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Anne Hebert's Le tombeau des rois McNairn, Laura Jean 1989-9-11

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ANNE HEBERT'S  L E TOMBEAU DES ROIS: A FEMINIST  READING  By LAURA JEAN MCNAIRN B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1983 B.C. T e a c h e r ' s C e r t i f i c a t e , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1984  A THESIS SUBMITTED  IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in  THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department  We a c c e p t t h i s to  of French)  thesis  the required  as c o n f o r m i n g standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 0  1989  Laura Jean McNairn,  1989.  In presenting degree at the  this  thesis  in  partial fulfilment  of  University of  British Columbia,  I agree  freely available for reference copying  of  department publication  and study.  this' thesis for scholarly or of  by this  his  or  her  Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  DE-6 (2/88)  requirements that the  I further agree  purposes  representatives.  may be It  thesis for financial gain shall not  permission.  Date  the  that  advanced  Library shall make it  by the  understood be  an  permission for extensive  granted  is  for  allowed  that without  head  of  my  copying  or  my written  ABSTRACT  t h e f o r t i e s , when Anne H6bert was w r i t i n g t h e poems  During  o f Le Tombeau  des r o l s  f  Quebec w r i t e r s and c r i t i c s  whom were m a l e ) were consumed by t h e o p p r e s s i o n Duplessis felt  era.  Hubert's c o u s i n ,  so g r e a t l y t h e pressure  Other, t h a t inspired  h i s pain  very  Canadian as a caged the  motif  The  bird  place cave  of the bird  resurfaces  although  anguish, but  i n H u b e r t ' s work.  blinded,  leads  In f a c t ,  des r o i s .  the heroine  d e a t h : t h e tomb.  are reborn.  reappear c o n s t a n t l y  mythology. motifs  by t h e  to the  The tomb o r  of death, but a l s o of  The tomb becomes t h e "womb" o f t h e M o t h e r where and b r o t h e r s  rebirth,  defined  a p p e a r s t h r o u g h o u t Le Tombeau  i s , however, n o t o n l y t h e p l a c e  sisters  a life  Garneau  H i s metaphor o f t h e F r e n c h  where s h e must c o n f r o n t  rebirth.  the  bird  as a guide,  to live  poetry.  of the  H e c t o r de S a i n t - D e n y s  not only produced great  notable  (most o f  The a i m o f t h i s  and o t h e r s  found  Images o f s a c r i f i c e , o f  i n women's l i t e r a t u r e and t h e s i s i s t o r e i n t e r p r e t these  i n Anne H u b e r t ' s p o e t r y .  I t i s part of  f e m i n i s t p r o j e c t t o r e v i s e the mythology of P a t r i a r c h y so  that  women a n d women's w r i t i n g m i g h t be ' r e a d ' a u t h e n t i c a l l y .  This approach  i s an attempt  w h i c h have d e f i n e d  t o b r e a k down t h e c r i t i c a l  Anne H6bert  i n a c l o s e d , p a t r i a r c h a l way.  Anne H u b e r t was w r i t i n g w h i l e Catholic  the oppressive  forces of the  C h u r c h s u f f o c a t e d women and men who were ii  walls  desperately  searching either  out t h e i r  own i d e n t i t y .  "mothers" or " v i r g i n s " .  to maintain the French women, were b u r d e n e d  M o t h e r s had t h e r e s p o n s a b i l i t y  language  and c u l t u r e ,  with the g u i l t  were m e t a p h o r i c a l l y s t r i p p e d "temptresses".  Women were d e f i n e d a s  of their  of t h e i r  flesh  I n Le Tombeau d e s r o i s ,  between b e i n g t h e "good g i r l "  i n their  Other  texts.  weaves t h r o u g h  to pick  the heroine  I have a t t e m p t e d  s u b t e x t , an " 6 c r i t u r e  concealed  critics  agreed  this  that  struggle  have e m p h a s i z e d  Hubert's  Hubert's beneath calm  struggle  identity.  That  accompany t h i s  poems and p r o s e role  By  have i n the  i s one i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  t o w a r d s t h e " f e m i n i n e " has been  surface of the status  which  own t e x t s .  women have been d o u b l y e x p l o i t e d ,  the surface of t r a d i t i o n a l  unmapped w a t e r s ,  thread  to highlight a  woman has p l a y e d a n i m p o r t a n t  that  t o search  o f o f h e r work.  o f Anne H u b e r t ' s  f o rnational  express  a u f 6 m i n i n " w h i c h h a s been  by t h e dominant c r i t i c i s m  Traditional  i s torn  Anne H u b e r t t o  up a n i n t e r t e x t u a l  t h e s e t e x t s and c o n n e c t s  women  from t h e  women w r i t e r s  making t h e s e c o n n e c t i o n s , I have a t t e m p t e d hidden  sex";  s o a s n o t t o be  out some o f t h e images and m o t i f s w h i c h c o n n e c t modern women w r i t e r s ,  unmarried  "evil  and b r e a k i n g f r e e  " h o u s e " w h i c h has c o n f i n e d h e r . t h e same s t r u g g l e  while  criticism.  I  and t h a t  hidden  To c r a c k t h e  quo, t o d i v e down i n t o  t h e deep,  t o f o l l o w t h e t h r e a d back t o t h e "womb", i s t o  author  on h e r q u e s t  iii  i n Le Tombeau d e s r o i s .  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Abstract  l i  Acknowledgement  v  Epigraph  vi  Introduction  1  Notes  18  Chapter 1 S h a t t e r i n g the M i r r o r s ; F o l l o w i n g the back t o t h e Mother i n "Le Tombeau des i.  The F a t h e r ' s  ii.  To E v e R e b o r n : a J o u r n e y back t o t h e  iii.  Women's W r i t i n g :  iv.  Beyond C u l t u r e : Chatter  the  Diving  Wreck: D i s c o v e r i n g  v.  House: B r e a k i n g  22 Thread rois"  i n t o the  Telling  the  down t h e  Walls  22  Mother  34  Truth  41  O t h e r s i d e where S i s t e r s 48 the  Womb  Notes  58 63  Chapter 2 Out  o f the  Womb: a P r o c e s s o f R e b i r t h  i.  Light:  from P e n e t r a t i o n  ii.  Towards t h e  iii.  The B i r d : t h e  to Resurrection  Mother: an Act  of R e - t e l l i n g '  L i b e r a t i n g Agent  Notes  %  69 69 75 80 102  Conclusion And  Our S t o r v  i s One  107  Notes  120  Bibliography  122 iv  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT W r i t i n g a t h e s i s i s indeed a c h a l l e n g e . Without the c o n s t a n t s u p p o r t o f my f a m i l y and f r i e n d s , I would have n o t s u r v i v e d as w e l l as I have t h e s e l a s t two y e a r s . I would l i k e t o thank e s p e c i a l l y my m o t h e r , B e t h , who was a l w a y s t h e r e , a l w a y s , i n e v e r y way i m a g i n a b l e . My s i s t e r H e a t h e r and her husband A l l a n , c o n s t a n t l y c u r i o u s a b o u t my " p r o g r e s s " , g e n t l y nudged me t o w a r d s my g o a l when I needed i t t h e most. My b r o t h e r Ken, whose a d m i r a b l e p a t i e n c e and computer s k i l l s made t h i s t h e s i s p o s s i b l e , a p p e a r e d , a t a moment's n o t i c e , and l e d me o u t o f t h e c h a o s I had e i t h e r c r e a t e d o r , o f w h i c h I was a victim. Ken's w i f e Susan a l w a y s l i s t e n e d i n t e n t l y , a s k e d e a r n e s t q u e s t i o n s , and showed g e n u i n e i n t e r e s t i n my t h e s i s . F o r a l l o f t h e s e t h i n g s , I am t r u l y g r a t e f u l . I must a l s o t h a n k my l a t e f a t h e r , I a n , i n whose memory I d e d i c a t e t h i s thesis. The e x t r a o r d i n a r y s u p p o r t o f my r e l a t i v e s and f r i e n d s n e v e r f a i l e d t o buoy me up a t t h o s e c r u c i a l moments. I thank them a l l , and e s p e c i a l l y M a r i l y n and P a t T h o r s t e i n s s o n , w i t h o u t whose l o v e and f r i e n d s h i p I would have i n d e e d f o u n d t h e s e two years d i f f i c u l t . I w o u l d , o f c o u r s e , g i v e g r e a t t h a n k s t o my a d v i s o r , V a l e r i e R a o u l , who under g r e a t t i m e p r e s s u r e , managed t o r e a d and r e r e a d , t o s u g g e s t , i n v e r y s p e c i f i c ways, what needed t o be done. Her e n t h u s i a s m , n e v e r d a u n t e d by u n t i m e l y v i s i t s , h e l p e d me t o keep up my momentum and good s p i r i t s . Thank you a l l .  v  But t h e r e come t i m e s - p e r h a p s t h i s i s one o£ themwhen we have t o t a k e o u r s e l v e s more s e r i o u s l y o r d i e ; when we have t o p u l l back f r o m t h e i n c a n t a t i o n s , r h y t h m s we've moved t o t h o u g h t l e s s l y , and d i s e n t h r a l l o u r s e l v e s , b e s t o w o u r s e l v e s t o s i l e n c e , or a severer l i s t e n i n g , cleansed of o r a t o r y , formulas, choruses, laments, s t a t i c crowding the wires... But i n f a c t we were a l w a y s l i k e r o o t l e s s , d i s m e m e b e r e d : knowing  this, i t makes t h e difference. B i r t h s t r i p p e d our b i r t h r i g h t from us, t o r e us f r o m a woman, f r o m women, f r o m o u r s e l v e s s o e a r l y on and t h e whole c h o r u s t h r o b b i n g a t o u r e a r s l i k e m i d g e s , t o l d us n o t h i n g , n o t h i n g o f o r i g i n s , n o t h i n g we needed t o know, n o t h i n g t h a t c o u l d re-member u s . . . Homesick  f o r myself,  f o r her...  "Transcendental Etude" Adrienne Rich  Introduction  During the 1940s, when Anne Hubert was writing the poems included i n the volume Le Tombeau des r o i s  r  the epicentre of  French Canada was what Denis Moniere terms a "nationalisme de survivance qui c o n s i s t a i t a defendre des d r o i t s acquis, a preserver l a r e l i g i o n catholique et l a langue  frangaise."l  U n t i l the Quiet Revolution, the family was not only the centre of t h i s culture, but also the key to maintaining and developing the culture's i d e n t i t y . father/husband  Marie C o u i l l a r d notes that the  of the family had been given an "autorit6  consacree par l ' E g l i s e et 16gitim6e par le Code c i v i l " , 2 whereas the mother/wife was accorded a certain prestige by being "l'&me, l e coeur, le noeud v i t a l . " 3  As Paula G i l b e r t  Lewis points out in T r a d i t i o n a l i s m , . N a t i o n a l i s m and Feminism,, the p a t r i a r c h a l society dominated by the Catholic Church had " t r a d i t i o n a l l y imposed upon women the role of guardians of francophone culture, that i s , of r e l i g i o n and of the French language, i t s e l f guardian of the faith."4  As a r e s u l t , women's  r e a l i t y became enclosed "within the l i t e r a r y archetype of the all-powerful mother, resigned to her destiny"(ibjjjj.) of being a f a i t h f u l servant to man and God and the bearer of those children who would continue the search for a s o l i d national 1  identity.  P a t r i c i a smart reminds us t h a t t h r o u g h t h i s  "revanche des berceaux"  the c l e r i c s b e l i e v e d t h a t F r e n c h  Canada c o u l d e s t a b l i s h a s t r o n g i d e n t i t y and autonomy.5  The c l e r i c s and h i s t o r i a n s of the p a s t were aware of the g r a d u a l a s s i m i l a t i o n of the F r e n c h Canadians by E n g l i s h Canada. The E a r l of Durham had c l a i m e d i n 1839 t h a t t h i s was  "un p e u p l e  sans h i s t o i r e n i l i t t e r a t u r e " 6 , a remark which caused  historian  F r a n g o i s - X a v i e r Garneau and many o t h e r s t o f i g h t f o r t h e i r survival  t h r o u g h a p p r o p r i a t i n g t h e i r own language and  valorizing  their culture.  I n 1867, the poet Octave  Cremazie  b e l i e v e d t h a t i f F r e n c h Canadians spoke a language t h a t  was  t h e i r s o n l y , and not some poor r e p l i c a o f a n o t h e r , t h e n perhaps t h e y might break f r e e from t h e i r  imprisonment:  Ce q u i manque au Canada, c ' e s t d ' a v o i r une langue a lui. S i nous p a r l i o n s i r o q u o i s ou huron, n o t r e l i t t e r a t u r e v i v r a i t . Malheureusement nous p a r l o n s e t e c r i v o n s d'une a s s e z p i t e u s e f a g o n , i l e s t v r a i , l a langue de Bossuet e t de R a c i n e . Nous avons beau d i r e et beau f a i r e , nous ne s e r o n s t o u j o u r s , au p o i n t de vue l i t t e r a i r e , qu'une s i m p l e c o l o n i e . 7  L o r r a i n e Weir r e f e r s t o M i c h e l e L a l o n d e ' s poem 'Speak w h i t e ' as an example o f the dilemma of the c o l o n i z e d w r i t e r who must l e a r n the language of a n o t h e r t o be " v i s i b l e w i t h i n the dominant paradigm".8  T h i s i s the Quebecois e x p e r i e n c e , and  Weir s u g g e s t s t h a t i t i s a l s o woman's; t h a t she i s the underground w r i t e r "who  l i v e s w i t h i n a c u l t u r e whose v o i c e and 2  language can never be a u t h e n t i c f o r h e r . " speak man,  To speak w h i t e , t o  i s " t o be consumed by i t . ( l M i L ) N  According to  Weir, women have been " d e f i n e d o u t " of the m a s c u l i n e  paradigm  and can o n l y e n t e r i n t o i t by " b e i n g compromised, perhaps d e s t r o y e d " and i n s t e a d of b e i n g l i b e r a t e d by t h i s compromise, t h e y e x p e r i e n c e "an i n t r o j e c t i o n of v i o l e n c e i n t o the s e l f . " 9  In the mid 1800s, F r e n c h Canadians, i n o r d e r not t o be " d e f i n e d o u t " , had t o p r e s e r v e the language of t h e i r a n c e s t o r s as b e s t t h e y c o u l d , but were impeded by the E n g l i s h . o f c l e r g y was  The f l o w  i n t e r r u p t e d and F r e n c h t r a v e l l e r s were not  a l l o w e d e n t r y t o the colony.10  Gerard Tougas p o i n t s out t h a t  i t was not s u r p r i s i n g , as a r e s u l t , t h a t F r e n c h  Canadian  w r i t e r s , "dont l a langue e t a i t menacee, c h e r c h a s s e n t r e f u g e dans l a t r a d i t i o n l i t t e r a i r e f r a n g a i s e . " 1 1  By e m u l a t i n g F r e n c h  m a s t e r s , by remembering the p a s t , " l e s p o e t e s , l e s h i s t o r i e n s e t l e s r o m a n c i e r s Canadians du XIXe s i e c l e a u r o n t f a i t p l u s g u ' i m i t e r des modeles f r a n ? a i s :  i l s se s e r o n t t r o u v e s en  eux."12  To be d e f i n e d by a n o t h e r , t o be o t h e r t h a n o n e s e l f , became u n a c c e p t a b l e t o some w r i t e r s and academics and c l e r i c l'abbe G r o u l x .  l i k e the h i s t o r i a n  I n the b e g i n n i n g of t h e 20th  c e n t u r y , G r o u l x a n t i c i p a t e d the p o s s i b i l i t y o f never f i n d i n g a s p e c i f i c i t y of t h e F r e n c h Canadian foreshadowed  identityl3; this anxiety  the rage which was t o e x p l o d e i n the 60s. 3  Anne  Hebert screamed o u t i n 1963,  i n " F i n du monde" from her poems  inAdlfcg, " j e s u i s l e c r i e t l a b l e s s u r e , j e s u i s l a femme a t o n f l a n c qu'on outrage e t qu'on v i o l e . "  Along w i t h others  s e a r c h i n g f o r t h e i r own v o i c e , Hebert b e l i e v e s i n " l a s o l i t u d e rompue comme du p a i n p a r l a p o e s i e . " (PoAmas p. 71)14 W r i t i n g i s t h e o n l y way n o t o n l y t o f i n d one's i d e n t i t y , b u t a l s o t o r e j e c t the v i o l a t i o n of the t y r a n t , that mysterious c o u l d be one o f many o p p r e s s o r s . one  %  o n ' who  Gerard Tougas reminds us of  o f t h e main s o u r c e s o f o p p r e s s i o n w e l l ensconced i n French  Canadian w r i t i n g . The i m i t a t i o n o f French models had become " l a source de l a m e d i o c r i t e de l a l i t t e r a t u r e canadienne."15  To  break t h a t m i r r o r , which was r e f l e c t i n g a f a l s e and fragmented image back t o t h e Quebec r e a d e r s , became a g o a l o f t h e F r e n c h Canadian w r i t e r .  To r e f u s e t o s p e a k w h i t e ' or 'French', b u t %  t o b e g i n t o " d e c r i r e l e Canada t e l q u ' i l { l ' a u t e u r ] l e v o y a i t " 1 6 , was t o b e g i n t o speak as and f o r o n e s e l f . A l b e r t P e l l e t i e r q u e s t i o n e d how one c a n e x p r e s s  I n 1931,  oneself  de f a j o n o r i g i n e l l e e t v i v a n t e dans une langue academique que nous ne p a r l o n s pas, que nous n'avons jamais p r a t i q u e e que dans l e s l i v r e s ? C'est imposer a nos e c r i v a i n s 1 ' o b l i g a t i o n ...de r e n d r e ce q u ' i l s v o i e n t , e p r o u v e n t , r e s s e n t e n t de neuf e t de s i n g u l i e r , p a r des s o u v e n i r s l i v r e s q u e s . . . E t s i n o t r e p a t o i s d e v i e n t t r o p d i f f i c i l e aux a c a d e m i c i e n s , eh b i e n , t a n t mieux; c ' e s t que nous aurons une langue a n o u s . . . S i l e s F r a n ? a i s v e u l e n t nous l i r e , l i s nous t r a d u i r o n t , comme l i s t r a d u i s e n t l a l i t t e r a t u r e provengalel7.  L i k e P e l l e t i e r , o t h e r w r i t e r s began s e a r c h i n g n o t f o r a l o s t 4  v o i c e but f o r a v o i c e t h a t had never been t h e i r s , f o r t h e i r tongue; f o r a language which would e x p r e s s t h e i r own  own  reality  and not "des b a r i o l a g e s Cet] une l i t t e r a t u r e de p a l e s reflets".18  A f t e r the Second World War p r i n c i p l e s , morals and  r e l i g i o n a l l had t o undergo r e v i s i o n l 9 .  Pernand Dumont remarks  t h a t F r e n c h Canadians found themselves f r o z e n i n a n e u t r a l s p o t ; un " p o i n t  z e r o e n t r e l e passe e t l ' a v e n i r " 2 0 from which  t h e y c o u l d look back a t the " v i e i l l e s n o s t a l g i e s muettes e t [&] l ' u t o p i e de l ' a v e n i r . " 2 1  Dumont's emphasis on s p e a k i n g , on  b r e a k i n g t h e s i l e n c e and r i d d i n g o n e s e l f of e a r l i e r * b a l b u t i e m e n t s • 2 2 i s a common t h r e a d which has been weaving through Quebec l i t e r a t u r e s i n c e the  War.  In 1948, w i t h the p u b l i c a t i o n of the m a n i f e s t o Rafua g l o b a l  f  t h e r e was an e x p l o s i o n of r e b e l l i o n a g a i n s t the p a s t , a r e f u s a l of a h i s t o r y which had s t e r i l i z e d , o r d e r e d and muted F r e n c h Canadians.  Under the l e a d e r s h i p of P a u l - E m i l e Borduas, t h i s  p u b l i c a t i o n was t o be the c a t a l y s t t o " e c l a t e r l e s c a d r e s t r a d i t i o n n e l s de l a p o e s i e canadienne."23  Guy R o b e r t , n o t e s  t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l , empowered by the c o l l e c t i v e , began t o have the f o r c e t o "se d e b a r a s s e r de t o u s l e s c o l o n i s a t e u r s q u i l u i ptsent"24.  Fernand O u e l l e t t e speaks of r e b i r t h , as w e l l as of  "un r e f u s de l a v i e s o u t e r r a i n e " 2 5 , of a n i g h t or d a r k n e s s which had s u f f o c a t e d the F r e n c h C a n a d i a n , and k e p t him from f i n d i n g h i s t r u e v o i c e and s p e a k i n g h i s own e x p e r i e n c e .  5  women writers in Quebec shared t h i s experience of oppression, and t e n t a t i v e l y began to reveal the h i s t o r y of their own oppression whose roots are deeply embedded in the powerful forces of the Church. N  Catholic doctrines had imposed  une r e l i g i o n qui dompte l a chair 26 and demanded quiet,  obedient  N  submission to God and to man.  And yet, i n e a r l y  writing, women writers were beginning to test the boundaries of their oppression.  P a t r i c i a Smart remarks that  women were  relegated to the status of being "other"; bound by their p a t r i a r c h a l l y defined role of "mere mythique", and excluded from the p a t r i a r c h a l lineage of God the Father to God the Son27, they began to whisper their secrets to each other.  This  'bavardage' between women i s an exchange of words which does not necessarily lead to a f i n a l s i g n i f i c a t i o n , to closure or even to sense.  This burbling, a balbutiement• amongst %  themselves, t h i s "foule de riens feminins" Conan's Angellne de Montbrun (1884).28  surfaces in Laure  I t proved  impossible,  though, to escape t o t a l l y from the powers which had defined women as muted, submissive creatures.  As i n the case of Hebert  and Conan, women exhibited, in their writing and i n their heroines, a tension between being the good, quiet, l i t t l e and a woman screaming her rage.  girl  The p u l l i n two d i r e c t i o n s i s  evident in Conan's choice of wording in AngAline.  i n one  instance, Conan's r e v i s i o n from the o r i g i n a l e d i t i o n reveals her awareness of the Church's power over her.  The author  yields to t h i s power and changes an image of God's breaking her 6  to one of God's grace of silence.  Laurent Mailhot notes the  change: "'Puisque Dieu a commence q u ' i l acheve de me b r i s e r ' (edition originale) sera remplace par...*Dieu m'a f a i t cette grace de ne jamais murmurer.'"29  Woman has been silenced since her beginnings.  This silence  had been imposed long before the s i l e n c i n g of the French Canadians.  According to Frances Beer, woman has been morally  crippled and made mute by the dominant powers since Eve's disobedience to God.  Woman has been perceived as temptress, as  "janua d i a b o l i " or d e v i l ' s gateway, since the days of Jerome, Anthony and Augustine30.  Her i d e n t i t y has been defined by men.  Temptress and witch or v i r g i n and princess have been women's alternative r o l e s , isolated or burned i f the one, and stripped of f l e s h and passion i f the other.  Woman was defined in the  Middle Ages by c l e r i c s l i k e Andreas Capellanus, as "a l i a r , a drundar, a babbler, no keeper of secrets, too much given to wantonness, prone to every evil"31.  And having believed t h i s ,  woman has become s i l e n t , has entered, Madeleine Gagnon remarks, "dans les regies du jeu de nos conquerants; nous l e s avons mime aimes, ces regies et ces conquerants et nous les aimons encore"32.  G i l l e s Marcotte interprets Conan's "style de  couventine" as having 'played the game'.  The muted voice,  however, reveals "l'abime du desespoir" and " l a grande c l a r t e du desabusement 33. N  Marcotte explains that t h i s "neant", t h i s  " d e r e l i c t i o n " i n which Angeline i s confined i s the r e s u l t of 7  " 1 ' i n t e r d i c t i o n p a r f a i t e e t a b s o l u e " of t h e f a t h e r s who "forment ecran devant l a v i e a v i v r e , devant l e p r e s e n t  [...et]  t i r e n t a eux t o u t e l ' e x i s t e n c e d i s p o n i b l e " 3 4 . The f a t h e r c r e a t e s t h i s "abtme" i n t o which t h e daughter s l i d e s and where she remains mute, a b s e n t .  M e t a p h o r i c a l cages - t h e c i t y , an  apartment, a subway, a c a v e , t h e e a r t h , h e r body, a house h e r o i n e s , p r e s e n t and p a s t , have been caught i n t h e s e patriarchal constructs.  To break f r e e from them has been an  o n - g o i n g , f r u s t r a t i n g s t r u g g l e , t h a t f o r each woman a l o n e has been a s e e m i n g l y i m p o s s i b l e  task.  i n h e r r e c e n t l y p u b l i s h e d book B e r t i e dans l a malaon du pAre, P a t r i c i a Smart s u g g e s t s t h a t i n women's w r i t i n g t h e r e begins  "une t r a n s f o r m a t i o n dans l a s t r u c t u r e de l a Maison du  Pare [...] a p p o r t e e par une a n e r g i c " . f i n d s i t s source  T h i s e n e r g y perhaps  i n t h e "rapprochement [ q u i ] s ' e s t e f f e c t u e  e n t r e l e s personnages f e m i n i n a - f i l l e s e t mere, s o e u r s , amies ou amantes"35.  The phenomenon o f women s p e a k i n g w i t h women,  b r e a k i n g t h e s i l e n c e , and thus s h a t t e r i n g t h e F a t h e r ' s was  b u t a weak tremor when Conan was w r i t i n g .  M a d e l e i n e Oagnon  notes t h a t women caught i n t h i s p r i s o n , " n ' a v a i e n t choix:  house,  meres ou p u t a i n s ; ou v i e r g e s ou f o l l e s " 3 6 .  pas b i e n des The Church  and p a t r i a r c h y had d e f i n e d t h i s r e a l i t y f o r Conan, a s f o r F r e n c h w r i t e r s s u c h as C o l e t t e , Sand and o t h e r s . d e f i n e d , they wrote.  "Nonnes ou f o l l e s .  But even s o  L u e u r s en t o u s  cas.  Quelques v o i x se s o n t i n s c r i t e s malgre t o u t - hors t r a d i t i o n 8  dans l ' h i s t o i r e  [...June h i s t o i r e a d t t e r r e r , a d e c h i f f r e r . " 3 7  To r e r e a d , t o b r i n g back these " a ! e u l e s e c r i v a i n e s " i s , f o r Oagnon, t o be p a r t o f them, t o expose a " t r a c e de v i e " ( l b l d . ) which c o n n e c t s us w i t h our f o r e m o t h e r s , a *£il' which weaves woman's h i s t o r y , woman's s t o r y , t o g e t h e r i n t o a new p a t t e r n o f the l i g h t and dark which women have e x p e r i e n c e d t h e n and now. T h i s h e r i t a g e has t o be brought t o t h e c e n t r e o f t h e t a p e s t r y from t h e m a r g i n s , s h a t t e r i n g t h e o l d s t o r i e s and t e l l i n g new ones.  The g o a l i s t o break f r e e from what M a r c o t t e d e f i n e s as  " l a femme-ideale e t l a femme-peche, l ' o r g i e e t l e c i e l b l e u " 3 8 , t o r e j e c t " l a Sagesse", t h e image o f a " t e r r e - m e r e " who " d i s p e n s e en abondance...la n o u r r i t u r e " , b u t whom men must possess and conquer39.  Anne Hebert i s among t h e h e r i t a g e o f women's v o i c e s t o be e v a l u a t e d , and was h e r s e l f e x p r e s s i n g a r e - e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e feminine.  A women s p e a k i n g t o women, y e t caught i n Quebec's  s t r u g g l e t o f i n d i t s own v o i c e , she wrote t h e poems o f Le. Tombeau des r o l s d u r i n g t h e decade which p r e c e d e s i t s p u b l i c a t i o n i n 1953.  The 40s were y e a r s o f change.  Mailhot  notes t h a t male w r i t e r s , l i k e Hubert's c o u s i n S a i n t - D e n y s Garneau, A l a i n G r a n d b o i s , Gaston M i r o n , Roland G i g u e r e , and G a t i e n L a p o i n t e , were b r e a k i n g s y n t a x , u p s e t t i n g t h e l i n e a r and t h e c h r o n o l o g i c a l , s e a r c h i n g out c o n t r a s t s and oxymorons which would " D e r o u t e r , d t p a y s e r , d e f i g u r e r , p u i s r e t a b l i r retrouver l e centre"40.  l'horizon,  Or, s u g g e s t s M i r o n , t h e y would 9  "reprendre quelque chose de deteriore; ramasser  l a p a i l l e qui a  servi a proteger les champs de l a gelee, mais qui peut encore in L ' H Q I B M r a p a i n e , Miron see writers (most of  servlr"41.  whom were men) caught between " l a volonte d'ecrire et l a necessity de parler, entre l a celebration et l e combat". I t was in t h i s era that poets were beginning to create a poetry which was "asymetrique, d*chire"42.  Needing to shout out their  oppression, which the Church had imposed, these men f i n a l l y began to exhibit, in their writing, their fragmented  souls.  In  the 60s Paul Chamberland, i n Terre Quebec ('64), produced a poetry which Mailhot describes as "raturee, brisee, pi*tin*e"43.  The c r i t i c remarks that Yves Therlault, i n Cul-  de-sac ( 61), wrote "en lignes b r i s t e s et en s p i r a l e f  ...construit sur le vertige - l a composition (discours d e l i r a n t , fragment*...) est elle-mftme une crevasse, comme c e l l e oft agonise l e heros-victime 44. w  Chamber land interpreted l o j i a i  as a "sous-langue" which symbolised " l a langue en partie defaite d'un peuple d e f a i t " . fragmented  The use of 1oual  people, symbolically attempted  colonise."45  r  shared by t h i s  to "tuer en s o i l e  And yet, Anne Hebert has always written i n  impeccable French.  How can her poetry be situated i n r e l a t i o n  ot the emergence of iconoclastic, n a t i o n a l i s t texts?  Clement Moisan describes Hubert's poetry as the expression of an interieur solitude which recounts t h i s "drame c o l l e c t i f " 4 6 of French Canadians. 10  He claimed that Hebert i s  caught in a dream, subjected to a magical force to which "comme le faucon aveugle du 'Tombeau des Rois', e l i e se soumet, e l i e accepte dans cette descente au tombeau d ' a l l e r a l a rencontre du rtel"47.  Moisan reminds his readers that Hebert and others  at that time had been trapped in what Giguere c a l l e d "La Grande ttoirceur", during the Duplessis regime (1936-60)48.  Poets and  a r t i s t s trying to find expression for their oppression i n new art forms were pushed underground, situated i n the margins. Paul-Emile Borduas and others involved with the 1948 publication of Refus global found themselves searching desperately for a l i g h t , while cloaked i n darkness.  Giguere  explains that for the poets of the 50s, for t h i s c o l l e c t i v e "nous", " i l y avalt quelque chose de clandestin...Nous etions un peu comme des taupes qui creusions un tunnel vers l a lumiere...Sans public, sans galerie, sans editeur, sans r i e n d'autre qu'une b e l l e et jeune revolte, nous avions tout a f a i r e et nous faisions tout"49.  The resemblance of t h i s metaphor of  the poet to Hebert's "faucon aveugle" (P_, 61) making i t s way through the darkness of the tomb, glimpsing that " r e f l e t d'aube" (R,63), i s hard to ignore.  Madeleine Gagnon notes that women have also been pushed underground, that woman's speech, her language "est a. reperer dans un hors-texte encore i n - d e f i n i , dans les marges de l a page...hors du discours repere et connu {...) Une non tradition."50  She claims that there i s "une h i s t o i r e a 11  deterrer,  & dechiffrer"51;  this implies a " r e h a b i l i t a t i o n " , a  " r e - c e n t r e m e n t " a s women must d e c o n s t r u c t man's p r o j e c t i o n s o f woman a s w e l l a s e f f e c t i n g a " r e s u r r e c t i o n de nos mortes mal lues"52.  The p a r a l l e l i s o b v i o u s between t h e F r e n c h  Canadian  and t h e woman, b o t h h a v i n g been jammed i n t o t h e m a r g i n s , o r underground,  both s e a r c h i n g f o r t h e i r own v o i c e , t h e i r own  language, both f i g h t i n g t h e o p p r e s s i o n o f t h e Church.  Hebert,  s p e a k i n g i n t h e f e m i n i n e through her female h e r o i n e , t o b o t h the female and male r e a d e r , has been i n t e r p r e t e d , f o r t h e most p a r t , from t h e male p e r s p e c t i v e , from t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e oppressed F r e n c h Canadian. are  But male F r e n c h Canadian s c h o l a r s  p a r t o f t h e p a t r i a r c h a l t r a d i t i o n which has d e f i n e d woman  and her w r i t i n g from o u t s i d e , m a i n t a i n i n g a myth which i g n o r e s woman's r e a l i t y a s she might have e x p e r i e n c e d i t , l e a v i n g i t out or m i s r e p r e s e n t i n g i t .  Perhaps t h e c o n f u s i o n i s because  men speak a d i f f e r e n t language.  B a r b a r a Godard s u g g e s t s t h a t  t o men, women's speech i s "non-sense"  because i t i s o u t s i d e t h e  language o f p a t r i a r c h y , t h e language of l o g i c and o f male experience.  The f l u x , t h e s h i f t i n g c o n n e c t i o n s , a r t i c u l a t e d ,  not i n f u l l s e n t e n c e s , b u t i n s h o r t , e l l i p t i c fragments, a r e women's e x p e r i e n c e s 5 3 .  suspended  I n r e f e r e n c e t o Daphne  M a r l a t t ' s w r i t i n g , Godard e x p r e s s e s t h e w r i t e r ' s attempt t o r e s i s t c l o s u r e , and any one a u t h e n t i c a t i n g s i g n a t u r e 5 4 . Hebert's male c r i t i c s n o t o n l y i n t e r p r e t h e r language as t h e i r own,  but a n a l y s e w i t h g r e a t s c r u t i n y and f i n a l i t y t h e images  and m o t i f s t h e poet p r e s e n t s .  The language, t h e e x p e r i e n c e s 12  and the myths belonging to patriarchy, u n t i l after the Quiet Revolution, drowned the struggle of women in the national struggle;  men and women together were a colonized people who  have together been oppressed  by r e l i g i o u s and p o l i t i c a l  authority.  It i s a myth which, C h r i s t l Verduyn suggests, has been challenged since the 1950s55.  Woman has been presented as Eve,  the temptress,  to act l i k e the V i r g i n , a male  but i s expected  mandate which i s contradictory and "generates a schizophrenic state of a f f a i r s , to be explored (and rejected) by women writers"56.  This self-doubling, representing s e l f -  estrangement, i s widespread in the works of Quebec and EnglishCanadian women writers57.  According to Verduyn, "The motif of  the Double dominates the novels and poetry of Anne Hebert"58. Where the narrator i s pushed to the extreme, "the double borders on dislncarnation, the negation not only of the inner s e l f but e s p e c i a l l y of the outer, physical s e l f .  This [ i s a]  t y p i c a l l y Hebertian theme"(ibM.).  The physical s e l f , the body, becomes fragmented and must be repossessed59.  Nicole Brossard explains that for man, writing  is a means to "retrouver son corps", whereas for women, "ecrire consists a decoller de son corps, a l i b e r e r de son propre corps...tout l'appareil de caracterlstiques physiques et psychiques que l'hornme l u i impose pour s'assurer un meilleur 13  usage d ' e l l e 6 0 . H  Women must, then, shatter t h i s male construct  that they see i n the mirror, as Margaret Atwood suggests. Woman as a Subject cannot be a r e f l e c t i o n of the role she has played in society, i n the famlly61.  Verduyn claims that  woman's a l i e n a t i o n from her body, from h e r s e l f , i s the r e f l e c t i o n of woman as Object i n the eyes of the Other,62 echoing Simone de Beauvoir's  famous d e f i n i t i o n of the feminine  as e s s e n t i a l l y Other, non-Subject.  Jennifer Waelti-Walters playing the princess.  describes the t y p i c a l heroine as  She i s passive, long-suffering and  patient because someday she w i l l be saved by a prince63.  The  heroine l i v e s outside her desires, since she has been taught that good women have no right to self-generated d e s i r e . The image she r e f l e c t s i s one of woman as v i r g i n a l , absent, dependent, s i l e n t 6 4 .  What l i e s b o i l i n g beneath the surface of  t h i s image, behind the f l a t mirror r e f l e c t i o n , i s another story, what Weir c a l l s a "subtext", which " l i e s submerged, the camouflage effective"65: i t i s woman's story, woman's rage. Hebert stated i n an interview with Marci McDonald that her "violence i s authentic. within me.  I don't invent i t .  I t must exist  I'm very conscious of i t now - and surprised too.  Of course I could write gently [...]  Instead, i t comes out  r a r e l y i n l i f e , only in my writing. But I must have accumulated such rage."66  Hebert does not seem to be aware of her rage  u n t i l after i t has been pointed out to her, but Weir suggests 14  that authors are not always f u l l y aware of the hidden message, the subtext, sealed to a l l who have not yet learned to read; to a l l but a particular "interpretive community", the term Weir borrows from Stanley Fish67.  Anne Hubert might or might not be part of a p a r t i c u l a r feminist interpretive community. rols  f  While writing L e Tombeau des  the poet was engulfed in a c u l t u r a l context which not  only demanded that the great writers of the time * w r i t e / 1  'speak' their oppression, but that they do so i n a new way that shattered the coherent, linear text which had constituted writing for their foremothers and fathers.  To break the code  of the hierarchy, to speak 'his' own language, was the intent of the French Canadian searching for that new i d e n t i t y later to be c a l l e d 'Quebtcois'.  Htbert was the female counterpart i n  t h i s struggle, and the subtext lying below the surface of her text of national i d e n t i t y i s a watermark, what Malr  Verthuy  c a l l s a "filigrane"68, whose f a i n t design marks and i d e n t i f i e s woman.  There i s no doubt that Anne Hubert played an integral role in the r e b e l l i o n against the Catholic Church.  The stranglehold  of the Jansenists had indeed been choking the l i f e from a l l French Canadians.  Le Toabeau des r o l s was written i n the  context of p a t e r n a l i s t i c and h i e r a r c h i c a l oppression and Hebert's c r i t i c s were quick to interpret her poetic images and 15  motifs within that context.  The search for a voice, a  language, a name that was one's own, was the goal of the French Canadian.  Hebert cracked open the walls which enclosed, she  shattered the silence which denied, and she entered on a quest, not just for herself, but for the c o l l e c t i v e "nous", for a l l Quebecois.  And yet, Anne Hebert i s not just a Quebecker, but as well, a woman.  Women in Quebec were becoming more and more aware of  their oppression; the d i s t i n c t i o n between t h e i r oppression as Quebecois and as women was beginning to surface i n very apparent ways. prose  speaking  double  through  exploitation i n  i n new ways t h e powers o f  o f t h e Church, of P a t r i a r c h y .  Hebert,  a woman  t h e v o i c e o f a f e m a l e n a r r a t o r t o 'mankind'  t o 'womankind', t o Q u e b e c o i s a n d t o Q u e b e c o i s e s ,  images and m o t i f s  i n Le Tombeau fleg r o j g  meanings and c o n n o t a t i o n s . together  some o f t h e s e  female c r i t i c s , them w i t h  journey reader.  I will  o f f e m i n i s t s and n o n - f e m i n i s t s  poem e x a m i n a t i o n , find  I n my r e a d i n g ,  my own f e m i n i s t e x p l o r a t i o n s .  I will  her o r i g i n a l  images  Rather  be d r a w i n g  o f male a n d and i n t e g r a t i n g than  i n a systematic,  identity;  attempt  poem b y  be f o l l o w i n g t h e n a r r a t o r on h e r q u e s t this  feminine  " I " makes t h e  back t o t h e "womb" f o r a l l women, i n c l u d i n g I will  uses  which c a r r y m u l t i p l e  multiple interpretations  o b j e c t i v e l y a n a l y s i n g these  to  of t h i s  a n d p o e t r y began t o c h a l l e n g e  tradition,  and  The v o i c i n g  t o show i n t e r t e x t u a l  16  the female  a s s o c i a t i o n s of  the  o b s t a c l e s and t o o l s  journey la  with  those  found  p a r o l e " ) and prose  H61oise).  later  women.  intertextual  t h e images and m o t i f s  Interestingly,  this  ("Mystere de  du Sabbat and  seems t o s e t t h e mould  Other  t e x t s many y e a r s  intertextual  poetry  (Kamouraska. L e s E n f a n t s  work.  e s t a b l i s h are with  creating  i n Hubert's l a t e r  L e Tombeau d e s r o l s  of Hebert's  other  t h a t she comes a c r o s s d u r i n g  found  most o f t h e s e  after  links  for a l l  I will  i n the texts of  women w r i t e r s a r e  Le Tombeau  i s published.  " t h r e a d " weaves b a c k w a r d s a n d f o r w a r d s  The  i n time,  between Q u 6 b 6 c o i s e s and a n g l o p h o n e w r i t e r s .  Adrienne  Rich claims  from u s , / t o r e that  that  origins,  h e r " 6 9 , bemoans R i c h , women must t h e y must s h a r e  female reader woman p o e t ,  reading  a r e a l s o "consoeurs" intertextual  to interpret  literature  the "unwritten"  accepted  such  find  comfort  for myself, f o r with  their  "herstory".  rubs  "herstory".  of t h i s Following  Y e t , t o read  i n new, t r a n s f o r m i n g  the writer offers  that perhaps,  ways, i s t o even  to her/his readers.  to f o l l o w the heroine  17  this  against the grain of  literary analysis.  invitation  an i n v i t a t i o n  i n this  The  " t h r e a d " o f women's w r i t i n g ,  o b j e c t i v e , academic,  unwittingly,  "Homesick  experience,  o f Le Tombeau d e s r o i s  logical,  accept  this  we n e e d e d / t o know,  o f Anne H u b e r t , and t h e f e m a l e c r i t i c  the meandering  and  nothing  t h a t c o u l d re-member u s " .  sisters;  s t r i p p e d our b i r t h r i g h t  us f r o m a woman, f r o m women, f r o m o u r s e l v e s " , and  we know " n o t h i n g / o f  nothing  "Birth  I have through the  depths  of the cave,  suggests, w i l l  lead  on t h e s e a r c h w h i c h , a s C h r i s t i n e us t o H e r , t h e G o d d e s s , and t h u s  o u r s e l v e s and t o o t h e r women70. reader,  critic,  Downing  And p e r h a p s  women and men c a n emerge  back t o  i t i s then  that  transformed.  Notes  1. et  Marie C o u i l l a r d , "La Femme-ecrivain c a n a d i e n n e - f r a n $ a i s e q u e b e c o i s e f a c e aux i d e o l o g i e s de s o n temps," Canadian E t h n i c S t u d i e s / E t u d e s e t h n l q u e s a u C a n a d a 13.1 ( 1 9 8 1 ) : 46. 2.  Couillard  48.  3.  Couillard  47.  4. Paula G i l b e r t Lewis, Feminism,, e d . P a u l a G i l b e r t 1985) 9.  Traditionalism, Nationalism and  Lewis  ( W e s p o r t : Greenwood  Press,  P a t r i c i a s m a r t , E c r l r e d a n s l a roalspn d u p e r e ; 1'emergence d u f e m l n l n dans l a t r a d i t i o n U t t S r a l r e d u Quebec  5.  ( M o n t r e a l : Quebec/Amerique,  1988) 30.  6. Guy R o b e r t , L i t t e r a t u r e ( M o n t r e a l : Deom, 1970) 18.  du Quebec: p o e s i e  actuelle  7. L a u r e n t M a i l h o t , Que s a i s - 1 e : l a l i t t e r a t u r e ( P a r i s : P r e s s e s u n i v e r s i t a i r e s de F r a n c e , 1974) 8. 8.  L o r r a i n e Weir,  quebecoise  "Toward a F e m i n i s t H e r m e n e u t i c s :  Jay  Macpherson's W e l c o m i n g D i s a s t e r / ' S y n o c r 1 t l e s / g y n o c r 1 t q u e s , e d . B a r b a r a Godard ( T o r o n t o : ECW P r e s s , 1987) 63. 9.  Weir 63.  10. Gerard Tougas, H i s t o i r e d e l a l i t t e r a t u r e c a n a d l e n n e f r a n y a i s e , 4ierne e d . ( P a r i s : P r e s s e s u n i v e r s i t a i r e s de F r a n c e , 1967) 3. 11.  Tougas 7.  12.  Tougas 11.  13.  Tougas 103. 18  14. Anne H e b e r t , Po6mes ( P a r i s : S e u i l , 1960) 71. A l l f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s t o Anne H e b e r t ' s p o e t r y w i l l be t a k e n f r o m Po6mes and w i l l be n o t e d a f t e r t h e q u o t a t i o n by R, and t h e page number, or by t h e page number a l o n e when t h e r e f e r e n c e i s obvious. Poemes i s c o m p r i s e d o f two s e t s o f poems: "Le Tombeau des r o i s " and " M y s t e r e de l a p a r o l e " (which c o n t a i n s a b r i e f work o f p r o s e , " P o e s i e , s o l i t u d e rompue"). References to the p o e t r y o r p r o s e i n " M y s t e r e " w i l l be i n d i c a t e d w i t h i n i n t h e t e x t by t i t l e and t h e n i n b r a c k e t s by R, and t h e page number. S i n c e Le Tombeau des r o i s i s t h e p r i m a r y work c i t e d , i t s h o u l d be assumed t h a t , u n l e s s i n d i c a t e d i n t h e t e x t , t h e q u o t a t i o n r e f e r s t o t h i s work i n Roj&m£s_. Le Tombeau des r o i s c o n t a i n s t h e t i t l e poem, "Le Tombeau des r o i s " . The s e t o f poems w i l l a l w a y s be u n d e r l i n e d , whereas t h e poem w i l l be i n q u o t a t i o n marks. O t h e r works by Anne H e b e r t t o be c i t e d a r e : Kamouraska ( P a r i s : S e u i l , 1970), a b b r e v i a t e d as K., w i t h i n t h e t e x t ; Leg E n f a n t s du Sabbat ( P a r i s : S e u i l , 1 9 7 5 ) , E_S_; Leg FQVlg de B a s s a n ( P a r i s : S e u i l , 1982), E f i ; Le T o r r e n t ( M o n t r e a l : B e a u c h e m i n , 1 9 5 0 ) , I ; H 6 1 o i s e ( P a r i s : S e u i l , 1 9 8 0 ) , H_. 15.  Tougas  116.  16.  Tougas  133.  17. A l b e r t P e l l e t i e r , Carquois (Montreal: d ' A c t i o n c a n a d i e n n e - f r a n g a i s e , 1931) 23. 18.  Pierre  de  Grandpre, H i s t o i r e  f c a n g a l g e 3U Quebec H I  (Montreal:  19.  Grandpre  17.  20.  Grandpre  20.  21.  Grandpre  22.  22.  Grandpre  22.  23.  Tougas  152.  24.  Robert  26.  25.  Robert  224.  26.  Tougas  160.  27.  Smart,  ESLLLLSL 30.  28.  Smart,  E c t I r e 26.  29.  Mailhot  36. 19  de  Librairie  la litterature  Beauchemin,  1969)  8.  F r a n c e s B e e r , " t h e C o n t i n u i t y o f Female S t e r e o t y p e s : 30. f r o m R e c l u s e t o B u n n y " C a n a d i a n Women's S t u d i e s 1.1 F a l l 1978: 40. f  31.  Beer 40.  32. Women •s  Monique Roy, "Femmage: M a d e l e i n e Gaqnon," S t u d i e s 1.1 F a l l 1978: 51.  G i l l e s M a r c o t t e . Une L i t t e r a t u r e q u i 33. ( M o n t r e a l : HMH, 1962) 16. 34.  Marcotte  35.  Smart,. E c r i r e 334.  36.  Roy 51.  37.  Roy 52.  38.  M a r c o t t e 25.  39.  M a r c o t t e 30.  40.  M a i l h o t 74.  41.  M a i l h o t 77.  42.  M a i l h o t 77.  43.  M a i l h o t 81.  44.  M a i l h o t 89.  45.  M a i l h o t 96.  Canadian  se f a i t  2  17-18.  e l e m e n t M o i s a n , "Le Phenomene de l a p o e s i e d a n s l e 46. Quebec c o n t e m p o r a i n ( 1 9 4 5 - 1 9 7 0 ) , " C u l t u r e p o p u l a i r e e t l i t t e r a t u r e a u Quebec, d i r . Rene B o u c h a r d ( S a r a t o g a : Anma L i b r i , 1980) 128. 47.  M o i s a n 128.  48.  M o i s a n 131.  49.  Moisan 131.  50. M a d e l e i n e Gagnon, "Une T r a d i t i o n f 6 m i n i s t e en l i t t e r a t u r e ? , " i n C o n f e r e n c e des Femmes-ecrivains en Ameriaue. Revue de 1 ' U n i v e r s i t y d'Ottawa 50.1 j a n v i e r - m a r s 1980: 27. 51.  Gagnon 28. 20  52.  Gagnon 29.  53. B a r b a r a G o d a r d , "'Body I ' : Daphne M a r l a t t ' s F e m i n i s t P o e t i c s , " A m e r i c a n R e v i e w o f C a n a d i a n S t u d i e s 15.4 (1985): 483. 54.  Godard,  "Body" 489.  55. C h r i s t l V e r d u y n , "From t h e 'Word on F l e s h to the ' F l e s h made Word': Women's F i c t i o n i n C a n a d a , " A m e r i c a n R e v i e w 1  of Canadian S t u d i e s 15.4 (1985): 56.  V e r d u y n 450.  57.  V e r d u y n 452.  58.  V e r d u y n 453.  59.  V e r d u y n 456.  60.  Verduyn  61.  V e r d u y n 460.  62.  V e r d u y n 454.  449.  4 58.  63. J e n n i f e r W a e l t i - W a l t e r s , F a i r y T a l e s a n d t h e Female I m a g i n a t i o n ( M o n t r e a l : Eden P r e s s , 1982) 11. 64.  Waeltl-Walters  65.  Weir 66.  66. Chart 67.  85.  M a r c l M c D o n a l d , "Anne H e b e r t : P a r i s I s t h e P l a c e t o Woman's Rage," C i t y Woman S p r i n g 1981: 61. Weir 66.  68. M a i r V e r t h u y , "Y a - t - i l une s p e c i f i c i t y de l ' e c r i t u r e f e m i n i n e ? , " C a n a d i a n Women's S t u d i e s 1.1 F a l l 1978: 76. 69. A d r i e n n e R i c h , The Cream <?f a Common Language (New Y o r k : W.W. N o r t o n , 1978) 75. 70. C h r i s t i n e Downing The G o d d e s s : M y t h o l o g i c a l t h e F e m i n i n e (New Y o r k : C r o s s r o a d , 1981) 5.  21  Images o f  Chapter  Shattering  the Mirrors:  Thread  The  Father's  According not  left  What she  new  a t t a c k , but i n French  colony  d i d leave behind  the  abb* C a s g r a i n ,  people  but  to " f a v o r i s e r  of the  past  de  - the  for herself,  was  the  1830,  addition  the  i d e o l o g y of  One  by d e n y i n g  to t h i s  effacing  encouraged a l i f e s t y l e  had  of  the  described  as  these  whose  S e i z i n g the  literature  by d e f i n i n g t h e  them any  been  only  had  a  also creating a literature  oppression  France  a m o r a l i t y t h a t , not  saines doctrines"4.  1943,  w h i c h had  p o p u l a t i o n was  le clerg6"2.  preached  in  f o r t h e most p a r t .  stifling  r e l i g i o u s dogma, t h e  o n l y augmented t h e 'without',  "contagion"  f o l l o w i n g " l e s s e n t i e r s q u i menent  1'immortalite"3, was  from a  masse r u r a l e dominee p a r  clerics,  Walls.  Canada f o r a c e n t u r y . 1  to fend  Roman C a t h o l i c C h u r c h ; by "une  down t h e  t o J e a n LeMoyne, S a i n t - D e n y s G a r n e a u d i e d  rampant  her  the  Tombeau d,eg K Q I S "  House: B r e a k i n g  from a h e a r t  running  Following  back t o t h e Mother i n  "Le  i.  1  treasures  of France  people  self-established  mission  -  from  identity.  In  o f autonomous s e l f h o o d , t h e c l e r g y  w h i c h would a s s u r e 22  the  salvation  of  the  soul.  Both the g l o r i f y i n g of a history (which was not theirs)  and the s t r i v i n g for an a f t e r - l i f e (which was only a U t o p i a n promise), led the French Canadian to a l i f e threatened by assimilation and based on refusal of l i f e .  As Albert Le Grand  puts i t s , "Ce refus du present toujours 116 a une mefiance de la vie et du r e e l s'explique (...) soutenues 5. M  H %  par ces pressions  Saint-Denys Garneau had been well indoctrinated:  A i n s i , dans mon adolescence, une sorte de desir que mon corps  f i n i s s e A l a ceinture.' 6 H  This denial of desire, of the body, t h i s absence, led to a f r u s t r a t i o n which i n i t i a l l y but  enlivened Garneau's poetic genius,  led ultimately to his death.  Jean LeMoyne had a heated  response to his friend's murder: Je ne peux parler de Saint-Denys Garneau sans colere, car on l ' a tu6. Sa mort a 6t6 un assassinat longuement pr6par6 [par les r e l i g i e u x catholiques...] Des morts-vivants, des victimes d'eux-mftmes, des malades reduits a leur pauvre peur, mais a une peur malheureuseraent douee du g6nie de l a contagion.7 This i l l n e s s , which was to i n s t i l  in the people a sense of  weakness and incompetence, was set in motion by the Jansenist ideology ( i b i d . ) .  In reference to Anne Hubert's writing,  Samuel de Sacy notes a sense of self-condemnation and s e l f effacement, in her language which i s "dure, d6charn£e, depouillee, c e l l e justement de l a condamnation du poete, c e l l e du jansenisme."8  And yet these two cousins were among the 23  first  t o t h r o w open t h e d o o r s  their  p e o p l e , t o break  and  name t h e i r  saw  a r a y o f hope  ce c o e u r  aventure  Emerging  [...] c e t t e cela  found  herself  small-town  but a l l t h i s  i n her w r i t i n g .  - playing  difficult;  "rude  her l e s s o n s behind  concealed the rage  of the v e i l  t h e 60s.  the s t e e l y g r i p  Hebert's  o f t h e Church  t h e prewar  land  the calm s u r f a c e ,  rage  the p a t r i a r c h a l  boiled  Church  children  t o vote  fate  i n grinding  until  than 1940 and  of the general  Quebec was s t i l l  when A n g e l  of Maurice  t h e y once had o v e r F r a n c e  over a b l e a k e r  t h e s e c h o i c e s was more  women's i s s u e s were n o t p a r t until  women i n  " t o be a nun o r be a m o t h e r " , t h e  they d i d not obtain the r i g h t  conciousness  w h i c h was t o  As M a r c i McDonald r e v e a l s ,  F o r women t o r e j e c t  even s t i l l ,  for  71)  "childhood tea i n the  o b e d i e n t womb t o t e n o r f i f t e e n  poverty."11  impact  [...1  q u i s'ebauche  i n the c o l l e c t i v e  [...], r e c i t e d  of "the p a t e r n a l shelter  stalked  Hebert  w a l l s [...,] s m i l e d t h e sweet s m i l e o f t h e  Quebec had t h e c h o i c e e i t h e r  in  writing,  l e j o u r e t l a l u m i e r e . " (P_.  caught  parlors  to discover  i n "ce v i s a g e o b s c u r  H  guileless"10,  choie  i n their  parole confuse  appelle  imprisoned  by w r i t i n g ,  de s u r v i v a n c e 9 ; s h e had t a k e n  cloistered  explode  solitude  i n the darkness,  tout  Anne H e b e r t  convent  oppression.  silencleux  dans l a n u i t ,  their  o f t h e cage which  and D e v i l  "stunted still  Duplessis with a l l the  i n t h e M i d d l e Ages."12  f o ra l l French  Canadians.  Below But  t o d e f i n e women a s t h e s u b m i s s i v e  mother o r o b e d i e n t nun, e i t h e r  24  patiently  sewing  or being  stripped  of a l l her desires,  was t o r e i n f o r c e  the already  p o p u l a r myths o f E v e t h e T e m p t r e s s and M o t h e r  Women who d e f i e d "femmes q u i s e s o n t femme-objet,  t h e Church's p r e s c r i b e d refusees  were e x p e l l e d  "La M a i s o n d u P e r e " .  cette  Denise Boucher  e x p o s e d t h e words w h i c h had been d e f i n i n g w h i c h had been c o n t r o l l i n g  that  had been  bois",  Son.  lurking  ou de  Smart  calls  h a s named, hysterics,  " l e s f6es",  them.  They  thus  them, t h e powers  them, t h e m i r r o r s w h i c h had been  t h e image o f a p r i n c e s s ,  h e r dead  dolorosa  These w i t c h e s , a d u l t e r e s s e s ,  b r o k e t h r o u g h t h e w a l l s w h i c h had e n c l o s e d  holding  these  t r a d i t i o n de  f r o m what P a t r i c i a  murderers, t h e s e 'Eves' t h a t  reflecting  roles,  A c e r o l e de mater  e t q u i [...] o n t c o n t e s t ©  sacrifice"13,  Mary t h e V i r g i n .  of a v i r g i n ,  Hebert r e v e a l s  o f Mother  the s t i f l i n g  behind the walls  Mary  darkness  o f t h e "chambre de  t h e " c h & t e a u " , t h e "tombeau" and b e n e a t h t h e c a l m  surface o f the water.  "II fait  s i calme/Sur c e t t e  eau."  (R,19)  A c c o r d i n g t o C o r a l Ann H o w e l i s , u n d e r g r o u n d s p a c e s , t h e tomb o f the k i n g s or t h e M6tro world  of the past  living."14 for  i n Hebert's H e l o i s e  The c o n v e n t i n L e s E n f a n t s d u S a b b a t  dead come back  to life,  by t h e Church.  t h e end o f Kamouraska; burled  alive  represent "the  which d i s r u p t s and d e s t r o y s t h e w o r l d o f t h e  t h e ' c a b a n e ' where d e s i r e s  buried  r  finally  i s abandonned  flow f r e e l y ,  where t h e  where Mary becomes t h e E v e who h a d been T h i s E v e comes back an u n i d e n t i f i e d  s u r f a c e s a s symbol  from t h e dead  near  woman who h a d been  o f power, n o t e s S m a r t , b u t  s t i l l as a v i c t i m of the culturelS:  Dans un champ aride, sous les pierres, on a dtiterre une femme noire, vivante, datant d'une epoque reculee et sauvage. Etrangement conserved. On l ' a l&chee dans l a p e t i t e v i l l e . Puis on s'est barricade, chacun chez s o i . Tant l a peur qu'on a de cette femme est grande et profonde. Chacun se d i t que l a faim de vivre de cette femme, enterree vive, i l y a s i longtemps, doit §tre s i f£roce et entiere, accumulee sous l a terre, depuis des s i e c l e s ! On n'en a sans doute jamais connu de semblable. Lorsque l a femme se presente dans l a v i l l e , courant et implorant, le tocsin se met a. sonner. E l l e ne trouve que des portes fermees et le desert de terre battue dont sont f a i t e s l e s rues. II ne l u i reste plus qu'a mourir de faim et de solitude. (&, 250)  Women l i k e Hubert, writing "Men avant les feministes de nos jours, [...et] inscrivant les traces de leur propre s u b j e c t i v i t y dans l e langage l l t t y r a i r e " , have exposed " l ' i c h o d'une m6moire ancienne" which finds i t s source i n " l ' o r i g i n e maternelle 16. N  Smart suggests, i n re-reading f a m i l i a r texts,  women's texts l i k e Hebert's, that we use what Nicole Brossard has c a l l e d a new angle of v i s i o n .  Brossard wants readers and  c r i t i c s to position themselves so that " l e corps opaque du p a t r i a r c a t " does not block this new v i s i o n l 7 .  This new  perspective reveals potential, multiple new readings of familiar texts.  I t also reveals the 'origine maternelle' which  can be traced through women's history and l i t e r a t u r e .  Sisters  see each other for the f i r s t time, "les femmes tu6es" are unearthed and brought back to l i f e . 26  Generations of "meres  mortes", no longer silenced by patriarchal culture, f i n a l l y release " l e c r i d e l i r a n t profere par 1'spouse parfaite"18 whose womb has been incessantly f i l l e d for centuries, or by " l a f i l l e maigre" whose sensuous flesh has been carved away from her s t e r i l e bones. "sa  This absence, remarks Albert Le Grand, finds  plus e s s e n t i e l l e nudite dans les poemes du Tombeau des  rjiia.."19  Denis Bouchard, i n his study, Une Lecture d'Anne Hubert  r  interprets the bastard son of Le Torrent as " l e symbole de tous les  Quebecois."20  Francois has l i t t l e  As the c h i l d of " l a mere t e r r i f i a n t e " , power to throw down the chains which have  now grown roots, which have entangled him from within.  (X,36)  The male c h i l d , isolated, emptied, absent, i s the metaphor for a Quebec which had been "abandonne par les Frangais [...et] abatardi par l e s Anglais"21.  In Le Tombeau des r o i s . the  heroine i s a c h i l d who has not only been c h i s e l l e d into the barest, purest model by Church doctrine, but also must fight with a l l her force " l a menace d'Eve".  Having been defined as  both V i r g i n and Eve, women in French Canada have carried with them, according to Bouchard, " l a conscience de l'echec du m&le"22.  Being f e r t i l e mother, v i r g i n daughter and e r o t i c  temptress, the heroine in Hebert's work exists i n a schizoid state. or  Compileit at times, she retreats into the safe convent  room, into " l a plus etanche ma1son" (R, 45)  of the Father.  To hide her head under a rock or squeeze herself under the 27  protective s h e l l of a pebble  (£,45), not to move for fear of  disturbing the wall of silence which surrounds her (E,44), to polish her bones as i f they were precious metals  (E,33), i s to  be an accomplice to the oppression which controls her.  In Kamouraska  f  the heroine's awareness, not only of her  complicity, but as well, of this s p l i t of s e l f , i s more astute Elizabeth says, "Je d i s je' %  et je suis une autre." (K.,115).  Bouchard notes that t h i s 'Autre', t h i s other side of the Doubl frightens, and yet fascinates her23.  At a given moment, the  Hebertian heroine becomes aware of her two h i s t o r i e s ; one of patriarchy which has defined her as "Sans nom ni visage. Detruite.  N16e." (K.,215)  Her existence i s that of "une poupe  mecanique, appuyee au bras du mari" sol  where she must "penser a  a l a troisieme personne" (K., 71).  Madeleine Gagnon  suggests that women must deconstruct the patriarchy's alienating projections of women and delve into the concealed history of our mothers, a " t r a v a i l de resurrection de nos mortes mal lues, de nos mortes non muettes."24 have been f i g h t i n g their oppression.  These women  Gagnon includes Louise  L ' A b b e , Flora T r i s t a n , Colette, Sand, Conan in the l i s t of those who have not remained s i l e n t .  These "aleules  ecrivaines"25, and more recent ones, l i k e Guevremont, Roy, Hebert, must come back to l i f e , must be re-read from new angles, as Brossard has proposed.  Women's h i s t o r y has been  masked by p a t r i a r c h a l indoctrination and women have had no 28  choice  but  Gabrielle two  t o be Pascal  roles;  revolt  that  s o e u r que  I n Le  stiffled  i n order  Hebertian  to get  back h e r  confusion  victims.  heroine  victim finally  Tombeau d e s  nous a v o n s " ,  entered  i n t o "La  porte",  this  laiteuse",  and  "son  will  as  Pare".  r  f o r the  feminlste"27  but  as  "Meme".  And  which p u l l s  and  passive, domestic  her  "cette  has  t r a v e r s de  Smart  in Ecrlre emits  " l a voix  women no  i s the  longer  turning  conscience  sisters  out  of  their  life:  Nous menons une  v i e s i minuscule et tranquille Que pas un de nos mouvements l e n t s Ne d e p a s s e l ' e n v e r s de c e m i r o i r l i m p i d e Ou c e t t e s o e u r que nous a v o n s Se b a i g n e b l e u e s o u s l a l u n e T a n d i s que c r o i t s o n o d e u r c a p i t e u s e . (R,48) Women s h a r e  each o t h e r s '  homogeneous g r o u p , f e m a l e  stories.  Defined  identified, 29  they  f i n a l l y within are  la  etrange n u i t  t r a c e of  this  " l a p r i s e de  their  " p e t i t e morte"  together  "femme-enfant", her  to find  "une  Patricia  a v e r y much a l i v e links  "en  form of  suggests that t h i s  This vibrant thread  their  " p e t i t e morte",  L y i n g dead  i n the  play  autonomy26.  (R,47,48) who  odeur c a p t i e u s e . "  pere  "Autre",  the  will  explode  in identity,  enfant"  emits l i f e  "odeur c a p i t e u s e " as  feminine".  rois  i s "une  M a i s o n du  sister  d a n s l a m a i s o n du  defined  the  submissive  a l l f o r c e women t o e s c a p e t o c h i l d h o o d  liberation.  point  passive,  lack of c o n t r o l , t h i s  duplicity,  this  explains  a passive,  into violent  The  complicity  "Meme" t o  a each  other.  T h e y have been o t h e r ,  forced to  ....de v i v r e a l ' i n t e r i e u r Sans f a i r e de b r u i t B a l a y e r l a chambre E t r a n g e r 1'ennui L a i s s e r l e s gestes se balancer tout Au b o u t d'un f i l i n v i s i b l e A mSme nos v e i n e s o u v e r t e s (E, 4 7 ) . Now, t h e h e r o i n e the  collective  sacrifice  a n d t h o s e unnamed m u l t i t u d e s  " l a p e t i t e morte" has s u f f e r e d . T h i s  s h a r e d among a l l women, b u t a l s o h a s t o be  complicity an  as i s evident  i n an a f f a i r  confronted  walls  son s t i l l  has a p l a c e  death, of t h i s  that  t h e 'nous*  uninvited  "soeur".  depuis qu'elle e s t l a " .  And y e t ,  curious visible,  b o n d i n g , and o f a " f i l i s a trace, a thread  this  rapprochement",  i safraid  within the  of t h i s  sign of sortir  t h e " n o u s " becomes aware o f a which, though n o t  t h e female c o l l e c t i v e o f  lamb, t h e d e a d g i r l .  new a w a r e n e s s , t h i s  linking  Smart  a s "un  "une i n t e r s u b j e c t i v i t e n o u v e l l e " 2 9  30  The  relationship  "Nous n ' o s o n s p l u s  linking  amongst a l l women i n r e c o n s t r u c t e d  story.  Women's s t o r y h a s been  invisible"  domestics with the s a c r i f i c i a l interprets  an O e d i p a l  i n 'His...story'  o f t h e " l a M a i s o n du p e r e " 2 8 .  masked o v e r s o w e l l  Women's  w i t h t h e ' P e r e ' , w h i c h Smart d e f i n e s a s  ' E l e c t r a ' r e l a t i o n s h i p , perpetuates Patriarchy's  yet this  women,  fate i s  i n "Le Tombeau d e s r o i s " .  impotent s o n i s a l s o c o m p l i c i t w i t h i n and  of 'other'  'nous', c a n b e g i n t o r e i n t e r p r e t t h e f a t a l  that  individually,  seuls  sisterhood.  t o be s h a r e d  Albert jeune  L e Grand s t a t e s  fille  dans c e s e n t i e r  n e c e s s a r y , perhaps undertaken, life.  that  Hebert  souterrain"30.  one s i m i l a r  one w h i c h m i g h t  " l ' o d e u r c a p i t e u s e " "engage l a A voyage i s  t o t h e one " l a p e t i t e m o r t e " h a s  end i n d e a t h ,  ends Po&mes i n w i t h  but w i l l  "Des D l e u x  b r i n g new  Captlfs"  i n which  t h e p e n u l t i m a t e s t a n z a i n t i m a t e s a more p o s i t i v e c o n c l u s i o n than that as  o f "Le Tombeau d e s r o i s " ,  where t h e h e r o i n e i s a l o n e ,  i s " l a p e t i t e morte", and, as a b l i n d e d  squint  o u t a glimmer  of l i g h t ,  o f hope.  C a p t i f s " , d e a t h h a s been a r e a l i t y , and  i s i n motion,  t h e new l i g h t  bird,  can b a r e l y  I n "Des D i e u x  but l i f e  has conquered i t ,  j o i n i n g s i s t e r s and b r o t h e r s i n b r i g h t  light,  o f a new e r a :  L a v i e e s t r e m i s e e n marche, l ' e a u s e rompt comme du p a i n , r o u l e n t l e s f l o t s , s ' e n l u m i n e n t l e s m o r t s e t l e s a u g u r e s , l a maree s e f e n d e. 1 * h o r i z o n , s e b r i s e l a d i s t a n c e e n t r e nos s o e u r s e t l ' a u r o r e debout s u r s o n g l a i v e . I n c a r n a t i o n , n o s d i e u x t r e m b l e n t a v e c n o u s ! (P_, 105  The  dead a n d t h e p r o p h e t s a r e a l i v e ;  t h e p a s t o f t h o s e who a r e  'Meme' j o i n s w i t h t h e p r e s e n t , a n d t h e p a s t o f " 1 ' A u t r e " i s broken. time and  rejoice  i n a new dawn and gods t r e m b l e .  The  i s new f o r b o t h , b u t t h e b a r r i e r s a r e t o r n down a n d mena women f a c e t o g e t h e r a l o n g a w a i t e d  (E,105). are  Sisters  In " V l e l l l e  followed ominously  "image  habitable"  Image" (P_,31), man a n d woman, ("nous") by t h e O p p r e s s i o n which has s t i f l e d a l l  growth: 31  E t nous marchons Dans c e t a b £ m e Se c r e u s a n t . Les pas des morts Les pas d e s morts Nous accompagnent Doux muets. Nous a f f i c h o n s Notre profonde d i f f e r e n c e En s i l e n c e ( v . 1 0 - 1 9 ) .  Together, these " T r i s t e s  6poux t r a n c h e s e t p e r d u s "  t h e s e two c o r p s e s , u n d e r t a k e  Fernand new  vision  Dumont r e i t e r a t e d  a new f u t u r e 3 1 . a  t h e j o u r n e y o f women and men a s a Q u e b e c o i s ( e s ) would be  their  own " n o u v e l l e s s t r u c t u r e s " f o r  Rene G a r n e a u saw i n H e b e r t ' s p o e t r y , n o t o n l y  " r e t a b l i s s e m e n t . . . d e l a communication  women a n d men, b u t a l s o a b r e a k Sagesse"33.  Critics  have u s e d  "good b e h a v i o u r " , a s a symbol that  stifled  "Mystere  Quebeckers.  Church and  humaine"32 between  with the past, with " l a " l a Sagesse"  i n the sense of  f o r the oppressive t r a d i t i o n s  Indeed,  during the writing of  de l a p a r o l e " , t h e r e i s no r e a s o n f o r H e b e r t ,  f e m i n i s t Quebec, t o be t h i n k i n g bras"  i n "La Sagesse  (E,92,93) o f a n y t h i n g e l s e . "Longtemps  finally  39),  t h e long journey t o wholeness.  f o r Quebec, i n w h i c h  " e n g a g e ( e ) s " and c o n s t r u c t  (P_,  rebels  The s p e a k e r  i n pre-  m'a rompu l e s claims that  ...m'empoisonna d e s p i e d s a l a t e t e " i n violence after  passive, well-behaved  "good g i r l " .  (v.11)  h a v i n g been t h e t y p i c a l , She e r u p t s i n a r a g e  that  Hebert admitted  did exist  w i t h i n h e r (see note  i n Introduction,  p.7):  J ' a i a r r a c h e l a s a g e s s e de ma p o i t r i n e , J e l ' a i mangee p a r l e s r a c i n e s , T r o u v 6 e amere e t c r a c h e e comme un n o y a u p o u r r i (v.14-16)  I t m i g h t be s i g n i f i c a n t  t h a t t h e poem " S a g e s s e " i s p a r t o f  " M y s t e r e de l a p a r o l e " , a work p u b l i s h e d s e v e n y e a r s Tombeau  seven years  r  patiently  living  active  revolt  eating  then  of ripping  o n l y has taken seemingly has  more o f p a s s i v e l y t h i n k i n g , w a i t i n g and  out the oppression,  spitting  this  before  oppression  out i t s b i t t e r  masculine  erupts  i n the  out of her chest,  roots.  way; f i g h t i n g  oppression  that very oppression:  Women who have had power, a l t h o u g h its  rage  The n a r r a t o r n o t  c h a r g e o f h e r d e s t i n y , b u t h a s done i t i n a  masculine  maintained  a f t e r Le  counterpart,  with  that  which  t h e power o f t h e Word.  a distorted  have been t h e w i t c h e s ,  version of t h e E v e s who  have had t o d e n o u n c e a l l who have b e e n c o m p l i c i t i n t h e i r oppression: including  a l l components o f t h e p a t r i a r c h a l  t h e f e m a l e componants.  becomes E v e r e b o r n . defined  system,  In "Sagesse", t h e n a r r a t o r  She h a s j e t t i s o n e d  the t r a i t s  which  h e r and c o n f i n e d h e r and has a p p r o p r i a t e d those  have l i b e r a t e d alter-ego,  her.  which  Power t o a c t , t o s p e a k , t o s h a t t e r h e r  " l a Sagesse", t h i s  envieuse/Plelne d'onction,  "tres v i e i l l e  de f i e l  33  femme  e t d'eau v e r t e " ( E , 9 2 ) .  Gone  is  Mary,  "Les  " l a femme d o u l o u r e u s e " .  As P a u l i n e J u l i e n  sings i n  Femmes":  vous l e s e x i g e z 6 t o i l e s du m a t i n V a s e s s p i r i t u e l s , meres s a n s t a c h e V i e r g e s v£n£rables, tous d ' i v o i r e Vous REVEZ MESSIEURS BEAUCOUP34.  ii.  To Eve R e b o r n ; a J o u r n e y back t o t h e M o t h e r .  To s h a t t e r  t h e s e dreams w h i c h have d e f i n e d ,  w h i c h have c o n f i n e d is  woman's new  boldly,  and t o f o l l o w t h e t h r e a d  task.  The n a r r a t o r  proclaims t h i s  The  obstinancy of the n a r r a t o r  p a r o l e " , and t h e d e s p e r a t e need t o f i n d lacking the  i n the heroine  young g i r l  still  o f Le Tombeau.  i s w o n d e r i n g why  q u e s t i o n i n g who  house, s t i l l  asking,  d£dales s o u r d s ? "  heritage.  In h i s a r t i c l e  Kuntsmann s u g g e s t s t h a t a  baby  h e r r o o t s were n o t  i s on t h e s t e p s  work,  of the  mene/Au l o n g  des  poem she b e g i n s t o ask  which w i l l  lead  her, not j u s t  back  but t o her f o r e m o t h e r s , t o her on "Le Tombeau d e s r o l s " ,  "Je" i s tied  i s to i t s umbilical  heritage."  And y e t , i n t h i s  In the l a s t  of the cave t o s a f e t y ,  in stating  i n " M y s t e r e de l a  " Q u e l f i l d ' A r i a n e me  thread  roots,  she p o l i s h e s her bones, i s  t h a t dead g i r l  (E,59).  q u e s t i o n s about t h i s out  back t o h e r  " j ' a i r6clam£ l e f e r e t l e f e u de mon  (E,92).  these vases  cord  34  to this  Pierre  " f i l d ' A r i a n e " as  which, i n t h i s  case, i s  attached to the past, to un jardln des ancetres'35. %  Memory  comes a l i v e through t h i s f i l ' 3 6 , memory of voices once %  whispered.  And yet the heroine has ignored t h i s thread.  Caught i n acts which are "coutumlers et sans surprises/Premiers r e f l e t s en l'eau vlerge du matin" (P_,13), she Is not at a l l aware of t h i s memory.  "La nult a tout efface mes anciennes  traces" (v.12) and what l i e s below "La surface plane" (v.15) of t h i s "eau egale" (v.13) i s "une eau inconnue" (v.17). Turbulent water ready to churn up desires, memories, "dont j'ignore encore/L'enchantement  profond" (v.25) bubbles away  under the f l a t , calm surface of t r a d i t i o n , of the Law of patriarchy.  Nicole Brossard states that t h i s " f i l " must be  recognized by women "comme trace du passe", that i t open relationships between women, so that "chaque femme m'est famlliere, que nous sommes familieres les unes aux autres"37.  The narrator i s aware of t h i s undercurrent, even i f the heroine i s not.  Whether or not the two are one and the same,  their points of view can d i f f e r due to the d i f f e r e n t time element; the narrator i s t e l l i n g the story about herself, the " j e " , at a d i f f e r e n t time than that of the actual experiencehence a c e r t a i n acquired knowledge i s Intimated to the reader that the heroine does not yet have.  Gerard Genette comments on  the German terms "Erz&hlzeit", or narrative time, which can coexist with "erz&hlte Zeit", or story time.  This temporal  d u a l i t y can cause d i s t o r t i o n s and confusion i n the narrative 35  because the time of the story i s a d i f f e r e n t time than that of the  narratlon.lft.  This confusion manifests i t s e l f in the  narrator i n "Nuit"(E,24).  Again water i s the motif, the agent,  which sets i n motion the inner turbulence between Le silence n  de l a nuit"(v.2) which surrounds her and which provides a quiet resting place where "je sombre"(v.16), and the "grands courants sous-marins"(v.4) which reveal a "Rythme sourd/Code secret (v.9,10). w  There i s safety and peace In " l a continuity  de l a nuit/La perpetuity du silence"(v.l4,15) and yet she i s disturbed by what l i e s below the surface "de l'eau muette et glauque."(v.5)  These undercurrents interrupt the calm, the  complacency with a thumping of her heart "Qui s'illumine et s'yteint/Comme  un phare"(v.7,8), but from which she can decode  no message, "ne d6chiffre aucun mystere."(v.11)  Not wanting to  be jostled out of the suffocating, but reassuring comfort of t h i s "night" which l u l l s her to sleep, the speaker reveals her awareness of t h i s " f i l " which tugs at her heart.  Below the  surface l i e s the women's secret code to the the past, to their heritage, to freedom.  But the heroine i s not yet ready to  leave her l i f e of complacency, of complicity i n the system. She i s not yet ready to s t i r up the amniotic waters of the womb which, over so many years have prepared for yet another b i r t h of another "Son". And yet, beginning to s t i r below the surface are  those same waters, preparing f i n a l l y  'daughter•.  36  for the r e b i r t h of a  To  redefine  what l i e s  below t h e s u r f a c e ,  w a t e r s new f u n c t i o n s , t o e n t e r confines, rebirth, women.  but as channel,  woman, l e a s t  heroine  to psychic  role own  or p h y s i c a l i l l n e s s  not only of t h e i r  Verduyn suggests t h a t  jailkeepers.  leads the The  h a s no d o u b t  a n d Hyde  psychic  i s so b l a t a n t l y  once women have a d o p t e d  own v a l u e s ,  t h e n t h e y become  their  their  o f t h e C h u r c h , o f P a t r i a r c h y , and y e t r e a d y t o b u r s t  d e s i r e and p a s s i o n ,  This  state being  women have become  a metaphor  Double has l e d t h e h e r o i n e reveals  t o a d i s s o c i a t i o n from  herself40.  t h i s a l i e n a t i o n o f t h e body i n two m o t i f s  of t h e body i n t o p a r t s objectifies,  schizophrenics.  f o r t h e mind/body d i c h o t o m y , t h e  t h r o u g h o u t L e Tombeau d e s r o i s .  second  often  Pascal  So w e l l t r a i n e d n o t t o b r e a k t h e Law o f t h e  with  Hebert  Gabrlelle  or sacrl£ice39.  Jekell which  f o r any  i n "Nuit".(£,24)  of V i r g i n into their  Father,  heroine.  m o r a l and p h y s i c a l s t r u g g l e  but also of the confusion  Christl  a passage f o r  a l l myth w h i c h h a s d e f i n e d  t h e women i n L e Tombeau d e s r o i s  been t h e r e s u l t  manifested  which p r o v i d e s  i n t o r e v i s i o n i s n o t an e a s y t a s k  this  stress within  state,  a uterus  of a l l the Hebertian  suggests that  these  t h e c a v e , n o t a s a tomb w h i c h  defies a l l tradition, To e n t e r  to give  The f i r s t  w h i c h seem f o r e i g n t o h e r ,  which she does n o t r e c o g n i z e  i s the r e f l e c t i o n  water o r i n m i r r o r s .  i s the  of these  Verduyn  fragmentation which she  a s h e r own.  The  f r a g m e n t s o f h e r body, i n  i n d i c a t e s t h e importance f o r  women t o r e p o s e s s their and to  their  bodies  f e m a l e c o r p o r e a l i t y w h i c h f o r s o l o n g h a s been  c o n s t r u c t e d by p a t r i a r c h y 4 1 . reestablish  defined  water,  Women have l o o k e d  i n windows a n d have n e v e r s e e n t h e i r  looked  at their  hands, t h e i r  fragments o f bodies bizarre  roles,  which f i n d  i sa "fruit  creve"  (E,  p l e r r e s d'eau" jardin/Branches feuilles  their  hearts, their  themselves  poing"  pour is  l e rompre"  sacrificially  dead:  e y e s a n d have  which take  arbres  seen  on f o r e i g n ,  polls"  (E/49), " d o i g t s de by an  the heroine's  heart i s  " l a main s e c h e q u i c h e r c h e  59, 6 1 ) . I n f a c t ,  consumed b y b e i n g  the heroine's  raped  by t h e k i n g s  " l i s me c o u c h e n t e t me b o i v e n t ; / S e p t  fois,  l e coeur  whole  body  of the  j e connais  l ' e t a u des o s " (E,61).  Y o l a n d e V i l l e m a i r e and o t h e r refusing  this  "ordre  a  d'ossements/...Et  f l e u r i e s " a r e separated  t o escape  (E,  T h e y have  hands become p l a n t e d "au  f r a i c h e s / A nos ongles  trying  They  i n a hand a r e "Comme d e s  " i m m o b i l e d i s t a n c e " (E/58) a n d f i n a l l y , "au  own b o d i e s .  i n unaccustomed p l a c e s :  de d i x d o i g t s / P e t i t s  s a b l e " e t "paumes t o u t e s  i n mirrors, i n  ( E , 2 9 ) , a " v i s a g e r o n g e " i s p l a c e d on  (Ef30), eyes  36),  been  that  own v o i c e s .  w h i c h do n o t b e l o n g ,  " t a b l e sans p i e d s "  les  a new i d e n t i t y , o r  b y men, women must s h a t t e r t h e r e f l e c t i o n  have s p o k e n , b u t have n o t h e a r d  heart  To b u i l d  posessed  one t h a t h a s b e e n b u r i e d s i n c e women have  p a t r i a r c h y has c o n s t r u c t e d 4 2 .  a  a s whole s t r u c t u r e s , t o r e p o s e s s  social  women w r i t e r s have b e e n  ou ' l e m a s c u l i n 38  l'emporte  toujours  sur  le f6minin  viol,  , n  ,  explains Louise  de 1 ' o p p r e s s i o n ,  Dupre.  de 1 ' e x p o i t a t i o n  The " d e n o c i a t i o n du [ e t l e d e s i r ] de s e  p r e n d r e en c h a r g e , de s e c o n s t i t u e r une a u t o n o m i e " 4 3 have erupted  f r o m t h e d e p t h s o f women who have t a k e n on t h e t a s k o f  "Re-vision". as and  Adrlenne Rich,  Re-Vision", "seeing  proclaims  with  underground.  i n "When We Dead Awaken:  t h a t women must b e g i n  "looking  " U n t i l we c a n u n d e r s t a n d  the  allows  women t o b r e a k  living-dead, passive,  reference  to Julie  the assumptions  immobile and complacent. du S a b b a t  i s " l e centre  fortement parmi l e s m o r t e s - v i v a n t e s ,  But  there  (ES_, 1 7 5 ) :  i s a true  Sylvie  i n Julie  feminine  In  Mary J e a n  Green  de l a v i e e t e x i s t e s i que c e l a  devient  f o r c e w h i c h s u r g e s up i n J u l i e to flee  comes a l i v e ;  Gagne d e s c r i b e s  who consume  i n t o l e r a b l e f o r the Church, t h e convent.  which f o r c e s her t o r e v o l t , t h e dead  r  i n which  T h i s new a n g l e  f r e e from t h e k i n g s  i n Les Enfants  states that the heroine  intolerable"  back"  f r e s h e y e s " t h a t w h i c h h a s p u s h e d us  we a r e d r e n c h e d , we c a n n o t know o u r s e l v e s . " 4 4 of v i s i o n  Writing  t o t h e "cabane"45.  There,  the princess d r i e s l i k e , as  i t i n La S o u r c i e r e  r  " l a dedicace  fleur  sechee e n t r e l e s p a g e s " a n d b e g i n s t o move, " i n s i s t e a j o u i r , se  remembrer, r e n o u e r a v e c l ' i n o u i e . " 4 6  Tombeau d e s r o i s " c o n f r o n t s consents t o the rape. Hebert:  consentement au v i o l " son  ultime  the fantastic,  Patricia  une p e r s p e c t i v e  e t plus t e r r i b l e  states that  even d'Anne  i ti s in "le  " l a p a s s i v i t e feminine c o n s e q u e n c e " and t h a t  39  o f "Le  the kings,  Smart, i n " L a P o e s i e  feminine",  that  The h e r o i n e  e s t amenee a this  "rencontre  de l a mort e s t v e c u e comme une noce  Philippe  strange"47.  Haeck, whom, i n t h e above a r t i c l e ,  'homme f e m i n i s t e ' , e x p o s e s h i s v u l n e r a b i l i t y , the  rules of patriarchal  criticism  Men  and women who commit t h i s  Smart c a l l s an by t r a n s g r e s s i n g  and o f " m a s c u l i n e "  writing.  t r a n s g r e s s i o n , " p r a t i g u e n t une  b r e c h e dans l a f o r t e r e s s e d e s e c r i t u r e s m a s c u l i n e s . " 4 8 writing  style  i s an i n t e r e s t i n g  s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d , masculine  stereotype  fragmented, p o e t i c , feminine the  rape  A me rompre  is  crime  q u icrevent  Haeck r i p s  a risk,  i s indeed  Feminist  might  p l u s que l e s m o r t s d'un  open t h e p r o t e c t i v e s u r f a c e o f  not only dared  but  he h a s a l s o b a r e d  questions,  New  interpretation  feel  p o t e n t i a l l y an a l i e n a t i n g one. much more c o m f o r t a b l e  some o f h i s more p a t r i a r c h a l  has  mon hymen, q u i me  b u t one w h i c h condemns h i s own s e x o f s u c h  a heinous crime, critics  thesubjective,  grands pharaons d'ebene' q u i  by r e v e a l i n g t h e m u l t i p l e rape.  by i t s e l f  than  with  logical,  Haeck's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f  l e s o s , ne s o n t  'songe h o r r i b l e ' " 4 9 . the  one.  i s v e r y b l u n t . "Les 'sept  'me c o u c h e n t e t me b o i v e n t ' , serrent  mix o f t h e l i n e a r ,  Haeck's  counterparts.  t o name t h e o f f e n s e  i n this  with This  Haeck critic  particular  h i s most v u l n e r a b l e m a s c u l i n e  t o i n c l u d e h i m s e l f a s a " j e " o r "me" w i t h  self  case, t o ask  other  victims:  j e n ' a i r i e n d i t , quand l i s o n t eu f i n i de moi, j e les a i assassines: c ' e s t c e c r i m e q u i me f a i t f r e m i r , v i v r e A n o u v e a u , j e peux t o u r n e r mon corps-fiume rompu v e r s l e m a t i n , p e u a. p e u j e 40  r e t r o u v e r a i l u s a g e de mes membres. S i j ' a i £r6mi d ' h o r r e u r , a u j o u r d ' h u i j ' e n t r e v o i s f r e m i r de plaisir.50 1  Haeck  i s not being  victim  instead  t o o presumptuous by i n c l u d i n g h i m s e l f  o f as the r a p i s t .  women have d i f f e r e n t d i s c o u r s e s ,  He r e a l i z e s t h a t  as a  men a n d  speak d i f f e r e n t l a n g u a g e s , but  s e e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e , a s H u b e r t d i d i n "Des D i e u x c a p t i f s " , o f men a n d women, s i s t e r s and b r o t h e r s , oppression. eau,  Each  i n d i v i d u a l must  [...] p a r t a g e r  j o i n i n g hands t o f i g h t  "faire  jalllir  c e t t e eau avec l ' a u t r e " 5 1  might break t h e s i l e n c e t h a t  du d e s e r t son  so that  both  " l a grande n o i r c e u r " , t h e  d o m i n a t i o n o f t h e C h u r c h , had imposed  on t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l  community f r o m 1850 t o 1950.  Speaking  " s a n s s u j e t " was b o t h  men's a n d women's r e a l i t y 5 2 .  And y e t women's r e a l i t y ,  Haeck  a d m i t s , h a s been much w o r s e .  iii.  Women's W r i t i n g :  Haeck e x p l a i n s prepared  Telling  the Truth.  t h a t men have l e a r n e d  t o read  t o " s u b i r des choses sentimentales,  women's  texts  d e s r e v e r i e s de  jeunes f i l l e s  q u i ne s a v e n t r i e n d u monde, de l a r £ a l i t £ , de  jeunes f i l l e s  q u i n ' o n t que b e r c £ d e s p o u p e e s " .  learned  " a ne p a s s e p l a i n d r e ,  etre durs d ' o r e i l l e ,  a e t r e s o u r d s aux p l a i n t e s , a  a ne p a s e n t e n d r e c e r t a l n e s 41  T h e y have  voix"53.  M a r g a r e t Atwood n o t e s t h a t thesis  proposed a t the  m a s c u l i n e and  feminine  thesis  proposed  and  women's was  w h i c h had  and  using  toward  "poiesis",  she new,  has  Le  by  looking  unassertive54.  This  deconstruct.  that  in  back t o a l l women  the  They c r e a t e d  a  desguels  the  their this  model  by  literature  t u r n i n g away f r o m " m i m e s i s " and  l e s femmes  moving de  pourront  B a r b a r a G o d a r d s u g g e s t s t h a t H u b e r t has f i t  as  the  would  Perhaps l o o k i n g  voice  of the  i n c l u d e her  f o r the  m u l t i p l e or rois.  for a subtext  feminist reading But,  after  i n the  60's  in a  subversive  i n Hebert's w r i t i n g published  Tombeau d e s  and  B e r s i a n i k began s h a t t e r i n g  imagery.  been c a t e g o r i z e d  "poiesis",  The  forceful  male c a n o n o f Quebec w r i t i n g b e c a u s e , u n t i l  genre57.  has  a w r i t i n g of a n t i c i p a t i o n "proposant  feminist reading  d e n y any  clear,  They d e c o n s t r u c t e d  nouveaux m o d e l e s a l ' i n t e r i e u r  i n t o the  defined  women's w r i t i n g .  Dumouchel m a i n t a i n  and  form55.  Utopian  subversive  s'inscrire."56  to  been r e f l e c t i n g  fantastic,  w h i c h was  read  Francine  Brossard  patriarchally defined  w h i c h has  p a t r i a r c h a l c o n s t r u c t i o n w h i c h Haeck  have been b e g i n n i n g  Hubert, B l a i s ,  mirror  men  v a g u e , weak and  of the  Marie C o u i l l a r d '70s  way  t h a t men's w r i t i n g was  i s part  others  century  Syndrome", a  w r i t i n g i n terms of o p p o s i t e s ,  t o r e i n f o r c e the  proposal  Quiller-Couch  t u r n of the  helped  bold, while  "The  all,  'Quebecois'.  text,  the 1970  earlier  what c r i t i c  or e a r l i e r ,  Any  non-canonical  only after  of her  recently,  asks  would  work  would Malr  be  like  Verthuy?  None 158  were no  pigeonholes  n u m b e r i n g , no did  be  t h a t time  f o r easy  "critics  filing,  m e n t a l f r a m e w o r k s , no  t h e y know o f f e m i n i s m ? " 5 9  critics The  At  even mention the  no  were n o t  categories for  terms of  were a b l e t o them a s other  the  indeed  would a n y  gang r a p e  i n "Le  Tombeau d e s  reader.  interpret  oppression  the  by t h e  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n was  mirror,  or  i n the dark,  Frances  Jaffer  takes  And  easy  of  t h a t was  the rois"? able  to  a l l readers, a l l c r i t i c s  language, the C h u r c h and  stuffed  There  reference...What  Why  Imagery i n p o e t r y c o u l d c o n n o t e a n y t h i n g i n t e r p r e t e d by  ready.  imagery i n f r o n t  by t h e  behind  the  colonizers. g l a s s of  of Every  the  ominous d e p t h s below, w a i t i n g t o  a humourous y e t s e r i o u s a p p r o a c h t o  erupt. the  situation:  The l a n g u a g e o f c r i t i c i s m : ' l e a n , d r y , t e r s e , powerful, strong, spare, l i n e a r , focused, e x p l o s i v e ' - god f o r b i d i t s h o u l d be ' l i m p ' ! ! I...] T h a t l i m p d i c k - an e n t i r e c i v i l i z a t i o n b a s e d on i t , h e l p t h e s u n r i s e , w a t c h out f o r the dark underground, focus focus f o c u s , keep i t h i g h , l e t i t s o a r , l e t i t t r a n s c e n d , l e t i t a s p i r e t o Godhead60.  Marie criticism identite  Couillard-Goodenough produces feminine  "une  new  myths, new  the  publication  lecture  cherchant  meme", a d i s c o v e r y w h i c h  e x p l a i n s that t h a t type i n a p t e a. e x p l l c i t e r  & se d e c o u v r i r A p a r t i r  i s manifested  images w h i c h b e l o n g o f Le  Tombeau des  43  une d'elle-  i n t h e body, and  to t h i s rols  of  f  identlty61.  t h e male c r i t i c s  i n the Since have  gained strength from f a l l i n g  f r o m one a n o t h e r , have p r o t e c t e d  i n t o t h e d a r k , w a t e r y d e p t h s , by r e i t e r a t i n g  monotonous, l i n e a r , said.  u n i m a g i n a t i v e f a s h i o n what t h e r e s t  But t h e y t o o , c a u g h t  P o r e " , have had  down some o f t h o s e  Philippe  and  around  s u r r o u n d e d by  "'Les p e t i t e s  "* 1 ' o m n i p r e s e n c e  r e f e r s t o Claude  filles  t h e same  Dans ce r 6 d u i t  circularity,  11 n'y a d ' i s s u que  between male are  e t son a v e u g l a n t e  oA s'£coule un temps  o f Le Tombeau d e s r o l s  L6vi-Strauss,  modeles'"  du S o l e i l  luminosity.  critics  l a fuite.'"62  to interpret  fige  dans l a  F o r t h e male  t h e "Sun"  as  a n y t h i n g but the o p p r e s s i v e f o r c e s of the c o l o n i z e r s , C h u r c h , would caught  have i n d e e d been r i s k y .  in this  cornered  "chambre f e r m d e " .  them, w h i c h  inhibited  any  new  couronne"  (E.37  du  walls.  i n h i s M y t h o l o g i e s , , n o t e s many d i s t i n c t i o n s female r o l e s .  have  Haeck has c o u r a g e o u s l y b r o k e n  Madeleine O u e l l e t t e - M i c h a l s k a  and  in a  b e h i n d t h e w a l l s o f "La M a i s o n  nowhere t o go b u t a r o u n d  rooms o f t h e h o u s e .  who,  themselves  They t h e m s e l v e s  This tight  f r o z e them i n c i r c u l a r  interpretation.  v.1,3) would  This  or of the  "mur  space  were  which  repetition, a peine.../Posy  n e v e r be s e e n a s a metaphor  en  for a  "chambre" i n "La M a i s o n du E&Efi.", b u t o n l y a s a room i n t h e House o f t h e i r "men", t h e i r struggle. hint  Jansenlst  fathers.  Women were i n c l u d e d  s e x a p p a r e n t l y n o t m a k i n g any d i f f e r e n c e  as in this  I n " P o y s i e , S o l i t u d e Rompue" ( E . 6 7 - 7 1 ) , t h e r e i s no  of f e m i n i s t  churnings.  H6bert  included  herself  in this  world  of  "l'hornme"; women's o p p r e s s i o n by t h e C h u r c h  subcategory  of  "man's" o p p r e s s i o n .  some r u m b l i n g s  of  And,  for a national  identity  potentially  (for writers,  people  who,  loomed v e r y l a r g e gorged  victimization,  was  indeed.  with the blood finally  identity,  found  new  thrust  the  'pen', u n c o m f o r t a b l y  raised  o f power s u r g i n g f o r t h ,  phalluses,  'phallic' the quest  power of a  meet i t s w a l l s of  consciousness, with  this  what woman, f e e b l y h o l d i n g  swooped up  would e v e r dare  self  of past c e n t u r i e s of  t o s t a n d e r e c t and  With t h i s  below  for a  i n the I t was  29)  o p p r e s s o r s h e a d - o n , t o c r a c k open t h e h a r d e n e d , t h i c k the C a t h o l i c Church.  a  i f t h e r e were  (E^53, v .  "insectes prisonniers"  the s u r f a c e , the quest  of the pen),  even  was  i n the b a t t l e  of  the  t o o p e n l y mumble "femme"?  Not  Anne  Hebert!  I n "Un  Mur  A Peine"  the c o n f i n e s of that  she  bague"  can  me  " l a h a l e de  jump i t , and  (v.7).  fldelite  (E,37-38), the h e r o i n e  And  lie."  y e t she (v.12)  rosiers"  i s caught  (v.6) w h i c h  i s low  remains She  behind  the w a l l s ;  blames h e r s e l f  In her  l i e n s d u r s / Q u e j ' a i n o u e s / E n j e ne  mon  coeur"  obliged  l a mort!"  ( v 7 , 8 ) , now  (v.13-16) married  sais  anguish quelle  she  who  have  cries,  "0  nuit  Wearing t h i s  "bague/Pressant  t o h e r male o p p r e s s o r , she  t o consummate t h e m a r r i a g e ,  45  and  ma  f o r h a v i n g made  constructed  guilt  une  "Seule  d e a l with the past, with those  secrete/Avec  enough  l o o s e enough t o " L ' e n l e v e r comme  some k i n d o f e m o t i o n a l the w a l l s .  within  to t i e those  hard  is  knots  in  the  darkness  (v.23),  of the night.  she l i e s  patiently waiting,  d e s membres s o u m i s "  d6sir/Etendus"  herself,  of desire  She w i l l  she w i l l  be s u c k e d d r y l i k e  fruit."  "feuillages/Des veines/Bt  Forthis  woman, c o n f i n e d ,  or w i l l ,  but s t i l l  t o be t h e p a t i e n t ,  reward.  un  s u b m i s s i v e woman, t h e r e i s no  an orange:  w a i t i n g a t "La s o u r c e du s a n g / P l a n t e e d r o i t "  les  tend t o u j o u r s . "  Weighted  ( v . 21,22)  ne l e s r e f e r m e j a m a i s . / E t  p r o f o n d s " a n d "de  (v.11,12), h e r hands m e s m e r i z e  e t l acaptivent."(v.6)  the  trance.  The h e r o i n e h e r s e l f  The  narrator  refers  this  s i t patiently  (Ef21 v . 7 , 8 ) .  et travaillees"  "L'occupent  perhaps  "Elie  down w i t h " T a n t de c h i f f r e s  bagues m a s s i v e s her,  more.  o f H i s Son, and  "Mon c o e u r s e r a bu comme  And t h e n a g a i n , s h e w i l l  e x t e n d i n g h e r hands once  aucun  reaching out t o  t a k e H i s s e e d , h e r womb f u l l  (v.33)  "arbre c r i s p e "  (v.24-26) w i t h h e r " d o i g t s s a n s  (v.31,32).  penetrated, void offer  Penetrated by t h i s  She h a s b e e n c a u g h t i n  i s unaware o f h e r e n t r a p m e n t .  t o her as " E l i e " .  The n a r r a t o r  herself,  " J e " , n o t y e t aware o f h e r own e m p r i s o n m e n t ,  distances herself undergoing t h i s  from t h e h e r o i n e .  suffering,  "elie",  this  unidentified  "nous",  for her s i s t e r s :  not " I " .  I t i s " s h e " who i s And y e t i t i s t h i s  f e m a l e who q u i e t l y s u f f e r s  D ' e l l e pour nous N u l l i e u d ' a c c u e i l e t d'amour Sans c e t t e o f f r a n d e i m p i t o y a b l e Des mains de d o u l e u r s p a r e e s  46  distant  for the  Ouvertes au s o l e l l . (v.13-17)  In the preceding poem, "Les Pecheurs d'Eau" (E, 19), femme assise" is this "elle".  "Cette  The reader does not have access  to know i f each "elle" is the same or a different woman/child. "Elle" might represent a l l women, suffering for the collective "nous", or each one may be an individual, each suffering, in a slightly different way, from the s t i f l i n g heat of the Su(o)n, "Sous le coup de mldl."  What is interesting, is the developing  relationship between the "elle" and the "je", when the " I " finally accepts her own suffering as that which she has observed from afar in the "elle". (the  In "Pecheurs", the narrator  "Je") watches a woman "qui coud/Au pied de 1'arbre"  (v.18,19).  Again, woman is placed in direct, subserviant  relationship to the Tree.  This "arbre droit" (v.13) which  looms above her is the same tree under which she sits stripped of a l l dignity in "La Chambre de Bois", "Je suis nue et toute noire sous un arbre amer." (E,42)  It is the same "arbre  crisp6" which sucks her dry "comme un f r u i t . " (E,37)  And a l l  she and her sisters can do to gain some power in order to survive, is to imitate this tree, to "planter nos mains au jardin" (E,49) with the hope that their roots will take hold. The other choice is to wait patiently at the bottom of the tree, like the woman in "Pecheurs", who "Refait, point a point,/L'humility du monde,/Rien qu'avec la douce patience/De ses deux mains bruiyes." (v. 22-25), This dichotomy represents 47  the  pulling  hold  between  forever  the introverted,  t h e weight o f h e r dead  s u b m i s s i v e Mary who w i l l Son, and t h e e x t r o v e r t e d  Eve who d a r e s t o c u t o f f h e r own hands a t t h e s l i g h t empowerment  i n copying the Tree.  Mains au J a r d i n " d'ossements"  (E,49).  (v.4) l a y s t i l l ,  land, t o give these existing.  (v.12)  sacrificed  brittle  "Petits  arbres  f o r some s m a l l v i s i t o r t o  " B r a n c h e s de d i x d o i g t s "  These s e l f - m u t i l a t e d  (v.3) a r e a s o n f o r  women have  t h e m s e l v e s o n l y t o have t h e i r  (v.19)  B u t , where i s t h e a n g e r ?  " L e s c l e f s du s i l e n c e  (E/23).  The T r e e s t i l l  not  fingers,  waiting  despair;  say,  B u t i t d o e s n o t work i n "Nos  B u t , none comes. None i s " p r i s a u p i e g e de n o s mains  coupees."  l'eau."  Their  chance of  sont  f o n d u e s comme  The " j e " f a l l s  into  p e r d u e s " , h e r " c o e u r rompu"  stands firm.  t h e C h u r c h h a s won a g a i n  "mains  again  As t h e male  o v e r "man".  critics  And y e t , t h i s  might man i s  a man, b u t a woman who now must m u s t e r a l l t h e s t r e n g t h s h e  can,  gather  toward t h e p l a c e  which  goes b e l o w t h e r o o t s o f t h e T r e e , t h e p l a c e w h i c h j u s t  might  offer  h e r body t o g e t h e r  t o walk  t h e w h o l e n e s s and n o u r i s h m e n t o f t h e o r i g i n a l  Womb o f t h e  Mother.  iv.  Beyond C u l t u r e ; the 'Other' Side where s i s t e r s  Pierre  chatter.  Kuntsmann, i n h i s s t u d y on "Le Tombeau d e s r o i s " ,  d o e s b r e a k f r o m t h e norm b y o f f e r i n g  48  a Jungian  interpretation  in  which  the c h i l d  must d e s c e n d  "au s e i n m a t e r n e l " . libido" mort",  which  Jung  i s an e s s e n t i a l  "au d e g r e  " l e passage  female c h i l d  this  "retour  naissance".  a l'&ge  who i s a b o u t  the  image o f a p a s s a g e  man a n d t h a t  this  the  Like  way t o l o c a t e  bounce back  to life,  their  personnalite"66.  These  Kuntsmann  i s the divine  secret"  of the masculine the kings  their  "phallus perdu"!  control  power; what For the limp t o  k i n g s t o impose t h e i r  power  s t e p i n " l a f o r m a t i o n de l a kings waiting  fortheir  prey i n their  "chambres s e c r e t e s e t r o n d e s , / L & ou s o n t d r e s s e s l e s l i t s (v.23,24),  i n anticipation,  orages g o n f l e s " male o r g a n ; phallique, is  (v.21).  lightening symbole  release  Kuntsmann d e s c r i b e s  the storm as a  i s "dieu e t pere par e x c e l l e n c e ,  by s e x u a l u n i o n , b y t h i s  sacred  rape, that  d ' i n d i v i d u a t i o n " c a n o c c u r and t h a t l e miroir"  49  clos"  " l ' o d e u r [ q u i ] bouge e n d e s  a m b i v a l e n t d'amour e t de h a i n e " 6 7 .  1'heroine passe devant  form  [...,] p h a l l u s p e r d u (ou  o f Persephone,  f o r t h e dead  seen as an e s s e n t i a l  not f i t .  t h e pharaoh  e a r t h , a n d commit a r a p e t o r e g a i n  better  is  Hades a s s a u l t  Considering i t i sa  t o her ancestresses64,  t o manhood d o e s  jamais obtenu), represente l e t r e s o r earth65.  this  i n t o t h e tomb o f t h e  cord  "pere d i v i n i s e  "au p o i n t  one must r e g e n e r a t e ,  Kuntsmann c a l l s  t o descend  p r o p o s e s t h e E g y p t i a n myth t h a t of  a 1'origine",  d'homme"63.  k i n g s , a t t a c h e d by the u m b i l i c a l  i n order t o return  " l a r e g r e s s i o n de l a  z e r o " , but from which  emerge t o "une s e c o n d e process  calls  into herself  fleche And i t  " l e processus  " l e s l o n g u e s h e u r e s que  become w o r t h w h i l e .  The g i r l  must p a s s t h r o u g h Lacan),  t h i s mirror stage  go b e y o n g p r i m a r y  (according t o Jacques  n a r c i s s i s m , i n order  t o develop her  identity68.  I n The S u b j e c t of Semiotics,.  Kaja  Silverman  c l o s e l y a t Lacan*s notion of t h e Subjet. Jungian  concept,  developing subject of can  one's s e l f  was  union  will  identity.  The l o s s  o f t h e rape  k i n g s and t h e young g i r l  mirror,  for this  thes e l f image.  scene  that theheroine  looks  i n the  t h a t r e f l e c t i o n , an  i s mis-recognition;"to  Defining oneself t o t a l l y  union.  of t h e p a s t , o f t h e dead. n i tapis"  h a s been  a n e x t e r n a l image i s t o be d e f i n e d  " V i e de C h & t e a u " ( E , 5 4 ) c o n t a i n s b o t h  poussiere  t h e dead  i nmirrors, i nreflections of  This self-recognition  that of sexual  that  way t o w h o l e n e s s .  i nrelation  image, i s t o d e f i n e o n e s e l f , n o t a s S u b j e c t ,  and  With  i n "Tombeau", b o t h  Is being d e f i n e d through  self-alienation."  unlon69.  r e m a r k s t h a t when t h e c h i l d  know o n e s e l f t h r o u g h  one h a l f  w i t h i n t h e womb a n d w h o l e n e s s  a r e w e l l on t h e i r  wholeness  Silverman  external  a i d theprocess of  heterosexual  Kuntsmann g i v e s t h e i m p r e s s i o n  herself.  t o the  L a c a n s t a t e d t h a t t h e human  occured  be r e s t o r e d t h r o u g h  interpretation  looking  According  o r i g i n a l l y an androgenous whole, b u t l o s t  i t s being. best  sexual  l o o k s more  There  of the mirror  d'ancStres"  (v.l),  i s no " t a b l e n i f e u / N i  (v.2,3), nothing 50  to this  but as Object70.  the motif  I t i s "un c h a t e a u  through  but " m i r o i r s p o l l s " (v.5)  which  emit an "enchantement p e r v e r s " ( v . 4 ) .  There  t o do b u t "se m i r e r j o u r e t n u l t "  (v.7).  poem i s a n i m p e r s o n a l d e s c r i p t i o n  o f t h i s more t h a n  castle;  a shell  reflecting  with mirrored walls,  nothing but i t s e l f ,  interrupts the r e f l e c t i o n . live  i n a world  themselves, freedom  floors  B a r b a r a Godard  from t h i s  wholeness  gaze  which  the c a s t l e ,  ceilings someone,  suggests that  men i s of  find  subvers  logical  wholeness.  or m u l t l p l i s t i c  structures  vision,  i n t h e name o f  No s e x u a l u n i o n , no r a p e i s  Instead, shattering  the m i r r o r s of  o f t h e F a t h e r ' s house and g o i n g b e h i n d t h e b r o k e n  This  s o e u r " who,  i s where " l a p e t i t e  not without s a c r i f i c e ,  " l ' e n v e r s de c e m i r o i r  limpide"  monde", i s o u t s i d e t h e House.  'without', from beneath below from beyond p l a c e t o which man's g a z e .  has passed  (E/47,48).  This  " e n v e r s du  from t h e i r  "girls  and t h e i r unto  childhood".  from from I t i s the  being frozen  by  'ill-mannered' bodies themselves,  But a r e t h e y ever s e e t h i n g  51  i ti s  from always:  women must r e t u r n t o e s c a p e  Little  through t o  where w i t c h e s a r e k e p t a l i v e ;  'culture';  full  "cette  Cixous suggests  from a f a r ,  well-preserved, intact  Frigidified.  i s t h e way t o a  morte" r e s i d e s ,  Helene  t h e p l a c e where "women r e t u r n  imured,  empty  Women c a n o n l y  g l a s s t o p r e s e n t woman's a u t h e n t i c s e l f , identity.  of the  by g o i n g beyond, below the s u r f a c e of  and m u l t i p l i c i t y . " 7 1  needed t o f i n d  half  o f n a r c i s s i s m , where t h e o n l y r e f l e c t i o n  of the Law-of-the-Father.  ....parody  and  u n l e s s something,  t h e m i r r o r s where t h e r e i s o x y m o r o n i c or  The f i r s t  i s nothing  i n the m i r r o r .  underneath!"72  "La p e t i t e de  morte", a t f i r s t  g e l " (v.4), begins  "comme un a r b r e de f o u g e r e  to defrost;  b i t by b i t she l o o s e s h e r  rigidity,  " s e s j u p e s mousseuses/D'oft r a y o n n e une s t r a n g e  laiteuse"  (v.6,7) o f f e r  suppleness,  curious  "nous" " a l ' i n t e r i e u r "  frozen,  now "Se b a i g n e  and  rhythmic  static alive  motion  (v.8)  o f t h e House. (v.19).  r  life  death as she emits  " s o n o d e u r c a p t i e u s e " (v.20).  odours,  come a l i v e .  butterflies  t o break  free,  And,  what t h e y l e a v e b e h i n d  own,  but those  In  "L'Envers  i n a frozen s h e l l cracking their  d u Monde"  (E,52,53),  are tired,  writhe  like  encasement.  have been s l o w  t h e "nous", t h e s e  "Desertees  their  "filles  de £ o r c e " ( v . 4 ) ,  a fleur  de p e a u . "  (v.6,7)  "pas/De p a t i e n c e e t d ' h a b i t u d e "  ( v . 1 6 , 1 7 ) w h i c h have f i n a l l y t a k e n or  t h e p a s t , no l o n g e r i n t e r e s t  of  t h e p a s t , they f e e l t h e weight  human  t h e dead  a r e dead c o r p s e s , n o t o n l y  " D e v o r e e s de s o l e i l / E t de s o u r i r e s lives  Mouvement,  of the Kings.  b l e u e s de l ' e t e "  Their  overcomes  'Seething underneath',  g i r l s encapsulated  about  The c o l o u r  As i f s h e had been b u r i e d  l i k e t h e unnamed women i n K a m o u r a s k a  awaken; l i t t l e  What was  now l i v i n g c r e a t u r e r e p l a c e t h e  deadness o f the f r o z e n p a s t .  the senses  nuit  s o f t n e s s , mouvement t o t h e  bleue sous l a l u n e "  of t h i s  plein  their  toll.  Their  them; h a v i n g c a r r i e d of their  lovers, t h e burden  o p p r e s s i o n i n male  form:  Nous t e n o n s d ' 6 t r a n g e s l o u r d e s t e t e s Q u i ne s o n t p l u s a nous  52  d'amants  P e s e n t e t meurent e n t r e  The  weight of the  repeated  nasals  " e n t r e " and  low  doigts  innocents. (v.20-22)  vowels  i n "pesent"  and  i n "tenons",  "etranges",  "amants",  "innocents",  overwhelming.  nos  And  and  of the  liquid  "meurent", o f  the  "sont",  / r / and  / l / ,  is  yet,  L a v o i x de l ' o i s e a u H o r s de s o n c o e u r e t de  rangees ailleurs C h e r c h e eperdument l a p o r t e de l a memoire P o u r v i v r e e n c o r e un p e t i t s o u f f l e de temps. (v.23-26)  The her  bird  has  able.  Here a g a i n ,  but  finding  comfort  The  her  c r y i n g out,  rescue,  door  companion o f the  wanderings, s u f f e r i n g  destinations, not  been t h e  t o a l l women.  bird,  pain, searching  bird  comes n o t  Muted, t i r e d ,  numbers, a r e  o f memory w h i c h w i l l v o i c e of the  the  rebirth,  the  womb, comes f r o m t h i s  with  this  s t e p out  sight,  out  o f h a b i t , away f r o m t h e  d'amant", i s t o d e c i d e  this  to act:  53  new  when she  was  heroine's  "nous",  though for  the  ancestresses.  i t s body w h i c h has t h i s door.  isolated,  now  her  o n l y to the  true Maternal  hope comes a c t i o n f r o m one  throughout  unable to look  o n l y p a r t of  hope t o f i n d original  out  b r i n g them t o t h e i r  been wounded, f r a g m e n t e d , s e a r c h e s new  heroine  v o i c i n g i t s complaint  the  in their  ses a i l e s  of the  The  last  nourishment  small voice. "nous".  "etranges  The  lourdes  not  from And  first  tetes  L'une de nous s e d e c i d e E t doucement a p p r o c h e l a t e r r e de s o n o r e i l l e Comme une b o i t e s c e l l e e t o u t e s o n o r e d'insectes prisonnlers E l l e d i t : " L a p r a i r i e e s t e n v a h i e de b r u i t Aucun a r b r e  n'y pousse s e s r a c i n e s silencieuses Au c o e u r n o i r de l a n u i t . C ' e s t i c i l ' e n v e r s d u monde Q u i done nous a c h a s s e e s de c e c o t e ? " (v.27-34)  In t h i s  stanza,  the lines  emphasizes a r e l a t i v e what t h e y of  which  de p a r o l e  f l o w s y n t a c t i c a l l y smoothly which  c a l m n e s s ; t h e g i r l s a r e n o t y e t aware o f  have d i s c o v e r e d .  T h e r e a r e two s e c t i o n s , t h e f i r s t  i s n o t d e f i n e d by a n y p u n c t u a t i o n  "prisonnlers").  The f i r s t  three  lines  (after  introduce the  individual,  a s o p p o s e d t o t h e "nous", who t a k e s  search  t h e e a r t h , c a u t i o u s l y approaches her e a r t o t h e  into  e a r t h , a s one would t o a b e l l y the in  burblings, the rustlings  full  of c h i l d .  She l i s t e n s t o  below the s u r f a c e , n o i s e s  t h e womb, o f p e r h a p s some "femme n o i r e , v i v a n t e "  These f i r s t surface  three  lines  of theearth  present  a paradox: l i f e  i s teeming with  comes f r o m t h e " o r i g i n e m a t e r n e l l e " , et  the step t o  sauvage"  (K.,250).  But, t h i s  Brossard  henceforth  demands t h a t we k i l l  production,  below t h e f l a t  new l i f e ,  f r o m "une epoque  have been that  not reproduction,  54  (K.,250).  which reculee  n e w l y d e f i n e d womb i s no l o n g e r  t h e womb where " s o n s " o f t h e " F a t h e r " Nicole  life,  of l i f e  reproduced;  "womb" s o t h a t becomes women's  role."73 defined the to  Has t h e d o o r o f memory opened t o t h e p a s t women a s p r i s o n e r s w i t h i n  d o o r opened t o a p a s t ,  unidentified  rooms?  Or, has  l o n g ago b u r i e d , and y e t f a m i l i a r ,  a h e r i t a g e where t h e f i r s t  This original  i t s mirrored  which has  Mother, t h e o r i g i n a l  M o t h e r , h a s been b u r i e d a l i v e woman i n Kamouraska .  Eve,  reigns?  l i k e the  T h i s woman, p e r h a p s  this  Mother, f o r g o t t e n over time, y e a r n s f o r d i s c o v e r y , f o r unearthing.  Her hunger f o r l i f e  "doit  etre s i  e n t i e r e , accumulee sous l a t e r r e , d e p u i s Is  this  p l a c e , t h e hidden, dark place  together?  f6roce  des s i e c l e s "  where s i s t e r s  Madeleine Ouellette-Michalska  et  (K.,250).  cackle  s u g g e s t s t h a t women  s ' e f f o r c e n t de r e n o u e r a v e c une memoire a r c h a i q u e qui l e s r e m e t t r a i t en c o n t a c t avec l e f e m i n i n t u ( e ) e n l a Mere. E l l e s tentent d'inventorier d e s p i s t e s , de r e p e r e r d e s t r a c e s , de p r e t e r a t t e n t i o n aux v o i x , memoire e t p a r o l e s p e r d u e s . L a s u r - i m p r e s s i o n de c o d e s s u r l a r e a l i t e - f e m m e rend d i f f i c i l e ce frayage des espaces  souterrains"74.  T h i s s t r u g g l e between t h e m a s c u l i n e c o d e s w h i c h have  defined  women and t h e i n n a t e d e s i r e t o f o l l o w t h e " f i l d ' A r i a n e " to  t h e Mother, i s u n d e r l i n e d  semantic confusion. oreille/  being  I n " E t doucement a p p r o c h e  there  i s confusion  compared w i t h .  similar  by a c e r t a i n s y n t a c t i c and  Comme une b o i t e s c e l l e e  prisonnlers",  to " l a terre",  containers  back  toute  sonore  d'insectes  a s t o what t h e " b o i t e " i s  Is the " b o i t e " buzzing o r t o "son o r e i l l e " ?  o f one s o r t o f a n o t h e r , b o t h c o u l d  55  l a t e r r e de s o n  with  insects  Both a r e be l i k e  a box  teeming with  insects.  The l o g i c a l  "la  terre",  the  girl  the  a c t i o n "doucement a p p r o c h e " and t h e s u b o r d i n a t e  clause, the  but, the reader  a s s o c i a t i o n would be w i t h  listening.  In f a c t ,  "Comme ....".  verb  of these  message o f t h i s  and p e r h a p s n e i t h e r i s  t h e c o m p a r i s o n m i g h t be between  In t h i s  and i t s a d v e r b .  confusion  Is not sure,  case,  the s i m i l e  two l i n e s  c a n o n l y emphasize t h e u n c l e a r  "boite...sonore".  buzzing/babbling,  interpreted and of  takes  The n a r r a t o r  this  place  there  stand  vine-like  The n a r r a t o r and t h e r e s t O n l y one a p p r o a c h e s  there  i s no e v i d e n c e  r o o t s of t h e Tree  place  i s a different  three  things:  of those  silent,  o f Speech o f place  from the world  Law and O r d e r and S p e e c h .  The has  Perhaps  Into the earth  s p e e c h and c a n d e c i p h e r  i s n o i s e and l i f e ,  P a t r i a r c h y , and t h i s  i s hearing.  enters  back and o b s e r v e .  of d i f f e r e n t  suffocating,  of  i f the i n d i v i d u a l  i n the conversation.  the observers  i s just  o f t h e " i n s e c t e s p r i s o n n l e r s " c a n o n l y be  as speech  part  i s linked to  The g r a m m a t i c a l and s e m a n t i c  w a t c h i n g and c a n o n l y g u e s s what t h e g i r l the  adverbial  girl  taken  the f i r s t  controlled hearing.  who h a s a p p r o a c h e d  the surface of the earth,  s t e p t o d i g below the f l a t ,  immobile,  l a y e r o f P a t r i a r c h y , does not use her s i g h t , S i g h t , t h e g a z e , l o s e s i t s power o u t s i d e  On t h e o t h e r  hand, h e a r i n g  and o t h e r  power when s t e p s  are taken  Father's  Here t h e g i r l  abode.  senses take  56  and t h e n  but her  t h e House.  back  t o s h a t t e r the mirrored hears  who  their  walls  speaks.  of the  What s h e  h e a r s and  t h e n communicates t o t h e  "Aucun a r b r e  de  parole  H e r e , under t h e  n'y  surface,  p a t r i a r c h y has  lost  monde", t h e s e  "arbres  i n the  bois  sombres"  reflection  now  and  (v.15).  is rippled.  p e r p e t u a t e s new  no  The  lumineuse et a d u l t e  de  for  Sun,  i n t o t r e m o r s by  the  this  chaos, t h i s  with  water.  Michel the  Foucault  fool.  He  excellence,  flat  folly,  Chaos, n o i s e , (...)  The  below the  that  the  latter  p r i s o n n i e r s " i n " L ' e n v e r s du  through a  land  where t h e r e  l a p a r o l du  57  this  support  (v.17) i s s e t  This  nonsense,  images o f w a t e r par  water,  these  monde", make t h e i r is  and  passage."77  of the  longer  s i l e n c e " (v.8).  dead  in i t s relationship  calm surface  i s no  the  stability  i s " l e Passager  "insectes  "heurter  movement i n  de  perfect  the  once s t a b l e  l e p r l s o n n l e r du  f o l l y where n o t h i n g  for  disturbs  earth.  caught below the  de  notes, that  for "les droits p i l i e r s "  Prisoners  or'flge'(E,44),  needed  s'oppose & l a  of  "grandes  t o p u r i f y "L'eau  Silva  finds sisterhood  c'est-A-dire  of  able  Tree  du  "ecoulement  makes a t i e between t h e  states  Mother, the  surface  1'esprit"76.  buzzing  folly  longer  that  silencieuses".  in "l'envers  Their  c h a o s and  life75.  f o r the  of the  E d s o n Rosa da  "element obscur e t a g u a t i g u e  logic,  racines  Silenced  impotent.  movement o f w a t e r c r e a t e s and  land  is, ironically,  longs et chantants", these  source"(v.13) i s blocked ces  pousse ses  i t s power.  fontaines"(E/17) are  others  way  "immobile" any  Silence  fear that has  been  one  will  broken  and To  t h e passage t o t h e Maternal follow the " f i l d'Ariane",  the waters o f t h e o r i g i n a l these  "filles  bleues  thread  womb, w i l l  reaches  motionless,  defined  open.  o f memory, back t o  be t h e n e x t  And y e t ,  step f o r  i n "L'Envers du  out f o r t h e t h r e a d , a l l she (v.37)  made up memory, i t l e a d s nowhere b u t back  womb o f " l a femme d o u l e u r e u s e " ,  v.  h a s been c r a c k e d  i s " c e doux r a v i n de g e l e n g u i s e de memoire."  Frozen, to  this  de l ' e t e " .  monde", a s t h e young g i r l finds  origin  back t o a p a s t  which has  a l l women a s Mary o r a s E v e .  D i v i n g i n t o t h e Wreck: D i s c o v e r i n g t h e Womb.  To  escape t h i s  vain derriere  past, the g i r l  elie"  (v.35).  underworld, t h e cave, Pierre  Richard,  must  look  forward,  a n d n o t "en  s h e must head t o w a r d t h e  t o w e t n e s s , t o mud where, s t a t e s  "dans l a s e d i m e n t a t i o n  Jean-  de s e s boues ou d a n s l a  p a i x de s e s eaux i n t e r n e s e l i e  [ l a g r o t t e ] c o u v e l e s germes du  futur"78.  G a y a t r i Spivak,  I t i s a womb, n o t e s  e x i s t s w i t h i n the concepts For  male Q u e b e c o i s p o e t s  also could  i n t h e '60s a n d '70s, t h e e a r t h was  enfoncer  jusqu'au  place, a place  roots, their  Maheu, i t becomes t h e i r  "pain  o f n o r m a l i t y and p r o d u c t l v i t y " 7 9 .  t h e symbol o f a f e r t i l e plant their  where  task  seed.  i n t o which  According  they  to Pierre  t o r e t u r n t o t h e m o t h e r , t o "nous  bout dans nos r e g i o n s o b s c u r e s ,  58  de r i s g u e r  l'irraison  pour r e t r o u v e r  a v e c l a t e r r e mere."80  nos r a c i n e s , pour r e n o u e r  le lien  The e a r t h becomes t h e p l a c e o f  security,  solid  explains,  "Nommer une t e r r e e s t une f a g o n de l a p o s s e d e r " 8 1 .  Again,  b a s e on w h i c h t o b u i l d .  women a r e s l o t t e d  to f i l l  which  'offer*  again  l i e on h e r back and t a k e  to  t h e weight  so t h a t H i s r o o t s might  F o r Paul-Marie  r o o t s must be p l a n t e d this  male d e f i n e d  Lapointe,  i n this  roles  Woman must  o f t h e male. find  the tree  earth82.  Warwick  roles,  s o m e t h i n g t o men, t o t h e s y s t e m .  be p e n e t r a t e d  support.  As J a c k  She i s  n o u r i s h m e n t and  i s a brother  whose  Even Hebert s t a t e d  that  t r e e , " 1 ' A r b r e de l a C o n n a i s s a n c e " must be "Debout" and  "avoue a l a l u m i e r e " , nommer."83 "une  To s t a n d  that tall  "La t e r r e and s t r o n g  femme qu'on p o s s e d e e t un l i e u  first  step  [est] a s a i s i r  for writers to fight  on t h i s  et a  e a r t h which i s  d'enracinement"84,  their  i s the  fears, to "'casser l e s  b a r r e a u x a c o u p s de m a r t e a u e t e n h u r l a n t ' " 8 5 ,  declares  Yves  Prefontaine.  P e r h a p s f o r t h e Q u e b e c o i s w r i t e r s o f t h e 60's, the  metaphor  f o r " l e pays" and t h e Tree  unshakable s t r e n g t h , And  what went u n n o t i c e d  other  ( o r Lacan's Symbolic  r o l e as place  t h a t which  ina l l its rigid,  symbol  for the writer.  t o women w r i t e r s l i k e  possible connotations  Phallus  the  the metaphorical  o f these  H e b e r t were t h e  symbols: t h e Tree a s  Order) and t h e E a r t h ,  i s penetrated  of masculine v i o l a t i o n -  59  woman was  by t h e r o o t s and as t h a t  i n a double  of this  Tree-  female p l a c e , the  womb, f r o m w h i c h l i f e which o f f e r s  her  maternal source  women's h e r i t a g e "fil  d'Ariane",  receives  i s the the  the  place  to reach  the  place  We  must  f r o m w h i c h we  Adrienne Rich.  Our  suggests Rich  within  must t r a v e l  come, ' d i v e names a r e  not  i n the  i n t o the  the  our  thread,  the  together,  consciousness.  imagery along  find  i n t o the  t o make men  in "Diving  of  p a t r i a r c h a l c u l t u r e , remarks  Instinctively  myths have been a d a p t e d  connecting  of c o l l e c t i v e  p a t r i a r c h a l o v e r l a y e r we  o f memory."86  the  and  This source  joins sisterhood  "enclosed  world  women I s n u r t u r e d  t o women.  that  But  been w e l l  and  where t h e  life-line  i t s nourishment.  A n n i s P r a t t , has In o r d e r  o f b o t h men  our  underlying  forgotten way  wreck',  back  paths  the  proposes  h i s t o r y books, w i n n e r s , but  our  we  must,  Wreck", p l u n g e b e n e a t h  the  surface: by c o w a r d i c e o r c o u r a g e t h e one who f i n d s our way back t o t h i s s c e n e c a r r y i n g a k n i f e , a camera a book o f myths i n which our names do n o t a p p e a r . 8 7  Pratt  s u g g e s t s t h a t we  those  images and  psychic  patterns  repository"88  'revision'  r e t r i e v e those  stories,  w h i c h make up  i n order  o f women's o r i g i n a l  those  women's  to deconstruct stories.  myths,  "collective  Patriarchy's  These p a t t e r n s ,  now  f r a g m e n t e d , c h o p p e d , d i s t o r t e d , c a r r y a d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e mark, an  underlying  pattern, barely v i s i b l e ,  a  "filigrane".  Even  after  distortion,  Charles  Elliott,  a f t e r death,  the o r i g i n a l  a n e c o n o m i s t and t h e o l o g i a n ,  s t o r y o f a man who had " d i e d " , Victor of  pattern  Solow, d e s c r i b e s  familiar  place  long  recounts  b u t was r e v i v e d .  This  t h e w h o l e n e s s he r e t u r n e d  " I " w h i c h b r o u g h t h i m a new s u b j e c t i v i t y ,  remains. the man,  t o , the sense  a return to a  forgotten:  T h i s new " I " was n o t t h e I t h a t I knew, b u t r a t h e r a d i s t i l l e d essence of i t , y e t s o m e t h i n g v a g u e l y f a m i l i a r , s o m e t h i n g I had a l w a y s known b u r i e d u n d e r a s u p e r - s t r u c t u r e o f p e r s o n a l f e a r s , h o p e s , wants and n e e d s . This " I " was f i n a l , u n c h a n g e a b l e , i n d i v i s i b l e , i n d e s t r u c t i b l e . . . w h i l e u n i q u e and i n d i v i d u a l as a f i n g e r p r i n t . " I " was, a t t h e same t i m e , p a r t o f some i n f i n i t e , h a r m o n i o u s and o r d e r e d w h o l e . I had been t h e r e b e f o r e . 8 9  We have b e e n t h e r e  before,  w h o l e n e s s - t h e womb. (E,13),  in this  (EL,24).  This  feminine  subtext  code, t h i s  finds this  N e l l y Furness reader  will  fluid,  in this  we s t i l l  "filigrane",  the place of  "eau i n c o n n u e "  rock  gently  i n the  "Code s e c r e t "  I s t o be u n c o v e r e d  i n the  which u n d e r l i e s a l l m a s c u l i n e r e a d i n g o f A n n e t t e K o l o d n y has o b s e r v e d  world  full  furthers this  thus  of o r i g i n ,  sous-marins" which r e v e a l t h e i r  women's l i t e r a t u r e . reader  Once immersed  amniotic  "grands c o u r a n t s  the place  "dismiss  of strange notion  that  t h e male  and u n f a m i l i a r  symbols.  i n s t a t i n g that  those systems as  t h e male  undecipherable,  meaningless, or t r i v i a l . " 9 0  Meaningless, suggests  W e i r , b e c a u s e t h e male r e a d e r  h a s t o s e e t h e whole p i c t u r e , n o t  the  fragment, not the " h a l f - s a i d " 9 1 .  61  Lorraine  Women's t e x t s a r e w r i t t e n  with t h i s strives  stylistic  paradoxically  strategy  of  aware o f  this  subtext.  the  "a  strategy  of camouflage  f o r b o t h c o n c e a l m e n t and  "underground"92.  strategy,  and  yet  The she  has  experience  surging  f o r t h of the  woman w r i t i n g Weir c a l l s  is a  "was  this  feminist  written  o r may  not  It into  her  this  Even  f e m i n i s t movement i n t h e  strategy  skill  to  knew i t o r  " p r i v a t e p a r a l l a x " which,  full-meaning-,  of r e a d i n g .  "interpretive detect  the  community" t o d e s c r i b e  camouflage of  this  to those symbols, to those  Cracking o f Le "celle  open t h e  Tombeau des qui  dort",  rols  these s e c r e t  bring  the  surface,  f  not"93.  unlike  to shatter  subtext,  lifting a  the  "Sejour Her  Mary, s o i l i n g  yet  demands a  term,  an  reveal  new  can meanings  the  62  heroine  of r a i n which  covers  her  only  cache/...Cour secrets  h a l f of  centre,  the  l i e hidden  the  story.  wreck t o  myths t o P a t r i a r c h y ,  c a l m w a t e r s , break out  "chambre f e r m e e " .  "cet espace p o l l "  (E,42) o f t h e  & demi  pain,  which r e v e a l  c h u r n up  "etanche maison", the  and  veil  r e v i s i o n s o f s y m b o l s and  mirrors,  everything  t h o s e r e a d e r s who  embroidered margins to the the  every  "half-sayings"94.  (E,15).  places  Fish's  "armoire s e c r e t e "  reveals  i n t e r i e u r e derobee" in  i s open-ended and  Weir b o r r o w s S t a n l e y  before  70s,  " p u b l i c p a r a l l a x " -a m a s c u l i n e s t r a g e g y o f b r i n g i n g to closure,  be  underlying  experience.  a f e m i n i s t w h e t h e r she  which  revelation", a  w r i t e r may  M i r i a m Waddlngton emphasizes t h a t  collective the  strategy,  Killing  the  ( E , 4 3 ) , making h e r  of  To  the is the  womb o f  descent  b e l o w t h e r o o t s w h i c h have s u c k e d her  way back t o h e r M o t h e r .  secret", exlste  oiseau p r i s  doing  a  Juery c a l l s  Isles  According  individual  And s e a r c h i n g that  for that  weaves  "manque  " s t r u c t u r e absente qui  de l a s t r u c t u r e " 9 5 , t h e h e r o i n e , w i t h  hors  (E,59).  Ren6  what  her dry, theheroine  "Le t a c i t u r n e  d o l g t s " , e n t e r s t h e " l e s tombeaux d e s r o i s " to Gloria  who, b y making  Feman O r e n s t e i n ,  i t i s the  t h i s voyage, by t a k i n g a r i s k , i s  s o " i n t h e name o f a l l women."96  1. Ecrlts  G e o r g e s Amyot, "Anne H e b e r t e t l a r e n a i s s a n c e , " L e s d u Canada f r a n a l s 20 (1965): 238.  2.  Mailhot  25.  3.  Mailhot  25.  9  4. A l b e r t L e G r a n d , Anne H u b e r t : de l ' e x l l a u royaume ( M o n t r e a l : P r e s s e s d e 1 ' U n i v e r s i t e de M o n t r e a l , 1967) 26.  5.  Le Grand  25.  6.  Le G r a n d  26.  7.  Amyot  8.  Amyot  238.  9.  Amyot  239.  237-8.  10.  MCDonald  56.  11.  McDonald  60.  12.  McDonald  55.  13.  Smart, E c r i r e  332.  63  14. C o r a l Ann H o w e l l s , P r i v a t e and F i c t i o n a l Words: C a n a d i a n Women N o v e l i s t s o f t h e 1970'A and 1980's ( L o n d o n : Methuen, 1987) 17. 15.  Smart, E c r i r e  20.  16.  Smart,  E d Ire.  332.  17.  Smart,  Ecrire  20.  18.  Smart, E c r i r e  21.  19.  Le Grand  30.  20. D e n i s B o u c h a r d , Une L e c t u r e H u r t u b i s e , 1977) 136. 21.  Bouchard  136.  22.  Bouchard  43.  23.  Bouchard  14.  d'Anne H e b e r t  (Montreal:  24. M a d e l e i n e Gagnon, "Une t r a d i t i o n f e m i n i n e e n l i t t e r a t u r e ? , " Conference i n t e r a m e r l c a l n e des femmes-ecrivalns C a n a d i a n Women's S t u d i e s 1.1 F a l l 1978: 52. 25.  52.  Gagnon  26. G a b r l e l l e P a s c a l , " S o u m i s s i o n e t r e v o l t e dans l e s romans d'Anne H e b e r t , " I n c i d e n c e s 1.2-3 m a i - d e c . 1980: 5. 27.  Smart, E c r i r e  21.  28.  Smart,  34.  29.  Smart, E c r i r e  30.  L e Grand  32.  31.  Grandpre  20.  32.  Grandpre  48.  33.  Grandpre  49.  Ecrire  334.  34. Lucie S6quin, "Nicole Brossard: les mots-6treints," C a n a d i a n Women's S t u d i e s 1.3 S p r i n g 1979: 59. 35. P i e r r e Kuntsmann, " ' L e Tombeau d e s r o i s ' : ou l a p r o g r e s s i o n r e g r e s s i v e , " v o l x e t Images 2.2 decembre 1976:  64  256.  36.  Kuntsmann  258.  37. N i c o l e B r o s s a r d , "Sceance i n a u g u r a l e , " Conference femmes Revue de 1 ' U n i v e r s i t e d'Ottawa 50.1 j a n - m a r s 1980: 38. Trans.  Gerard G e n e t t e , N a r r a t i v e D i s c o u r s e : an J o n a t h a n C u l l e r (New Y o r k : C o r n e l l U.P.,  39.  Pascal  40.  Verduyn  452.  41.  Verduyn  456.  42.  Verduyn  454.  Essav 1980)  des 8.  i n Method 33.  60.  43. L o u i s e Dupr6, " L ' e c r i t u r e f e m i n i n e d a n s L e s h e r b e s £OJig£s_," Revue de 1 ' U n i v e r s i t y d'Ottawa 50.1 1980: 91. 44. A d r i e n n e R i c h , "When We Dead Awaken: W r i t i n g a s ReV i s i o n , " On L i e s S e c r e t s and S i l e n c e s (New Y o r k : W.W. Norton, 1979) 35. r  45. Mary J e a n G r e e n , "The W i t c h and t h e P r i n c e s s : t h e F e m i n i n e F a n t a s t i c i n t h e F i c t i o n o f Anne H u b e r t , " The A m e r i c a n R e v i e w o f C a n a d i a n S t u d i e s 15.2 summer 1985: 141. 46. S y l v i e Gagne, "La dycembre 1977: 8.  S o u r c i e r e , " Les  h e r b e s r o u g e s no.  47. P a t r i c i a Smart, "La P o e s l e d'Anne H e b e r t : une p e r s p e c t i v e f e m i n i n e , " Revue de 1 ' U n i v e r s i t y d'Ottawa 50.1 mars 1980: 66. 48.  Smart, E c r l r e  Haeck  148.  51.  Haeck  127.  52.  Haeck  138.  53.  Haeck  146.  jan-  331.  49. P h i l i p p e Haeck, La e d i t e u r , 1984) 148. 50.  58  Table  d ' y c r l t u r e (Montreal:  VLB  54. M a r g a r e t Atwood, " P a r a d o x e s and Dilemmas, t h e Woman as W r i t e r , " F e m i n i s t L i t e r a r y T h e o r y : a Reader ed. Mary E a g l e t o n ( O x f o r d : B a s i l B l a c k w e l l , 1986) 75.  65  55. M a r i e C o u i l l a r d e t F r a n c i n e Dumouchel, "Symphonie f e m i n i s t e , " n y n n c r 1 1 1 c s / G y n o c r i 1 1 q u e a e d . B a r b a r a Godard ( T o r o n t o : ECW P r e s s , 1987) 78. 56.  Couillard  e t Duchoumel  77.  57. B a r b a r a G o d a r d , "Mapmaking: A S u r v e y o f F e m i n i s t C r i t i c i s m , " G y n o c r l t l c s / G y n o c r l t l g u e s ed. Barbara Godard ( T o r o n t o : ECW P r e s s , 1987) 6. 58. Mair V e r t h u y , " M i c h e l e M a i l h o t : A C a u t i o n a r y T a l e , " G v n o c r l t l c s / G v n o c r l t l q u e s e d . B a r b a r a Godard ( T o r o n t o : ECW P r e s s , 1987) 137. 59.  Verthuy,  "Tale"  135.  60. Rachel BlaO D u P l e s s i s , "For the E t r u s c a n s : Sexual D i f f e r e n c e and A r t i s t i c P r o d u c t i o n - t h e D e b a t e o v e r a F e m a l e A e s t h e t i c , " F e m i n i s t L i t e r a r y T h e o r y : a Reader ed. Mary E a g l e t o n ( O x f o r d : B a s i l B l a c k w e l l , 1986) 228. 61. Marie Couillard-Goodenough, "La Femme e t l e s a c r e d a n s q u e l q u e s romans q u e b e c o i s c o n t e m p o r a i n s , " Revue de l ' U n l v e r s l t e  d'Ottawa 50.1 1980: 77.  62. M a d e l e i n e O u e l l e t t e - M i c h a l s k a , "Mythe e t i d e o l o g i c : l ' S t r e de c h a i r * l ' e t r e de p a r o l e , " D e r i v e s 27 (1981) 4. 63.  Kuntsmann  255.  64.  Kunstmann  259.  65.  Kuntsmann  258.  66.  Kuntsmann  259.  67.  Kuntsmann  260.  68.  Kuntsmann  261.  69. Oxford  Kaja U.P.,  S i l v e r m a n , The 1983) 153.  70.  Silverman  71.  Godard,  Subject  of Semiotics  (New  York:  158.  "Mapmaking"  17.  72. H e l e n e C i x o u s , "The L a u g h o f t h e Medusa," F e m i n i s t L i t e r a r y T h e o r y : a R e a d e r e d . Mary E a g l e t o n ( O x f o r d : B a s i l B l a c k w e l l , 1986) 227. 73.  Godard,  "Mapmaking" 21-22. 66  de  74. M a d e l e i n e O u e l l e t t e - M l c h a l s k a , "La C r i t i q u e l i t t e r a i r e ou l i t t e r a t u r e de l a t r a n s p a r e n c e , " G y n o c r I t l c s / G y n o c r l t i a u e s e d . B a r b a r a G o d a r d ( T o r o n t o : ECW P r e s s , 1987) 43. 75. E d s o n Rosa d a S i l v a , " L a R e g e n e r a t i o n du cosmos dans un poeme d'Anne H e b e r t , " P r e s e n c e f r a n c o p h o n e n o . 23 automne 1981: 166. 76.  d a S i l v a 169.  77.  d a S i l v a 169.  78.  d a S i l v a 170.  79. G a y a t r i S p i v a k , " F e m i n i s m and C r i t i c a l T h e o r y , " Women's S t u d i e s I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l 1-2 1978-79: 244. 80. J a c k Warwick, "Un R e t o u r a u x mythes de l a t e r r e , " E t u d e s f r a n y a l s e s 9.1 f e v r i e r 1973: 290. 81.  Warwick 296.  82.  M a i l h o t 76.  83.  L e Grand 35.  84.  M o i s a n 134.  85.  M o i s a n 136.  86. A n n i s P r a t t , "Aunt J e n n i f e r ' s T i g e r s : N o t e s Toward a P r e l l t e r a r y H i s t o r y o f Women's A r c h e t y p e s , " F e m i n i s t S t u d i e s 4.1 F e b r u a r y 1978: 171. 87.  Pratt,  " T i g e r s " 171.  88.  Pratt,  " T i g e r s " 164.  89. Charles E l l i o t t , Praying P a p e r b a c k s , 1987) 72. 90.  Weir 60.  91.  W e i r 60.  92.  Weir 6 1 .  Through Paradox  (London: Fount  93. M i r i a m W a d d i n g t o n , "Women a n d W r i t i n g : K e y n o t e s p e e c h i n Honour o f M a r g a r e t L a u r e n c e , " C a n a d i a n Women's S t u d i e s 8.3 F a l l 1987: 28. 94.  Weir 66. 67  95. Ren© Juery, I n i t i a t i o n A 1'analyse textuelle (Hull: Asticou, 1981) 179. 96. Gloria Feman Orenstein, "Jovette Marchessault: the E c s t a t i c Vision-Quest of the New Feminist Shaman," G y n o c r i t l C S / g y n o c r l t l q u e g ed. Barbara Godard (Toronto: ECW Press, 1987) 182.  68  Chapter  Out  i.  Womb:  L i g h t : from P e n e t r a t i o n to  According and  of the  anatomical  a Process  f o r man  e a r t h " , t o descend  ( o r f e m a l e d r a g o n ) and  truest  test  o f manhood. To  dreaded" space, t h i s  of r e p u l s i o n f o r the  rejects,  and  she  the able  impersonal,  to stand  1,6,7). throw her  To  seule  h e l p her  own  d e f i n i n g her. constructed tain"  occupation friend  reflection But,  these  life  of the  un  and  of  then  Chateau" heroine.  No  the d'ancetres"  a se m l r e r "  commands t h i s  (v. sister  to  t h e dead w h i c h  have  ( v . 5 ) , w h i c h l u r k "sous l e  heroine,  at his  69  and  chateau  enter  her.  of c o n f r o n t a t i o n , death,  m a s c u l i n e power consumes h e r  or  m i r r o r s w h i c h have b e e n  avail;  "mirolrs polls"  rapes  abandons  "C'est  back a t t h e  a source  " V i e de  .../Consiste  i t i s t o no  thought of r e b e l l i o n ,  In  e s c a p e , she  ( v . 1 2 ) , wrap a r o u n d t h e  "lower, c h t h o n i c ,  He  w a t c h , she  distant description:  i n w h i c h "La  hero.  i n t o the  back and  encounters a female  this  in silence.  narrator enters  "belly  l a b y r i n t h i n e and  female"1, i s both  and  shudders  i n t o the  'masters' i t [ h e r ] " , i s the  pleasure  longer  " i n t o the  penetrate  "cunning  Rebirth  to enter  d e p t h s o f a m o n s t e r , where he  dragon  (P_,54),  of  Resurrection.  to Northrop Frye,  bowels of the  Two  will:  the  Even a t past,  the  this  Jette  t o n image aux f o n t a l n e s d u r e s  Ta p l u s dure image sans ombre n i  couleur.  Vols, ces glaces sont profondes Comme d e s a r m o i r e s T o u j o u r s q u e l q u e mort y h a b i t e s o u s Et couvre a u s s i t d t t o n r e f l e t Se c o l l e A t o i comme une a l g u e  le tain  S ' a j u s t e A t o i , m i n c e e t nu, E t s i m u l e 1'amour en un l e n t f r i s s o n amer. (v.8-16)  P i e r r e - H e r v e Lemieux s u g g e s t s "couvre", and  that  the repeated / c / i n  " c o l l e " a n d "comme" a n d t h e c o m b i n a t i o n  o f /g/,/1/  mid-vowel / a / i n " a l g u e " emphasize t h e i n s i d i o u s  c o m m i t t e d ; t h e s e s o u n d s make one " s e n t i r 6 p r o u v e e comme s i c ' e t a i t /s/,  un v i o l  / r / and t h e n a s a l s i n l i n e s  the a c t of the rape; the crime an a p p a r e n t l y n o n - c h a l a n t admit  that  c'etait  these  to h i s a n a l y s i s other  franc e t net"2.  15 a n d 16 seem t o e m p h a s i z e  i s p r o l o n g e d and committed  attitude.  a conditional  to raise  The r e p e a t e d  with  Lemieux does n o t f r e e l y H i s "comme s i  c l a u s e , adds j u s t  enough c o l o u r  t h e eyebrow o f t h e r e a d e r .  B u t on t h e  hand, i t l e a v e s enough room f o r h i m n o t t o make a  definitive, masculine t h e dead rape  t o u t e l a repugnance  l i n e s are d e s c r i b i n g a rape.  un v i o l " ,  crime  r i s k y statement  entity  w h i c h would a c c u s e  of h i s crime.  t h e dead,  For Delbert Russell,  however,  image o n l y p o s s e s s e s t h e s u b j e c t a s h i s o b j e c t 3 .  i s mentionned.  Lucille  Roy i s more b o l d t h a n h e r male c o u n t e r p a r t s ; s h e  No  interprets  the L i g h t  "perce l a c h a i r " . Light  a s an  i n s t r u m e n t which  I n t h e poem f o l l o w i n g  which  " V i e de c h a t e a u " ,  i s t h e s o u r c e o f power w h i c h d e s t r o y s t h e b o d y o f t h e  heroine. Fatigue"  In the second s t a n z a of "Rouler dans des R a v i n s ( E , 5 5 ) , " l a p e n e t a t i o n de  l u m i e r e p r e n d l a forme d'un 'crevee', son c o r p s ( c e t t e les  penetrates,  s e c r e t s de s o n p a s s e  viol  l a vie interieure  de  par l a  oft l a p o i t r i n e du s u j e t e s t  'cage de b o u l e a u b l a n c ' , ) rompu e t  '^ventres'"4:  V i e u x c a v e a u de f a m i l l e Eventre Cage de b o u l e a u b l a n c Rompue J e u de domino Interrompu Douce p o i t r i n e  crevee  [ . . . ] Grand  c r i de  l a l u m i e r e a u - d e s s u s de n o u s . ( v . 9 - 1 5 , 19)  For Lemieux, the "caveau" r e p r e s e n t s a p r i s o n which i s "rompu", a b r o k e n e s s vie  desoeuvree, c e l l e  " p o i t r i n e " has been by  indicating  de c h a t e a u " .  empty s p a c e s u r r o u n d e d by a f r a g i l e body p i e r c e d  t h e y have l o s t .  The  great 71  The  un g e n r e  shell,  fate,  de  the h e r o i n e ' s penetration, intime  " c a v e a u " , an  by some  unnamed f o r c e s , b o t h d e s e r v e t h e i r fight  F o r him,  [...,] l a r a n g o n  revolte dechirante."5  crev6e", a t a t t e r e d  de t o u t  " c r e v 6 e " , n o t by v i o l e n t  "des d e v a s t a t i o n s a n t e r i e u r e s  toute cette  " l e terme  and  her  but de  ancient, "poitrine  long-forgotten, this  payment  for a  o r g a s m i c c r y f r o m above  reveals caveau",  the  v i c t o r y of  like  laws, the  own  identity.  the de  Roy,  heavy weight  on  the  other  of  the  Light  (E, 29),  Light's  hands o f  heroine  and  r e d u i t / Tres c l a i r  e t c i s e l e e " (v.7)  unknown t h i r d (v.5). the  taken  " c a u s a n t un  ©tat de  party  l'etre  penetrating  ( v . 1,2)  Roy's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s t h a t  heart,  ou  [la lourde  In  "Dans  t h e s e hands, t h e i r  seize her/his  under  matiere  force enters  the  and  faiblese elle  l a mort"6.  break smoothly Into  and  une  their  "caveau"  i s crushed  empowers them t o a c t .  e t nu"  past,  French Canadians  hand, has  l a v i e pour e n t r a i n e r  "le  which h o l d s the  t r e s haut, t e l l e  "Inventaire"  vive  place  T o u j o u r s s i t u e e a u - d e s s u s de  s'abat sur  the  the  "body", woman's body w h i c h  L u m i e r e ] semble tomber de qui  Lemleux I n t e r p r e t s  powers w h i c h have d e n i e d  t o be  fatigue.  sun.  " l e c h a t e a u " , as  the  "poitrine"  the  heart  this  into  the  un "Lame of  a  "Fruit  creve"  t h e s e h a n d s , empowered  by  Light, s ' i n s e r e n t d a n s l a c h a i r nue, p i l l a n t l e s s e c r e t s du c o e u r . P l o n g e e s a l ' i n t e r i e u r du c o r p s , l e * c r e v e n t ' comme un f r u i t , l a l u m i e r e e t l e s mains du s u j e t v i o l e n t c o n j o i n t e m e n t l e m y s t e r e de l a v i e , l ' e x p o s a n t i m p i t o y a b l e m e n t au monde.7  The  heroine's  control. Carl  Sun  i s somewhat o u t  has  the  powers o f t h i s  Jung s t a t e s  c'est she  She  c o m p l i c i t y with the  that  le soleil"8.  too  dleu".  been s e d u c e d  by  celestial  fire,"le  pere v i s i b l e  I t i s a Sun  w h i c h has  c a r r i e s her  own  i n t e r i e u r " which  Jung c l a i m s  that  "soleil this  penetration 72  entered  of  her  Light. du  monde,  woman s o  that  i s "1'image  i n t o the  female  du  brings  "la totallte  wholeness o f s e l f female,  a union  transcendante,  l e sol."9  comes o n l y t h r o u g h  u n i o n o f t h e male and  i n which t h e masculine  whim, p l a n t i n g h i s s e e d  entity enters, at h i s  into the feminine.  g e n e r a t r i c e , p u i s s a n c e de r e n o u v e l l e m e n t according t o Maurice destructive;  i t burns  Emond.  As f o r L a c a n ,  The Sun " e s t  force  e t de v i e " 1 0 ,  And y e t t h i s  phallic  power i s  t h e e a r t h "comme une f o r g e " ( E , 4 3 ) , and  c h a r s t h e hands o f a woman (E, 2 0 ) .  In  "Un B r u i t  de S o l e " (E,57), t h e s u n i s t h e " e c l a t de  m l d i " ( v . 3 ) q u i "empeche de v o l r " ( v . 7 ) .  I t eradicates a l l i n  the path o f i t s r a y s , o f i t s gaze:  L ' e c l a t de m i d i e f f a c e t a forme d e v a n t moi Tu t r e m b l e s e t l u i s comme un m i r o i r Tu m ' o f f r e s l e s o l e i l A b o i r e A meme t o n v i s a g e a b s e n t . T r o p de l u m i e r e empeche de v o i r ; l'un e t l a u t r e torche blanche, g r a n d v i d e de m i d i Se c h e r c h e r A t r a v e r s l e f e u e t l ' e a u fumee. 1  Les  Roy  notes that  especes  du monde s o n t r e d u i t e s A deux (v.3-12)  the absent  face  e s t metonymique i c l de l a p e r t e t o t a l e de l ' e t r e . L'amant d i s p a r a i t i n t e g r a l e m e n t s o u s 1 ' e c l a t du j o u r , c a r l e ' m i r o i r ' q u i l e d e f i n i t a u x yeux du s u j e t n ' e x i s t e qu'en f o n c t i o n de c e q u ' i l r e f l e t e : l a lumiere elle-meme.ll  73  Here man a n d woman, " l ' u n e t 1'autre t o r c h e reflecting  only the Light  make t h e i r  way, t h e i r  these  of the su(o)n, devoid of i d e n t i t y ,  "bras etendus"  (v.15).  The image o f  " S e r v l t e u r s a v i d e s e t etonnes"(v.16), b l i n d e d b y God's  wrath,  i s not d i s s i m i l a r  ashamed, "hand Eden t o o k 12)  blanche",  t o t h a t o f M i l t o n ' s Eve a n d Adam, who  i n hand, w i t h w a n d e r i n g s t e p s a n d s l o w , / T h r o u g h  their  s o l i t a r y way."  (Milton's Paradise L o s t  And y e t , i t i s t h e woman, a t t h e end o f t h i s  de  l'ete"  "Desertees  the speaker no  f o r her l o v e r ,  take  "Roulee  (E,52),  (E, 56).  d a n s ma r a g e "  bleues  She i s  (E,49),  to  "mes yeux/Dans mes mains/Comme d e s p i e r r e s  g u i s e de f e t e . " "Les d o i g t s s a n s de mes b r a s  (E,36);  etendus"  mains/L'occupent  gestes des fous/Autour  (E,  (E,39).  38),  no l o n g e r  et l a captivent."  Light  own, t h e s p e a k e r ' s  to reveal  or " l a c r o i x  No l o n g e r s h e " f a i t  larmes/En  offering tremblante  miroiter ses  "Les j o u r s s u r s e s  (E,21)  a s s u b j e c t s i n "Un B r u i t de S o l e " . their  de mes  no more p r e t e n d i n g , no more  aucun d e s i r "  mains comme d e s r a y o n s " ,  of  "filles  t o p l a n t h e r hands "au j a r d i n "  d'eau/Et...[danser]/Les  act  those  Taking  de f o r c e " a n d " D e v o r e e s de s o l e i l "  finds herself  longer w i l l i n g  her s i s t e r s ,  Book  penultimate  poem i n Tombeau, who l e a d s t h e way t o w a r d s l i b e r t y . responsibitity  r  I n s t e a d h e r hands  As i f t h e y have a w i l l  hands f o r c e f u l l y c u t t h r o u g h t h e  the remaining  splinter  o f s o o t h i n g shade, of  N i g h t , o f t h e Womb:  Mes mains e c a r t e n t l e j o u r comme un r i d e a u L'ombre d'un s e u l a r b r e e t a l e l a n u i t a n o s p i e d s  74  Et decouvre c e t t e calme immobile d i s t a n c e E n t r e t e s d o i g t s de s a b l e e t mes paumes t o u t e s f l e u r i e s . (v.24-27)  Behind cette  this  soeur  (E,48), light  foil  que  o f L i g h t , " l ' e n v e r s de  nous a v o n s / S e b a i g n e b l e u e  e x i s t s a shadow.  of t h i s  Ironically,  "ombre" t h a t t h e  ce m i r o i r sous l a  i t i s i n the  t h e d i s t a n c e between h i s d i s l o c a t e d body and  of  her  toutes  n e w l y b l o s s o m e d power.  potential of  new  longer  not  She  suggests,  of r e p r o d u c t i o n  "comme un  pas  a une  the  volonte,  her  regenerative  ii.  Towards t h e  powerful  fight  back.  sable"  "paumes  and production  of the  u s e l e s s , as  monte, mal  les differents a une  of  also  could  life  source  only  but  whereas h e r  or r e f l e c t i o n  mecanisme mal  h i s f i n g e r s of sand s t i l l  darkened  hers,  abound w i t h  is finally  Now  to  of dust,  sterile,  a l a d£sagr£gation: dont  n'obeissent  The  " d o i g t s de  T h e s e hands were once d i s l o c a t e d and  Bessette enclin  no  life-giving.  s e e d s and  light.  His  into a useless p i l e  fleuries",  lune"  s p e a k e r becomes aware, n o t  of  e a s i l y crumble  limplde/oft  Sun's Gerard  joint,  organes  impulsion  centrale"12.  a r e d i s l o c a t e d and  dependant  on  powers f o r r e s u r r e c t i o n .  Mother:  rays  an  of the  Act  Sun  Overcome, she  of  'Re-telllng'.  have f o r c e d t h e  slices  open t h e  speaker  finally  c u r t a i n which  separates  her from " l ' O r i g i n e  Myat&re de l a p a r o l e  f  "ventre  remember h e r d a u g h t e r s o v e r ... c e l l e s  e n t r e deux t r e s that  lost  truth,  q u i sont  In "Eve" i n calls  premier"(v.14) a s k i n g her  the ages, these  "filles  s a n s nom n i h i s t o i r e ,  grandes p i e r r e s " .  (v.19-21)  v o i c e , t h e need t o f i n d  and h e r f r u s t r a t i o n  derniere-  ... f r a c a s s e e s  This search f o r  h e r own v o i c e , t o s p e a k t h e  i n the ever  loud s i l e n c e  emanates f r o m t h e d e p t h s , a r e r e i t e r a t e d Kogawa's  Eve.  (E,101-102), t h e n a r r a t o r  desperately to her, this  nees,  maternelle",  which  i n the prelude  of Joy  Qbasan: The s p e e c h t h a t f r e e s comes f o r t h f r o m t h e a m n i o t i c deep. To a t t e n d i t s v o i c e , [...] i s t o embrace i t s a b s e n c e . [...] The word i s s t o n e . [...J U n l e s s t h e s t o n e b u r s t s w i t h t e l l i n g , u n l e s s t h e s e e d f l o w e r s w i t h s p e e c h , t h e r e i s i n my l i f e no l i v i n g word... I f I c o u l d f o l l o w t h e s t r e a m down and down t o t h e h i d d e n v o i c e , would I come a t l a s t t o t h e f r e e i n g word? I ask t h e n i g h t s k y but t h e s i l e n c e i s s t e a d f a s t . T h e r e i s no r e p l y . 1 3  The  heroine  ancien"  i n "Chambre de b o i s "  ( v . 3 6 ) where t h e r e  attempts t o search statement,  ( E , 42-43),  " c e r n 6 e de b o i s  i s " n i serrure n i c l e f "  out t h i s  hidden  voice.  (v.  35),  Her s t r o n g  " J e v a i s c o u d r e ma r o b e a v e c c e f i l p e r d u . "  (v.22),  r e v e a l s a d e c i s i o n s h e has made d e s p i t e h e r e m p r i s o n m e n t . high vowels, / i / , the  /e/, the repeated  use o f t h e f u t u r e t e n s e ,  or a t l e a s t , first  Mother,  /k/, / d / , / b / , / p / ,  a l l i n d i c a t e a n imminent a c t i o n ,  Intent t o search i s the source  stops,  The  out the "hidden  of t h i s  76  voice".  " f i l d'Ariane".  Eve, I t i s Her  s a n s p r u n e l l e " (E,100-102), n o t H i s , t h e F a t h e r ' s ,  "regard  which w i l l  catch  it  "laine  i sthis  breast.  t h e a t t e n t i o n o f h e r w a n d e r i n g community and rude" which w i l l  And i t i s d u r i n g  t h e c o m i n g home, d u r i n g t h e  t r a n s g r e s s i o n which can o n l y take suggests,  draw them back t o h e r  "Hors d u c e r c l e "  p l a c e , as Maroussia  ( a s i n t h e "cabane" i n E n f a n t s , or  i n t h e "tombeau"), t h a t t h e ' t e l l i n g '  Jan by  Montefiore  telling  stories.  stories  Ahmed  begins  t o happen!4.  speaks of t h e n e c e s s i t y t o break t h e s i l e n c e f r o m one's own e x p e r i e n c e ,  Montefiore  authentic  q u o t e s L i z L o c h h e a d ' s "The S t o r y t e l l e r " 1 5  No one c o u l d s a y t h e s t o r i e s were f o r as the tongues c l a c k e d f i v e or f o r t y f i n g e r s s t i t c h e d c o r n was g r a t e d f r o m t h e husk p a t c h w o r k was p i e c e d or t h e d a r n i n g done.  useless  To t e l l t h e s t o r i e s was h e r work. I t was l i k e s p i n n i n g gathering thin a i r t o the s i n g l e s t strongest thread. Night i n s h e ' d have us w a i t i n g h e l d / b r e a t h , f o r t h e e n d i n g we knew b y h e a r t .  To  gather,  i n "the  singlest  strongest  thread",  this  "laine  rude",  " f i l perdu"  ( E , 4 3 ) , s t o r i e s whose e n d i n g  heart,  i sa risk.  Women have b e e n f o r c e n t u r i e s t e l l i n g  stories  women know b y  i n s e c r e t ways s o t h a t o n l y women c o u l d r e a d ,  understand.  Their  "tongues c l a c k e d "  i n nonsense,  their  could  i n a "code  secret" These  (E,24), t h e i r  fingers  embroidered  i n obscure p a t t e r n s .  images r e c u r i n t h e p o e t r y o f Anne H e b e r t  a s t h e y do i n  o t h e r women p o e t s .  Margaret centuries,  Atwood s u p p o s e s  that  have been r e w r i t i n g  ancestresses,  women w r i t e r s ,  the s t o r i e s  b u r n i n g s and r a p e s , o f t h e i r Their multiple  t h e S o l i t a r y Weeper, r e v e a l  the episodes of t h e i r  s e q u e s t e r e d and i n d e c e n t depictions  o f women, o t h e r t h a n o f  the hidden s t o r i e s l 6 .  have been r e p r e s e n t i n g women a s e i t h e r Weeper, f r u i t f u l raped  Mother, or d e v i l i s h  and t h e n s l a i n the Truth.  this  tell  of  P h i l o m e l a by h e r b r o t h e r - i n - l a w Tereus  c u t s out h e r tongue t o s i l e n c e  Truth. that  sits  quietly,  her.  and i n revenge,  feeds him t o her husbandl7.  Procne  she k i l l s  story,  been  muted s o a s n o t  who, a f t e r  the crime,  And d a y a f t e r d a y her story, the  who i s a b l e t o d e c i p h e r their  infant  A woman i s r a p e d ,  s o n and  silenced  would be b l a m e l e s s , were i t n o t f o r t h e v i c t i m ' s her  have  t h e s t o r y o f t h e rape  p a t i e n t l y embroidering  I t i s only her s i s t e r  truth,  retells  writers  passive Virgin  as a monster, or a t l e a s t Annis P r a t t  Male  Whore, who m i g h t  to  Philomela  of t h e i r  o f E v e , Mary, t h e O r a c l e s , t h e W i t c h e s , t h e  Medusas, t h e G o d d e s s e s , a n d r e t e l l i n g  lifestyles.  throughout the  a n d be.  " t e l l i n g " of  p a t i e n t l y w a i t i n g i n h e r p a i n , and f o r a n o t h e r  woman, a s i s t e r ,  being able t o interpret  the p r e t t y embroidery.  the Truth concealed i n  I t h a s b e e n a T r u t h , w h i c h h a s been  masked o v e r , m u t i l a t e d , b y women who have been t e l l i n g a  78  ' s l a n t e d ' v e r s i o n , and b y men, who have p a i n t e d masks o f g o l d over  absent  In  faces  "a p e t l t s  "Le Tombeau d e s r o i s "  maigre", so v i r g i n a l , past  find  attracts This the  traits  precis"  Is raped  i n h e r some " s o u r c e  seven times. fraternelle  makes t h e a n a l o g y  ofthe  l u r k s i n her shadowl8.  flesh.  below Every  Jennifer Waelti-  The a l t e r n a t i v e ,  silenced  by P a t r l a r c h y l 9 , but b e g i n n i n g  chatter,  t o ask questions  states  femme q u i coud/Au p i e d de l ' a r b r e "  that witches  what has been f o r b i d d e n 2 0 .  Waelti(E,20),  t o sew s t o r i e s , t o might ask - t o speak  And f o r t h a t , t h e k i n g s  excuse t o rape her seven times.  redefined  even  o f t h e p r i n c e s s whose d o u b l e , t h e  i s "Cette  have  Because t h e h e r o i n e has  of reproduction  o f more S o n s , b u t a s a  o f woman's power, o f p r o d u c t i o n , this  tomb o f t h e k i n g s  shattering  this  the-Father,  with  place constructed  by t h e K i n g s ,  of s i s t e r h o o d , she can  i n c r e a s i n g sureness21.  the heroine  can enter  i n t o a new  o f t r a n s g r e s s i o n , t h e Womb.  her  e s p e c e de r o i / M i n u s c u l e  i s the b i r d .  (E/19) h a v i n g  "Cette  accompanied  the heroine,  79  By  by P a t r i a r c h y , by t h e Law-of-  p l a c e , women's p l a c e , a p l a c e guide  found  t h e c a v e , t h e tomb, a s h e r womb, n o t a s a v o i d , a  hole, a zero, a place  enter  "fille  du m a l " w h i c h  c l e a n o f a n y impure  Walters,  source  The k i n g s  t h e Whore w h i c h h i d e s  woman i s b o r n o f E v e , and i s a t e m p t r e s s .  an  this  them t o h e r and g i v e s them a n e x c u s e t o r a p e h e r .  s h i n y bones, s c r a t c h e d  witch,  59).  (E,59-61), the heroine,  "mal" i s t h e i m p u r i t y ,  Walters  (P_,  h a s been  And  et naif"  "pris.../Dans  leurs  filets  silent  m o u l l l e s " (v.2,3).  figure,  throughout  Le  the  little  bird,  Tombeau des  rois  This f r a i l , appears  Christ-like,  h e r e and  i n many r o l e s :  there  as a g u i d e ,  s u p p o r t , a v o i c e , a companion  f o r t h e h e r o i n e on,  Pratt  m a p l e s s q u e s t down i n t o  refers  forgotten  iii.  to as, a  "blind,  Annis the  'wreck'"22.  The B i r d ; the L i b e r a t i n g Agent  Standing a t the entrance her  what  a  j o u r n e y , her  bird  of the cave,  on h e r  the h e r o i n e can  begin  fist:  Le t a c i t u r n e o i s e a u p r i s a mes d o i g t s Lampe g o n f l e e de v i n e t de s a n g , Je descends V e r s l e s tombeaux d e s r o i s Btonnee A p e i n e nee. (E#59 v.3-8)  Pratt  maintains  significant "setting  event  forth  'horrific'  that  "la  through  is a  highly  They a r e  on q u e s t s down i n t o t h e p r e v i o u s l y ' d a r k '  c e n t r e s of t h e i r rather  psyches  toward  m o r t e " had  to t r a v e l  t o " l ' e n v e r s de  something  and  that  they  than  of s o l i t a r y s e l f - a f f i r m a t i o n . " 2 3  petite  journey  i n the s e a r c h f o r i d e n t i t y .  want f o r t h e m s e l v e s quest  f o r women p o e t s , t h e  alone  ce m i r o i r 80  It i s a journey so t h a t  she  limpide"(E/48).  could  that break  Gilles  Marcotte  states  that  tomb, i s t h e " r e e l " mort" which solitude.  this that  i s "1'aboutissement  [ — ]  terrible  of the  t h e h e r o i n e must f a c e "au r i s q u e de  Le poete  de s o n e x p e r i e n c e de l a  se l i v r e  comme une femme s e l i v r e jeu  o t h e r s i d e , deep i n t h e d e p t h s  au r e e l ,  se l i v r e  a s o n amant, s a c r i f i a n t  de 1 ' a b s e n c e " 2 4 .  And i t i s t h i s  a l a mort  s a c h a i r au  bird,  " l e coeur  meme de 1 ' e x i s t e n c e " w h i c h l e a d s t h e h e r o i n e , t h e p o e t t o liberation. giving only  herself  de  patriarchal  interpretation  he o f f e r s  Denis  of a sexual encounter  Bouchard  notes  that  et celui  i s the  i n t h e poem.  the journey w i l l  "enfant curieuse t... ] a depasser  culpability  o f t h e poet  t o t h e dead a s s h e would t o h e r l o v e r ,  intimation  In c o n t r a s t , this  Marcotte's  a l a fois  d'une v i r g i n i t e  l e sentiment  indecente.  [...] L a  femme comme o b j e t s e p e r d dans l a femme i n s a i s i s s a b l e . de  se donner, e l l e  tue."25  Gabrielle  help  Au l i e u  P a s c a l admits t h e  H e b e r t l a n h e r o i n e ' s need t o succumb " a l a t e n t a t i o n d u meurtre"26. yet,  In order t o s u r v i v e ,  "Le Tombeau d e s r o i s "  s h e must commit a c r i m e .  seems t o be n o t j u s t  t a k e n b y a woman i n o r d e r t o f i n d It  Is a l s o about  accompanied as  that minuscule,  her throughout  her l i b e r a t i o n ,  her journey thus  darkness; sighted,  ironic  a journey  her i d e n t i t y .  modest, s u f f e r i n g  "un f a u c o n " , he becomes h e r b e a c o n .  faucon aveugle"  about  And  bird  far. Finally  Ironically,  who h a s named  i t i s "un  ( v . 2 ) , who i s t o show h e r t h e way i n t o t h e because  and i r o n i c  the b l i n d  because  sight  81  r a r e l y do t h e l e a d i n g i n the darkness  of the  i s useless.  I n " E u r y d i c e " , R a c h e l B l a f i D u P l e s s l s a s k s , "Where I s t h e bird?"  However, " f a l l e n  from f l y i n g " 2 7 ,  caught  f i s h e r m a n ' s n e t , o r dead  "Dans un bocage  i n c o n n u " (R,25, v . 2 ) ,  this him  bird  still  cries  i n h i s secret  out t r y i n g  place  to lead  (v.12-16).  This  In a  t h e h e r o i n e towards " c r i raugue/D'oiseaux  (R, 56,v.11,12) h a u n t s h e r c h i l d h o o d  imaginaires"  memory o f a t i m e b e f o r e "L'amour  memory, t h e  [ e t a i t ] change en s e l " ( v . 7 ) ,  a t i m e when h e r a n c e s t r e s s e s , t h o s e " b e l l e s m o r t e s " n o t y e t b u r i e d and f o r g o t t e n . the b i r d ' s it  " c r i raugue"  i s a c r y perhaps  A c c o r d i n g t o Jean-Louis Major,  i s e m i t t e d f r o m some "monde  du l o c u t e u r  l o s t mothers. l'ete" this  interieur";  from t h e s e a n c e s t r e s s e s b u r i e d deep  t h e s u r f a c e . And i t i s p e r h a p s celui  ( v . 6 ) were  this  below  "coeur-oiseau [qui] e s t  f e m i n l n " 2 8 , who h a s t a k e n t h e f o r m o f t h e  I t i s a c r y which a i d s  (R,52,53) t o f i n d  "les filles  b l e u e s de  " l a p o r t e de l a memoire", t h e d o o r t o  " e n v e r s du monde" where murmer t h o s e a n c i e n t  voices:  L a v o i x de l ' o i s e a u Hors de s o n c o e u r e t de s e s a i l e s r a n g e e s a i l l e u r s C h e r c h e eperdument l a p o r t e de l a memoire Pour v i v r e e n c o r e un p e t i t s o u f f l e de temps. (v.23,26)  As t h e b i r d  i s fragmented,  i t s voice  in  T h i s body p a r t  becomes t h e c r u c i a l  itself.  setting  i n motion a c t i o n s which w i l l  One o f t h e g i r l s  becomes t h e whole  lead  entity  factor i n  t o new  wholeness.  i n " L ' E n v e r s d u monde", f o l l o w s t h e c l u e  by t h e b i r d ' s v o i c e .  "L'une de nous s e d e c i d e / E t 82  doucement  laid  approche  l a terre  takes a c t i o n  de s o n o r e i l l e " ( v . 2 7 , 2 8 ) .  t o seek o u t f o r h e r s e l f  door which w i l l l e a d  them t o t h e i r  The young  girl  and f o r h e r s i s t e r s , t h e  ancestresses, to their  Mother.  In  "Le Tombeau d e s r o i s " , t h e whole b i r d  g o n f l e e de v i n e t de s a n g " bird,  swollen with  (v.4).  becomes a "Lampe  Lemieux a s s e r t s t h a t t h e  l i g h t and d e s i r e ,  l e a d s t h e h e r o i n e "aux  r a c i n e s memes de s o n p s y c h i s m e , oA l e mal o r i g i n e l  loge"29.  To  L e m i e u x , t h e h e r o i n e ' s s t r u g g l e i s t o c o n f r o n t t h i s "mal originel", Defined  an e v i l  as e v i l ,  w h i c h , p e r s o n n i f l e d , m i g h t be named E v e .  this  original  h e a r t s , minds and h i s t o r i e s deep, s e c r e t p l a c e . cord, a " f i l great  du  d'Ariane",  est puissance  which l i n k s According feminine,  mal e t a n t i - p o u v o i r . " 3 0  this  Mother.  "une  fleur  o f women and men, c a l l s o u t f r o m a  T h i s monster o f t h e n i g h t h o l d s  grand-daughters.  sorciere  M o t h e r who l u r k s d e e p i n t h e  t o Emond, "1'image de l a puissance  veneneuse absolue  into  her psyche,  "algue" of P a t r i a r c h y .  "caverne",  this  on t h e d a r k n e s s o f  arriere-grand-mere.  Et  And p e r h a p s e n t e r i n g  t h e womb w h i c h h a s been d i s g u i s e d a s a  h o l y tomb, a t e m p l e o f K i n g s , the  puissance  de l a n u l t " ( E S , p . 1 0 7 ) , l i k e h e r  a r r i e r e - a r r i e r e - g r a n d - m e r e " (ES., 1 8 0 ) .  deeply  magique,  h a s been s t a i n e d b l a c k ; s h e i s  m o t h e r , h e r g r a n d - m o t h e r and e v e n " s o n son  toa  h e r t o h e r daughters and  Women have t a k e n  The y o u n g g i r l  tight  t h e h e r o i n e w i l l be a b l e t o s h e d  Jovette Marchessault  "grotte", this  83  redefines  " g o u f f r e " a s "un u t e r u s  this  inonde  d'eau l a c r y m a l e . " 3 1 where, i n " E v e " pourrissent  o f "Mystere  to explain  t h e "Mere a v e u g l e " , t h e " S o u r c e  Her s t o r y ,  their  story.  e t ... epoux 101).  This i s  de l a r m e s e t  "frere",  this  which a r e s t e r i l e "ronge"  l e voyage  t e n e b r e s , p o l e s du monde" (R,  and d r y , and h i s h e a r t a " F r u i t  hardi  101).  "amant", w i t h h i s " d o i g t s de s a b l e "  and " j e t e "  with  She i s t h e o n l y one a b l e  " l a n a i s s a n c e e t l a mort e t t o u t  e n t r e deux b a r b a r e s  face  (R,  [leurs] cuisses"  speech,  who, h o l d i n g t h e T r u t h , i s t h e o n l y one t o s h a r e  her daughters  her  de l a p a r o l e " , " f i l s  pele-imtle e n t r e  t h e power o f E v e , du c r i "  I t i s t h e p l a c e where women f i n d  And  (E.,58)  creve",h i s  (R,30), a c c o m p a n i e s h e r back  "au s e i n  maternel."  Pierre  Kuntsmann o f f e r s a J u n g i a n interior  descent  into  libido"  t o t h e Mother, a t which p o i n t  naissance"32.  space.  interpretation  The l i b i d o ,  I t i s "une r e g r e s s i o n de l a  desire,  t h e r e i s a "seconde  l e a d s b o t h men a n d women  b e l o w t h e s u r f a c e , where t h e m a s c u l i n e the heroine, the masculine  entity,  seems t o accompany h e r , t o l e a d Chambre f e r m e e " unidentified  (R,  same one o r a n o t h e r another finds  her.  She q u e s t i o n s i n " L a person  h a s been f o l l o w i n g i n this  c o u l d be.  f o r c e which obscures  84  An  p r i s o n and t h e  b e h i n d , and t h e same o r  adventure.  no a n s w e r s t o h e r q u e s t i o n s .  For  a s a s t r a n g e r who  b e i n g has l e d her t o t h i s  h a s been c o m p l i c i t  some m y s t e r i o u s  meets t h e f e m i n i n e .  appears  39-41) who t h i s  masculine  of the  The h e r o i n e  She h a s been b l i n d e d by the i d e n t i t y  o f t h e s e men.  P e r h a p s he o r t h e y a r e t h i s captors,  but f r i e n d s .  f o r c e . P e r h a p s he o r t h e y a r e n o t  Her c o n f u s i o n i s o b v i o u s , c o n v e y e d  the repeated  i n t e r r o g a t i o n s , and by t h e u n s p e c i f i c  verb phrases  "quelqu'un",  by  p r o n o u n s and  " I I y a", "quel ami", " q u e l l e  nult":  Q u i done m'a c o n d u i t e i c i ? II y a certainement quelqu'un Q u i a s o u f f l e s u r mes p a s . Quand e s t - c e que c e l a s ' e s t f a i t ? Avec l a c o m p l i c i t y de q u e l ami t r a n q u i l l e ? Le c o n s e n t e m e n t p r o f o n d de q u e l l e n u i t l o n g u e ? ( v . 1-6)  Kuntsmann's a s s e r t s t h a t  this  unidentified  male  "personnifie  1'animus, l ' e n v e r s de l a p e r s o n n a l i t e f e m i n i n e , l e s t r a i t s masculins  qu'elle  primitif,  q u ' e l l e a bannis  trefonds"33.  portait  In order  must c o n f r o n t t h i s  en s o i dans son ou p l u t d t  e n f o u i s en s o n  f o r women t o f i n d  psyche  or of the outside world.  Canadian  female  hero, L o r r a i n e Mullen  must make " d e c i s i o n s and i n f l u e n c e  of the Kings  soclety34.  w h e t h e r he i s p a r t  states  that  on t h e  the heroine  events, e v i n c t i n g ] such as  courage,  i n o r d e r t o overcome t h e m a s c u l i n e  and t h e n  to begin the r e s t r u c t u r i n g  Or h e r j o u r n e y w i l l  take  but t o f i n d  power where memory a n d v i s i o n  a "lost,  a r c h a i c world  coalesce"36.  85  of her  her t o t h e depths; she  "must grow down"35, n o t t o i n c o r p o r a t e male power, characteristics,  they  In her a r t i c l e  u s u a l l y considered masculine,  a g g r e s s i o n and a m b i t i o n " forces  authenticity,  a n i m u s , t h e male r e a l i t y ,  of t h e i r  characterisitcs  etat de b i s e x u a l i t e  masculine o f female  In her the  "New  Introduction to Gloria Feminist  conscience  shaman", B a r b a r a  © l e v e e de  contact  avec ses  "sacred  knowledge"37.  Shamanism; structures [which  "severe  takes  place"38.  The  dismemberment"39.  The  role  "Judaeo-Christian  of the  the Otherworld  with  tribal  journey  i s "a  but  without  not  c r e a t i o n myth  i t s s u b s e q u e n t h i s t o r y " t h a t have masked o v e r  face absente",  back t o l i f e " ,  these  back t o  "an  down", t o s h a k e o f f t h e paralyses,  ordered  at  f e m i n i s t shaman i s  patriarchal  space-time of e c s t a s y " 4 0 . "fleurs over  space  It is this  violettes  "a p e t i t s  exstatic  L e s m o r t s me v i s l t e n t Le monde e s t en o r d r e Les morts dessous Les v i v a n t s dessus.  Les  v i v a n t s me  tuent. 86  traits  des  d'or  de  precis"  To  brought move, t o  gisants"  (R,60)  i s to shatter a p e r f e c t ,  where,  morts m'ennuient  guise  existence"41.  freezes, s t e r i l i z e s ,  Les  en  and  the  "masque  t h a t must be  "immobile d e s i r  find  Eliade's  to the  of such a  (R,60) t h e " r e p r e s s e d f e m a l e s o u l [...]  that  to Mircea  "journey  result  on  reprend  might  o f some m a j o r t r a n s f o r m a t i o n ,  p r u n e l l e " w h i c h have p a i n t e d  "go  t h a t she  refers  o f shamanism, t h a t o f a  "matriarchal s u r ma  qui  A r c h a i c Techniques of E c s t a s y t o look  t o e x o r c i s e the of  Orenstein  so  article  r e m a r k s on " l a  l a f e m i n l s t e contemporalne  aieules disparues"  prophetic v i s i o n "  all  Godard  i s ] undertaken, d u r i n g which a d i a l o g u e  ancestors  a  Feman O r e n s t e i n ' s  (R,36)  The is  v o y a g e o f t h e shaman p u t s t h i s the "mythical b i r d "  life  and d e a t h  and  'speaks',  Frank of  and b e h a v i o r .  sings,  Scott,  that  or f l i e s  fauconnerie: s'envole  like  asserts  pour  l e regard,  disparaissent."46 unidentified [e  afraid  suffers  Pere,  attirer  q u ' i l ne  d'autres  [et...]  that  this  sight  might  lead,  i t s eyes  l e s yeux  i n trying to  [...]  B l i n d e d a n d u n d e r t h e gaze o f a n  l a presence  [ l e regard]  the direct  le [la]  et l a  to the "gisants",  And y e t t h e h e r o i n e h a s "des  ne s o n t p a s a m o i . " (E,43) liquides"  du r o i , l ' o e i l  87  i s "reduit  depossede,  l a honte  seemingly a threat  mutilation.  by her " p r u n e l l e s  [...] l ' o e i l  or heroine  de c e r e g a r d i n s p i r e  The b i r d ,  yeux d ' e n f a n t / Q u i blurred  suggests  e x a c t e e v o c a t i o n de l a  s t r a n g e r , t h e H e b e r t i a n hero  culpabilit£"47.  also  de p o s s e s s i o n e t une  has l o s t  ...] a u r a n g d ' o b j e t ,  l'humilie;  "prunelles crevees" i sa  b e i n g has m u t i l a t e d t h e eyes o f  a s Emond s u g g e s t s , t o "une p r i s e The b i r d  on h i s t r a n s l a t i o n  And y e t , S c o t t  on s e s e r t  "Lampe g o n f l e e " , p e r h a p s  "apprehender  that  and b i r d s " 4 2 .  on a c r e v 6 l e s yeux pour  Some u n i d e n t i f i e d  domination."45  the animals  [...] une t r e s  l ' o i s e a u , dont  p a s , e t dont  proles."44  t a k e on a n i m a l  i n h i s d i a l o g u e w i t h Hebert  "soulignait  It  She "becomes an a n i m a l - s p i r i t ,  image o f m u t i l a t i o n . 4 3  Hebert  But,  the heroine through the  The shaman m i g h t  "Le Tombeau d e s r o i s " ,  violent  the  which guides  process.  characteristics  order o f f k i l t e r .  (E,34).  de D i e u " 4 8 ,  Her s i g h t i s And " l ' o e i l du this  "lumiere  mysterleuse,  [...]  s'immobilise"49 squeletal  In by  "De  the  has  He  glace  sur  Plus  en  corners  Plus  Etrolt"  her  her,  s a nuque".  with  frightened  and The  i s the  heroine,  (E,44),  to crack  (6-8).  from behind  like  a l l women i n a  " c e t t e femme" i s f r o z e n  the  She  object  breathes  his "Souffle controls  o f h i s d e s l r , she her,  and  she,  de  her  i s empty.  He  frozen,  w a l l which c o n t a i n s  her,  heurter  silence derriere  i s there  o n l y e s c a p e , f u t i l e as  l a p a r o l du  without  being,  "ne  regarde passer  des  sew,  a p o i n t , / L ' h u m i l i t e du  bouge/De  without speaking,  i t i s , i s t o s t a r e out  where " E l i e "point  " c e t homme  power o f h i s " r e g a r d "  h i s gaze, d e f i n e s  l e j o u r / D e p e u r de  elie" her  f r o z e n the  i n t o l e r a b l e qui  body.  f r o m b e h i n d ; she  tout  Implacable et  " l e n t e f r o i d e r e s p i r a t i o n immobile" of  sel".  fills  lumiere  equipages amers"  the  and  window  ( v . 5 ) , or  to  monde" ( E#20.v.22-23).  D e n i s e B o u c h e r q u o t e s words f r o m M a r i e N o e l w h i c h seem t o summarize woman's s t a t e . led  her  T h e s e words and  her  mother's  t o break her s i l e n c e :  Quand 11 e s t e n t r e Dans mon l o g i s c l o s J ' o u r l a l s un d r a p l o u r d P r e s de l a f e n e t r e L ' h i v e r dans l e s d o i g t s L'ombre s u r l e dos S a i s - j e d e p u i s quand J ' e t a i s l a sans e t r e Et je cousais je c o u s a l s  88  je  cousais50.  tears  The  woman "Au  19-20), Law,  pied  struck  de  by t h e power o f t h e Sun,  i s the Mother d e s c r i b e d  que  tout  p l u s en p l u s . le reste  Ma  se t i e n t  by t h e F a t h e r , by  by B o u c h e r .  t h a t M a r c h e s s a u l t d e s c r i b e s a s t h e one c o u r b e de  And  who  mere t r i c o t e debout  by t h e Sun,  vagina, t h i s  infant  prisonnlers"  " c r e u x de c e t e s p a c e  And  dos"51.  in patriarchy,  son"53.  grave/OA v e i l l e n t  until  "Aucun a r b r e de  i n her  lap, this  the snakes,  p a r o l e n'y Mother h o l d s  i n n o c e n t s . " (E,53)  meurent e n t r e nos d o i g t s c o m f o r t e r , as r e c e p t i c l e ,  dragon,  the  pousse  stare beyond  him  lest  as monster,  i n t o stone."55  prepatriarchal  has  she swallow  these d e f i n i t i o n s  e a r t h and  "avid her  her  les droits "insectes  t o be  The  Mother  She  as  tellurian i s the  I n t o her dark c a v e s , or  of the Mother,  where w a t e r  89  [Qui] Pesent et  " ' c h t h o n i c ' or  Woman B o r n ,  t i m e when t h e c a v e was  womb were one,  ses  possessed, reduced,  h i m back  I n Of  [plus]  de l a  "d'etranges  i s l u r k i n g deep below the s u r f a c e .  t h e Medusa "who  controlled,  on  This cave,  l o u r d e s t e t e s d ' a m a n t s / Q u i ne s o n t p l u s a n o u s /  presence"54  parce  invade the dark, deep s p a c e , the "coeur n o i r  n u i t " where s o o n racines".  l e t ] se  swamp-grass, o r t e e t h ;  or a m a r t y r e d  (E,18), i s i n v i t i n g  piliers"  i s t h e Mother  "tricote,  s u r son  the  Aten, a m o n o t h e i s t i c d e i t y 5 2 , i s t h i s  c a v e ; between h e r l e g s s n a k e s , lap a helpless  she  en s e c o u r b a n t  A c c o r d i n g t o A d r i e n n e R i c h , t h e Mother defined  (E,20, v .  l ' a r b r e / S o u s l e coup de m i d i "  back  her  Adrienne Rich looks to the  internal  body, when  d i d n o t drown, b u t  gave  Iife56,  where m e n s t r u a l b l o o d  n o u r i s h m e n t , where b r e a s t s subjects  (E,55).  menstrual blood  process.  sewage, b u t  of d e s i r e , but  F a r from t h i s  reality,  s e e s h e r s e l f a s a " V i e u x c a v e a u de  famllle/Eventre/Cage crev6e"  were n o t o b j e c t s  i n the l i f e - g i v i n g  Hebert's heroine  was n o t woman's f o u l  de b o u l e a u blanc/Rompue/...Douce  She i s h a r d l y t h e a n c i e n t and m i l k  nurture  poitrine  M o t h e r , whose  and t r a n s f o r m 5 7 .  She i s  h a r d l y t h e b l o s s o m i n g T r e e o f P r e p a t r i a r c h y , whose n o u r i s h m e n t comes f r o m t h i s stresses  v e s s e l o f t h e e a r t h , t h e f e m a l e body58.  t h a t women i n P a t r i a r c h a l t i m e s s t i l l  the  great  G o d d e s s , who i s t h e s p i d e r  her  own body, " A r i a d n e  spinning  further"59.  follow begin centre "the  Women o f t h e p r e s e n t  i t , must c o n t i n u e t o be a g a i n ; and be s e e n  experience  knowledge o f what  "Cette  has  Moers l o o k s  or s p i n  t h r e a d and  s o t h a t what was c a n  t h a t , as M i l l e t t  a heritage  suggests,  we b e s t o w upon e a c h  a t the bird  (...) l i e e  (E,59).  other,  i t h a s meant t o be f e m a l e " 6 0 .  metaphor a s woman's  i s a t o r t u r e d , caged v i c t i m , a c r u c i f i e d  enfant  fascin6e"  of l i f e  o f a l l women e v e r y w h e r e becomes, i n a s e n s e ,  the  bird  from  on t h e m a r g i n s c a n come t o t h e  i n new l i g h t ;  communal p r o p e r t y ,  The  the thread  must g r a b t h a t  sewing s t o r i e s  that stories  our  Ellen  are linked to  providing the clue t o the l a b y r i n t h  [...] o r o l d s p i n n i n g - w o m e n who c u t t h e t h r e a d it  Rich  Caught  par l a c h e v l l l e / P a r e i l l e  reality.  Christ61  a une e s c l a v e  i n t h e cage o f P a t r i a r c h y , t h i s  become t h e m e t a p h o r i c a l  like  bird  -and f o r H e b e r t , t h e m e t o n y m i c a l -  sign  o£ women.  The s p i n s t e r  i n Browning's  " A u r o r a L e i g h " had  lived  A s o r t of c a g e - b i r d l i f e , born i n a cage, A c c o u n t i n g t h a t t o l e a p from perch t o perch Was a c t and j o y enough f o r a n y b i r d . Dear h e a v e n , how s i l l y a r e t h e t h i n g s t h a t l i v e In t h i c k e t s , a n d e a t b e r r i e s ! I alas, A w i l d b i r d s c a r c e l y f l e d g e d , was b r o u g h t t o h e r cage, And s h e was t h e r e t o meet me. V e r y k i n d . B r i n g t h e c l e a n water, g i v e o u t t h e f r e s h seed.62  The  bird  "toutes  i s a symbol  o f women c a u g h t  femmes, t a n t  mais v i c t i m e s conseillees, cardinaux"  que nous sommes,  sur l'autel, dirigees  (ES,55)•  avec  This  [ne s o n t ] j a m a i s  l e Christ,  encadrees,  of k i l l i n g  Mary J e a n G r e e n  exposed  recounts that  h e r husband i n an i r o n  "wild  still  bird  lives  scarcely  fledged"  the  o f h e r murdered A n c e s t r e s s e s .  "une  with the s p i r i t s  through death, t o r e t u r n fille  Wild, as  La Corriveau  i n her death; attached t o the shoulders of h e r ghost dances  free,  cage a t  witch63.  i n Browning,  travellers, spirits  i n 1763, was  t h e l e g e n d , echoed i n  K a m o u r a s k a, r e v e a l s t h e " e n v e r s " o f t h e e v i l the  pretres,  " f a u c o n a v e u g l e " i s a woman c a g e d , a s  o n l y hanged, b u t l i t e r a l l y  Levis.  where  p a r nos s u p e r i e u r g£neraux, evegues e t  was t h e woman who, a c c u s e d not  i n man's w o r l d ,  maigre",  Mother v i r g i n ,  this  of the past, with  And f i n a l l y  t o her " v i r g i n "  state,  she i s not as  b u t , a s R i c h e x p l a i n s , a s was h e r Moon "woman who b e l o n g s t o h e r s e l f " ,  who-will-not-have-a-husband"64. 91  t h i s "she-  The  maiden Daphne d i d n o t w i l l  father's desires,  a husband, d e s p i t e  as w e l l as her s u i t o r ' s ,  t o Thomas B u l f l n c h ,  she wanted t o r e m a i n  Moon Goddess D i a n a 6 5 .  And  still  Apollo  Apollo.  According  unmarried pursued  her  like  her  the  "like  hound p u s u i n g a h a r e , w i t h open jaws r e a d y t o s e i z e ! . . . ] f l e w t h e god  and  the v i r g i n  desire],  she  on t h o s e o f f e a r . "  pursuit god,  and and  has  -he  Daphne's e s c a p e ;  pity,  and  t u r n s her  on t h e w i n g s o f l o v e  So  [and  B u l f i n c h recounts the  "Peneus", h e r into a  a  father  the  river  tree:  a s t i f f n e s s s e i z e d a l l h e r l i m b s ; h e r bosom began t o be e n c l o s e d i n a t e n d e r b a r k ; h e r h a i r became l e a v e s ; h e r arms became b r a n c h e s ; h e r f o o t s t u c k f a s t i n t h e g r o u n d , a s a r o o t ; h e r f a c e became a t r e e - t o p , r e t a i n i n g n o t h i n g of i t s former s e l f but its beauty.66  Transformed ses  feuilles/Et  f r o z e n and and  i n t o something  h a r d , she  give l i f e .  picking  dessin  The  m o t h e r , D r y o p e , who plant  and  to tear  Infant  the milk cease  a s M o t h e r , f r o z e n under faint  " c r i rauque"  her c h i l d r e n ,  one  -this  i n t o an  "arbre/En  les feuilles" Tree which had  plant  (E,19),  can n u r t u r e  made t h e m i s t a k e  b e i n g t h e nymph  becomes a t r e e a t t h e whim o f t h e male  w i t h l e a v e s . The  harden,  i s not,  f i g 6 du v e n t / S u r  " I n a n g u i s h she a t t e m p t e d filled  she  i s not the o r i g i n a l  from the l o t u s  transformed- also  that  felt  fine  but  found  Lotus nymph.  her  hands  h i s m o t h e r ' s bosom b e g i n t o  to flow"67.  Emptied  t h e b a r k , a l l she  (E,56). last  her h a i r ,  of  L e a v i n g one t h r e a d which  c a n do  last will  of her  identity  i s emit  a  instruction for c a r r y through  to  future generations, "Resplre/Et and  se p l a i n t  her c h i l d r e n ' s  repeating,  like  t h e weak, b l i n d e d  "My mother l i e s  A n c e s t r e s s e s , mothers behind the bars,  h i d under  crying  emit c r i e s  Kore  of l i f e ;  or Persephone,  this  o f woe.  place,  birth  (E,61).  Demeter, who goes a deal  bird,  there  Persephone  t o the "matin" will  becomes t h e  is still  h e r d a u g h t e r , makes  so t h a t Persephone  Rising  have t o t a l  claims68  i t i s h e r mother,  might  from the dark, l i k e the  p e e r s o u t from "Ses p r u n e l l e s  to the l i g h t ,  Bulfinch,  journey, finds  w i t h Death,  of Trees-  grasp of Pluto69, t h i s  But, R i c h emphasizes,  from her darkness.  Persephone  returns  the s t i f l i n g  free,  and becomes a mother o f  Rich notes that  on a g r e a t  w i t h t h e gods,  resurface  -Mother  raped and p o s s e s s e d by P l u t o ,  from d e a t h , d e s p i t e  "etau des o s "  symbol  s h e "becomes a male g o d " , a s R i c h  bearing a son.  from  Daphne, no l o n g e r  personal  by  bark."(ibid.)  out beneath t h e bark,  p r o p e r t y o f the k i n g o f the Underworld, that  Only her c h i l d r e n  c a n s a v e h e r b y remembering,  now i s remembered a s A p o l l o ' s preserver  (R,61).  etrangement"  children  b i r d , she  (R,61). freedom  c r e v e e s " and And y e t , n o t e s  only  i f she has  not y e t eaten a n y t h i n g of t h e Underworld:  but, a l a s ! t h e m a i d e n had t a k e n a p o m e g r a n a t e w h i c h P l u t o o f f e r e d h e r , and had s u c k e d t h e sweet p u l p f r o m a few o f t h e s e e d s . T h i s was enough t o p r e v e n t h e r c o m p l e t e r e l e a s e ; b u t a compromise was made, by w h i c h s h e was t o p a s s h a l f t h e t i m e w i t h h e r m o t h e r , a n d t h e r e s t w i t h h e r husband P l u t o . 7 0  93  The in  compromise  i n "Le  t h e Greek myth; t h e  having the  eaten  of the  s i n of her  followed,  Tombeau des  heroine  has  rois"  had  forbidden f r u i t .  Mother Eve.  threatened,  She  has  penetrated,  is similar  t o pay She  has  p a i d the  she  has  to that  the p r i c e carried  for  with  her  consequences;  undergone  the  sacrifice:  Ce  n'est  que  l a profondeur  de  l a mort q u i persiste,  Simulant l e d e r n i e r tourment Cherchant son apalsment E t son e t e r n i t e En un c l i q u e t i s l e g e r de b r a c e l e t s C e r c l e s v a i n s jeux d ' a i l l e u r s A u t o u r de l a c h a i r s a c r i f i c e . (61) Sacrifice Lord  to the  of the  ecstatic  d e a d and  In o r d e r  "perform  a rite  Emond, i s "un  she  These r i t e s  mutilations,  des  avant  l e triomphe  resurrection."73 having  must  f a c e t h e demons o f  rite  q u i permet  initiatique  which  de  this  t r a g i q u e a l'aube "comportent  des  l a renaissance  P a s c a l notes  ou de  the  the  l e passage  d'un  jour  des ou  reelles,  la  that Hebertian heroines,  undergone  un d e s o r d r e i n t e r i e u r q u i se t r a d u i t p a r l e d e s e s p o i r , d e s m a l a i s e s p h y s i q u e s e t meme 94  of  rite,  toujours  m o r t s , symbol1que  the  shaman's  the s p i r i t s  And  sacrifices, final  i s p a r t of the  of exorcism"71.  l a mort a l a v i e , d'une n u i t  nouveau"72.  "propitiating  " t o commune w i t h  i n the Otherworld"  reiterates de  of the Underworld",  Dead", O r e n s t e i n a s s e r t s ,  journey.  ancestors  "King  after  p s y c h i q u e s , [...] c e s d i f f e r e n t e s m a n i f e s t a t i o n s d'une r e v o l t e l a r v e e marquent un t o u r n a n t dans 1 ' i n t r i g u e . E l l e s p r o v o q u e n t en e f f e t une p r i s e de c o n s c i e n c e q u i d e v i e n t p r i s e de pouvoir. E t l e personnage f e m i n i n a p p a r a i t sous un j o u r nouveau.74  And  yet the  light,  the morning  R e s u r r e c t i o n comes a f t e r of  "Le  which  Tombeau d e s  rois",  i s " a s s i m i l e e a une  mort". de  But,  1'heroine  desperately  notes  is  no  liberation  the b i r d ,  the  t h e F a t h e r ' s House.  (R,55),  this  Philippe  itself In  exhibits  d'aube".  of a  identifiee  seems a  folly,  At the  "vaine  Haeck  a la  rebellion  Searching the  heroine  I n t e r p r e t s the  i n i t s f a t i g u e , as "Rouler  dans des i n the  feminine  end  revolt  succombs  "auto-destruction."76  " o i s e a u f o u " , caught  famille/eventre",  beginnings  a. l ' i n f i n i " 7 5 .  even t h a t of  yet.  bird  the  Pascal, i t s t i l l  i n her  "reflet  i t i s not y e t .  transgression et  for liberation,  a l l temptations,  but  there are  q u i se r e p e t e  to  in  death,  i s only a  the  flight  heroine  r a v i n s de  "Vieux  There of  caught  fatigue"  caveau  de  characteristics:  On s a l t que l a p s y c h a n a l y s e e s t nee de l'examen d e s femmes h y s t e r l q u e s , des f o l l e s . Un o i s e a u s e d e b a t dans l e v i e u x c a v e a u de l a f a m i l l e [ c e q u i p o r t e l a m a l c h a n c e ou l a m o r t ] , i l v o l e , v o l e , l ' a i r s e f a i t r a r e , 1 ' o i s e a u e s t f a t i g u e , i l ne s o r t i r a pas de l a f a m i l l e : s o u m i s au p e r e , au m a r i , au f i l s , c ' e s t t o u j o u r s l ' a i r l o u r d de l a famille. Quelle f i e v r e est reservee a c e l l e qui veut 6nventrer l a f a m i l l e ? Je commence a a i m e r l ' h a l e i n e des femmes, j ' y r e c o n n a i s d e s h i s t o i r e s anciennes qui expliquent l ' h i s t o i r e moderne.77  Haeck s e e s  t h a t " l a femme" " c h e r c h e  eperdument d a n s  son  histolre"78, past, is  f o r her  is s t i l l  p a i n and  stimulated qu'il  roots.  in process;  the by  passage  The like  linking a birth  is difficult.  " l a voix feminine  remonte d i f f i c i l e m e n t  1'enfance"79.  yet the  [,ce]  According etre  bird  rols.  i s the  quietly  young g i r l s ,  one  listens  to the  nor  the  can as  v o l des  actual birth  s i loin,  bird's cry, to  (E,25)  shows t h e way o f them p u t s  to her  i f f o r the  p r i o n n i e r s " below.  Sight  i s not  ear  first  time,  the  Edmond C a r p e n t e r  to the  earth.  their  une  i n Le  ground  of the  is  direction."80  The  space which c o n t a i n s the  been d e f i n e d by complaint,  the  kings.  i t ' s pained  space of the thing. But,  see,  they  can  "insectes  [...]  from any  the  c l a i m s t h a t where t h e  ear  The  kings  i t i s the  sound  is visual.  bird,  "eye  in physical  favours  heroine's  de  and  but  space,  the  Tombeau voix  cannot  each o b j e c t  [,]  (ibid.).  monde" t o  privilege,  babble  peut-  chose  voix"  She  .  heroine.  focuses, pinpoints, abstracts, locating a g a i n s t a background  the  l a memoire", "La  " l ' e n v e r s du  mouvement b e n e a t h t h e  bird.  des  l i b e r a t i n g agent  f o r " l a p o r t e de  de  imaginaires est  A nous f a i r e e n t e n d r e  is  parce  seems t o open  t o accompany t h e  oiseaux  transforming,  Searching  1'oiseau"  the  the  there  c r i raugue, raugue  to the  flight  and  yet complete,  c h o s e q u i p u i s s e nous a r r i v e r ,  A nous s e c o u e r ,  The  hear,  taken  t o Haeck, "Le  l a plus belle  propre  des  has  present  e t q u ' i l remonte de  From t h e h e r o i n e  bird  not But  "oiseau mort/Nul passage/Nul s e c o u r s " And  of the  space with  c r y , i t s v o i c e , w h i c h opens h e r  It  has  i t s soft ears  as  if  f o r the f i r s t  without  fixed  coherent  speech,  peupliers/Qui  Eli  a mi-voix"  font  un c h a n t  words.  moving toward  i n sound We  [which] god,  that  creating  What one "un  i s not  sole"  (57),  "coeur"  "silence" and  (24)  from t h i s  a t t h e same t i m e , or  beyond  language  translates  these  i s beyond In Another  t h e r e i s "a  itself  i n t h e most  queer[...1  trusted.  T i m e,  rhythmic  i n t o music,  i n t e n s e and But  beyond  Devoid  not  perhaps  Mandel  also  articulation  I t s u n s e e n f a c e may  i s the p l a c e of chaos,  at  i t i s not  i s d e f i n e d , but "time".  which  "voix  incoherent rumblings  b u t more l i k e l y a b e a s t . " ( I b i d . ) .  where Medusa w a i t s .  de  (25) o r t h i s  moments o f our e x p e r i e n c e . " 8 1  i s n o t t o be  this  bruit  hears  liquide"  t h e r e i s "something  tradition,  i t s own  des  a different  [... ] t h a t  r e a c h toward  t h e most p r i v a t e says that  fluid  limits,  Mandel s u g g e s t s  source  itself  (55), " l e brulssement  (26). I t i s s i l e n c e  w h i c h has  language,  made by t h e t h i n g  but m u f f l e d n o i s e s :  M o t i o n l e s s and  language  sphere  in flux,  "Rythme s o u r d " -a new  interieure" once.  i s ] always  i s "a  moment t o m o m e n t . " ( i b J j L . )  "Fracas d ' i v o i r e  emits a  T h i s a u d i t o r y space  boundaries, space  [...space w h i c h dimensions,  time.  be  that  of speech  where m o n s t e r s  I n t h e words o f George S t e i n e r ,  p l a c e d e f i n e d a s a v u l g a r "monkey-hutch o f b a b b l e r s  of a  and  lurk, i t is a  and  baboons"82.  Terry Eagleton Interprets " s e m i o t i c " as t h i s  Julia  Kristeva's  speechless stage. 97  concept  of  I t Is a p a t t e r n of  the forces  in  the  pre-Oedipal  pulsional  pressure"  disruption, of  s t a t e which full  silence  language".  and  Fluid  transcendental  of  and  Dionysian,  " e n v e r s du  The  plural,  And  semiotic  It i s ,  Norman 0.  of  i s the  'other'  "rhythmic,  Brown r e f e r s  a p l a c e where T r u t h  monde".  a kind  i t i s "opposed t o a l l f i x e d ,  significations"83.  as  "as  " c o n t r a d i c t i o n , meanlnglessness,  absence.  onomatopoeic babble"84. as  i s discerned  has  to t h i s  been h i d i n g ,  place  the  yet,  t r u t h i s always scandalous, a stumbling b l o c k ; t r u t h i s where we s t u m b l e o r f a l l [... 1 The t r u t h i s i n t h e e r r o r [...] The o r i g i n a l m i s t a k e ! . . ] The god o f D e l p h i , who a l w a y s s p o k e t h e t r u t h , n e v e r gave a s t r a i g h t answer t... ] He a w l a y s spoke in r i d d l e s , i n parables; ambiguities [...Ithat h e a r i n g t h e y m i g h t h e a r and n o t u n d e r s t a n d . 8 5  Women's b a b b l e  is this  truth,  which the  heroine  dechiffre  aucun mystere."  understand look  only  sight,  on  what Man  bird,  she  not  (24).  taught  been a b l e  The her;  code.  I t i s , as  "the  t h r o u g h o n e ' s v e i n s and "grands c o u r a n t s  t o see (54).  t o tune  but  silence:  heroine  mirrors  hears,  deep rythms of the  stifling  Tombeau c a n n o t y e t u n d e r s t a n d :  l o o k i n g i n t o these  undecipherable "the  has  "Rythme s o u r d / C o d e s e c r e t "  "dans s e s m i r o i r s p o l l s "  have been d e a f , the  o f Le  the  only  of  faint  u n i v e r s e " which begin sound o f one's own heart  sous-marins"(24) run  on  of  a code  of  the  coursing  beating."86  through,  cry  to replace  blood  ears  this  E l i Mandel s u g g e s t s ,  one's own  to  dependent  to the  understands nothing  98  sees,  f o r i n f o r m a t i o n , her into  ne  can  what He Still  "Je  These  what Norman  0.  Brown c a l l s ,  a "subterranean  passage"  meanings": " b o d i l y meanings, c a r n a l  e m i t t i n g new "unspoken  knowledge"87, meanings  whose s e n s e  will  come f r o m n o n s e n s e , b a b b l e .  words t h e i r  full  significance  "To r e s t o r e t o  [...] i s t o r e d u c e  nonsense, t o g e t nonsense o r n o t h i n g n e s s  them t o  or s i l e n c e  back  into  words"88.  Women who have e m i t t e d t h i s burned  as witches.  sorceresses,  T h e y have been l a b e l l e d  n o t t o be l i s t e n e d  tongue o f Eve, h a v i n g by a l l women. blinded looked  " n o n s e n s e " , t h o u g h , have  Muted, s o a s n o t t o l u r e  so as not t o turned  into  b a c k , women have t u r n e d  a s demons a n d  t o or t r u s t e d .  tempted Adam i n t o  stone  The q u i c k  S i n , has been  elle  profane  [ l a femme] a c c e p t e  p o u r mieux o u v r i r  une  vision  les  t6nybres"89.  like  L o t ' s w i f e who  t o other senses.  this  s u p e r i e u r e " [ q u i ] "se double  new v i s i o n ,  persiste tatonne  comme une a v e u g l e . "  [par]  Je f o u i l l e  (K., 242)  de p e r c e r  becomes aware o f force:  "Je  l e s tenebres. Je  Emond m a i n t a i n s  that the  a l a voyance, & l a  [... ] p a r l a morte r i t u e l l e e t  l e v o l magique'"90 o f t h e b i r d . %  aveugle" with  e t deboucher s u r  i t s liberating  Hebertian heroine can o n l y "acceder s o u v e r a i n e t y du r e g a r d d i v i n  observes  s e s yeux de  d'une f a c u l t y  Elizabeth  r  i t s superiority,  du c o t e d e s t e n e b r e s .  Emond  l a m u t i l a t i o n de s a v i s i o n  son t r o i s i e m e o e i l  In Kamouraska  inherited  o r s e d u c e men, a n d  what women a r e b e g i n n i n g t o d i s c o v e r ; "En f e r m a n t chair,  been  So, t h e " f a u c o n  i t s " p r u n e l l e s c r e v y e s " , has t a k e n  99  f l i g h t and  accompanied her.  the heroine through  B l i n d e d as w e l l ,  her  t h e shadows w h i c h have c o n f i n e d  "prunelles  llquldes"(34),  d'eau"(36),  t h e h e r o i n e becomes a c c u s t o m e d t o t h e  and  she  the b i r d ,  and  masculine  and  but  d'aube". I t i s a new  of the Mother.  "deeper/into the l i v i n g states  "tenebres",  "roi/Minuscule et naif",  together, e n v i s i o n another  a small " r e f l e t God,  this  This light  "plerres  feminine  time, another  light,  place i n  n o t o f t h e Su/on o f  draws t h e  heroine  c a v e " where, a s R a c h e l B l a u D u P l e s s i s  i n " E u r y d i c e " , she  and  her  sisters  will  be  reborn:  She w i l l t a k e s h a p e and s p r o u t a s o f t l i g h t f a r from the s u r f a c e p u s h i n g o u t w a r d , o f h e r own power s t a l k , ladder of c l i m b i n g c e l l s r o o t , f i l l i n g the c o r r i d o r s of rock flower, b r e a k i n g the e a r t h , f r a g r a n t , seeds  opening  of E u r y d i c e  She w i l l b r o o d and be b o r n g i r l o f h e r own mother mother o f t h e l a b y r i n t h daughter p u s h i n g the c h i l d h e r s e l f toward  Mothers, "that  not  daughters  great great great  head, the cave l a r g e i n s i d e i t l i p s o f a g i a n t woman cunt, f r a g r a n t , opening  seeds  of  have been empowered.  o n l y r e c e n t and  g r a n d m o t h e r s and encode a sense  Eurydice.91  contemporary  great-grandmothers  of s e l f - a f f i r m a t i o n 100  may and  Annis P r a t t  suggests  p o e t s , but a l s o have f o u n d  our  some way  power" i n t h e i r  to  writing92.  Although  s i l e n c e d , women have been f i n d i n g  express  their  secrets  i n each o t h e r s ' e a r s , g i r l s  centuries, creation  experience.  o f L e Tombeau d e s r o i s  f  I n "My S i s t e r s ,  intimates that the place cave93.  By w r i t i n g , w e a v i n g , o r w h i s p e r i n g and women have b e e n , f o r  t r a n s g r e s s i n g t h e Law o f P a t r i a r c h y .  transgression.  ways t o  t h a t deep p l a c e  Hebert's  i s a n example o f t h i s 0 My S i s t e r s " ,  of r e b i r t h ,  The tomb, no l o n g e r  Anne  Mary  Sarton  of t r a n s g r e s s i o n , i s the  a place  of death,  where p o e t  i s a womb,  becomes woman.  Where n o t h i n g h a s t o be r e n o u n c e d o r g i v e n o v e r In t h e pure l i g h t t h a t s h i n e s o u t from t h e l o v e r , In t h e pure And  light  that great  Images u s e d b y women p o e t s ,  that brings  s a n i t y , t h a t sun,  present  melted  together.  Paula  Hubert  falls  the ' t r a d i t i o n a l *  is  into  an embryonic  most t r a d i t i o n a l rols  f  Gilbert  and p a s t ,  Lewis notes category  feminism n o t i c e a b l e even women w r i t e r s " 9 4 .  of r e b i r t h .  101  have s u r f a c e d and  that although of poets,  Anne  "there  i n t h e works o f t h e  hers  " t h a t deep p l a c e  woman", t h e p l a c e where s h e i s r e b o r n women t h r o u g h t h e p r o c e s s  f r u i t and flower the feminine power.  I n w r i t i n g Le Tombeau d e s  Anne H u b e r t h a s j o i n e d hands w i t h  m o t h e r s , and h a s e n t e r e d  forth  s i s t e r s and  where p o e t  becomes  and where s h e l e a d s  other  Notes  1. A n n i s P r a t t , " A f f a i r s w i t h B e a r s : Some N o t e s Towards F e m i n i s t A r c h e t y p a l Hypotheses f o r Canadian L i t e r a t u r e , " G y n o c r i t i c s / G y n o c r i t i q u e s e d . B a r b a r a Godard ( T o r o n t o : ECW P r e s s , 1987) 161. 2. P i e r r e - H e r v e L e m i e u x , E n t r e Sonoe e t P a r o l e E d i t i o n s de l ' U n i v e r s i t e d ' O t t a w a , 1978) 176. 3. 42. 4. et  D e l b e r t W.  Russell,  Anne H e b e r t  L u c i l l e Roy, "Anne H u b e r t ou images 7.3 p r i n t e m p s 1982: 491.  5.  Lemieux  6.  Roy  484.  7.  Roy  492.  (Boston:  l e d e s e r t du  Emond  Twayne,  1983)  monde," v o i x  184.  8. M a u r i c e Emond, La Femme a l a f e n e t r e l ' U n i v e r s i t e L a v a l , 1984) 134. 9.  (Ottawa:  (Quebec: P r e s s e s  de  135.  10.  Emond  11.  Roy  134.  499-500.  12. G e r a r d B e s s e t t e , " l a D i s l o c a t i o n dans l a p o e s i e d'Anne H e b e r t , " Une l i t t e r a t u r e en e b u l l i t i o n ( M o n t r e a l : E d i t i o n s du J o u r , 1968) 13. 13. prelude  J o y Kogawa, Obasan (n.p.).  (Harmondsworth: P e n g u i n ,  1983)  14. M a r i e C o u i l l a r d , "Les E n f a n t s du S a b b a t d'Anne un r e c i t de s u b v e r s i o n f a n t a s t i q u e , " I n c i d e n c e s 14.2-3 d e c . 1980: 120. 15. Press,  Jan M o n t e f i o r e , 1987) 42.  F e m i n i s m and  102  Poetry  Hebert: mai-  (London: Pandora  16. M a r g a r e t Atwood, "The C u r s e o f Eve -Or What I L e a r n e d i n S c h o o l , " C a n a d i a n Women's S t u d i e s 1.3 S p r i n g 1979: 31. 17.  Pratt,  18.  Waeltl-Walters  89.  19.  Waelti-Walters  5.  20.  Waeltl-Walters  81.  21.  Waelti-Walters  90.  22.  Pratt,  " T i g e r " 188.  23.  Pratt,  " T i g e r " 190.  24.  Marcotte  282.  25.  Bouchard  148.  26.  Pascal,  27. 1975:  " T i g e r " 172.  "Soumlssion"  74.  Rachel Blau D u P l e s s i s , "Eurydice, " Boundary 250-254.  28. parole  J e a n - L o u i s M a 1 o r Anne H e b e r t e t l e m i r a c l e ( M o n t r e a l : P r e s s e s de l ' U n i v e r s l t e de M o n t r e a l , r  29.  L e m i e u x 209.  30.  Emond 45.  31. Quinze,  Jovette Marchessault, 1980) 35.  32.  Kuntsmann  255.  33.  Kuntsmann  260.  34.  Godard,  "Mapmaking" 10.  35.  Godard,  "Mapmaking" 13.  36.  Godard,  "Mapmaking" 14.  37.  Orenstein  179.  38.  Orenstein  180.  39.  Orenstein  182.  L a M6re d e s h e r b e s  103  1976) 14.  (Montreal:  40.  O r e n s t e i n 181.  41.  O r e n s t e i n 183.  42.  O r e n s t e i n 182.  43. F r a n k S c o t t e t Anne H e b e r t , D i a l o g u e ( M o n t r e a l : HMH, 1970) 102. 44.  S c o t t 30.  45.  Emond 271.  46.  Emond 272.  47.  Emond  48.  Emond 273.  49.  Emond 282.  sur l a traduction  272-3.  50. D e n i s e B o u c h e r , "La P o e s i e en t a n t que moyen de c o m m u n i c a t i o n dans l e s o e u v r e s d e s femmes p o e t e s , " C o n f e r e n c e des f e m m e s - e c r i v a i n s en A m e r i q u e , Revue de l ' U n i v e r s i t e d'Ottawa 50.1 j a n - m a r s 1980: 20. 51. Jovette Marchessault, "Les F a l s e u s e s Trvptique l e s b l e n (Montreal: l a P l e i n e lune, 52. 1976)  Adrienne Rich, 123.  Of Woman B o r n  53.  Rich,  Woman 186.  54.  Rich,  Woman 109.  55.  Rich,  Woman 112.  56.  Rich,  Woman 108.  57.  Rich,  Woman 101.  58.  Rich,  Woman 100.  59.  Rich,  Woman 101.  d'anges," 1 9 8 0 ) : 108.  (New Y o r k : W.W.  Norton.  60. C h e r i R e g i s t e r , "American F e m i n i s t L i t e r a r y C r i t i c i s m : A B i b l i o g r a p h i c a l I n t r o d u c t i o n , " Feminist L i t e r a r y Theory: A Reader e d . Mary E a g l e t o n ( O x f o r d : B a s i l B l a c k w e l l , 1986) 172.  104  61. E l l e n M o e r s , L i t e r a r y Woman ( e x c e r p t ) F e m i n i s t L i t e r a r y T h e o r y : A R e a d e r e d . Mary E a g l e t o n ( O x f o r d : B a s i l B l a c k w e l l , 1986) 209. 62.  Moers 210.  63.  Green,  64.  Rich,  " W i t c h " 145. Woman 107.  65. Thomas B u l f i n c h , B u l f i n c h ' s M y t h o l o g y L i b r a r y ) n . d . : 22. 66.  B u l f i n c h 23.  67.  B u l f i n c h 57.  68.  Rich,. Woman 125.  69.  Rich,  70.  B u l f i n c h 50.  71.  O r e n s t e i n 193.  72.  Emond 142.  73.  Emond 143.  74.  Pascal,  " S o u m l s s i o n " 68.  75.  Pascal,  " S o u m l s s i o n " 74.  76.  Pascal,  " S o u m l s s i o n " 75.  77.  Haeck 147.  78.  Haeck 146.  79.  Haeck 147.  80. 107.  Eli  81.  M a n d e l 36-7.  82.  M a n d e l 37.  (New Y o r k :  Modern  Woman 238.  Mandel,  Another  Time  ( E r i n : Press  P o r c e p i c , 1977)  83. T e r r y E a g l e t o n , L i t e r a r y Theory: an I n t r o d u c t i o n (an e x c e r p t ) F e m i n i s t L i t e r a r y T h e o r y : A Reader e d . Mary E a g l e t o n ( O x f o r d : B a s i l B l a c k w e l l , 1986) 214.  84. 85. 1966)  Eagleton  217.  Norman 0. Brown, L o v e ' s Body 243-45.  86.  M a n d e l 41.  87.  Brown  265.  88.  Brown  258.  89.  Emond  300.  90.  Emond  299.  91.  DuPlessis,  92.  Pratt,  "Eurydice"  (New Y o r k : Random House,  250-254.  " T i g e r " 192.  93. Mary S a r t o n , "My S i s t e r s , O My S i s t e r s , " C o l l e c t e d Poems 1930-1973 (New Y o r k : W.W. N o r t o n , 1974) 74-75. 94.  Lewis  6.  106  Conclusion And  Anne H e b e r t , other  people's  sage", as  finally  exploded  i n rage.  [who] [...]  the  t i m e p i e c e s and  tea  party."1  Her  had  not  the  recognized  other  cheek, Hebert  "the g r e a t e s t l i t e r a r y noted,  "We  emerge was  the  "tombeau d e s  disguised  the  rois",  layers  l o v e r s have t h e i r  the  of  kept  such  at  life  itself",  while w r i t i n g system.  but  the t h i n  obscure  light."3  world  faces stripped  live 107  and  -  Hebert  male  been  critic What open  s u r f a c e which  are raped,  which male  replaced with mirrors  of the  the  Taught t o t u r n  of r e v o l t s  Thin g i r l s  up  t h e poems o f  i f n o t hanged h e r . " 2  shattering  k i n g s o f t h e dead  guest  b u r n i n g with anger, which t o r e  e v e n t h e y become r e f l e c t i o n s and  tripped  d e e p i n s i d e what would have  her,  an  "reserved f o r the Church  s c a n d a l " f o r w h i c h , one  "an  bowels of  the e t e r n a l  c h a l l e n g e the  a literature  o f t e n d i d n ' t see  (54),  i t as  would have e x i l e d  did  that  indeed  fille  l o o k i n g g l a s s of  p s y c h e where a l i e n a t i o n  r e s e n t m e n t was  Tombeau, o r d i d n o t d a r e  the  to r e v e a l the h e l l i s h  w r a t h was  "grande  with  McDonald d e s c r i b e s h e r  through  I t s s t r a n g l e h o l d on e d u c a t i o n and  either  furniture",  attractive  Marci  stepped  of the c o l l e c t i v e  all  One  other people's  e x p e c t a t i o n s of t h i s  c o n t e m p o r a r y Quebec  with  S t o r y Is  " f e d up w i t h  "some a d u l t A l i c e  underworld  Our  so  Sun's p e n e t r a t i n g r a y s  a hellish  existence, searching  f o r any k i n d  o f appeasement t o t h i s  Jane Marcus s t a t e s  eternal  t h a t woman's w r a t h ,  torment  "comes f r o m t h e  w h i l e the f u r y of a g e n e r a l or a prime m i n i s t e r godlike."  For  attribute weak.  " d i v i n e s and  churchmen  [signifying] strength  An a n g r y mother  anger;  faithful  been "noues  B u l f i n c h reminds  off  h e r husband celibate,  Wanting  ( i n c a s e he m i g h t  she p a t i e n t l y ,  "humilite"(20).  Her  "point  desiring  t o gaze  condemns h e r t o H e l l ! crazed, blind  father,  f o r y e a r s f o r her  was  to  and  faithful  t o remain  to  otherwise  her underneath.  from a s e r p e n t ' s b i t e , i s He  i s a l l o w e d t o take her  n o t l o o k a t h e r on t h e i r  upon h i s b e a u t y ,  sister  108  ascent  o f E u r y d i c e when  turns,  Antigone, f a i t h f u l  faithful  fight  by n i g h t ,  both t o remain  Imagine t h e a n g e r  And  had  able to delay  a p o i n t " sewed  by h e r newlywed O r p h e u s .  f r o m P l u t o a s l o n g a s he does  man,  their  Thomas  r a g e must have been b o i l i n g  out of the Underworld.  to bury  unstitching  r e t u r n ) , and  B e a u t i f u l Eurydice, having died rescued  father i s  in their  f r o m t h e T r o j a n war,  robe, Penelope  c h o o s i n g a n o t h e r husband.5  an a n g r y  l a mort"(37).  Sewing by day,  then resewing a f u n e r a l  i s ] a necessary  torment  us t h a t P e n e l o p e , w a i t i n g  numerous s u i t o r s .  and  " l i e n s d u r s " of " l a f i d e l i t e "  ...Avec  husband, U l y s s e s , t o r e t u r n  i s heroic  Women have l e a r n e d  (18), the  devil  i n t h e s t r o n g , weakness i n t h e  wives, w a i t out t h e i r  "patience ancienne" have l o n g ago  [...it  i s out of c o n t r o l ;  exercising h i s authority."4  (61).  this  l o o k s and daughter  t o her s l a i n ,  t o her  unburied  brother,  digs  a grave with  C r e o n , now k i n g , alive.6  earth  And y e t , y e a r s  buried some  from t h e f r o z e n  (K.,250).  weave t h e i r  as  later,  woman i s u n c o v e r e d , r e s u r r e c t e d  Women have r e m a i n e d s i l e n t ,  few  And, h e r u n c l e  h i s anger u n l e a s h e d , has Antigone  Imagine h e r r a g e .  unidentified  her bare hands.  * his/story'  women have been a b l e has A d r i e n n e R i c h ,  indirect  b i t b y b i t f i n d i n g ways t o  into the centre. t o express t h i s  and n o n t h r e a t e n i n g  relieve  this  that  truth-telling" i n an  way, o f f e r e d o n l y " b e a u t i f u l l y Hortense C a l i s h e r has  q u i e t , n i c e a r t "mental hysterectomy".7  the pressure  to escape.  "angry  and t h a t most women h a v e , i n s t e a d ,  mandarin or minor" a r t or d i s c o u r s e . called  Marcus r e m a r k s  of not being  able  I n L e s F o u s de B a s s a n t h e r e  One way t o  t o 'shout o u t l o u d ' , i s a r e warnings o f rape  and  murder w h i c h come f r o m t h e dead s p i r i t s  o f O l i v i a ' s mother  and  grandmothers.  t o a place  she  c a n be once a g a i n  the  long awaited  Olivia with  dreams o f f l e e i n g  the maternal s p i r i t s . 8  p e a c e and community f o u n d  in this  where  She i m a g i n e s place:  Je p r e n d r a i ma mere a v e c mol e t j e l'ammenerai tres loin. Au f o n d d e s o c e a n s p e u t - e t r e , l a oft 11 y a d e s p a l a i s de c o q u i l l a g e s , d e s f l e u r s e t r a n g e s , d e s p o i s s o n s m u l t i c o l o r e s , d e s r u e s ou l ' o n r e s p i r e l ' e a u calmement comme l ' a i r . Nous v i v r o n s ensemble s a n s b r u i t e t s a n s e f f o r t .  (ES.,208)  Women w r i t e r s  i n Quebec have been f i n d i n g ways t o r e l e a s e  109  some o f t h e i r AngAllne.  a n g e r and I m p a t i e n c e , s i n c e L a u r e  Gagnon e x p l a i n s t h a t A n g e l i n e  Conan's  having  f  refused to  "*§tre donnee e t p o s s e d £ e  [ p a r l e s deux h £ r o s ] e n f i n ,  elie  Jovette  p o s s e d e e t donne."9  decevante  (1931), expressed  "telegraphic",  elliptic,  Bernier,  a feminine  jazz-like  in  La Chair  emotional  phrases.  t h e d e p t h o f woman's e m o t i o n s was c o n s i d e r e d  was  r a d i c a l l y new i n Quebec.10  others.  She o f t e n  reality  Revealing  way  Blais  heroine,  i n her  in this  immoral and i t  remembers t h e s e  women and  thinks  aux femmes du p a s s e , a t o u t e s c e s v o i x q u i o n t l o n g t e m p s d o r m l ... a c e s v o i x du p a s s e d o n t on ne s a l t r i e n [...,] v o i x de femmes, v o i x de j e u n e s f i l l e s , v o i x s a n s noms, e p o u s e s , meres, femmes i n q u i e t e s , c r a i n t i v e s [...,] v o i x coupables, p e u t - § t r e c o m p l i c e s de t a n t d ' h o r r e u r s , v o i x r e v o l t e e s m a i s c o u p a b l e s de s i l e n c e , a u temps oft l'hornme s e u l a v a i t une v i e , une h i s t o i r e , c a r c ' e t a i t l u i , l a v o i x , e t nous, l e s i l e n c e l l .  Jovette look  Marchessault's  t o woman's o p p r e s s i o n  i s to  back t o a g r a n d m o t h e r , who, u n t o u c h e d b y p a t r i a r c h a l  ideology,  instills  indispensible d'Ariane'  present  and  conveyor  wisdom.12 pulled  her values  connecting  i n her grandchild.  thread  i n women's s t o r y .  and  but  response  which  It i s this  i s the c r u c i a l  I t i s the link  *£il  betweeen t h e p a s t  w h i c h t h e g r a n d m o t h e r makes, a c t i n g a s f e m a l e of p r i v a t e feminine  Marchessault  sage  t r u t h s and u n o r t h o d o x  has g r a b b e d h o l d  of t h i s  " f i l " and  h e r s e l f , n o t out o f t h e cave t h a t has imprisoned h e r ,  deeper  i n s i d e a transformed 110  and t r a n s f o r m i n g  place: the  womb o f t h e m a t e r n a l  Origin.  where t h e g r a n d m o t h e r Tryptique  lesbien  under a p h a l l i c dans l a n u i t poules and  patriarchy  has r e j e c t e d t h e v a l u e s  (1980),  v i v e de ma t e r r e (1981),  nouvelle"  entered  the b i r t h  Hebert,  Conan, Guevremont and Roy, t h e s e  canal.  These  ( E , 5 3 ) , r e c a s t and r e b o r n , And  things are reversed  the  living  one  time  of b i r t h . with  from t h e l i v i n g .  " l e s morts  At  dessous/Les  s u r f a c e of e a r t h which  been t r a n s f o r m e d  t e r r e de s o n o r e i l l e " a r e exhumed b l a c k e n e d ,  find  daughter.  open, t h e o r d e r  separated shaken.  i s t h e U n d e r g r o u n d w h i c h h a s consumed women,  The s u b t e x t ,  "Scartent  from a  i n " l ' e n v e r s du monde": r e g e n e r a t i o n o f  the thin  one woman f i n a l l y  finally  "insectes prisonnlers"  emerge, i r o n i c a l l y ,  two w o r l d s h a s now been c r a c k e d  now h a s i t s e l f  their  'mothers' and 'grandmothers',  e v e r y t h i n g was i n o r d e r ,  vlvants dessus"(36);  but  love,  and h a s , i n s t e a d , r e -  f r o m t h e dead a n d o f t h e dead  revealed  their  "beyond  s e c r e t knowledge"13, M a r c h e s s a u l t has  from t h e p l a c e of o p p r e s s i o n  What l i e s  themselves  dreams a n d f e a r s ,  escaped  the  ( 7 6 ) , i n Saga d e s  where women's h i s t o r y h a s been r e c a s t  [sharing] their their  no l o n g e r  "1'arbre-Mere-en-fleurs,  Roy, Guevremont and Conan f i n d  aspirations,  (1980),  of Patriarchy, i n  where t h e n a r r a t o r s i t s  symbol, but under  moulllees  Hebert,  I n La M&re d e s H e r b e s  into a place of production,  the " f i l i g r a n e " having  (53).  "decided" And o t h e r s  yet living,  l e jour  has f i n a l l y  t o "approche[r] l a followed.  Grandmothers  (K. 250) a n d d a u g h t e r s  [du P e r e S o l e l l ]  "L'ombre d'un s e u l a r b r e  emerged  comme un r i d e a u " and  [cet arbre Maternelle]  111  Stale"(E,  58)  a t the  feet  Maurice  o f women.  Emond r e c o g n i z e s t h i s  exhuming, r e n a m i n g ; "eternelle  which a g a i n  He  notes  t h a t the  c y c l e corresponds  i s linked  temporaires  to t h i s  e t morts  [..et] annoncent  renouvellement,  It  i s u n d e r t h e Moon t h a t " c e t t e s o e u r  (E/48).  " l ' e n v e r s de Tombeau des  Posing  de  T h i s " p e t i t e morte"  r o i s " does not the  "reflet  questions after  assassines"  its  e t a l e " has a new  Things Holland,  Sun  begins  nous a v o n s / S e  c r o s s e d over  to  Perhaps the h e r o i n e  in  be  sees  the b i r d  losing  in this  t o be  The  of the  Sun's s p a c e  and  "Le  Sun.  [sont] shiver.  The bird,  o f a new  Moon i n i t s own  reversed world.  baigne  light.  i t s power, t h e  a newly d i s c o v e r e d v i s i o n  t r a n s g r e s s e d the  light  has  ne  la resurrection."15  " l e s m o r t s h o r s de moi,  i t s "prunelles crevees".  morning, r i s e s  que  d'aube", s h o u l d  k i n g s dead, the P a t r i a r c h a l  through  process,  triomphantes  r e c o g n i z e t h e glimmer o f  (E, 61), the h e r o i n e  t h o u g h b l i n d e d , has  of  t..Cependant, e l l e s ]  l a r e g e n e r a t i o n e t de  ce m i r o i r l i m p i d e " .  Morning l i g h t ,  nature  rebirthing  l e s phases  du  bleue"  fecond  an  t o t h e moon's "phases t r a g i g u e s , a v e c  leurs mutilations, sacrifices s o n t que  rebirthing,  i t i s a " r e n a i s s a n c e p e r p e t u e l l e " , and  jeunesse".14  woman's m e n s t r u a l  transgression,  light Dawn, i n  The  "ombre  [qui]  has  been empowered;  born.  a r e n o t what t h e y were. i t i s " t h i s strange  bird  112  I n t h e words o f  J.C.  s i n g i n g the songs of  another  shore 16  t h a t a c t s a s communicator  M  leads  "les f i l l e s  earth,  Toril  "pallmpsestic".17 unconsciously,  poitrine"(32)  Mol c a l l s  to listen  until  finally  t o the  ... t h e  or u n w i l l i n g l y , h i d i n g the subtext,  t h e "La rage/Qui boils  oppresse  i s no l o n g e r  notre  to the surface, u n t i l  i n t e r i e u r e " ( 2 6 ) o f women. The b i r d ,  been t r a n s f o r m e d  that  woman's m a s k i n g o f t h e T r u t h ,  "de 1 ' o i s e a u m o r t " ( 2 5 ) i s " r e § u e . . . / P a r  vision,  place,  I n w r i t i n g , women have been c o n s c i o u s l y o r  willingly  "filigrane",  voice  de l ' 6 t e " ( E , 5 2 )  t o r e v e a l t h e deeper meanings, e x i s t e n c e s  watermark.  the  bleues  from a d i f f e r e n t  small  l a voix  regenerated  "ce r o i / M i n u s c u l e  that  et naif"  with  new  (20),  b u t has  into  une a u t r e femme, p l u s p e t i t e , (...] t o u t comme s i e l l e f u t t r o u v e e a l ' i n t e r i e u r de l a femme e n r o s e , l a femme en r o s e e t a n t v i d e e t c r e u s e , en a b a t - j o u r , f a i t e e x p r e s p o u r c o n t e n i r une a u t r e femme p l u s p e t i t e , p l u s a n c i e n n e d a n s l e temps, q u i , e l l e a u s s i , a c c o u c h e d'une a u t r e femme. Des femmes g i g o g n e s . Des p o u p e e s r u s s e s s ' e m b o i t a n t l e s unes dans l e s a u t r e s ( E S , p . 1 0 3 ) . To has  ' d i g up' women's  laid  'true' text  (history,  p a t i e n t l y underground, w a i t i n g  "her/story",  which  f o r some b r a v e s o u l t o  d a r e t o a p p r o a c h and s c r a t c h open t h e s u r f a c e ) , i s p e r h a p s a grander  p i c t u r e , (metaphor,  listening  "mlse en abime") o f t h e h e r o i n e ' s  t o t h e e a r t h and e n t e r i n g t h e tomb, d i g g i n g  bones and d i s c o v e r i n g new f l e s h . Elisabeth the  dead.  i n Kamouraska r e l i v e s Marcel  Fortin,  Enclosed her past  i n h i s recent  113  i n a sealed  up o l d room,  and a t t e m p t s t o k i l l article  on t h e  criticism to that she  o f Hebert's  works, n o t e s  this  attempt  tragically  I r o n i c a l l y are able t o find space,  trapped  i n this  t h e y t r a n s g r e s s t h e Law w i t h  propres  Vous ne p o u v e z p a s c o m p r e n d r e .  des l o l s  discovers  oeuvre  In "Poesie, s o l i t u d e  authentigue  time.  invente ses Elie  e s t au-  The p r o t a g o n i s t  de l ' e t r e  rompue", H e b e r t  sa propre  l o i interieure,  exprime e t donne"  (R,70-71).  dans l a jusqu'e. l a  Hubert i s  t o t h e freedom t o w r i t e a u t h e n t i c a l l y  Again,  speaks of  c r e a t e u r , e t l'ayant observee  for the f i r s t  t h e s e a r c h f o r woman's T r u t h o r A u t h e n t i c i t y  ' w i t h i n ' t h e s t o r y o r t h e poem, i s a m e t a p h o r ,  ( a n example o f  *mise en a b i m e ' ) f o r t h e j o u r n e y o f a l l Q u e b e c o i s ( e s ) all  : "La  [...] q u i s e c o n t e n t e d ' e t r e d a n s s a  rejolnt  conscience et 1'effort  referring  suffisante,  o r d i n a i r e s de l a t e r r e " (K., 4 7 ) .  p l e n i t u d e , ayant  limite  i n this  h e r own Law, one w h i c h a l l o w s h e r t o have h e r own  authenticity. "une  space,  impunityl8  v e r t u de l a b e a u t e  lols.  Perhaps  small  some k i n d o f f r e e d o m ;  t r a g i g u e , dure  dessus  i s similar  o f t h e p r o t a g o n i s t i n "Le Tombeau d e s r o i s " .  and E l i s a b e t h ,  cramped  that  and o f  women and men.  This story  i s a shared  story.  women, t o men, t o a l l t h o s e s t o r y about  forgiveness.  I t belongs  who have been o p p r e s s e d .  I n A Handmaid's T a l e  r e p r e s e n t s women who have been p e n e t r a t e d , oppressed.  And y e t , l i k e  t o Quebeckers, t o  the b i r d ,  "plainte": 114  r  I t i sa  Offred  controlled,  s h e q u i e t l y murmurs h e r  Maybe none of t h i s i s about c o n t r o l . Maybe i t i s n ' t r e a l y about who can own whom, who can do what to whom and get way with i t , even as f a r as death...Maybe i t ' s about who can do what to whom and be f o r g i v e n f o r i t . 1 9  It  i s the s t o r y about K a t e r i Tekakwita, who,  French  s e t t l e r s i n 1675  condemned by  as a s o r c e r e s s , turned back the  I r o q u o i s w a r r i o r s by s e t t i n g aflame her hand which turned a b i r d of peace.  Her  over death.20  f i n a l l y sheds the v e i l of the  " v i r g i n " and dons the a r c h a i c robes of the " V i r g i n " a c c o r d i n g to Esther Harding, to  make love or not.21  I t i s the chaste who,  i s f r e e to choose to marry or  not,  T h i s Daphne i s f i n a l l y f r e e to be,  like  Diana or Penelope, c e l i b a t e . present and  into  body, woman's body, becomes t h a t b i r d  once a g a i n , a c r e a t i v e symbol of l i f e s t o r y of a woman who  the  I t i s a s t o r y of the past  and  future.  Robin Morgan b r i n g s t h i s s t o r y to the c e n t r e of her work. The  s t o r y has now  become a t a p e s t r y , no longer j u s t  the  embroidered margins:  From the beginning there has been one s t o r y surviving a l l Its versions. We who have l i v e d and s t i l l r e l i v e i t s l i v i n g here s e t down what we remember of the p a t t e r n mere d e t a i l s of c l u e s l o s t i n the e x e c u t i o n . Each of us has brought her own imperfect s k i l l humbly to t h i s work so t h a t together our chanson de t o l l e might weave the s t o r y t . . . ] 115  for But  time  t o f a d e and w e a t h e r  stiffen.22  i t has been n e c e s s a r y t h a t someone p u t h e r e a r t o t h e  ground t o b e g i n d e c o n s t r u c t i n g t h e " p a t r i a r c h a l as Annis P r a t t "Implode bird,  suggests,  inwards."23  who, t h r o u g h  t o l e t those  I t has taken  " i n the obscured  the animal  But as O f f r e d looks  she i s c e r t a i n  r  of the  of ancient  The Moon i s a s i g n o f hope, a s i s  u n d e r l i n e s t h e importance  h e r a l d r y embroidered  l o n g emprisonment, t h e b i r d the phoenix  i n flames  mon commencement". emblem o f a l i o n hawk f l y i n g there  The p h o e n i x  Pascal-Smith asservie,  Woman, s t a n d i n g t a l l ,  i t and o f a and f r e e ,  I s t h e symbol o f r e b i r t h ,  en bucher,  "sans  et malefique"  (ES.,179).  heroine,  s e d r e s s e comme un g l a i v e . " 2 6  no l o n g e r hunched u n d e r a t r e e , 116  cesse  elle-meme m o r t e l l e  remarks t h a t t h e H e b e r t i a n  [maintenant]  s h e wove t h e  l e a p i n g over  o f t h e H e b e r t i a n h e r o i n e who i s r e b o r n  surnaturelle  It  "en ma f i n g i t  i n i t s cage25; imprisoned  et palpable, e t pourtant  "d'abord  became a n emblem f o r h e r .  with the i n s c r i p t i o n  [...,] de b u c h e r  Part of  b y Mary Queen o f S c o t s d u r i n g  i n a net, with hares  over a b i r d  ses cendres  Gabrielle  of the b i r d .  D e p i c t i n g h e r own c a p t i v i t y ,  i s new b e g i n n i n g .  t h e symbol de  sky".  of the  bird.  Annis P r a t t  is  voice of a  I t i s a " w i s h i n g moon, a s l i v e r  r o c k , a g o d d e s s , a wink".24  her  edges  the small soft  o u t t h e window i n The Handmaid's T a l e  the  embroidered  i t s blindness, envisioned the l i g h t  Moon b a r e l y v i s i b l e  moon's p r e s e n c e .  t a p e s t r y " and,  finally  discovers  i n " s e s deux mains b r u l e e s " (E, 2 0 ) ,  transform  the giving  of l i f e  t o t h e b e a r i n g o f new l i f e .  Gwendolyn MacEwen h a s r e c o g n i z e d ongoing one: all  rock  this  new s t o r y a s a n  f o r i f one woman c a n be b r a v e enough t o t a k e us  on a new j o u r n e y ,  "reflet  t h e power t o  then  d'aube" f l i c k e r i n g  there  isstill  hope f o u n d  i n the  i n t h e d i s t a n c e from t h e a n c i e n t  o f t h a t new Moon: do n o t i m a g i n e t h a t t h e e x p l o r a t i o n ends, t h a t she has y i e l d e d a l l h e r m y s t e r y o r t h a t t h e map y o u h o l d cancels further discovery I t e l l you her uncovering takes years, t a k e s c e n t u r i e s , a n d when y o u f i n d h e r naked look again, a d m i t t h e r e i s s o m e t h i n g e l s e y o u c a n n o t name, a v e i l , a c o a t i n g j u s t above t h e f l e s h . . . I mean t h e moment when i t seems most p l a i n i s t h e moment when y o u must b e g i n a g a i n . 2 7  The j o u r n e y first  t h a t we have j u s t  poem o f L e Tombeau d e s r o l s  logically,  poem b y poem, u n t i l  taken P  d i d not begin with the  nor d i d i t progress  t h e end o f t h e work.  Instead,  we f o l l o w e d a woman on a q u e s t  f o r I d e n t i t y , f o r h e r own v o i c e ,  for  And y e t , s h e v a c i l l a t e s  between  most o f t h e work; h e r v o i c e  i s the  w h o l e n e s s , f o r new s i g h t .  " e l l e " and " j e " throughout faint  c r yof the b i r d ;  h e r body i s fragmented and v i o l a t e d ,  even i n t h e l a s t  poem; and i n t h e l a s t  bird's,  flawed.  isstill  The l i t t l e  117  stanza, her v i s i o n , the  hope t h a t seems  to exist  for  a new f u t u r e , i s a d i s t a n t ,  yet, for  this  the Quebecois(es).  first its  barely visible  person  first  light  Le  glimmer  pale reflexion  i s the beginning  The " I " f i n a l l y  i s the f i r s t  speaking  o f a new e r a out i n the  murmuring o f one's own v o i c e  speaking  words; t h e eyes a r e b l i n d e d , y e t a r e a b l e t o d e t e c t  w i t h a new v i s i o n .  Tombeau d e s r o l s  h a s been a n a l y s e d  w h o l e n e s s , v o i c e and i d e n t i t y a r e f i n a l l y appropriated  by t h e Q u e b e c o i s ( e s ) .  many r e p r e s e n t e d  by t h e h e r o i n e  H u b e r t was n o t o n l y s p e a k i n g a woman. her  of l i g h t ; but,  as a quest  i n which  f o u n d and  Anne H e b e r t  was one o f t h e  on h e r j o u r n e y .  as a "Quebecois",  However, but, as w e l l , as  The H e b e r t i a n p r o t a g o n i s t i s a woman who i s aware o f  body, f r a g m e n t e d a s i t i s ; s h e i s a woman, c o r n e r e d  room, who s h u d d e r s a s t h e c o l d ,  s a l t y b r e a t h o f a man  i na  breathes  down h e r n e c k ; s h e i s a woman who p a t i e n t l y sews, w i t h h e r burned hands, t h e h u m i l i t y o f t h e w o r l d , buried  b e n e a t h t h e power, v i o l e n c e and e g o t i s m  patriarchal surrounded fidelity  one, t h e world  begins,  rebirth.  world  The h e r o i n e ,  I t i s the bird origins.  to the small  which guides  Not u n l i k e C h r i s t ,  f o r womankind and f o r m a n k i n d . The p h o e n i x  i s reborn  118  by her  o f Law w h i c h c o n s t r i c t s and  b i t by b i t , t o p a y a t t e n t i o n  and female  sacrificed  of the  of her ancestresses.  patriarchal  of the b i r d .  feminine  which i s  b y a w a l l w h i c h e n c l o s e s and c o n s t r a i n s , t i e d  to this  confines, voice  of a world  h e r back t o h e r this  bird i s  Through death i s  i n the cave,  the place of  reproduction: has  t h e womb, t h e p l a c e  not permeated, t h e p l a c e  The  motifs  for  intertextual Hebert,  poetry  Law.  writers,  i n other  feminine  subtext.  The  e a r l y work o f It is a  t o some o f H e b e r t ' s  This  of a n a l y s i s i s prepared  later  lies  hidden beneath the  not t o c l a r i f y  clues  from other  another  f r o m women's  reading.  t h e image o f t h e "tomb", a p l a c e o f i srebirth.  That i s , "return to  m o t h e r " , t o t h e g o d d e s s who i s " t h e  of lunacy,  Moon, w h i c h o f f e r s  It  experience,  t o C h r i s t i n e Downing, where men a n d women  of vision-and  women  and narrow t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Le  b u t t o r e v e a l and o f f e r  metaphorically  on t h e  t o transgress Tradition,  I t p r o c e e d s t o draw t o g e t h e r  receptive, generative  source  this  identity.  d e a t h , t o t h e "womb", where t h e r e  the  To u s e  women's w r i t i n g a s a n  "re-members" f r a g m e n t s o f s t o r i e s  according  literature,  a n a l y s i s o f H e b e r t ' s works, which f o c u s  Tombeau d e s r o i s ,  revising  In f e m i n i s t  b y w h i c h I t r y t o s u b s t a n t i a t e my a n a l y s i s o f  for a national  T h i s type  o f t h e weaver, t h e c a v e ,  L e Tombeau d e s r o i s .  w h i c h I have e x t e n d e d  camouflaged  search  found  i s understood.  from a f e m i n i s t p e r s p e c t i v e .  and p r o s e ,  traditional  the  language, a r e found  base from which t o s t u d y  i svalid  perspective  "babble"  bird,  t h e most p a r t , w r i t t e n a f t e r  images a n d m o t i f s  the  where  of the s a c r i f i c i a l  of a s e c r e t coded  which p a t r i a r c h a l language  light,  which  vision, 119  i saltered  vision".28  i sassociated  with  what  is  not understood  - t h e l u n a c y o f women's s p e e c h .  Hebert's p o e t r y as an " 6 c r i t u r e life  au f e m i n i n " ,  a s a woman and a s a " Q u e b e c o i s " ,  to link  To r e a d Anne  i s t o share  i n her  the s t o r y of  Quebec, a n d o f a l l o p p r e s s e d p e o p l e , w i t h women's e x p e r i e n c e . The  story  i s one.  Notes  1.  McDonald 58.  2.  McDonald 60.  3.  McDonald 59.  4. Jane M a r c u s , 1978: 70. 5.  B u l f i n c h 150.  6.  Bulfinch  7.  M a r c u s 93.  8.  Green,  " A r t and A n g e r , "  F e m i n i s t S t u d i e s 4.1 F e b r u a r y  152, 149.  " W i t c h 137.  9. M a d e l e i n e Gagnon, " A n g e l i n e de M o n t b r u n : l e mensonge h i s t o r i g u e e t l a s u b v e r s i o n de l a m e t a p h o r e b l a n c h e , " V o i x e t Images du P a y s V 1972: 66. 10. K a r e n G o u l d , Mary J e a n G r e e n , P a u l a G i l b e r t L e w i s , " I n s c r i p t i o n s of the Feminine: A C e n t u r y o f Women W r i t i n g i n Quebec," The A m e r i c a n R e v i e w o f C a n a d i a n S t u d i e s 15.4 W i n t e r 1985: 376. 11.  Gould, Green,  L e w i s 369.  12.  Gould, Green,  L e w i s 377.  13.  O r e n s t e i n 192.  14.  Emond 148. 120  15. 16. 17. 59.  Emond  150.  M a n d e l 72. Toril  Moi, Sexual/Textual P o l i t i c s  ( L o n d o n : Methuen,  1985)  18. M a r c e l F o r t i n , "La R e c e p t i o n c r i t i q u e de l ' o e u v r e d'Anne H6bert: h i s t o i r e d'une c e l e b r a t i o n , " L l t t 6 r a t u r e s No. 2 (1988): 111. 19. and 20.  M a r g a r e t Atwood, The Handmaid's S t e w a r t , 1985) 144-45. Gould,  Green, Lewis  Tale  (Toronto:  McClelland  379.  21. E s t h e r H a r d i n g , Woman's M y s t e r i e s , A n c i e n t and Modern York: Bantam, 1973) 121. 22. R o b i n Morgan, L a d y o f t h e B e a s t s 1976) 108. 23.  Pratt,  "Tiger"  24.  Atwood  108.  25.  Pratt,  "Tiger"  (New Y o r k : Random House,  177.  176.  26. G a b r i e l l e P a s c a l - S m i t h , "La C o n d i t i o n f e m i n i n e d a n s Kamouraska d'Anne H e b e r t , " T h e F r e n c h R e v i e w 54.1 O c t o b e r 91. 27. Gwendolyn MacEwen, The Shadow-Maker 1969) 30. 28.  Downing  (New  13.  121  (Toronto:  1980:  Macmillan,  Bibliography  .  Works bv Anne 1.  Hubert  Books  Hebert,  Anne. Les  L e s E n f a n t s du S a b b a t .  Fous de B a s s a n .  Helolse.  Paris:  Kamouraska. Poernes.  Le T o r r e n t . 2.  Critical  S e u l l , 1975.  S e u l l , 1982.  S e u l l , 1980.  Paris:  Paris:  Paris:  Paris:  S e u l l , 1970.  S e u i l , 1960.  M o n t r e a l : B e a u c h e m i n , 1950.  work  D i a l o g u e s u r l a T r a d u c t i o n , a p r o p o s du "Tombeau d e s r o i s " , en c o l l a b o r a t i o n a v e c F r a n k S c o t t . 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