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The effect of continuous and discontinuous image presentation on image processing time Mah, Tom Chack-Dong 1989

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THE E F F E C T OF CONTINUOUS A N D DISCONTINUOUS IMAGE PRESENTATION O N IMAGE PROCESSING TIME By T O M CHACK-DONG  MAH  B. Ed. University of British Columbia, 1973  A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D IN PARTIAL F U L F I L M E N T O F T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S FOR T H E D E G R E E O F MASTER OF ARTS  in T H E FACULTY OF GRADUATE  STUDIES  Department of Visual and Performing Arts in Education  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F BRITISH C O L U M B I A April 1989 © T O M CHACK-DONG MAH, 1989  In presenting  this  degree at the  thesis  in  partial fulfilment  of  University of  British Columbia,  I agree  freely available for reference copying  of  department publication  this or of  thesis for by  this  his  or  and study. scholarly her  Department The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  requirements that the  I further agree  purposes  representatives.  may be It  thesis for financial gain shall not  permission.  DE-6 (2/88)  the  that  advanced  Library shall make it  by the  understood be  an  permission for extensive  granted  is  for  that  allowed without  head  of  my  copying  or  my written  ABSTRACT  This study investigated perceptual strategies adopted by fifty-nine high school students during tasks involving the recognition of embedded geometric shapes.  -  Results indicated a statistically significant mean difference between the two modes of image presentation: continuous and discontinuous. However, the  order  of  image  presentation  discontinuous/continuous)  (continuous/  discontinuous  or  was not significant, while the interaction  between mode and order of presentation was significant.  These results  give some supporting evidence of an animation/freezing categorization to perceptual style.  The effect of similar tasks in a series on image processing time is just as Kkely to produce initially regressive or progressive results in a short threetask series. These results give supporting evidence to findings that subjects undergo an initial period of exploration before settling on a persistent strategy leading to steady progression in performance.  ii  TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract Table  ii  of  Contents  List  of  Tables  List  of  Figures  iii vi viii  Acknowledgements Chapter I. A) B) C) D) E) F)  INTRODUCTION  ix TO T H E STUDY  Introduction Statement of the Problem Purpose of the Study Justification Research Hypotheses Design of the Study 1. Sample 2. S e t t i n g 3. Instruments 4. Methods of Data Collection 5. Methods of Data Analysis 6. L i m i t a t i o n s 7. D e l i m i t a t i o n s 8. D e f i n i t i o n s 9. S u m m a r y  1  .  1 2 3 3 3 4 4 5 5 8 8 8 9 9 10  Chapter II. R E V I E W O F T H E L I T E R A T U R E A ) Introduction B) Perceptual Styles C) Personal Styles D) Social Styles E) L e a r n i n g Styles F) A r t i s t i c Styles G) T e a c h i n g Styles H ) Vocational Styles I) Implications for Art Education J) Analysis of Research into Perceptual Styles K) S u m m a r y  11 11 13 14 14 14 15 16 16 17 17 20  Chapter III. CONDUCT OF T H E STUDY A) S a m p l e B) S e t t i n g C) I n s t r u m e n t s D) P r o c e d u r e E) Methods of Data Collection F) Methods of Data Analysis  22 22 23 24 24 25 25  iii  G) Preliminary T r i a l H) Summary  and Pilot Study  25 26  Chapter rV. ANALYSIS A N D I N T E R P R E T A T I O N O F T H E R E S U L T S . A) Introduction 1. Statistical Analyses of the Data 2. Content Analyses of the Graphs 3. Content Analyses of the Written Responses B) Statistical Analyses of the Effect of Image Presentation Mode 1. Procedure 2. Summary of Results C) Statistical Analyses of the Effect of Similar Tasks in a Series 1. Procedure 2. Results and Interpretation 3. S u m m a r y D) Content Analysis of the Graphs for the Effect of Image Presentation Mode 1. P r o c e d u r e 2. Results and Interpretation 3. S u m m a r y E) Content Analysis of the Graphs for the Effect of Similar T a s k s in a Series 1. P r o c e d u r e 2. Results and Interpretation 3. S u m m a r y F) Content Analysis of the Written Responses Regarding Strategies 1. P r o c e d u r e 2. Results and Interpretation 3. S u m m a r y  27 27 27 28 33 33 33 38 39 39 42 42  Chapter V . SUMMARY A N D CONCLUSIONS A ) The Effect of Image Presentation Mode B) The Effect of Similar Tasks in a Series C) Summary, Conclusions, and Implications for Art Education D) Implications for Further Research  53 54 54 57 58  References  60  Appendices Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix  A: C o v e r i n g Letter B: Parental Consent Form C: Layout of Instruments, Subjects, and Researcher D: Test Booklet E : Test Scoresheet F : T a r g e t Image G : Test Answers H : Standardized Instructions I: Calculation Sheets J : Data K : Scorekeeper's Warmup Exercise  iv  43 43 43 45 46 46 47 47 48 48 49 51  65 67 69 71 81 83 86 95 101 103 106  Appendix Appendix  L : Task Scores and Mode Means M : Subject Graphs Showing a Preference for the Continuous Mode Appendix N : Subject Graphs Showing a Preference for the Discontinuous Mode Appendix 0: Descriptive Cell Data for the Two-way A N O V A Appendix P : Summary Tables for Means and Standard Deviations for E a c h T a s k Appendix Q : Data for One-way A N O V A Appendix R : One-way A N O V A Summary Tables Appendix S: W r i t t e n Responses  v  108 110 115 137 139 142 145 150  LIST OF TABLES Table 1  Sample  Selection  23  2  Test  3  Summary of Content Analysis for Graphs Showing  Schedule  23  a Preference for the Continuous Mode 4  32  Summary of Content Analysis for Graphs Showing a Preference for the Discontinuous Mode  32  5  Means and Standard Deviations for Each Cell  34  6  Means and Standard Deviations for Each Task  35  7  A N O V A Summary Table for the Two-Factor Repeated Measures A N O V A for Image Processing Time as a Function of Mode and Order of Image Presentation  8  36  A N O V A Summary Table for a One-Factor Repeated Measures A N O V A for Image Processing Time as a Function of the Continuous Mode of Image Presentation for the Continuous/Discontinuous Order of Image Presentation Using  9  Form  A  40  A N O V A Summary Table for a One-Factor Repeated Measures A N O V A for Image Processing Time as a Function of the Discontinuous Mode of Image Presentation for the Continuous/Discontinuous Order of Image Presentation Using  Form  A  41  vi  10 A N O V A Summary Table for a One-Factor Repeated Measures A N O V A for Image Processing Time as a.Function of the Discontinuous Mode of Image Presentation for the Discontinuous/Continuous Order of Image Presentation Using  Form  B  41  11 A N O V A Summary Table for a One-Factor Repeated Measures A N O V A for Image Processing Time as a Function of the Continuous Mode of Image Presentation for the Discontinuous/Continuous Order of Image Presentation Using  Form  B  42  12 Total Image Processing Strategies Exhibited by Subjects  47  13 Strategies Reported i n the Written Responses  49  14 Strategies Reported in the Written Responses as a Function of Progressive, Regressive, and Progressive/Regressive  Results  50  15 Strategies Reported in the Written Responses as a Function  of Mode Preference  vii  51  LEST OF FIGURES Figure 1  Example of a Progressive Strategy  29  2  Example of a Regressive Strategy  30  3  Example of a Level Strategy  4  Example of a Steady Strategy  31  5  Example of an Unsteady Strategy  31  6  Significant Interaction Between Mode and Order of  Image  Presentation  :  30  38  7  Composite Graph for Form A (Continuous/Discontinuous Order) ... 44  8  Composite Graph for Form B (Discontinuous/Continuous Order) ... 44  viii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I would like to sincerely thank Dr. Ron MacGregor for offering me the opportunity to become involved in this study. He introduced me to the area of cognitive styles and his knowledge and brilliance guided and-inspired me i n my academic studies. I am grateful for his support and concern.  I would also like to express my appreciation to D r . Theo Goldberg for his interest,  energy, insights, and dedication which encouraged me to  undertake this research.  I am grateful to Dr. Harold RatzlafF for his advice on statistical procedures and whose rigorous approach to research design and keen intelligence kept me focused on the task at hand.  ix  CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY A) INTRODUCTION This study had its origins in the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRCC) funded research undertaken by Goldberg and MacGregor (1986).  The focus of that research was on strategies  developed by school age students in interpreting visual and melodic material.  The larger frame for this study has been provided by Witkin  (1962, 1977, 1979), Lovano-Kerr (1983), Vernon (1972), and others who have argued for the presence of a "cognitive style" in each individual that results in the development of a related group of problem-solving strategies (see also Copeland, 1984; Lachman, Lachman, & Butterfield, 1979).  Research by Goldberg (1987) has produced evidence that subjects apply one of two general strategic approaches to the solution of visual and melodic tasks.  In a separate study using only visual tasks, Bergland and  MacGregor (1988) found that, for a small sample of subjects, strategy acquisition, rather than age, was a key element in success in separating signal from noise (or figure from ground), and that a particular strategy, discovered during one task, is likely to be preferred for subequent tasks, even if the content of the task is different.  Goldberg's study (1987) identified two kinds of stategies used when visual and melodic material were presented to students of various ages.  One  group tended to "freeze" the melodic stimulus, to bring it into phase with slide material being presented; the other tended to "animate" the slide material, so bringing it into phase with the melodic stimulus. 1  The  Introduction to the Study I 2  implications of these findings were that visual information may be acquired i n two ways. The first way takes an incremental form; the image becomes progressively indentifiable as additional features are clarified or sharpened out of a flow of visual data. The second is more fragmentary; salient features of the image are scattered throughout an ambient array of visual material, and resolution is achieved through learning to ignore irrelevant intervening data.  If Goldberg is correct, a new hypothesis is suggested that individuals should exhibit a preference for one or another mode of presentation. Those who tend to animate material are likely to prefer tasks involving continuously presented stimuli, while those who tend to "freeze" i t w i l l discontinuously  prefer  presented data. If Bergland and MacGregor are correct,  that preference w i l l be reflected in consistently superior performance across one series of tasks, and less successful performance across a contrasting series, when those series present material i n continuous and discontinuous  modes.  Since in investigating two modes of image  presentation, the experience gained by the subject in the series of tasks presented in the first mode may influence performance on the series of tasks presented i n the second mode, the order of image presentation was also investigated.  B) S T A T E M E N T O F T H E P R O B L E M  The research problem was to attempt to add confirmatory evidence to the intitial findings of Goldberg and Bergland & MacGregor. Two objectives governed the study.  The first was to determine whether each subject's  preference for one of two hypothesized general strategic approaches  Introduction to the Study I 3  (animation, freezing) is manifested i n shorter times taken on tasks presented i n two different modes (continuous, discontinuous respectively). The second was to determine whether, having used a particular strategy to solve one task, subjects w i l l carry over that strategy when the task is presented as a series.  C) PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The purpose of this research study was twofold: first, to determine the effect of the mode of image presentation (continuous and discontinuous) and the order  of  image  presentation  (continuous/discontinuous  and  discontinuous/continuous) on image processing time; second, to determine the effect on image processing time of serial presentation of the similar task.  D) JUSTIFICATION Although much work has been done in the field of psychology in attempting to discover children's perceptual styles, little work has been done i n confirming the persistence of perceptual strategies.  The mode of image  presentation used i n this study may show how children use perceptual strategies i n performing specific image processing tasks. In determining these strategies, groundwork will have been laid for further study in this area. B y understanding the nature of the strategies entailed i n perception, fundamental questions concerning perceptual style, cognitive style and art learning style can be intelligently formulated.  E) RESEARCH HYPOTHESES Two kinds of research hypotheses were tested in the study-one set dealing  Introduction to the Study I 4  with the effects of image presentation mode on image processing time, and the other with the effects of the same task when presented serially on imageprocessing time.  For the purposes of performing a two-way analysis of  variance for the effects of image presentation mode, the research problem was stated as three null hypotheses: Hi:  There is no difference in mean scores (i. e. number of seconds taken to complete a task) between the two modes of image presentation.  H2:  There is no difference in mean scores between the two orders of image presentation.  H3:  There is no interaction between mode and order of image presentation.  For the purpose of content analysis to determine the effect of similar tasks i n a series, a fourth hypothesis was stated: H4  Subjects indentified as taking less time performing the same task in a 3-task series when images are presented i n either mode (continuous or discontinuous)"will progressively improve their performance within that series.  F) DESIGN OF T H E STUDY 1) Sample Subjects were high school students between 13 and 19 years of age enrolled at New Westminster Secondary School i n New Westminster, B r i t i s h Columbia. Covering letters from the Principal (See Appendix A : Covering  Introduction to the Study I 5 Letter) with Parental Consent Forms (See Appendix B: Parental Consent Form) were sent home with the students in four art classes.  The fifty-nine  students who returned the consent forms comprised the sample used in this study.  As the Parental Consent Forms were returned, those who returned  them first were placed into the first group (Form A), and those who returned them last into the second group (Form B). Thus students were randomly assigned to provide two groups. Images were presented first continuously, then discontinuously for the first group. This order of image presentation was reversed for the second group.  2) Setting A classroom environment was selected to allow for group testing.  Subjects  were seated in rows with a timekeeper in front of them, and a timer between subject and timekeeper. (See Appendix C: Layout of Instruments, Subjects, and Researcher)  3) Instruments The instruments consisted of a test booklet (See Appendix D: lestLBaoklet) for each subject, two GraLab Darkroom Timers, and a scoresheet  (See  Appendix E : Test Scoresheet) for each timekeeper. Each booklet contained an instruction sheet. In the first mode each set of images was contained on single sheets. In the second mode, each set was contained in series of three sheets.  The modes of image presentation were on either a continuous  ground or a discontinuous ground.  A regular five-pointed star was selected as the target image (See Appendix F: Target Image) since it is constructed from intersecting straight  Introduction to the Study I 6  horizontal and oblique lines.  This construction made it suitable for  embedding within a visual ground composed of a disorderly pattern of straight horizontal and oblique lines.  The task for the subject was to  disembed this target image from the visual ground (See Appendix G: Test Answers). A second reason for selecting this particular figure was its vertical axis of symmetry which made it suitable for the construction of a parallel form by flipping thefigureon its axis.  The research task called for the construction of parallel forms A and B (See Appendix D: Test Booklet) in two respects: 1) MODE OF IMAGE PRESENTATION [continuous (Form A) vs discontinuous (Form Al, A2, A3)]: the parallel forms should be the same except for mode of image presentation. In order to achieve this, these factors were held constant: a) the shape (regularfive-pointedstar), size (4.3 cm in height), and orientation (upright) of the target image, b) the number (three), type (one horizontal, one oblique), and position of lines overlapping the target image, c) the ratio of target image to area of embedding ground (one target image per 154 cm of ground), 2  d) the relative position of the target image to the edges of the ground was chosen to be away from the edges and closer to the center of the visual ground where most subjects are Hkely to look (Bergland & MacGregor, 1988), e) the relative complexity of visual ground surrounding each target image (the density of disorderly lines  Introduction to the Study I 7  surrounding each target image in Form A is relatively the same, although not identical; each target image in Forms A l , A2, and A3 is a horizontally mirrored section of Form A). 2) ORDER OF IMAGE PRESENTATION [continuous/discontinuous (Form A; A l , A2, A3) vs discontinuous/continuous (Form B l , B2, B3; B)]: the parallel forms should be the same except for the sequence of mode of image presentation. In order to achieve this, the B Forms were constructed as the horizontal mirror images of A Forms. Parallel forms for order of presentation were required to test for the possible confounding effect of order on mode of presentation.  In order to meet the requirements for the construction of these parallel forms, an Apple® Macintosh™ computer was used with SuperPaint™ software to generate them. SuperPaint™ contains graphic tools for: a) the exact duplication of the target images, b) the extension of the horizontal and oblique lines of the target image into the ground, c) the addition of more horizontal and oblique lines to create a disorderly visual ground surrounding and embedding the target images, d) the selection of all or sections of a form for horizontal mirroring.  Since it was possible to see through the white paper to the next form, a colored page was interleaved between the forms. Subjects were instructed when to turn over the white form with its underlying colored sheet and perform the  Introduction to the Study I 8 next task.  4) Methods of Data Collection The fifty-nine students were group tested. Each student was exposed to three tasks in which the target image was presented in a continuous mode, and three in which the target image was presented in a discontinuous mode. In each case, the dependent variable was the recorded time required by the subject to disembed the target image from the disorderly visual ground, when presented in the two different modes. The times were recorded on specially prepared time sheets, and each subject subsequently responded in writing to the question, "How did you go about looking for the hidden stars?"  5) Methods of Data Analysis Analysis of the data was by two-way analysis of variance (two-way A N O V A ) in a 2 (mode) x 2 (order) factorial design with repeated measures. The dependent variable was further analyzed in a one-way analysis of ' variance (one-way ANOVA) using the repeated measures across tasks. Content analyses were also performed on the tasks and mean scores across tasks and on the written responses.  6) L i m i t a t i o n s This study was limited by a number of factors. The sample was taken from only one school. number.  The fifty-nine subjects represent a relatively small  No other tests were conducted with the subjects and the results  from other standardized tests were not available.  The study was also  Introduction to the Study I 9  limited by the fact that scheduling for individual testing was impractical. Hence, group testing was used, requiring the use of student scorekeepers. The three-task series for each mode was of minimal length needed to establish a trend.  ^  7) Delimitations The intent of this study was to describe the responses of children to the perception of embedded figures. The study focused on the effect of the modes of image presentation i n continuous and discontinuous grounds.  The  sequence (continuous/discontinuous) was reversed for the second group i n order to determine any effects of the first set of tasks on the second. The study also focused on the effect of similar tasks in a series.  8) Definitions Since terms used i n perceptual style research are often unique to the area, some of these were defined as follows: 1. Image processing: the encoding and retention of information from an image, including pattern recognition (Koroscik, 1982, p. 13). 2. Cognitive style: a pervasive dimension of individual functioning i n perceptual, personality, and social domains, connected i n its formation with the development of the organism as a whole (Lovano-Kerr, 1983, p. 196). 3. Continuous mode of image presentation: presentation of figures embedded in a connected or continuous ground. 4. Discontinuous mode of image presentation: presentation of figures embedded in a disconnected or discontinuous ground. 5. Field-dependence: the inability to perceive items as separate from  Introduction to the Study I 10  the field in which they occur; inability to overcome an embedding context; the mode of dealing with a field globally (Lovano, 1970, p. 52). 6. Field-independence: the ability to perceive items as separate from the field in which they occur; the ability to overcome an embedding context; the mode of dealing with a field analytically (Lovano, 1970, p. 52).  9) Summary This chapter has 1) briefly reviewed the pertinent literature, 2) stated the research problem derived from previous research, 3) explained the purpose of the study, 4) provided justification for the study, 5) stated the research hypotheses, 6) and outlined the design of the study.  C H A P T E R EL R E V I E W O F T H E L I T E R A T U R E  A) I N T R O D U C T I O N This review of literature will 1) briefly summarize the construct of cognitive style and its various categorizations, 2) briefly discuss Witkin's Theory of Psychological Differentiation and his nominal categorization of field dependence-independence,  and its educational implications, 3)  develop cognitive style profiles of the art student and teacher i n terms of perceptual, personal, social, learning, artistic, teaching, and vocational styles, 4) draw implications for art education, 5) indicate some of the weaknesses of current research i n perceptual styles, 6) briefly discuss Goldberg's categorization of animation/freezing and identify a test to relate it to Witkin's categorization.  Of continuing interest i n art education during the past four decades (Lowenfeld, 1945; Lovano-Kerr, 1983) and in the field of cognitive psychology during the past three decades (Witkin, Dyke, Faterson, Goodenough, & Karp, 1962; Goldberg, 1987) is the topic of cognitive styles and  their  categorizations.  Since the  Theory  of Psychological  Differentiation was advanced by Witkin and his colleagues over twentyfive years ago (Witkin et al., 1962) there has been much research to support the position that there exist individual differences in cognition. These differences i n cognitive processes by which knowledge is acquired are considered to include perception, thought, memory, imagery (Fleming, 1977), and problem-solving (Lovano-Kerr, 1983).  A basic construct of Witkin's theory is that these individual differences in 11  Review of the Literature I 12 j cognitive processes manifest themselves in characteristic behaviors which constitute a cognitive style. When referring to the sub-process of perception, these differences constitute a perceptual style.  A t least fifteen cognitive  style categorizations have been investigated: 1) visual and haptic (Lowenfeld, 1945), 2) field dependence and field independence (Witkin, 1950; Witkin, Dyk, Faterson, Goodenough, & Karp, 1962; Witkin, Goodenough, & Oltman, 1979), 3) form bounded and form labile (Klein & Schlesinger, 1951), 4) leveling and sharpening (Klein, 1951; Santostefano, 1964), 5) scanning and focusing (Schlesinger, 1954; Gardner, Holzman, Klein, Linton, & Spence, 1959; Kagan, 1966)), 6) cognitive complexity and simplicity (Kelly, 1955; Harvey, Hunt, & Schroder, 1961; Bieri, 1966), 7) global-analytical-synthetic (Werner, 1957), 8) fixity and mobility (Haronian & Sugarman, 1967), 9) tolerance for unrealistic experiences (Gardner et al., 1959; Klein, Gardner, & Schlesinger, 1962), 10) conceptualizing styles (Kagan, Moss, & Sigel, 1963), 11) breadth of categorization (Kogan & Wallach, 1964), 12) constricted and flexible control-field articulation (Santostefano & Paley, 1964), 13) risk taking and cautiousness (Kogan & Wallach, 1964), 14) reflectivity and impulsivity (Kagan, Roseman, Day, Albert, & Phillips, 1964), 15) freezing and animation (Goldberg, 1987). The categorizations of interest in this study are Witkin's categorization of  Review of the Literature I 13 field dependence and field independence, and Goldberg's categorization of animation and freezing.  Since cognitive styles have been found to be stable over time and tasks, value free, and resistant to certain styles of training and change (Ausburn & Ausburn, 1978), and since there is sufficient evidence to suggest that Witkin's categorization affects how we tend to perceive, relate to others, learn, teach, and produce and respond to art (Lovano-Kerr, 1983, p. 196), its implications on art education are far-reaching. Applying the numerous research findings about cognitive styles (Witkin et al., 1977; Lovano-Kerr, 1983) to the art learning and teaching situation can result in summary profiles of the field dependent-independent art student and teacher. These profiles can describe perceptual, personal, social, learning, artistic, teaching, and vocational styles.  For the sake of clarity, the general  designation of field dependence as global, analytical  and field independence as  [or articulated] (Lovano, 1970; Witkin et al., 1962, p. 35), will be  used in the following profiles.  For the sake of readability, individual  references for each finding used in these profiles have been omitted. Instead, the reader is directed to the summaries provided by Lovano-Kerr (1983) and Witkin et al (1977).  B) P E R C E P T U A L S T Y L E S In the area of perceptual style according to Witkin et al, the global art student and teacher tend to perceive things globally, in wholes rather than in parts. They accept the visual field as it is; sample less fully from an array of cues; show a low ability to analyze and restructure their surroundings; and exhibit a correspondingly low ability to visually  Review of the Literature I 14 disembed figure from ground.  On the other hand, the analytical art student and teacher tend to perceive things analytically, in parts rather than in wholes; sample more fully from an array of cues; overcome the visual field through a high ability to analyze and  restructure their surroundings; and exhibit a correspondingly high  ability to visually disembed figures from ground.  C) P E R S O N A L S T Y L E S In the area of personal style,Witkin and his followers would argue that the global art student and teacher tend to have a global body concept, use an external frame of self-reference, resulting in a connected, less autonomous sense of identity. On the other hand, the analytical art student and teacher tend to have a discrete body concept, use an internal frame of self-reference, resulting in a separate, more autonomous sense of identity.  D) S O C I A L S T Y L E S According to Witkin, in the area of social style, the value-free tendencies are that the global art student and teacher tend to be relatively more interpersonal, warm, sociable, and physically close. On the other hand, the analytical art student and teacher tend to be relatively more impersonal, cold, non-sociable, and physically distant.  E) L E A R N I N G STYLES According to Witkin, in the area of learning style, the global art student tends to learn more rapidly from salient cues, show a low ability to take an idea out of context for restructuring, have more difficulty in learning  Review of the Literature I 15 unorganized material, attend more to social content, and use a global or intuitive approach to problem-solving.  Likewise, the global art student  tends to take a more passive role in learning, profit from a more structured classroom environment, require more teacher step-by-step direction, respond more to externally defined goals and reinforcement, be more affected by teacher criticism, and view teachers with a similar global teaching style more positively.  On the other hand, the analytical art student tends to learn more rapidly from abstract cues, show a high ability to take an idea out of context for restructuring, have less difficulty in learning unorganized material, attend more to abstract and theoretical content, and use an analytical or hypothesis-testing approach to problem-solving. Likewise, the analytical art student tends to take a more active role in learning, profit from a less structured classroom environment, require less teacher step-by-step direction, respond more to internally defined goals and reinforcement, be less affected by teacher criticism, and view teachers with a similar analytical teaching style more positively.  F) ARTISTIC STYLES Using the terminology developed by Witkin, one might say that in the area of artistic style, the global art student and teacher tend to have low spatial restructuring ability (such as in drawing from observation which requires visually restructuring a complex three-dimensional array of objects onto a two-dimensional surface).  Global students might  produce still life and  landscape drawings showing less structure, fewer details, and fewer spatial relationships; produce body concept  drawings showing less  Review of the Literature I 16 sophistication regarding the articulation of parts to the whole, details, and identifying features; and generally produce artwork in a more informal style.  On the other hand, the analytical art student and teacher tend to have high spatial restructuring ability. Analytical students might produce still life and landscape drawings showing more structure, more details, and greater spatial relationships; produce body concept drawings showing more sophistication regarding the articulation of parts to the whole, details, and identifying features; and generally produce artwork in a more formal style.  G) T E A C H I N G S T Y L E S In the area of teaching style, to draw upon Witkin's terms, the global art teacher tends to be more democratic and personal, use questions oriented towards personal understandings, use a student-centered class discussion approach, set up a more interpersonal classroom environment, show strength in establishing a warm and personal learning environment, and view students with a similar global learning style more positively.  On the other hand, the analytical art teacher tends to be more autocratic and impersonal, use questions oriented towards content, use a teacher-centered lecture approach, set up a more impersonal classroom environment, show strength in organizing and guiding student learning, and view students with a similar analytical learning style more positively.  H) V O C A T I O N A L S T Y L E S  Review of the Literature I 17 According to Witkin, in the area of vocational style, the global art student tends to prefer people-centered jobs such as education and the humanities. On the other hand, the analytical art student tends to prefer idea-centered jobs such as art, music, and science.  T) I M P L I C A T I O N S F O R A R T E D U C A T I O N The implications for art education articulated by Lovano-Kerr (1983) and Witkin et al (1977) are that: 1) art teachers should find ways to account in their teaching style for student learning styles, 2) art teachers should find ways to help students to diversify their learning strategies, 3) art teachers should not allow a dissimilarity between teacherstudent cognitive styles to prejudice how they Anew or evaluate students and student artwork. 4) art teachers should make students aware of how their cognitive style may influence their artistic style, 5) art teachers should make students aware of how their cognitive style may influence their vocational style.  J) A N A L Y S I S O F R E S E A R C H I N T O P E R C E P T U A L S T Y L E S Although much substantive research has been done regarding cognitive styles, many questions remain about how perceptual styles relate to the nature of perceptual strategies.  In the visual arts, responding to art  involves a perceptual decoding process before the viewer can gain meaning from it (Hagen, 1974). The viewer needs to perceive the qualities of the  Review of the Literature I 18 whole work as well as perceive parts of this whole in relation to each other. In perceiving parts, the viewer must have the ability to separate a figure from its embedding ground. This ability involves the breaking up of an organized visual field in order to keep a part of it separate from the field.  Within his Theory of Psychological Differentiation, Witkin's construct of field dependence and field independence implies two different modes of perception.  The field-dependent perceptual mode deals mainly with the  whole organization of the visual field.  On the other hand, the field-  independent perceptual mode deals mainly with the part as discrete from the ground of the visual field. Operationally, the manner in which students are able to perceptually disembed figures (indicating field-independence) or complete figures (indicating field-dependence) may be used to indicate a particular cognitive style. studies  of  cognitive  Typically, the research strategy used in most  style  has  involved  identifying  these  style  characteristics and applying tasks suited to one or the other. Tests have used tasks which presumably reflect the style being investigated, and the students are asked to perform to the best of their ability.  For example,  Witkin's Embedded Figures Test requires subjects to find the embedded figures as quickly as possible, and they are scored on their ability to do so. The intent is to test the limits of their perceptual abilities in order to categorize their cognitive styles.  Wachtel (1972) has criticized this emphasis on tests of perceptual ability and points to the need to investigate individual perceptual strategies instead. Despite this kind of criticism, relatively little has been published on developing methods for measuring perceptual strategies.  One of the  Review of the Literature I 19 purposes of the present study was to demonstrate a measure in which individual perceptual strategies rather than abilities were the data of interest.  Using this measure, subjects were tested on how they perceived  rather than how well they could perceive.  Two kinds of operations identified by Goldberg (1987) suggested a possible way to measure perceptual strategy.  Goldberg noted that some students  tended to freeze the melodic material to bring it into phase with visual images and that other students tended to animate visual images to bring them into phase with melodic material. This suggests that students who animated  the melodic material perceived the material as a whole, and  matched the whole melodic structure to the whole visual structure. On the other hand, students who froze the visual images perceived the material in parts, and matched parts of the visual structure to parts of the melodic structure.  T h i s whole/part distinction in perceiving  images  suggests that a  corresponding whole/part distinction can also be made in images.  presenting  In other words, the mode of presenting images continuously as a  whole or discontinously in parts might affect the corresponding modes of perceiving as wholes or in parts.  The main reason for choosing Goldberg's  nominal animation/freezing categorization for investigation was  its  independently derived similarity to the whole/part distinction that is found in the study of perception.  Gestalt psychologists, for example, have  historically theorized that forms are perceived as wholes before being broken down into constituent parts. On the other hand, Structurists have theorized that forms are perceived as parts before being built up into a whole.  Review of the Literature / 20 Whole perception appears to be suggestive of a continuous mode of image presentation. If images are presented continuously without any perceptable break, a perceptual style such as a Goldberg's "animation" which uses a strategy of global apprehension characteristic of field-dependence would seem to be favored.  Part perception, on the other hand, suggests a  discontinuous mode of image presentation.  If images are presented  discontinuously with perceptable breaks between them, a perceptual style such as Goldberg's "freezing" which uses a strategy apprehension characteristic of field-independence  of analytical  would seem to be  favored.  Thus it would appear that recording instances of these two modes of image presentation would reveal a preference for either the animation or freezing styles of perception.  The traditional cognitive style measure using  embedded figures was chosen for the present study, since embedded figures could be presented in either a continuous or discontinuous ground. As well, embedded figures tests require the subject to separate the figure from ground, that is, the part from the whole.  In short, i f the whole/part  distinction found in Witkin's field dependent-independent cognitive style categorization were reflected in the whole/part distinction found in Goldberg's  animation/freezing  categorization  would be  categorization,  supported  as  a  then  related  Goldberg's  cognitive  style  categorization. The test used to relate the two categorizations in this study was an embedded figures test constructed by the researcher (See Appendix D: Test Booklet).  K) SUMMARY  Review of the Literature I 21 This review of literature has 1) briefly summarized the construct of cognitive style and its various categorizations, 2)  briefly discussed  Witkin's Theory of Psychological Differentiation and his categorization of field dependence-independence,  and its educational implications, 3)  developed cognitive style profiles of the art student and teacher in terms of perceptual, learning, artistic, teaching, social, personal, and vocational styles, 4) drawn implications for art learning and teaching, 5) indicated some of the weaknesses of current research in perceptual styles, and 6) discussed briefly Goldberg's categorization of animation/freezing and identified a test to relate it to Witkin's categorizations.  CHAPTER DX  CONDUCT OF T H E STUDY  A) SAMPLE The art classes taught by the researcher were selected to be the population for this study (See Table 1 below). This comprised an Art 11 class of 23 students (Group 1), an Art 10 class of 24 students (Group 2), an Art 8 class of 25 students (Group 3), and a Photography 12 class of 24 students (Group 4). The final sample selection was made with the help of a Parental Consent Form (See Appendix B: Parental Consent Form).  Out of the population of 96  students, 62% returned signed consent forms and were selected. Due to time limitations, the unpredictability of returns, the impracticality of individual testing, and the ability to fit only one test into each class period, it was decided to randomly assign the subjects according to when they returned the consent forms.  Those who returned them first were placed into the first  group (Form A), and those who returned them last into the second group (Form B). Although it would have been preferable to alternate between groups, this was not practical. Subjects were thus randomly assigned in a limited way to provide two groups. The researcher is aware of the possible bias resulting from the use of a parental consent form (Kearney, 1983). These are limitations on the validity of the study.  22  Conduct of'the Study I 23 T A B L E 1: Sample Selection POPULATION (Class Size)  SAMPLE (Returns)  % of G R O U P  Group 1 (Art 11)  23  19  83%  10  9  Group 2 (Art 10)  24  14  58%  6  8  Group 3 (Art 8)  25  7  28%  2  5  Group 4 (Photo 12)  24  19  79%  7  12  TOTALS  96  59  62%  25  34  at  New  GROUP (Class)  SEX M F  B) SETTING The  study  was  conducted in the  Westminster Secondary School.  researcher's  classroom  The subjects were tested during their  regular class times (See Table 2 below).  Since permission could not be  obtained to conduct individual testing, group testing was used.  This  introduced intervening variables, due to the distraction from other subjects, which limit the validity of the data.  T A B L E 2: Test Schedule GROUP  DATE  TIME  Group 1 (Art 11)  Thursday, February 23, 1989 Friday, February 24,1989  8:40 12:45  to to  9:40 am 1:45 pm  Group 2 (Art 10)  Thursday, February 23,1989 Tuesday, February 28,1989  9:50 12:45  to  10:50 am  Group 3 (Art 8)  Thursday, February 23,1989 Monday, February 27,1989  12:45 10:05  to 1:45 pm  Group 4 (Photo 12)  Wednesday, February 22, 1989 Thursday, February 23,1989  9:50 8:40  to 1:45 pm to  11:20 am  to  10:50 am  to 9:40 am  Conduct of the Study I 24  C) INSTRUMENTS Desks were placed in rows to facilitate data collection. The subjects sat in the back row while the student scorekeepers sat opposite them in the front row. A GraLab Darkroom Timer was placed on a shelf between the two rows in a central position so that the scorekeepers could see it easily. The scorekeepers were instructed to sit closely together in front of the timer so that they could read the time as accurately as possible.  They were also  instructed to sit well back from the subjects' desks so that they could not see the test forms since they would be performing a similar test on a subsequent day.  (See Appendix C: Layout of Instruments, Subjects, and Researcher.)  The researcher was positioned near one of the two timers so that he could control the setting of the timer to synchronize with the second timer controlled by a scorekeeper assigned to it. The test booklets were contained in a box so as to ensure a sequential order for each form. When instructed, the subjects picked up a form each in the order in which they happened to reach the box.  D) PROCEDURE Once the researcher had collected returned Parental Consent Forms and identified the subjects to be tested during that session, the study began with the  researcher giving standardized instructions (See  Appendix H :  Standardized Instructions). Each test session required approximately one hour. This procedure was followed for each group in two separate sessions. One half of each group acted as subjects while the other assumed the role of scorekeepers. The next session, their roles were reversed. Those who did not obtain parental consent carried on with their regular classroom assignments in an adjoining room.  Conduct of the Study I 25  E) M E T H O D S O F D A T A C O L L E C T I O N Documentation of the procedure consisted of test, score and response sheets (See Appendix E : Test Scoresheet).  The data were collected and times  elapsed for each task were calculated (See Appendix I: Calculation Sheets) and tabulated. Unusable data were noted (See Appendix J : Data). Data from six subjects were discarded due to improper identification of the target image, and another three were discarded due to lack of proper identification within the time limit allowed. With these nine (15%) sets of data discarded from the original 59 sets, 50 sets remained. This resulted in 24 sets for Form A and 26 sets for Form B. Since the two-way A N O V A required a balanced set of data for the two Forms, the last two sets of data for Form B were not used, leaving a total of 48 sets, and providing a balanced set of 24 for each of Form A and Form B. In retrospect, the two sets of data to be left out should have been randomly selected.  F) M E T H O D S O F D A T A A N A L Y S I S The data collected were described in terms of the standard deviations and means for each subject for each set of three tasks in each mode. Analysis of the means was by two-way analysis of variance (two-way A N O V A ) in a 2 (mode) x 2 (order) factorial design with repeated measures. The dependent variable was further analyzed in a one-way analysis of variance (one-way A N O V A ) using the repeated measures across tasks. Content analyses were also performed on the task and mean scores across tasks and on the written responses.  G) P R E L I M I N A R Y T R I A L A N D P I L O T S T U D Y  (induct of the Study I 26 A preliminary trial was conducted in January, 1989 involving a small selection of first semester students, not in the population to be tested, but in the same age group. The results of this trial showed that a reasonable time limit for the continuous presentation mode form was 15 minutes, and 5 minutes for each of the discontinuous presentation mode forms.  It was  discovered that the next form was vaguely visible through the white sheet of paper and required an interleaved colored sheet of paper between forms.  A pilot study was conducted in late January, 1989 involving a small selection of first semester students, not in the population to be tested, but in the same age group. This study showed the need for a warmup exercise for the student scorekeepers (See Appendix K: Scorekeepers Warmup Exercise).  The time limits were confirmed to be reasonable. The actual  study was conducted in the second semester.  H) SUMMARY This chapter has described the 1) sample used in the study, 2) setting for the study, 3) how the instruments were used, 4) procedure, 5) methods of data collection, 6) methods of data analysis, 7) and preliminary trial and pilot studies.  C H A P T E R IV. A N A L Y S I S A N D I N T E R P R E T A T I O N O F T H E R E S U L T S  A)  INTRODUCTION  The first purpose of this research study was to determine whether each subject's preference for one of two hypothesized general strategic approaches (animation, freezing) was manifested in shorter times taken on tasks presented in two different modes (continuous, discontinuous) requiring use of the respective preferred strategy.  The second was to  determine whether, having used a particular strategy to solve one task, subjects would carry over that strategy in solving similar tasks in a series.  1) Statistical Analyses of the Data The experimental design was a 2 (mode) x 2 (order) factorial design with repeated measures. The first factor (independent variable) was the order of image  presentation  (Form  discontinuous/continuous).  A : continuous/discontinuous; Form B :  The second factor (independent variable) was  the mode of image presentation (continuous or discontinuous).  The  dependent variable was the image processing time scored in seconds for each task.  The dependent variable was analyzed in a two-way analysis of variance (two-way A N O V A ) in a 2 (mode) x 2 (order) factorial design with repeated measures. analyses.  The StatView 512+ statistical program was used for the There were 24 subjects in each mode by order cell.  The  dependent variable was further analyzed in a one-way analysis of variance (one-way A N O V A ) using the repeated measures across tasks. 27  Analysis and Interpretation of the Results I 28 Results of both analyses were tested for statistical significance at the .05 level.  2) Content Analyses of the Graphs To provide furtheT details and confirmation of the statistical analyses, content analyses were performed on the collected data.  Graphs were  generated for each subject using individual y-axis scales to show the slopes of the graphs more effectively.  Each mode (continuous and discontinuous)  represented in these graphs was treated separately.  The mean scores  (MeanC, MeanD) for each mode (See Appendix L : Task Scores and Mode Means) were first compared to determine a preference for the continuous mode (See Appendix M : Subject Graphs Showing a Preference for the Continuous Mode) or the discontinuous mode (See Appendix N : Subject Graphs Showing a Preference for the Discontinuous Mode). Subjects who showed a lower mean score in either the continuous or discontinuous mode were identified as showing a preference for that mode. Then the graphs for each mode were further analyzed for declivity and acclivity of the slopes for each of the three tasks in a series.  Declivity was typified as indicating a  progressive image processing strategy since it showed that the subject took less time to perform the last task than the first task in each series (See Figure 1). Acclivity was typified as indicating a regressive strategy since it showed that the subject took more time to perform the last task than the first task in each series (See Figure 2). A level slope between first and last scores indicated neither a progressive nor regressive strategy (See Figure 3) . Each strategy type was then further analyzed to determine if the strategy showed steady (See Figure 4) or unsteady (See Figure 5) trends.  Graphs  Analysis and Interpretation of the Results I 29 which showed that the subject took more and more time, or less and less time, to perform the serial tasks were typified as steady.  Graphs which  showed more, then less; or less, then more time to perform the serial tasks was typified as unsteady.  F I G U R E 1: Example of a Progressive Strategy  FORM A  (Subject Number A30)  55 5CU 45in •a  o u <s c ca  £  — i  •  40 ^ 3530^  •  2520^  •  O  1510.  o  • Progressive  •Progressive  5  °1  °2 Continuous Mode  °3  °4  °5 Discontinuous Mode  °6  Analysis and Interpretation of the Results I 30 F I G U R E 2: Example of a Regressive Strategy FORM B  (Subject Number B15)  • Regressive  500-  • Regressive  O  400-  O " 300.  /  In sect  /  c  £  /  /  200.  /  i— 100o  °1  °4  °2 °3 Discontinuous Mode  °5 Continuous Mode  °6  F I G U R E 3: Example of a Level Strategy  FORM A  (Subject Number A07)  250 225^ 200. CO  Time in sec  <= a  •  \75. 150. 125^ 100. 75^  \  Regressive  50.  • Level  25K  o'  —  —  n  _n  -25 °1  °2 Continuous Mode  °3  °4  °5 Discontinuous Mode  °6  Analysis and Interpretation of the Results I 31  FIGURE 4: Example of a Steady Strategy  FORM A  (Subject Number A04)  80 7060. Time In second:  (A  50. 40. 30. 2010-  • Progressive-steady  \y  Regressive-unsteady  o °1  °2 °3 Continuous Mode  °4  °5 °6 Discontinuous Mode  FIGURE 5: Example of a Unsteady Strategy  FORM a 300  (Subject Number B i n  • Regressive-unsteady  • Progressive-unsteady  250in  200.  at in  150-  Time  w C Q U  100-  •  c  50.  •  o -50 °1  °3 °2 Discontinuous Mode  °4  °5 °6 Continuous Mode  Analysis and Interpretation of the Results I 32 The results of this content analysis are summarized in Tables 3 and 4 below: T A B L E 3: Summary of Content Analysis for Graphs Showing a Preference for the Continuous Mode: Image Processing Strategy Mode Preference  Number of Subjects ORDER of Image Presentation  Type  Form A  Form B  1/2 Subtotals  Total  Cont Disc Disc Cont Progressive Continuous  Level Regressive  Steady Unsteady Steady Unsteady Steady Unsteady Subtotals  0 0 0 0 0 a 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 1 0 1 1 4 7  0  4 1 0 0 1 1 7  4 2 0 1  2 5  for Final Total  6 1  14  7  7  14 14 7  Total 1 /2 for Final Total  T A B L E 4: Summary of Content Analysis for Graphs Showing a Preference for the Discontinuous Mode: Number of "Subjects  Image Processing Strategy " Mode Preference  ORDER of Image Presentation  Type  Form A  Form B  1/2 Subtotals  Total  Cont Disc Disc Cont Progressive Discontinous  Level Regressive  Steady Unsteady Steady Unsteady Steady Unsteady Subtotals Total  1 /2 for Final Total  5 6 0 1 4 8 24  8 9 0 1 1 5 24 48 82 41  3 5 0 0 1 8 17  2 3 0 0 3 9 17 34  18 23 0 2 9 30  for Final Total  41 2 39  82  41  Analysis and Interpretation of the Results I 33  3) Content Analyses of the Written Responses To determine the details about the nature of strategies used, content analyses were also performed on the written responses to the question, "How did you go about looking for the hidden stars?" These responses were grouped into three main categories of image processing strategy: global (looking for the whole star), analytical (looking for a part of the star), and combined (using both strategies).  For example, "I just looked at the page  and the star jumped out" was categorized as global. "I looked for the top point of the star" was categorized as analytical. "Some stars just popped out at me...for others, I looked along the horizontal line to find the top triangle" was categorized as combined.  Two research hypotheses were tested in the study—one dealing with the effects of image presentation mode on image processing time, and the other with the effects of similar tasks in a series on image processing time. Accordingly, the findings of the study are reported under the following headings for each type of analysis: 1. Effect of image presentation mode. 2. Effect of similar tasks in a series.  B) STATISTICAL ANALYSIS O F THE EFFECT OF IMAGE PRESENTATION MODE  1) Procedure The mean score (MeanC) [See Appendix L : Task Scores and Mode Means] of the three tasks combined (Ti, T2, T3) presented in the continuous mode  Analysis and Interpretation of the Results / 34 was calculated.  Likewise, the mean score (MeanD) of the three tasks (T4,  T5, T6) presented in the discontinuous mode was calculated. These means were used as an estimate of each person's time for each mode respectively and used as each person's score, respectively, in performing the two-way ANOVA.  The cell means and standard deviations resulting from the two-  way A N O V A (See Appendix 0: Descriptive Cell Data for the Two-Way A N O V A ) for each cell and task are summarized in Tables 5 and 6 below.  T A B L E 5:  Means and Standard Deviations for Each Cell:  MODE OF IMAGE PRESENTATION 1 Continuous  Discontinuous  X  120.33  14.71  67.52  s  86.07  14.61  84.50  X  67.88  46.67  57.27  s  51.55  40.34  70.31  X  94.10  30.69  62.40  s  75.03  34.08  54.56  A  ORDER OF IMAGE PRESENTATION  Form A (Continuous/ Discontinuous) B  2  Form B (Discontinuous/ Continuous)  Analysis and Interpretation of the Results I 35  T A B L E 6: Means and Standard Deviations for Each Task:  MODE OF IMAGE PRESENTATION 1 Continuous  *2 Discontinuous  A  u  Ti  T  TOTAL  5  o £ a! a.  Form A (Continuous/ Discontinuous)  UJ S ° ~ £5  B (Discontinuous/ Form B Continuous)  X  81.88  142.33 137.29  17.88  16.17  10.17  67.52  s  94.65  145.30 205.21  26.93  20.63  1427  84.50  X  53 .SO  46.29 101.58  11.67  95.17  33.00  5727  s  64.37  46.67 121.45  23.75 103.39  6223  70.31  X  68.69  94.31  119.44  14.77  55.67  2158  62.40  s  81.17  117.27 167.78  25.31  83.86  46.13  54.56  2  o TOTAL  X  94.10  30.69  62.40  s  75.03  34.08  54.56  TOTAL  (Also see Appendix P: Summary Tables for Means and Standard Deviations for Each Task)  Analysis and Interpretation of the Results I 36  Three null hypotheses were formulated to test the effects of presentation order and mode of image processing time: H;:  There is no difference in mean scores (i.e. number of seconds) between the two modes of image presentation.  H2:  There is no difference in mean scores (i.e. number of seconds) between the two orders of image presentation.  H5:  There is no interaction between mode and order of presentation.  The two-way A N O V A of the dependent variable revealed no significant main effect for order of presentation, (Le. F.95( 1,46) = 0.71). Since the critical F-ratio of 4.07 was more than the observed value of 0.71, it was statistically non-significant and the null hypothesis was accepted.  The  probability that the sample means could have occurred due to random sampling fluctuation, i f the null hypothesis was true, was more than .05. Since the null hypothesis was accepted, it was concluded that the population means are equal. Results of the two-way A N O V A are presented in Table 7. T A B L E 7:  ANOVA  Summary Table for a Two-Factor Repeated Measures ANOVA for  Image Processing Time as a Function of Mode and  Order of Image  Presentation:  Source:  df:  Sum of Squares:  Mean Square:  F-test:  P value:  Order (A)  1  2521.5  2521.5  .71  .4039  -subjects w. groups  46  Mode (B)  1  163444.458 96520.167  3553.14 96520.167  40.209  .0001  AB  1  42757.042  42757.042 2400.474  17.812  .0001  B x subjects w. groups 46  1 10421.792  Analysis and Interpretation of the Results I 37 However, the modes (i.e. continuous vs discontinuous) presentation were not equally effective.  of image  The mean number of seconds  taken to complete the tasks by persons using the continuous mode was different (i.e., higher) from that for the discontinuous mode (F=40.21, df:l,4Q).  T h e critical value was F=4.07.  hypothesis is rejected.  Hence p<.05 and the null  Since the null hypothesis was rejected, it was  concluded that the population means were not equal.  The modes of  presentation were not equally effective, and it can be concluded that subjects required less time when processing images in the discontinuous mode than the continuous mode.  This two-way A N O V A also revealed a statistically significant interaction, that is, the combined effect of the independent variables of mode and order on the dependent variable, F.95(l,46) = 4.07, p = .05. Since the computed Fratdo of 17.81 was more than the critical value of 4.07, it was statistically significant and the null hypothesis was rejected. The probability that the pattern of sample means could have occurred due to random sampling fluctuation, if the null hypothesis was true, was less than .05. Since the null hypothesis was rejected, it was concluded that there was an interaction between mode and order of presentation (See Figure 6 below). The direction of interaction was that subjects using Form A (continuous/discontinuous order) showed lower scores on the discontinuous mode, and those using Form B (discontinuous/continuous order) showed lower scores on the continuous mode.  Analysis and Interpretation of the Results / 38  FIGURE 6: Significant Interaction Between Mode and Order of Image Presentation:  IMAGE PROCESSING  1 MODE  TIME \  (seconds)  } ORDER 46.7 FORM B (Discontinuous/ Continuous Order) 14.7 FORM A (Continuous/ Discontinuous Order)  Continuous  Discontinuous  MODE OF IMAGE PRESENTATION  2) Summary of Results There was a statistically significant mean difference between the two modes of image presentation: continuous and discontinuous. However, the order of image presentation (continuous/discontinuous or discontinuous/ continuous) was not significant, while the interaction between mode and order of presentation was significant.  Analysis and Interpretation of the Results I 39 C) STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECT OF SIMILAR TASKS IN A SERIES  1) Procedure One null hypothesis was formulated to test the effect of similar tasks in a series on image processing time: H4:  There is no difference in mean scores between repeated measures within each  mode by order cell.  The calculated observation scores using Forms A and B (Oi, 02, O3, O4, O5, Oe) were assigned task designations (Tl, T2, T3) for tasks presented in the continuous mode, and (T4, T5, Te) for tasks presented in the discontinuous mode (See Appendix Q: Data for the One-Way A N O V A ) .  A one-way  A N O V A was performed on this data across tasks in each mode for each order (Form A , Form B).  The one-way A N O V A of the dependent variable revealed no significant main effect for similar tasks of disembedding the image when presented in the continuous mode in a three-task series (See Table 8 below), F.95(2,23) = 3.42, p - .05. Since the computed F-ratio of 1.08 within subjects was less than the critical value of 3.42, it was statistically not significant and the null hypothesis H 4 was accepted.  Since the null hypothesis was accepted, it was  concluded that the population means were all equal. There was no significant difference in mean scores among repeated measures.  Analysis and Interpretation of the Results I 40 T A B L E 8:  ANOVA Summary Table for a One-Factor Repeated Measures ANOVA for Image Processing Time as a Function of the Continuous Mode of Image Presentation for  the  Continuous/Discontinuous  O r d e r of Image  Presentation using Form A*  Source: Between tasks  df:  Sum of Squares: 51 1098.667  Mean Square:  F-test:  P value:  .887  .6135  1.081  .3477  48  1203077.333  22221.681 25064.1 1 1  treatments  2  54013.083  27006.542  residual  46  1 149064.25  24979.658  71  1714176  Within subjects  Total  23  Reliability Estimates for-  All treatments: -.128  Single Treatment: -.039  These results are similar for the other cells as well (See Tables 9 and 10 below) except for the cell where the image was presented in the continuous mode in the discontinuous/continuous order (See Table 11 below).  Since the  computed F-ratio of 8.82 within subjects is more than the critical value of 3.42, it was statistically significant and the null hypothesis was rejected. (Also see Appendix R: One-way A N O V A Summary Tables.)  Analysis and Interpretation of the Results I 41 T A B L E 9:  ANOVA  Summary Table for a One-Factor Repeated Measures ANOVA  for  Image Processing Time as a Function of the Discontinuous Mode of Image Presentation  for  the  Continuous/Discontinuous  Order  of Image  Presentation using Form A ; Source:  df:  Sum of Squares:  Mean Square:  Between tasks  23  14703.319  639.275  Within subjects  48  17230.667  358.972  treatments  2  786.694  393.347  residual  46  16443.972  357.478  71  31933.986  Total  Reliability Estimates for-  All treatments: .438  F-test:  P value:  1.781  .0461  1.1  .3414  Single Treatment: .207  T A B L E 10:  ANOVA  Summary Table for a One-Factor Repeated Measures ANOVA  for  Image Processing Time as a Function of the Discontinuous Mode of Image Presentation  for  the  Discontinuous/Continuous  Order  of Imase  Presentation using Form B :  Source:  df:  Sum of Squares:  Mean Square:  Between tasks  23  183720.542  7987.85  Within subjects  48  343037.333 42125.083  7146.61 1  300912.25  6541.571  treatments  2  residual  46 71  Total  Reliability Estimates for-  21062.542  F-test: 1.1 18  .3623  3.22  .049-1  526757.875 All treatments: .105  P value:  Single Treatment: .038  Analysis and Interpretation of the Results I 42 TABLE 11: ANOVA Summary Table for a One-Factor Repeated Measures ANOVA for Image Processing Time as a Function of the Continuous Mode of Image Presentation for the Discontinuous/Continuous  Order of Image  Presentation using Form B: Source:  df:  Between tasks Within subjects treatments residual Total  23 48 2 46 71  Reliability Estimates for-  Sum of Squares:  Mean Square:  1 12413.111 325804 90336.444 235467.556 438217.1 1 1  4887.527 6787.583 45168.222 51 18.86  All treatments: - . 3 8 9  F-test:  . a o 17  8.824  .0006  Single Treatment: - . 1 0 3  2) Results and Interpretation The findings in regard to the effect of similar tasks in a series were interpreted with caution. Since the data show very low 'reliabilities' and a lack of homogeneity of variance (See Appendix P: Summary Tables for Means and Standard  Deviations for Each Task), the underlying  assumptions of the analysis have been violated. Although the main effect of similar tasks in a series was not statistically significant, there was a significant effect where the image was presented in the continuous mode in the discontinuous/continuous order, which indicated that this series of tasks was affected by the series of tasks which preceded it.  3) Summary There was no statistically significant effect of similar tasks in a series in general.  However, there was a significant effect when tasks were  presented in the continuous mode in the discontinuous/continuous order. Therefore, this null hypothesis was accepted.  P value:  .72  Analysis and Interpretation of the Results I 43 D) C O N T E N T A N A L Y S I S O F T H E G R A P H S F O R THE E F F E C T OF IMAGE PRESENTATION MODE 1) Procedure For the purpose of content analysis, the hypotheses were restated: Hi  Subjects will take less time performing tasks when images are presented in the continuous mode than in the discontinuous mode or vice versa.  H2  Subjects will take less time performing tasks when images are presented in the second set of three tasks than in the first set of three tasks.  H3  Subject scoring results will be different in both orders of image presentation depending on the mode of image presentation  2) Results and Interpretation The first hypothesis was designed to test for any significant mode preference. As shown in Tables 3 and 4, the number of subjects showing a preference for the continuous mode was 7 compared to 41 for the discontinuous mode. This confirms the findings of the two-way A N O V A which yielded a mean score of 94.1 for the continuous mode and 30.7 for the discontinuous mode. It appears that most subjects (41 subjects out of 48) found tasks presented in the discontinuous mode much easier to perform (30.7 compared to 94.1 seconds). statistically significant.  This difference was also found to be  Therefore, this hypothesis was accepted.  The  second hypothesis was designed to test for any significant order preference. This can be determined by examining the composite graphs for each order  Analysis and Interpretation of the Results I 44 (Form A , Form B) presented below in Figures 7 and 8.  F I G U R E 7: Composite Graph for Form A (Continuous IDiscontinuous Order): Hypothesis 2 (FORM A) OAOI DA02 A A 0 3 O A 0 4 + AOS JCA06 » A 0 7 BA08 A A I O * A I 2 0)AI4 D A I S H A 1 7 V A 1 8 T A 1 9 * A 2 0 OA21 DA22 A A 2 3 OA24 + A25 X A 2 7 « A 2 a B A 3 0 900-  •o c o <_> <p UJ C <9  Continuous Mode  Discontinuous Mode  F I G U R E 8: Composite Graph for Form B (Discontinuous/Continuous Order): Hypothesis 2 (FORM B) O B O i DB02 AB03 OB04 +305 XB06 « B 0 7 BB08 AB09 •BIO 0)B11 DS13 B B 1 4 V B 1 5 TB16 OB17 O B t a CJ819 AB20 OB21 + B22 X B 2 3 • B 2 4 T I B 2 5 900.  Discontinuous Mode  Continuous Mode  Analysis and Interpretation of the Results / 45 A comparison of the graphs shows that times needed to perform the tasks were generally lower for Form B than for Form A . However, quantitative analysis using the two-way A N O V A showed that this difference was not significant. Therefore, this hypothesis was rejected.  The third hypothesis was designed to test for any interaction between mode and order. As shown in Table 3 more subjects (7 compared to 0) showed a preference for the continuous mode when this mode was presented last as in From B. Likewise, as shown in Table 4, more subjects (24 compared to 17) showed a preference for the discontinuous mode when this mode was also presented last as in Form A.  Subjects who preferred one mode over the other  showed this preference more strongly when that mode was presented last in order. This confirms and clarifies the findings of the two-way A N O V A which revealed a statistically significant interaction between mode and order. Therefore, this hypothesis is accepted.  3) Summary The large differences in mean scores between the two modes of image presentation were statistically significant.  The effect of order of image  presentation was not significant. Subjects who preferred one mode over the other showed this preference more strongly when that mode was presented last in order.  Analysis and Interpretation of the Results I 46 E) C O N T E N T ANALYSIS O F T H E G R A P H S F O R T H E E F F E C T O F SIMILAR T A S K S IN A S E R I E S  1) Procedure For the purpose of content analysis, the hypothesis to determine the effect of similar tasks in a series was restated: H4  Subjects indentified as taking less time performing the same task in a 3-task series when images are presented in either mode (continuous or discontinuous) will progress steadily within that series.  This hypothesis was designed to test for any steady progression (as explained in the introduction to this chapter) in the preferred mode of image presentation. Therefore, the results in Table 3 were used to calculate the number of students using each image processing strategy whether in or out of their preferred mode (See Table 12 below). The data for both preferred modes were combined. Since the data included subjects who performed with one strategy for the first three tasks and with another strategy for the second three tasks, each subject was entered twice. In calculating the number of subject scores from the scores for each half of the whole task, the totalled strategy instances were divided in half, resulting in .5 figures for some of the numbers of subjects.  Analysis and Interpretation of the Results I 47 T A B L E 12:  Total Image Processing Strategies Exhibited by Subjects: Image Processing Strategy Type  Steadiness  Total Number of Subjects Preferred Mode IN  Progressive  Level  Regressive  Total  %  OUT  Steady  7.5  3.5  11.0  22.9  Unsteady  7.5  5.0  12.5  26.0  Steady  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  Unsteady  0.5  1.0  1.5  3.1  Steady  1.5  4.0  5.5  11.5  Unsteady  7.0  10.5  17.5  36.5  24.0  24.0  48.0  100.0  TOTALS  2) Results and Interpretation As shown in Table 12, 7.5 out of a total of 48 subjects (15.6%) progressed steadily when performing the 3-task series in their preferred mode. A n additional 3.5 progressed steadily out of their preferred mode (7.3%) for a total of 22.9% who progressed steadily.  The remaining subjects either  progressed unsteadily (26%), showed a level unsteady strategy (3.1%), regressed steadily (11.5%), or regressed unsteadily (36.5%).  3) Summary The hypothesis that subjects will show steady progression when performing similar tasks in a three-task series in their preferred mode of image presentation was rejected, since only 15.6% of the subjects exhibited this in their scores.  This result was consistent with those from the one-way  A N O V A where generally no statistically significant effect was found for  Analysis and Interpretation of the Results I 48 similar tasks in a series.  F) C O N T E N T A N A L Y S I S O F T H E WRITTEN RESPONSES REGARDING STRATEGIES  1) Procedure After the test, subjects were asked to respond in writing to the question, "How did you go about looking for the hidden stars?" To determine the details about the nature of strategies reported, content analyses were performed on these written responses (See Appendix S: Written Responses). These responses were grouped into three main categories  of image  processing strategy: global (looking for the whole star), analytical (looking for a part of the star), and combined (using both strategies). For example, "I looked for the top point of the star" was categorized as analytical. "I just looked at the page and the star jumped out" was categorized as global. "Some stars just popped out at me...for others, I looked along the horizontal line to find the top triangle" was categorized as combined. These results are summarized in Table 13 below. To determine if these three categories related to achievement in terms of the progressive, regressive, and combined progressive/regressive results indicated on the subject graphs (See Tables 3 and 4), these data were matched (See Table 14 below). To determine if these three categories related to mode preference as also shown in Tables 3 and 4, these data were also matched (See Table 15 below).  Analysis and Interpretation of the Results I 49 2) Results and Interpretation T A B L E 13:  Strategies Reported in the Written Responses: Category  Percentage  Global  13%  Combined  31%  Analytical  56%  Top triangle  26.0%  16%  Multiple  15.0%  8%  Scanning  15.0%  8%  Pentagon  15.0%  8%  Lines  11.0%  6%  Angle  11.0%  6%  Parallel Diagonals  3.5%  2%  Triangles  3.5%  2%  TOTAL  100%  56%  TOTAL  The  100%  results in Table 13 above show that the most commonly reported  category was the analytical (56%). This strategy included using various parts of the target image (top triangle, pentagon, angle, triangle) or ground (scanning,  lines, parallel diagonals).  As well, multiple analytical  strategies were reported. The least commonly reported category was the global (13%). In between these two categories was the combined (31%).  Analysis and Interpretation of the Results / 50 T A B L E 14: Strategies Reported in the Written Responses as a Function of Progressive, Regressive, and Progressive IRegressive Results:  Category  Progressive Prog/Regr Regressive  Total  %  Global  2  3  1  6  13%  Combined  3  9  3  15  31%  Analytical  5  17  5  27  56%  10  29  9  48  100%  21%  60%  19%  100%  Top triangle  0  6  1  7  16%  Multiple  1  3  0  4  8%  Scanning  3  1  0  4  8%  Pentagon  1  3  0  4  8%  Lines  0  2  1  3  6%  Angle  0  1  2  3  6%  Parallel Diag  0  0  1  1  2%  Triangles  0  1  0  1  2%  TOTAL  5  17  5  27  56%  10.5%  35%  10.5%  56%  TOTAL PERCENTAGE  PERCENTAGE  The results from Table 14 indicate that the three main strategy categories were none more effective than another in producing progressive (-20%), regressive (-20%), and combined progressive/regressive (-60%) results.  Analysis and Interpretation of the Results I 51 T A B L E 15:  Strategies Reported in the Written Responses as a Function of Mode Preference: CATEGORY  MODE PREFERENCE  Continuous Mode  Discontinuous Mode  Total  Global  1  5  6  Combined  1  14  15  Analytic  5  22  27  TOTAL  7  41  48  The results in Table 15 above show that subjects who reported using the global strategy did not prefer the continuous mode (1 vs 5) contrary to what was predicted in Chapter 1, but subjects who reported using the analytic strategy did prefer the discontinuous mode (22 vs 5) consistent with what was predicted in Chapter 1.  3) Summary The  written responses report three main image processing strategies:  global, analytical, and combined. Although it should be noted that these written responses were incidental to the study, and there is some doubt that all subjects were able to accurately verbalize the strategies that they used, they do provide some interesting results. These three strategies seemed to be equally effective or ineffective in achieving progressive, regressive, or combined progressive/regressive results.  These findings are consistent  with those of other researchers investigating cognitive styles (Witkin et al, 1977) in that Witkin found that academic achievement was unaffected by  Analysis and Interpretation of the Results I 52 cognitive style.  Subjects who reported using the global strategy did not  prefer the continuous mode as predicted, but those who reported using the analytic strategy did prefer the discontinuous mode as predicted.  CHAPTER V. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  In this chapter the findings reported in Chapter IV are discussed and evaluated and possible implications for art education are presented. Conclusions drawn from the study are reported and implications for further research are proposed.  The research problem was to attempt to add confirmatory evidence to the initial findings by Goldberg (1987) and Bergland & MacGregor (1988). Therefore two objectives governed the study.  The first objective was to  determine whether each subject's preference for one of two hypothesized general strategic approaches (freezing, animation) is manifested in shorter times  taken on tasks presented  in two  different  modes  (discontinuous, continuous) requiring use of the respective preferred strategy.  It was predicted that subjects who used a freezing (analytical)  strategy would show a preference for the discontinuous mode and subjects who used an animation (global) strategy would prefer the continuous mode. The order of image presentation was also investigated to check for any confounding effect of better scores on the last set of three tasks due to experience gained from performing the first set of three tasks. The second objective was to determine whether, having used a particular strategy to solve one task, subjects would carry over that strategy in solving similar tasks in a series.  The present study was designed to answer two questions: 1) is there a difference in image processing time when the image is presented in either a continuous or a discontinuous mode?  53  Summary and Conclusions I 54 2) is there a difference in image processing time when performing similar tasks in a series?  1) T H E E F F E C T OF IMAGE PRESENTATION MODE The effect of image presentation mode was statistically significant.  At  first glance, this finding seems to be consistent with the findings of Goldberg, and appears to give some support to the notion that his animation/freezing  categorization  global/analytical categorization.  may  be  related  However, there was  to a  Witkin's significant  interaction between presentation mode and order, showing that subjects who preferred one mode over the other showed this preference more strongly when that mode was presented last in order. Therefore, this support is not strong since the effect of presentation mode was confounded by the effect of presentation order even though order was not a significant factor by itself.  It should be noted that Goldberg used visual and melodic tasks, whereas this study used only visual tasks. The available technology did not permit the construction of test material that might provide a direct parallel between a musical mode (continuous) and a visual mode (discontinuous).  The test  materials must therefore be regarded as a compromise that may have provided two kinds of discontinuous measure, rather than a true continuous/discontinuous dichotomy. construct  of  Some doubt exists on whether the  continuous/discontinuous  continuous/discontinuous  presentation  ground is and  congruent  with  Goldberg's animation/  freezing categorization.  2) T H E E F F E C T OF SIMILAR TASKS IN A SERIES  Summary and Conclusions I 55 The hypothesis that subjects will show steady progression when performing similar tasks in a three-task series in their preferred mode of image presentation was rejected since only 15.6% of the subjects exhibited this in their scores.  Steady and unsteady strategies resulting in progressive  ability accounted for 48.9%, compared to total regressive strategies which accounted for 48.0%. 3.1%.  (Total level strategies accounted for the remaining  See Table 11). The distinction between steady and unsteady  progression may be inappropriate since the three-task series used in this study is only of the minimum length needed to establish a trend. It may be that the differences between steady and unsteady strategies simply represent differences in time taken to "lock on" to a strategy.  Had they  been given longer or even open-ended task series, steadiness of progression might well be established for a greater number.  The Bergland &  MacGregor study (1988) used an open-ended task series in which subjects revealed increasing ability to perform more successfully as the study progressed, with a persistent strategy being used after an initial trying out of other strategies.  Other intervening factors may be that some subjects  simply lost interest in the task after the first few trials, yielded to the distractions inherent in the group setting, or lacked the motivation to perform the tasks seriously. Results of the present study can only suggest that subjects were just as likely to progress or regress in performing the similar visual tasks in a short three-task series.  The difficulty in finding an initial effective strategy may also relate to the diversity of strategies reported.  Since a complex visual task may be  approached in a variety of ways, subjects seem initially to choose strategies by chance rather than by design, often trying many strategies in the  Summary and Conclusions I 56 process. The results may therefore be affected by an initial random choice between effective or ineffective strategies.  Other contributing factors may  be the time it takes for the subject to find a new strategy, or to the time elapsed while the subject tries out many strategies. Therefore, the results may only indicate that subjects undergo an initial period of exploration before settling on a persistent strategy which will eventually lead to steady improvement or progression.  The results from the written responses indicate that no one strategy (global, analytical, combined) was more effective than another.  However, this  assumes that students who tended to be global (field-dependent) in their approach to perception were able to exhibit this tendency in the tasks presented.  This assumption is based on the premise that any passive  approach reflects a global approach; that the looking for the whole star ("I just sit and wait for it to pop out at me") approach is in fact a global strategy.  It might be argued that in this study, the disembedding tasks that characterized continuous and discontinuous presentation modes are variants of a single task in which global approaches are disadvantaged. Can an analytical task be approached globally? global strategy applies to a disembedding task?  Further, what kind of  Looking for the whole star  and looking for part of the star can be seen to be both analytical strategies. If this is the case, the apparent results showing a stronger preference for the discontinuous mode are not surprising, since they really just reflect the analytical nature of the task rather than the analytical tendencies of the subjects. The globally-oriented subjects were then unable to exhibit their global tendencies since the task was not designed to measure them. Figure  Summary and Conclusions I 57 completion tests, not figure disembedding tests, are designed to measure these global tendencies (Witkin et al, 1977).  The nature of this study also provided no method of checking on whether the written responses of the students were accurate accounts of their strategies. It is open to the criticism that differences in ability to verbalize strategies rather than the strategies actually adopted resulted in spurious distinctions being made between strategies.  3) SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND IMPLICATIONS FOR ART EDUCATION While this study has yielded a certain amount of information on how one sample of children was affected by presentation mode and similar tasks in a series, the original questions which prompted it remain to some extent unanswered.  The effect of image presentation mode on image processing time has been shown to be statistically significant.  This result gives some supporting  evidence of an animation/freezing categorization (Goldberg, 1987) to perceptual style.  However, these results are inconclusive, since the  interaction between  mode and order of presentation  presented  a  confounding effect.  Further study into the effect of image presentation  mode is indicated.  The confounding effect of image presentation order  might be avoided if two truly random groups were used, each performing tasks in one mode instead of the two-mode tasks undertaken i n this study. This approach might produce more conclusive results.  Summary and Conclusions I 58 This study has revealed that the effect of similar tasks in a series on image processing time is just as likely to produce initially regressive or progressive results in a short three-task series. This may be due to an initial random choice between effective or ineffective strategies, the time it takes for the subject to find a new strategy, or to the time wasted while the subject tries out many strategies. The results give at least tentative support to findings by Bergland and MacGregor (1988) that subjects undergo an initial period of exploration before settling on a persistent strategy leading to steady progression in performance.  These results have possible implications for art education.  Since art  students are often asked to perform complex visual tasks which require choosing initially from amongst many perceptual strategies,  it  is  important that students be allowed time to search for effective strategies. This study shows that initially at least, students may be just as likely to choose a non-productive strategy as a productive one. It is therefore a time for monitoring student behavior, and for discussing on an individual basis how each intends to tackle the problem assigned.  Art teachers should be  aware of the variety of strategies available, and be aware of the diversity of approaches that students will take in solving complex visual problems.  4) IMPLICATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH Subsequent studies concerning continuous/discontinuous modes of image presentation should re-assess the construct of continuous/discontinuous ground used in this study, separate the modes to avoid the confounding effect of order, use both analytical (figure disembedding) and global (figure completion) tasks, and avoid using a group setting.  Subsequent studies  Summary and Conclusions I 59 concerning the effect of similar tasks in a series should use a longer or open-ended series of tasks.  More detailed and specific knowledge is  needed about how students choose from amongst a variety of perceptual strategies. Further studies could investigate the number of options students explore before selecting one, the basis on which selections are made, and possible ways to teach students to use effective perceptual strategies.  References I 60  REFERENCES Ausburn, L . J . , & Ausburn, F . B. (1978). Cognitive Styles: Some information and implications for instructional design. Educational Communication and Technology Journal, 26 (4), 337-354.  Bergland, D. R. & MacGregor, R N . (1988). Strategies adopted by elementary school students in shape manipulation and shape recognition tasks. Visual Arts Research, 14 (2), 51-56.  Bieri, J . (1966). Cognitive complexity and personality development.  In 0.  J . Harvey (Ed.), Experiment structure and adapability. New York: Springer. Cognitive complexity and simplicity.  Copeland, B. D. (1984). The relationship of cognitive style to the evaluation of university art instructors. Studies in Art Education, 25 (2), 109-114.  Fleming, M . L . (1977). 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Constricted and flexible control-field articulation.  Schlesinger, H . J . (1954). Cognitive attitudes in relation to susceptibility to interference. Journal of Personality, 22, 354-374. Scanning and focusing cognitive styles.  References I  Vernon, P . E . (1972). The distinctiveness of field independence.  Journal  of Personality, 40 (3), 366-391.  Wachtel, P. L . (1972). Field dependence and psychological differentiation: Re-examination. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 35, 179-189.  Werner, H . (1957). The concept of development from a comparative and organismic point of view. In D. B. Harris (Ed.), The concept of development: An issue in the study of human behavior. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.  Global-analytic-synthetic cognitive  styles.  Witkin, H . A . (1950). Individual differences in ease of perception of embedded figures. Journal of Personality, 19, 1-15.  Field dependence  and field independence cognitive styles.  Witkin, H.A.; Dyk, R.B.; Faterson, H . F . ; Goodenough, D.R.; & Karp, S.A. (1962).  Psychological Differentiation. NY: Wiley.  Witkin, H . A . & Goodenough, D.R. (1977). Essence and origins of cognitive styles: Field dependence and field-independence. Research Bulletin (ETS R B 77-9) Princeton, N J : Educational Testing Services.  Witkin, H . A . ; Goodenough, D.R.; & Oltman, P . K (1979). differentiation: Current status. Psychology, 37 (7), 1127-1145.  Psychological  Journal of Personality and Social  Appendix A I 65  APPENDIX  A  Covering Letter  Appendix B  APPENDIX B Parental Consent Form  I 67  Appendix C I 69  APPENDIX C Layout of Instruments, Subjects, and Researcher  Appendix  LAYOUT OF INSTRUMENTS, SUBJECTS, AND RESEARCHER  Subjects  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  Back Row  Clock Number One Scorekeepers  j — •^  Clock Number Two  Teacher/Researcher Front Row  There was one student scorekeeper for each subject. They were placed together so that they could read the clock more accurately. It was not necessary that they be placed directly in front of their subjects since they would time their subject's responses when they heard their subject say, "NOV."  0  C I 70  Appendix D I  APPENDIX D Test Booklet  Appendix D I 72  Group No.:  S u b j e c t No.:  Age:  Sex:  Find the hidden s t a r s INSTRUCTIONS  1) T h i s i s what each s t a r looks l i k e . Each star is • perfect as shown, • the same size as shown, • points upwards as shown. However, each star may • have lines overlapping it, and • be anywhere in the picture.  2) A s soon as you f i n d one of these s t a r s , say "NOW" and dot the top of it l i k e t h i s , then continue to search f o r the others i f there are more than one.  3) Your t i m e r w i l l record when you said "NOW".  4) Wait until the i n s t r u c t o r says "GO" before turning each page.  5) The t i m e l i m i t s have been s e t to give you more than enough time to find the hidden s t a r s in most c a s e s . Don't worry about the t i m e . J u s t concentrate on looking f o r the s t a r s .  Appendix  D I 73  Form A Find the 3 hidden s t a r s w i t h i n 15 minutes.  Appendix D  I 74  Form A l  Find t h e 1 hidden s t a r w i t h i n 5 m i n u t e s .  Appendix D I 75  Form A2  Find the t hidden s t a r w i t h i n 5 minutes.  Appendix D I 76  Form A3  Find the 1 hidden s t a r w i t h i n 5 minutes.  Appendix  D I 77  Form B Find the 3 hidden s t a r s w i t h i n 15 minutes.  Appendix D I 78  Form B1  Find the 1 hidden s t a r w i t h i n 5 minutes.  Appendix D I 79  Form B2  Find the 1 hidden s t a r w i t h i n 5 minutes.  Appendix D I 80  Form B3  Find the 1 hidden s t a r w i t h i n 5 minutes.  Appendix E I 81  APPENDIX E Test Scoresheet  Appendix  SCORESHEET  Times  Form A  Group No.;  recorded:  _ _  Snhjert Nn -  Subject comments:  Time remaining; out of 1S minutes. Form A  E  "•*"*•«  minutes  minutes  seconds  Seconds  seconds  Ho-w did you 90 about looking for the hidden stars?  Time remaining out of 5 minutes.  Form A l  Form A2  Form A3  SCORESHEET  Times  Form B  Group No.:  recorded:  Subject comments:  Time remain Jig out of 15 minutes. Form B  mexrtes  minutes  minutes  seconds  seconds  seconds  Time remaining out of 3 minutes.  F o r m B1  .minutes . seconds  Form B2  .minutes .seconds  Form B3  .minutes .seconds  S u b j e c t Nn -  Hov did you 90 aboot looking for the hiddea stars?  I  82  Appendix F I 83  APPENDIX F Target Image  Appendix  F  I 84  Appendix  T a r g e t Images (Answer) Top  F I 85  Appendix  APPENDIX G Test Answers  G I  86  Appendix  G I 87  Form A Find the 3 hidden s t a r s w i t h i n 15 minutes.  (Ansver)  Appendix G I 88  Form A1 (Ansver)  Find the 1 hidden star within 5 minutes.  Appendix G I 89  Form A2 (Ansver)  Find the 1 hidden s t a r w i t h i n 5 minutes.  Appendix G I 90  Form A3  Find the 1 hidden star within 5 minutes.  Appendix  G I 91  Appendix  G I 92  Form B l (Answer)  Find the 1 hidden s t a r w i t h i n 5 minutes.  Appendix G I 93  Form B2 C Answer)  Find the 1 hidden s t a r w i t h i n 5 minutes.  Appendix G I 94  Form B3 (Answer)  Find the 1 hidden s t a r w i t h i n 5 minutes.  Appendix H I 95  APPENDIX H Standardized Instructions  Appendix H I  STANDARDIZED INSTRUCTIONS FOR ADMINISTERING THE TEST  The teacher I researcher addresses the class as follows:  Those of you who are sitting in the back row will be taking the test this period while those of you who are sitting in the front row will be acting as scorekeepers this period. Make sure that each person in the back row is paired up with a scorekeeper in the front row.  Each of you will need a pen or pencil. [Pens are handed out to those who don't have one.]  Before the people in the back rows get their test booklets, let's have the scorekeepers in the front row practise recording the times from the timers. Scorekeepers should sit with their backs to their desks further from their partners so that they can't see their partners as they do the test. As well, these people will need to gather closer to the timer in front of you so that you can accurately read the clock.  I will hand out a Scorekeeper's Warmup Exercise sheet to each of the scorekeepers.  {Scorekeeper's Warmup Exercise sheets are handed out.]  This is Clock Number One and this one is Clock Number Two. Write down the clock number on your sheet.  Now, before you record any times, let's go through a dry run. [A clock-  Appendix  H I  setter is appointed for Clock Number One while the teacher/researcher sets Clock Number Two.] Set the clock to 15 minutes and 0 seconds. When the testing starts, I will say O N E , T W O , T H R E E , GO, and on the word GO, we will turn the clocks on, and the people in the back row will turn over the first pink page and start searching for a hidden star. [Nod to the clock-setter for Clock  Number  One to  get  ready.]  happening...ONE, T W O , T H R E E , GO.  Let's pretend that  this  is  [Both clocks are turned on.]  Keep your eyes on the clock. Now, as soon as your partner in the back row finds a star, your partner will say NOW.  As soon as your partner does this,  note the time remaining out of the 15 minutes, and record the time remaining. For example, if your partner said NOW, you would write down that the time remaining out of 15 minutes is 14 minutes and 5 seconds. Any questions about how to read the clock? [Answer any questions.]  Good. Let's practise it with the warmup exercise sheet. [Nod to the clocksetter for Clock Number One to get ready.]  Let's reset the clock at 15  minutes and 0 seconds, and record the time remaining out of 15 minutes whenever I say NOW.  [Both clocks are reset.]  Ready?  T H R E E , GO. [Both clocks are turned on at the word GO.]  ONE,  TWO,  I will say NOW 3  times. Ready? [Wait.] N O W . [Wait.] NOW. [Wait.] N O W . [Wait until all times are recorded, then both clocks are turned off.]  Any questions?  [Answer any questions.]  Good. After the 15 minutes timings, there will be three 5 minute timings. [Nod to the clock-setter for Clock Number One to get ready.] This time let's reset the clock at 5 minutes and 0 seconds, and record the time remaining  Appendix H I out of 5 minutes whenever I say NOW.  [Both clocks are reset.]  Ready?  O N E , T W O , T H R E E , GO. [Both clocks are turned on at the word GO.] will say N O W once.  Ready?  [Wait.]  NOW.  recorded, then both clocks are turned off.]  I  [Wait until all times are  Any questions? [Answer any  questions.]  [This procedure is repeated twice more.]  Now, answer the three questions on your warmup exercise sheet,  when  you're finished, I will come and collect your sheets. [Sheets are collected.]  Now I will hand out to you the real scoresheets to those of you in the front row. [Scoresheets are handed out.]  Now, those of you in the back row, come  up and get a test booklet out of this box and bring it to your desk.  Now  everybody, write down the Group Number. This is Group Number 1, so write down the number 1.  Each of you in the back row will see your Subject  Number in red pen. Tell your partner in the front row what this number is so that your partner can record it on their scoresheet. That's good.  Those in the back row, write in your age, and your sex. male, and F for female.  Write down M for  Now let's read over the instructions together.  [Read the instructions out loud.] Any questions before we begin? [Answer any questions.]  Good.  Let's begin.  [Nod to the clock-setter for Clock Number One to get  ready.] Let's reset the clock at 15 minutes and 0 seconds.  [Both clocks are  reset.] When I say GO, the clock will be started and those of you in the back  Appendix H I 99 row will turn over the first pink page and start searching for stars. As soon as you find the first star, say NOW in a loud voice and your partner will record the time remaining. Use a small dot to mark the top of each star so that those sitting beside you can't see your answer. There are 3 stars on this first sheet, so you will say N O W after you have found each one. questions?  [Answer any questions.]  Any  Ready? O N E , T W O , T H R E E , G O .  [Both clocks are turned on at the word GO.]  After you have found all 3 stars,  turn back to the front of your test booklet and wait. [When all booklets are turned back to the front page, or the 15 minute time has run out; turn the clocks off.]  Good. Let's get ready for the next sheet. [Nod to the clock-setter for Clock Number One to get ready.] Let's reset the clock at 5 minutes and 0 seconds. [Both clocks are reset.] When I say GO, the clock will be started and those of you in the back row will turn over the second pink page and start searching for stars. As soon as you find the a star, say NOW in a loud voice and your partner will record the time remaining. Remember to dot the star when you say NOW.  There is only 1 star on this second sheet.  [Answer any questions.]  Any questions?  Ready? O N E , TWO, T H R E E , GO.  are turned on at the word GO.]  [Both clocks  After you have found the 1 star, turn back to  the front of your test booklet and wait. [When all booklets are turned back to the front page, or the 5 minute time has run out, turn the clocks off.] [Repeat the above procedure twice more for the third and fourth sheets.]  Good. Now that we are all finished, would those in the front row please give the scoresheets to their partners in the back row so that they can answer the question on it. [Wait until the scoresheets have been given to those in the back row.] Please answer the question asking you, "How did you go about  Appendix H  looking for the hidden stars?" If you changed how you went about looking for the hidden stars at any time, include how you did that in your answer. I will wait until everyone has answered the question before I come around to collect your materials.  I 100  Appendix I I 101  APPENDIX  I  Calculation Sheets  Appendix I I 102  CALCULATIONS  Form A  Group No.:  Snhjnrt  Nn -  Form A 14 min.  SO  min. min.  a  X  sec. Sec.  60 s w .  14 min.  60 sec.  -  min.  sec.  -  min.  •  min.  sec.  a  min.  X  SO sec.  sec.  a  X  sec.  O b s e r v a t i o n 0) • -*> O b s e r v a t i o n 02 = F o r m Al  min.  3  X  -  sec.  60 sec. +  sec.  Observation 04  -  sec.  CALCULATIONS  14 mm.  -  sec.  sec.  3  • X  X  60 sec.  a  sec.  -  14 mm.  sec.  mm.  sec.  min.  sec.  Observation 0 5 *  sec.  X  60 sec.  m  sec.  Observation  60 sec.  14 min.  sec.  mm.  sec.  mm.  60 see. +  sec.  O b s e r v a t i o n 01 a  sec.  X  60 sec.  *  sec.  *  O b s e r v a t i o n 02 =  60 sec.  -  sec. sec.  •  06*  sec. see.  F o r m B3  14 min.  min.  sec. Sec. Sec. sec.  Subject No.:  Group No.:  m  sec.  -*» -  60 sec.  sec.  sec. sec.  F o r m A3  *  Form B  sec.  O b s e r v a t i o n 03 = >  F o r m 82  min.  sec.  a  -  min.  60  sec.  60 sec.  min.  F o r m Bl 14 min. min.  sec. see.sec. sec.  60  F o r m A2 60 sec.  14 min. min.  14 mm.  *  sec.  O b s e r v a t i o n 03 =  sec.  min. 60 sec.  al  sec.  sec. sec.  X • sec.  -  m  M  sec.  60 sec.  sec.  Form B 14 min.  60 sec.  14 min.  60 see.  14 min.  60 sec.  -  min.  sec.  -  mm.  2*2,  -  mm.  sec.  *  min.  sec.  •  min.  see.  "  min.  sec.  X  60sec.  X •  60 sec. sec.  O b s e r v a t i o n 04 »  see. sec.-  X  sec.  see.  sec.  sec.-  sec.  see. Observation OS  60  sec.  -*• O b s e r v a t i o n 06  a  sec. sec.  Appendix J I 103  APPENDIX J Data  Appendix J I 104  FORM A DATA Time in seconds Continuous Presentation  Discontinuous Presentation  Age  Sex  Oi  02  03  04  05  06  A01 A02 A03 A04 A05  17 17 17 17 17  F F F F F  007 009 050 073 087  068 168 057 069 126  417 031 041 043 234  002 003 025 004 036  051 003 035 045 056  001 001 001 012 012  A06 A07 A08 A09  18 17 17 16  F F F F  025 007 065 013 234 085 228 003 070 068 070 575 Discard (.03 not within time limit)  002 005 025  001 003 003  A10  17  F  015  006  001  All A12 A13 A14 A15  17 16 17 17 17  F F F M F  Discard (target image not properly identified) 002 020 156 071 001 003 Discard (target image not properly identified) 001 131 106 010 003 002 155 300 047 003 001 013  A16 A17 A18 A19 A20  17 16 17 13 14  F F M M F  Discard (target image not properly identified) 044 049 071 111 001 019 077 056 022 025 001 001 041 380 191 200 058 030 030 155 017 012 070 015  A21 A22 A23 A24 A25  14 14 14 13 13  F F M F F  058 010 015 055 055  A26  16  M  Discard (O3 not within time limit)  A27 A28 A29 A30  15 15 15 17  M M F F  565 050 006 009 253 003 022 030 003 004 004 789 Discard (target image not properly identified) 052 031 003 033 016 015  Subject Number  '  115  014 187 155 040 075  027  046 038 050 660 072  003  005 006 002 003 0O4  004 005 002 070 003  004 005 001 060 023  Appendix J  I 105  FORM B DATA Time in seconds Discontinuous Presentation  Continuous Presentation  ; Number  Age  Sex  Oi  02  03  04  Os  Off  B01 B02 B03 B04 B05  17 17 19 17 18  M M M F M  004 002 001 002 008  022 042 119 300 115  003 004 001 001 265  067 026 011 017 150  034 020 008 106 045  089 261 008 042 240  B06 B07 B08 BIO  17 17 17 17 17  M M F F F  004 001 006 001 002  026 001 034 049 028  005 075 001 000 004  010 034 078 157 014  007 072 002 050 033  064 079 042 024 060  Bll B12  17 IS  M M  003 195 023 261 Discard (Off not within time limit)  052  139  B13 B14 B15  17 16 19  M M M  002 002 003  001 173 033  001 004 161  001 023 002  000 018 026  094 012 535  B16 B17 B18 B19 B20  17 17 15 18 17  F M F M M  005 065 004 002 007  293 001 017 001 264  027 001 018 057 002  023 087 012 036 071  045 096 012 089 212  015 145 003 036 095  B21 B22 B23 B24 B25  15  096  060 103 004 106 297  011 030 003 009 086  014 150 013 033 042  079 021  16  F F F F M  168 244 005 032 051  B26 B27 B28 B29  16 15 15 17  M F M M  Discard Discard Discard Discard  B09  15 15 15  050 004 003 003  012  021 051  (target image not properly identified) (to balance data for ANOVA) (target image not properly identified) (to balance data for ANOVA)  Appendix K I 106  APPENDIX K Scorekeeper'a Warmup Exercise  Appendix K I 107  SCOREKEEPER'S WARMUP EXERCISE  Times  Scorekeeper's  recorded: Tim* rwnainina out of 15 minute.  Form A  Form A  m mutes  minutes  minutes  seconds  seconds  seconds  Tim* remaining out of S minutts.  C l o c k No.:  comments:  Is it t u r d keeping time ?  Did goa b a r e te gaess on any ?  Form Al Vould 90a sag g e a r r e a c t i o n time v a s e x c e l l e n t , Terg good, good, fair, or poor?  Form A2  Form A3  SCOREKEEPER'S WARMUP EXERCISE  Times  recorded  Scorekeeper's  Tim* remaining out of 15 minutes. Form B  minutes _ _ _ minutes  minutes  seconds  seconds  Tim* remaining out of 5 minutts.  Form B  seconds  Cloclc No.:  comments:  Is it hard keeping t i m e ?  Did goo nave to go ess 00 aog'-.  Form B1 seconds  Form B2  minutts seconds  Form 83  _ _ _ minutts seconds  Vould goo sag g e a r r e a c t i o n time v a s e x c e l l e n t , Yertj good, good, f a i r .  Appendix L  APPENDIX  L  Task Scores and Mode Means  I 108  Appendix Form  Subj.  Tl  T2  T4  T3  T5  L  Mean C  T6  I  109 Mean D  No. 1  A  01  7  68  417  2  51  1  164  18  2  A  02  9  168  31  3  3  1  69  2  3 4  A  03  50  57  41  25  35  1  04  73  69  4  45  12  5  A  05  87  126  43 234  49 62  20  A  36  56  12  149  35  6  A  06  65  25  13  7  2  1  34  3  20  7  A  07  85  228  234  3  5  3  182  4  8  A  08  70  575  70  68  25  3  238  32  9  A  10  15  115  27  3  6  1  52  3  10  A A  12  20  71  2  14  106  156 131  10  3  3 2  1 1  82 82  2 2  11 12  A  15  300  155  47  3  1  13  167  6  13  A  17  71  44  49  111  1  19  55  44  14  A  18  77  56  25  22  1  1  53  15  A  19  380  191  200  30  41  257  43  16  A  20  30  155  70  58 17  15  12  85  15  17  A  21  58  14  46  5  4  4  39  4  18  A  22  10  187  38  6  5  5  78  5  19 20  A  15 55  155  50  2  2  1  A  23 24  40  660  3  2 44  21  A  25  55  75  72  4  22  A A  27 28  253 22  565 30  50 789  A B  30  52 67  31 34  B  01 02  26  B B  03 04  23 24 25 26 27  8.  70  60  73 252  23  67  10  6 3  3 3 4  9 4  289 280  4  33 4  16 22  15  30  21  89 261  2  42  63 102  10  20  3 4  11 17  8 106  1 2  119  1  9  40  1  8  300 115  265  47 145  101 129  4  26  5  27.  12  75  62  1  41  26 14  8  .  6  16  B  03  150  45  8 17 240  30  B  06  10  7  64  31 32  B  07  34  72  79  1  B  06  78  2  42  6  1 34  33  B  09  157  50  24  1  49  0  77  17  34  B  10  14  33  60  2  28  4  36  35  B  11  261  52  139  3  195  23  151  11-. 74-  36 37  B B  13 14  0 18  94 12  2 2  1 173  1 4  32 18  1 60  38  B  15  1 23 2  39 40  B  16  B  41  B  42 43  28 29  26  535  3  33  161  188  66  45  15  5  293  27  28  17  23 87  96  145  1  1  109  18  12  12  3  65 4  108 22  17  18  9  13  B  19  36  89  36  2  1  57  54  20  B  20  71  212  95  7  264  2  126  91.  44  B  21  14  79  168  96  60  11  87  56-  45  B  22  150  21  244  50  103  30  138  61  46  B  23  13  12  5  4  4  3  10  4  47  B  24  33  21  12  3  106  9  22  39  48  B  25  42  51  51  31  297  86  48  129  Appendix M I 110  APPENDIX  M  Subject Graphs Showing a Preference for the Continuous Mode  Appendix M I 111 Subject Observation Data for the Discontinuous/Continuous Order of Image Presentation (Using Form B) as a Function of Image Processing Time in Seconds  Appendix M I 112 Subject Observation Data for the Discontinuous/Continuous Order of Image Presentation (Using Form B) as a Function of Image Processing Time in Seconds  FORM B  (Subject Number B14)  180 160 140  to  120  o C u  100  to c  80  Oi  £  60 40 20  0 -20  '1  2 Discontinuous Mode w  FORM B  Continuous Mode  (Subject Number B16)  300 250-  to  200-  C  Q U o > to C Oi  e  150. 10050-  °  o  -o  -50  °1  °3 °2 Discontinuous Mode  °4  °5  Continuous Mode  °6  Appendix M I 113  Subject Observation Data for the Discontinuous/Continuous Order of Image Presentation (Using Form B) as a Function of Image Processing Time in Seconds  FORM B  (Subject Number B18)  20. 18. 16.  C O  o o a> co  14. 12. 10.  a. 6. 4. 2-  '1  u  2  Discontinuous Mode  Continuous Mode  Appendix M I 114  Subject Observation Data for the Discontinuous/Continuous Order of Image Presentation (Using Form B) as a Function of Image Processing Time in Seconds  FORM B  ( S u b j e c t Number B 2 5 )  350 300in tz o  Time  <u c  250200150.  •  100. 50-  *^-o——  °  —o  o -50  o,  o  2  Discontinuous Mode  °3  °4  °5 Continuous Mode  °6  Appendix  N  I  APPENDIX N Subject Graphs Showing a Preference for the Discontinuous Mode  115  Appendix  N  I 116  Subject Observation Data for the Continuous/Discontinuous Order of Image Presentation (Using Form A) as a Function of Image Processing Time in Seconds  FORM A  (Subject Number A01)  450 400.  Time in seconds  350. 300. 250^ 200.  •  150100. 50. 0 -50 °1  °2 Continuous Mode  FORM A  °3  °4  °5 Discontinuous Mode  °6  (Subject Number A02)  1 80 160. 140.  C O  120^  o •a u  100.  <> / c  80^  Qi £  604020o  n  n  °5 Discontinuous Mode  °6  -20 °1  °2 Continuous Mode  °3  °4  Appendix  N  Subject Observation Data for the Continuous/Discontinuous Order of Image Presentation (Using Form A) as a Function of Image Processing Time in Seconds  I 117  Appendix N I 118  Subject Observation Data for the Continuous/Discontinuous Order of Image Presentation (Using Form A) as a Function of Image Processing Time in Seconds  Appendix N I 119  Subject Observation Data for the Continuous/Discontinuous Order of Image Presentation (Using Form A) as a Function of Image Processing Time in Seconds  FORM A  (Subject Number A07)  250 225^ 200^ Time in second  175150. 125^ 10075^ 50^ 25^ o  V>  O  °4  °5 Discontinuous Mode  —n  -25 °1  °2 Continuous Mode  °3  °6  Appendix N  I 120  Subject Observation Data for the Continuous/Discontinuous Order of Image Presentation (Using Form A) as a Function of Image Processing Time in Seconds  FORM A  (Subject Number A10)  120 100 •o c o u  C D C O  80 60 40  20. 0.  -20. '1  2 Continuous Mode u  FORM A  Discontinuous Mode  (Subject Number A12)  160. 140  C O T 3 c o (_> C D C O  120  100. 80. 60. 40 20  0 -20 '1  "2 Continuous Mode  Discontinuous Mode  Appendix N I 121 Subject Observation Data for the Continuous/Discontinuous Order of Image Presentation (Using Form A) as a Function of Image Processing Time in Seconds  FORM A  (Subject Number A14)  1 40 120-  •  100In  C < u Time  o c  80. 60. 40. 20.  •  o -20  °1 .  °2 Continuous Mode  FORM A  °3  °4  °5 Discontinuous Mode  (Subject Number A15)  350 300 250  •a e o u a> in  sz at E  200 150  100-1 50  0 -50  Continuous Mode  Discontinuous Mode  °6  Appendix N  I 122  Subject Observation Data for the Continuous/Discontinuous Order of Image Presentation (Using Form A) as a Function of Image Processing Time in Seconds  FORM A  (Subject Number A17)  120 100-  C I_O J In sect  £ = / »  C O  i£-  80. 60. 40.  •  200 -20 °1  °2 Continuous Mode  °3  °4  °5 Discontinuous Mode  °6  Appendix  N  Subject Observation Data for the Continuous/Discontinuous Order of Image Presentation (Using Form A) as a Function of Image Processing Time in Seconds  I 123  Appendix N Subject Observation Data for the Continuous/Discontinuous Order of Image Presentation (Using Form A) as a Function of Image Processing Time in Seconds  FORM A  (Subject Number A22)  200-  tao. 160.  120.  Time  140.  o o  80-  0 c ) 100. 60^ 4020-  -O  o °1  °2 °3 Continuous Mode  °4  <>5 Discontinuous Mode  °6  /  124  Appendix  N  I 125  Subject Observation Data for the Continuous/Discontinuous Order of Image Presentation (Using Form A) as a Function of Image Processing Time in Seconds  Appendix  N  I 126  Subject Observation Data for the Continuous/Discontinuous Order of Image Presentation (Using Form A) as a Function of Image Processing Time in Seconds  FORM A  (Subject Number A25)  80, 70, 60. c o o  50,  c  40,  CD  30. 20. 10. 0. °1  °2 Continuous Mode  FORM A  600,  °3  Discontinuous Mode  (Subject Number A27)  500-  in seci  400-  £  300. 200100-  •  0 -100 °1  °2 Continuous Mode  °3  °4  °5 Discontinuous Mode  °6  Appendix  N  Subject Observation Data for the Continuous/Discontinuous Order of Image Presentation (Using Form A) as a Function of Image Processing Time in Seconds  FORM A  (Subject Number A28)  900 800 700 600 T C3 O 500 u CD 400 300 200 100  0 -100 Continuous Mode  FORM A  Discontinuous Mode  (Subject Number A30)  55. 50. 45. at  •o c o u  C D C D £  40. 35. 30. 25. 20. 15.  -O  10. 5. '1  2 Continuous Mode u  Discontinuous Mode  I 127  Appendix N  I 128  Subject Observation Data for the Discontinuous/Continuous Order of Image Presentation (Using Form B) as a Function of Image Processing Time in Seconds  FORM B  (Subject Number B01)  100 90^ 80. 70^  •o o u  60^  c  50^  s  40-  i— 30^  •  2010-  0  °1  °2 °3 Discontinuous Mode  FORM B  °4  °6  ° 5  Continuous Mode  (Subject Number B02)  300  I  9  250-  Time in seci  </> 2 0 0 •a cz  /  150.  _^ /  10050.  0  -50  °1  °3 °2 Discontinuous Mode  °4  °5 Continuous Mode  °6  Appendix  N  Subject Observation Data for the Discontinuous/Continuous Order of Image Presentation (Using Form B) as a Function of Image Processing Time in Seconds  FORM B  (Subject Number BOS)  300 250 •a c o u  C D C D £  200 150 100 50  '1  2  w  Discontinuous Mode  FORM B  Continuous Mode  (Subject Number B06)  70 60 cn •a c o u  C D C D £  50. 40. 30. 2010.  '1  2 Discontinuous Mode u  Continuous Mode  I 129  Appendix  N  I 130  Subject Observation Data for the Discontinuous/Continuous Order of Image Presentation (Using Form B) as a Function of Image Processing Time in Seconds  FORM B  (Subject Number B07)  90 80^ 70<> / •a a u a>  60^  c a> £  40.  < —  i—  50^  •  30. 2010.  o  _„r>—  -10  °1  °2 °3 Discontinuous Mode  °4  °5 Continuous Mode  °6  Appendix  N  Subject Observation Data for the Discontinuous/Continuous Order of Image Presentation (Using Form B) as a Function of Image Processing Time in Seconds  FORM B  (Subject Number B09)  180  160. 140.  C O  •a e o u  C D  120 100 804 60 40 20  0 -20 '1  2 Discontinuous Mode u  FORM B  Continuous Mode  (Subject Number BIO)  70 60  C O  •a e o u a> co cu £  50 40 30  20, 10.  Discontinuous Mode  Continuous Mode  I 131  Appendix N  I 132  Subject Observation Data for the Discontinuous/Continuous Order of Image Presentation (Using Form B) as a Function of Image Processing Time in Seconds  (Subject Number B1 1)  FORM a  300 250.  Time in seci  < / > 200"O c  •  150-  10050.  o -50 °1  °2  °3  Discontinuous Mode  FORM B  ioo  °4  °5  Continuous Mode  (Subject Number B13)  T  90^ 80^ •a c o u  C D C D £  70. 60^ 50^ 40. 30^ 20^ 10. 0^  _o=  -10^ '1  "2  Discontinuous Mode  w  3  Continuous Mode  °6  Appendix N  I 133  Subject Observation Data for the Discontinuous/Continuous Order of Image Presentation (Using Form B) as a Function of Image Processing Time in Seconds  FORM B  600  (Subject Number BIS)  500in " O  400-  tn sect  c  rt 300. £  200. 100.  o -1 o  o °1  °3 °2 Discontinuous Mode  FORM B  160  °4  °5 °6 Continuous Mode  (Subject Number B17)  140120o u a> in  a> £  100 80 60 40 20 0 -20 '1  "2 Discontinuous Mode  Continuous Mode  Appendix  N  I 134  Subject Observation Data for the Discontinuous/Continuous Order of Image Presentation (Using Form B) as a Function of Image Processing Time in Seconds  FORM B  (Subject Number B19)  1 00 90^ 80^ in  70.  c o  60^  CD </>  50^  c CD  £ i —  -  4030^  •  20. 10.  o  Q- ....  r/  -1 0 °1  °3 °2 Discontinuous Mode  FORM B  °4  °5 Continuous Mode  °6  (Subject Number B20)  300 250-  Time in sec<  in a. i—.  200150. 10050-  •  0 -50 °l  °3 °2 Discontinuous Mode  b  4  ci  5  Continuous Mode  d  6  Appendix  N  Subject Observation Data for the Discontinuous/Continuous Order of Image Presentation (Using Form B) as a Function of Image Processing Time in Seconds  I 135  Appendix N / 136  Subject Observation Data for the Discontinuous/Continuous Order of Image Presentation (Using Form B) as a Function of Image Processing Time in Seconds  FORM B  (Subject Number B23)  14. 12.  o u a>  10. 8-  C D £  64. 2. '1  2 Discontinuous Mode u  Continuous Mode  Appendix O I 137  APPENDIX O Descriptive Cell Data for the Two-way ANOVA  Appendix O I 138  Mean: 120.333 Minimum: 30  Mean: 67.875 Minimum: 9  Mean:  Std. Dev.: 86.074 Maximum: 289  Std. Dev.: 51.554 Maximum: 188  Std. Dev.:  C e l l : AlBl Std. Error Variance: 17.57 Ranqe: 259  10.523 Ranqe: 179  2.983  Minimum:  Maximum:  Ranqe:  Mean: 46.667 Minimum: 1  Std. Dev.: 40.337 laximum: 129  2888  2657.853 Sum: 1629  C e l l : A2B1 Std. Error. Variance:  1 4.6 12  44  Sum:  C e l l : A1B2 Std. Error Variance:  14.708  2  7408.754  42  213.52 Sum: 353  C e l l : A2B2 Std. Error Variance: 8.234 Ranqe: 128  1627.101 Sum: 1 120  Coef. Var: 71.53 Sum Squared: 517924  Coef. Var.: 75.955 Sum Squared: 171699  Coef. Var: 99.347 Sum Squared: 10103  Coef. Var.: 86.437 Sum Squared: 89690  Count: 24 * Missinq: 0  Count: 24 * Missinq: 0  Count: 24 * Missinq: 0  Count: 24 * Missinq: 0  Appendix P I 139  APPENDIX  P  Summary Tables for Means and Standard Deviations for Each Task  Appendix P I 140  T1 Mean: 68.688 Minimum: 1  Mean:  Std. Dev.:  Std. Error:  81.174  1 1.716  Maximum: 380  Std. Dev.:  94.312  1 17.271  Minimum:  Maximum:  0  Mean:  575  Std. Dev.:  1 19.438  167.781  Minimum:  Maximum:  3  789  Ranqe: 379  Std. Error: 16.927 Range: 575  Std. Error: 24.217 Range: 786  Variance: 6589.241 Sum: 3297  T2 Variance: 13752.56 Sum: 4527  T3 Variance: 28150.379 Sum: 5733  Coef. Var.: 1 18.179 Sum Squared: 536157  Coef. Var.: 124.343 Sum Sguared: 1073323  Coef. Var: 1 40.476 Sum Sguared: 2007803  Count: 48 * Missing: 0  Count: 48 * Missing: 0  Count: 48 * Missing: 0  T4 Mean: 14.771 Minimum: 1  Std. Dev.: 25.313 Maximum: 1 1 1  Std. Error: 3.654  Variance: 640.734  Range:  Sum:  1 10  709  Coef. Var: 171.37 Sum Sguared: 40587  Count: 48 * Missing: 0  T5 Mean: 55.667 Minimum: 1  Std. Dev.: 83.859 Maximum: 300  Std. Error 12.104 Range: 299  Variance: 7032.397 Sum: 2672  Coef. Var: 150.646 Sum Sguared: 479264  Count: 48 * Missing: 0  Appendix P / 141  Mean: 21.583 Minimum: 0  Mean: 94.104 Minimum: 9  Mean: 30.688 Minimum: 1  Std. Dev.: 46.127 Maximum: 265  Std. Dev.: 75.025 Maximum: 289  Std. Dev.: 34.081 Maximum: 129  Std. Error: 6.658 Ranqe: 265  Std. Error: 10.829 Range: 280  Std. Error: 4.919 Range: 128  T6 Variance: 2127.695 Sum:  Coef. Var.: 213.716 Sum Squared:  1036  122362  Mean C Variance:  Coef. Var.:  5628.819 Sum: 4517  Mean D Variance: 1 161.496 Sum: 1473  79.726 Sum Sguared: 689623  Coef. Var.: 111.057 Sum Sguared: 99793  Count: 48 * Missinq: 0  Count: 48 * Missing: 0  Count: 48 * Missing: 0  Appendix Q / 142  APPENDIX  Q  Data for One-way ANOVA  Appendix  Form  Subj.  Tl  T2 (02)  (01)  T4 (04)  T3 (03)  T5 (05)  Q I  143  T6 (06)  No. 1  A  68  417  2  51  1  A  01 02  7  2  9  168  31  3  3  1  3  A  03  50  57  41  25  35  1  4  A  04  73  69  4  45  12  5  A  05  87  126  43 234  36  56  12  6  A  06  65  25  13  7  2  1  7  A  07  85  228  234  3  5  3  8  A  03  70  575  70  68  25  3  9  A  10  15  115  27  3  6  1  10 11  A  12  20  156  71  2  1  A  14  106  131  3  12  A  15  300  1  13  13 14  A  17  1  A  18  71 77  155 44  10 47  3 2  15  A  19 :  16 17  A A  18 19 20  49  3 111  1  56  25  22  1  19 1  380  191  200  30  41  20 21  30  70  58  155 14  58 17  46  5  15 4  12 4  A  22  10  187  A  15 55  155  38 50  6 2  5 2  5 1  A  23 24  40  660  3  70  60  21  A  25  55  75  72  4  3  23  22  A  27  565  50  6  23 24  A  28  253 22  30  789  3  3 4  9 4  A  30  52  31  8  33  16  15  Appendix  Form  Subj.  Tl  (04)  T3 (06)  T2 (05)  T5 (02)  T4 (01)  Q /  144  T6 (03)  No. 1  B  01  67  34  89  4  22  3  2  B  02  26  20  261  2  42  4  3 4  B B  03 04  11 17  8 106  8 17  1 2  119 300  1  5  B  05  150  45  240  8  115  265  6  B  06  10  7  64  4  26  5  1  75  1  7  B  07  34  72  79  1  8  B  08  78  2  42  6  34  1  9  B  09  157  50  24  1  49  10 11  B  10  14  60  2  28  0 4  B  11  261  33 52  139  3  195  23  12  B  0  94  2  1  B B  13 14 •  1  13 14  18  12  2  26  535  3  173 33  1 4  15 !  23 2  161  15 16  B  23 87  45 96  15 145  5  B  16 17  27 1  17  B  18 l  12  12  3  65 4  293 1 17  18  18 19  B B  36 95  2 7  1 264  57 2  B  36 71 14  89 212  20  19 • 20 21  79  168  96  60  11  21  B  22  150  23 24  103 4  B  25  13 33 42  50 4  30  B B  21 12 21  244  22 23 24  51  51  5 12  3  106  3 9  3  297  86  Appendix  APPENDIX One-way ANOVA  R  Summary  Tables  R  I 145  Appendix R  I 146  C E L L Al Bl One-Factor A N O V A Repeated Measures Form A (Tasks T j , T2, T3) Continuous Mode df:  Source:  Sum of Squares: 51 1098.667  Mean Square:  F-test:  P value:  22221.681  .887  .6135  1.081  .3477  Between subjects  23  Within subjects  48  1203077.333  25064.1 1 1  2  54013.083  27006.542  46  1 149064.25  24979.658  71  1714176  treatments residual Total  Reliability Estimates for-  All treatments: -.128  Single Treatment: -.039  CELL Al Bi One-Factor A N O V A Repeated Measures Form A (Tasks T ; , T 2 , T3) Continuous Mode Group:  Count:  Mean:  Std. Dev.:  Std. Error  (01)  24  81.875  94.653  19.321  T2 (02)  24  142.333  145.301  29.659  T3 (03)  24  137.292  205.206  41.888  Tl  CELT. A l B i One-Factor A N O V A Repeated Measures Form A (Tasks Tl, T2, T3) Continuous Mode Comparison:  Mean Diff.:  Fisher PLSD:  Scheffe F-test:  Dunnett t:  T l (01) vs. T2 (02)  -60.458  91.848  .878  1.325  T l (01) vs. T3 (03)  -55.417  91.848  .738  1.215  T2 (02) vs. T3 (03)  5.042  91.848  .006  .111  Appendix  CELL.  R  / 147  A2 B i  One-Factor A N O V A Repeated Measures Form A (Tasks T4, T5, Tfi) Discontinuous Mode Source:  Sum of Squares: Mean Square:  df:  Between subjects  23  14703.319  639.275  within subjects  48  17230.667  358.972  treatments  2  786.694  393.347  residual  46  16443.972  357.478  71  31933.986  Total  Reliability Estimates for- All treatments: .438  F-test:  P value:  1.781  .0461  1.1  .3414  Single Treatment: .207  C E L L A2 B i One-Factor A N O V A Repeated Measures Form A (Tasks T4, T5, T6) Discontinuous Mode Group:  Count:  Std. Dev.:  Mean:  Std. Error:  T4 (04)  24  17.875  26.927  5.496  T5 (05)  24  16.167  20.631  4.21 1  T6 (06)  24  10.167  14.267  2.912  C E L L A2 B i One-Factor A N O V A Repeated Measures Form A (Tasks T4, T5, T6) Discontinuous Mode Comparison:  Mean Diff.:  Fisher PLSD:  Scheffe F-test:  Dunnett t:  T4 (04) VS. T5 (05)  1.708  10.988  .049  .313  T4 (04) vs. T6 (06)  7.708  10.988  .997  1.412  T5 (05) vs. T6 (06)  6  10.988  .604  1.099  Appendix  R  I 148  C E L L A i B2 One-Factor A N O V A Repeated Measures Form B (Tasks T i , T2, T3) Continuous Mode df:  Source:  Sum of Squares:  Mean Square:  Between subjects  23  1 12413.1 1 1  Within subjects  48  325804  6787.583  treatments  2  90336.444  45168.222  residual  46  235467.556  51 18.86  71  438217.1 1 1  Total  4887.527  Reliability Estimates for- All treatments: -.389  F-test:  P value:  .72  .8017  8.824  .0006  Single Treatment: -.103  C E L L A l B2 One-Factor A N O V A Repeated Measures Form B (Tasks T l , T2, T3) Continuous Mode Group:  Count:  Std. Dev.:  Mean:  Std. Error  T4 (01)  24  1 1.667  23.752  4.848  T5 (02)  24  95.167  103.386  21.104  T6 (03)  24  33  62.228  12.702  C E L L A i B2 One-Factor A N O V A Repeated Measures Form B (Tasks T i , T2, T3) Continuous Mode Comparison:  Mean Diff.:  Fisher PLSD:  Scheffe F-test:  Dunnett t:  T4 (01) vs. T5 (02)  -83.5  41.578*  8.172*  4.043  T4 (01) vs. T6 (03)  -21.333  41.578  .533  1.033  T5 (02) vs. T6 (03)  62.167  41.578*  4.53*  3.01  * Significant at 95%  Appendix R  I 149  C E L L A2 B2 One-Factor A N O V A Repeated Measures Form B (Tasks T4, T5, Te) Discontinuous Mode Source:  df:  Sum of Squares:  Mean Square:  Between subjects  23  183720.542  7987.85  Within subjects  48  343037.333  7146.61 1  treatments  2  42125.083  21062.542  residual  46  300912.25  6541.571  71  526757.875  Total  Reliability Estimates for-  All treatments: .105  F-test:  P value:  1.118  .3623  3.22  .0491  Single Treatment: .038  C E L L A2 B2 One-Factor A N O V A Repeated Measures Form B (Tasks T4, T5, Ts) Discontinuous Mode Group: Tl  Count:  Mean:  Std. Dev.:  Std. Error:  (04)  24  55.5  64.365  13.138  T2 (05)  24  46.292  46.671  9.527  T3 (06)  24  101.583  1 21.449  24.791  C E L L A2 B2 One-Factor A N O V A Repeated Measures Form B (Tasks T4, T5, T<?) Discontinuous Mode Comparison:  Fisher PLSD:  Scheffe F-test:  Dunnett t:  9.208  47.002  .078  .394  T l (04) vs. T3 (06)  -46.083  47.002  1.948  1.974  T2 (05) vs. T3 (06)  -55.292  47.002*  2.804  2.368  Tl  (04) vs. T2 (05)  Mean Diff.:  * Significant at 95*  Appendix S I 150  APPENDIX S Written Responses  Appendix S I WRITTEN RESPONSES  1) G L O B A L C A T E G O R Y (6/48 = 13%) A03  17  F  Seriously, I do not know. I just studied the picture and they jumped right off the page into my face.  A06  18  F  As soon as I sort of squint my eyes, they just "appeared." At first I tried to analyze looking for a perfect top triangle, so if I found that, Id find a star. But that was taking too much effort and time.  B03  19  M  It just was there! Looking hard pays off.  BIO  17  F  I just looked for the whole star.  B19  18  M  I looked for a perfect star, checked, then said "now."  B20  17  M  (I) sat and wait(ed) until I figured them out.  2) C O M B I N E D C A T E G O R Y (15/48 = 31%) A01  17  F  First I looked for a star-like figure, then the top triangle. A few of them seemed to pop out at you. I changed to the triangle during the first one. The second and fourth one popped out, and (for) the third, (I) looked for the triangle.  A02  17  F  Looking from corner to corner and side to side.  Some  stars just popped out at me. In the first exercise and second star, I changed by looking for the tips of the stars. A20  14  F  I went about looking for the stars by look(ing) at the whole page, then looking at the squigally lines.  A21  14  F  Sometimes I just saw them when I looked down at the page, and other times, I looked for the pointed part at the top of the star.  Appendix A23  14  M  S  I looked for the shape, but then I couldn't find any. Then I looked for the parallel line going across the page to see if I could find any, and I did. But in the last three, I saw them right away!  A24  13  F  (I) looked for stars, then looked for straight lines with perfect triangles on top, then looked for the centre of (the) star.  A27  15  M  (I) looked for shapes of a star. (Then I) looked for the tops of stars and (the) bottom W (shape).  B06  17  M  I looked for the top triangle, then the two diagonals. But they basically just stood out, and the slanted lines connected the 3 stars together.  B08  17  F  The five minute ones just jumped out The fifteen minute ones: either look for the straight lines across the page and the correct top triangle shape above the line, or you look for the diagonal lines across the page and the stars fall on these lines.  B09  17  F  I started (sort) ofjust staring at the page until I found them, but by the end, I just looked along the horizontal line to find the top triangle and then I knew there was a star there.  B13  17  M  Some I got from looking for the whole star. On the last page I followed the lines from two of the hidden stars to find the third.  B16  17  F  I just looked for straight lines across, and then looked for perfect triangles on top of that line. From there, you just look at the bottom to see if it matched. Before, I just  I 152  Appendix  S  looked for the star shape. B21  15  F  (I) just plainly looked, then started looking for the top parts of it, then looking closer to the book(let).  B22  15  F  On the first page I looked for the whole star. On the second page and third page, I looked for the two bottom points of the star. On the fourth page, I looked along the heavy black lines.  B23  15  F  I just looked at the page and the star jumped out. On the last page I went horizontally across the page like reading a book and on every line I looked for a star until I found three.  3) A N A L Y T I C C A T E G O R Y (27/48 = 56%) a) T o p Triangle [7/27 = 26%] A22  14  F  I looked for the top triangle because I found it easiest to spot I used this method throughout the 6 pages and it was successful.  A25  13  F  I looked for straight lines that were parallel to the top of the page. Along these lines, I looked for triangles.  A28  15  M  I saw wriggly lines coming across. Then I just looked for small top stars.  B01  17  M  I just looked for the top point of the star.  Bll  17  M  Look for the tops of the stars or follow the straight lines across.  B14  16  M  I looked for a straight line, then when I found a perfect peak, I found i t  B18  15  F  I looked for the top part of (the) triangle first, then I see i f  I  153  Appendix S I 154  it make(s) a star. b) Multiple Analytic [4727 = 15%] A07  17  F  (At) first I was looking for the triangles which formed the top of the stars, but as you can tell by the first scores, that method didn't work very well. Then I noticed that all (of) the stars were located on the long horizontal lines which ran across the pages.  A08  17  F  In the fifteen minute ones, I followed any Une. In the five minute ones, I followed the dark line.  A30  17  F  I looked for the tip of the star, where I would put the dot. I found one looking for the center pentagon.  825  16  M  I saw (that) all stars have angles like for the top triangle, so I looked for it I thought of this for the third test I did not for the second. I tried moving my head back. I tried looking at it kinda cross-eyed.  c) Scanning [4/27 = 15%] A05  17  F  I looked at the ends of each line and followed them with my pen until I saw a star.  A17  16  F  Just going through all of the areas of the page examining the various lines.  A18  17  M  (D started in the middle looking for a good triangle, and then went to the corners.  A19  13  M  I looked (for) the horizontal and diagonal lines and then took it from (there).  d) Pentagon [4/27 = 15%] A10  17  F  I looked for the centre of the star and then found the points.  Appendix S I 155 A12  16  F  I looked for the shape, and found the middle and edges of each star, then marked it down.  A14  17  M  (For the) first one I looked for the tips of the stars, but found it easier to find the pentagon inside the star. (Then I found that) they were all on two parallel lines.  A15  17  F  I start from the middle and work outward.  e) Lines [3/27 = 11%] B15  19  M  Well, I looked at the solid black lines.  B17  17  M  (I) followed (the) dark lines across (the) paper.  B24  15  F  Looked for a dark solid line going across (the) page after the first two pages.  f) Angle [3/27 = 11%] B02  17  M  Look for (the) diagonal lines leading to a flat line.  B04  17  F  I just followed the straight lines that went on an even slant downwards and kept trying until I saw the point of the star, then marked it.  B07  17  M  I looked for the lines on a certain angle that intersected.  g) Parallel Diagonals [1/27 = 3.5%] B05  18  M  I looked for two lines running parallel to each other, running almost diagonal(ly) across the page.  h) Triangles [1/27 = 3.5%] A04  17  F  'Til I found the first star, it seemed hopeless. Then I found the first star, and then looked for triangles the same size and in the (same) position.  

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