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A feasibility study of intrabuilding wireless communications using low level nominal 60 GHz radiation Siu, Frederick Wing Cheung 1988

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A FEASIBILITY STUDY OF INTRABUILDING WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS USING LOW LEVEL NOMINAL 60 GHz RADIATION  by  FREDERICK WING CHEUNG SIU B.A.Sc The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1975 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF APPLIED SCIENCE in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING  We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA January 1988  ©Frederick Wing Cheung S i u 1988  In  presenting  degree  at  this  the  thesis in  University of  partial  fulfilment  of  of  department publication  this or of  thesis for by  his  or  her  representatives.  c  TCA  L-  The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date  DE-6(3/81)  J>^  '8  /  £(V G Q  for  an advanced  Library shall make  it  agree that permission for extensive  It  this thesis for financial gain shall not  £1^  that the  scholarly purposes may be  permission.  Department of  requirements  British Columbia, I agree  freely available for reference and study. I further copying  the  is  granted  by the  understood  that  head of copying  my or  be allowed without my written  ABSTRACT  The  RF  (radio  frequency)  communication)  system which  implemented.  The  office services  digital  operates  overall  communications  aspect  system  for  a  network)  in  the  should  maximum  of  subscribers,  of  an  60  be 200  IWC  (indoor  GHz r a n g e  capable basic  and BER ( b i t  of  is  wireless  designed  providing  and  indoor  rate  ISDN  (integrated  error  rate)  of  10  - 6  or  less. The BPSK  system  (binary  division  phase  multiple  isotropically A  i n the  of  that  antennas direction  and  obtained.  scheme  is  commercially  It  and is  found  power/steady  system can support  fading that  signal the  type  is  DSCDMA  or  (direct  wave  of  the  the  is  Rician, than  ii  -  propagation  antenna  indoor  system  are  with  -20.2  a  specially  designed a  one  propagation  a K ratio  dB,  system  experimentally  and  communication s e r v i c e proposed.  -  (effective  components,  The  statistics  less  code  space seldom o c c u p i e d  U s i n g the  implemented.  of  using  less.  millimetric  fading  of  sequence  and a n E I R P  an a p p r o p r i a t e  presented.  power) of  assumptions  to a r e g i o n of  The d e s i g n o f  available  system  the  a d o p t e d w h i c h makes u s e o f  radiation  is  on  technique  100 m i l l i w a t t  environment.  RF  based  modulation,  of  c o n f i n e s the  basic  is  spread spectrum  such a requirement  characteristics  signal  sight  study  keying)  access)  open o f f i c e  w h i c h meets  shift  r a d i a t e d power)  line  arrangement  feasibility  that  (fading the  RF  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Page  ABSTRACT  1 3 ;  TABLE OF CONTENTS  i  LIST OF SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS  i  v  LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS  ix  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  xi  1.  2.  3.  i  INTRODUCTION  1  1.1  Background  1  1.2  Potential applications  5  1.3  Thesis objective  5  1.4  Thesis outline  7  OVERALL SYSTEM CONSIDERATIONS  9  2.1  F u n c t i o n a l requirements  9  2.2  E n v i r o n m e n t a l requirements  9  2.3  G l o b a l system performance  INITIAL  requirements  SPREAD SPECTRUM MULTIPLE ACCESS CONSIDERATIONS of Indoor W i r e l e s s Communications  11 13  3.1  Problems  3.2  P r o p e r t i e s of spread spectrum m u l t i p l e a c c e s s  13  3.3  Preliminary design considerations  17  3.3.1  17  Type of modulation and SSMA  - iii  -  13  Page  4.  5.  6.  7.  8.  3.3.2  B i t e r r o r r a t e and code l e n g t h  18  3.3.3  Fading  25  RADIO FREQUENCY  SYSTEM DESIGN  27  4.1  General  27  4.2  Choice of o p e r a t i n g frequency  28  4.3  Proposed  30  4.4  S i g n a l power requirements  r a d i o frequency  system  32  ANTENNA SYSTEM DESIGN  36  5.1  General  36  5.2  Antenna systems c o n s i d e r e d  36  5.3  F i n a l system  40  5.4  Construction d e t a i l  engineering d e t a i l  46  TESTS OF THE RF SYSTEM  49  6.1  General  49  6.2  Signal levels  49  6.3  Crosspolarization discrimination  52  6.4  Radiation patterns  52  6.5  Propagation c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  60  6.6  Fading s t a t i s t i c s  6°  CONCLUSIONS  AND RECOMMENDATIONS  64  7.1  Conclusions  64  7.2  Recommendations f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h  65  REFERENCES  6  i  - iv -  9  L I S T OF SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS  A n ISDN recommended s y s t e m c o n f i g u r a t i o n  2B+D  channels  commonly r e f e r r e d  a  R a d i u s of  a^  S p e c u l a r component of  b  R a d i u s of  Bj+B  2  inner  outer  S u s c e p t a n c e of  radial  of  coaxial  Rician  conductor  of  line  coaxial cable  to  BPSK  B i n a r y phase s h i f t  BW  Bandwidth  CAD/CAM  Computer a i d e d  CCD  Charge coupled d e v i c e  CCITT  C o n s u l t a t i v e committee  CDMA  Code d i v i s i o n m u l t i p l e - a c c e s s  C^  Code number  i  C . 2  Code number  j  CW  C o n t i n u o u s wave  dB  Decibel  dBm  Decibel with reference  ECM  E l e c t r o n i c counter  EIRP  Effective  £  Free space  E  s  EW  cable  fading  Bit  Relative  data  t o a s b a s i c - r a t e ISDN  BER  q  error  conductor  w i t h 2 v o i c e a n d one  coaxial line  structure  rate keying  design/manufacturing  of  to a  t e l e p h o n e and  telegraph  milliwatt  measure  isotropically  radiated  power  permittivity  permittivity  S i g n a l power Electronic  international  or d i e l e c t r i c  strength  warfare  - v  -  constant  of  material  c FHCDMA F •C•C•  Operating  Frequency h o p p i n g code d i v i s i o n m u l t i p l e  R  margin  Giga-hertz G a i n of  node a n t e n n a  G a i n of  subscriber  Gap o f H  (2) o  access  F e d e r a l Communications Commission Fade  GHz  frequency  radial  antenna  line  Hankel function  of  the second k i n d of  IF  Intermediate  ISDN  Integrated services d i g i t a l  ISM  I d u s t r i a l S c i e n t i f i c and M e d i c a l Band  IWC  Indoor w i r e l e s s  I  Modified Bessel function  order  zero  frequency network  communications of  the  first  k i n d of  order  zero  o J  Bessel function  of  the  first  k i n d of  order  zero  o  k K K KBPS KHz K  LAN  Integer  s u c h t h a t 2 -1=L,  Boltzmann's  constant  Power r a t i o  , of  Kilo-bit  the  code  length  random component . _,. . ,. , . . _ in a Rician fading s p e c u l a r component  per second  Kilo-hertz Modified Bessel function  of  Code l e n g t h ,  spread r a t i o ,  expressed i n  dB)  L o c a l area  the  second kinds  of  order  spread g a i n or p r o c e s s g a i n  network  -  vi  -  zero (when  hi  Natural  logarithm  LOG  Logarithm  LPI  Low p r o b a b i l i t y  m  Metre  mm  Millimetre  of  intercept  MBPS  Mega-bit per second  MHz  Mega-hertz  MMIC  M o n o l i t h i c microwave i n t e g r a t e d  MSK  Minimum s h i f t  ^fade  N o i s e c o m p o n e n t due t o  fading  N. int  N o i s e component  due t o  interferences  N  N o i s e component  due t o  thermal  circuit  keying  effect  N •TJ—  Two-sided s p e c t r a l density  n  Free space i n t r i n s i c  P  Number o f  pairs  P  g  Probability  P  G  Path gain  of  PG  Process  PN  Pseudo-noise  PR  Pseudo-random  P  Transmit  T  of  of w h i t e  Gaussian noise  impedance  subscribers  error  gain, equivalent  to  spread r a t i o  e x p r e s s e d i n dB  power  Q  A n g l e , phase angle  Q(x)  Q function  r e p r e s e n t i n g the  distribution  from x to  integral  00  -  vii  -  of  one t a i l  of  normal  r  Random c o m p o n e n t o f  Rician fading  RCL  Received c a r r i e r  RF  Radio  RJ,^(T)  Normalized autocorrelation  R^^(T)  N o r m a l i z e d c r o s s c o r r e l a t i o n of  level  of  the  ith  the  ith  code w i t h a time d e a l y of code w i t h  jth  code w i t h a  T  SAW  S u r f a c e a c o u s t i c wave  SSMA  Spread spectrum m u l t i p l e  T  P e r i o d of  T  Room t e m p e r a t u r e  TE  Transverse e l e c t r i c  TH  Time  TM  T r a n s v e r s e m a g n e t i c mode  data  access  stream 25°C o r  298°K  mode  hopping  Free space  permeability  UPS  Universal portable  Y  Admittance  Y  __ i ^. Voltage r a t i o °  Y  Bessel  Z  distributed)  frequency  time d e l a y of  o  (Gaussian  of  function  c  service  random component . „. . . in a Rician s p e c u l a r component of  the  second k i n d of  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c impedance of  -  coaxial  viii  -  order  cable  zero  fading  t  LIST OF  ILLUSTRATIONS  Page  F i g u r e 2.1  Proposed RLAN system  10  F i g u r e 3.3.1  T y p i c a l a u t o c o r r e l a t i o n output  19  F i g u r e 3.3.2.1  Phasor r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of R i c i a n f a d i n g  22  F i g u r e 4.3.1  RF system c o n f i g u r a t i o n  31  F i g u r e 4.3.2  Vertical  r a d i a t i o n p a t t e r n r e q u i r e d f o r node  antenna F i g u r e 4.4.1  33  S i g n a l to thermal n o i s e r a t i o  through v a r i o u s  stages of the r e c e i v e r F i g u r e 5.2.1  Cross s e c t i o n view of a double r e f l e c t o r for  Figure  5.2.2  5.3.1  F i g u r e 5.3.2  system  o m n i d i r e c t i o n a l h o r i z o n t a l p a t t e r n and  narrow v e r t i c a l Figure  33  Array  pattern  of d i e l e c t r i c  39  rod antennas u s i n g simple  amplitude and phase f e e d  41  Cross s e c t i o n view of the node antenna  42  Equivalent  transmission  l i n e problem i n the  a n a l y s i s of node antenna s t r u c t u r e  44  F i g u r e 5.3.3  A c o a x i a l to r a d i a l  44  F i g u r e 5.4.1  Subscriber  F i g u r e 5.4.2  Node antenna c o n s t r u c t i o n d e t a i l  F i g u r e 6.1.1  F u n c t i o n a l b l o c k diagram of RF system (with  line  dielectric  junction  antenna c o n s t r u c t i o n d e t a i l . .  one s u b s c r i b e r shown)  - ix -  47 48  only 50  Page  Figure 6.1.2  A one d i r e c t i o n  " b a r e b o n e " RF s y s t e m u s e d  for  RF i n v e s t i g a t i o n Figure 6.3.1  A plot  of  51  crosspolarization discrimination  of  the  antenna system  53  Figure 6.4.1  Radiation patterns  of  node a n t e n n a  54  Figure  Radiation patterns  of  subscriber  55  6.4.2 to  rectangular  rod antenna for  6.4.6  H plane f l a r e s  Figure 6.6.1  Set-up used to fading  Figure 6.6.2  various E plane or  obtain  experimental  d a t a f o r RF 61  cumulative  probability  t h e m e a s u r e d RCL a g a i n s t  distribution  to 59  estimation  Comparison of of  dielectric  theoretical  with different K values  -  x  -  distribution Rician 63  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  This author would l i k e to express h i s gratitude to Dr. Kharadly who has k i n d l y provided supervision and guidance.  Dr. Kharadly's invaluable  ideas and suggestions have been a c e n t r a l force of motivation.  Thanks are  also due to the author's employer, B r i t i s h Columbia Telephone Company for support.  In p a r t i c u l a r to Mr. W. Robinson and Mr. G. Ross for t h e i r  pioneering e f f o r t s i n s e t t i n g up t h i s program, Mr. G.E. Valde and Mr. D.A. Calder for approving i t , Mr. N. Owen, Mr. D.A. Chang, Mr.A. Au and Mr. F. S c h e l l f o r supervising i t .  H e l p f u l discussions and constructive c r i t i c i s m  from Dr. Lee, Mr. J . Loo and Mr. S. Liang are  appreciated.  Thanks are also due to Mrs. G a i l Schmidt for typing, Mr. A. MacKenzie and h i s s t a f f for metal work and project l o g i s t i c s support.  - xi -  1  CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION  1.1  Background Modern  information current ISDN  society  growth  events  imply  that  digital  as  environment efficient  only and  communications information 40%  of  and  operators  they  most  the  work  service  oriented,  the  realize  that  potential one,  are  profit  the as  or  supposed to  productivity efficient  office  Dow C h e m i c a l  [1].  Office  In  due in  and  the  to  offices  is  probably  is  one  of  form of  have  are  planned  prevail  in  95% o f  even the of  a  the  and  that (such  competitive to  for  provide efficient  activities  higher.  which  are  factors  more  affecting  computerization  facility  area networks)  [6] .  than  Businesses  To r e a l i z e t h e or  of  These  businesses are  key  (local  and  of  and v e n d o r s  need  where  required  advent  w o r k e r s make up more  database  LAN's  the  technologies  where  Canada,  common  will  The  office  the Some  technology.  prosper  new  As  deregulation  companies)  services.  the  are  of  communication  productivity.  together  Xerox  the  will  [1].  communications.  changes  automations,  increase office  terminals [3]  the U . S . A . ,  productivity  improvement  or  modern  percentage  communications  computers  in  force  loss.  of  applying  communication  In  total  in  for  [2] ,  manufacturers)  excel  age  communications  ( s u c h as t e l e p h o n e  acute  intensive.  of  network)  analog  equipment  if  demand  rapidity  than  economical is  the  information  the  evolution  digital  rather  telecommunication  the  so w i l l  the  services  industry  telecommunication  entered  continues  affecting  (integrated  communication  has  is  projected sharing, linking  B i g businesses such  coordinated  LAN  installa-  2  tions; regard will  most for  LAN's  standards  or  illusion,  shattered  Motorola average  when  disadvantages  that  this  frequency are  to  users  estimates  expenses  of  from  every  a  -  Bandwidth  -  Relocation involves  -  L a c k of  is  is  is anticipated  cost  twisted  LAN c a n  pairs  are  expense  $1000 t o  $1400 p e r  months be  that  these  standards.  recurring  at  little  [5].  very  When  of  inexpensive, relocation.  terminal  these  expensive  at  an  relocation  indeed.  Other  necessary  limited  by c a b l e  characteristics  e x c e s s i v e down  time  portability. of  promising  using  [5,7].  start-up or  a  with  inflexible  prospect  Low  It  manner  a c a b l e LAN a r e :  Growth i s  -  [4].  using  eight  cable  a haphazard  recognized  suffer  -  has a h i g h e r  to  built  once  in  growth  LAN's  Prewiring  looks very  for  conform  -  The  installed  relocation  included, of  are  plans  be r e p l a c e d s h o r t l y The  is  other  but  offers  relocation  operation,  to  replace  cable  A radio LAN, e s p e c i a l l y  cost  no  radio  overall  cost  flexible  and  cost will  advantages [5] , be  so even  for  the  LAN  type  application  proposed  here,  such a s :  that  after  lower  than  several that  of  years a  of  cable  system. -  Growth  is  overload  can  be  accommodated  degradation. - Medium t o h i g h -  Portability  -  Self  -  Prewiring  speed data t r a n s f e r  and f r e e d o m f r o m messy  addressing is  not  capability. required.  is  possible.  cabling.  by  graceful  3  The u t i l i z a t i o n  of  indoor  environment  recent  literature  indoor wireless -  RF t e c h n o l o g y is  indoor  b o t h v o i c e and d a t a t r a n s m i s s i o n i n  r e c e i v i n g much a t t e n t i o n  on t h e  subject  communications  Propagation  for  [10  to  22].  judging  by t h e  abundant  Recent i n v e s t i g a t i o n s  on  have f o c u s s e d o n :  characteristics.  does not  20,  [10],  the  follow  the  Empirical  simple  data  of  free  _ rule (distance)  but  space  loss  rather  2  (distance) building -  Time  where  delay  tions. Fading level  from 1 to  spread  of  the  interference  and  Some e x p e r i m e n t s statistics are  and  multipath  [18]  limit  models.  statistically  Techniques spectrum  for is  (switching  a and  overcoming popular  idea  office in  the  of  combining  communications present  communications)  work in  SS  the  method  combining)  the  the  of  data  could  data  cause  communica-  spread.  of  Models  received of  the  signal fading  [14]. unpredictable [18,19,20].  [15,16,19]  is  fading.  Spread  Antenna another.  diversity Also  leaky  [13].  (spread  from  This  delay  [20] .  spectrum)  technique  comes f r o m P a h l a v a n ' s p a p e r differs  rate  Empirical  analyzed  f e e d e r s have been proposed The  d e p e n d i n g on  signals.  measured t h i s  phenomenon h a v e a l s o b e e n p r o p o s e d -  6 [12,13]  characteristics.  inter-symbol  -  n can vary  other  several respects.  [11].  researches  These a r e :  in  and  RF  for  indoor  The s y s t e m p r o p o s e d IWC ( i n d o o r  wireless  4  -  The  operating  proposed  for  private -  is  self  is  in  contained,  the  short  spectrum shift  techniques,  keying,  proposed to  direct  provide  in  anti-fading  assumed  carrying second) The annually of  for  project.  a traffic data  the  was  a  that  local  This  project  local  access  project  five  fraction  each  and  access)  to  rate  is  of  years of  aims  error  for  rate)  reduce the  a s many a s 200 s u b of  10  effect  ISDN t e c h n o l o g y . will  equivalent  LAN's  is  in  U.S.A.  this  to  need to  or  _ b  less.  of  fading  For  this  2B+D  The  [23]. study  ISDN  it  channels  a 192 KBPS ( k i l o  provide  as a n a t u r a l  the  through been a  alone enough of  exceed  [5].  bit  the  saleable  possibility  and  per  of  of  possibility  long  activities  out  billion  for  this  distance  Naturally,  It  this  next  area  of  product  in  this  On a more of  The  monopoly.  even  $1  motivation  local  surge  eventually  market.  evolution  is  to  long distance s e r v i c e s .  become a  projected  imbalance  has  will  then  and d i s t r i b u t i o n to  market  maintained  rebalancing will  the  the  deregulation  services  access  subscriber  which  deregulation,  contributes  services)  wideband  sequence code d i v i s i o n m u l t i p l e  with  new s e r v i c e s i n t h e more l u c r a t i v e that  is  (binary  i s used to  potential  artificially  response  project  power,  it  stream.  next  Before  services  low  band;  BPSK-DSCDMA  simultaneous  compatible  that  business  capturing  initial  property  The s y s t e m i s is  range,  absorption  particular,  s c r i b e r s w i t h a n a v e r a g e BER ( b i t  -  oxygen  operation.  Spread phase  frequency  providing  is natural imbalance  keen  basis,  r e a l i z i n g UPS ( u n i v e r s a l [9].  to and  competition.  potentially  philanthropic  communication s e r v i c e s  the  huge this  portable  5  1.2  Potential Applications The t a r g e t e d  modifications, -  market  is  for  the a p p l i c a t i o n  A temporary,  fast  open  -  C e l l u l a r radiotelephone  -  High  encryption  network  in  indoor  communications.  spectrum can spread  deployable  users w i t h i n a large  security  office  proper  to:  conference  network  for  a few  hundred  structure.  and m o b i l e for  addition  With  communications.  banking. to  Security  spectrum  is  provided  spreading  (which  by  data  provides  privacy). -  Covert m i l i t a r y (electronic systems  -  counter  Robot c y b e r n e t i c s  for  experience  Thesis This  stage  local EIRP  area  provided  communications  [8]  of  robot  demonstrates  thesis  presents  The o v e r a l l  ISDN ( i n t e g r a t e d network)  (effective  (spread  (low  probability  of  intercept)  this  by  and  aided  design/manufacturing).  spectrum spreading i s controls  accidents  caused  potential  need.  investigation  of  of  required  robots.  by  Japan's  electronic  smog,  Objective  project.  providing  LPI  i n CAD/CAM ( c o m p u t e r  resistance  reliable  clearly  measure),  w a r f a r e ) , ECM  etc..  Interference  1.3  c o m m u n i c a t i o n s s u c h a s EW ( e l e c t r o n i c  an  project  is  services digital  services  isotropically  spectrum m u l t i p l e  goal  using  low  radiation  access)  for  to  power))  first  determine  network)  level  IWC  the  (less  stage  the  100  millimetric  (indoor  wireless  a  two  feasibility  compatible than  of  RLAN  (radio  milliwatt wave  and  of  of  SSMA  communication).  6  The s c o p e o f frequency)  the o v e r a l l p r o j e c t and  d i v i s i o n of  SSMA  the p r o j e c t  The o b j e c t i v e The  RF  study,  system  (spread  of  quite  spectrum  large,  two s t a g e s i s  this  thesis  cannot since  be  such  e n c o m p a s s i n g b o t h RF  multiple  into  however,  considerations  is  is  to  access)  works,  so  (radio that  a  appropriate. investigate  conducted  RF s y s t e m  separately  considerations  feasibility.  from  dictate  the  the  overall  RF  system  requirement. A n RF s y s t e m i s -  uses  BPSK  engineered assuming that  (binary  phase  code d i v i s i o n m u l t i p l e -  covers  a circle  office -  (or  of  factory)  accommodates  shift  20 m e t r e  interference.  of  For  this  used  for  sight  reason a l i n e signal  A minimal  of  the  severity  is  performance  and DSCDMA  (direct  is  of  the  to  b  or  and  to  a  modern  overcome  overall  192  KBPS  fading  and  less.  system  than a s i g n a l f l o o d i n g  antenna  in  each c a r r y i n g  viability.  scheme w i l l  system s a t i s f y i n g  this  line  be of  custom d e s i g n e d and c o n s t r u c t e d . then  implemented u s i n g commercially  wave c o m p o n e n t s and t h e c u s t o m d e s i g n e d a n t e n n a s .  fading.  sequence  plan.  10"  used  affects  rather  same f l o o r  subscribers  requirement  access  An  on t h e  "open" f l o o r  200  fading  sight  RF s y s t e m i s  investigation of  of  of  transmission.  requirement  millimetric  multiple  The s e v e r i t y  radius  with large  a maximum  spectrum  system  access).  a n d m e e t s a BER p e r f o r m a n c e Spread  keying)  the o v e r a l l  is  the  determination  Experimental  of  the  measurements  e s t a b l i s h RF s y s t e m  available  The l a s t  characteristics are  feasibility.  then  used  to  part  and  the  verify  7  1.4  Thesis  Outline  Chapter project,  1  outline  Thesis  s k e t c h e s the Chapter  Chapter the  of  analogy.  from s i m i l a r  thesis  looks  code  researches  defines  the  multiple  and In  by  the  into  the  of  using  spread  multiple  Chapter  heterodyne  an  signal  calculation,  calculations  of  a s s u m i n g no  4  choice  RF s y s t e m i s  power the  the  budget  required  is  the  overall  its  potential  experiment  and  the  requirements  and  the  indoor  the  explained  the  access. a  direct  the  combined  sequence of  fading  under  three  second assuming minor  Rician  required  fading.  operating  frequency  is  discussed,  p r o p o s e d a n d , b a s e d on a v a i l a b l e  for  The  nonrigorous  significance  length  the  transmission  using  keying,  important  code  radio  multiple  phase s h i f t  fading,  of  of  spectrum  access  t h i r d assuming a R a y l e i g h  simple  on  lists  this  performance  difficulties  access) system,  first  the  and  g o a l of  system s i z e ,  A s s u m i n g a BPSK-DSCDMA ( b i n a r y  conditions,  background  organization.  the  division  illustrated  RF  and  environment.  3  division  fading  introduction  objective  justifications  function  is  it  2 defines  assumed o p e r a t i n g  code  an  differentiates  applications.  and  gives  RF  system  gain  of  node  is  components,  calculated.  and  a  From  subscriber  antenna  this is  determined. Chapter  5 summarizes the  antenna  possibilities  and t h e  of  impedance  at  various  available  in  the  probe,  size  the  input  structure protrusion  is of  system requirements,  s e l e c t e d system i s  engineered.  planes  literature.  (radius)  of  of  Analytic  references The  coaxial  size  d i s c u s s e s some  in  t h e node  (radius)  aperture  determination  and  antenna  and d e p t h  of  position  of  8  shorting  plungers  details  of  node  Chapter space  6  antenna  are  and  extent  presents  of  A large  antennas test  The  number  are  and  gains  of  impedance also  results  dielectric  statistically  rod  of  and  empirical  analyzed  to  RF s y s t e m .  through  radiation  antennas data  determine  Construction  included.  the  losses  matching.  are  Indoor  various  patterns  building  of  the  experimentally  of  RCL's  the  free  node  measured  (received  carrier  characteristics  and  the  fading.  Chapter environment  7  is  to  cost  merits  of  other  FH-DSCDMA.  concludes  possible.  regard  detection  provide  characteristics  subscriber  are  the  determined.  recorded.  levels)  to  and s u b s c r i b e r  propagation  materials  and  c a n be v a r i e d  reduction  and  correction  the  RF  Recommendations possibilities  SSMA t e c h n i q u e s  Pros or  that  cons coding  such of  as  using  and  system for  in  operating  further  RF s y s t e m  protocol  of  references  is  presented  are  hopping)  modulation  implementation  i n Chapter  the  assumed made  implementation  discussed. A list  research  FHCDMA ( f r e q u e n c y other  in  8.  with  and  the  or  Hybrid  schemes,  error  etc.  are  also  9  CHAPTER 2 OVERALL SYSTEM  2.1  F u n c t i o n a l Requirements There  [2].  is  sufficient  Accordingly,  compatibility.  the  full  evidence that very  Figure  system provides  2.1  from  each  channels.  subscriber  on t h e  access  for  the  Other  all  the  correction  requirement the  indoor  be  be i m p l e m e n t e d for  proposed  to m u l t i p o i n t  The  star  node  also  RLAN  KBPS,  such  as  to  are also  protocol  ISDN  The d a t a  rate  to  ISDN  2B+D  of  asynchronous  20 m e t r e s multiple  internally  trunks  and  The  a maximum o f  a circle  signalling,  communication  for  switching  telephone  is  configuration.  equivalent  provides  worldwide  system  configuration.  provides  as e x t e r n a l l y  functions standard  It  this  communications  192  central  subscribers.  coding e t c . ,  or data  alarm  for  links.  supervision,  error  detection  or  environment.  A  required.  Environmental Requirements The  typical  system i s  office  approximately 2.44  of  ISDN w i l l  c o v e r a g e w o u l d be a p p r o x i m a t e l y  s u b s c r i b e r s as w e l l auxiliary  shows  assumed t o  same f l o o r .  implementation  2.2  is  The a r e a o f  radius  first  duplex w i r e l e s s  200 s u b s c r i b e r s v i a a p o i n t  all  REQUIREMENTS  metres  partitions  intended  complex i s  to  operate  in  a modern o f f i c e  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a w i d e open f l o o r  plan,  40 m e t r e x 40 m e t r e w i t h a f i n i s h e d c e i l i n g h e i g h t (8  feet).  Individual  w h i c h a r e u s u a l l y 1.5  offices  metres  or  (5 f e e t )  workstations high.  are  of  measuring at  least  formed  by  10  A PC  PC  L  PH SUBSCRIBER NO. 1  PH  X  SUBSCRIBER'NO. 2  \ NODE ANTENNA  / FLOOR K  PC  L  MAIN FRAME COMPUTER  PH  SUBSCRIBER NO. M  FLOOR  i  FLOOR J SWITCHING PROTOCOL SIGNALLING & ALARM SUPERVISORY  LEGEND:  M  t i, PC PH  —TO/FROM TELEPHONE TRUNKS _AND DATA LINKS TO/FROM ALARM SURVEILLANCE AND CONTROL EQUIPMENT  NUMBER OF SUBSCRIBERS 20 < M < 200 J & K NEED NOT BE ALL DIFFERENT • PERSONAL COMPUTER = PHONE  F i g u r e 2.1  - Proposed RLAN System  11  By  restricting  the  EIRP  a l e v e l b e l o w 100 m i l l i w a t t can operate w i t h o u t Another the a l l e v i a t i o n In wide  Health also  related  need to  region  of  suggest  2.3  wide  signal  probable that  to  be  performance  the  bandwidth,  a  i n an i n d o o r  One s o l u t i o n w o u l d be t o office  is  power-limited  founded  environment. or  confine  and  but  interference  office  workers.  anti-fading  system  hazard.  in  whether  the  to  operation  non-interfering,  radiation,  power)  [59].  density  radiation  operate  should  indoor  spectral  c o n c e r n of  s e l d o m o c c u p i e d by  density,  is highly  radiated  unfounded,  radiation  to  The r e q u i r e m e n t s  a of  anti-interference  spread spectrum t e c h n i q u e s .  G l o b a l System Performance Requirements  error  most  rate).  critical  If  h i g h speed RLAN,  As  of  it  ought  It  maintain  be a d d r e s s e d .  the use of  The  is  system  concerns  space  spectral  to  low  workers'  the  isotropically  l i c e n s i n g or code r e g u l a t i o n s  condition.  and a b l e  dBm),  favouring  office  summary,  bandwidth  resistant  low  of  (+20  frequency  factor  (effective  the  this  detection  or  in  to  Section  here).  correction  coding  be e x t r e m e l y  The will  2.1, coding  need  small.  data  communication  before  to  error  protocol be  of  protocol  is  BER  (bit  so  - b  or  less).  to  This  c o r r e c t i o n or  detection.  such  and  incorporated  integrity  The p e n a l t y  is  a s a h i g h p e r f o r m a n c e medium  r e a s o n a b l y low ( 1 0  standard  incorporation ensure  digital  function  despreading but  correction  considered  always  system Is  for  t h e BER s h o u l d be k e p t  " r a w " BER a f t e r  mentioned  performance  and that  as  X.25  (but error the  they  error  are  detection  not or  final  BER  will  retransmissions which  slow  down  12  the  rate  of  data  BER s h o u l d n o t The c o d i n g of only  32  functions.  an a c c e p t a b l e  efficiency,  the  raw  KBPS  for  6  October  KBPS  To m a i n t a i n  exceed 1 0 " .  voice  protocol  transfer.  so  1984  s i g n a l but that  the  implementation,  CCITT at  recommendations  present  vacancy  this  can  can a l r e a d y  probably  alarm supervisory  have  be  and o t h e r  allowed  64  be a c c o m p l i s h e d u s i n g  used  for  error  housekeeping  coding,  13  CHAPTER 3 I N I T I A L SSMA CONSIDERATIONS  3.1  Problems of The  Indoor W i r e l e s s Communications  difficulties  of  IWC  are  unpredictable  fading  and  interference  [11]. RF p r o p a g a t i o n -  Multipath windows,  -  fading  to  the  as w e l l  scattering  Diversity  P r o p e r t i e s of  signal  by  by o f f i c e  walls,  workers.  due t o b l o c k a g e o f RF s i g n a l by  subscribers  using  the  RF s y s t e m s s h a r i n g t h e  be  or combining  fixed  used [15]  is  to  reduce  same  system  and  same b u i l d i n g .  the  one and SSMA i s  effect  of  fading.  another.  SSMA  properties indoor  could  RF  p o s t s and w a l l s .  other  from other  methods  switching  The  from  of  a s random s c a t t e r i n g  s u c h as p a r t i t i o n s ,  Interference  Several  f a d i n g of  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by:  due  furniture  interference  3.2  is  Shadow f a d i n g a n d a t t e n u a t i o n objects  -  indoor  of  SSMA  transmission  -  anti-interfering  -  anti-multipath  Other u s e f u l p r o p e r t i e s  and  are  [23].  utilized  to  combat  These p r o p e r t i e s  are:  non-interfering  are:  -  flexible  g r o w t h and g r a c e f u l o v e r l o a d  -  l o w s i g n a l power s p e c t r a l  -  privacy against  density  casual eavesdropping.  degradation  the  unpredictable  14  Although to  military  applications,  commercial  area.  Communications Medical)  have  and  Dutch  Philips,  broadcast. density  46]  here  properties the  logy. is the of ly.  of  of  difficult  or  This  quite  it  is  of  to  the  similarity  assume P = 3 a n d t h e  (of  [26].  The  otherwise  full  it  development. German,  Thomson-Brandt  high  and  fidelity  digital  t h a t broadband low  spectral  to  this  d e s i g n of  have of  integer  high  power  narrow  work. the  [27  Since  overall  the  system,  be  illustrated  > 2)  pairs  of  by  an  ana-  persons.  P pairs  trying  the  P pairs  converse i n a language  communicating  to  converse  It  all  p o s s i b l e t o have a l l P p a i r s that  and  explanations.  each p a i r  is possible provided  SS  (Federal  Japanese,  A.G.  the  SS r e s e a r c h e s and r e f e r e n c e s  CDMA c a n b e s t  to  of  conventional  relevant  w i t h P (an  impossible if  indications  critical  principle  However,  develop  list  CDMA d e s e r v e s some  even  Grundig  abounds w i t h  its  to  Scientific  alternative,  consortium  confined  F.C.C.  application  use before a  are  spreading  ISM ( I n d u s t r i a l ,  replacing  partial  a room f i l l e d  same t i m e . own,  a  CDMA a r e  Imagine  their  only  operating  A measure of ty  are  operation The  be  The l i t e r a t u r e  by  to  early  soon  its  is  recent  spectrum  including  intention  will  the  the  SS a s a b e t t e r  encouraged  These are p r o b a b l y  spectrum is  spread  announcement  their  SS s y s t e m s  of  regarded  or  the  for  manufacturers  on  band s y s t e m s . to  have  is  evidence  approval  bands  h a v e b e e n and s t i l l  application  strong  approved  evidence  French N.V.  amateur  body must  not  Another  One  the  Commission)  and  regulatory would  spread spectrum techniques  simultaneous-  a l l P languages are r a d i c a l l y  random p r o c e s s e s ) i s  correlation.  languages used are E n g l i s h ,  at  For  different. simplici-  C h i n e s e and A r a b i c .  The  15  autocorrelation  (i.e.  Arabic)  be  should  Chinese, extract of  the  large  x  English  t o make t h e  have  an  information of  Carrying  this In  multiple  access),  the  generating  the  generators  at  transmit stream  end by  correlation  the  to by  discriminate  autocorrelation i + 0.  In  x  receiver  will  code,  the  is  keeping  code  the  division  DSCDMA ( d i r e c t are  is  necessary  sum  of  they  being  is  cross  pairwise  are  given  taught  analogous  sequence code  assigned  i.e. to  while  it  base.  a  the  a  accomplished  PR  (pseudo  algorithm  language).  the  by  receive  The  multiplying end i s  to  division  end a r e assumed s y n c h r o n i z e d .  Despreading at  autocorrelation  should  R( T )  for  and r e c e i v e  be a l m o s t echoes or  multipath  summary  one  CDMA,  spreading  against  reflection,  English  ignore  to noise r a t i o h i g h ,  almost  to  and  x  for code  At  the  the data  accomplished  by  same c o d e .  The n o r m a l i z e d cross-correlation  of  subscribers  transmit  w i t h the  English  autocorrelation  information  (analogous  PN c o d e .  (i.e.  Arabic  In  noise)  spectrum  The  or  E n g l i s h x C h i n e s e and E n g l i s h x A r a b i c a s n o i s e .  2P  PN c o d e the  Chinese).  through  particular,  PN ( p s e u d o  Chinese  sum  analogy  division.  or  x  x  crosscorrelations  z e r o on a n o r m a l i z e d  language  random)  to  Chinese  the  recovered  almost  English,  Arabic  autocorrelation  correlations  x  compared  Arabic,  crosscorrelations  order to  English  English  (where  the  zero.  desirable  In  delayed  fading x is  s h o u l d be a l m o s t  the  or  addition,  replicas loss  time  properties  of  delay) of  unity  of  in  and  order  normalized to  be  a transmission  code  caused  synchronization,  s h o u l d be a l m o s t  codes c . ,  able  c.  are:  zero  for  16  ^,(-0  -  /  C.(t)  ij  o  R. . ( x )  A R..(T)  -  T)dt  J  1  » 0 for  and  C.(t  all  t  T  =  C.(t)  /  C  *(t  -  T)dt  0 R..(x) ii  ** 0 f o r  x * 0  R..(T)  »  T =  v  ii  1  for  A  where T = p e r i o d The d e s i g n good  survey  of  and Sarwate R  i  i  (0)  also in  to  of In  a  pseudorandom  i s L = 2 -1  the  the  for  spectrum  typical codes  beyond  the  used  accommodate  2P  critical  for  DSCDMA i m p l e m e n t a t i o n maximal the  spread gain  system,  assigned limit,  overload.  t i o n of  cross-correlations  designed  limit.  This  most  delay.  length  is  codes  code l e n g t h . or  CDMA o p e r a t i o n .  process  given  by  Pursley  [25]  the  This  integer  gain  (when  A  ratio L  of is  expressed  spreading.  DSCDMA are  t = time  where L i s  spread r a t i o ,  expands to  suitable  is  For G o l d codes or  R^Cx)  A  data stream,  t h e s e PN c o d e s  codes  [25].  known a s  dB),  of  of  0  the  the  large  approximately 2P  of  of  5% o f  subscribers.  reserve  The i n t e r f e r e n c e  will  feature  to  only  of  performance  the  codes  c a u s e d by  c o u r s e be e x p e c t e d t o  trading  When  unassigned  noise,  the  the  total  system can  for  be  summa-  i n c r e a s e above  degradation  L  the  system  17  overload  is  called  s u c h as major often  the  telephone  norm  extremely  desirable  the  net  increase  of  [25]  to  of  try  density  without  periodic  not  and  to  additional  Preliminary  3.3.1  algebraic  parameters fading  and  Chapter 7. simple  as  type  of  of  settling  structure  operators,  graceful  limit  overload  is  is  an  or  possible  since  s i g n a l power if  not  the  code  spectral  impossible  information  from  density  for  a  wide  however  is  not  because  the  or  PR  generation  algorithm  for  casual  band  Security  PN  spread  low  possible  can  code  is  still  be  eavesdroppers.  Considerations a n d SSMA type  error  traffic  of  modulation  rate, etc.  (BPSK)  is  A  proper  factors.  SSMA  depends  RF s i g n a l  choice  can  This w i l l  be  Multiple This or  is  Access simple  switches  power,  be f u r t h e r  are not  various type  only  of  after  discussed  the  (DSCDMA) only  on  made  c o n c e r n s RF f e a s i b i l i t y ,  assumed.  synthesizers  and  RF b a n d w i d t h ,  S e q u e n c e Code D i v i s i o n  frequency  of  meaningful  equipped  the  bit  is  encryption  these pertinent  Keying  Such  difficult  S i n c e the work here o n l y  Direct  Phase S h i f t  of  such  consideration  fast  Design  choice  telecommunication  e x p a n s i o n beyond d e s i g n  transmission.  data  Type of m o d u l a t i o n The  is  like  system  reduction  extract  d e c i p h e r e d by t e c h n i c a l l y  3.3  secure)  It  noise  its  service  exception.  trading  bandwidth.  eavesdropper spectral  than  For  feature.  (but  effect  degradation.  companies,  rather  A private has  graceful  relatively  using  i n the required.  in  Binary  sense  that  18  3.3.2  Bit  error  rate  Performance modulation  P  and code  is  best  the p r o b a b i l i t y  = BER =  Q(j  length  gauged  of  error  by P  g  BER is  (bit  error  g i v e n by  rate).  For  BPSK  [61],  _ ! )  N o 0 —  N  where  is  the  two-sided  t h e s i g n a l power s t r e n g t h  spectral density  and Q i s a  the  of  Gaussian white  function  defined  noise.  E  g  is  as  2  oo  Q(x)  -  /  1  e  da  2  x  0 — , 2  the  N , , N. , and N , which are th' int fade  the  N  For  B P S K DSCDMA  the  expression for  P  is  still  valid  if  e  noise  term, »  noise  components  and  other  is  generalized o due  systems)  assumed to  is  cross-correlation  and  usually  depends  length)  L=2  -1  is  as shown i n F i g . N„ , fade  include effects,  fading,  c  interference  respectively.  is  of on  subscriber the  binary the  type  i of  sequence,  code l e n g t h )  with  the of  noise  is  ignored.  of  the s p r e a d i n g codes,  other  spread  (from co-system user  Intermodulation  small and, therefore  c a u s e d by t h e n o n - o r t h o g o n a l i t y  the  (where  and  thermal  be c o m p a r a t i v e l y  N. int  (maximal  to  to  subscribers  code  magnitude  the magnitude  used.  is  i.e.,  non  Assuming  zero, an  ML  of  s i d e l o b e e n e r g y i s y-  of  autocorrelation  peak  3.3.1. c a u s e d by  the  non-zero autocorrelation  of  signal with  the  19  R^(T)  •  Normalized Autocorrelation  1.0  time delay T  LEGEND:  L = 2 -1 i s the spread r a t i o = chip period Figure 3.3.1  -  or  spread  Typical autocorrelation  gain  output  20  delayed of  replicas  signal  sequence, be ^- o f the  of  with  itself  faded  when t h e  delay  is  peak.  Much work  the  components.  space  simulation analysis  than  is  D i s c u s s i o n of  are a v a i l a b l e . get  other  literature  inequalities  could  of  the  non-zero  signals.  1 chip  cross-correlation  For  period,  (which  is  length  assumed t o of  directed  t o e s t i m a t i n g t h e N,. , and ° fade v a l i d i t y of t r e a t i n g t h e s e n o i s e  presented i n  [28].  V a r i o u s methods,  [40],  characteristic  function  While  the  be s i m p l e ,  untractable,  maximal  or c r o s s - c o r r e l a t i o n i s i  the a u t o c o r r e l a t i o n  components as G a u s s i a n n o i s e i s moment  summation of  larger  the data p e r i o d T ) ,  in  the  replicas  autocorrelation  N. int  plus  idea might  especially  if  [33]  and  the  non G a u s s i a n  s u c h as computer  mathematical  statistics  are  involved. Depending system  could  be  interference dominates). importance  on  the  relative  classified  limited  as  (when  N^  level  fading,  the  code  these  three  thermal noise l i m i t e d n f c  dominates)  W i t h p r o p e r RF d e s i g n , N ^ of  of  lengths  noise  (when N ^  or f a d i n g  is usually required  small.  are  components,  limited  a  dominates), (when N ^ ^ a  To i l l u s t r a t e  c a l c u l a t e d under  e  the three  conditions: 1.  No-fading For  the  asynchronous  receiver  performance  is  is  BPSK-DSCDMA  operating  in  g i v e n by T u r i n -1-1  SNR  M-l _3L  o 2 E  s  J  an [28]  operating interference  in  a  no  limited  fading  environment,  condition  and  its  21  where  SNR = s i g n a l t o n o i s e M = number o f L = spread  ratio.  users  ratio.  N Assuming  small  (typical  of  a properly  d e s i g n RF s y s t e m ) ,  the  s interference  M-l  SNR  limited -1  M-l  3L For  3L  a s p e c i f i e d P , and knowing the  type  of m o d u l a t i o n  (BPSK i n  this  case)  p  g  =  Q(7  M-l L = — 3  SNR)  199 SNR = — x 2 2 . 5 6 = 1497 3 k  The  smallest  spread r a t i o 2.  Rician For  [33]  simplified  k  such  that  2 -1  > 1497  is  k  = 11,  so  that  environment,  the  L = 2047. fading the  e v a l u a t i o n of [30]  integer  system  operating  the p r o b a b i l i t y  and [ 4 2 ] . approach  S i n c e the yielding  of  in  error  a  Rician  fading  and s i g n a l t o n o i s e r a t i o  objective  here i s  a pessimistic  but  is  g i v e n by  to determine  feasibility,  conservative  result  can  a be  used. Figure process  3.3.2.1  shows  the  phasor  representation  of  a Rician  fading  a  t -. JL) P ( v ) = —2v exp ( 2  r  2  2  exp ( - 1-) r  2  F i g u r e 3.3.2.1 - Phasor r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  2va  o x  I (—i) o  r  2  of R i c i a n f a d i n g  23  The  assumptions  distribution 2u  for  r are that  and t h e p h a s e o f  r  the magnitude  follows  a uniform  |r|  follows  distribution  a Gaussian  over  the 0  to  interval. The p r e s e n c e o f 1.  2.  It  changes the o b s e r v a b l e s i g n a l from the  to  |I + r|.  It  i n c r e a s e s the n o i s e  level  is  |a  The  noise  level  interferences  add i n  s  + r|  when  is  at  g  g  +  r|  is  m i n i m u m and t h e  total  r  plus  -  r  a  S  worst  the  s  and r  sum o f  i s 180° all  out  other  case  -  r  S  / . r / N + - + r -  l , 7 . (m-l)  L  mr L  the non f a d e d c a s e  •^SNR  -  S  defining  = /3Q.71  Y =  where N i s  — a  1 worst  the  case  1  +  / 30.71 To m a i n t a i n a BER p e r f o r m a n c e  y(  Y ^ ^) U(  2047 of  10"  thermal  plus  interference  of  user  phase  L  /SNR  |a  a minimum when a  p e a k s when  a  For  [a |  at a peak. level  /SNR  s p e c u l a r component  level.  c a s e SNR o c c u r s  Signal phase.  effects:  s  The w o r s t noise  t h e f a d e d s i g n a l h a s two s i g n i f i c a n t  noise.  24  /§NR  "  > Z22.56 s o _ ,  worst  case  ~  1  1  — > 4.75  y(  +  )  y < 9.76% This 3.  shows t h a t u p t o 9.76% o f f a d i n g Rayleigh  fading  For  t h e same  Gardner  [34] g i v e s  system  c a n be t o l e r a t e d .  operating  theasymptotic  in  a  P as P " e e  Rayleigh  M-l —.  This  Li  be i m p r o v e d b y i n c r e a s e o f SNR a b o v e a " s a t u r a t e d  environment  asymptotic  P cannot e  SNR t h r e s h o l d " .  P = 10" & M = 200 e  For  6  L  has t o be a t l e a s t  k  = the smallest  L = 2  here, fading,  2 8  fading  is  minimum  requirement, = 1.03 x 10 design  5  length  calculations an important  bandwidth  Rayleigh  t h a n l o g 2 L = 28  o r spread r a t i o i s  show  that  f o r t h e type  consideration.  fading,  for  t h e system  needed w i l l  GHz.  likely  It  i s not very  a t a l l nor a r e there Either  the receiver  If  of system  there  i s minor  o f 2 x 192 x 2047 KHz = 786 MHz w i l l  t h e minimum b a n d w i d t h  implementation. improve  larger  8  three  with  6  - l = 2.684 x 1 0 .  These  whereas  199 x 1 0  integer  so t h a t L , t h e code  RF  fading  hardware  a relaxation  performance  to  meet  enough  o f BER o r some  i s needed.  Rician suffice,  t h e same BER  b e 2 x 192 x 2.684 x 10 KHz  such a bandwidth fast  proposed  c a n b e met b y any  f o r the spreading form  of d i v e r s i t y  code to  25  3.3.3  Fading Kennedy  [60]  phenomenological is  taken here  strict  sense,  fading  with  1.  Rayleigh  -  where  of  into  corresponds  fading  40  -  where  and a l l  to  there  is  no  46]  there  is  [21]  to  the  has  SSCDMA u n d e r  been  special  strong  stable  and  classes  good  approach  (although case  of  in  a  Rician  path,  all  paths  are  attenuation.  these  modelled  very  ratio):  strong  fading paths are small i n of  a  A simplified  two  stable  one  give  fading.  broadly  r a n d o m i n b o t h p h a s e and  The p e r f o r m a n c e and  al.  l a r g e K = r a n d o m / s p e c u l a r power  component)  38  fading  et  account  by c l a s s i f y i n g f a d i n g  Rayleigh fading  Rician  Schwartz  and m a t h e m a t i c a l  statistically 2.  and  signal  (the  comparison to  two  conditions  investigated  specular  it. [27  with  to  the  30,  33,  following  conclusions: a.  Rayleigh fading a  b.  low  BER  large  effect  fading  Rician  of  fading  there if  is  this  objects hence  in  an  bandwidth  can  to  is  used or  such as d i v e r s i t y be  tolerated  absence  of  by  that  mobile  blockage  for  such  as  increase  human K  and  beings change  method of  provided  for  the  regardless  of  and r e c e i v e r .  It  However,  could  substantially  statistics  maintain  an  almost  reducing  K ratio too  blockage  from  of  not  signal  reduce  the  Rician  to  faded  large.  whether is  the  used.  8 0 0 / 9 0 0 MHz, i n d o o r  GHz.  the  requiring  s i g n a l power i s n o t  [20]  is  60  i m p o s s i b l e to  code  some o t h e r  DSCDMA,  between t r a n s m i t t e r  true  is  s w i t c h i n g or combining i s  line-of-sight also  It  long  component  a n d Mahmoud f o u n d  the  SSCDMA.  exceptionally  signal power/stable  Bultitude Rician  detrimental  unless  infinitely  component  is  is  by  main  fading or  not  certain mobile signal,  Rayleigh.  To  26  minimize  the  s y s t e m must  amount propagate  and b l o c k a g e . at the  At  the mid p o i n t average  of  fading, through  office  from  serve  as a c o m m u n i c a t i o n s p a c e . or p i l l a r s ,  to  8  feet  height  space  posts  6 feet  link,  reflectors  is  path  space i n  clearance (0.6  a 20 m e t r e worker's  line-of-sight  some c l e a r  55 G H z , t h e of  a  to  free  be 1 . 7 5 and  To g e t  order  x first  w o u l d be l e s s  is  to  avoid  t h a n 7 cm [ 6 2 ] .  This  (5'9"), layer  the of  T h e RF  scattering  F r e s n e l zone)  metres  clear.  preferred.  required Assuming layer space  of can  a r o u n d o b s t a c l e s s u c h as o c c a s i o n a l  c o u l d p r o b a b l y be u s e d .  27  CHAPTER 4 RADIO FREQUENCY SYSTEM DESIGN  4.1  General The  utilization  transmissions 20]  is  [10  to  are  1.7  GHz b a n d s .  just  watts) It  the  "dead here  in  VHF  the  not as  flood  try the  to  spots"  the  and in  In  in  reduce  fact,  the  strategy  it  have  used to  the  p o s s i b l e to  important  factor  to  reduce  900  the  c o n s i d e r e d s a f e by r e g u l a t o r y of  its  Although  effect  c o n d u c t e d l o n g enough to d e t e c t  MHz o r is  to  to  regarded  as  indoor  buildings propagation  power  of  (1  signal it  to  10  energy.  creates  an u n p r e d i c t a b l e  more level  u s i n g a s i g n a l f l o o d i n g scheme,  the  [12].  The  approach  unpredictability  a region  the  1.2  individual  Often,  add up  data  amount  of of  of  taken indoor  space seldom o c c u p i e d f a d i n g due t o  random  also minimized.  the  evidence  fading.  handle  signal  is  of  and  Most r e s e a r c h e s  environment  been o b s e r v e d  on human b e i n g s .  conclusive  MHz),  design for  buildings  radiation limit  or  signals  S i g n a l energy wastage i s  Another  (450  voice  IWC.  s i m p l e but w a s t e f u l  effect  inside  fades  or  is  a r e a of  indoor  study  both  area with s i g n a l using high  scattered  By c o n f i n i n g  perturbed,  UHF  the  Such a method i s  deep the  indoor  propagation.  scattering.  MHz),  for  The most common m e t h o d t o p r o v i d e  randomly  receiver.  differs  (150  Custom p r o p a g a t i o n  to  links  becoming an I m p o r t a n t  transmitters.  does  trouble at  is  frequency  rapidly  too e x p e n s i v e .  coverage  radio  RF p r o p a g a t i o n  unpredictable. is  of  on  long the  term e f f e c t  RF r a d i a t i o n  of  millimetric  level  is  well  wave within  b o d i e s , over a long term there  is  health.  tests  any c o r r e l a t i o n  There (or  the  are  simply  l a c k of  no  no  correlation)  28  between  health  exposure  to  responsible  4.2  would  be  system which  preferable  in  terms  minimizes of  users',  prudence  and  Operating Frequency  and  Pugliese  [22]  did  some  S p r e a d s p e c t r u m t e c h n i q u e s were that  developments.  any In  millimetric  fact  the  need  building  this  to or  indoor  not  propagation  considered in  frequency  could  3 0 - 3 5 GHz was s u g g e s t e d f o r  c h o o s i n g 60 GHz i n -  A  engineering.  Choice of  concluded  for  and RF r a d i a t i o n .  radiation  Huish GHz.  damages  experiment  re-use in  readily  using  signal  through  the  same  frequency  of  a  operating  material  is  at  system.  used cost.  for  60  They future  The r e a s o n s  are:  buildings higher  their  be  lower  studies  on  different  close proximity  c a n be  frequency.  proportional  floors  in  satisfied  Attenuation  to  a  more of  RF  •  High  building  walls  ^wavelength frequency and  s i g n a l c a n be e a s i l y  floors.  [63] about  With  low  contained within  frequency  signal  p r o p o s e d by T e l e s y s t e m s SLW I n c . , mutual  regulation  interference. or  frequency  catastrophic  performance  operated  a  operation,  in  For  higher  s u c h as t h e potential  such a system,  co-ordination degradation  multi-storey operating  the  when  building. frequency  is  subscribers  worry  some f o r m o f needed  identical  For is  900 MHz s y s t e m  private,  preferred.  to  code avoid  systems low  are range  29  -  Higher  frequency  clearance  for  s i g n a l propagates  threading  through  like  ray  office  [64]  space  and r e q u i r e s for  line  of  less sight  coverage. -  Electrically  large  structure  giving  high  directivity  is  possible  w i t h p h y s i c a l l y s m a l l components. -  Bandwidth  considerations.  o r PG ( p r o c e s s g a i n ) minor  Rician  (bandwidth) 2  x  192  x  lobe n u l l BW i s RF  operation  characteristics  required  to  support  KHz = 786  to n u l l  for  BW.  MHz.  To i n c l u d e  is  the  spread r a t i o  i n a channel 2047.  a data rate This  the  exhibiting  T h e m i n i m u m BW  o f R ^ i s 2 x R ^ x L =  786 MHz r e p r e s e n t s first  L  the  main  side lobe a doubling  of  wide  by  n e e d e d s o t h a t BW s h o u l d be 1 . 5 G H z .  systems  ratio  required  fading  2047  From S e c t i o n 3 . 3 . 2 ,  (f  is  are the  usually centre  classified  as  frequency).  either  or  narrow  band  Narrow band systems u s u a l l y  have  c less  than  20% a n d  are  relatively  easy  to d e s i g n .  D e s i g n of wide  band  c systems  is  degrees  more  of  freedom  parameters). ratio  of  narrowband  [52]  (by  because broadbanding i n v o l v e s  introducing  T h e PG e s t i m a t e  9.7% o r  quadrupling  GHz i s  difficult  of  less. BW m i g h t  even f o r  preferred.  the  If  the be  worst  is  components  b a s e d on a R i c i a n  ratio  In  order  an o p e r a t i n g  to  with  the  variable  fading with specular  e x c e e d s 9.7% a n o t h e r  required. case,  more  increasing  doubling  keep  frequency  the of  RF  or  even  system  a nominal  60  30  4.3  P r o p o s e d RF S y s t e m A heterodyne In  space RF  just  metre  below  the  same h o r i z o n t a l  plane.  below the on a  pole  ceiling.  pole.  RF f r o n t  splitters  RF  and  code  IF  substantial source  (more costs  is  saving.  usually  narrow antenna result  null  becomes in  the  has  spring when  are  over  than  about  shown i n F i g u r e  of  sight  so  workers,  via  any  loaded  1 dB/m),  that  one o f  beamwidth  However,  these by  to n u l l difficult  coaxial  high  l a r g e RCL ( r e c e i v e d  same  ends w h i c h  give  against  floor  and  oscillator),  up o r  down  It  is  circulators,  not  waveguide expensive.  100 m i l l i w a t t  are  conflicting  sidelobes.  with  of  even  carrier  when  the  l e s s t h a n one d e g r e e ) , minor level)  mechanical  s u c h a s PSK  attenuation A 30  to is  milliwatt  $15,000. signal  as n a r r o w beams  beam  are  too  orientation  disturbances,  fluctuations.  the  practical  costs over  requirements  Also  0.3  the  c a n be i n t e g r a t e d  because  for  be m o u n t e d  amplifiers,  cables.  of  together  and l o w s i d e l o b e s a r e d e s i r a b l e f o r  beamwidth and  reserved  linked  the non-RF equipment  is  1 metre  be m o u n t e d a t  firmly  they  and RF power  $2000 b u t  are  telescopic  frequency)  distance  is  node a n t e n n a w i l l  s u c h a s LO ( l o c a l  small  4.3.1.  s y s t e m , the  subscribers  strutted  (intermediate  accompanied  (e.g.  and  t h e n be c o n n e c t e d t o  Extremely narrow energy  a line  The c e n t r a l  multiplier  connections  is  The s u b s c r i b e r a n t e n n a w i l l  and RF f i l t e r s  modulator  node  end e q u i p m e n t  The I F w i l l  It  u n o c c u p i e d by o f f i c e  stability  (mixers),  antennas.  operate  The p o l e  mechanical  converters  proposed.  ceiling, central  ceiling.  RF  be a b l e t o  The  height,  run  to  transmission.  on t h e  the  order  system i s  of  could  31  f  LEGEND:  = 56 GHz  1  f (t) (t) (t) MOD DEM UCM DCM  = = = = = = = =  52 GHz PSEUDORANDOM BINARY SEQUENCE CODES TRANSMIT DATA STREAM = 192 KBPS RECEIVE DATA STREAM = 192 KBPS PHASE SHIFT KEYING MODULATOR PHASE SHIFT KEYING DEMODULATOR UP CONVERSION MIXER DOWN CONVERSION MIXER  BPF IF FLTR IF AMP CIRC  = = = = =  BAND PASS FILTER WITH ± 2 GHz BANDWIDTH INTERMEDIATE FREQUENCY FILTER INTERMEDIATE FREQUENCY = 2 GHz AMPLIFIER CIRCULATOR  2  C d d PSK PSK  x  x  x  F i g u r e 4.3.1 - RF system  configuration  32  For should  be  confined of  the  central  omnidirectional.  to a narrow  approximately  null  beamwidth For  beamwidth  the of  but  22°  low,  to  (both  preferably  of  (azimuthal)  radiation  sidelobe  multipath  polarized  rather  than  frequency  transmission  the  pattern  level  pattern  should  to n u l l  relaxes  compromised p a t t e r n  horizontal - 2 0 dB o r  against  interference,  counter  4.4  horizontal  vertical  a compromise  discrimination  by p o l a r i z a t i o n  the  be  beamwidth  the  null  to  [68].  10°  reducing o v e r a l l  useful  The  subscriber antenna, about  Since  antenna  beam a s shown i n F i g . 4 . 3 . 2 w i t h n u l l  6°  to  s h o u l d be k e p t  in  node  and  replica  cross p o l a r i z a t i o n  circularly  The a n t e n n a polarized,  s u c h as a c o r d l e s s  insensitive  vertical).  a null  to  Sidelobe  null  levels  less.  reflected  fading.  is  antenna systems  in  of  signals  is  discrimination  helpful would  s y s t e m s h o u l d be contrast  telephone  which  to is  that better  be  linearly of  low  served  [10,64].  S i g n a l Power R e q u i r e m e n t s  Free space l o s s Confining log  the  path  length  to  20 m e t r e s ,  (_*_) 4-rtJl \ =  3  x  1  56 x  0  8  = 5 . 3 5 7 mm  m  10  I = 20  9  F r e e s p a c e l o s s = - 9 3 . 4 3 dB  metres  free  space l o s s  in  dB =  20  33  Figure A.4.1 -  S i g n a l to thermal v a r i o u s s t a g e s of  noise r a t i o through the r e c e i v e r .  34  Receiver  threshold  This IF  stage  is  controlled  i.e.  ference  (sensitivity)  before  limited  by  the  S N R ( s i g n a l to  despreading.  noise ratio)  The SNR a f t e r  required  despreading,  at  for  the  inter-  o p e r a t i o n was d e r i v e d i n S e c t i o n 3.3.2.  = 4.75 = 13.5 dB  i  2  int In  order  to  avoid  S t h e ==th  condition,  operating  the  receiver  n e e d s t o be 10 dB b e t t e r  in  a  S than ^  due t o s p e c t r u m s p r e a d i n g i s  the  density  thermal  noise  source  at  N  ° * P° f bandwidth i  s  W  = KT  room  dB.  = 23.5 th  g i n c l u d e d , =. \ h  temperature  T - 25° c e l s i u s K is  at  the IF  stage  T,  the  noise  spectral  = 298° K e l v i n and  the B o l t z m a n n ' s  constant  dBm/Hz  = -174 1.5  S ~  is =  For  i.e.  limited  dB  = (23.5 - 33.1)dB = -9.6 For  .  noise  int  N  When i m p r o v e m e n t  thermal  GHz BW ( t h i s  thermal noise  will  include  main s i g n a l p l u s  the f i r s t  sidelobe),  the  floor  = -174 + 91.8 = - 82.2 dBm According  to  the  balanced mixer IF a m p l i f i e r figure  is  manufacturer's at  most  7.5  dB w i t h NF ( n o i s e  i s 30 d B , w i t h NF o f  of m i x e r and I F  specifications,  amplifier  2 dB.  the  figure)  Using F r i i ' s  i n cascade i s :  conversion loss of  5.5  formula  dB.  of  the  G a i n of  [56] t h e  noise  35  (NF  ( M I X E R + I F AMP)  N F  N F  MIXER  +  I F AMP"  1]  "  =  8  -  3 5  '  3  5  d  B  MIXER R e f e r r i n g to F i g . 4.4.1  —  "—  on p a g e 3 3 .  ""(MIXER + IF AMP)  +  .-. RF s i g n a l l e v e l ,  RCL = - 8 2 . 2 -  Assuming  10 dBm)  10 mW (+  margin,  plugging P  in a l l  m  0  +10 + G + G„ T R m  6 +  8  " -  U  2  5  D B  1 . 2 5 = - 8 3 . 4 5 dBm. transmit  power, the  and a l l o w i n g equation  20 dB f o r  fade  gives  F „ = RCL M  93.43 -  .-. G_ + G_ = 1 0 3 . 4 3 -  T  9  the s i g n a l l e v e l s i n  + Gm + G„ + P T R G  T  for  " -  R  20 = - 8 3 . 4 5 dBm  8 3 . 4 5 dBm  = 20 dB where  P  T  = transmit  G  T  = g a i n of  node a n t e n n a  G  R  = g a i n of  subscriber  P  = path  G  F^ = fade  power o f  20 dB i n  margins  combined  order  antenna  gain  RCL = r e c e i v e d c a r r i e d The  node a n t e n n a  transmit  t o meet  this  level. and  receive  budget.  antenna  gain w i l l  have  to  exceed  36  CHAPTER 5 ANTENNA SYSTEM DESIGN  5.1  General The  satisfy  the  various  considerations  following  so  far  require  that  Gain  Linear Vertical  system  or  Subscriber  Horizontal  Antenna  Same a s node  antenna  C o m b i n e d n o d e a n d s u b s c r i b e r g a i n s h o u l d e x c e e d 20 dB  n u l l to n u l l beamwidth  V e r t i c a l 22 d e g r e e o r l e s s horizontal omnidirectional  sidelobe level  As  a b o u t 10 d e g r e e s b o t h vertical & horizontal  low as p o s s i b l e p r e f e r a b l y  not  higher  100 mw  M a x . power handling capability  51 -  Operating frequency range  Additional  requirements  59 GHz  important,  simple  complicated  amplitude  Broadcom Inc.  operation. or  are  than -  20 dB  100 mw  To be m o u n t e d n e a r  Mechanical  5.2  antenna  requirements:  Node A n t e n n a Polarization  the  low  This  phase c o n t r o l ,  51 -  ceiling  cost,  59 GHz  To be m o u n t e d o n p o l e s  simple  excludes  manufacturing  antenna  s u c h as t h e  [78] .  Antenna Systems C o n s i d e r e d S e v e r a l antenna d e s i g n s have been c o n s i d e r e d .  feeds  and  most  which  use  Synapsistem proposed  by  37  A.  F o r the -  subscriber  An o p e n w a v e g u i d e g a i n make i t  -  A helical and the  -  B.  unsuitable  difficulty  A dielectric  rod  pattern  meeting  readily  [76,77].  node a n t e n n a . diametrically signals by  controlled  required  across.  precludes  inexpensive, system  beamwidth  and  s i g n a l power e x p e n d i t u r e the  its  use  requirement  low  [71].  small physical  fairly  sizes  [70]. easy  to  can  and  focuses  lens surface of  vary  the  low  make and  be  a  engineered  artificial  loss  of  in  by  to  2.0.  low  difficult  loss to  dielectrics  dielectric  "onion"  The  s u s p e n s i o n of  The  with  a  the  suitable  such lens  density  foam i s  stopped  a  are  dielectrics  manufacture  for  provid-  construction  a specified dielectric has  t h e RF  coefficients  controlled  foam w h i l e  materials  surface  accurately  artificial  economically of  through  dielectric  the m u l t i - l a y e r e d 1.0  lens  spots.  materials  The  the  Coverage i s  and " c o l d "  r e a s o n , E m e r s o n a n d Cumming I n c .  artificial  feed.  dielectric  c a n be u s e d a s a  system r e d i r e c t s  Transmission  coefficients.  between  is  sphere.  i n uneven " h o t "  particles It  beams o n t o  to a c e n t r a l  lower  manufactured  form.  incoming  ceiling  A secondary c o l l e c t i o n  each l a y e r  metallic  consistent  the  is  wide  s y s t e m mounted n e a r t h e  dielectric  are  this  efficient  but  a l s o p o s s i b l e but  overall  requires  for  different  For  an antenna  feeding i t  might r e s u l t  construction  liquid  is  The l e n s  flooding  structure  fine  for  antenna  [74]  from the  required  of  as  location.  A Luneberg lens  ed  can a c t  beam a n t e n n a  F o r t h e node -  locations.  still  of in  reliably constant.  manufacturing Luneberg  lens  38  for  Luneberg lens c o n s t r u c t i o n .  to -  s i g n a l b l o c k a g e by o f f i c e  A double The  by  can  system  ray  TM  waveguide,  the  The  double  TMQI  mode.  It  TEj^  mode.  D e s i g n of  In  the  is  circular  to  engineering  a modal  guide,  order  of  inversion,  the  plished  partially  by  material low  of  loss  frequency  0.2  The  mm.  reflectors A r r a y of  feed  require  dielectric  to  is  inversion.  In  first  mode o r d e r  loading  the  constant  with  such  mode  is  T E  of  the 50  II>  1^21  [53] .  dielectric  tolerances  It  suppressor,  the  a  rec-  TE i,  mode  change  e  t  c  2  with  the  Modal  c a n be a c c o m a  dielectric  Also  reflector  by  wave-  *  difficult  to for  surface  invertor  electro-forming.  [73].  circular  etc.,  modal  the  operation  constant.  on t h e  in  to  0 1  is  with  possible  (TM )  waveguide  higher  available  is  TMnj.,  In  operate  T E Q I mode  against  mode  T E ^ ,  The  exciting  o p e n homogeneous  are  reflec-  next  to  technique  single  p r e c i s i o n m a c h i n i n g and rod  designed  guard  TMQI>  about  high  55 G H z , t h e  transition,  to  centre of  a  modes  the  0  waveguide  Another  a normal  few  two  as  sytem u n s u i t a b l e .  converts  to  and  narrow.  TM ^ is  is  that  a  the  TMQX mode w i t h o u t  possible  into  of  reasonably  [72]  a circular  TE^)  reflectors  contour  TE]^.  the  transition  is  the  two  makes t h i s  system  excite  it  (TMQI +  of  mode  in  of  beamwidth  mode s u p p r e s s o r .  the  up  5.2.1,  the  reflector  0  dielectric  operating  made  Fig.  T M x mode  change of  material  is  dominant  waveguide,  operation  workers.  mode s i n g u l a r l y  0 1  vulnerable  system.  make  a feed  c o n v e r s i o n by means o f  the  in  necessary  waveguide  overmoded  to  exciting  mode.  tangular  trace  designed  of  circular  order  antenna  the  be  difficulty a  antenna  node  illustrated tors  reflector  Such an a n t e n n a s y s t e m i s  and  get the is  ±  the  39  Figure  5.2.1 -  C r o s s s e c t i o n v i e w of a d o u b l e r e f l e c t o r s y s t e m f o r o m n i d i r e c t i o n a l h o r i z o n t a l p a t t e r n and n a r r o w v e r t i c a l p a t t e r n  40  As  illustrated  by  Figure  dielectric  rod  antenna  dielectric  rod  [76][77] .  vertical narrow  with  pattern narrow. array  sidelobe.  pattern  The u s e o f  structure  a full is  narrowness manufacture,  5.3  using  is  a well  The  sidelobe.  The n o d e a n t e n n a i s  pattern  without  feed i s  at  plane  two  circular  using  is  a  established design  a b i c o n i c a l horn vertical This  beam  design  (or  a  engineer fairly  designed  to  a  short  make  the  and phase f e e d ,  correspondingly  [68] .  a  large  is  By e x t e n d i n g  V-grooved pulley  pattern  can  chosen for  the  shaped)  be  optimized  the  simplicity  for of  control.  Detail  p h y s i c a l l y made up o f  A-A i s  plate  first  excluded from S e c t i o n 5 . 1 .  and a s m a l l p r o b e a s shown i n F i g .  probe  i.e.  to  system  F i n a l System E n g i n e e r i n g  The  is  simple amplitude  possible  f e e d and s i d e l o b e l e v e l  bottom p l a t e  here  beam-width  However,  2TI r a d i a n ,  low  idea  an a r r a y  not  obtained.  and  wide  an e l a b o r a t e  A s e c t o r a l horn into  a  the  Next,  is  The c h o s e n n o d e a n t e n n a  Sector  5.2.2,  an a n t e n n a  boundaries.  Let  radially the  input  3 parts:  the  top p l a t e ,  the  5.3.1. radiating  in  the  presence  i m p e d a n c e be Z .  of  Similarly,  A.  the  probe  at  plane  and  sees  Z  as  B  characteristics  2i where  the  B-B  is  input  impedance  e e r o  An = n a t r u a l b = radius  an antenna r a d i a t i n g  Z  impedance.  Q  a logarithm  of  outside  function conductor  The  in a rectangular coaxial  cable  waveguide  portion  has  Al  dielectric rod antennas  LEGEND: CIRC = C i r c u l a t o r A , B , C a r e s i m p l e 3 dB s p l i t t e r s d i s the d i s t a n c e of s e p a r a t i o n between rod  Figure  5.2.2  -  A r r a y of d i e l e c t r i c rod antennas s i m p l e a m p l i t u d e and phase f e e d .  antennas  using  42  Figure 5.3.1  -  Cross  s e c t i o n v i e w of  the node  antenna  43  a = radius e  =  r  The circuit  inner  dielectric design  three  constant  then  can  d e s i g n of  A  be  central  of  reduced  material to  an  the  equivalent  coaxial  line,  transmission  line  5.3.2.  node  antenna  c a n be a n a l y t i c a l l y  i)  the  r e g i o n above p l a n e A-A.  ii)  the  r e g i o n b e t w e e n p l a n e A-A and B - B .  iii)  the r e g i o n below plane BB.  The  objective  wide  bandwidth  and  inside  divided  into  regions:  of  the  Z  B  design is  i.e.  b a n d w i d t h as p o s s i b l e . Z  conductor  p r o b l e m a s shown i n F i g . The  over  of  a  match  to  of  achieve input  The t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e  over a length  A of  efficient  impedances equivalent  transmission line  of  energy over  transfer  as  problem i s  characteristic  broad to  a  match  impedance  V Region  i)  c a n be a n a l y z e d by  antenna r a d i a t i n g the line  end is  of  the  be  line  is  [58]  line,  negligible.  matched  Williamson  radial  to  has  free  the  as a  cylindrical  a s s u m i n g t h e edge e f f e c t s  This  is  s p a c e by  analyzed  probe  this  valid  since  the  flaring  radial  line  of  of  the  radial  the  radial  junction.  His  are: For  coaxial  radial  assumed t o  structure. results  i n t o an i n f i n i t e  considering  a  perfectly  port  of  gap h ( F i g u r e  the  matched  junction  5.3.3)  H  T) k h A n ( b / a ) 0  j  Bi +  the  ( 2 )  jB2  H  Q  centre  the  admittance  conductor  Y  seen at  extended across  be  x ( 2 )  line,  (kb)  _ 2  +  with  c a n be shown t o  2. 12  Y =  radial  (ka)  {j (ka)Y (kb) Q  0  -  J (kb) Q  Y (ka) } Q  the the  A  Figure  5.3.2  B  -  E q u i v a l e n t t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e problem i n a n a y l s i s o f node a n t e n n a s t r u c t u r e  the  Radial  inf i n i y  gap  coaxial  feed  , h  To  radius  b  radius  a  1  Figure  5.3.3 - A c o a x i a l to  radial  line  junction  line  infinity  45  2TC  where  B  = -  1  cot  kh  n An(b/a) o  -  ruk h I n ( b / a ) 2  m  =  q  1  U  V m q  q  k b )  V m  V m  2  q  m  k a )  kb) k a )  }  = /  m  kh  2% k = —  is  t h e wave number  ^0 — = T) = i n t r i n s i c e 0 J  o  Y  o  I  o  K  o  H Region  q  K_(q  the  is Bessel function  of  the second k i n d of  k i n d of  order order  zero,  of  the  is modified  of  the second k i n d of  is  Hankel function  can fed [57]  the  Bessel function  be  analyzed  cylindrical has input  of  the  by  considering  monopole  presented admittance.  first  zero,  is modified Bessel function  iii)  calculate  first  space.  of  (2)  Williamson  free  is Bessel function  O  coaxially  impedance of  k i n d of  second k i n d of  in  a  the  order  order input  rectangular  some a n a l y t i c a l  order  results  zero, zero,  zero. admittance  waveguide. which  of  a  Again  c a n be u s e d  to  46  For  the  subscriber  locations  dielectric  rectangular  rod  antenna  are  used. A proper beamwidth  and  sidelobe  experimentally taper  5.4  or  c h o i c e of  by  length  level  measuring  and t a p e r  control  is  the  radiation  the  detail  or  flare  needed. pattern  to give This  of  the  is  several  desired  determined  different  rod  flare.  Construction Details Figure  5.4.1  dielectric material flare  rod  angles  chosen.  shows  an  antenna  has  p a t t e r n and a s i d e l o b e l e v e l Figure  5-4.2  used  to  fill  foam  is  shaped  bottom p l a t e s .  the to  the  subscriber  is polystyrene with d i e l e c t r i c  i n E and H p l a n e w e r e  Such  of  shows  coaxial provide  The f l a r e  the part  proper  of  2.5.  Several  identical  E  and  H  plane  was  radiation  than -25 dB.  detail to  constant  The  e x p e r i m e n t e d and a 1 0 ° E p l a n e f l a r e  almost  lower  antenna.  of  the  provide  support  separation  a n g l e and l e n g t h  designed using s e c t o r a l horn design data  node  of  [68].  (1.6 the  antenna, for mm)  the  teflon  probe.  between  radial  line  the  tape Low  is  loss  top  and  structure  are  47  a is  the narrow dimension  b is  the broad dimension i n s i d e the r e c t a n g u l a r  Figure 5.4.1  -  and  Subscriber d i e l e c t r i c  waveguide  antenna c o n s t r u c t i o n  detail  NOTE:  1 2  High g l o s s f i n i s h f o r M a t e r i a l : - Brass  inside surfaces in region A  174 mm DIA  13 mm  50 mm D I A  REGION A  NOTE 1  3 mm  144 mm DIA  Figure 5.4.2  - Node a n t e n n a c o n s t r u c t i o n  detail co  49  CHAPTER 6 TESTS ON THE RF SYSTEM  6.1  General Figure  6.1.1  is  the  node.  subscriber  and  keep  cost  the  transmission The  Is  system,  they  this  experiment  implemented  are  GHz.  diagram  The c o m p o n e n t s  and  RF b a n d p a s s f i l t e r  CW ( c o n t i n u o u s  this  is  and I F  u s e d and  it  is  with  the mixer  safe  IF  to  l e a v e them o u t .  amplifier  output  IF a m p l i f i e r  is  and I F  the  are  essential  filters  the  exhibited unstable  expensive. only  one  is  are  In  IF  BW i s  amplifier  provides  Without  oscillation  the  the  In  a  experiment not  h i g h enough t o drown out The i n c l u s i o n o f  order  to  wider the  real only  than  signal,  one dB  5 so  attenuator  a load matching 1 dB a t t e n u a t o r ,  c a u s e d by p o s i t i v e  of  6.1.2.  out.  this  one  purchased.  shown i n F i g u r e  be o m i t t e d .  input.  In  only  direction  components  have been l e f t  necessary because i t amplifier  RF s y s t e m s h o w i n g  quite  experiment  e s s e n t i a l and c a n n o t  wave)  of  reasonable,  only  The t h e r m a l n o i s e l e v e l i s n o t  that  6.2  block  "bare bone" system used f o r The  the  of  a  for the  feedback.  Signal Levels The  measured  RF  power  at  various  points  are  also  shown  in  Figure  6.1.2. Using  the  method of  be a c c u r a t e l y d e t e r m i n e d .  substitution,  the  The p r o c e d u r e i s  a n t e n n a g a i n and p a t h  as  follows:  loss  can  50  LEGEND: ANT CIRC BPF UCM DCM FLTR L.O.  = = = = = = =  Antenna Circulator Band p a s s f i l t e r Up c o n v e r s i o n m i x e r Down c o n v e r s i o n m i x e r Filter Local oscillator  IF = I n t e r m e d i a t e AMP = A m p l i f i e r SUB = S u b s c r i b e r  Figure 6.1.1  -  frequency  B l o c k d i a g r a m o f RF s y s t e m ( w i t h o n l y  one s u b s c r i b e r  shown).  51 2.25 METERS  TWO  25 dB GAIN HORNS i  / •DIELECTRIC ANTENNA  VARIABLE ATTENUATOR ROD  ^ 1 ^ "  NODE ANTENNA  I.L. dB I . L . CIRCULATOR  LOAD  +14.5 dBm DOWN CONVERSION MIXER WITH I.L. OF 6.5 dB. LOCAL OSCILLATOR  LOCAL OSCILLATOR 1 dB ATTENUATOR  ^ - U 20 dB V I F AMP  -19.5  LEGEND:  dBm  I . L . = INSERTION LOSS  F i g u r e 6.1.2 - A o n e - d i r e c t i o n  " b a r e b o n e " s y s t e m u s e d f o r RF i n v e s t i g a t i o n  52  -  using and  a  is  simulate  c a n be  2.25  antennas  metres  such  apart,  as  the  standard  gain  horns,  RCL ( r e c e i v e d  carried  recorded.  combined  calibrated  antenna  gain  and  attenuator.  space l o s s  From t h i s ,  the  one  gain  horn  with  an  antenna  of  t h e a n t e n n a c a n be d e t e r m i n e d by n o t i n g  show  free  gain  by means o f free  space  an  loss  determined.  g a i n of  -  them  the  substituting  The r e s u l t s  known  first  accurately  -  of  installing  level) -  pair  unknown  gain,  the  t h e RCL c h a n g e .  that:  space  loss  is  inversely  proportional  to  the  square  of  the  sensitive  to  distance.  6.3  -  the  g a i n of  the d i e l e c t r i c  -  the  g a i n of  the  Crosspolarization Both  node  polarization  against 6.4  the  a n g l e of  and  attenuation. 6.3.1  antenna  are  gives  a  of  the  plot  offset of  will  cause cause about  polarization  5 dB  of  discrimination  offset.  Patterns  radiation  pattern  The a n t e n n a u n d e r an  dB.  (E and H swap) w i l l A 10°  m e a s u r e d and r e c o r d e d i n F i g u r e 6 . 4 . 1  inside  9.5  subscriber  A 90° r o t a t i o n  Figure  Radiation The  antenna  30 dB o f  attenuation.  node a n t e n n a i s  12.5 dB.  Discrimination  changes.  approximately  rod antenna i s  anechoic  test  chamber.  node  and  to F i g u r e  subscriber  platform  are  6.4.6.  i s . mounted h o r i z o n t a l l y The  antennas  rotates  on a r o t a t i n g about  platform  a vertical  axis.  53  20.0  30.0  10.0  50.0  60.0  70.0  80.0  D E G R E E OF O F F S E T  Figure  6.3.1 -  A p l o t of c r o s s p o l a r i z a t i o n d i s c r i m i n a t i o n of the antenna system  90.0  54  Legend:  radial scale=10dB/inch o r i g i n set at - 4 8 . 5 d B solid line: E - p l a n e dashed line: H - p l a n e  Figure 6.4.1  -  Radiation pattern  of  node  antenna  55  Legend:  r a d i a l scale=10dB/inch s o l i d line: E - p l a n e dashed line: H - p l a n e  Figure  6.4.2 - Radiation pattern  o f 10 d e g r e e E  flare  56  Legend:  r a d i a l scale=10dB/inch solid line: E - p l a n e dashed line: H - p l a n e  Figure  6.4.3 -  Radiation pattern  of  20 d e g r e e E  flare  57  Legend:  radial scale=10dB/inch solid line: E-plane dashed line: H-plane  Figure  6 . 4 . 4 - R a d i a t i o n p a t t e r n a t 30 d e g r e e E  flare  58  Legend: radial scale=10dB/inch solid line: E-plane dashed line: H-plane  Figure 6.4.5 - Radiation pattern  o f 40 d e g r e e E  flare  59  Legend: radial scale=10dB/inch solid line: E-plane dashed line: H-plane  Figure 6.4.6 - Radiation pattern  o f 30 d e g r e e H f l a r e  60  A  standard  transmit meter. is  gain  horn,  source. (HP  placed  The  432A w i t h  at  received  a  distance  of  signal level  1 metre away, i s used  i s measured u s i n g  s u i t a b l e power s e n s o r ) .  an  as  RF  power  I t i s assumed t h a t the s i g n a l  f a r enough away from the horn that i t can be t r e a t e d as a plane wave,  the  radiation  standard  6.5  pattern  is  independent  of  the  P r o p a g a t i o n C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Through V a r i o u s O b s t a c l e s [22] are  as Douglas F i r or Hemlock 2 x 4's thick  aerated  gypsum w a l l  concrete  attenuates have  any  line  of  level  free  with  sight  attenuate  attenuates  attenuates  Building Materials  and  the  This  the  the  it  by  by  GHz  s i g n a l by 15 to 20 dB.  more The  m i l l i m e t r i c wave.  C o n s t r u c t i o n lumbers such  s i g n a l by  reaffirms  Coverage  55  than  10 30  dB. dB.  s i g n a l at 55 GHz the  A  two  inch  Human  body  j u s t do  d e c i s i o n to use  flooding w i l l  A 1  not  a  direct  need a much  higher  transmission.  Statistics one  microwave traffic were  their  power.  transmission.  power  Fading  sampled  board  block  penetrating  of  changes  of  loss.  the s i g n a l by as much as 25 dB.  The the  pattern  "opaque" to the  Double g l a z e d g l a s s windows cause 3 to 7 dB  6.6  radiation  and  g a i n horn used.  Most b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s  cm.  a  d i r e c t i o n RF  system i s set up as shown i n F i g u r e 6.6.1  laboratory.  The  i n s i d e the observed  hands  received  laboratory  unless  r a i s e d up.  i n 1 minute i n t e r v a l s .  the The  IF  signal level  i s allowed. passers-by  r e c o r d was  No  i s recorded  while  noticeable signal level  d e l i b e r a t e l y block run  inside  f o r 3 days and  the the  signal results  These samples were then used to c o n s t r u c t a  o > > o -o z z a  C/3 H H Pd  > I—! S3  a  t  H  O  H  M  13  o  -1  pa CD rr CO  w  tn  1.9 Metres  CD  tn o 13 ?a 2 H  > cd M  pa cn o O pa a cn pa  Co  s w cnH Q cn pa pa  ^  H:  > co CO  62  plot third  of  cumulative  order The  power  probability  parametric . i Rician  polynomial  J . _« « distribution  r a t i o are a l s o p l o t t e d An e s t i m a t e  Smirnov  goodness  that K is  versus  of of  RCL a s  l e s s than - 2 0 . 2  test dB.  in  Figure  6.6.2  using  a  fit. for  . various  , values  „ 2 random o f K=Y = — r — ^ steady c  signal r=— signal  [79].  the R i c i a n parameter fit  shown  [75] .  It  K c a n be d e d u c e d u s i n g can  be  stated  with  95%  Kolmogorov confidence  r  1 .0 p O O  OUB *_>!llg|1  o MEASURED o R I C I A N K-18DB A" " R" 1C1 AN"K- 20D6 R I C I R N K-25DB  ° ' ° -3 5-3 0 -2 5 -2.0  -l'.5 -l'.O -0.5  0.0  DB W . R . T .  0.5  l'.O  1.5  2.0  2.5  3.0  3.5  MEDIAN  F i g u r e 6 . 6 . 2 - Comparison of c u m u l a t i v e p r o b a b i l i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e m e a s u r e d RCL a g a i n s t t h e o r e t i c a l R i c i a n d i s t r i b u t i o n with different K values  64  CHAPTER 7 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS  7.1  Conclusion Results  1.  of  this  RF i n v e s t i g a t i o n  The u s e o f  DSCDMA i s  (-20.2  or  dB  bandwidth  effective  less).  needed  is  For so  only  high  large  a line  of  chosen s i n c e the  fading.  Efficient  Typical offices space  between  space. workers. 3.  It  is  space  feasible  radiation  rod  antennas coaxial  antenna.  to  physically  actively  also favour  and 6 f e e t would  be  tries  the  to  a  flared  of  at  height  Beamwidth  and  the  s u b s c r i b e r antenna  and  the  channel  signal  reduction  or  t h e RF flooding  r e d u c e t h e amount  least 8 feet.  disturbed is  or  of  of  health  line  space.  level  of  horn  exceeds the  of  communication by  office  minimized.  an antenna  structure  sectoral  The r e g i o n  occupied  system that  Inexpensive  subscriber antennas.  sidelobe  designed using  and  than  ratio  and hence  d e s i g n of  c a n be u s e d a s a  communication  radial  to  the  low K  such a scheme.  seldom  c a n be u s e d a s t h e  gain  realizable  In  expenditure  d e s i g n and c o n s t r u c t  within  spread  requirement.  power  approximately node  the  F a d i n g c a u s e d by r a n d o m s c a t t e r i n g  the  by  no  have a c e i l i n g h e i g h t ceiling  This  the  former  signal  radiation  K ratio,  t r a n s m i s s i o n scheme r a t h e r  scheme i s  h a z a r d due t o 2.  sight  a g a i n s t R i c i a n f a d i n g of  that  t r a n s m i s s i o n medium c a n meet system,  are:  data.  dielectric  An a n t e n n a  c a n be the  confines  node  used as  formed  the  antenna  node  can  be  The combined g a i n  of  designed requirement  which  65  is  determined  by  an a l l o w a n c e of 4.  Overall ratio  RF  20 dB f o r  system  is  estimated  recorded  received  confidence RF s y s t e m In  that  summary,  each demanding a  narrow  signal  to  a  possible  to  exposure  to  simple wave  a signal  fade  is  controlled  by s t a t i s t i c a l l y  K is  less  budget  of  the  the  K  RF s y s t e m w i t h  margin.  feasibility  carrier  power  a n a l y z i n g the  level. than  by  -20.2  ratio.  d a t a of  This  K  experimentally  It  can  be  concluded  dB,  thus  establishing  with the  95%  overall  feasibility.  60 GHz r a d i a t i o n  on  balancing  it for  c a n be c o n c l u d e d t h a t implementation  2B+D ISDN c h a n n e l s  beam l i n e  of  sight  communication utilize radiation  heterodyne components  and  seldom  reduce  RF s y s t e m made and  and BER o f  power  custom  is  random of  designed  up  10" . scheme.  occupied  to use low  to  200  by  By  confining  office  minimize  fading.  antennas  workers, office  available confirms  based the  RF  it  is  workers'  Experimentation  commercially  level  subscribers,  The RF s y s t e m i s  6  efficiently,  up  feasible  RLAN s e r v i n g  transmission  space  signal  of  it  with  a  millimetric overall  RF  feasibility. 7.2  Recommendations Recommendations f o r  a)  In  further  research are:  t h e RF a r e a Cost -  reduction  possibility  MMIC ( m o n o l i t h i c Construction with metal  s u c h as  microwave i n t e g r a t e d  using  plating.  plastic  moulding  circuit) and  extrusion  in  combination  66  -  Utilization  of  lower  operating  frequencies  such  as  20  to  40 GHz  range. -  Further  broadening  of  bandwidth  w i d e band h i g h speed d a t a b)  In  Compare  the  various  example,  "near-far"  receiver  by  large such  cells as  of  a fast  also  limit  relation  Other requirement)  the  other  such  hybrid  could  a c h i e v a b l e by e i t h e r necessarily requirement,  be the  km t o  as  "near-far"  c a n e a c h be r e l a x e d t o  37].  or  mixing  [65]. but  fast  easily attainable  of  the  levels.  hundredfold, (frequency require-  crosscor-  f r o m one  frequency  switching  hardware  time  the  hopping  A hybrid  specification  dividing  requirements  with  a low  hopping,  The t r a n s m i t t e r  by  obstable  hopping.  (with  performance  node  s y n t h e s i z e r might  s h o u l d a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d . a  the  the hardware  spillover  frequency  For  system  FHCDMA  The FHCDMA m a i n t a i n s energy  of  telephone  frequency  hopping  complicated,  performance  capture  a significant  capture but  settling  choice.  as much a s  to  time  FH o r DS a l o n e  more  the  is  [35  by f r e q u e n c y  access  optimum  mobile  slots  scheme  achieve  to  can vary  10 km [ 3 2 ] ,  n o i s e by a v o i d a n c e o f  schemes  DS  distances  performance.  sequences m u l t i p l e and  path  an  signal)  a cellular  r i s i n g and f a s t  to v a r i o u s  or  to  for  (referring  subscriber  can a v o i d the  ment  slot  where  schemes  problem  applied  from 0.1  hopping)  FH  system expansion  communications.  SSMA  a strong  when DSCDMA i s  of  possible  SSMA a r e a -  direct  for  that  and  system is  not  and r e c e i v e r  will  overall  DS p o r t i o n  or  performance FH  portion  67  c)  In modulation  choices  A l t h o u g h a P S K scheme i s stage,  other  fancier etc.,  schemes  providing  transmitter d)  schemes such  coding  closer  MSK (minimum  look.  this  work,  simplicity  -  long sequence  -  low  -  fast  of  synchronization  -  difficult  to  dictated  the  military  deserve c a r e f u l  at  the c o s t  of  consideration.  a r e a of  SS d e s i g n .  other  of  Again,  considerations  a l t h o u g h ML  [39] d e s e r v e a  a g o o d SS c o d e a r e :  acquisition  and  long  (preferably  infinite)  time  properties  conflicting by  the  requirements.  system  features office  communications, are  However,  indoor  improvement  A proper  requirements,  c h o i c e of  which  are  code quite  specific.  non-decipherability  distinct  P S K , M - a r y FSK  decipher.  These are u s u a l l y  critical.  M-ary  or  cost  good c o r r e l a t i o n  For  keying),  BFSK  generation  -  application  even  shift  various  The d e s i r a b l e f e a t u r e s  -  totally  PSK, non-coherent  or performance  critical  sychronization lock-in  is  this  design a most  assumed f o r  simple design expediency at  differential  and r e c e i v e r c o m p l e x i t y ,  In area of  is  as  as  spectral efficieny  The c o d i n g i s code  such  assumed f o r  in  fast the  network  priorities  probably while  synchronization code w h i c h w i l l p r o p o s e d by  this  fast  other  features  requires make i t work,  synchronization  the  easier it  might  are  presence to  and  not  too  of  some  decipher.  For  be a c c e p t a b l e  to  68  relax  the  covertness  code  structure.  requirement  to  The c o m b i n a t i o n s  trade  for  a fast  acquisition  a r e many and d e s e r v e  and  simple  careful  considerations. e)  Auxiliary  functions  Various alarm  surveillance  overall be  functions  one  be  It  f)  not  present  acoustic  it  seems  only  Tradeoff A  of  as  be  the  that,  basis  whole  develop  devices  to  if  be  switching,  incorporated  in  standard  possible,  so t h a t  system.  is  coupled  potential  An i n t e l l i g e n t  decision  careful  bandwidth data  to  format  possible  to  adjustment  w o u l d be a n o t h e r It  CCD ( c h a r g e  these  a change of  the  should  functions  technology  in  U p g r a d e c a n be f a c i l i t a t e d  by  a prototype  coming RLAN's  candidates  for  on w h i c h  system  and  serve  20  subscribers  the  a mix  total  recommended  SAW  (surface  implementation  technology  to  of  pursue,  is  size subscribers  Also,  and  evaluations.  200  in  of  is  each r e q u i r i n g  1.544  number  assumed f o r  of  MBPS  and  subscribers  this  study.  a 1.544  MBPS  192 K B P S ,  with  to  be  served,  configuration. that  and e v e n t u a l l y  market.  [66]  investigations  p o s s i b l e system  strongly  devices)  for  an a l t e r n a t i v e .  corresponding  and  on a m o d u l a r  need  system i n t e r c o n n e c t )  are  after  2B+D  should  channel  to  (open  recommended  outdate  wave)[67]  possible  It  etc. ,  implementation,  technology  SSMA r e c e i v e r s .  g)  protocol  revision.  Choice of  At  The OSI also  implemented  area w i l l  module  is  as  signalling  system d e s i g n .  observed.  should  and  such  further produce  work  be a l l o w e d  to  a s a l e a b l e product  continue in  the  up  69  CHAPTER 8 REFERENCES 1.  "The office of the future", Uhlig, P u b l i s h i n g Company, 4 t h p r i n t i n g 1 9 8 2 .  2.  "ISDN i n the O f f i c e " - Hicom " S p e c i a l i s s u e M a g a z i n e COM, D e c e m b e r 1 9 8 5 .  3.  M.W. Rahm, " B r o a d b a n d N e t w o r k : V o l . 22, No. 7 . , J u l y 1984.  4.  Software 1987, P .  5.  Canadian Datasystem, Gower R e e s .  6.  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