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Impact of independent instruction on the achievement scores of slow learner students Purdy, Gerald Albert 1988

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I M P A C T OF I N D E P E N D E N T I N S T R U C T I O N ON THE A C H I E V E M E N T SCORES OF SLOW L E A R N E R  STUDENTS  by G E R A L D A L B E R T PURDY B.A. ( E n g l i s h ) , Y o r k U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 7 1 B. E d . , U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o , 1 9 6 3 A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L M E N T OF THE R E Q U I R E M E N T S FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTERS OF ARTS in  (Department  We  the Faculty of Graduate Studies o f E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology and S p e c i a l  accept  this thesis required  as conforming standard  THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H J u n e , 1988 ©  Gerald Albert  Purdy  to the  COLUMBIA  Education)  In  presenting  degree  this  at the  thesis  in partial  University of  freely available for reference copying  of  department publication  this or of  fulfilment  British Columbia, and study.  of  this  his  or  her  requirements  I agree  that the  I further agree  thesis for scholarly purposes by  the  representatives.  may be It  thesis for financial gain shall not  is  for  an  Library shall make it  that permission for extensive granted by the understood  head  that  of  my  copying  or  be allowed without  permission.  Department of  Educational  Psychology  The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date  DE-6(3/81)  October  14, 1988  advanced  & Special  Education  my written  (i)  ABSTRACT This  s t u d y compared t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s  lesson reviews  with  of  independent  t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d l e s s o n reviews  same c o n t e n t m a t e r i a l .  Student  using the  improvement was measured by  improvement o f t h e mean s c o r e s o f t h e s t u d e n t s , a s d e t e r m i n e d by  their  performance  on t e a c h e r - m a d e t e s t s .  t a k i n g p a r t i n t h e s t u d y were g r a d e at  W.J. F e n t o n  Secondary  School  nine v o c a t i o n a l students  i n The P e e l B o a r d o f  E d u c a t i o n . The s t u d e n t s were t e s t e d on t h e i r names o f e q u i p m e n t , on t h e i r phenomenon and on t h e i r formula  study  the  to apply a  reviews  performed  s t u d e n t s u s i n g independent  both  the study  groups of students  strategies  applied  f o r this  scientific  mathematical  o f t h e independent  The s t u d e n t s  i n the  e q u a l l y w e l l or b e t t e r than  study  t h e r e was o v e r a l l  t e c h n i q u e s . However,  improvement  indicating  i n the scores  that the teaching  s t u d y were e f f e c t i v e  t h e s t u d e n t s t o improve t h e i r  to r e c a l l  results.  t e c h n i q u e was n o t c o n f i r m e d .  during of  ability  p r e d i c t e d s u p e r i o r performance  teacher-directed  ability  comprehension o f a  to quantify experimental The  The s t u d e n t s  subject  mastery.  in assisting  (ii) Based independent  on t h e s e study  teacher-directed disabilities situations  strategies review  but they  where  findings  i t was  concluded  are not superior  methods  independent  to  f o r s t u d e n t s who  d o h a v e some v a l u e  that  have  learning  in instructional  s t u d y methods must  be  used.  T A B L E OF  (iii)  CONTENTS  Page ABSTRACT  (i)-(ii)  T A B L E OF CONTENTS L I S T OF  TABLES  L I S T OF  FIGURES . .  (iii)-(  v)  (vi ) ( v i i )  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  (viii)-(ix)  Chapter I  INTRODUCTION 1.1 1.2 1.3  II  Models Employing Independent Instructional Strategies  1-  5  Importance o f Researching Independent Study S t r a t e g i e s  5-  13  I m p o r t a n c e o f an I n d i v i d u a l I n s t r u c t i o n Model  1 3 - 16  1.4  Description  o f Terms  1 6 - 21  1.5  Definitions Experiments  Specific  to the Science 2 1 - 22  1.6  Statement  o f the Problem  1.7  The S p e c i f i c  Hypothesis  REVIEW OF THE R E L E V A N T  2 2 - 23 2 3 - 24  LITERATURE  2.1  Perspectives  f o r Review  25  2.2  The W i n n e t k a  Plan  2 6 - 27  2.3  Fred K e l l e r  Model  2 7 - 30  2.4  Benjamin Bloom's Model  3 0 - 35  2.5  James B l o c k  3 5 - 39  2.6  Individual Learning  and Peter A i r a s i a n Differences  on t h e R a t e o f 3 9 - 40  (iv) Chapter  Page 2.7  H.S. Adelman  40- 42  2.8  Alan Pavio  42- 44  2.9  Behavioral Characteristics  o f Students  Who L e a r n S l o w l y III  IV  44- 48  METHODOLOGY 3.1  Experimental Design  49  3.2  Sample a n d P o p u l a t i o n  49- 50  3.3  Procedures  3.4  Treatment  53- 57  3.5  Data  57- 60  3.6  Comparisons w i t h i n  3.7  Variables  3.8  Internal  3.9  R a t i o n a l e f o r Design  65  3.10  Research  65- 66  .. 50- 53  Collection Groups  60- 61 61  and E x t e r n a l V a l i d i t y  Hypotheses  61- 64  ANALYSIS AND RESULTS 4.1  Results  67- 68  4.2  Descriptive  4.3  Correlated  4.4  Independent  4.5  Correlational  4.6  Summary  Statistics t-tests t-tests Analyses  68- 69 69- 70 70 70 71- 72  (v) Chapter V  Page CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS AND  RECOMMENDATIONS  5.1  Summary o f R e s u l t s  84- 86  5.2  Discussion  86- 88  5.3  A b i l i t y of Students Comprehension  5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8  t o Improve 88- 90  A b i l i t y o f S t u d e n t s t o Improve Mathematical C a l c u l a t i o n  90- 94  A b i l i t y of Students O v e r a l l Mean S c o r e  95  t o Improve  Effectiveness of Specialized Resource M a t e r i a l s  95- 97  Effectiveness of Sequential Hierachical Instruction  97  Effectiveness  of Special  and  Resource  Room  98  5.9  Limitation  o f Study  5.10  Suggestions f o rFurther  98-100 Research  BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX I  APPENDIX I I  104-108 Examples o f P s y c h o - E d u c a t i o n a l A s s e s s m e n t E v a l u a t i o n s o f Sample And Population  109  Correlation of Psycho-Educational Evaluation Scores f o r Students P a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the Study  110  APPENDIX I I I D e s c r i p t i o n s a n d E x a m p l e s o f Independent Study R e s o u r c e Materials APPENDIX I V  ,.100-103  Test Instruments Used f o r o f Sample P o p u l a t i o n  -4-H. I  '  1  Evaluation Jri-2* I* -/ 1  (viii)  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  My s i n c e r e t h a n k s Dr.  Ron N e u f e l d ,  who p r o v i d e d preparation Kris  Education, the  and Dr. Perry  me w i t h of this  Kirkwood,  expert thesis.  Research  t o my t h e s i s  Leslie  advice  director,  and Dr. Harold  Ratzlaff,  and c o n s u l t a t i o n d u r i n g the  My t h a n k s  are also extended  D i r e c t o r o f The P e e l  f o rh i sinsight  t o Dr.  Board o f  and expertise i n a s s i s t i n g  me  with  study. I am e x t r e m e l y  patience, time is  a r e extended  grateful  assistance and support  i t required t o complete  extended  valued hours  t o my w i f e , L y n n ,  t o John K n e c h t e l ,  friend.  Without  s h e showed d u r i n g  this  thesis.  a fellow  the long  A special  graduate  h i sencouragement,  of discussion, this  f o r the  and v e r y  criticism  study  would never  t o thank  the staff  thank-you  have  a n d many  been  completed. I would Secondary for  of  work  who p a r t i c i p a t e d  the visual  Dave H u e t h e r  i n instruction,  evaluation Don  School  developing  teachers,  also like  papers.  Kalachnik,  aids  and J i m Davies,  The r e s o u r c e  assisted  as teachers  used during  planning  o f W.J.  and a s s i s t a n t s  t h e r e s e a r c h . The  c o n t r i b u t e d many  lessons  hours  and marking t h e  assistants,  i n developing  Fenton  Roger Marsh and  the special  resource  (ix) materials.  My  office  Megan Tudhope, thesis  particularly  many h o u r s  my  Head  Secretary,  i n t y p i n g and c r i t i q u i n g  the  paper. All  manner studies our  spent  staff,  these  people  because of t h e i r  approached belief  a s a means o f i m p r o v i n g  students  i n the school.  the study  i n the value  in a of  professional  research  the educational experience  of  CHAPTER  1.1 M o d e l s E m p l o y i n g There holds  i s a long  1: INTRODUCTION  Independent tradition  i n educational  that a s e l f - i n s t r u c t i o n a l  specific  needs o f a s t u d e n t ,  mastering student  A.V. Canon's  research  program designed  who  his/her educational  i n subject  Instructional Strategies  t o meet t h e  i s experiencing  material, will  mastery. Block's  Mastery  difficulty  a s s i s t the learning theories,  (1984) s e l f - c o a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s and T o r g e n s e n ' s  (1977) a p p l i c a t i o n o f s t u d e n t  self-instruction  p e r f o r m a n c e a r e examples o f c u r r e n t Many e d u c a t i o n a l  use o f t h i s  on t a s k technique.  program d e l i v e r y m o d e l s have been  outlining  the a p p l i c a t i o n o f the s e l f - i n s t r u c t i o n a l  employing  t e c h n i c a l aids to present  systematic material  methods t o o r g a n i z e  students  computer-assisted independent The Professor  instruction  of Chicago Laboratory  followed  rely  materials,  and a p p l y i n g  the subject  on s t u d e n t s t o master  of Carleton  Henry M o r r i s o n ' s  performance  and d e l i v e r  instruction materials  individualize  information  developed  a r e e x p e c t e d t o m a s t e r . Many a p p l i c a t i o n s o f  Winnetka P l a n  instruction.  which  Washburn  using  programs. (1922) and  (1926) a p p r o a c h a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y  School  were e a r l y e f f o r t s t o  p r o g r a m s and a p p l y  s t r a t e g i e s of independent  A l t h o u g h t h e r e was i n i t i a l i n the experiments, these  improvement  i n student  e f f o r t s were n o t  through, mainly because o f t h e l a c k o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l  technology strategy  required  measured  Carroll's  the  time a  His  "Model  student  of  school  between  instruction  student  the  could  required  be  that  the  whereby each  individual  instructions  and  p r o g r a m . The  teacher's  instruction. strategies was  time  the  the  the  f o r the  student  students,  given  to master  objectives  of  the the  course.  He  advocated  of  his time  quality  was  of  provided the  with  specific  the  school  of  instructional  could  choose,  the  necessary  student for  and  contended and  amount  meet t h e  criterion  that  majority  varying  meet the  his/her  to  require a different  clear instruction  school  as  clarification  assignments  material, will  a  extra  m a t e r i a l . According  would  to  "ideal  to master  expectations  Carroll  the  amounts  of  educational  program.  Bloom's model d e v e l o p e d strategies.  the  the  understand  v a r i e t y of  subject  task  quality  The  student  required  was  the  defined  could  student  exact  required  model each  a  to complete his/her  reference  time  role  applying  from which  of  Carroll's  of  expectations  made a w a r e o f  mastery  of  By  he  (1963)  instructional  f o r by  tasks.  instruction,  which  and  compensated  to master  pedagogy by  learn a  ideal  individual  m o d e l was  of  teaching  certain conflicting  in Carroll's  form  successful  Learning"  to  under  instruction"  a  term  School  required  model s t a t e d  characteristics  long  setting.  criterion-reference level  conditions.  the  sustain a  w i t h i n a classroom  J o h n B.  given  to  self-paced  for a  review  student  process  instructional  where  the  subject  materials  teacher  aids  essential Bloom  were p r e s e n t e d  for those  lesson  classroom  procedures  a method to  teaching  i n which  the  context  and  techniques  a p p l i c a t i o n of the  subject  and  allow  Direct  Arithmetic obtaining emphasis  and  of  the  programming, attentional follows  steps.  school  aids  student  of  feedback  and  instructional  easiest  praise  as  student of  the  interest to  i n the  Teaching  of  another  approach  for  and  obtain  curricula.  through  specific approach  combined t a s k - a n a l y t i c  student.  The  tightly  carefully  an  are  emphasis  DISTAR  the  approach  sequenced  the  on  structured  more c o m p l e x and  rewards,  to  would  class  segmented groupings  to  be  students  v a r i a b l e s . Bateman's  using  components and  from  percent  skills  the  Repetition, small  assist  p r i n c i p l e s and  h i s p r i n c i p l e s by  sequenced  improve  performance  reading  an  outlined  Bloom's procedures  ( D I S T A R ) was  reinforcement  instructional  He  as  to  their  deficits  C a r r o l l ' s model  and  ninety  instructional  teaching  setting.  group-based i n s t r u c t i o n  to  Reading  comprehend  ordinary  I n s t r u c t i o n a l System  improved on  (1976) to  of  up  to  using  classroom  apply  material. Following  mastery  The  the  methodology.  make i n s t r u c t i o n more e f f i c i e n t , attitude  failed  form  individualized instruction could  managed w i t h i n the  comprehend  who  objectives within  (1968) p r o v i d e d  effective  students  i n a unique  of  teaching information,  using  constant  main elements  of  this  methodology.  B a t e m a n ' s m a t e r i a l was  aimed at  students  who  had  general  learning  disabilities  psycho-educational application  from  with  were h a v i n g  program,  yet  their  assessed  normal  as  recognized  the  slow  l e a r n e r s and  educational  environmental  factors poor  learning  the  designed  their  they  disabilities.  s u b j e c t mastery  changing  them  not  Bateman's  students  for  school  were  that educational of  in  assessments placed  range and  reality  reflected  on  model  instructions  designated  policies  as  within  the  scene.  Adelman's  students  mastering  psycho-educational  the p o l i t i c a l  improve  based  T h i s marked a d i f f e r e n c e  difficulty  intelligence  having  must  b e l o w 85  B l o o m ' s m o d e l . B l o o m ' s m o d e l was  who  the  scores  assessments.  students  within  I.Q.  Interactional factors  to master within  the  which  Model  (1971)  identified  negatively affect  subject material.  He  classroom  which  school performance  setting  the  classroom  ability  identified  of  a number  of  contributed to  of students  classified  methodology  of  as  slow  learners. Adelman's proposed which  he  programs a  calls into  "Personalized Instruction", instructional  sequential order  formative proposed the  testing by  instruction  from and  easy  objectives,  organized  Bloom. Adelman a l s o o u t l i n e d  program.  requirements  and  similar  the  f o r a s u c c e s s f u l independent  in  utilized  to  in detail  t e a c h e r s , e d u c a t i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and  resource  student  applied small units  t o more d i f f i c u l t  lesson sequencing  (1973),  that the  role  of  instructional study  5  Each  of the areas covered  description review  1.2  will  section,  be d e a l t Chapter  with  designed  this  s t u d y an  to a s s i s t  influence  each  brief  in detail  i n the  literature  Independent Study  Strategies  independent  instructional  students with the s p e c i f i c  student's a b i l i t y  to a s s i s t  concepts  the s t u d e n t ' s mastery  related  directly  classroom  l e s s o n s used  performed  experiments  group demonstration and  traditional and  and  took  experiments results.  The  instruction;  the t e a c h e r  t e a c h e r used  independent  to  design a t r a d i t i o n a l  review  individual  review  time  the  composed o f a to  explain  instruction  completing  the  the  t o q u a n t i f y the the t e s t i n g  to s e t group  g r o u p were d i r e c t e d  on  specific  instructional  a i d s and  areas  group. to  o f weakness  study  program.  l e s s o n s f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p were t o overcome  up  and  instructional  independent  r e v i e w programs t a i l o r e d  and  students  l e s s o n f o r the c o n t r o l  w h i c h a l l o w e d f o r an  Thus, the review  from  In  skills  the  program f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l  review  the s p e c i f i c  strategies,  the d a t a  which  transfer,  designed  During  l e s s o n s on how  i n the experimental  concentrate their using  l e s s o n was  group i n s t r u c t i o n  receiving  an  students  of the b a s i c  was  own  group review.  formative evaluations a f t e r  and  variables  l e s s o n s on h e a t  c o n s o l i d a t e the l e s s o n m a t e r i a l .  students  The  to the  program  to master h i s / h e r  e d u c a t i o n a l program f o r the e x p e r i m e n t a l order  background  II.  Importance of Researching For  in this  specific  deficits  of the students.  independent specific  review  review  learner a  major  best  suited  style  and t a u g h t  the  required f o r him/her their  i n the achievement  instructional  learning  research  of additional  removing setting  students  reduce  which  indicated  student  approach  timetable a  result  are,  individual  setting.  t h e r e f o r e , kept  from  t o a minimum.  designed  and  reviews,  with  a  of  classroom  and  filmstrip  t o remain  within  regular  adjust  the learning  approaches,  occur  as  instruction,  The p r o p o s e d  and program.  the  which  model,  provides a guideline  instructional  a  as  school a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , program planners environment  equal  instructional  allows  comparing d i f f e r e n t  Of  has s e r i o u s s i d e  The s i d e e f f e c t s ,  of extensive withdrawal  individually  student  setting  into  o f t e a c h i n g a i d s such slide  i n  instructional  instruction  and a l l o w s t h e s t u d e n t  classroom  the  r e s o u r c e s . The p r a c t i c e  instruction,  slow  personal  t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the program  uses a v a r i e t y  presentations  that  disabilities  m o t i v a t i o n . An  computer-assisted  of  the m a t e r i a l .  the classroom  for specialized  limit  that allowed  t o master  teaching  (1973)  m a t e r i a l was p r e s e n t e d  a t a pace  c a t e g o r i z e d by t h e i r  effects,  these  level  to the student's  a p p r o a c h e s c a n be a p p l i e d w i t h i n minimum  their  to f a c i l i t a t e  (1968) and Bloom and B l o c k  improvements  s e q u e n t i a l format  importance,  completed  strategies.  s t u d e n t s . The  time  students  i n t h e room d e s i g n e d  S t u d i e s by Bloom indicated  The  using  which  and t e a c h e r s  In her Wong  article (1979)  to  believes  there  are gains  mastery by a p p l y i n g student's  individual  that  individual  Historical special  programs  employs  streaming  often  research  (1980) l e n d s u p p o r t  employs  school  placed  obtain  Context:  Within  students  or segregated  writing problems  skill  and mathematics. other  needs a r e designed  provided  secondary  performance a r e  to help  as a motivator  students  employment.  a r e f u r t h e r streamed  to their  test  scores  f o rstudents  a very  o r compensating  that the student  by t h e school board  into  i nEnglish,  with  behaviour  b a s i c educational and s p e c i a l  of the student.  program.  f o r the  lead to early  individualized  remedial program  f o rthe d e f i c i t s  and/or  Special materials, adjusted  programs and s m a l l c l a s s e s a r e designed assistance  of  a shop-based  i n order  they  Classes  academic  with  that w i l l  to deliver  aimed a t remediating disabilities  poor  i s viewed  classes according  learners  c l a s s e s . Students  subjects  and as a program  or with  strategy  f o r delivering  who a r e s l o w  i n a vocational school  the vocational setting  academic  a teaching  A common a p p r o a c h  to assist  practical  behaviour  instruction.  f u t u r e employment  students  tothe  (1972)  on m o t i v a t i o n and  f o rpursuing  a g e who h a v e d e m o n s t r a t e d  Teaching  strategies  o n t h e R e s o u r c e Room C o n c e p t  Adelman and T a y l o r ' s  problems  instructional  subject  programs.  Adelman's a r t i c l e s and  t o b e made i n a s t u d e n t ' s  t o provide  requires. Specialist to assist  students  the special  teachers are with  specific  8 learning  disabilities,  emotional/behavioral is  limited  accurate  to problems  at being  viable  to develop  problems.  classifications,  resentment with  due  and  The  such  as  i n making  parent  student  in special  a diverse  Three questions  confront  the  use  and  settings  f o r such  a vocational school  this  difficulty  programs  within  for students  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of  handling  placed  plans  and  with model  coming  up  group.  of  a  teaching  model  setting:  First: Can t h e m o d e l a s s i s t i n t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e s p e c i f i c d i f f i c u l t i e s the student i s experiencing while i n the classroom s e t t i n g ? Second: Can t e a c h e r s p r o v i d e e f f e c t i v e i n d i v i d u a l i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n w i t h i n an i n t e g r a t e d g r o u p s e t t i n g ? Third: Can t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f a p r o g r a m m e d i n s t r u c t i o n a l a p p r o a c h h a v e s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e on t h e m a s t e r y of s u b j e c t m a t e r i a l by s t u d e n t s i n t h e n o r m a l c l a s s r o o m setting? If  the  specialized school will  results  can  of value  in this  attain  to the  Psychological part  this  instructional  setting  be  of  study  study  approach  within  improved  student  teachers  Context: have had  withdrawal  and  Almost  that  a  the v o c a t i o n a l achievement, i t  s c h o o l program  a l l the  classes.  planners.  students  extensive withdrawal  o f t e n were p l a c e d i n s e g r e g a t e d special  demonstrate  taking  programs  (Appendix  I  and  details  for students).  These s t u d e n t s have been  "labelled"  as  having  learning  difficulties. Bloom the  Adelman  performance  self-fulfilling  withdrawal  cases  their  within  Shinn  assess  and argue  study  setting.  tests  (1986)  withdrawal  Societal  Context:  by an emphasis  opportunities  document  lower  achievement  (1985) and Reynolds  (1979)  feedback  study  of a timetabled classroom or specialized  their  reviews  of the true comprehension  framework  than  are f u l f i l l i n g the  specific  and provided  i n this  while i n  and  assessment  taking part  many  integrates testing  student  supported  becomes a  lessons and f o r s p e c i f i c a l l y designed response  up t o  achievement.  Bray  with direct  they  favourable  students  skills  c o n s t a n t l y demonstrate  of this  that testing  often live  greater ability  expectations of lower  design  (1986) and  are given  e t a l . (1986) and W i l s o n  the classroom  previous  and s p e c i f i c  true potential  evaluator's  argue  tests  where students  The  The s t u d e n t s  programs, which  shows.  "labelled"  e x p e c t a t i o n s . The l a b e l  prophecy.  psycho-educational  than  Adelman & T a y l o r  (1976) argue t h a t s t u d e n t s  lower  work  (1971),  more  to the  t a s k s met w i t h accurate  of the students.  a l l remain  The  within the  a n d r e q u i r e no  additional  remediation.  The need  f o rstudies of this  nature i s  on i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and p r o v i d i n g  i n education  f o ra l l children  equal  and youth.  Bill  82 i n O n t a r i o  i s an example o f l e g i s l a t i o n passed  guarantee  that students  are provided with  will  a l l o w them t o r e a c h  their  instruction  maximum p o t e n t i a l .  to  which  Provincial  10 legislation has  and  resulted  services sponsored  to  in efforts students  has  resulted  instructors  the  past  personnel  skills.  in hiring at the  (a)  a  secondary  over  and  advocacy o r g a n i z a t i o n s  to  improve and  needs.  At  W.J.  full  time  full  the  to a s s i s t  resulted  students  specialized Peel Board  in hiring  classroom  of  specialized  for this  study,  the  available:  s p e c i a l i s t f o r working learning  with  disabilities  r e a d i n g and  basic  skills; s p e c i a l i s t for students  learning  students  with  particularly  disabilities  strategies f o r those  having  communications  a half  time  and  (SLD)  designated to a s s i s t  compensation  students  designated  these  skills, as  exceptionalities;  behavioural specialist with  and  q u a l i f i e d t o do  In  instructional  setting  general  this  education  i n The  them w i t h t h e i r  specific  expertise  of Education  with  s i x vocational schools.  assistance is  remedial  Board  the  level  the  special  l e v e l , to a s s i s t  of  have  have d i f f i c u l t y  special  to the  has  designated  time  of  percent  Fenton,  specialized  Peel  expand  Advocacy groups  who  school  school  this  above  mathematics  (c)  fifty  four years,  (GLD)  a  a variety  have been a s s i g n e d  students  (b)  special  W i t h i n The  at secondary  requirements. following  i n schools  with  i d e n t i f i e d . About  Education  private  assistance f o r students  academic  instructors, so  from  various l e g i s l a t i v e a c t i o n s to ensure  instructional basic  pressure  clinical  psycho-educational  11 testing. in  This  working  teacher  with  has a f u l l  students  time  designated  aide  to assist  as having  behaviour  problems; (d)  a half with  time  staff  and three  co-operative  and a student  nine  instructors  time  support  school  hired  time  work  instructors.  which can  three  full  time  service to assist  school  e d u c a t i o n a l and Out o f a s t a f f  of sixty  p o p u l a t i o n o f seven hundred  and a b e h a v i o u r a l  to deal  progress.  complements  full  education  specifically  and f a m i l y problems,  the student's  additional  counsellors  teachers  worker,  multi-cultural  affect This  social  aide  students  students,  are designated  as  full  w i t h i n the vocational  school. In  many s e t t i n g s t h e r e  identification Education hundred  a n d d i a g n o s i s . As an e x a m p l e , The P e e l B o a r d o f  i n Ontario  students  learning  i s an i n c r e a s e d emphasis on  currently  i n vocational schools  exceptionality.  This  of  the total  secondary  at  examining  an i n s t r u c t i o n a l  with  them t o r e m a i n  Experiential the  school  learning disabilities  enable  researcher  vocational  has i d e n t i f i e d  this  students  as having  population. This  their  serves  three  help  i s aimed students  maximum p o t e n t i a l a n d classrooms.  From t h e e x p e r i e n t i a l  spend over  some f o r m o f  study  strategy that will  i n or return to regular  study  five  c o n s t i t u t e s b e t w e e n 8% a n d 1 0 %  reach  Context:  thirty  purposes.  40% o f t h e i r  viewpoint First, a l l  time i n  of  shop-related  courses.  instructional filrastrips, materials food of  Many o f t h e s e  material which  slides  and tape  are produced  backup.  f o r t h e auto  skills  industrial  Independent  instructional  s e r v i c e i n d u s t r y and t h e  industries.  extensive  t o augment c l a s s r o o m  and f o r upgrading  These a r e major  instructional  teaching  of basic vocational  student  skills  accommodate t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes  a n d new  industrial  practices.  Many o f t h e v o c a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s  their  Independent students after  study  leave  Second,  on t h e i r  skills  practical  and  programs  careers  i ftheir  to  be e x p e c t e d  to  are employed. be v a l u a b l e t o  skills  are retained  school. study  may  means o f i d e n t i f y i n g f o rbasic  t o apply  level  themselves  increase personal  their  own w h e n t h e y  assist  accurate  strategies  I f the students  own p a c e ,  to their  confidence  i n a more  instructional  students.  subject material at their  motivated  will  learned at school will  their  independent  and  and  skills  throughout  they  master  areas  resource  existing  upgrade  with  s t u d i e s and c o n c e n t r a t i o n f o r v o c a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s .  These programs p r o v i d e material  have  use programmed i n s t r u c t i o n  s e r v i c e and h o s p i t a l i t y  program  courses  they  may b e m o r e  subjects of  i n their  can  ability  interest t o l e a r n on  own. Third,  there  for  students.  the  skill  i s a need  Doerken  (1984)  t o manipulate  environment encompassing  t o develop suggests  visual/media  literacy  helping students  more e f f e c t i v e l y  develop  t h e new l e a r n i n g  computers and t e l e v i s i o n  which  will  1  be  essential  and  t o acquire the upgrading  k n o w l e d g e a s an o n g o i n g  lessons  allows the students  interact a  f o r them  visual/media  participating  environment  literacy  by these  Student  performance  the a b i l i t y  specific  experiment skills  economical  vehicle  bank and r e c a l l  to recall  equipment used  f o r storage  Verbal  of data  allows f o r rapid shows  study to programs i n to  develop  Model four perspectives. accurately the  i n a grade nine  Memory a n d r e c a l l  of learning.  (1975) r e s e a r c h  may h e l p  was c o m p a r e d f r o m  was m e a s u r e d .  i n most a r e a s  Pavio's  of the review  i n this  Instruction  of the student  names o f t e s t  which  skill  students.  Importance o f an I n d i v i d u a l  First,  The d e s i g n  w i t h a u d i o - v i s u a l and computer-generated  structured learning  1.3  process.  of their  are important  encoding  i s a  i n a student's  retrieval  science  very memory  of information.  that:  ".... t h e v e r b a l s y s t e m h a s t h e a d v a n t a g e o v e r i m a g e r y i n r e t r i e v i n g t h e s e q u e n t i a l o r d e r o f i t e m s i n memory. T h i s i m p l i e s t h a t t h e v e r b a l p r o c e s s e s may b e e s p e c i a l l y s u i t e d f o r l o g i c a l t h i n k i n g , which presumably r e q u i r e s an o r d e r l y p r o g r e s s i o n o f i d e a s t o w a r d s some g o a l " ( p . 1 5 9 ) .  Clearly,  teaching students  memory a n d r e c a l l Second, natural  will  have  the a b i l i t y  The d e p t h  phenomenon i s r e l a t e d  term  case  their  t o understand  the transfer  of the student's  skills in  benefits f o r learning.  of the student  phenomenon, i n t h i s  evaluated.  long  to develop  o f heat,  understanding  a was  of this  t o h i s / h e r comprehension a b i l i t y .  The  ability  of the student  experiments  was  also  students develop phenomenon  t o propose  that cannot  be o b s e r v e d  As p r e v i o u s l y  comprehension  o f a phenomenon  image must be u s e d concepts the  related  student  other  special  a visual  names o f p a r t s ,  sensory  thesis,  a key to  image, which  experimental occurrences.  and t o u s e f u l  t o form  This  a useful  experiences.  visual  series can  of  assist  The  images a l l o w s f o r a  c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f t h e phenomenon.  whereas v e r b a l l y  explains  o f t h e phenomenon t o  life  as v i s u a l  processing of visual  sense,  a  t o t h e phenomenon. These c o n c e p t s  experiments  information  i n this  i n applying applications  specific,  basic  these  i s the development of the  by the student  development o f concepts less  stated  to conceive  of unique  from  existing  that  to mentally visualize  observations.  the behaviour  extensions to  evaluated. I t i s important  the a b i l i t y  student's a b i l i t y  new  concepts  broad,  The  i s organized  encoded concepts,  such  in a as  a r e organized i n a s e q u e n t i a l sense.  " V i s u a l imagery i s s p e c i a l i z e d f o r p a r a l l e l p r o c e s s i n g i n t h e s p a t i a l s e n s e , i . e .images a r e o r g a n i z e d s p a t i a l l y , n o t t e m p o r a l l y o r s e q u e n t i a l l y , and t h e s y s t e m i s a c c o r d i n g l y i n e f f i c i e n t f o r sorting the sequential order of p i c t o r i a l u n i t s " ( P a v i o , 1975, p.148). It towards  i s important  that these  generalized concepts  a sequential and h i e r a r c h i c a l  The programs d e v e l o p e d developed  and presented  generalized  concepts  f o r this  form  be  guided  of understanding.  study were, t h e r e f o r e ,  i n a planned  stressed first  s e q u e n t i a l manner w i t h and then  proceeding  to  15 increasingly Third, formula  more  the student's  evaluated.  predictions The a b i l i t y  phenomenon w i t h o u t  ability  constant  learning  disabled students  strategies.  purpose and t o accumulate  comparing learning  apply  mathematical  testing This  form  and t o  o f a phenomenon  was  about b e h a v i o u r  of  i s one o f t h e most  p r o v i d e s a means f o r concepts  to a  useful  knowledge and i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h Nancy Dixon's  symbol m a n i p u l a t i o n disabled students  symbols  a  i n symbolized  to apply  and e f f o r t .  to develop  to apply  t o make p r e d i c t i o n s  learning  economy o f time  information.  of the behaviour  critical  student  factual  t o q u a n t i f y a phenomenon  make u s e f u l  a  specific,  versus  feedback  highlights  the a b i l i t y  (1983)  response f o r  the importance  t o manipulate  to his/her particular  article  f o rthe  symbols and t o  environment.  "The w o r d s y m b o l , a s u s e d i n t h i s c o n t e x t , m e a n s w r i t t e n and spoken words and m a t h e m a t i c a l n o t a t i o n used t o r e p r e s e n t o b j e c t s o r i d e a s t h a t a r e u n r e l a t e d t o t h e form o f t h e n o t a t i o n ... T h e u s e o f s y m b o l s r e s u l t s i n t h e c a p a c i t y t o s t o r e and t r a n s f e r i n f o r m a t i o n , i n t e r n a l l y m a n i p u l a t e i d e a s , h y p o t h e s i z e a n d p l a n , and a n t i c i p a t e t h e f u t u r e " (p.61).  This student using  s t u d y was u n d e r t a k e n  scores  and improved  independent  have d i r e c t slow  learning  easy  to apply within  of  student  instructional  application  f o r two r e a s o n s .  within  strategies,  this  the classroom  the instructional the author  improved  motivation are obtained  students, as the techniques  the school. Secondly,  If  research  will  situation for  c a n be  relatively  and economic  wishes  by  resources  to investigate i f  16 individual and  based  subject  on  Southern the  the  commitment t o  Terms  following  terms  generally  accepted  i n the  to  of  improve of  in this  vocational terms are  definitions  literature  s t u d e n t s who  by  these  accepted  II outlines  An  learning  referred  Ontario. Because  those  Appendix  rules  s e q u e n t i a l model can  of  s c h o o l system  than  using proper  pedagogy, the  special  students.  definition  in detail  the  participated  review  administered  program  t o one  composed of  the  half  of  the  following  schools  be  learning  to  less  For  this  the  review The  study  strategies program  components:  (b) a s l i d e  audio  (c) a f i l m  areas.  an  individual  experiment;  science  specific  exceptionalities  (a) a v i d e o p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the  explaining  within  study.  sample.  p r e s e n t a t i o n w i t h an t h e names and  cassette  f u n c t i o n s of the  support  parts  of  equipment; strip  reviewing  p r e s e n t a t i o n , with audio  the  procedures,  laboratory set-up  which  (d) a computer d r i l l presentations  students can and  practice  allowing  the  a  in  other geographic  i n the  refers  p r o p o s a l have  i n common u s e  may  or w i t h i n  Independent Review Program:  independent  is  and  Description The  of  a planned  mastery  education  1.4  lesson instruction,  and  support,  experimental  apply; review with  s t u d e n t s t o do  graphic review  17 questions they  related  have  the  taking  content  order  of  lessons  the was  lessons.  Instruction: the  was  The  independent  organized  l e s s o n s . The indentical  Listed  to the  specific  experiments  review  lessons for  performed.  Sequential students  directly  r e v i e w were s t r u c t u r e d  i n sequential steps content  of  to that of  below are  the  the  the  the  similar  independent  where to  the  review  teacher-directed review  components of t h i s  review  program: (a) V i d e o (b) A  presentation of  slide  experiment.  p r e s e n t a t i o n with audio  names and  function  of  the  support  explaining  s c i e n c e equipment used  the  in  the  experiment. (c) A  filmstrip  procedures calculate  p r e s e n t a t i o n with audio t o do  the  the  experiment  mathematical  (d) A computer d r i l l  and  support  and  outlining  procedures  used  to  results.  practice  program  simulating  experiments. Students on  the  i n both  review.  would d i f f e r of the  the  groups  Those  i n the  spent  students amount o f  the  i n the time  f o u r components o u t l i n e d  results  of  Teacher-Directed  their  same amount o f  For  this  they  spent  on  above, depending  previous test  Review:  individual  scores.  study  a  time review each upon  18 teacher-directed administered the  review  program r e f e r s  to the control  experiment.  This  (a)  The t e a c h e r  teacher  experiment observed.  The t e a c h e r  practical  examples  mathematical experimental The t e a c h e r the  students  experiment  f o r easy  equipment used  student  uses  highlights  from  everyday  the chalkboard  aid, particularly calculations  The  f o rt h e  recognition.  f o r conducting the  and e x p l a i n s the c e n t r a l  instructional  (d)  the actual  explains the process  The t e a c h e r  c e n t r e d and i s  names a n d f u n c t i o n s o f t h e e q u i p m e n t .  as models  (b) The t e a c h e r  i s teacher  the p r e v i o u s l y completed  demonstrates  experiment  (c)  program  taking part i n  components:  reviews  highlighting  group o f s t u d e n t s  review  composed o f t h e f o l l o w i n g  to the review  phenomenon t o be  t h e phenomenon u s i n g life. as t h e main when d e v e l o p i n g t h e  required to quantify the  results. conducts  a q u e s t i o n and answer d r i l l  to clarify  with  the main p o i n t s o f the  experiment. (e)  The s t u d e n t s those  on t h e t e s t  teacher students The minutes. review  do example r e h e a r s a l q u e s t i o n s , s i m i l a r  total  papers.  i n the classroom subject time  These a r e taken to further  up b y t h e  s o l i d i f y the  mastery.  f o r t h e t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d r e v i e w was  The s t u d e n t s  i n the control  a t t h e same t i m e  to  group were t a k i n g  as the students  forty their  i n the experimental  19 g r o u p were i n the  computer  room t a k i n g t h e i r  independent  review.  General as  GLD  have d e f i c i t s  visual, in  Learning  Disabilities  i n the  p e r c e p t u a l and  their  motor c o n t r o l ,  s c h o o l p r o g r a m s . The  their  disabilities.  on  Their history  abilities  grade r e l a t e d  which  students  were g i v e n p s y c h o - e d u c a t i o n a l  to their  Students  underlying processes  study  related  (GLD):  hinder  designated  school  i n performing  m a t e r i a l was  of a u d i t o r y , performance GLD  evaluations to  of  classified  in  this  identify  performance  with their  also a criterion  peer  for  group  GLD  placement.  Slow Learner have d i s c e r n i b l e ability to  Specific to  students  deficits  school  related  Learning  which  and  has  does  demonstrated  not  poor  information at a rate  Withdrawal  -  (SLD):  i n school  impedes  the  This  i s affected  student's  behavioral deficits  f o r these  sample have a  learner student  but  Disability  whose p r o g r e s s  Communication  slow  similar  group.  exceptionality,  categories  ( S L ) : The  process  to master  h i s / h e r peer  -  are  label by  a  academic  applies specific  progress.  examples of  SLD  students.  programs  long h i s t o r y  (W):  Many s t u d e n t s  of being  withdrawn  within from  the  test  regular  20 classrooms the  and r e c e i v i n g assistance  elementary  assistance  school.  and b a s i c  Learning  and school  classifying  students  Under B i l l  who h a v e  classified  designed  Education  students  The  and  with  work  of being  needs.  This  I n The P e e l  deals  placement.  holds  i n special Board o f  with  remedial  Forty  programs  assistance, strategy  the student's  percent  a r e shop-based.  f o racademic  planning  program.  Placement and Review Committee  school  i n special  i n schools  i n vocational schools  into  needs o f  l e a r n i n g e x c e p t i o n a l i t i e s and  i s at the basic level  built  placed  or placed  study  appropriate  Students  programs a r e p r o v i d e d  vocational school  provided  education  vocational  the option  as having  an  t o meet t h e s p e c i f i c  i n regular schools  considerable  In-School  progress  have  identified  instruction  along  a learningexceptionality.  as v o c a t i o n a l schools.  t h e programs  Psycho-educational  i s required to provide  t o meet t h e i r  who h a v e a c c e p t e d of  as having  many o f t h e s e  designated  reading  performance a r e the b a s i s f o r  designed  programs  i n which  writing,  learning exceptionalities.  i n Peel  educational schools  program  setting i n  mathematics.  82 T h e B o a r d  educational  subjects  are reading,  Exceptionalities:  evaluations  students  T h e m o s t common  has been p r o v i d e d  comprehension  i n a different  (IPRC):  Each  r e g u l a r IPRC m e e t i n g s t o e v a l u a t e  and c o r r e c t placement o f students.  These  comittees  21 have  teachers, school psychologists  discuss within best  1.5  the school or offering  suits  the student's  Specific  The d e f i n i t i o n s related  school  that  Experiments  below have a s p e c i a l  conducted  context  by t h e s t u d e n t s d u r i n g  study.  conducted directly  For this  observed  when s u b j e c t e d t o  visually  level.  "phenomenon"  In t h i s  transfer.  "phenomenon" c a n n o t  be  an u n d e r s t a n d i n g a t a  understand  the comparative  and gases.  of understanding.  For this  i s used  i s defined study a  as a  scientific  "conductivity"  t o measure t h e s t u d e n t ' s a b i l i t y rate  o f heat  transfer  The s t u d e n t s a r e t e s t e d  apply a mathematical  related  experiments  study the student's understanding of  Conductivity  experiment  transfer  refers  i s e v a l u a t e d as a measure of h i s  Conductivity: of heat  The  but requires  comprehension and h i s depth  liquids  s t u d y t h e "phenomenon"  i n a science laboratory.  conceptual  fact  program  i n another  to the Science  to the experiments  the behaviour of heat  the  placement  a  needs.  listed  The Phenomenon: to  administration  s t u d e n t p r o g r e s s and recommend c h a n g i n g  Definitions  this  and s c h o o l  formula to quantify  and t h e mathematical to the effect  o f heat  results  of metals,  on t h e i r  the rate  t o make  transfer.  to  of  ability heat  predictions  to  22  Mathematical: quantify this  Mathematical  experimental  study  the  mathematical  student  formula  make p r e d i c t i o n s symbolization  data  i s d e f i n e d as  will  to  about  application  apply  the  of  formula  to  s y m b o l i z a t i o n . In  symbols  of  quantify experimental future applications  a p p l i e s an  a  results  of  a r i t h m e t i c formula  a and  to  experiments.  familiar  to  The  the  students. 1.6  Statement The  the  of  the  specific  effect  o f an  Problem:  problem  individual  achievement  scores  improvement  of  independent  instruction  pre-tests  and  of  the  demonstrated  by  Each  (a)  scores  reviews  of  to  the  writing  of the  In order by  the  ability  of  by  of  ability  the  students  student  phenomenon t h a t c a n n o t (c)  ability formulas  of the  determined  the  evaluate subjected to were  the  administered  teachers.  treatment  overall test  was  achievement on  a  series  as of  p o s t - t e s t s were composed  experimental  of  the  the  to determine  the  to  students  student's  p r e - t e s t and  on  students  a comprehensive  questions  labels (b)  sample.  thesis  treatment  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of  related  areas  review  p o s t - t e s t s developed  specifically  three  the  achievement  Measurement of  lessons.  studied for this  students  to  of  the: recall  the  names  and  equipment; t o comprehend be  visually  t o use  scientific observed;  mathematical  to quantify experimental  results  and  to  23 predict  1.7 T h e S p e c i f i c The test 1.  experimental  The o v e r a l l receiving  design  mean a c h i e v e m e n t  review.  The  achievement  sub-test overall  scores, which  score  of students  scores  score will  review  will  after  will  of students  be g r e a t e r  tested  be d i v i d e d  into  after  a  three  be e v a l u a t e d as c o r o l l a r i e s o f  of the students  tested  names o f p a r t s o f s c i e n t i f i c  receiving  an i n d i v i d u a l  mean s c o r e of  groups t o  achievement.  ( a ) T h e mean s c o r e of  two independent  instruction  t h e mean a c h i e v e m e n t  traditional  of students  parts of s c i e n t i f i c  traditional (b)  used  hypothesis:  an independent  overall  outcomes.  Hypothesis  the following  than  experimental  tested  equipment will  recall  after  be g r e a t e r t h a n t h e  on t h e i r  equipment a f t e r  recall  o f names  receiving  a  review.  T h e mean s c o r e comprehension to  experiments  an  individual  of students  tested  o f the concept  review  will  tested  on  their  of t h e phenomenon  on t h e t r a n s f e r  s c o r e of s t u d e n t s review.  review  on t h e i r  o f heat  after  be g r e a t e r than after  receiving  related receiving  t h e mean a traditional  24  ( c ) The mean s c o r e perform  of students  mathematical  experimental  results  of metals,  liquids  individual  review  of  students  tested  tested  computations  on t h e i r  will  after  of the conductivity receiving  be g r e a t e r t h a n  after  receiving  to  to quantify  on e x p e r i m e n t s  and gases  ability  a  an  t h e mean  score  traditional  review. The recording  methodology the data  f o rconducting  i s covered  the experiments  i n Chapter  I I I of this  and proposal.  25  C H A P T E R I I : R E V I E W OF  2.1  Perspectives for The  literature  chronological interest with  Concerning  on  the  is,  h o w e v e r , no  author  traditions are an  of  to  to  review  in pursuing Research  often  the  area  a variety  Instruction,  Task, Task A n a l y s i s and differences occurred  research  time.  or  as  review  changes  the There  from  the that  there  research  that there  but is  instruction.  learning  Learning,  The  of  teaching  s e t t i n g s such Mastery  to  independent  independent  models  and  field  suggests  on  to  correlation  It i s clear  and  research.  learning.  direction  within this  others.  i n approaches  over  a single  of  of  applied i n classroom  Personalized  direct  an  studies  their  independent  further research  i n the  to  of  with  their  from  the  s t u d i e s d a t i n g back  show a  indicate  to  researchers  self-paced instruction.  historical  contributed  are  i n f o r m a t i o n on  many d i v e r g i n g b r a n c h e s  value  various  according  t h a t emerged  there  attempt  to author  LITERATURE  l e a r n i n g conducted  models  chronology  1920's t h a t p r o v i d e  i s organized  i n which  i n independent  a focus  RELEVANT  Review  review  order  THE  has  approaches  the  Winnetka  DISTAR, Time  Plan, on  reflects  i n theory,  which  have  26 2.2 T h e W i n n e t k a The  Plan  Winnetka  Chicago's  P l a n , C a r l t o n Washburne  Laboratory  School  (1922) and  (1926) had t h e f o l l o w i n g  program  components: (a) c o u r s e s (b)  were b r o k e n  down  into  objectives;  program o b j e c t i v e s were c o g n i t i v e and affective;  (c)  instruction  was o r g a n i z e d  into  well  defined  units; (d)  continuous  testing  was e m p l o y e d  during  instruction; (e)  time  for learning  by t h e students  was a  variable. Early as  to individualize  student  C a r l t o n Washburne and H e n r y M o r r i s o n ' s  the  student's  objectives. course of  attempts  ability  The s t u d e n t s ,  This  this  called  of meeting  e d u c a t i o n was r e s e r v e d  was a r a d i c a l  departure  At  program  should  competing  approach  c o m p e t i t i o n between s t u d e n t s formal  a particular  i n educational objectives.  were assumed capable  that time, reflect  both  proposal,  such  evaluated  s e t o f program  t h e r e f o r e , competed a g a i n s t t h e  objectives rather than  the classroom.  change  to master  programs,  fora  course  order  i n the class  o b j e c t i v e s and  was m i n i m i z e d . f o r an e l i t e from  the rank fundamental  A l l students  At a time  when  group o f students  educational  objectives,  cognitive  within  practice.  a c c o r d i n g t o Washburn,  and a f f e c t i v e  domains  with  27 instruction designed  organized  to assist  objectives. unit  was  into  the  Because  essential  well  student  the  units  prior  defined units i n mastering  in a  the  sequence  unit  were s e q u e n t i a l , mastery  to proceeding  to  the  next  of  each  educational  uni t . Each u n i t , evaluation  i n order,  employing  to  determine  to  provide  the  was  teacher-set tests.  students'  feedback  extent  indicating  clarification  were needed.  students  were  supplied with  material  and  Students  were g i v e n an  objectives  teacher  variable  of  these  which  sequence w h i l e major element  2.3  Fred  Fred  refined a  and  allowed being  of m a t e r i a l  this  or  feedback  groups. to  the  that time  concept  for students  part of  and  course  other.  recognized  time  used  practice  small  grade compared  a g a i n s t each  i n the Winnetka  an  was  a  of self-paced to  overall  learn  each  classroom,  was  Plan.  Model  Keller  components o f  basis of  to assist  overall  were  where r e i n f o r c e m e n t  a c h i e v e m e n t . The  still  Keller  the  These t e s t s  self-instructional  programs  student  instruction,  On  formative  of mastery  areas  tutorials  rather than  Finally  tested using  (1968) p r e s e n t e d  the Washburne and  placed within  " P e r s o n a l i z e d System  of  becomes a manager o f e a c h  an  a model where  Morrison  plans  were  operational setting.  Instruction" student's  key  where the  He  further proposed  teacher  a c h i e v e m e n t t o meet  the  a  28 objectives  of  the  school  The  key  components of h i s p l a n  (a)  the  teacher  student's (b)  the  (d)  correctives  f o r students  of the  individual the  relationship  mastered  achievement according  are broken  evaluation. multiple  Grading  there  techniques  student  i n sequence;  and  Test  the  student  is  educational  require assistance in  type  students.  the  instructor  manager of each This the  to rank  places  by  on  s e t by  (1  Individual  from  student's teacher  and  in a  stresses  practise  i n the  of  classroom.  week) u n i t s ,  student.  proceeding  the  The to  number o f  which  students the  units  comprehensive  the  questions  the  order  each  before  the  student  short  summative o r are  of  instead of  i s based  formats  provide the  to provide  role  down i n t o  i s no  choice, essay  evaluate  the  i n sequential order  unit. and  the  who  with  r e q u i r e d to master a unit  following  used  subject material.  student  mastered  small sequential  material.  model changed  student  Courses  to  the  are  i n f o r m a t i o n to the  personal-social  were  mastered by  tutors  of  each  highly stressed;  Keller's  grading  are  down i n t o  p r o c t o r s or  a dispenser  manager of  communication between teacher  mastering  mastery  instructional  i s broken  which  (c) w r i t t e n very  i s the  are:  progress;  course  units,  are  program.  instructors  and  using  true/false  tutors  and  educational correctives  response  restudying for  students  who  fail  to master a u n i t ' s o b j e c t i v e s .  Keller's teacher,  outlining  preparation, individual lies  process  and  the  has  value  sequencing  achievement  communication  as  communication  limits  i s s t r e s s e d . The  First,  the p r i o r the  ability  course  discrepancy  between s t u d e n t  the of  framework o f t h i s slow  learning students  weakest area presents  of the  on w r i t t e n  teacher  with  where t h e  adequately  a wide  the w r i t t e n that i t i s time  frame.  Within  p o p u l a t i o n i s composed  whose w r i t i n g s k i l l s this  to  aspect  are  of the  their model  a problem.  Traditionally  t u t o r s are  i s t h e added r e s o u r c e a scarce resource  s c h o o l s . W i t h d r a w a l a s s i s t a n c e and resources  often separated  o f r e a d i n g and The  third  of  i n most  remedial  tutors. secondary  assistance are  from t h e a c t u a l c l a s s r o o m  are u s u a l l y used t o address  areas  model  on a r e a l i s t i c  of communication,  A second d i f f i c u l t y  and  weakness o f t h e  i s such  abilities  study,  course where  information transfer  t o keep s t u d e n t s  the  teacher-student  o b j e c t i v e s . There  c o m m u n i c a t i o n mode o f  of  program  heavy r e l i a n c e mode o f  communicate  role  of u n i t s required f o r  p r o v i d i n g a s e l f - p a c e d student  i n three areas.  difficult  i n r e d e f i n i n g the  deficits  situation  i n the b a s i c  skill  mathematics.  criticism  i s the  l a c k o f any  form o f  a  summative e v a l u a t i o n , w h i c h t i e a l l t h e u n i t s t o g e t h e r comprehensive course acceptable  p a c k a g e . A d d i n g up  i n some c o u r s e s ,  but  into  units for grading  i n s i t u a t i o n s where one  a  is  course  is  a  form  prerequisite of  another  summative e v a l u a t i o n  success  2.4  for  in future  of  the  to  indicate  most w i d e l y  instruction  within  the  classroom  Block  and  Bloom  The  key  theoretical  develop a  known and  to  1968,  base of  quality  (b)  self-paced  of  instruction student  of  course  an  evaluation  some  student  the  for  influential applying  setting  individual  i s Benjamin  Bloom.  Bloom added to instruction, provided  instruction, time  they  by  the  existing  are: the  teacher;  where s t u d e n t s  required  to  were  master  units  objectives;  evaluations a  possible  be  1973).  individual  provided with  of  framework  components, which  (a)  (c)  should  Model  researchers  (Bloom  there  studies.  B e n j a m i n Bloom's One  program,  system  of  composed of  units  and  summative n a t u r e  to  a  formative  comprehensive  determine  evaluation  overall  comprehension; (d)  individual unit  remedial  mastery  group-based The that  his  design  integrated  i s used  In  within  students  the  who  framework  Bloom's model over K e l l e r ' s i n group based  where t i m e a l l o w e d  timetable.  for  fai of  instruction.  advantage of  situations school  is  instruction  for  model  is  instructional  learning  Bloom's a p p l i c a t i o n ,  is fixed  within  strategies  to  a  minimize  the  optimized. teacher  time  This  Bloom two  areas;  by  objectives. a  On  taught they  student.  the  and  time,  with  a  keeping  units  correctives of  audio  resource f o r the  teacher  who  control  used  the  After  learning  keyed  to  grasp  these than  o f each  to the For  a i d s and  the  teacher and  deficits  remedial  time  a  on  study  the  student's  taught  his/her  instructional  by  review  the  a  review program.  classroom  formative evaluations plus question reviews  the  t i m e l i n e s and  s e l f - p a c e d student  the  the  within  g r o u p were composed o f  group were  to focus  of  a s s i s t a n c e by  correctives  classroom this  unit's  group-based  remedial  a p p l i e s these  into  e v a l u a t i o n s . These  towards  i s given  tests  information to  materials  designs  t e a c h e r managing  answer t e c h n i q u e s of  up  and  "Formative  i n f o r m a t i o n the  experimental  visual  sequential  feedback  student's  this  i n sequence.  f o r the  Reviews  needs  to provide  teacher  then  of  units.  differently  student  student  thus  mastering  variety  the  in a  diagnostic progress  the  is  a wide v a r i e t y  course  are d i r e c t e d The  by  units  Summative e v a l u a t i o n s .  correctives  as  The  and  b a s i s of  individual course  the  of a l t e r n a t i v e  are  instruction,  the  lesson  designed  the  set  correctives  own  of  indicating  instructional  teacher.  planning  Formative are  r e q u i r e to master  accomplished  also divided  instructor  prepares  be  series  Evaluations" the  can  a i d s and  hierarchical  students  more s p e c i f i c a l l y  and for  the  students. a  s e t number o f u n i t s  are  completed the  student  writes  a  units.  T h i s , f o r Bloom, p r o v i d e s  that  summative e v a l u a t i o n or comprehensive  reflect  student  him/her accountable The  teacher  student  must d e v e l o p  and  an  also indicates  weakness of  the  broken  s e q u e n t i a l and  into  must use  two  verbal  is  students  on  teacher  teacher,  student's  the  areas  units  and  type  of  approach  teacher  and  i s used  exactly  program  the  teacher The  first  instruction  clearest  program. For  Bloom,  student  to a s s i s t  is  the  very  each  student  what o b j e c t i v e s h e / s h e  teacher  instruction  i n t e a c h i n g the  difficulty  techniques  mastering  the  is  an  correctives  materials, instructional  instruction  individual  a i d s and  students  to  will  be  the units.  alternate able  to  objectives.  Under Bloom's model, criterion-referenced comprehension.  the  of  a  instruction.  to provide  the  master.  have had  course  making  progress.  must d e v e l o p  hierachical  i n understanding  u s i n g unique  master  the  instructor  expectations of the  second  who  objectives.  s t r a t e g y i s a p p l i e d to group-based  individualized  group  the  s t u d e n t s . The  r e q u i r e d to The  By  to  Verbal communication  individually  of  grades  e v a l u a t i o n scheme t h a t g r a d e s  communications between  important.  role  individual  t e a c h e r must a t t e m p t  instructions  course  teaching approaches during  instructional where the  the  f o r each  on a l l  information for final  achievement of  Bloom's d e s i g n changes  test  The  the  summative e v a l u a t i o n formed  measurement of the  student's  a  overall  r e s e a r c h o f T i n d a l e t a l . (1985)  proposed  33 three  main c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  of criterion-referenced  measurement: (a) d e f i n i t i o n  of a w e l l - d e f i n e d content  (b) d e f i n i t i o n  of valid  (c) development sample  o f procedures  internal proceed the  f o r the slow  at different  science  time  difficult students time  well  course  specified  stages  content  He c o n c l u d e d  such  within  of  a  found  related  to  broken  everyday  I t i s more  performance c r i t e r i a  that  easy f o r  These c a n be  uses by t h e students.  where  of material i n a  specified  "multi-choice formats"  method o f a s s e s s i n g c e r t a i n  subjects  of  could  i s relatively  programs.  master a g i v e n c o n t e x t  finite,  was t h e r e m o v a l  requirements  and d i r e c t l y  to define student  outcomes f o r m i l d l y 331).  student  mastery  r a t e s and compete a g a i n s t t h e c o n t e n t  or specific  frame. Reynold  viable  a subject  frame.  specific  experiences  appropriate  the students. Students  and mathematics based  down i n t o  were  learning  program, y e t f u l f i l l  Defining  f o rgenerating  to developing  c o m p e t i t i o n among  reasonable  criteria;  tests.  A major advantage criterion  performance  domain;  types  retarded adolescents"  of educational (Reynold,  t h a t s u b j e c t s , where p r o c e d u r e s  c o u l d be measured by t h i s  are a  testing  1979, p. and answers  format  b u t open  as E n g l i s h were v e r y dependent on t h e  subjectivity  of the teacher  He c o n c l u d e d  by a r g u i n g  and sample t e s t s  that the validity  were  less  valid.  of a l ltests f o r  students  who  questions who  were s l o w  l e a r n e r s was  were p r e s e n t e d  instructed  be s i m i l a r  i n the language  t h e s t u d e n t s . The  i n format  valid  only  i f the  u s e d by t h e  questions  test teacher  on t h e t e s t s  to rehearsal questions  used  must  during  instruction. Applying learning  Bloom's s t r a t e g i e s  students  i n this  study  became d i f f i c u l t .  "formative"  evaluations resulted tend  disguise  deficits  avoid  their  a section  particularly  to look  of study  i n solving  First,  i n negative  f o r the "right"  on w r i t t e n where t h e y  tests. have  a continuum  while the students  instruction  or experimenting,  formative data.  where a l l s t e p s and  then  strategy  apply  would  answers  negative  feedback. and  They a l s o w i l l  often  difficulty,  testing  possibly  answers.  A  i s recorded  on  student  yield  t h e most  and p r a c t i c e r o u t i n e s ,  f o r the teacher  educational correctives  t o reduce  student  a r e engaged i n a c t u a l  Computer d r i l l  are recorded  where  testing for  problems w i t h d e f i n i t i v e  e v a l u a t i o n s t r a t e g y , where  f o r slow  two a r e a s  constant  "formative"  accurate  classrooms  highlighted  application  These s t u d e n t s  within  to review  later  f o r f u t u r e u s e , i s one  response  to  continuous  testing. Summative e v a l u a t i o n s must be a p p l i e d w i t h c a u t i o n . Students  can achieve  difficulty had  i n recall  difficulty  on s m a l l s e q u e n t i a l u n i t s after  integrating  b u t show  a short p e r i o d o f time. small units  into  an  They  also  overall  framework o f a major o b j e c t i v e and i n a p p l y i n g these  results  to  unique  situations.  strategies  i s required  successfully learning  2.5  More  research  on t h e a r e a s  of  evaluation  i f B l o o m ' s t h e o r i e s a r e t o be  applied to the classroom  instruction  of  slow  students.  James B l o c k  and Peter  James B l o c k information  and P e t e r  i n developing  subject  mastery  research  found  Airasian  (Block  Airasian provided  operating  1971).  t o be most  valuable  procedures  f o r obtaining  The k e y c o m p o n e n t s o f  relevant  i n designing  their  this  study  are: (a)  s e l e c t i o n of subjects  where p r i o r  knowledge i s not  required; (b)  s e l e c t i o n of "closed can  be s e t and  (c) d i v i s i o n (d)  (e)  use o f " f o r m a t i v e "  into  small  evaluation  keeping  learning,  strategies to help  with  the requirements  as o u t l i n e d by B l o c k  s e q u e n t i a l l y based  procedures used "closed  f o r feedback  correctives for individual  The s e l e c t i o n o f t h e s c i e n c e  are  educational  use of a l t e r n a t e l e a r n i n g m a t e r i a l s teaching  in  where p r e c i s e  subject"  objectives  evaluated;  of subjects  educational  subject"  f o r both  i n quantifying the results. composed o f a f i n i t e  student. transfer i s  f o r mastery  (1971).  experimental  identify  and a l t e r n a t e  p r o g r a m on h e a t  and Bloom  to  students;  the individual  of subjects  units;  The  lessons  work and f o r The  subject  set of ideas  i s a  and t h e  36 content nature  i s both (Bloom  objectives  relevant to  1971).  and  This  a very  f u t u r e s t u d i e s and allows  p r e c i s e and  for defined explicit  factual  in  educational  classroom  teaching  approach. In her students direct  review  expectations  i n mathematics,  instruction,  assisted  of  the  such  students  of m i l d l y  Dagmar N e a l as  the  handicapped  (1982) argues  method used  i n subject mastery  that  a  i n DISTAR,  and  skill  development:  "...direct instruction refers to teaching a c t i v i t i e s f o c u s e d on a c a d e m i c m a t t e r s w h o s e g o a l s a r e c l e a r t o students; time a l l o c a t e d f o r i n s t r u c t i o n i s s u f f i c i e n t and content coverage i s i n t e n s i v e ; students' performance i s monitored; q u e s t i o n s are a t a low c o g n i t i v e l e v e l and p r o d u c e many c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s . . . " (p. 62).  Block  found  formative  tests  w i t h an  i t e m by  study  i t e m by  item  teacher-set  overall  phenomenon and  reduced. was  the The  addressed  and  The  evaluation.  By  effect  of  clustering  achievement;  mathematical  invalid  several questions  using  Block  student  validity  of  f o l l o w s the  unit  this  with three of  experimental  questions  was  for "formative"  tests  i n each a r e a  order  questions,  research  for  units into  comprehension of  of completion  in their  the  individual  by  multiple choice questions  Bloom and  for short  However,  quantification  internal  use  suited  memory, c o m p r e h e n s i o n  issue of  to accurately i d e n t i f y content.  best  e v a l u a t i o n posed d i f f i c u l t i e s  evaluations.  components of  results,  item  testing  subject  true/false procedures  experiments  on  in  response used  mastery  by  37  learning. It author  i s i n the teaching  has chosen one o f B l o c k ' s  alternate agree for  learning materials.  students made With  ability  strategies;  that the  the use o f  Many a u t h o r s  this  and  researchers  and computers than  resource  using  Education,  strategies  books,  1986), p r o v i d e  creative  Schools and  such  Disabilities,  ways.  f o r remedial  now  alternative  have  i n producing  these  f o r Teachers  (Ontario Ministry of  specific  the special  of special  to the  specialized  information f o r teachers applying  current  to design  a s The Handbook  on  teaching  needs o f s t u d e n t s .  resource  w h i l e c o s t s have d e c l i n e d . T h i s  to design  scope  are able  the teachers  and understanding  q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y  improved,  Teachers  students.  instruction,  of our  learning  m a t e r i a l s that a r e adapted  to assist  with Learning  individualizing  strips,  of special  i n audio-visual production  Procedure  Students  film  a l l o w much g r e a t e r  i n the past.  personnel  materials.  teacher  including  needs o f i n d i v i d u a l  specialists  are a reflection  value  appropriate.  small quantities  approaches,  specific  which  strategy very  new t e c h n o l o g i e s  application unique  and two r e a s o n s ,  to print  materials  The  lessons  t h a t a l t e r n a t e l e a r n i n g m a t e r i a l s have r e m e d i a l  times,  of  of the review  m a t e r i a l have  allows  instructional  the  methods  classroom  i n very  38 Airasian's  comments h i g h l i g h t  this  study's  objectives:  "One s t r a t e g y f o r q u i c k l y i d e n t i f y i n g u n m a s t e r e d o b j e c t i v e s i s t h e use o f s p e c i a l a n s w e r s h e e t s w h i c h have a p l a c e f o r t h e s t u d e n t t o mark h i s answer t o each f o r m a t i v e i t e m , a l i s t o f r e m e d i a l a c t i v i t i e s , . . . and a diagram showing t h e h i e r a r c h y o f o b j e c t i v e s f o r the c o u r s e segment b e i n g e v a l u a t e d " ( p . 86).  Another b e n e f i t time  students  deficits  of the proposed  are allowed  while  remaining  timeframe.  Many o f t h e s e  self-paced  instruction,  setting the  or used  student  continuing  to learn  study  i s the length of  e a c h a r e a and  within a reasonable specialized administered  classroom  m a t e r i a l s c a n be u s e d f o r i n a resource  f o r home s t u d y by t h e s t u d e n t .  the time  review  room  This  t o do t h e r e q u i r e d r e m e d i a t i o n  his/her participation  i n the regular  allows while  classroom  instruction. All the  students  related the  e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s were c l e a r l y in writing  t o the experiment  and they  and i n s t r u c t i o n  instructional  teacher's classroom  a particular  directly  p r e v i o u s l y done by  process  method was  demonstration.  and f o l l o w a l o g i c a l  evaluation  f o l l o w e d t h e same p r o c e s s  mathematical slides  lessons.  h i g h l i g h t e d by  The s t u d e n t s  f o r each o f t h e experiments,  sequential  and  were  teacher. The c l a s s r o o m  the  and o r a l l y  communicated t o  which a r e  o r d e r . Measurement  The r e v i e w  followed  and  f o r a l l t h r e e s c i e n c e and  m a t e r i a l used  film-strips  to i n c o r p o r a t e the " s e q u e n t i a l process"  were t o f o l l o w f o r q u a n t i f y i n g r e s u l t s .  students  39 The  evaluation  encompassed factors  i n an  involved  objectives  for  overall objective i n the  These o b j e c t i v e s  transfer were  of  taught  student to  mastery  comprehend  were  those  heat. within  a  series  of  relationships: (a)  heat  transfer  (b)  the  (c)  applications  (d)  ability  f u n c t i o n a l use  to  of  been  the  Block  of  the  which  students  school  the have  learning  strategies  H.S.  equipment;  experimental  results using  a  on  the  Rate  of  independent learning  a p p l i c a t i o n of  of  discriminatory  learning this  difficulties  Learning instruction  rate  of  students.  quality tests as  a  has  of to  define  r e s u l t of  difference  in learning  applied  reduce  rate  the to  be  reduced.  Therefore,  using  gases;  transfer;  i n the  the  use  situation allow  greatly  scientific  c r i t i c i s m s of  (1971) b e l i e v e s and  l i q u i d s and  formula.  wide d i f f e r e n c e  instruction  to  heat  Individual Differences One  the  of  quantify  mathematical  2.6  in solids,  techniques  environment  should  help  techniques  Adelman's  application  of  to  along  with  students  who  to  appropriate learn  assist in this  (1972) model and t e l e v i s i o n and  the  An  approach  provided  Adelman & T a y l o r  computer media to  of  instructional  slowly.  a r e a was  effect  (1983) enhance  by  40 motivation  2.7  H.S.  and  stimulate  attention  span.  Adelman  H.S.  Adelman's  (1973) model adds  previously  described  theoretical  teaching (a)  strategies The  for  instructing  characteristics  conjunction  base  with  characteristics  of  the  the  two for  concepts applying  students school  individual  have a major  to  who  the  alternate  learn  setting  slowly.  in  student  impact  on  the  student  performance. (b)  An  instructional  teacher assist Similar instruction" m a s t e r y by  the  to as  the  students  key  component  a  learner  Adelman for  to  Adelman's program  within of  setting. school  slow  learner  The  combined  influence  the  student's  effect  of  progress  subject  stresses  isolates  setting, students  in his  mastery. "quality  of  subject  "Personalized  "Personalized  these  can  better  more  These v a r i a b l e s  the  mastery.  specialized  obtaining His  Keller's  a  room c o n c e p t  obtain  students.  instructional  ability  applying  resource  authors,  but  characteristics affect  in a  other  is similar  Instruction", within  resource in helping  slow  Instruction"  strategy  which to  System  of  variables are negatively  achieve  subject  characteristics school  program.  "Classrooms t h a t are p e r s o n a l i z e d u s u a l l y have a wide v a r i e t y of "centres", which are designed to f o s t e r and s t i m u l a t e i n t e r e s t i n l e a r n i n g ; the teacher... emphasizes i n d i v i d u a l i z e d p r o g r a m s f o r e a c h y o u n g s t e r , . . . he a t t e m p t s t o m i n i m i z e f a i l u r e e x p e r i e n c e s as w e l l as t e d i o u s and  41 boring  To  activities"  apply  (Adelman,  Adelman's  school settings  and e c o l o g i c a l  the development  of the film  variables  to this  and  p r e s e n t a t i o n s were d e s i g n e d  video  facilities.  study,  1 9 7 1 , p. 1 1 9 ) .  the school  The r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f e q u i p m e n t was i d e n t i c a l t o  the  equipment used by t h e student  All  paper  in-school  within  strips  resources  were d i r e c t  program using  experiments  i n h i sclassroom  lessons.  representations of the  examples d i r e c t l y  related  to the  the students  conducted  and using  familiar  t o the student.  The a u d i o  p r e s e n t a t i o n s were  developed  and presented  review  material i n this  with  resources  This  was d e s i g n e d  which  would  vocabulary those  by t h e i n s t r u c t o r s .  By d e s i g n i n g t h e  manner, t h e s t u d e n t s  were n o t f a c e d  t h a t were f o r e i g n t o reduce  cause c o n f l i c t  to their  direct  experience.  outside environmental with  the students'  factors,  learning  characteristics. Adelman's his  article  (1972) r e s o u r c e  o n "The R e s o u r c e  r o o m s t r a t e g y i s summed u p i n  Concept:  Bigger  T h a n a Room".  "... t h e r e s o u r c e r o o m c o n c e p t may b e c o n c e i v e d a s encompassing any f u n c t i o n with t h e primary i n t e n t o f h e l p i n g o t h e r s meet t h e e d u c a t i o n n e e d s o f a l l p u p i l s , a n d e s p e c i a l l y problem p u p i l s , wherever and whenever they a r e being i n s t r u c t e d (p. 364)." Adelman's resource obtaining of  specialist  the school.  room c o n c e p t  assistance within  Keller's  p r o v i d e s a means o f the staffing  model employed t u t o r s  .students w i t h d i f f i c u l t i e s .  framework  to assist  Adelman's model would  employ  resource  teacher  strategies resource  t o be  By  tests  remediation  of  review  remediation  observations, which  academic  students  will  be  They  encounter,  using  the classroom, be  better  designed  the  identified for  this  room u s e d f o r  f o r the  the  director  of  employed. were a b l e  a l l o w the  t a k i n g the  study.  the  application  t o be  would  within  and  a  The to  make  teacher  select  review  discussed i n Chapter  r e s e a r c h work  reviewed  use  deficits.  to  adjust  appropriate  lessons.  These  V.  Pavio  The  The  be  strategy for remediation  f o r the  observations  students  can  strategies  valuable  teaching  and  allowed  teacher  imagery  can  resource  computer  was  instructional  students  applied directly  the computer  non-traditional  Alan  These  formative evaluations.  observations within  c o n c e p t was  layout of  material  of  student  the  teaching strategies  with  teacher.  This  2.8  of  instructors  regular classroom.  educational correctives  improved  variety  and  the  a variety  p i n p o i n t i n g the d i f f i c u l t i e s  classroom  his  the  a l s o have e x p e r t i s e i n s e t t i n g  appropriate  The  to assist  within  would use  f o r the  formative  and  appled  personnel  strategies would  specialists  i s an  as  of Alan Pavio  auxiliary  important  support  area  t o comprehend and  for this  for assisting  apply  of computer programs,  ( 1 9 7 5 ) on  concepts  where v i s u a l  visual  study.  imagery  Visual  learning disabled taught  in school.  imagery  is  43 displayed  on t h e v i d e o m o n i t o r ,  i n mastering teaching visual this  i s designed  program o b j e c t i v e s and c o u r s e  to a s s i s t  students  concepts.  Many  s t r a t e g i e s p r e s e n t l y a p p l i e d i n the classroom  i m a g e r y and l e a r n i n g  i s used  d i s a b l e d students  within the boundaries  employ  benefit  o f the student's  when  general  knowledge. Pavio's of v i s u a l  with a dual-coding  learning  description,  disabilities either  theory  written or o r a l ,  of visual  form  findings  of psycho-educational  encoding  (Pavio  1971).  o f t e n have d i f f i c u l t y  reliable  verbal  were c h o s e n f o r r e v i e w  i m a g e r y b e c a u s e t h e r e s e a r c h c o n c l u s i o n s a r e most  consistent with  (1975) r e s e a r c h a r t i c l e s  imagery.  coding  verbal  i n t o a u s e f u l and  This  i s c o n s i s t e n t with the  testing.  i s a characteristic  Persons  Poor a b i l i t y  used  to label  with  students as  learning disabled. Pavio's synchronic  r e s e a r c h aims,  stated i n h i s a r t i c l e  thinking, are very relevant f o r this  on  study:  " . . . I w i l l p r o c e e d b y c o m p a r i n g and c o n t r a s t i n g n o n v e r b a l i m a g e r y w i t h v e r b a l s y m b o l i c p r o c e s s e s , on t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t human t h i n k i n g i n v o l v e s a c o n t i n u o u s i n t e r p l a y o f b o t h c o g n i t i v e s y s t e m s w h i c h , though i n t e r c o n n e c t e d , a r e f u n c t i o n a l l y d i s t i n c t " (p. 383).  The  organization of this  i n v o l v e Adelman's s t a g e s stages  are very s i m i l a r  "sequential  study  and e x p e r i m e n t s  of sequential organization. to Pavio's  research findings  organization of linguistic  units"  conducted These that  i s required f o r  i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g a n d t h a t many i n d i v i d u a l s  rely heavily  44 on  visual  verbal  i n f o r m a t i o n . There  encoding  is still  as a component  in assimilating  understanding  phenomena.  T h i s study  t h e use  individual  instruction  for  o f an  the d e f i c i e n c i e s  learning  integrated  2.9  encountered  d i s a b l e d and classroom  literature  characteristics  lack  by  was  often review  who  on  active  evident with  Also,  instruction  and  factors  distractability  participation  in their  special  a direct  be  such  as  and  programs  on  are  d e s i g n of  the  task  t h e v a r i o u s forms o f a u d i o - v i s u a l m e d i a . c o u l d do  reduced  their  distraction  i n the review to ensure  t h e equipment had  review from  room had  on  t o be  s t u d e n t s became f r u s t r a t e d  of the students  review  and  confused  i n the  independent  peers.  to monitor  in correct  and  an  their  t h e y were r e c e i v i n g  s t u d e n t s would s t o p t h e i r  A few  and  F a c t o r s which would  students  very carefully  Slowly  the b e h a v i o r a l  program p l a c e d t h e  t h e r e was  as  an  Learn  s t u d e n t s . The  instructors  or the  Who  learning  Because each s t u d e n t basis  within  slower  with  labelled  r e q u i r e e x t r a time  learning.  teachers during  interacting  the  of Students  reviewed  of students  from  compensate  many s t u d e n t s  of m o t i v a t i o n , h y p e r - a c t i v i t y ,  withdrawal  approach can  that  setting.  p r o g r a m s t o enhance t h e i r observed  by  and  aims t o d e m o n s t r a t e  a l l o w them t o s u c c e e d  Behavioral Characteristics The  a n e c e s s i t y t o have  However,  students  constant interrupt  feedback others.  working order or with  study  the  misinformation.  exhibited aggressive  behavior and  the  both  during  independent  outlined  the  following  principles  to  determine  their  this  study  hyper-active Kurtz  the  numerical  and  to  knowledge  smaller  and  a  (1976)  of  students  the  in this  participate  were c o u n s e l l e d solutions  to  reinforcement  performed  very  well  reduction in aggressive,  of  identified who  The  relationships, and  "...the  quantity, order, these  are  teacher  as  verbalizations  ..."  who  they  ability child  ( p . 621)  and as  perceive  fails  to  comprehend distance"  key  are  in applying  authors  into  auditory  components  to  learner students. of  grasp  tape the  the  of  skills  clear  their  perceived  i n use  complex  views  value  students  to  creative  f o r slow  s t r e s s e d the  i n helping the  who the  exhibit  space and  The  i n breaking  ...  apply  required, i f students  "...is  teaching strategies  research  students  size,  skills  the  s l o w l y , which  b a s i c knowledge and  one  sequential units  many o f  learn  study.  materials, skilled  aids  the  teacher  alternate  students  to vocational occupations.  successful  and  using positive  these  t h e r e was  i n enhancing  successful  visual  generate  Spiker  Clearly  succeed  concrete  of  relationships  621).  their  These students  and  in spacial  relationships (p.  approach.  Most  sample group  difficulty  applying  (1984)  behavior.  characteristics to  program  experimentations O'Leary  student  undesirable activities  during  K.D.  where the  problems,  good b e h a v i o r .  practical  l e s s o n s . Dr.  Patterson treatment  a problem-solving  for  l e s s o n and  review  in  their  the  recorders significant  In and  46 factors  i n the lessons.  Ray slower  learning  delayed not  and S h o t i c k  recall  (1976) concluded  students  Strategies the  data  possible  had a s i g n i f i c a n t  measures.  do a s w e l l a s t h e i r  i n their  This  would  peers  research  deficit  suggest  that  i n their  the students  on c o m p r e h e n s i v e  would  evaluations.  t o r e i n f o r c e t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f data and i n making  relevant  t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t was p o s e d a s a  assistance  i n helping  the students  overcome  this  deficit. Torgensen to  (1977) p r o p o s e d  promote m o t i v a t i o n ,  retention. into  The i m p o r t a n t  the teaching  perceptual (a)  deficits  students  should  t o be  infused  in activities  with  high  teaching from  of goal-directed  strategies;  rehearsal  the rate  of the material  success helped  s p e c i a l kinds  c a n be enhanced by t h e u s e o f a i d s  f o r students  controlling  task  he h i g h l i g h t e d  be engaged  require  how t o p r o f i t  order  concepts  which  creative  develop  l e a r n i n g and improved  reinforcement;  activities  (c)  a s a means  were:  many s t u d e n t s  and  activity  s t r a t e g i e s t o o v e r c o m e memory, a t t e n t i o n a n d  positive (b)  improved  purposeful  who  i s a major  require  extra  of the stimuli,  skill  area to  time;  the sequential  and t h e p r o v i s i o n o f rewards f o r  the students  t o d e v e l o p more e f f e c t i v e  strategies.  These b e h a v i o r a l  f a c t o r s and i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s  47 were c o n s i d e r e d experimental applied  review  during  students  i n the design group.  the reviews  used a form  of the review  Even though with  questions  these  apparent  of withdrawal  behavior,  mathematical  are  deep-seated b e h a v i o r a l problems which exhibit  learning  i s t o be a t t a i n e d .  Shine learning  which  i s a measure worth  a number o f  Obviously  some s l o w  have t o be a d d r e s s e d  were  r e f u s i n g t o do  o f any q u e s t i o n s .  e t a l . (1986) argues  f o r the  principles  success,  the  students  lessons  there  learner  i f improved  that fluency i n the rate of  studying  f o r slow  learner  students: " f o r m a s t e r y o f most m a t e r i a l , f l u e n c y i s i m p o r t a n t . The other stages o f behaviour, maintenance, a p p l i c a t i o n and adaptation a l l emphasize the importance of having a p a r t i c u l a r b e h a v i o u r o c c u r a t some m i n i m u m r a t e b e f o r e t h e methods o f i n s t r u c t i o n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r those stages a r e effective." (p. 551). Fluency material  appears  retention. instruction which  o r t h e ease with which  By o b s e r v i n g process  the student  lesson.  t o have an impact  Shine  on t h e i r  the student's  the teacher  can grasp  argues  the students  t h a t these  comprehension and  behaviour  can i d e n t i f y  the important  master  during the  the fluency  concepts  with  i nthe  observations:  "...allow f o r the e f f i c i e n t , expedient quantification of what a t e a c h e r s e e s i n t h e c l a s s r o o m , as t h e b a s i s f o r s e l e c t i o n f o r l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s s e r v i c e s . The procedures a r e r e l i a b l e and v a l i d " (p. 551). These o b s e r v a t i o n s remediation  strategies  allow the teachers  and s p e c i a l i z e d  to apply  m a t e r i a l s when  specific  48 designing the  the  students  educational taking part  content in this  f o r the study.  review  programs  for  49  CHAPTER  In  this  collection 3.1.  design  achievement students.  the design,  and analyses  Experimental The  the  chapter  I I I : METHODOLOGY  sample,  treatment,  are described.  Design used  scores  for this  experiment  o f two g r o u p s  compared t h e  o f randomly  assigned  A l l i n t e r v e n t i o n s were done i n i n t a c t  students  participated  conductivity  data  o f heat,  i n a series  i n metals,  o f l e s s o n s on t h e  liquids  measurement o f a c h i e v e m e n t was d i v i d e d  and gases.  into  (a)  memory;  (b)  c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f t h e phenomenon;  (c)  mathematical  (d)  total  quantification  classes.A l l  three  The  components:  of experimental  results;  score.  3.2 S a m p l e & P o p u l a t i o n The  population defined f o r this  vocational  students  enrolled  i n Basic Level  Assignment of Students: assigned nine  into  two groups  from  students. Eighty students  population and seventy students  were g r a n t e d  participate  agreed  one hundred  were  programs.  The s t u d e n t s were  randomly  and e i g h t y s i x grade  were s e l e c t e d from t h e to participate.  permission  i n the study.  experiment  from  A l l seventy  parents/guardians t o  The s t u d e n t s were between  fourteen  and  s i x t e e n years  similar  o f age, male and female,  educational  and  English ability  3.3  Procedures Training  students  profiles  as i n d i c a t e d by t h e i r  The t e a c h e r s  involved  of the experiments  of  for this  format  t o those  science  to identify  student  formative  literature  performed.  s e c t i o n , Chapter  e x p e r i m e n t more e x t e n s i v e  classroom  covered  test  not  be  than  The s t u d e n t s  and i n c r e a s e d  w o u l d be a s v a l i d  and of  the lesson the and  i n the  I I . Due t o t h e n a t u r e  of  f o r the normal  were s u b j e c t e d  e v a l u a t i o n and  Most o f t h e e x t r a time and p r e p a r a t i o n the  i n nature  i n the  on l e s s o n p l a n n i n g  preparation  l e s s o n was r e q u i r e d .  much more t e s t i n g  evaluations  When p l a n n i n g  as o u t l i n e d by t h e authors review  similar  weaknesses w i t h i n the l i m i t s  used methods and a p p r o a c h e s  preparation  planning,  f o r evaluations  A l l t e s t s used a r e o f  f o r regular classroom  a c t u a l experiments  teachers  the  study.  the  of lesson  and i n p l a n n i n g  p r o g r a m . The t e s t s w e r e  designed the  used  instructing  i n a l l aspects  preparation students  mathematics  scores.  and T e s t i n g :  have been  and have had  to  observation.  was r e q u i r e d  t o ensure  as p o s s i b l e and t h e r e s u l t s  would  contaminated. Assignment of Teachers:  the  assignment of students  Two  teachers  provided  Figure  3.1  and teachers  the instruction  graphically outlines f o r the experiment.  during  the experiment.  FIGURE 3.1 ASSIGNMENT OF STUDENTS AND  TEACHERS  TEACHER A  TEACHER B  LESSON ONE (Conductivity of Host) r CUSS i l  CLASS M  Group  Group  A  B  A  COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION Of LESSON ONE  GROUP A STUDENTS Individual Review  GROUP B STUDENTS Traditional Review  / POST-TEST AFTER REVIEW OF LESSON ONE  LESSON TWO SERIES OF INSTRUCTION (Conductivity of Liquids)  B  Both  are experienced  advanced  subject  education  The  topic the  students  designed  lessons  f o r secondary  to assure  researcher  outlined the parameters  supervised  the design  the  The s t u d e n t s  an i n d e p e n d e n t  traditional  f o r the e n t i r e  Both groups received completion specific  of their data  point  and plans. divided  t o group A i n any c l a s s Group B r e c e i v e d  The s t u d e n t s  a  remained i n  study.  t h e same e v a l u a t i o n  review  basic  The  c l a s s was r a n d o m l y  lesson.  review.  A  conformity  to instruction.  assigned  review  teacher-directed  same g r o u p  of  of the lessons  Each  on t h e  outlines of a l l  and c o n s t i t u t i o n o f a l l l e s s o n  Assignment w i t h i n C l a s s : two g r o u p s .  director  t o be c o v e r e d .  degree  s t y l e s and approaches  courses.  studies  I I provides  a high  instruction of  and experiments  and t h e aims and o b j e c t i v e s  was d e v e l o p e d  received  level  the series of lessons  have  and s p e c i a l  school  and t h e academic  transfer. Appendix  between teacher  into  i n s t r u c t o r s and  i n science  enrolled i n basic  two t e a c h e r s  o f heat  script  qualifications  qualifications  vocational  jointly  s p e c i a l education  lessons.  collection  tests  after  These were c o n d u c t e d a t  intervals described  i n Section  3.5.  Assignment  of Teachers:  teaching  lessons  and review  teachers  jointly  prepared  lesson  The two t e a c h e r s  lessons  their  alternated  t o both groups.  lessons  and f o l l o w e d  The a common  plan. Lesson Approach  f o r Study:  The l e s s o n s  were d i v i d e d  into  six  areas.  formed a  One  mathematical  single lesson.  the  total  s a m p l e was  the  total  s e r i e s of 3.2  Figure during  the  various  total  study  nineteen  Each  lesson  involved a  of  the  the  was  of  one  of  reviewing  mathematical  the  experiments  teacher  varied  The  activities  laboratory  components of  the  the  individual  3 .4  Treatment Instructional  place  i n two  taking science  the  hour  covered covering  students  small  and  and  two  the  time were  a  a  to  or  length  lesson  three of  performed  students  period  teacher-directed Appendix  with  would  a  be  number  study  the  for  both  review.  i n s t r u c t i o n took  l a b o r a t o r i e s . Those  review  did their  taking  an  review  of  component,  II covers  for this  A l l classroom  science  required. in  incorporate  used  for  teacher  length  period.  group  Students  evaluations  a blackboard  of  programs  teacher-directed  took.  twenty minutes  lesson,  groups  Areas:  and  followed  illustrates  c a l c u l a t i o n s . Students  question  identical  classroom.  were  students  figure  instructional  included  review  and  This  were d e s i g n e d  which  work and  session  evaluation  the  lessons  Recognizing  basics  that  study.  experiment  in small  assistance.  difficult.  flow  teacher-directed an  lessons  comprehensive  s e r i e s of  demonstration the  a  t e s t s which  days  period  experimental  lessons.  complete the  this  and  given  time and  one  A f t e r a l l these  o u t l i n e s the  "Paths"  To  and  students in  the  i n d i v i d u a l i z e d review  FIGURE FLOW OF S T U D E N T S  S PERIODS OF INSTRUCTION  3.2 FOR  EXPERIMENT  ALL. STUDENT - LESSONS ON CONDUCTIVITY IN NETALS  T  7  5 PERIQOS OF INSTRUCTION  FORTY MINUTE REVIEW  TEST #1 CONDUCTIVITY IN NETALS SHALL GROUP REVIEW GROUP B  TEST #1A - CONDUCTIVITY IN HETALS  DATA COLLECTION FOR LESSON #1A - POST-TEST  ALL STUOENTS - LESSONS ON CONDUCTIVITY OF LIQUIDS T TEST #2 EXPANSION Of LIQUIDS  DATA COLLECTION FOR LESSON #2 • PRE-TEST  SHALL 6R0UP REVIEW GROUP B  INDIVIDUAL REVIEW 6ROUP A  ~7~  TEST «2A EXPANSION Of LIQUIDS 5 PERIODS OF INSTRUCTION  FORTY MINUTE REVIEW  Footnote:  DATA COLLECTION FOR LESSON #1 - PRE-TEST  DATA COLLECTION FOR LESSON «2A - POST-TEST  ALL STUDENTS - LESSONS ON EXPANSION Of GAS  7"  TEST #3 EXPANSION OF GAS  "X  DATA COLLECTION FOR LESSON #3 - PRE-TEST  SHALL GROUP REVIEW GROUP 8  INDIVIDUAL REVIEW GROUP A  T  TEST ISA EXPANSION Of 6AS  DATA COLLECTION FOR ~ LESSON #3A - POST-TEST  COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION  DATA COLLECTION FOR ALL STUDENTS ON COMPREHENSIVE TEST  Each lesson contained experimental work, and related mathematical i n s t r u c t i o n and review questions.  55 did  their  computer of  review  science instructor  academic All  between the  review  review  teachers  and both  covered  t h e same e x a m p l e s  i n a time  i n charge  and time  exactly  f o r student  review and  t h e same m a t e r i a l  and  rehearsal of subject  t o do e x p e r i m e n t s  s t r e s s e d t h e same a r e a s  period  the traditional  A l l classes received identical  presentation  supervision of the  and t h e department head  l e s s o n s were c o n d u c t e d  25 t o 40 m i n u t e s  material.  room u n d e r  instruction.  individual  used  i n t h e computer  length of and reviews.  and performed  The  identical  experiments. Independent group  slides,  instruction.  taught  to the review  review  review  programs,  programs covered  control  teacher-directed experiments teacher pre-test scores.  experimental  composed o f  film  a l l components o f  l e s s o n s . The s t u d e n t s w r o t e  l e s s o n s and took  l e s s o n t o a l l o w f o r comparison The  The  v i d e o p r e s e n t a t i o n s and computer-assisted  These r e v i e w  previously  prior  Review Procedures:  received individual  strips,  the  Study  group review  received a  and p o s t - t e s t s  after  o f achievement  the  scores.  traditional  where a l l components o f t h e s c i e n c e  and mathematical  i n a small group  a post-test  a pre-test  calculations  setting.  were r e v i e w e d  A l l students wrote  t o a l l o w f o r comparison  of  by the  t h e same achievement  56 Lesson for  this (a) (b) (c)  (d) (e) (f)  The (a) (b) (c)  (d)  The  Review Procedures:  The  teacher-directed review  study c o n s i s t e d of: o r a l q u e s t i o n i n g o f t h e s t u d e n t s s p e c i f i c a l l y on names and f u n c t i o n s o f p a r t s o f e q u i p m e n t u s e d i n the experiments; the d i s p l a y and naming o f each p a r t s t u d e n t s a r e e x p e c t e d t o remember; a r e v i e w o f t h e phenomenon o f h e a t t r a n s f e r u s i n g t h e c h a l k b o a r d t o e x p l a i n t h e p a r t i c u l a r phenomenon t o be u n d e r s t o o d ; the development of the mathematical procedures used to q u a n t i f y the r e s u l t s of the experiment; t h e t e a c h e r d o e s s a m p l e q u e s t i o n s on t h e c h a l k b o a r d using the mathematical formula f o r that p a r t i c u l a r experiment; The s t u d e n t s d o r e h e a r s a l q u e s t i o n s w i t h t h e t e a c h e r p r o v i d i n g a s s i s t a n c e . The q u e s t i o n s a r e t a k e n up i n t h e c l a s s . T h e s e q u e s t i o n s u s e t h e same f o r m a t and language of the t e s t q u e s t i o n s f o r student evaluation. individual  review  f o r the  study  consisted of:  video p r e s e n t a t i o n s showing the science experiments as t h e y were c o n d u c t e d by s t u d e n t s i n t h e c l a s s r o o m ; a s l i d e program, w i t h audio support, to h i g h l i g h t names a n d f u n c t i o n s o f t h e s c i e n c e e q u i p m e n t u s e d f o r the experiment; f i l m s t r i p s with audio support displaying e x p e r i m e n t a l s e t - u p s and t h e p r o c e d u r e s f o r m e a s u r i n g e x p e r i m e n t a l phenomenon and q u a n t i f y i n g results; an i n t e r - a c t i v e c o m p u t e r g r a p h i c s d r i l l and p r a c t i c e program to d e v e l o p the s t u d e n t s ' a b i l i t y t o perform the mathematical c a l c u l a t i o n s from examples o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t s r e l a t e d t o h e a t t r a n s f e r . The a u d i o tapes used i d e n t i c a l s c r i p t s , u s i n g the v o i c e s of b o t h c l a s s r o o m i n s t r u c t o r s . T h e r e was a r a n d o m s e l e c t i o n of t e a c h e r audio t a p e s , which the s t u d e n t s used i n the r e v i e w l e s s o n s . Appendix I I covers a l l procedures f o r the experiment. key  authors  components o f the  referred  review  to f o r d e s i g n i n g the v a r i o u s  lessons are  as  follows:  57 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)  3.5.  Data  i n d i v i d u a l programming components (Bloom, C a r r o l l , Block); s e q u e n t i a l i n s t r u c t i o n p l a n n i n g components (Bateman and Engleman); h i e r a r c h i c a l and s e q u e n t i a l i n s t r u c t i o n d e s i g n (Adelman, Bloom); importance of v i s u a l imagery f o r comprehension of s c i e n c e phenomenon c o n c e p t s ( P a v i o ) ; d e s i g n of f o r m a t i v e t e s t s and comprehensive evaluations.  Collection  Data C o l l e c t i o n experiment There  required  during  nineteen  S t u d y : The (19) s c h o o l  were seven p o i n t s d u r i n g  collected.  These  points  total days  time f o r the of  instruction.  t h e s t u d y where d a t a were  are outlined  i n Figure  3.3.  58 DATA C O L L E C T I O N FIGURE  T E S T 1 TO  3  3.3  T E S T l a TO  3a  TEST 4  What t e s t is to indicate  Subject mastery after classroom instruction  Subject mastery after review of p r e v i o u s lesson  Overall Performance a f t e r study is completed  Who i s tested?  A l l students in the study  A l l students in the study  All students i n the study  Type o f test  Formative evaluation (teacher s e t examination)  Formative evaluation (teacher s e t examination)  Comparison overall achievement of two groups  59  1.  The  test  lessons after  2.  given  evaluated  the  series  of  classroom  computation  undertook  Students  designated  The  tests  as  to as  the  students  a  The  final  the  source  of comparison  the  fourth  hypothesis  series  their  formative  the  of  tests  change  the  l a to  3a, of  treatment.  two  6,  was  used  groups  to  as  test  study.  Lessons:  time.  student after  B  i n subject mastery  The  evaluation  l e s s o n s were a d m i n i s t e r e d  and  Group  (control).  review  covering a l l aspects  instruction  individual  lessons, Tests  between  regular classroom  A l l  designated  treatment  of the  in this  after  were u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e  classroom  Students  Comprehensive E v a l u a t i o n , Test  Data C o l l e c t i o n  within  result  evaluation  performance.  r e c e i v e d an  review  indicate  students  3.  Group A  the  each  1 to  a t r a d i t i o n a l review  evaluation after  the  of  comprehension,  overall  (experimental group).  were d e s i g n e d  after  and  of  series  l e s s o n s . The  mathematical students  each  subject mastery  c o m p o n e n t s o f memory,  received  and  the  after  measured the  review  3.  to a l l students  the  These of  the  to a l l classes  tests  were  previous  s u b j e c t mastery review  tests  lessons.  lesson  after  the  60 Type o f T e s t i n g Used: tested  using  teachers  questionnaire booklets  (Appendix  IV).  The f o r m a t  e v a l u a t i o n were t r u e / f a l s e , mathematical IV  3.6  provides  calculation  samples o f a l l t e s t s  completing  experiments  by t h e  were classroom  of the questions  used f o r  multiple choice  of experiments.  and  Appendix  used.  classes  the series  and three  mathematics on heat  lessons  wrote a comprehensive  evaluate  related  the significant  to their  covering  the related  scores  Retention  of  covering  i n a l l four  w a s made u s i n g  d i f f e r e n c e between i n the four  areas:  scientific  and an  of the function of the parts  the experimental  The s t u d e n t s '  t-tests  the groups  o f names o f l a b e l s  understanding  Comprehension  lessons  examination.  subject mastery  Memory  of three  and c o n d u c t i v i t y a l l students  Comparison of achievement to  developed  completion,  of results  i n the study  Comparisons w i t h i n Groups After  the  A l l students  equipment.  understanding  phenomena r e l a t e d  of the t o heat  and  conductivity. Quantification  The s t u d e n t s ' mathematics results of  ability  t o use b a s i c  to quantify  experimental  a n d make p r e d i c t i o n s o f o u t c o m e s  experiments  formulas.  by using  mathematical  61 Overall  The o v e r a l l  Comprehension  on an a d d i t i o n a l compared subject  s c o r e s between  significant mastery.  comprehensive the  3.7  Figure  variables  3.4.  covered  3.8  Internal  i n Section  final taken  at  experiment.  threaten  the i n t e r n a l  the procedures  variables  adopted  that could  of this  t o reduce  male  study.  potentially  These  the effects  and female  study.  female  of  variables these  students  were  w e r e t h e same i n b o t h  participating  groups.  i n this  i n t h e same g e o g r a p h i c  area  attended  t h e same s c h o o l .  Previous  school performance and  achievement  used i n  The p r o p o r t i o n s o f male a n d  A l l students lived  (c) Achievement:  variables  below:  Both  setting:  t o evaluate these  variables  validity  the  School  are l i s t e d i n  Validity  major  are outlined  Sex:  used  thesis  3.5.3.  and E x t e r n a l  There were n i n e  (b)  test  differences of  T h i s was a  involved i n this  The i n s t r u m e n t s  are  (a)  teacher-set  teacher-set test  end o f t h e  groups  Variables The  and  separate  t h e two  on s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s  study and  of  English both (d) A b i l i t y  t o Use  Computers:  and  groups  one  credit  drill  Familiarity with  Instruments  The  of  tions  Planners:  Environment:  mathematical  response  with  and  programs  multiple  and  studies  normal  formulas  comple-  the  review  those  i n the  been in  their  procedures key  traditional  elements  for  used  the  the  identical  review.  same  laboratory  The  were back-to-back resources. Both  two and  shared  rooms  layouts,  A l l s t u d e n t s had  used  the  r e v i e w were  for instruction.  equipment and identical  had  lessons adapted  four classes  facility  studies.  developed  l e s s o n s . The  review  by  programs.  teachers j o i n t l y  the  used  programs and  and  All  micro-  displays.  i n mathematics  classrooms  (h) Randomized  programs  experimental  to  least  familiar  in their  computer-generated  Classroom  of  administrative  in  (g)  at  were s t a n d a r d i z e d f o r m a t s  technical The  use  for  study,  questions used,  true/false  students  both  and  on  graphic  Basic  Teachers  course  containing  the  (f)  completed  practice  format  were s i m i l a r  i n the  They were  and  choice,  Test  involved  A l l s t u d e n t s had  computers.  (e)  mathematics  instruction  by  both  had  63 Instruction:  teachers lessons  for different to  lessons  reduce teacher  bias  and  review  effect.  64 SUMMARY OF  ALL  THE  I N C L U D E D IN  VARIABLES  the  v a r i a b l e s were measured  paper  test.  tests  were teacher-made and  teachers A:  Items were s c o r e d  under the  Memory o f ability  to r e c a l l  names and test  the  using  a pencil  and  wrong. R e c a l l t h a t by  the  participating  principal investigator.  Labels:  defined  i n the  or  constructed  s u p e r v i s i o n of  l a b e l s was  equipment used B:  right  Memory r e l a t e d t o R e c a l l o f  STUDY  3.4  FIGURE In a l l cases  THIS  as  a measure o f  functions  of  a  parts  subject's of  lessons.  Comprehension: C o m p r e h e n s i o n was  defined  understand a s c i e n t i f i c to  evaluate  to  visualize  generalized  depth the  of  as  the  concept  subject's  to  ( c o n d u c t i v i t y ) . In  understanding  phenomenon and  ability  the  subject's  his/her  p r e d i c t i o n s r e l a t e d to  the  ability  order  ability to  phenomenon  make were  measured. C:  Mathematical  A p p l i c a t i o n of  Mathematical  use  ability  to quantify  predictions  Overall The  formulas  was  experimental  regarding  under v a r y i n g D:  of  Formula  the  (Symbology):  defined  as  the  r e s u l t s and  behaviour  of  the  to  subject's make  phenomenon  conditions.  Performance:  final  comprehensive  scores  d i f f e r e n c e between s t u d e n t s  (test  7)  compared  i n Groups A and  B.  the  65 3.9 R a t i o n a l e  f o r Design  All designated  students included  forbasic  level  i n this  instruction  project  were  by a Program  and Review  Committee. The all  mathematics  and E n g l i s h  s t u d e n t s were o b t a i n e d from  individually  administered test.  measurement f o r t h e two t e s t The  dependent  were d i v i d e d  into  mathematical  calculations  performance  four  as d e r i v e d  variables  were  placement  of students.  3.10 R e s e a r c h The the  related  a r e a s : memory,  on an of  using  to  achievement,  comprehension,  formulas and  a comprehensive  overall evaluation.  These  f o r educational  Hypotheses hypotheses  given i n Chapter as  I are stated i n  follows:  Performance:  mean a c h i e v e m e n t  comprehensive individual  score,  as determined from t h e  e x a m i n a t i o n o f s t u d e n t s s u b j e c t e d t o an  review, w i l l  score as determined from students  testing  groups.  form o f r e s e a r c h hypotheses  The  scores of  This ensured uniformity  t h e same a s t h o s e u s e d  specific  Overall  standardized  variables,  from  achievement  be l e s s  t h a n t h e mean  the comprehensive  subjected t o a teacher-directed  achievement  examinations of  review.  66 1.  A b i l i t y to Recall  Names and F u n c t i o n s  of Parts of  E x p e r i m e n t a l Equipment u s e d i n L e s s o n s :  The  mean s c o r e o f s t u d e n t s , s u b j e c t e d t o i n d i v i d u a l  reviews  relating  functions  t o questions  on r e c a l l  o f p a r t s o f equipment, w i l l  mean s c o r e o f s t u d e n t s  o f names a n d  be l e s s  than t h e  subjected to a teacher-directed  review. 2.  A b i l i t y to understand  t h e Phenomena r e l a t e d  to the  C o n d u c t i v i t y of Heat:  The  mean s c o r e o f s t u d e n t s , s u b j e c t e d t o i n d i v i d u a l  relating  to their  c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f t h e phenomena o f  conductivity of heat, students  3.  review  will  be l e s s  than  t h e mean s c o r e o f  subjected t o a teacher-directed review.  A b i l i t y to Perform Mathematical Computations:  The  mean s c o r e o f s t u d e n t s , s u b j e c t e d t o i n d i v i d u a l  reviews  relating  mathematical heat,  will  subjected  to their  calculations  be l e s s  than  ability  t o perform the  to quantify conductivity of  t h e mean s c o r e  of students  t o a teacher-directed review.  The  scores  (dependent v a r i a b l e s ) r e p r e s e n t i n g a b i l i t y t o  use  mathematical  formulas  will  be o b t a i n e d  the comprehensive e v a l u a t i o n Test  7.  from P a r t C o f  67  CHAPTER I V : 4.1  effects  purpose of the  of  specific  traditional The  design  groups.  called  in a series liquids  follows in this s h o u l d be  group changes students  19  was  chapter  noted  being  gases.  pre-  and  from  students.  to  two on  the  group r e c e i v e d  the  The  students  the  conductivity  post-tests.  number o f  tables.  This  school during  conducted.  of  A l l students were t e s t e d Consequently,  i s a p r e s e n t a t i o n of the  t h a t the the  versus  instruction  other  the  The  students i s the  results. in  result  t h e d a y s when  experiment  each  lasted  of  the a  total  days.  students  on  the  difficult  to unforeseen  true i n running  weeks b e f o r e  demands on  i t i s very  t a s k due  especially few  the  l e s s o n s on  and  on  absent  In addition  a  and  of  i n some o f  being  experiment  individual  for randomly a s s i g n i n g students  achievement gains  It  t o examine  vocational school  teacher-directed review.  i n metals,  what  was  namely  f o r secondary  review process  participated  for  study  group r e c e i v e d s p e c i a l i z e d  traditional  heat  present  treatments,  reviews  One  individual  was  RESULTS  Results The  of  ANALYSIS &  the  students  end  of  school  the the  t o keep t h i s  interruptions.  experiment school year  to complete  number  assignments  i n May and  and  of vocational schools, i t i s  unreasonable  t o be  away f r o m  only  many  projects.  However, g i v e n the n a t u r e for students  This  with  with  of  not  school because  of  68 Work E x p e r i e n c e author by  that  making  over  and s p e c i a l p r o j e c t s .  no s p e c i a l p r e s s u r e  should  I t was f e l t  be p u t on t h e s t u d e n t s  t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n t o o mandatory o r t a k i n g  a l l other  school a c t i v i t i e s  could  Another  was t h e  toward  negative  r e a c t i o n o f many s t u d e n t s  and  such  a demanding program  did  not get i n s t a n t p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s , wished or skip  First, the  the experiment.  become  intensive testing  Some s t u d e n t s ,  who  to leave the  classes.  and p o s t - t e s t s  component o f t h e experiment both  problem  t o such  structure.  t h e means, s t a n d a r d  pre-tests  precedence  or the students  negative  project  by t h e  the paired  deviations  f o r t h e two g r o u p s are given.  (correlated)  and t h e ranges  Second,  and independent  on  f o r each the results of  t-tests are  presented. The are  purpose  significant  groups.  Third,  correlational  4.2  deviations this  f o rexploratory analyses  post-test liquid. given  across  purposes,  whether  there  t h e t e s t s and between the results of the  Statistics  1 through  The t a b l e s  scores  i s t o determine  a r e summarized.  3 present  and the ranges  study.  tests  mean d i f f e r e n c e s  Descriptive Tables  of these  standard  f o r each o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t s  summarize  separately  In addition,  t h e means,  t h e r e s u l t s by p r e - t e s t and  f o r each component: h e a t ,  t h e o v e r a l l mean a c h i e v e m e n t  f o r the experimental  group.  used f o r  gas, and  scores are  69 In  terms of  variation The  i n the  4.3  In t h i s  is  are  individual  section  the  The  results  purpose  i f there are  between group.  Because the  s e e m s t o be  i n the  more  pre-test scores.  g r o u p s h o w e d h i g h e r maximum s c o r e s  given.  differences  for  than  there  than  the  t-tests  to determine  .05.  variation,  group.  Correlated  t-tests  score  post-test scores  experimental  control  test  the  the The  of  of  the  this  p r e - t e s t and significance  (paired)  statistical  statistically  procedure  significant  post-tests for level  project hypothesized  experimental  correlated  an  mean  each  ( a l p h a ) was  set  increase i n  scores  group a s i n g l e - t a i l e d  t-test  at  was  ut i 1 i zed. Tables results pre-  4 to 9 summarize  r e v e a l that i n a l l cases  to the  post-test. reach  For  t-tests  d i d not  control  group a l l except  significant  i n demonstrating  approach  instruction  The the  level.  two  gas  one  t-tests  control  their  may  group d i d not of  the  t-tests.  group only  significance  t-test  level.  were s i g n i f i c a n t These r e s u l t s  The the two  For -  the  one  are  that a sequentially structured improve  i n the  of  experimental  component.  I n summary, e a c h  increased  results  t h e means i n c r e a s e d f r o m  chosen  on  to  the  the  the  memory t e s t  in  the  subject  experimental reach  the  two  respective scores  the  mastery.  g r o u p and  accepted  groups  the  t-test  significance  significantly  between the  first  and  second  70 test  4.4  administrations.  Independent In order  significant groups  t-tests to determine  differences  test scores,  t-tests  control  independent  mean d i f f e r e n c e s  groups  that  w e r e no  on any p r e - t e s t s ,  correlation display the  ( i . e . math, comprehension by t a b l e s  groups. -.20  t e s t scores  Table  14 o n t h e f o l l o w i n g  correlate with  The r e s u l t s r e v e a l (Comprehension  Pre-test  f o r the control  Pre-test  with  Interestingly,  there  intercorrelations  the  1 0 , 11 & 1 2 .  '  appears  each  pages  other.  were c a l c u l a t e d f o r t h e c o n t r o l  Memory  that  group)  2 Pre-test appears  with  t o +.76  Separate experimental  Mathematics  1  (Mathematics  1  f o r the  control'group).  t o be more f l u c t u a t i o n i n t h e  f o r the experimental  analyses.  and  how  the i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s ranged  1 Pre-test  t o be no t r e n d  correlational  and  the r e s u l t s of the Pearson's  are given.  correlations  there  and  t h e s e r e s u l t s . I t was o f i m p o r t a n c e t o d e t e r m i n e  various  from  section,  The  statistically  between t h e experimental  4.5 C o r r e l a t i o n A n a l y s e s this  and c o n t r o l  and p o s t - t e s t i n g  there  memory). These r e s u l t s a r e d i s p l a y e d  In  statistically  t - t e s t s were p e r f o r m e d .  for pre-test  The r e s u l t s r e v e a l  significant  were any  between the experimental  were r u n s e p a r a t e l y  sessions.  i f there  that  group.  emerges  from  In  general,  the r e s u l t s of  71  4.6  Summary The  means a n d s t a n d a r d  evaluation  (final  mathematics and  are given  mathematics  group  receiving  evaluation  tests)  only  were  deviations  f o r memory,  i n Table  comprehension and  13. T h e m e a n s o n  significantly  teacher-directed a slight  f o r the comprehensive  higher  comprehension  f o r the control  r e v i e w . F o r t h e memory  difference  between  t h e two means  occurred. Comparing scores Group  Table  factors  was  mean  experimental 8.9  (table  may  indicate  extended  scores  group  2 Control that  o f naming  the parts  and  t o have after  addressed previously  of several  been  course  i s evident  that  there  group  f o r mean  lessons  the f i n a l in this  with  This may  an  of study.  no c o m p a r a b l e lessons.  improvement The r e a o n s  in have  report.  On e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e r a n g e s it  f o r the  and comprehension  f o r the t o t a l  area  similar  and Mathematics  f o r the control  course  their  strategy.  t o 36.6) f o r C o m p r e h e n s i v e .  i n memory  appears  mathematics  would  remained  an e n t i r e  time-frame  (Experimental 13). This  f o r the Comprehension  Group  t h e mean  Table  instructional  and v a r i e d  improvement  There  been  repetition  an e f f e c t i v e  1 t o 3 shows  f r o m a l o w o f 5.2  on t h e C o m p r e h e n s i v e  produce  tables  1 t o 21 o n C o m p r e h e n s i o n  the constant  The  the  13 w i t h  f o r memory c h a n g e d  indicate  areas  table  i s a great  (minimum/maximum deal  scores),  of variation  f o r both  72  groups  i n a l l three  when we e x a m i n e  subjects. This  the standard  d e v i a t i o n over  T h e r e was n o s i g n i f i c a n t three  corollary  Therefore, significance obtained  areas  the three  improvement  the three i n each  corollaries  that the students  i n the experimental  o f improvement  and i n t h e i r  value  review.  i n applying  review  techniques  improvement  This  suggests  individual  study  in their  i n the areas  there  by u s i n g  methods.  Chapter V w i l l  research  f i n d i n g s a n d make a r g u m e n t s  this  research.  may b e  methods and  further discuss  I t i s of group  overall o f memory, who h a d t h e  educational individual  t o a segment o f t h e v o c a t i o n a l  p o p u l a t i o n who may b e m o t i v a t e d  of  lists.  of the  are also rejected.  comprehension and mathematics as d i d the students teacher-led  evident  o f memory, c o m p r e h e n s i o n o r m a t h e m a t i c s .  t h e same d e g r e e  achievement  a l s o becomes more  school  independent  study  the conclusions  f o r the educational  of the value  73  TABLE MEANS  ( X ) , STANDARD D E V I A T I O N S ( S . D . ) AND FOR C O N D U C T I V I T Y OF METALS  Variable  Test  Memory  Pre  Post  Comprehension  Pre  Post  Mathemat i c s  1  Pre  Post  *E = E x p e r i m e n t a l  Group  n  S .D.  >7  Min  RANGES  •  Max  E  31  5, . 20  2, . 40  0. 00  8 .00  C  22  5, . 30  2 , 40  0 . 00  8 . 00  E  30  15 . 70  13., 50  3 .00  82 . 00  C  20  15 ,. 70  5 ,60 .  2 .00  24 . 00  E  31  17 ., 50  6 .,00  7 .00  2 5 . 00  C  22  19 ,.60  4 . 20  12 .00  24 . 00  E  29  21 . . 20  10,, 10  0. 00  61 .00  C  20  24 ,, 30  10,. 40  6 .00  34. 00  E  31  6 .. 30  11 ,, 20  0 .00  61 .00  C  22  4 .40 ,  3 .00 ,  0. 00  8 . 00  E  29  5 ,. 20  6 ,, 20  0. 00  18. 00  C  20  8 .,00  7 ., 50  0 . 00  18 . 00  Group; C = C o n t r o l Group  Zero score r e f l e c t s a m o t i v a t i o n problem refused t o complete the t e s t .  where  students  74  TABLE 2 MEANS  ( X ) , STANDARD D E V I A T I O N S ( S . D . ) FOR E X P A N S I O N OF L I Q U I D S  Variable  Test  Memory  Pre  Group  Post  Comprehension  Pre  •  Post  Mathematics  Pre  Post  *E  = Experimental  n  X  S.,D.  AND RANGES  Min .  Max .  E  25  7 .20  2, . 50  2 ,00 .  10. 00  C  17  7 , 20  2 .80 ,  0 .00 ,  10.,00  E  29  8.,90  1 .90 ,  4, . 00  10. 00  C .  16  10., 20  2 ., 10  6 .00 ,  17 ..00  E  25  17 .. 80  4. , 50  7 .00 ,  25 ., 00  C  17  18 ,, 20  5 ., 40  1 .00 .  23 ,.00  E  29  26.., 50  6 .60 ,  15 ,. 00  34 ,.00  C  16  25 ., 30  6 ., 70  12 . 00  33 ,. 00  E  25  2 . 20  1. , 60  0, . 00  5, . 00  C  17  3, . 10  4 ., 70  0 ., 00  20 ,.00  E  29  9 .30  6 ., 80  0, . 00  19., 00  C  15  12 . 10  6 .60 ,  0 ,00 ,  18 ., 00  Group;  C = Control  Group  75 TABLE 3 MEANS  ( X ) , STANDARD D E V I A T I O N S ( S . D . ) FOR EXPANSION OF GASES  Variable  Test  Memory  Pre  Post  Comprehension  Pre  Post  Mathematics  Pre  Post  *E  = Experimental  Group  n  X  S .D.  AND  RANGES  Min.  Max.  E  23  10 . 70  3 , . 50  5 .00  22 .00  C  16  10 . 40  2 , 40  6 ,00 .  13. 00  E  31  10., 60  3 .90 ,  5 ,00 ,  28..00  C  18  10 . , 30  2 ,, 60  2 , . 00  12 , ,00  E  23  16 .,60  7 ., 30  6, . 00  30.,00  C  16  17 , 90  5 . 80  9 .00  30 .00 ,  E  31  21 , .60  6 . 40  6 .00  30,,00  C  18  22 . , 40  5 . 70  9 . 00  30,.00  E  23  5 .60 ,  4 . 90  0 . 00  18,.00  C  16  5 . 60  4 .90  0 . 00  00 .70  E  30  8, . 40  6 . 80  0,. 00  26 ,.00  C  18  8 .. 70  6 . 20  0 . 00  16 , . 00  Group;  C = Control  Group  76 TABLE RESULTS FOR  4  OF THE CORRELATED t - T E S T S C O N D U C T I V I T Y OF METALS  Variable  Test  Memory  Pre  C  17  5., 50  Post  C  17  16., 40  5 ., 40  Pre  C  17  20.,00  4 .00 .  Post  C  17  26 .,90  8,.70  Pre  C  17  5, . 40  2 ., 60  Post  C  17  9,.00  7 .60  Comprehension  Mathematics  Group  n  TABLE RESULTS FOR  Variable  Test  Memory  Pre  X  S. ,D.  t-value  2 ,40 .  -8.,54  Comprehension  Group  n  E  X  5 .30  S .D.  E  15 . 30  14 .00  Pre  E  17 . 80  6 . 10  Post  E  21 . 90  10 . 4 0  Pre  E  3 .90  3 .50  27  * denotes  (NS)  -4,.18  0..0005  -2 , . 36  0 .0155  -  E  5 .10  t-value  P  -3.61  0 . 0005  -2.55  0 .0080  -1.10  0 . 1420*  2 .60  Post  Post  <0 , 0001  OF THE CORRELATED t - T E S T S C O N D U C T I V I T Y OF METALS  27  Mathematics  <0.,0001  5  28 -  P  6 .20  77 TABLE 6 R E S U L T S OF THE CORRELATED t - T E S T S FOR E X P A N S I O N OF L I Q U I D S Variable  Test  Memory  Pre  C  Post  C  Pre  C  Post  C  Pre  C  Post  C  Comprehension  Mathematics  Group  n 13  13  12  X  S. ,D.  7 .00  3, . 10  10 .10  2 , 30  17 .70  6 ,, 10  25 . 90  6 ., 90  2 .40  1, . 90  12 .50  6 .90  t-value  P  -2 . 50  0., 0 0 1 5  -5 . 30  , 0001 <0 .  -6 .66  <0,.0001 -  TABLE 7 R E S U L T S OF THE CORRELATED t - T E S T S FOR E X P A N S I O N OF L I Q U I D S Variable  Test  Memory  Pre  Group  n  X 7.00  S.D. 2.50  23  Comprehension  Post  E  9 . 00  Pre  E  17 . 60  Mathematics  E  26 . 80  Pre  E  2 . 30  E  10.70  <0.0001  •7.81  <0.0001  -6.90  <0.0001  4 . 70  7 . 00 1 .60  23 Post  •5.05 2.00  23 Post  t-value  6.60  TABLE 8 R E S U L T S OF THE CORRELATED t - T E S T S FOR E X P A N S I O N OF GASES Variable  Test  Memory  Pre  C  Post  C  Pre  C  Post  C  Pre  C  Post  C  Comprehens i o n  Mathemat i c s  Group  n 13  13  13  X  S ,,D.  10 .50  2 , 50  11 .00  1 ., 50  17 .90  6 ., 20  24 .00  4 .. 60  6 .60  4 .90 .  10. 50  5 . 80  t-value  P  -0.92  0. 1 9 0 0 *  -4 . 70  0 .0 0 0 5  -3 . 33  0. 0 0 3 0 -  TABLE 9 R E S U L T S OF THE CORRELATED t - T E S T S FOR E X P A N S I O N OF GASES Variable  Test  Memory  Pre  Group  n  E  X 5 .50  S .D.  Post  E  9 . 60  7 .00  Pre  E  16 .60  7 . 40  22  Mathematics  Post  E  22 .00  7 . 20  Pre  E  10 .80  3 . 50  22 Post * denotes  (NS)  E  -2 .91  0. 0 0 5  -5 .01  <0 . , 001  -1 . 25 10 .70  P  5 .00  21  Comprehension  t-value  6 . 60  0,.112 *  79 TABLE MEANS  ( X ) , STANDARD D E V I A T I O N S ( S . D . ) AND t - V A L U E S FOR C O N D U C T I V I T Y OF METALS ACROSS GROUPS  Variable  Test  Memory  Pre  Post  Comprehension  Pre  Post  Mathematics  Pre  Post  * denotes  10  (NS)  Group  n  i  S .D.  t-value -0 . 14  0 .4450*  0 .01  0 .4970*  -1.53  0. 0655*  -0. 98  o. 1670*  0.90  0 .1880*  -1.36  0 .0910*  E  31  5 . 20  2 . 40  C  22  5 . 30  2 . 40  E  30  15 . 70  13 . 50  C  20  15 .70  5 .60  E  31  17 . 50  6 .00  C  22  19 .60  4 . 20  E  29  21 . 20  10 . 90  C  20  24 . 30  10 . 40  E  31  6 . 30  11 . 20  C  22  4 . 40  3 . 00  E  29  5 . 20  6 . 20  •c  20  8 . 00  7 . 50  P  80 T A B L E 11 MEANS  ( X ) , STANDARD D E V I A T I O N S ( S . D . ) AND t - V A L U E S FOR E X P A N S I O N OF L I Q U I D S ACROSS GROUPS  Variable  Test  Group  Memory  Pre  E  Post  Comprehension  Pre  Post  Mathematics  Pre  Post  * denotes  (NS)  n  X  S.D.  23  10.70  3.50  C  16  10.40  2.40  E  31  10.60  3.90  C  18  10.30  2.60  E  23  16.60  7.30  C  16  17.90  5.80  E  31  21.60  6.40  C  18  22.40  5.70  E  23  5.60  4.90  C  16  5.60  4.90  E  '30  8.40  6.80  C  18  8.70  6.20  t-value  p  0.34  0.370 *  0.33  0.373 *  -0.60  0.280 *  -0.47  0.320 *  -0.04  0.485 *  -0.16  0.438 *  V  81 TABLE MEANS  ( X ) , STANDARD D E V I A T I O N S ( S . D . ) , AND t - V A L U E S FOR E X P A N S I O N OF GASES ACROSS GROUPS  Variable  Test  Memory  Pre  Post  Comprehension  Pre  Post  Mathematics  Pre  Post  * denotes  12  (NS)  Group n  X  S.D.  E  23  10.70  3.50  C  16  10.40  2.40  E  31  10.60  3.90  C  18  10.30  2.60  E  23  16.60  7.30  C  16  17.90  5.80  E  31  21.60  C  18  22.40  5.70  E  23  5.60  4.90.  C  16  5.60  4.90  E  30  8.40  C  18  8.70  6.40  6.80 6.20  t-value  p  0.34  0.37  0.33  0.37  -0.60  0.28  -0.45  -0.24  -0.04  0.49  -0.15  -0.08  82 TABLE MEANS  ( X ) , STANDARD D E V I A T I O N S ( S . D . ) AND FOR F I N A L T E S T S ACROSS GROUPS  Variable  Test  Memory  Final  Comprehension  Mathematics  13  Final  Final  Group  n  X  S.D.  RANGES  Min.  Max.  E  27  21 , .00  5 .90  7 .00  30 . 00  C  20  19 . 90  6 . 70  4 .00  28 .00  E  23  16 , 70  ' 7 . 30  2 .00  32 .00  C  20  36 , 60  11 . 70  17 . 00  50 .00  E  23  5 , . 60  4 . 90  0 .01  18 . 00  C  20  13,, 30  10 . 70  0 .01  32 .00  83 TABLE  14  I N T E R - C O R R E L A T I O N S FOR P R E - T E S T S AND P O S T - T E S T S FOR BOTH THE E X P E R I M E N T A L AND CONTROL GROUPS FOR C O N D U C T I V I T Y OF METALS Group  Memory 1  Comp. 1  Math.  1  Memory  2  Comp. 2  Math.  2  Memory 1  Comp, 1  Math 1  Memory  Comp. 2  Math 2  E  1 . 000  0.61  0.01  •0 . 20  0 . 44  0.22  C  1 . 000  0. 44  0.28  0 . 28  0.42  0. 15  E  1 . 00  0.02  0.62  0 . 38  C  1 . 00  0 . 46  0 . 26  0.64  0.08  E  1 . 00  0. 76  0.25  0.44  C  1 .00  0. 20  0 . 47  0.61  E  1 . 00  0.41  0.48  C  1 .00  0.60  0 . 46  E  1 . 00  0 . 49  C  1 . 00  0 . 52  2  •0.15  E  1 .00  C  1 .00  84  CHAPTER V: C O N C L U S I O N S ,  I M P L I C A T I O N S AND  RECOMMENDATIONS  5.1 Summary o f R e s u l t s The  purpose  achievement  of this  scores  study  was t o e x a m i n e t h e e f f e c t s  of individual  and t r a d i t i o n a l  on a  group of secondary  vocational school  chapter,  f i n d i n g s and c o n c l u s i o n s a r e p r e s e n t e d  along  the major  with  some d i s c u s s i o n a b o u t  First, in  general  a l l hypotheses  had s l i g h t l y  counterparts  following control  higher  students  Another  a r e accustomed  to design twelve  to having to search  to fifteen  a more d i r e c t  normally  than  i n this their  students students  review  outcome  be t h e c a s e .  were  i nthe i n the  i s that  questions  out t h e i r  own  answered answers,  group. group  Lastly, was  whereas t h e  was e i g h t t o t e n s t u d e n t s ,  response  they  instructional  f o r the experimental  students  their  Because  and t i m e t a b l i n g , the experimental  teacher-directed for  than  group  P o s s i b l y students are  format,  scores  possible factor  i n s t e a d of having  usually  group.  g r o u p who h a d t o l e a r n a new  w h i c h was a new s i t u a t i o n due  mean s c o r e s  instructional  group r e c e i v e d higher  strategy.  the findings.  teacher-directed reviews.  a familiar  experimental  orally  with  In this  were r e j e c t e d . The c o n t r o l  i n the experimental  more f a m i l i a r  students.  reviews  on  to student  difficulties  allowing than  would  85 In  terms of  variation An  i n the  examination  test  score  post-test scores  of  the  In most c a s e s  substantially  over  of  the  groups  the  The  presentation testing  was  i n the  periods.  a l s o expected  h i g h l y s t r u c t u r e d and the  f o r improvements  and  the  experiment. motivation  This  would  o f many s t u d e n t s  a l w a y s work  to  that  level.  process  would  to plan  f o r many p o t e n t i a l  in  process, own also  be  working  structuring  student  experimental  control  group.  highly motivated  for their  appealing on  being  a  would  result be  the  formative  during  Hawthorne  effort  and  performance,  the  (1974)  part of  have p o t e n t i a l  but  an and  do  not  sequential a l l o w i n g them  misunderstandings  group As  g r o u p became f a m i l i a r  those  review  the  the  experimental  The  by  was  i n c r e a s e the  who  a  and  build  strategies.  Secondly, than  to  a l s o improve teacher  re-teaching  scores  teachers  tend  of  Bloom's  Effect  and  use  in instruction  I t i s also possible that there students  probably  sequential  teacher  a c o n f i r m a t i o n of Block  some  increased  This  and  more  scores.  offers  k n o w l e d g e b a s e as  findings. on  pre-test  maximum s c o r e s  testing  o f m a t e r i a l and  allowed  experiment,  This  s e e m s t o be  maximum s c o r e s  increased their  experience.  significant.  two  the  there  than  minimum and  explanation.  means b o t h  variation,  their  and own  own  needs.  motivating r a t h e r than  showed h i g h e r  the  students  with  the  to succeed The  in a  the  independent could design  individual  f o r the  in  maximum  review  students  lock step  who  review their may enjoyed  classroom  86 manner. A l l s t u d e n t s  5.2  times  f o r the review  ability  students  to recall  a result  showed s i g n i f i c a n t  independent  reviews.  study  The t e s t i n g  consistently  received the highest  of  This  students.  improvement  and  o f memory  questions  mean s c o r e s  may b e a t t r i b u t e d  length  of the experiment Second,  equipment were added equipment  Finally,  laboratory  equipment there  identify  the equipment.  demonstrated  within  data  their  retrieval  students their  often  f o r the total  o f new  and t h e d e s i g n  of  to the function of the science,  6, 7 a n d 8 a n d i t w o u l d  using  be  knowledge t o  of the students  to effectively  f o r names a n d f u n c t i o n s o f t o o l s  o f names f r o m memory s t i l l  inability  students  or four pieces  t e c h n i c a l s u b j e c t s . The r e s u l t s  have d e f i c i e n c i e s  factors.  w i t h i n t h e s c h o o l , however, has  an i n a b i l i t y  f r o m memory  groups  considerable  w o u l d b e some b a c k g r o u n d  i n teaching  used  have been s t u d y i n g  i n grades  that  retrieve  clues  students  expected  Experience  three  was  t o each experiment  often provides  equipment.  often  only  from both  to the following  much o f t h e e q u i p m e n t was r e p e a t e d l y so t h e r e  equipment  techniques  First,  reinforcement.  in their  names a n d f u n c t i o n s o f t h e s c i e n c e  of both  teacher-directed  on  lessons.  Discussion All  as  had equal  i n this  to write the data  area  of the students  demonstrated  that  many  and p a r t i c u l a r l y i n  a c c u r a t e l y on t h e t e s t .  The  knew t h e names a n d p u t them on t h e d r a w i n g s i n  87 incorrect  order,  suggesting  comprehension and t h a t names o f p a r t s During  t h e y a r e memorizing words  they have n o t e f f e c t i v e l y  by a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h  questioning  f r u s t r a t i o n at being  functions  of the parts A guided  would  a s s i s t them  often  questioning  correct  answer.  process  the data without  instructors preferred an  oral question  drill.  The s t u d e n t s '  it for  Within  was s t r e s s e d learning  continually  the  i n words o r w r i t t e n by t h e i n s t r u c t o r s  their  response  to a  strategies to  I t was o b s e r v e d b y t h e group  o n memory w h e n p r e s e n t e d i n  to avoid  a possible  rather  than  "failure"  explanation  one-on-one by g i v i n g  a  to this  a group they a r e not s i n g l e d o u t . Although  through  i n s t r u c t i o n that  the material  developing  was a m a i n o b j e c t i v e ,  demonstrated a strong  answer and t h e format right  often  i n the teacher-directed  to the group, desire  wrong answer p r o v i d e s observation.  prompting.  the questions  form  to describe  appear t o lack  the students  t o answer  the students  strategy  i n focusing  The s t u d e n t s  that  unable  o f the equipment  expression.  memorized t h e  a v i s u a l image o f t h e p a r t .  and d i s c u s s i o n ,  expressed  without  desire  o f t h e memory  and wrong answers, which  reinforced  strategy  the students  to obtain  questions  a  a  "right"  was d e s i g n e d f o r  this  strongly  held  belief. Another students before  observation  answered  the questions.  the a l l o t t e d  demonstrated  was t h e s p e e d w i t h  little  time  Almost a l l f i n i s h e d w e l l  for this  reflection  which the  area  o f t e s t i n g and  or review of previously  88 completed stated spell  questions.  Although  as n o t i m p o r t a n t , the labelled  correct spelling  many s t u d e n t s  were s e e k i n g  some f o r m  whether  was a c o r r e c t a n s w e r , w h i c h  fears  5.3  this  of being  Ability The  their a  of Students  students  ability  result  "wrong" were h a r d  the l i s t  questions  regarding  with  list  corrections a  study  final  test  Possibly  many s t u d e n t  questions  as t o their  Comprehension improvement i n  questions  possibly  sentence  contained  A l l students  questions  during  questions  came f r o m  the rehearsal  strategies  section accuracy  have p r o v i d e d  who w e r e v e r y  and  terms  h a d done  t h e l e s s o n s and t h e  o n how t o a n s w e r t h e s e  f o r the students  made  t o t h e c o r r e c t answer  on s i m i l a r  should  Even  demonstrating  the technical  t h e l e s s o n s and o f t e n c l u e s w i t h i n the question.  often  This with  still  down  students  comprehension.  a full  The s e n t e n c e s  y e t t h e r e were  were c o p i e d  response,  to read  In the completion  of correct spelling.  responses  initial  the instructors  concerning  that  they  to dispel.  the importance  to their  were p r o v i d e d  suggests  techniques.  On t h e c o m p l e t i o n  comprehension.  rehearsal  the instructors  o f w o r d s was p r o v i d e d ,  an a b i l i t y  used during  I t i s possible  d i d n o t show s i g n i f i c a n t  lack of conviction i n their  required  how t o  t o comprehend t h e s c i e n c e phenomenon s t u d i e s a s  questions  incorrectly.  from  t o Improve  of independent  this  clearly  repeatedly asked  parts of the diagrams. of response  was  slow  questions. more types  time of  readers.  89 The  rehearsal of completion  independent  study  teacher-directed format  b u t each  number, which refer.  After  provided  completion very  read  provided  and  true/false  able  these  questions  rarely  were v e r y  could were  f o r the rehearsal group  responded  and were  and r e f e r r i n g  very to the  also required the a b i l i t y to Unlike the completion  changed t h e i r  I n many c a s e s familiar  This  limits  initial  response  would  "guess" i f  they  with  true/false  the value  The i n a b i l i t y to limit  questions  the student  to read  the a b i l i t y  and a l l o w i n g t h e students  well  as read  the questions  t o guess i f  will  o f t h e poor  reader  having  to listen  would  n o t be  these  be  i n answering questions  t o t h e q u e s t i o n s as  would provide a d d i t i o n a l  would a i d comprehension.  question  i s comprehending the  with accuracy  accurately. Possibly  formats  of true/false  f o r f o r m a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n s as i n s t r u c t o r s  tape  which  the student  s u b j e c t s have o f t e n been i n s t r u c t e d  t o e v a l u a t e how w e l l  expected  name a n d f r a m e  strategy of review  answers.  Students  material.  f o r the  a paper and p e n c i l  i n this  with comprehension.  were unsure.  formats  used  of the question the students  i n the questions  the students  i n other  they  t o which  f o r the  f o r the answers.  re-read their  unsure.  the data  a c o r r e c t answer sheet  a sentence  questions  used  q u e s t i o n had a f i l m - s t r i p  in filling  The  The q u e s t i o n s  q u e s t i o n s . The s t u d e n t s  film-strips  or  group.  favourably to this  diligent  questions  g r o u p w e r e t h e same a s t h o s e  completion  with  type  clues,  on  90 During the  rehearsal f o r the t r u e / f a l s e  t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d review,  students the  oral  would  group.  I t may  false  sense  these  were The  rehearsal  answer  be t h a t  easy  students  doing  review  and p r a c t i c e  spend  a minimum t i m e  knew  5.4  Ability The  their  this  that  was  groups  continual  data  though They  a n d made  were  review  no  they  questions  them  to a  feel  stating  that  had  t o do s e v e r a l  b u t many  station.  over the  individual  allowed  they  true/false  improvement  f o r a few q u e s t i o n s  students  After  being  t h e weaker  would given  students  got the right  answers  of questioning.  t o Improve  Mathematical  i n the independent  to master equal  review  the mathematical  Calculation  group  area  of subject mastery  f o r a l l students. and a c r o s s  of the data  T h e mean  teacher-set  gathered  relevant, the students  failed  and  scores  tests.  instruction from  improved  computation  to the t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d group.  r e h e a r s a l , one-on-one  association the  area  t h e weakest  understanding between  area  students  approximately this  even  on t h i s  of Students  ability  orally  s t r a t e g y gave  and p r a c t i c e  demonstrated  computer  reinforcement  and  instructional  the d r i l l  on t h e c o m p u t e r  leave  w i l l i n g l y the  questions.  drill  would  how  when p r e s e n t e d  to the students  and r e i n f o r c e m e n t .  positive  observed  questions  this  o f competence  teacher-directed feedback  these  i t was  questions f o r  However,  conceptual  d i d not d i f f e r  Even and  questions  with  direct  the experiments to produce  t o make  improved  91 comprehension The  study  mathematical  mathematical  Comparing the  of difference.  vary  ( 1 1 . 2 v s . 3.5)  6.2  answers  procedures  experience,  ability  t o do  mastered  results  mathematical  to one  are very  their  lack  work  lower  cannot  they  than  mathematics.  found  of complaint  teacher  to lose  the  t o have show  be due  days  that  f o r the  to  or  The c o n s t a n t  by t h e  and  everyday  the concept  students  procedures. a  long  testing  time  was  students.  relied  e x t e n s i v e l y on a  t h e method o f a p p r o a c h  of the experimental then  process  out i n  appeared  the nineteen  i n the study.  the results The  seem  may  and  in their  pre-test results  master  strategy to develop  quantifying  both  i s borne  often  S.D.  attempt  to master  This  great  v s . 5.1  p r e v i o u s l y . The t a b l e s a l s o  c a n be  they  to  a  f o r the  of confidence  inability  t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d review  chalkboard  for  and the  (Mean 5.2  refusal  as t h e s t u d e n t s  time  interest  of the areas The  similar  and t h e i r  shows  numbers. However,  students'  of the students  maintain  have i n  groups f o r  ( 6 . 3 v s . 3.9)  e v a l u a t i o n s . Some o f t h i s  u p " when  some  similar  the mathematical  a short  post-test  Also,  with  Deviations  vary  any c o n s i s t e n c y .  teacher  "giving  T h e Means  problems  with  results.  procedures  5 experimental  and Standard  v s . 6 . 2 ) . The  demonstrate  the students  and d e v e l o p i n g  1 and T a b l e  the r e s u l t s  mathematical  to quantify  problems.  Means  deal  post-tests  concepts  Table  Mathematical  S.D.  of mathematics  h i g h l i g h t e d the d i f f i c u l t i e s  mastering solving  of the value  directed  data  a group  to  using  question  and  92  answer s e s s i o n to c l a r i f y rehearsal students  questions  on  what the  checked After and  the  data  in class  the  the  teacher  on  formulas The  and  finished  these  backup demonstrating  the  student  questions  g r o u p had  reviewed  the  by  a c o m p u t e r g r a p h i c s p r o g r a m and data  station.  was  then  The  to t h e i r  the  the  film-strip mastering  and the  the  the  The  was  reviewed  were g i v e n  a  applying  students  with  and was  point  the  developed was  formula  used  the  group.  to a s s i s t  and  same  to  them  the  direct  While  could refer  audio  proceeded  t h a t gave them  students  computer programs  review doing  the in  questions.  Almost a l l students questions  and  completing  sessions.  The  students  positive  were  experiment  teacher-directed review  rehearsal questions  teacher.  to apply  a p p l i e d to the  feedback  as  the  a film-strip  each d a t a  answered computer q u e s t i o n s  questions  work  with  film-strip  students  response.  and  The  and  s t e p manner  the  The  the  problem  they  to proceed  to  highlighted.  by  While  individual  a p p r o a c h the  directed  pencil  manner.  s t e p by  computer g r a p h i c s  students.  represented.  how  step  study  the  p a p e r and  used c a l c u l a t o r s  i n p o i n t form  i n a s t e p by  Each  to  d i s c u s s i o n was  independent  formulas.  how  and  t h e y were g i v e n  measured a c t u a l l y  students  outlining  done by  questions  corrected. A l l students  chart, the  by  procedure  were then  were d o i n g  assistance  the  about t h i s  were s u c c e s s f u l i n d o i n g the  doing  procedure  computer d r i l l the and  independent  and  review  practice  review  were v e r y w i l l i n g  were to  very  complete  a l l assignments.  very  helpful  used  i n their It  t o them and e x p r e s s e d  questions  testing  mathematical students  felt  t h e method  an i n t e r e s t  was  i n having i t  r e g u l a r s t u d i e s programs.  was s u r p r i s i n g  mathematical early  Many s t u d e n t s  many  to find  such  poor  on t h e t e s t i n g  students  f o r both  to the  groups.  In the  r e f u s e d t o even t r y t h e  q u e s t i o n s , b u t as t h e study  attempted  response  proceeded  t o answer t h e q u e s t i o n s  more  related to  mathematics. The to  following  o b s e r v a t i o n s made d u r i n g  the mathematical (a)  l e s s o n s and t e s t i n g  Many s t u d e n t s questions the  (b)  (c)  tests. can't  t o do t h e r e h e a r s a l  Even  though  They e x p r e s s e d do  they  not  remember t h e s e q u e n c e  to follow,  A number o f s t u d e n t s refusing  to follow  probable  they  of  on each  review  "wrong"  when t e s t e d t h e y of steps  to use.  I ti s  t o be "wrong" a number  q u e s t i o n . The s t u d e n t s t h a t as l o n g as t h e y  they  on  could  t h e s t e p by s t e p method.  do n o t h a v e t o do  or receive further  Many s t u d e n t s  on  w o u l d w r i t e down t h e a n s w e r  do n o t w i s h  strong belief answer  a fear of being  had c o n s i d e r a b l e i n s t r u c t i o n  procedure  "right"  t r y the questions  mathematics".  the  times  relate  results:  y e t r e f u s e d t o even  or"I  a  (d)  were a b l e  the study  also  have  get the further  criticism.  c o u l d n o t do t h e s i m p l e  division  94 required (e)  even w i t h  As t h e s t u d y three  specific (f)  Many  proceeded  formulas  inability  the use of the c a l c u l a t o r . the students  confused.  t o comprehend purpose  students  significance  that the formulas  f o r that particular  of the units  had a  experiment.  t o comprehend t h e assigned  t o comprehend  a measurement a s s i g n e d in  They d i s p l a y e d an  were u n a b l e  They were u n a b l e  often got the  to the data.  the significance  i n centimeters,  temperature  degrees and volume as a c u b i c measure.  group almost  a l l students  image o f t h e v a l u e  appear  of  to lack  As a a  visual  of the data measured d u r i n g the  experiment. The and  their  students lack  difficulties  motivating  of confidence  i n the areas  understanding independent  mathematical answers  problems  indicates  of quantifying results of mathematical  major  and  data.  The  p r o g r a m was d e e m e d t o b e v a l u a b l e i n  students  t o t r y a new a p p r o a c h  procedure  make s i g n i f i c a n t  a n d much  improvements  the process  formula.  i n their  the significance  study  sophisticated  master  refused to attempt  b u t a f a r more  more r e s e a r c h  i n the students'  involved i n quantifying data  i s required to ability using  to a  95 5.5 A b i l i t y  of Students  Upon c o m p a r i n g independent higher  study  procedure  failed  study  group.  post-tests  f o r each  individual  particular  to ask questions were v e r y the  review The  resource the  (b)  The s i g n i f i c a n c e  g r o u p was v e r y  form o f review  questions.  apply  This  instruction  and classroom  students  level  familiar  and welcomed  during  the chance  the review.  i s not surprising  presented  They  i n the independent  themselves  i n this  as  they  strategyf o r  to using  study  group were a b l e t o  the four different observations  forms o f  w e r e made  sessions: After  with  lessons.  m a t e r i a l . The f o l l o w i n g  review (a)  statistically  r e c e p t i v e t o o n e - o n - o n e a s s i s t a n c e when w o r k i n g  mathematical  readily  statistical  Resource M a t e r i a l s  forclarification  have most o f t h e i r both  of this  level.  teacher-directed student  their  were  group.  5.6 E f f e c t i v e n e s s o f S p e c i a l i z e d  with  significantly  mean d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e p r e - a n d t h e  was s e t a t t h e .05  The  i nthe  e v a l u a t i o n than the  The p u r p o s e  i fthere  Score  the students  to register  on t h e c o m p r e h e n s i v e  was t o d e t e r m i n e  significant  (alpha)  the post-test results  group  mean s c o r e s  teacher-directed  t o I m p r o v e O v e r a l l Mean  the f i r s t  lesson the students  preference  forslide  film-strip  presentations with audio  When a t t e m p t i n g  showed a  p r e s e n t a t i o n s and t h e  t h e paper and p e n c i l  support. review  during  questions  they  film-strips procedures (c)  After  consistently  to  the  f o r r e f e r e n c e , p a r t i c u l a r l y on for doing  one  referred  or  two  the  review  mathematical  the  questions.  s e s s i o n s many  students  switched  their preference  of  to  the  computer  stations  computer d r i l l  and  practice  q u e s t i o n s . H o w e v e r , on  stations  they  correct could  and  experienced  formula  possibly  on be  the  instructions  students  will  than  final  appear  computer choosing  review. to avoid  must be  have a h a r d e r  they  the  difficulty  rewritten  Computer  errors  the  resource  very  time  This  program  confusion.  clear  or  compensating  t o h a v e on  the  paper  for  resource  materials. (d)  The  students  fewer  doing  questions  experiments  than  teacher-directed students  (e)  search  The  students  positive  Although  out  instructors  when d o i n g  those  students  reviews.  The  the  the  the  to the  study  aid  study  sheets  claiming  i t  the work. T h i s improve  the  were  i n c r e a s e d m o t i v a t i o n and  very  was  positive students'  scores.  the  ask  themselves.  experience,  however, d i d not  to  on  independent  i n understanding  tended  independent  to refer  answers f o r  doing  about  attitude, test  study  were more a p t  and  helpful  of  independent  interest  of  students  i s a subjective  resource  material  considerable one  i s worth  support  motivate  the  and  Block,  1976)  experiment students. overall test of  required Almost  Instruction  groups  of the effectiveness of  i n this  (Block,  format.  weight  1971 & 1 9 7 4 ; B l o o m  of students  subject  i n the study  mean s c o r e s  i n the  mastery  for a l l  obtained  s u c c e s s may b e a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e  of the visual  aids  and computer  of the material  taught  methods o f p r e s e n t a t i o n  that  follow  design  format.  programs  i n a sequential  at the school  an  on t h e c o m p r e h e n s i v e  i n an h i e r a c h i c a l and s e q u e n t i a l  organization  The  s t r a t e g i e s used  i n assisting  i n subject  material design  evaluation  e t a l . 1984; L u f t i n g , 1982 and Adelman,  are valuable  a l l courses  format.  of  and H i e r a c h i c a l  the independent  a n d some o f t h i s  The  increased  d i d appear t o  the literature,  suggest  increase  lesson  using  from  Both  and  representations  and reviews  1971; C l a r k  would  i n developing  o f names a n d f u n c t i o n s  of Sequential  the lessons  evidence  i n the l i t e r a t u r e  students.  T h e r e was n o s p e c i f i c  of  approach  direct pictorial  5.7 E f f e c t i v e n e s s  organizing  specific  i n v e s t i g a t i o n . There i s  of the study  imagery by a s s o c i a t i o n  equipment with  the a p p l i c a t i o n of  further  for this  of the objectives  visual  measure,  nature.  strategies  follow a sequential  lesson  98 5.8 E f f e c t i v e n e s s The by  H.S.  of Special  resource  Adelman  room  (1972).  resources  and a  different  instructional  mastery  replicate  slow  than  room  i n this  would best  within  was a p p l i e d  of  done  specific  facilitate  improved  study;  however,  extensive  t o use s p e c i a l  that  to students  the subject  This  study  failed  to  independent  review  strategies  independent  study  5.9 L i m i t a t i o n The  of  responded  1987.  This  proved  study  involving  be t o s i t u a t e i t  very  with  from favourably to  r e s e a r c h w o u l d be  of students  benefit  limitations  encountered  during  consideration before  be g e n e r a l i z e d t o t h e v o c a t i o n a l study  The  from  Study  into  This  study  direction.  would b e n e f i t  b u t much m o r e  type  this  time  strategies.  following  be t a k e n  what  longer  f o r use by t h e t e a c h e r ,  observes  students  i n this  m a t e r i a l may  environment,  to ascertain  f o r a much  expenditure  resource  the teacher  designed  observation during  Some  can  to  of a specifically  study.  should  designed  students.  independent  required  the development  strategies  learner  the classroom  students  room  application  not j u s t i f y way  He c l a i m e d  on r e s e a r c h work  his results.  Adelman's resource  Room  l a y o u t was b a s e d  resource  o f many  Resource  was  conducted  over  half  the study  student  i n the last  t o be a d i f f i c u l t the grade  time  the study  population.  two w e e k s  to carry  9 student  results  o f May,  out a  body. The  school  99  students  were p r e p a r i n g f o r f i n a l  completion students  of their  were p r e s s u r e d  projects.  year  of high  by l i m i t e d  into  events,  field  conflicting  the f i n a l trips  the students  to the  to finish  shop  number o f a c t i v i t i e s  few weeks o f s c h o o l , s u c h  and o u t d o o r  interests  prior  s c h o o l a n d many  time  There a r e a l s o a s i g n i f i c a n t  crowded  for  first  testing  as s p o r t s  a c t i v i t y programs.  and p r e s s u r e s  o f t e n made  These  i t difficult  t o be i n a l l s e s s i o n s o f t h e l e s s o n s a n d  reviews. The reviews study.  original  i n f o u r t e e n days but t h i s Nineteen  students  lost  increasing of  other  this  time, the  significant  test-retest  This  tests  form  testing  type  results  ability  made  m o d e l was c l e a r l y  days,  took  a  a great  limitation deal of  a n d many s t u d e n t s  s e s s i o n s . Many o f t h e s t u d e n t s tests  of e v a l u a t i o n would p o s s i b l y  e v a l u a t i o n s than  t h e model used  i n the literature  f o r independent  the areas  p e r i o d many  and r e q u i r e d them t o d r o p o u t  of testing  i n nineteen  Many a r t i c l e s  for  time  have n o t been s u c c e s s f u l a t w r i t i n g  subjective  this  f o r the  activities.  constant  seven  was n o t e n o u g h t i m e  and m o t i v a t i o n as the study  demands on t h e i r  frequent  study  interest  study.  a l l l e s s o n s and  days were r e q u i r e d and d u r i n g  school  The for  p l a n was t o c o m p l e t e  instruction.  i nthe  a n d a more  p r o v i d e more forthis  review  recorded  study. positive  T h i s was g e n e r a l l y t r u e  o f memory a n d c o m p r e h e n s i o n  to quantify results  resisted  i n this  i n a mathematical  form  study.  The  a n d make  100 predictions  was  lower  than  many  However,  educational testing  directly  from  Having  to apply  formulas complex may  basic  5.10  comprehension  and, t h e r e f o r e ,  the lower  Suggestions  f o r Further  The  of this  results  review  teacher-directed  testing results  student  derived  questions.  to  mathematical  i s more  scores  of the students'  in this  area  ability in  students  cannot  The design  value  training  over  i s a need  t o be u s e d  summer  teacher  where  attention.  s c h o o l when  teacher  make-up c o u r s e s  that  enrolment.  for further  study  may  assist  research,  techniques  should  f o r the students  time,  i n situations  individual  study,  further  i n the  focusing  f o r students,  study.  studies  study  t o do  a r e s u g g e s t i o n s , which  in this  program  more  had any advantage  and f o r c r e d i t  procedures  Follow-up  independent require  limited  o f independent  participating 1.  study  due t o low  following  and with  that  There  c a n b e home  a r e more  not offered  d i d not indicate  be p r o v i d e d w i t h  situations  resources  study  reviews.  on i n d e p e n d e n t  These  Research  strategies  research  the  i s often  areas.  independent  are  from  of future  indication  studies.  of mathematical  data  predictions  be an a c c u r a t e  these  i n mathematics  experimental  a n d make  of the research  strategies. practice  include o n how  a  comprehensive  to proceed  The s t u d e n t s  and i n s t r u c t i o n  with  i n the study to develop  on  101 independent Many to  students  new  Follow-up  testing  literature the  literature  one  the  s t r a t e g y of  students  indicate  student  more  really  be  student 3.  of  which  has  than  value  provided  lack  the  more  techniques  are  to  be  to  form  much  from  in  the  tests  and  of  i t is  continuous  programs  would  vocational  from  the  questioning  instructor,  comprehension  development  r e p l a c e paper  in assessing a  Although  pursuing.  prompting  The  adapting  valid,  questioning. Verbal  a c c u r a t e l y how mastered.  were  writing  response  verbal with  used  study.  i n v o l v e d i n the  of  in  sophisticated  this  A  study.  study.  s t u d i e s done at  e v a l u a t i o n worth form  the  more  vocational students. students  confidence  a p p l i e d to  success  for in this  during  develop  t e s t e d i n the  had  of  evident  those  testing  more  of  and  the  valid  pencil  accurate  testing  reading  of  knowledge. Further  research  format.  Comparing  provide  the  required conducted  for  four  students  in nineteen to  complete  weeks  evaluations  should  consider  a  longitudinal  or  five  c l a s s e s over  with  time  to  independent  students of  was of  was  particularly  verbal/response would  history  accurate  appeared  strategies, may  than  most  than  indicated  review  while  The  a  students  examinations testing  skills  s t u d i e s must  techniques  possible  be  have  situations,  2.  the  study  study  days, work  put  when  for their  develop  a  the  techniques.  full  program  were  This  regular  also  may  competencies study,  considerable pressure they  study  i n the  program.  on last  the few  102 4.  Some  format  and  students  a  cursory  students  indicated  terms  having  of  identify benefit design  the  5.  well  examination  of  they  were  mastered  independent  school  This  mathematics,  as  methods, reading  of  for vocational  benefit  from  more  would  testing  do  most  focuses  on  of  be  these in  studies  students  of  study-  students  Follow-up  writing.  students  the  the  value  and  ability  of  and  success  study  f o r these  techniques  in vocational  who  for  to could  the  skill  areas  of  weakest  area  follow-up  studies  may  students i s the  these  and  areas  to  to  area  Although  relates  populations  of  i s the  students  programs.  population, this  i n student  to  studies  basic  This  motivation  weakness  capable  research  subject materials. This  homogeneous  independent  scores  vocational  vocational  teachers  the  the  skills.  study  and  ability  independent  to  programs.  study,  instructional  the  basic  characteristics  from of  responded  of  highest  applying be  they  identified  master  may  major  of  of  are  val\je  not  areas  to  a  of  as  "learning  be  impartial,  disabled". 6. may  be  Although argued  the  that  teacher-directed Teachers  may  subjectively they under  may  have  i t is in their  stressed because  responded  classroom  attempted best  s t u d i e s s u p e r i o r to  have and  teachers  the  circumstances.  interest  are  than  to  independent  importance  students better  to  to  normally  designs  have  study.  their  committed  they  Future  of  i t  for  review the would  teacher have  research  103 should  facilitate  neutrality  on  the  part  of  the  teachers.  104 BIBLIOGRAPHY A d e l m a n , H. S. ( 1 9 7 6 ) . Program. J o u r n a l 570-576 .  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American J o u r n a l of Mental D e f i c i e n c y , 86_( 5 ) , 4 9 5 - 5 0 2 . M c L e s k e y , J . ( 1 9 8 2 ) . E f f e c t s o f V e r b a l and W r i t t e n L a b e l l i n g on S e l e c t i v e A t t e n t i o n o f M i l d l y R e t a r d e d C h i l d r e n . P e r c e p t u a l a n d M o t o r S k i l l s , 5_5 ( 2 ) , 5 7 9 - 5 8 5 . M o r r i s o n , H. C. Secondary Neal,  (1926). School.  The P r a c t i c e o f T e a c h i n g i n t h e Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press.  D. ( 1 9 8 2 ) . A R e v i e w o f E x p e c t a t i o n s of M i l d l y Mathematics. A u s t r a l i a Developmental D i s a b i l i t  O g l e t r e e , E. to the of the  Some T r a d i t i o n a l a n d Current Handicapped Learners i n a n d New Z e a l a n d J o u r n a l o f i e s , 8 ( 2 ) , 59—70.  J . (1977). Teaching the Four A r i t h m e t i c EMR C h i l d - A d d i t i o n . J o u r n a l f o r S p e c i a l M e n t a l l y R e t a r d e d , 13.(2), 7 4 - 8 7 .  O ' L e a r y , D r . K. D. ( 1 9 4 0 ) . Mommy, I C a n ' t S i t S t i l l . Horizon Press Publishers. Pavio,  A. ( 1 9 7 5 ) . I m a g e r y a n d S y n c h r o n i c T h i n k i n g . P s y c h o l o g i c a l R e v i e w , 16.( 3 ) , 1 4 7 - 6 3 .  Processes Educators New  Canadian  107 Pavio,  A., & E r n e s t C. H. ( 1 9 7 1 ) . I m a g e r y A b i l i t y P e r c e p t i o n o f V e r b a l and N o n v e r b a l S t i m u l i . and P s y c h o p h y s i c s , 10.(6 ) , 4 2 9 - 4 5 1 .  Pavio,  A., & B e g g , I . ( 1 9 7 4 ) . P i c t u r e s a n d W o r d s i n V i s u a l S e a r c h . Memory a n d C o g n i t i o n , 2_( 3 ) , 5 1 5 - 5 2 1 .  Pavio,  A., & C s a p o , K. f o r P i c t u r e s and 1 0 ( 6 ) , 591-592.  Ray,  and V i s u a l Percept ion  ( 1 9 7 1 ) . S h o r t - T e r m S e q u e n t i a l Memory Words. P e r c e p t i o n & Psychophysics,  A. B., & S h o t i c k , A. L. ( 1 9 7 6 ) . S h o r t - T e r m a n d L o n g - T e r m R e c a l l o f F a m i l i a r O b j e c t s by T r a i n a b l e and E d u c a b l e M e n t a l l y R e t a r d e d and N o r m a l I n d i v i d u a l s o f C o m p a r a b l e M e n t a l Age. J o u r n a l o f M e n t a l D e f i c i e n c y R e s e a r c h , 2 0 ( 3 ) , 183-189.  Reis,  E. M. ( 1 9 8 4 ) . E f f e c t o f K n o w l e d g e a n d P u r p o s e S t a t e m e n t s on C o m p r e h e n s i o n a n d R e c a l l i n R e t a r d e d a n d N o n r e t a r d e d I n d i v i d u a l s . Paper presented at the Annual G a t l i n b u r g C o n f e r e n c e on R e s e a r c h i n M e n t a l R e t a r d a t i o n and D e v e l o p m e n t D i s a b i l i t i e s . (ERIC Document Reproduction S e r v i c e No. ED 247 701) -  R e y n o l d s , W. M. ( 1 9 7 9 ) . The U t i l i t y o f M u l t i p l e - C h o i c e T e s t Formats with M i l d l y Retarded Adolescents. Educational a n d P s y c h o l o g i c a l M e a s u r e m e n t , 3_9 ( 2 ) , 3 2 5 - 3 3 1 . Shinn,  M. R., Y s s e l d y k e , J . E. ,. D e n o , S. L., & T i n d a l , G. A. (1986). A Comparison of D i f f e r e n c e s Between Students l a b e l l e d L e a r n i n g D i s a b l e d a n d Low A c h i e v i n g on M e a s u r e s of Classroom Performance. J o u r n a l of L e a r n i n g D i s a b i l i t i e s , 1_9 ( 9 ) , 4 5 - 5 1 .  S t a n o v i c h , K. E. ( 1 9 8 2 ) . I n d i v i d u a l D i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e C o g n i t i v e P r o c e s s e s o f R e a d i n g : I . Word D e c o d i n g . J o u r n a l o f L e a r n i n g D i s a b i l i t i e s , 1_5 ( 8 ) , 4 8 5 - 4 9 0 . S t a n o v i c h , K. E. ( 1 9 8 2 ) . I n d i v i d u a l D i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e C o g n i t i v e Processes of Reading: I I . Text-Level P r o c e s s e s . J o u r n a l o f L e a r n i n g D i s a b i l i t i e s , 15(9 ) , 549-553. T i n d a l , G., F u c h s , L. S., F u c h s , D., S h i n n , M. R., Deno, S. L., & G e r m a n n , G. ( 1 9 8 5 ) . E m p i r i c a l V a l i d a t i o n o f C r i t e r i o n - R e f e r e n c e d T e s t s . J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , 7_8 ( 4 ) , 2 0 3 - 2 0 9 .  108 T o r g e s e n , J . K. ( 1 9 7 7 ) . The R o l e o f N o n s p e c i f i c F a c t o r s i n Task Performance of L e a r n i n g D i s a b l e d C h i l d r e n : A T h e o r e t i c a l Assessment. J o u r n a l of L e a r n i n g D i s a b i l i t i e s , 10.(1), 3 3 - 3 7 .  the  V o c k e l l , E. L., & J a c o b s o n , V. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . S o u r c e s o f I n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e L e a r n i n g D i s a b i l i t i e s and S p e c i a l Education L i t e r a t u r e . J o u r n a l of Learning Disabilities, 6, 8 3 - 8 8 . W a s h b u r n e , C. W. ( 1 9 2 2 ) . E d u c a t i o n a l M e a s u r e m e n t s a s a K e y t o I n d i v i d u a l i z i n g I n s t r u c t i o n and P r o m o t i o n s . J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , 5_, 1 9 5 - 2 0 6 . W i l s o n , L., C o n e , T., B r a d l e y , C , & Reese, J . (1986). The C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f L e a r n i n g D i s a b l e d and O t h e r Handicapped Students R e f e r r e d f o r E v a l u a t i o n i n the S t a t e o f Iowa. J o u r n a l o f L e a r n i n g D i s a b i l i t i e s , 19(9) , 553-557. Wong, B. ( 1 9 7 9 ) . The R o l e o f T h e o r y i n L e a r n i n g Disabilities Research P a r t I I . A S e l e c t i v e Review of Current Theories o f L e a r n i n g and R e a d i n g D i s a b i l i t i e s . J o u r n a l o f L e a r n i n g D i s a b i l i t i e s , 12.(10), 1 5 - 2 4 .  109 APPENDIX  EXAMPLES  OF  PSYCHO-EDUCATIONAL  ASSESSMENT SAMPLE  (a)  Psycho-educational to assess students  (b)  Examples sheets  (c)  Example  I  EVALUATIONS  AND  OF  POPULATION  assessment instruments f o r vocational schools  of independent  o f an a d m i s s i o n  assessment  placement  summary  letter  used  test  results  Psycho-Educational Testing Vocational Admission: (i)  Instruments  used  for  WISC-R - t h i s i s a n i n d i v i d u a l student assessment administered by a q u a l i f i e d school p s y c h o l o g i s t . T h i s i s r e p o r t e d on t h e f o r m a s : Fs V P  VERBAL  -  full scale I.Q. verbal I.Q. Performance  TESTS  PERFORMANCE  Information  Picture  Similarities  Picture  TESTS  completion  arrangement Arithmetic  Block  Vocabulary  Object  Comprehension  Coding  Digit  v = full  verbal;  Monroe  Sherman  i s scored  spelling;  i s often administered in stanines: p  W.R.A.T. - t h i s  This  assembly  Span  C.C.A.T. - T h i s and i s r e p o r t e d  This  Design  =  performance;  Reading  Aptitude  i n grade i s an  and  i n grade  s  a group  =  Achievement  test  subtests  Test:  equivalents  achievement  reading;  i s scored  as  test  for grading  arithmetic equivalents  S e n t e n c e c o m p l e t i o n t e s t s and t h e Raven Progressive M a t r i c e s a r e o f t e n used by p s y c h o l o g i s t s doing individual assessments.  of:  fo  THE  P E E L BOARD OF  EDUCATION  BE/LD PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT BCs  C SUMMARY OF FOR  PSYCHOLOGICAL  TEST  RESULTS  DEPARTMENT F I L E ONLY  Name  Date  Birthdate: School Placement  Previous  Tests  C. A, 1^  WPPSI V e r b a l  & Visumotor Mid-Average  WISC-R N o n - V e r b a l Verbal  Verbal Full M.A. I.Q.  Perf I.Q.  1976  A v e r a g e Range Low A v e r a g e  Wide Range A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t R e a d i n g Spelling - grade e q u i v a l e n t A r i t h m e t i c - grade e q u i v a l e n t Present  Test(s)  C. A, I.Q,  I.Q.  I.Q.  Wechsler I n t e l l i g e n c e Scale f o r Children ( r e v i sed) Verbal tests Information  Performance Tests Picture completion  Similarities  Picture  Scaled scores of Ten are average  Arithmetic Vocabulary  Comprehension ( D i g i t Span)  Block  arrangement  design  Object Coding (Mazes)  assembly  M.A,  *  (o fc  STUDENT P O P U L A T I O N Headings  fordescribing  PROFILE Population  Data  Student  Name:  Names class  Student  Number :  Cross referenced t o data sheets  o f a l l s t u d e n t s . Grouped and by t r e a t m e n t A o r B  Age:  Age  Sex:  Male o r Female  Exceptionality : Label:  General  of student  i n years  Slow Leaner  by  collection  and months  - (SL)  L e a r n i n g D i s a b l e d (GLD) Withdrawal  Assistance  Behavioral  (B)  Specific  Learning  Opportunity Class IGLD-Intermediate Disabled Classroom  Disability ( Int  Reading  English  as a Second  Intellectual  Class  (SRC)  Exceptionality  Exceptionality  F u l l Score (FS) V e r b a l (V) P e r f o r m a n c e (P)  C.A.A.T. (in stainines)  Verbal (v) Quantitative Spaci a l (s) Reading (M)  Op)  Language (ESL)  W.I.S.C. S c o r e s (in percentiles)  Grade e q u i v a l e n t Scores Mathematics (grade l e v e l )  (R)  (SLD)  General Learning Setting  Special  Communications  (W)  (q)  (Exc-com) (Exc-In)  APPENDIX I I  C O R R E L A T I O N OF PSYCHO-EDUCATIONAL V A L U A T I O N SCORES FOR PARTICIPATING  Background Description  STUDENTS  I N THE  to material  STUDY  development  and examples  of review  (i)  video  presentation  (ii)  slide  program  (iii)  film-strip  (iv)  drill  (v)  paper and p e n c i l  Organizational  materials  program  and p r a c t i c e computer  chart  review  review  of review  room  layout  ///  (A)  Background The  to Review M a t e r i a l  individual  k n o w l e d g e on related assist  All  and  designed of  The  i n determining  the  science experiments  formative tests  the areas  to d i r e c t  to c o n s o l i d a t e student  him  provided data  of weakness of  to review  and to  each  situations  that  would  drill  and  the a p p r o p r i a t e e d u c a t i o n a l c o r r e c t i v e s .  review  practice  material  focused  Description  provided visual,  c o m p o n e n t s . The  situational  (i)  a l l aspects  mathematics.  student apply  r e v i e w was  Development:  as  to the  of Review  and  r e v i e w s were d e s i g n e d  specific  possible  audio  classrooms  f o r the  slow  and  learner  to  t o be  be as  student.  Material:  Video p r e s e n t a t i o n #Educational Each  experiment  explanation experiment done  purpose  and  taped  "how  actual  w i t h an a u d i t o r y  t o " conduct  what t o o b s e r v e .  The  t h a t used  experiment  by  the  i n order  to focus  on  and  slow  the  five  in length.  purpose  ...  this  review  motion,  critical  o b s e r v a t i o n s . E a c h v i d e o was  *Educational  using  students  experimental minutes  was  experiment.  techniques, using close-ups  were employed  the  s c i e n c e l a b o r a t o r y and  e q u i p m e n t as  when t h e y d i d t h e Video  video  f o c u s i n g on  i n the  identical  was  ...  four  provided  to  a  (1^-  general the  overview of  student  when he (ii)  Slide  with  of  slide  equipment, the  on  the  of  of  student  the  instructors  the  review  of  experimental  audio  one  made a s  minutes  and  of  the  audio  audio  they  of  of  set-up  equipment.  showing  each  the  t a p e was  presentation  made  which  their  to  the  t a p e s w e r e made b y  focused  could  the  comments  equipment and  have between  c o m m e n t . The  on  the  a  long  20-30  choice  of  whether  presentation  or  a  a result  of  the  memory  short  component  tests.  program u s u a l l y  for a  set-up  An  scientific  experimental  each p i e c e  scientific  formative  slide  of  student's  set-up.  received  from h i s  parts  were o r g a n i z e d  The  the  student was  names o f  use  presentation and  the  slide  reviewed.  slide  focus  equipment.  two  The  observations  - to  o r g a n i z a t i o n of  e q u i p m e n t and  sequence with  slides  the  slides  experimental  A  his  assisted  experiment,  program  functional  series  part  the  of  and  Program:  concentration  A  experiment  his recall  conducted  Purpose  and  the  student  required  review.  four  to  seven  a  (iii)  Film-strip Purpose a  Program:  of Film-strip  film-strip,  experimental of  time,  which  Review  outlined  set-up  - each  a review  had  of the  f o c u s i n g on t h e measurements  temperature  and l e n g t h , which t h e  s t u d e n t s w e r e t o r e c o r d . An a u d i o sequenced  experiment  to explain  review  tape  was  "how t o " t a k e t h e  measurements and t h e "procedures"  to record the  observations. The  review  program  step-by-step step  proceeded  review with audio  i n the procedure  mathematical Each  then  results  film-strip  used  students  on t h i s  back-up of  each  to calculate the  of the experiment.  was 1 6 - 1 8 f r a m e s w i t h a u d i o  made b y t h e t e a c h e r s . S t u d e n t s minutes  to a  area  spent  between  of the review with  repeating this  area  tapes 8-15  many  f o r added  reinforcement. (iv)  Computer D r i l l Purpose used the  & Practice  o f Computer Review  a program students  mathematical situations.  called  Review: - The c o m p u t e r  "Windows" d e s i g n e d  review to assist  t o a c c u r a t e l y do t h e a c t u a l , calculations  from  given  experimental  ni  The  computer  assistance heat  responded  by demonstrating  and expansion  various  stages  mathematical Students  were  Paper  pencil  data  on t h i s  & Pencil  Purpose  experiments  of  students at  performing  confronted  the  Most  four  students  p o r t i o n of the  to five  sets of  spent  of  15 t o 20  review.  Review:  of Paper review  with  and r e c e i v e d a " p r i n t - o u t "  responses.  minutes  graphic  and prompting  of their  requests f o r  calculations.  experimental their  to student  & Pencil  provided  Review  - Paper and  the student  experimental  data  to assist  mathematical  calculations  them  with  i n making t h e  r e q u i r e d f o rthe  experiments. The  review  Students paper to  question  could  was  with  page.  provided  calculations  carbon-sensed  the second  solution  make  sheets  pictorial  clues  to focus  required to calculate  The  response  film-strip sess ions.  was  o r computer  usually drill  1.  came  2 contained  specifics paper  on p a g e  and answers  Page  the data.  a  The  through complete  on t h e  the answers. performed  and  practice  after  the  (if  Cond A3, Rev.  Review Questions Calculate  #1:  the Rate  of Expansion of a i r from  the  following  data: 1.  Perimeter of Balloon  Before Heating  2.  Perimeter of Balloon  After  3.  Time w h i l e  4.  Time s t a r t i n g  Steps  to  heating  Heating  1 minute  7 cm  =  D_l  12 cm  =  D2  =  T2_  =  Tl  40 s e c o n d s 0  follow  1.  Change  2.  Rate  i n Perimeter  of Expansion  =  E l a p s e d Time  =  Change  =  i n Perimeter  Elapsed  Time  INSTRUCTIONS On  t h e above problem  - write  your  answers  o p p o s i t e #1  on t h e  film-strips.  using  t h e same p r o c e d u r e  outlined  After  you have completed  your  and  review your  the  second  answers.  two  If corrections  lift  problems.  proceed  #2  up t h e s h e e t  are required,  correct  sheet.  When y o u h a v e f i n i s h e d , final  calculations,  and  t o page 3 and c o m p l e t e  the  C o n d A3 , Rev-  Review Questions Calculate  #1  the Rate  of Expansion  o f A i r from  the  following  data: 1.  Perimeter  of Balloon Before  2.  Perimeter  of Balloon After  3.  Time w h i l e h e a t i n g  4.  Time s t a r t i n g  Steps  to  Heating Heating  1 minute  7 cm  =  D_l  12 cm  =  D2_  =  T2_  =  TI  40 s e c o n d s 0  follow  1.  Change  2.  Rate  i n Perimeter  of Expansion  =  Elapsed  =  Change  Time = i n Perimeter  Elapsed  Time  APPENDIX I I I D E S C R I P T I O N AND  EXAMPLES  OF INDEPENDENT STUDY RESOURCE The student and  review  was d e s i g n e d  k n o w l e d g e on a l l a s p e c t s  related  assist and  individual  mathematics.  i n determining  to direct  appropriate All practice  him t o review  review  possible  (a)  Video  situations  classrooms  the students  what  science  was v i d e o  to observe.  participating  t o be as  i n the study.  ...  taped  w i t h an a u d i t o r y  The e x p e r i m e n t  l a b o r a t o r y and u s i n g  i n order  observations.  and  a n d t o be a s f o c u s e d  f o c u s i n g o n "how t o " c o n d u c t  techniques,  employed  and d r i l l  Material:  used by t h e s t u d e n t s Video  audio  Presentation  Each experiment  and  student  that would apply the  were d e s i g n e d  * E d u c a t i o n a l purpose  explanation  provided data to  o f weakness o f each  The r e v i e w s  of Review  experiments  correctives.  to the s p e c i f i c  to assist  Description  of the science  material provided visual,  components.  situational  to consolidate  The f o r m a t i v e t e s t s  the areas  educational  MATERIALS  Each  d i d the  using close-ups to focus video  was d o n e  identical  when t h e y  the  experiment i n the actual  equipment as t h a t experiment.  and slow  on t h e c r i t i c a l  was f o u r t o f i v e  motion,  were  experimental minutes i n  length. *Educational overview his  purpose  ... t h i s  of the experiment  recall  review  provided a  and a s s i s t e d  general  the student  o f h i s o b s e r v a t i o n s w h e n he c o n d u c t e d  with  the  experiment. (ii)  Slide  Program:  Purpose  of slide  concentration equipment, and  of slides  slide  reviewed.  was o r g a n i z e d  An a u d i o  A slide slides student one from  tape  The a u d i o  tapes  and they  each  part  with  the student  w e r e made b y t h e t w o their  comments on t h e  equipment and t h e  set-up.  p r e s e n t a t i o n c o u l d have b e t w e e n 20-30 and audio  comment. The c h o i c e  of whether  received a long presentaiton or a short  was made a s a r e s u l t h i s formative slide  minutes  showing  was made t o s e q u e n c e  focused  of the s c i e n t i f i c  experimental  set-up  of the experimental  p r e s e n t a t i o n , which  instructors review  scientific  use o f each p i e c e o f equipment.  equipment and t h e s e t - u p  the  the student's  the organization of experimental  equipment.  The  - t o focus  on t h e names o f p a r t s o f  the functional  A series of  program  o f t h e memory  component  tests.  program u s u a l l y  f o r a student  r e q u i r e d four t o seven  review.  a  (iii)  Film-strip Purpose a  Program:  of Film-strip  film-strip,  experimental of  time,  which  Review  outlined  set-up  - each  a review  had  of the  f o c u s i n g on t h e m e a s u r e m e n t s  temperature  and l e n g t h , which t h e  s t u d e n t s w e r e t o r e c o r d . An a u d i o sequenced  experiment  to explain  review  tape  was  "how t o " t a k e t h e  measurements and t h e "procedures"  to record the  observations. The step  review program review  procedure results Each  then  with audio  used  proceeded  back-up o f each  to calculate  i nthe  the mathematical  was 2 6 - 2 8 f r a m e s w i t h a u d i o  made b y t h e t e a c h e r s . S t u d e n t s  students  step  of the experiment.  film-strip  minutes  t o a s t e p by-  on t h i s  area  spent  of the review  repeating this  area  between  with  tapes 8-15  many  f o r added  reinforcement. (iv)  Computer D r i l l Purpose used the  & Practice  o f Computer Review  a program c a l l e d students  mathematical  Review: - The c o m p u t e r  "Windows" d e s i g n e d  review to assist  t o a c c u r a t e l y do t h e a c t u a l calculations  from  given  experimental  s ituat ions. The  computer  responded  to student  requests f o r  assistance heat  by demonstrating  and expansion  various  stages  mathematical Students  Paper  students at  performing the  sets of  data and r e c e i v e d a " p r i n t - o u t "  & Pencil  Most s t u d e n t s portion  spent  of  15 t o 20  of the review.  Review:  o f Paper review  of  calculations.  on t h i s  Purpose pencil  of their  responses.  minutes  and prompting  were c o n f r o n t e d w i t h f o u r t o f i v e  experimental their  graphic experiments  & Pencil  Review  -  provided the student  experimental  data  to assist  mathematical  calculations  them  Paper  and  with  i n making t h e  required f o r the  experiments. The  review  Students paper to  question sheets  c o u l d make c a l c u l a t i o n s  was c a r b o n - s e n s e d  t h e second  solution  provided the data.  page.  Page  with p i c t o r i a l  a n d a n s w e r s came 2 contained a clues to focus  specifics  required to calculate  The  response  paper  film-strip sessions.  on p a g e  was u s u a l l y  o r computer d r i l l  the  1. T h e through  complete on t h e  answers.  performed  and p r a c t i c e  after the  APPENDIX IV T E S T INSTRUMENTS  USED  FOR E V A L U A T I O N OF SAMPLE AND P O P U L A T I O N Test  instruments used  f o r evaluations:  (a)  Pre-test  c o n d u c t i v i t y of metals  (b)  Post-test  (c)  Pre-test  (d)  Post-test  (e)  Pre-test  (f)  Post-test  (g)  Comprehensive e v a l u a t i o n completion of experiment  c o n d u c t i v i t y of metals expansion expansion  of of  liquids liquids  e x p a n s i o n o f gas expansion  o f gas after  B)  F I L L IN THE BLANKS  Use t h e f o l l o w i n g terms t o f i l l i n t h e b l a n k s .  identical aluminum brass 1.  wax r i n g s bunsen b u r n e r hub  particles attractive forces t e s t tube clamp spaces  The metal rods a r e a l l c o n n e c t e d t o t h e  2.  .  has a d u l l y e l l o w i s h c o l o u r .  3.  a r e p l a c e d a t t h e ends o f t h e metal r o d s .  4.  The conductometer i s h e l d i n p o s i t i o n by t h e  5.  The h e a t i s s u p p l i e d by t h e  6.  The metal t h a t m e l t s f a i r l y r e a d i l y i s  7.  A l l s u b s t a n c e s a r e composed o f  8.  M o l e c u l e s i n s u b s t a n c e s a r e h e l d t o g e t h e r by  9.  Between t h e m o l e c u l e s i n s o l i d s , l i q u i d s and gases a r e  10. C)  . '  . .  P a r t i c l e s o f t h e same s u b s t a n c e a r e TRUE - FALSE  1.  Aluminum has a g r e y m e t a l l i c c o l o u r .  2.  The flame i s p l a c e d d i r e c t l y under t h e hub.  3.  The t i m e r c l o c k o n l y heeds a minute hand f o r t e s t i n g c o n d u c t i v i t y .  4.  I r o n i s a v e r y common m e t a l .  5.  Copper i s an a l l o y .  6.  A l l o y s c o n t a i n more than one element.  7.  The f a s t e r m o l e c u l e s v i b r a t e t h e more t h e y g i v e o f f h e a t .  8.  According t o the P a r t i c l e Theory, the molecules a r e l a r g e r than t h e spaces between them.  9.  M o l e c u l e s always v i b r a t e a t t h e same speed.  10.  M o l e c u l e s o f gases v i b r a t e f a s t e r than m o l e c u l e s o f l i q u i d s .  11. 12.  A l l m a t t e r i s made o f m o l e c u l e s . Heat moving a l o n g metal i s known as c o n d u c t i o n .  13.  The temperature a t which a l l m o l e c u l e movement s t o p s i s a t -273.15 C, o r A b s o l u t e Z e r o . 0  14.  I r o n i s a f a s t e r c o n d u c t o r o f h e a t than c o p p e r .  15.  A l l t h e wax r i n g s m e l t a t t h e same t i m e .  D)  CALCULATIONS  1.  The prongs o f t h e conductometer a r e 10 cm l o n g . A f t e r t h e Bunsen b u r n e r flame i s p l a c e d i n t h e hub o f t h e conductometer, i t t a k e s 30 s f o r t h e wax t o m e l t a t t h e end o f t h e c o p p e r prong. C a l c u l a t e t h e r a t e o f c o n d u c t i o n o f h e a t a l o n g i n cm/s. (Use f o r m u l a and c a l c u l a t o r )  2.  C a l c u l a t e t h e r a t e o f c o n d u c t i o n o f heat a l o n g t h e 10 cm b r a s s prong i f i t t a k e s 80 s f o r t h e wax t o m e l t a t i t s end. (Use f o r m u l a and calculator)  4 arks  4 marks  Total: 41 marks %  ht'J Corf*''*  5) ^|rt.  F ILL I* TM  T ^ g -  ALA**-?  U«. 4^1  4«r«4  FALSI  4U#K. I  <*p«-^i  mart  fk««1  w«fer  A . fA-r S « , « , *< r  k*~f*r+K*< .  I5 .  0)  CALCUL^lONi  is  __=-rr.  B.  FILL IN THE BLANKS  -  Use the following terms to f i l l in the blanks  can  pipette  expansion gap  expands  Celsius  thermometer  solids  convection  contracts  1. The  gases  is required to measure the temperature.  2. When the temperature is measured the answer is given in degrees 3.  The water rises up the glass tube called the  '  4. Molecules of liquids are closer together than molecules of 5.  The molecules in a liquid  6.  The movement of heat in liquids is called  7.  When liquids are heated the volume  .  8. When liquids are cooled the volume  .  9.  .  The space at the top of a bottle of "pop" between the liquid and the cap is called the  10.  move from place to place.  .  There is more expansion in liquids than in  for the same rise  in temperature. C.  TRUE/FALSE 1.  Alcohol expands more than water for the same rise in temperature.  2.  Different liquids have different sized molecules so there is a difference in the amount of expansion.  3.  The spaces between particles in liquids are smaller than the spaces between particles in solids.  4.  Molecules in ice are more free to move than molecules in water.  5.  When liquids are heated the volume contracts.  6.  A l l matter expands and contracts the same amount.  7.  When molecules vibrate slower they give off less heat.  8.  Heat travels through liquids mainly by conduction.  9.  In convection, heat moves i n a l l directions.  10.  Liquids are known as f l u i d s .  11.  The temperature i s recorded by the pipette.  12.  Molecules of metals could be made to move from place to place by melting the metal.  13.  Cold molecules are heavier than warm molecules of the same l i q u i d . *  14.  When the movement of molecules speeds up, the temperature becomes higher.  15.  Liquid nitrogen i s used to study substances at cold temperatures. •  D.  CALCULATIONS  1 mark 1.  The temperature before heating i s 20°C. What i s the CHANGE IN TEMPERATURE?  1 mark 2.  3 iaarks3.  The temperature after heating i s 41°C.  (show work)  The height of the water before heating i s at the 6 cm mark.  The height of the  water after heating i s at the 1 cm mark. What i s the CHANGE IN HEIGHT? Change i n Height I f the Amount of Expansion Change i n Temperature  (show work)  Calculate the amount of expansion using the data from questions #1 and #2 above, (use calculator,  show mark)  TOTAL) 40 marks ) -  4  %  \^^- y  p|l.L  IN  T»«  (jLANKi  . Ux. +*«  fin—*"-*  j>^3  **  •" " "««*• • +l  -r«f9 - Cwii/tni< ,iii r  On  ) I. £U-  e P  """J*"  J~fUh  G»-<J  > Tkt*t Jr+pUf, .„«  «  L,*.'^  ««JU  «•*•*  c-*/  •  -!£  4U  UlU*  r  - f V  V  ^  O  So  21-i  hi"*"]  Home Form: Teacher:  9€p B)  FILL IN THE BLANKS  Use the following terms to f i l l  i n the blanks;  fluids  volume  upward  convection  expand  mixture  perimeter  condensation  contract b o i l i n g chips  1.  Air is a  2.  Gases  with heat.  3.  Gases  when cooled.  4.  The method of heat movement i n gases i s c a l l e d  of gases.  5. ., In gases the d i r e c t i o n of heat movement i s 6.  On the inside of the balloon water droplets formed. called  7.  '  These droplets are  .  Gases and l i q u i d s are capable of being "poured". said to be  Therefore, they are  .  8.  The amount of space or capacity inside the balloon i s cabled i t s  9.  A measuring tape was used to measure the distance around the outside of the balloon.  10,  This distance was called the  To prevent overheating of the glass at the bottom o f the erlenmeyer f l a s k we placed  C)  .  at the bottom on the i n s i d e .  TRUE - FALSE 1.  Gases expand less with heat than l i q u i d s f o r the same degree of temperature r i s e .  2.  In convection, heat moves i n a l l  directions.  3.  The p a r t i c l e s making up gases are c l o s e r together than i n liquids.  4.  The molecules i n gases are always v i b r a t i n g .  5.  The ring clamp supports the bunsen burner.  6.  A one-holed stopper was used f o r the "expansion of gases" experiment.  7.  "Hot a i r balloons" make use of the idea of conduction of heat.  8.  Cold a i r i s l i g h t e r i n weight than warm a i r of the same volume.  9fc 9.  07  In the convection "smoke" box, the a i r i n the chimney above the burning candle flame was expanding and r i s i n g .  10.  Adding heat to a gas lowers the temperature.  11.  When the temperature drops the speed of the molecules gets faster.  12  :  Molecules can move from place to place i n a l l three states of matter.  13.  Heat moves from a cooler place to a warmer place.  14.  The greatest percentage of room a i r i s taken up with nitrogen gas.  15.  The Rate of Expansion  =  Change i n Perimeter Pi me  f  o  r  t  n  e  balloon experiment. D) 2  CALCULATIONS 1.  marks  4  I f the perimeter before heating i s 12 cm,and the perimeter i s 22 cm a f t e r heating, what i s the change i n perimeter?  2.  marks  (Show work.)  I f the balloon perimeter increases by 12 cm and the elapsed time of heating i s 135 s  » calculate the rate of expansion.  (Use c a l c u l a t o r and show work. Use formula)  3. 6 marks  I f the balloon perimeter increases by 14 cm, and the elapsed time i s 2 min. and 42 s , calculate the rate of expansion of the gas i n the balloon after the heating, (use c a l c u l a t o r and show work. Use formula)  TOTAL: 50  Memory =  ~T3~ Comprehension =  "recalculations »  £ 6 r /)f  Name: Home F o r m : Teacher:  Label  the parts  of the  drawing.  Label  the drawing.  Answer t h e q u e s t i o n s b e l o w . 1.  What p a r t  2.  Why a r e " b o i l i n g flask?  3.  Why  4.  What c o l o u r  5.  Why  o f the conductometer  chips" placed  i s a w i r e gauze  used under  are the f i v e  rods a t t a c h e d to?  i n the bottom  the Erlenmeyer  of the Erlenmeyer  flask?  s h o u l d t h e flame be?  a r e wax r i n g s p l a c e d a t t h e e n d o f t h e m e t a l  rods?  CALCULATIONS: 1.  The t e m p e r a t u r e b e f o r e h e a t i n g i s 27*C. The t e m p e r a t u r e a f t e r h e a t i n g i s 45°C. What i s t h e c h a n g e i n t e m p e r a t u r e ? (Show y o u r work).  2.  I f t h e p e r i m e t e r b e f o r e h e a t i n g i s 7 cm. a n d t h e p e r i m e t e r i s 21 cm. a f t e r h e a t i n g , w h a t i s t h e c h a n g e i n p e r i m e t e r ? ( S h o w y o u r work) .  3.  I f t h e b a l l o o n p e r i m e t e r i n c r e a s e s b y 20 cm. a n d t h e e l a p s e d t i m e i s 2 m i n u t e s a n d 21 s e c o n d s , c a l c u l a t e t h e r a t e o f e x p a n s i o n o f t h e g a s a f t e r h e a t i n g . ( U s e f o r m u l a a n d show y o u r w o r k )  4.  Calculate  the rate  (a) Length  of metal  (b) Time a f t e r Rc  =  L  of conductivity  heating  =  70 =  from  the following  cm.  2 m i n . 10  seconds  data:  Calculate  the length of rod:  Rc  =  0.8  T  =  1 m i n . 10 s.  Calculate  t h e amount  Amount o f e x p a n s i o n  cm/a.  of =  expansion: Change i n H e i g h t Change i n T e m p e r a t u r e  Temperature b e f o r e h e a t i n g = 27°C Temperature a f t e r h e a t i n g = 45°C Height o f water b e f o r e heating = 4 cm. Height o f water a f t e r h e a t i n g = 1 cm.  True or False 1.  Gases expand more with heat than l i q u i d s f o r the same degree of temperature  rise.  2.  In conduction heat moves i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s .  3.  The molecules i n a i r only vibrate when heated.  4.  Adding heat to gases causes the molecules to vibrate more rapidly. The Rate of Expansion = Change i n Perimeter Time  5.  for the balloon experiment. 6.  Molecules i n gases move faster as the heat i s removed.  7.  Cold a i r i s l i g h t e r i n weight than warm a i r of the same volume. For the same r i s e i n temperature, alcohol expands more  8.  than water. The expansion of a l i q u i d i s c a l l e d conduction. 10.  When molecules vibrate faster the temperature  rises.  11.  The thermometer measures the temperature of the l i q u i d i n the beaker.  12.  Liquids are known as f l u i d s .  13.  A one-hole stopper i s required for the experiment on expansion of l i q u i d s .  14.  A l l l i q u i d s have heat move due to conductivity.  15.  Alloys contain more than one element.  16.  Iron i s a faster conductor than aluminum.  17.  A l l the wax rings melt at the same time.  18.  Heat moving along the metal rods i s known as conduction.  19.  The flame i s placed d i r e c t l y under the hub.  "1.  Aluminum has a rapid rate of conductivity.  9&f  u e t a l rods solids perimeter contract rate of c o n d u c t i v i t y Fill (a)  bunsen b u r n e r thermometer t e s t tube clamp convection length  i n t h e b l a n k s - terms Fill  =  L T  !b)  The  (c)  The  bunsen b u r n e r  (d)  The  water  (e)  There  The  (g)  The the The  (h)  o r name i s f o r e a c h p a r t  =  of the  up  stands f o r L stands f o r T stands f o r  the g l a s s  to the  hub.  l i t with the tube c a l l e d  . a  in  . than  in solids  f o r the  temperature. i s r e q u i r e d . t o measure  heat  formula:  Rc  i s always  i s more e x p a n s i o n  same r i s e i n )  pipette b o i l i n g chips combination liquids k solids time  are a l l connected  rises  *2  above:  i n what t h e t e r m Rc  1  from  temperature.  a r e i n the bottom o f t h e f l a s k t o p r e v e n t s h a t t e r i n g the g l a s s . i s used to support the Erlenmeyer  flask. (i)  Air is a  of  (j)  The  (k)  We measure t h e change i n during the experiment.  (1)  Gases  (m)  Gases a r e l e s s  method t h a t h e a t moves i n g a s e s  ' dense t h a n  gases. is called of the when c o o l e d . .  balloon  

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