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The application of passive techniques in housing design in hot and dry climates, with special emphasis.. Kanetkar, Raminder B. 1988

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c  THE APPLICATION OF PASSIVE TECHNIQUES IN HOUSING DESIGN IN HOT AND DRY CLIMATES; WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON INDIA By RAMINDER B. A r c h . ,  B. KANETKAR  Punjab U n i v e r s i t y ,  re.ce,+*9 f-.f^> "  India,  c  1982  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE.DEGREE OF MASTER OF ADVANCED  STUDIES IN  ARCHITECTURE  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE School  We a c c e p t to  STUDIES  of A r c h i t e c t u r e  this  t h e s i s as  the required  (  confirming  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August,  1988  © Raminder B. K a n e t k a r ,  1988  In  presenting  degree  at  this  the  thesis  in  University of  partial  fulfilment  of  of  department  this or  publication of  thesis for by  his  or  that the  her  representatives.  It  this thesis for financial gain shall not  Department of The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3  for  an advanced  Library shall make  it  agree that permission for extensive  scholarly purposes may be  permission.  DE-6(3/81)  requirements  British Columbia, I agree  freely available for reference and study. I further copying  the  is  granted  by the  understood  that  be allowed without  head of copying  my or  my written  Abstract  This  research  focussed  recommendation housing  design  'passive' to  of  passive  t o those  thermal  the unfavourable  objective  of  the  reliance  on  mechanical  associated  socio-economic  thesis  identifies the  is  located  comfort criteria  for  techniques. identify dwelling The  into  of  two  and  dry  were  those  i n order  c l i m a t e . The  parts.  which  comfort  and  first  part  region  The  techniques  used i n  post-industrial  cities  in  India.  Climate,  cooling),  to  the thermal  and  establish  which c a n be used  in  indoor  preliminary  performance  main o b j e c t i v e was t o e n a b l e  techniques  by  minimized.  and  analysed  term  f a v o u r a b l e and  achieving  (primarily  for  The  which,  the  the p a s s i v e design  evaluating The  India.  techniques  c o s t s c a n be  problems  criteria  in  suitable  elements of the l o c a l  means  divided  hot  environmental  strategies  utilize  of p r e - i n d u s t r i a l  in  e v a l u a t i o n and  r e s e a r c h was t o d e t e r m i n e means  and e v a l u a t e s  dwellings  design  comfort,  mininimize  The  design  i n h o t and d r y c l i m a t e s  refers  enhance  on t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ,  of  design  designers  to  contemporary  designs.  second  techniques  part proposes i n contemporary  recommended a t v a r i o u s  strategies housing  levels  ii  design.  of d e s i g n  -minimize s o l a r gain -minimize c o n d u c t i v e heat flow -promote v e n t i l a t i o n - m i n i m i z e i n t e r n a l heat g a i n s -promote r a d i a n t c o o l i n g - d e l a y p e r i o d i c heat flow -promote e v a p o r a t i v e c o o l i n g  to incorporate General  passive  strategies  include the f o l l o w i n g :  -control -control These of  high velocity glare  strategies,  wind  which r e c o g n i z e the  d w e l l i n g occupants,  c o m f o r t - r e l a t e d needs  promote t h e use o f l o c a l  construction  pract ices. The  application  a  considerable  However, in  of p a s s i v e t e c h n i q u e s p r e s e n t s a r c h i t e c t s scope  the s e l e c t i o n  of d e s i g n  are  strategies  selected  minimizing  heat  It  creativity  in  at the outset, i t i s necessary  priorities  loss  for  addressed  strategies, through  in this  each  thesis  housing  to define and t o  level  of  emphasize  g a i n d u r i n g day t i m e ,  and  with  design.  priorities  ensure  these  design. the  need  maximizing  The for heat  at n i g h t . is  passive  concluded  from  techniques  maintenance  this  research that  i n contemporary  o f most t h e r m a l  comfort  housing needs,  reliance  on m e c h a n i c a l  use  passive  techniques  provides  housing  designs  to  effectively  cultural  needs of t h e o c c u p a n t s .  of  means of c o n t r o l .  respond  the  application  design allows thereby  of for  reducing  A t t h e same t i m e , t h e a  potential to  certain  f o r the socio-  TABLE OF  CONTENTS page  ABSTRACT  ii  TABLE OF CONTENTS  iv  L I S T OF TABLES  v i i  L I S T OF FIGURES.  vii.i  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  xi i  INTRODUCTION  1  1.  COMFORT AND DWELLINGS  2  2.  OBJECTIVES OF THE PROPOSED RESEARCH  8  3.  THE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY  10  4.  THESIS LAYOUT  12  PART ONE:  HISTORICAL REVIEW OF METHODS FOR ACHIEVING COMFORT IN HOUSING IN HOT AND DRY CLIMATE IN INDIA  INTRODUCTION SECTION I :  13 14  PRE-HISTORIC PERIOD  15  1.  INTRODUCTION  2.  HOUSING IN MOHANJODARO 2.1. I n t r o d u c t i o n 2.2. L o c a t i o n and C l i m a t e 2.3. I n d o o r c o m f o r t C r i t e r i a 2.4. E n v i r o n m e n t a l . P r o b l e m s 2.5. B u i l d i n g D e s i g n T e c h n i q u e s 2.6. P e r f o r m a n c e o f D e s i g n t e c h n i q u e s  SECTION I I : MEDIEVAL PERIOD  28  1.  INTRODUCTION  2.  HOUSING IN JAISALMER 2.1. I n t r o d u c t i o n 2.2. L o c a t i o n and C l i m a t e 2.3. I n d o o r C o m f o r t C r i t e r i a iv  2.4. E n v i r o n m e n t a l P r o b l e m s 2.5. B u i l d i n g D e s i g n T e c h n i q u e s 2.6. P e r f o r m a n c e o f D e s i g n t e c h n i q u e s SECTION I I I : MODERN INDUSTRIAL  SECTION IV:  PART TWO:  PERIOD  44  1.  INTRODUCTION  2.  HOUSING IN CHANDIGARH 2.1. I n t r o d u c t i o n 2.2. L o c a t i o n and C l i m a t e 2.3. I n d o o r C o m f o r t C r i t e r i a and E n v i r o n m e n t a l Problems 2.4. B u i l d i n g D e s i g n T e c h n i q u e s 2.5. P e r f o r m a n c e o f D e s i g n T e c h n i q u e s  CONCLUSIONS AND  HOUSING DESIGN  CONTEMPORARY ISSUES  64  STRATEGIES  65  INTRODUCTION  66  SECTION I : S I T E  SECTION  SELECTION STRATEGIES  70  1.  INTRODUCTION  2.  SITE  3.  THERMAL COMFORT CRITERIA  4.  MINIMIZE SOLAR GAIN 4.1. S l o p e O r i e n t a t i o n and G r a d i e n t 4.2. E x i s t i n g . V e g e t a t i o n and T o p o g r a p h y  5.  PROMOTE AIR FLOW 5.1. S i t e A l t i t u d e 5.2. P r o x i m i t y t o Water  II  SITE  CLIMATE DATA  Bodies  PLANNING STRATEGIES  83  1.  INTRODUCTION  2.  MINIMIZE SOLAR GAIN 2.1. S t r e e t O r i e n t a t i o n 2.2. S t r e e t W i d t h 2.3. L o c a t i o n and S i z e of Open 2.4. L a n d s c a p i n g  3.  PROMOTE VENTILATION 3.1. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Open 3.2. B u i l d i n g H e i g h t s  v  Spaces  Spaces  4.  PROTECTION FROM HIGH VELOCITY WIND AND 4.1. S h e l t e r b e l t s  SECTION I I I : FORM DESIGN STRATEGIES INTRODUCTION  2. 3.  REFERENCE BUILDINGS MINIMIZE CONDUCTIVE HEAT FLOW 3.1. O r i e n t a t i o n 3.2. E x p o s e d S u r f a c e t o Volume R a t i o 3.3. P l a n Shape 3.4. B u i l d i n g F a c a d e 3.5. T h e r m a l Z o n i n g o f V a r i o u s S p a c e s 3.6. L i v i n g A r e a s Below Grade  4.  REDUCE INTERNAL HEAT GAINS 4.1. Heat G e n e r a t i n g A r e a s  5.  PROMOTE VENTILATION 5.1. I n t e r i o r C o u r t s 5.2. O r i e n t a t i o n PROMOTE RADIANT 6.1.  SECTION  100  1.  6.  IV:  3.  and S h a f t s  COOLING  Terraces  FABRIC DESIGN  1. 2.  DUST  STRATEGIES  INTRODUCTION MINIMIZE SOLAR GAIN, PROMOTE CONTROL GLARE 2.1. Windows: I n t r o d u c t i o n 2.2. Window O r i e n t a t i o n 2.3. E x t e r i o r 2.4. E x t e r i o r A c c e s s o r i e s 2.5. The Window 2.6. I n t e r i o r A c c e s s o r i e s 2.7. I n t e r i o r  ...129  VENTILATION,  DELAY PERIODIC HEAT FLOW, MINIMIZE CONDUCTIVE HEAT FLOW 3.1. Roof and W a l l s : Thickness, Materials, Colour  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  159  REFERENCE MATTER  1 66  1 . BIBLIOGRAPHY  1 67  vi  List  of  Tables  page No. I.  Reflectance  values  for various  Ila.  Activity  lib.  A l l o c a t i o n of spaces with  III.  I n t e r n a l heat  from v a r i o u s  sources  123  IV.  Performance of e x t e r i o r shading  devices  ....142  V.  Time l a g p r o v i d e d by m a t e r i a l s p r o p e r t i e s and t h i c k n e s s  of v a r i o u s  VI.  Summery  a n a l y s i s of spaces  gain  of housing  design  surfaces  92  in a dwelling  respect  to o r i e n t a t i o n  strategies  vi i  118 118  thermal ....157 162  List 1. 2.  of F i g u r e s  Page No.  C o m m e r c i a l e n e r g y consumed buildings i n India Shares of c o u n t r y consumption  groups  for achieving  comfort i n 3  i n world  commercial  energy 3  3.  Location  of h o t and d r y c l i m a t e  1.1.  Map o f I n d i a  1.2.  C l i m a t i c data  of M o h a n j o d a r o  17  1.3.  Street  of M o h a n j o d a r o  21  1.4.  Plan  1.5.  Summer street  showing  layout  of t y p i c a l  zone  i n India  8  l o c a t i o n of Mohanjodaro  dwelling  unit  17  i n Mohanjodaro  S h a d i n g mask f o r an e a s t e r n  wall  in  21 a  narrow 24  1.6.  Time  l a g and d e c r e m e n t  factor for thick walls  1.7.  Thermal  1.8.  Location India  1.9.  C l i m a t i c data  1.10.  Town l a y o u t  1.11.  Plan  of a small  1.12.  Plan  of a middle  1.13.  Plan  and s e c t i o n o f a h a v e l i  1.14.  Construction  1.15.  S t r u c t u r a l p r o j e c t i o n s and f i n s facade of a h a v e l i  system of c o u r t y a r d of c i t i e s  house  24  i n M o h a n j o d a r o . . . . . 27  developed during  medieval period i n .. 29  of J a i s a l m e r  29  of J a i s a l m e r house  33  in Jaisalmer  income house  of the roof  Operation  o f a wind tower  1.17.  The p s y c h r o m e t r i c p r e s e n t a t i o n t h r o u g h t h e wind tower Location  1.19.  C l i m a t i c data  1.20.  Layout  35 35 37  on t h e upper  level 37  i n summer  of Chandigarh  of c o o l i n g  41 process 43 45  of C h a n d i g a r h  of roads  in Jaisalmer  of a h a v e l i  1.16.  1.18.  33  i n Chandigarh  vi i i  46 49  1.21. 'The  sector  layout  49  1.22.  Government  1.23.  P r i v a t e housing  1.24.  T y p i c a l roof  1.25.  Sun  1.26.  Shading d e v i c e s  1.27.  The p s y c h r o m e t r i c p r e s e n t a t i o n evaporative coolers  2.1.  path  housing  in Chandigarh  51  in Chandigarh  52  section  diagram  54  f o r SE  facade  54  f o r Chandigarh houses  56  of c o o l i n g  through 59  The elements of resulting internal thermal comfort  external climate and the environment i n f l u e n c i n g occupant  2.2.  B i o - c l i m a t i c chart  f o r hot  2.3.  Summer sun  latitude  2.4.  The s u r f a c e s p e r p e n d i c u l a r r e c e i v e more r a d i a t i o n  2.5.  at  A mound or t r e e i n the s o l a r r a d i a t i o n on the  2.6.  Suggested  2.7.  Site  2.8.  Raised of  2.9.  path  71  location  selection  dry  climates  75  25°N  „...  to the  direction  of  sun  of h o u s e s on  a sloped  hours  78  site....  situation  t o enhance t h e  2.14.  cooling  effect 80  Cooling process  The e f f e c t shading  due  to the  proximity  for latitude  of  water.........  25°N  of  street  w i d t h and  block  i n open  81 86  height  86 86  on 88  An example of a c h i e v i n g narrow s t r e e t width s e g r e g a t i n g v e h i c l e s from d w e l l i n g f r o n t Shading blocks  78 80  2.10b. Shadow l e n g t h f o r E a s t and West f a c i n g d w e l l i n g block 2.11. S t r e e t s r u n n i n g e a s t - w e s t w i t h b l o c k f a c i n g s o u t h  2.13.  of  air  2.10a. S u n p a t h d i a g r a m  2.12.  77 77  west w i l l r e d u c e few dwelling structure  in a v a l l e y  embankment  and  spaces  smaller  than  by 88  surrounding 90  ix  2.15. 2.16.  D e c i d u o u s t r e e s and penetration  summer and  winter  90  S o l a r r a d i a t i o n i n c i d e n t upon g r o u n d v e r t i c a l s u r f a c e s f a c i n g e a s t , west, at  latitude  25  solar s u r f a c e and s o u t h and n o r t h  N  92  2.17.  A i r t e m p e r a t u r e above v a r i o u s  2.18. 2.19.  The wind v e l o c i t y i n open c o u n t r y and b u i l t up a r e a s . A i r v e l o c i t y n e a r the g r o u n d a r o u n d t a l l e r b l o c k s i s more t h a n a r o u n d lower b l o c k s  96  Use  98  2.20.  of  surfaces  94  s h e l t e r b e l t s f o r summer wind p r o t e c t i o n  94  (Plan) 2.21.  (Section)  2.22.  Modes of  2.23.  The  98 heat  dwelling  exchange  i n s i d e the  forms used  dwelling  for analysis  103  2.24a. S o l a r r a d i a t i o n i n c i d e n t upon s u r f a c e s orientations a t l a t i t u d e 25 N 2.24b. S o l a r r a d i a t i o n i n c i d e n t upon s o u t h t o facing surfaces gain  2.25.  Heat  2.26.  Heat g a i n by c o n d u c t i o n i n v a r i o u s compared w i t h a s q u a r e p l a n  2.27a. S o l a r  2.29.  conduction  altitude  2.27b. S h a d i n g 2.28.  by  of  during  south  101  for various  summer a t  in  various 107  south-east 107  form t y p e s plan  shapes  109 as 114  latitude  25°  116  facing surface  A c o m p a r i s o n between temperatures S i z e of c o u r t y a r d  mean  116  monthly a i r  and  earth 121  f o r a i r e x c h a n g e due  to  thermal  force  126  2.30.  Terraces  f o r row  housing  2.31. 2.32.  F a b r i c as a f i l t e r of e x t e r n a l c l i m a t e S o l a r h e a t g a i n p e r m i t t e d by a 1mx1m window orientations  2.33.  Solar a l t i t u d e  and  126  windows i n v a r i o u s  x  in  130 various 135  orientations..  135  2.34.  Relative proportion of ground reflected, and d i f f u s e d s o l a r r a d i a t i o n i n c i d e n t upon a f a c i n g window a t l a t i t u d e 25 N Q  2.35.  Solar  altitude  west  and  area  in  137  east  and  orientations  2.36a. Sun p a t h d i a g r a m 2.36b. O v e r h e a t e d p e r i o d 2.37.  reflector  direct south  137 f o r 25°N for latitude  Verticle projections  2.38a. F i x e d  horizontal  140 25°N  and wind v e l o c i t y  projections  140 i n a room.... 144  and a i r f l o w  2.38b. A d j u s t a b l e h o r i z o n t a l l o u v e r s and a i r f l o w 2.39. Heat g a i n t h r o u g h windows o f d i f f e r e n t a r e a s orientation  146 146 i n south 146  2.40.  A l a r g e r window a r e a i n c r e a s e s wind v e l o c i t y i n a room w i t h one window e s p e c i a l l y when wind i s o b l i q u e t o t h e window 149  2.41.  A h i g h e r wind v e l o c i t y i n s i d e a c r o s s v e n t i l a t e d room can be a c h i e v e d when i t h a s u n e q u a l o p e n i n g s and t h e o u t l e t i s l a r g e r than the i n l e t 149  2.42.  Glare  2.43.  I n t r i c a t e l y woven  2.44.  Roof  from windows  f i n i s h e d with  . .. jali  as window m a t e r i a l  earthen  pots  xi  152 153 157  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  I  wish  t o e x p r e s s my g r a t i t u d e  superb  guidence.  credit  f o r m o t i v a t i n g me and  various  s t a g e s of t h i s  I  a l s o wish  patience.  As my a d v i s o r he a l s o  t o thank  Without  stages,  this  t o Raymond J .  giving  Cole  deserves  me h e l p f u l  for his  the  highest  c r i t i c i s m s at  study. Bud Wood f o r h i s c o n t i n u o u s  his  support,  endeavour  especially  would  never  support  at  have  the  and  initial  reached  its  Rousseou  and  dest inat i o n . I  sincerely  Gorden in  Brown  English  There  David  of t h i s  provided emotional  my husband V i n a y  work.  for i t  gratitude  and f i n a n c i a l  as a c l o s e deserves  friend  support  t o anyone  to  is  support  in  for  my  f o r my else.  and now a s a  t h e most c r e d i t  s t r e n g t h and i n t e l l e c t u a l this  text,  help.  i n Canada. I owe more t o them t h a n  enough  finishing  the E n g l i s h  of  words t o e x p r e s s my d e e p e s t  but not the l e a s t ,  partner, me  no  who  education Last  i n improving  where I need most  are  parents  a p p r e c i a t e the e f f o r t s  life giving  writing  and  INTRODUCTION  1.  COMFORT AND  DWELLINGS  2.  O B J E C T I V E S OF THE PROPOSED  3.  THE R E S E A R C H METHODOLOGY  4.  THESIS  LAYOUT  1  RESEARCH  1.  COMFORT AND  The  primary  provision of  The  methods  time.  comfort  societies  available  natural through  1970's  societies  style  of  a l l over  like  industrialized an  and  Various been  needs,  the  methods  devised  by  resources  gradually  changed  revolution,  wind  design  .  and  During  over  comfort  by  which  the  were the  in  use  of  controlled  industrial  mechanical  Where t h i s  a change  a temporary the w o r l d supply  India  age  heating  technology  i n t h e house  shortage  of  and  could  form  of  energy.  and  less  the  cost  per c a p i t a of  Inspite  the h i g h c o s t  of e n e r g y ,  fuels,  about  Although  i n the d e v e l o p i n g world,  factor.  fossil  became c o n c e r n e d  consume  societies,  issue  have  exclusively  and  invented.  development of  been  be in  people.  limited  societies  sun  permitted  brought  and  always  have  were d i s c o v e r e d and  d e v i c e s were  The  already  fuel  this  almost  like  d w e l l i n g form  life  dwellings  industrial  achieved  elements  the  has  a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r  the  was  afforded,  in  f o r a c h i e v i n g comfort  s o u r c e s of  cooling  dwellings  technology.  Before  dwellings  of  m a i n t e n a n c e of human c o m f o r t .  achieving  and  cost  purpose  and  different  new  DWELLINGS  energy  the  rising  developing energy which  became a  cooling,  and  than was  critical  lighting  and  *Dwelling form, as o b s e r v e d by many architects (Anderson, 1968), i s an e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n of the primary c l i m a t i c , s o c i a l c u l t u r a l and economic needs whereas d e s i g n i s an expression of t h e i n t e r a c t i o n of b u i l d i n g programme and site conditions.  2  Fig.1.  Commercial E n e r g y Consumed Buildings in India. S o u r c e : P a r i k h , 1976.  for Achieving  Comfort i n  <?1L EXfiJrZTIsKS  PLANNEP Q(J>W>-  199 5 •  Fig.2.  Shares of C o u n t r y G r o u p s Consumption, 1970-95. S o u r c e : F a l v i n , 1980.  3  i n World  Commercial  Energy  heating form  of  a  total  buildings  large  part,  energy  growth  of  developing during  period  demand 1986)  comfort  these  projected  While at  the  An  reliance  awareness  making  and  comfort  in  It  million)  in India  will  2.3%  of  other  per  year  the  t o meet  next  20  contribute  the the  years  achieving  significantly  of  o i l prices of  has,  to  energy  temporarily  imports, nations is  a l l buildings  contribute  the  use  of  can  the  energy  architect  be  most  designed sources. towards  for  achieving  the  need  Charles  words: "In a t h i r d world country like India, we simply c a n ' t a f f o r d t o s q u a n d e r the k i n d of energy required to construct and air c o n d i t i o n a g l a s s tower i n a t r o p i c a l c l i m a t e - and t h i s of c o u r s e i s an a d v a n t a g e ; for i t means t h a t the b u i l d i n g must i t s e l f , through its v e r y form, c r e a t e the " c o n t r o l s " which the user needs. Such a r e s p o n s e n e c e s s i t a t e s much more t h a n j u s t sun a n g l e s and louvers:  4  upon  energy.  becoming aware of In  most India  dependent  cost  who  a  like  c o s t l y non-renewable energy  are  rate  consumption.  that  regarding  the  and  of m e c h a n i c a l means of  p o t e n t i a l l y high  designs.  India  of  i s c e r t a i n from  over  development  buildings,  The  required  sustained on  buildings  quarter  to average  developing  architects,  energy-efficient  in  confronting  i s growing  decisions  one  (Fig.1).  (Fig.2).  burden  t o m i n i m i z e d e p e n d e n c e on Planners  residential  consumption  in energy  the  unchanged:  minimizing  use  reduction  issue  nation  (4.5  buildings  reduced  fundamental remains  units  growth  which  i s expected  that  recent  least,  the  for housing  (Manchanda, in  of  1980-1995  dwelling  of  consume n e a r l y  energy  countries  estimated  the  now  supplies total  the  growing  in India,  for  Correa's  i t must i n v o l v e the shape, in short: building.  section, the very  the plan, heart of  the the  To c r o s s a d e s e r t and e n t e r a house a r o u n d a courtyard is a pleasure beyond mere photogenic making, it is the quality of light, and the ambience of moving a i r , that forms the essence of our experience. A r c h i t e c t u r e as a mechanism f o r d e a l i n g with the elements (truely, a machine for living!). This i s the g r e a t challenge and o p p o r t u n i t y of our t h i r d w o r l d . " (in Utilization design but  of  of  dwellings  is  interest  architects  in  knowledge realize  based that  The  local  of  of  to  the  today  use  climatic,  employed  the  proper  they  w h i c h have an  many  reliance  on  abundance  of  building,  fail  s o p h i s t i c a t e d of  them  for achieving  u s e d by  the  responded  cultural,  has  among  minimizing  most  by  realization *  Traditional architecture  methods of  techniques  economic,  This  in  societies,  because  means of  architecture  societies.  t h e y were once the  superior'  societies  appealing.  traditional  techniques  by  1984)  b e n e f i c i a l and c o s t - e f f e c t i v e ,  traditional  Poor on  sources,  only  techniques  m e c h a n i c a l means.  were  i s not  in developing  several  time.  energy  psychologically  revived  offers  natural  Cantacuzino,  their comfort  industrialized  effectively  social  to  and  to  the  technological  constra ints. This  knowledge  original  form or  On  other  the  can  still  as  a basis  hand,  be  of  for  great  value,  renewed d e s i g n  however,  many of  the  either  in  its  interpretation. conditions  (for  example social, c u l t u r a l economic and t e c h n o l o g i c a l c o n t e x t ) *traditional Architecture refers to those structures and settlement patterns i n w h i c h t h e r e had been no professional a r c h i t e c t u r a l and e n g i n e e r i n g involvement.  5  under w h i c h t r a d i t i o n a l to  the  point  immediately utilized  where t h e o r i g i n a l appropriate.  for traditional  contemporary  comfort  the  why  reasons  it  is  also  architects local  it  true  in  certain  that  thus worth  "we  no  longer  materials  longer e a s i l y  largely  are  a  introduced  inappropriate Hassan  no m a t t e r  Fathy what  what  meet  few  abandoned.  must d e t e r m i n e  keeping  no  the  techniques  world c o u n t r i e s  out  changed  These a r e perhaps  T h e r e f o r e , as a r c h i t e c t  points  c o n s t a n t and  t e c h n i q u e s may  have  are  Furthermore,  techniques are  that  third  techniques  expectations.  these  conditions.  correctly and  t e c h n i q u e s were e f f e c t i v e  of  But, by for  (1986)  i s basic  time  period  evolved i n " .  Inspired  by  t h e above t h o u g h t ,  understand,  share  methods  a c h i e v i n g comfort  that  of  reliance  comfort  can  be  on  and  propose  costly  this an  thesis  i s an  application  of  minimized.  6  means  to  traditional  i n t h e d w e l l i n g s of  mechanical  attempt  of  India,  so  achieving  2. OBJECTIVES OF The  main  THE  THESIS  objective  minimize  reliance  of on  this  t h e s i s i s to  m e c h a n i c a l means of  examine  ways  achieving  to  thermal  * comfort  in  residential  (Fig.3)  in  India.  specific  topics will  a. Methods India  of  To be  buildings achieve  i n hot  this  and  goal,  dry the  comfort  through various  in r e s i d e n t i a l  periods  of  history.  buildings This  accompli shed: - By identifying the d e s i g n t e c h n i q u e s which a c h i e v i n g t h e r m a l c o m f o r t , and  b.  Housing in  hot  design and  dry  mechanical  following  addressed:  achieving  - By e v a l u a t i n g and basis of their comfort.  region  will  in be  helped  in  o r d e r i n g the d e s i g n t e c h n i q u e s on the effectiveness in achieving thermal  strategies for achieving region  means.  of  India  This  with  will  thermal  comfort  a minimum r e l i a n c e  be  accomplished  on by  emphasi z i n g :  It  -The use of l o c a l m a t e r i a l s techniques a v a i l a b l e i n the  and building construction s p e c i f i c r e g i o n , and  -The the  r e q u i r e m e n t s of  c u l t u r a l and dwellings.  should  strategies comfort,  the  be  behavioral  recognized  will aim  that  although  the  the  proposed  e m p h a s i z e n o n - m e c h a n i c a l means of here  i s not  to  eliminate  users  the  of  design achieving  power  driven  _  Defined as a zone i n w h i c h hot f o r a l a r g e t i m e of the y e a r .  and  7  dry  climate  predominates  Fig.  3.  Location  environmental  o f Hot and D r y C l i m a t i c  control  conveniences', dwelling,  require  and that  systems. meeting  Zone  Incorporating  comfort  m e c h a n i c a l means  altogether.  8  in India.  expectations cannot  be  'modern in  a  ignored  3.  THE  RESEARCH  The  evaluation  is  based  thermal With  METHODOLOGY  of v a r i o u s  on  their  design  techniques  effectiveness in  increased  techniques,  i t  accurately, materials  is  availability now  the thermal of  possible  of to  computer  n o t by t h e model, w h i c h c a n be r e f i n e d  thermal  However,  the accuracy  that the outdoor  characteristics  be p r e d i c t e d o n l y w i t h a l i m i t e d  In  air-conditioned  level  or h e a t e d  determining  the  be  given  p e r i o d of time.  in  the  needed  case  is a relatively  o f non a i r - c o n d i t i o n e d  where n a t u r a l e n e r g i e s a r e b e i n g  maintain  thermal  thermal a  comfort  difficult  climatic  predicting  conditions,  In  addition  the varied  9  in-use  internal  at a constant  i s usually  that l e v e l easy  used  that of  t o the  that  over  a  t a s k . However, as  in  this  t o a c h i e v e and  the p r e c i s e  degree  of  provide  is  unpredictability  of  performance that the b u i l d i n g  task.  the  buildings,  thesis,  comfort,  conditions  h e a t i n g or c o o l i n g  (Watson,1973) t o m a i n t a i n This  t o a l m o s t any  envelope  where  the task  amount o f a u x i l i a r y  will  given  d e g r e e o f accuracy.,  buildings  thermostatic control,  with  of p r e d i c t i o n i s  c o n d i t i o n s a r e assumed t o be m a i n t a i n e d  with  under  climatic  of b u i l d i n g  can  thermal  reasonably  properties  limited,  the  modelling  predict,  conditions.  and  indoor  performance of a s t r u c t u r e b u i l t  known t h e r m o - p h y s i c a l  b u t by t h e f a c t  the  range.  climatic  extent,  thesis  bringing  c o n d i t i o n s w i t h i n the d e s i r e d comfort the  in this  activities  will  and r e s p o n s e s  of  building models  o c c u p a n t s make p r e d i c t i o n  a r e not v e r y a c c u r a t e i n a s s e s i n g  to v a r y i n g be  thermal c o n d i t i o n s ,  changing  opening  or c l o s i n g  doors  mathematical  designer  understand  to  building  fabric  different  alternatives  research  review, models  as  well  techniques,  the  quantitative  may by  computer  f o r the  building  performance  to the a p p r o p r i a t e  thesis  i s based  choice  largely  of  and  the  The  of  between  than the q u a n t i t a t i v e  literature mathemetical  emphasis  principles  performance  10  on  specific  programes.  theory  thermal  rather  However,  models a r e u s e f u l  as a p p l i c a t i o n  the  when p e o p l e  (Gupta,1984).  computer  understanding  response  characteristics  windows.  the  leading  in this  and  assessing  particularly  and  Mathematical  t h e human  some of t h e assumed b u i l d i n g  p r o g r a m e s and  The  more complex.  of  involved  various  results.  is  on in  design  4. THESIS LAYOUT  The  thesis  brief  i s divided into  history  buildings India,  two p a r t s .  P a r t One  o f t h e means by w h i c h human c o m f o r t  has been a c h i e v e d  in  i n the p r e - h i s t o r i c ,  presents  i n domestic  h o t and d r y c l i m a t i c Medieval  a  and modern  region in industrial  per i o d s . Part  Two f o c u s e s  There  are  regarding  various  site  fabric  design.  energy  are  general  design  minimize  while The  of  design  selection;  site  discussed  or modify  relationship buildings  one  the adverse  of e x i s t i n g is  which  decisions  a r e made by  and  t h e u s e of a p p l i e d these  of t h e s e  effects  architects.  form d e s i g n ;  of  a p p l i e d i n each  the favourable  strategies.  planning;  f o r each  principle  design  at  Strategies f o r minimizing  utilizing  proposed  levels  contemporary  the use of a p p l i e d energy  These a r e :  to  on d e v e l o p i n g  levels.  A  sections i s  of e x t e r n a l c l i m a t e  ones. topography  considered  in  and c l i m a t e  the  section  to on  the site  select ion. The  site  creating design The shape  planning an  of  discussion considers  effective open  form d e s i g n  spaces  microclimate  the  through  potential street  for  layout,  and l a n d s c a p i n g .  s e c t i o n i n v o l v e s the r o l e  and c o n f i g u r a t i o n  in minimizing  of b u i l d i n g  the adverse  volume,  effect  of  c1imate. The  final  section,  involving  the  1 1  fabric  design  level,  considers materials undesirable  the for and  role  of  their  windows,  walls  construction,  utilizing  the  favourable  climate.  12  and  roof,  in  modifying  e f f e c t s of  and  the the  exterior  PART ONE: A HISTORICAL REVIEW OF METHODS FOR ACHIEVING IN HOUSING  IN HOT AND DRY CLIMATES  COMFORT  IN INDIA  INTRODUCTION SECTION  I:  PRE-HISTORIC  SECTION  II:  MEDIEVAL  SECTION  III:  MODERN  SECTION  IV:  CONCLUSIONS AND CONTEMPORARY ISSUES  13  PERIOD  PERIOD  INDUSTRIAL  PERIOD  INTRODUCTION  Part  one  of  techniques  this  by w h i c h human c o m f o r t  been a c h i e v e d potential  in  various  India.  domestic  comfort  p r o b l e m s and,  of . b u i l d i n g  design  the  Pre-historic,  Part  one  in  e f f e c t i v e l y used contemporary  the has  Climatic  most  methods factors  comfort  that  criteria,  importantly,  t e c h n i q u e s used  on  in  the  solving  f o r t y p i c a l examples o f h o u s i n g i n  Medieval  concludes with  buildings  historical  architecture.  t h e s e p r o b l e m s a r e examined  be  these  of  i s t o i d e n t i f y the  in residential buildings,  environmental  performance  of  history  i n domestic  The main o b j e c t i v e  applications  contemporary influence  thesis presents a brief  and  Modern  Industrial  o u t l i n i n g the techniques  t o enhance and m a i n t a i n  dwellings.  14  periods. which  thermal  can  comfort  SECTION I:  1.  PRE-HISTORIC PERIOD  INTRODUCTION  The  most  significant  pre-historic  times  a r e found  Harappa and T a x i l a , These  examples of  located  towns d e v e l o p e d d u r i n g  period  of  transition  material  for tools,  building  construction  urban  from which  i n t h e towns  As  construction layout  a  of  technology,  and house d e s i g n  the ' C a l c o l i t h i c ' use o f s t o n e implies  less  these  of Mohanjodaro.  bronze  the  the  as the  knowledge  of  comfort,  diversified  knowledge  1981). T h i s  comfort  were  in  section  i n the  of  their will  residential  MOHANJODARO  archeological revealed  years,  from  research  that  is  by M a r s h a l  the c i t y  3250 B.C.  Pakistan,  river the  IN  i.e.  Introduction  1981)  in  that  (Schoenauer,  buildings  The  to  age,  towns were s i m i l a r  t h e methods o f a c h i e v i n g  2.1.  Mohanjodaro,  t h e means of t r a n s p o r t , t h e  examine  HOUSING  from  i n t h e h o t and d r y c l i m a t i c z o n e .  technology,  result  i n India  of  economy and hence t h e means o f a c h i e v i n g  limited.  2.  civilization  a n d Wheeler  of Mohanjodaro e x i s t e d  t o 2750 B.C.  to the north-west  land  of India  a n d were a s o u r c e  *The r i v e r I n d u s has a l m o s t d e s e r t now.  located  (Fig.1.1). region  of o c c a s i o n a l  d r i e d and t h i s  1 5  f o r 500  M o h a n j o d a r o , now  Indus a n d i t s many t r i b u t a r i e s i n t h i s  surrounding  (Schoenauer,  area  isa  The  irrigated floods*. virtual  2.2.  L o c a t i o n and C l i m a t e  Mohanjodaro (Fig.1.1)  i s located and  is  which  predominated  and  winter.  temperature  in this  During  varied  temperatures seasons.  1.7m above mean s e a  varied  temperature  a t 2 7 ° 55'N l a t i t u d e  was  The  between between  radiation  area  was  relative  rainfall  clear  20°C  soil  Wind  summer minimum  winter  humidity Comfort  in  two  are  indoor environmental  the  occupants.  The  both  solar  radiation  in this  a r e a was  the  trees  ground  reflected  velocity  250 and 500  and  in this  mm.  and  Maximum  i n summer c o u l d be a s low a s 30%.  The  important  between  the  range o f  (Fig.1.2)  and t h e  intense.  and  The d i u r n a l  and d i r e c t  the year  were  In  under d i s c u s s i o n ,  varied  Indoor  The  45°C.  seasons  h i g h d u r i n g t h e months o f May and June  2.3.  criteria  The  maximum  t h e y e a r . As t h e  was n o t v e r y  usually  annual  Indoor  15°C and  throughout  solar  the  25°C and  sky was m o s t l y  grew  the  5°C and 2 5 ° C .  d u r i n g the p e r i o d  shrubs  level.  ( i t i s assumed)  summer  between  was i n t e n s e t h r o u g h o u t fertile  area  and 69°E l o n g i t u d e  Criteria factors  way  influencing  comfort  conditions, these  in  and t h e l i f e  factors  buildings style  influenced  i n the d w e l l i n g s of Mohanjodaro a r e  of  comfort  d e s c r i b e d below.  Environmental Conditions  thermal  conditions in a building  extent  to  which  relative  humidity,  1969).  The  the solar  resulting  building  modifies  radiation conditions  occupants.  1 6  are the r e s u l t  and are  air  of  the  temperature,  a i r movement experienced  (Givoni, by  the  F i g . 1 . 1 . Map  Ill  of I n d i a  showing L o c a t i o n  of  Mohanjodaro.  3  M^NT-H-  F i g . 1.2.  C l i m a t i c D a t a of M o h a n j o d a r o ( M o n t h l y Means). Assumed t o be s i m i l a r f o r t h e p e r i o d under d i s c u s s i o n , 1 7  For  physiological  temperature  comfort  required  i n a h o t and d r y c l i m a t e ,  in a building  s h o u l d be  between  29°C d u r i n g t h e day and 29°C t o 32°C a t n i g h t The  a i r temperature  much  higher  than  i n Mohanjodaro d u r i n g  what  is  indoor  air  temperature  During  the  day,  because heat  desired.  from  the  f o r such  rate  because  t h e low h u m i d i t y .  was  also  should  12-15hrs.  Life  t h e body was h i g h  heat  gain.  penetration  of  f o r thermal  speed  is  high  solar  even  in  to  the  radiation  The d i u r n a l that  storage capacity  sunlight reasons  of  air  high a i r intense  buildings  must  temperatures  building  structure  w i t h a time  internal into  still  was a l s o  range  the  The sweat  l a g of  temperatures.  buildings  and t o r e d u c e  was  not  glare.  Style  In a d d i t i o n  to internal  conditions,  the l i f e  t h e way t h e y  use t h e b u i l d i n g  the  e x p e c t a t i o n s and i n f l u e n c e s  in  convective  range.  In a d d i t i o n  suggested  a h i g h heat  both  prevents  a temperature  f o r achieving comfortable  desirable  which  t h e w a l l s and t h e r o o f o f  h i g h which  have  Direct  from  d u r i n g summer,  solar  the  a i r movement was n o t a d e s i r a b l e  evaporation  minimize  level  body even when t h e a i r  Therefore,  that  reducing  desirable  for cooling  meant  Therefore,  t h e e n t r y o f o u t s i d e a i r was n o t  solution  which  1969).  critical.  1963).  temperature  (Givoni,  was  (Olgyay,  of  27°C and  t h e summer d a y s was  to a comfortable  of i t s h i g h temperature  loss  the a i r  comfort  and how  they  style  dress  of p e o p l e , determines  the comfort  criteria  buildings.  Given  the  buildings  limited  technology,  of Mohanjodaro  it  were e x p e c t e d  18  can  be  assumed  to p r o v i d e comfort  that in  terms high  of b a s i c summer  protection  and low w i n t e r  and  safe  storage  Of  a l l the areas within  extensively outside used  used  and  period  for various  weaving  material  made  most  important  occasional building  cotton  widely cotton  was  cooking,  practiced  was u s e d  which,  because  protects  most  sitting not  t h e body  environmental  protection floods.  design  during  this  exclusively  for  this  were  of  period  its  from  inherent  high  summer  cooling.  Problems  was c o o l i n g .  needed  privacy  o f t h e house was  and i s e f f e c t i v e f o r e v a p o r a t i v e  Mohanjodaro also  like  The c l o t h e s - worn d u r i n g  of  Environmental  The  the c o u r t y a r d  activities  were  properties,  temperature  as  f o r r e a s o n s of p r i v a c y .  in India.  generally  as w e l l  The f r o n t p a r t  and i t i s known t h a t  textiles  2.4.  t h e house,  sleeping.  and  temperatures,  like  of goods.  extensively  Spinning  from e x t r e m e c l i m a t i c f a c t o r s  Other  problem than  i n the dwellings  cooling,  the  from d i r e c t p e n e t r a t i o n  The  features  sections with  below a  of  buildings  of l i g h t  and  examine  the  will  particular  emphasis  on  cooling. 2.5. Town  B u i l d i n g Design Layout  Archeological Mohanjodaro Main to  excavations were  planned  reveal on  s t r e e t s had a n o r t h - s o u t h  the predominant  They  Techniques  were l i n e d  a  grid  the  streets  pattern  o r i e n t a t i o n , which  wind d i r e c t i o n ,  with  that  shops on b o t h  19  and were about sides  of  ( F i g . 1.3). i s diagonal 10 m w i d e .  (Schoenauer,  1981).  The  other p a r a l l e l  less  than  them.  3m.  were much n a r r o w e r ,  i n w i d t h , which  Narrow  linked  streets  lanes,  allowed a cart  varying  from about  t h e p r i m a r y and s e c o n d a r y  not  necessarily  another  because  level  lines  t h e y were m a i n l y u s e d  o f t h e s e l a n e s was c o n s i d e r a b l y  main  and  frequent  secondary floods.  streets,  The  through width,  lanes  from one by  rarely  in  These  did  street  to  pedestrians.  h i g h e r than  presumably  residential  t o pass  1 to 2 m  streets.  run i n s t r a i g h t  though  those  i n response  buildings  The of  to  the  were of u n e q u a l  he i g h t s . House Form Most been  of  the e x c a v a t e d a r e a s of Mohanjodaro appear  residential.  two  room d w e l l i n g s  be  ranked  as  The  smaller  ones  of  a result  (Grover, and  looking  decorated with  courtyard  one c o u r t y a r d ,  layout  square blocks.  the s u b s i d i a r y  1980).  typical  f o r the purposes  usually  ranged  multi-room  The  inward  surrounding  windows t o w a r d s  of b u i l d i n g s  large  o f t h e compact  the c o u r t y a r d , of  to  homes had o n l y  had s e v e r a l  height  size  palaces.  M o h a n j o d a r o was an  As  The  of l i g h t  from  houses  dwelling  i n shape,  have humble  that  could  unit  of  house  (Fig.1.4).  while  the l a r g e r  and  ventilation.  of Mohanjodaro, never  Residential  the width exceeded the  units  had  no  walkways f o r r e a s o n s o f p r i v a c y  The windows t o w a r d s intricate  to  lattice  20  the c o u r t y a r d work.  were  small  F i g . 1 . 3 . S t r e e t Layout of Mohanjodaro. S o u r c e : G r o v e r , 1980.  Fig.1.4.  Plan of T y p i c a l Source: Grover,  Dwelling Unit 1980. 21  i n Mohanjodaro.  Building The  Construction  residential  thicker  brick  timber the  and  Services  buildings walls  and  were  were r o o f e d  r a f t e r s w i t h a d e p t h of  roof  was  approximately  buildings  was  through  houses. of  The  under  the  The  sewers  laid  located  at  covered  by  the  ground frequent achieved The  of  slabs  and  by  appears  that  for  use  raising  the  main  Cooling  of  the  features  by an  of  section  following  in moderating  will the  analyse  thermal  22  were  sewer  in  design  drains  were  sewers  were  the  town  of  extensive  b u i l d i n g s and  indoor  a  of  use  of  response  to  environment  b u i l d i n g design  the  for  1980).  s t r e e t s was the  running  Manholes  l a r g e r main  the  system  large  Smaller  buildings  four  to  main  (Grover,  the  or  to d r a i n s  connected  of  to  three  or over  thickness  extensive  the  Dense c l u s t e r i n g of b u i l d i n g s , Sun c o n t r o l t h r o u g h o r i e n t a t i o n , M a s s i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n of r o o f s and Courtyards, S m a l l o p e n i n g s , and Use of l a t t i c e work f o r windows. following  laid  supply  street.  plinth  shops on  of  were  the  arches  tiles  total  drains.  of  floods. the  The  along  the  45cm.  brick  shared  main  description  system,  by  the  with  Water  served  intervals  brick  it  floor  wells  in turn  corbelled brick  Mohanjodaro, drainage  under  cleaning  above  30cm. 45cm.  was  which  regular  with  spanned From  out  and  by  bathrooms were c o n n e c t e d  walkways  inspection  the  entire city  drainage.  constructed  was  features:  walls,  p e r f o r m a n c e of  environment.  these  2.5.  P e r f o r m a n c e of  Dense  Design  clustering  of  techniques  buildings  / Sun  control  through  orientation In  Mohanjodaro,  modification built that The to  of a h a r s h  wall only  layout  to w a l l  two  10m.  wide so  main that  the  east  or  summer  sun  would  shine  during the for  west  facade no  the  more t h a n  entrance  towards  front  facade  sunlight. used and  an  for  The  wells,  The 10.30  eastern a.m.  altitude this was  of  facade  the  f a c a d e was by  80°  and  sun.  were 3  streets  had  sun.  The  the  11.30  a.m.  a l t i t u d e of  sun  ( F i g . 1 . 5 ) so  that  exposed  to  1.4,  any  door  w h i c h opened  the  sun  this  was  windows  which  direct  bathing  meant  to the  N-S  of were  This  have  dwellings  The  to  in Figure  from  was  opening on  the  gave  the  penetration not  area,  of  extensively  garbage  less consideration  chutes  of  comfort  shaded  before  there.  1.30  p.m.  (Fig.1.5).  s t r e e t was as  a r e s u l t of  Thus the  e f f e c t i v e f o r no the  to  shown  f a c i n g a narrow  sun  houses  these  The  a vestibule  of  level  facade u n t i l  s t r e e t was  only  require  after  exposed  0°  not  with  were p l a c e d  protected  did  The  purposes.  and  As  ran  facing  p.m.  from  protection  which  conditions,  12.30  hours.  front part  living  first  A l l the  town  east  secondary  entry full  the  varies  street.  had  on  f a c a d e and  the  street  2-3  facade  after  f a c i n g the  i n the  residences  a west  facade  these periods  the  b u i l d i n g s were e x p o s e d  streets  an  the  town was  summer c l i m a t e .  the  either  and  the  with c e n t r a l courtyards.  s i d e s of  s e c o n d a r y and  of  massive  more than an brick  23  solar  wall  the  lower  radiation  on  hour and  this  construction  which  A N ^ L S ^ F ALTITUDE AT )WH W WAUL FA^IN£ S T P ^ & T ' F i g . 1 . 5 . Summer S h a d i n g Mask f o r an E a s t e r n W a l l i n a Narrow S t r e e t . ( S h a d i n g Mask f o r W e s t e r n W a l l i s S i m i l a r ) .  TIME U £  (y>)  F i g . 1 . 6 . Time L a g and Decrement F a c t o r f o r T h i c k W a l l s . S o u r c e : K o e n i g s b e r g e r , 1973.  24  ensured  high  (Givoni,  heat  1969).  orientation, width  of  storage  The w a l l s  remained  courtyard  received  solar  to the steep  the w a l l s  from 15  extent,  and by  11.30a.m. to 80°.  surface  were p r o t e c t e d main  construction  These and  walls  12„30p.m.  The i n c i d e n t s o l a r  i s less  This  1969)  implies  reached  t h e lower  of about  and  intense  however due  that  of  mean  temperature  solar radiation  of s o l a r heat 45cm.  a time  effective  by t h e t i m e temperature,  radiant  was  lag  the  a  the made  of  i n reducing  12heat  internal  roof  i t was a l r e a d y  night  temperature  of v e n t i l a t i o n  gain  to  in thickness,  ensured  were  i t s highest  the e f f e c t  from  area  brick materials  hrs (Givoni,  surface  i t s height.  the  o f r o o f s and w a l l s  the  wood and  gain.  than  as  angle.  Because  Roof  i n t h e same  f o r most o f t h e day  of sun i s c l o s e  construction  roof.  shade  was l e s s  Massive  large  in  on t h e v e r t i c a l  l a g o f 10-15 h r s  f a c i n g the c o u r t y a r d ,  r a d i a t i o n between  when t h e a l t i t u d e radiation  c a p a c i t y and time  could  be  offset  a i r (Fig.1.6).  Courtyards At  temperatures  by e n s u r i n g air  As  adequate  movement  temperature high  time,  below  in  35°C,  t h e r m a l c o m f o r t c a n be  a i r movement buildings  differences  temperature  i n the b u i l t  can  between  wind  effective (Fig.1.7).  1971).  The  courtyard  interior  was  the  or  exterior. the  day  differences houses  were  s p a c e s t h r o u g h a i r movement  shaded  25  in  Natural  wind  and  by t e m p e r a t u r e  courtyards  i n c o o l i n g the i n t e r i o r The  from  was n o t d e s i r a b l e d u r i n g  a i r movement was a c h i e v e d  (Koenigsberger,  result  space.  provided  during  the  day  and  retained cool  the pool  air  40°C),  in  received began  is  heavier  the  to r i s e ,  wind  in  summer  was l e f t  small  size  cooler  surfaces  Small  warm  towards  in  was  comparison  high,  and t h e e a r t h areas  (above  the  street  temperature  interior.  the c o o l  because  to i t s  air  i n from t h e c o u r t y a r d  through the  undisturbed  the surrounding  during  Because t h e  s o l a r r a d i a t i o n and the i n t e r n a l  t h e warm a i r r i s i n g  courtyard  35°C).  the surrounding  the c o o l a i r flowed  velocity  from  than  a i r (below  day t i m e when t h e w a l l s  intense  replaced  of c o o l n i g h t  of  height.  beneath  Although  air  the The  and  i n the  courtyard's cooler a i r ,  the c o u r t y a r d  draw  heat  and r e - r a d i a t e i t t o t h e open  sky  the n i g h t . o p e n i n g s / Use o f l a t t i c e w o r k  f o r windows  The  luminance of the sky near  than  at  the  z e n i t h under c l e a r s k y c o n d i t i o n s and c a n be a s o u r c e  of  glare.  In  addition,  in  strong  in  reducing  of  g l a r e b e c a u s e of t h e i r  solar radiation,  between  outdoors.  To p r o t e c t  windows  intricate diffused  c o l o r a n d were  light  the  a t eye  lattice  the dwellings i n  a source  of  glare  windows  helped  a l s o be a  source  On t h e one hand t h e s m a l l  contrast  the  i s greater  b u i l d i n g s surrounding  M o h a n j o d a r o were o f a l i g h t sunlight.  the horizon  but they  small  dark  size  level  which c r e a t e d  interior  the i n t e r i o r  could  and  from t h e s e  i n the houses of  work which e x c l u d e d  i n to the i n t e r i o r s .  26  glare  the  a  dramatic  bright  sources  of g l a r e ,  Mohanjodaro while  sky  had  bringing  '/////////7.  PAY H^T bUSTY WINDS ^  /t/t/fs  4  HI6HT-  GROUND'  Fig.1.7.  Thermal  In summary, achieved and of  System of a C o u r t y a r d  thermal  by m i n i m i z i n g  by i m p r o v i n g town  comfort  layout,  components  like  "passive"  design  the  the  of  h o u s e s of M o h a n j o d a r o the  unfavourable  housing  form,  and  walls,  roofs,  windows.  techniques.  were made by  of  areas  conditions  impact  i n Mohanjodaro  m i c r o - c l i m a t i c conditions with  adaptations various  i n the  House  people  o f t h e house  were m o d e r a t e d .  27  climate  the  c o n s t r u c t i o n of  In through such  clothing  and  help  various  These are addition,  was  termed personal the use  as courtyards  where  SECTION  1.  II:  MEDIEVAL PERIOD  INTRODUCTION  The dry  most  important  climate  zone  Indian  during  cities  which d e v e l o p e d  the e a r l y part  of the m e d i e v a l  between  1000A.D.-1800A.D.  were  Udaipur,  Jaisalmer  (Fig.1.8).  in  india  region  were  similar used  was  houses  marked by many therefore  in layout  here  and J a i p u r  built  Delhi,  invasions.  The m e d i e v a l  purposes  The c i t y  period  period  in  this  and  were  of J a i s a l m e r  of m a i n t a i n i n g  t h e h o t and d r y c l i m a t i c zone d u r i n g  and  Ahmedabad,  Most c i t i e s  f o r defence  t o d e m o n s t r a t e methods  of  old  and house f o r m .  i n hot  comfort  is in  the  medieval  as a  military  per i o d .  2.  HOUSING IN  JAISALMER  2.1. I n t r o d u c t i o n The town of J a i s a l m e r  was  fort  and t r a d i n g p o s t  f o r the east-west  the  Thar  started  desert. in  population  The e x p a n s i o n  1725 A.D.  from  A.D.  additions  town  and  founded  i n 1156 A.D.  (Agarwal,  1979) w i t h  areas.  t o t h e town  included  o f many  called  "Havelis".  Jaisalmer  facades  of t h e h a v e l i s and o t h e r  During  the  crossing the  fort  influx  the years  of  1750-1850  fortifications  around the  larger residential  buildings  i s famous  28  route  of t h e town o u t s i d e  surrounding  construction  caravan  f o r the r i c h l y  residential  buildings.  carved  Fig.1.8.  Location of the C i t i e s Period in India.  <  Developed  during  rrr  z;  '/A  uil»  1  2  5  r77j  % w.  22n  ' A  /A V/.  77  C£ —\  1  <  4o \D D \BQ  £  5  &0 (lb He  V —  <  lo  Si  J F W 1 A M 0 0 A  Fig.1.9.  C l i m a t i c Data Source: Mani,  of J a i s a l m e r 1982 29  0  N  (Monthly  D-  means).  Medieval  2.2.  . L o c a t i o n and C l i m a t e  The  town  75°55E The  longitude  i s situated  (Fig.1.8)  c l i m a t e of J a i s a l m e r  region. the  of J a i s a l m e r  Although  relative  humidity  less  than  area  i s less  radiation hottest  i . e . , between  The a v e r a g e  25cm and d i r e c t  the average  annual  are l i k e during  the i s ocassionally  rainfall  and g r o u n d  solar  and  level.  25°C and 45°C  i n t h e month o f May and June  i s i n t e n s e f o r t h e whole y e a r . month,  temperatures  5°C and 25°C d u r i n g w i n t e r ,  30% ( F i g . 1 . 9 ) . than  latitude  o f t h e e x t r e m e h o t and d r y  t h e summer and w i n t e r  and between  26°55N  and i s 1.7m above mean s e a  i s typical  town o f M o h a n j o d a r o ,  summer  at  in this  reflected  In J u n e , w h i c h  radiation  on a  solar i s the  horizontal  2 surface  i s 27.2 MJ/m  a d a y . Wind v e l o c i t y  often  e x c e e d s 4.8 m/sec,  during  t h e months o f May and J u n e .  The  landscape  barren. Jaisalmer. sandstones 2.3.  are s h i f t i n g  Several  Comfort  Indoor  Environmental  Being  in  region  sand  for  Mohanjodaro. consideration  is  dunes  of l i g h t  high, i t  dust  flat,  rocky  i n the areas  coloured  storms  and  around  limestones  and  as b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l .  Criteria Conditions  a h o t and d r y c l i m a t i c  conditions  -laden  kinds  are available  Indoor  and t h e r e a r e s e v e r e  of t h e s u r r o u n d i n g  There  i s usually  buildings  However  in  in  f o r human c o m f o r t  zone,  the  Jaisalmer  Jaisalmer, is  indoor  are  thermal  similar  an  p r o t e c t i o n from  to  additional the  dust  wind.  Life  Style  The  life  style  of t h e p e o p l e  of J a i s a l m e r 30  was  similar  to  other  medieval  cities  (schoenauer,1981). people the  Given  this  their  adaptations achieve day,  conditions.  in  daily  thermal comfort. cooking,  limited night,  to  terraces  activities. diurnally areas,  As  outdoor  t h e use o f most  spaces  personal  activities  activities  i n the c o o l e r spaces  were  evenings used  activity.  everyday  to  i n the  were or  for  house  at  these  changed  w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f a few s e r v i c e  v a r i o u s rooms o f t h e house were r a r e l y  a single  and  d u r i n g t h e h o t summer  and o t h e r h o u s e h o l d  and s e a s o n a l l y ,  the  cleaned  and  India  o f water made  i n d o o r and outdoor  t h e i n d o o r s whereas  in  l i m i t a t i o n s , the  People  F o r example,  sleeping  zone  with a s c a r c i t y  climatic their  climatic  technological  o f J a i s a l m e r had t o l i v e  severe  for  in  designed  Most a r e a s o f t h e house were washed a n d  and w a l l s were w h i t e w a s h e d  a n n u a l l y by  the  residents. C l o t h e s worn by p e o p l e People  wore  cultural strong  loose  reasons, sun and wind  stated,  is  clothing  materials.  2.4. The is  cooling,  also  2.5.  Building  their  Cotton,  for  from  the  as  for evaporative cooling  cotton.  heads  gave them p r o t e c t i o n  blown d u s t o u t s i d e .  already  than  other  problems  in addition  dust  The  which  and c o v e r e d  environmental problem  from  The  garments,  more e f f e c t i v e  Environmental basic  i n J a i s a l m e r were made o f t h i c k  t o which  i n the b u i l d i n g s the b u i l d i n g s  of J a i s a l m e r  need  protection  storms. Design  Techniques  Town L a y o u t town o f J a i s a l m e r has an i r r e g u l a r  31  polygon  shape  and  is  surrounded 'Poles' which  by  define  i s within  second w a l l the in  fort  and  entry  t h e town,  f o r defensive  wall. points  Various  gates  spaces,  open  the  the  fort,  i s l o c a t e d on a h i l l  surrounded  purposes  The a r e a  (Fig.1.10).  the f o r t  in Jaisalmer  p o s s i b l y f o r s e c u r i t y reasons,  palace  other  rectilinear  by a  within  the royal  Unlike  w h i c h a r e c h a r a c t e r i s e d by s t r o n g  open  called  t o t h e town w h i l e  i s t r i a n g u l a r i n shape a n d c o n t a i n s  network,  Indian  geometry  has a w i n d i n g  street  and h a s few community  spaces.  The  major  general these.  streets  E-W  in  The " h a v e l i s " ,  the  two  t h e town  o r i e n t a t i o n with  E-W  (Schonauer, to  the  high  a d d i t i o n t o numerous common d w e l l i n g s .  forts,  on  a 6m.  streets  with  minor  richly  which  are  1981). The h e i g h t  times  and t h e f a c a d e  carved  and f i n s  various  Jaisalmer  developed  districts)  b a s e d on t h e c a s t e  The  House Form  The  residential  using The their  locally  fronts,  wider  than  abutting  the  form  of  constraints  made  evident  the  angles to  other  streets i s one are  of  the  level.  town  'Padas'  plan  of  (residential  or p r o f e s s i o n of the r e s i d e n t s .  of occupants with climatic  a  t h e s t r e e t has r i c h l y  reasons,  available materials  s t r u g g l e with  have  are located  the b u i l d i n g s  b u i l d i n g s were c o n s t r u c t e d  involvement  in  carved  p r o j e c t i n g a t t h e upper  socio-economic in  fort  streets at right  the width of s t r e e t s ,  balconies  the  of b u i l d i n g s i n g e n e r a l  unequal h e i g h t s ,  For  outside  with  m u t u a l h e l p by  and c o n s t r u c t i o n building  construction  technical, political  them d e v e l o p a keen d e s i g n b u i l d i n g s of  Jaisalmer. 32  technology.  and e c o n o m i c  sense  The  and  which  is  dwellings  of  ^ 4  GATE  TAKH--  F i g . 1.10.  Town L a y o u t of J a i s a l m e r . S o u r c e : S c h o e n a u e r , 1981  F i g . 1 . 1 1 . P l a n of a S m a l l House I n S o u r c e : S c h o e n a u e r , 1981  33  Jaisalmer  Jaisalmer between  are  real  the  expressive  above  type  from  for  ornamentation There to a.  a  are  luxury and  three  different first  and  a  had  another  The  type  the  first  type,  terraces  of  first  narrow  facade  third  (Fig.1.13),  the  safe  in  and owned  additional  the  of  occupant  terms  of  its  each  belonging  group:  Larger  the  room,  the  a  h o u s e s of  entrance  people  and  this  some  courtyard. and  verandah  were  type  had  These built  an  houses in  the  town.  be  termed  the  "typical"  to middle-income people  with  l o c a t e d on had  i t s s i d e and small  this  house  house was  a d d i t i o n a l rooms the  upper  similar and  floors.  Jaisalmer at  the  was  back,  openings exposed  most complex  type,  r i c h merchants  34  The  to  small front  over  the  attached  to  leaving only  a  to the  were t h e and  of  (Fig.1.12).  balconies projecting  house of  by  provide  storage  s t a t u s of  in Jaisalmer  s i d e of  but  with  to  an  spaces.  houses  the  can  typical  h o u s e s on  to a l l  building  poorest  floor  other  houses b e l o n g i n g  c o n f i g u r a t i o n of  enclosed  The  of  belonged  and  The  The  and  the  one  of  design  street.  of  c o n d i t i o n s with  (Fig.1.11).  the  areas  and  a manifestation  c o n s i s t e d of a s i n g l e  The  the  of  room on  second  and  financial  verandah over  owned by  Jaisalmer  c.  types  courtyard  peripheral b.  of  vastness  type  additional  the  socio-economic  The  were  privacy  However,  the  sophisticated interaction  were p r i m a r i l y d e s i g n e d  extreme c l i m a t i c  considerations  dictated  the  constraints,  groups  possessions.  of  of a r c h i t e c t u r e .  socio-economic protection  evidence  were  street. "havelis" located  ^ GROUND FL&SK  Fig.1.12.  •  RR<=,T  FL^K-  P l a n o f a M i d d l e Income House i n J a i s a l m e r S o u r c e : G u p t a , 1985  STRE-ET-  Fig.1.13.  P l a n and S e c t i o n o f a S o u r c e : G u p t a , 1985  Haveli.  35  inside  the  courtyard sides.  fort. was  In  There  courts.  for  for  walls  held  together  themselves, was  finished On  or  by  with  mud  facade  projected  from  floor  and  the  the  provided  Roofs  and  floors  top  matting  (Fig.1.14).  in  limestone.  the  stone  any  m o r t a r . The keys  clamps.  In  was  and  house was  built  air  ducts  cut the  Jaisalmer  were  The  sandstone  in  thickness.  dressed  and  was In  joints  individual  stones  into  blocks  smaller  w a l l s were b u i l t  levels  of  out,  w a l l as  the  the houses  i n mud  fins.  patterns.  built  closely, and  and  the  mortar  and  where  the  B e c a u s e of  the  the  f o r masonry were  timber  covered (0.45  limited  36  limestone  limestone carved used light  in for in  finish.  with  a thick layer  of  T h e s e were d e e p l y Both  a permanent  were  "havelis",  50mm t h i c k p a n e l s  sandstone used  and  spaced  used  stone  the  projected  colour  grass  iron  geometrical  carving,  walls,  storey  plaster.  upper  building  by  u n d r e s s e d and  the  various  the  which were 0.45m or more  were made a c c u r a t e l y w i t h o u t  stone  uppermost  on  ventilation.  s a n d s t o n e and  quality construction  were  all  sometimes  In a d d i t i o n t o c o u r t y a r d s ,  used  on  wind p a v i l l i o n s  some c a s e s ,  common b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s  yellowish  better  In  by  the  Construction  most  used  other.  terraces enclosed  walls.  were sometimes  light  below  houses,  verandahs  The  of  two  rooms or  the  comprised  around  storied  rooms,  was  parapet  by  five  underground  one  high  or  were a l s o  levels,  The  four  surrounded  two  Building  these  beams p l a c e d  on  the  with  a thick  layer  of  to  0.60m) of  earth  on  availability  of  timber  feA.t2TH  FILL.• MAT-  F i g . 1 . 1 4 . C o n s t r u c t i o n of the roof S o u r c e : G u p t a , 1985  Fig.1.15.  of a H a v e l i .  S t r u c t u r a l P r o j e c t i o n s and F i n s on t h e Upper Facade of a H a v e l i . S o u r c e : S c h o e n a u e r , 1981 37  Level  in  the desert,  by  stone  seepage  slabs  were  shutters.  frames  was  and  little  also  the houses  to  achieve  small  cooling  Doors  thick  control  through  roofs,  and t h e use of c o u r t y a r d s .  2.6. As  built  of the  construction  However, cooling  -  basement  environmental cooling,  techniques  control  through  walls,  and  effective features  such  f o r both. of Jaisalmer  performance  problem  the  and  design  to control sun, fins  Techniques i n both  thermal  as dense  massive  construction  only  a r e examined from  projections  of  t o have the  in detail  wind  and  38  fins,  sun and  equally  additional  design  for their  thermal  dust.  Unequal Heights,  and  of roof  been  and  common  c l u s t e r i n g of b u i l d i n g s ,  Therefore,  Projections,  Mohanjodaro  performance  c a n be a s s u m e d  and p r o t e c t i o n  Use o f S t r u c t u r a l Cooling structural  Design  orientation,  courtyards  sun  spaces.  of B u i l d i n g  design  the  included:  -  was  of w a l l s  additional  unequal b u i l d i n g heights, c o o l i n g o f s u n l i t s u r f a c e s by t h e u s e o f and carving, a i r ducts f o r v e n t i l a t i o n ,  basic  in  buildings,  -  the  stone  features  discussed  c l u s t e r i n g of  t o enhance  timber  with  design  the use of s t r u c t u r a l p r o j e c t i o n s  Performance  water  solid  -  Jaisalmer  The  dense  o r i e n t a t i o n , massive  living  of  shutters.  t h e same a s t h o s e  here  replaced  t h e use o f windows  were  timber  some  of Mohanjodaro;  introduced  with  for privacy,  houses  features  a problem  and f i t t e d  above,  were  present  only.  with  described  beams w e r e  rainfall).  floors  fitted  the timber  not  of t h e need  t o upper  In  did  generally  Because  limited  houses  (this  as there  Windows  was  i n some  unequal  and F i n s f o r  heights  of  buildings, thermal a.  b.  and c a r v i n g on t h e f r o n t f a c a d e  p r o t e c t i o n to the b u i l d i n g s at three  different  wind p a v i l l i o n s ,  parapet  skyline,  walls  created  other  i n the process.  The  structural facade  intense Parts  and  p r o j e c t i o n s and  deeply  carved.  temperature  t o t h e a i r from  flat  shaded  surface  the carved  due t o a g r e a t e r  the carved  the  ambient  a i r temperature  ( G u p t a , V., In J a i s a l m e r ,  and s t r u c t u r a l  was h i g h ,  enabled  each  the  upper receive  projections  surfaces  intense  the c o n v e c t i v e surface  surface  heat  was more t h a n  t o volume  ratio.  t o c o o l down q u i c k l y when  was  low d u r i n g  the  evenings  1985). carved  thickness  had f l a t  cm.  and shaded  When t h e s o l a r r a d i a t i o n was  This  floors  and h i g h  w h i c h would o t h e r w i s e  b u i l d i n g facade  the s u r f a c e  where w a l l  fins  levels:  solar radiation.  transfer the  an uneven  (Fig.1.15),  of the  were  45  combined  The u n e q u a l b u i l d i n g h e i g h t s ,  level  c.  provided  surfaces was between  surfaces  The g r o u n d  were  floor  5-15cm.,  and w a l l walls  used a t t h e upper  whereas t h e g r o u n d  thickness  were  level  of  greater  i n shade d u r i n g  than  t h e day -  t i m e b e c a u s e o f t h e narrow w i d t h o f t h e s t r e e t s i n r e l a t i o n t o the  high  buildings.  thin  walls  gain  even  The  carved  as the t h i c k e r w a l l s without  texture  surfaces  were u s e f u l o n l y i n  were c a p a b l e  because of t h e i r  of r e d u c i n g inherent  heat  thermal  moderating c h a r a c t e r s t i c s . In  addition  absorbed therefore  less  to  carvings,  radiant  maintained  heat  the l i g h t  colour  (Markus and  the e x t e r n a l  39  surface  of  Morris,  the  stones  1980)  temperature  and  closer  to  t h a t of the outdoor a i r ,  flow  through  Air  the r e l a t i v e l y  which thin  in turn  reduced  the  heat  walls.  Ducts f o r V e n t i l a t i o n  When  b u i l d i n g s are t i g h t l y  difficult  to  let  wind  c l u s t e r e d together  into  t h e house t h r o u g h  doors,  and  usually  t o o s l u g g i s h t o improve c o m f o r t  by  a i r movement  a d d i t i o n a l design  more a.  important The  temperature  before effect  i t entered on  and  the o u t s i d e  s k i n was  is  i t i s augmented there  to v e n t i l a t i o n  any l i v i n g  human  unless  In a d d i t i o n ,  related  of  windows  due t o t e m p e r a t u r e d i f f e r e n t i a l s  features.  problems  i t i s generally  were  two  in Jaisalmer:  a i r needed  t o be  space,  or e l s e  nullified  due  reduced  i t s cooling to  its  high  temperature. b.  Due  to  the dust  pre-treated In  Jaisalmer  to reduce air  in  built  massive  entered in  i n summer,  i t s dust  ducts  ventilation with  storms  the a i r  particle  a d d i t i o n t o the c o u r t y a r d s .  the l i v i n g  walls,  temper  to  be  content.  were u s e d as a s p e c i a l  stone  had  feature  The  the a i r  s p a c e and a l s o r e d u c e d  air  for  ducts,  before  it  t h e amount of d u s t  i t (Fig.1.16).  The  operation  wind  of t h e s e  towers  used  (Bahadori,1979). typical day,  took p l a c e Night  the  in  hot  Figure  a i r duct. and  a i r ducts  The  was s i m i l a r  and  arid  to that  regions  1.16 shows t h e c r o s s circulation  reduction  of dust  of  like  section  of a i r through n i g h t  particles  i n the a i r  the Iran of  a  and ducts  i n t h e f o l l o w i n g way:  Operation  When t h e r e  was no wind b l o w i n g  at night,  40  the a i r ducts  acted  Fig.1.16.  O p e r a t i o n of a Wind Tower i n Summer. A i r Flow d u r i n g t h e Day, — ^ ; A i r F l o w d u r i n g the Night with no Wind, ^ . — . Source: Bahadori,  1979.  41  as  a chimney.  The w a l l s  the  day t r a n s f e r r e d  air  was  then  chimney  building When  the  was  circulation  the walls  the  rooms might  Day  Operation there  operated with  air  may  inside wall  wind b l o w i n g chimney.  (Fig.1.16).  This  the  air  the  opposite  ambient of  night,  the  to that  the a i r described,  and some c o o l i n g  during  the  l e t out through door  increased  the house.  of  left  the previous (2) and (6)  and t h e c o o l a i r c o u l d  the  dust  of  rate  reach  section  presentation  processes  night)  (3). This  and t h e  t h e a i r was f u r t h e r c o o l e d  cooling  duct  i n area ( 7 ) .  the a i r c i r c u l a t i o n  chart  the  a i r i n contact  (4) o r door  When a i r went t h r o u g h  psychrometric  day,  The h o t o u t s i d e  down t h r o u g h p a s s a g e s  was a wind,  evaporative  heated  the s t r u c t u r e  (A) and (B) ( c o o l e d d u r i n g  (C) was m o i s t ,  The  The  have r e s u l t e d .  o f w h i c h have been  were  during  of the a i r duct.  i n the d i r e c t i o n  and sank  there  cooling  and c o o l e d  was no  be  particles When  building,  of  of t h e tower were c o o l e d ,  cold walls  air.  openings  circulation  as a r e v e r s e  was c o o l e d  to the cool night  a wind b l o w i n g d u r i n g  was  but  t h a t were h e a t e d  maintained  as w e l l as t h a t  there  When  heat  exhausted at the  action  throughout  of the duct  further  (5) and  by  when  evaporation.  ordinary  through a i r ducts  of  and  i s shown  in  F i g u r e 1.17. Basement L i v i n g Almost spaces.  Spaces  a l l houses  in Jaisalmer  The t e m p e r a t u r e  throughout  the year  had  underground  basements  remained  almost  due t o t h e a b s e n c e o f any' h e a t  42  as  living constant  load,  and  due  to  rapid decay of the ambient temperature wave in  Therefore,  the rooms in the basement stayed  much cooler than  the upper floors of the buildings during summer.  Source: Bahadori, 1979  43  soil.  SECTION I I I :  1.  MODERN INDUSTRIAL PERIOD  INTRODUCTION  In  India  after  transportation construction widespread a  systems, materials  with  in  change  The  the  cooling  II,  the  the  availability  like  and  and f o s s i l  i n the housing  and h e a t i n g  1947,  of  systems.  political  development  in  horizontal  Following  significant  expansion  of  This  the  r e q u i r i n g new p l a n n i n g  problem  of  Chandigarh, and  methods. zone, the  is  housing.  with  The c i t y  New Bhilai  industrial  and  the about  construction dramatically and  modern  independence  rapid urban  economic sprawl  and  criteria  located  human c o m f o r t  44  to  to solve  the  cities  like  were  designed  p r i n c i p l e s and c o n s t r u c t i o n  i n the f o l l o w i n g  period.  and  residential  experimental  and G a n d h i n a g a r  of Chandigarh,  methods o f a c h i e v i n g  modern  and  'modern' d e s i g n  discussed  building  a l s o b r o u g h t an abundance o f p e o p l e  Rourkela,  developed  and  towns  rapid  brought  India's and  neighbourhoods. urban a r e a s  fuels  lighting  stability  resulted  of  changed  electric  of  steel,  design  s e r v i c i n g of houses a l s o  introduction  unlimited  introduction  concrete  use o f e l e c t r i c i t y  significant  methods.  W o r l d War  i n t h e h o t and d r y  sections  to  in dwellings  demonstrate during the  2. HOUSING IN CHANDIGARH 2.1.Introduction Chandigarh state the  was  of Punjab partition  a team o f  built  since  (Sarin, of  1982),  India  foreign  195.1  as a c a p i t a l  which  i n 1947.  architects  lost  The  headed  city  f o r the  i t s capital  city  was  during  d e s i g n e d by  by t h e F r e n c h  architect  Le C o r b u s i e r .  A  A r  ^  1  \<l°  r  ^  Fig.1.18. Location  2.2. The  Location city  and C l i m a t e a t 30°43N  The m o n t h l y  radiation  Chandigarh  £4-'  of C h a n d i g a r h .  i s located  (Fig.1.18). solar  72* 74'  on  are t y p i c a l  latitude  a i r temperature, a  horizontal  and  76°47E  relative  surface  h u m i d i t y and  (Fig.1.19)  o f t h e h o t and d r y z o n e s .  45  longitude  in  z:  22 777  / / /  ul Si  r  7~7  I  n  LU  I-  2>6  Z2  EZ2  72  22  4<  < J  F M A M a  a  A  <2 N t>  M/NTH-  F i g . 1 . 1 9 . C l i m a t i c Data Source: Mani,  of Chandigarh 1982  46  (Monthly  Means)  The  landscape  southwest  of t h e s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a  with  seasonal  rivers  The  i s clay  soil  2.3.  Indoor  occasional form  is flat  trees  and  bushes.  the n o r t h e a s t  and  southwest  and  suitable  f o r making  Comfort  Criteria  and  towards  the  Hills  and  boundaries.  bricks.  Environmental  Problems  Indoor E n v i r o n m e n t a l C o n d i t i o n s For  the b u i l d i n g s  and  the need  climatic  of C h a n d i g a r h ,  for cooling  zones  like  the  are s i m i l a r  indoor thermal  conditions  to those  i n o t h e r hot  dry  M o h a n j o d a r o or J a i s a l m e r  as d i s c u s s e d  in  the p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n s . Life  Style  Chandigarh  was  beginning changes  to  planning  against and  the  sense  of  social,  (Evenson, shelter, storage  wide  concept 1966).  traditional that  the  of  city  was  context  of  a new  identity the  based  The  of goods and  designers  to  social  income  protection  the  The  from  on c a s t e ,  the  provision sense.  was  way  based  upon  of  of p r i v a c y ,  should  where a l l a c t i v i t i e s  sleeping  take p l a c e  be like  in a e f f i c i e n t 47  was a  the The  the  religion providing safe  not e n v i s a g e d  argued 'living  cooking, and  than  climate, was  city  general  and for  new  to provide  the  rather  language  extremes  of l i f e .  expected  was  economic  i n h a b i t a n t s - of  'urban'  Instead i t  house  and  traditional  o f the house  (Evenson,1966) would  The  India  e n v i s a g e d as a  occupants  function  when  technical  of a n e i g h b o u r h o o d ,  t h e new of  traditional  independence  house d e s i g n i n I n d i a .  as a p a r t  similarity  in  through  were e x p e c t e d t o a d a p t  house, a  go  after  ( B h a t t a c h a r y a , 1979).  experiment  city  designed  by  the  machine' eating  systematic  and way.  The  functional  importance comfort. use  than I t was  of e n e r g y  cooling  houses  expectations.  the  cloth  the  design, for are  cloth  need  material  inhibits  curtains  the purpose  for  outdoors  fans  for cooling  and  of  electricity and  comfort  adapting  their  means  various  developed  trends  to  class  called and  clothing  in India  in fashion.  the middle  durable  was  not  are used  of p r i v a c y .  (Br.olin,  planners,  required  mechanical  built,  synthetic  can  emphasised on  The  in  be  and most  Chandigarh  'tericot'  which  is  worn  without  the  housing  T e r r a c e s and  d u r i n g summer.  other mechanical  inside  the  house.  48  door  wooden d o o r s  t h e y a r e not  1976).  in  window and  Although  p r o v i d e d i n a l l rooms,  sleeping  and  evaporative cooling.  by most p e o p l e  used  worn by  for privacy  thick  was  w i t h new  inexpensive, but  use  of  expect  m a t e r i a l s have  a b l e n d of c o t t o n and  ironing,  lighting  habits  instead  when C h a n d i g a r h  new  increasing  a l l h o u s e s were p r o v i d e d  c r e a t e d new  , now  for  requirements.  change e v e r y y e a r  relatively  As  has  the  achieving  widespread  occupants,  comfort  time  and  popular is  The  more  needs  artificial  in  therefore,  to achieve comfort, their  styles they  The  like  people  supply.  given  socio-cultural  the d e s i g n e r s that  services  conditions,  Chandigarh  provide  by  help  electricity  behavior  the house d e s i g n were  traditional  expected  would  w i t h an  Since  the  intensive  environmental  in  a s p e c t s of  As  and  frequently  openings windows operated  verandahs  are  used  expected  by  the  means a r e  consistently  Fig.1.21.  The S e c t o r L a y o u t . Source: Evenson, 1966  2.4. The  B u i l d i n g Design City  The  Techniques  Layout  C i t y of C h a n d i g a r h  (Fig.1.20).  i s planned  A l l major  streets  the v e h i c l e d r i v e r s a g a i n s t  streets  (V3's) r u n  V2 and V3 r o a d s  road  surface.  called is  'sectors'  surrounded  divided  by  perpendicular  i sdivided  V2 and  V4 r o a d s  run  The t o t a l  into various  parts  Each  sector  with  centrally  (V5) c o n n e c t s a l l p a r t s  height  of r e s i d e n t i a l  (10  m) f o r s t r u c t u r a l r e a s o n s .  All  sectors  regulations and  and  architectural controls for  standardization  uniformity  of  projections  on t h e f a c a d e  openings,  compound w a l l s The  layout  residential  the s i z e  expression,  for shading,  is  three  NE-SW. storeys  The z o n i n g  prepared  by  planners  construction  specify  sub-  placed  or  pattern.  of  and  The h o u s e s  SE-NW  does n o t e x c e e d  have a s i m i l a r h o u s i n g  architects  door  blocks  9 m of  A 40 m wide  of the s e c t o r .  and a r e o r i e n t e d  The  width of  i s 800x1200 m,  loop  30 m wide V6 r o a d s  to  neighbourhoods  community and r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s .  face  SE-NW  and secondary  shopping, road  pattern  r e s p e c t i v e l y with  V3 r o a d s .  i n t o four  grid  sun,  t o them.  (Fig.1.21) each of which by  V2's  direct  i s 80 m and 60 m  The c i t y  uniform  called  protect  the  on a  the size  and of  the s i z e  o f window a n d  o f back and f r o n t y a r d s ,  the height of  and t h e h e i g h t  of r e s i d e n t i a l  blocks.  House Form  There  are  (Evenson,  two  categories  of  house  owners  1966):  a. Government a g e n c i e s employees)  (used  50  by t h e i r  in  Chandigarh  A  Living  PIHIN6 K M  KITCHEN  ® Jeep  PINIH6»-  71  Fig.1.22.  Government  a. Ground F l o o r P l a n b. G r o u n d F l o o r P l a n c . Ground F l o o r P l a n Source: Evenson,  Housing  in  Chandigarh.  o f S i n g l e F a m i l y A t t a c h e d House. o f S i n g l e F a m i l y D e t a c h e d House. o f M u l t i p l e F a m i l y A t t a c h e d House. 1966  51  f ^ N T  VAV2D  ®  v&ftAMOA  T2IL&T  KITSCH  tow •  DI2AWIH6,  N50 V6KANDA  Fig.1.23. Private Housing i n Chandigarh. a. G r o u n d F l o o r P l a n o f a S i n g l e F a m i l y A t t a c h e d House b. Ground Floor Plan of a Single Family Detached House. Source: Evenson,  1966  52  b.  Private  Each  category  family  attached  people The  of  homeowners. has and  d i f f e r e n t types  single family  form  of  (Fig.1.22b,1.23b) surrounded  detached)  by on  the  single  i s the open  two  space  sides.  on  The  total  of  room  area  deep v e r a n d a . detached  The  single  side  walls  in  the  is face  and  rear  .75  main  which are Building  for  brick  at  lines.  high  window  l/6th  as  of  a brise  the  soleil  i s made i n a l l s i n g l e  f o r the  for  some c a s e s ducts.  and  as  walls  the  of  e a s e of the  compound  wall  privacy,  and  the  livingroom  the  toilet  connection  toilets  share  are  and  to  attached  A l l h o u s e s have  flat  the to  roofs  terraces.  Services i t became the  20x10x7.5 cm  w h i t e w a s h e d on  purpose  kitchen,  rear  1.23a)  back. The  the  of a l l h o u s e s  bearing  and  and  made l o c a l l y ,  with  (l.22a,c  bedroom and  f o r use  Construction  load  are  openings,  by  One  v e n t i l a t e d by  was  have  are  front.  the  In  houses  i n f r o n t and  yard,  kept a t  construction  external  the  accessible  constructed  and  is 2 m  front  bedrooms and  and  protected  for terraces  attached  have y a r d s  yard  sewer  are  houses  houses.  m high  the  and  Provision  family  bathrooms a r e  As  the  by  1.23).  window  architectural controls,  used  These houses  a l l sides glazed  (single  detached  'bungalow' t y p e .  i n the  family  houses which are  family  specified  or  of  d i f f e r e n t income l e v e l s ( F i g . 1 . 2 2 ,  typical  openings  two  principal  in Chandigarh. b r i c k s and  are  30  inside.  53  cm The  cement  t h i c k and internal  The  material  walls  are  mortar.  The  are load  plastered bearing  r-^iM- MUt>  F i g . 1 . 2 4 . T y p i c a l Roof  FUS444-  Section.  S LATITUOe SO* NORTH  Fig.1.25.  Sun P a t h D i a g r a m f o r SE F a c a d e . S o u r c e : M a n i , 1982  54  walls  a r e 20cm.  thick  and a r e p l a s t e r e d  both s i d e s .  For roof c o n s t r u c t i o n  20x10x5  are laid  fuska  cm (mud  thickness  and  the brick  The  door  The  cm  brick  concrete, layer  of  t i l e s of  5  cm  mud  bitumen.  and i s  The  supported  walls.  a n d window jambs a r e made o u t o f l o c a l l y  Fixed  with  Shading  devices  a r e of r e i n f o r c e d  building  openable,  fixed glass  available  and wiremesh  g r i l l s a r e added t o a l l windows f o r t h e  security.  soleil  10 cm t h i c k  hay) and a 3  wood, a n d a r e f i t t e d  of  (Fig.1.24),  o f t h e r o o f s e l d o m e x c e e d s 25 cm  on  panes.  over  a n d w h i t e washed on  features  like  projections  purpose  and  brises  concrete.  designed t o  provide cooling  are:  - orientation, - b r i s e s o l e i l and verandahs, - roof c o n s t r u c t i o n In  addition,  artificial  evaporative coolers 2.5.  Orientation/Use  In  cooling  a r e commonly  Performance of B u i l d i n g  of b r i s e s - s o l e i l  feature All  family  are oriented  a t t a c h e d house like  walls  a r e exposed.  windows  varies facing  like  fans  and  techniques  the orientation  of  dwellings  i s the primary  design  o v e r t h e sun i s a c h i e v e d .  SE-NW o r NE-SW.  ( F i g . 1 . 2 2 a & 1.23a)  the l i v i n g  materials.  and v e r a n d a s  t h r o u g h w h i c h some c o n t r o l  areas  months  devices  t h e use of a b r i s e - s o l e i l  t h e houses  special  used.  Design  the planning of Chandigarh,  combined w i t h  with  In  a  oriented  room a n d b e d room f a c e  single SE-NW,  SE a n d o n l y two  The a l t i t u d e o f t h e s u n i n t h e summer  between  0°  SE g e t s o l a r  a n d 80° ( F i g . 1 . 2 5 ) radiation  55  so  b e t w e e n 9 a.m.  that  the  and  12  Fig.1.26. Shading D e v i c e s f o r Chandigarh Houses. a . B r i s e S o l e i l f o r SE and SW F a c a d e s i n t h e Houses i n C h a n d i g a r h . b. H o r i z o n t a l and Vertical Projections for Protection. Source: Evenson, 1966  56  Earlier Solar  p.m.  For  houses  this  of  with  projections  on  10  a.m.  between  60°  and  In  addition,  to  obstruct  effective  the both  sides  and 80°  direct  ways of  p.m.  and  the  solar  as  with larger  window and  the  window the  sun varies  high.  but  as  curtain  doors are  heat  radiation.  i t i s of and  is  not  solar  and  window g l a s s  the  from  a b s o r b the  convection  of  vertical  However, c u r t a i n s  i s outwards, by  is  the  horizontal  f o r windows and  they  i n t e r i o r by  i t i s stopped the  used  In  a l t i t u d e angle  intensity  are  are  purpose  w i t h one  combined  when t h e  and  the  provides protection  control  the  for  comparatively  solar  earlier,  (Fig.1.26a).  view,  radiation.  re-radiation  between  the  curtains solar  i t to  this  wavelength,  12  of  i n the  (45cmx45cm)  soleil  level  of  This  SE  i s replaced,  lintel  thick  dissipate of  small  brise  soleil  (Fig.1.26b).  between  space  deep  brise  at  openings  cm  kept  unwanted o b s t r u c t i o n  projection  Half  45  h o u s e s the  economy and  and  a l l windows f a c i n g  Chandigarh are  protected later  reason,  the  longnarrow  substantially  overheated. The  sun  altitude  penetrates  the  is  45°.  below  particularly with  the  provided  hottest  part  inside, for  in  the  front  Roof  Construction  The  use  of  facade Solar  u n c o m f o r t a b l e as  penetrating required  NW  of  very  windows. of with  the  the  after  heat  day.  To  special materials  on  when  this  prevent  horizontal  Therefore  Special  gain  p.m.  i t s maximum i n t e n s i t y  deep  bed  2.30  rooms  a  3 m  in t h i s  the  side  is  coincides sun  projections deep  its  from are  veranda  orientation.  Materials like  57  b i t u m e n and  mud-fuska,  is  b e c a u s e of  their  insulation  for  above  structural  the  r e d u c e s the  daytime.  the  10 cm  In  the  The  mass  frequently  Mud-fuska and  during  every  bitumen  (Ref.  and  the  thermal  are  placed  Fig.1.24)  into  this  w h i c h does p e n e t r a t e  which  layer  during  i s absorbed  resulting  increase  in in  is small. special  materials,  summer and  day  layer  penetration  of c o n c r e t e  temperature  properties, provides  concrete  heat  a d d i t i o n to the  almost  roof.  amount of h e a t  the  internal  thermo-physical  are  which h e l p s  t e m p e r a t u r e w e l l below t h e  the  washed or  in reducing  a i r temperature  t e r r a c e s are sprayed  the  with  external  through  used water  surface  evaporative  cooling. Use  of m e c h a n i c a l c o o l i n g  Inspite design the  of  mechanical  Planning  with  the  of  factors  thermal  respect  to  facades  take  of  some b u i l d i n g  which  necessitate  conditions  Chandigarh  building heights  regular  cities  cooler  which,  ventilation of  the  temperature  windows  in  with  inside  the  shading  (i.e. day),  with  Chandigarh houses  58  not  used  in  during  the  times  ventilation  day  and  did  f o r c o o l i n g as  medieval  the  sectors  wide r o a d s ,  i f u s e d , can  during  detrimental  Standardization  in residential  combined  and  standardized  wide r o a d s was  cooling.  b u i l d i n g heights  in p r e - h i s t o r i c  periods  indoor  and  natural  a d v a n t a g e of m u t u a l  Selective  the  p e r f o r m a n c e of  various  city  equal  the  are  control  created  the  responsive  in Chandigarh:  facades,  b.  climate  features, there  dwellings a.  the  only help  in  lowering  i n summer. However, are  normally  open  throughout  t h e day, w i t h  temperature c.  Heat  d.  Personal are  properties To  achieve  evaporative It  was  air of  raises  not  thermal  a p p l i a n c e s and t h e  the indoor  very  effective  comfort  comfort because  temperature  under these  i n Chandigarh  that  are acceptable  i s below  32°C.  fans enhances o v e r h e a t i n g  through  clothing  of  material  the  cotton/synthetic blends. conditions,  c o o l e r s and a i r c i r c u l a t i n g  fans  occupants  a i r temperature.  to thermal  of the popular  observed  circulating  by c e r t a i n  adaptations  also  that the i n t e r n a l a i r  rises considerably.  generated  themselves  the result  fans  t h e use of  i s necessary.  simple  and  cheap a i r  d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d s when  At higher  temperatures  due t o c i r c u l a t i o n  the use  o f warm a i r .  4  SUPPLY Al£'  1-  )2<*>M  N^TB;  the  c^NPITVH'  B=>STW&EN  1 ANP-2'  T-HB A l l * I * AB-WfcEJNA •SfeH^I&UB  <«»P LAiTBNT 'H6AT  A HP M A T U R E |NT<?  Pizy  F i g . 1.27.  exJLfc  TEMPERATURE  RE-UHA-SBp  ZOOM-  °C-  The P s y c h r o m e t r i c P r e s e n t a t i o n p f C o o l i n g T h r o u g h Evaporative Coolers.  59  Evaporative  coolers  with  expensive,  both c o o l  t h e a i r and  relative comfort In  humidity, in hot,  h i g h energy  Unfortunately, Chandigarh  future points  housing out  however,  relatively  provide a desired  level  c o n s i d e r a b l y to  of  physical  sporadic e l e c t r i c i t y the  reliance  shortages on  and  use  and of  methods. inspite  of t h e s e  example was developments  t h e many n e g a t i v e  the e x t e n s i v e  although  (Fig. 1 . 2 7 ) .  c o s t s have d i s c o u r a g e d  these mechanical  the  blower,  thus c o n t r i b u t i n g  d r y weather  recent times,  a  use  of  used  sorts  of u n f o r e s e e n  e x t e n s i v e l y as a  in India.  Akhtar  repercussions that  Chandigarh  problems, model  Chauhan resulted  planning:  "The t r a g e d y of C h a n d i g a r h was t h a t i n s t e a d of e v a l u a t i n g i t as an e x p e r i m e n t , our t e c h n o c r a t s and b u r e a u c r a t s a c c e p t e d i t as a p r o t o t y p e for f u t u r e d e v e l o p m e n t s . Le C o r b u s i e r h i m s e l f was a g r e a t s t u d e n t of v e r n a c u l a r a r c h i t e c t u r e and he did a l o t t o d e v e l o p a s c i e n t i f i c and a r t i s t i c approach to the housing problem. But i n our rush t o cope w i t h the f a s t g r o w t h of cities, most of us blindly accepted the forms of European f u n c t i o n a l a r c h i t e c t u r e . T h i s r e s u l t e d in the mushrooming of boxes, piled up vertically and h o r i z o n t a l l y as answers t o the housing crisis. This approach produced dwellings which were e x p e n s i v e t o c o n s t r u c t , consumed more energy, were indifferent to c l i m a t e and n o n - r e s p o n s i v e t o u s e r n e e d s . "  60  for  (1986) from  SECTION I V : Prior  to  CONCLUSIONS  the i n t r o d u c t i o n  domestic  buildings  "passive"  design  They  scientific  of  harsh  economic, is  components.  of y e a r s of a c t u a l context  reason  of  design techniques,  in  domestic  buildings  form,  by  shaping  conditions.  exposure  of w a l l  gain.  towers brick  thermal  the  climate,  through  addition  to  the  resources  and  constraints.  This  in  providing  were a c o m b i n a t i o n  openings,  walls,  technology  F o r example,  to  modify  building  roof  or  the  thermal  reasonable  comfort,  indoor  the passive  61  and  comfort  utilize  the  form m i n i m i z e d t h e solar  modulators,  t h e movement o f a i r i n d o o r s and t h e  into  of  was e f f e c t i v e i n  conditions within  building  comfort  s u r f a c e s and windows t o sun and r e d u c e d  temperature  a  building  which thermal  w a l l s were a good example o f s t r u c t u r e s  outdoor  or  within  natural  The c o u r t y a r d s a c t e d a s t h e r m a l  enhanced  concept  effectively  were a c h i e v e d ,  internal  of  and p h y s i c a l  orientation,  climatic  heat  or  experimentation  landscaping. This design oriented  range  responsive  used.  passive  the  in  I n s t e a d t h e y were a r e s u l t  why t h e y p e r f o r m e d  The  bringing  comfort  pre-planned  limited  cultural  and were r e p e a t e d l y  layout,  means,  climate  of the b e h a v i o r  political,  the  comfort  on a d e l i b e r a t e  and b u i l d i n g  physical  ISSUES  techniques.  knowledge  hundreds  of mechanical  was a c h i e v e d by  were n o t b a s e d  materials  AND CONTEMPORARY  which  wind massive  moderated  temperatures. techniques  In also  provided  many  benefits  w h i c h can  designing the  be  housing  compact  allowed  other  a  (Sengupta,  of  technology  themselves  of  this  availability  and  specialized additional  of  architects  For  example,  dry  climates  in  India  today  high  steel  and  the  costs.  The  use  minimal maintenance, once or  twice a  occured  of  of  a r e s u l t of  now  construction  an  year.  expensive materials  elaborate  requires  other  alternatives triggered  w h i c h have r e s u l t e d  use  as  construction  advanced  traditional physical  participation  p r o c e s s has  the  user  i n mass s c a l e  by  labour  in building  of  constructed  and  technology  participation  government  material  like  requires  methods  in a high  mechanical  by  and cost  systems  a d d i t i o n a l maintenance  to and  specialized technicians.  user's  especially  people  construction  The  simple,  local  interiors  t y p e of  a  the  of  the  and  by  required  spaces a l s o  In a d d i t i o n ,  and  and  indigenous materials  minimal  labour,  cost  the  i n hot  developed  transportation  the  repair  the  context.  i s necessary  houses  of  construction.  cool  which  industrialization.  concrete  to  the  whitewashing  sudden  of  use  ensured  Additionally,  the  architectural  1986).  construction  end  dwellings  density  the  The  and  p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t to  of  Furthermore,  than  economic  in a contemporary  layout high  social,  dwellings  and  psychological  in design declined  housing  agencies.  were v e r y  a s i n g l e owner and  needs  houses  suited due  construction.  in contemporary  projects  The  62  and  well  developed are  t h e n bought  This  dwellings, by  private  designed or  to  occupied  and by  t h e u s e r s . Many t i m e s is  i l l - s u i t e d to user  Finally, style in  the  use  this  practice  of p a s s i v e d e s i g n t e c h n o l o g y and formed  t h e p e o p l e . F o r example, where  the  provided  by  were used  to  enhance  minimum  reliance  The with  a  the  changing  exclusion comfort  of  the  occupant  comfort  sporadic  summer  days  activity  breeze.  thermal on  i s cooler  of  w h i c h can  people  and  i n the  comfort  is  in  clothing  technology,  coupled  has  contributed  In a d d i t i o n  now be  desire  to the  their  r e g u l a t e d by  controls help  electricity  electricity  life  comfort.  occupants  mechanical  the  outdoors  Natural fibres  adaptations.  and  which  behavioral habits  occured  passive design  lifestyle  controls  Although  the  natural  these  traditional  temperature  requirements,  have t h e r m a l  in a design  needs.  of the o c c u p a n t s ,  evening,  results  in  basic  d w e l l i n g s to  them.  finetuning  i s a widely a v a i l a b l e  the item,  s h o r t a g e s d u r i n g t h e peak h o u r s  d e p r e c i a t e the b e n e f i t s  of  to  mechanical  of  cooling  systems. All  these a r c h i t e c t u r a l ,  associated  with mechanical  energy  i t s limited  use like  and  is unsuitable, India.  liability In the  The  rather  conclusion, ill-effects  minimize  their  economic systems,  supply,  and  in addition  suggest  expensive  mechanical  and  social  that  ill-effects  to the c o s t  their  unreliable  in  of  widespread countries  means have t h e r e f o r e  become  a  t h a n an a s s e t . a s i m p l e and of  reliance use  by  most e f f e c t i v e on  mechanical  incorporating  63  way  of  devices passive  reducing is  to  design  technology  in dwellings.  cooling  or  reliance  on i t w i l l  passive The  heating  design  remainder  systemetically passive  design  T h i s does n o t i m p l y  should  be  that  eliminated,  be n e c e s s a r y  i f more e m p h a s i s  mechanical  however  less  i s placed  on  technology. part  of  this  and c o n s c i o u s l y techniques  in  thesis  explores  incorporating tried  contemporary  64  ways  of  and t e s t e d  dwellings.  PART  TWO:  HOUSING  DESIGN  STRATEGIES  INTRODUCTION SECTION I :  S I T E SELECTION  SECTION II :  S I T E PLANNING  SECTION  III :  FORM DESIGN  SECTION  IV:  FABRIC DESIGN  65  STRATEGIES STRATEGIES  STRATEGIES STRATEGIES  INTRODUCTION  Part  two o f t h i s  strategies These  f o r housing  strategies  settlement, single  on  on d e v e l o p i n g  passive  i n t h e h o t and d r y r e g i o n s  can  involving  dwelling  inhabited The  t h e s i s focuses  be used larger  for a site  an i s o l a t e d  of  contemporary  development,  l o t within  design India. housing  or  or  for a  outside  the  area.  most  important  objectives underlying  these  strategies  are ; a.  to achieve  thermal  application b.  to  of p a s s i v e  incorporate,  techniques  into a  mean  a  basic  principles.  an  literal  emphasis  practices, b.  the  i n s i d e the d w e l l i n g s  design  techniques  wherever p o s s i b l e , contemporary translation  These o b j e c t i v e s w i l l a.  comfort  be a c c o m p l i s h e d  incorporation  and  passive  T h i s does  not  interpretation  of  with;  on t h e a p p l i c a t i o n  materials  traditional  an  the  and,  context.  but  with  of  local  construction  techniques,  of c u l t u r a l  and b e h a v i o r a l  a s p e c t s of  o c c u p a n t s , and c.  the  integration  occupant As  observed  of  artificial  systems  to  finetune  comfort. in  dwellings  are  most  in  various  passive  means  accepted  building  construction practices, 66  and  periods  of  economical  materials  history, if  and t e c h n i q u e s  local are  u s e d . The of  i n c o r p o r a t i o n of  people  is  dwellings the  the  particularly  i n hot  occupants  and  dry  spend  a  dwelling  and  social  and  cultural  needs  occupant  comfort  livability  including  artificial  systems  any  and  is inevitable.  systems b e n e f i c i a l l y ,  design  installation  the  i n the  of day the  "trapped"  house  modern  to  meet To  standards  the  However,  in order  system  of  inclusion  understanding  building  harsh,  significantly.  health,  an  is  of  to of  of use  their  is required  by  architects.  The  general  comfort  with  climate  are:  -  more  and  artificial and  of  aspects  design  climate  part  t o meet  convenience  the  the  failure  is felt  behavioral  in  As  substantial  the  and  important  regions.  inside  enhance  cultural  strategies  selected  t h e h e l p of p a s s i v e  for  achieving  techniques  Minimize s o l a r gain, M i n i m i z e c o n d u c t i v e heat flow, Promote v e n t i l a t i o n , Minimize i n t e r n a l heat g a i n s , Promote r a d i a n t c o o l i n g , Delay p e r i o d i c heat flow, Promote e v a p o r a t i v e c o o l i n g , C o n t r o l h i g h v e l o c i t y wind and d u s t  i n the  thermal  hot  and  dry  and,  - Control glare. These  strategies  specific 1.  levels  The  are  of  level  selection.  Site the  in d e t a i l  in  the  following  design:  first  utilizing  examined  of  the  design  climate  favourable  e l e m e n t s of c l i m a t e on  the  strategies  deals with  i s examined w i t h and  minimizing  the  the  f u t u r e b u i l d i n g s on  site.  67  aim  site of  unfavourable a selected  .2.  The  next  level  modifying  the  elements for  street  The  4.  level form.  volume,  shape and  fourth  on the  thermal a.  the  there  different b.  at  be  i s because  one  level  next  level  the  as  the  for of  landscaping  are  i s concerned role  in modifying  with  of  building  or  selecting  considering  materials  and  e f f e c t of  walls,  their  thermal  external  climate  conditions.. i s to a s s i s t  understood level  of  the  in following i f the  i t would  contradictory  control  the  are  overlapping  use  in  achieving  that: i n t e r - r e l a t e d and of  thus  strategies  across  s t r a t e g i e s , a designer  should  as  them a t  require  at  an  level  not  of  design.  followed  at  a d d i t i o n a l emphasis a t  any the  compensation. various  design  levels  solutions.  promoting  s o l a r heat  each  s t r a t e g i e s are  a means of  strategies  solution  potential  microclimate.  involves  the  be  an  climatic  climate.  throughout  each  The  with  levels.  consistent  It  emphasize  level  i t should  t o make maximum be  c.  objective  may  and  strategies  building  strategies  spaces  configuration  final  external  planning.  effective  in modifying  comfort,  the  and  concerned  site  design  i n t e r n a l thermal  basic  of  exterior  roof,  properties  of  is  undesirable  open  These  e l e m e n t s of  windows,  As  layout,  dwelling  The  help  i n c r e a t i n g an  third  the  strategies  e f f e c t of  w i t h the  examined 3.  of  a i r flow  gain.  a r c h i t e c t to determine  It  is  which  68  For may the  may  become  example, a  design  contradict  the  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of strategy  is  more  important in d.  that  the  in this  specific  level  mentioned  with  planning  level.  dry regions  instead In  the  the  occupants  by  of  Building'  of  the c e n t r a l these  should  presented  will  the  site  at  the  site  absence  of  These  of the  hot  f o r p a s s i v e means o f  n o t be u s e d  as a simple  strategies  design,  should  an  set  be  architect  and a e s t h e t i c forces,  used  both  forces in  has  are  the  economic  and  architecture  the f o l l o w i n g wider with  proposed  resolved.  context  sections of housing  produce a r i c h e r  69  architecture.  way  t h a t one  i s that a l l  Therefore,  the understanding  to  needs o f  o f c l i m a t e . In 'The T i m e l e s s  of b e a u t i f u l  as a p a r t of the  integration  for  at  f o r the context  C h r i s t o p h e r Alexander  the complete d e s i g n ,  circumstances  principles.  those  qualities  the  the s t r a t e g i e s  strategies  d e a l i n g w i t h many  (1979),  at  features.  functional  besides  the  n o t be a p p l i e d i n t h e  of housing  needs and  strategies  not  comfort  under  the s t r a t e g i e s  specifically  social,  technological,  treated  can  or as a c h e c k l i s t .  process  and  be  g a i n do n o t a p p l y  i n I n d i a , the  thermal  to  F o r example,  heat  a s a s e t of b a s i c  satisfy  of  applied  topographical  developed  rules  intended  Similarly  level  specified  of  are  them.  internal  achieving  and r e s o l v e them  of design  reducing  selection  and  and t o e m p h a s i z e  order.  strategies  Although  case  the  should  be  d e s i g n but that  their  SECTION  I:  SITE  SELECTION  STRATEGIES  1.  INTRODUCTION  2.  SITE  3.  THERMAL COMFORT CRITERIA  4.  MINIMIZE SOLAR GAIN 4.1. S l o p e O r i e n t a t i o n and G r a d i e n t 4.2. E x i s t i n g V e g e t a t i o n and Topography  5.  PROMOTE AIR FLOW 5.1. S i t e A l t i t u d e 5.2. P r o x i m i t y t o Water  CLIMATE  70  Bodies  1.  INTRODUCTION  Although site,  many f a c t o r s to  designers and  is  the  occupant the  through  external thermal  internal  unfavourable  immediate  the c h o i c e of  an  roof  climate the  environment depending  (Markus  upon  impact  can the  be  &  month  and  heat  internal  results  of e x t e r n a l both  by  The  Morris,  of  surrounds  and  (Fig.2.1).  s u r r o u n d i n g the occupants  comfort  which  through openings,  w a l l s and  building  important concern  external climate  the d w e l l i n g  thermal environment immediate  dominate  achieve thermal comfort,  penetrates  transfer  usually  from  1980). climate  favourable time  of day.  the For on and A  EXItE-NAt CUMAtO" <LNT£KNAl ENyit^NME-NT-' F i g . 2 . 1 . The e l e m e n t s o f E x t e r n a l C l i m a t e and the Resulting Internal Environment Influencing Occupant Thermal Comfort.  71  primary  concern  favourable external  of d e s i g n e r s ,  and  minimize  climate.  external  and  b u i l d i n g design,  site 2.  climate  climate SITE  will  unfavourable  impacts  t o u n d e r s t a n d how t h e relate  criteria  to f i r s t  of  particulars  t o the i n t e r n a l  i t i s important  and c o m f o r t  i s t o u t i l i z e the  environment  understand  the  f o r the occupants.  CLIMATE  The  term  the  climate  site  the  In o r d e r  of  therefore,  site  climate  or m i c r o c l i m a t e  of the housing  climate,'  a  site.  designer  i s used h e r e  In o r d e r  must  first  to  to  denote  understand the  obtain  local  climatic  data. Climatic  information  wind v e l o c i t y is  reported  is  and p r e c i p i t a t i o n  i n Mani  published  global,  for  diffuse  sloped  sun  brief  description  large  part  radiation, other also  information  locations  i n India  to date.  Although  the l o c a l  climatic  may  a  India.  in this  of  work  hourly  and  It  also  and  a  Although  a  is  on  solar  mean v a l u e s  f o r 105 l o c a t i o n s i n I n d i a  on c l i m a t i c  data  t o the  within  tables  basis.  i s t h e most e x t e n s i v e  compiled  u s e f u l guide  of  i n some c a s e s  characteristics  c o n d i t i o n s can vary  cover  information  This  of  f o r l a t i t u d e s 6°N t o 36°N  of the c l o u d  and  r a d i a t i o n data  s o l a r r a d i a t i o n on h o r i z o n t a l  diagrams  the  been c o v e r e d .  be  Solar  145 l o c a t i o n s and c o n s i s t s  monthly  climatic  (1982).  locations in India  on mean m o n t h l y and h o u r l y  path  of  for various  & Rangarajan  and d i r e c t  surfaces  includes  such as s o l a r r a d i a t i o n , a i r temperature,  provides climate  a short  72  distance,  at  that  of  various  information  for  have  collection  characteristics  of  which  location,  from one s i t e t o  another,  or  altitude,  is  often  not  on  sites  A realistic  start  with  hourly  of  predicting  the  and  dry  c l i m a t e data  interested  in  of c l i m a t i c  some g e n e r a l  i n topography  (Cole,1979).  A  data  visual  in site site  maps  A  can  their  selection  i f the  strategies).  is  very  it  t o examine t h e r e l a t i v e  or  gives  crude,  architects,  data  the  inspection  on s i t e  designer  a  site  the  importance  73  the  climate is  only  project  visit  is  architect  an  and  interplay  e l e m e n t s w h i c h may n o t be n o t i c e a b l e from  data.  in  behaviour  u s e f u l f o r the p a r t i c u l a r  as  or  visual help  characteristics  climate  as  opportunity  climatic  monthly  deviations.  of e x t e n s i v e  in  raw  for  an o p p o r t u n i t y t o  r u l e s about  beneficial  the c l i m a t i c  a l l cases  Even  ( t h e one's a p p l i c a b l e t o h o t  t o be c o n f u s i n g  climatic  measurement,  on mean  o r use o f s u r v e y  towards a n a l y z i n g  tend  gather  i n most p r o j e c t s i s , t h e r e f o r e , t o  and e x a m i n a t i o n  also  to  schemes.  i n a d d i t i o n t o the time c o n s t r a i n t f o r  will  of  direct  i s seldom g i v e n  region are discussed  collection  and  and measurements f o r any l e n g t h o f  local  variation  the v a r i a t i o n  but  housing  the s i t e  with  site  buildings  architect  for smaller  approach  i s aware of  approach  an  and p r e d i c t t h e l i k e l y  inspection  designer  for  by  published  basis  differences in  surrounding  microclimate  observations  time.  This  realistic  p r o j e c t s an a r c h i t e c t out s i t e  with  (Golany,1980).  about  especially  carry  orientation,  vegetation  information  larger  w i t h i n each s i t e  slope,  existing It  even  the  3. THERMAL COMFORT CRITERIA The  thermal  thermal  comfort  environment  occupants.  The  temperature, occupants  and  level  the  and  dry  promotion  these  w i t h the use  characteristics  thermal  general  comfort  shows  range  f o r each  of  a reduction  which  will  clothing  that  means.  the  for dwellings  in  feel  occupant can  mechanical  suggest  of  an a i r  within  and a c t i v i t y  criteria  heat  most in  gain  and  architect  can  slope,  humidity,  of  found  selection  flow  strategies  in  strategies  due  those  altitude speed  features  74  of c l i m a t e which  are in are  The e x t e n t o f c l i m a t i c  strategies.  solar  sections  features  and t h e i r  and w a t e r b o d i e s and  level.  the behaviour  i n hot and d r y r e g i o n s . to these  an  a t each  topographical  i s e x p l a i n e d i n these  wind  mind  i n the f o l l o w i n g  g e n e r a l r u l e s about  presence  deviations  heat  design strategies  selection  from  commonly  site  clothing  l o s s e s . T h i s c a n be a c h i e v e d b y :  specific  site  derived the  and  internal  minimizing solar gain, m i n i m i z i n g c o n d u c t i v e heat flow, promoting v e n t i l a t i o n , promoting radiant c o o l i n g , promoting e v a p o r a t i v e c o o l i n g , and  develop The  the  p e r s o n a l a d a p t a t i o n s of  region require  of heat  by  (Fig.2.2)  t u n i n g of comfort  or  - delaying periodic With  chart  type of c l o t h i n g  climatic  general  activity  air velocity  be a c h i e v e d by making  important  -  and  The f i n e  activity  i s influenced  the  bio-climatic  with c e r t a i n  However,  hot  and  humidity  comfortable. only  criteria  effect  The e f f e c t  e t c . on a i r  radiation  on  is  site of  temperature, dealt  with  fc»L*?UMATI£ £MA£T fz?t2. M^M  AT  I  3  I-  a.  4*  3  >  5&  3o  Fig.2.2.  B i o - c l i m a t i c C h a r t f o r Hot a n d D r y Source: Koenigsberger, 1973  individually develop  the s t r a t e g i e s d i s c u s s e d  The  Slope  climate  radiation or  various  to  situations.  here are a l s o presented  in  and  Gradient  inclination  significantly  received  decrease  GAIN  O r i e n t a t i o n and  direction  site  in  is  of p r i o r i t y .  4. MINIMIZE SOLAR 4.1.  Climate  i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s as t h e a i m h e r e  s t r a t e g i e s w h i c h c a n be u s e d  Therefore, order  So  7&  can i n f l u e n c e  by r e g u l a t i n g t h e amount o f  by t h e g r o u n d  the temperature  of slope  surface.  of a i r  75  coming  This  the solar  will  increase  in contact  with the  ground. and  For instance, at l a t i t u d e  June,  from  morning  full  240°  surfaces to  the a l t i t u d e  t o noon and sun p a t h  i n t h e months o f May  v a r i e s between from  maximum  northern,  cooling  eastern east  and  facing  slopes,  radiation in  western  than  should  80° isa  inclined  Therefore,  months,  slopes are better tend  facing  south.  summer slopes  s i n c e the former  0° t o  s u n r i s e to sunset  ( F i g . 2 . 3 ) . The e a s t , west, and n o r t h  achieve  facing  o f t h e sun  r e c e i v e more s o l a r  However,  25°N,  sites be  suited  on  avoided.  than  west  t o be c o o l e r on  summer  even i n g s . In  order  monthly an  to evaluate  radiation,  important  is  factor  a  obtuse angle  A  shade For  the rather  Existing  site  with  slope than  sun  of  oriented  inclination at right  the  mean  A surface sun  given  slopes which  angle  on  of the s l o p e s i s  the  Therefore,  (Fig.2.4)  a c h o i c e of  with  faces  should  that  various  sun a t  an  be s e l e c t e d .  and T o p o g r a p h y  vegetation solar  presence  by 8-10°C  direction  on s o u t h  reduce  summer  temperature  the  Vegetation  and t h u s  slopes  & Rangarajan,1982).  radiation.  existing  instance,  evening  to  site  inclinations,  4.2.  (Mani  t h e maximum  selecting  of s i t e  the degree of i n c l i n a t i o n  perpendicular  receives  the e f f e c t  and t o p o g r a p h y  radiation  and a i r  o f a mound on t h e west (Fig.2.5).  (Watson,  Shade c a n  create  temperature. side  reduce  1983) i n summer.  76  will  can block the a i r  77  Fig.2.5.  A Mound o r T r e e i n t h e West w i l l Reduce few H o u r s o f S o l a r R a d i a t i o n on t h e D w e l l i n g Structure.  78  5.  PROMOTE VENTILATION  5.1.  Site Altitude  For  promoting  important  a i r flow  c o n s i d e r a t i o n as  temperature.  For  increases  decreases  The  or  highest  the  every  The  shadow  lowest  will  the  a slope.  benefit air  from  movements  Valley days  (Geiger,  and  Thus,  select  the  of  slowly  a  down t h e  desirable flow  to  the  while  in  above  site  slope  provide  wall can  1°C  the  area  the  middle this  below  in  the  optimum but  above  area  will  and  warm  (Fig.2.6). maximum t e m p e r a t u r e s on  sites  above the the  valley valley  tend  summer to  bottom  be  sites  (Fig.2.7). or  impermeable hedge on  block  (Fig.2.8).  the  lower  the  c o o l e r a i r which  flows  It  would,  of  course,  a g a t e or d e c i d u o u s hedges so  of a i r i s m a i n t a i n e d  and wind  just  b o t t o m and  in  an  (Golany,1980).  e a r l y evening  i t i s d e s i r a b l e to a v o i d  sloped  the  Sites selected  in e a r l y morning  sites  by  Therefore, below  c o o l a i r movements  r a i s e d embankment,  side  be  is  e l e v a t i o n , the  i s i n the  i s at  1963).  usually  1950)  slope  a hill  altitude  summer a i r v e l o c i t y  temperature on  bottoms e x p e r i e n c e  cooler.  A  of  of  velocity  (Olgyay,  microclimate foot  the  site  i t affects  100m  wind v e l o c i t y  crest.  wind  in a b u i l d i n g ,  during  (Konya,1980).  79  the  colder  parts  of  that the  be the year  Fig.2.7. S i t e Selection  in a Valley  Situation.  SECT I ON-  Fig.2.8.  Raised air.  Embankment to Enhance the c o o l i n g E f f e c t  80  of  5.2.  P r o x i m i t y to Water Bodies  Water  bodies c l o s e to s i t e  extreme  day time a i r temperature  day and n i g h t temperatures During  the summer days,  the water. rise  can r e s u l t  T h i s causes  i n moderating  and reducing  variations  blowing between  in  d u r i n g summer. the land s u r f a c e heats up more  than  the hot a i r over the land s u r f a c e  and c o o l e r a i r over the water flows t o r e p l a c e  shores of l a k e s ,  the  as a r e s u l t ,  from water t o l a n d . 400 and 800m i n l a n d .  benefit  i t .  from a daytime  T h i s c o o l i n g e f f e c t can be During the n i g h t the  to The  breeze noted  a i r over  l a n d c o o l s f a s t e r than that over the water and t h i s r e s u l t s i n  W  \GY\J•  F i g . 2 . 9 . C o o l i n g Process due to the P r o x i m i t y of Water. Surce: Konya, 1980  81  reversing t o water  of  the  process,  (Fig.2.9).  its  impact  also  be  on  warmer  The  with  the  l a r g e r the  the m i c r o c l i m a t e . in winter  body of  Land  (Robinette,  82  breeze  blowing water  surrounding  1983).  from the a  land  greater  lake  will  SECTION I I :  S I T E PLANNING  STRATEGIES  1.  INTRODUCTION  2.  MINIMIZE SOLAR GAIN 2.1. S t r e e t O r i e n t a t i o n 2.2. S t r e e t W i d t h 2.3. L o c a t i o n and s i z e o f Open S p a c e s 2.4.' L a n d s c a p i n g  3.  PROMOTE VENTILATION 3.1. D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Open 3.2. B u i l d i n g H e i g h t s  4.  Spaces  PROTECTION FROM HIGH VELOCITY WIND AND 4.1. S h e l t e r b e l t s  83  DUST  1 .  INTRODUCTION  Selecting possible  a  site.  Under  ones  of  of  the  c l i m a t e may  control  f o r housing  approaches  such  the a r c h i t e c t  with  modifying  a  public  planning,  spaces  for  and l a n d s c a p i n g ,  or a  preselected  the  unfavourable  the  example  be  This i s  p r o j e c t s where a c l i e n t  circumstances  site  not always  of the a r c h i t e c t .  t h e m i c r o c l i m a t e and o p t i m i z i n g  through  design aim  the case  agency  elements  with a d e s i r a b l e  o r be beyond  particularly housing  site  favourable  street  layout,  becomes t h e p r i m a r y  of t h e a r c h i t e c t .  2. MINIMIZE SOLAR GAIN Shading gain. air  is  an  effective  The shadows c r e a t e d by temperature  1983).  In  by about  order  the m i c r o c l i m a t e , size  technique  and l o c a t i o n  to  f o r reducing  buildings  on  site  the o r i e n t a t i o n spaces  and  width  heat  reduce  25% i n t h e summer months  maximize the b e n e f i t  o f open  solar  of  the  (Watson, shading  of s t r e e t s ,  and l a n d s c a p i n g a r e  in the  important  considerat ions. 2.1.  Street  Street  orientation,  affects solar day  Orientation  t h e shadow altitude  can  latitude length  i f dwelling blocks are facing length.  and a z i m u t h  be t a k e n  from  (Fig.2.10a),  For c a l c u l a t i n g angles  and  can  (Fig.2.10b).  84  shadow  for different  t h e sun p a t h  diagram  the s t r e e t ,  hours  for a  be t r a n s l a t e d  lengths, of  the  particular  into  shadow  East  and west  facing building blocks  larger  shadows i n t h e a f t e r n o o n s  year.  The l e n g t h  increases  in  summer  Additionally, hours  on  than layout  utilize  shading  Street  Street  25°N  a  excess  sides w i l l  Narrow  the  design,  the requirements  that  the  which  can  (Fig.2.11)  streets  can with  shadows c r e a t e d by  according  The  in  India,  have t o  blocks. be  much  summer  solar  altitude  so t h a t  paved  surface  running  to  zoning depends  for vehicular t r a f f i c ,  residential  access  i s high  (Fig.2.12a,b)  significant  east-west  amount o f t i m e and c a n r a i s e  In  general,  wider at of  and  than  latitude vehicular  remains unshaded f o r the surrounding a i r  considerably.  One g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d carrying  axis,  angle  f a c t o r w h i c h an a r c h i t e c t  increase  i n housing  streets.  temperature  steeper  effectively  solar radiation.  vehicular  (Fig.2.10a)  streets  design  of s u r r o u n d i n g  for  pedestrian  will  for lesser  implies  east-west  (1984) i n h o t and d r y r e g i o n s  height  streets  blocks,  afternoons.  sun s h i n e s  This  blocks  by b u i l d i n g b l o c k s .  width  two f a c t o r s :  the  and  and a t a much  t o an  facing  the  blocks.  street  regulations  the  facing blocks.  facing  on b o t h  surrounding  on  period,  facing blocks  i s another  to modify  buildings  The  this  cast  Width  width  employ  by s o u t h  ( A p r i l - J u n e ) mornings  and west  south  the s t r e e t  and m o r n i n g s t h r o u g h o u t  shadow c a s t  of s t r e e t s p a r a l l e l  maximize  2.2.  during  south  on e a s t  of t h e  abutting  method o f r e d u c i n g  vehicular traffic  the width of s t r e e t s  i s t o remove t h e t r a f f i c  85  from  the  9A-M  tA4T ANP W&rT F&^fcES  ® Fig.2.10.  Fig.2.11.  4s,  a . Sun P a t h D i a g r a m f o r L a t i t u d e 25°N. b. Shadow L e n g t h f o r E a s t and West F a c i n g Blocks. S o u r c e : M a n i , 1982  S t r e e t s running  east-west  86  with  blocks  Dwelling  facing  south,  dwelling  frontage.  This  is  particularly  advantageous  large  h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s where t h e whole scheme can  into  smaller  peripheral segment,  p a r k i n g and a  created. blocks In  residential  network Because  can  then  addition  access roads  width  space  through  of  their  shade  results  from  each  the e f f e c t  i n a compact  which  people  adapted  climate.  A narrow  more g r o u n d  coverage,  the  utility  maintenance The  networks and  narrow  energy  street  residential  pollution.  Therefore, compatiable  additional 2.3.  this  is  open layout  large  open  radiation spaces, can  with  these  when  benefit  from  within  may  a  human  the scale  helps  in  and  reduces  lines  etc.),  lighting. privacy  increase  s h o u l d be  problems  spaces are  or  which  are  s m a l l open  s h a d i n g by  87  used  spaces are  are uncomfortable. a number o f  places  and noise  kept  by  to a  taking  Spaces  open  spaces  shaded  them.  of Open open  with  reduces  width  surface.  layout,  for street  street  building  narrow  sewerage  and  then  the  network a l s o  however,  the  the  higher d e n s i t i e s ,  identity  dry c l i m a t e s , only  street  each  is  the ground  can move on  consumption  Location  possible  Isolated solar  and  housing  supply,  measures to r e c t i f y  Size  In h o t and  (water  network,  individual  minimum  unit  streets  shading,  from v a r i o u s  and  achieving  service  of  by  Within  proximity,  o t h e r and  divided  surrounded  (Fig.2.13).  close  residential to  each  of narrow p e d e s t r i a n  to maximizing  street  segments,  be  for  the  not  frequently  shaded.  protected  I n s t e a d of a few spaces  and  in  surrounding  the  from large  compact  residential  Fig.2.12.  The Effect Shading. a. S t r e e t b. S t r e e t  of  Street  W i d t h and  Block  Height  on  Wider than Block H e i g h t . Width Equal to Block H e i g h t .  ocxoooooo  oooooooooo  Fig.2.13.  An Example o f A c h i e v i n g Narrow Street Width S e g r e g a t i n g V e h i c l e s from D w e l l i n g F r o n t . Source: K e s s l e r , 1979.  88  by  blocks  and c a n a l s o  similar  to the c o u r t y a r d e f f e c t .  Open  spaces  height full  of  wind  or  solar  shading  hours.  in  S m a l l e r open segments,  radiation,  Furthermore,  are easier  location  o f open  spaces  i n t h e a f t e r n o o n , t h e time  most e f f e c t i v e  and d r y c l i m a t e s g e n e r a l l y  benefit  the  the from  morning  and  throughout  t o r e d u c i n g the e f f e c t  towards  s o u t h and s o u t h -  as i t can  benefit  when most o u t d o o r takes place  from  activity in  (Saini,  1980).  Landscaping  Vegetation blocking  can direct  reduce solar  the  process  (Robinette, ways  envelope  1983).  form.  to  air  T r e e s can a l s o  by h e a t  radiation  Passive cooling cooling  Bowen  alternatives:  temperature  and by f i l t e r i n g  1974).  i n the evening  superior or  external  radiation  a i r (Davis & Schuburt,  cooling  many  in  than  to maintain.  shade  sky  is  will  summer  in addition  orientation  the  dwellings,  spaces d i s t r i b u t e d  east  2.4.  around  a r e s m a l l e r i n l e n g t h and w i d t h  partial  residential  hot  movement  of s u r r o u n d i n g b l o c k s (Fig.2.14)  afternoon the  which  improve  has  cooling  speed  help  up t h e  to the  by t h e p l a n t s  with the  (1980)  and  of  by  open  i s in  building.  characterized  the  1  "The most s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t i n g d i f f e r e n c e between the cooling effects of p l a n t s and manmade structures i s t h a t t h e s t r u c t u r e i s made o f nonliving ( c o n c r e t e ) o r dead (lumber) m a t e r i a l s and therefore offers limited cooling capabilities determined by the thermal performance of the materials; while a plant - which i s a living o r g a n i s m w i l l c o n s t a n t l y p o s i t i o n and a r r a n g e i t s c a n o p y and l e a v e s t o t a k e maximum a d v a n t a g e of t h e sun's rays, thus maximizing their cooling effects." In  addition  plants  filter  pollutants  89  from  the  a i r , reduce  eo A T H^H fWVt <S><5° A T 3 P M ' 2*7° A T *"'M-  Fig.2.14.  Shading Blocks.  in  Open S p a c e s S m a l l e r  than  Surrounding  SUMMER-  Fig.2.15.  Deciduous Trees and Penetration.  90  Summer  and  Winter  Solar  noise  levels  glare, in  and  screen  real  can  undesirable  sense p r o v i d e  addition  Deciduous  shade  required  is  overheated  t i m e s of  exposure  (December  and the  afternoons  is  Important  west when  so  size  their  canopies.  in  hot  of  the  and  A  their  year  dry  be  (May  year  that  they  the of  heat  June),  the  can  where  during  but  the  also  underheated  provide  shade  temperature  gain  from  when  periods  out  matrix and  the  (40-45^C)  in  solar radiation.  density  leaf  trees  trees  drop dates.  closely  shade,  Because trees  to the  times  respectively,  a d v a n t a g e of  the  of  should  of most n a t i v e p l a n t s and  corresponds very  are  coefficients  for deciduous  full  trees  during  shading  when s o l a r e x p o s u r e and  natural  are  rhythms  (Fig.2.15).  Ground C o v e r and  Shrubs Around  s o l a r r a d i a t i o n r e c e i v e d by 25°N d u r i n g by  gain  the  refoliation  regions  heat  only  c o o l i n g p o t e n t i a l s of  design leaf  not  the  plants  latitude  and  maximum a i r  of  received  in  nature's  I t i s d e s i r a b l e t o p l a n t more  i t i s u s e f u l to take  at  They  solace  t h e y are  considered,  the  needed,  The  reduce  device.  excessive  form and  d r o p and and  these  spiritual  Therefore,  to a v o i d  the  measures  include  should  January).  their  leaf  cooling  flow,  control circulation.  desired during  summer c o i n c i d e s w i t h  the  s i g h t s and  air  Trees vegetation  towards  to d i r e c t  p s y c h o l o g i c a l and  passive  Deciduous  also  used  to p r o v i d i n g c o o l i n g .  most a t t r a c t i v e  solar  a l s o be  east  or  the  the  Dwelling  the  ground  month of  west  walls.  91  June  surface i s about  Therefore,  (Fig.2.16) twice  that  the  solar  J0-,  <M  Fig.2.16.  1  J  ,  F  1  M  A  ,  M  1  1  .  J  J  p  A  Solar Radiation Incident Vertical Surfaces facing North a t L a t i t u d e 25 N.  fe^&NTA^e  ^ L A V 2 V2ADIA1W  ,  S  .  O  :  1  N  D  Upon G r o u n d S u r f a c e East, West, South  RE-FL&cVTS-D  L l ^ H T (ZED  t>m\< rz&p  Wo  A F T £ £ TZAIH <5£A£9 D K Y  U*HT  <^J2A4><5 w e ^ H  t>AV2K,fv1AV2&Cg-  ^% WHITE.  PATKK: 6r2&eN • 5 A N P Pt2Y  ASPHALT  •1*3 £ 2<5% WET  Table  I.  Reflectance Values f o r various S o u r c e : E l Bannany, 1984  92  Surfaces.  and and  MAT&2IAL5-  radiation will  reflected  add  from  significantly  the ground  t o the  onto  cooling  building  facades  requirements  of the  dwelling. The  reflectance  that  o f l a n d s c a p e d or g r e e n  asphalt  surfaces  minimum,  roads  heat  s u r f a c e s a r e much h i g h e r t h a n  surfaces  absorbed  by  Plants,  shrubs,  and  ground  absorption  and e v a p o r a t i o n . The measured  surfaces  10-14°C c o o l e r a s compared  to  at a the  Therefore, for  t h e paved  (wherever  air  ground  also  shown  radiation  surfaces possible)  cover.  vegetative the  them  Although  increases  1969).  dwellings  has  reduce  them  to minimize  t h e d w e l l i n g s and t o r e p l a c e  I).  reflected  (Geiger,  i t i s desirable  grass or v e g e t a t i v e  (Table  keep t h e  a i r temperature  summer c o o l i n g , around  for  the  surrounding  with  v a l u e s f o r paved  cover  temperature  around  due  to  summer c o o l i n g  (Fig.2.17.) temperatures paved  or a s p h a l t  for  surfaces  the their  effect grass  (Olgyay,  1963). In a d d i t i o n diurnal thermal 3.  temperature radiation  velocity  dwellings velocity  plant  fluctuations  from  the ground  a t the ground  in  factors  are:  level  or s e t t l e m e n t c l u s t e r s . a built  i n open c o u n t r y  design area  cooling,  cover w i l l  by t r a p p i n g at night  also  and  reduce  reflecting  (Miller,  1980).  PROMOTE VENTILATION  Wind  than  t o daytime  i s reduced c o n s i d e r a b l y Fig.2.18  up a r e a a t g r o u n d  shows t h a t  level  (Koenigsberger,1973).  influencing  orientation  t h e wind  93  in a  t h e wind  much  The most  velocity  and w i d t h o f s t r e e t s ,  is  by  lower  important built  up  d i s t r i b u t i o n and  bvv&U-lrfc$\-  1 ? ASPHALT-  Fig.2.17.  A i r T e m p e r a t u r e Above V a r i o u s S u r f a c e s ,  -  fe?UHPAV2Y  -©l«rV»--*-Ja« <2>e>~j  VYIWD  / LATTSI^. •  \—  —  ^ <lot>ul \et>-  r  em  7 W WIND  ?-/ I 1 '  O C^uNTr2Y-  Fig.2.18.  The Wind V e l o c i t y i n Open C o u n t r y Areas. S o u r c e : K o e n i g s b e r g e r , 1973.  94  and  Built  up  size  o f open s p a c e s ,  and  t h e s i z e and h e i g h t  of  surrounding  buildings. In and  determining dry  region,  radiation dilemma  the  are  facing  minimize  orientation  the  more  considerations important  the designer  solar  heat  and w i d t h o f s t r e e t s  gain  than  in this while  for for  minimizing  hot solar  a i r movement.  region  still  in  is,  The  therefore,  allowing  adequate  to air  movement. 3.1.  Distribution  The  prevailing  and s i z e  wind d i r e c t i o n s  hot  and d r y r e g i o n s  of  streets  in  blocks  facing  summer  shading.  also  prevents  tilt  of  movement offset  of Open  east-west  south  i s the  In a g r i d  way  t o improve wind movement  of  small  open  shaded larger  the east  will  open  solar  gain.  spaces  the for  this  i n a block  distributed  the  slight wind  is partially  again most  i s with  maximizing  A  improve  the  dwelling  orientation  but t h i s e f f e c t  Therefore,  India's  orientation  blocks.  due t o t h e narrow w i d t h o f s t r e e t s ,  minimizing  The  desirable  the  in  The with  through  interiors,  for  compact  direction  l a y o u t , however,  towards  in dwelling  t h e summer  and w e s t .  most  wind movement  blocks  during  a r e from e a s t  an  Spaces  desirable effective  the p r o v i s i o n  throughout  the  whole  settlement. spaces w i l l  provide  wind movement  ( s i m i l a r to courtyard than  (Koenigsberger,  the  effect)  height  of  1973).  95  as l o n g a s t h e y a r e  or at l e a s t surrounding  six  times  buildings  3.2.  Building  Heights  When t h e b u i l d i n g s  in a  the  t h e r e i s a s e p a r a t i o n between  same h e i g h t ,  flow above t h e b u i l d i n g s wind  velocity  near  compact  settlement are  and t h a t  t h e ground  is  building  projecting  buildings  i n such c a s e s can modify  the a i r flow near  above  i n the b u i l t  the ground.  level  of a t a l l e r  blocks  smaller in height  a  useful  purpose  block  much  the height  the free  up zone  lower. of  the  A  air  so t h a t single  neighbouring  t h e p a t t e r n and v e l o c i t y of  The a i r v e l o c i t y  i s found  approximately  at the  t o be much more t h a n  (Koenigsberger,1973).  i n a hot and d r y c l i m a t e ,  ground around  T h i s can serve  especially  i n the  6  Fig.2.19.  A i r V e l o c i t y Near t h e G r o u n d A r o u n d T a l l e r More Than A r o u n d Lower b l o c k s . S o u r c e : K o e n i g s b e r g e r , 1973  96  Blocks i s  central the  p a r t of a compact  ground  located  level there  surrounding not 4.  will  blocks  t o be  improve as  much l a r g e r t h a n  of  the  India's  hot  and  in  dry  the  months  of  comfort.  during  t i m e of  day  this  air  is  the  periphery  likely  to  be  protection.  blocks  movement  blocks  building for  the are  (Fig.2.19). DUST  wind v e l o c i t y  The  of  wind be  distance  of  by  10-20  i n f l u e n c e of  extend  as  penetrability  the  times  the  are  an  t h e most  30-50%  height  a shelterbelt 25-35 t i m e s  velocity  4.8m/sec),  and  public  winds and in  be  open  are  will  groups  more need  placed  effective  way  of  factor  in  areas.  leeward  as much as  f a r as and  on  can  i n open a r e a s  plants  is  June,  larger  important  z o n e s of p r o t e c t i o n b e h i n d  velocity  reduced  (above  high  in these  wind,  a v e r a g e wind  The  and  or  shelterbelts  the  high  afternoon  and  The  wind d i r e c t i o n  controlling  determining  May  dwellings  dust  Shelterbelts to the  the  laden.  and  a f f e c t e d by  perpendicular  height  is  g e n e r a l l y dust  spaces,  The  lower  regions,  for thermal  may  A taller  at  i t s h o r i z o n t a l dimensions  troublesome  The  air  velocity  Shelterbelts  particularly  the  lowest.  the  l o n g as  those  the  where wind  PROVIDE PROTECTION FROM HIGH VELOCITY WIND AND  4.1. In  i s found  settlement  of  s i d e of  them the  (Melaragno, the  (Fig.2.20). shelterbelts 1982)  barrier  for  a  (Fig.2.21).  in reducing  wind v e l o c i t y  i t s height  depending  on  may its  width.  Controlling  dust  with  because dust  particles  shelterbelts can  be  lifted  97  i s not  equally  effective  to a c o n s i d e r a b l e  height  Fig.2.20.  Use o f (Plan).  MINIMUM  Fig.2.21.  Shelterbelts  f o r Summer  z^HE  (Section). S o u r c e : M e l a r a g n o , 1982 98  Maximum  Wind  protection.  and  are  carried  f o r long d i s t a n c e s  (Saini,1973).  ground the  b u i l d i n g blocks  as  the  facade, the  possibility  Therefore, fabric  itself  of f u l l y  tendency  to  effectively  protection  and l e s s  than  2 m  utilizing  in  later  bounce  along  Only the  by low v e g e t a t i o n  as  away  parts  sand,  ground,  of a b o u t  the  of e x c l u d i n g  be  breezes. building  used  because can  1.7 m i n  high  from  of t h e  can  the  dust i n  the c o o l evening  sections  c o n t r o l dust.  to  from  t o be a t l e a s t  s h u t t e r s and o t h e r  discussed to  returning  a r r a n g e m e n t has t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e  window  effectively  F o r maximum  t h e b a r r i e r s need  building but t h i s  before  more of i t s  be  stopped  height  (Saini,  1973). B e c a u s e of t h e new p l a n t s and  need  in this  waterbodies  planning discussed  and in  region, should  site  selection,  as  an  vegetation,  provide  expendable  a particular  t r e e s and mounds  to  required  be u s e d as an i n t e g r a l  treated  orientation  t h e water  existing  not  made t o use e x i s t i n g east  for conserving  part  99  earthforms of  element.  effort  site As  should  be  ( i f a n y ) i n t h e west  or  p r o t e c t i o n from h o t  solar radiation.  t o grow  winds  and  SECTION I I I :  FORM  1.  DESIGN  STRATEGIES  INTRODUCTION  2. REFERENCE  BUILDINGS  3. MINIMIZE CONDUCTIVE HEAT FLOW 3.1. O r i e n t a t i o n 3.2. E x p o s e d S u r f a c e / V o l u m e r a t i o 3.3. P l a n Shape 3.4. B u i l d i n g F a c a d e 3.5. T h e r m a l Z o n i n g of v a r i o u s Spaces 3.6. L i v i n g A r e a s Below Grade 4. REDUCE INTERNAL HEAT GAINS 4.1. Heat G e n e r a t i n g A r e a s 5. PROMOTE VENTILATION 5.1. I n t e r i o r C o u r t s and S h a f t s 5.2. O r i e n t a t i o n 6. PROMOTE RADIANT COOLING 6.1. T e r r a c e s  100  1. The the  INTRODUCTION i n t e r n a l thermal environment influence  of  external  climate  in a dwelling and t h e  Fig.2.22. Modes o f Heat e x c h a n g e I n s i d e  ( F i g . 2 . 2 2 ) . . The buildings The  main  utilize external  more  i s the e x t e r n a l objective  the favourable climatic  configuration  of  significant  i s a r e s u l t of  i n t e r n a l heat  gains  the Dwelling.  of  these  in  domestic  climate. form d e s i g n  in this  thesis  and m o d i f y  the unfavourable  through  building  and o r i e n t a t i o n .  101  to  e l e m e n t s of  shape,  The s t r a t e g i e s  is  followed  volume, at the  form  design  level  inappropriate  decisions  etc.  are  difficult  for  them a t  fabric  and  extra  follow 2. For  regarding  to  rectify  design  strategies  orientation,  and  level  important  any  will It  effort  involve  as  any  building  shape  to  compensate  more d e s i g n  i s important,  time  therefore,  to  critically.  REFERENCE BUILDINGS  the  used  particularly  building materials.  these  THE  are  p u r p o s e of  forms  examined  heat  for single  gain and  (Fig.2.23).  analysis, multiple  These  four  family  most  commonly  dwellings  are  separated  from  are:  - Detached, - Row Housing, - H i g h R i s e and -  Cluster.  a.  Detached  In  this  arrangement  each other  and  dwellings  in this  storeys. are  The  kept  b.  Row  In  this  side  the  surrounded  dwellings by  arrangement are setbacks, to  f o r the  or  open  r e a s o n s of  space.  typically  according  more t h a n  are  Single  family  l i m i t e d to  three  to b u i l d i n g  the  mean  regulations,  height  of  the  s h a r e common  side  privacy.  Housing  walls  arrangement and  usually  They do  have  c. H i g h  Rise  The  are  equal  structures  (la,lb)  ( I I a , I I b ) , the  dwellings  do  three  not  f r o n t and  required  according  to  multiple  family  back  setbacks their  exceed  setbacks,  storeys  The  highrise buildings 1 02  height.  however.  between h i g h r i s e  height.  in  buildings  height vary  from  (III)  vary  restrictions  for  four  to  fifty  or  Fig.2.23.  The D w e l l i n g Forms u s e d  UT  £Y  XA  for Analysis.  AND IHA  Vt>  TJIrb-  M  Lew^T+i -(MO  7-^  1-6,  V2.-IA i i  WIDTH  (M)  7- £  0  | 7- ^ i  CM)-  tW^HT  <*-4  VOLUME ( c U M) RAJF A U S A  N-  1*7-^4  M) E A 4 T FACADE  it,-? [ e ^ U T H FA^APE  H •  4%  4^.£S  H  43> -^5  M-  N•  ts N-  Ko-g>  FACADE  N  4%>-<£>E  H •  4-UKFAC6 AREA (exFacep) [  e-URPACE/ /V/5L-  •2.4  1 03  •<24 •  more s t o r e y s , d.  Cluster  Single of  common  open  back  family  were a r r a n g e d  cluster  spaces,  form  grouped c l o s e l y  arrangement. three  traditionally  i s similar  flexibility  dwellings  for social  and f r o n t yards  more  upon t h e z o n i n g  i n the area,  Housing  or m u l t i p l e  India  are  depending  and  i n hot i n small  t o row h o u s i n g  with  can vary  The the  and t h e y provides the  row  from one t o  storeys. 2.23 g i v e s  in  s e c t i o n . Each of the f o u r d w e l l i n g  this  heat  the d e t a i l s  transfer characteristics  climate  Before to  space. T h i s  i n t h e o r i e n t a t i o n a s compared of t h e d w e l l i n g s  around  only  are omitted  a r o u n d a common open  regions  reasons.  (lla,llb),  of the d w e l l i n g s  The h e i g h t  dry  clusters,  cultural  Figure  in  and  responsive  on t h e forms u s e d  for analysis  forms h a s d i f f e r e n t  which a r e important  to consider  design.  d i s c u s s i n g t h e form d e s i g n  examine ways by w h i c h  heat  strategies i t i s  exchange  in  important  the dwelling  takes  place: - through c o n d u c t i o n / f a b r i c - s o l a r r a d i a t i o n / w i n d o w s and, The  rate  ventilation/infiltration. at  which  heat  is  conducted  through  the  opaque  surfaces in a building i s a function o f : -the t e m p e r a t u r e d i f f e r e n c e between i n s i d e a n d outside air. -the exposed areas of b u i l d i n g f a b r i c . -the i n s u l a t i n g p r o p e r t i e s of the f a b r i c (U-values) The  s o l a r r a d i a t i o n i n c i d e n t upon e x p o s e d  the  a i r temperature  this  increase  in  surrounding  the b u i l d i n g .  a i r temperature,  104  surfaces  the  To  effect  increases calculate of  solar  radiation  incident  the outdoor by  the  This  on b u i l d i n g  a i r temperature  surfaces,  by u s i n g  theoretical  calculating  heat  external gain  a constant U-value  air  temperature, becomes  surfaces  and  this  heat a  their  In g e n e r a l ,  a reduction  A greater  gain  the s o l - a i r  of b u i l d i n g gain  by  gain  are  t r a n s p a r e n t f o r the s h o r t  but  a r e opaque As  the the  heat -  Heat  entering  a result,  gain  buildings  solar  inside  by v e n t i l a t i o n  heat  per  hour  in  a  exposed  form  design, ratio.  ratio  will  can  a building  results  from  is a multiple particular  however  i s from  Glass  windows by  the  objects  Therefore,  significantly and depends  influence  upon:  upon t h e window,  : between  inside  of t h e number of a i r  volume  105  sun  i t has e n t e r e d  the b u i l d i n g .  t h e a i r exchange r a t e , the temperature difference o u t s i d e a i r , and - t h e s p e c i f i c h e a t of t h e a i r rate  of  emitted  h e a t , once  -  exchange  opaque  e m i t t e d by  the s o l a r r a d i a t i o n i n c i d e n t t h e Window a r e a , shading d e v i c e s and, glass type.  Air  through  surface/volume  wave r a d i a t i o n  i s trapped inside  gain  indoor  of  t h r o u g h windows.  p r e s e n c e of windows i n f a b r i c total  for  a given  of t h e a r e a  f o r l o n g wave r a d i a t i o n  t h r o u g h a window,  used  surface/volume  inside  solar  a room.  and  In terms  i n exposed  be  concept.  1981).  conduction  as t h e e x p o s e d  the  in  fabric  function  absorbed  temperature can  with  by c o n d u c t i o n .  s o u r c e of h e a t radiation  of heat  fraction  orientation.  i s described  the h e a t  the  a i r temperature  direct  factor  reduce  be combined  by c o n d u c t i o n ( G i v o n i ,  For  surfaces  and  s u r f a c e s can  of  space.  For  and  changes a  given  temperature gain  by  d i f f e r e n c e and  ventilation  specific  i s mainly  heat  and  the  number of  a i r c h a n g e s per  limit  to  the  allowable  reduction  reasons,  important the  ventilation  3.  of  the  day  and  time,  more c r i t i c a l  at  dry  the  hour.  the  space  As  there  A  is  the  most  reduction  in As  by  ventilation.  climates  is  generally  heat  form d e s i g n  gain  a for  gain  reducing  of  rate  becomes  gain.  heat  volume  a i r exchange  reduce heat  i n hot  air,  by  kept  conduction  level.  MINIMIZE CONDUCTIVE HEAT FLOW  3.1.  Or i e n t a t i o n  Orientation heat The  i s the  most  important  factor in determining  solar  gain. f o l l o w i n g f i g u r e s (Fig.2.24a,b)  solar at  therefore  rate  during  becomes  volume  of  f a c t o r which d e t e r m i n e s heat  volume w i l l  low  the  the  d e t e r m i n e d by  space  health  of  r a d i a t i o n on  latitude  from  these  a.  During  vertical  25°N.  The  total  the  load  (Fig.2.24a). of  and  south  can  of be  summer months  heat  load  surfaces  effect  calculations,  East  around  from and  show t h e  o r i e n t a t i o n on  summarized  as  (April-July)  nearly  north  facing surfaces  only  any  solar  form  i s due  radiation  demonstrates  that  is  south  minimum. solar  1 06  design,  of  the  the  roof  receive a  heat  facing surfaces  2%.  because  50%  on  facing surfaces  19-20% e a c h ,  form  follows;  solar radiation is  west  of  in various o r i e n t a t i o n s  This  optimum o r i e n t a t i o n f o r l a r g e r s u r f a c e s in  distribution  the  radiation  implies  (opaque or heat  However,  6-13%  load  that glass)  due  to  figure  2.24b  incident  upon  30-,  Fig.2.24a.  Solar Radiation Incident Orientations at Latitude  J  Fig.2.24b.  F  M  A  M  J  J  A  S  Solar Radiation Incident Facing Surfaces.  1 07  upon S u r f a c e s 25 N.  O  N  in Various  B  upon S o u t h t o  South-east  surfaces  f a c i n g up t o 2 5 ° e a s t  significantly. of  larger  increase  This  implies  surfaces the heat  from  gain  of  south  minimizing orientation, b.  Both  east  incident  and  hrs.)  in  the c.  and  east  the  heat  load  The  problem  surfaces  Heat  gain  (Fig.2.25), different  the  of  summer.  (with  from  excessive  surfaces  view  south  heat  receive  gain. maximum  However,  time l a g than  larger  less in  i s below c o m f o r t  than e a s t  north  roof  of  heat  gain  but  of  than the  2  west when  level. to the north  and west  orientation,  where  orientations.  however,  is  that when  may be r e q u i r e d .  dwelling  consequently  Consequently  s o l a r r a d i a t i o n i n the morning  Volume  conduction  dwellings  volume,  cause  more e f f e c t i v e  i s less  Surface/  by  and  not  the p o i n t  c a n a l s o be o r i e n t e d  with  does  r e c e i v e minimum s o l a r r a d i a t i o n i n w i n t e r  some h e a t i n g  The  receive  surfaces  Exposed  from  facing  are  a i r temperature  3.2.  will  west  orientation  A major d e v i a t i o n  opaque s u r f a c e s  they  Larger  walls  however,  deviation  i n any b u i l d i n g form u p t o 2 5 °  solar r a d i a t i o n during  glass  because  load.  does n o t r i s e slight  significantly.  i s acceptable  heat  that a  south  exposure of l a r g e r s u r f a c e s east  of south  Ratio  takes  dwellings.  exposed  In  by c o n d u c t i o n  forms a l r e a d y  of each  place  form  the  introduced  area  so does t h e e x p o s e d  Fig.2.23).  108  same  the  external  following  i s compared  have t h e  surface  through  f o r the four  in this floor  i n each case  surface/volume  example  section. area  and  varies  and  ratio  (Ref.  {0 30 t—  -  85-  g£ Z.  757<2 -  o  (gO -  4 1 KW/w ' 2  u 59-  CO  Q 4*y  3*530-  < 25i— <c 15ui 105.  IA  lb  UA  n&  in  FO£M TYPE-  N^>HTH r 1191. 6>U w/vvp' WB^T q  =  U = 11- =  F i g . 2 . 2 5 . Heat  gain  m e ? -  a  =  '2- 5' <2«3"C ,  by C o n d u c t i o n f o r D i f f e r e n t  109  "SAME-  • g>£  Form  Types,  The  heat gain  located daily  at l a t i t u d e outside  indoor For  calculations 25°N  air  daily  orientations (Mani,  intensity  has  1981).  conductance those  The  the  sol-air  (I) f o r  dwellings average  and  acceptable  25°C.  temperature  surfaces  (Ts),  facing  mean  various  climatic  a b s o r p t a n c e of t h e s u r f a c e  228mm  on  i s 37°C  t a k e n from t h e a v a i l a b l e  ( f o ) and  for  plastered  been  (To)  ( T i ) i s assumed t o be  of c a l c u l a t i n g  radiation  example a r e f o r  i n t h e month of J u n e . The  temperature  a i r temperature  the purpose  in this  (a),  data  surface  a i r to a i r t r a n s m i t t a n c e (U-value) brick  inside  walls  o n l y and  (Koenigsberger,  subjected  t o a wind  are  1973),  speed  of  4m/s. Heat  gain  by  a i r exchange  windows  is  not  surfaces  of  each  The  following  included  solar  i n these  form a r e  points  and  through  calculations.  oriented  regarding  radiation  towards  The  the  larger  the n o r t h - s o u t h .  form d e s i g n emerge from  these  calculat ions: a.  F i g . 2.25  demonstrates  surface  have  compact  form l i k e  multistorey, effective  in  lesser  to  in  side gain  lesser implies  a  a r r a n g e d i n row  or  walls, in  are  more  comparison  with  these i m p l i c a t i o n s w i t h the a b i l i t y  provide v e n t i l a t i o n  Both  functions are a l s o  cooling  exposed that  must  be  of e a c h  form  through outgoing r a d i a t i o n  to  and  heat  conjunction  and  night  the  However,  loss  This  or d w e l l i n g s  share  reducing  i n c r e a s e heat  forms w i t h  heat g a i n .  a cube  which  detached houses. evaluated  that  during  the  at  night  evening.  important f o r thermal comfort  i n the e v e n i n g .  1 10  at  For  instance,  in  a  multistorey  surface  and  particular  is  gain  65%  has  least  internal  above and by  form l i k e  (III)  thus the  to  each s i d e , heat  a compact  the  heat  b e l o w . In  l e s s t h a n a two  dwellings  This  adjoining  the  detached  t h a n a two  storey  form  also  l e s s p o t e n t i a l f o r the  energies,  especially  longwave  radiation  of  interior  the  e v e n i n g s and useful  the  houses  and  night.  any  comfort  other  hand,  (la,lb).  house,  the  the  to the  thermal  discussed). from rapid  both night  relatively  roof  clear by  night  day,  in  outgoing  The  cooling  slow  in  this  the  form  it will  row  less  and  than  time h e a t  detatched  sky.  the  Heat  use  is  hardly  cluster detached  loss in a  house,  loss in this  of c o u r t y a r d s  of c o u r t y a r d s row  and  in excessive  time c o o l i n g . more  very  this  effective  This in  1 1 1  has  row  occurs  r e s u l t i n g in rapid cooling  a result,  reduction  the  21-40%  and  behavior As  be  48%  natural  by  although  gain  l e s s than a  f u r t h e r enhanced  (the  heat  i s only  exposed  re-radiation  during  (III)  night.  Evening  although  through  at  of  ventilation.  Therefore, heat  use  on  total  However,  cooling  form w i l l  in  neighbours  dwelling  house.  summer  natural  in this  (IIa,IIb)  houses  be  for  for minimizing  achieve On  at  (lib)  applies  ( l b ) house and  less  has  row  wall  above a n a l y s i s ,  in a multistorey  storey  arranged  minimum e x p o s e d  gain.  u n i t s with  conduction  the  form  and  by can  shafts  already  been  c l u s t e r houses b e n e f i t day  time  form, hot  and  heating  and  therefore,  is  dry  climate.  Row  and  cluster  effective  response  translated desired  into various  contributes  the  A  that  shows t h a t  only  the  roof  storey  reduced total  by  heat  Further, shared, gain  reduced  50%  f o r the of  i n row  the  (lib),  three  storey  h o u s e s of  more  effective  through  windows it  by is  by  the  heat  not  form.  of  area  by  (la),  gain.  roof  floor  area  area,  by  and  heat  heat  and  is gain  two  or  volume  are  conduction  than  area.  solar in  to mention  are  form  that  l e s s e r roof  is the  total  in this  area  In  15%.  the  suggests  radiation the  above  here that  ratio,  contribute  112  heat  building  included  Therefore,  house  where s i d e w a l l s  surface/volume  significantly  part  where t h e  gain  conduction  i s important  a minimum e x p o s e d  windows can  gain  gain  (la  same f l o o r  h o u s e s b e c a u s e of  heat  of  the  also  detached houses  total  total  T h i s comparison  in reducing  Although  calculations,  the  roof  heat  form  t o 70%  I f the  in  of  of  same volume and  (IIa,IIb),  conduction. 50%  extent  detached  the  (lb),  to  climate  a critical  of  contributes  30%.  with  55%  further  (Fig.2.25)  two  an  responding  b u i l d i n g i s reduced  houses  roof  storey  is  between  d e t a c h e d house  d e c r e a s e s by  single  area  of  be  site  a large  in a single storey  gain  by  and  analysis  contributes  the  by  roof  comparison  &Ib)  to  above  can  solutions  spaces  roof  demonstrates  a two  of  expression  problem,  design  projects.  exchange,  a general gain  housing  the  design.  as  to heat  arrangement  specific Since  form,  the  to the  a reduction  presence  total in  even  heat  exposed  surface/volume properties  of  been d e s i g n e d  ratio  will  fabric,  most  Plan  In a  s i n g l e family detached  by In  and  the  exposed  shape becomes an  the  when  the  windows, have  gain.  house,  where t h e  surface/volume  important  side walls  ratio  are  i s high,  factor in reducing  the  heat  gain  conduction. the  following  conduction plan  heat  only  Shape  shared  plan  effective  importantly  for minimizing  3.3.  not  be  in  calculations  a square p l a n  shapes. A l l these  volumes  and  their  orientation.  These  infiltration  and  temperatures and - U - v a l u e  plan  (Fig.2.26),  i s compared  c a l c u l a t i o n s do solar radiation  are  face not  to the  gain  various roof  north  by  other  areas or  i n c l u d e heat  through  orientations,  similar  with  s h a p e s have s i m i l a r  larger surfaces  for various  heat  and south  gain  windows.  by  Sol-air  i n s i d e a i r temperature  c a l c u l a t i o n s i n the  previous  sect ion. These c a l c u l a t i o n s demonstrate a.  A square p l a n even  though  ratio. solar b.  A  The  not  i t has  reason  gain,  in  effective.  1:2.5  are  gain. optimum  The  most  east  during  summer  surface/volume  unequal d i s t r i b u t i o n  of  orientations. facades  there  reduces  is a limit with  effective  shape,  gain  exposed  i s the  west  shape  heat  minimum  Plans  optimum  plan  the  various  however,  longer  minimize  for t h i s  r a d i a t i o n on  reduction  heat  may  that:  at which  a ratio  between  in reducing  is  a  1:2  11 3  i t is  no  1:1.6  to  conductive  ratio  however, c a n n o t  conductive  be  of  sides.  generalised  heat An for  30-i 29 28 27  23 22 H 21 20 1.5  Plan Ratio  N-  Fig.2.26.  Heat G a i n by C o n d u c t i o n i n V a r i o u s Compared w i t h a S q u a r e P l a n .  1 14  Plan  Shapes  as  all  locations  radiation is  sides  of  external  dwelling  and  in  an optimum p l a n  with  give  differences  the shape  1:1.6 t o 1:2.5 r a t i o o f  acceptable  performance.  order  simple  to  factors. facade  sun  path  25%.  reduces  Therefore, heat  the  i t is  gain  to  an the  During  mid  walls,  a slight  day,  the  these  facades  blocks  on  the  summer and  are  shading  shines  the  f o r long p a r t of the  day.  shadow.  storey dwellings,  facades  each each  the v a r i a t i o n s  possible)  to  south  inhorizontal result,  in  shade c a n be c r e a t e d  by  floor  As a  (Fig.2.27b).*  r e c e i v e sun i n t h e m o r n i n g and  f o r 4-5 h o u r s .  at a d i r e c t  at  (Fig.2.27a),  p r o j e c t i o n of the b u i l d i n g  e x p o s u r e of e a s t  (wherever  facade,  when sun i s a t a s t e e p a n g l e  afternoon  shade w i t h  building  of o r i e n t a t i o n  i n shade  or r e c e d i n g  and west  building  f o r c o n s i d e r a b l e time  remains  or three  East  between  c r e a t e s an e x t e n s i v e  projecting  on  i s northerly during  facade  two  shade  i s as f o l l o w s :  south  direction  the  The e f f e c t  altitudes  the  spaces  way o f c o n t r o l l i n g  distance  higher  in  by about  maximise  and  building As  w a l l s and s u r r o u n d i n g  interior.  important  b.  In any c a s e  will  the  orientation,  a.  the  and p l a n s  a i r temperature  effective  of  of  B u i l d i n g Facade  Shading  In  intensity.  not c r i t i c a l ,  its 3.4.  because  angle,  As t h e sun s h i n e s they  in  building  and west  facades  are d i f f i c u l t facade. should  11 5  to  Therefore, be  by s h a r i n g t h e s i d e w a l l s  landscaping.  on  avoided or  with  Fig.2.27.  S o l a r A l t i t u d e and Shading of South facade a. Solar A l t i t u d e D u r i n g Summer a t L a t i t u d e 25°N. b. S h a d i n g o f S o u t h F a c i n g f a c a d e by p r o j e c t i n g each f l o o r .  The  of  effect  discussed suggests blocks facing  under that  d i s t a n c e between b l o c k s on s h a d i n g site  compact  arranged  planning forms  like  if  This  with  benefit  exposed  from  housing surfaces  maximum  t h e y a r e s e p a r a t e d by d i s t a n c e s l e s s  been  analysis  two t o t h r e e s t o r e y  i n rows o r c l u s t e r s ,  north south o r i e n t a t i o n ,  shading  strategies.  has  than  mutual their  heights. 3.5.  Thermal  Zoning  of v a r i o u s Spaces  Thermal  z o n i n g of v a r i o u s spaces  comfort  requirements  dwelling  i s an e f f e c t i v e  using  according to  warm  and  way o f e n h a n c i n g  1 16  cool  their  thermal  areas  i n the  thermal  comfort.  Domestic  buildings offer  due  the  to  frequency the The  v a r i e d use of spaces,  o f u s e . As a r e s u l t ,  designer, main  decisions  thermal  factors about  allocation assumed  many p o s s i b i l i t i e s  which  thermal  of spaces a r e  that  light  time  only  a little  effort  be  considered  (Cole,  showed  weight  different  and by  c a n be e n h a n c e d .  should  zoning  zoning  and  with  comfort  f o r thermal  in  cotton  in  making  1979) and t h e r e s u l t i n g t a b l e s I l a and l i b . I t i s  clothing i s  worn  by  the  occupants. Some  important  various a.  In  considerations regarding  the thermal  zoning of  spaces a r e : a  hot  periods July), at  and d r y c l i m a t e ,  especially  t h e peak  bedrooms a r e used d u r i n g  night.  Therefore,  temperatures prime  during  because of  for  concern  summer  (May-  as w e l l a s  cooler  and n i g h t  in allocating  rest  months  the afternoon  maintaining  afternoon  afternoon  indoor  comfort  is  bedrooms.  The m o r n i n g a i r  range and  penetration  temperature  i s below c o m f o r t  sun  t i m e d o e s n o t c r e a t e a s much d i s c o m f o r t  in  at this  these  considerations,  orientation  is  most d e s i r a b l e f o r  northeast  orientation i s  room c o o l e r  houses  which  preference in  of as  the evenings.  Because of  the  the  south  north  or  should  less  be g i v e n  In  flexibility to locating  or southeast  and  northeast.  Split  the level  1 17  or  bedrooms.  also acceptable  i n the afternoon. allow  a south  as  southeast North it  keeps  t h e forms l i k e in  zoning  the master  remaining planning  or  row  spaces, bedroom  bedrooms i n such  in  cases  ACTIVITY  Trl£KMAL  C ^ V W T  ££iT££lA  VENTILATION- TIM'S ^ F USB  H^AT-  NlGfJT/AFTBKNU6-HT ACTIVITY . R?T>fcgAT&  R£4T^  M f e p - U>W  WA-V2M  Table  Ila. Activity  7  iNT^MITTeKT  in a Dwelling.  fAu^w^  w V  V  V  V  V  V  V  s/  V  V  V  V V  lib.  |VttSD- unv-  N  ACTIVITY(UYI14&/P1H )  Table  ItttejZMJTP&HT  0\?I£NT-AT1£N  V  P=-ATH>N<<i  INTERMITTENT  M E p - HI&H  A n a l y s i s of Spaces  ACTIVITY(<=>fA^)  L<?W  V  N/  V  Allocation  of Spaces  with Respect  T18  to Orientation.  will  a c h i e v e the best p o s s i b l e  orientation  for  a l l  the  t h e day  and  bedrooms. Living in  and  the e v e n i n g .  climates a  dining  is  terrace  orientation should  be  be most d e s i r a b l e .  and  will  purposes  Only  a  useful.  are  orientation  segregate reduce  from main  spaces  enable  heat  t h e main  heat  gain.  d u r i n g the  t h e m o r n i n g and  evening.  will The  heat  increase  with the  houses,  at  upper  night.  for  hygenic is  used  thermal  control.  adequate  lighting  and  southwest  west  loss  and living The  daytime  t o a c t as  a  buffer  i t is areas  desirable  to  in  to  kitchen but  order is  used  continuously  A s o u t h - e a s t e r n exposure  provide cooler  evening.  level  areas.  from  internal  level  areas  and  A  walls  split  cooling  require rate  a  T h i s space  the t o i l e t  generate  them  evening  bedrooms on  living  generation.  intermittently  kitchen  rapid  does not  f o r the l i v i n g  Kitchen  by  necessary.  will  of t h e  split  given to p l a c i n g  comfort  and  narrow, In  higher v e n t i l a t i o n  conditions  zone  rooms b e c a u s e  exposures  is  moisture  intermittently  Western  the b l o c k  separated  and  south-east  l a y o u t where t h e s i d e  be  improve  or  dry  abutting  a compact  s h o u l d be  are  with a south  for l i v i n g  In  i n hot and  livingroom  will  shared,  Toilets  a  open  are  to  activity  outdoors, space  throughout  or an  heating.  preference  a r e used  the evening  often  over  floors  As  avoided  planning  spaces  rate  natural  thermal c o n d i t i o n s i n the evening  ventilation  1 19  for a in  will  whereas,  in  the also  during  daytime, gain. or  as a s u b s t i t u t e heat  a cold  Therefore,  the  care.  The sink  this  i s the only  Outdoor  spaces  like  terraces,  to  i n a hot d r y  playing,  preferable  exposure  Areas  the b u i l d i n g s  to  mechanical  becomes  an with  form o f c o n t r o l balconies,  for  possible.  e t c .are l i k e l y A south or south keep  them  cool  Below G r a d e  hot  climate  heat  or as  a i r temperature  source  in cold  insulation  climate,  (Morelan,1980).  compared w i t h e a r t h  (Fig.2.28)  earth  daily  a heat  reaches  illustrates a  range  the d a i l y  site  that:  temperature  of  approximately in  winter,  of 20°C(66°F).  of e a r t h  range  An  temperature at  i n t h e h o t and d r y r e g i o n s on a v e g e t a t e d  w i t h an a n n u a l a v e r a g e  than  etc.  controls;  f o r these spaces w i l l  c a n be used a s a  North America  The  like  eating  19°C(65°F) i n summer and a h i g h o f 2 1 ° C ( 7 0 ° F )  b.  spaces  activities  i n the evening or a t n i g h t .  a d e p t h o f 3m.  The  indoor  evening use.  Living  in  help  F o r i n d o o r s p a c e s , p a s s i v e means f o r t h e r m a l  spaces  approximate  a.  area a d j o i n i n g  outdoor  soil  t o augment  and t o  out of doors  cooking,  are  for  with  applies  control  -eastern  ventilation  heat  o f t h e i n d o o r s p a c e and s h o u l d be t r e a t e d  t o be u s e d  3.6.  especially  washing,  the  day t i m e .  are performed  sleeping,  equal  increase  normally associated  This  extension  will  s y s t e m c a n be u s e d  for natural  during  climate  climate.  in  gain  Many a c t i v i t i e s in  ventilation  A mechanical exhaust  control e.  natural  temperatures  i s much  of a i r temperatures.  1 20  smaller  PEL  H -  •  3 <  •  •  /  142*  \  /  —  ,—  \  •  V  -#— —» •  <•  —  -  •  —-  b Mi  4  Alte  eAV2TH  &XTKEMB£-  efuV&A  (a A N O  turner-  G?UNEO  £ A K T H AT AV£KA<^£ TH«^&  Fig.2.28.  (MAXTUM^ Altf  A\£ T&Mtf£V2AT|#  pevo^ps? •  the s o i l  radically  reduce  s u r r o u n d i n g a below external  climatic  ef f e c t s .  121  H^TTES-T-  («&rr>$crO  AT A V 6 K A 6 6 ^ F .  3^'^  A C o m p a r i s o n Between Mean Temperatures. S o u r c e : M o r e l a n d , 1980  Therefore,  B^TKEMEJ-  C^Lt^T  ^>4°£ -  Monthly  grade heating  A i r and  Earth  space  serves to  and  cooling  At  the  form  living  areas  These  like  areas w i l l  basement  adding  than  one  rooms i n t h e  above g r a d e  addition  to  providing  increase  the  floor  t o the ground  residential  heat, as  or  two  basement.  spaces. a  The  comfortable  a r e a of  the  house  coverage.  buildings,  a p p l i a n c e s and  in commercial  buildings in  hot  summer  of  and  number  maintaining  capacity  and of  activity Table  comfort  thermal  power of  generated  and by  significant residential  1984).  air  body  However,  temperature  level, be  in  even a s m a l l  undesirable  for  comfort.  gains light  in  (Mara,  the comfort  as  by  in a given area bulbs,  the  the  depends  heat  occupancy  on  generating  rate  of  the  the occupants  depends upon  their  heat  various sources in  level.  I I I . shows the a v e r a g e  dwelling  4.1.  Thermal  gains  a r e not  indoors w i l l  heat  appliances  d w e l l i n g s . Heat  lighting  heat  where e x t e r n a l  generated  internal  internal  climate related  regions,  heat  amount of  the  buildings.  i s a l r e a d y 8-10°C above  achieving The  dry  the  electric  is primarily and  amount  The  cooler  locate  REDUCE INTERNAL HEAT GAINS  In  a  in  environment,  without  a d e s i g n e r can  bedrooms o r l i v i n g  remain  spaces,  thermal  4.  design l e v e l ,  w i t h an  Heat G e n e r a t i n g  occupancy  amount  rate  of  from five.  Areas  k i t c h e n i s t h e major a r e a  significant  gain  of h e a t  in residential  i s generated  of a p p l i a n c e s .  1 22  by  b u i l d i n g s where a  c o o k i n g and  the  use  Factors Human  Table  to  in 1.  I n c a n d e s c e n t 95% Of Wattage F l u o r e s c e n t 79% of Wattage f o r each Lamp (when i n u s e ) .  Appliances  Gas s t o v e 1500-2000 W a t t s each E l e c t r i c i r o n 500-1OOOWatts Washing machine 500-800Watts (when i n use) .  Internal  rooms and  their  level,  there  keeping heat  The  design  discussed  and  Sources.  suppliment  function.  At  ways of c o n t r o l l i n g  generating areas away  or p a s s a g e  be done by  shafts  use  the  lighting form  internal  of  can  the  like  due design  heat  gains  kitchen  and  t h e a r e a s of main use  like  A buffer  the  space  like  a  veranda,  be p l a c e d i n between.  the d a y l i g h t  i n a compact  i n the  from  or bedrooms.  increasing  may  rooms r e q u i r e  room e t c .  courtyard  from V a r i o u s  buildings;  livingrooms  By  study  a r e two  residential By  Heat G a i n  continuous  utility  2.  between 130-160 W a t t s f o r e a c h body ( S e d e n t a r y a c t i v i t y ) .  bodies  Lights  III.  Living  Amount of Heat G a i n -  potential  provision  of  of some s p a c e s . T h i s  courtyards  and  light  layout.  courtyards following  and  shafts  section,  for  i s equally  ventilation, effective  for  daylight ing. 5.  PROMOTE VENTILATION  Natural outside  ventilation air  i s most d e s i r a b l e  temperature  is  cooler  1 23  during evenings than  inside.  when  the  Natural  ventilation dwellings  contributes  to  thermal  comfort  inside  the  i n two ways:  a.  By c o o l i n g t h e s t r u c t u r e when t h e i n d o o r is above the outdoors. This may be 'structural cooling'.  b.  By increasing heat loss from t h e body when t h e surrounding a i r i s cooler than body t e m p e r a t u r e , and by e v a p o r a t i o n o f m o i s t u r e from s k i n . T h i s may be termed a s ' c o m f o r t c o o l i n g ' .  Structural hour  if  whereas body  cooling the  natural  cooling,  results  distribution  in  cross  ventilation.  5.1.  Interior  In compact the  forms  As  structural  (Givoni,  zone.  At the  courts  before  lower its  form  than  adequate level  and c o m f o r t c o o l i n g  may be  and s h a f t s and by  provision  o r row h o u s i n g ,  a result,  An  by  the p o t e n t i a l natural  improvement  for  in  the  outside  air  inside  the  is  reduced  a i r movement and  exchange  c a n be a c h i e v e d by  and c o m f o r t  due t o  f o r b o t h c o m f o r t and  ventilation  c o u r t y a r d s and s h a f t s . The f o l l o w i n g structural  the  i t e n t e r s the spaces  1977) i n s u c h forms  achieving  and  indoor  design  of s u r r o u n d i n g b u i l d i n g s ,  cooling  considerably.  a i r movement  such as c l u s t e r  decreases  dwelling.  than  per  C o u r t s and S h a f t s  proximity  velocity  from  for structural  by i n t e r i o r  i s cooler  f o r an a i r t e m p e r a t u r e  occupied  ventilation  enhanced  o f number of a i r c h a n g e s  outdoor a i r temperature  Comfort  (37°C),  i s a function  temperature termed as  incorporating  f a c t o r s are important f o r  cooling  with courtyards  and  shafts: a. b.  t h e t e m p e r a t u r e d i f f e r e n c e between i n s i d e and o u t s i d e a i r , and t h e v e r t i c a l d i s t a n c e between two o p e n i n g s .  1 24  The  courtyards  providing  reduce  shade.  b e c a u s e of b e i n g  the  This pool heavier  shading  and  of a c o u r t y a r d  width  surrounding When a  hot  with  the c o u r t y a r d  vertical  for  more  and g o i n g  this  two  comfort  material  warm  air.  For  the l e n g t h  be l e s s  height  of  level  in  than  the  at a higher  and a lower  (Fig.2.29),  a convective  i n a t t h e lower  out a t the h i g h e r  loop i s  level  level.  A  and  minimum  d i s t a n c e o f 2 m i s r e q u i r e d between o p e n i n g s t o s t a r t  maintain  between  in a courtyard  c o o l i n g of a i r ,  t h e c o o l e r a i r coming  a i r rising  and  should  by  structures.  facing  started  temperature  the surrounding  and r e s u l t i n g  openings are provided  wall  air  of c o o l e r a i r s t a y s  than  maximizing  incoming  convective  openings cooling,  and a d d i t i o n a l  effective  will but  loop.  A larger  vertical  i n c r e a s e a i r movement will  cost.  also involve  Therefore,  for providing structural  distance desirable  more  building  courtyards  may be  r a t h e r than  comfort  zone w i t h i n t h e  dwelling  cooling. A can  higher be  a i r movement achieved  with  in a occupied  cross v e n t i l a t i o n .  when o u t s i d e a i r i s c o o l e r than created windward desired following  by c r o s s v e n t i l a t i o n and  leeward  air  movement  factors are  and  and s i z e  the  a i r movement  evening, will  i f windows o f t h e room on  s i d e s a r e opened.  In o r d e r  distribution  in  a  to  be both  achieve  room,  the  respect  to  important:  - o r i e n t a t i o n of i n l e t wind d i r e c t i o n a n d , - their p o s i t i o n and Position  inside,  In  and o u t l e t  windows w i t h  size.  o f windows i s c o n s i d e r e d 125  at  fabric  design  Fig.2.29.  Size of C o u r t y a r d Force.  F i g . 2 . 3 0 . T e r r a c e s f o r Row  f o r A i r E x c h a n g e due  Housing.  126  to  Thermal  level  whereas  their  o r i e n t a t i o n i s decided  at  form  design  level. 5.2.  Orientation  The  wind  movement  in  summer  Orienting  windows  towards  effective  because  the  through  the  the  On  oblique  wind d i r e c t i o n ,  affected  by  higher.  B a s e d on  east  the  physiological  a  and  surfaces  between  gain  from  straight  windows a r e  oriented  area  average v e l o c i t i e s  than  30°  very  section  a  required  east  be  southfor  In a hot  and  has  of  to  be  conditions  east-west.  the  will will  south  temperature  15 and  not  flow  l a r g e r indoor  fulfil  ambient  is  west.  limited  considerations,  form w i l l  where  i f the  a  to  a  greater  orientation south  will  of also  solar radiation.  PROMOTE RADIANT COOLING  6.1. At  these  only  i n f l u e n c e than v e n t i l a t i o n ,  minimize heat 6.  hand  c o o l i n g more e f f e c t i v e l y  climate,  larger  other  a i r flow,  o r i e n t a t i o n of  comfort dry  the  east  case w i l l  ventilating  (Givoni,1981).  the  wind d i r e c t i o n  a i r in t h i s  rooms,  t o the  i s from  Terraces  night,  long  temperature temperature. spaces  wave r e - r a d i a t i o n t o t h e  of h o r i z o n t a l s u r f a c e s This  in dwellings  surface  (Givoni,  ground  and  advantageous Terrace  phenomenon at  1981).  middle to  night  floor  form h o u s i n g ,  be  the  In m u l t i p l e roofs are  have t e r r a c e s on  used  help  of an  storey  row  not  these  some  exposed  roof  houses,  where  exposed, levels  the air  for cooling  in a d d i t i o n to p r o v i d i n g  1 27  causes  t o d r o p below ambient  can  with  c l e a r sky  it  is  (Fig.2.30).  radiant  cooling  for  the  suitable  s p a c e s under t e r r a c e s , f o r use i n the evening  Terraces,  however,  daytime. shading of  create  As a remedy t o the roof  these  during  Use o f movable mater i a l  b.  Fixed  c.  Shading  to this  gain  during  p r o b l e m v a r i o u s methods o f  daytime  c a n be c o n s i d e r e d .  s h a d e s made o f c a n v a s o r some  by d e c i d u o u s are  cooling  least  Some  and  a short  on  to  life  effective  effective Movable materials  span. Shading  wiremesh,  about  not  than  because shades  heat  with  of  have m a i n t e n e n c e  gain  radiant  t h e ambient  1 28  they  made  creepers  2 m above t h e r o o f  interfere  t e m p e r a t u r e s a r e lower  materials  by d e c i d u o u s  method o f c o n t r o l l i n g do  weight  insulating  creepers  at night.  and some i n s u l a t i n g  creepers  t h e p r o b l e m of h e a t  the  space  and a t n i g h t .  s h a d e s made of l i g h t  shades  radiant timber  outdoor  methods a r e :  a.  Fixed  also provides  obstruct canvas, problems trained  surface  on t h e  i s an  roof.  cooling  temperature.  as  The leaf  SECTION I V :  FABRIC DESIGN STRATEGIES  1.  INTRODUCTION  2.  MINIMIZE SOLAR GAIN, PROMOTE CONTROL GLARE 2. 1 . Windows: I n t r o d u c t i o n 2. 2. Window Orientation 2. 3. E x t e r i o r 2. 4. E x t e r i o r A c c e s s o r i e s 2. 5. The Window 2. 6. I n t e r i o r A c c e s s o r i e s 2. 7. I n t e r i o r  3.  DELAY PERIODIC HEAT FLOW, MINIMIZE CONDUCTIVE HEAT FLOW 3.1. Roof and W a l l s : Thickness, Materials, Colour  129  VENTILATION,  1. INTRODUCTION The  fabric  roof,  of a  dwelling  built  thickness. rejects,  Each  At  various  conditions  to  different  of  receives  (Fig.2.31). design  with  these or  the  comprises  of windows,  building  elements  moderates  fabric  acts the  design  level  and  as a f i l t e r  that  an  bring  a desired  However,  and  materials  external  elements which can level.  walls  climate  architect  can  the i n t e r n a l thermal the  particular  ( W A L L S , WINKWS, l&MF)  Fig.2.31. emphasis the  fabric  levels The  of  Fabric and  design  is  effort  dependent  of  External  required  Climate.  f o r each  element  on s t r a t e g i e s f o l l o w e d  at.  of  earlier  design.  strategies  enhancing  as a F i l t e r  thermal  for  windows  comfort  walls  and  are discussed  130  roof in  design the  for  following  sections. 2.  MINIMIZE SOLAR GAIN,  2.1.  Windows:  Traditional built effect  Introduction  dwellings  with  a  of  i n the  hot  and  minimum window a r e a  extreme  contemporary  PROMOTE VENTILATION, CONTROL GLARE  climate.  dwelling  is  A  expected  dry  regions  to  reduce  window, to  in India the  adverse  however,  serve  the  were  in  a  following  f u n c t i ons: a. b.  to permit d a y l i g h t , t o promote v e n t i l a t i o n f o r c o m f o r t and cooling, to p r o v i d e view, t o m i n i m i z e s o l a r g a i n i n summer, to allow winter heat g a i n , t o g i v e p r o t e c t i o n from g l a r e , t o p r o v i d e n o i s e i n s u l a t i o n , and t o f u l f i l l the a e s t h e t i c s of f a c a d e .  c. d. e. f. g. h. Because  of  their  windows p e r m i t  With  is  However,  not  respect  to  transmit  s e v e r a l times g r e a t e r  (Givoni,1981,). windows  ability  the  based only  heat  overall  on  heat  to thermal comfort  gain  by  are  to provide  glare,  and  t o promote n a t u r a l v e n t i l a t i o n  structural all  these  gain  cooling. functions.  i n the  could,  in  turn,  ventilation important  room may  Window d e s i g n For  collectively  that  the  the  in  cooling. thermal  solar  for  need  a small  comfort  comfort  one  and  balancing  window  the  must  of  gain,  to decrease  Therefore,  e m p h a s i s on  131  functions  summer  depriving  of  solar radiation.  is a careful  to d e s i g n i n g  result  achieving so  instance,  lead  for comfort for  p r o t e c t i o n from  areas  performance  important  windows  radiation,  than w a l l  thermal  gain  the  solar  structural  heat which  interior all be  function  of  of  functions considered does  not  result  in depriving  design  becomes even more c o m p l i c a t e d  such as  providing  The  solar gain,  are  regulated  the o c c u p a n t s of the o t h e r s .  view  ventilation  of a d e s i g n e r .  window  area,  contradictory achieve and  improve window and  d e s i r a b l e thermal  each  function  accessories  On a c c o u n t factors,  overall  of the window  design.  as  with  only  parts  as  functions  order  Exter i o r  b.  Exterior  c.  The  d.  Interior  e.  Interior  and  complex  i t i s useful identified with  to  the design  of  canopies important.  several part  of p a r t s  environment  i n the o v e r a l l  Accessor les  Window Accessor les  1 32  design of  the  of  the  i t in  exterior climate,  interior  to  accessories  to d i f f e r e n t i a t e  with  the  factors  t o s i m p l i f y the complexity  follows: a.  these  projections,  i s t h e most  identified  The h i e r a r c h y  Therfore,  the  horizontal  difficult  t h e window becomes e q u a l l y  design In  window  shading  contradictory  terms o f e x t e r i o r p a r t s  1980).'  performance  separately.  window s y s t e m ,  interior  it  and  windows  However,  make  such  around  and  materials.  parts  by  of these are  windows  additional  landscaping  fabric  of  functions  which a r e w i t h i n the  its vertical  glazing  functions  require  permitted  The most s i g n i f i c a n t  the  window  considered.  factors  i t s orientation, and  when a d d i t i o n  and g l a r e  by s e v e r a l d e s i g n  control  positioning  are also  The  window  and (Leu,  system i s  Each of t h e s e p a r t s the  influence  o f t h e window s y s t e m c a n h e l p  of  exterior  on  conditions.  The  i s dependent  on t h e e l e m e n t s o f e x t e r n a l  the  day and t h e month.  parts a.  i s given  internal  a r c h i t e c t u r a l design  A general  thermal  of these  climate,  parts  the time of  i n t r o d u c t i o n of  a l l  these  below.  Exterior  The  e x t e r i o r o f t h e window s y s t e m c o n s t i t u t e s t h e  surfaces, the  vegetation,  first  effects b.  specific  climate  i n modifying  of c l i m a t e  c a n be  shutters,  by  which  the  adverse  blinds,  exterior  reduced.  Accessories  c o n s t i t u t e shading  fully  e t c . The e x t e r i o r e l e m e n t s a r e  f a c t o r s i n window d e s i g n  Exterior  These  screens  surrounding  awnings,  attached  accessories  to  is  devices,  and s c r e e n s , windows.  to control  roller  a l l of which a r e p a r t l y or  The b a s i c solar  gain  purpose  of  and  modify  to  exterior wind  movement. c. The  The Window window  system  itself  as i t  permitting  influences  heat  position,  and  important  design  d.  Interior  Interior  i s an i m p o r t a n t  gain  part  the i n t e r n a l  and v e n t i l a t i o n .  of  overall  thermal  conditions  The window  t h e t y p e o f window m a t e r i a l  window  area,  by its  u s e d a r e t h e most  factors.  accessories  accessories  provide  c o n t r o l over  through  the  window.  such as d r a p e s , the  blinds  solar r a d i a t i o n that  Although  they are  1 33  not  and is  shutters, permitted  effective  for  reducing e.  heat  colours  supplement especially  and the  careful  2.2.  Window  because  2.32  window  in  shading  devices  various  south  it  in  windows.  window  d i c t a t e s the  parts  gain  design  design  of the o v e r a l l  orientations.  of  window  permitted  The window  used  to  This  is  is  its  both  the  system. by  is  and i s u n v e n t i l a t e d . The e f f e c t  a  1mx1m  without  any  of o r i e n t a t i o n  and i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s on window s y s t e m d e s i g n a r e  gain  t h r o u g h windows f a c i n g s o u t h  i s .lower t h a n orientation  evening  as  benefit  ventilation. south  shading  gain  maximum,  wind  o f wind  window a r e a  both  minimum  summer  less  flow  is  through hence  east  shading  and west  relatively  1 34  the  orientation will  gain  and  comfort  altitude  o f sun  effective  devices.  f a c i n g windows  smaller  in  east-west.  i t i s easier to provide  complicated  summer.  movement  in this heat  t o 30° e a s t of during  In a d d i t i o n , due t o a h i g h e r  during with  orientations  allows  direction  larger from  other  also  the  Therefore,  Heat  be  below:  The h e a t  This  of  can  g l a r e w h i c h c a n be a c c o m p l i s h e d  shows t h e s o l a r h e a t  gain  summarized  walls  performance  consideration  and i n t e r i o r  heat  of the  Orientation  Figure  in  material  thermal  important  exterior  b.  glare.  s e l e c t i o n of c o l o r .  orientation  a.  can reduce  useful f o r reducing  with  on  they  Interior  The  An  gain,  and  fewer  i s the windows  3?  2: IH - T^TAL THINNESS *  \ \  H  V> I'  : /  \ \  1  E  'OTH  / /  / • ^.  mi ^ ,  o  Fig.2.32.  Fig.2.33.  4-5M*1  Solar Heat Gain Permitted Various Orientations.  by a  - piFPUSB = -SK^UHPKEFLfccT&P 12.AP1ATWNS' 1 0 • -WlKp^>w WITHOUT  1mx1m  Window  in  S o l a r A l t i t u d e and Windows i n v a r i o u s O r i e n t a t i o n s . a. S o l a r A l t i t u d e d u r i n g Summer a n d Windows i n S o u t h b. S o l a r A l t i t u d e d u r i n g Summer a n d Windows i n E a s t and West.  1 35  should  be  placed  design  of  fixed  orientations. sun  for  are  complicated East  d.  more  comfort,  when  the  This  implies  that  the  North  facing  but  can  the  with  the d e g r e e and  2.3. In  angle  than  Therefore,  these  require  more  overhangs. west  facing  ones f o r  r e c e i v e summer sun  window a r e a  less  is  i n the  heat  in north  some d i s c o m f o r t  in  maximum.  east  can  be  gain  than  east  is beneficial  during winter  and  i n summer  due  to  the  sun.  efficiency  of v e n t i l a t i o n  of  be  altered,  shading  conditions  however,  d e v i c e s and  (Givoni  with  1981).  Exterior addition  to  direct  diffuse  and  relative  p r o p o r t i o n of  window  at  radiation,  reflected  latitude  radiation. these  25°N.  upon a window v a r i e s w i t h materials With  direct  temperature  i n v a r i o u s o r i e n t a t i o n s can  presence  these  r e c e i v e summer  t o shade and  former  in  the  west.  a b s e n c e of d i r e c t gain  or west  more  air  window a r e a  Heat  east  addition,  critical  b e t t e r than  windows a l l o w  cause  most  vertical  s i n c e the  evening  west. L a r g e r  the  difficult  the  than  In  (Fig.2.33a,b).  windows a r e  larger  is  at a  h o r i z o n t a l and  facing  thermal  h o u r s and  exposures  windows  c.  shading  facades.  Windows f a c i n g  more  southern  i n these  the  surrounding lower  the  altitude  of  the Figure  components The  the  2.34  upon a  reflected  sun,  1 36  receive  shows  south  radiation  r e f l e c t a n c e value  window and the  buildings  of  the  facing incident surface  i t s orientation. such  as  in east  and  west  Fig.2.34.  R e l a t i v e P r o p o r t i o n o f G r o u n d R e f l e c t e d , D i r e c t and Diffused Solar R a d i a t i o n I n c i d e n t upon a South f a c i n g Window a t L a t i t u d e 25 N  RESULT aV- HI*W AlT'TUPg-  Fig.2.35.  Solar South  intern-  A l t i t u d e and R e f l e c t o r A r e a Orientations. 1 37  in East,  West  and  orientations, increases  area the  reflector  (Fig.2.35)  radiation these  the  which  area in  surrounding  turn  i n c i d e n t upon t h e window.  orientations surrounding window  will  radiation.  be  will  used  in  they 2.4. The solar  however,  do not d e f l e c t Exterior basic  also  Accessories  to  of  devices  devices  reflected  than  t h e window  hedges and  sill  so t h a t  to  control  i t in  winter.  is  accessories  thermal  is  comfort.  to  The  promote  accessories  ventilation,  however,  for solar control of e x t e r i o r a c c e s s o r i e s shading  devices.  horizontal,  whereas  the a d j u s t a b l e  and a v a r i e t y o f l o u v e r s :  combinations moved  outside  d a y l i g h t , g l a r e , and v i e w .  include  shutters  exterior  adjustable  projections  the  t h e summer and t o p e r m i t  enhance  T h e r e a r e two t y p e s and  reflector  The s h r u b s ,  f o r s o l a r c o n t r o l and c o m f o r t  affect  fixed  be lower  in  r e d u c e t h e t e m p e r a t u r e of  of e x t e r i o r a c c e s s o r i e s  during  function  designed  concern  Accessories  gain  ventilation  solar  d e s i r e d a i r movement.  purpose  heat  Another  also  should  the  the  reducing  i n c o m i n g a i r i f t h e windows a r e open. plants,  for  window  The use of l a n d s c a p i n g  effective  Landscaping  increases  The g r e a t e s t  i s the m a t e r i a l  t h e window.  the  at w i l l exert  of both.  their  effect  changing  The  devices  and  shading  shading eggcrate  include  vertical,  wood  h o r i z o n t a l and devices  requirements,  in a predetermined  1 38  fixed  vertical  The a d j u s t a b l e  to f u l f i l l  for solar control:  can  but  fashion.  be  fixed  In  order  first Both the  to design  know  fixed  the s o l a r  can be f o u n d , day,  by  latitude.  shading devices  the a r c h i t e c t  a l t i t u d e and t h e s o l a r  azimuth  f o r any d a t e of t h e y e a r  using  the  Fig.2.36a  sun-path diagram  shows  the  must  angles.  and any hour  of  f o r the p a r t i c u l a r  sun p a t h d i a g r a m  for  25°N  lat itude. The  next  step  the  sun p a t h d i a g r a m .  e a c h month, the  i s to define  the  shading  mask p l a c e d shadow  t h e mean h o u r l y  period  Due size  of  on t h e sun p a t h  f o r any  solar  orientations.  solar  control  d e v i c e s may  Therefore,  in a positive  and  information  projections  can  the  and  sun c a n g i v e  way  by  can u t i l i z e  giving  for  in  a strong  shape  various  addition  to  architectural this  aesthetic  an i n d i v i d u a l  character  facade.  fixed  shading  conventional  simplicity  On  this  be d i f f e r e n t controls,  potential  option,  from  solar  t o a f a c a d e . An a r c h i t e c t  the  With  solar  vertical  a l t i t u d e and a z i m u t h ,  character  The  diagram,  a  orientation.  protection  each  with  and h o r i z o n t a l  providing  to  for  and marked on  determined,  a n g l e s c a n be f o u n d .  to d i f f e r e n t  on  temperatures  c a n be d e f i n e d  is  d e p t h and shape of v e r t i c a l  be d e t e r m i n e d  the overheated p e r i o d  (Fig.2.36b).  overheated  horizontal the  Using  the overheated p e r i o d  sun p a t h d i a g r a m  Once  and mark  of  building their  especially  the negative  devices are  easy  construction  integration  f o r south  side,  also  methods  makes  facing  to  them  into  in India. an  The  attractive  windows.  the performance of f i x e d  1 39  integrate  shading  devices,  © 2.36.  a. Sun P a t h D i a g r a m f o r L a t i t u d e 25°N b. O v e r h e a t e d P e r i o d f o r L a t i t u d e 25°N  1 40  designed  to control  temperature, illustrated  solar gain  may  during  the p e r i o d s  n o t be a s e f f e c t i v e a s  by G i v o n i  with  desired.  maximum This  is  (1981):  "The functional requirements f o r solar control differ w i d e l y w i t h r e g i o n a l c l i m a t e s and, within each region, with seasonal c l i m a t i c variations. T h i s problem i s f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d because of the d i f f e r e n t y e a r l y p a t t e r n s o f t e m p e r a t u r e and s o l a r radiation. W h i l e t h e i n t e n s i t y of s o l a r r a d i a t i o n (in t h e n o t h e r n h e m i s p h e r e ) has i t s maximum on June 22nd and ' i t s minimum on December 22nd, t h e temperature y e a r l y wave i s d e l a y e d on a c c o u n t of the heat capacity of the e a r t h ' s surface and r e a c h e s i t s maximum i n J u l y - A u g u s t and i t s minimum in January-Feburary. Therefore when t h e sun i s excluded i n t h e h o t l a t e summer by some fixed arrangement i t w i l l be e x c l u d e d t o o i n t h e c o o l spring, so t h a t some compromise i s r e q u i r e d in t h i s case." In  addition,  materials an  like  expensive  For  fixed steel  shading  and c o n c r e t e  adjustable  satisfactory  inexpensive  to  like  wooden s h u t t e r s  upto  90% of t h e h e a t i n g  periods Table used  w i t h maximum IV  lists  exterior  influence  included  that  horizontal  Vertical  in this  than  on  table.  projections vertical  projections  of are  provide  relatively  shading  devices  to eliminate  r a d i a t i o n during  the  i n summer.  thermal  of these d e v i c e s  also  effective  temperature  will  be  i t i s possible  e f f e c t by s o l a r  use  gain.  will  With a d j u s t a b l e  shading devices  the  construction,  of h e a t  and  and l o u v e r s ,  the  to  shading devices  performance  construct.  due  for their  s o l u t i o n to the problem  such c o n d i t i o n s ,  more  devices,  p e r f o r m a n c e o f some i n h o t and d r y daylight,  i n south to  on t h e e a s t  141  climates.  glare  It i s indicated  and  solar  and west a r e  The  view i s  in this  orientation  control  commonly  are  table more  radiation. effective  in  IV.  Performance  Device -  of E x t e r i o r  T H E R M A L  Shading  Devices.  vimm/wcb  P&PUC& -U>UKYi GAIN & F E £ T l V f c L Y IN- R S D U C S DAYU6HT POTENTIAL9, <SW,SE. - p<? N<2T B'U^CK V I E W (l^VCB ( 9 L A t f E _ COLLECT PUSTP&FL6£T IA/IHP A P V A N T A d e ^ L S L Y LfeA^T  EFFECTIVE  <2>N  & 4  w  FACADES •  P^3&CTI<?NS-  S<»LA|£ (SAIN IN A N Y ^ K I G N T A T W N I M P K ^ ^ & W I N D VELOCITY' s£ D I S . T ^ 1 6 » U T ^ N • IN lNTt=Mau>yi-  PAV2TICULAYlLY fepPECTlV& IN <5B A M D S Y V - ^ R l B N T A T l ^ N ^ F<?l? K E D U i - i ^ -S^WUK. « - A l N • tfepi^B i/erHTlL-AT'^N ^ A f A  - iREDL^-e -P»L<?cK  K^DUC-e  K B P t / i S WIND VELOCITY VfcNTlUATi-oN.^L-ArZS- P E P U C & PUST-  feUTALUJVV  P*wa*5dTO?NS AT  DAYU6H  fcT&HTlAL  <3-u6.<5.TANTlAu_Y•g.XPeNSlv& •B'U^Cli  LATTICE (3ALl)  DA.YLIG.HT RSTfeNTlAUl/IBW PAKTIAU-Y-  S^LUTWN  VIEW  PARTIALLY'  -Reduce D A Y U ^ H T P;?TSNTIAL. Afe'S-THe-n^At-LY PLEA^IHS- •  * U B S T A N Tl A L L Y -  4e>* AN6L&-  ' p»L^<s.|<.  W M P "SUfesTANTlAU-Y-  T^> s<5LA^  r^TSNTlAl-  fcSATBNT-  McOVBAfoLE  •yatPUC-e S<?LAW. d A t M ^Ufe»TANTlAU* • | a B D « * = e W ^ P -fe=L-<*£.K W 1 N P - S U B S T A N T I A L L Y *.&U»<^< ^ H U T m ^ S (CUSEDJ  D A Y L J f i H T «.U&srAVTl*LOf VIPVV  Stfe.STANnALL.Y-  11  .RteT>U<iE (SAtW IN  ALL  tfKlBNTAIWNS  M A y <SS*/FUCT W t T H M^VBMteNTH^BPlfclEi < s L A £ e1VERTICAL  ujuv&tes;  •  »,  DEDUCE  G.L-A»2.e •  PAYU6HT Vl&YV  W-&NTIAL • PARTIALLY'  Wlivp  -tiFVfes^TlV&L.'Y V2BD1/CB -SdL-ArZ. « A i N IN A L L . <9Y21B N T A T U » N £ • -plRBCT W I N D N A W & M E N T VN THfe p l r a e c T I / W H5«ITl^H-SD T V  <2<ary"trtiL 4^LAl4  • VJuSCJf.  dfiilW.  142  - f Z E ? t > y ^ a p a y U 6 H T P^TENTIAL. p.L<JCK VVEJW PARTIALLY-  providing the  adequate  south.  shading  This  only  position,  i f they  are  however,  tilted  at  45  to  eliminates  comfort  adjustable  external  vent i l a t i o n . The  thermal  shading room  p e r f o r m a n c e of  devices  improves  is unventilated  colours and  reflect  an  by  Accessories The  of  the  forms, always  only  possible  with  a.  A  and  darker  interior  from the  heat  the  air  row  solar radiation  h o u s e s or  are  cross  other  exposed,  it  ventilation  leeward d i r e c t i o n . f o r such cases  enhance c o m f o r t  as  cooling  may  compact is  not  by  keeping  The  exterior  they  accelerate  particularly  i n windward d i r e c t i o n .  Figure  in 2.37  this:  wind  one  window  velocity  (Fig.2.37a,b). pressure  the  room.  facades  advantageous  room w i t h  lower  In  provide  windows o n l y  illustrates  i s because  elevate  for c o n t r o l l i n g  windward and  wind v e l o c i t y  rooms  c o l o u r s and  ventilation  two  to  windows i n b o t h a c c e s s o r i e s are  This  does not  unventilated  ventilation.  where  of d a r k e r  1981).  devices,  t o promote  promote  are  and  in e x t e r n a l a i r temperature,  a c c e s s o r i e s designed  also  the  i f they  (Givoni,  shading  temperature  fixed  l e s s e r s o l a r r a d i a t i o n t o w a r d s the  increase  absorbed  both  This  gradient  is  in.windward d i r e c t i o n than  a  because  across  the  cross the  has  a much  ventilated internal  opening  is  room  external  very  small  (Melaragno,1983). b.  By the  providing  two  s i n g l e window  (Fig.2.37c)  the  windows in f i r s t  (with a t o t a l case)  wind v e l o c i t y  1 43  area  equal  to  in  windward  direction  i n the  same room  improves,  Fig.2.37.  V e r t i c a l P r o j e c t i o n s a n d Wind V e l o c i t y i n a Room. a . Wind V e l o c i t y i n a C r o s s V e n t i l a t e d Room. b. Wind V e l o c i t y i n a Room w i t h One Window. c . Wind V e l o c i t y i n a Room w i t h Two Windows on t h e Same W a l l d. Wind Velocity with the Addition of V e r t i c a l Projections. S o u r c e s : C h a n d r a , S u b r a t o , 1983. M e l a r a g n o , 1982 1 44  but  only  moderately  as  the  pressure  gradient  is  still  to  these  small. c.  However,  when  windows  vertical  (Fig.2.37d) the  increases  dramatically.  this  case  increases  only  if  the  windows.  pressure and  a  The  the  region  suction  added  wind  t i m e s the  of  to  vertical  in front  outlet  of  room  velocity case  the  i n wind v e l o c i t y i s  addition  the  same  first  d i r e c t i o n i s oblique  i s formed  at  interior  three  improvement  because, with  are  wind v e l o c i t y i n the  almost  wind  This  projections  but  inlet  achieved  projections,  the  in  inlet  window r e s u l t i n g i n  a  window improved  cross v e n t i l a t i o n . The  depth  factor  for  However, 2-3  of  openings. wind  The  more t h a n one projections i n the  of  fixed  pressure  below the  occupied  do  pressure.  T h e r e may  be  not on  build-up  a conflict  an  are  (Givoni,1981).  provided  the  important  f o r windows  d e p t h of  of  projections  the  distance  between  two  than  t h i s may  obstruct  the  room. influence the  the  v e l o c i t y of a i r ,  projections the  room.  thus  upwards  (Fig.2.38a). building  in a  eliminate  window,  a i r flow  between d e s i r a b l e  1 45  the  a i r flow p a t t e r n  above  airflow and  not  conditions  window d i r e c t s the  projection  downward  larger  horizontal  zone w i t h o u t  horizontal  half  adjacent  projections  instance,  is  same o r i e n t a t i o n ,  have s i g n i f i c a n t impact  pressure  the  projections  movement  effect  the  vertical  be  Horizontal  For  ventilation  if  not  projections  improving  rooms i n the  should  but  vertical  face  A gap can  the the  leaving between  ensure  a i r flow p a t t e r n  a  and  Fig.2.38.  a . F i x e d H o r i z o n t a l P r o j e c t i o n s and A i r F l o w . b. A d j u s t a b l e H o r i z o n t a l L o u v e r s and a i r Flow, Source: Fathy, 1986  ALL  Fig.2.39.  Heat South  g a i n T h r o u g h Windows of Orientation.  1 46  WINDOWS.  Different  Areas  in  control  of  solar  radiation  horizontal  louvers.  will  the a i r flow  in  direct  a room,  2.5. Window A  the  not p r e v e n t  occupied  angled zone  downward  (Fig.2.38b)  t h e sun t o p e n e t r a t e .  Area  windows  amount o f h e a t  takes  radiation glass,  place  heat  window  Window a r e a  i s also  (m /h)  exchange  t h e window  the  minimum  area  of  the  window in  (Fig.2.39).  the  i n a space, For a given  window  also  comfort  compatible  of  constant  consideration  a i r exchange  when  rate  t h e windows a r e  outdoor  wind  increases  velocity,  proportionately  p o i n t of view o f r e d u c i n g  a  Therefore,  a  glass  consideration for structural  as i t d e t e r m i n e s  orientation,  in  For  factor  radiation  closed  area.  from  resulting  gain  r a t e i n a space  Whereas,  reduce  the  important  an i m p o r t a n t  i n the evening.  with  solar  g a i n by s o l a r  and wind v e l o c i t y  air  through  radiation.  i s t h e most  cooling  the  gain  solar  and  area  heat  comfort  by  flow  determining  opened  into  louvers  adjustable  Window  significant  and  positioning  For instance,  but w i l l  The  in  is  desirable  considerable decrease and s t r u c t u r a l  heat  gain,  even  in  south  i n window  area  will  cooling  in  the  an i n c r e a s e d dependence on m e c h a n i c a l  window with  area  should  be  adequate  comfort  and  a  kept  to  evening cooling.  a  minimum  structural  cooling  r e q u i rements. When t h e in  window a r e a  n o r t h and s o u t h  shading  i s 25-30% o f t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g  orientations,  and minimum v e n t i l a t i o n ,  and i s d e s i g n e d  wall  with  proper  t h e room a i r t e m p e r a t u r e  1 47  area  and  requirements  for mechanical  time  in  summer  night  (between  (Shrifteilig,  9 p.m.  the  room has  air  temperature  between  the  day  Window  area  velocity  is  In a room w i t h  of  case  also If  an  one  only  a the  inlet When  i s larger higher a  than  room. Such an  is  t o be  directed  velocities  the  5  inlet  on  25-30% during  within  when  wind  an  air  on  direction  area  i n the  air  unequal  are  velocity, are  average obtained  inlet  limited  with  the  speeds  and  (Fig.2.41).  larger  room.  the  the average  On  outlet, indoor  but  and  to a small  the  of  increased  outlet  s e c t i o n of  i s d e s i r a b l e when t h e a i r  •1 48  and  size  openings,  higher  than  in  (Givoni,1981).  openings  p a r t of  air  velocity  window  internal  is larger but  The  with  outlet  airflow,  a r e much lower  by  A  determining  increase  of a s m a l l  at a given  indoor  (Golneshan,1985).  for  space an  inlet,  arrangement  and  (22-30°C).  it  especially  velocities  combination  the  when  the  keeps  window.  a room has  maximum  produces a concentrated  hand,  and  open  space.  a larger  effect  at  i n f l u e n c e of window a r e a  to the  greater  simultaneously.  However,  factor  is cross ventilated,  when  much  and  (Fig.2.40),  over  and  the  achieved  comfort  c o o l i n g in a  is oblique  has  outlet  important  day  room a i r t e m p e r a t u r e  increases proportionately  room  windows  the  hour,  range  night,  cooling  window the  is distributed a  the  the  evening  the windows a r e  comfort  thermal  is appreciable  a i r flow  this  during  of  f o r comfort  velocity  w i t h i n the  to s t r u c t u r a l range  In t h e  a i r c h a n g e s per  a l s o improves  due  acceptable  12-30  rate  area,  1980).  t o 7 a.m.), i f  drops  h i g h a i r change window  c o o l i n g a r e minimum d u r i n g  the  stream other maximum  velocity  is  Fig.2.40.  A Larger Window A r e a I n c r e a s e s Wind V e l o c i t y i n a Room with One Window Especially When Wind i s O b l i q u e t o t h e Window.  Fig.2.41.  H i g h e r Wind V e l o c i t y I n s i d e a C r o s s v e n t i l a t e d Room Can be A c h i e v e d When i t Has U n e q u a l O p e n i n g s a n d the O u t l e t i s L a r g e r than t h e I n l e t . S o u r c e : G i v o n i , 1981  149  not  affected  required, Window A  much.  a large  When a i r f l o w inlet  significant  effect  and  The  vertical  position  distribution,  varies  instance  in  occupied the  by  room,  providing  In  cooking  on  air  the  air  in  a dwelling.  For  where most of  (70  the  to  120cm.) of  area  be  cooling  above bed  levels  in these  will  the  seated  rooms  i n the  level  not  be  and  is  desired  bedrooms t h e main a i r f l o w  below t h e s e  (50  to  effective will  only  gain.  k i t c h e n space, important  is  respect to  usage  at a h e i g h t a l i t t l e  comfort  the heat  position  t h e main a i r f l o w w i l l  1969).  Windows kept  best  desirable.  with  space  height  80cm.).  In t h e  with  shoulder  s h o u l d be  to  is  space.  of a window,  living  evening  more  be  window in a  seated people,  (Givoni,  increase  of  velocity  the  head and  people  in  will  t h e whole space  positioning  distribution  at  opening  through  than  odours  achived through  requirement proper  and  air distribution  moisture.  breeze  i n k i t c h e n may  level,  whereas a i r d i s t r i b u t i o n  will  be  above  the  counter  to  be  velocity  due  in kitchen  are  t o the  ceiling.  r e q u i r e d below t h e c o u n t e r above or a t t h e work t o p  cooking  top l e v e l  and  A i r changes  windows p l a c e d c l o s e r  light  disruptive  f o r adequate a i r changes i s  are  activity.  However,  A top  level  windows  required for daylighting  in  kitchen. If  the  room  i s cross ventilated,  a small  the a i r ,  but  there  i s an  abrupt  level  of an  inlet  window. T h i s i m p l i e s t h a t  sill  on  the d i s t r i b u t i o n  150  drop  in  and  the  window has  the  effect  t h e h e i g h t of  outlet  velocity  air velocity a  of  below proper  vertical the  p o s i t i o n o f an i n l e t  o u t l e t window  in a cross  window  ventilated  In a d d i t i o n t o a i r d i s t r i b u t i o n also  affects  glare.  Glare  windows  on  on  opposite  also eye  reduced  level  which  to the c e i l i n g . adequate  and  comparatively will  be  courtyard.  small  window  free  i s painted  a light  light  onto the w a l l  source  of a l e s s e r  Window  materials  choice  window. materials glass gain  surface  gain  and  wooden  the  sill  reflected  interior  lighting, Low  placed  can above  light way  on  ensure  through  a  level  windows  and  planted  i n t o a shaded  i n the c o r n e r s of  glare  (Fig.2.42d).  material  i f the adjacent This  will  a r e t h e two  is  throw  apparent  were e f f e c t i v e  also  most  commonly  completely.  151  a  used  used  before  in controlling  heat  the daytime.  obstruct  important through  Wooden s h u t t e r s ,  c l o s e d windows d u r i n g shutters  f o r a window  and p r o m o t i n g v e n t i l a t i o n  glass  became p o p u l a r ,  closed  problem.  The g l a r e  thus p r o v i d i n g a l a r g e r  f o r windows i n I n d i a .  f o r the  with  luminance.  heat  Wood  this  can i n t h i s  i n reducing  colour  of a p p r o p r i a t e  minimizing  ground  strip-windows  a l s o be e f f e c t i v e  A room  ceiling  open  contrast  by p o s i t i o n i n g windows  (Fig.2.42c).  i f they  Vertical  wall  in  colour  the  have  (Fig.2.42b).  also concentrates  diffused  will  The  walls  well  room  always  by p o s i t i o n i n g windows w i t h  A light  glare  window p o s i t i o n  (Fig.2.42a).  c a n be r e c t i f i e d  or a d j a c e n t  be  will  than  space.  i s a f u n c t i o n of  t h e window and window w a l l  However, s u c h p r o b l e m  important  and v e l o c i t y ,  between  one w a l l o n l y  i s more  However, t h e  daylight  and  view  Fig.2.42.  G l a r e From Windows. a. G l a r e due t o C o n t r a s t between Window and Window Wall. b. R e d u c e d G l a r e by P o s i t i o n i n g Windows on A d j a c e n t Walls. c. A high L e v e l Window w i t h L i g h t C o l o u r Ceiling Reduces G l a r e . d. C o r n e r windows Reduce G l a r e . S o u r c e : G u p t a , 1984  1 52  Windows  fitted  shutters, but  to  since  also allow  earlie'r  with  wooden l o u v e r s  they  not o n l y  for light  ( s e c t i o n 2.4.),  the a i r flow  pattern  perform  provide  better  than  c o n t r o l over  penetration.  wooden  heat  gain  However, as d i s c u s s e d  the p o s i t i o n of louvers may c o n f l i c t  with  with  respect  c o n t r o l of  solar  radiat ion. A  window f i t t e d  effective windov;  intricately  and  air  wood  is  woven  1986).  wood  light With  c a n be c o o l e d  Fig.2.43.  to  be  used  lattice  p r o t e c t i o n from d i r e c t  glarefree  (Fathy,  a wooden l a t t i c e  (Fig.2.43)  i s the  s o l u t i o n i n terms of t h e t h e r m a l performance  if  providing  with  in  a  as  window  (jali),  in  addition  also provides  single  architectural  landscaping  around  the j a l i ,  and h u m i d i f i e d  during  the daytime.  153  of  material.  sun,  I n t r i c a t e l y Woven Wood J a l i S o u r c e : F a t h y , 1986  most  air  a An to  flow  solution  the incoming  a s Window M a t e r i a l .  Although c l e a r glass, of  providing  maximum  radiation. with  The  the  help  replacing these  light  heat  gain  of i n t e r i o r  c l e a r glass with  devices  orientation  admits  (Straaten,  adequate design  of s h a d i n g  Interior  Accessories  The  purpose  of  interior  radiation  and t o p r o v i d e  interior  accessories  shading  devices  s o l a r heat  absorbed  by  interior  which  interior  accessories  accessories  and e x t e r i o r s h a d i n g solar absorbing A  4mm  an  accessories protection  The r e a s o n  glass,  and  but a l l with  r a d i a t i o n i n a south i f clear glass should  devices  is  i s to  be p l a c e d  heat  l e s s heat  regulate  glare.  on  in  external  providing i s that  dissipated gain.  and a l s o  protection part  of heat  towards The  factor.  solar  Although  radiation,  for this is  to  from  solar  i s an i m p o r t a n t  absorb  devices  devices.  adds t o i n t e r n a l  will  reduced  c l e a r g l a s s window  emphasis  obstruct  internal  c a n be  solar  colour  The l i g h t reduce  the of  colour  glare.  Interior  The  windows  fewer  i n h o t and d r y c l i m a t e s  i n number,  will  be low.  the  reflection  room. T h i s the  t h r o u g h a window  a r e more e f f e c t i v e gain.  i t a l s o admits  1967). T h e r e f o r e ,  2.6.  2.7.  view,  1/3 of i m p i n g i n g  used a s window m a t e r i a l ,  from  and  require additional cost.  shading  be  a s a window m a t e r i a l , h a s t h e a d v a n t a g e  with  the r e s u l t  The use o f a l i g h t  colour  reduces the c o n t r a s t which  i n turn  reduces  1 54  t o be s m a l l e r  the i n t e r i o r  lighting  on t h e w a l l s  o f d a y l i g h t and t h e o v e r a l l  i n turn  window w a l l ,  need  and level  increases  brightness  in  a  between t h e window and glare.  3.  DELAY PERIODIC HEAT FLOW, MINIMIZE CONDUCTIVE HEAT FLOW  3.1.  Roof and W a l l s :  Hot  and  dry climates  normally causes  between  External  walls  during  and t h e  moderate  M a t e r i a l s and C o l o u r  potentially  10 and 15°C.  discomfort  which  Thickness,  this  have a h i g h  This  various  roof  high  temperature  times of  should  diurnal  fluctuation  day  and  t h e r e f o r e have  external  range,  temperature  night.  properties range  minimize conductive  heat  flow.  Roof and w a l l s  high  t h e r m a l c a p a c i t y and r e s i s t a n c e  reduce  this  periodic in  with  external  heat  flow  p e r i o d i c heat  lag.  The t i m e  15 h o u r s  to the i n t e r i o r  flow  is  so t h a t  range  roof  the r e l e a s e of heat t h e day,  delaying  i s delayed  This  be a t l e a s t  to the i n t e r i o r , until  the delay  an a d v a n t a g e o u s  should  will  time 12 t o  which i s  the c o o l e r hours of  night.  The  required  orientation. lag  time For  lag  for  instance,  walls  10 and 11a.m. will  maximum likely West  allow  receive  A time  walls  their  l a g of o n l y  when t h e ambient  t o be above t h e c o m f o r t  depends  as they  between  3  S o u t h and n o r t h  summer  time  i s much  lag,  10 h o u r s  heating for  east  to reach  its  is still  level.  8 t o 10 h o u r s ,  a large  maximum  a i r temperature  normally  require  their  r e q u i r e a time  temperature  require a relatively  and 4 p.m.  upon  facing walls  the i n s i d e surface  a t 8p.m.,  facing  walls  east  of 12 t o 14 h o u r s a s t h e y  between  in  by  (Givoni,1981).  a s s o c i a t e d with  l a g f o r an e x p o s e d  absorbed during the  temperature  and  receive  because  lower.  1 55  their  smaller their  time  maximum  lag,  heating  facing walls  do  total  heating  maximum  not  in  order  to  achieve  conductivity, and  specific  (Givoni,  and  and w a l l s  are important  total  thickness  of roof  finishes,  surface.  load  require  insulating provide  increasing  are  cost.  i n India V)  This  t h e same t i m e  suitable  conductivity,  reduce  packed  a time  provide  to achieve  roof.  but a l s o  l a g o f above  t h e c l e a r sky However,  occupancy.  at  this  s i n c e not  it.  Use o f slab  without pots  with  polystyrene (Sodha  and  p o t s on a r o o f , 12 h o u r s and low  surface  area  for  night,  and  cool  kind  Foam c o n c r e t e  1 56  a time  concrete  materials  a  the weight  Earth  earthen  in  concrete,  o r expanded  increased  the  construction  structure.  insulating  closely  to  f o r frequent  to  various  l a g (Koenigsberger,1973)  foam c o n c r e t e ,  Inverted,  than a f l a t  is  of a t h i n n e r  of the t o t a l  addition to providing  faster  to  members t o s u p p o r t  l a y e r on t h e o u t s i d e  emission  from e x t e r n a l  i s u s u a l l y done w i t h  larger structural  some o f t h e recommended  radiation  in  As r o o f  excessive,  a  exterior  combining  would be r e q u i r e d  is  contributes  i s u n l i k e l y t o be e c o n o m i c a l ,  a i r gap ( F i g . 2 . 4 4 ) ,  thermal  for  material  the weight  Bansal,1984). in  and  criteria  including  conduction  construction  i s t h e volume of m a t e r i a l  would  an  the heat  (density  and w a l l s  l a y e r of which  and w a l l  (Table  of 12 h o u r s .  only  can  roof  of 300 mm  materials  One o f t h e r e a s o n s  and d r y r e g i o n s  lag  each  delaying  structural  an  The  thermal  and t h e r m a l p r o p e r t i e s  of l a y e r s o f v a r i o u s  in  slab  low  of roof  materials  hot  and  heat)  and  internal  lag  thickness  interior  modifying  time  the  1981).  combination  a greater  of roof or  i s not  polystyrene  TlVl' 20  feffANDgp  15  •5TB BU  0>0?.<\ 0-0 til  fi?AM6P ALUM1HIUM-  /  10  11 (TO  tit*  y  *  0-15  0-30  0-45  0-60  Thickness: m  T a b l e V.  Time Lag Provided by t h e M a t e r i a l s T h e r m a l P r o p e r t i e s and T h i c k n e s s . S o u r c e : E l Bannany, 1984  RADIATE "G? KYS  Fig.2.44.  Roof F i n i s h e d w i t h E a r t h e n P o t s . S o u r c e : Sodha and B a n s a l , 1984  1 57  of  Various  finished roof  with  which  brick t i l e s  is frequently  more e x p e n s i v e The  walls  they  are  upon the of  than  i n hot  the and  locally  conductive  can  be  built  As  discussed  flow  a a i r gap  orientations  should  required.  east  and 300  the  should mm  time walls  For  that  prevent  the  north  do  not  heat  will  further I f the  220  mm)  south  the  wall  not  walls  less  1981).  For  The  walls  than  west  the  the  0.4,  lag i s 300  rainy  mm  thick  in  India  thick  gain  through  The  and  i s white,  their that  of h e a t  i f w a l l s are  less  than  1 58  here  walls  flow  critical.  and  finishes.  the  through  to  season  mentioned  finishes  of  mm.  required  mm  interior  walls  lag  orientations  220  300  thickesses  the  various time  b u i l d i n g codes  influence  flow  less  provide  exterior of  in  maximum t i m e  must be  and  than  only  heat  reduction  upon the  be  and'conductive. heat  a f f e c t e d by  conductive i s not  The  but,  as  depends  double  orientations,  but  external colour  further  (Givoni,  reducing  should  exterior  a b s o r p t i v i t y of  of w a l l s  lag,  depending  external walls  flow  bricks  further  of  a cavity will  and  the  periodic  thick  different  reasons.  include  decrease  thickness  s e e p a g e of m o i s t u r e d u r i n g  structural  an  For  with  i n between.  sufficient, all  for  with  thickness  p r e f e r a b l y have a c a v i t y .  specify  colour.  built  bricks.  external walls  would be  be  are  a l a r g e r time  the  without  are  pots.  o r i e n t a t i o n s , where the  thick walls lag.  be  The  the  and  earlier,  For  climates  of  more s u i t a b l e f o r a  T h e s e m a t e r i a l s , however,  cheap earthen  available.  heat with  therefore,  used.  dry  available size  required,  are,  is  will  220  mm  exterior colour  in  thicker  walls  (above  SUMMARY AND  CONCLUSIONS  This  research  passive and  s e t out  design  dry  within  of  provide  the  associated A  qualitative  passive Part  techniques  economic and  designed  mechanical  contemporary  term  solution  designs  which are  addition basis  to  for  to  i n the  In P a r t Two, techniques Various  of  t o use,  to user  passive  a conceptual  select  design those  in  thermal to  the which  On  the  other  used  in  the  in  providing  unreliable  as a  encourage  needs.  knowledge and  critically  various  various  dwellings  effective  c o o l i n g p r o b l e m and  contemporary  at  widely  that  residences.  dwellings.  devices  expensive  ill-suited  use  than  p e r f o r m a n c e of  in t r a d i t i o n a l  although  s h a r i n g the the  architects useful  to the  environment  responded e f f e c t i v e l y  cooling  are  additionally  t e c h n o l o g i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s under  dwellings,  comfort,  were  mechanical  residential  constructed their  hot  control  in a d d i t i o n to p r o v i d i n g  techniques  and  modern  strategies  thermal  used  demonstrates that,  cultural,  thermal  the  in  thermal  mechanically-controlled  a n a l y s i s of  passive  hand,  design  design  strategies  effective of  recommend  p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y more a p p e a l i n g  comfort,  people  design  to c r e a t e a  modern,  design  One  and  and  for housing  t h e m i n i m a l use  potential  with  allow  Passive  is visually  evaluate  Passive  they  residences with devices.  suitable  India.  because  cooling  which  identify,  strategies  region  investigated  to  long  dwelling  This analysis,  providing  a  rational  techniques, techniques  in  enables  which  are  context. framework  levels  climate-responsive  for incorporating  of d e s i g n  has  strategies  are  160  been  passive  presented.  selected  at  a  general and  level  then  by c o n s i d e r i n g l o c a l  translated  into  planning,  form  strategies  at a l l l e v e l s  climate these  strategies  application. heat  gain  factor This  In  other  techniques  also  In f a c t ,  strategy  can  be  architectural define  The  priority  in  for  loss  reducing at  night  decisive  of  passive design  evolving  diverse  a t each  level  design  does  not  design  give a r c h i t e c t s a  As s i t e  conditions  and  f o r each p r o j e c t a r e d i s t i n c t , a particular  differently  translated  a l l  of h o u s i n g  for creativity.  which addresses  respond  from  strategies  requirements  presents  and becomes a  inclusion  context  architects  scope  will  their  e f f e c t s of  of d e s i g n .  the wider  solutions.  programming  T a b l e VI  requirements  shows t h a t  the  considerable  the adverse  of  site  o b j e c t i v e of the  and d r y c l i m a t e s t h e need  comfort  into  order  citeria  selection,  d a y t i m e and p r o m o t i n g h e a t  restrict  level  the  at various l e v e l s thesis  design. A general  i t sbenefits.  hot  of s i t e  i s to minimize  in  during  overrides  the s p e c i f i c s  and f a b r i c  and m a x i m i z e  c l i m a t e and c o m f o r t  comfort  t o t h e needs of e a c h  into  expressions.  t h e p r o b l e m and  thermal  diverse  design  each problem  project,  and  solutions  and  However, a d e s i g n e r  should  clearly  be c o n s i s t e n t i n f o l l o w i n g i t a t e a c h  of d e s i g n . use  various benefits  of other can  developments current dwelling  passive  techniques  provides  b e n e f i t s to a l l types be like  housing units  substantial multi trends are  when  multi-family 161  comfort  and  o f d w e l l i n g s and  these  applied  scale  family housing. in India,  thermal  the  in  mass  According great  structures  to  the  of  new  created  by  bulk  y  in ±  If  -o  2  01  -  "ft  Till  a *  f -  s§  2  J US  z I  111 9.  I  #  2  >-  V  m  if*  h IS  «  <L  ill  3  <  Hi 3  J " HI  m* * -  ami Mis*  ! > <7)  ii_i <u0 > (U I—I  J3 (0 E-  V t-  1V3H •"2) V - l e * - ^  ^A\±Z>C)<iH<?'=>  at  1 62  TVN2l3±Nl  •aavne  o 2 2  ILJ  •  o DQ -<  I if! ? £  o  • * •  a is  £  2-f  §s  VJ  41  § - x a w}»  H  JFT P ^  .3  fiS-*  SITE PLANNING  Sit  if  11  vi  Eft.  SITE SELECTION V . t *  a £ Z ii. —  •  •t "T ul  j3 OL A x ft X  IB*.?*0  O,  •  >  >  •  \ St k  ii  L  •  •  § 111  §* i l l p  •  J  > IFC £  t  ?  M  • • N^HVn IJ.N3A  •9Nn«*c iNviqvzi  «4  163  •  government  or p r i v a t e  centralization mass  scale  benefits  a t a low  Given  the  are  per  unit  estimated  demand that  housing  housing  implemented,  1986).  This  compatible and  with  brings  to a larger  the  number  of  meet  the  cost.  dwelling units  for  is  of p a s s i v e t e c h n i q u e s  climate responsive design  people  essential  (Chauhan,  of d w e l l i n g d e v e l o p m e n t s  application  of  growing  bureaucracies  in  designs  widely  used  required  India,  based and  to  it  on  is  absolutely  passive  techniques  accepted  by  the  dwelling  occupants. In  order  to  techniques, housing  implement  i t i s imperative  of  basis  policies,  especially  Finally,  passive  beneficial dwelling  only  the  considered in  attitudes  like  leaders,  in  they  this,  of  research  and  knowledge  widely  initial  can  be  used  cooling  dwellings. be  form  successful and  accepted  in  country  residences  architects, An  steps  which  1 64  can  the be  by such is  changing opinion  about  the  emphasis on  the  of p a s s i v e t e c h n i q u e s , are  and  maximum  to convince  technology.  available  an  government  Besides  necessary  contemporary  passive design development  and  and  climate  a modern n e c e s s i t y e n s u r i n g  i t will  particular  The  industrializing  of m e c h a n i c a l  passive  extreme c l i m a t e s .  are widely  In a r a p i d l y  on  therefore,  regulations  techniques  contemporary  benefits  important  when  use  objectives.  in regions with  design  based  government p o l i c i e s  should,  housing  by many t o be  comfort  this  for  occupants.  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