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A study of audience expectations and genre in St. Erkenwald Park, Laureen Diane 1989

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A STUDY OF AUDIENCE EXPECTATIONS AND GENRE IN ST. ERKENWALD By Laureen Diane Park B.A., M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y , 1986 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of E n g l i s h We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1989 © L a u r e e n Diane Park, 1989 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of F n g l i gh  The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 D a t e 7.7 n n . n h P . r 1 qaq DE-6(3/81) i i A b s t r a c t S t . E r k e n w a l d i s a n a l l i t e r a t i v e M i d d l e E n g l i s h poem t h o u g h t t o h a v e b e e n composed t o w a r d t h e end o f t h e f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y . Among modern c r i t i c s o f M i d d l e E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e t h e poem h a s b e e n g e n e r a l l y r e g a r d e d a s a n i n f e r i o r w o r k o r h a s b e e n r e l e g a t e d t o r e l a t i v e o b s c u r i t y as a s e c o n d - r a t e w o r k o f t h e G a w a i n - p o e t . One p o s s i b l e r e a s o n f o r t h e i n d i f f e r e n t r e c e p t i o n S t . E r k e n w a l d h a s r e c e i v e d f r o m s c h o l a r s may be due t o t h e s e e m i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s w h i c h b e s e t t h e poem, o f w h i c h t h e most i m p o r t a n t i s t h e l a c k o f a n a p p r o p r i a t e g e n e r i c c o n t e x t . I f t h e poem l a c k s a s u i t a b l e g e n e r i c i d e n t i t y , p a r t o f t h e p r o b l e m may l i e i n t h e way i n w h i c h g e n r e h a s b e e n p r e v i o u s l y d e f i n e d by modern c r i t i c s . The s o l u t i o n p r o p o s e d i n t h i s s t u d y i s t o r e d e f i n e t h e c o n c e p t o f g e n r e i n t e r m s o f t h e r e c e p t i o n -a e s t h e t i c s o f Hans R o b e r t J a u s s , t h a t i s , i n t e r m s o f t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h e m e d i e v a l a u d i e n c e . C h a p t e r One o f t h i s s t u d y e x a m i n e s t h e p r o b l e m s f a c i n g t h e m odern r e a d e r o f S t . E r k e n w a l d a s t h e y h a v e b e e n i d e n t i f i e d by E r k e n w a l d s c h o l a r s . The a i m o f C h a p t e r Two i s t o r e d e f i n e t h e c o n c e p t o f g e n r e and e x p l o r e t h e t h e o r i e s o f J a u s s ' s R e z e p t i o n s a s t h e t i k w h i c h c a n t h e n be a p p l i e d t o t h e poem. The t y p e s o f p o s s i b l e e x p e c t a t i o n s a r e r e c o n s t r u c t e d i n C h a p t e r T h r e e by e x a m i n i n g r o u g h l y i i i contemporaneous works which the audience could reasonably be expected t o know. In Chapter Four St. Erkenwald i s re- e v a l u a t e d i n terms of the r e c o n s t r u c t e d e x p e c t a t i o n s i n o r d e r t o determine i n what ways these e x p e c t a t i o n s are f u l f i l l e d , changed, or subverted, thereby p r o v i d i n g the means t o e v a l u a t e the g e n e r i c i d e n t i t y o f the poem. iv Table of Contents A b s t r a c t i i I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 Chapter One: The Problems of St. Erkenwald from a Modern P e r s p e c t i v e 8 Chapter Two: R e d e f i n i n g the Concept of Genre 22 Chapter Three: R e c o n s t r u c t i n g the Horizon of E x p e c t a t i o n s 31 Chapter Four: Re- e v a l u a t i n g S t . Erkenwald 53 C o n c l u s i o n 78 B i b l i o g r a p h y 82 I n t r o d u c t i o n V e r y l i t t l e i s known a b o u t t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f t h e p r o d u c t i o n and r e c e p t i o n o f S t . E r k e n w a l d . The poem s u r v i v e s i n o n l y one m a n u s c r i p t , BL H a r l e y 2250, and was c o p i e d a f r e s h i n 1477. The c o n t e n t s o f t h e m a n u s c r i p t a r e p r i m a r i l y d i d a c t i c , c o n s i s t i n g o f s u c h p i e c e s a s t h e S p e c u l u m C h r i s t i a n i , a s e t o f i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r l e a d i n g a C h r i s t i a n l i f e , t h e S t a n z a i c L i f e o f C h r i s t , p o r t i o n s o f M i r k ' s F e s t i a l a n d t h e S o u t h E n g l i s h L e g e n d a r y . P r i v a t e u s e may be i n d i c a t e d by t h e i n c l u s i o n o f a c u r e f o r f e v e r , a n o t e o n t h e d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e e a r t h t o h e a v e n , and a 1 n o t e o n t h e u n i t s o f t i m e . As f o r t h e o r i g i n a l c o n d i t i o n s u n d e r w h i c h S t . E r k e n w a l d was w r i t t e n , i t c a n o n l y be h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e poem m i g h t h a v e been c o m m i s s i o n e d f o r t h e r e i n s t a t e m e n t o f E r k e n w a l d ' s f e a s t , w h i c h l e d G o l l a n c z t o a s s i g n t h e d a t e o f 2 c o m p o s i t i o n a s 1386. C r i t i c s g e n e r a l l y a g r e e o n t h e p e r i o d o f t h e l a t e f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y t o t h e e a r l y f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y a s t h e d a t e o f c o m p o s i t i o n . The poem i s w r i t t e n 1 F o r a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e m a n u s c r i p t c o n t e n t s s e e S a i n t E r k e n w a l d , e d . C l i f f o r d P e t e r s o n ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : U o f P e n n s y l v a n i a P. 1977) 1-11. T h i s e d i t i o n i s u s e d f o r a l l q u o t a t i o n s f r o m S t . E r k e n w a l d . 2 S t . E r k e n w a l d , e d . I . G o l l a n c z , S e l e c t E a r l y E n g l i s h Poems 4 ( O x f o r d : O x f o r d UP, 1922) x x v i . 2 i n N o r t h w e s t M i d l a n d s d i a l e c t and C h e s h i r e i s c u s t o m a r i l y a s s i g n e d a s t h e p o i n t o f o r i g i n . The p o e t who w r o t e S t . E r k e n w a l d was f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e e s s e n t i a l f a c t s a b o u t t h e b i s h o p , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t he may h a v e h a d a c c e s s t o o n e o f t h e e a r l i e r v e r s i o n s o f E r k e n w a l d ' s l i f e w h i c h w e r e n o t w i d e l y c i r c u l a t e d . The p o e t may h a v e been a c l e r i c , t h e r e b y h a v i n g a c c e s s t o a c h u r c h l i b r a r y w h e r e he c o u l d h a v e r e a d o n e o f t h e v i t a e . T h i s t h e o r y w o u l d seem t o be s u p p o r t e d by t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t h e 3 A l l i t e r a t i v e R e v i v a l was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e m o n a s t e r i e s . As a p o e t o f t h e A l l i t e r a t i v e R e v i v a l , t h e E r k e n w a l d - p o e t may h a v e b e e n c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e n o b i l i t y s i n c e p a t r o n a g e was i n t e g r a l t o t h i s p o e t i c movement: T h i s movement c a n b e s t be u n d e r s t o o d i n r e l a t i o n t o a r i s t o c r a t i c p a t r o n a g e . S u c h p a t r o n a g e w o u l d e x p l a i n t h e w i d e s p r e a d d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f a l l i t e r a t i v e v e r s e . . . a s w e l l a s i t s a b i l i t y t o d r a w on a m e t r o p o l i t a n r i c h n e s s o f s o u r c e - m a t e r i a l s , s i n c e t h e n o b i l i t y h a d e s t a t e s a l l o v e r t h e c o u n t r y and t r a v e l l e d r e m o r s e l e s s l y w i t h t h e i r t r a i n o f c o u r t i e r s , t o f f i c i a l s , c l e r k s ( a n d w o u l d - b e a l l i t e r a t i v e p o e t s ) . . . . . I t may be t h a t S t . E r k e n w a l d was w r i t t e n u n d e r s u c h an a r i s t o c r a t i c p a t r o n a g e a s p o l i t e l i t e r a t u r e . D e r e k P e a r s a l l , O l d E n g l i s h and M i d d l e E n g l i s h P o e t r y , The R o u t l e d g e H i s t o r y o f E n g l i s h P o e t r y 1 ( L o n d o n : R o u t l e d g e , 1977) 176. 4 P e a r s a l l , OE and ME P o e t r y , 156. See a l s o J.R. H u l b e r t , "A H y p o t h e s i s C o n c e r n i n g t h e A l l i t e r a t i v e R e v i v a l , " M odern  P h i l o l o g y 28 ( 1 9 3 1 ) : 4 0 5 - 2 2 . 3 The modern r e c e p t i o n o f S t . E r k e n w a l d i s more c e r t a i n : t h e poem h a s g e n e r a l l y b e e n v i e w e d u n f a v o u r a b l y and c l a s s i f i e d as i n f e r i o r . T h i s e v a l u a t i o n may be due i n p a r t t o t h e a p p r o a c h c r i t i c s h a v e t a k e n t o t h e poem. Among t h e p r o b l e m s i d e n t i f i e d by E r k e n w a l d s c h o l a r s a r e d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h h i s t o r y , g e n r e , c h r o n o l o g y , and t h e o l o g y . The E r k e n w a l d -p o e t ' s s e n s e o f h i s t o r y , f o r e x a m p l e , seems t o t h e modern r e a d e r t o be a c o n f u s e d m i x t u r e o f h i s t o r i c a l f a c t and p u r e i n v e n t i o n . The h i s t o r i c a l a u t h e n t i c i t y e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e o p e n i n g l i n e s o f t h e poem i s c o n t r a d i c t e d by t h e h i s t o r i c a l l y i n a c c u r a t e s t o r y w h i c h f o l l o w s them: t h e r e i s no e x t a n t r e c o r d o f a m i r a c l e i n w h i c h t h e b i s h o p E r k e n w a l d e f f e c t s t h e s a l v a t i o n o f a h e a t h e n . W i t h what t o some w o u l d a p p e a r t o be a l a c k o f o r i g i n a l i t y o r a l a c k o f s k i l l , t h e p o e t h a s c o p i e d t h e b a s i c p l o t o f t h e s a l v a t i o n o f T r a j a n b y G r e g o r y t h e G r e a t . i P e r h a p s t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s modern r e a d e r s h a v e h a d w i t h S t . E r k e n w a l d may be a t t r i b u t e d t o what J a u s s t e r m s a s " a l t e r i t y , " o r t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y and modern r e c e p t i o n o f a m e d i e v a l t e x t . A l t e r i t y s h o u l d n o t be e q u a t e d w i t h h i s t o r i c a l d i s t a n c e b u t m i g h t r a t h e r be a c c o u n t e d f o r by t h e c h a n g e i n man's u n i v e r s e : . . . t h e m e d i e v a l o b s e r v e r l o o k e d i n t o and u p o n t h e s t a r r y s k y a t n i g h t , a s i f l o o k i n g o v e r t h e o u t e r m o s t w a l l o f a c i t y , w h i l e we l o o k o u t ; . . . t h e w h o l e u n i v e r s e a p p e a r e d a s a bound o r d e r i n g o f s p a c e s , a l r e a d y l a y e r e d and p o p u l a t e d w i t h a n g e l i c e s s e n c e s , and f i l l e d w i t h l i g h t and t h e m u s i c o f t h e s p h e r e s , w h i l e we f e e l 4 P a s c a l ' s h o r r o r of the s i l e n c e e t e r n e l de ces espaces  i n f i n i s when faced^with the endless, empty, dark, and mute u n i v e r s e . St. Erkenwald i s a l t e r t o a modern audience i n s e v e r a l ways, which may account f o r some o f the d i f f i c u l t i e s generated by the poem. The medieval concept of h i s t o r y , f o r example, and the modern concept are widely opposed. What, the modern person views as f i c t i o n a l , the medieval person b e l i e v e d i m p l i c i t l y : Nowadays we may not regard the m i r a c l e s t o r i e s i n p r e c i s e l y the same l i g h t as d i d Bede and h i s contemporaries; but we ought t o t r e a t them with reverent sympathy, f o r i t was i n such ways t h a t they p r o j e c t e d t h e i g own f a i t h and hope upon the e x t e r n a l world. St. Erkenwald has a l s o been r e j e c t e d f o r i t s l a c k of o r i g i n a l i t y . No doubt t h i s i s a p r e j u d i c e of our modern times i n which o r i g i n a l i t y and i n d i v i d u a l i t y are e x a l t e d and " p l a g i a r i s m " regarded with r e v u l s i o n . The medieval w r i t e r thought n o t h i n g o f borrowing from o t h e r works: One i s tempted t o say t h a t almost the t y p i c a l a c t i v i t y of the medieval author c o n s i s t s i n touching up something t h a t was a l r e a d y there; as Chaucer Hans Robert Jauss, "The A l t e r i t y and Modernity o f Medieval L i t e r a t u r e , " t r a n s . Timothy B a h t i , New L i t e r a r y  H i s t o r y 10 (1979): 192. 6 Bertram Colgrave and R.A.B. Mynors, ed. and t r a n s . , i n t r o d u c t i o n , Bede's E c c l e s i a s t i c a l H i s t o r y of the E n g l i s h  People (Oxford: Clarendon, 1969) xxxvi. 5 touched up Boccaccio, as Malory touched up French prose romances i n verse, as La3amon works over Wace, who works over G e o f f r e y , who works over no one knows what. We are i n c l i n e d t o wonder how men c o u l d be at once so o r i g i n a l t h a t they handled no predecessor without pouring new l i f e i n t o him, and so u n o r i g i n a l t hat they seldom d i d anything completely new. F i n a l l y , i t must be s a i d t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l forms of hagiography are a l t e r t o the modern reader. Even Chaucer's Second Nun's T a l e has been c a l l e d u n i n s p i r e d . Rosemary Woolf, i n d i s c u s s i n g the Anglo-Saxon s a i n t ' s l i f e best summarized the modern o b j e c t i o n : "there i s perhaps no l i t e r a r y form which i s more l i k e l y t o t r e s p a s s upon the p r e j u d i c e s of the t w e n t i e t h century.... Nowadays anyone who l i k e s the f a n t a s i e s of s c i e n c e f i c t i o n . . . w o u l d be outraged by the s a i n t ' s l i f e . " I f the meaning of St. Erkenwald l i e s i n a sphere of understanding so removed from the modern reader, the problem i s then how t o b r i d g e the gap. The s o l u t i o n proposed by t h i s study i s to r e c o n s t r u c t the e x p e c t a t i o n s of the medieval audience whereby the "modern reader comes t o value medieval l i t e r a t u r e p r e c i s e l y f o r i t s a l t e r i t y , f o r the way i n which i t opens t o him new p o s s i b l e worlds C S . Lewis, The Discarded Image (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1964) 209. Rosemary Woolf, " S a i n t s ' L i v e s , " C o n t i n u a t i o n s and  Beginnings, S t u d i e s i n Old E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e , ed. E.G. S t a n l e y (Edinburgh: Nelson, 1966) 37-65. Rpt. i n A r t and  D o c t r i n e : Essays on Medieval L i t e r a t u r e , ed. Heather O'Donoghue (London: Hambledon, 1986) 244. 6 of e x p e r i e n c e s . " A s u i t a b l e s t a r t i n g p l a c e f o r the proposed method i s the q u e s t i o n o f the poem's genre. I f St. Erkenwald does not s a t i s f a c t o r i l y f i t any g e n e r i c category, the s o l u t i o n t o the problem may be t o change the way i n which genre i s d e f i n e d . A p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n i s t o r e d e f i n e the concept of genre i n terms of r e c e p t i o n -a e s t h e t i c s , t h a t i s , i n terms of contemporary medieval audience e x p e c t a t i o n s and r e a c t i o n s . A l t e r i n g the way i n which genre i s p e r c e i v e d r a t h e r than t r y i n g t o make St. Erkenwald f i t a g e n e r i c category p r o v i d e s an a l t e r n a t i v e approach t o i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . In o r d e r t o determine the contemporary audience's e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r the poem, the types of e x p e c t a t i o n s should be r e c o n s t r u c t e d from examples of hagiography which might have been f a m i l i a r t o the audience or which the poet might have expected h i s audience t o know e x p l i c i t l y o r i m p l i c i t l y . Roughly contemporaneous examples from the South E n g l i s h  Legendary and Chaucer's Canterbury T a l e s as w e l l as adapta t i o n s o f h a g i o g r a p h i c a l m a t e r i a l i n the s a i n t p l a y , exemp1urn, and sermon w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d . The poem can then be r e - e v a l u a t e d t o determine i n what ways these e x p e c t a t i o n s are s a t i s f i e d , changed, o r f r u s t r a t e d . F i n a l l y , a comparison of the poem's r e c e p t i o n by i t s contemporary audience and i t s r e c e p t i o n by a modern audience Mark Amsler, " L i t e r a r y Theory and the Genres of Middle E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e , " Genre 13 ( 1 9 8 0 ) : 3 9 2 . 7 w i l l p r o v i d e the means t o analyse the poem's a e s t h e t i c value and determine whether St. Erkenwald i s j u s t i f i a b l y deemed i n f e r i o r o r deserves t o be b e t t e r a p p r e c i a t e d . C h a p t e r One: The P r o b l e m s o f S t . E r k e n w a l d f r o m a M o d e r n P e r s p e c t i v e S t . E r k e n w a l d i s a poem w h i c h seems t o h a v e p r o v o k e d more q u e s t i o n s i n modern s c h o l a r s t h a n t o h a v e p r o v i d e d a n s w e r s . E r k e n w a l d s c h o l a r s h a v e d e s c r i b e d p r o b l e m s w i t h g e n r e , h i s t o r y , t i m e , p l o t , and t h e o l o g y i n t h e poem w h i c h c r e a t e t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t t h e p o e t i s i n e f f e c t i v e i n c o m m u n i c a t i n g h i s p o i n t and i s t h e r e f o r e n o t v e r y s k i l f u l l . T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l be d e v o t e d t o o u t l i n i n g t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s e n c o u n t e r e d by modern r e a d e r s o f S t . E r k e n w a l d . Of a l l t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h S t . E r k e n w a l d , p e r h a p s t h e most p e r p l e x i n g and t h e most i m p o r t a n t i s t h e q u e s t i o n o f i t s g e n r e . S t . E r k e n w a l d h a s b e e n v a r i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d b y E r k e n w a l d s c h o l a r s a s a " l e g e n d " o r " s a i n t ' s l e g e n d " ( M c A l i n d o n ) , " M i r a c u l u m " ( B u r r o w ) , " m i r a c l e t a l e " 1 ( W h a t l e y ) , o r " h a g i o g r a p h i c t a l e " ( R e i c h a r d t ) . The v a r i e t y o f t e r m s u s e d t o d e s c r i b e t h e g e n r e o f t h e poem i n d i c a t e s t h e p r o b l e m modern s c h o l a r s h a v e h a d w i t h s p e c i f y i n g i t s g e n e r i c i d e n t i t y . One s o l u t i o n t o t h e p r o b l e m , as T. M c A l i n d o n , " H a g i o g r a p h y i n t o A r t : A S t u d y o f S t . E r k e n w a l d , " S t u d i e s i n P h i l o l o g y 67 ( 1 9 7 0 ) : 472; J.A. B u r r o w , M e d i e v a l W r i t e r s and T h e i r Work: M i d d l e  E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e a nd i t s B a c k g r o u n d 1100-1500, ( O x f o r d : O x f o r d UP, 1982) 71; G o r d o n W h a t l e y , " H e a t h e n s and S a i n t s : S t . E r k e n w a l d i n i t s L e g e n d a r y C o n t e x t , " S p e c u l u m 61 ( 1 9 8 6 ) : 330; P a u l F r e d e r i c k R e i c h a r d t , "The A r t and M e a n i n g o f t h e M i d d l e E n g l i s h S t . E r k e n w a l d , " d i s s . , R i c e U, 1971, 17. 9 s u g g e s t e d by R e i c h a r d t , i s t o i n v e n t a new g e n e r i c c a t e g o r y , t h e " h a g i o g r a p h i c t a l e , " w h i c h i s a c o m p r o m i s e b e t w e e n t h e a l l - i n c l u s i v e , e p i s o d i c s a i n t ' s l i f e a n d t h e b r i e f , d i d a c t i c exemplum. The i n v e n t i o n o f new g e n e r i c c a t e g o r i e s s u c h a s " h a g i o g r a p h i c t a l e " o r " m i r a c l e t a l e " i n d i c a t e s t h a t S t . E r k e n w a l d i s s o u n l i k e o t h e r p i e c e s o f h a g i o g r a p h y t h a t i t r e q u i r e s a c a t e g o r y o f i t s own and t h a t S t . E r k e n w a l d i s a poem w h i c h c r o s s e s g e n e r i c b o u n d a r i e s . G i v e n t h e number o f t e r m s a l r e a d y e m p l o y e d , i t m i g h t be u s e f u l t o e x p l o r e t h e t e r m i n o l o g y o f h a g i o g r a p h y and make some d i s t i n c t i o n s . " L e g e n d " i s a t e r m w h i c h h a s become g e n e r a l l y synonoymous 2 w i t h " s a i n t ' s l i f e " and t h e two a r e o f t e n i n t e r c h a n g e d . The M i d d l e E n g l i s h s e n s e o f l e g e n d e , h o w e v e r , h a s a d d i t i o n a l 3 c o n n o t a t i o n s . The M i d d l e E n g l i s h l e g e n d e i s " r a r e l y u s e d as a g e n e r i c d e s i g n a t i o n f o r i n d i v i d u a l n a r r a t i v e s . " 4 R a t h e r , l e g e n d e u s u a l l y i m p l i e d a n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h a c o l l e c t i o n o f l e g e n d s s u c h as J a c o b u s d e V o r a g i n e ' s L e g e n d a a u r e a . The s e c o n d c o n n o t a t i o n o f l e g e n d e i s t h a t i t i s a p o r t i o n o f a l i f e w h i c h i s r e a d i n t h e l i t u r g y . The a s s o c i a t i o n o f l e g e n d e 2 See " l e g e n d , " OED, 2nd e d . , 1989, s e n s e ( 1 ) "The s t o r y o f t h e l i f e o f a s a i n t . " 3 See " l e g e n d e , " The M i d d l e E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y , 1970. 4 P a u l S t r o h m , P a s s i o u n , L y f , M i r a c l e , L e g e n d e : Some G e n e r i c Terms i n M i d d l e E n g l i s h H a g i o g r a p h i c N a r r a t i v e , " C h a u c e r R e v i e w 10 ( 1 9 7 5 ) : 162. 1 0 w i t h c o l l e c t i o n s and r e a d i n g d e r i v e s u l t i m a t e l y f r o m t h e o r i g i n o f l e g e n d e , t h e L a t i n i e g e n d a ' t h e s t o r i e s t o be r e a d o r c o l l e c t e d ' f r o m l e g e r e ' t o r e a d o r r e a d a l o u d ' o r ' t o 5 g a t h e r o r c o l l e c t . ' L y f o r l y f l a d e and p a s s i o u n a r e more s p e c i f i c t e r m s t h a n l e g e n d e , u s e d t o d e s c r i b e a p a r t i c u l a r n a r r a t i v e . A l y f i s a l l - i n c l u s i v e , r e c o u n t i n g t h e e v e n t s i n t h e l i f e o f a s a i n t , a t e r m w h i c h d o e s n o t a p p l y t o S t . E r k e n w a l d . P a s s i o u n i s a t e r m w h i c h may be u s e d t o d e n o t e a s p e c i f i c h a g i o g r a p h i c a l s u b - g e n r e o f t h e n a r r a t i v e o f a m a r t y r e d s a i n t , w h i c h a l s o i s n o t p e r t i n e n t t o S t . E r k e n w a l d . The t e r m m i r a c l e i s somewhat a m b i g u o u s , a s i t may r e f e r t o t h e e v e n t i t s e l f r a t h e r t h a n t o t h e t y p e o f n a r r a t i v e . The m i r a c l e i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y a d i s c r e t e g e n r e a s i t i s " h a r d l y e v e r s p e c i f i c a l l y g e n e r i c . . . . ( M ) i r a c l e r e f e r s t o a n e v e n t r a t h e r t h a n t o an o r a l o r w r i t t e n a c c o u n t o f t h e e v e n t . I n i t s o r i g i n a l s e n s e , m i r a c l e , d e r i v e d f r o m t h e L a t i n 7 m i r a c u l u m 'wonder o r m a r v e l , ' r e f e r s t o a n e v e n t . I n t h e s a i n t ' s l i f e , m i r a c l e c u s t o m a r i l y d e n o t e s one a c t w i t h i n ^ See " l e g e r e , " A L a t i n D i c t i o n a r y , e d . C h a r l e t o n L e w i s and C h a r l e s S h o r t ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n , 1 8 7 9 ) . H e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as L e w i s and S h o r t . S t r o h m , " P a s s i o u n , " 158. M i r a c u l u m : "a w o n d e r f u l , s t r a n g e , o r m a r v e l l o u s t h i n g , a w onder, m a r v e l , m i r a c l e ; w o n d e r f u l n e s s , m a r v e l l o u s n e s s . " L e w i s and S h o r t . 11 the n a r r a t i v e which i s not u s u a l l y i s o l a t e d from the r e s t of the l y f . Two examples i n which m i r a c l e i s used, but not n e c e s s a r i l y i n a g e n e r i c sense, are Chaucer's P r i o r e s s ' s T a l e and John Lydgate's Legend of Dan Joos. Both recount a m i r a c l e i n which the V i r g i n i n t e r v e n e s on b e h a l f of the b e l i e v e r . In the prologue t o the T a l e of S i r Thopas, which f o l l o w s the P r i o r e s s ' s T a l e i n Chaucer's Canterbury T a l e s , the host r e f e r s t o the p r e c e d i n g s t o r y as " a l t h i s 2 8 m i r a c l e " (B 1881). Lydgate p r e f a c e s the Legend of Dan Joos w i t h a p r a y e r t h a t h i s "rewdenes thy myracle nat g d e f a c e " (15). I t i s u n c e r t a i n whether m i r a c l e i n both i n s t a n c e s i s meant as a g e n e r i c r e f e r e n c e or whether the term denotes the miraculous event o r perhaps both. While Walter Schirmer c l a s s i f i e s the Legend of Dan Joos as a m i r a c l e legend (Wunderlegende3, he c l a s s i f i e s Lydgate's St. A u s t i n at Compton, which a l s o recounts a m i r a c l e , as an experimental legend (experimentierende Legende). The m i r a c l e i n S t . A u s t i n r e c e i v e s e l a b o r a t e treatment by Lydgate: "the mannered s t y l e i s c a r r i e d t o an extreme; the s h o r t e r n a r r a t i v e form i s abandoned i n favour o f e r u d i t i o n Q The R i v e r s i d e Chaucer, ed. L a r r y D. Benson, 3rd ed. (Boston: Houghton, 1987). A l l subsequent q u o t a t i o n s from CT from t h i s e d i t i o n . g The Minor Poems of John Lydgate, ed. Henry Noble MacCracken, EETS es 107 (London: Kegan Paul, 1911). A l l subsequent q u o t a t i o n s from Lydgate's works from t h i s e d i t i o n . 12 and b r e a d t h o f t r e a t m e n t . " L y d g a t e a l s o r e f e r s r o S t . A u s t i n i n t h e e n v o y as " t h i s m y r a c l e remembryd many f o l d " ( 4 0 4 ) . A g a i n , i t i s u n c e r t a i n w h e t h e r t h e e v e n t o r n a r r a t i v e i s meant. S t . A u s t i n , w h i c h d e s c r i b e s an e n c o u n t e r b e t w e e n S t . A u g u s t i n e a n d a g h o s t , b e a r s a r e m a r k a b l e r e s e m b l a n c e t o S t . E r k e n w a l d . S t . E r k e n w a l d has more i n common w i t h S t . A u s t i n t h a n w i t h t h e P r i o r e s s ' s  T a l e o r t h e L e g e n d o f Dan J o o s a n d p e r h a p s " e x p e r i m e n t a l " i s n o t a n i n a p p r o p r i a t e t e r m t o d e s c r i b e S t . E r k e n w a l d . The o n l y t e r m w h i c h i s i n v o k e d i n t h e t e x t o f S t . E r k e n w a l d i t s e l f i s c r o n i c l e , s p e c i f i c a l l y t h e " c r a f t y c r o n e c l e s " ( 4 4 ) t o w h i c h t h e p o e t a l l u d e s a s h i s s o u r c e s . C r o n i c l e i s a t e r m w h i c h s u g g e s t s h i s t o r i c a l a u t h e n t i c i t y , p e r h a p s an a l l u s i o n t o one o f t h e d r i e r L a t i n v i t a e o f E r k e n w a l d w h i c h t h e p o e t m i g h t h a v e r e a d . P e r h a p s t h e p o e t ' s S c h i r m e r d i v i d e s L y d g a t e ' s s a i n t s ' l e g e n d s i n t o f o u r c a t e g o r i e s : n a r r a t i v e , m i r a c l e , e x p e r i m e n t a l , e p i c . He d i f f e r e n t i a t e s b o t h t h e L e g e n d o f S e y n t G y l e a n d S t . A u s t i n  a t Compton f r o m t h e L e g e n d o f Dan J o o s a s e x p e r i m e n t a l : " V i e l l e i c h t e r k l a r t s i c h h i e r a u s d i e d r i t t e K a t e g o r i e d e r e x p e r i m e n t i e r e n d e n L e g e n d e : A g i d i u s i s t i n h a l t l i c h e i n e r e i n e W u n d e r g e s c h i c h t e , l a n g e r und v i e l f a l t i g e r a l s Dan J o o s , u n t e r s c h e i d e t s i c h a b e r f o r m a l v o n d e r z w e i t e n K a t e g o r i e ( W u n d e r l e g e n d e ) . . . . D i e a n d e r e i n d i e s e K a t e g o r i e z u s t e l l e n d e L e g e n d e , A u g u s t i n u s , i n h a l t l i c h e b e n f a l l s e i n W u n d e r b e r i c h t und d u r c h a u s k e i n e M a r t y r i u m s g e s c h i c h t e , t r e i b t d i e S t i l m a n i e r a u f d i e Hdhe, v e r l a B t a b e r d i e k n a p p e r e B e r i c h t s f o r m z u g u n s t e n e i n e r g e l e h r s a m e n B r e i t e . " W a l t e r S c h i r m e r , J o h n L y d g a t e : E i n K u l t u b i l d a u s dem 15. J a h r h u n d e r t ( T u b i n g e n : Max N i e m e y e r , 1952) 147-9; J o h n L y d g a t e : A S t u d y i n t h e C u l t u r e o f t h e F i f t e e n t h C e n t u r y , t r a n s . Ann Keep ( B e r k e l e y : U o f C a l i f o r n i a P, 1961 ) 170-71 . 13 u s e o f c r o n i c l e m i g h t a l s o h a v e b e e n a n a t t e m p t t o g i v e a n o n - f a c t u a l s t o r y c r e d i b i l i t y by i n v o k i n g t h e t e r m . The p o e t a p p e a r s t o t a k e p a i n s t o e s t a b l i s h a n a t m o s p h e r e o f h i s t o r i c a l a u t h e n t i c i t y by s t a t i n g c e r t a i n h i s t o r i c a l l y a c c u r a t e f a c t s , b u t t h e n u n d e r m i n e s h i s c r e d i b i l i t y w i t h c e r t a i n i n a c c u r a c i e s . E r k e n w a l d i s c o r r e c t l y s i t u a t e d g e o g r a p h i c a l l y a t " l o u e L o n d o n t o u n " ( 3 4 ) , w h i c h i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h B e d e ' s a c c o u n t o f E r k e n w a l d i n t h e H i s t o r i a E c c l e s i a s t i c a g e n t i s A n g l o r u m : "Turn e t i a m O r i e n t a l i b u s S a x o n i b u s , q u i b u s eo t e m p o r e p r a e f u e r u n t S e b b i e t S i g h e r e quorum s u p r a meminimus, E a r c o n u a l d u m c o n s t i t u i t 11 e p i s c o p u m i n c i u i t a t e L u n d o n i a " ( 4 . 6 ) . The p o e t a l s o a c c u r a t e l y p l a c e s E r k e n w a l d away i n E s s e x "an a b b a y t o v i s i t e " ( 1 0 8 ) , r e f e r r i n g t o t h e a b b e y a t B a r k i n g o f w h i c h E r k e n w a l d ' s s i s t e r , E t h e l b e r g a , was a b b e s s . Bede d e s c r i b e s how E r k e n w a l d e s t a b l i s h e d a m o n a s t e r y f o r h i m s e l f a t C h e r t s e y and a n o t h e r f o r h i s s i s t e r a t B a r k i n g : H i e s a n e , p r i u s q u a m e p i s c o p u s f a c t u s e s s e t , d u o p r a e c l a r a m o n a s t e r i a , unum s i b i a l t e r u m s o r o r i s u a e A e d i l b u r g a e , c o n s t r u x e r a t , q u od u t r u m q u e r e g u l a r i b u s d i s c i p l i n i s o p t i m e i n s t i t u e r a t : s i b i q u i d e m i n r e g i o n e S u d e r g e o n a i u x t a f l u u i u m Tamensem i n l o c o q u i u o c a t u r C e r o t a e s e i , i d e s t C e r o t i i n s u l a , s o r o r i a u tem i n O r i e n t a l i u m Saxonum p r o u i n c i a i n l o c o q u i n u n c u p a t u r I n b e r e c i n g u m , i n quo i p s a Deo d e u o t a r u m m a t e r a c n u t r i x p o s s e t e x i s t e r e f e m i n a r u m . B e d e ' s E c c l e s i a s t i c a l H i s t o r y , 3 5 4 - 5 7 . 14 I t c a n be c o n c l u d e d , t h e n , t h a t t h e p o e t was n o t c o m p l e t e l y u n f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e s t o r y o f E r k e n w a l d ' s l i f e a n d w i s h e d t o d e m o n s t r a t e h i s k n o w l e d g e by s t a t i n g t h e f a c t s he knew. An a r r a y o f h i s t o r i c a l p e r s o n s and e v e n t s a p p e a r s t h r o u g h o u t t h e n a r r a t i v e o f S t . E r k e n w a l d t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e a t m o s p h e r e o f a u t h e n t i c i t y . The p o e t r e f e r s t o C h r i s t ( 2 , 2 0 9 ) , t h e S a x o n H e n g i s t ( 7 ) , S t . A u g u s t i n e ( 1 2 ) , B r u t u s ( 2 0 7 ) , and t h e b r o t h e r s B e l y n and B e r y n g e ( B e l i n u s and 1 2 B r e n n i u s ) who w e r e r i v a l s f o r t h e t h r o n e o f B r i t a i n ( 2 1 3 ) . C e r t a i n h i s t o r i c a l e v e n t s s u c h a s t h e C r u c i f i x i o n ( 2 ) , S t . A u g u s t i n e ' s a r r i v a l i n E n g l a n d ( 1 2 ) , and t h e f o u n d i n g o f T r o y n o v a n t ( 2 0 7 ) , a l s o l e n d a n a i r o f c r e d i b i l i t y . H o wever, n o t a l l o f t h e p o e t ' s h i s t o r y i s a c c u r a t e a c c o r d i n g t o modern s t a n d a r d s . The E r k e n w a l d - p o e t i n d u l g e s i n i n v e n t i o n b y a s s o c i a t i n g E r k e n w a l d , who l i v e d i n t h e s e v e n t h c e n t u r y , w i t h t h e r e b u i l d i n g o f S t . P a u l ' s C a t h e d r a l o f t h e New Work, w h i c h d i d n o t t a k e p l a c e u n t i l t h e t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y : Now o f p i s A u g u s t y n e s a r t i s E r k e n w o l d e b i s c h o p A t l o u e L o n d o n t o u n and t h e l a g h e t e c h e s , S y t t e s s e m e l y i n p e s e g e o f S a y n t P a u l e m y n s t e r P a t was p e t e m p l e T r i a p o l i t a n a s I t o l d e a r e . P e n was h i t a b a t y d and b e t e n d o u n and b u g g y d e f t e new--A n o b l e n o t e f o r p e n o n e s and New Werke h i t h a t t e . ( 3 3 - 3 8 ) 1 2 F o r t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e S a x o n c o n q u e s t o f t h e B r i t o n s s e e B e d e ' s E c c l e s i a s t i c a l H i s t o r y , 1.14-15 o r G e o f f r e y o f Monmouth's H i s t o r i a Regum B r i t t a n i a e , 6.10-16; A u g u s t i n e ' s a r r i v a l i n E n g l a n d i s r e c o r d e d by Bede, 1.25; t h e h i s t o r y o f B e l i n u s and B r e n n i u s i s r e c o r d e d by G e o f f r e y , 3.1-10. 1 5 The obvious anachronism, however, o f f e n d s o n l y the modern, informed reader's sense o f chronology. Another d i s c r e p a n c y which has p u z z l e d modern s c h o l a r s i s the poet's use of a s p e c i f i c date which appears t o be meaningless. The pagan judge, when asked how long he had remained b u r i e d , r e p l i e s : A f t e r p a t Brutus P i s burghe had buggid on f y r s t e , No3t bot f i f e hundred 3ere p e r aghtene wontyd Before p a t kynned 3our C r i s t e by C r i s t e n acounte A Pousande 3ere and P r i t t y mo and y e t threnen aght. I was of h e i r e and of oyer i n pe New T r o i e In the regne o f Pe r i c h e kynge Pat r e w l i t vs Pen, The bolde Breton Ser Belyn, Ser Berynge was h i s b r o t h i r e . (207-213) The date would appear t o have been i n c l u d e d f o r accuracy, but unle s s the e r r o r i s due t o a s c r i b e (which i s p r o b a b l e ) , the poet's meaning has so f a r proved i n d e c i p h e r a b l e . C r i t i c s have invented ingenious c a l c u l a t i o n s t o a r r i v e a t a meaningful s o l u t i o n . I s r a e l G o l l a n c z and Henry Savage ( f o l l o w i n g G o l l a n c z ) have proposed t h a t " f i f e " be emended t o "aght" and "pousande" t o " t h r e hundred." The judge would then have l i v e d i n 354 BC (300+30+(3*8)) and the date o f the founding o f Troynovant would have been 1136 BC ((800-18) 1 3 +354). Ruth Morse proposed t h a t " f i f e " be emended t o " f o u r " and i n t e r p r e t s the l i n e s t o mean t h a t the judge l i v e d i n 382 BC (400-18) and had remained b u r i e d f o r 1054 years 1 3 G o l l a n c z , xxx-xxxiv; St. Erkenwald: A Middle E n g l i s h Poem, ed. Henry Savage (1926; Hamden, Ct: Archon, 1972) see note t o l i n e s 207-12, p. 41. 16 (1000+30+(3«8)). The d a t e 382 BC i s c l o s e t o t h e d a t e o f t h e r e i g n o f B e l i n u s (399 BC) and s a t i s f i e s t h e c a l c u l a t i o n f o r t h e d a t e o f E r k e n w a l d ' s b i s h o p r i c (AD 6 75-693) a s AD 672 ( 1 0 5 4 - 3 8 2 ) . A l l o f t h e s e c a l c u l a t i o n s r e q u i r e a s e r i o u s e m e n d a t i o n o f t h e t e x t and some a r e i n v o l v e d a nd c o m p l i c a t e d . The p o i n t i s t h a t t h e d a t e w h i c h t h e p o e t h a s p r o v i d e d h a s p r o v e n t o be a s o u r c e o f c o n f u s i o n t o t h e modern r e a d e r . From t h e modern p e r s p e c t i v e , h i s t o r y i n S t . E r k e n w a l d i s a m i x t u r e o f t h e a c c u r a t e , what a p p e a r s t o be a c c u r a t e b u t i s n o t , and t h e p o e t ' s i n v e n t i o n . E s t a b l i s h i n g w hat i s t r u e and what i s n o t i n a t a l e w h i c h p u r p o r t s t o be v a l i d i s a c h a l l e n g i n g t a s k f o r t h e modern r e a d e r . What a p p e a r t o be r e l i a b l e r e f e r e n c e p o i n t s may t u r n o u t t o be more f r u s t r a t i n g t h a n h e l p f u l . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e p o e t ' s c o n f u s i n g s e n s e o f h i s t o r y , t h e modern r e a d e r must c o n f r o n t l a y e r u p o n l a y e r o f t i m e . The poem o p e n s a t t h e t i m e o f t h e e v e n t b e i n g r e p o r t e d , E r k e n w a l d ' s e n c o u n t e r w i t h t h e p a g a n , t h e n p r o c e e d s t h r o u g h a r e t r o s p e c t i v e l e a d i n g up t o t h e e v e n t , b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e C r u c i f i x i o n o f C h r i s t and p r o g r e s s i n g t h r o u g h t h e c o n q u e s t o f t h e B r i t o n s b y t h e S a x o n H e n g i s t and t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f C h r i s t i a n i t y i n E n g l a n d by S t . A u g u s t i n e . T h r o u g h o u t t h e n a r r a t i v e t h e r e a d e r i s c o n f r o n t e d w i t h o t h e r t i m e f r a m e s a s t h e s t o r y a l t e r n a t e s b e t w e e n t h e p a s t and p r e s e n t . 1 4 S t . E r k e n w a l d , e d . R u t h M o r s e ( C a m b r i d g e : B r e w e r , 1975) s e e n o t e t o l i n e 205, p. 71 . 1 7 The encounter with the pagan judge b r i n g s the past i n t o the present of the s t o r y and time i s suspended as the pagan has e x i s t e d i n a kind of s t a s i s not s u b j e c t t o time. The poet a l s o b r i n g s together two separate time frames i n a s s o c i a t i n g Erkenwald with the New Work. In a d d i t i o n , the modern reader must contend with the d i s t a n c e between the purported time of the event ( i n the seventh century) and the poet's account of i t ( i n the f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y ) . Time and h i s t o r y i n St. Erkenwald, then, do not f u n c t i o n c o n s i s t e n t l y with the modern n o t i o n of the f u n c t i o n i n g of time and h i s t o r y . The c a r e f u l l y wrought h i s t o r i c a l atmosphere leads the reader t o expect an a u t h e n t i c legend. However, St . Erkenwald which seems t o promise a v a l i d legend, f a i l s t o s a t i s f y the e x p e c t a t i o n . The p l o t of S t . Erkenwald i s probably an i n v e n t i o n of the poet a s - t h e r e i s no extant account of a m i r a c l e i n which Erkenwald e f f e c t s the s a l v a t i o n of a heathen No d i r e c t source f o r the poem has been d i s c o v e r e d and the extant l i v e s o f Erkenwald, from Bede's H i s t o r i a E c c l e s i a s t i c a 1 and the L a t i n v i t a e do not c o n t a i n a m i r a c l e of t h i s nature. 1 5 The unpublished v i t a e are contained i n the f o l l o w i n g manuscripts: Corpus C h r i s t i C o l l e g e Cambridge 161, f f . 33r-44r; BL Lansdowne 436, f f . 36v-38v; BL Cotton C l a u d i u s A. v., f f . 135-39; Bodley Tanner 15 (S.C. 9835), f f . 232v-43r BL Cotton Ortho D. i x . , f f . 98r-103r; BL Cotton T i b e r i u s E. i f f . 116v-21r; BL A d d i t i o n a l 35298, f f . 53r-57v; York Cath. L i b r a r y XVI. G. 23, f f . 144r-45v. For a d e s c r i p t i o n see Peterson, note 120 t o i n t r o d u c t i o n , P P . 62-3; Morse, note 19 to i n t r o d u c t i o n , pp. 14-15. See a l s o note 23 t o Gordon Whatley, "The Middle E n g l i s h St. Erkenwald and i t s L i t u r g i c a l Context," M e d i a e v a l i a 8 (1982): 277-306. 18 E r k e n w a l d ' s p o s t h u m o u s m i r a c l e s , s u c h a s t h o s e r e c o r d e d by Bede, a r e u s u a l l y c o n f i n e d t o t h e m i r a c u l o u s h e a l i n g p o w e r o f t h e b i s h o p ' s l i t t e r : E t e n i m u s q u e h o d i e f e r e t r u m e i u s c a b a l l a r i u m , q u o i n f i r m u s u e h i s o l e b a t , s e r u a t u m a d i s c i p u l i s e i u s m u l t o s f e b r i c i t a n t e s u e l a l i o q u o l i b e t incommodo f e s s o s s a n a r e n o n d e s i s t i t . Non s o l u m autem s u b p o s i t i e i d e m f e r e t r o u e l a d p o s i t i c u r a n t u r e g r o t i , s e d e t a s t u l a e d e i l l o a b s c i s s a e a t q u e ad i n f i r m o s a d l a t a e c i t a m i l l i s s o l e n t a d f e r r e m e d e l l a m . ( 4 . 6 ) The p o e t d i s r e g a r d s E r k e n w a l d ' s m i r a c l e s , s u b s t i t u t i n g i n s t e a d i n e s s e n c e t h e s t o r y o f t h e s a l v a t i o n o f T r a j a n by S t . G r e g o r y . Why t h e p o e t c h o s e t o a s s o c i a t e t h i s p a r t i c u l a r l e g e n d w i t h E r k e n w a l d h a s b e e n t h e s o u r c e f o r much c o n j e c t u r e , and many t h e o r i e s as t o how t h e l e g e n d m i g h t h a v e become a t t a c h e d t o h i m h a v e b e e n p r o p o s e d . L a u r a H i b b a r d s u g g e s t e d t h a t E r k e n w a l d h a d b e e n c o n f u s e d w i t h E r k e n b a l d 1 6 t h e B e l g i a n who h a d become a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e T r a j a n s t o r y . E r k e n b a l d was s a i d t o h a v e p u n i s h e d h i s nephew f o r v i o l a t i n g a woman by s l i t t i n g t h e b o y ' s t h r o a t . E r k e n b a l d , upon h i s own d e a t h , i s r e w a r d e d by God f o r h i s r i g h t e o u s n e s s . I n t h e A l p h a b e t o f T a l e s , t h e E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h e A l p h a b e t u m N a r r a t i o n u m , t h e s t o r y o f H e r k e n w a l d u s ( c c c c x x ) f o l l o w s t h e L a u r a H i b b a r d , " E r k e n b a l d t h e B e l g i a n : A S t u d y i n M e d i e v a l E x e m p l a o f J u s t i c e , " M o d e r n P h i l o l o g y 17 ( 1 9 2 0 ) : 6 6 9 - 7 8 . 19 e n t r y w h i c h d e s c r i b e s a n i n c i d e n t i n w h i c h T r a j a n makes 1 7 amends t o a widow whose s o n h a s b e e n k i l l e d ( c c c c x i x ) . B o t h t a l e s a r e c h o s e n a s e x e m p l a o f j u s t i c e : T r a j a n ' s t o i l l u s t r a t e t h a t " I u s t i t i a e c i a m i n p r o p r i o f i l i o d e b e t e x c e r c e r i " and H e r k e n w a l d u s ' s t o show t h a t " l u s t i c i a e c i a m e x e r c e r i d e b e t i n p r o p r i i s p a r e n t i b u s . " I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t some l o o s e a s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n E r k e n b a l d and T r a j a n a r o s e f r o m a c o n f u s i o n o f t h e s e t w o s t o r i e s . I n t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y , E r k e n b a l d and T r a j a n w e r e a l s o a s s o c i a t e d a r t i s t i c a l l y : R o g i e r v a n d e r Weyden's m u r a l i n t h e t o w n h a l l a t B r u s s e l s , p a i n t e d a b o u t 1436, d e p i c t s s c e n e s f r o m t h e 1 8 l e g e n d s o f b o t h E r k e n b a l d and T r a j a n . The a s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n E r k e n b a l d t h e B e l g i a n , a n exemplum o f j u s t i c e , a nd S t . E r k e n w a l d h a s l e n t s u p p o r t t o t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e poem a s a d e f e n s e o f t h e e f f i c a c y o f g o o d w o r k s . I n S t . E r k e n w a l d t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e E m p e r o r T r a j a n i s t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o a n unknown p a g a n j u d g e who h a s r e m a i n e d entombed f o r c e n t u r i e s a s a n u n d e c a y e d c o r p s e . I t i s u p o n t h i s c h a r a c t e r t h a t t h e r e a d e r ' s a t t e n t i o n f o c u s e s . The p o e t ' s d e t a i l e d and w e l l - w r o u g h t d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e b ody and m a g n i f i c e n t c l o t h i n g c a p t u r e s t h e i m a g i n a t i o n and l e a d s t h e 1 7 An A l p h a b e t o f T a l e s , e d . M a r y M a c l e o d B a n k s , EETS os 126 ( L o n d o n : K e g a n P a u l , 1904) 2 87-89. 1 8 See C a m p b e l l Dodgson, "An I l l u s t r a t i o n by H o l b e i n o f t h e L e g e n d o f H e r k i n b a l d , " J o u r n a l o f t h e W a r b u r g and  C o r t a u l d I n s t i t u t e s 3 ( 1 9 4 0 ) : 2 4 1 - 4 3 . 20 r e a d e r t o wonder and c o n j e c t u r e a s much a s t h e f i c t i o n a l c r o w d o f t h e poem d o e s , "Quat body h i t my3t be p a t b u r i e d wos t h e r " ( 9 4 ) . The m a r v e l o f t h e u n d e c a y e d c o r p s e i n i t i a l l y m i s l e a d s t h e r e a d e r i n t o b e l i e v i n g i t i s t h e m i r a c l e o f t h e s t o r y . S t . E r k e n w a l d h a s b e e n c a l l e d "one o f t h e most t h e o l o g i c a l l y p u z z l i n g w o r k s o f t h e A l l i t e r a t i v e R e v i v a l " and p e r h a p s t h e g r e a t e s t c h a l l e n g e p r e s e n t e d by t h e poem i s 1 9 i t s t h e o l o g y . S t . E r k e n w a l d h a s b e e n t h e s o u r c e f o r a t h e o l o g i c a l d e b a t e among E r k e n w a l d s c h o l a r s b e c a u s e o f t h e i s s u e w h i c h t h e p o e t h a s c h o s e n t o a d d r e s s : t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e s a l v a t i o n o f t h e r i g h t e o u s h e a t h e n . Some c r i t i c s c o n t e n d t h a t t h e p o e t ' s i n t e n t i o n i s t o c o n f i r m t h e e f f i c a c y o f g o o d w o r k s . O t h e r s h a v e t a k e n t h e o p p o s i n g v i e w and c o n t e n d t h a t t h e poem's i n t e n t i s t o show t h e n e c e s s i t y o f God's g r a c e f o r s a l v a t i o n . The i s s u e i s a s t h e o l o g i c a l l y d i v i s i v e t o modern c r i t i c s a s i t was i n t h e p o e t ' s t i m e . An a l t e r n a t i v e v i e w o f t h e poem's m e a n i n g i s t h a t S t . E r k e n w a l d was i n t e n d e d t o show t h e n e c e s s i t y o f t h e s a c r a m e n t o f b a p t i s m : " S t . E r k e n w a l d i s f u n d a m e n t a l l y a b o u t 20 B a p t i s m and r e g e n e r a t i o n . " R u s s e l l P e c k i n s i s t s t h a t t h e 19 W.A. Q u i n n , "The P s y c h o l o g y o f S t . E r k e n w a l d , " Medium Aevum 52 ( 1 9 8 4 ) : 180. R u s s e l l P e c k , "Number S t r u c t u r e i n S t . E r k e n w a l d , " A n n u a l e M e d i a e v a l e 14 ( 1 9 7 3 ) : 13. 21 s t r u c t u r e o f S t . E r k e n w a l d i s b a s e d u p o n t h e number e i g h t , w h i c h i s s y m b o l i c , a c c o r d i n g t o P e c k , i n t h e m e d i e v a l p e r i o d as t h e number o f B a p t i s m . The n a t u r e o f t h e b a p t i s m w h i c h o c c u r s i n t h e poem h a s a l s o b e e n d i s p u t e d s i n c e " t o b a p t i s e ~> t h e d e a d i s . . . a p o i n t l e s s m i s a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e S a c r a m e n t . " " W h e t h e r o r n o t t h e p o e t s a t i s f i e s t h e c o n d i t i o n s f o r b a p t i s m a p p e a r s t o be d e b a t a b l e . I n t h e f i n a l a n a l y s i s t h e modern r e a d e r must a s s e s s t h e poem's s u c c e s s i n s a t i s f y i n g t h e p o e t ' s i m p l i e d p u r p o s e o f " c o n f i r m y n g e p i C r i s t e n f a i t h e " ( 1 2 4 ) . The p o e t ' s e x a m p l e o f s a l v a t i o n w o u l d seem t o f a i l i n i t s o b j e c t i v e a s i t " d e s c r i b e s a u n i q u e r a t h e r t h a n a t y p i c a l c a s e , s o t h a t i t s 22 t h e s i s c a n n o t h a v e a n y u n i v e r s a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . " S t . E r k e n w a l d seems t o l e a v e t h e modern r e a d e r w i t h u n a n s w e r e d q u e s t i o n s a b o u t b a p t i s m and s a l v a t i o n and i n t h e end h i s f i n a l i m p r e s s i o n o f t h e poem may be o n e o f d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n r a t h e r t h a n s a t i s f a c t i o n . 21 Q u i n n , 182. 22 Q u i n n , 182. 11 C h a p t e r Two: R e d e f i n i n g t h e C o n c e p t o f G e n r e I n C h a p t e r One t h e v a r i o u s g e n e r i c d e s c r i p t i o n s w h i c h h a v e b e e n a p p l i e d t o S t . E r k e n w a l d and t h e t e r m i n o l o g y o f h a g i o g r a p h y w h i c h m i g h t be a p p l i c a b l e w e r e e x a m i n e d . S a v e f o r , p e r h a p s , " e x p e r i m e n t a l , " t h e t e r m s d e s c r i b e d w e r e i n a d e q u a t e i n a r r i v i n g a t a d e f i n i t i o n o f g e n e r i c i d e n t i t y s u i t a b l e t o S t . E r k e n w a l d . P e r h a p s p a r t o f t h e r e a s o n t h e poem seems t o be c o n f u s i n g t o t h e modern r e a d e r c a n be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e l a c k o f e x p l i c i t s i g n a l s r e g a r d i n g a g e n e r i c c o n t e x t . F o r g e n r e i s t h e means t o " e s t a b l i s h f o r t h e r e a d e r , more o r l e s s p r e c i s e l y , what k i n d s o f m e a n i n g he may e x p e c t t o f i n d i n a t e x t . " The r e a d e r a p p r o a c h e s a work w i t h some s o r t o f e x p e c t a t i o n a b o u t w h e r e t h e t e x t i s g o i n g a s i t i s " u n i m a g i n a b l e t h a t a l i t e r a r y w o r k s e t i t s e l f i n t o a n i n f o r m a t i o n a l vacuum, w i t h o u t i n d i c a t i n g a s p e c i f i c 2 s i t u a t i o n o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g . " G e n e r i c s i g n a l s a r e u s u a l l y t h e means f o r o r i e n t i n g t h e r e a d e r i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e t e x t . P e r h a p s t h e r e a s o n S t . E r k e n w a l d l a c k s a g e n e r i c i d e n t i t y i s n o t t h a t a s u i t a b l e g e n e r i c c a t e g o r y i s w a n t i n g , b u t t h a t t h e way i n w h i c h g e n r e h a s b e e n d e f i n e d i s i n a d e q u a t e 1 B u r r o w , 57. 2 Hans R o b e r t J a u s s , " T h e o r y o f G e n r e s and M e d i e v a l L i t e r a t u r e , " T o w a r d an A e s t h e t i c o f R e c e p t i o n , t r a n s . T i m o t h y B a h t i , T h e o r y and H i s t o r y o f L i t e r a t u r e 2 ( M i n n e a p o l i s : U o f M i n n e s o t a P, 1982) 79. 23 t o d e s c r i b e t h e n a t u r e o f t h e poem. The d e s c r i p t i o n s " s a i n t ' s l i f e " o r " s a i n t ' s l e g e n d " g e n e r a l l y i m p l y a c l a s s i c a l n o t i o n o f g e n r e s a s s t a t i c f o r m s o r a b s t r a c t c o n c e p t s t o w h i c h a w o r k must c o n f o r m . The i n f l e x i b i l i t y o f s u c h a n o t i o n d o e s n o t s u i t a w o r k l i k e S t . E r k e n w a l d w h i c h c r o s s e s g e n e r i c b o u n d a r i e s . I n t h e o p p o s i n g v i e w o f t h e New C r i t i c s and f o r m a l i s t s , t h e c o n c e p t o f g e n r e i s d i s c a r d e d a s m e a n i n g l e s s . The t e x t e x i s t s a u t o n o m o u s l y i n a n " i n f o r m a t i o n a l vacuum," d e t a c h e d f r o m t h e a u t h o r and h i s t o r i c a l o r s o c i a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s . A t h i r d p o s s i b i l i t y , a h a p p y medium " b e t w e e n t h e S c y l l a o f n o m i n a l i s t s k e p t i c i s m t h a t a l l o w s f o r o n l y a p o s t e r i o r i ( s i c ) c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , and t h e C h a r y b d i s o f r e g r e s s i o n i n t o t i m e l e s s t y p o l o g i e s " 3 o u g h t t o be c o n s i d e r e d . S u c h a p o s s i b i l i t y c a n be f o u n d i n t h e t h e o r i e s o f g e n r e a d v a n c e d by E.D. H i r s c h a nd Hans R o b e r t J a u s s . H i r s c h p r o p o s e s t h a t g e n r e s may be a l t e r n a t i v e l y v i e w e d a s " p r o v i s i o n a l s c h e m a t a . " Once g e n r e s a r e d e f i n e d n o t a s m e a n i n g l e s s l a b e l s o r r i g i d c a t e g o r i e s b u t a s " s e t s o f i n t e r m e d i a t e r u l e s o r i n s t r u c t i o n s w h i c h a s s i s t t h e r e a d e r i n r i g h t l y i n t e r p r e t i n g a l i t e r a r y w o r k, we h a v e •a J a u s s , " T h e o r y o f G e n r e s , " 78. 4 E.D. H i r s c h , V a l i d i t y i n I n t e r p r e t a t i o n (New H aven: Y a l e UP, 1967) 109. 24 a c c e s s t o a l l s o r t s o f new ways o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g o r u s i n g g e n r e . " ^ A l e s s r i g i d d e f i n i t i o n s u c h a s t h i s a l l o w s g r e a t e r l a t i t u d e i n a r r i v i n g a t a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e g e n e r i c i d e n t i t y o f S t . E r k e n w a l d . The c o n c e p t o f g e n r e s a s s e t s o f " p r o v i s i o n a l s c h e m a t a " o r " s e t s o f i n t e r m e d i a t e r u l e s " r o u g h l y c o r r e s p o n d s t o J a u s s ' s c o n c e p t o f t h e " h o r i z o n o f e x p e c t a t i o n s " : . . . e v e r y w o r k b e l o n g s t o a g e n r e - - w h e r e b y I mean n e i t h e r more n o r l e s s t h a n t h a t f o r e a c h w o r k a p r e c o n s t i t u t e d h o r i z o n o f e x p e c t a t i o n s must be r e a d y a t h a n d ( t h i s c a n a l s o be u n d e r s t o o d a s a r e l a t i o n s h i p o f " r u l e s o f t h e game" [Zusammenhang v o n S p i e l r e g e l n ) ) t o o r i e n t t h e r e a d e r ' s ( p u b l i c ' s ) u n d e r s t a n d i n g and t o e n a b l e a q u a l i f y i n g r e c e p t i o n . J a u s s ' s " h o r i z o n o f e x p e c t a t i o n s " may be d e t e r m i n e d by c o n s i d e r i n g t h e t e x t " i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e b a c k g r o u n d o f t h e w o r k s w h i c h t h e a u t h o r c o u l d e x p e c t h i s c o n t e m p o r a r y p u b l i c 7 t o know e i t h e r e x p l i c i t l y o r i m p l i c i t l y . " The f i r s t s t e p i n t h e h e r m e n e u t i c p r o c e s s i s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e s e t o f e x p e c t a t i o n s g e n e r a t e d by p r e v i o u s w o r k s w h i c h t h e a u d i e n c e c o u l d r e a s o n a b l y be e x p e c t e d t o know. The s e c o n d s t e p i s t o P a u l S t r o h m , " M i d d l e E n g l i s h N a r r a t i v e G e n r e s , " G e n r e 13 ( 1 9 8 0 ) : 3 8 5 . 6 J a u s s , " T h e o r y o f G e n r e s , " 79. 7 Hans R o b e r t J a u s s , " L i t e r a r y H i s t o r y a s a C h a l l e n g e t o L i t e r a r y T h e o r y , " New D i r e c t i o n s i n L i t e r a r y H i s t o r y , t r a n s . E l i z a b e t h B e n z i n g e r ( B a l t i m o r e : J o h n s H o p k i n s UP, 1974) 23. 25 d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r t h e new w o r k e f f e c t s a c h a n g e i n t h e " h o r i z o n . " The n o t i o n o f " h o r i z o n " i m p l i e s ' t h a t w h i c h i s p r o v i s i o n a l ' and ' t h a t w h i c h i s r e l a t i v e t o t h e o b s e r v e r . ' The b a s i s o f J a u s s ' s R e z e p t i o n s a s t h e t i k i s t h e " r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e ' h o r i z o n ' o f l i t e r a r y e x p e c t a t i o n s w i t h w h i c h t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y a u d i e n c e a p p r o a c h e d a w o r k ( a n d . . . t h e k i n d s o f ' h o r i z o n - c h a n g e ' w h i c h a w o r k o f a r t c a n r e q u i r e o f i t s a u d i e n c e ) . " I n t h i s t h e o r y , g e n e r i c i d e n t i t y d e p e n d s u p o n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e a u d i e n c e and a w o r k . K n o w i n g t h e u n i t s o f e x p e c t a t i o n , t h e c r i t i c c a n e v a l u a t e t h e a u t h o r ' s u s e o f e x p e c t a t i o n s , w h e t h e r t h e y a r e " v a r i e d , e x t e n d e d , c o r r e c t e d t r a n s f o r m e d , c r o s s e d o u t , g o r s i m p l y r e p r o d u c e d . " G e n r e , t h e n , i s " n o t s o m e t h i n g s t a b l e , b u t s o m e t h i n g t h a t v a r i e s i n t h e p r o c e s s o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g . A t f i r s t i t i s v a g u e and empty; l a t e r , a s u n d e r s t a n d i n g p r o c e e d s , t h e g e n r e becomes more e x p l i c i t , 1 0 and i t s r a n g e o f e x p e c t a t i o n s becomes much n a r r o w e r . " The p r o c e s s o f t h e a l t e r a t i o n o f t h e g e n e r i c c o n c e p t i o n o f a w o r k c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e s e c o n d s t a g e o f J a u s s ' s a e s t h e t i c s o f r e c e p t i o n w h i c h h e c h a r a c t e r i z e s as " h o r i z o n c h a n g e " : G e n e r i c s h i f t s w i t h i n l i t e r a r y w o r k s c h a l l e n g e a u d i e n c e s i n t o c o n s t a n t r e f i n e m e n t and r e d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e i r g e n e r i c e x p e c t a t i o n s . H i r s c h n o t e s t h i s phenomenon when he s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e c r u c i a l o p i n i o n a b o u t 8 S t r o h m , "ME G e n r e s , " 385. g J a u s s , " T h e o r y o f G e n r e s , " 88. 10 H i r s c h , 77. 26 g e n r e i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y t h e one w i t h w h i c h t h e r e a d e r a p p r o a c h e s t h e work, b u t r a t h e r t h e r e a d e r ' s " l a s t , u n r e v i s e d g e n e r i c c o n c e p t i o n . " The same phenomenon i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e c o n s e q u e n c e t o w h i c h J a u s s r e f e r s as " h o r i z o n c h a n g e . " The e f f e c t a work h a s o n a n a u d i e n c e p r o v i d e s a g a u g e w h e r e b y t o m e a s u r e t h e " a e s t h e t i c d i s t a n c e , " by w h i c h i s meant " t h e d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n t h e g i v e n h o r i z o n o f e x p e c t a t i o n s and t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f a new work, whose r e c e p t i o n r e s u l t s i n a ' h o r i z o n c h a n g e ' b e c a u s e i t n e g a t e s f a m i l i a r e x p e r i e n c e o r 1 2 a r t i c u l a t e s a n e x p e r i e n c e f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e . " The " a e s t h e t i c d i s t a n c e " may be u s e d t o f o r m an e v a l u a t i o n o f a w o r k ' s a e s t h e t i c w o r t h : The way i n w h i c h a l i t e r a r y w ork s a t i s f i e s , s u r p a s s e s , d i s a p p o i n t s , o r d i s p r o v e s t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s o f i t s f i r s t r e a d e r s i n t h e h i s t o r i c a l moment o f i t s a p p e a r a n c e o b v i o u s l y g i v e s a c r i t e r i o n f o r t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f i t s a e s t h e t i c v a l u e . The d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n t h e h o r i z o n o f e x p e c t a t i o n s and t h e w o rk, b e t w e e n t h e f a m i l i a r i t y o f p r e v i o u s a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e s and t h e " h o r i z o n c h a n g e " demanded by t h e r e s p o n s e t o new w o r k s , d e t e r m i n e s t h e a r t i s t i c n a t u r e o f a l i t e r a r y w o rk a l o n g t h e l i n e s o f t h e a e s t h e t i c s o f r e c e p t i o n : t h e s m a l l e r t h i s d i s t a n c e , w h i c h means t h a t no demands a r e made u p o n t h e r e c e i v i n g c o n s c i o u s n e s s t o make a c h a n g e on t h e h o r i z o n o f unknown e x p e r i e n c e , t h e c l o s e r t h e w o r k comes t o t h e r e a l m o f " c u l i n a r y " o r l i g h t r e a d i n g . T h i s l a s t p h r a s e c a n be c h a r a c t e r i z e d f r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f t h e a e s t h e t i c s o f r e c e p t i o n i n t h i s way: i t demands no h o r i z o n c h a n g e b u t a c t u a l l y f u l f i l l s e x p e c t a t i o n s , w h i c h S t r o h m , "ME G e n r e s , " 3 8 7 - 8 8 . J a u s s , " L i t e r a r y H i s t o r y , " 18. 27 a r e p r e s c r i b e d by a p r e d o m i n a n t t a s t e , by s a t i s f y i n g t h e demand f o r t h e r e p r o d u c t i o n o f f a m i l i a r b e a u t y , c o n f i r m i n g f a m i l i a r s e n t i m e n t s , e n c o u r a g i n g d r e a m s . . . . The c l o s e r a w ork comes t o s u b s t a n t i a t i n g t h e e x i s t i n g " h o r i z o n o f e x p e c t a t i o n s , " t h e l e s s i t s a e s t h e t i c i m p a c t . Works w h i c h f a l l i n t o t h i s c a t e g o r y a r e i n t e n d e d t o s a t i s f y t h e c u r r e n t t a s t e s o f t h e t i m e and f a l l w i t h i n t h e s c o p e o f p o p u l a r l i t e r a t u r e : I f a t e x t s i m p l y r e p r o d u c e s t h e e l e m e n t s o f a g e n e r i c s t r u c t u r e , o n l y p l u g s some o t h e r m a t e r i a l i n t o t h e p r e s e r v e d m o d el o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , and m e r e l y t a k e s o v e r t h e r e c e i v e d t o p i c s and m e t a p h o r i c s , i t c o n s t i t u t e s t h a t s t e r e o t y p i c a l k i n d o f l i t e r a t u r e i n t o w h i c h , p r e c i s e l y , s u c c e s s f u l g e n r e s s u c h a s , f o r e x a m p l e , t h e c h a n s o n de g e s t e i n t h e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y o r t h e f a b l i a u i n t h e t h i r t e e n t h s o o n s i n k . The l i m i t t h a t i s t h e r e b y r e a c h e d i s t ^ a t o f mere u s e - v a l u e o r " c o n s u m p t i o n - c h a r a c t e r . " S u c h a n e x a m p l e o f " c o n s u m p t i o n - c h a r a c t e r " i n h a g i o g r a p h y o c c u r s i n t h e p o p u l a r c o l l e c t i o n o f s a i n t s ' l i v e s , t h e S o u t h E n g l i s h L e g e n d a r y , i n w h i c h t h e n a r r a t i v e s h a v e become f o r m u l a i c and p r e d i c t a b l e f o r t h e most p a r t , t h e r e b y s a t i s f y i n g t h e p u b l i c ' s n e e d f o r t h e f a m i l i a r . The o t h e r p o s s i b i l i t y i s m a n i f e s t e d i n t h o s e w o r k s w h i c h r e q u i r e a " h o r i z o n c h a n g e " f r o m t h e i r a u d i e n c e , o r i n o t h e r w o r d s , c o n t a i n a c h a l l e n g e t o a u d i e n c e e x p e c t a t i o n s . J a u s s , " L i t e r a r y H i s t o r y , " 18-19. J a u s s , " T h e o r y o f G e n r e s , " 89. 28 I t i s n o t w o r k s w h i c h s u b s t a n t i a t e t h e e x i s t i n g " h o r i z o n o f e x p e c t a t i o n s " w h i c h a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be o f a e s t h e t i c v a l u e i n J a u s s ' s R e z e p t i o n s a s t h e t i k , b u t t h o s e w o r k s w h i c h s u r p r i s e o r c h a l l e n g e t h e r e a d e r w i t h t h e u n e x p e c t e d . W h i l e t h e s t e r e o t y p i c a l t e x t m e r e l y r e p e a t s t h e f a m i l i a r , t h e m a s t e r w o r k s e e k s t o a l t e r t h e " h o r i z o n " o f e x p e r i e n c e . I n c o n s i d e r i n g t h e e x p e r i e n c e s w h i c h a t e x t e v o k e s , t h e " h o r i z o n o f e x p e c t a t i o n s " s h o u l d be e x t e n d e d t o i n c l u d e q u o t i d i a n e x p e r i e n c e s and s o c i a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s , f o r " t h e r e a d e r o f a new w o r k h a s t o p e r c e i v e i t n o t o n l y w i t h i n t h e n a r r o w h o r i z o n o f h i s l i t e r a r y e x p e c t a t i o n s b u t a l s o w i t h i n 1 5 t h e w i d e r h o r i z o n o f h i s e x p e r i e n c e o f l i f e . " The w i d e r s c o p e o f t h e " e x p e r i e n c e o f l i f e " o u g h t t o encompass t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f t h e a u t h o r and a u d i e n c e a s w e l l a s t h e l a r g e r c o n t e x t o f s o c i a l f u n c t i o n , i n s h o r t , t h e " l o c u s i n l i f e , " by w h i c h i s meant, " a t y p i c a l s i t u a t i o n o r mode 1 6 o f b e h a v i o r i n t h e l i f e o f a c o m m u n i t y . " G e n r e s a r e n o t o n l y " s o c i a l phenomena," t h e y a r e a l s o " h i s t o r i c a l phenomena" w h i c h l i v e i n t i m e . J a u s s avows t h e n e c e s s i t y o f a c c e p t i n g t h e h i s t o r i c i t y o f g e n r e s when h e s u g g e s t s t h a t l i t e r a r y g e n r e s a r e t o be u n d e r s t o o d n o t a s g e n e r a ( c l a s s e s ) i n t h e l o g i c a l s e n s e s , " L i t e r a r y H i s t o r y , " 18. " T h e o r y o f G e n r e s , " 101. 15 T J a u s s , 16 T J a u s s , 29 b u t r a t h e r a s g r o u p s o r h i s t o r i c a l f a m i l i e s . As s u c h , t h e y c a n n o t be d e d u c e d o r d e f i n e d , b u t o n l y h i s t o r i c a l l y d e t e r m i n e d , d e l i m i t e d , and d e s c r i b e d . I n t h i s t h e y a r e a n a l o g o u s t o h i s t o r i c a l l a n g u a g e s , f o r w h i c h i t l i k e w i s e h o l d s t h a t German o r F r e n c h , f o r e x a m p l e , d o n o t a l l o w t h e m s e l v e s t o be d e f i n e d , b u t r a t h e r o n l y s y n c h r o n i c a i l l y d e s c r i b e d and h i s t o r i c a l l y i n v e s t i g a t e d . S u c h a n o t i o n c o r r e s p o n d s w i t h J.A. B u r r o w ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f g e n r e s a s " h i s t o r i c a l p h e n o m e n a - - s e t s o f c o n v e n t i o n s w h i c h s h i f t and r e - f o r m f r o m t i m e t o t i m e , n o t a b s t r a c t c a t e g o r i e s 1 8 i n t o w h i c h a n y t e x t f r o m a n y p e r i o d s h o u l d f i t . " The d i a c h r o n i c r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t e x t s may be v i e w e d as a c o n t i n u o u s " f o u n d i n g and a l t e r i n g o f h o r i z o n s " i n w h i c h , " ( t ) h e new t e x t e v o k e s f o r t h e r e a d e r ( l i s t e n e r ) t h e h o r i z o n o f e x p e c t a t i o n s and r u l e s f a m i l i a r f r o m e a r l i e r t e x t s , w h i c h a r e t h e n v a r i e d , c o r r e c t e d , c h a n g e d o r j u s t r e p r o d u c e d . V a r i a t i o n a n d c o r r e c t i o n d e t e r m i n e t h e s c o p e , a l t e r a t i o n a nd 1 9 r e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e b o r d e r s and s t r u c t u r e o f t h e g e n r e . " " V a r i a t i o n a nd c o r r e c t i o n " r e s u l t i n a " h o r i z o n c h a n g e " w h e r e new " r u l e s o f t h e game" may be i n t r o d u c e d , w h e r e a s d u p l i c a t i o n m a r k s t h e o s s i f i c a t i o n o f a g e n r e . Once t h e p r o c e s s o f e v a l u a t i n g a t e x t i n t e r m s o f i t s " h o r i z o n o f e x p e c t a t i o n s " i s c o m p l e t e , t h e q u e s t i o n a r i s e s , how i s t h e m e d i e v a l t e x t t o be p r o p e r l y u n d e r s t o o d s i n c e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s a l w a y s c o n d i t i o n e d by a modern p e r s p e c t i v e ? 17 J a u s s , T h e o r y o f G e n r e s , 79-80. 18 B u r r o w , 57. 19 J a u s s , tt L i t e r a r y H i s t o r y , 1 7 . 1 30 I n r e c o n s t r u c t i n g t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s and r e c e p t i o n o f a t e x t by i t s c o n t e m p o r a r y a u d i e n c e , t h e b a r r i e r s t o r e c e p t i o n a r e removed f o r t h e modern r e a d e r and " i n t h e p r o c e s s o f a c t i v e u n d e r s t a n d i n g , t h e c o n t r a s t o f h o r i z o n s must be l e d o n t o t h e f u s i o n o f t h e p a s t h o r i z o n o f a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e w i t h ,,20 t h e p r e s e n t o n e . I n t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e p r o p o u n d e d t h e o r i e s , a s u i t a b l e s t a r t i n g p o i n t w o u l d be t o r e c o n s t r u c t t h e " h o r i z o n o f e x p e c t a t i o n s " w h i c h t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y a u d i e n c e o f S t . E r k e n w a l d m i g h t h a v e h a d . The e x p e c t a t i o n s c a n be d e t e r m i n e d p r i m a r i l y f r o m a s t u d y o f m a t e r i a l w h i c h may h a v e b e e n f a m i l i a r t o t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y a u d i e n c e : t h e s a i n t ' s l i f e , exemplum, s e r m o n , and t h e s a i n t p l a y . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h may be c o n s i d e r e d a r e t h e mode o f a d d r e s s , s e t t i n g , c h a r a c t e r s , p l o t m o d e l , a nd s o c i a l f u n c t i o n . The poem c a n t h e n be a s s e s s e d i n t e r m s o f i t s f u l f i l l m e n t , a l t e r a t i o n , o r f r u s t r a t i o n o f a u d i e n c e e x p e c t a t i o n s a n d a b i l i t y t o e f f e c t a " h o r i z o n c h a n g e . " The " a e s t h e t i c d i s t a n c e " b e t w e e n t h e p r e c o n s t i t u t e d " h o r i z o n " and t h e " h o r i z o n c h a n g e " p r o v i d e s a g a u g e by w h i c h t o a s s e s s t h e a r t i s t i c m e r i t o f t h e poem. F i n a l l y , t h e poem's r e c e p t i o n among i t s c o n t e m p o r a r y a u d i e n c e c a n be c o m p a r e d t o i t s modern r e c e p t i o n a n d a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e poem a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h t h e " f u s i o n o f h o r i z o n s . " J a u s s , " A l t e r i t y a n d M o d e r n i t y , " 182-83. 31 C h a p t e r T h r e e : R e c o n s t r u c t i n g t h e H o r i z o n o f E x p e c t a t i o n s W h i l e t h e a u d i e n c e o f S t . E r k e n w a l d m i g h t n o t h a v e b e e n f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e d e t a i l s o f E r k e n w a l d * s l i f e , t h e y w o u l d p r o b a b l y h a v e b e e n a c q u a i n t e d w i t h some f o r m o f h a g i o g r a p h y , and t h e r e f o r e i t i s t h a t v a s t c o n g l o m e r a t e o f l i t e r a t u r e w h i c h i s t h e p r o b a b l e s o u r c e o f t h e a u d i e n c e ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s . The enormous i m p a c t o f h a g i o g r a p h y o n m e d i e v a l c u l t u r e l e d t h e s a i n t ' s l i f e t o be one o f t h e most p o p u l a r t y p e s o f l i t e r a t u r e i n t h a t p e r i o d , p e r h a p s e v e n more p o p u l a r t h a n t h e r omance. The v e r n a c u l a r s a i n t ' s l i f e d e v e l o p e d o u t o f a l o n g L a t i n t r a d i t i o n w h i c h was i n i t i a l l y i n t e n d e d t o r e c o r d t h e l i v e s a n d a c t s o f t h e C h r i s t i a n m a r t y r s . G r a d u a l l y , t h e more f a n t a s t i c e l e m e n t s s u c h as m i r a c l e s and t o r t u r e s w e r e e m p h a s i z e d and t h e m e r e l y f a c t u a l g a v e way t o t h e s e n s a t i o n a l . The e x a m p l e s o f h a g i o g r a p h y w h i c h b e s t r e p r e s e n t t h e o r i g i n a l i n t e n t i o n s o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e a r e t h e A c t a s i n c e r a , d o c u m e n t e d e v i d e n c e o f t h e l i v e s and a c t s o f t h e e a r l y m a r t y r s c o l l e c t e d i n 1689 by t h e B e n e d i c t i n e Dom T h i e r r i R u i n a r t i n h i s A c t a M a r t y r u m S i n c e r a . R u i n a r t c o m p i l e d 117 more o r l e s s a u t h e n t i c a c c o u n t s f r o m w r i t e r s o f t h e f o u r t h and e a r l y f i f t h c e n t u r i e s s u c h a s P r u d e n t i u s , S t . Ambrose, P a u l i n u s o f N o l a , S t . A u g u s t i n e o f H i p p o , and E u s e b i u s o f V e r c e l l i . The A c t a s i n c e r a " d i s p l a y a m a r k e d e f f o r t o n t h e p a r t 32 o f t h e i r a u t h o r s t o t e l l f a i t h f u l l y t o t h e s c a t t e r e d c h u r c h e s t h e s i m p l e s t o r y o f t h e m a r t y r s ' l i v e s a nd d e a t h s . They c e r t a i n l y r e p r e s e n t t h e t e m p e r o f t h e e a r l i e r C h r i s t i a n s i n t h e i r a v o i d a n c e o f t h e c r u d e l y s e n s a t i o n a l and t h e 1 u n n e c e s s a r i l y c o n t r o v e r s i a l . " The A c t a s i n c e r a a r e d r y , s o b e r a c c o u n t s c o n t r o l l e d by t h e p r i n c i p l e o f v e r a c i t y . W h i l e t h e r e s t r a i n t e v i d e n t i n t h e e a r l i e r a c c o u n t s o f t h e s a i n t s was e v e n t u a l l y r e p l a c e d by t h e " c r u d e l y s e n s a t i o n a l " a s h a g i o g r a p h y d e v e l o p e d , t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e s a i n t ' s l i f e r e m a i n e d r e l a t i v e l y c o n s t a n t . P e r h a p s one o f t h e most c o n s i s t e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s a i n t ' s l i f e i s i t s a r r a n g e m e n t o f e v e n t s , w h i c h o f t e n i n c l u d e s t h e f o l l o w i n g : f a m i l y o r i g i n s , b i r t h ( i n c l u d i n g a n n u n c i a t i o n ) , c h i l d h o o d and u p b r i n g i n g ( w h i c h may i n c l u d e a d e f e n s e o f f a i t h , d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f p i e t y , o r c o n v e r s i o n ) , m i r a c l e s ( w h i c h may a l s o o c c u r a t a n y p o i n t i n t h e n a r r a t i v e ) , c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f d e a t h , d i s c o v e r y o f r e l i c s a n d / o r body o r i n v e n t i o ( i n c l u d i n g m i r a c l e s e f f e c t e d by s a i d d i s c o v e r y ) , t r a n s l a t i o n o f r e l i c s a n d / o r body o r t r a n s l a t i o . C e r t a i n s t e p s may be o m i t t e d , b u t i n g e n e r a l t h e n a r r a t i v e i s c i r c u m s c r i b e d by t h e e v e n t s o f b i r t h a n d d e a t h ( a b o r i g i n e ad e x i t u r n ) and f o l l o w s 2 a d i s j o i n t e d b u t c h r o n o l o g i c a l p a t t e r n i n p r e s e n t i n g e v e n t s . G.H. G e r o u l d , S a i n t s ' L e g e n d s ( B o s t o n : H o u g h t o n , 1916) 28. 2 The p a t t e r n ab o r i g i n e a d e x i t u r n i s d i s c u s s e d i n R e i c h a r d t , 7-10. 33 The e a r l i e r L a t i n l i v e s w r i t t e n i n England, such as the L i f e o f St. Cuthbert by a L i n d i s f a r n e monk ( e i g h t h c e n t u r y ) , p r eserve the sequence of events e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e i r L a t i n predecessors, such as the works of S u l p i c i u s Severus ( e a r l y f i f t h c e n t u r y ) . For example, the e a r l i e s t L i f e of St. Gregory w r i t t e n by a monk of Whitby ( e a r l y e i g h t h century) i l l u s t r a t e s the normative b i r t h - t o - d e a t h p a t t e r n : Born Roman, the son of Gordianus and S i l v i a . . . . For a long time he stayed i n a monastery... (Chapter 1) ...at C o n s t a n t i n o p l e he honorably represented the A p o s t o l i c See, where he c l e a r l y s e t f o r t h h i s thoughts...(Chapter 2) When Gregory was e l e c t e d t o the aforementioned p a s t o r a l c a r e o f the a p o s t o l i c o f f i c e by the people of God, he f l e d from i t with so much h u m i l i t y t h a t he searched w i l d l y f o r any p l a c e where he cou l d conceal h i m s e l f . (Chapter 7) Chapter 9 d e s c r i b e s the m i r a c l e i n which Gregory i s v i s i t e d by y o u t h f u l angels. In Chapter 11, Gregory i s e l e c t e d Pope and then f o l l o w s a s t r i n g o f d i s j o i n t e d m i r a c l e s . The L i f e concludes with Gregory's death and the l o c a t i o n o f h i s body i n accordance with the gen e r a l p a t t e r n : On March 12, as he approached death i n the Church o f St. Peter where he was bishop f o r t h i r t e e n C h a r les W. Jones, S a i n t s ' L i v e s and C h r o n i c l e s i n E a r l y  England, Romanesque L i t e r a t u r e 1 ( I t h a c a : C o r n e l l UP, 1947) 95-121. 34 y e a r s , s i x m o n t h s , and t e n d a y s , he e a g e r l y l o o k e d f o r w a r d t o t h e p r o m i s e o f t h e L o r d f o r t h a t most b l e s s e d o f a l l p r i z e s . B u r i e d b e f o r e t h e s a c r i s t y o f h i s o f f i c e , he s l e e p s i n p e a c e o f b o d y . . . ( C h a p t e r 3 2 ) . The p a t t e r n o f e v e n t s i n t h e L i f e o f S t . G r e g o r y i s i l l u s t r a t i v e o f t h e manner i n w h i c h s a i n t s ' l i v e s w e r e w r i t t e n a nd o f t h e p e r m i s s i b l e l a t i t u d e f o r t h e e v e n t s w h i c h o c c u r i n b e t w e e n b i r t h and d e a t h . I n t h e M i d d l e E n g l i s h p e r i o d , t h e v e r n a c u l a r s a i n t ' s l i f e f l o u r i s h e d , a s " I t was n o t s i m p l y t h e a p p e a l o f t h e p i o u s , b u t a l s o o f t h e m a r v e l l o u s and t h e r e m o t e . . . . ( S ) a i n t s ' l e g e n d s p r o v i d e d e s c a p e f r o m i n s u l a r i t y a n d t h e c o m m o n p l a c e — a f u n c t i o n t h a t was l a t e r t o be assumed by romance, and l a t e r s t i l l by f i l m and t e l e v i s i o n . " ^ P e r h a p s n o w h e r e e l s e i n t h e M i d d l e E n g l i s h p e r i o d i s t h e s a i n t ' s l i f e b e t t e r r e p r e s e n t e d t h a n i n t h e e x t e n s i v e c o l l e c t i o n o f t h e S o u t h  E n g l i s h L e g e n d a r y ( c . 1 2 8 0 ) . The m e d i e v a l l o v e o f o r d e r and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n m a n i f e s t e d i t s e l f i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f v a s t c o l l e c t i o n s o f s a i n t s ' l i v e s s u c h a s J a c o b u s de V o r a g i n e ' s L e g e n d a a u r e a and t h e S o u t h E n g l i s h L e g e n d a r y . The S o u t h  E n g l i s h L e g e n d a r y i s a w o r k known n o t f o r i t s a r t i s t i c m e r i t s b u t f o r i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e m e c h a n i c a l f a s h i o n i n w h i c h s a i n t s ' l i v e s w e r e s o m e t i m e s w r i t t e n . The p a t t e r n e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e L a t i n p r e d e c e s s o r s was c o n t i n u e d i n t a c t J.A.W. B e n n e t t , M i d d l e E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e , e d . D o u g l a s G r a y ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n , 1986) 60. 35 i n t h e l i v e s o f V i n c e n t o f S a r a g o s s a , L a w r e n c e , Agnes and A g a t h a , f o r e x a m p l e . The s e n s a t i o n a l i s m o f t h e m i r a c l e s and t o r t u r e s d i s t a n c e s t h e l i v e s o f t h e S o u t h E n g l i s h  L e g e n d a r y f r o m t h e more f a c t u a l a c c o u n t s o f t h e A c t a s i n c e r a . P e r h a p s no o n e b e t t e r u n d e r s t o o d t h e n a t u r e o f t h e M i d d l e E n g l i s h s a i n t ' s l i f e t h a n C h a u c e r . The S e c o n d Nun's T a l e shows C h a u c e r " c a p a b l e o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e s p i r i t i n w h i c h l e g e n d s o u g h t t o be w r i t t e n . " ^ C h a u c e r a l t e r e d t h e l i f e o f S t . C e c i l i a s o l i t t l e f r o m w h i c h e v e r s o u r c e he may h a v e h a d , h a v i n g " . . . d o o n my f e i t h f u l b i s y n e s s e / A f t e r t h e l e g e n d e , i n t r a n s l a c i o u n " (CT, G 2 4 - 5 ) . To C h a u c e r t h i s meant f o r e g o i n g h i s u s u a l f l a i r a n d a d o p t i n g t h e s o b e r t o n e a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e s a i n t ' s l i f e . The S e c o n d Nun's T a l e i s meant t o be a r e s p e c t a b l e s t o r y . C h a u c e r e v e n a d d s an a p o l o g y f o r h i s l a c k o f o r n a m e n t a t i o n : Y e t p r e y e I yow t h a t r e d e n t h a t I w r i t e , F o r y e v e me t h a t I do no d i l i g e n c e T h i s i l k e s t o r i e s u b t i l l y t o e n d i t e , F o r b o t h e h a v e I t h e w o r d e s and s e n t e n c e Of hym t h a t a t t h e s e i n t e s r e v e r e n c e The s t o r i e w r o o t , and f o l w e n h i r e l e g e n d e . And p r a y yow t h a t y e w o l e my w e r k amende. (G 78-84) The S e c o n d Nun's T a l e e p i t o m i z e s t h e b i o g r a p h y o f a v i r g i n m a r t y r : o r i g i n a nd b i r t h , d e f e n s e o f c h a s t i t y , d e f e n s e o f f a i t h ( a g a i n s t A l m a c h i u s ) , t o r m e n t s , m a r t y r d o m , b u r i a l . G e r o u l d , 240. 36 The a u d i e n c e h a s no d o u b t a s t o t h e n a t u r e o f t h e t a l e t h e y w i l l h e a r , s i n c e t h e p r o l o g u e c l e a r l y s t a t e s t h a t t h i s i s t o be a " l i f and p a s s i o u n , " and " e v e n t h e m e d i e v a l r e a d e r who h a d n o t e n c o u n t e r e d h e r ( C e c i l i a ' s ] p a r t i c u l a r s t o r y b u t who knew o f s a i n t s l i k e K a t h e r i n e , J u l i a n a , M a r g a r e t , L u c i a , and A g n e s w o u l d h a v e h a d c e r t a i n e x p e c t a t i o n s a b o u t w h a t w o u l d f o l l o w . " ^ P e r h a p s C h a u c e r w i s h e d t o p r e s e n t a c o n v e n t i o n a l l e g e n d e i n o r d e r t o c o n t r a s t t h e d e l i b e r a t e m i s a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e t e r m , s u c h a s o c c u r s i n t h e i r r e v e r e n t M i l l e r ' s T a l e w h i c h p r o m i s e s t o be " a l e g e n d e and a l y f / B o t h e o f a c a r p e n t e r and o f h i s w y f " (A 3 1 4 1 - 2 ) . The s a i n t ' s l i f e e v o k e s t h e e x p e c t a t i o n o f a p a r t i c u l a r s e r i e s o f e v e n t s w h i c h f o r m t h e p l o t m o d e l . The s t r u c t u r e i s d i c t a t e d by t h e p u r p o s e o f " a c c u m u l a t i n g e v i d e n c e f o r t h e p o r t r a y a l o f e x e m p l a r y s a n c t i t y . " The p l o t r e a d s a s a n e n u m e r a t i o n o f e v e n t s o r a c a t a l o g u e i n t e n d e d t o p r o v i d e d o c u m e n t a t i o n . The r e s u l t o f s u c h a s t r u c t u r e i s a l a c k o f c o n t i n u i t y a nd a n e p i s o d i c q u a l i t y i n w h i c h t h e n a r r a t i v e jumps a b r u p t l y f r o m o n e e v e n t t o t h e n e x t . The a i m o f t h e s a i n t ' s l i f e i s n o t a e s t h e t i c a nd t h u s t h e r e i s " l i t t l e a t t e m p t a t n a r r a t i v e c o o r d i n a t i o n o r d r a m a t i c c o n t i n u i t y . " S t r o h m , " P a s s i o u n , " 166. R e i c h a r d t , 10. R e i c h a r d t , 10. 37 W i t h i n t h e o v e r a l l p l o t s t r u c t u r e o f t h e s a i n t ' s l i f e c e r t a i n p a t t e r n s o f e v e n t s o r m o t i f s may o c c u r . The a u d i e n c e o f S t . E r k e n w a l d may h a v e been f a m i l i a r w i t h m o t i f s s u c h a s t h e m i r a c u l o u s l y p r e s e r v e d c o r p s e o r t h e d i s c o v e r y o f a tomb o r t h e i r v a r i a t i o n s . B o t h S a v a g e and M c A l i n d o n d e s c r i b e d t h e m o t i f o f t h e u n d e c a y e d c o r p s e o r m i r a c u l o u s p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a c o r p s e . The body c u s t o m a r i l y b e l o n g s t o a m a r t y r e d s a i n t , and t h e m o t i f i s u s u a l l y e m p l o y e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g manner: " A l t h o u g h b u r i e d f o r many y e a r s , [ t h e c o r p s e ) i s l i k e l y t o be u n d e c a y e d i n p a r t o r e n t i r e l y , and i t s c l o t h e s t o o may be i n i m m a c u l a t e c o n d i t i o n ; b u t i f i t h a s d e c a y e d , a n e x q u i s i t e p e r f u m e w i l l p r o b a b l y i s s u e f r o m i t , s o m e t i m e s s o p o w e r f u l g as t o r a v i s h t h e c o n g r e g a t i o n o f a n e n t i r e c h u r c h . " The w i d e s p r e a d d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f t h e m o t i f i s a t t e s t e d t o by t h e number o f e x a m p l e s w h i c h o c c u r . S a v a g e d e s c r i b e s e x a m p l e s f r o m t h e C h r o n i c a M a j o r a i n t h e l i v e s o f S t . Edmund, 1 0 S t . Edmund o f C a n t e r b u r y , and S t . A l b a n . M c A l i n d o n c i t e s e x a m p l e s f r o m B e d e ' s H i s t o r i a E c c l e s i a s t i c a , A e l f r i c ' s L i v e s o f t h e S a i n t s , H i g d e n ' s P o 1 y c h r o n i c o n , and W i l l i a m 1 1 o f M a l m e s b u r y ' s H i s t o r y o f t h e K i n g s o f E n g l a n d . 9 M c A l i n d o n , 474; S e e a l s o S t i t h Thompson, M o t i f - I n d e x  o f F o l k L i t e r a t u r e ( C o p e n h a g e n : R o s e n k i l d e , 1955) D2167: " C o r p s e m a g i c a l l y s a v e d f r o m c o r r u p t i o n . " 10 _ S a v a g e , x x i - x x i v . 11 M c A l i n d o n , 474, n o t e 5. 38 The motif of the undecayed corpse may be extended to i n c l u d e p r e s e r v a t i o n of d i s s o c i a t e d body p a r t s such as the head o r tongue. The l i f e o f St. Edmund the King i n the South E n g l i s h Legendary d e s c r i b e s an i n c i d e n t i n which St. Edmund's head i s cut o f f and hidden i n a s e c r e t p l a c e , 1 2 and a f t e r being found by a wolf, the head speaks. Another v a r i a t i o n of t h i s motif occurs i n Jacopo d e l l a Lana's commentary (c. 1330) on P u r g a t o r i o 10.73 of the D i v i n a commedia of Dante, which d e s c r i b e s the d i s c o v e r y of a c o f f i n c o n t a i n i n g a preserved tongue: E l l i s i legge che a l tempo d i san G r e g o r i o papa s i cavo a Roma una f o s s a per f a r e fondamenta d'uno l a v o r i o , e cavando l i maestri trovonno s o t t o t e r r a uno monumento, l o quale f u aperto, e dentro era i n f r a l ' a l t r e o ssa q u e l l o d e l l a t e s t a d e l defunto, ed avea l a l i n g u a c o s i r i g i d a , carnosa e f r e s c a , come f o s s e pure i n q u e l l a o r a s e p p e l l i t a . Another motif with which the audience of St. Erkenwald may have been f a m i l i a r i s the d i s c o v e r y by a s a i n t of a tomb c o n t a i n i n g a dead person (or persons), and the r e s u s c i t a t i o n of the person. T h i s motif occurs i n the l i f e o f St. M a r t i n i n the South E n g l i s h Legendary, the V i t a Quarta of St. P a t r i c k , 1 2 The South E n g l i s h Legendary, ed. C h a r l o t t e D'Evelyn and Anna J . M i l l , EETS 236, 237 (London: Oxford UP, 1956) 514. 1 3 Cornedia d i Dante d e g l i A l l a g h e r i i c o l commento d i  Jacopo d e l l a Lana Bolognese, 3 v o l s . , ed. Luciano S c a r a b e l l i , C o l l e z i o n e d i opere i n e d i t e o r a r e 41 (Bologna: 1866) 2: 118. 39 and i n t h e A c t a I o h a n n i s o f t h e A c t a A p o s t o l o r u m A p o c r y p h a . Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i s t h e a c c o u n t o f t h e l i f e o f S t . P a t r i c k as i t c o m b i n e s r e s u s c i t a t i o n w i t h b a p t i s m : Quodam qu o q u e t e m p o r e u i r u e n e r a b i l i s p r a e d i c a n d i g r a t i a i n quadam r e g i o n e a m b u l a n s s e p u l c h r u m m i r e m a g n i t u d i n i s u i d i t c e n t u m u i g i n t i p e d e s i n l o n g i t u d i n e h a b e n s . P o s t u l a n t i b u s autem f r a t r i b u s e i u s m o d i monstrum u i u u m u i d e r e b e a t u s P a t r i c i u s s i g n a c u l u m c r u c i s f r o n t i i n p r i m e n s e t u s i t a t o more Deum u i u u m d e p r e c a n s c e n t e s i m u m annum i n s e p u l c h r o h a b e n t e m mortuum s u s c i t a u i t . Q u i P a t r i c i o i n t e r r o g a n t e s e q u a n d o u e l quomodo d e f u n c t u s e s t q u o u e g e n e r e o r i u n d u s f u i t i l l e s a n c t o P a t r i c i o p e r o m n i a r e s p o n d e n s b a p t i z a t u s e s t , e t i t e r u m i l i u m i n s e p u l c h r o r e c l u s i t . A v a r i a t i o n o n t h e m o t i f o f r e s u s c i t a t i o n a nd b a p t i s m i s t h e r e l e a s e o f a condemned s o u l t h r o u g h t h e t e a r s o f t h e 1 5 l i v i n g . S u c h a m o t i f o c c u r s i n t h e l i f e o f S t . M a r t i n i n t h e S o u t h E n g l i s h L e g e n d a r y : S e i n t M a r t i n f o n d a 3 u n g man d e d . P a t w e l w i p h i m was P a t b i l e o u e d e o n o u r e L o u e r d . a c i c r i s t n e d h e n a s G r e t d e o l makede p i s h o l i man. p a t he n e r e i c r i s t n e d e r To h i s tumbe h e 3 eode & bad f o r h i m . & wep meni o & t e r Po g a n p i s d e d e man. f r a m d e p e a r i s e t o l y u e . . . . A more s p e c i f i c i n s t a n c e o f t h e m o t i f o c c u r s i n C h a p t e r 29 S o u t h E n g l i s h L e g e n d a r y , 4 8 5 - 6 ) ; F o u r L a t i n L i v e s o f  S t . P a t r i c k , e d . L u d w i g B i e l e r , S c r i p t o r e s L a t i n i H i b e r n i a e 8 ( D u b l i n : D u b l i n I n s t i t u t e f o r A d v a n c e d S t u d i e s , 1971) 102; The A p o c r y p h a l New T e s t a m e n t : B e i n g t h e A p o c r y p h a l G o s p e l s ,  A c t s , E p i s t l e s , a n d A p o c a l y p s e s , t r a n s . M o n t a g u e Rhodes James ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n , 1924) 2 4 2 - 5 1 . S t i t h Thompson, E754.1.8 " T e a r s o f l i v i n g s a v e s o u l . " 1 6 S o u t h E n g l i s h L e g e n d a r y , 4 8 5 - 8 6 . 40 o f t h e e a r l i e s t L i f e o f S t . G r e g o r y by a W h i t b y monk: Some among us a l s o r e p e a t a s t o r y o f S t . G r e g o r y w h i c h was t o l d w i t h t e a r s by t h e Romans, o f how t h e s o u l o f t h e E m p e r o r T r a j a n was l a v e d o r b a p t i z e d - -a t a l e m a r v e l o u s t o t e l l o r t o h e a r . T h a t we s a y i t was b a p t i z e d w o u l d move no one; f o r no one w i l l e v e r s e e God w i t h o u t b a p t i s m . B u t a t h i r d k i n d [ o f w a s h i n g ) i s t h a t o f t e a r s . W h i l e i t i s n o t uncommon f o r a s a i n t t o weep o n b e h a l f o f a p e n i t e n t , t h e m o t i f o f b a p t i s m by t e a r s , s u c h as o c c u r s i n G r e g o r y ' s L i f e , i s q u i t e r a r e i n h a g i o g r a p h y and w o u l d p r o b a b l y be u n f a m i l i a r t o t h e a u d i e n c e o f S t . E r k e n w a l d . A m o t i f w h i c h f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r s i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e f i n d i n g o f a tomb i s t h e d i s c o v e r y o f a n i n s c r i p t i o n w i t h g o l d e n l e t t e r i n g o r a n i n s c r i b e d g o l d e n t a b l e t . An e x a m p l e o f t h i s m o t i f a p p e a r s i n M a n d e v i l i e ' s T r a v e l s ( f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y ) : And w i t h i n t h e c h i r c h e o f S e y n t S o p h i e a n e m p e r o u r somtyme w o l d e h a u e b i r y e d t h e body o f h i s f a d e r whan he was d e d . And a s t h e i maden t h e g r a u e t h e i f o u n d e n a body i n t h e e r t h e , and v p o n t h e body l a y a f y n p l a t e o f g o l d , and t h e r e o n was w r i t e n i n E b r u , G r e u , a nd L a t y n , l e t t r e s t h a t s e y d e n t h u s , I h e s u s C r i s t u s n a s c e t u r de v i r g i n e  M a r i a e t ego c r e d o i n eum; t h a t i s t o s e y n e , I h e s u C r i s t s c h a l l e be b o r n o f t h e v i r g y n e M a r i e and I t r o w i n Hym. And t h e d a t e whan i t was l e y d i n t h e e r t h e was i i . ' y e e r b e f o r e o u r e l o r d was b o r n . And y i t i s t h e p l a t e o f g o l d i n t h e t h r e s o r y e o f t h e c h i r c h e g and men s e y n t h a t i t was Hermogene t h e w i s e man. 1 7 J o n e s , 116-17. 1 8 M a n d e v i l i e ' s T r a v e l s , e d . M.C. Seymour ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n , 1967) 12-13. 4 1 A v a r i a t i o n o f t h i s m o t i f i s m e n t i o n e d i n a r e f e r e n c e t o S t . I g n a t i u s o f A n t i o c h i n a f o u r t e e n t h - c e n t u r y M i d d l e E n g l i s h s e r m o n : E n s a m p u l l p a n f y n d e we h e r e - o f o f S e y n t I g n a c e , •pat n y g h t ne d a y e ne c e s e d n e u e r s p e k y n g e o f l o u e n e o f p e s w e t e n e s o f I h e s u C r i s t e ; a n d n o 3 t h e s p a k e he b u t a s was i n y s h e r t e . I n t o k e n y n g e w h e r e - o f , when P a t he was f o u n d d e d a n d y s h e r t e was d e p a r t e d , p a n was f o u n d e w r y t t e n i n y s h e r t e w i t h l e t t e r s o f goo^cj, " I h e s u s e s t amor meus--I h e s u s y s my l o u e . " I n v e r s i o n s o f t h i s m o t i f , t h e i n s c r i p t i o n i s u s u a l l y a c o n f e s s i o n o f f a i t h a l o n g t h e l i n e s o f " c r e d o i n C h r i s t u m . " W h a t l e y a l s o c i t e s e x a m p l e s f r o m R o g e r B a c o n ' s M e t a p h v s i c a 20 ( c . 1250) and t h e Summa T h e o l o g i c a o f Thomas A q u i n a s . W h i l e i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t a l l o f t h e a b o v e - m e n t i o n e d m a t e r i a l w o u l d h a v e b e e n f a m i l i a r o r a v a i l a b l e t o t h e a u d i e n c e o f S t . E r k e n w a l d , t h e e n d l e s s v a r i a t i o n s and c o m b i n a t i o n s o f m o t i f s i n d i c a t e a number o f p o s s i b l e s o u r c e s . The p l o t o f S t . E r k e n w a l d may be s e e n a s a c o m b i n a t i o n o f v a r i o u s m o t i f s a d a p t e d by t h e p o e t t o s u i t h i s s t o r y , a t y p i c a l d e v i c e e m p l o y e d i n s a i n t s ' l i v e s . I n a d d i t i o n t o s t r u c t u r e a n d m o t i f s , t h e s a i n t ' s l i f e o f t e n e x h i b i t e d o t h e r s t a n d a r d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s u c h a s 1 9 M i d d l e E n g l i s h S e rmons , e d . Woodburn 0. R o s s , EETS os 209 ( L o n d o n : O x f o r d UP, 1940) 78. 2 0 W h a t l e y , " H e a t h e n s , " 3 4 5 - 4 8 . 42 c o m m u n i c a t i v e s i t u a t i o n , s e t t i n g , and c h a r a c t e r s . S i n c e t h e s a i n t ' s l i f e was o r i g i n a l l y t h e t e s t i m o n i a l o f a w i t n e s s , t h e mode o f a d d r e s s r e m a i n e d t h a t o f a w i t n e s s r e p o r t i n g e v e n t s t o t h e a u d i e n c e ( o r r e a d e r ) . A f a i r l y common d e v i c e was t h e d i r e c t a d d r e s s t o t h e a u d i e n c e t h r o u g h i n t e r j e c t i o n s i n t h e t e x t . S u c h a d e v i c e may be f o u n d i n t h e S o u t h E n g l i s h L e g e n d a r y i n t h e l i f e o f S t . P e t e r , i n w h i c h t h e r e p o r t e r c h a s t i s e s t h e a u d i e n c e : "Wy s i t t e 3e s o s t i l l e . w i ne s e g g e 3e amen" ( 2 6 0 ) . The h a g i o g r a p h e r ' s t r e a t m e n t o f s e t t i n g i s d e f i n e d by t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e d i v i n e . S p a c e i s p e r f u n c t o r i l y t r e a t e d w i t h a few g e o g r a p h i c a l r e f e r e n c e s , u s u a l l y p l a c e o f b i r t h o r l o c a t i o n o f b ody o r r e l i c s . F o r e x a m p l e , i n t h e l i f e o f S t . M a r t i n i n t h e S o u t h E n g l i s h L e g e n d a r y , t h e a u d i e n c e i s t o l d t h a t , " S e i n t M a r t i n was i b o r e . i n pe l o n d o f T a b a r i e / Wel 3ung he was y n o r i s c h e d . i n p e l o n d o f P a p i e " ( 4 8 3 ) . The h a g i o g r a p h e r l i k e w i s e d o e s n o t c a r e a b o u t t i m e , f o r " C h r o n o l o g i c a l , human t i m e d o e s n o t m a t t e r , i t i s o n l y God's t i m e w h i c h i n t e r e s t s h i m , God's t i m e w h e r e a c t s and o n l y 21 a c t s h a v e s i g n i f i c a n c e . " The t e m p o r a l and s p a t i a l s e t t i n g s o f s a i n t s ' l i v e s a r e s i g n l i k e , w i t h r e f e r e n c e o n l y t o e v e n t s . C h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n i n t h e s a i n t ' s l i f e i s a l s o p e r f u n c t o r y . The s a i n t s t h e m s e l v e s a r e u n i n d i v i d u a l i z e d w i t h l i t t l e o r no 21 R e g i s B o y e r , "An A t t e m p t t o D e f i n e t h e T y p o l o g y o f M e d i e v a l H a g i o g r a p h y , " H a g i o g r a p h y and M e d i e v a l L i t e r a t u r e :  A Symposium, e d . Hans B e k k e r - N i e i s e n e t a l ( O d e n s e : Odense UP, 1981) 29. 43 attempt at personal d e s c r i p t i o n and are t h e r e f o r e i n t e r -changeable. L i k e the hero of romance, the s a i n t i s an i d e a l i z e d p r o j e c t i o n intended t o e x h i b i t exemplary behaviour and v i s i b l e v i r t u e i n a man. The s a i n t , as a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of God on ear t h , o f t e n must c o n f r o n t another c h a r a c t e r who represents the f a l l i b l e , human s i d e of man's nature. Frequently, the s a i n t i s r e q u i r e d t o make a defense of f a i t h , such as i s done by S t . C e c i l i a whc i s punished by Almachius because she would not renounce her creed. Another r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of human f o l l y appears i n the c o l l e c t i v e c h a r a c t e r of the f i c t i o n a l crowd. Often, the crowd behaves i n an un r u l y and f o o l i s h manner, such as occurs i n the V i t a Erkenwaldi: A f t e r Erkenwald's death at Barking Abbey, var i o u s groups l a y c l a i m t o the body, i n c l u d i n g the Barking nuns, monks of Chertsey, and the c l e r i c s and c i t i z e n s o f London... Everyone gets h y s t e r i c a l , and the d i s t u r b a n c e threatens t o become v i o l e n t as the f u n e r a l p r o c e s s i o n h a l t s at;.., a f l o o d e d r i v e r which blocks the path t o London. The v i o l e n c e of the crowd and t h e i r f r e n z i e d a c t i o n s are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the f o l l i e s of humanity. Another common component of the s a i n t ' s l i f e i s an i n v o c a t i o n o r c o n c l u d i n g p r a y e r . Chaucer begins h i s l i f e o f St. C e c i l i a i n the Second Nun's T a l e with an Invocacio ad Mariam. Each of the l i v e s o f the South E n g l i s h 2 2 Whatley, "Heathens," 356. 44 L e g e n d a r y ends w i t h a p r a y e r o f t h e f o l l o w i n g s o r t : "Nou b i d d e we 3 e o r n e s e i n B a r t e l m u . p a t h e i a p o s t e l i s / P a t we pe w a t l o k e r p o r u i s bone, come t o h e u e n e b l i s " ( 3 8 4 ) . The i m m e d i a t e f u n c t i o n o f t h e i n v o c a t i o n o r p r a y e r i s t o commemorate t h e s a i n t o r t o c a l l u pon t h e s a i n t as a m e d i a t o r . The s a i n t ' s l i f e f u l f i l l s s e v e r a l s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s : i t i l l u s t r a t e s e x e m p l a r y b e h a v i o u r o f t h e s a i n t s and t h u s p r o v i d e s a model f o r i n s t r u c t i o n , i t p r o v i d e s an a c c e s s i b l e i n t e r m e d i a r y w i t h whom one c o u l d i d e n t i f y , and, i n a b r o a d e r s e n s e , i t c o n f i r m s f a i t h by r e v e a l i n g t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e d i v i n e i n t h e w o r l d . The W h i t b y monk who w r o t e t h e L i f e o f S t . G r e g o r y p r e f a c e s h i s a c c o u n t by summing up t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e s a i n t ' s l i f e : The H o l y C a t h o l i c C h u r c h t h r o u g h o u t t h e w o r l d f o r e v e r h o n o r s i t s d o c t o r e s o f a l l r a c e s , r e j o i c i n g t h a t u n d e r t h e t e a c h i n g o f t h e L o r d C h r i s t t h e y p o i n t t h e way t o Him who s h o u l d be g l o r i f i e d . I t makes them known t o p o s t e r i t y i n m e m o rable w r i t i n g s , " s o t h a t t h e y m i g h t s e t t h e i r h o p e i n God and n o t f o r g e t t h e w o r k s o f God, b u t k e e p h i s commandments." The c o n t r o l l i n g f u n c t i o n o f t h e s a i n t ' s l i f e i s e d i f i c a t i o n , and no s a i n t ' s l i f e i s w r i t t e n w i t h o u t t h i s u n d e r l y i n g p u r p o s e . The s a i n t ' s l i f e was o r i g i n a l l y i n t e n d e d t o be r e a d ( l e g e n d a ) o n t h e f e a s t d a y o f t h e s a i n t . The L a t i n l i v e s w e r e d e s i g n e d p r i m a r i l y f o r a m o n a s t i c o r c l e r i c a l a u d i e n c e . As t h e s a i n t ' s l i f e d e v e l o p e d , t h e a u d i e n c e J o n e s , 97. 45 f o r w h i c h i t was i n t e n d e d e x p a n d e d b e y o n d t h e " c l o i s t e r e d w a l l s w h e r e t h e l i t e r a t u r e t o o k i t s o r i g i n i n L a t i n . " 2 4 The p o p u l a r s a i n t s ' l i v e s , s u c h a s t h o s e o f t h e S o u t h E n g l i s h L e g e n d a r y , a p p e a l e d t o a l a y a u d i e n c e a s w e l l a s a m o n a s t i c o r c l e r i c a l a u d i e n c e a n d , i n a d d i t i o n t o b e i n g e d i f y i n g , w e r e a l s o e n t e r t a i n i n g . The s a i n t ' s l i f e a l s o came i n t o v o g u e i n p r i v a t e d e v o t i o n s and p a t r o n s m i g h t h a v e c o m m i s s i o n e d a c o l l e c t i o n o f l i v e s w h i c h c a t e r e d t o t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r t a s t e s and was d e s i g n e d f o r t h e i r p e r s o n a l u s e . S a i n t s ' l i v e s became a "medium f o r t h e i n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e y o u n g i n t h e e c c l e s i a s t i c a l s c h o o l s w h e r e t h e y may h a v e b e e n 25 u s e d a s s c h o o l e x e r c i s e s i n v e r s i f i c a t i o n . " The s a i n t ' s l i f e " t h u s r e a c h e d a w i d e p u b l i c by d o u b l e means, n o t o n l y t h r o u g h t h e s e r v i c e s o f t h e C h u r c h b u t a l s o t h r o u g h t h e 26 r e a d i n g and h e a r i n g o f them a s p o l i t e l i t e r a t u r e . " The d e v e l o p m e n t and e x p a n s i o n o f t h e s a i n t ' s l i f e was a c c o m p a n i e d by t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f o t h e r f o r m s w h i c h a d a p t e d m a t e r i a l f r o m h a g i o g r a p h y . I n drama, h a g i o g r a p h i c a l t e x t s w e r e d r a w n u p o n t o p r o d u c e t h e s a i n t p l a y . I n s e r m o n s , p o r t i o n s o f s a i n t s ' l i v e s w e r e u s e d a s e x e m p l a . B o t h t h e s a i n t p l a y a nd t h e exemp1urn, l i k e t h e s a i n t ' s l i f e , w e r e 24 M a r g a r e t S c h l a u c h , E n g l i s h M e d i e v a l L i t e r a t u r e a nd  I t s S o c i a l F o u n d a t i o n s (Warsaw: Pafistwowe W y d a w n i c t w o Naukowe, 1956) 192. 25 G e r o u l d , 14. See a l s o K a r l Y o ung, The Drama o f t h e M e d i e v a l C h u r c h , 2 v o l s . ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n , 1933) 2: 3 1 1 . 2 6 G e r o u l d , 14. 46 a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e C h u r c h . The s a i n t p l a y w o u l d a p p e a r t o h a v e h ad i t s o r i g i n s i n t h e l i t u r g i c a l r i t u a l s o f t h e C h u r c h , p o s s i b l y b e g i n n i n g i t s e x i s t e n c e i n t h e same manner as t h e c y c l i c a l m i r a c l e p l a y s , 27 as e m b e l l i s h m e n t s o n t h e "quern q u a e r i t i s " t r o p e . As t h e s a i n t p l a y emerged a s p o p u l a r drama, t h e s p o k e n f o r m s u p e r s e d e d t h e s u n g f o r m , t h e c o m i c e l e m e n t s o f t h e p l a y i n c r e a s e d , and " t h e p l a c e o f a c t i n g (was) t r a n s f e r r e d f r o m t h e i n t e r i o r o f 28 t h e c h u r c h t o i t s p r e c i n c t s . " The move f r o m t h e i n t e r i o r o f t h e c h u r c h t o t h e e x t e r i o r , b o t h p h y s i c a l l y and f i g u r a t i v e l y , may h a v e b e e n i n f l u e n c e d by t h e p o p u l a r f o r m o f p r e a c h i n g 29 o u t - o f - d o o r s . The v e r n a c u l a r p l a y s w e r e " c i v i c p r o d u c t i o n s , g a t h e r i n g t o g e t h e r townsmen o r c i t i z e n s a n d p e r f o r m e r s ( e . g . , m i n s t r e l s ) t o s t a g e dramas t h a t w o u l d b r i n g h o n o r o n t h e town o r c i t y a t t h e same t i m e t h a t t h e y m i g h t p r o v i d e an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r i m a g i n a t i v e and d e v o t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s 27 T h e r e i s a p o s s i b l e c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n l i n e 133 o f S t . E r k e n w a l d ("Wyt queme q u e s t i s o f pe q u e r e w y t f u l q u a y n t n o t e s " ) a nd t h e t r o p e "Quern q u a e r i t i s i n s e p u l c h r e o C h r i s t i c o l a e ? " F o r a f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n s e e Thomas Ry a n , "'Queme Q u e s t i s ' i n S t . E r k e n w a l d , " E n g l i s h L a n g u a g e N o t e s 23 ( 1 9 8 5 ) : 1-3. F o r t h e t h e o r y o f t h e "quern q u a e r i t i s " t r o p e i n d r a m a s e e Young, 1: 201-385 and D a v i d B e v i n g t o n , M e d i e v a l  Drama ( B o s t o n : H o u g h t o n , 1975) 3-72. 28 G.R. Owst, L i t e r a t u r e a n d P u l p i t i n M e d i e v a l  E n g l a n d ( L o n d o n : C a m b r i d g e UP, 1933) 477. F o r t h i s t h e o r y s e e Owst, 478. 47 among t h e i r audiences." The s a i n t p l a y a l s o s a t i s f i e d the medieval audience's p a s s i o n f o r pageantry and s e n s a t i o n a l i s m but, l i k e the s a i n t ' s l i f e , i t was never completely d i v o r c e d from i t s roots i n the Church or i t s purpose of e d i f i c a t i o n and worship. The s a i n t p l a y may have c o n t r i b u t e d t o the " h o r i z o n of e x p e c t a t i o n s " through p l a y s which are based on an i s o l a t e d i n c i d e n t or through s t a g i n g d e s i g n . Examples of drama based on a s i n g l e i n c i d e n t are the t w e l f t h -century L a t i n St. N i c h o l a s p l a y s : Tres F i l i a e , which d e p i c t s the rescue of t h r e e young women from p r o s t i t u t i o n by S t . N i c h o l a s ; Tres C l e r i c i , i n which S t . N i c h o l a s r e v i v e s t h r e e c l e r k s murdered by an innkeeper and h i s wife; I c o n i a  s a n c t i N i c o l a i , about a man who e n t r u s t s the p r o t e c t i o n of h i s house to an image of St. N i c h o l a s ; and F i l i u s G e t r o n i s , which d e p i c t s the abduction of a young man, Adeodatus, h i s c a p t i v i t y among heathens, and h i s miraculous l i b e r a t i o n by S t . N i c h o l a s . Each p l a y i s based upon a s i n g l e m i r a c l e 31 from the l i f e o f S t . N i c h o l a s . I t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t the L a t i n St. N i c h o l a s p l a y s would have been f a m i l i a r t o a l a y audience, 30 C l i f f o r d Davidson, i n t r o d u c t i o n , The S a i n t P l a y i n  Medieval Europe, ed. C l i f f o r d Davidson, E a r l y Drama, A r t , and Music Monograph S e r i e s 8 (Kalamazoo: Medieval I n s t i t u t e P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1986) 7. 31 For a f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n of the S t . N i c h o l a s p l a y s see Young, 2: 307-60. 48 and t h e r e f o r e would not have c o n t r i b u t e d d i r e c t l y to the " h o r i z o n of e x p e c t a t i o n s . " However, these p l a y s suggest the type of s i n g l e - e p i s o d e model which may have been employed i n the v e r n a c u l a r drama. There are no extant E n g l i s h v e r n a c u l a r p l a y s which i l l u s t r a t e the s i n g l e - e p i s o d e s t r u c t u r e . Instead, an example from C o n t i n e n t a l drama i s necessary to confirm the model. The Middle French M i r a c l e de S a i n t V a l e n t i n (1367) presents "un m i r a c l e de S a i n t V a l e n t i n , que un empereur f i s t d e c o l e r devant sa t a b l e , et t a n t o s t s ' e s t r a n g l a 1'empereur d'un os 32 qui l u i t r a v e r s a l a gorge, et dyables 1'emporterent." The p l a y dramatizes St. V a l e n t i n e ' s c o n v e r s i o n of Cato's son which angers Cato and causes him t o behead h i s son and V a l e n t i n e . Cato d i e s from a f i s h bone stuck i n h i s t h r o a t and i s dragged to h e l l by d e v i l s . I t seems reasonable t o suppose t h a t s i m i l a r models e x i s t e d among the E n g l i s h v e r n a c u l a r p l a y s . The o t h e r way i n which the s a i n t p l a y might have suggested a s i n g l e - e p i s o d e model i s through s t a g i n g . In the stage d e s i g n o f S a i n t V a l e n t i n "(e)ach scene, or mansion, i s a s e l f - c o n t a i n e d s t r u c t u r e or b l a c k c l o t h ( s i c ) and they are arranged i n a s e m i - c i r c l e with the p a r l o i r , or 32 Two M i r a c l e s : La Nonne qu i l a i s s a son abbaie / S a i n t V a l e n t i n , ed. N i g e l W i l k i n s (Edinburgh: S c o t t i s h Academic P, 1972) 59. 49 general a c t i n g area i n f r o n t . *« 33 The a c t i o n of v a r i o u s scenes takes p l a c e at d i f f e r e n t mansions, d i s s o c i a t i n g i n c i d e n t s from one another. While the s a i n t p l a y was not f o r m a l l y d i v i d e d i n t o scenes, the a c t i o n was i n f o r m a l l y d i v i d e d by the s t a g i n g . The s i n g l e - e p i s o d e model might have a l t e r n a t i v e l y been f a m i l i a r t o a medieval audience from the use of s a i n t s ' l i v e s i n sermons. A p o r t i o n of a l i f e might have been excerpted from a popular c o l l e c t i o n of s a i n t s ' l i v e s such as the Legenda aurea. An excerpt from the l i f e of St. N i c h o l a s i n a f o u r t e e n t h - c e n t u r y Middle E n g l i s h sermon i l l u s t r a t e s the manner i n which i n c i d e n t s from a s a i n t ' s l i f e were used as exempla: Now haue I tau3th you how 3e s h a l l wake and preye; Pat i s t o sey, wake and s l e p e not i n synne. And pan 3e s h a l l preye t o God with youre Pater Noster, f o r pat i s pe beste preyour pat euer was made. And p i s we fynde i n t>is h o l y confessour Seynt N i c h o l a s , of whom pat holychurche makep mynd of as at p i s tyme. In ys 3onge age, w h i l s pat he was sowkynge, he begane t o l i f f e and h o l y l i f f e and a good, and to vse g r e t t abstinence, f o r as we rede i n ys l i f f e pat euery Vedenesdaye and Frydaye he wold souke but ons on pe daye, and so helde hym contente. And whan he was more of age, pan he 3aue hym t o wakynge and to preyoures, pat God f o r i s good lyuynge chase hym to be bishoppe. The author of the sermon, i n u s i n g t h i s p a r t i c u l a r i n c i d e n t from the l i f e of St. N i c h o l a s , may have been e x p r e s s i n g h i s 33 Two M i r a c l e s , 7 . B a c k c l o t h i s probably meant here. 34 Middle E n g l i s h Sermons, 57-8. 50 d i s c o n t e n t with the Great Schism: "Wold God pat a l l bisshoppes shuld be choson i n p i s raaner now-a-daies, and namely pe pope, f o r pan we my3th be secur pat he were very pope; and pan per shuld be non suche s t r i f f e as Per i s now 3 5 f o r Pat o f f i c e . " " In sermons, episodes from s a i n t s ' l i v e s were used to i l l u s t r a t e e i t h e r models of exemplary conduct or a p a r t i c u l a r d i d a c t i c p o i n t . The Alphabet of T a l e s , the f i f t e e n t h - c e n t u r y E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n of the Alphabetum Narrationum, i s a c o l l e c t i o n of exempla which was used as a r e f e r e n c e work. In the Alphabet of T a l e s an i n c i d e n t from the l i f e of St. Macarius i s used to i l l u s t r a t e how " H u m i l i t a s s o l a diabolum c o n f u n d i t " : We rede i n ' V i t i s Patrum' how on a tyme when Macharius went f u r t h of h i s c e l l , Pe d e v u l l come on hym with a l e y & walde hafe smeten hym, & he myght noght. And pan he c r i e d & s a i d ; "Thow Macharie! Thow f a s t i s oper-while, & I am r e f r e s s h i d w i t h no maner of meate; & Pou wakis o f t e - s i t h i s , and I s l e p e ^ neuer. And y i t p i mekenes a l o n e l i e ouercommys me." St. Gregory's exemplary behaviour as a c h i l d i s d e s c r i b e d i n G r e g o r i j S a n c t i ( c c c x l i v ) : We rede how on a tyme, when Saynt Gregur was a c h y l d , our Lord a p p e r i d vnto hym, at h i s moder yate, i n l i k n e s o f a pure shipman, and a s k i d hym h i s almos. & he had bod xd i n h i s purs, & he g a f f hym v j d p e r o f f . 35 Middle E n g l i s h Sermons, 58. 3 6 An Alphabet of T a l e s , 126: 255 ( c c c l x x i ) . 51 And b e l i f e a f t e r , p e same d a y , he come a g a y n , & a s k i d hym mor; & p a n he g a f f hym t o d e r i i i j d . And a g a y n e v y n he come a g a y n , & a s k i d mor; & he h a d no t h y n g a t g i f f hym, bod a s y l u e r d i s s c h p a t t h i s moder h a d g i f f e n hym p o t a g e i n , & p a t he g a f f hym. And he was f a y n p e r - o f , & went h i s wayes p e r w i t h . And e f t e r w a r d , o u r L o r d l e t e hym s e be r e u e l a c i o n , •Pat Hym s e l f ^ e was p a t s h i p m a n P a t he g a f f p a t s y l u e r d i s s c h v n t o . G r e g o r y ' s b e h a v i o u r i l l u s t r a t e s t h e s c r i p t u r a l l e s s o n o f M a t t . 5.42: " G i v e when y o u a r e a s k e d t o g i v e ; and d o n o t 38 t u r n y o u r b a c k o n a man who w a n t s t o b o r r o w . " t h e exemp1urn p r o v i d e s a n i l l u s t r a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e f o r t h e r e a d e r o r l i s t e n e r t o i m i t a t e , and t h u s , a n e c d o t e s and s t o r i e s o f t h e s a i n t s p r o v i d e a w e a l t h o f e x p e r i e n c e f r o m w h i c h t o l e a r n . The exemp1urn i s meant t o f u n c t i o n as a n a r r a t i v e w i t h i n a n a r r a t i v e a n d , t h e r e f o r e , was n o t i n t e n d e d a s a s e l f - c o n t a i n e d t e x t . The s a i n t ' s l i f e , b e c a u s e o f i t s p r e v a l e n c e i n t h e M i d d l e A g e s , o r t h e exemp1urn, b e c a u s e o f i t s u s e i n t h e s e r m o n , w o u l d h a v e r e a c h e d a w i d e a u d i e n c e . A l t h o u g h o n l y f r a g m e n t a r y e v i d e n c e r e m a i n s o f t h e s a i n t p l a y i n E n g l a n d , " D r a m a t i c r e c o r d s f r o m E n g l i s h s o u r c e s w h i c h h a v e s u r v i v e d do i n d e e d i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e m i r a c l e o r s a i n t p l a y may e v e n h a v e b e e n t h e most i m p o r t a n t g e n r e i n t h e r e p e r t o i r e o f t h e E n g l i s h 39 m e d i e v a l s t a g e . " The i m p o r t a n c e o f h a g i o g r a p h y i n 3 7 An A l p h a b e t o f T a l e s , 126: 237. 3 8 A l l b i b l i c a l q u o t a t i o n s f r o m t h e New E n g l i s h B i b l e . C l i f f o r d D a v i d s o n , "The M i d d l e E n g l i s h S a i n t P l a y and I t s I c o n o g r a p h y , " The S a i n t P l a y i n M e d i e v a l E u r o p e . 3 1 . 52 medieval c u l t u r e and s o c i e t y suggests t h a t most people would have been f a m i l i a r with one form o r another of the s a i n t ' s l i f e , s a i n t play, o r exempium, and i t i s these forms of hagiography which may have c o n t r i b u t e d t o the " h o r i z o n of e x p e c t a t i o n s " of the audience of St. Erkenwald. 53 C h a p t e r F o u r : R e - e v a l u a t i n g S t . E r k e n w a l d The p o e t o f S t . E r k e n w a l d may h a v e d r a w n upon t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s g e n e r a t e d by s a i n t s ' l i v e s o r a d a p t a t i o n s o f s a i n t s ' l i v e s i n s a i n t p l a y s o r e x e m p l a . The b r i e f exemplum o r t h e s a i n t p l a y m i g h t a l s o h a v e s u g g e s t e d t h e s i n g l e - e p i s o d e p l o t model o f S t . E r k e n w a l d . A c o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n t h e " h o r i z o n " o f t h e e x p e c t a b l e and t h e poem c a n be made i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e i n what way t h e s e e x p e c t a t i o n s a r e " v a r i e d , e x t e n d e d , c o r r e c t e d t r a n s f o r m e d , c r o s s e d o u t , o r s i m p l y r e p r o d u c e d . " T h r o u g h t h e p r o c e s s o f c o m p a r i s o n , t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s d e s c r i b e d i n C h a p t e r One w i l l p e r h a p s become more c o m p r e h e n s i b l e . E x p e c t a t i o n s c u l l e d f r o m l i t e r a t u r e o u t s i d e h a g i o g r a p h y o r f r o m s o u r c e s i n t h e m e d i e v a l w o r l d i t s e l f , i n s h o r t , f r o m t h e l a r g e r c o n t e x t o f t h e " l o c u s i n l i f e , " w i l l a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d . One o f t h e p r o b l e m s w i t h S t . E r k e n w a l d i d e n t i f i e d i n C h a p t e r One i s t h e poem's p e r p l e x i n g s e n s e o f h i s t o r y and c h r o n o l o g y . However, t h e t e m p o r a l and s p a t i a l s e t t i n g o f S t . E r k e n w a l d i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e t r e a t m e n t o f t i m e and s p a c e i n t h e s a i n t ' s l i f e . G e o g r a p h i c a l l y t h e r e a r e o n l y t w o r e f e r e n c e p o i n t s i n t h e poem, L o n d o n a nd E s s e x - -a p e r f u n c t o r y s p a t i a l s e t t i n g . As i n t h e s a i n t ' s l i f e , t h e a c t i o n o f S t . E r k e n w a l d e x i s t s i n i t s own f l u i d t e m p o r a l i t y , p e r h a p s a c o n s e q u e n c e o f i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e 54. d i v i n e . The contemporary audience o f S t . Erkenwald would not have been p e r t u r b e d by the c h r o n o l o g y o f the poem. The E r k e n w a l d - p o e t ' s h i s t o r i c a l s e t t i n g i s a l i t t l e more than p e r f u n c t o r y and i s not w h o l l y i r r e l e v a n t t o the s t o r y . The open ing r e t r o s p e c t i v e h i s t o r y p a r a l l e l s the main event o f the p l o t i n p r e s e n t i n g c o n v e r s i o n s from heathenism t o C h r i s t i a n i t y : S t . A u g u s t i n e ' s c o n v e r s i o n o f England t o C h r i s t i a n i t y , the c l e a n s i n g and r e d e d i c a t i o n o f the heathen temples , and the r e b u i l d i n g o f the "temple T r i a p o l i t a n " as S t . P a u l ' s C a t h e d r a l . The p o e t ' s use o f h i s t o r i c a l events i s not u n l i k e the s t r u c t u r e o f the s a i n t ' s l i f e which marks o f f events wi thout a t t e n t i o n t o c o n t i n u i t y . The r e s u l t i n g e p i s o d i c q u a l i t y i s e v i d e n t i n the r e t r o s p e c t i v e h i s t o r y . The poet a l s o uses C h r i s t as the main p o i n t o f r e f e r e n c e and the h i s t o r i c a l events s tand i n r e l a t i o n t o C h r i s t ' s b i r t h o r c r u c i f i x i o n : At London i n Englonde no3t f u l l e longe s y t h e n - -Sythen C r i s t s u f f r i d e on c r o s s e and Cr i s tendome s t a b l y d e - -T h e r was a byschop i n pat burghe, b l e s s y d and s a c r y d : Saynt Erkenwolde as I hope pat h o l y mon h a t t e . (1-4) A f t e r pat Brutus p i s burghe had buggid on f y r s t e , No3t bot f i f e hundred 3ere p e r aghtene wontyd Be fore pat kynned 3our C r i s t e by C r i s t e n acounte ( 2 0 7 - 2 0 9 ) The poet may have been u s i n g a f a i r l y common method o f e x p r e s s i n g t ime s y m b o l i c a l l y i n r e f e r e n c e t o C h r i s t . Ruth Morse c i t e s an example o f t h i s d e v i c e employed by 55 Andrew o f Wyntoun: A t h o u s a n d a h u n d r e t h and f o u r s c o r e And two y e r i s f u l l y g ane o u r B e f o r e C h r i s t i s i n c a r n a t i o u n ^ O f f T r o y was pe d i s t r u c t i o u n . As i n t h e s a i n t ' s l i f e , e v e n t s and a c t s i n S t . E r k e n w a l d t a k e o n a s i g n l i k e q u a l i t y d e t e r m i n e d by "God's t i m e w h e r e a c t s and o n l y a c t s h a v e s i g n i f i c a n c e . " The p o e t ' s a p p a r e n t l a c k o f o r i g i n a l i t y i n a p p r o p r i a t i n g t h e G r e g o r y - T r a j a n l e g e n d w o u l d a l s o n o t be u n e x p e c t e d t o t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y a u d i e n c e a s " p l a g i a r i s m " and i n v e n t i o n a r e t h e h a g i o g r a p h e r ' s s t o c k - i n - t r a d e . A s i m i l a r c i r c u m s t a n c e t o S t . E r k e n w a l d i n w h i c h t h e l e g e n d r e p o r t e d i s u n r e l a t e d t o t h e s a i n t , o c c u r s i n a n E a s t M i d l a n d poem, C e l e s t i n : " A l t h o u g h t h e s t o r y p u r p o r t s t o c o n c e r n a S t . C e l e s t i n who d i e d a s pope i n 432, i t h a s n o t h i n g w h a t e v e r t o do w i t h h i s a c t u a l c a r e e r . I n s t e a d , i t i s a n o d d m i x t u r e o f t h e themes o f T h e o p h i l u s , F a u s t u s , a nd t h e S e v e n D e a d l y S i n s . " I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t t h r o u g h m o t i v a t i o n s o f l o c a l p r i d e , t h e E r k e n w a l d - p o e t w i s h e d t o c r e a t e a t a l e f o r a l o c a l s a i n t i n much t h e same way t h a t " S t . C h r i s t o p h e r ' s l i f e was t r a n s f e r r e d when i t r e a c h e d F r a n c e t o S t . S a v i a n u s o f M o r s e , n o t e t o l i n e 205, 7 1 ; The E r k e n w a l d - p o e t ' s r e f e r e n c e t o B r u t u s a s t h e f o u n d e r o f T r o y n o v a n t seems t o be a c o n v e n t i o n o f a l l i t e r a t i v e p o e t r y . S e e P e a r s a l l , OE and Me P o e t r y , 158. 2 G e r o u l d , 228. 56 T r o y e s , who had p r o b a b l y l a c k e d a h i s t o r y b e f o r e . " I t was a l s o n o t an uncommon p r a c t i c e among h a g i o g r a p h e r s t o i n v e n t new s t o r i e s f o r s a i n t s , a s J o h n o f T y n e m o u t h i n h i s N ova  L e g e n d a A n g l i e i n v e n t e d t h e m i r a c l e e p i s o d e i n w h i c h E r k e n w a l d and h i s s i s t e r E t h e l b e r g a s t r e t c h o u t a wooden beam b e t w e e n them when b u i l d i n g B a r k i n g Abbey. I t i s a l s o i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t e v e n t h e l e g e n d w h i c h i n s p i r e d t h e E r k e n w a l d - p o e t seems t o h a v e b e e n i n v e n t e d by t h e monk o f W h i t b y who w r o t e t h e e a r l i e s t a c c o u n t o f t h e L i f e o f S t .  G r e g o r y . The m e d i e v a l a u d i e n c e h e a r i n g a t a l e f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e w o u l d h a v e b e e n d e l i g h t e d by t h e a u t h o r who c o u l d t e l l them s o m e t h i n g new a l o n g w i t h s o m e t h i n g o l d . I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e , a s G o r d o n W h a t l e y s u g g e s t s , t h a t t h e e a r l i e r v i t a e o f E r k e n w a l d h a d a c e r t a i n i n f l u e n c e o n t h e p l o t o f S t . E r k e n w a l d , a l t h o u g h t h e c o n n e c t i o n a p p e a r s t o be somewhat d u b i o u s . C e r t a i n e l e m e n t s o f S t . E r k e n w a l d seem t o be p r e s e n t i n t h e v i t a e , s u c h a s a d i l e m m a c o n c e r n i n g a c o r p s e : " B o t h i n t h e v i t a a n d i n t h e poem t h e f o c u s o f a t t e n t i o n i s a p r e c i o u s b u t p r o b l e m a t i c c o r p s e . I n t h e poem t h e p r o b l e m i s t o d i s c o v e r t h e c o r p s e ' s i d e n t i t y a nd h i s s o u l ' s r e s t i n g p l a c e ; i n t h e v i t a t h e p r o b l e m i s t o d e t e r m i n e who w i l l p o s s e s s t h e c o r p s e and w h e r e i t w i l l be l a i d t o r e s t . " I n t h e V i t a s a n c t i E r k e n w a l d i 3 G e r o u l d , 36. G o r d o n W h a t l e y , "The M i d d l e E n g l i s h S t . E r k e n w a l d and I t s L i t u r g i c a l C o n t e x t , " 282. 57 t h e d e c e a s e d i s t h e b i s h o p E r k e n w a l d h i m s e l f whose body i s f o u g h t o v e r b y t h e nuns o f B a r k i n g , t h e monks o f C h e r t s e y and v a r i o u s t o w n s p e o p l e . As i n S t . E r k e n w a l d , t h e c o r p s e o f t h e V i t a s a n c t i E r k e n w a l d i c a u s e s " t r o u b u l l i n P e p e p u l " and a s t h e v a r i o u s g r o u p s f i g h t o v e r t h e d i s p o s i t i o n o f E r k e n w a l d ' s body i t m i g h t be s a i d t h a t " s u c h e a c r y a b o u t e a c o r s , c r a k i t e u e r - m o r e " ( 1 0 9 - 1 1 0 ) . P e r h a p s p a r t o f t h e r e a s o n l e g e n d s w e r e e a s i l y t r a n s f e r r e d b e t w e e n o n e s a i n t a n d a n o t h e r i s t h e l a c k o f c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n w h i c h t h e p r o t a g o n i s t r e c e i v e d . The "rea d y - m a d e p o r t r a i t s o f t h e m a r t y r , t h e h o l y monk, t h e v i r g i n , t h e c o n f e s s o r , t h e p e n i t e n t , t h e h o l y b i s h o p o r p o p e " p e r m i t t h e h a g i o g r a p h e r 5 t o i n t e r c h a n g e i n d i v i d u a l s a i n t s w i t h o n e a n o t h e r . E r k e n w a l d , as " h o l y b i s h o p , " t h u s assumes t h e r o l e o f G r e g o r y i n t h e 1egend w i t h e a s e . The E r k e n w a 1 d - p o e t h a s a l s o b o r r o w e d a n o t h e r c h a r a c t e r f r o m h a g i o g r a p h y , t h a t o f t h e c o l l e c t i v e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e f i c t i o n a l c r o w d w h i c h i s d e p i c t e d a s u n r u l y a n d n e a r -h y s t e r i c a l i n t h e poem: Quen t i t h y n g e s t o k e n t o P e t o u n o f p e toumbe wonder Mony h u n d r i d h e n d e men h i g h i d e p i d e r s o n e . B u r g h e y s b o g h i t P e r t o , b e d e l s and o t h i r e , And mony a m e s t e r s mon o f maners d i u e r s e . L a d d e s l a f t e n h o r w e r k e a nd l e p e n p i d e r w a r d e s , Ronnen r a d l y i n r o u t e w y t r y n g a n d e n o y c e . P e r commen p i d e r o f a l l e k y n n e s s o k e n e l y mony P a t a s a l l e p e w o r l d e w e r e p i d e r w a l o n w y t i n a h o n d e - q u i l e . ( 5 7 - 6 4 ) B o y e r , 29. 58 The poet s p e c i f i c a l l y d e s c r i b e s the crowd as men of h i g h rank, burgesses, young men, even the mayor, so th a t a l l the world i s represented. The f i c t i o n a l crowd of the poem i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of humanity which attempts to fathom the d i v i n e , represented by the undecayed corpse. Throughout the poem the poet r i d i c u l e s man's attempts t o understand. Although the townspeople use every resource a v a i l a b l e t o them, the i d e n t i t y of the corpse remains beyond t h e i r c a p a c i t y t o know Per i s no lede opon l y f e o f so longe age Pat may mene i n h i s mynde pat suche a mon regnyd Ne n o p i r h i s nome ne h i s note nourne of one speche. Queper mony p o r e r i n p i s p l a c e i s p u t t e i n t o grave Pat merkid i s i n oure m a r t i l a g e h i s mynde f o r euer, And we haue oure l i b r a r i e l a i t i d pes longe seuen dayes Bot one c r o n i c l e o f p i s kynge con we neuer fynde. (150-156) The poet a l s o c r i t i c i z e s the "mony c l e r k e s i n Pat c l o s wyt crownes f u l brode" who "Per b e s i e t horn a-boute no3t t o brynge horn i n wordes" when confronted with the mysterious tombe (55-6). A l l human means of understanding the "meruail are i n e f f e c t u a l as man's i n t e l l e c t p a l e s i n the f a c e o f the omniscient God, the " r i c h e kynge of reson" (267). The p r e c e p t t h a t "To seche Pe sothe at oure s e l f e 3ee se per no bote" i s f o r c e f u l l y rendered (170). The i n f e r i o r i t y of man's i n t e l l e c t i s a l s o demonstrated by the townspeople's i n a b i l i t y t o d e c i p h e r t o i n s c r i p t i o n on the casket: ...pe bordure e n b e l i c i t wyt bry3t golde l e t t r e s . 59 B o t r o y n y s h e w e r e -pe r e s o n e s P a t p e r o n row s t o d e n . F u l l e v e r r a y w e r e p e v i g u r e s p e r a u i s y d e hom mony, B o t a l l e muset h i t t o mouthe and q u a t h i t mene s h u l d e . ( 5 1 - 5 4 ) S i m i l a r l y , t h e l e n g t h o f t i m e t h e p a g a n h a s b e e n entombed i s " t o meche t o a n y mon t o make o f a nommbre" ( 2 0 6 ) , r e i n f o r c i n g t h e p o i n t t h a t s u c h a n e v e n t i s b e y o n d man's c o m p r e h e n s i o n . I n t h i s c a s e , t h e d a t e i s meant t o r e p r e s e n t n o t h i n g e x c e p t 'a v e r y l o n g t i m e ' w i t h o u t human t e r m s . The p o e t d e l i b e r a t e l y a t t r a c t s a t t e n t i o n t o t h e c e n t e r o f t h e c o n f l i c t , t h e c o r p s e , s o t h a t t h e r e a d e r , l i k e t h e f i c t i o n a l c r o w d , m i g h t i n i t i a l l y b e l i e v e t h a t t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e body i s t h e m i r a c l e . The a u d i e n c e a nd c r o w d , h o w e v e r , a r e s h a r p l y r e m i n d e d by E r k e n w a l d t h a t , " H i t i s m e r u a i l e t o men p a t mountes t o l i t e l l e T o w a r d e P e p r o u i d e n s o f P e p r i n c e p a t p a r a d i s w e l d e s , Quen Hym l u s t e t o v n l o u k e P e l e s t e o f H i s m y 3 t e s . ( 1 6 0 - 6 2 ) The m a r v e l o f t h e c o r p s e g i v e s way t o t h e g r e a t e r m i r a c l e o f s a l v a t i o n . The p o e t w o u l d a l s o h a v e h i s a u d i e n c e b e l i e v e , a g a i n l i k e t h e c r o w d , t h a t t h e d e c e a s e d was o f r o y a l s t a t u r e . I n t h e p h y s i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n , t h e p o e t a l l u d e s t o t h e b o d y ' s " r i a l l e w e d e s " and c r o w n a nd s c e p t r e . One o f t h e f i c t i o n a l o b s e r v e r s s u p p o s e s , "He h a s ben k y n g e o f P i s k i t h e as c o u t h e l y h i t s e mes" ( 9 8 ) . Once a g a i n t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f man's m i n d a r e s t r e s s e d , a s t h i s e x p e c t a t i o n i s f r u s t r a t e d when t h e 60 d e c e a s e d r e v e a l s t h a t he was " N e u e r k y n g e ne c a y s e r ne 3 e t no k n y 3 t n o t h y r e , / B o t a l e d e o f p e l a g h e p a t p e n p i s l o n d e v s i t " ( 1 9 9 - 2 0 0 ) . The p o e t ' s s k i 1 f u l l d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e u n d e c a y e d c o r p s e d r a w s t h e a u d i e n c e ' s a t t e n t i o n t o t h e s p l e n d o u r o f t h e c l o t h i n g a nd t h e r o s i n e s s o f t h e f l e s h . I n t h i s s e t - p i e c e c o m p a r a b l e t o t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f G a w a i n ' s a c c o u t r e m e n t s i n S i r G a w a i n and t h e G r e e n K n i g h t , i t i s t h e p o e t ' s s t y l e w h i c h a p p e a l s t o t h e i m a g i n a t i o n : So was p e g l o d e w y t - i n g a y , a l wyt g o l d e p a y n t y d e And a b l i s f u l l e b o dy o p o n p e bothum l y g g i d A r a i d e o n a r i c h e w i s e i n r i a l l e wedes. A l w y t g l i s n a n d e g o l d e h i s gowne wos hemmyd, Wyt mony a p r e c i o u s p e r l e p i c c h i t p e r - o n . And a g u r d i l l e o f g o l d e b i g r i p i d e h i s m y d e l l e , A meche m a n t e l o n - l o f t e w y t menyuer f u r r i t ( P e c l o t h e o f c a m e l y n f u l c l e n e wyt c u m l y b o r d u r e s ) . And o n h i s c o y f e wos k e s t a c o r o n f u l r i c h e And a s e m e l y s e p t u r e s e t t i n h i s h o n d e . A l s wemles w e r e h i s wedes w y t - o u t e n a n y t e c c h e O p i r o f m o u l y n g e o p i r o f m o t e s o p i r m o g h t - f r e t e n . And a l s b r y 3 t o f h o r b l e e i n b l y s n a n d e hewes As P a i h a d e 3 e p e l y i n p a t 3 o r d e bene 3 i s t u r d a y s h a p e n . And a l s f r e s h e hym p e f a c e a n d t h e f l e s h e n a k y d e B i h i s e r e s and b i h i s h o n d e s P a t o p e n l y s h e w i d Wyt r o n k e r o d e , a s P e r o s e , and t w o r e d e l i p p e s ^ As he i n s o u n d e s o d a n l y w e r e s l i p p i d e o p o n s l e p e . ( 7 5 - 9 2 ) By c o n c e n t r a t i n g o n t h e p h y s i c a l a n d m a t e r i a l a s p e c t s o f t h e s c e n e , t h e p o e t e m p h a s i z e s man's a t t a c h m e n t t o t h e c o r p o r e a l w o r l d . The a u d i e n c e , b e l i e v i n g i n a p p e a r a n c e s , F o r t h e G a w a i n - p o e t ' s d e s c r i p t i o n s e e S i r G a w a i n and  t h e G r e e n K n i g h t , e d . J.R.R. T o l k i e n and E.V. G o r d o n ( O x f o r d : O x f o r d UP, 1967) l i n e s 5 6 6 - 6 1 8 . 61 focuses on the p h y s i c a l , v i s i b l e " m e r u a i l e , " i n s t e a d o f on the i n v i s i b l e , s p i r i t u a l w o r l d , the human r a t h e r than the d i v i n e . The d i s c o v e r y o f the pagan' s undecayed body i n the s e p u l c h r e r e c a l l s the common h a g i o g r a p h i c m o t i f d e s c r i b e d i n C h a p t e r T h r e e . The f r e s h n e s s o f the face and f l e s h and the immaculate c l o t h i n g o f the deceased , evoke the e x p e c t a t i o n i n the aud ience t h a t h e r e they have encountered the customary m o t i f . The "roynyshe" l e t t e r s a l s o evoke the m o t i f o f the i n s c r i p t i o n which reads "Ihesus C r i s t u s  n a s c e t u r de v i r g i n e M a r i a e t ego c r e d o i n eum" o r some o t h e r c o n f e s s i o n o f f a i t h , r e i n f o r c i n g the e x p e c t a t i o n . At t h i s p o i n t i n the s t o r y , the informed audience member might b e l i e v e t h a t he knows b e t t e r than the f o o l i s h townspeople "Quat body h i t my3t b e , " because the undecayed body i n the m o t i f i s , i n a lmost a l l c a s e s , a s a i n t . The e x p e c t a t i o n i s , however, r e v e r s e d as the occupant o f the tomb i s not a s a i n t but a pagan. L a t e r , the poet w i l l f u l f i l l the e x p e c t a t i o n as the pagan i s b a p t i s e d and r e c e i v e d i n t o heaven. In the exchange which o c c u r s between Erkenwald and the r e s u s c i t a t e d c o r p s e , the a u d i e n c e l e a r n s t h a t the deceased had been a judge i n New T r o y and had governed j u s t l y : I wos d e p u t a t e and domesmon vnder a duke n o b l e And i n my power p i s p l a c e was p u t t e a l t o - g e d e r . I i u s t i f i e t p i s i o l y toun on g e n t i l wise And euer i n fourme o f gode f a i t h e more pen f o u r t y wynter . Pe f o l k e was f e l o n s e and f a i s and frowarde t o r e u l e . 62 I h e n t harmes f u l o f t e t o h o l d e hom t o r i 3 t . B o t f o r w o t h e ne w e l e ne w r a t h e ne d r e d e Ne f o r m a y s t r i e ne f o r mede ne f o r no monnes aghe, I r e m e w i t n e u e r f r o pe r i 3 t by r e s o n myn awen F o r t o d r e s s e a wrange dome, no d a y o f my l y u e . D e c l y n e t n e u e r my c o n s c i e n s f o r c o u e t i s e o n e r t h e , I n no g y n f u l i u g e m e n t no i a p e s t o make Were a r e n k e n e u e r s o r i c h e f o r r e u e r e n s s a k e . Ne f o r no monnes manas ne m e s c h e f e ne r o u t h e Non g e t e me f r o pe h e g h e g a t e t o g l e n t o u t o f r y 3 t , A l s f e r f o r t h e as my f a i t h e c o n f o u r m y d my h e r t . P aghe h a d b e e n my f a d e r bone, I bede hym no w r a n g e s , Ne f a i s f a u o u r t o my f a d e r , p a g h e f e l l e hym be h o n g y t . (227 - 4 4 ) The b i s h o p t h e n i n q u i r e s o f t h e p a g a n , how h i s body and c l o t h i n g came t o be s o w e l l - p r e s e r v e d o r w h e t h e r he h a d been embalmed, t o w h i c h t h e p a g a n r e s p o n d s : "Nay b i s s h o p , " quop p a t body, "enbawmyd wos I n e u e r Ne no monnes c o u n s e l l e my c l o t h e h a s k e p y d vnwemmyd B o t p e r i c h e k y n g e o f r e s o n p a t r i 3 t e u e r a l o w e s And l o u e s a l P e l a w e s l e l y p a t l o n g e n t o t r o u t h e . And m o s t e he menskes men f o r mynnynge o f r i 3 t e s P e n f o r a l p e m e r i t o r i e medes p a t men o n m o l d e v s e n ; And i f r e n k e s f o r r i 3 t p us me a r a y e d h a s He h a s l a n t me t o l a s t P a t l o u e s r y 3 t b e s t . " ( 2 6 5 - 2 7 2 ) F o r h i s j u s t n e s s t h e p a g a n was r e w a r d e d b y God w i t h m i r a c u l o u s p r e s e r v a t i o n . E r k e n w a l d t h e n a s k s t h e p a g a n t o s p e a k o f h i s s o u l : " 3 e a b o t s a y e s P o u o f p i s a u l e , " p e n s a y d P e b i s s h o p , " Q u e r e i s ho s t a b l i d a n d s t a d d e i f p o u s o s t r e 3 t w r o g h t e s ? He p a t r e w a r d e s v c h e a r e n k e a s he h a s r i 3 t s e r u y d My3t e u e l f o r g o t h e t o g y f e o f H i s g r a c e summe b r a w n c h e , F o r a s He s a y s i n H i s s o t h e p s a l m y d e w r i t t e s : 'Pe s k i l f u l l e a n d pe v n s k a t h e l y s k e l t o n a y t o me'. F o r p i s a y me o f p i s o u l e i n s e l e q u e r e ho wonnes And o f p e r i c h e r e s t o r m e n t p a t r a 3 t h y r o u r e L o r d e . " ( 2 7 3 - 2 8 0 ) 63 T h i s p a r t i c u l a r moment marks a c h a n g e i n t h e poem's p e r s p e c t i v e , f o r up t o t h i s p o i n t t h e c o n c e r n h a s b e e n f o r t h e p a g a n ' s body. E r k e n w a l d ' s s h i f t t o t h e m a t t e r o f t h e p a g a n ' s s o u l i n t r o d u c e s t h e c r u x o f t h e poem: h a v e t h e p a g a n ' s good w o r k s a l s o m e r i t e d s a l v a t i o n ? The d e b a t e o v e r t h e e f f i c a c y o f g o o d w o r k s i n m e r i t i n g a h e a v e n l y r e w a r d v e r s u s t h e a b s o l u t e n e c e s s i t y o f God's g r a c e was a f i e r c e l y a r g u e d i s s u e f o r many c e n t u r i e s . F o r i m p l i c i t i n t h a t a r g u m e n t w e r e q u e s t i o n s o f p r e d e s t i n a t i o n and f r e e w i l l , w h i c h C h a u c e r summed up i n t h e Nun's P r i e s t ' s T a l e : W h e i t h e r t h a t Goddes w o r t h y f o r w i t y n g S t r e y n e t h me n e d e l y f o r t o d o o n a t h y n g , - -" N e d e l y " c l e p e I s y m p l e n e c e s s i t e e - -Or e l l e s , i f f r e e c h o y s be g r a u n t e d me To do t h a t same t h y n g , o r do i t n o g h t , Though God f o r w o o t i t e r t h a t I was w r o g h t ; Or i f h i s w i t y n g s t r e y n e t h n e v e r a d e e l B u t by n e c e s s i t e e c o n d i c i o n e e l . (B 4433-4440) The t w o c e n t r a l f i g u r e s o f t h e d e b a t e i n t h e f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y w e r e W i l l i a m Ockham and Thomas B r a d w a r d i n e . The p i v o t a l q u e s t i o n o f t h e a r g u m e n t was w h e t h e r o r n o t a g o o d a c t i o n was p r e c e d e d by g r a c e : The p l a c e a c c o r d e d t o m e r i t d e p e n d s u p o n t h a t g i v e n t o g r a c e and f r e e w i l l . I f g r a c e i s n o t c o n s i d e r e d t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a l l s a l u t a r y a c t i v i t y , . . . t h e n a m e r i t o r i o u s a c t w i l l be r e g a r d e d a s t h e w o r k o f f r e e w i l l a n d a n a t u r a l phenomenon. On t h e o t h e r h a n d , when g r a c e i s made t h e s o u r c e o f a l l s u p e r n a t u r a l r e w a r d , m e r i t w i l l be t h e 6 4 e f f e c t o f g r a c e and n o t i t s c a u s e . S u c h h a d a l s o b e e n t h e n a t u r e o f t h e d e b a t e b e t w e e n P e l a g i u s and S t . A u g u s t i n e o f H i p p o a l m o s t a m i l l e n i u m e a r l i e r . W i l l i a m Ockham c o n t e n d e d t h a t man's w i l l i s c a p a b l e o f g o o d w i t h o u t p r e v e n i e n t g r a c e and t h a t man c a n m e r i t s a l v a t i o n t h r o u g h good w o r k s . I n t h i s Ockham a l i g n s h i m s e l f w i t h t h e t e n e t s o f P e l a g i u s ( t h u s i n c u r r i n g t h e l a b e l "modern P e l a g i a n " ) , w h i c h h e l d t h a t man c o u l d o f h i m s e l f p e r f o r m s a l u t a r y w o r k s w i t h o u t t h e i n f u s i o n o f d i v i n e g r a c e . Ockham and t h e s o - c a l l e d modern P e l a g i a n s o r s c e p t i c s made t h e d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n m e r i t d e c o n d i g n o , s t r i c t l y t h e r e s u l t o f d i v i n e g r a c e , and m e r i t d e c o n g r u o , w h i c h d e n i e d t h e n e e d f o r p r e v e n i e n t g r a c e . The b a s i s o f m e r i t d e c o n g r u o was God's p o t e n t i a a b s o l u t a , f o r man u n d e r t h e o m n i p o t e n t God c a n p e r f o r m good w o r k s o f h i s own w i l l w h i c h He may o r may n o t r e w a r d . B r a d w a r d i n e w r o t e h i s De C a u s a D e i c o n t r a P e l a g i u m i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e i n c r e a s i n g l y p r e v a l e n t o p i n i o n among t h e s c h o o l m e n t h a t man c o u l d m e r i t s a l v a t i o n . B r a d w a r d i n e saw t h i s n e o - P e l a g i a n a t t i t u d e a s e x a l t i n g man's p l a c e and d e t r a c t i n g f r o m t h e power o f God. The b a s i s o f B r a d w a r d i n e ' s a r g u m e n t s was t h a t a l l g o o d w o r k s a r e a r e s u l t o f p r e v e n i e n t 7 G o r d o n L e f f , B r a d w a r d i n e and t h e P e l a g i a n s : A S t u d y  o f H i s 'De C a u s a D e i ' and I t s O p p o n e n t s , C a m b r i d g e S t u d i e s i n M e d i e v a l L i f e a n d Thought- n s 5 ( L o n d o n : C a m b r i d g e UP, 1957) 1 5 6 . 65 g r a c e and t h e r e f o r e h a v e no c l a i m o n s a l v a t i o n w h i c h i s a g i f t o f God a l o n e . A u g u s t i n e h a d s i m i l a r l y s t r e s s e d p r e v e n i e n t g r a c e and a b s o l u t e p r e d e s t i n a t i o n . The i m p a c t o f t h e d e b a t e o n g o o d w o r k s v e r s u s g r a c e was s u c h t h a t i t e x t e n d e d b e y o n d t h e t h e o l o g i a n s t o t h e r e a l m o f l i t e r a t u r e . Two p r o b l e m a t i c i n s t a n c e s w e r e most o f t e n c i t e d i n t h e d e b a t e : t h e h e a t h e n who h a s p e r f o r m e d good w o r k s and t h e b a p t i z e d c h i l d d y i n g i n i n f a n c y . The f o r m e r e x a m p l e was e m p l o y e d by D a n t e i n t h e D i v i n a commedia and L a n g l a n d i n P i e r s Plowman w h i l e t h e l a t t e r was e m p l o y e d by t h e p o e t o f P e a r l . I n P e a r l a y o u n g g i r l d i e s a nd a p p e a r s i n a v i s i o n t o h e r f a t h e r a s a q u e e n i n h e a v e n . He w o n d e r s how s h e c o u l d be a q u e e n s i n c e s h e h a d b e e n s c a r c e l y two y e a r s o l d when s h e d i e d a nd had n o t t h e t i m e t o m e r i t s u c h a r e w a r d : Pou l y f e d n o t two 3 e r i n o u r e p e d e ; P o u cowpe3 n e u e r God n a u p e r p l e s e ne p r a y , Ne n e u e r n a wper P a t e r ne C r e d e ; And q u e n mad o n p e f y r s t d a y ! I may n o t t r a w , s o God me s p e d e , P a t God w o l d e w r y p e s o w r a n g e away. Of c o u n t e s , d a m y s e l , p a r ma f a y , Wer f a y r i n h e u e n t o h a l d e a s s t a t e , O p e r e l l e 3 a l a d y o f l a s s e a r a y ; g B o t a q u e n e ! H i t i s t o d e r e a d a t e . ( 9 . 4 8 3 - 9 2 ) The f a t h e r i n t r o d u c e s t h e p r o b l e m t h a t a c h i l d c a n n o t m e r i t t h e same r e w a r d a s a p e r s o n who h a s p e r f o r m e d a l i f e t i m e A l l q u o t a t i o n s f r o m P e a r l , e d . E.V. G o r d o n ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n , 1 9 5 3 ) . 66 o f g o o d w o r k s . I n r e s p o n s e , t h e m a i d e n c i t e s t h e P a r a b l e o f t h e V i n e y a r d ( M a t t . 20.1-16) i n w h i c h e a c h w o r k e r , w h e t h e r he came e a r l y o r l a t e t o work, i s p a i d t h e same amount. S a l v a t i o n , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e P e a r l - p o e t , i s n o t a q u e s t i o n o f m e r i t , " F o r p e r i s v c h mon p a y e d i n l y c h e , / Wheper l y t t e l o p e r much be h y s r e w a r d e " ( 1 1 . 6 0 3 - 4 ) , b u t i s c o n t i n g e n t upon God's g r a c e . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e m a i d e n , b o t h t h e r i g h t e o u s man and t h e i n n o c e n t man h a v e a p l a c e i n h e a v e n : "Pe r y 3 t w y s man s c h a l s e h y s f a c e , / Pe h a r m l e 3 h a p e l s c h a l com hym t y l l e " ( 1 2 . 6 7 5 - 6 ) , a p a r a p h r a s e o f P s a l m 24.4. She a l s o makes i t c l e a r t h a t t h e r i g h t e o u s man i s n o t s a v e d as a m a t t e r o f m e r i t : 'Anende r y 3 t w y s men 3 e t s a y t 3 a gome, D a u i d i n S a u t e r , i f e u e r 3e s y 3 h i t : " L o r d e , p y s e r u a u n t d r a 3 n e u e r t o dome, F o r n o n l y u y a n d e t o p e i s j u s t y f y e t . " F o r p y t o c o r t e q u e n P o u s c h a l com P e r a l l e o u r e c a s e 3 s c h a l be t r y e d , A l e g g e p e r y 3 t , p o u may be innome, By P y s i l k e s p e c h I h a u e a s s p y d ; B o t he o n r o d e p a t b l o d y d y e d , D e l f u l l y p u r 3 honde3 P r y 3 t , Gyue pe t o p a s s , when p o u a r t e t r y e d , By i n n o e e n s and n o t by r y 3 t e . ( 1 2 . 6 9 7 - 7 0 8 ) The h e a v e n l y r e w a r d o f t h e i n n o c e n t and t h e r i g h t e o u s i s e q u a l a c c o r d i n g t o t h e P e a r l - p o e t , and a s t h e r e f r a i n o f s t a n z a - g r o u p X I s t a t e s , "...Pe g r a c e o f God i s g r e t i n o g h e . " D a n t e i n t h e D i v i n a commedia a d d r e s s e s t h e p r o b l e m o f t h e s a l v a t i o n o f t h e r i g h t e o u s h e a t h e n w i t h two e x a m p l e s : T r a j a n , who l i v e d a f t e r C h r i s t , a nd R i p h e u s , who l i v e d 67 b e f o r e C h r i s t . I n c a n t o 20 o f P a r a d i s o , t h e e a g l e o f j u s t i c e e x p l a i n s t o D a n t e how T r a j a n and R i p h e u s came t o o c c u p y t h e f i r s t and f i f t h p o s i t i o n i n h i s e y e b r o w : L a p r i m a v i t a d e l c i g l i o e l a q u i n t a t i f a m a r a v i g l i a r , p e r c h e ne y i d i l a r e g i o n d e l i a n g e l i d i p i n t a . D ' i c o r p i s u o i n o n u s c i r , come c r e d i , G e n t i l i , ma C r i s t i a n i , i n f e r m a f e d e q u e l d ' i p a s s u r i e q u e l d ' i p a s s i p i e d i . ( 2 0 . 1 0 0 - 1 0 5 ) The c a s e o f T r a j a n , who o c c u p i e s t h e f i r s t p o s i t i o n i n t h e e y e b r o w , i s u s e d t o show t h a t g o o d w o r k s a l o n e a r e n o t e n ough t o m e r i t s a l v a t i o n , God's s p e c i a l g r a c e i s r e q u i r e d : Che l ' u n a de l o ' n f e r n o , u' n o n s i r i e d e g i a mai a buon v o l e r , t o r n o a l ' o s s a ; e c i d d i v i v a s p e n e f u m e r c e d e : d i v i v a s p e n e , c h e m i s e l a p o s s a ne' p r i e g h i f a t t i a D i o p e r s u s c i t a r l a , s i c h e p o t e s s e s u a v o g l i a e s s e r mossa. L ' a n i m a g l o r i o s a o nde s i p a r l a , t o r n a t a ne l a c a m e , i n c h e f u p o c o , c r e d e t t e i n l u i c h e p o t e a a i u t a r l a ; e c r e d e n d o s ' a c c e s e i n t a n t o f o c o d i v e r o amor, c h ' a l a m o r t e s e c o n d a f u d e g n a d i v e n i r e a q u e s t o g i o c o . ( 2 0 . 1 0 6 - 1 1 7 ) T r a j a n , i n L i m b o , i s r e s u s c i t a t e d i n o r d e r t h a t h e m i g h t r e c e i v e s p e c i a l g r a c e , b e l i e v e , and be s a v e d . I n t h e s a l v a t i o n o f R i p h e u s , who o c c u p i e s t h e f i f t h D a n t e A l i g h i e r i , The D i v i n e Comedy, e d . and t r a n s . C S . S i n g l e t o n , 6 v o l s . , B o l l i n g e n S e r i e s 80 ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n UP, 1 9 7 3 ) . A l l q u o t a t i o n s f r o m t h i s e d i t i o n . p o s i t i o n i n t h e e y e b r o w , t h e r o l e o f p r e v e n i e n t g r a c e i s e m p h a s i z e d : L ' a l t r a , p e r g r a z i a c h e d a s i p r o f o n d a f o n t a n a s t i l l a , c h e mai c r e a t u r a non p i n s e l ' o c c h i o i n f i n o a l a p r i m a o n d a , t u t t o s u o amor l a g i u p o s e a d r i t t u r a : p e r c h e , d i g r a z i a i n g r a z i a , D i o l i a p e r s e l ' o c c h i o a l a n o s t r a r e d e n z i o n f u t u r a ; o n d ' e i c r e d e t t e i n q u e l l a , e non s o f f e r s e d a i n d i i l p u z z o p i u d e l paganesmo; e r i p r e n d i e n e l e g e n t i p e r v e r s e . Q u e l l e t r e d o n n e l i f u r p e r b a t t e s m o c h e t u v e d e s t i d a l a d e s t r a r o t a , d i n a n z i a l b a t t e z a r p i u d'un m i l l e s m o . ( 2 0 . 1 1 8 - 1 2 9 ) I n c a n t o 19, t h e e a g l e o f j u s t i c e e x p l a i n s t h e w o r k i n g s o f p r e v e n i e n t g r a c e w h i c h i n f o r m s e v e r y g o o d a c t i o n : L a p r i m a v o l o n t a , c h ' e d a s e buona, d a s e , c h ' e sommo ben , mai non s i mosse. C o t a n t o e g i u s t o q u a n t o a l e i c o n s u o n a : n u l l o c r e a t o b e n e a s e l a t i r a , ma e s s a , r a d i a n d o , l u i c a g i o n a . ( 1 9 . 8 6 - 9 0 ) A l l o f R i p h e u s ' s g o o d a c t i o n s w e r e p r e c e d e d by g r a c e and t h u s , he was s a v e d " d i g r a z i a i n g r a z i a " by a n i n f u s i o n o f f a i t h t o w h i c h " D i o l i a p e r s e l ' o c c h i o " and by b a p t i s m o f t h e t h r e e v i r t u e s , f a i t h , h o p e , and l o v e . B o t h T r a j a n and R i p h e u s must h a v e f a i t h t o be s a v e d , " q u e l d ' i p a s s u r i e q u e l d ' i p a s s i p i e d i , " a s t h e e a g l e i n c a n t o 19 makes i t c l e a r t h a t , "A q u e s t o r e g n o / non s a l mai c h i n o n c r e d e t t e 'n C r i s t o , / ne p r i a n e p o i c h ' e l s i c h i a v a s s e a l l e g n o " ( 1 9 . 1 0 3 - 1 0 5 ) . 69 The e a g l e a l s o makes e x p l i c i t t h e i n c o m p r e h e n s i b i l i t y o f God's d i v i n e p l a n ("0 p r e d e s t i n a z i o n , q u a n t o r e m o t a / e l a r a d i c e t u a d a q u e l l i a s p e t t i / c h e l a p r i m a c a g i o n non v e g g i o n t o t a ! " 20.130-132) and t h e p r e s u m p t i o n o f man i n t r y i n g t o f a t h o m God's ways ("se l a S c r i t t u r a s o v r a v o i non f o s s e , / d a d u b i t a r s a r e b b e a m a r a v i g l i a " 1 9 . 8 3 - 8 4 ) . L a n g l a n d i n P i e r s Plowman p r e s e n t s t h e p r o b l e m o f t h e r i g h t e o u s h e a t h e n b u t t a k e s t h e o p p o s i n g t h e o l o g i c a l v i e w t o D a n t e and t h e P e a r l - p o e t i n t h e d e b a t e o n t h e e f f i c a c y o f g ood w o r k s . L a n g l a n d ' s T r a j a n i s a n e x a m p l e o f a r i g h t e o u s h e a t h e n s a v e d s o l e l y o n a c c o u n t o f h i s g o o d w o r k s . I n p a s s u s 11 o f t h e B - t e x t ( p a s s u s 12, C - t e x t ) W i l l h a s a momentary d o u b t a b o u t h i s own s a l v a t i o n and a s k s S c r i p t u r e i f i t i s n o t s o t h a t " Q u i c r e d i d e r i t e t 1 0 b a p t i z a t u s f u e r i t s a l v u s e r i t " (B 11.124, C 1 2 , 5 7 ) . As s o o n a s S c r i p t u r e h a s f i n i s h e d s a y i n g " M i s e r i c o r d i a  e i u s s u p e r o m n i a o p e r a e i u s , " T r a j a n c r o p s up t o c o n t r a d i c t h e r : 'Ye, baw f o r b o k e s ! ' q u o d o o n was b r o k e n o u t o f h e l l e . ' I T r o i a n u s , a t r e w e k n y g h t , t a k e w i t n e s s e a t a p o p e How I was d e d and dampned t o d w e l l e n i n p y n e F o r a n u n c r i s t e n e c r e a t u r e ; c l e r k e s w i t e t h e s o t h e - -T h a t a l t h e c l e r g i e u n d e r C r i s t n e myghte me c r a c c h e f r o h e l l e B u t o o n l i c h e l o v e and l e a u t e e and my l a w e f u l domes. 1 0 A l l q u o t a t i o n s f r o m W i l l i a m L a n g l a n d , The V i s i o n o f  P i e r s Plowman, B - t e x t , e d . A.V.C. S c h m i d t ( L o n d o n : D e n t , 1 9 7 8 ) ; P i e r s Plowman, C - t e x t , e d . D e r e k P e a r s a l l ( L o n d o n : A r n o l d , 1 9 7 8 ) . 70 ' G r e g o r i e w i s t e t h i s w e l , and w i l n e d t o my s o u l e S a v a c i o n f o r s o o t h n e s s e t h a t h e s e i g h i n my w e r k e s And a f t e r t h a t he w e p t e and w i l n e d me w e r e g r a u n t e d g r a c e , W i t h o u t e n a n y bede b i d d y i n g h i s b o o n e was u n d e r f o n g e n . And I s a v e d , a s y e may s e e , w i t h o u t e n s y n g y n g e o f m a s s e s , By l o v e and by l e r n y n g o f my l y v y n g e i n t r u t h e , B r o u g h t e me f r o b i t t e r p e y n e t h e r no b i d d y i n g m y g h t e . (B 11.140-152) T r a j a n i s s a v e d , n o t by g r a c e , b u t by " o o n l i c h e l o v e a n d l e a u t e e a nd my l a w e f u l domes" and "By l o v e and by l e r n y n g o f my l y v y n g e i n t r u t h e . " L a n g l a n d ' s T r a j a n i s a l s o s a v e d w i t h o u t t h e f o r m a l i n t e r c e s s i o n o f t h e C h u r c h ("And I s a v e d , as y e may s e e , w i t h o u t e n s y n g y n g e o f m a s s e s " ) and "Noght t h o r u g h p r e i e r e o f a p o p e b u t f o r h i s p u r e t r u t h e " (B 1 1 . 1 5 5 ) . T r a j a n i s a l s o s a v e d w i t h o u t b e i n g f o r m a l l y c h r i s t e n e d , a s Y m a g i n a t i f e x p l a i n s t o W i l l i n p a s s u s 12, B - t e x t ( p a s s u s 14, C - t e x t ) : ' A l l e t h i s e c l e r k e s , ' q u o d I t h o , ' t h a t o n C r i s t l e v e n S e y e n i n h i r s e r m o n s t h a t n e i t h e r S a r s e n s ne Jewes Ne no c r e a t u r e o f C r i s t e s l i k n e s s e w i t h o u t e n C r i s t e n d o m w o r t h s a v e d . ' ' C o n t r a ! ' q u o d Y m a g i n a t i f t h o o , and cornsed t o l o u r e , And s e i d e , ' S a l v a b i t u r v i x J u s t u s i n d i e i u d i c i i ; E r g o - - s a l v a b i t u r ! ' q u od he, and s e i d e no moore L a t y n . ' T r o i a n u s was a t r e w e k n y g h t and t o o k n e v e r e C r i s t e n d o m , And he i s s a a f , s e i t h t h e b o o k , and h i s s o u l e i n h e v e n e . (B 1 2 . 2 7 5 - 8 2 , C 14.199-206) The C - t e x t i s more e x p l i c i t i n a l t e r i n g " C r i s t e n d o m " t o " b a p t e m e . " T r a j a n i s s a v e d s o l e l y b e c a u s e o f m e r i t , w i t h o u t r e s u s c i t a t i o n , f o r m a l b a p t i s m , o r t h e p r a y e r s o f G r e g o r y , and was, i t seems, a d m i t t e d d i r e c t l y i n t o h e a v e n . 7 1 D u r i n g t h e M i d d l e Ages t h e p r o b l e m o f t h e s a l v a t i o n o f t h e r i g h t e o u s h e a t h e n became t h e v e h i c l e f o r t h e n e o -P e l a g i a n ( O c k h a m i s t ) p o i n t o f v i e w . As t h e n e o - P e l a g i a n a t t i t u d e t o o k r o o t , T r a j a n came t o r e p r e s e n t a n e x a m p l e o f a h e a t h e n s a v e d i r r e s p e c t i v e o f g r a c e , as L a n g l a n d ' s T r a j a n i l l u s t r a t e s . The a u d i e n c e members o f S t . E r k e n w a l d i n e n c o u n t e r i n g t h e theme o f a p a g a n who h a s p e r f o r m e d g o o d w o r k s m i g h t h a v e e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e y w e r e a b o u t t o h e a r o n c e a g a i n , an a c c o u n t o f t h e m e r i t o f good w o r k s . The E r k e n w a l d -p o e t p l a y s u p o n t h i s e x p e c t a t i o n by f o c u s i n g o n t h e s p l e n d o u r o f t h e p a g a n ' s ' r e w a r d ' ( t h e m a r v e l l o u s l y p r e s e r v e d body) and by d e v o t i n g a l e n g t h y p a s s a g e t o t h e p a g a n ' s good w o r k s . The d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e p a g a n ' s g o o d w o r k s i s an exemplum o f r i g h t e o u s n e s s , f u n c t i o n i n g a s a n a r r a t i v e w i t h i n a n a r r a t i v e . The a u d i e n c e i s l e d t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e p a g a n ' s s o u l h a s l i k e w i s e b e e n r e w a r d e d and i s e s t a b l i s h e d i n b l i s s , w h i c h E r k e n w a l d c l e a r l y b e l i e v e s when he s a y s , " F o r p i s a y me o f p i s o u l e i n s e l e g u e r e ho wonnes / And o f p e r i c h e r e s t o r m e n t P a t r a 3 t h y r o u r e L o r d e " ( 2 7 9 - 8 0 ) . The a n t i c i p a t e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f h e a v e n l y j o y i s d r a m a t i c a l l y o v e r t u r n e d i n a s u p e r l a t i v e r e v e r s a l o f e x p e c t a t i o n , f o r t h e p a g a n ' s s o u l i s n o t i n h e a v e n , i t i s i n h e l l : My s o u l e may s i t t e p e r i n s o r o w and s i k e f u l c o l d e , Dymly i n p a t d e r k e d e t h e p e r dawes n e u e r morowen, H u n g r i e i n - w y t h e l l e - h o l e , a nd h e r k e n a f t e r m e e l e s L onge e r ho p a t s o p e r s e o p i r s e g g e h y r t o l a t h e . ( 3 0 5 - 3 0 8 ) 72 I t must be remembered t h a t t h e p a g a n ' s m a g n i f i c e n t r o b e s , c r o w n , and s c e p t e r w e r e r e w a r d s o f t h e p e o p l e o f New T r o y , n o t o f God: And f o r I was r y 3 t w i s and r e k e n and r e d y o f pe l a g h e Quen I d e g h e d f o r d u l d e n y e d a l l e T r o y e . A l l e menyd my d e t h e , pe more and t h e l a s s e And pus t o b o u n t y my body P a i b u r i e t i n g o l d e , C l a d d e n me f o r p e c u r t e s t p a t c o u r t e c o u t h e p e n h o l d e , I n m a n t e l f o r P e m e k e s t and m o n l o k e s t o n b e n c h e , G u r d e n me f o r P e g o u e r n o u r and g r a y t h i s t o f T r o i e , F u r r i d me f o r P e f y n e s t o f f a i t h e me w y t i n n e . F o r P e h o n o u r o f myn h o n e s t e o f h e g h e s t e n p r i s e P a i c o r o n y d me P e k i d d e k y n g e o f k e n e i u s t i s e s P e r e u e r wos t r o n y d i n T r o y e , o p i r t r o w i d e u e r s h u l d e , And f o r I r e w a r d i d e u e r r i 3 t p a i r a g h t me t h e s e p t r e . ( 2 4 5 - 2 5 6 ) P r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e b o d y , h o w e v e r , was God's r e w a r d f o r r i g h t e o u s n e s s , a p h y s i c a l r e w a r d f o r an e a r t h l y m e r i t . The p a g a n makes i t c l e a r t h a t t h i s h a s b e e n h i s o n l y r e w a r d : Quat wan we wyt o u r e w e l e - d e d e P a t w r o g h t y n a y r i 3 t , Quen we a r e dampnyd d u l f u l l y i n t o P e d e p e l a k e And e x i l i d f r o P a t s o p e r s o , p a t s o l e m p n e f e s t P e r r i c h e l y h i t a r n e r e f e t y d P a t a f t e r r i g h t h u n g r i d e ? ( 3 0 1 - 3 0 4 ) God h a s p r e s e r v e d t h e p a g a n ' s b o d y a s a r e m i n d e r t o men o f t h e i r v a i n g l o r i o u s b e l i e f i n r e w a r d and a t t a c h m e n t t o t h e c o r p o r e a l , f o r a s t h e j u d g e ' s s o u l a s c e n d s t o h e a v e n , t h e e a r t h l y r e w a r d c r u m b l e s b e f o r e t h e e y e s o f t h e o n l o o k i n g c r o w d : B o t s o d e n l y h i s s w e t e c h e r e s w y n d i d and f a y l i d e And a l l e t h e b l e e o f h i s body wos b l a k k e a s pe m o l d e s . As r o t e n as p e r o t t o k p a t r i s e s i n p o w d e r e . F o r a s s o n e a s p e s o u l e was s e s y d i n b l i s s e C o r r u p t was P a t o p i r c r a f t e p a t c o u e r t p e b o n e s . 73 F o r pe a y - l a s t a n d e l i f e pat l e t h e s h a l l e neuer Deuoydes vche a v a y n e - g l o r i e pat v a y l e s so l i t e l l e . (342-348) The p r e s e r v a t i o n o f the body and i t s sudden decay to "powdere" i s a reminder to men t h a t , "You s h a l l g a i n your bread by the sweat o f your brow u n t i l you r e t u r n t o the ground; f o r from i t you were t a k e n . Dust you a r e , t o dus t you s h a l l r e t u r n " (Gen. 3 . 1 9 ) . Man s h o u l d remember h i s p l a c e . M e r i t has no c l a i m upon God and s a l v a t i o n i s dependent upon H i s g r a c e : F o r i t i s by h i s g r a c e you a r e saved , through t r u s t i n g him; i t i s not your own d o i n g . I t i s God's g i f t , not a reward f o r work done. There i s n o t h i n g f o r anyone t o boast o f . F o r we a r e God's handiwork, c r e a t e d i n C h r i s t Jesus t o devote o u r s e l v e s t o the good deeds f o r which God has des igned u s . (Eph. 2 .8-10) The Erkenwald -poe t emphasizes the n e c e s s i t y o f God's g r a c e i n the s a l v a t i o n o f the hea then . I t i s o n l y because Erkenwald " g r e t t e a f t e r g r a c e pat he g r a u n t e hade / An ansuare o f Pe Holy Goste" (126-127) . When the townspeople have exhausted every means o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g the "merua i l e" Erkenwald c o u n s e l s them, "glow we a l l e opon Godde and H i s g r a c e aske" (171) . I t i s a l s o o n l y "Purghe sum Goste l a n t l y f e o f hym Pat a l redes" t h a t the c o r p s e i s a b l e t o r e p l y to E r k e n w a l d . In o r d e r t o s u i t h i s t h e o l o g y the poet i n c l u d e d s e v e r a l important r e q u i s i t e s f o r the s a l v a t i o n o f the 74 p a g a n j u d g e . The p a g a n i s r e s u s c i t a t e d b e f o r e r e c e i v i n g b a p t i s m i n t h e i n s t a n t t h a t E r k e n w a l d p r a y s , "'Oure L o r d l e n e , ' quop P a t l e d e , ' p a t p o u l y f e h a d e s " ( 3 1 5 ) , and i s r e w a r d e d w i t h a n o f f i c i a l B a p t i s m u s a q u a e t h r o u g h E r k e n w a l d ' s t e a r s : " F o r pe w o r d e s P a t P o u w e r p e and pe w a t e r p a t p o u s h e d d e s - - / Pe b r y 3 t b o u r n e o f p i n e g h e n - -my bapteme i s w o r t h y n " ( 3 2 9 - 3 3 0 ) . As t h e m o t i f o f b a p t i s m by t e a r s i s r a r e i n h a g i o g r a p h y , i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e a u d i e n c e w o u l d h a v e r e c o g n i z e d i t i n t h e poem. T h e r e f o r e , t o s a t i s f y t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f b a p t i s m , t h e E r k e n w a l d - p o e t h a s t h e b i s h o p f o r m a l l y r e p e a t t h e T r i n i t a r i a n f o r m u l a : ' " I f o l w e P e i n P e F a d e r nome and H i s f r e C h i l d e s , / And o f P e g r a c i o u s H o l y G o s t e ' " ( 3 1 8 - 1 9 ) . The r i t u a l o f t h e b a p t i s m r e i n f o r c e s t h e l e g i t i m a c y o f t h e e v e n t f o r t h e a u d i e n c e . U n l i k e D a n t e ' s T r a j a n , t h e p a g a n j u d g e i s f o r m a l l y b a p t i z e d a f t e r r e s u s c i t a t i o n . W h i l e t h e p a g a n l i v e d b e f o r e C h r i s t , l i k e R i p h e u s , and n o t a f t e r , as d i d T r a j a n , he i s n o t s a v e d i n t h e same manner a s R i p h e u s . R i p h e u s was g i v e n d i v i n e i l l u m i n a t i o n ( D i o l i a p e r s e / l ' o c c h i o a l a n o s t r a r e d e n z i o n f u t u r a , " P a r a d i s o 2 0.122-123) w h i c h i n f o r m e d h i s g o o d a c t i o n s ("ond' e i c r e d e t t e i n q u e l l a , e n o n s o f f e r s e / d a i n d i i l p u z z o p i u d e l paganesmo; / e r i p r e n d i e n e l e g e n t i p e r v e r s e " 20.124-126) and he was b a p t i z e d by t h e t h r e e v i r t u e s ( " Q u e l l e t r e donne l i f u r p e r b a t t e s m o " 1 2 7 ) . The p a g a n j u d g e d i d n o t r e c e i v e s u c h 75 f o r e k n o w l e d g e o f C h r i s t , n o r d i d he r e c e i v e i l l u m i n a t i o n a t t h e H a r r o w i n g o f H e l l , s i n c e h e s p e c i f i c a l l y s t a t e s t h a t h e was l e f t b e h i n d : I was n o n o f p e nommbre P a t P o u wyt n o y b o g h t e s , Wyt P e b l o d e o f t h i : b ody v p o n p e b i o r o d e ; Quen P o u h e r g h e d e s h e l l - h o l e and h e n t e s horn p e r o u t e . P i l o f f y n g e o u t e o f l i m b o , p o u l a f t e s me P e r . ( 2 8 9 - 2 9 2 ) P r e s u m a b l y t h e p a g a n was condemned t o t h e s e c o n d l i m b o , t h a t 11 o f t h e u n b a p t i z e d . T h e r e a r e i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t t h e p a g a n r e c e i v e s God's s p e c i a l g r a c e i n t h e l i g h t w h i c h a p p e a r s i n t h e a b y s s : " F o r wyt p e w o r d e s a nd p e w a t e r p a t weshe v s o f p a y n e / L i 3 t l y l a s s h i t P e r a leme, l o g h e i n p e abyme" ( 3 3 3 - 3 3 4 ) . The p a g a n ' s " l e m e " i s a k i n t o D a n t e ' s " l u m e " ( " l i g h t o f g l o r y " ) w h i c h L u c i f e r c o u l d n o t w a i t t o h a v e b e s t o w e d u p o n h i m by God b u t a t t e m p t e d t o s e c u r e f o r h i m s e l f : "E c i o f a c e r t o c h e '1 p r i m o s u p e r b o , / c h e f u l a somma d'ogne c r e a t u r a , / p e r non a s p e t t a r lume, c a d d e a c e r b o " ( P a r a d i s o 1 9 . 4 6 - 4 8 ) . To a t t a i n t o t h i s g r a c e i s p r e s u m p t i o n , i t i s a g i f t o f God whose ways a r e o b s c u r e t o man: "'Where I show m e r c y , I w i l l show m e r c y , a nd w h e r e I p i t y , I w i l l p i t y . ' Thus i t d o e s n o t d e p e n d o n man's w i l l o r e f f o r t , b u t o n God's m e r c y " (Rom. 9 . 1 5 - 1 7 ) . W h i l e S t . E r k e n w a l d owes a g r e a t d e a l t o t h e s a i n t ' s l i f e , t h e c r u c i a l d i f f e r e n c e i s t h a t i t ( l i k e P e a r l , 11 See P e t e r s o n , 110, n o t e t o l i n e 292 and I n f e r n o 4.22-63. 76 f o r e x a m p l e ) i s d e p e n d e n t u p o n a t h e o l o g i c a l p o i n t . Somewhat l i k e t h e d e b a t e s o f D a n t e , t h e P e a r l - p o e t , a n d L a n g l a n d , S t . E r k e n w a l d u s e s a d i a l o g u e f o r m a t f o r t h e c e n t r a l a c t i o n o f t h e poem w i t h t h e d i r e c t s p e e c h o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s t a k i n g o v e r f r o m t h e t e s t i m o n i a l a d d r e s s o f t h e w i t n e s s . E r k e n w a l d a s k s f o u r m a i n q u e s t i o n s o f t h e c o r p s e : ( 1 ) Who a r e y o u ? ( 2 ) Why a r e y o u t h u s a t t i r e d ? ( 3 ) Why a r e y o u t h u s p r e s e r v e d ? ( 4 ) What o f y o u r s o u l ? S t . E r k e n w a l d and P e a r l t o g e t h e r may be s e e n a s a n e x p o s i t i o n o f P s a l m 24.3-4: "Who may go U P t h e m o u n t a i n o f t h e L o r d ? And who may s t a n d i n h i s h o l y p l a c e ? He who h a s c l e a n h a n d s and a p u r e h e a r t , who h a s n o t s e t h i s m i n d o n f a l s e h o o d , 1 2 and h a s n o t c o m m i t t e d p e r j u r y . " L i k e P e a r l , S t . E r k e n w a l d i s c o n s o l i n g , n o t by f o s t e r i n g t h e hope o f s a l v a t i o n a s a r e w a r d , b u t by s h o w i n g t h a t "pe g r a c e o f God i s g r e t i n o g h e . " The s t r u g g l e b e t w e e n r e l i a n c e o n human l e a r n i n g a n d t r u s t i n God w h i c h i n f o r m s S t . E r k e n w a l d may be s e e n a s a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h e m e d i e v a l p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h c o n t r a s t s f o u n d a t e v e r y l e v e l i n t h e c u l t u r e : i n t h e c o n t r a s t b e t w e e n t h e " c o a r s e , r e a l i s t i c a l l y - p o r t r a y e d s h e p h e r d s a nd i d e a l i z e d , o t h e r w o r l d l y a n g e l s " i n a r t ; i n t h e j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f t h e " g r o t e s q u e g a r g o y l e s and l o f t y p i n n a c l e s " o f t h e G o t h i c c a t h e d r a l w h i c h was a t o n c e a t t r a c t i v e a n d r e p u l s i v e ; 1 2 B o t h poems p a r a p h r a s e P s a l m 24.4: P e a r l , "Pe r y 3 t w y s man s c h a l s e h y s f a c e , / Pe h a r m l e 3 h a p e l s c h a l com hym t y l l e " ( 1 2 . 6 7 5 - 7 6 ) and S t . E r k e n w a l d , " "Pe s k i l f u l l e a n d p e v h s k a t h e l y s k e l t o n a y t o me'" ( 2 7 8 ) . 77 i n the c o n t r a p u n t a l music o f opposing melodies; i n the c h i v a l r i c i d e a l o f ge n t l e n e s s and s t r e n g t h ; i n the o p p o s i t i o n of c i t y and country, cosmopolitan and p r o v i n c i a l ; i n the s t r u g g l e s between s e c u l a r and sacred, knowledge 1 3 and f a i t h , man's works and God's grace. Bevington, 234. 78 C o n c l u s i o n I n some ways S t . E r k e n w a l d i s a work w h i c h f u l f i l l s what: w o u l d h a v e b e e n c o n t e m p o r a r y a u d i e n c e e x p e c t a t i o n s . I n e s s e n c e , t h e m a c h i n e r y o f t h e s a i n t ' s l i f e i s p r e s e n t i n t h e poem: t h e t e m p o r a l and s p a t i a l s e t t i n g s , t h e u s e o f h i s t o r y , t h e b o r r o w i n g o f s t o r i e s , t h e u n i n d i v i d u a l i z e d c h a r a c t e r s , t h e u s e o f c e r t a i n m o t i f s . T h e s e t r a i t s , i n f a c t , a r e n o t s o l e l y c o n f i n e d t o m e d i e v a l h a g i o g r a p h y b u t a r e a l s o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f most o t h e r t y p e s o f m e d i e v a l l i t e r a t u r e . The a u d i e n c e o f S t . E r k e n w a l d w o u l d n o t h a v e f o u n d t h e poem t o be c o m p l e t e l y d i s c o n c e r t i n g . T h e r e f o r e , t h e p e r s o n who p l a c e d t h e poem i n t h e m a n u s c r i p t a l o n g s i d e t h e s a i n t s ' l i v e s o f t h e S o u t h E n g l i s h L e g e n d a r y was n o t e n t i r e l y i n e r r o r . S t . E r k e n w a l d , h o w e v e r , d i f f e r s f r o m t h e s a i n t ' s l i f e i n s t r u c t u r e i n t h a t t h e n a r r a t i v e c o n c e n t r a t e s o n o n l y o n e e p i s o d e , a p l o t - m o d e l w h i c h may h a v e b e e n f a m i l i a r t o b o t h t h e p o e t and t h e a u d i e n c e t h r o u g h t h e s a i n t p l a y o r t h e exemplum. By c o n c e n t r a t i n g o n a s i n g l e e v e n t , t h e E r k e n w a I d - p o e t i s a b l e t o a v o i d t h e e p i s o d i c q u a l i t y o f most s a i n t s ' l i v e s . The r e s u l t i s a d r a m a t i c t e n o r i n t h e poem, w i t h a s e n s e o f s u s p e n s e a s t h e m y s t e r y o f t h e c o r p s e ' s i d e n t i t y u n f o l d s , w i t h t h e c l i m a x i n t h e b a p t i s m by t e a r s , f o l l o w e d by a denouement. 79 The g e n e r i c i d e n t i t y o f S t . E r k e n w a l d i s d e p e n d e n t u p o n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l f o r m s o f h a g i o g r a p h y ( t h e s a i n t ' s l i f e , s a i n t p l a y , a nd exemp1urn) and y e t t h e poem d o e s n o t a d h e r e t o a n y s p e c i f i c g e n r e . S t . E r k e n w a l d d o e s n o t f a l l i n t o J a u s s ' s c a t e g o r y o f w o r k s w h i c h e x h i b i t " c o n s u m p t i o n - c h a r a c t e r " by m e r e l y r e p e a t i n g t h e e x p e c t a b l e . W h i l e t h e poem s a t i s f i e s some e x p e c t a t i o n s i t a l s o r e q u i r e s c h a n g e s i n t h e a u d i e n c e ' s e x i s t i n g " h o r i z o n . " The c r u c i a l d i f f e r e n c e w h i c h t h e poem e x h i b i t s i s i t s s u b j u g a t i o n t o a t h e o l o g i c a l p o i n t , n o t u n l i k e P e a r l . The p o e t a c c o r d i n g l y a d o p t s t h e q u e s t i o n -a n d - a n s w e r f o r m a t o f a t h e o l o g i c a l d e b a t e w i t h t h e mode o f a d d r e s s c h a n g i n g f r o m t h e t e s t i m o n i a l o f a w i t n e s s t o t h e d i r e c t e x c h a n g e b e t w e e n t h e p r i n c i p a l c h a r a c t e r s . S t .  E r k e n w a l d a l s o d e m o n s t r a t e s a n u n o r t h o d o x t h e o l o g y . H o w e v e r , i t was a t h e o l o g y t h a t went a g a i n s t t h e p o p u l a r t i d e w h i c h was t u r n i n g t o w a r d t h e i n c r e a s i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f man i n h i s own s a l v a t i o n . The E r k e n w a l d - p o e t d e m o n s t r a t e s a c o m p l e t e c o n t r o l o f h i s m a t e r i a l a nd a u d i e n c e i n i n v o k i n g c e r t a i n e x p e c t a t i o n s i n o r d e r t o f r u s t r a t e o r a l t e r t h e manner i n w h i c h t h e y a r e f u l f i l l e d . F o r e x a m p l e , a l e n g t h y p a s s a g e i s d e v o t e d t o t h e p a g a n ' s r i g h t e o u s n e s s i n o r d e r t o f o s t e r t h e e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t t h e p o e t i s p r e s e n t i n g a n e x a m p l e o f t h e e f f i c a c y o f 80 g o o d w o r k s i n a t t a i n i n g s a l v a t i o n . The e x p e c t a t i o n , h o w e v e r , i s n o t f u l f i l l e d i m m e d i a t e l y a s t h e a u d i e n c e i s t o l d t h a t t h e p a g a n ' s s o u l h a s n o t b e e n r e w a r d e d w i t h s a l v a t i o n , b u t i s i n h e l l . What p a r t i c u l a r l y s e t s S t . E r k e n w a l d a p a r t f r o m m o s t M i d d l e E n g l i s h s a i n t s ' l i v e s i s i t s s t y l i s t i c a r t i s t r y . The p o e t ' s e v o c a t i v e s t y l e i n t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e c a s k e t and c o r p s e , f o r e x a m p l e , r i v a l s t h a t o f t h e G a w a i n - p o e t i n t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f G a w a i n ' s a c c o u t r e m e n t s . The p o e t a l s o d e m o n s t r a t e s h i s a r t i s t r y i n c o m b i n i n g c e r t a i n m o t i f s i n a u n i q u e manner i n t h e p l o t o f t h e poem. The p l o t o f S t . E r k e n w a l d may be s e e n a s a c o n f l a t i o n o f t h e m o t i f s c o n c e r n i n g t h e d i s c o v e r y , r e s u s c i t a t i o n , and b a p t i s m o f a c o r p s e , w i t h t w o u n u s u a l v a r i a t i o n s a d d e d by t h e p o e t : t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e i n v e n t i o / t r a n s l a t i o o f a s a i n t ' s l i f e w i t h t h e m o t i f o f t h e d i s c o v e r y a n d r e s u s c i t a t i o n o f a c o r p s e by a s a i n t , and t h e m o t i f o f b a p t i s m by t e a r s . I n b o t h p l o t and p o e t r y t h e E r k e n w a l d - p o e t d e m o n s t r a t e s a r e f i n e d a nd 1 a c c o m p l i s h e d a r t i s t r y . P e r h a p s , a s i n C h a u c e r ' s S e c o n d Nun's T a l e , t h e poem's s u b d u e d t o n e was a r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e r e s p e c t d u e t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e w o r k . The E r k e n w a l d - p o e t , l i k e C h a u c e r , 1 T h i s s t u d y c a n n o t d o j u s t i c e t o t h e s t y l i s t i c q u a l i t i e s o f S t . E r k e n w a l d . F o r a f u l l e r d i s c u s s i o n o n s t y l e , s e e V i n c e n t P e t r o n e l l a , " S t y l e a s t h e V e h i c l e f o r M e a n i n g " a s w e l l a s T. M c A l i n d o n , " H a g i o g r a p h y i n t o A r t . " 81 e v i d e n t l y u n d e r s t o o d t h e c o n v e n t i o n s o f h a g i o g r a p h y a n d w o r k e d w i t h i n t h o s e c o n v e n t i o n s . However, he a l s o s o u g h t t o s u r p a s s them. A c c o r d i n g t o J a u s s ' s R e z e p t i o n s a s t h e t i k , i t i s t h e m a s t e r w o r k w h i c h s e e k s t o c h a n g e t h e e x i s t i n g " h o r i z o n o f e x p e c t a t i o n s , " a n d i n some ways t h e poem s u c c e e d s i n a l t e r i n g t h e " h o r i z o n . " S t . E r k e n w a l d may n o t be a m a s t e r p i e c e o n t h e s c a l e o f C h a u c e r ' s C a n t e r b u r y T a l e s o r S i r G a w a i n a nd t h e G r e e n K n i g h t , b u t i t i s a s m a l l , m a s t e r f u l w o r k w i t h a s u b t l e f i n e s s e w o r t h y o f a p p r e c i a t i o n . B i b l i o g r a p h y A m s l e r , Mark. " L i t e r a r y T h e o r y and t h e G e n r e s o f M i d d l e E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e . " G e n r e 13 ( 1 9 8 0 ) : 3 7 9 - 8 8 . B a n k s , M a r y M a c l e o d . An A l p h a b e t o f T a l e s : An E n g l i s h 1 5 t h C e n t u r y T r a n s l a t i o n o f t h e " A l p h a b e t u m N a r r a t i o n u m "  o f E t i e n n e d e B e s a n g o n . EETS o s 126, 127. L o n d o n : K egan P a u l , 1905. B e n n e t t , J.A.W. M i d d l e E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e . Ed. D o u g l a s G r a y . O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n , 1986. B e v i n g t o n , D a v i d . M e d i e v a l Drama. B o s t o n : H o u g h t o n , 1975. B i e l e r , L u d w i g , e d . F o u r L a t i n L i v e s o f S t . P a t i r i c k . S c r i p t o r e s L a t i n i H i b e r n i a e 8. D u b l i n : D u b l i n I n s t i t u t e f o r A d v a n c e d S t u d i e s , 1971. B o y e r , R e g i s . "An A t t e m p t t o D e f i n e t h e T y p o l o g y o f M e d i e v a l H a g i o g r a p h y . " H a g i o g r a p h y and M e d i e v a l L i t e r a t u r e :  A Symposium. Ed. Hans B e k k e r - N i e l s e n e t a l . O d e n s e : Odense UP, 1981. Brown, C.F. "The A u t h o r o f The P e a r l c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e L i g h t o f H i s T h e o l o g i c a l O p i n i o n s . " PMLA 19 ( 1 9 0 4 ) : 1 15-145. B u r r o w , J.A. M e d i e v a l W r i t e r s and T h e i r Work: M i d d l e E n g l i s h  L i t e r a t u r e a nd i t s B a c k g r o u n d 1100-1500. O x f o r d : O x f o r d UP, 1982. C o l g r a v e , B e r t r a m and R.A.B. M y n o r s , e d s . B e d e ' s E c c l e s i a s t i c a l H i s t o r y o f t h e E n g l i s h P e o p l e . O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n , 1969. C o m e d i a d i D a n t e d e g l i A l l a g h e r i i c o l commento d i J a c o p o  d e l l a L a n a B o l o g n e s e . Ed. L u c i a n o S c a r a b e l l i . 3 v o l s . C o l l e z i o n e d i o p e r e i n e d i t e o r a r e 4 1 . B o l o g n a , 1866. D a n t e A l i g h i e r i . The D i v i n e Comedy. Ed. and t r a n s . C S . S i n g l e t o n . 6 v o l s . B o l l i n g e n S e r i e s 80. P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n UP, 1973. D a v i d s o n , C l i f f o r d , e d . The S a i n t P l a y i n M e d i e v a l E u r o p e . E a r l y Drama, A r t , and M u s i c M o n o g r a p h S e r i e s 8. K a l a m a z o o : M e d i e v a l I n s t i t u t e P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1986. 83 D ' E v e l y n , C h a r l o t t e and Anna J . M i l l s , e d s . The S o u t h E n g l i s h L e g e n d a r y . EETS 235, 236. L ondon: O x f o r d UP, 1956. Dodgson, C a m p b e l l . "An I l l u s t r a t i o n by H o l b e i n o f t h e L e g e n d o f H e r k i n b a l d . " J o u r n a l o f t h e W a r b u r g and C o r t a u l d I n s t i t u t e s 3 ( 1.940): 241 - 3 . E r b e , T h e o d o r , e d . M i r k ' s F e s t i a l : A C o l l e c t i o n o f H o m i l i e s by J o h a n n u s M i r k u s ( J o h n M i r k ) . EETS es 96. L o n d o n : Kegan P a u l , 1905. G e r o u l d , G.H. S a i n t s ' L e g e n d s . B o s t o n : H o u g h t o n , 1916. G o l l a n c z , E., ed. S t . E r k e n w a l d . S e l e c t E a r l y E n g l i s h Poems 4. O x f o r d : O x f o r d UP, 1922. G o r d o n , E.V., e d . P e a r l . O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n , 1953. H i b b a r d , L a u r a . " E r k e n b a l d t h e B e l g i a n : A S t u d y i n M e d i e v a l E x e m p l a o f J u s t i c e . " M o d e r n P h i l o l o g y 17 ( 1 9 2 0 ) : 669-78. H i r s c h , E.D. V a l i d i t y i n I n t e r p r e t a t i o n . New Haven: Y a l e UP, 1967. H o r s t m a n n , C a r l , e d . A l t e n g l i s c h e L e g e n d e n : Neue F o l g e . H e i l b r o n n , 1881. H u l b e r t , J.R. "A H y p o t h e s i s C o n c e r n i n g t h e A l l i t e r a t i v e R e v i v a l . " M o d e r n P h i l o l o g y 28 ( 1 9 3 1 ) : 4 0 5-22. James, M o n t a g u e R h o d e s , t r a n s . The A p o c r y p h a l New T e s t a m e n t : B e i n g t h e A p o c r y p h a l G o s p e l s , A c t s , E p i s t l e s , and  A p o c a l y p s e s . O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n , 1924. J a u s s , Hans R o b e r t . "The A l t e r i t y and M o d e r n i t y o f M e d i e v a l L i t e r a t u r e . " T r a n s . T i m o t h y B a h t i . New L i t e r a r y H i s t o r y 10 ( 1 9 7 9 ) : 181-229. " L i t e r a r y H i s t o r y a s a C h a l l e n g e t o L i t e r a r y T h e o r y . " T r a n s . E l i z a b e t h B e n z i n g e r . New D i r e c t i o n s i n L i t e r a r y  H i s t o r y . Ed. R a l p h Cohen. B a l t i m o r e : J o h n s H o p k i n s UP, 1974. 11-41. " T h e o r y o f G e n r e s and M e d i e v a l L i t e r a t u r e . " T o w a r d  An A e s t h e t i c o f R e c e p t i o n . T r a n s . T i m o t h y B a h t i . T h e o r y and H i s t o r y o f L i t e r a t u r e 2. M i n n e a p o l i s : U o f M i n n e s o t a P, 1982. 76-109. J o n e s , C h a r l e s W. S a i n t s ' L i v e s and C h r o n i c l e s i n E a r l y E n g l a n d . Romanesque L i t e r a t u r e 1. I t h a c a : C o r n e l l UP, 1947 . 84 Kuhn, Sherman M., ed. Middle E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y . Ann Arbor: U of Michigan P, 1970. Langland, W i l l i a m . The V i s i o n o f P i e r s Plowman. B-text. Ed. A.V.C. Schmidt. London: Dent, 1978. P i e r s Plowman. C-text. Ed. Derek P e a r s a l l . London: Arnold, 1978. L e f f , Gordon. Bradwardine and the P e l a g i a n s : A Study of His De Causa Dei and i t s Opponents. Cambridge Studies i n Medieval L i f e and Thought ns 5. London: Cambridge UP, 1957. Lewis, C h a r l e t o n and C h a r l e s Short, eds. A L a t i n D i c t i o n a r y . Oxford: Clarendon, 1879. Lewis, C S . The Discarded Image. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1964. MacCracken, Henry Noble, ed. The Minor Poems of John  Lydgate. EETS es 107. London: Kegan Paul, 1911. M a n d e v i l i e ' s T r a v e l s . Ed. M.C Seymour. Oxford: Clarendon, 1967. McAlindon, T. "Hagiography i n t o A r t : A Study of St. Erkenwald." S t u d i e s i n P h i l o l o g y 67 (1970): 472-94. Morse, Ruth, ed. S t . Erkenwald. Cambridge: Brewer, 1975. The New E n g l i s h B i b l e . N.p: Oxford UP; Cambridge UP, 1970. Owst, G.R. L i t e r a t u r e and P u l p i t i n Medieval England. London: Cambridge UP, 1933. P e a r s a l l , Derek. Old E n g l i s h and Middle E n g l i s h Poetry. Routledge H i s t o r y of E n g l i s h Poetry 1. London: Routledge, 1977. Peck, R u s s e l l . "Number S t r u c t u r e i n S t . Erkenwald." Annuale Mediaevale 14 (1973): 9-21. Peterson, C l i f f o r d , ed. S a i n t Erkenwald. P h i l a d e l p h i a : U of Penn s y l v a n i a P, 1977. P e t r o n e l l a , Vincent. "St. Erkenwald: S t y l e as the V e h i c l e f o r Meaning." J o u r n a l of E n g l i s h and Germanic P h i l o l o g y 66 (1967): 532-40. 85 Quinn, W.A. "The Psychology of St. Erkenwald." Medium Aevum 52 (1984): 180-93. Reichardt, Paul F r e d e r i c k . "The A r t and Meaning of the Middle E n g l i s h St. Erkenwald." D i s s . Rice U, 1971. The R i v e r s i d e Chaucer. 3rd ed. Ed. L a r r y D. Benson. Boston: Houghton, 1987. Ross, Woodburn O., ed. Middle E n g l i s h Sermons. EETS os 209. London: Oxford UP, 1940. Ryan, Thomas A. "'Queme Q u e s t i s ' i n St. Erkenwald." E n g l i s h Language Notes 23 (1985): 1-3. Savage, Henry, ed. St. Erkenwald: A Middle E n g l i s h Poem. 1926; Hamden, Ct: Archon, 1972. Schirmer, Walter. John Lydgate: A Study i n the C u l t u r e of  the F i f t e e n t h Century. Trans. Ann Keep. Berkeley: U of C a l i f o r n i a P, 1961. John Lydgate: E i n K u l t u r b i l d aus dem 15. Jahrhundert. Tubingen: Max Niemeyer, 1952. Schlauch, Margaret. E n g l i s h Medieval L i t e r a t u r e and I t s  S o c i a l Foundations. Warsaw: PanstwoweWydawnictwo Nauknowe, 1956. S i r Gawain and the Green Knight. Ed. J.R.R. T o l k i e n and E.V. Gordon. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1967. Strohm, Paul. "Middle E n g l i s h N a r r a t i v e Genres." Genre 13 (1980): 379-88. "Passioun, Lyf, M i r a c l e , Legende: Some Gen e r i c Terms i n Middle E n g l i s h H a g i o g r a p h i c a l N a r r a t i v e . " Chaucer  Review 10 (1975): 154-71. Thompson, S t i t h . Motif-Index of F o l k L i t e r a t u r e . Copenhagen: Rosenkilde, 1955. Whatley, Gordon. "Heathens and S a i n t s : S t . Erkenwald i n i t s Legendary Context." Speculum 61 (1986): 330-63. "The Middle E n g l i s h S t . Erkenwald and i t s L i t u r g i c a l Context." M e d i a e v a l i a 8 (1982): 277-306. 86 W i l k i n s , N i g e l . Two M i r a c l e s : La Nonne qui l a i s s a son abbaie/ S a i n t V a l e n t i n . Edinburgh: S c o t t i s h Academic P, 1972. Woolf, Rosemary. " S a i n t s ' L i v e s . " C o n t i n u a t i o n s and Beginnings. S t u d i e s i n Old E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e . Ed. E.G. Sta n l e y . Edinburgh: Nelson, 1966. Rpt. i n A r t and D o c t r i n e : Essays on Medieval L i t e r a t u r e . Ed. Heather O'Donoghue. London: Hambledon, 1986. 219-44. Young, K a r l . The Drama of the Medieval Church. 2 v o l s . Oxford: Clarendon, 1933. 

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