UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The effect of mood context on implicit remembering Ryan, Lee 1989

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THE EFFECT OF MOOD CONTEXT ON I M P L I C I T REMEMBERING By LEE RYAN B.Mus., The U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o , 1979 B . S c , The U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o , 1988 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES ( C l i n i c a l P s y c h o l o g y ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA O c t o b e r 1989 c o p y r i g h t L e e R y a n , 1989 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2/88) i i A b s t r a c t Two e x p e r i m e n t s were c o n d u c t e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e w h e t h e r mood d e p e n d e n t r e m e m b e r i n g o c c u r s i n s i t u a t i o n s where r e m e m b e r i n g i s u n i n t e n t i o n a l , o r i m p l i c i t . E x p e r i m e n t a l l y i n d u c e d moods ( h a p p y and s a d ) were u s e d t o c r e a t e a d i s t i n c t i v e c o n t e x t d u r i n g t h e s t u d y and t e s t s e s s i o n s . I n E x p e r i m e n t 1, p e r f o r m a n c e on two i m p l i c i t t a s k s , p i c t u r e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and c a t e g o r y p r o d u c t i o n , was e x a m i n e d when mood c o n t e x t was s i m i l a r and d i s s i m i l a r f r o m s t u d y t o t e s t . E x p e r i m e n t 2 u s e d a m o d i f i e d v e r s i o n o f p i c t u r e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , and c o n t r a s t e d an e x p l i c i t t a s k ( f r e e r e c a l l ) w i t h an i m p l i c i t t a s k (word s t e m c o m p l e t i o n ) . The r e s u l t s a r e b r i e f l y d i s c u s s e d w i t h i n a f r a m e w o r k o f t r a n s f e r a p p r o p r i a t e p r o c e s s i n g . i i i T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s A b s t r a c t page i i T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s page i i i L i s t o f T a b l e s page i v L i s t o f F i g u r e s page v I n t r o d u c t i o n page 1 E x p e r i m e n t 1 page 11 E x p e r i m e n t 2 page 31 F o o t n o t e s page 56 R e f e r e n c e s page 57 i v L i s t o f T a b l e s T a b l e 1: R e s u l t s o f E x p e r i m e n t 1 page 26 T a b l e 2: Memory r a t i n g r e s u l t s f r o m E x p e r i m e n t 2 page 44 T a b l e 3: R e s u l t s o f E x p e r i m e n t 2 page 46 V L i s t o f F i g u r e s F i g u r e 1: Mood r a t i n g s c a l e page 14 F i g u r e 2: P l e a s u r e and a r o u s a l r a t i n g s ( E x p e r i m e n t 1) page 22 F i g u r e 3: Memory r a t i n g s c a l e page 36 F i g u r e 4: P l e a s u r e and a r o u s a l r a t i n g s ( E x p e r i m e n t 2) page 41 1 The e f f e c t o f mood c o n t e x t on i m p l i c i t r e m e m b e r i n g I n r e c e n t y e a r s t h e r e has been a g r o w i n g i n t e r e s t i n t h e i n f l u e n c e o f a f f e c t i v e s t a t e s s u c h a s s a d n e s s , e l a t i o n , o r a n g e r on memory and c o g n i t i o n . I n t h i s r e g a r d , a f f e c t o r mood h a s b e e n most commonly v i e w e d as an i n t e r n a l c o n t e x t t h a t , b y v i r t u e o f i t s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h s p e c i f i c e x p e r i e n c e s , c a n i n f l u e n c e r e m e m b e r i n g . Two b a s i c f i n d i n g s h a v e emerged f r o m e x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d i e s : mood c o n g r u e n c e and mood d e p e n d e n c e ( f o r r e v i e w s , s e e B l a n e y , 1986; Bower, 1 9 8 1 ) . Mood c o n g r u e n c e r e f e r s t o t h e f i n d i n g t h a t c e r t a i n m a t e r i a l s , h a v i n g b e e n p r e v i o u s l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a s p e c i f i c a f f e c t , a r e more l i k e l y t o be l e a r n e d o r remembered i n a s i m i l a r mood. Mood d e p e n d e n c e r e f e r s t o t h e f i n d i n g t h a t what one i s e x p o s e d t o i n a c e r t a i n mood - r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e a f f e c t i v e v a l e n c e o f t h e m a t e r i a l - w i l l be remembered b e s t when t e s t e d i n t h e same mood. The p r e s e n t p a p e r i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h mood d e p e n d e n t r e m e m b e r i n g . I n t h e l i t e r a t u r e , mood d e p e n d e n c e e f f e c t s a r e i n c o n s i s t e n t and e p h e m e r a l , m a k i n g some r e s e a r c h e r s q u e s t i o n t h e t h e o r e t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e , and i n d e e d t h e e x i s t e n c e , o f t h e phenomenon (Bower & M a y e r , 1 9 8 9 ) . Bower ( 1 9 8 1 ) , f o r i n s t a n c e , d e s c r i b e d a s t u d y t h a t u s e d p o s t h y p n o t i c s u g g e s t i o n s t o i n d u c e h a p p y and s a d moods i n h i g h l y s u g g e s t i b l e s u b j e c t s . E v e r y p a r t i c i p a n t l e a r n e d one l i s t o f 2 w o r d s w h i l e h a p p y and a s e c o n d l i s t w h i l e s a d . L a t e r , t h e s u b j e c t s w e re t e s t e d f o r r e c a l l o f b o t h l i s t s i n e i t h e r a h a p p y o r a s a d mood. R e c a l l a v e r a g e d 7 0 % when l e a r n i n g and t e s t i n g moods m a t c h e d and 46% when t h e y m i s m a t c h e d , s i g n a l l i n g a s t r o n g mood d e p e n d e n t e f f e c t . N e v e r t h e l e s s , a d i r e c t r e p l i c a t i o n a t t e m p t b y Bower and Mayer ( 1 9 8 5 ) f a i l e d t o f i n d t h i s p a t t e r n o f r e s u l t s . C o n f l i c t i n g o u t c o m e s — some p o s i t i v e ( e . g . , E i c h & M e t c a l f e , 1989; M e c k l e n b r a u k e r & H a g e r , 1 9 8 4 ) , some n e g a t i v e ( e . g . , J o h n s o n & K l i n g e r , 1988; W e t z l e r , 1985) — h a v e a l s o b e e n o b t a i n e d i n s t u d i e s i n w h i c h moods w e r e m o d i f i e d b y n o n h y p n o t i c means. The i n c o n s i s t e n t r e s u l t s may be p a r t l y due t o t h e p r o c e d u r e s u s e d t o i n d u c e moods. The most r o b u s t mood d e p e n d e n t e f f e c t s r e p o r t e d were o b t a i n e d i n s t u d i e s i n v o l v i n g p a t i e n t s w i t h e i t h e r m a n i c d e p r e s s i v e i l l n e s s o r m u l t i p l e p e r s o n a l i t y d i s o r d e r — c o n d i t i o n s c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y p r o f o u n d a l t e r a t i o n s i n mood ( E i c h , 1 9 8 9 ) . J u s t a s d r u g -d e p e n d e n t e f f e c t s i n a n i m a l s a r e c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e amount o f d r u g a d m i n i s t e r e d ( O v e r t o n , 1 9 8 4 ) , mood d e p e n d e n t e f f e c t s i n humans m i g h t be c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e i n t e n s i t y o f moods i n d u c e d . I n s t u d i e s where s u b j e c t s a r e f r o m n o n - c l i n i c a l p o p u l a t i o n s , i t i s q u e s t i o n a b l e a s t o how r e l i a b l e t h e mood i n d u c t i o n p r o c e d u r e s a r e i n e s t a b l i s h i n g i n t e n s e and d i s t i n c t i v e moods. T h e s e a n a l o g o r " i n d u c t i o n " s t u d i e s make up t h e b u l k o f t h e mood d e p e n d e n c e l i t e r a t u r e . 3 The most w i d e l y u s e d t e c h n i q u e i s t h e V e l t e n I n d u c t i o n P r o c e d u r e ( V e l t e n , 1 9 6 8 ) . S u b j e c t s a r e a s k e d t o r e a d and i n t e r n a l i z e ( o r e x p e r i e n c e ) t h e mood s u g g e s t e d by numerous s e l f - r e f e r e n t d e p r e s s i o n o r e l a t i o n s t a t e m e n t s . The s t a t e m e n t s c o n c e r n s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n and s u g g e s t i o n s o f s o m a t i c s t a t e s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f a g i v e n mood. The V e l t e n p r o c e d u r e i n d u c e s moods t h a t a r e m i l d and s h o r t - l i v e d i n 50 t o 7 0 % o f s u b j e c t s , and r e s u l t s i n no mood c h a n g e f o r t h e r e m a i n d e r ( C l a r k , 1 9 8 3 ) . The p e r c e n t a g e o f u n c h a n g e d s u b j e c t s may be e v e n l a r g e r , s i n c e t h e method o f a s s e s s i n g mood a f t e r i n d u c t i o n i s o f t e n t h e D e p r e s s i o n A d j e c t i v e C h e c k l i s t ( L u b i n , 1 9 6 7 ) . T h i s i n s t r u m e n t i n c l u d e s many o f t h e same w o r d s , o r synonyms o f t h e w o r d s c o n t a i n e d i n t h e s t a t e m e n t s on t h e V e l t e n c a r d s , and t h e r e i s p r o b a b l y a h i g h demand f o r s u b j e c t s t o c h e c k o f f t h e s e i t e m s . O t h e r t e c h n i q u e s have t r i e d t o c r e a t e moods t h r o u g h more n a t u r a l means. The p r o c e d u r e s u s u a l l y l a s t o n l y a f e w m i n u t e s . F o r e x a m p l e , E l l i s ( 1 9 8 3 ) had s u b j e c t s w a t c h a 3 m i n u t e v i d e o t a p e d segment o f e i t h e r a f u n n y o r s a d m o v i e . I s e n , S h a l k e r , C l a r k , and K a r p ( 1 9 7 8 ) had s u b j e c t s p l a y a v i d e o game t h a t was r i g g e d s o t h a t some s u b j e c t s won, w h i l e o t h e r s l o s t . N e i t h e r o f t h e s t u d i e s u s e d a n y i n d e p e n d e n t mood m e a s u r e s a f t e r i n d u c t i o n and t h e r e f o r e m e r e l y assume t h a t t h e p r o c e d u r e s were s u c c e s s f u l i n i n d u c i n g t h e d e s i r e d mood. 4 The f a v o r e d mood i n d u c t i o n t e c h n i q u e o f Bower and h i s c o l l e g u e s ( B o w e r , M o n t e i r o , & G i l l i g a n , 1978; Bower & M a y e r , 1985; Bower & M a y e r , 1989) i s p o s t h y p n o t i c s u g g e s t i o n . W h i l e t h i s t e c h n i q u e may p r o d u c e s t r o n g e r , more s t a b l e moods, Spanos ( 1 9 8 6 ) has a r g u e d t h a t p o s t h y p n o t i c s u g g e s t i o n i s m e r e l y a r e s p o n s e t o s o c i a l demand, s o t h a t s u b j e c t s a r e a c t i n g "as i f " t h e y a r e e x p e r i e n c i n g a c e r t a i n mood, r e g a r d l e s s o f w h e t h e r o r n o t i t i s t r u l y p r e s e n t . T h i s i s s u e a s i d e , t h e s e s t u d i e s u s e a v e r y s e l e c t g r o u p o f h i g h l y s u g g e s t i b l e s u b j e c t s and c o n f o u n d two s t a t e s — mood and h y p n o s i s — and t h u s s u f f e r f r o m a p r o b l e m o f g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y . A p r o m i s i n g a l t e r n a t i v e t o t h e i n d u c t i o n p r o c e d u r e s s o f a r d i s c u s s e d i s m u s i c c o u p l e d w i t h p e r s o n a l m emories ( C l a r k , 1 9 8 3 ; E i c h & M e t c a l f e , 1 9 8 9 ) . S u b j e c t s l i s t e n t o s e l e c t i o n s o f m u s i c c h o s e n t o be s u g g e s t i v e o f a s p e c i f i c mood and a r e a s k e d t o d w e l l on mood c o n g r u e n t e v e n t s f r o m t h e i r p a s t . C l a r k ( 1 9 8 3) f o u n d t h a t t h i s p r o c e d u r e i n d u c e s moods t h a t a r e more i n t e n s e and l o n g e r l a s t i n g t h a n t h e V e l t e n f o r o v e r 9 0 % o f s u b j e c t s . E i c h & M e t c a l f e ( 1 9 8 9 ) u s e d t h i s p r o c e d u r e , and a l l o w e d s u b j e c t s t o t a k e a s l o n g a s t h e y n e e d e d t o i n d u c e t h e mood. T h e y m e a s u r e d mood p e r i o d i c a l l y u n t i l a p r e s e t c r i t e r i o n had b e e n r e a c h e d t o e n s u r e t h a t s u b j e c t s were i n d e e d e x p e r i e n c i n g an i n t e n s e mood b e f o r e b e g i n n i n g t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l t a s k s . E x t e n s i v e 5 p r o c e d u r e s l i k e m u s i c i n d u c t i o n m i g h t be more l i k e l y t o p r o d u c e d i s t i n c t i v e mood s t a t e s . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t E i c h and M e t c a l f e ' s ( 1 9 8 9 ) s t u d y was s u c c e s s f u l i n p r o d u c i n g mood d e p e n d e n t r e m e m b e r i n g . Whether t h i s p r o c e d u r e w i l l i n c r e a s e t h e c o n s i s t e n c y o f t h e e f f e c t i s a m a t t e r f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . A s e c o n d f a c t o r t h a t a p p e a r s t o be i m p o r t a n t i n t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f mood d e p e n d e n t r e m e m b e r i n g i s t h e n a t u r e o f t h e t a s k demands, b o t h a t s t u d y and a t t e s t . M o s t s t u d i e s ( e . g . , Bower, M o n t e i r o , & G i l l i g a n , 1978; Bower & M a y e r , 1985; L e i g h t & E l l i s , 1984; W e t z l e r , 1985) h a v e i n d u c e d a mood and t h e n s i m p l y a s k e d t h e s u b j e c t t o m e m o r i z e a l i s t o f w o r d s . T h e s e s t u d i e s r e l y on c o n t i g u i t y a l o n e b e t w e e n t h e m a t e r i a l and mood t o p r o d u c e t h e h y p o t h e s i z e d e f f e c t , t h e a s s u m p t i o n b e i n g t h a t mood d e p e n d e n c e i s t h e r e s u l t o f p r o c e s s e s t h a t a r e a u t o m a t i c and u n m o t i v a t e d . T h u s , mood d e p e n d e n c e a r i s e s f r o m t h e i n h e r e n t s t r u c t u r e and p r o c e s s e s o f t h e memory s y s t e m , r a t h e r t h a n f r o m p r o c e s s e s i n i t i a t e d and c a r r i e d o u t b y t h e s u b j e c t ( B o w e r , 1 9 8 1 ; B l a n e y , 1986; C l a r k & I s e n , 1982; H a s h e r & Z a c k s , 1 9 7 9 ) . 1 However, t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t h a t mood d e p e n d e n t e f f e c t s a r e m a n i f e s t u n d e r c o n d i t i o n s t h a t e m p h a s i z e p r o c e s s e s u n d e r t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e s u b j e c t , o r a s C r a i k ( 1 9 8 3 ) h a s r e f e r r e d t o them, " s e l f -i n i t i a t e d p r o c e s s e s " w h i c h i n c l u d e v a r i o u s e n c o d i n g and r e t r i e v a l s t r a t e g i e s . By t h i s a c c o u n t , t a s k s t h a t a r e 6 s e n s i t i v e t o mood e f f e c t s a r e t h o s e t h a t e n c o u r a g e mood-d i s t i n c t i v e e n c o d i n g d u r i n g s t u d y a n d , s i m i l a r l y , mood-d i s t i n c t i v e r e t r i e v a l d u r i n g t e s t ( E i c h , 1989; E i c h & M e t c a l f e , 1 9 8 9 ) . E v i d e n c e comes f r o m s t u d i e s t h a t h a v e shown mood d e p e n d e n c e t o be more p r o n o u n c e d when s u b j e c t s h a v e t o r e l y on i n t e r n a l r e s o u r c e s , r a t h e r t h a n on e x t e r n a l a i d s , t o g e n e r a t e b o t h t h e t a r g e t e v e n t s a t e n c o d i n g and t h e c u e s r e q u i r e d f o r t h e i r r e t r i e v a l . R e l i a n c e on i n t e r n a l r e s o u r c e s may make t h e i n t e r n a l s t a t e ( h e r e , a d i s t i n c t i v e mood) more s a l i e n t t o t h e t a s k a t h a n d , and i n c r e a s e t h e p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t i t w i l l be i n c l u d e d i n t h e e n c o d i n g and r e t r i e v a l p r o c e s s ( E i c h , 1 980; O v e r t o n , 1 9 8 4 ) . As an e x a m p l e , E i c h and M e t c a l f e ( 1 9 8 9) a s k e d s u b j e c t s e i t h e r t o r e a d a t a r g e t i t e m t h a t was p a i r e d w i t h a c a t e g o r y name and a r e l a t e d e x e m p l a r ( e . g . , m i l k s h a k e f l a v o r s : c h o c o l a t e -V A N I L L A ) , o r t o g e n e r a t e t h e i t e m when p r i m e d w i t h i t s i n i t i a l l e t t e r i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e c a t e g o r y name and e x e m p l a r c u e ( e . g . , m i l k s h a k e f l a v o r s : c h o c o l a t e - V ) . They f o u n d t h a t , r e l a t i v e t o s u b j e c t s whose s t u d y and t e s t moods m a t c h e d , t h o s e who e x p e r i e n c e d a s h i f t i n mood s t a t e r e c a l l e d 3 2 % f e w e r g e n e r a t e d t a r g e t s b u t o n l y 1 8 % f e w e r r e a d t a r g e t s . F u r t h e r , t h i s d i f f e r e n c e i n p e r f o r m a n c e o c c u r r e d o n l y i n f r e e r e c a l l , and n o t I n r e c o g n i t i o n , where e x t e r n a l , o b s e r v a b l e c u e s a r e a v a i l a b l e d u r i n g t e s t i n g . 7 A n o t h e r s t u d y t h a t f o u n d s t r o n g mood d e p e n d e n t r e m e m b e r i n g a l s o u s e d a s t u d y and t e s t t a s k , f r e e a s s o c i a t i o n , t h a t r e l i e s h e a v i l y on i n t e r n a l l y g e n e r a t e d t a r g e t s and t e s t i t e m s . W e i n g a r t n e r , M i l l e r , and Murphy ( 1 9 7 7 ) had u n i p o l a r m a n i c p a t i e n t s g e n e r a t e a s e r i e s o f a s s o c i a t i o n s t o a s i n g l e word c u e on one d a y , and t h e n t o t h e same c u e f o u r d a y s l a t e r . The p r o c e d u r e was r e p e a t e d w i t h a new c u e on numerous o c c a s i o n s o v e r s e v e r a l m o n t h s , s o t h a t n a t u r a l f l u c t u a t i o n s i n mood c o u l d be a s s e s s e d b e t w e e n t h e f o u r d a y i n t e r v a l s . The f r e e a s s o c i a t i o n t a s k p r o v e d s e n s i t i v e t o c h a n g e s i n mood; when mood was s i m i l a r b e t w e e n t h e two s e s s i o n s , an a v e r a g e o f 3 5 % o f t h e o r i g i n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s were r e p r o d u c e d , w h i l e when moods d i f f e r e d f r o m s t u d y t o t e s t o n l y 1 8% o f t h e o r i g i n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s were p r o d u c e d . F u r t h e r , t h e d e g r e e o f o v e r l a p o f a s s o c i a t i v e r e s p o n s e s n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e d e g r e e o f mood c h a n g e b e t w e e n s e s s i o n s . I t i s , h o w e v e r , u n c l e a r i n t h i s s t u d y w h e t h e r s u b j e c t s were a s k e d e a c h t i m e t o r e p r o d u c e t h e i r p r e v i o u s s e t o f a s s o c i a t i o n s o r t o s i m p l y p r o d u c e w h a t e v e r s e t o f a s s o c i a t i o n s came t o m i n d . T h i s r a i s e s a n o t h e r i s s u e t h a t may be i m p o r t a n t i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g mood d e p e n d e n c e , b u t t h a t t o d a t e has n o t been r e s e a r c h e d . Mood and memory s t u d i e s h a v e t y p i c a l l y e m p h a s i z e d s i t u a t i o n s where s u b j e c t s a r e i n t e n t i o n a l l y t r y i n g t o r e c o n s t r u c t d e t a i l s o f a p r i o r e p i s o d e . 8 P e r f o r m a n c e on t a s k s s u c h as r e c a l l and r e c o g n i t i o n h a s b e e n r e f e r r e d t o as e x p l i c i t r e m e m b e r i n g . I n r e c e n t y e a r s , h o w e v e r , much a t t e n t i o n i n memory r e s e a r c h h a s f o c u s e d on s i t u a t i o n s w h ere r e m e m b e r i n g i s u n i n t e n t i o n a l , t h a t i s , where p e r f o r m a n c e on a t a s k ( s u c h a s word i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o r wo r d f r a g m e n t c o m p l e t i o n ) i s e n h a n c e d , o r " p r i m e d " , b y p r i o r e x p o s u r e t o i n f o r m a t i o n , b u t d o e s n o t r e q u i r e t h a t t h e s u b j e c t c o n s c i o u s l y r e c o l l e c t a n y s p e c i f i c s t u d y e p i s o d e . P e r f o r m a n c e on t h e s e t a s k s h a s b e e n r e f e r r e d t o a s i m p l i c i t  remember i n g ( s e e G r a f & S c h a c t e r , 1 9 8 5 ) . R e c e n t r e s e a r c h h a s p r o v i d e d a w e a l t h o f e v i d e n c e t h a t e x p l i c i t r e m e m b e r i n g d i f f e r s i n f u n d a m e n t a l r e s p e c t s f r o m i m p l i c i t r e m e m b e r i n g ( f o r r e v i e w s e e R i c h a r d s o n - K l a v e h n & B j o r k , 1988; S c h a c t e r , 1 9 8 7 ) . T h i s t h e s i s f o c u s e s on t h e q u e s t i o n o f w h e t h e r mood d e p e n d e n c e o c c u r s i n s i t u a t i o n s where r e m e m b e r i n g i s u n i n t e n t i o n a l , o r i m p l i c i t . T h e r e a r e b o t h i n t u i t i v e and e m p i r i c a l r e a s o n s t o s u p p o s e t h a t mood e f f e c t s m i g h t , a t l e a s t i n some s i t u a t i o n s , be i m p l i c i t i n n a t u r e . S i n c e s i t u a t i o n a l c u e s ( s u c h as a p l a c e o r t h e p r e s e n c e o f an o b j e c t ) c a n t r i g g e r an e m o t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e , a s i n t h e c a s e o f p h o b i a s (Rachman, 1 9 7 8 ) , i t seems r e a s o n a b l e t o e x p e c t t h a t mood m i g h t , i n t u r n , a c t a s an u n i n t e n t i o n a l t r i g g e r f o r r e e x p e r i e n c i n g some p r i o r e v e n t . I n t h e r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e , mood h a s most o f t e n b e e n d i s c u s s e d i n t e r m s o f 9 i t s c o n t e x t u a l v a l u e , and i t s e f f e c t s h a v e b e e n l i k e n e d t o t h e p r e s e n c e o f a d r u g t h a t c r e a t e s a d i s t i n c t i v e i n t e r n a l c o n t e x t i n w h i c h l e a r n i n g and r e m e m b e r i n g o c c u r s ( O v e r t o n , 1 9 8 4 ) . I n d e e d , E i c h ( 1 9 8 9) has s u g g e s t e d t h a t d r u g s t a t e d e p e n d e n t r e m e m b e r i n g may be due i n p a r t t o t h e d i s t i n c t i v e mood c r e a t e d b y a s p e c i f i c d r u g . As s u c h , mood m i g h t a c t as an e f f e c t i v e c u e f o r i m p l i c i t r e m e m b e r i n g , s i n c e e m p i r i c a l work h a s shown i m p l i c i t r e m e m b e r i n g t o be e x t r e m e l y s e n s i t i v e t o c e r t a i n t y p e s o f c o n t e x t . F o r e x a m p l e , p e r f o r m a n c e on i m p l i c i t t a s k s i s g e n e r a l l y b e t t e r f o r i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t was s t u d i e d and t e s t e d i n t h e same s e n s o r y m o d a l i t y ( e . g . v i s u a l ) t h a n f o r i n f o r m a t i o n s t u d i e d and t e s t e d i n d i f f e r e n t s e n s o r y m o d a l i t i e s ( a u d i t o r y a t s t u d y and v i s u a l a t t e s t ; e . g . , D o n n e l l y , 1988; G r a f , S h i m amura, & S q u i r e , 1 9 8 5 ) . I n c o n t r a s t , e x p l i c i t t a s k s s u c h a s r e c a l l and r e c o g n i t i o n p e r f o r m a n c e t y p i c a l l y show m i n i m a l e f f e c t s due t o s i m i l a r i t y o f m o d a l i t y c o n t e x t a t s t u d y and t e s t . I m p l i c i t r e m e m b e r i n g i s s e n s i t i v e , a s w e l l , t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n t e x t . S m i t h and H e a t h ( i n p r e s s ) f o u n d t h a t p e r f o r m a n c e on a homophone s p e l l i n g t a s k ( a n i m p l i c i t t a s k ) was h i g h e r when s u b j e c t s were i n t h e same d i s t i n c t i v e room d u r i n g s t u d y and t e s t t h a n when s u b j e c t s were t e s t e d i n a d i f f e r e n t , u n f a m i l i a r room. A c h a n g e i n e n v i r o n m e n t d i d n o t , h o w e v e r , a f f e c t p e r f o r m a n c e on an e x p l i c i t t e s t o f r e c o n g i t i o n memory. To t h e e x t e n t t h a t a mood f o r m s a d i s t i n c t i v e 10 i n t e r n a l c o n t e x t f o r t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n i n a s i m i l a r manner t o m o d a l i t y o r e n v i r o n m e n t , i m p l i c i t t a s k s may be e x t r e m e l y s e n s i t i v e t o t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e same mood when r e m e m b e r i n g o c c u r s . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , i t c o u l d be a r g u e d t h a t mood d e p e n d e n c e i s s p e c i f i c t o e x p l i c i t r e m e m b e r i n g . R e s e a r c h h a s shown t h a t s e m a n t i c / e l a b o r a t i v e p r o c e s s i n g f a c i l i t a t e s e x p l i c i t , b u t n o t i m p l i c i t r e m e m b e r i n g ( G r a f & M a n d l e r , 1984; b u t s e e G r a f & S c h a c t e r , 1 9 8 5 ) . A d i s t i n c t i v e mood may be e n c o d e d as e l a b o r a t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e e p i s o d e i n w h i c h t a r g e t m a t e r i a l s a r e p r e s e n t e d . The same mood p r e s e n t a t a l a t e r t i m e may h e l p t o r e i n s t a t e e x p l i c i t memory f o r d e t a i l s o f t h e g e n e r a l e p i s o d e , w h i c h t h e n f u r n i s h e s f u r t h e r c u e s t o t h e s p e c i f i c t a r g e t m a t e r i a l s t h a t t h e s u b j e c t i s a s k e d t o remember. A d i f f e r e n t mood m i g h t make i t more d i f f i c u l t t o r e t r i e v e t h e e p i s o d e , t h e r e b y d e c r e a s i n g t h e r e c a l l o f t a r g e t i n f o r m a t i o n . I m p l i c i t r e m e m b e r i n g s h o u l d n o t be a f f e c t e d b y c h a n g e s i n mood c o n t e x t , h o w e v e r , s i n c e i m p l i c i t r e m e m b e r i n g d o e s n o t r e q u i r e r e i n s t a t e m e n t o f a p r i o r e p i s o d e . K i l h s t o m ( 1 9 8 0 ) made a s i m i l a r a r g u m e n t t o e x p l a i n t h e e f f e c t s o f p o s t h y p n o t i c a m n e s i a . The p o s t h y p n o t i c s u g g e s t i o n , l i k e t h e p r e s e n c e o f a d i f f e r e n t , d i s t i n c t i v e mood, c r e a t e s a b a r r i e r b e t w e e n c e r t a i n e p i s o d e s and c o n s c i o u s r e t r i e v a l m e c h a n i s m s . He showed t h a t p o s t h y p n o t i c 11 a m n e s i a b l o c k s a c c e s s t o e x p l i c i t r e m e m b e r i n g i n f r e e r e c a l l , b u t d o e s n o t d e c r e a s e t h e amount o f p r i m i n g on a word a s s o c i a t i o n t a s k — a t a s k t h a t i n v o l v e s i m p l i c i t r e m e m b e r i n g . T h u s , i t i s u n c l e a r w h e t h e r o r n o t mood d e p e n d e n c e w i l l o c c u r i n t a s k s t h a t r e q u i r e i m p l i c i t r e m e m b e r i n g . To i n v e s t i g a t e t h i s q u e s t i o n , two e x p e r i m e n t s were c a r r i e d o u t . I n E x p e r i m e n t 1, s u b j e c t s were t e s t e d w i t h s e v e r a l i m p l i c i t t a s k s t o a s s e s s w h e t h e r r e m e m b e r i n g i n t h e s e t a s k s i s mood d e p e n d e n t . I n E x p e r i m e n t 2, p e r f o r m a n c e on s e v e r a l i m p l i c i t t a s k s was c o n t r a s t e d w i t h an e x p l i c i t t a s k , t o s e e t o what e x t e n t t h e e f f e c t o f mood c o n t e x t was s i m i l a r f o r e x p l i c i t and i m p l i c i t r e m e m b e r i n g . E x p e r i m e n t 1 I n t h i s e x p e r i m e n t , s u b j e c t s were t e s t e d w i t h two i m p l i c i t t a s k s , c a t e g o r y p r o d u c t i o n and p i c t u r e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . B o t h s t u d y and t e s t t a s k s w e re d e s i g n e d t o e m p h a s i z e s e l f - i n i t i a t e d p r o c e s s e s t h r o u g h i n t e r n a l l y g e n e r a t e d r e s p o n s e s w i t h m i n i m a l r e l i a n c e on e x t e r n a l c u e s . B e c a u s e p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s s u g g e s t t h a t i n t e r f e r e n c e d e s i g n s may be more s e n s i t i v e t o t h e d e t e c t i o n o f mood d e p e n d e n t e f f e c t s ( B o w e r , M o n t e i r o & G i l l i g a n , 1978; B a r t l e t t & S a n t r o c k , 1 9 8 2 ; S c h a r e , L i s m a n & S p e a r , 1 9 8 4 ) , s u b j e c t s i n E x p e r i m e n t 1 were e x p o s e d t o m a t e r i a l s w h i l e i n two d i f f e r e n t moods ( h a p p y and s a d ) and were t e s t e d e i t h e r i n a 12 s a d o r h a p p y mood f o r a l l o f t h e m a t e r i a l s . T h u s , h a l f t h e m a t e r i a l had been s t u d i e d i n t h e same mood a s e x p e r i e n c e d d u r i n g t e s t , and h a l f had b e e n s t u d i e d i n a d i f f e r e n t mood as e x p e r i e n c e d d u r i n g t e s t . M e t h o d S u b j e c t s and d e s i g n . T h i r t y - s i x u n d e r g r a d u a t e s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e s t u d y f o r c o u r s e c r e d i t . T h e r e were 3 s e s s i o n s f o r e a c h i n d i v i d u a l o v e r 3 c o n s e c u t i v e d a y s , w i t h e a c h s e s s i o n l a s t i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y one h o u r . I n s e s s i o n 1, s u b j e c t s s t u d i e d a s e t o f m a t e r i a l s i n e i t h e r a h a p p y (H) o r s a d (S) mood. I n s e s s i o n 2, s u b j e c t s s t u d i e d a s e c o n d s e t o f m a t e r i a l s i n t h e o p p o s i t e mood t o t h e one t h e y e x p e r i e n c e d t h e p r e v i o u s d a y . D u r i n g s e s s i o n 3, h a l f t h e s u b j e c t s w e re t e s t e d i n S, h a l f i n H. O r d e r o f s t u d y mood was c o u n t e r b a l a n c e d a c r o s s t e s t moods, c r e a t i n g 4 s t u d y -s t u d y - t e s t g r o u p s : H-S-H, H-S-S, S-H-H, and S-H-S. M a t e r i a l s . A mood s c a l e was c o n s t r u c t e d i n o r d e r t o a s s e s s f l u c t u a t i o n s i n s u b j e c t s ' mood d u r i n g a s e s s i o n . The s c a l e , w h i c h i s r e p r o d u c e d i n F i g u r e 1, c o n s i s t e d o f two 20 cm l i n e s , w i t h t h e u p p e r l i n e m a rked " e x t r e m e l y u n p l e a s a n t " and " e x t r e m e l y p l e a s a n t " a t t h e end p o i n t s , and t h e l o w e r l i n e marked " e x t r e m e l y l o w a r o u s a l " and " e x t r e m e l y h i g h a r o u s a l " a t t h e end p o i n t s . The s c a l e was b a s e d on a m o d e l o f mood t h a t e m p h a s i z e s two b i p o l a r o r t h o g o n a l d i m e n s i o n s : p l e a s u r e - d i s p l e a s u r e and a r o u s a l - s l e e p i n e s s . M e a s urement d e v i c e s b u i l t on t h e s e two f a c t o r s h ave b e e n shown t o be p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l and s e n s i t i v e i n r e p e a t e d a s s e s s m e n t s mood ( R u s s e l l , W e i s s , & M e n d e l s o h n , 1 9 8 9 ) . Figure 1 Hood r a t i n g s c a l e given to s u b j e c t s throughout the sessions-! with the i n s t r u c t i o n to mark each l i n e s e p a r a t e l y , r e f l e c t i n g how they f e l t at the present moment. Each l i n e was ED cm i n l e n g t h * extremely n e u t r a l extremely unpleasant p l e a s a n t extremely low a r o u s a l n e u t r a l extremely high a r o u s a l 15 F o r t h e c a t e g o r y p r o d u c t i o n t a s k , 30 t a r g e t w o r d s were c h o s e n f r o m B a t t i g and Montague ( 1 9 7 1 ) c a t e g o r y p r o d u c t i o n n o r m s , e a c h t a r g e t t a k e n f r o m a s e p a r a t e c a t e g o r y . The wo r d s were c o n c r e t e nouns w i t h no o b v i o u s e m o t i o n a l c o n n o t a t i o n , and t h e s i x t h o r s e v e n t h most p r o b a b l e i t e m t o be g e n e r a t e d f r o m t h e c a t e g o r y . The words were r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d t o 3 l i s t s (10 w o r d s p e r l i s t ) t h a t were c o u n t e r b a l a n c e d a c r o s s t h e t h r e e s e s s i o n s . T h u s , e a c h l i s t was u s e d e q u a l l y o f t e n a s s t u d y i t e m s i n s e s s i o n 1, s t u d y i t e m s i n s e s s i o n 2, and a s n o n s t u d i e d i t e m s d u r i n g t h e c a t e g o r y p r o d u c t i o n t e s t t o a s s e s s p r o d u c t i o n b a s e r a t e s f o r t h o s e w o r d s . F o r t h e p i c t u r e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n t a s k , 21 T h e m a t i c A p p e r c e p t i o n T e s t (TAT) c a r d s ( M u r r a y , 1971) were a s s i g n e d t o 3 l i s t s (7 p i c t u r e s p e r l i s t ) . The 21 p i c t u r e s c h o s e n were t h o s e most o f t e n j u d g e d t o be a f f e c t i v e l y n e u t r a l b y 20 p i l o t s u b j e c t s who s o r t e d t h e o r i g i n a l 30 c a r d s i n t o 3 g r o u p s o f n e u t r a l , h a p p y and s a d p i c t u r e s . The t h r e e l i s t s w e r e u s e d e q u a l l y o f t e n as s t u d y i t e m s i n s e s s i o n 1, s t u d y i t e m s i n s e s s i o n 2, and a s n o n s t u d i e d i t e m s d u r i n g t h e p i c t u r e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n t e s t t o a s s e s s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n b a s e r a t e s f o r t h o s e i t e m s . Mood i n d u c t i o n p r o c e d u r e . The m u s i c and memory mood i n d u c t i o n p r o c e d u r e f o l l o w e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f e a c h s e s s i o n h a s b e e n u s e d i n p r e v i o u s mood s t u d i e s and h a s b e e n 16 shown t o p r o d u c e i n t e n s e and r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e moods ( C l a r k , 1 983; E i c h & M e t c a l f e , 1 9 8 9 ) . B e f o r e b e g i n n i n g t h e p r o c e d u r e , s u b j e c t s w e re a s k e d t o f i l l i n a mood s c a l e . F o r S i n d u c t i o n , s u b j e c t s s a t i n a r e c l i n i n g c h a i r , and were a s k e d t o t h i n k b a c k t o an e v e n t f r o m t h e i r p a s t t h a t was p a r t i c u l a r l y s a d , s u c h as t h e l o s s o f a p e r s o n a l f r i e n d o r r e l a t i v e , and t o t r y t o r e c r e a t e i n t h e i r m i n d a s much d e t a i l f r o m t h e e v e n t a s p o s s i b l e and t o r e e x p e r i e n c e t h e e m o t i o n t h e y f e l t a t t h e t i m e . D u r i n g H i n d u c t i o n , s u b j e c t s were a s k e d t o r e c a l l a p a r t i c u l a r l y p o s i t i v e e v e n t , s u c h a s a p e r s o n a l a c h i e v e m e n t , h o l i d a y , o r f a m i l y e v e n t , and t o r e c r e a t e a s much d e t a i l a s p o s s i b l e and t o r e e x p e r i e n c e t h e e m o t i o n t h e y f e l t a t t h e t i m e . T h e y were n o t a s k e d a t a n y p o i n t what t h e n a t u r e o f t h e e v e n t was t h a t t h e y were r e c a l l i n g . S u b j e c t s were l e f t a l o n e i n t h e room w i t h m u s i c p l a y i n g w h i l e t h e y r e c a l l e d t h e i r memory. M u s i c d u r i n g s a d i n d u c t i o n was e i t h e r A l b i n o n i ' s A d a g i o o r B a r b e r ' s A d a g i o  c o n C o r d e s ; d u r i n g h a p p y i n d u c t i o n t h e m u s i c was e i t h e r M o z a r t ' s E i n e k l e i n e N a c h t m u s i c o r V i v a l d i ' s F o u r S e a s o n s :  S p r i n g . Summer. I n t h e t e s t s e s s i o n , where s u b j e c t s had a l r e a d y e x p e r i e n c e d a g i v e n mood, t h e m u s i c s e l e c t i o n p l a y e d was a l w a y s t h e s e l e c t i o n t h e y had n o t h e a r d p r e v i o u s l y . T h i s e n s u r e d t h a t t h e m u s i c i t s e l f c o u l d n o t a c t a s a c u e t o r e i n s t a t e t h e p r i o r s t u d y e p i s o d e . 17 T h r o u g h o u t t h e i n d u c t i o n p r o c e d u r e , s u b j e c t s were g i v e n t h e mood s c a l e a t f i v e m i n u t e i n t e r v a l s , and a s k e d t o r a t e how t h e y w e re f e e l i n g a t t h e p r e s e n t moment. S i n c e t h e i n d u c t i o n method was p r i m a r i l y d e s i g n e d t o i n f l u e n c e t h e p l e a s u r e / d i s p l e a s u r e component o f mood, i n d u c t i o n c o n t i n u e d u n t i l s u b j e c t s ' p l e a s u r e r a t i n g was w i t h i n 4 cm o f t h e a p p r o p r i a t e e x t r e m e on t h e 20 cm l i n e ; t h e r e was no c r i t e r i o n f o r t h e a r o u s a l r a t i n g . Once t h e p l e a s u r e c r i t e r i o n was p a s s e d , t h e s e s s i o n p r o c e e d e d . S u b j e c t s c o m p l e t e d t h e mood s c a l e a f t e r e a c h t a s k d u r i n g t h e s e s s i o n s . I f a t a n y t i m e t h e i r p l e a s u r e r a t i n g moved 3 cm t o w a r d t h e n e u t r a l p o i n t , t h e y w e re g i v e n t i m e a l o n e t o r e i n d u c e t h e mood u s i n g t h e a b o v e p r o c e d u r e s . A t t h e end o f e a c h s e s s i o n , S s u b j e c t s were o f f e r e d r e f r e s h m e n t s and were e n g a g e d i n c o n v e r s a t i o n u n t i l t h e i r mood had r e t u r n e d t o n e u t r a l b e f o r e l e a v i n g t h e l a b . S t u d y s e s s i o n 1. A f t e r mood i n d u c t i o n , s u b j e c t s were t o l d t h a t t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y was t o a s s e s s mood f l u c t u a t i o n s c r e a t e d b y d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f c o g n i t i v e t a s k s . T h i s was t o c i r c u m v e n t e x p e r i m e n t a l demand f o r s u b j e c t s t o m a i n t a i n a n e x t r e m e mood, s o t h a t t h e y f e l t f r e e t o r e p o r t a t t e n t u a t i o n i n t h e i r mood d u r i n g t h e s e s s i o n i f i t o c c u r r e d . S u b j e c t s were n o t t o l d t h a t t h e i r memory f o r t h e m a t e r i a l s w o u l d be t e s t e d . 18 F i r s t , t a r g e t w o r d s f o r t h e c a t e g o r y p r o d u c t i o n t e s t w ere p r e s e n t e d i n a s t u d y t a s k t h a t e m p h a s i z e d a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l r e m e m b e r i n g . Words f r o m one o f t h e t h r e e 1 0 - i t e m l i s t s w ere p r e s e n t e d v e r b a l l y , i n random o r d e r , one a t a t i m e . S u b j e c t s were a s k e d t o r e l a t e d e t a i l s a b o u t a s p e c i f i c e v e n t i n t h e i r l i v e s t h a t t h e word b r o u g h t t o m i n d . One p r a c t i c e i t e m p r e c e d e d t h e l i s t w o r d s . S u b j e c t s ' r e s p o n s e s were t a p e r e c o r d e d . A f t e r c o m p l e t i n g a mood s c a l e and f u r t h e r mood i n d u c t i o n , i f n e c e s s a r y , one 7 - p i c t u r e s e t o f t h e TAT c a r d s was p r e s e n t e d . E a c h p i c t u r e was s e e n f o r 5 s e c o n d s , and t h e s u b j e c t was a s k e d t o c r e a t e a s c e n a r i o s u g g e s t e d b y t h e p i c t u r e . As w i t h t h e a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l s t u d y t a s k , s u b j e c t s ' r e s p o n s e s were t a p e r e c o r d e d . S t u d y s e s s i o n 2. The f o l l o w i n g d a y , s u b j e c t s were a s k e d t o i n d u c e t h e o p p o s i t e mood t h a t t h e y e x p e r i e n c e d i n s e s s i o n 1. Mood i n d u c t i o n and s t u d y p r o c e d u r e s were i d e n t i c a l t o s e s s i o n 1, e x c e p t t h a t a s e c o n d l i s t o f c a t e g o r y w o r d s and TAT c a r d s were p r e s e n t e d . T e s t s e s s i o n . A f t e r mood i n d u c t i o n o f e i t h e r H o r S, s u b j e c t s w e re t e s t e d f o r t h e m a t e r i a l s t h a t had b e e n s t u d i e d i n t h e two p r e v i o u s s e s s i o n s . The c a t e g o r y p r o d u c t i o n t a s k was e x p l a i n e d as a f r e e a s s o c i a t i o n t a s k . S u b j e c t s were g i v e n a c a t e g o r y name, and a s k e d t o g e n e r a t e t h e f i r s t s i x i t e m s b e l o n g i n g t o t h e c a t e g o r y t h a t came t o m i n d . A f t e r 19 one p r a c t i c e c a t e g o r y , 30 c a t e g o r i e s were p r e s e n t e d i n random o r d e r . T h e s e i n c l u d e d 20 c a t e g o r i e s c o n t a i n i n g a l l t h e t a r g e t s f r o m t h e s t u d y l i s t s i n s e s s i o n s 1 and 2, p l u s 10 c a t e g o r i e s c o n t a i n i n g t a r g e t s f r o m t h e t h i r d l i s t t h a t s u b j e c t s were n o t e x p o s e d t o d u r i n g t h e s t u d y s e s s i o n s . T h u s , e a c h s u b j e c t p r o v i d e d c a t e g o r y p r o d u c t i o n b a s e r a t e s f o r one o f t h e t h r e e 1 0 - i t e m l i s t s . The p i c t u r e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n t e s t f o l l o w e d c a t e g o r y p r o d u c t i o n . E a c h p i c t u r e was c o v e r e d w i t h 15 f i l t e r s made o f s u p e r - f i n e a r t i s t ' s t r a c i n g p a p e r , s o t h a t t h e p i c t u r e was n o t v i s i b l e . One o f t h e f i l t e r s was removed e v e r y 5 s e c o n d s , a l l o w i n g t h e f e a t u r e s o f t h e p i c t u r e t o s l o w l y become d i s c e r n a b l e . S u b j e c t s were t o l d t h a t t h e i r t a s k was t o i d e n t i f y and p o i n t o u t d e t a i l s o f t h e p i c t u r e a s s o o n a s p o s s i b l e . T h e y were e n c o u r a g e d t o g u e s s i f t h e y were u n s u r e . The number o f f i l t e r s r e m a i n i n g o v e r t h e p i c t u r e when i t was c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f i e d was r e c o r d e d b y t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r . The c r i t e r i a f o r c o r r e c t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n c l u d e d 3 o r 4 m a j o r f e a t u r e s t h a t had b e e n c o n s i s t e n t l y u s e d t o d e s c r i b e e a c h p i c t u r e b y 20 p i l o t s u b j e c t s p r i o r t o t h e s t u d y . E a c h s u b j e c t was t e s t e d on 21 p i c t u r e s , i n c l u d i n g t h e s t u d y s e t s f r o m s e s s i o n s 1 and 2, and t h e t h i r d s t u d y s e t t h a t s u b j e c t s had n o t s e e n p r e v i o u s l y . T h u s , e a c h s u b j e c t p r o v i d e d p i c t u r e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n b a s e r a t e s f o r one o f t h e t h r e e 7 - i t e m p i c t u r e s e t s . 20 A f t e r c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e t h r e e s e s s i o n s , t h e e x p e r i m e n t was e x p l a i n e d i n f u l l t o s u b j e c t s . T hey were a s k e d f o r f e e d b a c k on e x p e r i m e n t a l p r o c e d u r e s , and a n y q u e s t i o n s t h e y had were a n s w e r e d . R e s u l t s The c r i t i c a l d e p e n d e n t m e a s u r e s were ( 1) mood r a t i n g s a c r o s s e a c h s e s s i o n , (2) p r i m i n g i n t h e c a t e g o r y p r o d u c t i o n t a s k , a s i n d i c a t e d b y t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f s t u d i e d t a r g e t w o r d s p r o d u c e d a b o v e u n s t u d i e d t a r g e t w o r d s , and (3) p r i m i n g i n t h e p i c t u r e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n t a s k , as i n d i c a t e d b y t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n p e r f o r m a n c e f o r s t u d i e d and n o n s t u d i e d i t e m s . F o r t h e r e s u l t s o f c a t e g o r y p r o d u c t i o n and p i c t u r e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , e a c h s u b j e c t had two s e t s o f s c o r e s , one f o r t h e m a t e r i a l s t u d i e d d u r i n g s e s s i o n 1, and one f o r t h e m a t e r i a l s t u d i e d i n s e s s i o n 2. A n a l y s e s were c a r r i e d o u t on t h e f o u r c r i t i c a l s t u d y - t e s t mood c o n d i t i o n s (H-H, H-S, S-H, and S-S) f i r s t f o r t h e m a t e r i a l w i t h a o n e - d a y i n t e r v a l f r o m s t u d y t o t e s t ( m a t e r i a l f r o m s t u d y s e s s i o n 2 ) , and s e p a r a t e l y f o r t h e m a t e r i a l w i t h a t w o - d a y i n t e r v a l f r o m s t u d y t o t e s t ( m a t e r i a l f r o m s t u d y s e s s i o n 1 ) . The r e s u l t s f o r mood r a t i n g s , c a t e g o r y p r o d u c t i o n , and p i c t u r e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n a r e p r e s e n t e d s e p a r a t e l y . The a l p h a l e v e l f o r a l l s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s was s e t a t .05, u n l e s s o t h e r w i s e n o t e d . 21 Mood r a t i n g s . Mean p l e a s u r e and a r o u s a l r a t i n g s a r e d i s p l a y e d f o r e a c h s e s s i o n i n F i g u r e 2. A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f s e s s i o n s , p l e a s u r e and a r o u s a l r a t i n g s f o r a l l s u b j e c t s were s i m i l a r , a n d i t t o o k s u b j e c t s s i m i l a r amounts o f t i m e t o e s t a b l i s h a H mood (mean 19.26 m i n s ) and a S mood (mean 21.94 m i n s ) . S e p a r a t e ANOVAs (mood x s e s s i o n ) f o r b a s e r a t e p l e a s u r e r a t i n g s , b a s e r a t e a r o u s a l r a t i n g s , and f o r t i m e t o e s t a b l i s h moods c o n f i r m e d t h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s , w i t h no e f f e c t s a p p r o a c h i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e . Once moods were e s t a b l i s h e d , b o t h p l e a s u r e and a r o u s a l r a t i n g s d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t w e e n H and S b e f o r e and a f t e r e a c h t a s k and a c r o s s a l l t h r e e s e s s i o n s ; s m a l l e s t mean d i f f e r e n c e ( p l e a s u r e ) = 8.55, t ( 3 4 ) = 13.6; s m a l l e s t mean d i f f e r e n c e ( a r o u s a l ) = 4.58, t ( 3 4 ) = 3.8. 22 Figure 2 Pleasure and arousal ratings for happy and sad subjects (Experiment 1) . First Session (study) Pleasant/ High Arousal Neutral Unpleasant/ Low Arousal Autobiographical Memories  Pre Post Pre TAT Post Happy mood Sad mood Second Session (study) Pleasant/ High Arousal Neutral Unpleasant/ Low Arousal Autobiographical Memories  Pre Post Pre TAT Post Happy mood Sad mood 23 Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i s w h e t h e r moods, o n c e e s t a b l i s h e d , r e m a i n e d s t a b l e t h r o u g h o u t t h e s e s s i o n s . L o o k i n g a t F i g u r e 2, i t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t p l e a s u r e and a r o u s a l r a t i n g s f o r b o t h H and S t e n d e d t o move t o w a r d t h e n e u t r a l p o i n t a f t e r e a c h t a s k . S i n c e p l e a s u r e l e v e l s p r i o r t o b e g i n n i n g e a c h t a s k were e n s u r e d b e c a u s e o f a p r e s e t c r i t e r i o n , a n a l y s e s were c a r r i e d o u t on t h e d i f f e r e n c e s c o r e s b e t w e e n p r e and p o s t t a s k r a t i n g s o f b o t h p l e a s u r e and a r o u s a l t o p r o v i d e an i n d e x o f mood a t t e n u a t i o n . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e was c o n s i s t e n t l y more a t t e n t u a t i o n o f b o t h p l e a s u r e and a r o u s a l r a t i n g s f o r S t h a n f o r H. F o r b o t h S and H, t h e r e was more a t t e n u a t i o n o f p l e a s u r e r a t i n g s d u r i n g t h e a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l s t u d y t a s k i n S e s s i o n s 1 and 2 t h a n d u r i n g p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e TAT. T h e r e was no d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t a s k s i n t h e t e s t s e s s i o n . S e p a r a t e ANOVAs on p l e a s u r e and a r o u s a l r a t i n g s w i t h mood a s a b e t w e e n - g r o u p s f a c t o r , s e s s i o n and t a s k a s w i t h i n - g r o u p s f a c t o r s , c o n f i r m e d t h e s e r e s u l t s . The p l e a s u r e r a t i n g a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d a m a i n e f f e c t o f mood, F ( l , 3 4 ) = 18.87, MSe = 1 1 . 0 3 , and a m a i n e f f e c t o f t a s k , F ( l , 3 4 ) = 1 8 . 4 1 , MSe = 2.99. The i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n t a s k and s e s s i o n was a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t , F ( 2 , 6 8 ) = 4.16, MSe = 2.17. S i m p l e m a i n e f f e c t s showed a t a s k e f f e c t f o r S e s s i o n 1, F ( 2 , 6 8 ) = 11.16, a t a s k e f f e c t f o r S e s s i o n 2, F ( 2 , 6 8 ) = 10 . 0 2 , b u t no t a s k e f f e c t f o r S e s s i o n 3, F<1. 24 The ANOVA on a r o u s a l r a t i n g s i n d i c a t e d a m a i n e f f e c t o f mood, F ( l , 3 4 ) = 1 7 . 1 3 , MSe = 6.49. No o t h e r e f f e c t s a p p r o a c h e d s i g n i f i c a n c e . C a t e g o r y P r o d u c t i o n . E a c h s u b j e c t p r o v i d e d word p r o d u c t i o n b a s e r a t e s f o r one o f t h e t h r e e s t u d y l i s t s . T h u s , m e d i a n b a s e r a t e s f o r e a c h s t u d y l i s t w e r e o b t a i n e d f r o m 12 s u b j e c t s (6 t e s t e d i n H, 6 t e s t e d i n S ) . B e c a u s e o f 4 w o r d s w i t h 0 and 100% p r o d u c t i o n b a s e r a t e s i n l i s t s 2 and 3, t h e h i g h e s t and l o w e s t b a s e r a t e word f r o m e a c h l i s t was e x c l u d e d f r o m a n a l y s i s , c r e a t i n g l i s t s o f 8 w o r d s e a c h . W h i l e m e d i a n b a s e r a t e s b e t w e e n H and S d i d n o t d i f f e r , t < 1, m e d i a n b a s e r a t e s f o r l i s t s 1 and 3 d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y , t ( 2 3 ) = 3.0. B e c a u s e o f t h i s d i f f e r e n c e , p r i m i n g was d e t e r m i n e d b y s u b t r a c t i n g t h e a p p r o p r i a t e l i s t b a s e r a t e f r o m e a c h s u b j e c t ' s s c o r e . R e s u l t s on t h e c a t e g o r y p r o d u c t i o n t a s k a r e s u m m a r i z e d i n T a b l e l a . C o m b ined a c r o s s one and two d a y i n t e r v a l s , t h e r e was s i g n i f i c a n t p r i m i n g i n a l l s t u d y - t e s t c o n d i t i o n s , s m a l l e s t mean d i f f e r e n c e = 8.32%, £(17) = 2.16. F i r s t , t h e c r i t i c a l s t u d y - t e s t c o n d i t i o n s w i t h a o n e - d a y i n t e r v a l were a n a l y s e d . H a t s t u d y ( 1 3 . 9 4 % ) r e s u l t e d i n more p r i m i n g t h a n 5 a t s t u d y ( 4 . 8 8 % ) , w h i l e H a t t e s t ( 1 0 . 4 4 % ) was s i m i l a r t o S a t t e s t ( 8 . 3 8 % ) . An ANOVA w i t h s t u d y and t e s t moods a s b e t w e e n - g r o u p f a c t o r s c o n f i r m e d t h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s , w i t h a 25 m a i n e f f e c t o f s t u d y , F ( l , 3 2 ) = 3.79, MSe = 1.24, and no o t h e r e f f e c t s a p p r o a c h i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e . The c r i t i c a l s t u d y - t e s t c o n d i t i o n s w i t h a t w o - d a y i n t e r v a l showed a d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n o f r e s u l t s . O v e r a l l , t h e r e was more p r i m i n g w i t h a t w o - d a y i n t e r v a l ( 1 4 . 9 1 % ) t h a n w i t h a o n e - d a y i n t e r v a l ( 9 . 4 1 % ) . S t u d y mood had l i t t l e e f f e c t on t h e amount o f p r i m i n g (H, 15.94%; S, 13.88%) w h i l e S a t t e s t ( 2 0 . 1 3 ) e n h a n c e d p r i m i n g o v e r H a t t e s t ( 9 . 6 9 % ) . An ANOVA, h o w e v e r , showed o n l y a t e n d e n c y t o w a r d a m a i n e f f e c t o f t e s t , F ( l , 3 2 ) = 3.19, MSe = 1.96, p = .08. No o t h e r e f f e c t s a p p r o a c h e d s i g n i f i c a n c e . T a b l e 1 C a t e g o r y p r o d u c t i o n and p i c t u r e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n p e r f o r m a n c e f o r t h e c r i t i c a l s t u d y - t e s t mood c o n d i t i o n s ( E x p e r i m e n t 1) a) C a t e g o r y P r o d u c t i o n p e r f o r m a n c e : s t u d y - t e s t moods H-r one day i n t e r v a l two day i n t e r v a l c o m b i n e d : b) P i c t u r e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n p e r f o r m a n c e : s t u d y - t e s t moods H-H H-S S-H S-S one day i n t e r v a l : p r i m i n g 1D-EE b • IM l b . 5 b 1^-63 s - d . b-7b 11.M5 b-13 7-b3 two day i n t e r v a l : p r i m i n g 1 1 • m m.5 1E-5 b - E f l s - d . 7-b7 fi.ST 5.Mfl T.73 -H H--S S--H S-•s p r i m i n g ('/.) 13. • E5 m. b3 7. .b3 E • 13 s-d. *) •  b I E . • I E 13. .5 i a . .a p r i m i n g ('/.) ID. • 3fl E l . .5 1 • .• i a . 75 s • d • I D . I E . • 1 n . -E5 n . • 5 p r i m i n g ('/.) 11. • BE I f l • D7 i a . • 3E ID. Ma c o m b i n e d : p r i m i n g 11.Da 10.?E m.53 13-Db 27 P i c t u r e I d e n t i f i c a t i o n . E a c h s u b j e c t p r o v i d e d p i c t u r e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n b a s e r a t e s f o r one o f t h e t h r e e p i c t u r e s e t s . T h u s , t h e m e d i a n b a s e r a t e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n p e r f o r m a n c e f o r e a c h TAT c a r d was d e t e r m i n e d f r o m 12 s u b j e c t s (6 t e s t e d i n e a c h mood) who i d e n t i f i e d t h e p i c t u r e s w i t h o u t p r e v i o u s s t u d y e x p o s u r e . B e c a u s e o f t h e l a r g e v a r i a b i l i t y i n b a s e r a t e s , p r i m i n g was a s s e s s e d p e r p i c t u r e and t h e n summed f o r e a c h s u b j e c t a c r o s s t h e s e t o f 7 t a r g e t p i c t u r e s . The p i c t u r e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n r e s u l t s a r e s u m m a r i z e d i n T a b l e l b . E a c h s t u d y - t e s t c o n d i t i o n c o m b i n e d a c r o s s o n e -and t w o - d a y i n t e r v a l s r e s u l t e d i n s i g n i f i c a n t amounts o f p r i m i n g , s m a l l e s t mean d i f f e r e n c e = 1 0 . 7 2 , t ( 1 7 ) = 4.49. As i n t h e c a t e g o r y p r o d u c t i o n t a s k , t h e r e s u l t s f o r e a c h s t u d y -t e s t i n t e r v a l w e r e a n a l y s e d s e p a r a t e l y . W i t h a o n e - d a y i n t e r v a l , S a t s t u d y ( 1 8 . 1 9 ) showed more p r i m i n g t h a n H a t s t u d y ( 8 . 5 8 ) . W h i l e i t a p p e a r s t h a t same moods ( 1 5 . 0 3 ) r e s u l t e d i n more p r i m i n g t h a n when moods c h a n g e d f r o m s t u d y t o t e s t ( 1 1 . 7 5 ) , an ANOVA c o n f i r m e d o n l y a m a i n e f f e c t o f s t u d y , F ( l , 3 2 ) = 1 2 . 2 , MSe = 6 8 . 1 8 , w i t h no o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s . F o r t h e t w o - d a y i n t e r v a l r e s u l t s , t h e p a t t e r n i s r e v e r s e d ; d i f f e r e n t moods ( 1 3 . 5 ) r e s u l t e d i n s l i g h t l y h i g h e r p e r f o r m a n c e t h a n same moods ( 9 . 1 1 ) . The ANOVA s u g g e s t e d a t e n d e n c y t o w a r d a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n , p = .10, F ( l , 3 2 ) = 2.7, MSe = 6 4 . 3 1 , w i t h no o t h e r e f f e c t s a p p r o a c h i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e . 28 D i s c u s s i o n The mood i n d u c t i o n p r o c e d u r e was s u c c e s s f u l i n e s t a b l i s h i n g moods t h a t were p e r c e i v e d a s d i s t i n c t i v e and i n t e n s e a c c o r d i n g t o s u b j e c t r a t i n g s , a l t h o u g h p l e a s u r e and a r o u s a l t e n d e d t o a t t e n u a t e d u r i n g e a c h t a s k . B o t h p l e a s u r e and a r o u s a l r a t i n g s a p p e a r t o be l e s s s t a b l e when s u b j e c t s w e r e e x p e r i e n c i n g a s a d mood t h a n a h a p p y mood. Some o f t h i s i n s t a b i l i t y p r o b a b l y r e f l e c t s r e g r e s s i o n t o t h e mean s i n c e p l e a s u r e r a t i n g s were s e l e c t e d o r i g i n a l l y f o r t h e i r e x t r e m i t y . T h i s c a n n o t be t h e o n l y s o u r c e o f t h e a t t e n t u a t i o n , h o w e v e r , s i n c e r e g r e s s i o n a l o n e w o u l d l i k e l y h a v e b e e n e q u a l f o r h a p p y and s a d moods. The g r e a t e r a t t e n u a t i o n f o r s a d n e s s o v e r h a p p i n e s s i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e h y p o t h e s i s o f p o s i t i v e - a f f e c t m a i n t e n a n c e and n e g a t i v e -a f f e c t r e p a i r ( I s e n , 1 9 8 4 , 1 9 8 5 ) . T h i s v i e w , g r o u n d e d i n t h e s o c i a l - l e a r n i n g t h e o r y p r i n c i p l e o f s e l f - r e g u l a t i o n , s u g g e s t s t h a t p e o p l e a r e more m o t i v a t e d , and more a b l e , t o e l i m i n a t e s a d o r n e g a t i v e f e e l i n g s t h a n p o s i t i v e f e e l i n g s . B o t h moods, h o w e v e r , were l e s s s t a b l e d u r i n g t h e a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l s t u d y t a s k t h a n o t h e r s t u d y o r t e s t t a s k s . T h i s d i f f e r e n c e may be d u e , a t l e a s t i n p a r t , t o t h e l e n g t h o f t i m e i t t o o k t o c o m p l e t e a t a s k , s i n c e t h e a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l t a s k t o o k 15 t o 20 m i n u t e s t o c o m p l e t e , w h i l e a l l o t h e r t a s k s t o o k l e s s t h a n 10 m i n u t e s . 29 The p r i m a r y p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y was t o e x a m i n e t h e e f f e c t s o f mood on i m p l i c i t r e m e m b e r i n g , and more s p e c i f i c a l l y , t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r r e m e m b e r i n g i n t h e s e t a s k s i s mood d e p e n d e n t . Two f i n d i n g s a r e i m p o r t a n t ; f i r s t , t h e r e was s i g n i f i c a n t p r i m i n g o b t a i n e d i n b o t h t a s k s i n a l l t h e c r i t i c a l s t u d y - t e s t c o n d i t i o n s , and s e c o n d , t h e r e was no e v i d e n c e o f mood d e p e n d e n t r e m e m b e r i n g i n e i t h e r t a s k . A l t h o u g h t h e r e was e v i d e n c e o f s e v e r a l m a i n e f f e c t s o f mood on t h e amounts o f p r i m i n g o b t a i n e d , t h e e f f e c t s a r e c o n f u s i n g b e c a u s e o f t h e o b v i o u s d i f f e r e n c e s due t o s t u d y -t e s t i n t e r v a l . I n t h e c a t e g o r y p r o d u c t i o n t a s k , s a d mood a t t e s t e n h a n c e d p r i m i n g f o r t h e 2-day i n t e r v a l m a t e r i a l , w h i l e h a p p y mood a t s t u d y e n h a n c e d p r i m i n g f o r t h e 1-day i n t e r v a l m a t e r i a l . The o n l y c l e a r e f f e c t i n t h e p i c t u r e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n t a s k was t h a t s a d mood a t s t u d y e n h a n c e d p e r f o r m a n c e . T h i s was most l i k e l y due t o mood c o n g r u e n c y s i n c e t h e TAT c a r d s t e n d e d t o be i n t e r p r e t e d b y s u b j e c t s i n n e g a t i v e o r s a d ways. An i n d e p e n d e n t r a t e r , r a t i n g t h e t h e m a t i c c o n t e n t o f 100 random s a m p l e s o f s t o r i e s p r o d u c e d b y s u b j e c t s i n b o t h h a p p y and s a d s t u d y s e s s i o n s , j u d g e d 58% o f t h e s t o r i e s t o be n e g a t i v e , 3 2 % n e u t r a l , and 1 0 % h a p p y . T h i s i s l i k e l y due t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e TAT c a r d s a r e g e n e r a l l y w e i r d , d e s p i t e h a v i n g e x c l u d e d t h e r e a l l y b i z a r r e o n e s f r o m t h e s t u d y s e t . 30 W h i l e b o t h t a s k s may be u s e f u l i n f u t u r e mood d e p e n d e n c e s t u d i e s s i n c e t h e y showed s i g n i f i c a n t p r i m i n g o v e r f a i r l y l o n g i n t e r v a l s , some m a j o r m e t h o d o l o g i c a l p r o b l e m s a r o s e . The f i r s t a n d most o b v i o u s p r o b l e m was t h e t w o - s t u d y s e s s i o n i n t e r f e r e n c e d e s i g n . B e c a u s e t h e p a t t e r n o f r e s u l t s d i f f e r e d s o w i d e l y w i t h one and two d a y s t u d y -t e s t i n t e r v a l s , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h e e f f e c t s o f s t u d y i n t e r v a l a n d mood were c o n f o u n d e d . As w e l l , s i n c e t h e t y p e s o f m a t e r i a l s and p r o c e d u r e s i n t h e two s t u d y s e s s i o n s w e re i d e n t i c a l , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e s t u d y s e s s i o n s l o s t t h e i r m o o d - d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s . The d e s i g n s h o u l d be s i m p l i f i e d t o o n l y one s t u d y s e s s i o n and t e s t s e s s i o n . The m a j o r p r o b l e m w i t h t h e c a t e g o r y p r o d u c t i o n t a s k was t h e l a r g e v a r i a b i l i t y i n t h e b a s e r a t e s , b o t h w i t h i n e a c h l i s t and b e t w e e n l i s t s , a l t h o u g h a l l t h e t a r g e t i t e m s were c h o s e n t o t h e same s p e c i f i c a t i o n s f r o m t h e B a t t i g and Montague ( 1 9 7 1 ) n o r m s . B e c a u s e o f t h i s , p r i m i n g had t o be a s s e s s e d u s i n g l i s t b a s e r a t e s p r o v i d e d b y o t h e r s u b j e c t s , w h i c h l e f t i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b i l i t y i n t h e d a t a t h a t w o u l d h a v e been r e m o v e d i f p r i m i n g had b e e n a s s e s s e d u s i n g e a c h s u b j e c t ' s own b a s e r a t e p e r f o r m a n c e . As w e l l , s i n c e t h e d a t a had t o be a n a l y s e d s e p a r a t e l y f o r e a c h s t u d y i n t e r v a l , and s i n c e some o b s e r v a t i o n s h a d t o be d r o p p e d f r o m t h e a n a l y s i s b e c a u s e o f f l o o r and c e i l i n g e f f e c t s , t h e number o f o b s e r v a t i o n s p e r c e l l w ere n o t l a r g e enough t o o v e r c o m e t h e 31 i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b i l i t y i n t h e d a t a . B e f o r e u s i n g t h e t a s k a g a i n , p i l o t work s h o u l d be done t o e n s u r e t h a t p r o d u c t i o n r a t e s o f t a r g e t s a r e w i t h i n a s i m i l a r r a n g e , p r e f e r r a b l y a r o u n d 3 0 - 4 0 % . I n t h e p i c t u r e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n t a s k , t h e r e were s e v e r a l m a j o r p r o b l e m s . As m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r , t h e TAT p i c t u r e s t e n d e d t o be i n t e r p r e t e d n e g a t i v e l y ; i d e a l l y t h e p i c t u r e s u s e d i n t h e t a s k s h o u l d n o t h a v e a n y o b v i o u s e m o t i o n a l b i a s s o t h a t mood c o n g r u e n c y i s n o t a c o n f o u n d i n g f a c t o r . The same b a s e r a t e p r o b l e m s d i s c u s s e d w i t h c a t e g o r y p r o d u c t i o n a p p l y t o t h e p i c t u r e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n t a s k as w e l l . F i n a l l y , and p e r h a p s most i m p o r t a n t l y , i t i s u n c l e a r w h e t h e r r e m e m b e r i n g i n t h i s t a s k was i m p l i c i t . E a c h p i c t u r e had a m u l t i p l e i t e m i d e n t i f i c a t i o n c r i t e r i a ( f o r e x a m p l e , a p i c t u r e o f a woman h o l d i n g some b o o k s , w i t h a n o t h e r woman s t a n d i n g n e a r b y , and a h o r s e & p l o w i n t h e b a c k g r o u n d ) . S u b j e c t s who had p r e v i o u s l y s t u d i e d t h e c a r d s , a f t e r f i r s t v i s u a l l y i d e n t i f y i n g one o r two o b j e c t s , were l i k e l y r e l y i n g on e x p l i c i t memory t o f u r n i s h f u r t h e r d e t a i l s o f t h e p i c t u r e . A n e c d o t a l l y , s u b j e c t s c o n s i s t e n t l y r e p o r t e d d u r i n g d e b r i e f i n g t h a t t h e y knew t h e p i c t u r e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n t a s k was a memory t e s t f o r t h e p i c t u r e s t h e y had s e e n p r e v i o u s l y , w h i l e no one s u g g e s t e d t h e c a t e g o r y p r o d u c t i o n t a s k was a n y t h i n g o t h e r t h a n f r e e a s s o c i a t i o n . E x p e r i m e n t 2 32 The s e c o n d s t u d y i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e e f f e c t s o f mood c o n t e x t on an i m p l i c i t t a s k u s i n g a s i m p l i f i e d d e s i g n w i t h one s t u d y s e s s i o n f o l l o w e d b y a t e s t s e s s i o n . The t a s k was a m o d i f i e d v e r s i o n o f t h e p i c t u r e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n t a s k u s e d i n E x p e r i m e n t 1. I n s t e a d o f TAT c a r d s , c o l o r s l i d e s o f common o b j e c t s were u s e d a s t a r g e t p i c t u r e s . A f t e r s t u d y i n g t h e s l i d e s , s u b j e c t s were t e s t e d w i t h p i c t u r e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n b y f i r s t p r o j e c t i n g t h e s l i d e s c o m p l e t e l y o u t o f f o c u s , and s l o w l y b r i n g i n g t h e p i c t u r e s i n t o f o c u s u n t i l t h e y c o u l d be named. U s i n g p i c t u r e s o f s i m p l e e v e r y d a y o b j e c t s e l i m i n a t e d t h e m u l t i p l e c r i t e r i a p r o b l e m p r e s e n t i n E x p e r i m e n t 1, a s w e l l a s t h e b i a s t o w a r d s a d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e m a t e r i a l s . A s e c o n d g o a l o f E x p e r i m e n t 2 was t o compare p e r f o r m a n c e on an e x p l i c i t and i m p l i c i t t a s k . The i m p l i c i t t a s k s i n E x p e r i m e n t 1 d i d n o t s u g g e s t mood d e p e n d e n t r e m e m b e r i n g . However, many s t u d i e s i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e h ave f a i l e d t o p r o d u c e mood d e p e n d e n t e f f e c t s u s i n g e x p l i c i t t a s k s (Bower & M a y e r , 1985; J o h n s o n & K l i n g e r , 1 9 8 8 ) . T h u s , i n o r d e r t o a s s e s s w h e t h e r t h e r e i s a d i s s o c i a t i o n o f mood e f f e c t s i n i m p l i c i t and e x p l i c i t r e m e m b e r i n g , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e mood i n d u c t i o n p r o c e d u r e s , m a t e r i a l s , and s t u d y p r o c e d u r e s w o u l d i n d e e d o b t a i n mood d e p e n d e n t r e m e m b e r i n g i n an e x p l i c i t t a s k . To t h i s e n d , s u b j e c t s s t u d i e d a l i s t o f w o r d s b y p r o d u c i n g a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l m e m o r i e s ( a s i n E x p e r i m e n t 1 ) , and were 33 t e s t e d i n two ways , f r e e r e c a l l f o l l o w e d b y word s t e m c o m p l e t i o n . I n t h e s t e m c o m p l e t i o n t a s k , t h r e e l e t t e r s w e r e p r e s e n t e d t h a t c o u l d c o n s t i t u t e t h e b e g i n n i n g o f s e v e r a l w o r d s ( e . g . , s p i ). S u b j e c t s w e re a s k e d t o c o m p l e t e t h e f r a g m e n t w i t h t h e f i r s t word t h a t came t o m i n d . T h i s a l l o w e d a c o m p a r i s o n o f e x p l i c i t and i m p l i c i t r e m e m b e r i n g f o r t h e same s e t o f m a t e r i a l s and s t u d y p r o c e d u r e s . M e t h o d S u b j e c t s and d e s i g n . S i x t y - f o u r u n d e r g r a d u a t e s p a r t i c i p a t e d f o r c o u r s e c r e d i t o r f o r p a y . S u b j e c t s were t e s t e d i n d i v i d u a l l y i n two o n e - h o u r s e s s i o n s , w i t h a 2 d a y i n t e r v a l f r o m s t u d y t o t e s t s e s s i o n s . Happy (H) and s a d (S) moods a t s t u d y w e re c r o s s e d w i t h H and S moods a t t e s t , c r e a t i n g a 2x2 f a c t o r i a l d e s i g n , w i t h f o u r s t u d y - t e s t c o n d i t i o n s ; H-H, H-S, S-H, and S-S. M a t e r i a l s . 38 w o r d s were s e l e c t e d f o r t h e f r e e r e c a l l a n d word s t e m c o m p l e t i o n t a s k s f r o m G r a f and W i l l i a m s ( 1 9 8 7 ) word s t e m c o m p l e t i o n norms. The w o r d s were c o n c r e t e nouns w i t h a t l e a s t 10 p o s s i b l e c o m p l e t i o n s o f t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g word s t e m . S i x t e e n o f t h e words were c h o s e n a s t a r g e t s , w i t h a mean f i r s t c o m p l e t i o n b a s e r a t e p r o b a b i l i t y o f .11, and r a n g e .06 t o .20. The 16 t a r g e t s were a r r a n g e d i n t o two ran d o m o r d e r s f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n d u r i n g s t u d y . Two w o r d s were a d d e d t o t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e s t u d y l i s t t o c o n t r o l f o r p r i m a c y e f f e c t s . The r e m a i n i n g 20 w o r d s were u s e d i n t h e 34 w o r d s t e m c o m p l e t i o n t e s t as p r a c t i c e i t e m s (4 w o r d s ) and a s f i l l e r s (16 w o r d s ) . The t e s t f o r m c o n s i s t e d o f t h e 4 p r a c t i c e s t e m s f o l l o w e d b y 32 s t e m s (16 t a r g e t s and 16 f i l l e r s ) p r e s e n t e d i n one o f two random o r d e r s . The 2 s t u d y l i s t f o r m s and t h e 2 t e s t l i s t f o r m s were c o u n t e r b a l a n c e d a c r o s s s t u d y and t e s t moods. F o r t h e p i c t u r e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n t a s k , 22 c o l o r s l i d e s o f e v e r y d a y o b j e c t s were o b t a i n e d . 2 s e t s o f 6 p i c t u r e s were s e l e c t e d . S u b j e c t s saw one s e t d u r i n g t h e s t u d y s e s s i o n i n t e r s p e r s e d w i t h 8 f i l l e r i t e m s . The o t h e r s e t was u s e d d u r i n g t e s t i n g t o d e t e r m i n e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n b a s e r a t e s . A t t e s t , t h e 6 s t u d i e d and 6 n o n s t u d i e d t a r g e t s were r a n d o m l y o r d e r e d f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n , p r e c e d e d b y t h e r e m a i n i n g 2 s l i d e s f o r p r a c t i c e . The two s e t s were u s e d e q u a l l y o f t e n as s t u d y i t e m s and a s n o n s t u d i e d i t e m s d u r i n g t h e t e s t . Mood I n d u c t i o n P r o c e d u r e . The mood i n d u c t i o n and r a t i n g p r o c e d u r e s were i d e n t i c a l t o t h o s e f o l l o w e d i n E x p e r i m e n t 1. S t u d y S e s s i o n . S u b j e c t s were t o l d t h a t t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y was t o a s s e s s t h e e f f e c t s o f mood on t h e i r i n t e p r e t a t i o n o f v a r i o u s m a t e r i a l s . T hey were n o t t o l d t h a t t h e i r memory f o r t h e m a t e r i a l s w o u l d be t e s t e d . A f t e r mood i n d u c t i o n , t h e word l i s t was p r e s e n t e d v e r b a l l y , one word a t a t i m e . S u b j e c t s were a s k e d t o r e l a t e d e t a i l s o f an e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e i r p a s t , p r e f e r r a b l y o v e r 1 35 y e a r a g o , t h a t t h e word b r o u g h t t o m i n d . A f t e r r e l a t i n g e a c h memory, s u b j e c t s were a s k e d f o r t h e a p p r o x i m a t e d a t e o f t h e e v e n t (month and y e a r ) , and a s k e d t o r a t e t h e e v e n t f o r i t s p l e a s a n t n e s s / u n p l e a s a n t n e s s a t t h e t i m e i t o c c u r r e d , i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e a t t h e t i m e i t o c c u r r e d , and t h e v i v i d n e s s o f t h e i r memory f o r t h e e v e n t a t t h e p r e s e n t . The r a t i n g s c a l e s were p r i n t e d on p a p e r and were g i v e n t o s u b j e c t s f o r r e f e r e n c e d u r i n g t h e t a s k ( s e e F i g u r e 3). S u b j e c t s were t i m e w i t h a s t o p w a t c h f r o m t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f e a c h word u n t i l t h e y i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y had r e t r i e v e d a memory. The t i m e s w e re n o t e d b y t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r t o t h e n e a r e s t s e c o n d . F i g u r e 3 S u b j e c t s were asked to r a t e the a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l memories they produced f o r each study word with the s c a l e below (Experiment S)• Date of the event*? (month and year) Pleasantness of the event at the time i t occurred •4 Extrememly p l e a s a n t 3 Very pleasant E Moderately p l e a s a n t 1 S l i g h t l y p l e a s a n t • Neutral -1 S l i g h t l y unpleasant -E Moderately unpleasant -3 Very unpleasant -Lf Extremely unpleasant Importance of the event at the time i t occurred 5 Extremely important M Very important 3 Moderately important E S l i g h t l y important 1 Neutral (not important at a l l ) V i v i d n e s s of the c u r r e n t r e c o l l e c t i o n of the event 5 Extremely v i v i d r e c o l l e c t i o n 14 Very v i v i d 3 Moderately v i v i d E S l i g h t l y v i v i d 1 Vague r e c o l l e c t i o n 37 A f t e r c o m p l e t i n g t h e a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l word s t u d y t a s k , s u b j e c t s w e r e shown t h e c o l o r s l i d e s . S u b j e c t s were s e a t e d 7 f e e t f r o m t h e s c r e e n , and t h e s l i d e p r o j e c t o r was 6 f e e t away f r o m t h e s c r e e n . E a c h s l i d e was p r e s e n t e d f o r 3 s e c o n d s , a f t e r w h i c h s u b j e c t s i d e n t i f i e d t h e o b j e c t o u t l o u d , and r e l a t e d when t h e y had l a s t come i n c o n t a c t w i t h t h e o b j e c t , w h e r e , w i t h whom, and t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s a t t h e t i m e . B e c a u s e t h e o b j e c t s were common, s u b j e c t s r e l a t e d i n s t a n c e s t h a t were u s u a l l y w i t h i n t h e p r e v i o u s f e w d a y s . T e s t S e s s i o n . Two d a y s l a t e r s u b j e c t s r e t u r n e d f o r t h e t e s t s e s s i o n . A f t e r t h e a p p r o p r i a t e mood was i n d u c e d , t h e s e s s i o n b e g a n w i t h f r e e r e c a l l . S u b j e c t s were a s k e d t o t h i n k b a c k t o t h e f i r s t s e s s i o n two d a y s e a r l i e r , and were r e m i n d e d o f t h e a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l word s t u d y t a s k . T h e y were a s k e d t o r e c a l l a l o u d a s many o f t h e t a r g e t w o r d s a s p o s s i b l e , and t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r w r o t e down t h e i r r e s p o n s e s . S u b j e c t s w e r e a l l o w e d t o t a k e as much t i m e a s t h e y w a n t e d , u n t i l t h e y made no r e s p o n s e f o r 1 m i n u t e . P i c t u r e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n f o l l o w e d f r e e r e c a l l . The l e n s on t h e s l i d e p r o j e c t o r was marked w i t h a 30 mm s c a l e , s o t h a t when s e t a t z e r o , t h e s l i d e s were i n f o c u s . The l e n s was r o t a t e d away f r o m f o c u s and s e t a t 30 mm f r o m z e r o when a s l i d e was f i r s t p r e s e n t e d . A t t h i s p o i n t , no p i c t u r e i n t h e s e t was i d e n t i f i a b l e . S u b j e c t s were t o l d t h a t t h e i r t a s k was t o i d e n t i f y t h e o b j e c t a s s o o n as p o s s i b l e . T hey were e n c o u r a g e d , w i t h t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f e a c h new s l i d e , t g u e s s as much as t h e y w a n t e d . E v e r y s e c o n d , t h e l e n s was moved 1 mm c l o s e r t o t h e f o c a l p o i n t . The e x p e r i m e n t e r r e c o r d e d t h e s u b j e c t ' s g u e s s e s , and t h e l e n s l e n g t h away f r o m f o c u s when t h e p i c t u r e was c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f i e d . Thus t h e l a r g e r t h e s c o r e , t h e more o u t o f f o c u s t h e p i c t u r e was when t h e s u b j e c t i d e n t i f i e d i t . The t e s t p i c t u r e s i n c l u d e d t h e s e t o f 6 s t u d i e d t a r g e t s , and t h e s e c o n d s e t o f 6 t a r g e t s t h a t s u b j e c t s had n o t s e e n p r e v i o u s l y . T h u s , e a c h s u b j e c t p r o v i d e d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n b a s e r a t e s f o r one o f t h e p i c t u r e s e t s . The l a s t t a s k i n t h e s e s s i o n was word s t e m c o m p l e t i o n . S u b j e c t s w e r e t o l d t h a t t h i s was a f r e e a s s o c i a t i o n t a s k . T h e y were g i v e n t h e word s t e m s v e r b a l l y , and were a s k e d t o c o m p l e t e t h e s t e m w i t h t h e f i r s t w o r d t h a t came t o m i n d . T h e y were t o l d n o t t o g i v e p r o p e r names. The c a t e g o r i e s i n c l u d e d a l l 16 t a r g e t s t h a t had b e e n s t u d i e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s s e s s i o n . When t h e s e s s i o n was c o m p l e t e d , t h e p u r p o s e and p r o c e d u r e s i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t were d i s c u s s e d w i t h t h e s u b j e c t . T h e y were a s k e d f o r f e e d b a c k on e x p e r i m e n t a l p r o c e d u r e s , and a n y q u e s t i o n s t h e y had were a n s w e r e d . R e s u l t s A s e t o f d e p e n d e n t m e a s u r e s t h a t s e r v e d t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e H and S c o n d i t i o n s i n c l u d e d p l e a s u r e and 39 a r o u s a l r a t i n g s f r o m b o t h s e s s i o n s and t h e r a t i n g s g i v e n b y s u b j e c t s f o r t h e a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l m e m o r i e s t h e y p r o d u c e d d u r i n g t h e s t u d y s e s s i o n . The c r i t i c a l d e p e n d e n t m e a s u r e s f o r t h e s t u d i e d w o r d s i n c l u d e d t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f r e c a l l i n g a t a r g e t w o r d and t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o m p l e t i n g a word s t e m w i t h a t a r g e t w o r d . B e c a u s e s t e m c o m p l e t i o n f o l l o w e d f r e e r e c a l l , some o f t a r g e t w o r d s had b e e n r e c a l l e d b y s u b j e c t s a b o u t 20 m i n u t e s e a r l i e r i n t h e s e s s i o n . The r e s u l t s , t h e r e f o r e , a r e r e p o r t e d s e p a r a t e l y f o r s t e m c o m p l e t i o n o f n o n - r e c a l l e d w o r d s and f o r s t e m c o m p l e t i o n o f r e c a l l e d w o r d s . The d e p e n d e n t m e a s u r e f r o m p i c t u r e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n was t h e amount o f p r i m i n g a s i n d i c a t e d b y t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n l e n s l e n g t h a t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n b e t w e e n s t u d i e d and n o n s t u d i e d i t e m s . A l l a l p h a l e v e l s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e were s e t a t .05, u n l e s s o t h e r w i s e r e p o r t e d . F o r f r e e r e c a l l , word s t e m c o m p l e t i o n and p i c t u r e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , a n a l y s e s w e re c a r r i e d o u t i n two w a y s . The f i r s t s e t o f a n a l y s e s i n c l u d e d a l l 64 s u b j e c t s . T h e r e w e r e , h o w e v e r , s e v e r a l s u b j e c t s w i t h i n e a c h s t u d y - t e s t c o n d i t i o n t h a t showed e x t r e m e mood s w i n g s , t h a t i s , by t h e end o f a t a s k t h e i r p l e a s u r e r a t i n g had moved p a s t t h e n e u t r a l p o i n t i n t o t h e o p p o s i t e end o f t h e s c a l e . T h u s , a s e c o n d s e t o f a n a l y s e s w e re done e x c l u d i n g t h o s e s u b j e c t s whose p l e a s u r e r a t i n g s d u r i n g a s p e c i f i c t a s k ( e i t h e r d u r i n g s t u d y o r d u r i n g t e s t ) a t t e n u a t e d p a s t t h e n e u t r a l p o i n t i n e i t h e r 40 d i r e c t i o n . W h i l e t h e p a t t e r n s o f r e s u l t s d i d n o t c h a n g e f r o m t h e o v e r a l l a n a l y s e s , e x c l u d i n g t h e s e s u b j e c t s t e n d e d t o a c c e n t u a t e t h e e f f e c t s , m a i n l y b y d e c r e a s i n g t h e v a r i a b i l i t y i n t h e d a t a . The r e s u l t s f r o m t h i s s e c o n d s e t o f a n a l y s e s a r e r e p o r t e d b e l o w . F o r f r e e r e c a l l and word s t e m c o m p l e t i o n , 11 s u b j e c t s were e x c l u d e d : H-H n=14, H-S n=15, S-H n=10, S-S n=14. F o r p i c t u r e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , 12 s u b j e c t s were e x c l u d e d : H-H n=16, H-S n=12, S-H n=12, S-S n=12. Mood r a t i n g s . The p a t t e r n o f r a t i n g s was s i m i l a r t o E x p e r i m e n t 1. T h e r e w ere no d i f f e r e n c e s i n b a s e l i n e p l e a s u r e o r a r o u s a l r a t i n g s , o r i n t i m e t o i n d u c e H and S moods, a c r o s s b o t h s e s s i o n s . S e p a r a t e ANOVAs ( s e s s i o n x mood) on b a s e l i n e p l e a s u r e r a t i n g s , b a s e l i n e a r o u s a l r a t i n g s , a n d on t i m e t o i n d u c e moods c o n f i r m e d t h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s , w i t h no e f f e c t s a p p r o a c h i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e . The r e s u l t s a r e d i s p l a y e d i n F i g u r e 4. 41 Figure A Pleasure and arousal ratings for happy and sad subjects (Experiment 2). First Session (study) Pleasant/ High Arousal Neutral Unpleasant/ Low Arousal Autobiographical Memories Slides Pre Post Pre Happy mood Sad mood — • Pleasure —• Arousal As i n E x p e r i m e n t 1, p l e a s u r e a t t e n u a t e d more f o r S (mean 2.96) t h a n f o r H (mean . 7 8 ) . A t t e n u a t i o n was g r e a t e r f o r b o t h S and H d u r i n g t h e a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l s t u d y t a s k (mean 3.33) t h a n a n y o t h e r t a s k ( c o m b i n e d mean 1 . 5 ) . F o r t h e p l e a s u r e r a t i n g s , two mood c o n d i t i o n s (H and S) and 5 t a s k c o n d i t i o n s ( a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l s t u d y , s l i d e p r e s e n t a t i o n f r e e r e c a l l , w o r d s t e m c o m p l e t i o n , p i c t u r e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ) w e r e i n c l u d e d i n an ANOVA w i t h mood a s a b e t w e e n - g r o u p s f a c t o r and t a s k a s a w i t h i n - g r o u p s f a c t o r . The a n a l y s i s showed two m a i n e f f e c t s ; a m a i n e f f e c t o f mood, F ( l , 6 2 ) = 5 6 . 5 7 , MSe = 6.7, and a m a i n e f f e c t o f t a s k , F ( 4 , 2 4 8 ) = 14 . 3 , MSe = 3.33. F o r t h e a r o u s a l r a t i n g s , an ANOVA o f s i m i l a r d e s i g n r e v e a l e d a m a i n e f f e c t o f mood, w i t h more a t t e n u a t i o n f o r S (mean 2.38) t h a n f o r H (mean - . 4 2 ) , F ( l , 6 2 ) = 49.64, MSe = 1 2 . 6 1 . No o t h e r e f f e c t s a p p r o a c h e d s i g n i f i c a n c e . Memory r a t i n g s . The memory r a t i n g s s e r v e d t o f u r t h e r d i f f e r e n t i a t e t h e H and S s u b j e c t s d u r i n g t h e s t u d y s e s s i o n The r e s u l t s a r e s u m m a r i z e d i n T a b l e 2, i n c l u d i n g t h e v a l u e o f t c a l c u l a t e d t o compare H and S s u b j e c t s f o r e a c h r a t i n g H s u b j e c t s p r o d u c e d more p o s i t i v e m e m o r i e s t h a n S; S p r o d u c e d more n e g a t i v e m e m o r i e s t h a n H. B e c a u s e o f t h i s , t h e o v e r a l l p l e a s a n t n e s s r a t i n g s f o r H and S d i f f e r e d , b u t t h e p l e a s a n t n e s s r a t i n g s f o r t h e p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e m e m o r i e s w i t h i n e a c h g r o u p d i d n o t d i f f e r ; t h a t i s , H 43 s u b j e c t s d i d n o t g i v e more e x t r e m e r a t i n g s f o r t h e p o s i t i v e m e m ories t h a n d i d S s u b j e c t s , and t h e same i s t r u e f o r n e g a t i v e m e m o r i e s i n b o t h g r o u p s . T h e r e w e r e no d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e l a t e n c i e s t o p r o d u c e m e m o r i e s , e i t h e r f o r a l l t h e m e m o r i e s p r o d u c e d i n e a c h g r o u p , o r s e p a r a t e d i n t o p o s i t i v e a n d n e g a t i v e m e m o r i e s w i t h i n e a c h g r o u p . 44 T a b l e S Memory r a t i n g s g i v e n by s u b j e c t s d u r i n g t h e a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l s t u d y t a s k i n s e s s i o n 1 ( E x p e r i m e n t E ) . S t u d y moods H S Mean p l e a s a n t n e s s r a t i n g s f o r a l l memories p r o d u c e d X 1-3R .73 t ( b E ) =5-Eb* Number o f p o s i t i v e memories p r o d u c e d X s. d • 11.Q7 E. H b - f l f l 3.1T t ( b E ) = 5 . 1 ™ * Time t a k e n t o p r o d u c e X 13-57 I E . E E p o s i t i v e memories s-d- 7.7T 7.5 ( i n s e c o n d s ) t ( b E ) = . ? • Mean p l e a s a n t n e s s r a t i n g s f o r p o s i t i v e m e mories X E.b5 E-Eb s - d . - M5 - bM t ( b E ) = E- 7 f i Number o f s a d memories p r o d u c e d X 3.ET b.7b s-d- L b f l 3.3b t ( b E ) = 5-E3* Time t a k e n t o p r o d u c e X m•T 1E-7H s a d memories s -d- 11-55 fi.73 ( i n s e c o n d s ) t ( b E ) = .fli4 Mean p l e a s a n t n e s s r a t i n g s f o r s a d memories X -E.ES -E.Qfl s - d . -bD -Tfl t ( b S ) = -bT 45 F r e e r e c a l l . I n d e t e r m i n i n g a s u b j e c t ' s p r o b a b i l i t y t o r e c a l l a w o r d , t h o s e w o r d s f o r w h i c h s u b j e c t s d i d n o t p r o d u c e a memory d u r i n g t h e a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l s t u d y t a s k were e x c l u d e d . No s u b j e c t p r o d u c e d m e m o r i e s f o r f e w e r t h a n 14 o f t h e 16 t a r g e t w o r d s . The r e s u l t s , s u m m a r i z e d i n T a b l e 3 a , p r o v i d e e v i d e n c e o f mood d e p e n d e n t r e m e m b e r i n g : when s t u d y and t e s t moods m a t c h e d , more w o r d s were r e c a l l e d (mean .33) t h a n when s t u d y and t e s t moods d i f f e r e d (mean . 2 3 ) . An ANOVA ( s t u d y mood x t e s t mood) showed a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n s t u d y and t e s t moods, F ( l , 4 9 ) = 8.94, MSe = .012. S i m p l e m a i n e f f e c t s a n a l y s i s showed a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t o f s t u d y mood when t e s t e d i n H mood, F ( l , 4 9 ) = 14.4, MSe = .012, and an e f f e c t o f s t u d y mood when t e s t e d i n S mood, F ( l , 4 9 ) = 7.73, MSe = .012. No o t h e r e f f e c t s i n t h e ANOVA a p p r o a c h e d s i g n i f i c a n c e . 46 Table 3 Free r e c a l l - i word stem completion and p i c t u r e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n performance i n the c r i t i c a l s t u d y - t e s t mood c o n d i t i o n s (Experiment E) • a) Free r e c a l l performance. s t u d y - t e s t moods H-H H-S S-H S-S p r o b a b i l i t y of r e c a l l : .35 «EE • EM • 3D s.d-: . 1 0 - 1 0 .11 .13 s u b j e c t s i n each group: I'M 15 ID IM b) Word stem completion performance f o r words r e c a l l e d e a r l i e r i n the t e s t s e s s i o n . s t u d y - t e s t moods H-H H-S S-H S-S p r o b a b i l i t y of completion: .SM .07 • 17 • E5 s-d.: .16 .13 • ED • E3 s u b j e c t s i n each group: IM 15 10 IM c) Uord stem completion performance f o r words not r e c a l l e d d u r i n g the free r e c a l l t e s t . s t u d y - t e s t moods H-H H-S S-H S-S p r o b a b i l i t y of completion: .IE -IE • IE • E l s.d.: •D6 .11 • 13 .17 s u b j e c t s i n each group: IM 15 10 IM d) P i c t u r e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n performance. s t u d y - t e s t moods H-H H-S S-H S-S mean priming per l i s t : lb.13 ET.E5 11.33 ED.33 s.d-: 1=1.15 lE-Rb 13.53 17.5 s u b j e c t s i n each group: l b IE IE IE 47 Word s t e m c o m p l e t i o n . The r e s u l t s a r e s u m m a r i z e d i n T a b l e s 3b and 3 c . B e c a u s e a l l i t e m s were t e s t t a r g e t s f o r e v e r y s u b j e c t , no c o m p l e t i o n b a s e r a t e s were c o l l e c t e d f r o m t h i s g r o u p o f s u b j e c t s . * Thus t h e d e p e n d e n t m e a s u r e o f i n t e r e s t was t h e o v e r a l l l e v e l o f p e r f o r m a n c e , and n o t p r i m i n g . P e r f o r m a n c e was a s s e s s e d i n two ways. F i r s t , p e r f o r m a n c e was a s s e s s e d f o r t h o s e w ords t h a t had b e e n r e c a l l e d e a r l i e r i n t h e t e s t s e s s i o n . S e c o n d , p e r f o r m a n c e was a s s e s s e d f o r t h o s e w ords n o t r e c a l l e d d u r i n g f r e e r e c a l l , and e x c l u d i n g t h o s e i t e m s t h a t s u b j e c t s d i d n o t p r o d u c e m e m o r i e s f o r d u r i n g s t u d y . C o m p l e t i o n p e r f o r m a n c e f o r p r e v i o u s l y r e c a l l e d i t e m s showed a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n o f r e s u l t s a s i n f r e e r e c a l l . P e r f o r m a n c e was h i g h e r i n s i m i l a r s t u d y - t e s t c o n d i t i o n s (mean .25) t h a n f o r d i f f e r e n t s t u d y - t e s t c o n d i t i o n s (mean . 1 2 ) . An ANOVA c o n f i r m e d t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n , w i t h a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n s t u d y and t e s t moods, F ( l , 4 9 ) = 5.53, MSe = .035, w i t h no o t h e r e f f e c t s a p p r o a c h i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e . C o m p l e t i o n p e r f o r m a n c e f o r n o n - r e c a l l e d w o r d s showed a d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n o f r e s u l t s . A l t h o u g h p e r f o r m a n c e i n t h e S-S s t u d y - t e s t c o n d i t i o n was h i g h e r t h a n i n a l l o t h e r c o n d i t i o n s , no e f f e c t s a p p r o a c h e d s i g n i f i c a n c e ( p ' s >.2) i n ANOVA. 48 P i c t u r e I d e n t i f i c a t i o n . E a c h s u b j e c t i d e n t i f i e d one s e t o f t h e p i c t u r e s w i t h o u t h a v i n g s e e n t h e m d u r i n g t h e p r e v i o u s s t u d y s e s s i o n . T h u s , m e d i a n b a s e r a t e s w e re a s s e s s e d f o r e a c h p i c t u r e f r o m 16 s u b j e c t s (8 t e s t e d i n e a c h mood). B e c a u s e b a s e r a t e s d i f f e r e d w i d e l y f o r e a c h p i c t u r e , p r i m i n g was a s s e s s e d p e r p i c t u r e and t h e n summed a c r o s s t h e s e t o f 6 s t u d y t a r g e t s f o r e a c h s u b j e c t . The r e s u l t s , s u m m a r i z e d i n T a b l e 3 d , i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n a l l c r i t i c a l s t u d y - t e s t c o n d i t i o n s t h e r e was s i g n i f i c a n t amounts o f p r i m i n g , s m a l l e s t mean d i f f e r e n c e = 1 1 . 3 3 , t ( l l ) = 4.61. F o r b o t h s t u d y moods, S t e s t mood r e s u l t e d i n h i g h e r p r i m i n g t h a n H t e s t mood. As w e l l , H s t u d y mood i n c r e a s e d p e r f o r m a n c e o v e r S s t u d y mood. An ANOVA c o n f i r m e d a m a i n e f f e c t o f t e s t , F ( l , 4 8 ) = 5.81, MSe = 2 6 9 . 6 1 , and a t e n d e n c y t o w a r d an e f f e c t o f s t u d y , F ( 1 , 4 S ) = 2.23, p = .13. No o t h e r e f f e c t s a p p r o a c h e d s i g n i f i c a n c e . D i s c u s s i o n T h e r e w ere t h r e e i m p o r t a n t f i n d i n g s i n E x p e r i m e n t 2; f i r s t , r e m e m b e r i n g was mood d e p e n d e n t f o r f r e e r e c a l l ; s e c o n d , w o r d s t e m c o m p l e t i o n r e s u l t s d i f f e r e d f o r w o r d s r e c a l l e d and n o t r e c a l l e d d u r i n g t h e t e s t s e s s i o n ; and t h i r d , p i c t u r e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n p e r f o r m a n c e was i n f l u e n c e d b y s t u d y and t e s t moods, b u t n o t i n a manner c o n s i s t e n t w i t h mood d e p e n d e n t r e m e m b e r i n g . 49 The f r e e r e c a l l r e s u l t s c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e mood d e p e n d e n t r e m e m b e r i n g ; when s u b j e c t s e x p e r i e n c e t h e same mood a t s t u d y and t e s t t h e y remembered more t h a n i f t h e y e x p e r i e n c e a d i f f e r e n t mood d u r i n g t h e two s e s s i o n s . T h i s r e p l i c a t e s f i n d i n g s i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e ( E i c h & M e t c a l f e , 1 989; M e c k l e n b r a u k e r & H a g e r , 1 9 8 4 ) , and i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l word s t u d y t a s k c o u p l e d w i t h f r e e r e c a l l i s s e n s i t i v e t o t h e e f f e c t s o f mood c o n t e x t . I t a l s o i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e i n d u c t i o n p r o c e d u r e s were s u c c e s s f u l i n c r e a t i n g two d i s t i n c t i v e mood c o n t e x t s . Word c o m p l e t i o n p e r f o r m a n c e on p r e v i o u s l y r e c a l l e d w o r d s d i s p l a y e d a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n o f r e s u l t s a s I n f r e e r e c a l l . P e r f o r m a n c e i n e a c h s t u d y - t e s t c o n d i t i o n was a d i r e c t f u n c t i o n o f t h e number o f w o r d s p r e v i o u s l y r e c a l l e d and t h u s c a n n o t be c o n s t r u e d a s mood d e p e n d e n t r e m e m b e r i n g . The word s t e m c o m p l e t i o n t a s k f o r n o n r e c a l l e d w o r d s , h o w e v e r , d i d n o t show t h e same mood d e p e n d e n t p a t t e r n o f r e s u l t s . The l a c k o f a n y mood e f f e c t i n t h i s t a s k i s p r o b a b l y due t o f l o o r e f f e c t s . The o v e r a l l l e v e l o f t a r g e t c o m p l e t i o n was v e r y l o w (mean . 1 4 ) , and d i d n o t d i f f e r much f r o m n o r m a t i v e c o m p l e t i o n b a s e r a t e s f o r t h e same m a t e r i a l s (mean .11) i n G r a f and W i l l i a m s ( 1 9 8 7 ) . The c a t e g o r y p r o d u c t i o n t a s k u s e d i n E x p e r i m e n t 1 was p r o b a b l y more s e n s i t i v e t o p r i m i n g a f t e r an i n t e r v a l o f 2 d a y s b e c a u s e i t a l l o w e d f o r 6 r e s p o n s e s f r o m s u b j e c t s , r a t h e r t h a n o n l y one 50 per cue. A second p o s s i b i l i t y i s t h a t the stem completion task presented the s u b j e c t s with too s t r o n g an e x t e r n a l cue (the f i r s t t h ree l e t t e r s of the word) to be s e n s i t i v e to mood, as i n r e c o g n i t i o n tasks (see I n t r o d u c t i o n ) . In p i c t u r e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , however, there was s i g n i f i c a n t priming i n each c r i t i c a l c o n d i t i o n , and the amount of priming was a f f e c t e d by study and t e s t moods. C l e a r l y , however, remembering was not mood dependent. Priming was enhanced when s u b j e c t s were i n a sad mood, r e g a r d l e s s of the mood they had experienced d u r i n g the study s e s s i o n . T h i s d i f f e r e n c e was not a f u n c t i o n of o v e r a l l baserate performance f o r happy and sad s u b j e c t s d u r i n g t e s t i n g . For both t a r g e t l i s t s , baserate performance i n the H and S t e s t moods d i d not d i f f e r , t ' s < 1. General D i s c u s s i o n The primary purpose of the paper was to i n v e s t i g a t e whether mood dependence occurs i n s i t u a t i o n s where remembering i s u n i n t e n t i o n a l , or i m p l i c i t . Remembering i n f r e e r e c a l l (Experiment 2) was mood dependent, while none of the i m p l i c i t t a s k s showed a p a t t e r n of mood dependent remembering. In Experiment 1, the r e s u l t s were unclear because of the s t u d y - t e s t i n t e r v a l e f f e c t s i ntroduced by u s i n g an i n t e r f e r e n c e d e s i g n , and i t was q u e s t i o n a b l e whether the p i c t u r e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n task was t r u l y an i m p l i c i t t a s k . In Experiment 2, word stem completion 51 p e r f o r m a n c e d i d n o t d i f f e r f r o m n o r m a t i v e c o m p l e t i o n r a t e s a f t e r t h e two d a y i n t e r v a l . The c l e a r e s t i n d i c a t i o n o f i m p l i c i t mood e f f e c t s was i n p i c t u r e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ( E x p e r i m e n t 2 ) . The t a s k d i d n o t show mood d e p e n d e n t r e m e m b e r i n g , however i d e n t i f i c a t i o n was e n h a n c e d b y s a d mood d u r i n g t h e t e s t r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e mood e x p e r i e n c e d d u r i n g s t u d y . T h i s e f f e c t was a l s o p r e s e n t i n t h e c a t e g o r y p r o d u c t i o n t a s k ( E x p e r i m e n t 1) f o r t h e m a t e r i a l w i t h a s i m i l a r two d a y s t u d y - t e s t i n t e r v a l . The r e s u l t s s u g g e s t t h a t t h e e f f e c t s o f mood c o n t e x t on i m p l i c i t and e x p l i c i t r e m e m b e r i n g may d i f f e r . C l e a r l y , mood d e p e n d e n t r e m e m b e r i n g o c c u r s i n e x p l i c i t t a s k s where s u b j e c t s a r e i n t e n t i o n a l l y t r y i n g t o r e c o n s t r u c t a p r i o r e p i s o d e . I n i m p l i c i t t a s k s where r e m e m b e r i n g i s u n i n t e n t i o n a l , t h e r e a r e two p o s s i b i l i t i e s . F i r s t , mood c o n t e x t may h a v e no e f f e c t on i m p l i c i t r e m e m b e r i n g . T h i s , h o w e v e r , i s n o t s u g g e s t e d b y t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , s i n c e a l l t h e i m p l i c i t t a s k s ( w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f word s t e m c o m p l e t i o n w here no. r e m e m b e r i n g was i n d i c a t e d ) showed m a i n e f f e c t s o f mood on p e r f o r m a n c e . A s e c o n d p o s s i b i l i t y , t h e n , i s t h a t moods may e f f e c t i m p l i c i t r e m e m b e r i n g , b u t i n ways t h a t d i f f e r f r o m e x p l i c i t r e m e m b e r i n g . The r e s u l t s o f t h e p i c t u r e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n t a s k ( E x p e r i m e n t 2) s u g g e s t t h a t s a d mood e n h a n c e s p r i m i n g r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e mood d u r i n g s t u d y . The d i f f e r e n c e was n o t 52 due to some o v e r a l l change i n p e r c e p t u a l a b i l i t y , s i n c e baserate performance f o r happy and sad s u b j e c t s d i d not d i f f e r . One p o s s i b i l i t y i s t h a t s u b j e c t s i n a sad mood r e l y more on processes i n v o l v e d i n i m p l i c i t remembering. In t h i s r e g a r d , Graf & Mandler (1984) have made a d i s t i n c t i o n between two types of memory o r g a n i z i n g processes, i n t e g r a t i o n and e l a b o r a t i o n . I n t e g r a t i v e p r o c e s s i n g bonds the v a r i o u s f e a t u r e s of a t a r g e t i n t o a c o o r d i n a t e d whole or u n i t i z e d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . I n t e g r a t i o n f a c i l i t a t e s i m p l i c i t remembering because once u n i t i z e d , a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n has the tendency to become r e c o n s t r u c t e d , or " r e d i n t e g r a t e d " when on l y some of i t s f e a t u r e s are repr e s e n t e d . E l a b o r a t i v e p r o c e s s i n g encodes a t a r g e t i n r e l a t i o n to the experimental s i t u a t i o n (e.g., other t a r g e t s , s i t u a t i o n a l cues, p r i o r knowledge), and thus f a c i l i t a t e s e x p l i c i t remembering by e s t a b l i s h i n g an a s s o c i a t i o n between each t a r g e t and the s p e c i f i c l e a r n i n g episode. Is there any evidence i n the extant l i t e r a t u r e t h a t happy and sad moods r e s u l t i n p r o c e s s i n g d i f f e r e n c e s ? Two f i n d i n g s are of i n t e r e s t here. F i r s t , sad s u b j e c t s engage i n l e s s s t r u c t u r i n g and o r g a n i z i n g of m a t e r i a l when i t i s presented than n e u t r a l or happy s u b j e c t s (Weingartner, Cohen, Murphy, M a r t e l l o , & Gerdt, 1981), t h a t i s , they do not spontaneously use e l a b o r a t i v e p r o c e s s i n g . Secondly, when sad s u b j e c t s are given a task t h a t f o r c e s them to 53 engage i n some k i n d o f e l a b o r a t i v e p r o c e s s i n g d u r i n g s t u d y ( s u c h as e m b e d d i n g words i n c o m p l e x m e a n i n g f u l s e n t e n c e s ) , i t d o e s n o t h a v e a s much b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t a t r e t r i e v a l a s w i t h n e u t r a l o r h a p p y s u b j e c t s ( E l l i s , Thomas, & R o d r i g u e z , 1 9 8 4 ) . T h e s e f i n d i n g s w o u l d s u g g e s t t h a t s a d s u b j e c t s do n o t engage e l a b o r a t i v e p r o c e s s e s e i t h e r d u r i n g e n c o d i n g o r r e t r i e v a l , and may t h u s be r e l y i n g on i n t e g r a t i v e o r r e d i n t e g r a t i v e p r o c e s s e s . One f i n d i n g f r o m t h e p i c t u r e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n t a s k i n E x p e r i m e n t 2 l e n d s s u p p o r t t o t h i s . The s u b j e c t s who were s a d d u r i n g p i c t u r e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n g u e s s e d a t t h e p i c t u r e s f a r l e s s (mean g u e s s e s , 8.7) t h a n h a p p y s u b j e c t s (mean g u e s s e s , 2 0 . 0 6 ) , t ( 2 4 ) = 5.23. C o n s i s t e n t w i t h p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h , h a p p y s u b j e c t s w o r k e d a t i m p o s i n g s t r u c t u r e on t h e p i c t u r e s t h a t were p r e s e n t e d t o them t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t t h a n t h e i r s a d c o u n t e r p a r t s . The e n h a n c e d p r i m i n g i n a s a d mood m i g h t be b e c a u s e t h i s e f f o r t f u l , e l a b o r a t i v e p r o c e s s i n g o v e r r i d e s , o r i n t e r f e r e s w i t h , t h e r e d i n t e g r a t i v e p r o c e s s . T h i s , h o w e v e r , i s a m a t t e r f o r f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . How m i g h t t h i s d i f f e r e n c e i n r e l i a n c e on one t y p e o f p r o c e s s i n g o r a n o t h e r e x p l a i n mood d e p e n d e n c e i n f r e e r e c a l l ? M o r r i s , B r a n s f o r d , & P r a n k s ( 1 9 7 7 ) r e a s o n e d t h a t p e r f o r m a n c e on a memory t e s t i s e x p e c t e d t o be f a c i l i t a t e d t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t i t e n g a g e s t h e same s e t o r a s i m i l a r s e t o f c o g n i t i v e o p e r a t i o n s a s a p r e c e d i n g s t u d y t a s k ; more 54 g e n e r a l l y , r e m e m b e r i n g i s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e d e g r e e o f o v e r l a p b e t w e e n s t u d y and t e s t p r o c e s s i n g . T h i s v i e w o f r e m e m b e r i n g i s g e n e r a l l y known a s T r a n s f e r A p p r o p r i a t e  P r o c e s s i n g ( T A P ) . I f s a d and h a p p y moods r e s u l t i n r e l i a n c e on two d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s , t h e n r e i n s t a t i n g a mood f r o m s t u d y t o t e s t w i l l r e s u l t i n a s i m i l a r s e t o f p r o c e s s e s b e i n g e n g a g e d , t h e r e b y i n c r e a s i n g memory p e r f o r m a n c e . A c h a n g e i n mood w i l l r e s u l t i n a d i f f e r e n t s e t o f p r o c e s s e s b e i n g e n g aged a t s t u d y and a t t e s t , t h e r e b y d e c r e a s i n g memory p e r f o r m a n c e . The a b o v e a c c o u n t i s s p e c u l a t i v e , a t b e s t , s i n c e o n l y one e x p l i c i t t a s k ( f r e e r e c a l l ) and one i m p l i c i t t a s k ( p i c t u r e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , E x p e r i m e n t 2) were c l e a n enough m e t h o d o l o g i c a l l y t o show c l e a r r e s u l t s . The f i n d i n g o f a d i s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n mood c o n t e x t i n i m p l i c i t and e x p l i c i t r e m e m b e r i n g w o u l d be much more c o m p e l l i n g i f i t had a r i s e n i n two t a s k s u s i n g s i m i l a r m a t e r i a l s , s t u d y p r o c e d u r e s and t e s t s i t u a t i o n s . F o r e x a m p l e , a good t e s t o f t h i s a c c o u n t w o u l d be t o compare p e r f o r m a n c e b e t w e e n c a t e g o r y p r o d u c t i o n and c a t e g o r y c u e d r e c a l l . T h i s way, t h e m a t e r i a l s , t h e s t u d y p r o c e d u r e s , a n d t h e c u e s a t t e s t c o u l d be k e p t i d e n t i c a l e x c e p t f o r t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s g i v e n t o t h e s u b j e c t t h a t w o u l d make t h e t e s t e i t h e r i m p l i c i t o r e x p l i c i t . More g e n e r a l l y , t h e two e x p e r i m e n t s were u s e f u l i n i d e n t i f y i n g s t u d y p r o c e d u r e s and i m p l i c i t t a s k s t h a t a r e 55 a p p r o p r i a t e f o r f u r t h e r s t u d i e s . B e c a u s e i m p l i c i t t a s k s h a v e n o t b e e n u s e d p r e v i o u s l y i n mood d e p e n d e n c e s t u d i e s , t a s k s had t o be f o u n d t h a t ( a ) showed p r i m i n g o v e r r e l a t i v e l y l o n g p e r i o d s o f t i m e , and ( b ) a l l o w e d f o r s e l f -i n i t i a t e d p r o c e s s i n g b o t h a t s t u d y and a t t e s t t o i n c r e a s e t h e p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t t h e y w o u l d be s e n s i t i v e t o mood c o n t e x t . C l e a r l y , f r o m t h e r e s u l t s o f E x p e r i m e n t 2, t h e a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l s t u d y t a s k was s e n s i t i v e t o mood c o n t e x t , a t l e a s t when p a i r e d w i t h a f r e e r e c a l l t e s t . The c a t e g o r y p r o d u c t i o n t a s k ( E x p e r i m e n t 1) and t h e p i c t u r e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n t a s k ( a s m o d i f i e d i n E x p e r i m e n t 2) showed s i g n i f i c a n t p r i m i n g o v e r a 2 d a y s t u d y - t e s t i n t e r v a l . A l l o f t h e s e t a s k s a l l o w t h e s u b j e c t t o g e n e r a t e t h e m a t e r i a l s w i t h l i t t l e r e l i a n c e on e x t e r n a l c u e s . The s t e m c o m p l e t i o n t a s k i s l e s s l i k e l y t o be u s e f u l i n f u t u r e s t u d i e s b e c a u s e o f t h e l o w p e r f o r m a n c e r a t e s a f t e r a two d a y i n t e r v a l . 56 Footnotes: 1. The automatic process view of mood i s e x e m p l i f i e d by network a c t i v a t i o n theory proposed by Bower (1981). By t h i s view, e x p e r i e n c i n g a mood makes c e r t a i n memories and i n f o r m a t i o n more l i k e l y to come to mind. Each d i s t i n c t emotion has a s p e c i f i c u n i t connecting i t t o p h y s i o l o g i c a l and I n f o r m a t i o n a l aspects of t h a t emotion, i n c l u d i n g d e s c r i p t i o n s of events from one's l i f e d u r i n g which t h a t emotion was aroused. When a c t i v a t e d above a t h r e s h o l d , the emotion u n i t t r a n s m i t s e x c i t a t i o n throughout the memory s t r u c t u r e s to which i t i s connected, thereby i n c r e a s i n g the a c c e s s i b i l i t y of a s s o c i a t e d i n f o r m a t i o n and event memories while the emotion i s being experienced. 2. While completion baserates were not c o l l e c t e d from the present s u b j e c t s , the same m a t e r i a l s had been used i n a s i m i l a r p revious study ( E i c h , p e r s o n a l communication) where baserates were assessed. 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