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The geography of sport as a cultural process : a case study of lacrosse Badenhorst, Cécile Marie 1988

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T H E GEOGRAPHY O F S P O R T A S A C U L T U R A L A C A S E STUDY O F L A C R O S S E  PROCESS:  By CECILE B.A.  (Hons),  A THESIS THE  MARIE  BADENHORST  U n i v e r s i t y of the W i t w a t e r s r a n d , South A f r ica, 1984  SUBMITTED  IN P A R T I A L  REQUIREMENTS  FULFILLMENT  FOR THE D E G R E E O F  MASTER OF A R T S  in THE  F A C U L T Y OF G R A D U A T E Department  We a c c e p t to  THE  this the  of  thesis  C e c i Ie  as  conforming  standard  OF B R I T I S H  August ©  Geography  required  UNIVERSITY  STUDIES  COLUMBIA  1988  M. Badenhorst,  1988  OF  In  presenting  in  partial  fulfilment  the  University of  British  Columbia,  available  for reference  and  degree freely  at  copying  of  department publication  this  this or of  thesis  thesis by  this  for  his thesis  study.  scholarly  or for  her  of  financial  Cf60&A/tf H'V >  The University of British C o l u m b i a 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date  33  I further  purposes  AUMJST /%&  gain  the  requirements  I agree  shall  that  agree  may  representatives.  permission.  Department  of  It not  be is  the  an  advanced  Library shall  that permission  for  granted  head  by  understood be  for  allowed  the that  without  make  it  extensive of  my  copying  or  my  written  ABSTRACT  Over become  the  a  rapidly  potentially several on  field  few  connections  the  expansive One the  to  patterns.  tend  key  to  body of of  the  to  of  the  activities.  debate  city  the  process,  the  and  intricate social  critics  have  and  relationship  between  theorised.  In  the  broadly  theoretical as  we I I  argued  basis as  a  modernisation materialism' cultural through residual  is  and  is  Despite  links  are  attempt  to  sport  Raymond  as  a  in  which  emergent  hegemonic  cultures.  that  in  the  discourse  with  or  with  this  sporting for as  a  advantage,  analytically should  weak  be  more  a  broader  cultural  process,  the  f a i I ings  the  of  'cultural  Identifies  constantly  control:  centres  sport,  Williams'  Williams  of  processes  provide  examined.  process  focussed  valuable  sport  overcoming  society,  has  geography  between  and  of  a  present  discipline  theory  cities  analysing  theory,  the  links  these  an  means  elements the  for  that  at  m o d e r n i s a t i o n of  fabric.  has  literature.  outside the  are  scholars  of  sports  in  the  isolated  scope  'Modernisation'  establishing  of  sport  Although  enquiry  sports  i n an  non-geographical of  there  exclusion  broader  of  literature.  First,  Second,  the  geography  research,  participate  focus  role  the  weaknesses.  patterns  these  decades,  expanding  theoretical  discipline  on  two  dynamic  diffusion  create  past  three interact  dominant,  i ii  The of  case-study  'cultural  between North  of  materialism',  these  three  elements  American Native  widespread  of  outdoor  and  ritual,  provision  and  group  ideas  culture  transformation assumed  a  nineteenth 'modern' and  cultural As emerging history as  in  path  Canadian lacrosse.  of  prevailed.  the  a  the  for  serious  cultural a  and  gain', remained  century. residual  The  Native  to  elite.  waned, in  game  an the  were  increasingly lacrosse  the  on  a  widespread  amateur  ideal  amateur few  between  emerging  a  sport.  the  led  first  as  dominant  factor  dominant  Interplay and  the  became  the  early  exclusive  social  nationally  after  ritual  the  this  Despite the  eventual  Influence  attitudes  and  lacrosse  the  modifications  with  values  socially-  on  economic  the  decisive  gate-receipts  decline  to  and  values,  Impression  most  religious  During  for  the  contact  organising  professionalism. 'play  in  foreign  remained  became  Further  Lacrosse  twentieth  British,  an  British  and  began  lens  residual  of  tied  function.  reserved  Changing values  towards  suffered  left  of  the  Increasingly,  British  culture  spectators  acceptance  of  also  closely  the  interaction  one  Escalating  clubs  strictly  legacy  was  modification  Europeans  dominant  important.  was  recreational  was  element  of  the  the  Shrouded  Imposition  The e a r l y  a  the  games.  the  through  Among  lacrosse  lacrosse.  century,  membership  Submerged  made  of  sport.  culture.  lacrosse  in  purely  of  protection.  and  resulted  examined  illustrates  cultures,  symbolism  European  lacrosse,  decades  the  Canadian  and of  dominant cultures,  presents a  a  view  cultural  Williams'  of  the  process. theory  interpretive  of  struggle  This  for  overcomes  the  theoretical  research  as  well  modernisation provides  an  hegemony. context  of  heritages.  It  leads  with  to  a  pattern  of  places  problems  of  exploration  of  from  and a  narrow  process.  that  powerful It sports of  concept  firmly  economic  of  the  materialism'  the  sport  away  a  sport.  'cultural  interpretation  social,  is  is  geographical  the  addition,  geographers  fuller  of  control  conclusion  geography  addressing  theory  particular  primary  over  materialism'  the  In  invaluable  hegemony  weaknesses  as  theory.  Williams'  study's  'cultural  framework  for  in  of the  cultural concern  V  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT  ii  LI S T O F F I G U R E S  viii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  CHAPTER  CHAPTER  CHAPTER  1  ix  INTRODUCTION  1.1  Context  1.2  of  1  Study  1  Thesis  Structure  2  2  SPORTS  STUDIES:  2.1  I n t r o d u c t I on  2.2  The Geography  of  2.3  Sport  City  2.3.1  Agrarian  2.3.2 2.3.3 2.3.4 2.3.5 2.3.6  A Cure for the 'Malaise' Product of P r o g r e s s S p o r t as C o n t r o l S p o r t as Symbol S p o r t as P r o c e s s  16 19 20 22 24  2.4  Raymond W i l l i a m s MaterlalIsm'  27  2.4.1 2.4.2 2.4.3  The C u I t u r a I I s t / S t r u c t u r a I Ist Debate The M a t e r i a l P r o d u c t i o n of C u l t u r e Material Cultural Production Critiqued  27 33  2.5  Culture,  46  2.6  Summary  3  THE R E S I D U A L  3.1  Introduction  and  6 6  the vs  A REVIEW  Sport  14  Industrial  Sport  and  and  8  Society  'Cultural  Geography  14  43  47  CULTURAL ELEMENT  49 49  vi  Page 3.2 3.3  Lacrosse  and  the  Lacrosse  among  Hegemonic  North  Process  American  Native  Cultures  CHAPTER  CHAPTER  50  56  3.3.1 3.3.2  Religious Status Pre-game Ceremonial  60 62  3.3.3 3.3.4  Tribal Provision Physical Protection  66 67  3.3.5  *Bal I  69  3.4  Interaction  3.4.1  Negotiation  3.4.2  Dissolution  3.4.3 3.4.4  Dominant Ideology Compromise  77 80  3.4.5  C o n f l i c t  82  3.5  Summary  4  THE  4.1  Introduction  4.2  Urban  4.3  The  4.3.1  Philosophical  4.3.2  'Muscular  4.4  Appropriation  4.5  Introduction  Rites  Play * with  European  Culture  72 74  of  and  Tradition  76  Resistance  85  DOMINANT  Class  B r i t i s h  CULTURAL  ELEMENT  92 92  Society  94  Cultural  Legacy  99  Roots  100  Christianity*  102  4.6  Diffusion  4.7  of Lacrosse Summary  5  THE  5.1  Introduction  5.2  The D e c l i n e Influence  of of  and  EMERGENT  Lacrosse Rules  to  Increasing  106 Lacrosse  111  Popularity 113 115  CULTURAL  ELEMENT  117 117  of  the  Dominant  Cultural 119  v i i  Page  CHAPTER  5.2.1  Weakening  Colonial  Ties  120  5.2.2  Canadian  5.3  The  5.3.1  D e m o c r a t I s a t Ion  5.3.2 5.3.3  Rise of Professionalism in L a c r o s s e The A m a t e u r / P r o f e s s IonaI Struggle  129 135  5.4  The  137  Nationalism  Emerging  120  Culture of  Preservation  125  Dominant  Dominance The  5.5  A  5.5.1 5.5.2 5.5.3 5.5.4  Amateur L a c r o s s e in B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a The P a t t e r n of S e m l - p r o f e s s I o n a I i s m Declared Professionalism Implications of the B r i t i s h Columbian Example  151  5.6  The  153  5.7  Summary  157  6  CONCLUSIONS  163  6.1  Lacrosse  6.1.1  Constraints  and  Pressures  163  6.1.2  Negotiation  for  Hegemony  165  6.2  'Cultural Geography L L C L  B r i t i s h  Amateur  Ideals  5.4.1  Olympic  the  Lacrosse  5.4.1  6.2.1 6.2.2 6.2.3 6.2.4  of  of  125  Columbian  Decline  Movement  Ideal  of  and  Example  Lacrosse  'Cultural  Materialism' of Sport  a c r o s s e and a c r o s s e and ontribution i m i t s and S i  137 138  in  140  Canada  Materialism'  and  'Modernisation' Hegemony to Geography gnificance  142 147 149  163  the 168 168 171 173 175  NOTES  177  BIBLIOGRAPHY  180  v i i i  LIST  OF  FIGURES  Figure  Page  3.1  Pre-game  Ceremonies  3.2  'BaI I P l a y '  3.3  'BalI  3.4  Instruments  87  Dress  88  Play'  89 of  'Ball  the  Game  90  3.5  Choctaw  Player'  5.1  Canada's  5.2  Advertisement  for  a  Lacrosse  Match  160  5.3  Advertisement  for  a  Lacrosse  Excursion  161  5.4  New W e s t m i n s t e r  National  91  Game  Wins  the  159  Minto  Cup  162  IX  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  First, a b i g thank y o u Is d u e t o my s u p e r v i s o r , G e r r y Pratt, for providing invaluable a d v i c e and criticisms on several drafts of t h i s t h e s i s . I am a l s o indebted to David Ley for h i s encouragement and R i c h a r d G r u n e a u , from Simon Fraser U n i v e r s i t y , for his inspiration. Thanks, a l s o , to Archie Miller, c u r a t o r of I r v i n g House H i s t o r i c C e n t r e and t h e C a n a d i a n L a c r o s s e H a l l o f F a m e , New W e s t m i n s t e r , British Columbia. His suggestions and ideas were gratefully appreciated. In a d d i t i o n , the UBC G e o g r a p h y Department deserves thanks, particularly for providing financial support. A s p e c i a l thanks to M a t t h i a s Roth, Becky E l m h l r s t and J o s e p h i n e Kelly for s h a r i n g the trauma of writing a thesis. At home, thanks to Chris Rogerson, from the U n i v e r s i t y of the Witwatersrand, for his unwavering support; and t o Cath for the constant s o u r c e of amusement. Finally, b e h i n d t h e p r o d u c t i o n of any t h e s i s is a support team. Mine c o n s i s t s of my f a m i l y , especially my parents, who have assisted in every way possible financially and emotionally; a n d , o f c o u r s e , C h a r l i e M a t h e r w h o s e t a s k was t h e most a r d u o u s o f a l l : thanks.  CHAPTER 1  INTRODUCTION  " T h e r e Is, of c o u r s e , a g r e a t d e a l m o r e t o human play than apparent freedom of e x p r e s s i o n , peak experiences, or transcendental fantasy. While play certainly has i t s aura of u n r e a l i t y its sense of a b s t r a c t form - t h e n a t u r e and meaning of t h i s form are g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by d i f f e r e n t social structural relations and cultural f o r m a t i o n s " ( G r u n e a u , 1983, 20).  Context  1.1  Since indicated  the that  this  is  this  leisure  not an  of  being  only  late  1960s,  sport  Is  provided  sport  by  growing  the  worthy  of  sports  research  has  Constant  evidence  of  massive  Contemporary  Is  component  the  important.  activity.  that  integral  Study  of  human c o m m i t m e n t  research  academic  society.  to  demonstrates  attention;  As M e t c a l f e  it  is  stated:  "Sport is not p e r i p h e r a l to s o c i e t y ; Indeed it is c e n t r a l to l i f e and r e f l e c t s the dominant social and poI i t I c a I concerns. In modern society, sport Is a v i s i b l e a n d p e r v a s i v e social system that has become an i m p o r t a n t institution for the transmission of cultural characteristics" (Metcalfe, 1987, 13).  In  other  autonomous closely role  in  growing  words,  activity  bound the  to  the  Is  that  attention  from  sometimes  social  construction  admission  increasing  it  far  of  sport sports  fabric that is  being  the  be I Ieved and  plays  fabric.  have  to  be, a  Yet,  'central  studies  to  apolitical sport  is  significant despite  life'  and  enjoyed,  this the wide  2  'gaps'  in  purpose  explanation  of  locating  this  sport  examination spatial within  been  particular  of  growth  draws  on  to  The on has  the  Geographical  sports  with  the  begins of  as  an  as  well the  from  the  the  'gaps'  by The  patterns to  be  or  placed  contexts.  studies,  has  field. as  This  cultural  extensive  A central  cultural  non-  objective  is  to  literature  In  an  process.  A  sports  the  last  to  sporting  of two  within  however,  has  the  Is  pursued the  the  literature  decades, the  tended  to  be  frame  of  non-geographical theme  role  activities.  sport  discipline.  broader  expansive  frequently  literature of  the  interest  connections with  examination  Over  interest,  Indeed,  modernisation  an  ongoing  sports few  with  sport.  literature.  geographical  in t h i s  and  aspects as  sport  in s p o r t s  research  is  process.  political  interest  literature.  these  static of  and  It  Structure  thesis  or  to  study  geography  sport  of  cultural  literature,  different  developed  geography  of  economic  geographic  sports  geography  myopic,  opposed  this  examine  Thesis  as  general  historical  together  realm  the  1986).  some  the  social,  the  (Adelman,  address  allows  the  geographical  1.2  In  process,  variations,  attempt  to  firmly  of  geography,  draw  study  P a r a l l e i ing  study  remain  of The  in the  the  non-  city  In  attributes  3 and  weaknesses  assessed, more  of  in an  broadly  'cultural  attempt  to  of  in  a  elements  the  through  the  social  processes  way  residual  combined  are  for  in  expanded  The which  a  as  a  as  among  the  North  a  popular  the  title  of  the  interplay cultures has  been  of  a  becomes  the  process  cultures.  It  elements  is  that  'Cultural  current  so,  that  relations:  fascination  analytically  used is  in Canadian  American  fulfilling  contributes  development  study  to  an  and  Over and  In  residual Its  cultures  it  earned  analysis the  emergent  history, and  game  time,  Canada, and  has  ritual  even  T h r o u g h an  lacrosse  Throughout  The  cultural  sport  game'.  within  Lacrosse  history.  cultures.  of  various  case  sports  dominant,  evident.  a  examined.  organised  'national  the  as  religious  Native  'modern'  by  is  process  significant  influenced  more  the  Williams  constituted. the  of  to  hegemonic  cultural  in d o i n g  lacrosse  role  between  these  theory  a  sport.  Canada's  early  of  and  within  solution  emergent  displaces  cultural  central  originated  became  of  sport  cultural  the  and,  history  the  and  process  discussed  theme.  maintain  of  of  of  to  favour  geography  sport  played  of  study  one  actively  effectively  explanation  are  Raymond W i l l i a m s '  within  actions  materialism' pattern  theme  modernisation  dynamic  dominant,  the  provides  the  three  place  context.  materialism'  identifies  the  modernisation  theorised  disadvantages  combine  this  aspects  lacrosse of  the  4  game  have  changed  sometimes  through  coercion  or  Chapter residual  accordingly.  These  negotiation,  and  Three  Is  in  devoted  lacrosse  to  an  cultural  prepares  the  background  changes  the  take  place.  game  role  of  lacrosse  well  as  the  the  within  subsequent  consequences  chapter  Is  section  discusses  British, way to  the  In  devoted  the  In w h i c h  through  the  examination  Native/European this the  on  dominant  social  these  values  are  fifth  chapter,  of  the  American c u l t u r e  as  contact  and  of  conflict  The  cultural  values  later  view  lacrosse.  appropriation  of  a  the  chapter  which  provides  North  of  This  against  It  Native  of  to  legacy  the  translated  lacrosse  in  fourth  element.  from B r i t a i n  attention  Canadian c u l t u r e .  transformation changing  towards  times  the  This  by  the  and  the  changes  made  game.  emergent  of  effected  history.  effectively  and  other  were  compromise.  element  to  changes  the  and  this  values  of  effects  emerging  of  attitudes.  It  lacrosse  is  examined  beliefs  b e g i n n i n g of  composition  Once again is  and  the  the  Canadian this  is  the  sport  within  the  century.  on  changing  to  a  background society  The  social  determine  players, social  growing  undergoes  Canadian  examined  culture  to  against  twentieth  players  against  turns  clubs  context  the and that  5 the of  amateur/professional lacrosse  as  a  national  struggle sport,  and is  the  subsequent  examined.  decline  6  CHAPTER  2  SPORTS STUD I E S :  A REV 1EW  "Sport provides a highly v i s i b l e context within which a number of fundamentally geographical concepts are exemplified. Place and locality I ie at the heart of s p o r t , yet sports geography has f a i l e d to explore the symbiosis between them. Sports are contemporary c u l t u r a l forms which possess the p o t e n t i a l for several kinds of a n a l y s i s of the cultural landscape" (Bale, 1987, 13-14).  2.1  IntroductI on  Sport diverse become  has  attracted  disciplines, Interested  decades  a  of  Journal  Sports  of  of  current  This  geography First,  journal,  interest  in the  a  of  sport  patterns,  these  with  on  potentially  Place: 1987,  a  geographers  the  last  on t h e An  two  subject. International  illustrates  brief  geographical  dynamic  has  several  avenue  Into  to  exclusion  the  Second,  overview sports of  the  level  sport  the  of  of  the  studies.  research,  theoretical  enquiry  patterns.  Over  from  field.  begins  literature  Sport  scholars have  has appeared  in  Geography,  of  recently  studies.  literature  new  geographical  diffusion create  in s p o r t s  chapter  expanding Although  a  attention  though only  burgeoning  Publication  the  the  weaknesses.  has c o n c e n t r a t e d the processes  geographers  on  that  studying  7 sport  tend  to  connections the  vast  participate  within  the  literature  on  Non-geographical and  diverse  issues,  geographers. the  city  chapter Ideas  an  the  of  sport  In  sports some  of  to  dominant  provide  and  an  issues.  other  which  of  urban  geography  while  simultaneously  geographical  themes,  such  this  literature.  even  within though  recent use  scrutiny.  of  this  used  critics  argue  sport  should  be more  provide  a  broader  activities, breaking  like  out  critically  the  of  as  'cultural  this  literature  of  the  key  as  a  this  debates, means  to  of  sports broad  theme,  has  concept  lack  of  for  come  between In  an  is  geography  and  way  of  discussion  by  made of  to  cultural  a  follows  Although  depth,  attempt  as a  the  cities  analysing and  under  encourage  analytical  impasse,  attempt the  in  'modernisation'  materialism'  an of  reviewed  A  which  process  review.  review  is  theorised.  modernisation  of  role  theory,  the  basis a  the  emphasising  relationship  broadly  to  activities.  research,  the  the  literature In  sport  theoretical  the  Raymond W i l l i a m s '  exhaustive,  that  sport,  of  geographical  In  Interest  literature  The  despite  while  of  modernisation  Supporters  'model'  be  serves  non-geographical  widely  with  wide-ranging  isolates  many  discussion  as  covers  themes  the  or  few  disciplines.  sporting  into  with  geography  should  introducing  exist  of  concern  insight  This  frame  discourse,  literature  modernisation  the  isolated  broader  One c o n t i n u i n g  in  selection  In  the no to  of  nonmeans  examine  sport,  non-  8  geographical  sports  literature  'cultural  materialism',  contribute  to  2.2  the  an expanded  The Geography of  In  North  work  enquiry  of  John  geography  Initial  create  a  This  approach,  he  to  examine  (Rooney,  1974;  1975).  material  from  which  patterns  could  be e x t r a c t e d .  of  1969;  research  on American  the  and  (Rooney,  1969;  that  central  place  of  sport.  He f o u n d  noted  of  variations  areas  of  areas  1987).  theory that  to  and  major  such  as  society  Interest  'hot  fan  Rooney's that  also  o f raw  beds'  p u b l i c i t y had loyalties subsequent  certain  areas  and p r o f e s s i o n a l these explored  the spatial  league  enable  in  sporting  'consumed'  explain  human  geographical  intensive  Rooney  of  sport  collegiate  sport  would  media  established  'produced'  of  the abundance  For example,  football  1974;  study  argued,  Illustratively,  other  of  the  by  geographical  understanding  In a d d i t i o n ,  1975).  United States  players  ultimately  that  variations  spatial  r e g i o n a l Ised  (Rooney,  of  Rooney  activities.  define  to  of  sport.  the s i g n i f i c a n c e  spatial  numerous  sporting  helped  better and  created  of  advocated  analysis  geographers  being  theory  i n s p i r a t i o n was g e n e r a t e d  locatlonal  behaviour.  had  aim  R o o n e y who  help  Williams'  Sport  America,  could  through  the  and  sports  players the use  organisation  exist  In  major  9  cities, extend  and  that  over  most  Similar football  and of  diffusion  rates,  school,  Across  studies  argued  that  considered despite Bale  subject (Bale,  1980a), 1979b)  was  the geography  see  regional  changes  and  of In  contributions John  Bale  geography  were  the  class  it  academic  on  Britain athletics  in the o r i g i n s  peripheral  (Bale,  guidelines  research In  as  f o r what to  to  Bale.  regarded  sport  soccer  of world  the  at  for participants  In s o c i e t y  includes of  sport  be  studies  Following  adoption  and  could  important  Importance . . . a m e n a b I e  work  statistics  113).  in the w r i t i n g s  importance  and  and  1975,  obvious  Bale's  use  levels  recreation  105).  practical  professional  sport  major  sports  opportunity  baseball, empirical  of  t h e most  to  of  these  considerable  which  1975).  organisation  legitimate,  1981a,  diffusion  found  geographers  of  Rooney,  equal  (Rooney,  while  Its  urged  are  and  (Rooney,  that  providing  the A t l a n t i c  sports  of  the actual  'fan regions'  on t h e g e o g r a p h y  proved  were  By  provide alike'  States  conducted  collegiate  'to  overlapping  the United  sport  1987).  spectators  have  basketball  (Rooney,  altered  of  studies  examinations  high  teams  of  set the  1981a). is:  'a  study' down b y spatial  (Bale,  1978;  (Bale,  1979a;  professional  10  sportsmen  (Bale,  emphasises  1983).  In h i s b o o k  the connections  between  Sport  and  geography  Bale  Place,  and  sport:  "A g e o g r a p h i c a l a p p r o a c h r e c o g n i s e s t h a t j u s t a s sports evolved over time, they also diffused over s p a c e ; just as d i f f e r e n t social groups participate in different sports, so different p l a c e s are Identified with different sports; sport creates o c c u p a t i o n s a n d c r e a t e s movement or s p a t i a l i n t e r a c t i o n between places; while sport leaves i t s Imprint on c u l t u r e , it also leaves Its Impress on the landscape" (Bale, 1982, 1).  The  research  documented  by  Bale  characteristic encompasses and  of  group  economic  patterns,  the  third  group  the  analysis (Fein  of  1983).  (Connell,  Finally,  1980; 1986;  and  Raltz,  1981;  1987).  Local  of  prediction  The f o u r t h  1982;  (1987) essentially  landscape Adams  Although  (Orlard,  and Rooney, still  The  national  of  future  characterise group  Humphreys, Mason  Bale  (Rlmmer  athletes  and  activities,  first  1985).  and m u l t i p l i e r e f f e c t s  approach  the c u l t u r a l  Wagner,  the  1985).  externality  cuIturaI/humanistIc sport  patterns  for sporting  and Lynn,  in sport  on t h e m i g r a t i o n  been  approaches The  Harmon,  particularly  patterns  five  1974;  1983).  have  studies.  variations  Pillsbury,  McConnell,  locational  geographers  Identifies  sports  and temporal  focusses  1979;  by o t h e r He  geographic  1967;  (Marals,  events  (1987).  spatial  Johnston,  second  endeavours  involves of  sports  and  Pinch,  identifies concerned 1976; 1984;  a with  Winters, NeiI s o n ,  s i g n i f i c a n t l y dominated  by  the  analysis  interest  reflect  of  spatial  patterns,  the expanding  base  these  of  shifts  geographical  in  sports  stud ies.  There  is  little  doubt  that  effectively  stimulated  Interest  While  acknowledge  that  yet of  both  to  be s t u d i e d  sport  method  spatial  and t h e  variations  1987).  In a n e n d e a v o u r  has to  attempted include  such  locational feminist  to  Britain  (Bale,  themes,  fresh  example, expansion More  in of  vernacular  broaden  as  on t h e  cricket new  sports  offered  rectify  the  of  soccer  1980b)  of  have  literary  of  image  was  regions  of  the  sport  geography  positlvistic techniques  to  the o r i g i n s  of  (Ley,  1985;  Bale,  shortcomings,  Bale  geographical  studies  club  noxious  as  a  effects  women's these  been  to  In B r i t a i n  with  document  (Bale, a  (Bale,  the in  research  discovered,  citations  broken  of  soccer  new  In p r e - V I c t o r I a n E n g l a n d ground  have  geographers.  by a  and the  Paralleling  materials of  1982),  these  Bale  aspects  quantitative  adaption  1980c).  the use  Bale,  the canvas  (Bale,  source  recently,  to  topics  movement  a r e many  characterised  been  and  among  Few e x p l a n a t i o n s  have  facility  there  use of  patterns.  observed  In s p o r t  1974;  Is o v e r w h e l m i n g l y  research depict  (Rooney,  Rooney  for the  1981b).  study 1986).  of  12  Despite geography research The on  with is  new  of  the expansive the  focus  theory  been  class  social  reinforces  Hall,  1980)  emancipation resultant  1981;  apartheid  and  have  the  Archer  shown  culture Is  is  the  the dominant  Baker,  male  to  role  but a l s o  the r e l a t i o n s h i p of  (Bulger,  1982/83).  of  1987)  of  sport  and,  on S o u t h  certain have  in a d d i t i o n , African  of  and B o u i l l o n ,  racial 1982).  races  been  process.  of  For  sport  fan support 1980).  in  of  a  Feminist  t h e way i n w h i c h In s o c i e t y sport  or  research  of  and  to  (M.A.  feminist  r a c i s m and  cultures  with  (Cashmore,  on t h e  effects  international  i m p l i c a t i o n s of  discrimination  social  i l l u m i n a t i n g how  analysed  national  with  and  literature.  The e f f e c t  h i g h l i g h t e d the p o l i t i c a l  process  links  through  not only  a n d by  considerable  in England,  attention  by d r a w i n g  to  influence  1979;  theory.  on s p o r t  pattern  body o f  solidified  (Critcher,  types  Ruck,  sport  class  stereo-typing  particular  of  have  draws  sport  from  sports  existing  enriched  literature  this  of  from s o c i a l  significant  within  range  sources,  be f u r t h e r  attention  made  team  science  isolation  could  the  data  non-geographers  identification  particular  and  importantly,  historians working  its  of  of  Most  shaping  In  broaden  non-geographical  Insightful. have  to  themes  sport  contribution  example,  attempts  limited  geography  shifting The  these  (Lapchick,  sport, 1975;  13  Marxist organised (Brohm,  sport  1976;  political  of  use  of  (Hargreaves, These  1984).  and  the  sport  the  role  (Cantelon  hegemony  1982;  Ingham  the  theoretical  innocence  o f most  on  It  to  as  One  relates  important  thesis  geographical  literature  result  urbanisation  of  Luschen,  1981;  geographers  have  the  emerging  The  social  the  development  long  city  circumstances of  urban  the  of  extensively the  study  review  this  the  century  influenced of  sport  the  of  sport  with  are  1987).  1987). and  writings  in the n o n is a  direct  Hardy,  1981; Non-  links  between  organised  sport.  industrialisation seen  sporting  pivotal  studies  1986).  the  as  a  role  of  and  crucial  activities.  the non-geographical  (Gruneau,  literature.  by  centres  in the o r g a n i s a t i o n  advanced  of modern  created  and t h e  society.  1976;  concerned  class  Gruneau,  NeiI s o n ,  and the growth  1983)  the  Ideological  'modern'  1983;  been  by  in  1982),  geographical  has been  (Oriard,  stimulant turn  used  explored  sports  1984;  current  is that  Bailey,  In  of  capital  state  (Gruneau,  cultural,  a n d Is  that  the  have  Gruneau,  and Hardy,  highlight  studies  and  concept  emergence  industrial  of  society  of  the  of  Other  in c a p i t a l i s t  studies  sport  linked  development  Hoberman,  inequality  have  and the  theory  development and  perspectives  Since  the c i t y  has  literature  on  Attention  now t u r n s  to  14  2.3  Sport  and the  Early  research  linked  perceived  negative  and  Sport,  the  hand,  on  City  one  'malaise';  and,  on  technological  Innovation  city  1981).  (Hardy,  adherence Before  to  the  definitions  2.3.1  are  Agrarian Generally,  pre-1ndustrI  a I  agricultural on  term,  localised closely  vs  a  I Ife.was  city.  was  reaction  to  the  urban  a  other, to  these  a  product  the emerging  react ions theme  this  of  the  industrial  illustrate  In  sports  literature  an  studies.  connecting  the  and u r b a n - i n d u s t r I a I s o c i e t y ,  Industrial  advocates  of as  some  separate patterned  social  of  portion  all  of  1986).  work life.  t h e day (Burns,  localised  rural  the  existed Family,  connected and  on  based  hence  boundaries  closely  everyday  based  ritual,  (Adelman,  Simi IarIy,  view  was h e a v i l y  religious  life  theme  system  order  No p r e c i s e  were  1987).  by  'modernisation'  and  and s e c u l a r  and p a r t  a a  society.  labour  Society  The s o c i a l  superstition  (Gruneau,  tied  the  the  examine  production.  and  both  necessary.  religious  community  to  of  peculiar  sport  'traditional'  between  occupy  of  sport  features  Both  to  of  positive  the  society  tradition,  growth  'modernisation'  continuing  'modernisation'  the  and  leisure  were  Leisure  d i d not  1973).  Social  decentralisation.  As  15  a  result  traditional  unorganised,  localised  place  to  By  place  1986) .  In t h e  Industrial nature  undermine  the  1987) .  society with  of  new  of  population  industrial personal  relations, Modern  than  that  and  relations.  from  rural  led  to  to  1987). time  to  ties,  coupled  increasing  this Once  localised As  a  was t h e in u r b a n -  on  theme,  and  result  was c r e a t e d  and based  •  the  modern  the modernisation  less  to  (Gruneau,  an  city.  control  through  to  by  urban-  helped  crucial  of  characteristically  regulated, 1  to  to  and  which  Related  country  leisure  economy  occurs  is  production,  (Gruneau,  'ascription' .  from  (Adelman,  tradition  change  The r e l e a s e  became  are  and  analysis  relations  separate  rural  understand  religion  according  sports  structured  of  society,  cosmopolitan  from  skepticism  1986).  labour  rules  attributes  rational  of  periodic,  is characterised  to  rational  forms in  society  attempts  belief  (Adelman,  complexity move  a  powers  This  application  urban  transformation  accompanied  be  by d i f f e r i n g  and t e c h n o l o g i c a l  society,  to  1987).  modern  cosmopolitan  tended  and governed  (Gruneau,  contrast,  dynamic  sports  of  (Burns,  organised, 'achievement'  more work 1973). highly rather  16  This  brief  variations applied  by  emphasise two  the  by  importance distinct  no means  following  2.3.2  urban  for the  century to  transition society,  countryside  for  the  sport. in and  'outdoors' Writing  America  Tamburro,  society  because (Paxson,  closing  model  to  model  A review  the  been  sufficient  of  This  literature  extent  to  in s p o r t s  of the  follows.  early  but  which  studies.  modern  forms  of  sporting  Paxson of  of  urban  to  industrial-  the  urge  a  a n d was a b l e  provided  developed  life.  from  frontier  In a n  the  and r e c r e a t i o n  attributed  that  of  activities  frustrated  by t h e d e v e l o p m e n t  the  generated were  play  In t h e c i t y ,  He a r g u e d  Sport  decades  the deprivations  urbanisation  frontier:  numerous has  dualistic  agrIcuIturaI-ruraI  lost.  1975).  1917).  that  of  the c l o s i n g  outlets  is  exist  the  was a s s u a g e d  pressures  new  some  in 1917,  survived  unbearable  the  to  It  identified  theme  In  from  were  or  the  'Malaise'  traditional  the  dualistic  highlights  believed  offset  it  contexts.  homogeneous  researchers  nineteenth  the  this  to  as  on t h e  social  of  theme  Yet  the modernisation  Sport  do j u s t i c e  placed  discussion  A Cure  developed  a  to  scholars.  application  of  fails  'modernisation'  sports  apparently  threads  In  the  the  empirical Is  of  resume  the  rise  (Fldler, major  t o combat  modern  of  sport  Coroneos  reason  why  to,withstand  industrial  through  of  the  society  organised  was sport  the pressures  of  17  "The f r e e lands were used up. T h e cow c o u n t r y r o s e and felI. The s o c i a l safety valve was screwed down. But t h e e x p l o s i o n d i d not come" (Paxson, 1917, 145).  As to  more  open  increasing  The  tennis  to  once  replaced  and g o l f  Paxson's and  the the  was d e v e l o p e d ,  tensions  relaxation,  necessity,  land  generated  provided  ideas  emphasis importance  directly  related its  'society's' Deprived to  seek  said  to  need  for  to  new f o r m s release rustic  organised  of  life  of  such  later  life.  as  was, of  baseball,  and s p r e a d  organised  energies  this  of  of ran  desire  Modern and t o  frontier  cities was  urban  sport  (Hardy, seen  as  living.  City  into  conflict  with  for  open  people  were  organised replace  spaces. forced  sport  the  was  critical  1981).  theme were  of  sport  recreation,  relaxation.  (Hardy,  students  rapidly closing  congestion,  outdoor  activities  sports,  by  the  intrinsic  pent-up  A variation recreational  of  Inherent  natural  city  'cow c o u n t r y '  sports  the r e s t r i c t i o n s  allegedly  of  from  the growth  The development  with  modified  shifted  1981).  life,  by t h e  subjected  1917).  were  of  was  by c o n g e s t e d  by o r g a n i s e d  (Paxson,  society  emphasised  actively  particularly  that  replaced  spectator  traditional by  modern  sports.  The  18  peculiar the  simpler,  sports  the  their  As a  diversions  fostered.  and  Underlying escapism.  result  of  of  sport  the  dullness  1953;  survival  in  the urban  release  (Hardy,  growth  combat  the  Hardy,  1981).  these  ideas  Is  industrial  Hardy,  1981).  It  centre  the  of  life,  was  drudgery. an  The  oppressive  was a r g u e d  frustrations,  that  r o u t i n e and  The s t r u g g l e  necessitated  sport  theme  t h e need  supposedly  provided  for  for a this  1981).  early of  particularly  1971;  tedious  were  activities  by r e l a x a t i o n s  forget  organised transformed  recreational  from  and  and  adapted,  urban c o n d i t i o n s  escape  to  environment.  were  urban-industrI a I culture.  safety-valve  the  to  of  traditional  n o t be  an  a means  social  These  could  rational  by b l e a k  represented  of  the  particularly  rise  provided  to  suited  (Somers,  be c h a r a c t e r i s e d  sport  the urban  sports  replaced  to  (Betts,  spontaneous  to  traditional  life,  the transplantation  'old' activities  better  said  present  often  activities  many  Urban  and  form,  were  in c h a r a c t e r  defied  pre-modern  Thus,  disappeared urban  or  traditional  ethos.  new  city  unorganised  'primitive'  urban or  of  and r e c r e a t i o n a l  These in  nature  themes,  sport  negative  to  essentially societal  features  of  anti-urban,  needs  for  city  life.  a  attributed  palliative  to  Mid-century  19  sports  scholars  facilitated Economic  the  to  of  this  innovation  and  athlete  spectator,  avallable  and  increase more  cities  In  was  modes  spectator  consumers  for  a  sense.  Hardy,  the  1981).  of  of  more  new s o c i a l  teamed  with  Industry,  economic  the economic, of  life  (Betts,  of  more  As a  free-time  helped  a  greater  (Hardy,  demographic  and  were  Swifter and  larger,  market  1981).  as  became  publicise the  of  higher  opportunities  In a d d i t i o n ,  sport.  scope  the population.  meant  1953,  participate,  activities.  sporting  spirit' century  the  to  and  enthusiasm. populations  inventive  Increased  communication  the growth  a  nineteenth  sporting  segment  reaction  of  people  city,  a  product  the  and e n t r e p r e n e u r s  contained  conditions  that  fostered  not as  The ' p o w e r f u l  achieved  t h e modern  concentrated  sport  positive  1953;  was s e e n ,  that  aspects  an e v e r - w i d e n i n g  cheaper  sport  but rather  allowed  living  in  a more  factors  effectively  transportation  competition  of  in  (Betts,  during  many  Improved  standard  sport  and o p p o r t u n i t y .  or  city-related  progress  an e n v i r o n m e n t  'revolutionised' 232).  at  sport  view  flourished  to  of  'malaise',  environment:  open  look  o f Progress second  the urban  which  growth  organised  Product In  to  and t e c h n o l o g i c a l  development  2.3.3  began  for  Moreover,  technological  20  There positive First,  are  and is  for  negative  through  a  following current  2.3.4  have  It  in  in the  city.  industrialisation  would  be t h e  i s assumed  that  be a d a p t e d  studies  of  is devoted  a  there  and  the  can  early  is a  sporting  urban  and t h a t  these to  vent  pre-industrI a I  to  by  logical  that  assumptions  subsequent elements  characterised  recreational  these  the  forms  sphere.  be  traced  many  present  Ideas.  consideration  The of  the  themes.  Sport  as Control  the  emphasise  perspective, reform  attributed character believed  1 9 7 0 s many  sport  have  emphasised  development.  hard  Individuals  nurture work and  seen  (Meller,  ability  and  to  fair  of  as  an  teach  of play  continued From  instrument  of  values  1976).  activities  and c o n t r i b u t e in  particular,  nationalism, (Hardy,  respect  1981).  philanthropic organisations  this  social  Parker,  sporting  sports,  have  the c i t y .  1976;  how  Team values  researchers  aspects  has been  control  the  to  sports  the negative  and  Researchers  rules,  not  sport  would  is argued  how  of  section  Since to  shows  number  discussions  it  u n d e r l y i n g both  'malaise',  sport  partake  could  (1981)  urban  Second,  Third,  of  that  and that  to  recreation  Hardy  the  tension  activities. of  to  urge  assumptions  explanations  frustration.  natural  of  assumption  lead  and  this  number  the  Inevitably stress  a  are to are for  Groups,  concerned  for  21  justice order and  and  to  social  overcome  disorder  life. seen  benefit  In  North  therefore,  appeared  from  whose  Into  Organised play  children  to  urban  adapt  life.  (Cavallo,  at  1976;  circumstances as  imposed order  to  a  upon  often and  been  seen  writers or  or  (Badenhorst In s p o r t s to  underplays sports  an  the motives  the  as  the  (Goodman, a  way  world,  for  while of  Cavallo,  1981).  In  that  sport  argued  social  these  p r i v i l e g e d groups working  class  feelings  is  of  life'  movements  any  a  immigrant  reform  or  on  to  social  other  studies  of  by t h e d i s l o c a t i o n s  and Rogerson,  emphasis  activities.  of  used  of  have  sublimate  were  the motivation  most  the disadvantaged  theme  wanting  created  1980;  city  groups  was  means  has a l s o  by e l i t e s  divert  leads  was a  of  of  and  ' u n - A m e r i c a n ' and  way  Kirschner,  tool  sport  'American  heart  instability  cities  seemed  unveiled that  numerous  consciousness control  the  of  In  activities.  the c o n d i t i o n s  Research  lay  sport  Sport  activities  disadvantaged  particular,  the d i s c i p l i n a r y void  control  used  to  ills  growing  life-styles  the  1979).  filling  In  unacceptable.  assimilation  with  'healthy'  sporting  social  and o t h e r  America,  immigrants  organised  apparent  immigrants  to  reform  the  that  Youth,  uplift  of  1986).  and in  political This  problematic  rigid  groups  was  in that  'top-down'  disadvantaged  social it  approach groups  in  22  2.3.5  Sport  as  Symbol  Continuing some  current  aspects teams  of  sporting  consciousness Scotch,  1983;  impairs  the  sentiments  and  operate  inhabitants  I ives  (Klapp,  hero  images'  1964,  (Klapp,  together groups, to  more  1976; is  also  individual  positive figures, of  Lipsky,  group 1983;  characteristically  residents  to  Sports,  experience sport  symbols  local  rituals  through  and meaning  sport  models  1986). be  In  and  which their  as  for  heroes  establishing it  than  is argued,  ethnic  this  cohesive,  social  a means  have  group  in the s p o r t s  socially  groups  and order providing  According to  different  viewed  meaning  morale,  Nowhere,  and i n t e r e s t  particularly sporting  and  44).  to  from  is  provides  readi ly apparent  seen  religions  mobility  the  vehicles  1981;  'boosting  Nei I s o n ,  people  this,  as  organisation  progress,  sports  city  powerful  by role  sport  The  particularly  institutionalised  (Oriard,  serve  of  1964).  sports  symbol  product  that  (Crepeau,  urban  derive  existence  urban  suggest  1983).  as  a  incorporated  often  cohesion  of  as  form a t t a c h m e n t s .  urban  to  have  events  ability and  sport  They  Smith,  heroes  The  of  researchers the c i t y .  and  sports  t h e theme  of  emerged  to  the  arena genre,  ethnic  1981).  universal  groups.  is  bringing  classes,  (Hardy,  self-  Added social  Teams represent  or the  23  struggles within group the  and  the  aspirations  city  (Wagg,  antagonisms  field  operate  identity, groups  the  enthusiasm  (Taylor,  lesson  modern  In  setting' field bridge  symbolism  past,  worship field  190).  1980,  altars  to  sport  the 190)  of  cases,  and  'remnants  of  a  the  learn  to  Sport  f o r a more  on t h e simpler  the  modern  To them  the  hero-  baseball  countryside'  scoreboards  and a u t h o r i t y '  'a  sports  influences  savaged  and  pastoral  life.  of  a  rival  offers  in urban  nostalgic  and computerised  information  sport  can  progress.  teams  spirit  of  on  community  words,  direct  symbolic  of  dwellers  inherent more  life  sports  common  other  to  sometimes  imitation In  have  as  of  of  in which c i t y  technology  signifies  (Barth, Into  for  range  symbolism,  brought  mechanisms  an  researchers,  view  are  In some in  of  Furthermore,  wide  1982).  seen  Some  this  clashes  the c o n f l i c t s  is also  By means  solidarity  1980,  of  landscape. rustic  a  the classroom  some  sub-communities  informal  living  (Barth,  is  and  uniting  through  particular  symbolism.  symbols often  1984).  and c u l t u r e  in r i t u a l  as  of  'have  grown  (Nellson,  1986,  46) .  Sport Influences symbols  of  symbol ism on  the  civic  important  role  Lipsitz,  1984).  is  also  landscape. pride  i n many  seen Sports  and s u c c e s s , cities'  Successful  to  have have  and  booster sporting  more been  have  plans  direct used  as  played  an  (Hardy,  ventures  1981;  attract  24 visitors,  residents  and w e a l t h ,  popular  self-image  remained  an  their  important  role  as  contributed sport  to  Sport  in  the  sport  obvious  of  been  for  containing  for  having  filled, device  strict  an  and  it  Adelman  time  (1986)  ideal  have  argued,  and p o p u l a r i t y  the  theory.  attribute  'rise'  of  industrialisation modernisation  but  to  organised Despite  theme  and i t s  proponents  and that  deterministic despite  alternate as  these  theory  a  during  Adelman,  1986).  the modernisation  model  ('traditionaI'/'modern') Is  modern to  (Adelman,  critical sport  locate  to their  1986).  of  is  heuristic  developments  1978;  between  its  criticised  bias  on c u l t u r a l  He  fail  of  has been  be u s e f u l  (Guttman,  apparent  the modernisation  vacuum o f  types  of  to  claim  continues  distinguishes  growth  reductive  however,  periods  modernisation  of  a  greatly  are c l e a r l y  The model  a  material  societal  the  is  has  characteristics.  cultural  In  until  organise  the  adherence  implicit  modernisation  particular  it  symbols  theme  extols  criticised.  Supporters,  to  secure  symbols  and,  acceptance  of c i t y  applied  shortcomings,  urban  to  1981).  which  severely  manner.  Sport  for analysis  the modernisation  appeal,  serve  Process  the result  has  of  (Hardy,  literature, as  tool  all  city.  the widespread  as a  Threads  the  meaningful  in the c i t y  2.3.6  for  which  and  people  who  urbanisation  and  work  in a  This  theory support  25 notwithstanding, clearly limits  apparent. In  all  Identified  'modern'  have  cultural,  of  (Gruneau,  to  obscure  'development' like  any  of  1987).  sport  a  sport  from  as  this  are  these  sets  study,  of  will  be  Rather  'traditional'  as  than  theme  is  shifting this  continuities  implies  that  whereas  constantly  analysing  modernisation  and  the d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s  is complete,  form,  of  In e f f e c t ,  historical  modernisation sport  of  the context  of  well  cultural  process,  three  factors.  existence  modern  other  (Gruneau, as  the  The  to  concepts  and economic  sport,  sport.  has o u t l i n e d  Only  relevant  theme  review.  abstracted  'traditional'  'modern'  discussion  dichotomised  political  the modernisation  1987).  are  further  the  of  recent  of which  for  First,  limits A  detail  problems,  serves  the  the  sport,  changing  the complexity  theorists  of  offer  a  of  static  explanation.  Second,  and  modernisation image and  of  explanation  society.  social  Influencing way  continuing  change, or  (Gruneau,  tends  Sport ideas  Is  the to  seen  and t r e n d s ,  interacting 1987).  from  with  first  view to  set  sport  reflect  but  society  is  of as  a  'mirror'  technological  rarely  in any  problems,  viewed  as  constitutive  26  The  third  limitation  cultural  bias.  dominant  features  social  The  contexts  'traditional'  modernisation  theory  of  involves  two d i f f e r e n t  often  and  of  take  the  'modern';  social  with  idealised  as  'irrational'  Ultimately,  model  of  'traditional'  against  the  standard  Such  a  comparison  with  its  inherent  regulation,  is  irrational,  and  modern a  sport  nostalgia pre-modern aspects,  is  sport  continuing  issues  capitalism  (Bailey,  a  that  an  analysis,  negated or  of  approach  these  for  sport,  rationality the  a  progression  from  frequently  held  to  dualistic  It  complexities  industrialisation  of  lacks  model  with  in  obscures  the  culture  and  by e x a m i n i n g  the  urban  the  explanatory  c a n be a n a l y s e d .  and  value  traditional  deal  gender,  is only  Thus,  example.  such,  race,  and  unorganised,  any c u l t u r a l  fails  and as  class,  1983).  Modern  sports.  the  past,  religion,  on a  of  held 1987).  by c o n d e m n a t i o n  histories  The emphasis  process  Despite  the non-commercial  The m o d e r n i s a t i o n  power.  the end p o i n t  is  (Gruneau,  organisation,  'traditional'  beginning.  sports  of  as  society  from  of  'rational'.  Judgement.  an a d v a n c e  unregulated  superstition  complexity  as  of  These  universal  or  society  a value  concepts  i s seen  for  'modern'  Implies  viewed  'primitive'  of  the  models  particular  such  of  formations.  of  characteristics the  concerns  the comparison  form  each  theory  sport In  sphere  as such are  27 still  intently  crucial and  scrutinised.  because  economic  (Bailey,  it  1983).  theorised.  fill  2.4  that  The  process  produced the void  must,  a  forms  between  material two  decades of  debate  during  culture  practice.  discussion this  where  the  of  heated  1960s  Marxist  a  as  approach  to  Together  with  broadly  perspective  of  potential  1987).  about  theory  of  statement  literary  process  is a  cultural  be seen  'cultural of  product  theory.  Any  in the context  and c u l t u r a l  of  theory  amd 1 9 7 0 s .  earl ier  which  the  'cultural  an a c t i v e  The C u I t u r a I i s t / S t r u c t u r a I i s t  W i l l lams'  and  Materialism'  theoretical  must  out  of  (Gruneau,  is seen  debate  acted  more  and has t h e  proposes  W i l l i a m s ' work in B r i t i s h  2.4.1  literature  This  political  are  be  critical  theory  remains  sport  theory  Raymond W i l l i a m s a n d ' C u l t u r a l  materialism.',  processes  and p r a c t i c e s  (1977)  'place' social,  however,  more  in s p o r t s  Raymond W i l l i a m s  of  cultural  Williams'  provides  as  particular  relationship  Raymond  materialism'  to  within  contexts  industrialisation  socially  Is  The c i t y  has  become  cultural social  work  theory  historian  forms known  Debate  part as  of  the  (Gurevitch  a  body  'cuIturaI et  E . P . Thompson  al,  of Ist'  1982).  and c u l t u r a l  28  theorist  R.  constituted cultural  Hoggart, a  major  the  define  culture  and  as  historically in  developed  the  added  these  to  cultural  the  than  Trie  in  'side  (Johnson,  The  from  literary  idea  of  or  his  as  of  the  creation effect'  of  attempt  to  constructed Rather  than  sense,  Williams  'a  life'.  Thompson  way  of  the  notion  book on  culture  the  capitalist  conflict class  (1968).  Class  and  and  of  working  Working  traditions  the  Wi I I i a m s  in an  socially  emphasising  of  society.  of  artistic  English  placed  ists  perceptions  1984).  seminal  analysis,  c u l t u r a l 1st of  approach  culture.  experience role  at  of  human  practices  rather  mode o f  is  Louis  reductionist are  highlighted  here,  by At  Saussure,  the  Althusser's  1979b).  three  in o r d e r  pinnacle  production  'structuralist'  Levi-Strauss of  attempted  Marxism.  components to  contribution  reformulation  Althusser  e c o n o m i s t Ic  complex,  opposed  The s t r u c t u r a l i s t  work  others.  (Johnson,  arguments  Is  by e m p h a s i s i n g in  to  'culture'  (Silk,  culture  Ideas  among  however, theory  the  cultural  theoretical  meaning which  including  Bar.thes,  word  the  1979a).  formulations diverse,  of  relation  transformed  of  the  the  its  a n d W i l l iams  forefront  a  a  work  in  the  Making  Thompson  agency  of  studies  culture:  Both  and  origins  'Culture'  in  shift  production  traced  the  of  illustrate  and  the  debate,  of  Marxist  to  move  away  Although  his  structuralism the  is  break  from  are the  29  more  deterministic  'relative central  autonomy'  to  this  Althusser to  the  For  simple  reproduction  also  the are  to  by  therefore,  a  existence  (McDonnell rather  the  way  in which  the  material  than  which  people  on c l a s s  attempts  determinants.  He  relations  determined  (only  1982).  also  to  the  of  to  ideas.  their  reduce  of  the  of  conditions  Is  seen  words,  experience  economic  their  Ideology  Ideology  ideology  worker  conditions  (S.  Althusser  of  consciousness  1979).  existence  are  ruling  the dominance  real  the  they  the  In o t h e r  challenged by  to  those  1980).  the  (Althusser,  to work,  (Bennett,  1980).  secure  product  of  and  ideology  Hall,  People's  as  relations  to  is  position  understand, of  (S.  legitimates  relation  set  base  submissive  and R o b i n s , a  reduce  production  representation  conditions  concentrating  be  First  ideology.  to  reproduced  and c a p i t a l  people's  practice  of  Althusser,  work  of  efforts  Ideology  Bennett,  but  earlier  function  subordinate  1971;  to  of  workers  as  existence  By  the  relations  so  explained,  not,  role  the  relationship is  of  consciousness  (Althusser, is  is  the economic  of  Ideology,  'overdetermination'.  effect the  and  relations:  earlier  reproduced  capital  and  social  challenged  Not o n l y  ideological  of  project,  Althusser  1971).  view  and  Hall,  it  Idea  of as is  'live' 1980).  challenged to  of  the  economic of  relations)  simple between  30  class  and  simply  cultural  economic  practices  In  such  already their  the  in  and which  existence  Hall,  are  Althusser  and  ideology can  (Althusser,  order  to  be  determinate  practices 'relative  distinctions  from  economic  cuIturaI/ideoIogIcaI,  not  other  its  are  not  ideologies plates  does,  on  however,  Individuals  aware  in  (Gurevitch, has  schools,  between  idea  material  the  these  specific  of  and  1  family  apparatuses historical  r e d u c t I on Ism, example)  societies  are  determining  and  addressed  the  overdeterminatI o n ' . metaphor,  Institutional  super-structural  for  that  Althusser  base/superstructure  the  of  unevenly  autonomy'  allows  at  number  ideology  as  in  the  occur,  the  apparatuses  that  such  where  rethinking the  like  their  Ideology  analysed  capture  complex  of  'carry  immediately  argued  by  ideologies  consciousness not  are  1971).  necessarily  concepts  constituted  and  not  The r e l a t i o n s h i p only  therefore,  ideological.  34).  apparatuses  media.  In  do  1980,  people  the  and  prearranged  the  and  context  and  through  also  formations  produce  1982).  al,  but  therefore  (S.  Classes,  political  class  prescribed  structure  et  as  and  backs'  ways  structures  addition,  predetermined  formations.  sites  Althusser and  level.  To move  each  level  maintains  By  some  state away (the  sense  of  31  relative  autonomy.  institutions  are  forces.  In not  Closely  is  the determining  multiple  determining  ideological  'relative define  (S.  autonomy'  an a c t i v e  forces:  the  is  of  a view of  factor,  Althusser  1980).  economic  concept  society  the economic,  Hall,  by  the  of  where  the  allows  for  the p o l i t i c a l  Together  and ' o v e r d e t e r m i n a t i o n '  were  or  ideology, Intended  to  process.  Raymond W i l l i a m s and  cuIturaI/ideoIogicaI  predetermined  related, Instead  economic  words,  directly  'overdetermination'.  the  other  structural  (1977)  Marxisms  criticises  both  f o r what  the  economlstic  he s e e s  as  a common  problem-.  "The analytical categories, as so often In I d e a l i s t t h o u g h t , h a v e , a l m o s t u n n o t i c e d , become substantive descriptions, which then take habitual p r i o r i t y over the whole s o c i a l process to which, as a n a l y t i c a l categories, they are attempting to speak" ( W i l l i a m s , 1977, 80-81)  Williams various  from the  the  in  exist each  idea  imposed  therefore,  ideological  rel Igion) these  argues,  notion  (Anderson,  any  ideology  a given of  an  apart  society  'imposed'  as  distinguish as  leads  to  (Johnson, ideology,  law o r  t h e be I i e f objects  Williams be  between  education,  physical  1980). may  to  (such  formation,  substantially  that on  Institutions  a social  other  that  also  abstracted 1979b).  By  the cuIturaI  that  separate dismisses and  then  rejecting Ists,  like  32  Althusser,  also  which  culture  all  (Thrift, that  1983;  are  to  explanations  reduced  to  first  principles  1984).  Williams,  however,  emphasised  in s o c i e t y  'lived'  Experience cultural  is  economistlc  Silk,  relations  they  objected  is,  should  and  and  be a n a l y s e d  experienced  therefore,  analysis  economic  granted  human  in terms  (Eagleton,  Is  o f how 1976).  an a u t h e n t i c a t i n g  agency  in  role  paramount  In  (Silk,  1984).  Structuralist emphasis notions  on of  experience, ideology,  c u l t u r a l 1st problematic  theory  Silk,  Wi I I l a m s '  earl ier  make  political  and  of  it  work  of  and  was  t h e c u l t u r a l 1st  followed  class  led  (Swingewood, rejection  the  highly  1977;  Johnson,  ideology, culture,  mode  of  f a i led  and  the  production  1977).  culture  criticised  for being overwhelmingly  subjective,  no a t t e m p t  had been  t h e ways  and  because  which they  'cultural related  social  to  meanings' the o v e r a l l  production  experience,  it  were  argued,  to  explore  Implanted  processes  (Swingewood, was  made  of  early  In  (Swingewood, was  Williams'  The  a  experience  capitalist  Furthermore,  to  of  on t h e p r o d u c t i o n of between  Althusser's  relations.  argued,  The  connections  economy  criticised  instead  culture  1984).  adequate  have  culture  approach,  1979b;  to  writers  In s o c i e t y  class  1977). led  to  concept  in  o r how  f o r m a t i o n and  The an  of  stress  on  underdeveloped  v  theoretical  undertaking  failed  to  2.4.2  T h eM a t e r i a l  In  be f u l l y  works  such  works  of  on  as Marx  those  different  critique,  this the  of  1960s  cuIturaIist/structuraI ist pos i t i o n ,  'cultural  specificities within  of  W i l l iams' purpose  of  'cultural notions  materialism'  this  attraction  argues  that  are  to  the  and  formulation social  a  subtly  to  overcome  that  1977,  emphasised:  his  'of  hegemony.  5)  For the  components critique  'cultural  of the  and h i s  crucial  materialism'.  determines  of  The d i s c u s s i o n are  the  production  and ' d e t e r m i n a t i o n ' ; of  the h i s new  and complex. major  existence  position  theory  (Williams,  'determination' of  h i s work  through  two  concept  translated  and l i t e r a r y  thorough  base/superstructure  base/superstructure theoretical  is  discussion,  materialism'  of  cultural  Marxist  and  He s u g g e s t s is  the  Marxism  an a t t e m p t  materialism',  position  In  highlighted  debate.  material  historical  in  to  older  rethought  theoretical  work  problems  of  1980).  a  due  and newly  Williams  his earlier  the  and  and 1970s,  (Anderson,  studies  Culture  Antonio Gramsci  outlines  empirical  1979b).  to  theory  of  (Johnson,  ( t h e Grundrisse),  from  of  of  Williams  Literature,  results  Production  during  cultural  some  theorised  response  availability,  where  to  of the  Williams  consciousness,  but  34  that  this  original  premise base  conversion  and  the  various that  Marx  have  necessarily  to  taken  on  a  ideas  uses  'senses'  of  in  effect,  or  there  are,  express  refers  to  existing for  refers  forms of  the  particular  superstructure cultural  practices  example,  In  interrelated  the  base.  Williams variable  and  society'  or  existence'  were  the  of  and  social  which life.  77). to  as  they  could In  be  are  of  term  forms  'economic social  used  to  which  Second, shaped  of  political  and  out  for  as,  superstructure separate  is  from  also  structures  of  conditions  of  argues  in  the  precise  that  original  concepts  observe  original  out  it  Finally,  'base'  'Marxism',  the  First,  77).  acted  were  the  production',  Williams  Marx  and  suggests  world.  the  the  returning  He  u n d e r s t o o d as  property  if  1977,  senses  of  1977,  By  of  and  form  projected  'areas'  be  that  from  terms  for  in  uses.  which  the  illustrates  in which  A l l three  take  (Williams,  descriptive of  fought  only  political  the  process  and cannot  'forms  conversion  arguments  are  of  indicates can  and  (Williams,  a  Ideology.  are  three  with  base  superstructure.  relations  views  is  role.  Williams  consciousness  signifies  It  that  central  'legal  example  class  theory.  Marx,  real  institutions, to  of  conflict  'Marxism'  original  superstructure  the  not  superstructure  from  superstructure to  does  or  particular  formulation,  35 however, layers  base  and  or  levels  dichotomised Marx's  superstructure  metaphor  original  separation imposition contends  indissoluble  they  areas  of  society  there  He a r g u e s  began  of  entities  processes  which  materialism.  precise  of  stage  in  consequent abstract  the  social  of  The political  been  for  activity  are  it  of  that  of  need  economic  to  deep  as  by  is  be s t u d i e d  'determination'  base and  identify  production' static  not  a or or  and  and  the  separate  but rather  expressed  by  the the  1977).  is in  very  historical  of  can  and  separate the  production It  the  theorists  contradictions  of  (Williams,  of  activity  is never  relations  is s i g n i f i c a n t  of  He  production,  discussion  'relation  the  1977).  obscured  w h i l e we  relationships  'determination'  premise  this  the  by  Marxist  emphasised  analysis,  there  activity  and  so,  that  particular  against  superstructure  doing  have  that  material  relationships.  categories  processes  concept  a  Instead,  dynamisms  In  suggesting  production'  uniform.  social  and,  and  W i l l i a m s notes  recognition  orthodox  Williams concludes by  of  base  should  superstructure  'mode  that  the  (Williams,  Institutions,  with  as  and  between  cultural  treated  directed  now I n a d e q u a t e  consciousness.  concrete  become.  categories  Is  interrelated  not  thought  connections  think  and  were  of  abstract  and  to  have  comments  of  that  political  of  were  that  itself  no c u l t u r a l but  is  or  always  36 reduced and  to  a  direct  controlling  Williams been  argues  many  notions  of  relations  'the  that  Idea  that  added,  is  the  Is be  can  only  world,  then  historical by  people  objectivity,  economic  relations  only  seek  accordingly.  once  to This  than  the  only  understand abstract  the the  It  and  of  Once  he  determination  direct  of  guide  of  'the  control.  are  seen  as  objective  actions  that  are  agency  of  can  In be  the made  the  conditions  in  time,  determining  determinism,  again  the  points  control  stressed  sense  human  distinction  particular  beyond  a  definition)  which  of  conditions'  of  argues,  objectivity,  and  1977).  on  of  derived  has  forces  product  is  condition  of  idea  takes  in w h i c h Is  the  Williams  the  sense  have  forces  the  (Williams,  Marxist  at  abstract  can  only  rather  be  there  Althusser's  productive  relations.  developed  (by  including  objective  the  that  relations.  Marxism  determines  'determination'  since  of  preceding  and  Williams argues,  and  conditions,  but  mass  not  limits'  some  'Determination'  'absolute  suggests  of  between  inherited  century  people  forces  can  then  conditions  the  of  forces  determination  to  this  or  'Objective'  material  of  'Marxism',  laws',  exists  external  material  twentieth  that  productive  setting  In  accessible  Wi I I i a m s Is  that  society.  stresses  of  expression  'overdetermInation'.  Iron  these  Indirect  set  versions  from M a r x ' s  their  or  the  process people  their  widely  and of who  actions known  as  37  economism,  is  important, from  to  concept  Williams  an of  agency  it  therefore,  Is  is  never  also  the  a  pressures  In concept Wi I I l a m s  society  individual  wills.  'unconscious'  the  'mode  and  related  the  same  for  a  of  of  never Such  For of  process  production' of  'overdetermInatI on'  Iy  abstracted separation full  practice, with  process  of  itself  and  human  lived  limits not  mystifies  social  'overdetermInation' hIstoricaI  is  Determination,  which  the  It  The in  pressures.  social  a  limits;  interrelated  determinant  way,  is  society.  setting  and  whole  product.  crucial.  exertion  u n d e r s t a n d Ing  argues,  Is  only  complex  in  abstracted  specific  and  historical that  determination  is  an  notes,  alienated,  determination  an  itself  individuals  leads  and  in  In the  process.  is  a  useful  situations.  As  is  "especially useful as a way of understanding ' c o n t r a d i c t i o n s ' and the ordinary version of 'the dialectic', which can so easily be abstracted as features of a theoretically isolated (determining) situation or movement, which is then expected to develop a c c o r d i n g to certain (determinIst) laws" (Williams, 1977, 88) .  Despite that  these  advantages,  'overdeterminatI on'  is  however,  problematic  Williams as  a  contends  concept:  "As w i t h ' d e t e r m i n a t i o n ' , so ' o v e r d e t e r m I n a t I o n ' c a n be abstracted to a structure...which then, i f In complex ways, 'develops' (forms, holds, breaks down) by the laws of its internal structural relations. As a form of analysis  38  this is o f t e n e f f e c t i v e , but in i t s i s o l a t i o n of the s t r u c t u r e it can shift attention from the real location of all practice and practical conscIousness....Any categorical o b J e c t i f i c a t I on of determined or overdetermIned s t r u c t u r e s is a r e p e t i t i o n of the b a s i c e r r o r of 'economism' at a more serious level, since it now o f f e r s to subsume... a II lived, practical and unevenly formed f o r m a t i v e experience" (Williams, 1977, 88-89).  Williams which  Is  crucial  cultural is  expressed  In  complex  goes  and  system  of  projection  the  of  the  economic  a  and  Gramsci  limits  are  recognised  two  that  By  doing  values  acknowledged. the  role  of  social  hegemony made  the  Rule  is  of  is,  crisis  however,  and  cultural  a  concept,  as  idea  of  define of is  of the  do  culture and  the  the  existing  inequalities Williams  dominance  in w h i c h  expression  their  and  'a or  1977,  lives  but.  social  and  evident  suggests  a  their  (Williams,  shape  ist  as  shape  ideology  interest'  people  this  times  of  cuIturaI Ist/structuraI  notion  and c o n s t r a i n t s  in  situation  people  class  process  however,  hegemony,  culturalist  particular  process.  society  political,  structuralist  Williams states  within  of  in w h i c h  meanings  and  hegemonic  the  active  hegemony  'hegemony'.  forms  that  of  d e f i n i t i o n of  The  beyond  process, the  theory  Gramsci,  and  political  suggests  namely,  lives,  108).  'rule'  coercion.  social  traditional  domination.  direct  and  concepts;  any  or  Wi I I i a m s  includes  The  Interlocking  forces.  Gramscl's  d i s t i n g u i s h i n g the  between  effective  whole  in  rule  distinction  a  develops  domination.  political  by  then  in  that  subordination  39  in  a  whole  hegemony,  process.  that  the  Thus  concept  it  is  moves  through  beyond  the  wholeness  of  ideology:  "To say t h a t 'men' d e f i n e and shape t h e i r w h o l e l i v e s is true only in abstraction. In any actual society there are specific inequalities In m e a n s and t h e r e f o r e in c a p a c i t y to realise this process ...GramscI therefore introduced the necessary recognition of dominance and s u b o r d i n a t i o n in what has s t i l l , h o w e v e r , t o be r e c o g n i s e d as a whole p r o c e s s " (Williams, 1977, 108).  Not  only  important is  is  but  so  expressed  The  of  consciousness  too  Is  and  manifested lived a  the  political,  pressures  and  therefore  constantly in  Any  context.  a  process  a  structure.  is  and  A not,  values  and  Is  with the  not  but  a  lived a  theory  the  I ived  Moreover,  culture  perhaps a  system  of  form  substance  of  a  are or  reality has  in  specific  seen  as  'common  meanings  Wi I I i a m s  the  sense'.  and  values  for  most  people  be  seen  within  Is  always  to  argues,  analytically, of  economic  whole  of  of  domination  Hegemony o p e r a t e s  experience  hegemony,  except  the  limits  system  system  of  it  because  political,  also  and  sense of  formal  as  meanings.  distinct  relations  only  cultural  simple a  beliefs  by d o m i n a n t  pressures  of  and  process  relationships.  and  ideas  social  activity  constituting  society.  this  limits  of  lived  Instead,  and  economic,  Hegemony  whole  equated  social  that  system  therefore,  include  identities way  the  not  ideology.  subordination  such  is  hegemony,  and  of  conscious  and o r g a n i s e d  concept  abstracted  the  dominance  a  does  system not  or just  40  passively  exist,  recreated,  defended  resisted,  limited,  Hegemony first  is  inert  It  is  altered  negotiated  suggests,  tradition  expression  of  the  limits.  It  is  the as is  past  and  Is  strong  the  tied  such  Intellectual  powerful  third  institutions  such  as  'residual'  and  distinctive  feature  of  on  which the  some  'emergent' the  to  of  shaping  of  such  Tradition directly lies  in  organisations have  and  development  the  of  order  are  is  of  a  formal  be  the a  and  media.  may  of  in  significant  force  elaboration  dominant  and  means  are  Williams,  elements  evident  continuities  active  church,  most  hegemony  and  of  Williams  language.  of  constitutive  schools,  of  and  The  because  selective  strong  element  life  according  through  media.  practical  a  1977).  pressures  continuities  influence  understood  Is  number  artistic  The  of  the  hegemonic  movements  culture.  Hegemony,  and  second  decisive  (Williams,  number  practice  these  as  and  in  renewed, continually  But,  institutions  The  a  a I so  connotations.  tradition a  is  neglected  most  to  It  usually  dominant  because  formations  continually  challenged  Is  is  places,  experienced.  be  through  which  because  families,  sometimes  and  hlstoriclsed  incorporation  to  and m o d i f i e d .  'tradition'  and  has  better dominant,  culture. that  it  A  reaches  41  Into  the  life  and  whole is  'emergent' past  but  of  defined  still  active  are,  or  Williams  relations  with  element  democracy  incorporation  projection, as  active  in  terms  and  previous  social  be  in  is  a  or and  as  meanings  or  the on  dominant the  and  a  basis  cultural  monarchy  as  has  become  wholly  the  The  of  there  the  residual  and  of  Incorporated part  of  a  Into  capitalist culture  constant  process dilution,  exclusion',  (Williams,  a  oppositional  're Interpretation,  inclusion  element  example  any is  the  dominant  dominant  incorporate  result,  discriminating  an  a  element.  residual  into  as  the  even o p p o s i t i o n a l  the  functions  or  seen  residual  Incorporated  to  by  of  practiced  alternative  by means  resistance  can  experiences,  1977).  As a  formed  d i s t i n c t i o n between  and  attempts  'residual'  there  been  culture  element.  certain  process  dominant c u l t u r e ,  which  the  daily  the  have  (Williams,  continually  of  the  to  in  constitute  that  may  cultural  lived  some  experiences  effectively  expressed  He p r e s e n t s  dominant  residual  of  largely  culture.  the  be  notes  which  residual  words,  and  relations  in the  formation,  residual,  has  Its  however,  residue  institution  practices  Any c u l t u r e  cannot  but  the  which  by  In o t h e r  which  culture  of  cultures.  residual. values  range  1977,  as  well 123).  42 The  emergent  practices  and  created.  New  Definitions can  only  Is e x p r e s s e d  relationships social  of  by  culture  (Williams,  between  the  and  culture.  creation  a  which  could of  a  the  dominant  culture.  often  elements parties Thus,  such or  the  complex  dominant,  active  Despite  culture  life  new  cultural in  working  is also  that  styles  subjected by  to the  incorporation  class  are  is  class  political  (Williams,  and emergent  the  class.  oppositional  working  of  dominant  England, the  visibly  unions,  the  incorporation  suggests  residual  W i l l iams'  of  of  elements  oppositional)  of a  In  example,  the  class  attempts  number  materialism'.  examination  did  attempted  at  of  residual)  distinguishes  be  new p h a s e  It  for  may  emerge.  the  Williams  being  1977).  elements  of  a  process.  'cuIturaI ism', a 'cultural  a  for  the dominant  as  of  trade  working  the case to  meanings,  institutions  elements  Williams  as  continually  of  element  directed  are  (which  really  class,  process  values,  again  elements  result, new  (as  Here  are  emergent  continual  most  1977).  new  and  relation  The emergence  formation  Again,  values  its  emergent  elements  which  t h e emergent  b e made  by  some  of  of  criticisms  The these  to  move have  discussion criticisms.  away  been  now  from  levelled  turns  to  at an  43 2.4.3  Material  Cultural  Production  theory  of  material  acknowledged  as  an  Williams' although theoretical  statement,  (Hebdige,  1979;  1978/1979). to  Rather  he  Marx's  any  has  has  notion  evaded  superstructure  has  been  processes  of  of  to  With  has  evoked  the  issue  been  that  challenging criticism  1979b;  Scrivener,  Williams s t i l l  by  tracing  the  'Marxism'  stripped  of  production  to  have  metaphor.  turned  force,  the  been  in into  'Marxism'  material and  refuses  ambiguities  has  transformation  compartmentalised  social  and  base/superstructure  what  the  production,  widespread  1979a;  argued  the  statements  rigidities.  life  been  cultural  advanced  Johnson,  It  entertain  has  Critiqued  the  social  constitutive  lost  (Johnson,  1979b).  By argued, between  emphasising W i l l i a m s has cultural  criticised  that  argued,  argument  is  centres  Experience,  it  differentiation. between example,  economic  constitutive  refused and  because  totalities been  the  a  collapse the  appears, In  systematic  on  Williams  the  importance  distinctions.  of  differentiation  artificiality is  'cultural  because  always  it  of  This,  of  it  has  because  the  analytical  materialism'  the  and  practices,  production  is  distinctions.  beyond  other  is  distinctions  any  production  disappears  processes,  processes.  insists  behind  on  make  other  he  lie  to  social  distinction  becomes  for an  44 undifferentiated argue  that  through  col lapses  Marxism  The  arriving  First, at  culture.  any  Such  process' no  and  and  culture.  It  insist  vagueness  is  it  must deals  dominant  In  economic  of  is  His  working  no  clear  and  part  the  of  of  definitions  way  critics full culture  of  the  to  1979b). what  is  A  of the to  persistent set  relations  character  are  Williams and  of  force  is of  1979b).  'cultural  materialism'  Williams'  understood  elucidating  of  except  world.  of  culture  analyse  A second  (Johnson,  value  of  heterogeneity  totality.  of  situations'.  practices  the  social  fragmentation  therefore,  of  'total  concept  the  about  of  characteristics  a  of  sets  of  to  in  one  two  difficulty  clear  particular  production  the  al I the  specific  other  account  these  concept  any  result  concern  neglecting  under-estimated  does  in  to  the  the  side-lined  (Johnson,  Williams'  view,  of  possible,  a  found  rise is  descriptions  result  of  give  classes  to  all  with  above  are  culture  relations  In my have  not  be  Critics  (1977).  view  argued,  tends  'creativity'.  suggested,  and  extreme  problems  accused  Is  between  that  is  precise  this  into  relation  noted it  to  d i s t i n c t i o n can  questions  it  analysis  likened  Literature  'groups  time,  emerge  and  of  criticisms  problems.  At  concept  the  as  position. vague  with  cultural ist  45 problematic.  Yet  complexity,  defy  boundaries. lies  in  social definitions  Indeed,  with  entity.  In  to  other  theoretical the  part  'lived'  Where  analytical orthodox  of  the  dismiss  the  abstracted Williams  constitute does  the r i g i d  abstract  demystifies  as  culture.  not  reject  abstraction  concepts  assume  and argues has taken  Williams  economic  relations  than  'control'  (Anderson,  economy  limits'  a  again the  of a  the or  of  1980).  role  in  he  to  laws',  economic idea  'exerting the  on  concept  'iron of  explores  the  built  in the t r a n s i t i o n  conditions  of  political  of  the form of  'setting  allows  is  Once  that  as  on  rather  materialism'  the o r i g i n s  objective'  Rather,  'determination'  Williams  distinct  the  'determination'.  determination  relations.  system  process  Instead,  Wi I I l a m s  'cultural  1978/1979)  'absolute  pressures'  of of  characteristically (Scrivener,  a  and s u p e r s t r u c t u r e  that  but rather  of  identity.  ideas  'Marxism',  processes  where  foundation  Williams'  the base  as  not  rather  by  materialism'  and not a  has become.  is concerned,  Marxism  'cultural  does  but  it  of  social  abstraction  substantive  The  that  imposition  culture  Williams  complexity  abstraction  of  relations  metaphor  dichotomy  explores of  social  characterised  the  incorporate  addition,  base/superstructure  or  the strength  its ability  intertwined  processes,  of of  capitalist Accordingly, shaping  and  46 being  shaped  by  materialism', hegemony. and  'experience'.  however,  resisting, attempt  categories,  gain  hegemonic  shaped  by,  the economic  its  value  links  the  are  to  of  'cultural  the concept  'dominant',  constantly  processes  are  of  In  use of  social  to  processes limits  lies  With W i l l i a m s '  'emergent'  The g r e a t  'residual'  incorporating  actively  consent. to,  and a s s o c i a t e d  and  constituted Similarly,  and r e a c t  of  the  In a n social  pressures  political,  and  forces  of  product I on.  2.5  Culture.  This  processes  would in  geographical  from  the  a  Indeed, part  of  effectively  discovered  and of  of  Jackson,  the spatial their  such  the  forms  historical  In a d d i t i o n ,  as  They which  landscapes  necessarily  needs  expressions  of  as w e l l  to  c a n be p r o v i d e d  as  like  Williams that  Is o n e )  forms  (Cosgrove  Is  and  more  active  Jackson,  attached  explanation  the present  the  forces.  i s an  of meaning find  other  geography,  historical  cultural  formation  social  In  realise  sport  of  the complexity  the past  that  materialists  of  to  cultural  stimulus  (of  'cultural  studies.  reflection  structure  of  attention  sports  1987).  spatial  theory  turn  cultural  cultural  passive  1987).  Williams'  sub-disciplines,  works  geography  of  geographical  have  (Cosgrove  than  and Geography  application  materialism'  scholars  Sport  to in  (Cosgrove,  47 1983).  Cultural  geographers  incorporate  the  Furthermore,  Williams'  of the  non-geographical scope  and  A case for  analysis  examination  between  the  of  as  as  different  cultures.  hegemonic  control,  negotiation  and  2.6  the  history  of  residual through  woven an  geography  a  changes cases  enriched  of  sport.  presented  has  the  undergone  to  of  by  maintain  this of  be  early  in o t h e r s  of  threads  can  Influenced  effected  tapestry  interplay  of  by c o e r c i o n ,  the  broaden  cultures  been  An a n a l y s i s  with  to  The  The s p o r t  were  experience  is  presentation  i n f l u e n c e d and  i n some  the  lacrosse  to  research.  serve  emergent  in Canada.  has  with  process. and  need  into  would  of  cultural  These  provides  coupled  the  by  active  'cultural  an  intricate  process.  Summary  The themes on  it  process  basis  compromise.  process,  materialism', social  a  recognised  research,  the  lacrosse  changes  cultural  of  Illustrated  development numerous  sports  dominant,  effectively  of  theory,  theoretical  study  have  geography  and  the  sporting  new d a t a  spatial  of  sport,  sources,  diffusion  activities.  This  despite has  been  patterns body of  of  attempts  to  predominantly athletes, research  use  new  focussed fans  continues  and to  48 offer  little  Implications Reference  the  of  processes  that  of  to  the  modernisation of  explanation  theory of  linkages  links  are  sport  as  cultural  concept The  of  history  because residual, sport.  it  arguably  hegemony of  in  sport  effectively and  sports serve  and  the  to  'cultural  illustrates emergent  the  cultural  as  the  scope  theory  does  to  Williams'  chosen  and  the  theory,  materialism'  been  landscape.  broaden  In o r d e r  Raymond  social  literature  social  contestable.  has  on  and  Modernisation  process,  lacrosse  dominant  would  sport.  between  these  a  debate  cultural  occur  non-geographical  geography  identify  the  is a  interplay elements  yet  even  establish use  of  the  invaluable. case  study  between  the  within  the  49  CHAPTER THE  3  RESIDUAL CULTURAL  ELEMENT  "The residual, by definition, has been e f f e c t i v e l y formed In t h e p a s t , b u t i t is still a c t i v e in the c u l t u r a l process, not only and o f t e n not a t a l I a s an e l e m e n t o f t h e p a s t , but a s an e f f e c t i v e element of the present. Thus certain experiences, meanings and values which c a n n o t be e x p r e s s e d o r s u b s t a n t i a l l y v e r i f i e d i n terms of the dominant c u l t u r e , are nevertheless l i v e d and p r a c t i s e d on t h e b a s i s of t h e residue - cultural a s w e l l a s s o c i a l - o f some p r e v i o u s s o c i a l and cultural institution or formation" ( W i l l lams, 1977, 122).  3 .1  I n t r o d u c t i on  The within  purpose  which  history  of  discloses useful the  of  the  why  existing  the study  of  section  devoted  contact  and  The  cultural be  history of  a  to  culture final  conflict  and  of  of  is  to  process.  overview  and  problems  section the  of  influences  is  A discussion theme  lacrosse associated  of  the  section  particular  follows.  examines  context  first  modernisation  materialism'  an  In  the  throughout  The  lacrosse  the  set  elements,  viewed.  cultural  'cultural  Native  literature.  can  literature,  application is  chapter  residual  lacrosse,  case  American  this  and  a of  the  The  second  in  North  with  the  Native/European this  on  lacrosse.  50  3.2  to  Lacrosse  and t h e Hegemonic  A brief  sketch  show  in  terms  explanation. American  Native  religious  Prior  to  among  Native  an  white  between  impression.  religious  rite  to  a  part  primarily  1974).  widespread continent.  t h e game  having  used  a  for of  the  organised  was  of  part  with  North  social,  and Jones,  each  being  static of  highly  lacrosse  groups,  associated  than  diverse  a  equipment  Despite was  usefully  the North American  and  different  Is m o r e  illustrates  (VeI I a t h o t t a m  throughout  necessary  integral  from  ritual  is  rather  lacrosse  century,  preparation  lacrosse  varied  particular  recreational a  elaborate  ceremonial preparations  1907).  The  first  Europeans  voyageurs,  seventeenth  century  of  European  (Weyand contact  economy  transformation  to witness  missionaries  Increased  capital ist  1972b).  process  activity  sport  groups  purposes,  1978).  a  lacrosse  study,  o r i g i n a l l y an  the eighteenth  cultural  case  recreational  purpose,  (Culln,  of  of  a  culture,  of  and  predominantly  greatly  as  Although  transformation  French  the history  why l a c r o s s e ,  analysed  The  of  Process  and lacrosse  and  and with  among  lacrosse early  game  traders  Roberts, the  culture  appropriation,  a  1965;  European  led Native  to  a  societies  organisation  were In  the the  Eisen, mercantile contested (Salter,  and c o n t r o l  of  51  the  game  came  nineteenth  under  century.  lacrosse  diffused,  rest  of  Canada  club  was  thirty-five members.  in  in Montreal  there  (Lindsay,  a  in 80  sport,  Canada  with  Jones,  Montreal,  The f i r s t In  with  least  of  the  throughout  In 1 8 5 6 .  at  during  focus  1974).  clubs  were  1969;  spectator  sport  It  the  crowds. Club  1969).  was Up t o  played  1867  20  there  were  1  2 000  000  the  lacrosse  about  some  1970;  Sport,  1908.  only  In t h e  won  In s u m , which  'traditional'  the  it two gold  lacrosse  sport  380  players  participants  V e l l a t h o t t a m and  in England,  Lacrosse became years  an O l y m p i c lacrosse  medals showed  'modern'  In C a n a d a attended in  all  and  War p o p u l a r  to  As  draw  when  the  the  1870s  In t h e s e was  so  event was  countries popular  i n 1904 a n d played, and  the  gulf  a modern  regulated. interest  of  a  between sport, And  in  the Jones,  the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  bridged  In  U n i t e d S t a t e s and  (Vellathottam  sports.  rationalised  unprecedented  Shamrocks  in the sport  and  World  was  regularly  Montreal  successfully  Second  team  fans  had  organised, the  8 000  1973). that  team  first  interest  Internationally  Canadian  lacrosse  E x h i b i t i o n games  (Amateur  after  and F i s h e r ,  1867,  catalysed  became  organised  By O c t o b e r  Australia  sport  urban  rule,  1974).  Toronto  1974).  an  clubs  popularity.  (Cox,  (Wise  a n d b y 1884  As  large  as  colonial  the  lacrosse  lacrosse  Jones,  From  organised  existed,  British  it  yet,  lacrosse  52  d e c I Ined  significantly  became  localised  a  Lacrosse's sport,  'National  Sport',  numerous  can  be  there Native  a  scholars which  have  nineteenth  1969). refer  Many to  albeit  discussed  in  Howell,  these  innovation organised this  social  and sport  paper,  the  these  histories  origins  of  unintentionally,  Job I i n g ,  works  lacrosse  1964;  Cox,  hand,  sports histories  Impact  of  lacrosse  in  1969;  briefly, and  Lindsay, if  tend  the modernisation (for  in  McCluney,  on o r g a n i s e d  lacrosse  chapter  example  at a l l , to  have  theme  Howell  as and  1970).  the  importance  the growth has been adds  of  economic  only  lacrosse  On t h e o n e h a n d ,  other  example,  subject.  on  and a n a l y t i c a l  and  an  Canada's  on t h e  studies  Eyman,  industrialisation (for  sport  as  of  written  groups.  On  the previous  1969;  In  In  the  the ethnic  followed,  two  explanatory  century of  and theses  1977).  role  of w r i t i n g  example,  national  popularity  the  anthropological  written  and  In  surge  Into  (for  emphasise  a  a  1970).  dramatic  articles  of  Wulff,  urbanisation the  led to  number  1974/1975;  (Jones,  but  divided  culture  had been  particularly  books,  broadly are  activity  brief  organised  The  and what  of  cities  stressed.  weight  to  of  technological  in the development The study  the contention,  of  of  lacrosse,  outlined  In  53 Chapter order  2,  that  to  obtain  cultural  analysis  to  a  in  the  however,  of  should  The  fact  widespread  not  be  that  game  Canadian culture  the  turn  of  not but  to  a  expanding  further  the  rewarding integrated  contention  agrarian  and  snapshot  of  a  venture  Is  the  cultural as  sport  in  society.  (1977)  well  theory  of  at  value  of  transitional 'primitive' and  important  role  relationships,  popularity a  city  that  the  cultural of  the As  suggested  'cultural  in  after  growth  and rates,  types  process. lacrosse  transition  a  shortly  ideal  the  from  sport  urban-industrI a I  incorporating  as  national  unprecedented  exploration  process  societies  Williams'  an  activity  when  'modern'  dynamic  Native  urban  allows  Urbanisation  In  and  localised  were  static  sport.  culture  industrialisation  a  the the  pre-  'modern'  approach  to to  or  traditional  declined  century  'traditional'  also  from a  the  supports  only  integrated  between  industrial This  In  overlooked.  Native  early  an  The t r a n s i t i o n a l  lacrosse  In  limiting.  as  undoubtedly played game.  is  boundaries  blurred.  organised  have  history  be  changed  'modern'  lacrosse  and  societies,  industrialisation the  of  directed  lacrosse  dichotomies  defined  to  be  Native  when  to  the  have  attention in  on  'primitive'  sport  lacrosse  game  an  or  organised  period  emphasis  process,  industrial  more  the  provide A more as  influence to  in  materialism'  of  an of  organised Chapter provides  2, a  54 workable  framework  process;  the  elements  dominant  defended,  modified  I imits  on  'residual'  and  dominated  game  interacted  dominant  hegemonic  this  landscape. ideology,  The can  be  the  'emergent'  is  and  also  dominant,  the  a  on  struggle moulded,  a  the  in not  British  cultures. the  was  under  study,  continually to  particular by  New  emerging  lacrosse  only  In  subsequently the  attempt  a  the  successfully  period  of  by  culture.  and  lacrosse  out  maintain was  the  social  the  existing  cultural  elements  context.  and  number  pressures  Native  i n an  economic  act ive  culture  transformation  residual  r e c o g n i s e d on  During  modified  was  renewed,  of  created  where  being  Initially,  influence  negotiated  hegemony  played  landscape  meanings  The  Lacrosse but  elements  residual  culture.  and  are  British  the  lived  These  process  economic  with  control.  of  cultural  incorporating  continually  lacrosse.  cultural  challenged,  result  and  of  a  challenged.  Canada,  practices Canadian  is  'emergent'  social  closely  being  this  and  illustrates  form  century the  embryonic  view  hegemony,  hegemonic  the  the  values,  to  'residual'  and  the  changed  the  of  effectively  cultural  nineteenth  which  useful.  Lacrosse  and  concept  'dominant',  particularly  a  within  of  emergent different  levels.  In  this  55  case  study,  race. and  these  Continual  political  Canadian this  cultures  emergent  French  culture,  was a l s o  a  organised  At  can  production of  to  identifies culture  be  the  values  history  class  of  crucial  as  interplay the  dominant  later British  however,  lacrosse  later,  in the  is  history. 1890s,  the development  In  terms  held  this  of  of  and the  Breton,  he of  coal  mining  class  often  of  Empire  immigrant  distinctions  analysis  against  identifies  1985).  of  social  study (1985)  (Frank,  elements  in a  of  Frank  struggle  cultures,  hegemonic  relations  by t h e B r i t i s h  society  These  in a  For example,  the  town  class  culture  the working  practices  in  culture,  of  Cape  and  boundaries. are  of In  in  and b e l i e f s  lacrosse  and  justifies  the  Interaction  in  societies.  together  coal  Native  1976a).  The r e s i d u a l  the  came  elements  emergent  period  of  Interaction  century  and t h e  This  identified  traditions  underlying  time  French  Influence  society  Join  Corporation. strong  lacrosse  in c a p i t a l i s t  who  dominant  in  in terms  British,  explanation  level,  coal-mining  racial  the  (Metcalfe,  another  process  this  colonial  powerful  game  the  nineteenth  significant.  involvement  never  the  Identified  and economic  Canadian culture  o n Iy p e r i p h e r a I French  between  During  early  been  cultural  during  classification. the  have  social,  conflicts  between  was  elements  the Steel  as  the  culture  Within  the  overlapped and economic  lacrosse  and  are  56 closely  aligned with  creating,  preserving  Lacrosse  3.3  It  is  lacrosse,  among N o r t h  and  written  among  these  accounts  themselves.  Later, artists  nineteenth  centuries.  Considerable occurred  and  over  communities  (Eisen,  1978).  cultures range  of  addition,  and  By  not  Native they  portray  in the  in  the  Natives  over  taken  by and  three place.  must  have  Native  groups  and  other  groups  and  abandoned  or  accounts culturally to  forgotten of  lacrosse  sketchy  specific  representative North  Jesuit  lacrosse  into  and  early  eighteenth  had  period,  European  the  written  century,  contact  changes  be  were  late  nineteenth  usually confined to  not  of  of  only  reports  most  an  the  frequent  this  in  two m a i n  by  modified,  on  are  and  historically,  groups  There  traders,  and merged  intended  details  the  During  were  exact  form  Europeans:  unaccountable  were  'original'  First,  by  Involved  Cultures  cultures.  the  Second,  Reports  the  European/Native  geographically,  detail.  assess  scholars  disintegrated  practices  are  more  time.  tribal  an  made  and  groups  game.  of  Native  early  travellers,  of  talk  to  were  and  years  the  difficulties.  missionaries  hundred  ethnic  American Native  to  difficult  game  for  different  and m o d i f y i n g  problematic  'original' reasons  the  of  the  Native entire  American c o n t i n e n t .  overwhelming ethnocentric  in  bias.  In  57  As  it  is  quantitative provide these  an  works  some  cultures. accounts games  is  1907;  cultural  the  study forms  lack  lacrosse  The  most  of  the  by  it  in  can  1907.  be  1890).  Weyand and  lacrosse  was  From  lacrosse  1971;  of  was all  Salter, the  and  this  North  Roberts  the  outdoor  American  (1965)  Native  ball  by  to  popular  and the and  (Culin,  was  played  continent that  the  games  It  suggest  Native century  prior  most  1972b).  well  collection  that  the  the the  as  across  pub I I s h e d  e s t a b l I shed  cultures  across  CuI i n  game,  details,  early  a to  Despite  nineteenth  i n f o r m a t i o n on  Stewart  across  Jette,  of  the  diversity  in  collection  rather  of  of  the  portray  but  value.  emphasise  complex  to  emphasis  without  available  century,  extensively  lacrosse  and  Institute  eighteenth  the  universalities  works  widespread  not  of  the  edited  other  the  viewpoint  a  Smithsonian  early  into are  sources of  intention  of  Insight  ethnocentric  as  the  account  early  secondary  not  (Mooney,  some  type  of  "played by at least 48 tribes scattered t h r o u g h o u t s o u t h e r n C a n a d a , and a l l p a r t s o f the United States except the extreme southwest, although a few o f the more paclfistic tribes, such as the P i s c a t a w a y s of s o u t h e r n M a r y l a n d d i d not p l a y " (Weyand a n d R o b e r t s , 1965; 4).  Some in  the  tribes  St. and  early  writers  Lawrence diffused  speculated  River  Valley  from  there  that  among  the  the  through  game  eastern  cultural  originated Algonquin contact  to  58  the  rest  recent  of  the continent  scholar,  (Hoffman,  has argued  that  1896).  lacrosse  McCluney,  a  more  established  that  was known b y  "the majority of Indian tribes east of the M i s s i s s i p p i R i v e r and a l s o by s e v e r a l peripheral t r i b e s of the Missouri drainage, extending in a s c a t t e r e d westward d i r e c t i o n i n t o t h e Porno a r e a of C a l i f o r n i a and northward into west Canada" (McCluney, 1974/1975, 34).  Despite the in  these  earliest the  a  cultures  result the  has been  and o b s e r v a t i o n s  of  of  (McCluney,  North America  1862;  1971).  Each  structure  lacrosse  Hoffman, tribe  played  1890;  t h e game  were  made  1974/1975;  term  preparation  apparent  universality  t h e game. functions  varied  Nor of  CuI i n  1896;  variation,  however,  techniques,  does  it  1972b).  to  games  the North American Natives  radically among  Salter, and  varied does  not  skills  or  affect  the  Native  the conclusion are  in form  f o r t h e game; rituals  of  Native  (Chambers  and  lacrosse came  greatly  the continent  had a v e r n a c u l a r  considerable  North American  Beauchamp,  (Salter, of  of  across  This  of  underlying  of  ceremonial  extensively. the  the d i v e r s i t y  geographically  Journal,  equipment,  of  type  function  deny  area  It  1977).  As  and  reports  eastern  Wulff,  differences,  practically  groups  that the  'the same  59  and  universal  among  all  tribes',  having  said  this,  he  cont i nues "while their common a n d secular object appears t o be purely a manifestation of the d e s i r e for amusement o r g a i n , they are performed a l s o as r e l i g i o u s ceremonies, as r i t e s pleasing to the gods to secure t h e i r f a v o u r , or as a process of s y m p a t h e t i c m a g i c , t o d r i v e away s i c k n e s s , avert other evil, or produce rain...or other beneficial results" (Culin, 1907, 809) This (1971)  contention  who,  concluded  using  is  furthermore  evidence  supported  f r o m 44  North  by  Salter  American  tribes,  that  " c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n i n t h e s t y l e o f t h e game implements and format, such as the b a l l , stick (raquet), playing area, goal(s), rules, players' d r e s s and associated r i t u a l s , were e v i d e n t from area to area. These, however, d i d not a l t e r the underlying objectives o f t h e game, n o r d i d t h e y radically affect t h e manner in which t h e game was contested throughout North America" (Salter, 1971, 95).  Although  the  European  writers  writings  often  late it  1890s,  was  game as  betray  surprising  that  religious  significance  1977; some  a  Its  authors  recreative  contention Elsen,  (Salter, 1978). of  of  the  of  Even  Native of  game  recreation,  their  have  there  lacrosse  since  when  to the  (Mooney, supported  1974/1975; were  that  chose  primary  was more  actual  remarked  lacrosse  was  early  In t h e  societies  McCluney, though  by  significance.  academics  1971;  play,  James Mooney,  elements  of  identified  religious  Twentieth century  elements  form  the anthropologist,  the  this  usually  purely  emphasise  1890).  was  Wulff,  undoubtedly than  'just  a  60  game'^  among  McCluney,  3.3.1  Native  1974/1975;  two-pronged (Salter,  Wulff,  spirits  symmetry  the  1971;  Salter,  1972b;  1977).  lacrosse  Cherokee, in  (Wulff,  called heal  upon  to  remedy  1964).  would c a l l the  the  seasons By  the Each  evil group  appropriate.  summer,  the  however, Corn with  game  in  be he I d .  most  Santee  one of  the  Festival  in  a  of  game  involved  and u s u a l l y  large  careful  numbers  of  1947).  Huron,  lacrosse When a up t h e  illness.  the  1933).  celebrated  rituals  like  in  Seneca,  Each  society  was b e l i e v e d ,  deemed  the  protection  in a that  was t h e G r e e n  was  game o f  (Eyman,  leaders  the  (Henderson,  groups,  that  (Blasig,  played  events  many  it  served  and  games w o u l d  they  1977).  with  in a  the sick  spiritual earth'  some  Among  occasion  participated  For  appeased  annual  lacrosse  preparations  nature,  be  winter.  This  people  of  lacrosse  in the season  spring.  provision  the environment  f o r example,  Important  lacrosse  is not s u r p r i s i n g  when  best  symbolism,  tribal  with  signs  could  Dakota,  of  It  determined  following  most  religious  function  close  played  in  1972b).  usually  The  (Jette,  Religious Status Shrouded  such  cultures  as  the  spirits  a medicinal  person 'life  became  forces'  Medicines  taken  were  ritual sick, of  to the  'mother  from  the  61  earth  would  be p r e p a r e d  game w o u l d  be p l a y e d  medicine. the  spirits  outcome.  If  decision  In  some  chief  to had  cultures wake,  used, the  the the  dead  to  honour  dead.  (Jette,  games w e r e who h a d  following  restrictions  were  relatives  the  of  duration  from  lacrosse  (among  a  the  no-one  post-burial  doubted  the  In the  was  ceremony  1971;  died  Salter,  held  . on  Taboos  tribe.  Shawnee,  the  For  Choctaw,  and  other  to  honour  involved  1972b).  the year  certain  eastern  Installation  in remembrance  during  death,  and  a  specifically  the  a chief  if  pre-burial  Iroquois, of  death  unity  and rank  death  1978).  with  wake  lacrosse  of the  bereaved. of  the  on  tribal  on o c c a s i o n s  also  for  attention  name  departed. to  the  associated  the  the  placed  tribe  power  bestowing  the  new o n e  relatives  Usually,  for  lacrosse  decision  promote  In a d d i t i o n ,  Huron,  fair  a  Travelling College,  comfort  ceremony,  a  died,  to  was p l a y e d  attract  was  dead,  the  a  for  Indian  Then  additional to  person  following  Lacrosse and  to  a n d among  condolence  ask  lacrosse the  or  burial  by  sick  honour  lacrosse  of  to  cases,  provide  intended  American  died,  the  feasts  and  the  (North  rites:  to  T h e game w a s  life  and a d m i n i s t e r e d .  of  (Wulff,  taboos  and  surviving varied  In  the mortuary Creeks  and  friends 1977). social  spouse scope ritual  by and of  Alabamas),  62  however,  taboos  relatives status  the  dead  a  of  t h e game  games rain  the  3.3.2  to  Pre-game Preceding  dancing, close  the  training comprised throwing each  and  the  player  of  consisted  of  the  (Elsen, two t o  on t h e  spring  and  for example,  held  on t h e s p i r i t s  1964)  to  and ceremonies  (Fig.  games  anointing  served 1978).  3.1).  three  as  a means  weeks  with  under  ceremonial  and p r a y e r of  Underhill,  practice  bathing  was  elders  Among  Coupled  fasting,  Another  bestowed  preparations  1907;  placed  high  possessions  the  t o caI I  the  Rites  athletic  ball.  in  The Cayuga,  religious  CuI i n ,  was  the g i f t s  (Eyman,  bleeding,  regular  the personal  a c c o m p a n y i n g most  ceremonies  began  games  1972a).  played  Strict  Ceremonial  1886;  gods  also  an a t t e m p t  these  direction  preparation  were  in  fasting,  (Hodge,  distribute  weather.  attached  share  allowing  and i n d i c a t i n g t h e  (Salter,  was n e e d e d .  Ritual  temporarily  In t h e game  was t o to  Lacrosse  influence  of  or  1972b).  when  lifted  lacrosse  (SaIter,  Thunder  were  to  deceased  summer  often  participate  awarded  function of  to  were  the  to  such this  strict  and sexual  the  The  invoke the a i d  the as  the  tribes  1953).  Cherokee,  before  under  athletic  game.  This  running  and  rigorous  training,  regulations  which  restrictions.  These  63 taboos  usually  sometimes sacred  extended  numbers  As  far  allowed  because  it  its  rabbit and  he s t o o d  lose  courage  Similarly, game  if  easily  a  tribes  players fact,  a I lowed past, the role  were  if to  a  of  penalty.  in the pre-game  bones  period  permitted  and l i a b l e  If  (Mooney,  a  player  to ate  'disconcerted 1890,  110).  be c r i p p l e d e a r l y  in the  which were  man's  game.  (Miwok,  Shawnee  always  played  As part  of  allowed  woman e v e n  be u s e d .  infraction  death  were  not  to  not  brittle  and  1890).  b y women  1974/1975).  alarmed  becoming  game'  expect  frog's  primarily a  games  was n o t  by t h e h u n t e r ' .  the  could  (Mooney,  was  McCluney,  In  player  broken  significant  the  In  are  were  training  rabbit  of  was  1890).  the  'easily  but  and seven  the players in  the chance  he consumed  Lacrosse some  pursued  game  Four  (Mooney,  foods  animal  a  days.  For example,  timid  when  before  was c o n c e r n e d ,  game.  wits  days  twenty-eight  particular  is a  then  to  food  eat the  seven  for the Cherokee  as  to  preceding  lose  lasted  this  rule  T h e women, dance  the  was  suggests severe  however,  (McCluney,  1971;  regulations,  contact stick,  in  Dakota),  b y men ( S a l t e r ,  the pre-game  (1890)  played  and Santee  physical  touched  Mooney  Although  with it  was  not  in  the  that  enough  d i d play  1974/1975).  to a  women.  Invoke central  64  Once groups of  again  but  the  was g e n e r a l l y (Culin,  a  and l a s t e d  of  game  the  dancers  who  represented  the  men  consisted  and  intervals  spiritual  leaders  perform  the  ceremony  is to  recover  from  performed of  obtain  on v e r y  prayers  to  prayers  to  prayers  and  sticks  The  final  a  seven turkey  hinder  players  preparation  before  sharpened quI I I .  were  splinters The p l a y e r  the  fire,  At  river  bank  water'.  ThIs  In c o n n e c t i o n an  enemy  was a  ball  turkey  was s c r a t c h e d  with  or  ritual  to only  consisted  players  and  During  themselves  was t h e  by an  to  and  a  to  t h e game  from a  a  players  the o p p o s i t i o n .  scratched  women  t h e game  The ceremony  annointed  1890).  Players  at  water'  help  (Mooney,  'scratching'. of  to  to  Cherokee,  Around  the  destroy  to  the  on t h e  experience.  'going  occasions.  spirits  chants, water  'Going  special  the  to  and body  place  about  to  and  various  and seven  clans.  and i s used  long-life,  bad s p i r i t s  with  known a s  Illness.  Among  night,  dance  sacred  took  players  sure  the  between  the mind  and s i n g  are  the  rite  t h e most  prayers  chant  during  mystic  dawn.  Cherokee  they  leave  prepare  the ball  dance,  frequent  differed  The dance  until  of  the v i c t o r y  to  1907).  the seven  a n d women  dance  used  players  eve  come  the b a l l - p l a y  and  their  ritual  instrument  leg-bone  the  of  made  fixed  b y t h e comb  In  four  65  times  on  across a  each  the chest  stroke  At In  of  and l e g .  and back,  shoulder  end of  river  and  swift player  (Mooney,  animal would  to  or  in t h e i r  (Figs  3.2;  3.5).  body.  from  that  the player  remain  as  (Mooney, group  spirits. to  needs  Judged  other  hand,  spirits 1926) '  struck  could  1890).  the  believed  tree  sacred by  absorb  who  Once  involved, entire  as  game  were  began  players favoured  deserving as  always  evidence  that  wore  of  sight the fire  fire  had  had not d i e d the  all  so  l i g h t n i n g but the  bolt  of  the  members from  leaders  the  sides.  conferred  with  t h e game  were  and  Failure,  the displeasure  in t h e i r  animal  t o mark  the  the s p i r i t s  of  so  the  had d e f i e d  1964).  tall  the dance  for  but of  the  players  the end of  by  (Eyman,  correct  of  used  encouragment  at  only  eagle),  from  that  the s p i r i t u a l  been  was s e e n  the tree  usually  keenness  t h e wood  t h e powers  shouting  or  were  I ightning  the play  Winning have  If  off  with  Similarly,  was t a k e n  the blood  They  them  j o i n e d by  1890).  the swiftness  give  scratched  were  washed  deer  and c h a r c o a l  i n v u l n e r a b l e as  became  During the  a  to  charcoal  was p a r t i c u l a r l y  ends  ornamented  as  1926).  Paint  The  come  (such  hair  ' X ' was  t h e game.  be endowed w i t h  feathers  It  players  for  bird  eagle  an  (Mooney,  w h i c h was o f t e n  Catlln,  and  shoulder  the r i t u a l  1890;  player's  Finally  and t h e upper  dressed  a breech-cloth  a  the  from  the  the  wore  arm  judgement  their on t h e of  the  (Catlin,  66  3.3.3  Tribal  As  the  Provision  spirits  reward,  gambling  cultures  (Eyman,  gambling.  It  functions  was  was  crucial  It  people  bet  their  holders  The served pivotal  where  of  the  (1890)  In m a n y  involved  most  ceremonial  burial  ceremonies  the  literature  on t h e outcome  of  the  made  (Catlin,  bets  that  a  as  economic  land  notes  of  the  game. stake1926;  that  a  during  dynamics  was  of  large  piece  from  games  of  Native  voluntary games  (Eyman, land  life.  on  tribes,  a  exchange  effectively Sometimes  1964).  of  lacrosse  wagers  the  Mooney  in the G e o r g i a in a  a  communities  the decisions  the Creeks  between  played  wealth.  u p o n when t h e game  but  not dependent  distributing  in  of  self-supporting  a system  was d e c i d e d  recreational lacrosse  Intra-tribal  of  reflected  not  fact,  wealth  1978).  by t h e C h e r o k e e cases,  of  but rather  purpose  was  In  consisted  (Eisen,  were  won  in  of  Native  role  purpose.  distribution  the  spirits  contests  of  and  among  important  gambling  the  system,  contested  of  of  in  society**  goods  part  noted  deserving  1974/1975).  role  served  was  track  specific  monetary  a l l Native  possessions an  most  aspect  medicinal  is often  played  function  a  Tribal  women  keeping  McCluney,  a the  1978).  the  important  Almost  including  all  an  the players  1964).  (Eisen  Here,  favoured  were  area game. high  '  67  and  if  lost  particular  could tribe  Lacrosse means play  of  the  on  believed rituals  games  to  have  and  Lacrosse  of  the  combat playing  and  and  as  the  needed  to  of  a  additional needed  hunt.  groups  the  divine  In  elements  to  were  various  change  (Salter,  to  depended  influence,  spirits  survival  an  The s k i l l s  As  to  very  lacrosse spirits  for  the  Important was to  defensive  endurance,  all of  for  agricultural  1974/1975).  leadership,  reproduction  to  a  bird  courage  required  were  hunting.  subject  tribal  balance  weather  1971).  Protection  (McCluney,  emphasised  training  elements.  Directly,  animal  swiftness  These  ensure  economic  1972b).  the  appeal  served  protection.  the  skills  of  been to  Physical  3.3.4  the  natural  evolved  conditions  1971;  provision:  survival  the  affect  p r o v i d e d the  strengthened  addition, largely  (Salter,  tribal  ball  seriously  used give  tribe  rested.  the  summons tribe  emergencies  and  d i s c i p l i n e and on  to  Indirectly,  speed  aspects  medium o f  which  and  the  the  (Salter,  aid  strength, military  preparing  agility.  unity  tribal  It  and also  1972b).  protection  and  68  Certain  skills  through  the  combat,  skills  muscles  as  1972b).  such  well  and  as  as  served  ensure  This  served  the as  1972b).  In  way  identification although 1972b). and  In  the  group  wrestling,  the  tribe  as  was  cohesiveness  practised  of  to  were  on  of  usually was  1947).  leadership  and  the  In  various  was  established  (Salter,  of  1971;  the  values  verbal  increased  also  involved  reinforced  by  and  Salter  emphasised  were  and  taboos  1971).  preparation  efforts  and  the  schooled  (Salter,  Unity  men  reproduce  the  leaders  The p e r i o d s to  also  well.  solidifying  future  the  (Henderson,  placed  discipline  game  be  of  addition  individual  to  the  encouraged  virility  youth  period  with  and  tribes  support.  The  associated  agility,  exertions  1964).  tribal  and  the  (Salter,  promoted  fighting  For  developed  reflexes  continued  training  sessions.  physical  of  function  as  that  the  developed  These  emphasis  instruction,  notes  village  game,  (Eyman,  (1971)  combat  game  In  and  and  were  catching  contact  strength  the  this  and  techniques  swinging  the  well  promoted  (Salter,  eluding  1972b).  of  rites,  players  throwing  reproduction  the  tribe  physical  as  Physical  combined  hierarchy  the  training  dominance  During  of  the  function  patriarchal  associated  in c l o s e  (Salter,  ensure  its  stick  frequently  thus  traits  and  valuable  to  character  co-ordination  speed.  such  skills  and  Running  fitness game,  game  and  group among  applauded the  entire  the  support  69  from  the  women,  rest  closeness  1973).  Often,  used  writers  to  of  usually stakes  avoided were  between  3.3.5  the  conflicts  the players  and  in a  settling however,  if  (Culin,  an  (Flad,  lacrosse  games  (Eyman,  1964).  Later  of  noted  the  that  only  personal  on c r e a t i n g players  conflicts  injuries  while  tribe  the violence  for or  w a s won  example,  three  took  on  and severe  A game  Games  upon  game  (Jette, rough  occurred  as  a  1971).  p l a y was when  'ill-feeling'  high  existed  1907).  number  of  Mooney  spiritual  Players  teams (1890)  leaders  players were  (Salter,  to  with  to a  usually 1971).  five.  1907).  eight  argues prepare would  selected Even  if  that  the players  smoked and of  stoppages group  1 000  i t was 100  the  game  at  sunset.  to  group.  players  (Catlin,  impossible for people  be t w e n t y - t w o from  was  Involved.  from  even  goals,  parties  and  to  of  number  The d u r a t i o n  differed  from  number This  both  where  intervals  side  required  by  periods  players  Observers.noted 1926).  game  (Culin,  days  a  out of  the  had r e s t  refreshments lasted  by s c o r i n g  goals  before  usually  often  men  personal  them  play  'BaI I P l a y *  decided  most  unity  1700s,  played  urge  spectators  f u n c t i o n of  In  men w o u l d  maintain  comment  this  Travellers  The  settle  Young  men w o u l d  between  to  often  result  for  the t r i b e .  c h i l d r e n and o t h e r  unusual  were  of  t h e most  t h e numbers  and t h a t  (Mooney, athletic were  the the  1890). young  large,  the  70  original game.  number  Among  indicating Converse, were  in  quite  liberal  (Henry,  out  tried  north/south unbounded posts  and  miles, with  space they  1973).  (Fig. 3.3). The b a l l  between  the  McCluney tended where  of  as  and  the  of  the  was  single  to  the  as  settlement by tree  the  two or  goal  upright rock  or  of  1974/1975,  41).  In  North  and measured were  for  (Flad,  area  goals  goal  associated  southeastern  and  the  sometimes  (Whitney,  end-lines,  One  simply  chosen  marked  'fixed  would  for  was  freedom  pole,  mile  south.  line  by  a  grounds  other  willed,  strike  over  in the t r i b e  field  spatial  the  behaviour  t h e c o u r s e was  were  colonial  a  1907;  goal  be c h a r a c t e r i s e d  (McCluney,  of  and t h e  spirit  field  over  to  north  leaders  either  the  and  Often  Sometimes  yards  elders  goal  before the  200  For the Huron,  the sense  of  substituted,  (Culin,  direction  west  1907).  that  boundaries,  elders'  to  had t o  posts  notes  to  east  moved  end  used.  The  a  1974/1975).  from  care.  cultures  Each  poles  in s i z e  during  and i n d i v i d u a l  (McCluney,  and s p i r i t u a l  indicative Native  for play  east/west  (Culin,  were  organisation  with  the  increased  players  and r e l i g i o u s  from  for  Injured  1809).  the course  laid  party  varied  was n e v e r  of  Rules  Important  out  were  Iroquois, element  field  extremely  players  1930).  length  lay  the an  often  The  of  was pass  1894). America fields  determined  the northeast,  by the  71  lacrosse areas  made  were  (McCluney,  type  of  of  knots  of  3.4).  hide  (Culln,  balls  Later,  stuffed 1907).  with  (Sacs,  Sioux,  was  long at  form  a  Others an  bag  sticks  five  hoop.  feet  the s t i c k s  designs  or  The  stick  (Eyman,  was u s u a l l y 1964).  used  the  into  paint  sacred  sinews  sinew  stick  some  round  across  to  and c a r r i e d . stick  bent  where  used  the as  for  in  ball a lid  lacrosse  environment.  two a n d a Native  half  Sometimes (Culin,  extremely  to  societies  ornamented  and f e a t h e r s often  by  small  tied  geographical  wood.  diameter  served  intricately  and  a  a  two s t i c k s  in  Potawatamies)  be caught used  or  was u s e d  used  and  F o r some  the  cariboo)  inches  from about  were  or  ash with  of  other  1968).  with  with  Materials  sticks  adorned  deer  raquet  and C r e e k s )  varied  burnt  1974/1975)  Dacotahs  baI I c o u l d  while  (McCluney,  2-4 or  on t h e p a r t i c u l a r  the  further  from  strings  The Choctaws  (Passamaquaddy)  were  two  (VeI I a t h o t t a m ,  carved  in open  originally  sewed  stick  (Fig. 3.5).  depended  held  were  as  h i c k o r y or  Cherokees  In o n e  of  of  but most  (such  Ojlbways,  which the  1877)  length  The  with  (Choctaws,  carried  (Beers,  The  In  and u s u a l l y  stone  and  varied  made  one end  oblong  was  stick  or  skin  hair  Balls  groups  varied  bone  animal  1968).  hoop  informal  used  wood,  (VeI Iathottam,  a  more  1974/1975).  The  (Fig. raw  fields  with  sticks 1907).  symbolic  72  Lacrosse among the  North  fact  that  lacrosse  References  considerable  1971;  able  that  to  their  more  to of  some  a  and  game  (Mooney,  'play',  directly  objective  whether  reward  real  either  or  of  role  this  place  implements  1974/1975).  form of  The  recreative  prominent  N a t i v e myths  control,  a  Indicative  held  games  this  adversaries  than  cultures.  McCluney,  environment.  securing  more  often  1971;  through  have  overcome of  number  Salter,  argues  served  American Native  mythology. a  clearly  is in  occur  in  1890;  Jette,  Salter  (1971)  Native  groups  were  and  symbolically,  over  of  the  game  spiritual  material  or  with  was the  not  to view  (Salter,  1971).  3.4  Interaction  Native cultural contact  European  societies  did  development, with  contact, cultures. to  with  which  societies  rather  different  the  advance  Cultural the were  not  result  they  groups.  of  change  existing drawn  Culture  Into  were With  capitalism was  linked  modes  of  capitalist  i  from  shaped  by  autonomous continuous  increasing  began to  to  the  shape  rate  production society.  European Native  and  extent  in  Native  73  European process  of  expansion  unequal  differential  access  differentiation economic, capitalist (Wolf, their in  response  North  to  where  hunting  grounds  Some  fishing  seasonally since  European  effectively 1987).  the  by  traders  This  of  Native  contrast  before  to  the  capitalism  same  to  the  colonials  continually  in response  had  power.  European  were In  century,  but  changing  way  these  the expansion  the Native  severely  groups  Refugees  for  from  wage  hunting labour.  contact,  the  predominant  depleted  had been  land,  or  other  continued Although Native race  population  (Wynn,  pushed  disrupted  in the reserves  and  in  in  existed  and harassed  gathered  and  a  of  1972b).  Native  survived.  disease  life  conditions.  had been  Canada,  barely  cultures  nineteenth  America  represented  underdevelopment  experienced  and changed  (Salter,  the  the  and b o u n d a r i e s  new  shifted  capitalism  By  and s o c i a l  economic  and p o l i t i c a l  composition  cultures  to  to  Native  fur-trade Natives  development  1982).  the  exchange.  led  social  in  off  many  communities war a n d  dislocated  population of  areas.  others  depleted  In  traditional  economies,  while  in most  1987).  in  worked  in  numbers  was  Canada  still  (Harris,  74  Reflecting societies changes study of  the  with  that  on  the  European  the  cultural  retained  its  of  contact,  and  format  3.4.1  the  >notably  to  were  game  largely  1972b).  Second,  with  with  influence  values,  came  tied  disappeared  to  to  and  of  fundamental  shifted  (Salter,  of  the  acccordingIy.  largely  the  game  lacrosse,  considerably  the  nineteenth  traditional Early  related  routes,  societies, their  game  only  the  economy  order,  changed  changed  protection.  trade  Native  economic  the  and  types  initial  of  purpose  his  adjust  the  to  economy  The  religious  the  techniques  1972b).  Negotiation Prior  serve  particularly  As each  of  stage, the  two  the  aspects  the  in  First,  From  this  (Salter,  culture  community,  functions  form  (1972b)  impacts.  while  were  identifies  missionaries  changes  Native  frontier,  made.  at  of  Salter,  lacrosse,  were  but,  original  capitalist  changing the  and  equipment  alterations. the  changes  traders  frequent  British  and  be m o d i f i e d to  lacrosse.  economic  with  confined  capitalist  of  contact  more  in  circumstances  acculturation  surficial  to  advancing  occurred  gradual  began  changing  to  importance  as to  functions  of  modifications the  certain  such  century,  changing  I terns o n c e  furs,  became  traders  lacrosse religion,  to  the  economic taken  provision  game  sphere.  for  granted  valuable  increased.  continued  are  and most  Along in  the  the  Native  commodities As  to  variety  as of  75  trade were In  items  these  Incorporated  addition,  accessible as  grew,  the  to  Into  aspects  greater  number  Native  MenominI,  leaders game  a  a  presenting  as  well  game.  as  calico  beads,  or  breaks, smokers  groups. common  gifts  which furs  cloth,  tobacco,  pipes  (Salter,  introduced  as  traditional  grape  Catlin  that  notes  the  food,  and  political  starting  the  game,  this  stage,  winning  team  in  at  tools,  become  began  important  to  items  hot  in  the had  such  the  as  game  for  the were  replacing  the  (Culin,  used  ceremonial  a  coffee  powerful  be  social end of  provided  drink  such  cultures  to  refreshments,  had  the  During  or  crab-apple  of  breaks  Native  were  became  in groups  during  now c h a n g e d  1972b).  items  consisted  Whisky  which  an  (Salter,  instance,  matches  mid-game  unimportant,  European  blankets.  1972b).  economic  of  game  refreshments  and  guns,  the  For  and  and  of  earlier  and  other  previously  practice  to  providing  Presents,  included  articles,  as  1907).  and  valued  a means  focus  of  (Catlin,  1926).  At not  altered.  Indigenous with  the  game  did  European  ones. game  not  the  Thus,  changed,  (Salter,  way  in which  items  were  w h i l e goods the  1972b).  function  the  game  merely and of  was  played  substituted prizes  these  was for  associated  items  in  the  76  3.4.2  D i s s o l u t i o n of More  of  fundamental  European  raquet the  their  ball  baI I  cotton  ceremonial  'clean  white  deer-tail,  the  which  women  attached  or  twine  robes'  the  1907).  In  Cherokee,  often  the  of  Many  broken  Salter  European  gambling  items  utilitarian. of  ornamental  items  such  were  not  stakes  body  as  deerskin  ornaments,  or  revolver rites  replaced  by  became  while  practical tended of  of  1972b).  that  or  in  was  societies  consisted  noted  swiftness,  was  of  by  The  contact  knives  replaced  shorts.  belt  Native  or  dressed  in  Salter,  always  traditional  scratching  notes  white  such as  by  European  observers  comb  1907;  (1972b)  after  goods,  leather  desired  Traditional  practical  a  traditional  (Culin,  items  wagered  enhance  leather-  the  dance  to  example,  during  was  played  turkey-bone  stakes.  those  men  a  and  of  of  Later  ball  fastenings  The  strip  The  used  and  quill-work,  with  the  gambling  all  a  adoption  by  worn  pre-game  worn  glass  European  of  the  waist  nets  changed.  the  traditionally  the  the  For  replaced Choctaw  1972b).  while  groups.  Clothing  or  (Salter,  performed  around  for  consisted bead  was and  rites  (Culin,  slivers  Cherokee  with  equipment.  Native  1907).  with  place  lacrosse  Mohawk,  (Culln,  garments  the  strap  the  ornamented  European  the  cord  took  b y many  preparation  breech-cloth,  that  of  and  raquets  cloth  in  modified  deerskin  produced  changes  materials  were  covered  Tradition  a  prevalue, to  be  combination  clothing,  decorative  and  clothing  77  and  among  some  constructed  I terns  dresses  or  This  the  role  money  The with  primary  early  attempts values  to  were  taught  the  by  a  not  colonial  society.  only  a  only  1926;  Salter,  had  been  and  the  specific  collected by  of  stakes.  a mounted  collecting  (Salter,  male  stakes.  cash  As  became  the  1972b).  game. the  Most  of  primitive  appetites  game  Contemporaries  Native  of  a  and  values  Christian  In  beliefs  and  The c o n v e r s i o n ceremonies  lacrosse  from  observers  identified  and  groups,  began  traders.  religious  recreation Native  As  and  missionaries.  European of  concepts  'savage',  remove  to  character  71).  to  form  opinion,  as  many  addition,  as  (Catlin,  missionaries  the  served  merely  Later kettles,  collection  European  'civilise'  rituals  In  wagering. and  handled  about  the  explorers,  undercut  realm.  ride  arrows  pots  tribes,  function  of  Christianity and  of  and  Ideology  imposition  the  guns  a n d was  in v a l u e ,  Dominant  3.4.3  purpose  They o r g a n i s e d  would  increased  stakeholder's  and  changed  who  f u r n i s h e d bows  blankets,  most  women.  later  stake-holder  in  the  of  horses  Gambling, of  for  consisted  cloth,  1972b).  elaborately  specifically  wagered  domain  groups,  but  the  and  religious lacrosse  communicated also  to  to  this  mainstream  result,  lacrosse  was  legitimised  Europeans  viewed  the  ritualistic  'merely an  as  a  manifestation  uncivilized  stated  that  people'  lacrosse  of  (Baker, was  the 1982,  'founded  78  purposely  for  observer  noted:  themselves war'  with  capacity  athletic  'noble  believed was  play.  savages  cited  in C u l i n ,  and  combination  In  1907,  the  (Culin, of  ideal  Europeans  had  played  One w r i t e r  chance,  Culin,  1907,  by p h y s i c a l  prowess.  one  the noble  such  of  game,  in mental  stated  and g r a n d e s t and  perfection  and  595).  This  European  travel ler  finest  amuse  dances  for  illustrative  one  pre-  'of is  al I ball  I w a s s u r p r i s e d how in  It'  (Khol,  1860,  566).  lacrosse  to  was o f t e n  1907).  tennis,  the  in  they  lacked  ritual  reflecting  1876).  a  of  . . .  As  the Natives  sports it  games  508).  what  1796,  related  terms  summer  cited  Is  attained  Europeans  tennis  ideal  caI I  these  heritage  that  social  I might  the  1856,  be I i e f s .  Indian  1877,  sports,  compensated  savage'  conceived  (Beers,  'During  (Schoolcraft,  Europeans  the  amusement'  for  Itself  and s h i n n y  lacrosse  of  described  T h e game  cricket  that  games  own  in c r i c k e t was s e e n  (later  was n o t u n l i k e  centuries  their  as  or a  hockey) the  (Chamber's  remarked:  "It has been s a i d , and w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e t r u t h , too, that La Crosse is a l i t t l e of f o o t - b a l l , of hockey, and of r a q u e t . The g o a l s resemble those of foot-ball and hockey; the occasional struggle for the ball is l i k e the 'scrummage' of foot-ball, though not so rough and dangerous; the general mode o f p l a y may be compared to hockey; while the crosse can claim some resemblance to the raquet-bat" (Weir, 1892, 745) .  games  Journal,  79  Evidence appeared renamed  of  early the the  Roberts,  1965;  its  term  game.  means  Later  the  by  popular  and  which  among  1978).  with  early  1965;  at  the  of  the  called  the  similarity (Weyand  hips'  and ' b a l l of  Native  from  of  1896).  the  'raquet' seems  to  societies  groups  the  'Ka-che-kwa-ah'  Eventually,  Native  expense  play'  had  of  (Beauchamp,  The term  and  tribe  aspect  it  game  missionaries  crosier  originating  1972b).  century,  Jesuit  particular  popular.  Salter,  term  a  their  scholars  of  T r a d i t i o n a l l y each  for example,  colonials  nineteenth  European  bishop's  'baggataway'  became  the  because  described  'hitting term  a  domination  as  crosse'  Eisen,  French  Roberts, the  'la  stick  'PagadowewIn' used  1600s,  The Onondagas,  which  cultural  in the  game  between  own  the  0jibwa was  have  also been  (Weyand a n d  particularly  adopted  the t r i b a l  the name  in  current (Salter,  1972b).  The full  importance  1978). the  European of  game  b u t may  in  it  components. that  it  It  Europeans,  however, beliefs,  Native with  a  view in  to  societies  considered  legitimate  redistribution societies  heritage  saw g a m b l i n g  recognise  as  of a  the  (Eisen,  and t r a d i t i o n a l  been  had a the  failed  Native  integral  have  effected  within  social  an  Indeed  property  and  gambling  N o t o n l y was  principal base  ethnocentric  part  one of  of Its  socio-economic o f w e a l t h and  (Salter,  1972b).  alternative  religious  'social  evil'.  These  80  values  were  Canadian until  later  physically  authorities.  the  (Culin,  sometimes  aspect  1907;  of  of  gambling  had  Salter,  translated  conform.  Games  into  As S a l t e r  enforced  by  lacrosse been  American  were  prohibited  abandoned  1972b).  These  policy,  caused  value  and  or  modified  impositions,  Native  groups  to  argues:  "The n e g a t i v e outcome from...European...values and b e l i e f s , played a determining role in the f o r m u l a t i o n of Indian P o l i c y . In l i n e w i t h t h e 'melting pot' concept, a t t e m p t s w e r e made b y t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s G o v e r n m e n t , and t o a l e s s e r extent by t h e Canadian Government, to force the 'lazy, immoral, u n i m a g i n a t i v e ' Indian to conform to socially acceptable W e s t e r n norms and become a p r o d u c t i v e part of s o c i e t y " (Salter, 1972b, 38)  3.4.4  Compromise  Increasing penetration  contact  of of  knowledge  beliefs  life  lacrosse  still  served  economy,  among  many  the  1800s.  organised, a means There  were,  culture by  groups,  I terns  the  survival  (Salter,  of  than by  Wealth  defined  by  1972b).  most  the  playing value and  changes, the  used as  status, and  tribal  decades  lacrosse  of  became  lacrosse  as  professionals.  changes  utilitarian  Values,  these  few  the  gradual  Natives.  first  groups,  and  the  upgrading  1 8 4 0 s when  Increasing  dominant.  In  Despite  until  rather  however,  became  for  a means  after  economic  became  finery,  European  Later,  patterns  as  cultures  resulted  changed.  Individuals  of  European  capitalism  transformation and  with  as  European  once  enhanced  predominantly  81  In of  the  time.  play  game  Itself,  Before  when  they  there  extensive  were  ready  had  been  his  from  1832-1839,  to  be s p e c i f i e d  The  sportsmanship' Injuries  were  spirits,  now  opponents  seen they  and  a  were  cause  described  Weyand a n d  In  playing struck  and by  his  from  guilt  to  suppression  religious  as  the  the  anger  took  began  and  'good  or in  after  one  of  before  the  the  that  and new  regarded lacrosse,  and c i v i l  illustrates  this  the  Seneca players  player  Roberts,  authorities  Three played  Mohawk  because  A 1794,  player.  wrong  of  in  their  dominant as  the  behaviour  Ontario  groups  the  of  retaliation.  (1965),  an o p p o s i n g  previously  disfavour  insulting  place  Roberts  (Weyand  of  of  game,  fact  be  during  games  Where  the  of  Following  gambI i n g c a m e Direct  the  that  play'  During  home  followed  despite  admitted 1972b).  went  the s t i c k  negotiations again,  which  attitude.  notes  adopted.  result  for  game  change  would  appropriate  for starting  'fair  be  seen  Seneca/Mohawk In  teams  the  Catlin  times  of  to  as  once  awareness  1926).  codes  began  Increasing contact,  only  completed.  (Catlin,  English  European and  preparations travels  was an  stopped had been years  of  together readily  1965;  Salter,  religious  values,  by of  (Culin,  many  groups.  gambling, 1907).  came The  82  suppression the  of  economic  g a m b l i n g removed  sphere  (Salter,  Increasingly religious areas  rite  gambling  but  As  the  only  settlement  settlement  on  their  as and  played  longer  of  for  superfluous emphasis  on  the  on  recreational  3.4.5  lost  that  after  Quebec c o n t i n u e d  role.  to  treaties,  the  permanent  role  and  and  of and  (Salter,  groups.  gathering war  therefore, hunters  Accordingly,  protection  aspects  hunting  In a d d i t i o n ,  warriors  there  lacrosse an  play  Peace in  Lacrosse,  their  as  was  no  as  a  became was  a  a means  increasing  deof  emphasis  1972b).  C o n f l i c t and R e s i s t a n c e It  type  In 'some  rites  notes  resulted  1972b).  and  from  important  game.  and  agrarian,  traditional  provision  an  recreation.  life.  preparing  tribal its  more  Native  further  p r e v i o u s l y nomadic N a t i v e  a minor  (Salter,  of  form of  of  from  taboos  (1964)  expansion  became  increasingly  vehicle  a  even  recreational  and  Mohawk  reserves  lives  part  purely  Eyman  ChrIstI anisat I on,  white  changed  disappeared,  significance.  lacrosse  a  game  1972b).  lacrosse  into  the  and  remarks  is  difficult rate  of  to  changes  assess that  accurately occurred  the  In  exact  amount,  lacrosse.  Salter  that  " u n t i l such were l o c a t e d  time as the v a r i o u s on r e s e r v a t i o n s and  Indian final  groups peace  83  treaties established, the game of Lacrosse continued to fulfill a r o l e s i m i l a r to the one it f i l l e d prior to Caucasian contact" (Salter, 1972b, 29-30).  ones  The  substitution  in  the early  rather  than  defined  by  economic Ideology  a  need  proved  At  Fort  of  lacrosse  the  the  Later, European  the  of  were  resistance  family.  of  choice  choice  was  political and  and  dominant  illustrated  George  III  pretence  on  over  and  in  played his  1869;  1974).  an  1763. a  game  birthday.  the fort  (Beers,  and Jones,  by  Conspiracy  Sac and 0JIbway  pursuit  changes  actively  the family for  European  waI I a n d  Weyand a n d Once  attacked  the  inside, fort:  t h e weak?  direct  values  suggested,  societies  in  abandoned  more  institutions  King  is  the Pontlac  the  Vellathottam  a weapon  the  pressure  t h e baI I was t h r o w n  followed  Natives  result  changing  however,  during  honouring  1965;  in a  with  prevailing.  conflict,  game,  a  although  Religious  occurred  players  lacrosse,  has  of  materials  largely  survive  M I c h I I I mack I n a c ,  Roberts, the  to  most  was  pressure,  environment.  which  During  indigenous  stages  external  Evidence event  of  Resistance  from  the  game  resisted.  is one  preserving came  to  of  As W i l l i a m s the  tradition. the elders  was s t r o n g e s t  Influenced  most  by  (1977)  Important  Among  Native  and flowed  through  in those  g r o u p s who  84  used  lacrosse  being  primarily  another  social  change.  Indicative  Beauchamp  notes,  lacrosse  was  Iroquois  preserved  1972b).  is  to  stI I I  played  in s p r i n g  addition,  some  of  however, In  lacrosse  1892,  had that  one  lost  most  remains  of Is  effected religion. a  need  has  died  their  In to  tune  rapid  lacrosse,  ball  games,  among  and  and  the  penetration with  survive  the  of  a  altogether the  In  to  exist  groups, 1972b).  New Y o r k  Iroquois  by  and  'even  much  contact 1892,  with  189).  change,  however,  was  European  ideology  and  dominant  economically,  1964).  (Salter,  (Hewitt,  of  form to  other  practices  of  In  ceremony  continue  Among  that  modified  Ritual,  (Eyman,  disfigured  element  In  actively  The o r i g i n a l  rituals  thought'  been  albeit  part  1964). out  have  example.  ritualistic  warped  the  Native  Thunder  summer  remarked  powerful  by  to  of  activity  Cayuga  as  and  (Eyman,  manners  The most  the  today,  medicinal  observer  transatlantic  with  the  Iroquois  exist  contemporary  rain  the  all  however,  The  encourage  among  subject  preservation  remaining  practices,  (Salter,  lacrosse  of  religion  1896).  continue  a  that  purposes,  least  strong  oldest  traditional  provides  the  1896,  and  Ontario, of  of  the  religious  Institution  (Beauchamp,  Some  form  in  for  Ideology  Native  and  coupled  attitudes  began  85  to  change  In  1893  and these Hoffman  traditional the  the  of  attending futility  1896,  noted  lacrosse  adoption  were  that  became among  practices  Christianity  schools.  From  Salter  conformity  were  placed  reserves  t h e Menomini  many  died  schools of  fact  these  a  more  'began  to  practices  Native  rapid  game. of  the  result  that  that  after  t h e most  out as  they  argues  prevalent  where  In t h e  and the  (1972b)  most  manifested  had  and u s e l e s s n e s s '  568).  on  changes  of  people observe  (Hoffman,  acceptance groups  and  had been  decuIturation  took  Native  were  pI a c e .  During challenged  the early to  soldiers  from  recorded  a  played 1974). whites  by  lacrosse  demonstration  It  was  this  becoming  lacrosse  in  the  got  form of  white  underway, teams  clubs  from  at  Natives of  by  one  (Roxborough,  of  Once  continued  reserves 1966).  particularly  Montreal  demonstration  Natives  groups  newspapers  the  (Vellathottam  In t h e g a m e .  the  whites,  In 1 8 3 4 ,  match  kind  involved  century,  games  the garrisons.  t h e Caughnawaga  of  from  play  nineteenth  game the to  garrisons and that  Jones, led to  organisation play  lacrosse  playing against  teams  86 Summary  3.5  Among American of  the  residual  cultures,  outdoor  lacrosse  games.  across  recreational,  It  a  purpose  of  aiding  to  the  way  also  indigenous  materials  European  religion  changed game  for  however,  and  to  be  During organised  of  other took  the  and  ritual  by  whites.  partly  more  than  symbolism served  merely  effects  the  brought  and dual  tied  to  the  Initially  the  for  dominant  apparent,  Increasingly a  social  substituted  of  became  more  lacrosse  purely  recreational  some  communities,  practices  early  was  Lacrosse,  into  varied  protection.  Among  the  game  Although  culture  place.  North  widespread  transformed.  values  others,  the  ritual  were  the  Native  most  religious  groups.  the  the  lacrosse  life.  lacrosse  the  form of  European  when  Native  in  in  goods  religious  traditional  completely. began  Later,  a  many  preserved  and  changes  from  that  modified  and  of  p r o v i s i o n and  Native  was  and  preparation,  with  ones.  one  continent.  evident  tribal  community,  fundamental  the  contact  European  was  Shrouded  ceremonial  Escalating changes  is  game'.  extensive  element,  The t e c h n i q u e  considerably  'Just  cultural  ritual  nineteenth  have has  been  actively  disappeared  century,  lacrosse  87  Fig.  3.1  Pre-game  Ceremonies  From Cat I in ( 1926, p i . 224), this i s an illustration of the Choctaw 'ball play' preparations. The p l a y e r s a s s e m b l e a r o u n d t h e i r respective goals w h i l e t h e women a n d r e l i g i o u s e l d e r s t a k e up p o s i t i o n s i n t h e c e n t r e .  Fig  3.2  'Ball  Play'  Dress  These S i o u x ball players, sketched by Catlin ( 1 9 2 6 , p i s . 235 and 2 3 6 ) , d i s p l a y s t h e a d o r n m e n t of b i r d q u i l l s and c h a r c o a l body p a i n t .  Fig.  3.3  From C a t l i n  'BaI I P l a y *  (1926,  pi.  226)  Fig.  1. 4.  Iroquois; Cherokee; (From  Instruments  3.4  of  the  2. P a s s a m a q u o d d y 3. Drum; 6. Rattle. ;  5.  Game  Mooney,  1890, 2 6 6 ) . 4  Ojibwa  Fig.  3.5  Choctaw  'Ball  Player'  A sketch from Cat I in ( 1926, p i . 223), i I lustrating the two sticks as we I I as the a d o r n m e n t s o f a mane and h o r s e - h a i r t a i I.  92  CHAPTER THE  4  DOMINANT C U L T U R A L  ELEMENT  "A d i s t i n c t i v e and c o m p a r a t i v e feature of any dominant s o c i a l order Is how f a r I t r e a c h e s into the whole range of p r a c t i c e s and e x p e r i e n c e s in an attempt at incorporation" (Williams, 1977,125)  4 .1  IntroductI on  During  the  increasingly games  peripheral  began  to  communities. responsible including Mi I I t a r y of  the  nineteenth  be  The for  personnel early  however,  of  were  hunting  In  the  gentlemen of  the  spread  5  Montreal followed  played  other  (Lindsay, funds  a  urban  the  lacrosse  Native began  centres.  formation  English  many  sporting  1970;  were events  Day,  1981).  a s we I I a s (Lindsay,  minor  role  activities,  much  1969).  In  favour  such  as  1970).  that  was  by  particular  for prizes  'genteel'  games  Club,  cultures,  In  relatively  (Lindsay,  against  becoming  and l e a d e r s h i p  played  lacrosse  Lacrosse by  informally  provided  while  informally  garrisons  matches  lacrosse  decade, to  British  considered  and c r i c k e t  Native  organised  organisation  Lacrosse, what  among  arranging  lacrosse  century,  to  were  organised,  teams.  In t h e  flourish  The f i r s t organised of  other  latter  in Montreal  lacrosse in  English  1856. local  club,  half and the  It  was  clubs,  the  93  Hochelaga  and  Throughout on  a  the  establish  the  organising citizen, be  National  as  Caughnawaga Jones,  The  'Canada's  an  the  context  is  composition  of  outlined of  and  discusses  way  which  seen  England  chapter  Most  prominent  In  1867,  of  to the  came  Beers  played  and F r a n c e  the  Montreal  lacrosse  tour,  of  Kingston  to  also  by  the  (Vellathottam  in  lacrosse  ideas.  translated  of  became  a  with into  and i t s  to  of  their  vehicle  most  from for  made  The England  the  cultural to  the  Involved  composition  dominant  the changes  particular  lacrosse.  values  the social  In t h e  establish  who b e c a m e  legacy  Finally,  coupled  order  organisation the  is t h r e e f o l d .  of Montreal  the people  section  be  met a t  that  Game'.  lacrosse  to  this  importance  appropriation  organisers  team,  a  Ontario.  delegates  Association. Beers,  played  1974).  purpose  these  National  eastern  42  and Quebec  h i s guidance  exhibition  Native  section,  of  i n 1867 w h e n  by Dr G e o r g e  respectively.  a n d games w e r e  throughout  Lacrosse  and i t was under  known  In  off'  a n d 1859  formed  basis  from O n t a r i o  was done  organised  and  'took  clubs  In 1858  teams were  challenge  really  lacrosse  Clubs  1860s  sporadic  Lacrosse 27  Beaver  the  first urban social in the second  and t h e  transmission of  lacrosse  values game.  can  94  4.2  Urban C l a s s  The  growth  facilitated a  number  the  largest  Canadian  sports  urban  19  risen  I ived  the  to  in  during  28  000  and F i s h e r ,  made  it  hinterland. elsewhere  1958)  headquarters  o f many  of  in Montreal  1821  later,  By 1 8 7 1 , and  'cradle'  it  200  people  become  gateway  the North  of  Montreal  Industrial  to  city  figure  107  had  the  this  position  important  through  In  lacrosse As  Montreal's  The t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  passed  the  areas  century.  Growth  years  1986).  of Canada.  urban  not o n l y  was  6  1974).  Twenty  (Hanna,  an  of  was m o d e r a t e .  (Lower,  centre  of  the nineteenth  Montreal  people.  the c i t y  commercial Lawrence  000  expansion  organisation  centre,  (Wise  7  and  the mid-century  sustained had  towns  of  of  sport  to  of  much  but  prior  Society  the  on t h e St American  products  from  Europe and  and t h e  city  became  and commercial  firms  the  (Lewis,  1985).  Montreal the  growing  and  Fisher,  social  belonged  the p r i n c i p a l  agricultural 1974).  classes  nineteenth  1985).  became  century  to This  increasingly  the  settlements  Occupations  were  80%  proletariat  sector  grew  important.  as  of  and s u p p l i e r  upper  in the c i t y  distinctly about  shipper  Canada  were  (Wise  diverse  stratified.  During  of  the population  of  or  working-class  large-scale Elites  8  of  and the  Montreal (Hertzog,  manufacturing  consisted  to  became  colonial  95  officials,  military  merchants,  bankers  officers  and  commercial  and f i n a n c i e r s  (Lewis,  elites  such  1985;  as  Harris,  1987).  The  particular  Montreal (Wise  is  and  society  crucial Fisher,  coupled  particular relations complex,  can  labourers each  of  colonial In  instrumental landowners sports  with  in  Albinson,  commercial  the  activities.  most People  involved  their more  colonial  and  The involvement  elites  and time  depended  of  on t h e  urban of  were  the  least  and t h e r e f o r e ,  sport  Working-class restricted  of  to  and the p r o p e r t y - 1 ess  clubs.  resources  organisation  1976). were  wealth  from  rise  had a c c e s s .  establishing  divorced  industrial  gave  a  In  lacrosse  although  activities  and  substantial  as  1976).  group  of  terms  classes,  landowners  society  Urban  in  identified  each  of  1979).  hinterland  These  in s p o r t i n g  urban  history  defined  and A l b i n s o n ,  terms in  but,  involved  however,  classes  groups  the  agrarian  agrarian  to which  restricted  an  be g e n e r a l l y  elite,  Canadian  Redmond,  production.  these  The  with  of  analysing  1974;  (Gruneau  resources  in  social to  commercial  composition  Agrarian  participated  advantages, lacrosse and  in t h e i r In f a r m i n g  were  i n many  were (Gruneau  rural  access in the  less and  labourers, to  sporting  rural  areas  96  were  restricted  in  the urban  on  national  centres  in  the  as  working  holiday  came  to  into  take  left  to  club  system  in  the  1840s  In  1856. era  In  National  Lacrosse  consisted  of  regulate,  29  umbrella  sport  was  Lacrosse  (Metcalfe, was  Lacrosse  1976a). formed  in  in Canada. Lacrosse  first An  additional  Association  was  was  and under  made a  to  regular  1974).  national  but  1867  It  as  was t h e  signalled  The Canadian  to Ontario.  Fisher,  of  club  lacrosse,  lacrosse  and  number  Club  only  a  established  and promote  promote  National  Club  a  were  body  Canadian  incorporated  attempts  (Wise  It was  1976a).  that  organisational sport  1970).  In  a n d by m i d - c e n t u r y ,  not  from Quebec body  participation  by t h e M o n t r e a l  Association  clubs  more  Shoe  of  It was  half-  (Metcalfe,  the Montreal  In g e n e r a l  standardise  competitive  of  or  and t h e S a t u r d a y  sport  Snow  Birthday  that  Jobling,  clubs  sport  activity,  allowed  the development  sport  national  these  in  hours.  union  in Montreal  labourers  participate  working  1969;  a n d was f o l l o w e d  organised  this  This  while  Queen's  t h e week  The Montreal  The b i r t h  the  long  to organise  social,  only  increased  had d e v e l o p e d  sports.  new  of  (Lindsay,  the e l i t e s  popular  as  during  being.  place  Primarily  a  such  with  hours  activities  usually  result  1880s,  shorter  sport  a  farming  could  holidays  Thanksgiving, only  by t h e i r  This  organisation effect to  of  to the  legitimise  97  organised  sport  'national'  A  nationally  sport  (Schrodt,  decade  later,  Association  was f o r m e d  and  Canada's  became  club  (Redmond,  lacrosse other The  Association  nineteenth exclusive  latest  rooms  The  Montreal  example,  also  housed  Amateur  Athletic  Until the  the  Montreal  social  Amateur  elites.  membership  Wise  of...the  of  second  housed  and  lounges,  stocked  literature Athletic  drama  and  from  Athletic  a  social  reads  club  comment: like  the  served  an  buildings with  the  around  the  and  for dance-  (The Montreal  1981).  Association  and F i s h e r  of  Association,  the C i n d e r e l l a Club and Morrow,  cricket.  becoming  half  elaborate  as  and other  was  primarily  the century,  MAAA  Itself  social  well  club-rooms  and  Association  turn  and  clubs  chess,  known a s  for  hockey  clubs  shoe and  as  the  Amateur  snow  membership  sport in  and  The  grounds,  and p e r i o d i c a l  world.  group  its those  the  function  newspapers  sponsoring  as  these  reading  of  Athletic  o f many  sport  1983).  of  important  social  containing  an amalgamation  though  century,  concept  Amateur  comprehensive  such  Even more  Montreal  part  provided  facilities. Increasingly  the  Schrodt,  clubs  the  1983).  first  formed  sporting  introducing  through  1979;  clubs  by  a  membership  under  was r e s t r i c t e d  to  "The roster  of  commercial  and  98  professional players, tended  Who's  administrators  to  be drawn  1976a).  Metcalfe  professional merchants, only  and  There players  In M o n t r e a l  was  in the e a r l y  the 9  active  little  educational  (Metcalfe,  set  the  and  under  guiding  their  support  and  Fisher,  1974).  the  Methods  membership  games  during  t h e week,  class  participation  which  (Wise  club  executives  industrial  total  of  58% o f  represented  between  and the  in c l u b  e x e c u t i v e s and  Members o f  the  play  of  the  participation  military,  and F i s h e r ,  Clubs, established financial (Wise and  club  membership  of  scheduling  practice  effectively  were  community,  were  provided  1860,  Club  and b e h a v i o u r .  restricting the  in  the  business  structure  level  and  Montreal  1976a).  They  of  fees  the total  Lacrosse  hands.  in  and salesmen)  the Montreal  of  people  (businessmen,  lacrosse.  administrative  determined  of  (Metcalfe,  while  organised  and  rules  clubs  clerks  all  1976a).  Institutions  competitions  included  of  that  a  differentiation  executives  players  therefore,  (Metcalfe,  of  lacrosse  domestic,  not at  stages  The  group  20% a n d 70% o f  who c o m p r i s e d were  25).  occupations  By c o n t r a s t ,  force,  of  social  bookkeepers,  comprised  workers,  labour  membership  6 of  they  (1974,  established  commercial  in 1860.  agricultural  same  4% a n d 22% r e s p e c t i v e l y  force,  city's  (1976a)  city"  officials  the  store-owners,  players  the  and  from  and  occupied  labour  of  Who  excluded  1974).  working  An a d d i t i o n a l  99  form  of  restriction  nominations. existing voted  New  members,  the  members  had  investigated  f o r by t h e membership o f  The  lacrosse  clubs  norm.  Indeed,  English  gentleman's  the  was  social It  lacrosse  club  between  match,  a  by  be  and  a mark  the club  social  (Metcalfe,  from  1969).  Illustrative and  sportswriter  the  In t h e  to of  paying 1880s  two  finally  1976a).  the  general  clubs  a s an  preserve  In M o n t r e a l eminence  by  and  was t h e e x c l u s i v e  of  member  nominated  by t h e s e  1976a).  members  new  a committee  was p r o m o t e d  game  (Cox,  to  of  no d i f f e r e n t  (Metcalfe,  became  differences lacrosse  lacrosse  elite  Toronto,  were  system  and  later  belong the  of  to  a  class  public  at  a  commented:  "In the c e n t r e o f o n e s i d e o f t h e g r o u n d Is t h e members' p a v l l l i o n , and a separate grand stand o f f e r s commanding seats to those of the general p u b l i c who a r e m i n d e d t o pay for them" (The  Saturday Members separated  4.3  could  watch  from t h e general  The B r i t i s h C u l t u r a l  The  social  lacrosse, cultural drew  1884, 2 4 2 ) .  Review,  tended  for  from  the  pavilion,  public.  Legacy  follow During  on E u r o p e , Immigrants,  game  involved  to  traditions.  heavily  States  elite,  the  in  their  the  organisation  heritage  the nineteenth  Britain financial  and,  century,  later,  resources,  of  of  British Canada  the  attitudes  United and  100  values.  The predominance  the  adoption  the  English  o f many  Christian had or  influences  church  been  This  developing  attitudes  resulted  in  and i d e a l s  on s p o r t  by  One  the  1974).  most  of  Atlantic  For c e n t u r i e s  over  was  main  was the  the primacy  importantly,  the  of  the  church  the  body  instrumental  in  sport.  Roots  C h r i s t i a n monks,  t h e body was  across  debate  to  Philosophical  The that  a  issue,  beliefs  influence  Canada.  from  in  British  In  (Metcalfe,  involved  mind.  4.3.1  British  community  ideological  of  prior  in constant  to  the Reformation,  antagonism  with  the  believed  soul:  "Man's nature i s more d i g n i f i e d than t h a t o f t h e beast. Our body, except for a few details, d i f f e r s not from an a n i m a l ' s body but our s o u l reaches out after things divine and eternal. The body is earthly, wild, slow, mortal, diseased, Ignoble; the s o u l on t h e o t h e r hand is heavenly s u b t l e , d i v i n e , immortal and n o b l e " (Erasmus c i t e d i n M c i n t o s h , 1968, 63).  The  period  of  Lutheran  and  believed  physical  uplift 'bad' were  the  England to  and  sport.  Reformation  Calvinistlc  spirit  physical crimes  the  ideas.  exercise and  develop  activities  (Mcintosh, there  in  and  such  1968). Its  The P u r i t a n s  Both  saw  Luther  education the  limbs.  as  dancing  Calvinism  Puritan  form  d i d not o b j e c t  the  and  were  of  Calvin  important  It  was o n l y  and d i c i n g was  proved to  spread  great  physical  the that  imported a  to  to  enemy  exercise  101  or  sporting  sport joy  as  in  activity  an o c c a s i o n a  physical  (Mcintosh, the  weakness  the  best  thing  for  Wise  and F i s h e r ,  and  They  without  Undue  emphasis  was work  the  interest  1600s  which  of  1968).  Hobbes  belief  'materialism'.  for  The d o c t r i n e  Descartes assumed and to  body  of  later  and  (Mcintosh,  of  (body) that  soul 1968).  as  the The  (Baker,  1982;  GrassendI  This  doctrine  physical  a  activity  than  only  period,  led  to  an  performance  expressed supported  'soul'  their  the  works  idea  like  in a more  a  refined  criticised  (Mcintosh,  1968).  'dualism'  which  of of  separate  many  observation  was s e v e r l y  i s composed  physical  the  matter,  doctrine  relatively  this  and  except  the  were  matter,  and  of  nature  rather  included  'materialism'  proposed  human  ideal  merely  given  there  function  similarly  the existence  that  matter the  composed  The mind works  denying  utility  was  it,  During  physical  (Mcintosh,  state.  its  s i n and v i c e .  1700s  in s c i e n c e  for physical  machine.  of  and not p l a y  and m i n d .  analysis  body,  disapproved for  upon  on t h e body  respect  the  to  t h e body  led to  and  Increasing  that  the a t t i t u d e  1974).  Ideas  in  regard  that  inevitably  t h e body  objective  rather Puritans  believed  flesh,  Throughout conflicting  but  for pleasure.  lodging.  of  itself  activity  1968).  soul's  renewed  in  both  mind  elements.  could  enrich  cultivating  (soul)  This  led  both  the  the  body  102  The w r i t e r attitudes  to  educational sport. human  who d i d m o r e  sport work  Rousseau nature  original  was  tendencies  EmiIe  (1762),  spoke  out against  He  for  environmental  'good'  in  for  a  he  indicated  that  a  Influence  a  child  social  belief and  is  social the  his  that  carries  born  with  customs  and  child's  Rousseau to  In  philosophy of  evil  child  1951).  well-rounded  change  the accepted  that  and Hagman,  to  Rousseau.  Inherently  but  conditions  (Brownell  necessary  is  believed  behaviour order  any o t h e r  Jean-Jacques  ( t h e body)  sin.  than  future  argued  develop,  it  that was  to  " G i v e h i s b o d y c o n s t a n t e x e r c i s e , make i t s t r o n g and h e a l t h y , i n o r d e r t o make h i m g o o d a n d w i s e ; let him work, l e t him do t h i n g s , l e t him run and shout, let him be a l w a y s on t h e g o ; m a k e a man o f h i m In s t r e n g t h , a n d h e w i l l s o o n b e a man o f reason" (Rousseau, 1762, 82). This activity  Idea found  (McIntosh,  4.3.2  the  first  Public  nineteenth Is  at  strong  support  training during  through  physical  the nineteenth  century  Christianity'  signs  Schools century.  attributed  then  character  1968).  'Muscular The  of  least  of in  attitudes  England  during  Dr A r n o l d ,  t h e honour not  changed  of,  if  to  the  headmaster  sport  first of  not spreading  h i n d e r i n g a movement  came  half  Rugby  of  from the  School,  'athleticism',  already  begun.  The  103  Ideals of  of  'athleticism'  religious  figures  novels  and  former  student as  they  Westward  Schooldays  (1857), and  qualities seen  to  the  encourage  fostered taught,  by  were  ( 1855) fields they  team  games,  to  ideas  play,  but  (a  Tom  In  Brown's  places  valuable  of  social  Sport  also  developed  was  emphasised through  the  self-reliance  was  For example,  how t o c o n t r o l  Hughes  1973).  1968).  while  in  'muscular  merely form  number  shown  these  Hughes'  not  was  were  (Roberts,  (Mcintosh,  self-restraint.  through  and  helped  Co-operation of  among  were  virtues  sport  and Thomas  be c a l l e d  co-operative  experience  to  Kings ley  to  Ho!  manly  self-reliance. shared  came  p u b l i c i s e d by a  devotion  Arnold)  amusement,  and  further  Charles  under  Kings ley's  exercise  whose  essays.  Christians'  were  people  their  could  tempers  be  (Mason,  1980). I  Not of  a  only  moral  patriotism noble was  a  new  sports. could  In o t h e r be  spheres  of  paralleled  premium on  life  also  than  a  game,  British with  words,  such  from as  towards  a  boys  the r i s e  noble  of  development a  desirable  cricket  was a  institution  which  (Hughes,  1857).  This  imperialism,  placed  and team  was a t t r i b u t e d  the playing the  Brown,  authority  sport  the  cultivated  F o r Tom  discipline,  transferred of  it  1979).  b u t more  birthright  patriotism,  contribute  character,  (Redmond,  game,  the  d i d sport  fields  battlefield  or  spirit  values Into  the  In  that other  colonies  104  (Redmond, defeat  1979).  and  Smiles'  failure  Self  'muscular  exercise  tenacity were  In  rigidly  into  upper  this  a valuable  lesson  enforced  cricket',  the  at  the  century  in  of  Samuel to  be a  advocate  He  believed  failure.  of that  Courage and  and l e a r n i n g virtues  belt'  from  failure  (Metcalfe,  diffusion that  liberal  such  of  thinking  (Mcintosh,  all  these  of  1974;  in p o l i t i c s ,  the  Illustrative sport  are  which  tied  to  ' i t ' s  'fair  an e t h i c  a  not  play',  w h i c h was  1968).  into  Christianity'  included  was n o t  penetrated  game',  down',  suggest  values  1968;  but  from  them  the  he's  others  field  society.  'play  (Mcintosh,  the  and phrases  when  a n d many  'muscular  liberalism  as  on  Schools  British  words  a man  understood  time  the Public  Nearly  Phrases  the  conduct  class  usage.  'hitting  generally  of  in  strong  through  defeat  t h e numerous  code.  reflected  a  educator.  gentlemanly  and m i d d l e  are  The  of  was  Invaluable  of  general  'below  expression  value  A l t h o u g h he d i d n o t c l a i m  moral  code  only  moral  strong  Smiles  face  the educational  1979).  The  became  this,  a  the  as  considered  Mcintosh,  of  (1859).  Help  taught  to  received  Christian',  physical sport  Added  mainstream  was  in tune  religion  Metcalfe, ideal  and  1974).  that  society  with  much  literature Nineteenth  individual  hard  105  work  coupled  ultimately work any  with  lead  and  scientific  to  progress.  perseverence  pursuit  w o u l d be  individuality,  which  tempered  1974).  with  Individual was and  a  ideals;  while  (Mcintosh, for  promoted  individual body  It  individual  a  team  The p l a y i n g  of moral  provided  needs.  fair  The  led to play,  was a l l o w e d  a of  group  endurance to  restraint  concept  exhibit  of  group  1974).  these  liberal  transmission.  and  of  more a  of  ennobling  p r o v i d e d an  experience  spirit  gentlemanly for  ideals  individual  leaders  powerful  healthy  team  Team  Exercising  therefore,  and  the  individual  especially  the development  be  developed  principles  combination  had t o  between  Important.  learning  society  What  for their  field,  This  selfish  of  effort  with  game w a s  others,  than  (Metcalfe,  particularly  the creation  further  honesty,  as  hard  1962).  balance  the  compatible  the v e h i c l e  inculcation also  needs  only  during  1968).  the  conduct.  not  a  emphasised  stressing  and s o c i e t a l  seen  unselfishness  and  be o b t a i n e d .  became  games w e r e  area  would  was  it  individual  society  which  on  the e v i l s  so that  morality  responsibility  of  needs  character  Sport  Accordingly,  rely  self-help  many  would  through  (MacPherson,  to  contained  to  societal  and  liberal  more  industry  words,  t h e need  successful  referred  and  In o t h e r  without  individualism  (Metcalfe,  method  than  mind and  of  spirit.  courage, The  characteristics  106  but  at  all  cricket,  times  remain  Tom B r o w n ' s  true  to  schoolmaster  the  team.  Commenting on  said  "It.ought t o be s u c h an u n s e l f i s h game. merges t h e individual with the eleven; doesn't play t h a t h e may w i n , b u t t h a t h i s may" ( H u g h e s , 1857, 394). In many How  ways  t h e game  4.4  These  were  ideals  became  Schools  (Roberts, was  1973;  translated  1892;  1894)  of  making  inevitably  lead  to  lacrosse was  not  'barbaric' advanced  the  the  to  local  Is  secondary. 1974).  is  'civilised'  enough  activity  half  of  be  the  of  the major was  played  liberal and  nineteenth In  1880;  reference  progress  in  values.  apparent.  supporters to  graduates  sporting  'science'  One o f  the  This  constant a  Journals,  in schools  McNaught,  lacrosse  by c r i c k e t  teach  by  1974).  clearly  1877;  there  by  Canadian  latter  origins.  'scientific'  out  English  1869;  necessity  its  of  ideology  Whitney,  came  into  this (Beers,  to Canada  Metcalfe,  during  literature  was  (Metcalfe,  and p a r t i c u l a r l y  lacrosse  century,  important  transmitted  who  the cornerstone  In  t h e game  Lacrosse  Immigrants  P u b I Ic  morality  of  was p l a y e d was more  of  Canada  from  outcome  Appropriation  newspapers, from  the  It he side  by  the Weir,  to  which  the  would  t h e game  away  criticisms that  of  lacrosse  'gentlemen'.  Advocates sport  of  lacrosse  imp I I e d  reacted  by  stating  that  if  science  in  a  " t r a i n i n g and e d u c a t i o n of the I n t e l l e c t , a high use of t h e r e a s o n i n g f a c u l t y , and a c a p a c i t y to e x p e r i m e n t and i m p r o v e , and impart p r i n c i p l e s of knowledge to one a n o t h e r " (Beers, 1869, 52) then  lacrosse  fact fixed the  was  That  lacrosse  that  many  a  science.  was  throws,  principles'  new  plays  precision keeping,  (Beers,  not  for  on  dodges,  developed  and for  based  science  checks,  was  etc,  'proved  are  by  the  explained  by  1869,  52).  It  was  argued  that  allowed  room  only  for  skill  and  'probability'  or  '  chance'.  Goal  example  " i s not chance w o r k . . . i t is a s c i e n c e in w h i c h one can become p r o f i c i e n t o n l y by d i n t o f long, hard practice and minute attention to the d e t a i l s of t h e game. Probably no p o s i t i o n o n the whole team o f f e r s g r e a t e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s c i e n t i f i c development than keeping g o a l " (Weir, 1892, 747).  The was  far  of  place  paint of  from  brute  Lacrosse  savagery, the  organised  removed  principle 53).  newly  had and  brute  the  force been the  form  of  lacrosse,  Native and  game  hard  'shorn  of  wilderness'  force'  (Blaxter,  it  which  running' its where 1905,  was  had  the  'old  (Beers,  1869,  former  settings  'science 223  argued,  and  is  "the Indian's old fierce baggataway has the f a t e of the Indian h i m s e l f in h a v i n g c i v i l i z e d almost out of r e c o g n i t i o n into  taking  225).  sum, shared become a more  of  In  108  humane s p o r t . It has l o s t i t s w i l d and wanton d e l i r i u m , and though r e s t l e s s under regulations, has become tamed i n t o t h e e x c i t i n g and v a r i e d o f a l l modern field sports" (Chamber's Journal, 1862, 512). Perpetuating  the  'noble  savage'  ideal,  Beers  suggested  that:  "A s e n s i b l e , t h o r o u g h l y c i v i l i z e d p e o p l e c a n n o t , and s h o u l d not, play Lacrosse exactly a f t e r the manner of the Indian. The f a c t t h a t they beat the p a l e - f a c e , is more proof of t h e i r superior physical nature, than any evidence of their super I or s c I e n c e . . . t h e Indian v i l l a g e game w a s not I n t e l l e c t u a l enough for the whites, and needed s y s t e m a t i z i n g " (Beers, 1869, 55).  In  fact,  it  was  argued  that:  "Like eveything else that the genius of the w h i t e man has t o u c h e d , it (lacrosse) has been improved both in shape and mechanical c o n s t r u c t i o n a n d t h o u g h i t may h a v e l o s t some o f its fanciful decorations, it is a much more e f f e c t i v e weapon either for o f f e n c e or defence than Its p r e d e c e s s o r " ( M c N a u g h t , 1880, 26).  Players  were  urged  scientific  player  Newspapers  publicised  that  teams  stick' science 10  June,  described  of  lacrosse'  1889,  Ideals strongly lacrosse.  in your  'aim  at  club'  being  of  their  'crack'  lacrosse  'scientific  players  (The  British  work  and  the  best  (McNaught,  'scientific'  won b e c a u s e  and  to  as  'no  1880, by  most 137).  reporting  h a n d l i n g of  the  amateurs  in  the  1889,  4;  8  Columbian,  and  June  4).  on  team  from  the  McNaught,  early a  individualism organisers  member  of  the  come  and  across  promoters  lacrosse  team  very of that  109  toured  England  In  lacrosse.  In  emphasises  the  his  individualism, the  Native  the  which  He  player  success  of  original  'crack'  a  team'.  muscle  floats  'muscular  As  player  was  ideals  of  advocates  of  brains'  long  as  come  the to  to  the  (McNaught,  1880,  In  body  concept,  be  too  is  who  the  mind  is  'if  surface  as  you  "knocks t i m i d i t y and man, training him t o pluck; t e a c h e s him  'a  more  1880,  137 were are  surely  a as  136).  inherent  actively  in  promoted  lacrosse:  concerned,  than  is  "Lacrosse as a beneficial exercise has no superior . . . (it) . . . stimulates nutrition, invigorates and equalizes the circulation, q u i c k e n s and f r e e s the f u n c t i o n of respiration, strengthens the appetite and digestion, and p u r i f i e s the blood" (Beers, 1869, 49).  Where  severe  interests  shine:  of  to  usually  (MaNaught,  and m i n d , were  part  applause  who d o e s  team  that  attempt  not  he  'uncivilised'  'never  upstart,  than  health  Christianity'  ,  states  its  individual  A person  It,  inherent  of  can  'team'  to Play  an  to  of  allowed  you w i l l  on w a t e r '  much  of  and  be  ay...we  egotistical  for  player  The  the  his  to  of  t h i n k s more  How  play  players  In...pI  emphasis).  paramount,  cork  urges  selfish,  distinguished  team  cause  supporter  and  perceives  the  who  firm  Lacrosse,  he  is  a  for  yourself  any  vain,  book  game,  individualize  was  need  components.  upon  1883,  lacrosse nonsense out of a young temperance, c o n f i d e n c e and to g o v e r n h i s temper i f he  the by  1 10  has too much, or rouses It h e a l t h i l y i f he h a s too l i t t l e . . . i t develops judgement and calculation, promptness and d e c i s i o n " (Beers, 1869, 50). As  'the  body  good  which  mind'  Dr A r n o l d becomes  (Beers,  mental  side  with  contempt  regression so  his  of  roughly,  137).  as  finest  manliness  of  player...he trying  on  man' must  boys,  develops  learn  fear'  at  combines  cultivate 1869,  younger  his  so  that  1869,  'strike  another  1880, play 'To  be  under  regarded  brightens will  a  with  55).  installation  they 44).  and  as the  'never  The  and  the  a  good  the  most  self-reliance,  was  and  regarded  1880,  temper  The  generation  228).  (McNaught,  177).  41).  1905,  doing  'fair  courage,  'quickens  (Beers,  a l l '  the  without  (McNaught,  control  leaves  play  play  a  trained  individualism  cannot  1869,  to  rough  ensures  the  (Blaxter,  intentionally  who  self-confidence of  play  (Beers,  lacrosse  you  gentleman'  (Beers, the  to  one  provocations,  beliefs  meaning  'no  is  perseverance'  For  not  who w o u l d  was  player  'If  of  no m e a n s  and  emphasised  progress.  A player crosse'  applauded,  it  better  'by  undeveloped'  was  lacrosse  instrument  Lacrosse  player  play  foresaw',  strong  51).  the  Gentlemanly  Rugby  'the  1869,  of  of  of  (and) these  crucial. mind', know  the  111  4.5  Introduction  In  line  Prior  to  1867,  Beers  which  was  the  in  this,  to  stick,  the  many  then  1867 w h e n each  club  the  loose  who  netting' and  were  learn  (McNaught,  longer  running,  The t i g h t  The  was c h a n g e d  stop  because  (The  The end  it  decided  1970). game  with  the  by t h e  a  'bag'  London  defined  field  should  be  no  lazy  on a  was made  or  flat  heavier  changed  the  which  emphasised  as more  scientific.  further  took  on  Instituted  the ball  deerskin  and motto  lacrosse  'was  game  t h e name  were  tightened  to  by two p o l e s  at  was  effectively  1875;  clubs  changes  This  News,  June  Rules'  and t o o  The s t i c k  be thrown  In  On t h e  dodging,  stuffed  written.  lacrosse  t h e game.  a  game,  Playing  Most  was r e g a r d e d  from  could  The grounds that  30).  the  were  Code of  1869).  of  'muscular  i t s own r u l e s .  of managing  were marked  embroidered  1877).  fond  netting  11 lust rated  goals  made  of  the art  Native  passing.  sponge  rules  of to  i t was b e l i e v e d ,  1880,  (Jobling,  dodging  ball  first  known a s  by  to  made  'Uniform  'science'  netting  values  were  (Beers,  The ' b a g ' ,  unskillful,  had  the  considerably. players  the  and  o f f i c i a l l y accepted  promote  bad  Lacrosse  ideals  convention  the  to  changes  formulated  Kingston  made  Rules  with  Christianity', particularly  of  to  india  rubber  a n d was h a r d e r Jobling,  with of  to  1970).  flags  at  the club  each  (Beers,  boundaries  and  i t was  less  150  yards  than  1 12  (Roxborough, Native  1966).  game,  necessitated 'out  of  umpires  brought  bounds' were  the  of  and  shoes  numerous  arranged  into  previous  informal  duties. names  (Whitney,  shoulder, and,  Dodging  Similarly  used  names  kicks  'grounders, or  swipes'  the concept 1946).  of Two  a  were  referee worn  woollen  further  and  stockings  established  game.  Players  positions were  techniques  For example,  the  instead  assigned were  by  were of  the  specific  given  various  over-shot-from-the-  under-throw-from-the-reverse-sIde  In  contrast,  In  the  were for  and  1877).  the  attack  In t h e  contests  and  uniforms  The f i e l d e r s  1894).  characteristics, stop  and  to  than  (Cox,  goal  game w a s  side-throws,  predominantly  each  and t h r o w i n g  throw-and-hIt.  play  (Beers,  plays  ones.  close  knickerbockers,  the  defence  Into  Team  or moccasins  of  smaller  In a d d i t i o n ,  at  shirts,  'science'  introducing  brought  play.  tight  being into  moves.  appointed  consisted  The  was  fields,  players  different  superintended  light  The  Native  given  example,  the  game to  players  hoppers,  straight  (McNaught,  1880,  over-head (Beers,  1977).  different had t o  and c u r v e d 79).  t h r o w was  ball  know how balls,  to  tips,  113  Diffusion  4.6  With over  increasing  the  lacrosse  and Increasing  last  few  became into  England.  Several  and  the  Second, the  gained  of  decades  the  nineteenth  century,  States  industry),  and  in the  Industrial  of  long  and arduous who  Wl I I l a m s  in  ran  on  Columbia,  games  In  trains  other  1981).  As  or  It  carry of  tours  publicised  to and  important  role  in the  and H o w e l l ,  1969).  or  travel  railway,  was u s u a l l y and expense of  factor  r a l Iways  trains  which became  during  rates  helped more  the country  players  (The British  the  sport were  promote  popular  the Canadian P a c i f i c lacrosse  the  travel.  in p o p u l a r i s i n g excursion  of  only of  Special  lacrosse  f o r example, to  and  sport.  methods  Howell  the time  was a m a j o r  parts  an  the development  areas.  of  Improved  the steamship  the steamers  remote  special  played  by r o a d .  (Williams,  advertised  of  transport  diffusion  widely  and  1969;  afford  that  century  Canada  British  could  argues  nineteenth  sport  (Cox,  the development  wealthy  in  sport  lacrosse".  in  games  to  press.  society  diffusion  were  the  the A t l a n t i c  example,  the  play  across  popularise  lacrosse  Europe,  and communications  was  and a c r o s s  aided  exhibition  much a t t e n t i o n  to  and s p r e a d  (for  transport  Prior  popular  in t e c h n o l o g y ,  States  Urban  of  helped  successful  United  regulation  occurrences  printing  Lacrosse  and  the United  advances  of  organisation  increasingly  continent,  First,  Popularity  and  in  Railway fans  to  Columbian,  1 14  10  July,  he Iped 23  1891,  West,  faci I Itate  August,  the  4).  spectator  1900  were  figure During  century,  lacrosse  The  posted  the  page  news  17  of  June,  An  1891,  Increase Montreal  (The  Caughnawaga  titles  game of  Beaver and  most  in  sport  St  club Regis  being  more  industry  1874  published  than  1 200  of  the  periodicals  such  on  as  games  were  Important  games  were  1890s,  results  as  'The National  displayed  13  Columbian,  tour  Native  as  June,  of  front-  Game'  or  1890,  4;  1).  lacrosse  team,  British  practice  such  a  Harper's  In  be  At  by  nineteenth  to  1891,  but  (Jobling,  News a n d Outing. and  were  in Canada,  began  of  Wales'  membership.  to  In  From t h e  British  3 October,  Prince  and  Columbian,  Involved  printing  sport.  Reports  games  under  the  meetings  coverage.  4;  club  London  papers.  exhibition  publicised  become  decades  In  club  lacrosse  Notes'  few  featured  local  and  'Lacrosse  British  railways  transportation,  periodicals  last  play-by-play  championship  (The  to  In  increased  I I lust rated  notices  given  500  had  the  Columbia, In  innovations  than  1970).  Weekly,  people  in p o p u l a r i s i n g  less  this  games  street  level.  Important  there  Inner-city  Improved  a l l o w e d more  Technological also  1973).  intra-city  1895,  importantly, at  4;  in  1860,  game and  during  a  the did  played  by  highly much a  c o m b i n e d team  players,  the  to  Joint of  president  the of  1 15  the  Montreal  club  presented  'crosse'.  Such  (Lindsay,  1969).  With  Increased  revenues  from  to  improve  by  the  Increased  Incidents  lacrosse  1880s  the Prince  most  number  attracted  a  growing  gate  cities of  had  people  a  silver  attention  interest  money,  facilities  with  in  enabling  several  access  in the  press  lacrosse  came  club  considerably.  organisers  Subsequently,  grounds,  to  mounted  a l l o w i n g an  the sport  (Job I i n g ,  1970).  Summary  4.7  The  particular  Montreal effect  during  on  colonial their  development commercial  disposal,  lacrosse.  developed.  These  the by  social a  legacy  Embodied promote  By  function  elites. of  in the  This  British 'muscular  ideal  values  of  values  are  rules,  in  work',  'science'  of  liberal  elite  had  group  was  as  a  During in  and ' g e n t l e m a n l y  largely  this  play'.  and had  was r e s t r i c t e d  for  along  at  served  and  values.  learning period,  lines  Aided  to  traditions  The f i r s t the  a  influenced  these  lacrosse.  formulated  wealth  system  traditions  forum  The  organising club  in  important  recreational,  Christianity',  sport  an  and  in a  society  lacrosse.  time  membership  cultural  apparent  were  with  although and  urban  organised  mid-century,  morality.  clearly 1867,  of  instrumental  clubs,  social  Canadian  century,  elites,  were  regulating  primarily  of  the nineteenth  the and  composition  by  the these  written of  'team  advances  1 16  In  technology,  of  the  century.  lacrosse  began  to  flourish  towards  the  turn  1 17  CHAPTER THE  5  EMERGENT C U L T U R A L  ELEMENT  "By 'emergent' I mean, f i r s t , t h a t new m e a n i n g s a n d v a l u e s , new p r a c t i c e s , new r e l a t i o n s h i p s a n d kinds of relationship are continually being created. But it is exceptionally d i f f i c u l t to distinguish between those which are really elements of some new p h a s e of the dominant cuIture...and those which are substantially a l t e r n a t i v e or oppositional to i t : emergent in the s t r i c t sense, rather than merely novel" (Williams, 1977, 123).  5.1  IntroductI on  By Most  1900  large  towns  Intermediate the of  senior  and  or  Provincial  and  Association,  standardised  Association senior  games  1970).  rules  set  throughout  fans  a  seemed  British and These  These  junior,  1974).  even on 18  Colonist, as  At  attendance  was u n p r e c e d e n t e d  (Jobling  closed  occasions June  1907,  shop of 9).  the  Alberta  Lacrosse  Columbian  Amateur  Lacrosse  regulated  games  organisations  up by t h e n a t i o n a l Canada.  either  spectator  store-owners  such  immortal.  Fisher,  h a I f - h o II d a y  and the N a t i o n a l  organisations.  and  the current  (The Victoria  the  it  supported  (Wise  Columbia  scheduled  (Jones,  to  teams  organisations  Association  adhered  Canada  employees  matches  so popular  a n d 15 0 0 0  In B r i t i s h  important  country  senior  8 000  allowed  was  across  lacrosse  between  1970).  lacrosse  In 1 9 0 0 Amateur  ensured  that  organisations  the Canadian  Lacrosse  two m a j o r  across  Union  sporting  the the were  Lacrosse were  bodies  the both  11 8  introduced the to  some  century,  Important  In a n a t t e m p t  spectators.  importance British  game  had to  each  required  with  movement  towards  a  game  added more  that  a  to  adopted  turn  of  attractive a  growing  emphasis  break  within to  into  on  more  in  lacrosse  in t h e i r  into  four  The ' b a g g y ' a l low t h e 1911;  could  net on t h e  baI I t o Jones,  would  the  goals  minutes  of In  paralleled  the  in  urban-  Lacrosse  Union  the nets  see  length were  goals  lacrosse  be c a u g h t  1970).  game all  though Goal  45  a  time  Amateur  and r e f e r e e s  of  Under  ten  rules  periods.  required  ten minutes.  of  leagues  the  1970).  where  than  rationalisation  change  long  the  of  two h a l v e s  first  see  whereby  enable  for a  (Jones, how  National  to  playing,  the  rules  The d u r a t i o n  the o l d rules  The  (Flannery,  of  exactly  under  spectators  accurately.  ease  knew  society.  re-1ntroduced with  minutes  paid  was d i v i d e d so  more  decreasing  was d i v i d e d  modification  similar  the  indicated  easily.  Instead  be s c o r e d  this  a  10  matches  addition,  made  and a  more  the match  Spectators  industrial  rules  Association  players  changed.  could  t h e game  d i s t i n g u i s h i n g numbers  spectators  unlike  play.  receipts  around  values.  goals,  rule  last,  changing  t o wear  also  of  minutes this  gate  identify  was  number  of  changes  t o make  Canadian Lacrosse  players public  The  sporting  The  rule  also  scored  stick  and  of  was  carried  The r e - i n t r o d u c e d  'bag'  changed  lacrosse  game a l t h o u g h  These need  to  values  further  be  first  the  dominant  the  section  attitudes. discussed  trends  the  social  British  in  this  In  of  example  finally,  society  IonaI  the  and  turns  to  rise  section  Canadian  in  social to  period.  decline  the  struggle  scene  changing  this  players,  presented  attention  of  second  lacrosse  changing  is  sporting  during  emerging  dodging  1970).  discusses  The  this  of  this  (Jones,  Influence  amateur/profess  light  r u n n i n g and  background  lacrosse. of  a  lacrosse  the  cultural  effects  Columbian and,  the  chapter  composition  The In  in  to  focus  Canadian  of  British  to  a  against  nationalism  attention on  changes  beliefs  The  more  remained  examined  and  Canadian  passing  once  of  draws culture  clubs  and  lacrosse  context. illustrate  the  of  Is A  these  decline  of  lacrosse.  5.2  The Decline  By the  the  growing  declining becoming  idea  play'  Cultural  century,  Importance  apparent.  of  Dominant  twentieth  influence  'gentlemanly the  of  of  with  spectators  of  Public  School  The  ideals  of  were  aggressive  slowly  Influence  rule-changes and  values  'team  being  gate  set  receipts,  in  work',  Indicating  lacrosse 'science'  aside  w i n n i n g teams w h i c h w o u l d  In  favour  have  the was and of  public  120  appeal.  These  influenced emerging  5.2.1  by  Weakening  traced  to  and in the  the a  Colonial  changed  as  Britain's of  the  (Lindsay,  British  atmosphere  cricket  or  garrisons  allowed  stronghold began  to  5.2.2  emerge  Canadian An  during  in  the  change  to  declining  of  exist  interest  ideals  an  and v a l u e s  Lindsay, for  declined 1969;  resulted across  in  Canada  to weaken.  The  life  of  activities.  the  typically  Sports  Canada  under  such  so a Canadian  as  military  The d e p a r t u r e  new i n f l u e n c e s .  Day,  colonies,  from  much  1970).  slow,  In C a n a d a .  by 1871,  began  in  c a n be  was  in her  Sporting  thrived  room  today  garrisons  in s p o r t i n g  (Cox,  As the  sporting  of  the  British identity  1981).  Nationalism  increasing  lacrosse  of  had m a i n t a i n e d  1969;  on s p o r t  The p r o c e s s  traditions  fox-hunting (Cox,  with  lacrosse  1972).  f o r example,  patronage  coupled  in  Imperial  the B r i t i s h  garrisons,  greatly  influence  continue  d i m i n i s h i n g dominance Atlantic  ties  were  Ties  1880s.  Influences  removal  lacrosse  colonial  cultural  the early  Confederation,  in  nationalism.  British  British  values  weakening  Canadian  Waning  and  changing  Canadian  particular, second  half  was of  identity tied the  to  within a  broader  nineteenth  sport  and  movement  century.  The  121  transition growing that  to  Confederation,  Canadian  was a  territory fear,  group  growing 'Canada  of  Canada  young  as  a  stop a an  looking  source  of  equal.  address Robert  cultural This  the  of  characteristic inhabited  of  of  for  the  to  Brown,  England  and  and  to a  1975).  They  Canadian argued  in Canada  and  Rather  than  should  be v i e w e d  was h i g h l i g h t e d Place  that  by  Haliburton  which  Canadians  distinctive  i t was a  northern  as  in an  in H i s t o r y '  the  was t h a t of  This  develop  arouse  Image w i t h  by t h e d e s c e n d a n t s  promoted  1972).  In t h e a d d r e s s  argued Dominion  united  Jealousy  country.  and T h e i r  in 1869.  Second,  of  ways  confidence  separateness  a Canadian He  yet  was c a p t u r e d  a superior  the North  Haliburton  feeling  looked  influence,  sense  ideal  as  suggested  unity.  (Lindsay,  more  a  1958).  attempted  have  to  circumstances.  In 1868  and C r a i g  England  identify.  country  and  the  spirit  Party  should  American  rise  has  three  was e m u l a t i o n ,  nationalists  to  Grant  could  First'  North  gave  (1958)  upon  (Lower,  national  ' T h e Men o f  proposed  there  (Careless  Canadians  Lower  enhanced  States  nation  consciousness that  British  advances  the United  The the  of  and f i n a l l y ,  of  example,  was d e p e n d e n t  sense  transportation  by  nationalism.  Confederation  First,  for  northern  races.  "Because of t h i s r a c i a l h e r i t a g e and t h e i r stern environment, Canadians were d e s t i n e d t o assume i n t h e new w o r l d t h e d o m i n a n t r o l e p l a y e d b y t h e northern people in Europe" (Berger, 1970, 5 3 ) .  In  other  portrayed  the  toughness,  constantly Canadians  looking should  George group,  words,  sentiment  Britain  Denison,  go  the a  Empire.  In  residents  argument  that  the  but  development  Canada  and  become  derogatory would  protection discard  she  habits  and  combination  of  only  of  for  argued,  not  of a in  it  was  ready  to  imperial  threat  to  Canadian  benefits English  to to  develop.  (Berger,  1970).  the  regarded  take  a  the from  then  and  on  pride would  disappear,  order  future  of  concentrate  Only  light  would  not  He p r e s e n t e d  different  which  were  independence  culture,  'colonials'  First  national  the  needed  to  Canada  English  for  argued,  races'.  the  the  than  drift  inferior.  first  thought  then  equals  major  self-reliant.  in  needed  the  because  separate  more  Canada  the  colonials  he  perceptions  regard  the  socially  a  'northern  check  .except  Canadians of  to  that  C a n a d a was that  the  image,  Canadian  colony  as  an  of  l o n g way  addition,  colonial  Britain  for  sense  Rather  development  from B r i t a i n the  hardihood.  this  the  well-being  in  in  of  He a r g u e d  interested  'northern'  another  disintegration. came  of  and  identify with  that  would  strength to  Taylor  stated  image  offer  the  Britain her  the  had  to  i d e n t i f i e d Canadians  as  imperial  Canada  in  a I I iance  be  a  123  It  was  'feeling' Beers  against  of  began  this  nationalism his  national  sport.  Canadian  origins  and  campaign In of  to  background need  for  a  promote  Confederation  of  an  Increasing  Canadian  lacrosse  year,  Beers  Image  as  that  Canada's  promoted  the  lacrosse:  " j u s t as we d e c l a r e t h e r i v e r s , l a k e s and lands once Indian-owned t o be now Canadian, so we c l a i m the Indian field-game t o be t h e national f i e l d - g a m e of t h i s Dominion" (Roxborough, 1966, 41 ) . Furthermore,  he  argued,  " i t may seem f r i v o l o u s , a t f i r s t consideration, to a s s o c i a t e t h i s f e e l i n g of n a t i o n a l i t y w i t h a f i e l d game, b u t h i s t o r y p r o v e s i t t o be a s t r o n g and i m p o r t a n t influence. C r i c k e t and curling have t h e i r n a t i o n a l and n a t i o n a l I z i n g influences on their respective admirers, and so may Lacrosse" (Beers, 1869, 5). Beers of  Canadian  1972).  believed identity  He a l s o  northern  that by  people  might  participating  promoted  the  achieve  in  Image o f  the  some  sport  Canadians  measure  (Lindsay, as  a  hardy  race:  "Nowhere under the sun Is climate more favourable for the hardy exercises in which E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g people d e l i g h t to i n d u l g e ; and there is a freedom from restraints and conventionalities of the Old World's overcrowded countries...which is sap to the sportsman's soul. I think Canadians well t y p i f y the h a r d i n e s s of the n o r t h e r n r a c e s . . . t h e spirit i s b o r n i n t h e b | o o d a s we I I a s n o u r i s h e d b y t h e clime" (Beers, 1877, 506).  These by  lacrosse  became  very  nationalistic  intentions  organisations. popular  during  The the  were  term  nineteenth  institutionalised 'Our  National  century  (Fig.  Game' 5.1)  and  has  until  even the  Canada's has  to  1960s,  by  sport  act  (Jones  reports  on s p o r t ,  refer  lacrosse  as  The  symbolism  great  need  of  people  (Lindsay,  Lacrosse  Association,  Country,  O u r Game'  1972).  This  the  game'  constantly  (Lindsay,  the time  who h a d  The banner  for  for example,  bore  Lacrosse  have  1969).  filled  National  slogan of  a  'Canadian'  the  the Hall  of  1974).  1860s,  must  (The Canadian  belief  on t h e myth  'Canada'  at  become  Vellathottam,  'the national  f o r many  aspirations  enthusiasts  since  as  held,  officially  Parliament.  and  'lacrosse'  was commonly  had  of  lacrosse  Newspaper to  It  lacrosse  game b y  debates  national  the present.  that  national  spurred  the  endured  Fame,  'Our n.d.  1967?).  To what among the  extent  lacrosse  1860s,  dominated  lacrosse mainly  promoted  British  heritage,  although  his  identity  (see  was  only  broadened  to  nationalistic  participants?  himself  it  was t h i s  was  by  of  a i m was  towards  (Metcalfe,  1972).  books  1869;  a  and  promote  wider  national Despite  and ideas articles  of  Metcalfe  the  century  spectrum  of  Identity  Beers*  as  efforts  4,  sport  Ironically,  lacrosse  1877).  the turn  include  Canadian  to  values.  apparent  In C h a p t e r  exclusive  the b e l i e f s  in h i s  Beers,  socially  British  many  emerging  a  As d i s c u s s e d  feeling  and Beers  from  on  in  his  lacrosse, a  Canadian  suggests when  that sport  society  that  an  became  evident  in the  1860s and  125  1870s  to  promote  later  that  this  nationalism  appeared  to  in s p o r t ,  bear  i t was o n l y  fruit.  Metcalfe  decades  argues:  "the early organized sporting clubs were essentially middle-class institutions with membership of the working class virtually p r o h i b i t e d a n d a s s u c h d i v i s i v e e l e m e n t s b o t h In the sense of c l a s s and n a t i o n a l i s m . With the p r o l i f e r a t i o n of i n t e r - c l u b c o m p e t i t i o n and the shift in f o c u s from p a r t i c i p a t i o n to winning, the problem became more complex, although at first, class lines were w o u I d . . . appear that organised sport as a f o c a l point for Canadian nationalism d i d serve to unite the diverse segments of the Canadian p o p u l a t i o n o n l y when c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h t e a m s f r o m o t h e r n a t i o n s was I n v o l v e d ; sport in t h i s sense was one of the earliest indicators of an emerging Canadian n a t i o n a l i t y " (Metcalfe, 1972, 13) .  TheEmerging  5.3  D e m o c r a t Is a t i o n o f  5.3.1  Until had  Culture  the  occurred  other  turn in c l u b  sporting  sport,  from  societal Working A  sport  baseball  (Metcalfe,  society social  groups class such  membership  middle-class  involved  industrial  the century,  combined to  cricket  was p r e d o m i n a n t l y  as well  as  most  Membership  was  a n d few w o r k i n g - c l a s s  with  competitive,  participation  democrat I s a t i o n  lacrosse  1976a).  participating  as  in  little  activities.  characteristically were  of  lacrosse  in  did  remained working  The the  growing  changing a  sport  (Metcalfe,  an  reach  broader  into  elite  class.  urban  focus  led to  not  people  range  of of  1972).  all  sports.  sport,  while  126  In  a  detailed  Montreal, of  Metcalfe  society  century.  e I Ite  who  were  clubs  which  included  sports  consists  of  this  involved group  I on o f  Lacrosse,  being  ever-widening became 1976a). all  class  lacrosse  Players levels. players  a  segment  relatively  in  the  el ite These lawn  competitive  team  democratised and s p e c t a t o r s Indicative  of  throughout  remained people we I I  groups  as  usually  tennis,  hockey  people  became group  p e o p l e who  sports.  being  It of  is any  1976a).  played  and  increasingly  by an  membership  Canada  the changing  was t h e e m e r g e n c e  as  (Metcalfe,  was  These  of  evidence  population  were  social  The t h i r d  team  greatest  sport, the  and  heterogeneous  c a n be f o u n d  of  class  the  and p o l i t i c a l  group  1976a).  of  of  and h u n t i n g .  football,  the  decades  in any sense  of  in  strata  non-competitive  The second  range  in  different  late  tandem  (Metcalfe,  that  sport  the  few w o r k i n g  an e x p a n d i n g  becoming  democratisat  sports  three  people.  golf,  Relatively  in these  amongst  as  stratification  the economic  as  members  professional  involved  were  such  1976a).  such  cycling.  are  democratised  younger  and  during  involved  sports  (Metcalfe,  commercial  and  usually  social  Identifies  First,  housed  the  of  in sport  d i d n o t become  exclusive  played  (1976a)  involved  nineteenth  sports  analysis  (Metcalfe, drawn  social  of working c l a s s  from  base  of  clubs  in  1 27  Montreal,  such  established  as  i n 1872  Organisation, control  of  the  differentiation between  1860  executives compared the  the  of  t h e 37%  of  was a  while  appears  that  1871, the  rest some  players the  a  the  the century  in  and  economic The  there  t h e 24  were  80% o f  class  was a  largely of  predominance  of  Shamrock  Lacrosse  6  were  Club  industrial owners  the working c l a s s ,  was  run  by  education.  1976a).  people This  Montreal  of  1976a).  from  successful  in  analysis  (Metcalfe,  (Metcalfe,  clubs  players  professionals  all  among  differentiation  bookkeepers,  or  the  players  Even  clerks,  drawn  occurred  active  (1976a)  only  the  Increasing  1976a).  working  a n d 1901  among  Club,  under  1861,  were  (Metcalfe,  organisation  illustrates  remain  executives  In M o n t r e a l  administration trend  and  example,  that  were  in  to  In M e t c a l f e ' s  1891  Lacrosse  classes.  executives.  Of  backgrounds  of  For  social  and  and  the  turn  players  he shows  in  Although  middle  the e a r l i e s t  workers.  businesses  continued  and  mechanics.  white-collar  Mechanics 1976a).  i n 1881  (one of  executives,  workers  upper  players  executives  however,  t h e two c l u b s  there  consisted  (Metcalfe,  between  Shamrocks  between  first  and 1900.  to  Montreal)  the  it with  example clubs  at  128  Even not  the  people By  though  administrative from  1880  different  lacrosse  opportunity the  upper  this  games.  ethnic  working  and m i d d l e the  Skill  important  1880s,  focus  social  difficult  to  'muscular  Christianity'  In o t h e r  words,  important  than  the  changing  base  lacrosse  reflected  contrast  and  to  the  nineteenth  century,  became  paramount.  This  class  and  commercial the  working  Canadian  cultural elites,  culture  a  hegemony  the  from  attitudes  Increased.  of  1976a). more  'below',  toward  During  the  was  between  British  the  last  1972).  the  of  In  sport.  support  i n many  cultural  component  the  participation  morality,  confrontation  (Metcalfe,  the  values  the profess IonaI/amateur  crucial  By  t h e game w a s b e c o m i n g  liberal  conflict  more  becoming  (Metcalfe,  working c l a s s  espousing  class,  to  was  as  t h e game w a s p l a y e d .  the changing  in sport  1976a).  adherence  with  on w i n n i n g  regarded  it  of  of  Congruent  an e m p h a s i s  the players  process  ideals  of  that  of  increasing  the  professionalism of  outcome  'sanctum'  (Metcalfe,  t h e way In w h i c h  Illustrating  In  among  backgrounds.  the  1969).  general  to  the  (Cox,  such  open  allowed  enter  to  and  which  Increasingly  were  a  the  were  and c l a s s  men t o  shifted  playing  became  few s p o r t s  origins  conditions expect  the  classes  reached  the sport groups  class  and t a l e n t  than  only  levels,  was o n e o f  for  tendency,  late  democratisation  for  decades conflict ways  a  colonial  and  values,  and  the  emerging  129  Rise  5 . 3 . 2  of  Professionalism  Professional century  and  decades  of  lacrosse  prevailed  the B r i t i s h  reinforce  the  social  class  inferred motives  (Cox  England  the  of  1870s,  common  'stakes'  or  professional As  the  apart  so  During feared social payment  fact  but  sportsmen  that  farmer'  which  f o r any  profit  not  nineteenth  convertible  amateurs  an  issue  for  often  1974;  In the  until  money was played nor  Gladder,  beyond  amateur  terms  earlier,  considered  extended of  had a  the  competing  to  the  for  called 1978).  ranks  and gentleman  of  drifted  1968).  nineteenth  professionalism  of  of  was u s e d  amateur'  As mentioned  (Cosentino,  the concepts  attitudes  part  d i d n o t become  were  sport  and not  few  Initially,  'amateur'  became  Gentleman  'wagers'  of  gain  the  1969).  the  good  first  1969).  'gentleman  It'  Canada.  'pecuniary'  (Mcintosh,  of  nineteenth  the  'Gentleman  and amateur  and l a t e r ,  growth  gentlemen  For a  late  into  word  like  love  the  (Cox,  'gentleman'. much  in  1870s  example,the  1969).  despite  (Cox,  the  century  ' f o r the  gentleman  question  from  distinction  farming  century, both  word  Lacrosse  appeared  the twentieth  following  in  century,  for  reasons  and p r e j u d i c e s .  players  would  the gentleman  lead  which  First, to  were  coloured  was t h e  ethically  amateur  idea  by  that  questionable  130  practices was  such  feared  values  as  that  bribery  motives  (Mcintosh,  commentator  of  1968;  of  competitors  personal Gladder,  or  officials.  gain  would colour  1978).  As one  It  moral  lacrosse  stated  "The big tragedy of it all was not the introduction of p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m but rather that the c l u b s cheated and players l i e d under o a t h " (Roxborough, 1966, 204). Even  in  need  to  the early eliminate  twentieth  century  professionalism  the press  reported  the  because:  "every player must p l a y t h e game f o r i t s own sake, with a total absence of any s u b s i d y or u l t e r i o r motive" (The Vancouver Province, 29 January, 1906, 2).  Second, time  and  Once  be  balance  sure of  Gladder,  the  fear  l i v e l i h o o d to  amateurs. would  was  that  sport,  athletes, would  professionalism  to  fair  drop play  1978).  Again  out.  this  by f a r  dominated,  In e f f e c t ,  and equal  who d e v o t e d  this  competition  reaction  Is  their  outclass  the  amateur  sport  would upset (Mcintosh,  evident  in  the 1968;  lacrosse:  " T h o s e who w e r e u n p a i d w e r e m o s t l y p l a y e r s who had o t h e r j o b s and whose o p p o r t u n i t y t o practise was t h u s limited; while professionals were always a v a i l a b l e and t h e i r physical condition e n a b l e d them to dominate play. By the m l d nineties nearly all first-class lacrosse clubs i n c l u d e d some paid players; and t h e f e w who remained honestly a m a t e u r . . . t r a i Ied in their leagues" (Roxborough, 1966, 203). Third, School  values  professionalism  and of  most  subtle,  'muscular  came  to  was t h e  Christianity'  dominate.  It  fear  that  Public  would be e r o d e d was f e l t  if  by amateur  131  legislators playing  that  fields  livelihood  from  Parallel with  conflict. which and  all  Native  for  that  to  become  further to  June  whites  (Cosentino, Canadian  it  game  1880,  strictly  in  were  could  with  proved  were  of  struggle dominant  by  lacrosse  lacrosse,  paid. as  in  many  As a  result  professionals  however,  permitted players  to for  remuneration  1869).  Lacrosse  whites.  Natives  until was  as  Association  teams were  matches  was n o t  that  ethnic  element  amateur  and N a t i v e  play  a  emerged  of  the  d i d not accept  (Beers,  Association to  opposed  they  they  exhibition It  between  organised  teams  amateur  allowed be  of  the National  1975).  Lacrosse  been  if  the  made  which  residual  teams w e r e ,  provided  competition  play  Natives  games  values  categorised  These  players  was t h e a p p e a r a n c e  Native  start  white  class  struggle  The  were  1975).  particular  From  a  played  teams,  against  championship  reflected  only  if  on  amateur/professionaI  continually  players  (Cosentino,  the  the  etiquette  1968).  the c o n f l i c t i n g  From  and  be m a i n t a i n e d  ideals.  had  compete  (Mcintosh,  ensue  organisers. Native  sport  effect,  residual  lacrosse  not  professionalism  In  was t o  conventions  could  to  increasing  the  or the  formed  amateurs,  individual  barred  were  only  act  as  skill in  voted from  allowed trainers oriented  1887,  and then players  that  only had  if not  132  previously 1969;  accepted  Cosentino,  regulation  many  organised Indian time  World  however,  Native  (Weyand not  did play  Other underwent  Irish  players  on w h i t e  ethnic  groups,  for  example, and were  'a  before  team  was n o t  their  considered  t h e game'  (Metcalfe,  formed  In  1867,  even  class,  executive  management  class  businessmen.  other  lacrosse  clubs.  the  the first  championship,  or  publicity  as  Native  increased  clubs.  violence seen  as  They were  of  was u n d e r  working  to  from being  of  winning that  T h e c l u b was were of  working middle-  conflicted of  officials  dirty  to  emphasize  the control  those  of  specifically,  196).  accused  class  in terms  dedicated  constantly  and harassment  of  Montreal  the players  They were  accused  successful  More  1987,  though  different  cultures,  an anomaly  time,  The Shamrocks  different  mainly of  'correct'  of  and  from  lacrosse.  aspect  were  status  organised for  This  The very  somewhat  they  fans  from  professionalism  consisted  organised  conduct,  barred  A few i n d i v i d u a l  as  conflicts.  century  It  1965).  residual  nineteenth  when  teams  was s t a g e d  1970).  teams  this  1975).  Catholics  were  Native  Howell,  Despite  in r e a l i t y ,  t h e same  (Jones,  and  1976a).  were,  and R o b e r t s ,  receive  similar  Shamrocks,  (Howell  Metcalfe,  Championships which  did  (Cosentino,  sport  In r e a c t i o n ,  competitions  players  for  1975;  lacrosse.  i n 1880  other  money  with  ungentIemanIy 9  .  Shamrock  who s u p p o r t e d 'rowdies'  other  who w e r e  133  unruly club the  and  used  abusive  increasingly turn  openly move  of  the  admitted  Involved  1965;  in  Canada's  The  French  and  the  1972;  continually  Union  was  Nationals original well  By  were member  as  throughout describes  that  the  opposition,  the  This  national  C u p w h i c h was  team  1901-1905  and  (Weyand  element  dominated  and  Roberts,  lacrosse  e s t a b l I shed  in the  Both  the  the professional  1911,  both  (Cosentino,  consisted  of  and M o n t r e a l  professional  games  Roxborough,  transition  the  to  the  players.  relatively 1890s  Irish  amateur  to  French  in  members clubs  belonged  of Montreal  involved  when  in  Canada.  by  the Minto  amateur  the dominant  the Toronto  1900,  towards  professionalism.  won  1975).  formed  This  and  o f much  they  consisted  opposed  surprising  to  residual  only  Cosentino,  1987)  1968).  which  was  face  expulsions  top  had become  club  the  and  between  ethnic  Club  (Metcalfe,  professionalism  adherence  In 1 9 0 2 ,  Vellathottam,  National  as  century,  generally  Another  not  towards  suspensions  for  lacrosse  moved  their  organisations. Intended  language  (Lindsay,  and the ideals  French  a n d i t was  National  Shamrocks 1975).  the Native  late  Lacrosse and  The  the other  Tecumseh  Club  clubs.  were  drawing  somewhat  professionalism  in  large  crowds  d i sgustedIy, Iacrosse:  134  "Crowds became l a r g e r , revenue i n c r e a s e d a n d new grounds with clubhouses were indications of p r o s p e r i t y . Then, one day some plebians complained that i t was unfair for them t o buy their own equipment, sticks, shoes, and sometimes u n i f o r m s , while the c l u b was making money from their services. That discovery heralded a new e r a In which players first demanded t h a t t h e i r o u t f i t s be p r o v i d e d a t c l u b expense; then they i n s i s t e d upon c a b f a r e and the p r i c e of a hack; next, they expected s i r l o i n steaks after practices; and finally, they held out for t h e payment o f money in a m a n n e r known o n l y by t h e p l a y e r i n v o l v e d and the club's inner r i n g " (Roxborough, 1966, 203). Clubs  began  (Vellathottam, teams were players  1968).  unwonted  march  benefit  of  Vancouver, attracted the  New  health'  up t o  century  professional  that  period,  1914  with  they  leagues  Montreal, (Jones,  lacrosse  the exception  started  up  Toronto 1970).  1969).  won t h e M i n t o  (Vellathottam,  Victoria in the  of  1968; in and  not  British that  the  for  the  1892,  78).  clubs  increasingly  first  The  few d e c a d e s  W o r l d War  Cup c h a m p i o n s h i p s when V a n c o u v e r  Jones,  Ottawa  is  lured  T h e New W e s t m i n s t e r  until  1911  the west  the  suspicions  westward  15 0 0 0  (Cox,  efficiently  (McKenzie, and  players  professional  commented,  strong  players  the best  Columbia,  and c l u b s  awakened  Westminster of  attract  As one w r i t e r  crack  their  twentieth  1 0  of  crowds  dominated  cup  'have  to  British  strong  the east.  clubs  money  In  especially  from  Columbian  offering  1970).  popular  Club During  from  1908-  took  the  Professional  and p r o f e s s i o n a l were  I.  of  games  in  attractions  135  5.3.3  T h e A m a t e u r / P r o f e s s IonaI The  amateur  frenzy  which  administrators  and  executives  had  and  meanings  Its  roots  Christianity' (Jones, in  1970).  Canada  Oarsmen  and  from  prevailed  during in  ideals  One of  came  in  the  Struggle among  sports  the nineteenth  century  the  of  values  of  restrictive  the e a r l i e s t  'muscular  social  d e f i n i t i o n s of  the Canadian  Association  class  'amateur'  of  Amateur  1880:  "An amateur i s o n e who h a s n e v e r a s s i s t e d in the pursuit of athletic exercises as a means of l i v e l i h o o d , who r o w s f o r p l e a s u r e a n d r e c r e a t i o n only during his leisure hours, and does not abandon or neglect his usual business or occupation for t h e p u r p o s e o f t r a i n i n g f o r more t h a n two weeks d u r i n g the season" (Morrow, 1986, 174). The Amateur 1884.  first Athletic As  this  a  efforts  (Vellathottam would  amateur  were  team  emphasis  1974;  was  national  In  'under  the table'  the  1890s,  charges  became on  the  to  more  quality  1986).  adhere  governing  In  winning  on b u i l d i n g  Morrow,  pretending  the  participating  sports  concentrated  by  ideal  C a n a d a w h i c h was f o r m e d  in  and Jones,  of  amateur  greater  be a c h i e v e d  rules  the  leagues  with  championships,  of  A s s o c i a t i o n of  senior  competitive  teams  custodian  Often to  body  professionalism  the while  (Morrow,  1986).  During rampant. payments  Jobs were  or made  placements, to  athletes  of  professionalism  sponsorships, under  bonuses  the guise  of  were  and even  amateurism  136  (Vellathottam, Association and  1968;  of  Canada  suspending  .supporter  Morrow,  1986).  undertook  offenders  The Amateur  the task  (Morrow,  of  Athletic  investigating  1986).  One  amateur  noted:  "there are many b l a c k - l i s t e d p l a y e r s , thanks to t h e work of the associations, but these men cannot take part In m a t c h e s , a n d w h e n t h e b r a n d has been p u t upon them, t h e y become p a r i a h s to the lacrosse fraternity" ( M c k e n z i e , 1892; 77). Despite and  fines,  1903, the  National  Canadian  or  In a  Athletic  Union  event  professionals This  unconstitutional  Support the this  most  sporting  association  was to  Increasingly  caught  in  be amateur it  became,  strength  1975;  to to  Morrow, Amateur  penalties or  in  against  (Morrow,  1986).  radical  and  of  for  support  1986).  Athletic  apparent In  to  in one of  Canada  during  Association.  continuing  but wanting as  only  In  request  amateurs  with  was a l s o  the  a  enforce  organisations  Amateur  flourish.  made  was  (Morrow,  for professionalism  the Montreal  not to  the  suspensions  the Canadian  lacrosse  Indicated  to  (Jones,  lacrosse  in the sport  powerful  time:  pretending  for but  professionalism  of  of  allow  competing  the sport  concession  to  debate,  voted  amateurs  in  Union  Union  and heated  kinds  continued  professionals  executives  of  all  Lacrosse  Athletic  against  lengthy  and  lacrosse  Amateur  Amateur  with  1986).  statement,  professional  the  compete  the  this  dilemma  This of  be  professional.  Morrow d e s c r i b e s ,  'the Montreal  137  Almost In  Amateur  1906,  the executives  play  with  This  motion  (Morrow, the  Athletic  or  the  1970;  Morrow,  Lacrosse imminent.  Athletic  1986).  sanction  professional  leanings  Association,  it  body: of  support  professionalism  5.4  The Preservation  5.4.1  Dominance From  powerful attempted  1900 efforts to  of to  of  of  the  name  vote  to  'amateur'  of  the  seemed  sports  the Montreal  received  for  Amateur  Ism a t  its  Athletic  new  of Canada  such  Amateur  approval  a  the  National  lacrosse  in other  the  (Jones,  powers  and  Canadian  Dominant  governing  In t h e  hope  least,  i f not  fueled  by t h e  Ideals  Movement  t h e amateur Canadian  counter-act  12  1986).  t h e Amateur 1920  its  the  Federation  (Morrow,  to  lead,  for semi-professionaI  full  250  this  and I n s t i g a t e d  Athletic  retribution.  followed  in 1906,  the  disbanded  t h e Amateur  gaining  from  to  1906,  prevailed  had not  amateurs  April  professional  When,  177).  the month,  the combined  for  still  allow  in a  Association  sentiments  Association  of  dropping  1986,  without  Union  With  and hockey.  to  and changed  Athletic  Similar  rugby  Lacrosse  Union,  Amateur Union,  the end  resolution  Lacrosse  Montreal  as  same  a motion  by m e m b e r s h i p  Before  Amateur  (Morrow,  professionals  was r a t i f i e d  1986).  National  passed  against  National  adopted  Association'  movement,  Amateur  Athletic  professionalism.  The  Union, Union  138  actively amateur member the  campaigned principles,  clubs  organisations  the  In  1887  had  representing  479  clubs national  organisation Athletic before and  the  Union  of  with Canada  association  (Jones,  some  The Olympic The  amateur  emergence 1986).  of  Coubertin, patriotic  like and  Prussian  changes  the  had  rival It  the  was  a  this  Amateur not  long  professionalism Amateur  in  of  with As  the  900  1910,  the  nineteenth  (Morrow,  Athletic new  century  1986,  85).  Ideal movement  his  was,  in part, ideal  ideals others  the crushing in  on t h e of  defeat  1870,  left  catalysed  by  the  (Jones,  1970;  founder  of  t h e modern  n o b i l i t y of  athletics.  de C o u b e r t i n ,  many  army  By 1907,  1986).  Thus,  the pedestal  Pierre  based  become  16  athletes,  any form o f  1970).  minor  000  its  grew  of  Union  declined.  to  t h e modern O l y m p i c  Baron  Olympics,  the  with  for  Union  organisations,  the  (Morrow,  denounced Union  60  efforts,  membership  37  strict  recruited  these  clubs.  later  of  of Canada  the  of  had a  A year  support  'remounted  amateurism'  5.4.2  grew,  uphold  Athletic  include  representation  Federation  joined  to  membership  Federation  result  16 s p o r t s  clubs.  and a  As a  the Union  grown  to  and p e r s i s t e n t l y  C a n a d i a n Amateur  representing  affiliation  truly  1986).  of  considerably.  the provinces  and a c t i v e l y  (Morrow,  membership  sports  in a l l  his  time,  France him  Morrow,  was  strongly  had s u s t a i n e d wondering  at  from the  139  weakness that  the  empire From of  of  English  and  this  the  education  far  removed France  Brown's  discipline  and a t h l e t i c  character 1968; values  Olympic  the  showed  in  Olympic  to  the  (for  sports  Union  choosing  Olympic  interest growth  games  such  as  this  Canada  Canadian  track  and  idea  1896  to  these  games.  and  1900  many field,  other  and  The a c c e p t a n c e  amateurism.  was  that  (Mcintosh,  Olympic  In  representative  and caused  visited  internationalism  prestige  of  1875,  He c h a m p i o n e d  attitude.  Tom  intellectual  In s p o r t  in the  of  in  for the  the ancient  revive  added  of  value  was  was no room  Coubertin  to  ideal  position  1883,  1984).  changed  Athletic  In  as  system  When  of  the  as well  French  his admiration  sport  Amateur  admired  1982).  union  vast  result  education  there  Mandell,  The  the  regimented  into  the  prowess.  little  games.  nationalism of  1982;  This  (Baker,  was t h e supreme  in h i s campaign  Canada  to  and c o n f i r m e d  Baker,  Coubertin  a  upheavals.  in part,  highly  translated  introduced  training  major  1984).  Impressed  acquired  believed,  initiative  was  School  Mandell,  was  Schooldays  be,  was  t h e body was e d u c a t e d  Coubertin  Coubertin  Rugby  without  the authoritarian,  individual  He  wealth,  in B r i t a i n .  1982;  from  such  i t must  where  and where,  for  that  system  (Baker,  1982).  politically  education  mind  (Baker,  gained  he c o n c l u d e d  the  left  had  evolved  'balanced'  in  his country  the  powerful  teams sporting  cycling,  The  to  send  bodies  rowing and  140  cricket)  to  return  the  Union  issued  the  Olympic  had  competed  (through,  at  registered  were  the  during  1 1  .  movement  held  in  some  the  1890, was  within  an  this  team  amateur  t h e new U n i o n . with  about  By  100  sport  century  illustration, I on  In 1887  west.  (The British British by  the  Lacrosse  lacrosse  000  Columbian,  delegates  from  the  British  in the  province  emphasises  the  lacrosse  and  arrival  of  instrumental  In  tournament  was  t h e game  Columbian  during  The  was  Club  in  of  The f i r s t  obviously popular,  formed  professional  of  professionalism.  Railway  the  won f r o m  Olympic  Westminster  democratisat of  fans  an  of  Indirectly  prizes  support  clubs  or  been  for  twentieth  as  in the  and,  New  dominated  and,  Pacific  2 000  Association  the  i n c l u s i o n in  1970).  early  the  lacrosse  In  of  evident  acceptance  1888  selected  or  1911,  a n y p e r s o n who  selling  against  In  Example  club  period  Canadian  promoting  and  towards  widespread the  of  This  this  or  affHated  (Jones,  trends  nineteenth  Columbia  300  Columbian  history  highlights late  1  for  directly  the growing membership  athletes  The  money  competed  n o t be  1970).  definition,  teaching  Indicative  A British  5.5  4).  could  was  there  or  (Jones,  an amateur  this  received  example,  1970).  definition  by  for or  time,  (Jones,  1912,  Under  pursuits),  any  amateurism  d e f i n i t i o n of  games.  for  athletic  a  to  was 3  attended  July,  Amateur the three  1888,  Lacrosse Western  141  teams:  Vancouver,  1978?).  Victoria  T h e New  originally  Westminster  called,  was  p r o f e s s IonaI/amateur eastern  New  schedules  and  infrequent. game w a s  in  1).  By  1892,  as  n.d.  it  was  when  the  u n d e r w a y among  was  Notes'  on  New W e s t m i n s t e r  Interest In  77ie British matches in  the  Columbian,  game  of  Club  in  (The  within  the  British  the  Provincial June,  1892,  and  support  the  a column 1  June,  schedules  of  were  the  or  newspaper  allocated  1 June,  began east  1892,  reporting  of  and the  Lacrosse 1).  results  4  clubs  f o r m a t i o n of Association 1  Also from  national  June,  senior  in  front  1).  indicating a  Columbian,  years  brief  sported  as  1889,  c h a m p i o n s h i p games  intermediate two  public  pages  featured  British  June,  Columblan,  1892,  the  British practices,  were  such  social  from  junior,  10  7  Columbian  Columblan  Columbian  Columbian,  Columbian,  played  addition,  well-established British  British  of  news,  the  The  notices  lacrosse  (The  lacrosse  reported  (The  on  British  the space  British  The  General  newspaper,  Indicative  Increasingly  lacrosse  British  Club  1889  already  local  articles  5.2).  1892,  4).  was  in  publishing  (The  the  'Lacrosse  practices,  page  began  receiving,  entitled  which  struggle  games  Initially  (Fig  Westminster  formed  Westminster  soon  Columbian,  1892,  or  (Savelieff,  clubs.  The  4).  and W e s t m i n s t e r  1892, were the (The  142  Amateur  5.5.1  There British and  Lacrosse  Is  little  Columbia  Victoria  filled (.The  with  doubt  (B.C.).  it  was  ladies  British  in B r i t i s h  At  press  a  reported and  Columbian,  Westminster  that  it  was  Columbia  lacrosse  was  match  between  that  'the  grand  were  black  the  grounds  20  June,  noted  1891,  popular  New  Westminster stands with  4).  in  In  were  people' the  New  that:  "Anyone v i s i t i n g Queen's Park last evening could e a s i l y see that l a c r o s s e has become a l l t h e rage ... Over a hundred p l a y e r s were hard at work, p r a c t i c i n g for the numerous e v e n t s t o come o f f in t h e near f u t u r e . Oddfellows, carpenters, masons, cigar makers, the civic and military teams, Juniors, Moonlights and intermediates, all were r e p r e s e n t e d " (7"rie British Columbian, 17 August, 1892, 4). Highlighting the  subsequent  the  financial  supporters,  commercial  the  As  game.  Westminster, result Railway  of  players 3  the  trams,  and  the  August,  as  1891, 1895,  movement  1; 4)  and  15  5.3).  fans  enthusiasm.  In  Vancouver,  closed  shops  in  by  days  July,  of  their  were  the  to  order  a  to  were  These  efforts  and  17  added of  witness  from  between promoted  of New  as  a  Pacific  1891,  4).  on  for  laid  Columbian, July,  1893,  served to  to  4; aid  lacrosse  store-owners a  and  patrons  British  4;  number  as  July,  1893,  matches  B.C.  Canadian  10  (The  in  gained  in  being  steamers  game  be  games  Columbian,  on  (Fig.  to  stepped  offered  British  supporters  lacrosse  lacrosse  Victoria  rates  trains  of  benefits  1891,  and  special  (The  appeal  enterprises  Vancouver  October,  23  early  Company  Additional  public  championship  even game  143  between  Vancouver  Columbian,  18  June,  Vancouver/Victoria horse-racing  was  holiday  British  (The  The  in  lacrosse  in  to  earlier the  In  of  lacrosse  1890s,  the  reflected  people  consisted  of  agent,  clerk,  of  in  the  of  centres  from  a  of  social small  bookkeepers,  and  a  plumber  New  by . t h e By  had undergone  By  purely  the  1890s,  and T o r o n t o elite  clubs,  as  social  discussed entered  between  club  increased.  In New  groups. business  printers,  civic  the West.  sport  Westminster  players  a  of  in  explained  and t h e d i s t a n c e  organised  from mixed  attendant  and  of Montreal  sporting  composition  newspaper  4).  S e m I - p r o f e s s I o n a I Ism h a d  became  three  1892,  to  a  day a  Canada.  had g r a d u a l l y  registrar,  sport  a  declare  B.C.,  in B . C . , the  players  a manager,  to  British  occasion,  with  7 September,  transformation  two  coupled  Vancouver  rest  chapter.  (The  one  c a n be p a r t i a l l y  traditional  lacrosse  On  lacrosse  appeared  and p l a y e r s  When  a  of  democratised  this  ranks  for  In t h e  the  more  executives  the  the  undergone  clubs  match  Columbian,  lacrosse changes  had  enough  4).  the d i f f u s i o n  numerous  Westminster  1892,  in p a r t i c u l a r ,  time-lapse time  New  lacrosse  popularity  Westminster  the  and  and In  supreme  a  court  a machinist,  (William's  executives  1890  owner,  British  In  a  the  team  shipping deputy hospital Columbia  144  Directory, social early  mix  British  Columbian  the  players For  executives breakdown  of  determine  that  also  years  'playing  to  Victoria/New was  were  one  1893;  in  1890,  a  From  evidence  of  less  leadership  club  levels British  At t h i s  out of this it  Club  a  'no  stage  In t h e m a n a g e m e n t  executives  sports  printer,  W i l l iam's  five  Westminster  owners,  with  1894).  involved  players. and  4;  In t h e  person  and  1890,  in  Club,  found  newspaper  presents  also  that  the  by c l u b s  smaI I - b u s i n e s s  and  to  the  eleven  socio-economic is  possible  began,  with  of  an  not  to  as  a  Interest  in  in B . C . , d u r i n g  the  games.  Inter-club early  to  clerk  1890;  t h e New but as  three  6 March,  players  club,  similar  In t h e  Westminister  a  example,  were  New  the administration  Directory,  many  winning  at  This  opposed  maintained  bookkeeper,  executive  Columbian,  club.  social  a  this  democratisation  though,  a  in B . C . as  the  the mayor,  attendant,  occupation',  of  n . d . 1925?).  democratisation  initially  pattern  a manager,  of  lacrosse  executive a  Mahony,  element  function  C o n s i s t i n g of  hospital  (The  an  illustrates  plumber,  1894;  organised  The  however,  a  of  exclusive  east.  east.  1893;  indicates  stages  socially the  1890;  delayed  of  rivalry organised  win'.  lacrosse  emphasised  For example,  Westminster over  and s q u a b b l i n g  league  an argument  in  match,  on t h e  the attitude  October  1894,  the s t a r t  legality  of  of a  the  at  of a  game  particular  145  referee.  Eventually  finished  because  declared  a  heated  order  draw.  In  gain  ensued,  match  Lacrosse  Association  match.  Victoria  association. themselves referred the  For  the  to  In  4;  29  illustrates School 'good  clubs the  clubs  took  place  July,  1892,  there  were  and  season,  1895  resigned  the  as  the  25  4).  the  B.C.  and  amateur, less  east  regularly 1;  5  allegations  of  other  long  the  a  5  less  and  to  more  be  rejoined  hostility to  re-  renamed  22  November,  tied  in  provincial  Columbian,  4;  Club  Amateur  play the  and  game  continued  1894,  further  the  Public  important  New W e s t m i n s t e r to  the  amateur  had o r i g i n a l l y d o n e . openly  against  a  than  play'.  attention  and  was  V i c t o r i a Club  w i n was  the  September,  accusations  were  to  'fair  to  British  1894,  T h e game  B.C.  from  inter-club  clubs  Playing  paid the  This  the  they  (The  be  Victoria  V i c t o r i a Club)  October,  1895,  the  clubs  the  not  delaying  Finally,  the  press  when  the  could  followed,  d e I I b e r a t e Iy  and  being  in  that  refused  sportsmanship'  B.C.  of  instructed  traditions.  in  play.  (although  that  Despite  stopped  culminating  points.  1;  April,  but  weeks  association  1894,  started  Triangles  provincial  October,  light  the  New W e s t m i n s t e r  to  game  fading  argument  accused  the  (The  1892, clubs  players  for  Ideal  Wagers  British 1).  and  Columbian,  As e a r l y 'Importing'  'selling'  on  as  other than games 18 1891,  players  games  (The  146  British June,  1892,  4;  Despite B.C.  Westminster  encountered  of  turn work  The  up  to  June,  period,  even  unprecedented, ruled  selected  that  for  the  September,  1894,  amateur.  its  members  of  players.  though  17  public were  players (The  sessions  present  British  the  (The  for  poorly  a  could result 1890s  Westminster  1894,  support  so  as  New  August,  problem  Players  During  urged  by  increasingly  matches  engagements.  practice  British  continuing  or  the  encountered  became  One  practices  4;  10  4).  The  as  1891,  4;  s e m i - p r o f e s s i o n a I ism,  continually  team  1892,  frustrations  at  only  June,  the  other  practices  6  of  for  or  arrive 8  some  consistency  Columbian  Columbian,  club  the  regularly  British  of  26  amateurism.  commitments  players  this  was  4;  1;  technically  Club  with  1891,  1893,  evidence  remained  disenchanted  not  July,  h i g h l i g h t s some  Columbian New  7  this  clubs  the  3 October,  Columblan,  British  4).  During  the  game  was  attended  that  the  at  practice  Columbian,  would  8 May,  be  1895;  4) .  In  addition,  scheduled the  after  players.  return  the  continuity  practices  work  Clubs  also  following of  hours  players  and  allowing  had  limited  no g u a r a n t e e  season. from  matches  As a one  year  only  be  flexibility  for  that  result to  could  the  players  there  was  next  and  would little it  was  147  hard it  to  build  was  gain  there  bad  1895, the  arrived  for  were  of an  the  or  the  (The  problem  so  As  funds were  Westminster  complaints  consistent  British  New  conditions  hour  team.  playing  also  Another  lack  consistent  from  ground  4).  (The  a  difficult  experience  press and  up  Club  eastern  lack  amateur  organisation. late  leaving  14  Columbian,  June,  of  and  In  the  facilities  Columbian,  befalling  tour  teams.  about  British  to  lacking  lacrosse  Teams  4).  was  constantly  frustrated  1895,  May,  7  spectators One  reporter  remarked: "The r u l e seems t o be t o advertise a certain hour f o r p l a y and then keep t h e a u d i e n c e w a i t i n g f o r an hour or more before beginning" (The  In  an  began  23  September,  British  Columbian,  attempt  to  overcome  to  to  semi-professionaI  turn  these  1892,  problems, Ism  1).  clubs  and  increasingly  ultimately  to  open  professionalism.  5.5.2  The P a t t e r n Betting  continued British  In  21  to  be  games  B.C.  well  an,  13  July,  divided  (The  Vancouver  gate  money  club  uniforms,  Province,  and  1908,  and  the  Importation  into  the  twentieth  July,  1)  shared  used sticks  March,  to and 1901,  1907,  (Fig.  to 9  Province, was  15  Semi-professionaIism  on  Columbi  Province,  of  5.4).  cover  even 11;  club  Gate  1901,  The  century  of  receipts  Victoria  began  touring  7).  shoes  (The Vancouver  In  faci I ities,  lacrosse  players  The  expenses  February,  improve  20;  of  teams  addition, to  (The Colon  pay  for  Vancouver Ist,  5  148 April, the  1901,  east  The  continued.  Vancouver 'was  7).  Club  not  in  for  years  the  'under  such  as  There  new  the  table'  were  hints, which  lacrosse  in  his  upon  1901  you  the  Colonist,  5  April, few  suspiciously  In  B.C.  emphasis team  the  forward'  amateur to  to  the  ideal  accept  the  of  rarely  players out  the  of  (The  the  early  from  players. some  of of  too  sportsmanship. open  hidden  the  Yet,  of  stated  strongly game  impress  free  from  (The  Victoria press,  there  opposed was  professionalism.  a  is  Ism.  ism  'putting as  in  century,  semI-professionaI  winning  club  'amateur'  semi-professionaI  attitude  aggressive  reported  town  twentieth of  any  year  T h e New W e s t m i n s t e r  issue  out  V i c t o r i a Club  cannot  the  club  inducements  existence  keeping  towards  of  the  calm  the  the  openly  or  warnings  of  7).  prevailing  stigma  for  'I  of  trend  and  press  professionalism'  1901,  on  hold  During  the  of  that  11).  Proving  of  the  1901,  and  report:  Meeting  that  to  Secretary  to  from  east  apparent  years  silent  or  the  necessity  savouring  first  rewards  belled  anything  the  the  however,  announced  players  the  'situations'  annual  the  from  'crack* General  offer  March,  B.C.  professionalism,  Annual  to  decade,  employment  executives  in  15  of  regretfully  players  Province,  the  an  position  Vancouver of  At  officials a  inducement'  importation  added  the to  best the  reluctance It  was  only  149  In  1906,  fore  when  the  in Canada  that  In  1906,  as  became  in  the  east  to  the  outcry.  British veiled  was  as  laid  bare  came  to  the  in B . C .  senior  the  season against  teams  his  (The  annual  organise  a  eastern  standard  of  follow  the  Tecumsehs,  officially Athletic  Union  he  play, of  after the  is  playing three  B.C.  that  the  'the  the  obeyed  (The  He a r g u e d  that  could  In  the  would and  28  teams the  Colonist,  22  out  match  the  inevitably  become  openly  1906,  eastern in  B.C.  Canadian January,  2).  and  February,  professional  by  to  other  out  In o r d e r  not  1906,  only  become  teams  senior  of  January,  lacrosse  Colonist,  professional  (7"rie Victoria  29  all  'thinly  none  Club  evident  to  being  being  Victoria  added  accused  of  2).  predicted,  eastern  Victorian  declared  the  stated  team  Also,  1907,  1906,  struggle  in B . C .  that  laws were  Province,  he  professionals'.  In  players  suggested  that  Vancouver  report  (The  President  professionalism  winning  professional  Club  January,  showed  lead  officials  amateur  29  the  club  lacrosse and  association's Province,  compete  amateur/professionaI  publicised,  professionals'  1905  the  The V i c t o r i a  Vancouver  the  issue  soon  Columbian  provincial  In  the  struggle  Declared Professionalism  5 . 5 . 3 .  B.C.  amateur/professionaI  8).  team, were  Amateur 1908,  9).  150  The  clubs  whole,  were  the  dreaded 1908,  accusations  stigma,  the  proposal senior  B.C. for  (The  actually the  wrest  issue  the  Victoria  28 had  the  season  Cup  and  withdrawing Vancouver  discussions,  won  with  cup the  seriously  from  the  1)  cup  Province,  1908,  1908,  14).  but The  without highlight  tour  east  (The 1;  The  British  ever  Cup  since  the faced  defending  professionals remaining 7).  accusations  to  Vancouver  The M l n t o  either  1909,  the  reached  New W e s t m i n s t e r  and  B.C.  being  5.4).  championships  by  the  debates  and  official  March,  league  Heated  1908,  of  the  amateur  status.  1902.  a  or  professional  becoming  characterised  in  Shamrocks  decision  29  2  July,  to  At  Meeting  (Fig.  In  In  9).  decisions  their  28  blossom.  teams  New W e s t m i n s t e r  1;  the  professional  teams.  the  considered  professional,  considered  the  a  on  Despite  professional  the  1908,  been  had  on  March,  from  to  new  1908,  Annual  the  1908,  July,  Shamrocks 1909  Cup  of  January,  declaring  July,  idea  before,  was  seriously.  three  meaningful 29  but,  Association  lacrosse  as  season  21  competition  (The  many  Mlnto  Columbian,  Minto  local  officially  Province,  22  appeal  continued  of  the  centred  continued  the  as  Colonist,  1908  B.C.  Association  without  Teams  of  well  Lacrosse  followed  in  to  taken  Lacrosse  Colonist,  for  not  introduction  as  important  status  was  Amateur  the  league  Amateur  permission  lacrosse  (7"r»e Victoria  most  granted  or  amateur  During and  the  these  counter-  151  accusations, that  they  enable  the  had ' d i v I e d '  the  'players  season'. players  Cup  (The Vancouver  a  In A p r i l the  to  bonus  1909  professionals Victoria  the  set  (The  Amateur  with  the  Amateur  Athletic  affiliated.  The other  League  World  Westminster  (Savelieff,  continued  competition Lacrosse  of  three  formed  Hall  senior  n . d . 1978?).  until  although  the  led  to  of  Fame,  1920s,  decreasing n.d.  lacrosse  in  9).  When  the  in  1909  late Union  when public  formed amateur  i n B . C . became Vancouver Lacrosse  professional  interrupted  1967?).  in  Professional  This  lack  (The  action,  from V i c t o r i a ,  the B . C .  against  strictly  teams,  to  This  status  1909,  a  voted  play  Athletic  Canada,  Minto  Canada.  disbanded  Amateur  teams  the  18).  This  April,  of Canada  of  back  amateur  1).  the  had p r o m i s e d  on p r o f e s s i o n a l  21  the s i x  successfully,  War,  their  to  during  Association  to  1909,  Union  three  1909,  amateurs  the Canadian  organisation,  brought  of  approval  Federation  they  Federation  losing  of  together  they  admitted  the players  incurred  that  2 April,  Colonist,  Athletic  New  if  4 April,  Victoria  among  B . C . Lacrosse  without  and  and  $100  allow  the seal  officials  income  disclosed  Athletic  Colonist,  effect,  of  would  Club  pay t h e expenses  Province,  Amateur  affiliation  B.C.  excess  O f f i c i a l s also  the  join  New W e s t m i n s t e r  by t h e of  support  league First  sufficient (Canadian  1 52  5.5.4  that as  I m p l i c a t i o n s o f the B r i t i s h Columbian Example From  the B r i t i s h  the  western  the  teams  century,  teams  in  club  Columbian  historically  the rest  executives  increasingly  distanced  we I I a s  the  New W e s t m i n s t e r  clerks,  two  merchant, cigar  a  bridge  maker,  1909).  the  four  jail  (The British  officials than  City  were  four  significant  jail  New  For  owner,  a  a  became lacrosse  example,  consisted a  o f two hardware  tinsmith,  a  painter  and a  Westminster  City  t h e team  a  executives, salesman,  smaI I - b u s i n e s s  Directory, regular  business  1909).  players. owners  consisted  considering  New  person  of  the  was t h a t  Only  with  1908,  two o f  club  between  8;  the ten  existence  the  the dominant  of  a 'no  a n d two p r o v i n c i a l  Westminster's  The d i f f e r e n c e  teams  consisted  20 M a r c h ,  The on  a  owners  Columbian,  professionalism. eastern  team  guards,  1908;  twentieth  of  an e l e c t r i c i a n ,  club  optician,  occupation',  Westminster  the  path  people.  an  guards  similar  in terms  Cup  apparent  in B . C . a l s o  smaI I - b u s i n e s s  attendant,  a  background.  Overwhelmingly,  contrast,  Reverend,  a  (Turnbull,  working-class  By  Minto  becomes  Towards  and management  two p r o v i n c i a l  stenographer Directory,  of Canada.  socio-economic  machinists,  it  followed  from p l a y e r s  skI I I as 1908  example,  of  New club  no  less  executive  is  allegiance  to  the B . C . c l u b s and cultural  influence,  153  apparent far  In  the social  weaker  more  in the  open  to  lacrosse  developed  against  and  prevailing  5.6  was  in  Both  the  influenced  the amateur  executives  from  province.  In  of  less  by  an  ideal,  was  and p l a y e r s ,  right  the background  dominant  the  were  start  B.C.  of  lacrosse  emerging  Canadian  t h e amateur  ideal  and  values.  The D e c l i n e o f L a c r o s s e In Canada  During Canada never  World  were  restarted 1969;  Effectively,  account  for  violence Howell,  played  such  hockey  thrive.  the  schools  scholars  lacrosse.  killed  Others  junior  of  the  popular  stress  that  and i n t e r m e d i a t e and  some  colleges,  i t had never  and H o w e l l ,  was d r o p p e d  periphery.  survived  have Some appeal lacrosse levels.  from  competition.  cultural  and f o o t b a l l ,  Sports  t h e game  1969).  in  as  (Howell  lacrosse  sport  league  insufficient to  across  popularity  professional  1908  of  matches  the War, the  and  collapsed  shifted  the decline  in  at  because  league  After  support  After  lacrosse  to  halt.  lacrosse  1970).  sports  continued  a  The n a t i o n a l  and amateur  Olympics  Other  to  lacrosse  the national  enjoyed.  Jones,  the  War O n e ,  brought  regained  previously  base  West.  and  professionalism  organised  culture  elitism  and  have  attempted  to  argue  that  (Howell had  the and  a  narrow  Even  though  organisation  was n o t  154  consistent  or  evident  across  the country  (Wise  and  Fisher,  1974).  A third  explanation  d i lemma.  In d e v e l o p i n g  useful  draw  to  development many  a  of  hockey  organised  'established  out  and at  on t h e  amateur/professionaI  explanation, with  hockey  it  hockey.  mirrors  (Jones,  junior  1970).  violent  that  of  levels  the c o l l e g i a t e  Both  and  teams  were  widespread  1909,  when  the  Amateur  ideal,  the  National  perhaps  lacrosse  was  lacrosse  and  had  hockey  By 1904,  throughout  in  conflict  both  although level.  is  The h i s t o r i c a l  profess IonaI/amateur  comparably  intermediate  hockey  The  played  are  this  comparison  respects.  similarly  focuses  similar  was  more  professional  Canada  (Jones,  1975).  By the  amateur  Inter-Provincial close  professional  petition against  against  that  be  shall  the Union  formation  (Morrow, of  to  'until  unanimously  satisfactorily  game'  Hockey  connections,  professionals  Governors can  Amateur  Athletic Lacrosse League, were be  such decide  established j 1986,  t h e Amateur  Union  185).  Athletic  Union  both  granted  allowed time that  of  the  right  to  with  or  Board  of  amateurism  senior a year of  the  w h i c h had  play  strict  Within  and  the  to  as  in the  Union  reconfirmed  series  of  of  the  Canada,  new  1 55 amateur  trophies,  donated  for  represented  the Allen  hockey  growth  these  incentives,  professional of  provide sports  (first to  amateur  professional,  compromise  on  amateur  necessary  promoted  the  move,  top  to  conserve  teams  increased  and  unable the  of  of  to  of  as  players  I,  return  to  their  professional  ruling  (Howell  players  of  in  This  provided  This  and  sport.  as  ideas,  With  has  spectators.  play  the  the  rapidly  players  1969).  the  successfully  values  lacrosse  during  team,  1974).  hockey  the  restrict  the sport.  and resume  hockey  was  of  'best'  and  as w e l l  and H o w e l l ,  1986).  body  to  the  professional  returning  played  not  hockey  in dominant  clubs  forerunner  the Trustees  1893)  the  (Morrow,  executives  for players  War  i n 1910,  professional  competing,  World  Amateur  a  Despite  formed  i n 1917  participation  hockey  stimulate  1986).  They wanted  hockey  were Both  to  win (Cosentino,  a decline  in p o p u l a r i t y ,  After  to  in  for professional  growth  indicative  served  teams.  the part  sanction  (Morrow,  decision  presented  eligibility or  incentives  this  Cup  respectively.  formed  of  by t h e  Mann  entrepreneurs  League  acceptance  Cup  the  Hockey A s s o c i a t i o n  Hockey  aided  and  lacrosse  hockey  National  Popular undoubtedly  to  in these  the National  Stanley  and  attempts  amateur  Cup  were  because  Many  of  lacrosse  winter  and  lacrosse  in  movement  t h e summer.  became  apparent,  full-time  professional  addition,  businessmen  lacrosse to  be  clubs,  lucrative  ceased  to  1969).  It  now we I I  is  establ ished  1925  note  those  As a  that  amateur  switched  to  1974).  In  professional t h e game  result,  level  areas  Amateur  competitions  reintroduce  revive  these  the  modifications  transformed.  falling  and  ceased lacrosse  became  (Jones,  1970;  amateur  lacrosse  that  were  Columbia  a  Cox, is  strongly  (Howell  In s c h o o l s  in the  history in  further organised In o r d e r  interest 1930s,  of  Lacrosse  and  and attempts  modern  were  in the  game  lacrosse'  this and  to c a p i t a l i s e  to  1969).  continued  to  was d e v e l o p e d .  constituted format.  the contention sport,  were  made  and H o w e l l ,  'box  techniques  Rules  (Howell  lacrosse,  support  A s s o c i a t i o n was  'natIonaI'sport.  reorganised  efforts,  change  an  the  lacrosse  Finally,  albeit  to  the Canadian  revised,  another  once  in t h e west  British  to  In  1968).  especially  reformed  wane.  in  sponsored  national  focussed  players  and F i s h e r ,  support  on t h e  the  1969).  In  Despite  had  their  interesting  professional, Howe I I,  who  (Wise  (Vellathottam,  activity  the dominance of  disillusioned  hockey  removed  be p l a y e d  localised  Once  that  continues  yet These  lacrosse, to  be  on t h e p o p u l a r i t y o f  157  hockey,  lacrosse  during style  the of  became play  moved  summer  play  (Wise  Association  accepted  as  1974).  The d e c i s i o n  Canada.  the  Field  England  to  and  these  by c l o s e  and H o w e l l ,  Lacrosse  and o c c u p i e d  and F i s h e r ,  was a d a p t e d  characterised  (Howell  Indoors  official  lacrosse,  the United  bodily  a  to  however, States  again,  have  an  (Weyand  box  lacrosse  and  to  and  faster  Canadian  isolated  continues  the  Lacrosse  the  (Vellathottam  lacrosse  arenas  and even  1931,  motion  box  Once  contact In  game  left  1974).  new c o n d i t i o n s .  1969).  passed  ice-rink  Jones,  sport  in  be p l a y e d  in  Roberts,1965).  However, "Despite a l l the e f f o r t s to maintain enthusiasm for Canada's National Game, by the 1940's Interest in l a c r o s s e t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o u n t r y was barely lukewarm - except on the west coast" (Howell and H o w e l l , 1969, 312). Accordingly, appeal  and  spotlight  5.7  continues  hockey  professional  has  to  have  assumed  baseball  only  regional  the  sporting  and f o o t b a l l  fill  the  roles.  Summary  By of  professional  while  supporting  lacrosse  the  gate  values  twentieth  receipts, was  the  becoming  century, declining  clearly  cultural  influence  c a n be  colonial  ties  well  nationalism.  as  with  as  The acceptance  Influence  apparent.  linked the of  the growing  to  of  importance  Public  T h i s waning  the e f f e c t s  dominant  of  weakening  a  Canadian  emergence  of  new  and  Ideas  School  values  was  coupled  with  Towards  the  s o c I a I Iy  gradual  turn  Infusion  lacrosse  gain'  acceptance  for  dominant  Games  century,  led to  cultural  century,  organised  as  of  clubs  lacrosse  no  well  the  sport,  as the  was the  the  was  players.  longer  of  the  remained  gradual  active first  less First and  previously  apparent, World  revival by  values  where  of the  amateur  dominant  the  new and  a  the  dominant  professional  lacrosse  however, never  experienced. became  of  of  War  lacrosse  effectively  evidence  decades  B.C.,  of  widespread  campaigning  of  matrix  acceptance  While  The  few  In  social  apparent,  remained.  amateurism.  it  in  preservation  declined had  range  professionalism.  during  After  It  resulted  ideals  influence  popularity  greater  professionalism  to  sport  a  and  strict  survived. the  of  cultural  organisations,  return  the  fields,  'pecuniary  Olympic  of  d e m o c r a t I s a t I on  excI us Ive.  The onto  a  a  From  interest  regained a  localised  in the  nationally activity.  159  Brilliant Exhibition* of Can&aa'a National Game at Brockton Point ' *  « >  »«vw«  «n*uer eno*  wnai  i \ m ^ m r ^ : t i f f i n  aroand the terminal Vancouver* ^ t r a j r a r l c a ^ ' J f a r f l ^ t d Bro6f9j»eor«ra^ ahot thobalt went too MgU> Clinch She Championship, hnt ' McGregor got h M S m Snffeni frefeak -* V ;  Koyat City Hen Gain the " Defeating* their Opponents  :  i  wiia Buooimg wat tne weafr pOm* 01 ^ Vanconver hornet MeK^oa** fln#juaju 1  to the flag* wto lirfetMtad Mackenzie'  Cimpbeirand Ketebttin again and agafr sent Ibo ball ont*„of tongerMTbo^ptoJ  Fonr to .Two.  now b e c n n e o o m e W t t a V d ^ W ^ The latere«t In!^Xanada^, r»aiiboal, throwing being t b w ^ o r d a S f b ^ ^ i ^ game—fche grandest ofthem all—Ja fatty had to W ^ t o p p ^ y i b W *^ as great In the Pacific' rrovinco a») !rt owing to B f a l V cbcet <s Quebec and (intarioV The gatherintwiC Spain's ebonWer while Jbofb men wer* rtmntog at J o I t f > p j e e d J g , * y i a ^ l r ^ Brockton Point on Saturday, to.wUnees, pretty limp tor a while, bo* on raining the declslVe struggle of the aoaeon/ .to^ toeeif the je.bottwi ,teawti"demongtjl!lt€^ icoettion. I ;  4  r  5.1  Canada's National Game  Newspapers constantly C a n a d a ' s N a t i o n a l Game  ( F r o m The British  refer  Columbian,  to  lacrosse  September  as  5 1 8 9 2 , 1)  CHAMPIONSHIP  Lacrosse Match „. i .... rf'V.^t.rfj i> !  Victoria YS. Westminster •AT  QUEEN'S  P A R K !  ——on-  Saturday, July 15. H A L L  FACE!) A T 3 O'CLOCK  H II A I d * .  Qentral AdrolaaloD, 2S c*nt» Uullt* (rw> t o dJlyUHa  G r a n d hi»od.  5.2  Advertisement  L a c r o s s e was one the press during  ( F r o m The  British  f o r a Lacrosse Match  o f t h e few s p o r t s this period.  Columbian,  July  advertised  14  1893,  4)  Q T E A M K H Y 0 8 E M I T 8 w i l l leave New West* O lalnater for V i c t o r i a M a t n r d a y , Aogr> 4 t b » o » 8 a.m.; a r r i v i n g i n V i c t o r i a i n time to see Lacrosto M a t c h . ' , . \ •'^'•\y"'^M. :  Saturday m o r n i n g , A t i g . U b , to Sunday; A n g . &th«^eult«r to-Vancouver e**a*»rl»T:8teainer (Ouurmer, o r 1ST Yoeemlto dtrect, a t l i p . m . i arr i v i n g at:Svw \? catminstcr early M o n d a y m o n i ' djlySOtS  5.3  ;:, ' •„  Advertisement  . •-  for  a  Manager. :  Lacrosse  Special transport fans could attend  arrangements matches.  (From  Columbian,  The  British  were  July  30  Excursion made  1894,  so  that  4)  NEW WESTMINSTER WINS THE CUP  The F o N o A n B u  b a n d i sp l a y i n g s o m e w h e r e , b u tn o t i n M o n t r e a l . r t h e S h a m r o c k s m e t W e s t m i n s t e r a n d t h e y g o t an w t h e c u p i s c o m i n g W e s t w a r d to s t a y f o r m a n y years, d t h e S h a m s a n d a l l t h e i r b a c k e r s a r e s h e d d i n g bitter tears t i n t h i s o l d t o w n t h e r e ' s l a u g h t e r , t h e r e ' s happiness, the fun, F o r o u r b o y s h a v e g o t t h e t i n w a r e , a n d t h e i r b a c k e r s have the mon.  5.4  New W e s t m i n s t e r  The c a r t o o n taking place (From  The  Wins  shows b e t t i n g i n 1908.  British  Columbian,  the Minto C u p  on t h e  July  games  28  1908,  sti I I  1)  163  CHAPTER  6  CONCLUSIONS  6.1  Lacrosse  The  history  'cultural  of  currents This  formulation  is  the  the  case  6.1.1  study  of  and  base/superstructure  abstract  of  the  argued  the that  controlling  in  all  the  with  change  illustrating the  key  and  of and  in  the  Williams'  components  hegemony,  between  of  through  the  cultural  crucial  Rather  on  political  not  be  limits'  and  activity  to  distinct  as  'iron  and  reactively,  are and  base  and  of  society  addition, is  laws'  he  subject  relations.  seen  the  cultural  layers In  of  there  the  'superstructure'. or  than  that  political,  interrelated  forces  should of  the  components  are  suggested  discussion  Similarly, to  the  materialism'.  Williams  material  'setting  economic  'determination'  his  'base'  'determination' as  and  connections  superstructure. connect  social, of  focus  Pressures  'cultural  economic  to  perspective  categories,  indissoluble  the  process  'determination'  W i l l iams'  formulation  through  lacrosse.  Constraints  From  the  devoted  theory,  base/superstructure,  examined  h i g h l i g h t s the  underlying  section of  Materialism'  lacrosse  materialism'  cultural game.  and 'Cultural  to  This but  rather  through  the  164  'exerting agency human  of  Williams action  economic  the  well  and  again  associated class  image,  into  interrelated  form  ritual.  human  product  of  historical  or  In  and  economic  direct  game,  by  the  legacy. their  some  The  yet  the  and  the  according  groups  to  the  stage  to  alter  organisers Public  the of  School  an  Native in  a In  traditional lacrosse  the the  of  by  changing  both  retained  disintegrating  change:  pressure  of  cultures,  Despite  pressures  British  some  of  cultural  another  preservation  with  infusion  survive  exerted  Native  social  group  pressures.  to  as  organised  Each  and  need  but  and  characterised  constraints by  defined  base,  contrasting  brought  was  Among m o s t  The c o l o n i a l  constrained  particular  a  circumstances.  even  the  British,  lacrosse  transformed  economic  professionalism.  of  were  colonial  environment  lacrosse.  lacrosse  the  lacrosse  resistance  In  cultural  to  constrained  of  and  by  tied  process  political  of  a  imported  with  economic  social  as  an  players,  changing  and  By a d d i n g  abstract  traditional  cultural  was  form  a  British  lacrosse  adapted  of  changes  of  towards  transformation  of  result  of  organised  movement  forms  1977).  'determination'  cultures,  Imposition  was  working  the  the  Once adopted  lacrosse  the  not  Native  the  system.  its  emphasises  transformation  as  (Williams,  relations.  Among by  pressures'  was  economic economic,  function  and  traditional lacrosse moral  were values  165 and the  the  appeal  form  of  retribution  this  0 Iymp i c  i deaI.  organisational  Williams  tradition  or  analysis  tradition  of  is  resistance. preservation  of  lacrosse.  Imposition  the  tradition  powerful  tool  example,  the  British  values the  of  the  for  focus  it  as  aspect  of  of  in and  of  the  promoting  the  British  both  was  and  a  and  opposition  to  and  provided  beliefs.  as  to a  target  a For  suit  form  rather  traditional  imposed. key  contrast,  changed  context,  a of  culture  was  meant  By  legitimised  social  were  of  and  functions  values.  rituals  that  domination  tradition  British  was  example).  contention  a means  religion),  play'  gambling  of  through  for  the  lacrosse game  negotiated  forms  Native  of the  is  cultural  dominant  Native  'fair  turn  (schools,  presented  eroding  the of  such  dom i n a t i o n .  original  language  (in  the  cultures,  dominant  perceptions,  recreation, pivotal  the  of  means  Native  Indirectly  the  hegemony  supports  powerful For  regulation  function  institutions  lacrosse  a  the  pressures  Hegemony  suggested,  formal  exerted  After  assumed  for  but  control,  mavericks.  pressure  Negotiation As  This  professionalism,  against  century,  6.1.2  of  than  of a  British  Significantly, of  cultural  1 66  Other mentions  constitutive  are  church.  the  to  rituals.  beliefs other  This  far  removed the  of  By  are  elements  of  or  power  Culturally  as  century past, the  of  Canada.  continued  nineteenth  process  dominant,  well daily The to  more  access  Native be  century.  ceremonies  and  and  In  Finally,  from  values  and  of  to  it  is  the  dominant  the  turn  culture through  of to  these  Incorporation  and  process.  and  social, the  the  political  case  is  study,  or the  distinctive.  permeated  cultural  emergent  lacrosse,  although  the  On  the  experiences  the  lacrosse  ones.  of  It  element  cultures,  active  to  Canadian  In  politically,  dissolution  conversion  residual  apparent.  practices  the  influencing  cultural as  the  towards  hegemonic  actively  become  British  range  the  and  to  influence  the  schools,  Native  history.  differential  dominant  whole  in  the  taught  emerging  the  out  culture  Inequalities economic  that  and  removed  too,  Williams'  schools  religious  institutions  the  that  The  traditional  lacrosse  Identifying  added  Native  as of  lacrosse.  Schools,  formal  acted  such  effectively  from  shape  media  resistance  many  enabled  and  hegemony  effect  greatly  diminishing  on  century  sets  the  of  process  values  influence  meaning  realm.  hand,  British  hand,  undercut  of  institutions  Christianity  religious  the  one  original  Christianity  the  formal  On t h e  conversion of  the  elements  in  into  nineteenth  formed process  emerging  the  in  the  during  culture  was  167 represented became This  by  the  evident  in Canada  dissection  examination  new v a l u e s ,  of  of  towards  cultural  the  motivations.  contact,  advance  unequal  exchange.  changed  according  survive. democratised constant  class  to  Canadian  for  The  and  Interacted  social  in  an  to  amateur  organisations  effectively  campaigned  undercut  professionalism  in  by  adapted  and  order  to  the  emerging came  into  ideals.  stage,  residual  culture  culture,  of  Aided  the  dominant  the  Ideal.  of  in  this  consent  the  amateur  at  with  process  School  gain  example,  actively  a  Public  Canadian  For  century,  to  lacrosse  culture,  control. form  detailed  lay  in  excI us I v e n e s s  emerging  attempt  a  European/Native  century,  element,  British  the  century.  groups  culture  within  which  the  Native cultures  British  dominant  and  dominant  cultures  culture  of  allows  led  dominant  the  turn  early  nineteenth  with  the  protection  residual  practices  between  From  the  and  elements  capitalism  the  conflict  Motivation  of  The  During  the  interaction  differential the  meanings  the  the  lacrosse.  for  popular  Olympic growing  at  constantly  for  hegemonic  particularly  the  turn  consent  movement, general  Native  these  in  of  the  for  the  actions  consensus  for  168 In  sum,  Williams  'determination' Yet, do  with  not  the  take  6.2  have  addition the  predetermined hegeomic  to  allows some  of  form of  outcomes  control  on  the  cultural  human a g e n c y  and  experience,  effect  abstract  but  through  rather  Materialism'  Williams'  theory  of  and  framework  It  so  main  effectively  overcomes  modernisation provides  a  and  valuable  second,  or  process  of  Sport  offers  the  of  geography  reasons.  and  laws'  materialism'  First,  problems encountered  theme,  these  'constraints'.  Geography of  for  and  process.  'Iron  interrelated  'cultural  interpretive two  an  the  powerful  for  categories,  'pressures'  'Cultural  does  base/superstructure  'cultural  interpretation  of  sport.  the  in the  use  a  theory of  the  materialism'  the  concept  of  hegemony.  6.2.1  Lacrosse Although  the  be  complex  seen  theme.  of  was  the  The  theme  does  and not  interaction role  in terms To do  organised  nineteenth  urbanisation  modernisation  involved.  'Modernisation'  lacrosse  second-half  tremendous  the  and  so  of  of  century,  provide a  lacrosse  would  full  the  a  defined a  In  advance,  cultural  of the  explanation  different  the  during  period  among N a t i v e c u l t u r e s  as  mean  regulated  technological  between  'sport'  and  of  groups cannot  modernisation  imposition  and  a  169 redefinition incorrect  of  to  of  alien  the  this  examination value and  and  as  to  the  well  as  the  to  because  view  Importance  of  cultural  bias  but  in  terms  to  other  model  'traditional'  and as  materialism'  relation  these  game  'Cultural  game  as  meaning the  the  be  cultures  religious  denies  'traditional'  dichotomised  abstracts  sport  political  and  from  the  economic  materialism',  by  transition  lacrosse  of  organised  existence For  of  Native  would  not  only  allows of  cultural  its  an own  processes  forms.  The  an  original  culture.  It  'unregulated'  Moreover,  problem  of  and  the  form.  among  'developing'  in N a t i v e  overcomes  lacrosse  game.  'evolutionary' lacrosse  historical  'irrational'  concepts  role  social  analyse  'unorganised', are  a  of  contrast,  In  is  illustration  an  years  of  form  varying  'modernisation' maintained organised  their field  its  The  of  of of  the  theory  of  also  traditional in  or  Thunder  Influence  lacrosse,  the  early  on form  the to the  discontinuities. lacrosse Ritual  in  Despite as  Cayuga  ritual.  focus  highlights  continuity.  cultural  'cultural  traditional  original  Cayuga  'modern' cultural,  of  detailed  original theory  cultural  lacrosse  The a  and  shifting  continuities  preservation  rites  of  allows  from  sport.  the  the  context  factors.  historical  example,  of  religious Ontario, over  300  as  the  well have  The  twentieth  actively  decline  century  of  Canada  170  is  an  has  example  survived  Both  these  within and  of  a  even  In issues  cultural  elsewhere,  In  indicate  the  particular  context.  Williams'  emphasises  addition, of  race,  these  class,  of  century,  for  stigma  class  well  of  the  emphasises In  of  Isolated  in  Application  of  although crucial  Influences  of are  analyse  sport  acknowledges  the  is  sensitive The  the  the  automatic during  the  double-edged  the  derogatory  in  ethnic  to  the  press,  distinctions.  provides  a  critical  a  move  process.  the  role of  way  to  of  the  sporting  materialism'  and  advances  in  cultural  the  city  and  activities. that  technology  were  of  approaches  Futhermore, development  beyond  Illustrates  'modernisation'  significant. and  to  reported  deliberate  a  of  different  urbanisation  States.  professionals  as  development  on  United  Similarly,  club,  'cultural  influences  the  highlights  race.  of  as  urbanisation  implications  between  as  as  Williams offers  the  lacrosse  ethnicity.  materialism'  lacrosse  explanation  urbanisation  example,  existence  geographers  and  players  Shamrocks  'cultural  perspective  For  Irish  the  short,  as  field  theory  materialism'  gender  Native  need  Yet  complexities.  'cultural  nineteenth  of  E n g l a n d and  examples  classification  image  discontinuity.  of  sport, wIthIn  the these  drawing  links  'modern'  sport  171  tends  to  restrict  (such  as  technological  case  study  analysis  to  specific  advances  illustrates  that  or  determining  population  despite  the  u r b a n - i n d u s t r i a I background,  lacrosse  popularity  during  few d e c a d e s  century.  This  for  further  6.2.2  of  challenges class  of  Olds,  a  to  declined  look  the  idea  where  of at  In  the  of  an  national twentieth  other  influences  society  closed  Unlike  'mass'  society  an a n a l y s i s can  people  how t h e  1985).  importantly,  dominant  disadvantaged hegemonic (Lears,  been  and  processes  1985).  through  to  Involve  disturb  Hegemony  also  and  of  ruling-  an  becomes  human  active  agency,  l i m i t e d by a  the  following  inequalities  domination  the  line  in  order  of  and  (Lears, between  flexible  themselves  the existing  this  (Ley and  challenged  hegemony  introduces  as  Thus,  highlights  maintained  can  and a r e  process  of  below'  for  constraints.  subordinates  groups  society  the  materialism'  theorists,  allows  within  realistically  has  Most  act  and p o l i t i c a l  and shows  of  use of  system  b u b b l e up f r o m  whI Ie WI I I I a m s '  hegemony  'cultural  static,  that  economic  in  a dynamic  a  allows  Yet,  acknowledges of  of  'hegemony  1988).  presents  Hegemony  subordination  the  need  also  hegemony.  hegemony  Gramsci, in  theory  domination.  process  set  indicates  advantages  The  L a c r o s s e and Hegemony  concept  he  first  growth).  explanation.  Wi I I I a m s '  type  the  factors  where  countercontrol  the p o s s i b i l i t y  o f  172 rule  through  however,  consent  is  not  acquiescence agency  of  can  through  social  This idea  of  a  in  than  false  from other  Rather,  below. words,  study  of  the  century,  lacrosse  executives  and  of  Canada  below.  adhered  to  the  Interpreted  such  New  existing  ideal. as  the  dominant  character  builder.  Ideas  sport  favour  In  lacrosse  resulted  hockey  for  the  that  'cultural of  dominance  of  the  turn  both  of  the  the  east  values  that  many  consent  semI-professionaI  a  Lacrosse  p e r i o d of  School  values  challenged  idea  of  dominant  promotion of  of  decline indicates  of  lacrosse  that  this  for  Club  and  as  a  as  a  the  means  struggle consent  Olympic  not  to  prevailing  gaining  and was  Ism  sport  the  the  over  resistance  lacrosse  culture  the  resulted  The p r o f e s s i o n a I / a m a t e u r  the  of  that  hegemonic  the  of  in  cultural  Montreal  players  in the  through  subsequent  comprom i s e .  passive  illustrates  struggle  of  Public  livelihood.  amateurism  professional  idea  the  values  present  These  a  the  Club,  British  earning  Yet,  struggle  The y e a r s  of  for  a  Shamrocks,  in  and  working-class  as  Westminster  of  the  lacrosse  class  The p r o f e s s IonaI/amateur  clubs  the  acknowledges  and o r g a n i s e r s  players.  amateur  it  Around  with  the  the  of  contrasted  be  or  consent,  W i l l lams'  refutes  history  from  can  This  control.  hegemony  west  force.  consciousness  duped mass.  come  materialism',  rather  ideal.  rise  of  consent  but  173  This  concept  emphasises  that  an  part  active  being  passive  cultural being  the of  forms,  spatial their  like  constituted.  complexity  the  existence  Cosgrove provide  6.2.3  and  direct of  for  organisers.  The  symbolically  values. maintained source.  British strong Through  formation.  this  Far  historical  also  forces,  As  'cultural  through  suggested  materialism'  works  on  and  highlights  landscapes,  activities.  is  from  constituting  sense  to  in g e o g r a p h i c a l  sport  Is  the  of  them  of  to  by  could  culture.  hardy,  the  was  sport.  the  study  and  sports  was  history of  subsequent from  lacrosse,  the  a  themes  Canadian by  diffusion  influences of  for  geographical  image  to  Williams'  activities.  The  geographical  cultural  reference  promoted  northern  colonialism  materialism' First,  highlight  sporting  example,  the  'cultural  threefold.  terms  to  through  highlights  forms  to_Geography  related  nationalism,  particularly,  cultural  actively  In  (1987),  enabling  indirectly  of  of  attached  contribution  broadens  geographers,  are  cultural  stimulus  geography  theory  reflections  meaning  Contribution  geographers  historical  Hegemony,  of of  for  structure  sport,  Jackson  fresh  The  also  hegemony,  spatial  the  the  of  lacrosse caricatured  of  lacrosse ideas  and  immigration traditional slow  divorce  from  traditional  Canadian  culture,  Second, the  of  heritage.  a  Montreal.  and  The  circumstances,  the  Montreal  organisation  of  Finally,  within  of  lacrosse  can  the  to  Public  acceptance  the  for  professionalism  could  lacrosse  geography  the  continued explained  values  as  of  the  sport.  on  key  the  Columbia  of  other  the  lens  deficiencies the  the  century  of  of  this  and  pattern British  time-lapse  of  dominant  room  for  The  popularity the  of  lacrosse  dec I i n i n g  ensured  of  theory  variations  diffusion  allowed  mix In  the  location  existence by  a  economic  which  Rather,  twentieth  the  professionalism. In B r i t i s h  In  to  century  the  through  we I I a s  which  and  in  out.  fills  early  tied  the  behind spatial  centred  west  a  cultural  nineteenth  acted  adequately  and  was  'place'  be  firmly  circumstances.  the  of  example,  be  School  set  explanation  The  stronghold sport  the  activity  Columbia.  late  of  'process'  For  lacrosse  stratification,  unique  view  towards  sport  economic  a  materialism'  patterns.  places  location  lacrosse  the  movement  geographical  'cultural  on  of  presented  the  the  social,  landscape:  social  presented  focusses  materialism'  particular  place  and  apparent.  The o r g a n i s a t i o n  particular  cultures  values  becomes  'cultural  context  words,  British  a  general  longevity  of of  the  sport  In  the  Limits  and  area  long  after  Its  decline  elsewhere  In  Canada.  6.2.4  Although critical the  Significance  'cultural  analysis  theory  of  is  not  identification  of  cultures about  is  not  be  mistaken  incorporated  can  are  be  Into  the  to the  given  and  avoid  existence  creating  not  which  culture. which  of  boundaries  in  also by  which  of  the  practical  been  incorporated  because  It  and  should  already  been  definitions the  they  because  but  the  residual  that have  have  impositions clear  of  warning  Establishing  only  categories  but  emergent  Williams'  argues  elements  value  and  Williams defines and  fresh,  Specifically,  difficult  dominant  the  a  applIcatlon  residual  oppositional  of  the  problems.  those  subjective  the  history,  oppositional  for  allows  dominant,  problematic,  of  Without  the  as  IndIstI netiveness danger  without  incorporation.  culture  elements  lacrosse  particularly  partial  emergent  materialism'  the of  the  researcher. is  difficult  application  of  theory.  Yet,  it  is  Williams'  theory  examining  detail.  covered  in  this  this  very  indistinetiveness  invaluable Considering study,  with  for the the  providing extensive Inherent  that a  makes,  means  of  time-period problem  of  176 generalisation, been  clearly  the  complexities  highlighted  Significantly,  through  Williams'  theory  the  way  in w h i c h c u l t u r a l  and  how  they  formulation shows and  that  and people  a  the  complex  to  social  constraints  Moreover, is  relate  do of  the  lacrosse 'cultural  provides  meanings  are  overall  production.  shape  their  existing  theory  of  social that  have  materialism'.  means  to  explore  implanted  In  society  processes In  lives  emphasises  a  history  of  addition,  but  within  economic  the  hegemonic  political,  Williams  the  and  class  limits  pressures.  Interlocking  of  the  conclusion  of  a  Interpretive  situation  social  and  economic  this  study  forces.  In  sum,  'cultural for  the  materialism' geography  failings  in  of  presentation  sport  firmly  in  cultural  and  'cultural  materialism'  'process'  economic  within  powerful  sport.  Furthermore,  invaluable  of  is  geographical  theory.  places  primary  the  It  addresses  sports  research  Williams' of the  the  context  heritages.  geography  and  theory  concept  adequately  many  modernisation  specific  fulfills of  theoretical  hegemony  Most  sport.  the  that  framework  provides  of  of  Is  an which  social,  importantly, deficiencies  NOTES  1.  A d e l m a n ( 1 9 8 6 , 6) d e f i n e s t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s premodern and modern ' i d e a l ' s p o r t i n g types:  Premodern  Modern  Sport  of  Sport  Organisationeither nonex i s t e n t or at best i n f o r m a l and s p o r a d i c ; c o n t e s t s a r e a r r a n g e d by i n d i v i d u a l s d i r e c t l y or indirectly (e.g., tavern owners, bettors) involved  Organisationformal; I n s t i t u t i o n a I Iy d i f f e r e n t i a t e d at the local, regional, and national levels.  Rulessimple, unwritten, and b a s e d on local customs and traditions; v a r i a t i o n s e x i s t from one l o c a l e to another.  Ru lesf o r m a I, standardised, and written; r a t i o n a l l y and p r a g m a t i c a l l y worked out and l e g i t i m a t e d by organisational means.  Compe1111  on  -  I o c a I Iy  meaningful only; loose distinction between p l a y i n g and spectating.  Role  Differentiation  -  Competition national and i n t e r n a t i o n a I , s u p e r i m p o s e d on local contests; chance to establish national and i n t e r n a t i onaI reputat i ons.  Role  Different  I at Ion  low among participants; loose d i s t i n c t i o n between p l a y i n g and spectating.  high; emergence of spec ia I Ists (professionals) and strict distinctions between p l a y i n g and spectatIng.  Public  Public  Information  IImited,  local  and  oral.  Information  -  -  r e p o r t e d on a regular basis In local newspapers, a s we I I a s national sports Journals; appearance of specialised magazines, guidebooks, etc.  178  and Records  Statistics  -  Stat  IstIcs  and Records  -  kept and p u b l i s h e d on a regular basis; considered important measures of achievement; r e c o r d s s a n c t i o n e d by national associations.  nonex i s t e n t .  2.  The terms ' l a c r o s s e ' and 'game', although inappropriate when d i s c u s s i n g the r i t u a l in Native cultures, have been used t o a v o i d c o n f u s i o n .  3.  T r i b a l s o c i e t y generally consisted of recognised tribal divisions. T h i s , however was r a r e l y a p o l i t i c a l unit. Bands or smaller groups of kindred families that claimed a d e f i n i t e hunting ground and acted i n war worked more as a political unit (Underhill, 1953). Inter-tribal challenges were Issued well before a l a c r o s s e game (sometimes 3-4 months p r i o r ) which left time f o r the pre-game preparations. Salter (1971) notes that i n t r a - t r l b a l games l a c k e d t h e aggressiveness of inter-tribal games.  4.  This i I lustration was r e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n o f t h e American Anthropological Association from American Anthropologist, 2 (3), 1890. Not for further reproductI on. Few women were i n v o l v e d in p l a y i n g l a c r o s s e d u r i n g the nineteenth century. Team games were generally considered to be ' u n f e m i n I n e ' , ' u n l a d y l i k e ' and even unhealthy. F o r t h e m o s t p a r t , women p l a y e d t h e r o l e o f passive participants u s u a l l y as spectators (Redmond, 1979).  6.  Useful reference to the social composition of nineteenth century M o n t r e a l c a n b e f o u n d In t h e s e r i e s Shared Spaces, Department of Geography, McGi I I U n i v e r s i t y (see H e r t z o g , 1985; Lewis, 1985; Hanna, 1986).  7.  A number of clubs century Montreal: 1807 1829 1840 1840 1842 1856  -  MontreaI MontreaI Montreal Montreal MontreaI MontreaI  were  first  C u r I i ng C l u b Fox Hunt C l u b Raquets Club Snow-shoe Club 0 Iymp i c C l u b Lacrosse Club  started  in  nineteenth  179  1859 1868 1873 1873 1876 1878 1880 1887  -  Montreal Montreal Montreal Montreal MontreaI Montreal Tobbogga AquatIcs  (Redmond,  Skat ing Club FootbaII CIub Go I f C l u b P e d e s t r ian C l u b Swimming C l u b B i e y e Ie C l u b Club PoIo C l u b  1979).  This f i g u r e included both (Hertzog, 1985).  manual  and non-manual  workers  9.  M e t c a l f e (1976b) s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e e v i d e n c e o f v i o l e n c e or rough p l a y In l a c r o s s e was related to different value ideals. The gentleman amateurs wanted t o see gentlemanly conduct on t h e field while other teams, s u c h as t h e S h a m r o c k s , were more i n t e r e s t e d In w i n n i n g . M e t c a l f e d i s t i n g u i s h e s t h e two v a l u e s y s t e m s a s 'sport' (amateur) and ' a t h l e t i c s ' (modern) ( M e t c a l f e , 1976b).  10.  The M l n t o 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1914 1919  -  C a p i t a l s , Ottawa, Ontario Shamrocks, M o n t r e a l , Quebec Shamrocks, M o n t r e a l , Quebec Shamrocks, M o n t r e a l , Quebec Shamrocks, M o n t r e a l , Quebec C a p i t a l s , Ottawa, Ontario Shamrocks, M o n t r e a l , Quebec New W e s t m i n s t e r , B r i t i s h Columbia New W e s t m i n s t e r , B r i t i s h Columbia New W e s t m i n s t e r , B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia New W e s t m i n s t e r , B r i t i s h Columbia New W e s t m i n s t e r , B r i t i s h Columbia New W e s t m i n s t e r , B r i t i s h Columbia 1918 No c o m p e t i t i o n 1934 T h e c u p r e m a i n e d w i t h t h e New W e s t m i n s t e r C l u b e x c e p t f o r 1920 when V a n c o u v e r won  (Canadian  11.  Cup w i n n e r s :  Lacrosse  Hall  of  Fame,  1967).  Few n i n e t e e n t h century B r i t i s h Columbian lacrosse club records exist today. Unlike clubs in the e a s t , this material has been l o s t over time. By far the most valuable source are the local newspapers. Minutes of club meetings, accounts of matches a s - w e l l as general l a c r o s s e g o s s i p were recorded regularly.  180  BIBLIOGRAPHY Adams, R. and Rooney, J., 1984: Condo examination of emerging golf landscapes North American Culture, 1, 65-75. Adelman, M . , Rise of Illinois  1986: Modern Press,  A Sporting Athletics, Urbana and  Canyon: An in America,  Time: New York City and 1820-1870, University Chicago.  A l t h u s s e r , L . , 1971: Lenin and Phi losophy and Other M o n t h l y R e v i e w P r e s s , New Y o r k a n d L o n d o n .  the of  Essays,  Amateur Sport, 1973: Dr B e e r s ' m a r v e l l o u s invigorating twofisted muscle building guaranteed all-Canadian Invention: Lacrosse, June, 21-22. Anderson, P., 1980: Verso, London. 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