UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Squarehead Reeve, Charles 1989

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SQUAREHEAD By CHARLES REEVE B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1985 D i p l . A r t H i s t . , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1986 A THESIS SUBMITTED I N P A R T I A L FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS ••in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES ( F i n e A r t s ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e - r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA © S e p t e m b e r 1989 i f In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, 1 agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2/88) . d o n ' t l o o k down." James O s t e r b e i i i N o t e r e g a r d i n g c o p y r i g h t No c o p y r i g h t , no r i g h t s r e s e r v e d . T h i s t e x t o r any p o r t i o n o f i t may be f r e e l y r e p r o d u c e d , t r a n s l a t e d , o r a d a p t e d . A l l I a s k i s t h a t any r e p r o d u c t i o n , t r a n s l a t i o n , o r r e p r o d u c t i o n n o t be done w i t h t h e e x p r e s s p u r p o s e o f a c c r u i n g a p r o f i t , a n d t h a t an a p p r o p r i a t e m e n t i o n o f t h e s o u r c e accompany any s u c h u s e . i v A b s t r a c t I n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s d u r i n g t h e e a r l y 1 9 6 0 s , t h e r e was, w i t h i n t h e d o m i n a n t a r t - c r i t i c a l mode o f f o r m a l i s m , a m o u n t i n g o p p o s i t i o n t o C l e m e n t G r e e n b e r g ' s g r i p on t h e a r t d i s c o u r s e . By t h e m i d - s i x t i e s , t h i s d i s s e n t r e s u l t e d i n a w e a k e n i n g o f G r e e n b e r g ' s g r i p . A r t i s t s a n d w r i t e r s b e g a n t o b r e a k o f f f r o m t h e d i r e c t i o n w h i c h G r e e n b e r g p r e s c r i b e d a s t h e f o r m a l i s t i m p e r a t i v e . One s u c h a r t i s t was D o n a l d J u d d , a p a i n t e r who i n 1961 b e g a n t o e x p e r i m e n t w i t h t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l a r t work, w h i c h he came t o r e f e r t o as " s p e c i f i c o b j e c t s . " The name r e f l e c t e d J u d d ' s c o n v i c t i o n t h a t he was w o r k i n g w i t h p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l l y - s t a b l e a r t w o r k s : a r t w o r k s w h i c h c o u l d n o t be c o n f u s e d w i t h a n y t h i n g e l s e , w h i c h w o u l d a v o i d a l l i l l u s i o n , a n d w h i c h w o u l d n o t r e f e r t o a n y t h i n g o u t s i d e o f t h e m s e l v e s . J u d d ' s s h i f t f r o m w o r k i n g i n p a i n t i n g t o w o r k i n g i n s p e c i f i c o b j e c t s c a n be s e e n a s a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f h i s e m e r g i n g c o n v i c t i o n t h a t p a i n t i n g h a s a number o f i n s u r m o u n t a b l e p r o b l e m s w h i c h t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l work d o e s n o t h a v e , o r a t l e a s t n o t t o t h e same d e g r e e . The most p r e s s i n g o f t h e s e p r o b l e m s was, a c c o r d i n g t o J u d d , t h e i n e v i t a b l e i l l u s i o n i s m o f p a i n t i n g . I n a number o f a r t i c l e s a n d i n t e r v i e w s i n t h e m i d - 1 9 6 0 s , J u d d a r g u e d t h a t one o f t h e m a j o r w e a k n e s s e s o f p a i n t i n g a n d o f n o n - s p e c i f i c a r t a s a w h o l e i s i t s r e l i a n c e on i n t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s i n t h e f o r m o f c o m p o s i t i o n . T h i s , i n t u r n , t e n d e d t o i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e i m m e d i a t e c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f t h e p i e c e a n d , f o r J u d d , was s y m p t o m a t i c o f t h e l a c k o f i n t e g r i t y o f n o n - s p e c i f i c a r t . However, t h e d i s p u t e b e t w e e n J u d d , G r e e n b e r g and F r i e d , r e m a i n e d an a r g u m e n t b e t w e e n f o r m a l i s t s . The d i s p u t a n t s h e l d some V k e y b e l i e f s a b o u t t h e n a t u r e o f a r t i n common. The most i m p o r t a n t o f t h e s e b e l i e f s f o r my a r g u m e n t a r e t h a t a r t i s h i s t o r i c a l l y a u t o n o m o u s , a n d t h a t t h e c e n t r a l p r o j e c t of M o d e r n i s t a r t i s t h e s e l f - d e f i n i t i o n o f f o r m s . N o r d i d t h e d i s c u s s i o n r e m a i n f r a m e d w i t h i n t h e t e r m s o f f o r m a l i s m m e r e l y a s a r e s u l t o f i n e r t i a . T h e s e b o u n d a r i e s w ere a d h e r e d t o e v e n when t a l k i n g a b o u t a r t i s t s s u c h a s R o b e r t R a u s c h e n b e r g a n d Roy L i c h e n s t e i n , i n s p i t e o f t h e i r h i g h l y s u g g e s t i v e i m a g e r y . Hence, J u d d ' s a e s t h e t i c o f t h e s p e c i f i c • o b j e c t u t i l i z e s a c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e i d e a l s t a t e f o r t h e v i e w e r a n d t h e a r t i s t w h i c h i s r e l i e s on a d e n i a l o f h i s t o r y . I t i s b a s e d on a p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l a n d e p i s t e m e l o g i c a l i n n o c e n c e t h a t i s n o t c o n c e r n e d w i t h a r g u m e n t s a b o u t t h e h i s t o r i c a l c o n t i n g e n c y o f t h e s u b j e c t . J u d d ' s i n t e n t i o n was t h a t t h e s p e c i f i c o b j e c t , by the very fact of i t s specificity, w o u l d p r e c l u d e t h e v i e w e r ' s p e r c e p t i o n s b e i n g i n t e r f e r e d w i t h b y m a t e r i a l l i m i t s , p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s , a n d c o n d i t i o n s i n d e p e n d e n t o f t h e v i e w e r ' s w i l l . The c r u x o f my a r g u m e n t i s t h a t D o n a l d J u d d i s c o n f u s i n g t h e appearance o f s p e c i f i c i t y w i t h s p e c i f i c i t y per se. T h a t i s t o s a y , h i s work i s b a s e d on t h e u t i l i z a t i o n o f f o r m s a n d s u r f a c e s w h i c h , w i t h i n t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t s , a r e r e a d as n e u t r a l . B u t t h i s r e a d i n g i s i l l u s o r y , g i v e n t h a t i t i s h i s t o r i c a l d e t e r m i n e d . T h e r e f o r e , i n my p a p e r I d e m o n s t r a t e how J u d d ' s work i s a p r o d u c t o f t h e a e s t h e t i c s o f o b j e c t i v i t y , a n d how p a r t i c u l a r a s p e c t s o f h i s a r t and h i s a r g u m e n t s c a n be s e e n as s y m p t o i m a t i c o f t h e s y s t e m o f b e l i e f s w h i c h i s f a i t h i n o b j e c t i v i t y a n d , more i m p o r t a n t l y , how J u d d ' s s p e c i f i c o b j e c t s c a n be s e e n as a 'nexus b e t w e e n t h i s s y s t e m o f b e l i e f s a n d i t s p a r t i c u l a r m a n i f e s t a t i o n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o f A m e r i c a d u r i n g t h e e a r l y 1 9 6 0 s . Table of Contents N o t e r e g a r d i n g c o p y r i g h t i i i A b s t r a c t i v L i s t o f F i g u r e s v i i A c k n o w l e d g e m e n t s v i i i P r o l o g u e 1 M o n o l o g u e 16 E p i l o g u e 63 E n d n o t e s 72 R e f e r e n c e s 95 v i i L i s t o f F i g u r e s 1) J u d y C h i c a g o Rainbow Picket 1966 p.101 2) D o n a l d J u d d ( U n t i t l e d ) 1965 p. 101 3) F r a n k S t e l l a Charlotte Tokayer 1963 p.102 4) J u d y C h i c a g o F l i g h t 1963 p. 103 5,.6) Dan Graham P h o t o s o f S e t b a c k s i n B a y o n n e , New J e r s e y 1965 p.104 7) D o n a l d J u d d Bosa, A.M. 1952 p.105 8) D o n a l d J u d d ( U n t i t l e d ) 1955 p.106 9) D o n a l d J u d d ( U n t i t l e d ) 1960 p.107 10) D o n a l d J u d d ( U n t i t l e d ) 1961 p.108 11) D o n a l d J u d d ( U n t i t l e d ) 1963 p.109 v i i i A c k n o w l e d g e m e n t s A number o f p e o p l e h a v e h e l p e d me t h r o u g h t h e w r i t i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s b y r e a d i n g a n d c o m m e n t i n g upon v a r i o u s d r a f t s , a n d I w o u l d l i k e t o a c k n o w l e d g e my d e b t s t o them h e r e . T h e s e i n c l u d e : A l e x A l b e r r o , S e r g e G u i l b a u t , R o b e r t L i n s l e y , J o h n 0 ' B r i a n , H i l d a Thomas, and J e f f W a l l . I w o u l d a l s o l i k e t o e x p r e s s my g r a t i t u d e t o Wendy D o b e r e i n e . r , whose w i l l i n g n e s s t o comment on t h e t e x t was a l w a y s h e l p f u l , a n d whose p r o f o u n d f r i e n d s h i p h e l p e d me t h r o u g h t r y i n g t i m e s more t h a n once." 1 Prologue The a r t a n d v i e w s o f D o n a l d J u d d h a v e h a d a f a i r amount o f i n k s p i l l e d i n t h e i r h o n o u r . B u t t h e e f f e c t o f a l l o f t h i s d i s c u s s i o n h a s b e e n t o e n t r e n c h , r a t h e r t h a n d i s p e n s e w i t h , i n a c c u r a t e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f J u d d ' s a e s t h e t i c s . A s i g n i f i c a n t r e c e n t e x a m p l e o f t h i s i s B a r b a r a H a s k e l l ' s e s s a y i n t h e e x h i b i t i o n c a t a l o g u e w h i c h a c c o m p a n i e d t h e e x h a u s t i v e r e t r o s p e c t i v e h o s t e d by t h e W h i t n e y Museum i n t h e F a l l o f 1988. H a s k e l l ' s e s s a y i s s i g n i f i c a n t b e c a u s e i t a c c o m p a n i e s t h e most a m b i t i o u s r e t r o s p e c t i v e o f D o n a l d J u d d ' s work t o d a t e . I f a n y o n e s h o u l d t a k e c a r e t o g e t J u d d ' s a r g u m e n t s r i g h t , ' s u r e l y i t s h o u l d be t h e o r g a n i z e r s o f s u c h a g r a n d e f f o r t . A t f i r s t g l a n c e , i t a p p e a r s t h a t s u c h i s t h e c a s e . H a s k e l l ' s e s s a y i s f u l l o f q u o t a t i o n s a n d e n d n o t e s , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t h e r e , f i n a l l y , i s a c o n s i d e r e d a n a l y s i s o f J u d d ' s t h o u g h t a n d w o r k . However, t h e c a r e f u l r e a d e r w i l l q u i c k l y r e a l i z e t h a t H a s k e l l i s m e r e l y m i m i c i n g t h e f o r m o f t h e d e n s i t y o f a n a l y s i s t h a t I am a f t e r . One c e n t r a l e x a m p l e w i l l s e r v e t o make t h e p o i n t t h a t H a s k e l l b a d l y m i s r e p r e s e n t s J u d d ' s a r g u m e n t s . I n H a s k e l l ' s e s s a y , J u d d ' s work i s d i s c u s s e d as " M i n i m a l i s t s c u l p t u r e , " i g n o r i n g J u d d ' s a r g u m e n t s a g a i n s t r e f e r i n g t o h i s work a s e i t h e r " M i n i m a l i s t " o r " s c u l p t u r e . " N o t o n l y d o e s H a s k e l l u s e t h e t e r m " M i n i m a l i s m " t h r o u g h o u t h e r e s s a y t o r e f e r t o J u d d ' s work, s h e e v e n i m p l i e s t h a t t h i s i s an u n c o n t e n t i o u s t e r m w h i c h s i m p l y e m e r g e d o u t o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l m i l i e u t h a t J u d d was a p a r t o f : J u d d ' s work a n d t h a t o f p e e r s s u c h a s R o b e r t M o r r i s , C a r l A n d r e , Dan F l a v i n , a n d S o l L e W i t t r a p i d l y o v e r t h r e w o t h e r c o n t e n d e r s f o r s t y l i s t i c d o m i n a n c e o f t h e d e c a d e . By 1966, l e s s t h a n t h r e e y e a r s a f t e r i t s i n i t i a l i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e a r t c o m m u n i t y , what came t o be c a l l e d M i n i m a l i s m seemed t o h a v e i r r e f u t a b l y s u p p l a n t e d A b s t r a c t E x p r e s s i o n i s m . 2 Cer t a i n l y i t i s true that c r i t i c s and curators were quick to group these a r t i s t s together under the l a b e l of Minimalism, and to confuse the use of that l a b e l with a t r u l y adequate understanding of t h e i r work. What i s l o s t i n the process of such a Procrustean r u b r i f i c a t i o n are the complex differences between the various systems of thought of which these art works were only one part. For example, a photograph of Judy Chicago's sculpture Rainbow Picket of 1966 ( f i g . l ) i s included without comment in Gregory Battcock's Minimal Art: A C r i t i c a l Anthology i n the midst of series of pages of monochrome photographs of work by other "Minimalists" and, as I w i l l discuss at greater length i n the Epilogue, treated s i m i l a r l y i n the catalogue for the Primary Structures e x h i b i t i o n which was held at the Jewish Museum in 1966.3 The e f f e c t of the way that these texts treat Chicago's work i s that important differences between various ways of thinking about the v i s u a l language of formalist modernism are effaced. This assumes special significance i n r e l a t i o n to Rainbow Picket because, as I explain more f u l l y in the c l o s i n g pages of my thesis, t h i s work i s part of Chicago's attempt to formulate a system-immanent feminist c r i t i q u e of p r e c i s e l y the system of ideas that Battcock's documentation seamlessly locates Chicago within. To be f a i r , a large part of the blame for the confusion surrounding Judd's ideas must be attributed to Judd himself. His writing i s often s t i l t e d , and seems d e l i b e r a t e l y obtuse. Much of t h i s obtuseness stems from Judd's p r e d i l i c t i o n for using r e l a t i v e l y common words in contexts which make i t clear that he i s attaching special meanings to them, without ever explaining what these new meanings are. The tone of Judd's writing often 3 s u g g e s t s t h a t he t r i e s t o u s e o b s c u r e l a n g u a g e t o p r o t e c t h i s p r e c i o u s t h o u g h t s f r o m t h e p h i l i s t i n e s . T h i s i s s t a t e d more e x p l i c i t l y i n some o f J u d d ' s l a t e r w r i t i n g s , w h i c h t e n d t o be more u n a b a s h e d l y s e l f - i n d u l g e n t t h a n t h o s e w r i t t e n d u r i n g t h e 1 9 5 0 s and 1 9 6 0 s . F o r e x a m p l e , i n a b r i e f s t a t m e n t t i t l e d " I n D e f e n s e o f My Work" ( 1 9 7 7 ) , J u d d w r i t e s : Somewhere t h e r e h a s t o be a p l a c e w h ere t h e i n s t a l l a t i o n i s w e l l done and p e r m a n e n t . T h i s o b v i o u s l y i m p l i e s t h a t museums a r e i n a d e q u a t e f o r t h e i r j o b . My i n s t a l l a t i o n s a n d a r c h i t e c t u r e a r e v e r y much i n d e f e n s e o f my w o r k . V i s u a l , s p a t i a l a r t c a n n o t be r e d u c e d t o p e r f o r m a n c e . My work a n d t h a t o f my c o n t e m p o r a r i e s t h a t I a c q u i r e d was n o t made t o be p r o p e r t y . I t ' s s i m p l y a r t . I want t h e work I h a v e t o r e m a i n t h a t way. I t i s n o t on t h e m a r k e t , n o t f o r s a l e , n o t s u b j e c t t o t h e i g n o r a n c e o f t h e p u b l i c , n o t open t o p e r v e r s i o n . ^ D o n a l d J u d d i s n o t t h e o n l y , n o r e v e n t h e f i r s t , a r t i s t w i t h a p e n c h a n t f o r t h i s s o r t o f game o f p r o d u c i n g o b t u s e l y - f o r m u l a t e d p r o n o u n c e m e n t s , a n d t h e n p o i n t i n g t o t h e f a i l u r e o f o t h e r s t o u n d e r s t a n d h i m as p r o o f o f h i s b r i l l i a n c e a n d t h e i r i g n o r a n c e . As H a r o l d R o s e n b e r g w r i t e s i n h i s 1966 e s s a y " V i r t u o s o s o f Boredom": The work ( w h i c h e m b r a c e s t h e a e s t h e t i c s o f boredom, s u c h a s t h a t o f Cage, B e c k e t t , W a r h o l , R o b b e - G r i l l e t , J u d d , S t e l l a ) i s a m a s q u e r a d e t h a t k e e p s t h e s t r a n g e r a t -arm's l e n g t h , y e t p r e v e n t s h i m f r o m t a k i n g h i s l e a v e by h i n t i n g a t a s i g n i f i c a n c e t h a t i s n e v e r d i s c l o s e d . I t s i m p e n e t r a b l e ' s u r f a c e d e f e a t s h i m p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y a n d h u m i l i a t e s h i m a s a h o p e l e s s P h i l i s t i n e . B e h i n d t h i s b a r r i e r t h e b a n d o f i n i t i a t e s , p a m p e r e d by s e m i -i n i t i a t e s , romps h a p p i l y i n ' an a t m o s p h e r e as r e l a x e d as s o c k s on t h e b a t h r o o m f l o o r . By e r e c t i n g a w a l l o f i n c o m p r e h e n s i o n b e t w e e n t h o s e i n t h e know a n d h u m a n i t y a t l a r g e , t h e b o r i n g p a i n t i n g o r p e r f o r m a n c e s e r v e s t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e i n n e r u n i t y o f t h e v a r i o u s i d e o l o g i c a l , sex, a n d t a s t e g r o u p s t h a t c o n s t i t u t e t h e w o r l d o f t h e a r t s . ^ C e r t a i n l y , J u d d i s n o t one o f t h e more i m a g i n a t i v e a r t i s t s o f t h i s i l k . My m a j o r r e a s o n f o r f o c u s i n g on J u d d l i e s e l s e w h e r e . J u d d i s i n t e r e s t i n g b e c a u s e h i s p o s i t i o n , w h i l e i t d o e s . n o t r e p r e s e n t t h e f i r s t a t t e m p t on t h e p a r t o f an a r t i s t t o d e v e l o p a c o h e r e n t s y s t e m o f t h o u g h t i n w r i t i n g a n d a r t p r o d u c t i o n , d o e s 4 r e p r e s e n t t h e moment a t w h i c h t h e r e - e m e r g e n c e o f t h e e l e m e n t o f c r i t i c a l m o d e r n i s m w h i c h h a d l a i n d o r m a n t w i t h i n f o r m a l i s t m o d e r n i s m f o r so many y e a r s b e g a n t o c r y s t a l l i z e . J u d d ' s r e l a t i o n t o t h i s c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n i s a p e c u l i a r one, but t h i s i s what makes h i m i n t e r e s t i n g . J u d d h i m s e l f t r i e d t o e x t e n d t h e a r g u m e n t o f f o r m a l i s t m o d e r n i s m w h i c h h a d b e e n d e v e l o p e d b y G r e e n b e r g . Y e t , i n a t t e m p t i n g t o e x t e n d t h i s a r g u m e n t , i n t r u e G r e e n b e r g i a n f a s h i o n , not i n o r d e r t o s u b v e r t it, b u t r a t h e r i n o r d e r t o e n t r e n c h i t more f u l l y i n i t s a r e a o f c o m p e t e n c e , he became p a r t o f a f r a g m e n t a t i o n w i t h i n f o r m a l i s t m o d e r n i s m . A s I w i l l d i s c u s s i n t h e E p i l o g u e , t h i s f r a g m e n t a t i o n c l e a r e d t h e way f o r a s e c o n d -o r d e r c r i t i q u e o f f o r m a l i s t m o d e r n i s m w h i c h was n o t p r e p a r e d t o a c c e p t on f a i t h t h e t e n e t s o f f o r m a l i s m . I s e e t h i s , f o r r e a s o n s w h i c h w i l l become c l e a r f u r t h e r on, as t h e r e - e m e r g e h c e o f c r i t i c a l m o d e r n i s m . Now t h i s r e - e m e r g e n c e t o o k , a s t h e t a r g e t o f i t s c r i t i q u e , D o n a l d J u d d a n d t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f " M i n i m a l i s m . " B u t s u c h a d i v e r s i t y o f i d e a s h a v e b e e n l u m p e d t o g e t h e r u n d e r t h e r u b r i c o f M i n i m a l i s m t h a t , as I s a i d e a r l i e r , a l m o s t n o t h i n g i s a c c o m p l i s h e d b y i d e n t i f y i n g a p a r t i c u l a r p e r s o n a s a M i n i m a l i s t . So p a r t o f my p r o j e c t i s t o i d e n t i f y J u d d ' s v i e w , as f a r a s t h i s i s p o s s i b l e , a n d t o s e p a r a t e i t o u t f r o m o t h e r v i e w s w i t h w h i c h i t i s o f t e n c o n f u s e d . The o t h e r p a r t o f my p r o j e c t i s t o c l a r i f y my o b j e c t i o n s t o J u d d ' s a r g u m e n t s , a n d t o p o i n t o u t t h e i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n h i s a r g u m e n t s . My a i m i n p r o v i d i n g a c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f J u d d ' s v i e w f o r t h e r e a d e r i s t o s e t up an a r g u m e n t a g a i n s t t h a t v i e w , b e c a u s e J u d d ' s w r i t i n g a n d a r t , w h i c h t o g e t h e r c o n s t i t u t e an a t t e m p t t o c r y s t a l l i z e t h e a r g u m e n t w h i c h v i e w s a r t as an autonomous a c t i v i t y , p r o v i d e an i d e a l v e h i c l e f o r d e l v i n g i n t o t h e 5 phenomenon o f " o b j e c t i v i t y , " w h i c h I s e e as t h e h i d d e n p r e s u p p o s i t i o n o f J u d d ' s a e s t h e t i c s . My m e t h o d o l o g y i s a s o r t o f r a d i c a l f o r m a l i s m , w h i c h a t t e m p t s t o l o o k f o r t h e a r g u m e n t s , t h e h i d d e n p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s , w i t h i n J u d d ' s c o r p u s o f w r i t t e n and a r t i s t i c w o r k , a n d t h e n l o o k f o r r e l e v a n t ways t o r e l a t e t h o s e p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s t o t h e b r o a d e r c o n t e x t . ^ A t t h e same t i m e , i t i s l e s s a d e s c r i p t i o n , a r e c o u n t i n g o f f a c t s , t h a n i t i s an a t t e m p t t o h o l d a d i s c u s s i o n w i t h J u d d , a n d p o i n t o u t why I f e e l h i s a r g u m e n t c o n c e r n i n g t h e i d e a o f f o r m a l i s t a e s t h e t i c s i n g e n e r a l , a n d t h e s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i n p a r t i c u l a r , i s f l a w e d . A l t h o u g h t h i s t y p e o f h i s t o r i c a l a s p e c t r e m a i n s somewhat i n t h e b a c k g r o u n d , i t i s v e r y much t h e f o u n d a t i o n upon w h i c h my a r g u m e n t i s b u i l t . I t i s p r e c i s e l y t h e k n o w l e d g e o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l e f f e c t o f J u d d ' s work a n d w r i t i n g w h i c h a l l o w s t h e a r g u m e n t t o b e g i n and, I b e l i e v e , w h i c h g i v e s i t i t s s t r e n g t h . " 7 I h a v e s a i d t h a t p a r t o f my p r o j e c t i s t o i d e n t i f y t h e h i d d e n p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s o r p h i l o s o p h i c a l p r e m i s e s w i t h i n J u d d ' s w o rk. A n d I want t o s p e n d a f e w p a g e s d i s c u s s i n g on a b r o a d s c a l e t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l p r e m i s e s w h i c h I s e e as immanent w i t h i n J u d d ' s work b e c a u s e t h e y w i l l become i m p o r t a n t i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e t h e s i s ' M o n o l o g u e , i n w h i c h I d i s c u s s t h e way t h a t D o n a l d J u d d f o r m u l a t e d an a e s t h e t i c p o s i t i o n i n t h e m i d - 1 9 6 0 s , s u c h t h a t b o t h h i s a r t work a n d h i s w r i t i n g s a r e e s s e n t i a l c o m p o n e n t s o f t h a t p o s i t i o n . To a g r e a t e x t e n t , i t i s t h e f a u l t s w h i c h I s e e i n J u d d ' s p o s i t i o n t h a t a r e my p r i m a r y c o n c e r n b e c a u s e I f e e l - t h a t J u d d i s t h e most r i g o r o u s e x a m p l e o f a t y p e o f f o r m a l i s t m o d e r n i s m w h i c h , I b e l i e v e , r e a l l y o n l y e m e r g e d d u r i n g t h e 1 9 6 0 s . W h i c h i s t o s a y , i t i s o n l y a t t h i s t i m e t h a t , i n t h e h a n d s o f 6 Donald Judd, Michael F r i e d , and others t h a t the phrase " a r t f o r a r t ' s sake" comes t o mean " a r t as t a u t o l o g y . " ^ T h i s i s a p o i n t which I address i n a number of d i f f e r e n t p l a c e s throughout my t h e s i s , but what I want t o s t r e s s here i s t h a t one of the reasons I have chosen Judd i s because h i s p o s i t i o n seems t o be one of the most p o w e r f u l l y formulated arguments of t h i s t y pe. There are t h r e e threads t o my c r i t i q u e of o b j e c t i v i t y . One t h r e a d i s the t h r e a d which I w i l l develop below: namely, opposing i t :with a N i e t z s c h i a n view t h a t knowing and understanding are co n t i n g e n t p r o c e s s e s . Another t h r e a d i s an a n a l y s i s of the phenomenological assumptions i n h e r e n t i n o b j e c t i v i t y based on h i s t o r i c a l l y - s p e c i f i c c r i t i q u e s developed by Roland Barthes and Jean B a u d r i l l a r d , which I use to propose t h a t the appearance of o b j e c t i v i t y i s an i l l u s o r y i n f l e c t i o n . The t h i r d t h r e a d i n my t h e s i s i s a m a t e r i a l i s t a n a l y s i s t h a t i s grounded i n the w r i t i n g s of Wolfgang Haug, C.Wright M i l l s , and E r n e s t Mandel, and which examines p a r t i c u l a r i n s t a n c e s of such i l l u s o r y i n f l e c t i o n s t h a t are d i r e c t l y r e l e v a n t t o my d i s c u s s i o n of Judd's work. What, then, i s the nature of my argument a g a i n s t what I have s a i d i s the hidden p r e s u p p o s i t i o n of Judd's i d e a of the s p e c i f i c o b j e c t namely, o b j e c t i v i t y ? The argument a g a i n s t o b j e c t i v i t y was summarized w e l l by Edward S a i d i n an i n t e r v i e w i n the F a l l 1976 i s s u e of Diacritics. S a i d notes: ( I ) f you separate what you do from what you are, you are r e i f y i n g , g i v i n g o b j e c t i v i s t i c form t o t h i n g s t h a t i n r e a l i t y don't have t h a t form; or i f they do, have i t i n such a way as to r e q u i r e i t s overcoming. Thus to interpret,man's work (as a l a b o r e r , l i t e r a r y c r i t i c , engineer, or whatever) as r a d i c a l l y and o r g a n i c a l l y connected with what man i s and a whole e n t i t y ( despite the f a c t t h a t h i s consciousness cannot r e c o g n i z e or accept the connection) i s the common and r e v o l u t i o n a r y p o i n t of departure both f o r the i n t e r p r e t e r as i n t e r p r e t e r and, Lukacs a l s o t r i e d t o show, f o r the 7 p r o l e t a r i a t a s r e - i n t e r p r e t e r a n d u p s e t t e r o f b o u r g e o i s r e i f i c a t i o n . ^ The a r g u m e n t w h i c h S a i d i s d e v e l o p i n g i s one w h i c h , i n i m p o r t a n t w ays, e x t e n d s b a c k t o t h e work o f H e g e l , i n t h e s e n s e . t h a t , a s l o n g a s t h e r e h a v e b e e n b o u r g e o i s ways o f t h i n k i n g , t h e r e h a v e b e e n t h o s e , l i k e H e g e l , who a r e c o n c e r n e d t o a n a l y z e a n d r e f u t e t h o s e ways o f thinking.1° However, i n my o p i n i o n , t h e most f r u i t f u l d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s way o f t h i n k i n g b e g i n s w i t h F r i e d r i c h N i e t z s c h e , a n d t h e r e f o r e i t i s w i t h N i e t z s c h e t h a t I want t o s t a r t i n b u i l d i n g up my c r i t i q u e o f o b j e c t i v i t y . I n h i s b o ok o f 1887 t i t l e d The Geneology of Morals: An Attack, N i e t z s c h e g i v e s a p o w e r f u l c r i t i q u e o f t h e w o r l d v i e w w h i c h h o l d s t h a t t h e human i n t e l l e c t c a n p e r c e i v e a n d u n d e r s t a n d a l l t h i n g s . The a s c e n d e n c e o f f o r m a l l o g i c a n d t h e i d e a t h a t i t i s t h e u n i v e r s a l m e a s u r e o f v a l i d i t y a r e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f t h i s w o r l d v i e w w h i c h N i e t z s c h e i s c o n c e r n e d t o c r i t i q u e . N i e t z s c h e w r i t e s : (M)an saw h i m s e l f as t h e b e i n g t h a t m e a s u r e s v a l u e s , t h e " a s s a y i n g " a n i m a l . P u r c h a s e and s a l e , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e i r p s y c h o l o g i c a l t r a p p i n g s , a n t e d a t e e v e n t h e r u d i m e n t s o f s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d c o v e n a n t s . F rom i t s r u d i m e n t a r y m a n i f e s t a t i o n i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l l a w , t h e i n c i p i e n t s e n s e o f b a r t e r , c o n t r a c t , g u i l t , r i g h t , o b l i g a t i o n , c o m p e n s a t i o n was p r o j e c t e d i n t o t h e c r u d e s t communal c o m p l e x e s (and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s t o o t h e r s u c h . c o m p l e x e s ) t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e h a b i t o f m e a s u r i n g p o w e r a g a i n s t p o w e r . The e y e h a d b e e n e n t i r e l y c o n d i t i o n e d t o t h a t mode o f v i s i o n ; a n d w i t h t h e awkward c o n s i s t e n c y o f p r i m i t i v e t h o u g h t , w h i c h moves w i t h d i f f i c u l t y b u t , when i t d o e s move, moves i n e x o r a b l y i n one d i r e c t i o n , e a r l y m a n k i n d s o o n r e a c h e d t h e g r a n d g e n e r a l i z a t i o n t h a t e v e r y t h i n g h a s i t s p r i c e , e v e r y t h i n g c a n be p a i d f o r . H e r e we h a v e t h e o l d e s t and n a i v e s t m o r a l c a n o n o f j u s t i c e , o f a l l " f a i r p l a y , " "good w i l l , " a n d " o b j e c t i v i t y . " l 1 I n t h e f i r s t c h a p t e r o f Dialectic of Enlightenment, Max H o r k h e i m e r a n d T h e o d o r A d o r n o b u i l d on N i e t z s c h e ' s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f t h e b o u r g e o i s v i e w as one w h i c h s e e s man as 8 t h e i n f a l l i b l e a s s a y e r a s t h e b a s i s o f t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l i m p u l s e t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e E n l i g h t e n m e n t . They a r g u e t h a t t h i s g e n e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l i m p u l s e t a k e s t h e f o r m o f a c o n v i c t i o n t h a t t h e r e e x i s t s a u n i v e r s a l l y a p p l i c a b l e s y s t e m o f p e r c e p t i o n w h i c h , l i k e money o r common s e n s e , i s c a p a b l e o f r e p r e s e n t i n g a l l t h i n g s u s i n g one a b s t r a c t s y s t e m o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n n a m e l y , t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f s u b j e c t , p r e d i c a t e a n d o b j e c t w h i c h , a l t h o u g h i l l u s o r y , d e n i e s i t s i l l u s o r y n a t u r e . A b r o a d e r theme o f H o r k h e i m e r a n d A d o r n o ' s book i s t h e ways i n w h i c h t h i s c o n v i c t i o n i s m a n i f e s t l y t h e d r i v i n g f o r c e w i t h i n some o f t h e most r e p u g n a n t a s p e c t s o f c o n t e m p o r a r y l i f e . I n t h e f i n a l c h a p t e r o f t h e i r b o o k , c a l l e d " E l e m e n t s o f A n t i - S e m i t i s m : The L i m i t s o f E n l i g h t e n m e n t , " H o r k h e i m e r a n d A d o r n o a r e c o n c e r n e d t o a d d r e s s t h e phenomenon o f f a s c i s m as an e x a m p l e . They w r i t e : O n l y i n t h a t m e d i a t i o n by w h i c h t h e m e a n i n g l e s s s e n s a t i o n b r i n g s a t h o u g h t t o t h e f u l l p r o d u c t i v i t y o f w h i c h i t i s c a p a b l e , w h i l e on t h e o t h e r h a n d t h e t h o u g h t a b a n d o n s i t s e l f w i t h o u t r e s e r v a t i o n t o t h e p r e d o m i n a n t i m p r e s s i o n , i s t h a t p a t h o l o g i c a l l o n e l i n e s s w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e w h o l e o f n a t u r e o v e r c o m e . The p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f r e c o n c i l i a t i o n a p p e a r n o t i n c e r t a i n t y u n a f f e c t e d b y t h o u g h t , i n t h e p r e c o n c e p t u a l u n i t y o f p e r c e p t i o n a n d o b j e c t , b u t i n t h e i r c o n s i d e r e d o p p o s i t i o n . The d i s t i n c t i o n i s made i n t h e s u b j e c t , w h i c h h a s t h e e x t e r n a l w o r l d - i n i t s own c o n s c i o u s n e s s a n d y e t r e c o g n i z e s i t as s o m e t h i n g o t h e r . T h e r e f o r e r e f l e c t i o n , t h e l i f e o f r e a s o n , t a k e s p l a c e a s c o n s c i o u s p r o j e c t i o n . The m o r b i d a s p e c t o f a n t i - S e m i t i s m i s n o t p r o j e c t i v e b e h a v i o u r a s s u c h , b u t t h e a b s e n c e f r o m i t o f r e f l e c t i o n . 1 2 W i t h H o r k h e i m e r a n d A d o r n o , I s e e t h e f a i t h i n r a t i o n a l i s m , i n o b j e c t i v i t y , i n "common s e n s e , " as t h e p r i m a r y component o f t h e c o n s t e l l a t i o n o f b e l i e f s a n d i d e a s t h a t f o r m t h e c r u c i b l e i n w h i c h s u c h u n s a v o r y s o c i a l phenomena as r e a c t i o n a nd f a s c i s m a r e f o r m e d . T h i s v i e w i s a c r u c i a l e l e m e n t o f t h e t h o u g h t o f many o f t h e w r i t e r s on whom I r e l y i n t h i s t h e s i s . A p a r t i c u l a r l y p o w e r f u l c o n c e p t , w h i c h I w i l l u s e as t h e b a s i s o f a 9 p h e n o m e n l o l g i c a l a n a l y s i s o f t h e u n t i t l e d p i e c e b y D o n a l d J u d d w h i c h i s t h e f o c u s o f my m a i n d i s c u s s i o n , i s t h a t o f " m y t h o l o g y " w h i c h R o l a n d B a r t h e s e l a b o r a t e s i n h i s e s s a y " M yth T o d a y " ( 1 9 5 7 ) . B a r t h e s u s e s t h e t e r m " m y t h o l o g y " t o r e f e r t o a p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l i n f l e c t i o n w h i c h p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h a c o n v i n c i n g a p p e a r a n c e o f b e i n g a b s o l u t e . B u t t h e r e i s much more t o B a r t h e s ' a r g u m e n t t h a n s i m p l y a f o r m a l a n a l y s i s o f a p a r t i c u l a r t y p e o f l a n g u a g e o r m e t a - l a n g u a g e , f o r B a r t h e s s e e s "myth" a s the d e f i n i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c b o u r g e o i s t h o u g h t . He w r i t e s : S t a t i s t i c a l l y , m y t h i s on t h e r i g h t . T h e r e , i t i s e s s e n t i a l ; w e l l - f e d , s l e e k , e x p a n s i v e , g a r r u l o u s , i t i n v e n t s i t s e l f c e a s e l e s s l y . I t t a k e s h o l d o f e v e r y t h i n g , a l l a s p e c t s o f t h e l a w , o f m o r a l i t y , o f a e s t h e t i c s , o f d i p l o m a c y , o f h o u s e h o l d e q u i p m e n t , o f L i t e r a t u r e , o f e n t e r t a i n m e n t . I t s e x p a n s i o n h a s t h e v e r y d i m e n s i o n s o f b o u r g e o i s e x - n o m i n a t i o n . The b o u r g e o i s i e w a n t s t o k e e p r e a l i t y w i t h o u t k e e p i n g t h e a p p e a r a n c e s : i t i s t h e r e f o r e t h e v e r y n e g a t i v i t y o f b o u r g e o i s a p p e a r a n c e , i n f i n i t e l i k e e v e r y n e g a t i v i t y , w h i c h s o l i c i t s m y t h i n f i n i t e l y . The o p p r e s s e d i s n o t h i n g , he h a s o n l y one l a n g u a g e , t h a t o f h i s e m a n c i p a t i o n ; t h e o p p r e s s o r i s e v e r y t h i n g , h i s l a n g u a g e i s r i c h , m u l t i f o r m , s u p p l e , w i t h a l l t h e p o s s i b l e d e g r e e s o f d i g n i t y a t i t s d i s p o s a l : he h a s an e x c l u s i v e r i g h t t o m e t a - l a n g u a g e . The o p p r e s s e d makes t h e w o r l d , he h a s o n l y an a c t i v e , t r a n s i t i v e ( p o l i t i c a l ) l a n g u a g e ; t h e o p p r e s s o r c o n s e r v e s i t , h i s l a n g u a g e i s p l e n a r y , i n t r a n s i t i v e , g e s t u r a l , t h e a t r i c a l : i t i s M y t h . The l a n g u a g e o f t h e f o r m e r a i m s a t t r a n s f o r m i n g , o f t h e l a t t e r a t e t e r n a l i z i n g . 1 3 T h i s a n t i - b o u r g e o i s a r g u m e n t i s a t h r e a d common t o t h e c r i t i q u e s o f o b j e c t i v i t y w h i c h I u s e a n d d e v e l o p t h r o u g h o u t my t h e s i s . I h a v e t a k e n J u d d as the' s t r o n g e s t e x a m p l e o f an a e s t h e t i c p o s i t i o n w h i c h I b e l i e v e i s a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h i s s y s t e m o f i d e a s , i n o r d e r t o d e v e l o p a c r i t i q u e o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p o s i t i o n a n d i n o r d e r t o be a b l e , t o w a r d s t h e e n d o f my t h e s i s , t o d i s c u s s some o f t h e c r i t i q u e s t h a t e m e r g e d a t t h e t i m e . A s e c o n d p o i n t , w h i c h I b e l i e v e i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o c l a r i f y i n r e l a t i o n t o t h i s a n t i - b o u r g e o i s a r g u m e n t i s . t h a t my p o s i t i o n i s 10 n o t t h a t t h e v a r i o u s b e l i e f s t h a t a r e r e i f i e d b y t h e s y s t e m s o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s w h i c h d o m i n a t e t h e m i n d o f t h e b o u r g e o i s i e a r e a b s o l u t e l y d i s c o n n e c t e d f r o m , o r a t odds w i t h , t h e a g g r e g a t e o f t h i n g s w h i c h a r e s u g g e s t e d b y e m p i r i c a l , m e a n s t o be e x t a n t . R a t h e r , t h e a r g u m e n t i s t h a t w h a t e v e r v a l i d i t y e x p e r i e n c e s u g g e s t s t o us t h a t t h e s e i d e a s m i g h t h a v e i s s y s t e m a t i c a l l y d i s t o r t e d . I t i s d i s t o r t e d s o t h a t what i s c o n t i n g e n t , t h e p r o d u c t o f a p e r c e p t u a l s y s t e m f r a u g h t w i t h l i m i t a t i o n s , a p p e a r s a b s o l u t e . T h i s i s i m p o r t a n t b e c a u s e i t i s t h e n a t u r e o f i d e o l o g i e s t o u s e what seems r e l i a b l e i n t h e m ( i . e . : m ost p e o p l e do e n d up w i t h s p o u s e s and c h i l d r e n ; s h o e s do p r o t e c t o n e ' s f e e t f r o m s h a r p s t o n e s a n d i n c l e m e n t w e a t h e r ) t o g a i n c r e d e n c e f o r t h e l e s s j u s t i f i a b l e e x t r a p o l a t i o n s f o r w h i c h t h e y a l s o c l a i m a b s o l u t e r e l i a b i l i t y ( i . e . : n o t e n d i n g up w i t h a s p o u s e a n d c h i l d r e n i s a p a t h o l o g i c a l s t a t e ; e x p e n s i v e s h o e s p r o t e c t o n e ' s f e e t b e t t e r t h a n do i n e x p e n s i v e s h o e s ) . To u s e B a r t h e s ' t e r m i n o l o g y , t h e m y t h i c i n f l e c t i o n o f a b s o l u t e v a l i d i t y g a i n s i t s p o w e r t o c o n v i n c e f r o m t h e way t h a t i n d e e d , f r o m t h e fact t h a t i t e x t r a p o l a t e s s e a m l e s s l y f r o m what i s r e l i a b l e i n i t . The d i f f i c u l t y , t h e n , i s t h a t t h e r e i s no p l a c e t o s t a n d o u t s i d e o f i d e o l o g i e s w here one c a n r e l i a b l y d i s t u i n g u i s h a l l t h a t i s v a l i d f r o m a l l t h a t i s n o t . H ence, as G a y a t r i S p i v a k n o t e s i n t h e i n t r o d u c t o r y p a r a g r a p h t o h e r e s s a y "The P o l i t i c s o f I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , " ( 1 9 8 2 ) , a p e r s i s t a n t c r i t i q u e o f i d e o l o g y i s n e v e r c o m p l e t e . - ^ A N i e t z s c h e a n m o d e l o f p s y c h o l o g y c a n be u s e d t o p r o v i d e what I t h i n k i s a p o w e r f u l e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e n e e d t o h a v e f a i t h i n o b j e c t i v i t y , a n d f o r t h e v a r i o u s m a n i f e s t a t i o n s w h i c h t h i s h a s . I n h i s l a t e r t h o u g h t , N i e t z s c h e d e v e l o p s a m o n i s t c o n c e p t i o n 11 o f p s y c h o l o g y a c c o r d i n g t o w h i c h a l l a c t i o n s s t e m f r o m a s i n g l e i m p u l s e , t h e w i l l t o p o w e r . - j > h e w i l l t o p o w e r i s t h e n e e d t o f e e l t h a t one i s c o n t i n u o u s l y i n c r e a s i n g o n e ' s p o w e r o v e r o n e ' s l i f e . F o r N i e t z s c h e , t h i s i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y a m a l e v o l e n t t h i n g , s i n c e i t c a n t a k e a number o f d i f f e r e n t f o r m s , w h i c h N i e t z s c h e a r r a n g e s h i e r a r c h i c a l l y . The s i m p l e s t m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h e w i l l t o p o w e r t a k e s t h e f o r m o f f e e l i n g t h a t one i s i n c r e a s i n g o n e ' s p h y s i c a l p o w e r o v e r o t h e r s , by means o f p h y s i c a l v i o l e n c e . I n t h e h i g h e s t m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h e w i l l t o p o wer, on t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h i s i m p u l s e i s i n t e r n a l i z e d i n t o a d e s i r e t o c o n s t a n t l y q u e s t i o n a n d o v e r t u r n o n e ' s own p r e s u p p o s t i o n s . N i e t z s c h e c a l l s t h i s m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h e w i l l t o power " s e l f - o v e r c o m i n g . " Hence, i n i t s c r u d e s t f o r m t h e w i l l t o p o w e r i s d e s t r u c t i v e , b u t i n i t s m ost s o p h i s t i c a t e d m a n i f e s t a t i o n , s e l f - o v e r c o m i n g , t h e w i l l t o p o w e r i s s u b l i m e . N i e t z s c h e a r g u e s t h a t b e t w e e n t h e s e t w o e x t r e m e s , t h e r e a r e a number o f i n t e r m e d i a t e ways i n w h i c h t h e w i l l t o p o w e r c a n be m a n i f e s t e d . The one t h a t I want t o f o c u s on i s what N i e t z s c h e c a l l s " t h e w i l l t o k n o w l e d g e . " W i t h i n N i e t z s c h e ' s o n t o l o g y , t h e w i l l t o k n o w l e d g e i s t h e s e c o n d - h i g h e s t f o r m o f t h e w i l l t o p o w e r . I t i n v o l v e s a c e r t a i n amount o f s e l f -d e c e p t i o n a s a d e f e n s e m e c h a n i s m a g a i n s t t h e t r a u m a o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t human k n o w l e d g e i s a l w a y s u n c e r t a i n . The a p p e a r a n c e o f t h i s i m p u l s e t h i s b e l i e f t h a t t h e r e e x i s t s a u n i v e r s a l l y a p p l i c a b l e s y s t e m o f p e r c e p t i o n w h i c h i s c a p a b l e o f r e p r e s e n t i n g a l l t h i n g s as t h e y a r e i n t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l c o m m u n i t y p r o d u c e s what F r i e d r i c h N i e t z s c h e d e r i c i s i v e l y c a l l s " m i r r o r i n g s c h o l a r s . " F o r N i e t z s c h e , k n o w l e d g e , t h a t i s t o s a y , naming, c o n s i s t s o f t h e p a c k a g i n g and l a b e l l i n g o f phenomena i n 12 o r d e r t o c r e a t e t h e i l l u s i o n t h a t one u n d e r s t a n d s a n d t h e r e f o r e c o n t r o l s t h e s e phenomena. N i e t z s c h e d i s c u s s e s t h i s p o i n t i n Beyond Good and E v i l : The p o w e r o f t h e s p i r i t t o a p p r o p r i a t e what i s f o r e i g n t o i t i s r e v e a l e d i n a s t r o n g i n c l i n a t i o n t o a s s i m i l a t e t h e new t o t h e o l d , t o s i m p l i f y t h e c o m p l e x , t o o v e r l o o k o r r e p e l what i s w h o l l y c o n t r a d i c t o r y : j u s t as i t a r b i t r a r i l y e m p h a s i z e s , e x t r a c t s and f a l s i f i e s t o s u i t i t s e l f c e r t a i n t r a i t s a n d l i n e s i n what i s f o r e i g n t o i t , i n e v e r y p i e c e o f " e x t e r n a l w o r l d . " I t s i n t e n t i o n i n a l l t h i s i s t h e i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f new " e x p e r i e n c e s , " t h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f new t h i n g s w i t h i n o l d d i v i s i o n g r o w t h , t h a t i s t o s a y ; more p r e c i s e l y , t h e f e e l i n g o f g r o w t h , t h e f e e l i n g o f i n c r e a s e d p o w e r . T h i s same w i l l i s s e r v e d b y an a p p a r e n t l y a n t i t h e t i c a l d r i v e o f t h e s p i r i t , a s u d d e n d e c i s i o n f o r i g n o r a n c e , f o r a r b i t r a r y s h u t t i n g - o u t , a c l o s i n g o f t h e w i n d o w s , an i n n e r d e n i a l o f t h i s o r t h a t t h i n g , a r e f u s a l t o l e t i t a p p r o a c h , a k i n d o f d e f e n s i v e p o s t u r e a g a i n s t much t h a t c a n be known, a c o n t e n t m e n t w i t h t h e d a r k , w i t h t h e c l o s e d h o r i z o n , an a c c e p t a n c e a n d a p p r o v a l o f i g n o r a n c e : a l l t h i s b e i n g n e c e s s a r y a c c o r d i n g t o t h e d e g r e e o f i t s p o w e r t o a p p r o p r i a t e , i t s " d i g e s t i v e p o w e r , " t o s p e a k i n a m e t a p h o r --- and i n d e e d " t h e ' s p i r i t " . i s more l i k e a s t o m a c h t h a n a n y t h i n g e l s e . I t i s h e r e t h a t t h e r e a l s o b e l o n g s t h e o c c a s i o n a l w i l l o f t h e s p i r i t t o l e t i t s e l f be d e c e i v e d , p e r h a p s w i t h a m i s c h i e v o u s n o t i o n t h a t s u c h a n d s u c h i s not t h e c a s e , t h a t i t i s o n l y b e i n g a l l o w e d t o p a s s f o r t h e c a s e , a j o y i n u n c e r t a i n t y a n d a m b i g u i t y , an e x u e t a n t e n j o y m e n t o f t h e c a p r i c i o u s n a r r o w n e s s a n d s e c r e c y o f a n o o k - a n d - c o r n e r , o f t h e a l l t o o c l o s e , o f t h e f o r e g r o u n d , o f t h e e x a g g e r a t e d , d i m i n i s h e d , d i s p l a c e d , b e a u t i f i e d , an e n j o y m e n t o f t h e c a p r i c i o u s n e s s o f a l l o f t h e s e e x p r e s s i o n s o f p o w e r . 1 6 What . s e p a r a t e s t h e w i l l t o k n o w l e d g e f r o m s e l f - o v e r c o m i n g i s t h a t t h e w i l l t o k n o w l e d g e i s an a n t i - d i a l e c t i c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h e w i l l t o . p o w e r : i t s t u d i o u s l y a v o i d s t u r n i n g i t s d e s i r e f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g i n on i t s e l f . T h i s i s t h e p s y c h o l o g y o f o b j e c t i v i t y . S e l f - o v e r c o m i n g , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , i s a d i a l e c t i c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h e w i l l t o p o w e r . I t s v e r y n a t u r e i s t o s t u d i o u s l y t u r n i t s d e s i r e f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g i n on i t s e l f , c o n t i n u o u s l y q u e s t i o n i n g i t s own p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s as t h e y d e v e l o p . 13 A p h i l o s o p h i c a l s y s t e m w h i c h p r o p o s e s an o b j e c t i v e p h e n o m e n o l o g y i s a p a r t i c u l a r m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f a more w i d e s p r e a d phenomenon. N i e t z s c h i a n p s y c h o l o g y a c c o u n t s f o r t h i s phenomenon i n a g e n e r a l way. Now, t h e q u e s t i o n i s : what i s c o u n t e r p o s e d t o t h i s s y s t e m o f t h o u g h t ? What c a n be o f f e r e d i n i t s s t e a d ? I t i s t h i s q u e s t i o n t h a t I w i s h t o a d d r e s s b r i e f l y i n t h i s , t h e f i n a l s e c t i o n , o f my p r o l o g u e . I n t h e f i r s t s e n t e n c e o f The Geneology of Morals, N i e t z s c h e p r e s e n t s t h e r e a d e r w i t h a r h e t o r i c a l q u e s t i o n : "We k n o w e r s a r e unknown t o o u r s e l v e s , a n d f o r a g o o d r e a s o n : how c a n we e v e r hope t o f i n d what we h a v e n e v e r l o o k e d f o r ? " 1 ^ Y e t N i e t z s c h e c o n t i n u e s a l m o s t i m m e d i a t e l y : The s a d t r u t h i s t h a t we r e m a i n n e c e s s a r i l y s t r a n g e r s t o o u r s e l v e s , we d o n ' t u n d e r s t a n d o u r own s u b s t a n c e , we must m i s t a k e o u r s e l v e s ; t h e a x i o m , " E a c h man i s f a r t h e s t f r o m h i m s e l f , " w i l l h o l d f o r us t o a l l e t e r n i t y . Of o u r s e l v e s we a r e n o t " k n o w e r s " . . . . ^ ^ T h e s e two f o r m u l a e , f o r w h i c h no common d e n o m i n a t o r c a n be f o u n d , s u m m a r i z e t h e two i r r e d u c i b l e p o i n t s o f v i e w w h i c h c o m p r i s e t h e d i a l e c t i c a l b e l i e v i n g i n a d v a n c e t h a t , i n l o o k i n g , one must m i s t a k e o n e s e i f , b u t a l s o b e l i e v i n g t h a t l o o k one m u s t . I t i s f o r t h i s r e a s o n t h a t W a l t e r Kaufmann w r i t e s , " P e r h a p s i t i s t h e most s t r i k i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f ^ d i a l e c t i c a l ' t h i n k i n g f r o m S o c r a t e s t o H e g e l a n d N i e t z s c h e t h a t i t i s a s e a r c h f o r h i d d e n p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s r a t h e r t h a n a q u e s t f o r s o l u t i o n s . " ^ O Truly d i a l e c t i c a l t h i n k i n g as Kaufmann u n d e r s t a n d s i t a n d I w i l l t a k e Kaufmann's u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h i s t e r m t h r o u g h o u t my p a p e r i s a d a u n t i n g p r o s p e c t . I t may l e a d t o t h e r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t t h e c o n f u s i o n o f t h e p r o c e s s o f naming a phenomenon w i t h t h e p r o c e s s o f understanding a phenomenon i s an 14 e l i s i o n w h i c h a c t s a s a d e f e n s e m e c h a n i s m t o s h i e l d u s f r o m t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o t r u l y u n d e r s t a n d " t h e w o r l d . " So t h e n , h a v e n ' t I p a i n t e d m y s e l f i n t o a c o r n e r ? What i s l e f t a f t e r t h e r a d i c a l d e n i a l o f t h e r a t i o n a l i s t p o s i t i o n w h i c h i s t h e h a n d m a i d e n o f o b j e c t i v i t y ? I s t h e r e no way t o c o n c l u d e t h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n o t h e r t h a n i n what h a s become t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l s t y l e o f t h e p a r o d i e r e c u p e r a t i o n o f d e c o n s t r u c t i o n ? ^ 1 T h a t i s , i s t h e r e no o t h e r way t o a v o i d b e i n g i n b a d f a i t h e x c e p t t o e n d by a d m i t t i n g t h a t my a t t e m p t t o c a r e f u l l y c o n s t r u c t an a r g u m e n t i s a sham, s i n c e a l l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f J u d d o r N i e t s z c h e a r e a s g o o d a s a n y ? I t h i n k n o t , s i n c e s u c h a r g u m e n t s assume t h a t r e l a t i v i s m i s , a r a d i c a l r e j e c t i o n o f t h e i d e a t h a t t h e r e i s any d e g r e e o f s t a b i l i t y o r r e l i a b i l i t y i n t h e p r o c e s s e s o f t h o u g h t a n d p e r c e p t i o n . I n f a c t , a l l t h a t one n e e d r e j e c t i n o r d e r t o be a r e l a t i v i s t i s t h e a r g u m e n t t h a t t h e s e p r o c e s s e s a r e a b s o l u t e l y s t a b l e and t r a n s p a r e n t . The s o r t o f r e l a t i v i s m w h i c h I am a r g u i n g f o r i s b a s e d , f i r s t , on t h e a r g u m e n t t h a t p e r c e p t i o n a n d t h o u g h t a r e c o n t i n g e n t and, s e c o n d , on t h e a r g u m e n t t h a t t h e d e g r e e o f c o n t i n g e n c y i s v a r i a b l e and u n k n o w a b l e . T h u s , my a r g u m e n t i s t h a t d u r i n g t h e 1 9 6 0 s , a U.S. A m e r i c a n a r t i s t named D o n a l d J u d d d e v e l o p e d an a e s t h e t i c s y s t e m w h i c h p r e s u p p o s e d t h a t p e r c e p t i o n c o u l d be o b j e c t i v e , t h a t s i n c e o b j e c t i v i t y i s u n t e n a b l e , J u d d ' s a e s t h e t i c s y s t e m i s u n t e n a b l e , a n d t h a t t h e phenomenon o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f s u c h an a e s t h e t i c c a n be s e e n as s y m p t o m a t i c o f a p a r t i c u l a r h i s t o r i c a l moment. I t i s h a r d t o d i s a g r e e w i t h E d w a r d S a i d when he n o t e s t h a t s o much o f what g o e s on i n a c a d e m i a a p p e a r s i m p o r t a n t t o us f o r t h e s i m p l e r e a s o n t h a t we s p e n d so much t i m e d i s c u s s i n g v a r i o u s i d e a s 15 a s i f t h e y a r e i m p o r t a n t . 2 2 N o n e t h e l e s s , I make t h e s e p o i n t s : more, I i n s i s t on them. And t h e s e a r e p r e c i s e l y t h e p o i n t s w h i c h J u d d a n d o t h e r s who t h i n k i n t h e same way o r , t o p u t i t a n o t h e r way, who a d o p t t h e same i d e o l o g y , w i l l n o t , a n d c a n n o t , c o n c e d e . They c a n n o t c o n c e d e t h e s e p o i n t s b e c a u s e t o do so w o u l d be t o g i v e up t h e c o m f o r t a b l e p o s i t i o n o f s e e i n g o n e ' s way o f o r g a n i z i n g o n e ' s p e r c e p t i o n s a s i n f a l l i b l e . W orse t h a n m i s g u i d e d , h o w e v e r , s u c h a p o s i t i o n i s d a n g e r o u s . F o r , a s H o r k h e i m e r a n d A d o r n o a r g u e i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f A n t i -S e m i t i s m q u o t e d a b o v e , t h e b e l i e f t h a t o n e ' s own s y s t e m o f p e r c e p t i o n i s i n f a l l i b l e a n d s u p e r i o r t o a l l o t h e r s a l l t o o r e a d i l y p r o v i d e s a f o u n d a t i o n f o r t h e c o n v i c t i o n t h a t o n e ' s own s y s t e m o f p e r c e p t i o n i s e n t i t l e d t o work f o r t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f a l l c o m p e t i n g s y s t e m s . T h e s e p o i n t s a r e p r e c i s e l y t h e c r u x o f my c r i t i q u e o f J u d d and, more b r o a d l y , o f t h e s y s t e m o f i d e a s w h i c h , t o me, he r e p r e s e n t s . 16 Monologue Throughout much of the 1950s, the v o i c e of the c r i t i c Clement Greenberg h e l d sway over much of the United S t a t e s ' a r t world. The crux of Greenberg's way of t h i n k i n g about a r t i s . t h a t the best a r t c o n t r i b u t e s t o the progression of the a r t s toward the goal of s e l f - d e f i n i t i o n . This c r i t e r i o n of the best a r t i s , according to Greenberg, o b j e c t i v e and u n i v e r s a l , as i s the t a s t e which accompanies i t . This view was r e i t e r a t e d a number of times by Greenberg a f t e r i t was c r y s t a l l i z e d i n h i s 1940 essay "Towards A Newer Laocoon": The a r t s l i e safe now, each w i t h i n i t s " l e g i t i m a t e " boundaries, and f r e e trade has been rep l a c e d w i t h autarchy. P u r i t y i n a r t c o n s i s t s i n the acceptance, w i l l i n g acceptance, of the l i m i t a t i o n s of the medium of the s p e c i f i c a r t . To prove that t h e i r concept of p u r i t y i s something more than a b i a s i n t a s t e , p a i n t e r s p o i n t t o O r i e n t a l , p r i m i t i v e and c h i l d r e n ' s a r t as instances of the u n i v e r s a l i t y and naturalness and o b j e c t i v i t y of t h e i r i d e a l of p u r i t y . 1 Greenberg's argument here a n t i c i p a t e s h i s l a t e r arguments f o r an i d e a l i s t ^ conception of a e s t h e t i c s , such as that which he put forward i n h i s 1960 essay "Modernist P a i n t i n g , " f o r m a l i z i n g h i s c o n v i c t i o n that there i s an u n i v e r s a l "best t a s t e " which can be o b j e c t i v e l y known, and toward which a r t progresses.-^ Words such as " o b j e c t i v e , " " n a t u r a l , " " u n i v e r s a l , " and " i n t e r n a t i o n a l " are, i n t h i s system of ideas, i n d i c a t o r s that a p a r t i c u l a r body of work i s part of the t e l e o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n t o i d e n t i f y the i r r e d u c i b l e elements of a given a r t form th a t i s , i t f u r t h e r s the progress of the s e l f - d e f i n i t i o n of that form. There are a number of models of c u l t u r e which d i s c u s s - t h e use of what Jean B a u d r i l l a r d c a l l s "the democratic a l i b i of u n i v e r s a l s " w i t h i n c u l t u r a l systems i n order to n a t u r a l i z e the process of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n which occurs there, and which, 17 f o l l o w i n g t h e s e m o d e l s , I b e l i e v e i s t h e d r i v i n g f o r c e b e h i n d much o f what g o e s on w i t h i n t h e s p h e r e o f h i g h c u l t u r e . T h e s e a n a l y s e s p r o v i d e p o w e r f u l ways f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e s o f G r e e n b e r g ' s t e r m i n o l o g y w h i c h go d e e p e r t h a n d i s c u s s i o n s o f t h e l a t e s t d e v e l o p m e n t s w i t h i n f o r m a l i s t m o d e r n i s m . I n h i s a n a l y s i s o f t h e s y s t e m o f i d e a s w h i c h h a s d e v e l o p e d w i t h l a t e c a p i t a l i s m i n F o r a C r i t i q u e of the P o l i t i c a l Economy of the Sign ( 1 9 7 2 ) , B a u d r i l l a r d a r g u e s t h a t b y a p p e a l i n g t o t h e " d e m o c r a t i c a l i b i o f u n i v e r s a l s , " one d e n i e s t h e c o n t i n g e n c y o f o n e ' s s y s t e m o f v a l u e s . More, one d e n i e s e v e n t h a t o n e ' s v a l u e s a r e s y s t e m a t i c . I n h i s 1969 e s s a y " S i g n F u n c t i o n a n d C l a s s L o g i c , " B a u d r i l l a r d w r i t e s : The c u l t u r a l c l a s s l o g i c i n b o u r g e o i s s o c i e t y i s a l w a y s r o o t e d i n t h e d e m o c r a t i c a l i b i o f u n i v e r s a l s . R e l i g i o n was a u n i v e r s a l . The h u m a n i s t i d e a l s o f l i b e r t y a n d e q u a l i t y were u n i v e r s a l s . Today t h e u n i v e r s a l t a k e s on t h e a b s o l u t e e v i d e n c e o f c o n c r e t e n e s s : t o d a y t h e u n i v e r s a l i s human n e e d s , a n d a l l t h e c u l t u r a l a n d m a t e r i a l g o o d s t h a t respond-. I t i s t h e u n i v e r s a l o f c o n s u m p t i o n . 4 B a u d r i l l a r d a r g u e s t h a t a d e m o c r a t i c a l i b i . i s r e q u i r e d b e c a u s e t h e c i r c u l a t i o n o f s i g n e x c h a n g e v a l u e i s d r i v e n b y an a n t i - d e m o c r a t i c a i m , t h a t o f s o c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . B u t i t i s a l s o d r i v e n by t h e d e s i r e among p e o p l e t o be i n c l u d e d i n t h e d i s c r i m i n a t i n g g r o u p . Hence, two t h i n g s a r e n e e d e d . F i r s t , t h e c o n t i n u a l l y b e l i e v a b l e p r o m i s e t h a t t h e n e x t p u r c h a s e t h a t t h e c o n s u m e r makes w i l l be t h e one t h a t c a t a p a u l t s t h a t c o n s u m e r i n amongst t h e l u c k y few. S e c o n d , a s y s t e m o f c o n s t a n t a e s t h e t i c i n n o v a t i o n i s n e e d e d w h i c h a l w a y s k e e p s one s t e p a h e a d o f t h e c o n s u m e r . L i k e a c r u e l - a d u l t t e a s i n g a b a b y b y h o l d i n g c a n d y o u t t o i t and t h e n p u l l i n g i t away when t h e b a b y r e a c h e s f o r i t , t h e m a r k e t p l a c e k e e p s t h e c o n s u m e r on t h e r u n by c o n s t a n t l y 18 p r o m i s i n g t h a t t h e n e x t p u r c h a s e w i l l be t h e one t h a t makes t h e e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e . As B a u d r i l l a r d w r i t e s : ( T ) h a t w h i c h a t t h e l e v e l o f f o r m a p p e a r s t o be a s u r p a s s i n g t o w a r d s a u n i v e r s a l p o s i t i o n , t a k e s on i t s t r u e v a l u e i n an i n v e r s e s o c i a l s i g n i f i c a t i o n : t h e u n i v e r s a l t e r m ( s y n t h e s i s o f d i f f e r e n c e ) o n c e a g a i n becomes an e f f e c t i v e f a c t o r o f d i s c r i m i n a t i o n b e c a u s e o n l y a few e l e c t w i l l be a b l e t o a c c e d e t o t h i s s t a g e o f t h e a e s t h e t i c c o m b i n a t o r y . The o t h e r s f i n d t h e m s e l v e s r e l e g a t e d t o t h e moral m a n i p u l a t i o n o f d o m e s t i c o b j e c t s . W i t h r e s p e c t t o o b j e c t s a n d t h e i r c a l c u l u s (as o t h e r p l a c e s ) , t h e u n i v e r s a l o n c e a g a i n i s t h e t i t l e o f n o b i l i t y h e l d by a s p e c i f i c c a t e g o r y . The a e s t h e t i c c a l c u l u s i s a l w a y s s u b m e r g e d i n s o c i a l l o g i c . I n o r d e r t o a v o i d t a k i n g t h i s i d e o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s i n t o a c c o u n t , d e s i g n e r s e x h a u s t t h e m s e l v e s i n p o p u l a r i z i n g a u d a c i o u s , " r a t i o n a l , " " f u n c t i o n a l " f o r m s , b e i n g a l l t h e w h i l e s u r p r i s e d t h a t t h e s e f o r m s do n o t s p o n t a n e o u s l y s e d u c e t h e mass p u b l i c . Y e t b e h i n d t h e i r p i o u s l i t a n y ( e d u c a t i n g p u b l i c t a s t e ) , t h e s e " p o p u l a r " c r e a t o r s d i r e c t t h e i r u n c o n s c i o u s s t r a t e g y : b e a u t i f u l , s t y l i z e d , m o dern o b j e c t s a r e s u b t l y c r e a t e d ( d e s p i t e a l l r e v e r s e d g o o d f a i t h ) in order not to be understood by the majority a t l e a s t n o t s t r a i g h t away. T h e i r s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i s f i r s t t o be d i s t i n c t i v e s i g n s , t o be o b j e c t s w h i c h w i l l d i s t i n g u i s h t h o s e who d i s t i n g u i s h t h e m . ^ Hence, f o r m a l i n n o v a t i o n t h a t p r e s e n t s i t s e l f w i t h t h e r h e t o r i c o f u n i v e r s a l i s m i s c o n c e r n e d t o e s t a b l i s h i t s e l f as a c u l t u r a l a r i s t o c r a c y . T h r o u g h o u t F o r a C r i t i q u e of the P o l i t i c a l Economy of the Sign, B a u d r i l l a r d ' s c o n c e r n i s w i t h t h e a n a l y s i s o f p a r t i c u l a r phenomena w h i c h a r e r e l a t e d t o t h e s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y o f d i s t i n c t i o n a t a p e r s o n a l l e v e l : what do t h e s e phenomena s a y a b o u t how t h e i n d i v i d u a l p e r c e i v e s i t s e l f i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e l a n d s c a p e c o m p r i s e d o f o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s who a r e p e r c e i v i n g i t ? What do t h e s e phenomena s a y a b o u t t h e ways i n w h i c h t h e i n d i v i d u a l c o n c e i v e s o f o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f i t s e l f ? I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o p l a c e B a u d r i l l a r d ' s t h o u g h t b e s i d e E d w a r d S a i d ' s o p i n i o n s on c u l t u r e , b e c a u s e B a u d r i l l a r d a n d S a i d h a v e s i m i l a r t h i n g s t o s a y , b u t d i s c u s s t h e s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y o f d i s t i n c t i o n on d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s . On t h e one h a n d , B a u d r i l l a r d a s k s : what do t h e s e phenomena s a y a b o u t t h e ways i n w h i c h an i n d i v i d u a l c o n c e i v e s o f o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f i t s e l f ? On t h e o t h e r h a n d , S a i d a s k s : what do t h e s e phenomena s a y a b o u t t h e ways i n w h i c h a c u l t u r e c o n c e i v e s o f o t h e r c u l t u r e s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f i t s e l f ? However, t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e m e c h a n i s m o f d i s t i n c t i o n r e m a i n s r o u g h l y t h e same, an d t h e r e f o r e I c o n c e i v e o f t h e s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y o f d i s t i n c t i o n on t h e l e v e l o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l as a l o c a l i z e d i n s t a n c e o f a phenomenon w h i c h o p e r a t e s o n , a much l a r g e r s c a l e a t t h e l e v e l o f t h e c u l t u r a l . The p a r a l l e l s b e t w e e n B a u d r i l l a r d ' s and S a i d ' s m o d e l s o f d i s t i n c t i o n go f u r t h e r , b e c a u s e S a i d h a s i d e n t i f i e d , a t t h e l e v e l o f t h e c u l t u r a l , t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f a phenomenon i d e n t i c a l . t o what B a u d r i l l a r d c a l l s " t h e d e m o c r a t i c a l i b i o f t h e u n i v e r s a l . " I n h i s e s s a y " S e c u l a r C r i t i c i s m , " ( 1 9 8 3 ) S a i d makes e x p l i c i t h i s v i e w o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e l e v e l s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l a n d t h e c u l t u r a l : What i s more i m p o r t a n t i n c u l t u r e ( t h a n t h e g r i d o f r e s e a r c h t e c h n i q u e s a n d e t h i c s by w h i c h t h e p r e v a i l i n g c u l t u r e i m p o s e s on t h e i n d i v i d u a l s c h o l a r i t s c a n o n s o f how s c h o l a r s h i p i s t o be c o n d u c t e d ) i s t h a t i t i s a s y s t e m o f v a l u e s saturating downward a l m o s t e v e r y t h i n g w i t h i n i t s p u r v i e w ; y e t , p a r a d o x i c a l l y , c u l t u r e d o m i n a t e s f r o m a b o v e w i t h o u t a t t h e same t i m e b e i n g a v a i l a b l e t o e v e r y t h i n g a n d e v e r y o n e i t d o m i n a t e s . I n f a c t , i n o u r age o f m e d i a - p r o d u c e d a t t i t u d e s , t h e i d e o l o g i c a l i n s i s t e n c e o f a c u l t u r e d r a w i n g a t t e n t i o n t o i t s e l f as s u p e r i o r h a s g i v e n way t o a c u l t u r e whose c a n o n s a n d s t a n d a r d s 'are i n v i s i b l e t o t h e d e g r e e t h a t t h e y a r e " n a t u r a l , " " o b j e c t i v e , " a n d " r e a l . " 6 T h i s a n a l y s i s h a s i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r my a r g u m e n t , n o t o n l y b e c a u s e G r e e n b e r g r e i t e r a t e s h i s p o s i t i o n i n u n i v e r s a l i s t t e r m s t h r o u g h o u t h i s c a r e e r , b u t a l s o b e c a u s e G r e e n b e r g ' s u s e o f t h i s way o f t h i n k i n g i s b u t one o f many m a n i f e s t a t i o n s w h i c h a r i s e i n many d i f f e r e n t a r e a s , a n d i n t e r s e c t i n i n t e r e s t i n g ways, a n d f u r t h e r , b e c a u s e G r e e n b e r g ' s p o s i t i o n 20 was u s e f u l t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s I n f o r m a t i o n A g e n c y a s a d i s t i n g u i s h i n g s i g n b e c a u s e i t i s s t a t e d i n u n i v e r s a l i s t t e r m s . " 7 L e t us r e t u r n , t h e n , t o G r e e n b e r g ' s e s s a y " M o d e r n i s t P a i n t i n g . " T h i s e s s a y was w r i t t e n i n 1960 t o be b r o a d c a s t on t h e V o i c e o f A m e r i c a r a d i o n e t w o r k t h a t y e a r . I t was r e p u b l i s h e d i n two i n f l u e n t i a l c u l t u r a l p e r i o d i c a l s i n t h e n e x t t h r e e y e a r s . ^ C o n s e q u e n t l y , " M o d e r n i s t P a i n t i n g " i s s o m e t h i n g o f a prise de position f o r G r e e n b e r g ' s way o f t h i n k i n g a b o u t a r t i n t h e e a r l y 1 9 6 0 s . The t h e s i s o f " M o d e r n i s t P a i n t i n g " i s t h a t t h e p r o j e c t o f M o d e r n A r t s i n c e E d o u a r d Manet h a s b e e n one o f d e d u c t i v e s e l f -d e f i n i t i o n , a n d t h a t t h i s p a r a l l e l s M o d e r n i s t d e v e l o p m e n t s i n o t h e r f i e l d s . The most n o t a b l e o f t h e s e d e v e l o p m e n t s i s , i n G r e e n b e r g ' s v i e w , Immanuel K a n t ' s Critique of Pure Reason ( 1 7 7 0 ) , b e c a u s e G r e e n b e r g s e e s K a n t as t h e f i r s t m o d e r n i s t i n any f i e l d . G r e e n b e r g w r i t e s : I i d e n t i f y M o d e r n i s m w i t h t h e i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n , a l m o s t t h e e x a c e r b a t i o n , o f t h i s s e l f - c r i t i c a l t e n d e n c y ( o f W e s t e r n c i v i l i z a t i o n t o q u e s t i o n i t s own f o u n d a t i o n s ) t h a t b e g a n w i t h t h e p h i l o s o p h e r K a n t . B e c a u s e he was t h e f i r s t t o c r i t i c i z e t h e means i t s e l f o f c r i t i c i s m , I c o n c e i v e o f K a n t as t h e f i r s t r e a l M o d e r n i s t . The e s s e n c e o f M o d e r n i s m l i e s , a s I s e e i t , i n t h e u s e o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c m e t h o d s o f a d i s c i p l i n e t o c r i t i c i z e t h e d i s c i p l i n e i t s e l f , n o t i n o r d e r t o s u b v e r t i t , b u t i n o r d e r t o e n t r e n c h i t more f i r m l y i n i t s a r e a o f c o m p e t e n c e . ^ I n " M o d e r n i s t P a i n t i n g , " t h e n , G r e e n b e r g r e i t e r a t e s h i s a r g u m e n t f o r a m o d e l o f c u l t u r a l a n d a e s t h e t i c autonomy, w h i c h i s p a r t a n d p a r c e l w i t h h i s t e l e o l o g i c a l c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e h i s t o r y o f M o d e r n A r t . 1 ^ I h a v e s p e n t a f a i r amount o f t i m e w i t h a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h i s e s s a y b e c a u s e , d e s p i t e G r e e n b e r g ' s a f t e r - t h e - f a c t p r o t e s t a t i o n s t h a t " M o d e r n i s t P a i n t i n g " i s n o t a p r e s c r i p t i v e e s s a y , 1 1 i t h a s come t o be v i e w e d as a c r y s t a l i z a t i o n o f a 21 p a r t i c u l a r v i e w p o i n t , a n d t h i s p a r t l y h a s t o do w i t h t h e c o n s i d e r a b l e p o p u l a r i t y o f m o d e l s o f c u l t u r e l i k e G r e e n b e r g ' s t h r o u g h o u t t h e 1950s a n d e a r l y 1 960s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . V a r i o u s h i g h p r o f i l e names i n a r t w r i t i n g a t t h i s t i m e , s u c h as M i c h e a l F r i e d , D o n a l d J u d d , a n d R o s a l i n d K r a u s s , a d h e r e t o some v a r i a t i o n o f t h e i d e a o f f o r m a l i s t m o d e r n i s m . T h i s was t h e d o m i n a n t mode o f t h i n k i n g a b o u t a r t t h r o u g h o u t t h i s p e r i o d . A l t h o u g h t h e s e p e o p l e d i d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y a g r e e on what c o n s t i t u t e d t h e p r e c i s e n a t u r e o f t h e m o d e r n i s t p r o j e c t , o r w h i c h a r t was t h e b e s t a r t , t h e y d i d c o n s t i t u t e t h e d o m i n a n t , w h i c h i s n o t t o s a y t h e o n l y , v o i c e o f a r t w r i t i n g , a v o i c e o f r e c a l c i t r a n t f o r m a l i s m . A t t h e same t i m e , t h e s t a t e o f a f f a i r s w o u l d n o t be a d e q u a t e l y d e s c r i b e d w i t h o u t a d i s c u s s i o n o f G r e e n b e r g ' s 1962 a r t i c l e " A f t e r A b s t r a c t E x p r e s s i o n i s m , " a n d t h e new t a c k t h a t i t r e p r e s e n t s i n G r e e n b e r g ' s t h o u g h t . I n t h i s a r t i c l e , G r e e n b e r g a r g u e s t h a t A b s t r a c t E x p r e s s i o n i s m h a d b e e n s u p e r c e d e d a s t h e f u r t h e s t e x t e n s i o n o f M o d e r n i s t p a i n t i n g , a n d t h a t t h e f l a t t e r , l e s s p a i n t e r l y s u r f a c e s o f C l y f f o r d S t i l l , B a r n e t t Newman a n d Mark R o t h k o a r e t h e new l e a d i n g e d g e . G r e e n b e r g w r i t e s : By now i t h a s b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d , i t w o u l d seem, t h a t t h e i r r e d u c i b l e e s s e n c e o f p i c t o r i a l a r t c o n s i s t s i n b u t two c o n s t i t u t i v e c o n v e n t i o n s o r nor m s : f l a t n e s s a n d t h e d e l i m i t a t i o n o f f l a t n e s s ; a n d t h a t t h e o b s e r v a n c e o f m e r e l y t h e s e two norms i s en o u g h t o c r e a t e an o b j e c t w h i c h c a n be e x p e r i e n c e d as a p i c t u r e : t h u s a s t r e t c h e d o r t a c k e d - u p c a n v a s a l r e a d y e x i s t s as a p i c t u r e t h o u g h n o t n e c e s s a r i l y as a successful one. (The p a r a d o x i c a l o utcome o f t h i s r e d u c t i o n h a s b e e n n o t t o c o n t r a c t , b u t a c t u a l l y t o e x p a n d t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e p i c t o r i a l : much more t h a n b e f o r e l e n d s i t s e l f now t o b e i n g e x p e r i e n c e d p i c t o r i a l l y o r i n m e a n i n g f u l r e l a t i o n t o t h e p i c t o r i a l : a l l s o r t s o f l a r g e a n d s m a l l i t e m s t h a t u s e d t o b e l o n g e n t i r e l y t o t h e r e a l m o f t h e a r b i t r a r y a n d t h e v i s u a l l y m e a n i n g l e s s . ) As i t seems t o me, Newman, R o t h k o , a n d S t i l l h a v e swung t h e s e l f - c r i t i c i s m o f m o d e r n i s t p a i n t i n g i n a new d i r e c t i o n s i m p l y by c o n t i n u i n g i t s o l d one. The q u e s t i o n now a s k e d 22 through t h e i r a r t i s no longer what c o n s t i t u t e s a r t , or the a r t of p a i n t i n g , as such but what i r r e d u c i b l y c o n s t i t u t e s good a r t as.such. Or r a t h e r , what i s the u l t i m a t e source of v a l u e or q u a l i t y i n a r t ? And the worked-out answer appears t o be: not s k i l l , t r a i n i n g , or anything e l s e h a ving t o do with e x e c u t i o n or performance, but c o n c e p t i o n a l o n e . Greenberg's new l i n e comes at a time when t h e r e i s a g r e a t d e a l of r e - s h u f f l i n g going on i n the New York a r t world. Which i s t o say, w i t h i n the dominant c r i t i c a l mode of formalism, t h e r e i s a mounting o p p o s i t i o n t o Greenberg. In her t h e s i s The New Frontier Goes to Venice: Robert Rauschenberg and the XXXII Venice Biennale (1985), L a u r i e Monahan d i s c u s s e s the nature of t h i s d i s s e n t : (Greenberg's) formidable i n f l u e n c e as a c r i t i c perhaps the most important c r i t i c of the 1950s made h i s a r t i s t i c " p r o p h e c i e s " f o r the 1960s almost an i n s t i t u t i o n , demonstrating h i s powerful g r i p on the d i s c o u r s e of a r t . Yet at the same time, the very i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n of Greenberg's view of modernism became grounds f o r a r e b e l l i o n of s o r t s on the p a r t of many c r i t i c s " . J u s t as A b s t r a c t E x p r e s s i o n i s m was i n c r e a s i n g l y a s s o c i a t e d with the past, so too d i d Greenberg's c r i t i c i s m become entrenched as a t r a d i t i o n , made r i g i d by the very d i a l e c t i c s through which he pronounced the next s u c c e s s i v e move toward " f r e s h n e s s " i n a r t . S ince modernism, i n Greenbergian terms, c o u l d only be expressed through a b s t r a c t i o n , f l a t n e s s , and c o l o u r , and p a i n t i n g was p e r p e t u a l l y c o n f i n e d t o l i m i t s between the p a i n t e r l y or l i n e a r d i a l e c t i c , developments o u t s i d e of Greenberg's conceptual framework were summarily ignored. 1-^ By the m i d - s i x t i e s , t h i s d i s s e n t r e s u l t e d i n a weakening of Greenberg's g r i p on the a r t d i s c o u r s e . A r t i s t s and c r i t i c s began t o break o f f from the d i r e c t i o n which Greenberg saw as the f o r m a l i s t i m p e r a t i v e . One such a r t i s t i s Donald Judd, who was d e v e l o p i n g a c o n v i c t i o n t h a t p a i n t i n g has a number of insurmountable problems which- t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l work does not have, or at l e a s t not to the same degree. The most p r e s s i n g of these problems i s , a c c o r d i n g to Judd, the i n e v i t a b l e i l l u s i o n i s m of p a i n t i n g . 1 4 . Since 1959, Judd had been w r i t i n g on a r e g u l a r b a s i s f o r a v a r i e t y of p u b l i c a t i o n s , although most of h i s w r i t i n g 23 at t h i s time was for Arts magazine. The bulk of t h i s writing i s reviews, but there are a few essays i n the mid-1960s i n which Judd elaborates the ideas behind his own work. The most useful of these writings i s Judd's essay "Sp e c i f i c Objects," which was f i r s t published in the 1965 Arts Yearbook.^-^ In t h i s essay, Judd elaborates his conviction that one of the major problems facing contemporary art i s the reliance on composition i n the form of i n t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s between discrete components. This, i n turn, i n t e r f e r e s with the immediate comprehension of the piece. The a r t i c l e i s t i t l e d " S p e c i f i c Objects" because t h i s i s the term Judd uses to refer to art which f a l l s within his aesthetic framework. The term r e f l e c t s Judd's conviction that he was working with art works which were phenomenologically stable, meaning that they could not be confused with anything else, would avoid a l l i l l u s i o n , and would not refer to anything outside of themselves. Absolute s p e c i f i c i t y i n t h i s sense i s , for Judd, the goal of the modernist project. Hence, in Judd's terminology, the d i f f i c u l t y with most artworks i s that they are "general": they are i l l u s i o n i s t i ' c , allude to things outside of themselves, and hence are not phenomenologically stable. In p a r t i c u l a r , Judd f e l t very strongly that painting was inevitably i l l u s i o n i s t . The only way to avoid the problem of i l l u s i o n i s m , according to Judd's argument, i s to engage actual space. This led Judd to the decision that the d i s t i n c t i o n between painting and sculpture i s i r r e l e v a n t , and to the r e d e f i n i t i o n of the Modernism i n the v i s u a l arts as one project aimed at the production of the •  d e f i n i t i v e art work, rather than as two d i f f e r e n t projects, one aimed at. the production of the d e f i n i t i v e painting, and the other aimed at the production of the. d e f i n i t i v e sculpture. For t h i s r e a s o n , J u d d e s c h e w e d t h e t e r m " s c u l p t u r e " f o r h i s w o r k , p r e f e r i n g t o c a l l i t " t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l w o r k . " I n " S p e c i f i c O b j e c t s , " he w r i t e s : , T h r e e d i m e n s i o n s a r e r e a l s p a c e . T h a t g e t s r i d o f t h e p r o b l e m o f i l l u s i o n i s m a n d o f l i t e r a l s p a c e , s p a c e i n a n d a r o u n d m a r k s a n d c o l o r s w h i c h i s r i d d a n c e o f one o f t h e s a l i e n t a n d most o b j e c t i o n a b l e r e l i c s o f E u r o p e a n a r t . The s e v e r a l l i m i t s o f p a i n t i n g a r e no l o n g e r p r e s e n t . A work c a n be as p o w e r f u l as i t c a n be t h o u g h t t o b e . A c t u a l s p a c e i s i n t r i n s i c a l l y more p o w e r f u l a n d s p e c i f i c t h a n p a i n t on a f l a t s u r f a c e . 1 ^ I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o u n p a c k t h e ways i n w h i c h t h i s p h r a s e i s more t h a n j u s t an a e s t h e t i c p r e s c i p t i o n . The o f f s e t d e p e n d e n t c l a u s e i m p l i e s a s w e e p i n g r e j e c t i o n o f a l l E u r o p e a n a r t a s b a c k w a r d , o r a t l e a s t a r c h a i c . The t e r m " r e l i c s " h e r e c a r r i e s n e g a t i v e c o n n o t a t i o n s o f t h i n g s w h i c h a r e f o s s i l i z e d , o s s i f i e d , s t a l e . B u t by i d e n t i f y i n g i l l u s i o n i s m a n d l i t e r a l s p a c e a s one o f t h e most o b j e c t i o n a b l e r e l i c s , J u d d i m p l i e s t h a t t h i s i s n o t j u s t a m i n o r d i f f i c u l t y . I t i s a l m o s t as i f J u d d f i n d s t h e v e r y i d e a t h a t someone w o u l d p r o d u c e a work o f a r t w h i c h s u g g e s t s l i t e r a l s p a c e r e v o l t i n g . F u r t h e r m o r e , J u d d ' s l a n g u a g e s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e a r e o t h e r , e q u a l l y r e v o l t i n g a s p e c t s o f E u r o p e a n a r c h a i s i s m , as w e l l a s a h o s t o f o t h e r s l i g h t l y l e s s g r i m c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , p r e s e n t i n E u r o p e a n a r t , an i n - d e p t h c a t a l o g u i n g a n d d i s c u s s i o n o f w h i c h w o u l d s i m p l y be t o o much t o b e a r . A l o n g w i t h t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f h i s w o r k as s c u l p t u r e , J u d d e s c h e w e d t h e a r g u m e n t t h a t h i s work was r e d u c t i v e . He r e j e c t e d t h e t e r m " M i n i m a l i s m " and a l l s i m i l a r t e r m s , a r g u i n g t h a t , w h i l e i t was t r u e t h a t h i s work d i d n o t h a v e a l o t o f t h e t h i n g s t h a t o t h e r work h a d , i t a l s o h a d many t h i n g s t h a t n o b o d y e l s e ' s w o r k h a d . I n h i s s t a t e m e n t i n t h e P r i m a r y S t r u c t u r e s c a t a l o g u e , he w r i t e s : 25 I o b j e c t t o s e v e r a l p o p u l a r i d e a s , I d o n ' t t h i n k a n y o n e ' s work i s r e d u c t i v e . The most t h e t e r m c a n mean i s t h a t new work d o e s n ' t h a v e what t h e o l d work h a d . I t ' s n o t s o d e f i n i t i v e t h a t a c e r t a i n k i n d o f f o r m i s m i s s i n g ; a d e s c r i p t i o n a n d d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e ' k i n d p r e s e n t i s p r e t t y d e f i n i t i v e . New work i s j u s t a s c o m p l e x a n d d e v e l o p e d a s o l d w o r k . l ^ F u r t h e r m o r e , J u d d a r g u e s t h a t h i s work was b e t t e r t h a n much o t h e r work b e c a u s e i t h a d e l i m i n a t e d t h e u s e o f c o m p o s i t i o n t h a t i s , t h e f o r m a l r e l a t i o n o f d i s c r e t e p a r t s w h i c h he b e l i e v e s i n t e r f e r e s w i t h t h e i m m e d i a c y o f p e r c e p t i o n . I n " S p e c f i c O b j e c t s , " J u d d w r i t e s : I n t h e t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l work t h e w h o l e t h i n g i s made a c c o r d i n g t o c o m p l e x p u r p o s e s , a n d t h e s e a r e n o t s c a t t e r e d b u t a s s e r t e d by one f o r m . I t i s n ' t n e c e s s a r y f o r a work t o h a v e a l o t o f t h i n g s t o l o o k a t , t o c o m p a r e , t o a n a l y z e one by one, t o c o n t e m p l a t e . The t h i n g a s a w h o l e , i t s q u a l i t y as a w h o l e , i s what i s i n t e r e s t i n g . The m a i n t h i n g s a r e a l o n e a n d a r e more i n t e n s e , c l e a r a n d p o w e r f u l . They a r e n o t d i l u t e d b y an i n h e r i t e d f o r m a t , v a r i a t i o n s o f a f o r m , m i l d c o n t r a s t s a n d c o n n e c t i n g p a r t s a n d s p a c e s . A s u s p i c i o n t h a t e v e n a b s t r a c t mass i s n o t t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l seems t o h a v e r e m a i n e d w i t h J u d d t h r o u g h o u t t h e 1 9 6 0 s . T h i s i s i m p o r t a n t b e c a u s e , i n t h e t e r m s o f t h e f o r m a l i s t a e s t h e t i c s w h i c h J u d d a r g u e s f o r , a p a i n t i n g w i t h any s e n s e o f s p a c e i n i t i s a f a i l u r e , g i v e n t h a t v i r t u a l s p a c e ( i . e . : i l l u s i o n ) i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c w h i c h i s e x t r a n e o u s t o p a i n t i n g . T h e r e f o r e , a l t h o u g h J u d d ' s f i r s t a t t e m p t s t o o v e r c o m e i l l u s i o n i s m b y e n g a g i n g a c t u a l s p a c e h a d c o n s i d e r a b l e p r o b l e m s , he c o n t i n u e d t o work w i t h f o r m s w h i c h were a t t e m p t s t o p r o d u c e a r t t h a t was u n a m b i g u o u s l y t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l . From t h i s p o i n t on, h i s work h a s t u r n e d on t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e e f f e c t s o f d i f f e r e n t m a t e r i a l s , c o l o u r s , a nd a r r a n g e m e n t s i n s p a c e , and t h i s b r i n g s us t o t h e p i e c e w h i c h I want t o f o c u s on i n my p a p e r , an u n t i t l e d w o r k done i n 1.965 ( f i g . 2 ) . T h i s work c o n s i s t s o f f o u r i d e n t i c a l u n i t s w h i c h a r e mounted on a w a l l a t a u n i f o r m h e i g h t , s e p a r a t e d 26 f r o m e a c h o t h e r by e v e n l y - s p a c e d 8 - i n c h i n t e r v a l s . The u n i t s t h e m s e l v e s a r e c u b i c a l , 34 i n c h e s d e e p , 34 i n c h e s h i g h , a n d 34 i n c h e s a c r o s s . The e n d s a r e made o f p l e x i g l a s s , w h i l e t h e t o p , f r o n t a n d b o t t o m a r e a l l made f r o m s t a i n l e s s s t e e l . The s t a i n l e s s s t e e l h a s b e e n m a c h i n e d s o t h a t i t f o l d s o v e r t h e p l e x i g l a s s , t h u s o b s u r i n g t h e j o i n t b e t w e e n t h e p l e x i g l a s s a n d t h e s t a i n l e s s s t e e l . T h i s i s i m p o r t a n t , b e c a u s e s u c h a j o i n t i s t h e p l a c e w here i m p e r f e c t i o n s a r e most l i k e l y t o e x i s t , e i t h e r i n t h e f o r m o f i m p e r f e c t seams c a u s e d by t h e e d g e s b e i n g l e s s t h a n a b s o l u t e l y s t r a i g h t , o r p e r h a p s i n t h e f o r m o f e p o x y d r i p p i n g down i n s i d e t h e b o x , w here i t c a n n o t be w i p e d away. Hence, t h e l i p p r o v i d e s a s m a l l m a r g i n f o r e r r o r a nd i m p e r f e c t i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , f o l d i n g t h e s t e e l o v e r o b s c u r e s t h e c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f t h e s t a i n l e s s s t e e l f r o m t h e v i e w e r , w h i c h i s i m p o r t a n t a g a i n b e c a u s e t h i s i s a s o u r c e o f t r o u b l e , e s p e c i a l l y i n t e r m s o f f i n i s h i n g t h e c u t s u r f a c e t o m a t c h t h e r e s t o f t h e s t a i n l e s s s t e e l . A l l o f t h i s i s v i t a l f o r J u d d , b e c a u s e any v i s i b l e i m p e r f e c t i o n w o u l d i m m e d i a t e l y c o l l a p s e t h e i l l u s i o n o f s p e c i f i c i t y w h i c h J u d d a i m s t o a c h i e v e , by i n d i c a t i n g t h e made n a t u r e o f t h e o b j e c t . The r e a s o n why I want t o f o c u s my a t t e n t i o n on t h i s work i s b e c a u s e i t i s an e a r l y e x a m p l e o f t h e s o r t o f work p r o d u c e d by J u d d w h i c h seems most s u c c e s s f u l on h i s t e r m s . N o t h i n g he h a s done s i n c e h a s s u r p a s s e d t h e d e g r e e o f s i m p l i c i t y o f f o r m a c h i e v e d h e r e . Y e t , e v e n t h i s work u l t i m a t e l y f a i l s on J u d d ' s t e r m s , a n d i t f a i l s , I want t o a r g u e , b e c a u s e J u d d ' s t e r m s ' a r e i m p o s s i b l e . My a r g u m e n t i s n o t t h a t J u d d , by v i r t u e o f b e i n g t h e a r t i s t , i s t h e a r b i t e r ' o f t a s t e on whose s t a n d a r d s t h e work s t a n d s o r f a i l s . I n o t h e r w o r d s , when I s a y t h a t t h i s p i e c e f a i l s i n J u d d ' s 27 t e r m s , I am n o t s a y i n g t h a t , b y J u d d ' s s t a n d a r d s , i t i s b a d a r t . T h a t i s s u e d o e s n o t c o n c e r n me a t t h i s j u n c t u r e . R a t h e r , my p o i n t i s t h a t J u d d h a s a g o a l f o r h i s a r t , a c r u c i a l p a r t o f w h i c h i s t o p r o d u c e work w h i c h r e f e r s t o n o t h i n g o u t s i d e o f i t s e l f . T h i s p a r t i c u l a r work i s p r o b a b l y a s c l o s e a s J u d d o r a n y o n e e l s e comes t o a t t a i n i n g t h i s g o a l . However, t h i s g o a l o f n o n - r e f e r e n t i a l i t y r e m a i n s o u t o f r e a c h b e c a u s e i t i s u n a t t a i n a b l e . J u d d h a s s t a r t e d w i t h t h e w r o n g q u e s t i o n : one c a n no more f i n d a s o l u t i o n t o t h e p r o b l e m o f how t o make a work w h i c h r e f e r s t o n o t h i n g o u t s i d e o f i t s e l f t h a n one c a n f i n d a s o l u t i o n t o a q u e s t i o n w h i c h a s k s how one c a n make t h r e e p l u s one e q u a l f i v e . B u t a g a i n , my c o n c e r n g o e s b e y o n d m e r e l y p o i n t i n g o u t t h a t t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l b a s e s o f J u d d ' s i d e a o f t h e s p e c i f i c o b j e c t a r e u n s o u n d . The i d e a s t h a t t h e p r o c e s s e s o f p e r c e p t i o n a n d t h o u g h t a r e a b s o l u t e l y r e l i a b l e a r e o n e s w h i c h t e n d t o s u g g e s t t h e m s e l v e s t o u s v e r y p o w e r f u l l y . As C h a r l e s T a y l o r w r i t e s , " W e f e e l t e m p t e d t o t h i n k o f l i v i n g t h i n g s a s y t a k i n g a c c o u n t ' o f t h e i r s u r r o u n d i n g s p r e c i s e l y b e c a u s e o f t h e i n t e l l i g e n t a d a p t a t i o n w h i c h t h e y c a n make t o n o v e l s i t u a t i o n s . " 2 ^ D i f f e r e n t m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f t h e s e p h i l o s o p h i c a l b a s e s o b t a i n c u r r e n c y a t d i f f e r e n t moments i n h i s t o r y o r , t o p u t i t a n o t h e r way, one p o s s i b i l i t y f o r l a b e l l i n g v a r i o u s moments as s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t i s t o s e a r c h f o r s h i f t s i n t h e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f t h e s e p h i l o s o p h i c a l b a s e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e l a t i o n t o s h i f t i n g c o n c e p t i o n s o f e p i s t e m o l o g y . I t i s t h e h i s t o r y o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r m a n i f e s t a t i o n , D o n a l d J u d d ' s u n t i t l e d p i e c e f r o m 1965, a n d t h e n o t i o n t h a t b o t h i t a n d t h e i d e a w h i c h g a v e r i s e t o i t do, i n f a c t , h a v e h i s t o r i e s , w h i c h I am c o n c e r n e d t o a d d r e s s i n t h i s p a p e r . 28 I h a v e s a i d t h a t J u d d ' s a e s t h e t i c s o f s p e c f i c i t y i s a p o s i t i o n w h i c h h a s c e r t a i n p r e s u p p o s t i o n s i n common w i t h G r e e n b e r g ' s m o d e r n i s m . However, t h e r e a r e t w o p o i n t s o f c o n t e n t i o n b e t w e e n D o n a l d J u d d a n d - C l e m e n t G r e e n b e r g w h i c h emerge f r o m an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e i r p u b l i c a t i o n s f r o m t h e 1 9 6 0 s . The f i r s t i s t h e i s s u e o f how b e s t t o d i s p e n s e w i t h i l l u s i o n i n v i s u a l a r t f o r m s . As I n o t e d a b o v e , J u d d b e l i e v e s t h a t w o r k i n g t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l l y i s open t o a w i d e r v a r i e t y o f p o s s i b i l i t i e s t h a n w o r k i n g t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l l y , as w e l l a s more h o n e s t b e c a u s e i t i n c o r p o r a t e s l e s s i l l u s i o n . B u t G r e e n b e r g i n d i c a t e d i n an a r t i c l e p u b l i s h e d i n 1960 t i t l e d " L o u i s a n d N o l a n d " t h a t , f o r h i m , t h e most i m p o r t a n t d i s c o v e r y i n v i s u a l a r t was t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a s t a i n i n g t e c h n i q u e w h i c h a l l o w s t h e image t o be made c o - e x t e n s i v e w i t h t h e s u r f a c e on w h i c h i t i s p a i n t e d : The more c l o s e l y c o l o u r c o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h i t s g r o u n d t h e f r e e r w o u l d i t be f r o m t h e i n t e r f e r e n c e o f t a c t i l e s e n s a t i o n s ; t h e way t o a c h i e v e t h i s c l o s e r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n was b y a d a p t i n g w a t e r c o l o u r t e c h n i q u e t o o i l a n d u s i n g t h i n p a i n t on an a b s o r b e n t s u r f a c e . ( M o r r i s ) L o u i s s p i l l s h i s p a i n t on u n s i z e d a n d u n p r i m e d c o t t o n d u c k c a n v a s , l e a v i n g t h e p i g m e n t a l m o s t e v e r y w h e r e t h i n e n o u g h , no m a t t e r how many d i f f e r e n t v e i l s o f i t a r e s u p e r i m p o s e d , f o r t h e e y e t o s e n s e t h e t h r e a d e d n e s s a n d w o v e n e s s o f t h e f a b r i c u n d e r n e a t h . B u t " u n d e r n e a t h " i s t h e w r o n g w o r d . The f a b r i c , b e i n g s o a k e d i n p a i n t r a t h e r t h a n m e r e l y c o v e r e d b y i t , becomes p a i n t i n i t s e l f , c o l o u r i n i t s e l f , l i k e d y e d c l o t h . 2 1 The s e c o n d p o i n t o f c o n t e n t i o n t h a t e m e r g e s b e t w e e n J u d d a n d G r e e n b e r g c e n t r e s on t h e i s s u e o f r e d u c t i v i s m . G r e e n b e r g ' s p o s i t i o n , as e x p l a i n e d i n " M o d e r n i s t P a i n t i n g " a n d e l s e w h e r e , i s t h a t t h e M o d e r n i s t p r o j e c t i s t h e r e d u c t i o n o f a r t f o r m s t o t h e i r " e s s e n t i a l " c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , a n d t h a t a l l o f t h e b e s t a r t " p a r t i c i p a t e s i n t h i s p r o j e c t . J u d d ' s p o s i t i o n i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t . As I n o t e d e a r l i e r , w h i l e s i m p l i c i t y o f f o r m i s i m p o r t a n t t o J u d d , he d o e s n o t c o n s i d e r h i s work r e d u c t i v e . L i k e 29 G r e e n b e r g , J u d d e x p o u n d s t h e v i r t u e o f a c l a r i t y o f f o r m w h i c h makes t h e a r t o b j e c t i m m e d i a t e l y u n d e r s t a n d a b l e t o t h e v i e w e r . B u t a g a i n , J u d d a r g u e s a g a i n s t G r e e n b e r g t h a t i m m e d i a c y i s a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h an a r t f o r m w h i c h i s a u n i f i e d w h o l e w i t h no d i s c r e t e p a r t s . T h i s i s l a r g e l y t h e m o t i v a t i o n b e h i n d t h e p r e d i l e c t i o n a t t h e t i m e f o r s q u a r e s a n d r e c t a n g l e s . J u d d b e l i e v e s t h a t s u c h f o r m s a r e i m m e d i a t e l y u n d e r s t a n d a b l e t o t h e u n i v e r s a l s t a n d a r d o f t h e r a t i o n a l m i n d , a n d a number o f c o m m e n t a t o r s s h a r e J u d d ' s v i e w . F o r e x a m p l e , L u c y L i p p a r d w r i t e s i n a 1967 a r t i c l e t i t l e d "Homage t o t h e S q u a r e " : The s q u a r e c a n n o t be e x a g g e r a t e d ; i t r e m a i n s s t a t i o n a r y , e n d u r i n g , u n a l t e r a b l e , a n d p r o v i d e s a u n i v e r s a l s t a n d a r d t h a t i s as a t t r a c t i v e i n i t s p r e c i s i o n a n d n e u t r a l i t y t o t h e s p a c e age a s i t was t o e a r l y p h i l o s o p h e r s a n d t h e o l o g i a n s . 2 2 O t h e r c o m m e n t a t o r s s h a r e d t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , a n d a r g u e d t h a t J u d d a c h i e v e d a g r e a t d e g r e e o f p u r i t y i n h i s a r t b e c a u s e t h i s u s e o f t h e " u n i v e r s a l s t a n d a r d " e n a b l e d h i m t o f o c u s t h e v i e w e r ' s a t t e n t i o n on t h e a r t o b j e c t w i t h u n p r e c e d e n t e d i n t e n s i t y . F o r e x a m p l e , i n "The N a r t - a r t o f D o n a l d J u d d , " (1967) M a r t i n F r i e d m a n w r i t e s : ( J u d d ' s ) economy o f f o r m i s i n t e n d e d t o f o c u s t h e v i e w e r ' s a t t e n t i o n on t h e o b j e c t i t s e l f w i t h o u t i n v i t i n g d i g r e s s i o n s on t h e p r o c e s s by w h i c h t h e p i e c e was made. By d e -e m p h a s i z i n g t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c p r o c e s s o f c r e a t i o n , he i n t e n d s t o make t h e o b j e c t . i t s e l f a more i m m e d i a t e t h i n g ( . . . ) H i s f o r m s a r e s t u b b o r n l y c r y p t i c , i n s i s t e n t l y r e g u l a r a n d e x i s t w i t h c o l d a u t h o r i t y . So c o n c e r n e d i s he w i t h f o r m a l p u r i t y t h a t h i s w o r k s become l u c i d a x i o m s a b o u t p r o p o r t i o n a n d r h y t h m as much as t h e y a r e a s s e r t i o n s a b o u t t h e d i s p l a c e m e n t o f s p a c e . 2 3 Some o f t h e l a n g u a g e t h a t F r i e d m a n u s e s t o d i s c u s s J u d d i n d i c a t e s i n t e r e s t i n g s h i f t s i n a e s t h e t i c c r i t e r i a . W i t h A b s t r a c t E x p r e s s i o n i s m , A c t i o n P a i n t i n g , a n d t h e r h e t o r i c o f a r t p r o d u c t i o n as / e x i s t e n t i a l i s t a c t i o n , t h e s t a t u s o f t h e a r t o b j e c t 30 a s t h e t r a c e , o r p e r h a p s more a c c u r a t e l y , a s t h e p r o o f , o f s u c h a c t i o n was b o u n d up w i t h t h e c e l e b r a t i o n o f o r o b s e s s i o n w i t h facture. However, d u r i n g t h e 1 9 6 0 s , w i t h t h e e m e r g e n c e o f s u c h c r i t i c s a s M i c h e a l F r i e d , R o s a l i n d K r a u s s , a n d D o n a l d J u d d , t h e h e r o i c e x i s t e n t i a l i s t r h e t o r i c w h i c h a l w a y s r e m a i n e d p r e s e n t , e v e n w i t h G r e e n b e r g a t h i s most i n c o r r i g i b l y f o r m a l i s t , was j e t t i s o n e d . N o t h a v i n g a l e g a c y o f p o l i t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n c o m p a r a b l e t o t h a t w h i c h t h e g e n e r a t i o n o f c r i t i c s b e f o r e t h e m h a d , F r i e d , K r a u s s , J u d d , a n d t h e i r c o n t e m p o r a r i e s w e re a b l e t o c o m p l e t e t h e p r o j e c t o f " t u r n i n g T r o t s k y i s m i n t o a r t f o r a r t ' s s a k e " i n a way t h a t G r e e n b e r g was n o t , a s I w i l l e x p l a i n more f u l l y s h o r t l y . H e n c e , s u b j e c t i v e t r a c e s , p r o o f s o f t h e a r t i s t ' s p r e s e n c e , w e re t o be f r o w n e d u pon, s i n c e t h e y a r e d i s t r a c t i o n s w h i c h d i l u t e a w o r k ' s s p e c i f i c i t y . T h e r e f o r e , F r i e d m a n l a u d s J u d d ' s d e - e m p h a s i s . o f t h e p r o c e s s o f c r e a t i o n , a n d h i s p r o d u c t i o n o f work w h i c h g i v e s t h e i m p r e s s i o n o f h a v i n g a l w a y s e x i s t e d , and t h u s w h i c h s t a n d s a s a " c o l d l y a u t h o r i t a t i v e " a r g u m e n t f o r a p a r t i c u l a r d e f i n i t i o n o f a r t . When J u d d i n t e g r a t e d t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f s i t e s p e c i f i c i t y i n t o i t s r e a l m o f f o r m a l c o n c e r n s , what was a t i s s u e was modern a r t ' s engagement o f t h e s p e c t a t o r ' s c o n s c i o u s n e s s w i t h an a r t w o r k ' s own i n t e r n a l s e t o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s . T h e s e a r e e i t h e r e l i m i n a t e d o r made a f u n c t i o n o f s i m p l e s t r u c t u r a l r e p e t i t i o n . 2 4 Q u e s t i o n i n g t h e s p e c t a t o r ' s engagement w i t h t h e a r t o b j e c t i s J u d d ' s way o f a d d r e s s i n g t h e manner i n w h i c h t h e c o m p l e x i t y c r e a t e d b y i n t e r n a l f o r m a l r e l a t i o n s i n t e r f e r e s w i t h t h e v i e w e r ' s i m m e d i a t e c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f t h e work. As I n o t e d a b o v e , J u d d r e l a t e s t h i s t o t h e e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e p a i n t i n g : f o r J u d d , any p a i n - t e d s u r f a c e hung on a w a l l c o n t a i n s an i l l u s i o n i s t 31 -r e f e r e n c e . Hence, J u d d ' s . a e s t h e t i c , t h o u g h f o r m a l i s t , c o n s c i o u s l y d i v e r g e s f r o m t h e t y p e o f f o r m a l i s t a e s t h e t i c s b e i n g p u t f o r w a r d by C l e m e n t G r e e n b e r g d u r i n g t h e e a r l y 1 9 6 0 s . J u d d ' s s o l u t i o n t o t h e p r o b l e m o f how t o a v o i d t h e i l l u s i o n i s m o f p a i n t i n g was t o move t h e a r t o b j e c t a r o u n d t h e v i e w e r s p a c e . T h i s s o l u t i o n was b a s e d on t h e t h e o r y t h a t b y e n g a g i n g a c t u a l s p a c e , he c o u l d e l i m i n a t e t h e p r o b l e m o f v i r t u a l s p a c e and t h u s , as he n o t e s i n t h e q u o t a t i o n w h i c h I d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r , g e t r i d o f " t h e p r o b l e m o f i l l u s i o n i s m a n d o f l i t e r a l s p a c e , s p a c e i n a n d a r o u n d marks and c o l o u r s w h i c h i s r i d d a n c e o f one o f t h e s a l i e n t a n d most o b j e c t i o n a b l e r e l i c s o f E u r o p e a n a r t . " 2 ^ J u d d ' s s h i f t t o t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l work a c c o m p l i s h e s two t h i n g s . F i r s t , i t f o r e g r o u n d J u d d ' s d e s i r e t o f i n d new ways o f w o r k i n g , t o o v e r c o m e what he s e e s as t h e n e w l y - r e v e a l e d l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e o l d ways o f w o r k i n g , n a m e l y p a i n t i n g a n d s c u l p t u r e . T h i s i s why f o r J u d d , t h e most a d v a n c e d work i s a f o r m w h i c h he, c a l l s " t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l w o r k , " a n d w h i c h he s e e s as s u p e r c e d i n g p a i n t i n g a n d s c u l p t u r e . I n " S p e c i f i c O b j e c t s , " J u d d w r i t e s : P a i n t i n g a nd s c u l p t u r e h a v e become s e t f o r m s . A f a i r amount o f t h e i r m e a n i n g i s n ' t c r e d i b l e . The u s e o f t h r e e d i m e n s i o n s i s n ' t t h e u s e o f a g i v e n f o r m . T h e r e h a s n ' t b e e n e n o u g h t i m e a n d work t o s e e l i m i t s . So f a r , c o n s i d e r e d most w i d e l y , t h r e e d i m e n s i o n s a r e m o s t l y a s p a c e t o move i n t o . The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h r e e d i m e n s i o n s a r e t h o s e o f o n l y a s m a l l amount o f work, l i t t l e c o m p a r e d t o p a i n t i n g a n d s c u l p t u r e . A few o f t h e more g e n e r a l a s p e c t s may p e r s i s t , s u c h a s t h e w o r k ' s b e i n g l i k e an o b j e c t o r b e i n g s p e c i f i c , b u t o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e b o u n d t o d e v e l o p . Since,, i t s r a n g e i s so w i d e , t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l work w i l l p r o b a b l y d i v i d e i n t o a number o f f o r m s . A t any r a t e , i t w i l l be l a r g e r t h a n p a i n t i n g a nd much l a r g e r t h a n s c u l p t u r e , w h i c h , c o m p a r e d t o p a i n t i n g , i s f a i r l y p a r t i c u l a r , much n e a r e r t o what i s u s u a l l y c a l l e d a f o r m , h a v i n g a c e r t a i n k i n d o f f o r m . 2 6 •. 32 A l t h o u g h i n a g e n e r a l way J u d d s e e s t h i s new " t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l w o r k " a s h a v i n g more i n common w i t h s c u l p t u r e t h a n p a i n t i n g , he a l s o a r g u e s t h a t t h e most a d v a n c e d p a i n t i n g o f t h e e a r l y 1 9 6 0 s i s c l o s e r t o what he h a s i n m i n d t h a n i s t h e most a d v a n c e d s c u l p t u r e . T h i s i s b e c a u s e what J u d d s e e s a s t h e most a d v a n c e d p a i n t i n g o f t h a t t i m e , s u c h as t h e a l l - o v e r p a i n t i n g o f R o t h k o , S t i l l , a n d Newman, a r e more i n l i n e w i t h J u d d ' s i d e a l o f a work c o m p o s e d o f a d e f i n i t e w h o l e a n d v e r y few p a r t s t h a n a r e t h e t h e s c u l p t u r e s o f Mark D i S u v e r o o r A n t h o n y C a r o , f o r e x a m p l e . Hence, J u d d ' s own work s e r v e s f o r J u d d as an e x a m p l e o f what he means b y " t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l work, " b u t s o t o o d o e s work s u c h as F r a n k S t e l l a ' s s h a p e d c a n v a s e s o f t h e e a r l y 1 9 6 0 s , s u c h a s Charlotte Tokayer, 1963 ( f i g . 3 ) . J u d d w r i t e s o f S t e l l a : S t e l l a ' s s h a p e d p a i n t i n g s i n v o l v e s e v e r a l i m p o r t a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l w o r k . The p e r i p h e r y o f a p i e c e a n d t h e l i n e s i n s i d e c o r r e s p o n d . The s t r i p e s a r e nowhere n e a r b e i n g d i s c r e t e p a r t s . The s u r f a c e i s f a r t h e r f r o m t h e w a l l t h a n u s u a l , t h o u g h i t r e m a i n s p a r a l l e l t o i t . S i n c e t h e s u r f a c e i s e x e p t i o n a l l y u n i f i e d a n d i n v o l v e s l i t t l e o r no s p a c e , t h e p a r a l l e l p l a n e i s u n u s u a l l y d i s t i n c t . The o r d e r i s n o t r a t i o n a l i s t i c a n d u n d e r l y i n g b u t i s s i m p l y o r d e r , l i k e t h a t o f c o n t i n u i t y , one t h i n g a f t e r a n o t h e r . A p a i n t i n g i s n ' t an i m a g e . The s h a p e s , t h e u n i t y , p r o j e c t i o n , o r d e r a n d c o l o u r a r e s p e c i f i c , a g g r e s s i v e a n d p o w e r f u l . 2 ' T h i s v i e w i s v e r y much i n c o n f l i c t w i t h G r e e n b e r g ' s v i e w o f what c o n s t i t u t e s s u c c e s s f u l t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l w o r k . I n c o n t r a s t t o J u d d , G r e e n b e r g b e l i e v e s t h a t i m m e d i a c y i s a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h t h e s u c c e s s f u l r e l a t i o n of d i s c r e t e p a r t s . In a 1967 a r t i c l e on A n t h o n y C a r o , G r e e n b e r g w r i t e s : R a r e l y d o e s a s i n g l e s h a p e i n C a r o ' s s c u l p t u r e g i v e •" s a t i s f a c t i o n i n i t s e l f ; t h e w e i g h t o f h i s a r t l i e s p r e p o n d e r a n t l y i n what M i c h e a l F r i e d c a l l s i t s " s y n t a x , " t h a t i s , i n t h e r e l a t i o n o f i t s d i s c r e t e p a r t s . 2 ^ The s e c o n d t h i n g w h i c h i s a c c o m p l i s h e d b y J u d d ' s s h i f t t o t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l work i s t h a t i t f o r e g r o u n d s t h e n a t u r e o f t h e r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n v i e w e r a n d a r t o b j e c t a s c o n t i n g e n t u p o n t h e v i e w e r ' s t e m p o r a l movement i n t h e s p a c e s h a r e d w i t h t h e o b j e c t . A c c o r d i n g t o J u d d ' s way o f t h i n k i n g , t h e work b e l o n g s t o i t s s i t e ; i f i t s s i t e c h a n g e s , s o do t h e r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n o b j e c t , c o n t e x t , a n d v i e w e r . T h e r e f o r e , by i n t e g r a t i n g t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f s i t e s p e c i f i c i t y i n t o t h e r e a l m o f f o r m a l c o n c e r n s , J u d d r a i s e s t h e i s s u e o f modern s c u l p t u r e ' s engagement o f t h e s p e c t a t o r ' s c o n s c i o u s n e s s w i t h s c u l p t u r e ' s own i n t e r n a l s e t o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s , a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y a d d r e s s e s t h e manner i n w h i c h t h e c o m p l e x i t y c r e a t e d by i n t e r n a l f o r m a l r e l a t i o n s i n t e r f e r e s w i t h t h e v i e w e r ' s i m m e d i a t e c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f t h e w o r k . However, J u d d ' s c o n c e r n s w i t h s i t e s t e m f r o m a new d i r e c t i o n b e i n g t a k e n u n d e r t h e a e g i s o f t h e f o r m a l i s t p r o j e c t . W i t h i n J u d d ' s l i n e o f t h e o r i z i n g , " s i t e " i s o n l y an a b s t r a c t t e r m t o d e n o t e t h e p o t e n t i a l e x i s t e n c e o f a v i e w e r - o b j e c t r e l a t i o n . H ence, a l i n e o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n w h i c h seems t o be an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e i d e a l i s t u n d e r p i n n i n g s o f U.S. A m e r i c a n f o r m a l i s m i n f a c t s u b s c r i b e s t o t h o s e same i d e a l i s t p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s . J u d d was n o t c o n c e r n e d t o p r o d u c e a c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f t h e p r i v i l e g e d • p o s i t i o n w h i c h f o r m a l i s m a c c o r d s t h e a r t i s t a s t h e s o l e g e n e r a t o r o f t h e a r t w o r k ' s f o r m a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . He n o t e s , " ' N o n - a r t , ' ' a n t i - a r t , ' ' n o n - a r t a r t , ' a n d ' a n t i - a r t a r t ' a r e a l l u s e l e s s . I f someone s a y s h i s work i s a r t , i t s a r t . " 2 9 i t was, as D o u g l a s C r i m p n o t e s i n h i s e x c e l l e n t a r t i c l e " S e r r a ' s P u b l i c S c u l p t u r e : R e d e f i n i n g S i t e S p e c i f i c i t y , " (1986) l e f t t o a g r o u p o f d i f f e r e n t a r t i s t s t o u n c o v e r t h e p o l i t i c a l s p e c i f i c i t y o f t h e s i t e . C r i m p w r i t e s : The r e a l m a t e r i a l c o n d i t i o n o f modern a r t , masked by i t s p r e t e n s e .to u n i v e r s a l i t y , i s t h a t o f t h e s p e c i a l i z e d l u x u r y c o m m o d i t y . E n g e n d e r e d u n d e r c a p i t a l i s m , modern a r t became 34 s u b j e c t t o t h e c o m m o d i f i c a t i o n f r o m w h i c h n o t h i n g f u l l y e s c a p e s . A n d i n a c c e p t i n g t h e " s p a c e s " o f a r t ' s i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d c o m m o d i t y c i r c u l a t i o n a s g i v e n , M i n i m a l a r t c o u l d n e i t h e r e x p o s e . n o r r e s i s t t h e h i d d e n m a t e r i a l c o n d i t i o n s o f modern a r t . The t a s k was t a k e n up i n t h e work o f a r t i s t s who r a d i c a l i z e d s i t e s p e c i f i c i t y , a r t i s t s s u c h a s D a n i e l B u r e n a n d Hans H a a c k e , M i c h e a l A s h e r and L a w r e n c e W e i n e r , R o b e r t S m i t h s o n a n d R i c h a r d S e r r a . T h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o a m a t e r i a l i s t c r i t i q u e o f a r t , t h e i r r e s i s t a n c e t o t h e " d i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f c u l t u r e i n t o c o m m o d i t i e s , " were f r a g m e n t a r y a n d p r o v i s i o n a l , t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s l i m i t e d , s y s t e m a t i c a l l y o p p o s e d o r m y s t i f i e d , u l t i m a t e l y o v e r t u r n e d . What r e m a i n s o f t h i s c r i t i q u e t o d a y a r e a h i s t o r y t o be r e c o v e r e d a n d f i t f u l , m a r g i n a l i z e d p r a c t i c e s t h a t s t r u g g l e t o e x i s t a t a l l i n an a r t w o r l d more d e d i c a t e d t h a n e v e r b e f o r e t o c o m m o d i t y v a l u e . o u I h a v e n o t e d t h a t w h i l e t h e r e a r e i m p o r t a n t o v e r l a p s i n t h e p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s made by J u d d ' s a e s t h e t i c s a n d G r e e n b e r g ' s a e s t h e t i c s , t h e r e a r e a l s o m a r k e d d i f f e r e n c e s . However, n e i t h e r J u d d n o r G r e e n b e r g a r e w i l l i n g t o e x p l i c i t l y condemn t h e o t h e r ' s a r g u m e n t . G r e e n b e r g i s h o s t i l e t o J u d d ' s w ork, f e e l i n g i t t o be b o t h t o o i n t e l l e c t u a l i n t e l l e c t u a l i s m i n G r e e n b e r g ' s e y e s b e i n g an a g e n t o f o b f u s c a t i o n a nd t o o s l i c k . N o n e t h e l e s s G r e e n b e r g c o n c e d e s t h a t " M i n i m a l i s m " h a s s o m e t h i n g o f v a l u e t o i t , a s i n t h e c o n c l u s i o n t o h i s 1967 a r t i c l e " R e c e n t n e s s o f S c u l p t u r e , " w h i c h was G r e e n b e r g ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e c a t a l o g u e w h i c h a c c o m p a n i e d t h e L o s A n g e l e s C o u n t y Museum's e x h i b i t i o n American Art of the S i x t i e s . G r e e n b e r g w r i t e s : ( M i n i m a l A r t ) makes c l e a r as n e v e r b e f o r e how f u s s y a l o t o f e a r l i e r a b s t r a c t s c u l p t u r e i s , e s p e c i a l l y t h a t i n f l u e n c e d b y A b s t r a c t E x p r e s s i o n i s m . B u t t h e p r i c e may s t i l l n o t be w o r t h i t . The c o n t i n u i n g i n f i l t r a t i o n o f Good D e s i g n i n t o what p u r p o r t s t o be a d v a n c e d and h i g h b r o w a r t now d e p r e s s e s s c u l p t u r e a s i t d o e s p a i n t i n g . M i n i m a l f o l l o w s t o o much where Pop, Op, A s s e m b l a g e , and t h e r e s t h a v e l e d (as D a r b y B a r n a r d , o n c e a g a i n , h a s a l r e a d y p o i n t e d o u t ) . N e v e r t h e l e s s , I t a k e M i n i m a l a r t more s e r i o u s l y t h a n I do t h e s e o t h e r f o r m s o f N o v e l t y . I r e t a i n hope f o r c e r t a i n o f i t s e x p o n e n t s . Maybe t h e y w i l l t a k e s t i l l more p o i n t e r s f r o m a r t i s t s l i k e T r u i t t , C a r o , E l l s w o r t h K e l l y , a n d K e n n e t h N o l a n d , a n d l e a r n f r o m t h e i r e x a m p l e how t o r i s e a b o v e Good D e s i g n . 31, 35 S i m i l a r l y , i n a 1967 b ook r e v i e w J u d d r e c o g n i z e s G r e e n b e r g ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o d i s c u s s i o n s on a r t , b u t h i s h o s t i l i t y t o G r e e n b e r g i s a l s o c l e a r l y v i s i b l e : T h e r e . i s n ' t a n y t h i n g r e a s o n a b l e , t h e n , on P o l l o c k ' s w ork b u t a few e a r l y ' r e v i e w s b y G r e e n b e r g . T h e y ' r e a l l r i g h t a s r e v i e w s ; G r e e n b e r g was b e g i n n i n g t o t h i n k a b o u t t h e p a i n t i n g s ; b u t he q u i t . ^ 2 Up to t h i s p o i n t , I h a v e b e e n d i s c u s s i n g t h e d e b a t e a r i s i n g f r o m t h e r e - t h i n k i n g o f m o d e r n i s m i n t e r m s o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s a nd s i m i l a r i t i e s b e t w e e n G r e e n b e r g a n d J u d d . T h e r e i s , h o w e v e r , a t h i r d v o i c e w h i c h s h o u l d be a d d e d i n t o a d e q u a t e l y r e p r e s e n t t h e c o m p l e x i t y of t h e d e b a t e , n a m e l y , t h a t o f M i c h a e l F r i e d . As t h i s d e b a t e was d e v e l o p i n g , F r i e d was a p r o m i s i n g y o u n g i n t e l l e c t u a l , j u s t o u t of H a r v a r d , who d i d n o t h e s i t a t e t o c o n f r o n t G r e e n b e r g o p e n l y . It i s n e c e s s a r y t o c o n s i d e r F r i e d ' s p o s i t i o n f o r t w o r e a s o n s . F i r s t , h i s q u i c k l y became a p r o m i n e n t v o i c e i n t h e p a g e s o f A r t s a n d l a t e r Artforum. More i m p o r t a n t l y , t h o u g h , F r i e d ' s p o s i t i o n i s one p o w e r f u l l y a r g u e d w i t h i n t h i s d e b a t e , s i m i l a r i n some ways t o J u d d ' s and i n o t h e r ways t o G r e e n b e r g ' s ( a s i d e f r o m t h e a g r e e m e n t amongst a l l t h r e e o f them, o f c o u r s e , t h a t i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o c o n s i d e r t h e q u e s t i o n o f what, p r e c i s e l y , c o n s t i t u t e s m o d e r n i s t a r t ) , b u t i n t h e e n d ( f o r e x a m p l e , by t h e t i m e " A r t a n d O b j e c t h o o d " a p p e a r s i n 1967) a s o l i d p o s i t i o n w i t h i n t h i s d e b a t e , w h i c h t a k e s i s s u e i n i m p o r t a n t ways w i t h b o t h G r e e n b e r g a n d J u d d . F o r F r i e d , as f o r G r e e n b e r g and J u d d , t h e m o d e r n i s t p r o j e c t i s a p r o j e c t o f d e f i n i t i o n . However, f o r F r i e d t h e p r o c e s s o f d e f i n i t i o n o c c u r s t h r o u g h t h e f l i r t a t i o n w i t h what he c a l l s " t h e a t r i c a l i t y " r a t h e r t h a n w i t h " e x t i n c t i o n . " F r i e d ' s i d e a o f " t h e a t r i c a l i t y " d e n o t e s t h e p o i n t a t w h i c h a g i v e n . t y p e o f a r t b e g i n s .to u t i l i z e t e c h n i q u e s a n d e f f e c t s w h i c h a r e n o t o f 36 i t s d o m a i n , t h u s b e c o m i n g p a r t l y s o m e t h i n g e l s e , e i t h e r n o n - a r t o r a d i f f e r e n t f o r m o f a r t f r o m t h a t w h i c h i t s e t s o u t t o b e , a n d h e n c e no l o n g e r p u r e . When F r i e d o p p o s e s h i s i d e a o f m o d e r n i s m a s t h e f l i r t a t i o n w i t h t h e a t r i c a l i t y t o t h e i d e a o f m o d e r n i s m a s f l i r t a t i o n w i t h e x t i n c t i o n , he i s o p p o s i n g t h e i d e a o f m o d e r n i s m as a p r o j e c t w h i c h r e d u c e s t h e a r t w o r k u n t i l i t i s on t h e v e r g e o f d i s a p p e a r i n g , o f b e c o m i n g n o t h i n g a t a l l , o f b e c o m i n g a f l a t p i e c e o f c a n v a s t a c k e d o n t o a w a l l . I n o t h e r w o r d s a n d on t h i s p o i n t F r i e d i s i n a g r e e m e n t w i t h J u d d F r i e d b e l i e v e s G r e e n b e r g ' s c o n c e p t i o n o f m o d e r n i s m a s a reductive p r o j e c t t o be e r r o n e o u s . 3 3 The i s s u e o f an a r t o b j e c t . b e i n g a p u r e a r t o b j e c t t h a t i s f u n d a m e n t a l l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m o b j e c t s i n g e n e r a l , i s t h e c r u x o f F r i e d ' s a r g u m e n t a g a i n s t J u d d ' s work, w h i c h F r i e d c a l l s " l i t e r a l i s m " . I n h i s 1967 a r t i c l e " A r t and O b j e c t h o o d , " F r i e d w r i t e s : ( M ) o d e r n i s t p a i n t i n g h a s come t o f i n d i t i m p e r a t i v e t h a t i t d e f e a t o r s u s p e n d i t s own o b j e c t h o o d . . . ( T ) h e c r u c i a l f a c t o r i n t h i s u n d e r t a k i n g i s s h a p e , b u t s h a p e t h a t must b e l o n g t o painting i t must be p i c t o r i a l , n o t , o r n o t m e r e l y , l i t e r a l . W hereas l i t e r a l i s t a r t s t a k e s e v e r y t h i n g on s h a p e as a g i v e n p r o p e r t y o f o b j e c t s , i f n o t , i n d e e d , a s a k i n d o f o b j e c t i n i t s own r i g h t . 3 3 What f u r t h e r b o t h e r s F r i e d a b o u t J u d d ' s work i s i t s a t t e n t i o n t o t h e r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e v i e w e r a n d t h e p i e c e . F r i e d b e l i e v e s t h a t p r i m a c y s h o u l d be a c c o r d e d t o t h e a r t w o r k . Thus, J u d d ' s c o n c e r n w i t h u s i n g t h e s h a p e a n d p l a c e m e n t o f t h e a r t o b j e c t t o e s t a b l i s h a p a r t i c u l a r a r t o b j e c t - v i e w e r r e l a t i o n s t r i k e s F r i e d as a d d i n g i n t o a r t c o n c e r n s w h i c h a r e e x t r i n s i c t o i t s n a t u r e a n d w h i c h t h e r e f o r e d i l u t e i t s p u r i t y a n d , c o n s e q u e n t l y , i t s q u a l i t y as a work o f a r t . We h a v e s e e n i n t h e l a s t few p a g e s how t h e d i s p u t e b e t w e e n J u d d , G r e e n b e r g a nd F r i e d , was f r a m e d . T h i s d i s p u t e i s one i n 37 w h i c h t h e d i f f e r e n c e s o f o p i n i o n may be r a t h e r d i f f i c u l t t o p i c k o u t f r o m a d i s t a n c e , b e c a u s e what i s a t s t a k e i s t h e n a t u r e o f m o d e r n i s t a e s t h e t i c s as a s o r t o f f o r m a l i s m . Thus t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e p o s i t i o n s may seem r a t h e r s u b t l e b e c a u s e t h e d i s p u t a n t s h o l d some k e y b e l i e f s a b o u t t h e n a t u r e o f a r t i n common. The most i m p o r t a n t o f t h e s e b e l i e f s f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f my p a p e r a r e t h a t a r t i s h i s t o r i c a l l y a u t o n o m o u s , a n d t h a t t h e c e n t r a l p r o j e c t o f M o d e r n i s t a r t i s t h e s e l f - d e f i n i t i o n o f f o r m s . N o r d i d t h e d i s c u s s i o n r e m a i n f r a m e d w i t h i n t h e t e r m s o f f o r m a l i s m m e r e l y as a r e s u l t o f i n e r t i a . A s L a u r i e Monahan shows, U . S . A m e r i c a n c r i t i c i s m a d h e r e d t o t h e s e b o u n d a r i e s e v e n when t a l k i n g a b o u t an a r t i s t s u c h a s R o b e r t R a u s c h e n b e r g , i n s p i t e o f h i s h i g h l y s u g g e s t i v e i m a g e r y a n d i n s p i t e o f t h e f a c t t h a t E u r o p e a n c r i t i c s t a l k e d - a b o u t h i s work i n o t h e r t e r m s . H ence, t h e i n s i s t e n c e on k e e p i n g t h e d e b a t e w i t h i n f o r m a l i s t b o u n d a r i e s u n d e r any c i r c u m s t a n c e s , and t h e f i e r c e d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o e x c l u d e h i s t o r y , was a way o f t a l k i n g a b o u t a r t w h i c h was n o t o n l y m y o p i c b u t a l m o s t u n i q u e l y U.S. A m e r i c a n . 3 5 j not want t o argue, t h a t t h e r e w e re no E u r o p e a n f o r m a l i s t s . N o r do I want t o want t o a r g u e t h a t t h e r e w e re no p e o p l e w r i t i n g a b o u t a r t i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s d u r i n g t h e m i d - 1 9 6 0 s who were i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e s o c i a l f i e l d o f v i e w w h i c h c r i t i c a l m o d e r n i s m s u r v e y s . However, a s I n o t e d a b o v e , d u r i n g t h e 1 9 6 0 s , w i t h t h e e m e r g e n c e o f s u c h w r i t e r s a s K r a u s s , F r i e d a nd J u d d , t h e o v e r l a p i n t h e s e f i e l d s o f v i e w w h i c h o c c u r s i n G r e e n b e r g , f o r e x a m p l e , i n t h e f o r m o f an e v e r - p r e s e n t u n d e r t o n e o f e x i s t e n t i a l i s m , i s done away w i t h . The p h r a s e ,, " a r t f o r a r t ' s s a k e " was i n t e r p r e t e d i n a way w h i c h i s s u b t l y b u t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m how G r e e n b e r g i n t e r p r e t e d i t , i n t h a t a l l t r a c e s o f e x t e r n a l r e f e r e n c e s were p u r g e d f r o m 38 M o d e r n i s m . F o r G r e e n b e r g , " a r t f o r a r t ' s s a k e " meant a r t f o r t h e s a k e o f an e n t i r e way o f t h i n k i n g o f l i f e . P e r h a p s t h i s i s i n s p i t e o f h i m s e l f , b u t n o n e t h e l e s s , t h e a s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e a v a n t -g a r d e a r t i s t w i t h t h e e x i s t e n t i a l h e r o n e v e r l e a v e s G r e e n b e r g ' s w r i t i n g . However, as I m e n t i o n e d i n t h e P r o l o g u e i n r e l a t i o n t o A l b e r r o ' s e l e g a n t f o r m u l a t i o n , w i t h t h e e m e r g e n c e o f F r i e d , K r a u s s , J u d d , F r i e d m a n , a n d o t h e r s i n t h e 1 9 6 0 s , " a r t f o r a r t ' s s a k e " was r e i n t e r p r e t e d t o mean " a r t a s t a u t o l o g y . " I t h i n k t h a t t h i s i s i m p o r t a n t , s o a l l o w me t o c l a r i f y b r i e f l y . I n h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e f i r s t v o l u m e o f G r e e n b e r g ' s c o l l e c t e d w r i t i n g s , J o h n O ' B r i a n w r i t e s o f G r e e n b e r g ' s e a r l y w o r k : The d i s s e n t i n g t o n e o f G r e e n b e r g ' s v o i c e , q u i c k t o r e j e c t what seemed m e r e t r i c i o u s i n c o n t e m p o r a r y c u l t u r e , was a t o n e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f a g r o u p o f New Y o r k c r i t i c s a n d w r i t e r s b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r b y b r o a d l y s h a r e d c o n v i c t i o n s a b o u t a r t and p o l i t i c s . Among them were P a u l Goodman, D w i g h t M a c d o n a l d , W i l l i a m P h i l l i p s , P h i l i p Rahv, H a r o l d R o s e n b e r g , I s a a c R o s e n f e l d , M e y e r S c h a p i r o , L i o n e l T r i l l i n g , R o b e r t Warshow, a n d G r e e n b e r g h i m s e l f . ^ 6 T h i s i s where G r e e n b e r g c u t h i s t e e t h as an i n t e l l e c t u a l i n a g r o u p t h a t p e r h a p s c o u l d d i s c u s s p o l i t i c s w i t h o u t d i s c u s s i n g a r t , b u t w h i c h i t seems u n l i k e l y c o u l d d i s c u s s a r t w i t h o u t d i s c u s s i n g p o l i t i c s . T h i s h e r i t a g e , as I h a v e s a i d , p r o v i d e d t h e f o u n d a t i o n s f o r t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l a n d p o l i t i c a l c o n c e r n s w h i c h a r e a l w a y s p r e s e n t i n G r e e n b e r g ' s w r i t i n g s . The t e n o r o f t h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l m i l i e u i s v e r y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e p r a g m a t i s m t o w h i c h J u d d , s t u d y i n g p h i l o s o p h y a t C o l u m b i a d u r i n g t h e e a r l y 1 9 5 0 s , o r F r i e d a nd K r a u s s , s t u d y i n g p h i l o s o p h y a t H a r v a r d a few y e a r s l a t e r , w o u l d h a v e b e e n e x p o s e d . I n t h e m i l e a u s o f C o l u m b i a a n d H a r v a r d , i t w o u l d h a v e b e e n a m a t t e r o f c o u r s e t o d i s c u s s a r t w i t h o u t d i s c u s s i n g p o l i t i c s . 3 7 T h e r e a r e t h r e e h i s t o r i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a b o u t t h e f o r m a l i s t m o d e r n i s m o f t h e 1960s w h i c h a r e i m p o r t a n t t o my d i s c u s s i o n . F i r s t , d u r i n g t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h e 1 9 6 0 s , f o r m a l i s t m o d e r n i s m was t h e p r e d o m i n a n t way o f t h i n k i n g a b o u t a r t i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , a n d h a d b e e n f o r some t i m e . S e c o n d , c e r t a i n p r o p o n e n t s o f f o r m a l i s t m o d e r n i s m c l a i m e d t h a t t h i s p o s i t i o n was d e r i v e d f r o m an a e s t h e t i c s w h i c h h a d o n c e b e e n l e f t i s t , b u t h a d t u r n e d i t s e l f i n t o a n e u t r a l p o s i t i o n . F o r e x a m p l e , i n h i s 1961 e s s a y "The L a t e T h i r t i e s i n New Y o r k , " w h i c h i s a r e v i s e d v e r s i o n o f h i s 1957 e s s a y "New Y o r k P a i n t i n g O n l y Y e s t e r d a y , " G r e e n b e r g w r i t e s : R a d i c a l p o l i t i c s was on many p e o p l e ' s m i n d s , b u t f o r t h e s e p a r t i c u l a r a r t i s t s S o c i a l R e a l i s m was a s d e a d a s t h e A m e r i c a n S c e n e . (Though t h a t i s n o t a l l , by f a r , t h a t t h e r e was t o p o l i t i c s i n a r t i n t h o s e y e a r s ; some d a y i t w i l l h a v e t o be t o l d how " a n t i - S t a l i n i s m , " w h i c h s t a r t e d o u t more o r l e s s a s " T r o t s k y i s m , t u r n e d i n t o a r t f o r a r t ' s s a k e , a n d t h e r e b y c l e a r e d t h e way, h e r o i c a l l y , f o r what was t o come.) - 3 0 The a s c e n d a n c y o f t h i s b e l i e f l e d t o t h e s t a b i l i z a t i o n o f t h e v i e w o f a r t as autonomous a l t h o u g h , as I n o t e d a b o v e , n o t i n G r e e n b e r g ' s t h o u g h t . N o n e t h e l e s s , by t h e 1 9 6 0 s , a d o m i n a n t a e s t h e t i c p o s i t i o n e x i s t e d i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n w h i c h t h e c o n c e p t s o f a v a n t - g a r d i s m a n d M o d e r n i s m a r e d e f i n e d i n t e r m s o f " s e l f - c r i t i c i s m " i n a new way w h i c h s i g n a l s t h e a r r i v a l o f a s e l f - c o n s c i o u s c l a i m t o h a v e s e p a r a t e d M o d e r n i s m f r o m c r i t i c a l j u d g e m e n t o f a n y t h i n g o u t s i d e o f i t s t a u t o l o g i c a l l y - d e f i n e d c i r c u i t o f i n t e r e s t . T h i r d , f o r m a l i s t M o d e r n i s m n o t o n l y r e t a i n e d b u t i n s i s t e d upon u s i n g t h e t e r m i n o l o g y w h i c h was h e l d o v e r f r o m i t s p o l i t i c a l l y - o p p o s i t i o n a l l e g a c y . As S e r g e G u i l b a u t w r i t e s i n How New York Stole the Idea of Modern Art: F o r t h e a v a n t - g a r d e t h e i m p o r t a n t t h i n g was t h a t i t now ( i n t h e l a t e -1940s) became p o s s i b l e t o p e r p e t u a t e t h e p r a c t i c e 40 o f p a i n t i n g s w i t h o u t l o s i n g f a c e , t h a t i s , w i t h o u t a b a n d o n i n g t h e v o c a b u l a r y o f r a d i c a l p o l i t i c s . The a l i e n a t i o n o f t h e a r t i s t , t h e a v a n t - g a r d e b e l i e v e d , was n e c e s s a r y t o h i s l i b e r a t i o n . A l l a v a n t - g a r d e a r t i s t s a g r e e d on t h i s p o i n t , f o r them c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f m o d e r n i t y . G r e e n b e r g a nd R o s e n b e r g , m o r e o v e r , b a s e d t h e i r h o p e s f o r a r e n e w a l o f A m e r i c a n a r t on t h i s b e l i e f . 3 9 To b e s u r e , t h e r e a r e o c c a s i o n a l p o l i t i c a l r e f e r e n c e s i n t h e w r i t i n g s o f t h e t h r e e p e o p l e who I am u s i n g t o r e p r e s e n t t h e i n t e r e s t s o f U . S . A m e r i c a n f o r m a l i s m . Of t h e t h r e e , M i c h a e l F r i e d seems t o be t h e most r i g o u r o u s l y c r i t i c a l i n t h e e a r l y s i x t i e s . T a k e , f o r e x a m p l e , t h e r e v i e w F r i e d w r o t e i n 1961 o f J o h n B e r g e r ' s Permanent Red. F r i e d i s n o t a M a r x i s t , b u t t h i s i s p r e c i s e l y what makes h i s a r g u m e n t i n t h i s r e v i e w i n t r i g u i n g . F o r , r a t h e r t h a n t u r n i n g h i s a n a l y s i s i n t o a d i a t r i b e f o r f o r m a l i s m , F r i e d c h o o s e s t o h o l d h i s a r g u m e n t on t h e M a r x i s t t e r r i t o r y t h a t B e r g e r ' s b o o k c l a i m s t o r e p r e s e n t i n o r d e r t o make t h e c a s e t h a t J o h n B e r g e r i s an i r r e s p o n s i b l e M a r x i s t . 4 ^ Hence, F r i e d e l e c t s t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t B e r g e r ' s b ook d o e s n o t do what i t c l a i m s t o be d o i n g , r a t h e r t h a n t o r a i s e t h e q u e s t i o n o f w h e t h e r what B e r g e r i s a t t e m p t i n g t o do i s w o r t h w h i l e . As he makes c l e a r i n t h e r e v i e w i t s e l f , F r i e d i s a b l e t o do t h i s b e c a u s e , m e t h o d o l o g i c a l l y , he h a s some t r u c k w i t h M a r x i s m : ( A ) f t e r M a r x , i t i s no l o n g e r p o s s i b l e f o r a n y o n e t o d e l u d e h i m s e l f t h a t h i s a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d a r t o r s o c i e t y a r e a-p o l i t i c a l . What Ma r x a c c o m p l i s h e d was n o t h i n g l e s s t h a n t h e e n l a r g e m e n t o f t h e r e a l m o f t h e p o l i t i c a l u n t i l i t e m b r a c e d a l l human a c t i v i t i e s , a t t i t u d e s a n d i n s t i t u t i o n s . 4 1 However, F r i e d t a k e s c a r e i n t h e t h i r d p a r a g r a p h o f h i s r e v i e w t o d i s a b u s e h i s r e a d e r s o f t h e i d e a t h a t t h i s m e t h o d o l o g i c a l s i m i l a r i t y c o r r e l a t e s w i t h a p o l i t i c a l s y m p a t h y . 4 2 W h i l e t h e t o n e o f t h i s r e v i e w m i g h t a t f i r s t g l a n c e s u g g e s t t h a t F r i e d i s i n t e r e s t e d i n i n t e g r a t i n g p o l i t i c a l c o n c e r n s i n t o a d i s c u s s i o n o f ' a r t , a c l o s e r l o o k s u g g e s t s t h a t what F r i e d i s i n f a c t a f t e r i s a s a n i t i z e d h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l i s m h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l i s m , t h a t i s to say, without p o l i t i c a l comittment, l e f t i s t p o l i t i c a l committment i n p a r t i c u l a r . As one surveys h i s w r i t i n g through the 1960s, t h i s r e a d i n g of F r i e d i s confirmed. In Three'American Painters (1965), "Shape as Form" (1966) and "Art and Objecthood" (1967) t h e r e i s an e f f o r t t o j u g g l e formalism and m a t e r i a l i s m i n a way which would d i s t a n c e F r i e d from Greenberg's r e d u c t i v e f o r m a l i s m . 4 ^ j n a 1 9 8 7 a r t i c l e t i t l e d " T h e o r i e s of A r t a f t e r Minimalism and Pop," F r i e d w r i t e s : The i m p l i c a t i o n of (Greenberg's) account was t h a t such a ( t i m e l e s s , i r r e d u c a b l e ) core had been the essence of p a i n t i n g a l l along, a view t h a t seemed t o me a h i s t o r i c a l , and I wanted to f i n d an a l t e r n a t i v e t h e o r e t i c a l model t h a t on the one hand would not d i s s o l v e i n t o mere r e l a t i v i s m and on the other would not l e a d to what I w i l l c a l l the wrong s o r t of e s s e n t i a l i s m . 4 4 Greenberg, f o r h i s p a r t , i s o f t e n read as a former s o c i a l c r i t i c whose L e f t i s t sympathies changed i n t o something e l s e as a ' response t o the c l i m a t e of the C o l d War. His statement which I quoted above concerning r a d i c a l p o l i t i c s i n the 1930s suggests t h a t there was a time when what l a t e r became a r t f o r a r t ' s sake was p o l i t i c a l l y committed. One can accept t h i s c l a i m without a great d e a l of d i f f i c u l t y . But at the same time, i t i s a p a r t i c u l a r l y p e s s i m i s t i c type o f . r a d i c a l i s m which f i n d s i t s e l f unable t o do more than lament the p a s s i n g of b ourgeois s o c i e t y and the r i s e of the p e t i t - b o u r g e o i s . For example, a look at "Avant-garde and K i t s c h " and "Towards A Newer Laocoon" 4^ q u i c k l y r e v e a l s t h a t what seems to concern Greenberg most i s the d i f f i c u l t y of remaining c i v i l i z e d while l i v i n g i n the d i s s i p a t e d c u l t u r e of the Depression-era U n i t e d St a t e s d u r i n g the l a t e 1930s. T h i s i s . a concern which was very much i n the a i r i n the c i r c l e s t h a t Greenberg was moving i n at the time t h a t he was 42 w r i t i n g " A v a n t - G a r d e a n d K i t s c h " a n d " T o w ard a Newer L a o c o o n . " ^ My c o n c e r n i s w i t h w h ere G r e e n b e r g i d e n t i f i e d t h e p r o b l e m a n d what he p r e s c r i b e d a s t h e s o l u t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o G r e e n b e r g , t h e c u l t u r e i s i n d i s a r r a y , a r i s t o c r a t i c p a t r o n a g e h a s w i t h e r e d , a n d t h e a v a n t - g a r d e must t h e r e f o r e r e t i r e f r o m p u b l i c a l t o g e t h e r , l e a v i n g someone e l s e t o do t h e s p a d e work t o c r e a t e t h e new s o c i a l i s t o r d e r w h i c h w i l l e i t h e r a c c e p t h i g h c u l t u r e , o r a b o l i s h t h e n e e d f o r i t a l t o g e t h e r . 4 " 7 The p r o b l e m w i t h G r e e n b e r g i s n o t t h a t he i s " e l i t i s t " i n some v a g u e , i n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d way, a n d t h a t he w o u l d h a v e b e e n more " i d e o l o g i c a l l y c o r r e c t " h a d he f o r m u l a t e d an a r g u m e n t f o r a s o r t o f " a n t i - e l i t i s t " a e s t h e t i c s , w h i c h a c c e p t e d a l l t h i n g s p r o f e r r e d a s " a r t " a s e q u a l l y v a l i d o r b a n a l . T h a t i s , my a r g ument i s n o t a m a t t e r o f a p p e a l i n g t o t h e weak l i b e r a l i s m t h a t J e f f e r y M i n s o n a n a l y z e s s o w e l l , w h i c h h o l d s t h a t any a t t e m p t t o p r e s c r i b e l i m i t s f o r any f o r m o f a c t i v i t y i s p o t e n t i a l l y a t h r e a t t o a l l l i b e r t i e s , s i n c e t h e e s s e n t i a l f o u n d a t i o n o f a l l l i b e r t y i s t h e a c k n o w l e d g e m e n t t h a t a l l p e o p l e a r e f r e e a g e n t s . 4 ^ j £ Q n o t w i s h t o be a l l i e d w i t h an i d e o l o g y o f u n b r i d l e d p l u r a l i s m w h i c h , as S e r g e G u i l b a u t p u t s i t i n h i s 1980 e s s a y "The R e l e v a n c e o f M o d e r n i s m , " " c o n v e n i e n t l y f o r g e t s why i t o n c e seemed so i m p o r t a n t f o r m o d e r n i s m t o p r o t e c t i t s e l f w i t h s e l f - c r i t i c i s m . " 4 9 B u t " e l i t i s m s " a r e d i v e r s e phenomena g e n e r a t e d b y v a r i o u s m e c h a n i s m s , a n d d e l i m i t a l l d i f f e r e n t s o r t s o f b o u n d a r i e s . So what i s a t i s s u e h e r e i s t h e type o f e l i t i s m p r o p o s e d by G r e e n b e r g , w h i c h i s a s o c i a l , o r a r i s t o c r a t i c , e l i t i s m p r o t e c t e d b y , t o u s e B a u d r i l l a r d ' s p h r a s e a g a i n , "t.he d e m o c r a t i c a l i b i " o f u n i v e r s a l i s t a e s t h e t i c s . A t t h i s p o i n t , some c o n f u s i o n may a r i s e : a f t e r a l l , I h a v e c r i t i c i z e d G r e e n b e r g f o r b u y i n g i n t o a - p a r t i c u l a r s o r t o f e l i t i s m , a f t e r I d i s m i s s e d l i b e r a l a r g u m e n t s w h i c h p r o p o s e d an a n t i - e l i t i s t a e s t h e t i c s . Y e t , a t t i m e s , i t seems t h a t an a n t i - e l i t i s t a e s t h e t i c s i s what G r e e n b e r g i s a d v o c a t i n g , r a t h e r t h a n an a e s t h e t i c s o f b o u n d a r i e s a n d t a s t e . 5 0 B u t what G r e e n b e r g i s a c t u a l l y s a y i n g i s t h a t t h e a e s t h e t i c s u p o n w h i c h h i s t a s t e i s b a s e d t r a n s c e n d s t h e p e r s o n a l , t h e r e f o r e t h e y a r e a p r i o r i a n d a b s o l u t e . 5 1 Tom Crow i s c o r r e c t when, i n " M o d e r n i s m and Mass C u l t u r e i n t h e V i s u a l A r t s , " he w r i t e s , " T h e p r o b l e m r e m a i n s , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e e l i t e a u d i e n c e e n d o r s e s , i n e v e r y r e s p e c t b u t i t s a r t , t h e s o c i a l o r d e r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e c r i s i s o f c u l t u r e . " 5 2 C e r t a i n l y i t i s t r u e t h a t t h e r e a r e p l a c e s i n J u d d ' s c r i t i c i s m o f t h e e a r l y 1960s where he e x t o l l s t h e v i r t u e s o f an a r t p r a c t i c e w h i c h a d d r e s s e s s o c i a l i s s u e s , a n d he h a s a h i s t o r y o f a c t i v e i n v o l v m e n t w i t h v a r i o u s p o l i t i c a l l y - o r i e n t e d movements. B u t r e a d i n g t h r o u g h h i s w r i t i n g s o f t h e 1 9 6 0 s , what becomes c l e a r i s t h a t t h e a r g u m e n t t h a t a r t p r a c t i c e s h o u l d a d d r e s s s o c i a l i s s u e s a p p e a r s as o c c a s i o n a l comments r a t h e r t h a n a s a l e i t m o t i f t h r o u g h J u d d ' s c o r p u s o f w r i t i n g . What p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n s J u d d a r e q u e s t i o n s w h i c h n e v e r l e a v e t h e l e g a c y o f f o r m a l i s m r e p r e s e n t e d by G r e e n b e r g . J u d d a n d G r e e n b e r g g e n e r a l l y p l a c e t h e same a r t i s t s a t t h e t o p o f t h e heap, f o r t h e same r e a s o n s . F o r e x a m p l e , b o t h J u d d a n d G r e e n b e r g c o n t e n d t h a t K e n n e t h N o l a n d i s t h e b e s t p a i n t e r o f t h e e a r l y 1 9 6 0 s . And e v e n when J u d d d i s c u s s e s p a i n t e r s who G r e e n b e r g d o e s n o t c a r e f o r , he u s e s f o r m a l i s t a r g u m e n t s w h i c h a r e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f G r e e n b e r g . F o r e x a m p l e , i n a d i s c u s s i o n o f A l J e n s e n i n h i s 1964 a r t i c l e " L o c a l H i s t o r y , " J u d d w r i t e s , " M o s t o f t h e b e s t p a i n t i n g ' h a s g o t t o t h e p o i n t w here i t i s n e a r l y f l a t a n d n e a r l y w i t h o u t i l l u s i o n i s t i c s p a c e . The m a j o r i t y o f A l J e n s e n s ' p a i n t i n g s a r e c o m p l e t e l y f l a t . T h ey d e p e n d e n t i r e l y on t h e t e x t u r e , t h e c o l o u r a n d t h e c o m p l e x p a t t e r n i n g . " ^ ^ C e r t a i n l y , d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n J u d d a n d G r e e n b e r g a r e r e v e a l e d h e r e . The m a j o r one i s t h e d e g r e e o f i m p o r t a n c e p l a c e d upon a p a i n t i n g b e i n g f l a t . I n " A f t e r A b s t r a c t E x p r e s s i o n i s m , " G r e e n b e r g w r i t e s t h a t t o t a l f l a t n e s s i s no l o n g e r h i s c o n c e r n . As he p u t s i t , t h e q u e s t i o n i s no l o n g e r what i r r e d u c i b l y c o n s t i t u t e s p a i n t i n g per se, b u t r a t h e r , what i r r e d u c i b l y c o n s t i t u t e s g o o d p a i n t i n g . 5 4 B u t a g a i n , t h e d i f f e r e n c e i s one b r o u g h t a b o u t b y m a n o e v e r i n g w i t h i n a t i g h t l y -e n c l o s e d f o r m a l i s t f i e l d o f v i e w . 5 5 J u d d ' s a e s t h e t i c o f t h e s p e c i f i c o b j e c t u t i l i z e s a c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e i d e a l s t a t e f o r t h e v i e w e r a n d t h e a r t i s t w h i c h r e l i e s on a d e n i a l o f h i s t o r y . I t i s b a s e d on a p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l a n d e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l i n n o c e n c e t h a t i s n o t c o n c e r n e d w i t h a r g u m e n t s a b o u t t h e h i s t o r i c a l c o n t i n g e n c y o f t h e s u b j e c t . 5 6 J u d d ' s i n t e n t i o n i s t h a t t h e s p e c i f i c o b j e c t , by the very fact of i t s s p e c i f i c i t y , w i l l p r e c l u d e t h e v i e w e r ' s p e r c e p t i o n s b e i n g i n t e r f e r e d w i t h b y m a t e r i a l l i m i t s , p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s , a n d c o n d i t i o n s i n d e p e n d e n t o f t h e v i e w e r ' s w i l l . H owever, J u d d m a i n t a i n s t h a t i n o r d e r f o r t h i s i d e a l s t a t e t o o c c u r , t h e a r t o b j e c t must be s p e c i f i c ; i t must f u l f i l l c e r t a i n c r i t e r i a . Some o f t h e s e c r i t e r i a a r e f a i r l y a b s t r a c t , a n d a r e l a i d o u t i n r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r a e s t h e t i c s y s t e m s . O t h e r c r i t e r i a a r e f a i r l y c o n c r e t e : t h e work must n o t be c o m p l i c a t e d , i t must n o t be h a r d t o c o m p r e h e n d , a n d i t must n o t make u s e o f c o m p o s i t i o n . G r a d u a l l y , t h e s e c r i t e r i a e v o l v e d i n t o a f a i r l y s t a b l e s e t o f f o r m a l p r o p e r t i e s . One i s t h e r e c t a n g u l a r f o r m . A n o t h e r , w h i c h n e e d n o t be p r e s e n t , b u t w h i c h a d d s t o t h e a p p a r e n t p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l s t a b i l i t y o f t h e s p e c i f i c o b j e c t , i s t h e 45 r e p e t i t i o n of a r e g u l a r form. The i d e a i s t h a t i f one sees one cube, 34 inches deep, 34 inches high, and 34 inches long, w i t h the top, f r o n t , and bottom f a s h i o n e d out of s t a i n l e s s s t e e l , and the ends f a s h i o n e d out of c o l o u r e d p l e x i g l a s s , t h e r e i s no reason to assume e i t h e r t h a t the cube i s anything other than a banal o b j e c t of indet e r m i n a t e purpose mounted on a w a l l , or t h a t the person who was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i t s p r o d u c t i o n would n e c e s s a r i l y f e e l s t r o n g l y one way or the other about b e i n g r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the p r o d u c t i o n of another o b j e c t very s i m i l a r or e x a c t l y s i m i l a r to t h a t one. Even a f t e r being t o l d t h a t t h i s o b j e c t o r i g i n a l l y had been con c e i v e d of as one p i e c e i n a s e r i e s of f o u r r e l a t e d a r t works, the viewer would not n e c e s s a r i l y be ab l e t o p r e d i c t what the other t h r e e would look l i k e , or how they, would be p l a c e d r e l a t i v e t o the extant o b j e c t . However, i f a person sees four, such cubes mounted on a w a l l at a r e g u l a r d i s t a n c e from one another, the sense of i n t e n t i o n i s much s t r o n g e r . For example, upon being t o l d t h a t the o r i g i n a l c o nception i n v o l v e d f i v e o b j e c t s , the viewer would be able not only t o v i s u a l i z e what the f i f t h o b j e c t would look l i k e , but a l s o t o v i s u a l i z e the placement i n space of the f i f t h o b j e c t . ^ 7 A t h i r d c r i t e r i o n of the s p e c i f i c o b j e c t concerns the range of m a t e r i a l s from which the s p e c i f i c o b j e c t can be made, which g e n e r a l l y are m a t e r i a l s common i n the manufacture of post World War II mass-produced a p p l i a n c e s : f o r example, s t a i n l e s s s t e e l , aluminum, and p l e x i g l a s s . T h i s range of m a t e r i a l s i s important t o my d i s c u s s i o n f o r two reasons. F i r s t , i t i s the nexus between Judd's a e s t h e t i c of the s p e c i f i c o b j e c t and the U.S.American commodity a e s t h e t i c s which were c u r r e n t d u r i n g the 1960s. Wolfgang Haug uses the term "commodity a e s t h e t i c s " t o r e f e r t o 46 the appearance of use-value designed t o s e l l p r oducts i n an economy where the c o r p o r a t e p r o f i t of the d i s t r i b u t o r takes precedence over the w e l f a r e of the worker who makes the product or of the consumer who buys i t . In a 1978 essay t i t l e d " I d e o l o g i c a l Values and Commodity A e s t h e t i c s : The Example of the *Jeans C u l t u r e ' , " Haug w r i t e s : The a e s t h e t i c s of the monopoly commodity c o n s t r u c t s an imaginary space around the commodity body. I t thereby prepares the way not only f o r the c o n n o t a t i o n of p r o p e r t i e s or v a l u e s , but a l s o f o r the i m a g i n a t i o n of w i s h - a c t i o n s or, ... more p r e c i s e l y , f o r a c t s of s a t i s f a c t i o n , which i n i t i a l l y s tay w i t h i n i n the realm of the i m a g i n a r y - w i s h f u l . ^ 8 The imaginary space around the commodity i s c o n t r u c t e d not only with s a l e s p i t c h e s and advertisements, but a l s o with the s u r f a c e of the commodity i t s e l f . Hence, s u r f a c e s must be designed t o connote c e r t a i n p r o p e r t i e s or v a l u e s . P l e x i g l a s s , aluminum, and s t a i n l e s s s t e e l are a l l s u r f a c e s which can be used e f f e c t i v e l y t o connote the v a l u e s of e f f i c i e n c y and modernity. Secondly, the m a t e r i a l s which Judd i d e n t i f i e s as a p p r o p r i a t e f o r use i n s p e c i f i c o b j e c t s r e q u i r e the employment of commercial f a b r i c a t o r s . They are a nexus between Judd's a e s t h e t i c s and the w o r l d - h i s t o r i c a l phenomenon of the d i v i s i o n of l a b o u r . What lends p a r t i c u l a r urgency to these two o b s e r v a t i o n s —•-t h a t Judd's m a t e r i a l s hook d i r e c t l y i n t o the commodity a e s t h e t i c s which were c u r r e n t d u r i n g the 1960s, and t h a t they are a nexus between Judd's a e s t h e t i c s and the d i v i s i o n of l a b o u r i s t h a t they are p r e c i s e l y what Judd wanted to deny, both i n h i s artwork and i n h i s w r i t i n g , s i n c e they l i n k h i s work t o the m a t e r i a l c o n d i t i o n s of i t s p r o d u c t i o n . Judd c o n s i s t e n t l y maintains t h a t the m a t e r i a l s he uses are v a l u e - f r e e . For example, i n a review of a Roy L i c h e n s t e i n show, Judd's ruminations on the b a n a l i t y of 47 e v e r y d a y l i f e a f f i r m t h i s v i e w o f i n d u s t r i a l m a t e r i a l s . He w r i t e s : A l o t o f v i s i b l e t h i n g s a r e ( p l e a s a n t , b l a n d a n d e m p t y ) : most modern c o m m e r c i a l b u i l d i n g s , new C o l o n i a l s t o r e s , l o b b i e s , most h o u s e s , most f u r n i t u r e , most c l o t h i n g , s h e e t a l u m i n u m a n d p l a s t i c w i t h l e a t h e r t e x t u r e , t h e f o r m i c a l i k e wood, t h e c u t e and modern p a t t e r n s i n s i d e j e t s a n d d r u g s t o r e s . Who h a s d e c i d e d t h a t a l u m i n u m s h o u l d be t e x t u r e d l i k e l e a t h e r ? Not A l c o a , who make i t : t o them t h e r e i s j u s t a demand. I t ' s n o t l i k e l y any o f t h e b u y e r s t h i n k much a b o u t i t . The s t u f f j u s t e x i s t s , n o t o b j e c t i o n a b l y t o many p e o p l e , s l i g h t l y a g r e e a b l y t o many. B a s i c a l l y , a g a i n , no one h a s t h o u g h t a b o u t i t . I t ' s i n l i m b o . ^ 9 ,_ L e t us s p e n d a moment u n p a c k i n g t h e p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s i n t h i s q u o t e . C l e a r l y , J u d d h a s a r a t h e r u n u s u a l v i e w o f t h e m a r k e t p l a c e . R o u g h l y s p e a k i n g , one c a n d i v i d e t h e o r i e s o f m a r k e t s i n t o two camps. A l i b e r a l v i e w h o l d s t h a t a m a r k e t economy w o r k s t h r o u g h a f e e d b a c k m e c h a n i s m w h e r e b y what i s p r o d u c e d s h i f t s i n r e s p o n s e t o p a t t e r n s o f c o n s u m p t i o n : t h e c o n s u m e r r u n s t h e m a r k e t p l a c e . I n h i s a r t i c l e " I n D e f e n s e o f S o c i a l i s t P l a n n i n g , " E r n e s t M a n d e l e x p l a i n s t h a t s u c h a p o i n t o f v i e w s e e s i t s e l f i n o p p o s i t i o n t o " d i r e c t " o r " p l a n n e d " a l l o c a t i o n : d i r e c t a l l o c a t i o n i s ex ante, m a r k e t a l l o c a t i o n i s ex post.^® T h e s e two modes o f a l l o c a t i o n c o r r e l a t e w i t h two d i f f e r e n t ways o f a d a p t i n g o u t p u t t o n e e d . As M a n d e l n o t e s , " E i t h e r t h e s e n e e d s a r e t a k e n as g i v e n a t t h e o u t s e t , as a s s e s s e d ex ante by w h a t e v e r i s t h e d o m i n a n t s o c i a l b o d y , a n d o u t p u t i s o r g a n i z e d t o s a t i s f y t hem. Or e l s e t h e y a r e deemed t o be unknown o r a t any r a t e u n c e r t a i n , a n d t h e m a r k e t i s s u p p o s e d t o r e v e a l t h e s e ex post t h r o u g h t h e e x p e n d i t u r e s o f ' e f f e c t i v e d e m a n d ' . " 6 1 J u d d , h o w e v e r , o f f e r s a t h i r d v i e w : no one h a s t h o u g h t a b o u t i t i t ' s i n l i m b o . -•' The a r g u m e n t t h a t t h e m a r k e t i s a c o n t i n u o u s c y c l e o f random p r o d u c t i o n and c o n s u m p t i o n seems t o me t o be r a t h e r i n d e f e n s i b l e . 48 Pace J u d d , I w o u l d s a y t h a t a t l e a s t a few p e o p l e h a v e 1 t h o u g h t a b o u t i t v e r y h a r d i n d e e d . A s M a n d e l w r i t e s : A l r e a d y today, i n t h e most a d v a n c e d c a p i t a l i s t c o u n t r i e s , t h e b u l k o f b o t h c o n s u m e r a n d p r o d u c e r g o o d s a r e n o t p r o d u c e d i n any way i n r e s p o n s e t o "'market s i g n a l s " s h i f t i n g v i o l e n t l y f r o m y e a r t o y e a r , l e t a l o n e month t o month. The bulk of current production corresponds to established consumption patterns and predetermined production techniques that are largely if not completely -independent of the market (...) M o r e o v e r , the initial push toward them never comes from the market or the consumer. I t comes f r o m t h e i n n o v a t o r a n d t h e a s s o c i a t e d p r o d u c i n g u n i t . ^ 2 The way J u d d c o n s i d e r s t h e s e m a t e r i a l s i n r e l a t i o n t o e v e r y d a y l i f e e x t e n d s t o h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f them i n r e l a t i o n t o h i s a r t . I n " S p e c i f i c O b j e c t s , " J u d d w r i t e s : L i t t l e was done u n t i l l a t e l y w i t h t h e w i d e r a n g e o f i n d u s t r i a l p r o d u c t s . A l m o s t n o t h i n g h a s b e e n done w i t h i n d u s t r i a l t e c h n i q u e s and, b e c a u s e o f t h e c o s t , p r o b a b l y won't be f o r some t i m e . A r t c o u l d be m a s s - p r o d u c e d , a n d p o s s i b i l i t i e s o t h e r w i s e u n a v a i l a b l e , s u c h a s s t a m p i n g , c o u l d be u s e d . Dan F l a v i n , who u s e s f l o u r e s c e n t l i g h t s , h a s a p p r o p r i a t e d t h e r e s u l t s o f i n d u s t r i a l p r o d u c t i o n . M a t e r i a l s v a r y g r e a t l y a n d a r e s i m p l y m a t e r i a l s f o r m i c a , a l u m i n u m , c o l d - r o l l e d s t e e l , p l e x i g l a s , r e d a n d common b r a s s , a n d s o f o r t h . They a r e s p e c i f i c . I f t h e y a r e u s e d d i r e c t l y , t h e y a r e more s p e c i f i c . A l s o , t h e y a r e u s u a l l y a g g r e s s i v e . T h e r e i s an o b j e c t i v i t y t o t h e o b d u r a t e i d e n t i t y o f a m a t e r i a l . ^ 3 I n J u d d ' s p a r l a n c e , t h e t e r m " s p e c i f i c " means J " p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l l y p u r e " : a m a t e r i a l ' s " s p e c i f i c i t y , " l i k e an o b j e c t ' s " s p e c i f i c i t y , " p r e c l u d e s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f t h e v i e w e r ' s p e r c e p t i o n b e i n g i n t e r f e r e d w i t h ' b y c o n d i t i o n s i n d e p e n d e n t o f t h e v i e w e r ' s w i l l . Y e t , n o t i c e t wo t h i n g s . F i r s t , J u d d i n s i s t s on t h e s p e c i f i c i t y o f t h e s e m a t e r i a l s e v e n t h o u g h he h a s j u s t i d e n t i f i e d t h e m a s u n m i s t a k a b l y o f a p a r t i c u l a r , i n d u s t r i a l , h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t . S e c o n d , a n d more i m p o r t a n t , J u d d w r i t e s t h a t t h e s e m a t e r i a l s a r e s p e c i f i c i n t h e m s e l v e s , b u t " I f u s e d d i r e c t l y , t h e y a r e more s p e c i f i c . " I t seems t o me t h a t t h e r e i s a c o n t r a d i c t i o n h e r e : t o s a y t h a t t h e s e m a t e r i a l s a r e p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l l y p u r e i s 49 a l r e a d y an a b s o l u t e s t a t e m e n t . T h e r e f o r e , t h e y c a n n o t be more p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l l y p u r e u n d e r p a r t i c u l a r c o n d i t i o n s . The c o n t r a d i c t i o n a r i s e s b e c a u s e , a g a i n , J u d d i s c o n f u s i n g t h e appearance o f s p e c i f i c i t y w i t h s p e c i f i c i t y p e r se. R o l a n d B a r t h e s , i n h i s e s s a y " M yth T o d a y , " (1957) e x p l a i n s h i s u s e o f t h e t e r m " s i g n " i n r e f e r e n c e t o t h e d e n o t a t i v e , o r f i r s t o r d e r , l e v e l o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n t o r e f e r t o t h e c o n c r e t e e n t i t y w h i c h i s t h e a s s o c i a t i v e t o t a l o f t h e s i g n i f i e r , t h a t i s , t h e image w h i c h a c t s a s t h e f o r m a l c a r r i e r o f m e a n i n g , a n d t h e s i g n i f i e d , t h a t i s t o s a y , t h e c o n c e p t . I t i s t h e s i g n , t h e c o r r e l a t i o n w h i c h u n i t e s s i g n i f i e r a n d s i g n i f i e d , w h i c h we g r a s p . B u t u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e s t r u c t u r e o f l a n g u a g e d o e s n o t s t o p h e r e . F o r B a r t h e s p r o p o s e s t h a t t h e r e i s a s e c o n d - o r d e r s e m i o l o g i c a l s y s t e m , t h e c o n n o t a t i v e . H e r e , t h e d e n o t a t i v e s i g n becomes a mere s i g n i f i e r w h i c h p r o v i d e s t h e s t r u c t u r e w i t h w h i c h one s p e a k s a b o u t t h e d e n o t a t i v e l e v e l o f l a n g u a g e . 6 4 Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t t o B a r t h e s i s t h e u s e o f t h i s m e t h o d o l o g y t o d i s c u s s what he c a l l s "myth": S e m i o l o g y h a s t a u g h t us t h a t m y t h h a s t h e t a s k o f g i v i n g an h i s t o r i c a l i n t e n t i o n a n a t u r a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n , a n d m a k i n g c o n t i n g e n c y a p p e a r e t e r n a l . Now t h i s p r o c e s s i s e x a c t l y t h a t o f b o u r g e o i s i d e o l o g y . I f o u r s o c i e t y i s o b j e c t i v e l y t h e p r i v i l e g e d f i e l d o f m y t h i c a l s i g n i f i c a t i o n s , i t i s b e c a u s e f o r m a l l y m y t h i s t h e most a p p r o p r i a t e i n s t r u m e n t f o r t h e i d e o l o g i c a l i n v e r s i o n w h i c h d e f i n e s t h i s s o c i e t y : a t a l l t h e l e v e l s o f human c o m m u n i c a t i o n s , m y t h o p e r a t e s t h e i n v e r s i o n o f anti-physis i n t o pseudo-physis. What t h e w o r l d s u p p l i e s t o myth i s an h i s t o r i c a l r e a l i t y , d e f i n e d , e v e n i f t h i s g o e s b a c k q u i t e a w h i l e , b y t h e way i n w h i c h men h a v e p r o d u c e d o r u s e d i t ; and what m y t h g i v e s i n r e t u r n i s a natural image o f t h i s r e a l i t y . A n d j u s t a s b o u r g e o i s i d e o l o g y i s d e f i n e d by t h e abandonment o f t h e name " b o u r g e o i s , " m y t h i s c o n s t i t u t e d by t h e l o s s o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l q u a l i t y o f t h i n g s : i n i t , t h i n g s l o s e t h e memory t h a t t h e y w e re made. 6^ I f one w e re t o p h r a s e J u d d ' s a r g u m e n t u s i n g t h e t e r m i n o l o g y o f B a r t h e s ' s e m i o l o g y , one w o u l d s a y t h a t J u d d i s a r g u i n g t h a t by 50 c o n s t r u c t i n g a s p e c i f i c o b j e c t , he h a s c o n s t r u c t e d a s i g n t h e s i g n i f i e d f o r w h i c h i s s i m p l y , " T h i s i s an a r t o b j e c t . " F u r t h e r , one w o u l d s a y t h a t J u d d i s a r g u i n g t h a t t h i s s i g n i f i e d i s i m m u t a b l e , b e c a u s e t h e s h a p e , p l a c e m e n t , a n d s u r f a c e o f t h e s p e c i f i c o b j e c t a l l r e f e r t o n o t h i n g a p a r t f r o m t h e i r c o l l e c t i v e s t a t u s as an a r t o b j e c t . J u d d ' s i n t e n t i o n i s t h a t t h e s p e c i f i c o b j e c t s h o u l d be a n a t u r a l image o f i t s e l f as a d e f i n i t i v e w ork o f a r t . The s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i s an a r t o b j e c t w h i c h h a s l o s t t h e memory t h a t i t was made o r , p e r h a p s more a c c u r a t e l y , h a s b e e n p r o h i b i t e d f r o m e v e r h a v i n g t h a t memory. W i t h h i s c r i t i q u e o f myth, B a r t h e s i s a r g u i n g t h a t i m a g e s w h i c h a p p e a r n a t u r a l a p p e a r t h a t way b e c a u s e t h e y a r e r e i f i e d . A n d t h e y a r e r e i f i e d b e c a u s e t h e v e r y l a n g u a g e w i t h w h i c h t h e y a r e c o m m u n i c a t e d i s i n f l e c t e d by m y t h o l o g y . I n m y t h , t h e f o r m o f t h e d e n o t a t i v e c h a i n o f s i g n s c a r r i e s w i t h i t , a t t h e c o n n o t a t i v e l e v e l , a m e ssage a b o u t i t s own p r o d u c t i o n , w h i c h i s , " T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was n e v e r p r o d u c e d : i t i s e t e r n a l . " J u d d ' s a e s t h e t i c s o f s p e c i f i c i t y i s an a e s t h e t i c s b a s e d on a f a i l u r e t o s e e t h a t m y t h i s a l i e o r , more a c c u r a t e l y , an i n f l e c t i o n , w h i c h n a t u r a l i z e s l a n g u a g e . 6 6 G i v e n t h a t t h i s i s a p a r t i c u l a r s o r t o f m y t h o l o g y , a m y t h o l o g y w h i c h i s l a i d c l a i m t o by a t y p e o f s u r f a c e t h a t i s p r o d u c e d w i t h t h e p u r p o s e o f b e i n g r e a d a s e f f i c i e n t , B a u d r i l l a r d ' s e f f o r t t o c o m p l i c a t e B a r t h e s ' s e m i o l o g y i s u s e f u l h e r e : ( D ) o e s n ' t t h e o b j e c t h a v e t h a t a i r , i n i t s " b e i n g s e r v i c a b l e , " o f h a v i n g s a i d s o m e t h i n g o b j e c t i v e ? T h i s -m a n i f e s t d i s c o u r s e i s t h e s u b t l e s t o f i t s m y t h o l o g i e s . A f a l s e i n g e n u i t y , a n d a p e r v e r s i o n o f o b j e c t i v i t y i s i n v o l v e d . U t i l i t y , l i k e t h e l i t e r a l i t y o f w h i c h B a r t h e s s p e a k s , i s n o t a n a t u r e ; i t i s a c o d e o f n a t u r a l e v i d e n c e w h i c h h a s t h e p r i v i l e g e o v e r many o t h e r p o s s i b l e c o d e s ( t h e m o r a l , t h e a e s t h e t i c , e t c . ) o f a p p e a r i n g r a t i o n a l , w h i l e t h e o t h e r s seem l i k e mere r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n s o f more o r l e s s 51 " i d e o l o g i c a l " p u r p o s e s . D e n o t a t i o n o r u s e v a l u e ; o b j e c t i v i t y o r u t i l i t y : i t i s a l w a y s t h e c o m p l i c i t y o f t h e r e a l w i t h t h e co d e u n d e r t h e s i g n o f e v i d e n c e w h i c h g e n e r a t e s t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s . 6 7 J u d d ' s s t a t e m e n t s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t b e c a u s e he f a i l s t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t t h e " h i g h t e c h n o l o g y " s u r f a c e s w h i c h e n c a s e a p p l i a n c e s a n d h i s work a p p e a r n e u t r a l n o t b e c a u s e e i t h e r t h e t e c h n o l o g y o r t h e s u r f a c e a r e n e u t r a l , b u t b e c a u s e t h e s u r f a c e s ( s t a i n l e s s s t e e l o r p l e x i g l a s s , f o r e x a m p l e ) a r e d e s i g n e d t o be r e a d b y t h e c o n s u m e r as e f f i c i e n t an e s s e n t i a l s e l l i n g p o i n t i n t h e t e c h n o c e n t r i c w o r l d o f p o s t - W o r l d War I I N o r t h A m e r i c a a n d e f f i c i e n c y i s d e n o t e d by t h e s e m b l a n c e o f n e u t r a l i t y . I n For a Critique of the Political Economy of the Sign, B a u d r i l l a r d g o e s b e y o n d t h i s g e n e r a l a n a l y s i s o f t h e s u r f a c e d e s i g n e d t o d e n o t e d e f f i c i e n c y i n o r d e r t o show why t h e c o m m o d i t y a e s t h e t i c o f t h e m e c h a n i c a l i s e f f e c t i v e i n t h e m a r k e t p l a c e o f a p p l i a n c e s d u r i n g t h e 1 9 6 0 s , a n d why t h e t r u e v a l u e o f t h i s p u r p o r t e d l y u n i v e r s a l a e s t h e t i c l i e s p r e c i s e l y i n i t s p o t e n t i a l f o r f u n c t i o n i n g s o c i a l l y a s a d i s t i n g u i s h i n g s i g n . 6 8 s o , t o o , must we go b e y o n d t h i s g e n e r a l a n a l y s i s i n o r d e r t o e x p l a i n t h e a s c e n d a n c e o f J u d d ' s work a t t h i s t i m e . By t h e 1 9 6 0 s , i t h a d b e e n e v i d e n t f o r some t i m e t h a t g o o d p a c k a g i n g c o u l d e f f e c t i v e l y l i n k up t h e s e n s i b i l i t y o f s o c i a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n w i t h t h e t e c h n i q u e s o f m a s s - p r o d u c t i o n . 6 9 so a q u e s t i o n w h i c h c o u l d be r a i s e d h e r e i s : d o e s J u d d ' s work a t t a i n p o p u l a r s u c c e s s w i t h i n t h e s p h e r e o f h i g h c u l t u r e b e c a u s e he p r o v i d e s o b j e c t s w h i c h , on t h e one h a n d , a r e s a n c t i o n e d as h i g h a r t by t h e " a r t w o r l d , " a t t r a c t some o f " t h e m ost s o p h i s t i c a t e d r h e t o r i c o f a r t a n d k n o w l e d g e t h a t t h e a r t w o r l d c a n m u s t e r a n d h e n c e e f f e c t i v e l y t a k e t h e i r p l a c e a s o b j e c t s o f l u x u r y --- and y e t , a t t h e same t i m e , b e c a u s e o f t h e 52 f a m i l i a r i t y o f t h e i r a p p e a r a n c e , a r e v i s u a l l y v e r y e a s y t o a c c e p t ? H a r o l d R o s e n b e r g , i n t h e o p e n i n g p a r a g r a p h o f h i s e s s a y " V i r t u o u s o f Boredom," (1966) d e s c r i b e s a phenomenon w h i c h he r e f e r s t o as t h e c o n f u s i o n o f d i f f i c u l t y w i t h t e d i o u s n e s s , w h e r e i n b o r e d o m i s " p r o o f t h a t t h e a r t i s t h a s made no c o n c e s s i o n t o p o p u l a r i t y o r s u c c e s s . " " ^ T h i s c o n f u s i o n o f d i f f i c u l t y w i t h t e d i o u s n e s s w o r k s b e c a u s e i n t e l l e c t u a l a n d a e s t h e t i c r i g o u r a r e n e g a t i v e l y e n c o d e d i n t h e p u b l i c m i n d a s b o r i n g . T h i s p r e s e n t s a d i l e m m a s i n c e , as B a u d r i l l a r d p o i n t s o u t , i n t e l l e c t u a l a n d a e s t h e t i c r i g o u r f u n c t i o n s o c i a l l y as e f f e c t i v e i n d i c a t o r s o f s o c i a l d i s t i n c t i o n . I m m e d i a t e l y , a way o u t p r e s e n t s i t s e l f : o n c e t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n d i f f i c u l t y a n d t e d i o u s n e s s a r e e f f a c e d by t h e a f o r e m e n t i o n e d c o n f u s i o n b e t w e e n d i f f i c u l t y a n d t e d i u m , t h e n t h e amount o f t e d i u m one i s w i l l i n g t o e n d u r e c a n be s e e n a s a r e l i a b l e m e a s u r e o f o n e ' s a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l l y c o m p l e x . T h i s f o r m u l a t i o n s u g g e s t s a s e c o n d q u e s t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e i s s u e o f J u d d ' s p o p u l a r s u c c e s s w i t h i n t h e s p h e r e o f h i g h c u l t u r e : i s t h e a b i l i t y o f J u d d ' s work t o a t t r a c t t h e s o p h i s t i c a t e d r h e t o r i c o f a r t a n d k n o w l e d g e w i t h i n t h e a r t w o r l d a n d h e n c e t o f u n c t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y as o b j e c t s o f l u x u r y , r e l a t e d t o t h e e f f i c a c y o f t e d i u m d i s g u i s e d a s o r c o n f u s e d w i t h d i f f i c u l t y a s an i n d i c a t o r o f s o c i a l d i s t i n c t i o n ? The p r o d u c t i o n o f m a t e r i a l s w h i c h c o n n o t e b a n a l i t y h a s a p a r t i c u l a r h i s t o r y w h i c h we n e e d t o a n a l y z e i n o r d e r t o f u l l y u n d e r s t a n d t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f J u d d ' s u s e o f t h e s e m a t e r i a l s i n h i s w o r k . I n 1958, C. W r i g h t M i l l s w r o t e an a r t i c l e on U . S . A m e r i c a n c o m m o d i t y d e s i g n i n w h i c h he p o i n t s o u t t h a t c a p i t a l i s m e n t e r e d a new p h a s e i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s d u r i n g t h e 53 1 9 2 0 s , a p h a s e i n w h i c h t h e d i s t r i b u t o r became a s c e n d a n t o v e r b o t h t h e c o n s u m e r a n d t h e p r o d u c e r . M i l l s a r g u e s t h a t t h i s new p h a s e g o t i n t o f u l l s w i n g a f t e r W o r l d War I I , a t w h i c h t i m e t h e d e s i g n e r became a k e y p l a y e r , b e c a u s e t h e d e s i g n e r i s an an i n d i v i d u a l who i s o p t i m a l l y p o s i t i o n e d t o p u s h a l l o f t h e t e c h n i q u e s a n d f r a u d s o f m a r k e t i n g t o t h e i r f u r t h e s t e x t e n s i o n s a s a way o f g e n e r a t i n g t h e c o n t i n u o u s a n d e x p a n d i n g c o n s u m p t i o n w h i c h l a t e c a p i t a l i s m demands. M i l l s w r i t e s : • (The d e s i g n e r ) d e s i g n s t h e p r o d u c t i t s e l f a s i f i t were an a d v e r t i s e m e n t , f o r h i s a i m a n d h i s t a s k — - a c k n o w l e d g e d b y t h e more f o r t h r i g h t i s l e s s t o make b e t t e r p r o d u c t s t h a n t o make p r o d u c t s s e l l b e t t e r . By b r a n d a n d t r a d e m a r k , b y s l o g a n a n d p a c k a g e , b y c o l o r a n d f o r m , he g i v e s t h e c o m m o d i t y a f i c t i t i o u s i n d i v i d u a l i t y , t u r n i n g a l i t t l e l a n o l i n a n d w a t e r i n t o an e m u l s i f i e d way t o become e r o t i c a l l y b l e s s e d ; c o n c e a l i n g t h e w e i g h t a n d q u a l i t y o f what i s f o r s a l e ; c o n f u s i n g t h e c o n s u m e r ' s c h o i c e a n d b a n a l i z i n g h e r s e n s i b i l i t i e s . 7 1 J u d d e m p l o y s s u r f a c e s s u c h as s t a i n l e s s s t e e l a n d p l e x i g l a s s i n h i s work i n t h e b e l i e f t h a t t h e y w i l l c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l s t a b i l i t y o f h i s o b j e c t s : h i s u s e o f t h e s e m a t e r i a l s i s n o t i r o n i c . H ence, t h e a p p a r e n t p a r a l l e l w i t h t h e Pop A r t o f Andy W a r h o l a nd Roy L i c h e n s t e i n ( i . e . : t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f m a s s - p r o d u c t i o n i n t h e c o n t e x t o f h i g h a r t ) i s a p p a r e n t o n l y . J u d d d o e s n o t e m p l o y t h e s e s u r f a c e s i n h i s work i n o r d e r t o c a l l a t t e n t i o n t o t h e c o n t r i v e d n a t u r e o f t h e s e s u r f a c e s ' c l a i m t o e f f i c i e n c y . R a t h e r , J u d d e m p l o y s t h e s e s u r f a c e s i n h i s work b e c a u s e he a c c e p t s t h e i r c l a i m t o n e u t r a l i t y , a n d t h e r e f o r e f e e l s t h a t t h e y w i l l a i d h i s a t t e m p t t o p r o d u c e p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l l y s t a b l e a r t o b j e c t s . So t h e n , t o r e t u r n t h e d i s c u s s i o n t o J u d d ' s u n t i t l e d w o r k f r o m 1 9 6 5 : a c l o s e l o o k shows how t h i s p i e c e f u n c t i o n s a s a " s p e c i f i c o b j e c t " b y c o l l e c t i n g J u d d ' s c r i t e r i a f o r s p e c i f i c 54 o b j e c t s t o g e t h e r . H e r e , h o w e v e r , t h e i n t e n t i s t o b a n a l i z e t h e s e n s i b i l i t i e s o f J u d d a n d h i s v i e w e r s , w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t t h e h i s t o r i c a l n a t u r e o f t h e work w i l l be c o n c e a l e d . 7 2 The p i e c e i s f a b r i c a t e d o u t o f s t a i n l e s s s t e e l a n d p l e x i g l a s s . E a c h u n i t i s a c u b e , 34 i n c h e s i n e v e r y d i m e n s i o n . T h i s c u b i c a l f o r m i s r e p e a t e d f o u r t i m e s , t h u s e m p h a s i z i n g i t s i n t e n t i o n a l n a t u r e . B u t i n s p i t e o f i t s e l f , i t r e f e r s t h e v i e w e r e l s e w h e r e : i t s s h a p e , i t s s u r f a c e s , i t s p r e c i s e m o u n t i n g , a l l r e l a t e t o a p a r t i c u l a r s e t o f a v a i l a b l e t e c h n i q u e s i n t e n d e d t o c o n v e y a s e n s e o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l e f f i c i e n c y a n d t r a n s h i s t o r i c a l r a t i o n a l i t y . C e r t a i n t h e o r i e s o f c u l t u r a l h i s t o r y d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n c r i t i c a l m o d e r n i s m a n d f o r m a l i s t m o d e r n i s m by f o c u s i n g on f o r m a l i s t m o d e r n i s m ' s r e f u s a l t o c o n s i d e r t h e s o c i a l f i e l d o f v i e w w h i c h c r i t i c a l m o d e r n i s m a d d r e s s e s : A t t h e same t i m e , i t i s -c l e a r t h a t t h e r e a r e a number o f ways i n w h i c h f o r m a l i s t m o d e r n i s m a n d c r i t i c a l m o d e r n i s m o v e r l a p . One o f t h e s e i s t h e f o r m a l i s t e l e m e n t w h i c h comes i n t o p l a y i n some f o r m s o f c r i t i c a l m o d e r n i s m , n a m e l y , an a t t e m p t t o t r a n s g r e s s t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l a e s t h e t i c l i m i t s o f a g i v e n a r t f o r m , o f t e n t h r o u g h t h e i n c l u s i o n o f u n o r t h o d o x m e d i a . Thomas Crow, i n h i s 1981 a r t i c l e " M o d e r n i s m a n d Mass C u l t u r e i n t h e V i s u a l A r t s , " p r o v i d e s an i n t e r e s t i n g d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s p o i n t . Crow w r i t e s : M o d e r n i s m a s a w o r d c a r r i e s c o n n o t a t i o n s o f an a u t n o m o u s , i n w a r d , s e l f - r e f e r e n t i a l a nd s e l f - c r i t i c a l a r t p r a c t i c e ; o u r u s u a l u s e o f t h e t e r m a v a n t - g a r d e i s on t h e o t h e r h a n d much more i n c l u s i v e , e n c o m p a s s i n g e x t r a - a r t i s t i c s t y e s and'' t a c t i c s o f p r o v o c a t i o n , g r o u p c l o s u r e , a n d s o c i a l s u r v i v a l . We m i g h t c h o o s e t o s e e t h e r e c o r d o f a v a n t - g a r d e a p p r o p r i a t i o n o f d e v a l u e d o r m a r g i n a l m a t e r i a l s (as p a r t o f t h e s e e x t r a - a r t i s t i c s t y l e s ) , e x t r i n s i c a nd e x p e d i e n t i n r e l a t i o n t o ( t h e s e l f - c r i t i c a l a r t p r a c t i c e ) . 7 - 3 55 I t might seem p a r a d o x i c a l t h a t , i n Judd, we see m a t e r i a l s from everyday l i f e b e i n g used t o make the argument t h a t true a r t o b j e c t s r e f e r t o n o t h i n g o u t s i d e of themselves. The a p p r o p r i a t e d low c u l t u r a l m a t e r i a l s are not meant to 'allude t o or i n c l u d e any of the s t y l e s and t a c t i c s of p r o v o c a t i o n t h a t Crow r e f e r s t o . The i n c l u s i o n of Judd's work i n the sphere of h i g h c u l t u r e i s not a r e s t o r a t i v e act, because the sphere of h i g h c u l t u r e was never l e f t . That i s , Judd's work r e p r e s e n t s a p o i n t at which the spheres of h i g h c u l t u r e and mass-production o v e r l a p i n an i n t e r e s t i n g way. In both spheres the a e s t h e t i c s of p r e c i s i o n , of n e u t r a l i t y , of i n t e l l e c t i o n (the d i f f e r e n c e s between these terms fade w i t h i n the system of thought which I am d e s c r i b i n g ) , have a g r e a t d e a l of a t t r a c t i o n . What Judd's work uses i s a c o n s t e l l a t i o n of v i s u a l i n f o r m a t i o n which appeals t o these a e s t h e t i c s with a s t o n i s h i n g f o r c e , but without an awareness t h a t i t i s u s i n g t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n . Hence, th e r e i s a c o n f u s i o n between the appearance of s p e c i f i c i t y , and s p e c i f i c i t y per se. T h i s work i s based on the u t i l i z a t i o n of forms and s u r f a c e s which, w i t h i n t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l contexts, are read as n e u t r a l . But t h i s reading i s i l l u s o r y , given t h a t i t i s h i s t o r i c a l l y determined. The term "Minimalism" was used by many commentators and a r t i s t s t o r e f e r t o a v a r i e t y of a r t produced i n the 1960s. I t g e n e r a l l y i n c l u d e d Judd's s p e c i f i c o b j e c t s , a l b e i t a g a i n s t h i s wishes. The work which f e l l under t h i s r u b r i c was seen, by Judd as much as anybody e l s e , as a c o o l , o b j e c t i v e calm a f t e r the hot s u b j e c t i v e storm of A b s t r a c t Expressionism. However, t h i s apparent d i f f e r e n c e between A b s t r a c t E x p r e s s i o n i s m and Minimalism depends h e a v i l y on the f a c t t h a t the a e s t h e t i c s of Minimalism have i n t e r n a l i z e d the i d e o l o g y of o b j e c t i v i t y which the look of 56 A b s t r a c t E x p r e s s i o n i s m c a n n o t s i g n i f y , a n d w h i c h t h e r e f o r e h a s t o be r e i n f o r c e d b y a s u p p o r t i n g l i t e r a t u r e . As I a n B u r n a n d K a r l B e v e r i d g e p o i n t o u t : The i m age A m e r i c a h a s r e p r o d u c e d o f i t s e l f i s t h a t o f e x p o r t i n g t e c h n o l o g y , a t e c h n o l o g y w h i c h i s d e m o c r a t i c b e c a u s e i t i s go o d , n e u t r a l , a n d p r o g r e s s i v e , a t e c h n o l o g y w h i c h i s e q u a l l y a v a i l a b l e t o e v e r y o n e t h e means f o r a b e t t e r l i f e , a n d f r e e f r o m i d e o l o g i c a l b i a s . The A m e r i c a n a r t i s t s o f t h e s i x t i e s a n d s e v e n t i e s h a v e r e p r o d u c e d t h i s p a t t e r n , b e c o m i n g t h e " c u l t u r a l e n g i n e e r s " o f " i n t e r n a t i o n a l a r t . " W i t h t h e image o f n e u t r a l i t y s e l l i n g a r t , n o t i d e o l o g y (...) When A b s t r a c t E x p r e s s i o n i s m was s e n t t o E u r o p e , i t h a d t o be p a c k a g e d , i t h a d t o be g i v e n a f o r m i n t h e m e d i a , a p u b l i c i t y w r a p p i n g o f " f r e e e x p r e s s i o n i n a f r e e s o c i e t y . " The a r t o f t h e s i x t i e s a n d s e v e n t i e s was m e d i a - c o n s c i o u s , t h e p a c k a g i n g was a f e a t u r e o f t h e " e x p r e s s i o n , " i n t e r n a l t o a c t u a l p r o d u c t i o n . 7 4 T h r o u g h o u t t h e 1940s and 1 9 5 0 s , A b s t r a c t E x p r e s s i o n i s m became a weapon o f t h e C o l d War. The s u p p o r t i n g i d e o l o g y o f o b j e c t i v e a n d u n i v e r s a l a e s t h e t i c s c o i n c i d e d w i t h t h e p r e d o m i n a n t i d e o l o g i e s o f C o l d War U n i t e d S t a t e s . Hence, A b s t r a c t E x p r e s s i o n i s m was a c o n v e n i e n t v e h i c l e f o r t h e p r o m o t i o n o f U . S . A m e r i c a n i n t e r e s t s . 7 ^ H owever, t h e e n d o f t h e f i f t i e s d i d n o t s e e t h e e n d o f t h e s e s o r t s o f i d e o l o g i e s o r c u l t u r a l s t r a t e g i e s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . As L a u r i e Monahan w r i t e s : W h i l e t h e a i m s o f t h e U.S. g o v e r n m e n t h a d n o t c h a n g e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y ( w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e c o - o p t a t i o n o f t h e a v a n t -g a r d e i n o r d e r t o a d v a n c e U.S. A m e r i c a n c l a i m s o f f r e e d o m a n d d e m o c r a c y ) b y t h e 196 0 s , t h e way i n w h i c h .they w e re e x p r e s s e d was a l t e r e d u n d e r t h e Kennedy a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . I n p a r t t h i s was an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c h a n g e i n s t r a t e g y : i n t h e f i f t i e s , p r i v a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s s u c h a s t h e Museum o f M o d e r n A r t c r e a t e d t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t a v a n t - g a r d e e x h i b i t i o n s were o r g a n i z e d f r e e l y and i n d e p e n d e n t l y , w h i l e i n f a c t t h e y r e p r e s e n t e d g o v e r n m e n t i n t e r e s t s . By t h e s i x t i e s t h e g o v e r n m e n t c a s t o f f t h i s f a c a d e o f n o n - i n t e r f e r e n c e , a move made p o s s i b l e by t h e l i b e r a l i mage w h i c h K e n n e d y p r o j e c t e d a n d e n h a n c e d b y t h e t o n e o f h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . . . ' 6 N o r d o e s D o n a l d J u d d ' s a r t d i s t a n c e i t s e l f f r o m t h e c o i n c i d e n t r h e t o r i c o f A b s t r a c t E x p r e s s i o n i s m . To some e x t e n t , i t i n t e r n a l i z e s t h e r h e t o r i c o f n e u t r a l i t y w h i c h A b s t r a c t 57 E x p r e s s i o n i s m r e q u i r e d a s u p p o r t i n g l i t e r a t u r e t o c a r r y . H e n c e , t h e l o o k o f e f f i c i e n c y w h i c h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f J u d d ' s w o r k r e f l e c t s i t s s t a t u s as a v e h i c l e f o r r e p r o d u c i n g t h e i d e o l o g y o f v a l u e - f r e e d o m . To t h e e x t e n t t h a t J u d d ' s work c a n n o t i n t e r n a l i z e t h e r h e t o r i c o f n e u t r a l i t y , i t , t o o , r e q u i r e s a l i t e r a t u r e t o s u p p o r t i t s a e s t h e t i c c l a i m s t o n e u t r a l i t y . D o n a l d J u d d ' s a e s t h e t i c o f t h e s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i s b a s e d on a p h e n o m e n o l o g y w h i c h p r o p o s e s t h a t t h e r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n v i e w e r a n d a r t o b j e c t c a n be t r a n s p a r e n t . T h i s v i e w d e n i e s t h a t t h e p r o c e s s o f p e r c e p t i o n - i s c o n t i n g e n t upon t h e h i s t o r i c a l c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e p e r c e p t i o n , i n f a v o u r o f a f a i t h i n o b j e c t i v i t y . T h i s f a i t h i n o b j e c t i v i t y a p p e a r s a l s o i n t h e c o n v i c t i o n t h a t t e c h n o l o g i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t a n d e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h a r e v a l u e - f r e e . H e n c e , t h e " v a l u e - f r e e " s u r f a c e s o f J u d d ' s work a r e a v i s u a l p r e c e d e n t f o r t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e l i t e r a r y a e s t h e t i c o f o b j e c t i v i t y i n t h e l i n g u i s t i c a r t f o r m s o f t h e l a t e 1960s and e a r l y 1970s ( e . g . : t h e c o n c e p t u a l i s m o f K o s u t h , A t k i n s o n , a n d o t h e r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e A r t - L a n g u a g e g r o u p ) , s i n c e t h e s e l i n g u i s t i c a r t f o r m s u s e a l a n g u a g e w h i c h i s i n f l e c t e d w i t h a s e n s e o f n e u t r a l i t y t h a t , as R o l a n d B a r t h e s p o i n t s o u t i n h i s a r g u m e n t w h i c h I r e f e r r e d t o e a r l i e r , s e r v e s t o c a n c e l t h e h i s t o r i c a l c o n t i n g e n c y o f t h e w r i t e r . The f r e e - f l o a t i n g , c r u d e l y E n l i g h t e n m e n t - d e r i v e d , U.S. A m e r i c a n i d e a l o f i n t e l l e c t u a l p r o c e s s e s s e e s t h e s e p r o c e s s e s as n e u t r a l , v a l u e - f r e e , o b j e c t i v e . Hence, l i k e t h e l i n g u i s t i c a r t f o r m s m e n t i o n e d a b o v e , t h e t e r m i n o l o g y and l i n g u i s t i c f o r m s r e l a t e d t o t h e d e s c r i p t i o n a n d e x e c u t i o n o f t h e s e p r o c e s s e s a r e i n f l e c t e d w i t h a s e n s e o f n e u t r a l i t y w h i c h s e r v e s t o c a n c e l t h e h i s t o r i c a l s i t u a t i o n o f t h e s p e a k e r o r w r i t e r . The u s e o f c l e a r l y 58 d e l i n e a t e d a r e a s o f p r i m a r y c o l o u r s , a s i n t h e H a r d - E d g e A b s t r a c t i o n o f S t e l l a , H e l d o r K e l l y , t h e r e p e t i t i o n o f b a n a l m o t i f s o r f o r m s , as i n S t e l l a , N o l a n d o r J u d d , a n d t h e u s e o f a p p a r e n t l y " h i - t e c h " m a t e r i a l s , s u c h a s S t e l l a ' s u s e o f a l u m i n i u m p a i n t o r J u d d ' s u s e o f p l e x i g l a s s , a l u m i n u m a n d s t a i n l e s s s t e e l , a r e t h e v i s u a l c o u n t e r p a r t s t o t h e s e e m p i r i c i s t l i n g u i s t i c f o r m s . The d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s e p i e c e s , i n m a g a z i n e s a n d c a t a l o g u e s , f o r e x a m p l e , a n d t h e u s e o f t e r m s s u c h as " c o n c e p t u a l " t o d e s c r i b e t hem, i s t h e n e x u s b e t w e e n t h e v i s u a l f o r m s a n d t h e l a n g u a g e o f o b j e c t i v i t y a l a n g u a g e w h i c h i s u s e d t o d e s c r i b e b o t h t h e a r t o b j e c t a n d t h e p r o c e s s e s w h i c h c u l m i n a t e d i n i t s p r o d u c t i o n , a n d t h u s t o i m p a r t a s e n s e o f i n t e l l e c t u a l r i g o u r t o t h e o b j e c t and i t s p r o d u c t i o n . Hence, t h i s l i t e r a t u r e s e r v e s t o s u p p o r t t h e s p e c i f i c o b j e c t ' s a e s t h e t i c c l a i m s t o n e u t r a l i t y , as w e l l as t o p r o v i d e a p r e c e d e n t f o r t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e l i t e r a r y a e s t h e t i c o f o b j e c t i v i t y i n t h e l i n g u i s t i c a r t f o r m s o f c o n c e p t u a l i s m d u r i n g t h e l a t e 1960s and e a r l y 1 9 7 0 s . 7 7 A s an e x a m p l e o f t h i s n e x u s b e t w e e n 1960s M o d e r n i s t t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l work a nd t h e l a n g u a g e o f o b j e c t i v i t y , l e t u s c o n s i d e r t h e Primary Structures e x h i b i t i o n c a t a l o g u e . T h i s e x h i b i t i o n was h o s t e d by t h e J e w i s h Museum i n t h e S p r i n g o f 1966,, a n d f o c u s e d on w o r k s b y a r t i s t s s u c h a s J u d d , T r u i t t , F l a v i n , C a r o a n d S m i t h . I n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e c a t a l o g u e , K y n a s t o n M c s h i n e , t h e c u r a t o r o f p a i n t i n g a n d s c u l p t u r e a t t h e J e w i s h Museum, a r g u e s f o r an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h i s work as f u n d a m e n t a l l y i n t e l l e c t u a l : A s a r e s u l t ( o f t h e r e j e c t i o n o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l l i m i t s o f m e d i a ) , many o f t h e s c u l p t o r s o f t h e s i x t i e s h a v e b e e n t h e most c r i t i c a l a n d r a d i c a l among a r t i s t s , i n r e l a t i o n t o work o f t h e r e c e n t p a s t . T h e i r a c t i v i t y h a s become p u r p o s e l y more p h i l o s o p h i c a l a n d c o n c e p t u a l i n c o n t e n t . They a r e a n x i o u s t o f i n d o u t what s c u l p t u r e i s and t o d i s c o v e r how t o make i t . M o s t o f t h e s c u l p t o r s a r e u n i v e r s i t y - t r a i n e d , h a v e r e a d 59 p h i l o s o p h y , a r e q u i t e f a m i l i a r w i t h o t h e r d i s c i p l i n e s , h a v e a k e e n s e n s e o f h i s t o r y , e x p r e s s t h e m s e l v e s a r t i c u l a t e l y a n d a r e o f t e n i n v o l v e d i n d i a l e c t i c . The work i s e x t r e m e l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d a n d i n t e l l e c t u a l , o f d i f f i c u l t a n d p r o b l e m a t i c c o n t e n t i f n o t f o r m , a nd s o m e t i m e s p o l e m i c a l w i t h i t s i m p l i e d c r i t i c i s m o f p a s t m o d e s . 7 ^ F o r M c S h i n e , t h e n , " c o n c e p t u a l " e q u a l s " i n t e l l e c t u a l , " a n d " i n t e l l e c t u a l " e q u a l s " g o o d , " a e s t h e t i c a l l y - s p e a k i n g . To a d d l e g i t i m a c y t o t h e s e e q u a t i o n s , M c s h i n e makes b o l d c l a i m s f o r t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t e s o f t h e a r t i s t s a n d a r t i n v o l v e d i n t h e e x h i b i t i o n . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e s e b o l d c l a i m s a r e no more t h a n s t r i n g s o f v a c u o u s s i g n i f i e r s e m p l o y e d b y a h o p e f u l M c S h i n e t o c o n s t r u c t a v e n e e r o f s u c h i m p o s i n g a p p e a r a n c e t h a t t h e c a t a l o g u e r e a d e r w i l l n o t d a r e t o l o o k b e h i n d i t t o s c r u t i n i z e i t s f o u n d a t i o n s . I t seems t h a t what i s r e a l l y d r i v i n g M c S h i n e ' s i l l -w r o u g h t a r g u m e n t i s t h a t t h e image o f t h e a r t i s t as R e n a i s s a n c e man i s one o f t h e a v a n t - g a r d e i m a g e s o f 1966. My p o i n t i s n o t t h a t M c S h i n e i s c o m p l e t e l y w r o n g . C e r t a i n l y some o f t h e a r t i s t s i n Primary Structures c a n , i n f a c t , a c c u r a t e l y be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as a r t i c u l a t e a n d p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y -s o p h i s t i c a t e d R o b e r t M o r r i s , R o b e r t S m i t h s o n , a nd Dan F l a v i n , f o r e x a m p l e . B u t i t i s n o t t r u e o f a l l o f t h e a r t i s t s i n t h i s show, a n d n o t e v e n o f a l l o f t h e a r t i s t s i n t h e show who w o u l d c l a i m t h a t i t i s . I n f a c t , i t i s t h e s o p h i s t i c a t i o n o f R o b e r t M o r r i s t h a t w o u l d , i n a few y e a r s , p r o v i d e a c o m p e l l i n g a r g u m e n t a g a i n s t D o n a l d J u d d ' s p h i l o s o p h i c a l v i e w s as e x p r e s s e d i n h i s a e s t h e t i c s o f t h e s p e c i f i c o b j e c t . 7 ^ Hence, M c s h i n e ' s r o l e i s t h a t o f a b r o k e r o f a e s t h e t i c t h e o r y , t r i m m i n g t h e u n t i d y e n d s o f f o f a h a r d - t o - h a n d l e b u n d l e , a n d p r o v i d i n g an a r t i f i c i a l l y n e a t p a c k a g e f o r t h e museum-goer w i t h u p - t o - t h e - m i n u t e t a s t e : t a s t e which,, d u r i n g t h e m i d - 1 9 6 0 s , l o o k e d f o r t h e 60 i n t e l l e c t u a l / r a t i o n a l a p p e a r a n c e o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y p r o d u c e d g e o m e t r i c f o r m s b u i l t o u t o f m a t e r i a l s d e s i g n e d t o hook i n t o t h e d o m i n a n t c o m m o d i t y a e s t h e t i c s o f N o r t h A m e r i c a d u r i n g t h e m i d -1 9 6 0 s . As I n o t e d a b o v e , t h e r e i s more t o t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f J u d d ' s u s e o f c e r t a i n m a t e r i a l s t h a n t h a t he a c c e p t s t h e i d e a o f o b j e c t i v i t y , a n d a c c e p t s a t f a c e v a l u e t h e c l a i m s o f c e r t a i n s u r f a c e s t o be n e u t r a l . I n c l a i m i n g t h a t c e r t a i n m a t e r i a l s a n d s u r f a c e s a r e " o b j e c t i v e " a n d " n e u t r a l , " J u d d f a i l s t o u n d e r s t a n d t h a t , as N i e t z s c h e h a s i t , "The w i l l t o o v e r c o m e an e m o t i o n i s u l t i m a t e l y o n l y t h e w i l l o f a n o t h e r e m o t i o n o r o f s e v e r a l o t h e r e m o t i o n s . " 8 0 J u d d ' s m ethod o f w o r k i n g , n e c e s s i t a t e d b y h i s c h o i c e o f m a t e r i a l s , r e s u l t s i n h i s b e i n g d i s t a n c e d f r o m t h e a c t u a l p r o d u c t i o n o f h i s s p e c i f i c o b j e c t s . N o t - h a v i n g t h e r e q u i s i t e s k i l l s t o work t h e m a t e r i a l s w h i c h he c h o o s e s , J u d d h a s t o t u r n t h e p h y s i c a l f a b r i c a t i o n o f h i s o b j e c t s o v e r t o s k i l l e d l a b o u r e r s . G i v e n t h a t t h e f e t i s h i z a t i o n o f t h e "hand" o f t h e a r t i s t h a d b e e n b r o u g h t t o a f e v e r i s h p i t c h d u r i n g t h e 1950s w i t h t h e a s c e n d e n c e o f A b s t r a c t E x p r e s s i o n i s m , t h e d i v i s i o n o f t h e p r o c e s s o f a r t i s t i c p r o d u c t i o n c o u l d n o t f a i l t o a t t r a c t comment. I n d o i n g s o , i t d i r e c t e d a t t e n t i o n t o t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l e c o n o m i e s a r o u n d t h e d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r . What was v a l u e d i n t h e f e t i s h i z a t i o n o f t h e a r t i s t s ' " h a n d " was t h e g u a r a n t e e , s i g n i f i e d by t h e facture o f t h e p a i n t i n g , t h a t t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e p i e c e was a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h a u n i f i e d p r o d u c t i o n p r o c e s s c a r r i e d o u t by a p a r t i c u l a r p e r s o n . T h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h i s i s t r u e i s s m a l l : t h e p a i n t e r p u t s t h e p a i n t o f t h e s u r f a c e , b u t b e h i n d t h a t , t h e d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r i s d i r e c t l y p r e s e n t i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e p a i n t , t h e s u r f a c e , t h e b r u s h , e t c , a s w e l l 61 as i n the d i s p l a y and d i s t r i b u t i o n of the f i n i s h e d p r o d u c t . The u n i t y of l a b o u r which an a r t work may r e p r e s e n t , though s m a l l , i s p o w e r f u l l y f e t i s h i z e d . What i s made evi d e n t by Judd's work, however much Judd denies i t , i s the exte'nt t o which t h i s f e t i s h i z a t i o n i s anomalous i n the context of U.S. American l a t e c a p i t a l i s m , s i n c e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n i n t h i s context takes the form of i n c r e a s i n g l y f i n e d i v i s i o n s of labour, a major step i n the h i s t o r y of which i s the s e p a r a t i o n of i n t e l l e c t , or c o n c e p t i o n , from p r o d u c t i o n . However, Judd's conception of the s p e c i f i c o b j e c t denies t h a t the r e a d i n g of the s u r f a c e s which he uses as banal i s h i s t o r i c a l l y c o n t i n g e n t . Therefore, we r e t u r n t o the problem j u s t mentioned above: Judd found h i m s e l f r e q u i r i n g the a i d of a s u p p o r t i n g l i t e r a t u r e t o r e i n f o r c e the c l a i m s t o value-freedom which, u l t i m a t e l y , h i s work cannot s i g n i f y , because the counter-argument t h a t the o b j e c t s are h i s t o r i c a l l y c o n t i g e n t i s q u i t e l i t e r a l l y made by the same s u r f a c e which i s used to s i g n i f y t h a t the o b j e c t i s o u t s i d e of h i s t o r y through a powerful e v o c a t i o n of what Barthes c a l l e d the m e t a l i n g u i s t i c mythic form. Judd uses these s u r f a c e s because he accepts t h e i r c l a i m s to n e u t r a l i t y , s e e i n g them as s u r f a c e s which r e f e r t o n o t h i n g o u t s i d e of themselves. Hence, they are u s e f u l t o h i s attempt t o produce a r t o b j e c t s which are v i s u a l t a u t o l o g i e s . However, these s u r f a c e s are a v a i l a b l e because of the importance of a e s t h e t i c s of n e u t r a l i t y i n post-war commodity p r o d u c t i o n . Thus, Judd's s p e c i f i c o b j e c t s make e x p l i c i t the o v e r l a p between h i g h c u l t u r e and mass-p r o d u c t i o n by making manifest the f a c t t h a t the same form of the a e s t h e t i c of b a n a l i t y holds powerful a t t r a c t i o n s i n both c u l t u r a l spheres. Therefore, the o v e r l a p i n the a t t r a c t i o n of the 62 aesthetic of banality points out the f a l l a c y of the idea that the s p e c i f i c object, as an object which resides i n the realm of culture, i s h i s t o r i c a l l y autonomous. Furthermore, the overlap i n Judd's work between the spheres of high culture and mass-production arose because the materials of mass-production powerfully appeal to the aesthetic of banality which i s highly e f f e c t i v e , as B a u d r i l l a r d points out, as a sign of a p a r t i c u l a r " i n t e l l e c t u a l " type of c u l t u r a l d i s t i n c t i o n . Hence a subsequent question to be asked would be one addressing the conclusions to be drawn from examining Judd's work and the responses to i t i n r e l a t i o n to the ways in which objects considered to be works of art function as s o c i a l l y distinguishing signs. Now, at the same time as Judd was pursuing his variant of the e s s e n t i a l i s t project set by Greenbergian modernism, he was taking his distance from Greenberg. This was part of a fragmentation within formalist modernism which i s s i g n i f i c a n t because i t cleared the way for the re-emergence of c r i t i c a l modernism in the years to follow a modernism which would have something to say about the implications of p r e c i s e l y t h i s overlap manifested in Judd's work between the spheres of mass-production and high culture, p a r t i c u l a r l y with respect to the idea of c u l t u r a l autonomy upon which Judd's aesthetic of the s p e c i f i c object, and indeed formalist modernism as a whole, r e l i e d . 63 Epilogue I n t h e P r o l o g u e , I n o t e d t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e h i s t o r i c a l e f f e c t o f J u d d ' s work a n d w r i t i n g . J u d d ' s a r g u m e n t c o n c e r n i n g t h e i d e a o f t h e s p e c i f i c o b j e c t e m e r g e s d u r i n g t h e moment when t h e f r a g m e n t a t i o n o f a p a r t i c u l a r t y p e o f f o r m a l i s t a e s t h e t i c s was o c c u r r i n g , a nd i t i s J u d d ' s p o s i t i o n w i t h i n t h i s a r e n a o f f r a g m e n t a t i o n w h i c h I h a v e b e e n c o n c e r n e d t o d i s c u s s up t o t h i s p o i n t . However, I h a v e a l s o m e n t i o n e d t h a t I s e e J u d d ' s a e s t h e t i c o f t h e s p e c i f i c o b j e c t a s s i g n i f i c a n t b e c a u s e i t l e d t o a f u r t h e r f r a g m e n t a t i o n w h i c h moved away f r o m f o r m a l i s m , b u t w h i c h t o o k on many d i f f e r e n t f o r m s i n s p i t e o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y h a d t h i s s i g n i f i c a n t u n d e r l y i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n common. Now, i n " M o d e r n i s m a n d Mass C u l t u r e i n t h e V i s u a l A r t s , " Thomas Crow d e s c r i b e s t h e a v a n t - g a r d e as a " k i n d o f r e s e a r c h a n d d e v e l o p m e n t arm o f t h e c u l t u r e i n d u s t r y : i t s e a r c h e s o u t a r e a s o f s o c i a l p r a c t i c e n o t y e t c o m p l e t e l y a v a i l a b l e t o e f f i c i e n t m a n i p u l a t i o n a n d makes them d i s c r e t e a n d v i s i b l e . " 1 Hence, one c a n a l m o s t s e e J u d d as an a v a n t - g a r d e i n r e v e r s e : a r e a s o f mass c u l t u r e , i n t h i s c a s e mass f a b r i c a t i o n , w h i c h h a d b e e n s u c c e s s f u l l y a b s o r b e d i n t o t h e s p h e r e o f h i g h c u l t u r e , w e r e , t h r o u g h c r i t i q u e s f o r m u l a t e d a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y i n r e s p o n s e t o J u d d ' s work, a p p r o p r i a t e d b y t h e c u l t u r a l m a r g i n s a n d u s e d a s t h e raw m a t e r i a l s f o r a c r i t i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e s p h e r e o f h i g h c u l t u r e . I s a y one c a n almost s e e J u d d as an a v a n t - g a r d e i n r e v e r s e b e c a u s e I am n o t c o m p l e t e l y s a n g u i n e a b o u t t h e s e c r i t i q u e s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h r o u g h t h e s e c r i t i q u e s , t h e f r a g m e n t a t i o n o f f o r m a l i s m s u b s e q u e n t l y e n g a g e d w i t h a n a l y s e s w h i c h e x a m i n e d t h e a e s t h e t i c o f f o r m a l i s t m o d e r n i s m as a way o f e x a m i n i n g t h e s o c i a l b a s e s upon w h i c h c u l t u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s a t 64 l a r g e t e n d t o be f o u n d e d . T h i s q u e s t i o n i n g o f c u l t u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s t o o k p l a c e - a t t h e same t i m e t h a t s o many o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s most n o t a b l y t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s o f e d u c t i o n a n d d e m o c r a c y : were a l s o b e i n g q u e s t i o n e d , a t t i m e s w i t h an u r g e n c y w h i c h many p e o p l e f o u n d e i t h e r f r i g h t e n i n g o r e x h i l a r a t i n g , d e p e n d i n g upon t h e i r p e r s p e c t i v e . The a n a l y s i s o f , a n d r e s p o n s e t o , t h e a e s t h e t i c o f t h e s p e c i f i c o b j e c t g e n e r a t e d some i n t e r e s t i n g a n d i m p o r t a n t d i s c u s s i o n s w h i c h were p a r t i c i p a t e d i n n o t o n l y by a r t c r i t i c s , b u t a l s o b y a r t i s t s a c t i n g b o t h a s a r t i s t s a n d as w r i t e r s , i n some c a s e s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . Hence, a t t h e same t i m e t h a t t h e s e l i n e s b e t w e e n f o r m a l i s t s w h i c h I h a v e b e e n d i s c u s s i n g w e r e b e i n g d r a w n , o t h e r ways o f t h i n k i n g a b o u t a r t were e m e r g i n g w h i c h were c o n c e r n e d t o q u e s t i o n t h e f o r m a l i s t u n d e r p i n n i n g s s h a r e d b y t h e a e s t h e t i c s o f G r e e n b e r g , F r i e d a nd J u d d . I n c o n t e m p o r a r y N i e t z s c h e a n e p i s t e m o l o g i e s , t h e t e r m " d i s c o u r s e ' i s u s e d t o mean a c o n t i n g e n t b o d y o f k n o w l e d g e and e x p e r t i s e whose m a t e r i a l p r e s e n c e i s more r e s p o n s i b l e f o r what i s p r o d u c e d o u t o f i t t h a n i s t h e o r i g i n a l i t y o f any g i v e n a u t h o r o r a r t i s t . 2 T h i s c o n c e p t p o i n t s up t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f b e i n g aware o f t h e " d i s c o u r s e " w h i c h f o r m s t h e b r o a d e r c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t o f w h i c h J u d d ' s a e s t h e t i c s o f t h e s p e c i f i c o b j e c t was a p a r t . The p a r t i c u l a r c o m b i n a t i o n o f c o n f i d e n c e many o f t h e a r t i s t s h a d a t t h i s t i m e i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o a r t i c u l a t e t h e i r own p o s i t i o n s , b o t h v e r b a l l y a nd i n w r i t i n g , a l o n g w i t h t h e immense p o p u l a r i t y o f some o f t h e a r t i s t s a n d c r i t i c s i n v o l v e d , makes t h i s a w i d e -r a n g i n g d i s c o u r s e e n c o m p a s s i n g a r t i c l e s , r a d i o i n t e r v i e w s , m a j o r a r t e x h i b i t i o n s , as w e l l as f r e n e t i c a r t p r o d u c t i o n on t h e p a r t o f t h e a r t i s t s ' and t h e i r f a v o u r i t e f a b r i c a t i n g p l a n t s . More 65 p a r t i c u l a r l y , I am t h i n k i n g o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t s w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n l i v e l y d e b a t e s w i t h , a n d o u t r i g h t r e j e c t i o n s o f , a l l v a r i e t i e s o f t h e f o r m a l i s t p a r a d i g m . J u d y C h i c a g o a n d Dan Graham p r o v i d e t w o i n s t r u c t i v e e x a m p l e s o f t h i s s e c o n d - o r d e r f r a g m e n t a t i o n o f f o r m a l i s m , b e c a u s e t h e y a r e s i m i l a r i n s o f a r a s t h e y a r e b o t h c o n c e r n e d t o c r i t i q u e t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f " M i n i m a l i s m , " b u t d i f f e r e n t i n s o f a r as t h e m o t i v a t i o n s , m e t h o d s , a n d c o n c l u s i o n s o f t h e i r c r i t i q u e s a r e d i f f e r e n t i n s i g n i f i c a n t w a y s . I d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r t h e i d e a t h a t C h i c a g o ' s p i e c e Rainbow Picket (1966) i s a p a r t o f h e r a t t e m p t t o f o r m u l a t e a s y s t e m -immanent f e m i n i s t c r i t i q u e o f t h e s o c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f f o r m a l i s t m o d e r n i s m ' s i d e a l i s t g r o u n d i n g . H e n c e , t h i s p i e c e i s p a r t o f C h i c a g o ' s a t t e m p t t o u s e t h e v i s u a l l a n g u a g e o f t h a t m o d e r n i s m t o e x p r e s s h e r f e m i n i s t c o n c e r n s . However, as I w i l l e x p l a i n more f u l l y b e l o w , C h i c a g o a b a n d o n e d t h i s p r o j e c t i n f a v o u r o f more o p e n l y h o s t i l e p r o j e c t s when she r e a l i z e d t h a t what she h a d a t f i r s t p e r c e i v e d a s c o m p l a c e c n y on t h e p a r t o f t h e a r t w o r l d w i t h r e s p e c t t o f e m i n i s t i s s u e s was i n f a c t a d e e p -s e a t e d a n t a g o n i s m . J u d y C h i c a g o b e g a n h e r c a r e e r as J u d G e r o w i t z , an a r t i s t i n t h e m i d - 1 9 6 0 s a t t e m p t i n g , as she w h r i t e s i n h e r book Through the Flower: My Struggle as a Woman Artist ( 1 9 7 2 ) , t o f i n d a way t o u s e t h e v i s u a l l a n g u a g e o f 1960s f o r m a l i s t m o d e r n i s m t o a d d r e s s f e m i n i s t i s s u e s . ^ C h i c a g o i s an i n t e r e s t i n g p e r s o n t o s t u d y b e c a u s e s h e came t o a r t w i t h h e r f e m i n i s m a l r e a d y s t r o n g l y d e v e l o p e d , a n d t o o k a s h e r p r o j e c t t h e a t t e m p t t o f i n d a way t o u s e t h e l a n g u a g e o f f o r m a l i s t m o d e r n i s m t o e x p r e s s t h o s e c o n c e r n s . I m m e d i a t e l y , t h e r e i s a c o n t r a d i c t i o n , s i n c e t h i s was a f t e r t h e p o i n t t h a t " a r t f o r a r t ' s s a k e " h a v e become " a r t as t a u t o l o g y . " I t i s p r e c i s e l y t h e f a c t t h a t t h i s i s a c o n t r a d i c t i o n t h a t w o u l d become t h e f o c u s o f C h i c a g o ' s a t t e n t i o n i n t h e l a t e 1 9 60s a n d e a r l y 1 9 7 0 s , a s a r e s u l t o f h e r e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s o f f o r m a l i s t m o d e r n i s m . I n t h e e a r l y 1 9 6 0 s , C h i c a g o b e g a n w o r k i n g w i t h h a r d - e d g e d b i o m o r p h i c a b s t r a t i o n s , s u c h as h e r p a i n t i n g Flight f r o m 1963 ( f i g . 4 ) i n w h i c h a b s t r a c t f o r m s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y s u g g e s t t h e f o r m s o f b u t t e r f l i e s a n d v a g i n a s . A few y e a r l a t e r , s h e b e g a n t o work w i t h M i n i m a l i s t s c u l p t u r e as w e l l . I n 1966, h e r p i e c e Rainbow Picket was i n c l u d e d i n t h e P r i m a r y S t r u c t u r e s show a t t h e J e w i s h Museum. T h i s p i e c e c o n s i s t s o f s i x e l e m e n t s , a r r a n g e d t o f o r m a s e r i e s o f d i a g o n a l s o f d i f f e r e n t l e n g t h s r u n n i n g f r o m w a l l t o f l o o r , p l a c e d f r o m l o n g e s t t o s h o r t e s t . The o n l y c l u e o f C h i c a g o ' s f e m i n i s t c o n c e r n s i n t h i s p i e c e a r e t h e c o l o u r s : v a r i o u s l i g h t , p a s t e l t o n e s , w h i c h h i n t a t C h i c a g o ' s d e s i r e t o a s s e r t h e r g e n d e r i d e n t i t y by t h e i r s t e r e o t y p i c a l " f e m i n i n i t y . " T h i s i s v e r y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e o v e r t l y f e m a l e i m a g e r y o f Flight, and, as C h i c a g o e x p l a i n s i n Through the Flower, t h i s i s r e l a t e d t o h e r i n c r e a s e d s e n s e o f b e i n g a t r e s p a s s e r who c o u l d be f o u n d o u t a t any moment, w i t h d i s a s t e r o u s c o n s e q u e n c e s : By 1966, I h a d h a d a one-woman show, h a d b e e n i n s e v e r a l g r o u p a n d museum shows, a n d h a d made a l o t o f work t h a t c o u l d be c l a s s i f i e d as " m i n i m a l , " a l t h o u g h h i d d e n b e h i n d t h a t f a c a d e were a w h o l e s e r i e s o f c o n c e r n s t h a t I d i d n o t know how t o d e a l w i t h o p e n l y w i t h o u t " b l o w i n g my c o v e r , " as i t w e r e , a n d r e v e a l i n g t h a t I was, i n f a c t , a woman w i t h a d i f f e r e n t p o i n t o f v i e w f r o m my m a l e c o n t e m p o r a r i e s . A t t h a t t i m e , I f i r m l y b e l i e v e d t h a t i f my d i f f e r e n c e f r o m men were e p x o s e d , I w o u l d be r e j e c t e d , j u s t as I h a d b e e n i n s c h o o l . I t was o n l y by b e i n g d i f f e r e n t f r o m women and l i k e men t h a t I seemed t o s t a n d a c h a n c e o f s u c c e e d i n g a s an a r t i s t . 4 S u s b s e q u e n t l y , a s e r i e s o f e x p e r i e n c e s w h i c h s he h a d a s an a r t i s t l e d h e r t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e c u l t u r a l m i l i e u w h i c h s u p p o r t e d t h i s , t y p e o f a r t p r a c t i c e h a d d e e p l y - i n g r a i n e d s e x i s t 67 tendencies. Hence, Chicago f e l t compelled to move into other forms of art practice which questioned the authority of the c u l t u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s -and aggressively addressed the consistency within which women have been shut out of these i n s t i t u t i o n s . This led Chicago to more r a d i c a l a c t i v i t i e s aimed at se t t i n g up p a r a l l e l i n s t i t u t i o n s such as Womanspace, which were run by women, and which therefore would enable women to engage i n a r t i s t i c practice i n a supportive environment, without having to submerge t h e i r r e a l interests or "be l i k e men" i n order to gain respect for t h e i r work. The c r i t i q u e of Donald Judd that i s developed i n Dan Graham's photojournalist a r t i c l e "Homes for America," which appeared in Arts magazine i n 1966,^ i s very d i f f e r e n t from Chicago's c r i t i q u e as i t i s manifest i n Rainbow Picket. Like Chicago, Graham's s t a r t i n g point i s a c r i t i q u e of the idealism immanent in formalist aesthetics, and in p a r t i c u l a r , i n "Minimalism." However, Graham's project d i f f e r s from Chicago's i n two important ways. F i r s t , the armature of Graham's c r i t i q u e i s a refutation, rather than a u t i l i z a t i o n , of Judd's formal language. Second, where Chicago ultimately extricates herself from the entire c u l t u r a l community that supports t h i s formal language, Graham remains within i t . This difference has to do, I believe, with the fact that Graham sees his c r i t i q u e as an extrapolation from Judd's work, as a r e a l i z a t i o n of conclusions which Judd should have drawn from his work but did not, whereas Chicago's c r i t i q u e has as i t s focus the more contentious project of addressing the deeply-ingrained sexism of the most powerful and prominent c u l t u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . 68 "Homes f o r America" was developed out of an e a r l i e r p r o j e c t of Graham's c a l l e d Projected Sites (1965), i n which a s e r i e s of photographs of suburban t r a c t houses i n the areas around New York C i t y were p r o j e c t e d onto a g a l l e r y wall,. These two p r o j e c t s were attempts to a r r i v e at a c r i t i c a l modernist s t r a t e g y by examining the s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n of c u l t u r e as autonomous. These photographs demonstrate t h a t s e r i a l i s t a r t p r o d u c t i o n such as t h a t of Judd i s not a unique r e l a t i o n of forms. For example, Graham's photograph of setbacks i n Bayonne, New J e r s e y ( f i g s . 5 , 6 ) document the r e p e t i t i o n of cubes at r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s . The composition of t h i s photograph mimics the s t a n d a r d documentation photograph of one of Judd's s e r i a l p i e c e s , thus making c l e a r the s i m i l a r i t y of the r e l a t i o n s of forms. Once t h i s c o n n e c t i o n has been made, other s i m i l a r i t i e s are suggested. The r e p e t i t i i o n of r e c t a n g u l a r forms i s not the only s i m i l a r i t y which these houses have to Judd's work. The same s o r t s of s u r f a c e s are e s s e n t i a l i n the f a b r i c a t i o n of both. So, f o r example, t r a c t housing and the u n t i t l e d work by Judd which I was d i s c u s s i n g e a r l i e r share not only the s e r i a l p r o d u c t i o n and the r e p e t i t i o n of a standard form at r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s : p l e x i g l a s s and s t a i n l e s s s t e e l are m a t e r i a l s l i k e l y t o be found i n the New J e r s e y homes. Furthermore, the f a b r i c a t i o n techniques used to assemble Judd's s c u l p t u r e s are i d e n t i c a l t o those used to assemble v a r i o u s household components, s i n c e Judd's s c u l p t u r e s are manufactured i n commercial f a b r i c a t i o n p l a n t s . At t h i s time, Graham was a l s o i n t e r e s t e d i n the i d e a of a magazine, such as Esquire, as a s o c i a l context i n which t o prese n t h i s work.^ Subsequently, through Mel Bochner, Graham was i n v i t e d t o present h i s p r o j e c t as a p h o t o j o u r n a l i s m p i e c e i n the 69 p a g e s o f Arts, w h i c h became "Homes f o r A m e r i c a . " The t e x t w h i c h Graham w r o t e s t o accompany t h e p h o t o g r a p h s w h i c h he h a d t a k e n d e s c r i b e s t h e s e r i a l n a t u r e o f t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f t r a c t h o u s i n g . A s t h e a r t i c l e a p p e a r s i n A r t s , h o w e v e r , none o f Graham's p h o t o g r a p h s a r e shown. T h e r e i s o n l y one p h o t o o f r u r a l h o u s i n g w i t h t h e a r t i c l e , a n d t h a t by W a l k e r E v a n s f r o m t h e 1 9 3 0 s , s o much o f t h e e f f e c t as Graham h a d p l a n n e d i t i s l o s t . The t e x t o f t h e m a g a z i n e a r t i c l e d i s c u s s e s t h e s e r i a l i s t n a t u r e o f s u b u r b a n t r a c t h o u s i n g , d e s c r i b i n g t h e way i n w h i c h d e v e l o p e r s o f f e r s e t s o f h o u s e s w h i c h a r e b a s e d on a s t a n d a r d p l a n . The p l a n i s d e s i g n e d s o t h a t a number o f t r i v i a l d e t a i l s ( i . e . : c o l o u r , o r i e n t a t i o n on t h e l o t ) c a n be o f f e r e d f o r t h e c o n s u m e r t o c h o o s e from. 1 Graham's t e x t u s e s t h e l a n g u a g e o f N o r t h /American j o u r n a l i s m t h a t c o n n o t e s t h e p l a i n o b s e r v e r . However, i n t h e l a s t f e w p a r a g r a p h s , t h e t o n e o f Graham's l a n g u a g e s h i f t s t o become i n f u s e d w i t h r e g r e t , as he c r i t i c i z e s t h e c o n s u m e r i s m w h i c h h a s g e n e r a t e d t h e n e e d f o r " d i s p o s a b l e h o u s e s : " ( H ) o u s i n g d e v e l o p m e n t s as an a r c h i t e c t u r a l phenomenon seem p e c u l i a r l y g r a t u i t o u s . They e x i s t a p a r t f r o m p r i o r s t a n d a r d s o f " g o o d " a r c h i t e c t u r e . They were n o t b u i l l t t o s a t i s f y i n d i v i d u a l n e e d s o r t a s t e s . The owner i s c o m p l e t e l y t a n g e n t i a l t o t h e p r o d u c t ' s c o m p l e t i o n . H i s home i s n ' t r e a l l y p o s s e s s a b l e i n t h e o l d s e n s e ; i t w a s n ' t d e s i g n e d t o " l a s t f o r g e n e r a t i o n s " : a n d ' o u t s i d e o f i t s i m m e d i a t e " h e r e a n d now" c o n t e x t i t i s u s e l e s s , d e s i g n e d t o be t h r o w n away. B o t h a r c h i t e c t u r e a n d c r a f t s m a n s h i p as v a l u e s a r e s u b v e r t e d by t h e d e p e n d e n c e on s i m p l i f i e d a n d e a s i l y d u p l i c a t e d t e c h n i q u e s o f f a b r i c a t i o n a n d s t a n d a r d i z e d m o d u l a r p l a n s . C o n t i n g e n c i e s s u c h a s mass p r o d u c t i o n t e c h n o l o g y a n d l a n d u s e e c o n o m i c s make t h e f i n a l d e c i s i o n s , d e n y i n g t h e a r c h i t e c t h i s f o r m e r " u n i q u e " r o l e . 7 Graham's d i s g u s t w i t h t h e " s i m p l i f i e d a n d e a s i l y d u p l i c a t e d t e c h n i q u e s o f f a b r i c a t i o n a n d s t a n d a r d i z e d m o d u l a r p l a n s " r e f e r s n o t o n l y t o t h e t r a c t h o u s e s , b u t a l s o t o t h e e n t i r e s y s t e m o f m a s s - f a b r i c a t i o n : a s y s t e m w h i c h p r o d u c e s h o u s e h o l d i t e m s s u c h as 70 t a b l e s a n d c o u n t e r - t o p s , b u t w h i c h a l s o p r o d u c e s t h e s e r i a l o b j e c t s o f D o n a l d J u d d ' s w o r k . By e x t r a p o l a t i o n , t h e n , Graham's t e x t condemns t h e v e r y s u r f a c e s u p o n w h i c h J u d d ' s a e s t h e t i c d e p e n d s , a n d i d e n t i f i e s them w i t h an u n f o r t u n a t e t u r n i n t h e h i s t o r y o f c o m m o d i t y p r o d u c t i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , h a d t h e o r i g i n a l p h o t o g r a p h s b e e n i n c l u d e d , Graham's a r t i c l e w o u l d h a v e i n t e r v e n e d i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f c u l t u r a l autonomy w h i c h i s m a i n t a i n e d t h e r e i n t h e m a g a z i n e , i n t h e same manner as Projected Sites i n t e r v e n e d i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f c u l t u r a l a utonomy w h i c h i s m a i n t a i n e d by t h e g a l l e r y s p a c e by p r o v i d i n g an i n t e r v e n t i o n i n t h e mask o f c u l t u r a l autonomy. T h e r e i s a l o t o f v a l u e i n t h i s a r t i c l e o f Graham's, b u t n o n e t h e l e s s t h i s c r i t i q u e comes t o g r o u n d a s a r e s u l t o f w e a k n e s s e s i n h e r e n t t o t h e r a t h e r J e f f e r s o n i a n l i b e r a l i s m immanent i n Graham's a r t i c l e . Graham's c r i t i q u e o f m a s s - p r o d u c e d a r c h i t e c t u r e i m p l i e s t h a t m a s s - p r o d u c e d a r c h i t e c t u r e i s t h e e f f e c t o f c a p i t a l i s m gone s l i g h t l y a w r y . ^ H e n c e , Graham f a i l s t o r e c o n g i z e t h e p o s s i b l i t y t h a t t h i s f o r m o f h o u s i n g i s t h e u n a v o i d a b l e e f f e c t o f r a t i o n a l i z i n g c a p i t a l i s m a n d t h e r e f o r e i s s y m p t o m a t i c o f t h e t e n d e n c y o f t h i s f o r m o f s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n t o l i m i t , i n a v e r y r e a l way, t h e number o f c o u r s e s o f a c t i o n t h a t p e o p l e h a v e t o c h o o s e f r o m . C e r t a i n l y i t w o u l d be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e a n a l y s i s o f l a t e c a p i t a l i s m d e v e l o p e d by B a u d r i l l a r d i n F o r a C r i t i q u e of the P o l i t i c a l Economy of the Sign t o a r g u e t h a t t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f h o u s i n g u n i t s i n s e r i e s w i t h s l i g h t a l t e r a t i o n s a d v e n t i t i o u s t o t h e b a s i c s t r u c t u r e i s t h e s o r t o f p r o d u c t i o n w h i c h one s h o u l d e x p e c t t o f i n d i n a r e g i o n w h ere t h e i d e o l o g y i n s u p p o r t o f t h e s y s t e m o f c i r c u l a t i o n w h i c h i s l a t e c a p i t a l i s m i s a s p u r e as i t i s i n N o r t h . A m e r i c a . ^ The c r i t i q u e s d e v e l o p e d by C h i c a g o a n d Graham b o t h h a v e a c e r t a i n v a l u e t o them, w h i c h i s t h a t t h e y c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a s e n s e o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e p o l i t i c s a n d h i s t o r y o f c u l t u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s a s e n s e w h i c h i s i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e way i n w h i c h i t p i e r c e s t h e f a c a d e o f c u l t u r a l autonomy, a n d t h e r e f o r e o p e n s t h e d o o r t o t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f b e g i n n i n g t o a n a l y z e what i n t e r e s t s a r e a t w o r k b e h i n d t h a t f a c a d e . Hence, i t i s t h e s e a n t i - f o r m a l i s t i n t e r e s t s o f w h i c h Graham a n d C h i c a g o a r e e x a m p l e s , a n d o f w h i c h J u d d u n w i t t i n g l y became a p a r t b y b e c o m i n g a p l a t f o r m f o r t h i s s e c o n d -o r d e r f r a m e n t a t i o n o f f o r m a l i s m , t h a t I was r e f e r r i n g i n t h e P r o l o g u e when I s a i d t h a t J u d d ' s p o s i t i o n i s i n t e r e s t i n g p a r t l y b e c a u s e i t r e p r e s e n t s t h e moment a t w h i c h t h e r e - e m e r g e n c e o f t h e e l e m e n t o f c r i t i c a l m o d e r n i s m w h i c h h a d l a i n d o r m a n t w i t h i n f o r m a l i s t m o d e r n i s m f o r so many y e a r s b e g a n t o c r y s t a l l i z e . I am n o t s u r e t h a t t h e r e i s any r e a l s i g n i f i c a n c e t o t h e f a c t t h a t i t was J u d d who b o r e t h e b r u n t o f t h e s e a n d o t h e r , s i m i l a r c r i t i q u e s . Or r a t h e r , t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e l i e s i n t h e f a c t t h a t J u d d ' s work commanded a v e r y p r o m i n e n t p o s i t i o n w i t h i n t h e c u l t u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s w h i c h s u p p o r t e d f o r m a l i s t m o d e r n i s m . Hence, when open s e a s o n was d e c l a r e d on f o r m a l i s m , J u d d was e x t r e m e l y h i g h - p r o f i l e , a n d h e n c e t h e most, v i s i b l e t a r g e t . However, i n b e c o m i n g t h e t a r g e t o f a n t i - f o r m a l i s t s e n t i m e n t , J u d d g o t a t t a c k e d b y a m o n s t e r o f h i s own m a k i n g : he c o u l d n o t , o r d i d n o t , f o r e s e e t h a t h i s p a l a c e - r e v o l t w i t h i n f o r m a l i s m w o u l d l e a d t o t h e v e r y f o u n d a t i o n o f t h a t a r i s t o c r a c y b e i n g u r g e n t l y c a l l e d i n t o q u e s t i o n . 72 E n d n o t e s Prologue B a r b a r a H a s k e l l Donald Judd (New Y o r k : W h i t n e y Museum o f A m e r i c a n A r t ) , 1988. A p p a r e n t l y , t h e r e a r e l i m i t s t o t h e e x t e n t o f J u d d ' s c o n c e r n w i t h t h e m i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f h i s i d e a s , s i n c e he d o e s go a l o n g w i t h t h e show. I s u s p e c t t h a t J u d d ' s s e n s e o f b u s i n e s s a n d p o l i t i c s d i c t a t e s t o h i m t h e t i m e s when i t i s b e s t f o r o n e ' s c a r e e r s i m p l y t o k e e p q u i e t , a s i t d o e s f o r most o f u s . B a r b a r a H a s k e l l Donald Judd (New Y o r k : W h i t n e y Museum o f A m e r i c a n A r t ) , 1988, p . 8 0 . See t h e s e c t i o n o f p h o t o g r a p h s i n c l u d e d i n Minimal Art: A Critical Anthology G r e g o r y B a t t c o c k , e d . ( V a n c o u v e r : C l a r k e , I r w i n & C o . ) , 1968, e s p . p p . 4 0 2 - 4 4 4 . The p h o t o g r a p h o f C h i c a g o ' s Rainbow Picket a p p e a r s on p . 4 2 2 . See a l s o Primary Structures: Younger American and British Sculptors (New Y o r k : J e w i s h Museum), 1966. D o n a l d J u d d " I n D e f e n s e o f My Work," 1977, r e p . i n Complete Writings 1975-1986 ( E i n d h o v e n : v a n Abbemuseum), 1987, p . 9 . A t . t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h i s s t a t e m e n t , J u d d w r i t e s : I a nd a few a r t i s t s a r e t h e r e a s o n f o r t h e e x i s t e n c e o f n u merous e x p e n s i v e museums o f c o n t e m p o r a r y a r t a n d o f t h e j o b s o f t h e i r s t a f f s . We a r e t h e o n l y a c t i v i t y t h a t p e r f o r m s f o r n o t h i n g . H a l f o f t h e r e t a i l money g o e s t o d e a l e r s who u s u a l l y - c o n n i v e f o r more. The h a l f I g e t g o e s i n t o my work a n d i t s i n s t a l l a t i o n a n d y e t I'm t a x e d o u t r a g e o u s l y a n d a r r o g a n t l y b y , t h r e e g o v e r n m e n t s a n d m o d e r a t e l y by t h r e e more. What l i t t l e I c a n do i s t h e r e a l i t y o f a g r o s s a n d i n f l a t e d s i t u a t i o n . I h a v e t o d e f e n d what I ' v e d o n e ; i t i s u r g e n t a n d n e c e s s a r y t o make my work l a s t i n i t s f i r s t c o n d i t i o n . ("In D e f e n s e o f My Work," p.10.) H a r o l d R o s e n b e r g " V i r t u o s o s o f Boredom," Vogue v o l . 1 4 8 , no.4 ( S e p t . l , 1 9 6 6 ) , p.2.97:1. I c a n n o t s a y t h a t I w h o l e h e a r t e d l y a g r e e w i t h R o s e n b e r g ' s o p i n i o n t h a t t h e r e i s n o t h i n g o f w o r t h i n t h e w ork o f any o f t h e p e o p l e he c a s t i g a t e s i n t h i s a r t i c l e . N o n e t h e l e s s , R o s e n b e r g ' s a c e r b i c w i t makes g o o d r e a d i n g , and h i s p e r s p i c a c i t y h i t s home i n a t l e a s t a few p l a c e s . E s p e c i a l l y w o n d e r f u l i n t h i s a r t i c l e , i f o n l y f o r i t s p i t h y w i t , i s h i s d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e v i r t u o s o o f b o r e d o m . "The v i r t u o s o o f b o r e d o m , " R o s e n b e r g w r i t e s , " i s a n e o - a e s t h e t e who c a r e s f o r n o t h i n g b u t a r t and s t r i v e s f o r a r t t h a t c a n n o t be c a r e d f o r " ( p . 2 9 7 : 1 ) . I n h i s e s s a y "Myth T o d a y , " R o l a n d B a r t h e s w r i t e s : To p a r o d y a w e l l - k n o w n s a y i n g , I s h a l l s a y t h a t a l i t t l e f o r m a l i s m t u r n s one away f r o m H i s t o r y , b u t t h a t a l o t b r i n g s one b a c k t o i t . I s t h e r e a b e t t e r e x a m p l e o f t o t a l c r i t i c i s m t h a n t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f s a i n t l i n e s s , a t o n c e f o r m a l a n d h i s t o r i c a l , s e m i o l o g i c a l and i d e o l o g i c a l , i n S a r t r e ' s Saint-Genet? The d a n g e r , on t h e c o n t r a r y , i s t o c o n s i d e r f o r m s as 73 a m b i g u o u s o b j e c t s , h a l f - f o r m a n d h a l f - s u b s t a n c e , t o endow f o r m w i t h a s u b s t a n c e o f f o r m , a s was done, f o r i n s t a n c e , b y Z h d a n o v i a n r e a l i s m . S e m i o l o g y , o n c e i t s l i m i t s a r e s e t t l e d , i s n o t a m e t a p h y s i c a l t r a p : i t i s a s c i e n c e among o t h e r s , n e c e s s a r y b u t n o t s u f f i c i e n t . The i m p o r t a n t t h i n g i s t o s e e t h a t t h e u n i t y o f an e x p l a n a t i o n c a n n o t be b a s e d on t h e a m p u t a t i o n o f one o r o t h e r o f i t s a p p r o a c h e s , b u t , a s E n g e l s s a i d , on t h e d i a l e c t i c a l c o - o r d i n a t i o h o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r s c i e n c e s i t makes u s e o f . T h i s i s t h e c a s e w i t h m y t h o l o g y : i t i s a p a r t b o t h o f s e m i o l o g y i n a s m u c h a s i t i s a f o r m a l s c i e n c e , a n d o f i d e o l o g y i n a s m u c h a s i t i s an h i s t o r i c a l s c i e n c e : i t s t u d i e s i d e a s - i n - f o r m ("Myth T o d a y , " 1957, i n Mythologies t r a n s . /Annette L a v e r s [New Y o r k : H i l l & Wang], 1972, p.112) . I am b o r r o w i n g t h e l a n g u a g e h e r e f r o m a l e t t e r f r o m S e r g e • G u i l b a u t , J u n e 1989. I w i s h t o a c k n o w l e d g e t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h A l e x A l b e r r o w h i c h t o o k p l a c e t h r o u g h o u t t h e S p r i n g o f 1989 i n a r r i v i n g a t t h i s f o r m u l a t i o n . " I n t e r v i e w w i t h E d w a r d S a i d , " D i a c r i t i c s v o l . 6 , no.3 ( F a l l 1 9 7 6 ) , p p . 3 6 - 3 7 . F o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s h i s t o r y , I c a n n o t recommend t o o h i g h l y C h a r l e s T a y l o r ' s Hegel (New Y o r k : C a m b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ) , 1975, e s p . C h . l "Aims o f a New E p o c h , " p p . 3 - 5 0 , a n d Ch.20 " H e g e l T o d a y , " p p . 5 3 7 - 5 7 1 . The c l a s s i c d i s c u s s i o n by H e g e l on t h i s i s h i s P r e f a c e t o The Phenomenology of Mind (1807) J . B . B a i l i e , t r a n s . (San F r a n c i s c o : H a r p e r ) , 1967, p p . 6 7 - 1 3 0 . F r i e d r i c h N i e t z s c h e The Geneology of Morals: An Attack, 1887, t r a n s . F r a n c i s G o l f f i n g (New Y o r k : D o u b l e d a y ) , 1956, p p . 2 0 2 -3.. The a n t i - b o u r g e o i s a s p e c t o f N i e t z s c h e ' s t h o u g h t i s c r u c i a l t o h i s work as a w h o l e . As P a u l T i l l i c h w r i t e s , " I t i s i n d e e d i m p o s s i b l e t o n e g l e c t t h i s e l e m e n t ( o f t h e c r i t i c i s m o f b o u r g e o i s s o c i e t y ) i n N i e t z s c h e ' s w o r k ; e x p l i c i t l y o r i m p l i c i t l y i t p e r m e a t e s e v e r y p a r t . E v e n h i s s e n s e o f b e i n g " o u t o f s e a s o n " (unzeitgemass) i s p r i m a r i l y a way o f e x p r e s s i n g h i s n e g a t i o n o f his own t i m e " ( " N i e t z s c h e a n d t h e B o u r g e o i s S p i r i t , " Journal of the History of Ideas v o l . 6 no.3 [ J u n e 1 9 4 5 ] , p . 3 0 7 ) . Max H o r k h e i m e r & T h e o d o r A d o r n o D i a l e c t i c of Enlightenment, 1944, t r a n s . J o h n Cumming (New Y o r k : C o n t i n u u m ) , 1972, p . 1 8 9 . R o l a n d B a r t h e s "Myth T o d a y , " i n Mythologies, 1957, t r a n s . A n n e t t e L a v e r s ( G r a n a d a : T o r o n t o ) , 1972, p p . 1 4 8 - 9 . W h i c h i s n o t t o s a y t h a t B a r t h e s a r g u e s t h a t m y t h i s n o t "on t h e L e f t . " A f t e r a r g u i n g t h a t t h e l a n g u a g e o f man as p r o d u c e r , as transformer, i s n o n - m y t h i c a l , a n d t h a t t h e r e f o r e r e v o l u t i o n a r y l a n g u a g e p r o p e r c a n n o t be m y t h i c a l , B a r t h e s g o e s on t o a d d r e s s t h e q u e s t i o n o f m y t h on t h e L e f t : I h a v e b e e n a s k e d w h e t h e r t h e r e a r e m y t h s "on t h e l e f t . " Of c o u r s e , i n a s m u c h , p r e c i s e l y , as t h e L e f t i s n o t r e v o l u t i o n . 74 L e f t - w i n g myth supervenes p r e c i s e l y at the moment when r e v o l u t i o n changes i t s e l f i n t o *the L e f t , ' t h a t i s , when i t accepts t o wear a mask, t o hide i t s name, to generate an innocent metalanguage and to d i s t o r t i t s e l f i n t o "Nature" ( ) Yes, myth e x i s t s on the L e f t , but i t does not at a l l have t h e r e the same q u a l i t i e s as bourgeois myth. Left-wing myth i s i n e s s e n t i a l . To s t a r t with, the o b j e c t s which i t takes h o l d of are r a r e only a few p o l i t i c a l n o t i o n s u n l e s s i t has i t s e l f r ecourse to the whole r e p e r t o i r e of the bourgeois myths. L e f t - w i n g myth never reaches the immense f i e l d of human r e l a t i o n s h i p s , the very vast s u r f a c e of " i n s i g n i f i c a n t " i d e o l o g y . Everyday l i f e i s i n a c c e s s i b l e t o i t : i n a bourgeois s o c i e t y , t h e r e are no "Left-wing" myths co n c e r n i n g marriage, cooking, the home, the t h e a t r e , the law, m o r a l i t y , e t c . Then, i t i s an i n c i d e n t a l myth, i t s use i s not p a r t of a s t r a t e g y , ...as i s the case with bourgeois myth, but only of a t a c t i c s , or at the worst, of a d e v i a t i o n ; i f i t occurs, i t i s as a myth s u i t e d t o a convenience, not to a n e c e s s i t y " ( p p . 1 4 6 - 7 ) . 1 4 " I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o speak of a p o l i t i c s of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n without a working n o t i o n of i d e o l o g y as l a r g e r than the concepts of i n d i v i d u a l consciousness and w i l l . At i t s broadest i m p l i c a t i o n s t h i s n o t i o n of i d e o l o g y would undo the o p p o s i t i o n s between determinism and f r e e w i l l and between conscious c h o i c e and unconscious r e f l e x . Ideology i n a c t i o n i s what a group takes to be n a t u r a l and s e l f - e v i d e n t , t h a t of which the group, as a group, must deny any h i s t o r i c a l s e d i m e n t a t i o n . It i s both the c o n d i t i o n and the e f f e c t of the c o n s t i t u t i o n of the s u b j e c t (of ideology) as f r e e l y w i l l i n g and c o n s c i o u s l y choosing i n a world t h a t i s seen as background. In t u r n , the s u b j e c t ( s ) of i d e o l o g y are the c o n d i t i o n s and the e f f e c t s of the s e l f - i d e n t i t y of the group as a group. I t i s i m p o s s i b l e , of course, t o mark o f f a group as an e n t i t y without s h a r i n g c o m p l i c i t y with i t s i d e o l o g i c a l d e f i n i t i o n . A p e r s i s t e n t c r i t i q u e of i d e o l o g y i s thus f o r e v e r incomplete. In the s h i f t i n g spectrum between s u b j e c t -c o n s t i t u t i o n and g r o u p - c o n s t i t u t i o n are the i d e o l o g i c a l apparatuses t h a t share the c o n d i t i o n / e f f e c t o s c i l l a t i o n " ( G a y a t r i Chakravorty Spivak "The P o l i t i c s of I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , " 1982, rep. i n In Other Worlds: Essays in Cultural P o l i t i c s [New York: Routledge], p.118). 15 For a d i s c u s s i o n of N i e t z s c h e ' s s h i f t from a d u a l i s t t o a monist c o n c e p t i o n of psychology, see Walter Kaufmann Nietzsche: Philosopher, Psychologist, A n t i c h r i s t 4th ed. ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ) , 1974, esp. pp.178-333. 16 F r i e d r i c h N i e t z s c h e Beyond Good and E v i l : Prelude to a Philosophy of the Future t r a n s . R . H o l l i n g d a l e (Markham,-Ont.: Penguin), 1973, pp.141-142. I"7 The language here suggests a p a r a l l e l between N i e t z s c h e ' s view of s e l f - o v e r c o m i n g i n Beyond Good and E v i l and Clement Greenberg's view of Modernism i n h i s 1960 essay "Modernist P a i n t i n g . " / T h i s p e r s i s t a n t o v e r l a p i s one of the o b s t a c l e s i n 75 s e p a r a t i n g out c r i t i c a l modernism and f o r m a l i s t modernism, an o b s t a c l e which I address below. In f a c t , Greenberg's view of Modernism as s e l f - c r i t i c i s m and N i e t z s c h e ' s view of s e l f -overcoming are d i a m e t r i c a l l y opposed s i n c e Greenberg's i d e a of s e l f - c r i t i c i s m i s founded upon the very view of K a n t i a n a b s o l u t i s m t h a t i s one of the primary t a r g e t s of N i e t z s c h e ' s d i a l e c t i c a l g e n e o l o g i e s . In The Geneology of Morals, the companion volume t o Beyond Good and Evil, N i e t z s c h e w r i t e s : Let us, from now on, be on our guard a g a i n s t the hallowed p h i l o s o p h e r s ' myth of a "pure, w i l l - l e s s , p a i n l e s s , t i m e l e s s knower"; l e t us beware of the t e n t a c l e s of such c o n t r a d i c t o r y n o t i o n s as "pure reason," "absolute knowledge," " a b s o l u t e i n t e l l i g e n c e . " A l l these concepts presupposes an eye such as no l i v i n g b e i n g can imagine, an eye r e q u i r e d t o have no d i r e c t i o n , t o abrogate i t s a c t i v e and i n t e r p r e t a t i v e powers -— p r e c i s e l y those powers t h a t alone make of seeing, s e e i n g -something. A l l s e e i n g i s e s s e n t i a l l y p e r s p e c t i v e , and so i s a l l knowing ( F r i e d r i c h N i e t z s c h e The Geneology of Morals: An Attack, 1887, t r a n s . F r a n c i s G o l f f i n g [New York: Doubleday], 1956, p.255.). F r i e d r i c h N i e t s z c h e The Geneology of Morals: An Attack, 1887, t r a n s . F. G o l f f i n g (New York: Doubleday), 1956, p.149. N i e t z s c h e The Geneology of Morals, 1887, p.149. Walter Kaufmann Nietzsche: Philosopher, Psychologist, Anti-Christ 4th ed. ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ) , 1974, p.82. Not c o i n c i d e n t a l l y , G.C.Spivak, i n many of the essays c o l l e c t e d i n her recent book In Other Worlds: Essays in Cultural Politics ([New York: Routledge], 1988), r a i l s a g a i n s t such w i l l f u l m i s c o n s t r u i n g s of the idea of d e c o n s t r u c t i o n . Of p a r t i c u l a r note i n t h i s r e g a r d i s " F i n d i n g F e m i n i s t Readings: Dante-Yeats," w r i t t e n by Spivak i n 1980, and r e p r i n t e d pp.15-29 of Spivak's book. Edward S a i d Orientalism (New York: Random House), 1978, pp.93-94. 76 Monologue Clement Greenberg "Towards A Newer Laocoon" Partisan Review v o l . v i i , no.4 (July-August 1940), p.305. "The o n t o l o g i c a l cleavage of i d e a l from m a t e r i a l v a l u e s t r a n q u i l i z e s i d e a l i s m i n a l l t h a t regards the m a t e r i a l p r o c e s s e s of l i f e . In i d e a l i s m , a s p e c i f i c h i s t o r i c a l form of the d i v i s i o n of labour and of s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n t akes on the e t e r n a l , m etaphysical form of the r e l a t i o n s h i p of n e c e s s i t y and beauty, of matter and Idea" (Herbert Marcuse "The A f f i r m a t i v e C haracter of C u l t u r e , " 1937, rep. i n Negations: Essays in Critical Theory t r a n s . Jeremy Shapiro [Toronto: Saunders], 1968, p.93). Raymond W i l l i a m s s u c c i n c t l y e x p l a i n s the importance of t h i s i n r e l a t i o n t o the development of c r i t i q u e : " ( I ) n many areas of s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l thought... i n a l l t h a t k i n d of s o c i a l apparatus, and i n a d e c i s i v e area of p o l i t i c a l and i d e o l o g i c a l a c t i v i t y and c o n s t r u c t i o n , i f we f a i l t o see a s u p e r s t r u c t u r a l element we f a i l t o r e c o g n i z e r e a l i t y at a l l . These laws, c o n s t i t u t i o n s , t h e o r i e s , i d e o l o g i e s , which are claimed as n a t u r a l , or as having u n i v e r s a l v a l i d i t y or s i g n i f i c a n c e , simply have to be seen as e x p r e s s i n g and r a t i f y i n g the domination of a p a r t i c u l a r c l a s s . . . i f these institutions and their ideologies are not perceived as having that kind of dependant and ratifying relationship, if their claims to universal validity or legitimacy are not denied and fought, then the class charcter of the society can no longer be seen" ("Base and S u p e r s t r u c t u r e i n M a r x i s t C u l t u r a l Theory" New Left Review no.82 [Nov. Dec. 1973], pp.7-8, emphasis mine). Clement Greenberg "Modernist P a i n t i n g " (1960) rep. i n Modern Art and Modernism ed. F r a n c i s F r a s c i n a and C h a r l e s H a r r i s o n (San F r a n c i s c o : Harper & Row), 1982, pp.5-11. Jean B a u d r i l l a r d , "Sign F u n c t i o n and C l a s s L o g i c , " 1969, rep. i n For a Critique of the Political Economy of the Sign, 1972, t r a n s . C h a r l e s L e v i n (St. L o u i s : T e l o s ) , 1981, p.58. I would l i k e at t h i s j u n c t u r e t o i n t r o d u c e what I b e l i e v e to be an important d i f f e r e n c e t h a t I h o l d with B a u d r i l l a r d . In For a Critique of the Political Economy of the Sign, Jean B a u d r i l l a r d argues t h a t Marx u l t i m a t e l y l o c a t e s a b s o l u t e value i n the u t i l i t y of a commodity,- and hence c o n t r a d i c t s h i s own H e g e l i a n conception of the c y c l e of exchange. T h i s argument p r o v i d e s the p l a t f o r m from which B a u d r i l l a r d launches i n t o the crux of h i s argument, a d i s c u s s i o n of the c o n s t r u c t i o n of needs and d e s i r e s w i t h i n the system of c i r c u l a t i o n . B a u d r i l l a r d argues r i g h t l y , I t h i n k f o r a model i n which the very o b j e c t s which are exchanged are bound up i n the system i t s e l f . Hence, the c a p i t a l i s t system of exchange generates and d e l i m i t s the terms which can c i r c u l a t e w i t h i n i t , j u s t as the terms generate and d e l i m i t the nature of the system of exchange. Hence, needs and d e s i r e s are generated and d e l i m i t e d by the system i t s e l f . However, I t h i n k t h a t i n a v e r i n g t h i s , B a u d r i l l a r d i s much c l o s e r to Marx than he b e l i e v e s . B a u d r i l l a r d w r i t e s : U t i l i t y , needs, use v a l u e : none of t h i s ever comes t o g r i p s 77 w i t h the f i n a l i t y of a s u b j e c t up a g a i n s t h i s ambivalent o b j e c t r e l a t i o n s , or with symbolic exchange between s u b j e c t s . Rather, i t d e s c r i b e s the r e l a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l t o h i m s e l f c o n c e i v e d i n economic terms b e t t e r s t i l l , the r e l a t i o n of the s u b j e c t t o the economic system. Far from the i n d i v i d u a l e x p r e s s i n g h i s needs i n the economic system, i t i s the economic system t h a t induces the i n d i v i d u a l f u n c t i o n and the p a r a l l e l f u n c t i o n a l i t y of o b j e c t s and needs. The i n d i v i d u a l i s an i d e o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e , a h i s t o r i c a l form c o r r e l a t i v e with the commodity form (exchange v a l u e ) , and the o b j e c t form (use v a l u e ) . The i n d i v i d u a l i s n o t h i n g but the s u b j e c t thought i n economic terms, rethought, s i m p l i f i e d , and a b s t r a c t e d by the economy. The e n t i r e h i s t o r y of consciousness and e t h i c s ( a l l the c a t e g o r i e s of o c c i d e n t a l psycho-metaphysics) i s only the h i s t o r y of the p o l i t i c a l economy of the s u b j e c t (For a Critique of the Political -Economy of the Sign, 1972, t r a n s . C h a r l e s L e v i n [ S t . L o u i s : T e l o s ] , 1981, p.133).. Aware t h a t t h e r e are c u l t u r a l i s t readings of Marx i n c i r c u l a t i o n , B a u d r i l l a r d attempts to e x p l a i n away the c o n f l i c t by p u t t i n g i t down to a l a c k of c l a r i t y i n Marx's w r i t i n g . B a u d r i l l a r d notes: It should be p o i n t e d out t h a t Marx's f o r m u l a t i o n s i n t h i s domain (and the anthropology t h a t they imply) are so vague as t o permit c u l t u r a l i s t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the type:"Needs are f u n c t i o n s of the h i s t o r i c a l and s o c i a l c o n t e x t . " Or i n i t s more r a d i c a l version:"Needs are produced by the system i n order to assure i t s own expanded r e p r o d u c t i o n " t h a t i s , the s o r t of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t h a t takes i n t o account only the m u l t i p l e content of needs, without s u b m i t t i n g the concept of need i t s e l f and the system of needs as form t o a r a d i c a l c r i t i q u e (For a Critique of the Political Economy of the Sign p.13 6, f n 5 ) . And C h a r l e s L e v i n , B a u d r i l l a r d ' s t r a n s l a t o r , adds:"As i n Marx's Gru n d r i s s e , p.527, where both the " c u l t u r a l i s t " and the "more r a d i c a l " p o s i t i o n s are mixed" (For a Critique of the Political Economy of the Sign, p.136, f n 5 ) . However, I do not f e e l t h a t t h i s are accurate c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s of Marx's view, though I t h i n k t h a t e x p l a n a t i o n s can be o f f e r e d f o r the c o n f u s i o n . Most important of these i s the argument t h a t t h e r e are p o i n t s where Marx i s r a t h e r u n c l e a r , and some of these occur i n c r u c i a l p l a c e s . Indeed, i n the second paragraph of volume 1 of Capital, Marx seems to announce h i s i n t e n t i o n to dispense with any d i s c u s s i o n of needs: A commodity i s , i n the f i r s t p l a c e , an o b j e c t o u t s i d e us, a t h i n g t h a t by i t s p r o p e r t i e s s a t i s f i e s human wants of some s o r t or another. The nature of such wants, whether, f o r i n s t a n c e , they s p r i n g from the stomach or from fancy, makes no d i f f e r e n c e . N e i t h e r are we here concerned to know how the o b j e c t s a t i s i f e s these wants, whether d i r e c t l y as means of s u b s i s t e n c e , or. i n d i r e c t l y as means of p r o d u c t i o n ( K a r l Marx Capital: A Critique of Political Economy, Vol.1, 1867, Samuel Moore and Edward A v e l i n g , t r a n s . ; F r e d e r i c k Engels, ed. [Moscow: Progress P r e s s ] , 1954, p.43). I t appears, t h a t Marx i s s a y i n g t h a t the nature of the r e l a t i o n between commodities and human wants i s s e l f - e v i d e n t . However, what he i s a c t u a l l y saying, as becomes c l e a r from r e a d i n g the 78 r e s t of Capital, v o l . 1 , i s t h a t he i s l e a v i n g t h a t q u e s t i o n to one s i d e . And had B a u d r i l l a r d and L e v i n been more d i l i g e n t i n t h e i r readings of t h i s volume, they would have noted t h a t Marx does mention the s o c i a l nature of needs i n t h a t very volume, a l b e i t not i n a p a r t i c u l a r l y complex way: I f the owner of labour-power works today, to-morrow he must again be able t o repeat the same process i n the same c o n d i t i o n s as regards h e a l t h and s t r e n g t h . His means of s u b s i s t e n c e must t h e r e f o r e be s u f f i c i e n t t o m a i n t a i n him i n h i s normal s t a t e as a l a b o u r i n g i n d i v i d u a l . H i s n a t u r a l wants, such as food, c l o t h i n g , f u e l and housing, vary a c c o r d i n g t o the c l i m a t i c and other p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s of h i s country. On the other hand, the number and extent of h i s s o - c a l l e d necessary wants, as a l s o the modes of s a t i s f y i n g them, are themselves the product of h i s t o r i c a l development, and depend t h e r e f o r e t o a great extent on the degree of c i v i l i z a t i o n of a .country, more p a r t i c u l a r l y on the c o n d i t i o n s under which, and consequently on the h a b i t s and degree of comfort i n which, the c l a s s of f r e e l a b o u r e r s has been formed (Capital, vol.1, p.168) . Other, more complex, d i s c u s s i o n s of the problem of the h i s t o r i c a l c h a r a c t e r of exchange under c a p i t a l i s t p r o d u c t i o n appear i n Marx's " I n t r o d u c t i o n t o A C o n t r i b u t i o n t o the C r i t i q u e of P o l i t i c a l Economy," (1857, appended t o A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy, 1859, S.W.Ryazanskaya, t r a n s . ; Maurice Dobbs, ed. [Moscow: Progress P r e s s ] , 1970, pp.188-217); and i n the fragment which Engels g i v e s the t i t l e "The T r i n i t y Formula," (Capital, vol.3, 1894, F r e d e r i c k Engels, ed.; Progress Press, t r a n s . [Moscow: Progress P r e s s ] , 1959, pp. 814-831..) . The f a c t t h a t B a u d r i l l a r d . o v e r s t a t e s h i s d i f f e r e n c e with Marx does not, however, i n v a l i d a t e B a u d r i l l a r d ' s d i s c u s s i o n of value which i s , I t h i n k , q u i t e s t r o n g . That i s , I t h i n k t h a t For a Critique of the Political Economy of the Sign i s l e s s a r e f u t a t i o n of Marx than i t i s a f l e s h i n g out, with r e f e r e n c e to contemporary (i.e.:1960s) s o c i e t y , of c e r t a i n ideas which Marx touched on. There are d i f f e r e n c e s between Marx i n , say, Capital, and B a u d r i l l a r d i n For a Critique of the Political Economy of the Sign, but they l i e elsewhere ( f o r example, i n the disagreement t h a t B a u d r i l l a r d expresses i n the l a s t t h r e e chapters of For a Critique of the Political Economy of the Sign with the s o r t of s y n d i c a l i s m t h a t Marx argues f o r i n the c l o s i n g chapters of Capital vol.1). Jean B a u d r i l l a r d , "Sign F u n c t i o n and C l a s s L o g i c , " 1969, rep. i n . For a Critique of the Political Economy of the Sign, 1972, t r a n s . C h a r l e s L e v i n ( S t . L o u i s : T e l o s ) , 1981, p.48. My r e l u c t a n c e at r e l y i n g on a n t h o l o g i z e d fragments t o c o n s t r u c t an argument keeps me from u s i n g Jacques Mourrain's t r a n s l a t i o n of s e c t i o n s of B a u d r i l l a r d ' s La Societe de consommation (1970) i n the body of my t h e s i s . Nonetheless, I t h i n k i t i s worth drawing a t t e n t i o n to B a u d r i l l a r d ' s s u c c i n c t l y s t a t e d s o c i o l o g i c a l h y p othesis on t h i s p o i n t as i t appears i n Mourrain's t r a n s l a t i o n of t h i s l a t e r work: In view of the repeated and naive c o n f u s i o n one f i n d s when fa c e d with the c o n t i n u a l forward f l i g h t and u n l i m i t e d renewal of needs --- which i n f a c t i s i r r e c o n c i l a b l e with a 79 r a t i o n a l i s t t h e o r y c l a i m i n g t h a t a s a t i s f i e d need porudces a s t a t e of e q u i l i b r i u m and a r e s o l u t i o n of t e n s i o n s we can advance the f o l l o w i n g s o c i o l o g i c a l h y p o t h e s i s (although i t would be i n t e r e s t i n g and e s s e n t i a l t o a r t i c u l a t e both d e s i r e and the s o c i a l ) : i f we acknowledge t h a t a need i s not a need f o r a p a r t i c u l a r o b j e c t as much as i t i s a "need" f o r d i f f e r e n c e (the desire for s o c i a l meaning), only then w i l l we understand t h a t s a t i s f a c t i o n can nevet be f u l f i l l e d , and consequently t h a t t h e r e can never be a d e f i n i t i o n of needs (Consumer Society, 1970, t r a n s . Jacques Mourrain, i n Selected Writings, Mark Post e r , e d . [ S t a n f o r d : S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y ] , 1988, p.45). Edward W. S a i d " S e c u l a r C r i t i c i s m , " i n The World, the Text, and the C r i t i c (Cambridge, Mass.:Harvard), 1983, p.9. On t h i s , see Serge G u i l b a u t How New York Stole the Idea of Modern Art: Abstract Expressionism, Freedom and the Cold War (Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago), 1983. John 0 ' B r i a n Clement Greenberg: Bibliography of the Collected Essays and C r i t i c i s m , 1950-1973 (unpublished), 1986, p.10. Clement Greenberg "Modernist P a i n t i n g , " 1960, rep. i n Arts Yearbook vol.4 H i l t o n Kramer, ed. (New York: A r t s D i g e s t ) , 1961, p.103:1. Greenberg i s on common ground with Adorno i n p r o p o s i n g a model of a e s t h e t i c autonomy. However, an important d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e i r p o s i t i o n s a r i s e s over the q u e s t i o n of t e l e o l o g i c a l c o n ceptions of h i s t o r y . As Tom Crow w r i t e s : ( I ) f both (Adorno and Greenberg) begin from a d e r i v a t i o n of modernism i n the p e r v a s i v e c o n d i t i o n s of m a s s - c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n , Adorno p a r t s company from Greenberg's k i n d of a n a l y s i s by keeping the l a r g e r c u l t u r a l landscape i n view, by a c c o r d i n g i t equal s t a t u s as an o b j e c t of i n q u i r y . Greenberg, by t a k i n g up the s u b j e c t of k i t s c h only at the outset and then b r a c k e t i n g i t o f f , t a c i t l y r e - e s t a b l i s h e d the o l d o p p o s i t i o n between a h i g h c u l t u r e with a l l the v i r t u e s and a b e r e f t , impoverished low c u l t u r e . His i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t modernist a r t , apart from i t s r e d u c t i o n i n scope, i s otherwise u n a f f e c t e d by i t s o r i g i n s i n the l a t e - c a p i t a l i s t c r u c i b l e : the l i n e of ' c u l t u r e , ' from past to p r e s e n t i s , thanks t o modernism, unbroken and h i g h a r t i s not i m p l i c a t e d i n a c o n t i n u i n g way with the g e n e r a l c u l t u r e i t evades. Adorno i s under no such i l l u s i o n (Tom Crow "Modernism and Mass C u l t u r e i n the V i s u a l A r t s , " i n Modernism and Modernity: the. Vancouver Conference Papers B.Buchloh, S.Guilbaut, and D . S o l k i n , eds. [Halifax:NSCAD], 1983, p.261). For example, i n 1981 Greenberg says,"I d i d n ' t r e p r i n t the 'New Laocoon' because i t was misunderstood...to mean t h a t I saw p u r i t y as a value myself. I was d e s c r i b i n g something. And t h a t subsequently i n another p i e c e I wrote ("Modernist P a i n t i n g " ) I was d e s c r i b i n g something, not s u b s c r i b i n g to i t " ("Discussion a f t e r T . J . C l a r k , " Modernism and Modernity: the 80 Vancouver Conference Papers B.Buchloh, S . G u i l b a u t , and D . S o l k i n , eds. [Halifax:NSCAD], 1983, p.190). Clement Greenberg " A f t e r A b s t r a c t E x p r e s s i o n i s m , " A r t International v o l . 8 (October 25, 1962), p.30. L a u r i e Monahan The New Frontier Goes to Venice: Robert Rauschenberg and the XXXII Venice Biennale M.A.Thesis ( U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia), 1985, pp.47-8. In an accompanying note, Monahan makes the i n t e r e s t i n g o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t " (Greeberg's) essays, once c o n s o l i d a t e d i n (Art and Culture) l o s t much of t h e i r ' r e s i l i e n c y , ' t a k i n g on an imposing permanence which made many c r i t i c s . u n c o m f o r t a b l e " (Monahan, p.75, n . 23 ) . Judd notes,"I'm u s i n g a c t u a l space because when I was doing ....paintings I couldn't see any way out of having a c e r t a i n amount of i l l u s i o n i s m i n the p a i n t i n g s . I thought t h a t a l s o was a q u a l i t y of the Western t r a d i t i o n and I d i d n ' t want i t " (Bruce G l a s e r "Questions to S t e l l a and Judd" [1964], rep. i n Minimal Art: a c r i t i c a l anthology Gregory Battcock, ed. [Vancouver: C l a r k e , Irwin & Co.], 1968, p.155. Donald Judd " S p e c i f i c O b j e c t s , " 1965, rep. i n Complete Writings 1959-1975 (Halifax:NSCAD), 1975, pp.181-189. I w i l l pay more a t t e n t i o n t o Judd's essays here, at the expense of a t t e n d i n g t o h i s reviews. The reason i s simply t h a t I f i n d h i s p o s i t i o n t o be more c o h e r e n t l y s t a t e d i n h i s essays, s i n c e Judd i s e s p e c i a l l y obtuse i n h i s reviews. E v i d e n t l y e i t h e r Judd or h i s e d i t o r s or both f e e l t h a t " S p e c i f i c O b j e c t s , " which I r e l y on h e a v i l y , i s one of the most important of Judd's essays, s i n c e i t i s r e p r i n t e d i n Complete Writings 1969-1975: Gallery Reviews, Letters to the Editor, Reports, Statements, Complaints (Halifax:NSCAD), 1975, pp.181-9, as w e l l as being appended t o Judd's Complete Writings 1975-1986 (Eindhoven: van Abbemuseum), 1987, pp.115-124. Donald Judd " S p e c i f i c O b j e c t s , " 1965, rep. i n Complete Writings 1959-1975 (Halifax:NSCAD), 1975, p.184:2. Donald Judd "Statement," i n Primary Structures: Younger American and B r i t i s h Sculptors (New York: Jewish Museum), 1966, p.18. Donald Judd " S p e c i f i c O b j e c t s , " 1965, rep. i n Complete Writings 1959-1975 (Halifax:NSCAD), 1975, pp.184,187. A formal a n a l y s i s of some of Judd's work from the e a r l y 1950s through to the f i r s t h a l f of the 1960s i s u s e f u l i n understanding the l o g i c of Judd's a e s t h e t i c s . Judd's e a r l i e s t works were very c o n v e n t i o n a l f i g u r a t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s . For example, Bosa A.M., 1952 (fi g . 7 ) i s an unremarkable image of a naked young man, s i t t i n g i n a c h a i r , h i s head propped up i n h i s hand. Although the brushwork i s f a i r l y heavy, the p a i n t i n g does l i t t l e e l s e t o suggest any attempt at, or concern with, f l a t t e n i n g out the p i c t o r i a l space, and the use 81 of o r t hogonals t o r e p r e s e n t planes r e c e d i n g I n t o space suggests a f a i r l y c o n v e n t i o n a l c o n c e p t i o n of i l l u s i o n i s t i c space, the orthogonals d e l i m i t i n g a box which recedes i n t o the p i c t u r e plane at a s l i g h t angle. However, p a i n t i n g s executed by Judd s h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r show a very d i f f e r e n t engagment with p i c t o r i a l space. For example, Judd's u n t i t l e d p a i n t i n g from 1955 (fig . 8 ) c o n s i s t s of a s e r i e s of p l a n e s and marks, more or l e s s a b s t r a c t . In s p i t e of t h e i r a b s t r a c t n e s s , the shapes of the planes and marks, as w e l l as the ways i n which they i n t e r f e r e with each other, g i v e the p i c t u r e a s t r o n g sense of depth. The dark, r e c t a n g u l a r form which moves d i a g o n a l l y toward the c e n t r e from the bottom r i g h t hand corner i s very much i n the foreground, j u s t as the dark, p a i n t e r l y mass which occupies the middle of the p a i n t i n g i s very much i n the background. A much more s u c c e s s f u l l y f l a t p a i n t i n g i s Judd's u n t i t l e d p a i n t i n g from 1960 ( f i g . 9 ) . Here, the image i s f o u r t h i n l i n e s c u r v i n g d i a g o n a l l y a c r o s s a s l i g h t l y darker f i e l d . Yet, i n the terms of 1950s f o r m a l i s t a e s t h e t i c s , the p a i n t i n g i s not an u n q u a l i f i e d s u c c e s s . In s p i t e of the s i m p l i c i t y of forms, Judd, seems unable t o f l a t t e n the p a i n t i n g out. An unmistakable sense of depth remains. Sidney T i l l i m w r i t e s i n a 1964 t h a t "only two-d i m e n s i o n a l i t y i s s p a t i a l l y c o n s i s t e n t with a b s t r a c t mass" (Sidney T i l l i m "The New Avant-Garde," A r t s vol.38 no.5 [February . 1964], p.20:1). However, what seems t o be i n d i c a t e d by t h i s p a i n t i n g of Judd's i s t h a t not even a b s t r a c t mass i s two-dimensional. Judd's s o l u t i o n t o t h i s problem was t o engage a c t u a l space. His l o g i c here was t h a t , g i v e n t h a t any work of a r t , no matter how f l a t one attempted t o make i t , would always suggest a sense of i l l u s i o n i s t i c space, the o n l y phenomenologically honest s o r t of a r t p r o d u c t i o n would be one which engaged a c t u a l space and t h e r e f o r e avoided s u g g e s t i n g i l l u s i o n i s t i c space. Hence Judd's disavowal of the d i v i s i o n of a r t work i n t o the c a t e g o r i e s of " p a i n t i n g " and " s c u l p t u r e , " and h i s c o r r e l a t i v e s u g g e s t i o n t h a t the Modernist p r o j e c t be r e d e f i n e d as one p r o j e c t aimed at the p r o d u c t i o n of the d e f i n i t i v e a r t work. T h i s i s what Judd i s g e t t i n g at i n the opening paragraph of " S p e c i f i c O b j e c t s " when he w r i t e s : H a l f or more of the best new work i n the l a s t few years has been n e i t h e r p a i n t i n g nor s c u l p t u r e . U s u a l l y i t has been r e l a t e d , c l o s e l y or d i s t a n t l y , t o one or the other ( " S p e c i f i c O b j e c t s , " 1965, rep. i n Complete Writings 1959-1975, [Halifax:NSCAD], 1975, p.181:2). Judd's e a r l i e s t attempts to s o l v e t h i s problem r e v o l v e d around h i s a f f i l i a t i o n with p a i n t i n g . The attempt took the form of t r y i n g t o overcome p a i n t i n g ' s i n h e r e n t l y i l l u s i o n i s t i c nature by making p a i n t i n g s which d e c l a r e d themselves t o be t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l o b j e c t s . An example of t h i s i s an u n t i t l e d p a i n t i n g done by Judd i n 1961 ( f i g . 1 0 ) . Here, a f a i r l y r e g u l a r f i e l d was l a i d down on a masonite board, and a banal u-shaped m o t i f o r i e n t e d h o r i z o n t a l l y a c r o s s the top h a l f of the f i e l d p r o v i d e s a l i m i t e d amount of v i s u a l i n t e r e s t . T h i s m o t i f c o n t r a s t s with the f i e l d around i t i n two ways, F i r s t , i t i s a dark, c o n s i s t e n t , hard-edged form, which' t h e r e f o r e has a mechanical a e s t h e t i c t h a t the 82 mottled, rough f i e l d around i t does not have. Second, i t i s p h y s i c a l l y c l o s e r t o the s u r f a c e of the masonite than the f i e l d i s . Judd has mixed sand i n with the p a i n t t h a t he used to c o l o u r the f i e l d , as a way of g i v i n g i t a s t r o n g , t e x t u r e d q u a l i t y , thus p r o v i d i n g i t with a sense of b e i n g d e l i b e r a t e l y t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t Judd made a number of s i m i l a r p a i n t i n g s , but sometimes he r e l i e s simply on heavy brushwork t o p r o v i d e the t e x t u r e . I t i s easy t o see why n e i t h e r of these s o l u t i o n s would'provide a c o n s i s t e n t r e a d i n g of the s u r f a c e of the p a i n t i n g as t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l : Greenberg's readings of P o l l o c k ' s s u r f a c e s as f l a t had long s i n c e e s t a b l i s h e d a precedent f o r r e a d i n g impasto, no matter how heavy, as a two-dimensional p i c t u r e . In f a c t , i t was i n 1960 t h a t Greenberg made c l e a r t h a t , f o r him, the " f l a t t e s t " p i c t u r e was not the f l a t t e s t p a i n t i n g . For, one of the t h i n g s he l i k e d so much about the work of M o r r i s L o u i s and Kenneth .-Noland was the f a c t t h a t p h y s i c a l l y , i t was not f l a t , s i n c e the dying technique allowed "the eye to sense the threadedness and woveness of the f a b r i c " ("Louis and Noland," Art International v o l . 4 , no.5 [May 25, 1960], p.28:1). The f l a t t e s t s u r f a c e , i t seems, d i d not make f o r the f l a t t e s t p a i n t i n g . Therefore, some s o r t of o s t e n s i v e g e s t u r e was r e q u i r e d t o c a l l a t t e n t i o n t o the i n t e n t t o make the s u r f a c e of the p a i n t i n g t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l . T h i s was the f u n c t i o n of the sand which Judd mixed i n with the p a i n t t h a t he used f o r t h e . f i e l d of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p a i n t i n g . E v i d e n t l y , Judd found t h i s manner of working u n s a t i s f y i n g , as he produced these s o r t s of t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l o b j e c t s f o r a b r i e f p e r i o d , and then abandoned them i n favour of o b j e c t s which are more unambiguously t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l . I t seems c l e a r t h a t Judd's e a r l i e s t p i e c e s of t h i s more unambiguously t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l type are only moderately s u c c e s s f u l i n h i s terms. For example, Untitled 1963 ( f i g . 5 ) , which was i n c l u d e d i n a show at the Green G a l l e r y i n the w i n t e r of 1963-1964, i s c l e a r l y an attempt at producing a simple form, but i t i s an attempt which f a i l s . As Gene Swenson wrote at the time: (T)hese works are n e i t h e r lean nor i n t e l l e c t u a l enough to look as demandingly simple as they should. One c o n s t r u c t i o n i s l i k e a s l i c e o f f the bottom of a huge cube, with h a l f of a second s l i c e ( d i v i d e d along a diagonal) f i t t e d on top of the f i r s t ; where the scond was " c u t , " the red i s r e p l a c e d by shiny dark p u r p l e p l a s t i c . Seen from d i f f e r e n t angles, i t appears t o change from a more to l e s s " a b s o l u t e l y simple" shape. I t never seems t o e x i s t as pure f a c t (what i t i s i n complete s i m p l i c i t y ) nor as an i l l u s i o n (more or l e s s than what i t i s ) which i s a l o g i c a l i f not a v i s u a l paradox. Indeed, my disappointment i s t h a t the v i s u a l paradox i s so weak (G[ene] R. S[weneson] "Reviews and previews," Artnews vol.62 no.10 [February 1964], p.20:1. Sidney T i l l i m ' s response to t h i s show i s s i m i l a r l y dubious i n h i s a r t i c l e "The New Avant-Garde" A r t s vol.38 no.5 [February 1964],"esp. pp.20-21). C h a r l e s T a y l o r Hegel, (New York: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ) , 1975, p.81. 83 2 1 Clement Greenberg "Louis and Noland" A r t International vol.4 nol.5 (May 25, 1960), p.28:1. 2 2 "Homage to the Square" A r t in America vol.55 no.4 (July-Aug 1967), p.50. 2 3 M a r t i n Friedman "The N a r t - A r t of Donald Judd, " A r t «£ A r t i s t s v o l . 1 n o . l l (February 1967), pp.59, 60. 2 4 See Douglas Crimp "Serra's P u b l i c S c u l p t u r e : R e d e f i n i n g S i t e S p e c i f i c i t y " i n Richard Serra Sculpture (New York: Museum of Modern A r t ) , 1986, p.43:1. 2 ^ Donald Judd " S p e c i f i c O b j e c t s , " 1965, rep. i n Complete Writings 1959-1975 ( H a l i f a x : NSCAD P r e s s ) , 1975, p.184:2. 2 6 ^ b o n a l d Judd " S p e c i f i c O b j e c t s , " 1965, rep. i n Complete Writings 1959-1975 ( H a l i f a x : NSCAD P r e s s ) , 1975, p.184:1. 2 7 Judd " S p e c i f i c O b j e c t s , " 1965, rep. i n Complete Writings, p.183-4. 2 ^ Greenberg "Anthony Caro," rep. i n Studio International vol.174 no.892 (Sept.1967), p.116:2. 2 9 Donald Judd "Statement," i n Primary Structures: Younger American and B r i t i s h Sculptors (New York: Jewish Museum), 1966, p.18. 30 Douglas Crimp "Serra's P u b l i c S c u l p t u r e : R e d e f i n i n g S i t e S p e c i f i c i t y " i n Richard Serra Sculpture (New York: Museum of Modern A r t ) , 1986, p.43:2. 3! Clement Greenberg "Recentness of S c u l p t u r e " i n American Art of the S i x t i e s Maurica Tuchman, ed. (Los Angeles: L.A. County Museum of A r t ) , 1967, p.26. T h i s a r t i c l e was p r i n t e d more or l e s s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i n A r t International vol.11 Apr. 20, 1967, pp.19-21. While I do not wish t o d i s p u t e the accuracy of Greenberg's o p i n i o n on t h i s score, i t does seem t h a t Greenberg's own t a s t e at t h i s time ( i . e . : the t i d y p i e c e s by Noland, L o u i s , and Caro) tends t o have the same weakness. Both Greenberg, here, and Douglas Crimp i n the quote immediately above, are concerned with the i s s u e of commodification. That i s , they are concerned with the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the p r e s s u r e of f o r c e s e x t e r n a l , or extraneous, t o the concerns of a r t w i l l or are a c t i n g on a r t p r o d u c t i o n , t o the detriment of t h a t a r t . However, what i s at stake f o r these two w r i t e r s i n the i s s u e of commodification i s somewhat d i f f e r e n t . Greenberg i s concerned t h a t t h i s p r e s s u r e , "the c o n t i n u i n g i n f i l t r a t i o n of Good Design, ",. i s e n t i c i n g a r t i s t s t o d e l i b e r a t e l y t u r n away, from the modernist p r o j e c t and produce work t h a t i s immediately a c c e p t a b l e by the p u b l i c at l a r g e , r a t h e r than work t h a t i s advanced, and t h e r e f o r e d i f f i c u l t f o r a l l but a few s o p h i s t i c a t e d i n t e l l e c t s t o understand and accept. Crimp, on the other hand, i s concerned with the d i f f i c u l t y of f o r m u l a t i n g a c r i t i q u e of the c a p i t a l i s t form of c i r c u l a t i o n w i t h i n 84 c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y . I m p l i c i t i n h i s p o s i t i o n i s the view t h a t , as Murray Bbokchin w r i t e s , " c a p i t a l i s m , f a r from fragmenting and c o l l a p s i n g under hammer blows from ' w i t h i n ' i t s e l f , appears t o be expanding, extending i t s l f over the e n t i r e p l a n e t , and what i s even more c h a l l e n g i n g , d e v e l o p i n g technology on a s c a l e unprecedented even i n i t s own h i s t o r y " (The Limits of the City (Montreal: Black Rose) 1986, p.16). B r i e f l y s t a t e d , the d i f f e r e n c e between Greenberg's f e a r of commodification and Crimp's f e a r of commodification i s t h i s : Greenberg f e a r s t h a t commodification i s c a u s i n g modernist a e s t h e t i c s , which he argues should be autonomous from a l l other concerns, t o l o s e t h a t aspect of autonomy as a r t i s t s lower t h e i r s i g h t s from c o n t i n u a l l y s e a r c h i n g f o r ways t o advance the modernist p r o j e c t t o s e a r c h i n g f o r ways t o achieve f i n a n c i a l and popular success i n the here and now. "Crimp, on the other hand, i s concerned t h a t c a p i t a l i s m , as an i d e o l o g y , i s a l l too able to absorb and d i f f u s e c r i t i q u e s of i t s e l f when they are made w i t h i n the sphere of a r t p r o d u c t i o n . Now, t h i s r a i s e s a d i f f i c u l t problem f o r Crimp, because he e v i d e n t l y sees the sphere of c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n as an area which i s g r e a t l y i n need of r i g o r o u s c r i t i q u e s , p r e c i s e l y because, as a " s p e c i a l i z e d luxury commodity," i t f u n c t i o n s as an instrument of s o c i a l d i s t i n c t i o n , and t h e r e f o r e as an instrument of s t a b i l i z a t i o n of c a p i t a l i s t c i r c u l a t i o n , a i d e d by p r e c i s e l y what Greenberg i s lamenting the d e c l i n e of (though of course Greenberg would not c h a r a c t e r i z e i t so c y n i c a l l y ) , namely, "the pretense to u n i v e r s a l i t y . " 3 2 "Jackson P o l l o c k " A r t s vol.41 no.6 (Apr.1967), p.32. 33 " i take a r e d u c t i o n i s t c onception of modernist p a i n t i n g t o mean t h i s : that p a i n t i n g roughly s i n c e Manet i s seen as a k i n d of c o g n i t i v e e n t e r p r i s e i n which a c e r t a i n q u a l i t y (e.g., l i t e r a l n e s s ) , set of norms (e.g., f l a t n e s s and the d e l i m i t i n g of f l a t n e s s ) or core of problems (e.g., how to acknowledge the l i t e r a l c h a r a c t e r of the support) i s p r o g e s s i v e l y r e v e a l e d as c o n s t i t u t i n g the essence of p a i n t i n g and, by i m p l i c a t i o n , of having done so a l l along. T h i s seems t o me g r a v e l y mistaken, not on the grounds t h a t modernist p a i n t i n g i s not a c o g n i t i v e e n t e r p r i s e , but because i t r a d i c a l l y misconstrues the kind of c o g n i t i v e e n t e r p r i s e modernist p a i n t i n g i s . What the modernist p a i n t e r can be s a i d t o d i s c o v e r i n h i s work what can be s a i d to be r e v e a l e d t o him i n i t i s not the i r r e d u c i b l e essence of all p a i n t i n g , but r a t h e r t h a t which, at the p r e s e n t moment i n p a i n t i n g ' s h i s t o r y , i s capable of c o n v i n c i n g him t h a t i t can stand comparison with the p a i n t i n g of both the modernist and pre-modernist past whose q u a l i t y seems to him beyond q u e s t i o n . (In t h i s sense one might say t h a t modernist p a i n t i n g d i s c o v e r s the essence of a l l p a i n t i n g t o be quality) .... I t should be c l e a r t h a t the c o n c e p t i o n of modernist p a i n t i n g which I have j u s t adumbrated i s not only a n t i - r e d u c t i o n i s t but a n t i - p o s i t i v i s t . . . " ( " S h a p e as Form: Frank S t e l l a ' s New P a i n t i n g s " Artforum Nov.1966, p.27 f n l l ) . A lthough F r i e d ' s a n t i - r e d u c t i o n i s m a l i g n s him with Judd a g a i n s t Greenberg, h i s sense of the contingent nature of the 85 modernist p r o j e c t puts him on h i s own a g a i n s t the i d e a l i s m of Judd and Greenberg. 3 4 " A r t and Objecthood" Art forum v o l . 5 no.10 (June 1967), p.15:1. 35 L a u r i e Monahan The New Frontier Goes to Venice: Robert Rauschenberg and the XXXII Venice Biennale, 1985, pp.92-98 and passim. 3 6 John O'Brian i n t r o d u c t i o n t o Clement Greenberg's Collected Essays and Criticism vol.1: Perceptions and Judgements 1939-1944 John O'Brian, ed. (Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago), 1986, p . x i x . 3"? Again, I am l e s s than sanguine about r e l y i n g on a n t h o l o g i z e d fragments t o c o n s t r u c t an argument i n the body of my t h e s i s . However, I do want t o draw a t t e n t i o n t o the way i n which we can e x t r a p o l a t e from A l b e r r o ' s f o r m u l a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the s h i f t i n meaning of the phrase " a r t f o r a r t ' s sake" i n order t o l o c a t e t h i s s h i f t i n the meaning of the phrase " a r t f o r a r t ' s sake" w i t h i n the context of a more g e n e r a l i z e d s h i f t i n wide-spread e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s t h a t occured i n the 1950s i n North America. Behind A l b e r r o ' s f o r m u l a t i o n , which p i t h i l y summarizes the nature of a s u b t l e but s i g n i f i c a n t a l t e r a t i o n i n the e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s of North American formalism, i s a c o n c e p t i o n of h i s t o r y d e r i v e d from Jean B a u d r i l l a r d ' s essay "Gesture and S i g n a t u r e : Semiurgy i n Contemporary A r t " (1972). B a u d r i l l a r d argues t h a t t h e r e has, d u r i n g the 1950s and 1960s, been a s h i f t i n the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the a r t i s t ' s s i g n a t u r e , from a s i g n i f i c a t i o n of uniqueness, to a s i g n which i d e n t i f i e s the image as p a r t of a p a r t i c u l a r s e r i e s , or system, of o b j e c t s . Within the e a r l i e r system of s i g n i f i c a t i o n , the r o l e of the s i g n a t u r e was t o c e r t i f y the s t a t u s of the i n d i v i d u a l a r t work as unique, s t a n d i n g apart from a l l other a r t o b j e c t s . P r e s e n t l y , however, the r o l e of the s i g n a t u r e i s t o l o c a t e each a r t o b j e c t w i t h i n a "system of o b j e c t s " from which each o b j e c t w i t h i n t h a t system a c q u i r e s i t s l e g i t i m a c y . Now, the term "system of o b j e c t s " has a p a r t i c u l a r meaning i n B a u d r i l l a r d ' s a n a l y s i s of the s o c i a l psychology of consumption. B a u d r i l l a r d ' s i d e a of the "system of o b j e c t s " i s t h a t , with the emergence of a type of c a p i t a l i s t p r o d u c t i o n which takes as i t s aim r a i s i n g the v e l o c i t y of c i r u c u l a t i o n • through the machinations of mass-production, a s o c i a l psychology of d i s t i n c t i o n has evolved which r e l i e s upon the consumption of mass-produced o b j e c t s i n order t o l o c a t e i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n a matrix of s t e r e o t y p i c a l p e r s o n a l i t i e s . T h e r e f o r e , consumption has become an amorphous, yet immediate, e f f e c t i v e and p e r v a s i v e mode of communication. In The System of Objects (1968), B a u d r i l l a r d w r i t e s : The o b j e c t / a d v e r t i s i n g system c o n s t i t u t e s a system of s i g n i f i c a t i o n but not language, f o r i t l a c k s an a c t i v e syntax: i t has the s i m p l i c i t y and e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a code. I t does not s t r u c t u r e the p e r s o n a l i t y ; i t designates and c l a s s i f i e s i t . I t does not s t r u c t u r e s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s : i t demarcates•them i n a h i e r a r c h i c a l r e p e t o i r e . It i s f o r m a l i z e d 86 i n a u n i v e r s a l system of r e c o g n i t i o n of s o c i a l s t a t u s e s : a code of " s o c i a l s t a n d i n g " ( p . 1 9 ) . To say t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r a r t o b j e c t i s p a r t of a system of o b j e c t s i s t o say t h a t by p u r c h a s i n g t h a t a r t o b j e c t , one seeks t o i d e n t i f y o n e s e l f t o others as a p a r t i c u l a r type of person by the very act of purchasing that particular art object. Of course, t h i s mode of s i g n i f i c a t i o n i s h a r d l y unique t o the a r t world. B a u d r i l l a r d w r i t e s of a r t p r o d u c t i o n w i t h i n the s o c i e t y of systems of o b j e c t s : In (the sense t h a t the work of a r t o f f e r s i t s e l f of i t s own i n i t i a t i v e as immediately i n t e g r a b l e i n a g l o b a l system t h a t conjugates i t l i k e any other o b j e c t or group of o b j e c t s ) , modern works have indeed become everyday o b j e c t s : although laden with c u l t u r a l connotations, they pose no problems t o the environment. A modern p a i n t i n g , pop, a b s t r a c t , a " t a c h i s t e , " c o n t r a d i c t s n o t h i n g : i t e n t e r s i n t o the p l a y of the syntagmatic d i s t r i b u t i o n of o b j e c t s i n space ( i n the modern i n t e r i o r ) j u s t as and because i t i s s u e s from the i n v e n t o r y of a c i r c u m s c r i b e d s u b j e c t i v i t y one s i g n passes i n t o another, from one moment to another. Two c h a i n s c r o s s : the necessary dimension of s i g n i f i c a t i o n i s a l s o the " f a t a l " dimension of i n t e g r a t i o n and consumption. Modern a r t , midway between c r i t i c a l t e r r o r i s m ( i d e o l o g i c a l ) and de facto s t r u c t u r a l i n t e g r a t i o n , i s q u i t e e x a c t l y an a r t of collusion vis-a-vis t h i s contemporary world. I t p l a y s with i t , and i s i n c l u d e d i n the game. I t can parody t h i s world, i l l u s t r a t e i t , simulate i t , a l t e r i t ; i t never d i s t u r b s the order, which i s a l s o i t s own. We are no l o n g e r d e a l i n g with the bourgeois a r t which, i n i t s redundancy, p r e s e n t s beings and o b j e c t s , r e c o n c i l e d with t h e i r image ( a l l " r e p r e s e n t a t i o n " c a r r i e s t h i s i d e o l o g y of r e c o n c i l i a t i o n ) . In modern a r t i t i s a s u b j e c t i v i t y which, u n r e c o n c i l e d with the world, endeavors to r e c o n c i l e i t s e l f with i t s own image: i t i s a s u b j e c t i v i t y whose reduncdancy, while committed i n an i m p l i c i t s e r i a l i t y , i s d e d i c a t e d to h o m o l o g i c a l l y i l l u s t r a t i n g the s e r i a l i t y of a l l other o b j e c t s and the s y s t e m a t i c of an i n c r e a s i n g l y w e l l i n t e g r a t e d world through i t s own withdrawal and d e f i a n c e (p.110-111). The s h i f t i n the way the phrase " a r t f o r a r t ' s sake" i n i n t e r p r e t e d , which we see s t a r t i n g d u r i n g the 1950s and s t a b i l i z i n g d u r i n g the 1960s, i s simultaneous with, and p a r t and p a r c e l of, the s h i f t from commodity p r o d u c t i o n as the r e p r o d u c t i o n of an o r i g i n a l t o the p r o d u c t i o n of a s e r i e s of o b j e c t s , a l l of which are " c o p i e s " of each o t h e r . (For B a u d r i l l a r d ' s e x p l i c a t i o n of h i s ideas c o n c e r n i n g the h i s t o r y of t h i s s h i f t , see "The Orders of Simulacra," i n h i s Simulations P h i l i p Beitchman, t r a n s . [New York: S e m i o t e x t ( e ) ] , 1983, pp.81-159.) Hence, the d e l i b e r a t e s y s t e m a t i z a t i o n of the work of c e r t a i n modern a r t i s t s ( B a u d r i l l a r d mentions Warhol and Rauschenberg, but I t h i n k he would agree t h a t S t e l l a and Judd f i t i n here as well) i's r e f l e c t i v e of the s y s t e m i z a t i o n of a l l other o b j e c t s . The i d e a of " a r t f o r a r t ' s sake" now p r e s e n t s a r t as a t a u t o l o g y as a system which i s only grounded i n i t s e l f . What I am concerned to q u e s t i o n with my a n a l y s i s of the n o t i o n of c u l t u r a l autonomy i s i t s p r e s u p p o s i t i o n t h a t a system which i s t a u t o l o g i c a l i s more than merely f o r m a l l y set o f f from i t s 87 c o n t e x t . The i m p l i c a t i o n of t h i s i s t h a t , s i n c e s y s t e m a t i z a t i o n i s widely h e l d t o be the c r i t e r i o n of a u t h e n t i c i t y , the i d e a r e l i e d upon by the p r e s e n t a t i o n of " a r t f o r a r t ' s sake" as a r t as t a u t o l o g y , f a r from b e i n g t a u t o l o g i c a l , i s i n f a c t c o n s i s t a n t with the e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s of post-World War II North American commodity p r o d u c t i o n , and the e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s which go along with i t . I would a l s o at t h i s p o i n t l i k e t o acknowledge my indebtedness t o c o n v e r s a t i o n s with Mark Globerman of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia department of p h i l o s o p h y d u r i n g the S p r i n g of 1989 f o r i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the nature of concerns which were being addressed at Columbia U n i v e r s i t y d u r i n g the 1950s. 38 clement Greenberg "The Late T h i r t i e s i n New York," 1957, rep. __ i n A r t and Culture: Critical Essays (Boston: Beacon P r e s s ) , 1961, p.230. T h i s i s a s l i g h t l y a l t e r e d v e r s i o n of an essay by Greenberg c a l l e d "New York P a i n t i n g Only Yesterday" (Art News vol.56 no.4 [Summer 1957], pp.58-9; 84-6). The m a t e r i a l i n p a r e n t h e s i s only appeared i n the 1961 v e r s i o n . 39 Serge G u i l b a u t How New York Stole the Idea of Modern Art: Abstract Expressionism, Freedom, and the Cold War t r a n s . A r t h u r Goldhammer (Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s ) , 1983, p.158. The r e t e n t i o n of t h i s o p p o s i t i o n a l terminology n e c e s s i t a t e s the drawing out of s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s between t h i s p o s i t i o n and contemporary p o s i t i o n s such as the s o c i a l l y - c r i t i c a l conceptualism .of Dan Graham, which used the same l a b e l s , had some of the same concerns, but d i f f e r e d i n t h a t they attempted to r e t a i n or r e g a i n the element of s o c i a l o p p o s i t i o n . As I note i n my recent a r t i c l e on Dan Graham: (T)he s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between Graham's and Judd's c u l t u r a l a n a l y s i s i s Graham's u n d e r l y i n g assumption t h a t the autonomy of h i g h c u l t u r e i s only apparent. Thus, a r e f l e x i v e c r i t i c a l p r ocess w i t h i n c u l t u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s may be an e f f e c t i v e method f o r denying the l e g i t i m z i n g c h a r a c t e r of c u l t u r e . T h i s i s the a e s t h e t i c of c r i t i c a l modernism(...) C r i t i c a l modernism has a complicated r e l a t i o n with Greenbergian modernism, a r e l a t i o n made a l l the more complex by the p e r s i s t a n t o v e r l a p i n terminology, by the l e g a c y of c r i t i q u e which l i e s dormant i n formalism, and by the f o r m a l i s t element which e x i s t s i n the c r i t i c a l modernism of c o n c e p t u a l a r t ("T.V. Eye" Parachute no.53 [Dec.-Jan.-Feb.1988-89], p.21:2). 40 see "Marxism and C r i t i c i s m : rev. of John Berger's Permanent Red" A r t s vol.36 no.4 (Jan.1962), pp.70-72. 41 "Marxism and C r i t i c i s m : rev. of John Berger's Permanent Red" Arts vol.36 no.4 (Jan.1962), p.72 42 "Marxism and C r i t i c i s m : rev. of John Berger's Permanent Red," Arts (Jan.1962), p.70:1. 43 see Three American Painters (Boston: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y ) , 1965; "Shape as Form: Frank S t e l l a ' s New P a i n t i n g s " Art forum 88 44 49 50 (Nov.1966), pp.18-27; "Art and Objecthood," A r t f o r u m v o l . 5 no.10 (June 1967), pp.12-23. Mi c h a e l F r i e d "Theories of A r t a f t e r Minimalism and Pop," i n Discussions in Contemporary Culture, no.l Hal F o s t e r , ed. ( S e a t t l e : Bay P r e s s ) , 1987, p.57. 45 see Greenberg's "Avant-garde and K i t s c h , " Partisan Review v o l . v i no.5 ( F a l l 1939), pp.34-49; "Towards a Newer Laocoon," Partisan Review v o l . v i i no.4 (July-August 1940), pp.296-310. 4 6 See Serge G u i l b a u t How New York Stole the Idea of Modern Art: Abstract Expressionism, Freedom, and the Cold War t r a n s . A r t h u r Goldhammer [Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s ] , 1983, e s p e c i a l l y Chapter 1 "New York, 1935 - 1941: The De-M a r x i f i c a t i o n of the I n t e l l i g e n s i a , " pp.17-47. 4 7 See Clement Greenberg "Avant-garde and K i t s c h , " Partisan Review, ( F a l l 1939), pp.34-49. 48 Minson's a n a l y s i s i s i n h i s Geneologies of Morals: Nietzsche, Foucault, Donzelot and the E c c e n t r i c i t y of Ethics (New York: S t . M a r t i n ' s ) , 1985. My language here i s adapted from pp.158-9 of Minson's book. See Serge G u i l b a u t ' s "The Relevance of Modernism," i n Modernism and Modernity: the Vancouver Conference Papers B.Buchloh, S.Guilbaut, and D. S o l k i n , eds. (Halifax:NSCAD), 1983, p . X I I I . Thomas Crow "Modernism and Mass C u l t u r e i n the V i s u a l A r t s , " i n Modernism and Modernity: the Vancouver Conference Papers B.Buchloh, S.Guilbaut, and D. S o l k i n , eds. (Halifax:NSCAD), 1983, p.269. 5 1 See f o r example the General Panel D i s c u s s i o n i n Modernism and Modernity: the Vancouver Conference Papers B.Buchloh, S.Guilbaut, and D. S o l k i n , eds. (Halifax:NSCAD), 1983, pp.270-1. 5 2 Thomas Crow "Modernism and Mass C u l t u r e i n the V i s u a l A r t s , " i n Modernism and Modernity: the Vancouver Conference Papers B.Buchloh, S.Guilbaut, and D-. S o l k i n , eds. ( H a l i f ax :NSCAD) , 1983, p.223. 53 Donald Judd " L o c a l H i s t o r y , " A r t s Yearbook 7: New York the A r t World James Mellow, ed. (New York: A r t D i g e s t ) , 1964, p.34:1. 54 Clement Greenberg " A f t e r A b s t r a c t E x p r e s s i o n i s m , " Art International vol.8 (Oct.25, 1962), p.30:2. 55 At f i r s t glance, Judd's use of the hermeneutic c o n s t r u c t s of f o r m a l i s t a e s t h e t i c s t o d i s c u s s a r t seems t o c o n f l i c t with the presence of a c r i t i q u e of the f o r m a l i s t assumptions about the v i e w e r - a r t o b j e c t r e l a t i o n . Although Judd's work goes some d i s t a n c e toward p o i n t i n g out the predominant i d e a l i s t 89 p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s of the viewing s u b j e c t , i t does not express an i n t e r e s t i n d e v e l o p i n g a m a t e r i a l i s t a n a l y s i s of these p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s . The attempt to formulate a c r i t i q u e of the i d e a l i s t p r e s u p p o s t i o n s of the viewing s u b j e c t and subsequently t o i n t e g r a t e such a c r i t i q u e i n t o an a r t p r a c t i c e i s the i n t e l l e c t u a l m i l i e u from which emerges conc e p t u a l a r t as a s o c i a l l y c r i t i c a l a r t p r a c t i c e as d i s t i n c t from conceptual a r t as an a b s t r a c t formal i n v e s t i g a t i o n , a la Joseph Kosuth. 1 Be i t a d i a l e c t i c a l m a t e r i a l i s t c r i t i q u e of the s u b j e c t t h a t proposed by Marx and Engels i n , f o r example, volume one of The German Ideology, or a g e n e o l o g i c a l c r i t i q u e of the autonomy of the s u b j e c t such as t h a t proposed by N i e t z s c h e i n The Genealogy of Morals, Judd i s not i n t e r e s t e d . The fundamental premises of d i a l e c t i c a l m a t e r i a l i s m "are men, not — i n any f a n t a s t i c i s o l a t i o n and f i x i t y , but i n t h e i r a c t u a l , e m p i r i c a l l y p e r c e p t i b l e process of development under d e f i n i t e c o n d i t i o n s . As soon as t h i s a c t i v e l i f e - p r o c e s s i s d e s c r i b e d , h i s t o r y ceases to be a c o l l e c t i o n of dead f a c t s , as i t i s with the e m p i r i c i s t s , (themselves s t i l l a b s t r a c t ) , or an imagined a c t i v i t y of imagined s u b j e c t s , as with the i d e a l i s t s " ( K a r l Marx and F r e d e r i c k Engels The German Ideology vol.1, 1846, Progress Press, t r a n s . [Moscow: Progress P r e s s ] , 1976, p.43). Nietzschean genealogy emphasizes the use of p h i l o l o g y t o demonstrate the o n t o l o g i c a l i n s t a b i l i t y of i d e a s . (See F r i e d r i c h N i e t z s c h e The Genealogy of Morals: An Attack, 1887, t r a n s . F. G o l f f i n g [New York: Doubleday], 1956, passim.) D e s p i t e N i e t z s c h e ' s i d e a l i s m , the two conceptions of h i s t o r y c o i n c i d e i n t h e i r shared bases i n r e l a t i v i s t phenomenologies and e p i s t i m o l o g i e s , and i n t h e i r shared c o n v i c t i o n a g a i n s t u n i v e r s a l i z i n g systems of thought. Barbara H a s k e l l notes: Judd had r e a l i z e d t h a t s t r u c t u r a l l o g i c was not f o r f e i t e d even when the number of u n i t s i n the c o n f i g u r a t i o n expanded or decreased to a d j u s t t o the height of the room (...) R a d i c a l a l t e r a t i o n s of syntax, however, were not a c c e p t a b l e -— as Judd would v e r i f y i n 1973 and 1974 when he d e s i g n a t e d two c o n f i g u r a t i o n s of the same seven plywood u n i t s as separate works. Yet, w i t h i n l i m i t s , he p e r m i t t e d a l t e r a t i o n s i n the formal deployment of a work...(Donald Judd [New York: Whitney Museum of American A r t ] , 1988, p.88.) ! There i s another m a t e r i a l which Judd s p o r a d i c a l l y makes use of which I do not touch on i n my t e x t , which i s plywood. The main reason I do not address t h i s i s s u e i s because Judd's use of plywood i s o c c a s i o n a l at best, and I t h i n k i t u n l i k e l y t h a t an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of Judd's use of plywood would e i t h e r add much to my argument or i n v a l i d a t e i t . However, f o r 'the sake of b e i n g thorough, I w i l l o f f e r a few b r i e f remarks. Judd's use of plywood f a l l s i n t o two p e r i o d s . In the f i r s t p e r i o d , which ends around 1964, i t seems l i k e l y t h a t Judd uses plywood mostly as a second choice n e c e s s i t a t e d by the f a c t t h a t i t i s simply cheaper than aluminum or s t a i n l e s s s t e e l . Judd abandons plywood i n l a t e 1963 or e a r l y 1964, and 90 r e t u r n s t o i t only a f t e r a number of years, at which p o i n t the p i e c e s he has made are every b i t as p r e c i s e as the p i e c e s made of other m a t e r i a l s . T h i s second p e r i o d of use seems c o n s i s t a n t with my arguments concerning the other m a t e r i a l s . Judd l e a v e s these l a t e r plywood s t r u c t u r e s unpainted, so t h a t the m a t e r i a l s are r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e . I would t h i n k t h a t plywood holds a s i m i l a r appeal f o r the i d e a of the s p e c i f i c o b j e c t as s t a i n l e s s s t e e l or aluminum do, and I imagine one c o u l d forge an argument t h a t plywood i n Judd's work i s a nexus between f o r m a l i s t a e s t h e t i c s and mass-production i n a way which i s very s i m i l a r t o the way i n which I am arg u i n g Judd's uses of aluminum, p l e x i g l a s s , and s t a i n l e s s s t e e l are nexus between these two spheres. However, one would need t o i n v e s t i g a t e the s o c i a l h i s t o r y of plywood d u r i n g the 1960s i n North America i n order t o comment on t h i s i s s u e more e x t e n s i v e l y . 59 Wolfgang Haug " I d e o l o g i c a l Values and Commodity A e s t h e t i c s : The Example of the 'Jeans C u l t u r e ' , " 1978, rep. i n Commodity Aesthetics, Ideology and Culture, t r a n s . K. Ruoff Kramer (New York: I n t e r n a t i o n a l G e n e r a l ) , 1987, p.152. 60 61 62 63 Donald Judd "In the G a l l e r i e s , " A r t s vol.39 no.3 (Dec.1964) p. 66:2. E r n e s t Mandel "In Defense of S o c i a l i s t P l a n n i n g , " New Left Review no.159 (Sept./Oct. 1986), p.7. Ern e s t Mandel "In Defense of S o c i a l i s t P l a n n i n g " New Left Review no.159 (Sept./Oct. 1986), p.8. Ernest Mandel "In Defense of S o c i a l i s t P l a n n i n g " New Left Review no.159 (Sept./Oct. 1986), p.11. Again, B a u d r i l l a r d adds a f u r t h e r dimension here. B a u d r i l l a r d agues t h a t , under the system of exchange which i s developed c a p i t a l i s m , the f a l s e promise of use value p r o v i d e s an a l i b i f o r s i g n exchange v a l u e . A c c o r d i n g to t h i s i d e o l o g y , we u s u a l l y need what we buy, though we may not need q u i t e as e l a b o r a t e a v e r s i o n : perhaps we do not need a r e f r i g e r a t o r with an i c e maker, but we do need a r e f r i g e r a t o r . The i c e maker i s j u s t a l i t t l e w h i s t l e to set us apart from the average r e f r i g e r a t o r owner. But B a u d r i l l a r d t a k e s - i s s u e with the very concept of a s s i g n i n g primacy t o use-value, as i t i s a term develpoed w i t h the c a p i t a l i s t system of language. For B a u d r i l l a r d , then, needs are to a great extent the r e s u l t of f a i t h i n the s i g n exchange va l u e ' s a l i b i of use-value, and hence i s i t s e l f a term indigenous t o the c a p i t a l i s t system of language, i n s o f a r as i t was produced by and with t h a t system of language: The legitimacy of p r o d u c t i o n r e s t s on a p e t i t i o p r i n c i p i i , i . e . , t h a t people d i s c o v e r a p o s t e r i o r i and almost m i r a c u l o u s l y t h a t they need what i s produced and o f f e r e d at the marketplace (and thus, i n order t h a t they should experience t h i s or any p a r t i c u l a r need, the need must a l r e a d y e x i s t i n s i d e people as a v i r t u a l p o s t u l a t i o n ) . And so i t appears that t h i s begging of the q u e s t i o n t h i s f o r c e d r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n simply masks the internal f i n a l i t y of the 91 64 order of p r o d u c t i o n . To become an end i n i t s e l f , every system must d i s p e l the q u e s t i o n of i t s r e a l t e l e o l o g y . Through the m e r e t r i c i o u s l e g i t i m a c y of needs and s a t i s f a c t i o n s , the e n t i r e q u e s t i o n of the s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l f i n a l i t y o f p r o d u c t i v i t y i s r e p r e s s e d ("The I d e o l o g i c a l Genesis of Needs," 1969, rep. i n For a Critique of the Political Economy of the Sign, 1972, C h a r l e s L e v i n , t r a n s . [St. L o u i s : T e l o s ] , 1981, p.71). Donald Judd " S p e c i f i c O b j e c t s , " 1965, rep. i n Complete Writing 1959-1975 ( H a l i f a x : NSCAD P r e s s ) , 1975, p.187. 69 70 6 5 See Roland Barthes "Myth Today," i n Mythologies, 1957, t r a n s . Annette Lavers (New York: H i l l & Wang), 1972, p.112-115. 6 6 Roland Barthes "Myth Today," i n Mythologies, 1957, t r a n s . ....Annette Lavers (New York: H i l l & Wang), 1972, p.142. 6 7 Roland Barthes "Myth Today," i n Mythologies, 1957, t r a n s . Annette Lavers (New York: H i l l & Wang), 1972, p.129. 68 Jean B a u d r i l l a r d For a Critique of the Political Economy of the Sign, 1972, t r a n s . C h a r l e s L e v i n ( S t . L o u i s : T e l o s ) , 1981, p.158. Jean B a u d r i l l a r d For a Critique of the Political Economy of the Sign, 1972, t r a n s . C h a r l e s L e v i n ( S t . L o u i s : T e l o s ) , 1981, p.48. See, f o r example, Serge G u i l b a u t How New York Stole the Idea of Modern Art: Abstract Expressionism, Freedom and the Cold War t r a n s . A r t h u r Goldhammer (Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago), 1983, e s p e c i a l l y pp.90-97. 7 1 H a r o l d Rosenberg, " V i r t u o s o s of Boredom," Vogue vol.148 no.4 ( S e p t . l , 1966), pp.296-7. 7 2 C. Wright M i l l s "Man i n the Middle: The Designer," Industrial Design v o l . 5 no.11 (Nov.1958), p.73:1. In s p i t e of h i s p e r s p i c a c i o u s d i s c u s s i o n of the r o l e of the d e s i g n e r i n t h i s a r t i c l e , i t must be mentioned t h a t M i l l s ' a r t i c l e takes a t u r n "for the worst i n the s i x t h and f i n a l s e c t i o n , wherein M i l l s o f f e r s a s o l u t i o n f o r the problem. I t i s the s o r t of s u g g e s t i o n t h a t would leave B a u d r i l l a r d shaking h i s head: (D)esigners ought to take the value of c r a f t s m a n s h i p ( i . e . : the m a n i f e s t a t i o n both of the s e n s i b l i t i e s of man i n the p r o d u c t i o n of m a t e r i a l o b j e c t s , and of the nature of man as a c r e a t u r e r e l a t e d t o nature i t s e l f and to changing i t by a humanly c o n s i d e r e d plan) as the c e n t r a l value f o r which they stand; t h a t i n accordance with i t they ought t o do t h e i r work; and t h a t they ought to use i t s norms i n t h e i r s o c i a l and economic and p o l i t i c a l v i s i o n s of what s o c i e t y ought t o become (p.75:2). I t should be noted t h a t M i l l s ' paper was w r i t t e n t o be read at the Design conference h e l d i n Aspen, Colorado, i n the Summer of 1958, which may have something to do with t h i s r a t h e r weak c o n c l u s i o n . 92 7 3 i t h i n k t h a t an i n t e r e s t i n g d i s c u s s i o n c o u l d be made on the way t h a t t h i s photograph p r e s e n t s Judd's work, showing i t from a 3/4 view so t h a t the work receeds d r a m a t i c a l l y i n t o the photograph i n p r e c i s e l y the same way t h a t o r t h o g o n a l s r e c e d i n g d r a m a t i c a l l y toward a v a n i s h i n g p o i n t draw a viewer i n t o a h i s t o r y p a i n t i n g . That, however, i s another t o p i c . 7 4 Thomas Crow "Modernism and Mass C u l t u r e i n the V i s u a l A r t s , " i n Modernism and Modernity: the Vancouver Conference Papers, B.Buchloh, S.Guilbaut, D.Solkin, eds. (Halifax:NSCAD), p.216, 7 5 K a r l Beveridge and Ian Burn "Don Judd" The Fox v o l . 1 no.2 (1975), p.138:2. 7 6 See Serge G u i l b a u t How New York Stole the Idea of Modern Art: abstract expressionism, freedom and the cold war t r a n s . A r t h u r Goldhammer (Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s ) , 1983, p.3 and passim. 7 7 L a u r i e Monahan The New Frontier Goes to Venice: Robert Rauschenberg and the XXXII Venice Biennale M.A. T h e s i s ( U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia), 1985, p.6. 7 ^ On t h i s , see J e f f Wall "Dan Graham's Kammerspiel," i n Dan Graham (Perth: A r t G a l l e r y of Western A u s t r a l i a ) , 1986, passim. 7 ^ Kynaston McShine " I n t r o d u c t i o n t o Primary Structures: younger American and British sculptors" (New York: Jewish Museum), 1966, p . l . 80 See i n p a r t i c u l a r Robert M o r r i s ' " A n t i Form," Artforum v o l . 6 no.8 (Apr.1968), pp.33-35, and "Notes on S c u l p t u r e pt.4: beyond o b j e c t s , " Artforum v o l . 7 no.8 (Apr.1969), pp.50-54. F r i e d r i c h N i e t z s c h e Beyond Good and Evil: Prelude to a Philosophy of the Future, 1886, t r a n s . R. H o l l i n g d a l e [Markham, Ont.: Penguin], 1973, p.79. On t h i s , see Jean B a u d r i l l a r d ' "Gesture and S i g n a t u r e : Semiurgy i n Contemporary A r t , " i n For a Critique of the Political Economy of the Sign, 1972, t r a n s C h a r l e s L e v i n (St. L o u i s : T e l o s ) , 1981, pp.102-111. Epilogue 1 Thomas Crow "Modernism and Mass C u l t u r e i n the V i s u a l A r t s , " i n Modernism and Modernity: the Vancouver Conference Papers B.Buchloh, S.Guilbaut & D.Solkin, eds. (Halifax:NSCAD), 1983, p. 253. 2 Edward S a i d Orientalism (Toronto: Random House), 1979, p.84. 3 See Judy Chicago Through the Flower: My Struggle as a Woman Artist (New York: Doubleday), 1975. A l s o of i n t e r e s t i n t h i s r e g a r d are: Judy Chicago and L l o y d Hamrol's "Two A r t i s t s , " i n 81 82 93 Criteria v o l . 1 , no.2 (Nov.1974), pp.8-14; and Lucy L i p p a r d ' s "Judy Chicago, T a l k i n g t o Lucy L i p p a r d , " Art forum vol.13, n o . l (Sept.1974), pp.60-65. 4 Judy Chicago Through the Flower: My Struggle as a woman Artist (New York: Doubleday), 1975, pp.40-41. For an i n f o r m a t i v e d i s c u s s i o n of the dynamic which Chicago d e s c r i b e s i n t h i s passage, namely, the very great a b i l i t y of m a s c u l i s t c e n t r a l i s m t o c o n s t r u c t i t s e l f as v a l u e - f r e e and hence t o be able t o choose whether t o v a l i d a t e / r e c u p e r a t e or i n v a l i d a t e / m a r g i n a l i z e work which openly d e c l a r e s i t s e l f t o . have been produced by a woman, see G a y a t r i Chakravorty Spivak's essay " E x p l a n a t i o n and C u l t u r e : M a r g i n a l i a , " 1977, rep. i n In Other Worlds: Essays in Cultural Politics (New York: Routledge), 1988, pp.103-117. A l s o of i n t e r e s t i n regard t o t h i s i s s u e i s Susan Bordo's "Feminist S k e p t i c i s m and the xMaleness' of Phil o s o p h y , " i n The Journal of Philosophy v o l . l x x x v no.11 (November 1988), pp.619-629. 5 See Dan Graham "Homes f o r America" Arts vol.41, no.3 (Dec.1966-Jan.1967), pp.21-22. 6 Dan Graham i n an unpublished i n t e r v i e w with the author, S p r i n g 1988 . 7 Dan Graham "Homes f o r America" A r t s vol.41, no.3 (Dec.1966-Jan.1967), p.22:3. 8 H i s t o r i c a l l y , one can r e l a t e t h i s t o the wide-ranging appeal of l i b e r a l c a p i t a l i s m a f t e r World War I I , one e f f e c t of which was the narrowing of the p o l i t i c a l f i e l d of view. Claus O f f e has a s t u t e l y noted the p r e c i s e c h a r a c t e r of t h i s p o l i t i c a l f i e l d i n an essay t h a t , while s p e c i f i c a l l y i n t e n ded t o analyze the p o l i t i c s of Western Europe i s nonetheless a p p r o p r i a t e , as Offe r e c o g n i z e s , as a model f o r understanding the p o l i t i c s of North America: (That the s o c i a l , economic, and p o l i t i c a l order adopted i n the l a t e 1940s and e a r l y 1950s was b u i l t on a h i g h l y encompassing l i b e r a l - d e m o c r a t i c w e l f a r e s t a t e consensus t h a t remained unchallenged through the l a t e 1960s by any s i g n i f i c a n t f o r c e s on the p o l i t i c a l Right or L e f t ) i s t r u e at l e a s t of t h r e e c e n t r a l elements of the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l postwar accords, a l l of which were adopted and defended i n terms of t h e i r conduciveness t o economic growth and w e l f a r e . F i r s t , d e s p i t e some marginal elements of i n d i c a t i v e p l a n n i n g , c o d e t e r m i n a t i o n , or n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n , investment d e c i s i o n s were l e f t as the p r e r o g a t i v e of owners and managers a c t i n g i n f r e e markets and a c c o r d i n g t o c r i t e r i a of p r o f i t a b i l i t y . Second, the acceptance of c a p i t a l i s m as a machine f o r growth was complemented by or g a n i z e d l a b o r ' s acceptance of i t as a .means f o r income d i s t r i b u t i o n and s o c i a l s e c u r i t y . The p r e v e l a n t concern with growth and r e a l income l e d w o r k i n g - c l a s s spokesmen t o renounce more e x t e n s i v e p r o j e c t s of s o c i e t a l change, i n exchange f o r a f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d s t a t u s i n the proce s s of income d i s t r i b u t i o n , while i t made i n v e s t o r s , more w i l l i n g t o accept the new s t a t u s of or g a n i z e d l a b o r . The t h i r d element of the postwar design (adopted i n the German case from 9 4 the Weimar Republic) was a form of p o l i t i c a l democracy predominantly mediated through p a r t y c o m p e t i t i o n . T h i s arrangement was w e l l s u i t e d t o l i m i t the c o n f l i c t s t r a n s f e r r e d from the sphere of c i v i l s o c i e t y i n t o the arena of p u b l i c p o l i c y , e s p e c i a l l y where, as i n West Germany, t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t s e p a r a t i o n between the o r g a n i z a t i o n s r e p r e s e n t i n g societal i n t e r e s t s (unions, employers, churches, etc.) and the political p a r t i e s concerned with winning votes and o f f i c e a c c o r d i n g t o the model of the " c a t c h - a l l - p a r t y " ("Challenging the boundaries of i n s t i t u t i o n a l p o l i t i c s : s o c i a l movements s i n c e the 1960s," i n Changing boundaries of the political: Essays on the evolving balance between the state and society, public and private in Europe C h a r l e s Maier, ed. [New York: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y ] , 1987, pp.66-7). I would l i k e t o thank A l e x A l b e r r o f o r drawing my a t t e n t i o n t o t h i s a r t i c l e . See a l s o , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n re g a r d t o the p o l i t i c a l f i e l d i n the Un i t e d S t a t e s at t h i s time, Alexander Bloom's i n f o r m a t i v e "rev. of Pe t e r S t e i n f e l s ' The Neoconservatives: the men who are changing America's politics" Telos (Winter 1979-80), pp.181-88. What Graham's a r t i c l e misses i n terms of und e r s t a n d i n g the h i s t o r y of the a r c h i t e c t u r e he i s d i s c u s s i n g , i s a p t l y summarized by Mark Wasuda i n a note t o me co n c e r n i n g an e a r l i e r d r a f t of t h i s paper: When you suggest t h a t Graham i s c r i t i q u i n g the e n t i r e system of m a s s - f a b r i c a t i o n a whole-series of other q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the s t a t u s of mass p r o d u c t i o n w i t h i n 20th century a r t and a r c h i t e c t u r e a r i s e (...) I am reminded of the h i s t o r y of s o c i a l housing, e s p e c i a l l y i n Germany or H o l l a n d . Although suburban housing s u f f e r s at the hands of the American commodification system i t s f a i l u r e i s made poignant not by Graham's r e g r e t f o r the American landscape o f unique b u i l d i n g s but by the d i s t a n c e i t t r a v e l s from i t s o r i g i n i n workers housing p r o j e c t s . The " s o c i a l i s t " a r c h i t e c t s were s u r e l y g u i l t y of utopianism and romantic a n t i - c a p i t a l i s m and were de f e a t e d by t h e i r naive a p p r e c i a t i o n of t h e i r r e l a t i o n t o the market. However, t h e i r f a i l u r e doesn't i n d i c a t e t o me a thorough c r i t i q u e of mass-production ( i n a note t o . t h e author, S p r i n g 1989). References Alloway, Lawrence "Background to Systemic," Artnews vol.65 no.6 (Oct.1966), pp.30-33. 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W i l l i a m s , Raymond "Base and S u p e r s t r u c t u r e i n M a r x i s t C u l t u r a l Theory" New Left Review no.82 [Nov. Dec. 1973], pp.3-16. f^g j Judy Chicago Rainbow Picket 1966 Plywood, canvas, l a t e x . 126" x 110" C o l l e c t i o n of Jewish Museum, New York. (Source: Minimal A r t Gregory Battcock, ed. (New York: Doubleday), 1968.) f i E 2 D o n a l d J u d d (untitled) 1965 S t a i n l e s s s t e e l , p l e x i g l a s s . 34" x 160" x 34" C o l l e c t i o n of C a s t e l l i Gallery, New York. (Source: Minimal Art Gregory Battcock, ed. (New York: Doubleday), 1968„) f i g 4 Judy Chicago F l i g h t 1963 A c r y l i c on masonite. 48" x 96" C o l l e c t i o n of Gene Kassebaum, Hawaii. (Source: Judy Chicago Through the Flower (New York: Doubleday), 1975„) 104 105 106 f i g 8 Donald Judd (untitled) 1955 O i l on canvas. 30" x 37" C o l l e c t i o n of the a r t i s t . (Source: Barbara Haskell Donald Judd (New York: Whitney Museum), 1988.) 107 f i g 9 Donald Judd ( u n t i t l e d ) 1960 O i l on canvas. 70" x 48" C o l l e c t i o n of National G a l l e r y o f Canada, Ottawa. (Source: Barbara H a s k e l l Donald Judd (New York: Whitney Museum), 1988.) ' f i g 10 Donald Judd ( u n t i t l e d ) 1961 L i q u i t e x and sand on masonite„ 48" x 96" C o l l e c t i o n o f Solomon Guggenheim Museum, New York. (Source: Barbara H a s k e l l Donald Judd (New York: Whitney Museum), 1988.) o 00 109 f i g 11 Donald Judd (untitled) 1963 Painted plywood and latex,, (Source: das Kunstwerk v o l . x v i i i nos.10-12.) 

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