s e c o n d , t h e r e i s a r e l e n t l e s s i n s i s t e n c e on t h e p a t h o s o f f e m a l e e x i s t e n c e , a s i s e x e m p l i f i e d by t h e a r c h e t y p e s whose f e a r , w e a k n e s s , h e l p l e s s n e s s a n d r e s i g n a t i o n a r e p o i g n a n t , r a t h e r t h a n c o n t e m p t i b l e . " ' " T h e r e a r e v a r i o u s p o s s i b l e r e a s o n s t h a t t h e f e m a l e c h a r a c t e r s — m y t h s , s t e r e o t y p e s a n d a r c h e t y p e s a l i k e — a r e c o n f i n e d t o r i g i d , m a r g i n a l r o l e s i n w h i c h t h e y t e n d t o be e i t h e r v i l i f i e d , r i d i c u l e d o r p i t i e d . The p o s t u l a t i o n a n d d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e s e a n s w e r s w i l l s e r v e a s a m a j o r f o c u s i n t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h i s s t u d y . As w e l l , one f i n a l q u e s t i o n w i l l be a d d r e s s e d , a l l u d i n g t o P a u l i n e ' s r e q u e s t o f n o v e l i s t s t o r e s o l v e t h e p r o b l e m a t i c s i t u a t i o n s f a u s s e s : Why i s t h e r e no e x p l i c i t s o l u t i o n d e v e l o p e d w i t h i n t h e t e x t ? I t i s r e l e v a n t t o e x a m i n e t h e i s s u e o f f e m a l e d e p i c t i o n i n l i g h t o f t h e d i a m e t r i c a l l y o p p o s e d a t t i t u d e s o f a n t i p a t h y and s y m p a t h y e v i d e n t i n t h e p o r t r a y a l o f women i n L e s F a u x -M o n n a y e u r s . E n m i t y t o w a r d women i s a c o n s e q u e n c e of t h e a u t h o r ' s e x p r e s s i n t e n t i o n t o a s s e r t t h e v a l u e o f homo-s e x u a l i t y . Empathy f o r women i s a n embodiment o f t h e 103 author's s e n s i t i v i t y to t h e i r s u b o r d i n a t i o n i n s o c i e t y and the s e l f - d e n i a l and d i s c o n t e n t which that e n t a i l s . What t r a n s p i r e s from t h i s d u a l i s t i c p e r s p e c t i v e i s t h a t homo-s e x u a l i t y emerges as the dominant, o v e r t theme wh i l e feminism — sympathy f o r the female c o n d i t i o n — becomes an under-s t a t e d , c o v e r t theme to be d i s c o v e r e d by an a t t e n t i v e and p e r c e p t i v e reader. The p o l a r i t y of the homosexual and f e m i n i s t statements i s concomitant to Gide's e t h i c a l and e s t h e t i c t e n e t s . He w r i t e s i n h i s J o u r n a l ; "Je v o i s t o u j o u r s presque a l a f o i s l e s deux f a c e s de chaque idee e t o l'emotion t o u j o u r s chez moi se p o l a r i s e . " Gide's p o r t r a y a l of women i s a product of h i s i n t e n t t o balance two c o n t r a d i c t o r y i s s u e s a g a i n s t each other and thereby achieve an i d e o l o g i c a l and thematic harmony. The preeminence of the homosexual theme i s expressed through the r a p i d and frequent c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n of homosexual l o v e a f f a i r s and by t h e i r j u x t a p o s i t i o n w i t h the i n v a r i a b l e p a t t e r n of f a i l u r e and v i l i f i c a t i o n i nherent i n a l l of the heteros e x u a l unions. Homosexuality i s f u r t h e r a s s e r t e d through a systematic d e n i g r a t i o n of women who, i n marriage or e x t r a - m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , become debased o b j e c t s of male sexual d e s i r e . A misogynic tone permeates both male a t t i t u d e s and the a c t u a l p o r t r a y a l of women throughout the nov e l . F i n a l l y , the n o t i o n of heterosexual l o v e i s r e f u t e d i n t h a t the only form of a f f e c t i o n f o r female c h a r a c t e r s i s e i t h e r f i l i a l and f r a t e r n a l l o v e , or a f i x a t i o n on feminine a t t r i b u t e s such as p i e t y , c h a s t i t y and v i r t u e . Male lo v e f o r 104 the female i s t h e r e b y e l e v a t e d t o d e v o t i o n and reveren c e and p r e c l u d e s any a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h p h y s i c a l d e s i r e . In h i s J o u r n a l , Gide c o n f i r m s h i s d e s i r e t o s a n c t i o n t h e homosexual un i o n i n Les Faux-Monnayeurs when he pronounces t h a t the novel was w r i t t e n f o r h i s homosexual l o v e r , Marc A l l e g r e t . On June 9, 1928, Gide w r o t e : C'est pour l u i ( M a r c ) , pour c o n q u e r i r son a t t e n t i o n , son e s t i m e , que j ' e c r i v i s l e s Faux- Monnayeurs, de meme que, tous mes l i v r e s p r e c e d e n t s , c ' e t a i t sous 1 * i n f l u e n c e de Em. ou dans l e v a i n e s p o i r de l a c o n v a i n c r e . j The a u t h o r ' s a m b i t i o n t o w r i t e a n o v e l t h a t e ndorses h o m o s e x u a l i t y i s r e c o g n i z e d by M i c h a e l T i l b y who w r i t e s : "There i s no doubt . . . t h a t Gide wanted t o make male homosexual l o v e seem a p e r f e c t l y normal and a c c e p t a b l e f a c t of l i f e . T i l b y proceeds t o e x p l a i n t h a t i n o r d e r t o imbue homosexual l o v e w i t h a sense of commonplace, Gide went so f a r as t o c o n t r a s t the "good" homosexual (Edouard) w i t h the "bad" homosexual ( P a s s a v a n t ) , t h e r e b y a f f i r m i n g t h a t " c o n v e n t i o n a l m o r a l i t y " i s r e l e v a n t i n t h e homosexual as w e l l as t h e 5 h e t e r o s e x u a l w o r l d . P r e f e r e n c e f o r male homosexuals i s e v i d e n t i n t h a t the t h r e e major c h a r a c t e r s — B e r n a r d , O l i v i e r and Edouard — ar e homosexual. Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , the homosexual p e r s o n a l i t y i s i n f i n i t e l y more complex and dynamic t h a n t h a t of the h e t e r o s e x u a l c h a r a c t e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y those who a r e female. The n a r r a t o r shows o v e r t f a v o r i t i s m f o r B e r n a r d and O l i v i e r w h i l e r e f l e c t i n g on t h e s t a t e of a f f a i r s a t the end of P a r t I I : 105 L a u r a , D o u v i e r s , L a P e r o u s e , A z a i s . . . que f a i r e a v e c t o u s c e s g e n s - l a ? J e ne l e s c h e r c h a i s p o i n t ; c ' e s t en s u i v a n t B e r n a r d e t O l i v i e r que j e l e s a i t r o u v e s s u r ma r o u t e . (LFM, p. 321) P a r t i a l i t y f o r t h e m a l e h o m o s e x u a l i s t a k e n t o s u c h a d e g r e e t h a t t h e s a t a n i c P a s s a v a n t , whose c o r r u p t i v e f o r c e i s i n s t r u m e n t a l i n V i n c e n t and O l i v i e r ' s d o w n f a l l , i s exempt f r o m a b s o l u t e d i s a p p r o v a l . I n t h e f o l l o w i n g p a s s a g e , E d o u a r d p r o f e s s e s h i s a d m i r a t i o n : Ce n ' e s t p a s q u ' i l d e t e s t e P a s s a v a n t . I I l ' a r e n c o n t r e p a r f o i s e t l ' a t r o u v e c h a r m a n t . P a s s a v a n t s ' e s t du r e s t e t o u j o u r s montre" p o u r l u i d e s p l u s a i m a b l e s . (LFM p. 104) E d o u a r d ' s e s t e e m f o r P a s s a v a n t i s p a r t i s a n , when c o m p a r e d t o t h e i m p l a c a b l e c r i t i c i s m and d e n i g r a t i o n of f e m a l e c h a r a c t e r s s u c h a s S a r a h and L i l i a n , who a r e no more d e v i o u s n o r h a r m f u l t o s o c i e t y t h a n P a s s a v a n t . A p r i v i l e g e d p e r s p e c t i v e i s a c c o r d e d t o m a l e h o m o s e x u a l l i a i s o n s i n much t h e same manner. T h i s i s d e m o n s t r a t e d t h r o u g h t h e s w i f t n e s s a n d f r e q u e n c y o f t h e c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n o f h o m o s e x u a l a f f a i r s , as w e l l a s t h e i r r e l a t i v e s u c c e s s . O l i v i e r and B e r n a r d ' s r e c e p t i v e n e s s t o h o m o s e x u a l i n t i m a c y i s e v i d e n t . The s c e n e i n w h i c h B e r n a r d s p e n d s t h e n i g h t w i t h O l i v i e r a f t e r d e p a r t i n g f r o m h i s f a m i l y i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by B e r n a r d a n d O l i v i e r ' s i n n o c e n c e , f r a n k n e s s and t e n d e r n e s s . E d o u a r d a n d O l i v i e r 1 s i n t e r e s t i n e a c h o t h e r w e l l s up a b r u p t -l y and i n t e n s i f i e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e n o v e l , c u l m i n a t i n g on t h e e v e n i n g o f t h e B a n q u e t de s A r g o n a u t e s ; a f t e r t h e h u m i l i a t -i n g b r a w l w i t h B e r c a i l , a r e m o r s e f u l O l i v i e r d r a m a t i c a l l y 106 throws h i m s e l f i n t o Edouard's arms and t h e i r l o v e i s con-summated l a t e r t h a t n i g h t . (LFM, pp. 429-30; 454) The m o t i f of j e a l o u s y abounds w i t h i n t h e male homosexual r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I t engenders t h e i r c o n s t a n t f l o u r i s h i n g and f l u c t u a t i o n . O l i v i e r i s j e a l o u s upon d i s c o v e r i n g t h a t B e r n a r d and Edouard share a room i n Saas-Fee; t h i s p r e c i p i t a t e s h i s a f f a i r w i t h Passavant. Edouard becomes j e a l o u s of Passavant who has usurped h i s r o l e as O l i v i e r ' s c o n f i d a n t e and l o v e r . Edouard i s r e u n i t e d w i t h O l i v i e r i n the end, which provokes P a s s a v a n t ' s j e a l o u s y and r e t a l i a t i o n . A l l of t h i s a c t i v i t y i n s t i l l s a sense of f r e s h n e s s and dynamism to t h e homosexual l o v e a f f a i r s t h a t i s s e v e r e l y l a c k i n g i n t h e h e t e r o s e x u a l i n v o l v e m e n t s . The e x t e n t t o w h i c h Gide s t r o v e t o l e g i t i m i z e and ennoble homosexual l o v e i s e p i t o m i z e d by P a u l i n e ' s a p p r o v a l of Edouard and O l i v i e r ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p . A f t e r v i s i t i n g her r e c u p e r a t i n g son a t Edouard's apartment, she says t o Edouard: "Mon pauvre ami, n'attendez pas de moi des r e p r o c h e s . J e vous en f e r a i s s i vous ne l ' a i m i e z pas . . . " (LFM, p. 448) F u r t h e r on, when she senses Edouard's d i s c o m f o r t , she r e p h r a s e s her s e n t i m e n t s w i t h g r e a t e r c l a r i t y : << — En ne me s c a n d a l i s a n t pas t o u t a l ' h e u r e , j e c r a i n s de vous a v o i r s c a n d a l i s e . I I e s t c e r t a i n e s l i b e r t e s de pensee dont l e s hommes v o u d r a i e n t garder l e monopole. Je ne p u i s p o u r t a n t pas f e i n d r e avec vous p l u s de r e p r o b a t i o n que j e n' en eprouve. (LFM, p. 449) The i m p l a u s i b i l i t y of P a u l i n e condoning a homosexual r e l a t i o n s h i p between her h a l f - b r o h e r and her own son i s more tha n a p p a r e n t . The r e a d e r ' s c r e d u l i t y i s s t r a i n e d even 107 f u r t h e r when, f o r f e a r of d i s t u r b i n g O l i v i e r 1 s s l e e p , P a u l i n e a s k s E d o u a r d t o k i s s h i m on h e r b e h a l f . (LFM, p. 448) One c r i t i c r e f e r s t o t h i s s c e n a r i o a s "one of t h e most o b v i o u s l y w i s h - f u l f i l l i n g s c e n e s i n a l l o f G i d e ' s f i c t i o n . " F a v o r i t i s m f o r h o m o s e x u a l s a n d t h e f r e q u e n t c r y s t a l l i -z a t i o n and s u c c e s s o f t h e i r u n i o n s i s b r o u g h t i n t o s h a r p e r f o c u s by t h e d e p r e c a t i o n o f h e t e r o s e x u a l c h a r a c t e r s , b o t h f e m a l e a n d m a l e , a s w e l l as t h e u t t e r d i s h a r m o n y o r f a i l u r e w h i c h m a r k s e a c h and e v e r y h e t e r o s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p i n t h e n o v e l . A f t e r e x a m i n i n g t h e r o l e s o f m y t h s , s t e r e o t y p e s a n d a r c h e t y p e s i n t h e f i r s t t h r e e c h a p t e r s o f t h i s s t u d y , i t i s e a s y t o r e c o g n i z e t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h v i r t u a l l y a l l f e m a l e c h a r a c t e r s a r e impugned. L i l i a n a n d S a r a h a r e c o r r u p t a n d l i c e n t i o u s . R a c h e l i s r e n d e r e d r i d i c u l o u s a n d p a t h e t i c by h e r v i r t u e a nd p i e t y . L a u r a i s weak, h e l p l e s s a n d d e f e n s e -l e s s . P a u l i n e and M a r g u e r i t e a r e d e n o u n c e d and s u b o r d i n a t e d i n t h e i r r o l e s a s w i v e s and m o t h e r s . Mme. V e d e l i s " n i a i s e " a n d d e r a n g e d , w h i l e Mme. de L a P e r o u s e i s d e c r e p i t a n d i n s a n e . The d e p i c t i o n o f m a l e h e t e r o s e x u a l c h a r a c t e r s i s a l s o d e f a m a t o r y . I n v i r t u a l l y e v e r y m ale h e t e r o s e x u a l t h e r e r e s i d e s some f o r m o f d e c r e p i t u d e . The y o u n g e r men — V i n c e n t a n d Armand — p o s s e s s f l a w s t h a t l e a d t o b o t h p h y s i c a l and m o r a l d e c l i n e . V i n c e n t ' s v u l n e r a b i l i t y makes h i m a n e a s y t a r g e t f o r L i l i a n ' s m a n i p u l a t i o n a n d v i l l a i n y . He ends up m e n t a l l y d e r a n g e d , r o a m i n g a d e s e r t e d i s l a n d . Armand becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y a m o r a l and d e v e l o p s a n a b s c e s s 108 i n s i d e h i s mouth. S i g n i f i c a n t l y , t h i s o c c u r s a f t e r Armand h a s k i s s e d t h e b l o o d - s t a i n e d c l o t h , t h e s y m b o l o f B e r n a r d a n d S a r a h ' s c a r n a l s i n t h a t Armand was i n s t r u m e n t a l i n e f f e c t -u a t i n g . The m a r r i e d men a r e e q u a l l y m a r r e d , w h i c h i s p e r h a p s t h e i r r e compense f o r a l i f e t i m e o f h e t e r o s e x u a l a c t i v i t y . B o t h P r o f i t e n d i e u a n d M o l i n i e r a r e i n a f r a g i l e s t a t e o f h e a l t h : P r o f i t e n d i e u i s p l a g u e d by l i v e r p r o b l e m s , w h i l e M o l i n i e r r u n s s h o r t o f b r e a t h w i t h t h e mere p h y s i c a l e x e r t i o n o f w a l k i n g down t h e s t r e e t . The o l d , m a r r i e d men — V e d e l and de L a P e r o u s e — a r e a f f l i c t e d w i t h a c e r t a i n d e g r e e o f s e n i l i t y . The f o r m e r d r i f t s a b o u t w i t h a f a l t e r i n g memory and c o m p l e t e l a c k o f a w a r e n e s s . The l a t t e r s u f f e r s d e l u s i o n s o f p e r s e c u t i o n a n d i s f r u s t r a t e d by a s e r i e s o f u n s u c c e s s f u l a t t e m p t s t o commit s u i c i d e . D o u v i e r s i s p o r t r a y e d a s b e i n g v a c u o u s a n d i m p o t e n t — E d o u a r d i s d u b i o u s o f h i s v i r i l i t y , a s s e r t i n g t h a t D o u v i e r s w o u l d l i k e l y be i n c a p a b l e o f e x p e r i e n c i n g t h e " j o y s o f p a t e r n i t y " w e r e i t n o t f o r t h e i l l e g i t i m a c y o f L a u r a ' s c h i l d . (LFM, p. 473) H e t e r o s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h e m s e l v e s a r e d e b a s e d i n a v a r i e t y o f ways. As was e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s d i s c u s s i o n o f a r c h e t y p e s , m a r r i a g e i s i n v a r i a b l y d e s t i n e d f o r b i t t e r d i s c o n t e n t a n d h e l l i s h m i s e r y . A l l h e t e r o s e x u a l l i a i s o n s a p a r t f r o m m a r r i a g e a r e a l s o i l l - f a t e d . U n l i k e t h e p a i n f u l l y s l o w p r o c e s s o f d e c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n e n d e m i c t o m a r r i a g e , t h e d i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f h e t e r o s e x u a l l o v e a f f a i r s i s u n c e r e m o n i o u s l y b r u s q u e . I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e f r e s h , 109 p a s s i o n a t e and adv e n t u r o u s n a t u r e of the homosexual l o v e a f f a i r s , t h e h e t e r o s e x u a l ones a r e v u l g a r and u n p r i n c i p l e d , d r i v e n by pure l i b i d o or a u t i l i t a r i a n m o t i v e . L a u r a and V i n c e n t ' s romance r e s u l t s i n d e s t i t u t i o n and h u m i l i a t i o n f o r L a u r a , who begs on hands and knees f o r V i n c e n t not t o abandon her. V i n c e n t ' s c r u e l i n d i f f e r e n c e i s p o i n t e d out by the n a r r a t o r , who g l i b l y pronounces t h a t V i n c e n t "ne r e s s e n t i s s a i t pas pour e l i e un grand amour." (LFM, p. 65) L i c e n t i o u s n e s s and d e p r a v i t y u n d e r s c o r e the male-female r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n v o l v i n g L i l i a n and Sarah. In her a f f a i r w i t h V i n c e n t , L i l i a n i s p o r t r a y e d as a femme f a t a l e who a r t f u l l y e n t i c e s and c a p t u r e s her i n n o c e n t p r e y , drawing him i n t o a web of l i b i d i n o u s a d v e n t u r e s c o m p l e t e l y d e v o i d of e m o t i o n a l attachment. She admits i n her l e t t e r t o Passavant t h a t s i n c e t h e i r p h y s i c a l a t t r a c t i o n has begun t o f a d e , they have adopted a new pastime — the c u l t i v a t i o n of a "sourde a n i m o s i t e " w h i c h e v e n t u a l l y becomes " f e r o c e . " (LFM, p. 460) Sarah and B e r n a r d ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s s i m i l a r i n t h a t i t i s reduced t o a s e r i e s of c l a n d e s t i n e s e x u a l e n c o u n t e r s i n her bedroom a t n i g h t . A g a i n , no mention i s made of e m o t i o n a l attachment or t e n d e r n e s s . T h e i r i n t e r e s t i n each o t h e r i s p u r e l y c a r n a l . The n a r r a t o r d e r i d e s t h e p h y s i c a l n a t u r e of B e r n a r d and Sarah's a f f a i r when he d e s c r i b e s B e r n a r d ' s b e h a v i o u r the morning a f t e r t h e i r f i r s t n i g h t t o g e t h e r : B e r n a r d n'a pas beaucoup dormi. Mais i l a goute, c e t t e n u i t , d'un o u b l i p l u s r e p o s a n t que l e sommeil; e x a l t a t i o n e t an e a n t i s s e m e n t a l a f o i s , de son e t r e . I l g l i s s e dans une n o u v e l l e j o u r n e e , e t r a n g e a lui-meTne, e p a r s , l e g e r , nouveau, calme e t f r e m i s s a n t comme un d i e u . I I a l a i s s e Sarah dormant e n c o r e ; s ' e s t degage f u r t i v e m e n t d ' e n t r e 110 s e s b r a s . Eh q u o i ? s a n s un n o u v e a u b a i s e r , s a n s un d e r n i e r r e g a r d , s a n s une supreme e t r e i n t e a m o u r e u s e ? E s t - c e p a r i n s e n s i b i l i t e q u ' i l l a q u i t t e a i n s i ? J e ne s a i s . I I ne s a i t l u i - m e m e . I I s ' e f f o r c e de ne p o i n t p e n s e r , g£ne de d e v o i r i n c o r p o r e r c e t t e n u i t s a n s p r e c e d e n t s , aux p r e c e d e n t s de s o n h i s t o i r e . Non; c ' e s t un a p p e n d i c e , une a n n e x e , q u i ne p e u t t r o u v e r p l a c e d a n s l e c o r p s du l i v r e — l i v r e od l e r e c i t de sa v i e , comme s i de r i e n n ' e t a i t , v a c o n t i n u e r , n ' e s t - c e p a s , v a r e p r e n d r e . (LFM, pp. 4 3 4 - 5 ) B e r n a r d ' s a t t i t u d e e p i t o m i z e s t h e h e d o n i s t i c q u e s t f o r p l e a s u r e p r e s u m e d t o be a t t h e c o r e o f a l l e x t r a - m a r i t a l l i a i s o n s b e t w e e n men and women. The g r a n d i o s e q u a l i t y o f t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f B e r n a r d ' s p h y s i c a l and m e n t a l s t a t e makes a m o c k e r y o f S a r a h and B e r n a r d ' s n i g h t t o g e t h e r . The f a c t t h a t he f u r t i v e l y d i s e n g a g e s h i m s e l f and s n e a k s away w h i l e s h e i s s t i l l s l e e p i n g u n d e r l i n e s t h e g r a t u i t o u s n e s s o f t h e p h y s i c a l a s p e c t s o f " l o v e " . The d e g r a d a t i o n o f t h i s s c e n e i s f u r t h e r e m p h a s i z e d by t h e n a r r a t o r ' s mock h o r r o r . He m a r v e l s a t B e r n a r d ' s s w i f t d e p a r t u r e a n d h i s f a i l u r e t o g i v e a l a s t k i s s , a l a s t l o o k , a n d t o e x p e r i e n c e a "supreme e t r e i n t e a m o u r e u s e " . B e r n a r d ' s e m o t i o n a l i n d i f f e r e n c e i s e n c a p s u l a t e d i n t h e f a c t t h a t he c o n s i d e r s t h i s s e e m i n g l y momentous e v e n t t o be a mere a p p e n d i x t o h i s l i f e — a n e p i s o d e o f l i t t l e c o n s e q u e n c e t o h i s e v o l v e m e n t t o w a r d a u t h e n t i c i t y . I n v o l v e m e n t b e t w e e n man and woman i s d e g r a d e d t o t h e p o i n t o f b e c o m i n g a b a r g a i n i n g d e v i c e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e c o n t e x t of t h e m a l e h o m o s e x u a l ' s " r o m a n t i c " i n t e r e s t s i n women. P a s s a v a n t , f o r e x a m p l e , a t t e m p t s t o c a p i t a l i z e on h e t e r o s e x u a l i t y when he a s k s L i l i a n t o m a r r y h i m . The o p p o r t u n i s t i c a s p e c t s o f h i s p r o p o s a l a r e a l l t o o a p p a r e n t . I l l L i l i a n r e c o g n i z e s t h i s as she responds: " E s t - c e pour c o u v r i r v o t r e v i e que vous imaginez de me pr o p o s e r c e l a ? " (LFM, p. 83) P a s s a v a n t employs t h e same t a c t i c w i t h Sarah a t t h e Banquet des Argonautes. The n a r r a t o r r e c o u n t s : P a ssavant, penche v e r s Sarah, a v a i t passe son b r a s a u t o u r de sa t a i l l e e t se m o n t r a i t de p l u s en p l u s p r e s s a n t . A v e r t i des b r u i t s d e s o b l i g e a n t s q u i c o u r a i e n t sur ses r a p p o r t s avec O l i v i e r , i l c h e r c h a i t a donner l e change. Et pour s ' a f f i c h e r p l u s encore, i l s ' e t a i t permis d'amener Sarah a s ' a s s e o i r sur ses genoux. (LFM, p. 425) The n o t i o n of h e t e r o s e x u a l i t y b e i n g used as a form of c u r r e n c y i s evoked by the e x p r e s s i o n "donner l e change". T h i s i s perhaps what c o n s t i t u t e d Edouard's l i n e of r e a s o n i n g when he f o s t e r e d the semblance of h e t e r o s e x u a l i t y i n h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h L a u r a . The r e c u r r e n t theme of p r o s t i t u t i o n f u r t h e r debases h e t e r o s e x u a l i t y — p h y s i c a l l o v e between man and woman i s c o n f i r m e d as a term of n e g o t i a t i o n and a c o r r u p t i v e f o r c e i n s o c i e t y . P r o s t i t u t i o n p l a y s an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n the s o r d i d e n t e r p r i s e s of the C o n f r e r i e des Hommes f o r t s . That t h e b r o t h e l i s p a t r o n i z e d by a group of l y c e e n s i s s i g n i f i c a n t ; p u r c h a s a b l e sex ( i . e . h e t e r o s e x u a l sex i n i t s most a b j e c t form) i s seen as an i n s i d i o u s menace t o s o c i e t y when i t s v i c t i m s a r e s c h o o l b o y s . H o mosexuality i s f u r t h e r ennobled by i t s j u x t a p o s i t i o n w i t h p r o s t i t u t i o n . T h i s i s demonstrated i n a scene t h a t O l i v i e r r e l a t e s i n h i s l e t t e r t o B e r n a r d . W h i l e O l i v i e r and Pass a v a n t a r e s t r o l l i n g o u t s i d e of the Olympia t h e a t r e d u r i n g t h e i n t e r m i s s i o n , P a s s a v a n t c o n s e n t s t o two p r o s t i t u t e s ' 112 r e q u e s t t o o f f e r them a g l a s s o f b e e r . I n d o i n g s o , he p r o c e e d s t o o r d e r c o s t l y champagne f o r h i m s e l f a n d O l i v i e r . (LFM, p. 310) The image of t h e d i s c o n c e r t e d p r o s t i t u t e s w i t h t h e i r " a s p e c t p l u t b t m i n a b l e " a l o n g s i d e O l i v i e r a n d P a s s a v a n t who, e l e g a n t l y a t t i r e d , s m u g l y d r i n k champagne, c r e a t e s a s h a r p c o n t r a s t : t h e h o m o s e x u a l c o u p l e e m e r g e s a s n o t m e r e l y a c c e p t a b l e b u t d i g n i f i e d a n d s u p e r i o r . The f o c u s on t h e d e p i c t i o n o f t h e f e m a l e c h a r a c t e r s r e v e a l s a n o t h e r p r o m i n e n t m o t i f w h i c h e v o l v e s a s t h e a u t h o r a s s e r t s t h e v a l u e o f h o m o s e x u a l i t y : t h e o u t r i g h t h a t r e d a n d h o s t i l e r e f u s a l o f women a s o b j e c t s o f m a l e s e x u a l d e s i r e . H a t r e d o f women t a k e s many f o r m s a n d goes f a r b e y o n d t h e m i s o g y n y i n h e r e n t i n t h e deb a s e m e n t o f h e t e r o s e x u a l u n i o n s . The c a r i c a t u r e d p o r t r a y a l s o f women a r e i n t h e i r own r i g h t e x p r e s s i o n s o f m i s o g y n i c s e n t i m e n t ; t h e y a i m t o s u p p r e s s a n d e f f a c e t h e f e m a l e p e r s o n a i n t h e t e x t . A p a r t f r o m t h e i m a g e s o f f e m a l e s u b s e r v i e n c e a n d t h e theme o f f e m a l e s e l f - e f f a c e m e n t a n d s e l f - s a c r i f i c e d i s c u s s e d i n e a r l i e r c h a p t e r s , t h e s u p p r e s s i o n a n d e f f a c e m e n t o f women a r e f u r t h e r a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h t h e use of s u c h d e v i c e s a s cameo a p p e a r a n c e s a n d t h e e x c l u s i v e m a l e p e r s p e c t i v e . The e r a s u r e o f f e m i n i n e e x i s t e n c e e s c a l a t e s t o t h e p o i n t o f b a n i s h m e n t a n d , i n e x t r e m e c a s e s , d e a t h . H a t r e d o f women i s f u r t h e r c o n v e y e d t h r o u g h t h e s e x i s t comments a nd m i s o g y n i s t i c a t t i t u d e s v o i c e d by t h e m a l e c h a r a c t e r s t h e m s e l v e s . I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e o u t r i g h t e x p r e s s i o n o f m i s o g y n y , c o n t e m p t f o r women i s c o m m u n i c a t e d by m a l e s on a s u b l i m i n a l l e v e l i n t h a t t h e 113 d i s s o l u t i o n o f m a l e - f e m a l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s i n v a r i a b l y i n s t i -g a t e d a n d c a r r i e d t h r o u g h by t h e m a l e . I n t h e f i n a l a n a l y s i s , v i r t u a l l y e v e r y f e m a l e c h a r a c t e r becomes t h e o b j e c t o f m a l e d i s a p p r o v a l , c o n t e m p t o r r e f u s a l , e x c e p t , s i g n i f i c a n t l y , t h e s a i n t l y , u n s e x e d women s u c h as B r o n j a and R a c h e l . I n r e f e r e n c e t o K a t h e r i n e R o g e r s ' book, The T r o u b l e s o m e  H e l p m a t e , an e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h e l o n g - s t a n d i n g t r a d i t i o n o f l i t e r a r y m i s o g y n y , C h e r i R e g i s t e r p o i n t s o u t t h a t f e m a l e s t e r e o t y p e s a r e " f i c t i o n a l e m b o d i m e n t s o f m i s o g y n i s t i c 7 s e n t i m e n t . " We ha v e s e e n t h a t t h e s t a r k , b l e a k i m a g e s o f women i n L e s F a u x - M o n n a y e u r s s e r v e t o d e h u m a n i z e a nd t h u s s u p p r e s s t h e f e m a l e p e r s o n a — t h e y c o n s t i t u t e a s u b l i m i n a l e x p r e s s i o n o f m i s o g y n y . G i d e ' s c a r i c a t u r e s , h o w e v e r , a r e n o t i n c i d e n t a l : he i s n o t m e r e l y s p e a k i n g " i n t e r m s o f m a l e e x p e r i e n c e " , n o r i n a d v e r t e n t l y f o l l o w i n g a n " e s t a b l i s h e d g l i t e r a r y c o n v e n t i o n " o f u n c o n s c i o u s m i s o g y n y . H i s " d e h u m a n i z e d " p o r t r a i t s a p p e a r t o be c o n s c i o u s l y c o n t r i v e d t o s e r v e t h e p u r p o s e o f h i s h o m o s e x u a l s t a t e m e n t . F l e e t i n g a p p e a r a n c e s made by s e c o n d a r y and m a r g i n a l c h a r a c t e r s s u c h a s C e c i l e P r o f i t e n d i e u , a n d S a r a h ' s f r i e n d , M i s s A b e r d e e n , a r e d i s p e r s e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e t e x t . S e v e r a l anonymous women emerge s u c h as M. de L a P e r o u s e a n d E d o u a r d ' s femmes de menage and "Dhurmer's g i r l " , who p r o v i d e s O l i v i e r w i t h h i s f i r s t , a n d , a s he e m p h a t i c a l l y s t a t e s , h i s l a s t h e t e r o s e x u a l e n c o u n t e r . T h e r e i s a l s o t h e a f f e c t e d Madame de s B r o u s s e s who u p s e t s t h e B a n q u e t d e s A r g o n a u t e s w i t h h e r 114 " v o i x s t r i d e n t e " and m e l o d r a m a t i c " c r i s e de n e r f s " . (LFM, pp. 416; 428) The f r e q u e n t m a t e r i a l i z a t i o n of these ephemeral female p r e s e n c e s l e a v e s t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t these women a r e "rddeuses" who c i r c u l a t e about t h e p e r i p h e r y of the c e n t r a l e v e n t s of the n o v e l . T h e i r l a c k of i n t e g r a t i o n can be seen as i n d i c a t i v e of the s u p p r e s s i o n of the female e n t i t y i n t he n o v e l . T h i s becomes more apparent when we c o n t r a s t them w i t h minor male c h a r a c t e r s such as Dhurmer, B e r c a i l , Caloub, Gontran, Adamanti and Gh£ridanisol; d e s p i t e the b r e v i t y of t h e i r appearances, they a re seen as s u b s t a n t i a l and i n t e g r a l elements of the p l o t . The women a r e p r e s e n t e d c h i e f l y through E d o u a r d 1 s j o u r n a l , B e r n a r d and O l i v i e r ' s l e t t e r s , c o n v e r s a t i o n s between male c h a r a c t r s (e.g. B e r n a r d - O l i v i e r , E d o u a r d - M o l i n i e r , 01 i v i e r - A r m a n d , Bernard-FJdouard) and n a r r a t o r i a l r e p o r t and commentary. I f the female v o i c e i s heard a t a l l , i t i s i n d i a l o g u e s w i t h men. The male i n v o l v e d i n i t i a t e s and m a n i p u l a t e s the c o n v e r s a t i o n and t h e fe m a l e ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n i s a response r a t h e r than a spontaneous e x p r e s s i o n of her o p i n i o n s : P r o f i t e n d i e u always manages t o d i r e c t M a r g u e r i t e ' s t h o u g h t s toward p i e t y and v i r t u e ; L a u r a and S o p h r o n i s k a t a l k w i t h Edouard about l i t e r a t u r e i n t h e c o n t e x t of h i s n o v e l ; when c o n v e r s i n g w i t h P a u l i n e , Edouard sways t h e f o c u s toward Georges or O l i v i e r ; B e r n a r d uses L a u r a as a sounding board i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r h i s o r a l exams. The e r a s u r e of women f i n d s i t s u l t i m a t e e x p r e s s i o n i n the form of banishment and murder. S e v e r a l major female 115 c h a r a c t e r s a r e c a s t o u t of t h e i n n e r c i r c l e i n t o f o r e i g n o r h o s t i l e e n v i r o n m e n t s . S o p h r o n i s k a r e t u r n s t o P o l a n d . S a r a h a n d L a u r a a r e e x i l e d t o E n g l a n d ( s e e M a s s o n 1 s d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e m a l e f i c a s p e c t s o f a n g l o - s a x o n c u l t u r e , p . 8 ) . M a r g u e r i t e s i m p l y l e a v e s P r o f i t e n d i e u — h e r l o c a t i o n i s n o t i n d i c a t e d , s h e i s r e l e g a t e d t o t h e unknown. Mme. de L a P e r o u s e i s c o e r c e d i n t o t h e i n h o s p i t a b l e m i l i e u o f t h e r e s t home. The a u t h o r ' s a p p a r e n t d e s i r e t o p u r g e t h e n o v e l o f f e m i n i n e e x i s t e n c e becomes u n d e n i a b l e a f t e r a c l o s e e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h i s c r y p t i c p a s s a g e : B o r i s se s o u v i n t d'un roman q u ' i l a v a i t l u n a g u e r e , ou d e s b a n d i t s , s u r l e p o i n t de t u e r une femme, l ' i n v i t a i e n t a f a i r e s e s p r i e r e s , a f i n de l a c o n v a i n c r e q u ' e l l e d e v a i t s ' a p p r e t e r a m o u r i r . (LFM, p. 542) T h i s v i o l e n t s c e n a r i o r e s e m b l e s t h e f a t e o f La d y G r i f f i t h who i s d i s p a t c h e d f i r s t t o t h e open s e a , t h e n t o t h e A f r i c a n w i l d l a n d s w h e r e she e n c o u n t e r s d a n g e r and d e a t h a t t h e hands o f V i n c e n t . As o p p o s e d t o t h e s u b t l e e x p r e s s i o n o f m i s o g y n y i n t r i n s i c i n women's e f f a c e m e n t , b a n i s h m e n t a n d d e a t h , c o n t e m p t f o r women a l s o becomes e x p l i c i t . A t some p o i n t , v i r t u a l l y e v e r y m ale c h a r a c t e r v e r b a l i z e s d i s t a s t e o r s c o r n f o r e i t h e r one woman o r t h e e n t i r e f e m a l e g e n d e r . E d o u a r d , B e r n a r d a n d O l i v i e r p r a c t i s e t h e i r m i s o g y n y f r o m t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e m a l e h o m o s e x u a l ; t h e i r c o n t e m p t i s r o o t e d i n t h e i r a v e r s i o n f o r women a s o b j e c t s o f s e x u a l d e s i r e . When s p e a k i n g o f M i s s A b e r d e e n (who e x e m p l i f i e s 116 f e m i n i n e s e n s u a l i t y , f l i r t a t i o u s n e s s , p r o m i s c u i t y ) Edouard r e f e r s t o her d i m i n u t i v e l y as " l ' A n g l a i s e " and " l a p e t i t e A n g l a i s e " . (LFM, pp. 162; 164) H i s t h o u g h t s about S o p h r o n i s k a i n v o k e t h i s g e n e r a l i z a t i o n : "Comme t o u t e s l e s femmes, e l i e e s t p l e i n e de c o n t r a d i c t i o n s . " (LFM, pp. 304-5) In t h e same v e i n , he s t a t e s : ". . . on r e n c o n t r e , e t p a r t i c u l i e r e m e n t parmi l e s femmes, b i e n des inconsequences a f f e c t ^ e s . . . " (LFM, pp. 473-4) B e r n a r d ' s h a t r e d i s more f o c u s e d : i t i s aimed s o l e l y a t Sarah and i s connected t o t h e shame and remorse he f e e l s r e g a r d i n g t h e i r p a s t s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s . A f t e r b e i n g c o n f r o n t e d by R a c h e l , he e x p e r i e n c e s t h i s r e a c t i o n : I I ne r£pondit r i e n , courba l a t d t e e t , par grande p i t i e " pour R a c h e l , s o u d a i n p r i t Sarah en h a i n e e t l e p l a i s i r q u ' i l g o u t a i t avec e l i e en h o r r e u r . (LFM, p. 490) I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t R a c h e l , who i s v i r t u e p e r s o n i f i e d , i s th e c a t a l y s t of B e r n a r d ' s f e e l i n g of h a t r e d f o r Sarah. Her c h a s t i t y and r e s e r v e emphasize Sarah's s e n s u a l i t y and abandon, making her appear base and d e g e n e r a t e ; t h i s i s used t o j u s t i f y B e r n a r d ' s r e p u d i a t i o n . Of the t h r e e major c h a r a c t e r s , O l i v i e r ' s a v e r s i o n f o r women i s t h e most b i t t e r and complete. H i s d i s g u s t w i t h women as o b j e c t s of s e x u a l d e s i r e i s made c l e a r a t the onset of the n o v e l and remains c o n s i s t e n t t h r o u g h o u t . W h i l e r e c o u n t i n g h i s f i r s t s e x u a l e x p e r i e n c e w i t h a woman, he pronounces t o B e r n a r d : 117 — Eh b i e n ! mon v i e u x , c ' e s t degoutant. C'est h o r r i b l e . . . Apres, j ' a v a i s e n v i e de c r a c h e r , de v o m i r , de m'arracher l a peau, de me t u e r . . . . — Ou de l a t u e r , e l l e . . . [ C ' l e s t une gonzesse que Dhurmer c o n n a i t b i e n . . . C'est s u r t o u t sa c o n v e r s a t i o n q u i m ' e c o e u r a i t . E l l e n ' a r r e t a i t pas de p a r l e r . Et ce q u ' e l l e e s t b e t e ! . . . J ' a u r a i s v o u l u l a b a i l l o n n e r , l ' e t r a n g l e r . . . . . . S i c ' e s t ca l'amour, j ' e n a i soupe pour longtemps. (LFM, pp. 52-53) The above passage e p i t o m i z e s r a d i c a l misogyny from a homosexual p e r s p e c t i v e . O l i v i e r ' s t i r a d e s y n t h e s i z e s and c o n f e r s onto one woman (who i s not even named) t h e v a r i o u s forms of contempt we have examined: a v e r s i o n , d i s g u s t , h o r r o r and a w i l l t o i n f l i c t p h y s i c a l v i o l e n c e , even death. From the p e r s p e c t i v e of the male h e t e r o s e x u a l , misogyny i s l e s s vehement. I t t a k e s the form of d i s p a r a g i n g a p p e l l a -t i o n s , s e x i s t comments and c h a u v i n i s t i c a t t i t u d e s . At one p o i n t , Armand r e f e r s t o Sarah as "une p u t a i n e " ; f u r t h e r on, he r e f e r s t o L a u r a as " l a g a r c e " - t h i s he r e i t e r a t e s t h r e e t i m e s . (LFM, pp. 165; 351) M o l i n i e r ' s s e xism and c h a u v i n i s t i c a t t i t u d e a r e so e x a g g e r a t e d t h a t they become p a r o d i e . H i s comments about P a u l i n e a r e c r i t i c a l and demeaning. He d i s a p p r o v e s of her performance as a mother, c o n t e n d i n g t h a t she i n t e r f e r e s i n t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s l i v e s . He t e l l s Edouard t h a t " P a u l i n e v o u d r a i t r e s t e r penchee sur eux. " He then g e n e r a l i z e s — " E l l e e s t comme t o u t e s l e s meres." (LFM, p. 327) H i s d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h P a u l i n e as a w i f e i s a l s o a p p a r e n t . He c o n f i d e s t o Edouard: 118 Une femme v e r t u e u s e , mon c h e r , p r e n d a v a n t a g e de t o u t . Que l'homme c o u r b e un i n s t a n t l e d o s , e l l e l u i s a u t e s u r l e s e p a u l e s . A h l mon a m i , l e s p a u v r e s m a r i s s o n t p a r f o i s b i e n a p l a i n d r e . Quand nous sommes j e u n e s , nous s o u h a i t o n s de c h a s t e s e p o u s e s , s a n s s a v o i r t o u t ce que nous c o u t e r a l e u r v e r t u . (LFM, pp. 328-9) M o l i n i e r ' s a n t i p a t h y i s d e e p - r o o t e d : i t s t e m s f r o m h i s own f e e l i n g s o f c u l p a b i l i t y . H i s i m a g e r y o f t h e w i f e who jumps on h e r h u s b a n d ' s b a c k w h e n e v e r he t u r n s away s i g n i f i e s t h a t he p e r c e i v e s h i s own w i f e a s p r e d a t o r y i n h e r s e a r c h t o f i n d f a u l t a n d p u n i s h . I n l i g h t o f h i s p r o m i s c u i t y , P a u l i n e ' s i m p e c c a b l e v i r t u e makes M o l i n i e r r e s e n t f u l and r e t a l i a t o r y . H i s s e n s e o f p e r s e c u t i o n a n d p l e a f o r p i t y a r e c h a u v i n i s t i c a n d i r o n i c a l l y make h i m an o b j e c t o f t h e r e a d e r ' s s c o r n . The d i s s o l u t i o n a n d a b a s e m e n t of h e t e r o s e x u a l l i a i s o n s become an e x p r e s s i o n o f m i s o g y n i s t i c s e n t i m e n t i n t h a t d e n i a l and r u p t u r e a r e a l w a y s i n i t i a t e d a n d c a r r i e d o u t by t h e m a l e . A l l t h e women a r e a b a n d o n e d by t h e i r p a r t n e r s e i t h e r p h y s i c a l l y o r e m o t i o n a l l y . S a r a h i s b r i e f l y romanced i n a p h y s i c a l s e n s e , t h e n a c r i m o n i o u s l y r e j e c t e d by B e r n a r d . P a u l i n e i s a b a n d o n e d by h e r h u s b a n d , who t a k e s a m i s t r e s s . M a r g u e r i t e i s a l s o a b a n d o n e d e m o t i o n a l l y by P r o f i t e n d i e u i n r e t r i b u t i o n f o r h e r t r a n s g r e s s i o n s . Mme. V e d e l f a c e s m a l e r e j e c t i o n i n t h e f o r m o f h e r h u s b a n d ' s i n d i f f e r e n c e t o h e r p r e s e n c e . Mme. de L a P e r o u s e i s r e j e c t e d , r e v i l e d a n d i n c a r c e r a t e d . L a u r a e p i t o m i z e s t h e p l i g h t o f t h e r e j e c t e d a n d a b a n d o n e d woman. T h i s i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e f o u r d i f f e r e n t 119 e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t c o n s t i t u t e her rom a n t i c i n v o l v e m e n t s w i t h men. B e r n a r d p e r c e p t i v e l y p o i n t s o u t : J e c r o i s que l e s e c r e t de v o t r e t r i s t e s s e ( car vous e t e s t r i s t e , Laura) c ' e s t que l a v i e vous a d i v i s e e ; l'amour n'a v o u l u de vous q u ' i n c o m p l e t e ; vous r6partissez sur p l u s i e u r s ce que vous a u r i e z v o u l u donner a un s e u l . (LFM, p. 293) Edouard's l o v e was never f u l l y c o n f e r r e d upon L a u r a , except on a s p i r i t u a l l e v e l , and she i s e v e n t u a l l y j i l t e d and r e p l a c e d by O l i v i e r . She i s r e j e c t e d p h y s i c a l l y by B e r n a r d , who i d o l i z e s her t o t h e p o i n t of b e i n g a p p a l l e d by the n o t i o n of a p h y s i c a l u n i o n w i t h her. V i n c e n t abandons her t o a l i f e of a b j e c t p o v e r t y . B e i n g r e f u s e d t r u e l o v e — e m o t i o n a l l y and p h y s i c a l l y — by each of the t h r e e men w i t h whom she was i n t e l l e c t u a l l y c o m p a t i b l e and most l i k e l y t o have been c o n t e n t , she i s r e l e g a t e d t o a r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the i n s i p i d and u n i n s p i r i n g D o u v i e r s . Here a g a i n she i s de n i e d a f u l l l o v e r e l a t i o n s h i p when i t i s suggested t h a t D o u v i e r s i s impotent and i n c a p a b l e of p a t e r n i t y . There a re o n l y two forms of l o v e a c c o r d e d t o women i n Les Faux-Monnayeurs. The f i r s t i s l o v e f o r mother and f o r female s i b l i n g s . The second r e l a t e s t o th e reverenc e and d e v o t i o n t h a t s e v e r a l male c h a r a c t e r s p r o f e s s f o r what one o c r i t i c r e f e r s t o as the " s a i n t e femme v e r t u e u s e " . B e r n a r d , O l i v i e r , Edouard and Armand emerge as the male proponents of t h i s n on-sexual acceptance of women. B e r n a r d ' s 120 d e f e r e n c e t o h i s m o t h e r i s e v i d e n t when he c o m p l e t e l y e x o n e r -a t e s h e r f r o m h a v i n g any c u l p a b i l i t y i n h i s i l l e g i t i m a c y . I r o n i c a l l y , a l l o f h i s a n g e r a nd r a n c o r a r e a i m e d a t h i s s t e p - f a t h e r . I n h i s s p i t e f u l l e t t e r he s t a t e s : " J e p r e f e r e p a r t i r s a n s r e v o i r ma mere, p a r c e que j e c r a i n d r a i s , e n l u i f a i s a n t mes a d i e u x d e f i n i t i f s , de m ' a t t e n d r i r . . . " (LFM, p. 37) O l i v i e r , whose m i s o g y n y i s s o r a d i c a l i n o t h e r i n s t a n c e s , e x p e r i e n c e s s i m i l a r f e e l i n g s o f t e n d e r n e s s t o w a r d h i s m o t h e r . D u r i n g a d i s c u s s i o n w i t h P a s s a v a n t , who d i s p a r a g i n g l y makes r e f e r e n c e t o O l i v i e r 1 s n e e d t o o b t a i n p e r m i s s i o n f r o m h i s m o t h e r f o r t h e i r t r i p , O l i v i e r r e a c t s : " I I a i m a i t t e n d r e m e n t s a mere e t l e t o n p e r s i f l e u r que R o b e r t a v a i t p r i s en p a r l a n t d ' e l l e l u i a v a i t d e p l u . 11 (LFM, p. 204) E x a m p l e s o f t h i s s o r t o f r e v e r e n t i a l , n o n - s e x u a l l o v e a r e e c h o e d i n t h e b r o t h e r l y a f f e c t i o n t h a t E d o u a r d a n d Armand p r o f e s s f o r P a u l i n e and R a c h e l r e s p e c t i v e l y . The n o t i o n o f l o v e f o r women w i t h o u t e r o t i c o b l i g a t i o n i s shown a g a i n i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t E d o u a r d a nd L a u r a e x p e r i e n c e d p r i o r t o t h e i m m e d i a t e a c t i o n o f t h e n o v e l . I n h i s j o u r n a l , E d o u a r d r e c o r d s : J e r e p e n s a i s o u d a i n a mon e v e i l r e l i g i e u x e t a mes p r e m i e r e s f e r v e u r s ; a L a u r a e t a c e t t e e c o l e du d i m a n c h e ou nous nous r e t r o u v i o n s , m o n i t e u r s t o u s d e u x , p l e i n s de z e l e e t d i s c e r n a n t m a l , d a n s c e t t e a r d e u r q u i c o n s u m a i t en nous t o u t l ' i m p u r , c e q u i a p p a r t e n a i t a 1 ' a u t r e e t ce q u i r e v e n a i t a D i e u . (LFM, p. 149) T h e i r r a p p o r t was one i n w h i c h a r d o r f o u n d e x p r e s s i o n i n a common r e l i g i o u s f e r v o r . T h i s c o n v e n i e n t l y s u p p r e s s e d , f o r 121 E d o u a r d , any n e c e s s i t y f o r e r o t i c p a s s i o n a n d p e r m i t t e d h i m t o c a r r y on t h e s e m b l a n c e of a romance. However, as s o o n a s s h e a r r i v e d a t a m a r r i a g e a b l e age and b e g a n t o e x p e c t more t h a n t h e i r i n t e n s e , b u t p l a t o n i c r e l a t i o n s h i p , E d o u a r d ' s a f f e c t i o n f o r h e r b e g a n t o d i s s i p a t e ; he e v e n t u a l l y t e r m i n a t e s t h e a f f a i r , a d v i s i n g h e r t o m a r r y D o u v i e r s . Thomas C o r d l e e x a m i n e s t h e i s s u e of L a u r a a n d E d o u a r d ' s u n u s u a l l o v e a f f a i r by c o m p a r i n g i t t o G i d e ' s own r a p p o r t w i t h h i s m o t h e r , a n d l a t e r on w i t h h i s w i f e . From a F r e u d i a n p e r s p e c t i v e , he c l a i m s : E d o u a r d i s t h e m a j o r s y m b o l of t h e G i d i a n E r o s . We s e e h i m , a s a n a d u l t m a l e , e n g a g e d i n b o t h h e t e r o s e x u a l and h o m o s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s . H i s l o v e a f f a i r w i t h L a u r a i l l u s t r a t e s w i t h e x e m p l a r y c l a r i t y G i d e ' s a m b i v a l e n t t i e s w i t h womanhood. I n t h e f i r s t , o r i d y l l i c , p h a s e of t h e i r l o v e L a u r a i s a n a d o l e s c e n t g i r l , t w e l v e y e a r s y o u n g e r t h a n E d o u a r d . She i s a " B e a t r i c e , "'.a g u i d i n g i n f l u e n c e i n E d o u a r d ' s l i f e a n d w o r k . . . T h i s image of p u r e l o v e b e t w e e n a man and a g i r l c h i l d i s a c l a s s i c e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e O e d i p u s c o m p l e x . L a u r a i s t h e i d e a l image o f what G i d e ' s m o t h e r had b e e n f o r h i m and o f w h a t he had a t f i r s t r e c a p t u r e d i n h i s m a r r i a g e t o M a d e l e i n e Rondeaux.-,-, C o r d l e g o e s on t o e x p l a i n t h a t L a u r a ' s e v e n t u a l c o n s e n t t o m a r r y D o u v i e r s c o n s t i t u t e s f o r E d o u a r d t h e " f i r s t d e g r a d a t i o n o f t h e i d e a l " . A f t e r r e t u r n i n g f r o m Pau, p r e g n a n t and c a s t a s i d e by V i n c e n t , s h e becomes t o E d o u a r d " s u l l i e d a n d a b j e c t " . Now t h a t h e r p i o u s and once c h a s t e c h a r a c t e r h a s b e e n b l e m i s h e d , E d o u a r d c a n resume a p l a t o n i c r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h e r w i t h o u t t h e t h r e a t of any s e x u a l o b l i g a t i o n . T h i s i s w h a t a l l o w s h i m t o e x p r e s s c o m p a s s i o n f o r h e r p r e d i c a m e n t a n d f a i t h f u l l y a s s i s t h e r t h r o u g h o u t t h e r e m a i n d e r of t h e n o v e l . ^ 122 B e r n a r d ' s i n f a t u a t i o n w i t h L a u r a i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t of Edouard p r i o r t o L a u r a ' s d e g e n e r a t i o n . W h i l e Edouard's s e x u a l o b l i g a t i o n s a r e r e l i e v e d by L a u r a ' s y o u t h , c h a s t i t y and t h e i r mutual r e l i g i o u s f e r v o r , B e r n a r d ' s a r e c i r c u m v e n t e d by the s o c i e t a l norm e x p e c t e d of them as a young man ( i . e . a d o l e s c e n t ) and an " o l d e r woman". La u r a i s pregnant, m a r r i e d and r e q u i r e d t o adopt t h e veneer of r e s p e c t a b i l i t y . When she concedes t o a c c e p t from B e r n a r d o n l y h i s " d e v o t i o n " and s t a t e s t h a t h i s o t h e r " e x i g e n c e s " w i l l have t o be s a t i s f i e d e l s e w h e r e , he i s a p p a l l e d and responds: " S e r a i t - i l v r a i ? Vous a l l e z me degoQter par avance e t de moi-meme e t de l a v i e . " (LFM, p. 293) F u r t h e r on, i n a d i s c u s s i o n w i t h O l i v i e r , he makes e x p l i c i t the n a t u r e of h i s l o v e f o r L a u r a . He c l a i m s t h a t , s i n c e knowing h e r , " j e n ' a i p l u s de d e s i r s du t o u t " and e x p l a i n s : Mais c ' e s t de l a v e n e r a t i o n que j ' a i pour e l l e , e t , pr e s d ' e l l e , t o u t e pensee c h a r n e l l e me semble i m p i e . J e c r o i s que j e me meprenais sur moi meme e t que ma n a t u r e e s t t r e s c h a s t e . Grace a L a u r a , mes i n s t i n c t s se sont s u b l i m e s . (LFM, p. 388) Be r n a r d ' s d i s g u s t w i t h the n o t i o n of a p h y s i c a l i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h L a u r a p o i n t s i n d i s p u t a b l y t o the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t he r e j e c t s women i n t h e i r c a p a c i t y as o b j e c t s of s e x u a l d e s i r e . As was t h e case w i t h Edouard, t h i s r e j e c t i o n of s e x u a l i n v o l v e m e n t a l l o w s h i s p l a t o n i c a f f e c t i o n s t o f l o u r i s h . In c o n s i d e r i n g B e r n a r d ' s subsequent pledge t o c h a s t i t y , i t i s b e n e f i c i a l t o acknowledge S t r a u s s ' o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t " [ L i e 123 l e c t e u r de Corydon s a i t que pour Gide l a chastete vaut mieux 13 que l a p e d e r a s t i e . . . " Th i s perhaps e x p l a i n s why Bernard, the hero and most d i s t i n g u i s h e d homosexual c h a r a c t e r i n the novel, renounces c a r n a l thoughts a l t o g e t h e r ; upon r e p u d i a t i n g the pu r e l y p h y s i c a l aspects of lov e with Sarah, he does not pursue a homosexual l i a i s o n , but opts f o r c e l i b a c y . Bronja represents the prototype of the female worthy of male approval and v e n e r a t i o n . Bernard sees her as " l a p l u s j o l i e c r e a t u r e que j ' a i e vue de ma v i e . " (LFM, p. 249) Edouard s t a t e s t h a t "[LJa p e t i t e Bronja e st exquise" and admires her p h y s i c a l beauty. (LFM, pp. 253-4) In her ch a r a c t e r , we see the s y n t h e s i s of the three b a s i c requirements f o r male acceptance: she i s s i s t e r l y , motherly and i n v i o l a b l e . She i s B o r i s ' u n a d u l t e r a t e d i d o l and i s e l e v a t e d to the p o s i t i o n of feminine i d e a l . Her death secures her c h a s t i t y ( c f . the Russian meaning of her name — "armour", "reserved p l a c e " ) . The male reverence and a d o r a t i o n t h a t i s c o n f e r r e d upon her (and upon Laura, i n a l e s s e r way) c o n s t i t u t e a paradox i n the context of the male homosexual's d e n i a l of women. He can l o v e her, but deplore womankind, because she does not th r e a t e n or i n h i b i t the ex p r e s s i o n of male homosexuality. She i s t h e r e f o r e spared r i d i c u l e , r e p u d i a t i o n and r e j e c t i o n . At the opposite end of the spectrum, there i s much evidence to support the n o t i o n t h a t the female p o r t r a y a l s i n Les Faux-Monnayeurs embody the author's acceptance of women 124 i n t h e c o n t e x t o f h i s c o n c e r n f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n s o c i e t y . G i d e s t a t e s i n t h e J o u r n a l d e s F a u x - M o n n a y e u r s ; " C ' e s t l a p e n s e e , l ' e m o t i o n d ' a u t r u i q u i m ' h a b i t e ; mon c o e u r ne b a t que p a r s y m p a t h i e . " (p. 49) T h i s s e n t i m e n t r e s o n a t e s i n E d o u a r d ' s d e c l a r a t i o n : "Mon c o e u r ne b a t que p a r s y m p a t h i e ; j e ne v i s que p a r a u t r u i . " (LFM, p. 110) A t t h i s p o i n t , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o r e c a l l one o f t h e p r i n c i p a l e l e m e n t s o f G i d e ' s c r i t i c i s m o f s o c i e t y : t h e e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h e c o n s t r a i n t s i m p o s e d by f a m i l y and s o c i e t y on t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s f r e e d o m and s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n ( i . e . t h e " a u t h e n t i c " s e l f ) . T h e s e c o n s t r a i n t s a r e shown t o be p a r t i c u l a r l y b i n d i n g f o r t h e f e m a l e c h a r a c t e r s who a p p e a r c o m p l e t e l y i n c a p a b l e o f r e c o n c i l i n g t h e i r i n n a t e d r i v e t o be d i s p o n i b l e and a c h i e v e a u t h e n t i c i t y a n d t h e p o w e r f u l s u b o r d i n a t i o n and s u b s e r v i e n c e i n f l i c t e d o n them by f a m i l y and s o c i e t y . I n t h i s l i g h t , t h e a u t h o r ' s e a s i l y r e c o g n i z e d m o d e l s o f womanhood a d d r e s s t h e i s s u e o f f e m i n i s m i n t h a t t h e y c o n f r o n t a n d c h a l l e n g e w h a t a p p e a r s t o be t h e f e m a l e p r e d i c a m e n t . P r o o f o f t h e a u t h o r ' s s e n s i t i v i t y t o w a r d f e m i n i s t i s s u e s a b o u n d s i n h i s J o u r n a l and t h e J o u r n a l d e s F a u x - M o n n a y e u r s . To p e r c e i v e t h i s s e n s i t i v i t y i n t h e n o v e l i t s e l f , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o c l o s e l y e x a m i n e t h e s u b - t e x t . The s e x i s m and m i s o g y n y i n h e r e n t i n t h e n a r r a t o r ' s comments a n d i n t h e m a l e c h a r a c t e r s ' a t t i t u d e s s e r v e t o mask t h e a u t h o r ' s v o i c e , a v o i c e t h a t i m p l i c i t l y c e n s u r e s t h e s u b o r d i n a t i o n i n f l i c t e d on women by t h e t r a d i t i o n s o f f a m i l y and s o c i e t y . The m o t i f s o f f e m a l e r e b e l l i o n , a n d v o y a g e a r e s u b l i m i n a l i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t 125 the female gender i s "en f o r m a t i o n " — t h a t i t i s overcoming i t s disharmony and p r o g r e s s i n g toward e m a n c i p a t i o n . By exam i n i n g t h e a u t h o r ' s l i t e r a r y agenda, we g a i n i n s i g h t i n t o why t h e f e m i n i s t message i s so obscured, so deeply imbedded i n t h e t e x t : G i d e ' s a v e r s i o n t o d i d a c t i c i s m and h i s d e s i r e t o i n v o l v e the reader p r o h i b i t e x p l i c i t a n a l y s i s and o v e r t s t a t e m e n t . The somber p o r t r a y a l s of women t h a t emerge on t h e s u r f a c e a r e meant t o draw the reader i n t o t h e t e x t , t h e n p r o p e l him beyond i t where he can i n t e r p r e t , judge and r e a c t i n a c cordance w i t h h i s own needs. T h i s i s what Gide d i d h i m s e l f i n w r i t i n g L' E c o l e des Femmes (1929), which stands as a response t o the f e m i n i s t q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d i n L e s  Faux-Monnayeurs (1925) and one of many p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s t o the problems posed by t r a d i t i o n a l female e x i s t e n c e . In h i s J o u r n a l , Gide e x p r e s s e s a l a r m , b i t t e r n e s s and sympathy f o r the predominance of female r e s i g n a t i o n and s e r v i t u d e i n t h e everyday w o r l d . The f o l l o w i n g e n t r y r e -g a r d i n g h i s " l o g e u s e " i s i n s i g h t f u l and p e r t i n e n t : Ma lo g e u s e — femme de 36 ans e n v i r o n — t r a v a i l l e de 8 heures du m a t i n a m i n u i t . . . . On n'imagine pas c r e a t u r e p l u s douce, p l u s o b l i g e a n t e , p l u s p a t i e n t e , p l u s sereinement r e s i g n e e . <<I1 l e f a u t bien.>> C'est t o u t ce q u ' e l l e t r o u v e a d i r e quand e l i e p a r l e de sa s e r v i t u d e . Rachel i s e a s i l y r e c o g n i z e d i n t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n . As w e l l , t h i s r e c o l l e c t i o n i s perhaps t h e o r i g i n of the r e c u r r e n t image of the femme de menage t h a t i s v i s i b l e i n the n o v e l . L i b e r a t i o n from s u b o r d i n a t i o n and s e r v i t u d e f o r women i s e x p l o r e d i n t h e J o u r n a l des Faux-Monnayeurs. The s c e n a r i o 126 f o r a "roman d e s deux s o e u r s " c o n s t i t u e s t h e f i r s t m o t i f t h a t G i d e d i s c u s s e s i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r w r i t i n g L e s  F a u x - M o n n a v e u r s . One o f h i s t e n t a t i v e p l a n s was t o w r i t e a n o v e l a b o u t two s i s t e r s t h a t w o u l d i n v o l v e a w i f e ' s d i s c o v e r y o f h e r h u s b a n d ' s m e d i o c r i t y a n d h e r own d e l u s i o n s o f m a r i t a l harmony. I n t h e end s h e w o u l d g a t h e r t h e c o u r a g e t o l e a v e h i m , f a c i n g h a r s h j u d g m e n t a nd r e j e c t i o n f r o m h e r f a m i l y and a c q u a i n t a n c e s . (JdFM, p. 6) A l t h o u g h t h i s o u t l i n e i s n o t i n c o r p o r a t e d v e r b a t i m i n t o t h e n o v e l , i t c o n f i r m s t h a t t h e a u t h o r was c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e s t i f l i n g a n d d e b i l i t a t i n g e f f e c t s o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l m a r r i a g e and p r e o c c u p e d by t h e n o t i o n o f women's e m a n c i p a t i o n p r i o r t o t h e w r i t i n g o f t h e n o v e l . S a r a h ' s t h o u g h t s a b o u t h e r r o l e a s a woman and h e r c o n t e m p t f o r t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f m a r r i a g e f u r n i s h t h e o n l y v i s i b l e e x a m p l e o f a f e m i n i s t s t a t e m e n t i n t h e t e x t . The n a r r a t o r e x p l a i n s : E l l e ne v o y a i t p o i n t e n q u o i c e l u i q u ' e l l e p o u r r a i t e p o u s e r l u i s e r a i t s u p e r i e u r . N ' a v a i t - e l l e p o i n t p a s s e des examens, t o u t comme un homme? N ' a v a i t - e l l e p o i n t , e t s u r n ' i m p o r t e q u e l s u j e t , s e s o p i n i o n s a e l l e , s e s i d e e s ? S u r l ' e g a l i t e d e s s e x e s , e n p a r t i c u l i e r ; e t meme, i l l u i s e m b l a i t q u e , d a n s l a c o n d u i t e de l a v i e e t , p a r t a n t , d e s a f f a i r e s , de l a p o l i t i q u e meme au b e s o i n , l a femme f a i t s o u v e n t p r e u v e de p l u s de bon s e n s e que b i e n d e s hommes . . . ( a u t h o r ' s s u s p e n s i o n p o i n t s ) (LFM, p. 415) A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s a d i s t i n c t t o n e o f s c o r n a n d i r o n y on t h e p a r t o f t h e n a r r a t o r and S a r a h ' s e x c e s s i v e n e s s i s d e p i c t e d a s o b j e c t i o n a b l e , t h e i n h e r e n t f e m i n i s t message i s b o t h 127 d e l i b e r a t e and u n r e f u t e d . I n r e f e r e n c e t o t h e f e m a l e c h a r a c t e r s i n g e n e r a l , S t r a u s s s t a t e s : " I I e s t e v i d e n t que G i d e l e u r a c c o r d e s a s y m p a t h i e , q u ' i l c o m p r e n d l e u r b e s o i n de l i b e r t e . " 1 5 The use of h i d d e n themes and m o t i f s was i m p o r t a n t t o G i d e . I n a l e t t e r t o A n d r e R o u v e y r e , he once w r o t e : C ' e s t ( a u s s i ) que j ' a i p l u s g r a n d s o u c i de c a c h e r ma p e n s e e que de l a d i r e , e t q u ' i l me p a r a i t p l u s s e a n t de l a l a i s s e r d e c o u r v r i r p a r q u i l a c h e r c h e v r a i m e n t , que de 1 ' e x p o s e r . T h i s e s t h e t i c t e n e t h o l d s t r u e i n L e s F a u x - M o n n a y e u r s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e theme o f women's s u b o r d i n a t i o n and t h e i r c o m p u l s i o n t o be e q u a l and f r e e ( i . e . d i s p o n i b l e ) . A l t h o u g h S a r a h ' s i n t e r i o r m o n o l o g u e makes d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e t o t h i s theme, i t i s much more a b u n d a n t l y e x p l o r e d a n d d e v e l o p e d i m p l i c i t y , o r s u b - t e x t u a l l y . By p i e c i n g t o g e t h e r t h e d i f f e r -e n t m o t i f s t h e r e a d e r i s a b l e t o r e c o n s t r u c t t h e f e m i n i s t message i n i t s b r e a d t h and c o m p l e x i t y . One t e c h n i q u e t h a t t h e a u t h o r e m p l o y s t o d i s g u i s e t h e f e m i n i s t message i s t h e use o f i r o n y i n t h e n a r r a t o r i a l i n t r u s i o n s . A p r o m i n e n t e x a m p l e o f t h i s c a n be f o u n d i n t h e n a r r a t i o n o f S a r a h ' s t h o u g h t s i n t h e p e n u l t i m a t e p a s s a g e q u o t e d a b o v e . Use o f t h e i n t e r r o g a t i v e s e r v e s t o t r i v i a l -i z e S a r a h ' s p h i l o s o p h y . The n a r r a t o r d e r i d e s h e r n a i v e t e . The s u s p e n s i o n p o i n t s a t t h e end o f t h e p a s s a g e , h o w e v e r , a r e s i g n a l s o f a d o u b l e e n t e n d r e . They i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e i s s u e s r a i s e d a r e w o r t h y o f some s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n . I n r e f u s i n g t o c l a r i f y t h i s s t a n d , t h e a u t h o r c o m p e l s t h e r e a d e r t o make j u d g m e n t . 128 The n a r r a t o r ' s smug a f f i r m a t i o n t h a t M a r g u e r i t e w i l l n e v e r l e a v e P r o f i t e n d i e u p r o v i d e s a n o t h e r e x a m p l e o f how i r o n y i s u s e d t o d i s c l o s e t h e f e m i n i s t i s s u e s o f f e m a l e s u b o r d i n a t i o n a n d d e p e n d e n c y . T h a t M a r g u e r i t e e v e n t u a l l y o v e r c o m e s h e r f e a r and a c t u a l l y d o e s l e a v e P r o f i t e n d i e u c o n t r a d i c t s t h e n a r r a t o r ' s c l a i m . T h i s d i s p a r i t y b e t w e e n t h e n a r r a t i o n a n d t h e a c t u a l t u r n o f e v e n t s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e n a r r a t o r ' s o m n i s c i e n c e a n d a p p a r e n t o b j e c t i v i t y a r e t o be m i s t r u s t e d . H i s a s s e r t i o n s a r e b i a s e d and o f t e n f a l s e . One c r i t i c r e f e r s t o t h i s f o r m o f i r o n y as t h e e f f e c t o f t h e " d e l u d e d n a r r a t o r " a n d e x p l a i n s t h a t t h e n a r r a t o r ' s d e c e p t i v e s t a t e m e n t s c a l l upon t h e r e a d e r ' s a l e r t n e s s a n d a t t e n t i v e -n e s s . " ^ I t i s t h e r e a d e r ' s r o l e t o d e t e c t t h e n a r r a t o r i a l i r o n y and d e c i p h e r t h e message t h a t i t c o n c e a l s . The c r i t i c i s m o f women's s t a t u s i n s o c i e t y i s i n h e r e n t i n t h e a u t h o r ' s i l l u s t r a t i o n o f how t h e s o c i a l o r d e r i n f l i c t s s u b o r d i n a t i o n on women. C o r d l e a r g u e s t h a t t h e f a t h e r / h u s b a n d i n G i d i a n f i c t i o n i s g e n e r a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e 18 s o c i a l o r d e r . I n L e s F a u x - M o n n a y e u r s f a t h e r and h u s b a n d s o f t e n h o l d t h e t i t l e s o f m a g i s t r a t e s and c l e r g y m e n ( e . g . M o l i n i e r , P r o f i t e n d i e u , and V e d e l ) . They a r e u p h o l d e r s o f l a w and t r a d i t i o n . T h e i r s e x i s t a t t i t u d e s make t h e a m b i g u o u s f e m i n i s t message more d i s t i n c t . The manner i n w h i c h t h e y v i e w and t r e a t t h e i r w i v e s r e f l e c t s t h e o p p r e s s i v e , c h a u v i n i s t i c methods e m p l o y e d by t h e m a l e t o e l i c i t f e m a l e s e r v i t u d e a n d s u b m i s s i o n . 129 A l t h o u g h n e i t h e r a h u s b a n d n o r a f a t h e r , E d o u a r d a l s o s e r v e s a s a n e x a m p l e o f t h e r o l e men p l a y i n t h e s u b j u g a t i o n o f women. The a t t i t u d e s he e x p r e s s e s a t t e s t t o t h e n o t i o n t h a t men condone and o f t e n e n c o u r a g e women's a d h e r e n c e t o t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l , o p p r e s s e d r o l e i n s o c i e t y . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o r e c a l l E d o u a r d ' s r e l i e f upon s e e i n g L a u r a r e s i g n h e r s e l f t o a n u n f u l f i l l i n g m a r r i a g e w i t h D o u v i e r s and h i s a d m i r a t i o n o f R a c h e l ' s v i r t u e a n d s u b s e r v i e n c e . When P a u l i n e l a m e n t s t h a t a woman i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e most " r a i s o n n a b l e " a n d "honn£te" when she i s t h e most r e s i g n e d , E d o u a r d a g r e e s , p o n d e r i n g t h a t " C e t t e r e f l e x i o n m ' i r r i t a en r a i s o n de s a j u s t e s s e m§me." (LFM, p.451) The m a l e c h a r a c t e r s ' f e e l i n g s o f i n d i f f e r e n c e and s u p e r i o r i t y s u g g e s t t h a t men p r e s e n t a h o s t i l e e n v i r o n m e n t f o r f e m a l e g r o w t h , f r e e d o m and a u t h e n t i c i t y . I t becomes e v i d e n t t h a t t h e a u t h o r d i s a p p r o v e s o f t h e p r e v a l e n t m a l e a t t i t u d e s a n d s e e s t h a t t h e m a l e g e n d e r , p a r t i c u l a r l y f a t h e r s a n d h u s b a n d s , c o n s t i t u t e s a f o r m i d a b l e o b s t a c l e t o women's e m a n c i p a t i o n . T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l s u g g e s t i o n s o f f e m a l e r e b e l l i o n a g a i n s t a s o c i a l o r d e r t h a t p r i v i l e g e s t h e m a l e . S a r a h ' s s e n t i m e n t s and a c t i o n s i n c o r p o r a t e t h e p o s i t i o n o f f e m i n i n e r e v o l t . L i l i a n ' s f e m i n i s t s t a n d o f f e r s a n u n d e r s t a t e d p a r a l l e l t o t h a t o f S a r a h . Many o f h e r s t a t e m e n t s s u p p o r t t h e n o t i o n t h a t s h e i s one o f t h e few f e m a l e a d v o c a t e s o f women's e m a n c i p a t i o n . T h i s i s p e r h a p s h e r one r e d e e m i n g q u a l i t y . I n h e r d i a l o g u e w i t h V i n c e n t , L i l i a n c h a l l e n g e s t h e common m a l e c o n c e p t i o n t h a t women a r e i n t e l l e c t u a l l y 130 i n f e r i o r . She s t a t e s : "On c r o i t t o u j o u r s que l e s femmes ne savent pas r e f l e c h i r , mais t u v e r r a s que c e l a depend d e s q u e l l e s . . . " (LFM, p.96) Her r e p r o v a l of the f e m i n i n e c o n d i t i o n i s i n c i s i v e i n her d i s c u s s i o n of the s i n k i n g of the Bourgogne. L i l i a n a s s e r t s t h a t when peop l e a r e i n the m i d s t of p e r i l , t he o n l y t h i n g t h a t d i s g u s t s her more than those who t h i n k o n l y of them s e l v e s a r e " l e s femmes q u i poussent des c r i s . " (LFM, p.99) She c o n c l u d e s by r e l a t i n g t h e i n c i d e n t of how she saved a c h i l d whose mother was rendered h e l p l e s s and unable t o save even h e r s e l f . L i l i a n s t a t e s : " E l l e e t a i t d'abord avec sa mere; mais c e l l e - c e ne s a v a i t pas b i e n nager; e t p u i s e l l e e t a i t genee, comme t o u j o u r s dans ces c a s - l a , par sa j u p e . " (LFM, p.99) C l o t h i n g r e p r e s e n t s one's e x t e r i o r , the image one p r o j e c t s and i s , t o a c e r t a i n degree, governed by s o c i e t y ' s d i c t a t e s . That the woman i n q u e s t i o n i s hamper-ed by her s k i r t s u g g e s t s t h a t the outward appearance she i s o b l i g e d t o assume i s l i m i t i n g and d e b i l i t a t i n g . I t h i n d e r s her a b i l i t y t o h e l p h e r s e l f i n t h e f a c e of d i f f i c u l t y . L i l i a n ' s comments convey her i m p a t i e n c e w i t h women and t h e i r i n e f f e c t u a l c r i e s of d e s p a i r . In a d d i t i o n , they perhaps denote her r e p r o v a l of t h e i r apathy, or t h e i r r e l u c t a n c e t o h e l p t h e m s e l v e s by c o n f r o n t i n g t h e i r s u b o r d i n a t i o n and ap p a r e n t impotence. A l t h o u g h L i l i a n p e r s o n i f i e s e v i l and t e m p t a t i o n on a s y m b o l i c l e v e l , she a l s o embodies f e m i n i n e independence, a b i l i t y and s t r e n g t h . Her adherence t o t h e p r i n c i p l e s of freedom, even i f they do p r o p e l her toward debauchery, 131 d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t s h e c h a l l e n g e s f e m a l e s u b j e c t i o n i n a n a c t i v e way. I n l i g h t o f t h i s , h e r d e a t h p e r h a p s b e t o k e n s h e r m a r t y r d o m i n t h a t i t i s a recompense f o r h e r r e f u s a l t o r e s i g n h e r s e l f t o a c o n v e n t i o n a l r o l e . E a c h f e m a l e c h a r a c t e r s u f f e r s h e r p l i g h t a l o n e . T h i s l a c k o f u n i t y becomes i r o n i c i n l i g h t o f t h e p r o m i n e n t theme o f s i s t e r h o o d i n t h e n o v e l — e.g. t h e a u t h o r ' s p l a n s f o r a "roman d e s deux s o e u r s " , t h e t h r e e V e d e l s i s t e r s : S a r a h , R a c h e l and L a u r a . T h e r e i s i n f a c t an u t t e r l a c k o f s i s t e r l y a t t i t u d e s among t h e t h r e e s i s t e r s . As f o r t h e f e m a l e c h a r a c -t e r s i n g e n e r a l , woman t o woman d i s c o u r s e i s a l m o s t n o n -e x i s t e n t a n d t h e r e a r e v i r t u a l l y no i n s t a n c e s o f p o s i t i v e , f e m a l e f r i e n d s h i p s . When woman t o women d i a l o g u e d o es a r i s e , i t i s h o s t i l e . R a c h e l and S a r a h ' s a l t e r c a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e l a t t e r ' s a f f a i r w i t h B e r n a r d i s t h e s o l e e x a m p l e o f communi-c a t i o n b e t w e e n two women i n t h e e n t i r e n o v e l ; e v e n t h i s c a s e i s l i m i t e d a s a n e x a m p l e s i n c e t h e i r e x c h a n g e c o n s i s t s o f o n l y two l i n e s . (LFM, pp. 496-7) The o n l y f e m a l e f r i e n d s h i p a l l u d e d t o i s t h a t w h i c h i s s h a r e d by S a r a h and M i s s A b e r d e e n . R a t h e r t h a n b e i n g n u r t u r i n g a n d e d i f y i n g , h owever, t h e i r f r i e n d s h i p becomes s o r d i d and d e s t r u c t i v e . I n r e f e r -e nce t o M i s s A b e r d e e n ' s a c c o m m o d a t i o n a t t h e p e n s i o n , Armand d e c l a r e s : "... e l i e p a r t a g e l a chambre a v e c S a r a h . On l e u r a m i s deux l i t s p o u r l a f o r m e ; m a i s c ' e t a i t a s s e z i n u t i l e . . . " (LFM, p.157) F u r t h e r m o r e , M i s s A b e r d e e n i s a c a t a l y s t i n S a r a h ' s r e b e l l i o n a n d s u b s e q u e n t d e s c e n t i n t o l i c e n t i o u s n e s s . As f r i e n d s t h e y become c o h o r t s i n d e p r a v i t y . 132 The d i s u n i t y among t h e female c h a r a c t e r s c r e a t e s an i m p r e s s i o n of disharmony and chaos w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i d e a of evolvement toward e q u a l i t y and freedom. T h i s may be a s i g n t h a t the female sex i s , l i k e B e r n a r d , "en f o r m a t i o n " . In r e f l e c t i n g on t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s posed by c h a r a t e r i z a t i o n i n h i s n o v e l , Edouard p o s t u l a t e s : "Rien n'est p l u s d i f f i c i l e a o b s e r v e r que l e s e t r e s en f o r m a t i o n . I I f a u d r a i t p o u v o i r ne l e s r e g a r d e r que de b i a i s , de p r o f i l . " (LFM, pp. 133-4). The n o t i o n t h a t i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o observe a b e i n g who i s "en f o r m a t i o n " c o u l d a l s o be a p p l i e d t o the way i n whi c h women appear as a c o l l e c t i v e group i n t h e n o v e l . The theme of voyage p r e s e n t s a p o t e n t i a l f o r evolvement toward e m a n c i p a t i o n f o r women i n g e n e r a l and toward freedom and a u t h e n t i c i t y f o r the i n d i v i d u a l . The p r o g r e s s i o n toward a u t h e n t i c i t y f o r B e r n a r d i s accompanied by h i s a c t u a l voyages and e x c u r s i o n s . H i s t r i p t o Saas-Fee, away from f a m i l y and French s o c i e t y , h i s day t r i p s and h i k e s i n t h e mountains, g i v e him a new p e r s p e c t i v e and a l l o w him t o a r r i v e a t c o n c l u s i o n s about h i s own l i f e . A f t e r a r a d i c a l d e p a r t u r e , he r e t u r n s " a u t h e n t i c " and p r e p a r e d t o i n c o r p o r a t e h i s own v a l u e s i n t o those of c o n v e n t i o n a l s o c i e t y . L a u r a , Sarah and M a r g u e r i t e a r e a l s o a c t u a l v oyagers i n th e n o v e l . The f a c t t h a t Sarah and L a u r a go o f f t o England, a c o u n t r y t h a t has come t o s y m b o l i z e l i b e r t i n a g e , i s s u g g e s t i v e of freedom and p o t e n t i a l . I t i s c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t L a u r a , removed from the i n f l u e n c e of her f a m i l y and the s o c i e t y by which she has been c o n d i t i o n e d , c o u l d make f u r t h e r 133 d i s c o v e r i e s a b o u t h e r s e l f and p r o g r e s s t o w a r d a u t h e n t i c i t y , a s d i d B e r n a r d o n h i s v o y a g e t o S a a s - F e e . S i m i l a r l y , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t S a r a h w i l l t e m p e r h e r i m p a s s i o n e d r e b e l l i o u s -n e s s a f t e r s p e n d i n g a n i n t e r v a l o f t i m e away f r o m t h e s t i f l i n g f a m i l i a l and s o c i a l m i l i e u s h e so d e s p i s e s . Her f e r v e n t r e v o l t , a f t e r a l l , r e s e m b l e s c l o s e l y t h a t o f B e r n a r d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e n o v e l . M a r g u e r i t e ' s d e p a r t u r e a l s o c o n n o t e s t r a v e l , a l t h o u g h h e r d e s t i n a t i o n i s unknown f r o m t h e r e a d e r ' s p e r s p e c t i v e . V o y a ge a nd d i s p l a c e m e n t , r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e a p p a r e n t c o n s e q u e n c e s , a r e e s s e n t i a l l y l i b e r a t i n g a c t s . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e n a r r a t o r ' s avowed i n d i f f e r e n c e t o t h e a f f a i r s o f c h a r a c t e r s who no l o n g e r c r o s s p a t h s w i t h B e r n a r d a n d O l i v i e r i s a c l e a r s i g n a l t h a t t h e i r s i t u a t i o n s a r e n o t i n a l t e r a b l e . To a c c o u n t f o r t h e c o v e r t n a t u r e o f t h e f e m i n i s t m e s s a g e , i t i s i m p e r a t i v e t o e x a m i n e t h e a u t h o r ' s e s t h e t i c p r i n c i p l e s . Two b a s i c t e n e t s a r e o p e r a n t i n t h e c a m o u f l a g e o f t h e theme o f women's e m a n c i p a t i o n a n d many o t h e r m o t i f s t h a t emerge i n t h e n o v e l . The f i r s t i s G i d e ' s w i s h t o a v o i d w r i t i n g a roman a t h e s e , t h e s e c o n d h i s d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o s o l i c i t t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e r e a d e r . The a u t h o r ' s w i s h t o a v o i d d i d a c t i c i s m i s e v i d e n t n o t o n l y i n L e s F a u x - M o n n a y e u r s b u t a l s o i n s e v e r a l o f h i s o t h e r w o r k s . G e o r g e s ' r e a d i n g o f t h e e x c e r p t f r o m E d o u a r d ' s n o v e l i l l u s t r a t e s G i d e ' s d i s t a s t e f o r t h e t h e s i s n o v e l and h i s s e n s e o f i t s i n e f f i c a c y a s a method o f i n s t r u c t i o n . R a t h e r t h a n f i n d i n g t h e p a s s a g e e d i f y i n g , G e o r g e s makes a m o c k e r y o f 134 i t — he p o i n t s out t h a t t h e c h a r a c t e r s ' names a r e r i d i c u l o u s and c h a l l e n g e s Edouard t o e x p l a i n how i t s c o n t e n t i s a p p l i c a b l e t o him. A f t e r r e a d i n g t h e passage, Georges proceeds t o e m b r o i l h i m s e l f even f u r t h e r i n t h e i l l i c i t a c t i v i t i e s of the C o n f r e r i e des Hommmes f o r t s by p l a y i n g an i n s t r u m e n t a l r o l e i n t h e p l a n n i n g and e x e c u t i o n of B o r i s ' " s u i c i d e " ( i . e . murder). Furthermore, Edouard concedes i n h i s j o u r n a l t h a t the passage i s a l i t e r a r y f a i l u r e and must be r e w r i t t e n . (LFM, pp. 508-13) In h i s J o u r n a l , Gide s t a t e s : " J ' a i soigneusement ecart£ de mes Faux-Monnayeurs t o u t ce qu'un a u t r e a u r a i t a u s s i b i e n que moi pu e c r i r e , me c o n t e n t a n t d ' i n d i c a t i o n s q u i p e r m i s s e n t 19 d'imaginer t o u t ce que j e n ' e t a l a i s pas." In C a r a c t e r e s , the essence of t h i s statement i s r e i t e r a t e d : Ce n'est pas t a n t ce qu'on y d i t q u i f a i t l a v a l e u r d'un l i v r e , que t o u t ce que 1'on n'y peut pas d i r e ; t o u t ce que l ' o n v o u d r a i t y d i r e , q u i l ' a l i m e n t e sourdement.2Q The above passages h e l p t o c l a r i f y why the f e m i n i s t theme i n Les Faux-Monnayeurs, l i k e t he homosexual one, i s never e x p r e s s l y s t a t e d or a n a l y z e d . L i k e Mme. V e d e l , who o b l i g e s t h e l i s t e n e r t o s p e c u l a t e on t h e f u l l meaning of her r a m b l i n g , i n c o h e r e n t d i s c o u r s e — e.g. " E l l e f a i t de l " i n f i n i avec l " i m p r e c i s e t l ' i n a c h e v e . " (LFM, pp. 343-4) — t h e author l e a v e s t h e message open t o m u l t i p l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s by the r e a d e r . I f t he author p e r c e i v e s t h a t h i s f u n c t i o n as an a r t i s t i s t o " s t i m u l a t e c r e a t i v e thought, t o pose problems and not t o p r e s e n t ready-made s o l u t i o n s , " t h e n the r e a d e r ' s c o l l a -135 21 b o r a t i o n i s imperative. In the J o u r n a l des Faux-Monnayeurs, Gide e l u c i d a t e s h i s p o s i t i o n on the reader's r o l e i n h i s n o v e l : Ce n'est p o i n t tant en apportant l a s o l u t i o n de c e r t a i n s problemes, que j e p u i s rendre un r£el s e r v i c e au l e c t e u r ; mais b i e n en l e f o r c a n t a r£flechir lui-meTne sur ces problemes dont j e n'admets guere q u ' i l p u i s s e y a v o i r d'autre s o l u t i o n que p a r t i c u l i e r e a t p e r s o n n e l l e . (JdFM, p. 15) The above statement confirms the importance Gide placed on the a t t e n t i v e reader and h i s confidence i n t h a t reader to i n f e r meaning and draw h i s own c o n c l u s i o n s . T i l b y sees the " a c t i v e r o l e which must be s u s t a i n e d by an a l e r t and c r i t i c a l reader" as a b a s i c element of Gide's uniqueness and modernism. He compares Gide's demands on the reader to those of the nouveaux romanciers, c l a i m i n g t h a t Les Faux-Monnayeurs c o n s t i t u t e s "a more p o s i t i v e encouragement to submit the i m p l i c a t i o n s of a f i c t i o n a l t e x t to our own c r i t i c a l s c r u t i n y than almost any French n o v e l i s t before A l a i n R o b b e - G r i l l e t 22 and the other nouveaux romanciers of the post-war p e r i o d . " 136 NOTES ^ T h i s does not mean th a t the women are not looked upon with contempt by c e r t a i n male c h a r a c t e r s or the n a r r a t o r . o -Gide, J o u r n a l , I, 31. 3 Gide, J o u r n a l , I, 881. ^ Michael T i l b y , Gide; Les Faux-Monnayeurs, C r i t i c a l Guides to French Texts, No. 9 (London: Grant & C u t l e r , 1981), p. 71. 5 T i l b y , p. 71. 6 Cordle, p. 129. 7 C h e r i R e g i s t e r , "American Feminist L i t e r a r y C r i t i c i s m : a B i b l i o g r a p h i c a l I n t r o d u c t i o n , 11 i n Feminist  L i t e r a r y C r i t i c i s m : E x p l o r a t i o n s i n Theory, ed. Josephine Donovan (Lexington: The U n i v e r s i t y Press of Kentucky, 1975), p. 4. 8 R e g i s t e r , p. 4. Q Georges Strauss, "Les Personnages Feminins des Faux-Monnayeurs, " i n Andre Gide 7: l e romancier, ed. Claude Martin, RLM, N 688-692 (1984), p. 11. It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to compare the inhe r e n t s i m i l a r i t e s i n Jer5me and A i s s a ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p i n La Porte  E t r o i t e . 1 1 Cordle, p. 127; c f . Strauss, p. 18; he f o l l o w s a somewhat c o n t r a d i c t o r y l i n e of reasoning, adopting the premise that Laura i s a "developpement i d e a l i s e de ce que Madeleine ... a v a i t de m e i l l e u r . " 12 C o r d l e , pp. 127-8 • 13 Strauss, p. 15. 14 Gide, J o u r n a l , I, 838-9. 15 Strauss, p. 15. 16 Ma r t i n , A.G. par lui-m§me, p. 156. 17 J.C. Davies, A D i s t i n g u i s h e d Andre Gide, Inaugural P u b l i c L e c t u r e (Armidale, New S. Wales: The U n i v e r s i t y of New England, 1960), pp. 31-2. 137 18 D a v i e s , pp. 3 1 - 2 . 1 9 C o r d l e , p. 1 3 0 . 2 0 G i d e , J o u r n a l , I , 1 0 6 8 . 21 Andr<§ G i d e , C a r a c t e r e s , i n O e u v r e s C o m p l e t e s  d ' A n d r e G i d e , ed. L. M a r t i n - C h a u f f i e r , V o l . 12 ( P a r i s : G a l l i m a r d , 1 9 3 7 ) , p. 1 5 . 22 C h r i s t o p h e r B e t t i n s o n , G i d e : a S t u d y ( L o n d o n : H eineman, 1 9 7 7 ) , p. 1 3 . 138 CONCLUSION G i d e ' s demands on t h e f e m a l e r e a d e r r e q u i r e h e r t o move b e y o n d t h e w o r d s a n d i m a g e s t h a t a p p e a r on t h e p r i n t e d page. As t h e r e a d e r g o e s b e y o n d t h e a p p a r e n t m i s o g y n y o f L e s  F a u x - M o n n a y e u r s t o c o n s t r u c t t h e f e m i n i s t message embedded i n t h e p o r t r a y a l s o f women, s o d o e s t h e a u t h o r . The f e m i n i s t theme i m p l i c i t i n L e s F a u x - M o n n a y e u r s becomes, a t a much l a t e r d a t e , e x p l i c i t i n L ' E c o l e d e s Femmes. I t i s i n t h e l a t t e r f i c t i o n a l w ork t h a t t h e a u t h o r o f f e r s a p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n t o t h e f e m a l e p r e d i c a m e n t i n b o u r g e o i s s o c i e t y . The f e m a l e ' s i m p u l s e t o r e s i s t s u b o r d i n a t i o n e s c a l a t e s t o e f f e c -t i v e r e b e l l i o n a n d p r o g r e s s t o w a r d e m a n c i p a t i o n a n d t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f a u t h e n t i c i t y . M u l t i p l e p a r a l l e l s e x i s t b e t w e e n L e s F a u x - M o n n a y e u r s a n d L ' E c o l e d e s Femmes i n t h e c o n t e x t o f women's e m a n c i p a t i o n a n d i n d i v i d u a l f r e e d o m . C o r d l e c o n f i r m s t h a t t h e b a s i c i d e a f o r L ' E c o l e des Femmes d a t e s b a c k t o G i d e ' s p l a n n i n g o f L e s  F a u x - M o n n a y e u r s . 1 As d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y , t h e s c e n a r i o f o r t h e roman des deux s o e u r s , i n w h i c h one s i s t e r d i s c o v e r s h e r h u s b a n d ' s m e d i o c r i t y and l e a v e s h i m , i s t h e f i r s t theme t h e a u t h o r c o n t e m p l a t e s i n t h e J o u r n a l d e s F a u x - M o n n a y e u r s . A l t h o u g h t h e i d e a o f t h e two s i s t e r s i s a b a n d o n e d , t h i s same s c e n a r i o s e t s t h e f o u n d a t i o n f o r L 1 E c o l e des Femmes. The two 139 works share the motifs of the diss o l u t i o n of marriage and the youth's insubordination to family, church and society. Many of the characters in the l a t t e r work are, unmistakably, more f u l l y developed replicas of characters which appear in Les-Faux-Monnaveurs. In Eveline, narrator of the f i r s t part of the novel, we see r e f l e c t i o n s of Marguerite, Pauline and Laura. A l l four women are married to mediocre men and suffer s i l e n t l y and alone in the i r oppression, and s e l f - s a c r i f i c e . To a lesser degree, they share i n the i r frustrated attempts to rebel. Eveline takes her f u i t e one step further than Marguerite, however, not only by ex t r i c a t i n g herself from a s t i f l i n g and d e b i l i t a t i n g marriage, but also by d i r e c t i n g the energy of her freedom toward an endeavor which i s be n e f i c i a l to society; she nurses the wounded at a war camp hospital. Robert, Eveline's husband, incorporates elements of both Profitendieu and Molinier. He i s domineering l i k e the former and b i t t e r l y chauvinistic l i k e the l a t t e r . Cordle describes Robert as a "petty tyrant" driven by obedience to church and state and frustrated and angered by his wife's insubordination 2 and f a i l u r e to conform to her role as woman. Genevieve, th e i r daughter and the central character of the l a s t part, represents the potential that resides i n L i l i a n and Sarah. She i s a female Bernard i n that her quest for freedom i s successful; i t leads her toward a positive, s e l f - d e f i n i n g individualism that i s compatible with society's values and standards. 140 I n h i s j o u r n a l e n t r i e s r e g a r d i n g L ' E c o l e d e s Femrr.es, G i d e s t a t e s e x p l i c i t l y h i s i n t e r e s t i n f e m i n i s t i s s u e s . He a n n o u n c e s t h a t i n t h i s w o r k , " j 1 a b o r d e r a i s de f r o n t t o u t e l a 3 q u e s t i o n du f e m i n i s m e . " T h i s a i m t o o p e n l y c o n f r o n t t h e q u e s t i o n o f f e m i n i s m i n L 1 E c o l e d e s Femmes c o n t r a s t s s h a r p l y w i t h h i s e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h e theme i n L e s F a u x - M o n n a y e u r s ; i n t h i s e a r l i e r w ork he a d d r e s s e s t h e i s s u e o f f e m i n i s m "de b i a i s " , a s t h o u g h i t w e r e s t i l l "en f o r m a t i o n " . I n r e f e r e n c e t o G e n e v i e v e , G i d e s p e a k s o f " l a s y m p a t h i e 4 q u i me p o u s s e a l ' e c r i r e . " A t a l a t e r d a t e , he c o n f e s s e s t h a t a l t h o u g h he h a s d i f f i c u l t y s p e a k i n g i n t h e f e m i n i n e v o i c e , h i s d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o " p r e t e r l a p a r o l e a l a g e n e r a t i o n 5 n o u v e l l e " i m p e l s h i m t o s u r m o u n t t h i s o b s t a c l e . Upon com-p l e t i n g t h e work, he s u c c e e d s i n e x h a u s t i n g and p u r g i n g h i m -s e l f o f a " q u a n t i t e de r a t i o c i n a t i o n s q u i m'ont e l u p o u r d o m i c i l e e t que j e me s u i s t r o u v e comme c o n t r a i n t d ' a s s u m e r . " ^ T h i s l a s t p r o n o u n c e m e n t c o n f i r m s t h a t G i d e f e l t n o t m e r e l y an i n c l i n a t i o n b u t a n u r g e n t n e e d t o a d d r e s s and e x p l o r e t h e i s s u e o f f e m i n i s m i n h i s f i c t i o n . As r e a d e r s o f L e s F a u x - M o n n a y e u r s , we w i t n e s s t h e p r o b l e m s p o s e d by t r a d i t i o n a l f e m a l e e x i s t e n c e . We o b s e r v e t h a t t h e s t a t i c , l i m i t e d r o l e s o f t h e f e m a l e c h a r a c t e r s r e f l e c t t h e c o n s t r a i n t s i m p o s e d on them by t h e i r s o c i a l m i l i e u . F o r t h e s e f e m a l e s , t h e a v e n u e s l e a d i n g t o a f u l l e x i s t e n c e and e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e a u t h e n t i c s e l f seem c l o s e d . D e s p i t e t h e i r o b v i o u s s u b j e c t i o n , h o w e v e r , e m a n c i p a t i o n r e m a i n s o n l y an i m p l i e d p o t e n t i a l w i t h i n t h e n o v e l . The 141 f e m a l e c h a r a c t e r s r e m a i n e i t h e r weak, p a s s i v e a n d r e s i g n e d o r i n c a p a b l e o f l i b e r a t i n g t h e m s e l v e s i n a p o s i t i v e , c o n s t r u c -t i v e manner. The e f f e c t o f t h e s e c a r i c a t u r e s i s t o d i s t u r b a n d a n t a g o n i z e t h e f e m a l e r e a d e r who i s s e n s i t i v e t o t h e i r p l i g h t . They e v o k e r e f l e c t i o n , s y m p a t h y , c r i t i c i s m and, p e r h a p s , a n u r g e n t need t o f i n d a n i n d i v i d u a l s o l u t i o n . G i d e ' s e x p o s u r e o f t h e p r o b l e m a t i c s i t u a t i o n s f a c e d by women i n L e s F a u x - M o n n a y e u r s f o r e s h a d o w s h i s l a t e r e s p o u s a l o f t h e f e m i n i s t c a u s e . H i s n e g a t i v e , m i s o g y n i s t i c d e p i c t i o n o f women, a l t h o u g h a m b i v a l e n t l y e n t w i n e d w i t h a d e f e n s e o f m a l e h o m o s e x u a l i t y , emerges a s a f e m i n i s t s t a t e m e n t . The c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n h o m o s e x u a l i t y and f e m i n i s m s u g g e s t s t h a t a u t h e n t i c i t y f o r any s u b o r d i n a t e d s o c i a l g r o u p i s d e p e n d e n t on t h e e m a n c i p a t i o n o f o t h e r s who a r e a l s o c o n f i n e d t o l i v e s b a s e d on c o u n t e r f e i t v a l u e s . 142 NOTES T i l b y , p. 96. C o r d l e , p. 139. C o r d l e , p. 145. G i d e , J o u r n a l , I , 972. G i d e , J o u r n a l , I , 977-8. G i d e , J o u r n a l , I , 1160. 143 BIBLIOGRAPHY OF WORKS CONSULTED Pr i m a r y Sources G i d e , Andre. L ' E c o l e des Femmes. P a r i s : G a l l i m a r d , 1934. m j o u r n a l 1889-1949. B i b l i o t h e q u e de l a P l e i a d e . 2 v o l s . P a r i s : G a l l i m a r d , 1951-54. . Oeuvres Completes d'Andre G i d e . Ed. L. M a r t i n -C h a u f f i e r . 15 v o l s . P a r i s : G a l l i m a r d , 1932-39. Secondary Sources Ames, Van Meter. Andre" G i d e . Makers of Modern L i t e r a t u r e S e r i e s . N o r f o l k , C o n n e c t i c u t : New D i r e c t i o n s , 1947. Babcock, A r t h u r E. P o r t r a i t s of A r t i s t s : R e f l e x i v i t y i n G i d i a n F i c t i o n , 1902-1946. York, S. C a r o l i n a : F r e n c h L i t e r a t u r e P u b l i c a t i o n s Comp., 1982. Be i g b e d e r , Marc. Andre G i d e . P a r i s : E d i t i o n s U n i v e r s i t a i r e s , 1954. B e t t i n s o n , C h r i s t o p h e r . G i d e : a Study. London: Heineman, 1977. Br£e, Germaine. Andre G i d e : 1 ' I n s a i s i s s a b l e P r o t e e . P a r i s : S o c i e t e d ' E d i t i o n <<Les B e l l e s - L e t t r e s > > , 1953. Gide. New J e r s e y : R u t g e r s U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1963. "Bronya." T r a n s l i t e r a t e d D i c t i o n a r y of the R u s s i a n Language. Ed. Eugene G a r f i e l d . P h i l a d e l p h i a : I S I P r e s s , 1979. Canc a l o n , E l a i n e D. "La S t r u c t u r e de l ' e p r e u v e dans L e s Faux-Monnayeurs." Andre G i d e 5: sur "Les Faux-Monnayeurs". Ed. Claude M a r t i n . RLM, N ° 5 439-444 (1975), 29-46. C i h o l a s , Karen Nordenhaug. G i d e ' s A r t of the Fugue: a Thematic Study of "Les Faux-Monnayeurs". Chapel H i l l : N. C a r o l i n a S t u d i e s i n t h e Romance Languages and L i t e r a t u r e s , 1974. 144 C o r d l e , Thomas. Andre G i d e . Twayne's World A u t h o r s S e r i e s , 86. 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Da v i d . Andre G i d e : e c r i t u r e e t r e v e r s i b i l i t e  dans "Les Faux-Monnayeurs". M o n t r e a l : P r e s s e s de l ' U n i v e r s i t e de M o n t r e a l , 1980. L i n d e r , L o i s . "Le Roman du roman." Andre Gide 5: sur "Les  Faux-Monnayeurs". Ed. Claude M a r t i n . RLM, N 0 b 439-444 (1975)T 81-91. 145 L i t t l e J o h n , D a v i d , ed. G i d e ; a C o l l e c t i o n of C r i t i c a l E s s a v s . T w e n t i e t h Century Views. Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: P r e n t i c e H a l l , 1970. M a r t i n , Claude. Andre Gide par lui-meme. E c r i v a i n s de T o u j o u r s . P a r i s : E d i t i o n s du S e u i l , 1963. M a r t i n e t , Edouard. Andre G i d e : l'amour e t l a d i v i n i t e . P a r i s : E d i t i o n s V i c t o r A t t i n g e r , 1931. Masson, P i e r r e . Andre G i d e : voyage e t e c r i t u r e . Lyon: P r e s s e s U n i v e r s i t a i r e s de Lyon, 1983. . 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S t e e l e , D a v i d A. "Gide e t Freud. " Revue d ' H i s t o i r e  l i t t e r a i r e de l a F r a n c e . N° 1 (1977), 48-74. . " L e t t r e s e t a r g e n t : l'economie des Faux- Monnayeurs. " Andre Gide 5: sur "Les Faux-Monnayeurs". Ed. Claude M a r t i n , RLM, N o s 439-444 (1975), 61-79. S t r a u s s , Georges. La P a r t du d i a b l e dans l ' o e u v r e d'Andre  Gide . A r c h i v e s des L e t t r e s Modernes, 219. P a r i s : L e t t r e s Modernes, 1985. "Les Personnages f e m i n i n s des Faux-Monnayeurs." Andre Gide 7: l e romancier. Ed. Claude M a r t i n . RLM, N ° S 688-692 (1984), 9-23. T i l b y , M i c h a e l . G i d e : "Les Faux-Monnayeurs". C r i t i c a l G uides t o French T e x t s , 9. London: G r a n t and C u t l e r , 1981. W a t s o n - W i l l i a m s , Helen. Andre Gide and t h e Greek Myth: a  C r i t i c a l Study. O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1967. 

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