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The effect of continuous and discontinuous image presentation on image processing time Mah, Tom Chack-Dong 1989

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T H E E F F E C T O F CONTINUOUS A N D D I S C O N T I N U O U S I M A G E P R E S E N T A T I O N O N I M A G E P R O C E S S I N G T I M E By TOM CHACK-DONG MAH B. Ed. University of British Columbia, 1973 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Visual and Performing Arts in Education We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April 1989 © TOM CHACK-DONG MAH, 1989 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT This study investigated perceptual strategies adopted by fifty-nine high school students during tasks involving the recognition of embedded geometric shapes. -Results indicated a statistically significant mean difference between the two modes of image presentation: continuous and discontinuous. However, the order of image presentation (continuous/ discontinuous or discontinuous/continuous) was not significant, while the interaction between mode and order of presentation was significant. These results give some supporting evidence of an animation/freezing categorization to perceptual style. The effect of similar tasks in a series on image processing time is just as Kkely to produce initially regressive or progressive results in a short three-task series. These results give supporting evidence to findings that subjects undergo an initial period of exploration before settling on a persistent strategy leading to steady progression in performance. i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract i i Table of Contents i i i L is t of Tables v i Lis t of Figures viii Acknowledgements ix Chapter I. I N T R O D U C T I O N TO T H E S T U D Y 1 A) Introduction 1 B) Statement of the Problem 2 C) Purpose of the Study 3 D) Justification 3 E) Research Hypotheses 3 F) Design of the Study 4 1. Sample 4 2. Setting 5 3. Instruments 5 4. Methods of Data Collection 8 5. Methods of Data Analysis 8 6. Limitat ions . 8 7. Delimitations 9 8. Definitions 9 9. Summary 10 Chapter II. R E V I E W OF T H E L I T E R A T U R E 11 A) Introduction 11 B) Perceptual Styles 13 C) Personal Styles 14 D) Social Styles 14 E) Learning Styles 14 F) Artist ic Styles 15 G) Teaching Styles 16 H) Vocational Styles 16 I) Implications for Art Education 17 J) Analysis of Research into Perceptual Styles 17 K) Summary 20 Chapter III. C O N D U C T O F T H E S T U D Y 22 A) Sample 22 B) Set t ing 23 C) Instruments 24 D) Procedure 24 E) Methods of Data Collection 25 F) Methods of Data Analysis 25 i i i G) Preliminary Tr ia l and Pilot Study 25 H) Summary 26 Chapter rV. ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION O F T H E R E S U L T S . 27 A) Introduction 27 1. Statistical Analyses of the Data 27 2. Content Analyses of the Graphs 28 3. Content Analyses of the Written Responses 33 B) Statistical Analyses of the Effect of Image Presentation Mode 33 1. Procedure 33 2. Summary of Results 38 C) Statistical Analyses of the Effect of Similar Tasks in a Series 39 1. Procedure 39 2. Results and Interpretation 42 3. Summary 42 D) Content Analysis of the Graphs for the Effect of Image Presentation Mode 43 1. Procedure 43 2. Results and Interpretation 43 3. S u m m a r y 45 E) Content Analysis of the Graphs for the Effect of Similar Tasks in a Series 46 1. Procedure 46 2. Results and Interpretation 47 3. S u m m a r y 47 F) Content Analysis of the Written Responses Regarding Strategies 48 1. Procedure 48 2. Results and Interpretation 49 3. S u m m a r y 51 Chapter V. S U M M A R Y A N D C O N C L U S I O N S 53 A) The Effect of Image Presentation Mode 54 B) The Effect of Similar Tasks in a Series 54 C) Summary, Conclusions, and Implications for Art Education 57 D) Implications for Further Research 58 References 60 Appendices Appendix A: Covering Letter 65 Appendix B: Parental Consent Form 67 Appendix C: Layout of Instruments, Subjects, and Researcher 69 Appendix D: Test Booklet 71 Appendix E: Test Scoresheet 81 Appendix F : Target Image 83 Appendix G : Test Answers 86 Appendix H : Standardized Instructions 95 Appendix I: Calculation Sheets 101 Appendix J : Data 103 Appendix K : Scorekeeper's Warmup Exercise 106 iv Appendix L : Task Scores and Mode Means 108 Appendix M : Subject Graphs Showing a Preference for the Continuous Mode 110 Appendix N : Subject Graphs Showing a Preference for the Discontinuous Mode 115 Appendix 0: Descriptive Cell Data for the Two-way A N O V A 137 Appendix P: Summary Tables for Means and Standard Deviations for Each Task 139 Appendix Q: Data for One-way A N O V A 142 Appendix R: One-way A N O V A Summary Tables 145 Appendix S: Written Responses 150 v LIST OF TABLES Table 1 Sample Select ion 23 2 Tes t Schedule 23 3 Summary of Content Analysis for Graphs Showing a Preference for the Continuous Mode 32 4 Summary of Content Analysis for Graphs Showing a Preference for the Discontinuous Mode 32 5 Means and Standard Deviations for Each Cel l 34 6 Means and Standard Deviations for Each Task 35 7 A N O V A Summary Table for the Two-Factor Repeated Measures A N O V A for Image Processing Time as a Function of Mode and Order of Image Presentation 36 8 A N O V A Summary Table for a One-Factor Repeated Measures A N O V A for Image Processing Time as a Function of the Continuous Mode of Image Presentation for the Continuous/Discontinuous Order of Image Presentation U s i n g F o r m A 40 9 A N O V A Summary Table for a One-Factor Repeated Measures A N O V A for Image Processing Time as a Function of the Discontinuous Mode of Image Presentation for the Continuous/Discontinuous Order of Image Presentation U s i n g F o r m A 41 v i 10 A N O V A Summary Table for a One-Factor Repeated Measures A N O V A for Image Processing Time as a.Function of the Discontinuous Mode of Image Presentation for the Discontinuous/Continuous Order of Image Presentation U s i n g Form B 41 11 A N O V A Summary Table for a One-Factor Repeated Measures A N O V A for Image Processing Time as a Function of the Continuous Mode of Image Presentation for the Discontinuous/Continuous Order of Image Presentation U s i n g Form B 42 12 Total Image Processing Strategies Exhibited by Subjects 47 13 Strategies Reported in the Written Responses 49 14 Strategies Reported in the Written Responses as a Function of Progressive, Regressive, and Progressive/Regressive Results 50 15 Strategies Reported in the Written Responses as a Function of Mode Preference 51 vii LEST OF FIGURES Figure 1 Example of a Progressive Strategy 29 2 Example of a Regressive Strategy 30 3 Example of a Level Strategy : 30 4 Example of a Steady Strategy 31 5 Example of an Unsteady Strategy 31 6 Significant Interaction Between Mode and Order of Image Presentation 38 7 Composite Graph for Form A (Continuous/Discontinuous Order) ... 44 8 Composite Graph for Form B (Discontinuous/Continuous Order) ... 44 v i i i A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T S I would like to sincerely thank Dr. Ron MacGregor for offering me the opportunity to become involved in this study. He introduced me to the area of cognitive styles and his knowledge and brilliance guided and-inspired me in my academic studies. I am grateful for his support and concern. I would also like to express my appreciation to Dr. Theo Goldberg for his interest, energy, insights, and dedication which encouraged me to undertake this research. I am grateful to Dr. Harold RatzlafF for his advice on statistical procedures and whose rigorous approach to research design and keen intelligence kept me focused on the task at hand. i x CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY A) INTRODUCTION This study had its origins in the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRCC) funded research undertaken by Goldberg and MacGregor (1986). The focus of that research was on strategies developed by school age students in interpreting visual and melodic material. The larger frame for this study has been provided by Witkin (1962, 1977, 1979), Lovano-Kerr (1983), Vernon (1972), and others who have argued for the presence of a "cognitive style" in each individual that results in the development of a related group of problem-solving strategies (see also Copeland, 1984; Lachman, Lachman, & Butterfield, 1979). Research by Goldberg (1987) has produced evidence that subjects apply one of two general strategic approaches to the solution of visual and melodic tasks. In a separate study using only visual tasks, Bergland and MacGregor (1988) found that, for a small sample of subjects, strategy acquisition, rather than age, was a key element in success in separating signal from noise (or figure from ground), and that a particular strategy, discovered during one task, is likely to be preferred for subequent tasks, even if the content of the task is different. Goldberg's study (1987) identified two kinds of stategies used when visual and melodic material were presented to students of various ages. One group tended to "freeze" the melodic stimulus, to bring it into phase with slide material being presented; the other tended to "animate" the slide material, so bringing it into phase with the melodic stimulus. The 1 Introduction to the Study I 2 implications of these findings were that visual information may be acquired in two ways. The first way takes an incremental form; the image becomes progressively indentifiable as additional features are clarified or sharpened out of a flow of visual data. The second is more fragmentary; salient features of the image are scattered throughout an ambient array of visual material, and resolution is achieved through learning to ignore irrelevant intervening data. If Goldberg is correct, a new hypothesis is suggested that individuals should exhibit a preference for one or another mode of presentation. Those who tend to animate material are likely to prefer tasks involving continuously presented st imuli , while those who tend to "freeze" i t w i l l prefer discontinuously presented data. If Bergland and MacGregor are correct, that preference wi l l be reflected in consistently superior performance across one series of tasks, and less successful performance across a contrasting series, when those series present material in continuous and discontinuous modes. Since in investigating two modes of image presentation, the experience gained by the subject in the series of tasks presented in the first mode may influence performance on the series of tasks presented in the second mode, the order of image presentation was also investigated. B) S T A T E M E N T O F T H E P R O B L E M The research problem was to attempt to add confirmatory evidence to the inti t ial findings of Goldberg and Bergland & MacGregor. Two objectives governed the study. The first was to determine whether each subject's preference for one of two hypothesized general strategic approaches Introduction to the Study I 3 (animation, freezing) is manifested in shorter times taken on tasks presented in two different modes (continuous, discontinuous respectively). The second was to determine whether, having used a particular strategy to solve one task, subjects wi l l carry over that strategy when the task is presented as a series. C) PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The purpose of this research study was twofold: first, to determine the effect of the mode of image presentation (continuous and discontinuous) and the order of image presentation (continuous/discontinuous and discontinuous/continuous) on image processing time; second, to determine the effect on image processing time of serial presentation of the similar task. D) JUSTIFICATION Although much work has been done in the field of psychology in attempting to discover children's perceptual styles, little work has been done in confirming the persistence of perceptual strategies. The mode of image presentation used in this study may show how children use perceptual strategies in performing specific image processing tasks. In determining these strategies, groundwork will have been laid for further study in this area. By understanding the nature of the strategies entailed in perception, fundamental questions concerning perceptual style, cognitive style and art learning style can be intelligently formulated. E) RESEARCH HYPOTHESES Two kinds of research hypotheses were tested in the study-one set dealing Introduction to the Study I 4 with the effects of image presentation mode on image processing time, and the other with the effects of the same task when presented serially on image-processing time. For the purposes of performing a two-way analysis of variance for the effects of image presentation mode, the research problem was stated as three null hypotheses: Hi: There is no difference in mean scores (i. e. number of seconds taken to complete a task) between the two modes of image presentation. H2: There is no difference in mean scores between the two orders of image presentation. H3: There is no interaction between mode and order of image presentation. For the purpose of content analysis to determine the effect of similar tasks in a series, a fourth hypothesis was stated: H4 Subjects indentified as taking less time performing the same task in a 3-task series when images are presented in either mode (continuous or discontinuous)"will progressively improve their performance within that series. F) DESIGN OF THE STUDY 1) Sample Subjects were high school students between 13 and 19 years of age enrolled at New Westminster Secondary School i n New Westminster, Br i t i sh Columbia. Covering letters from the Principal (See Appendix A : Covering Introduction to the Study I 5 Letter) with Parental Consent Forms (See Appendix B: Parental Consent Form) were sent home with the students in four art classes. The fifty-nine students who returned the consent forms comprised the sample used in this study. As the Parental Consent Forms were returned, those who returned them first were placed into the first group (Form A), and those who returned them last into the second group (Form B). Thus students were randomly assigned to provide two groups. Images were presented first continuously, then discontinuously for the first group. This order of image presentation was reversed for the second group. 2) Setting A classroom environment was selected to allow for group testing. Subjects were seated in rows with a timekeeper in front of them, and a timer between subject and timekeeper. (See Appendix C: Layout of Instruments, Subjects, and Researcher) 3) Instruments The instruments consisted of a test booklet (See Appendix D: lestLBaoklet) for each subject, two GraLab Darkroom Timers, and a scoresheet (See Appendix E : Test Scoresheet) for each timekeeper. Each booklet contained an instruction sheet. In the first mode each set of images was contained on single sheets. In the second mode, each set was contained in series of three sheets. The modes of image presentation were on either a continuous ground or a discontinuous ground. A regular five-pointed star was selected as the target image (See Appendix F: Target Image) since it is constructed from intersecting straight Introduction to the Study I 6 horizontal and oblique lines. This construction made it suitable for embedding within a visual ground composed of a disorderly pattern of straight horizontal and oblique lines. The task for the subject was to disembed this target image from the visual ground (See Appendix G: Test Answers). A second reason for selecting this particular figure was its vertical axis of symmetry which made it suitable for the construction of a parallel form by flipping the figure on its axis. The research task called for the construction of parallel forms A and B (See Appendix D: Test Booklet) in two respects: 1) MODE OF IMAGE PRESENTATION [continuous (Form A) vs discontinuous (Form Al, A2, A3)]: the parallel forms should be the same except for mode of image presentation. In order to achieve this, these factors were held constant: a) the shape (regular five-pointed star), size (4.3 cm in height), and orientation (upright) of the target image, b) the number (three), type (one horizontal, one oblique), and position of lines overlapping the target image, c) the ratio of target image to area of embedding ground (one target image per 154 cm2 of ground), d) the relative position of the target image to the edges of the ground was chosen to be away from the edges and closer to the center of the visual ground where most subjects are Hkely to look (Bergland & MacGregor, 1988), e) the relative complexity of visual ground surrounding each target image (the density of disorderly lines Introduction to the Study I 7 surrounding each target image in Form A is relatively the same, although not identical; each target image in Forms A l , A2, and A3 is a horizontally mirrored section of Form A). 2) ORDER OF IMAGE PRESENTATION [continuous/discontinuous (Form A; A l , A2, A3) vs discontinuous/continuous (Form B l , B2, B3; B)]: the parallel forms should be the same except for the sequence of mode of image presentation. In order to achieve this, the B Forms were constructed as the horizontal mirror images of A Forms. Parallel forms for order of presentation were required to test for the possible confounding effect of order on mode of presentation. In order to meet the requirements for the construction of these parallel forms, an Apple® Macintosh™ computer was used with SuperPaint™ software to generate them. SuperPaint™ contains graphic tools for: a) the exact duplication of the target images, b) the extension of the horizontal and oblique lines of the target image into the ground, c) the addition of more horizontal and oblique lines to create a disorderly visual ground surrounding and embedding the target images, d) the selection of all or sections of a form for horizontal mirroring. Since it was possible to see through the white paper to the next form, a colored page was interleaved between the forms. Subjects were instructed when to turn over the white form with its underlying colored sheet and perform the Introduction to the Study I 8 next task. 4) Methods of Data Collection The fifty-nine students were group tested. Each student was exposed to three tasks in which the target image was presented in a continuous mode, and three in which the target image was presented in a discontinuous mode. In each case, the dependent variable was the recorded time required by the subject to disembed the target image from the disorderly visual ground, when presented in the two different modes. The times were recorded on specially prepared time sheets, and each subject subsequently responded in writing to the question, "How did you go about looking for the hidden stars?" 5) Methods of Data Analysis Analysis of the data was by two-way analysis of variance (two-way ANOVA) in a 2 (mode) x 2 (order) factorial design with repeated measures. The dependent variable was further analyzed in a one-way analysis of ' variance (one-way ANOVA) using the repeated measures across tasks. Content analyses were also performed on the tasks and mean scores across tasks and on the written responses. 6) Limitat ions This study was limited by a number of factors. The sample was taken from only one school. The fifty-nine subjects represent a relatively small number. No other tests were conducted with the subjects and the results from other standardized tests were not available. The study was also Introduction to the Study I 9 limited by the fact that scheduling for individual testing was impractical. Hence, group testing was used, requiring the use of student scorekeepers. The three-task series for each mode was of minimal length needed to establish a trend. ^ 7) Delimitations The intent of this study was to describe the responses of children to the perception of embedded figures. The study focused on the effect of the modes of image presentation in continuous and discontinuous grounds. The sequence (continuous/discontinuous) was reversed for the second group in order to determine any effects of the first set of tasks on the second. The study also focused on the effect of similar tasks in a series. 8) Definitions Since terms used in perceptual style research are often unique to the area, some of these were defined as follows: 1. Image processing: the encoding and retention of information from an image, including pattern recognition (Koroscik, 1982, p. 13). 2. Cognitive style: a pervasive dimension of individual functioning in perceptual, personality, and social domains, connected in its formation with the development of the organism as a whole (Lovano-Kerr, 1983, p. 196). 3. Continuous mode of image presentation: presentation of figures embedded in a connected or continuous ground. 4. Discontinuous mode of image presentation: presentation of figures embedded in a disconnected or discontinuous ground. 5. Field-dependence: the inability to perceive items as separate from Introduction to the Study I 10 the field in which they occur; inability to overcome an embedding context; the mode of dealing with a field globally (Lovano, 1970, p. 52). 6. Field-independence: the ability to perceive items as separate from the field in which they occur; the ability to overcome an embedding context; the mode of dealing with a field analytically (Lovano, 1970, p. 52). 9) Summary This chapter has 1) briefly reviewed the pertinent literature, 2) stated the research problem derived from previous research, 3) explained the purpose of the study, 4) provided justification for the study, 5) stated the research hypotheses, 6) and outlined the design of the study. C H A P T E R EL R E V I E W O F T H E L I T E R A T U R E A) I N T R O D U C T I O N This review of literature wi l l 1) briefly summarize the construct of cognitive style and its various categorizations, 2) briefly discuss Witkin's Theory of Psychological Differentiation and his nominal categorization of field dependence-independence, and its educational implications, 3) develop cognitive style profiles of the art student and teacher in terms of perceptual, personal, social, learning, artistic, teaching, and vocational styles, 4) draw implications for art education, 5) indicate some of the weaknesses of current research in perceptual styles, 6) briefly discuss Goldberg's categorization of animation/freezing and identify a test to relate it to Witkin's categorization. Of continuing interest in art education during the past four decades (Lowenfeld, 1945; Lovano-Kerr, 1983) and in the field of cognitive psychology during the past three decades (Witkin, Dyke, Faterson, Goodenough, & Karp, 1962; Goldberg, 1987) is the topic of cognitive styles and their categorizations. Since the Theory of Psychological Differentiation was advanced by Witkin and his colleagues over twenty-five years ago (Witkin et al., 1962) there has been much research to support the position that there exist individual differences in cognition. These differences in cognitive processes by which knowledge is acquired are considered to include perception, thought, memory, imagery (Fleming, 1977), and problem-solving (Lovano-Kerr, 1983). A basic construct of Witkin's theory is that these individual differences in 11 Review of the Literature I 12 j cognitive processes manifest themselves in characteristic behaviors which constitute a cognitive style. When referring to the sub-process of perception, these differences constitute a perceptual style. At least fifteen cognitive style categorizations have been investigated: 1) visual and haptic (Lowenfeld, 1945), 2) field dependence and field independence (Witkin, 1950; Witkin, Dyk, Faterson, Goodenough, & Karp, 1962; Witkin, Goodenough, & Oltman, 1979), 3) form bounded and form labile (Klein & Schlesinger, 1951), 4) leveling and sharpening (Klein, 1951; Santostefano, 1964), 5) scanning and focusing (Schlesinger, 1954; Gardner, Holzman, Klein, Linton, & Spence, 1959; Kagan, 1966)), 6) cognitive complexity and simplicity (Kelly, 1955; Harvey, Hunt, & Schroder, 1961; Bieri, 1966), 7) global-analytical-synthetic (Werner, 1957), 8) fixity and mobility (Haronian & Sugarman, 1967), 9) tolerance for unrealistic experiences (Gardner et al., 1959; Klein, Gardner, & Schlesinger, 1962), 10) conceptualizing styles (Kagan, Moss, & Sigel, 1963), 11) breadth of categorization (Kogan & Wallach, 1964), 12) constricted and flexible control-field articulation (Santostefano & Paley, 1964), 13) risk taking and cautiousness (Kogan & Wallach, 1964), 14) reflectivity and impulsivity (Kagan, Roseman, Day, Albert, & Phillips, 1964), 15) freezing and animation (Goldberg, 1987). The categorizations of interest in this study are Witkin's categorization of Review of the Literature I 13 field dependence and field independence, and Goldberg's categorization of animation and freezing. Since cognitive styles have been found to be stable over time and tasks, value free, and resistant to certain styles of training and change (Ausburn & Ausburn, 1978), and since there is sufficient evidence to suggest that Witkin's categorization affects how we tend to perceive, relate to others, learn, teach, and produce and respond to art (Lovano-Kerr, 1983, p. 196), its implications on art education are far-reaching. Applying the numerous research findings about cognitive styles (Witkin et al., 1977; Lovano-Kerr, 1983) to the art learning and teaching situation can result in summary profiles of the field dependent-independent art student and teacher. These profiles can describe perceptual, personal, social, learning, artistic, teaching, and vocational styles. For the sake of clarity, the general designation of field dependence as global, and field independence as analytical [or articulated] (Lovano, 1970; Witkin et al., 1962, p. 35), will be used in the following profiles. For the sake of readability, individual references for each finding used in these profiles have been omitted. Instead, the reader is directed to the summaries provided by Lovano-Kerr (1983) and Witkin et al (1977). B) P E R C E P T U A L S T Y L E S In the area of perceptual style according to Witkin et al, the global art student and teacher tend to perceive things globally, in wholes rather than in parts. They accept the visual field as it is; sample less fully from an array of cues; show a low ability to analyze and restructure their surroundings; and exhibit a correspondingly low ability to visually disembed figure from ground. Review of the Literature I 14 On the other hand, the analytical art student and teacher tend to perceive things analytically, in parts rather than in wholes; sample more fully from an array of cues; overcome the visual field through a high ability to analyze and restructure their surroundings; and exhibit a correspondingly high ability to visually disembed figures from ground. C) P E R S O N A L S T Y L E S In the area of personal style,Witkin and his followers would argue that the global art student and teacher tend to have a global body concept, use an external frame of self-reference, resulting in a connected, less autonomous sense of identity. On the other hand, the analytical art student and teacher tend to have a discrete body concept, use an internal frame of self-reference, resulting in a separate, more autonomous sense of identity. D) S O C I A L S T Y L E S According to Witkin, in the area of social style, the value-free tendencies are that the global art student and teacher tend to be relatively more interpersonal, warm, sociable, and physically close. On the other hand, the analytical art student and teacher tend to be relatively more impersonal, cold, non-sociable, and physically distant. E) L E A R N I N G S T Y L E S According to Witkin, in the area of learning style, the global art student tends to learn more rapidly from salient cues, show a low ability to take an idea out of context for restructuring, have more difficulty in learning Review of the Literature I 15 unorganized material, attend more to social content, and use a global or intuitive approach to problem-solving. Likewise, the global art student tends to take a more passive role in learning, profit from a more structured classroom environment, require more teacher step-by-step direction, respond more to externally defined goals and reinforcement, be more affected by teacher criticism, and view teachers with a similar global teaching style more positively. On the other hand, the analytical art student tends to learn more rapidly from abstract cues, show a high ability to take an idea out of context for restructuring, have less difficulty in learning unorganized material, attend more to abstract and theoretical content, and use an analytical or hypothesis-testing approach to problem-solving. Likewise, the analytical art student tends to take a more active role in learning, profit from a less structured classroom environment, require less teacher step-by-step direction, respond more to internally defined goals and reinforcement, be less affected by teacher criticism, and view teachers with a similar analytical teaching style more positively. F) ARTISTIC STYLES Using the terminology developed by Witkin, one might say that in the area of artistic style, the global art student and teacher tend to have low spatial restructuring ability (such as in drawing from observation which requires visually restructuring a complex three-dimensional array of objects onto a two-dimensional surface). Global students might produce still life and landscape drawings showing less structure, fewer details, and fewer spatial relationships; produce body concept drawings showing less Review of the Literature I 16 sophistication regarding the articulation of parts to the whole, details, and identifying features; and generally produce artwork in a more informal style. On the other hand, the analytical art student and teacher tend to have high spatial restructuring ability. Analytical students might produce still life and landscape drawings showing more structure, more details, and greater spatial relationships; produce body concept drawings showing more sophistication regarding the articulation of parts to the whole, details, and identifying features; and generally produce artwork in a more formal style. G) T E A C H I N G S T Y L E S In the area of teaching style, to draw upon Witkin's terms, the global art teacher tends to be more democratic and personal, use questions oriented towards personal understandings, use a student-centered class discussion approach, set up a more interpersonal classroom environment, show strength in establishing a warm and personal learning environment, and view students with a similar global learning style more positively. On the other hand, the analytical art teacher tends to be more autocratic and impersonal, use questions oriented towards content, use a teacher-centered lecture approach, set up a more impersonal classroom environment, show strength in organizing and guiding student learning, and view students with a similar analytical learning style more positively. H) V O C A T I O N A L S T Y L E S Review of the Literature I 17 According to Witkin, in the area of vocational style, the global art student tends to prefer people-centered jobs such as education and the humanities. On the other hand, the analytical art student tends to prefer idea-centered jobs such as art, music, and science. T) IMPLICATIONS F O R A R T E D U C A T I O N The implications for art education articulated by Lovano-Kerr (1983) and Witkin et al (1977) are that: 1) art teachers should find ways to account in their teaching style for student learning styles, 2) art teachers should find ways to help students to diversify their learning strategies, 3) art teachers should not allow a dissimilarity between teacher-student cognitive styles to prejudice how they Anew or evaluate students and student artwork. 4) art teachers should make students aware of how their cognitive style may influence their artistic style, 5) art teachers should make students aware of how their cognitive style may influence their vocational style. J) ANALYSIS O F R E S E A R C H INTO P E R C E P T U A L S T Y L E S Although much substantive research has been done regarding cognitive styles, many questions remain about how perceptual styles relate to the nature of perceptual strategies. In the visual arts, responding to art involves a perceptual decoding process before the viewer can gain meaning from it (Hagen, 1974). The viewer needs to perceive the qualities of the Review of the Literature I 18 whole work as well as perceive parts of this whole in relation to each other. In perceiving parts, the viewer must have the ability to separate a figure from its embedding ground. This ability involves the breaking up of an organized visual field in order to keep a part of it separate from the field. Within his Theory of Psychological Differentiation, Witkin's construct of field dependence and field independence implies two different modes of perception. The field-dependent perceptual mode deals mainly with the whole organization of the visual field. On the other hand, the field-independent perceptual mode deals mainly with the part as discrete from the ground of the visual field. Operationally, the manner in which students are able to perceptually disembed figures (indicating field-independence) or complete figures (indicating field-dependence) may be used to indicate a particular cognitive style. Typically, the research strategy used in most studies of cognitive style has involved identifying these style characteristics and applying tasks suited to one or the other. Tests have used tasks which presumably reflect the style being investigated, and the students are asked to perform to the best of their ability. For example, Witkin's Embedded Figures Test requires subjects to find the embedded figures as quickly as possible, and they are scored on their ability to do so. The intent is to test the limits of their perceptual abilities in order to categorize their cognitive styles. Wachtel (1972) has criticized this emphasis on tests of perceptual ability and points to the need to investigate individual perceptual strategies instead. Despite this kind of criticism, relatively little has been published on developing methods for measuring perceptual strategies. One of the Review of the Literature I 19 purposes of the present study was to demonstrate a measure in which individual perceptual strategies rather than abilities were the data of interest. Using this measure, subjects were tested on how they perceived rather than how well they could perceive. Two kinds of operations identified by Goldberg (1987) suggested a possible way to measure perceptual strategy. Goldberg noted that some students tended to freeze the melodic material to bring it into phase with visual images and that other students tended to animate visual images to bring them into phase with melodic material. This suggests that students who animated the melodic material perceived the material as a whole, and matched the whole melodic structure to the whole visual structure. On the other hand, students who froze the visual images perceived the material in parts, and matched parts of the visual structure to parts of the melodic structure. This whole/part distinction in perceiving images suggests that a corresponding whole/part distinction can also be made in presenting images. In other words, the mode of presenting images continuously as a whole or discontinously in parts might affect the corresponding modes of perceiving as wholes or in parts. The main reason for choosing Goldberg's nominal animation/freezing categorization for investigation was its independently derived similarity to the whole/part distinction that is found in the study of perception. Gestalt psychologists, for example, have historically theorized that forms are perceived as wholes before being broken down into constituent parts. On the other hand, Structurists have theorized that forms are perceived as parts before being built up into a whole. Review of the Literature / 20 Whole perception appears to be suggestive of a continuous mode of image presentation. If images are presented continuously without any perceptable break, a perceptual style such as a Goldberg's "animation" which uses a strategy of global apprehension characteristic of field-dependence would seem to be favored. Part perception, on the other hand, suggests a discontinuous mode of image presentation. If images are presented discontinuously with perceptable breaks between them, a perceptual style such as Goldberg's "freezing" which uses a strategy of analytical apprehension characteristic of field-independence would seem to be favored. Thus it would appear that recording instances of these two modes of image presentation would reveal a preference for either the animation or freezing styles of perception. The traditional cognitive style measure using embedded figures was chosen for the present study, since embedded figures could be presented in either a continuous or discontinuous ground. As well, embedded figures tests require the subject to separate the figure from ground, that is, the part from the whole. In short, if the whole/part distinction found in Witkin's field dependent-independent cognitive style categorization were reflected in the whole/part distinction found in Goldberg's animation/freezing categorization, then Goldberg's categorization would be supported as a related cognitive style categorization. The test used to relate the two categorizations in this study was an embedded figures test constructed by the researcher (See Appendix D: Test Booklet). K) SUMMARY Review of the Literature I 21 This review of literature has 1) briefly summarized the construct of cognitive style and its various categorizations, 2) briefly discussed Witkin's Theory of Psychological Differentiation and his categorization of field dependence-independence, and its educational implications, 3) developed cognitive style profiles of the art student and teacher in terms of perceptual, learning, artistic, teaching, social, personal, and vocational styles, 4) drawn implications for art learning and teaching, 5) indicated some of the weaknesses of current research in perceptual styles, and 6) discussed briefly Goldberg's categorization of animation/freezing and identified a test to relate it to Witkin's categorizations. C H A P T E R D X C O N D U C T O F T H E S T U D Y A) SAMPLE The art classes taught by the researcher were selected to be the population for this study (See Table 1 below). This comprised an Art 11 class of 23 students (Group 1), an Art 10 class of 24 students (Group 2), an Art 8 class of 25 students (Group 3), and a Photography 12 class of 24 students (Group 4). The final sample selection was made with the help of a Parental Consent Form (See Appendix B: Parental Consent Form). Out of the population of 96 students, 62% returned signed consent forms and were selected. Due to time limitations, the unpredictability of returns, the impracticality of individual testing, and the ability to fit only one test into each class period, it was decided to randomly assign the subjects according to when they returned the consent forms. Those who returned them first were placed into the first group (Form A), and those who returned them last into the second group (Form B). Although it would have been preferable to alternate between groups, this was not practical. Subjects were thus randomly assigned in a limited way to provide two groups. The researcher is aware of the possible bias resulting from the use of a parental consent form (Kearney, 1983). These are limitations on the validity of the study. 22 Conduct of 'the Study I 23 T A B L E 1: Sample Selection G R O U P P O P U L A T I O N S A M P L E % of GROUP SEX (Class) (Class Size) (Returns) M F Group 1 (Art 11) 23 19 83% 10 9 Group 2 (Art 10) 24 14 58% 6 8 Group 3 (Art 8) 25 7 28% 2 5 Group 4 (Photo 12) 24 19 79% 7 12 T O T A L S 96 59 62% 25 34 B) S E T T I N G The study was conducted in the researcher's classroom at New Westminster Secondary School. The subjects were tested during their regular class times (See Table 2 below). Since permission could not be obtained to conduct individual testing, group testing was used. This introduced intervening variables, due to the distraction from other subjects, which limit the validity of the data. T A B L E 2: Test Schedule G R O U P D A T E T I M E Group 1 Thursday, February 23, 1989 8:40 to 9:40 am (Art 11) Friday, February 24,1989 12:45 to 1:45 pm Group 2 Thursday, February 23,1989 9:50 to 10:50 am (Art 10) Tuesday, February 28,1989 12:45 to 1:45 pm Group 3 Thursday, February 23,1989 12:45 to 1:45 pm (Art 8) Monday, February 27,1989 10:05 to 11:20 am Group 4 Wednesday, February 22, 1989 9:50 to 10:50 am (Photo 12) Thursday, February 23,1989 8:40 to 9:40 am Conduct of the Study I 24 C) INSTRUMENTS Desks were placed in rows to facilitate data collection. The subjects sat in the back row while the student scorekeepers sat opposite them in the front row. A GraLab Darkroom Timer was placed on a shelf between the two rows in a central position so that the scorekeepers could see it easily. The scorekeepers were instructed to sit closely together in front of the timer so that they could read the time as accurately as possible. They were also instructed to sit well back from the subjects' desks so that they could not see the test forms since they would be performing a similar test on a subsequent day. (See Appendix C: Layout of Instruments, Subjects, and Researcher.) The researcher was positioned near one of the two timers so that he could control the setting of the timer to synchronize with the second timer controlled by a scorekeeper assigned to it. The test booklets were contained in a box so as to ensure a sequential order for each form. When instructed, the subjects picked up a form each in the order in which they happened to reach the box. D) PROCEDURE Once the researcher had collected returned Parental Consent Forms and identified the subjects to be tested during that session, the study began with the researcher giving standardized instructions (See Appendix H : Standardized Instructions). Each test session required approximately one hour. This procedure was followed for each group in two separate sessions. One half of each group acted as subjects while the other assumed the role of scorekeepers. The next session, their roles were reversed. Those who did not obtain parental consent carried on with their regular classroom assignments in an adjoining room. Conduct of the Study I 25 E) M E T H O D S O F D A T A C O L L E C T I O N Documentation of the procedure consisted of test, score and response sheets (See Appendix E : Test Scoresheet). The data were collected and times elapsed for each task were calculated (See Appendix I: Calculation Sheets) and tabulated. Unusable data were noted (See Appendix J : Data). Data from six subjects were discarded due to improper identification of the target image, and another three were discarded due to lack of proper identification within the time limit allowed. With these nine (15%) sets of data discarded from the original 59 sets, 50 sets remained. This resulted in 24 sets for Form A and 26 sets for Form B. Since the two-way A N O V A required a balanced set of data for the two Forms, the last two sets of data for Form B were not used, leaving a total of 48 sets, and providing a balanced set of 24 for each of Form A and Form B. In retrospect, the two sets of data to be left out should have been randomly selected. F) M E T H O D S O F D A T A A N A L Y S I S The data collected were described in terms of the standard deviations and means for each subject for each set of three tasks in each mode. Analysis of the means was by two-way analysis of variance (two-way ANOVA) in a 2 (mode) x 2 (order) factorial design with repeated measures. The dependent variable was further analyzed in a one-way analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA) using the repeated measures across tasks. Content analyses were also performed on the task and mean scores across tasks and on the written responses. G) P R E L I M I N A R Y T R I A L A N D P I L O T S T U D Y (induct of the Study I 26 A preliminary trial was conducted in January, 1989 involving a small selection of first semester students, not in the population to be tested, but in the same age group. The results of this trial showed that a reasonable time limit for the continuous presentation mode form was 15 minutes, and 5 minutes for each of the discontinuous presentation mode forms. It was discovered that the next form was vaguely visible through the white sheet of paper and required an interleaved colored sheet of paper between forms. A pilot study was conducted in late January, 1989 involving a small selection of first semester students, not in the population to be tested, but in the same age group. This study showed the need for a warmup exercise for the student scorekeepers (See Appendix K: Scorekeepers Warmup Exercise). The time limits were confirmed to be reasonable. The actual study was conducted in the second semester. H) SUMMARY This chapter has described the 1) sample used in the study, 2) setting for the study, 3) how the instruments were used, 4) procedure, 5) methods of data collection, 6) methods of data analysis, 7) and preliminary trial and pilot studies. C H A P T E R IV. ANALYSIS A N D I N T E R P R E T A T I O N O F T H E R E S U L T S A) I N T R O D U C T I O N The first purpose of this research study was to determine whether each subject's preference for one of two hypothesized general strategic approaches (animation, freezing) was manifested in shorter times taken on tasks presented in two different modes (continuous, discontinuous) requiring use of the respective preferred strategy. The second was to determine whether, having used a particular strategy to solve one task, subjects would carry over that strategy in solving similar tasks in a series. 1) Statistical Analyses of the Data The experimental design was a 2 (mode) x 2 (order) factorial design with repeated measures. The first factor (independent variable) was the order of image presentation (Form A: continuous/discontinuous; Form B: discontinuous/continuous). The second factor (independent variable) was the mode of image presentation (continuous or discontinuous). The dependent variable was the image processing time scored in seconds for each task. The dependent variable was analyzed in a two-way analysis of variance (two-way ANOVA) in a 2 (mode) x 2 (order) factorial design with repeated measures. The Stat View 512+ statistical program was used for the analyses. There were 24 subjects in each mode by order cell. The dependent variable was further analyzed in a one-way analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA) using the repeated measures across tasks. 27 Analysis and Interpretation of the Results I 28 Results of both analyses were tested for statistical significance at the .05 level. 2) Content Analyses of the Graphs To provide furtheT details and confirmation of the statistical analyses, content analyses were performed on the collected data. Graphs were generated for each subject using individual y-axis scales to show the slopes of the graphs more effectively. Each mode (continuous and discontinuous) represented in these graphs was treated separately. The mean scores (MeanC, MeanD) for each mode (See Appendix L: Task Scores and Mode Means) were first compared to determine a preference for the continuous mode (See Appendix M : Subject Graphs Showing a Preference for the Continuous Mode) or the discontinuous mode (See Appendix N: Subject Graphs Showing a Preference for the Discontinuous Mode). Subjects who showed a lower mean score in either the continuous or discontinuous mode were identified as showing a preference for that mode. Then the graphs for each mode were further analyzed for declivity and acclivity of the slopes for each of the three tasks in a series. Declivity was typified as indicating a progressive image processing strategy since it showed that the subject took less time to perform the last task than the first task in each series (See Figure 1). Acclivity was typified as indicating a regressive strategy since it showed that the subject took more time to perform the last task than the first task in each series (See Figure 2). A level slope between first and last scores indicated neither a progressive nor regressive strategy (See Figure 3) . Each strategy type was then further analyzed to determine if the strategy showed steady (See Figure 4) or unsteady (See Figure 5) trends. Graphs Analysis and Interpretation of the Results I 29 which showed that the subject took more and more time, or less and less time, to perform the serial tasks were typified as steady. Graphs which showed more, then less; or less, then more time to perform the serial tasks was typified as unsteady. FIGURE 1: Example of a Progressive Strategy 55 FORM A (Subject Number A30) 5CU 45- • in 40 ^  •a o u 35-<s c 30^ • ca £ 25-i— 20^ • 15- O o 10. •Progressive • Progressive 5 °1 ° 2 Continuous Mode °3 °4 ° 5 °6 Discontinuous Mode Analysis and Interpretation of the Results I 30 FIGURE 2: Example of a Regressive Strategy FORM B (Subject Number B15) 500-• Regressive • Regressive O 400- / "O c / In sect 300. / £ 200. / i— 100-o / °1 ° 2 °3 Discontinuous Mode °4 °5 °6 Continuous Mode FIGURE 3: Example of a Level Strategy 250 FORM A (Subject Number A07) 225^ 200. • CO \75. <= a 150. Time in sec 125^  100. 75^  50. 25-o' Regressive \ • Level K — — n _n -25 °1 ° 2 Continuous Mode ° 3 °4 °5 Discontinuous Mode °6 Analysis and Interpretation of the Results I 31 FIGURE 4: Example of a Steady Strategy 80 FORM A (Subject Number A04) 70-(A 60. In second: 50. 40. Time 30. 20-10-o • Progressive-steady \y Regressive-unsteady °1 ° 2 ° 3 Continuous Mode °4 ° 5 °6 Discontinuous Mode FIGURE 5: Example of a Unsteady Strategy 300 FORM a (Subject Number B i n 250-• Regressive-unsteady • Progressive-unsteady in 200. w C Q U at in 150- • c Time 100-50. o • -50 °1 ° 2 Discontinuous Mode °3 °4 °5 °6 Continuous Mode Analysis and Interpretation of the Results I 32 The results of this content analysis are summarized in Tables 3 and 4 below: T A B L E 3: Summary of Content Analysis for Graphs Showing a Preference for the Continuous Mode: Image Processing Strategy Number of Subjects Mode Preference Type ORDER of Image Presentation Subtotals Total 1/2 for Final Total Form A Form B Cont Disc Disc Cont Continuous Progressive Steady 0 0 0 4 4 6 14 7 Unsteady 0 0 1 1 2 Level Steady 0 0 0 0 0 1 Unsteady 0 0 1 0 1 Regressive Steady 0 0 1 1 2 7 Unsteady a 0 4 1 5 Subtotals Total 1 /2 for Final Total 0 0 7 7 0 14 14 7 T A B L E 4: Summary of Content Analysis for Graphs Showing a Preference for the Discontinuous Mode: Image Processing Strategy Number of "Subjects " Mode Preference Type ORDER of Image Presentation Subtotals Total 1/2 for Final Total Form A Form B Cont Disc Disc Cont Discontinous Progressive Steady 5 8 3 2 18 41 82 41 Unsteady 6 9 5 3 23 Level Steady 0 0 0 0 0 2 Unsteady 1 1 0 0 2 Regressive Steady 4 1 1 3 9 39 Unsteady 8 5 8 9 30 Subtotals Total 1 /2 for Final Total 24 24 17 17 48 34 82 41 Analysis and Interpretation of the Results I 33 3) Content Analyses of the Written Responses To determine the details about the nature of strategies used, content analyses were also performed on the written responses to the question, "How did you go about looking for the hidden stars?" These responses were grouped into three main categories of image processing strategy: global (looking for the whole star), analytical (looking for a part of the star), and combined (using both strategies). For example, "I just looked at the page and the star jumped out" was categorized as global. "I looked for the top point of the star" was categorized as analytical. "Some stars just popped out at me...for others, I looked along the horizontal line to find the top triangle" was categorized as combined. Two research hypotheses were tested in the study—one dealing with the effects of image presentation mode on image processing time, and the other with the effects of similar tasks in a series on image processing time. Accordingly, the findings of the study are reported under the following headings for each type of analysis: 1. Effect of image presentation mode. 2. Effect of similar tasks in a series. B) S T A T I S T I C A L A N A L Y S I S O F T H E E F F E C T O F I M A G E P R E S E N T A T I O N M O D E 1) Procedure The mean score (MeanC) [See Appendix L: Task Scores and Mode Means] of the three tasks combined (Ti, T2, T3) presented in the continuous mode Analysis and Interpretation of the Results / 34 was calculated. Likewise, the mean score (MeanD) of the three tasks (T4, T5, T6) presented in the discontinuous mode was calculated. These means were used as an estimate of each person's time for each mode respectively and used as each person's score, respectively, in performing the two-way ANOVA. The cell means and standard deviations resulting from the two-way A N O V A (See Appendix 0: Descriptive Cell Data for the Two-Way ANOVA) for each cell and task are summarized in Tables 5 and 6 below. T A B L E 5: Means and Standard Deviations for Each Cell: MODE OF IMAGE PRESENTATION A 1 Continuous Discontinuous Form A X 120.33 14.71 67.52 ORDER OF IMAGE (Continuous/ Discontinuous) s 86.07 14.61 84.50 PRESENTATION B 2 Form B X 67.88 46.67 57.27 (Discontinuous/ s 51.55 40.34 70.31 Continuous) X 94.10 30.69 62.40 s 75.03 34.08 54.56 Analysis and Interpretation of the Results I 35 TABLE 6: Means and Standard Deviations for Each Task: MODE OF IMAGE PRESENTATION A 1 *2 Continuous Discontinuous Ti u T 5 TOTAL o £ Form A X 81.88 142.33 137.29 17.88 16.17 10.17 67.52 (Continuous/ a! Discontinuous) a. s 94.65 145.30 205.21 26.93 20.63 1427 84.50 UJ S B 2 ~ Form B X 53 .SO 46.29 101.58 11.67 95.17 33.00 5727 ° (Discontinuous/ £5 Continuous) s 64.37 46.67 121.45 23.75 103.39 6223 70.31 o X 68.69 94.31 119.44 14.77 55.67 2158 62.40 TOTAL s 81.17 117.27 167.78 25.31 83.86 46.13 54.56 X 94.10 30.69 62.40 TOTAL s 75.03 34.08 54.56 (Also see Appendix P: Summary Tables for Means and Standard Deviations for Each Task) Analysis and Interpretation of the Results I 36 Three null hypotheses were formulated to test the effects of presentation order and mode of image processing time: H ; : There is no difference in mean scores (i.e. number of seconds) between the two modes of image presentation. H2: There is no difference in mean scores (i.e. number of seconds) between the two orders of image presentation. H5: There is no interaction between mode and order of presentation. The two-way A N O V A of the dependent variable revealed no significant main effect for order of presentation, (Le. F.95( 1,46) = 0.71). Since the critical F-ratio of 4.07 was more than the observed value of 0.71, i t was statistically non-significant and the null hypothesis was accepted. The probability that the sample means could have occurred due to random sampling fluctuation, i f the null hypothesis was true, was more than .05. Since the null hypothesis was accepted, it was concluded that the population means are equal. Results of the two-way A N O V A are presented in Table 7. T A B L E 7: ANOVA Summary Table for a Two-Factor Repeated Measures ANOVA for Image Processing Time as a Function of Mode and Order of Image Presentation: Source: df: Sum of Squares: Mean Square: F-test: P value: Order (A) 1 2521.5 2521.5 .71 .4039 -subjects w. groups 46 163444.458 3553.14 Mode (B) 1 96520.167 96520.167 40.209 .0001 AB 1 42757.042 42757.042 17.812 .0001 B x subjects w. groups 46 1 10421.792 2400.474 Analysis and Interpretation of the Results I 37 However, the modes (i.e. continuous vs discontinuous) of image presentation were not equally effective. The mean number of seconds taken to complete the tasks by persons using the continuous mode was different (i.e., higher) from that for the discontinuous mode (F=40.21, df:l,4Q). The critical value was F=4.07. Hence p<.05 and the null hypothesis is rejected. Since the null hypothesis was rejected, it was concluded that the population means were not equal. The modes of presentation were not equally effective, and it can be concluded that subjects required less time when processing images in the discontinuous mode than the continuous mode. This two-way A N O V A also revealed a statistically significant interaction, that is, the combined effect of the independent variables of mode and order on the dependent variable, F.95(l,46) = 4.07, p = .05. Since the computed F-ratdo of 17.81 was more than the critical value of 4.07, it was statistically significant and the null hypothesis was rejected. The probability that the pattern of sample means could have occurred due to random sampling fluctuation, if the null hypothesis was true, was less than .05. Since the null hypothesis was rejected, it was concluded that there was an interaction between mode and order of presentation (See Figure 6 below). The direction of interaction was that subjects using Form A (continuous/discontinuous order) showed lower scores on the discontinuous mode, and those using Form B (discontinuous/continuous order) showed lower scores on the continuous mode. Analysis and Interpretation of the Results / 38 FIGURE 6: Significant Interaction Between Mode and Order of Image Presentation: IMAGE PROCESSING TIME (seconds) 1 \ } ORDER 46.7 MODE FORM B (Discontinuous/ Continuous Order) 14.7 FORM A (Continuous/ Discontinuous Order) Continuous Discontinuous MODE OF IMAGE PRESENTATION 2) Summary of Results There was a statistically significant mean difference between the two modes of image presentation: continuous and discontinuous. However, the order of image presentation (continuous/discontinuous or discontinuous/ continuous) was not significant, while the interaction between mode and order of presentation was significant. Analysis and Interpretation of the Results I 39 C) STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECT OF SIMILAR TASKS IN A SERIES 1) Procedure One null hypothesis was formulated to test the effect of similar tasks in a series on image processing time: H 4 : There is no difference in mean scores between repeated measures within each mode by order cell. The calculated observation scores using Forms A and B (Oi, 02, O3, O4, O5, Oe) were assigned task designations (Tl, T2, T3) for tasks presented in the continuous mode, and (T4, T5, Te) for tasks presented in the discontinuous mode (See Appendix Q: Data for the One-Way ANOVA). A one-way A N O V A was performed on this data across tasks in each mode for each order (Form A, Form B). The one-way A N O V A of the dependent variable revealed no significant main effect for similar tasks of disembedding the image when presented in the continuous mode in a three-task series (See Table 8 below), F.95(2,23) = 3.42, p - .05. Since the computed F-ratio of 1.08 within subjects was less than the critical value of 3.42, it was statistically not significant and the null hypothesis H 4 was accepted. Since the null hypothesis was accepted, it was concluded that the population means were all equal. There was no significant difference in mean scores among repeated measures. Analysis and Interpretation of the Results I 40 T A B L E 8: ANOVA Summary Table for a One-Factor Repeated Measures ANOVA for Image Processing Time as a Function of the Continuous Mode of Image Presentation for the Continuous/Discontinuous Order of Image Presentation using Form A* Source: df: Sum of Squares: Mean Square: F-test: P value: Between tasks 23 51 1098.667 22221.681 .887 .6135 Within subjects 48 1203077.333 25064.1 1 1 treatments 2 54013.083 27006.542 1.081 .3477 residual 46 1 149064.25 24979.658 Total 71 1714176 Reliability Estimates for- All treatments: -.128 Single Treatment: -.039 These results are similar for the other cells as well (See Tables 9 and 10 below) except for the cell where the image was presented in the continuous mode in the discontinuous/continuous order (See Table 11 below). Since the computed F-ratio of 8.82 within subjects is more than the critical value of 3.42, it was statistically significant and the null hypothesis was rejected. (Also see Appendix R: One-way A N O V A Summary Tables.) Analysis and Interpretation of the Results I 41 T A B L E 9: ANOVA Summary Table for a One-Factor Repeated Measures ANOVA for Image Processing Time as a Function of the Discontinuous Mode of Image Presentation for the Cont inuous /Discont inuous Orde r of Image Presentation using Form A ; Source: df: Sum of Squares: Mean Square: F-test: P value: Between tasks 23 14703.319 639.275 1.781 .0461 Within subjects 48 17230.667 358.972 treatments 2 786.694 393.347 1.1 .3414 residual 46 16443.972 357.478 Total 71 31933.986 Reliability Estimates for- All treatments: .438 Single Treatment: .207 T A B L E 10: ANOVA Summary Table for a One-Factor Repeated Measures ANOVA for Image Processing Time as a Function of the Discontinuous Mode of Image Presentation for the Discont inuous /Cont inuous Orde r of Imase Presentation using Form B : Source: df: Sum of Squares: Mean Square: F-test: P value: Between tasks 23 183720.542 7987.85 1.1 18 .3623 Within subjects 48 343037.333 7146.61 1 treatments 2 42125.083 21062.542 3.22 .049-1 residual 46 300912.25 6541.571 Total 71 526757.875 Reliability Estimates for- All treatments: .105 Single Treatment: .038 Analysis and Interpretation of the Results I 42 TABLE 11: ANOVA Summary Table for a One-Factor Repeated Measures ANOVA for Image Processing Time as a Function of the Continuous Mode of Image Presentation for the Discontinuous/Continuous Order of Image Presentation using Form B: Source: df: Sum of Squares: Mean Square: F-test: P value: Between tasks 2 3 1 1 2 4 1 3 . 1 1 1 4 8 8 7 . 5 2 7 . 7 2 . a o 17 Within subjects 4 8 3 2 5 8 0 4 6 7 8 7 . 5 8 3 treatments 2 9 0 3 3 6 . 4 4 4 4 5 1 6 8 . 2 2 2 8 . 8 2 4 . 0 0 0 6 residual 4 6 2 3 5 4 6 7 . 5 5 6 5 1 1 8 . 8 6 Total 7 1 4 3 8 2 1 7 . 1 1 1 Reliability Estimates for- All treatments: - . 3 8 9 Single Treatment: - . 1 0 3 2) Results and Interpretation The findings in regard to the effect of similar tasks in a series were interpreted with caution. Since the data show very low 'reliabilities' and a lack of homogeneity of variance (See Appendix P: Summary Tables for Means and Standard Deviations for Each Task), the underlying assumptions of the analysis have been violated. Although the main effect of similar tasks in a series was not statistically significant, there was a significant effect where the image was presented in the continuous mode in the discontinuous/continuous order, which indicated that this series of tasks was affected by the series of tasks which preceded it. 3) Summary There was no statistically significant effect of similar tasks in a series in general. However, there was a significant effect when tasks were presented in the continuous mode in the discontinuous/continuous order. Therefore, this null hypothesis was accepted. Analysis and Interpretation of the Results I 43 D) C O N T E N T A N A L Y S I S O F T H E G R A P H S F O R T H E E F F E C T O F I M A G E P R E S E N T A T I O N M O D E 1) Procedure For the purpose of content analysis, the hypotheses were restated: H i Subjects will take less time performing tasks when images are presented in the continuous mode than in the discontinuous mode or vice versa. H2 Subjects will take less time performing tasks when images are presented in the second set of three tasks than in the first set of three tasks. H3 Subject scoring results will be different in both orders of image presentation depending on the mode of image presentation 2) Results and Interpretation The first hypothesis was designed to test for any significant mode preference. As shown in Tables 3 and 4, the number of subjects showing a preference for the continuous mode was 7 compared to 41 for the discontinuous mode. This confirms the findings of the two-way A N O V A which yielded a mean score of 94.1 for the continuous mode and 30.7 for the discontinuous mode. It appears that most subjects (41 subjects out of 48) found tasks presented in the discontinuous mode much easier to perform (30.7 compared to 94.1 seconds). This difference was also found to be statistically significant. Therefore, this hypothesis was accepted. The second hypothesis was designed to test for any significant order preference. This can be determined by examining the composite graphs for each order Analysis and Interpretation of the Results I 44 (Form A, Form B) presented below in Figures 7 and 8. F I G U R E 7: Composite Graph for Form A (Continuous IDiscontinuous Order): Hypothesis 2 (FORM A) OAOI DA02 A A 0 3 OA04 + AOS JCA06 » A 0 7 BA08 AAIO *AI2 0)AI4 DAIS HA17 VA18 TA19 *A20 OA21 DA22 AA23 OA24 + A25 XA27 «A2a BA30 900-•o c o <_> <p UJ C <9 Continuous Mode Discontinuous Mode F I G U R E 8: Composite Graph for Form B (Discontinuous/Continuous Order): Hypothesis 2 (FORM B) OBOi DB02 AB03 OB04 +305 XB06 « B 0 7 BB08 AB09 •BIO 0)B11 DS13 BB14 VB15 TB16 OB17 O B t a CJ819 AB20 OB21 + B22 XB23 • B 2 4 T I B 2 5 900. Discontinuous Mode Continuous Mode Analysis and Interpretation of the Results / 45 A comparison of the graphs shows that times needed to perform the tasks were generally lower for Form B than for Form A. However, quantitative analysis using the two-way A N O V A showed that this difference was not significant. Therefore, this hypothesis was rejected. The third hypothesis was designed to test for any interaction between mode and order. As shown in Table 3 more subjects (7 compared to 0) showed a preference for the continuous mode when this mode was presented last as in From B. Likewise, as shown in Table 4, more subjects (24 compared to 17) showed a preference for the discontinuous mode when this mode was also presented last as in Form A. Subjects who preferred one mode over the other showed this preference more strongly when that mode was presented last in order. This confirms and clarifies the findings of the two-way A N O V A which revealed a statistically significant interaction between mode and order. Therefore, this hypothesis is accepted. 3) Summary The large differences in mean scores between the two modes of image presentation were statistically significant. The effect of order of image presentation was not significant. Subjects who preferred one mode over the other showed this preference more strongly when that mode was presented last in order. Analysis and Interpretation of the Results I 46 E) C O N T E N T ANALYSIS O F T H E G R A P H S F O R T H E E F F E C T O F SIMILAR T A S K S IN A SERIES 1) Procedure For the purpose of content analysis, the hypothesis to determine the effect of similar tasks in a series was restated: H 4 Subjects indentified as taking less time performing the same task in a 3-task series when images are presented in either mode (continuous or discontinuous) will progress steadily within that series. This hypothesis was designed to test for any steady progression (as explained in the introduction to this chapter) in the preferred mode of image presentation. Therefore, the results in Table 3 were used to calculate the number of students using each image processing strategy whether in or out of their preferred mode (See Table 12 below). The data for both preferred modes were combined. Since the data included subjects who performed with one strategy for the first three tasks and with another strategy for the second three tasks, each subject was entered twice. In calculating the number of subject scores from the scores for each half of the whole task, the totalled strategy instances were divided in half, resulting in .5 figures for some of the numbers of subjects. Analysis and Interpretation of the Results I 47 T A B L E 12: Total Image Processing Strategies Exhibited by Subjects: Image Processing Strategy Total Number of Subjects Type Steadiness Preferred Mode Total % IN O U T Progressive Steady 7.5 3.5 11.0 22.9 Unsteady 7.5 5.0 12.5 26.0 Level Steady 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Unsteady 0.5 1.0 1.5 3.1 Regressive Steady 1.5 4.0 5.5 11.5 Unsteady 7.0 10.5 17.5 36.5 T O T A L S 24.0 24.0 48.0 100.0 2) Results and Interpretation As shown in Table 12, 7.5 out of a total of 48 subjects (15.6%) progressed steadily when performing the 3-task series in their preferred mode. An additional 3.5 progressed steadily out of their preferred mode (7.3%) for a total of 22.9% who progressed steadily. The remaining subjects either progressed unsteadily (26%), showed a level unsteady strategy (3.1%), regressed steadily (11.5%), or regressed unsteadily (36.5%). 3) Summary The hypothesis that subjects will show steady progression when performing similar tasks in a three-task series in their preferred mode of image presentation was rejected, since only 15.6% of the subjects exhibited this in their scores. This result was consistent with those from the one-way A N O V A where generally no statistically significant effect was found for Analysis and Interpretation of the Results I 48 similar tasks in a series. F) C O N T E N T ANALYSIS O F T H E W R I T T E N R E S P O N S E S R E G A R D I N G S T R A T E G I E S 1) Procedure After the test, subjects were asked to respond in writing to the question, "How did you go about looking for the hidden stars?" To determine the details about the nature of strategies reported, content analyses were performed on these written responses (See Appendix S: Written Responses). These responses were grouped into three main categories of image processing strategy: global (looking for the whole star), analytical (looking for a part of the star), and combined (using both strategies). For example, "I looked for the top point of the star" was categorized as analytical. "I just looked at the page and the star jumped out" was categorized as global. "Some stars just popped out at me...for others, I looked along the horizontal line to find the top triangle" was categorized as combined. These results are summarized in Table 13 below. To determine if these three categories related to achievement in terms of the progressive, regressive, and combined progressive/regressive results indicated on the subject graphs (See Tables 3 and 4), these data were matched (See Table 14 below). To determine if these three categories related to mode preference as also shown in Tables 3 and 4, these data were also matched (See Table 15 below). Analysis and Interpretation of the Results I 49 2) Results and Interpretation T A B L E 13: Strategies Reported in the Written Responses: Category Percentage Global 13% Combined 31% Analytical 56% Top triangle 26.0% 16% Multiple 15.0% 8% Scanning 15.0% 8% Pentagon 15.0% 8% Lines 11.0% 6% Angle 11.0% 6% Parallel Diagonals 3.5% 2% Triangles 3.5% 2% T O T A L 100% 56% T O T A L 100% The results in Table 13 above show that the most commonly reported category was the analytical (56%). This strategy included using various parts of the target image (top triangle, pentagon, angle, triangle) or ground (scanning, lines, parallel diagonals). As well, multiple analytical strategies were reported. The least commonly reported category was the global (13%). In between these two categories was the combined (31%). T A B L E 14: Analysis and Interpretation of the Results / 50 Strategies Reported in the Written Responses as a Function of Progressive, Regressive, and Progressive IRegressive Results: Category Progressive Prog/Regr Regressive Total % Global Combined Analytical 2 3 5 3 9 17 1 3 5 6 15 27 13% 31% 56% T O T A L 10 29 9 P E R C E N T A G E 21% 60% 19% 48 100% 100% Top triangle 0 Multiple 1 Scanning 3 Pentagon 1 Lines 0 Angle 0 Parallel Diag 0 Triangles 0 6 3 1 3 2 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 2 1 0 7 4 4 4 3 3 1 1 16% 8% 8% 8% 6% 6% 2% 2% T O T A L 5 17 5 P E R C E N T A G E 10.5% 35% 10.5% 27 56% 56% The results from Table 14 indicate that the three main strategy categories were none more effective than another in producing progressive (-20%), regressive (-20%), and combined progressive/regressive (-60%) results. T A B L E 15: Analysis and Interpretation of the Results I 51 Strategies Reported in the Written Responses as a Function of Mode Preference: C A T E G O R Y M O D E P R E F E R E N C E Continuous Mode Discontinuous Mode Total Global 1 5 6 Combined 1 14 15 Analytic 5 22 27 T O T A L 7 41 48 The results in Table 15 above show that subjects who reported using the global strategy did not prefer the continuous mode (1 vs 5) contrary to what was predicted in Chapter 1, but subjects who reported using the analytic strategy did prefer the discontinuous mode (22 vs 5) consistent with what was predicted in Chapter 1. 3) Summary The written responses report three main image processing strategies: global, analytical, and combined. Although it should be noted that these written responses were incidental to the study, and there is some doubt that all subjects were able to accurately verbalize the strategies that they used, they do provide some interesting results. These three strategies seemed to be equally effective or ineffective in achieving progressive, regressive, or combined progressive/regressive results. These findings are consistent with those of other researchers investigating cognitive styles (Witkin et al, 1977) in that Witkin found that academic achievement was unaffected by Analysis and Interpretation of the Results I 52 cognitive style. Subjects who reported using the global strategy did not prefer the continuous mode as predicted, but those who reported using the analytic strategy did prefer the discontinuous mode as predicted. CHAPTER V. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS In this chapter the findings reported in Chapter IV are discussed and evaluated and possible implications for art education are presented. Conclusions drawn from the study are reported and implications for further research are proposed. The research problem was to attempt to add confirmatory evidence to the initial findings by Goldberg (1987) and Bergland & MacGregor (1988). Therefore two objectives governed the study. The first objective was to determine whether each subject's preference for one of two hypothesized general strategic approaches (freezing, animation) is manifested in shorter times taken on tasks presented in two different modes (discontinuous, continuous) requiring use of the respective preferred strategy. It was predicted that subjects who used a freezing (analytical) strategy would show a preference for the discontinuous mode and subjects who used an animation (global) strategy would prefer the continuous mode. The order of image presentation was also investigated to check for any confounding effect of better scores on the last set of three tasks due to experience gained from performing the first set of three tasks. The second objective was to determine whether, having used a particular strategy to solve one task, subjects would carry over that strategy in solving similar tasks in a series. The present study was designed to answer two questions: 1) is there a difference in image processing time when the image is presented in either a continuous or a discontinuous mode? 53 Summary and Conclusions I 54 2) is there a difference in image processing time when performing similar tasks in a series? 1) THE EFFECT OF IMAGE PRESENTATION MODE The effect of image presentation mode was statistically significant. At first glance, this finding seems to be consistent with the findings of Goldberg, and appears to give some support to the notion that his animation/freezing categorization may be related to Witkin's global/analytical categorization. However, there was a significant interaction between presentation mode and order, showing that subjects who preferred one mode over the other showed this preference more strongly when that mode was presented last in order. Therefore, this support is not strong since the effect of presentation mode was confounded by the effect of presentation order even though order was not a significant factor by itself. It should be noted that Goldberg used visual and melodic tasks, whereas this study used only visual tasks. The available technology did not permit the construction of test material that might provide a direct parallel between a musical mode (continuous) and a visual mode (discontinuous). The test materials must therefore be regarded as a compromise that may have provided two kinds of discontinuous measure, rather than a true continuous/discontinuous dichotomy. Some doubt exists on whether the construct of continuous/discontinuous ground is congruent with continuous/discontinuous presentation and Goldberg's animation/ freezing categorization. 2) THE EFFECT OF SIMILAR TASKS IN A SERIES Summary and Conclusions I 55 The hypothesis that subjects will show steady progression when performing similar tasks in a three-task series in their preferred mode of image presentation was rejected since only 15.6% of the subjects exhibited this in their scores. Steady and unsteady strategies resulting in progressive ability accounted for 48.9%, compared to total regressive strategies which accounted for 48.0%. (Total level strategies accounted for the remaining 3.1%. See Table 11). The distinction between steady and unsteady progression may be inappropriate since the three-task series used in this study is only of the minimum length needed to establish a trend. It may be that the differences between steady and unsteady strategies simply represent differences in time taken to "lock on" to a strategy. Had they been given longer or even open-ended task series, steadiness of progression might well be established for a greater number. The Bergland & MacGregor study (1988) used an open-ended task series in which subjects revealed increasing ability to perform more successfully as the study progressed, with a persistent strategy being used after an initial trying out of other strategies. Other intervening factors may be that some subjects simply lost interest in the task after the first few trials, yielded to the distractions inherent in the group setting, or lacked the motivation to perform the tasks seriously. Results of the present study can only suggest that subjects were just as likely to progress or regress in performing the similar visual tasks in a short three-task series. The difficulty in finding an initial effective strategy may also relate to the diversity of strategies reported. Since a complex visual task may be approached in a variety of ways, subjects seem initially to choose strategies by chance rather than by design, often trying many strategies in the Summary and Conclusions I 56 process. The results may therefore be affected by an initial random choice between effective or ineffective strategies. Other contributing factors may be the time it takes for the subject to find a new strategy, or to the time elapsed while the subject tries out many strategies. Therefore, the results may only indicate that subjects undergo an initial period of exploration before settling on a persistent strategy which will eventually lead to steady improvement or progression. The results from the written responses indicate that no one strategy (global, analytical, combined) was more effective than another. However, this assumes that students who tended to be global (field-dependent) in their approach to perception were able to exhibit this tendency in the tasks presented. This assumption is based on the premise that any passive approach reflects a global approach; that the looking for the whole star ("I just sit and wait for it to pop out at me") approach is in fact a global strategy. It might be argued that in this study, the disembedding tasks that characterized continuous and discontinuous presentation modes are variants of a single task in which global approaches are disadvantaged. Can an analytical task be approached globally? Further, what kind of global strategy applies to a disembedding task? Looking for the whole star and looking for part of the star can be seen to be both analytical strategies. If this is the case, the apparent results showing a stronger preference for the discontinuous mode are not surprising, since they really just reflect the analytical nature of the task rather than the analytical tendencies of the subjects. The globally-oriented subjects were then unable to exhibit their global tendencies since the task was not designed to measure them. Figure Summary and Conclusions I 57 completion tests, not figure disembedding tests, are designed to measure these global tendencies (Witkin et al, 1977). The nature of this study also provided no method of checking on whether the written responses of the students were accurate accounts of their strategies. It is open to the criticism that differences in ability to verbalize strategies rather than the strategies actually adopted resulted in spurious distinctions being made between strategies. 3) SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND IMPLICATIONS FOR ART EDUCATION While this study has yielded a certain amount of information on how one sample of children was affected by presentation mode and similar tasks in a series, the original questions which prompted it remain to some extent unanswered. The effect of image presentation mode on image processing time has been shown to be statistically significant. This result gives some supporting evidence of an animation/freezing categorization (Goldberg, 1987) to perceptual style. However, these results are inconclusive, since the interaction between mode and order of presentation presented a confounding effect. Further study into the effect of image presentation mode is indicated. The confounding effect of image presentation order might be avoided if two truly random groups were used, each performing tasks in one mode instead of the two-mode tasks undertaken in this study. This approach might produce more conclusive results. Summary and Conclusions I 58 This study has revealed that the effect of similar tasks in a series on image processing time is just as likely to produce initially regressive or progressive results in a short three-task series. This may be due to an initial random choice between effective or ineffective strategies, the time it takes for the subject to find a new strategy, or to the time wasted while the subject tries out many strategies. The results give at least tentative support to findings by Bergland and MacGregor (1988) that subjects undergo an initial period of exploration before settling on a persistent strategy leading to steady progression in performance. These results have possible implications for art education. Since art students are often asked to perform complex visual tasks which require choosing initially from amongst many perceptual strategies, it is important that students be allowed time to search for effective strategies. This study shows that initially at least, students may be just as likely to choose a non-productive strategy as a productive one. It is therefore a time for monitoring student behavior, and for discussing on an individual basis how each intends to tackle the problem assigned. Art teachers should be aware of the variety of strategies available, and be aware of the diversity of approaches that students will take in solving complex visual problems. 4) IMPLICATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH Subsequent studies concerning continuous/discontinuous modes of image presentation should re-assess the construct of continuous/discontinuous ground used in this study, separate the modes to avoid the confounding effect of order, use both analytical (figure disembedding) and global (figure completion) tasks, and avoid using a group setting. Subsequent studies Summary and Conclusions I 59 concerning the effect of similar tasks in a series should use a longer or open-ended series of tasks. More detailed and specific knowledge is needed about how students choose from amongst a variety of perceptual strategies. Further studies could investigate the number of options students explore before selecting one, the basis on which selections are made, and possible ways to teach students to use effective perceptual strategies. REFERENCES References I 60 Ausburn, L . J . , & Ausburn, F. B. (1978). Cognitive Styles: Some information and implications for instructional design. Educational Communication and Technology Journal, 26 (4), 337-354. Bergland, D. R. & MacGregor, R N. (1988). Strategies adopted by elementary school students in shape manipulation and shape recognition tasks. Visual Arts Research, 14 (2), 51-56. Bieri, J . (1966). Cognitive complexity and personality development. In 0. J . Harvey (Ed.), Experiment structure and adapability. New York: Springer. Cognitive complexity and simplicity. Copeland, B. D. (1984). The relationship of cognitive style to the evaluation of university art instructors. Studies in Art Education, 25 (2), 109-114. Fleming, M . L . (1977). The picture in your mind. 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Psychological significance of styles of conceptualization. In J . C. Wright and J . Kagan (Eds.), Basic cognitive processes in children. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 28 (2), Serial No. 86. Conceptualizing styles. Kagan, J . , Roseman, B. L . , Day, D., Albert, J . , & Phillips, W. (1964). Information processing in the child: Significance of analytic and reflective attitudes. Psychological Monographs, 78 (1), whole No. 578. Reflectivity and impulsivity cognitive styles. Kagan, J . (1966). Developmental studies in reflection and analysis. In A. H . Kidd & J . L . Rivoire (Eds.), Perceptual development in children. New York: International Universities Press. Scanning and focusing cognitive styles. References I 62 Kearney, J . (1983). Sample bias resulting from parental consent forms. Public Opinion Quarterly, 47 (1), 97-111. Kelly, G. A. (1955). The psychology of personal constructs (Volume 1). New York: Norton. Cognitive complexity and simplicity. Klein, G. S. (1951). The personal world through perception. In R. R. Blake & G. V. Ramsey (Eds.), Perception: An approach to personality. New York: Ronald Press. Leveling and sharpening cognitive styles. Klein, G. S. & Schlesinger, H . J . (1951). Perceptual attitudes toward instability. Journal of Personality, 19, 289-302. Form bound and form labile cognitive styles. Klein, G. S., Gardner, R. W., & Schlesinger, H . J . (1962). Tolerance for unrealistic experiences: a study of the generality of a cognitive control. British Journal of Psychology, 53, 41-55. Tolerance for unrealistic experiences. Kogan, N . & Wallach, M . A. (1964). Risk-taking: A study in cognition and personality. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Breadth of categorizing. Koroscik, J . S. (1982). The effects of prior knowledge, presentation time, and task demands on visual art processing. Studies in Art Education, 23 (3), 13-22. References I 63 Lachman, R., Lachman, J . , & Butterfield, E .C . (1979). Cognitive psychology and information processing. Hillsdale, NJ: Laurence Erlbaum Associates. Lovano, J . J . (1970). The relation of conceptual styles and mode of perception to graphic expression. Studies in Art Education, 11 (3), 52 -60. Lovano-Kerr, J . (1983). Cognitive style revisited: Implications for research in art production and art criticism. Studies in Art Education, 24 (3), 195-205. Lowenfeld, V. (1945). Tests for visual and haptic aptitudes. In Eisner, E.W. & Ecker, D.W. (1966). Readings in art education. Lexington, Mass: Xerox College Publishing. Santostefano, S. G. (1964). A developmental study of the cognitive control "leveling-sharpening." Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 10, 343 -360. Leveling and sharpening cognitive styles. Santostefano, S. G. & Paley, E . (1964). Development of cognitive control in children. Child Development, 35, 939-949. Constricted and flexible control-field articulation. Schlesinger, H . J . (1954). Cognitive attitudes in relation to susceptibility to interference. Journal of Personality, 22, 354-374. Scanning and focusing cognitive styles. References I Vernon, P.E. (1972). The distinctiveness of field independence. Journal of Personality, 40 (3), 366-391. Wachtel, P. L . (1972). Field dependence and psychological differentiation: Re-examination. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 35, 179-189. Werner, H . (1957). The concept of development from a comparative and organismic point of view. In D. B. Harris (Ed.), The concept of development: An issue in the study of human behavior. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Global-analytic-synthetic cognitive styles. Witkin, H . A. (1950). Individual differences in ease of perception of embedded figures. Journal of Personality, 19, 1-15. Field dependence and field independence cognitive styles. Witkin, H.A.; Dyk, R.B.; Faterson, H.F.; Goodenough, D.R.; & Karp, S.A. (1962). Psychological Differentiation. NY: Wiley. Witkin, H.A. & Goodenough, D.R. (1977). Essence and origins of cognitive styles: Field dependence and field-independence. Research Bulletin (ETS RB 77-9) Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Services. Witkin, H.A.; Goodenough, D.R.; & Oltman, P . K (1979). Psychological differentiation: Current status. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37 (7), 1127-1145. Appendix A I 65 APPENDIX A Covering Letter APPENDIX B Parental Consent Form Appendix B I 67 Appendix C I 69 APPENDIX C Layout of Instruments, Subjects, and Researcher Appendix C I 70 LAYOUT OF INSTRUMENTS, SUBJECTS, AND RESEARCHER Subjects 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Back Row Scorekeepers Clock Number One j — • ^ Clock Number Two Teacher/Researcher Front Row There was one student scorekeeper for each subject. They were placed together so that they could read the clock more accurately. It was not necessary that they be placed directly in front of their subjects since they would time their subject's responses when they heard their subject say, "NOV." Appendix D I APPENDIX D Test Booklet Appendix D I 72 Group No.: Subject No.: Age: Sex: Find the hidden stars INSTRUCTIONS 1) Th is is what each s tar looks l ike. Each star is • perfect as shown, • the same size as shown, • points upwards as shown. However, each star may • have lines overlapping it, and • be anywhere in the picture. 2) As soon as you f ind one of these stars , say "NOW" and dot the top of it l ike th is , then continue to search for the others i f there are more than one. 3) Your t imer w i l l record when you said "NOW". 4) Wait until the instructor says "GO" before turning each page. 5) The time l i m i t s have been set to give you more than enough time to find the hidden stars in most cases. Don't worry about the t ime. Just concentrate on looking for the stars. Appendix D I 73 Form A Find the 3 hidden s tars within 15 minutes. Appendix D I 74 Form Al Find t h e 1 h i d d e n s t a r w i t h i n 5 m i n u t e s . Appendix D I 75 Form A2 Find the t hidden star wi th in 5 minutes. Appendix D I 76 Form A3 Find the 1 hidden s tar within 5 minutes. Appendix D I 77 Form B Find the 3 hidden s tars within 15 minutes. Appendix D I 78 Form B1 Find the 1 hidden star within 5 minutes. Appendix D I 79 Form B2 Find the 1 hidden star wi th in 5 minutes. Appendix D I 80 Form B3 Find the 1 hidden star within 5 minutes. Appendix E I 81 APPENDIX E Test Scoresheet Appendix E I 82 SCORESHEET Form A Group No.; Snhjert Nn -Times recorded: Time remaining; out of 1S minutes. F o r m A "•*"*•« minutes m i n u t e s _ _ seconds Seconds s e c o n d s Time remaining out of 5 minutes. F o r m A l F o r m A 2 F o r m A 3 Subject comments: Ho-w did you 90 about looking for the hidden stars? SCORESHEET Form B Group No.: Subject Nn -T imes recorded: Time remain Jig out of 15 minutes. F o r m B mexrtes minutes minutes seconds seconds seconds Time remaining out of 3 minutes. F o r m B1 F o r m B 2 F o r m B 3 .minutes . seconds .minutes .seconds .minutes .seconds Subject comments: Hov did you 90 aboot looking for the hiddea stars? Appendix F I 83 APPENDIX F Target Image Appendix F I 84 Appendix F I 85 Target Images (Answer) Top Appendix G I 86 APPENDIX G Test Answers Appendix G I 87 Find the 3 hidden s tars within 15 minutes. Form A (Ansver) Appendix G I 88 Form A1 (Ansver) Find the 1 hidden star within 5 minutes. Appendix G I 89 Form A2 (Ansver) Find the 1 hidden star wi th in 5 minutes. Appendix G I 90 Form A3 Find the 1 hidden star within 5 minutes. Appendix G I 91 Appendix G I 92 Form Bl (Answer) Find the 1 hidden star within 5 minutes. Appendix G I 93 Form B2 C Answer) Find the 1 hidden star within 5 minutes. Appendix G I 94 Form B3 (Answer) Find the 1 hidden star within 5 minutes. Appendix H I 95 APPENDIX H Standardized Instructions Appendix H I STANDARDIZED INSTRUCTIONS FOR ADMINISTERING THE TEST The teacher I researcher addresses the class as follows: Those of you who are sitting in the back row will be taking the test this period while those of you who are sitting in the front row will be acting as scorekeepers this period. Make sure that each person in the back row is paired up with a scorekeeper in the front row. Each of you will need a pen or pencil. [Pens are handed out to those who don't have one.] Before the people in the back rows get their test booklets, let's have the scorekeepers in the front row practise recording the times from the timers. Scorekeepers should sit with their backs to their desks further from their partners so that they can't see their partners as they do the test. As well, these people will need to gather closer to the timer in front of you so that you can accurately read the clock. I will hand out a Scorekeeper's Warmup Exercise sheet to each of the scorekeepers. {Scorekeeper's Warmup Exercise sheets are handed out.] This is Clock Number One and this one is Clock Number Two. Write down the clock number on your sheet. Now, before you record any times, let's go through a dry run. [A clock-Appendix H I setter is appointed for Clock Number One while the teacher/researcher sets Clock Number Two.] Set the clock to 15 minutes and 0 seconds. When the testing starts, I will say O N E , TWO, T H R E E , GO, and on the word GO, we will turn the clocks on, and the people in the back row will turn over the first pink page and start searching for a hidden star. [Nod to the clock-setter for Clock Number One to get ready.] Let's pretend that this is happening...ONE, TWO, T H R E E , GO. [Both clocks are turned on.] Keep your eyes on the clock. Now, as soon as your partner in the back row finds a star, your partner will say NOW. As soon as your partner does this, note the time remaining out of the 15 minutes, and record the time remaining. For example, if your partner said NOW, you would write down that the time remaining out of 15 minutes is 14 minutes and 5 seconds. Any questions about how to read the clock? [Answer any questions.] Good. Let's practise it with the warmup exercise sheet. [Nod to the clock-setter for Clock Number One to get ready.] Let's reset the clock at 15 minutes and 0 seconds, and record the time remaining out of 15 minutes whenever I say NOW. [Both clocks are reset.] Ready? O N E , TWO, T H R E E , GO. [Both clocks are turned on at the word GO.] I will say NOW 3 times. Ready? [Wait.] NOW. [Wait.] NOW. [Wait.] NOW. [Wait until all times are recorded, then both clocks are turned off.] Any questions? [Answer any questions.] Good. After the 15 minutes timings, there will be three 5 minute timings. [Nod to the clock-setter for Clock Number One to get ready.] This time let's reset the clock at 5 minutes and 0 seconds, and record the time remaining Appendix H I out of 5 minutes whenever I say NOW. [Both clocks are reset.] Ready? O N E , TWO, T H R E E , GO. [Both clocks are turned on at the word GO.] I will say NOW once. Ready? [Wait.] NOW. [Wait until all times are recorded, then both clocks are turned off.] Any questions? [Answer any questions.] [This procedure is repeated twice more.] Now, answer the three questions on your warmup exercise sheet, when you're finished, I will come and collect your sheets. [Sheets are collected.] Now I will hand out to you the real scoresheets to those of you in the front row. [Scoresheets are handed out.] Now, those of you in the back row, come up and get a test booklet out of this box and bring it to your desk. Now everybody, write down the Group Number. This is Group Number 1, so write down the number 1. Each of you in the back row will see your Subject Number in red pen. Tell your partner in the front row what this number is so that your partner can record it on their scoresheet. That's good. Those in the back row, write in your age, and your sex. Write down M for male, and F for female. Now let's read over the instructions together. [Read the instructions out loud.] Any questions before we begin? [Answer any questions.] Good. Let's begin. [Nod to the clock-setter for Clock Number One to get ready.] Let's reset the clock at 15 minutes and 0 seconds. [Both clocks are reset.] When I say GO, the clock will be started and those of you in the back Appendix H I 99 row will turn over the first pink page and start searching for stars. As soon as you find the first star, say NOW in a loud voice and your partner will record the time remaining. Use a small dot to mark the top of each star so that those sitting beside you can't see your answer. There are 3 stars on this first sheet, so you will say NOW after you have found each one. Any questions? [Answer any questions.] Ready? O N E , TWO, T H R E E , GO. [Both clocks are turned on at the word GO.] After you have found all 3 stars, turn back to the front of your test booklet and wait. [When all booklets are turned back to the front page, or the 15 minute time has run out; turn the clocks off.] Good. Let's get ready for the next sheet. [Nod to the clock-setter for Clock Number One to get ready.] Let's reset the clock at 5 minutes and 0 seconds. [Both clocks are reset.] When I say GO, the clock will be started and those of you in the back row will turn over the second pink page and start searching for stars. As soon as you find the a star, say NOW in a loud voice and your partner will record the time remaining. Remember to dot the star when you say NOW. There is only 1 star on this second sheet. Any questions? [Answer any questions.] Ready? O N E , TWO, T H R E E , GO. [Both clocks are turned on at the word GO.] After you have found the 1 star, turn back to the front of your test booklet and wait. [When all booklets are turned back to the front page, or the 5 minute time has run out, turn the clocks off.] [Repeat the above procedure twice more for the third and fourth sheets.] Good. Now that we are all finished, would those in the front row please give the scoresheets to their partners in the back row so that they can answer the question on it. [Wait until the scoresheets have been given to those in the back row.] Please answer the question asking you, "How did you go about Appendix H I 100 looking for the hidden stars?" If you changed how you went about looking for the hidden stars at any time, include how you did that in your answer. I wil l wait until everyone has answered the question before I come around to collect your materials. Appendix I I 101 APPENDIX I Calculation Sheets Appendix I I 102 CALCULATIONS Form A Group No.: S n h j n r t N n -F o r m A 14 min. min. a min. X 60 s w . a sec. O b s e r v a t i o n 0) • SO sec. Sec. 14 min. - min. • min. X SO sec. sec. 60 sec. sec. sec. sec. -*> -see.-sec. O b s e r v a t i o n 02 = sec. 14 mm. - min.  a min. X 60 sec. sec. O b s e r v a t i o n -*» -03 => 60 sec. sec. sec. sec. Sec. Sec. sec. F o r m Al F o r m A2 F o r m A3 14 min. 60 sec. 14 mm. 60 sec. 14 mm. 60 sec. min. - sec. - min. - sec. mm. - sec. 3 min. - sec. min. sec. min. sec. X 60 sec. X 60 sec. X 60 sec. 3 sec. + sec. a sec. * sec. m sec. • sec. O b s e r v a t i o n 0 4 - sec. O b s e r v a t i o n 0 5 * sec. O b s e r v a t i o n 06* see. CALCULATIONS Form B Group No.: Subject No.: F o r m Bl F o r m 82 F o r m B3 14 min. 60 sec. 14 min. 60 sec. 14 min. 60 sec. min. - sec. mm. sec. mm. - sec. • min. sec. m min. * sec. M min. m sec. X 60 see. X 60 sec. X 60 sec. a sec. + sec. * sec. • sec. al sec. * sec. O b s e r v a t i o n 01 a sec. O b s e r v a t i o n 02 = sec. O b s e r v a t i o n 03 = sec. F o r m B 60 sec. sec. sec. 14 min. - min. * min. X 60 sec. • sec. O b s e r v a t i o n 04 » sec.-14 min. - mm. • min. X 60sec. see. 60 see. 2*2, see. see. sec.-see. O b s e r v a t i o n OS sec. 14 min. - mm. " min. X 60 sec. -*• -O b s e r v a t i o n 06 a 60 sec. sec. sec. sec. sec. sec. sec. Appendix J I 103 APPENDIX J Data Appendix J I 104 Subject Number Age A01 17 A02 17 A03 17 A04 17 A05 17 A06 18 A07 17 A08 17 A09 16 A10 17 A l l 17 A12 16 A13 17 A14 ' 17 A15 17 A16 17 A17 16 A18 17 A19 13 A20 14 A21 14 A22 14 A23 14 A24 13 A25 13 A26 16 A27 15 A28 15 A29 15 A30 17 FORM A DATA Time in seconds Continuous Presentation Discontinuous Presentation Sex Oi 02 03 04 05 06 F 007 068 417 002 051 001 F 009 168 031 003 003 001 F 050 057 041 025 035 001 F 073 069 043 004 045 012 F 087 126 234 036 056 012 F 065 025 013 007 002 001 F 085 228 234 003 005 003 F 070 575 070 068 025 003 F Discard (.03 not within time limit) F 015 115 027 003 006 001 F Discard (target image not properly identified) F 020 156 071 002 003 001 F Discard (target image not properly identified) M 106 131 010 003 002 001 F 300 155 047 003 001 013 F Discard (target image not properly identified) F 071 044 049 111 001 019 M 077 056 025 022 001 001 M 380 191 200 058 030 041 F 030 155 070 017 015 012 F 058 014 046 005 004 004 F 010 187 038 006 005 005 M 015 155 050 002 002 001 F 055 040 660 003 070 060 F 055 075 072 0O4 003 023 M Discard (O3 not within time limit) M 253 565 050 006 003 009 M 022 030 789 003 004 004 F Discard (target image not properly identified) F 052 031 003 033 016 015 Appendix J I 105 FORM B DATA Time in seconds Discontinuous Presentation Continuous Presentation ; Number Age Sex Oi 02 03 04 Os Off B01 17 M 004 022 003 067 034 089 B02 17 M 002 042 004 026 020 261 B03 19 M 001 119 001 011 008 008 B04 17 F 002 300 001 017 106 042 B05 18 M 008 115 265 150 045 240 B06 17 M 004 026 005 010 007 064 B07 17 M 001 001 075 034 072 079 B08 17 F 006 034 001 078 002 042 B09 17 F 001 049 000 157 050 024 BIO 17 F 002 028 004 014 033 060 B l l 17 M 003 195 023 261 052 139 B12 IS M Discard (Off not within time limit) B13 17 M 002 001 001 001 000 094 B14 16 M 002 173 004 023 018 012 B15 19 M 003 033 161 002 026 535 B16 17 F 005 293 027 023 045 015 B17 17 M 065 001 001 087 096 145 B18 15 F 004 017 018 012 012 003 B19 18 M 002 001 057 036 089 036 B20 17 M 007 264 002 071 212 095 B21 15 F 096 060 011 014 079 168 B22 15 F 050 103 030 150 021 244 B23 15 F 004 004 003 013 012 005 B24 15 F 003 106 009 033 021 032 B25 16 M 003 297 086 042 051 051 B26 16 M Discard (target image not properly identified) B27 15 F Discard (to balance data for ANOVA) B28 15 M Discard (target image not properly identified) B29 17 M Discard (to balance data for ANOVA) Appendix K I 106 APPENDIX K Scorekeeper'a Warmup Exercise Appendix K I 107 SCOREKEEPER'S WARMUP EXERCISE Form A C lock No.: T i m e s r e c o r d e d : Tim* rwnainina out of 15 minute. Form A m mutes minutes minutes seconds seconds seconds Tim* remaining out of S minutts. Form Al Form A2 Form A3 Scorekeepe r ' s c o m m e n t s : Is it turd keeping time ? Did goa bare te gaess on any ? Vould 90a sag gear reaction time vas excellent, Terg good, good, fair, or poor? SCOREKEEPER'S WARMUP EXERCISE Form B Cloclc No.: T i m e s r e c o r d e d Tim* remaining out of 15 minutes. Form B minutes _ _ _ minutes minutes seconds seconds seconds Tim* remaining out of 5 minutts. Form B1 seconds Form B2 minutts seconds Form 83 _ _ _ minutts seconds S c o r e k e e p e r ' s c o m m e n t s : Is it hard keeping time? Did goo nave to go ess 00 aog'-. Vould goo sag gear reaction time v a s excellent, Yertj good, good, f a i r . Appendix L I 108 APPENDIX L Task Scores and Mode Means Appendix L I 109 Form Subj. T l T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 Mean C Mean D No. 1 A 01 7 68 417 2 51 1 164 18 2 A 02 9 168 31 3 3 1 69 2 3 A 03 50 57 41 25 35 1 49 20 4 A 04 73 69 43 4 45 12 62 20 5 A 05 87 126 234 36 56 12 149 35 6 A 06 65 25 13 7 2 1 34 3 7 A 07 85 228 234 3 5 3 182 4 8 A 08 70 575 70 68 25 3 238 32 9 A 10 15 115 27 3 6 1 52 3 10 A 12 20 156 71 2 3 1 82 2 11 A 14 106 131 10 3 2 1 82 2 12 A 15 300 155 47 3 1 13 167 6 13 A 17 71 44 49 111 1 19 55 44 14 A 18 77 56 25 22 1 1 53 8. 15 A 19 380 191 200 58 30 41 257 43 16 A 20 30 155 70 17 15 12 85 15 17 A 21 58 14 46 5 4 4 39 4 18 A 22 10 187 38 6 5 5 78 5 19 A 23 15 155 50 2 2 1 73 2 20 A 24 55 40 660 3 70 60 252 44 21 A 25 55 75 72 4 . 3 23 67 10 22 A 27 253 565 50 6 3 9 289 6 23 A 28 22 30 789 3 4 4 280 4 24 A 30 52 31 8 33 16 15 30 21 25 B 01 67 34 89 4 22 3 63 10 26 B 02 26 20 261 2 42 4 102 16 27 B 03 11 8 8 1 119 1 9 40 28 B 04 17 106 17 2 300 1 47 101 29 B 03 150 45 240 8 115 265 145 129 30 B 06 10 7 64 4 26 5 27. 12 31 B 07 34 72 79 1 1 75 62 26 32 B 06 78 2 42 6 34 1 41 14 33 B 09 157 50 24 1 49 0 77 17 34 B 10 14 33 60 2 28 4 36 11-. 35 B 11 261 52 139 3 195 23 151 74-36 B 13 1 0 94 2 1 1 32 1 37 B 14 23 18 12 2 173 4 18 60 38 B 15 2 26 535 3 33 161 188 66 39 B 16 23 45 15 5 293 27 28 108 40 B 17 87 96 145 65 1 1 109 22 41 B 18 12 12 3 4 17 18 9 13 42 B 19 36 89 36 2 1 57 54 20 43 B 20 71 212 95 7 264 2 126 91. 44 B 21 14 79 168 96 60 11 87 56-45 B 22 150 21 244 50 103 30 138 61 46 B 23 13 12 5 4 4 3 10 4 47 B 24 33 21 12 3 106 9 22 39 48 B 25 42 51 51 31 297 86 48 129 Appendix M I 110 APPENDIX M Subject Graphs Showing a Preference for the Continuous Mode Appendix M I 111 Subject Observation Data for the Discontinuous/Continuous Order of Image Presentation (Using Form B) as a Function of Image Processing Time in Seconds Appendix M I 112 Subject Observation Data for the Discontinuous/Continuous Order of Image Presentation (Using Form B) as a Function of Image Processing Time in Seconds FORM B (Subject Number B14) 180 160 140 to 120 C o u 100 to c 80 Oi £ 60 40 20 0 -20 '1 w 2 Discontinuous Mode Continuous Mode FORM B (Subject Number B16) 300 250-to 200-C Q Uo> to 150. C Oi e 100-50-o ° -o -50 °1 °2 °3 °4 ° 5 °6 Discontinuous Mode Continuous Mode Appendix M I 113 Subject Observation Data for the Discontinuous/Continuous Order of Image Presentation (Using Form B) as a Function of Image Processing Time in Seconds FORM B CO o o a> co 20. 18. 16. 14. 12. 10. a. 6. 4. 2-(Subject Number B18) '1 u2 Discontinuous Mode Continuous Mode Appendix M I 114 Subject Observation Data for the Discontinuous/Continuous Order of Image Presentation (Using Form B) as a Function of Image Processing Time in Seconds 350 FORM B (Subject Number B25) 300-in 250-tz o 200-<u c 150. • Time 100. 50-o *^-o—— ° —o -50 o, o 2 Discontinuous Mode °3 °4 °5 °6 Continuous Mode Appendix N I 115 APPENDIX N Subject Graphs Showing a Preference for the Discontinuous Mode Appendix N I 116 Subject Observation Data for the Continuous/Discontinuous Order of Image Presentation (Using Form A) as a Function of Image Processing Time in Seconds 450 FORM A (Subject Number A01) 400. 350. Time in seconds 300. 250^ 200. 150-100. 50. 0 • -50 °1 ° 2 Continuous Mode ° 3 ° 4 ° 5 ° 6 Discontinuous Mode 1 80 FORM A (Subject Number A02) 160. 140. CO •a 120^ ou 100. </> c 80^ Qi £ 60-40-20-o n n -20 ° 1 ° 2 Continuous Mode ° 3 ° 4 ° 5 ° 6 Discontinuous Mode Appendix N I 117 Subject Observation Data for the Continuous/Discontinuous Order of Image Presentation (Using Form A) as a Function of Image Processing Time in Seconds Appendix N I 118 Subject Observation Data for the Continuous/Discontinuous Order of Image Presentation (Using Form A) as a Function of Image Processing Time in Seconds Appendix N I 119 Subject Observation Data for the Continuous/Discontinuous Order of Image Presentation (Using Form A) as a Function of Image Processing Time in Seconds 250 FORM A (Subject Number A07) 225^ 200^ 175-Time in second 150. 125^  100-75^  50^  25^  o V> O —n -25 °1 ° 2 Continuous Mode ° 3 ° 4 ° 5 Discontinuous Mode ° 6 Appendix N I 120 Subject Observation Data for the Continuous/Discontinuous Order of Image Presentation (Using Form A) as a Function of Image Processing Time in Seconds •o c o u CD CO 120 100 80 60 40 20. 0. -20. FORM A (Subject Number A10) '1 u 2 Continuous Mode Discontinuous Mode FORM A (Subject Number A12) CO T3 c o (_> CD CO 160. 140 120 100. 80. 60. 40 20 0 -20 '1 " 2 Continuous Mode Discontinuous Mode Appendix N I 121 Subject Observation Data for the Continuous/Discontinuous Order of Image Presentation (Using Form A) as a Function of Image Processing Time in Seconds 1 40 FORM A (Subject Number A14) 120- • In 100-C o 80. <u c 60. Time 40. 20. o • -20 °1 . °2 Continuous Mode °3 °4 °5 Discontinuous Mode °6 FORM A •a e o u a> in sz at E 350 300 250 200 150 100-1 50 0 -50 (Subject Number A15) Continuous Mode Discontinuous Mode Appendix N I 122 Subject Observation Data for the Continuous/Discontinuous Order of Image Presentation (Using Form A) as a Function of Image Processing Time in Seconds 120 FORM A (Subject Number A17) 100-CO 80. I_J £= /-» In sect 60. CO £ 40. • i -20-0 -20 °1 °2 Continuous Mode °3 °4 °5 °6 Discontinuous Mode Appendix N I 123 Subject Observation Data for the Continuous/Discontinuous Order of Image Presentation (Using Form A) as a Function of Image Processing Time in Seconds Appendix N / 124 Subject Observation Data for the Continuous/Discontinuous Order of Image Presentation (Using Form A) as a Function of Image Processing Time in Seconds 200-FORM A (Subject Number A22) tao. 160. 140. o o 0) 120. c 100. Time 80-60^ 40-20-o - O °1 ° 2 Continuous Mode ° 3 °4 <>5 Discontinuous Mode ° 6 Appendix N I 125 Subject Observation Data for the Continuous/Discontinuous Order of Image Presentation (Using Form A) as a Function of Image Processing Time in Seconds Appendix N I 126 Subject Observation Data for the Continuous/Discontinuous Order of Image Presentation (Using Form A) as a Function of Image Processing Time in Seconds c o o c CD 80, 70, 60. 50, 40, 30. 20. 10. 0. FORM A (Subject Number A25) °1 °2 °3 Continuous Mode Discontinuous Mode 600, FORM A (Subject Number A27) 500-400-in seci 300. £ 200-100-0 • -100 °1 °2 Continuous Mode °3 °4 °5 °6 Discontinuous Mode Appendix N I 127 Subject Observation Data for the Continuous/Discontinuous Order of Image Presentation (Using Form A) as a Function of Image Processing Time in Seconds T3 C O u CD 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 -100 FORM A (Subject Number A28) Continuous Mode Discontinuous Mode at •o c o u CD CD £ 55. 50. 45. 40. 35. 30. 25. 20. 15. 10. 5. FORM A (Subject Number A30) - O '1 u 2 Continuous Mode Discontinuous Mode Appendix N I 128 Subject Observation Data for the Discontinuous/Continuous Order of Image Presentation (Using Form B) as a Function of Image Processing Time in Seconds 100 FORM B (Subject Number B01) 90^ 8 0 . 70^ •o o u 60^ c 50^ s 40-i— 30^ • 20-10-0 °1 °2 Discontinuous Mode °3 °4 ° 5 °6 Continuous Mode 3 0 0 FORM B (Subject Number B02) 250- 9 </> •a cz 200- I in seci 150. / Time 100-5 0 . 0 _^  / - 5 0 °1 ° 2 Discontinuous Mode °3 °4 °5 °6 Continuous Mode Appendix N I 129 Subject Observation Data for the Discontinuous/Continuous Order of Image Presentation (Using Form B) as a Function of Image Processing Time in Seconds •a c o u CD CD £ 300 250 200 150 100 50 FORM B (Subject Number BOS) '1 w2 Discontinuous Mode Continuous Mode cn •a c o u CD CD £ 70 60 50. 40. 30. 20-10. FORM B (Subject Number B06) '1 u 2 Discontinuous Mode Continuous Mode Appendix N I 130 Subject Observation Data for the Discontinuous/Continuous Order of Image Presentation (Using Form B) as a Function of Image Processing Time in Seconds FORM B (Subject Number B07) 90 80^ 70-</> •a <— 60^ a u a> 50^ • c 40. a> £ 30. i— 20-10. o _„r>— -10 °1 °2 Discontinuous Mode °3 °4 °5 °6 Continuous Mode Appendix N I 131 Subject Observation Data for the Discontinuous/Continuous Order of Image Presentation (Using Form B) as a Function of Image Processing Time in Seconds FORM B CO •a e o u CD 180 160. 140. 120 100 804 60 40 20 0 -20 (Subject Number B09) '1 u 2 Discontinuous Mode Continuous Mode FORM B CO •a e o u a> co cu £ 70 60 50 40 30 20, 10. (Subject Number BIO) Discontinuous Mode Continuous Mode Appendix N I 132 Subject Observation Data for the Discontinuous/Continuous Order of Image Presentation (Using Form B) as a Function of Image Processing Time in Seconds 300 FORM a (Subject Number B1 1) 250. </> "O c 200- • in seci 150-Time 100-50. o -50 °1 °2 Discontinuous Mode °3 °4 °5 °6 Continuous Mode •a c o u CD CD £ i o o T 90^ 80^ 70. 60^ 50^ 40. 30^ 20^ 10. 0^  -10^ _o= FORM B (Subject Number B13) '1 "2 w 3 Discontinuous Mode Continuous Mode Appendix N I 133 Subject Observation Data for the Discontinuous/Continuous Order of Image Presentation (Using Form B) as a Function of Image Processing Time in Seconds 600 FORM B (Subject Number BIS) 500-in "O c rt 400-tn sect 300. £ 200. 100. o -1 o o °1 °2 Discontinuous Mode °3 °4 °5 °6 Continuous Mode o u a> in a> £ 160 140-120-100 80 60 40 20 0 -20 FORM B (Subject Number B17) '1 "2 Discontinuous Mode Continuous Mode Appendix N I 134 Subject Observation Data for the Discontinuous/Continuous Order of Image Presentation (Using Form B) as a Function of Image Processing Time in Seconds FORM B (Subject Number B19) 1 00 90^ 80^ 70. in c o 60^ CD </> 50^ -c CD 40-£ i — 30^ • 20. 10. o Q- .... r/ -1 0 °1 °2 °3 °4 °5 °6 Discontinuous Mode Continuous Mode 300 FORM B (Subject Number B20) 250-in 200-a. i—. in sec< 150. Time 100-50-0 • -50 ° l °2 Discontinuous Mode °3 b 4 c i 5 d 6 Continuous Mode Appendix N I 135 Subject Observation Data for the Discontinuous/Continuous Order of Image Presentation (Using Form B) as a Function of Image Processing Time in Seconds Appendix N / 136 Subject Observation Data for the Discontinuous/Continuous Order of Image Presentation (Using Form B) as a Function of Image Processing Time in Seconds o u a> CD £ 14. 12. 10. 8-6-4. 2. FORM B (Subject Number B23) '1 u 2 Discontinuous Mode Continuous Mode Appendix O I 137 APPENDIX O Descriptive Cell Data for the Two-way ANOVA Appendix O I 138 Mean: Std. Dev.: C e l l : Std. Error AlBl Variance: Coef. Var: Count: 120.333 86.074 17.57 7408.754 71.53 24 Minimum: Maximum: Ranqe: Sum: Sum Squared: * Missinq: 30 289 259 2888 517924 0 Mean: Std. Dev.: C e l l : Std. Error A1B2 Variance: Coef. Var.: Count: 67.875 51.554 10.523 2657.853 75.955 24 Minimum: Maximum: Ranqe: Sum: Sum Squared: * Missinq: 9 188 179 1629 171699 0 Mean: Std. Dev.: C e l l : Std. Error. A2B1 Variance: Coef. Var: Count: 14.708 1 4.6 12 2.983 213.52 99.347 24 Minimum: Maximum: Ranqe: Sum: Sum Squared: * Missinq: 2 44 42 353 10103 0 Mean: Std. Dev.: C e l l : Std. Error A2B2 Variance: Coef. Var.: Count: 46.667 40.337 8.234 1627.101 86.437 24 Minimum: laximum: Ranqe: Sum: Sum Squared: * Missinq: 1 129 128 1 120 89690 0 Appendix P I 139 APPENDIX P Summary Tables for Means and Standard Deviations for Each Task Appendix P I 140 Mean: Std. Dev.: Std. Error: T1 Variance: Coef. Var.: Count: 68.688 81.174 1 1.716 6589.241 1 18.179 48 Minimum: Maximum: Ranqe: Sum: Sum Squared: * Missing: 1 380 379 3297 536157 0 Mean: Std. Dev.: Std. Error: T2 Variance: Coef. Var.: Count: 94.312 1 17.271 16.927 13752.56 124.343 48 Minimum: Maximum: Range: Sum: Sum Sguared: * Missing: 0 575 575 4527 1073323 0 Mean: Std. Dev.: Std. Error: T3 Variance: Coef. Var: Count: 1 19.438 167.781 24.217 28150.379 1 40.476 48 Minimum: Maximum: Range: Sum: Sum Sguared: * Missing: 3 789 786 5733 2007803 0 Mean: Std. Dev.: Std. Error: T4 Variance: Coef. Var: Count: 14.771 25.313 3.654 640.734 171.37 48 Minimum: Maximum: Range: Sum: Sum Sguared: * Missing: 1 1 1 1 1 10 709 40587 0 Mean: Std. Dev.: Std. Error T5 Variance: Coef. Var: Count: 55.667 83.859 12.104 7032.397 150.646 48 Minimum: Maximum: Range: Sum: Sum Sguared: * Missing: 1 300 299 2672 479264 0 Appendix P / 141 Mean: Std. Dev.: Std. Error: T6 Variance: Coef. Var.: Count: 21.583 46.127 6.658 2127.695 213.716 48 Minimum: Maximum: Ranqe: Sum: Sum Squared: * Missinq: 0 265 265 1036 122362 0 Mean: Std. Dev.: Std. Error: Mean C Variance: Coef. Var.: Count: 94.104 75.025 10.829 5628.819 79.726 48 Minimum: Maximum: Range: Sum: Sum Sguared: * Missing: 9 289 280 4517 689623 0 Mean: Std. Dev.: Std. Error: Mean D Variance: Coef. Var.: Count: 30.688 34.081 4.919 1 161.496 111.057 48 Minimum: Maximum: Range: Sum: Sum Sguared: * Missing: 1 129 128 1473 99793 0 Appendix Q / 142 APPENDIX Q Data for One-way ANOVA Appendix Q I 143 Form Subj. T l (01) T2 (02) T3 (03) T4 (04) T5 (05) T6 (06) No. 1 A 01 7 68 417 2 51 1 2 A 02 9 168 31 3 3 1 3 A 03 50 57 41 25 35 1 4 A 04 73 69 43 4 45 12 5 A 05 87 126 234 36 56 12 6 A 06 65 25 13 7 2 1 7 A 07 85 228 234 3 5 3 8 A 03 70 575 70 68 25 3 9 A 10 15 115 27 3 6 1 10 A 12 20 156 71 2 3 1 11 A 14 106 131 10 3 2 1 12 A 15 300 155 47 3 1 13 13 A 17 71 44 49 111 1 19 14 A 18 77 56 25 22 1 1 15 A 19 : 380 191 200 58 30 41 16 A 20 30 155 70 17 15 12 17 A 21 58 14 46 5 4 4 18 A 22 10 187 38 6 5 5 19 A 23 15 155 50 2 2 1 20 A 24 55 40 660 3 70 60 21 A 25 55 75 72 4 3 23 22 A 27 253 565 50 6 3 9 23 A 28 22 30 789 3 4 4 24 A 30 52 31 8 33 16 15 Appendix Q / 144 Form Subj. T l (04) T2 (05) T3 (06) T4 (01) T5 (02) T6 (03) No. 1 B 01 67 34 89 4 22 3 2 B 02 26 20 261 2 42 4 3 B 03 11 8 8 1 119 1 4 B 04 17 106 17 2 300 1 5 B 05 150 45 240 8 115 265 6 B 06 10 7 64 4 26 5 7 B 07 34 72 79 1 1 75 8 B 08 78 2 42 6 34 1 9 B 09 157 50 24 1 49 0 10 B 10 14 33 60 2 28 4 11 B 11 261 52 139 3 195 23 12 B 13 1 0 94 2 1 1 13 B 14 • 23 18 12 2 173 4 14 B 15 ! 2 26 535 3 33 161 15 B 16 23 45 15 5 293 27 16 B 17 87 96 145 65 1 1 17 B 18 l 12 12 3 4 17 18 18 B 19 • 36 89 36 2 1 57 19 B 20 71 212 95 7 264 2 20 B 21 14 79 168 96 60 11 21 B 22 150 21 244 50 103 30 22 B 23 13 12 5 4 4 3 23 B 24 33 21 12 3 106 9 24 B 25 42 51 51 3 297 86 Appendix R I 145 APPENDIX R One-way ANOVA Summary Tables Appendix R I 146 C E L L Al Bl One-Factor A N O V A Repeated Measures Form A (Tasks T j , T2, T3) Continuous Mode Source: df: Sum of Squares: Mean Square: F-test: P value: Between subjects 23 51 1098.667 22221.681 .887 .6135 Within subjects 48 1203077.333 25064.1 1 1 treatments 2 54013.083 27006.542 1.081 .3477 residual 46 1 149064.25 24979.658 Total 71 1714176 Reliability Estimates for- All treatments: -.128 Single Treatment: -.039 CELL Al Bi One-Factor A N O V A Repeated Measures Form A (Tasks T ; , T2, T3) Continuous Mode Group: Count: Mean: Std. Dev.: Std. Error T l (01) 24 81.875 94.653 19.321 T2 (02) 24 142.333 145.301 29.659 T3 (03) 24 137.292 205.206 41.888 CELT. A l B i One-Factor A N O V A Repeated Measures Form A (Tasks Tl, T2, T3) Continuous Mode Comparison: Mean Diff.: Fisher PLSD: Scheffe F-test: Dunnett t: T l (01) vs. T2 (02) -60.458 91.848 .878 1.325 T l (01) vs. T3 (03) -55.417 91.848 .738 1.215 T2 (02) vs. T3 (03) 5.042 91.848 .006 .111 Appendix R / 147 CELL. A2 B i One-Factor A N O V A Repeated Measures Form A (Tasks T4, T5, Tfi) Discontinuous Mode Source: df: Sum of Squares: Mean Square: F-test: P value: Between subjects 23 14703.319 639.275 1.781 .0461 within subjects 48 17230.667 358.972 treatments 2 786.694 393.347 1.1 .3414 residual 46 16443.972 357.478 Total 71 31933.986 Reliability Estimates for- All treatments: .438 Single Treatment: .207 C E L L A2 B i One-Factor A N O V A Repeated Measures Form A (Tasks T4, T5, T6) Discontinuous Mode Group: Count: Mean: Std. Dev.: Std. Error: T4 (04) 24 17.875 26.927 5.496 T5 (05) 24 16.167 20.631 4.21 1 T6 (06) 24 10.167 14.267 2.912 C E L L A2 B i One-Factor A N O V A Repeated Measures Form A (Tasks T4, T5, T6) Discontinuous Mode Comparison: Mean Diff.: Fisher PLSD: Scheffe F-test: Dunnett t: T4 (04) VS. T5 (05) 1.708 10.988 .049 .313 T4 (04) vs. T6 (06) 7.708 10.988 .997 1.412 T5 (05) vs. T6 (06) 6 10.988 .604 1.099 Appendix R I 148 C E L L A i B2 One-Factor A N O V A Repeated Measures Form B (Tasks T i , T2, T3) Continuous Mode Source: df: Sum of Squares: Mean Square: F-test: P value: Between subjects 23 1 12413.1 1 1 4887.527 .72 .8017 Within subjects 48 325804 6787.583 treatments 2 90336.444 45168.222 8.824 .0006 residual 46 235467.556 51 18.86 Total 71 438217.1 1 1 Reliability Estimates for- All treatments: -.389 Single Treatment: -.103 C E L L A l B2 One-Factor A N O V A Repeated Measures Form B (Tasks T l , T2, T3) Continuous Mode Group: Count: Mean: Std. Dev.: Std. Error T4 (01) 24 1 1.667 23.752 4.848 T5 (02) 24 95.167 103.386 21.104 T6 (03) 24 33 62.228 12.702 C E L L A i B2 One-Factor A N O V A Repeated Measures Form B (Tasks T i , T2, T3) Continuous Mode Comparison: Mean Diff.: Fisher PLSD: Scheffe F-test: Dunnett t: T4 (01) vs. T5 (02) -83.5 41.578* 8.172* 4.043 T4 (01) vs. T6 (03) -21.333 41.578 .533 1.033 T5 (02) vs. T6 (03) 62.167 41.578* 4.53* 3.01 * Significant at 95% Appendix R I 149 C E L L A2 B2 One-Factor A N O V A Repeated Measures Form B (Tasks T4, T5, Te) Discontinuous Mode Source: df: Sum of Squares: Mean Square: F-test: P value: Between subjects 23 183720.542 7987.85 1.118 .3623 Within subjects 48 343037.333 7146.61 1 treatments 2 42125.083 21062.542 3.22 .0491 residual 46 300912.25 6541.571 Total 71 526757.875 Reliability Estimates for- All treatments: .105 Single Treatment: .038 C E L L A2 B2 One-Factor A N O V A Repeated Measures Form B (Tasks T4, T5, Ts) Discontinuous Mode Group: Count: Mean: Std. Dev.: Std. Error: T l (04) 24 55.5 64.365 13.138 T2 (05) 24 46.292 46.671 9.527 T3 (06) 24 101.583 1 21.449 24.791 C E L L A2 B2 One-Factor A N O V A Repeated Measures Form B (Tasks T4, T5, T<?) Discontinuous Mode Comparison: Mean Diff.: Fisher PLSD: Scheffe F-test: Dunnett t: T l (04) vs. T2 (05) 9.208 47.002 .078 .394 T l (04) vs. T3 (06) -46.083 47.002 1.948 1.974 T2 (05) vs. T3 (06) -55.292 47.002* 2.804 2.368 * Significant at 95* Appendix S I 150 APPENDIX S Written Responses Appendix S I W R I T T E N R E S P O N S E S 1) G L O B A L C A T E G O R Y (6/48 = 13%) A03 17 F Seriously, I do not know. I just studied the picture and they jumped right off the page into my face. A06 18 F As soon as I sort of squint my eyes, they just "appeared." At first I tried to analyze looking for a perfect top triangle, so if I found that, Id find a star. But that was taking too much effort and time. B03 19 M It just was there! Looking hard pays off. BIO 17 F I just looked for the whole star. B19 18 M I looked for a perfect star, checked, then said "now." B20 17 M (I) sat and wait(ed) until I figured them out. 2) C O M B I N E D C A T E G O R Y (15/48 = 31%) A01 17 F First I looked for a star-like figure, then the top triangle. A few of them seemed to pop out at you. I changed to the triangle during the first one. The second and fourth one popped out, and (for) the third, (I) looked for the triangle. A02 17 F Looking from corner to corner and side to side. Some stars just popped out at me. In the first exercise and second star, I changed by looking for the tips of the stars. A20 14 F I went about looking for the stars by look(ing) at the whole page, then looking at the squigally lines. A21 14 F Sometimes I just saw them when I looked down at the page, and other times, I looked for the pointed part at the top of the star. Appendix S I 152 A23 14 M I looked for the shape, but then I couldn't find any. Then I looked for the parallel line going across the page to see if I could find any, and I did. But in the last three, I saw them right away! A24 13 F (I) looked for stars, then looked for straight lines with perfect triangles on top, then looked for the centre of (the) star. A27 15 M (I) looked for shapes of a star. (Then I) looked for the tops of stars and (the) bottom W (shape). B06 17 M I looked for the top triangle, then the two diagonals. But they basically just stood out, and the slanted lines connected the 3 stars together. B08 17 F The five minute ones just jumped out The fifteen minute ones: either look for the straight lines across the page and the correct top triangle shape above the line, or you look for the diagonal lines across the page and the stars fall on these lines. B09 17 F I started (sort) of just staring at the page until I found them, but by the end, I just looked along the horizontal line to find the top triangle and then I knew there was a star there. B13 17 M Some I got from looking for the whole star. On the last page I followed the lines from two of the hidden stars to find the third. B16 17 F I just looked for straight lines across, and then looked for perfect triangles on top of that line. From there, you just look at the bottom to see if it matched. Before, I just Appendix S I 153 looked for the star shape. B21 15 F (I) just plainly looked, then started looking for the top parts of it, then looking closer to the book(let). B22 15 F On the first page I looked for the whole star. On the second page and third page, I looked for the two bottom points of the star. On the fourth page, I looked along the heavy black lines. B23 15 F I just looked at the page and the star jumped out. On the last page I went horizontally across the page like reading a book and on every line I looked for a star until I found three. 3) A N A L Y T I C C A T E G O R Y (27/48 = 56%) a) Top Triangle [7/27 = 26%] A22 14 F A25 13 F A28 15 M B01 17 M B l l 17 M B14 16 M B18 15 F I looked for the top triangle because I found it easiest to spot I used this method throughout the 6 pages and it was successful. I looked for straight lines that were parallel to the top of the page. Along these lines, I looked for triangles. I saw wriggly lines coming across. Then I just looked for small top stars. I just looked for the top point of the star. Look for the tops of the stars or follow the straight lines across. I looked for a straight line, then when I found a perfect peak, I found i t I looked for the top part of (the) triangle first, then I see i f Appendix S I 154 it make(s) a star. b) Multiple Analytic [4727 = 15%] A07 17 F (At) first I was looking for the triangles which formed the top of the stars, but as you can tell by the first scores, that method didn't work very well. Then I noticed that all (of) the stars were located on the long horizontal lines which ran across the pages. A08 17 F In the fifteen minute ones, I followed any Une. In the five minute ones, I followed the dark line. A30 17 F I looked for the tip of the star, where I would put the dot. I found one looking for the center pentagon. 825 16 M I saw (that) all stars have angles like for the top triangle, so I looked for it I thought of this for the third test I did not for the second. I tried moving my head back. I tried looking at it kinda cross-eyed. c) Scanning [4/27 = 15%] A05 17 F I looked at the ends of each line and followed them with my pen until I saw a star. A17 16 F Just going through all of the areas of the page examining the various lines. A18 17 M (D started in the middle looking for a good triangle, and then went to the corners. A19 13 M I looked (for) the horizontal and diagonal lines and then took it from (there). d) Pentagon [4/27 = 15%] A10 17 F I looked for the centre of the star and then found the points. Appendix S I 155 A12 16 F I looked for the shape, and found the middle and edges of each star, then marked it down. A14 17 M (For the) first one I looked for the tips of the stars, but found it easier to find the pentagon inside the star. (Then I found that) they were all on two parallel lines. A15 17 F I start from the middle and work outward. e) Lines [3/27 = 11%] B15 19 M Well, I looked at the solid black lines. B17 17 M (I) followed (the) dark lines across (the) paper. B24 15 F Looked for a dark solid line going across (the) page after the first two pages. f) Angle [3/27 = 11%] B02 17 M Look for (the) diagonal lines leading to a flat line. B04 17 F I just followed the straight lines that went on an even slant downwards and kept trying until I saw the point of the star, then marked it. B07 17 M I looked for the lines on a certain angle that intersected. g) Parallel Diagonals [1/27 = 3.5%] B05 18 M I looked for two lines running parallel to each other, running almost diagonal(ly) across the page. h) Triangles [1/27 = 3.5%] A04 17 F 'Til I found the first star, it seemed hopeless. Then I found the first star, and then looked for triangles the same size and in the (same) position. 

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