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The interpretation of metaphor Romaniw, Irene 1989

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THE INTERPRETATION OF METAPHOR By I r e n e Romaniw B.Ed., The U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a , 1980 THESIS SUBMITTED I N THE REQUIREMENTS MASTER PARTIAL FULFILLMENT FOR THE DEGREE OF OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA O c t o b e r 1989 (S) I r e n e Romaniw, 1989 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of E n g l i s h The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada n a t „ O c t o b e r 13, 1989 DE-6 (2/88) 0 A b s t r a c t T h i s t h e s i s a t t e m p t s t o e x p l a i n e x a c t l y how i t i s t h a t we i n t e r p r e t m e t a p h o r . A b r i e f h i s t o r i c a l o v e r v i e w o f t h e s u b s t i t u t i o n , c o m p a r i s o n a n d i n t e r a c t i o n m e t h o d s i s o f f e r e d . Then t h e b a s i c s t e p s w i t h i n t h e s e t h e o r i e s a r e a l i g n e d w i t h c u r r e n t t h o u g h t s on t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f m e t a p h o r f r o m w i t h i n s e m a n t i c t h e o r y . B e c a u s e o f t h e s e l f - i m p o s e d r e s t r i c t i o n s w i t h i n s e m a n t i c t h e o r y , a s e m a n t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f m e t a p h o r i s an e x t r e m e l y l i m i t e d one. The p r o b l e m s o f d e f i n i t i o n o f m e a n i n g , t h e a l l o w a n c e o f d e v i a n t l a n g u a g e a n d t h e n a t u r e o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s y n t a x a n d s e m a n t i c s a r e c o n s i d e r e d b e f o r e a d a p t i n g Samuel L e v i n ' s S e m a n t i c s o f M e t a p h o r . L e v i n o f f e r s a f o r m u l a , b a s e d on s e m a n t i c t h e o r y , w h e r e b y a g o o d b a s i c f r a m e w o r k i s p r o v i d e d t o o u t l i n e t h e s t e p s i n v o l v e d i n t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f m e t a p h o r . By e x t e n d i n g L e v i n ' s t h e o r y a n d b y t e s t i n g t h i s e x t e n d e d v e r s i o n a g a i n s t c o m p l e x m e t a p h o r , a more c o m p r e h e n s i v e a p p r o a c h t o t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f m e t a p h o r i s o f f e r e d . F u r t h e r m o r e , a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e e x t e n d e d t h e o r y t o i n c r e a s i n g l y c o m p l e x m e t a p h o r s r e v e a l s a c o n s i s t e n t and p r e d i c t a b l e p a t t e r n t r a c e a b l e t h r o u g h o u t t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n p r o c e s s w h i c h , i n t u r n , c a n o n l y be r e f l e c t i v e o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a t t e r n s o f human t h o u g h t . Table of Contents A b s t r a c t i i L i s t of Tables • iv Acknowledgements • v Chapter 1. H i s t o r i c a l Background 1 Chapter 2. Semantic Theory Extended 19 Chapter 3. P a t t e r n s Within Metaphor 44 C o n c l u s i o n 71 B i b l i o g r a p h y 77 i i i L i s t of Tables Tables Page 1 C o n s t r u a l s f o r Hamlet's l u t e scene 59 2 C o n s t r u a l s f o r Donne's "The Sun R i s i n g " 63 i v Acknowledgement s F i r s t I would l i k e t o thank Dr. N. Johnson o f t h e E n g l i s h Department and Dr. T. P a t t o n o f t h e P h i l o s o p h y Department f o r t h e i r g r e a t e n t h u s i a s m , t h e i r p a t i e n c e and t h e i r f u l l s u p p o r t i n h e l p i n g t o make t h i s p r o j e c t a r e a l i t y . My g r a t i t u d e a l s o goes t o Dr. L. B r i n t o n o f t h e E n g l i s h Department f o r her many v a l u a b l e s u g g e s t i o n s , and t o Dr. L. R i c o u , a l s o o f t h e E n g l i s h Department, f o r h e l p i n g me i n i t i a t e t h i s p r o j e c t . A l s o , v e r y s p e c i a l t h a n k s goes t o numerous c o l l e a g u e s and s t u d e n t s a t Vancouver Community C o l l e g e f o r t h e i r i n t e r e s t and encouragement w i t h my i n d e b t e d g r a t i t u d e g o i n g t o M i c h a e l Schwarz f o r s a v i n g t h e m a n u s c r i p t (more t h a n once) and t o M i c h a e l B u c k l e y f o r t h a t l a s t push and t h e g r e a t s o u r c e of i n s p i r a t i o n . v CHAPTER 1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND As metaphor so predominantly appears i n so many d i f f e r e n t types of d i s c o u r s e , metaphor and thought seem to be i n t e r r e l a t e d . P o t e n t i a l l y , a f u l l e r understanding of metaphor would c o n t r i b u t e t o a b e t t e r understanding of human thought and human nature. E x i s t i n g t h e o r i e s attempt t o account f o r p a r t i c u l a r aspects of metaphor, but w i t h i n the complex, or extended metaphor numerous i n t e r a c t i o n s occur. By c o n s i d e r i n g the l i n g u i s t i c f e a t u r e s of metaphor, both semantic and c o n t e x t u a l , a more comprehensive and p r e c i s e d e p i c t i o n of how we process metaphor can be o f f e r e d . To date, l i n g u i s t i c models have perpetuated a dichotomy between s c i e n t i f i c / o r d i n a r y and p o e t i c metaphor. By a p p l y i n g a l i n g u i s t i c model to p o e t i c metaphor, I w i l l at once dispense with the l i n g u i s t i c dichotomy and extend semantic theory. Furthermore, by o f f e r i n g a s y n t h e s i s of semantic and c o n t e x t u a l p r i n c i p l e s at work, I w i l l demonstrate an accurate account of both the simple and the more complex or extended metaphor. This 1 w i l l , i n t u r n , r e v e a l h i g h l y c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n s w i t h i n the complex metaphor which support the p r e s u p p o s i t i o n t h a t metaphor and thought p a t t e r n s are r e l a t e d . Thus, e s s e n t i a l l y , I w i l l take a l i n g u i s t i c approach i n an attempt to o u t l i n e the r h e t o r i c a l or a c t u a l use of metaphor. I n i t i a l l y , i t i s necessary to assume t h a t the p a t t e r n s w i t h i n metaphor mimic or stem from the p a t t e r n s of thought t h a t l e a d us not only t o c r e a t e , but a l s o to i n t e r p r e t the complexity of our c r e a t i o n . Metaphor i s s i g n i f i c a n t because the r e s u l t of p a i r i n g word "A" a l o n g s i d e word "B" i s not A + B. Rather, through i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , the r e s u l t i s an a l t o g e t h e r new concept "C". T h i s new concept "C" i s d i r e c t l y i n l i n e with the " c o n s t r u c t i o n i s t " p o i n t of view which s u b s c r i b e s to the p o s i t i o n t h a t "knowledge of r e a l i t y . . . i s a r e s u l t of going beyond the i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n . " 1 Just how we go beyond the l i t e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n given, A + B, to a r r i v e at the f i g u r a t i v e or intended "C" meaning of metaphor, i s the s u b j e c t of d i s c u s s i o n here. Thus, a t h e o r e t i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n i s o f f e r e d as to what e x a c t l y i t i s w i t h i n the metaphor and the steps we go through t h a t l e a d us to a r r i v e at a standard i n t e r p r e t a t i o n which i s the intended meaning, beyond the l i t e r a l , w ith the r e s u l t i n g new concept"C". Furthermore, I am o p e r a t i n g on the assumption t h a t t h e r e i s no d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between s c i e n t i f i c or o r d i n a r y and 2 p o e t i c language, as i t i s the use of the language and not the language i t s e l f which i s d i s t i n c t i v e . 2 P r i m a r i l y , then, an accurate account of metaphor would d e s c r i b e the p r i n c i p l e s at work w i t h i n the language i t s e l f and would thus account f o r any given usage t o which the language i s a p p l i e d , be i t s c i e n t i f i c , p o e t i c or j u s t p l a i n everyday usage. No account of metaphor would be complete, however, without c o n s i d e r i n g the t h r e e most widely h e l d t h e o r i e s of metaphor: s u b s t i t u t i o n , comparison and i n t e r a c t i o n . In t r a c i n g t h e i r development, i t becomes evident t h a t they are indeed i n f l u e n t i a l i n having formed today's h i g h l y compatible t h e o r i e s w i t h i n semantics and pragmatics. An examination of the h i s t o r i c a l development t h a t leads to today's views not only r e v e a l s the c u r r e n t t r e n d s of thought on metaphor, but a l s o sheds l i g h t on present l i m i t a t i o n s , and thus suggests steps t h a t need to be taken i n order to extend e x i s t i n g t h e o r i e s . I t was as e a r l y as the 3 r d Century B.C. t h a t metaphor was s i n g l e d out and addressed as a unique and p r e v a l e n t form of e x p r e s s i o n . A c c o r d i n g to A r i s t o t l e , "proper or r e g u l a r [terms] and the m e t a p h o r i c a l . . . are used by everybody i n c o n v e r s a t i o n . " 3 Because A r i s t o t l e was concerned with the a p p r o p r i a t e usage of language, he f r e q u e n t l y s t r o v e t o e x p l a i n the workings of metaphor i n terms of d e l i v e r y , i n t e r p r e t a b i l i t y and o v e r a l l 3 e f f e c t . I t was A r i s t o t l e who i n i t i a l l y l a i d t h e groundwork f o r th e "comparison" and " s u b s t i t u t i o n " t h e o r i e s o f metaphor t h a t p e r s i s t even t o d a y . F u r t h e r m o r e , t r a c e s o f t h e " i n t e r a c t i o n " t h e o r y , which was more f u l l y d e v e l o p e d i n t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , can be found i n h i s w r i t i n g s as w e l l . The comparison t h e o r y , as i t i s known t o d a y , b a s i c a l l y m a i n t a i n s t h a t a metaphor f u n c t i o n s t o compare o r t o l i k e n one t h i n g t o a n o t h e r , v e r y much i n t h e same way t h a t a s i m i l e o p e r a t e s . I n t h e T o p i c s , i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n on t h e n a t u r e of d e f i n i t i o n , A r i s t o t l e p o i n t s out t h a t metaphor "does make...meaning t o some e x t e n t c l e a r because o f t h e l i k e n e s s i n v o l v e d ; f o r t h o s e who use metaphors do so always i n view o f some l i k e n e s s " 4 (emphasis mine) . The use o f t h e word l i k e n e s s here i s s i g n i f i c a n t , f o r A r i s t o t l e does i n d e e d i n t e n d t h a t metaphor and s i m i l e be viewed as p a r a l l e l , which, as we s h a l l see l a t e r on, he makes c l e a r i n h i s R h e t o r i c . Max B l a c k , i n h i s Models and Metaphors, r e f e r s t o t h e comparison t h e o r y as "a view o f metaphor as a condensed or e l l i p t i c a l s i m i l e . " 5 T h i s , o f c o u r s e , can be t r a c e d back d i r e c t l y t o A r i s t o t l e ' s own words i n R h e t o r i c , where he s t a t e s t h a t "The s i m i l e a l s o i s a metaphor; t h e d i f f e r e n c e i s but s l i g h t . " 6 About t h i s " d i f f e r e n c e " , A r i s t o t l e f u r t h e r expands by s a y i n g t h a t metaphor d i f f e r s from t h e s i m i l e " o n l y i n t h e way i t 4 i s p u t . . . i t [ t h e s i m i l e ] d o e s n o t s a y o u t r i g h t t h a t x t h i s ' i s x t h a t ' . " 7 Thus a p a r a l l e l i s d r a w n w h e r e b y t h e s i m i l e a n d t h e m e t a p h o r a r e b o t h s e e n as o p e r a t i n g i n a v e r y s i m i l a r way, t h a t i s b y c o m p a r i n g one t h i n g t o a n o t h e r , w i t h t h e o n l y d i f f e r e n c e b e i n g i n t h e p h r a s i n g i t s e l f . The m e t a p h o r s t a t e s t h e c o m p a r i s o n d i r e c t l y , s a y i n g t h a t one t h i n g is. a n o t h e r , w h i l e t h e s i m i l e makes i t s c o m p a r i s o n u s i n g t h e w o r d s " a s " o r " l i k e " i n i t s p h r a s i n g . From B l a c k ' s p o i n t o f v i e w ( t h e c o m p a r i s o n t h e o r y ) , a m e t a p h o r s u c h a s " R i c h a r d i s a l i o n " c a n be t r a n s l a t e d l i t e r a l l y as " R i c h a r d i s l i k e a l i o n ( i n b e i n g b r a v e ) " 8 . The s u b s t i t u t i o n t h e o r y h a s a component o f l i t e r a l n e s s i n i t a s w e l l . W h i l e t h e c o m p a r i s o n t h e o r y o f f e r s a c o m p l e t e p a r a p h r a s e o f t h e m e t a p h o r , t h e s u b s t i t u t i o n t h e o r y o f f e r s a d i r e c t w o r d - f o r - w o r d r e p l a c e m e n t . F o r e x a m p l e , i n t h e m e t a p h o r , " R i c h a r d i s a l i o n , " " l i o n " i s d i r e c t l y s u b s t i t u t e d w i t h t h e w o r d " b r a v e , " a n d t h e m e t a p h o r becomes " R i c h a r d i s b r a v e . " Now c e r t a i n l y , w i t h m e t a p h o r s a s o b v i o u s a s t h i s one, t h e s u b s t i t u t i o n t h e o r y c a n a d e q u a t e l y a c c o u n t f o r s u c h a r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e i n t e r p r e t i v e p r o c e s s . However, as i s more o f t e n t h e c a s e , t h e m e t a p h o r i s n o t a l w a y s q u i t e as o b v i o u s , a n d t h e more e x t r a o r d i n a r y t h e c o m p a r i s o n , t h e more c o m p l e x i s t h e p r o c e s s r e q u i r e d t o a p p r o p r i a t e l y i n t e r p r e t t h e i n t e n d e d m e a n i n g o f s u c h a m e t a p h o r . 5 I t i s w i t h t h i s i n m i n d t h a t t h e i n t e r a c t i o n t h e o r y was d e v e l o p e d t o b e t t e r a c c o u n t f o r a more c o m p l e x p r o c e s s i n g o f m e t a p h o r . I . A. R i c h a r d s f i r s t o u t l i n e d t h i s p r i n c i p l e o f m e t a p h o r i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n : . . . m eaning [ i s ] . . . t h e d e l e g a t e d e f f i c a c y o f s i g n s b y w h i c h t h e y b r i n g t o g e t h e r i n t o new u n i t i e s t h e a b s t r a c t s , o r a s p e c t s , w h i c h a r e t h e m i s s i n g p a r t s o f t h e i r v a r i o u s c o n t e x t s . . . a w o r d i s n o r m a l l y a s u b s t i t u t e f o r ( o r means) n o t one d i s c r e t e p a s t i m p r e s s i o n b u t a c o m b i n a t i o n o f g e n e r a l a s p e c t s . . . . I n t h e s i m p l e s t f o r m u l a t i o n , when we u s e a m e t a p h o r we h a v e two t h o u g h t s o f d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s a c t i v e t o g e t h e r a n d s u p p o r t e d b y a s i n g l e w o r d , o r p h r a s e , whose m e a n i n g i s a r e s u l t a n t o f t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n . 9 A t t h e b a s i s o f a l l t h i s e x i s t s an a c k n o w l e d g e m e n t o f b o t h t h e c o m p a r i s o n a n d t h e s u b s t i t u t i o n t h e o r i e s . F o r a t o n c e , t h e r e i s a c o m p a r i s o n r e q u i r e d w i t h "two t h o u g h t s o f d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s a c t i v e t o g e t h e r " a n d t h e r e i s a s u b s t i t u t i o n p r o c e s s w h e r e b y "a w o r d i s n o r m a l l y a s u b s t i t u t e . " R i c h a r d s d o e s , h o w e v e r , go b e y o n d mere c o m p a r i s o n o r s u b s t i t u t i o n b y c o m b i n i n g t h e s e two p r o c e s s e s a n d by a d m i t t i n g t h e e x i s t e n c e o f "new u n i t i e s " f r o m a c o m b i n a t i o n o f g e n e r a l a s p e c t s . " I n o t h e r w o r d s , new i d e a s a r e c r e a t e d w i t h a c o m b i n a t i o n o f f e a t u r e s t a k e n f r o m t h e two c o n c e p t s i n v o l v e d i n t h e c o m p a r i s o n f o r m a t o f t h e m e t a p h o r . T h i s 6 r e s u l t s i n a dynamic theory which has the c a p a c i t y t o e x p l a i n more adequately the i n t r i c a c i e s i n v o l v e d i n the p r o c e s s i n g of metaphor. Max Black c o n t r i b u t e s t o the i n t e r a c t i o n theory f u r t h e r by emphasizing the "new meaning" t h a t a metaphor c r e a t e s : [ i t ] . . . i s not q u i t e i t s meaning i n l i t e r a l uses nor q u i t e the meaning which any l i t e r a l s u b s t i t u t e would have. The new con t e x t . . . imposes ext e n s i o n of meaning...[and] the reader...must att e n d t o both the o l d and new meanings t o g e t h e r . 1 0 A c c o r d i n g t o Black, we have a new meaning which i s not a l i t e r a l one. Black o b j e c t s s t r o n g l y t o the n o t i o n of " l i t e r a l n e s s " i n metaphor f o r two reasons. F i r s t , he sees the new r e s u l t a n t meaning as something other than l i t e r a l . On the b a s i s of t h i s , he d e s c r i b e s the i n t e r a c t i o n theory as b e i n g i n o p p o s i t i o n to both the comparison and s u b s t i t u t i o n t h e o r i e s . 1 1 Black sees the need t o i n c l u d e not j u s t the l i t e r a l d e n o t a t i o n of a word, but a l s o i t s system of " a s s o c i a t e d commonplaces." He p r e f e r s t o see the meaning of a word as a system of t h i n g s r a t h e r than as a t h i n g i n and of i t s e l f . The system i n c l u d e s " a s s o c i a t e d " meanings which may be d e r i v e d from some knowledge t h a t may be commonplace or which may have been p r e v i o u s l y e s t a b l i s h e d by the w r i t e r . So i t would appear t h a t he i s arguing t o i n c l u d e 7 connotations, among other t h i n g s , as p a r t of the system of l e g i t i m a t e f e a t u r e s of a word which may then be s e l e c t e d t o i n t e r a c t with and u l t i m a t e l y t o a f f e c t some change i n another word. As s t a t e d p r e v i o u s l y , Black sees the i n t e r a c t i o n theory as incomp a t i b l e with comparison and s u b s t i t u t i o n . C e r t a i n l y , i f comparison and s u b s t i t u t i o n operated only with the l i t e r a l d e n o t a t i v e aspects of the words i n v o l v e d i n the metaphor, then they would be inadequate owing t o such a r e s t r i c t i o n . 1 2 Black f u r t h e r o b j e c t s t o the comparison and s u b s t i t u t i o n t h e o r i e s on c o g n i t i v e grounds: ...the set of l i t e r a l statements so obt a i n e d w i l l not have the same power t o inform and e n l i g h t e n as the o r i g i n a l [the metaphor]. ...One of the p o i n t s I most wish t o s t r e s s i s t h a t the l o s s i n such cases i s a l o s s i n c o g n i t i v e content; the r e l e v a n t weakness of the l i t e r a l paraphrase i s not t h a t i t may be t i r e s o m e l y p r o l i x or b o r i n g l y e x p l i c i t (or d e f i c i e n t i n q u a l i t i e s of s t y l e ) ; i t f a i l s t o be a t r a n s l a t i o n because i t f a i l s t o gi v e the i n s i g h t t h a t the metaphor d i d . 1 3 Black may not be a l t o g e t h e r i n c o r r e c t on t h i s matter; A r i s t o t l e ' s view i s s i m i l a r on t h i s p o i n t . A r i s t o t l e would h o l d t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e between the l i t e r a l and the me t a p h o r i c a l would be a 8 matter of s t y l e and, of course, t h a t s t y l e can do much to c r e a t e e f f e c t . 1 4 Although a t r a n s l a t i o n i s not e x a c t l y the same as an o r i g i n a l , i t most c e r t a i n l y can be acknowledged as a reasonable s u b s t i t u t e , and thus o f f e r s some s i m i l a r i t y t o the o r i g i n a l . The same i s t r u e of t r a n s l a t i o n i n moving from language t o language. For i f i t i s done c a r e f u l l y , i t can be accepted as f a i t h f u l to the o r i g i n a l , although the t r a n s l a t i o n i t s e l f can never be e x a c t l y the same as the o r i g i n a l . T h i s i s not to say t h a t every t r a n s l a t i o n i s a f a i l u r e ; i t i s r a t h e r the e x p r e s s i o n of a s i m i l a r concept expressed i n a d i f f e r e n t mode. Black does, however, reco g n i z e the u s e f u l n e s s of the comparison and s u b s t i t u t i o n t h e o r i e s f o r what he c a l l s the more " t r i v i a l " cases of metaphor. These s o - c a l l e d " t r i v i a l " metaphors are those which operate on a much simpler l e v e l ; t h e r e f o r e , a d i r e c t l i t e r a l replacement does no harm t o the o r i g i n a l intended meaning. One might argue t h a t " t r i v i a l " i s not the c o r r e c t word, and t h a t perhaps "simple" would b e t t e r d e s c r i b e such metaphors; however, i t i s u s e f u l t o reco g n i z e t h a t t h e r e are v a r y i n g degrees of complexity among metaphors. I t i s the i n t e r a c t i o n theory which i s capable of h a n d l i n g such complexity and more adequately e x p l a i n i n g the working p r i n c i p l e s of metaphor. At about the same time as Richards was v o i c i n g h i s op i n i o n s on meaning and metaphor, l i n g u i s t s were b e g i n n i n g t o formulate 9 t h e o r i e s t h a t would e v e n t u a l l y b r i n g another p e r s p e c t i v e to the study of meaning through a f i e l d of study c a l l e d "semantics." Likewise, i t was d u r i n g the 1960's, t h a t Black developed h i s theory of i n t e r a c t i o n and t h a t s e m a n t i c i s t s s t a r t e d d e t a i l i n g the p r i n c i p l e s of t h e i r theory. I t i s no small c o i n c i d e n c e t h a t the i n t e r a c t i o n theory and some of the working p r i n c i p l e s behind semantics have a great d e a l i n common. B a s i c a l l y semantics can be d e f i n e d as the study of meanings and of the m e a n i n g - r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the words and the v a r y i n g s t r u c t u r e s w i t h i n the language. In an e f f o r t t o p r o v i d e a theory t h a t i s f i x e d and e m p i r i c a l l y sound, e a r l y s e m a n t i c i s t s set up d i s t i n c t i o n s t o c l e a r l y d e f i n e t h e i r approach t o the study of language. One of the most s i g n i f i c a n t d i s t i n c t i o n s , echoed by both the Russian F o r m a l i s t s and the Prague School, i s e x p l a i n e d by Saussure as the "langue/parole" d i s t i n c t i o n , whereby "langue" r e f e r s to the o r d i n a r y or every day usage of language t h a t the l i n g u i s t i s d e a l i n g with, while " p a r o l e " c o n s i s t s of such t h i n g s as d i a l e c t and l i t e r a t u r e . 1 5 The c r u c i a l d i s t i n c t i o n here i s t h a t p a r o l e c o n t a i n s e x t r a l i n g u i s t i c f e a t u r e s , which the l i n g u i s t does not d e a l with. Modern day l i n g u i s t s r e f e r t o the " c l a s s i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n " of "language" and "speech." 1 6 By d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between "normal" l i t e r a l uses of language and " d e v i a n t , " f i g u r a t i v e uses of language, the l i n g u i s t i s 10 attempting t o d e a l with a pure form of the language, which i n t u r n , would l e n d i t s e l f w e l l i n e s t a b l i s h i n g u n i v e r s a l s about the language. But a major d i f f i c u l t y a r i s e s f o r l i n g u i s t s i n making the d i s t i n c t i o n between normal and deviant uses of language. For i n so t r y i n g t o f i x language as a s t a t i c e n t i t y , they have r e s t r i c t e d themselves to such an extent t h a t they can handle only c e r t a i n aspects of meaning. Fodor and Katz, f o r example, t r y to d e l i m i t meaning to the use of " d i c t i o n a r y " d e f i n i t i o n s . 1 7 Consequently, only p a r t i c u l a r aspects of meaning are handled, and common knowledge about the s u b j e c t , or a s s o c i a t e d (connotative) meanings are not allowed f o r w i t h i n t h i s framework. Thus, there i s an i n a b i l i t y on the p a r t of the theory to handle the p r o c e s s i n g of e x p r e s s i o n s t h a t are c a l l e d " d e v i a n t . " Fodor and Katz s t a t e the l i m i t a t i o n s as f o l l o w s : ...a complete theory of t h i s k i n d i s not p o s s i b l e i n p r i n c i p l e because... i t would be r e q u i r e d t h a t the theory r e p r e s e n t a l l the knowledge speakers have a b o u t t h e world. 1 8 But Chomsky, aware of the shortcomings of the theory, p o i n t s out t h a t i t i s necessary to p r o v i d e an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n f o r some of those deviances t h a t occur, even though they are p r e s e n t l y 11 seen by the theory as b r e a k i n g the r u l e s . Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t here i s Chomsky's r e f e r e n c e t o metaphor: Sentences t h a t break s e l e c t i o n a l r u l e s can o f t e n be i n t e r p r e t e d m e t a p h o r i c a l l y . . . or a l l u s i v e l y i n one way or another, i f an a p p r o p r i a t e context i s s u p p l i e d . 1 9 One of the key words here i s context; t h i s t h e o r e t i c a l a t t e n t i o n t o context p a r a l l e l s Black's e a r l i e r argument t o a l l o w a s s o c i a t e d meaning w i t h i n the realm of p o s s i b l e f e a t u r e s which can be t r a n s f e r r e d from one word to another. L i n g u i s t s would r e f e r to t h i s problem as one of d e f i n i n g "semantic f i e l d s " . The major problems t h a t l i n g u i s t s f a ce i n e s t a b l i s h i n g semantic theory are t h r e e f o l d . F i r s t , t h e r e i s a need to a l i g n e x i s t i n g t h e o r i e s of the more d e t a i l e d and rule-bound study of g e n e r a t i v e syntax with t h a t of the s t i l l t o be formed semantics. That t h e r e i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two i s c e r t a i n , but the exact nature of t h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p i s yet to be c l e a r l y d e f i n e d . I t i s w e l l known t h a t syntax i s rule-based, but t h i s i s not n e c e s s a r i l y the case with semantics. I f i t c o u l d be accepted t h a t semantics i s tendency based, as John Lyons suggests 2 0, a g r e a t e r f l e x i b i l i t y would l o g i c a l l y f o l l o w when s e t t i n g up parameters f o r the study of semantics. (One p o s s i b l e l i n k between syntax and semantics i s suggested i n Chapter 3, when I 12 d i s c u s s the r o l e of function-words and t h e i r q u a l i t i e s of " i n t e r r e l a t e d n e s s " w i t h i n the extended metaphor.) Secondly, t h e r e i s a need to more c l e a r l y d e f i n e meaning. I f p a r t i c u l a r aspects of meaning, such as connotation, do take p a r t i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n of newly-formed concepts, then they most c e r t a i n l y must be d e a l t with i n one form or another. I t i s not enough t o d i s m i s s them as t r i v i a l or as too numerous to be d e a l t w ith. Chomsky very a p t l y o u t l i n e s these two problems as f o l l o w s : ...one should not expect to be able to d e l i m i t a l a r g e and complex domain be f o r e i t has been thoroughly e x p l o r e d . A d e c i s i o n as to the boundary s e p a r a t i n g syntax and semantics ( i f t h e r e i s one) i s not a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r t h e o r e t i c a l and d e s c r i p t i v e study of s y n t a c t i c and semantic r u l e s . On the c o n t r a r y , the problem of d e l i m i t a t i o n w i l l c l e a r l y remain open u n t i l these f i e l d s are much b e t t e r understood than they are today. E x a c t l y the same can be s a i d about the boundary s e p a r a t i n g semantic systems f o r systems of knowledge and b e l i e f . . . . One can h a r d l y achieve s i g n i f i c a n t understanding of t h i s matter i n advance of a deep a n a l y s i s of systems of semantic r u l e s , on the one hand, and systems of b e l i e f , on the o t h e r . 2 1 13 The approach t o the study of meaning i s , of course p r o b l e m a t i c , f o r as Leech p o i n t s out, the s e m a n t i c i s t would attempt t o answer the ques t i o n , "What does X mean?" whereas the pragmatist asks, "What d i d you mean by X?". 2 2 Any i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of metaphor would, of course, have t o answer both of these q u e s t i o n s . Leech goes on to e x p l a i n t h a t : ...meaning i n pragmatics i s d e f i n e d r e l a t i v e t o a speaker or user of the language, whereas meaning i n semantics i s d e f i n e d p u r e l y as a p r o p e r t y of exp r e s s i o n s i n a given language i n a b s t r a c t i o n from p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n s , speakers, or h e a r e r s . 2 3 One of Leech's p o s t u l a t e s h i g h l i g h t s t h i s d i f f e r e n c e i n approach: Semantics i s rule-governed (= grammatical); g e n e r a l pragmatics i s p r i n c i p l e - c o n t r o l l e d (= r h e t o r i c a l ) , 2 4 A c l e a r understanding of metaphor r e q u i r e s both approaches, but the methodology employed by s e m a n t i c i s t s s e t s up r e s t r i c t i o n s which s e v e r e l y l i m i t t h e i r a b i l i t y t o handle meaning o u t s i d e the l i t e r a l domain. Granted, the attempt t o d i s c o u n t any confounding v a r i a b l e s i s done i n an e f f o r t t o a t t a i n a v a l i d and exact study of the language; however, when these v a r i a n t s are determined to be h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s i n the normal 14 f u n c t i o n i n g of a l l language use, i t i s time t h a t the d e f i n i t i o n of word meaning be more f u l l y addressed. Obviously, l i n g u i s t s must somehow make allowance f o r s o - c a l l e d " d e v i a n t " language. Most d e f i n i t e l y , from the p o i n t of view of l i t e r a t u r e t h i s i s a concern, but i f we h o l d A r i s t o t l e ' s o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t metaphor i s used by everybody i n c o n v e r s t i o n t o be t r u e , then "everyday" c o n v e r s a t i o n (perhaps synonymous with o r d i n a r y language) i s f i l l e d with m e t a p h o r i c a l e x p r e s s i o n . Thus t h e r e i s a need, as Chomsky has a l r e a d y p o i n t e d out, to p r o v i d e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n f o r metaphor. There has been some response on the p a r t of the l i n g u i s t i c community t o d e a l with some of these problems. Weinreich's p r o p o s a l 2 5 seemed to h o l d some promise i n a l l o w i n g the grammar to generate and accept deviant sentences of the nature d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r . But, as yet, t h i s approach has not gained r e c o g n i t i o n . T h i s i s evidenced i n the numerous s t u d i e s undertaken by l i n g u i s t s , (of which Katz (1972) i s but one) i n which sentence s t r u c t u r e and the r u l e s of g e n e r a t i v e syntax h o l d f i r m to d i s c o u n t deviance. In Katz's study, 2 6 he maintains a p o s i t i o n on deviance, whereby i f the sentence does not f i t i n t o h i s c o n s t r u c t of s e l e c t i o n r e s t r i c t i o n s , the r e a d i n g i s b l o c k e d and thus r e c e i v e s no i n t e r p r e t a t i o n at a l l . The study i s a most i n s i g h t f u l one, but i t does not account f o r deviance. Metaphor 15 most c e r t a i n l y f a l l s i n t o t h i s category of deviance, as i t i s o f t e n d i s r e g a r d s the l i t e r a l n e s s of the language. The sentence, "She i s a b a c h e l o r , " f o r example, c o u l d not be giv e n a readi n g w i t h i n Katz's r e s t r i c t i o n s , because of the i n c o m p a t a b i l i t y i n f e a t u r e s of the [+ female] and [+ male] f e a t u r e s of "she" and "bachelor". M e t a p h o r i c a l l y , i t i s e a s i l y i n t e r p r e t e d as we q u i t e r e a d i l y drop the [+ male] requirement of "bachelor" and p i c k up on a l l the other q u a l i t i e s bachelorhood i m p l i e s . I t i s t h i s move from the l i t e r a l t o the n o n - l i t e r a l t h a t the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of metaphor i n v o l v e s , and i t i s t h e r e f o r e t h i s process t h a t needs to be examined. What would be most u s e f u l i s a semantic approach t h a t c o u l d formulate r u l e s which r e f l e c t the way language a c t u a l l y works. Any t r u e r e f l e c t i o n of language takes i n t o account j u s t what i t i s behind the language t h a t makes i t work, and of course, t h a t i s the language users and t h e i r thought p a t t e r n s . One of the most promising s t u d i e s by f a r has been Samuel Levin's The Semantics of Metaphor. In h i s treatment of the sub j e c t , L e v i n r e c o g n i z e s some of the major d i f f i c u l t i e s l i n g u i s t s must f a c e . Although he does not t r y to s o l v e a l l these d i f f i c u l t i e s , he does focus on a semantic i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of metaphor, which proves t o y i e l d some f r u i t f u l r e s u l t s . With some l o o s e n i n g of Katz's r e s t r i c t i o n s , he proposes a schema which o u t l i n e s s i x 16 modes o f c o n s t r u a l . I n t h i s way he p r o v i d e s a g o o d b a s i c f r a m e w o r k as t o how we u n d e r s t a n d m e t a p h o r . W i t h some f u r t h e r a d a p t a t i o n a n d e x t e n s i o n , t h e w o r k i n g p r i n c i p l e s o f m e t a p h o r c a n be more f u l l y u n d e r s t o o d . N o t e s *Andrew O r t o n y , " M e t a p h o r : A M u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l P r o b l e m , " M e t a p h o r a n d T h o u g h t ( C a m b r i d g e : C a m b r i d g e UP, 1979) 10. 2 O r t o n y , 1. 3 A r i s t o t l e , The Works o f A r i s t o t l e , e d . R. M. H u t c h i n s ( C h i c a g o : W i l l i a m B e n t o n , Pub., 1952) v o l . 2, 655. " A r i s t o t l e , v o l . 1 , 193. 5Max B l a c k , M o d e l s a n d M e t a p h o r s ( I t h a c a , NY: C o r n e l l UP, 1962) 35. 6 A r i s t o t l e , v o l . 2, 657. 7 A r i s t o t l e , V o l . 2, 662. 8 B l a c k , 36. 9 I . A. R i c h a r d s , The P h i l o s o p h y o f R h e t o r i c ( L o n d o n : O x f o r d UP, 1936) 93. 1 0 B l a c k , 39. 17 n W h i l e I would agree t h a t the r e s u l t a n t meaning goes beyond the l i t e r a l aspects of the words i n v o l v e d , I would argue t h a t the i n t e r a c t i o n i s a c o n s t r u c t i v e process whereby we begin with the l i t e r a l , with t h a t which i s known. By making a comparison we s e l e c t and combine f e a t u r e s from the words i n v o l v e d to a r r i v e at a new meaning, which i s indeed a form of s u b s t i t u t i o n . I t i s not a s u b s t i t u t i o n of one to one l i t e r a l meanings but r a t h e r a s u b s t i t u t i o n from the l i t e r a l , through the c o n s t r u c t i v e i n t e r a c t i v e process, to the f i g u r a t i v e or newly formed concept. 1 2 I would argue t h a t whether we are comparing the l i t e r a l or the a s s o c i a t e d meanings, a comparison i s t a k i n g p l a c e , n o n e t h e l e s s . For what we do when we compare i s h o l d up two o b j e c t s , or i n t h i s case two words, and examine them f o r s i m i l a r i t i e s and/or d i f f e r e n c e s . Once t h i s has been e s t a b l i s h e d , the next step i n making sense of the metaphor i s t o s u b s t i t u t e s e l e c t e d q u a l i t i e s from one word to the other, and thus we r e o r g a n i z e our thoughts on the matter. A s u b s t i t u t i o n does indeed take p l a c e w i t h i n the i n t e r a c t i o n process, and i t may or may not i n v o l v e l i t e r a l meanings. So, i n f a c t , comparison and s u b s t i t u t i o n are not i n the l e a s t incompatible with i n t e r a c t i o n , but r a t h e r are p a r t of the a c t u a l p r o c e s s . "Black, 46. " A r i s t o t l e , v o l . 2 , 654. 18 1 5 M a r y L o u i s e P r a t t , T o w a r d a S p e e c h A c t T h e o r y o f L i t e r a r y  D i s c o u r s e ( B l o o m i n g t o n : I n d i a n a UP, 1977) c h . 1. 1 6 J e r r o l d J . K a t z and P a u l M. P o s t a l , p r e f . , An I n t e g r a t e d  T h e o r y o f L i n g u i s t i c D e s c r i p t i o n s ( C a m b r i d g e , MA: MIT P r e s s , 1964) i x . 1 7 F o r a f u l l d i s c u s s i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s i n v o l v i n g d i c t i o n a r y e n t r i e s s e e J e r r y A. F o d o r a n d J e r r o l d J . K a t z , "The Components o f a S e m a n t i c T h e o r y , " The S t r u c t u r e o f L a n g u a g e ( E n g l e w o o d C l i f f s , N J : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , 1964) 4 91-494. " F o d o r a n d K a t z , 4 8 8 -489. 1 9Noam Chomsky, A s p e c t s o f t h e T h e o r y o f S y n t a x ( C a m b r i d g e , MA: MIT P r e s s , 1965) 149. 2 0Chomsky, 159-160. 2 1 J o h n L y o n s , S e m a n t i c s 2 (1977) 549. 2 2 G e o f f r e y N. L e e c h , P r i n c i p l e s o f P r a g m a t i c s (NY: Longman I n c . , 1983) 6. " L e e c h , 6. 2 4 L e e c h , 5. 2 5 U r i e l W e i n r e i c h , " E x p l o r a t i o n s i n S e m a n t i c T h e o r y , " C u r r e n t  T r e n d s i n L i n g u i s t i c s , v o l . I l l , T h e o r e t i c a l F o u n d a t i o n s , T. A. Sebeok, e d . (The Hague: M o u t o n , 1966) 4 7 1 . 2 6 J e r r o l d J . K a t z , S e m a n t i c T h e o r y (New Y o r k : H a r p e r & Row, 1972) 43. 19 CHAPTER 2 SEMANTIC THEORY EXTENDED In t h i s c h a p t e r , L e v i n ' s s e mantic t h e o r y o f metaphor w i l l be o u t l i n e d and r e l a t e d t o l i n g u i s t s ' p r e v i o u s a t t e m p t s t o d e a l w i t h " d e v i a n c e . " The most s i g n i f i c a n t aim w i l l be t o t e s t and ex t e n d L e v i n ' s t h e o r y t o p r o v i d e a more comprehensive base w i t h which t h e workings o f metaphor can be more a c c u r a t e l y d e p i c t e d . B a s i c a l l y , s emantic f e a t u r e t h e o r y o p e r a t e s on t h e p r i n c i p l e t h a t word meanings c o n s i s t o f f e a t u r e s based on t h e p a r t i c u l a r q u a l i t i e s r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e r e f e r e n t o f t h e word. Nouns have been a s s i g n e d " i n h e r e n t " f e a t u r e s which by d e f i n i t i o n would suggest t h a t t h e i r q u a l i t i e s a r e somehow permanent and i n s e p a r a b l e . V e r b s , on t h e o t h e r hand, have " s e l e c t i o n a l " f e a t u r e s ; t h e r e f o r e v e r b s a re t h e a c t i n g f o r c e w i t h t h e a b i l i t y t o s e l e c t o n l y t h o s e nouns t h a t have f e a t u r e s c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e i r own. I n t h i s way, anomalous and c o n t r a d i c t o r y s t a t e m e n t s are not g e n e r a t e d by t h e grammar and d e v i a n c e i s a v o i d e d . Take, f o r example, a v e r b such as " g a l l o p " . I t would c o n s i s t o f f e a t u r e s such as [+ NONHUMAN, + MOTION], e t c . The [+ NONHUMAN] f e a t u r e would be a s e l e c t i o n a l r e s t r i c t i o n i n t h a t 20 the verb would opt to s e l e c t a [+ NONHUMAN] s u b j e c t . The noun "man," however, c o n s i s t s of the f o l l o w i n g f e a t u r e s : [+ HUMAN, + MALE, + ADULT] e t c . A c c o r d i n g t o the r u l e s of the grammar, the verb can only s e l e c t a noun which has compatible f e a t u r e s , thereby e l i m i n a t i n g deviance i n the form of anomalous or c o n t r a d i c t o r y statements. In t h i s case, when combining "man" and " g a l l o p s " i t i s c l e a r t h a t the verb's s e l e c t i o n of su b j e c t i s r e s t r i c t e d by the [+ HUMAN] of "man" and the [+ NONHUMAN] a t t r i b u t e of " g a l l o p s " . T h i s , then, would be viewed as a s e l e c t i o n r e s t r i c t i o n which b l o c k s the combinatory a b i l i t y of the two items i n v o l v e d . I f we s t r i c t l y adhere t o these r u l e s as they have been set up, i t i s l o g i c a l l y obvious why a statement such as "The man g a l l o p s " i s p r o b l e m a t i c . T h i s apparent c o n f l i c t between the [+ human] and the [+N0NHUMAN] a t t r i b u t e s needs be r e s o l v e d i n order t o d e r i v e a readi n g f o r the statement. But the r u l e s of the grammar allow no r e s o l u t i o n ; what happens here, i s t h a t the i n c o m p a t a b i l i t y of f e a t u r e s i s re c o g n i z e d and the sentence i s w r i t t e n o f f as deviant and consequently d i s r e g a r d e d . Such a sentence does not comply with the r u l e s and i s unable t o be read or i n t e r p r e t e d w i t h i n the c o n f i n e s of such r e s t r i c t i o n s . O bviously t h i s l i m i t e d scope of o p e r a t i o n holds r e s t r i c t i o n s 21 t h a t are too c o n f i n i n g f o r what i s normally a p p l i e d and accepted q u i t e r e a d i l y w i t h i n a c t u a l use of language. M e t a p h o r i c a l l y , of course, a statement such as "The man g a l l o p s " can be e x p l a i n e d very e a s i l y . W i t h i n the framework of the i n t e r a c t i o n theory, what we do, simply, i s suppress the [+ nonhuman] f e a t u r e of " g a l l o p " somewhat, and add i t and a l l of i t s other f e a t u r e s to the word "man". The r e s u l t of t h i s i s t h a t we r e o r g a n i z e our view of "man" i n l i g h t of the f e a t u r e s now b e i n g s u b s c r i b e d t o i t by the word " g a l l o p " . C l e a r l y , i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r i n s t a n c e , the verb i s indeed a c t i n g upon the noun t o produce a s a l i e n t change. "Man" r e t a i n s i t s o r i g i n a l [+ HUMAN] q u a l i t y but now takes on a d d i t i o n a l q u a l i t i e s such as (being in) motion and (taking) long s t r i d e s a t t r i b u t e d t o i t by the verb " g a l l o p " . Thus, semantic theory i s very u s e f u l i n t h a t i t helps to c l e a r l y d e f i n e the f e a t u r e s of the words i n v o l v e d i n an e x p r e s s i o n . However, i f the theory i s too r i g i d , and t r i e s to impose r u l e s upon the language to which the language does not comply, then i t i s time to r e v i s e the t h e o r y . What i s necessary here i s f i r s t t o accept t h a t language i s not a s t a t i c e n t i t y , but one t h a t i s ever-changing and accumulating of the needs of human e x p r e s s i o n . For i f we were to d e l i m i t meaning as Fodor suggested e a r l i e r , we would c e r t a i n l y l i m i t the range 22 o f e x p r e s s i o n s t h a t t h e grammar c o u l d t r e a t . What i s r e q u i r e d by s e m a n t i c t h e o r y i s a b u i l t - i n f l e x i b i l i t y s u c h a s t h e f l e x i b i l i t y o f f e r e d w i t h i n t h e i n t e r a c t i o n t h e o r y w h e r e b y t h e s o - c a l l e d d e v i a n t e x p r e s s i o n s t h a t do o c c u r n a t u r a l l y i n e v e r y d a y l a n g u a g e c a n be a l l o w e d a n d c a n be i n t e r p r e t e d as i n d e e d t h e y a r e i n e v e r y d a y u s a g e . Once we r e c o g n i z e t h e n e e d t o b r e a k l o o s e o f t h e c o n s t r a i n t t h a t o n l y d i c t i o n a r y d e f i n i t i o n s be a l l o w e d , t h e n e x t p r o b l e m a t i c a r e a t o be d e a l t w i t h i s t h a t o f t r a n s f e r e n c e . I n t r a d i t i o n a l s y n t a c t i c - s e m a n t i c t h e o r y n ouns h a v e i n h e r e n t f e a t u r e s , a n d i t i s t h e v e r b , w i t h i t s s e l e c t i o n a l f e a t u r e s t h a t d e t e r m i n e s t h e d e g r e e o f g r a m m a t i c a l i t y o f t h e n o u n - v e r b c o m b i n a t i o n . I n d e e d , t h i s i s a c t u a l l y t h e c a s e i n a g r e a t many e x p r e s s i o n s , as t h e e x a m p l e o f " t h e man g a l l o p s " h a s p o i n t e d o u t . The noun i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r i n s t a n c e u n d e r g o e s a c h a n g e t o t a k e on a d d i t i o n a l f e a t u r e s n o t n o r m a l l y s u b s c r i b e d t o i t . The v e r b " g a l l o p " r e m a i n s u n c h a n g e d b u t h a s a f f e c t e d a c h a n g e i n m e a n i n g i n t h e noun by i t s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e n o u n . B u t , a s L e v i n i s q u i c k t o p o i n t o u t , t h i s i s n o t a l w a y s t h e c a s e , a n d he a r g u e s t h a t a c o m p l e t e r e v e r s a l o f t h e a b o v e p r o c e d u r e i s j u s t as l i k e l y t o o c c u r . L e v i n a r g u e s t h a t n o u n s , t o o , h a v e t h e a b i l i t y o f a f f e c t c h a n g e i n v e r b s , a n d do n o t a l w a y s r e m a i n 23 the p a s s i v e r e c e i v e r s as has been p r e v i o u s l y thought by s e m a n t i c i s t s . In thus r e s t r i c t i n g the scope of t r a n s f e r f e a t u r e s , he [Weinreich] i s a p p a r e n t l y i n f l u e n c e d by Chomsky (1965) where nouns are f u r n i s h e d with i n h e r e n t f e a t u r e s and s e l e c t i o n a l f e a t u r e s are r e s e r v e d f o r verbs and other p r e d i c a t e s . . . But i f the purpose of grammar i s , among other t h i n g s to permit c o n s t r u a l of d e v i a n t e x p r e s s i o n s , then...the t r a n s f e r of (inherent) f e a t u r e s must be allowed to o r i g i n a t e from nouns. 1 T h i s i s a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n , f o r now we can r e c o g n i z e nouns as a c t i v e l y producing changes w i t h i n verbs. So the t r a n s f e r of f e a t u r e s moves from nouns to verbs i n a d d i t i o n to the p r e v i o u s l y h e l d verb to noun t r a n s f e r e n c e of f e a t u r e s only. One example t h a t makes the noun to verb f e a t u r e t r a n s f e r c l e a r i s the statement "The rose melted." 2 W i t h i n t h i s c o n s t r u c t i t i s c l e a r t h a t the noun "rose" remains unchanged while the verb "melted" undergoes a metamorphosis, dropping i t s [+LIQUID] requirement, thus becoming more a k i n t o a word such as " w i l t e d " . Numerous other examples of noun t o verb f e a t u r e t r a n s f e r s abound, and i t i s t h i s t h a t prompts L e v i n t o c a l l f o r a " f r e e r f u n c t i o n i n g of f e a t u r e t r a n s f e r " 3 so t h a t we no longer 24 h a v e o n l y v e r b t o noun (N < — V) t r a n s f e r s , b u t noun t o v e r b (N--> V) f e a t u r e t r a n s f e r s as w e l l . Thus L e v i n d e v e l o p s h i s s i x modes o f c o n s t r u a l a s f o l l o w s 4 : 4.1 A d j u n c t i o n T h e r e a r e f o u r p o s s i b i l i t i e s w i t h i n t h i s c a t e g o r y w h e r e b y f e a t u r e s a r e " a d j o i n e d " as f o l l o w s : 4.1.1 N < — V; d i s j u n c t i v e r e a d i n g - v e r b t o noun, w i t h v e r b c o n s t a n t - noun a l t e r e d b y f u s i o n w i t h s e l e c t i o n a l f e a t u r e o f v e r b - noun becomes g e n e r a l i z e d - ( i . e . ) I w o u l d n ' t do t h a t f o r l o v e o r money = a n y t h i n g 4.1.2 N < — V; c o n j u n c t i v e r e a d i n g - v e r b t o noun, w i t h v e r b c o n s t a n t - n o u n a l t e r e d b y f u s i o n w i t h s e l e c t i o n a l f e a t u r e o f v e r b - noun becomes p a r t i c u l a r i z e d ( p e r s o n i f i e d , a n i m a l i z e d o r p l a n t i f i e d ) - ( i . e . ) F a t e l a u g h s a t us a l l = P e r s o n i f i c a t i o n 4.1.3 N --> V; d i s j u n c t i v e r e a d i n g - noun t o v e r b , w i t h noun c o n s t a n t 25 - v e r b a l t e r e d b y i n h e r e n t f e a t u r e o f noun - v e r b becomes g e n e r a l i z e d - ( i . e . ) H i s c o u r a g e e v a p o r a t e d = v a n i s h e d 4.1.4 N — > V; c o n j u n c t i v e r e a d i n g - noun t o v e r b , w i t h noun c o n s t a n t - v e r b a l t e r e d b y i n h e r e n t f e a t u r e o f noun - v e r b becomes g e n e r a l i z e d ( d i s p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n r e s u l t s ) - ( i . e . ) The e a r t h t r e m b l e d = D i s p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n 4.2 D i s p l a c e m e n t T r a n s f e r r e d f e a t u r e n o t s h i f t e d , b u t d i s p l a c e d . 4.2.1 N < — V - v e r b t o noun, w i t h v e r b c o n s t a n t - noun d i s p l a c e d due t o f e a t u r e o f v e r b - ( i . e . ) The w o l f i s e n g a g e d t o be m a r r i e d = t h e man w i t h w o l f l i k e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 4.2.2 N — > V - noun t o v e r b , w i t h noun c o n s t a n t - v e r b d i s p l a c e d due t o f e a t u r e o f noun - ( i . e . ) The wheat s a n g i n t h e w i n d = r u s t l e d The d i s p l a c e m e n t c a t e g o r y f i t s t h e s u b s t i t u t i o n m o d e l d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r , w h e r e a s t h e a d j u n c t i o n c a t e g o r y f i t s t h e i n t e r a c t i v e m o d e l w i t h f e a t u r e s b e i n g c o m b i n e d . L e v i n h a s 26 f u r t h e r s u b d i v i d e d a d j u n c t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o w h e t h e r f e a t u r e s a r " d i s j o i n e d " o r " c o n j o i n e d . " A d i s j u n c t i v e r e a d i n g i s one i n w h i c h t h e h o s t h a s f e a t u r e s " d i s j o i n e d " o r t a k e n away f r o m i t , a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y i t becomes g e n e r a l i z e d . A c o n j u n c t i v e r e a d i n g , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , i s one i n w h i c h t h e h o s t h a s f e a t u r e s " c o n j o i n e d " o r a d d e d t o i t a n d i t t h u s becomes p a r t i c u l a r i z e d . T h e r e i s some i n c o n s i s t e n c y h e r e , h o w e v e r , i n t h a t c o n s t r u a l 4.1.4 t h e noun t o v e r b c o n j u n c t i v e r e a d i n g d o es n o t f a l l i n t o t h i s p a t t e r n . T h i s w i l l be d e a l t w i t h l a t e r , u pon e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l c o n s t r u a l s w i t h r e g a r d t o p o e t i c m e t a p h o r . T h r o u g h o u t h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e modes o f c o n s t r u a l , L e v i n h a s c h o s e n t o u s e m e t a p h o r s f r o m e v e r y d a y l a n g u a g e . I n o r d e r t o t e s t a n d v a l i d a t e h i s t h e o r y , I h a v e c h o s e n t o a p p l y t h e c o n s t r u a l s t o p o e t i c m e t a p h o r . The r e a s o n i n g b e h i n d t h i s i s t w o f o l d . F i r s t , I am a s s u m i n g t h a t a v a l i d t h e o r y o f m e t a p h o r s h o u l d be a b l e t o a c c o u n t f o r any t y p e o f m e t a p h o r , be i t " o r d i n a r y " , e v e r y d a y t y p e o f l a n g u a g e u s a g e o r t h e more " d e v i a n t " o r p o e t i c v a r i e t y . S e c o n d l y , p o e t i c m e t a p h o r t e n d s t o r e c e i v e a somewhat s t a n d a r d , o r w i d e l y a c c e p t e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . I f L e v i n ' s t h e o r y i s a v a l i d one, i t s h o u l d i f a c t be a b l e t o y i e l d t h e s e s t a n d a r d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . I n o r d e 27 t o e a s e t h e a n a l y s i s , t h e p o e t i c m e t a p h o r s h a v e b e e n t a k e n f r o m B r o o k e - R o s e ' s A Grammar o f M e t a p h o r . 5 F i r s t i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e t h a t L e v i n a p p l i e s h i s c o n s t r u a l s o n l y t o s i m p l e , noun as s u b j e c t / p r e d i c a t e c o m b i n a t i o n s . T h i s d o e s i n d e e d a i d c l a r i t y , as was h i s o b j e c t i v e , b u t m e t a p h o r c a n be c o n s t r u c t e d i n a l a r g e v a r i e t y o f c o m b i n a t i o n s . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e f o l l o w i n g shows a m e t a p h o r i n w h i c h t h e t r a n s a c t i o n t a k e s p l a c e e n t i r e l y w i t h i n t h e p r e d i c a t e w i t h t h e v e r b " g i v e " a c t i n g on t h e o b j e c t noun " h e a r t " : 1. Thou c a n s t n o t e v e r y day g i v e me t h y h e a r t Donne 10 (B-R 251) P o e t i c m e t a p h o r d o e s o f f e r a w i d e v a r i e t y o f p o s s i b i l i t i e s , as t h e numerous e x a m p l e s t o f o l l o w w i l l show, a n d a s l o n g as t h e c o n s t r u a l s a r e a b l e t o o f f e r a v a l i d r e a d i n g , L e v i n ' s t h e o r y i s m a i n t a i n e d . M e t a p h o r (1) a b o v e f i t s i n t o t h e 4.1.1 c o n s t r u a l , t h e N <-- V d i s j u n c t i v e r e a d i n g . The v e r b " g i v e " m a i n t a i n s i t s s e l e c t i o n a l f e a t u r e o f [TRANSFER OF OWNERSHIP], w h i l e t h e noun " h e a r t " i s " d i s j o i n e d " f r o m i t s l i t e r a l f e a t u r e o f [MUSCULAR ORGAN] a n d t h u s becomes g e n e r a l i z e d t o " l o v e " . The d i s j u n c t i v e p r o c e s s , i n t h i s c a s e , t a k e s a s p e c i f i c f e a t u r e away f r o m t h e 28 noun a n d l e a v e s i t w i t h a g e n e r a l i z e d s e n s e o f m e a n i n g w h i c h c a n t h e n be r e a d a p p r o p r i a t e l y a l o n g s i d e t h e v e r b a n d i t s s e l e c t i o n a l f e a t u r e (s) . The c o n j u n c t i v e p r o c e s s , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , w o r k s i n a manner d i r e c t l y o p p o s i t e t o t h a t o f d i s j u n c t i o n . W i t h c o n j u n c t i o n a s p e c i f i c f e a t u r e i s " c o n j o i n e d " , o r a d d e d , t o t h e w o r d u n d e r g o i n g a l t e r a t i o n , a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y p a r t i c u l a r i z a t i o n r e s u l t s . I n c o n s t r u a l 4.1.2, i t i s t h e noun t h a t becomes p a r t i c u l a r i z e d b y t a k i n g on a f e a t u r e f r o m t h e v e r b . The f o l l o w i n g m e t a p h o r s c a n be r e a d by t h e 4.1.2 c o n s t r u a l , t h e N < — V c o n j u n c t i v e r e a d i n g : 2. E s p e c i a l l y when t h e O c t o b e r w i n d w i t h f r o s t y f i n g e r s p u n i s h e s my h a i r . . . Thomas 2 (B-R 197) 3. The F i g t r e e . . . s p r e a d s h e r Armes B r a u n c h i n g s o b r o a d a n d l o n g . . . P L . i x , 1101 (B-R 188) I n b o t h o f t h e s e c a s e s , t h e r e s u l t i s p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n , as t h e noun i s p a r t i c u l a r i z e d a n d c o m b i n e d c o n j u n c t i v e l y w i t h t h e [+ HUMAN] s e l e c t i o n a l f e a t u r e o f t h e " p r e d i c a t e . " I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e h e r e t h a t w h i l e L e v i n r e f e r s t o " v e r b s " i n h i s f o r m u l a e f o r t h e c o n s t r u a l s , he d o e s i n e f f e c t mean " v e r b " t o i n c l u d e t h e e n t i r e p r e d i c a t e . T h i s i s e v i d e n t i n h i s 29 d i s c u s s i o n of Katz with r e f e r e n c e t o " s e l e c t i o n f e a t u r e of P r e d i c a t e , " 6 and w i t h i n h i s own examples whereby he does p r o v i d e a gross treatment of the e n t i r e p r e d i c a t e as verb. So i n (2) above, the [+ HUMAN] a t t r i b u t e s are giv e n t o the noun "wind" by the verb "punishes" and a l s o by the noun " f i n g e r s , " which f a l l s i n t o the category of p r e d i c a t e as i t i s con t a i n e d w i t h i n an adverb phrase. Likewise, i n (3), the noun " F i g t r e e " r e c e i v e s the [+ HUMAN] a t t r i b u t e from the p r e d i c a t e as w e l l , although i n t h i s case i t stems mainly from the ob j e c t noun "Armes," s i n c e the verb "spreads" does not n e c e s s a r i l y c a r r y a [+ HUMAN] q u a l i t y . A s i m i l a r t r a n s a c t i o n t o t h a t of (3) takes p l a c e i n the f o l l o w i n g metaphor though the end r e s u l t s i n " p l a n t i f i c a t i o n " r a t h e r than p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n : 4. And s i n c e my love doth every day admit New growth... Donne 10 (B-R 194) Here, the su b j e c t noun " l o v e " i n t e r a c t s with p r e d i c a t e "admit new growth," and as i n the prev i o u s example, i t i s not so much the verb "admit" which c o n t r i b u t e s the [+ PLANT] q u a l i t y , as i t i s the o b j e c t noun and i t s m o d i f i e r "new growth." So, " l o v e " does indeed become more p a r t i c u l a r i z e d as i t takes on t h i s t r a i t of [+ PLANT]. 30 C o n s t r u a l 4.1.3, t h e N —> V d i s j u n c t i v e r e a d i n g , a c c u r a t e l y d e s c r i b e s t h e p r o c e s s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g : 5. When I d y e d l a s t , and, D e a r e , I d y e As o f t e n as f r o m t h e e I g o e . . . Donne 12 (B-R 214) 6. On t h e g r o u n d I l a y P a s s i n g t h r o u g h many t h o u g h t s P r e l . 1/79 (B-R 222) 7. t h e condemn'd Pompey R i c h i n h i s f a t h e r ' s h o n o u r AC. I / i i i / 4 9 (B-R 241) I n e v e r y c a s e , t h e v e r b i s a l t e r e d b y an i n h e r e n t f e a t u r e f r o m t h e n o u n . The v e r b i s " d i s j o i n e d " f r o m one o f i t s s e l e c t i o n a l f e a t u r e s a n d i s g e n e r a l i z e d i n t o a m e a n i n g o f a more a b s t r a c t n a t u r e . I n (5) a b o v e , JE b r i n g s a l o n g w i t h i t t h e f e a t u r e o f [+ L I V I N G ] , a n d as i t i s a human s u b j e c t , i t o b v i o u s l y g o e s on l i v i n g , so t h e v e r b " d y e " l o s e s i t s f e a t u r e o f [TERMINATION] a n d i s g e n e r a l i z e d i n t o " s u f f e r d e s p e r a t e l y . " I n (6) t h e v e r b " p a s s i n g " r e s p o n d s t o t h e [+ ABSTRACT] f e a t u r e o f " t h o u g h t s " a n d l o s e s any s e n s e o f t h e [+ P H Y S I C A L ] , a n d i s t h u s r e a d as " c o n s i d e r i n g . " L i k e w i s e , " r i c h , " i n (7) a b o v e , l o s e s any s e n s e o f p h y s i c a l i t y as i t s [+ MATERIAL] w e a l t h i s d r o p p e d i n 31 response t o t h e o b j e c t noun "honour's" f e a t u r e o f [+ ABSTRACT] v a l u e . C o n s t r u a l 4.1.4, t h e N — > V c o n j u n c t i v e r e a d i n g , poses some d i f f i c u l t y i n t h a t i t i s a c o n j u n c t i v e p r o c e s s , b u t , a c c o r d i n g t o L e v i n , i t r e s u l t s i n g e n e r a l i z a t i o n . T h i s i s i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e p a t t e r n p r e v i o u s l y s e t up f o r c o n j u n c t i o n whereby t h e a d d i t i o n o f a s p e c i f i c f e a t u r e t e n d s t o p a r t i c u l a r i z e t h e meaning i n some way. In t h e 4.1.4 c o n s t r u a l t h e noun i s a c t i n g on t h e v e r b t o a f f e c t a change, which i n t h i s case r e s u l t s i n a " d i s p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n " o f t h e v e r b . W i t h one e x c e p t i o n , t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s w i t h i n t h i s 4.1.4 d i s p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n p r o c e s s a re e x a c t l y t h e same as t h o s e i n t h e 4.1.2 c o n j u n c t i v e c o n s t r u a l which r e s u l t s i n p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n . In b o t h c a s e s , a nonhuman noun i s matched w i t h a human s e l e c t i n g v e r b . The d i f f e r e n c e l i e s i n t h e co m b i n a t o r y p r o c e s s i t s e l f whereby i n 4.1.2 t h e noun changes by t a k i n g on t h e [HUMAN] c h a r a c t e r i s t i c from t h e v e r b , but i n 4.1.4 t h e v e r b changes i n response t o t h e [NONHUMAN] f e a t u r e o f t h e noun. The v e r b ' s [HUMAN] f e a t u r e i s not a l t o g e t h e r l o s t , b ut r a t h e r i s de-emphasized as i t s o t h e r f e a t u r e s come t o t h e f o r e g r o u n d . The noun, on t h e o t h e r hand, m a i n t a i n s i t s "nonhuman-ness" w h i l e h i g h l i g h t i n g t h e o t h e r [NONHUMAN] a s p e c t s o f t h e v e r b . 32 The end r e s u l t i s s t i l l i n q u e s t i o n . Is the verb g e n e r a l i z e d , as L e v i n suggests, or i s i t a c t u a l l y p a r t i c u l a r i z e d ? L e v i n p r o v i d e s the f o l l o w i n g as examples: The e a r t h trembled... The t r e e ' s bark had been wounded 7 To g e n e r a l i z e would be t o g i v e g e n e r a l r a t h e r than s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r t o the meaning i n v o l v e d ; what i s happening here i s t h a t t h e r e i s a s h i f t i n focus which d i v e r t s a t t e n t i o n away from the [HUMAN] a t t r i b u t e t o the core meaning of the verb. T h i s meaning i s not a gen e r a l one but a very s p e c i f i c one indeed. With trembled, f o r example, any human element i m p l i e d w i t h i n the word, such as f e a r or any other emotional r e a c t i o n , no longer a p p l i e s s i n c e i t i s now p a i r e d with the nonhuman s u b j e c t " e a r t h . " The focus i s now on the " p h y s i c a l shaking" c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the word "trembled." T h i s i s not a g e n e r a l i z a t i o n at a l l , but r a t h e r a s e l e c t i v e process i s t a k i n g p l a c e whereby an a p p r o p r i a t e meaning i s s e l e c t e d from w i t h i n the verb, and i s thus f e a t u r e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n with i t s p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t . The same i s t r u e of the second example u s i n g the verb "wounded." Again human emotion and response i s b a r r e d as a r e s u l t of i t s nonhuman su b j e c t , and the remaining aspects of meaning come t o the f o r e . The n o t i o n of " p h y s i c a l damage" i s 33 s e l e c t e d and h i g h l i g h t e d t o p r o v i d e an a p p r o p r i a t e r e a d i n g f o r t h e metaphor. The r e s u l t i s one o f g r e a t e r f o c u s and s p e c i f i c i t y i n meaning, and not one o f g e n e r a l i z a t i o n , as L e v i n s u g g e s t s . T h i s s e l e c t i v e p r o c e s s c e r t a i n l y i s one o f " d i s p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n " of t h e v e r b , but i t i s i n d e e d a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h p a r t i c u l a r i z a t i o n as a r e s u l t o f " c o n j o i n i n g " a nonhuman s u b j e c t w i t h an o t h e r w i s e human s e l e c t i n g v e r b . L i k e w i s e , t h e f o l l o w i n g p o e t i c metaphors can be r e a d e f f e c t i v e l y by c o n s t r u a l 4.1.4: 8. L i g h t h a t h no tongue, but i s a l l eye Donne 15 (B-R 194) 9. H i s hope a l l c l e n e out o f h i s h e r t e f l e d d e Tr. V/1198 (B-R 223) 10. A b l a d e o f g r a s s l o n g s w i t h t h e meadow Thomas 8 (B-R 223) The 4.1.4 N — > V c o n j u n c t i v e c o n s t r u a l r e a d as a s e l e c t i v e , p a r t i c u l a r i z i n g p r o c e s s a c c o u n t s f o r t h e d i s p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n and r e s u l t i n g change i n meaning o f t h e v e r b . In e v e r y case a nonhuman noun r e t a i n s i t s o r i g i n a l meaning w h i l e c a u s i n g a s h i f t i n f o c u s o f t h e v e r b ' s a s p e c t s o f 34 meaning, with the r e s u l t b e i n g a de-emphasis of humanness and a h i g h l i g h t i n g of the remaining core meaning. In (8), f o r example, " l i g h t " i s p a i r e d with the [+ HUMAN] "eye," but i t e s s e n t i a l l y r e t a i n s i t s nonhumanness, so "eye" must undergo some adjustment t o accommodate t h a t dominant c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . Thus "eye" r e t a i n s and h i g h l i g h t s a l l of i t s other q u a l i t i e s such as [SIGHT], [RANGE OF VISION], [OBSERVATION] and [DEDUCTIONS MADE FROM THOSE OBSERVATIONS]. Therefore, while m i n i m i z i n g the human p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s , "eye" s t i l l r e t a i n s some of the [HUMAN] a b s t r a c t q u a l i t i e s , l i k e the knowledge gained from o b s e r v a t i o n , and a t t r i b u t e s these t o i t s nonhuman s u b j e c t . " L i g h t " takes on an added dimension and "eye", while not l o s i n g a l l of i t s humanness, r a t h e r f e a t u r e s those a p p r o p r i a t e t o i t s a b s t r a c t s u b j e c t . The same can be s a i d of the two other examples, (9) and (10). In every case, human p h y s i c a l i t y i s dropped, while the human a b s t r a c t q u a l i t i e s are maintained, and so meaning i s enhanced i n a very p a r t i c u l a r way. In (9) with "hope" and " f l e d d e , " the verb " f l e d d e " no longer holds i t s p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e of running away, but r a t h e r maintains the n o t i o n of v a n i s h i n g i n c o n j u n c t i o n with the human r e a c t i o n of avoidance of danger or of the u n d e s i r a b l e . 35 L i k e w i s e i n ( 1 0 ) , t h e noun " g r a s s " p a i r e d w i t h t h e v e r b " l o n g s " r e s u l t s i n s o m e t h i n g l e s s t h a n human a c t i o n , t h o u g h t h e human n o t i o n o f d e s i r a b i l i t y i s m a i n t a i n e d . H e r e a human e m o t i o n a l r e s p o n s e i s p a r a l l e l e d t o an a c t u a l n a t u r a l n e e d , as i n " t h i r s t . " Once a g a i n , t h e nonhuman s u b j e c t r e m a i n s nonhuman w h i l e t h e human s e l e c t i n g v e r b d e - e m p h a s i z e s i t s most o b v i o u s (human) t r a i t a n d f o r e g r o u n d s i t s o t h e r f e a t u r e s w h i c h a r e c o m p a t i b l e t o i t s s u b j e c t , be t h e y human o r nonhuman. I n t h i s a n d e v e r y o t h e r e x a m p l e c i t e d h e r e f o r c o n s t r u a l 4.1.4, t h e v e r b r e a c t s t o i t s nonhuman s u b j e c t a n d g l o s s e s o v e r i t s own humanness. As a r e s u l t , t h e f o c u s i s s h i f t e d t o t h e o t h e r more p a r t i c u l a r a s p e c t s o f m e a n i n g w i t h i n t h e v e r b ' s s e m a n t i c f i e l d . F i n a l l y , t h i s b r i n g s u s t o t h e d i s p l a c e m e n t c a t e g o r y a n d t h e l a s t two modes o f c o n s t r u a l w i t h i n L e v i n ' s p a r a d i g m o f m e t a p h o r i c a l c o n s t r u c t s . D i s p l a c e m e n t , a s s t a t e d e a r l i e r , f i t s t h e s u b s t i t u t i o n m o d e l a n d i s , as s u c h , a s i m p l e r a n d more d i r e c t way t o a c c o u n t f o r m e t a p h o r . I n t h e c a s e o f d i s p l a c e m e n t , f e a t u r e s a r e n o t t r a n s f e r r e d f r o m w o r d t o word, b u t r a t h e r a w o r d i s a c t u a l l y d i s p l a c e d due t o t h e f e a t u r e s o f t h e w o r d w h i c h i s a c t i n g upon i t , a s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g m e t a p h o r : 12. B u t M e r c y c h a n g ' d D e a t h i n t o S l e e p B l a k e SE. 10 (B-R 135) 36 The v e r b " c h a n g ' d , 11 w i t h i t s f e a t u r e s o f [EXCHANGE] a n d [ F L E X I B I L I T Y ] , d i s p l a c e s " d e a t h " a n d i t s [PERMANENT] f e a t u r e w i t h " u n d e s i r a b l e , " w h i l e " s l e e p " a n d i t s [TEMPORARY] f e a t u r e becomes " d e s i r a b l e " . I t i s a l s o w o r t h n o t i n g h e r e t h a t t h e s u b j e c t noun "mercy" w i t h i t s [ABSTRACT] c h a r a c t e r d o e s i n d e e d a f f e c t t h e n a t u r e o f t h e d i s p l a c e m e n t . F o r " d e a t h " a n d " s l e e p " a r e n o t o n l y d i s p l a c e d t o become more i n l i n e w i t h t h e v e r b , t h e y a r e d i s p l a c e d w i t h w o r d s w h i c h r e f l e c t t h e more a b s t r a c t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s u b j e c t n o u n . T h i s p a r t i c u l a r phenomenon, o f t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a noun i n f l u e n c i n g a n o t h e r n oun, w i l l be t r e a t e d i n d e t a i l upon c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e d i s p l a c e m e n t c a t e g o r y . I n t h e m e a n t i m e , i t i s r e a s o n a b l e , a t l e a s t i n p a r t , t o r e f e r t o t h e 4.2.1, t h e N < — V d i s p l a c e m e n t c o n s t r u a l , as h a v i n g s a t i s f a c t o r i l y e x p l a i n e d t h e p r o c e s s o f s u b s t i t u t i o n t h a t t a k e s p l a c e i n m e t a p h o r ( 1 2 ) . L i k e w i s e , i n t h e r e v e r s e p r o c e d u r e , t h e 4.2.2 N — > V d i s p l a c e m e n t , a s u b s t i t u t i o n t a k e s p l a c e , b u t o f c o u r s e now, i t i s t h e p r e d i c a t e t h a t i s b e i n g d i s p l a c e d . 13. t h e m i d f o r e s t b r a k e , R i c h w i t h a s p r i n k l i n g o f f a i r m u s k - r o s e b l o o m s E n d . 1/18 (B-R 243) 37 14 . The Sun doth a r i s e , And make happy the s k i e s ; , . . . Blake SI. 2 (B-R 247) In (13), " r i c h " i s taken along with the i m p l i e d verb " i s " t o y i e l d " p l e n t i f u l , " because of the [+ COUNT] f e a t u r e of the noun "blooms." In (14), "happy" i s r e p l a c e d with " s h i n e , " which works w e l l with both the sub j e c t noun "sun" and o b j e c t " s k i e s . " Both of these cases r e v e a l obvious s u b s t i t u t i o n s t h a t are r e l a t i v e l y simple and d i r e c t . As i n a l l p r e v i o u s l y c i t e d metaphors i n t h i s , and i n L e v i n ' s study, they show a f a i r l y s t r a i g h t - f o r w a r d noun/verb r e l a t i o n s h i p , but t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p a t t e r n does not always e x i s t . In the f o l l o w i n g metaphors, f o r i n s t a n c e , the i n t e r e s t c l e a r l y l i e s i n the noun t o noun r e l a t i o n s h i p : 15. Make not your thoughts your p r i s o n AC. V / i i / 1 8 4 (B-R 137) 16. Although the summer s u n l i g h t g i l d Cloudy l e a f a g e of the sky Yeats 19 (leafage and sky are the (B-R 151) nouns of i n t e r e s t here) 38 17. Into the l a b y r i n t h of another's b e i n g Yeats 2 (B-R 159) 18. Aye such a b r e a t h l e s s h o n e y - f e e l of b l i s s End. 1/903 (B-R 200) These metaphors are not p a t t e r n e d with the noun across p r e d i c a t e . The nouns here are p o s i t i o n e d c l o s e l y t o one another and d e f i n e themselves without being channeled t o , or across a verb. As a matter of f a c t , i n (17) and (18), t h e r e i s no verb at a l l , but a r e a d i n g of the metaphor can be taken a l l the same. L e v i n emphasizes t h a t "the e n u n c i a t i o n of the p r i n c i p l e t h a t f e a t u r e s should be allowed t o t r a n s f e r out of nouns i s important;" 8 I suggest t h a t not only i s the t r a n s f e r out of nouns important, but an even f r e e r r e s t r i c t i o n needs to be allowed whereby the t r a n s f e r out of nouns be allowed not only i n t o verbs, but i n t o nouns, as w e l l . I f i t i s t r u e t h a t : the c o n s t r u a l of a deviant e x p r e s s i o n may proceed by moving i n e i t h e r d i r e c t i o n between elements i n the  c o n s t r u c t i o n t h a t are i n v o l v e d i n the d e v i a t i o n 9 (emphasis mine) 39 I w o u l d s u g g e s t t h a t t h e e l e m e n t s be r e c o g n i z e d p r o p e r l y as n o u n s a n d t h a t t h e movement be l a b e l e d Noun t o Noun. Thus, I w o u l d e x t e n d L e v i n ' s s i x modes o f c o n s t r u a l t o e i g h t b y a d d i n g two u n d e r t h e c a t e g o r y o f a d j u n c t i o n as f o l l o w s : 4.1.5 N < — N; d i s j u n c t i v e r e a d i n g - noun t o noun, w i t h a b s t r a c t n oun c o n s t a n t - c o n c r e t e noun a l t e r e d b y i n h e r e n t f e a t u r e o f a b s t r a c t noun - c o n c r e t e noun becomes g e n e r a l i z e d 4.1.6 N <-- N; c o n j u n c t i v e r e a d i n g - noun t o noun, w i t h c o n c r e t e noun c o n s t a n t - a b s t r a c t noun a l t e r e d b y i n h e r e n t f e a t u r e o f c o n c r e t e noun - a b s t r a c t noun becomes p a r t i c u l a r i z e d I n m e t a p h o r (15), f o r e x a m p l e , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n " t h o u g h t s " a n d " p r i s o n " c a n be d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e 4.1.5 N <— N d i s j u n c t i v e r e a d i n g . The c o n c r e t e noun " p r i s o n " i s a l t e r e d by d r o p p i n g i t s [PHYSICAL] d i s t i n c t i o n a n d by a d d i n g t h e [ABSTRACT] f e a t u r e o f " t h o u g h t " . I t i s no l o n g e r a p r i s o n p e r s e , b u t a c o n c e p t u a l i z e d p r i s o n , b u i l t o u t o f t h o u g h t s , a n d t h u s i t h a s moved t o t h e same l e v e l o f a b s t r a c t i o n as " t h o u g h t " . 40 The N <-- N c o n s t r u a l o f t h e 4.1.6 c o n j u n c t i v e r e a d i n g i s a l s o a h i g h l y p r o d u c t i v e one w i t h a b s t r a c t n o u n s b e c o m i n g more p a r t i c u l a r i z e d . The s e c o n d l i n e o f ( 1 6 ) , " C l o u d y l e a f a g e o f t h e s k y " , l i n k s t h e [ABSTRACT] " s k y " w i t h t h e [CONCRETE] " l e a f a g e " t o a l t e r p e r c e p t i o n i n a c l e a r l y d e f i n e d c o n c r e t e manner. A c o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n l e a v e s a n d c l o u d s i n t h e s k y t h u s s u c c e s s f u l l y c r e a t e s t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f l e a f - l i k e i m a g e s i n t h e s k y . (17) shows no v e r b a t a l l b u t t h e f u s i o n o f t h e more [CONCRETE] noun " l a b y r i n t h " , o r [ P U Z Z L E ] , t o t h e [ABSTRACT] " b e i n g " i s r e a d i l y made v i a 4.1.6. S i m i l a r l y , t h e d e s i r a b i l i t y o f t h e [CONCRETE] " h o n e y - f e e l " i n (18) i s a d d e d t o t h e [ABSTRACT] b l i s s t o p r o d u c e a more c o n c r e t e o r p a r t i c u l a r i z e d s e n s e o f an a b s t r a c t c o n c e p t . I n b o t h o f t h e s e c a s e s , an a b s t r a c t noun a d j o i n s w i t h a f e a t u r e o f a more c o n c r e t e noun t o p r o v i d e a more p a r t i c u l a r i z e d d e s c r i p t i o n . The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f c o n s t r u a l s a s noun t o noun p r o v i d e s a more a c c u r a t e a n d d i r e c t f o r m u l a t o e x p l a i n t h e e x a c t n a t u r e o f t h e t r a n s f e r o f f e a t u r e s i n numerous m e t a p h o r i c a l o p e r a t i o n s . I n t h i s way, t h e a c t u a l s o u r c e o f f e a t u r e t r a n s f e r i s a c c u r a t e l y p i n p o i n t e d . W h i l e many m e t a p h o r s do a c t u a l l y o c c u r w i t h i n t h e s i m p l e n o u n / p r e d i c a t e s t r u c t u r e , t h e y a r e j u s t as l i k e l y t o o c c u r i n d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n s s u c h as t h e noun/noun 41 c o n s t r u c t d i s c u s s e d a b o v e . S i m i l a r l y , w h i l e many m e t a p h o r s do o p e r a t e s i m p l y a n d c a n be e x p l a i n e d t h o r o u g h l y b y j u s t one c o n s t r u a l , t h e r e a r e t h o s e , o f c o u r s e , t h a t w i l l v a r y n o t o n l y i n s t r u c t u r e b u t i n l e v e l s o f c o m p l e x i t y a s w e l l . W i t h e i g h t c o n s t r u a l s now i n p l a c e , L e v i n ' s s i x p l u s t h e two a d d i t i o n a l n o u n t o n oun a d j u n c t s , t h e more c o m p l e x a n d t h e e x t e n d e d m e t a p h o r w i l l be e x a m i n e d n e x t . N o t e s 1 S a m u e l R. L e v i n , The S e m a n t i c s o f M e t a p h o r ( B a l t i m o r e : J o h n H o p k i n s UP, 1977) 25. 2 L e v i n , 24. 3 L e v i n , 39. " L e v i n , c h . 3-4, 33-77. P l e a s e n o t e t h a t t h e e x a m p l e s g i v e n h e r e a r e o r d i n a r y l a n g u a g e and t h e y a r e t a k e n d i r e c t l y f r o m s e c t i o n 4.4 o f C h a p t e r 4. 42 5 C h r i s t i n e B r o o k e - R o s e , A Grammar o f M e t a p h o r ( L o n d o n : S e e k e r & W a r b u r g , 1958) v i - v i i i . 6 L e v i n , 35. 7 L e v i n , 5 0. " L e v i n , 2 6 - 2 7 . 9 L e v i n , 34. Chapter 3 P a t t e r n s W i t h i n Metaphor The p o e t i c metaphors p r e s e n t e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n were r e a d s a t i s f a c t o r i l y by one c o n s t r u a l , a l t h o u g h i t was e v i d e n t t h a t t h e y c o u l d v a r y a g r e a t d e a l i n s t r u c t u r e , and hence t h e n e c e s s i t y t o i n t r o d u c e t h e noun t o noun c o n s t r u a l s . Now j u s t as metaphors may v a r y i n t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e i r c o m p o s i t i o n , t h e y w i l l a l s o v a r y i n l e v e l s o f c o m p l e x i t y . In t h i s s e c t i o n , w i t h t h e e i g h t c o n s t r u a l s i n p l a c e , we w i l l examine metaphors of i n c r e a s i n g c o m p l e x i t y , from t h o s e t h a t o p e r a t e on two l e v e l s , t o an extended t y p e o f metaphor, t o a c o n c e i t . As we examine t h e metaphors o f i n c r e a s i n g c o m p l e x i t y , t h e p a t t e r n s u n f o l d . F i r s t , we w i l l examine s e v e r a l examples o f metaphor t h a t o p e r a t e on a d u p l i c i t y o f l e v e l s t o e s t a b l i s h t h a t t h e r e i s some c o n s i s t e n c y i n p a t t e r n i n g t h a t t a k e s p l a c e . Then we w i l l a p p l y t h e s e f i n d i n g s t o t h e more complex metaphor t o see i f we can f u r t h e r e s t a b l i s h p r e d i c t a b i l i t y i n t h e c o u r s e o f u n r a v e l l i n g t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n p r o c e s s o f metaphor. The f o l l o w i n g metaphors f a l l i n t o t h e f i r s t c a t e g o r y o f d u p l i c i t y : 44 19. G o l d s m i t h d e l i b e r a t e l y s i p p i n g a t t h e h o n e y - p o t o f h i s m i n d . . . Y e a t s 6 (B-R 159) 20. S t i l l d r i n k t h e d e l i c i o u s p o i s o n f r o m t h e e y e EA. 122 (B-R 178) 2 1 . A n d P a r a d i s e was o p e n ' d i n h i s f a c e AA. 1/30 (B-R 178) 22. W e ' l l b u i l d i n s o n n e t s p r e t t y roomes Donne 8 (B-R 178) N o t e t h a t s t r u c t u r a l l y i n e v e r y c a s e a p r e p o s i t i o n a l p h r a s e i s i n v o l v e d . I n t h r e e o f t h e f o u r m e t a p h o r s a b o v e , (19) t h r o u g h ( 2 1 ) , t h e p r o c e s s i n g o f t h e m e t a p h o r i s v e r y much l i k e a c h a i n r e a c t i o n , an a c t i o n - r e a c t i o n e f f e c t : t h e s e n t e n c e i s r e a d , a n d b e c a u s e o f t h e f e a t u r e s o f t h e noun i n t h e p r e p o s i t i o n a l p h r a s e , we h a v e t o go b a c k a n d make t h e n e c e s s a r y a d j u s t m e n t s t o one p a r t o f t h e s e n t e n c e w h i c h i n t u r n t r i g g e r s a n o t h e r r e a c t i o n i n a n o t h e r p a r t o f t h e s e n t e n c e . O n l y t h e n c a n we a r r i v e a t a r e a s o n a b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e m e t a p h o r as a w h o l e . The p r e p o s i t i o n a l p h r a s e n e c e s s i t a t e s t h e two c o n s t r u a l s i n o r d e r f o r t h e r e a d i n g t o be c o m p l e t e d . I n Y e a t s ' m e t a p h o r 45 ( 1 9 ) , a d o u b l e d i s j u n c t i s r e q u i r e d w h e r e b y b o t h t h e v e r b a n d t h e o b j e c t noun u n d e r g o c h a n g e s t o a more g e n e r a l l e v e l . W i t h o u t t h e p r e p o s i t i o n a l p h r a s e , t h e s e n t e n c e c o u l d be t a k e n l i t e r a l l y : G o l d s m i t h d e l i b e r a t e l y s i p p i n g a t t h e h o n e y - p o t . . . A r e g u l a r s u b j e c t - v e r b - o b j e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s , a n d a l l c a n be t a k e n l i t e r a l l y . However, when we a d d t h e p r e p o s i t i o n a l p h r a s e " o f h i s m i n d , " i t a c t s as an a d j e c t i v e a n d as i t m o d i f i e s , c o n s e q u e n t l y i t a l t e r s t h e h e a d noun " h o n e y - p o t . " F o r " m i n d " most d e f i n i t e l y c a r r i e s i t s [+ ABSTRACT] f e a t u r e w i t h i t , so " h o n e y - p o t " l o s e s i t s [+ CONCRETE] f e a t u r e a n d becomes g e n e r a l i z e d i n t o s o m e t h i n g l i k e " h i g h l y d e s i r a b l e s o u r c e . " What h a s j u s t b e e n d e s c r i b e d h e r e i s t h e 4.1.5 noun t o n oun d i s j u n c t i v e c o n s t r u a l a n d as s u c h t h e a b s t r a c t noun " m i n d " r e m a i n s c o n s t a n t a n d a c t s on t h e c o n c r e t e n o un "h o n e y -p o t " i n a d i s j u n c t i v e manner so t h e c o n c r e t e n o un d i s j o i n s f r o m , o r d r o p s i t s c o n c r e t e f e a t u r e s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e o b j e c t " h i g h l y d e s i r a b l e s o u r c e " a n d t h e v e r b " s i p p i n g " must be a l t e r e d s i n c e t h e a b s t r a c t q u a l i t y o f t h e o b j e c t now makes i t i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h i t s [+ CONCRETE] v e r b . Thus c o n s t r u a l 4.1.3 i s a p p l i e d , a n d t h e n o un a c t s d i s j u n c t i v e l y on t h e v e r b t o g e n e r a l i z e " s i p p i n g a t " i n t o " t a k i n g f r o m , " a n d t h e m e t a p h o r c a n be i n t e r p r e t e d as 46 f o l l o w s : G o l d s m i t h d e l i b e r a t e l y t a k i n g from t h e h i g h l y d e s i r a b l e s o u r c e o f h i s mind. N o t i c e t h a t what s t a r t e d out w i t h one d i s j u n c t i v e r e a d i n g , l e d t o a n o t h e r d i s j u n c t i v e r e a d i n g . From t h i s example, we can h y p o t h e s i z e t h a t t h e r e i s i n d e e d a s i g n i f i c a n t p a t t e r n i n g e f f e c t t a k i n g p l a c e . I f t e s t e d a g a i n s t o t h e r examples, we may be a b l e t o p r e d i c t t h a t a complex metaphor f o l l o w s one t y p e of p r o c e s s i n g t h r o u g h o u t i t s e n t i r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . What s t a r t s as a d i s j u n c t , remains d i s j u n c t i v e t h r o u g h o u t t h e e n t i r e p r o c e s s , and, c o n v e r s e l y , what s t a r t s out as a c o n j u n c t r e q u i r e s f u r t h e r p r o c e s s i n g o f a c o n j u n c t i v e n a t u r e . I n o t h e r words, one g e n e r a l i z a t i o n l e a d s t o a n o t h e r , and v i c e v e r s a -one p a r t i c u l a r i z a t i o n demands f u r t h e r p a r t i c u l a r i z a t i o n s . As we s h a l l see, t h e r e m a i n i n g examples do i n d e e d s u p p o r t t h i s h y p o t h e s i s . Metaphor (20), " S t i l l d r i n k t h e d e l i c i o u s p o i s o n from t h e eye," p a r a l l e l s t h e double d i s j u n c t c o n s t r u a l o f (19) e x a c t l y i n t h a t two g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s a re r e q u i r e d ; 4.1.5 on t h e o b j e c t noun, " p o i s o n , " and 4.1.3 on t h e v e r b , " d r i n k . " A g a i n , we have a s i t u a t i o n i n which t h e p r e p o s i t i o n a l p h r a s e , "from t h e eye," has c r e a t e d a c h a i n r e a c t i o n , f o r w i t h o u t t h e m o d i f i c a t i o n brought on by t h e noun "eye," t h e sentence c o u l d be r e a d 47 l i t e r a l l y : S t i l l d r i n k t h e d e l i c i o u s p o i s o n . . . The p r e p o s i t i o n a l p h r a s e , " f r o m t h e e y e , " a c t s a s an a d j e c t i v e m o d i f y i n g t h e h e a d noun " p o i s o n ; " a n d t h u s , some a d j u s t m e n t i s r e q u i r e d a s t h e f e a t u r e s o f " p o i s o n " a r e i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h a t o f " e y e . " H e r e we h a v e a noun t o noun r e a c t i o n w h e r e b y t h e c o n c r e t e n oun " e y e " r e m a i n s s t a b l e a n d a f f e c t s a g e n e r a l i z a t i o n t o t h e [ d a n g e r o u s c h e m i c a l ] " p o i s o n . " F o r i t i s n o t l i t e r a l l y a c o n c r e t e noun " p o i s o n " t h a t i s b e i n g r e f e r r e d t o h e r e , b u t r a t h e r i t i s a " d a n g e r o u s q u a l i t y " w h i c h i s i n f a c t b e i n g t r a n s m i t t e d " f r o m t h e e y e " . I n t h i s c a s e , " e y e " i s t h e c o n t r o l l i n g n o un w h i c h h a s t h e a b i l i t i y t o r e d u c e t h e t o t a l i t y o f t h e c o n c r e t e noun " p o i s o n " t o a few mere f e a t u r e s w i t h a d j e c t i v a l p r o p e r t i e s a n d t h u s t h e c o m p a t a b i l i t y b e t w e e n t h e two i s a l i g n e d . F u r t h e r m o r e , b e c a u s e t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f " p o i s o n " a r e b e i n g a l t e r e d , i t s m o d i f i e r " d e l i c i o u s " must now be a d j u s t e d t o r e f l e c t t h i s s h i f t i n m e a n i n g . The a c t u a l f e a t u r e s o f t h e " d e l i c i o u s p o i s o n , " [DESIRABLE] [DANGEROUS], a r e g e n e r a l i z e d t o r e f l e c t f e a t u r e s c o m p a t i b l e w i t h " e y e , " w h i c h i n t h i s c a s e i s " t e m p t i n g l o o k " . C o n s t r u a l 4.1.5 e f f e c t i v e l y d i s j o i n s t h e c o n c r e t e f e a t u r e s o f [TASTY] + [CHEMICAL] f r o m " d e l i c i o u s p o i s o n " a n d t h u s a l l o w s i t t o be r a i s e d t o t h e more a b s t r a c t " t e m p t i n g l o o k . " The r e a d i n g 48 i s n o t c o m p l e t e y e t , h o w e v e r , s i n c e t h e v e r b " d r i n k " r e q u i r e s g e n e r a l i z a t i o n i n o r d e r t o c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e a b s t r a c t f e a t u r e s o f i t s o b j e c t . As i n (19) a b o v e , one d i s j u n c t i v e r e a d i n g l e a d s t o a n o t h e r . I n t h i s c a s e t h e 4.1.3 d i s j u n c t i v e c o n s t r u a l i s a p p l i e d , a n d t h e v e r b " d r i n k " d r o p s i t s [LIQUID] f e a t u r e a n d i s g e n e r a l i z e d t o " t a k e i n , " i n o r d e r t o c o m p l y w i t h i t s a b s t r a c t o b j e c t , " p e n e t r a t i n g l o o k . " Two d i s j u n c t i v e c o n s t r u a l s l a t e r , t h e c o m p l e t e m e t a p h o r r e a d s : S t i l l t a k e i n t h e p e n e t r a t i n g l o o k f r o m t h e e y e . M e t a p h o r (21) o p e r a t e s i n a s i m i l a r manner w i t h two m a n d a t o r y d i s j u n c t i v e c o n s t r u a l s , o n l y t h i s t i m e i t i s a p r e p o s i t i o n a l p h r a s e a c t i n g a s an a d v e r b w h i c h t r i g g e r s t h e c h a i n r e a c t i o n . F i r s t , i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e l i t e r a l m e a n i n g o f t h e n oun " f a c e , " c o n s t r u a l 4.1.3 i s a p p l i e d t o v e r b " o pen'd" t o d r o p i t s c o n c r e t e f e a t u r e o f [PASSAGE], a n d " o p e n ' d " becomes g e n e r a l i z e d t o " e v i d e n t . " N e x t , t h e l i t e r a l q u a l i t i e s o f t h e s u b j e c t n oun " p a r a d i s e " a r e d r o p p e d a s a noun t o n oun t r a n s a c t i o n t a k e s p l a c e b e t w e e n " p a r a d i s e " a n d " f a c e . " As a r e s u l t , " p a r a d i s e " i s g e n e r a l i z e d t o " h a p p i n e s s " v i a c o n s t r u a l 4.1.5, a n d t h e r e a d i n g y i e l d s : A n d h a p p i n e s s was e v i d e n t i n h i s f a c e . F i n a l l y m e t a p h o r (22) p a r a l l e l s (21) w i t h i t s a d v e r b p h r a s e t r i g g e r i n g t h e two d i s j u n c t s r e q u i r e d f o r i t s r e a d i n g . W i t h o u t 49 the adverb phrase the l i n e would be read l i t e r a l l y : W e 'll b u i l d p r e t t y roomes But, with the a d d i t i o n of a b s t r a c t m o d i f i e r " i n sonnets," both the verb " b u i l d " and the o b j e c t noun "roomes" become g e n e r a l i z e d t o meet with the a b s t r a c t q u a l i t i e s of the m o d i f i e r . Once again, l i k e metaphor (21) above, c o n s t r u a l s 4.1.3, the noun to verb d i s j u n c t , and 4.1.5, the noun t o noun d i s j u n c t , are a p p l i e d to b r i n g about t h i s g e n e r a l i z i n g t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . S i m i l a r a c t i o n / r e a c t i o n e f f e c t s can be witnessed w i t h i n the c o n j u n c t i v e p r o c e s s . The f o l l o w i n g metaphors a l s o demonstrate a d u a l i t y i n t h e i r l e v e l of complexity, although i n these cases a " p a r t i c u l a r i z i n g " p a t t e r n i s e s t a b l i s h e d . W i t h i n t h i s next set of metaphors, once the c o n j u n c t i v e process begins, i t i s c a r r i e d through u n t i l the e n t i r e metaphor i s read i n i t s e n t i r e t y . N o t i c e how i n every case, the i n i t i a l c o n j u n c t i v e process of p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n extends i t s e l f q u i t e r e a d i l y i n t o another conjunct with a f u r t h e r p a r t i c u l a r i z i n g e f f e c t . 23. ...the f a i r e s t of a l l R i v e r s , l o v ' d To b l e n d h i s murmurs with my Nurse's song Prel.1/272 (B-R 188) 50 24. A c u r r e n t under sea Pi c k e d h i s bones i n whispers. WL. 315 (B-R 252) 25. Breathe, body of l o v e l y Death WD. 25 (B-R 266) In each metaphor above, a verb a c t s on a noun and produces a p e r s o n i f i e d e f f e c t . A c o n j u n c t i v e process v i a c o n s t r u a l 4.1.2 takes p l a c e and the noun becomes p a r t i c u l a r i z e d by adding the [+ HUMAN] f e a t u r e from the verb. Then, a second t r a n s a c t i o n , c o n s t r u a l 4.1.6 i s a p p l i e d and a noun t o noun conjunct completes the rea d i n g of the metaphor. With metaphor (23) f o r example, the noun " r i v e r s " i s a f f e c t e d by both the verb " l o v ' d " and the noun "murmurs." Because the i n i t i a l noun t o verb t r a n s a c t i o n e s t a b l i s h e s the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of " r i v e r s , " the metaphor i s e a s i l y extended along the same v e i n . Thus "murmurs" e f f e c t i v e l y p i c k s up on the newly added [+ HUMAN] f e a t u r e , and b u i l d s on t h i s aspect of the now p e r s o n i f i e d " r i v e r . " The same process can be t r a c e d through metaphors (24) and (25) as p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n i s i n i t i a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d v i a a c o n j u n c t i v e reading, and i s then extended one step f u r t h e r with a second conjunct completing the pro c e s s . In metaphor (24), the noun "sea" i n t e r a c t s with the verb " p i c k e d , " v i a c o n s t r u a l 51 4.1.2, a n d t h u s t a k e s on t h e [+ HUMAN] f e a t u r e , w h i c h i s t h e n e x t e n d e d f u r t h e r b y c o n s t r u a l 4.1.6 w i t h t h e noun t o noun i n t e r a c t i o n o f " s e a " a n d " w h i s p e r s . " S i m i l a r l y i n m e t a p h o r (25) t h e noun t o noun a n d t h e v e r b t o noun c o n j u n c t s t a k e p l a c e v i a c o n s t r u a l s 4.1.6 a n d 4.1.2 r e s p e c t i v e l y , a s t h e noun " d e a t h " i n t e r a c t s w i t h b o t h noun "body" a n d v e r b " b r e a t h e . " Once a g a i n , p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n a n d t h e e x t e n s i o n o f t h e p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n r e s u l t s . S i n c e a h i g h l y c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n i n g i s e v i d e n t w i t h i n t h e d o u b l y c o n s t r u e d m e t a p h o r , i t s h o u l d f o l l o w t h a t t h e same t y p e o f p r o c e s s i n g t a k e s p l a c e w i t h i n t h e more c o m p l e x o r e x t e n d e d m e t a p h o r . Our n e x t s t e p i s t o t r a c e t h e c o n s t r u a l s t h a t t a k e p l a c e w i t h i n an e x t e n d e d m e t a p h o r , i n o r d e r t o v a l i d a t e o u r h y p o t h e s i s o f p r e d i c t a b l e p a t t e r n i n g one s t e p f u r t h e r . The f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e s , t a k e n f r o m S h a k e s p e a r e ' s H a m l e t , p r o v e o u r c a s e i n p o i n t . 9 HAMLET Do n o t b e l i e v e i t . 10 ROSENCRANTZ B e l i e v e w h a t ? 11 HAMLET T h a t I c a n k e e p y o u r c o u n s e l a n d n o t m i n e own. 12 B e s i d e s , t o be demanded o f a s p o n g e , what r e p l i c a t i o n 13 s h o u l d be made by t h e s o n o f a k i n g ? 14 ROSENCRANTZ Take y o u me f o r a s p o n g e , my l o r d ? 15 HAMLET Ay, s i r , t h a t s o a k s up t h e k i n g ' s c o u n t e n a n c e , 52 16 h i s r e w a r d s , h i s a u t h o r i t i e s . B u t s u c h o f f i c e r s do t h e k i n g 17 b e s t s e r v i c e i n t h e e n d . He k e e p s them, l i k e an ape, i n 18 t h e c o r n e r o f h i s jaw, f i r s t m outhed, t o be l a s t s w a l -19 l o w e d . When he n e e d s what y o u h a v e g l e a n e d , i t i s b u t 20 s q u e e z i n g y o u and, s p o n g e , y o u s h a l l be d r y a g a i n . 1 I n i t i a l l y , t h e m e t a p h o r a p p e a r s i n l i n e 12, when H a m l e t r e f e r s t o R o s e n c r a n t z as a " s p o n g e . " H e r e , a noun t o noun t r a n s a c t i o n i s t a k i n g p l a c e , w h e r e b y t h e q u a l i t i e s o f a sp o n g e a r e a d d e d t o t h a t o f a human b e i n g . C o n s t r u a l 4.1.6, t h e noun t o n oun c o n j u n c t , a c c o u n t s f o r t h i s t r a n s a c t i o n w i t h R o s e n c r a n t z b e c o m i n g somewhat r e d u c e d as a human b e i n g , w h i l e he i s p a r t i c u l a r i z e d b y t h e f e a t u r e s o f t h e s p o n g e . The v e r y n a t u r e o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r m e t a p h o r c a l l s f o r some r e p e t i t i o n a n d c l a r i f i c a t i o n s i n c e t h e c o m p a r i s o n i s so o u t l a n d i s h . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e c o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n R o s e n c r a n t z a n d t h e " s p o n g e " i s n o t o b v i o u s as i t i s made so i n d i r e c t l y by H a m l e t , w i t h o u t any r e f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e t w o . Thus i t i s d i r e c t l y r e p e a t e d b y R o s e n c r a n t z i n t h e f o r m o f a q u e s t i o n i n l i n e 14. The same t r a n s a c t i o n t h a t o c c u r r e d p r e v i o u s l y o c c u r s h e r e , a s c o n s t r u a l 4.1.6 g o e s i n t o o p e r a t i o n , a n d t h e c o n c e p t o f R o s e n c r a n t z a s sp o n g e i s e s t a b l i s h e d . W i t h t h e m e t a p h o r i n p l a c e , i t i s t h e n e a s i l y e x t e n d e d . 53 The q u a l i t i e s o f t h e sp o n g e a r e t h e n s i n g l e d o u t a n d f u r t h e r d e v e l o p e d i n l i n e 15. The s p o n g e ' s a b i l i t y t o " s o a k up" i s c a p i t a l i z e d u p o n, a n d i s t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e human b e i n g . The t r a n s a c t i o n h e r e shows a noun t o v e r b i n t e r a c t i o n a s t h e v e r b " s o a k s up" u n d e r g o e s a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n t o a g r e e w i t h i t s [+ human] s u b j e c t , R o s e n c r a n t z . The m e t a p h o r i s made i n d i r e c t l y b y H a m l e t s i n c e R o s e n c r a n t z i s n o t m e n t i o n e d d i r e c t l y , b u t t h e r e f e r e n c e t o R o s e n c r a n t z i s c l e a r w i t h t h e r e l a t i v e p r o n o u n " t h a t " m a k i n g t h e l i n k b a c k t o t h e i n t e n d e d s u b j e c t . A n d now t h a t t h e [+ HUMAN] R o s e n c r a n t z i s e s t a b l i s h e d as s p o n g e , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o a d j u s t t h e v e r b " s o a k s up" i n l i n e 15. R o a s e n c r a n t z a s " s p o n g e " d o e s n o t " s o a k up" any [+ LIQUID] as t h e v e r b ' s l i t e r a l f e a t u r e w o u l d i m p l y , b u t r a t h e r he " s o a k s up t h e k i n g ' s c o u n t e n a n c e , h i s r e w a r d s , h i s a u t h o r i t i e s , " a l l o f w h i c h a r e o b j e c t s w i t h n o n l i q u i d f e a t u r e s . As a r e s u l t , " s o a k s up" i s p a r t i c u l a r i z e d a n d l i n e 15 c a n be r e a d a s : Ay, s i r , t h a t t a k e s t h e k i n g ' s c o u n t e n a n c e , h i s r e w a r d s , h i s a u t h o r i t i e s . One a s p e c t o f t h e v e r b i s h i g h l i g h t e d as i t i s u n d e n i a b l y p a r t i c u l a r i z e d a n d i t i s t h e c o n j u n c t i v e r e a d i n g , 4.1.4., t h a t a c c o u n t s f o r t h e noun t o v e r b i n t e r a c t i o n i n t h i s i n s t a n c e . The s p o n g e ' s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e y e t a g a i n b r o u g h t t o t h e f o r e a s t h e m e t a p h o r i s f u r t h e r e x t e n d e d i n l i n e s 1 9-20. Once 54 a g a i n a c o n j u n c t i v e r e a d i n g t a k e s p l a c e on a noun t o v e r b i n t e r a c t i o n a n d t h i s t i m e v e r b " s q u e e z i n g " becomes p a r t i c u l a r i z e d v i a c o n s t r u a l 4.1.4. So " s q u e e z i n g " c a n be r e a d a s " d e m a n d i n g , " s i n c e t h e k i n g r e c e i v e s i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m R o s e n c r a n t z : When he n e e d s what y o u h a v e g l e a n e d , i t i s b u t p r e s s i n g o r d e m a n d i n g o f y o u . . . F u r t h e r m o r e , w i t h i n t h i s l i n e R o s e n c r a n t z i s r e f e r r e d t o as a " s p o n g e " a g a i n , a n d t h e i n i t i a l noun t o noun 4.1.6 c o n j u n c t i s r e p e a t e d . The m e t a p h o r i s t h e n e x t e n d e d y e t one s t e p f u r t h e r , as a s p o n g e ' s q u a l i t y o f b e i n g " d r y " i s p l a y e d u p o n . I n t h i s c a s e , we a r e a c t u a l l y d e a l i n g w i t h an a d j e c t i v e , b u t s i n c e an a d j e c t i v e ' s f u n c t i o n i s t o d e s c r i b e a noun, i t c a n be t r e a t e d l i k e a noun i n t h e m e t a p h o r i c a l p r o c e s s . The a d j e c t i v e i s a c t u a l l y p a r t o f t h e noun as i t o u t l i n e s o r d e f i n e s t h e a c t u a l q u a l i t i e s o f t h e noun, a n d t h u s c o n t r i b u t e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o t h e s u b s t a n c e o f t h e noun. Thus, f o r o u r p u r p o s e s h e r e , t h e a d j e c t i v e s h a l l n o t be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d , b u t r a t h e r w i l l be t r e a t e d l i k e a noun o f s u b s t a n c e . I n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c a s e t h e " d r y n e s s " o f t h e s p o n g e c a n be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e v o i d o f i n f o r m a t i o n on R o s e n c r a n t z ' s p a r t , o n c e i t h a s b e e n " p r e s s e d " o u t o f h i m by t h e k i n g . The noun t o noun c o n j u n c t , 4.1.6, 55 a l l o w s f o r t h e p a r t i c u l a r i z a t i o n o f " d r y " t o " v o i d . " To s u m m a r i z e , t h e a b o v e p a s s a g e shows s i x c o n j u n c t s a s f o l l o w s : (12) : Sponge t o R o s e n c r a n t z / Noun t o Noun / 4 .1 .6 (14) : Sponge t o R o s e n c r a n t z / Noun t o Noun / 4 .1 .6 (15) : Soak t o Take / Noun t o V e r b / 4 .1.4 (20) : S q u e e z e t o P r e s s / Noun t o V e r b / 4.1 .4 (20) : Sponge t o R o s e n c r a n t z / Noun t o Noun / 4 .1 . 6 (20) : D r y t o V o i d / Noun t o Noun / 4. 1.6 C l e a r l y a d e f i n i t e p a t t e r n i s e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h i n t h i s e x t e n d e d m e t a p h o r as t h e i n i t i a l c o n j u n c t i v e r e a d i n g l e a d s t o o t h e r c o n j u n c t s . I n o t h e r w o r d s , o n c e t h e t h o u g h t p a t t e r n i s e s t a b l i s h e d as p a r t i c u l a r i z a t i o n , t h i s t y p e o f p r o c e s s i n g c o n t i n u e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e w h o l e m e t a p h o r , u n t i l t h e e n t i r e t r a i n o f t h o u g h t i s c o m p l e t e d . L e t us s e e i f t h e same i s t r u e when g o i n g i n t h e o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n . T h a t i s , d o e s t h e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s c o n t i n u e t h r o u g h o u t an e x t e n d e d m e t a p h o r o n c e i t h a s b e e n i n i t i a t e d ? Once a g a i n , S h a k e s p e a r e ' s H a m l e t p r o v i d e s an e x a m p l e : 330 E n t e r t h e p l a y e r w i t h r e c o r d e r s 331 0, t h e r e c o r d e r s . L e t me s e e one. To w i t h d r a w w i t h 332 y o u - why do y o u go a b o u t t o r e c o v e r t h e w i n d o f me, 333 as i f y o u w o u l d d r i v e me i n t o a t o i l ? 56 334 GUILDENSTERN 0 my l o r d , i f my d u t y be t o o b o l d , my 335 l o v e i s t o o u n m a n n e r l y . 336 HAMLET I do n o t w e l l u n d e r s t a n d t h a t . W i l l y o u p l a y 337 u p o n t h i s p i p e ? 338 GUILDENSTERN My l o r d , I c a n n o t . 339 HAMLET I p r a y y o u . 340 GUILDENSTERN B e l i e v e me, I c a n n o t . 341 HAMLET I do b e s e e c h y o u . 342 GUILDENSTERN I know no t o u c h o f i t , my l o r d . 343 HAMLET I t i s as e a s y as l y i n g . G o v e r n t h e s e v e n t a g e s 344 w i t h y o u r f i n g e r s a n d thumb, g i v e i t b r e a t h w i t h y o u r 345 mouth, a n d i t w i l l d i s c o u r s e most e l o q u e n t m u s i c . 346 L o o k y o u , t h e s e a r e t h e s t o p s . 347 GUILDENSTERN B u t t h e s e c a n n o t I command t o any 348 u t t ' r a n e e o f harmony. I h a v e n o t t h e s k i l l . 349 HAMLET Why, l o o k y o u now, how u n w o r t h y a t h i n g y o u 350 make o f me! You w o u l d p l a v upon me, y o u w o u l d seem 351 t o know my_ s t o p s , y o u w o u l d p l u c k o u t t h e h e a r t o f my 352 m y s t e r y , y o u w o u l d s o u n d me f r o m my l o w e s t n o t e t o 353 t h e t o p o f my compass; a n d t h e r e i s much m u s i c , e x c e l -354 l e n t v o i c e , i n t h i s l i t t l e o r g a n , y e t y o u c a n n o t make i t 355 s p e a k . " S b l o o d , do y o u t h i n k J. am e a s i e r t o be p l a y e d on 356 t h a n a p i p e ? C a l l me what i n s t r u m e n t y o u w i l l , t h o u g h 57 357 y o u c a n f r e t me, y o u c a n n o t p l a v upon me. 2 The f i r s t m e t a p h o r h e r e , i n a l o n g s t r i n g o f m e t a p h o r s t h a t f o l l o w s , i s one t h a t r e s u l t s i n g e n e r a l i z a t i o n . The s e r i e s o f m e t a p h o r s b e g i n s on l i n e 332 when H a m l e t b e g i n s b y a s k i n g G u i l d e n s t e r n why he g o e s a b o u t " t o r e c o v e r t h e w i n d o f me." I o t h e r w o r d s , H a m l e t i s a s k i n g G u i l d e n s t e r n why he i s " m a k i n g ( o r f o r c i n g ) " h i m " t o s p e a k . " W o r k i n g b a c k w a r d s t h r o u g h t h i s m e t a p h o r we f i n d t h a t two d i s j u n c t i v e c o n s t r u a l s a r e i n o p e r a t i o n h e r e t o p r o d u c e t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . ( P l e a s e s e e T a b l e 1 f o r a d e t a i l e d l i s t i n g a n d summary o f c o n s t r u a l s . ) Then, f r o m l i n e s 336 t o 346, H a m l e t s e t s up t h e n e x t s e t o f m e t a p h o r s b y l i t e r a l l y r e f e r r i n g t o t h e p l a y i n g o f t h e r e c o r d e w i t h s u c h p h r a s e s a s : . . . p l a y u p o n t h i s p i p e ( 1 . 336) . . . g i v e i t b r e a t h w i t h y o u r mouth ( 1 . 344 - 345) . . . i t w i l l d i s c o u r s e ( 1 . 345) . . . t h e s e a r e t h e s t o p s ( 1 . 346) Some o f t h e s e same w o r d s ( " p l a y , " " s t o p s " ) a n d i d e a s ( " b r e a t h " - >"speak," " d i s c o u r s e " — > " c o m m u n i c a t e " ) a r e t h e n u s e d m e t a p h o r i c a l l y i n r e f e r e n c e t o G u i l d e n s t e r n ' s b e h a v i o r o f t r y i n g t o g e t i n f o r m a t i o n o u t o f H a m l e t . I n l i n e 350 H a m l e t makes t h e a c c u s a t i o n t h a t G u i l d e n s t e r n i s t r y i n g t o g e t s o m e t h i n g o u t o f h i m , o r i n h i s w o r d s , " You w o u l d p l a v u p o n 58 4 METAPHOR CONSTRUAL INTERPRETATION 1 332 t o r e c o v e r the wind o f me 4.1.3 N-V r e c o v e r / w i n d 4.1.5 M-N wind/me t o make ( o r f o r e me t o speak 2 350 p l a y v upon me 4.1.3 N-V me/play m a n i p u l a t e me 3 351 my s t o p s 4.1.5 N-N r e c o r d e r s t o p s / my s t o p s my c o n t r o l s ( o r l i m i t s ) 4 351 p l u c k o u t the h e a r t 4.1.3 N-V h e a r t / p l u c k t a k e t h e c o r e ( o r b a s i s ) 5 352 my m y s t e r y 4.1.5 N-N my/mystery my s e c r e t s 6 352 sound me 4.1.3 N-V sound/me h e a r me - make me r e v e a l 7 352 l o w e s t n o t e 4.1.5 N-N r e c o r d e r *s/mj l o w e s t n o t e g r e a t e s t s o r r o w 8 353 t o p o f my compass 4.1.5 N-N r e c o r d e r ' s / m y compass u l t i m a t e h a p p i n e s s 9 355 p l a y e d on see £ 2 above 10 356 c a l l me what i n s t r u m e n t 4.1.5 N-N me/i n s t r u m e n t 4.1-3 N-V c a l 1 / i n s t r u m e m t r e a t me any way 11 357 p l a y upon me see S 2 above T a b l e 1. C o n s t r u a l s f o r H a m l e t ' s l u t e s c e n e 59 me." Fu r t h e r m o r e , he s t a t e s t h a t G u i l d e n s t e r n "seems t o know my s t o p s " o r he seems t o know how t o c o n t r o l my r e s p o n s e s . And a g a i n , a l l o f t h e s e metaphors are c o n s t r u e d v i a t h e d i s j u n c t i v e p r o c e s s , t o r e s u l t i n t h e g e n e r a l i z e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The g e n e r a l i z i n g t r e n d c o n t i n u e s as "you would p l u c k out t h e h e a r t o f my mystery" i s i n t e r p r e t e d as "you would t a k e t h e v e r y b a s i s o f my s e c r e t s . " Then, r e t u r n i n g t o t h e f e a t u r e s o f t h e r e c o r d e r , "you would sound me from my_ l o w e s t n ote t o t h e t o p of my compass" becomes "you would make me r e v e a l my g r e a t e s t sorrow and t h e e x t e n t o f my h i g h e s t a m b i t i o n s . " I t i s a t t h i s p o i n t t h a t t h e f o c u s o f a t t e n t i o n s w i t c h e s from Hamlet as r e c o r d e r , t o r e c o r d e r as [+ HUMAN], and w i t h t h i s s h i f t i n f o c u s comes a s h i f t i n p r o c e s s i n g . The r e c o r d e r i s r e f e r r e d t o l i t e r a l l y when Hamlet says "and t h e r e i s much music, e x c e l l e n t v o i c e , i n t h i s l i t t l e organ, y e t cannot you make i t speak." A c o u p l e o f c o n j u n c t i v e c o n s t r u a l s a re employed here as " v o i c e " i s i n t e r p r e t e d as "sound," and "cannot you make i t speak" becomes "you cannot make music w i t h i t . " Then once more, we r e t u r n t o t h e a l l u s i o n o f Hamlet as r e c o r d e r and t h e metaphors ar e a g a i n c o n s t r u e d d i s j u n c t i v e l y , as t h e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s c o n t i n u e s t o i n o r d e r t o complete t h e o v e r a l l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . 60 A c l e a r p a t t e r n i s e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h i s r e c o r d e r scene, as one g e n e r a l i z a t i o n leads to another. This i s very s i m i l a r to the sponge scene which r e s u l t e d i n one p a r t i c u l a r i z a t i o n l e a d i n g t o another. Now we can assume t h a t w i t h i n an extended metaphor, a d e f i n i t e p a t t e r n i n terms of p r o c e s s i n g i s indeed t a k i n g p l a c e . But j u s t how the l i n k s are made, from one metaphor t o another, i s yet to be examined. A poem might serve best as an example here, as i t s c o n c i s e use of language can be r e a d i l y exposed. To t h i s end, John Donne's "The Sun R i s i n g " has been s e l e c t e d . Busy o l d f o o l , u n r uly sun, Why dost thou thus, Through windows and through c u r t a i n s c a l l on us? Must to thy motions l o v e r s ' seasons run? Saucy p e d a n t i c wretch, go chide Late school boys and sour p r e n t i c e s , Go t e l l c ourt huntsmen t h a t the King w i l l r i d e , C a l l country ants to harvest o f f i c e s ; Love, a l l a l i k e , no season knows nor clime, Nor hours, days, months, which are the rags of time. Thy beams, so reverend and s t r o n g Why shouldst thou t h i n k ? I c o u l d e c l i p s e and c l o u d them with a wink, 61 B u t t h a t I w o u l d n o t l o s e h e r s i g h t so l o n g ; I f h e r e y e s h a v e n o t b l i n d e d t h i n e , L o o k , a n d t o m o r r o w l a t e , t e l l me, W h e t h e r b o t h t h ' I n d i a s o f s p i c e a n d m i n e Be where t h o u l e f t s t them, o r l i e h e r e w i t h me. A s k f o r t h o s e k i n g s whom t h o u s a w ' s t y e s t e r d a y , A n d t h o u s h a l t h e a r , A l l h e r e i n one b e d l a y . She i s a l l s t a t e s , a n d a l l p r i n c e s , I , N o t h i n g e l s e i s . P r i n c e s do b u t p l a y u s ; c o m p a r e d t o t h i s , A l l h o n o r ' s m i m i c , a l l w e a l t h a l c h e m y . Thou, s u n , a r t h a l f as h a p p y a s we, I n t h a t t h e w o r l d ' s c o n t r a c t e d t h u s ; T h i n e age a s k s c a s e , a n d s i n c e t h y d u t i e s be To warm t h e w o r l d , t h a t ' s done i n w a r m i n g u s . S h i n e h e r e t o u s , a n d t h o u a r t e v e r y w h e r e ; T h i s b e d t h y c e n t e r i s , t h e s e w a l l s , t h y s p h e r e . 3 A t t h e v e r y b e g i n n i n g o f t h e poem, i n l i n e 1, t h e s u n i s p e r s o n i f i e d as a " b u s y o l d f o o l , " a n d f r o m t h e n on human a t t r i b u t e s a r e c o n t i n u a l l y d e v e l o p e d w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e s u n . (See T a b l e 2 f o r t h e c o m p l e t e d e t a i l e d l i s t i n g a n d summary o f c o n s t r u a l s . ) T h e r e a r e a t o t a l o f 2 6 m e t a p h o r s i n t h e poem, 62 .1 LIKE M n ' / v iMioi i 0 > N S T i ; u . \ i . 1 NTEH P R E l * A T 1 O N 1 1 IHisy o l d f o o l •"..1.6 N-N s u n p e r s o n i f i c d 2 1 u n r u l y 1 . 1 . 6 N-N -3 3 c a l l o n 4 . 1 . 2 N-V -•4 4 l o v 3 r * s s e a s o n s r u n 4 . 1 . 3 N-V l o v e r s ' ticaa p a s s e s S 5 s a u c y p e d a n t i c v r e t c h 4 . 1 . 6 . N - N sun p e r s o n i f i e d 6 5 g o c h i d e 4 . 1 . 2 N - V -7 7 g o t e l l 4 . 1 . 2 N-V — 8 8 » c a l l 4 . 1 . 2 N - V 9 9 L o v e . . . k n o w s 4 . 1 . 2 N-V l o v e p e r s o n i f i e d 10 12 t h i n l c 4 . 1 . 2 N - V s u a p e r s o n i f i e d . * H 13 I - . - e c l i p s e 4 . 1 . 3 N - V s h u t o u t / d a r k e n *12 13 I . . . c l o u d 4 . 1 . 3 N - V d i m •13 IS h e r e y e s b l i n d e d 4 - 1 . 3 N-V h e r e y e s a r e b r i g h t e r 14 15 t h i n e ( e y e s ) 4 . 1 . 2 N-N s u n p e r s o n i f i e d 15 16 L o o k 4 . 1 . 2 N - V M « 16 16 t e l l 4 . 1 . 2 N - V 17 18 l e f t s t 4 . 1 . 2 N - V •18 18 I n d i a s . - - l i e 4 . 1 . 1 N - V t r e a s u r e s l i e 19 19 A s k 4 . 1 . 2 N - V sun p e r s o n i f i e d 20 19 s a u ' s t 4 . 1 . 2 N - V 21 20 h e a r 4 . 1 . 2 N - V •22 19-20 k i n g s . . . l a y 4 . 1 . 1 N - V e v e r y o n e o f i m p o r t a n c e •23 21 S h e i s a l l s t a t e s 4 . 1 . 5 N-N She i s a l l i o p o r t a n t •24 21 a l l p r i n c e s . 1 4 . 1 . 5 N-N I am a l l i m p o r t a n t 25 25 s u n . . . h a p p y 4 . 1 . 6 N-N s u n p e r s o n i f i e d 26 27 d u t i e s 4 . 1 . 6 N-N — — T a b l e 2. C o n s t r u a l s f o r Donne's "The Sun R i s i n g " 63 a n d o f t h e s e 18 d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e t h e s u n . A l l o f t h e 18 s u n m e t a p h o r s s e r v e t o p e r s o n i f y a n d p a r t i c u l a r i z e t r a i t s o f t h e su n f u r t h e r . S i n c e p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n d o e s p a r t i c u l a r i z e b y a d d i n g f e a t u r e s , a l l c o n s t r u a l s a r e o f t h e c o n j u n c t i v e n a t u r e . The m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e m e t a p h o r s (12) a r e o f t h e noun t o v e r b v a r i e t y , w h i l e t h e r e m a i n i n g s i x a r e noun t o n o u n . So t h e p a t t e r n o f c o n t i n u a l p r o c e s s i n g i n one d i r e c t i o n , e i t h e r t h a t o f p a r t i c u l a r i z a t i o n o r g e n e r a l i z a t i o n , i s r e i n f o r c e d h e r e . I n t h e c a s e o f t h e poem a b o v e , o f c o u r s e , p a r t i c u l a r i z a t i o n i s t h e means o f e s t a b l i s h i n g a n d e x t e n d i n g t h e p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f t h e s u n . I n i t i a l l y t h e s u n i s p e r s o n i f i e d v i a t h e c o n j u n c t i v e p r o c e s s , a n d t h e n , w h e t h e r i t be a noun t o v e r b o r a noun t o noun t r a n s a c t i o n , f e a t u r e s a r e c o n t i n u a l l y a d d e d t o t h e s u n by way o f t h e c o n j u n c t i v e p r o c e s s . A l s o w o r t h n o t i n g w i t h i n t h e poem i s t h a t any b r e a k i n t h e p a t t e r n i s done w i t h a h i g h d e g r e e o f c o n s i s t e n c y . F o r w h e n e v e r we e x p e r i e n c e a s h i f t f r o m p a r t i c u l a r i z a t i o n t o g e n e r a l i z a t i o n , we n o t e a c h a n g e i n s u b j e c t . I n l i n e s 1 t o 10, t h e s u b j e c t i s t h e s u n w h i l e t h e n a t u r e o f p r o c e s s i n g t h e m e t a p h o r i s c o n j u n c t i v e , w i t h t h e r e s u l t i n g p a r t i c u l a r i z a t i o n o f t h e s u b j e c t . B u t i n l i n e s 11-13 we h a v e s w i t c h e d o u r f o c u s , a n d t h e s u b j e c t i s no l o n g e r t h e s u n . I t i s now an a c t u a l human s u b j e c t , a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y , a c o m p l e t e r e v e r s a l i n t h e 64 c o n s t r u a l p r o c e s s i n g f o l l o w s t o d i s j u n c t i v e p r o c e s s i n g a n d t h e r e s u l t i n g g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s . T h r o u g h o u t t h e poem, w h h e n e v e r t h e r e i s a s h i f t away f r o m t h e m a i n s u b j e c t o f t h e s u n , as i s shown a g a i n i n l i n e s 18 a n d 22-24, a d i s t i n c t i v e s h i f t i n p r o c e s s i n g m a r k s any o f t h e s e c h a n g e s i n s u b j e c t . F i n a l l y , i n o u r l a s t i t e m o f a n a l y s i s , i n t e r a c t i o n a n d i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e o f m e a n i n g s a r e o b v i o u s . I n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c a s e , a s i n a l l t h e o t h e r s e x a m i n e d a b o v e , i t i s t h e c o n t e x t w h i c h makes a l l t h e d i f f e r e n c e . I t i s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f w o r d s t h r o u g h t h e i r g r a m m a t i c a l f u n c t i o n a n d t h e s e n s i t v e i n t e r p l a y o f m e a n i n g upon m e a n i n g w h i c h when c o m b i n e d , l e a d s us t o t h e a p p r o p r i a t e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Our e x a m p l e h e r e i s Edmund S p e n s e r ' s S o n n e t 14, w h i c h o p e r a t e s v e r y much l i k e a d o u b l y c o n s t r u e d m e t a p h o r i n t h a t one r e l a t i o n s h i p c a u s e s u s t o go b a c k a n d r e r e a d (and c o n s t r u e ) o u r i n i t i a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e m e a n i n g s t h a t p r e c e d e d . A n d t h u s t h e c h a i n r e a c t i o n e f f e c t d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r g o e s i n t o e f f e c t . The f i r s t p a r t o f t h e poem, f r o m l i n e s 1-9, c o u l d i n f a c t be r e a d l i t e r a l l y w ere i t n o t f o r t h e k e y r e l a t i o n s h i p i n t h e m e t a p h o r i n l i n e 10. T h i s i s t h e t u r n i n g p o i n t w h e r e b y b a t t e r y t o h e r h e a r t t r i g g e r s a b a c k - t a k e on a s e r i e s o f d i s p l a c e m e n t m e t a p h o r s . R e t o u r n e a g a y n e , my f o r c e s l a t e d i s m a y d , u n t o t h e s i e g e by y o u a b a n d o n ' d q u i t e : 65 g r e a t shame i t i s t o l e a v e l i k e one a f r a y d so f a y r e a p e e c e f o r one r e p u l s e so l i g h t . G a y n s t s u c h s t r o n g c a s t l e s n e e d e t h g r e a t e r m i g h t t h e n t h o s e s m a l l f o r t s w h i c h ye were wont b e l a y ; s u c h h a u g h t y mynds e n u ' d t o h a r d y f i g h t d i s d a y n e t o y i e l d u n t o f i r s t a s s a y . B r i n g t h e r e f o r e a l l t h e f o r c e s t h a t ye may, a n d l a y i n c e s s a n t b a t t e r y t o h e r h e a r t , p l a y n t s , p r a y e r s , vowes, r u t h , s o r r o w , a n d d i s m a y ; t h o s e e n g i n s c a n t h e p r o u d e s t l o v e c o n v e r t . A n d i f t h o s e f a y l e , f a l l downe a n d dy b e f o r e h e r ; so d y i n g l i v e , a n d l i v i n g do a d o r e h e r . 4 F i r s t , we r e a l i z e t h a t h e a r t i s n o t meant t o be t a k e n l i t e r a l l y . The u s e o f t h e p r o n o u n " h e r " c a u s e s u s t o i d e n t i f y t h e o b j e c t , h e r h e a r t , as b e l o n g i n g t o a f e m a l e p u r s u e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f l o v e . T h i s i s i n t u r n c o n f i r m e d i n l i n e 12 w i t h t h e a c t u a l u s e o f t h e w o r d " l o v e . " Thus, " h e a r t " i s g e n e r a l i z e d i n t o t h e a b s t r a c t c o n c e p t o f " c e n t e r o f l o v e . " So i t i s t h a t we h a v e a c o n c r e t e noun " h e a r t " g e n e r a l i z e d by t h e a b s t r a c t " l o v e , " a n d an a p t e x a m p l e o f t h e d i s j u n c t i v e noun t o noun c o n s t r u a l , 4.1.5, i n a c t i o n . W i t h t h i s t r a n s a c t i o n c o m p l e t e d , i t t h e n becomes n e c e s s a r y t o go b a c k a n d c o m p l e t e t h e c h a i n o f r e a c t i o n s r e q u i r e d t o 66 i n t e r p r e t t h e poem s u c c e s s f u l l y . W i t h " h e a r t " r e d e f i n e d i n an a b s t r a c t manner, one m e t a p h o r b o u n c e s b a c k on a n o t h e r a n d s o , w o r k i n g b a c k w a r d s t h r o u g h t h e poem, u s i n g c o n s t r u a l 4.1.5, a l l o f t h e f o l l o w i n g n o uns a r e g e n e r a l i z e d as f o l l o w s : b a t t e r v ( 1 . 10) becomes a t t e m p t f o r c e s ( 1 . 9) -> e f f o r t s f i g h t ( 1 . 7) -> o p p o s i t i o n f o r t s ( 1 . 6) -> p r o t e s t s c a s t l e s ( 1 . 5) -> r e s i s t a n c e p e e c e ( 1 . 4) -> a c c e p t a n c e o f l o v e s i e g e ( 1 . 2) -> c o u r t s h i p f o r c e s ( 1 . 1) -> e f f o r t s The o n l y t r a n s a c t i o n s l e f t t o c o m p l e t e a r e t h o s e o f dy_ (1.13) a n d d y i n g ( 1 . 1 4 ) . L i k e t h e m e t a p h o r s t h a t b r e a k t h e p a t t e r n i n "The Sun R i s i n g , " when t h e r e i s a c h a n g e i n s u b j e c t s u c h as f r o m s u n t o human, a c h a n g e i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f p r o c e s s i n g i s t o be e x p e c t e d . I n t h i s c a s e , p a r t i c u l a r i z a t i o n r e s u l t s t h r o u g h t h e c o n j u n c t i v e r e a d i n g o f 4.1.4, a n d "dy" a n d " d y i n g " c a n t h e n be i n t e r p r e t e d as " s u r r e n d e r . " I n t h e c a s e o f S o n n e t 14 a b o v e , one g e n e r a l i z a t i o n r e s u l t e d i n a b a c k s p i n o f e i g h t more. I n "The Sun R i s i n g , " t h e o r i g i n a l p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f t h e s u n l e d t o a t o t a l o f e i g h t e e n p a r t i c u l a r i z i n g m e t a p h o r s , w h i l e H a m l e t ' s l u t e s c e n e showed 67 e l e v e n g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s , a n d t h e s p o n g e s c e n e , s i x p a r t i c u l a r i z a t i o n s . The o n l y b r e a k i n p a t t e r n o c c u r r e d b e c a u s e o f a c h a n g e i n t o p i c . T h a t i s , we move f r o m one m e t a p h o r t o a n o t h e r , a s i n "The Sun R i s i n g " w i t h a s w i t c h f r o m t h e s u n as c e n t r a l m e t a p h o r t o t h e l o v e r s t h e m s e l v e s . W i t h t h i s s w i t c h i n t h e t e n o r o f t h e m e t a p h o r comes a s w i t c h i n t h e a c t u a l t y p e o f p r o c e s s i n g , f r o m a p a r t i c u l a r i z i n g o f t h e s u n t o a g e n e r a l i z i n g o f t h e l o v e r s . The i n t e r a c t i v e q u a l i t y a n d t h e i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e o f m e a n i n g s a r e r e v e a l e d as t h e c o n t e x t a c t u a l l y d e t e r m i n e s t h e l i n k s b e t w e e n one m e a n i n g a n d a n o t h e r . A h i g h l y c o n s i s t e n t a n d p r e d i c t a b l e p a t t e r n i s d e m o n s t r a t e d w i t h i n e x t e n d e d m e t a p h o r . E v e n w i t h i n t h e m e t a p h o r o f d o u b l e c o m p l e x i t y a c l e a r p a t t e r n i s e s t a b l i s h e d . I t h a s b e e n d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t o n c e a f e a t u r e i s r e m o v e d , as i n t h e d i s j u n c t i v e p r o c e s s , f u r t h e r r e m o v a l o f f e a t u r e s f o l l o w s . L i k e w i s e , t h e a d d i t i o n o f a f e a t u r e i n t h e c o n j u n c t i v e p r o c e s s l e a d s t o f u r t h e r a d d i t i o n s . I n o t h e r w o r d s , one d i s j u n c t l e a d s a u t o m a t i c a l l y t o a n o t h e r , w h i l e a c o n j u n c t i v e r e a d i n g s p r i n g s n a t u r a l l y i n t o a n o t h e r c o n j u n c t . I f t h e m e t a p h o r s t a r t s o u t w i t h a g e n e r a l i z a t i o n , t h i s t r e n d o f t h o u g h t becomes t h e mode o f o p e r a t i o n a n d i s c a r r i e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e e n t i r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e m e t a p h o r . C o n v e r s e l y , o n c e a p a r t i c u l a r i z a t i o n o c c u r s , t h i s same mode o f o p e r a t i o n c o n t i n u e s 68 u n t i l t h e r e a d i n g o f t h e m e t a p h o r i s c o m p l e t e . I n t h e c a s e o f S o n n e t 14 a b o v e , one g e n e r a l i z a t i o n r e s u l t e d i n a b a c k s p i n o f e i g h t more. I n "The Sun R i s i n g , " t h e o r i g i n a l p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f t h e s u n l e d t o a t o t a l o f e i g h t e e n p a r t i c u l a r i z i n g m e t a p h o r s , w h i l e H a m l e t ' s l u t e s c e n e showed e l e v e n g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s , a n d t h e s p o n g e s c e n e , s i x p a r t i c u l a r i z a t i o n s . The one b r e a k i n p a t t e r n t h a t o c c u r r e d b e c a u s e o f a c h a n g e i n t o p i c . T h a t i s , a s we move f r o m one m e t a p h o r t o a n o t h e r , we c o n t i n u e t o p r o c e s s i n t h e same way, u n t i l an a c t u a l c h a n g e i n t h e t o p i c o f t h e m e t a p h o r t a k e s p l a c e , w h e r e b y we a c t u a l l y c h a n g e o u r m e t h o d o f p r o c e s s i n g , be i t t h e c o n j u n c t i v e p a r t c u l a r i z a t i o n , o r t h e d i s j u n c t i v e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e i n t e r a c t i v e q u a l i t y a n d t h e i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e o f m e a n i n g s i s r e v e a l e d a s t h e c o n t e x t a c t u a l l y d e t e r m i n e s t h e l i n k s a n d t y p e s o f c o n s t r u a l s b e t w e e n one m e a n i n g a n d a n o t h e r . 69 N o t e s W i l l i a m S h a k e s p e a r e , H a m l e t , W i l l i a m S h a k e s p e a r e : The  C o m p l e t e Works, e d . A l f r e d H a r b a g e (New Y o r k : V i k i n g P r e s s , 1969) 960. 2 S h a k e s p e a r e , H a m l e t , 955. 3 J o h n Donne, "The Sun R i s i n g , " The N o r t o n A n t h r o p o l o g y o f  E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e , 3 r d e d . , 2 v o l s . (New Y o r k : W. W. N o r t o n & Company, 1974) 1 1 9 4 - 1 1 9 5 . 4Edmund S p e n s e r , " A m o r e t t i , S o n n e t 14," E l i z a b e t h a n S o n n e t s , e d . M a u r i c e E v a n s ( L o n d o n : D e n t , 1977) 119-20. 70 C o n c l u s i o n A a c o m p l e t e a n a l y s i s o f t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f m e t a p h o r i n v o l v e s t h e f o l l o w i n g s t e p s : 1. We r e c o g n i z e t h a t a c o m p a r i s o n i s t a k i n g p l a c e . 2. W i t h a s i m p l e m e t a p h o r , a d i r e c t s u b s t i t u t i o n o f f e a t u r e s i s e m p l o y e d . 3. W i t h t h e c o m p l e x m e t a p h o r , an i n t e r a c t i o n a n d s e l e c t i o n o f f e a t u r e s t a k e s p l a c e . I t i s h e r e t h a t a t h e o r y o f c o n s t r u a l s a s s i s t s i n o u t l i n i n g t h e p r o c e s s c l e a r l y , w i t h a s y s t e m a t i c , s t e p by s t e p a p p r o a c h . 4. The e x t e n d e d m e t a p h o r o r c o n c e i t i s p r o c e s s e d a s i s t h e c o m p l e x m e t a p h o r , b u t i n a d d i t i o n , a c h a i n r e a c t i o n e f f e c t o c c u r s w h e r e b y a h i g h l y p r e d i c t a b l e p a t t e r n i n g i s e v i d e n t . L e v i n ' s s i x modes o f c o n s t r u a l a s s i s t us i n c l e a r l y d e f i n i n g t h e p r o c e s s i n g o f m e t a p h o r . T h e s e c o n s t r u a l s a c c o u n t f o r b o t h t h e s u b s t i t u t i o n m e t h o d u n d e r t h e h e a d i n g o f d i s p l a c e m e n t a n d f o r t h e i n t e r a c t i o n t h a t t a k e s p l a c e w i t h i n t h e c o m p l e x m e t a p h o r u n d e r t h e h e a d i n g o f a d j u n c t i o n . F u r t h e r w i t h i n a d j u n c t i o n , two d i s t i n c t t y p e s o f p r o c e s s i n g a r e e s t a b l i s h e d . 71 The f i r s t o f t h e s e i s t h e more common o f t h e two - t h e d i s j u n c t i v e r e a d i n g w h e r e b y f e a t u r e s a r e r e m o v e d i n t h e s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s a n d t h e r e s u l t i s g e n e r a l i z a t i o n . The s e c o n d i s t h e c o n j u n c t i v e r e a d i n g w h i c h i s e x a c t l y o p p o s i t e t o t h e d i s j u n c t i v e r e a d i n g i n t h a t i t adds f e a t u r e s a n d r e s u l t s i n p a r t i c u l a r i z a t i o n . B u t L e v i n ' s t h e o r y r e q u i r e s some a d j u s t m e n t a n d e x t e n s i o n i f we a r e t o a d e q u a t e l y a c c o u n t f o r t h e p r o c e s s i n g o f m e t a p h o r . T h i s i s done a s f o l l o w s : 1. A l i g n c o n s t r u a l 4.1.4 t o t h e p a t t e r n o f p r o c e s s i n g i n d i c a t e d a b o v e , w h e r e b y i t i s i n d e e d a c o n j u n c t i v e p r o c e s s o f a d d i n g f e a t u r e s b u t t h e e n d r e s u l t i s a p a r t i c u l a r i z a t i o n , n o t a g e n e r a l i z a t i o n a s L e v i n h a s s u g g e s t e d . 2. J u s t a s L e v i n e x t e n d s s e m a n t i c t h e o r y t o i n c l u d e Noun t o V e r b f e a t u r e t r a n s f e r s , we must now e x t e n d t h i s one s t e p f u r t h e r t o a l l o w Noun t o Noun f e a t u r e t r a n s f e r s . T h i s r e s u l t s i n t h e a d d i t i o n o f two more c o n s t r u a l s : 4.1.5 - t h e Noun t o Noun d i s j u n c t w h i c h r e m o v e s f e a t u r e s t o r e s u l t i n g e n e r a l i z a t i o n . 4.1.6 - t h e Noun t o Noun c o n j u n c t w h i c h a d d s f e a t u r e s t o r e s u l t i n p a r t i c u l a r i z a t i o n . 72 By a p p l y i n g t h e e i g h t modes o f c o n s t r u a l t o t h e more complex metaphor, a d e f i n i t e p a t t e r n i n g i s e v i d e n c e d . F i r s t , i t was demonstrated t h a t numerous complex metaphors r e q u i r e two t r a n s a c t i o n s . F u rthermore, whenever t h i s i s t h e case, b o t h o f t h o s e t r a n s a c t i o n s w i l l be o f t h e same p r o c e s s i n g t y p e . I n o t h e r words, one d i s j u n c t i v e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n w i l l l e a d t o a n o t h e r , and, c o n v e r s e l y , a c o n j u n c t i v e p a r t i c u l a r i z a t i o n l e a d s t o a n o t h e r . W i t h t h i s p r i n c i p l e i n p l a c e , we examine t h e c o n c e i t t o de t e r m i n e whether o r not such a p a t t e r n i n g as i n i t i a t e d i n t h e complex metaphor can be a p p l i e d and a n t i c i p a t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e numerous t r a n s a c t i o n s t h a t a re r e q u i r e d h e r e . W i t h v e r y few e x c e p t i o n s , we see t h a t t h a t i s e x a c t l y t h e cas e . In o t h e r words, a c h a i n r e a c t i o n t a k e s p l a c e whereby t h e i n i t i a l t r a n s a c t i o n s p r i n g s f u r t h e r t r a n s a c t i o n s o f t h e same p r o c e s s i n g t y p e . (A d i s j u n c t i v e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n l e a d s t o f u r t h e r d i s j u n c t s , j u s t as a c o n j u n c t i v e p a r t i c u l a r i z a t i o n l e a d s t o f u r t h e r c o n j u n c t s . ) T h i s l e a d s us t o c o n c l u d e t h a t t h i s t y p e of p a t t e r n i n g mimics o r p a r a l l e l s t h e thought p r o c e s s e s o f t h e u s e r s i n v o l v e d . F o r t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e c o n c e i t r e l i e s on t h e a b i l i t y t o e s t a b l i s h t h e i n i t i a l t r a n s a c t i o n and t h e e x t e n s i o n o f t h a t same t y p e o f p r o c e s s i n g t h r o u g h o u t t h e numerous t r a n s a c t i o n s f o r t h e r e s u l t a n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and 73 u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e p a s s a g e a s a w h o l e . I t f o l l o w s t h a t human t h o u g h t a n d i n d e e d t h e human m i n d o p e r a t e i n s u c h h i g h l y o r g a n i z e d a n d p r e d i c t a b l y l i n k e d c h a i n s o f s i m i l a r d e s i g n . Our s t u d y h e r e i s m e r e l y a g l i m p s e o f t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s t h a t e x i s t ; i t o p e n s q u e s t i o n s i n numerous a r e a s t h a t r e q u i r e f u r t h e r e x p l o r a t i o n a n d more s u b s t a n t i a t e d e x p l a n a t i o n s o f t h e i n t r i c a c i e s o f l a n g u a g e a t work a n d o f human t h o u g h t i t s e l f . I n t h e f i e l d o f l i n g u i s t i c s , f o r e x a m p l e , i t i s c e r t a i n l y e v i d e n t t h a t many a r e a s r e m a i n t o be e s t a b l i s h e d a n d c l a r i f i e d . The e x a c t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s y n t a x a n d s e m a n t i c s i s y e t t o be d e t e r m i n e d . Of c o u r s e , t h e e n t i r e c o n c e p t o f m e a n i n g n e e d s t o be f u r t h e r e x a m i n e d a n d b r o a d e n e d s o t h a t s e m a n t i c s c a n accommodate t h e i r r e g u l a r i t i e s t h a t e x i s t i n a l l t y p e s o f l a n g u a g e u s e . T h i s m i g h t p r o m p t s e m a n t i c i s t s t o c o n s u l t o t h e r a r e a s o f l a n g u a g e s t u d y i n o r d e r t o revamp t h e i r a p p r o a c h t o a n d t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n o f m e a n i n g a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e i r m e t h o d o f s t u d y . F u r t h e r m o r e , d e t a i l e d s t u d i e s o f L e v i n ' s c o n s t r u a l s a n d t h e e x t e n s i o n s a p p l i e d t o them c o u l d f u r t h e r r e v e a l s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t e x i s t b e t w e e n w o r d s a n d p h r a s e s . Q u e s t i o n s s u c h as t h e f o l l o w i n g m i g h t be a n s w e r e d . - W i t h i n m e t a p h o r , how a r e t h e w o r d t h a t r e m a i n t h e same, a n d t h e w o r d t h a t c h a n g e s d e t e r m i n e d ? 74 What causes one word t o become dominant i n meaning w h i l e t h e o t h e r i s r e a d i l y adapted? E x a c t l y what r o l e does c o n t e x t have and how does i t i n f l u e n c e meaning? How i m p o r t a n t i s word o r d e r and p h r a s a l c o n s t r u c t i o n and p o s i t i o n i n g ? E x a c t l y what r o l e do f u n c t i o n words p l a y and how does t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h o s e words o f s u b s t a n c e i n f l u e n c e meaning? How and why are c e r t a i n f e a t u r e s o f meaning s e l e c t e d t o be h i g h l i g h t e d w h i l e o t h e r s a r e r e p r e s s e d ? That a d e f i n i t e p a t t e r n i n g e x i s t s w i t h i n complex metaphor and t h e c o n c e i t has been e s t a b l i s h e d , but e x a c t l y how p r e d i c t a b l e t h e s e p a t t e r n s may be i s y e t t o be d e t e r m i n e d . I t would a l s o be v e r y r e v e a l i n g t o i n v e s t i g a t e e x a c t l y how and why b r e a k s i n t h e p a t t e r n s e x i s t . I t has been o b s e r v e d i n Chapter 3 t h a t b r e a k s do o c c u r w i t h a change i n t o p i c . Of c o u r s e , f u r t h e r s t u d i e s would need t o be done t o d e t e r m i n e t h e c o n s i s t e n c y and v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e p a t t e r n i n g . Any s t u d y t h a t i n v o l v e s human thought l e a d s q u i t e n a t u r a l l y i n t o o t h e r f i e l d s o f s t u d y t h a t a re d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d . I f t h e mind does o p e r a t e i n such h i g h l y o r g a n i z e d and p r e d i c t a b l e b l o c k s o f l i n k e d c h a i n s , what are t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s t o l e a r n i n g 75 t h e o r y , f o r e x a m p l e ? How c a n p s y c h o l o g y u s e t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n t o f u r t h e r e x p l a i n o t h e r a r e a s o f human b e h a v i o u r ? More i n d i r e c t l y , d o e s a s i m i l a r t y p e o f t h o u g h t p r o c e s s i n g e x i s t i n o t h e r f i e l d s o f s t u d y s u c h as m a t h e m a t i c s a n d m u s i c ? A n d i f s o , how w o u l d t h e y v a r y f r o m one a n o t h e r ? W o u l d t h e y , f o r e x a m p l e , e x h i b i t g r e a t e r o r l e s s e r amounts o f c o n s i s t e n c y a n d / o r v a r i a t i o n ? One c a n o n l y s u r m i s e t h a t t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s a r e e n d l e s s a s t h e a v e n u e s o f human t h o u g h t b e g i n t o be e x p l o r e d . 76 B i b l i o g r a p h y A r i s t o t l e . The Works o f A r i s t o t l e . E d . R. M. H u t c h i n s , 2 v o l s . C h i c a g o : W i l l i a m B e n t o n , Pub., 1952. B l a c k , Max. M o d e l s a n d M e t a p h o r s . I t h a c a , NY: C o r n e l l UP, 1962 . B r o o k e - R o s e , C h r i s t i n e . A Grammar o f M e t a p h o r . L o n d o n : S e e k e r & W a r b u r g , 1958. Chomsky, Noam. A s p e c t s o f t h e T h e o r y o f S y n t a x . C a m b r i d g e , MA: MIT P r e s s , 1965. Donne, J o h n . "The Sun R i s i n g . " The N o r t o n A n t h o l o g y o f E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e . E d . M. H. Abrams e t a l . 3 r d e d . 2 v o l s . NY: W. W. N o r t o n & Company, 1974. F o d o r , J e r r y A. a n d J e r r o l d J . K a t z . The S t r u c t u r e o f L a n g u a g e . E n g l e w o o d C l i f f s , N J : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , 1964 . K a t z , J e r r o l d J . S e m a n t i c T h e o r y . NY: H a r p e r & Row, 1972. K a t z , J e r r o l d J . a n d P a u l M. P o s t a l . An I n t e g r a t e d T h e o r y  o f L i n g u i s t i c D e s c r i p t i o n . C a m b r i d g e , MA: MIT P r e s s , 1964 . L e e c h , G e o f f r e y , N. P r i n c i p l e s o f P r a g m a t i c s . NY: Longman I n c . , 1 983. 77 L e v i n , S amuel R. The S e m a n t i c s o f M e t a p h o r . B a l t i m o r e : J o h n H o p k i n s UP, 1977. L y o n s , J o h n . S e m a n t i c s . 2 v o l s . C a m b r i d g e , MA: C a m b r i d g e UP, 1977. O r t o n y , A ndrew. " M e t a p h o r : A M u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l P r o b l e m . " M e t a p h o r a n d T h o u g h t . C a m b r i d g e , MA: C a m b r i d g e UP, 1979. P r a t t , M a r y L o u i s e . T o w a r d a S p e e c h A c t T h e o r y o f L i t e r a r y D i s c o u r s e . B l o o m i n g t o n : I n d i a n a UP, 1977. R i c h a r d s , I . A. The P h i l o s o p h y o f R h e t o r i c . L o n d o n : O x f o r d UP, 1936. S h a k e s p e a r e , W i l l i a m . H a m l e t . W i l l i a m S h a k e s p e a r e : The  C o m p l e t e W o r k s . E d . A l f r e d H a r b a g e . NY: V i k i n g P r e s s , 1969. S p e n s e r , Edmund. " A m o r e t t i , S o n n e t 14." E l i z a b e t h a n S o n n e t s . E d . M a u r i c e E v a n s . L o n d o n : D e n t , 1977. W e i n r e i c h , U r i e l . " E x p l o r a t i o n s i n S e m a n t i c T h e o r y . " C u r r e n t T r e n d s i n L i n g u i s t i c s . 3 v o l s . T h e o r e t i c a l F o u n d a t i o n s . E d . T. A. S e b e o k . The Hague: Mo u t o n , 1966. 78 

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