UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Impact of independent instruction on the achievement scores of slow learner students Purdy, Gerald Albert 1988

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IMPACT OF INDEPENDENT INSTRUCTION ON THE ACHIEVEMENT SCORES OF SLOW LEARNER STUDENTS b y GERALD ALBERT PURDY B.A. ( E n g l i s h ) , Y o r k U n i v e r s i t y , 1971 B. E d . , U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o , 1963 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTERS OF ARTS i n t h e F a c u l t y o f G r a d u a t e S t u d i e s ( D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y a n d S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA J u n e , 1988 © Gerald A l b e r t Purdy In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y & S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date O c t o b e r 14, 1988 DE-6(3/81) ( i ) ABSTRACT Th i s study compared the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of independent l e s s o n reviews with t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d l e s s o n reviews using the same content m a t e r i a l . Student improvement was measured by improvement of the mean scores of the students, as determined by t h e i r performance on teacher-made t e s t s . The students t a k i n g p a r t i n the study were grade nine v o c a t i o n a l students at W.J. Fenton Secondary School i n The Peel Board of Educat i o n . The students were t e s t e d on t h e i r a b i l i t y to r e c a l l names of equipment, on t h e i r comprehension of a s c i e n t i f i c phenomenon and on t h e i r a b i l i t y to apply a mathematical formula to q u a n t i f y experimental r e s u l t s . The p r e d i c t e d s u p e r i o r performance of the independent study technique was not confirmed. The students i n the t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d reviews performed e q u a l l y w e l l or b e t t e r than the students u s i n g independent study techniques. However, d u r i n g the study there was o v e r a l l improvement i n the scores of both groups of students i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the teaching s t r a t e g i e s a p p l i e d f o r t h i s study were e f f e c t i v e i n a s s i s t i n g the students to improve t h e i r s u b j e c t mastery. ( i i ) B a s e d on t h e s e f i n d i n g s i t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t i n d e p e n d e n t s t u d y s t r a t e g i e s a r e n o t s u p e r i o r t o t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d r e v i e w m e t h o d s f o r s t u d e n t s who h a v e l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s b u t t h e y do h a v e some v a l u e i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n s where i n d e p e n d e n t s t u d y methods must be u s e d . TABLE OF CONTENTS ( i i i ) P a g e ABSTRACT ( i ) - ( i i ) TABLE OF CONTENTS ( i i i ) - ( v ) L I S T OF TABLES ( v i ) L I S T OF FIGURES . . ( v i i ) ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ( v i i i ) - ( i x ) C h a p t e r I INTRODUCTION 1.1 M o d e l s E m p l o y i n g I n d e p e n d e n t I n s t r u c t i o n a l S t r a t e g i e s 1- 5 1.2 I m p o r t a n c e o f R e s e a r c h i n g I n d e p e n d e n t S t u d y S t r a t e g i e s 5- 13 1.3 I m p o r t a n c e o f an I n d i v i d u a l I n s t r u c t i o n M o d e l 13- 16 1.4 D e s c r i p t i o n o f Terms 16- 21 1.5 D e f i n i t i o n s S p e c i f i c t o t h e S c i e n c e E x p e r i m e n t s 2 1 - 22 1.6 S t a t e m e n t o f t h e P r o b l e m 22- 23 1.7 The S p e c i f i c H y p o t h e s i s 23- 24 I I REVIEW OF THE RELEVANT LITERATURE 2.1 P e r s p e c t i v e s f o r R e v i e w 25 2.2 The W i n n e t k a P l a n 26- 27 2.3 F r e d K e l l e r M o d e l 27- 30 2.4 B e n j a m i n B l o o m ' s M o d e l 30- 35 2.5 James B l o c k a n d P e t e r A i r a s i a n 3 5 - 39 2.6 I n d i v i d u a l D i f f e r e n c e s on t h e R a t e o f L e a r n i n g 39- 40 ( i v ) Chapter Page 2.7 H.S. Adelman 40- 42 2.8 Alan Pavio 42- 44 2.9 B e h a v i o r a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Students Who Learn Slowly 44- 48 II I METHODOLOGY 3.1 Experimental Design 49 3.2 Sample and P o p u l a t i o n 49- 50 3.3 Procedures .. 50- 53 3.4 Treatment 53- 57 3.5 Data C o l l e c t i o n 57- 60 3.6 Comparisons w i t h i n Groups 60- 61 3.7 V a r i a b l e s 61 3.8 I n t e r n a l and E x t e r n a l V a l i d i t y 61- 64 3.9 R a t i o n a l e f o r Design 65 3.10 Research Hypotheses 65- 66 IV ANALYSIS AND RESULTS 4.1 R e s u l t s 67- 68 4.2 D e s c r i p t i v e S t a t i s t i c s 68- 69 4.3 C o r r e l a t e d t - t e s t s 69- 70 4.4 Independent t - t e s t s 70 4.5 C o r r e l a t i o n a l Analyses 70 4.6 Summary 71- 72 (v) Chapter Page V CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5.1 Summary of R e s u l t s 84- 86 5.2 D i s c u s s i o n 86- 88 5.3 A b i l i t y of Students to Improve Comprehension 88- 90 5.4 A b i l i t y of Students to Improve Mathematical C a l c u l a t i o n 90- 94 5.5 A b i l i t y of Students to Improve O v e r a l l Mean Score 95 5.6 E f f e c t i v e n e s s o f S p e c i a l i z e d Resource M a t e r i a l s 95- 97 5.7 E f f e c t i v e n e s s o f S e q u e n t i a l and H i e r a c h i c a l I n s t r u c t i o n 97 5.8 E f f e c t i v e n e s s of S p e c i a l Resource Room 98 5.9 L i m i t a t i o n of Study 98-100 5.10 Suggestions f o r F u r t h e r Research ,.100-103 BIBLIOGRAPHY 104-108 APPENDIX I Examples of P s y c h o - E d u c a t i o n a l Assessment E v a l u a t i o n s o f Sample And Pop u l a t i o n 109 APPENDIX II C o r r e l a t i o n of Ps y c h o - E d u c a t i o n a l E v a l u a t i o n Scores f o r Students P a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the Study 110 APPENDIX I I I D e s c r i p t i o n s and Examples of Independent Study Resource M a t e r i a l s -4-H. I1 ' APPENDIX IV Test Instruments Used f o r E v a l u a t i o n of Sample P o p u l a t i o n Jri-2* I* 1-/ ( v i i i ) ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS My s i n c e r e t h a n k s a r e e x t e n d e d t o my t h e s i s d i r e c t o r , D r . Ron N e u f e l d , a n d D r . P e r r y L e s l i e a n d D r . H a r o l d R a t z l a f f , who p r o v i d e d me w i t h e x p e r t a d v i c e a n d c o n s u l t a t i o n d u r i n g t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s . My t h a n k s a r e a l s o e x t e n d e d t o D r . K r i s K i r k w o o d , R e s e a r c h D i r e c t o r o f The P e e l B o a r d o f E d u c a t i o n , f o r h i s i n s i g h t a n d e x p e r t i s e i n a s s i s t i n g me w i t h t h e s t u d y . I am e x t r e m e l y g r a t e f u l t o my w i f e , L y n n , f o r t h e p a t i e n c e , a s s i s t a n c e a n d s u p p o r t s h e showed d u r i n g t h e l o n g t i m e i t r e q u i r e d t o c o m p l e t e t h i s t h e s i s . A s p e c i a l t h a n k - y o u i s e x t e n d e d t o J o h n K n e c h t e l , a f e l l o w g r a d u a t e a n d v e r y v a l u e d f r i e n d . W i t h o u t h i s e n c o u r a g e m e n t , c r i t i c i s m a n d many h o u r s o f d i s c u s s i o n , t h i s s t u d y w o u l d n e v e r h a v e b e e n c o m p l e t e d . I w o u l d a l s o l i k e t o t h a n k t h e s t a f f o f W.J. F e n t o n S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l who p a r t i c i p a t e d as t e a c h e r s a n d a s s i s t a n t s f o r d e v e l o p i n g t h e v i s u a l a i d s u s e d d u r i n g t h e r e s e a r c h . The t e a c h e r s , Dave H u e t h e r a n d J i m D a v i e s , c o n t r i b u t e d many h o u r s o f work i n i n s t r u c t i o n , p l a n n i n g l e s s o n s a n d m a r k i n g t h e e v a l u a t i o n p a p e r s . The r e s o u r c e a s s i s t a n t s , R o g e r M a r s h a n d Don K a l a c h n i k , a s s i s t e d i n d e v e l o p i n g t h e s p e c i a l r e s o u r c e ( i x ) m a t e r i a l s . My o f f i c e s t a f f , p a r t i c u l a r l y my Head S e c r e t a r y , Megan Tudhope, s p e n t many h o u r s i n t y p i n g a n d c r i t i q u i n g t h e t h e s i s p a p e r . A l l t h e s e p e o p l e a p p r o a c h e d t h e s t u d y i n a p r o f e s s i o n a l manner b e c a u s e o f t h e i r b e l i e f i n t h e v a l u e o f r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s a s a means o f i m p r o v i n g t h e e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e o f o u r s t u d e n t s i n t h e s c h o o l . CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Models Employing Independent I n s t r u c t i o n a l S t r a t e g i e s There i s a long t r a d i t i o n i n e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h which holds t h a t a s e l f - i n s t r u c t i o n a l program designed to meet the s p e c i f i c needs of a student, who i s e x p e r i e n c i n g d i f f i c u l t y mastering h i s / h e r e d u c a t i o n a l m a t e r i a l , w i l l a s s i s t the student i n s u b j e c t mastery. Block's Mastery l e a r n i n g t h e o r i e s , A.V. Canon's (1984) s e l f - c o a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s and Torgensen's (1977) a p p l i c a t i o n of student s e l f - i n s t r u c t i o n on task performance are examples of c u r r e n t use of t h i s technique. Many e d u c a t i o n a l program d e l i v e r y models have been developed o u t l i n i n g the a p p l i c a t i o n of the s e l f - i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s , employing t e c h n i c a l a i d s to present i n f o r m a t i o n and ap p l y i n g s y s t e m a t i c methods to organize and d e l i v e r the su b j e c t m a t e r i a l students are expected to master. Many a p p l i c a t i o n s of computer-assisted i n s t r u c t i o n r e l y on students using independent i n s t r u c t i o n m a t e r i a l s t o master programs. The Winnetka P l a n of C a r l e t o n Washburn (1922) and P r o f e s s o r Henry Morrison's (1926) approach a t the U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Lab o r a t o r y School were e a r l y e f f o r t s to i n d i v i d u a l i z e programs and apply s t r a t e g i e s of independent i n s t r u c t i o n . Although there was i n i t i a l improvement i n student performance i n the experiments, these e f f o r t s were not fo l l o w e d through, mainly because of the l a c k of i n s t r u c t i o n a l t e c h n o l o g y r e q u i r e d t o s u s t a i n a l o n g t e r m s u c c e s s f u l t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g y w i t h i n a c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g . J o h n B. C a r r o l l ' s " M o d e l o f S c h o o l L e a r n i n g " ( 1 9 6 3 ) m e a s u r e d t h e t i m e a s t u d e n t r e q u i r e d t o l e a r n a t a s k t o a g i v e n c r i t e r i o n - r e f e r e n c e l e v e l u n d e r i d e a l i n s t r u c t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s . H i s m o d el s t a t e d t h a t c e r t a i n c o n f l i c t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s b e t w e e n t h e i n d i v i d u a l and t h e q u a l i t y o f h i s s c h o o l i n s t r u c t i o n c o u l d be c o m p e n s a t e d f o r by t h e e x t r a t i m e t h e s t u d e n t r e q u i r e d t o m a s t e r t h e t a s k s . The " i d e a l i n s t r u c t i o n " i n C a r r o l l ' s m o d e l was d e f i n e d as q u a l i t y o f i n s t r u c t i o n , w h e r e b y e a c h i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t was p r o v i d e d w i t h a f o r m o f p e d a g o g y by w h i c h he c o u l d u n d e r s t a n d t h e s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n s and e x p e c t a t i o n s r e q u i r e d t o m a s t e r t h e s c h o o l p r o g r a m . The t e a c h e r ' s r o l e was t h e c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f i n s t r u c t i o n . By a p p l y i n g a v a r i e t y o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s f r o m w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t c o u l d c h o o s e , t h e s t u d e n t was made aw a r e o f t h e e x a c t e x p e c t a t i o n s n e c e s s a r y f o r h i s / h e r m a s t e r y o f t h e r e q u i r e d s u b j e c t m a t e r i a l . A c c o r d i n g t o C a r r o l l ' s m o d e l e a c h s t u d e n t w o u l d r e q u i r e a d i f f e r e n t amount o f t i m e t o c o m p l e t e h i s / h e r a s s i g n m e n t s and meet t h e c r i t e r i o n r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e c o u r s e . C a r r o l l c o n t e n d e d t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f s t u d e n t s , g i v e n c l e a r i n s t r u c t i o n a n d v a r y i n g amounts o f t i m e t o m a s t e r t h e m a t e r i a l , w i l l meet t h e e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e s c h o o l p r o g r a m . B l o o m ' s model d e v e l o p e d s e l f - p a c e d s t u d e n t i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s . He a d v o c a t e d f o r a r e v i e w p r o c e s s where t h e s u b j e c t m a t e r i a l s w e r e p r e s e n t e d i n a u n i q u e f o r m u s i n g t e a c h e r a i d s f o r t h o s e s t u d e n t s who f a i l e d t o c o m p r e h e n d e s s e n t i a l l e s s o n o b j e c t i v e s w i t h i n t h e c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g . B l o o m ( 1 9 6 8 ) p r o v i d e d a m e thod t o a p p l y C a r r o l l ' s m o d e l as an e f f e c t i v e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h i n g m e t h o d o l o g y . He o u t l i n e d p r o c e d u r e s i n w h i c h t h e i n d i v i d u a l i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n c o u l d be managed w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f o r d i n a r y g r o u p - b a s e d i n s t r u c t i o n a n d a p p l i c a t i o n o f t e c h n i q u e s and a i d s t o a s s i s t s t u d e n t s t o c o m p r e h e n d t h e m a t e r i a l . F o l l o w i n g B l o o m ' s p r o c e d u r e s w o u l d make i n s t r u c t i o n more e f f i c i e n t , i m p r o v e s t u d e n t i n t e r e s t a n d a t t i t u d e a n d a l l o w up t o n i n e t y p e r c e n t o f t h e c l a s s t o o b t a i n s u b j e c t m a s t e r y o f t h e i r s c h o o l c u r r i c u l a . The D i r e c t I n s t r u c t i o n a l S y s t e m i n t h e T e a c h i n g o f A r i t h m e t i c a n d R e a d i n g (DISTAR) was a n o t h e r a p p r o a c h f o r o b t a i n i n g i m p r o v e d s t u d e n t p e r f o r m a n c e t h r o u g h s p e c i f i c e m p h a s i s on t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s . Bateman's a p p r o a c h ( 1 9 7 6 ) t o t e a c h i n g r e a d i n g s k i l l s c o m b i n e d t a s k - a n a l y t i c p r o g r a m m i n g , r e i n f o r c e m e n t p r i n c i p l e s and an e m p h a s i s on t h e a t t e n t i o n a l d e f i c i t s o f t h e s t u d e n t . The DISTAR a p p r o a c h f o l l o w s h i s p r i n c i p l e s b y u s i n g t i g h t l y s t r u c t u r e d i n s t r u c t i o n a l c o m p o n e n t s a n d c a r e f u l l y s e q u e n c e d t e a c h i n g s t e p s . R e p e t i t i o n , s m a l l s e g m e n t e d g r o u p i n g s o f i n f o r m a t i o n , s e q u e n c e d f r o m e a s i e s t t o more c o m p l e x a n d u s i n g c o n s t a n t f e e d b a c k a n d p r a i s e a s r e w a r d s , a r e t h e m a i n e l e m e n t s o f t h i s i n s t r u c t i o n a l m e t h o d o l o g y . Bateman's m a t e r i a l was a i m e d a t s t u d e n t s who h a d g e n e r a l l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s w i t h I.Q. s c o r e s b e l o w 85 b a s e d on p s y c h o - e d u c a t i o n a l a s s e s s m e n t s . T h i s m a r k e d a d i f f e r e n c e i n a p p l i c a t i o n f r o m B l oom's m o d e l . B l o o m ' s model was d e s i g n e d f o r s t u d e n t s who were h a v i n g d i f f i c u l t y m a s t e r i n g t h e i r s c h o o l p r o g r a m , y e t t h e i r p s y c h o - e d u c a t i o n a l a s s e s s m e n t s p l a c e d them w i t h i n t h e n o r m a l i n t e l l i g e n c e r a n g e a n d t h e y were n o t a s s e s s e d a s h a v i n g l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s . B ateman's model r e c o g n i z e d t h e p o l i t i c a l r e a l i t y t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n s must i m p r o v e t h e s u b j e c t m a s t e r y o f s t u d e n t s d e s i g n a t e d a s s l o w l e a r n e r s a n d r e f l e c t e d t h e c h a n g i n g p o l i c i e s w i t h i n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l s c e n e . A d e l m a n ' s I n t e r a c t i o n a l M o d e l ( 1 9 7 1 ) i d e n t i f i e d c l a s s r o o m e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s w h i c h n e g a t i v e l y a f f e c t t h e a b i l i t y o f s t u d e n t s t o m a s t e r s u b j e c t m a t e r i a l . He i d e n t i f i e d a number o f f a c t o r s w i t h i n t h e c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e d t o p o o r s c h o o l p e r f o r m a n c e o f s t u d e n t s c l a s s i f i e d a s s l o w l e a r n e r s . A d e l m a n ' s p r o p o s e d m e t h o d o l o g y o f i n s t r u c t i o n ( 1 9 7 3 ) , w h i c h he c a l l s " P e r s o n a l i z e d I n s t r u c t i o n " , o r g a n i z e d s t u d e n t p r o g r a m s i n t o i n s t r u c t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s , a p p l i e d s m a l l u n i t s i n a s e q u e n t i a l o r d e r f r o m e a s y t o more d i f f i c u l t a n d u t i l i z e d f o r m a t i v e t e s t i n g and l e s s o n s e q u e n c i n g s i m i l a r t o t h a t p r o p o s e d by B l o o m . A d e l m a n a l s o o u t l i n e d i n d e t a i l t h e r o l e o f t h e t e a c h e r s , e d u c a t i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a n d t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l r e s o u r c e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a s u c c e s s f u l i n d e p e n d e n t s t u d y p r o g r a m . 5 Each of the areas covered i n t h i s b r i e f background d e s c r i p t i o n w i l l be d e a l t with i n d e t a i l i n the l i t e r a t u r e review s e c t i o n , Chapter I I . 1.2 Importance of Researching Independent Study S t r a t e g i e s For t h i s study an independent i n s t r u c t i o n a l program was designed to a s s i s t students with the s p e c i f i c v a r i a b l e s which i n f l u e n c e each student's a b i l i t y to master h i s / h e r own e d u c a t i o n a l program f o r the experimental group review. In order to a s s i s t the student's mastery of the b a s i c s k i l l s and concepts r e l a t e d d i r e c t l y to the l e s s o n s on heat t r a n s f e r , the classroom lessons used t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n ; the students performed experiments and the teacher l e s s o n was composed of a group demonstration and group i n s t r u c t i o n designed to e x p l a i n and c o n s o l i d a t e the l e s s o n m a t e r i a l . During i n s t r u c t i o n the students took formative e v a l u a t i o n s a f t e r completing the experiments and r e c e i v i n g lessons on how to q u a n t i f y the r e s u l t s . The teacher used the data from the t e s t i n g to s e t up an independent review program f o r the experimental group and to d e s i g n a t r a d i t i o n a l review l e s s o n f o r the c o n t r o l group. The students i n the experimental group were d i r e c t e d to c o n c e n t r a t e t h e i r review time on s p e c i f i c areas of weakness u s i n g the s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n a l a i d s and i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s , which allowed f o r an independent study program. Thus, the review lessons f o r the experimental group were i n d i v i d u a l review programs t a i l o r e d to overcome s p e c i f i c d e f i c i t s o f t h e s t u d e n t s . The s t u d e n t s c o m p l e t e d t h e i r i n d e p e n d e n t r e v i e w i n t h e room d e s i g n e d t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e s e s p e c i f i c r e v i e w s t r a t e g i e s . S t u d i e s by Bloom ( 1 9 6 8 ) a n d B l o o m and B l o c k ( 1 9 7 3 ) i n d i c a t e d m a j o r i m p r o v e m e n t s i n t h e a c h i e v e m e n t l e v e l o f s l o w l e a r n e r s t u d e n t s . The i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l was p r e s e n t e d i n a s e q u e n t i a l f o r m a t b e s t s u i t e d t o t h e s t u d e n t ' s p e r s o n a l l e a r n i n g s t y l e and t a u g h t a t a p a c e t h a t a l l o w e d t h e s t u d e n t t h e t i m e r e q u i r e d f o r h i m / h e r t o m a s t e r t h e m a t e r i a l . Of e q u a l i m p o r t a n c e , t h e i r r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n s t r u c t i o n a l a p p r o a c h e s c a n be a p p l i e d w i t h i n t h e c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g w i t h a minimum o f a d d i t i o n a l t e a c h i n g r e s o u r c e s . The p r a c t i c e o f r e m o v i n g s t u d e n t s f o r s p e c i a l i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n i n t o a c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g c a t e g o r i z e d b y t h e i r d i s a b i l i t i e s has s e r i o u s s i d e e f f e c t s , w h i c h l i m i t t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e p r o g r a m a n d r e d u c e s t u d e n t m o t i v a t i o n . An i n d i v i d u a l i n s t r u c t i o n a l a p p r o a c h u s e s a v a r i e t y o f t e a c h i n g a i d s s u c h a s c o m p u t e r - a s s i s t e d i n s t r u c t i o n , s l i d e and f i l m s t r i p p r e s e n t a t i o n s and a l l o w s t h e s t u d e n t t o r e m a i n w i t h i n t h e t i m e t a b l e c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g . The s i d e e f f e c t s , w h i c h o c c u r a s a r e s u l t o f e x t e n s i v e w i t h d r a w a l f r o m r e g u l a r i n s t r u c t i o n , a r e , t h e r e f o r e , k e p t t o a minimum. The p r o p o s e d m o d e l , u s i n g i n d i v i d u a l l y d e s i g n e d r e v i e w s , p r o v i d e s a g u i d e l i n e w h i c h a l l o w s s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , p r o g r a m p l a n n e r s a n d t e a c h e r s t o a d j u s t t h e l e a r n i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a n d p r o g r a m . I n h e r a r t i c l e c o m p a r i n g d i f f e r e n t i n s t r u c t i o n a l a p p r o a c h e s , Wong ( 1 9 7 9 ) b e l i e v e s t h e r e a r e g a i n s t o be made i n a s t u d e n t ' s s u b j e c t m a s t e r y b y a p p l y i n g i n d i v i d u a l i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s t o t h e s t u d e n t ' s p r o g r a m s . A d e l m a n ' s a r t i c l e s on t h e R e s o u r c e Room C o n c e p t ( 1 9 7 2 ) a n d A d e l m a n a n d T a y l o r ' s r e s e a r c h on m o t i v a t i o n a n d b e h a v i o u r p r o b l e m s ( 1 9 8 0 ) l e n d s u p p o r t f o r p u r s u i n g a t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g y t h a t e m p l o y s i n d i v i d u a l i n s t r u c t i o n . H i s t o r i c a l C o n t e x t : A common a p p r o a c h f o r d e l i v e r i n g s p e c i a l p r o g r a m s t o a s s i s t s t u d e n t s who a r e s l o w l e a r n e r s e m p l o y s s t r e a m i n g o r s e g r e g a t e d c l a s s e s . S t u d e n t s o f s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l age who ha v e d e m o n s t r a t e d p o o r a c a d e m i c p e r f o r m a n c e a r e o f t e n p l a c e d i n a v o c a t i o n a l s c h o o l w i t h a s h o p - b a s e d p r o g r a m . T e a c h i n g p r a c t i c a l s k i l l s u b j e c t s i n o r d e r t o h e l p s t u d e n t s o b t a i n f u t u r e e mployment i s v i e w e d a s a m o t i v a t o r f o r t h e s t u d e n t s a n d a s a p r o g r a m t h a t w i l l l e a d t o e a r l y e m p l o y m e n t . W i t h i n t h e v o c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g t h e y a r e f u r t h e r s t r e a m e d i n t o a c a d e m i c c l a s s e s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r t e s t s c o r e s i n E n g l i s h , w r i t i n g a n d m a t h e m a t i c s . C l a s s e s f o r s t u d e n t s w i t h b e h a v i o u r p r o b l e m s o r w i t h o t h e r b a s i c e d u c a t i o n a l a n d s p e c i a l r e m e d i a l n e e d s a r e d e s i g n e d t o d e l i v e r a v e r y i n d i v i d u a l i z e d p r o g r a m a i m e d a t r e m e d i a t i n g o r c o m p e n s a t i n g f o r t h e d e f i c i t s a n d / o r d i s a b i l i t i e s o f t h e s t u d e n t . S p e c i a l m a t e r i a l s , a d j u s t e d p r o g r a m s a n d s m a l l c l a s s e s a r e d e s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e t h e s p e c i a l a s s i s t a n c e t h a t t h e s t u d e n t r e q u i r e s . S p e c i a l i s t t e a c h e r s a r e p r o v i d e d b y t h e s c h o o l b o a r d t o a s s i s t s t u d e n t s w i t h s p e c i f i c 8 l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s , and t o d e v e l o p p l a n s f o r s t u d e n t s w i t h e m o t i o n a l / b e h a v i o r a l p r o b l e m s . The e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h i s m o d e l i s l i m i t e d due t o p r o b l e m s s u c h a s d i f f i c u l t y i n m a k i n g a c c u r a t e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , h a n d l i n g p a r e n t a n d s t u d e n t r e s e n t m e n t a t b e i n g p l a c e d i n s p e c i a l s e t t i n g s and c o m i n g up w i t h v i a b l e p r o g r a m s f o r s u c h a d i v e r s e g r o u p . T h r e e q u e s t i o n s c o n f r o n t t h e u s e o f a t e a c h i n g m o d e l w i t h i n a v o c a t i o n a l s c h o o l s e t t i n g : F i r s t : Can t h e m o d el a s s i s t i n t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e s p e c i f i c d i f f i c u l t i e s t h e s t u d e n t i s e x p e r i e n c i n g w h i l e i n t h e c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g ? S e c o n d : Can t e a c h e r s p r o v i d e e f f e c t i v e i n d i v i d u a l i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n w i t h i n an i n t e g r a t e d g r o u p s e t t i n g ? T h i r d : Can t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f a programmed i n s t r u c t i o n a l a p p r o a c h h a v e s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e on t h e m a s t e r y o f s u b j e c t m a t e r i a l by s t u d e n t s i n t h e n o r m a l c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g ? I f t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t a s p e c i a l i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n a l a p p r o a c h w i t h i n t h e v o c a t i o n a l s c h o o l s e t t i n g c a n a t t a i n i m p r o v e d s t u d e n t a c h i e v e m e n t , i t w i l l be o f v a l u e t o t h e t e a c h e r s a n d s c h o o l p r o g r a m p l a n n e r s . P s y c h o l o g i c a l C o n t e x t : A l m o s t a l l t h e s t u d e n t s t a k i n g p a r t i n t h i s s t u d y h a v e h a d e x t e n s i v e w i t h d r a w a l p r o g r a m s a n d o f t e n w e re p l a c e d i n s e g r e g a t e d c l a s s e s . ( A p p e n d i x I d e t a i l s s p e c i a l w i t h d r a w a l f o r s t u d e n t s ) . T h e s e s t u d e n t s h a v e b e e n " l a b e l l e d " a s h a v i n g l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s . Adelman ( 1 9 7 1 ) , A d e l m a n & T a y l o r ( 1 9 8 6 ) a n d B l o o m ( 1 9 7 6 ) a r g u e t h a t s t u d e n t s " l a b e l l e d " o f t e n l i v e up t o t h e l o w e r p e r f o r m a n c e e x p e c t a t i o n s . The l a b e l becomes a s e l f - f u l f i l l i n g p r o p h e c y . The s t u d e n t s a r e g i v e n many p s y c h o - e d u c a t i o n a l t e s t s a n d s p e c i f i c s k i l l s t e s t s w h i l e i n w i t h d r a w a l p r o g r a m s , w h i c h a s s e s s g r e a t e r a b i l i t y t h a n t h e i r w o r k shows. S h i n n e t a l . ( 1 9 8 6 ) a n d W i l s o n ( 1 9 86) d o c u m e n t c a s e s w h e r e s t u d e n t s c o n s t a n t l y d e m o n s t r a t e l o w e r a c h i e v e m e n t t h a n t h e i r t r u e p o t e n t i a l a n d a r g u e t h e y a r e f u l f i l l i n g t h e e v a l u a t o r ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s o f l o w e r a c h i e v e m e n t . The d e s i g n o f t h i s s t u d y i n t e g r a t e s t e s t i n g a n d r e v i e w s w i t h i n t h e c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g . B r a y ( 1 9 8 5 ) a n d R e y n o l d s ( 1 9 7 9 ) a r g u e t h a t t e s t i n g w i t h d i r e c t f e e d b a c k s p e c i f i c t o t h e p r e v i o u s l e s s o n s a n d f o r s p e c i f i c a l l y d e s i g n e d t a s k s met w i t h f a v o u r a b l e s t u d e n t r e s p o n s e a n d p r o v i d e d more a c c u r a t e a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e t r u e c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f t h e s t u d e n t s . The s t u d e n t s t a k i n g p a r t i n t h i s s t u d y a l l r e m a i n w i t h i n t h e f r a m e w o r k o f a t i m e t a b l e d c l a s s r o o m a n d r e q u i r e no a d d i t i o n a l w i t h d r a w a l o r s p e c i a l i z e d r e m e d i a t i o n . S o c i e t a l C o n t e x t : The n e e d f o r s t u d i e s o f t h i s n a t u r e i s s u p p o r t e d b y an e m p h a s i s on i d e n t i f i c a t i o n a n d p r o v i d i n g e q u a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n e d u c a t i o n f o r a l l c h i l d r e n a n d y o u t h . B i l l 82 i n O n t a r i o i s a n e x a m p l e o f l e g i s l a t i o n p a s s e d t o g u a r a n t e e t h a t s t u d e n t s a r e p r o v i d e d w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n w h i c h w i l l a l l o w them t o r e a c h t h e i r maximum p o t e n t i a l . P r o v i n c i a l 10 l e g i s l a t i o n a nd p r e s s u r e f r o m p r i v a t e a d v o c a c y o r g a n i z a t i o n s h a s r e s u l t e d i n e f f o r t s i n s c h o o l s t o i m p r o v e a n d e x p a n d s e r v i c e s t o s t u d e n t s w i t h s p e c i a l n e e d s . A d v o c a c y g r o u p s h a v e s p o n s o r e d v a r i o u s l e g i s l a t i v e a c t i o n s t o e n s u r e s p e c i a l i n s t r u c t i o n a l a s s i s t a n c e f o r s t u d e n t s who h a v e d i f f i c u l t y w i t h b a s i c a c a d e m i c s k i l l s . W i t h i n The P e e l B o a r d o f E d u c a t i o n t h i s h a s r e s u l t e d i n h i r i n g a v a r i e t y o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n i n s t r u c t o r s , a t t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l l e v e l , t o a s s i s t s t u d e n t s s o i d e n t i f i e d . A b o u t f i f t y p e r c e n t o f t h e s p e c i a l i z e d i n s t r u c t o r s a t s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l l e v e l i n The P e e l B o a r d o f E d u c a t i o n have b e e n a s s i g n e d t o t h e s i x v o c a t i o n a l s c h o o l s . I n t h e p a s t f o u r y e a r s , t h i s h a s r e s u l t e d i n h i r i n g s p e c i a l i z e d p e r s o n n e l o v e r a n d a b o v e t h e c l a s s r o o m i n s t r u c t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s . A t W.J. F e n t o n , t h e s e t t i n g f o r t h i s s t u d y , t h e f o l l o w i n g s p e c i a l i z e d a s s i s t a n c e i s a v a i l a b l e : ( a ) a f u l l t i m e r e m e d i a l s p e c i a l i s t f o r w o r k i n g w i t h s t u d e n t s d e s i g n a t e d g e n e r a l l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s (GLD) t o a s s i s t them w i t h t h e i r r e a d i n g a n d b a s i c m a t h e m a t i c s s k i l l s ; ( b ) a f u l l t i m e s p e c i a l i s t f o r s t u d e n t s d e s i g n a t e d s p e c i f i c l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s (SLD) t o a s s i s t t h e s e s t u d e n t s w i t h s t r a t e g i e s a nd c o m p e n s a t i o n s k i l l s , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r t h o s e s t u d e n t s d e s i g n a t e d a s h a v i n g c o m m u n i c a t i o n s e x c e p t i o n a l i t i e s ; ( c ) a h a l f t i m e b e h a v i o u r a l s p e c i a l i s t w i t h c l i n i c a l e x p e r t i s e a n d q u a l i f i e d t o do p s y c h o - e d u c a t i o n a l 11 t e s t i n g . T h i s t e a c h e r h a s a f u l l t i m e a i d e t o a s s i s t i n w o r k i n g w i t h s t u d e n t s d e s i g n a t e d as h a v i n g b e h a v i o u r p r o b l e m s ; ( d ) a h a l f t i m e s o c i a l w o r k e r , s p e c i f i c a l l y h i r e d t o d e a l w i t h m u l t i - c u l t u r a l a n d f a m i l y p r o b l e m s , w h i c h c a n a f f e c t t h e s t u d e n t ' s s c h o o l p r o g r e s s . T h i s a d d i t i o n a l s t a f f c o m p l e m e n t s t h r e e f u l l t i m e s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s a n d t h r e e f u l l t i m e work e d u c a t i o n a l a n d c o - o p e r a t i v e e d u c a t i o n i n s t r u c t o r s . O ut o f a s t a f f o f s i x t y t e a c h e r s a n d a s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n o f s e v e n h u n d r e d s t u d e n t s , n i n e i n s t r u c t o r s a n d a b e h a v i o u r a l a i d e a r e d e s i g n a t e d a s f u l l t i m e s u p p o r t s e r v i c e t o a s s i s t s t u d e n t s w i t h i n t h e v o c a t i o n a l s c h o o l . I n many s e t t i n g s t h e r e i s an i n c r e a s e d e m p h a s i s on i d e n t i f i c a t i o n a n d d i a g n o s i s . As an e x a m p l e , The P e e l B o a r d o f E d u c a t i o n i n O n t a r i o c u r r e n t l y has i d e n t i f i e d t h i r t y f i v e h u n d r e d s t u d e n t s i n v o c a t i o n a l s c h o o l s a s h a v i n g some f o r m o f l e a r n i n g e x c e p t i o n a l i t y . T h i s c o n s t i t u t e s b e t w e e n 8% and 10% o f t h e t o t a l s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n . T h i s s t u d y i s a i m e d a t e x a m i n i n g a n i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g y t h a t w i l l h e l p s t u d e n t s w i t h l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s r e a c h t h e i r maximum p o t e n t i a l a n d e n a b l e them t o r e m a i n i n o r r e t u r n t o r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m s . E x p e r i e n t i a l C o n t e x t : From t h e e x p e r i e n t i a l v i e w p o i n t o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r t h i s s t u d y s e r v e s t h r e e p u r p o s e s . F i r s t , a l l v o c a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s s p e n d o v e r 40% o f t h e i r t i m e i n s h o p - r e l a t e d c o u r s e s . Many o f t h e s e c o u r s e s have i n d u s t r i a l i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l w h i c h u s e programmed i n s t r u c t i o n w i t h f i l r a s t r i p s , s l i d e s a n d t a p e b a c k u p . I n d e p e n d e n t i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s a r e p r o d u c e d f o r t h e a u t o s e r v i c e i n d u s t r y a n d t h e f o o d s e r v i c e a n d h o s p i t a l i t y i n d u s t r i e s . T h e s e a r e m a j o r a r e a s o f p r o g r a m s t u d i e s a n d c o n c e n t r a t i o n f o r v o c a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s . T h e s e p r o g r a m s p r o v i d e e x t e n s i v e i n s t r u c t i o n a l r e s o u r c e m a t e r i a l t o augment c l a s s r o o m t e a c h i n g o f b a s i c v o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s a n d f o r u p g r a d i n g e x i s t i n g s t u d e n t s k i l l s t o accommodate t e c h n o l o g i c a l c h a n g e s a n d new i n d u s t r i a l p r a c t i c e s . Many o f t h e v o c a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s w i l l be e x p e c t e d t o u p g r a d e t h e i r s k i l l s on t h e i r own when t h e y a r e e m p l o y e d . I n d e p e n d e n t s t u d y s k i l l s l e a r n e d a t s c h o o l w i l l be v a l u a b l e t o s t u d e n t s t h r o u g h o u t t h e i r c a r e e r s i f t h e i r s k i l l s a r e r e t a i n e d a f t e r t h e y l e a v e s c h o o l . S e c o n d , i n d e p e n d e n t s t u d y may a s s i s t i n a more a c c u r a t e and p r a c t i c a l means o f i d e n t i f y i n g i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s a n d p r o g r a m s f o r b a s i c l e v e l s t u d e n t s . I f t h e s t u d e n t s c a n m a s t e r s u b j e c t m a t e r i a l a t t h e i r own p a c e , t h e y may be more m o t i v a t e d t o a p p l y t h e m s e l v e s t o t h e i r s u b j e c t s o f i n t e r e s t a n d i n c r e a s e p e r s o n a l c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o l e a r n on t h e i r own. T h i r d , t h e r e i s a n e e d t o d e v e l o p v i s u a l / m e d i a l i t e r a c y f o r s t u d e n t s . D o e r k e n (1984) s u g g e s t s h e l p i n g s t u d e n t s d e v e l o p t h e s k i l l t o m a n i p u l a t e more e f f e c t i v e l y t h e new l e a r n i n g e n v i r o n m e n t e n c o m p a s s i n g c o m p u t e r s a n d t e l e v i s i o n w h i c h w i l l 1 be e s s e n t i a l f o r them t o a c q u i r e t h e u p g r a d i n g o f t h e i r s k i l l a n d k n o w l e d g e a s an o n g o i n g p r o c e s s . The d e s i g n o f t h e r e v i e w l e s s o n s a l l o w s t h e s t u d e n t s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h i s s t u d y t o i n t e r a c t w i t h a u d i o - v i s u a l a n d c o m p u t e r - g e n e r a t e d p r o g r a m s i n a s t r u c t u r e d l e a r n i n g e n v i r o n m e n t w h i c h may h e l p t o d e v e l o p v i s u a l / m e d i a l i t e r a c y b y t h e s e s t u d e n t s . 1.3 I m p o r t a n c e o f an I n d i v i d u a l I n s t r u c t i o n M o d e l S t u d e n t p e r f o r m a n c e was c o m p a r e d f r o m f o u r p e r s p e c t i v e s . F i r s t , t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e s t u d e n t t o r e c a l l a c c u r a t e l y t h e s p e c i f i c names o f t e s t e q u i p m e n t u s e d i n a g r a d e n i n e s c i e n c e e x p e r i m e n t was m e a s u r e d . Memory a n d r e c a l l a r e i m p o r t a n t s k i l l s i n most a r e a s o f l e a r n i n g . V e r b a l e n c o d i n g i s a v e r y e c o n o m i c a l v e h i c l e f o r s t o r a g e o f d a t a i n a s t u d e n t ' s memory bank a n d r e c a l l a l l o w s f o r r a p i d r e t r i e v a l o f i n f o r m a t i o n . P a v i o ' s (1975) r e s e a r c h shows t h a t : ".... t h e v e r b a l s y s t e m h a s t h e a d v a n t a g e o v e r i m a g e r y i n r e t r i e v i n g t h e s e q u e n t i a l o r d e r o f i t e m s i n memory. T h i s i m p l i e s t h a t t h e v e r b a l p r o c e s s e s may be e s p e c i a l l y s u i t e d f o r l o g i c a l t h i n k i n g , w h i c h p r e s u m a b l y r e q u i r e s an o r d e r l y p r o g r e s s i o n o f i d e a s t o w a r d s some g o a l " ( p . 1 5 9 ) . C l e a r l y , t e a c h i n g s t u d e n t s t o d e v e l o p t h e i r s k i l l s i n memory a n d r e c a l l w i l l h a v e l o n g t e r m b e n e f i t s f o r l e a r n i n g . S e c o n d , t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e s t u d e n t t o u n d e r s t a n d a n a t u r a l phenomenon, i n t h i s c a s e t h e t r a n s f e r o f h e a t , was e v a l u a t e d . The d e p t h o f t h e s t u d e n t ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h i s phenomenon i s r e l a t e d t o h i s / h e r c o m p r e h e n s i o n a b i l i t y . The a b i l i t y o f t h e s t u d e n t t o p r o p o s e new e x t e n s i o n s t o e x i s t i n g e x p e r i m e n t s was a l s o e v a l u a t e d . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h e s e s t u d e n t s d e v e l o p t h e a b i l i t y t o m e n t a l l y v i s u a l i z e a phenomenon t h a t c a n n o t be o b s e r v e d f r o m b a s i c s e n s o r y o b s e r v a t i o n s . As p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d i n t h i s t h e s i s , a k e y t o c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f a phenomenon i s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e s t u d e n t ' s a b i l i t y t o c o n c e i v e a v i s u a l i m a g e , w h i c h e x p l a i n s t h e b e h a v i o u r o f u n i q u e e x p e r i m e n t a l o c c u r r e n c e s . T h i s v i s u a l image must be u s e d b y t h e s t u d e n t t o f o r m a u s e f u l s e r i e s o f c o n c e p t s r e l a t e d t o t h e phenomenon. T h e s e c o n c e p t s c a n a s s i s t t h e s t u d e n t i n a p p l y i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e phenomenon t o o t h e r e x p e r i m e n t s a n d t o u s e f u l l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s . The d e v e l o p m e n t o f c o n c e p t s a s v i s u a l i m a g e s a l l o w s f o r a b r o a d , l e s s s p e c i f i c , c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f t h e phenomenon. The i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g o f v i s u a l c o n c e p t s i s o r g a n i z e d i n a s p e c i a l s e n s e , w h e r e a s v e r b a l l y e n c o d e d c o n c e p t s , s u c h a s names o f p a r t s , a r e o r g a n i z e d i n a s e q u e n t i a l s e n s e . " V i s u a l i m a g e r y i s s p e c i a l i z e d f o r p a r a l l e l p r o c e s s i n g i n t h e s p a t i a l s e n s e , i . e . images a r e o r g a n i z e d s p a t i a l l y , n o t t e m p o r a l l y o r s e q u e n t i a l l y , and t h e s y s t e m i s a c c o r d i n g l y i n e f f i c i e n t f o r s o r t i n g t h e s e q u e n t i a l o r d e r o f p i c t o r i a l u n i t s " ( P a v i o , 1 9 7 5, p . 1 4 8 ) . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h e s e g e n e r a l i z e d c o n c e p t s be g u i d e d t o w a r d s a s e q u e n t i a l a n d h i e r a r c h i c a l f o r m o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g . The p r o g r a m s d e v e l o p e d f o r t h i s s t u d y w e r e , t h e r e f o r e , d e v e l o p e d a n d p r e s e n t e d i n a p l a n n e d s e q u e n t i a l manner w i t h g e n e r a l i z e d c o n c e p t s s t r e s s e d f i r s t a n d t h e n p r o c e e d i n g t o 15 i n c r e a s i n g l y s p e c i f i c , more f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n . T h i r d , t h e s t u d e n t ' s a b i l i t y t o a p p l y a m a t h e m a t i c a l f o r m u l a t o q u a n t i f y a phenomenon i n s y m b o l i z e d f o r m a n d t o make u s e f u l p r e d i c t i o n s o f t h e b e h a v i o u r o f a phenomenon was e v a l u a t e d . The a b i l i t y t o make p r e d i c t i o n s a b o u t b e h a v i o u r o f a phenomenon w i t h o u t c o n s t a n t t e s t i n g i s one o f t h e m o s t c r i t i c a l l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s . T h i s p r o v i d e s a means f o r l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d s t u d e n t s t o a p p l y c o n c e p t s t o a u s e f u l p u r p o s e a n d t o a c c u m u l a t e k n o w l e d g e a n d i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h economy o f t i m e a n d e f f o r t . N a n c y D i x o n ' s (1983) a r t i c l e c o m p a r i n g s y m b o l m a n i p u l a t i o n v e r s u s f e e d b a c k r e s p o n s e f o r l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d s t u d e n t s h i g h l i g h t s t h e i m p o r t a n c e f o r t h e s t u d e n t t o d e v e l o p t h e a b i l i t y t o m a n i p u l a t e s y m b o l s a n d t o a p p l y s y m b o l s t o h i s / h e r p a r t i c u l a r e n v i r o n m e n t . "The w o r d s y m b o l , a s u s e d i n t h i s c o n t e x t , means w r i t t e n a n d s p o k e n words a n d m a t h e m a t i c a l n o t a t i o n u s e d t o r e p r e s e n t o b j e c t s o r i d e a s t h a t a r e u n r e l a t e d t o t h e f o r m o f t h e n o t a t i o n ... The u s e o f s y m b o l s r e s u l t s i n t h e c a p a c i t y t o s t o r e a n d t r a n s f e r i n f o r m a t i o n , i n t e r n a l l y m a n i p u l a t e i d e a s , h y p o t h e s i z e a n d p l a n , and a n t i c i p a t e t h e f u t u r e " ( p . 6 1 ) . T h i s s t u d y was u n d e r t a k e n f o r two r e a s o n s . I f i m p r o v e d s t u d e n t s c o r e s and i m p r o v e d s t u d e n t m o t i v a t i o n a r e o b t a i n e d b y u s i n g i n d e p e n d e n t i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s , t h i s r e s e a r c h w i l l h a v e d i r e c t a p p l i c a t i o n w i t h i n t h e c l a s s r o o m s i t u a t i o n f o r s l o w l e a r n i n g s t u d e n t s , a s t h e t e c h n i q u e s c a n be r e l a t i v e l y e a s y t o a p p l y w i t h i n t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l a n d e c o n o m i c r e s o u r c e s o f t h e s c h o o l . S e c o n d l y , t h e a u t h o r w i s h e s t o i n v e s t i g a t e i f 16 i n d i v i d u a l l e s s o n i n s t r u c t i o n , u s i n g p r o p e r r u l e s o f p e d a g o g y , a n d b a s e d on a p l a n n e d s e q u e n t i a l m o d el c a n i m p r o v e t h e s u b j e c t m a s t e r y and commitment t o l e a r n i n g o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t s . 1.4 D e s c r i p t i o n o f Terms The f o l l o w i n g t e r m s r e f e r r e d t o i n t h i s p r o p o s a l h a v e a d e f i n i t i o n g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d b y v o c a t i o n a l s c h o o l s i n S o u t h e r n O n t a r i o . B e c a u s e t h e s e t e r m s a r e i n common u s e w i t h i n t h e s c h o o l s y s t e m a c c e p t e d d e f i n i t i o n s may be l e s s s p e c i f i c t h a n t h o s e i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e o r w i t h i n o t h e r g e o g r a p h i c a r e a s . A p p e n d i x I I o u t l i n e s i n d e t a i l t h e l e a r n i n g e x c e p t i o n a l i t i e s o f t h e s t u d e n t s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e s t u d y . An I n d e p e n d e n t R e v i e w P r o g r a m : F o r t h i s s t u d y an i n d e p e n d e n t r e v i e w p r o g r a m r e f e r s t o t h e r e v i e w s t r a t e g i e s a d m i n i s t e r e d t o one h a l f o f t h e s a m p l e . The i n d i v i d u a l p r o g r a m i s composed o f t h e f o l l o w i n g c o m p o n e n t s : ( a ) a v i d e o p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t ; (b) a s l i d e p r e s e n t a t i o n w i t h an a u d i o c a s s e t t e s u p p o r t e x p l a i n i n g t h e names a n d f u n c t i o n s o f t h e p a r t s o f s c i e n c e e q u i p m e n t ; ( c ) a f i l m s t r i p p r e s e n t a t i o n , w i t h a u d i o s u p p o r t , r e v i e w i n g t h e l a b o r a t o r y s e t - u p a n d e x p e r i m e n t a l p r o c e d u r e s , w h i c h s t u d e n t s c a n a p p l y ; ( d ) a c o m p u t e r d r i l l a n d p r a c t i c e r e v i e w w i t h g r a p h i c p r e s e n t a t i o n s a l l o w i n g t h e s t u d e n t s t o do r e v i e w 17 q u e s t i o n s r e l a t e d d i r e c t l y t o t h e s p e c i f i c e x p e r i m e n t s t h e y h a v e p e r f o r m e d . S e q u e n t i a l I n s t r u c t i o n : The r e v i e w l e s s o n s f o r t h e s t u d e n t s t a k i n g t h e i n d e p e n d e n t r e v i e w were s t r u c t u r e d where t h e c o n t e n t was o r g a n i z e d i n s e q u e n t i a l s t e p s s i m i l a r t o t h e o r d e r o f t h e l e s s o n s . The c o n t e n t o f t h e i n d e p e n d e n t r e v i e w l e s s o n s was i n d e n t i c a l t o t h a t o f t h e t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d r e v i e w l e s s o n s . L i s t e d b e l o w a r e t h e c o m p o n e n t s o f t h i s r e v i e w p r o g r a m : (a) V i d e o p r e s e n t a t i o n o f e x p e r i m e n t . (b) A s l i d e p r e s e n t a t i o n w i t h a u d i o s u p p o r t e x p l a i n i n g t h e names a n d f u n c t i o n o f t h e s c i e n c e e q u i p m e n t u s e d i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t . ( c ) A f i l m s t r i p p r e s e n t a t i o n w i t h a u d i o s u p p o r t o u t l i n i n g p r o c e d u r e s t o do t h e e x p e r i m e n t and p r o c e d u r e s u s e d t o c a l c u l a t e t h e m a t h e m a t i c a l r e s u l t s . ( d) A c o m p u t e r d r i l l a n d p r a c t i c e p r o g r a m s i m u l a t i n g e x p e r i m e n t s . S t u d e n t s i n b o t h g r o u p s s p e n t t h e same amount o f t i m e on t h e r e v i e w . T h o s e s t u d e n t s i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l r e v i e w w o u l d d i f f e r i n t h e amount o f t i m e t h e y s p e n t on e a c h o f t h e f o u r c o m p o n e n t s o u t l i n e d a b o v e , d e p e n d i n g upon t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e i r p r e v i o u s t e s t s c o r e s . T e a c h e r - D i r e c t e d R e v i e w : F o r t h i s s t u d y a 18 t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d r e v i e w p r o g r a m r e f e r s t o t h e r e v i e w a d m i n i s t e r e d t o t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p o f s t u d e n t s t a k i n g p a r t i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t . T h i s r e v i e w p r o g r a m i s t e a c h e r c e n t r e d a n d i s co m p o s e d o f t h e f o l l o w i n g c o m p o n e n t s : ( a ) The t e a c h e r r e v i e w s t h e p r e v i o u s l y c o m p l e t e d e x p e r i m e n t h i g h l i g h t i n g names a n d f u n c t i o n s o f t h e e q u i p m e n t . The t e a c h e r d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e a c t u a l e q u i p m e n t u s e d f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a s m o d e l s f o r e a s y s t u d e n t r e c o g n i t i o n . ( b ) The t e a c h e r e x p l a i n s t h e p r o c e s s f o r c o n d u c t i n g t h e e x p e r i m e n t a n d e x p l a i n s t h e c e n t r a l phenomenon t o be o b s e r v e d . The t e a c h e r h i g h l i g h t s t h e phenomenon u s i n g p r a c t i c a l e x a m p l e s f r o m e v e r y d a y l i f e . ( c ) The t e a c h e r u s e s t h e c h a l k b o a r d a s t h e main i n s t r u c t i o n a l a i d , p a r t i c u l a r l y when d e v e l o p i n g t h e m a t h e m a t i c a l c a l c u l a t i o n s r e q u i r e d t o q u a n t i f y t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l r e s u l t s . (d) The t e a c h e r c o n d u c t s a q u e s t i o n a n d a n s w e r d r i l l w i t h t h e s t u d e n t s t o c l a r i f y t h e m a i n p o i n t s o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t . ( e ) The s t u d e n t s do e x a m p l e r e h e a r s a l q u e s t i o n s , s i m i l a r t o t h o s e on t h e t e s t p a p e r s . T h e s e a r e t a k e n up b y t h e t e a c h e r i n t h e c l a s s r o o m t o f u r t h e r s o l i d i f y t h e s t u d e n t s s u b j e c t m a s t e r y . The t o t a l t i m e f o r t h e t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d r e v i e w was f o r t y m i n u t e s . The s t u d e n t s i n t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p were t a k i n g t h e i r r e v i e w a t t h e same t i m e a s t h e s t u d e n t s i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l 19 g r o u p were i n t h e c o m p u t e r room t a k i n g t h e i r i n d e p e n d e n t r e v i e w . G e n e r a l L e a r n i n g D i s a b i l i t i e s ( G L D ) : S t u d e n t s c l a s s i f i e d a s GLD have d e f i c i t s i n t h e u n d e r l y i n g p r o c e s s e s o f a u d i t o r y , v i s u a l , p e r c e p t u a l a n d m o t o r c o n t r o l , w h i c h h i n d e r p e r f o r m a n c e i n t h e i r s c h o o l p r o g r a m s . The s t u d e n t s d e s i g n a t e d GLD i n t h i s s t u d y were g i v e n p s y c h o - e d u c a t i o n a l e v a l u a t i o n s t o i d e n t i f y t h e i r d i s a b i l i t i e s . T h e i r h i s t o r y o f s c h o o l p e r f o r m a n c e r e l a t e d t o t h e i r a b i l i t i e s i n p e r f o r m i n g w i t h t h e i r p e e r g r o u p on g r a d e r e l a t e d m a t e r i a l was a l s o a c r i t e r i o n f o r GLD p l a c e m e n t . S l o w L e a r n e r - ( S L ) : The s l o w l e a r n e r s t u d e n t d o e s n o t h a v e d i s c e r n i b l e p r o c e s s d e f i c i t s b u t h a s d e m o n s t r a t e d p o o r a b i l i t y t o m a s t e r s c h o o l r e l a t e d i n f o r m a t i o n a t a r a t e s i m i l a r t o h i s / h e r p e e r g r o u p . S p e c i f i c L e a r n i n g D i s a b i l i t y - ( S L D ) : T h i s l a b e l a p p l i e s t o s t u d e n t s whose p r o g r e s s i n s c h o o l i s a f f e c t e d b y a s p e c i f i c e x c e p t i o n a l i t y , w h i c h impedes t h e s t u d e n t ' s a c a d e m i c p r o g r e s s . C o m m u n i c a t i o n and b e h a v i o r a l d e f i c i t s a r e e x a m p l e s o f SLD c a t e g o r i e s f o r t h e s e s t u d e n t s . W i t h d r a w a l p r o g r a m s (W): Many s t u d e n t s w i t h i n t h e t e s t s a m p l e h a v e a l o n g h i s t o r y o f b e i n g w i t h d r a w n f r o m r e g u l a r 20 c l a s s r o o m s a n d r e c e i v i n g a s s i s t a n c e i n a d i f f e r e n t s e t t i n g i n t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l . The most common s u b j e c t s i n w h i c h a s s i s t a n c e h a s b e e n p r o v i d e d a r e r e a d i n g , w r i t i n g , r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n a n d b a s i c m a t h e m a t i c s . L e a r n i n g E x c e p t i o n a l i t i e s : P s y c h o - e d u c a t i o n a l e v a l u a t i o n s a n d s c h o o l p e r f o r m a n c e a r e t h e b a s i s f o r c l a s s i f y i n g s t u d e n t s a s h a v i n g a l e a r n i n g e x c e p t i o n a l i t y . U n d e r B i l l 82 The B o a r d i s r e q u i r e d t o p r o v i d e a n a p p r o p r i a t e e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m d e s i g n e d t o meet t h e s p e c i f i c n e e d s o f s t u d e n t s who h a v e l e a r n i n g e x c e p t i o n a l i t i e s . S t u d e n t s c l a s s i f i e d i n P e e l h a v e t h e o p t i o n o f b e i n g p l a c e d i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m s i n r e g u l a r s c h o o l s o r p l a c e d i n s p e c i a l s c h o o l s d e s i g n e d t o meet t h e i r n e e d s . I n The P e e l B o a r d o f E d u c a t i o n many o f t h e s e p r o g r a m s a r e p r o v i d e d i n s c h o o l s d e s i g n a t e d a s v o c a t i o n a l s c h o o l s . T h i s s t u d y d e a l s w i t h s t u d e n t s i d e n t i f i e d a s h a v i n g l e a r n i n g e x c e p t i o n a l i t i e s a n d who have a c c e p t e d v o c a t i o n a l s c h o o l p l a c e m e n t . F o r t y p e r c e n t o f t h e p r o g r a m s p r o v i d e d i n v o c a t i o n a l s c h o o l s a r e s h o p - b a s e d . The i n s t r u c t i o n i s a t t h e b a s i c l e v e l f o r a c a d e m i c p r o g r a m s a l o n g w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e r e m e d i a l a s s i s t a n c e , s t r a t e g y p l a n n i n g a n d work e d u c a t i o n b u i l t i n t o t h e s t u d e n t ' s p r o g r a m . I n - S c h o o l P l a c e m e n t a n d R e v i e w C o m m i t t e e ( I P R C ) : E a c h v o c a t i o n a l s c h o o l h o l d s r e g u l a r IPRC m e e t i n g s t o e v a l u a t e p r o g r e s s a n d c o r r e c t p l a c e m e n t o f s t u d e n t s . T h e s e c o m i t t e e s 21 h a v e t e a c h e r s , s c h o o l p s y c h o l o g i s t s and s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n d i s c u s s s t u d e n t p r o g r e s s a nd recommend c h a n g i n g a p r o g r a m w i t h i n t h e s c h o o l o r o f f e r i n g p l a c e m e n t i n a n o t h e r s c h o o l t h a t b e s t s u i t s t h e s t u d e n t ' s n e e d s . 1.5 D e f i n i t i o n s S p e c i f i c t o t h e S c i e n c e E x p e r i m e n t s The d e f i n i t i o n s l i s t e d b e l o w h a v e a s p e c i a l c o n t e x t r e l a t e d t o t h e e x p e r i m e n t s c o n d u c t e d b y t h e s t u d e n t s d u r i n g t h i s s t u d y . The Phenomenon: F o r t h i s s t u d y t h e "phenomenon" r e f e r s t o t h e b e h a v i o u r o f h e a t when s u b j e c t e d t o e x p e r i m e n t s c o n d u c t e d i n a s c i e n c e l a b o r a t o r y . The "phenomenon" c a n n o t be d i r e c t l y o b s e r v e d v i s u a l l y b u t r e q u i r e s a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g a t a c o n c e p t u a l l e v e l . I n t h i s s t u d y t h e s t u d e n t ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e "phenomenon" i s e v a l u a t e d a s a measure o f h i s c o m p r e h e n s i o n a n d h i s d e p t h o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g . C o n d u c t i v i t y : C o n d u c t i v i t y i s d e f i n e d a s a s c i e n t i f i c f a c t o f h e a t t r a n s f e r . F o r t h i s s t u d y a " c o n d u c t i v i t y " e x p e r i m e n t i s u s e d t o m e a s u r e t h e s t u d e n t ' s a b i l i t y t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e c o m p a r a t i v e r a t e o f h e a t t r a n s f e r o f m e t a l s , l i q u i d s a n d g a s e s . The s t u d e n t s a r e t e s t e d on t h e i r a b i l i t y t o a p p l y a m a t h e m a t i c a l f o r m u l a t o q u a n t i f y t h e r a t e o f h e a t t r a n s f e r a n d t h e m a t h e m a t i c a l r e s u l t s t o make p r e d i c t i o n s r e l a t e d t o t h e e f f e c t o f h e a t t r a n s f e r . 22 M a t h e m a t i c a l : M a t h e m a t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n o f a f o r m u l a t o q u a n t i f y e x p e r i m e n t a l d a t a i s d e f i n e d as s y m b o l i z a t i o n . I n t h i s s t u d y t h e s t u d e n t w i l l a p p l y t h e s y m b o l s o f a m a t h e m a t i c a l f o r m u l a t o q u a n t i f y e x p e r i m e n t a l r e s u l t s a n d t o make p r e d i c t i o n s a b o u t f u t u r e a p p l i c a t i o n s o f e x p e r i m e n t s . The s y m b o l i z a t i o n a p p l i e s a n a r i t h m e t i c f o r m u l a f a m i l i a r t o t h e s t u d e n t s . 1.6 S t a t e m e n t o f t h e P r o b l e m : The s p e c i f i c p r o b l e m s t u d i e d f o r t h i s t h e s i s d e t e r m i n e d t h e e f f e c t o f an i n d i v i d u a l r e v i e w t r e a t m e n t on t h e a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e s o f t h e s a m p l e . I n o r d e r t o e v a l u a t e i m p r o v e m e n t o f a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e s b y s t u d e n t s s u b j e c t e d t o t h e i n d e p e n d e n t i n s t r u c t i o n r e v i e w s t h e s t u d e n t s were a d m i n i s t e r e d p r e - t e s t s and p o s t - t e s t s d e v e l o p e d b y t h e t e a c h e r s . M e a s u r e m e n t o f t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e t r e a t m e n t was s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o t h e s t u d e n t ' s o v e r a l l a c h i e v e m e n t a s d e m o n s t r a t e d by w r i t i n g a c o m p r e h e n s i v e t e s t on a s e r i e s o f l e s s o n s . E a c h o f t h e p r e - t e s t a n d p o s t - t e s t s were c o m p o s e d o f t h r e e a r e a s o f q u e s t i o n s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e : ( a ) a b i l i t y o f t h e s t u d e n t s t o r e c a l l t h e names a n d l a b e l s o f e x p e r i m e n t a l e q u i p m e n t ; (b) a b i l i t y o f t h e s t u d e n t t o c o m p r e h e n d s c i e n t i f i c phenomenon t h a t c a n n o t be v i s u a l l y o b s e r v e d ; ( c ) a b i l i t y o f t h e s t u d e n t s t o u s e m a t h e m a t i c a l f o r m u l a s t o q u a n t i f y e x p e r i m e n t a l r e s u l t s a n d t o 23 p r e d i c t e x p e r i m e n t a l o u t c o m e s . 1.7 The S p e c i f i c H y p o t h e s i s The e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n u s e d two i n d e p e n d e n t g r o u p s t o t e s t t h e f o l l o w i n g h y p o t h e s i s : 1. The o v e r a l l mean a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e o f s t u d e n t s a f t e r r e c e i v i n g an i n d e p e n d e n t i n s t r u c t i o n r e v i e w w i l l be g r e a t e r t h a n t h e mean a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e s o f s t u d e n t s t e s t e d a f t e r a t r a d i t i o n a l r e v i e w . The o v e r a l l a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e w i l l be d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e s u b - t e s t s c o r e s , w h i c h w i l l be e v a l u a t e d as c o r o l l a r i e s o f o v e r a l l a c h i e v e m e n t . (a) The mean s c o r e o f t h e s t u d e n t s t e s t e d on t h e i r r e c a l l o f names o f p a r t s o f s c i e n t i f i c e q u i p m e n t a f t e r r e c e i v i n g an i n d i v i d u a l r e v i e w w i l l be g r e a t e r t h a n t h e mean s c o r e o f s t u d e n t s t e s t e d on t h e i r r e c a l l o f names o f p a r t s o f s c i e n t i f i c e q u i p m e n t a f t e r r e c e i v i n g a t r a d i t i o n a l r e v i e w . (b) The mean s c o r e o f s t u d e n t s t e s t e d on t h e i r c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f t h e c o n c e p t of t h e phenomenon r e l a t e d t o e x p e r i m e n t s on t h e t r a n s f e r o f h e a t a f t e r r e c e i v i n g an i n d i v i d u a l r e v i e w w i l l be g r e a t e r t h a n t h e mean s c o r e of s t u d e n t s t e s t e d a f t e r r e c e i v i n g a t r a d i t i o n a l r e v i e w . 24 ( c ) The mean s c o r e o f s t u d e n t s t e s t e d o n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o p e r f o r m m a t h e m a t i c a l c o m p u t a t i o n s t o q u a n t i f y e x p e r i m e n t a l r e s u l t s on e x p e r i m e n t s o f t h e c o n d u c t i v i t y o f m e t a l s , l i q u i d s a n d g a s e s a f t e r r e c e i v i n g an i n d i v i d u a l r e v i e w w i l l be g r e a t e r t h a n t h e mean s c o r e o f s t u d e n t s t e s t e d a f t e r r e c e i v i n g a t r a d i t i o n a l r e v i e w . The m e t h o d o l o g y f o r c o n d u c t i n g t h e e x p e r i m e n t s a n d r e c o r d i n g t h e d a t a i s c o v e r e d i n C h a p t e r I I I o f t h i s p r o p o s a l . 25 CHAPTER I I : REVIEW OF THE RELEVANT LITERATURE 2.1 P e r s p e c t i v e s f o r R e v i e w The l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w i s o r g a n i z e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r d e r i n w h i c h v a r i o u s r e s e a r c h e r s w i t h a n i n t e r e s t i n i n d e p e n d e n t l e a r n i n g c o n d u c t e d t h e i r s t u d i e s a n d w i t h a f o c u s on t h e m o d e l s t h a t e m e r g e d f r o m t h e i r r e s e a r c h . C o n c e r n i n g c h r o n o l o g y t h e r e a r e s t u d i e s d a t i n g b a c k t o t h e 1920's t h a t p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n o n i n d e p e n d e n t l e a r n i n g . T h e r e i s , h o w e v e r , no a t t e m p t t o show a d i r e c t c o r r e l a t i o n f r o m a u t h o r t o a u t h o r t o i n d i c a t e a s i n g l e d i r e c t i o n t o t h e t r a d i t i o n s o f s e l f - p a c e d i n s t r u c t i o n . I t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e r e a r e many d i v e r g i n g b r a n c h e s w i t h i n t h i s f i e l d o f r e s e a r c h b u t an h i s t o r i c a l r e v i e w o f t h e r e s e a r c h s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e i s v a l u e i n p u r s u i n g f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h on i n d e p e n d e n t i n s t r u c t i o n . R e s e a r c h i n t h e a r e a o f i n d e p e n d e n t l e a r n i n g h a s c o n t r i b u t e d t o a v a r i e t y o f m o d e l s o r t e a c h i n g a p p r o a c h e s o f t e n a p p l i e d i n c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g s s u c h a s t h e W i n n e t k a P l a n , P e r s o n a l i z e d I n s t r u c t i o n , M a s t e r y L e a r n i n g , DISTAR, Time on T a s k , T a s k A n a l y s i s a n d o t h e r s . The r e v i e w r e f l e c t s d i f f e r e n c e s i n a p p r o a c h e s a n d c h a n g e s i n t h e o r y , w h i c h h a v e o c c u r r e d o v e r t i m e . 26 2.2 The W i n n e t k a P l a n The W i n n e t k a P l a n , C a r l t o n Washburne (1922) a n d C h i c a g o ' s L a b o r a t o r y S c h o o l ( 1 9 2 6 ) h a d t h e f o l l o w i n g p r o g r a m c o m p o n e n t s : ( a ) c o u r s e s w e re b r o k e n down i n t o o b j e c t i v e s ; (b) p r o g r a m o b j e c t i v e s w e re c o g n i t i v e a n d a f f e c t i v e ; ( c ) i n s t r u c t i o n was o r g a n i z e d i n t o w e l l d e f i n e d u n i t s ; (d) c o n t i n u o u s t e s t i n g was e m p l o y e d d u r i n g i n s t r u c t i o n ; ( e ) t i m e f o r l e a r n i n g b y t h e s t u d e n t s was a v a r i a b l e . E a r l y a t t e m p t s t o i n d i v i d u a l i z e s t u d e n t p r o g r a m s , s u c h a s C a r l t o n Washburne and H e n r y M o r r i s o n ' s p r o p o s a l , e v a l u a t e d t h e s t u d e n t ' s a b i l i t y t o m a s t e r a p a r t i c u l a r s e t o f p r o g r a m o b j e c t i v e s . The s t u d e n t s , t h e r e f o r e , c o m p e t e d a g a i n s t t h e c o u r s e o b j e c t i v e s r a t h e r t h a n c o m p e t i n g w i t h i n t h e r a n k o r d e r o f t h e c l a s s r o o m . T h i s a p p r o a c h c a l l e d f o r a f u n d a m e n t a l c h a n g e i n e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s . A l l s t u d e n t s i n t h e c l a s s w e r e a s s u m e d c a p a b l e o f m e e t i n g c o u r s e o b j e c t i v e s a n d c o m p e t i t i o n b e t w e e n s t u d e n t s was m i n i m i z e d . A t a t i m e when f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n was r e s e r v e d f o r a n e l i t e g r o u p o f s t u d e n t s t h i s was a r a d i c a l d e p a r t u r e f r o m e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e . A t t h a t t i m e , p r o g r a m o b j e c t i v e s , a c c o r d i n g t o W a s h b u r n , s h o u l d r e f l e c t b o t h c o g n i t i v e a n d a f f e c t i v e d o m a i n s w i t h 27 i n s t r u c t i o n o r g a n i z e d i n t o w e l l d e f i n e d u n i t s i n a s e q u e n c e d e s i g n e d t o a s s i s t t h e s t u d e n t i n m a s t e r i n g t h e u n i t o b j e c t i v e s . B e c a u s e t h e u n i t s w e r e s e q u e n t i a l , m a s t e r y o f e a c h u n i t was e s s e n t i a l p r i o r t o p r o c e e d i n g t o t h e n e x t e d u c a t i o n a l u n i t . E a c h u n i t , i n o r d e r , was t e s t e d u s i n g f o r m a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n e m p l o y i n g t e a c h e r - s e t t e s t s . T h e s e t e s t s were u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e s t u d e n t s ' e x t e n t o f m a s t e r y o f m a t e r i a l and t o p r o v i d e f e e d b a c k i n d i c a t i n g a r e a s w here r e i n f o r c e m e n t o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n were n e e d e d . On t h e b a s i s o f t h i s f e e d b a c k s t u d e n t s w e re s u p p l i e d w i t h s e l f - i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r a c t i c e m a t e r i a l a n d t e a c h e r t u t o r i a l s t o a s s i s t s m a l l g r o u p s . S t u d e n t s w e re g i v e n a n o v e r a l l g r a d e c o m p a r e d t o t h e c o u r s e o b j e c t i v e s r a t h e r t h a n a g a i n s t e a c h o t h e r . F i n a l l y t h e s e p r o g r a m s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t i m e was a v a r i a b l e o f s t u d e n t a c h i e v e m e n t . The c o n c e p t o f s e l f - p a c e d i n s t r u c t i o n , w h i c h a l l o w e d t i m e f o r s t u d e n t s t o l e a r n e a c h s e q u e n c e w h i l e s t i l l b e i n g p a r t o f an o v e r a l l c l a s s r o o m , was a m a j o r e l e m e n t i n t h e W i n n e t k a P l a n . 2.3 F r e d K e l l e r M o d e l F r e d K e l l e r ( 1 9 6 8 ) p r e s e n t e d a m o d el where k e y c o m p o n e n t s o f t h e W a s h b u r n e a n d M o r r i s o n p l a n s w e re f u r t h e r r e f i n e d a n d p l a c e d w i t h i n a n o p e r a t i o n a l s e t t i n g . He p r o p o s e d a " P e r s o n a l i z e d S y s t e m o f I n s t r u c t i o n " w h ere t h e t e a c h e r becomes a manager o f e a c h s t u d e n t ' s a c h i e v e m e n t t o meet t h e 28 o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e s c h o o l p r o g r a m . The k e y c o m p o n e n t s o f h i s p l a n a r e : ( a ) t h e t e a c h e r i s t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l manager o f e a c h s t u d e n t ' s p r o g r e s s ; (b) t h e c o u r s e i s b r o k e n down i n t o s m a l l s e q u e n t i a l u n i t s , w h i c h a r e m a s t e r e d b y t h e s t u d e n t i n s e q u e n c e ; ( c ) w r i t t e n c o m m u n i c a t i o n b e t w e e n t e a c h e r and s t u d e n t i s v e r y h i g h l y s t r e s s e d ; (d) p r o c t o r s o r t u t o r s a r e u s e d t o p r o v i d e e d u c a t i o n a l c o r r e c t i v e s f o r s t u d e n t s who r e q u i r e a s s i s t a n c e i n m a s t e r i n g t h e m a t e r i a l . K e l l e r ' s m o d e l c h a n g e d t h e r o l e o f t h e i n s t r u c t o r f r o m a d i s p e n s e r o f i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e m anager o f e a c h s t u d e n t ' s m a s t e r y o f t h e s u b j e c t m a t e r i a l . T h i s p l a c e s t h e t e a c h e r i n a p e r s o n a l - s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e s t u d e n t and s t r e s s e s i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t a c h i e v e m e n t i n s t e a d o f t h e p r a c t i s e o f g r a d i n g t h e s t u d e n t a c c o r d i n g t o r a n k o r d e r i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . C o u r s e s a r e b r o k e n down i n t o s h o r t (1 week) u n i t s , w h i c h a r e m a s t e r e d i n s e q u e n t i a l o r d e r b y e a c h s t u d e n t . The s t u d e n t s w e r e r e q u i r e d t o m a s t e r a u n i t b e f o r e p r o c e e d i n g t o t h e f o l l o w i n g u n i t . G r a d i n g i s b a s e d on t h e number o f u n i t s m a s t e r e d a n d t h e r e i s no s u m m a t i v e o r c o m p r e h e n s i v e e v a l u a t i o n . T e s t f o r m a t s a r e s e t b y t h e i n s t r u c t o r s u s i n g m u l t i p l e c h o i c e , e s s a y t y p e q u e s t i o n s a n d t r u e / f a l s e r e s p o n s e t o e v a l u a t e t h e s t u d e n t s . I n d i v i d u a l t u t o r s and r e s t u d y i n g t e c h n i q u e s p r o v i d e t h e e d u c a t i o n a l c o r r e c t i v e s f o r s t u d e n t s who f a i l to master a u n i t ' s o b j e c t i v e s . K e l l e r ' s process has value i n r e d e f i n i n g the r o l e of the teacher, o u t l i n i n g the sequencing of u n i t s r e q u i r e d f o r course p r e p a r a t i o n , and p r o v i d i n g a s e l f - p a c e d student program where i n d i v i d u a l achievement i s s t r e s s e d . The weakness of the model l i e s i n three areas. F i r s t , heavy r e l i a n c e on w r i t t e n communication as the p r i o r mode of teacher-student communication l i m i t s the a b i l i t y of the teacher to adequately communicate course o b j e c t i v e s . There i s such a wide d i s c r e p a n c y between student a b i l i t i e s with the w r i t t e n communication mode of i n f o r m a t i o n t r a n s f e r that i t i s d i f f i c u l t to keep students on a r e a l i s t i c time frame. W i t h i n the framework of t h i s study, where the p o p u l a t i o n i s composed of slow l e a r n i n g students whose w r i t i n g s k i l l s are t h e i r weakest area of communication, t h i s aspect of the model pr e s e n t s a problem. A second d i f f i c u l t y i s the added resource of t u t o r s . T r a d i t i o n a l l y t u t o r s are a scarce resource i n most secondary s c h o o l s . Withdrawal a s s i s t a n c e and remedial a s s i s t a n c e are r e s o u r c e s o f t e n separated from the a c t u a l classroom s i t u a t i o n and are u s u a l l y used to address d e f i c i t s i n the b a s i c s k i l l areas of reading and mathematics. The t h i r d c r i t i c i s m i s the l a c k of any form of a summative e v a l u a t i o n , which t i e a l l the u n i t s together i n t o a comprehensive course package. Adding up u n i t s f o r g r a d i n g i s a c c e p t a b l e i n some courses, but i n s i t u a t i o n s where one course i s a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r a n o t h e r p r o g r a m , t h e r e s h o u l d be some f o r m o f summative e v a l u a t i o n t o i n d i c a t e p o s s i b l e s t u d e n t s u c c e s s i n f u t u r e s t u d i e s . 2.4 B e n j a m i n Bloom's M o d e l One o f t h e most w i d e l y known and i n f l u e n t i a l r e s e a r c h e r s t o d e v e l o p a f r a m e w o r k f o r a p p l y i n g i n d i v i d u a l i n s t r u c t i o n w i t h i n t h e c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g i s B e n j a m i n B l o o m . ( B l o o m 1968, B l o c k a n d B l o o m 1 9 7 3 ) . The k e y c o m p o n e n t s , w h i c h B l o o m a d d e d t o t h e e x i s t i n g t h e o r e t i c a l b a s e o f i n d i v i d u a l i n s t r u c t i o n , a r e : ( a ) q u a l i t y o f i n s t r u c t i o n p r o v i d e d by t h e t e a c h e r ; (b) s e l f - p a c e d s t u d e n t i n s t r u c t i o n , where s t u d e n t s were p r o v i d e d w i t h t h e t i m e t h e y r e q u i r e d t o m a s t e r u n i t s o f c o u r s e o b j e c t i v e s ; ( c ) an e v a l u a t i o n s y s t e m composed o f f o r m a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n s o f u n i t s and a c o m p r e h e n s i v e e v a l u a t i o n o f a summative n a t u r e t o d e t e r m i n e o v e r a l l c o m p r e h e n s i o n ; (d) i n d i v i d u a l r e m e d i a l i n s t r u c t i o n f o r s t u d e n t s who f a i u n i t m a s t e r y i s i n t e g r a t e d w i t h i n t h e f r a m e w o r k o f g r o u p - b a s e d i n s t r u c t i o n . The a d v a n t a g e o f B l o o m ' s m o d e l o v e r K e l l e r ' s m o d e l i s t h a t h i s d e s i g n i s u s e d i n g r o u p b a s e d i n s t r u c t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n s where t i m e a l l o w e d f o r l e a r n i n g i s f i x e d w i t h i n a s c h o o l t i m e t a b l e . I n B l o o m ' s a p p l i c a t i o n , s t r a t e g i e s t o m i n i m i z e t h e t i m e s t u d e n t s r e q u i r e t o m a s t e r u n i t s i s o p t i m i z e d . T h i s c a n be a c c o m p l i s h e d by a w i d e v a r i e t y o f t e a c h e r a i d s a n d b y p l a n n i n g t h e c o u r s e i n a s e q u e n t i a l a n d h i e r a r c h i c a l s e r i e s o f l e s s o n u n i t s . B l o o m a l s o d i v i d e d t h e d i a g n o s t i c p r o g r e s s t e s t s i n t o two a r e a s ; F o r m a t i v e a n d S u mmative e v a l u a t i o n s . " F o r m a t i v e E v a l u a t i o n s " a r e d e s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e f e e d b a c k i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e i n s t r u c t o r i n d i c a t i n g t h e s t u d e n t ' s g r a s p o f e a c h u n i t ' s o b j e c t i v e s . On t h e b a s i s o f t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n t h e t e a c h e r p r e p a r e s a s e t o f a l t e r n a t i v e l e a r n i n g m a t e r i a l s and i n s t r u c t i o n a l c o r r e c t i v e s k e y e d t o t h e s e e v a l u a t i o n s . T h e s e c o r r e c t i v e s a r e t a u g h t d i f f e r e n t l y t h a n g r o u p - b a s e d i n s t r u c t i o n , a s t h e y a r e d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s t h e d e f i c i t s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t . The t e a c h e r d e s i g n s r e m e d i a l t i m e w i t h i n t h e c o u r s e a n d t h e s t u d e n t i s g i v e n r e m e d i a l a s s i s t a n c e b y t h e t e a c h e r . The s t u d e n t t h e n a p p l i e s t h e s e c o r r e c t i v e s on h i s / h e r own t i m e , t h u s k e e p i n g up t o t h e c l a s s r o o m t i m e l i n e s a n d m a s t e r i n g u n i t s i n s e q u e n c e . F o r t h i s s t u d y t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l c o r r e c t i v e s f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p w e r e composed o f a v a r i e t y o f a u d i o v i s u a l a i d s a n d a s e l f - p a c e d s t u d e n t r e v i e w w i t h a r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r m a n a g i n g t h e s t u d e n t ' s r e v i e w p r o g r a m . R e v i e w s f o r t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p w e r e t a u g h t b y t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r who u s e d f o r m a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n s p l u s q u e s t i o n a n d a n s w e r t e c h n i q u e s t o f o c u s r e v i e w s more s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r t h e n e e d s o f t h e s t u d e n t s . A f t e r a s e t number o f u n i t s a r e c o m p l e t e d t h e s t u d e n t w r i t e s a s u m m a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n o r c o m p r e h e n s i v e t e s t on a l l u n i t s . T h i s , f o r B l o o m , p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r f i n a l g r a d e s t h a t r e f l e c t s t u d e n t a c h i e v e m e n t o f c o u r s e o b j e c t i v e s . B l o o m ' s d e s i g n c h a n g e s t h e r o l e o f t h e t e a c h e r , m a k i n g h i m / h e r a c c o u n t a b l e f o r e a c h i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t ' s p r o g r e s s . The t e a c h e r must d e v e l o p a n e v a l u a t i o n scheme t h a t g r a d e s t h e s t u d e n t a n d a l s o i n d i c a t e s t o t h e i n s t r u c t o r t h e a r e a s o f w e a k n e s s o f t h e s t u d e n t s . The t e a c h e r must d e v e l o p a p r o g r a m b r o k e n i n t o s e q u e n t i a l a n d h i e r a c h i c a l u n i t s and t h e t e a c h e r must u s e two t e a c h i n g a p p r o a c h e s d u r i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . The f i r s t i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g y i s a p p l i e d t o g r o u p - b a s e d i n s t r u c t i o n w h e r e t h e t e a c h e r must a t t e m p t t o p r o v i d e t h e c l e a r e s t i n s t r u c t i o n s on e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h e p r o g r a m . F o r B l o o m , t h e v e r b a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n s b e t w e e n t e a c h e r a n d s t u d e n t i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t . V e r b a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n i s u s e d t o a s s i s t e a c h s t u d e n t i n d i v i d u a l l y i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g e x a c t l y what o b j e c t i v e s h e / s h e i s r e q u i r e d t o m a s t e r . The s e c o n d t y p e o f t e a c h e r i n s t r u c t i o n i s an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d a p p r o a c h i n t e a c h i n g t h e c o r r e c t i v e s t o t h e s t u d e n t s who have had d i f f i c u l t y m a s t e r i n g i n d i v i d u a l u n i t s . By u s i n g u n i q u e m a t e r i a l s , i n s t r u c t i o n a l a i d s a n d a l t e r n a t e g r o u p i n s t r u c t i o n t e c h n i q u e s t h e s t u d e n t s w i l l be a b l e t o m a s t e r c o u r s e o b j e c t i v e s . U n d e r Bloom's m o d e l , t h e s u m m a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n f o r m e d a c r i t e r i o n - r e f e r e n c e d m e asurement o f t h e s t u d e n t ' s o v e r a l l c o m p r e h e n s i o n . The r e s e a r c h o f T i n d a l e t a l . (1985) p r o p o s e d 33 t h r e e m a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f c r i t e r i o n - r e f e r e n c e d m easurement: (a) d e f i n i t i o n o f a w e l l - d e f i n e d c o n t e n t d o m a i n ; (b) d e f i n i t i o n o f v a l i d p e r f o r m a n c e c r i t e r i a ; ( c ) d e v e l o p m e n t o f p r o c e d u r e s f o r g e n e r a t i n g a p p r o p r i a t e s a m p l e t e s t s . A m a j o r a d v a n t a g e t o d e v e l o p i n g a s u b j e c t m a s t e r y c r i t e r i o n f o r t h e s l o w l e a r n i n g s t u d e n t was t h e r e m o v a l o f i n t e r n a l c o m p e t i t i o n among t h e s t u d e n t s . S t u d e n t s c o u l d p r o c e e d a t d i f f e r e n t r a t e s a n d compete a g a i n s t t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e p r o g r a m , y e t f u l f i l l c o u r s e r e q u i r e m e n t s w i t h i n a r e a s o n a b l e t i m e f r a m e . D e f i n i n g w e l l s p e c i f i e d c o n t e n t i s r e l a t i v e l y e a s y f o r s c i e n c e a n d m a t h e m a t i c s b a s e d p r o g r a m s . T h e s e c a n be b r o k e n down i n t o s p e c i f i c s t a g e s a n d d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o e v e r y d a y e x p e r i e n c e s o r s p e c i f i c u s e s b y t h e s t u d e n t s . I t i s more d i f f i c u l t t o d e f i n e s t u d e n t p e r f o r m a n c e c r i t e r i a w h e r e s t u d e n t s m a s t e r a g i v e n c o n t e x t o f m a t e r i a l i n a s p e c i f i e d t i m e f r a m e . R e y n o l d f o u n d t h a t " m u l t i - c h o i c e f o r m a t s " a r e a v i a b l e method o f a s s e s s i n g c e r t a i n t y p e s o f e d u c a t i o n a l o u t c o m e s f o r m i l d l y r e t a r d e d a d o l e s c e n t s " ( R e y n o l d , 1979, p. 3 3 1 ) . He c o n c l u d e d t h a t s u b j e c t s , where p r o c e d u r e s a n d a n s w e r s w e re f i n i t e , c o u l d b e m e a s u r e d b y t h i s t e s t i n g f o r m a t b u t o p e n s u b j e c t s s u c h a s E n g l i s h w e r e v e r y d e p e n d e n t on t h e s u b j e c t i v i t y o f t h e t e a c h e r a n d s a m p l e t e s t s w e r e l e s s v a l i d . He c o n c l u d e d b y a r g u i n g t h a t t h e v a l i d i t y o f a l l t e s t s f o r s t u d e n t s who were s l o w l e a r n e r s was v a l i d o n l y i f t h e t e s t q u e s t i o n s were p r e s e n t e d i n t h e l a n g u a g e u s e d by t h e t e a c h e r who i n s t r u c t e d t h e s t u d e n t s . The q u e s t i o n s on t h e t e s t s must be s i m i l a r i n f o r m a t t o r e h e a r s a l q u e s t i o n s u s e d d u r i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . A p p l y i n g B l oom's s t r a t e g i e s w i t h i n c l a s s r o o m s f o r s l o w l e a r n i n g s t u d e n t s i n t h i s s t u d y h i g h l i g h t e d two a r e a s where a p p l i c a t i o n became d i f f i c u l t . F i r s t , c o n s t a n t t e s t i n g f o r " f o r m a t i v e " e v a l u a t i o n s r e s u l t e d i n n e g a t i v e s t u d e n t f e e d b a c k . T h e s e s t u d e n t s t e n d t o l o o k f o r t h e " r i g h t " a n s w e r s and d i s g u i s e t h e i r d e f i c i t s on w r i t t e n t e s t s . T hey a l s o w i l l o f t e n a v o i d a s e c t i o n o f s t u d y where t h e y h a v e d i f f i c u l t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n s o l v i n g p r o b l e m s w i t h d e f i n i t i v e a n s w e r s . A " f o r m a t i v e " e v a l u a t i o n s t r a t e g y , w h e r e t e s t i n g i s r e c o r d e d on a c o n t i n u u m w h i l e t h e s t u d e n t s a r e e n g a g e d i n a c t u a l i n s t r u c t i o n o r e x p e r i m e n t i n g , w o u l d p o s s i b l y y i e l d t h e most a c c u r a t e f o r m a t i v e d a t a . Computer d r i l l a n d p r a c t i c e r o u t i n e s , where a l l s t e p s a r e r e c o r d e d f o r t h e t e a c h e r t o r e v i e w l a t e r a n d t h e n a p p l y e d u c a t i o n a l c o r r e c t i v e s f o r f u t u r e u s e , i s one s t r a t e g y t o r e d u c e n e g a t i v e s t u d e n t r e s p o n s e t o c o n t i n u o u s t e s t i n g . S ummative e v a l u a t i o n s must be a p p l i e d w i t h c a u t i o n . S t u d e n t s c a n a c h i e v e on s m a l l s e q u e n t i a l u n i t s b u t show d i f f i c u l t y i n r e c a l l a f t e r a s h o r t p e r i o d o f t i m e . They a l s o h a d d i f f i c u l t y i n t e g r a t i n g s m a l l u n i t s i n t o an o v e r a l l f r a m e w o r k o f a m a j o r o b j e c t i v e a n d i n a p p l y i n g t h e s e r e s u l t s t o u n i q u e s i t u a t i o n s . More r e s e a r c h on t h e a r e a s o f e v a l u a t i o n s t r a t e g i e s i s r e q u i r e d i f B l o o m ' s t h e o r i e s a r e t o be s u c c e s s f u l l y a p p l i e d t o t h e c l a s s r o o m i n s t r u c t i o n o f s l o w l e a r n i n g s t u d e n t s . 2.5 James B l o c k a n d P e t e r A i r a s i a n James B l o c k a n d P e t e r A i r a s i a n p r o v i d e d v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n i n d e v e l o p i n g o p e r a t i n g p r o c e d u r e s f o r o b t a i n i n g s u b j e c t m a s t e r y ( B l o c k 1 9 7 1 ) . The k e y c o m p o n e n t s o f t h e i r r e s e a r c h f o u n d t o be most r e l e v a n t i n d e s i g n i n g t h i s s t u d y a r e : (a) s e l e c t i o n o f s u b j e c t s w here p r i o r k n o w l e d g e i s n o t r e q u i r e d ; (b) s e l e c t i o n o f " c l o s e d s u b j e c t " w h e r e p r e c i s e o b j e c t i v e s c a n be s e t and e v a l u a t e d ; ( c ) d i v i s i o n o f s u b j e c t s i n t o s m a l l e d u c a t i o n a l u n i t s ; (d) u s e o f " f o r m a t i v e " e v a l u a t i o n f o r f e e d b a c k t o i d e n t i f y e d u c a t i o n a l c o r r e c t i v e s f o r i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s ; (e) u s e o f a l t e r n a t e l e a r n i n g m a t e r i a l s a n d a l t e r n a t e t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s t o h e l p t h e i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t . The s e l e c t i o n o f t h e s c i e n c e p r o g r a m on h e a t t r a n s f e r i s i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f s u b j e c t s f o r m a s t e r y l e a r n i n g , a s o u t l i n e d b y B l o c k a n d B l o o m (1971). The l e s s o n s a r e s e q u e n t i a l l y b a s e d f o r b o t h e x p e r i m e n t a l w o r k a n d f o r p r o c e d u r e s u s e d i n q u a n t i f y i n g t h e r e s u l t s . The s u b j e c t i s a " c l o s e d s u b j e c t " composed o f a f i n i t e s e t o f i d e a s a n d t h e 36 c o n t e n t i s b o t h r e l e v a n t t o f u t u r e s t u d i e s and f a c t u a l i n n a t u r e ( B l o o m 1 9 7 1 ) . T h i s a l l o w s f o r d e f i n e d e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s and a v e r y p r e c i s e a n d e x p l i c i t c l a s s r o o m t e a c h i n g a p p r o a c h . I n h e r r e v i e w o f e x p e c t a t i o n s o f m i l d l y h a n d i c a p p e d s t u d e n t s i n m a t h e m a t i c s , Dagmar N e a l ( 1 9 82) a r g u e s t h a t a d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n , s u c h a s t h e m e t h o d u s e d i n DISTAR, a s s i s t e d t h e s t u d e n t s i n s u b j e c t m a s t e r y a n d s k i l l d e v e l o p m e n t : " . . . d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n r e f e r s t o t e a c h i n g a c t i v i t i e s f o c u s e d on a c a d e m i c m a t t e r s whose g o a l s a r e c l e a r t o s t u d e n t s ; t i m e a l l o c a t e d f o r i n s t r u c t i o n i s s u f f i c i e n t a n d c o n t e n t c o v e r a g e i s i n t e n s i v e ; s t u d e n t s ' p e r f o r m a n c e i s m o n i t o r e d ; q u e s t i o n s a r e a t a l o w c o g n i t i v e l e v e l a n d p r o d u c e many c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s . . . " ( p . 6 2 ) . B l o c k f o u n d f o r m a t i v e t e s t i n g b e s t s u i t e d f o r s h o r t u n i t t e s t s w i t h an i t e m by i t e m e v a l u a t i o n . However, f o r t h i s s t u d y i t e m by i t e m e v a l u a t i o n p o s e d d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h t e a c h e r - s e t e v a l u a t i o n s . B y c l u s t e r i n g t h e u n i t s i n t o t h r e e c o m p o n e n t s o f o v e r a l l a c h i e v e m e n t ; memory, c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f phenomenon and m a t h e m a t i c a l q u a n t i f i c a t i o n o f e x p e r i m e n t a l r e s u l t s , t h e e f f e c t o f i n v a l i d i n d i v i d u a l q u e s t i o n s was r e d u c e d . The i s s u e o f i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y f o r " f o r m a t i v e " t e s t s was a d d r e s s e d by u s i n g s e v e r a l q u e s t i o n s i n e a c h a r e a i n o r d e r t o a c c u r a t e l y i d e n t i f y s t u d e n t c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f s u b j e c t c o n t e n t . The u s e o f c o m p l e t i o n q u e s t i o n s , t r u e / f a l s e r e s p o n s e a n d m u l t i p l e c h o i c e q u e s t i o n s f o l l o w s t h e p r o c e d u r e s u s e d b y B l o o m a n d B l o c k i n t h e i r r e s e a r c h e x p e r i m e n t s on m a s t e r y 37 l e a r n i n g . I t i s i n t h e t e a c h i n g o f t h e r e v i e w l e s s o n s t h a t t h e a u t h o r has c h o s e n one o f B l o c k ' s s t r a t e g i e s ; t h e u s e o f a l t e r n a t e l e a r n i n g m a t e r i a l s . Many a u t h o r s a n d r e s e a r c h e r s a g r e e t h a t a l t e r n a t e l e a r n i n g m a t e r i a l s h a v e r e m e d i a l v a l u e f o r s t u d e n t s a n d two r e a s o n s , w h i c h a r e a r e f l e c t i o n o f o u r t i m e s , made t h i s s t r a t e g y v e r y a p p r o p r i a t e . W i t h new t e c h n o l o g i e s i n c l u d i n g f i l m s t r i p s , c u r r e n t a b i l i t y t o p r i n t s m a l l q u a n t i t i e s o f s p e c i a l l e a r n i n g m a t e r i a l s a n d c o m p u t e r s a l l o w much g r e a t e r s c o p e f o r r e m e d i a l a p p l i c a t i o n t h a n i n t h e p a s t . T e a c h e r s a r e a b l e t o d e s i g n u n i q u e a p p r o a c h e s , u s i n g m a t e r i a l s t h a t a r e a d a p t e d t o t h e s p e c i f i c n e e d s o f i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s . S c h o o l s now h a v e s p e c i a l i s t s i n a u d i o - v i s u a l p r o d u c t i o n a n d s p e c i a l i z e d r e s o u r c e p e r s o n n e l t o a s s i s t t h e t e a c h e r s i n p r o d u c i n g t h e s e m a t e r i a l s . P r o c e d u r e b o o k s , s u c h a s The Handbook f o r T e a c h e r s  o f S t u d e n t s w i t h L e a r n i n g D i s a b i l i t i e s , ( O n t a r i o M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 8 6 ) , p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t e a c h e r s on i n d i v i d u a l i z i n g i n s t r u c t i o n , a p p l y i n g s p e c i f i c t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e s p e c i a l n e e d s o f s t u d e n t s . The q u a n t i t y a n d q u a l i t y o f s p e c i a l r e s o u r c e m a t e r i a l have i m p r o v e d , w h i l e c o s t s h a v e d e c l i n e d . T h i s a l l o w s t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r t o d e s i g n a l t e r n a t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n a l m ethods i n v e r y c r e a t i v e w ays. 38 A i r a s i a n ' s comments h i g h l i g h t t h i s study's o b j e c t i v e s : "One s t r a t e g y f o r q u i c k l y i d e n t i f y i n g unmastered o b j e c t i v e s i s the use of s p e c i a l answer sheets which have a p l a c e f o r the student to mark h i s answer to each formative item, a l i s t of remedial a c t i v i t i e s , . . . and a diagram showing the h i e r a r c h y of o b j e c t i v e s f o r the course segment being e v a l u a t e d " (p. 86). Another b e n e f i t of the proposed study i s the le n g t h of time students are allowed t o l e a r n each a r e a and review d e f i c i t s w h i le remaining w i t h i n a r e a s o n a b l e classroom timeframe. Many of these s p e c i a l i z e d m a t e r i a l s can be used f o r s e l f - p a c e d i n s t r u c t i o n , a d m i n i s t e r e d i n a resource room s e t t i n g or used f o r home study by the student. This allows the student the time to do the r e q u i r e d remediation while c o n t i n u i n g h i s / h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the r e g u l a r classroom i n s t r u c t i o n . A l l e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s were c l e a r l y communicated to the students i n w r i t i n g and o r a l l y and they were d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the experiment and i n s t r u c t i o n p r e v i o u s l y done by the teacher. The classroom i n s t r u c t i o n a l method was h i g h l i g h t e d by the teacher's classroom demonstration. The students f o l l o w e d a p a r t i c u l a r process f o r each of the experiments, which are s e q u e n t i a l and f o l l o w a l o g i c a l o r d e r . Measurement and e v a l u a t i o n f o l l o w e d the same process f o r a l l three s c i e n c e and mathematical l e s s o n s . The review m a t e r i a l used f i l m - s t r i p s and s l i d e s to i n c o r p o r a t e the " s e q u e n t i a l process" students were to f o l l o w f o r q u a n t i f y i n g r e s u l t s . 39 The e v a l u a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s f o r s t u d e n t m a s t e r y w ere e n c o m p a s s e d i n an o v e r a l l o b j e c t i v e t o c o m p r e h e n d t h o s e f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n t h e t r a n s f e r o f h e a t . T h e s e o b j e c t i v e s w e r e t a u g h t w i t h i n a s e r i e s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s : ( a ) h e a t t r a n s f e r i n s o l i d s , l i q u i d s and g a s e s ; (b) t h e f u n c t i o n a l u s e o f s c i e n t i f i c e q u i p m e n t ; ( c ) a p p l i c a t i o n s o f h e a t t r a n s f e r ; ( d ) a b i l i t y t o q u a n t i f y e x p e r i m e n t a l r e s u l t s u s i n g a m a t h e m a t i c a l f o r m u l a . 2.6 I n d i v i d u a l D i f f e r e n c e s on t h e R a t e o f L e a r n i n g One o f t h e c r i t i c i s m s o f i n d e p e n d e n t i n s t r u c t i o n h a s b e e n t h e w i d e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e l e a r n i n g r a t e o f s t u d e n t s . B l o c k (1971) b e l i e v e s t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f q u a l i t y o f i n s t r u c t i o n and t h e u s e o f d i s c r i m i n a t o r y t e s t s t o d e f i n e w h i c h s t u d e n t s h a v e l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s as a r e s u l t o f t h e s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n a l l o w t h i s d i f f e r e n c e i n l e a r n i n g r a t e t o be g r e a t l y r e d u c e d . T h e r e f o r e , t e c h n i q u e s a p p l i e d t o r e d u c e t h e e f f e c t o f t h e l e a r n i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a l o n g w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s s h o u l d h e l p s t u d e n t s who l e a r n s l o w l y . An a p p r o a c h t o u s i n g t e c h n i q u e s t o a s s i s t i n t h i s a r e a was p r o v i d e d b y H.S. A d e lman's ( 1 9 7 2 ) m o d e l a n d A d e l m a n & T a y l o r ( 1 9 8 3 ) a p p l i c a t i o n o f t e l e v i s i o n a n d c o m p u t e r m e d i a t o e n h a n c e 40 m o t i v a t i o n and s t i m u l a t e a t t e n t i o n s p a n . 2.7 H.S. A d e l m a n H.S. A d e l m a n ' s ( 1 9 7 3 ) m o d e l a d d s two c o n c e p t s t o t h e p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d t h e o r e t i c a l b a s e f o r a p p l y i n g a l t e r n a t e t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s f o r i n s t r u c t i n g s t u d e n t s who l e a r n s l o w l y . (a) The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s c h o o l s e t t i n g i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s h a v e a m a j o r i m p a c t on t h e s t u d e n t p e r f o r m a n c e . (b) An i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g y a p p l y i n g a s p e c i a l i z e d t e a c h e r r e s o u r c e i n a r e s o u r c e room c o n c e p t c a n a s s i s t i n h e l p i n g s t u d e n t s o b t a i n s u b j e c t m a s t e r y . S i m i l a r t o o t h e r a u t h o r s , A d e l m a n s t r e s s e s " q u a l i t y o f i n s t r u c t i o n " a s a k e y c o m p o n e n t f o r o b t a i n i n g b e t t e r s u b j e c t m a s t e r y by s l o w l e a r n e r s t u d e n t s . H i s " P e r s o n a l i z e d I n s t r u c t i o n " i s s i m i l a r t o K e l l e r ' s " P e r s o n a l i z e d S y s t e m o f I n s t r u c t i o n " , b u t A d e l m a n ' s p r o g r a m i s o l a t e s more v a r i a b l e s w i t h i n t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e t t i n g . T h e s e v a r i a b l e s a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h i n t h e s c h o o l s e t t i n g , w h i c h n e g a t i v e l y a f f e c t t h e a b i l i t y o f s l o w l e a r n e r s t u d e n t s t o a c h i e v e s u b j e c t m a s t e r y . The c o m b i n e d e f f e c t o f t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n f l u e n c e t h e s t u d e n t ' s p r o g r e s s i n h i s s c h o o l p r o g r a m . " C l a s s r o o m s t h a t a r e p e r s o n a l i z e d u s u a l l y h a v e a w i d e v a r i e t y o f " c e n t r e s " , w h i c h a r e d e s i g n e d t o f o s t e r a n d s t i m u l a t e i n t e r e s t i n l e a r n i n g ; t h e t e a c h e r . . . e m p h a s i z e s i n d i v i d u a l i z e d p r o g r a m s f o r e a c h y o u n g s t e r , . . . he a t t e m p t s t o m i n i m i z e f a i l u r e e x p e r i e n c e s a s w e l l a s t e d i o u s a n d 41 b o r i n g a c t i v i t i e s " ( A d e l m a n , 1971, p. 1 1 9 ) . To a p p l y A d e l m a n ' s s c h o o l s e t t i n g s a n d e c o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s t o t h i s s t u d y , t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e f i l m s t r i p s a n d v i d e o p r e s e n t a t i o n s were d e s i g n e d w i t h i n t h e s c h o o l f a c i l i t i e s . The r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f e q u i p m e n t was i d e n t i c a l t o t h e e q u i p m e n t u s e d b y t h e s t u d e n t i n h i s c l a s s r o o m l e s s o n s . A l l p a p e r r e s o u r c e s w e re d i r e c t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f t h e i n - s c h o o l p r o g r a m u s i n g e x a m p l e s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e e x p e r i m e n t s t h e s t u d e n t s c o n d u c t e d a n d u s i n g v o c a b u l a r y f a m i l i a r t o t h e s t u d e n t . The a u d i o p r e s e n t a t i o n s were t h o s e d e v e l o p e d a n d p r e s e n t e d b y t h e i n s t r u c t o r s . By d e s i g n i n g t h e r e v i e w m a t e r i a l i n t h i s manner, t h e s t u d e n t s were n o t f a c e d w i t h r e s o u r c e s t h a t were f o r e i g n t o t h e i r d i r e c t e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s was d e s i g n e d t o r e d u c e o u t s i d e e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s , w h i c h w o u l d c a u s e c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e s t u d e n t s ' l e a r n i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . A d e l m a n ' s (1972) r e s o u r c e room s t r a t e g y i s summed up i n h i s a r t i c l e on "The R e s o u r c e C o n c e p t : B i g g e r Than a Room". "... t h e r e s o u r c e room c o n c e p t may be c o n c e i v e d as e n c o m p a s s i n g a n y f u n c t i o n w i t h t h e p r i m a r y i n t e n t o f h e l p i n g o t h e r s meet t h e e d u c a t i o n n e e d s o f a l l p u p i l s , a n d e s p e c i a l l y p r o b l e m p u p i l s , w h e r e v e r a n d w h e n e v e r t h e y a r e b e i n g i n s t r u c t e d ( p . 3 6 4 ) . " A d e l m a n ' s r e s o u r c e room c o n c e p t p r o v i d e s a means o f o b t a i n i n g s p e c i a l i s t a s s i s t a n c e w i t h i n t h e s t a f f i n g f r a m e w o r k o f t h e s c h o o l . K e l l e r ' s m o d e l e m p l o y e d t u t o r s t o a s s i s t . s t u d e n t s w i t h d i f f i c u l t i e s . A d e l m a n ' s m o d e l w o u l d employ r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r s p e c i a l i s t s t o a s s i s t t h e i n s t r u c t o r s w i t h s t r a t e g i e s t o be a p p l e d w i t h i n t h e r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m . T h e s e r e s o u r c e p e r s o n n e l w o u l d u s e a v a r i e t y o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s f o r t h e r e m e d i a t i o n o f s t u d e n t d e f i c i t s . T h e y w o u l d a l s o h a v e e x p e r t i s e i n s e t t i n g f o r m a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n s . By p i n p o i n t i n g t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s t h e s t u d e n t s e n c o u n t e r , u s i n g f o r m a t i v e t e s t s a nd o b s e r v a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e c l a s s r o o m , t h e a p p r o p r i a t e e d u c a t i o n a l c o r r e c t i v e s c a n be b e t t e r i d e n t i f i e d a n d i m p r o v e d t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s c a n be d e s i g n e d f o r t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r . T h i s c o n c e p t was a p p l i e d d i r e c t l y w i t h i n t h i s s t u d y . The l a y o u t o f t h e c o m p u t e r r e s o u r c e room u s e d f o r t h e n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l r e v i e w a l l o w e d f o r t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f a v a r i e t y o f r e m e d i a t i o n s t r a t e g i e s t o be e m p l o y e d . The c o m p u t e r t e a c h e r and a c a d e m i c d i r e c t o r were a b l e t o make v a l u a b l e o b s e r v a t i o n s , w h i c h w o u l d a l l o w t h e t e a c h e r t o a d j u s t h i s t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g y f o r r e m e d i a t i o n and s e l e c t a p p r o p r i a t e m a t e r i a l f o r t h e s t u d e n t s t a k i n g t h e r e v i e w l e s s o n s . T h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r V . 2.8 A l a n P a v i o The r e s e a r c h work o f A l a n P a v i o (1975) on v i s u a l i m a g e r y was r e v i e w e d a s a u x i l i a r y s u p p o r t f o r t h i s s t u d y . V i s u a l i m a g e r y i s a n i m p o r t a n t a r e a f o r a s s i s t i n g l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d s t u d e n t s t o c o m p r e h e n d a n d a p p l y c o n c e p t s t a u g h t i n s c h o o l . The u s e o f c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m s , where v i s u a l i m a g e r y i s 43 d i s p l a y e d on the video monitor, i s designed to a s s i s t students i n mastering program o b j e c t i v e s and course concepts. Many te a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s p r e s e n t l y a p p l i e d i n the classroom employ v i s u a l imagery and l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d students b e n e f i t when t h i s i s used w i t h i n the boundaries of the student's g e n e r a l knowledge. Pavio's (1975) r e s e a r c h a r t i c l e s were chosen f o r review of v i s u a l imagery because the re s e a r c h c o n c l u s i o n s are most c o n s i s t e n t with a d u a l - c o d i n g theory (Pavio 1971). Persons with l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s o f t e n have d i f f i c u l t y coding v e r b a l d e s c r i p t i o n , e i t h e r w r i t t e n or o r a l , i n t o a u s e f u l and r e l i a b l e form of v i s u a l imagery. T h i s i s c o n s i s t e n t with the f i n d i n g s of psycho-educational t e s t i n g . Poor a b i l i t y with v e r b a l encoding i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c used to l a b e l students as l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d . Pavio's research aims, s t a t e d i n h i s a r t i c l e on sy n c h r o n i c t h i n k i n g , are very r e l e v a n t f o r t h i s study: " . . . I w i l l proceed by comparing and c o n t r a s t i n g nonverbal imagery with v e r b a l symbolic processes, on the assumption t h a t human t h i n k i n g i n v o l v e s a continuous i n t e r p l a y of both c o g n i t i v e systems which, though i n t e r c o n n e c t e d , are f u n c t i o n a l l y d i s t i n c t " (p. 383). The o r g a n i z a t i o n of t h i s study and experiments conducted i n v o l v e Adelman's stages o f s e q u e n t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . These stages are very s i m i l a r to Pavio's research f i n d i n g s t h a t " s e q u e n t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f l i n g u i s t i c u n i t s " i s r e q u i r e d f o r i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g and t h a t many i n d i v i d u a l s r e l y h e a v i l y 44 on v i s u a l i n f o r m a t i o n . There i s s t i l l a n e c e s s i t y to have v e r b a l encoding as a component i n a s s i m i l a t i n g and understanding phenomena. T h i s study aims to demonstrate that the use of an i n d i v i d u a l i n s t r u c t i o n approach can compensate f o r the d e f i c i e n c i e s encountered by many students l a b e l l e d as l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d and a l l o w them to succeed w i t h i n an i n t e g r a t e d classroom s e t t i n g . 2.9 B e h a v i o r a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Students Who Learn Slowly The l i t e r a t u r e was reviewed on the b e h a v i o r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of students who r e q u i r e e x t r a time and s p e c i a l programs to enhance t h e i r l e a r n i n g . F a c t o r s which would be observed by teachers d u r i n g i n s t r u c t i o n and f a c t o r s such as l a c k of m o t i v a t i o n , h y p e r - a c t i v i t y , d i s t r a c t a b i l i t y and withdrawal from a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e i r programs are o f t e n evident with slower l e a r n i n g s t u d e n t s . The design of the review program p l a c e d the students on a d i r e c t task i n t e r a c t i n g with the v a r i o u s forms of a u d i o - v i s u a l media. Because each student c o u l d do t h e i r review on an independent b a s i s there was reduced d i s t r a c t i o n from t h e i r peers. However, the i n s t r u c t o r s i n the review room had to monitor students v e r y c a r e f u l l y to ensure they were r e c e i v i n g c o n s t a n t feedback or the students would stop t h e i r review and i n t e r r u p t o t h e r s . A l s o , the equipment had to be i n c o r r e c t working order or the students became f r u s t r a t e d and confused with m i s i n f o r m a t i o n . A few of the students i n the study e x h i b i t e d a g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o r b o t h d u r i n g t h e l e s s o n and p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n s and t h e i n d e p e n d e n t r e v i e w l e s s o n s . D r . K.D. O ' L e a r y ( 1 9 8 4 ) o u t l i n e d t h e P a t t e r s o n t r e a t m e n t p r o g r a m a p p l y i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g p r i n c i p l e s w h e r e t h e s t u d e n t and t e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t e i n a p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g a p p r o a c h . T h e s e s t u d e n t s were c o u n s e l l e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e i r p r o b l e m s , g e n e r a t e a l t e r n a t e s o l u t i o n s t o t h e i r u n d e s i r a b l e a c t i v i t i e s a n d u s i n g p o s i t i v e r e i n f o r c e m e n t f o r g o o d b e h a v i o r . M o s t o f t h e s e s t u d e n t s p e r f o r m e d v e r y w e l l d u r i n g t h i s s t u d y and t h e r e was a r e d u c t i o n i n a g g r e s s i v e , h y p e r - a c t i v e b e h a v i o r . K u r t z a n d S p i k e r ( 1 9 7 6 ) i d e n t i f i e d many o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s t u d e n t s who l e a r n s l o w l y , w h i c h a p p l y t o t h e s a m p l e g r o u p i n t h i s s t u d y . The s t u d e n t s e x h i b i t d i f f i c u l t y i n s p a c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , a b i l i t y t o p e r c e i v e n u m e r i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s a n d " . . . t h e c h i l d f a i l s t o c o m p r e h e n d r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f q u a n t i t y , o r d e r , s i z e , s p a c e a n d d i s t a n c e " ( p . 6 2 1 ) . C l e a r l y t h e s e a r e s k i l l s r e q u i r e d , i f s t u d e n t s a r e t o s u c c e e d i n e n h a n c i n g b a s i c k n o w l e d g e a n d i n a p p l y i n g t h e i r k n o w l e d g e t o v o c a t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s . The a u t h o r s p e r c e i v e d t h e s u c c e s s f u l t e a c h e r a s one who " . . . i s c r e a t i v e i n u s e o f c o n c r e t e m a t e r i a l s , s k i l l e d i n b r e a k i n g c o m p l e x s k i l l s i n t o s m a l l e r s e q u e n t i a l u n i t s ... a n d who v i e w s c l e a r a u d i t o r y v e r b a l i z a t i o n s ..." ( p . 621) a s t h e k e y c o m p o n e n t s t o s u c c e s s f u l t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s f o r s l o w l e a r n e r s t u d e n t s . I n t h e i r r e s e a r c h t h e y s t r e s s e d t h e v a l u e o f t a p e r e c o r d e r s a n d v i s u a l a i d s i n h e l p i n g t h e s t u d e n t s g r a s p t h e s i g n i f i c a n t 46 f a c t o r s i n t h e l e s s o n s . Ray and S h o t i c k ( 1 9 7 6 ) c o n c l u d e d i n t h e i r r e s e a r c h t h a t s l o w e r l e a r n i n g s t u d e n t s h a d a s i g n i f i c a n t d e f i c i t i n t h e i r d e l a y e d r e c a l l m e a s u r e s . T h i s w o u l d s u g g e s t t h e s t u d e n t s w o u l d n o t do a s w e l l a s t h e i r p e e r s on c o m p r e h e n s i v e e v a l u a t i o n s . S t r a t e g i e s t o r e i n f o r c e t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f d a t a a n d i n m a k i n g t h e d a t a r e l e v a n t t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t was p o s e d a s a p o s s i b l e a s s i s t a n c e i n h e l p i n g t h e s t u d e n t s o v ercome t h i s d e f i c i t . T o r g e n s e n ( 1977) p r o p o s e d p u r p o s e f u l a c t i v i t y as a means t o p r o m o t e m o t i v a t i o n , i m p r o v e d l e a r n i n g and i m p r o v e d r e t e n t i o n . The i m p o r t a n t c o n c e p t s he h i g h l i g h t e d t o be i n f u s e d i n t o t h e t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s t o overcome memory, a t t e n t i o n a n d p e r c e p t u a l d e f i c i t s w e r e : (a) s t u d e n t s s h o u l d be e n g a g e d i n a c t i v i t i e s w i t h h i g h p o s i t i v e r e i n f o r c e m e n t ; (b) many s t u d e n t s r e q u i r e s p e c i a l k i n d s o f g o a l - d i r e c t e d a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h c a n be e n h a n c e d by t h e u s e o f a i d s and c r e a t i v e t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s ; ( c ) how t o p r o f i t f r o m r e h e a r s a l i s a m a j o r s k i l l a r e a t o d e v e l o p f o r s t u d e n t s who r e q u i r e e x t r a t i m e ; c o n t r o l l i n g t h e r a t e o f t h e s t i m u l i , t h e s e q u e n t i a l o r d e r o f t h e m a t e r i a l a n d t h e p r o v i s i o n o f r e w a r d s f o r s u c c e s s h e l p e d t h e s t u d e n t s t o d e v e l o p more e f f e c t i v e t a s k s t r a t e g i e s . T h ese b e h a v i o r a l f a c t o r s a n d i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s 47 w e r e c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e d e s i g n o f t h e r e v i e w l e s s o n s f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l r e v i e w g r o u p . Even t h o u g h t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s were a p p l i e d d u r i n g t h e r e v i e w s w i t h a p p a r e n t s u c c e s s , a number o f s t u d e n t s u s e d a f o r m o f w i t h d r a w a l b e h a v i o r , r e f u s i n g t o do t h e m a t h e m a t i c a l q u e s t i o n s o f a n y q u e s t i o n s . O b v i o u s l y t h e r e a r e d e e p - s e a t e d b e h a v i o r a l p r o b l e m s w h i c h some s l o w l e a r n e r s t u d e n t s e x h i b i t w h i c h h a v e t o be a d d r e s s e d i f i m p r o v e d l e a r n i n g i s t o be a t t a i n e d . S h i n e e t a l . ( 1 9 8 6 ) a r g u e s t h a t f l u e n c y i n t h e r a t e o f l e a r n i n g i s a m e a s u r e w o r t h s t u d y i n g f o r s l o w l e a r n e r s t u d e n t s : " f o r m a s t e r y o f most m a t e r i a l , f l u e n c y i s i m p o r t a n t . The o t h e r s t a g e s o f b e h a v i o u r , m a i n t e n a n c e , a p p l i c a t i o n a n d a d a p t a t i o n a l l e m p h a s i z e t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f h a v i n g a p a r t i c u l a r b e h a v i o u r o c c u r a t some minimum r a t e b e f o r e t h e methods o f i n s t r u c t i o n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h o s e s t a g e s a r e e f f e c t i v e . " ( p . 5 5 1 ) . F l u e n c y o r t h e e a s e w i t h w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t s m a s t e r m a t e r i a l a p p e a r s t o h a v e an i m p a c t on t h e i r c o m p r e h e n s i o n and r e t e n t i o n . By o b s e r v i n g t h e s t u d e n t ' s b e h a v i o u r d u r i n g t h e i n s t r u c t i o n p r o c e s s t h e t e a c h e r c a n i d e n t i f y t h e f l u e n c y w i t h w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t c a n g r a s p t h e i m p o r t a n t c o n c e p t s i n t h e l e s s o n . S h i n e a r g u e s t h a t t h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s : " . . . a l l o w f o r t h e e f f i c i e n t , e x p e d i e n t q u a n t i f i c a t i o n o f what a t e a c h e r s e e s i n t h e c l a s s r o o m , a s t h e b a s i s f o r s e l e c t i o n f o r l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s s e r v i c e s . The p r o c e d u r e s a r e r e l i a b l e a n d v a l i d " ( p . 5 5 1 ) . Th e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s a l l o w t h e t e a c h e r s t o a p p l y s p e c i f i c r e m e d i a t i o n s t r a t e g i e s a n d s p e c i a l i z e d m a t e r i a l s when 48 d e s i g n i n g t h e e d u c a t i o n a l c o n t e n t f o r t h e r e v i e w p r o g r a m s f o r t h e s t u d e n t s t a k i n g p a r t i n t h i s s t u d y . 49 CHAPTER I I I : METHODOLOGY I n t h i s c h a p t e r t h e d e s i g n , s a m p l e , t r e a t m e n t , d a t a c o l l e c t i o n a n d a n a l y s e s a r e d e s c r i b e d . 3.1. E x p e r i m e n t a l D e s i g n The d e s i g n u s e d f o r t h i s e x p e r i m e n t c o m p a r e d t h e a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e s o f two g r o u p s o f r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d s t u d e n t s . A l l i n t e r v e n t i o n s w e r e done i n i n t a c t c l a s s e s . A l l t h e s t u d e n t s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a s e r i e s o f l e s s o n s on t h e c o n d u c t i v i t y o f h e a t , i n m e t a l s , l i q u i d s and g a s e s . The measurement o f a c h i e v e m e n t was d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e c o m p o n e n t s : (a) memory; (b) c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f t h e phenomenon; ( c ) m a t h e m a t i c a l q u a n t i f i c a t i o n o f e x p e r i m e n t a l r e s u l t s ; (d) t o t a l s c o r e . 3.2 Sample & P o p u l a t i o n The p o p u l a t i o n d e f i n e d f o r t h i s e x p e r i m e n t w e r e v o c a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n B a s i c L e v e l p r o g r a m s . A s s i g n m e n t o f S t u d e n t s : The s t u d e n t s w e re r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d i n t o two g r o u p s f r o m one h u n d r e d and e i g h t y s i x g r a d e n i n e s t u d e n t s . E i g h t y s t u d e n t s were s e l e c t e d f r o m t h e p o p u l a t i o n a n d s e v e n t y a g r e e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e . A l l s e v e n t y s t u d e n t s were g r a n t e d p e r m i s s i o n f r o m p a r e n t s / g u a r d i a n s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s t u d y . The s t u d e n t s were b e t w e e n f o u r t e e n a n d s i x t e e n y e a r s o f a g e , m a l e and f e m a l e , a n d h a v e h a d s i m i l a r e d u c a t i o n a l p r o f i l e s a s i n d i c a t e d b y t h e i r m a t h e m a t i c s a n d E n g l i s h a b i l i t y s c o r e s . 3.3 P r o c e d u r e s T r a i n i n g and T e s t i n g : The t e a c h e r s i n s t r u c t i n g t h e s t u d e n t s h a v e been i n v o l v e d i n a l l a s p e c t s o f l e s s o n p l a n n i n g , p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t s a n d i n p l a n n i n g f o r e v a l u a t i o n s o f s t u d e n t s f o r t h i s s t u d y . A l l t e s t s u s e d a r e o f s i m i l a r f o r m a t t o t h o s e u s e d f o r r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m e v a l u a t i o n s i n t h e s c i e n c e p r o g r a m . The t e s t s w e r e f o r m a t i v e i n n a t u r e a n d d e s i g n e d t o i d e n t i f y s t u d e n t w e a k n e s s e s w i t h i n t h e l i m i t s o f t h e a c t u a l e x p e r i m e n t s p e r f o r m e d . When p l a n n i n g t h e l e s s o n t h e t e a c h e r s u s e d methods a n d a p p r o a c h e s on l e s s o n p l a n n i n g a n d p r e p a r a t i o n as o u t l i n e d b y t h e a u t h o r s c o v e r e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w s e c t i o n , C h a p t e r I I . Due t o t h e n a t u r e o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t more e x t e n s i v e p r e p a r a t i o n t h a n f o r t h e n o r m a l c l a s s r o o m l e s s o n was r e q u i r e d . The s t u d e n t s were s u b j e c t e d t o much more t e s t i n g a n d i n c r e a s e d e v a l u a t i o n a n d o b s e r v a t i o n . M o s t o f t h e e x t r a t i m e a n d p r e p a r a t i o n was r e q u i r e d t o e n s u r e t h e t e s t w o u l d be a s v a l i d a s p o s s i b l e and t h e r e s u l t s w o u l d n o t be c o n t a m i n a t e d . A s s i g n m e n t o f T e a c h e r s : F i g u r e 3.1 g r a p h i c a l l y o u t l i n e s t h e a s s i g n m e n t o f s t u d e n t s a n d t e a c h e r s f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t . Two t e a c h e r s p r o v i d e d t h e i n s t r u c t i o n d u r i n g t h e e x p e r i m e n t . FIGURE 3.1 ASSIGNMENT OF STUDENTS AND TEACHERS TEACHER A TEACHER B LESSON ONE (Conductivity of Host) r CUSS i l Group A B CLASS M Group A B COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION Of LESSON ONE GROUP A STUDENTS Individual Review GROUP B STUDENTS Traditional Review / POST-TEST AFTER REVIEW OF LESSON ONE LESSON TWO SERIES OF INSTRUCTION (Conductivity of Liquids) B o t h a r e e x p e r i e n c e d s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n i n s t r u c t o r s a n d h a v e a d v a n c e d s u b j e c t q u a l i f i c a t i o n s i n s c i e n c e a n d s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l i n s t r u c t i o n o f v o c a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n b a s i c l e v e l c o u r s e s . The two t e a c h e r s a n d t h e a c a d e m i c s t u d i e s d i r e c t o r j o i n t l y d e s i g n e d t h e s e r i e s o f l e s s o n s a n d e x p e r i m e n t s on t h e t o p i c o f h e a t t r a n s f e r . A p p e n d i x I I p r o v i d e s o u t l i n e s o f a l l t h e l e s s o n s a n d t h e a i m s a n d o b j e c t i v e s t o be c o v e r e d . A b a s i c s c r i p t was d e v e l o p e d t o a s s u r e a h i g h d e g r e e o f c o n f o r m i t y b e t w e e n t e a c h e r s t y l e s a n d a p p r o a c h e s t o i n s t r u c t i o n . The r e s e a r c h e r o u t l i n e d t h e p a r a m e t e r s o f t h e l e s s o n s a n d s u p e r v i s e d t h e d e s i g n a n d c o n s t i t u t i o n o f a l l l e s s o n p l a n s . A s s i g n m e n t w i t h i n C l a s s : E a c h c l a s s was r a n d o m l y d i v i d e d i n t o two g r o u p s . The s t u d e n t s a s s i g n e d t o g r o u p A i n a n y c l a s s r e c e i v e d an i n d e p e n d e n t r e v i e w l e s s o n . G r o u p B r e c e i v e d a t r a d i t i o n a l t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d r e v i e w . The s t u d e n t s r e m a i n e d i n t h e same g r o u p f o r t h e e n t i r e s t u d y . B o t h g r o u p s r e c e i v e d t h e same e v a l u a t i o n t e s t s a f t e r c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e i r r e v i e w l e s s o n s . T h e s e were c o n d u c t e d a t s p e c i f i c d a t a p o i n t c o l l e c t i o n i n t e r v a l s d e s c r i b e d i n S e c t i o n 3.5. A s s i g n m e n t o f T e a c h e r s : The two t e a c h e r s a l t e r n a t e d t e a c h i n g l e s s o n s a n d r e v i e w l e s s o n s t o b o t h g r o u p s . The t e a c h e r s j o i n t l y p r e p a r e d t h e i r l e s s o n s a n d f o l l o w e d a common l e s s o n p l a n . L e s s o n A p p r o a c h f o r S t u d y : The l e s s o n s w e r e d i v i d e d i n t o s i x a r e a s . One m a t h e m a t i c a l a n d one e x p e r i m e n t a l s e s s i o n f o r m e d a s i n g l e l e s s o n . A f t e r a l l t h e s e l e s s o n s w e r e c o v e r e d t h e t o t a l s a m p l e was g i v e n a c o m p r e h e n s i v e e v a l u a t i o n c o v e r i n g t h e t o t a l s e r i e s o f l e s s o n s . F i g u r e 3 .2 o u t l i n e s t h e f l o w t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s f o l l o w e d d u r i n g t h e t o t a l t i m e o f t h e s t u d y . T h i s f i g u r e i l l u s t r a t e s v a r i o u s " P a t h s " and t h e t e s t s w h i c h s t u d e n t s t o o k . To c o m p l e t e t h e s e r i e s o f l e s s o n s a n d e v a l u a t i o n s f o r t h i s s t u d y n i n e t e e n d a y s o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l t i m e w e r e r e q u i r e d . E a c h l e s s o n p e r i o d was one h o u r a n d t w e n t y m i n u t e s i n l e n g t h and i n v o l v e d a t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d l e s s o n , a t e a c h e r d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f an e x p e r i m e n t a n d a b l a c k b o a r d l e s s o n r e v i e w i n g t h e m a t h e m a t i c a l c a l c u l a t i o n s . S t u d e n t s p e r f o r m e d t h e e x p e r i m e n t s i n s m a l l g r o u p s o f two o r t h r e e s t u d e n t s w i t h t e a c h e r a s s i s t a n c e . R e c o g n i z i n g t h e l e n g t h o f p e r i o d w o u l d be d i f f i c u l t . The b a s i c s w e r e d e s i g n e d t o i n c o r p o r a t e a number o f v a r i e d a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h i n c l u d e d a t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d c o m p o n e n t , l a b o r a t o r y work and q u e s t i o n p e r i o d . A p p e n d i x I I c o v e r s t h e c o m ponents o f t h e r e v i e w p r o g r a m s u s e d f o r t h i s s t u d y f o r b o t h t h e i n d i v i d u a l and s m a l l g r o u p r e v i e w . 3 . 4 T r e a t m e n t I n s t r u c t i o n a l A r e a s : A l l c l a s s r o o m i n s t r u c t i o n t o o k p l a c e i n two i d e n t i c a l s c i e n c e l a b o r a t o r i e s . T h o s e s t u d e n t s t a k i n g t h e t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d r e v i e w d i d t h e i r r e v i e w i n t h e s c i e n c e c l a s s r o o m . S t u d e n t s t a k i n g an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d r e v i e w F I G U R E 3 . 2 FLOW OF STUDENTS FOR E X P E R I M E N T S PERIODS OF INSTRUCTION ALL. STUDENT - LESSONS ON CONDUCTIVITY IN NETALS T TEST #1 CONDUCTIVITY IN NETALS 7 DATA COLLECTION FOR LESSON #1 - PRE-TEST SHALL GROUP REVIEW GROUP B TEST #1A - CONDUCTIVITY IN HETALS DATA COLLECTION FOR LESSON #1A - POST-TEST 5 PERIQOS OF INSTRUCTION FORTY MINUTE REVIEW ALL STUOENTS - LESSONS ON CONDUCTIVITY OF LIQUIDS T TEST #2 EXPANSION Of LIQUIDS DATA COLLECTION FOR LESSON #2 • PRE-TEST INDIVIDUAL REVIEW 6ROUP A SHALL 6R0UP REVIEW GROUP B ~7~ TEST «2A EXPANSION Of LIQUIDS DATA COLLECTION FOR LESSON «2A - POST-TEST 5 PERIODS OF INSTRUCTION ALL STUDENTS - LESSONS ON EXPANSION Of GAS TEST #3 EXPANSION OF GAS 7" FORTY MINUTE REVIEW INDIVIDUAL REVIEW GROUP A "X SHALL GROUP REVIEW GROUP 8 T TEST ISA EXPANSION Of 6AS DATA COLLECTION FOR LESSON #3 - PRE-TEST DATA COLLECTION FOR ~ LESSON #3A - POST-TEST COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION DATA COLLECTION FOR ALL STUDENTS ON COMPREHENSIVE TEST Footnote: Each lesson contained experimental work, and related mathematical instruction and review questions. 55 d i d t h e i r r e v i e w i n t h e c o m p u t e r room u n d e r s u p e r v i s i o n o f t h e c o m p u t e r s c i e n c e i n s t r u c t o r a n d t h e d e p a r t m e n t h e a d i n c h a r g e o f a c a d e m i c i n s t r u c t i o n . A l l r e v i e w l e s s o n s were c o n d u c t e d i n a t i m e p e r i o d b e t w e e n 25 t o 40 m i n u t e s a n d b o t h t h e t r a d i t i o n a l r e v i e w a n d t h e i n d i v i d u a l r e v i e w c o v e r e d e x a c t l y t h e same m a t e r i a l a n d u s e d t h e same e x a m p l e s f o r s t u d e n t r e h e a r s a l o f s u b j e c t m a t e r i a l . A l l c l a s s e s r e c e i v e d i d e n t i c a l l e n g t h o f p r e s e n t a t i o n a n d t i m e t o do e x p e r i m e n t s a n d r e v i e w s . The t e a c h e r s s t r e s s e d t h e same a r e a s a n d p e r f o r m e d i d e n t i c a l e x p e r i m e n t s . I n d e p e n d e n t S t u d y R e v i e w P r o c e d u r e s : The e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p r e c e i v e d i n d i v i d u a l r e v i e w p r o g r a m s , composed o f f i l m s t r i p s , s l i d e s , v i d e o p r e s e n t a t i o n s a n d c o m p u t e r - a s s i s t e d i n s t r u c t i o n . T h e s e r e v i e w p r o g r a m s c o v e r e d a l l c omponents o f t h e p r e v i o u s l y t a u g h t l e s s o n s . The s t u d e n t s w r o t e a p r e - t e s t p r i o r t o t h e r e v i e w l e s s o n s a n d t o o k a p o s t - t e s t a f t e r t h e r e v i e w l e s s o n t o a l l o w f o r c o m p a r i s o n o f a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e s . The c o n t r o l g r o u p r e c e i v e d a t r a d i t i o n a l t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d r e v i e w where a l l c o m p o n e n t s o f t h e s c i e n c e e x p e r i m e n t s a n d m a t h e m a t i c a l c a l c u l a t i o n s were r e v i e w e d b y t h e t e a c h e r i n a s m a l l g r o u p s e t t i n g . A l l s t u d e n t s w r o t e t h e same p r e - t e s t a n d p o s t - t e s t s t o a l l o w f o r c o m p a r i s o n o f a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e s . 56 L e s s o n R e v i e w P r o c e d u r e s : The t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d r e v i e w f o r t h i s s t u d y c o n s i s t e d o f : (a) o r a l q u e s t i o n i n g o f t h e s t u d e n t s s p e c i f i c a l l y on names and f u n c t i o n s o f p a r t s o f e q u i p m e n t u s e d i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t s ; (b) t h e d i s p l a y a n d n a m i n g o f e a c h p a r t s t u d e n t s a r e e x p e c t e d t o remember; ( c ) a r e v i e w o f t h e phenomenon o f h e a t t r a n s f e r u s i n g t h e c h a l k b o a r d t o e x p l a i n t h e p a r t i c u l a r phenomenon t o be u n d e r s t o o d ; (d) t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e m a t h e m a t i c a l p r o c e d u r e s u s e d t o q u a n t i f y t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t ; (e) t h e t e a c h e r d o e s s a m p l e q u e s t i o n s on t h e c h a l k b o a r d u s i n g t h e m a t h e m a t i c a l f o r m u l a f o r t h a t p a r t i c u l a r e x p e r i m e n t ; ( f ) The s t u d e n t s do r e h e a r s a l q u e s t i o n s w i t h t h e t e a c h e r p r o v i d i n g a s s i s t a n c e . The q u e s t i o n s a r e t a k e n up i n t h e c l a s s . T h e s e q u e s t i o n s u s e t h e same f o r m a t a n d l a n g u a g e o f t h e t e s t q u e s t i o n s f o r s t u d e n t e v a l u a t i o n . The i n d i v i d u a l r e v i e w f o r t h e s t u d y c o n s i s t e d o f : ( a ) v i d e o p r e s e n t a t i o n s s h o w i n g t h e s c i e n c e e x p e r i m e n t s as t h e y were c o n d u c t e d b y s t u d e n t s i n t h e c l a s s r o o m ; (b) a s l i d e p r o g r a m , w i t h a u d i o s u p p o r t , t o h i g h l i g h t names a n d f u n c t i o n s o f t h e s c i e n c e e q u i p m e n t u s e d f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t ; ( c ) f i l m s t r i p s w i t h a u d i o s u p p o r t d i s p l a y i n g e x p e r i m e n t a l s e t - u p s and t h e p r o c e d u r e s f o r m e a s u r i n g e x p e r i m e n t a l phenomenon and q u a n t i f y i n g r e s u l t s ; (d) an i n t e r - a c t i v e c o m p u t e r g r a p h i c s d r i l l and p r a c t i c e p r o g r a m t o d e v e l o p t h e s t u d e n t s ' a b i l i t y t o p e r f o r m t h e m a t h e m a t i c a l c a l c u l a t i o n s f r o m e x a m p l e s o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t s r e l a t e d t o h e a t t r a n s f e r . The a u d i o t a p e s u s e d i d e n t i c a l s c r i p t s , u s i n g t h e v o i c e s o f b o t h c l a s s r o o m i n s t r u c t o r s . T h e r e was a random s e l e c t i o n o f t e a c h e r a u d i o t a p e s , w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t s u s e d i n t h e r e v i e w l e s s o n s . A p p e n d i x I I c o v e r s a l l p r o c e d u r e s f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t . The k e y a u t h o r s r e f e r r e d t o f o r d e s i g n i n g t h e v a r i o u s c o m p o n e n t s o f t h e r e v i e w l e s s o n s a r e a s f o l l o w s : 57 (a) i n d i v i d u a l p r o g r a m m i n g c o m p o n e n t s ( B l o o m , C a r r o l l , B l o c k ) ; (b) s e q u e n t i a l i n s t r u c t i o n p l a n n i n g c o m p o n e n t s ( B a t e m a n and E n g l e m a n ) ; ( c ) h i e r a r c h i c a l a n d s e q u e n t i a l i n s t r u c t i o n d e s i g n ( Adelman, B l o o m ) ; (d) i m p o r t a n c e o f v i s u a l i m a g e r y f o r c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f s c i e n c e phenomenon c o n c e p t s ( P a v i o ) ; ( e ) d e s i g n o f f o r m a t i v e t e s t s a n d c o m p r e h e n s i v e e v a l u a t i o n s . 3.5. D a t a C o l l e c t i o n D a t a C o l l e c t i o n d u r i n g S t u d y : The t o t a l t i m e f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t r e q u i r e d n i n e t e e n ( 1 9 ) s c h o o l d a y s o f i n s t r u c t i o n . T h e r e were s e v e n p o i n t s d u r i n g t h e s t u d y where d a t a w e r e c o l l e c t e d . T hese p o i n t s a r e o u t l i n e d i n F i g u r e 3.3. 58 DATA COLLECTION FIGURE 3.3 TEST 1 TO 3 TEST l a TO 3a TEST 4 What t e s t S u b j e c t m a s t e r y i s t o i n d i c a t e a f t e r c l a s s r o o m i n s t r u c t i o n S u b j e c t m a s t e r y a f t e r r e v i e w o f p r e v i o u s l e s s o n O v e r a l l P e r f o r m a n c e a f t e r s t u d y i s c o m p l e t e d Who i s t e s t e d ? A l l s t u d e n t s i n t h e s t u d y A l l s t u d e n t s i n t h e s t u d y A l l s t u d e n t s i n t h e s t u d y Type o f t e s t F o r m a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n ( t e a c h e r s e t e x a m i n a t i o n ) F o r m a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n ( t e a c h e r s e t e x a m i n a t i o n ) C o m p a r i s o n o v e r a l l a c h i e v e m e n t o f two g r o u p s 59 1. The t e s t g i v e n t o a l l s t u d e n t s a f t e r e a c h s e r i e s o f l e s s o n s e v a l u a t e d t h e s u b j e c t m a s t e r y o f t h e s t u d e n t s a f t e r t h e s e r i e s o f c l a s s r o o m l e s s o n s . The e v a l u a t i o n m e a s u r e d t h e c o m p o n e n t s o f memory, c o m p r e h e n s i o n , m a t h e m a t i c a l c o m p u t a t i o n and o v e r a l l p e r f o r m a n c e . A l l s t u d e n t s u n d e r t o o k t e s t s 1 t o 3. 2. S t u d e n t s d e s i g n a t e d as G roup A r e c e i v e d an i n d i v i d u a l r e v i e w ( e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p ) . S t u d e n t s d e s i g n a t e d G r o u p B r e c e i v e d a t r a d i t i o n a l r e v i e w t r e a t m e n t ( c o n t r o l ) . 3. The e v a l u a t i o n a f t e r t h e r e v i e w l e s s o n s , T e s t s l a t o 3 a , were d e s i g n e d t o i n d i c a t e t h e c h a n g e i n s u b j e c t m a s t e r y o f t h e s t u d e n t s as a r e s u l t o f t h e r e v i e w t r e a t m e n t . The f i n a l C o m p r e h e n s i v e E v a l u a t i o n , T e s t 6, was u s e d a s t h e s o u r c e o f c o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n t h e two g r o u p s t o t e s t t h e f o u r t h h y p o t h e s i s i n t h i s s t u d y . D a t a C o l l e c t i o n a f t e r L e s s o n s : The e v a l u a t i o n t e s t s a f t e r e a ch s e r i e s o f l e s s o n s were a d m i n i s t e r e d t o a l l c l a s s e s w i t h i n t h e i r r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m t i m e . T h e s e t e s t s were f o r m a t i v e t e s t s c o v e r i n g a l l a s p e c t s o f t h e p r e v i o u s l e s s o n a n d were u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e s t u d e n t s u b j e c t m a s t e r y a f t e r t h e c l a s s r o o m i n s t r u c t i o n a n d a f t e r t h e r e v i e w l e s s o n s . 60 Type o f T e s t i n g U s e d : A l l s t u d e n t s i n t h e s t u d y w e r e t e s t e d u s i n g q u e s t i o n n a i r e b o o k l e t s d e v e l o p e d b y t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s ( A p p e n d i x I V ) . The f o r m a t o f t h e q u e s t i o n s u s e d f o r e v a l u a t i o n were t r u e / f a l s e , c o m p l e t i o n , m u l t i p l e c h o i c e a n d m a t h e m a t i c a l c a l c u l a t i o n o f r e s u l t s o f e x p e r i m e n t s . A p p e n d i x IV p r o v i d e s s a m p l e s o f a l l t e s t s u s e d . 3.6 C o m p a r i s o n s w i t h i n G r o u p s A f t e r c o m p l e t i n g t h e s e r i e s o f t h r e e l e s s o n s c o v e r i n g t h e e x p e r i m e n t s a n d t h r e e l e s s o n s c o v e r i n g t h e r e l a t e d m a t h e m a t i c s on h e a t a n d c o n d u c t i v i t y a l l s t u d e n t s i n a l l f o u r c l a s s e s w r o t e a c o m p r e h e n s i v e e x a m i n a t i o n . C o m p a r i s o n o f a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e s was made u s i n g t - t e s t s t o e v a l u a t e t h e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e g r o u p s r e l a t e d t o t h e i r s u b j e c t m a s t e r y i n t h e f o u r a r e a s : Memory R e t e n t i o n o f names o f l a b e l s a n d an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e p a r t s o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l e q u i p m e n t . C o m p r e h e n s i o n The s t u d e n t s ' u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s c i e n t i f i c phenomena r e l a t e d t o h e a t a n d c o n d u c t i v i t y . Q u a n t i f i c a t i o n The s t u d e n t s ' a b i l i t y t o u s e b a s i c m a t h e m a t i c s t o q u a n t i f y e x p e r i m e n t a l r e s u l t s a n d make p r e d i c t i o n s o f o u t c o m e s o f e x p e r i m e n t s b y u s i n g m a t h e m a t i c a l f o r m u l a s . 61 O v e r a l l The o v e r a l l s c o r e s b e t w e e n t h e two g r o u p s C o m p r e h e n s i o n on a n a d d i t i o n a l s e p a r a t e t e a c h e r - s e t t e s t c o m p a r e d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s o f s u b j e c t m a s t e r y . T h i s was a f i n a l c o m p r e h e n s i v e t e a c h e r - s e t t e s t t a k e n a t t h e e n d o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t . 3.7 V a r i a b l e s The v a r i a b l e s i n v o l v e d i n t h i s t h e s i s a r e l i s t e d i n F i g u r e 3.4. The i n s t r u m e n t s u s e d t o e v a l u a t e t h e s e v a r i a b l e s a r e c o v e r e d i n S e c t i o n 3.5.3. 3.8 I n t e r n a l and E x t e r n a l V a l i d i t y T h e r e were n i n e m a j o r v a r i a b l e s t h a t c o u l d p o t e n t i a l l y t h r e a t e n t h e i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y o f t h i s s t u d y . T h e s e v a r i a b l e s a n d t h e p r o c e d u r e s a d o p t e d t o r e d u c e t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e s e v a r i a b l e s a r e o u t l i n e d b e l o w : (a) Sex: B o t h m a l e a n d f e m a l e s t u d e n t s w e r e u s e d i n t h e s t u d y . The p r o p o r t i o n s o f m a l e a n d f e m a l e w e r e t h e same i n b o t h g r o u p s . (b) S c h o o l s e t t i n g : A l l s t u d e n t s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h i s s t u d y l i v e d i n t h e same g e o g r a p h i c a r e a a n d a t t e n d e d t h e same s c h o o l . ( c ) A c h i e v e m e n t : P r e v i o u s s c h o o l p e r f o r m a n c e a n d a c h i e v e m e n t on s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s o f (e) F a m i l i a r i t y w i t h T e s t I n s t r u m e n t s E n g l i s h a n d m a t h e m a t i c s were s i m i l a r f o r b o t h g r o u p s i n v o l v e d i n t h e s t u d y , (d) A b i l i t y t o Use A l l s t u d e n t s h a d c o m p l e t e d a t l e a s t C o m p u t e r s : one c r e d i t c o u r s e on u s e o f m i c r o -c o m p u t e r s . They were f a m i l i a r w i t h d r i l l a n d p r a c t i c e p r o g r a m s and p r o g r a m s c o n t a i n i n g g r a p h i c d i s p l a y s . The f o r m a t o f q u e s t i o n s u s e d , m u l t i p l e c h o i c e , t r u e / f a l s e r e s p o n s e and c o m p l e -t i o n s were s t a n d a r d i z e d f o r m a t s u s e d by t h e s t u d e n t s i n t h e i r n o r m a l s t u d i e s . B a s i c m a t h e m a t i c a l f o r m u l a s h a d b e e n u s e d b o t h i n m a t h e m a t i c s p r o g r a m s and i n t h e i r t e c h n i c a l s t u d i e s p r o g r a m s . The t e a c h e r s j o i n t l y d e v e l o p e d t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e e x p e r i m e n t a l p r o c e d u r e s a n d t h e r e v i e w l e s s o n s . The k e y e l e m e n t s i n t h e r e v i e w l e s s o n s a d a p t e d f o r t h e c o m p u t e r - g e n e r a t e d r e v i e w w e re i d e n t i c a l t o t h o s e i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l r e v i e w . A l l f o u r c l a s s e s u s e d t h e same l a b o r a t o r y f a c i l i t y f o r i n s t r u c t i o n . The two c l a s s r o o m s w e re b a c k - t o - b a c k a n d s h a r e d e q u i p m e n t a n d r e s o u r c e s . B o t h rooms h a d i d e n t i c a l l a y o u t s , ( h ) R a n d o m i z e d A l l s t u d e n t s h a d i n s t r u c t i o n b y b o t h ( f ) T e a c h e r s a n d P l a n n e r s : (g) C l a s s r o o m E n v i r o n m e n t : 63 I n s t r u c t i o n : teachers f o r d i f f e r e n t lessons and review lessons to reduce teacher b i a s e f f e c t . 64 SUMMARY OF ALL THE VARIABLES INCLUDED IN THIS STUDY FIGURE 3.4 I n a l l c a s e s t h e v a r i a b l e s w e r e m e a s u r e d u s i n g a p e n c i l and p a p e r t e s t . I t e m s were s c o r e d r i g h t o r w r o n g . R e c a l l t h a t t h e t e s t s were t e a c h e r - m a d e a n d c o n s t r u c t e d b y p a r t i c i p a t i n g t e a c h e r s u n d e r t h e s u p e r v i s i o n o f t h e p r i n c i p a l i n v e s t i g a t o r . A: Memory r e l a t e d t o R e c a l l o f L a b e l s : Memory o f l a b e l s was d e f i n e d a s a m e a s u r e o f a s u b j e c t ' s a b i l i t y t o r e c a l l names a n d f u n c t i o n s o f p a r t s o f e q u i p m e n t u s e d i n t h e t e s t l e s s o n s . B: C o m p r e h e n s i o n : C o m p r e h e n s i o n was d e f i n e d a s t h e s u b j e c t ' s a b i l i t y t o u n d e r s t a n d a s c i e n t i f i c c o n c e p t ( c o n d u c t i v i t y ) . I n o r d e r t o e v a l u a t e d e p t h o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e s u b j e c t ' s a b i l i t y t o v i s u a l i z e t h e phenomenon a n d h i s / h e r a b i l i t y t o make g e n e r a l i z e d p r e d i c t i o n s r e l a t e d t o t h e phenomenon were m e a s u r e d . C: M a t h e m a t i c a l A p p l i c a t i o n o f F o r m u l a ( S y m b o l o g y ) : M a t h e m a t i c a l use o f f o r m u l a s was d e f i n e d a s t h e s u b j e c t ' s a b i l i t y t o q u a n t i f y e x p e r i m e n t a l r e s u l t s a n d t o make p r e d i c t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e b e h a v i o u r o f t h e phenomenon u n d e r v a r y i n g c o n d i t i o n s . D: O v e r a l l P e r f o r m a n c e : The f i n a l c o m p r e h e n s i v e s c o r e s ( t e s t 7) c o m p a r e d t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n s t u d e n t s i n G r o u p s A a n d B. 65 3.9 R a t i o n a l e f o r D e s i g n A l l s t u d e n t s i n c l u d e d i n t h i s p r o j e c t were d e s i g n a t e d f o r b a s i c l e v e l i n s t r u c t i o n b y a P r o g r a m a nd R e v i e w C o m m i t t e e . The m a t h e m a t i c s a n d E n g l i s h a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e s o f a l l s t u d e n t s were o b t a i n e d f r o m s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t i n g on an i n d i v i d u a l l y a d m i n i s t e r e d t e s t . T h i s e n s u r e d u n i f o r m i t y o f measurement f o r t h e two t e s t g r o u p s . The d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s , r e l a t e d t o a c h i e v e m e n t , w e r e d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r a r e a s : memory, c o m p r e h e n s i o n , m a t h e m a t i c a l c a l c u l a t i o n s u s i n g f o r m u l a s a n d o v e r a l l p e r f o r m a n c e as d e r i v e d f r o m a c o m p r e h e n s i v e e v a l u a t i o n . T h e s e v a r i a b l e s were t h e same a s t h o s e u s e d f o r e d u c a t i o n a l p l a c e m e n t o f s t u d e n t s . 3.10 R e s e a r c h H y p o t h e s e s The s p e c i f i c h y p o t h e s e s g i v e n i n C h a p t e r I a r e s t a t e d i n t h e f o r m o f r e s e a r c h h y p o t h e s e s as f o l l o w s : O v e r a l l P e r f o r m a n c e : The mean a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e , a s d e t e r m i n e d f r o m t h e c o m p r e h e n s i v e e x a m i n a t i o n o f s t u d e n t s s u b j e c t e d t o a n i n d i v i d u a l r e v i e w , w i l l be l e s s t h a n t h e mean a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e a s d e t e r m i n e d f r o m t h e c o m p r e h e n s i v e e x a m i n a t i o n s o f s t u d e n t s s u b j e c t e d t o a t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d r e v i e w . 66 1. A b i l i t y to R e c a l l Names and Functions of Part s of Experimental Equipment used i n Lessons: The mean s c o r e o f s t u d e n t s , s u b j e c t e d t o i n d i v i d u a l r e v i e w s r e l a t i n g t o q u e s t i o n s on r e c a l l o f names a n d f u n c t i o n s o f p a r t s o f e q u i p m e n t , w i l l be l e s s t h a n t h e mean s c o r e o f s t u d e n t s s u b j e c t e d t o a t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d r e v i e w . 2. A b i l i t y to understand the Phenomena r e l a t e d to the C o n d u c t i v i t y of Heat: The mean s c o r e o f s t u d e n t s , s u b j e c t e d t o i n d i v i d u a l r e v i e w r e l a t i n g t o t h e i r c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f t h e phenomena o f c o n d u c t i v i t y o f h e a t , w i l l be l e s s t h a n t h e mean s c o r e o f s t u d e n t s s u b j e c t e d t o a t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d r e v i e w . 3. A b i l i t y to Perform Mathematical Computations: The mean s c o r e o f s t u d e n t s , s u b j e c t e d t o i n d i v i d u a l r e v i e w s r e l a t i n g t o t h e i r a b i l i t y t o p e r f o r m t h e m a t h e m a t i c a l c a l c u l a t i o n s t o q u a n t i f y c o n d u c t i v i t y o f h e a t , w i l l be l e s s t h a n t h e mean s c o r e o f s t u d e n t s s u b j e c t e d t o a t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d r e v i e w . The s c o r e s ( d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s ) r e p r e s e n t i n g a b i l i t y t o us e m a t h e m a t i c a l f o r m u l a s w i l l be o b t a i n e d f r o m P a r t C o f t h e c o m p r e h e n s i v e e v a l u a t i o n T e s t 7. 67 CHAPTER I V : ANALYSIS & RESULTS 4.1 R e s u l t s The p u r p o s e o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y was t o e x a m i n e t h e e f f e c t s o f s p e c i f i c t r e a t m e n t s , n a m e l y i n d i v i d u a l v e r s u s t r a d i t i o n a l r e v i e w s f o r s e c o n d a r y v o c a t i o n a l s c h o o l s t u d e n t s . The d e s i g n c a l l e d f o r r a n d o m l y a s s i g n i n g s t u d e n t s t o two g r o u p s . One g r o u p r e c e i v e d s p e c i a l i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n on t h e i n d i v i d u a l r e v i e w p r o c e s s a n d t h e o t h e r g r o u p r e c e i v e d t h e t r a d i t i o n a l t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d r e v i e w . The s t u d e n t s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a s e r i e s o f l e s s o n s on t h e c o n d u c t i v i t y o f h e a t i n m e t a l s , l i q u i d s a nd g a s e s . A l l s t u d e n t s w e re t e s t e d f o r a c h i e v e m e n t g a i n s on p r e - a n d p o s t - t e s t s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , w h a t f o l l o w s i n t h i s c h a p t e r i s a p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e r e s u l t s . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t h e number o f s t u d e n t s i n e a c h g r o u p c h a n g e s i n some o f t h e t a b l e s . T h i s i s t h e r e s u l t o f s t u d e n t s b e i n g a b s e n t f r o m s c h o o l d u r i n g t h e d a y s when t h e e x p e r i m e n t was b e i n g c o n d u c t e d . The e x p e r i m e n t l a s t e d a t o t a l o f 19 d a y s . I n a d d i t i o n i t i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o k e e p t h i s number o f s t u d e n t s on t a s k due t o u n f o r e s e e n s c h o o l i n t e r r u p t i o n s . T h i s was e s p e c i a l l y t r u e i n r u n n i n g t h e e x p e r i m e n t i n May w i t h o n l y a few weeks b e f o r e t h e end o f t h e s c h o o l y e a r and w i t h many demands on t h e s t u d e n t s t o c o m p l e t e a s s i g n m e n t s and p r o j e c t s . H o w e v e r , g i v e n t h e n a t u r e o f v o c a t i o n a l s c h o o l s , i t i s n o t u n r e a s o n a b l e f o r s t u d e n t s t o be away f r o m s c h o o l b e c a u s e o f 68 Work E x p e r i e n c e and s p e c i a l p r o j e c t s . I t was f e l t by t h e a u t h o r t h a t no s p e c i a l p r e s s u r e s h o u l d be p u t on t h e s t u d e n t s by m a k i n g t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n t o o m a n d a t o r y o r t a k i n g p r e c e d e n c e o v e r a l l o t h e r s c h o o l a c t i v i t i e s o r t h e s t u d e n t s c o u l d become n e g a t i v e t o w a r d t h e e x p e r i m e n t . A n o t h e r p r o b l e m was t h e n e g a t i v e r e a c t i o n o f many s t u d e n t s t o s u c h i n t e n s i v e t e s t i n g and s u c h a demanding p r o g r a m s t r u c t u r e . Some s t u d e n t s , who d i d n o t g e t i n s t a n t p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s , w i s h e d t o l e a v e t h e p r o j e c t o r s k i p c l a s s e s . F i r s t , t h e means, s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s and t h e r a n g e s on t h e p r e - t e s t s and p o s t - t e s t s f o r t h e two g r o u p s f o r e a c h component o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a r e g i v e n . S e c o n d , t h e r e s u l t s o f b o t h t h e p a i r e d ( c o r r e l a t e d ) and i n d e p e n d e n t t - t e s t s a r e p r e s e n t e d . The p u r p o s e o f t h e s e t e s t s i s t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r t h e r e a r e s i g n i f i c a n t mean d i f f e r e n c e s a c r o s s t h e t e s t s and b e t w e e n g r o u p s . T h i r d , f o r e x p l o r a t o r y p u r p o s e s , t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n a l a n a l y s e s a r e s u m m a r i z e d . 4 .2 D e s c r i p t i v e S t a t i s t i c s T a b l e s 1 t h r o u g h 3 p r e s e n t t h e means, s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s and t h e r a n g e s f o r e a c h o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t s u s e d f o r t h i s s t u d y . The t a b l e s s u m m a r i z e t h e r e s u l t s by p r e - t e s t and p o s t - t e s t s c o r e s s e p a r a t e l y f o r e a c h component: h e a t , g a s , and l i q u i d . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e o v e r a l l mean a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e s a r e g i v e n f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p . 69 I n t e r m s o f t e s t s c o r e v a r i a t i o n , t h e r e seems t o be more v a r i a t i o n i n t h e p o s t - t e s t s c o r e s t h a n i n t h e p r e - t e s t s c o r e s . The e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p showed h i g h e r maximum s c o r e s t h a n t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p . 4.3 C o r r e l a t e d t - t e s t s I n t h i s s e c t i o n t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e c o r r e l a t e d ( p a i r e d ) t - t e s t s a r e g i v e n . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t a t i s t i c a l p r o c e d u r e i s t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e r e a r e s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t mean d i f f e r e n c e s b e t ween t h e p r e - t e s t and p o s t - t e s t s f o r e a c h i n d i v i d u a l g r o u p . The s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l ( a l p h a ) was s e t a t .05. B e c a u s e t h e p r o j e c t h y p o t h e s i z e d an i n c r e a s e i n s c o r e s f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p a s i n g l e - t a i l e d t - t e s t was u t i 1 i z e d . T a b l e s 4 t o 9 s ummarize t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e t - t e s t s . The r e s u l t s r e v e a l t h a t i n a l l c a s e s t h e means i n c r e a s e d f r o m t h e p r e - t o t h e p o s t - t e s t . F o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p o n l y two t - t e s t s d i d n o t r e a c h t h e c h o s e n s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l . F o r t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p a l l e x c e p t one t - t e s t were s i g n i f i c a n t - one memory t e s t on t h e gas component. These r e s u l t s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t i n d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h a t a s e q u e n t i a l l y s t r u c t u r e d a p p r o a c h t o i n s t r u c t i o n may i m p r o v e s u b j e c t m a s t e r y . The two t - t e s t s i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p and t h e t - t e s t i n t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p d i d n o t r e a c h t h e a c c e p t e d s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l . I n summary, e a c h o f t h e two g r o u p s s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n c r e a s e d t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e s c o r e s between t h e f i r s t and s e c o n d 70 t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s . 4.4 I n d e p e n d e n t t - t e s t s I n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e r e were any s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l g r o u p s t e s t s c o r e s , i n d e p e n d e n t t - t e s t s were p e r f o r m e d . The t - t e s t s were r u n s e p a r a t e l y f o r p r e - t e s t and p o s t - t e s t i n g s e s s i o n s . The r e s u l t s r e v e a l t h a t t h e r e were no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t mean d i f f e r e n c e s b e t ween t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l a n d c o n t r o l g r o u p s on any p r e - t e s t s , ( i . e . math, c o m p r e h e n s i o n and memory). These r e s u l t s a r e d i s p l a y e d by t a b l e s 10, 11 & 12. 4.5 C o r r e l a t i o n A n a l y s e s ' I n t h i s s e c t i o n , t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e P e a r s o n ' s c o r r e l a t i o n a r e g i v e n . T a b l e 14 on t h e f o l l o w i n g p a g e s d i s p l a y t h e s e r e s u l t s . I t was o f i m p o r t a n c e t o d e t e r m i n e how t h e v a r i o u s t e s t s c o r e s c o r r e l a t e w i t h e a c h o t h e r . S e p a r a t e c o r r e l a t i o n s were c a l c u l a t e d f o r t h e c o n t r o l and e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s . The r e s u l t s r e v e a l t h a t t h e i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s r a n g e d f r o m -.20 ( C o m p r e h e n s i o n 1 P r e - t e s t w i t h M a t h e m a t i c s 1 P r e - t e s t f o r t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p ) t o +.76 ( M a t h e m a t i c s 1 P r e - t e s t w i t h Memory 2 P r e - t e s t f o r t h e c o n t r o l ' g r o u p ) . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , t h e r e a p p e a r s t o be more f l u c t u a t i o n i n t h e i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p . I n g e n e r a l , t h e r e a p p e a r s t o be no t r e n d t h a t emerges f r o m t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n a l a n a l y s e s . 71 4.6 Summary The means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s f o r t h e c o m p r e h e n s i v e e v a l u a t i o n ( f i n a l t e s t s ) f o r memory, c o m p r e h e n s i o n and mathe m a t i c s a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e 13. The means on c o m p r e h e n s i o n and m a t h e m a t i c s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r f o r t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p r e c e i v i n g t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d r e v i e w . F o r t h e memory e v a l u a t i o n o n l y a s l i g h t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e two means o c c u r r e d . Comparing t a b l e 13 w i t h t a b l e s 1 t o 3 shows t h e mean s c o r e s f o r memory changed from a low o f 5.2 ( E x p e r i m e n t a l Group T a b l e 1 t o 21 on Comprehension T a b l e 13). T h i s would i n d i c a t e t h e c o n s t a n t r e p e t i t i o n o f naming t h e p a r t s and t h e i r f a c t o r s was an e f f e c t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g y . The mean s c o r e s f o r t h e Comprehension and M a t h e m a t i c s a r e a s on t h e Comprehensive r e m a i n e d s i m i l a r f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p and v a r i e d f o r t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p f o r mean 8.9 ( t a b l e 2 C o n t r o l Group t o 36.6) f o r Co m p r e h e n s i v e . T h i s may i n d i c a t e t h a t an e n t i r e c o u r s e o f s e v e r a l l e s s o n s may p r o d u c e improvement i n memory and c o m p r e h e n s i o n w i t h an e x t e n d e d t i m e - f r a m e f o r t h e t o t a l c o u r s e o f s t u d y . T h e r e a p p e a r s t o have been no co m p a r a b l e improvement i n t h e m a t h e m a t i c s a r e a a f t e r t h e f i n a l l e s s o n s . The r e a o n s have been a d d r e s s e d p r e v i o u s l y i n t h i s r e p o r t . On e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e r a n g e s (minimum/maximum s c o r e s ) , i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t t h e r e i s a g r e a t d e a l o f v a r i a t i o n f o r b o t h 72 g r o u p s i n a l l t h r e e s u b j e c t s . T h i s a l s o becomes more e v i d e n t when we exa m i n e t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o v e r t h e t h r e e l i s t s . T h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t i mprovement i n e a c h o f t h e t h r e e c o r o l l a r y a r e a s o f memory, c o m p r e h e n s i o n o r m a t h e m a t i c s . T h e r e f o r e , t h e t h r e e c o r o l l a r i e s a r e a l s o r e j e c t e d . I t i s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p o b t a i n e d t h e same d e g r e e o f improvement i n t h e i r o v e r a l l a c h i e v e m e n t and i n t h e i r i mprovement i n t h e a r e a s o f memory, c o m p r e h e n s i o n and m a t h e m a t i c s as d i d t h e s t u d e n t s who had t h e t e a c h e r - l e d r e v i e w . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h e r e may be e d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e i n a p p l y i n g i n d i v i d u a l s t u d y methods and i n d i v i d u a l r e v i e w t e c h n i q u e s t o a segment o f t h e v o c a t i o n a l s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n who may be m o t i v a t e d by u s i n g i n d e p e n d e n t s t u d y methods. C h a p t e r V w i l l f u r t h e r d i s c u s s t h e c o n c l u s i o n s o f t h e r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s and make a r g u m e n t s f o r t h e e d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e o f t h i s r e s e a r c h . 7 3 TABLE 1 MEANS ( X ) , STANDARD DEVIATIONS (S.D.) AND RANGES FOR CONDUCTIVITY OF METALS V a r i a b l e T e s t Group n > 7 S . D. M i n • Max Memory P r e E 31 5 . , 20 2 . , 40 0. 00 8 . 00 C 22 5 . , 30 2 , 40 0 . 00 8 . 00 P o s t E 30 15 . 70 13. , 50 3 . 00 82 . 00 C 20 15 , . 70 5 . ,60 2 . 00 24 . 00 C o m p r e h e n s i o n P r e E 31 17 . , 50 6 . ,00 7 . 00 25. 00 C 22 19 , .60 4 . 20 12 . 00 24 . 00 P o s t E 29 21 . 20 10, , 10 0. 00 61 . 00 C 20 24 , , 30 10, . 40 6 . 00 34. 00 Mathemat i c s P r e E 31 6 . 30 11 , 20 0 . 00 61 . 00 C 22 4 , .40 3 , .00 0. 00 8 . 00 P o s t E 29 5 . , 20 6 , 20 0. 00 18. 00 C 20 8 , . 00 7 , . 50 0 . 00 18 . 00 *E = E x p e r i m e n t a l G r o up; C = C o n t r o l Group Z e r o s c o r e r e f l e c t s a m o t i v a t i o n p r o b l e m where s t u d e n t s r e f u s e d t o c o m p l e t e t h e t e s t . TABLE 2 74 MEANS ( X ) , STANDARD DEVIATIONS (S.D.) AND RANGES FOR EXPANSION OF LIQUIDS V a r i a b l e T e s t Group n X S. ,D. M i n . Max . Memory P r e E 25 7 . 20 2 . , 50 2 . ,00 10. 00 C 17 7 , 20 2 , .80 0 , .00 10. ,00 P o s t E 29 8. ,90 1 , .90 4 . , 00 10. 00 C . 16 10. , 20 2 , . 10 6 , .00 17 . .00 C o m p r e h e n s i o n P r e • E 25 17 . . 80 4 , . 50 7 , .00 25 . , 00 C 17 18 , , 20 5 , . 40 1 . 00 23 , .00 P o s t E 29 26.. , 50 6 , .60 15 , . 00 34 , .00 C 16 25 . , 30 6 , . 70 12 . 00 33 , . 00 M a t h e m a t i c s P r e E 25 2 . 20 1 , . 60 0 . , 00 5 . , 00 C 17 3 . , 10 4 , . 70 0 , . 00 20 , .00 P o s t E 29 9 . 30 6 . , 80 0 . , 00 19. , 00 C 15 12 . 10 6 , .60 0 , 00 18 . , 00 *E = E x p e r i m e n t a l Group; C = C o n t r o l Group 75 TABLE 3 MEANS ( X ) , STANDARD DEVIATIONS (S.D.) AND RANGES FOR EXPANSION OF GASES V a r i a b l e T e s t Group n X S . D. Min. Max. Memory P r e E 23 10 . 70 3 . , 50 5 . 00 22 . 00 C 16 10 . 40 2 , 40 6 . ,00 13. 00 P o s t E 31 10. , 60 3 , .90 5 , 00 28. .00 C 18 10 . , 30 2 , 60 2 . , 00 12 , 00 Comprehension P r e E 23 16 . ,60 7 , . 30 6 . , 00 30. ,00 C 16 17 , 90 5 . 80 9 .00 30 , .00 P o s t E 31 21 , .60 6 . 40 6 .00 30, ,00 C 18 22 , . 40 5 . 70 9 . 00 30, .00 M a t h e m a t i c s Pre E 23 5 , .60 4 . 90 0 . 00 18, .00 C 16 5 . 60 4 .90 0 . 00 00 .70 P o s t E 30 8 . , 40 6 . 80 0, . 00 26 , .00 C 18 8 . 70 6 . 20 0 . 00 16 , . 00 *E = E x p e r i m e n t a l Group; C = C o n t r o l Group 76 TABLE 4 RESULTS OF THE CORRELATED t-TESTS FOR CONDUCTIVITY OF METALS V a r i a b l e T e s t Group n X S . ,D. t - v a l u e P Memory Pre C 17 5. , 50 2 . ,40 -8. ,54 <0. ,0001 P o s t C 17 16. , 40 5 , . 40 <0 , 0001 Comprehension P r e C 17 20. ,00 4 . 00 -4, .18 0. .0005 P o s t C 17 26 . ,90 8, .70 M a t h e m a t i c s P r e C 17 5 . , 40 2 , . 60 -2 , . 36 0 .0155 P o s t C 17 9, .00 7 .60 -TABLE 5 RESULTS OF THE CORRELATED t-TESTS FOR CONDUCTIVITY OF METALS V a r i a b l e T e s t Group n X S . D. t - v a l u e P Memory P r e E 5 . 30 2 . 60 28 -3.61 0 . 0005 - P o s t E 15 . 30 14 . 00 Comprehension Pre E 17 . 80 6 . 10 27 -2.55 0 .0080 P o s t E 21 . 90 10 . 4 0 M a t h e m a t i c s Pre E 3 . 90 3 . 50 27 -1.10 0 . 1420* P o s t E 5 . 10 6 . 20 * d e n o t e s (NS) 7 7 TABLE 6 RESULTS OF THE CORRELATED t-TESTS FOR EXPANSION OF LIQUIDS V a r i a b l e T e s t Group n X S . ,D. t - v a l u e P Memory P r e C 13 7 . 00 3 . , 10 -2 . 50 0. , 0015 P o s t C 10 . 10 2 , 30 C o m p r e h e n s i o n P r e C 13 17 . 70 6 , 10 -5 . 30 <0 . , 0001 P o s t C 25 . 90 6 , . 90 M a t h e m a t i c s P r e C 12 2 . 40 1 . , 90 -6 .66 <0, .0001 P o s t C 12 . 50 6 .90 -TABLE 7 RESULTS OF THE CORRELATED t-TESTS FOR EXPANSION OF LIQUIDS V a r i a b l e T e s t Group n X S.D. t - v a l u e Memory P r e 7.00 2.50 P o s t E C o m p r e h e n s i o n P r e E P o s t E M a t h e m a t i c s P r e E 23 23 9 . 00 17 . 60 26 . 80 2 . 30 2.00 4 . 70 7 . 00 1 .60 •5.05 <0.0001 •7.81 <0.0001 23 -6.90 <0.0001 P o s t E 10.70 6.60 TABLE 8 RESULTS OF THE CORRELATED t-TESTS FOR EXPANSION OF GASES V a r i a b l e T e s t Group n X S , D. t - v a l u e P Memory P r e C 13 10 . 50 2 , 50 -0.92 0. 1900* P o s t C 11 . 00 1 , . 50 Comprehens i o n P r e C 13 17 . 90 6 . , 20 -4 . 70 0 . 0005 P o s t C 24 . 00 4 .  60 Mathemat i c s P r e C 13 6 . 60 4 . 90 -3 . 33 0. 0030 P o s t C 10. 50 5 . 80 -TABLE 9 RESULTS OF THE CORRELATED t-TESTS FOR EXPANSION OF GASES V a r i a b l e T e s t Group n X S .D. t - v a l u e P Memory P r e E 5 . 50 5 .00 21 -2 .91 0. 005 P o s t E 9 . 60 7 .00 C o m p r e h e n s i o n P r e E 16 . 60 7 . 40 22 -5 .01 <0 . , 001 P o s t E 22 . 00 7 . 20 M a t h e m a t i c s P r e E 10 . 80 3 . 50 22 -1 . 25 0, .112 * P o s t E 10 . 70 6 . 60 * d e n o t e s (NS) 79 TABLE 10 MEANS ( X ) , STANDARD DEVIATIONS (S.D.) AND t-VALUES FOR CONDUCTIVITY OF METALS ACROSS GROUPS V a r i a b l e T e s t Group n i S .D. t - v a l u e P Memory P r e E 31 5 . 20 2 . 40 -0 . 14 0 . 4450* C 22 5 . 30 2 . 40 P o s t E 30 15 . 70 13 . 50 0 .01 0 . 4970* C 20 15 .70 5 .60 C o m p r e h e n s i o n P r e E 31 17 . 50 6 .00 -1.53 0. 0655* C 22 19 .60 4 . 20 P o s t E 29 21 . 20 10 . 90 -0. 98 o. 1670* C 20 24 . 30 10 . 40 M a t h e m a t i c s P r e E 31 6 . 30 11 . 20 0.90 0 . 1880* C 22 4 . 40 3 . 00 P o s t E 29 5 . 20 6 . 20 -1.36 0 . 0910* •c 20 8 . 00 7 . 50 * d e n o t e s (NS) 80 TABLE 11 MEANS ( X ) , STANDARD DEVIATIONS (S.D.) AND t-VALUES FOR EXPANSION OF LIQUIDS ACROSS GROUPS V a r i a b l e T e s t Group n X S.D. t - v a l u e p Memory P r e E 23 10.70 3.50 0.34 0.370 * C 16 10.40 2.40 P o s t E 31 10.60 3.90 0.33 0.373 * C 18 10.30 2.60 C o m p r e h e n s i o n P r e E 23 16.60 7.30 -0.60 0.280 * C 16 17.90 5.80 P o s t E 31 21.60 6.40 -0.47 0.320 * C 18 22.40 5.70 M a t h e m a t i c s P r e E 23 5.60 4.90 -0.04 0.485 * C 16 5.60 4.90 P o s t E '30 8.40 6.80 -0.16 0.438 * C 18 8.70 6.20 * d e n o t e s (NS) V 81 TABLE 12 MEANS ( X ) , STANDARD DEVIATIONS ( S . D . ) , AND t-VALUES FOR EXPANSION OF GASES ACROSS GROUPS V a r i a b l e T e s t Group n X S.D. t - v a l u e p Memory P r e E 23 10.70 3.50 0.34 0.37 C 16 10.40 2.40 P o s t E 31 10.60 3.90 0.33 0.37 C 18 10.30 2.60 C o m p r e h e n s i o n P r e E 23 16.60 7.30 -0.60 0.28 C 16 17.90 5.80 P o s t E 31 21.60 6.40 -0.45 -0.24 C 18 22.40 5.70 M a t h e m a t i c s P r e E 23 5.60 4.90. -0.04 0.49 C 16 5.60 4.90 P o s t E 30 8.40 6.80 -0.15 -0.08 C 18 8.70 6.20 * d e n o t e s (NS) TABLE 13 82 MEANS ( X ) , STANDARD DEVIATIONS (S.D.) AND RANGES FOR FINAL TESTS ACROSS GROUPS V a r i a b l e T e s t Group n X S.D. Min. Max. Memory F i n a l E 27 21 , .00 5 .90 7 . 00 30 . 00 C 20 19 . 90 6 . 70 4 . 00 28 .00 Comprehension F i n a l E 23 16 , 70 ' 7 . 30 2 . 00 32 .00 C 20 36 , 60 11 . 70 17 . 00 50 .00 M a t h e m a t i c s F i n a l E 23 5 . , 60 4 . 90 0 . 01 18 . 00 C 20 13, , 30 10 . 70 0 . 01 32 .00 TABLE 14 INTER-CORRELATIONS FOR PRE-TESTS AND POST-TESTS FOR BOTH THE EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS FOR CONDUCTIVITY OF METALS 83 Group Memory Comp, 1 1 Math Memory Comp. Math 1 2 2 2 Memory 1 Comp. 1 Math. 1 Memory 2 Comp. 2 Math. 2 E C E C E C E C E C E C 1 . 000 1 . 000 0.61 0. 44 1 . 00 1 . 00 0.01 0.28 0.02 0 . 46 1 . 00 1 .00 •0 . 20 0 . 28 •0.15 0 . 26 0. 76 0. 20 1 . 00 1 .00 0 . 44 0.42 0.62 0.64 0.25 0 . 47 0.41 0.60 1 . 00 1 . 00 0.22 0. 15 0 . 38 0.08 0.44 0.61 0.48 0 . 46 0 . 49 0 . 52 1 .00 1 .00 84 CHAPTER V: CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5.1 Summary o f R e s u l t s The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y was t o exa m i n e t h e e f f e c t s on a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e s o f i n d i v i d u a l and t r a d i t i o n a l r e v i e w s on a g r o u p o f s e c o n d a r y v o c a t i o n a l s c h o o l s t u d e n t s . I n t h i s c h a p t e r , t h e m a j o r f i n d i n g s and c o n c l u s i o n s a r e p r e s e n t e d a l o n g w i t h some d i s c u s s i o n a b o u t t h e f i n d i n g s . F i r s t , a l l h y p o t h e s e s were r e j e c t e d . The c o n t r o l g r o u p i n g e n e r a l had s l i g h t l y h i g h e r mean s c o r e s t h a n t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p . P o s s i b l y s t u d e n t s a r e more f a m i l i a r w i t h t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d r e v i e w s . B e c a u s e t h e y were f o l l o w i n g a f a m i l i a r i n s t r u c t i o n a l f o r m a t , s t u d e n t s i n t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p r e c e i v e d h i g h e r s c o r e s t h a n s t u d e n t s i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p who had t o l e a r n a new i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g y . A n o t h e r p o s s i b l e f a c t o r i n t h i s outcome i s t h a t s t u d e n t s a r e a c c u s t o m e d t o h a v i n g t h e i r q u e s t i o n s a n s w e r e d o r a l l y i n s t e a d o f h a v i n g t o s e a r c h o u t t h e i r own a n s w e r s , w h i c h was a new s i t u a t i o n f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p . L a s t l y , due t o d e s i g n and t i m e t a b l i n g , t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p was u s u a l l y t w e l v e t o f i f t e e n s t u d e n t s w hereas t h e t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d r e v i e w was e i g h t t o t e n s t u d e n t s , a l l o w i n g f o r a more d i r e c t r e s p o n s e t o s t u d e n t d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a n w o u l d n o r m a l l y be t h e c a s e . 85 I n t e r m s o f t e s t s c o r e v a r i a t i o n , t h e r e seems t o be more v a r i a t i o n i n t h e p o s t - t e s t s c o r e s t h a n i n t h e p r e - t e s t s c o r e s . An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e minimum and maximum s c o r e s o f f e r s some e x p l a n a t i o n . I n most c a s e s t h e maximum s c o r e s i n c r e a s e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y o v e r t h e two t e s t i n g p e r i o d s . T h i s p r o b a b l y means b o t h g r o u p s i n c r e a s e d t h e i r k n o w l e d g e b a s e as a r e s u l t o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s was a l s o e x p e c t e d and w o u l d be s i g n i f i c a n t . The h i g h l y s t r u c t u r e d and s e q u e n t i a l p r e s e n t a t i o n o f m a t e r i a l and t h e t e a c h e r use o f t h e f o r m a t i v e t e s t i n g a l l o w e d f o r i m p r o v e m e n t s i n i n s t r u c t i o n d u r i n g t h e e x p e r i m e n t , a c o n f i r m a t i o n o f B l o c k and Bloom's (1974) f i n d i n g s . I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e r e was a Hawthorne E f f e c t on t h e s t u d e n t s and t e a c h e r s by b e i n g p a r t o f an e x p e r i m e n t . T h i s w o u l d t e n d t o i n c r e a s e t h e e f f o r t and m o t i v a t i o n o f many s t u d e n t s who have p o t e n t i a l b u t do n o t a l w a y s work t o t h a t l e v e l . The s t r u c t u r i n g and s e q u e n t i a l p r o c e s s w o u l d a l s o i m p r o v e t e a c h e r p e r f o r m a n c e , a l l o w i n g them t o p l a n f o r many p o t e n t i a l s t u d e n t m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s and b u i l d i n r e - t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s . S e c o n d l y , t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p showed h i g h e r maximum s c o r e s t h a n t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p . As t h e s t u d e n t s i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p became f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e i n d e p e n d e n t r e v i e w p r o c e s s , t h o s e h i g h l y m o t i v a t e d t o s u c c e e d c o u l d d e s i g n t h e i r own r e v i e w f o r t h e i r own n e e d s . The i n d i v i d u a l r e v i e w may a l s o be a p p e a l i n g and m o t i v a t i n g f o r t h e s t u d e n t s who e n j o y e d w o r k i n g on t h e i r own r a t h e r t h a n i n a l o c k s t e p c l a s s r o o m 86 manner. A l l s t u d e n t s had e q u a l t i m e s f o r t h e r e v i e w l e s s o n s . 5.2 D i s c u s s i o n A l l s t u d e n t s showed s i g n i f i c a n t i mprovement i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o r e c a l l names and f u n c t i o n s o f t h e s c i e n c e e q u i p m e n t as a r e s u l t o f b o t h i n d e p e n d e n t s t u d y t e c h n i q u e s and t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d r e v i e w s . The t e s t i n g o f memory q u e s t i o n s c o n s i s t e n t l y r e c e i v e d t h e h i g h e s t mean s c o r e s f r o m b o t h g r o u p s o f s t u d e n t s . T h i s may be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s . F i r s t , much o f t h e e q u i p m e n t was r e p e a t e d l y u s e d f o r t h e t o t a l l e n g t h o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t so t h e r e was c o n s i d e r a b l e r e i n f o r c e m e n t . S e c o n d , o n l y t h r e e o r f o u r p i e c e s o f new e q u i p m e n t were added t o e a c h e x p e r i m e n t and t h e d e s i g n o f e q u i p m e n t o f t e n p r o v i d e s c l u e s t o t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e e q u i p m e n t . F i n a l l y , s t u d e n t s have been s t u d y i n g s c i e n c e , u s i n g l a b o r a t o r y e q u i p m e n t i n g r a d e s 6, 7 and 8 and i t w o u l d be e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e r e w o u l d be some b a c k g r o u n d k n o w l e d g e t o i d e n t i f y t h e e q u i p m e n t . E x p e r i e n c e i n t e a c h i n g w i t h i n t h e s c h o o l , h o w e v e r , has o f t e n d e m o n s t r a t e d an i n a b i l i t y o f t h e s t u d e n t s t o e f f e c t i v e l y r e t r i e v e d a t a f r o m memory f o r names and f u n c t i o n s o f t o o l s w i t h i n t h e i r t e c h n i c a l s u b j e c t s . The r e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d e n t s on r e t r i e v a l o f names f r o m memory s t i l l d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t many s t u d e n t s have d e f i c i e n c i e s i n t h i s a r e a and p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e i r i n a b i l i t y t o w r i t e t h e d a t a a c c u r a t e l y on t h e t e s t . The s t u d e n t s o f t e n knew t h e names and p u t them on t h e d r a w i n g s i n 87 i n c o r r e c t o r d e r , s u g g e s t i n g t h e y a r e m e m o r i z i n g words w i t h o u t c o m p r e h e n s i o n and t h a t t h e y have n o t e f f e c t i v e l y m e m o r i z e d t h e names o f p a r t s by a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h a v i s u a l image o f t h e p a r t . D u r i n g q u e s t i o n i n g and d i s c u s s i o n , t h e s t u d e n t s o f t e n e x p r e s s e d f r u s t r a t i o n a t b e i n g u n a b l e t o d e s c r i b e t h e f u n c t i o n s o f t h e p a r t s o f t h e e q u i p m e n t i n words o r w r i t t e n e x p r e s s i o n . A g u i d e d q u e s t i o n i n g s t r a t e g y by t h e i n s t r u c t o r s w o u l d o f t e n a s s i s t them i n f o c u s i n g t h e i r r e s p o n s e t o a c o r r e c t a n s w e r . The s t u d e n t s a p p e a r t o l a c k s t r a t e g i e s t o p r o c e s s t h e d a t a w i t h o u t p r o m p t i n g . I t was o b s e r v e d by t h e i n s t r u c t o r s t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s i n t h e t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d g r o u p p r e f e r r e d t o answer t h e q u e s t i o n s on memory when p r e s e n t e d i n an o r a l q u e s t i o n f o r m t o t h e g r o u p , r a t h e r t h a n one-on-one d r i l l . The s t u d e n t s ' d e s i r e t o a v o i d " f a i l u r e " by g i v i n g a wrong answer p r o v i d e s a p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n t o t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n . W i t h i n a g r o u p t h e y a r e n o t s i n g l e d o u t . A l t h o u g h i t was s t r e s s e d t h r o u g h i n s t r u c t i o n t h a t d e v e l o p i n g a s t r a t e g y f o r l e a r n i n g t h e m a t e r i a l was a ma i n o b j e c t i v e , t h e s t u d e n t s c o n t i n u a l l y d e m o n s t r a t e d a s t r o n g d e s i r e t o o b t a i n a " r i g h t " a n s wer and t h e f o r m a t o f t h e memory q u e s t i o n s was d e s i g n e d f o r r i g h t and wrong a n s w e r s , w h i c h r e i n f o r c e d t h i s s t r o n g l y h e l d b e l i e f . A n o t h e r o b s e r v a t i o n was t h e s p e e d w i t h w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t s a n s w e r e d t h e q u e s t i o n s . A l m o s t a l l f i n i s h e d w e l l b e f o r e t h e a l l o t t e d t i m e f o r t h i s a r e a o f t e s t i n g and d e m o n s t r a t e d l i t t l e r e f l e c t i o n o r r e v i e w o f p r e v i o u s l y 88 c o m p l e t e d q u e s t i o n s . A l t h o u g h c o r r e c t s p e l l i n g was c l e a r l y s t a t e d as n o t i m p o r t a n t , many s t u d e n t s r e p e a t e d l y a s k e d how t o s p e l l t h e l a b e l l e d p a r t s o f t h e d i a g r a m s . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h e y were s e e k i n g some f o r m o f r e s p o n s e f r o m t h e i n s t r u c t o r s as t o w h e t h e r t h i s was a c o r r e c t a n s w e r , w h i c h s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e i r f e a r s o f b e i n g "wrong" were h a r d t o d i s p e l . 5.3 A b i l i t y o f S t u d e n t s t o Improve C o m p r e h e n s i o n The s t u d e n t s d i d n o t show s i g n i f i c a n t i m p rovement i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o comprehend t h e s c i e n c e phenomenon s t u d i e s as a r e s u l t o f i n d e p e n d e n t s t u d y t e c h n i q u e s . I n t h e c o m p l e t i o n q u e s t i o n s t h e l i s t o f words was p r o v i d e d , y e t t h e r e were s t i l l q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f c o r r e c t s p e l l i n g . E v en w i t h t h i s l i s t many s t u d e n t r e s p o n s e s were c o p i e d down i n c o r r e c t l y . On t h e c o m p l e t i o n q u e s t i o n s s t u d e n t s o f t e n made c o r r e c t i o n s t o t h e i r i n i t i a l r e s p o n s e , p o s s i b l y d e m o n s t r a t i n g a l a c k o f c o n v i c t i o n i n t h e i r c o m p r e h e n s i o n . T h i s s e c t i o n r e q u i r e d an a b i l i t y t o r e a d a f u l l s e n t e n c e w i t h a c c u r a c y and c o m p r e h e n s i o n . The s e n t e n c e s c o n t a i n e d t h e t e c h n i c a l t e r m s u s e d d u r i n g t h e l e s s o n s and o f t e n c l u e s t o t h e c o r r e c t a nswer were p r o v i d e d w i t h i n t h e q u e s t i o n . A l l s t u d e n t s h a d done r e h e a r s a l on s i m i l a r q u e s t i o n s d u r i n g t h e l e s s o n s and t h e f i n a l t e s t q u e s t i o n s came f r o m t h e r e h e a r s a l q u e s t i o n s . P o s s i b l y t h e i n s t r u c t o r s s h o u l d have p r o v i d e d more t i m e c o n c e r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s on how t o answer t h e s e t y p e s o f q u e s t i o n s f o r t h e s t u d e n t s who were v e r y s l o w r e a d e r s . 89 The r e h e a r s a l o f c o m p l e t i o n t y p e q u e s t i o n s f o r t h e i n d e p e n d e n t s t u d y g r o u p were t h e same as t h o s e u s e d f o r t h e t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d g r o u p . The q u e s t i o n s u s e d a p a p e r and p e n c i l f o r m a t b u t e a c h q u e s t i o n had a f i l m - s t r i p name and frame number, w h i c h p r o v i d e d t h e d a t a t o w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t c o u l d r e f e r . A f t e r c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n t h e s t u d e n t s were p r o v i d e d w i t h a c o r r e c t a nswer s h e e t f o r t h e r e h e a r s a l c o m p l e t i o n q u e s t i o n s . The s t u d e n t s i n t h i s g r o u p r e s p o n d e d v e r y f a v o u r a b l y t o t h i s s t r a t e g y o f r e v i e w a n d were v e r y d i l i g e n t i n f i l l i n g i n t h e q u e s t i o n s and r e f e r r i n g t o t h e f i l m - s t r i p s f o r t h e a n s w e r s . The t r u e / f a l s e q u e s t i o n s a l s o r e q u i r e d t h e a b i l i t y t o r e a d a s e n t e n c e w i t h c o m p r e h e n s i o n . U n l i k e t h e c o m p l e t i o n q u e s t i o n s t h e s t u d e n t s r a r e l y c h a n g e d t h e i r i n i t i a l r e s p o n s e o r r e - r e a d t h e i r a n s w e r s . I n many c a s e s t h e y w o u l d " g u e s s " i f u n s u r e . S t u d e n t s were v e r y f a m i l i a r w i t h t r u e / f a l s e f o r m a t s and i n o t h e r s u b j e c t s have o f t e n been i n s t r u c t e d t o g u e s s i f t h e y were u n s u r e . T h i s l i m i t s t h e v a l u e o f t r u e / f a l s e q u e s t i o n f o r m a t s f o r f o r m a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n s as i n s t r u c t o r s w i l l n o t be a b l e t o e v a l u a t e how w e l l t h e s t u d e n t i s c o m p r e h e n d i n g t h e m a t e r i a l . The i n a b i l i t y t o r e a d w i t h a c c u r a c y w o u l d be e x p e c t e d t o l i m i t t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e p o o r r e a d e r i n a n s w e r i n g t h e s e q u e s t i o n s a c c u r a t e l y . P o s s i b l y h a v i n g t h e s e q u e s t i o n s on t a p e and a l l o w i n g t h e s t u d e n t s t o l i s t e n t o t h e q u e s t i o n s as w e l l as r e a d t h e q u e s t i o n s w o u l d p r o v i d e a d d i t i o n a l c l u e s , w h i c h w o u l d a i d c o m p r e h e n s i o n . 90 D u r i n g o r a l r e h e a r s a l f o r t h e t r u e / f a l s e q u e s t i o n s f o r the t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d r e v i e w , i t was o b s e r v e d how w i l l i n g l y t h e s t u d e n t s would answer t h e s e q u e s t i o n s when p r e s e n t e d o r a l l y t o the g r o u p . I t may be t h a t t h i s i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g y gave a f a l s e s e n s e o f competence t o t h e s t u d e n t s and made them f e e l t h e s e were e a s y q u e s t i o n s . The s t u d e n t s d o i n g t h e d r i l l and p r a c t i c e t r u e / f a l s e r e h e a r s a l on t h e computer d e m o n s t r a t e d no improvement o v e r t h e t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d r e v i e w even though t h e y had i n d i v i d u a l f e e d b a c k and r e i n f o r c e m e n t . They were a l l o w e d t o do s e v e r a l d r i l l and p r a c t i c e computer q u e s t i o n s b u t many s t u d e n t s would spend a minimum time on t h i s r e v i e w s t a t i o n . A f t e r b e i n g g i v e n p o s i t i v e r e i n f o r c e m e n t f o r a few q u e s t i o n s t h e weaker s t u d e n t s would l e a v e t h i s a r e a s t a t i n g t h a t t h e y g o t t h e r i g h t answers and knew t h a t a r e a o f q u e s t i o n i n g . 5.4 A b i l i t y o f S t u d e n t s t o Improve M a t h e m a t i c a l C a l c u l a t i o n The s t u d e n t s i n t h e i n d e p e n d e n t r e v i e w g r o u p improved t h e i r a b i l i t y t o ma s t e r t h e m a t h e m a t i c a l c o m p u t a t i o n q u e s t i o n s a p p r o x i m a t e l y e q u a l t o t h e t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d g r o u p . However, t h i s was t h e weakest a r e a o f s u b j e c t m a s t e r y and c o n c e p t u a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g f o r a l l s t u d e n t s . The mean s c o r e s d i d not d i f f e r between gro u p s and a c r o s s t e a c h e r - s e t t e s t s . Even w i t h c o n t i n u a l r e h e a r s a l , one-on-one i n s t r u c t i o n and d i r e c t a s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e d a t a g a t h e r e d from t h e e x p e r i m e n t s t o make the d a t a r e l e v a n t , t h e s t u d e n t s f a i l e d t o p r o d u c e improved 91 c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f t h e v a l u e o f ma t h e m a t i c s t o q u a n t i f y r e s u l t s . The s t u d y h i g h l i g h t e d t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s t h e s t u d e n t s have i n m a s t e r i n g m a t h e m a t i c a l c o n c e p t s and d e v e l o p i n g p r o c e d u r e s f o r s o l v i n g m a t h e m a t i c a l p r o b l e m s . Comparing T a b l e 1 and T a b l e 5 e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s f o r t h e M a t h e m a t i c a l Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s shows a g r e a t d e a l o f d i f f e r e n c e . The Means v a r y (6.3 v s . 3.9) and t h e S.D. v a r y (11.2 v s . 3.5) w i t h s i m i l a r numbers. However, f o r t h e p o s t - t e s t s t h e r e s u l t s a r e v e r y s i m i l a r (Mean 5.2 v s . 5.1 and S.D. 6.2 v s . 6.2). The s t u d e n t s ' r e f u s a l t o a t t e m p t m a t h e m a t i c a l p r o b l e m s and t h e i r l a c k o f c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e i r answers d e m o n s t r a t e t h e i r i n a b i l i t y t o m a s t e r b o t h p r o c e s s and p r o c e d u r e s w i t h any c o n s i s t e n c y . T h i s i s b o r n e out i n e v e r y d a y t e a c h e r e x p e r i e n c e , as t h e s t u d e n t s o f t e n seem t o l o s e t h e a b i l i t y t o do t h e m a t h e m a t i c a l work t h e y a p p e a r e d t o have m a s t e r e d a s h o r t t i m e p r e v i o u s l y . The t a b l e s a l s o show t h a t p o s t - t e s t r e s u l t s c an be lo w e r t h a n p r e - t e s t r e s u l t s f o r t h e m a t h e m a t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n s . Some o f t h i s may be due t o s t u d e n t s " g i v i n g up" when t h e y c a n n o t master t h e c o n c e p t o r p r o c e d u r e s . A l s o , some o f t h e s t u d e n t s f o u n d the n i n e t e e n days a l o n g t i m e t o m a i n t a i n i n t e r e s t i n t h e s t u d y . The c o n s t a n t t e s t i n g was one o f t h e a r e a s o f c o m p l a i n t by t h e s t u d e n t s . The t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d r e v i e w r e l i e d e x t e n s i v e l y on a c h a l k b o a r d s t r a t e g y t o d e v e l o p t h e method o f a p p r o a c h t o q u a n t i f y i n g t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l d a t a u s i n g m a t h e m a t i c s . The t e a c h e r t h e n d i r e c t e d a group q u e s t i o n and 92 answer s e s s i o n t o c l a r i f y t h e p r o c e d u r e and p a p e r and p e n c i l r e h e a r s a l q u e s t i o n s were t h e n done by t h e s t u d e n t s . W h i l e t h e s t u d e n t s were d o i n g t h e q u e s t i o n s t h e y were g i v e n i n d i v i d u a l a s s i s t a n c e by t h e t e a c h e r on how to approach the p r o b l e m and on what t h e d a t a m e a s u r e d a c t u a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d . The work was c h e c k e d i n c l a s s and d i s c u s s i o n was d i r e c t e d b y t h e t e a c h e r . A f t e r t h e s t u d e n t s f i n i s h e d t h e s e q u e s t i o n s t h e y were r e v i e w e d and c o r r e c t e d . A l l s t u d e n t s u s e d c a l c u l a t o r s and were g i v e n a c h a r t , o u t l i n i n g i n p o i n t f o r m how t o p r o c e e d w i t h a p p l y i n g t h e f o r m u l a s i n a s t e p by s t e p manner. The i n d e p e n d e n t s t u d y g r o u p had a f i l m - s t r i p w i t h a u d i o b a c k u p d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h e s t e p by s t e p manner t o a p p l y t h e f o r m u l a s . E a c h s t u d e n t r e v i e w e d t h e f i l m - s t r i p and p r o c e e d e d t o t h e c o m p u t e r g r a p h i c s s t a t i o n . The e x p e r i m e n t was d e v e l o p e d by a c o m p u t e r g r a p h i c s p r o g r a m and e a c h d a t a p o i n t was h i g h l i g h t e d . The d a t a was t h e n a p p l i e d t o t h e f o r m u l a and t h e s t u d e n t s a n s w e r e d c o m p u t e r q u e s t i o n s t h a t gave them d i r e c t f e e d b a c k t o t h e i r r e s p o n s e . The s t u d e n t s u s e d t h e same r e v i e w q u e s t i o n s as t h e t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d r e v i e w g r o u p . W h i l e d o i n g t h e r e h e a r s a l q u e s t i o n s t h e s t u d e n t s c o u l d r e f e r t o t h e f i l m - s t r i p a nd t h e c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m s t o a s s i s t them i n m a s t e r i n g t h e q u e s t i o n s . A l m o s t a l l s t u d e n t s were s u c c e s s f u l i n d o i n g r e v i e w q u e s t i o n s and c o m p l e t i n g t h e c o m p u t e r d r i l l and p r a c t i c e s e s s i o n s . The s t u d e n t s d o i n g t h e i n d e p e n d e n t r e v i e w were v e r y p o s i t i v e a b o u t t h i s p r o c e d u r e and were v e r y w i l l i n g t o c o m p l e t e a l l a s s i g n m e n t s . Many s t u d e n t s f e l t t h e method was v e r y h e l p f u l t o them and e x p r e s s e d an i n t e r e s t i n h a v i n g i t u s e d i n t h e i r r e g u l a r s t u d i e s p r o g r a m s . I t was s u r p r i s i n g t o f i n d s u c h p o o r r e s p o n s e t o t h e m a t h e m a t i c a l q u e s t i o n s on t h e t e s t i n g f o r b o t h g r o u p s . I n t h e e a r l y t e s t i n g many s t u d e n t s r e f u s e d t o even t r y t h e m a t h e m a t i c a l q u e s t i o n s , b u t as t h e s t u d y p r o c e e d e d more s t u d e n t s a t t e m p t e d t o answer t h e q u e s t i o n s r e l a t e d t o m a t h e m a t i c s . The f o l l o w i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s made d u r i n g t h e s t u d y r e l a t e t o t h e m a t h e m a t i c a l l e s s o n s and t e s t i n g r e s u l t s : (a) Many s t u d e n t s were a b l e t o do t h e r e h e a r s a l q u e s t i o n s y e t r e f u s e d t o even t r y t h e q u e s t i o n s on t h e t e s t s . They e x p r e s s e d a f e a r o f b e i n g "wrong" o r " I c a n ' t do m a t h e m a t i c s " . (b) E v e n t h o u g h t h e y had c o n s i d e r a b l e i n s t r u c t i o n on t h e p r o c e d u r e t o f o l l o w , when t e s t e d t h e y c o u l d n o t remember t h e s e q u e n c e o f s t e p s t o u s e . ( c ) A number o f s t u d e n t s w o u l d w r i t e down t h e answer r e f u s i n g t o f o l l o w t h e s t e p b y s t e p method. I t i s p r o b a b l e t h e y do n o t w i s h t o be "wrong" a number o f t i m e s on e a c h q u e s t i o n . The s t u d e n t s a l s o have a s t r o n g b e l i e f t h a t as l o n g as t h e y g e t t h e " r i g h t " a n swer t h e y do n o t have t o do f u r t h e r r e v i e w o r r e c e i v e f u r t h e r c r i t i c i s m . (d) Many s t u d e n t s c o u l d n o t do t h e s i m p l e d i v i s i o n 94 r e q u i r e d e v e n w i t h t h e use o f t h e c a l c u l a t o r . (e) As t h e s t u d y p r o c e e d e d t h e s t u d e n t s o f t e n g o t t h e t h r e e f o r m u l a s c o n f u s e d . They d i s p l a y e d an i n a b i l i t y t o comprehend t h a t t h e f o r m u l a s had a s p e c i f i c p u r p o s e f o r t h a t p a r t i c u l a r e x p e r i m e n t . ( f ) Many s t u d e n t s were u n a b l e t o comprehend t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e u n i t s a s s i g n e d t o t h e d a t a . They were u n a b l e t o comprehend t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f a measurement a s s i g n e d i n c e n t i m e t e r s , t e m p e r a t u r e i n d e g r e e s and volume as a c u b i c measure. As a g r o u p a l m o s t a l l s t u d e n t s a p p e a r t o l a c k a v i s u a l image o f t h e v a l u e o f t h e d a t a m e a s u r e d d u r i n g t h e e x p e r i m e n t . The s t u d e n t s r e f u s e d t o a t t e m p t m a t h e m a t i c a l p r o b l e m s and t h e i r l a c k o f c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e i r a n s w e r s i n d i c a t e s m a j o r d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t h e a r e a s o f q u a n t i f y i n g r e s u l t s and u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f m a t h e m a t i c a l d a t a . The i n d e p e n d e n t s t u d y p r o g r a m was deemed t o be v a l u a b l e i n m o t i v a t i n g s t u d e n t s t o t r y a new a p p r o a c h b u t a f a r more s o p h i s t i c a t e d p r o c e d u r e and much more r e s e a r c h i s r e q u i r e d t o make s i g n i f i c a n t i m p r o v e m e n t s i n t h e s t u d e n t s ' a b i l i t y t o m a s t e r t h e p r o c e s s i n v o l v e d i n q u a n t i f y i n g d a t a u s i n g a f o r m u l a . 95 5.5 A b i l i t y o f S t u d e n t s t o Improve O v e r a l l Mean S c o r e Upon c o m p a r i n g t h e p o s t - t e s t r e s u l t s t h e s t u d e n t s i n t h e i n d e p e n d e n t s t u d y g r o u p f a i l e d t o r e g i s t e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r mean s c o r e s on t h e c o m p r e h e n s i v e e v a l u a t i o n t h a n t h e t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d s t u d y g r o u p . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t a t i s t i c a l p r o c e d u r e was t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e r e were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t mean d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e p r e - and t h e p o s t - t e s t s f o r e a c h i n d i v i d u a l g r o u p . The s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l ( a l p h a ) was s e t a t t h e .05 l e v e l . 5.6 E f f e c t i v e n e s s o f S p e c i a l i z e d R e s o u r c e M a t e r i a l s The t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d s t u d e n t g r o u p was v e r y f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r f o r m o f r e v i e w and welcomed t h e c h a n c e t o a s k q u e s t i o n s f o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n d u r i n g t h e r e v i e w . They were v e r y r e c e p t i v e t o one-on-one a s s i s t a n c e when w o r k i n g w i t h t h e m a t h e m a t i c a l q u e s t i o n s . T h i s i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g as t h e y have most o f t h e i r i n s t r u c t i o n p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s s t r a t e g y f o r b o t h r e v i e w and c l a s s r o o m l e s s o n s . The s t u d e n t s i n t h e i n d e p e n d e n t s t u d y g r o u p were a b l e t o r e a d i l y a p p l y t h e m s e l v e s t o u s i n g t h e f o u r d i f f e r e n t f o r m s o f r e s o u r c e m a t e r i a l . The f o l l o w i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s were made d u r i n g t h e r e v i e w s e s s i o n s : (a) A f t e r t h e f i r s t l e s s o n t h e s t u d e n t s showed a p r e f e r e n c e f o r s l i d e p r e s e n t a t i o n s and t h e f i l m - s t r i p p r e s e n t a t i o n s w i t h a u d i o s u p p o r t . (b) When a t t e m p t i n g t h e p a p e r and p e n c i l r e v i e w q u e s t i o n s t h e y c o n s i s t e n t l y r e f e r r e d t o t h e f i l m - s t r i p s f o r r e f e r e n c e , p a r t i c u l a r l y on t h e p r o c e d u r e s f o r d o i n g t h e m a t h e m a t i c a l q u e s t i o n s . ( c ) A f t e r one o r two r e v i e w s e s s i o n s many s t u d e n t s s w i t c h e d t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e o f r e s o u r c e t o t h e c o m p u t e r s t a t i o n s and t h e c o m p u t e r d r i l l and p r a c t i c e q u e s t i o n s . However, on t h e c o m p u t e r s t a t i o n s t h e y e x p e r i e n c e d d i f f i c u l t y c h o o s i n g t h e c o r r e c t f o r m u l a on t h e f i n a l r e v i e w . T h i s p r o g r a m c o u l d p o s s i b l y be r e w r i t t e n t o a v o i d c o n f u s i o n . Computer i n s t r u c t i o n s must be v e r y c l e a r o r s t u d e n t s w i l l have a h a r d e r t i m e c o m p e n s a t i n g f o r e r r o r s t h a n t h e y a p p e a r t o have on p a p e r r e s o u r c e m a t e r i a l s . (d) The s t u d e n t s d o i n g i n d e p e n d e n t s t u d y t e n d e d t o a s k f e w e r q u e s t i o n s o f i n s t r u c t o r s when d o i n g t h e e x p e r i m e n t s t h a n t h o s e s t u d e n t s on t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d r e v i e w s . The i n d e p e n d e n t s t u d y s t u d e n t s were more a p t t o r e f e r t o t h e a i d s h e e t s and s e a r c h o u t a n s w e r s f o r t h e m s e l v e s . (e) The s t u d e n t s d o i n g t h e i n d e p e n d e n t s t u d y were v e r y p o s i t i v e a b o u t t h e e x p e r i e n c e , c l a i m i n g i t was h e l p f u l i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e work. T h i s p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e , h o w e v e r , d i d n o t i m p r o v e t h e s t u d e n t s ' t e s t s c o r e s . A l t h o u g h t h e i n c r e a s e d m o t i v a t i o n and i n t e r e s t o f s t u d e n t s i s a s u b j e c t i v e m e a sure, t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f s p e c i f i c r e s o u r c e m a t e r i a l i s w o r t h f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . T h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e s u p p o r t f o r t h i s a p p r o a c h i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e and one o f t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e s t u d y i n d e v e l o p i n g i n c r e a s e d v i s u a l i m a g e r y by a s s o c i a t i o n o f names and f u n c t i o n s o f e q u i p m e n t w i t h d i r e c t p i c t o r i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s d i d a p p e a r t o m o t i v a t e t h e s t u d e n t s . 5.7 E f f e c t i v e n e s s o f S e q u e n t i a l and H i e r a c h i c a l I n s t r u c t i o n T h e r e was no s p e c i f i c e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f o r g a n i z i n g t h e l e s s o n s and r e v i e w s i n t h i s f o r m a t . The w e i g h t o f e v i d e n c e f r o m t h e l i t e r a t u r e , ( B l o c k , 1971 & 1974; Bloom and B l o c k , 1971; C l a r k e t a l . 1984; L u f t i n g , 1982 and Adelman, 1976) w o u l d s u g g e s t t h e i n d e p e n d e n t s t r a t e g i e s u s e d i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a r e v a l u a b l e i n a s s i s t i n g s u b j e c t m a s t e r y f o r a l l s t u d e n t s . B o t h g r o u p s o f s t u d e n t s i n t h e s t u d y o b t a i n e d an o v e r a l l i n c r e a s e i n s u b j e c t mean s c o r e s on t h e c o m p r e h e n s i v e t e s t and some o f t h i s s u c c e s s may be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e d e s i g n o f l e s s o n m a t e r i a l i n an h i e r a c h i c a l and s e q u e n t i a l f o r m a t . The d e s i g n o f t h e v i s u a l a i d s and c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m s r e q u i r e d o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e m a t e r i a l i n a s e q u e n t i a l n a t u r e . A l m o s t a l l c o u r s e s t a u g h t a t t h e s c h o o l f o l l o w s t r a t e g i e s u s i n g methods o f p r e s e n t a t i o n t h a t f o l l o w a s e q u e n t i a l l e s s o n f o r m a t . 98 5.8 E f f e c t i v e n e s s o f S p e c i a l R e s o u r c e Room The r e s o u r c e room l a y o u t was b a s e d on r e s e a r c h work done by H.S. Adelman (1972). He c l a i m e d t h e development o f s p e c i f i c r e s o u r c e s and a r e s o u r c e room d e s i g n e d t o f a c i l i t a t e d i f f e r e n t i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s improved t h e s u b j e c t m a s t e r y o f many slow l e a r n e r s t u d e n t s . T h i s s t u d y f a i l e d t o r e p l i c a t e h i s r e s u l t s . Adelman's a p p l i c a t i o n o f a s p e c i f i c a l l y d e s i g n e d r e s o u r c e room was a p p l i e d t o s t u d e n t s f o r a much l o n g e r t i m e t h a n i n t h i s s t u d y ; however, o b s e r v a t i o n d u r i n g t h i s s t u d y would n o t j u s t i f y e x t e n s i v e e x p e n d i t u r e i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n . The b e s t way t o use s p e c i a l r e s o u r c e m a t e r i a l may be t o s i t u a t e i t w i t h i n t h e c l a s s r o o m e n v i r o n m e n t , f o r use by t h e t e a c h e r , w i t h s t u d e n t s t h a t t h e t e a c h e r o b s e r v e s would b e n e f i t from i n d e p e n d e n t s t u d y . Some s t u d e n t s r e s p o n d e d v e r y f a v o u r a b l y t o i n d e p e n d e n t r e v i e w s t r a t e g i e s b u t much more r e s e a r c h would be r e q u i r e d t o a s c e r t a i n what t y p e o f s t u d e n t s b e n e f i t from i n d e p e n d e n t s t u d y s t r a t e g i e s . 5.9 L i m i t a t i o n o f S t u d y The f o l l o w i n g l i m i t a t i o n s e n c o u n t e r e d d u r i n g t h e s t u d y s h o u l d be t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n b e f o r e t h e s t u d y r e s u l t s can be g e n e r a l i z e d t o t h e v o c a t i o n a l s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n . T h i s s t u d y was c o n d u c t e d i n t h e l a s t two weeks o f May, 1987. T h i s p r o v e d t o be a d i f f i c u l t t i m e t o c a r r y o ut a s c h o o l s t u d y i n v o l v i n g o v e r h a l f t h e g r a d e 9 s t u d e n t body. The 99 s t u d e n t s were p r e p a r i n g f o r f i n a l t e s t i n g p r i o r t o t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e i r f i r s t y e a r o f h i g h s c h o o l and many s t u d e n t s were p r e s s u r e d by l i m i t e d t i m e t o f i n i s h shop p r o j e c t s . T h e r e a r e a l s o a s i g n i f i c a n t number o f a c t i v i t i e s c r o w d e d i n t o t h e f i n a l few weeks o f s c h o o l , s u c h as s p o r t s e v e n t s , f i e l d t r i p s and o u t d o o r a c t i v i t y p r o g r a m s . These c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r e s t s and p r e s s u r e s o f t e n made i t d i f f i c u l t f o r t h e s t u d e n t s t o be i n a l l s e s s i o n s o f t h e l e s s o n s and r e v i e w s . The o r i g i n a l p l a n was t o c o m p l e t e a l l l e s s o n s and r e v i e w s i n f o u r t e e n d a y s b u t t h i s was n o t enough t i m e f o r t h e s t u d y . N i n e t e e n d a y s were r e q u i r e d and d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d many s t u d e n t s l o s t i n t e r e s t and m o t i v a t i o n as t h e s t u d y made i n c r e a s i n g demands on t h e i r t i m e and r e q u i r e d them t o d r o p o u t o f o t h e r s c h o o l a c t i v i t i e s . The c o n s t a n t t e s t - r e t e s t model was c l e a r l y a l i m i t a t i o n f o r t h i s s t u d y . T h i s f o r m o f t e s t i n g t o o k a g r e a t d e a l o f t i m e , s e v e n t e s t s i n n i n e t e e n d a y s , and many s t u d e n t s r e s i s t e d t h e f r e q u e n t t e s t i n g s e s s i o n s . Many o f t h e s t u d e n t s i n t h e s t u d y have n o t been s u c c e s s f u l a t w r i t i n g t e s t s and a more s u b j e c t i v e t y p e o f e v a l u a t i o n w o u l d p o s s i b l y p r o v i d e more s i g n i f i c a n t e v a l u a t i o n s t h a n t h e model u s e d f o r t h i s s t u d y . Many a r t i c l e s i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w r e c o r d e d p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s f o r i n d e p e n d e n t i n s t r u c t i o n . T h i s was g e n e r a l l y t r u e f o r t h e a r e a s o f memory and c o m p r e h e n s i o n i n t h i s s t u d y . The a b i l i t y t o q u a n t i f y r e s u l t s i n a m a t h e m a t i c a l f o r m and make 100 p r e d i c t i o n s was lower t h a n many o f the r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s . However, e d u c a t i o n a l t e s t i n g i n mat h e m a t i c s i s o f t e n d e r i v e d d i r e c t l y from b a s i c c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f m a t h e m a t i c a l q u e s t i o n s . H a v i n g t o a p p l y e x p e r i m e n t a l d a t a from t e s t i n g t o m a t h e m a t i c a l f o r m u l a s and make p r e d i c t i o n s o f f u t u r e r e s u l t s i s more complex and, t h e r e f o r e , t h e lo w e r s t u d e n t s c o r e s i n t h i s a r e a may be an a c c u r a t e i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e s t u d e n t s ' a b i l i t y i n t h e s e a r e a s . 5.10 S u g g e s t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y d i d n o t i n d i c a t e t h a t i n d e p e n d e n t r e v i e w s t r a t e g i e s had any adv a n t a g e o v e r t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d r e v i e w s . T h e r e i s a need t o do f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h on i n d e p e n d e n t s t u d y t o be us e d i n s i t u a t i o n s where s t u d e n t s c a n n o t be p r o v i d e d w i t h i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r a t t e n t i o n . These s i t u a t i o n s c a n be home s t u d y , summer s c h o o l when t e a c h e r r e s o u r c e s a r e more l i m i t e d and f o r c r e d i t make-up c o u r s e s t h a t a r e n o t o f f e r e d due t o low e n r o l m e n t . The f o l l o w i n g a r e s u g g e s t i o n s , which may a s s i s t i n t h e d e s i g n and w i t h p r o c e d u r e s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h , f o c u s i n g on t h e v a l u e o f i n d e p e n d e n t s t u d y t e c h n i q u e s f o r s t u d e n t s , p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h i s s t u d y . 1. F o l l o w - u p s t u d i e s s h o u l d i n c l u d e a c o m p r e h e n s i v e t r a i n i n g program f o r t h e s t u d e n t s on how t o p r o c e e d w i t h i n d e p e n d e n t s t u d y s t r a t e g i e s . The s t u d e n t s i n t h e s t u d y r e q u i r e more t i m e , p r a c t i c e and i n s t r u c t i o n t o d e v e l o p 101 i n d e p e n d e n t s t u d y s k i l l s t h a n was p r o v i d e d f o r i n t h i s s t u d y . Many s t u d e n t s have a h i s t o r y o f l a c k o f c o n f i d e n c e i n a d a p t i n g t o new s i t u a t i o n s , which was e v i d e n t d u r i n g t h e s t u d y . 2. F o l l o w - u p s t u d i e s must d e v e l o p more s o p h i s t i c a t e d t e s t i n g t e c h n i q u e s t h a n t h o s e a p p l i e d t o t h i s s t u d y . A l t h o u g h t h e l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e d t h e t e c h n i q u e s u s e d were v a l i d , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h e s t u d e n t s t e s t e d i n t h e s t u d i e s done i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w had more s u c c e s s a t w r i t i n g t e s t s and e x a m i n a t i o n s t h a n v o c a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s . A form o f c o n t i n u o u s t e s t i n g w h i l e t h e s t u d e n t s a r e i n v o l v e d i n t h e programs would be one s t r a t e g y o f e v a l u a t i o n worth p u r s u i n g . The most a c c u r a t e form o f r e s p o n s e from v o c a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s a p p e a r e d t o be v e r b a l q u e s t i o n i n g . V e r b a l q u e s t i o n i n g s t r a t e g i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h p r o m p t i n g from t h e i n s t r u c t o r , may i n d i c a t e more a c c u r a t e l y how much c o m p r e h e n s i o n th e s t u d e n t r e a l l y has m a s t e r e d . The development o f v a l i d v e r b a l / r e s p o n s e t e s t i n g t o r e p l a c e p a p e r and p e n c i l t e s t i n g would be o f v a l u e i n a s s e s s i n g a more a c c u r a t e r e a d i n g o f s t u d e n t knowledge. 3. F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h s h o u l d c o n s i d e r a l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d y f o r m a t . Comparing f o u r o r f i v e c l a s s e s o v e r a f u l l program may p r o v i d e t h e s t u d e n t s w i t h t i m e t o d e v e l o p t h e c o m p e t e n c i e s r e q u i r e d f o r i n d e p e n d e n t s t u d y t e c h n i q u e s . T h i s s t u d y , c o n d u c t e d i n n i n e t e e n d a y s , put c o n s i d e r a b l e p r e s s u r e on t h e s t u d e n t s t o c o m p l e t e work when t h e y were a l s o i n t h e l a s t few weeks o f e v a l u a t i o n s f o r t h e i r r e g u l a r program. 102 4. Some s t u d e n t s r e s p o n d e d w e l l t o t h e i n d e p e n d e n t study-f o r m a t and a c u r s o r y e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e s c o r e s o f t h e s e s t u d e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h e y were t h e more c a p a b l e s t u d e n t s i n terms o f h a v i n g m a s t e r e d b a s i c s k i l l s . F o l l o w - u p s t u d i e s t o i d e n t i f y t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f v o c a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s who c o u l d b e n e f i t from i n d e p e n d e n t s t u d y would be o f v a l u e f o r t h e d e s i g n o f s c h o o l programs. 5. T h i s s t u d y , as do most r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l methods, f o c u s e s on t h e b a s i c s k i l l a r e a s o f m a t h e m a t i c s , r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g . T h i s i s t h e weakest a r e a o f a b i l i t y f o r v o c a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s and f o l l o w - u p s t u d i e s may b e n e f i t from t e s t i n g t h e a b i l i t y o f s t u d e n t s t o m a s t e r v o c a t i o n a l s u b j e c t m a t e r i a l s . T h i s i s t h e a r e a o f h i g h e s t m o t i v a t i o n and s u c c e s s f o r t h e s e s t u d e n t s and a p p l y i n g i n d e p e n d e n t s t u d y t e c h n i q u e s t o t h e s e a r e a s may be o f val\je t o t e a c h e r s i n v o c a t i o n a l programs. A l t h o u g h t h e y a r e not a homogeneous p o p u l a t i o n , t h i s r e l a t e s t o major a r e a s o f weakness i n s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n s i d e n t i f i e d as " l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d " . 6. A l t h o u g h t h e t e a c h e r s a t t e m p t e d t o be i m p a r t i a l , i t may be a r g u e d t h a t i t i s i n t h e i r b e s t i n t e r e s t t o have t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d s t u d i e s s u p e r i o r t o i n d e p e n d e n t s t u d y . T e a c h e r s may have s t r e s s e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e i r r e v i e w s u b j e c t i v e l y and b e c a u s e s t u d e n t s a r e committed t o t h e t e a c h e r t h e y may have r e s p o n d e d b e t t e r t h a n t h e y n o r m a l l y would have under c l a s s r o o m c i r c u m s t a n c e s . F u t u r e d e s i g n s f o r r e s e a r c h 103 s h o u l d f a c i l i t a t e n e u t r a l i t y on t h e p a r t o f t h e t e a c h e r s . BIBLIOGRAPHY 104 Adelman, H. S. ( 1 9 7 6 ) . C o n c e p t u a l i z i n g a P e r s o n a l P r e p a r a t i o n P r o g r a m . J o u r n a l o f L e a r n i n g D i s a b i l i t i e s , 6.(9), 570-576 . A delman, H. S. ( 1 9 7 9 ) . D i a g n o s t i c C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f LD: A P r a c t i c a l N e c e s s i t y and a P r o c e d u r a l P r o b l e m . L e a r n i n g  D i s a b i l i t i e s Q u a r t e r l y , 2_(2), 55-62. Adelman, H. S. ( 1 9 7 1 ) . L e a r n i n g P r o b l e m s : P a r t I : An I n t e r a c t i o n a l V i e w o f C a u s a l i t y . A c a d e m i c T h e r a p y  Q u a r t e r l y . 6, 117-123. Adelman, H. S. ( 1 9 7 1 ) . L e a r n i n g P r o b l e m s : P a r t I I : A S e q u e n t i a l and H i e r a r c h i c a l A p p r o a c h t o I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and C o r r e c t i o n . A c a d e m i c T h e r a p y Q u a r t e r l y , 6 ( 3 ) , 287-292. Adelman, H. S., & T a y l o r , L. ( 1 9 8 6 ) . The P r o b l e m s o f D e f i n i t i o n and D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and t h e Need f o r a C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Schema. J o u r n a l o f L e a r n i n g  D i s a b i l i t i e s , 19.(9), 514-520. Adelman, H. S. ( 1 9 7 1 ) . The Not So S p e c i f i c L e a r n i n g D i s a b l e d P o p u l a t i o n . E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n , 37, 528-533. Adelman, H. S. ( 1 9 7 2 ) . The R e s o u r c e C o n c e p t : B i g g e r t h a n a Room. J o u r n a l o f S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n , 6_( 4 ) , 371-377. Adelman, H. S., & T a y l o r , L. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . E n h a n c i n g M o t i v a t i o n f o r O v e r c o m i n g L e a r n i n g and B e h a v i o r a l P r o b l e m s . J o u r n a l o f  L e a r n i n g D i s a b i l i t i e s , 1_3_( 7 ) , 47-55. B e n d e r , B. G., & L e v i n , J . R. ( 1 9 7 7 ) . S t r a t e g i e s i n R e a d i n g  C o m p r e h e n s i o n : V I I I . P i c t u r e s , Imagery and R e t a r d e d  C h i l d r e n ' s S t o r y R e c a l l . W i s c o n s i n U n i v . , M a d i s o n . R e s e a r c h and D e v e l o p m e n t C e n t e r f o r C o g n i t i v e L e a r n i n g , 12-15. (ERIC Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. ED 152 031) B l o c k , J . H. ( e d . ) . ( 1 9 7 1 ) . M a s t e r y L e a r n i n g T h e o r y and P r a c t i c e w i t h s e l e c t e d p a p e r s by A i r a s i a n P., Bloom, B.S., & C a r r o l l , J.B. 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E m p i r i c a l V a l i d a t i o n o f C r i t e r i o n - R e f e r e n c e d T e s t s . J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l  R e s e a r c h , 7_8 ( 4 ) , 203-209. 108 T o r g e s e n , J . K. ( 1 9 7 7 ) . The R o l e o f N o n s p e c i f i c F a c t o r s i n t h e T ask P e r f o r m a n c e o f L e a r n i n g D i s a b l e d C h i l d r e n : A T h e o r e t i c a l A s s e s s m e n t . J o u r n a l o f L e a r n i n g  D i s a b i l i t i e s , 10.(1), 33-37. V o c k e l l , E. L., & J a c o b s o n , V. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . S o u r c e s o f I n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e L e a r n i n g D i s a b i l i t i e s and S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n L i t e r a t u r e . J o u r n a l o f L e a r n i n g D i s a b i l i t i e s , 6, 83-88. Washburne, C. W. ( 1 9 2 2 ) . E d u c a t i o n a l M e a s u r e m e n t s as a Key t o I n d i v i d u a l i z i n g I n s t r u c t i o n and P r o m o t i o n s . J o u r n a l o f  E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , 5_, 195-206. W i l s o n , L., Cone, T., B r a d l e y , C , & R e e s e , J . ( 1 9 8 6 ) . The C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f L e a r n i n g D i s a b l e d and O t h e r H a n d i c a p p e d S t u d e n t s R e f e r r e d f o r E v a l u a t i o n i n t h e S t a t e o f Iowa. J o u r n a l o f L e a r n i n g D i s a b i l i t i e s , 1 9(9) , 553-557. Wong, B. ( 1 9 7 9 ) . The R o l e o f T h e o r y i n L e a r n i n g D i s a b i l i t i e s R e s e a r c h P a r t I I . A S e l e c t i v e R e v i e w o f C u r r e n t T h e o r i e s o f L e a r n i n g and R e a d i n g D i s a b i l i t i e s . J o u r n a l o f  L e a r n i n g D i s a b i l i t i e s , 12.(10), 15-24. 109 APPENDIX I EXAMPLES OF PSYCHO-EDUCATIONAL ASSESSMENT EVALUATIONS OF SAMPLE AND POPULATION (a) P s y c h o - e d u c a t i o n a l a s s e s s m e n t i n s t r u m e n t s u s e d t o a s s e s s s t u d e n t s f o r v o c a t i o n a l s c h o o l s (b) Examples o f i n d e p e n d e n t a s s e s s m e n t summary t e s t r e s u l t s s h e e t s (c) Example o f an a d m i s s i o n p l a c e m e n t l e t t e r P s y c h o - E d u c a t i o n a l T e s t i n g I n s t r u m e n t s u s e d f o r  V o c a t i o n a l A d m i s s i o n : ( i ) WISC-R - t h i s i s an i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t a s s e s s m e n t a d m i n i s t e r e d by a q u a l i f i e d s c h o o l p s y c h o l o g i s t . T h i s i s r e p o r t e d on the form a s : Fs - f u l l s c a l e I.Q. V - v e r b a l I.Q. P - P e r f o r m a n c e VERBAL TESTS PERFORMANCE T E S T S I n f o r m a t i o n P i c t u r e c o m p l e t i o n S i m i l a r i t i e s P i c t u r e a r r angement A r i t h m e t i c B l o c k D e s i g n V o c a b u l a r y O b j e c t a s s e m b l y Comprehension C o d i n g D i g i t Span C.C.A.T. - T h i s i s o f t e n a d m i n i s t e r e d as a group t e s t and i s r e p o r t e d i n s t a n i n e s : v = v e r b a l ; p = p e r f o r m a n c e ; s = s u b t e s t s f u l l Monroe Sherman R e a d i n g A p t i t u d e and A c h i e v e m ent T e s t : T h i s i s s c o r e d i n g r a d e e q u i v a l e n t s W.R.A.T. - t h i s i s an a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t f o r g r a d i n g o f : s p e l l i n g ; r e a d i n g ; a r i t h m e t i c T h i s i s s c o r e d i n grade e q u i v a l e n t s S e n t e n c e c o m p l e t i o n t e s t s and t h e Raven P r o g r e s s i v e M a t r i c e s a r e o f t e n u s e d by p s y c h o l o g i s t s d o i n g i n d i v i d u a l a s s e s s m e n t s . fo * THE PEEL BOARD OF EDUCATION BE/LD PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT BCs C SUMMARY OF TEST RESULTS FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL DEPARTMENT F I L E ONLY Name B i r t h d a t e : D a t e S c h o o l P l a c e m e n t P r e v i o u s T e s t s C. A, V e r b a l P e r f F u l l M.A. I.Q. 1 ^ I.Q. WPPSI V e r b a l & V i s u m o t o r M i d - A v e r a g e 1976 WISC-R N o n - V e r b a l A v e r a g e Range V e r b a l Low A v e r a g e Wide Range A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t R e a d i n g S p e l l i n g - g r a d e e q u i v a l e n t A r i t h m e t i c - g r a d e e q u i v a l e n t P r e s e n t T e s t ( s ) C. A, I.Q, I.Q. I.Q. W e c h s l e r I n t e l l i g e n c e  S c a l e f o r C h i l d r e n  ( r e v i s ed) V e r b a l t e s t s I n f o r m a t i o n S i m i l a r i t i e s S c a l e d s c o r e s A r i t h m e t i c o f Ten a r e a v e r a g e V o c a b u l a r y C o m p r e h e n s i o n ( D i g i t Span) P e r f o r m a n c e T e s t s P i c t u r e c o m p l e t i o n P i c t u r e a r r a n g e m e n t B l o c k d e s i g n O b j e c t a s s e m b l y C o d i n g (Mazes) M.A, (o fc STUDENT POPULATION PROFILE H e a d i n g s f o r d e s c r i b i n g P o p u l a t i o n D a t a S t u d e n t Name: S t u d e n t Number Age: Sex: E x c e p t i o n a l i t y L a b e l : Names o f a l l s t u d e n t s . Grouped by c l a s s and by t r e a t m e n t A o r B : C r o s s r e f e r e n c e d t o d a t a c o l l e c t i o n s h e e t s Age o f s t u d e n t i n y e a r s and months M a l e o r Female : S l o w L e a n e r - (SL) G e n e r a l L e a r n i n g D i s a b l e d (GLD) W i t h d r a w a l A s s i s t a n c e (W) B e h a v i o r a l (B) S p e c i f i c L e a r n i n g D i s a b i l i t y (SLD) O p p o r t u n i t y C l a s s ( I n t Op) I G L D - I n t e r m e d i a t e G e n e r a l L e a r n i n g D i s a b l e d C l a s s r o o m S e t t i n g S p e c i a l R e a d i n g C l a s s (SRC) E n g l i s h as a S e c o n d Language (ESL) C o m m u n i c a t i o n s E x c e p t i o n a l i t y (Exc-com) I n t e l l e c t u a l E x c e p t i o n a l i t y ( E x c - I n ) W.I.S.C. S c o r e s ( i n p e r c e n t i l e s ) C . A . A . T . ( i n s t a i n i n e s ) F u l l S c o r e (FS) V e r b a l (V) P e r f o r m a n c e (P) V e r b a l (v) Q u a n t i t a t i v e (q) S p a c i a l ( s ) Grade e q u i v a l e n t S c o r e s M a t h e m a t i c s (M) ( g r a d e l e v e l ) R e a d i n g (R) APPENDIX I I CORRELATION OF PSYCHO-EDUCATIONAL VALUATION SCORES FOR STUDENTS PARTICIPATING IN THE STUDY B a c k g r o u n d t o m a t e r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t D e s c r i p t i o n and e x a m p l e s o f r e v i e w m a t e r i a l s ( i ) v i d e o p r e s e n t a t i o n ( i i ) s l i d e p r o g r a m ( i i i ) f i l m - s t r i p p r o g r a m ( i v ) d r i l l and p r a c t i c e c o m p u t e r r e v i e w (v) p a p e r and p e n c i l r e v i e w O r g a n i z a t i o n a l c h a r t o f r e v i e w room l a y o u t / / / (A) B a c k g r o u n d t o R e v i e w M a t e r i a l D e v e l o p m e n t : The i n d i v i d u a l r e v i e w was d e s i g n e d t o c o n s o l i d a t e s t u d e n t k n o w l e d g e on a l l a s p e c t s o f t h e s c i e n c e e x p e r i m e n t s and r e l a t e d m a t h e m a t i c s . The f o r m a t i v e t e s t s p r o v i d e d d a t a t o a s s i s t i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e a r e a s o f weakness o f each s t u d e n t and t o d i r e c t him t o r e v i e w s i t u a t i o n s t h a t w o u l d a p p l y t h e a p p r o p r i a t e e d u c a t i o n a l c o r r e c t i v e s . A l l r e v i e w m a t e r i a l p r o v i d e d v i s u a l , a u d i o and d r i l l and p r a c t i c e c o m p o n e n t s . The r e v i e w s were d e s i g n e d t o be s i t u a t i o n a l t o t h e s p e c i f i c c l a s s r o o m s and t o be as f o c u s e d as p o s s i b l e f o r t h e s l o w l e a r n e r s t u d e n t . D e s c r i p t i o n o f R e v i e w M a t e r i a l : ( i ) V i d e o p r e s e n t a t i o n # E d u c a t i o n a l p u r p o s e ... E a c h e x p e r i m e n t was v i d e o t a p e d w i t h an a u d i t o r y e x p l a n a t i o n f o c u s i n g on "how t o " c o n d u c t t h e e x p e r i m e n t and what t o o b s e r v e . The e x p e r i m e n t was done i n t h e a c t u a l s c i e n c e l a b o r a t o r y and u s i n g i d e n t i c a l e q u i p m e n t as t h a t u s e d by t h e s t u d e n t s when t h e y d i d t h e e x p e r i m e n t . V i d e o t e c h n i q u e s , u s i n g c l o s e - u p s and s l o w m o t i o n , were e m p l o y e d i n o r d e r t o f o c u s on t h e c r i t i c a l e x p e r i m e n t a l o b s e r v a t i o n s . Each v i d e o was f o u r t o f i v e m i n u t e s i n l e n g t h . * E d u c a t i o n a l p u r p o s e ... t h i s r e v i e w p r o v i d e d a (1^-g e n e r a l o v e r v i e w o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t and a s s i s t e d t h e s t u d e n t w i t h h i s r e c a l l o f h i s o b s e r v a t i o n s when he c o n d u c t e d t h e e x p e r i m e n t , ( i i ) S l i d e P r o g r a m : P u r p o s e o f s l i d e p r o g r a m - t o f o c u s t h e s t u d e n t ' s c o n c e n t r a t i o n on t h e names o f p a r t s o f s c i e n t i f i c e q u i p m e n t , t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f e x p e r i m e n t a l s e t - u p and t h e f u n c t i o n a l use o f e a c h p i e c e o f e q u i p m e n t . A s e r i e s o f s l i d e s were o r g a n i z e d s h o w i n g e a c h p a r t o f e q u i p m e n t and t h e s e t - u p o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l e q u i p m e n t . An a u d i o t a p e was made t o s e q u e n c e w i t h t h e s l i d e p r e s e n t a t i o n w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t r e v i e w e d . The a u d i o t a p e s were made by t h e two i n s t r u c t o r s and t h e y f o c u s e d t h e i r comments on t h e r e v i e w o f t h e s c i e n t i f i c e q u i p m e n t and t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l s e t - u p . A s l i d e p r e s e n t a t i o n c o u l d have b e t w e e n 20-30 s l i d e s and a u d i o comment. The c h o i c e o f w h e t h e r a s t u d e n t r e c e i v e d a l o n g p r e s e n t a t i o n o r a s h o r t one was made as a r e s u l t o f t h e memory component f r o m h i s f o r m a t i v e t e s t s . The s l i d e p r o g r a m u s u a l l y r e q u i r e d f o u r t o s e v e n m i n u t e s f o r a s t u d e n t r e v i e w . ( i i i ) F i l m - s t r i p P r o g r a m : P u r p o s e o f F i l m - s t r i p R e v i e w - e a c h e x p e r i m e n t had a f i l m - s t r i p , w h i c h o u t l i n e d a r e v i e w o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l s e t - u p f o c u s i n g on t h e measurements o f t i m e , t e m p e r a t u r e and l e n g t h , w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t s were t o r e c o r d . An a u d i o r e v i e w t a p e was s e q u e n c e d t o e x p l a i n "how t o " t a k e t h e measurements and t h e " p r o c e d u r e s " t o r e c o r d t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s . The r e v i e w p r o g r a m t h e n p r o c e e d e d t o a s t e p - b y - s t e p r e v i e w w i t h a u d i o b a c k - u p o f e a c h s t e p i n t h e p r o c e d u r e u s e d t o c a l c u l a t e t h e m a t h e m a t i c a l r e s u l t s o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t . E a c h f i l m - s t r i p was 16-18 f r a m e s w i t h a u d i o t a p e s made by t h e t e a c h e r s . S t u d e n t s s p e n t between 8-15 m i n u t e s on t h i s a r e a o f t h e r e v i e w w i t h many s t u d e n t s r e p e a t i n g t h i s a r e a f o r added r e i n f o r c e m e n t . ( i v ) Computer D r i l l & P r a c t i c e R e v i e w : P u r p o s e o f Computer R e v i e w - The c o m p u t e r r e v i e w u s e d a p r o g r a m c a l l e d "Windows" d e s i g n e d t o a s s i s t t h e s t u d e n t s t o a c c u r a t e l y do t h e a c t u a l , m a t h e m a t i c a l c a l c u l a t i o n s f r o m g i v e n e x p e r i m e n t a l s i t u a t i o n s . ni The computer r e s p o n d e d t o s t u d e n t r e q u e s t s f o r a s s i s t a n c e by d e m o n s t r a t i n g g r a p h i c e x p e r i m e n t s o f h e a t and e x p a n s i o n and p r o m p t i n g s t u d e n t s a t v a r i o u s s t a g e s o f t h e i r p e r f o r m i n g t h e m a t h e m a t i c a l c a l c u l a t i o n s . S t u d e n t s were c o n f r o n t e d w i t h f o u r t o f i v e s e t s o f e x p e r i m e n t a l d a t a and r e c e i v e d a " p r i n t - o u t " o f t h e i r r e s p o n s e s . Most s t u d e n t s s p e n t 15 t o 20 m i n u t e s on t h i s p o r t i o n o f t h e r e v i e w . P aper & P e n c i l Review: Pu r p o s e o f Paper & P e n c i l Review - Paper and p e n c i l r e v i e w p r o v i d e d t h e s t u d e n t w i t h e x p e r i m e n t a l d a t a t o a s s i s t them i n making t h e m a t h e m a t i c a l c a l c u l a t i o n s r e q u i r e d f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t s . The r e v i e w q u e s t i o n s h e e t s p r o v i d e d t h e d a t a . S t u d e n t s c o u l d make c a l c u l a t i o n s on page 1. The pa p e r was c a r b o n - s e n s e d and answers came t h r o u g h t o t h e s e c o n d page. Page 2 c o n t a i n e d a c o m p l e t e s o l u t i o n w i t h p i c t o r i a l c l u e s t o f o c u s on t h e s p e c i f i c s r e q u i r e d t o c a l c u l a t e t h e answers. The p a p e r r e s p o n s e was u s u a l l y p e r f o r m e d a f t e r t h e f i l m - s t r i p o r computer d r i l l and p r a c t i c e s e s s i o n s . (if Cond A3, Rev. R e v i e w Q u e s t i o n s #1: C a l c u l a t e t h e R a t e o f E x p a n s i o n o f a i r f r o m t h e f o l l o w i n g d a t a : 1. P e r i m e t e r o f B a l l o o n B e f o r e H e a t i n g 7 cm = D_l 2. P e r i m e t e r o f B a l l o o n A f t e r H e a t i n g 12 cm = D2 3. Time w h i l e h e a t i n g 1 m i n u t e 40 s e c o n d s = T2_ 4. Time s t a r t i n g 0 = T l S t e p s t o f o l l o w 1. Change i n P e r i m e t e r = E l a p s e d Time = 2. R a t e o f E x p a n s i o n = Change i n P e r i m e t e r E l a p s e d Time INSTRUCTIONS On t h e above p r o b l e m - w r i t e y o u r a n s w e r s o p p o s i t e #1 and #2 u s i n g t h e same p r o c e d u r e o u t l i n e d on t h e f i l m - s t r i p s . A f t e r you have c o m p l e t e d y o u r c a l c u l a t i o n s , l i f t up t h e s h e e t and r e v i e w y o u r a n s w e r s . I f c o r r e c t i o n s a r e r e q u i r e d , c o r r e c t t h e s e c o n d s h e e t . When you have f i n i s h e d , p r o c e e d t o page 3 and c o m p l e t e t h e f i n a l two p r o b l e m s . Cond A3 , Rev-R e v i e w Q u e s t i o n s #1 C a l c u l a t e t h e R a t e o f E x p a n s i o n o f A i r f r o m t h e f o l l o w i n g d a t a : 1. P e r i m e t e r o f B a l l o o n B e f o r e H e a t i n g 7 cm = D_l 2. P e r i m e t e r o f B a l l o o n A f t e r H e a t i n g 12 cm = D2_ 3. Time w h i l e h e a t i n g 1 m i n u t e 40 s e c o n d s = T2_ 4. Time s t a r t i n g 0 = T I S t e p s t o f o l l o w 1. Change i n P e r i m e t e r = E l a p s e d Time = 2. R a t e o f E x p a n s i o n = Change i n P e r i m e t e r E l a p s e d Time APPENDIX I I I DESCRIPTION AND EXAMPLES OF INDEPENDENT STUDY RESOURCE MATERIALS The i n d i v i d u a l r e v i e w was d e s i g n e d t o c o n s o l i d a t e s t u d e n t k n o w l e d g e on a l l a s p e c t s o f t h e s c i e n c e e x p e r i m e n t s and r e l a t e d m a t h e m a t i c s . The f o r m a t i v e t e s t s p r o v i d e d d a t a t o a s s i s t i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e a r e a s o f weakness o f e a c h s t u d e n t and t o d i r e c t him t o r e v i e w s i t u a t i o n s t h a t w o u l d a p p l y t h e a p p r o p r i a t e e d u c a t i o n a l c o r r e c t i v e s . A l l r e v i e w m a t e r i a l p r o v i d e d v i s u a l , a u d i o and d r i l l and p r a c t i c e c o m p o n e n t s . The r e v i e w s were d e s i g n e d t o be s i t u a t i o n a l t o t h e s p e c i f i c c l a s s r o o m s and t o be as f o c u s e d as p o s s i b l e t o a s s i s t t h e s t u d e n t s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e s t u d y . D e s c r i p t i o n o f R e v i e w M a t e r i a l : (a) V i d e o P r e s e n t a t i o n * E d u c a t i o n a l p u r p o s e ... E a c h e x p e r i m e n t was v i d e o t a p e d w i t h an a u d i t o r y e x p l a n a t i o n f o c u s i n g on "how t o " c o n d u c t t h e e x p e r i m e n t and what t o o b s e r v e . The e x p e r i m e n t was done i n t h e a c t u a l s c i e n c e l a b o r a t o r y and u s i n g i d e n t i c a l e q u i p m e n t as t h a t u s e d by t h e s t u d e n t s when t h e y d i d t h e e x p e r i m e n t . V i d e o t e c h n i q u e s , u s i n g c l o s e - u p s and s l o w m o t i o n , were e m p l o y e d i n o r d e r t o f o c u s on t h e c r i t i c a l e x p e r i m e n t a l o b s e r v a t i o n s . E a ch v i d e o was f o u r t o f i v e m i n u t e s i n l e n g t h . * E d u c a t i o n a l p u r p o s e ... t h i s r e v i e w p r o v i d e d a g e n e r a l o v e r v i e w o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t and a s s i s t e d t h e s t u d e n t w i t h h i s r e c a l l o f h i s o b s e r v a t i o n s when he c o n d u c t e d t h e e x p e r i m e n t . ( i i ) S l i d e P r o g r a m : P u r p o s e o f s l i d e p r o g r a m - t o f o c u s t h e s t u d e n t ' s c o n c e n t r a t i o n on t h e names o f p a r t s o f s c i e n t i f i c e q u i p m e n t , t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f e x p e r i m e n t a l s e t - u p and t h e f u n c t i o n a l u s e o f e a c h p i e c e o f e q u i p m e n t . A s e r i e s o f s l i d e s was o r g a n i z e d s h o w i n g e a c h p a r t o f e q u i p m e n t and t h e s e t - u p o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l e q u i p m e n t . An a u d i o t a p e was made t o s e q u e n c e w i t h t h e s l i d e p r e s e n t a t i o n , w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t r e v i e w e d . The a u d i o t a p e s were made by t h e two i n s t r u c t o r s and t h e y f o c u s e d t h e i r comments on t h e r e v i e w o f t h e s c i e n t i f i c e q u i p m e n t and t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l s e t - u p . A s l i d e p r e s e n t a t i o n c o u l d have b e t w e e n 20-30 s l i d e s and a u d i o comment. The c h o i c e o f w h e t h e r a s t u d e n t r e c e i v e d a l o n g p r e s e n t a i t o n o r a s h o r t one was made as a r e s u l t o f t h e memory component f r o m h i s f o r m a t i v e t e s t s . The s l i d e p r o g r a m u s u a l l y r e q u i r e d f o u r t o s e v e n m i n u t e s f o r a s t u d e n t r e v i e w . ( i i i ) F i l m - s t r i p P r o g r a m : P u r p o s e o f F i l m - s t r i p R e v i e w - e a c h e x p e r i m e n t had a f i l m - s t r i p , w h i c h o u t l i n e d a r e v i e w o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l s e t - u p f o c u s i n g on t h e measurements o f t i m e , t e m p e r a t u r e and l e n g t h , w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t s were t o r e c o r d . An a u d i o r e v i e w t a p e was s e q u e n c e d t o e x p l a i n "how t o " t a k e t h e measurements and t h e " p r o c e d u r e s " t o r e c o r d t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s . The r e v i e w p r o g r a m t h e n p r o c e e d e d t o a s t e p by-s t e p r e v i e w w i t h a u d i o b a c k - u p o f e a c h s t e p i n t h e p r o c e d u r e u s e d t o c a l c u l a t e t h e m a t h e m a t i c a l r e s u l t s o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t . E a c h f i l m - s t r i p was 26-28 f r a m e s w i t h a u d i o t a p e s made by t h e t e a c h e r s . S t u d e n t s s p e n t b e t w e e n 8-15 m i n u t e s on t h i s a r e a o f t h e r e v i e w w i t h many s t u d e n t s r e p e a t i n g t h i s a r e a f o r added r e i n f o r c e m e n t . ( i v ) Computer D r i l l & P r a c t i c e R e v i e w : P u r p o s e o f Computer R e v i e w - The c o m p u t e r r e v i e w u s e d a p r o g r a m c a l l e d "Windows" d e s i g n e d t o a s s i s t t h e s t u d e n t s t o a c c u r a t e l y do t h e a c t u a l m a t h e m a t i c a l c a l c u l a t i o n s f r o m g i v e n e x p e r i m e n t a l s i t u a t i o n s . The c o m p u t e r r e s p o n d e d t o s t u d e n t r e q u e s t s f o r a s s i s t a n c e by d e m o n s t r a t i n g g r a p h i c e x p e r i m e n t s o f h e a t and e x p a n s i o n and p r o m p t i n g s t u d e n t s a t v a r i o u s s t a g e s o f t h e i r p e r f o r m i n g t h e m a t h e m a t i c a l c a l c u l a t i o n s . S t u d e n t s were c o n f r o n t e d w i t h f o u r t o f i v e s e t s o f e x p e r i m e n t a l d a t a and r e c e i v e d a " p r i n t - o u t " o f t h e i r r e s p o n s e s . Most s t u d e n t s s p e n t 15 t o 20 m i n u t e s on t h i s p o r t i o n o f t h e r e v i e w . P a p e r & P e n c i l R e v i e w : P u r p o s e o f P a p e r & P e n c i l R e v i e w - P a p e r a n d p e n c i l r e v i e w p r o v i d e d t h e s t u d e n t w i t h e x p e r i m e n t a l d a t a t o a s s i s t them i n m a k i n g t h e m a t h e m a t i c a l c a l c u l a t i o n s r e q u i r e d f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t s . The r e v i e w q u e s t i o n s h e e t s p r o v i d e d t h e d a t a . S t u d e n t s c o u l d make c a l c u l a t i o n s on page 1. The p a p e r was c a r b o n - s e n s e d and a n s w e r s came t h r o u g h t o t h e s e c o n d page. Page 2 c o n t a i n e d a c o m p l e t e s o l u t i o n w i t h p i c t o r i a l c l u e s t o f o c u s on t h e s p e c i f i c s r e q u i r e d t o c a l c u l a t e t h e a n s w e r s . The p a p e r r e s p o n s e was u s u a l l y p e r f o r m e d a f t e r t h e f i l m - s t r i p o r c o m p u t e r d r i l l and p r a c t i c e s e s s i o n s . APPENDIX IV TEST INSTRUMENTS USED FOR EVALUATION OF SAMPLE AND POPULATION T e s t i n s t r u m e n t s u s e d f o r e v a l u a t i o n s : (a) P r e - t e s t c o n d u c t i v i t y o f m e t a l s (b) P o s t - t e s t c o n d u c t i v i t y o f m e t a l s ( c ) P r e - t e s t e x p a n s i o n o f l i q u i d s (d) P o s t - t e s t e x p a n s i o n o f l i q u i d s (e) P r e - t e s t e x p a n s i o n o f gas ( f ) P o s t - t e s t e x p a n s i o n o f gas (g) C o m p r e h e n s i v e e v a l u a t i o n a f t e r c o m p l e t i o n o f e x p e r i m e n t B) F I L L IN THE BLANKS Use t h e f o l l o w i n g terms t o f i l l i n t h e b l a n k s . i d e n t i c a l wax r i n g s p a r t i c l e s aluminum bunsen b u r n e r a t t r a c t i v e f o r c e s b r a s s hub t e s t tube clamp spaces 1. The metal rods a r e a l l c o n n e c t e d t o t h e . 2. has a d u l l y e l l o w i s h c o l o u r . 3. a r e p l a c e d a t the ends o f the metal r o d s . 4. The conductometer i s h e l d i n p o s i t i o n by the . 5. The h e a t i s s u p p l i e d by t h e ' -6. The metal t h a t m e l t s f a i r l y r e a d i l y i s . 7. A l l s u b s t a n c e s a r e composed o f . 8. M o l e c u l e s i n s u b s t a n c e s a r e h e l d t o g e t h e r by 9. Between the m o l e c u l e s i n s o l i d s , l i q u i d s and gases a r e 10. P a r t i c l e s o f t h e same su b s t a n c e a r e C) TRUE - FALSE 1. Aluminum has a g r e y m e t a l l i c c o l o u r . 2. The flame i s p l a c e d d i r e c t l y under the hub. 3. The t i m e r c l o c k o n l y heeds a minute hand f o r t e s t i n g c o n d u c t i v i t y . 4. I r o n i s a v e r y common m e t a l . 5. Copper i s an a l l o y . 6. A l l o y s c o n t a i n more than one element. 7. The f a s t e r m o l e c u l e s v i b r a t e t he more t h e y g i v e o f f h e a t . 8. A c c o r d i n g t o t h e P a r t i c l e T h eory, t he m o l e c u l e s a r e l a r g e r than the spaces between them. 9. M o l e c u l e s always v i b r a t e a t the same speed. 10. M o l e c u l e s o f gases v i b r a t e f a s t e r than m o l e c u l e s o f l i q u i d s . 11. A l l m a t t e r i s made o f m o l e c u l e s . 12. Heat moving a l o n g metal i s known as c o n d u c t i o n . 13. The temperature a t which a l l m o l e c u l e movement s t o p s i s a t -273.15 0 C, o r A b s o l u t e Z e r o . 14. I r o n i s a f a s t e r c o n d u c t o r o f h e a t than c o p p e r . 15. A l l t h e wax r i n g s m e l t a t the same t i m e . D) CALCULATIONS 1. The prongs o f t h e conductometer are 10 cm l o n g . A f t e r t h e Bunsen b u r n e r flame i s p l a c e d i n t h e hub o f the conductometer, i t t a k e s 30 s f o r the wax t o m e l t a t t h e end o f t h e copper prong. C a l c u l a t e t h e r a t e o f c o n d u c t i o n o f h e a t a l o n g i n cm/s. (Use f o r m u l a and c a l c u l a t o r ) 4 a r k s 2. C a l c u l a t e t h e r a t e o f c o n d u c t i o n o f heat a l o n g t h e 10 cm b r a s s prong i f i t t a k e s 80 s f o r the wax t o me l t a t i t s end. (Use f o r m u l a and c a l c u l a t o r ) 4 marks T o t a l : 41 marks % ht'J Corf*''* 5) ^|rt. F ILL I* TM ALA**-? U«. 4^1 4«r«4 T ^ g - FALSI 4U#K. I <*p«-^i mart fk««1 w«fer A. fA-r S«,« r, *< k*~f*r+K*< . I5 . 0) C A L C U L ^ l O N i is __=-rr. B. FILL IN THE BLANKS - Use the following terms to f i l l in the blanks can pipette expansion gap gases expands Celsius thermometer solids convection contracts 1. The is required to measure the temperature. 2. When the temperature is measured the answer is given in degrees 3. The water rises up the glass tube called the ' 4. Molecules of liquids are closer together than molecules of 5. The molecules in a liquid move from place to place. 6. The movement of heat in liquids is called . 7. When liquids are heated the volume . 8. When liquids are cooled the volume . 9. The space at the top of a bottle of "pop" between the liquid and the cap is called the . 10. There is more expansion in liquids than in for the same rise in temperature. C. TRUE/FALSE 1. Alcohol expands more than water for the same rise in temperature. 2. Different liquids have different sized molecules so there is a difference in the amount of expansion. 3. The spaces between particles in liquids are smaller than the spaces between particles in solids. 4. Molecules in ice are more free to move than molecules in water. 5. When liquids are heated the volume contracts. 6. Al l matter expands and contracts the same amount. 7. When molecules vibrate slower they give off less heat. 8. Heat travels through liquids mainly by conduction. 9. In convection, heat moves in a l l directions. 10. Liquids are known as fluids. 11. The temperature is recorded by the pipette. 12. Molecules of metals could be made to move from place to place by melting the metal. 13. Cold molecules are heavier than warm molecules of the same liquid. * 14. When the movement of molecules speeds up, the temperature becomes higher. 15. Liquid nitrogen is used to study substances at cold temperatures. • D. CALCULATIONS 1 mark 1. The temperature before heating is 20°C. The temperature after heating is 41°C. What is the CHANGE IN TEMPERATURE? (show work) 1 mark 2. The height of the water before heating is at the 6 cm mark. The height of the water after heating is at the 1 cm mark. What is the CHANGE IN HEIGHT? (show work) 3 iaarks3. If the Change in Height Amount of Expansion Change in Temperature Calculate the amount of expansion using the data from questions #1 and #2 above, (use calculator, show mark) TOTAL) 40 marks ) - % 4 \^^- y p|l.L I N T » « (jLANKi . Ux. +*« fin—*"-* ** •" + l" "««*• • j>^3 -r«f9 - Cwii/tni<r,iii O n e P """J*" J~fUh G»-<J > Tkt*t Jr+pUf, .„« ) I. £U-« L,*.'^  ««JU «•*•* c - * / • - ! £ 4U U l U * r - f V V ^ O So 21-i h i " * " ] Home Form: Teacher: 9€p B) FILL IN THE BLANKS Use the following terms to f i l l in the blanks; fluids volume upward convection expand mixture perimeter condensation contract boiling chips 1. Air is a of gases. 2. Gases with heat. 3. Gases when cooled. 4. The method of heat movement in gases is called 5. ., In gases the direction of heat movement is 6. On the inside of the balloon water droplets formed. These droplets are called ' . 7. Gases and liquids are capable of being "poured". Therefore, they are said to be . 8. The amount of space or capacity inside the balloon i s cabled its 9. A measuring tape was used to measure the distance around the outside of the balloon. This distance was called the . 10, To prevent overheating of the glass at the bottom of the erlenmeyer flask we placed at the bottom on the inside. C) TRUE - FALSE 1. Gases expand less with heat than liquids for the same degree of temperature rise. 2. In convection, heat moves in a l l directions. 3. The particles making up gases are closer together than in liquids. 4. The molecules in gases are always vibrating. 5. The ring clamp supports the bunsen burner. 6. A one-holed stopper was used for the "expansion of gases" experiment. 7. "Hot a i r balloons" make use of the idea of conduction of heat. 8. Cold a i r is lighter in weight than warm a i r of the same volume. 9fc 07 9. In the convection "smoke" box, the a i r in the chimney above the burning candle flame was expanding and rising. 10. Adding heat to a gas lowers the temperature. 11. When the temperature drops the speed of the molecules gets faster. 12 : Molecules can move from place to place in a l l three states of matter. 13. Heat moves from a cooler place to a warmer place. 14. The greatest percentage of room a i r i s taken up with nitrogen gas. 15. The Rate of Expansion = Change in Perimeter f o r t n e Pi me balloon experiment. D) CALCULATIONS 2 1. If the perimeter before heating is 12 cm,and the perimeter is 22 cm after marks heating, what is the change in perimeter? (Show work.) 4 2. If the balloon perimeter increases by 12 cm and the elapsed time of marks heating is 135 s » calculate the rate of expansion. (Use calculator and show work. Use formula) 3. If the balloon perimeter increases by 14 cm, and the elapsed time i s 6 marks 2 min. and 42 s , calculate the rate of expansion of the gas in the balloon after the heating, (use calculator and show work. Use formula) TOTAL: 50 Memory = ~T3~ Comprehension = "re-calculations » £ 6 r /)f Name: Home Form: T e a c h e r : L a b e l t h e p a r t s o f t h e d r a w i n g . L a b e l the drawing. Answer the questions below. 1. What p a r t of the conductometer are the f i v e rods a t t a c h e d to? 2. Why are " b o i l i n g c h i p s " p l a c e d i n the bottom of the Erlenmeyer f l a s k ? 3. Why i s a wire gauze used under the Erlenmeyer f l a s k ? 4. What c o l o u r should the flame be? 5. Why are wax r i n g s p l a c e d a t the end of the metal rods? CALCULATIONS: 1. The t e m p e r a t u r e b e f o r e h e a t i n g i s 27*C. The t e m p e r a t u r e a f t e r h e a t i n g i s 45°C. What i s t h e c h a n g e i n t e m p e r a t u r e ? (Show y o u r w o r k ) . 2. I f t h e p e r i m e t e r b e f o r e h e a t i n g i s 7 cm. a n d t h e p e r i m e t e r i s 21 cm. a f t e r h e a t i n g , w h a t i s t h e c h a n g e i n p e r i m e t e r ? (Show y o u r w o r k ) . 3. I f t h e b a l l o o n p e r i m e t e r i n c r e a s e s b y 20 cm. a n d t h e e l a p s e d t i m e i s 2 m i n u t e s a n d 21 s e c o n d s , c a l c u l a t e t h e r a t e o f e x p a n s i o n o f t h e g a s a f t e r h e a t i n g . ( Use f o r m u l a a n d show y o u r w o r k ) 4. C a l c u l a t e t h e r a t e o f c o n d u c t i v i t y f r o m t h e f o l l o w i n g d a t a : ( a ) L e n g t h o f m e t a l = 70 cm. (b ) Time a f t e r h e a t i n g = 2 m i n . 10 s e c o n d s Rc = L C a l c u l a t e the l e n g t h of rod: Rc = 0.8 cm/a. T = 1 min. 10 s. C a l c u l a t e the amount of expansion: Amount of expansion = Change i n Height Change i n Temperature Temperature b e f o r e h e a t i n g = 27°C Temperature a f t e r h e a t i n g = 45°C Height of water b e f o r e h e a t i n g = 4 cm. Height of water a f t e r h e a t i n g = 1 cm. True or False 1. Gases expand more with heat than liquids for the same degree of temperature rise. 2. In conduction heat moves in a l l directions. 3. The molecules in air only vibrate when heated. 4. Adding heat to gases causes the molecules to vibrate more rapidly. 5. The Rate of Expansion = Change in Perimeter Time for the balloon experiment. 6. Molecules in gases move faster as the heat is removed. 7. Cold air is lighter in weight than warm air of the same volume. 8. For the same rise in temperature, alcohol expands more than water. The expansion of a liquid is called conduction. 10. When molecules vibrate faster the temperature rises. 11. The thermometer measures the temperature of the liquid in the beaker. 12. Liquids are known as fluids. 13. A one-hole stopper is required for the experiment on expansion of liquids. 14. A l l liquids have heat move due to conductivity. 15. Alloys contain more than one element. 16. Iron is a faster conductor than aluminum. 17. A l l the wax rings melt at the same time. 18. Heat moving along the metal rods is known as conduction. 19. The flame is placed directly under the hub. " 1 . Aluminum has a rapid rate of conductivity. 9&f 1 *2 u e t a l rods bunsen burner p i p e t t e s o l i d s thermometer b o i l i n g c h i p s perimeter t e s t tube clamp combination c o n t r a c t c o n v e c t i o n l i q u i d s k s o l i d s r a t e of c o n d u c t i v i t y l e n g t h time F i l l i n the blanks - terms above: (a) F i l l i n what the term or name i s f o r each p a r t of the formula: Rc = L = Rc stands f o r T L stands f o r T stands f o r !b) The are a l l connected to the hub. (c) The bunsen burner i s always l i t with the . (d) The water r i s e s up the g l a s s tube c a l l e d a . (e) There i s more expansion i n than i n s o l i d s f o r the same r i s e i n temperature. ) The i s r e q u i r e d . t o measure temperature. (g) The are i n the bottom of the f l a s k to prevent the heat from s h a t t e r i n g the g l a s s . (h) The i s used to support the Erlenmeyer f l a s k . ( i ) A i r i s a of gases. (j) The method t h a t heat moves i n gases i s c a l l e d (k) We measure the change i n of the b a l l o o n d u r i n g the experiment. (1) Gases ' when c o o l e d . (m) Gases are l e s s dense than . 

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