UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Squarehead Reeve, Charles 1989

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SQUAREHEAD By CHARLES Dipl.  REEVE  B.A., T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1985 A r t H i s t . , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , A T H E S I S SUBMITTED  1986  I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T OF  THE R E Q U I R E M E N T S  FOR THE D E G R E E  MASTER  OF  OF  ARTS  ••in THE F A C U L T Y OF GRADUATE S T U D I E S (Fine  We  accept to  this  Arts)  thesis  the- r e q u i r e d  as  standard  THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H ©September  conforming  COLUMBIA  1989  if  In presenting degree  this  at the  thesis  in  University of  freely available for reference copying  of  department  this or  partial  fulfilment  British Columbia, and study.  of  his  or  her  Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  DE-6 (2/88)  that the  I further agree  representatives.  may be It  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not permission.  requirements  1 agree  thesis for scholarly purposes by  the  for  an  advanced  Library shall make it  that permission for extensive granted  is  by the  understood be  that  allowed without  head  of  my  copying  or  my written  .don't  look  down." James  Osterbe  i i i  Note  regarding  copyright  No c o p y r i g h t , n o r i g h t s r e s e r v e d . T h i s t e x t o r a n y p o r t i o n o f i t may b e f r e e l y r e p r o d u c e d , t r a n s l a t e d , o r a d a p t e d . A l l I a s k i s t h a t any r e p r o d u c t i o n , t r a n s l a t i o n , o r r e p r o d u c t i o n n o t be done w i t h t h e e x p r e s s p u r p o s e o f a c c r u i n g a p r o f i t , and t h a t an a p p r o p r i a t e m e n t i o n o f t h e s o u r c e accompany any s u c h u s e .  iv Abstract In t h e United within  t h e dominant  opposition the  direction such  which  experiment refer  Artists  works:  that  would  prescribed Judd,  could  outside  painting  t o working  a p a i n t e r who a r t work,  of h i s emerging  does n o t have, pressing  of these problems  illusionism in  or at least  painting  Judd  on i n t e r n a l  in  tended  of  piece  h e came t o Judd's  which  anything  from  art  else,  working i n  c a n be seen  conviction that  as a  p a i n t i n g has a  three-dimensional  work  n o t t o t h e same d e g r e e .  The most  was, a c c o r d i n g  the inevitable  argued  that  relations  to interfere  and, f o r Judd,  imperative.  not r e f e r t o  t o Judd,  and i n t e r v i e w s  one o f t h e m a j o r  and o f n o n - s p e c i f i c a r t as a whole  reliance  the  would  o f p a i n t i n g . I n a number o f a r t i c l e s  t h e mid-1960s,  turn,  which  shift  objects  number o f i n s u r m o u n t a b l e p r o b l e m s  o f f from the  i n 1961 began t o  reflected  and which  By  of  phenomenologically-stable  o f themselves. Judd's i n specific  mounting  as t h e f o r m a l i s t  n o t be c o n f u s e d w i t h  a l lillusion,  anything  manifestation  r e s u l t e d i n a weakening  he was w o r k i n g w i t h  avoid  a  was,  g r i p on t h e a r t d i s c o u r s e .  o b j e c t s . " T h e name  a r t works which  there  mode o f f o r m a l i s m ,  three-dimensional  t o as " s p e c i f i c  1960s,  and w r i t e r s began t o break  was D o n a l d  with  conviction  which  dissent  Greenberg  artist  the early  Greenberg's  mid-sixties, this grip.  during  art-critical  t o Clement  Greenberg's  One  States  i n t h e form  with  of  i s i t s  of composition.  t h e immediate  was s y m p t o m a t i c  weaknesses  This,  comprehension  of the lack of  of  integrity  non-specific art. However,  remained  the dispute  an argument  between  between  Judd,  Greenberg  and F r i e d ,  f o r m a l i s t s . The d i s p u t a n t s  held  some  V  key of  beliefs  about  these b e l i e f s  autonomous,  and  f o r my that  self-definition within  t h e n a t u r e o f a r t i n common. T h e argument  the central  o f forms. Nor  the terms  as R o b e r t  their  highly  suggestive  specific•object viewer  and  the a r t i s t  is  based  is  not  concerned with  of  the  subject.  the  very  on  perceptions  of  say,  this  within  reading  Therefore, of his  their  i n my  a r t and  of b e l i e f s  with  that  the  Donald  contexts,  f o r the It  innocence  that  contingency object,  of the viewer's Judd per  how  se.  of forms  That and  how as  work  particular  surfaces  i s a product aspects of the  and,  more  Judd's  specific  objects  seen  as  States  of America  and  i t sparticular  during  the early  But  determined.  symptoimatic of  c a n be  the  i s to  a r e r e a d as n e u t r a l .  Judd's  will.  i s confusing  in objectivity  of b e l i e f s  by  limits,  i s faith  system  the  of history.  i t i s historical  seen  of of  state  specific  material  and  artists  preclude the viewer's  the u t i l i z a t i o n  c a n be  ideal  the h i s t o r i c a l  specificity  that  about  aesthetic  a denial  independent  given  inertia.  which  between  the United  by  of o b j e c t i v i t y ,  how  this  was  I demonstrate  h i s arguments  on  framed  in spite  epistemelogical  i s that  historical  paper  importantly,  in  on  is illusory,  the aesthetics  system  argument  i s based  Judd's  would  conditions  of s p e c i f i c i t y  h i s work  which,  and  Lichenstein,  about  with  of  when t a l k i n g  i s relies  intention  remain  a result  Hence,  i t s specificity,  c r u x o f my  appearance  Roy  arguments  being interfered  presuppositions, The  and  a p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l and  fact  historically  Modernist a r t i s the  a conception of the  which  Judd's  as  t o even  imagery.  utilizes  of  project  of formalism merely  Rauschenberg  art i s  d i d the discussion  These b o u n d a r i e s were adhered such  are that  most i m p o r t a n t  a 'nexus  manifestation 1960s.  Table of Note  regarding  of  i i i iv  Abstract List  copyright  Contents  Figures  vii  Acknowledgements  v i i i  Prologue  1  Monologue  16  Epilogue  63  Endnotes  72  References  95  vii  List  1)  Judy  2)  Donald  3)  Frank  4)  Judy  5,.6)  C h i c a g o Rainbow Judd  Charlotte  Chicago Flight  Dan  Graham P h o t o s  Bayonne,  New  7)  Donald  Judd  8)  Donald  Judd  9)  Donald  10) 11)  Picket  (Untitled)  Stella  Figures  1966  1965 Tokayer  p.101 p . 101  1963  1963  p.102 p . 103  of Setbacks i n  Jersey  Bosa,  of  1965  A.M.  p.104  1952  p.105  (Untitled)  1955  p.106  Judd  (Untitled)  1960  p.107  Donald  Judd  (Untitled)  1961  p.108  Donald  Judd  (Untitled)  1963  p.109  v i i i  Acknowledgements A  number o f p e o p l e  thesis like  by  r e a d i n g and  Thomas,  Serge and  debts  J e f f W a l l . I would  always  h e l p f u l , and  trying  times  the  t o them h e r e .  Guilbaut, Robert  Wendy D o b e r e i n e . r ,  through  writing  of  commenting upon v a r i o u s d r a f t s ,  t o a c k n o w l e d g e my  Alberro,  to  h a v e h e l p e d me  Linsley, also  like  whose w i l l i n g n e s s whose p r o f o u n d  more t h a n  once."  These  John  and  include:  0'Brian,  to express  t o comment on  friendship  this  my  would  Alex  Hilda gratitude  the  h e l p e d me  I  text  was  through  1  Prologue The ink  a r t and views  spilled  i n their  of Donald  honour.  Judd have had a f a i r  But t h e e f f e c t of a l l of  discussion  has been t o entrench,  inaccurate  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f Judd's  recent  example  exhibition  of this  catalogue  retrospective  i s Barbara  which  hosted  essay  ambitious  retrospective  be  take  the organizers  appears  that  such  analysis  reader  mimicing central  t h e form  discussed  against  throughout  the  quickly  this  realize  serve  Not only  her essay  i nthe  exhaustive i n the Fall  that  At f i r s t  arguments.  i s full  here,  finally,  Haskell  In Haskell's  sculpture,"  that  milieu that  ignoring  i s a  Haskell Judd's  Judd's  badly work  arguments  "Minimalist" or  use t h e term  term which  Judd  of  I am a f t e r . One  essay,  t o r e f e r t o Judd's work,  i s an u n c o n t e n t i o u s  i t should  i s merely  of analysis that  does H a s k e l l  I f anyone  and work. However, t h e  that  as e i t h e r  o f 1988.  glance, i t  essay  t o make t h e p o i n t  as " M i n i m a l i s t  historical  Haskell's  of the density  Judd's  significant  right,' surely  effort.  suggesting  r e f e r i n g t o h i s work  "sculpture."  that  a grand  of Judd's thought  example w i l l  misrepresents is  will  with,  i t accompanies t h e most  arguments  i s the case.  considered  essay  this  o f D o n a l d Judd's work t o d a t e .  o f such  and endnotes,  careful  Haskell's  because  t o get Judd's  quotations  dispense  aesthetics. A  accompanied t h e  i s significant  care  than  b y t h e W h i t n e y Museum  Haskell's  should  rather  amount o f  "Minimalism"  she even  simply  emerged  implies out of  was a p a r t o f :  Judd's work and t h a t o f p e e r s such as R o b e r t M o r r i s , C a r l A n d r e , Dan F l a v i n , a n d S o l L e W i t t r a p i d l y o v e r t h r e w o t h e r c o n t e n d e r s f o r s t y l i s t i c d o m i n a n c e o f t h e d e c a d e . By 1 9 6 6 , less than three years a f t e r i t s i n i t i a l introduction t o the a r t c o m m u n i t y , w h a t came t o b e c a l l e d M i n i m a l i s m s e e m e d t o have i r r e f u t a b l y s u p p l a n t e d A b s t r a c t E x p r e s s i o n i s m . 2  C e r t a i n l y i t i s t r u e t h a t c r i t i c s and group these a r t i s t s t o g e t h e r to confuse the use  c u r a t o r s were quick  under the  to  l a b e l of Minimalism,  of that l a b e l with a t r u l y  and  adequate  u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e i r work. What i s l o s t i n the p r o c e s s of such a Procrustean the v a r i o u s one  r u b r i f i c a t i o n are the complex d i f f e r e n c e s between  systems of thought of which these a r t works were only  p a r t . For example, a photograph of Judy Chicago's  Rainbow  Picket  of 1966  (fig.l)  Gregory B a t t c o c k ' s Minimal  sculpture  i s i n c l u d e d without comment i n  Art:  A C r i t i c a l Anthology  i n the midst  of s e r i e s of pages of monochrome photographs of work by " M i n i m a l i s t s " and, Epilogue,  as I w i l l d i s c u s s at g r e a t e r  l e n g t h i n the  t r e a t e d s i m i l a r l y i n the catalogue f o r the  Structures  e x h i b i t i o n which was  1966.3 The  e f f e c t of the way  work i s t h a t  other  Primary  h e l d at the Jewish Museum i n  t h a t these t e x t s t r e a t Chicago's  important d i f f e r e n c e s between v a r i o u s  ways of  t h i n k i n g about the v i s u a l language of f o r m a l i s t modernism  are  e f f a c e d . T h i s assumes s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i n r e l a t i o n to  Rainbow  Picket my  because, as I e x p l a i n more f u l l y  i n the c l o s i n g pages of  t h e s i s , t h i s work i s p a r t of Chicago's attempt t o formulate a  system-immanent f e m i n i s t c r i t i q u e of p r e c i s e l y the ideas t h a t B a t t c o c k ' s documentation seamlessly  system of  l o c a t e s Chicago  within. To be  fair,  a l a r g e p a r t of the blame f o r the  s u r r o u n d i n g Judd's ideas must be w r i t i n g i s often s t i l t e d ,  and  a t t r i b u t e d t o Judd h i m s e l f .  r e l a t i v e l y common words i n contexts  for using  which make i t c l e a r t h a t  s p e c i a l meanings to them, without ever  what these new  His  seems d e l i b e r a t e l y obtuse. Much of  t h i s obtuseness stems from Judd's p r e d i l i c t i o n  is attaching  confusion  meanings are. The  he  explaining  tone of Judd's w r i t i n g o f t e n  3  suggests  that  precious  thoughts  explicitly  he  tries  to  use  from the  i n some o f  obscure  philistines.  Judd's  later  s e l f - i n d u l g e n t than  1950s  For  Defense  1960s.  of  My  Work"  example, (1977),  This  those  in a brief  Judd  protect  i s stated  his  more  w r i t i n g s , which tend  more u n a b a s h e d l y and  language to  to  written during  statment  be the  titled  "In  writes:  Somewhere t h e r e has t o be a p l a c e w h e r e t h e i n s t a l l a t i o n i s w e l l d o n e and p e r m a n e n t . T h i s o b v i o u s l y i m p l i e s t h a t museums a r e i n a d e q u a t e f o r t h e i r j o b . My i n s t a l l a t i o n s and a r c h i t e c t u r e a r e v e r y m u c h i n d e f e n s e o f my w o r k . V i s u a l , s p a t i a l a r t c a n n o t be r e d u c e d t o p e r f o r m a n c e . My w o r k a n d t h a t o f my c o n t e m p o r a r i e s t h a t I a c q u i r e d was n o t made t o b e p r o p e r t y . I t ' s s i m p l y a r t . I w a n t t h e w o r k I h a v e t o r e m a i n t h a t way. I t i s n o t on t h e m a r k e t , n o t f o r s a l e , not s u b j e c t t o t h e i g n o r a n c e of t h e p u b l i c , not open to perversion.^ Donald a penchant  Judd  for this  pronouncements, understand Harold  i s not  him  and as  Rosenberg  the  only,  nor  sort  of  then  pointing to  proof writes  of  game o f  even the  producing the  1966  essay  and  artist  with  obtusely-formulated  failure  his brilliance  in his  first,  of  their  "Virtuosos  others  to  ignorance. of  As  Boredom":  The w o r k ( w h i c h e m b r a c e s t h e a e s t h e t i c s o f b o r e d o m , s u c h a s t h a t of Cage, B e c k e t t , W a r h o l , R o b b e - G r i l l e t , Judd, S t e l l a ) i s a m a s q u e r a d e t h a t k e e p s t h e s t r a n g e r a t -arm's l e n g t h , y e t p r e v e n t s him f r o m t a k i n g h i s l e a v e by h i n t i n g a t a s i g n i f i c a n c e that i s never d i s c l o s e d . I t s impenetrable' s u r f a c e d e f e a t s him p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y and h u m i l i a t e s him as a hopeless P h i l i s t i n e . B e h i n d t h i s b a r r i e r t h e b a n d o f i n i t i a t e s , p a m p e r e d by s e m i i n i t i a t e s , romps h a p p i l y i n ' an a t m o s p h e r e as r e l a x e d as s o c k s on t h e b a t h r o o m f l o o r . By e r e c t i n g a w a l l o f i n c o m p r e h e n s i o n b e t w e e n t h o s e i n t h e know and h u m a n i t y a t l a r g e , the b o r i n g p a i n t i n g or performance serves to strengthen the inner u n i t y of the various i d e o l o g i c a l , sex, and t a s t e g r o u p s t h a t c o n s t i t u t e t h e w o r l d o f t h e a r t s . ^ Certainly, of  this  Judd  i l k . My  Judd  i s not  major  one  reason  of  the  more i m a g i n a t i v e  for focusing  on  Judd  i s i n t e r e s t i n g because h i s p o s i t i o n , while  represent coherent  the  first  system  of  attempt thought  on  the  part  of  i n w r i t i n g and  an  lies  artists elsewhere.  i t does.not  artist  to  develop  art production,  does  a  4 represent critical  t h e moment a t w h i c h modernism which  modernism to him  this  had l a i n  crystallization  interesting.  Judd  himself  modernism which  not  entrench  i t more  fully  a fragmentation within  in  the Epilogue, this critique  will  critical  critique,  But  such  rubric  part  is  possible,  it  i s often The  re-emergence  as I s a i d  i s to identify  second-  f o r reasons of  as t h e t a r g e t  of  of "Minimalism."  almost  person  as a  view,  nothing i s Minimalist.  as f a r as  other views  with  this  which  confused. o f my p r o j e c t  and t o p o i n t  My a i m i n p r o v i d i n g  writing  activity,  discuss  lumped t o g e t h e r under t h e  Judd's  and t o separate i t out from  arguments,  crystallize  took,  earlier,  a particular  part  was n o t p r e p a r e d t o  on, as t h e re-emergehce  i sto clarify  and a r t , which  t h e argument which  p r o v i d e an i d e a l  my  objections to  out the inconsistencies a clarification  r e a d e r i s t o s e t up an argument  Judd's  he became  t h e way f o r a  and t h e i n s t i t u t i o n  by i d e n t i f y i n g  other part  arguments.  i n order t o  modernism. As I w i l l  o f i d e a s have been  o f my p r o j e c t  makes  Greenbergian  but rather  modernism which  further  Judd  i s what  of formalism. I see t h i s ,  of Minimalism that,  So  the  Donald  i n true  fragmentation cleared  clear  a diversity  accomplished  Judd's  argument,  m o d e r n i s m . Now t h i s  its  this  relation  t o e x t e n d t h e argument o f  formalist  the tenets  become  Judd's  had been developed by Greenberg. Y e t ,  of formalist  on f a i t h  o n e , but  of  formalist  i n i t s a r e a o f competence,  of  which  tried  i n o r d e r t o s u b v e r t it,  fashion,  accept  dormant w i t h i n  i s a peculiar  attempting t o extend t h i s  order  o f t h e element  f o r s o many y e a r s b e g a n t o c r y s t a l l i z e .  formalist in  t h e re-emergence  against  o f Judd's  that  together constitute views  vehicle  i n his  view,  view f o r because  an a t t e m p t t o  a r t as an autonomous  f o rdelving  into the  5 phenomenon o f  "objectivity,"  presupposition My  within  to  look  Judd's  relevant  context.^  ways t o  At  the  of  with  Judd,  and  idea  of  point  knowledge  I  than out  i n the  argument  allows  the  argument t o  which  presuppositions,  work,  to  and to  the  a  look  broader  a discussion  concerning  the  specific  type  of  historical  i t i s very  much  the object aspect  the  It is precisely  Judd's work  and,  then  and  is built.  begin  hold  argument  this  e f f e c t of  and  I believe,  the  writing  which  gives  i t  7  said that  part  of  my  p h i l o s o p h i c a l premises  Judd's  work. And  spend  the  I want t o  which  I see  Judd  formulated  an  both  his  that  p o s i t i o n . To  a r t work  will  i n which  become  I discuss  a e s t h e t i c p o s i t i o n i n the and  h i s w r i t i n g s are  a great  Judd's p o s i t i o n that  are  rigorous  extent, my  example  modernism which,  I believe,  really  Which  i t i s only  at  concern  of  this  way  on  a  immanent in  relation  that  Donald  mid-1960s,  such  e s s e n t i a l components  i t i s the  primary  as  important the  the within  p h i l o s o p h i c a l premises  t h e s i s ' Monologue,  say,  identify  discussing  to  a  i s to  pages  Judd's work because t h e y  most  project  few  within  i s to  his  background,  historical  i s the  attempt  Although  or  Judd  hidden  i n general,  presuppositions  the  hidden  formalism,  artistic  I feel  the  scale  the  and  hidden  broad  radical  i t i s an  of  have  the  i t i s less a description,  why  u p o n w h i c h my  strength."  as  r e l a t e those presuppositions  i s flawed.  somewhat  foundation  its  written  formalist aesthetics  remains  of  arguments,  same t i m e ,  facts,  particular,  which  sort  f o r the of  I see  aesthetics.  is a  corpus  recounting  in  Judd's  methodology  attempts  for  of  which  a type  only time  faults because of  which  of  I see  in  I feel-that  formalist  emerged d u r i n g that,  that  i n the  the hands  1960s. of  6 Donald  Judd,  art's  sake"  which  I  thesis, I  Michael Fried,  and  others that  the phrase  i n a number o f d i f f e r e n t  b u t what  have chosen  I  want t o s t r e s s  Judd  i s because  here  i s that  his position  thread  a r e t h r e e t h r e a d s t o my  i t with a Nietzschian  view  :  contingent  Baudrillard,  objectivity  which  i s an  examines p a r t i c u l a r are d i r e c t l y  t o my  and  i s t h e n a t u r e o f my  namely,  objectivity?  s u m m a r i z e d w e l l by o f Diacritics.  The  Edward S a i d Said  Roland  opposing  based  o f Judd's  argument  thread in i n the  and  and  of my  writings which that  work.  against  idea  interview  on  Barthes  inflections  argument a g a i n s t i n an  One  the appearance  third  illusory  discussion  of the  of the  E r n e s t Mandel,  i s t h e h i d d e n p r e s u p p o s i t i o n o f Judd's  object  analysis  i s grounded  i n s t a n c e s of such  relevant  What, t h e n ,  issue  analysis that Mills,  one  understanding are  that  The  reasons  of o b j e c t i v i t y .  d e v e l o p e d by  to propose  my  type.  inherent i n o b j e c t i v i t y  inflection.  Haug, C . W r i g h t  of the  d e v e l o p b e l o w : namely,  t h r e a d i s an  I use  illusory  one  seems t o be  critique  k n o w i n g and  critiques  i s a materialist  of Wolfgang  said  that  assumptions  historically-specific  thesis  will  processes. Another  phenomenological  Jean  I  i s the t h r e a d which  point  p l a c e s throughout  most p o w e r f u l l y f o r m u l a t e d a r g u m e n t s o f t h i s There  is a  comes t o mean " a r t as t a u t o l o g y . " ^ T h i s  address  "art for  what  of the  I have  specific  objectivity  i n the F a l l  was 1976  notes:  ( I ) f you s e p a r a t e what you do f r o m what you a r e , you a r e r e i f y i n g , g i v i n g o b j e c t i v i s t i c form t o t h i n g s t h a t i n r e a l i t y d o n ' t have t h a t f o r m ; o r i f t h e y do, have i t i n s u c h a way as t o r e q u i r e i t s o v e r c o m i n g . Thus t o i n t e r p r e t , m a n ' s work (as a l a b o r e r , l i t e r a r y c r i t i c , e n g i n e e r , o r w h a t e v e r ) as r a d i c a l l y and o r g a n i c a l l y c o n n e c t e d w i t h what man i s and a whole e n t i t y ( d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t h i s c o n s c i o u s n e s s c a n n o t r e c o g n i z e o r a c c e p t t h e c o n n e c t i o n ) i s t h e common and r e v o l u t i o n a r y p o i n t o f d e p a r t u r e b o t h f o r t h e i n t e r p r e t e r as i n t e r p r e t e r and, L u k a c s a l s o t r i e d t o show, f o r t h e  7 p r o l e t a r i a t as reification.^ The  argument which  ways, long  as  those  there  start  Hegel,  and  things. the  world  of  Nietzsche holds  who  that The  way  my  critique  1887  titled  gives the  of  which Nietzsche  i n the  i n my  of  of  bourgeois  which,  important  sense.that,  analyze  opinion,  Nietzsche  and  the  t h i n k i n g begins  of  in  thinking, there  concerned to  have refute  most  with  that  as  Friedrich  I want  to  objectivity.  The  Geneology critique  human i n t e l l e c t of  i s one  ways o f  a powerful  ascendence  upsetter  Hegel,  i t i s with  u n i v e r s a l measure view  of  are  this  therefore  In h i s book  which  work  thinking.1° However,  i n b u i l d i n g up  Attack,  the  d i s c u s s i o n of  Nietzsche,  i s developing  have been bourgeois  like  ways of  fruitful  is  Said  extends back to  been those,  all  r e - i n t e r p r e t e r and  formal  validity  can  of of  Morals:  the  perceive  l o g i c and are  An  world and  the  understand  idea  manifestations  i s concerned to  critique.  view  that i t of  this  Nietzsche  writes: ( M ) a n saw h i m s e l f a s t h e b e i n g t h a t m e a s u r e s v a l u e s , the " a s s a y i n g " a n i m a l . P u r c h a s e and s a l e , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e i r p s y c h o l o g i c a l t r a p p i n g s , antedate even the rudiments of s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and c o v e n a n t s . From i t s r u d i m e n t a r y m a n i f e s t a t i o n i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l law, the i n c i p i e n t sense of barter, contract, g u i l t , r i g h t , o b l i g a t i o n , compensation was p r o j e c t e d i n t o t h e c r u d e s t communal c o m p l e x e s (and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s to other such.complexes) together with the h a b i t o f m e a s u r i n g p o w e r a g a i n s t p o w e r . The e y e h a d b e e n e n t i r e l y c o n d i t i o n e d t o t h a t mode o f v i s i o n ; a n d w i t h t h e a w k w a r d c o n s i s t e n c y o f p r i m i t i v e t h o u g h t , w h i c h moves w i t h d i f f i c u l t y b u t , when i t d o e s move, moves i n e x o r a b l y i n one d i r e c t i o n , e a r l y mankind soon reached the grand g e n e r a l i z a t i o n t h a t e v e r y t h i n g has i t s p r i c e , e v e r y t h i n g can b e p a i d f o r . H e r e we h a v e t h e o l d e s t a n d n a i v e s t m o r a l c a n o n of j u s t i c e , of a l l " f a i r p l a y , " "good w i l l , " and "objectivity."l 1  In the Horkheimer  first and  chapter  of  Dialectic  Theodor Adorno b u i l d  characterization  of  the  bourgeois  of on  view  Enlightenment,  Max  Nietzsche's as  one  which  s e e s man  as  8 the  infallible  that  characterizes  general there like  impulse takes the  a universally  applicable  m o n e y o r common s e n s e , one  abstract  separation illusory,  intellectual that  form  of a c o n v i c t i o n  that  system  of p e r c e p t i o n  which,  i s capable of representing  of representation  predicate  and  and  Adorno's  book  the d r i v i n g  of contemporary "Elements  Horkheimer  and  fascism  an  as  life.  within  In the  which,  are concerned  example.  They  i n which  the  although of  this  conviction  some o f t h e m o s t  final  o f A n t i - S e m i t i s m : The  Adorno  a l l things  namely,  object  i s t h e ways  force  impulse  this  d e n i e s i t s i l l u s o r y n a t u r e . A b r o a d e r theme  manifestly  called  system  of subject,  Horkheimer  aspects  of the  t h e E n l i g h t e n m e n t . They argue  intellectual  exists  using  is  a s s a y e r as t h e b a s i s  repugnant  chapter of t h e i r  Limits  of  book,  Enlightenment,"  t o a d d r e s s t h e phenomenon  of  write:  O n l y i n t h a t m e d i a t i o n by w h i c h t h e m e a n i n g l e s s s e n s a t i o n brings a thought to the f u l l p r o d u c t i v i t y of which i t i s c a p a b l e , w h i l e on t h e o t h e r h a n d t h e t h o u g h t a b a n d o n s i t s e l f without reservation to the predominant impression, i s that p a t h o l o g i c a l l o n e l i n e s s which c h a r a c t e r i z e s the whole of n a t u r e o v e r c o m e . The p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f r e c o n c i l i a t i o n appear n o t i n c e r t a i n t y u n a f f e c t e d by t h o u g h t , i n t h e p r e c o n c e p t u a l u n i t y o f p e r c e p t i o n and o b j e c t , b u t i n t h e i r c o n s i d e r e d o p p o s i t i o n . T h e d i s t i n c t i o n i s made i n t h e s u b j e c t , w h i c h h a s t h e e x t e r n a l w o r l d - i n i t s own c o n s c i o u s n e s s a n d y e t r e c o g n i z e s i t as s o m e t h i n g o t h e r . T h e r e f o r e r e f l e c t i o n , t h e l i f e o f r e a s o n , t a k e s p l a c e as c o n s c i o u s p r o j e c t i o n . The m o r b i d a s p e c t o f a n t i - S e m i t i s m i s n o t p r o j e c t i v e b e h a v i o u r as such, but t h e absence from i t o f r e f l e c t i o n . 1 2 With  Horkheimer  objectivity,  the  of b e l i e f s  such unsavory  formed.  This view  writers  powerful  Adorno,  I see t h e  faith  in rationalism,  i n "common s e n s e , " a s t h e p r i m a r y c o m p o n e n t  constellation which  and  on  and  social  form the  crucible  phenomena as  reaction  and  i s a crucial  whom I r e l y  concept,  ideas that  which  element  in this  I will  use  of the thought  thesis.  A  of  a  the  in  fascism o f many  particularly  as t h e b a s i s  of  in  are of  9 phenomenlolgical  analysis  of the untitled  which  i s t h e f o c u s o f my m a i n d i s c u s s i o n ,  which  Roland  Barthes  uses  Barthes  which  appearance  of being  argument than  i s that  elaborates i n h i s essay  t h e term  inflection  p i e c e by Donald  "mythology"  to refer  of  Judd  "mythology"  "Myth Today"  to a  (1957).  phenomenological  provides information with a convincing a b s o l u t e . B u t t h e r e i s much more t o B a r t h e s '  simply a formal analysis  language  o r meta-language,  defining  characteristic  f o rBarthes  bourgeois  of a particular sees  thought.  "myth" He  as  type of the  writes:  S t a t i s t i c a l l y , myth i s on t h e r i g h t . T h e r e , i t i s e s s e n t i a l ; well-fed, sleek, expansive, garrulous, i t invents i t s e l f ceaselessly. I t takes hold of everything, a l l aspects of the law, o f m o r a l i t y , o f a e s t h e t i c s , o f diplomacy, o f h o u s e h o l d equipment, o f L i t e r a t u r e , o f entertainment. I t s expansion has t h e v e r y d i m e n s i o n s o f b o u r g e o i s e x - n o m i n a t i o n . The b o u r g e o i s i e wants t o keep r e a l i t y w i t h o u t k e e p i n g t h e appearances: i t i s t h e r e f o r e the very n e g a t i v i t y of bourgeois appearance, i n f i n i t e l i k e every n e g a t i v i t y , which s o l i c i t s m y t h i n f i n i t e l y . The o p p r e s s e d i s n o t h i n g , he h a s o n l y one l a n g u a g e , t h a t o f h i s e m a n c i p a t i o n ; t h e o p p r e s s o r i s e v e r y t h i n g , h i s language i s r i c h , m u l t i f o r m , supple, w i t h a l l t h e p o s s i b l e d e g r e e s o f d i g n i t y a t i t s d i s p o s a l : he h a s an e x c l u s i v e r i g h t t o m e t a - l a n g u a g e . T h e o p p r e s s e d makes t h e w o r l d , he h a s o n l y an a c t i v e , t r a n s i t i v e (political) language; t h e oppressor conserves i t , h i s language i s p l e n a r y , i n t r a n s i t i v e , g e s t u r a l , t h e a t r i c a l : i t i s M y t h . The language o f t h e former aims a t t r a n s f o r m i n g , o f t h e l a t t e r at e t e r n a l i z i n g . 1 3 This  a n t i - b o u r g e o i s argument  critiques thesis.  of objectivity  I have taken  aesthetic system  position  of ideas,  Judd  which  which  i s a t h r e a d common t o t h e  I use and develop  as the' s t r o n g e s t e x a m p l e I believe  my  o f an  i s a manifestation of this  i n order t o develop  a critique  particular  position  my  t o d i s c u s s some o f t h e c r i t i q u e s  thesis,  throughout  and i n o r d e r t o be a b l e ,  of this  towards that  t h e end of  emerged  at the  time. A  second  relation  point, which  to this  I believe  i t i s necessary  a n t i - b o u r g e o i s argument  is.that  to clarify i n  my p o s i t i o n i s  10 not  that the  various beliefs  representations absolutely  which  Rather,  the  suggests  are  us  from,  suggested  argument  to  by  that these  product  a perceptual This  ideologies do  end  up  with  so  what  sharp  stones  less  justifiable  and  might  because  and  inclement  i s a pathological state; do  the  inexpensive  mythic  inflection  that  i t extrapolates seamlessly  of  then,  i d e o l o g i e s where  valid  from  a l l that  introductory  never  i s not.  Hence,  most  protect  one's  for  a spouse  absolute  validity  one's  gains i t s  from the  fact  is reliable  place  to  stand  ini t . outside  distuinguish a l l that  as  Gayatri Spivak  "The  Politics  a persistant critique  of  the  and  shoes p r o t e c t  from what  feet  claim  Barthes'  i s no  people  credence  also  with  appears  of  (i.e.:  indeed,  essay  the  use  that  reliably  to her  (1982),  Nietzschean  model  of psychology  I think i s a powerful  objectivity,  has.  can  extant.  nature  to gain  To  of  notes  is in  the  of ideology  is  complete.-^ A  what  way  i s that there  one  paragraph  Interpretations,"  in  from the  of  aggregate  limitations,  do  expensive  convince  difficulty,  shoes  shoes).  are  experience  i n them  up  of  is systematically  with  ending  power t o  The  the  i s contingent,  weather)  children  b e t t e r than  not  systems  bourgeoisie  e x t r a p o l a t i o n s f o r which they (i.e.:  the  t o be  i t i s the  children;  reliability  terminology,  the  have  fraught  absolute  feet  by  odds w i t h ,  seems r e l i a b l e  spouses  from  at  t h a t what  system  i s important  t o use  mind of  empirical,means  ideas  It is distorted  absolute.  or  reified  i s that whatever v a l i d i t y  distorted. of  are  which dominate the  disconnected  things  that  and  In h i s l a t e r  f o r the  thought,  can  be  explanation f o r the  used to need t o  provide have  various manifestations which Nietzsche  develops  a monist  faith  this  conception  11 of psychology impulse, feel  the  that For  since  i t can  arranges  others,  Nietzsche, take  feeling by  of  one  one's  extremes,  single  need  over  different  forms,  which  to  one's thing,  Nietzsche  own  of  t o power,  into  other  hand,  Nietzsche  calls  the  will  t o power  i s d e s t r u c t i v e , but  can  be  will  as  intermediate  manifested.  calls  "the  the  t o power.  self-overcoming,  The  will  will  to  one  to  knowledge  It involves a  understanding  that  human k n o w l e d g e  appearance  this  impulse  a l l things  as  c o n s i s t s of  the  the  belief  they  are  Nietzsche  Nietzsche,  packaging  and  amount  of  self-  The  exists  a  i s capable  of  intellectual  dericisively  labelling  on  of  there  which  knowledge,  focus  second-highest  uncertain.  i n the  the  Within  trauma  that  to  two  I want t o  certain  of perception  community p r o d u c e s what F r i e d r i c h s c h o l a r s . " For  will  i n which  i s the  i s always  this  a p p l i c a b l e system  that  in  in i t s  the  ways  knowledge."  a defense mechanism a g a i n s t  of  Hence,  argues t h a t between these  a number o f  and  this  form  Nietzsche  this  constantly question  "self-overcoming."  form  "mirroring  the  over  highest  t o power  ontology,  representing  on  a desire to  presuppostions.  are  the  i s i n c r e a s i n g one's p h y s i c a l power  will  Nietzsche's  universally  t o power t a k e s  will  what N i e t z s c h e  deception  will  the  there  the  the  of  t o power  naming,  t o power i s the  p h y s i c a l v i o l e n c e . In the  the  i s sublime.  of  a  n e c e s s a r i l y a malevolent  sophisticated manifestation,  power  is  that  is internalized  crudest  will  i s not  manifestation  means o f  manifestation  most  this  will  from  i n c r e a s i n g one's power  a number o f  simplest  overturn  its  a l l a c t i o n s stem  to power.-j>he  i s continuously  manifestation impulse  to which  hierarchically.  The of  will  one  life.  form  according  that  calls  i s to  say,  of phenomena  in  12 order  to  controls Beyond  create the these  Good  illusion  t h a t one  phenomena. N i e t z s c h e  and  understands  and  discusses this  therefore  point  in  Evil:  The p o w e r o f t h e s p i r i t t o a p p r o p r i a t e w h a t i s f o r e i g n t o i t i s r e v e a l e d i n a s t r o n g i n c l i n a t i o n t o a s s i m i l a t e t h e new to t h e o l d , t o s i m p l i f y t h e c o m p l e x , t o o v e r l o o k o r r e p e l what i s w h o l l y c o n t r a d i c t o r y : j u s t as i t a r b i t r a r i l y emphasizes, e x t r a c t s and f a l s i f i e s t o s u i t i t s e l f c e r t a i n t r a i t s and l i n e s i n what i s f o r e i g n t o i t , i n e v e r y p i e c e o f " e x t e r n a l world." I t s i n t e n t i o n i n a l l t h i s i s the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of new " e x p e r i e n c e s , " t h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f new t h i n g s w i t h i n o l d division g r o w t h , t h a t i s t o say; more p r e c i s e l y , t h e f e e l i n g o f g r o w t h , t h e f e e l i n g o f i n c r e a s e d p o w e r . T h i s same w i l l i s s e r v e d by an a p p a r e n t l y a n t i t h e t i c a l d r i v e o f t h e s p i r i t , a sudden d e c i s i o n f o r ignorance, f o r a r b i t r a r y s h u t t i n g - o u t , a c l o s i n g o f t h e w i n d o w s , an i n n e r d e n i a l o f t h i s or t h a t t h i n g , a r e f u s a l t o l e t i t approach, a k i n d of d e f e n s i v e p o s t u r e a g a i n s t much t h a t c a n be known, a c o n t e n t m e n t w i t h t h e d a r k , w i t h t h e c l o s e d h o r i z o n , an a c c e p t a n c e and a p p r o v a l o f i g n o r a n c e : a l l t h i s b e i n g n e c e s s a r y a c c o r d i n g t o the degree of i t s power t o a p p r o p r i a t e , i t s " d i g e s t i v e power," t o speak i n a metaphor -- a n d i n d e e d " t h e ' s p i r i t " . i s m o r e l i k e a s t o m a c h t h a n anything else. I t i s here that there also belongs the o c c a s i o n a l w i l l o f t h e s p i r i t t o l e t i t s e l f be d e c e i v e d , p e r h a p s w i t h a m i s c h i e v o u s n o t i o n t h a t s u c h a n d s u c h i s not the case, t h a t i t i s only being allowed t o pass f o r the c a s e , a j o y i n u n c e r t a i n t y and a m b i g u i t y , an exuetant enjoyment o f t h e c a p r i c i o u s n a r r o w n e s s and s e c r e c y o f a nook-and-corner, of the a l l too c l o s e , of the foreground, of the exaggerated, diminished, displaced, beautified, an enjoyment of the c a p r i c i o u s n e s s of a l l of these e x p r e s s i o n s of power.16 What . s e p a r a t e s that  the  of the  will  will  objectivity. manifestation  develop.  i n on  to  i s an  of  the  knowledge  itself.  This  will  on  from  i s the the  t o power.  manifestation  psychology  other  is  turning i t s desire for  hand,  I t s very  i t s desire for understanding  q u e s t i o n i n g i t s own  self-overcoming  anti-dialectical  i t studiously avoids  Self-overcoming,  turn  continuously  will  knowledge  to. power:  understanding  studiously  to  the  of  is a  nature i n on  p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s as  is  dialectical to  itself, they  13 A philosophical phenomenology  system  i s a particular  phenomenon. N i e t z s c h i a n in  a g e n e r a l way.  Now,  this  system  this  question that  section,  the  presents  unknown t o to  find  almost  the  objective  m a n i f e s t a t i o n of accounts  be  offered  to address  a more  for this  q u e s t i o n i s : what  What c a n  I wish  an  widespread phenomenon  i s counterposed i n i t s stead?  briefly  in this,  to  It is  the  final  prologue.  first  the  proposes  psychology  of thought?  o f my  In  which  sentence  of  The  Geneology  reader with a r h e t o r i c a l  o u r s e l v e s , and  w h a t we  f o r a good  have never  of  Morals,  q u e s t i o n : "We reason:  looked f o r ? " ^  how  Yet  1  Nietzsche knowers  can  we  are  ever  hope  Nietzsche continues  immediately:  T h e s a d t r u t h i s t h a t we r e m a i n n e c e s s a r i l y s t r a n g e r s t o o u r s e l v e s , we d o n ' t u n d e r s t a n d o u r own s u b s t a n c e , we m u s t m i s t a k e o u r s e l v e s ; t h e a x i o m , " E a c h man i s f a r t h e s t f r o m h i m s e l f , " w i l l h o l d f o r u s t o a l l e t e r n i t y . O f o u r s e l v e s we are not "knowers"....^^ These two  formulae,  summarize the  two  dialectical mistake this  f o r which  irreducible  believing  o n e s e i f , but  reason  that  also  Walter  striking  characteristic  to  and  Hegel  Truly and my  I will paper  realization  rather  dialectical  common d e n o m i n a t o r  p o i n t s of view  i n advance t h a t , believing  that  of  than  ^dialectical'  a quest  found,  one  must.  thinking  thinking  as  must  It is for  of  most  Socrates  hidden  Kaufmann u n d e r s t a n d s of t h i s  I t may  lead  c o n f u s i o n of the process  phenomenon w i t h t h e p r o c e s s  from  the  for solutions."^O  i s a daunting prospect. the  l o o k one  be  comprise  i n looking,  i t i s a search f o r  t a k e Kaufmann's u n d e r s t a n d i n g  that  which  can  Kaufmann w r i t e s , " P e r h a p s i t i s t h e  Nietzsche that  presuppositions  no  understanding  term to  i t throughout  the  o f naming  a  a phenomenon  is  an  14 elision  which  conclusion So left is  that  then,  this  a defense mechanism t o  i t i s impossible I painted  radical  handmaiden  of  of  the  is  there  no  by  admitting  is  a  sham, as I  since  think  than  to  my  avoid to  "the  no  carefully  a l l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of  way  to  faith  conclude conventional  or  That i s ,  1  except  construct  Judd  is  p o s i t i o n which  become t h e  i n bad  the  world."  What  deconstruction?^  being  from  corner?  rationalist  of  us  understand  into a  i n what has  attempt  not,  since  r e j e c t i o n of  stability  or  perception.  reliability In  fact,  stable  transparent.  idea  i s based,  first,  are  contingent  and,  i n the  an  to  end  argument  Nietszche  on  named D o n a l d  presupposed that objectivity that  the  can  be  seen  are  as  is  hard  to  of  what goes reason  on  with  we  spend  degree  thought  relativism  are  and to  be  a  absolutely  which  I am  perception  argument t h a t  of  and  the  arguing thought  degree  of  unknowable. during  could  the of  an be  1960s,  aesthetic  a particular Said  a U.S.  system of  important  much t i m e  is  such  which  since untenable,  an  historical  when he  American  system  objective, that  aesthetic  appears so  the  development  Edward  i n academia  that  of  the  Judd's  symptomatic  of  any  these processes  developed  perception  disagree  on  is  relativism is,  r e j e c t i n order  argument t h a t  phenomenon o f as  need  the  i s untenable,  and  processes  one  i s that  Judd  there  sort  second,  argument  assume t h a t  The  i s v a r i a b l e and  T h u s , my  that  argument t h a t  for  contingency  arguments  a l l that  i s the  and  such the  relativist  simple  the  shield  any?  radical  artist  myself  recuperation  way  that  truly  o b j e c t i v i t y ? Is there  parodie other  to  d e n i a l of  i n t r o d u c t i o n other  style  a  as  haven't  a f t e r the  the  good  acts  aesthetic moment.  notes that to  us  for  so  It  much  the  discussing various  ideas  15 as  i fthey  more, Judd  a r e i m p o r t a n t . 2 2 N o n e t h e l e s s , I make t h e s e  I insist  on them. And t h e s e a r e p r e c i s e l y  a n d o t h e r s who t h i n k  w a y , who  adopt  t h e same  ideology,  cannot  give  up t h e c o m f o r t a b l e p o s i t i o n  these points  one's p e r c e p t i o n s as  Worse t h a n m i s g u i d e d , For,  as Horkheimer  Semitism  quoted  perception readily system all  i s infallible  of perception  competing  me,  because  t o do so w o u l d  he  of Judd  such  a position  be t o  that  o n e ' s own  of Anti-  system  of  to a l lothers a l l too  t o work  These p o i n t s  i s dangerous.  i n the discussion  that  one's  own  f o r the elimination  are precisely  and, more b r o a d l y , o f t h e s y s t e m  represents.  concede.  infallible.  and s u p e r i o r  i s entitled  systems.  which  o f s e e i n g o n e ' s way o f  however,  the belief  n o t , and cannot,  provides a foundation f o r the conviction  critique to  will  and Adorno argue  above,  the points  i n t h e same w a y o r , t o p u t i t a n o t h e r  They  organizing  concede  points:  of  t h e c r u x o f my of ideas  which,  16 Monologue Throughout much of the  1950s, the v o i c e of the  critic  Clement Greenberg h e l d sway over much of the U n i t e d S t a t e s ' w o r l d . The  c r u x of Greenberg's way  the b e s t a r t c o n t r i b u t e s  art  of t h i n k i n g about a r t i s . t h a t  t o the p r o g r e s s i o n  of t h e a r t s t o w a r d  the g o a l of s e l f - d e f i n i t i o n . T h i s c r i t e r i o n of the b e s t a r t i s , a c c o r d i n g t o Greenberg, o b j e c t i v e and w h i c h accompanies i t . T h i s view was by Greenberg a f t e r i t was  u n i v e r s a l , as i s the  taste  r e i t e r a t e d a number of t i m e s  c r y s t a l l i z e d i n h i s 1940  e s s a y "Towards  A Newer Laocoon": The a r t s l i e s a f e now, each w i t h i n i t s " l e g i t i m a t e " b o u n d a r i e s , and f r e e t r a d e has been r e p l a c e d w i t h a u t a r c h y . P u r i t y i n a r t c o n s i s t s i n the a c c e p t a n c e , w i l l i n g a c c e p t a n c e , of the l i m i t a t i o n s of the medium of the s p e c i f i c a r t . To prove t h a t t h e i r concept of p u r i t y i s something more than a b i a s i n t a s t e , p a i n t e r s point to O r i e n t a l , p r i m i t i v e and c h i l d r e n ' s a r t as i n s t a n c e s of the u n i v e r s a l i t y and n a t u r a l n e s s and o b j e c t i v i t y of t h e i r i d e a l of p u r i t y . 1  Greenberg's argument here a n t i c i p a t e s h i s l a t e r arguments for  an i d e a l i s t ^ c o n c e p t i o n of a e s t h e t i c s , such as t h a t which  put  f o r w a r d i n h i s 1960  his  c o n v i c t i o n t h a t t h e r e i s an u n i v e r s a l "best t a s t e " which  essay "Modernist P a i n t i n g , "  be o b j e c t i v e l y known, and such as " o b j e c t i v e , " are,  he  formalizing can  toward which a r t progresses.-^ Words  " n a t u r a l , " " u n i v e r s a l , " and  i n t h i s system of i d e a s ,  "international"  i n d i c a t o r s t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r body  of work i s p a r t of the t e l e o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n t o i d e n t i f y the i r r e d u c i b l e elements of a g i v e n a r t form the p r o g r e s s of the  s e l f - d e f i n i t i o n of t h a t  that i s , i t furthers form.  There are a number of models of c u l t u r e which use  discuss-the  of what Jean B a u d r i l l a r d c a l l s "the d e m o c r a t i c a l i b i  of  u n i v e r s a l s " w i t h i n c u l t u r a l systems i n o r d e r t o n a t u r a l i z e p r o c e s s of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n which o c c u r s t h e r e ,  and  which,  the  17 following  these models,  I believe  much o f what g o e s on w i t h i n analyses of  provide  Greenberg's  the  latest  analysis  alibi of  t h e sphere  terminology  of t h e system  which  one d e n i e s  Political  by a p p e a l i n g  o f u n i v e r s a l s , " one d e n i e s More,  I n h i s 1969 e s s a y  Baudrillard  writes:  "Sign  with  late  of the  Sign  t o the "democratic o f one's  one's v a l u e s  Function  of  Inh i s  Economy  the contingency  even t h a t  systematic.  discussions  which has developed  B a u d r i l l a r d argues that  These  the significances  go d e e p e r t h a n  of the  behind  culture.  f o r m a l i s t modernism.  of ideas  i n For a Critique  values.  of high  ways f o r d e t e r m i n i n g  developments w i t h i n  capitalism (1972),  powerful  i s the driving force  system  are  and Class  Logic,"  The c u l t u r a l c l a s s l o g i c i n b o u r g e o i s s o c i e t y i s a l w a y s r o o t e d i n t h e d e m o c r a t i c a l i b i o f u n i v e r s a l s . R e l i g i o n was a u n i v e r s a l . The h u m a n i s t i d e a l s o f l i b e r t y a n d e q u a l i t y were u n i v e r s a l s . Today t h e u n i v e r s a l t a k e s on t h e a b s o l u t e e v i d e n c e o f c o n c r e t e n e s s : t o d a y t h e u n i v e r s a l i s human n e e d s , a n d a l l t h e c u l t u r a l a n d m a t e r i a l goods t h a t respond-. It i s the universal of consumption. 4  Baudrillard because  the circulation  anti-democratic also  argues that  driven  continually  aim, that  group.  believable  consumer makes w i l l amongst  the lucky  innovation consumer. to  Like  place  two t h i n g s that  be t h e one t h a t  few. Second,  a cruel- adult pulling  a r e needed.  that  of constant one s t e p  First,  consumer i n aesthetic  ahead  on t h e r u n by  reaches  the  that the  a baby by h o l d i n g  i t away when t h e b a b y  keeps t h e consumer  by an  i nthe  purchase  catapaults  keeps  teasing  i s driven  t o be i n c l u d e d  t h e next  a system  always  required  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . But i t i s  among p e o p l e  promise  alibi.is  exchange value  of social  Hence,  i s needed which  i t and then  market  of sign  by t h e d e s i r e  discriminating  a democratic  of the candy out  f o r i t ,the  constantly  18 promising  that  the  next  essential  difference.  purchase w i l l  As  be  Baudrillard  the  one  that  makes  the  writes:  ( T ) h a t w h i c h a t t h e l e v e l o f f o r m a p p e a r s t o be a s u r p a s s i n g t o w a r d s a u n i v e r s a l p o s i t i o n , t a k e s on i t s t r u e v a l u e i n an i n v e r s e s o c i a l s i g n i f i c a t i o n : the u n i v e r s a l term (synthesis of d i f f e r e n c e ) o n c e a g a i n b e c o m e s an e f f e c t i v e f a c t o r of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n b e c a u s e o n l y a few e l e c t w i l l be a b l e t o accede to t h i s stage of the a e s t h e t i c combinatory. The o t h e r s f i n d t h e m s e l v e s r e l e g a t e d t o t h e moral manipulation o f d o m e s t i c o b j e c t s . W i t h r e s p e c t t o o b j e c t s and their calculus (as o t h e r p l a c e s ) , t h e u n i v e r s a l o n c e a g a i n i s t h e t i t l e o f n o b i l i t y h e l d by a s p e c i f i c c a t e g o r y . The a e s t h e t i c c a l c u l u s i s a l w a y s s u b m e r g e d i n s o c i a l l o g i c . In o r d e r to a v o i d t a k i n g t h i s i d e o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s i n t o account, designers exhaust themselves i n popularizing audacious, " r a t i o n a l , " " f u n c t i o n a l " forms, b e i n g a l l the w h i l e s u r p r i s e d t h a t t h e s e f o r m s do n o t s p o n t a n e o u s l y s e d u c e t h e mass p u b l i c . Yet b e h i n d t h e i r p i o u s l i t a n y ( e d u c a t i n g public taste), these "popular" creators direct t h e i r u n c o n s c i o u s s t r a t e g y : b e a u t i f u l , s t y l i z e d , modern o b j e c t s are s u b t l y c r e a t e d (despite a l l r e v e r s e d good f a i t h ) in  order  not  to  be  understood  by  the  majority  at  least  not  s t r a i g h t away. T h e i r s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i s f i r s t t o be d i s t i n c t i v e s i g n s , t o be o b j e c t s w h i c h w i l l distinguish t h o s e who d i s t i n g u i s h them.^ Hence,  formal  innovation  rhetoric  of  cultural  aristocracy.  Economy of  of  the  Sign,  particular  psychology phenomena relation  to  which  the  Throughout  about  the  how  the  landscape  i t ? W h a t do individual  For  Baudrillard's  d i s t i n c t i o n at  say  presents  i s concerned to  phenomena w h i c h  of  perceiving  of  universalism  that  a  Critique  related  a personal individual  comprised  of  t h e s e phenomena  conceives  establish  concern  are  of  other  itself  with  the  itself  as  of  the  Political  i s with  the  analysis  to  the  social  l e v e l : what perceives other say  a  do  these  itself  in  individuals  about  the  individuals'  who  ways  are  in  perceptions  itself? It  Edward have  is  interesting  Said's  similar  distinction  opinions things  on  to  to  place  on  culture,  say,  different  but  levels.  Baudrillard's  because B a u d r i l l a r d  discuss On  thought  the  beside and  Said  the  s o c i a l psychology  one  hand,  Baudrillard  of  asks:  w h a t do  individual On  the  the  conceives  other  ways  t h e s e phenomena say  hand,  i n which  perceptions  of  other  individuals' perceptions  Said  asks:  w h a t do  a  culture  itself?  d i s t i n c t i o n remains  of  the  on,a  cultural,  calls  the  Said  "the  of  of  other  the  same, and  identified,  of  a phenomenon  t h i s with  i n d i v i d u a l and  alibi  respect the  itself?  models  at  about  mechanism I  l e v e l of  cultural.  Said's  Said  the  therefore  the  the  has  democratic  of  a phenomenon w h i c h  l e v e l of and  of  cultures'  significance  of  an  t h e s e phenomena say  d i s t i n c t i o n on  Criticism,"(1983)  significance of  at  importance  "Secular  levels  scale  because  the  Baudrillard  the  of  the  between B a u d r i l l a r d ' s  further,  essay  roughly  the  l o c a l i z e d instance  much l a r g e r  parallels go  a  conceives  However,  s o c i a l psychology as  ways i n w h i c h  of  of  individual  about the  the  conceive the operates  The  of d i s t i n c t i o n  l e v e l of  the  i d e n t i c a l . t o what of  the  universal."  makes e x p l i c i t to  the  his  In  view  r e l a t i o n between  his of the  cultural:  What i s more i m p o r t a n t i n c u l t u r e ( t h a n t h e g r i d o f r e s e a r c h t e c h n i q u e s and e t h i c s by w h i c h t h e p r e v a i l i n g c u l t u r e i m p o s e s on t h e i n d i v i d u a l s c h o l a r i t s c a n o n s o f how s c h o l a r s h i p i s t o be c o n d u c t e d ) i s t h a t i t i s a s y s t e m o f v a l u e s saturating downward a l m o s t e v e r y t h i n g w i t h i n i t s purview; yet, p a r a d o x i c a l l y , c u l t u r e dominates from above w i t h o u t a t t h e same t i m e b e i n g a v a i l a b l e t o e v e r y t h i n g and e v e r y o n e i t d o m i n a t e s . I n f a c t , i n o u r age o f m e d i a - p r o d u c e d a t t i t u d e s , the i d e o l o g i c a l i n s i s t e n c e of a c u l t u r e drawing a t t e n t i o n t o i t s e l f a s s u p e r i o r h a s g i v e n way t o a c u l t u r e w h o s e c a n o n s a n d s t a n d a r d s 'are i n v i s i b l e t o t h e d e g r e e t h a t t h e y a r e " n a t u r a l , " " o b j e c t i v e , " and "real." 6  This not  only  analysis because  universalist Greenberg's  important  Greenberg  use  of  t h i s way  which  i n t e r e s t i n g ways,  arise and  implications  reiterates his  terms throughout  manifestations in  has  of  his  career,  thinking  f o r my  position  in  but  because  i s but  also one  i n many d i f f e r e n t a r e a s ,  further,  because  argument,  of  many  and  Greenberg's  intersect position  20 was  useful  t o the U n i t e d S t a t e s I n f o r m a t i o n Agency  distinguishing Let  us  Painting." Voice two  sign  return,  then,  This essay  of America  influential  Consequently, position  because  network  cultural  "Modernist  f o r Greenberg's  1960s.  The  thesis  Modern A r t  since  definition,  and  other  fields.  Greenberg's because  of  The  view,  Greenberg  Greenberg  Painting"  this  been  parallels  Kant  as  Critique  the  one  first  on  the  three years.^ of  a prise  de  a r t i n the  early  the project  of deductive  of  self-  developments  developments of  7  republished in  i s that  Modernist  most n o t a b l e o f t h e s e  sees  about  Painting"  Immanuel K a n t ' s  I t was  i s something  Manet has  broadcast  i n the next  of t h i n k i n g  terms."  "Modernist  t o be  year.  periodicals  way  essay  i n 1960  that  "Modernist  Edouard that  written  a  in universalist  t o Greenberg's  was  radio  i t i s stated  as  in  i s , in  Pure  Reason  (1770),  modernist  i n any  field.  writes:  I i d e n t i f y Modernism w i t h the i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n , almost the exacerbation, of t h i s s e l f - c r i t i c a l tendency (of Western c i v i l i z a t i o n t o q u e s t i o n i t s own f o u n d a t i o n s ) t h a t b e g a n w i t h t h e p h i l o s o p h e r K a n t . B e c a u s e h e was t h e f i r s t t o c r i t i c i z e t h e means i t s e l f o f c r i t i c i s m , I c o n c e i v e o f K a n t as t h e f i r s t r e a l M o d e r n i s t . The e s s e n c e o f M o d e r n i s m l i e s , a s I s e e i t , i n t h e u s e o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c methods of a d i s c i p l i n e t o c r i t i c i z e t h e d i s c i p l i n e i t s e l f , not i n order t o subvert i t , but i n order t o e n t r e n c h i t more f i r m l y i n i t s a r e a o f c o m p e t e n c e . ^ In  "Modernist  Painting,"  argument  f o r a model  part  parcel  of  and  Modern I  this  and  reiterates  aesthetic  with his teleological  autonomy,  conception of the  his which  is  history  1  have  spent because,  protestations 1 1  of c u l t u r a l  Greenberg  Art. ^  essay  essay,  then,  that  i t has  a  fair  amount o f t i m e  d e s p i t e Greenberg's "Modernist  come t o b e  Painting"  viewed  as  with a consideration  of  after-the-fact i s not  a  prescriptive  a crystalization  of  a  21 particular  viewpoint,  considerable throughout  profile  Micheal  F r i e d , Donald  Judd,  not  t o say the only,  recalcitrant At  less  of the modernist  of a r twriting,  the state of affairs  a d h e r e t o some  this  was t h e period.  on what p r o j e c t , o r which which i s  a voice of  Abstract  Expressionism,"  Expressionism  of Modernist  p a i n t e r l y surfaces  would n o t be  a d i s c u s s i o n of Greenberg's  i n Greenberg's thought.  extension  Mark Rothko  a r tthroughout  such as  d i d c o n s t i t u t e t h e dominant,  without  "After Abstract  argues that  time,  formalism.  described  represents  furthest  voice  t h e same t i m e ,  adequately article  a r t , they  States.  This  d i dnot n e c e s s a r i l y agree  the precise nature  was t h e b e s t  Krauss,  o f f o r m a l i s t modernism.  people  art  i n the United  and Rosalind  d o m i n a n t mode o f t h i n k i n g a b o u t  constituted  Greenberg's  names i n a r t w r i t i n g a t t h i s  of the idea  these  h a s t o do w i t h t h e  of culture like  t h e 1950s a n d e a r l y 1960s  high  Although  partly  p o p u l a r i t y o f models  Various  variation  and t h i s  a n d t h e new t a c k  In this had been  article,  of Clyfford  Still,  a r e t h e new l e a d i n g e d g e .  Barnett  Greenberg  that i t  Greenberg  superceded  p a i n t i n g , and that  1962  as t h e  the flatter, Newman a n d  writes:  B y now i t h a s b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d , i t w o u l d s e e m , t h a t t h e i r r e d u c i b l e essence o f p i c t o r i a l a r t c o n s i s t s i n b u t two c o n s t i t u t i v e c o n v e n t i o n s o r norms: f l a t n e s s and t h e d e l i m i t a t i o n o f f l a t n e s s ; and t h a t t h e observance o f merely t h e s e two norms i s enough t o c r e a t e an o b j e c t w h i c h c a n be experienced as a p i c t u r e : thus a s t r e t c h e d o r tacked-up canvas a l r e a d y e x i s t s as a p i c t u r e though not n e c e s s a r i l y a s a successful o n e . (The p a r a d o x i c a l outcome o f t h i s r e d u c t i o n has been n o t t o c o n t r a c t , b u t a c t u a l l y t o e x p a n d t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e p i c t o r i a l : much more t h a n b e f o r e l e n d s i t s e l f now t o b e i n g e x p e r i e n c e d p i c t o r i a l l y o r in meaningful r e l a t i o n t o the p i c t o r i a l : a l l sorts of large and s m a l l i t e m s t h a t u s e d t o b e l o n g e n t i r e l y t o t h e r e a l m o f the a r b i t r a r y and t h e v i s u a l l y meaningless.) A s i t s e e m s t o me, Newman, R o t h k o , a n d S t i l l h a v e s w u n g t h e s e l f - c r i t i c i s m o f m o d e r n i s t p a i n t i n g i n a new d i r e c t i o n s i m p l y b y c o n t i n u i n g i t s o l d o n e . T h e q u e s t i o n now a s k e d  22 t h r o u g h t h e i r a r t i s no l o n g e r what c o n s t i t u t e s a r t , o r t h e a r t o f p a i n t i n g , as s u c h b u t what i r r e d u c i b l y c o n s t i t u t e s good a r t a s . s u c h . Or r a t h e r , what i s t h e u l t i m a t e s o u r c e o f v a l u e o r q u a l i t y i n a r t ? And t h e w o r k e d - o u t a n s w e r a p p e a r s t o b e : n o t s k i l l , t r a i n i n g , o r a n y t h i n g e l s e h a v i n g t o do w i t h e x e c u t i o n or performance, but c o n c e p t i o n a l o n e .  deal to  G r e e n b e r g ' s new  line  of r e - s h u f f l i n g  going  say,  w i t h i n the  a mounting  comes a t a t i m e on  dominant  i n t h e New  critical  o p p o s i t i o n to Greenberg.  Frontier  Goes to Venice:  Biennale  (1985),  Robert  when t h e r e  is a  York a r t w o r l d .  mode o f In her  formalism,  thesis  Rauschenberg  and  L a u r i e Monahan d i s c u s s e s t h e  The  great Which i s  there New  the XXXII  nature  is  of  Venice  this  dissent: ( G r e e n b e r g ' s ) f o r m i d a b l e i n f l u e n c e as a c r i t i c perhaps t h e most i m p o r t a n t c r i t i c o f t h e 1950s made h i s a r t i s t i c " p r o p h e c i e s " f o r t h e 1960s a l m o s t an i n s t i t u t i o n , d e m o n s t r a t i n g h i s p o w e r f u l g r i p on t h e d i s c o u r s e o f a r t . Y e t a t t h e same t i m e , t h e v e r y i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f G r e e n b e r g ' s v i e w o f m o d e r n i s m became g r o u n d s f o r a r e b e l l i o n o f s o r t s on t h e p a r t o f many c r i t i c s " . J u s t as A b s t r a c t E x p r e s s i o n i s m was i n c r e a s i n g l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e p a s t , so t o o d i d G r e e n b e r g ' s c r i t i c i s m become e n t r e n c h e d as a t r a d i t i o n , made r i g i d by t h e v e r y d i a l e c t i c s t h r o u g h w h i c h he p r o n o u n c e d t h e n e x t s u c c e s s i v e move t o w a r d " f r e s h n e s s " i n a r t . S i n c e modernism, i n G r e e n b e r g i a n t e r m s , c o u l d o n l y be e x p r e s s e d t h r o u g h a b s t r a c t i o n , f l a t n e s s , and c o l o u r , and p a i n t i n g was p e r p e t u a l l y c o n f i n e d t o l i m i t s b e t w e e n t h e p a i n t e r l y or l i n e a r d i a l e c t i c , developments o u t s i d e of G r e e n b e r g ' s c o n c e p t u a l framework were s u m m a r i l y i g n o r e d . - ^ 1  By  the m i d - s i x t i e s , t h i s  Greenberg's g r i p  on  the  t o break o f f from the formalist  have,  or  these  problems  at  such  1 4  and  which Greenberg artist  i s Donald  not  to the  same d e g r e e . The  i s , a c c o r d i n g t o Judd, t h e . Since  for a variety  1959,  J u d d had  critics  saw  as  was  not  most p r e s s i n g  inevitable  of p u b l i c a t i o n s , although  began  of  work does  b e e n w r i t i n g on  of  the  J u d d , who  a number  p r o b l e m s which- t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l  least  of p a i n t i n g . basis  direction  a c o n v i c t i o n t h a t p a i n t i n g has  insurmountable  i n a weakening  art discourse. A r t i s t s  i m p e r a t i v e . One  developing  dissent resulted  of  illusionism a regular  most o f h i s w r i t i n g  23  at  t h i s time was  f o r Arts  magazine. The b u l k of t h i s w r i t i n g i s  reviews, but t h e r e are a few essays i n the mid-1960s i n which Judd e l a b o r a t e s the ideas behind h i s own  work. The most u s e f u l of  these w r i t i n g s i s Judd's essay " S p e c i f i c O b j e c t s , " which f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n the 1965  was  A r t s Yearbook.^-^ In t h i s essay,  Judd  e l a b o r a t e s h i s c o n v i c t i o n t h a t one of the major problems f a c i n g contemporary a r t i s the r e l i a n c e on composition i n the form of i n t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s between d i s c r e t e components. T h i s , i n t u r n , i n t e r f e r e s with the immediate comprehension of the p i e c e . The article  is titled  " S p e c i f i c O b j e c t s " because t h i s i s the term  Judd uses t o r e f e r t o a r t which f a l l s w i t h i n h i s a e s t h e t i c framework. The term r e f l e c t s Judd's c o n v i c t i o n t h a t he working  with a r t works which were phenomenologically  was  stable,  meaning t h a t they c o u l d not be confused with a n y t h i n g e l s e , avoid a l l i l l u s i o n ,  would  and would not r e f e r to a n y t h i n g o u t s i d e of  themselves. A b s o l u t e s p e c i f i c i t y i n t h i s sense i s , f o r Judd,  the  g o a l of the modernist p r o j e c t . Hence, i n Judd's terminology,  the  difficulty  with most artworks  are i l l u s i o n i s t i ' c ,  i s that they are " g e n e r a l " : they  a l l u d e t o t h i n g s o u t s i d e of themselves,  hence are not phenomenologically very s t r o n g l y t h a t p a i n t i n g was way  t o a v o i d the problem  s t a b l e . In p a r t i c u l a r , inevitably i l l u s i o n i s t .  of i l l u s i o n i s m ,  and  Judd The  felt only  a c c o r d i n g t o Judd's  argument, i s t o engage a c t u a l space. T h i s l e d Judd t o the d e c i s i o n t h a t the d i s t i n c t i o n between p a i n t i n g and s c u l p t u r e i s irrelevant,  and t o the r e d e f i n i t i o n of the Modernism i n the  v i s u a l a r t s as one p r o j e c t aimed at the p r o d u c t i o n of the •• d e f i n i t i v e a r t work, r a t h e r than as two  different projects,  aimed at. the p r o d u c t i o n of the d e f i n i t i v e p a i n t i n g ,  one  and the other  aimed at the p r o d u c t i o n of the. d e f i n i t i v e s c u l p t u r e . For  this  reason,  Judd  eschewed  prefering  to call  Objects,"  he  the term  "sculpture"  f o r h i s work,  i t " t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a lwork."  writes:  In  "Specific  ,  Three dimensions are r e a l space. That g e t s r i d of the p r o b l e m o f i l l u s i o n i s m and o f l i t e r a l space, space i n and around marks and c o l o r s w h i c h i s r i d d a n c e o f one o f t h e s a l i e n t a n d m o s t o b j e c t i o n a b l e r e l i c s o f E u r o p e a n a r t . The s e v e r a l l i m i t s o f p a i n t i n g a r e no l o n g e r p r e s e n t . A w o r k c a n be as p o w e r f u l as i t c a n be t h o u g h t t o b e . A c t u a l s p a c e i s i n t r i n s i c a l l y more p o w e r f u l a n d s p e c i f i c t h a n p a i n t on a f l a t surface.1^ It  i s interesting  more t h a n clause  just  implies  backward, negative stale.  a minor  a sweeping  by  identifying  difficulty.  revolting.  other,  well  as  rejection  archaic.  objectionable  i n European  of which would  relics,  Along  produce  a r t , an  with  be  " M i n i m a l i s m " and  other had.  that  work had,  In h i s statement  writes:  dependent  here  and  literal that  i f Judd  finds  of a r t which language  less  grim  carries ossified,  space this  as  one  i s not  the very  suggests  of  just  idea  literal  suggests that  aspects of European  in-depth  a r t as  are f o s s i l i z e d ,  there  archaisism,  as  characteristics,  cataloguing  o f h i s work as  h i s w o r k was a l lsimilar  and  discussion  had  many t h i n g s  sculpture,  reductive.  terms,  h i s work d i d n o t have i t also  "relics"  implies  Judd's  the description  the  true  offset  phrase i s  t o o much t o b e a r .  t h e argument t h a t  term  as  a work  revolting  eschewed  was  Judd  I t i s almost  simply  term  which  a host of other s l i g h t l y  present  it  The  The  of a l lEuropean  illusionism  Furthermore,  equally  t h e ways i n w h i c h t h i s  presciption.  connotations of things  someone w o u l d  space are  aesthetic  or at least  But  t h e most  that  an  t o unpack  He  rejected  arguing that,  a l o t of the things that  nobody e l s e ' s  i n the Primary Structures  Judd  while that work  c a t a l o g u e , he  25 I object t o s e v e r a l popular ideas, I don't t h i n k anyone's w o r k i s r e d u c t i v e . T h e m o s t t h e t e r m c a n m e a n i s t h a t new work d o e s n ' t have what t h e o l d work had. I t ' s n o t so d e f i n i t i v e that a c e r t a i n k i n d of form i s missing; a d e s c r i p t i o n and d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e ' k i n d p r e s e n t i s p r e t t y d e f i n i t i v e . New w o r k i s j u s t a s c o m p l e x a n d d e v e l o p e d a s o l d work.l^  other that  Furthermore,  Judd  work  i t had e l i m i n a t e d  because  i s , the formal  believes  argues that  relation  interferes with  Objects,"  Judd  h i s w o r k was  better  than  much  t h e use o f c o m p o s i t i o n  of d i s c r e t e parts  t h e immediacy  which  of perception.  he  In  "Specfic  writes:  In t h e three-dimensional w o r k t h e w h o l e t h i n g i s made a c c o r d i n g t o complex purposes, and t h e s e a r e n o t s c a t t e r e d b u t a s s e r t e d by one f o r m . I t i s n ' t n e c e s s a r y f o r a work t o h a v e a l o t o f t h i n g s t o l o o k a t , t o c o m p a r e , t o a n a l y z e one by one, t o c o n t e m p l a t e . The t h i n g a s a w h o l e , i t s q u a l i t y a s a w h o l e , i s what i s i n t e r e s t i n g . The m a i n t h i n g s a r e a l o n e and a r e more i n t e n s e , c l e a r and p o w e r f u l . They a r e n o t d i l u t e d by an i n h e r i t e d f o r m a t , v a r i a t i o n s o f a f o r m , m i l d c o n t r a s t s and c o n n e c t i n g p a r t s and spaces. A  suspicion  seems t o have important Judd  even  remained with  because,  argues  failure,  that  abstract  i n the terms  that  characteristic  virtual  which  any sense  space  (i.e.:  i s extraneous to  Judd's  first  engaging  actual  space had c o n s i d e r a b l e  with  unambiguously turned  units  of space  i s  From  which  in i t i s a i s a  painting.Therefore, illusionism  problems,  attempts t o produce  three-dimensional.  colours,  the piece  work  This  this  he  by  continued  a r t that  point  to  was  on, h i s work  has  on t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e e f f e c t s o f d i f f e r e n t  materials, to  t h e 1960s.  illusion)  attempts t o overcome  forms w h i c h were  two-dimensional  of the formalist aesthetics  although  work  i s not  Judd throughout  f o r , a painting with  given  mass  done  which  i n 1.965  which  and arrangements I want (fig.2).  a r e mounted  t o focus This  o n i n my  work  on a w a l l  i n space,  and t h i s  paper,  consists  at a uniform  an  of four height,  brings  us  untitled identical separated  26  from  each  o t h e r by  themselves inches  are  a c r o s s . The bottom  are  steel  has  been machined  obsuring the This  a l l made f r o m  a r e most  seams c a u s e d  straight,  or perhaps  box,  where  small  margin  steel  over  the  the  rest  because  illusion  indicating The because  any of  the  why  seems most  done  since  has  and  i t fails,  Judd  of the  of the  successful the  on  degree  even t h i s  down  the  of the  the  inside  folding steel  a  the from  i s a source  cut  of  surface to  A l l of t h i s  is vital  immediately  aims t o  of  l i p provides  stainless this  where  absolutely  Furthermore,  achieve,  attention sort  for  collapse by  h i s terms. of  argue,  on  this  work i s  o f work p r o d u c e d Nothing  simplicity  work u l t i m a t e l y  I want t o  stainless  object.  f o c u s my  example  surpassed Yet,  which  than  dripping  i m p e r f e c t i o n would  I want t o  early  less  finishing steel.  the  form  again because  stainless  and  i n the  imperfection.  of  plexiglass,  either  away. Hence,  cross-section  visible  which  terms,  and  stainless  place  of epoxy  wiped  i n terms  Judd  here.  be  made n a t u r e  i t i s an  achieved  form  specificity  reason  the  The  top,  i s the  edges b e i n g  the  34  joint  by  the  of the  a  to exist,  i s important  especially  match the Judd,  which  such  units  while the  steel.  over  likely  i n the  for error  stainless  i t folds  The  i n c h e s h i g h , and  between the p l e x i g l a s s  i t cannot  obscures  viewer,  trouble,  so t h a t  joint  imperfect  the  34  i n c h e s deep,  i s important, because  imperfections  intervals.  e n d s a r e made o f p l e x i g l a s s ,  and  steel.  34  cubical,  front  thus  8-inch  evenly-spaced  of  fails  because  Judd's  he  by has  form on  Judd's  terms'are  impossible. My is  the  fails.  argument  i s not  arbiter' of t a s t e In o t h e r words,  that on  Judd,  by  virtue  of being the  whose s t a n d a r d s t h e  when I s a y  that  this  work  stands  piece f a i l s  in  artist, or Judd's  27 terms, That  I am n o t s a y i n g  issue  is  that  to  produce  d o e s n o t c o n c e r n me  Judd has a goal work which  particular to  work  attaining  remains with  this  goal.  because  c a n make t h r e e  idea  plus  processes  are  ones which Charles as  because novel  writes,"We  t a k i n g account'  of the intelligent  situations." ^ 2  philosophical  bases  currency  various  moments a s s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n the manifestations  It  i n relation  untitled idea  piece  which  gave  am c o n c e r n e d  from rise  surroundings which they  of these  that  reliable  powerfully.  of  living  c a n make t o these moments i n for labelling  i s t o search f o r  p h i l o s o p h i c a l bases, conceptions  of  manifestation,  t o i t do, i n f a c t , i n this  how  precisely  of  at different  1965, and t h e n o t i o n  t o address  of  concern  t o us very  different  particular  asks  The i d e a s  way, one p o s s i b i l i t y  to shifting  i s the history of this  my  are absolutely  Different manifestations obtain  outside  which  tempted t o t h i n k  adaptation  or, t o put i tanother  particularly  Judd has s t a r t e d  a solution to the  a r e unsound.  of their  history  shifts  of non-referentiality  But again,  themselves  feel  This  the p h i l o s o p h i c a l bases of  and thought  t o suggest  o f which i s  refers t o nothing  five.  object  of perception  Taylor y  one e q u a l  point  o r a n y o n e e l s e comes  i ti s unattainable.  p o i n t i n g out that  tend  goal  my  of itself.  a solution t o a question  of the specific  the  things  this  Rather,  part  outside  one c a n no more f i n d  one c a n f i n d  goes beyond merely  As  However,  i t i s bad a r t .  juncture.  as c l o s e as Judd  o f how t o m a k e a w o r k w h i c h than  Judd's  at this  refers t o nothing  t h e wrong q u e s t i o n :  itself  standards,  f o rh i s art, a crucial  i s probably  out of reach  problem  one  t h a t , by Judd's  paper.  that  both  epistemology. Donald  Judd's  i t and t h e  have h i s t o r i e s ,  which  I  28 I  have  position  said that  Judd's a e s t h e t i c s o f s p e c f i c i t y  which has c e r t a i n presuppostions  Greenberg's modernism. contention  However, t h e r e  an e x a m i n a t i o n  of their  first  i s the issue  o f how b e s t  a r t forms. As I noted  three-dimensionally than  working  most  with  i n 1960 t i t l e d discovery  technique  the surface  t o dispense  above,  with  emerge The  illusion i n  Judd b e l i e v e s t h a t  working  i s open t o a w i d e r v a r i e t y o f p o s s i b i l i t i e s  less illusion.  important  staining  a r e two p o i n t s o f  p u b l i c a t i o n s from t h e 1960s.  two-dimensionally,  incorporates published  with  between Donald Judd and-Clement Greenberg which  from  visual  i n common  i s a  which  as w e l l a s more h o n e s t  But Greenberg  "Louis  allows  on w h i c h  i n d i c a t e d i n an  and Noland"  i n visual  because i t  that,  article  f o r him,t h e  a r t was t h e d e v e l o p m e n t  t h e i m a g e t o b e made  of a  co-extensive  i ti s painted:  The m o r e c l o s e l y c o l o u r c o u l d b e i d e n t i f i e d w i t h i t s g r o u n d t h e f r e e r would i t be from t h e i n t e r f e r e n c e o f t a c t i l e s e n s a t i o n s ; t h e way t o a c h i e v e t h i s c l o s e r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n was b y a d a p t i n g w a t e r c o l o u r t e c h n i q u e t o o i l a n d u s i n g t h i n p a i n t on an a b s o r b e n t s u r f a c e . ( M o r r i s ) L o u i s s p i l l s h i s p a i n t on u n s i z e d a n d u n p r i m e d c o t t o n duck c a n v a s , l e a v i n g t h e p i g m e n t a l m o s t e v e r y w h e r e t h i n e n o u g h , n o m a t t e r how many d i f f e r e n t v e i l s o f i t a r e s u p e r i m p o s e d , f o r t h e e y e t o sense t h e threadedness and woveness o f t h e f a b r i c u n d e r n e a t h . B u t " u n d e r n e a t h " i s t h e wrong word. The f a b r i c , being soaked i n p a i n t r a t h e r than merely covered by i t , becomes p a i n t i n i t s e l f , c o l o u r i n i t s e l f , l i k e dyed cloth. 2  The  1  second point  of contention  Greenberg  centres  position,  as e x p l a i n e d  that  t h e Modernist  "essential"  important  project  i n this  As I noted t o Judd,  emerges between  of reductivism.  i n "Modernist  and t h a t  Judd and  Greenberg's  P a i n t i n g " and elsewhere, i s  i s the reduction  characteristics,  participates different.  on t h e i s s u e  that  o f a r t forms t o t h e i r  a l l of t h e best  art "  p r o j e c t . Judd's p o s i t i o n i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y earlier,  while  simplicity  he does n o t c o n s i d e r  o f form i s  h i s work r e d u c t i v e .  Like  29 Greenberg,  Judd  makes t h e a r t o b j e c t But  again, Judd  argues  against  Greenberg  t h r o u g h an a r t form w h i c h  discrete  parts.  believes universal  such  which  whole  i s  with  no  behind the  and r e c t a n g l e s .  Judd  are immediately understandable t o the  share Judd's  a 1967 a r t i c l e  immediacy  i s a unified  f o r squares  forms  that  the motivation  standard of the rational  commentators in  This i s largely  at the time  that  o f form  immediately understandable t o the viewer.  achieved  predilection  of a c l a r i t y  expounds t h e v i r t u e  titled  view.  and a number o f  mind,  F o r example,  "Homage t o t h e  Lucy  Lippard  writes  Square":  The s q u a r e c a n n o t b e e x a g g e r a t e d ; i t r e m a i n s s t a t i o n a r y , enduring, u n a l t e r a b l e , and p r o v i d e s a u n i v e r s a l s t a n d a r d t h a t i s as a t t r a c t i v e i n i t s p r e c i s i o n and n e u t r a l i t y t o t h e s p a c e a g e a s i t was t o e a r l y p h i l o s o p h e r s a n d t h e o l o g i a n s . 2 2  Other Judd use  commentators  shared t h i s  a c h i e v e d a g r e a t degree of the "universal  attention example,  perspective,  of purity  and argued  i n h i s a r t because  that  this  standard" enabled him t o focus the viewer's  on t h e a r t o b j e c t i n "The N a r t - a r t  with  unprecedented  of Donald  Judd,"  intensity.  (1967)  Martin  For Friedman  writes: (Judd's) economy o f f o r m i s i n t e n d e d t o f o c u s t h e v i e w e r ' s a t t e n t i o n on t h e o b j e c t i t s e l f w i t h o u t i n v i t i n g d i g r e s s i o n s on t h e p r o c e s s b y w h i c h t h e p i e c e was made. B y d e e m p h a s i z i n g t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c p r o c e s s o f c r e a t i o n , he i n t e n d s t o make t h e o b j e c t . i t s e l f a m o r e i m m e d i a t e thing(...) H i s forms a r e s t u b b o r n l y c r y p t i c , i n s i s t e n t l y r e g u l a r and e x i s t w i t h c o l d a u t h o r i t y . So c o n c e r n e d i s h e w i t h f o r m a l p u r i t y t h a t h i s w o r k s become l u c i d axioms about p r o p o r t i o n a n d r h y t h m as much a s t h e y a r e a s s e r t i o n s a b o u t t h e d i s p l a c e m e n t o f space. 3 2  Some o f t h e l a n g u a g e indicates  interesting  Expressionism, production  Action  that  shifts  uses  i n aesthetic  Painting,  as / e x i s t e n t i a l i s t  Friedman  to discuss  criteria.  and t h e r h e t o r i c  action,  the status  With  Judd Abstract  of a r t of the a r t object  30 as  t h e t r a c e , o r p e r h a p s more a c c u r a t e l y , a s t h e p r o o f ,  action  obsession  with  t h e emergence  Krauss, always  and Donald  political critics  o f such Judd,  formalist,  before  Trotskyism  critics  they  was j e t t i s o n e d .  a r t f o rart's  sake"  of the artist's  Friedman  lauds  always  existed,  argument  Judd,  a legacy of  and t h e i r  a work's  de-emphasis . of  o f work w h i c h which  as a  definition  i t s realm  of formal  engagement  eliminated  Judd's  set of relationships.  o r made a f u n c t i o n o f s i m p l e  Questioning  by i n t e r n a l  immediate relates  These  specificity  with  an a r t  are either  structural  t h e manner i n w h i c h  formal  comprehension  this  of art.  repetition.  2 4  t h e s p e c t a t o r ' s engagement w i t h t h e a r t o b j e c t i s  way o f a d d r e s s i n g  created  "coldly  w h a t was a t i s s u e was m o d e r n  of the spectator's consciousness  own i n t e r n a l  of  the impression  integrated the consideration of site concerns,  upon,  specificity. the process  gives  stands  f o ra particular  was  Hence, s u b j e c t i v e  were t o be frowned  dilute  and thus  Greenberg  When J u d d  work's  which  a t h i s most  i n a way t h a t  presence,  Judd's  of  art's  Rosalind  rhetoric  Not having  shortly.  which  and h i sproduction  authoritative"  Krauss,  e x p l a i n more f u l l y  creation,  Judd,  Fried,  t o complete t h e p r o j e c t of " t u r n i n g  are distractions  Therefore,  into  as M i c h e a l  even w i t h Greenberg  them had, F r i e d ,  into  proofs  having  d u r i n g t h e 1960s,  the heroic existentialist  were a b l e  as I w i l l  traces,  However,  d i s c u s s i o n comparable t o t h a t which t h e generation o f  contemporaries  since  facture.  remained present,  incorrigibly  not,  such  was b o u n d up w i t h t h e c e l e b r a t i o n o f  or with  of  relations  the complexity  interferes  o f t h e work. As I noted  to the essential  any p a i n - t e d s u r f a c e h u n g  characteristic on a w a l l  with the viewer's above,  Judd  of the painting: f o r  contains  an  illusionist  31 reference. diverges by  Hence,  Greenberg  Judd's  earlier, space,  t h u s , as he  he  based  could  notes  of  space  i n and  around  and  European  working,  marks  salient  and  the around  the theory that the problem which  illusionism colours  and  I  the by  of  virtual  discussed of  literal  which  most o b j e c t i o n a b l e  is relics  of  art." ^ 2  Judd's things.  of the  to avoid  i n the quotation  "the problem  o f one  on  eliminate  r i d of  forward  1960s.  o f how  get  riddance  shift  First,  t o t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l work  i t f o r e g r o u n d Judd's  t o o v e r c o m e w h a t he  limitations sculpture. which  space,  was  consciously  being put  t o move t h e a r t o b j e c t  This solution  actual  and  the early  was  formalist,  aesthetics  t o the problem  of painting  space.  engaging  during  solution  illusionism  space  though  from the type of f o r m a l i s t  Clement  viewer  Judd's.aesthetic,  sees  desire  accomplishes to  find  new  ways  he, c a l l s  f o r Judd,  t h e most advanced  " t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l work,"  superceding painting  and  of  as t h e n e w l y - r e v e a l e d  o f t h e o l d ways o f w o r k i n g , n a m e l y p a i n t i n g T h i s i s why  two  sculpture.  and  which  In " S p e c i f i c  work he  and i s a  sees  form  as  O b j e c t s , " Judd  writes: P a i n t i n g and s c u l p t u r e h a v e become s e t f o r m s . A f a i r amount o f t h e i r m e a n i n g i s n ' t c r e d i b l e . The u s e o f t h r e e d i m e n s i o n s i s n ' t t h e use of a g i v e n form. There hasn't been enough time a n d w o r k t o s e e l i m i t s . So f a r , c o n s i d e r e d m o s t w i d e l y , t h r e e d i m e n s i o n s a r e m o s t l y a s p a c e t o move i n t o . The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of three dimensions are those of only a s m a l l amount o f work, l i t t l e compared t o p a i n t i n g and s c u l p t u r e . A f e w o f t h e m o r e g e n e r a l a s p e c t s may persist, s u c h a s t h e w o r k ' s b e i n g l i k e an o b j e c t o r b e i n g s p e c i f i c , b u t o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e b o u n d t o d e v e l o p . Since,, i t s r a n g e i s so wide, t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l work w i l l p r o b a b l y d i v i d e i n t o a number o f f o r m s . A t any r a t e , i t w i l l be l a r g e r t h a n p a i n t i n g and much l a r g e r t h a n s c u l p t u r e , w h i c h , c o m p a r e d t o p a i n t i n g , i s f a i r l y p a r t i c u l a r , much n e a r e r t o what i s u s u a l l y c a l l e d a form, h a v i n g a c e r t a i n k i n d o f form. •. 2 6  32 Although work" also  i n a general  way J u d d  sees t h i s  a s h a v i n g m o r e i n common w i t h argues that  closer  t o what he h a s i n mind  sculpture. painting Still,  t h e most advanced  This  i s because  of that  sculpture painting  i s t h e most  what J u d d  a r e more i n l i n e  composed o f a d e f i n i t e  whole  o f Mark D i Suvero  sees  with  "three  d i m e n s i o n a l work, " b u t so t o o does  Tokayer,  1963  serves f o rJudd  canvases  painting  Caro,  own w o r k  shaped  as t h e most  and v e r y few p a r t s o r Anthony  of the early  (fig.3). Judd w r i t e s  advanced o f Rothko,  ideal  o f a work  than are the the Hence,  o f what he means b y  work  1960s,  1960s i s  f o rexample.  as an example  he  advanced  Judd's  Judd's  Stella's  than painting,  of the early  time, such as t h e a l l - o v e r  a n d Newman,  sculptures  than  new " t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l  such  such  as Frank  as  Charlotte  of Stella:  S t e l l a ' s shaped p a i n t i n g s i n v o l v e s e v e r a l i m p o r t a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l work. The p e r i p h e r y o f a p i e c e a n d t h e l i n e s i n s i d e c o r r e s p o n d . The s t r i p e s a r e nowhere n e a r b e i n g d i s c r e t e p a r t s . The s u r f a c e i s f a r t h e r from t h e w a l l than usual, though i tremains p a r a l l e l t o i t . Since t h e surface i s e x e p t i o n a l l y u n i f i e d and i n v o l v e s l i t t l e o r no s p a c e , t h e p a r a l l e l p l a n e i s u n u s u a l l y d i s t i n c t . The o r d e r i s n o t r a t i o n a l i s t i c a n d u n d e r l y i n g b u t i s s i m p l y o r d e r , l i k e t h a t o f c o n t i n u i t y , one t h i n g a f t e r a n o t h e r . A p a i n t i n g i s n ' t an image. The s h a p e s , t h e u n i t y , p r o j e c t i o n , order and colour a r e s p e c i f i c , aggressive and powerful. ' 2  This what to the  view  i s v e r y much i n c o n f l i c t  constitutes  Judd,  Greenberg  successful  Anthony  successful  Caro,  believes  relation Greenberg  of  with  Greenberg's  t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l work. that  immediacy  discrete  parts.  view of  In contrast  i s achieved through In  a 1967  article  on  writes:  R a r e l y d o e s a s i n g l e s h a p e i n C a r o ' s s c u l p t u r e g i v e •" s a t i s f a c t i o n i n i t s e l f ; t h e weight o f h i s a r t l i e s p r e p o n d e r a n t l y i n what M i c h e a l F r i e d c a l l s i t s " s y n t a x , " that i s , i n the relation of i t s discrete parts. ^ 2  The  second t h i n g  three-dimensional  work  which  i s a c c o m p l i s h e d by Judd's  i s that  shift to  i tforegrounds the nature of the  relation  between viewer  viewer's  temporal  According site;  site  raises  J u d d ' s way  and  viewer.  the  complexity  taken  and  denote the  Judd's  line  idealist  subscribes  of  the  with the  work b e l o n g s  relations  of  formal  which  aegis of the "site"  formalism formal  i s o n l y an  of  the  analysis the  interferes  He  'anti-art  article (1986)  political  of the  with  work. from  a new  project.  direction  Within  a b s t r a c t term  as  to  relation. an  examination  formalism  of the  artist  set  i n which  p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s . Judd  i s art, i t s art."29  Specificity,"  the  manner  American  relationships.  a r t , ' and  Judd  internal  seems t o be  o f U.S.  accords  in his excellent  to uncover  stem  formalist  which  a critical  h i s work  Site  of the  to i t s  concerns,  the  object.  the c o n s i d e r a t i o n  relations  with site  same i d e a l i s t  'non-art  someone s a y s Crimp notes  comprehension  underpinnings  artwork's  addresses  the  between o b j e c t ,  integrating  formal  investigation  to those  'anti-art,'  artists  by  shared  existence of a viewer-object  to produce  Redefining  the  realm  concerns  potential  of  the  space  w i t h s c u l p t u r e ' s own  of t h e o r i z i n g ,  a  of  the  internal  immediate  Hence,  position  do  consequently  under the  line  concerned  into  c r e a t e d by  However,  the  so  Therefore,  consciousness  viewer's  Judd's  i n the  c o n t i n g e n t upon  i s s u e of modern s c u l p t u r e ' s engagement  relationships,  being  a r t o b j e c t as  of t h i n k i n g ,  changes,  specificity  spectator's  the  movement  i f i t s site  context, of  to  and  in was  fact not  privileged • the  notes, a r t ' are i t was,  sole  generator  " 'Non-art,' a l l useless. If as  Douglas  "Serra's Public  Sculpture:  left  of  different  site.  Crimp  to  specificity  a group of the  writes: The r e a l m a t e r i a l c o n d i t i o n o f m o d e r n a r t , m a s k e d by i t s p r e t e n s e .to u n i v e r s a l i t y , i s t h a t o f t h e s p e c i a l i z e d l u x u r y commodity. E n g e n d e r e d under c a p i t a l i s m , modern a r t became  34 subject t o the c o m m o d i f i c a t i o n from which nothing f u l l y e s c a p e s . And i n a c c e p t i n g t h e " s p a c e s " o f a r t ' s i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d commodity c i r c u l a t i o n as g i v e n , M i n i m a l art could neither expose.nor r e s i s t the hidden m a t e r i a l c o n d i t i o n s o f modern a r t . T h e t a s k was t a k e n u p i n t h e w o r k o f a r t i s t s who radicalized s i t e s p e c i f i c i t y , a r t i s t s s u c h as D a n i e l B u r e n and Hans Haacke, M i c h e a l A s h e r and Lawrence Weiner, R o b e r t S m i t h s o n and R i c h a r d S e r r a . T h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o a m a t e r i a l i s t c r i t i q u e of a r t , t h e i r resistance to the " d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of c u l t u r e i n t o c o m m o d i t i e s , " were f r a g m e n t a r y and p r o v i s i o n a l , the consequences l i m i t e d , s y s t e m a t i c a l l y opposed or m y s t i f i e d , u l t i m a t e l y o v e r t u r n e d . What r e m a i n s o f t h i s c r i t i q u e t o d a y a r e a h i s t o r y t o be r e c o v e r e d and f i t f u l , m a r g i n a l i z e d p r a c t i c e s t h a t s t r u g g l e t o e x i s t a t a l l i n an art w o r l d more d e d i c a t e d t h a n e v e r b e f o r e t o commodity value. o u  I  have noted t h a t  presuppositions aesthetics, Judd  nor  argument. both  too  being  an  Greenberg it,  as  made b y  there  concedes  that  w h i c h was  of  t o Judd's  and  t o h i s 1967  Greenberg's  Sixties.  However,  feeling  Greenberg  i t to  i n Greenberg's  be  eyes  Nonetheless  something  of value to  "Recentness  contribution County  neither  condemn t h e o t h e r ' s  work,  article  i n the  Greenberg's  too s l i c k .  " M i n i m a l i s m " has  t h e Los Angeles  the  and  to explicitly  intellectualism  i n the conclusion  Art  aesthetics  of obfuscation  accompanied  American  is hostile  intellectual  are important overlaps  marked d i f f e r e n c e s .  are w i l l i n g  Greenberg  agent  there  Judd's  are also  Greenberg  Sculpture," which  while  of  to the catalogue  Museum's  exhibition  writes:  ( M i n i m a l A r t ) m a k e s c l e a r a s n e v e r b e f o r e how f u s s y a l o t o f e a r l i e r a b s t r a c t s c u l p t u r e i s , e s p e c i a l l y t h a t i n f l u e n c e d by A b s t r a c t E x p r e s s i o n i s m . B u t t h e p r i c e may s t i l l n o t b e w o r t h i t . The c o n t i n u i n g i n f i l t r a t i o n o f G o o d D e s i g n i n t o w h a t p u r p o r t s t o b e a d v a n c e d a n d h i g h b r o w a r t now d e p r e s s e s s c u l p t u r e as i t does p a i n t i n g . M i n i m a l f o l l o w s t o o much w h e r e P o p , Op, A s s e m b l a g e , a n d t h e r e s t h a v e l e d ( a s D a r b y B a r n a r d , once a g a i n , has a l r e a d y p o i n t e d o u t ) . N e v e r t h e l e s s , I t a k e M i n i m a l a r t m o r e s e r i o u s l y t h a n I do t h e s e o t h e r forms o f N o v e l t y . I r e t a i n hope f o r c e r t a i n o f i t s e x p o n e n t s . Maybe t h e y w i l l t a k e s t i l l more p o i n t e r s f r o m a r t i s t s l i k e T r u i t t , Caro, E l l s w o r t h K e l l y , and K e n n e t h N o l a n d , a n d l e a r n f r o m t h e i r e x a m p l e how t o r i s e a b o v e G o o d D e s i g n . 31,  35 Similarly, contribution Greenberg  i n a 1967  book r e v i e w Judd  to discussions  i s also  clearly  on  a r t , but  recognizes  his hostility  from  to  this  point,  the re-thinking  similarities third  voice  which  Greenberg  s h o u l d be  complexity  of  debate  developing,  just  was  out  openly.  of It  reasons. of A r t s  the debate,  and  agreement  amongst  this  debate,  and  modernist  project  he  calls of  but  Fried's  i s a project  "theatricality" "theatricality"  a r t b e g i n s .to u t i l i z e  position  this  o f them,  i n t h e end  as  a  As  i n 1967)  this  Greenberg for  voice  two  i n the  pages  though,  Fried's  debate,  similar (aside  of course, that  o f what,  which takes issue For Fried,  and  intellectual,  to confront  importantly,  the question  process of d e f i n i t i o n  idea of  Judd.  of Michael Fried.  i n o t h e r ways t o G r e e n b e r g ' s  a l lthree  arising  i s , however,  became a p r o m i n e n t  Objecthood" appears  Greenberg  the  that  argued w i t h i n  modernist art),  " A r t and  within  and  but  of the differences  a p r o m i s i n g young  More  powerfully  the debate  There  d i d not h e s i t a t e  Artforum.  to consider  constitutes time  was  Judd.  P o l l o c k ' s work a l l r i g h t as about the  i n to adequately represent the  namely,  his quickly  later  i s one  important  and  i s necessary to consider  some w a y s t o J u d d ' s the  i n terms  added  Fried  H a r v a r d , who  First,  position  I have been d i s c u s s i n g  of modernism  between  to  visible:  T h e r e . i s n ' t a n y t h i n g r e a s o n a b l e , t h e n , on a few e a r l y ' r e v i e w s by G r e e n b e r g . T h e y ' r e r e v i e w s ; G r e e n b e r g was b e g i n n i n g t o t h i n k p a i n t i n g s ; b u t he q u i t . ^ 2 Up  Greenberg's  from  i t is  precisely, ( f o r example, a solid  by  the  position  i n i m p o r t a n t ways w i t h  f o r Greenberg  of d e f i n i t i o n .  and  Judd,  However,  rather  than with  "extinction."  denotes  the point  at which  effects  both  the  for Fried  occurs through the f l i r t a t i o n  t e c h n i q u e s and  in  with  what  Fried's  a given.type  which  are not  of  36 its or  domain,  thus becoming p a r t l y  a different  form of a r t from that  h e n c e no l o n g e r the  flirtation  flirtation  pure. with  with  a project which  of  disappearing,  this  theatricality  o f becoming nothing onto a w a l l .  conception  erroneous.33  The  i s fundamentally  crux  of Fried's  "literalism".  o f modernism as  o f modernism as  at a l l ,  o f becoming a  In other  words  Judd  argument  from o b j e c t s  against  I n h i s 1967 a r t i c l e  believes  p r o j e c t t o be  a pure  a r t object  i n general,  Judd's work,  flat  a n d on  Fried  o f an a r t o b j e c t . b e i n g different  o f modernism  i t i s on t h e v e r g e  o f m o d e r n i s m a s a reductive  issue  that  until  non-art  out t o be, and  he i s o p p o s i n g t h e i d e a  F r i e d i s i n agreement w i t h  Greenberg's  i tsets  to the idea  reduces the artwork  of canvas tacked point  which  When F r i e d o p p o s e s h i s i d e a  extinction,  as  piece  something e l s e , e i t h e r  i sthe  which F r i e d  " A r t and Objecthood,"  calls  Fried  writes: ( M ) o d e r n i s t p a i n t i n g h a s come t o f i n d i t i m p e r a t i v e t h a t i t d e f e a t o r s u s p e n d i t s own o b j e c t h o o d . . . ( T ) h e c r u c i a l f a c t o r i n t h i s u n d e r t a k i n g i s shape, b u t shape t h a t must b e l o n g t o painting i t must be p i c t o r i a l , n o t , o r n o t m e r e l y , l i t e r a l . Whereas l i t e r a l i s t a r t s t a k e s e v e r y t h i n g on s h a p e as a g i v e n p r o p e r t y o f o b j e c t s , i f n o t , i n d e e d , a s a k i n d o f o b j e c t i n i t s own r i g h t . 3 3 What  further bothers  F r i e d about  attention  to the relation  between t h e viewer  believes  that  primacy  should  concern with  object  to establish a particular  its  F r i e d as adding  nature  We Judd,  have  seen  Greenberg  dilute  as a work  i n the last  which  Fried  Thus,  o f t h ea r t  a r t object-viewer  i n t o a r t concerns  i t s quality  and t h e p i e c e .  t h e shape and placement  and which t h e r e f o r e  consequently,  i si t s  be a c c o r d e d t o t h e a r t work.  Judd's  strikes  using  Judd's work  relation  are extrinsic  to  i t s p u r i t y and,  of art.  f e w p a g e s how  a n d F r i e d , was f r a m e d .  This  the dispute dispute  between  i s one i n  37 which out  the differences  from  a distance,  modernist  o f o p i n i o n may because  aesthetics  as  between the p o s i t i o n s disputants  hold  common. T h e my  paper  central Nor  talking his  about  highly  European  under  any  history, but  that  criticism an  on  was  u n i q u e l y U.S. European  critical  during  1960s,  and  Judd,  Greenberg,  with  the  overlap  f o r example,  s a k e " was  that  a l ltraces  a r t which j  Nor  ot  n  do  about  was  of external  how  Hence,  the  boundaries  not  exclude  only  myopic  want t o argue, t h a t  I want t o want t o  a r t i n the United i n the  social as  of view  argue  States  field  I noted as  of above,  Krauss,  which  occurs  o f an e v e r - p r e s e n t  i s d o n e away w i t h .  interpreted from  form  of  that  determination to  i n these f i e l d s  for  different  fact  fierce  s u r v e y s . However,  i n the  when  in spite  t h e emergence of such w r i t e r s  of e x i s t e n t i a l i s m ,  significantly  shows,  of  i n other terms.  were i n t e r e s t e d  undertone art's  Monahan  Rauschenberg, of the  the forms.  formalist  formalists.  modernism  Laurie  of  of  within  about  people w r i t i n g  view which  that  the terms  As  in spite  American.35  t h e m i d - 1 9 6 0 s who  the  the  of t a l k i n g  and  self-definition  within  h i s work  keeping the debate  a way  the  f o r the purposes  autonomous,  as R o b e r t  talked- about  because  of  differences  t o t h e s e b o u n d a r i e s even  and  pick  the nature of a r t i n  of i n e r t i a .  such  to  stake i s the nature  subtle  about  framed  adhered  artist  t h e r e w e r e no  Fried  a result  s u g g e s t i v e imagery  w e r e no  during  beliefs  c i r c u m s t a n c e s , and  almost  there  as  critics  insistence  seem r a t h e r  remain  difficult  o f f o r m a l i s m . Thus t h e  art i s historically  d i d the discussion  U.S.American  i s at  of Modernist a r t i s the  formalism merely  in  may  rather  important of these b e l i e f s  are that project  a sort  some k e y  most  what  be  i n a way  which  Greenberg  The  phrase,, " a r t  i s subtly  interpreted  r e f e r e n c e s were purged  from  it,  but in  38 Modernism.  For Greenberg,  sake  entire  o f an  way  "art for art's  of thinking  of l i f e .  spite  of himself,  but nonetheless,  garde  artist  the e x i s t e n t i a l  writing.  However,  Alberro's Krauss, sake" this  with  elegant  Judd,  was  as  I mentioned  formulation,  Friedman,  reinterpreted  i s important,  introduction writings,  and  Perhaps  the association hero never  others  of the  avant-  Greenberg's  t h e emergence o f i n t h e 1960s,  to clarify  of Greenberg's  to  Fried,  "art for art's  briefly.  volume of Greenberg's  O'Brian writes  i s in  i n the Prologue i n relation  with  s o a l l o w me  this  leaves  t o mean " a r t a s t a u t o l o g y . "  to the f i r s t  John  s a k e " meant a r t f o r t h e  I think  that  In h i s  collected  early  work:  The d i s s e n t i n g t o n e o f G r e e n b e r g ' s v o i c e , q u i c k t o r e j e c t w h a t s e e m e d m e r e t r i c i o u s i n c o n t e m p o r a r y c u l t u r e , was a t o n e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f a g r o u p o f New Y o r k c r i t i c s a n d w r i t e r s b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r by b r o a d l y s h a r e d c o n v i c t i o n s about a r t and p o l i t i c s . Among t h e m w e r e P a u l Goodman, D w i g h t M a c d o n a l d , W i l l i a m P h i l l i p s , P h i l i p Rahv, H a r o l d R o s e n b e r g , I s a a c R o s e n f e l d , M e y e r S c h a p i r o , L i o n e l T r i l l i n g , R o b e r t Warshow, and Greenberg h i m s e l f . ^ 6 This in  i s where Greenberg  a group  art,  but  that  which  discussing  This  could  heritage,  f o r the philosophical  which  Judd,  1950s, years  milieu studying  or F r i e d later,  i s very  discussing  philosophy  have been 7  without  discuss I have  intellectual discussing  art without said,  provided  the  concerns  which  writings.  tenor  this  different  politics.3  an  and p o l i t i c a l The  of  from the pragmatism  at Columbia  have been exposed.  Harvard, i t would  without  as  and K r a u s s , s t u d y i n g  would  as  discuss p o l i t i c s  always present i n Greenberg's  intellectual  and  could  i t seems u n l i k e l y  politics.  foundations are  perhaps  cut h i s teeth  during  philosophy  the  to  early  at Harvard a  In the mileaus of  few  Columbia  a matter of course t o d i s c u s s a r t  There formalist  are three h i s t o r i c a l modernism  discussion.  First,  m o d e r n i s m was United  derived turned essay of  of  from  and  had  first  an  aesthetics  into  essay  way  which  a neutral  "New  are  half  about  of the  of t h i n k i n g  1960s,  about  Painting  which  Only  formalist  a r t i n the  position  leftist,  F o r example,  York,"  my  certain  this  once been  position.  i n New  York  claimed that had  the  important to  f o r some t i m e . S e c o n d ,  modernism  Late Thirties  h i s 1957  the  been  formalist  itself "The  during  1960s w h i c h  the predominant  States,  proponents  of the  considerations  but  had  in his  i s a revised  Yesterday,"  was  1961 version  Greenberg  writes: R a d i c a l p o l i t i c s was o n many p e o p l e ' s m i n d s , b u t f o r t h e s e p a r t i c u l a r a r t i s t s S o c i a l R e a l i s m was a s d e a d a s t h e A m e r i c a n Scene. (Though t h a t i s n o t a l l , by f a r , t h a t t h e r e was t o p o l i t i c s i n a r t i n t h o s e y e a r s ; some d a y i t w i l l h a v e t o b e t o l d how " a n t i - S t a l i n i s m , " w h i c h s t a r t e d o u t m o r e o r l e s s as " T r o t s k y i s m , t u r n e d i n t o a r t f o r a r t ' s sake, and t h e r e b y c l e a r e d t h e way, h e r o i c a l l y , f o r w h a t was t o come.) 30  The view  ascendancy o f a r t as  Greenberg's aesthetic concepts  of t h i s  autonomous  position  a l t h o u g h , as  existed  judgement  i n a new  claim  way  t o have  Third,  but  insisted  its  politically-oppositional  How  New  York  upon u s i n g  Stole  the  I noted  the  Modernism which  1960s,  a  signals  the  of  the  not  in  dominant  i n which  are defined  the  i n terms  arrival from  of  of  a  critical  of i t s t a u t o l o g i c a l l y - d e f i n e d  formalist  Modernism  the terminology which  Idea  above,  s e p a r a t e d Modernism  of anything outside  of i n t e r e s t .  stabilization  i n the United States  o f a v a n t - g a r d i s m and  self-conscious  For the  l e d to the  t h o u g h t . N o n e t h e l e s s , by  "self-criticism"  circuit  belief  legacy. of  Modern  As  Serge  not  was  only  held  Guilbaut  retained  over  from  writes  in  Art:  t h e a v a n t - g a r d e t h e i m p o r t a n t t h i n g was t h a t i t now ( i n l a t e -1940s) became p o s s i b l e t o p e r p e t u a t e t h e p r a c t i c e  40 of p a i n t i n g s without l o s i n g face, t h a t i s , without a b a n d o n i n g t h e v o c a b u l a r y o f r a d i c a l p o l i t i c s . The a l i e n a t i o n o f t h e a r t i s t , t h e a v a n t - g a r d e b e l i e v e d , was necessary t o h i s l i b e r a t i o n . A l l avant-garde a r t i s t s agreed on t h i s p o i n t , f o r t h e m c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f m o d e r n i t y . Greenberg and Rosenberg, moreover, based t h e i r hopes f o r a r e n e w a l o f A m e r i c a n a r t on t h i s b e l i e f . 3 9 To  be sure,  writings  there  are occasional  of the three  interests  o f U.S.American  seems t o be t h e most Take,  f o r example,  Berger's  Fried  who  rigourously  Red.  turning  chooses  B e r g e r ' s book  to hold claims  i n this  i n order  demonstrate  that  is  attempting  review  itself,  territory  that  t o make t h e c a s e  that  Hence,  4  B e r g e r ' s book d o e s n o t do what  than  t o raise the question  t o do i s w o r t h w h i l e . Fried  methodologically,  i s able  intriguing. For,  on t h e M a r x i s t  i s an i r r e s p o n s i b l e M a r x i s t . ^  rather  but this i s  review  John Berger  doing,  sixties.  into a d i a t r i b e f o r formalism,  h i s argument t o represent  Fried  i n 1961 o f John  Fried i s not a Marxist,  h i s analysis  the  Michael  i n the early  F r i e d wrote  i nthe  t o represent  Of t h e t h r e e ,  critical  what makes h i s argument  than  references  I am u s i n g  formalism.  the review  Permanent  precisely rather  people  political  Fried elects to  i t claims  o f w h e t h e r what  t o be Berger  As he makes c l e a r i n t h e  t o do t h i s  h e h a s some t r u c k  because,  with  Marxism:  ( A ) f t e r Marx, i t i s no l o n g e r p o s s i b l e f o r anyone t o d e l u d e h i m s e l f t h a t h i s a t t i t u d e s toward a r t o r s o c i e t y a r e ap o l i t i c a l . What M a r x a c c o m p l i s h e d was n o t h i n g l e s s t h a n t h e enlargement o f t h e realm o f t h e p o l i t i c a l u n t i l i t embraced a l l human a c t i v i t i e s , a t t i t u d e s a n d i n s t i t u t i o n s . 4 1  However, review  F r i e d takes  t o disabuse  care  h i s readers  i n the third of the idea  that  methodological  similarity  While  the tone  of this  Fried  i s interested i n integrating political  discussion  correlates with  paragraph  review  might  of 'art, a c l o s e r look  suggests  this  a political  at f i r s t  glance  sympathy.  suggest  concerns  that  ofh i s  that  into a  what F r i e d i s i n  4 2  fact  after  is a sanitized historical  materialism,  that  i s to  leftist  political  writing  through the  Three'American and  reductive after  without p o l i t i c a l  committment  i n a way  "Shape as  one  i s an  Form"  e f f o r t to  which would d i s t a n c e  formalism. ^ 4  and  comittment,  i n p a r t i c u l a r . As  (1965),  (1967) t h e r e  Minimalism  historical  1960s, t h i s r e a d i n g o f F r i e d  Painters  Objecthood"  materialism  say,  materialism  j  n  1987 article  a  Pop,"  Fried  surveys  i s confirmed. (1966) and  juggle  Fried  In  "Art  formalism  from  titled  his  and  Greenberg's  "Theories  of  Art  writes:  The i m p l i c a t i o n o f ( G r e e n b e r g ' s ) a c c o u n t was t h a t s u c h a ( t i m e l e s s , i r r e d u c a b l e ) c o r e had b e e n t h e e s s e n c e o f p a i n t i n g a l l a l o n g , a v i e w t h a t seemed t o me a h i s t o r i c a l , and I wanted t o f i n d an a l t e r n a t i v e t h e o r e t i c a l model t h a t on t h e one hand w o u l d not d i s s o l v e i n t o mere r e l a t i v i s m and on t h e o t h e r w o u l d not l e a d t o what I w i l l c a l l t h e wrong s o r t of essentialism. 4 4  Greenberg, critic  for his part,  whose L e f t i s t  response to  the  sympathies  climate  of  q u o t e d above c o n c e r n i n g that was  there  was  deal  of  c o m m i t t e d . One  difficulty. pessimistic  unable to  more t h a n  and  the  rise  of  the  " A v a n t - g a r d e and reveals  that of  culture  the  of  1930s. T h i s circles  that  But  Cold  War.  His  a former s o c i a l  something e l s e statement  i n the  can  1930s  at the  lament t h e  passing  petit-bourgeois.  Kitsch"  remaining  same t i m e ,  and  of b o u r g e o i s example,  c o n c e r n G r e e n b e r g most  Depression-era United  i s . a c o n c e r n w h i c h was  States  itself society  a look  is  during  the  at quickly  the  i n the  v e r y much i n t h e  moving i n a t  a  i t is a  which f i n d s  living  I  sake  without  4  while  a'  suggests  "Towards A Newer L a o c o o n " ^  civilized  G r e e n b e r g was  For  as  which  for art's  accept t h i s claim  type o f . r a d i c a l i s m  what seems t o  difficulty  changed i n t o  radical politics  particularly do  the  r e a d as  a t i m e when what l a t e r became a r t  politically  great  i s often  the  dissipated late  air in  time that  he  the  was  42 writing My  "Avant-Garde  concern  i s with  and  where Greenberg  w h a t he  prescribed  culture  i s in disarray,  the  K i t s c h " and  as  the  someone e l s e  socialist the  need  order for  aristocratic  to  do  which w i l l 4  he  is "elitist"  that  he  w o u l d have b e e n more  which banal.  That  weak  liberalism  that  any  potentially foundation are  free  once  j £  4  "The  Relevance  seemed so  various  of  But  mechanisms,  boundaries.  So  p r o p o s e d by  Greenberg,  elitism  confusion buying  what  protected  democratic  n  t  o  alibi" may  by, of  f o r any  which to  and  since  be  the  allied  of  puts  protect  diverse  use  here  is a  i s the  social,  or  type  into a -particular sort  of  criticized  elitism,  or  the holds is  that  a l l people  an  ideology  i t in his forgets itself  of  of 1980  why  i t  with generated of  elitism  aristocratic,  u n i v e r s a l i s t a e s t h e t i c s . At I have  to  activity  phenomena  B a u d r i l l a r d ' s phrase  arise: after all,  valid  essential  with  "conveniently  are  he  w e l l , which  form  not  aesthetics,  delimit a l l different sorts issue  abolish is  appealing  so  Serge Guilbaut  "elitisms"  i s at  of  analyzes  f o r modernism to  and  or  equally  acknowledgement  wish to as  " a r t " as  a matter  Modernism,"  important 4  as  limits  i s the  p l u r a l i s m which,  self-criticism." 9 by  Q  new  Greenberg  "anti-elitist"  a l l liberties,  a l l liberty  agents. ^  of  i s not  prescribe to  the  i n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d way,  J e f f e r y Minson  a threat of  unbridled essay  to  sort  and  altogether,  culture,  problem with  proferred  argument  that  attempt  The  the  withered,  create  high  and  Greenberg,  " i d e o l o g i c a l l y c o r r e c t " had  for a  a l l things  i s , my  spade work t o  i n some v a g u e ,  argument  accepted  7  to  Laocoon."^  problem  from p u b l i c  e i t h e r accept  i t altogether. "  an  the  p a t r o n a g e has  retire  the  that  formulated  identified  solution. According  a v a n t - g a r d e must t h e r e f o r e  leaving  "Toward a Newer  after I  again, this  "t.he  point,  Greenberg dismissed  some for  liberal at  arguments  t i m e s , i t seems t h a t  Greenberg and  t a s t e . 5 0 But  therefore when,  they are a p r i o r i  writes,"The  problem  f o r the c r i s i s  Certainly criticism art  active  But is  issues  appears Judd's  same a r t i s t s example, the  arguments  various  and  which  that  extolls  issues,  Judd  of the  are s i m i l a r of A l Jensen  majority  flat  and  nearly  audience  order  he  a  t h a n as  Greenberg  1960s.  f o r the  And  even  c a r e f o r , he  history  movements. clear  social a  leitmotif  concerns  generally  Judd  place  same r e a s o n s . Kenneth  uses  article  the  For  Noland i s  when J u d d  discusses  formalist  to those of Greenberg. i n h i s 1964  an  of formalism  contend that  For  "Local  example, History,"  got t o the p o i n t  without i l l u s i o n i s t i c  of A l Jensens' paintings  has  of  what becomes  What p r i m a r i l y  and  not  Judd's  should address  writes,"Most of the best painting'has  i s nearly  he  the virtues  1960s,  the legacy  Greenberg  in  and  comments r a t h e r  leave  does  correct  Arts,"  the e l i t e  the  personal,  Crow i s  are places  art practice  of the early  Greenberg  transcends the  politically-oriented  of w r i t i n g .  Greenberg.  both Judd  who  there  a t t h e t o p o f t h e heap,  a discussion  Judd it  corpus  best painter  painters  that  occasional  questions which never  r e p r e s e n t e d by  in  as  i s that  culture."52  through h i s writings that  saying  i t s a r t , the social  addresses s o c i a l  t h e argument  through are  which  of  of boundaries  i n the Visual  1 9 6 0 s w h e r e he  involvment with  reading that  i t i s true  of the early  practice  but  aesthetics  a b s o l u t e . 5 1 Tom  remains, however,  Yet,  i s what  i s based  and  aesthetics.  aesthetics  i s actually  Mass C u l t u r e  i n every respect  responsible  anti-elitist  t h a n an  upon which h i s t a s t e  and  an  anti-elitist  what G r e e n b e r g  i n "Modernism  endorses,  an  i s advocating, rather  aesthetics  of  which proposed  space.  are completely f l a t .  where The  They  depend e n t i r e l y patterning."^^ are  on t h e t e x t u r e , t h e c o l o u r a n d t h e complex Certainly,  revealed here.  placed  The m a j o r  one i s t h e d e g r e e o f  upon a p a i n t i n g b e i n g  Expressionism," his  d i f f e r e n c e s between Judd  concern.  flat.  In "After  Greenberg w r i t e s that t o t a l  As he p u t s  it,  the question  irreducibly  c o n s t i t u t e s p a i n t i n g per  irreducibly  c o n s t i t u t e s good p a i n t i n g . 5 4  difference enclosed  i s one b r o u g h t  formalist  Judd's conception relies and  Judd's  will  that  preclude  independent  object of  f o rthis i t must  are fairly  relation  t o other  a e s t h e t i c systems.  concrete: to  Gradually, of  formal  the  Other  phenomenological  but which  stability  of  being  evolved  Judd  into  adds t o t h e  of the specific  the a r t Some  out i n  criteria  are fairly  i tmust n o t be  hard  composition. a fairly  p r o p e r t i e s . One i s t h e r e c t a n g u l a r f o r m .  need n o t be p r e s e n t ,  fact  criteria.  a b s t r a c t , and a r e l a i d  criteria  very  However,  certain  a n d i t m u s t n o t make u s e o f these  with  state t o occur,  t h e work must n o t be c o m p l i c a t e d ,  comprehend,  phenomenological  perceptions  will.  fulfill  criteria  which  p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s , and  ideal  these  a  of the subject.56  o b j e c t , by  of the viewer's  must be s p e c i f i c ;  on a  the viewer's  conditions  i n order  tightly-  and t h e a r t i s t  i s not concerned  contingency  w i t h by m a t e r i a l l i m i t s ,  that  what  But again, the  I t i s based  interfered  maintains  longer  what  object u t i l i z e s  i s that the specific  specificity,  i s no  i s no l o n g e r  state f o rt h e viewer  the historical  intention  flatness  of view.55  e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l innocence about  Abstract  se, b u t r a t h e r ,  aesthetic of the specific of the ideal  importance  about by manoevering w i t h i n a  on a d e n i a l o f h i s t o r y .  arguments  its  field  and Greenberg  stable set  Another,  apparent object,  i s the  which  45 repetition cube,  o f a r e g u l a r f o r m . The i d e a  34 i n c h e s  deep,  34 i n c h e s  the  t o p , f r o n t , and b o t t o m  the  ends f a s h i o n e d  to  feel the to  was  responsible  that  one. Even a f t e r  had  been c o n c e i v e d  art  works,  being  three  would l o o k  t o the extant  fifth in  told  would look  space o f t h e f i f t h  third  of m a t e r i a l s generally  like,  criterion  object  i f a person  conception not only  from which t h e s p e c i f i c  are materials  common  and p l e x i g l a s s . T h i s  originally  to predict  sees  four,  f r o m one F o r example,  involved  five  to visualize  object  what t h e  t h e placement  object  concerns t h e range  c a n be made,  i n the manufacture f o r example,  First,  which  of post  stainless  range o f m a t e r i a l s  Judd's a e s t h e t i c o f t h e s p e c i f i c  World  steel,  i s important  i t i s t h e nexus between  object  a e s t h e t i c s w h i c h were c u r r e n t  W o l f g a n g Haug u s e s t h e t e r m  similar  7  of the s p e c i f i c  my d i s c u s s i o n f o r two r e a s o n s .  commodity  or exactly  but a l s o t o v i s u a l i z e  object.^  a banal  or that the  at a regular distance  War I I m a s s - p r o d u c e d a p p l i a n c e s : aluminum,  than  reason  o r how they, w o u l d be p l a c e d  o b j e c t . However,  that the original  i s no  and  i n a series of four r e l a t e d  like,  t h e v i e w e r w o u l d be a b l e  object  A  similar  that t h i s  steel,  responsible f o r  t h e s e n s e o f i n t e n t i o n i s much s t r o n g e r .  upon b e i n g objects,  told  with  would n e c e s s a r i l y  about b e i n g  very  o f as one p i e c e  s u c h c u b e s mounted on a w a l l another,  other  t h e v i e w e r w o u l d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y be a b l e  what t h e o t h e r relative  p l e x i g l a s s , there  f o r i t s production  of another object  long,  out o f s t a i n l e s s  p u r p o s e mounted on a w a l l ,  s t r o n g l y one way o r t h e o t h e r production  i f one s e e s one  a n d 34 i n c h e s  t h e cube i s a n y t h i n g  of indeterminate  p e r s o n who  fashioned  out o f c o l o u r e d  assume e i t h e r t h a t  object  high,  i s that  and t h e U . S . A m e r i c a n during  t h e 1960s.  "commodity a e s t h e t i c s " t o r e f e r t o  to  46 the  appearance of use-value  economy where t h e  corporate  precedence over the or  of the  designed  welfare  consumer who  " I d e o l o g i c a l Values  to s e l l  profit  of the  of the  w o r k e r who  in  distributor  b u y s i t . In a 1978  and  products  takes  makes t h e  essay  an  product  titled  Commodity A e s t h e t i c s : The  Example o f  the  *Jeans C u l t u r e ' , " Haug w r i t e s : The a e s t h e t i c s o f t h e monopoly commodity c o n s t r u c t s an i m a g i n a r y s p a c e a r o u n d t h e commodity b o d y . I t t h e r e b y p r e p a r e s t h e way n o t o n l y f o r t h e c o n n o t a t i o n o f p r o p e r t i e s or v a l u e s , but a l s o f o r the i m a g i n a t i o n of w i s h - a c t i o n s or, ... more p r e c i s e l y , f o r a c t s o f s a t i s f a c t i o n , w h i c h i n i t i a l l y stay w i t h i n i n the realm of the imaginary-wishful.^8 The  imaginary  with  space around the  sales pitches  of the  commodity  and  commodity  advertisements,  itself.  Hence,  steel  connote the  values  Secondly, for  use  are  the  in specific  fabricators.  of e f f i c i e n c y  objects  They a r e  world-historical What l e n d s that  a l l surfaces  materials  and  the  be  a Roy  to and  used e f f e c t i v e l y  employment  division  hook d i r e c t l y  during  of  urgency to these  the  i t s production.  m a t e r i a l s he  surface  1960s, the  as  appropriate  of  commercial  and  that  uses are  observations  commodity they  are  a nexus i s that  in his  artwork  material  Judd c o n s i s t e n t l y m a i n t a i n s  L i c h e n s t e i n show, J u d d ' s r u m i n a t i o n s  example, on  the  —•-  aesthetics  of labour  h i s work t o t h e  v a l u e - f r e e . For  the  labour.  two  i n t o the  division  link  to  modernity.  r e q u i r e the  i n h i s w r i t i n g , s i n c e they of  only  P l e x i g l a s s , aluminum,  a r e p r e c i s e l y what J u d d wanted t o deny, b o t h  conditions  the  designed  which Judd i d e n t i f i e s  b e t w e e n J u d d ' s a e s t h e t i c s and they  and  not  a n e x u s between J u d d ' s a e s t h e t i c s and  particular  w h i c h were c u r r e n t  a l s o with  w h i c h can  phenomenon o f t h e  Judd's m a t e r i a l s  but  s u r f a c e s must be  connote c e r t a i n p r o p e r t i e s or v a l u e s . stainless  i s contructed  that  i n a review banality  of  of  47  everyday  life  affirm this  view of  industrial  materials.  He  writes: A l o t o f v i s i b l e t h i n g s a r e ( p l e a s a n t , b l a n d and e m p t y ) : m o s t m o d e r n c o m m e r c i a l b u i l d i n g s , new C o l o n i a l s t o r e s , l o b b i e s , most houses, most f u r n i t u r e , most c l o t h i n g , s h e e t aluminum and p l a s t i c w i t h l e a t h e r t e x t u r e , t h e f o r m i c a like wood, t h e c u t e and modern p a t t e r n s i n s i d e j e t s and d r u g s t o r e s . Who has d e c i d e d t h a t a l u m i n u m s h o u l d be textured l i k e l e a t h e r ? N o t A l c o a , who m a k e i t : t o t h e m t h e r e i s j u s t a demand. I t ' s n o t l i k e l y any o f t h e b u y e r s t h i n k much a b o u t i t . The s t u f f j u s t e x i s t s , n o t o b j e c t i o n a b l y t o m a n y p e o p l e , s l i g h t l y a g r e e a b l y t o many. B a s i c a l l y , a g a i n , no one has thought about i t . I t ' s i n limbo.^9 ,_  Let  quote.  us  s p e n d a moment u n p a c k i n g t h e  C l e a r l y , J u d d has  marketplace. into  two  through  camps. A a  response  Roughly  to  ex  allocation to  n e e d . As  at  the  they  his  of  article  "direct"  or  correlate with  as  and  assessed output  of  that  be  no  one  and  has that  post.^®  by  at  these  to  thought  ex  consumption  about  market  satisfy  any  rate  post  i t  is a  s e e m s t o me  in  the  Planning," itself  in  direct allocation modes  adapting taken  i s the  of  output  as  given  dominant  t h e m . Or  uncertain,  through  Judd,  6 1  runs  T h e s e two  whatever  works  shifts  sees  these needs are  ante  unknown o r  the  view  allocation:  i s organized  reveal  of  this  markets  economy  Socialist  d i f f e r e n t ways o f  ex  of  i s produced  of  in  the  a market  consumer  a point  "planned"  two  the  ' e f f e c t i v e demand'."  argument  production  such  of  divide theories  Defense  Mandel n o t e s , " E i t h e r  deemed t o  view:  "In  a l l o c a t i o n i s ex  i s supposed to  The  can  consumption:  that  market  body,  expenditures third  one  view holds  explains  outset,  are  market  In  to  ante,  social  liberal  patterns  Mandel  opposition is  speaking,  unusual view  f e e d b a c k mechanism whereby what  marketplace. Ernest  a rather  presuppositions  else and  the  offers  a  the  however,  i t ' s i n l i m b o . -•' continuous  t o be  cycle  rather  of  random  indefensible.  48  Pace J u d d , about  I would  i t very  say  hard  that a tleast  a few  indeed. As Mandel  people  have thought 1  writes:  A l r e a d y today, i n t h e m o s t a d v a n c e d c a p i t a l i s t c o u n t r i e s , t h e b u l k o f b o t h consumer and p r o d u c e r goods a r e n o t p r o d u c e d i n any way i n r e s p o n s e t o "'market s i g n a l s " shifting v i o l e n t l y f r o m y e a r t o y e a r , l e t a l o n e m o n t h t o m o n t h . The  bulk of current production corresponds to established consumption patterns and predetermined production techniques that are largely if not completely -independent of the market (...) M o r e o v e r , the initial push toward them never comes from the market or the consumer. I t c o m e s f r o m t h e i n n o v a t o r a n d t h e associated The  way J u d d  everyday his  producing  life  unit.^  considers these  extends  2  materials in relation t o  t o h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f them  art. In "Specific  O b j e c t s , " Judd  in relation t o  writes:  L i t t l e was done u n t i l l a t e l y w i t h t h e wide range o f i n d u s t r i a l p r o d u c t s . Almost n o t h i n g has been done w i t h i n d u s t r i a l t e c h n i q u e s and, b e c a u s e o f t h e c o s t , p r o b a b l y w o n ' t b e f o r some t i m e . A r t c o u l d b e m a s s - p r o d u c e d , a n d p o s s i b i l i t i e s otherwise u n a v a i l a b l e , such as stamping, c o u l d b e u s e d . D a n F l a v i n , who u s e s f l o u r e s c e n t l i g h t s , h a s appropriated the results o f i n d u s t r i a l production. Materials v a r y g r e a t l y and a r e s i m p l y m a t e r i a l s f o r m i c a , aluminum, cold-rolled steel, plexiglas, r e d a n d common b r a s s , a n d s o f o r t h . They a r e s p e c i f i c . I f t h e y a r e u s e d d i r e c t l y , t h e y a r e more s p e c i f i c . A l s o , t h e y a r e u s u a l l y a g g r e s s i v e . T h e r e i s an o b j e c t i v i t y t othe obdurate i d e n t i t y o f a m a t e r i a l . ^ 3 In  Judd's p a r l a n c e , the  term  "specific"  means  J "phenomenologically object's  being  will.  specificity them  materials are  interfered  Yet,  o fthese  as unmistakably  context.  more  here:  a material's "specificity,"  " s p e c i f i c i t y , " precludes the  perception viewer's  pure":  Second, are  and  twot h i n g s .  ofa particular, more i m p o r t a n t ,  First,  i n themselves,  Judd  he has  industrial, Judd  viewer's  but  insists just  " I f used  o f the on the  identified  historical  writes that  I t s e e m s t o me t h a t t h e r e  that these  o f the  c o n d i t i o n s independent  m a t e r i a l s even though  specific  specific."  t o say  notice  with'by  possibility  l i k e an  these  directly,  they  is a contradiction  m a t e r i a l s are phenomenologically  pure i s  49 already  an  absolute  phenomenologically  statement. pure  a r i s e s because,  appearance  specificity  Roland his  use  first  of  the  order,  entity the  Barthes, term  level  which  signified,  that  correlation But  understanding  For  Barthes  system,  the  as  i s to  the  say,  unites the  proposes  connotative.  which provides  about  denotative  to  Barthes  calls  i s the  signifier  that  there Here, the  level  use  of  of  this  to  of  carrier  and  explains  denotative, the  that i s ,  second-order  denotative  structure with Of  methodology to  and  sign,  the  the  w h i c h we  does not  or  concrete  signifier,  signified,  6 4  the  (1957)  I t i s the  language.  The  of meaning,  language  is a the  the  the  more  se.  refer to  concept.  s t r u c t u r e of  signifier the  formal the  per  "Myth Today,"  communication to  be  i s confusing  specificity  associative total  acts  which  with  cannot  conditions.  Judd  "sign" i n reference  i s the  image w h i c h  again,  i n h i s essay  of  they  under p a r t i c u l a r  contradiction of  Therefore,  stop  grasp. here.  semiological  s i g n becomes a  which  one  speaks  particular discuss  mere  interest  what  he  "myth": S e m i o l o g y h a s t a u g h t us t h a t m y t h h a s t h e t a s k o f g i v i n g an h i s t o r i c a l i n t e n t i o n a n a t u r a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n , and making contingency a p p e a r e t e r n a l . Now t h i s p r o c e s s i s e x a c t l y t h a t of bourgeois i d e o l o g y . I f our s o c i e t y i s o b j e c t i v e l y the p r i v i l e g e d f i e l d of mythical s i g n i f i c a t i o n s , i t i s because f o r m a l l y myth i s t h e most a p p r o p r i a t e i n s t r u m e n t f o r t h e i d e o l o g i c a l i n v e r s i o n which defines t h i s s o c i e t y : at a l l the l e v e l s o f human c o m m u n i c a t i o n s , m y t h o p e r a t e s t h e i n v e r s i o n o f anti-physis into pseudo-physis. What t h e w o r l d s u p p l i e s t o m y t h i s an h i s t o r i c a l reality, d e f i n e d , e v e n i f t h i s g o e s b a c k q u i t e a w h i l e , b y t h e way in w h i c h men h a v e p r o d u c e d o r u s e d i t ; a n d w h a t m y t h g i v e s i n r e t u r n i s a natural image o f t h i s r e a l i t y . And j u s t as b o u r g e o i s i d e o l o g y i s d e f i n e d b y t h e a b a n d o n m e n t o f t h e name " b o u r g e o i s , " myth i s c o n s t i t u t e d by t h e l o s s o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l q u a l i t y o f t h i n g s : i n i t , t h i n g s l o s e t h e memory t h a t they were made. ^ 6  If of  one  Barthes'  were t o  phrase  semiology,  one  Judd's argument u s i n g would  say  that  Judd  the  terminology  i s arguing  that  by  50 constructing  a  specific  signified  f o r which  one  say  would  immutable, specific  object  as  object  should  an  a r t . The  art  from  With h i s  they  are  communicated  the  denotative  was  is a  mythology, surface  efficient, useful  i s an  that  myth,  mythology.  production,  based  that  an  the to  on  work  lost  has  that are  the  been  i t , at which  images reified.  which  In myth,  the  the  a  they form  connotative  failure  to  aesthetics see  that  which  i s a particular sort  claim  purpose  to of  complicate  by  of  is,"This  inflection,  this  is laid  Baudrillard's effort  specific  i t i s e t e r n a l . " Judd's  more a c c u r a t e l y ,  with  collective  w h i c h has  language with  i t s own  which  the  a definitive  because they  carries with  i s produced  as  is  the  i s arguing  signs  Given  Further,  of  from t h e i r  object  Barthes  by  aesthetics  a mythology  surface  the  memory.  very  6 6  object."  signified  and  itself  art  sign  p e r h a p s more a c c u r a t e l y ,  never produced: i s an  this  a  intention i s that  because the  of  art  apart  way  language.  that  nothing  appear that  about  l i e or,  naturalizes  of  i s an  placement,  is inflected  chain  specificity  myth  is  reified  a message  information  having  critique  And  level,  object  constructed  that  image of  made o r ,  ever  has  "This  Judd's  a natural  appear n a t u r a l are  shape,  object.  be  he  i s arguing  a l l refer to  i t was  prohibited  of  Judd  specific  memory t h a t  which  i s simply,  because the  status  of  that  object,  a type  being  read  Barthes'  of  of as semiology  here:  (D)oesn't the o b j e c t have t h a t a i r , i n i t s "being s e r v i c a b l e , " of h a v i n g s a i d something o b j e c t i v e ? Thism a n i f e s t d i s c o u r s e i s the s u b t l e s t of i t s m y t h o l o g i e s . A f a l s e i n g e n u i t y , and a p e r v e r s i o n o f o b j e c t i v i t y i s i n v o l v e d . U t i l i t y , l i k e the l i t e r a l i t y of which Barthes speaks, i s not a n a t u r e ; i t i s a code of n a t u r a l e v i d e n c e w h i c h h a s t h e p r i v i l e g e o v e r many o t h e r p o s s i b l e c o d e s (the moral, the a e s t h e t i c , etc.) of appearing r a t i o n a l , w h i l e the o t h e r s seem l i k e mere r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n s o f more o r l e s s  51 " i d e o l o g i c a l " purposes. Denotation or use value; o b j e c t i v i t y or u t i l i t y : i t i s always t h e c o m p l i c i t y of t h e r e a l w i t h t h e code under t h e s i g n o f evidence which g e n e r a t e s these categories.67 Judd's recognize  statements  that  are significant  the "high  technology"  appliances  and h i s work  technology  or the surface  (stainless read in  steel  efficiency  a Critique beyond  of  this  f o r example)  as e f f i c i e n t  of post-World  Political  general  Economy  i n order  mechanical  i s effective  the  a n d why t h e t r u e v a l u e  aesthetic socially this  lies  Judd's work some t i m e  that  sensibility  world  as h i g h  objects  of luxury  could  so a q u e s t i o n popular  I n For  Baudrillard  designed  goes  t o denoted  aesthetic of the  of appliances purportedly  during  universal  f o rfunctioning  effectively with  which success  objects  link  beyond  up t h e  the techniques  of  c o u l d be r a i s e d h e r e i s : w i t h i n t h e sphere  which,  and hence e f f e c t i v e l y  of high  on t h e one hand, a r e attract  some  of a r t and knowledge t h a t  --- a n d y e t ,  America  i t had been e v i d e n t f o r  a r t by t h e " a r t w o r l d , "  sophisticated rhetoric can muster  Sign,  point  t o e x p l a i n t h e ascendance of  differentiation  attain  selling  s o , t o o , m u s t we g o  By t h e 1960s,  b e c a u s e he p r o v i d e s  sanctioned most  time.  of social  Judd's work  culture  sign.68  good packaging  mass-production.69 does  i n i t s potential  a n a l y s i s i n order at this  of this  t o be  of neutrality.  of the  i n the marketplace  precisely  either the  I I North  t o s h o w why t h e c o m m o d i t y  as a d i s t i n g u i s h i n g  general  War  analysis of the surface  efficiency  1960s,  encase  are designed  an e s s e n t i a l  i s denoted by t h e semblance the  which  to  are n e u t r a l , but because t h e surfaces  the technocentric world  and  surfaces  appear n e u t r a l not because  or plexiglass,  by t h e consumer  b e c a u s e he f a i l s  take  a t t h e same t i m e ,  their  of"the  t h ea r t place  because  as  of the  52 familiarity  of  their  appearance,  are  visually  very  easy  to  accept? Harold  Rosenberg,  "Virtuous  of  Boredom,"  refers  as  the  to  wherein to  boredom  negatively  i s "proof  dilemma  social  This  Baudrillard  Immediately,  d i f f e r e n c e s between d i f f i c u l t y  the  aforementioned  the  amount  reliable  measure  complex.  This  to  the  sophisticated and to  hence t o the  Judd's popular  i s the  ability  rhetoric  difficulty The  as  an  history  understand  the In  U.S.American capitalism  a r t and  of  C.  commodity  entered  presents  endure  w i t h i n the  need t o  Wright  phase  once  effaced  tedium,  be  seen  in  as  a  relation  sphere  of  high  the  luxury,  confused  connote b a n a l i t y  analyze  wrote  i n w h i c h he i n the  of an  i n order these  art  world  related with  article  States  to  has  a  fully  materials in  p o i n t s out  United  by  then  distinction?  Judd's use  Mills  design  a new  attract  or  of  intellectually  objects of  social  of  are  a  and  itself:  and  can  are  presents  knowledge w i t h i n the as  with  indicators  a second question  of m a t e r i a l s which w h i c h we  This  intellectual  d i s g u i s e d as  significance  1958,  boring.  difficulty  Judd's work t o  indicator  production  work.  of  of tedium  particular  his  of  concession  difficulty  tediousness  to  he  aesthetic rigour  out  success  function effectively  efficacy  of  one's a p p r e c i a t i o n of the  formulation suggests  issue of  culture:  of  is willing  made n o  effective  and  c o n f u s i o n between one  as  a way  the  tedium  and  as  essay  tediousness,  has  p o i n t s out,  rigour function socially  of  with  confusion  p u b l i c mind  of h i s  a phenomenon w h i c h  artist  intellectual  i n the  distinction.  paragraph  difficulty  that the  works because  s i n c e , as  aesthetic  of  success.""^  encoded  opening  (1966) d e s c r i b e s  confusion  p o p u l a r i t y or  tediousness  i n the  on that during  the  53 1920s, both  a phase  i n w h i c h t h e d i s t r i b u t o r became a s c e n d a n t  t h e consumer and t h e p r o d u c e r .  phase  got i n t o  designer  full  swing  who  techniques  and frauds  as  i s optimally  •  late  because t h e designer  positioned  the continuous  c a p i t a l i s m demands. M i l l s  Judd  employs  h i s work  materials  of  surfaces  i n the belief  phenomenological  Pop  i s not ironic.  mass-production  a l l of the  furthest  extensions consumption  writes:  Rather,  they  stable So  will  1  as s t a i n l e s s s t e e l and p l e x i g l a s s they  will  contribute  of h i s objects:  i n the context  b e c a u s e he a c c e p t s  from  i s an an  and expanding  a n d Roy L i c h e n s t e i n  to the contrived  efficiency.  that  t o push  of high  surfaces nature  Judd employs these their  claim  a i dh i s attempt  parallel  (i.e.: art)  i n h i s work  of these  to the  h i s use of these  Hence, t h e a p p a r e n t  does n o t employ these  attention  such that  stability  A r t o f Andy Warhol  Judd  new  (The d e s i g n e r ) d e s i g n s t h e p r o d u c t i t s e l f a s i f i t w e r e a n advertisement, f o r h i s aim and h i s task — - acknowledged by t h e more f o r t h r i g h t i s l e s s t o make b e t t e r p r o d u c t s t h a n t o make p r o d u c t s s e l l b e t t e r . B y b r a n d a n d t r a d e m a r k , b y s l o g a n and package, by c o l o r and form, he g i v e s t h e commodity a f i c t i t i o u s i n d i v i d u a l i t y , t u r n i n g a l i t t l e l a n o l i n a n d w a t e r i n t o an e m u l s i f i e d way t o b e c o m e e r o t i c a l l y blessed; concealing t h e weight and q u a l i t y o f what i s f o r s a l e ; c o n f u s i n g t h e consumer's c h o i c e a n d banalizing her s e n s i b i l i t i e s . 7  in  this  I I , at which time t h e  of marketing t o their  a way o f g e n e r a t i n g  which  argues that  a f t e r W o r l d War  became a k e y p l a y e r ,  individual  Mills  over  t h e appearance  i s apparent i n order  surfaces'  surfaces  with the  only.  to  claim to  i n h i s work  t o n e u t r a l i t y , and t h e r e f o r e t o produce  call  feels  phenomenologically  a r t objects. then,  to return  1965: a c l o s e  "specific  object"  look  the discussion  t o Judd's u n t i t l e d  s h o w s how t h i s  piece  by c o l l e c t i n g  Judd's  functions  criteria  work  as a  for specific  54  objects  together.  sensibilities historical The  piece  intentional  of the  convey  a sense  i s to banalize  with the  be  stainless  i s a cube,  34  inches  four times,  in spite  of  result  concealed.  of  the  and  i n every  itself,  that  7 2  steel  thus  the  dimension.  emphasizing  i t refers  the  i t s viewer  i t s surfaces, i t s p r e c i s e mounting, a l l  a particular of  intent  out  But  i t s shape,  to  work w i l l  i s repeated  nature.  the  his viewers,  i s fabricated  form  relate  however,  and  Each u n i t  cubical  elsewhere:  Judd  nature  plexiglass. This  of  Here,  set  of  available  techniques  technological efficiency  and  intended  to  transhistorical  rationality. Certain critical  t h e o r i e s of  modernism and  formalist  modernism's  view which  critical  clear  there  that  modernism  and  formalist  element  modernism, aesthetic of and  formalist refusal  modernism  are  limits  an  attempt  discussion  of  this  consider the  social  At  the  ways i n w h i c h overlap. play  a r t form,  Visual  between  focusing  One  Arts,"  field  same t i m e ,  of  these  i n some f o r m s  provides  of i tis-  is of  the critical  conventional  often through  i n h i s 1981  on  formalist  to transgress the  Thomas Crow,  Mass C u l t u r e i n t h e  distinguish  m o d e r n i s m by  comes i n t o  a given  unorthodox media.  history  addresses:  modernism  which  of  to  a number o f  critical  namely,  cultural  the  article an  inclusion  "Modernism  interesting  p o i n t . Crow w r i t e s :  M o d e r n i s m as a w o r d c a r r i e s c o n n o t a t i o n s o f an autnomous, i n w a r d , s e l f - r e f e r e n t i a l and s e l f - c r i t i c a l art practice; our u s u a l use of the term avant-garde i s on t h e o t h e r h a n d much m o r e i n c l u s i v e , e n c o m p a s s i n g e x t r a - a r t i s t i c s t y e s and'' t a c t i c s o f p r o v o c a t i o n , g r o u p c l o s u r e , and s o c i a l s u r v i v a l . We m i g h t c h o o s e t o s e e t h e r e c o r d o f avant-garde a p p r o p r i a t i o n o f d e v a l u e d o r m a r g i n a l m a t e r i a l s (as p a r t o f t h e s e e x t r a - a r t i s t i c s t y l e s ) , e x t r i n s i c and e x p e d i e n t i n r e l a t i o n t o (the s e l f - c r i t i c a l art practice). 7  3  55 It  might  seem p a r a d o x i c a l  from everyday  life  objects  to nothing  low  refer  cultural  of the  and  That  way.  neutrality,  of  fade  the  within deal  aesthetics  is  is  on  the  illusory,  artists  term to  generally wishes.  information  contexts,  of are  work w h i c h f e l l anybody e l s e , as  subjective  storm of A b s t r a c t  have i n t e r n a l i z e d  the  at which in  a  never the an  terms  d e s c r i b i n g ) , have  which appeals without  forms and read  as  u s e d by  a  fact  these  awareness  per  surfaces  se.  this  ideology  the  work  reading  determined.  i n the  albeit  r u b r i c was  and  1960s. I t  against s e e n , by  a c o o l , o b j e c t i v e calm a f t e r  that  between  within  many c o m m e n t a t o r s  Expressionism.  that  This  which,  n e u t r a l . But  objects,  under t h i s  an  to  i s a confusion  specificity  d i f f e r e n c e between A b s t r a c t the  c u l t u r e i s not  overlap  to a v a r i e t y of a r t produced  d e p e n d s h e a v i l y on  The  a e s t h e t i c s of p r e c i s i o n , of  i t is historically  as much as  apparent  and  i n c l u d e d Judd's s p e c i f i c  The  a point  Hence, t h e r e  " M i n i m a l i s m " was  refer  any  What J u d d ' s work u s e s i s a  utilization  that  include  (the d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e s e  specificity,  given  art  appropriated  c u l t u r e was  mass-production  information.  historical  The  sphere of high  a s t o n i s h i n g f o r c e , but  of  true  t h a t Crow r e f e r s t o .  s y s t e m o f t h o u g h t w h i c h I am  this  materials  argument t h a t  sphere of high  In b o t h s p h e r e s t h e  of v i s u a l  see  meant t o ' a l l u d e t o o r  of provocation  intellection  appearance  their  not  c u l t u r e and  with  i s using  based  tactics  of a t t r a c t i o n .  constellation  the  are  we  o f t h e m s e l v e s . The  i s , J u d d ' s work r e p r e s e n t s  interesting  it  outside  act, because the  spheres of high  great  i n Judd,  u s e d t o make t h e  o f J u d d ' s work i n t h e  restorative left.  materials  styles  inclusion  being  that,  However,  his Judd  the  this  Expressionism  and  a e s t h e t i c s of  Minimalism  of o b j e c t i v i t y  hot  which the  Minimalism  look  of  56 Abstract be  Expressionism  cannot  r e i n f o r c e d by a s u p p o r t i n g  Beveridge  signify,  and which t h e r e f o r e  literature.  As I a n Burn  has t o  and K a r l  point out:  The i m a g e A m e r i c a h a s r e p r o d u c e d o f i t s e l f i s t h a t o f exporting technology, a technology which i s democratic because i t i s good, n e u t r a l , and p r o g r e s s i v e , a t e c h n o l o g y which i s e q u a l l y a v a i l a b l e t o everyone t h e means f o r a b e t t e r l i f e , a n d f r e e f r o m i d e o l o g i c a l b i a s . The A m e r i c a n a r t i s t s o f t h e s i x t i e s and s e v e n t i e s have reproduced t h i s p a t t e r n , becoming t h e " c u l t u r a l engineers" o f " i n t e r n a t i o n a l art." W i t h t h e image o f n e u t r a l i t y s e l l i n g art, not i d e o l o g y (...) When A b s t r a c t E x p r e s s i o n i s m w a s s e n t t o Europe, i t h a d t o be packaged, i t had t o be g i v e n a form i n the media, a p u b l i c i t y wrapping o f " f r e e e x p r e s s i o n i n a f r e e s o c i e t y . " The a r t o f t h e s i x t i e s a n d s e v e n t i e s was m e d i a - c o n s c i o u s , t h e p a c k a g i n g was a f e a t u r e o f t h e "expression," internal to actual production. 7 4  Throughout  t h e 1940s and 1950s, A b s t r a c t  weapon o f t h e C o l d universal Cold  aesthetics coincided with  War U n i t e d  convenient However, sorts As  War. The s u p p o r t i n g  States.  t h e end of t h e f i f t i e s  of ideologies or cultural  Laurie  ideology  became a  o f o b j e c t i v e and  the predominant  Hence, A b s t r a c t  v e h i c l e f o r the promotion  Expressionism  ideologies of  Expressionism  o f U.S.American  was a interests. ^  d i d not see t h e end o f  7  these  strategies i n the United  States.  Monahan w r i t e s :  W h i l e t h e a i m s o f t h e U.S. g o v e r n m e n t h a d n o t c h a n g e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y (with regard t o the co-optation of the avantg a r d e i n o r d e r t o a d v a n c e U.S. A m e r i c a n c l a i m s o f f r e e d o m a n d d e m o c r a c y ) b y t h e 1 9 6 0 s , t h e way i n w h i c h .they w e r e e x p r e s s e d was a l t e r e d u n d e r t h e K e n n e d y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . I n p a r t t h i s was a n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c h a n g e i n s t r a t e g y : i n t h e f i f t i e s , p r i v a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s s u c h a s t h e Museum o f M o d e r n Art c r e a t e d t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t a v a n t - g a r d e e x h i b i t i o n s were o r g a n i z e d f r e e l y and independently, while i n fact they r e p r e s e n t e d government i n t e r e s t s . By t h e s i x t i e s t h e g o v e r n m e n t c a s t o f f t h i s f a c a d e o f n o n - i n t e r f e r e n c e , a move made p o s s i b l e b y t h e l i b e r a l i m a g e w h i c h K e n n e d y p r o j e c t e d and e n h a n c e d by t h e t o n e o f h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . . . ' 6  Nor  does Donald  coincident  Judd's  a r t distance  rhetoric of Abstract  internalizes  itself  Expressionism.  the rhetoric of neutrality  which  from t h e To some e x t e n t , i t Abstract  57 Expressionism the  look  of  reflects  required a supporting  efficiency  i t s s t a t u s as  value-freedom. the  rhetoric  support  which  To  the  literature  to  carry.  Hence,  is characteristic  of  Judd's  work  a vehicle for reproducing extent  of n e u t r a l i t y ,  that  Donald  Judd's  requires a  object  can  be  a e s t h e t i c of the  specific  transparent. This  of p e r c e p t i o n -is contingent perception,  i n favour  objectivity  appears  development  and  "value-free" the  Art-Language language Roland  of  of  Barthes  literary of the  serves  to  are  late  with  on  This  a and  process  c o n d i t i o n s of  a visual  faith  the  in  1960s and and  early  others  linguistic a sense  historical  the  precedent  objectivity 1970s  for  in  the  (e.g.:  the  associated with  the  a r t forms use  of n e u t r a l i t y  i n h i s argument which  cancel the  that the  v a l u e - f r e e . Hence,  a e s t h e t i c of  since these  p o i n t s out  i s based  conviction that technological  Atkinson,  is inflected  denies  historical  Judd's work a r e  Kosuth,  group),  which  earlier,  the  to  between viewer  in objectivity.  empirical research  a r t forms  conceptualism  a faith  of  internalize  literature  object  relation  view  upon t h e  also i n the  surfaces  appearance  linguistic  of  of  neutrality.  phenomenology which proposes t h a t the art  ideology  Judd's work cannot  i t , too,  i t s aesthetic claims to  the  a  that,  I referred  contingency  of  as  to  the  writer. The  free-floating, of  crudely Enlightenment-derived,  American  ideal  neutral,  v a l u e - f r e e , o b j e c t i v e . Hence,  forms mentioned related  to  inflected historical  the with  intellectual  above,  the  description a  sense  situation  of  processes  terminology and  the  like and  execution  of n e u t r a l i t y speaker  sees these  of  which or  the  U.S.  processes  linguistic  linguistic these serves  writer.  The  as  art  forms  processes  are  to  the  cancel  use  of  clearly  58 delineated Abstraction motifs  of primary  of Stella,  o r forms,  apparently paint  areas  Held  Noland  or Judd's use of p l e x i g l a s s ,  The  d i s c u s s i o n of these  example, them,  the repetition o r Judd,  counterparts  aluminum  t o these  pieces,  and t h e use o f terms  empiricist  a language which  art  object  and  thus  and  i t s production.  specific provide  and t h e processes  t o impart  object's  As  Hence,  dimensional  work  the  Structures  hosted  to neutrality,  a r t forms 1970s.  exhibition  of  as w e l l as t o aesthetic  conceptualism  1960s M o d e r n i s t  three  of objectivity,  l e t us  catalogue.  exhibition  Truitt,  This  consider was  o f 1966,, a n d f o c u s e d  Flavin,  Caro  Kynaston Mcshine,  of p a i n t i n g and s c u l p t u r e at t h e Jewish  the  7 7  Museum i n t h e S p r i n g  work  t o support  of the literary  nexus between  such as Judd,  of this  i n i t s production,  serves  literature  i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the catalogue,  understanding  both the  this  and t h e language  by t h e Jewish  works by a r t i s t s  culminated  f o r t h e appearance  of this  and t h e language o f  rigour t o the object  1960s and e a r l y  an example  to describe  of i n t e l l e c t u a l  i n the linguistic  the late  Primary  which  forms.  and catalogues, f o r  i s used t o describe  aesthetic claims  a precedent  objectivity  during  a sense  forms  steel,  linguistic  as " c o n c e p t u a l "  i s t h e nexus between t h e v i s u a l  objectivity  use of aluminium  and s t a i n l e s s  i n magazines  such  of banal  and t h e use o f  " h i - t e c h " m a t e r i a l s , such as S t e l l a ' s  the visual  the  or Kelly,  as i n S t e l l a ,  are  of  c o l o u r s , as i n t h e Hard-Edge  Museum,  as fundamentally  and Smith.  on In  the curator  argues  f o r an  intellectual:  As a r e s u l t ( o f t h e r e j e c t i o n o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l l i m i t s o f m e d i a ) , many o f t h e s c u l p t o r s o f t h e s i x t i e s h a v e b e e n t h e m o s t c r i t i c a l a n d r a d i c a l among a r t i s t s , i n r e l a t i o n t o w o r k o f t h e r e c e n t p a s t . T h e i r a c t i v i t y h a s become p u r p o s e l y more p h i l o s o p h i c a l and c o n c e p t u a l i n c o n t e n t . They a r e a n x i o u s t o f i n d o u t w h a t s c u l p t u r e i s a n d t o d i s c o v e r how t o m a k e i t . Most o f t h e s c u l p t o r s a r e u n i v e r s i t y - t r a i n e d , have read  59 philosophy, a r e q u i t e f a m i l i a r w i t h other d i s c i p l i n e s , have a keen sense of h i s t o r y , express themselves a r t i c u l a t e l y and a r e o f t e n i n v o l v e d i n d i a l e c t i c . The work i s e x t r e m e l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d and i n t e l l e c t u a l , o f d i f f i c u l t and p r o b l e m a t i c content i f not form, and sometimes p o l e m i c a l w i t h i t s i m p l i e d c r i t i c i s m o f past modes. ^ 7  For  McShine,  "intellectual" legitimacy  exhibition.  not dare  foundations.  man  of such  I t seems t h a t  argument  i s that  some o f t h e a r t i s t s accurately  example.  claim  that  that off  i n Primary  would,  Donald  of the specific  package  Structures  Robert  McShine t o the  catalogue  McShine's as  i l l -  Renaissance  wrong. C e r t a i n l y  can, i n fact, and p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y -  Smithson,  a n d Dan  of a l l of the a r t i s t s  Flavin,  i n this  i n t h e s h o w who  would  i t i s the s o p h i s t i c a t i o n of Robert provide  object. ^ 7  of aesthetic theory, bundle,  a compelling as e x p r e s s e d  Hence,  Mcshine's  trimming  and p r o v i d i n g  f o r t h e museum-goer w i t h  which,, d u r i n g  than  1966.  i s completely  i n a few y e a r s ,  of a hard-to-handle  taste  of  Judd's p h i l o s o p h i c a l views  of a broker  neat  driving  of a l l of the a r t i s t s  i t i s . In fact,  that  aesthetics  images  McShine  i n the  i tto scrutinize i t s  what i s r e a l l y  But i t i s not true  and not even  against  appearance that  behind  Robert Morris,  show,  and  f o rthe  a r e no more  employed by a h o p e f u l  be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as a r t i c u l a t e  sophisticated  Morris  claims  t h e image o f t h e a r t i s t  i s not that  claims  and a r t i n v o l v e d  bold  imposing  i s one o f t h e a v a n t - g a r d e My p o i n t  for  these  t o look  "intellectual,"  M c s h i n e makes b o l d  of the a r t i s t s  signifiers  a veneer  equals  a e s t h e t i c a l l y - s p e a k i n g . To a d d  equations,  Unfortunately,  will  wrought  "conceptual"  "good,"  abilites  of vacuous  construct reader  equals  t o these  intellectual  strings  then,  t h e mid-1960s,  i nh i s role i s  the untidy an  f o rthe  ends  artificially  up-to-the-minute  looked  argument  taste:  60 intellectual/rational  appearance  geometric  out of materials  dominant  forms b u i l t commodity  aesthetics  of t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y produced designed  of North America  t o hook during  into the  the mid-  1960s. As  I noted  above,  there  i s more t o t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f  Judd's use of c e r t a i n m a t e r i a l s objectivity,  and accepts  than that  at face  value  he a c c e p t s  the claims  surfaces  t o be n e u t r a l . I n c l a i m i n g t h a t  surfaces  a r e " o b j e c t i v e " and " n e u t r a l , " Judd  that,  as N i e t z s c h e  ultimately  only  emotions."80 of  skills the  Given  ascendence  Not-having  w h i c h he c h o o s e s , over  production  could  by h i s choice  the requisite Judd has t o t u r n  to  skilled  o f t h e "hand"  Expressionism,  other  from t h e a c t u a l  to a feverish pitch during  of Abstract  economies  around  i n the fetishization signified  production  of the piece  this  an e m o t i o n i s  or of several  distanced  objects.  t o understand  necessitated  the fetishization  guarantee,  process  fails  and  of the  t h e 1950s  the division  not f a i l  with  of the  to attract  comment.  so, i t d i r e c t e d a t t e n t i o n t o the o r g a n i z a t i o n of  industrial valued  that  of a r t i s t i c  doing  emotion  f a b r i c a t i o n of h i s objects  had been brought  process In  r e s u l t s i n h i s being  t o work t h e m a t e r i a l s  labourers.  the  of another  of h i s specific  physical  artist  the w i l l  of  of certain  certain materials  t o overcome  Judd's method o f working,  materials,  production  h a s i t , "The w i l l  the idea  the division  of the artists'  b y t h e facture  i s small:  but  behind  that,  the  production  the painter  the division  of the paint,  What  was  " h a n d " was t h e  of the painting, that the  was a c h i e v e d  c a r r i e d out by a p a r t i c u l a r  i s true  of labour.  through  a unified  p e r s o n . T h e puts  of labour  the paint  extent  t o which  of the surface,  i s directly  the surface,  production  t h e brush,  present  i n  e t c , as w e l l  61 as  i n the  unity  d i s p l a y and  distribution  o f l a b o u r w h i c h an  powerfully  fetishized.  a r t work may  capitalism, of  from  represent,  i t , i s the  exte'nt t o w h i c h  American  since rationalization  in this  context  takes  divisions  of which i s the  of labour,  a major step  s e p a r a t i o n of i n t e l l e c t ,  or  late  the  form  i n the  conception,  production.  that  the  Judd's c o n c e p t i o n  reading  historically  of the  supporting  contingent.  which,  literature  of the  specific  s u r f a c e s w h i c h he Therefore,  mentioned above: Judd found  we  the  u l t i m a t e l y , h i s work c a n n o t  signify,  literally  the  object  these  called  themselves. objects  accepts  Hence, t h e y  because of the  contigent  counter-  i s quite  a powerful  to nothing  of  uses  neutrality,  outside  of  to produce a r t  importance  neutrality  p r o d u c t i o n by  making m a n i f e s t  of a e s t h e t i c s of  Thus,  o v e r l a p between h i g h  of b a n a l i t y holds the  evocation  form. Judd  claims to  that  surfaces  the  Therefore,  a  t a u t o l o g i e s . However, t h e s e  make e x p l i c i t  spheres.  their  just  value-freedom  are u s e f u l t o h i s attempt  p o s t - w a r commodity p r o d u c t i o n .  aesthetic  through  s u r f a c e s which r e f e r  which are v i s u a l  available  a i d of  because the  the m e t a l i n g u i s t i c mythic  s u r f a c e s b e c a u s e he  s e e i n g them as  is  same s u r f a c e w h i c h i s u s e d t o s i g n i f y  i s o u t s i d e of h i s t o r y  what B a r t h e s  the  claims to  o b j e c t s are h i s t o r i c a l l y  made by  denies  r e t u r n to the problem  himself requiring  to reinforce  object  u s e s as b a n a l  argument t h a t t h e  in  this  o f U.S.  However,  the  J u d d ' s work,  context  fine  The  though s m a l l , i s  i s anomalous i n t h e  increasingly  history  f i n i s h e d product.  What i s made e v i d e n t by  however much J u d d d e n i e s fetishization  of the  the  fact  powerful  Judd's s p e c i f i c c u l t u r e and t h a t the  o v e r l a p i n the  objects  mass-  same f o r m o f  attractions attraction  are  i n both of  the  the  cultural  62  a e s t h e t i c of b a n a l i t y p o i n t s s p e c i f i c object, culture,  out the  f a l l a c y of the  as an o b j e c t which r e s i d e s i n the  idea that realm of  i s h i s t o r i c a l l y autonomous. Furthermore, the  Judd's work between the  spheres of high  the  c u l t u r e and  overlap  in  mass-  production  arose because the m a t e r i a l s  powerfully  appeal to the a e s t h e t i c of b a n a l i t y which i s h i g h l y  effective,  as B a u d r i l l a r d p o i n t s  out,  of mass-production  as a s i g n of a p a r t i c u l a r  " i n t e l l e c t u a l " type of c u l t u r a l d i s t i n c t i o n . Hence a subsequent question be  t o be  asked would be  one  addressing  drawn from examining Judd's work and  r e l a t i o n to the ways i n which o b j e c t s  the  the  conclusions  to  responses t o i t i n  considered  t o be works of  a r t f u n c t i o n as s o c i a l l y d i s t i n g u i s h i n g s i g n s . Now,  at the  same time as Judd was  pursuing h i s variant  the e s s e n t i a l i s t p r o j e c t set by Greenbergian modernism, he taking his distance fragmentation w i t h i n  from Greenberg. This was  f o r the  re-emergence of  modernism i n the years to f o l l o w about the  high  of a  critical  a modernism which would have  i m p l i c a t i o n s of p r e c i s e l y t h i s  m a n i f e s t e d i n Judd's work between the and  c u l t u r e , p a r t i c u l a r l y with respect  and  overlap  spheres of mass-production t o the  idea  c u l t u r a l autonomy upon which Judd's a e s t h e t i c of the object,  was  f o r m a l i s t modernism which i s s i g n i f i c a n t  because i t c l e a r e d the way  something t o say  part  of  indeed f o r m a l i s t modernism as a whole,  of  specific  relied.  63 Epilogue In the Prologue, I noted the s i g n i f i c a n c e the  historical  concerning  effect  the  idea  moment when t h e aesthetics arena to  was  of Judd's  of the s p e c i f i c  occurring,  point.  and  However,  a  fragmentation which  had  took  this  specific  on many d i f f e r e n t  significant  Now,  Thomas Crow d e s c r i b e s  social  arm  can  almost  culture,  Judd's raw  work,  reverse  into  the  one  a  industry:  formulated at l e a s t by  of the  can  I am  almost  "kind  not  Judd  the  fact  i n reverse: which  had  partially  as  social  bases  of f o r m a l i s t  upon which  of  one  areas of  mass  been were,  and  sphere  about  to  used  as  of  high  avant-garde  the  in  these the  modernism  cultural  areas  i n response  margins  an  they  Arts,"  Hence,  1  of high culture,  completely sanguine  aesthetic  that  efficient  of f o r m a l i s m subsequently engaged w i t h the  i t led to  o f r e s e a r c h and  to  examination of the see  up  i n common.  visible."  the c u l t u r a l  this  Judd's  i t searches out  and  sphere  I see  i n the V i s u a l  as  avant-garde  within  because  Nevertheless, through these critiques,  examined  examining  an  for a critical  because  fragmentation which  avant-garde  appropriated  I say  critiques.  as  absorbed  materials  culture.  the  formalist  formalism, but  characteristic  Mass C u l t u r e  the  to discuss  that  from  in spite  c a s e mass f a b r i c a t i o n ,  critiques  position  yet completely a v a i l a b l e  Judd  type of  significant  makes them d i s c r e t e  in this  successfully through  not  and  see  forms  of the culture  practice  manipulation  and  as  moved away  underlying  i n "Modernism  development  i t i s Judd's  object  argument  emerges d u r i n g  I have a l s o mentioned  of the  which  object  Judd's  I have been concerned  aesthetic further  writing.  fragmentation of a p a r t i c u l a r  of fragmentation which  this  work and  of understanding  analyses as  a way  institutions  of at  64  large  t e n d t o be  institutions  founded.  took place- at the  institutions democracy urgency  :  were a l s o  depending  analysis  specific  object  but  artists  by  some c a s e s lines drawn,  In  formalists  of Greenberg,  contemporary  "discourse' expertise  i s used  out  artist.  This concept  2  time  both  verbally  art of  artists at the  about  o n l y by and  and  presence  points  as  and  forms  and  as w e l l their  as  object  of  any  which  were the  term  was  the  frenetic  f o r what i s  given author  context of  a part.  their  own  of  which  had  at  positions, popularity  makes t h i s  a  wide-  interviews,  a r t p r o d u c t i o n on  fabricating  or  The  artists  immense  radio  and  o f b e i n g aware  cultural  involved,  articles,  favourite  being  of knowledge  importance  along with  critics  these  were  i s more r e s p o n s i b l e  to articulate  d i s c o u r s e encompassing  a r t i s t s ' and  that  in  Judd.  the broader  in writing,  critics,  u n d e r p i n n i n g s s h a r e d by  the  specific  ability  artists  exhibitions,  art  writers,  same t i m e  originality  up  the  important  a r t were emerging  formalist Fried  an  of  I have been d i s c u s s i n g  i s the  of the  in their  some o f t h e  the  as  i n not  and  c o m b i n a t i o n o f c o n f i d e n c e many o f t h e  this  ranging  which  aesthetics  particular  of  i t than  "discourse"  Judd's  which  and  or  aesthetic  t o mean a c o n t i n g e n t b o d y  produced  the  both  with  Nietzschean epistemologies, the  whose m a t e r i a l of  to, the  were p a r t i c i p a t e d  to question the  aesthetics  of eduction  frightening  some i n t e r e s t i n g  acting  other  perspective.  response  o t h e r ways o f t h i n k i n g  concerned  either  s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . Hence,  between  institutions  upon t h e i r  generated  which  also  found  o f , and  discussions  s o many  being questioned, at times  many p e o p l e  exhilarating,  cultural  same t i m e t h a t  most n o t a b l y t h e  which  The  This questioning of  plants.  the More  major part  65 particularly, lively the  I am t h i n k i n g  debates  formalist  instructive formalism,  with,  and o u t r i g h t  paradigm.  examples because  they  to critique  different  insofar  critiques I  (1966)  immanent  part  favour what  fully  world with  below,  are both  methods,  and c o n c l u s i o n s  ways.  Chicago's piece to formulate a  of  g r o u n d i n g . Hence, t h i s  Chicago  c o n c e r n s . However, abandoned t h i s  projects  perceived  language  when  issues  piece i s of that as I  was  will  project i n  she r e a l i z e d  as complacecny  respect to feminist  Rainbow system-  implications  t o use t h e v i s u a l  of  that  on t h e p a r t i n fact  a  of the  deep-  C h i c a g o began h e r c a r e e r as J u d G e r o w i t z , an a r t i s t i n  mid-1960s My  a t t e m p t i n g , as she w h r i t e s  Struggle  the visual  feminist because  as  language  issues.^  a Woman Artist  Chicago  and took  t h e language  concerns.  of formalist  the point  that  the  a way t o  modernism t o address person t o study  her feminism already the attempt  strongly  to find  modernism t o express  there i s a contradiction,  " a r tf o r art's  Through  (1972), t o f i n d  i s an i n t e r e s t i n g  as h e r p r o j e c t  Immediately,  i n h e r book  o f 1960s f o r m a l i s t  s h e came t o a r t w i t h  developed,  after  as they  antagonism.  Flower:  use  attempt  she had a t f i r s t  Judy  use  idealist  of  of "Minimalism," but  of the social  t o express her feminist  more  that  of her attempt  critique  of, a l lvarieties  i n significant  the idea  o f more o p e n l y h o s t i l e  seated  the  i s a part  of Chicago's  explain  art  earlier  resulted i n  fragmentation of  insofar  the institution  modernism's  modernism  second-order  are similar  which  a n d Dan Graham p r o v i d e t w o  as t h e m o t i v a t i o n s ,  feminist  formalist  rejections  Chicago  are different  discussed  Picket  Judy  of this  concerned  their  of t h e developments  a way t o  those  since  s a k e " h a v e become  this  was  " a r t as  tautology." that  I t i s precisely the fact that  w o u l d become t h e f o c u s  1960s  and e a r l y  institutions In  of  i n which  This  piece  floor,  placed  assert  from  This  i s very  and,  as Chicago  to out  i n the Primary  of different  with the  concerns  identity  different  her increased  later,  sense  a t a n y moment,  with  hard-edged  Structures  lengths  i n this  i n Through  of being  t h e forms  Rainbow  show a t t h e arranged  Jewish  t o form  from  wall to  The o n l y  clue  of  a  are the colours:  at Chicago's  desire to  stereotypical "femininity."  the  imagery  Flower,  a trespasser  disasterous  suggest  1963  running  piece  which h i n t  by t h e i r  from  she began t o work  from t h e o v e r t l y female  explains  with  I n 1966, h e r p i e c e  to shortest.  p a s t e l tones,  h e r gender  few year  as w e l l .  longest  feminist  light,  A  simultaneously  c o n s i s t s of s i xelements,  of diagonals  various  of her experiences  a s h e r p a i n t i n g Flight  forms  sculpture  series  Chicago's  such  abstract  was i n c l u d e d  Museum.  attention i n the late  Chicago began working  and vaginas.  Minimalist  Picket  1960s,  abstrations,  butterflies  with  as a r e s u l t  i s a contradiction  o f f o r m a l i s t modernism.  the early  biomorphic (fig.4)  1970s,  of Chicago's  this  this  who  of  Flight,  i s related  could  be  found  consequences:  By 1 9 6 6 , I h a d h a d a o n e - w o m a n s h o w , h a d b e e n i n s e v e r a l g r o u p a n d museum s h o w s , a n d h a d made a l o t o f w o r k t h a t c o u l d be c l a s s i f i e d as " m i n i m a l , " although hidden behind t h a t f a c a d e were a whole s e r i e s o f c o n c e r n s t h a t I d i d n o t k n o w how t o d e a l w i t h o p e n l y w i t h o u t " b l o w i n g my c o v e r , " a s i t w e r e , a n d r e v e a l i n g t h a t I w a s , i n f a c t , a woman w i t h a d i f f e r e n t p o i n t o f v i e w f r o m my m a l e c o n t e m p o r a r i e s . At that t i m e , I f i r m l y b e l i e v e d t h a t i f my d i f f e r e n c e f r o m men w e r e e p x o s e d , I w o u l d be r e j e c t e d , j u s t as I h a d been i n s c h o o l . I t w a s o n l y b y b e i n g d i f f e r e n t f r o m women a n d l i k e men t h a t I seemed t o s t a n d a chance o f s u c c e e d i n g as an a r t i s t . 4  Susbsequently, artist  a series of experiences  l e dher to believe  supported  that  the cultural  which milieu  she h a d a s an which  t h i s , t y p e of a r t p r a c t i c e had deeply-ingrained  sexist  67 t e n d e n c i e s . Hence, Chicago f e l t  compelled t o move i n t o o t h e r  forms of a r t p r a c t i c e which q u e s t i o n e d the a u t h o r i t y of the c u l t u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s - a n d a g g r e s s i v e l y addressed the c o n s i s t e n c y w i t h i n which women have been shut out of these i n s t i t u t i o n s . l e d Chicago t o more r a d i c a l a c t i v i t i e s aimed at s e t t i n g parallel  This  up  i n s t i t u t i o n s such as Womanspace, which were run by  women, and which t h e r e f o r e would enable women t o engage i n a r t i s t i c p r a c t i c e i n a s u p p o r t i v e environment,  without having t o  submerge t h e i r r e a l i n t e r e s t s or "be l i k e men"  i n order t o g a i n  r e s p e c t f o r t h e i r work. The c r i t i q u e of Donald Judd t h a t i s developed i n Dan Graham's p h o t o j o u r n a l i s t a r t i c l e appeared i n Arts  "Homes f o r America,"  which  magazine i n 1966,^ i s very d i f f e r e n t  Chicago's c r i t i q u e as i t i s manifest i n Rainbow  from  Picket.  Chicago, Graham's s t a r t i n g p o i n t i s a c r i t i q u e of the  Like idealism  immanent i n f o r m a l i s t a e s t h e t i c s , and i n p a r t i c u l a r , i n "Minimalism." However, Graham's p r o j e c t d i f f e r s from Chicago's i n two  important ways. F i r s t ,  refutation, Second,  the armature  r a t h e r than a u t i l i z a t i o n ,  of Graham's c r i t i q u e i s a of Judd's  formal language.  where Chicago u l t i m a t e l y e x t r i c a t e s h e r s e l f from the  e n t i r e c u l t u r a l community t h a t supports t h i s formal language, Graham remains w i t h i n i t .  This d i f f e r e n c e has t o do,  I believe,  with the f a c t t h a t Graham sees h i s c r i t i q u e as an e x t r a p o l a t i o n from Judd's work, as a r e a l i z a t i o n of c o n c l u s i o n s which  Judd  should have drawn from h i s work but d i d not, whereas Chicago's c r i t i q u e has as i t s focus the more c o n t e n t i o u s p r o j e c t of a d d r e s s i n g the d e e p l y - i n g r a i n e d sexism of the most powerful and prominent  cultural  institutions.  68 "Homes f o r A m e r i c a " was o f Graham's c a l l e d photographs City  Projected  of suburban  were p r o j e c t e d  attempts to a r r i v e the  social  that  that  similarity  of the r e l a t i o n s  forms  untitled  work by  only the s e r i a l at  regular  materials  household commercial At  likely  production  t o be  f o r example,  components, fabrication  tract  discussing  stainless  f o u n d i n t h e New  The  Jersey  of  houses  are e s s e n t i a l h o u s i n g and  in  the  share not  o f a s t a n d a r d form steel  are  homes.  t e c h n i q u e s used t o assemble  Judd's  the  repetitiion  t o those used t o assemble  since  (figs.5,6)  c o n n e c t i o n has  earlier  and t h e r e p e t i t i o n  the f a b r i c a t i o n  example,  which t h e s e  of s u r f a c e s  and  as  t h u s making c l e a r  similarity  I was  such  intervals.  a r e s u g g e s t e d . The  plexiglass  are i d e n t i c a l  this  magazine,  Judd which  intervals:  Furthermore, sculptures  o f b o t h . So,  were  the standard documentation  pieces,  same s o r t s  York  examining  Jersey  o f f o r m s . Once t h i s  i s not the only  work. The  fabrication  at r e g u l a r  serial  made, o t h e r s i m i l a r i t i e s  have t o J u d d ' s the  o f Judd's  of  These  of forms. For  photograph mimics  o f one  projects  art production  o f s e t b a c k s i n Bayonne, New  photograph  rectangular  two  as autonomous.  i s not a unique r e l a t i o n  of t h i s  a series  m o d e r n i s t s t r a t e g y by  serialist  o f cubes  project  i n t h e a r e a s a r o u n d New  wall,. T h e s e  of c u l t u r e  document t h e r e p e t i t i o n  been  houses  at a c r i t i c a l  Graham's p h o t o g r a p h  composition  (1965), i n w h i c h  onto a g a l l e r y  demonstrate  of Judd  Sites  tract  construction  photographs  d e v e l o p e d o u t o f an e a r l i e r  Judd's  various  sculptures  are manufactured i n  interested  i n the idea  plants.  t i m e , Graham was  s u c h as Esquire,  also  as a s o c i a l  c o n t e x t i n which  present  h i s work.^ S u b s e q u e n t l y , t h r o u g h Mel B o c h n e r ,  invited  to present his project  of a  to  Graham  as a p h o t o j o u r n a l i s m p i e c e  was  i n the  69 pages  o f Arts,  Graham w r o t e s describes As  photographs  appears  nature  plan.  There  however,  i s only  by Walker  o f t h e magazine tract  offer sets  colour,  one p h o t o Evans  article  o f houses  orientation  consumer t o choose  which  from.  1  are based  on t h e l o t ) c a n be o f f e r e d  Graham's t e x t  uses  the  few paragraphs,  t h e tone  o f Graham's  which  f o r the of North  o b s e r v e r . However, i n  as he c r i t i c i z e s  has g e n e r a t e d t h e need  details  t h e language  the plain  regret,  so  on a s t a n d a r d  a number o f t r i v i a l  connotes  with  t h e 1930s,  t h e way i n w h i c h  that  infused  housing  discusses the serialist  journalism  become  housing.  i t i s lost.  /American last  he h a d t a k e n  of rural  from  housing, describing  The p l a n i s d e s i g n e d s o t h a t  (i.e.:  which  which  none o f Graham's  as Graham h a d p l a n n e d  o f suburban  developers  i n Arts,  and that  much o f t h e e f f e c t  The t e x t  nature of the production of tract  a r e shown.  text  "Homes f o r A m e r i c a . "  t o accompany t h e p h o t o g r a p h s  the article,  The  became  the serial  the article  with  which  language the  shifts to  consumerism  f o r "disposable houses:"  ( H ) o u s i n g d e v e l o p m e n t s a s an a r c h i t e c t u r a l phenomenon seem p e c u l i a r l y g r a t u i t o u s . They e x i s t a p a r t f r o m p r i o r s t a n d a r d s o f "good" a r c h i t e c t u r e . They were n o t b u i l l t t o s a t i s f y i n d i v i d u a l n e e d s o r t a s t e s . The owner i s c o m p l e t e l y t a n g e n t i a l t o t h e p r o d u c t ' s c o m p l e t i o n . H i s home i s n ' t r e a l l y p o s s e s s a b l e i n t h e o l d sense; i twasn't d e s i g n e d t o " l a s t f o rg e n e r a t i o n s " : and'outside o f i t s immediate "here a n d now" c o n t e x t i t i s u s e l e s s , d e s i g n e d t o b e t h r o w n a w a y . Both a r c h i t e c t u r e and c r a f t s m a n s h i p as v a l u e s a r e s u b v e r t e d by t h e dependence on s i m p l i f i e d a n d e a s i l y d u p l i c a t e d techniques o f f a b r i c a t i o n and s t a n d a r d i z e d modular plans. C o n t i n g e n c i e s s u c h a s mass p r o d u c t i o n t e c h n o l o g y a n d l a n d u s e e c o n o m i c s make t h e f i n a l d e c i s i o n s , d e n y i n g t h e a r c h i t e c t h i s former "unique" r o l e . 7  Graham's d i s g u s t techniques not  only  with  of fabrication  to the tract  mass-fabrication:  the "simplified  and s t a n d a r d i z e d modular  houses,  a system  and e a s i l y  but also  which  duplicated  plans"  refers  t o t h e entire system o f  produces  household  items  such  as  70  tables  and  objects text  counter-tops,  of  Donald  history  and of  the  there  very  surfaces  identifies  construction i n the  of  i n the  i n the  construction  maintained  by  g a l l e r y space  in  the  mask o f  There  is a  nonetheless weaknesses immanent  l o t of  this  of  implies  rather  people  with  the  analysis  For  a  Critique  the  production  adventitious  that  an  article  of  late  of  the  of  housing  to  the  should  as  a  Jeffersonian  of  the  as  as  i t is in  this  this the  from.  result  units  basic  system  of  of  of  of  number o f  find  is  Economy  of  housing  is  in series with  in a  circulation  North.America.^  i s the region which  sort  of  to  consistent  argue  that  alterations  production  where the is late  action  Baudrillard in  slight of  is  organization  courses  Sign  to  the  therefore  social  the  the  Graham f a i l s  C e r t a i n l y i t w o u l d be  structure  to  of  mass-produced  c a p i t a l i s m and form  but  liberalism  c a p i t a l i s m d e v e l o p e d by  Political  expect  support  is  intervention  Graham's,  Graham's c r i t i q u e  of  way,  choose  of  Sites  autonomy w h i c h  providing  ground  rationalizing  real  have t o  intervened  maintained  mass-produced a r c h i t e c t u r e  tendency  i n a very  the  original  Projected  form  that  pure  the  possiblity  the  the  is  the  of  in  would have  awry.^ Hence,  symptomatic  one  by  turn  c a p i t a l i s m gone s l i g h t l y  e f f e c t of  which  cultural  comes t o  that  unavoidable  limit,  of  aesthetic  had  autonomy w h i c h  in this  i n Graham's a r t i c l e .  recongize  to  value  to  Furthermore,  Graham's  autonomy.  critique  inherent  architecture effect  cultural  unfortunate  same m a n n e r a s  intervened  the  an  serial  then,  Judd's  Graham's a r t i c l e  cultural  magazine,  produces the  extrapolation,  them w i t h  included,  also  upon which  commodity p r o d u c t i o n .  photographs been in  which  J u d d ' s w o r k . By  condemns t h e  depends,  but  ideology  capitalism  in is  The certain  critiques  v a l u e t o them,  development politics is  d e v e l o p e d by which  of a sense  and  history  autonomy,  i s that  of c u l t u r a l  and  i n which  therefore  i t pierces  behind  f a c a d e . Hence,  of which  Graham and  unwittingly order  became a p a r t  framentation  Prologue  when  that  because  i t represents  element  of c r i t i c a l  formalist I fact  am  that  similar that  not  Judd's  cultural when o p e n  work  Or  the target  attacked  by  to  foresee  which  question.  position  i s any  work  interests Judd  for this  second-  i n the  i s interesting  lain  real  dormant  partly  the  on  lies  o f h i s own  position  his palace-revolt of that  target.  he  within  aristocracy  could  the  other, fact  within  modernism.  the Hence,  extremely  However,  sentiment, Judd  making:  to  i n the  f o r m a l i s m , J u d d was  t h e most, v i s i b l e  the  crystallize.  significance  significance  of  within  t h e b r u n t o f t h e s e and  of a n t i - f o r m a l i s t  the very foundation  into  are at  referring  supported formalist  declared  a monster that  bore  rather,  hence  becoming  not,  I was  of  the  of which  a platform  commanded a v e r y p r o m i n e n t  s e a s o n was and  Judd's  there  who  institutions  high-profile,  becoming  and  f o r s o many y e a r s b e g a n t o  Judd  critiques.  to  which  t h e moment a t w h i c h t h e r e - e m e r g e n c e  sure that  i t was  by  modernism which had  modernism  facade  i t i s these anti-formalist  of formalism, that  I said  the  interests  Chicago are examples,  the  a sense  opens t h e door  o f b e g i n n i n g t o a n a l y z e what  to  a  of understanding the  institutions  possibility that  Graham b o t h h a v e  they contributed  of the s i g n i f i c a n c e  i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e way  cultural  C h i c a g o and  in  got  not, or d i d  formalism would being urgently  lead called  72 Endnotes Prologue B a r b a r a H a s k e l l Donald Judd (New Y o r k : W h i t n e y M u s e u m o f A m e r i c a n A r t ) , 1988. A p p a r e n t l y , t h e r e a r e l i m i t s t o t h e extent of Judd's concern w i t h the m i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of h i s i d e a s , s i n c e h e d o e s go a l o n g w i t h t h e s h o w . I s u s p e c t that J u d d ' s s e n s e o f b u s i n e s s and p o l i t i c s d i c t a t e s t o him the t i m e s when i t i s b e s t f o r o n e ' s c a r e e r s i m p l y t o k e e p q u i e t , as i t does f o r most o f us. B a r b a r a H a s k e l l Donald Judd A m e r i c a n A r t ) , 1988, p.80.  (New  York:  W h i t n e y Museum  of  S e e t h e s e c t i o n o f p h o t o g r a p h s i n c l u d e d i n Minimal Art: A Critical Anthology Gregory Battcock,ed. (Vancouver: C l a r k e , I r w i n & C o . ) , 1968, e s p . p p . 4 0 2 - 4 4 4 . The p h o t o g r a p h o f C h i c a g o ' s Rainbow Picket a p p e a r s on p . 4 2 2 . See a l s o Primary Structures: Younger American and British Sculptors (New York: J e w i s h Museum), 1966. D o n a l d J u d d " I n D e f e n s e o f My W o r k , " 1 9 7 7 , rep. i n Complete Writings 1975-1986 ( E i n d h o v e n : van Abbemuseum), 1987, p.9. At .the c o n c l u s i o n of t h i s statement, Judd w r i t e s : I and a few a r t i s t s a r e t h e r e a s o n f o r t h e e x i s t e n c e o f n u m e r o u s e x p e n s i v e museums o f c o n t e m p o r a r y a r t a n d o f t h e jobs o f t h e i r s t a f f s . We a r e t h e o n l y a c t i v i t y t h a t p e r f o r m s f o r n o t h i n g . H a l f o f t h e r e t a i l m o n e y g o e s t o d e a l e r s who u s u a l l y - c o n n i v e f o r m o r e . The h a l f I g e t g o e s i n t o my w o r k a n d i t s i n s t a l l a t i o n a n d y e t I'm t a x e d o u t r a g e o u s l y a n d a r r o g a n t l y b y , t h r e e g o v e r n m e n t s and m o d e r a t e l y by t h r e e m o r e . What l i t t l e I c a n do i s t h e r e a l i t y o f a g r o s s a n d i n f l a t e d s i t u a t i o n . I have t o d e f e n d what I've done; i t i s u r g e n t and n e c e s s a r y to m a k e my w o r k l a s t i n i t s f i r s t c o n d i t i o n . ( " I n D e f e n s e o f My Work," p.10.) H a r o l d R o s e n b e r g " V i r t u o s o s o f B o r e d o m , " Vogue v o l . 1 4 8 , no.4 ( S e p t . l , 1 9 6 6 ) , p.2.97:1. I c a n n o t s a y t h a t I wholeheartedly agree w i t h Rosenberg's o p i n i o n t h a t t h e r e i s n o t h i n g of worth i n t h e w o r k o f any o f t h e p e o p l e he c a s t i g a t e s i n t h i s a r t i c l e . Nonetheless, R o s e n b e r g ' s a c e r b i c w i t makes good r e a d i n g , a n d h i s p e r s p i c a c i t y h i t s home i n a t l e a s t a f e w places. E s p e c i a l l y wonderful i n this a r t i c l e , i f only for i t s p i t h y w i t , i s h i s d e f i n i t i o n of the v i r t u o s o of boredom. "The v i r t u o s o of boredom," Rosenberg w r i t e s , " i s a n e o - a e s t h e t e who c a r e s f o r n o t h i n g b u t a r t and s t r i v e s f o r a r t t h a t c a n n o t be cared f o r " (p.297:1). In h i s e s s a y "Myth Today," R o l a n d B a r t h e s w r i t e s : To p a r o d y a w e l l - k n o w n s a y i n g , I s h a l l s a y t h a t a l i t t l e f o r m a l i s m t u r n s one away f r o m H i s t o r y , b u t t h a t a l o t b r i n g s one b a c k t o i t . I s t h e r e a b e t t e r e x a m p l e o f t o t a l criticism t h a n the d e s c r i p t i o n of s a i n t l i n e s s , at once f o r m a l and h i s t o r i c a l , s e m i o l o g i c a l and i d e o l o g i c a l , i n S a r t r e ' s SaintGenet? The d a n g e r , on t h e c o n t r a r y , i s t o c o n s i d e r f o r m s a s  73 ambiguous o b j e c t s , h a l f - f o r m and h a l f - s u b s t a n c e , t o endow f o r m w i t h a s u b s t a n c e o f f o r m , a s was d o n e , f o r i n s t a n c e , b y Zhdanovian r e a l i s m . Semiology, once i t s l i m i t s are s e t t l e d , i s n o t a m e t a p h y s i c a l t r a p : i t i s a s c i e n c e among o t h e r s , n e c e s s a r y b u t n o t s u f f i c i e n t . The i m p o r t a n t t h i n g i s t o s e e t h a t t h e u n i t y o f an e x p l a n a t i o n c a n n o t be b a s e d on t h e a m p u t a t i o n o f one o r o t h e r o f i t s a p p r o a c h e s , b u t , a s E n g e l s s a i d , on t h e d i a l e c t i c a l c o - o r d i n a t i o h o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r s c i e n c e s i t makes use o f . T h i s i s t h e c a s e w i t h m y t h o l o g y : i t i s a p a r t b o t h o f s e m i o l o g y inasmuch as i t i s a f o r m a l s c i e n c e , and o f i d e o l o g y i n a s m u c h as i t i s an h i s t o r i c a l s c i e n c e : i t s t u d i e s i d e a s - i n - f o r m ("Myth T o d a y , " 1957, i n Mythologies t r a n s . / A n n e t t e L a v e r s [New Y o r k : H i l l & W a n g ] , 1972, p.112) . I am b o r r o w i n g t h e l a n g u a g e •Guilbaut, June 1989.  here  from  a letter  from  Serge  I wish t o acknowledge the u s e f u l n e s s of d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h A l e x A l b e r r o w h i c h t o o k p l a c e t h r o u g h o u t t h e S p r i n g o f 1989 i n a r r i v i n g at t h i s formulation. " I n t e r v i e w w i t h Edward 1976), pp.36-37.  Said,"  Diacritics  vol.6,  no.3  (Fall  For a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s h i s t o r y , I c a n n o t recommend t o o h i g h l y C h a r l e s T a y l o r ' s Hegel (New Y o r k : C a m b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ) , 1 9 7 5 , e s p . C h . l " A i m s o f a New E p o c h , " p p . 3 - 5 0 , a n d Ch.20 " H e g e l T o d a y , " p p . 5 3 7 - 5 7 1 . The c l a s s i c d i s c u s s i o n by H e g e l o n t h i s i s h i s P r e f a c e t o The Phenomenology of Mind (1807) J.B. B a i l i e , t r a n s . (San F r a n c i s c o : H a r p e r ) , 1967, pp.67-130. F r i e d r i c h N i e t z s c h e The Geneology of Morals: An Attack, 1887, t r a n s . F r a n c i s G o l f f i n g (New Y o r k : D o u b l e d a y ) , 1 9 5 6 , p p . 2 0 2 3.. T h e a n t i - b o u r g e o i s a s p e c t o f N i e t z s c h e ' s t h o u g h t i s c r u c i a l t o h i s work as a w h o l e . As P a u l T i l l i c h w r i t e s , " I t i s indeed i m p o s s i b l e t o n e g l e c t t h i s element (of the c r i t i c i s m of b o u r g e o i s s o c i e t y ) i n N i e t z s c h e ' s work; e x p l i c i t l y o r i m p l i c i t l y i t permeates every p a r t . Even h i s sense of b e i n g " o u t o f s e a s o n " (unzeitgemass) i s p r i m a r i l y a way o f e x p r e s s i n g h i s n e g a t i o n o f his own t i m e " ( " N i e t z s c h e a n d t h e B o u r g e o i s S p i r i t , " Journal of the History of Ideas v o l . 6 no.3 [June 1945], p.307). Max H o r k h e i m e r & T h e o d o r A d o r n o D i a l e c t i c of 1 9 4 4 , t r a n s . J o h n C u m m i n g (New Y o r k : C o n t i n u u m ) ,  Enlightenment, 1972, p.189.  R o l a n d B a r t h e s " M y t h T o d a y , " i n Mythologies, 1957, t r a n s . A n n e t t e L a v e r s (Granada: T o r o n t o ) , 1972, p p . 1 4 8 - 9 . W h i c h i s n o t t o s a y t h a t B a r t h e s a r g u e s t h a t m y t h i s n o t "on the L e f t . " A f t e r a r g u i n g t h a t t h e l a n g u a g e o f man as p r o d u c e r , a s transformer, i s n o n - m y t h i c a l , and t h a t t h e r e f o r e r e v o l u t i o n a r y l a n g u a g e p r o p e r c a n n o t be m y t h i c a l , B a r t h e s g o e s on t o a d d r e s s t h e q u e s t i o n o f m y t h on t h e L e f t : I h a v e b e e n a s k e d w h e t h e r t h e r e a r e m y t h s "on t h e l e f t . " Of c o u r s e , inasmuch, p r e c i s e l y , as t h e L e f t i s n o t r e v o l u t i o n .  74 L e f t - w i n g myth s u p e r v e n e s p r e c i s e l y a t t h e moment when r e v o l u t i o n c h a n g e s i t s e l f i n t o *the L e f t , ' t h a t i s , when i t a c c e p t s t o wear a mask, t o h i d e i t s name, t o g e n e r a t e an i n n o c e n t m e t a l a n g u a g e and t o d i s t o r t i t s e l f i n t o "Nature" ( ) Yes, myth e x i s t s on t h e L e f t , b u t i t d o e s n o t a t a l l h a v e t h e r e t h e same q u a l i t i e s as b o u r g e o i s myth. Left-wing myth i s i n e s s e n t i a l . To s t a r t w i t h , t h e o b j e c t s w h i c h i t t a k e s h o l d of are r a r e o n l y a few p o l i t i c a l n o t i o n s unless i t has i t s e l f r e c o u r s e t o t h e whole r e p e r t o i r e o f t h e b o u r g e o i s m y t h s . L e f t - w i n g myth n e v e r r e a c h e s t h e immense f i e l d o f human r e l a t i o n s h i p s , t h e v e r y v a s t s u r f a c e o f " i n s i g n i f i c a n t " i d e o l o g y . Everyday l i f e i s i n a c c e s s i b l e t o i t : i n a bourgeois s o c i e t y , t h e r e a r e no " L e f t - w i n g " myths c o n c e r n i n g m a r r i a g e , c o o k i n g , t h e home, t h e t h e a t r e , t h e law, m o r a l i t y , e t c . Then, i t i s an i n c i d e n t a l myth, i t s use i s n o t p a r t o f a s t r a t e g y , ...as i s t h e c a s e w i t h b o u r g e o i s myth, b u t o n l y o f a t a c t i c s , o r at t h e w o r s t , o f a d e v i a t i o n ; i f i t o c c u r s , i t i s as a myth s u i t e d t o a convenience, not t o a n e c e s s i t y " ( p p . 1 4 6 - 7 ) . 1  " I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o speak o f a p o l i t i c s o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n w i t h o u t a w o r k i n g n o t i o n o f i d e o l o g y as l a r g e r t h a n t h e c o n c e p t s o f i n d i v i d u a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s and w i l l . A t i t s b r o a d e s t i m p l i c a t i o n s t h i s n o t i o n o f i d e o l o g y w o u l d undo t h e o p p o s i t i o n s between d e t e r m i n i s m and f r e e w i l l and between c o n s c i o u s c h o i c e and u n c o n s c i o u s r e f l e x . I d e o l o g y i n a c t i o n i s what a g r o u p t a k e s t o be n a t u r a l and s e l f - e v i d e n t , t h a t o f w h i c h t h e g r o u p , as a g r o u p , must deny any h i s t o r i c a l s e d i m e n t a t i o n . I t i s b o t h t h e c o n d i t i o n and t h e e f f e c t o f t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e s u b j e c t (of i d e o l o g y ) as f r e e l y w i l l i n g and c o n s c i o u s l y c h o o s i n g i n a w o r l d t h a t i s s e e n as b a c k g r o u n d . In t u r n , t h e s u b j e c t ( s ) o f i d e o l o g y a r e t h e c o n d i t i o n s and t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e s e l f - i d e n t i t y o f t h e g r o u p as a g r o u p . I t i s i m p o s s i b l e , o f c o u r s e , t o mark o f f a g r o u p as an e n t i t y w i t h o u t s h a r i n g c o m p l i c i t y w i t h i t s i d e o l o g i c a l d e f i n i t i o n . A p e r s i s t e n t c r i t i q u e of ideology i s thus f o r e v e r i n c o m p l e t e . In t h e s h i f t i n g s p e c t r u m between s u b j e c t c o n s t i t u t i o n and g r o u p - c o n s t i t u t i o n a r e t h e i d e o l o g i c a l apparatuses t h a t share the c o n d i t i o n / e f f e c t o s c i l l a t i o n " ( G a y a t r i C h a k r a v o r t y S p i v a k "The P o l i t i c s o f I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , " 1982, r e p . i n In Other Worlds: Essays in Cultural P o l i t i c s [New Y o r k : R o u t l e d g e ] , p . 1 1 8 ) .  4  15  F o r a d i s c u s s i o n of N i e t z s c h e ' s s h i f t from a d u a l i s t t o a m o n i s t c o n c e p t i o n o f p s y c h o l o g y , see W a l t e r Kaufmann Nietzsche: Philosopher, Psychologist, A n t i c h r i s t 4th ed. ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ) , 1974, e s p . pp.178333.  16  F r i e d r i c h N i e t z s c h e Beyond Good and E v i l : Prelude to a Philosophy of the Future t r a n s . R . H o l l i n g d a l e (Markham,-Ont.: P e n g u i n ) , 1973, pp.141-142.  I"  The l a n g u a g e h e r e s u g g e s t s a p a r a l l e l between N i e t z s c h e ' s v i e w o f s e l f - o v e r c o m i n g i n Beyond Good and E v i l and C l e m e n t G r e e n b e r g ' s v i e w o f M o d e r n i s m i n h i s 1960 e s s a y "Modernist P a i n t i n g . " / T h i s p e r s i s t a n t o v e r l a p i s one o f t h e o b s t a c l e s i n  7  75 s e p a r a t i n g o u t c r i t i c a l m o d e r n i s m and f o r m a l i s t m o d e r n i s m , an o b s t a c l e which I address below. In f a c t , Greenberg's view o f Modernism as s e l f - c r i t i c i s m and N i e t z s c h e ' s view o f s e l f overcoming a r e d i a m e t r i c a l l y opposed s i n c e Greenberg's i d e a o f s e l f - c r i t i c i s m i s f o u n d e d upon t h e v e r y v i e w o f K a n t i a n a b s o l u t i s m t h a t i s one o f t h e p r i m a r y t a r g e t s o f N i e t z s c h e ' s d i a l e c t i c a l g e n e o l o g i e s . I n The Geneology of Morals, the c o m p a n i o n volume t o Beyond Good and Evil, Nietzsche writes: L e t u s , f r o m now on, be on o u r g u a r d a g a i n s t t h e h a l l o w e d p h i l o s o p h e r s ' myth o f a " p u r e , w i l l - l e s s , p a i n l e s s , t i m e l e s s knower"; l e t us beware o f t h e t e n t a c l e s o f s u c h c o n t r a d i c t o r y n o t i o n s as " p u r e r e a s o n , " " a b s o l u t e k n o w l e d g e , " " a b s o l u t e i n t e l l i g e n c e . " A l l t h e s e c o n c e p t s p r e s u p p o s e s an e y e s u c h as no l i v i n g b e i n g c a n i m a g i n e , an e y e r e q u i r e d t o have no d i r e c t i o n , t o a b r o g a t e i t s a c t i v e and i n t e r p r e t a t i v e powers — p r e c i s e l y t h o s e powers t h a t a l o n e make o f s e e i n g , s e e i n g -something. A l l s e e i n g i s e s s e n t i a l l y p e r s p e c t i v e , a n d so i s a l l k n o w i n g ( F r i e d r i c h N i e t z s c h e The Geneology of Morals: An Attack, 1887, t r a n s . F r a n c i s G o l f f i n g [New Y o r k : D o u b l e d a y ] , 1956, p.255.). F r i e d r i c h N i e t s z c h e The Geneology of Morals: An Attack, t r a n s . F . G o l f f i n g (New Y o r k : D o u b l e d a y ) , 1956, p.149. Nietzsche  The Geneology  of Morals,  1887,  1887, p . 1 4 9 .  W a l t e r Kaufmann Nietzsche: Philosopher, Psychologist, AntiChrist 4 t h e d . ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ) , 1974, p.82. Not c o i n c i d e n t a l l y , G . C . S p i v a k , i n many o f t h e e s s a y s c o l l e c t e d i n h e r r e c e n t book In Other Worlds: Essays in Cultural Politics ([New Y o r k : R o u t l e d g e ] , 1988), r a i l s a g a i n s t such w i l l f u l m i s c o n s t r u i n g s o f t h e idea o f d e c o n s t r u c t i o n . Of p a r t i c u l a r n o t e i n t h i s r e g a r d i s " F i n d i n g F e m i n i s t R e a d i n g s : D a n t e - Y e a t s , " w r i t t e n by S p i v a k i n 1980, and r e p r i n t e d pp.15-29 o f S p i v a k ' s book. Edward S a i d 94.  Orientalism  (New Y o r k : Random H o u s e ) ,  1978, pp.93-  76 Monologue C l e m e n t G r e e n b e r g "Towards A Newer L a o c o o n " Partisan v o l . v i i , no.4 ( J u l y - A u g u s t 1940), p.305.  Review  "The o n t o l o g i c a l c l e a v a g e o f i d e a l f r o m m a t e r i a l v a l u e s t r a n q u i l i z e s i d e a l i s m i n a l l t h a t regards the m a t e r i a l p r o c e s s e s o f l i f e . In i d e a l i s m , a s p e c i f i c h i s t o r i c a l f o r m o f t h e d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r and o f s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n t a k e s on the e t e r n a l , m e t a p h y s i c a l form of the r e l a t i o n s h i p of n e c e s s i t y and b e a u t y , o f m a t t e r and I d e a " ( H e r b e r t M a r c u s e "The A f f i r m a t i v e C h a r a c t e r o f C u l t u r e , " 1937, rep. i n Negations: Essays in Critical Theory t r a n s . Jeremy S h a p i r o [ T o r o n t o : S a u n d e r s ] , 1968, p . 9 3 ) . Raymond W i l l i a m s s u c c i n c t l y e x p l a i n s the importance of t h i s i n r e l a t i o n t o the development o f c r i t i q u e : " ( I ) n many a r e a s o f s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l t h o u g h t . . . i n a l l t h a t k i n d o f s o c i a l a p p a r a t u s , and i n a d e c i s i v e a r e a o f p o l i t i c a l and i d e o l o g i c a l a c t i v i t y and c o n s t r u c t i o n , i f we f a i l t o see a s u p e r s t r u c t u r a l e l e m e n t we f a i l t o r e c o g n i z e r e a l i t y at a l l . These laws, c o n s t i t u t i o n s , t h e o r i e s , i d e o l o g i e s , w h i c h a r e c l a i m e d as n a t u r a l , o r as h a v i n g u n i v e r s a l v a l i d i t y o r s i g n i f i c a n c e , s i m p l y have t o be s e e n as e x p r e s s i n g and r a t i f y i n g t h e d o m i n a t i o n o f a p a r t i c u l a r c l a s s . . . i f these institutions and their ideologies are not perceived as having that kind of dependant and ratifying relationship, if their claims to universal validity or legitimacy are not denied and fought, then the class charcter of the society can no longer be seen" ("Base and Superstructure i n M a r x i s t C u l t u r a l T h e o r y " New Left Review no.82 [Nov. Dec. 1973], pp.7-8, e m p h a s i s m i n e ) . C l e m e n t G r e e n b e r g " M o d e r n i s t P a i n t i n g " (1960) r e p . i n Modern Art and Modernism ed. F r a n c i s F r a s c i n a and C h a r l e s Harrison (San F r a n c i s c o : H a r p e r & Row), 1982, pp.5-11. J e a n B a u d r i l l a r d , " S i g n F u n c t i o n and C l a s s L o g i c , " 1969, rep. i n For a Critique of the Political Economy of the Sign, 1972, t r a n s . C h a r l e s L e v i n ( S t . L o u i s : T e l o s ) , 1981, p.58. I would l i k e a t t h i s j u n c t u r e t o i n t r o d u c e what I b e l i e v e t o be an i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e t h a t I h o l d w i t h B a u d r i l l a r d . In For a Critique of the Political Economy of the Sign, Jean B a u d r i l l a r d a r g u e s t h a t Marx u l t i m a t e l y l o c a t e s a b s o l u t e v a l u e i n t h e u t i l i t y o f a commodity,- and h e n c e c o n t r a d i c t s h i s own H e g e l i a n c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e c y c l e o f e x c h a n g e . T h i s argument p r o v i d e s the p l a t f o r m from which B a u d r i l l a r d l a u n c h e s i n t o the c r u x o f h i s argument, a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f n e e d s and d e s i r e s w i t h i n t h e s y s t e m o f c i r c u l a t i o n . B a u d r i l l a r d argues r i g h t l y , I think f o r a model i n w h i c h t h e v e r y o b j e c t s w h i c h a r e e x c h a n g e d a r e bound up i n t h e s y s t e m i t s e l f . Hence, t h e c a p i t a l i s t s y s t e m o f e x c h a n g e g e n e r a t e s and d e l i m i t s t h e t e r m s w h i c h can c i r c u l a t e w i t h i n i t , j u s t as t h e t e r m s g e n e r a t e and d e l i m i t t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s y s t e m o f e x c h a n g e . Hence, needs and d e s i r e s a r e g e n e r a t e d and d e l i m i t e d by t h e s y s t e m i t s e l f . However, I t h i n k t h a t i n a v e r i n g t h i s , B a u d r i l l a r d i s much c l o s e r t o Marx t h a n he believes. Baudrillard writes: U t i l i t y , needs, use v a l u e : none o f t h i s e v e r comes t o g r i p s  77  w i t h t h e f i n a l i t y o f a s u b j e c t up a g a i n s t h i s a m b i v a l e n t o b j e c t r e l a t i o n s , or w i t h s y m b o l i c exchange between s u b j e c t s . Rather, i t d e s c r i b e s the r e l a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l to h i m s e l f c o n c e i v e d i n economic terms b e t t e r s t i l l , the r e l a t i o n of the s u b j e c t t o the economic system. F a r from the i n d i v i d u a l e x p r e s s i n g h i s needs i n t h e economic system, i t i s the economic system t h a t i n d u c e s the i n d i v i d u a l f u n c t i o n and t h e p a r a l l e l f u n c t i o n a l i t y o f o b j e c t s and n e e d s . The i n d i v i d u a l i s an i d e o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e , a h i s t o r i c a l f o r m c o r r e l a t i v e w i t h t h e commodity f o r m (exchange v a l u e ) , and t h e o b j e c t f o r m (use v a l u e ) . The i n d i v i d u a l i s n o t h i n g but the s u b j e c t thought i n economic terms, r e t h o u g h t , s i m p l i f i e d , and a b s t r a c t e d by t h e economy. The e n t i r e h i s t o r y o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s and e t h i c s ( a l l t h e c a t e g o r i e s o f o c c i d e n t a l psycho-metaphysics) i s only the h i s t o r y of the p o l i t i c a l economy o f t h e s u b j e c t ( F o r a Critique of the Political -Economy of the Sign, 1972, trans. Charles Levin [St.Louis: T e l o s ] , 1981, p.133).. Aware t h a t t h e r e a r e c u l t u r a l i s t r e a d i n g s o f Marx i n c i r c u l a t i o n , B a u d r i l l a r d a t t e m p t s t o e x p l a i n away t h e c o n f l i c t by p u t t i n g i t down t o a l a c k o f c l a r i t y i n Marx's w r i t i n g . B a u d r i l l a r d notes: I t s h o u l d be p o i n t e d out t h a t Marx's f o r m u l a t i o n s i n t h i s domain (and t h e a n t h r o p o l o g y t h a t t h e y i m p l y ) a r e so vague as t o permit c u l t u r a l i s t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the type:"Needs are f u n c t i o n s o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l and s o c i a l c o n t e x t . " Or i n i t s more r a d i c a l v e r s i o n : " N e e d s a r e p r o d u c e d by t h e s y s t e m i n o r d e r t o a s s u r e i t s own e x p a n d e d r e p r o d u c t i o n " that i s , the s o r t of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t h a t t a k e s i n t o account only the m u l t i p l e c o n t e n t o f needs, w i t h o u t s u b m i t t i n g t h e c o n c e p t o f n e e d i t s e l f and t h e s y s t e m o f needs as f o r m t o a r a d i c a l c r i t i q u e ( F o r a Critique of the Political Economy of the Sign p.13 6, f n 5 ) . And C h a r l e s L e v i n , B a u d r i l l a r d ' s t r a n s l a t o r , a d d s : " A s i n Marx's G r u n d r i s s e , p.527, where b o t h t h e " c u l t u r a l i s t " and t h e "more r a d i c a l " p o s i t i o n s a r e m i x e d " (For a Critique of the Political Economy of the Sign, p.136, f n 5 ) . However, I do not f e e l t h a t t h i s a r e a c c u r a t e c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s o f Marx's v i e w , t h o u g h I t h i n k t h a t e x p l a n a t i o n s can be o f f e r e d f o r t h e c o n f u s i o n . Most i m p o r t a n t o f t h e s e i s t h e argument t h a t t h e r e a r e p o i n t s where Marx i s r a t h e r u n c l e a r , and some o f t h e s e o c c u r i n c r u c i a l p l a c e s . Indeed, i n t h e s e c o n d p a r a g r a p h o f volume 1 o f Capital, Marx seems t o announce h i s i n t e n t i o n t o d i s p e n s e w i t h any d i s c u s s i o n o f n e e d s : A commodity i s , i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e , an o b j e c t o u t s i d e us, a t h i n g t h a t by i t s p r o p e r t i e s s a t i s f i e s human wants o f some s o r t o r a n o t h e r . The n a t u r e o f s u c h wants, w h e t h e r , f o r i n s t a n c e , t h e y s p r i n g f r o m t h e s t o m a c h o r f r o m f a n c y , makes no d i f f e r e n c e . N e i t h e r a r e we h e r e c o n c e r n e d t o know how the o b j e c t s a t i s i f e s t h e s e wants, w h e t h e r d i r e c t l y as means o f s u b s i s t e n c e , or. i n d i r e c t l y as means o f p r o d u c t i o n ( K a r l Marx Capital: A Critique of Political Economy, Vol.1, 1867, Samuel Moore and Edward A v e l i n g , t r a n s . ; F r e d e r i c k E n g e l s , ed. [Moscow: P r o g r e s s P r e s s ] , 1954, p.43). I t appears, t h a t Marx i s s a y i n g t h a t t h e n a t u r e o f t h e r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n c o m m o d i t i e s and human wants i s s e l f - e v i d e n t . However, what he i s a c t u a l l y s a y i n g , as becomes c l e a r from r e a d i n g t h e  78 r e s t o f Capital, v o l . 1 , i s t h a t he i s l e a v i n g t h a t q u e s t i o n t o one s i d e . And had B a u d r i l l a r d and L e v i n b e e n more d i l i g e n t i n t h e i r r e a d i n g s o f t h i s volume, t h e y w o u l d h a v e n o t e d t h a t Marx does mention t h e s o c i a l n a t u r e o f needs i n t h a t v e r y volume, a l b e i t n o t i n a p a r t i c u l a r l y complex way: I f t h e owner o f l a b o u r - p o w e r works t o d a y , t o - m o r r o w he must a g a i n be a b l e t o r e p e a t t h e same p r o c e s s i n t h e same c o n d i t i o n s as r e g a r d s h e a l t h and s t r e n g t h . H i s means o f s u b s i s t e n c e must t h e r e f o r e be s u f f i c i e n t t o m a i n t a i n him i n h i s n o r m a l s t a t e as a l a b o u r i n g i n d i v i d u a l . H i s n a t u r a l wants, s u c h as f o o d , c l o t h i n g , f u e l and h o u s i n g , v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o t h e c l i m a t i c and o t h e r p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s o f h i s c o u n t r y . On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e number and e x t e n t o f h i s s o - c a l l e d n e c e s s a r y wants, as a l s o t h e modes o f s a t i s f y i n g them, a r e t h e m s e l v e s t h e p r o d u c t o f h i s t o r i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t , and d e p e n d t h e r e f o r e t o a g r e a t e x t e n t on t h e d e g r e e o f c i v i l i z a t i o n o f a . c o u n t r y , more p a r t i c u l a r l y on t h e c o n d i t i o n s u n d e r w h i c h , and c o n s e q u e n t l y on t h e h a b i t s and d e g r e e o f c o m f o r t i n w h i c h , t h e c l a s s o f f r e e l a b o u r e r s has b e e n f o r m e d (Capital, vol.1, p.168) . O t h e r , more complex, d i s c u s s i o n s o f t h e p r o b l e m o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l c h a r a c t e r of exchange under c a p i t a l i s t production a p p e a r i n Marx's " I n t r o d u c t i o n t o A C o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e C r i t i q u e o f P o l i t i c a l Economy," (1857, a p p e n d e d t o A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy, 1859, S.W.Ryazanskaya, t r a n s . ; M a u r i c e Dobbs, e d . [Moscow: P r o g r e s s P r e s s ] , 1970, p p . 1 8 8 - 2 1 7 ) ; and i n t h e f r a g m e n t w h i c h E n g e l s g i v e s t h e t i t l e "The T r i n i t y F o r m u l a , " (Capital, vol.3, 1894, F r e d e r i c k E n g e l s , ed.; P r o g r e s s P r e s s , t r a n s . [Moscow: P r o g r e s s P r e s s ] , 1959, pp. 814-831..) . The f a c t t h a t B a u d r i l l a r d . o v e r s t a t e s h i s d i f f e r e n c e w i t h Marx d o e s n o t , however, i n v a l i d a t e B a u d r i l l a r d ' s d i s c u s s i o n of value which i s , I t h i n k , q u i t e s t r o n g . T h a t i s , I t h i n k t h a t For a Critique of the Political Economy of the Sign i s l e s s a r e f u t a t i o n o f Marx t h a n i t i s a f l e s h i n g out, w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o contemporary ( i . e . : 1 9 6 0 s ) s o c i e t y , o f c e r t a i n i d e a s w h i c h Marx t o u c h e d on. T h e r e a r e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n Marx i n , say, Capital, and B a u d r i l l a r d i n For a Critique of the Political Economy of the Sign, b u t t h e y l i e e l s e w h e r e ( f o r example, i n t h e d i s a g r e e m e n t t h a t B a u d r i l l a r d e x p r e s s e s i n t h e l a s t t h r e e c h a p t e r s o f For a Critique of the Political Economy of the Sign w i t h t h e s o r t o f s y n d i c a l i s m t h a t Marx a r g u e s f o r i n t h e c l o s i n g c h a p t e r s o f Capital vol.1). J e a n B a u d r i l l a r d , " S i g n F u n c t i o n and C l a s s L o g i c , " 1969, rep. i n . For a Critique of the Political Economy of the Sign, 1972, t r a n s . C h a r l e s L e v i n ( S t . L o u i s : T e l o s ) , 1981, p.48. My r e l u c t a n c e a t r e l y i n g on a n t h o l o g i z e d f r a g m e n t s t o c o n s t r u c t an argument k e e p s me f r o m u s i n g J a c q u e s M o u r r a i n ' s t r a n s l a t i o n o f s e c t i o n s o f B a u d r i l l a r d ' s La Societe de consommation (1970) i n t h e body o f my t h e s i s . N o n e t h e l e s s , I t h i n k i t i s w o r t h drawing a t t e n t i o n to B a u d r i l l a r d ' s s u c c i n c t l y s t a t e d s o c i o l o g i c a l h y p o t h e s i s on t h i s p o i n t as i t a p p e a r s i n M o u r r a i n ' s t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h i s l a t e r work: In v i e w o f t h e r e p e a t e d and n a i v e c o n f u s i o n one f i n d s when f a c e d w i t h t h e c o n t i n u a l f o r w a r d f l i g h t and u n l i m i t e d r e n e w a l o f n e e d s --- w h i c h i n f a c t i s i r r e c o n c i l a b l e w i t h a  79 r a t i o n a l i s t theory c l a i m i n g that a s a t i s f i e d need porudces a s t a t e o f e q u i l i b r i u m and a r e s o l u t i o n o f t e n s i o n s we c a n advance the f o l l o w i n g s o c i o l o g i c a l h y p o t h e s i s ( a l t h o u g h i t w o u l d be i n t e r e s t i n g and e s s e n t i a l t o a r t i c u l a t e b o t h d e s i r e and t h e s o c i a l ) : i f we a c k n o w l e d g e t h a t a n e e d i s n o t a n e e d f o r a p a r t i c u l a r o b j e c t as much as i t i s a "need" f o r d i f f e r e n c e (the desire for s o c i a l meaning), o n l y t h e n w i l l we u n d e r s t a n d t h a t s a t i s f a c t i o n c a n n e v e t be f u l f i l l e d , and c o n s e q u e n t l y t h a t t h e r e can n e v e r be a d e f i n i t i o n o f n e e d s (Consumer Society, 1970, t r a n s . J a c q u e s M o u r r a i n , i n Selected Writings, Mark P o s t e r , e d . [ S t a n f o r d : S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y ] , 1988, p.45). Edward W. S a i d " S e c u l a r C r i t i c i s m , " i n The World, the the C r i t i c (Cambridge, M a s s . : H a r v a r d ) , 1983, p.9.  Text,  and  On t h i s , see S e r g e G u i l b a u t How New York Stole the Idea of Modern Art: Abstract Expressionism, Freedom and the Cold War (Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago), 1983. John 0 ' B r i a n Clement Greenberg: Essays and C r i t i c i s m , 1950-1973  Bibliography of the ( u n p u b l i s h e d ) , 1986,  Collected p.10.  C l e m e n t G r e e n b e r g " M o d e r n i s t P a i n t i n g , " 1960, r e p . i n Arts Yearbook vol.4 H i l t o n Kramer, ed. (New Y o r k : A r t s D i g e s t ) , 1961, p . 1 0 3 : 1 . G r e e n b e r g i s on common g r o u n d w i t h A d o r n o i n p r o p o s i n g a model o f a e s t h e t i c autonomy. However, an i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e i r p o s i t i o n s a r i s e s over the q u e s t i o n of t e l e o l o g i c a l c o n c e p t i o n s o f h i s t o r y . As Tom Crow w r i t e s : ( I ) f b o t h (Adorno and G r e e n b e r g ) b e g i n f r o m a d e r i v a t i o n o f modernism i n t h e p e r v a s i v e c o n d i t i o n s o f m a s s - c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n , A d o r n o p a r t s company f r o m G r e e n b e r g ' s k i n d o f a n a l y s i s by k e e p i n g t h e l a r g e r c u l t u r a l l a n d s c a p e i n view, by a c c o r d i n g i t e q u a l s t a t u s as an o b j e c t o f i n q u i r y . G r e e n b e r g , by t a k i n g up t h e s u b j e c t o f k i t s c h o n l y a t t h e o u t s e t and then b r a c k e t i n g i t o f f , t a c i t l y r e - e s t a b l i s h e d the o l d o p p o s i t i o n between a h i g h c u l t u r e w i t h a l l t h e v i r t u e s and a b e r e f t , i m p o v e r i s h e d low c u l t u r e . H i s i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t m o d e r n i s t a r t , a p a r t from i t s r e d u c t i o n i n scope, i s o t h e r w i s e u n a f f e c t e d by i t s o r i g i n s i n t h e l a t e - c a p i t a l i s t c r u c i b l e : the l i n e of ' c u l t u r e , ' from p a s t t o p r e s e n t i s , t h a n k s t o modernism, u n b r o k e n and h i g h a r t i s n o t i m p l i c a t e d i n a c o n t i n u i n g way w i t h t h e g e n e r a l c u l t u r e i t e v a d e s . A d o r n o i s u n d e r no s u c h i l l u s i o n (Tom Crow "Modernism and Mass C u l t u r e i n t h e V i s u a l A r t s , " i n Modernism and Modernity: the. Vancouver Conference Papers B.Buchloh, S.Guilbaut, and D . S o l k i n , eds. [Halifax:NSCAD], 1983, p.261). F o r example, i n 1981 G r e e n b e r g s a y s , " I d i d n ' t r e p r i n t t h e 'New L a o c o o n ' b e c a u s e i t was m i s u n d e r s t o o d . . . t o mean t h a t I saw p u r i t y as a v a l u e m y s e l f . I was d e s c r i b i n g s o m e t h i n g . And t h a t s u b s e q u e n t l y i n another p i e c e I wrote ("Modernist P a i n t i n g " ) I was d e s c r i b i n g s o m e t h i n g , n o t s u b s c r i b i n g t o i t " ( " D i s c u s s i o n a f t e r T . J . C l a r k , " Modernism and Modernity: the  80 Vancouver D.Solkin,  Conference Papers B.Buchloh, S . G u i l b a u t , e d s . [ H a l i f a x : N S C A D ] , 1983, p.190).  and  Clement Greenberg " A f t e r A b s t r a c t E x p r e s s i o n i s m , " A r t International v o l . 8 ( O c t o b e r 25, 1962), p.30. L a u r i e Monahan The New Frontier Goes to Venice: Robert Rauschenberg and the XXXII Venice Biennale M.A.Thesis ( U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ) , 1985, pp.47-8. In an a c c o m p a n y i n g n o t e , Monahan makes t h e i n t e r e s t i n g o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t " ( G r e e b e r g ' s ) e s s a y s , once c o n s o l i d a t e d i n ( A r t and Culture) l o s t much o f t h e i r ' r e s i l i e n c y , ' t a k i n g on an i m p o s i n g permanence w h i c h made many c r i t i c s . u n c o m f o r t a b l e " (Monahan, p.75, n . 2 3 ) . J u d d n o t e s , " I ' m u s i n g a c t u a l s p a c e b e c a u s e when I was d o i n g ....paintings I c o u l d n ' t see any way o u t o f h a v i n g a c e r t a i n amount o f i l l u s i o n i s m i n t h e p a i n t i n g s . I t h o u g h t t h a t a l s o was a q u a l i t y o f t h e W e s t e r n t r a d i t i o n and I d i d n ' t want i t " ( B r u c e G l a s e r " Q u e s t i o n s t o S t e l l a and J u d d " [ 1 9 6 4 ] , r e p . i n Minimal Art: a c r i t i c a l anthology Gregory B a t t c o c k , ed. [ V a n c o u v e r : C l a r k e , I r w i n & C o . ] , 1968, p . 1 5 5 . D o n a l d J u d d " S p e c i f i c O b j e c t s , " 1965, r e p . i n Complete Writings 1959-1975 ( H a l i f a x : N S C A D ) , 1975, p p . 1 8 1 - 1 8 9 . I w i l l pay more a t t e n t i o n t o J u d d ' s e s s a y s h e r e , a t t h e e x p e n s e o f a t t e n d i n g t o h i s r e v i e w s . The r e a s o n i s s i m p l y t h a t I f i n d h i s p o s i t i o n t o be more c o h e r e n t l y s t a t e d i n h i s e s s a y s , s i n c e Judd i s e s p e c i a l l y obtuse i n h i s r e v i e w s . E v i d e n t l y e i t h e r Judd or h i s e d i t o r s or both f e e l t h a t " S p e c i f i c O b j e c t s , " w h i c h I r e l y on h e a v i l y , i s one o f t h e most important of Judd's essays, s i n c e i t i s r e p r i n t e d i n Complete Writings 1969-1975: Gallery Reviews, Letters to the Editor, Reports, Statements, Complaints (Halifax:NSCAD), 1975, pp.181-9, as w e l l as b e i n g a p p e n d e d t o J u d d ' s Complete Writings 1975-1986 ( E i n d h o v e n : van Abbemuseum), 1987, pp.115124. D o n a l d J u d d " S p e c i f i c O b j e c t s , " 1965, r e p . i n Complete Writings 1959-1975 ( H a l i f a x : N S C A D ) , 1975, p.184:2. D o n a l d J u d d " S t a t e m e n t , " i n Primary Structures: American and B r i t i s h Sculptors (New Y o r k : J e w i s h 1966, p.18.  Younger Museum),  D o n a l d J u d d " S p e c i f i c O b j e c t s , " 1965, r e p . i n Complete Writings 1959-1975 ( H a l i f a x : N S C A D ) , 1975, pp.184,187. A f o r m a l a n a l y s i s o f some o f J u d d ' s work f r o m t h e e a r l y 1950s t h r o u g h t o t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h e 1960s i s u s e f u l i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g the l o g i c of Judd's a e s t h e t i c s . Judd's e a r l i e s t works were v e r y c o n v e n t i o n a l f i g u r a t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s . F o r example, Bosa A.M., 1952 ( f i g . 7 ) i s an u n r e m a r k a b l e image o f a n a k e d young man, s i t t i n g i n a c h a i r , h i s h e a d p r o p p e d up i n h i s h a n d . A l t h o u g h t h e b r u s h w o r k i s f a i r l y heavy, t h e p a i n t i n g does l i t t l e e l s e t o s u g g e s t any a t t e m p t a t , o r c o n c e r n w i t h , f l a t t e n i n g out t h e p i c t o r i a l s p a c e , and t h e use  81 of o r t h o g o n a l s t o r e p r e s e n t p l a n e s r e c e d i n g I n t o space suggests a f a i r l y conventional conception of i l l u s i o n i s t i c s p a c e , t h e o r t h o g o n a l s d e l i m i t i n g a box w h i c h r e c e d e s i n t o t h e p i c t u r e p l a n e a t a s l i g h t a n g l e . However, p a i n t i n g s e x e c u t e d by J u d d s h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r show a v e r y d i f f e r e n t engagment w i t h p i c t o r i a l s p a c e . F o r example, J u d d ' s u n t i t l e d p a i n t i n g f r o m 1955 ( f i g . 8 ) c o n s i s t s o f a s e r i e s o f p l a n e s and marks, more o r l e s s a b s t r a c t . I n s p i t e o f t h e i r a b s t r a c t n e s s , t h e s h a p e s o f t h e p l a n e s and marks, as w e l l as t h e ways i n which they i n t e r f e r e w i t h each o t h e r , g i v e t h e p i c t u r e a s t r o n g s e n s e o f d e p t h . The d a r k , r e c t a n g u l a r f o r m w h i c h moves d i a g o n a l l y toward t h e c e n t r e from t h e bottom r i g h t hand c o r n e r i s v e r y much i n t h e f o r e g r o u n d , j u s t as t h e d a r k , p a i n t e r l y mass w h i c h o c c u p i e s t h e m i d d l e o f t h e p a i n t i n g i s v e r y much i n t h e b a c k g r o u n d . A much more s u c c e s s f u l l y f l a t p a i n t i n g i s J u d d ' s u n t i t l e d p a i n t i n g f r o m 1960 ( f i g . 9 ) . H e r e , t h e image i s f o u r t h i n l i n e s c u r v i n g d i a g o n a l l y a c r o s s a s l i g h t l y d a r k e r f i e l d . Y e t , i n t h e t e r m s o f 1950s f o r m a l i s t a e s t h e t i c s , t h e p a i n t i n g i s n o t an u n q u a l i f i e d s u c c e s s . I n s p i t e o f t h e s i m p l i c i t y o f f o r m s , Judd, seems u n a b l e t o f l a t t e n t h e p a i n t i n g o u t . An u n m i s t a k a b l e s e n s e o f d e p t h r e m a i n s . S i d n e y T i l l i m w r i t e s i n a 1964 t h a t " o n l y twod i m e n s i o n a l i t y i s s p a t i a l l y c o n s i s t e n t w i t h a b s t r a c t mass" ( S i d n e y T i l l i m "The New A v a n t - G a r d e , " A r t s v o l . 3 8 no.5 [ F e b r u a r y . 1964], p . 2 0 : 1 ) . However, what seems t o be i n d i c a t e d by t h i s p a i n t i n g o f J u d d ' s i s t h a t not even a b s t r a c t mass i s two-dimensional. J u d d ' s s o l u t i o n t o t h i s p r o b l e m was t o engage a c t u a l s p a c e . H i s l o g i c h e r e was t h a t , g i v e n t h a t any work o f a r t , no m a t t e r how f l a t one a t t e m p t e d t o make i t , w o u l d a l w a y s suggest a sense of i l l u s i o n i s t i c space, the o n l y p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l l y h o n e s t s o r t o f a r t p r o d u c t i o n would be one w h i c h e n g a g e d a c t u a l s p a c e and t h e r e f o r e a v o i d e d s u g g e s t i n g i l l u s i o n i s t i c s p a c e . Hence J u d d ' s d i s a v o w a l o f t h e d i v i s i o n o f a r t work i n t o t h e c a t e g o r i e s o f " p a i n t i n g " and " s c u l p t u r e , " and h i s c o r r e l a t i v e s u g g e s t i o n t h a t t h e M o d e r n i s t p r o j e c t be r e d e f i n e d as one p r o j e c t aimed a t t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e d e f i n i t i v e a r t work. T h i s i s what J u d d i s g e t t i n g at i n the opening paragraph of " S p e c i f i c O b j e c t s " when he w r i t e s : H a l f o r more o f t h e b e s t new work i n t h e l a s t few y e a r s has b e e n n e i t h e r p a i n t i n g n o r s c u l p t u r e . U s u a l l y i t has b e e n r e l a t e d , c l o s e l y o r d i s t a n t l y , t o one o r t h e o t h e r ( " S p e c i f i c O b j e c t s , " 1965, r e p . i n Complete Writings 1959-1975, [ H a l i f a x : N S C A D ] , 1975, p.181:2). Judd's e a r l i e s t attempts t o s o l v e t h i s problem r e v o l v e d a r o u n d h i s a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h p a i n t i n g . The a t t e m p t t o o k t h e f o r m o f t r y i n g t o overcome p a i n t i n g ' s i n h e r e n t l y i l l u s i o n i s t i c n a t u r e by m a k i n g p a i n t i n g s w h i c h d e c l a r e d t h e m s e l v e s t o be t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l o b j e c t s . An example o f t h i s i s an u n t i t l e d p a i n t i n g done by J u d d i n 1961 (fig.10). H e r e , a f a i r l y r e g u l a r f i e l d was l a i d down on a m a s o n i t e b o a r d , and a b a n a l u - s h a p e d m o t i f o r i e n t e d h o r i z o n t a l l y a c r o s s t h e t o p h a l f o f t h e f i e l d p r o v i d e s a l i m i t e d amount o f v i s u a l i n t e r e s t . This m o t i f c o n t r a s t s with the f i e l d around i t i n two ways, F i r s t , i t i s a d a r k , c o n s i s t e n t , h a r d - e d g e d f o r m , which' t h e r e f o r e has a m e c h a n i c a l a e s t h e t i c t h a t t h e  82 m o t t l e d , r o u g h f i e l d a r o u n d i t d o e s n o t h a v e . Second, i t i s p h y s i c a l l y c l o s e r t o the surface of the masonite than the f i e l d i s . J u d d has m i x e d s a n d i n w i t h t h e p a i n t t h a t he u s e d t o c o l o u r t h e f i e l d , as a way o f g i v i n g i t a s t r o n g , t e x t u r e d q u a l i t y , thus p r o v i d i n g i t w i t h a sense of b e i n g d e l i b e r a t e l y t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t J u d d made a number o f s i m i l a r p a i n t i n g s , b u t sometimes he r e l i e s s i m p l y on h e a v y b r u s h w o r k t o p r o v i d e t h e t e x t u r e . I t i s e a s y t o see why n e i t h e r o f t h e s e s o l u t i o n s w o u l d ' p r o v i d e a c o n s i s t e n t r e a d i n g o f t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e p a i n t i n g as t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l : G r e e n b e r g ' s r e a d i n g s o f P o l l o c k ' s s u r f a c e s as f l a t had l o n g s i n c e e s t a b l i s h e d a p r e c e d e n t f o r r e a d i n g i m p a s t o , no m a t t e r how heavy, as a t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l p i c t u r e . I n f a c t , i t was i n 1960 t h a t G r e e n b e r g made c l e a r t h a t , f o r him, t h e " f l a t t e s t " p i c t u r e was n o t t h e f l a t t e s t p a i n t i n g . F o r , one o f t h e t h i n g s he l i k e d so much a b o u t t h e work o f M o r r i s L o u i s and K e n n e t h .-Noland was t h e f a c t t h a t p h y s i c a l l y , i t was n o t f l a t , s i n c e the d y i n g t e c h n i q u e a l l o w e d " t h e eye t o s e n s e t h e t h r e a d e d n e s s and woveness o f t h e f a b r i c " ( " L o u i s and N o l a n d , " Art International v o l . 4 , no.5 [May 25, 1960], p . 2 8 : 1 ) . The f l a t t e s t s u r f a c e , i t seems, d i d n o t make f o r t h e f l a t t e s t p a i n t i n g . T h e r e f o r e , some s o r t o f o s t e n s i v e g e s t u r e was r e q u i r e d t o c a l l a t t e n t i o n t o t h e i n t e n t t o make t h e s u r f a c e of t h e p a i n t i n g t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l . T h i s was t h e f u n c t i o n o f the s a n d w h i c h J u d d m i x e d i n w i t h t h e p a i n t t h a t he u s e d f o r t h e . f i e l d of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p a i n t i n g . E v i d e n t l y , J u d d f o u n d t h i s manner o f w o r k i n g u n s a t i s f y i n g , as he p r o d u c e d t h e s e s o r t s o f t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l o b j e c t s f o r a b r i e f p e r i o d , and t h e n abandoned them i n f a v o u r o f o b j e c t s w h i c h a r e more u n a m b i g u o u s l y t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l . I t seems c l e a r t h a t J u d d ' s e a r l i e s t p i e c e s o f t h i s more u n a m b i g u o u s l y t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l type are only moderately s u c c e s s f u l i n h i s t e r m s . F o r example, Untitled 1963 ( f i g . 5 ) , w h i c h was i n c l u d e d i n a show a t t h e G r e e n G a l l e r y i n t h e w i n t e r o f 1963-1964, i s c l e a r l y an a t t e m p t a t p r o d u c i n g a s i m p l e form, b u t i t i s an a t t e m p t w h i c h f a i l s . As Gene Swenson w r o t e a t t h e t i m e : ( T ) h e s e works a r e n e i t h e r l e a n n o r i n t e l l e c t u a l enough t o look as d e m a n d i n g l y s i m p l e as t h e y s h o u l d . One c o n s t r u c t i o n i s l i k e a s l i c e o f f t h e b o t t o m o f a huge cube, w i t h h a l f o f a s e c o n d s l i c e ( d i v i d e d a l o n g a d i a g o n a l ) f i t t e d on t o p o f t h e f i r s t ; where t h e s c o n d was " c u t , " t h e r e d i s r e p l a c e d by s h i n y d a r k p u r p l e p l a s t i c . Seen f r o m d i f f e r e n t a n g l e s , i t a p p e a r s t o change f r o m a more t o l e s s " a b s o l u t e l y s i m p l e " s h a p e . I t n e v e r seems t o e x i s t as p u r e f a c t (what i t i s i n c o m p l e t e s i m p l i c i t y ) n o r as an i l l u s i o n (more o r l e s s t h a n what i t i s ) which i s a l o g i c a l i f not a v i s u a l paradox. I n d e e d , my d i s a p p o i n t m e n t i s t h a t t h e v i s u a l p a r a d o x i s so weak (G[ene] R. S[weneson] "Reviews and p r e v i e w s , " Artnews v o l . 6 2 no.10 [ F e b r u a r y 1964], p . 2 0 : 1 . S i d n e y T i l l i m ' s r e s p o n s e t o t h i s show i s s i m i l a r l y d u b i o u s i n h i s a r t i c l e "The New A v a n t - G a r d e " A r t s v o l . 3 8 no.5 [ F e b r u a r y 1 9 6 4 ] , " e s p . pp.20-21). Charles Taylor 1975, p . 8 1 .  Hegel,  (New  Y o r k : Cambridge  University  Press),  83 C l e m e n t G r e e n b e r g " L o u i s and N o l a n d " A r t International n o l . 5 (May 25, 1960), p . 2 8 : 1 .  vol.4  2  1  2  2  2  3  M a r t i n F r i e d m a n "The N a r t - A r t o f D o n a l d J u d d , " A r t «£ A r t i s t s v o l . 1 n o . l l ( F e b r u a r y 1967), pp.59, 60.  2  4  See D o u g l a s C r i m p " S e r r a ' s P u b l i c S c u l p t u r e : R e d e f i n i n g S i t e S p e c i f i c i t y " i n Richard Serra Sculpture (New Y o r k : Museum o f Modern A r t ) , 1986, p . 4 3 : 1 .  2  ^  2 6  "Homage t o t h e S q u a r e " A r t in America 1967), p.50.  v o l . 5 5 no.4  (July-Aug  D o n a l d J u d d " S p e c i f i c O b j e c t s , " 1965, r e p . i n Complete Writings 1959-1975 ( H a l i f a x : NSCAD P r e s s ) , 1975, p.184:2.  ^ b o n a l d J u d d " S p e c i f i c O b j e c t s , " 1965, r e p . i n Complete Writings 1959-1975 ( H a l i f a x : NSCAD P r e s s ) , 1975, p . 1 8 4 : 1 .  2  7  2  ^  2  9  Judd " S p e c i f i c p.183-4.  O b j e c t s , " 1965,  r e p . i n Complete  G r e e n b e r g "Anthony C a r o , " r e p . i n Studio no.892 ( S e p t . 1 9 6 7 ) , p.116:2.  International  Writings, vol.174  D o n a l d J u d d " S t a t e m e n t , " i n Primary Structures: Younger American and B r i t i s h Sculptors (New Y o r k : J e w i s h Museum),  1966, p . 1 8 .  30 D o u g l a s C r i m p " S e r r a ' s P u b l i c S p e c i f i c i t y " i n Richard Serra Modern A r t ) , 1986, p.43:2.  Sculpture: Redefining Site Sculpture (New Y o r k : Museum o f  3! C l e m e n t G r e e n b e r g " R e c e n t n e s s o f S c u l p t u r e " i n American Art of the S i x t i e s M a u r i c a Tuchman, e d . (Los A n g e l e s : L.A. C o u n t y Museum o f A r t ) , 1967, p.26. T h i s a r t i c l e was p r i n t e d more o r l e s s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i n A r t International v o l . 1 1 A p r . 20, 1967, p p . 1 9 - 2 1 . W h i l e I do n o t w i s h t o d i s p u t e t h e a c c u r a c y o f G r e e n b e r g ' s o p i n i o n on t h i s s c o r e , i t d o e s seem t h a t G r e e n b e r g ' s own t a s t e a t t h i s t i m e ( i . e . : t h e t i d y p i e c e s by N o l a n d , L o u i s , and Caro) t e n d s t o have t h e same w e a k n e s s . B o t h G r e e n b e r g , h e r e , and D o u g l a s Crimp i n t h e q u o t e i m m e d i a t e l y above, a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e i s s u e o f c o m m o d i f i c a t i o n . That i s , they a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e p o s s i b i l i t y that the p r e s s u r e of f o r c e s e x t e r n a l , or e x t r a n e o u s , t o t h e c o n c e r n s o f a r t w i l l o r a r e a c t i n g on a r t p r o d u c t i o n , t o t h e d e t r i m e n t o f t h a t a r t . However, what i s a t s t a k e f o r t h e s e two w r i t e r s i n t h e i s s u e o f c o m m o d i f i c a t i o n i s somewhat d i f f e r e n t . G r e e n b e r g i s c o n c e r n e d t h a t t h i s p r e s s u r e , " t h e c o n t i n u i n g i n f i l t r a t i o n o f Good D e s i g n , ",. i s e n t i c i n g a r t i s t s t o d e l i b e r a t e l y t u r n away, f r o m t h e m o d e r n i s t p r o j e c t and p r o d u c e work t h a t i s i m m e d i a t e l y a c c e p t a b l e by t h e p u b l i c a t l a r g e , r a t h e r t h a n work t h a t i s a d v a n c e d , and t h e r e f o r e d i f f i c u l t f o r a l l b u t a few s o p h i s t i c a t e d i n t e l l e c t s t o u n d e r s t a n d and a c c e p t . Crimp, on t h e o t h e r hand, i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f f o r m u l a t i n g a c r i t i q u e o f the c a p i t a l i s t form o f c i r c u l a t i o n w i t h i n  84 c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y . I m p l i c i t i n h i s p o s i t i o n i s the view t h a t , as M u r r a y B b o k c h i n w r i t e s , " c a p i t a l i s m , f a r f r o m f r a g m e n t i n g and c o l l a p s i n g u n d e r hammer b l o w s f r o m ' w i t h i n ' i t s e l f , a p p e a r s t o be e x p a n d i n g , e x t e n d i n g i t s l f o v e r t h e e n t i r e p l a n e t , and what i s e v e n more c h a l l e n g i n g , developing t e c h n o l o g y on a s c a l e u n p r e c e d e n t e d e v e n i n i t s own h i s t o r y " (The Limits of the City ( M o n t r e a l : B l a c k Rose) 1986, p.16). B r i e f l y s t a t e d , t h e d i f f e r e n c e between G r e e n b e r g ' s f e a r o f c o m m o d i f i c a t i o n and C r i m p ' s f e a r o f c o m m o d i f i c a t i o n i s t h i s : Greenberg f e a r s that commodification i s causing modernist a e s t h e t i c s , w h i c h he a r g u e s s h o u l d be autonomous f r o m a l l o t h e r c o n c e r n s , t o l o s e t h a t a s p e c t o f autonomy as a r t i s t s l o w e r t h e i r s i g h t s f r o m c o n t i n u a l l y s e a r c h i n g f o r ways t o a d v a n c e t h e m o d e r n i s t p r o j e c t t o s e a r c h i n g f o r ways t o a c h i e v e f i n a n c i a l and p o p u l a r s u c c e s s i n t h e h e r e and now. "Crimp, on t h e o t h e r hand, i s c o n c e r n e d t h a t c a p i t a l i s m , as an i d e o l o g y , i s a l l t o o a b l e t o a b s o r b and d i f f u s e c r i t i q u e s o f i t s e l f when t h e y a r e made w i t h i n t h e s p h e r e o f a r t p r o d u c t i o n . Now, t h i s r a i s e s a d i f f i c u l t p r o b l e m f o r Crimp, b e c a u s e he e v i d e n t l y s e e s t h e s p h e r e o f c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n as an a r e a w h i c h i s g r e a t l y i n n e e d o f r i g o r o u s c r i t i q u e s , p r e c i s e l y b e c a u s e , as a " s p e c i a l i z e d l u x u r y commodity," i t f u n c t i o n s as an i n s t r u m e n t o f s o c i a l d i s t i n c t i o n , and t h e r e f o r e as an i n s t r u m e n t o f s t a b i l i z a t i o n o f c a p i t a l i s t c i r c u l a t i o n , a i d e d by p r e c i s e l y what G r e e n b e r g i s l a m e n t i n g t h e d e c l i n e o f (though o f c o u r s e G r e e n b e r g w o u l d n o t c h a r a c t e r i z e i t so c y n i c a l l y ) , namely, " t h e p r e t e n s e t o universality." 3 2  "Jackson P o l l o c k "  Arts  v o l . 4 1 no.6  (Apr.1967),  p.32.  33  " i take a r e d u c t i o n i s t conception of modernist p a i n t i n g to mean t h i s : t h a t p a i n t i n g r o u g h l y s i n c e Manet i s s e e n as a k i n d of c o g n i t i v e e n t e r p r i s e i n which a c e r t a i n q u a l i t y ( e . g . , l i t e r a l n e s s ) , s e t o f norms ( e . g . , f l a t n e s s and t h e d e l i m i t i n g o f f l a t n e s s ) o r c o r e o f p r o b l e m s ( e . g . , how to acknowledge the l i t e r a l c h a r a c t e r of the support) i s p r o g e s s i v e l y r e v e a l e d as c o n s t i t u t i n g t h e e s s e n c e o f p a i n t i n g and, by i m p l i c a t i o n , o f h a v i n g done so a l l a l o n g . T h i s seems t o me g r a v e l y m i s t a k e n , n o t on t h e g r o u n d s t h a t m o d e r n i s t p a i n t i n g i s not a c o g n i t i v e e n t e r p r i s e , b u t b e c a u s e i t r a d i c a l l y m i s c o n s t r u e s t h e kind o f c o g n i t i v e e n t e r p r i s e m o d e r n i s t p a i n t i n g i s . What t h e m o d e r n i s t p a i n t e r can be s a i d t o d i s c o v e r i n h i s work what can be s a i d t o be revealed t o him i n i t i s not the i r r e d u c i b l e e s s e n c e of all p a i n t i n g , b u t r a t h e r t h a t w h i c h , a t t h e p r e s e n t moment i n p a i n t i n g ' s h i s t o r y , i s c a p a b l e o f c o n v i n c i n g him t h a t i t can s t a n d c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h e p a i n t i n g o f b o t h t h e m o d e r n i s t and p r e - m o d e r n i s t p a s t whose q u a l i t y seems t o him b e y o n d question. (In t h i s s e n s e one m i g h t say t h a t m o d e r n i s t p a i n t i n g d i s c o v e r s t h e e s s e n c e o f a l l p a i n t i n g t o be quality) .... I t s h o u l d be c l e a r t h a t t h e c o n c e p t i o n o f m o d e r n i s t p a i n t i n g w h i c h I have j u s t a d u m b r a t e d i s n o t o n l y a n t i - r e d u c t i o n i s t b u t a n t i - p o s i t i v i s t . . . " ( " S h a p e as Form: F r a n k S t e l l a ' s New P a i n t i n g s " Artforum Nov.1966, p.27 fnll). A l t h o u g h F r i e d ' s a n t i - r e d u c t i o n i s m a l i g n s him w i t h J u d d a g a i n s t Greenberg, h i s sense of the c o n t i n g e n t n a t u r e of the  85 m o d e r n i s t p r o j e c t p u t s him J u d d and G r e e n b e r g . 3  4  "Art  and  on  O b j e c t h o o d " Art forum  h i s own vol.5  against  no.10  the  idealism  (June 1967),  of  p.15:1.  35  L a u r i e Monahan The New Frontier Goes to Venice: Robert Rauschenberg and the XXXII Venice Biennale, 1985, pp.92-98 and passim.  3  J o h n O ' B r i a n i n t r o d u c t i o n t o Clement Greenberg's Collected Essays and Criticism vol.1: Perceptions and Judgements 19391944 J o h n O ' B r i a n , ed. ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o ) , 1986, p.xix.  6  3"? A g a i n , I am l e s s t h a n s a n g u i n e a b o u t r e l y i n g on anthologized f r a g m e n t s t o c o n s t r u c t an argument i n t h e body o f my t h e s i s . However, I do want t o draw a t t e n t i o n t o t h e way i n w h i c h we can e x t r a p o l a t e f r o m A l b e r r o ' s f o r m u l a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the s h i f t i n meaning of t h e p h r a s e " a r t f o r a r t ' s sake" i n o r d e r t o l o c a t e t h i s s h i f t i n the meaning of t h e p h r a s e " a r t f o r a r t ' s s a k e " w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f a more g e n e r a l i z e d s h i f t i n wide-spread epistemological presuppositions that occured i n t h e 1950s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . B e h i n d A l b e r r o ' s f o r m u l a t i o n , which p i t h i l y summarizes t h e n a t u r e of a s u b t l e but s i g n i f i c a n t a l t e r a t i o n i n the e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s of North American formalism, i s a c o n c e p t i o n of h i s t o r y d e r i v e d from Jean B a u d r i l l a r d ' s e s s a y " G e s t u r e and S i g n a t u r e : S e m i u r g y i n C o n t e m p o r a r y A r t " ( 1 9 7 2 ) . B a u d r i l l a r d a r g u e s t h a t t h e r e has, d u r i n g t h e 1950s and 1960s, b e e n a s h i f t i n t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e a r t i s t ' s s i g n a t u r e , from a s i g n i f i c a t i o n of uniqueness, t o a s i g n w h i c h i d e n t i f i e s t h e image as p a r t o f a p a r t i c u l a r s e r i e s , o r system, of o b j e c t s . W i t h i n the e a r l i e r system of s i g n i f i c a t i o n , t h e r o l e o f t h e s i g n a t u r e was t o c e r t i f y t h e s t a t u s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l a r t work as u n i q u e , s t a n d i n g a p a r t f r o m a l l o t h e r a r t o b j e c t s . P r e s e n t l y , however, t h e r o l e o f the s i g n a t u r e i s t o l o c a t e each a r t o b j e c t w i t h i n a "system of o b j e c t s " from which each o b j e c t w i t h i n t h a t system acquires i t s legitimacy. Now, t h e t e r m " s y s t e m o f o b j e c t s " has a p a r t i c u l a r m e a n i n g i n B a u d r i l l a r d ' s a n a l y s i s of the s o c i a l psychology of consumption. B a u d r i l l a r d ' s i d e a of the "system of o b j e c t s " i s t h a t , w i t h t h e emergence o f a t y p e o f c a p i t a l i s t production w h i c h t a k e s as i t s aim r a i s i n g t h e v e l o c i t y o f c i r u c u l a t i o n • through the machinations of mass-production, a s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y o f d i s t i n c t i o n has e v o l v e d w h i c h r e l i e s upon t h e consumption of mass-produced o b j e c t s i n order t o l o c a t e i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n a matrix of s t e r e o t y p i c a l p e r s o n a l i t i e s . T h e r e f o r e , c o n s u m p t i o n has become an amorphous, y e t i m m e d i a t e , e f f e c t i v e and p e r v a s i v e mode o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n . In The System of Objects (1968), B a u d r i l l a r d w r i t e s : The o b j e c t / a d v e r t i s i n g s y s t e m c o n s t i t u t e s a s y s t e m o f s i g n i f i c a t i o n b u t n o t l a n g u a g e , f o r i t l a c k s an a c t i v e s y n t a x : i t has t h e s i m p l i c i t y and e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f a c o d e . I t does not s t r u c t u r e the p e r s o n a l i t y ; i t d e s i g n a t e s and c l a s s i f i e s i t . I t does n o t s t r u c t u r e s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s : i t demarcates•them i n a h i e r a r c h i c a l r e p e t o i r e . It i s f o r m a l i z e d  86 i n a u n i v e r s a l system of r e c o g n i t i o n of s o c i a l s t a t u s e s : a code o f " s o c i a l standing"(p.19). To say t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r a r t o b j e c t i s p a r t o f a s y s t e m o f o b j e c t s i s t o say t h a t by p u r c h a s i n g t h a t a r t o b j e c t , one s e e k s t o i d e n t i f y o n e s e l f t o o t h e r s as a p a r t i c u l a r t y p e o f p e r s o n by the very act of purchasing that particular art object. Of c o u r s e , t h i s mode o f s i g n i f i c a t i o n i s h a r d l y unique to the a r t world. B a u d r i l l a r d w r i t e s of a r t production w i t h i n the s o c i e t y of systems of o b j e c t s : I n (the s e n s e t h a t t h e work o f a r t o f f e r s i t s e l f o f i t s own i n i t i a t i v e as i m m e d i a t e l y i n t e g r a b l e i n a g l o b a l s y s t e m t h a t c o n j u g a t e s i t l i k e any o t h e r o b j e c t o r g r o u p o f o b j e c t s ) , modern works have i n d e e d become e v e r y d a y o b j e c t s : a l t h o u g h laden with c u l t u r a l connotations, t h e y p o s e no p r o b l e m s t o t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . A modern p a i n t i n g , pop, a b s t r a c t , a " t a c h i s t e , " c o n t r a d i c t s nothing: i t enters i n t o the p l a y of the syntagmatic d i s t r i b u t i o n of o b j e c t s i n space ( i n the modern i n t e r i o r ) j u s t as and b e c a u s e i t i s s u e s f r o m t h e i n v e n t o r y of a c i r c u m s c r i b e d s u b j e c t i v i t y one s i g n p a s s e s i n t o a n o t h e r , f r o m one moment t o a n o t h e r . Two c h a i n s c r o s s : the necessary dimension of s i g n i f i c a t i o n i s a l s o the " f a t a l " d i m e n s i o n o f i n t e g r a t i o n and c o n s u m p t i o n . Modern a r t , midway between c r i t i c a l t e r r o r i s m ( i d e o l o g i c a l ) and de facto s t r u c t u r a l i n t e g r a t i o n , i s q u i t e e x a c t l y an a r t of collusion vis-a-vis t h i s contemporary world. I t p l a y s with i t , and i s i n c l u d e d i n t h e game. I t can p a r o d y t h i s w o r l d , i l l u s t r a t e i t , simulate i t , a l t e r i t ; i t never d i s t u r b s the o r d e r , w h i c h i s a l s o i t s own. We a r e no l o n g e r d e a l i n g w i t h t h e b o u r g e o i s a r t which, i n i t s redundancy, p r e s e n t s b e i n g s and o b j e c t s , r e c o n c i l e d w i t h t h e i r image ( a l l " r e p r e s e n t a t i o n " c a r r i e s t h i s i d e o l o g y o f r e c o n c i l i a t i o n ) . In modern a r t i t i s a s u b j e c t i v i t y w h i c h , u n r e c o n c i l e d w i t h t h e w o r l d , e n d e a v o r s t o r e c o n c i l e i t s e l f w i t h i t s own image: i t i s a s u b j e c t i v i t y whose r e d u n c d a n c y , w h i l e c o m m i t t e d i n an i m p l i c i t s e r i a l i t y , i s dedicated to homologically i l l u s t r a t i n g t h e s e r i a l i t y o f a l l o t h e r o b j e c t s and t h e s y s t e m a t i c o f an i n c r e a s i n g l y w e l l i n t e g r a t e d w o r l d t h r o u g h i t s own w i t h d r a w a l and d e f i a n c e (p.110-111). The s h i f t i n t h e way t h e p h r a s e " a r t f o r a r t ' s s a k e " i n i n t e r p r e t e d , w h i c h we see s t a r t i n g d u r i n g t h e 1950s and s t a b i l i z i n g d u r i n g t h e 1960s, i s s i m u l t a n e o u s w i t h , and p a r t and p a r c e l o f , t h e s h i f t f r o m commodity p r o d u c t i o n as t h e r e p r o d u c t i o n o f an o r i g i n a l t o t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f a s e r i e s o f o b j e c t s , a l l of which are " c o p i e s " of each o t h e r . (For B a u d r i l l a r d ' s e x p l i c a t i o n of h i s ideas concerning the h i s t o r y o f t h i s s h i f t , see "The O r d e r s o f S i m u l a c r a , " in his Simulations P h i l i p B e i t c h m a n , t r a n s . [New York: Semiotext(e)], 1983, pp.81-159.) Hence, t h e d e l i b e r a t e s y s t e m a t i z a t i o n o f t h e work o f c e r t a i n modern a r t i s t s ( B a u d r i l l a r d m e n t i o n s W a r h o l and R a u s c h e n b e r g , b u t I t h i n k he w o u l d a g r e e t h a t S t e l l a and J u d d f i t i n h e r e as w e l l ) i's r e f l e c t i v e of the s y s t e m i z a t i o n of a l l other o b j e c t s . The i d e a o f " a r t f o r a r t ' s s a k e " now p r e s e n t s a r t as a t a u t o l o g y as a s y s t e m w h i c h i s o n l y g r o u n d e d i n i t s e l f . What I am c o n c e r n e d t o q u e s t i o n w i t h my a n a l y s i s o f t h e n o t i o n o f c u l t u r a l autonomy i s i t s p r e s u p p o s i t i o n t h a t a s y s t e m w h i c h i s t a u t o l o g i c a l i s more t h a n m e r e l y f o r m a l l y s e t o f f f r o m i t s  87 c o n t e x t . The i m p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s i s t h a t , s i n c e s y s t e m a t i z a t i o n i s w i d e l y h e l d t o be t h e c r i t e r i o n o f a u t h e n t i c i t y , t h e i d e a r e l i e d upon by t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f " a r t f o r a r t ' s s a k e " as a r t as t a u t o l o g y , f a r f r o m b e i n g t a u t o l o g i c a l , i s i n f a c t c o n s i s t a n t with the e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s o f p o s t - W o r l d War I I N o r t h A m e r i c a n commodity p r o d u c t i o n , and t h e e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s w h i c h go along with i t . I w o u l d a l s o a t t h i s p o i n t l i k e t o a c k n o w l e d g e my i n d e b t e d n e s s t o c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h Mark G l o b e r m a n o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia department of p h i l o s o p h y d u r i n g t h e S p r i n g o f 1989 f o r i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e n a t u r e o f c o n c e r n s w h i c h were b e i n g a d d r e s s e d a t C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y d u r i n g t h e 1950s. 38  c l e m e n t G r e e n b e r g "The L a t e T h i r t i e s i n New Y o r k , " 1957, rep. _ _ i n A r t and Culture: Critical Essays (Boston: Beacon P r e s s ) , 1961, p.230. T h i s i s a s l i g h t l y a l t e r e d v e r s i o n o f an e s s a y by G r e e n b e r g c a l l e d "New York P a i n t i n g Only Y e s t e r d a y " (Art News v o l . 5 6 no.4 [Summer 1957], pp.58-9; 8 4 - 6 ) . The m a t e r i a l i n p a r e n t h e s i s o n l y a p p e a r e d i n t h e 1961 v e r s i o n .  39  S e r g e G u i l b a u t How New York Stole the Idea of Modern Art: Abstract Expressionism, Freedom, and the Cold War t r a n s . A r t h u r Goldhammer ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s ) , 1983, p.158. The r e t e n t i o n o f t h i s o p p o s i t i o n a l t e r m i n o l o g y n e c e s s i t a t e s t h e d r a w i n g out o f s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s between t h i s p o s i t i o n and c o n t e m p o r a r y p o s i t i o n s s u c h as t h e s o c i a l l y - c r i t i c a l c o n c e p t u a l i s m .of Dan Graham, w h i c h u s e d t h e same l a b e l s , had some o f t h e same c o n c e r n s , b u t d i f f e r e d i n t h a t they attempted t o r e t a i n or r e g a i n the element of s o c i a l o p p o s i t i o n . As I n o t e i n my r e c e n t a r t i c l e on Dan Graham: (T)he s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between Graham's and J u d d ' s c u l t u r a l a n a l y s i s i s Graham's u n d e r l y i n g a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e autonomy o f h i g h c u l t u r e i s o n l y a p p a r e n t . Thus, a r e f l e x i v e c r i t i c a l p r o c e s s w i t h i n c u l t u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s may be an e f f e c t i v e method f o r d e n y i n g t h e l e g i t i m z i n g c h a r a c t e r o f c u l t u r e . T h i s i s the a e s t h e t i c of c r i t i c a l modernism(...) C r i t i c a l modernism has a c o m p l i c a t e d r e l a t i o n w i t h G r e e n b e r g i a n modernism, a r e l a t i o n made a l l t h e more complex by t h e p e r s i s t a n t o v e r l a p i n t e r m i n o l o g y , by t h e l e g a c y o f c r i t i q u e w h i c h l i e s dormant i n f o r m a l i s m , and by t h e f o r m a l i s t element which e x i s t s i n the c r i t i c a l modernism of c o n c e p t u a l a r t ("T.V. E y e " P a r a c h u t e no.53 [ D e c . - J a n . Feb.1988-89], p.21:2).  40  see "Marxism and C r i t i c i s m : r e v . o f J o h n B e r g e r ' s Red" A r t s v o l . 3 6 no.4 ( J a n . 1 9 6 2 ) , pp.70-72.  41  "Marxism and C r i t i c i s m : r e v . o f J o h n B e r g e r ' s Permanent Arts v o l . 3 6 no.4 (Jan.1962), p.72  Red"  42  "Marxism and C r i t i c i s m : r e v . Arts (Jan.1962), p.70:1.  Red,"  43  see Three American Painters (Boston: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y ) , 1965; "Shape as Form: F r a n k S t e l l a ' s New P a i n t i n g s " Art forum  Permanent  o f J o h n B e r g e r ' s Permanent  88 (Nov.1966), pp.18-27; " A r t and O b j e c t h o o d , " A r t f o r u m v o l . 5 no.10 (June 1967), pp.12-23. 44 M i c h a e l F r i e d " T h e o r i e s o f A r t a f t e r Discussions in Contemporary Culture, ( S e a t t l e : Bay P r e s s ) , 1987, p.57.  M i n i m a l i s m and Pop," i n no.l H a l F o s t e r , e d .  45  s e e G r e e n b e r g ' s " A v a n t - g a r d e and K i t s c h , " Partisan Review v o l . v i no.5 ( F a l l 1939), pp.34-49; "Towards a Newer L a o c o o n , " Partisan Review v o l . v i i no.4 ( J u l y - A u g u s t 1940), p p . 2 9 6 - 3 1 0 .  4  6  See S e r g e G u i l b a u t How New York Stole the Idea of Modern Art: Abstract Expressionism, Freedom, and the Cold War t r a n s . A r t h u r Goldhammer [ C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s ] , 1983, e s p e c i a l l y C h a p t e r 1 "New Y o r k , 1935 - 1941: The DeM a r x i f i c a t i o n o f t h e I n t e l l i g e n s i a , " pp.17-47.  4  7  See C l e m e n t G r e e n b e r g " A v a n t - g a r d e and K i t s c h , " Review, ( F a l l 1939), pp.34-49.  4  8  Partisan  M i n s o n ' s a n a l y s i s i s i n h i s Geneologies of Morals: Nietzsche, Foucault, Donzelot and the E c c e n t r i c i t y of Ethics (New Y o r k : S t . M a r t i n ' s ) , 1985. My l a n g u a g e h e r e i s a d a p t e d f r o m pp.158-9 o f Minson's book.  49  See S e r g e G u i l b a u t ' s "The R e l e v a n c e o f M o d e r n i s m , " i n Modernism and Modernity: the Vancouver Conference Papers B . B u c h l o h , S . G u i l b a u t , and D. S o l k i n , e d s . ( H a l i f a x : N S C A D ) , 1983, p . X I I I .  50  Thomas Crow "Modernism and Mass C u l t u r e i n t h e V i s u a l A r t s , " i n Modernism and Modernity: the Vancouver Conference Papers B . B u c h l o h , S . G u i l b a u t , and D. S o l k i n , e d s . ( H a l i f a x : N S C A D ) , 1983, p . 2 6 9 .  5  1  See f o r example t h e G e n e r a l P a n e l D i s c u s s i o n i n Modernism Modernity: the Vancouver Conference Papers B.Buchloh, S . G u i l b a u t , and D. S o l k i n , e d s . ( H a l i f a x : N S C A D ) , 1983, pp.270-1.  5  2  Thomas Crow "Modernism and Mass C u l t u r e i n t h e V i s u a l A r t s , " i n Modernism and Modernity: the Vancouver Conference Papers B . B u c h l o h , S . G u i l b a u t , and D-. S o l k i n , e d s . ( H a l i f ax :NSCAD) , 1983, p . 2 2 3 .  53 D o n a l d J u d d " L o c a l H i s t o r y , " A r t s Yearbook t h e A r t World James M e l l o w , e d . (New 1964, p . 3 4 : 1 . 54  and  7: New York York: A r t D i g e s t ) ,  C l e m e n t G r e e n b e r g " A f t e r A b s t r a c t E x p r e s s i o n i s m , " Art International v o l . 8 ( O c t . 2 5 , 1962), p.30:2.  55 A t f i r s t g l a n c e , J u d d ' s use o f t h e h e r m e n e u t i c c o n s t r u c t s o f f o r m a l i s t a e s t h e t i c s t o d i s c u s s a r t seems t o c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e p r e s e n c e of a c r i t i q u e of the f o r m a l i s t assumptions about t h e v i e w e r - a r t o b j e c t r e l a t i o n . A l t h o u g h J u d d ' s work goes some d i s t a n c e t o w a r d p o i n t i n g out t h e p r e d o m i n a n t i d e a l i s t  89 p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s o f t h e v i e w i n g s u b j e c t , i t does n o t e x p r e s s an i n t e r e s t i n d e v e l o p i n g a m a t e r i a l i s t a n a l y s i s o f t h e s e p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s . The a t t e m p t t o f o r m u l a t e a c r i t i q u e o f t h e i d e a l i s t p r e s u p p o s t i o n s o f t h e v i e w i n g s u b j e c t and s u b s e q u e n t l y t o i n t e g r a t e s u c h a c r i t i q u e i n t o an a r t p r a c t i c e i s t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l m i l i e u f r o m w h i c h emerges c o n c e p t u a l a r t as a s o c i a l l y c r i t i c a l a r t p r a c t i c e as d i s t i n c t f r o m c o n c e p t u a l a r t as an a b s t r a c t f o r m a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n , a la J o s e p h K o s u t h . Be i t a d i a l e c t i c a l m a t e r i a l i s t c r i t i q u e o f t h e s u b j e c t t h a t p r o p o s e d by Marx and E n g e l s i n , f o r example, volume one o f The German Ideology, or a g e n e o l o g i c a l c r i t i q u e of the autonomy o f t h e s u b j e c t s u c h as t h a t p r o p o s e d by N i e t z s c h e i n The Genealogy of Morals, J u d d i s n o t i n t e r e s t e d . The f u n d a m e n t a l p r e m i s e s o f d i a l e c t i c a l m a t e r i a l i s m " a r e men, n o t — i n any f a n t a s t i c i s o l a t i o n and f i x i t y , b u t i n t h e i r a c t u a l , e m p i r i c a l l y p e r c e p t i b l e p r o c e s s of development under d e f i n i t e c o n d i t i o n s . As soon as t h i s a c t i v e l i f e - p r o c e s s i s d e s c r i b e d , h i s t o r y c e a s e s t o be a c o l l e c t i o n o f d e a d f a c t s , as i t i s w i t h t h e e m p i r i c i s t s , ( t h e m s e l v e s s t i l l a b s t r a c t ) , o r an i m a g i n e d a c t i v i t y o f i m a g i n e d s u b j e c t s , as w i t h t h e i d e a l i s t s " ( K a r l Marx and F r e d e r i c k E n g e l s The German Ideology vol.1, 1846, P r o g r e s s P r e s s , t r a n s . [Moscow: P r o g r e s s P r e s s ] , 1976, p . 4 3 ) . N i e t z s c h e a n g e n e a l o g y e m p h a s i z e s t h e use o f p h i l o l o g y t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e o n t o l o g i c a l i n s t a b i l i t y o f i d e a s . (See F r i e d r i c h N i e t z s c h e The Genealogy of Morals: An Attack, 1887, t r a n s . F. G o l f f i n g [New Y o r k : D o u b l e d a y ] , 1956, passim.) Despite Nietzsche's i d e a l i s m , t h e two c o n c e p t i o n s o f h i s t o r y c o i n c i d e i n t h e i r s h a r e d b a s e s i n r e l a t i v i s t p h e n o m e n o l o g i e s and e p i s t i m o l o g i e s , and i n t h e i r s h a r e d c o n v i c t i o n a g a i n s t u n i v e r s a l i z i n g systems of t h o u g h t .  1  Barbara Haskell notes: J u d d had r e a l i z e d t h a t s t r u c t u r a l l o g i c was n o t f o r f e i t e d e v e n when t h e number o f u n i t s i n t h e c o n f i g u r a t i o n expanded o r d e c r e a s e d t o a d j u s t t o t h e h e i g h t o f t h e room (...) R a d i c a l a l t e r a t i o n s o f s y n t a x , however, were n o t a c c e p t a b l e — as J u d d w o u l d v e r i f y i n 1973 and 1974 when he d e s i g n a t e d two c o n f i g u r a t i o n s o f t h e same s e v e n p l y w o o d u n i t s as s e p a r a t e works. Y e t , w i t h i n l i m i t s , he p e r m i t t e d a l t e r a t i o n s i n t h e f o r m a l d e p l o y m e n t o f a w o r k . . . ( D o n a l d Judd [New Y o r k : W h i t n e y Museum o f A m e r i c a n A r t ] , 1988, p.88.) !  T h e r e i s a n o t h e r m a t e r i a l w h i c h J u d d s p o r a d i c a l l y makes use o f w h i c h I do n o t t o u c h on i n my t e x t , w h i c h i s p l y w o o d . The main r e a s o n I do n o t a d d r e s s t h i s i s s u e i s b e c a u s e J u d d ' s use o f p l y w o o d i s o c c a s i o n a l a t b e s t , and I t h i n k i t u n l i k e l y t h a t an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f J u d d ' s use o f p l y w o o d w o u l d e i t h e r add much t o my argument o r i n v a l i d a t e i t . However, f o r 'the s a k e o f b e i n g t h o r o u g h , I w i l l o f f e r a few b r i e f r e m a r k s . J u d d ' s use o f p l y w o o d f a l l s i n t o two p e r i o d s . In t h e f i r s t p e r i o d , w h i c h ends a r o u n d 1964, i t seems l i k e l y t h a t J u d d u s e s p l y w o o d m o s t l y as a s e c o n d c h o i c e n e c e s s i t a t e d by t h e f a c t t h a t i t i s s i m p l y c h e a p e r t h a n aluminum o r s t a i n l e s s s t e e l . J u d d abandons p l y w o o d i n l a t e 1963 o r e a r l y 1964, and  90 r e t u r n s t o i t o n l y a f t e r a number o f y e a r s , a t w h i c h p o i n t t h e p i e c e s he h a s made a r e e v e r y b i t a s p r e c i s e a s t h e p i e c e s made o f o t h e r m a t e r i a l s . T h i s s e c o n d p e r i o d o f u s e seems c o n s i s t a n t w i t h my a r g u m e n t s c o n c e r n i n g t h e o t h e r m a t e r i a l s . Judd l e a v e s t h e s e l a t e r plywood s t r u c t u r e s u n p a i n t e d , so t h a t t h e m a t e r i a l s a r e r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e . I would t h i n k t h a t plywood holds a s i m i l a r appeal f o r t h e i d e a o f t h e s p e c i f i c o b j e c t as s t a i n l e s s s t e e l o r aluminum do, a n d I i m a g i n e one c o u l d f o r g e an argument t h a t p l y w o o d i n J u d d ' s work i s a n e x u s between f o r m a l i s t a e s t h e t i c s a n d m a s s - p r o d u c t i o n ina way w h i c h i s v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h e way i n w h i c h I am a r g u i n g J u d d ' s u s e s o f aluminum, p l e x i g l a s s , a n d s t a i n l e s s s t e e l a r e n e x u s between t h e s e two s p h e r e s . However, one w o u l d n e e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e s o c i a l h i s t o r y o f p l y w o o d d u r i n g t h e 1960s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a i n o r d e r t o comment on t h i s i s s u e more extensively. 59  W o l f g a n g Haug " I d e o l o g i c a l V a l u e s a n d Commodity A e s t h e t i c s : The Example o f t h e 'Jeans C u l t u r e ' , " 1978, r e p . i n Commodity Aesthetics, Ideology and Culture, t r a n s . K. R u o f f Kramer (New Y o r k : I n t e r n a t i o n a l G e n e r a l ) , 1987, p.152.  60 D o n a l d J u d d p. 66:2. 61  "In the G a l l e r i e s , "  A r t s vol.39  no.3  (Dec.1964)  Ernest Review  Mandel " I n Defense o f S o c i a l i s t no.159 ( S e p t . / O c t . 1986), p . 7 .  P l a n n i n g , " New  62 E r n e s t Review  Mandel " I n Defense o f S o c i a l i s t no.159 ( S e p t . / O c t . 1986), p . 8 .  P l a n n i n g " New  Left Left  63 E r n e s t M a n d e l " I n D e f e n s e o f S o c i a l i s t P l a n n i n g " New Left Review no.159 ( S e p t . / O c t . 1986), p . 1 1 . A g a i n , B a u d r i l l a r d adds a f u r t h e r d i m e n s i o n h e r e . B a u d r i l l a r d agues t h a t , u n d e r t h e system o f exchange which i s d e v e l o p e d c a p i t a l i s m , t h e f a l s e p r o m i s e o f u s e v a l u e p r o v i d e s an a l i b i f o r s i g n e x c h a n g e v a l u e . A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s i d e o l o g y , we u s u a l l y need what we buy, t h o u g h we may n o t n e e d q u i t e a s e l a b o r a t e a v e r s i o n : p e r h a p s we do n o t n e e d a r e f r i g e r a t o r w i t h an i c e maker, b u t we do n e e d a r e f r i g e r a t o r . The i c e maker i s j u s t a l i t t l e w h i s t l e t o s e t us a p a r t f r o m t h e a v e r a g e r e f r i g e r a t o r owner. B u t B a u d r i l l a r d t a k e s - i s s u e w i t h t h e v e r y c o n c e p t o f a s s i g n i n g primacy t o u s e - v a l u e , as i t i s a term d e v e l p o e d w i t h t h e c a p i t a l i s t system o f language. F o r B a u d r i l l a r d , t h e n , needs a r e t o a g r e a t e x t e n t t h e r e s u l t o f f a i t h i n t h e s i g n exchange v a l u e ' s a l i b i o f u s e - v a l u e , and hence i s i t s e l f a term i n d i g e n o u s t o t h e c a p i t a l i s t system o f language, i n s o f a r as i t was p r o d u c e d by a n d w i t h t h a t s y s t e m o f language: The legitimacy o f p r o d u c t i o n r e s t s on a p e t i t i o p r i n c i p i i , i . e . , t h a t p e o p l e d i s c o v e r a p o s t e r i o r i and a l m o s t m i r a c u l o u s l y t h a t t h e y n e e d what i s p r o d u c e d a n d o f f e r e d a t the marketplace (and t h u s , i n o r d e r t h a t t h e y s h o u l d e x p e r i e n c e t h i s o r any p a r t i c u l a r need, t h e need must a l r e a d y e x i s t i n s i d e p e o p l e as a v i r t u a l p o s t u l a t i o n ) . A n d s o i t appears that t h i s begging of t h e q u e s t i o n this forced rationalization s i m p l y masks t h e internal f i n a l i t y of the  91 o r d e r o f p r o d u c t i o n . To become an end i n i t s e l f , e v e r y s y s t e m must d i s p e l t h e q u e s t i o n o f i t s r e a l t e l e o l o g y . T h r o u g h t h e m e r e t r i c i o u s l e g i t i m a c y o f n e e d s and s a t i s f a c t i o n s , t h e e n t i r e q u e s t i o n o f t h e s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l f i n a l i t y o f p r o d u c t i v i t y i s r e p r e s s e d ("The I d e o l o g i c a l G e n e s i s o f N e e d s , " 1969, r e p . i n For a Critique of the Political Economy of the Sign, 1972, C h a r l e s L e v i n , t r a n s . [ S t . L o u i s : T e l o s ] , 1981, p . 7 1 ) . 64 D o n a l d J u d d " S p e c i f i c O b j e c t s , " 1965, r e p . i n Complete 1959-1975 ( H a l i f a x : NSCAD P r e s s ) , 1975, p . 1 8 7 .  Writing  See R o l a n d B a r t h e s "Myth T o d a y , " i n Mythologies, 1957, t r a n s . A n n e t t e L a v e r s (New Y o r k : H i l l & Wang), 1972, p.112-115.  6  5  6  6  R o l a n d B a r t h e s "Myth T o d a y , " i n Mythologies, 1957, t r a n s . ....Annette L a v e r s (New Y o r k : H i l l & Wang), 1972, p . 1 4 2 .  6  7  R o l a n d B a r t h e s "Myth T o d a y , " i n Mythologies, 1957, t r a n s . A n n e t t e L a v e r s (New Y o r k : H i l l & Wang), 1972, p . 1 2 9 .  68 J e a n B a u d r i l l a r d For a Critique of the Political the Sign, 1972, t r a n s . C h a r l e s L e v i n ( S t . L o u i s : p.158.  Economy Telos),  of 1981,  69 J e a n B a u d r i l l a r d For  Economy Telos),  of 1981,  the Sign, p.48. 70  1972,  a Critique of the Political trans. Charles Levin (St.Louis:  See, f o r example, S e r g e G u i l b a u t How New York Stole the of Modern Art: Abstract Expressionism, Freedom and the War t r a n s . A r t h u r Goldhammer ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o ) , 1983, e s p e c i a l l y pp.90-97.  Idea Cold  no.4  7  1  H a r o l d Rosenberg, " V i r t u o s o s ( S e p t . l , 1966), pp.296-7.  o f Boredom," Vogue v o l . 1 4 8  7  2  C. W r i g h t M i l l s "Man i n t h e M i d d l e : The D e s i g n e r , " Industrial Design v o l . 5 no.11 (Nov.1958), p . 7 3 : 1 . In s p i t e o f h i s p e r s p i c a c i o u s d i s c u s s i o n of the r o l e of the d e s i g n e r i n t h i s a r t i c l e , i t must be m e n t i o n e d t h a t M i l l s ' a r t i c l e t a k e s a t u r n " f o r t h e w o r s t i n t h e s i x t h and f i n a l s e c t i o n , w h e r e i n M i l l s o f f e r s a s o l u t i o n f o r the problem. I t i s the s o r t of s u g g e s t i o n t h a t would l e a v e B a u d r i l l a r d s h a k i n g h i s head: ( D ) e s i g n e r s ought t o t a k e t h e v a l u e o f c r a f t s m a n s h i p ( i . e . : t h e m a n i f e s t a t i o n b o t h o f t h e s e n s i b l i t i e s o f man i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f m a t e r i a l o b j e c t s , and o f t h e n a t u r e o f man as a c r e a t u r e r e l a t e d t o n a t u r e i t s e l f and t o c h a n g i n g i t by a humanly c o n s i d e r e d p l a n ) as t h e c e n t r a l v a l u e f o r w h i c h t h e y s t a n d ; t h a t i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h i t t h e y ought t o do t h e i r work; and t h a t t h e y ought t o u s e i t s norms i n t h e i r s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c and p o l i t i c a l v i s i o n s o f what s o c i e t y ought t o become ( p . 7 5 : 2 ) . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t M i l l s ' p a p e r was w r i t t e n t o be r e a d a t t h e D e s i g n c o n f e r e n c e h e l d i n Aspen, C o l o r a d o , i n t h e Summer o f 1958, w h i c h may have s o m e t h i n g t o do w i t h t h i s r a t h e r weak c o n c l u s i o n .  92 7  3  i t h i n k t h a t an i n t e r e s t i n g d i s c u s s i o n c o u l d be made on t h e way t h a t t h i s p h o t o g r a p h p r e s e n t s J u d d ' s work, s h o w i n g i t f r o m a 3/4 v i e w so t h a t t h e work r e c e e d s d r a m a t i c a l l y i n t o t h e p h o t o g r a p h i n p r e c i s e l y t h e same way t h a t o r t h o g o n a l s r e c e d i n g d r a m a t i c a l l y t o w a r d a v a n i s h i n g p o i n t draw a v i e w e r i n t o a h i s t o r y p a i n t i n g . T h a t , however, i s a n o t h e r t o p i c .  7  4  Thomas Crow "Modernism and Mass C u l t u r e i n t h e V i s u a l A r t s , " i n Modernism and Modernity: the Vancouver Conference Papers, B . B u c h l o h , S . G u i l b a u t , D . S o l k i n , e d s . ( H a l i f a x : N S C A D ) , p.216,  7  5 K a r l B e v e r i d g e and (1975), p.138:2.  Ian Burn  "Don  Judd"  The  Fox  vol.1  no.2  7  6  See S e r g e G u i l b a u t How New York Stole the Idea of Modern Art: abstract expressionism, freedom and the cold war t r a n s . A r t h u r Goldhammer ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s ) , 1983, p.3 and passim.  7  7  L a u r i e Monahan The New Frontier Goes to Venice: Rauschenberg and the XXXII Venice Biennale M.A. ( U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ) , 1985, p . 6 .  7  ^  On t h i s , s e e J e f f W a l l "Dan Graham's Kammerspiel," Graham ( P e r t h : A r t G a l l e r y o f W e s t e r n A u s t r a l i a ) , passim.  7  ^  Kynaston McShine " I n t r o d u c t i o n American and British sculptors" 1966, p . l .  80  Robert Thesis i n Dan 1986,  t o Primary Structures: younger (New Y o r k : J e w i s h Museum),  See i n p a r t i c u l a r R o b e r t M o r r i s ' " A n t i Form," Artforum vol.6 no.8 ( A p r . 1 9 6 8 ) , pp.33-35, and "Notes on S c u l p t u r e p t . 4 : b e y o n d o b j e c t s , " Artforum v o l . 7 no.8 ( A p r . 1 9 6 9 ) , pp.50-54.  81 F r i e d r i c h N i e t z s c h e Beyond Good and Evil: Prelude to a Philosophy of the Future, 1886, t r a n s . R. H o l l i n g d a l e [Markham, Ont.: P e n g u i n ] , 1973, p.79. 82 On t h i s , see J e a n B a u d r i l l a r d ' " G e s t u r e and S i g n a t u r e : S e m i u r g y i n C o n t e m p o r a r y A r t , " i n For a Critique of the Political Economy of the Sign, 1972, t r a n s C h a r l e s L e v i n ( S t . L o u i s : T e l o s ) , 1981, pp.102-111. Epilogue 1  Thomas Crow "Modernism and Mass C u l t u r e i n t h e V i s u a l A r t s , " i n Modernism and Modernity: the Vancouver Conference Papers B . B u c h l o h , S . G u i l b a u t & D . S o l k i n , e d s . ( H a l i f a x : N S C A D ) , 1983, p . 253.  2  Edward S a i d  3  See Judy C h i c a g o Through the Flower: My Struggle as a Woman Artist (New Y o r k : D o u b l e d a y ) , 1975. A l s o o f i n t e r e s t i n t h i s r e g a r d a r e : Judy C h i c a g o and L l o y d H a m r o l ' s "Two A r t i s t s , " i n  Orientalism  ( T o r o n t o : Random H o u s e ) ,  1979,  p.84.  93  Criteria  v o l . 1 , no.2 (Nov.1974), pp.8-14; a n d L u c y L i p p a r d ' s "Judy C h i c a g o , T a l k i n g t o L u c y L i p p a r d , " Art forum v o l . 1 3 , n o . l ( S e p t . 1 9 7 4 ) , pp.60-65.  4  J u d y C h i c a g o Through the Flower: My Struggle as a woman Artist (New Y o r k : D o u b l e d a y ) , 1975, pp.40-41. F o r an i n f o r m a t i v e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e dynamic w h i c h C h i c a g o d e s c r i b e s i n t h i s p a s s a g e , namely, t h e v e r y g r e a t a b i l i t y o f m a s c u l i s t c e n t r a l i s m t o c o n s t r u c t i t s e l f a s v a l u e - f r e e a n d h e n c e t o be a b l e t o choose whether t o v a l i d a t e / r e c u p e r a t e o r i n v a l i d a t e / m a r g i n a l i z e work w h i c h o p e n l y d e c l a r e s i t s e l f t o . h a v e b e e n p r o d u c e d by a woman, s e e G a y a t r i C h a k r a v o r t y S p i v a k ' s e s s a y " E x p l a n a t i o n a n d C u l t u r e : M a r g i n a l i a , " 1977,  r e p . i n In Other Worlds: Essays in Cultural  Politics  (New  Y o r k : R o u t l e d g e ) , 1988, pp.103-117. A l s o o f i n t e r e s t i n r e g a r d t o t h i s i s s u e i s Susan B o r d o ' s " F e m i n i s t S k e p t i c i s m a n d t h e M a l e n e s s ' o f P h i l o s o p h y , " i n The Journal of Philosophy v o l . l x x x v no.11 (November 1988), pp.619-629. x  Arts v o l . 4 1 , no.3 (Dec.1966-  5  See Dan Graham "Homes f o r A m e r i c a " J a n . 1 9 6 7 ) , pp.21-22.  6  Dan Graham i n an u n p u b l i s h e d 1988 .  7  Dan Graham "Homes f o r A m e r i c a " A r t s v o l . 4 1 , J a n . 1 9 6 7 ) , p.22:3.  interview with  t h e author,  Spring  no.3 (Dec.1966-  8 H i s t o r i c a l l y , one c a n r e l a t e t h i s t o t h e w i d e - r a n g i n g a p p e a l o f l i b e r a l c a p i t a l i s m a f t e r W o r l d War I I , one e f f e c t o f w h i c h was the narrowing o f t h e p o l i t i c a l f i e l d o f view. Claus O f f e has a s t u t e l y noted t h e p r e c i s e c h a r a c t e r of t h i s p o l i t i c a l f i e l d i n an e s s a y t h a t , w h i l e s p e c i f i c a l l y i n t e n d e d t o a n a l y z e t h e p o l i t i c s o f W e s t e r n E u r o p e i s n o n e t h e l e s s a p p r o p r i a t e , as O f f e r e c o g n i z e s , a s a model f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e p o l i t i c s o f N o r t h America: (That t h e s o c i a l , e c o n o m i c , a n d p o l i t i c a l o r d e r a d o p t e d i n t h e l a t e 1940s a n d e a r l y 1950s was b u i l t on a h i g h l y e n c o m p a s s i n g l i b e r a l - d e m o c r a t i c welfare s t a t e consensus t h a t remained u n c h a l l e n g e d t h r o u g h t h e l a t e 1960s by any s i g n i f i c a n t f o r c e s on t h e p o l i t i c a l R i g h t o r L e f t ) i s t r u e a t l e a s t o f t h r e e c e n t r a l elements o f t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l postwar accords, a l l o f w h i c h were a d o p t e d a n d d e f e n d e d i n t e r m s o f t h e i r c o n d u c i v e n e s s t o economic growth and w e l f a r e . F i r s t , d e s p i t e some m a r g i n a l e l e m e n t s o f i n d i c a t i v e p l a n n i n g , c o d e t e r m i n a t i o n , o r n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n , i n v e s t m e n t d e c i s i o n s were l e f t as t h e p r e r o g a t i v e o f owners a n d managers a c t i n g i n f r e e m a r k e t s a n d a c c o r d i n g t o c r i t e r i a o f p r o f i t a b i l i t y . Second, t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f c a p i t a l i s m a s a m a c h i n e f o r g r o w t h was c o m p l e m e n t e d by o r g a n i z e d l a b o r ' s a c c e p t a n c e o f i t a s a .means f o r income d i s t r i b u t i o n a n d s o c i a l s e c u r i t y . The p r e v e l a n t c o n c e r n w i t h g r o w t h and r e a l income l e d w o r k i n g - c l a s s spokesmen t o r e n o u n c e more e x t e n s i v e p r o j e c t s o f s o c i e t a l change, i n e x c h a n g e f o r a f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d s t a t u s i n t h e p r o c e s s o f income d i s t r i b u t i o n , w h i l e i t made i n v e s t o r s , more w i l l i n g t o a c c e p t t h e new s t a t u s o f o r g a n i z e d l a b o r . The t h i r d e l e m e n t o f t h e p o s t w a r d e s i g n ( a d o p t e d i n t h e German c a s e f r o m  94  t h e Weimar R e p u b l i c ) was a f o r m o f p o l i t i c a l d e m o c r a c y predominantly mediated through p a r t y c o m p e t i t i o n . T h i s a r r a n g e m e n t was w e l l s u i t e d t o l i m i t t h e c o n f l i c t s t r a n s f e r r e d from t h e sphere o f c i v i l s o c i e t y i n t o t h e arena o f p u b l i c p o l i c y , e s p e c i a l l y where, a s i n West Germany, t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t s e p a r a t i o n between t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n s r e p r e s e n t i n g societal i n t e r e s t s (unions, employers, churches, e t c . ) and t h e political p a r t i e s c o n c e r n e d w i t h w i n n i n g v o t e s and o f f i c e a c c o r d i n g t o t h e model o f t h e " c a t c h - a l l - p a r t y " ( " C h a l l e n g i n g t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l p o l i t i c s : s o c i a l movements s i n c e t h e 1960s," i n Changing boundaries of the political: Essays on the evolving balance between the state and society, public and private in Europe C h a r l e s M a i e r , e d . [New Y o r k : C a m b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y ] , 1987, p p . 6 6 - 7 ) . I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k A l e x A l b e r r o f o r d r a w i n g my a t t e n t i o n t o t h i s a r t i c l e . See also, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n regard to the p o l i t i c a l f i e l d i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s a t t h i s t i m e , A l e x a n d e r Bloom's i n f o r m a t i v e " r e v . o f P e t e r S t e i n f e l s ' The Neoconservatives: the men who are changing America's politics" Telos (Winter 1979-80), pp.181-88. What Graham's a r t i c l e m i s s e s i n t e r m s o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e a r c h i t e c t u r e he i s d i s c u s s i n g , i s a p t l y s u m m a r i z e d by Mark Wasuda i n a n o t e t o me c o n c e r n i n g an e a r l i e r d r a f t o f t h i s paper: When you s u g g e s t t h a t Graham i s c r i t i q u i n g t h e e n t i r e s y s t e m of m a s s - f a b r i c a t i o n a whole-series of other questions c o n c e r n i n g t h e s t a t u s o f mass p r o d u c t i o n w i t h i n 2 0 t h c e n t u r y a r t a n d a r c h i t e c t u r e a r i s e (...) I am r e m i n d e d o f t h e h i s t o r y o f s o c i a l h o u s i n g , e s p e c i a l l y i n Germany o r H o l l a n d . A l t h o u g h s u b u r b a n h o u s i n g s u f f e r s a t t h e hands o f t h e A m e r i c a n c o m m o d i f i c a t i o n s y s t e m i t s f a i l u r e i s made p o i g n a n t n o t by Graham's r e g r e t f o r t h e A m e r i c a n l a n d s c a p e o f u n i q u e b u i l d i n g s b u t by t h e d i s t a n c e i t t r a v e l s from i t s o r i g i n i n w o r k e r s h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s . The " s o c i a l i s t " a r c h i t e c t s were s u r e l y g u i l t y o f u t o p i a n i s m and r o m a n t i c a n t i - c a p i t a l i s m a n d were d e f e a t e d by t h e i r n a i v e a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e i r r e l a t i o n t o t h e m a r k e t . 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(New York: Doubleday), 1968.)  f  i  E  2  ( u n t i t l e d ) 1965 S t a i n l e s s s t e e l , p l e x i g l a s s . 34" x 160" x 34" C o l l e c t i o n o f C a s t e l l i G a l l e r y , New Y o r k . (Source: M i n i m a l A r t Gregory B a t t c o c k , ed. (New York: Doubleday), 1968„) D  o  n  a  l  d  J  u  d  d  f i g 4 Judy C h i c a g o F l i g h t 1963 A c r y l i c on m a s o n i t e . 48" x 96" C o l l e c t i o n o f Gene Kassebaum, H a w a i i . ( S o u r c e : Judy C h i c a g o Through t h e F l o w e r (New York: D o u b l e d a y ) , 1975„)  104  105  106  fig  8 Donald Judd ( u n t i t l e d ) 1955 O i l on c a n v a s . 30" x 37" C o l l e c t i o n o f t h e a r t i s t . (Source: Barbara H a s k e l l Donald Judd (New York: Whitney Museum), 1988.)  107  f i g 9 Donald Judd ( u n t i t l e d ) 1960 O i l on c a n v a s . 70" x 48" C o l l e c t i o n o f N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y o f Canada, Ottawa. (Source: B a r b a r a H a s k e l l Donald Judd (New Y o r k : Whitney Museum), 1988.) '  f i g 10 Donald Judd ( u n t i t l e d ) 1961 L i q u i t e x and sand on masonite„ 4 8 " x 96" C o l l e c t i o n o f Solomon Guggenheim Museum, New Y o r k . ( S o u r c e : B a r b a r a H a s k e l l D o n a l d Judd (New Y o r k : Whitney Museum), 1988.)  o  00  109  fig  11 Donald Judd ( u n t i t l e d ) 1963 P a i n t e d plywood and (Source: das Kunstwerk v o l . x v i i i nos.10-12.)  latex,,  

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