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The function of Andre Brassard's film "Il etait une fois dans l'Est" in the context of Michel Tremblay's… Loiselle, André 1989

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THE FUNCTION QF ANDRE BRASSARD'S FILM  "1L ETA IT UNE FOIS DANS L'EST" IN T_HE_ CONTEXT QF MICHEL TREMBLAY'S "CYCLE DES BELLES-SOEURS" By Andre L o i s e l l e B.A., U n i v e r s i t e du Quebec a Montreal, 1986 Diploma(FlIra S t u d i e s ) , The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1988 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Theatre) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1989 © Andre L o i s e l l e , 1989 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of THEATRE The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date September 28 1989 DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT A number of Michel Trerablay's plays are r e f e r r e d to as the "Cycle des B e l l e s - S o e u r s " . T h i s ensemble of works, bound by a commonness of d i a l e c t , c h a r a c t e r s and m i l i e u , c o n s t i t u t e s a coherent dramatic u n i v e r s e . In 1973, f i v e years a f t e r the premiere of the f i r s t play of the C y c l e (Les Be 11es-soeurs). Michel Tremblay and Andre Brassard, who has d i r e c t e d most of Tremblay's p l a y s , t e m p o r a r i l y l e f t the stage to prolong the e l a b o r a t i o n of the "Cycle des Be 1 1es-soeurs" i n a f i l m c a l l e d JJ_ e t a l t une f o i s  dans 1'Est. Rather than being an a d a p t a t i o n of one s p e c i f i c work, the f i l m gathers a dozen of Michel Tremblay's c h a r a c t e r s from s i x d i f f e r e n t p l a y s . When i t f i r s t came out, H_ e t a l t une f o i s dans 1'Es t was p e r c e i v e d by many c r i t i c s as a f i l m anthology of Michel Tremblay's p l a y s : a work which p o i n t s out to, compiles, and summarizes other works but which has l i t t l e a r t i s t i c value of i t s own. Luc P e r r e a u l t , f o r instance, wrote i n 1974 that the f i l m i s "une a n t h o l o g i e pure et simple de ce q u ' i l ( M . Tremblay) a deja c r e e " ( l ) . It i s as such -- an anthology of Tremblay's plays --that the f i l m i s s t i l l o f t e n d e s c r i b e d today. In the 1988 e d i t i o n of the D i c t i onnai re du c inema quebeco i s. Michel Coulombe and Marcel Jean c a l l the f i l m an " a n t h o l o g i e a n t i c i p e e de l'oeuvre de Tremblay".(2) - i i -The author of t h i s t h e s i s d i s a g r e e s with the n o t i o n of the f i l m as an anthology of Tremblay's p l a y s . The purpose of t h i s study i s thus to demonstrate that JJ_ e t a i t une f o i s dans 1'Es t i s a work whose f u n c t i o n i n the Cycl e i s as genuine, as e x c l u s i v e and as i n t e g r a t e d as that of Hosanna. En pieces detachees or any other play of the ensemble. To study the f u n c t i o n of the f i l m i n r e l a t i o n to the "Cycle des Be 11es-soeurs", the author conducts a two-part a n a l y s i s c o v e r i n g both the dramatic u n i v e r s e of the pla y s , and i t s cin e m a t i c r e - p r e s e n t a t i o n . The f i r s t , and main part of t h i s work i s devoted to a study of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the stage c h a r a c t e r s and t h e i r c i n e m a t i c c o u n t e r p a r t s . In the second part of the t h e s i s , the author concentrates, f i r s t , on a s p e c i f i c a n a l y s i s of the f i l m , and f i n a l l y , engages i n an o v e r a l l c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the i n t e r r e l a t i o n of the plays and the f i l m i n order to e s t a b l i s h the o r g a n i c f u n c t i o n of JJ_ e t a i t une f o1s dans 1'Est i n the context of Michel Tremblay's "Cycle des Be 11es-soeurs". The methodological approach of the author i s based on t h e o r i e s of the s e m l o t i c of Theatre and Cinema, as well as on some aspects of phenomenological, p s y c h o a n a l y t i c a l and sp e c t a t o r / r e a d e r - r e s p o n s e c r i t i c i s m . - i i i -The c o n c l u s i o n drawn a t t h e end of t h e t h e s i s i s t h e fo1 1 owing: The f u n c t i o n of JJ_ e t a i t une f o i s dans 1'Es t i n t h e c o n t e x t of the " C y c l e des Be 1 1 e s - s o e u r s " i s one of d e m a r c a t i o n . I t i n d i c a t e s the p a s s a g e of t h e d r a m a t i s t from a " T h e a t r e Q u e b e c o i s " p r a c t i c e , to a mode of w r i t i n g c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a l e s s e r i n t e r e s t i n t h e Immediate p o l i t i c s of t h e n a t i o n , and a g r e a t e r p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h u n i v e r s a l themes. - i v -ENDNOTES 1 Luc P e r r e a u l t , " T r e m b l a y e t B r a s s a r d : "On e s t pas des Jeanne d ' A r c " " , La P r e s s e . March 2, 1974, p.D-10. 2 M. Coulombe, and M. J e a n , d l r s . Le. D l c t l o n n a l r e du cinema  Q u e b e c o i s ( M o n t r e a l : E d i t i o n s du B o r e a l , 1988), p. 60. - v -TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i i INTRODUCTION 1 PART ONE: The Dwellers of Michel Tremblay's "Cycle des Be 11es-Soeurs" 16 1. Les Be 11es-Soeurs 18 2. En pieces detachees 45 La Duches se de Langea i s / Demain matin. Montr6a1 m'attend 69 3. A to i , pour tou.jours. ta Mar i e-Lou 84 Hosanna 106 PART TWO: The Fu n c t i o n of the F i l m i n the Context of the Cycle 129 4. n_ e t a i t une f o i s dans 1'Est 132 5. In the Context of the Cycle 157 SELECTIVE BIBLIOGRAPHY 176 - v i -ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Ce t o u v r a g e n ' a u r a i t j a m a i s e t e r e a l i s e sans l e s u p p o r t moral e t m a t e r i e l d ' E l i a n e , a q u i j e d o i s t o u t , de S y l v i e e t O d e t t e , e n v e r s q u i j e me sens i n f i n i m e n t r e d e v a b l e , de C h r i s t i n e , C h a r l e s - D a n i e l l e , J e a n , B r e n t e t Susanne, dont l ' a m i t i e m'est p l u s c h e r e q u ' i l s ne p e u v e n t l ' i m a g i n e r , e t de J a c q u e s , q u i marche t o u j o u r s a mes c o t e s . I a l s o want t o e x p r e s s my g r a t i t u d e t o t h e P r o f e s s o r s of the T h e a t r e D epartment of t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , e s p e c i a l l y P r o f e s s o r P e t e r L o e f f l e r f o r h i s c o n t i n u o u s s u p p o r t of my work. - v i i -- 1 -INTRQDUCTI ON On March 4, 1968, J e a n - C l a u d e G ermain a t t e n d e d t h e f i r s t p u b l i c r e a d i n g of M i c h e l T r e m b l a y ' s p l a y L e s Be 1 1 e s - s o e u r s , h e l d a t t h e A p p r e n t i s - S o r c i e r s t h e a t r e by t h e C e n t r e d ' E s s a i des A u t e u r s d r a m a t i q u e s . S t r u c k by t h e power and o r i g i n a l i t y of t h e d r a m a t i s t ' s work, Germain w r o t e , i n an a r t i c l e p u b l i s h e d a few days l a t e r , t h a t L e s Be 1 1 e s - s o e u r s marked t h e b e g i n n i n g of a new e r a i n F r e n c h - C a n a d i a n drama: " L u n d i s o i r d e r n i e r , l e nouveau t h e a t r e , q u e b e c o i s e s t n e ! " ( 1 ) ( L a s t Monday e v e n i n g , t h e new Q u e b e c o i s t h e a t r e was b o r n . — A l l t r a n s l a t i o n s a r e my own, u n l e s s e x p l i c i t l y n o t e d o t h e r w i s e . ) W i t h i n t h e n e x t few months, i t became c l e a r t h a t M i c h e l T r e m b l a y , t h e n r a t h e r unknown t o t h e p u b l i c , had, i n d e e d , l a i d the grounds of a new t h e a t r e . The tremendous s u c c e s s of t h e f i r s t p r o d u c t i o n of Les Be 1 1 e s - s o e u r s . w h i c h opened a t t h e T h e S t r e du R i d e a u V e r t on A u g u s t e 2 8 t h 1968, and t h e e x t r a o r d i n a r y p o l e m i c w h i c h a r o s e from i t s use of j o u a l ( F r e n c h - C a n a d i a n s l a n g ) and i t s f o r t h r i g h t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of M o n t r e a l w o r k i n g - c l a s s women, c o n f i r m e d Germain's a s s e r t i o n t h a t the c r e a t i o n of Les  Be 1 1 e s - s o e u r s was n u n evenement c a p i t a l n ( 2 ) (a major e v e n t ) i n the h i s t o r y of F r e n c h - C a n a d i a n t h e a t r e : "une e t a p e a u s s i i m p o r t a n t e e t a u s s i d e c i s i v e que l e f u r e n t a l e u r epoque T i - c o q ( s i c ) de G r a t i e n -2-G e l i n a s ou Zone de Marcel Dub6."(3) (A step as important and as d e c i s i v e as G r a t i e n G e l i n a s ' s T i t-Cog or Marcel Dube's Zone). E v e n t u a l l y , even Michel Tremblay's d i s p a r a g e r s had to acknowledge the r e g e n e r a t i v e i n f l u e n c e that the s t a g i n g of Les  Be 11es-soeurs had exerted over subsequent t h e a t r i c a l productions i n Quebec. The c r i t i c of the Montreal newspaper La_ Presse, M a r t i a l Dassylva, f o r instance, who i n 1968 had b e l i t t l e d the r e v o l u t i o n a r y value of the play, mostly at the l e v e l of what Jean-Claude Germain had c a l l e d i t s "Nouveau r6a1isme"(4), f i n a l l y admitted i n 1973 that " l a c r e a t i o n des Be 1 1es-soeurs de Michel Tremblay au Rideau Vert en 1968 represente 6videmment une d a t e - c h a r n i e r e 5 ) (the f i r s t p r o d u c t i o n of Les Be 1 1es-soeurs by Michel Tremblay at the Rideau Vert i n 1968 marks, of course, a t u r n i n g p o i n t . ) The impact of Les Be 11es-soeurs on French-Canadian t h e a t r e had a l l of a sudden assured Michel Tremblay of a place i n dramatic l i t e r a t u r e as one of the most s i g n i f i c a n t a r c h i t e c t s of the development of a n a t i o n a l dramaturgy in Quebec. But, c o n t r a r y to what some c r i t i c s such as Georges-Henri D'Auteuil(6) had p r e d i c t e d , the young dram a t i s t ' s i n s p i r a t i o n d i d not s t a r t f a i l i n g him a f t e r t h i s f i r s t success. In f a c t , Michel Tremblay would go on to w r ite plays of even greater dramatic power than Les  Be 1 1es-soeurs. For instance, A to i . pour t o u l o u r s , ta Mar i e-Lou. w r i t t e n i n November and December of 1970(7), has been r e f e r r e d to as " p e u t - i t r e la m e i l l e u r e piece qu^becolse jamais -3-e c r i t e n ( 8 ) ( P e r h a p s t h e b e s t Q u e b e c o i s p l a y e v e r w r i t t e n ) ; f o r i t s p a r t , A 1 b e r t i n e . en C i n q T e m p s , f i r s t p r o d u c e d i n O t t a w a i n t h e f a l l o f 1 9 8 4 ( 9 ) , Is p r a i s e d by J e a n C l e o G o d i n i n t h e s e t e r m s : " . . . d a n s t o u t l e r e p e r t o i r e d r a m a t i q u e q u e b e c o i s , j e ne v o l s r l e n q u i s u r p a s s e l a b e a u t e de c e t e x t e . " ( 1 0 ) ( i n a l l o f Q u e b e c d r a m a , I c a n n o t t h i n k o f a n y t h i n g more b e a u t i f u l t h a n t h i s t e x t ) . Few Q u e b e c o i s t h e a t r e c r i t i c s w o u l d a r g u e w i t h G o d i n when he d e c l a r e s , 20 y e a r s a f t e r t h e p r e m i e r e o f L e s Be 1 1 e s - s o e u r s . t h a t M i c h e l T r e m b l a y " d e m e u r e n o t r e p l u s g r a n d d r a m a t u r g e " ( 1 1 ) ( r e m a i n s o u r g r e a t e s t d r a m a t i s t ) . F rom La . D u c h e s s e de L a n g e a i s ( 1 9 6 9 ) . i n w h i c h t h e a u t h o r shows h i s m a s t e r y o f t h e m o n o l o g u e , t o Le. V r a i  M o n d e ? ( 1 9 8 7 ) . whose r e m a r k a b l e m i s e - e n - a b i m e s t r u c t u r e c a n be l i k e n e d t o t h e d r a m a t i c p r a c t i c e o f some p o s t - r e f e r e n d u m - Q u e b e c a e s t h e t e p l a y w r i g h t s s u c h a s Normand C h a u r e t t e and M i c h e l - M a r c B o u c h a r d , t h e p l a y s o f M i c h e l T r e m b l a y r e m a i n among t h e most i n n o v a t i v e and p o w e r f u l t h e a t r e p i e c e s on t h e C a n a d i a n s t a g e t o d a y . B u t what makes M i c h e l T r e m b l a y ' s o e u v r e t r u l y f a s c i n a t i n g and u n i q u e i s t h e c o h e r e n c e o f t h e f i c t i v e u n i v e r s e w h i c h he has c r e a t e d t h r o u g h a number o f h i s w o r k s . T h i s e n s e m b l e o f p l a y s i s c a l l e d " L e C y c l e d e s Be 1 1 e s - s o e u r s " , i n r e f e r e n c e t o t h e f i r s t p l a y o f t h e C y c l e . Not a l l o f M i c h e l T r e m b l a y ' s works a r e r e l a t e d t o t h e " C y c l e d e s Be 1 1 e s - s o e u r s " . T h e r e a r e , f o r i n s t a n c e , t h e f o u r t e x t s w h i c h R e n a t e U s m i a n i g a t h e r s u n d e r t h e l a b e l o f " T h e G r e a t B e y o n d " ( 1 2 ) : C o n t e s p o u r b u v e u r s a t t a r d e s ( 1 3 ) , a c o l l e c t i o n -4-of s h o r t s t o r i e s ; La. C i t e dans 1 ' o e u f ( 1 4 ) . a n o v e l ; and two s h o r t p l a y s : L e s Paons. p r o d u c e d i n 1971 b u t s t i l l u n p u b l i s h e d , and L e s  S o c 1 e s ( 1 5 ) . p u b l i s h e d i n 1979 i n The Canad i a n T h e a t r e Rev i ew. W r i t t e n i n s t a n d a r d F r e n c h and d e s c r i b i n g a w o r l d of m y t h o l o g y and f a n t a s y , t h e s e f o u r works c r e a t e a u n i v e r s e of t h e i r own q u i t e a p a r t f r o m t h a t of Germaine L a u z o n , her s i s t e r s and her n e i g h b o u r s from L e s Be 1 1 e s - s o e u r s . L e s Heros de mon e n f a n c e ( 1 6 ) . an e x t r a v a g a n t t h e a t r i c a l p a r o d y of c h i l d r e n f a i r y t a l e s ; L'Impromptu  D ' 0 u t r e m o n t ( 1 7 ) . a h a r s h c r i t i c i s m of t h e Q u e b e c o i s p e t i t e b o u r g e o i s i e ; L e s A n c l e n n e s O d e u r s ( 1 8 ) and Le. Coeur d £ c o u v e r t ( 1 9 ) . a p l a y and a n o v e l w h i c h t a k e a t o u c h i n g l o o k a t t h e l o v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s of J e a n - M a r c , a m i d d l e - a g e d F r e n c h p r o f e s s o r and M i c h e l T r e m b l a y ' s f i c t i v e a l t e r ego, a r e some of t h e o t h e r works w h i c h a r e n o t d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e " C y c l e des Be 1 1 e s - s o e u r s " . A l l of t h e s e t e x t s c a r r y t h e d i s t i n c t i v e M i c h e l T r e m b l a y stamp and a r e l e g i t i m a t e and c o h e r e n t p a r t s of t h e a u t h o r ' s p r o d u c t i o n . However, the h o m o g e n e i t y of t h e works w h i c h compose the " C y c l e des Be 1 1 e s - s o e u r s " goes beyond a mere s i m i l a r i t y of s t y l e , or t h e d i s c e r n i b l e p r e s e n c e , b e h i n d a l l c h a r a c t e r s , of a s i n g l e s u b c o n s c i o u s . They a r e bound by a commonness of d i a l e c t , c h a r a c t e r s and m i l i e u . The p l a y s of t h e C y c l e a r e L e s  B e l l e s - s o e u r s ( 1 9 6 8 ) . En p i e c e s D e t a c h e e s ( 1 9 6 9 ) . La D u c h e s s e de  L a n g e a i s ( 1 9 6 9 ) , T r o i s p e t i t s t o u r s ( 1 9 6 9 ) , D e m a i n m a t i n . Montrea1  m ' a t t e n d ( 1 9 7 0 ) . A. t o 1, pour t o u 1 o u r s . t a Mar i e - L o u ( 1 9 7 1 ) . Hosanna( 1973) , Bon.iour . l a , b o n j o u r ! (1974) , S u r p r i se !  S u r p r 1 s e ! ( 1 9 7 5 ) . S a i n t e Carmen de 1 a M a i n ( 1 9 7 6 ) . and Damn6e Manon. -5-s a c r e e S a n d r a ( 1 9 7 7 ) ( 2 0 ) . A l l t h e s e p l a y s a r e w r i t t e n In j o u a l , and t a k e p l a c e e i t h e r i n t h e w o r k i n g - c l a s s m i l i e u of t h e P l a t e a u M o n t -Royal i n t h e e a s t - e n d of M o n t r e a l , o r i n t h e b a r s and b r o t h e l s of M o n t r e a l ' s " M a i n " - S t - L a u r e n t S t r e e t . As w e l l as s h a r i n g a t e r r i t o r y and a l a n g u a g e , a number of p l a y s s h a r e c h a r a c t e r s . The D u c h e s s e de L a n g e a i s , Manon and Carmen, j u s t t o name a few, a p p e a r or a r e m e n t i o n e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e C y c l e , t h u s e s t a b l i s h i n g e x p l i c i t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between most of t h e p i e c e s . To t h e s e e l e v e n p l a y s a few more works must be added. A l t h o u g h , t h o s e works a r e n o t o f t e n c o n s i d e r e d as p a r t of t h e C y c l e , t h e i r l a n g u a g e , m i l i e u and c h a r a c t e r s a r e d e f i n i t e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e u n i v e r s e of Les Be 1 1 e s - s o e u r s . T h e s e works a r e C t ' a t o n t o u r L a u r a C a d i e u x ( 2 1 ) . I 1 e t a i t une f o i s dans  1'Es t ( 2 2 ) . t h e f i v e volumes of C h r o n i ques du P 1 a t e a u  M o n t - R o y a l ( 2 3 ) . and M i c h e l T r e m b l a y ' s two most r e c e n t p l a y s A 1ber t i ne. en c i n q temps. and Le_ v r a i monde?(24) w h i c h c o u l d be s a i d t o b e l o n g t o t h e " N e o - C y c l e des Be 1 1 e s - s o e u r s " C ' t ' a t o n t o u r , L a u r a Cad i eux. p u b l i s h e d i n 1973, i s a n o v e l i n the form of a l o n g monologue d u r i n g w h i c h L a u r a r e l a t e s her day i n t h e w a i t i n g room of her d o c t o r ' s o f f i c e . The d e s c r i p t i o n of f a m i l i a r e a s t - e n d M o n t r e a l p l a c e s s u c h as t h e t h r e a t e n i n g B e a u d r y m e t r o - s t a t i o n , and t h e u n m i s t a k a b l e j o u a l d i a l e c t u s e d by L a u r a --" L ' e g l i s e moderne, moe, j e l ' a i dans l e c u l . . . " ( 2 5 ) (Modern C h u r c h , my a s s ) -- s e t t h e c h a r a c t e r i n t h e same u n i v e r s e as Les  Be 1 1 e s - s o e u r s . The d i e g e s i s of t h e n o v e l , however, does not a l l o w -6-t o e s t a b l i s h a s p e c i f i c r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h any of t h e p l a y s of t h e C y c l e . A f a t raadame L a u z o n i s m e n t i o n e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e monologue, b u t n o t h i n g a l l o w s t h e r e a d e r t o p o s i t i v e l y i d e n t i f y t h i s c h a r a c t e r w i t h t h e c h a r a c t e r of Germaine L a u z o n i n Les  Be 1 1 e s - s o e u r s . A l s o , L a u r a ' s name i s m e n t i o n e d i n a l i s t of p e o p l e h a v i n g a t t e n t e d t h e b i r t h d a y p a r t y of Y v e t t e L o n g p r e ' s s i s t e r - i n - l a w , i n Les Be 1 1 e s - s o e u r s . but s t i l l her c o n n e c t i o n w i t h G e rmaine and t h e g i r l s r e m a i n s u n c e r t a i n . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between L a u r a C a d i e u x and Germaine L a u z o n does become e x p l i c i t , however, i n C h r o n i q u e s du P 1 a t e a u Mont-Roya1 . As t h e r e a d e r d i s c o v e r s i n t h e f i r s t volume of t h e s e r i e s , p u b l i s h e d i n 1978, L a u r a i s t h e c o u s i n of one of G e r m a i n e ' s n e i g h b o u r s , A l b e r t i n e - a l s o known as R o b e r t i n e i n En. p i e c e s d e t a c h e e s . (26) In t h e major l i t e r a r y work t h a t C h r o n i q u e s du P 1 a t e a u  Mont-Roya1 c o n s t i t u t e , M i c h e l T r e m b l a y manages t o e l a b o r a t e a complex network of r e l a t i o n s h i p s between dozens of c h a r a c t e r s from most of h i s major p l a y s , and s u c c e e d s i n t r a n s p o s i n g i n t o n o v e l i s t i c form t h e u n i v e r s e w h i c h has grown o u t of more t h a n a d ecade of s t a g e p r o d u c t i o n . At t h e c e n t r e of t h e u n i v e r s e d e p i c t e d i n t h e C h r o n i q u e s -- t h e e a s t - e n d of M o n t r e a l i n t h e 1940's and e a r l y 1950's -- we f i n d A l b e r t i n e , her d a u g h t e r T h e r e s e ( H e l e n e i n En p i e c e s d e t a c h e e s ) . her mother V i c t o i r e , her b r o t h e r G a b r i e l , h i s w i f e ( l a g r o s s e femme), t h e i r t h r e e s o n s ( 2 7 ) , and E d o u a r d , A l b e r t i n e ' s s e c o n d b r o t h e r , b e t t e r known t o t h e t h e a t r e p u b l i c as t h e D u c h e s s e de L a n g e a i s . Around t h i s n u c l e u s g r a v i t a t e most of t h e c h a r a c t e r s we have come t o know t h r o u g h t h e a u t h o r ' s p l a y s : -7-from L u c i e n n e B o i l e a u ( 2 8 ) , i n t r o d u c e d i n B o n l o u r . 1 a. B o n j o u r . t o M a d e l e i n e and A l e x ( 2 9 ) , p r e s e n t e d on s t a g e i n Le. V r a i Monde?. In an i n t e r v i e w g i v e n i n 1981, M i c h e l T r e m b l a y c l e a r l y e x p r e s s e d t h e i n t e n t i o n s b e h i n d t h i s g e n e s i s of h i s t h e a t r e : J ' a i e c r i t un c y c l e e n t r e 1965 e t 1976, e t j ' a i eu b e s o i n de d e c r i r e au monde comment l e s p e r s o n n a g e s en e t a i e n t a r r i v e s a # t r e ce q u ' i l s e t a i e n t . Quand l e s q u a t r e romans des C h r o n 1ques v o n t e t r e f i n i s , l ' o e u v r e s u i v a n t e s e r a L e s  Be 1 1 e s - s o e u r s . J e s u i s en t r a i n d ' e x p l i q u e r comment mes p e r s o n n a g e s s o n t devenus l e s be 1 1 e s - s o e u r s , comment i l s s o n t devenus M a r i e - L o u , Carmen, e t c . ( 3 0 ) (I w r o t e a c y c l e between 1965 and 1976, and I needed t o d e s c r i b e t o t h e p e o p l e how t h e c h a r a c t e r s had managed t o t u r n o u t t h e way t h e y d i d . When the f o u r ( n o w f i v e ) volumes of t h e C h r o n i q u e s a r e f i n i s h e d , t h e n e x t work w i l l be Les  Be 1 1 e s - s o e u r s . I am e x p l a i n i n g how my c h a r a c t e r s became the s i s t e r s i n law ( l e s be 1 1 e s - s o e u r s ) , how t h e y became M a r i e - L o u , Carmen e t c . ) Now t h a t t h e C h r o n i q u e s du P I a t e a u Mont-Roya1 have been w r i t t e n , t h e y have t o be c o n s i d e r e d i n any s e r i o u s a n a l y s i s of t h e " C y c l e des Be 1 1 e s - s o e u r s " , f o r t h e y p r o v i d e t h e c r i t i c w i t h e n l i g h t e n i n g and n e c e s s a r y I n s i g h t s I n t o t h e n a r r a t i v e i d e n t i t y of t h e c h a r a c t e r s . But, t h e C h r o n i q u e s were n o t M i c h e l T r e m b l a y ' s f i r s t a t t e m p t a t o r g a n i z i n g t h e u n i v e r s e of h i s p l a y s i n t o one work. In 1973, M i c h e l T r e m b l a y and Andre B r a s s a r d , who has d i r e c t e d most of t h e a u t h o r ' s p l a y s , t e m p o r a r i l y l e f t t h e t h e a t r e t o p r o l o n g t h e i r e x p l o r a t i o n of t h e m i l i e u of Les Be 1 I e s - s o e u r s In a f i l m c a l l e d l\_ e t a i t une f o i s dans 1 ' e s t . F o l l o w i n g Andre B r a s s a r d ' s o r i g i n a l i d e a ( 3 1 ) , t h e y t r i e d t o c r e a t e a f i c t i o n a l w o r l d i n h a b i t e d by c h a r a c t e r s from h a l f a d o z e n p l a y s ( 3 2 ) by M i c h e l T r e m b l a y . One might be tempted t o compare the f i l m t o -8-Chroniques du P1ateau Mont-Roya1. A f t e r having read the 1500 page work, one could argue that the outcome of Michel Tremblay's venture i n t o cinema i s a mere f i l m anthology of h i s plays - a work which p o i n t s out to, compiles, and summarizes other works but has l i t t l e a r t i s t i c value of i t s own. It i s as such, namely as an anthology of Michel Tremblay's p l a y s , that the f i l m was r e c e i v e d by many c r i t i c s when i t f i r s t came out i n March of 1974(33). Marc Blandford, f o r instance, r e f e r s to the f i l m as a v u l g a r i s a t i o n cinematographique du thea"tre de Tremblay (qui) l a i s s e r a p a r f o i s a l ' i n i t i e une impression de deja vu(34) (cinematographica1 p o p u l a r i z a t i o n of Michel Tremblay's drama which might sometimes leave the i n i t i a t e s with a f e e l i n g of deja vu). Luc P e r r e a u l t , f o r h i s part, c a l l s i t "une a n t h o l o g i e pure et simple de ce qu'i1(M.Tremb1 ay) a deja cree."(35) (a pure and simple anthology of what he has a l r e a d y c r e a t e d . ) . As f o r Leo B o n n e v i l l e , he makes the f o l l o w i n g comment: L'ennui c'est que pour bien comprendre ce qui se passe a l ' e c r a n , i l f a u t connattre prea1ab1ement les pieces de Michel Tremblay. (36) (The problem i s that i n order to understand what i s happening on screen, one has to know Michel Tremblay's plays beforehand.) The r e c e p t i o n given to the f i l m by E n g l i s h c r i t i c s was s i m i l a r . Jack Kapica, f o r example, d e s c r i b e s i t as "a choppy r e - c a p i t u l a t i o n of e v e r y t h i n g he's(M. Tremblay) done on stage f o r the l a s t s i x years."(37) Although the c r i t i c s recognize some of the b a s i c q u a l i t i e s of the production, such as the engaging - 9 -p e r f o r m a n c e of C l a u d e G a l as L a D u c h e s s e , t h e y do n o t a c k n o w l e d g e t h e e x i s t e n c e of t h e f i l m as an autonomous p a r t of t h e " C y c l e des Be 1 1 e s - s o e u r s " . T h i s view of t h e f i l m i s p r o b a b l y an e f f e c t of t h e p r e c o n c e i v e d i d e a t h a t t h e o n l y i n t e n t i o n , i n p r o d u c i n g JJ_ e t a 11  une f o i s dans 1'Es t . was t o put t h e s t a g e w o r l d o n t o t h e s c r e e n i n o r d e r t o r e a l i z e a permanent v e r s i o n of t h e l i v e p r o d u c t i o n s . I d i s a g r e e w i t h t h i s n o t i o n . In my o p i n i o n Andre B r a s s a r d and M i c h e l T r e m b l a y a c h i e v e an e x t e n s i o n of t h e i r c r e a t i v e work, o u t s i d e of t h e l i m i t s of t h e t h e a t r e , i n t o t h e r e a l m of t h e moving image. The p u r p o s e of t h i s t h e s i s i s t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t Tremb1 a y - B r a s s a r d c r e a t e d a work whose f u n c t i o n i n t h e c y c l e i s as g e n u i n e , as e x c l u s i v e , and as i n t e g r a t e d as t h a t of Hosanna. En  p l e c e s d e t a c h e e s or any o t h e r p l a y of t h e C y c l e . To s t u d y t h e f u n c t i o n of t h e f i l m i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e " C y c l e des Be 1 1 e s - s o e u r s " , I s h a l l c o n d u c t a t w o - p a r t a n a l y s i s w h i c h w i l l c o v e r b o t h t h e d r a m a t i c u n i v e r s e of t h e C y c l e and i t s c i n e m a t i c r e - p r e s e n t a t i o n . It i s m o s t l y t h r o u g h th e c h a r a c t e r s t h a t Tremb1 a y - B r a s s a r d manage to r e - c r e a t e on f i l m t h e u n i v e r s e d e v e l o p e d on s t a g e s i n c e 1968. C o n s e q u e n t l y , th e f i r s t , and main p a r t of t h i s work w i l l be d e v o t e d t o a s t u d y of t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e s t a g e c h a r a c t e r s and t h e i r f i l m i c c o u n t e r p a r t s . F o r e a c h major c h a r a c t e r of t h e f i l m , I w i l l a n a l y z e the t h e a t r i c a l p r e s e n t a t i o n of the p e r s o n a g e , and t h e c i n e m a t o g r a p h i c means used by M i c h e l T r e m b l a y and Andre B r a s s a r d t o r e - p r e s e n t t h e c h a r a c t e r on f i l m . In the s e c o n d p a r t of t h e t h e s i s , I w i l l f i r s t c o n c e n t r a t e on an a n a l y s i s -10-of t h e s p e c i f i c a s p e c t s of t h e f i l m w h i c h make i t a f u 1 1 y - f 1 edged c r e a t i v e work r a t h e r t h a n a mere a n t h o l o g y of T r e m b l a y ' s t h e a t r e . F i n a l l y , I w i l l engage i n an o v e r a l l c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n of t h e p l a y s and t h e f i l m i n o r d e r t o e s t a b l i s h t h e o r g a n i c f u n c t i o n of t h e f i l m i n t h e c o n t e x t of M i c h e l T r e m b l a y ' s " C y c l e des Be 1 1 e s - s o e u r s " . -11-ENDNOTES 1 J e a n - C l a u d e G e r m a i n . " L e s Be 1 1 e s - S o e u r s : un evenement c a p i t a l " , Le P e t i t J o u r n a 1 . March 10, 1968, p.46. 2 Germain. "Les Be 1 1 e s - s o e u r s ; un evenement C a p i t a l " . 3 J e a n - C l a u d e Germain, " J ' a i eu l e coup de f o u d r e " , i n L e s Be 1 1 e s - s o e u r s ( M o n t r e a l : H o l t , R i n e h a r t & W i n s t o n , " T h e a t r e v i v a n t 6", 1968, 7 1 p . ) , p.3. 4 M a r t i a l D a s s y l v a , "Le nouveau r e a l i s m e ( ? ) des Be 1 1 e s - s o e u r s e t l e j o u a l " , L a P r e s s e . September 14, 1968, p.28. 5 M a r t i a l D a s s y l v a , " T r e m b l a y e t ses Be 1 1 e s - s o e u r s v i n r e n t done...", L a P r e s s e , June 16, 1973, p.D-4. 6 G e o r g e s - H e n r i D ' A u t e u i l , " Le T h e e a t r e E_n p i e c e s d e t a c h e e s " , R e l a t i o n s , no 339, June 1969, p.181. " I I semble qu'un c e r t a i n s u c c e s des Be 1 1 e s - s o e u r s 1'a g r i s e e t qu' i1 (Tremb1 ay) se c r o i t c o n s c r i t a commettre une p i e c e par mois. C ' e s t t r o p . D ' a u t a n t p l u s que s a v e i n e p e u t v i t e s ' e p u i s e r . C e l a commence d e j a . " ( I t seems t h a t t h e s u c c e s s of L e s Be 1 I e s - s o e u r s went to h i s head, and t h a t M.Tremblay f e e l s c o m p e l l e d t o p e r p e t r a t e one p l a y a month. I t i s t o o much. A l l t h e more so s i n c e h i s i n s p i r a t i o n might soon f a i l him. I t i s a l r e a d y s t a r t i n g t o do so.) 7 D a t e s m e n t i o n e d i n M a r t i a l D a s s y 1 v a , " M i c h e 1 T r e m b l a y e t s a n o u v e l l e c a n t a t e 'cheap'", La P r e s s e . May 1 s t , 1971, p.D-2. -12-8 M i c h e l B e l a i r , "Le d e r n i e r T r e m b l a y au Quat'Sous Le T h e S t r e - v e r i t e " , Le D e v o i r . May 1 s t 1971, p.13. 9 See n o t e i n M i c h e l T r e m b l a y , A l b e r t i n e . en c i n q temps ( M o n t r e a l : Lemeac, 1984, 103p.) p.11. 10 J e a n C l e o G o d in,"Des r e p r i s e s pour demain", i n J e u 47 June 1988, p.112. 11 G o d i n , J e u 47. p.112. 12 Renate U s m i a n i , Miche1 Tremb1 ay. ( V a n c o u v e r : D o u g l a s M c l n t y r e , 1982, 178p.)p. 146. 13 M i c h e l T r e m b l a y , C o n t e s pour b u v e u r s a t t a r t e s . M o n t r e a l : E d i t i o n s du J o u r , 1966. 14 M i c h e l T r e m b l a y , La. C i t 6 dans 1 ' Oeuf, M o n t r e a l : E d i t i o n s du J o u r , 1969. 15 " S c r i p t L e s S o c 1 e s (The P e d e s t a 1 s ) M i c h e l T r e m b l a y " , C a n a d i a n T h e a t r e Review. 24, F a l l 1979, p.52. 16 M i c h e l T r e m b l a y , Les Heros de mon e n f a n c e . M o n t r e a l : Lemeac, 1976. 17 M i c h e l T r e m b l a y , L'Impromptu d'Outremont. M o n t r e a l : Lemeac, 1980. 18 M i c h e l T r e m b l a y , L e s A n c i e n n e s o d e u r s . M o n t r e a l : Lemeac, 1982. -13-19 M i c h e l T r e m b l a y , Le. Coeur d e c o u v e r t . M o n t r e a l : Lemeac, 1986. 20 D a t e s of f i r s t p r o d u c t i o n s . See D.W. R u s s e l l , " M i c h e l T r e m b l a y : B i o g r a p h i c a l C h e c k l i s t " , C a n a d i a n T h e a t r e  Review. 24, F a l l 1979, p.47-51. 21 M i c h e l T r e m b l a y , C t ' a t o n t o u r . L a u r a C a d i e u x . M o n t r e a l : E d i t i o n s du j o u r , 1973. 22 Andre B r a s s a r d , M i c h e l T r e m b l a y , JJ_ e t a i t une f o i s dans 1 ' E s t . M o n t r e a l : L ' A u r o r e , 1974, 107p. 23 M i c h e l T r e m b l a y , C h r o n i q u e s du P 1 a t e a u Mont-Roya1. 5 volumes, M o n t r e a l : Lemeac, 1. La. g r o s s e f emme d' a c o t e e s t e n c e i n t e . 1978. 2. T h e r e s e e t P i e r r e t t e 4. 1 ' eco 1 e  des S a i n t s - A n g e s , 1980. 3. La. d u c h e s s e e t 1 e r o t u r i e r . 1982. 4. Des n o u v e l i e s d * E d o u a r d . 1984. 5. Le. premi er guar t i e r de 1 a 1 une . 1989. 24 M i c h e l T r e m b l a y , Le V r a i Monde?, M o n t r e a l : Lemeac, 1987. 25 L a u r a Cad i eux. p.51 26 F o r an a c c u r a t e o v e r v i e w of t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s drawn i n the f i r s t 2 volumes of C h r o n i q u e s du P 1 a t e a u Mont-Roya1 see Dominique L a f o n , " D r a m a t u r g i e e t e c r i t u r e romanesque c h e z T r e m b l a y / l a g e n e a l o g i e d'un a u t r e l y r i s m e " , J e u 21, no.4, 1981, p.98-99. -14-27 The y o u n g e s t son of G a b r i e l and t h e f a t woman, wh i c h i s o n l y a f o e t u s i n t h e f i r s t volume, i s M i c h e l T r e m b l a y h i m s e l f : " . . . w e l l , f i r s t of a l l , i t ' s q u i t e c l e a r t h a t ' l a g r o s s e femme' i s my mother, and t h e c h i l d w h i c h i s on t h e way, t h a t ' s me." M i c h e l T r e m b l a y i n "Where t o B e g i n t h e A c c u s a t i o n " , C a n a d i a n  T h e a t r e Review, no 24, F a l l 1979, p. 30. 28 A l t h o u g h L u c i e n n e B o i l e a u i s p r e s e n t i n T h e r e s e e t  P i e r r e t t e & 1'eco1e des S a i n t s - A n g e s . her i d e n t i t y , as t h e o l d e r s i s t e r i n Bon l o u r . l a . b o n j o u r . i s c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e d o n l y i n the t h i r d vo1ume. La d u c h e s s e e t 1e r o t u r l e r . p.260. 29 To my knowlege, A l e x , M a d e l e i n e ' s husband and A l b e r t i n e ' s b r o t h e r i n law, i s m e n t i o n e d o n l y once i n t h e 1500 pages of t h e C h r o n i q u e s du P 1 a t e a u Mont-Roya1. In Des n o u v e l i e s d ' E d o u a r d . p.247. 30 In D o n a l d S m i t h , " M i c h e l T r e m b l a y e t l a Memoire c o l l e c t i v e " L e t t r e s quebeco i s e s . no 23, F a l l 1981, p.55. 31 A. B r a s s a r d once s a i d : " . . . c ' e s t moi q u i a i eu l ' i d e e de f a i r e un f i l m oil on r e u n i r a i t ce monde-1 a. . . ". In " F a c e a f a c e c a n n o i s / B r a s s a r d - T r e m b 1 ay s ' e x p 1 i q u e n t " , Cinema  quebec. v o l . 3 , no.8, Oct.22 1974, p.21. 32 En p i e c e s d e t a c h e e s ; Les Be 1 1 e s - S o e u r s : La D u c h e s s e : Demain mat i n. Montrea1 m ' a t t e n d ; Mar i e-Lou; Hosanna. 33 P r e m i e r e d i n M o n t r e a l on F r i d a y , March 1 s t , 1974. Date m e n t i o n e d i n La P r e s s e . Feb. 22, 1974, p.A-12. 34 Marc B l a n d f o r d , "Le D i a b l e e t l e s Be 1 1 e s - s o e u r s " , Le MacLean.vo1 14,no. 4, A p r i l 1974, p.12. -15-35 Luc P e r r e a u l t , " T r e m b l a y e t B r a s s a r d : "On e s t pas des Je a n n e d ' A r c " " , La. P r e s s e , March 2, 1974, p.D-10. 36 Leo B o n n e v i l l e , nJ_l_ e t a i t une f o i s dans 1 ' Es t " . S e q u e n c e s , no 76, A p r i l 1974, p. 28-29. 37 J a c k K a p i c a , "IJ_ e t a i t une f o i s dans 1'Est T r e m b l a y ' s demi-monde s t a g g e r s on f i l m . " The G a z e t t e . March 2, 1974, p.14. -16-PART ONE: The Dwe 1 1 e r s of l i i c h e 1 Tremb l a y ' s "Cyc 1 e des  Be 1 1 e s - s o e u r s " The p u r p o s e of t h e f i r s t p a r t of t h i s t h e s i s , i s t o s t u d y t h e c h a r a c t e r s of t h e p l a y s and t h e i r c i n e m a t i c r e - p r e s e n t a t i o n , i n o r d e r t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t Tremb1 a y - B r a s s a r d s u c c e e d i n t r a n s p o s i n g t h e u n i v e r s e of t h e p e r s o n a g e s on s c r e e n . But b e f o r e u n d e r t a k i n g t h e a c t u a l a n a l y s i s , i t might be u s e f u l t o i d e n t i f y p r e c i s e l y t h e i n t e r s e c t i n g d i e g e t i c e l e m e n t s of t h e p l a y s and t h e f i l m . The f i l m b r i n g s t o g e t h e r t h e two m i l i e u s w h i c h form t h e u n i v e r s e of M i c h e l T r e m b l a y ' s c h a r a c t e r s : t h e w o r k i n g - c l a s s e n v i r o n m e n t of t h e P l a t e a u M o n t - R o y a l , more p r e c i s e l y , F a b r e s t r e e t and i t s back a l l e y ; and t h e i l l i c i t c i r c l e of t h e Main s t r e e t , w h i c h a p p e a r s t o some c h a r a c t e r s as t h e o n l y way o u t of F a b r e s t r e e t . C o n f i n e d t o t h e d r a m a t i c s p a c e of F a b r e s t r e e t a p a r t m e n t s , we f i n d t h e c h a r a c t e r s of Les Be 1 1 e s - s o e u r s and En p l e c e s d e t a c h e e s . Of t h e 15 c h a r a c t e r s of L e s Be 1 1 e s - s o e u r s . o n l y 4 a r e t r u l y d e v e l o p e d i n t h e f i l m : Germaine Lauz o n , her d a u g h t e r L i n d a , her s i s t e r P i e r r e t t e G u e r i n , and L i n d a ' s f r i e n d L i s e P a q u e t t e . The o t h e r women p r e s e n t a t t h e s t a m p - p a s t i n g p a r t y a c t as f i g u r a n t s . W i t h t h e c h a r a c t e r of L i s e P a q u e t t e , Andre B r a s s a r d and M i c h e l -17-T r e m b l a y e s t a b l i s h a l i n k between Les Be 1 1 e s - s o e u r s and En P 1 e c e s  d e t a c h e e s . One of L i s e ' s f e l l o w w o r k e r s , a t N i c k ' s r e s t a u r a n t , Is H e l e n e . ( I n t h e 2nd v e r s i o n of t h e p l a y H e l e n e i s T h e r e s e ; H e n r i i s G e r a r d ; F r a n c i n c e i s J o a n n e ; C l a u d e i s M a r c e l . ) As i n t h e p l a y , H e l e n e , i n t h e f i l m , moves between th e t e r r i t o r y of t h e F a b r e s t r e e t a p a r t m e n t , and t h e demi-monde of t h e Main, from w h i c h she was once e x p e l l e d by i t s t o t t e r i n g k i n g M a u r i c e . From F a b r e s t r e e t t o Main s t r e e t , t h e m e d i o c r e e x i s t e n c e of t h e l o w e r - c l a s s , b e s t r e p r e s e n t e d by H e l e n e ' s i m p o t e n t husband H e n r i , her backward d a u g h t e r F r a n c i n e , and her mother R o b e r t i n e , i s r e p l a c e d by t h e glamour of t h e u n d e r w o r l d p o r t r a y e d i n t h e m u s i c a l Demain m a t i n . H o n t r e a 1 m ' a t t e n d . In a d d i t i o n t o r e c r e a t i n g t h e cheap a t m o s p h e r e of t h i s p l a y , the f i l m b o r r o w s t h r e e of i t s c h a r a c t e r s : t h e t r a n v e s t i t e Hosanna and h e r ( h i s ) b i k e r b o y f r i e n d C u i r e t t e , s u b s e q u e n t l y d e v e l o p p e d i n t h e p l a y Hosanna; and t h e a g i n g homosexual f e m a l e i m p e r s o n a t o r t h e D u c h e s s e de L a n g e a i s , i n t r o d u c e d t o t h e t h e a t r e a u d i e n c e i n 1969 i n t h e p l a y w h i c h b e a r s h e r ( h i s ) name. F i n a l l y , a t t h e o p p o s i n g ends of t h e s p e c t r u m which t h e f i l m c o v e r s , we f i n d t h e two s i s t e r s of A t o i . pour t o u .1 o u r s . t a Mar i e - L o u : Carmen, a c o u n t r y s i n g e r , s p e c i a l g u e s t a t t h e Bar "Chez S a n d r a " where H e l e n e and P i e r r e t t e G u 6 r i n m i n g l e w i t h C u i r e t t e , Hosanna and t h e o t h e r s ; and Manon, who, s i n c e t h e d e a t h of her p a r e n t s 10 y e a r s ago, has l o c k e d h e r s e l f up i n her F a b r e s t r e e t a p a r t m e n t where she i n d u l g e s i n t h e w o r s h i p of her mother and t h e h a t r e d of her f a t h e r , and d e v o t e s her l i f e t o the l o v e of Chr i s t . -18-CHAPTER ONE Les B e l l e s - s o e u r s ( l ) ; Gerraaine L a u z o n , L i n d a L a u z o n , P i e r r e t t e G u e r i n , L i s e P a q u e t t e , and t h e "be 1 1 e s - s o e u r s " . L e s Be 1 1 e s - s o e u r s i s t h e o n l y p l a y whose a n e c d o t e i s f u l l y r e - p r o d u c e d In t h e f i l m . I t i s t h e o n l y I n s t a n c e i n w h i c h M i c h e l T r e m b l a y and Andre B r a s s a r d a c t u a l l y had t o go t h r o u g h t h e p r o c e s s of a d a p t i n g s t r i c t l y t h e a t r i c a l m a t e r i a l f o r t h e s c r e e n . In o r d e r to u n d e r s t a n d t h e r a t i o n a l e b e h i n d t h e c h o i c e s i t w i l l be n e c e s s a r y t o s t u d y some t h e o r e t i c a l a s p e c t s of t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e a t r e and cine m a . The c o n c l u s i o n s w h i c h w i l l be r e a c h e d i n our c o n s i d e r a t i o n of L e s Be I 1 e s - s o e u r s w i l l f a c i l i t a t e our a p p r o a c h t o t h e p r o c e s s of c i n e m a t i z a t i o n of t h e c h a r a c t e r s from o t h e r p l a y s . I t i s t h u s f o r s t r a t e g i c a l r a t h e r t h a n c h r o n o l o g i c a l r e a s o n s t h a t I c h o o s e t o b e g i n my a n a l y s i s of t h e c h a r a c t e r s w i t h L e s Be I 1 e s - s o e u r s . The s t o r y l i n e of L e s Be 1 1 e s - s o e u r s Is s i m p l e . A w o r k i n g - c l a s s h o u s e w i f e , Germaine Lauz o n , wins one m i l l i o n g o l d - s t a r t r a d i n g stamps. H a v i n g t o p a s t e t h e stamps i n b o o k l e t s , Germaine a s k s her s i s t e r s , n e i g h b o u r s , and s i s t e r - i n - 1 aw(2) t o h e l p her do t h e j o b . J e a l o u s of G e r m a i n e ' s good f o r t u n e , t h e o t h e r women s t e a l t h e -19-stamps. As Germaine r e a l i z e s the treachery, she witnesses the d e s i n t e g r a t i o n of her dreams of a b e t t e r l i f e . At the very end of the play, she p u l l s h e r s e l f together, and r e j o i n s the nbe11es-soeurs" as they s i n g n0 Canada". P a r a l l e l to Germaine's s t o r y , the c h a r a c t e r s of Linda, L i s e and P i e r r e t t e l i v e t h e i r own drama. L i s e i s a pregnant g i r l who i s d e s p e r a t e l y looking f o r a way of transcending her miserable l i f e . P i e r r e t t e , Germaine's younger s i s t e r , was disowned by her f a m i l l y because she chose to make her l i f e i n the demi-monde of the Main s t r e e t . She goes back to Germaine, Rose and G a b r i e l l e , a f t e r having been abandoned by her b o y f r i e n d Johnny. But u n f o r t u n a t e l y f o r her, the s i s t e r s have not f o r g i v e n her b e t r a y a l . Linda witnesses a l l t h i s misery. I n s p i t e of her youth and the f a c t that, u n l i k e L i s e , she does not have to deal with the problem of an unwanted pregnancy, there seems to be l i t t l e hope f o r her to transcend the m e d i o c r i t y of her m i l l e u . Throughout the play a few events punctuate the monotony of the s t a m p - p a s t i n g / s t e a l i n g patry, yet no forwarding a c t i o n takes p l a c e . A l l the c h a r a c t e r s do i s q u a r r e l , gossip, and recount i n s i p i d s t o r i e s . Nothing happens that provokes any p r o g r e s s i o n or change i n the l i f e of these women. Even the c o l l a p s e of Germaine at the end of the play does not b r i n g her to the t r a g i c defeat that would have, at l e a s t , marked the completion of the catastro p h e . A f t e r having f a l l e n to the ground c r y i n g "Mes timbres! Mes timbres", she hears the others s i n g i n g "0 Canada", and f i n a l l y j o i n s them i n t h i s c e l e b r a t i o n of t h e i r s t a g n a t i n g -20-l i f e . N o t h i g c h a n g e s . I t i s t h e r e , i n t h e a b s e n c e of f o r w a r d i n g a c t i o n , i n t h e a b s o l u t e c o n c e n t r a t i o n of a l l e f f e c t s o n t o t h e s i n g l e p u r p o s e of showing t h e power 1 e s s n e s s of t h e s e women t h a t l i e s t h e power of M i c h e l T r e m b l a y ' s w r i t i n g . The a u t h o r t u r n s t h e b a n a l i t y of the s i t u a t i o n a g a i n s t i t s e l f . The c h a r a c t e r s a l l h a t e t h e i r " M a u d i t e v i e p l a t e " ( p . l 3 / p . l 6 ) (Goddamn b o r i n g l i f e ) , b u t t a k e no p o s i t i v e a c t i o n t o change i t . They s i m p l y r e s o r t t o e s c a p i s m . Rose Ouimet, G e r m a i n e ' s s i s t e r , t u r n s e v e r y t h i n g i n t o a j o k e ( p . 2 4 / p . 3 3 ) . D e s - N e i g e s V e r r e t t e i n d u l g e s i n dreams of m a r r y i n g t h e u g l y b r u s h s a l e s m a n who v i s i t s her once a month ( p . 3 2 / p . 4 8 ) . L i s e de C o u r v a l s e t s h e r s e l f i n an i m a g i n a r y h i g h e r - c l a s s p o s i t i o n by b r a g g i n g a b o u t her t r i p s t o Eu r o p e ( p . l 3 / p . l 6 ) and by making s u r e t h a t she " p e r l e b i e n " ( m i s p r o n u n c i a t i o n of " p a r l e b i e n " - s p e a k s w e l l ) . As J a y n e H a l s n e A b r a t e p o i n t s o u t i n her s t u d y of L e s Be 1 1 e s - s o e u r s and M a r c e l Dube's L e s Beaux d i manches. t h e a p a t h y of th e women of F a b r e s t r e e t i s n o t d e l i b e r a t e . ( 3 ) U n l i k e Dube's p e t i t - b o u r g e o i s c h a r a c t e r s , M i c h e l T r e m b l a y ' s women do n o t c h o o s e t o wallow i n t h e i r m e d i o c r i t y . T h e i r l i m i t e d e x p e r i e n c e of l i f e s i m p l y does n o t a l l o w them t o a p p r e h e n d any s e n s i b l e s o l u t i o n t o th e b a n a l i t y of t h e i r l i f e . T h e i r l a c k of e d u c a t i o n d e p r i v e s them of t h e I n t e l l e c t u a l means r e q u i r e d t o engage i n a c r i t i c a l t h o u g h t p r o c e s s , t h u s t h e y f a i l t o u n d e r s t a n d t h a t t h e i r needs a r e l e s s s u b s i s t e n t i a 1 t h a n e x i s t e n t i a l . The c h a r a c t e r s t r y to r u n away from t h e i r " M a u d i t e v i e p l a t e " , b u t w i t h o u t a w areness of t h e -21-c a u s e s of t h e i r s i t u a t i o n , t h e r e i s no p o s s i b i l i t y of g e n u i n e change i n t h e i r l i v e s . The a b s e n c e of i n t e l l e c t u a l r e s o u r c e s , w h i c h i s a t t h e h e a r t of t h e p r o b l e m , i s most s u c c e s s f u l l y d e m o n s t r a t e d i n t h e p l a y by t h e use of j o u a l . The term j o u a l was i n t r o d u c e d by Andre L a u r e n d e a u i n an a r t i c l e p u b l i s h e d i n O c t o b e r of 1 9 5 9 ( 4 ) , and has been u s e d t o d e s c r i b e t h e n a t u r a l i s t l a n g u a g e employed i n F r e n c h - C a n a d i a n n o v e l s s u c h as Andre M a j o r ' s Le. C a b o c h o n ( 1 9 6 4 ) . s i n c e t h e b e g i n n i n g of t h e 1960's. When M i c h e l T r e m b l a y and Andre B r a s s a r d i n t r o d u c e d j o u a l on s t a g e , t h e p u r i s t s s t r o n g l y r e a c t e d a g a i n s t what t h e y b e l i e v e d t o be a p u b l i c a d v o c a c y of t h e use of s l a n g . The o p p o n e n t s d i d n o t r e a l i z e t h a t f a r from p r o m o t i n g t h e use of F r e n c h - C a n a d i a n s l a n g , t h e p l a y w r i g h t was u s i n g t h e d i a l e c t as a d r a m a t i c t e c h n i q u e . A l t h o u g h t h e p o l i t i c a l d e b a t e s u r r o u n d i n g j o u a l d i e d o u t i n t h e mid-1970's, i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s as a t h e a t r i c a l d e v i c e r e m a i n s u n d e n i a b l e . One of t h e b e s t examples of t h e use of j o u a l i n p o i n t i n g o ut th e a l i e n a t i o n of Germaine and t h e o t h e r women, i s f o u n d i n t h i s pas s a g e : Germaine ( t o L i n d a ) : C o n t i n u e a f r e q u e n t e r l e s r e s t a u r a n t s du c o i n , ma p ' t i t e f i l l e , p i s t u vas f i n i r comme t a t a n t e P i e r r e t t e : dans une ma i s o n mal f a r m e e ! ( p . 3 3 ) (You keep h a n g i n g a r o u n d t h e r e , y o u ' r e gonna end up l i k e y o u r Aunt P i e r r e t t e , i n a whore house. - Van Burek & G l a s s c o , p. 49) M i c h e l T r e m b l a y ' s use of j o u a l i s most s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h e c a t a c h r e s i s " M a i s o n mal f a r m e e " w h i c h i s a m i s p r o n u n c i a t i o n of -22-"maison mal fermee", and a m i s u s e of t h e e x p r e s s i o n " M a i s o n mal f a m e e " ( i l l fame house i s a d i r e c t t r a n s l a t i o n ) . In e v e r y d a y c o n v e r s a t i o n t h i s e r r o r i s i n s i g n i f i c a n t . I t i s s i m p l y t h e p r o d u c t of G e r m a i n e ' s m i s r e c o g n i t i o n of t h e word "famee", w h i c h does n o t b e l o n g i n t h e v o c a b u l a r y of a w o r k i n g - c l a s s h o u s e w i f e . On s t a g e , however, t h i s m i s u s e t a k e s on an i m p o r t a n t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l meaning. At a f i r s t l e v e l t h e c a t a c h r e s i s r e p r e s e n t s G e r m a i n ' s i n c a p a c i t y t o e v a l u a t e her own s p e e c h . She a d o p t s e x p r e s s i o n s w i t h o u t q u e s t i o n i n g t h e i r meaning. G e r m a i n e ' s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s l a n g u a g e e c h o e s her i n a b i l i t y t o see t h e a b s u r d i t y of h a v i n g t o p a s t e her stamps i n b o o k l e t s b e f o r e t h e y c a n be e x c h a n g e d f o r goods. At a n o t h e r l e v e l , t h i s s p e c i f i c e x p r e s s i o n , " m aison mal farmee", shows how a l i e n a t i n g G e r m a i n e ' s l a n g u a g e c a n be. By s a y i n g " m aison mal f a r m e e " Germaine i s a c t u a l l y s a y i n g e x a c t l y t h e c o n t r a r y of what she wants t o s a y . One of t h e o f f i c i a l euphemisms of b r o t h e l , i n F r e n c h , i s " M a i s o n c 1 o s e " ( c 1 o s e d h o u s e ) . The u t t e r e d words " M a i s o n mal F a r m e e " ( p o o r 1 y c l o s e d house) a r e t h u s d i r e c t l y c o n f l i c t i n g w i t h t h e i n t e n d e d meaning " M a i s o n c l o s e " ( c l o s e d h o u s e ) . F i n a l l y , one c o u l d go as f a r as d r a w i n g a s y n t a g m a t i c r e l a t i o n between t h e e x p r e s s i o n " m aison mal f a r m e e " and t h e s e n t e n c e s a i d by Germaine, Rose and G a b r i e l l e l a t e r on i n the t e x t " F a r m e - t o e P i e r r e t t e , c ' e s t l e d i a b l e q u i p a r l e par t a b o u c h e ! " ( p . 4 9 ) ( S h u t up, P i e r r e t t e . The d e v i l has y o u r tongue - Van Burek p . 7 8 ) . Here t h e d r a m a t i c use of t h e words "maison mal f a r m e e " and " f a r m e - t o e . . . c ' e s t l e d i a b l e q u i p a r l e " s i m u l a t e a l a p s u s w h i c h l i n k s t h e i d e a of whore house t o t h a t of t h e d e v i l , t h u s e m p h a s i z i n g t h e c o n s t a n t p r e s e n c e of r e l i g i o u s p r e j u d i c e s i n -23-t h e s u b c o n s c i o u s of p e o p l e s u c h as Germaine and her s i s t e r s . W i t h o u t h a v i n g t o go any f u r t h e r i n t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of th e use of j o u a l , i t becomes c l e a r t h a t M i c h e l T r e m b l a y d i d n o t use F r e n c h - C a n a d i a n s l a n g m e r e l y f o r t h e sake of r e a l i s m . J o u a l , as u s e d by M i c h e l T r e m b l a y , i s a l i t e r a r y l a n g u a g e w h i c h has s e v e r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n s . As we have seen, i t r e p r e s e n t s t h e l e v e l of a l i e n a t i o n of t h e t h e c h a r a c t e r s of L e s Be 1 1 e s - s o e u r s . who do n o t even have enough c o n t r o l o v e r t h e i r o n l y means of c o m m u n i c a t i o n t o e x p r e s s c l e a r l y an i d e a as s i m p l e as t h a t of "whore house". As we s h a l l s ee, j o u a l Is a l s o u s e d by t h e a u t h o r as a t e c h n i q u e of c h a r a c t e r i s a t i o n . But r a t h e r t h a n u s i n g s p e e c h as a means of i n d i v i d u a 1 i s a t i o n t h e p l a y w r i g h t u s e s j o u a l as a way of h o m o g e n i z i n g t h e group. As L a u r e n t M a i l h o t n o t e s i n h i s a n a l y s i s of t h e p l a y "Les  Be 1 1 e s - s o e u r s ou l ' e n f e r des femmes", t h e j o u a l u s e d by t h e women i s u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d . (... ) l e s r e p l i q u e s s o n t s o u v e n t i n t e r c h a n g e a b 1 e s ( . . . )Ces dames p a r t a g e n t non s e u l e m e n t l e s mime p r e j u g ^ s , l a me^ me i n s I g n i f i a n c e s i g n i f i c a t i v e , l e m^me J o u a l - y c o m p r i s L i s e t t e de C o u r v a l -, mais a u s s i l e s me'mes j u r o n s , l e s memes t i c s . ( 5 ) (The l i n e s a r e o f t e n i n t e r c h a n g e a b 1 e . . . T h e s e l a d i e s do not o n l y s h a r e t h e same p r e j u d i c e s , t h e same s i g n i f i c a t i v e i n s i g n i f i c a n c e , t h e same j o u a l - i n c l u d i n g L i s e t t e de C o u r v a l -, b u t a l s o t h e same swearwords, t h e same t w i t c h e s . ) The f o l l o w i n g l i n e s show t h e s i m i l a r i t y of form and c o n t e n t i n the s p e e c h e s of t h e women. -Rheauna B i b e a u ( a b o u t P i e r r e t t e ) : Une v r a i e -24-d e v e r g o n d e e ! ( p . 4 3 ) . (A r e a l p r o f l i g a t e . - Van Burek p.67) -Rose O u i m e t ( a b o u t her d a u g h t e r - i n - l a w ) : J ' v o u s d i s , c ' t ' u n e v r a i e f o l l e . ( p . 2 3 ) (The woman's n u t s , no k i d d i n g . - Van Burek p.31) - M a r i e - A n g e B r o u i 1 1 e t t e ( a b o u t G e r m a i n e ) : L a v r a i e m a u d i t e f o l l e ! (p.12) (The loud-mouthed b i t c h ! - Van Burek p.14) - G a b r i e l l e J o d o i n ( a b o u t L i s e t t e ) : La m a u d i t e p i n c e e ! ( p . 3 7 ) ( t h e b l o o d y snob. - Van Burek p.56) Any of t h e s e l i n e s c o u l d have been s a i d by v i r t u a l l y any of t h e c h a r a c t e r s , w i t h o u t t h e need t o change any of t h e words. By making h i s c h a r a c t e r s use t h e same i d i o m , M i c h e l T r e m b l a y c r e a t e s l i n g u i s t i c u n i t y among a l l t h e women. T h i s u n i t y i s r e - e m p h a s i z e d v o c a l l y and s p a c i a l l y by t h e use of t h e c h o r u s . On s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s a group of c h a r a c t e r s form a c h o r u s , t a l k i n g d i r e c t l y t o t h e a u d i e n c e and u t t e r i n g t h e same l i n e s r h y t h m i c a l l y . Some of t h e most i n t e r e s t i n g i n s t a n c e s a r e t h e " M a u d i t e v i e p l a t e " ( p . l 3 / p . l 5 ) , t h e a t t a c k on A n g e l i n e Sauve ( p . 4 8 / p . 7 5 ) , and t h e "Ode au B i n g o " ( p . 5 5 / p . 8 7 ) . Andre T u r c o t t e , i n h i s e s s a y "Les 'be 1 1 e s - s o e u r s ' en r e v o l t e " i n t e r p r e t s t h e c h o r u s e as a communal o u t l e t f o r t h e c h a r a c t e r s . He w r i t e s ( . . . ) i l a r r i v e q u ' i l s ( l e s p e r s o n n a g e s ) se r e g r o u p e n t e t qu'ensemble, en c h o e u r , l i s t e n t e n t d ' i d e n t i f i e r e t de nommer ce q u i l e s e c r a s e ou, une f o i s , dans 1'"Ode au B i n g o " , ce q u i l e s 1 i b e r e . ( .. . ) Ces femmes s o n t o u t r e e s de ce q u i e s t e x i g e d ' e l l e s . E t i d e n t i f i e r ensemble, c r i e r ensemble, de f a c o n r y t h m i q u e , l e u r dego'ut, c ' e s t c e r t a i n e m e n t une c a t h a r s i s . ( 6 ) ( I t sometimes happens t h a t t h e c h a r a c t e r s a s s e m b l e i n c h o r u s ; t h e y t r y t o i d e n t i f y and g i v e a name t o what c r u s h e s them o r , i n t h e "Ode t o B i n g o " , what l i b e r a t e s them...These women a r e o u t r a g e d by what i s demanded from them. And t o i d e n t i f y t h e i r d i s g u s t t o g e t h e r , to c r y i t out t o g e t h e r r h y t h m i c a l l y i s c e r t a i n l y a c a t h a r s i s . ) -25-T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s e e s t h e c h o r u s as e x i s t i n g w i t h i n t h e d r a m a t i c r e a l i t y of L e s Be 1 1 e s - s o e u r s ; t h u s t h e c a t h a r s i s i s i n t e n d e d f o r t h e c h a r a c t e r s t h e m s e l v e s . If t h i s r e a l l y were t h e c a s e , t h e r e would be hope t h a t t h e s t a t e of a l i e n a t i o n would come t o an end. Y e t , as t h e l a s t c h o r u s , t h e "0 Canada", i n d i c a t e s , n o t h i n g has changed a t t h e end of t h e p l a y . Germaine j o i n s t h e women who have j u s t d e s t r o y e d her dreams, s i n g i n g t h e n a t i o n a l anthem i n t h e same way she j o i n e d them f o r t h e "Ode au B i n g o " . The c h o r u s e s do n o t i n c r e a s e t h e aw a r e n e s s of t h e c h a r a c t e r s or have a c a t h a r t i c e f f e c t on them. The r e a s o n i s t h a t t h e c h o r u s e s a r e n o t w i t h i n t h e d r a m a t i c r e a l i t y of t h e c h a r a c t e r s , b u t a r e aimed d i r e c t l y a t t h e a u d i e n c e . But u n l i k e t h e c h o r u s i n most of Greek drama, t h e c h o r u s i n Les Be I I e s - s o e u r s does n o t s t a n d a s i d e from t h e a c t i o n of t h e p l a y , and does n o t comment on i t . The c h o r u s i n M i c h e l T r e m b l a y ' s p l a y i s a monologue u t t e r e d by s e v e r a l c h a r a c t e r s . T h e r e i s no d i f f e r e n c e , i n form or c o n t e n t , between M a r i e - A n g e B r o u i 1 1 e t t e ' s l i n e "Chus t a n n e e de v i v r e une m a u d i t e v i e p l a t e " ( p . l 2 ) (I'm s i c k t o d e a t h of t h i s s t u p i d r o t t e n l i f e ! - Van Burek p . 1 4 ) , and the c h o r u s of women s a y i n g "Chus t a n n e e de mener une m a u d i t e v i e p l a t e ! n ( p . 1 3 / p . 1 6 ) . The s u b j e c t r e m a i n s t h e f i r s t p e r s o n s i n g u l a r . If t h e c h o r u s were s a y i n g "She's s i c k . . . " , t h e n i t would be commenting on t h e drama of t h e s i n g l e h e r o i n e . I f , on t h e o t h e r hand, t h e c h o r u s ' s l i n e were "We're s i c k . . . " , t h e n i t would e x p r e s s t h e r i s i n g c o n s c i o u s n e s s of the c o l l e c t i v e . By i n s i s t i n g -26-on t h e use of t h e f i r s t p e r s o n s i n g u l a r f o r t h e c h o r u s i n "Chus t a n n e e . . . " , MJ_'adore c a l e B i n g o " ( P . 5 5 ) (I a d o r e p l a y i n g b i n g o ! -Van B u r e k p . 8 8 ) , or " S i i ' a u r a i s pense une c h o s e p a r e i 1 ! " ( p . 4 8 ) (Who would have t h o u g h t . . . Such a h o r r i b l e t h i n g ! - Van Burek p . 7 6 ) , t h e a u t h o r makes I t c l e a r t h a t t h e c h o r u s i s n e i t h e r a c a t h a r t i c r i t u a l , nor an i m p a r t i a l comment on t h e drama, b u t a c o l l e c t i v e e x p r e s s i o n of i n d i v i d u a l p r e o c c u p a t i o n s . The f u n c t i o n of t h e c h o r u s i s t h u s s i m i l a r t o t h a t of j o u a l : t o t u r n t h e s e e m i n g l y h e t e r o c l i t e g r o u p i n t o a homogenous c l a n w h i c h , w i t h o u t r e a l i z i n g i t s p o t e n t i a l s t r e n g t h , f o r b i d s any of i t s member t o b r e a k i t s u n i t y . In her s e m i o t i c a n a l y s i s of t h e p l a y , L i s e D u q u e t t e - P e r r i e r c o n c l u d e s t h a t , a l t h o u g h a l l women have some p a r t i c u l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , Rose, G a b r i e l l e , T h e r e s e , M a r i e - A n g e , L i s e t t e , D e s - N e i g e s , Y v e t t e , Rheauna, and Mme Dubuc a l l have a s i n g l e f u n c t i o n i n t h e p l a y . They a r e a l l t h e Opponent, i n t h e G r e i m a s i a n i s e n s e of t h e term, t o t h e S u b j e c t Germaine L a u z o n . ( 7 ) Germaine, w i t h her stamps, and, t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t , A n g e l i n e Sauve, by g o i n g t o t h e n i g h t c l u b once i n w h i l e , a r e b o t h making f e e b l e a t t e m p t s a t t r a n s c e n d i n g t h e i r e x i s t e n c e . In b o t h c a s e s , however, t h e y a r e d e s t r o y e d and b r o u g h t back i n t o l i n e by t h e u n i f i e d group. One c o u l d a r g u e t h a t M i c h e l T r e m b l a y ' s use of t h e s p o t l i g h t e d monologue t h r o u g h o u t t h e p l a y e nhances t h e i n d i v i d u a l i t y of the c h a r a c t e r s , t h u s making i t i m p o s s i b l e t o r e d u c e t h e r o l e of the n i n e women t o o n l y one f u n c t i o n . E l a i n e N a r d o c c h i o , f o r i n s t a n c e , w r i t e s t h a t M i c h e l T r e m b l a y u s e s s p o t l i g h t i n g "pour i s o l e r e t pour -27-r e v a l o r i s e r l ' h i s t o i r e i n d i v i d u e l l e des d i f f e r e n t s p e r s o n n a g e s ( . . . ) " ( 8 ) ( t o i s o l a t e and r e a s s e r t t h e v a l u e of t h e i d i v i d u a l s t o r y of t h e d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r s ) . A t r a d i t i o n a l use of s p o t l i g h t i n g would, i n d e e d , s e r v e as a means of r e a s s e r t i n g t h e v a l u e of t h e i n d i v i d u a l s t o r i e s . Here however, t h e a u t h o r works a g a i n s t t r a d i t i o n by u s i n g t h e f o c u s i n g d e v i c e t o e m p h a s i z e th e b a n a l i t y of t h e c h a r a c t e r s . In h i s e s s a y " R e a l i s m e e t theldttra 1 i t e dans L e s Be 1 1 e s - s o e u r s de M i c h e l T r e m b l a y " , J e a n - P i e r r e R y n g a e r t e x p l a i n s : Le changement d ' e c 1 a i r a g e ( . . . ) a t t i r e l ' a t t e n t i o n du s p e c t a t e u r s u r l e p e r s o n n a g e brusquement mis en v a l e u r . Mais au l i e u de c o n f i e r des evenements t r e s i m p o r t a n t s pour l a s u i t e de 1 ' a c t i o n ou des e t a t s d'ame comme dans l e monologue c l a s s i q u e l e s h e r o i n e s r e s t e n t p a r f a l t e m e n t f u t i l e s . T r e m b l a y i n s i s t e de c e t t e f a c o n s u r 1 ' a s p e c t d e r i s o i r e de l e u r s p r o p o s ( . . . ) ( 9 ) (The change i n l i g h t i n g ... f o c u s e s t h e a t t e n t i o n of t h e s p e c t a t o r on a c h a r a c t e r s u d d e n l y b r o u g h t o u t of t h e crowd. But i n s t e a d of r e v e a l i n g i m p o r t a n t e v e n t s f o r t h e f o l l o w - u p to t h e a c t i o n or s t a t e s of mind, l i k e i n c l a s s i c monologues, the h e r o i n e s r e m a i n c o m p l e t e l y t r i v i a l . Thus T r e m b l a y i n s i s t s on t h e d e r i s o r y a s p e c t of t h e i r s t a t e m e n t s . ) One c o u l d a r g u e t h a t Rose Ouimet's s o l i l o q u y on " M a u d i t C u l " ( p . 6 5 ) (Goddamn sex! - Van Burek p.104) does n o t b e l o n g t o t h i s c a t e g o r y of h y p e r - b a n a l s p o t l i g h t e d monologues. I t i s t r u e t h a t t h e s o l i l o q u y , i n w h i c h Rose e x p r e s s e s t h e p a i n of h a v i n g t o l i v e w i t h a s e x u a l l y - a b u s i v e husband, has g r e a t e r s i g n i f i c a n c e t h a n Y v e t t e L o n g p r e ' s r e c o l l e c t i o n of t h e "beau p a r t y " . But a g a i n , what comes o u t of t h e monologue i s n o t as much t h e d e p l o r a b l e s i t u a t i o n of Rose as t h e f u t i l i t y of her c y n i c i s m . She c o n c e n t r a t e s her r a g e on her husband, and on a l l men i n g e n e r a l , - 2 8 -but she t o t a l l y f a i l s t o see t h a t he i s y e t j u s t a n o t h e r v i c t i m . As a l l t h e o t h e r "be 1 1 e s - s o e u r s " do, she w a s t e s her e n e r g y a t t a c k i n g a member of her own h o u s e h o l d , of her own c l a s s , i n s t e a d of a i m i n g her a n g e r t o w a r d s th e t r u e s o u r c e of her m i s e r y . Thus, i t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e monologues, even t h e "maudit c u 1 " one, s e r v e more t o r e v e a l t h e i n c a p a c i t y of t h e women t o a r t i c u l a t e t h e c a u s e s of t h e i r m i s e r a b l e l i f e , t h a n t o d e f i n e t h e n a t u r e of t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l p r o b l e m s . In t h e same way as t h e c h o r u s e s a r e m u l t i - v o c a l monologues, t h e monologues a r e t h e d i s j o i n t e d p a r t s of a s i n g l e c h o r u s composed of s e v e r a l a s y n c h r o n l c p a r t i t i o n s a l l e x p r e s s i n g t h e e m p t i n e s s of t h e s e women's mind. I t i s i n t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e a u t h o r ' s use of t h e c h o r u s e s and t h e monologues, t h a t one f i n d s t h e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r Tremb1 a y - B r a s s a r d ' s c h o i c e t o s i m p l i f y t o t h e extreme t h e r o l e s of G e r m a i n e ' s f r i e n d s i n JJ_ e t a i t une f o i s dans 1 ' E s t . In t h e f i l m , Rose, T h e r e s e , D e s - N e i g e s , and t h e o t h e r s b a r e l y speak a t a l l . They seem t o be o n l y a p r e s e n c e i n G e r m a i n e ' s k i t c h e n . They a r e p r e s e n t e d u n i q u e l y as t h e "be 1 1 e s - s o e u r s " who p e r p e t r a t e t h e d e s t r u c t i o n of t h e f a t madame L a u z o n . In h i s r e v i e w of t h e f i l m , Andre L e r o u x r e p r o a c h e s M i c h e l T r e m b l a y and Andre B r a s s a r d f o r h a v i n g t a c k e d t h e c h a r a c t e r s on t h e b a c k g r o u n d w i t h o u t h a v i n g g i v e n them any d r a m a t i c s u b s t a n c e . He w r i t e s Dans Les Be 1 1 e s - s o e u r s ( . .. ) Le s p e c t a t e u r a v a i t l e temps de comprendre l e s mecanlsmes q u i e n t r a i n a i e n t l e s femmes au v o l . (...)Dans l e f i l m , l e s femmes a r r i v e n t c h e z Germaine L a u z o n e t se p r e c i p i t e n t immediatement s u r l a m a r c h a n d i s e . L e u r a t t i t u d e p a r a i t i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e p a r c e qu'aucune d ' e n t r e -29-e l l e s n'a ete assez longuement deve1oppee.(10) (In Les B e l l e s - s o e u r s . . . T h e s p e c t a t o r had the time to understand the process which led the women to s t e a l . . . I n the f i l m , the women a r r i v e at Germaine's place and immediately throw themselves at the goods. T h e i r behaviour seems incomprehensible because none of them has been developped 1 ong enough. ) Leroux's review, which probably r e f l e c t s the o p i n i o n of numerous s p e c t a t o r s , f a i l s to take i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n some e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e a t r e and f i l m . A c l o s e a n a l y s i s of the r o l e of the "be 11es-soeurs" r e v e a l s that Tremb1 ay-Brassard's d e c i s i o n to avoid i n d i v i d u a t i n g Germaine's helpers i s a l o g i c a l c h o i ce with regards to the p o s s i b i l i t i e s and l i m i t a t i o n s of cinema. The author uses s e v e r a l devices to make the "be 11es-soeurs" a u n i t whose f u n c t i o n i s to oppose Germaine. Michel Tremblay c r e a t e s t h i s c l a n , of which Germaine becomes an i n t e g r a l part to destroy Angeline Sauve, by equating the women with one another through the use of Joual and choruses. The monologues as w e l l , r a ther than i n d i v i d u a l i z i n g the c h a r a c t e r s , r e i n f o r c e the u n i f i c a t i o n of the group by p o i n t i n g out the i n c a p a c i t y of each monologuist to a r t i c u l a t e the fundamental causes of her s u f f e r i n g . The s i t u a t i o n of the women i s thus represented at two l e v e l s . At a f i r s t l e v e l t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l misery i s expressed i n what they a c t u a l l y say, as in Rose's l i n e s about the "Maudit c u l " . At a second l e v e l the m e d i o c r i t y of the e n t i r e c o l l e c t i v e which t e a r s i t s e l f to pieces i s expressed f o r m a l l y i n the monologue, the chorus, and j o u a l . It i s at that higher l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a t i o n that Les Be 1 1es-soeurs transcends the melodramatic s t o r y of Germaine Lauzon, and becomes a comment on the se1f-muti1atory a t t i t u d e of the working-class -30-m i l i e u , of t h e n a t i o n of Quebec, and, p e r h a p s , of a l l of t h e w e s t e r n w o r l d . I t i s i n o r d e r t o r e t a i n t h e m e t o n y m i c a l s i g n i f i c a t i o n of t h e p e r s o n a e , t h a t Tremb1 a y - B r a s s a r d d i d n o t i n d i v i d u a t e , i n t h e f i l m , t h e c h a r a c t e r s of Rose, T h e r e s e , L i s e t t e and t h e o t h e r "be 1 1 e s - s o e u r s " . I n s p i t e of i t s p o s s i b i l i t i e s , c inema r e m a i n s a medium which, u n l i k e t h e a t r e , has d i f f i c u l t y b r i d g i n g t h e gap between t h e p a r t i c u l a r and t h e g e n e r a l . W h i l e th e t h e a t r e s p e c t a t o r r e a d i l y a c c e p t s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of a s y n e c d o c h i c v a l u e f o r t h e c h a r a c t e r on s t a g e , t h e f i l m s p e c t a t o r p e r c e i v e s t h e c h a r a c t e r on s c r e e n as an i n d i v i d u a l . As e a r l y as 1936, A l l a r d y c e N i c o l l n o t e d t h e d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s of t h e s p e c t a t o r towards t h e t h e a t r e c h a r a c t e r and t h e f i l m c h a r a t e r . He w rote t h a t " p r a c t i c a l l y a l l e f f e c t i v e l y drawn s t a g e c h a r a c t e r s a r e t y p e s ( w h i l e ) i n t h e c i n e m a we demand i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n and impute g r e a t e r power of i n d e p e n d e n t l i f e to t h e f i g u r e s on t h e s c r e e n " ( l l ) . Susan S o n t a g e x p l a i n s t h i s d i f f e r e n c e i n terms of a e s t h e t i c s . In her o p i n i o n t h e i n d i v i d u a t i o n of f i l m c h a r a c t e r s i s t h e r e s u l t of an a t t e m p t a t r e p r o d u c i n g n a r r a t i v e l y , on s c r e e n , the t e c h n i q u e of o f f - c e n t e r i n g d e v e l o p e d i n p a i n t i n g and p h o t o g r a p h y . I t i s t h i s o f f - c e n t e r i n g t h a t h e l p s t o i n d i v i d u a t e t h e c h a r a c t e r or t o c r e a t e " t h e p l e a s i n g d i s u n i t y of f r a g m e n t a r i n e s s of t h e c h a r a c t e r s of many of t h e g r e a t e s t f i l m s " . ( 1 2 ) The t e n d e n c y of t h e s p e c t a t o r t o p e r c e i v e a f i l m c h a r a c t e r as an i n d i v i d u a l r a t h e r t h a n as a t y p e , can a l s o be d educed from -31-L a u r a M u l v e y ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of J a c q u e s L a c a n ' s p s y c h o a n a l y t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e m i r r o r phase i n c h i l d r e n d e v e l o p m e n t . Mulvey u s e s L a c a n ' s t h e o r y t o e x p l a i n t h e f a s c i n a t i o n t h a t t h e f i l m image e x e r t s on t h e s p e c t a t o r . She p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e c o n d i t i o n of t h e s p e c t a t o r l o o k i n g a t a f i l m r e p r o d u c e s t h e s i t u a t i o n of The m i r r o r phase ( w h i c h ) o c c u r s a t a t i m e when t h e c h i l d ' s p h y s i c a l a m b i t i o n s o u t s t r i p h i s motor c a p a c i t y , w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t h i s r e c o g n i t i o n of h i m s e l f i s j o y o u s i n t h a t he i m a g i n e s h i s m i r r o r image t o be more c o m p l e t e , more p e r f e c t t h a n he e x p e r i e n c e s h i s b o d y ( . . . ) t h e image r e c o g n i s e d i s c o n c e i v e d as t h e r e f l e c t e d body of t h e s e l f , b u t i t s m i s r e c o g n i t i o n as s u p e r i o r p r o j e c t s t h i s body o u t s i d e of i t s e l f as an i d e a l e g o ( . . . ) ( 1 3 ) The s i t u a t i o n of t h e f i l m s p e c t a t o r -- l i m i t e d i n h i s movement and c o n c e n t r a t i n g on an image -- i s a k i n t o t h a t of t h e c h i l d b e f o r e t h e m i r r o r . The p s y c h o l o g i c a l phenomenon of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n t o t h e f i l m image as i d e a l ego o f f e r s an i n t e r e s t i n g e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e d i f f e r e n t e f f e c t s of t h e a t r e c h a r a c t e r s and f i l m c h a r a c t e r s . W h i l e , i n t h e a t r e , t h e o n t o l o g i c a l p r e s e n c e of t h e a c t o r imposes a d i s t a n c e between t h e s p e c t a t o r and t h e c h a r a c t e r , t h u s s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e d u c i n g t h e i n d e n t i f i c a t i o n p r o c e s s , t h e m i r r o r - l i k e image on s c r e e n e n t i c e s t h e s p e c t a t o r t o i d e n t i f y d i r e c t l y w i t h t h e c h a r a c t e r . T h i s want of d i s t a n c e l e s s e n s t h e impact of t h e m e t o n i m i c a l v a l u e of t h e f i l m c h a r a c t e r . The f i l m a u d i e n c e s e e s t h e human f i g u r e on s c r e e n as a s u b j e c t d o u b l e r a t h e r t h a n as an o b j e c t b e a r e r of s i g n i f i c a t i o n . F i n a l l y , t h e d i f f e r e n c e between the f i l m c h a r a c t e r and the t h e a t r e c h a r a c t e r c an be e x p l a i n e d i n terms of s e m i o t i c s . As Andre B a z i n n o t e d i n h i s 1951 c o m p a r a t i v e a n a l y s i s of t h e a t r e and -32-c inema, i t i s t h e r e a l i s m of t h e f i l m i c s p a c e t h a t marks t h e e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e between t h e two a r t f o r m s ( 1 4 ) . T h i s r e a l i s m of t h e f i l m i c s p a c e , w h i c h r e s u l t s from t h e p r o x i m i t y between t h e f i l m - i c o n s i g n i f i e r and i t s s i g n i f i e d , l e a d s t h e s p e c t a t o r s t o engage i n a p s y c h o l o g i c a l e x e g e s i s of t h e f i l m c h a r a c t e r , f o r t h e y p e r c e i v e i t as t h e u n c o d i f i e d image of a human b e i n g . F o r t h e t h e a t r e c h a r a c t e r , s u c h an a p p r o a c h i s i n a d e q u a t e . As Anne U b e r s f e l d p o i n t s o u t , a p s y c h o l o g i c a l h e r m e n e u t i c of t h e a t r e c h a r a c t e r s i s f l a w e d f o r i t f o c u s e s on a n o n - e n t i t y : t h e a t r e c h a r a c t e r s do n o t have a p s y c h e ( 1 5 ) . No one ' i s ' t h e t h e a t r e c h a r a c t e r . T h e a t r e c h a r a c t e r s e x i s t o n l y as words on a page, and as masks f o r a c t o r s on s t a g e . T h e a t r e c h a r a c t e r s a r e o n l y " ensembles s e m i o t i q u e s " ( 1 6 ) . They a r e b o d i e s of s i g n s w h i c h a c q u i r e meaning o n l y i n r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h o t h e r s e m i o t i c e n s e m b l e s . In cinema, t h e f u n c t i o n of t h e c h a r a c t e r c a n n o t be r e d u c e d t o t h a t of s e m i o t i c ensemble. R e a d i l y r e c o g n i z e d i n t h e f i l m - i c o n f o r what i t i s , a human b e i n g ( o r humanized o b j e c t ) , t h e f i l m c h a r a c t e r i s p e r c e i v e d by t h e a u d i e n c e as an i n d i v i d u a l e x i s t i n g i n t h e t i m e and s p a c e of i t s u n i v e r s e . R a t h e r t h a n t h e c h a r a c t e r i t s e l f , i t i s t h e n a r r a t i v e p r o g r e s s i o n of the c h a r a c t e r t h a t forms t h e s e m i o t i c ensemble. As C h r i s t i a n Metz s a y s , i t i s th e a r r a n g e m e n t of ( t h e ) images i n t o an i n t e l l i g i b l e s e q u e n c e ( t h a t ) b r i n g s us t o t h e h e a r t of t h e s e m i l o g i c a l d i m e n s i o n of f i l m . ( 1 7 ) The r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h e s t o r y i s p e r c e i v e d as c o d i f i e d , b u t the c h a r a c t e r i s n o t . Hence, f o r the a u d i e n c e , f i l m c h a r a c t e r s do n o t need an e x t e r n a l s i g n i f i c a t i o n . They s i m p l y ' a r e ' i n d i v i d i d u a 1 s . -33-Marie F a l c o n e t t i ' i s ' Jeanne d'Arc i n the same way as A n a t o l i S o l o n i t z i n e ' i s ' Andrei Rubliov. In r e a c t i o n to t h i s process of i n d i v i d u a t i o n of f i l m c h a r a c t e r s numerous filmmakers, from Sergei E i s e n s t e i n to Jean-Luc Godard, have devised means of p r o v i d i n g the f i l m c h a r a c t e r s with t y p o l o g i c a l s i g n i f i c a t i o n i n order to transcend the p a r t i c u l a r i t y of the un i v e r s e of a s p e c i f i c p r o d u c t i o n , and engage i n a dynamic channel of communication between the i n d i v i d u a l and the c o l l e c t i v e . Without attempting to compare J_l_ e t a i t une f o i s dans  1'Est to the works of E i s e n s t e i n , I w i l l t r y , though, to e x p l a i n Tremb1 ay-Brassard's choice to l i m i t the psycho 1 o g i s a t i o n of the "be 11es-soeurs", i n terms cognate to the concept of typed f i l m c h a r a c t e r s as understood by the Russian filmmaker. Had Tremb1 ay-Brassard developed i n d e t a i l the i d e n t i t y of every "be 11es-soeurs" and made a thorough e x p o s i t i o n of t h e i r m o t i v a t i o n s , the f i l m audience would have r e a d i l y i n t e r p r e t e d the a c t i o n s of the. women as i d i o s y n c r a t i c behaviour, that i s , as a p a r t i c u l a r a t t i t u d e determined by the s p e c i f i c c o n d i t i o n s of the uni v e r s e of the f i l m . The p r e s e n t a t i o n a l q u a l i t y of the microcosm of Fabre s t r e e t , e s s e n t i a l to the play, would have then been l o s t , making the a t t a c k of the women on Germaine a melodramatic climax devoid of a l l metaphorical meaning. By having h i s a c t r e s s e s use t y p i f i e d e xpressions and gestures, Andre Brassard turns the "be 11es-soeurs" i n t o stock -34-c h a r a c t e r s . From t h i s d i r e c t o r i a l c h o i c e r e s u l t s t h e a b s e n c e of p s y c h o l o g i s m t h a t Andre L e r o u x c r i t i c i z e s : " L a d i m e n s i o n p s y c h o 1 o g i q u e e s t t o u j o u r s e v i n c e e au s e u l p r o f i t de l a r e a l i t e c o l l e c t i v e . " ( 1 8 ) ( T h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i m e n s i o n i s a l w a y s o u s t e d t o t h e s o l e b e n e f i t of t h e c o l l e c t i v e r e a l i t y ) . In f a c t , t y p i f i c a t i o n i s one of t h e most e f f e c t i v e d e v i c e s Tremb1 a y - B r a s s a r d c o u l d use t o r e d u c e t h e s p e c t a t o r ' s d e s i r e t o i n d i v i d u a l i z e t h e m o t i v a t i o n s of t h e women. Thus t h e a u d i e n c e c an c o n c e n t r a t e on t h e m e t a p h o r i c f u n c t i o n s of t h e c h a r a c t e r s , and u n d e r s t a n d t h e t h e f t of t h e stamps as b e i n g t h e deed of a s e 1 f - m u t i 1 a t o r y s o c i e t y , r a t h e r t h a n t h a t of a group of j e a l o u s i n d i v i d u a l s . The f i r s t s c e n e w h i c h p r e s e n t s t h e women g a t h e r e d i n t h e k i t c h e n , s e q u e n c e 4 9 ( 1 9 ) , d e f i n e s G e r m a i n e ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e "be 1 1 e s - s o e u r s " . O v e r l a p p i n g a s h o t of a group of f r e a k s from t h e Main, l e d by S a n d r a , t h e owner of t h e t r a n s v e s t i t e b ar "Chez S a n d r a " , we hear t h e r e c i t a t i o n o f t h e r o s a r y on t h e r a d i o . The f o l l o w i n g s h o t shows t h e grou p of women, a t Ge r m a i n e ' s p l a c e , as t h e y r e p e a t t h e " H a i l Mary", a f t e r a v o i c e on r a d i o . The network of r e l a t i o n s h i p s between Germaine and t h e "be 1 1 e s - s o e u r s " i s m a n i f e s t e d , a t a f i r s t l e v e l , i n t h e c o m p o s i t i o n of t h e s h o t . In t h e f o r e g r o u n d , t h e f o u r boxes of g o l d s t a r t r a d i n g stamps, w h i c h mark a s e p a r a t i o n between t h e s p e c t a t o r and Ge r m a i n e ' s k i t c h e n , command t h e p a t t e r n w h i c h t h e eye of t h e s p e c t a t o r f o l l o w s . The w h i t e i n e r t mass t h a t t h e boxes c r e a t e , i n c o n t r a s t w i t h t h e moving b o d i e s of t h e p r e v i o u s s h o t , f i r s t draws -35-t h e a t t e n t i o n of t h e a u d i e n c e . Then t h e v i e w e r n o t i c e s two women i n t h e b a c k g r o u n d , w h i c h a r e r e v e a l e d by t h e movement of a hand i n th e f o r e g r o u n d . F i n a l l y , t h e s p e c t a t o r p e r c e i v e s t h e g e n e r a l image, w i t h Germaine s i t t i n g i n t h e m i d d l e ground, and, i n t h e p e r i p h e r y , t h e f o u r r e m a i n i n g women k n e e l i n g f o r t h e r o s a r y . The c o m p o s i t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h e women, i n time and s p a c e , a l t h o u g h a f f e c t i n g t h e v i e w e r more a t t h e p e r c e p t u a l t h a n c o n c e p t u a l l e v e l , e c h o e s t h e s i g n i f i c a t i o n of t h e s e q u e n c e . Germaine i s a t t h e c e n t e r of t h e f r a m i n g and a r o u n d her t h e "be 1 1 e s - s o e u r s " a r e d i v i d e d i n two g r o u p s : t h e two women i n t h e b a c k g r o u n d , p e r c e i v e d i n c o n f l i c t of volumes and p l a n e s ( 2 0 ) w i t h t h e b o x e s ; and t h e f o u r k n e e l i n g women, p e r c e i v e d as a t u r g e s c e n c e of t h e b o x e s . The f o u r k n e e l i n g women a r e t u r n e d t o w a r d s Germaine s i t t i n g i n a r o c k i n g c h a i r and l o o k i n g t h r o u g h her g o l d - s t a r c a t a l o g u e . T h i s p o s i t i o n e x p r e s s e s t h e p r i v i 1 i g e d p o s i t i o n t h a t c h a n c e ( t h e stamp l o t t e r y ) has p r o v i d e d Germaine w i t h . The two women i n t h e b a c k g r o u n d , one of wh i c h i s G e r m a i n e ' s s i s t e r Rose, s t a n d o u t of t h e group n o t o n l y i c o n o g r a p h i c a 1 1 y , b u t a l s o n a r r a t i v e l y s i n c e t h e y do n o t p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e c h o r u s - l i k e r e c i t a t i o n of t h e p r a y e r . As t h e two women s t a r t g i g g l i n g , G ermaine t a k e s c o n t r o l and b r i n g s them back i n t o l i n e by t e l l i n g Rose t o s h u t up: "Rose, s ' i l vous p l a i t ! Une v r a i e e n f a n t d ' e c o 1 e ! " ( 2 1 ) (Rose, p l e a s e ! Y o u ' r e j u s t l i k e a s c h o o l g i r l ! ) . The s u b d u a l of t h e two women i n the b a c k g r o u n d e x p o s e s the b r e a k i n g of t h e s t a t i s m of t h e i n i t i a l s i t u a t i o n . Germaine, -36-u s u a l l y one of t h e "be 1 1 e s - s o e u r s " , s u d d e n l y becomes t h e master of the o t h e r s t h a n k s t o her stamps - s i g n i f i e r s of pseudo-power. In th e w o r l d of t h e "be 1 1 e s - s o e u r s " , any b r e a k of t h e e q u i l i b r i u m i n th e b a l a n c e of power must be r e m e d i e d . I t i s from t h e moment t h a t G ermaine d e s t r o y s t h e b a l a n c e , t h a t t h e women t u r n a g a i n s t her t o keep her from b r e a k i n g t h e u n i t y of t h e group. The f o l l o w i n g s c e n e s c l a r i f y t h e c o n f l i c t between Germaine and t h e " b e l l e s - s o e u r s " . In k e e p i n g w i t h t h e c o n c e p t of a v o i d i n g i n d i v i d u a t i o n i n o r d e r t o t r a n s c e n d t h e p a r t i c u l a r s t o r y of t h e p l a y , Tremb1 a y - B r a s s a r d p r e s e n t t h e p r o g r e s s i o n of t h e p i l l a g i n g i n terms of d i a l e c t i c a l r a t h e r t h a n p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p . The I n v o l v e m e n t of t h e "be 1 1 e s - s o e u r s " , i n t h e d e s t r u c t i o n of t h e new ma s t e r , i s i n d i r e c t r e a c t i o n t o G e r m a i n e ' s a s s e r t i o n of her power. A r e a c t i o n aimed a t r e - e s t a b l i s h i n g b a l a n c e . T h r o u g h o u t s e q u e n c e 5 1 ( 2 2 ) , t h e i n c r e a s i n g a s s e r t i o n of Ge r m a i n e ' s m a s t e r y i s e x p r e s s e d i n two ways. F i r s t , t h r o u g h her s p e e c h : she t a l k s a b o u t r e - d e c o r a t i n g her house. Second, t h r o u g h her a c t i o n : she l o o k s i n t o t h e c a t a l o g , and does n o t p a s t e stamps. She l e t s h er ' s l a v e s ' do t h e work. At t h e end of t h e s c e n e one of the women d e c i d e s t o s t e a l t h e stamps. The f i r s t pur 1 o i ner ( l i a r i e-Ange ) i s one of t h e two d i s s i d e n t s who were subdued i n the p r e v i o u s s c e n e . T h i s d e t a i l h e l p s t h e a u d i e n c e t o u n d e r s t a n d t h a t her b e h a v i o u r i s n o t as much t h e outcome of i n d i v i d u a l j e a l o u s y , as a r e a c t i o n t o G e r m a i n e ' s p r e v i o u s s e i z u r e -37-of t h e c o n t r o l , and her e x p l o i t a t i o n of t h e women. In t h e f o l l o w i n g s c e n e i n t h e k i t c h e n , s e q u e n c e 5 6 ( 2 3 ) , most of t h e c h a r a c t e r s have a l r e a d y j o i n e d M a r i e - A n g e ' s s t e a l i n g movement. The g r e a t e r i n v o l v e m e n t of t h e "be 1 1 e s - s o e u r s " i s a g a i n n o t i n t r o d u c e d t h r o u g h a p s y c h o l o g i c a l b u i l d - u p , b u t i s p r e s e n t e d as b e i n g i n d i r e c t r e l a t i o n w i t h G e r m a i n e ' s a t t i t u d e as t h e m a s t e r . Germaine i s s i t t i n g i n an i n c r e a s i n g l y n o i s y r o c k i n g c h a i r , and her p o s i t i o n as t h e e x p l o i t e r i s e m p h a s i z e d by t h e f a c t t h a t she i s now e a t i n g c h i p s , w h i l e t h e o t h e r s keep d o i n g t h e j o b . As G e r m a i n e ' s f u n c t i o n as t h e e x p l o i t e r i n c r e a s e s i n s c o p e , so does t h e t h e f t of t h e stamps. At t h e end of t h e f i l m , t h e two o p p o s i n g f o r c e s meet. As t h e deed of t h e "be 1 1 e s - s o e u r s " becomes o b v i o u s t o Germaine, her f u n c t i o n as t h e e x p l o i t e r r e a c h e s i t s c l i m a x . She d e c l a r e s : "J'm'en vas t o u t e s vous t u e r ! J'm'en vas t o u t e s vous e c r a s e r comme des c o q u e r e 1 1 e s ! " (24) (I'm gonna k i l l you a l l ! I'm gonna c r u s h you a l l , l i k e c o c k r o a c h e s . ) . At t h e moment where she f e e l s her power t o be s u c h t h a t she c o u l d c r u s h t h e o t h e r s l i k e bugs, the s y m b o l i c i s p r o j e c t e d o n t o r e a l i t y as P i e r r e t t e t h r e a t e n s t o t r a n s f o r m G e r m a i n e ' s words i n t o a c t i o n . But, u n a b l e t o b r i d g e t h e gap between t h e s i g n i f i e r s of pseudo-power and power i t s e l f , G e rmaine s t o p s P i e r r e t t e from a t t a c k i n g t h e "be 1 1 e s - s o e u r s " ( 2 5 ) , and t h e s e c o n d of s i l e n c e w h i c h f o l l o w s marks t h e F r e y t a g i a n r e v e r s a l of a c t i o n a t t h e end of wh i c h b a l a n c e i s r e - e s t a b l i s h e d . As i n t h e p l a y , t h e c o l l a p s e of Germaine does n o t b r i n g her to t h e -38-t r a g i c d e f e a t t h a t would have c o m p l e t e d t h e c a t a s t r o p h e . The b e h e a d i n g of Macbeth i s r e p l a c e d by t h e d e r i s o r y b e w i g g i n g of G ermaine. The f a t madame L a u z o n r e m a i n s s i t t i n g i n her k i t c h e n w i t h n o t h i n g e l s e t o do b u t c l e a n up t h e mess, and go on l i v i n g . As I have t r i e d t o show, Andre B r a s s a r d and M i c h e l T r e m b l a y r e d u c e d t o t h e e x t r e m e the i n d i v i d u a l i s t a s p e c t s of t h e drama t o l e t t h e m i l i e u of t h e "be 1 1 e s - s o e u r s " speak f o r i t s e l f . By r e f u s i n g t o p s y c h o l o g i z e t h e c h a r a c t e r s , Tremb1 a y - B r a s s a r d manage n o t o n l y t o a v o i d t h e melodrama, b u t a l s o t o r e t a i n t h e m e t a p h o r i c a l meaning of t h e t e x t . W h i l e Germaine and t h e "be 1 1 e s - s o e u r s " f u n c t i o n as t h e main o p p o s i n g f o r c e s of t h e p l a y , t h e r e a r e a few c h a r a c t e r s who g r a v i t a t e a r o u n d them w i t h o u t t a k i n g a d e f i n i t e s t a n d i n t h e e x p l o i t e r - e x p l o i t e d / o w n e r - t h i e f network of r e l a t i o n s h i p s . T h e s e c h a r a c t e r s a r e L i n d a L a u z o n , L i s e P a q u e t t e , and P i e r r e t t e G u e r i n . A n g e l i n e Sauve and G i n e t t e Menard a l s o b e l o n g t o t h i s g r o u p of o u t s i d e r s , b u t t h e y were n o t t r a n s p o s e d o n t o t h e s c r e e n , a t l e a s t n o t e x p l i c i t l y . Of t h e t h r e e p e r i p h e r a l c h a r a c t e r s who were c i n e m a t i z e d , L i n d a i s c e r t a i n l y the one whose p e r s o n a g e i s t h e l e a s t d e v e l o p e d . W h i l e her c o n s t a n t o p p o s i t i o n t o Germaine, i n t h e p l a y , s e r v e s as an i n d i c a t i o n of t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s -- meager tho u g h t h e y may be --of t h e new g e n e r a t i o n , In t h e f i l m her r e b e l l i o n i s a b a t e d t o a s i m p l e o p p o s i t i o n t o L i s e ' s a b o r t i o n p r o j e c t . A l t h o u g h her r o l e -39-i s r e d u c e d t o a f u n c t i o n of L i s e ' s drama, her c h a r a c t e r i o 1 o g i c a 1 i d e n t i t y i s u n a l t e r e d . Her f a i t h f u l n e s s t o her mother, i n t h e p l a y , i s e c hoed by her f a i t h f u l n e s s t o L i s e i n t h e f i l m . A l t h o u g h she i s c o n s t a n t l y a r g u i n g w i t h her mother and f e e l s l i k e l e a v i n g -- " J ' a i ben e n v i e de s a c r e r mon camp" (p.36) (I f e e l l i k e g e t t i n g t h e h e l l of of h e r e ) -- she i s t h e o n l y c h a r a c t e r of Les  Be 1 1 e s - s o e u r s who s t a y s w i t h Germaine a t t h e end and i s w i l l i n g t o h e l p her -- "Ca va i t r e une mechante j o b , t o u t e n e t t o y e r c a " ( p . 7 1 ) ( I t ' l l be some j o b c l e a n i n g a l l t h a t up! - Van Burek p . 1 1 4 ) . S i m i l a r l y , i n t h e f i l m , a l t h o u g h she o p p o s e s L i s e ' s p r o j e c t -- " C ' e s t un m e u r t r e L i s e " ( 2 6 ) ( I t ' s a murder L i s e ) -- she goes w i t h her t o t h e a b o r t i o n i s t , and s t a y s t h e r e u n t i l t h e end. More i n t e r e s t i n g t h a n L i n d a a r e L i s e and P i e r r e t t e . From s e c o n d a r y r o l e s i n t h e p l a y , t h e y become f i g u r e s of p r i m a r y i m p o r t a n c e i n t h e f i l m . In t h e c a s e of t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s , Andre B r a s s a r d and M i c h e l T r e m b l a y use t e c h n i q u e s of c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n w h i c h a r e d i a m e t r i c a l l y o p p o s e d t o t h o s e u s e d f o r t h e "be 1 1 e s - s o e u r s " . I n s t e a d of r e d u c i n g t h e i r r o l e t o t h a t of a s e m i o t i c ensemble, Tremb1 a y - B r a s s a r d employ a l l t h e means of c i n e m a t o e m p h a s i z e the i n d i v i d u a l i t y of t h e young women. The " i n t e r m e d e 2 / L i s e P a q u e t t e r i v e . . . " ( 2 7 ) s e q u e n c e i s but one example of an o p t i m a l use of t h e f i l m image as a t r a n s p a r e n t l o o k i n g - g l a s s . Up t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t , P i e r r e t t e and L i s e b e l o n g more t o t h e u n i v e r s e of t h e f i l m t h a n t o t h e l o c u s d r a m a t i c u s of L e s Be 1 1 e s - s o e u r s . The c h a r a c t e r i o 1 o g i c a 1 p o s t u l a t e s of t h e two p e r s o n a e i n t h e p l a y a r e g i v e n f u l l e x p r e s s i o n i n t h e f i l m . T h e - 4 0 -p a r a l l e l i s m between P i e r r e t t e , who has been d r o p p e d by Johnny b e c a u s e she i s g e t t i n g t o o o l d , and L i s e , who has been d r o p p e d by h e r b o y f r i e n d as w e l l b e c a u s e she i s p r e g n a n t , i s b r o k e n and r e p l a c e d by a c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t network of r e l a t i o n s h i p s . One of P i e r r e t t e ' s f u n c t i o n s i n t h e p l a y i s t h a t of i n i t i a t o r . By r e v e a l i n g A n g e l i n e ' s s e c r e t , she c r e a t e s a p a r e n t h e s i z e d u n b a l a n c e , w i t h i n t h e u n b a l a n c e p r o v o k e d by t h e stamps, e m p h a s i z e d s t r u c t u r a l l y by t h e o n l y b r e a k i n t h e c o n t i n u i t y of t h e p l a y . The f i l m makes no c a s e of t h e d i s t u r b i n g i m pact of her a r r i v a l a t G e r m a i n e ' s p l a c e . What Tremb1 a y - B r a s s a r d i n s i s t on showing i n t h e f i l m i s t h e i n d i v i d u a l d e c a d e n c e of P i e r r e t t e . In t h e p l a y , P i e r r e t t e ' s f a l l i s t e r m i n a t e d . In t h e f i l m i t i s s t i l l p o t e n t i a l . She d e c l a r e s "Johnny, y va r ' v e n i r " (28) ( J o h n n y i s g o i n g t o come b a c k ) . She n o u r r i s h e s her i l l u s i o n s a b o u t Johnny. T h i s i n d u l g i n g i n her m i s e r y r e n d e r s her more t h a n an o u t s i d e i n i t i a t o r of a c t i o n , or a f r o z e n image of what L i s e and L i n d a c a n become. She c o n t i n u o u s l y i n i t i a t e s her own f a l l . She i s , h e r s e l f , i n t h e p r o c e s s of becoming what she has become. As f o r L i s e , t h e p l a y s e r v e s as a mere i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the c o n f l i c t of t h e c h a r a c t e r . The s p o r a d i c c h a r a c t e r i s a t i o n of the p l a y c u l m i n a t e s o n l y i n t h e f i l m as t h e s u g g e s t e d deed a t t a i n s i t s f a t a l r e a l i s a t i o n on s c r e e n . W h i l e L i s e o n l y p a s s e d t h r o u g h Les  Be 1 1 e s - s o e u r s , her dreams and d i s i l l u s i o n s a r e d e f i n i t e l y i n s c r i b e d i n t h e f i n a l image of JJ_ e t a i t une f o i s dans 1'Es t . - 4 1 -The c i n e m a t i z a t i o n of L i s e and P i e r r e t t e i s a genuine ex t e n s i o n of the personages o u t s i d e of the l i m i t s of the stage i n t o the u n i v e r s e of f i l m . S i m i l a r l y , most of the c h a r a c t e r s which I w i l l study i n the next chapters have been f r e e d from t h e i r t h e a t r i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s and thus could be cinematized rather than adapted to the screen. In other words, Tremb1 ay-Brassard r e p l a c e d the mask of the t h e a t r e by the f l e s h of cinema. -42-ENDNOTES 1 M i c h e l T r e m b l a y , Les Be 1 1 e s - s o e u r s . M o n t r e a l : H o l t , R i n e h a r t & W i n s t o n , " T h e S t r e V i v a n t n , n o . 6, 1968, 71p. E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n : J o h n Van Burek, B i l l G l a s s c o , t r a n s . , Les Be 1 1 e s - S o e u r s , V a n c o u v e r : T a l o n b o o k s , 1974, 114p. Page r e f e r e n c e f o r m : " ( F r e n c h v e r s i o n / E n g l i s h v e r s i o n ) " 2 U n l i k e what the t i t l e s u g g e s t s t h e r e i s o n l y one s i s t e r -i n - l a w . F o r M i c h e l T r e m b l a y ' s e x p l a n a t i o n of t h e t i t l e s ee C l a u d e G i n g r a s , "'Mon D i e u que j e l e s aime c e s g e n s - l a " , La_ P r e s s e . A u g u s t 26, 1969, p.26. 3 J a y n e H a l s n e A b r a t e , "Le Theme de 1 ' i n c o n s c i e n c e dans Les Beaux dimanches e t Les B e l l e s - s o e u r s " . P r e s e n c e f r a n c o p h o n e . n o 24, s p r i n g 1982, p.140-141. 4 C i t e d i n , M i r i a m C h a p i n t r a n s . , The i mper t i n e n c es of B r o t h e r  Anonymous ( L e s I n s o 1 e n c e s du F r e r e U n t e 1 ) . by J e a n - P a u l D e s b i e n s ( M o n t r e a l : H a r v e s t House, 1962, 126p.) p.27. 5 L a u r e n t M a i l h o t , "Les Be 1 1 e s - s o e u r s ou l ' e n f e r des femmes", i n Le. t h e a t r e quebeco i s ( M o n t r e a l : E d i t i o n s HMH, 1970, 2 5 4 p . ) , p.197. 6 Andre T u r c o t t e , " L es 'be 1 1 e s - s o e u r s ' en r e v o l t e " , V o i x e t I mages du Pays I I I . 1970, p.196-197. 7 L i s e D u q u e t t e - P e r r i e r , "Langage e t P a r a i t r e : A n a l y s e s e m i o t i q u e des Be 1 1 e s - s o e u r s de M i c h e l T r e m b l a y " , The Canad i an  J o u r n a 1 of R e s e a r c h i n S e m i o t i c s , V o l . I I , no.3, F a l l 1974, p.51. -43-8 E l a i n e F. N a r d o c c h i o , "Les Be 1 1 e s - s o e u r s e t l a r e v o l u t i o n t r a n q u i l l e " , L ' A c t i o n N a t i o n a l e . V o l . LXX, no. 4, Dec. 1980, p.349. 9 J e a n - P i e r r e R y n g a e r t , " R e a l i s m e e t T h e a t r & l i t e dans Les Be 1 1 e s - s o e u r s de M i c h e l T r e m b l a y " , C o - I n c i d e n c e s . V o l . 1 , no.3, Nov. 1971, p.7 10 Andre L e r o u x , n e t a i t une f o i s dans 1 ' E s t . un s q u e l e t t e d e c h a r n e " , Le_ D e v o i r , March 9, 1974, p. 19. 11 C i t e d i n Susan S o n t a g , " F i l m and T h e a t r e " , i n F i l m T h e o r y and C r i t i c i s m . G. Mast and M. Cohen eds.(New Y o r k : O x f o r d UP, 1985, 8 5 2 p . ) , p.345. 12 S. S o n t a g , p.345-346. 13 L a u r a Mulvey, " V i s u a l P l e a s u r e and N a r r a t i v e Cinema", i n F i l m  T h e o r y and C r i t i c i s m , p.807. 14 Andre B a z i n , " T h e a t r e and Cinema, P a r t s 1 & 2", i n What i s C i nema?. v o l . 1 , Hugh Gra y t r a n s . ( B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1967, 183p.) p.76-124 15 Anne U b e r s f e l d , "Le P e r s o n n a g e " , i n L i r e 1e T h e a t r e , ( P a r i s : E d i t i o n s S o c i a l e s , 1978, 309p.) p.139 16 Anne U b e r s f e l d , p.140 17 C h r i s t i a n Metz, "Some P o i n t s i n the s e m i o t i c s of t h e cinema ( f r o m F i l m and L a n g u a g e ) " i n F i l m T h e o r y and C r i t i c i s m , p.171. -44-18 A. L e r o u x , ** I_l_ e t a i t une f o i s dans 1 ' e s t , un sque 1 e t t e . . . ", p. 19 19 Andre B r a s s a r d , M i c h e l T r e m b l a y , L ' u n l v e r s de Miche1 Tremb1 ay! / II e t a i t une f o i s dans 1'Est ( M o n t r e a l : L e s E d i t i o n s de l ' A u r o r e , 1974, 107p. ) p.69, 20 S e r g e i E i s e n s t e i n , F i l m Form (San D i e g o : HBJ, 1949, 2 7 9 p . ) , p. 54. 21 L ' u n l v e r s de Miche1 Tremb1 ay! / JJ_ e t a i t une f o i s dans 1'ESt. p. 69. 22 I b i d . , p. 70. 23 I b i d . , p.76. 24 I b i d . , p.93. 25 I b i d . , p.95. 26 I b i d . , p.72. 27 I b i d . , p.61. 28 I b i d . , p.37 -45-CHAPTER TWO En P t e c e s d e t a c h e e s : La D u c h e s s e de L a n g e a i s: Demain M a t i n ,  Montrea1 m' a t t e n d . l . E n p i e c e s d e t a c h e e s ( 1 ) : He 1 e n e / T h e r e s e ; H e n r i / G e r a r d ; F r a n c i n e / J o a n n e ; C l a u d e / M a r c e l ; R o b e r t i n e . At t h e h e a r t of t h e p l a y , one c h a r a c t e r , He 1 e n e / T h e r e s e , i s c a u g h t between the two t e r r i t o r i e s w h ich compose t h e r e a l i t y of her u n i v e r s e . On one s i d e , her husband H e n r i / G e r a r d , her d a u g t h e r F r a n c i n e / J o a n n e , and her mother R o b e r t i n e form t h e t e r r i t o r y o f . t h e f a m i l y n u c l e u s . From R o b e r t i n e ' s l i v i n g r o o m , t h i s f i r s t t e r r i t o r y s t r e t c h e s out t o N i c k ' s cheap r e s t a u r a n t on P a p i n e a u s t r e e t , where He 1 e n e / T h e r e s e has t o work as a w a i t r e s s t o s u p p o r t her f a m i l y . On t h e o t h e r s i d e , t h e C o c o n u t Inn on t h e Main, w i t h L u c i l l e , T o o t h p i c k , M a u r i c e t h e owner of t h e c l u b , and t h e i r e n t o u r a g e , r e p r e s e n t s t h e l i e u where He 1 e n e / T h e r e s e f e e l s she b e l o n g s , but from which she was e x p e l l e d by M a u r i c e b e c a u s e of he d e b t s and her d r i n k i n g p r o b l e m . H a n g i n g o v e r t h e s e two t e r r i t o r i e s , t h e h a u n t i n g p r e s e n c e of C l a u d e / M a r c e l , R o b e r t i n e ' s r e t a r d e d son who was put away a t age twenty b e c a u s e of h i s v i o l e n f i t s of madness, c r e a t e s t h e t h i r d s p a c e of He 1 e n e / T h e r e s e ' s drama. A s p a c e whose i n v i s i b l e p r e m i s e s w i l l e v e n t u a l l y -46-i n c a r c e r a t e a l l the members of the f a m i l y . U n l i k e Les Be 1 1es-soeurs. which i s c o n f i n e d to the h i g h l y t h e a t r i c a l device of the three c l a s s i c a l u n i t i e s , En. pieces  detachees has an e p i s o d i c s t r u c t u r e . The play i s composed of seven p a r t s which, although n a r r a t i v e l y r e l a t e d , are t h e m a t i c a l l y s e l f - c o n t a i n e d . T h i s dramatic c o n s t r u c t i o n i s p r o p i t i o u s to the c i n e m a t i z a t i o n of the c h a r a c t e r s . For ra t h e r than e x p l o r i n g one s i t u a t i o n i n depth, on a v e r t i c a l a x i s , i t analyses the personae through a syntagmatic development. The f i r s t p art of the play, takes place i n a c o u r t y a r d somewhere i n the east-end of Montreal. A group of women, s i t t i n g on t h e i r b a l c o n i e s , or set up at t h e i r windows, are exchanging gossip. Here, and on two other occasions -- pa r t s four and s i x --, t h i s group of working-class housewives forms a s o r t of chorus commenting on the a c t i o n which takes place i n one of the neighbouring houses: Robertine's house. Each of the three c h o r a l p a r t s serves as a preamble to the f o l l o w i n g scene, i n t r o d u c i n g the s i t u a t i o n h i s t o r i c a l l y , or l o c a t i n g i t i n r e l a t i o n s h i p with t h e customary chain of events. The presence of the chorus i n f l u e n c e s the s p e c t a t o r ' s response to the c h a r a c t e r s of Robertine and her f a m i l y . Remarks such as "Joseph, l a f o l l e d'en face a encore ferine son b l i n d v e n i t i e n " ( p . 1 5 ) (Joseph, the nut across the yard j u s t went an' shut her V e n e t i a n b l i n d again. - Van Meer p.14) i n re f e r e n c e to -47-Robertine, or the a c c u s a t i o n thrown at He 1ene/Therese by the women "maudite demonne"(p.18) ( D e v i l woman - Van Meer p.19), which r e c a l l s the l i n e i n Les Be 11es-soeurs when Rose, Germaine and G a b r i e l l e t e l l P i e r r e t t e , "Toe, t a i s - t o e , demonne!"(p.49) (Shut up, you d e v i l , shut up! - Van Burek p.77), guide the s p e c t a t o r i n h i s apprehension of the c h a r a c t e r s . But i t i s a p a r a d o x i c a l guidance f o r , being entranched i n the r e a l i t y of the play, the chorus, i n En pieces detachees. does not command the omniscience of the Greek chorus. The o b s e r v a t i o n s made by the group of women are p e r c e i v e d as a c o l l e c t i o n of s u b j e c t i v e thoughts s u s c e p t i b l e of judgement, thus o f t e n leading the audience to oppose the chorus in i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n of the personae. Hence, the d e s c r i p t i o n of He 1ene/Therese, made by the chorus i n part one, although negative in i n t e n t i o n , helps to c o n s t r u c t the c h a r a c t e r of He 1ene/Therese as a h e r o i c f i g u r e . He 1ene/Therese was b e a u t i f u l and i n t e l l i g e n t when she was young. But her l i f e went downward when she married handsome Henri/Gerard, who soon revealed himself to be an empty s h e l l . R e a l i z i n g her mistake, He 1ene/Therese took on d r i n k i n g to escape the p a i n f u l r e a l i t y of her l i f e , and thus engaged i n the v i c i o u s c i r c l e which i s leading her to her l o s s . In d e p i c t i n g her l i f e and her behaviour i n a s c o r n f u l way, the chorus of gossippers i n v o l u n t a r i l y c r e a t e an image of He 1ene/Therese which i s more that of a martyr than of a "demonne". The f o l l o w i n g scene, part two, takes place at Nick's r e s t a u r a n t . As i t i s the case f o r part three, f i v e and seven, t h i s scene presents the audience with the a c t u a l c h a r a c t e r s of the -48-drama, s p e c i f y i n g and q u a l i f y i n g t h e i r i d e n t i t y . We see He 1 e n e / T h e r e s e and t h e two o t h e r employees -- Mado, the c a s h i e r , and L i s e , t h e o t h e r w a i t r e s s -- s i t t i n g a t a t a b l e , c h a t t i n g away the s l a c k hour of t h e a f t e r n o o n . The f i r s t p a r t of t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n r e - a s s e r t s t h e i d e n t i t y of He 1 e n e / T h e r e s e as a p o s i t i v e c h a r a c t e r who has t o f i g h t t o a v o i d b e i n g c r u s h e d by her e n v i r o n m e n t . As He 1 e n e / T h e r e s e r e l a t e s how she put an i m p o l i t e c u s t o m e r back i n t o h i s p l a c e , t h e comments made e a r l i e r by t h e n e i g b o u r s a b o u t her s t u b b o r n e s s and i n s u b o r d i n a t i o n ( p . l 7 / p . l 7 ) a p p e a r t o t h e s p e c t a t o r as s p i t e f u l remarks a b o u t a woman whose o n l y weapon a g a i n s t the c r u e l t y of t h e w o r l d i s her s t r e n g t h of c h a r a c t e r . However, a f u r t h e r exchange between L i s e and He 1 e n e / T h e r e s e h i n t s a t a f a c e t of t h e p e r s o n a l i t y of t h e h e r o i n e w h i c h s l i g h l t y t a r n i s h e s her image. P r e t e n d i n g t o work i n L i s e ' s i n t e r e s t , she t r i e s t o c o n v i n c e t h e young i n s e c u r e w a i t r e s s t h a t she s h o u l d q u i t her j o b a t t h e r e s t a u r a n t , and f i n d s o m e t h i n g more a p p r o p r i a t e f o r her weak p e r s o n a l i t y . I t becomes c l e a r to t h e s p e c t a t o r and Mado t h a t He 1 e n e / T h e r e s e i s a f t e r L i s e ' s j o b . Mado: Tes p ' t i t e s combines a v e c L i s e , l a , j'm'en mele pas, c a me r e g a r d e p a s . . . J ' l e s a i s que c ' e s t sa j o b que t u v e u x ( . . . ) La c a i s s e p i s N i c k , c ' t ' a moe! 0kay?(p.3O) (I can see t h e game y o u ' r e p l a y i n g w i t h L i s e , and I'm s t a y i n ' out of i t , i t ' s none of my b u s i n e s s . . . I t ' s her j o b y o u ' r e a f t e r , I s n ' t i t ? ( . . . ) J u s t remember, t h e r e ' s two t h i n g s a r o u n d h e r e t h a t a r e hands o f f t o you - N i c k and t h e c a s h ! Got i t ? ! - Van Meer p.31) T h i s f l a w i n the c h a r a c t e r of the h e r o i n e seems, a t a f i r s t r e a d i n g , t o be redeemed In t h e f o l l o w i n g s c e n e w h i c h o c c u r s a t the bar of t h e " C o c o n u t Inn". T h r o u g h o u t her d i a l o g u e w i t h L u c i l l e , - 4 9 -t h e b a r m a i d , He 1 e n e / T h e r e s e e x p r e s s e s h e r n e e d to r e g a i n h e r p l a c e on t h e M a i n . Her l a m e n t r e a c h e s i t s a p o t h e o s i s i n what R e n a t e U s m i a n i c a l l s " a g e n u i n e De P r o f u n d i s " ( 2 ) , as she c r i e s " C ' e s t i c i t t e , ma p l a c e , L u c i l l e ! C ' e s t i c i t t e que c h u s t ' h e u r e u s e ! " ( p . 4 1 ) ( T h i s i s where I b e l o n g , L u c i l l e ! T h i s i s t h e o n l y p l a c e I c a n be h a p p y ! - Van Meer p . 4 6 ) . In t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , M a u r i c e ' s e v a s i v e n e s s i n f r o n t o f He 1 e n e / T h e r e s e , as he p r e t e n d s t o be t o o b u s y t o t a k e c a r e o f h e r and s i m p l y o r d e r s h e r n e v e r to come b a c k on t h e M a i n ( p . 4 4 / p . 5 0 ) , seems t o e s t a b l i s h a C r e o n - A n t i g o n e r e l a t i o n s h i p i n w h i c h t h e k i n g M a u r I c e - C r e o n p a l e s b e f o r e t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f h i s o p p o n e n t . B u t a g a i n , c e r t a i n d e t a i l s i n t h e s c e n e t e n d t o show t h a t He 1 e n e / T h e r & s e i s n o t as much o f t h e p o s i t i v e m a r t y r f i g u r e as s h e f i r s t a p p e a r s t o b e . The most s t r i k i n g i n s t a n c e i s t h e r e v e l a t i o n t h a t He 1 e n e / T h e r e s e , i n a scheme s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f p a r t two , had t r i e d t o s t e a l L u c i l i e ' s j o b a y e a r e a r l i e r . L u c i 1 1 e : ( . . . ) T ' a s e s s a y e de me p r e n d r e ma p l a c e , l ' a n n e e p a s s e , T h e r e s e ( . . . ) P e n s e s - t u que j ' l e s a i s p a s que t ' a s e s s a y e de p r e n d r e ma p l a c e ? ( p . 3 9 ) ( . . . Y o u t r i e d t o g e t my j o b , l a s t y e a r , H e l e n e . . . Y o u t h i n k 1 d o n ' t know y o u were t r y i n g t o g e t my j o b ? - Van Meer p . 4 4 ) The c h a r a c t e r , w h i c h had i n i t i a l l y b e e n p e r c e i v e d a s a h e r o i c f i g u r e , now becomes i n c r e a s i n l y d e f i n e d a s an a r r i v i s t e . In p a r t f o u r , t h e s p e c t a t o r f i n d s h i m s e l f a l m o s t i n a g r e e m e n t w i t h Mme B e l a n g e r as s h e s a y s , a b o u t He 1 e n e / T h e r e s e , " t a n t p i s p o u r e l i e , a l ' a a s s e z c o u r u a p r e s . . . n ( p . 4 9 ) ( W e l l , t h a t ' s h e r t o u g h l u c k , I g u e s s ; s h e ' s b e e n a s k i n ' f o r i t s i n c e God knows when. - Van Meer p . 5 3 ) . -50-It i s i n the f i f t h p art of the play, that the r e v e r s a l i n the s p e c t a t o r ' s response to the c h a r a c t e r of He 1ene/Therese i s completed. The sympathy, which the s c o r n f u l a c c u s a t i o n s of the chorus had provoked i n the audience, i s r e p l a c e d by hatred and l o a t h i n g as the s p e c t a t o r witnesses the deeds of the main c h a r a c t e r . As she comes back home, t o t a l l y drunk, He 1ene/Therese s t a r t s r a i s i n g havoc in her mother's house. If the s p e c t a t o r can understand the m o t i v a t i o n behind her a t t a c k s on her p a r a s i t i c husband (p.60/p.67), her c r u e l behaviour towards Francine/Joanne and Robertine seems a b s o l u t e l y g r a t u i t o u s , and a p p a l l s the audience. As she threatens to h i t her daughter with a c o f f e e t a b l e (p.58/p.64), and accuses her mother of being r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the madness of Claude/Marcel (p.61/p.69), He 1ene/Therese becomes the o b j e c t of the s p e c t a t o r ' s d i s g u s t . When, at the end of the scene, a f t e r having f a l l e n to the ground and implored Robertine to f o r g i v e her, Helene/Therese seeks to r e g a i n a minimum of s e l f - e s t e e m by having a d e r i s o r y arm w r e s t l e with Henri/Gerard (p.64/p.74), the s p e c t a t o r looks down on t h i s human wreck, and b a r e l y f e e l s any p i t y f o r her. At t h i s p o int, the admiration of the audience i s no longer f o r the r e b e l l i o u s "demonne" but f o r the " f o l l e d'en face", Robertine. In 1972, a f t e r having w r i t t e n one of h i s most h i g h l y acclaimed p l a y s , A to i , pour tou jours, ta Mar i e-Lou, Michel Tremblay s a i d j ' c o n s i d e r e que l a m e i l l e u r chose que j ' a i f a i t e est dans En. -51-pieces detachees: c'est le monologue de Robertine a sa f e n i i t r e , un monologue plus beau que les monologues de Marie-Lou(3) (I c o n s i d e r that the best t h i n g I have ever done i s i n En  pieces detachees: the monologue of Robertine at her window, a monologue more b e a u t i f u l than any of the monologues i n Mar ie-Lou) Robertine's monologue, at the end of part s i x , i s the touching p o r t r a i t of a genuinely good woman whose l i f e was wasted i n a s o c i e t y where goodness does not have a p l a c e . Robertine's f i r s t words "Therese dort."(p.71) (Helene i s a s l e e p - Van tieer p.80) mark a t u r n i n g p o i n t i n the play. F o l l o w i n g the v i o l e n t tumbling down of He 1ene/Therese, the degeneration process comes to an end, and a new mode of e x i s t e n c e can be e s t a b l i s h e d , at l e a s t f o r a time. As Robertine reminisces about the happiest moment of her l i f e -- when her c h i l d r e n were young -- the chorus of women slowly disappeares and the s p e c t a t o r i s drawn i n t o the t h i r d dramatic space - what P i e r r e Gobin c a l l s Claude's "espace chimerique"(4). Throughout the l a s t scene of the play, Claude/Marcel, who has escaped from the asylum and gone home to h i s f a m i l y , g r a d u a l l y leads Francine/Joanne, Robertine, He 1ene/Therese, and even Henri/Gerard to enter h i s c h i m e r i c a l u n i v e r s e . Step by step, the "normal" c h a r a c t e r s come to accept h i s r e f e r e n t i a l schema. As the a l i e n a t i o n process reaches i t s completion, C1aude/Marce1's cry of de s p a i r "Chus pus cabab1e de r i e n f a i r e " ( p . 8 8 ) ( T h e r e ' s nothing I can do - Van Meer p.103) i s taken up by a l l the c h a r a c t e r s as they shout t h e i r power 1essness: He 1ene/Therese's i n c a p a c i t y to l i v e i n her m i l i e u and her i n a p t i t u d e to get out of I t ; Robertine's f a i l u r e with her c h i l d r e n ; Henri/Gerard's and Francine/Joanne's -52-p h y s i c a l and mental impotence. In the l a s t sentence of the play, Claude/Marcel proclaims h i s s o l u t i o n to the impuissance of the group: the r e j e c t i o n of reason, and the acceptance of madness. Claude/Marcel: Moe, j'peux toute f a i r e ! J ' a i toutes les pou v o i r s ! Parce que j ' a i mes l u n e t t e s ! Chus t u - s e u l . . . a a v o i r les 1unettes.(p.92) (I can do anything, I can! I've got a l l powers! That's because of my sunglasses. I am the only one... The only one t h a t ' s got sunglasses! - Van Meer p.108) As a whole, part seven put a s i d e , En. pieces detachees can be seen as a sy s t e m a t i c demonstration of the f a i l u r e of He 1ene/Therese's attempt to transcend her m i l i e u . The conscious o b j e c t of He 1ene/Therese's d e s i r e i s to escape the t e r r i t o r y of the f a m i l y nucleus, and to re-e n t e r the t e r r i t o r y of the Main. But in her ambition to go back on the Main she f a i l s to recognize an echo of her need, 20 years e a r l i e r , to marry handsome Henri/Gerard. L i k e i n the case of Germaine Lauzon, He 1ene/Therese f a i l s to d i s c e r n between the s e l f , and the s i g n i f i e r s of the s e l f . She b e l i e v e s that m a t e r i a l circumstances u n i l a t e r a l l y determine the ego. The primary cause of He 1ene/Therese's drama i s thus the c o n f l i c t that e x i s t s between the need f o r s e 1 f - f u 1 f i 1 1 i m e n t , and the i n c a p a c i t y to achieve t h i s f u l f i l m e n t otherwise than from the o u t s i d e inwards. From her c o n v e r s a t i o n with L i s e and Mado, about her e x p l o i t as a w a i t r e s s , to her r e s i s t a n c e i n f r o n t of Maurice, He 1ene/Therese c o n s t r u c t s an image of h e r s e l f from the o u t s i d e --a persona i n the Jungian sense of the term --, and t h i s c o n s t r u c t i o n i s extended to the s p e c t a t o r . When, i n part s i x , Robertine c o n f r o n t s He 1ene/Therese with h e r s e l f , she refuses to -53-a c c e p t t h e f a c t s . - R o b e r t i n e : ( . . . )Tu l e s a i s que j ' t ' a v a i s d i t de pas m a r i e r G e r a r d , que c ' e t a i t un b o n - r i e n , p i s que t u 1'as m a r i e p a r e i1 ! - T h e r e s e : C ' e s t pas v r a i ! (...) - R o b e r t i n e : ( . . . ) S i Je t ' a i pas e l e v e e c ' e s t p a r c e q u e t ' e t a i s pas e l e v a b l e ! - T h e r e s e : C ' e s t pas v r a i ! - R o b e r t i n e : T ' e t a i s une m a u d i t e t e t e f o l l e ! Quand on t e d i s a i t deux mots de t r a v e r s , quand t ' e t a i s p ' t i t e , t u tombais dans l e s c o n f u s i o n s ! Tu v ' n a i s r a i d e comme une b a r r e p i s t u b a v a i s comme un c h i e n e n r a g e ! Tu t ' e n r a p p e l l e s pas, non? - T h e r e s e : Non, j'm'en r a p p e l l e p a s ! (p.62-63) ( - R o b e r t i n e : . . . Y o u know I t o l d you n o t to marry H e n r i , t h a t he was a g o o d - f o r - n o t h i n g , b u t you went and m a r r i e d him anyway! - H e l e n e : T h a t ' s n o t t r u e ! - R o b e r t i n e : . . . I f I d i d n ' t r a i s e you p r o p e r l y , i t ' s b e c a u s e you j u s t w e r e n ' t r a i s a b l e ! - H e l e n e : T h a t ' s n o t t r u e ! - R o b e r t i n e : You were a hot tempered l i t t l e b r a t , i s what you were! I f anybody s a i d two words t o you when you were l i t t l e , you'd have a c o n n i p t i o n f i t ! You'd s t i f f as a b o a r d and t h e n s l o b b e r l i k e a mad dog. You d o n ' t remember t h a t , eh? - H e l e n e : No, I d o n ' t remember t h a t ! - Van Meer p.70-71) The c o n f r o n t a t i o n goes on f o r m i n u t e s b e f o r e He 1 e n e / T h e r e s e f i n a l l y c o l l a p s e s and a d m i t s her f a u l t s . In t h a t s e n s e , He 1 e n e / T h e r e s e ' s p r o c e s s of s e 1 f - r e c o g n i t i o n p a r a l l e l s t h e p r o c e s s of t h e s p e c t a t o r ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e c h a r a c t e r . As t h e c o n s t r u c t e d p e r s o n a of t h e h e r o i n e i s debunked, He 1 e n e / T h e r e s e i s r e c o g n i z e d f o r what she i s -- a human wreck. But, as t h e c h o r u s of g o s s i p e r s p o i n t s o u t , t h e p r o c e s s of s e 1 f - r e c o g n i t i o n i s n e v e r pushed f a r enough t o l e a d t o a g e n u i n e change: -Mme L ' h e u r e u x : Le l e n d e m a i n , T h e r e s e se 1 eve, f i n e , douce, gent i 1 e . . . -Mme G i n g r a s : A se r a p p e l l e de r i e n . . . S a mere y d i t r i e n . ..Son mari non p l u s . . . T a n t qu'a s a f i l l e J oanne. . . E1 1e a d i t j a m a i s r i e n ! ( . . . ) -Mme M o n e t t e : P i s l e s o i r , s i T h e r e s e r e v i e n t s a o u l e , y recommencent!(p.50) -54-(-Mme L'Heureux: Next morning Helene gets up, clame, c o l l e c t e d , sweet as p i e . . . -Mme Gingras: Doesn't remember a t h i n g . . . Her mother doesn't mention anything...Or henri...Or the daughter F r a n c i n e . . . We 11, that Francine, she never opens her moth anyway /.../ -Mme Monette: And then the same nig h t , i f Helene comes loaded, they s t a r t a l l over again! - Van meer p.54-55) When he wrote the play, Michel Tremblay was not ready to provide h i s audience with, an a n a g n a r i s i s . Instead of f o r c i n g an impossible happy ending, the author, i n the l a s t scene of the play, goes on to sublimate the drama of He 1ene/Therese, by i n t r o d u c i n g the ch a r a c t e r of her mad brother Claude/Marcel. The presence of Claude/Marcel, at the end of the play p r o j e c t s the s i t u a t i o n of He 1ene/Therese i n t o the a b s o l u t e . Claude/Marcel, the only man He1ene/Therese has ever loved (p.70/79), i s the culminated e x p r e s s i o n of the c h a r a c t e r of He 1 ene/Therese. As suggested e a r l i e r , He 1 ene/Therese t r i e s to escape the t e r r i t o r y of the f a m i l y nucleus by using language as a means of c o n s t r u c t i o n i n i t s e l f . For inst a n c e , she b u i l d s her persona through the g l o r i f i c a t i o n of her i d e a l ego i n anecdotes such as that of the i m p o l i t e costumer(p.24/p.23). Or she uses language to set h e r s e l f i n a v i s i b l e p o s i t i o n of power i n order to d e f i n e her i d e n t i t y e x t e r n a l l y , such as when she l i e d to Maurice, a year p r i o r to the time of the play, to get L u c i l l e ' s job(p.39/p.44)). He 1ene/Therese's use of language i s c a r r i e d on to i t s extreme by Claude/Marcel. The mad brother manages, not only to c o n s t r u c t h i s persona through language, but to b u i l d the space around him , as w e l l , through language. Throughout the scene, -55-C1aude/Marce1 c o n s t a n t l y c r e a t e s and d e s t r o y s t h e t e r r i t o r i e s of t h e a s y l u m and R o b e r t i n e ' s house. As C l a u d e / M a r c e l a r r i v e s a t h i s m o t h e r ' s house, he s a y s Y'ont m&me pas p r e p a r e r l a m a i s o n ! Je l e s a v a i s ! Y v o u l a i e n t pas que j e v i e n n e ! Y v e u l e n t j a m a i s que j e v i e n n e . Mais chus venu p a r e i 1 ! ( p . 7 5 ) (They d i d n ' t even g e t t h e house r e a d y . I knew i t ! They d i d n ' t want me t o come. They n e v e r want me t o come. But I came anyway. - Van Meer p.83) Then, w i t h i n a few l i n e s , t h e a c k n o w l e d g e d t e r r i t o r y of R o b e r t i n e ' s house i s r e p l a c e d , t h r o u g h C l a u d e / M a r c e l ' s s p e e c h , by t h a t of t h e a s y l u m . M a r c e l : Que c ' e s t que vous v'nez f a i r e i c i t t e ? J ' v o u s a t t e n d a i s p a s ! J ' v o u s l ' a i - t u demande de v ' n i r me v o i r ? Vous £tes venus m ' a c h a l e r e n c o r e ? ( p . 7 6 ) ( C l a u d e : What a r e you d o i n g h e r e anyway? 1 wasn't e x p e c t i n g you! D i d I ask you t o come and see me? A r e you coming to y e l 1 a t me a g a i n ? - Van Meer p.85) Y e t , t h e t e r r i t o r y c hanges a g a i n i n the f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t s by C l a u d e / M a r c e l as he s a y s Je me s u i s pas s a u v e . C ' e s t eux a u t r e s q u i m'ont en v o y e . . . Y v e u l e n t pus de moe! Y v e u l e n t meme pus de moe, maman!(p.77) (1 d i d n ' t r u n away! I t was them t h a t s e n t me away! They d i d n ' t Want me anymore. They d i d n ' t want me t h e r e anymore, Mom! - Van Meer p.86) More i n t e r e s t i n g , p e r h a p s , t h a n t h e use of l a n g u a g e as a means of c o n s t r u c t i n g t h e p e r s o n a and the s p a c e i s the use of d i a l e c t i c a l o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e e n t o u r a g e i n o r d e r t o d e f i n e the s u b j e c t ' s i d e n t i t y as a n t i t h e s i s of the o b j e c t . He 1 e n e / T h e r e s e ' s c o n s t r u c t i o n of her p e r s o n a t h r o u g h d i a l e c t i c a l c o n f l i c t w i t h o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s i s s u b t l y i n t r o d u c e d i n s c e n e two as she s e t s -56-h e r s e l f i n o p p o s i t i o n t o her c l i e n t s a t N i c k ' s or a t K r e s g e ( p . 2 6 / p . 2 7 ) . In t h e f o l l o w i n g s c e n e , t h e o p p o s i t i o n i s made more o b v i o u s , and a c t u a l l y t a k e s t h e form of a c c u s a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n s i m p l e o p p o s i t i o n . T h e r e s e : Moe non p l u s j ' a i pas e n c o r e o u b l i e , i m a g i n e - t o e done! J e l ' a i pas o u b l i e , l e t o r t q u ' i l s m'ont f a i t e ! ( p . 3 7 ) ( W e l l , I h a v e n ' t f o r g o t t e n e i t h e r , dammit, t h i n k a b o u t t h a t f o r a m i n u t e ! I h a v e n ' t f o r g o t t e n t h e d i r t y d e a l t h e y handed me! - Van Meer, p.40) F i n a l l y , i n p a r t f i v e , t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h e p e r s o n a by o p p o s t i o n t o t h e o t h e r , becomes pure p a r a n o i a as He 1 e n e / T h e r e s e p r o j e c t s her r e a l s e l f o n t o R o b e r t i n e i n o r d e r t o s e t h e r s e l f as i t s c o n t r a r y . T h e r e s e ( t o R o b e r t i n e ) : . . . C ' e s t de t a f a u t e s i on e s t t o u t e s malheureux, d a n s ' f a m i 1 1e. ( . . . ) Ah! J ' t e f a i s peur, h e i n ? T'aimes pas c a qu'on t e d i s e t e s q u a t r e s v e r i t e s , h e i n ? T'as j a m a i s e t e une mere pour nous a u t r e s ! Tu t ' e s j a m a i s o c c u p e e de nous a u t r e s , p i s a s t h e u r , t u f a i s l a m a r t y r e ! (p.61) ( H e l e n e : . . . I t ' s y o u r f a u l t e v e r y b o d y i n t h i s f a m i l y ' s so. goddamn m i s e r a b l e ! Oh, so y o u ' r e s c a r e d , a r e you? You d o n ' t l i k e t o have anyone t e l l you t h e p l a i n g o s p e l t r u t h . W e l l you were n e v e r a mother to us. You n e v e r gave a damn ab o u t us and now y o u ' r e p l a y i n g t h e b i g m a r t y r . - Van Meer p.69-70) The s e few l i n e s c o u l d have been s a i d by J o a n n e / F r a n c i n e t o He 1 e n e / T h e r e s e and t h e y would have been a c c u r a t e . Coming from He 1 e n e / T h e r e s e , t h e s e a c c u s a t i o n s c r e a t e s u c h an o u t r a g e o u s mask t h a t i t s e f f e c t i s r e v e r s e d : i t r e v e a l s t r u t h t h r o u g h l i e . Here a g a i n , He I e n e / T h e r e s e ' s d e v i c e i s e p i t o m i z e d by C l a u d e / M a r c e l , who does n o t o n l y use the mask of l a n g u a g e , but - 5 7 -p u t s on a p h y s i c a l mask t o c r e a t e an o p p o s i t i o n b e t w e e n him and h i s e n v i r o n m e n t . T h i s mask i s h i s s u n g l a s s e s . "Moe j ' p e u x t o u t e f a i r e ! ( . . . ) Chus t u - s e u l . . . a a v o i r l e s 1 u n e t t e s " ( p . 9 2 ) (I c a n do a n y t h i n g , I c a n ! / . . . / I'm t h e o n l y o n e . . . The o n l y one t h a t ' s g o t s u n g l a s s e s ! - Van Meer p . 1 0 8 ) . In C l a u d e / M a r c e l ' s m i n d , h i s s u n g l a s s e s r e n d e r h im i n v i s i b l e , and t h a t i s h i s p o w e r . C l a u d e / M a r c e l ' s s u c c e s s i n i m p o s i n g h i s u n i v e r s e u n t o t h e o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s i s t h e r e s u l t o f t h e power o f h i s s u n g l a s s e s . B u t r a t h e r t h a n h a v i n g t h e power o f r e n d e r i n g him i n v i s i b l e , t h e s u n g l a s s e s m a g n i f y h i s m a d n e s s . T h e y I n s c r i b e madness on h i s f a c e . Mme Menard d e s c r i b e s C l a u d e / M a r c e l ' s e y e s i n t h e s e t e r m s : " S e s yeux n o i r s , s a n s e x p r e s s i o n s , comme de s m o k e s " ( p . 6 9 ) ( b l a c k e y e s , no e x p r e s s i o n In ' e m , k i n d a l i k e k i d s ' m a r b l e s . ) The s u n g l a s s e s a r e a m e t a p h o r i c a l e x o p h t h a l m o s . T h e y a r e a p r o j e c t i o n o f C l a u d e / M a r c e l ' s i n t e r n a l c o n f l i c t o n t o an e x t e r n a l o b j e c t t h a t no one c a n i g n o r e . F a r more c o m p l e x t h a n He l . e n e / T h e r e s e ' s u s e o f p r o j e c t i o n a s a means o f s e l f c o n s t r u c t i o n , C l a u d e / M a r c e l ' s ( u n c o n s c i o u s ) u s e o f t h e same d e v i c e a l l o w s him t o t r a p t h e o t h e r s i n s i d e h i s u n i v e r s e . H i s a s k i n g e v e r y o n e t o d r e s s i n w h i t e i s a p r o j e c t i o n o n t o t h e o b j e c t i v e w o r l d o f h i s s u b j e c t i v i t y . As M a r t i n e Dumont p o i n t s o u t , t h e i n v a s i o n o f t h e s c e n e by t h e c o l o r w h i t e s e r v e s t o m e t t r e en s c e n e l e champ s e m a n t i q u e de l a f o l i e q u i c o n t a m i n e g r a d u e 1 1 e m e n t t o u s l e s a c t e u r s p o u r d e s a g r e g e r l e n o y e a u f a m i 1 i a l . (5) ( s t a g e t h e s e m a n t i c f i e l d o f madness w h i c h i s g r a d u a l l y c o n t a m i n a t i n g a l l t h e a c t o r s i n o r d e r t o b r e a k up t h e f a m i l y n u c 1 e u s . ) By p r o j e c t i n g h i s madness o n t o t h e o u t e r w o r l d , t h r o u g h t h e -58-i m p o s i t i o n of t h e c o l o r w h i t e , C l a u d e / M a r c e l d e f i n e s h i m s e l f i n o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e o t h e r s . The p r e s e n c e of h i s b l a c k g l a s s e s s i g n i f i e s h i s i n d i v i d u a l madness c o n f l i c t i n g w i t h t h e g e n e r a l i z e d " w h i t e madness" of t h e o t h e r s . H i s o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e o t h e r s , t h r o u g h p r o j e c t i o n , i s emphasied v o c a l l y as he s t a r t s t h e "chus pus c a p a b l e de r i e n f a i r e " m o t i v e , w h i c h a l l t h e o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s r e p e a t . The w h i t e t h e s i s "chus pus c a p a b a b l e de r i e n f a i r e " of R o b e r t i n e , He 1 e n e / T h e r e s e and t h e o t h e r s , has as i t s a n t i t h e s i s t h e b l a c k "Moe j'peux t o u t e f a i r e ! (...) Chus t u - s e u l . . .a a v o i r l e s l u n e t t e s " of C l a u d e / M a r c e l . As we see C l a u d e / M a r c e l i s t h e v i r t u a l d o u b l e of He 1 e n e / T h e r e s e . In o t h e r words, he i s a s t y l i z e d and p u r i f i e d v e r s i o n of t h e c h a r a c t e r of h i s s i s t e r . Tremb1 a y - B r a s s a r d do n o t c i n e m a t i z e t h e c h a r a c t e r of C l a u d e / M a r c e l . But h i s p r e s e n c e can be f e l t , i n t h e c h a r a c e t e r of H e l e n e , as she pushes f u r t h e r , i n I 1  e t a i t une f o i s dans 1'Est. t h e p r o c e s s of s e 1 f - c o n s t r u e t i o n , t h u s i n c r e a s i n g t h e l e v e l of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n between the " n o r m a l " s i s t e r and her "mad" b r o t h e r . The c h a r a c t e r s of H e n r i / G e r a r d and F r a n c i n e / J o a n n e p l a y s m a l l p a r t s i n t h e f i l m . But t h e i r c i n e m a t i z a t i o n , as l i m i t e d as i t may be, r e t a i n s t h e e s s e n t i a l a s p e c t s of t h e i r f u n c t i o n i n t h e u n i v e r s e of R o b e r t i n e and He 1 e n e / T h e r e s e . The f i r s t s e q u e n c e ( S ) i n w h i c h H e n r i / G e r a r d i s shown, as R o b e r t i n e i s h e a r d t a l k i n g on the phone r e f u s i n g Germaine L a u z o n ' s i n v i t a t i o n t o p a s t e stamps, -59-e f f e c t i v e l y r e p r e s e n t s h i s l e t h a r g y . A slow p a n - s h o t of R o b e r t i n e ' s k i t c h e n i n d u c e s i n t h e s p e c t a t o r t h e f e e l i n g t h a t H e n r i / G e r a r d " d o e s n ' t even go o u t of t h e house anymore" (Van Meer p . 1 6 ) . By l i n k i n g h i s image t o t h a t of p o t s and cans s c a t t e r e d on t h e c o u n t e r , t h e camera c o n v e y s th e i d e a t h a t H e n r i / G e r a r d , s i l e n t , e x p r e s s i o n l e s s , has become a p a r t of t h e d e c o r . He l i e s a b o u t i n t h e k i t c h e n a l m o s t i n t h e same way as an empty c e r e a l box t h a t no one b o t h e r s t o throw away. The p h y s i c a l and mental i m p o t e n c e of H e n r i / G e r a r d and F r a n c i n e / J o a n n e i s a l s o s u c e s s f u l l y t r a n s l a t e d o n t o the s c r e e n i n terms of i n e r t i a : i n e r t i a of t h e c h a r a c t e r s and i n e r t i a of t h e camera. Scene 4 2 ( 7 ) , w h i c h shows the e n t i r e f a m i l y , i n c l u d i n g He 1 e n e / T h e r e s e and her u n c l e E d o u a r d ( t h e D u c h e s s e de L a n g e a i s ) , g a t h e r e d i n R o b e r t i n e ' s l i v i n g r o o m , i s a two and a h a l f m i n u t e s e q u e n c e - s h o t t h r o u g h o u t w h i c h f a t h e r and d a u g h t e r r e m a i n s i t t i n g on a s o f a , w a t c h i n g t v and p a y i n g l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n t o t h e t h r e e o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s . The d u r a t i o n of t h e s h o t , and t h e a b s e n c e of camera movement p r o v o k e a r e m a r k a b l e e f f e c t of s t a g n a t i o n , e nhanced by t h e p u n c t u a l i t y and b i t t e r t o n e of a l l t h e l i n e s u t t e r e d by F r a n c i n e / J o a n n e and her f a t h e r . The f o l l o w i n g s c e n e s a t R o b e r t i n e ' s p l a c e add l i t t l e t o the c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of H e n r i / G e r a r d and F r a n c i n e / J o a n n e . The o n l y s i g n i f i c a t i v e a c t i o n o c c u r s d u r i n g the d i n n e r s c e n e i n R o b e r t i n e ' s k i t c h e n ( 8 ) . E x a s p e r a t e d by t h e p r e s e n c e of her mother, F r a n c i n e / J o a n n e l e a v e s t h e k i t c h e n . T h i s a p p a r e n t l y b a n a l g e s t u r e -60-takes on a metonymical s i g n i f i c a t i o n when, at the end of the f i l m , i n a short i n s e r t shot, Tremb1 ay-Brassard show the audience the fu t u r e of Francine/Joanne's l i f e . A f t e r having l e f t Robertine's house Francine/Joanne ends up at Germaine's place, where she spends some time looking at the women p a s t i n g stampsO). At the end of the stamp-pasting party, one shot(10), showing Francine/Joanne accompanying Rose, Therese and the others i n the p i l l a g e of Germaine's belongings, p r o j e c t s the young woman i n the abyss of a l i e n a t i o n a l o n g s i d e the "be 11es-soeurs". The s t e a l i n g of the stamps and the condemnation of He 1ene/Therese have the same o r i g i n , and lead to the same a b e r r a t i o n . Contaminated by p r e j u d i c e , incapable of d e v i s i n g ways of changing her l i f e , Francine/Joanne r e s o r t s to the same means of g r a t i f i c a t i o n that her e l d e r s use. She renders her l i f e bearable by r e f u s i n g to l e t the l i f e of others be any b e t t e r than hers. In t h i s one short cut, Francine/Joanne's l i f e i s determined. She w i l l be another Rose Ouimet. T h i s one shot might very well be the most p e s s i m i s t i c moment of the e n t i r e f i l m . But although t h i s scene and other sequences concerning Henri/Gerard and Francine/Joanne are s u c c e s s f u l i n t r a n s p o s i n g the world c r e a t e d i n the play, they remain subordinate to the c i n e m a t i z a t i o n of the two main c h a r a c t e r s of E_n pieces detachees. He 1 ene/Therese and Robertine. The f i l m presents the audience with two c o n f l i c t i n g images of He 1ene/Therese. As i n the play, the f i l m c h a r a c t e r has an o b j e c t i v e i d e n t i t y and a c o n s t r u c t e d i d e n t i t y : the i d e n t i t y of Fabre s t r e e t and the i d e n t i t y of the Main. The f i r s t few scenes of - 6 1 -t h e f i l m show He 1 e n e / T h e r e s e as s h e i s : a w o r k i n g - c l a s s woman t h a t a m e d i o c r e e x i s t e n c e has r e n d e r e d b i t t e r . Her f i r s t l i n e s e t s h e r i n t h e t r a d i t i o n o f h e r m o t h e r and a l l t h e o t h e r d i s s a t i s f i e d " b e 1 1 e s - s o e u r s " . He 1 e n e / T h e r e s e t e l l s L i s e , who has j u s t d r o p p e d a s a l t s h a k e r , " M o e , ma mere m 'a t o u j o u r s d i t que c a a p p o r t e d ' l a b a d l u c k q u a n d on e c h a p p e du s e l . . . " ( l l ) (My m o t h e r a l w a y s t o l d me t h a t i t b r i n g s b a d l u c k t o d r o p s a l t . . . ) . The l i n k b e t w e e n He 1 e n e / T h e r e s e and t h e c o l l e c t i v i t y o f a l i e n a t e d women of t h e P l a t e a u M o n t - R o y a l i s n o t o n l y a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h t h e r e f e r e n c e to R o b e r t i n e ( m e r e ) , b u t a l s o t h r o u g h t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f s u p e r s t i t i o n and t h e u s e o f t h e E n g l i s h word " b a d l u c k " t o d e s i g n a t e t h e n e g a t i v e o u t c o m e of L i s e ' s b l u n d e r . S u p e r s t i t i o n and t h e u s e o f an E n g l i s h word a s p r i n c i p a l c o n s t i t u e n t o f t h e p r e d i c a t e s y m b o l i z e t h e two m a i n c a u s e s o f t h e a l i e n a t i o n o f M i c h e l T r e m b l a y ' s " b e 1 1 e s - s o e u r s " : t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e c o l o n i a l i z a t o r - e x p l o i t e r , and t h e r e p r e s s i o n e x e r t e d by t h e c a t h o l i c c h u r c h . In t h a t s e n s e , He 1 e n e / T h e r e s e ' s f i r s t l i n e l i k e n s h e r d i r e c t l y t o t h e " b e 1 1 e s - s o e u r s " . The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f He 1 e n e / T h e r e s e t o t h e w o r l d o f t h e " b e 1 1 e s - s o e u r s " i s e m p h a s i z e d i n a f o l l o w i n g s c e n e t h r o u g h h e r s t i g m a t i z a t i o n o f p r e g n a n c y a s a "ma 1 a d i e " ( 1 2 ) ( d i s e a s e ) , t h u s r e c a l l i n g t h e l i n e by t h e women i n L e s Be 1 1 e s - s o e u r s "Que c ' e s t done i n g r a t , l e s e n f a n t s , que c ' e s t done i n g r a t . " ( 1 3 ) ( C h i l d r e n a r e so u n g r a t e f u l ) . I t i s n o t by c h a n c e t h a t He 1 e n e / T h e r e s e ' s f i r s t o u t b u r s t o f r a g e , i n t h e f i l m , t a k e s p l a c e i n a k i t c h e n ( 1 4 ) . The k i t c h e n , p e r h a p s more t h a n any o t h e r l i e u , i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e image of - 6 2 -t h e t r a d i t i o n a l F r e n c h - C a n a d i a n m o t h e r . ( 1 5 ) I t i s t h i s p a r t of h e r s e l f t h a t He 1 e n e / T h e r e s e c a n n o t a c c e p t , and t r i e s t o d e s t r o y by c o n s t r u c t i n g a n o t h e r i m a g e . The f a c t t h a t h e r f i t o f a n g e r t a k e s p l a c e i n t h e k i t c h e n a t N i c k ' s r e s t a u r a n t d o e s n o t s i m p l y p e r m i t c o h e r e n c e w i t h t h e p l a y , b u t a l s o a l l o w s t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e ma le c o o k - - a man h o l d i n g t h e f u n c t i o n o f a t r a d i t i o n a l F r e n c h - C a n a d i a n woman. By s h o w i n g us He 1 e n e / T h e r e s e o v e r p o w e r i n g t h e c o o k b e f o r e l e a v i n g t h e k i t c h e n o f t h e r e s t a u r a n t , Tremb1 a y - B r a s s a r d p r e s e n t He 1 e n e / T h e r e s e ' s r e v o l t a g a i n s t b o t h , h e r m i l i e u , and t h e I m p o t e n t men who i n d u l g e i n i t s m e d i o c r i t y . As i n d i c a t e d e a r l i e r He 1 e n e / T h e r e s e ' s d e s i r e t o e s c a p e t h e t e r r i t o r y o f t h e f a m i l y n u c l e u s , and t o r e - e n t e r t h e t e r r i t o r y o f t h e M a i n i s a symptom of h e r i n c a p a c i t y t o d i s c e r n b e t w e e n t h e s e l f , and t h e s i g n i f i e r s o f t h e s e l f . She i s i n c a p a b l e o f a c h i e v i n g f u l f i l m e n t o t h e r w i s e t h a n f r o m t h e o u t s i d e i n w a r d s . R a t h e r t h a n t r y i n g t o f i n d a g e n u i n e r e v o l u t i o n a r y s o l u t i o n to t r a n s c e n d t h e m e d i o c r i t y o f he r l i f e w i t h i n h e r s e l f , s h e c o n s t r u c t s an image f r o m t h e o u t s i d e . T h i s image p r e s e n t s s i g n s of r e v o l t r a t h e r t h a n a c h i e v i n g r e v o l u t i o n . The n e x t s c e n e i n w h i c h He 1 e n e / T h e r e s e a p p e a r s o c c u r s a t " C h e z S a n d r a " . (16) T h e r e , He 1 e n e / T h e r e s e meets P i e r r e t t e G u e r i n , who i s d r i n k i n g away her h e a r t a c h , and C a r m e n , f r o m A t o i . pour  t o u .1 o u r s , t a Mar i e - L o u . who i s r e h e a r s i n g h e r cowboy s o n g s . T h i s s c e n e shows He 1 e n e / T h e r e s e i n company o f B e c - d e - L i e v r e - - a woman d i s g u i s e d a s a man. T h r o u g h o u t t h i s s c e n e , and t h e r e s t of t h e -63-f i l m , i t becomes o b v i o u s t h a t He 1 e n e / T h e r e s e i s e n g a g e d i n a h o m o s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h B e c - d e - L i e v r e . The p r e s e n c e o f B e c - d e - L i e v r e c o r r o b o r a t e s t h e h e r m e n e u t i c a 1 p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t He 1 e n e / T h e r e s e c o n s t r u c t s images i n s t e a d o f p e r f o r m i n g a c t i o n s . B e c - d e - L l e v r e i s a c t u a l l y t h e embod iment o f He 1 e n e / T h e r e s e ' s schema o f p e r s o n a c o n s t r u c t i o n . She i s a m a r i o n e t t e d i s p l a y i n g t h e c o l o r s o f ma le h e r o i c i s m - - s h e d e f e n d s He 1 e n e / T h e r e s e a g a i n s t M a u r i c e - - w h i l e r e t a i n i n g t h e womanly q u a l i t i e s t h a t He 1 e n e / T h e r e s e l a c k s - - t h e g e n e r o s i t y and u n d e r s t a n d i n g w h i c h she d o e s n o t a c k n o w l e d g e i n h e r m o t h e r . B u t B e c - d e - L i e v r e i s n e i t h e r a woman n o r a man. When G e r m a i n e L a u z o n s e e s B e c - d e - L i e v r e on t h e b a c k p o r c h o f R o b e r t i n e ' s h o u s e , s h e d o e s n o t c o n s i d e r he r as a human b e i n g . She s a y s "Que c ' e s t c a , c ' t e b e b i t e - l a ! " (17) (What t h e h e l l i s t h i s c r e a t u r e ? ) . B e c - d e - L i e v r e i s o n l y t h e p r o d u c t o f He 1 e n e / T h e r e s e ' s c o n s t r u c t i o n a l r e s p o n s e t o h e r i n a d e q u a c y to p e r f o r m g e n u i n e c h a n g e s i n h e r l i f e . She r e p e a t s He 1 e n e / T h e r e s e ' s l i n e s ( 1 8 ) , and o b e y s h e r l i k e a w e l l - t r a i n e d d o g ( 1 9 ) . Any a s p e c t o f B e c - d e - L i e v r e ' s p e r s o n a l i t y w h i c h d o e s n o t f i t He 1 e n e / T h e r e s e ' s c o n s t r u c t i s a u t o m a t i c a l l y d e s t r o y e d . - H e l e n e : T ' e s t r o p f i n e a v e c moe, t o e , y va f i n i r p a r t ' a r r i v e r m a l h e u r . . . - B e c - d e - L i e v r e : Ben v o y o n s , H e l e n e , d i s pas c a . . . - H e l e n e : A h ! p i s commence pas a p a r l e r comme ma mere p a r d e s s u s l e raarche!(20) ( - H e l e n e : Y o u ' r e t o o n i c e w i t h me, s o m e t h i n g bad i s g o i n g t o h a p p e n t o y o u . - B e c - d e - L i e v r e : H e l e n e , d o n ' t s a y t h a t . . . - H e l e n e : D o n ' t s t a r t t a l k i n g l i k e my m o t h e r on t o p of t h a t . ) U n l i k e H e n r i / G e r a r d , who c h o s e t o become a n o n - e n t i t y i n s t e a d o f f u l f i l l i n g He 1 e n e / T h e r e s e ' s n e e d t o c r e a t e h im as a h e r o , - 6 4 -B e c - d e - L i e v r e gave away h e r i d e n t i t y , t o p u t on t h e mask t h a t he r l o v e r b u i l t f o r h e r . By s h o w i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r o f B e c - d e - L i e v r e , Tremb1 a y - B r a s s a r d manage t o i n c o r p o r a t e t h e w o r l d o f C l a u d e / M a r c e l i n ll_ e t a i t une  f o i s d a n s 1 ' E s t w i t h o u t h a v i n g t o t r a n s p o s e , o n t o t h e s c r e e n , t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e mad b r o t h e r , who i s m e n t i o n e d o n l y o n c e i n the f i l m . ( 2 1 ) As C l a u d e / M a r c e l , i n t h e p l a y , p r o j e c t s h i s i m a g i n a r y w o r l d o n t o t h e members o f h i s f a m i l y , He 1 e n e / T h e r e s e , i n t h e f i l m , a c h i e v e s a s i m i l a r e f f e c t t h r o u g h t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f B e c - d e - L i e v r e . The p r e s e n c e o f C l a u d e / M a r c e l ' s u n i v e r s e i s e m p h a z i s e d , i n t h e f i l m , a s He 1 e n e / T h e r e s e c o n s t r u c t s t h e image o f h e r s e l f by w e a r i n g a w h i t e d r e s s . The d r e s s t h a t C l a u d e / M a r c e l wan ted h i s s i s t e r t o w e a r , i n t h e p l a y , i s worn by H e l e n e / T h e r e s e , i n s e q u e n c e 55 o f t h e f i l m , as a means o f r e g a i n i n g h e r p l a c e on t h e M a i n . The d r e s s s y m b o l i z e s t h e e n t i r e p e r s o n a c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o c e s s t h a t goes on i n t h e p l a y . The f u n c t i o n o f t h e d r e s s i s made c l e a r i n t h e d i a l o g u e and i n t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e s h o t as H e l e n e / T h e r e s e a s k s M a u r i c e t h e p e r m i s s i o n t o come b a c k on t h e Ma i n . - H e l e n e : T ' e n r a p e l l e s - t u , de c ' t e r o b e - l a , M a u r i c e ? - M a u r i c e : Ben o u i . . . b e n o u i . . . - H e l e n e : J ' a i e t e l a c h e r c h e r s u s ma m e r e , e x i p r e s ( . . . ) T ' e n r a p p e l l e s - t u c ' t e r o b e - 1 a . . c ' t a i t t o u t e ma v i e ! J ' p e u x - t u r e s t e r d a n s l ' b o u t t e , a p r e s a s o i r , M a u r i c e ? - M a u r i c e : N o n . ( 2 2 ) ( - H e l e n e : Do y o u remember t h i s d r e s s M a u r i c e ? - M a u r i c e : Y a h , s u r e ! - H e l e n e : I went a l l t h e way t o my m o t h e r ' s p l a c e j u s t to g e t i t ( . . . ) Do y o u remember , t h i s d r e s s . . . w a s a l l my l i f e . - M a u r i c e : No) -65-As t h e s e l i n e s a r e s a i d , M a u r i c e and He 1 e n e / T h e r e s e a r e on s t a g e . The f r a m i n g o f t h i s l o w - a n g l e s h o t i s s p l i t i n h a l f by a row of o v e r - h e a d s t a g e l i g h t s . M a u r i c e s t a n d s i n s i d e t h e l i t a r e a w h i l e H e l e n e i s i n t h e d a r k e r p o r t i o n o f t h e f r a m e . Her a t t e m p t t o r e g a i n h e r p o s i t i o n i n t h e d e m i - m o d e o f t h e M a i n i s r e p r e s e n t e d i c o n o g r a p h i c a 1 1 y t h r o u g h h e r m o t i o n t o w a r d s t h e l i t h a l f o f t h e f r a m e . As M a u r i c e s a y s " n o n " , he p u s h e s h e r b a c k i n t o t h e d a r k e r s e c t i o n . The d i a l o g u e and t h e c o m p o s t i o n o f t h e s h o t a l l o w t h e s p e c t a t o r who i s n o t f a m i l i a r w i t h M i c h e l T r e m b l a y ' s t h e a t r e to u n d e r s t a n d He 1 e n e / T h e r e s e ' s d e s i r e t o go b a c k i n t h e w o r l d o f c h e a p g l a m o u r o f t h e M a i n . The p r e s e n c e o f t h e w h i t e d r e s s , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , makes i t p o s s i b l e f o r t h e i n i t i a t e t o e x p l o r e o t h e r a v e n u e s o f t h e i d e n t i t y o f t h e c h a r a c t e r . The r e f e r e n c e t o t h e u n i v e r s e o f C l a u d e / M a r c e l l i k e n t h e w h i t e d r e s s t o t h e s u n g l a s s e s , e q u a t i n g t h e c h i m e r i c a l power o f t h e b r o t h e r to t h e s e x u a l power o f t h e s i s t e r - a power b a s e d u n i q u e l y on i l l u s i o n . The end o f t h e f i l m ( 2 3 ) , as He 1 e n e / T h e r e s e , d r u n k , g e t s up on s t a g e and t r i e s t o d e f e n d H o s a n n a who has j u s t b e e n h u m i l i a t e d by t h e o t h e r s , e x p o s e s t h e p a i n f u l f a i l u r e o f He 1 e n e / T h e r e s e ' s e n d e a v o u r . B e l i e v i n g i n t h e power o f h e r d r e s s , a s C l a u d e / M a r c e l b e l i e v e s i n t h e power of h i s g l a s s e s , s h e u t t e r s d e r i s o r y t h r e a t s to S a n d r a and t h e M a i n i n g e n e r a l . B u t u n l i k e C l a u d e / M a r c e l , whose power o f c o n s t r u c t i o n s u r p a s s e s t h a t o f t h e o t h e r members o f the f a m i l l y , He 1 e n e / T h e r e s e i s a n u l l i t y among t h e C l e o p a t r a s and t h e o t h e r t r a n s v e s t i t e s . She i s t h u s e v i c t e d f r o m " C h e z S a n d r a " , and h e r c r y " L a c h e - m o e , m a u d i t e t a p e t t e ! Chus H e l e n e , H e l e n e l a r e i n e -66-d ' l a M a i n " (24) ( L e a v e me a l o n e , y o u damn f a g o t ! I am H e l e n e , H e l e n e t h e q u e e n o f M a i n s t r e e t ) , s o o n v a n i s h e s i n t h e b r o u h a h a o f t h e n i g h t c l u b . The l a s t s h o t o f He 1 e n e / T h e r e s e , s i t t i n g on t h e s i d e - w a l k , n e x t t o t h e D u c h e s s e de L a n g e a i s , i n t h e p o u r i n g r a i n , shows h e r i n s i g n i f i c a n c e w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e w o r l d where s h e t h o u g h t s h e b e l o n g e d . When s h e g e t s up i n t h e m o r n i n g , w i l l she h a v e f o r g o t t e n e v e r y t h i n g , and w i l l t h e same t h i n g " s t a r t a l l o v e r a g a i n ! " ( 2 5 ) ? Or w i l l s h e h a v e , a t l a s t , r e a c h e d a l e v e l o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s w h i c h m i g h t a l l o w h e r t o a c h i e v e f r e e d o m ? The l a s t c h a p t e r s o f t h i s t h e s i s w i l l a n s w e r t h e s e q u e s t i o n s . A l t h o u g h , R o b e r t i n e ' s r o l e i s n o t as i m p o r t a n t a s t h a t o f He 1 e n e / T h e r e s e , t h e m o t h e r r e m a i n s a more e n g a g i n g c h a r a c t e r t h a n h e r d a u g h t e r . R o b e r t i n e ' s l y r i c a l moment a t h e r window i s n o t r e p r o d u c e d on s c r e e n , and t h i s i s an u n d e n i a b l e l o s s . B u t , t h e e s s e n c e o f t h e c h a r a c t e r , h e r p r o f o u n d g e n e r o s i t y , i s r e - p r o d u c e d and c l a r i f i e d , i n t h e f i l m , t h r o u g h a c t i o n . The t o n e o f R o b e r t i n e , a s s h e r e f u s e s t o h e l p G e r m a i n e L a u z o n , i n t h e f i r s t s c e n e where s h e a p p e a r s ( s e q u e n c e 1 3 ) , c o u l d t r a n s l a t e a l a c k o f g e n e r o s i t y on t h e her p a r t . B u t one s m a l l d e t a i l , i n t h e c h a r a c t e r i o 1 o g i c a 1 m i s e - e n - s c e n e , i n d i c a t e s c l e a r l y t h a t he r r e a s o n f o r r e f u s i n g t h e i n v i t a t i o n i s a p t l y m o t i v a t e d . As t h e s p e c t a t o r n o t i c e s R o b e r t i n e ' s s k i n n y a r t h r i t i c hand on t h e s i n k , he u n d e r s t a n d s t h a t she i s n o t f i n d i n g e x c u s e s f o r h e r s e l f . She i s s i m p l y i n c a p a b l e of e x p r e s s i n g h e r s e l f i n a way w h i c h i s n o t b i t t e r and b r u s q u e . T h r o u g h t o u t t h e f i l m , h e r d e e d s c o m p e n s a t e f o r h e r i n a b i l i t y - 6 7 -t o e x p r e s s h e r f e e l i n g s o r a l l y . She d o e s n o t h e s i t a t e t o o f f e r f o o d t o B e c - d e - L i e v r e ( 2 6 ) . She d o e s n o t t a l k to h e r , o r e v e n l o o k a t h e r , b u t she draws t h e r o c k i n g c h a i r n e a r t h e p l a t e . T h i s g e s t u r e t r a n s l a t e s b o t h h e r s u b m i s s i o n t o t h e w o r l d o f p r e j u d i c e s o f t h e r u e F a b r e , and h e r g e n u i n e l o v e and a c c e p t a n c e o f o t h e r human b e i n g s . The most t o u c h i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f h e r g o o d n e s s i s d o u b t l e s s l y f o u n d i n s e q u e n c e s 36 and 3 7 , a s s h e goes t o t h e a i r p o r t t o p i c k - u p h e r b r o t h e r E d o u a r d . B a c k f r o m h e r t r i p i n M e x i c o , t h e D u c h e s s e l a n d s a t t h e D o r v a l a i r p o r t h o p i n g t o be w e l c o m e d by a c o n g r e g a t i o n o f t r a n s v e s t i t e s f r o m t h e M a i n . B u t no one i s t h e r e , e x c e p t R o b e r t i n e who g e n e r o u s l y o p e n s her arms to h e r e c c e n t r i c b r o t h e r . The most r e v e a l i n g moment t a k e s p l a c e i n t h e t a x i on t h e way home. As E d o u a r d a s k s R o b e r t i n e why s h e came t o p i c k h im u p , s h e r e p l i e s " J e l e s a i s ben p a s " ( 2 7 ) (I h a v e no i d e a . ) . T o r n b e t w e e n her n a t u r a l g o o d n e s s , and a s o c i e t y e n t r e n c h e d i n a C a t h o l i c i s m w h i c h n o u r i s h e s t h e b e l i e f t h a t good d e e d s w i l l be r e w a r d e d ( 2 8 ) , b u t e n c o u r a g e s s e l f i s h n e s s , R o b e r t i n e f i n d s no p u r p o s e f o r he r d e e d s . She s i m p l y a c t s w i t h o u t q u e s t i o n i n g . R o b e r t i n e i s M i c h e l T r e m b l a y ' s b e s t v e r s i o n o f t h e i n s i g n i f i c a n t m a r t y r of t h e P l a t e a u M o n t - R o y a l . The l a s t s c e n e i n w h i c h s h e a p p e a r s , s e q u e n c e 4 6 , i s , s i g n i f i c a n t l y e n o u g h , a g r o u p s c e n e . S i t t i n g a l o n s i d e He 1 e n e / T h e r e s e , E d o u a r d , H e n r i / G e r a r d , and F r a n c i n e / J o a n n e , R o b e r t i n e i s u n n o t i c e d - - no c l o s e - u p f i n a l e . As t h e t r a g e d y o f t h e o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s u n f o l d s , R o b e r t i n e i s f o r g o t t e n by t h e s p e c t a t o r . T h r o u g h t h e l a s t h a l f o f t h e f i l m she -68-d i e s n a r r a t i v e l y , " a l l a l o n e , s h o v e d i n a c o r n e r , l i k e a b e g g a r i n y o u r own h o u s e . " ( 2 9 ) . I t i s t h i s f a t e t h a t E d o u a r d c o u l d n o t a c c e p t , and i t i s t o a v o i d i t t h a t he became t h e D u c h e s s e de L a n g e a i s . -69-2 . L a D u c h e s s e de L a n g e a i s O O ) : Demain m a t i n , M o n t r e a I m ' a t t e n d ( 3 1 ) : t h e D u c h e s s e ( E d o u a r d T r e m b l a y ) and h e r w o r l d . L i k e H e l e n e / T h e r e s e and P i e r r e t t e G u e r i n , E d o u a r d T r e m b l a y i an i n d i v i d u a l o f l i t t l e c a l i b r e , who, d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h h i s m e d i o c r e e x i s t e n c e on t h e P l a t e a u M o n t - R o y a l , e s c a p e d h i s l o t by c r e a t i n g a p a r a l l e l l i f e w h i c h c o u l d c o m p e n s a t e f o r t h e l a c k of p u r p o s e f u 1 n e s s i n h i s d a i l y r o u t i n e . At t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e p l a y L a D u c h e s s e de L a n g e a i s . t h e D u c h e s s e , a " v i e i l l e p e d a l e d ' u n e s o i x a n t a i n e d ' a n n e e s " ( 3 2 ) ( a g i n g q u e e r i n h i s s i x t i e s ) who has a l r e a d y s p e n t 40 y e a r s o f " h e r " l i f e p l a y i n g t h e g r a n d e dame, i s s i t t i n g a l o n e i n a b a r , somewhere u n d e r t h e t r o p i c a l s u n . She i s t r y i n g t o f o r g e t a y o u n g l o v e r who has j u s t l e f t h e r , by d r i n k i n g and by r e m i n i s c i n g a b o u t h e r y o u n g e r d a y s as a t r a n s v e s t i t e p r o s t i t u t e o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l f a m e . The p l a y i s e s s e n t i a l l y compose o f a l o n g m o n o l o g u e - d i a l o g u e b e t w e e n t h e D u c h e s s e and h e r " a u d i e n c e " . C o n s i d e r e d by some c r i t i c s , s u c h as Normand L e r o u x ( 3 3 ) , a s M i c h e l T r e m b l a y ' s most p o w e r f u l w o r k , L a D u c h e s s e  de L a n g e a i s i s a m a s t e r p i e c e o f t h e a t r i c a l i t y , b e c a u s e o f t h e d e p t h and i n t r i c a c y o f t h e c h a r a c t e r and p e c u l i a r i t y o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e D u c h e s s e and t h e s p e c t a t o r / r e a d e r . In t h e f i r s t few l i n e s o f t h e p l a y t h e D u c h e s s e e s t a b l i s h e s v e r y u n i q u e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e a u d i e n c e : -70-Ce s o i r , on ne f a i t pas l'amour, on se s a o u l e ! O u i , l e s f i l l e s ! F i n i , l'amour, n i - , n i , f i n i ! F i n a l e b a t o n , on n'en p a r l e pus! ( . . . ) Tu s e u l e , l a t i t e - f i l l e ... Y'a ben r i e n que t o e pour r e s t e r s u r l a t e r r a s s e en p l e i n s o l e i l de meNne! (p.82) ( T o n i g h t , we do n ' t make l o v e , we g e t drun k ! T h a t ' s r i g h t , g i r l s ! F i n i , L'amour, f i n i , f i n i ! The f i n a l s t r a i n s and t h e n no more. ( . . . ) Y o u ' r e a l l a l o n e , l i t t l e g i r l . . . N o wonder, h e i n ? Who e l s e b u t you would s i t on t h e t e r r a s s e i n h e a t l i k e t h i s ? - Van Burek p. 8) W i t h i n t h e f i r s t few m i n u t e s of t h e p l a y t h e c h a r a c t e r a c k n o w l e d g e s b o t h t h e p r e s e n c e of t h e a u d i e n c e ( O u i , l e s f i l l e s ) and t h e f a c t t h a t she i s a l o n e i n t h e d r a m a t i c s p a c e ( T u - s e u l e , l a t i t e - f i l l e ) . T h e r e i s t h u s a t h r e e - w a y r e l a t i o n s h i p g o i n g on between t h e D u c h e s s e and her a u d i e n c e . To t h i s a l r e a d y complex s y s t e m of r a p p o r t s , a f o u r t h l e v e l of r e l a t i o n s h i p a p p e a r s , t h a t of t h e D u c h e s s e as a c t r i c e , u t t e r i n g her l i n e s t o t h e p u b l i c . ( 3 4 ) ( E l l e se p l a n t e b i e n d r o i t e a l a M a r l e n e D i e t r i c h ) O u i , v o t r e honneur, q u a r a n t e ans de s e r v i c e e t t o u t e s mes c a r t e s de competence!... (Grand r i r e d r a m a t i q u e ) Je s u i s une mante r e l i g i e u s e , une mangeuse de ma l e s ! (p.82-83) ((S h e p l a n t s h e r s e l f f u l l f r o n t a l a M a r l e n e D i e t r i c h ) T h a t ' s r i g h t , You Honneur, f o r t y y e a r s of s e r v i c e w i t h the v e r y b e s t of r e f e r e n c e s . . . ( w i t h a b i g d r a m a t i c l a u g h ) I am a p r a y i n g m a n t i s , a d e v o u r e r of males. - Van Burek p.9) The a u t h o r p r e s e n t s us w i t h a c h a r a c t e r who p u t s masks upon masks o v e r i t s f a c e -- t h e o l d homosexual man a s s u m i n g t h e r o l e of the Du c h e s s e a s s u m i n g t h e r o l e of M a r l e n e D i e t r i c h or t h a t of S a r a h B e r n h a r d t p l a y i n g a s o l d i e r boy i n L'A i g1 on (p.90) -- t h u s d i s t u r b i n g t h e t r a d i t i o n a l r e s p o n s e of t h e s p e c t a t o r / r e a d e r who -71-h a s t o d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n t h e c h a r a c t e r and t h e c h a r a c t e r ' s c h a r a c t e r s . In La . D u c h e s s e de L a n g e a i s M i c h e l T r e m b l a y p u s h e s e v e n f u r t h e r t h e e x p o s i t i o n o f t h e p r o c e s s o f p e r s o n a c o n s t r u c t i o n a l r e a d y e x p l o r e d i n En p i e c e s d e t a c h e e s . As i n En. p i e c e s d e t a c h e e s t h e a u d i e n c e i s l e d to o b s e r v e i t s own r e a c t i o n t o t h e c h a r a c t e r i n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e e x e r c i c e o f m a n i p u l a t i o n w h i c h i s t a k i n g p l a c e i n t h e p l a y . In La . D u c h e s s e de L a n g e a i s . h o w e v e r , t h e p a r a l l e l p r o c e s s o f c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e c h a r a c t e r , e x p e r i e n c e d by t h e s p a c t a t o r / r e a d e r , i s n o t a s s y s t e m a t i c a l l y d i s m a n t l e d w i t h i n t h e p l a y a s i t i s i n En. p i e c e s d e t a c h e e s . T h e r e i s no s c e n e i n L a  D u c h e s s e i n w h i c h an e x t e r i o r f o r c e ( R o b e r t i n e i n En p i e c e s ) e x p l i c i t l y d e b u n k s t h e image w h i c h b o t h t h e m a i n c h a r a c t e r and t h e a u d i e n c e h a v e come t o s e e as t h e g e n u i n e i d e n t i t y o f t h e h e r o . T h u s , t h r o u g h o u t t h e p l a y , an e m p a t h i c a p p r e h e n s i o n o f t h e c h a r a c t e r c a n be m a i n t a i n e d , n a r r o w i n g down t h e r e s p o n s e o f t h e a u d i e n c e t o a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d p r o c e s s o f v i c a r i o u s s u f f e r i n g a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h what E l a i n e N a r d o c c h i o i d e n t i f i e s as " t h e c o n t r a s t b e t w e e n t h e g l o r i o u s p a s t " - - t h e ' b e l l e e p o q u e ' when t h e D u c h e s s e was famous a r o u n d t h e w o r l d f o r h e r i m p e r s o n a t i o n s of g r e a t women - - , " a n d t h e u n b e a r a b l e p r e s e n t " ( 3 5 ) . P a s s a g e s , s u c h as t h e f o l l o w i n g , s u p p o r t t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h e D u c h e s s e as a p a t h e t i c f i g u r e whose g l o r y was e r o d e d by t i m e . A h ! O u i . J ' e t a i s b e l l e r a r e ! J ' a i eu t o u t M o n t r e a l a mes p i e d s ! J e d i r a i pas en q u e l l e a n n e e m a i s c ' e s t v r a i p a r e i l ! J ' a i eu t o u t M o n t r e a l a mes p i e d s ! Quand j ' a i commence a - 7 2 -f a i r e l a d u c h e s s e , on v e n a i t de l o i n p o u r me v o i r ! T o u s l e s hommes, l e s v r a i s , l e s m S l e s , l e s b e u s , se t r a i n a i e n t a t e r r e d e v a n t moi d a n s l ' e s p o i r que j e d a i g n e j e t e r un r e g a r d s u r e u x ! J ' l e s p o u s s a i s , comme c a , du b o u t du p i e d . . . C a c ' e s t a 1 ' e p o q u e oil j ' a i e t e v e d e t t e ( p . 8 9 ) ( Q u i , m o n s i e u r ! I was s t u n n i n g ! I had t h e w h o l e o f M o n t r e a l a t my f e e t . I w o n ' t t e l l y o u what y e a r t h a t was , b u t i t ' s t r u e a l l t h e same. A l l o f M o n t r e a l , a t my f e e t . When I s t a r t e d d o i n g l a D u c h e s s e , t h e y ' d come f r o m m i l e s t o s e e me! A l l t h e men, t h e r e a l o n e s , t h e m a l e s , t h e b u l l s , w o u l d c r a w l b e f o r e me i n t h e h o p e s t h a t I w o u l d d e i g n t o l o o k a t them. I 'd p u s h t h e m , l i k e t h i s , w i t h t h e t i p of my f o o t . . . T h a t was i n t h e d a y s when I was a s t a r . . . - Van B u r e k p . 1 5 - 1 6 ) The f a c t t h a t s h e a d m i t s t h a t " a u j o u r d ' h u i , j e p a y e l a p l u p a r t du temps p o u r f o u r r e r , m a i s c a f a i t p a s l o n g t e m p s ! ( p . 9 4 ) ( O k a y , so nowadays I u s u a l l y pay f o r a s c r e w , b u t i t ' s o n l y l a t e l y t h a t I ' v e s t a r t e d d o i n g t h a t . - Van B u r e k p . 2 0 ) , g i v e s a t o u c h o f i r o n i c n o b i l i t y t o t h e c h a r a c t e r , t h u s p r o m o t i n g t h e a s c r i p t i o n o f t r a g i c q u a l i t i e s t o t h e d e t h r o n e d q u e e n . B u t t h i s r e a c t i o n t o t h e c h a r a c t e r i s f l a w e d , f o r , as a c l o s e a n a l y s i s o f t h e D u c h e s s e r e v e a l s , t h e g l o r i o u s p a s t n e v e r o c c u r e d . S e v e r a l i n s t a n c e s , i n t h e p l a y , a l l o w t h e s p e c t a t o r / r e a d e r to d e t e c t t h e e l e m e n t o f s i m u l a c r u m w h i c h u n d e r l i e s t h e w h o l e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e D u c h e s s e . F o r i n s t a n c e , t h e s e few l i n e s : C ' e s t e f f r a y a n t quand j e p e n s e a t o u t c ' q u e j ' a i pu f a i r e d a n s ma v i e . . . Q u a s i m e n t l e t o u r du m o n d e . . . T o u j o u r s l e c u l a l ' a i r ! Des f o i s r i c h e comme l a Begum, des f o i s p a u v r e comme " L i t t l e O r p h a n A n n i e " ( p . 9 3 ) (You know, i t ' s a w f u l when I t h i n k a b o u t t h e t h i n g s I have done i n my l i f e . . . I ' v e a l m o s t gone a r o u n d t h e w o r l d . . . O n my a s s ! R i c h e r t h a n C r e s u s or p o o r as O r p h a n A n n i e - Van B u r e k p. 20) i n d i c a t e t h e schema of r e f e r e n c e o f t h e D u c h e s s e - - f i c t i o n : p o o r as " l i t t l e O r p h a n A n n i e " ( w i t h q u o t a t i o n mark i n t h e f r e n c h t e x t ) . - 7 3 -The u s e o f t h e t h i r d p e r s o n i n "Des f o u r r u r e s , d e s b i j o u x , p i s d e s l i m o u s i n e s , " l a d u c h e s s e " , a 1 ' a t o u t e eu c a , e l l e ! ( . . . ) O u i , mes c h e r i e s , " l a d u c h e s s e " , c ' e s t q u e l q u ' u n ! ( p . 9 4 ) ( F u r s , j e w e l s , l i m o u s i n e s , l a D u c h e s s e has had them a l l . ( . . . ) T h a t ' s r i g h t , mes c h e r i e s , l a D u c h e s s e i s a s o m e b o d y ! - Van B u r e k p . 2 0 ) a l s o p o i n t s o u t t h e f a l l a c y i n t h e c h a r a c t e r as s h e p r e s e n t s t h e d u c h e s s e a s someone who s t i l l i s a s o m e b o d y , b u t who e x i s t s i n a n o t h e r t e r r i t o r y . O b v i o u s e x a g g e r a t i o n s s u c h as " J ' a i t o u j o u r s e t e p l u s femme que t o u t e s l e s femmes! ( p . 1 0 1 ) ( I ' v e a l w a y s b e e n more woman t h a n a l l t h e women - Van B u r e c k p . 2 5 ) , o r h e r d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e show t h a t s h e gave w i t h t h e " L a d i e s ' m o r n i n g c l u b " , when " l e s hommes a p p 1 a u d i s s a i e n t a s ' e n c a s s e r l e s deux b r a s " ( p . 9 3 ) (The men c l a p p e d so h a r d , t h e y g o t b l i s t e r s on t h e i r h a n d s ! - Van B u r e k p . 2 0 ) , u n d e r m i n e a s w e l l t h e image o f t h e D u c h e s s e . The l a s t few l i n e s o f t h e p l a y , as t h e D u c h e s s e e x p r e s s e s t h e p a i n t h a t t h e l o s s o f h e r y o u n g l o v e r c a u s e d her On v i e n d r a me d i r e , e n s u i t e , q u ' o n ne meur t p l u s d ' a m o u r , au v i n g t i e m e s i e c 1 e ! . . . L o r s q u ' o n t r o u v e r a mon c o r p s . . . B e n n o n , ma c h e r i e on m e u r t pus d ' a m o u r p a r l e s temps q u i c o u r e n t p i s t u l e s a i s b e n . ( p . 106) ( S u r e , I know, n o b o d y d i e s f o r l o v e n o w a d a y s . . . b u t when t h e y f i n d my b o d y . . . T h a t ' s a p i l e o f s h i t , D u c h e s s e , and y o u know i t . - Van B u r e k p . 2 9 ) b e t r a y more e f f e c t i v e l y t h a n any o t h e r p a s s a g e t h e d r a m a t i c f i c t i t i o u s n e s s o f t h e c h a r a c t e r . As t h e a g i n g q u e e r g e t s t o o d r u n k t o c a r r y - o n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of h i s mask, he s i m p l y r e j e c t s h i s -74-f i c t i v e - s e 1 f , and c o l l a p s e s on t h e t a b l e , a d m i t t i n g t h a t t h e d u c h e s s e i s o n l y t h e o u t come of a d r e a m . B u t t h i s l a s t s t a t e m e n t d o e s n o t s u f f i c e t o d e s t r o y t h e h e r o i c image t h a t has b e e n c o n s t r u c t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e p l a y . H e n c e , s e v e r a l c r i t i c s , s u c h as P i e r r e G o b i n , p r a i s e t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e D u c h e s s e f o r h e r " t o t a l e f r a n c h i s e " ( t o t a l f r a n k n e s s ) , s e e i n g i n t h e f a c t t h a t " L a D u c h e s s e n ' a pas d ' a u t r e nom"(36 ) ( l a d u c h e s s e d o e s n o t h a v e a n o t h e r n a m e ) , a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h e who 1 e s o m e n e s s o f t h e c h a r a c t e r . The a b s e n c e o f a c o m p l e t e d e b u n k i n g o f t h e D u c h e s s e i s n o t t h e r e s u l t o f M i c h e l T r e m b l a y ' s i n c a p a c i t y t o d e s t r o y h i s c r e a t i o n . On t h e c o u n t r a r y : i t t r a n s l a t e s t h e a u t h o r ' s a b i l i t y t o p r o d u c e a l i v i n g t h e a t r e r a t h e r t h a n a s u c c e s s i o n o f s t i l t e d d r a m a t i c t a b l e a u x . In La_ D u c h e s s e de L a n g e a i s , M i c h e l T r e m b l a y r e f u s e s t o p r o v i d e t h e a u d i e n c e w i t h a s y s t e m a t i c p a t t e r n o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l e c d y s i s . The a u t h o r f o r c e s t h e s p e c t a t o r s ( l e s f II l e s ) t o become an e x t e n s i o n o f t h e D u c h e s s e ( F i l l e ) , t o pu t on t h e masks t h a t l a D u c h e s s e has c r e a t e d f o r h e r s e l f t o f i l l t h e e m p t i n e s s o f h e r l i f e , and t o r e a l i z e f o r t h e m s e l v e s t h e f a l l a c y o f t h e c o n s t r u c t . A p p r o p r i a t e l y e n o u g h , i t i s o n l y o u t s i d e o f t h e p l a y L a  D u c h e s s e de L a n g e a i s . t h a t t h e d e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e image of t h e D u c h e s s e i s p e r f o r m e d . In t h e m u s i c a l Dema i n mat i n , M o n t r e a 1  m ' a t t e n d , w r i t t e n one y e a r a f t e r L a D u c h e s s e . t h e D u c h e s s e a p p e a r s a t t h e "Meat R a c k " , a gay b a r on t h e M a i n , and i s f a c e d w i t h a number o f c h a r a c t e r s who do know h e r t r u e i d e n t i t y , and f o r c e h e r , - 7 5 -and t h e a u d i e n c e , t o t a k e o f f t h e m a s k s . The d e b u n k i n g p r o c e s s s t a r t s when L o l a L e e , a " S t a r - s i n g e r " i n t h e d e m i - m o n d e of t h e M a i n , r e v e a l s t h e D u c h e s s e ' s r e a l name: E d o u a r d ( p . 4 8 ) . L o l a L e e goes on t o s a y , i n a s o n g c a l l e d " B i t c h " T ' a s r i e n a d i r e , t o e l a g r a n d e dame d ' H o l l y w o o d . T ' e s e n c o r e p i r e a v e c t e s h i s t o i r e s q u i t i e n n e n t pas d e b o u t e ! T ' a s p a s l ' a i r d ' u n e D u c h e s s e , t ' a s l ' a i r d ' u n C a m i l i e n Houde Q u i s ' r a i t d e v ' n u t r o p g r o s , p i s q u i s o u f f r i r a i t d ' l a g o u t t e ! ( p . 4 9 ) ( Y o u ' d b e t t e r s h u t up m i s s H o l l y w o o d . Y o u ' r e e v e n w o r s e w i t h y o u r s t o r i e s t h a t d o n ' t make any s e n s e . You d o n ' t l o o k l i k e a d u c h e s s e , y o u l o o k l i k e a f a t C a m i l i e n Houde who has t h e g o u t . ) B u t e v e n c o n f r o n t e d w i t h h i m s e l f , E d o u a r d / L a D u c h e s s e d o e s n o t f u l l y a d m i t h i s f a l l a c y . As he s i n g s h i s " L e s L a m e n t a t i o n s de l a D u c h e s s e " R e j o u i s s e z - v o u s l e s f i l l e s , l a d u c h e s s e e s t r ' v e n u ! F r a p p e z - l a , v a r g e z d e s s u s , c ' e s t t o u t c ' q u ' a m e r i t e A v a se t r a i n e r a t e r r e , m a i s a l a d e r n i e r e l i m i t e A v a m o u r i r d e b o u t e , s i e s t p o u r m o u r i r t o u t e - n u e ( p . 5 9 ) (Be h a p p y g i r l s , t h e D u c h e s s e i s b a c k ! H i t h e r , s l u g h e r , t h a t ' s a l l s h e d e s e r v e s . She w i l l c r a w l on t h e g r o u n d , b u t i n t h e e n d , i f she has t o d i e n a k e d , s h e w i l l d i e s t a n d i n g u p . ) t h e a u d i e n c e , r a t h e r t h a n e m p a t h i z i n g w i t h t h e d e t h r o n e d q u e e n , f e e l s s o r r y f o r p o o r o l d E d o u a r d , whom no one r e s p e c t s f o r he has n e v e r b e e n , and w i l l n e v e r be a man o f i m p o r t a n c e . The b e s t e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e p e r s o n a o f L a D u c h e s s e i s c o n t a i n e d i n t h i s s h o r t p a s s a g e w r i t t e n by t h e E d o u a r d " h i m s e l f " : L a d u c h e s s e de L a n g e a i s e s t en m o i , d a n s mon i m a g i n a t i o n , e t e l i e ne s e r a e f f i c a c e que s i j e l ' i n v e n t e de t o u t e s p i e c e s . ( . . . ) Le P l a t e a u M o n t - R o y a l i n ' a t t e n d , l a M a i n , a u s s i , p e u t - £ t r e , pre*ts a se l a i s s e r b e r n e r p a r l e p r e m i e r b e a u - 7 6 -c o n t e u r v e n u . Ce n ' e s t pas 1 ' e x p e r i e n c e q u i c o m p t e , c ' e s t l e mensonge b i e n o r g a n i s e . E t j e v a i s v o u s o r g a n i s e r l e s p l u s b e l l e s m e n t r i e s . . . (37) (The d u c h e s s e i s i n me, i n my i m a g i n a t i o n , and she w i l l be e f f e c t i v e o n l y i f I make h e r up f r o m s t a r t t o f i n i s h . ( . . . ) The P l a t e a u M o n t - R o y a l i s w a i t i n g f o r me, and p e r h a p s t h e M a i n a l s o , r e a d y t o be f o o l e d by any good s t o r y t e l l e r . I t i s n o t e x p e r i e n c e t h a t c o u n t s , i t i s t h e we 1 1 - o r g a n i s e d l i e . And I am g o i n g t o o r g a n i z e t h e most b e a u t i f u l l i e s . ) T h i s p a s s a g e , q u o t e d f r o m a c o l l e c t i o n o f l e t t e r s w r i t t e n by E d o u a r d T r e m b l a y t o h i s s i s t e r - i n - l a w , t h e f a t woman, i n 1947 , w h i l e i n F r a n c e , and r e - p r o d u c e d i n Des N o u v e l i e s d ' E d o u a r d . d e f i n e s p r e c i s e l y t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e D u c h e s s e de L a n g e a i s - - s h e i s a l i e . A l i e t h a t E d o u a r d t o l d so o f t e n t h r o u g h o u t h i s c a r e e r , t h a t , by t h e end o f h i s l i f e , he had come t o b e l i e v e i t . One m o r n i n g o f A u g u s t 1976 , l y i n g on t h e a s p h a l t , a t t h e c o r n e r o f S t - C a t h r i n e and t h e M a i n , a s t a b - w o u n d i n h i s s t o m a c h , E d o u a r d ' s l a s t words were Tu l e u r d i r a s que mime s i a ' l ' a r e p a n d u s e s t r i p e s , l a d u c h e s s e de l a n g e a i s a pas c h i e d a n s s e s c u l o t t e s ! E s t r e s t e e d i g n e p i s d e s i n v o l t e j u s q u e d e v a n t l a m o r t . ( 3 8 ) ( T e l l them t h a t e v e n i f s h e s p i l t h e r g u t s , t h e D u c h e s s e de L a n g e a i s d i d n ' t s h i t i n h e r p a n t s . She r e m a i n e d d i g n i f i e d and c a s u a l e v e n i n t h e f a c e of d e a t h . ) The f a l s e d i g n i t y and c a s u a l n e s s o f t h e D u c h e s s e a r e a d m i r a b l y t r a n s p o s e d o n t o t h e s c r e e n t h r o u g h t h e a s t o n i s h i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f C l a u d e G a i as E d o u a r d . One c o u l d a r g u e t h a t t h e f a l l a c y o f t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e D u c h e s s e de L a n g e a i s i s a c t u a l l y t o o o b v i o u s i n t h e f i l m , m o s t l y i n t h e f i r s t s c e n e s h o w i n g t h e D u c h e s s e , i n t h e p l a n e ( 3 9 ) . T h i s s e q u e n c e l e a v e s no d o u b t , i n t h e s p e c t a t o r ' s m i n d , t h a t t h e D u c h e s s e de L a n g e a i s i s n o t what she p r e t e n d s to b e . -77-I t i s t r u e t h a t t h e a m b i g u i t y o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s l e s s e n e d i n t h e f i l m . H o w e v e r , t h e r e a r e r e a s o n s t h a t e x p l a i n Tremb1 a y - B r a s s a r d ' s c h o i c e t o c l a r i f y t h e i d e n t i t y o f E d o u a r d / l a D u c h e s s e i n t h e m o v i e . C o n f i n e d t o t h e l i m i t s o f t h e f i l m and o f c i n e m a , Tremb1 a y - B r a s s a r d c a n n o t a f f o r d t o r e - p r o d u c e t h e t h e a t r i c a l i t y o f t h e s t a g e c h a r a c t e r . As e x p l a i n e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r , t h e r e s p o n s e o f t h e a u d i e n c e t o a f i l m c h a r a c t e r i s one o f s t r a i g h t f r o w a r d i n d i v i d u a t i o n . In t h e t h e a t r e , t h e f a c t t h a t an a c t o r , p l a y i n g t h e D u c h e s s e , s p e a k e s d i r e c t l y t o t h e a u d i e n c e , i n s u r e s a c e r t a i n l e v e l o f d i s t a n c e , t h u s i n t r o d u c i n g t h e c o n c e p t o f r o l e - p l a y . In c i n e m a , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e c o n s t r u c t e d i d e n t i t y o f t h e D u c h e s s e becomes i n s e p a r a b l e f r o m t h e c h a r a c t e r o f E d o u a r d , s i n c e , a p r i o r i , t h e f i l m c h a r a c t e r i s n o t p e r c e i v e d as a c h a r a c t e r b u t as an i n d i v i d u a l . To r e n d e r m a n i f e s t t h e c o n f l i c t o f t h e D u c h e s s e , Tremb1 a y - B r a s s a r d h a v e t o d e v i s e a method o f c r e a t i n g a p e r c e i v a b l e d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n t h e c h a r a c t e r of t h e D u c h e s s e and t h e i n d i v i d u a l E d o u a r d , h e n c e t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e y o u n g c o u p l e t o whom E d o u a r d i s t e l l i n g h i s a n e c d o t e s . The two y o u n g p e o p l e s e r v e as an i n t e r m e d i a r y b e t w e e n t h e D u c h e s s e and t h e s p e c t a t o r , e m p h a s i z i n g t h e p r o c e s s o f g r o w i n g d i s b e l i e f and d i s c o m f o r t t h a t a f f e c t s t h e a u d i e n c e t h r o u g h o u t t h e s e q u e n c e - s h o t , b u t t o w h i c h t h e D u c h e s s e r e m a i n s o b l i v i o u s . As t h e s c e n e p r o g r e s s e s , t h e mask o f t h e D u c h e s s e becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y g r o t e s q u e . The c a m e r a s l o w l y z o o m i n g - i n on t h e f a t m a n ' s f a c e m a g n i f i e s " s o n m a k e - u p , s o n b l u s h - o n p i s s e s f a u x - c i 1 s " ( 4 0 ) ( h i s m a k e - u p , h i s b l u s h - o n , and h i s f a l s e -78-e y e l a s h e s ) , t h u s f i l l i n g t h e s c r e e n w i t h t h e a c t u a l mask o f t h e D u c h e s s e . The o v e r w h e l m i n g v i s i o n o f t h e D u c h e s s e a s a mask e f f e c t s an i r r e v e r s i b l e s h i f t i n t h e s p e c t a t o r ' s r e s p o n s e t o t h e c h a r a c t e r . W h i l e , i n t h e p l a y , t h e o b j e c t o f t h e a u d i e n c e ' s empathy c a n be t h e D u c h e s s e a s a t r a g i c f i g u r e who has f a l l e n f r o m h e r p e d e s t a l , i n t h e f i l m i t becomes i m p o s s i b l e t o b e l i e v e i n a t r a g i c r e v e r s a l o f f o r t u n e . The empathy o f t h e s p e c t a t o r i s t r a n s f e r e d f r o m t h e t r a g e d y o f t h e D u c h e s s e t o t h e drama o f E d o u a r d . The same t r a n s f e r i s a c h i e v e d b e t w e e n La_ D u c h e s s e de  L a n g e a i s and Dema i n mat i n . M o n t r ea1 m ' a t t e n d , b u t w h i l e i n Dema i n  mat i n . E d o u a r d a p p e a r s a s a s l i g h t l y r i d i c u l o u s c h a r a c t e r , i n t h e f i l m he i s p i t e o u s . B e y o n d t h e l a y e r s o f m a k e - u p , t h e s p e c t a t o r s e e s t h e o l d man, l o n e l y , s c o r n e d , f o r g o t t e n . T r y i n g t o r u n away f r o m t h e P l a t e a u M o n t - R o y a l where h i s s i s t e r i s t r a p p e d , he p l u n d g e d i n t o an e v e n g r e a t e r s o l i t u d e . H a v i n g t o l d h i s s t o r i e s t o e v e r y o n e , and m o s t l y t o h i m s e l f , he now b e l i e v e s them to be t h e t r u t h . The u s e o f t h e o f f - s c r e e n v o i c e , w h i c h i s u s u a l l y an u n e f f e c t u a l d e v i c e , t r a n s l a t e s r a t h e r w e l l t h e a l i e n a t i o n o f E d o u a r d by s h o w i n g t h a t he i s n o t t a l k i n g t o t h e y o u n g c o u p l e b u t t o h i m s e l f , i n d u l g i n g i n h i s o n e - v o i c e d i a l o g u e . The c u l m i n a t i o n o f t h e h a u n t i n g r e p e t i t i o n o f " C a se p e u t pas q u i s o i e n t pas v e n u s " ( 4 1 ) ( I t ' s i m p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e y w o u l d n ' t have come) i n t o t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f R o b e r t i n e a t t h e a i r p o r t , p r o j e c t s t h e D u c h e s s e o u t s i d e o f E d o u a r d . The o l d man f a l l s b a c k i n t h e "meme m a u d i t t r o u " ( 4 2 ) (same damn h o l e ) . As we s e e t h e c h a r a c t e r a t " C h e z S a n d r a " , we a r e n o t w i t n e s s i n g t h e D u c h e s s e ' s s t r u g g l e to r e g a i n h e r t h r o n e , b u t E d o u a r d Tremb1 a y ' s ( 4 3 ) a t t e m p t t o r e t a i n a minimum -79-of s e l f - e s t e e m by d e f e n d i n g h i s f r i e n d H o s a n n a . Tremb1 a y - B r a s s a r d ' s c h o i c e t o p r e s e n t t h e D u c h e s s e a s an o b v i o u s mask , t h u s a l l o w i n g E d o u a r d t o a p p e a r b e h i n d t h e d i s g u i s e i s t h e r e s u l t o f a t h o r o u g h u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e a t r e and f i l m . The D u c h e s s e de L a n g e a i s i s M i c h e l T r e m b l a y ' s most t h e a t r i c a l c h a r a c t e r . An a t t e m p t by Tremb1 a y - B r a s s a r d t o t r a n s l a t e t h e D u c h e s s e i n t o c i n e m a t i c t e r m s c o u l d h a v e l e d o n l y t o a d r e s s i n g up o f t h e a t r e i n t o c i n e m a . By d e c i d i n g u p o n p r e s e n t i n g E d o u a r d r a t h e r t h a n t h e D u c h e s s e , Tremb1 a y - B r a s s a r d made a p e r f e c t a d a p t a t i o n a l c h o i c e - - t h e y e m p h a z i s e d t h e c i n e m a t i c a s p e c t o f t h e c h a r a c t e r , and l e f t h i s t h e a t r i c a l i t y b e h i n d . Tremb1 a y - B r a s s a r d made s i m i l a r c h o i c e s i n t h e c a s e o f t h e two c h a r a c t e r s w h i c h I w i l l c o n s i d e r i n t h e n e x t c h a p t e r , Carmen and H o s a n n a . B u t a s we s h a l l s e e , t h e c i n e m a t i s a t i o n o f t h e s e two c h a r a c t e r s i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y more c o m p l e x t h a n t h a t o f "ma t a n t e " E d o u a r d . - 8 0 -ENDNOTES 1 F r e n c h E d i t i o n u s e d : M i c h e l T r e m b l a y , En. p i e c e s d e t a c h e e s , M o n t r e a l : L e m e a c , 1972 , 9 2 p . E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n : A l l a n Van M e e r , En. p i e c e s d e t a c h e e s , by M i c h e l T r e m b l a y , V a n c o u v e r : T a l o n b o o k s , 1975 , 108p . To a v o i d c o n f u s i o n i n q u o t e s f r o m t h e f i n a l v e r s i o n o f t h e p l a y , t h e E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n , and t h e f i l m , I w i l l u s e t h e 2 -name f o r m t h r o u g h o u t t h i s s e c t i o n . 2 R e n a t e U s m i a n i , M i c h e 1 Tremb1 ay ( V a n c o u v e r : D o u g l a s & M c l n t y r e , 1982 , 178p . ) p . 6 2 . 3 In Le. T h e a t r e c a n a d i en - f r a n c a i s ( M o n t r e a l : F i d e s , 1976 , 1 0 0 5 p . ) , p . 7 9 1 . 4 P i e r r e G o b i n , Le. f o u e t s e s d o u b l e s : f i g u r e s de 1 a  d r a m a t u r g i es q u e b e c o i se ( M o n t r e a l : L e s P r e s s e s de l ' U n i v e r s i t e de M o n t r e a l , 1978 , 2 6 3 p . ) , p . 7 5 5 M a r t i n e Dumont , ME_n p i e c e s d e t a c h e e s " . J e u 12 summer 1979 , p. 2 0 4 . 6 L ' U n i v e r s de Mi che1 Tremb1 ay / I 1 e t a i t une f o i s dans 1 ' E s t , S e q u e n c e 13 , p . 2 8 . 7 I b i d . , S e q u e n c e 4 2 , p . 6 2 - 6 4 . 8 I b i d . , S e q u e n c e 44 , p . 6 7 . - 8 1 -9 I b i d . , S e q u e n c e 5 6 , p . 7 6 . 10 I b i d . , S e q u e n c e 8 8 , p . 9 5 . 11 I b i d . , S e q u e n c e 3 , p . 1 6 . 12 I b i d . , S e q u e n c e 5 , p . 1 7 . 13 L e s be 1 l e s s o e u r s . p . 2 2 . 14 L ' U n i v e r s de M i c h e 1 Tremb 1 ay / J_l_ e t a i t une f o i s d a n s 1 ' E s t , S e q u e n c e 10 , p . 2 3 . 15 See J e a n L e m o y n e , c i t e d i n J . - C . G o d i n , L a u r e n t M a i l h o t , Le T h e a t r e Q u e b e c o i s ( M o n t r e a l : H . M . H . , 1970 , 1 5 5 p . ) p . 1 9 3 . 16 L ' U n i v e r s de M l c h e I Tremb1 ay / U_ e t a i t une f o i s d a n s 1 ' E s t . S e q u e n c e 18, p . 3 1 . 17 I b i d . , S e q u e n c e 44 , p . 6 5 . 18 I b i d . , S e q u e n c e 2 7 , p . 4 1 . 19 I b i d . , S e q u e n c e 4 1 , p . 6 2 . 20 I b i d . , S e q u e n c e 34 , p . 4 9 . 21 I b i d . , S e q u e n c e 2 1 , p . 3 4 . - 8 2 -22 I b i d . , S e q u e n c e 5 5 , p . 7 4 . 23 I b i d . , S e q u e n c e 9 2 , p . i O l . 24 I b i d . , S e q u e n c e 9 2 , p . 1 0 2 . 25 En p i e c e s d e t a c h e e s . t r a n s . A l l a n Van M e e r , ( T a l o n b o o k s , 1975 , 1 0 8 p . ) , p . 5 5 26 L ' U n i v e r s de M iche1 Tremb1 ay / M_ e t a i t une f o i s d a n s 1 ' E s t , S e q u e n c e 4 4 , p . 6 5 . 27 I b i d . , S e q u e n c e 3 7 , p . 5 2 . 28 See M i c h e l T r e m b l a y , En_ p i e c e s d e t a c h e e s . p . 5 5 " J e l ' a u r a i g a g n e , mon c i e l , o u i que j e l ' a u r a i done g a g n £ . " ( I ' v e e a r n e d my p l a c e i n h e a v e n . I ' v e c e r t a i n l y e a r n e d i t ! ) 29 En p i e c e s d e t a c h e e s , A l l a n Van Meer t r a n s . , ( V a n c o u v e r : T a l o n b o o k s , 1975 , 108p . ) p. 107 30 M i c h e l T r e m b l a y , H o s a n n a / La. D u c h e s s e de L a n gea i s . M o n t r e a l : L e m e a c , 1984 , 106p . E n g l i s h V e r s i o n : La. D u c h e s s e de L a n g e a i s and O t h e r p 1 a y s . J o h n Van B u r e k t r a n s . , V a n c o u v e r : T a l o n b o o k s , 1976, 125 p. 31 M i c h e l T r e m b l a y , Dema i n mat i n . M o n t r e a l m ' a t t e n d , M o n t r e a l : L e m e a c , 1972 , 90 p. To my k n o w l e d g e , t h i s p l a y i s n o t a v a i l a b l e i n E n g l i s h . 32 H o s a n n a / La. D u c h e s s e de L a n g e a i s , p. 8 1 . - 8 3 -33 See Normand L e r o u x , " L e T h e a t r e " , E t u d e s f r a n c a i s e s . O c t . 1977 , v o l . 13 , n o s . 3 - 4 , p . 3 5 3 . 34 Y . V i l l e m a i r e p o i n t s o u t i n " L a S c e n e E r o t o m a n e " , (Cu 1 Q_, n o . 2 - 3 , 1974 , p . 7 - 2 0 ) t h a t C l a u d e G a i , who p l a y e d t h e D u c h e s s e on s t a g e i n 1970 , i d e n t i f i e d t o t a l l y w i t h t h e c h a r a c t e r . B u t f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y , I w i l l n o t c o n s i d e r t h i s f i f t h l e v e l of r e l a t i o n s h i p : t h e a c t o r and t h e a u d i e n c e . 35 E l a i n e F . N a r d o c c h i o , T h e a t r e and P o I i t i c s i n . M o d e r n Q u e b e c , ( E d m o n t o n : The U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a P r e s s , 1986 , 1 5 7 p . ) p . 6 9 . 36 P i e r r e G o b i n , Le. f ou e t s e s doub l e s : f i g u r e s de 1 a  d r a m a t u r g i e q u e b e c o i s e , ( M o n t r e a l : P r e s s e s de l ' u n i v e r s i t e de M o n t r e a l , 1978 , 2 6 3 p . ) p . 2 2 2 37 M i c h e l T r e m b l a y , Des n o u v e 1 1 s d ' E d o u a r d ( M o n t r e a l : L e m e a c , 1988 , 312 p . ) p . 3 0 2 . 38 I b i d . , p . 4 4 . 39 L ' Un1ve r s de M i c h e l Tremb1 ay / JJ_ e t a i t une f o i s d a n s 1 ' Es t . S e q u e n c e 3 1 , p . 4 4 - 4 7 . 40 I b i d . , p . 4 7 . 41 I b i d . , S e q u e n c e 3 6 , p . 5 1 . 42 I b i d . , S e q u e n c e 3 7 , p . 5 3 . 43 I b i d . , S e q u e n c e 6 3 , p . 8 1 . -84-CHAPTER THREE A t o i , p o u r t o u i o u r s . t a Mar i e - L o u : H o s a n n a . l . A t o i . p o u r t o u i o u r s . t a Mar i e - L o u ( 1 ) : C a r m e n , Manon , and t h e g h o s t s o f L e o p o l d and M a r i e - L o u i s e . In t h e d e c o r o f a P l a t e a u - M o n t - R o y a l k i t c h e n , whose n a t u r a l i s t a p p e a r a n c e i s c h a l l e n g e d by e x p r e s s i o n i s t m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f a l i e n a t i o n , f o u r m o t i o n l e s s c h a r a c t e r s u t t e r t h e i r l i n e s w i t h o u t l o o k i n g a t one a n o t h e r . L e o p o l d and M a r i e - L o u i s e , a w o r k i n g - c l a s s c o u p l e , a r e h a v i n g t h e i r l a s t a r g u m e n t . T e n y e a r s l a t e r , t h e i r two d a u g h t e r s , Carmen and Manon , remember t h i s f a t a l S a t u r d a y m o r n i n g when L e o p o l d , f e d up w i t h h i s m i s e r a b l e l i f e and c o l l a p s i n g u n d e r t h e t h r e a t o f h e r e d i t a r y i n s a n i t y , d e c i d e d t o g r a b t h e c a r , t h r o w M a r i e - L o u i s e and t h e i r y o u n g e s t s o n R o g e r i n s i d e , and d r i v e " t h a t s o n o f a b i t c h r i g h t o f f t h e p a r k w a y . . . R i g h t i n t o a c o n c r e t e w a l l . " ( V a n B u r e k p . 8 2 ) . W h i l e Carmen saw i n t h e d e a t h o f h e r p a r e n t s an o p p o r t u n i t y t o e s c a p e t h e m e d i o c r i t y o f t h e f a m i l y n u c l e u s , Manon r e f u s e d to d e t a c h h e r s e l f f r o m t h e memory o f M a r i e - L o u i s e and L e o p o l d . S t i l l o c c u p y i n g t h e h o u s e where s h e grew u p , Manon l i v e s i n i s o l a t i o n -85-f r o m t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d , and s p e n d s h e r e x i s t e n c e r e - c o n s t i t u t i n g , i n h e r m i n d , t h e e v e n t s t h a t marked h e r c h i l d h o o d . M i x i n g f a c t s a n d f a b r i c a t i o n s , s h e has d e v e l o p e d a r e l i g i o u s a d m i r a t i o n f o r h e r m o t h e r , e x t o l l i n g h e r a s a s a i n t , and has come t o s e e h e r f a t h e r a s a h i d e o u s b r u t e . A t t h e t i m e o f t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e p l a y , t h e a c t i o n i s a l r e a d y t e r m i n a t e d . Carmen i s v i s i t i n g Manon f o r t h e n t h t i m e , t r y i n g t o c o n v i n c e h e r t o p u t an end t o h e r d o l o r i s t e x i s t e n c e , and s t a r t a new l i f e f r e e d f r o m t h e n i g h t m a r e s o f t h e p a s t . B u t C a r m e n ' s e f f o r t s a r e i n v a i n . A t t h e end o f t h e p l a y , Carmen l e a v e s h e r p a r e n t ' s h o u s e t o go b a c k t o t h e w o r l d o f t h e b a r " L e R o d e o " on t h e M a i n , where s h e i s a c o u n t r y s i n g e r , and Manon r e m a i n s a l o n e w i t h t h e g h o s t s o f L e o p o l d and M a r i e - L o u f r o z e n i n t h e l i m b o o f t h e s e m p i t e r n a l moment t h a t p r e c e d e d t h e i r d e a t h . The f i l m f o c u s e s on t h e l i f e o f Carmen i n t h e d e m i - m o n d e o f t h e M a i n . Manon a p p e a r s o n l y f o r a few m i n u t e s , a s s h e v i o l e n t l y t u r n s down C a r m e n ' s i n v i t a t i o n t o go s e e h e r p e r f o r m ; and t h e p a r e n t s a r e n o t shown a t a l l . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , I w i l l l i m i t my a n a l y s i s o f t h i s v e r y c o m p l e x p l a y t o t h e c h a r a c t e r o f C a r m e n . In h i s p r e f a c e t o t h e f i r s t e d i t i o n o f t h e p l a y , M i c h e l B 6 1 a i r w r i t e s " P o u r l a p r e m i e r e f o i s , q u e l q u ' u n r e u s s i a se s o r t i r de l a " m e r d e " " ( 2 ) ( F o r t h e f i r s t t i m e , someone manages t o g e t o u t o f t h e s h i t . ) . A c c o r d i n g t o B e l a i r , Carmen i s t h e f i r s t c h a r a c t e r i n M i c h e l T r e m b l a y ' s o e u v r e t o a c h i e v e f r e e d o m . He d e c l a r e s A l o r s que t o u t e s l e s M a r i e - L o u i s e e t C i e . c h e r c h e n t a - 8 6 -s ' i n v e n t e r un b o n h e u r q u i a p p a r t i e n t aux a u t r e s en c i t a n t G r a c e K e l l y comme e x e m p l e , Carmen a c o m p r i s q u ' i 1 f a l l a i t se c o n t e n t e r d ' e s s a y e r de r e a l i s e r l e s i e n . ( . . . ) i l e s t d e s o r m a i s p o s s i b l e de s ' e n s o r t i r non p a s de f a g o n a r t i f i c e l l e m a i s en p a s s a n t p a r 1 ' a c c e p t a t i o n de s o i . O ) ( W h i l e a l l t h e M a r i e - L o u i s e s t r y t o i n v e n t f o r t h e m s e l v e s a h a p p i n e s s w h i c h i s n o t t h e i r own, by m e n t i o n i n g G r a c e K e l l y a s an e x a m p l e , Carmen has u n d e r s t o o d t h a t one s h o u l d o n l y t r y t o c r e a t e o n e ' s own h a p p i n e s s . . . i t i s now p o s s i b l e t o e s c a p e n o t t h r o u g h a r t i f i c i a l m e a n s , b u t by a c c e p t i n g o n e s e l f . ) I t Is t r u e t h a t , c o m p a r e d t o most o f M i c h e l T r e m b l a y ' s c h a r a c t e r s , Carmen has a t t a i n e d a r a r e l e v e l o f s e I f - f u I f i 1 1 m e n t . A l t h o u g h t h e Rodeo Is a t h i r d - r a t e e s t a b l i s h m e n t , Carmen s u c c e e d s i n f i n d i n g h a p p i n e s s on i t s s t a g e . What B e l a i r d o e s n o t a c k n o w l e d g e , h o w e v e r , i s t h a t , a l t h o u g h Carmen has f r e e d h e r s e l f f r o m h e r f a m i l y n u c l e u s , a n d l e a d s a r e l a t i v e l y h a p p y l i f e , t h e means t h a t s h e u s e s t o a c h i e v e h e r h a p p i n e s s i s t h e same a s t h a t w h i c h He 1 e n e / T h e r e s e and t h e D u c h e s s e u s e : c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e p e r s o n a . As Y o l a n d e V i l l e m a i r e w r i t e s " L a ' s o r t i e ' de Carmen n ' e s t q u ' u n e i l l u s i o n ; 1 i b e r e e du g h e t t o f a m i l l i a l , e l l e e n t r e de p l e i n - p i e d d a n s un a u t r e g h e t t o . " ( 4 ) ( C a r m e n ' s e s c a p e i s o n l y an i l l u s i o n ; f r e e d f r o m t h e g h e t t o o f t h e f a m i l y n u c l e u s , s h e f a l l s i n t o a n o t h e r g h e t t o ) . M i c h e l T r e m b l a y r e c o g n i z e d a s w e l l , a p o s t e r i o r i , t h e f a l l a c y b e h i n d C a r m e n ' s l i b e r a t i o n : M A u j o u r d ' h u i , j e c o n s i d e r e Carmen un t r a v e s t i , e x a c t e m e n t au meme t i t r e q u ' H o s a n n a . " ( 5 ) ( T o d a y , I s e e Carmen a s a t r a n s v e s t i t e j u s t l i k e H o s a n n a ) . D r e s s e d up a s a c o w - g i r l and s i n g i n g o t h e r p e o p l e ' s s o n g s ( 6 ) , Carmen d o e s n o t a c h e i v e h a p p i n e s s by a c c e p t i n g h e r s e l f , b u t by d e f i n i n g h e r image a s t h e a n t i t h e s i s o f what s h e i d e n t i f i e s -87-a s t h e s o u r c e o f h e r g r i e f : h e r m o t h e r . M o s t c r i c t i c s h a v e a n a l y s e d t h e p l a y i n t e r m s o f M a n o n ' s a t t e m p t a t i m i t a t i n g h e r m o t h e r i n o r d e r t o mask o r d e s t r o y h e r r e s e m b l a n c e w i t h L e o p o l d . R e n d e r e d e x p l i c i t i n s e c t i o n s s u c h a s M a n o n ' s a c c o u n t o f a v i s i t a t h e r a u n t M a r g u r i t e ' s , where h e r g r a n d - f a t h e r had t o l d h e r " P i s t o e , Manon , l e v r a i p o r t r a i t de t o n p e r e ! " ( p . 4 9 ) (And y o u , Manon , t h e s p i t t i n g image o f y o u r f a t h e r -Van B u r e k p . 2 8 ) , t h i s r e s e m b l a n c e b e t w e e n d a u g h t e r and f a t h e r c a n be r e a d i l y i n t e r p r e t e d a s t h e m o t i v a t i o n f o r M a n o n ' s b e h a v i o u r . In h i s i m p o r t a n t e s s a y "Une d o u t e u s e l i b e r a t i o n " , Raymond J o l y e x p l a i n s c l e a r l y how M a n o n ' s r e s e m b l a n c e t o h e r f a t h e r , w h i c h s h e h a t e s , e n g e n d e r e d h e r d e m e a n o r . L i n k i n g L e o p o l d ' s f i t s o f madness t o M a n o n ' s v o y e u r i s m and m a s o c h i s m , J o l y comes t o t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n : " T e l e s t l e s e n s de s a ( M a n o n ) r e c l u s i o n : t u e r s o n p e r e en se r e f u s a n t a e l l e - m e m e l e d r o i t de v i v r e " (7) ( T h i s i s t h e m e a n i n g o f M a n o n ' s r e c l u s i o n : k i l l i n g h e r f a t h e r by f o r b i d d i n g h e r s e l f t h e r i g h t t o l i v e . ) . Few c r i t i c s , h o w e v e r , h a v e c o n s i d e r e d t h e p l a y i n t e r m s o f C a r m e n ' s r e s e m b l a n c e w i t h M a r i e - L o u i s e . In t h e same s e c t i o n o f t h e p l a y t h e g r a n d - f a t h e r i s q u o t e d a s h a v i n g t o l d Carmen "Damnee p ' t i t e b o u g r a i s s e que t u r e s s e m b l e s done a t a m e r e , t o e ! " ( p . 4 9 ) (Why y o u l i t t l e b u g g e r , i f y o u d o n ' t l o o k j u s t l i k e y o u r m o t h e r . -Van B u r e k p . 2 7 ) . S e v e r a l o t h e r i n s t a n c e s i n t h e p l a y c a n be a d d u c e d t o show how C a r m e n , u n d e r h e r c o w g i r l d i s g u i s e , r e s e m b l e s h e r m o t h e r . A t one p o i n t Carmen t e l l s Manon - 8 8 -Tu s a i s que c a m ' e n e r v e , q u a n d t u commences a d i r e d e s a f f a i r e s p i s que t ' e s f i n i s p a s ! ( p . 4 1 ) (You know how I h a t e t h a t when y o u s t a r t t o s a y s o m e t h i n g d o n ' t f i n i s h ! - Van B u r e k , p . 1 6 ) A d o z e n l i n e s l a t e r , M a r i e - L o u i s e t e l l s L e o p o l d Tu s a i s que ga m ' e n e r v e q u a n d t u commences a d i r e d e s a f f a i r e s p i s que t ' e s f i n i s p a s ! ( p . 4 2 ) (You know how I h a t e when y o u s t a r t t o s a y s o m e t h i n g and d o n ' t f i n i s h ! - Van B u r e k , p . 1 8 ) T h e s e two i d e n t i c a l p a s s a g e s c o n s t i t u t e an e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e s i m i l a r p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s p o s i t i o n o f M a r i e - L o u i s e and Carmen t o w a r d s t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t . T h e r e i s f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e w h i c h s u g g e s t s t h a t Carmen and M a r i e - L o u i s e s h a r e t h e same a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s Manon and L e o p o l d . - M a r i e - L o u i s e : Y t e l a d o i t d e p u i s p r e s q u ' u n a n . . . T ' e s t r o p c h i a n t en c u l o t t e s p o u r y d e m a n d e r . . . Y t e l a d o i t , L e o p o l d , c ' e s t de l ' a r g e n t q u ' y t e d o i t ! - C a r m e n : Ca m ' e c o e u r e de v o i r une f i l l e comme t o e , ma p r o p r s o e u r , g a c h e r s a v i e p o u r r i e n . . . ( p . 6 2 ) ( - M a r i e - L o u i s e : H e ' s owed y o u money f o r a y e a r . . . Y o u ' r e to much o f a c o w a r d t o a s k h im f o r I t . He owes y o u money L e o p o l d . . . I t i s money t h a t he owes y o u . - C a r m e n : I t d i s g u s t s me t o s e e a g i r l l i k e y o u , ma own s i s t e r , w a s t e h e r l i f e f o r n o t h i n g . ) A s i m i l a r e f f e c t c a n be f o u n d In t h e s e s e n t e n c e s : - M a r i e - L o u i s e : T ' a i m e r a i s c a , p a s s e r d a n s ' v i e s a n s s a v o i r c ' q u ' y se p a s s e a u t o u r de t o e , h e i n , L e o p o l d ? - M a n o n : Tu peux me d i r e c ' q u e t u v e u x . . . C a g l i s s e s u s ' m o e comme s u s l e dos d ' u n c a n a r d ! - C a r m e n : C ' e s t ben c a , t o n prob1 erne, ma p a u v r e p ' t i t e f i l l e Y ' a r i e n q u i t e t o u c h e ! ( p . 6 5 ) ( - M a r i e - L o u i s e : Y o u ' d l i k e t h a t , w o u l d n ' t y o u , t o s p e n d t h e r e s t o f y o u r l i f e b l i n d f o l d e d ? - M a n o n : Say what y o u l i k e , I c o u l d n ' t c a r e l e s s . - C a r m e n : T h a t ' s e x a c t l y y o u r p r o b l e m , Manon , n o t h i n g b o t h e r y o u . - Van B u r e k p . 4 8 ) - 8 9 -The most i n t e r e s t i n g p r o o f o f C a r m e n ' s i n t r i n s i c r e s e m b l a n c e w i t h M a r i e - L o u i s e a p p e a r s i n t h e p a r a l e l l i s m of m o t i v a t i o n e x p r e s s e d i n t h e s e few l i n e s by C a r m e n : - C a r m e n : J ' m e s u i s j u s t e j u r e de p a r t i r p l u s v i t e de c ' t e m a u d i t e t r a p p e a r a t s - l a . . . ( . . . ) C a r m e n : M ' e n a l l e r ! (. . . ) C a r m e n : M ' e n a l l e r b e n 1 o I n . . . ( p . 8 6 ) ( - C a r m e n : I o n l y swore I 'd g e t o u t o f t h i s s t i n k i n g r a t t r a p s o o n e r , t h a t ' a l l . - C a r m e n : T h a t I 'd go a w a y . . . - C a r m e n : F a r a w a y . . . - Van B u r e k , p . 7 6 , 7 7 ) and t h i s p a s s a g e by M a r i e - L o u i s e : - M a r i e - L o u i s e : A h ! o u i , c ' e s t v r a i , j ' l e s a i s , au f o n d , c ' q u e j ' v o u l a i s : p a r t i r au p l u s s a c r a n t d ' l a m a i s o n . . . Y ' a v a i t a s s e z de monde d a n s c ' t e m a i s o n - l a , p i s c ' e t a i t a s s e z p a u v r e q u e . . . j ' a v a i s h o n t e ! J ' v o u l a i s m 'en a l l e r , e s s a y e r de r e s p i r e r , un p e u ! ( p . 8 8 ) ( S u r e , I knew what I w a n t e d , I wanted t o g e t o u t of t h a t h o u s e as f a s t as I c o u l d . The p l a c e was c r a w l i n g w i t h p e o p l e , t h e r e was no room t o b r e a t h e , and we were so p o o r . . . I was a s h a m e d . I had t o g e t o u t . - Van B u r e k , p . 7 8 ) M a r i e - L o u i s e m a r r i e d L e o p o l d f o r t h e same r e a s o n t h a t Carmen e n t e r e d t h e w o r l d o f t h e R o d e o : t o e s c a p e t h e t r a p of t h e f a m i l y n u c l e u s . The d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e m o t h e r and t h e d a u g h t e r i s t h a t , w h i l e M a r i e - L o u i s e e s c a p e d one f a m i l y n u c l e u s o n l y t o c r e a t e a n o t h e r o n e , Carmen r e f u s e s a l l a s p e c t s o f f a m i l y l i f e i n o r d e r to r e t a i n h e r i n d e p e n d a n c e . ( p . 8 6 / p . 7 6 ) H o w e v e r , as I s h a l l t r y t o d e m o n s t r a t e l a t e r o n , C a r m e n ' s r e f u s a l t o m a r r y i s r e l a t e d to M a r i e - L o u i s e ' s d i s t a s t e f o r t h e s e x u a l a c t . A l t h o u g h t h e r e s e m b l a n c e b e t w e e n M a r i e - L o u i s e and Carmen - 9 0 -n o t a s o b v i o u s a s t h a t o f L e o p o l d and M a n o n , i t has t h e same f u n c t i o n : i t d e t e r m i n e s t h e p r o c e s s o f p e r s o n a c o n t r u c t i o n u n d e r g o n e by t h e d a u g h t e r . The d r a m a t i c i n d i c a t i o n s o f t h i s p r o c e s s i n Carmen a r e n o t a s s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d l y p r e s e n t e d a s i n t h e c a s e o f Manon , b u t a c l o s e s t u d y o f c e r t a i n p a s s a g e s o f t h e p l a y r e v e a l s t h a t C a r m e n , l i k e h e r s i s t e r , o p p o s e s t h e p a r e n t w h i c h s h e r e s e m b l e s most i n o r d e r t o mask t h e f a c e t s o f h e r p e r s o n a l i t y - -and o f t h a t o f h e r m o t h e r - - w h i c h s h e h a t e s . T h r o u g h t h e l i n e s o f t h e s i s t e r s , t h e r e a d e r / s p e c t a t o r l e a r n s t h a t , e a c h t i m e t h e y m e e t , t h e y b o t h e m p h a s i z e t h e one s i d e o f t h e s t o r y w h i c h s u i t s t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e v i s i o n . ( p . 8 2 / p . 7 0 ) W h i l e Manon i n s i s t s on t h e f a c t t h a t L e o p o l d k i l l e d M a r i e - L o u i s e and R o g e r ( p . 8 1 / p . 6 9 ) , Carmen p e r s i s t s i n p l e a d i n g t h a t L e o p o l d was a s much o f a v i c t i m a s M a r i e - L o u i s e was . - C a r m e n : T ' e x a g e r e s t o u s l e s b o u t e s oil moman f a i t p i t i e p i s t u p a s s e s c e u x ou c ' e s t p o p a (...) Y f a i s a i t a u s s i p i t i e q u ' e l l e , Manon! ( p . 8 1 ) (You t e l l i t a s i f Mama's t h e o n l y one t o be p i t i e d , b u t y o u f o r g e t t h a t p a p a . . . ( . . . ) He d e s e r v e s a s much a s s h e d o e s . - Van B u r e k , p . 6 9 , 7 0 ) In C a r m e n ' s v i e w , L e o p o l d d e s e r v e s a s much p i t y a s M a r i e - L o u i s e d o e s f o r he was a f f l i c t e d w i t h a w i f e who r e f u s e d t o g r a n t him s e x u a l f a v o u r s . I t i s t h i s a s p e c t o f M a r i e - L o u i s e ' s p e r s o n a l i t y , h e r d i s t a s t e f o r l o v e - m a k i n g and h e r h y p r o c r i t i c a 1 u s e o f r e l i g i o n a s a way o f e s c a p i n g h e r c o n j u g a l d u t y , t h a t Carmen condemns most v e h e m e n t 1y. - 9 1 -- C a r m e n : Moman, e s t - t a i t pas p l u s r e l i g i e u s e que moe, Manon! A se s e r v a i t de l a r e l i g i o n comme p a r a v e n t ! A se c a c h a i t en a r r i e r e de s o n p a r a v e n t p o u r f a i r e p l u s p i t i e ! ( . . . ) C ' e t a i t une p o i g n e e , q u i s ' e s t g a r r o c h e e s u r l a r e l i g i o n comme s u r un n e n a n n e ! A se d e f r u s t r a i t s u r l e s b a l u s t r a d e s d ' e g l i s e s m a i s a p e n s a i t me"me p a s a c ' q u ' a f a i s a i t ! A se s a c r a i t a genoux p o u r p a s Stre o b l i g e de se c o u c h e r . . . (. . . ) Quand t u v o y a i s moman en p r i e r e , c ' e s t p a r c e q u ' a s ' e t a i t a r r a n g e e p o u r que t u l a v o i e s ! ( p . 7 7 , 7 9 ) ( C a r m e n : Mama was no more r e l l g i o u s t h a n I am. A l l t h a t s t u f f was j u s t a f r o n t t o g e t more p i t y . • • • L i s t e n , s h e was s c r e w e d up f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g . When she s t o p p e d s u c k i n g h e r thumb s h e s t a r t e d on r e l i g i o n . When h e r p a n t s g o t h o t s h e c o o l e d them o f f on c h u r c h r a i l i n g s . She g o t on h e r k n e e s f o r one r e a s o n o n l y , t o k e e p f r o m g o i n g t o b e d . • • • You saw Mama p r a y i n g b e c a u s e s h e w a n t e d y o u t o s e e h e r . - Van B u r e k p . 6 3 , 6 4 , 6 6 ) As one r e a d s o r l i s t e n s t o C a r m e n ' s a r g u m e n t a g a i n s t h e r m o t h e r , one c o u l d be l e d t o b e l i e v e t h a t Carmen h a s o b j e c t i v e l y a n a l y z e d b o t h s i d e s o f t h e p r o b l e m , and has come t o t h e l o g i c a l c o n c l u s i o n t h a t b o t h p a r e n t s had f a u l t s . B u t an a t t e n t i v e r e a d i n g o f h e r l i n e s r e v e a l s t h a t h e r j u d g m e n t I s , i n f a c t , b i a s e d . - C a r m e n : Y ' o n t p a s s e v i n g t a n s de l e u r v i e a se b a t t r e , p i s s i y ' a r a i e n t v e c u e n c o r e v i n g t a n s , y a r a i e n t c o n t i n u e a se b a t t r e . . . j u s q u ' a s e q u i c r e v e n t ! P a r c e q u ' y ' e t a i e n t p a s c a p a b l e de se t o u c h e r s a n s p e n s e r que 1 ' u n v o u l a i t f a i r e ma 1 a 1 ' a u t r e . . . ( . . . ) Comment v e u x - t u que c a m a r c h e dans une m a i s o n quand p e r s o n n e p e u t se f r o l e r s a n s que t ' e n t e n d e s un c r i de m o r t ! ( p . 8 7 , 8 9 ) ( C a r m e n : T h e y f o u g h t f o r t w e n t y y e a r s . If t h e y ' d l i v e d a n o t h e r t w e n t y t h e y ' d h a v e gone on f i g h t i n g . . . U n t i 1 t h e y d r o p p e d . A l l b e c a u s e t h e y c o u l d n ' t t o u c h e a c h o t h e r , n o t w i t h o u t t h i n k i n g t h a t one o f them w a n t e d t o h u r t t h e o t h e r . ( . . . ) What c a n y o u e x p e c t when p e o p l e s c r e a m b l o o d y murder e v e r y t i m e y o u want t o t o u c h them? - Van B u r e k , p . 7 8 , 7 9 ) The p r o b l e m w h i c h Carmen i d e n t i f i e s as t h e o r i g i n o f t h e c o n f l i c t - - t h e f e a r o f t o u c h i n g one a n o t h e r - - a c t u a l l y r e f e r s u n i q u e l y - 9 2 -t o M a r i e - L o u i s e . Carmen i s t h u s i m p l i c i t l y s t i g m a t i z i n g M a r i e - L o u i s e a s t h e o n l y p e r s o n t o be b l a m e d f o r t h e s u f f e r i n g o f t h e e n t i r e f a m i l y . In t h e s e c o n d p a r t o f t h e M a r i e - L o u t r i l o g y , S a i n t e Carmen de 1 a M a i n . M i c h e l T r e m b l a y s t a t e s e x p l i c i t l y , t h r o u g h t h e v o i c e o f h i s c h a r a c t e r B e c - d e - L i e v r e , t h a t , s i n c e t h e age o f s e v e n , Carmen has had o n l y one i d e a i n m i n d : p a r t i r de c ' t e m a i s o n de f o u s - l a au p l u s s a c r a n t p o u r se d e b a r r a s s e r de s a mere f o l l e ! ( 8 ) ( t o g e t o u t o f t h a t madhouse a s f a s t a s p o s s i b l e , so s h e c o u l d be r i d o f h e r c r a z y m o t h e r - Van B u r e k ' s t r a n s . ) T h u s t o e s c a p e t h e m e d i o c r i t y o f h e r f a m i l y m i l i e u , Carmen a s s u m e s an a t t i t u d e w h i c h s h e b e l i e v e s t o be i n c o m p l e t e c o n t r a s t w i t h t h a t o f h e r m o t h e r . To t h e image o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l F r e n c h - C a n a d i a n h o u s e - w i f e p r o j e c t e d by M a r i e - L o u i s e , Carmen o p p o s e s t h e p o r t r a i t o f t h e A m e r i c a n c o w - g i r l ; k n i t t i n g i s r e p l a c e d by s i n g i n g , and l i b e r t i n a g e s u b s t i t u t e s r e l i g i o u s c h a s t i t y . B u t , b e y o n d t h e ex f a c i e o p p o s i t i o n t o M a r i e - L o u i s e , C a r m e n ' s b e h a v i o u r a p p e a r s a s a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h a t o f h e r m o t h e r . A l t h o u g h Carmen d e c l a r e s t h a t s h e t o u c h e s " a l l s o r t s o f p e o p l e " ( V a n B u r e k p . 7 9 ) , h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h men i s n e v e r s a i d t o be any b e t t e r t h a n t h a t o f h e r m o t h e r , on t h e c o n t r a r y . Carmen d e c l a r e s j ' m e s u i s p a s j u r e de r e n d r e un homme h e u r e u x , pas de d a n g e r . . . j ' a i m e ben que t r o p mon i n d e p e n d a n c e . . . ( p . 8 6 ) ( d o n ' t w o r r y , I n e v e r swore I 'd make any man h a p p y . . . I l i k e my i n d e p e n d e n c e t o o much. - Van B u r e k , p . 7 6 ) In t h i s u t t e r a n c e , Carmen c o n n e c t s t h e i d e a o f m a k i n g a man happy - 9 3 -to t h e c o n c e p t o f i n d e p e n d e n c e : m a k i n g a man h a p p y w o u l d mean g i v i n g up h e r i n d e p e n d e n c e . C a r m e n ' s b e l i e f t h a t t h e h a p p i n e s s of man Is f u n c t i o n o f t h e s u b m i s s i o n o f woman e c h o e s h e r m o t h e r ' s 1 i n e L e b o n d i e u , y ' a p e u t - ^ t r e m i s du p l a i s i r l a - d e d a n s , m a i s y ' e n a m is r i e n que p o u r l e s h o m m e s . ( p . 8 5 ) (Maybe He d i d p u t p l e a s u r e i n t o i t , b u t i f He d i d , i t was o n l y f o r t h e man. - Van B u r e k , p . 7 5 ) The i n t r i n s i c r e s e m b l a n c e b e t w e e n m o t h e r and d a u g h t e r w h i c h , i n s p i t e o f C a r m e n ' s e f f o r t s , r e m a i n s i r r e d u c i b l e , a l s o becomes m a n i f e s t a s one c o m p a r e s C a r m e n ' s e x p l a n a t i o n o f h e r m o t h e r ' s h i d d e n m o t i v a t i o n f o r p r a y i n g w i t h t h i s p a s s a g e : - C a r m e n : L e s Hommes d a n s ' s a l l e , y me r e g a r d e n t p i s y m ' a i m e n t . . . C ' e s t j a m a i s l e s memes, y c h a n g e n t a c h a q u e s o i r , m a i s a c h a q u e s o i r , j ' l e s a i ! ( p . 9 3 ) ( C a r m e n : The men i n t h e a u d i e n c e , t h e y l o o k a t m e . . . A n d t h e y l o v e m e . . . T h e y ' r e n e v e r t h e same, t h e y c h a n g e e v e r y n i g h t . B u t e v e r y n i g h t , Manon , t h e y ' r e m i n e ! - Van B u r e k p . 8 5 ) The e l e m e n t o f e x h i b i t i o n i s m i n C a r m e n ' s b e h a v i o u r , f i r s t p o i n t e d o u t by Raymond J o l y ( 9 ) , i s p r e s e n t a s w e l l i n M a r i e - L o u i s e ' s a t t i t u d e . In b o t h c a s e s , t h e s e x u a l a c t i s s u b l i m a t e d by an a c t o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . To be s e e n s i n g i n g i s a s g r a t i f y i n g f o r Carmen a s b e i n g s e e n p r a y i n g c o u l d be f o r h e r m o t h e r . I t c o u l d l e g i t i m a t e l y be a r g u e d t h a t C a r m e n ' s e x p l a n a t i o n o f M a r i e - L o u i s e ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h r e l i g i o n c a n n o t s e r v e a s a b a s i s f o r an a n a l y s i s o f t h e m o t h e r ' s c h a r a c t e r f o r i t o n l y r e p r e s e n t s C a r m e n ' s o p i n i o n . H o w e v e r , t h e r e i s one o f M a r i e - L o u i s e ' s own p a s s a g e s w h i c h d o e s c o n f i r m t h e p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t t h e e x h i b i t i o n i s t d a u g h t e r t a k e s - 9 4 -a f t e r h e r m o t h e r . M a r i e - L o u i s e : Le monde v i e n d r a i t me v o i r , p i s j ' l e u ' d i r a i s : "Hon m a r i ? V e s t a 1 ' a s i 1 e . . . Mon m a r i ? C ' t ' u n f o u . Y 1 ' o n t e n f e r m e , y ' e t a i t pus e n d u r a b l e . . . T ' n e z , c ' e s t ben s i m p l e , j ' m ' e n r a p p e l l e . . . u n e f o i s . . . " P i s j ' l e u c o n t e r a i s t o u t e s s o r t e s d ' a f f a i r e s . . . E n t r i c o t a n t . . . T o u t e s s o r t e s d ' a f f a i r e s v r a i e s , p i s d e s pas v r a i e s , a u s s i . . . P i s . . . y ' a u r a i e n t p i t i e de m o e . ( p . 7 3 ) ( M a r i e - L o u i s e : P e o p l e w i l l come to c a l l and I ' l l s a y , "My h u s b a n d ? Oh , h e ' s i n t h e asy1 u r n . . . H e ' s c r a z y , y o u know. We c o u l d n ' t c o n t r o l h im so t h e y had t o p u t h im a w a y . . . Y o u w o u l d n ' t b e l e i v e some o f t h e t h i n g s he d i d . " And w h i l e I'm k n i t t i n g I ' l l t e l l them s t o r i e s a b o u t y o u , L e o p o l d , some of them t r u e , some n o t t r u e . . . A n d t h e y ' l l f e e l s o r r y f o r me. -Van B u r e k , p . 5 7 ) The p i t y t h a t M a r i e - L o u i s e w i s h e s t o r e c e i v e f r o m p e o p l e by t e l l i n g them s t o r i e s i s t h e e q u i v a l e n t of t h e l o v e t h a t Carmen g e t s f r o m t h e men i n t h e a u d i e n c e a t t h e Rodeo a s she s i n g s cowboy s o n g s f o r them. F i n a l l y , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n M a r i e - L o u i s e and Carmen i s e x p r e s s e d a s w e l l t h r o u g h t h e n a r c i s s i s m o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s . A l t h o u g h C a r m e n ' s mask s e t s h e r In a p p a r e n t c o n t r a s t w i t h M a r i e - L o u i s e , h e r a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s h e r s e l f , as d e f i n e d by her f u n c t i o n i n t h e w o r l d of men, i s h i g h l y s i m i l a r t o t h a t of h e r m o t h e r . C a r m e n ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h her a u d i e n c e i s a b s o l u t e l y e g o c e n t r e d . - C a r m e n : . . . C e s t j a m a i s l e s meNnes, y c h a n g e n t a c h a q u e s o i r , m a i s a c h a q u e s o i r j ' l e s a i ! ( p . 9 3 ) ( C a r m e n : . . . T h e y ' r e n e v e r t h e same, t h e y c h a n g e e v e r y n i g h t . B u t e v e r y n i g h t , Manon , t h e y ' r e m i n e . - Van B u r e k , p . 8 5 ) In a s t r i k i n g l y s i m i l a r way, M a r i e - L o u i s e t a l k s a b o u t t h e c h i l d t o come i n t h e s e t e r m s : - 9 5 -( . . . ) C ' e s t moe q u i v a 1 ' e l e v e r . . . P i s y ' a p e r s o n n e q u i v a y t o u c h e r . . . c a v a tStre mon e n f a n t a m o e . . . A moe t u - s e u 1 e . ( p . 92) ( I ' m t h e one w h o ' l l b r i n g i t u p . . . A n d no one e l s e w i l l t o u c h i t . . . I t ' 1 1 be my b a b y , mine a l o n e . . . A l l m i n e . - Van B u r e k p. 84) B o t h t h e m o t h e r and t h e s i n g e r f i n d h a p p i n e s s , o r hope t o f i n d h a p p i n e s s , i n t h e o u t c o m e o f t h e i r i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h men, b u t d e t a c h e d f r o m t h e m . The c h i l d i s t o M a r i e - L o u i s e what t h e a u d i e n c e i s t o C a r m e n : a n a m e l e s s s o u r c e o f p l e a s u r e t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e y c a n l o v e t h e m s e l v e s . As I h a v e t r i e d t o d e m o n s t r a t e , C a r m e n , l i k e Manon , s e e s i n t h e p a r e n t t o whom s h e r e s e m b l e s most t h e s o u r c e o f h e r d i s t r e s s ; h e n c e h e r a t t e m p t a t c o m p l e t i n g t h e e x e c u t i o n o f h e r m o t h e r by e l i m i n a t i n g In h e r s e l f a l l t r a c e s o f M a r i e - L o u i s e . W h i l e Manon f i n d s h e r h a p p i n e s s ( p . 8 9 / p . 8 0 ) t h r o u g h m a s o c h i s m , t h a t i s , by h u r t i n g h e r s e l f i n o r d e r t o h u r t h e r f a t h e r , Carmen f i n d s h e r s t h r o u g h t r a n s v e s t i s m , t h a t i s , by h i d i n g t h e p a r t o f h e r s e l f w h i c h r e s e m b l e s M a r i e - L o u i s e . B u t i n b o t h c a s e s , t h e h a p p i n e s s i s a f a l l a c y f o r , by t r y i n g t o d e s t r o y t h e p r e s e n c e , i n t h e m s e l v e s , o f t h e d e t e s t e d p a r e n t , Carmen and Manon o n l y s u c c e e d i n a s s e r t i n g t h e l e g a c y o f M a r i e - L o u i s e and L e o p o l d . I t i s t h i s i n e l u c t a b l e p r e s e n c e o f t h e p a s t , b e n e a t h t h e g u i s e o f t h e p r e s e n t , t h a t i s p r e s e n t e d t h r o u g h t h e c h a r a c t e r s o f Carmen a n d , t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t , Manon i n JJ_ e t a i t une f o i s d a n s 1 ' E s t . Manon a p p e a r s o n l y i n one s e q u e n c e o f t h e f i l m , as s h e e x p e l s - 9 6 -Carmen f r o m h e r h o u s e . ( 1 0 ) The s c e n e c o u l d l o g i c a l l y t a k e p l a c e e i t h e r b e f o r e o r a f t e r t h e t i m e o f t h e p l a y . The f o l l o w i n g l i n e s , u t t e r e d by Manon , i n d i c a t e t h a t , a l t h o u g h Carmen m i g h t s a y " q u a n d j ' v a s p a s s e l a p o r t e , j ' v a s t ' o u b 1 i e r . . . t o e a u s s i " ( p . 9 3 ) (When I w a l k o u t t h a t d o o r , I'm g o i n g t o f o r g e t y o u . . . Y o u t o o , Manon - Van B u r e k , p . 8 5 ) , i n a c t u a l i t y , s h e c a n n o t f o r g e t Manon . J ' t ' a i j a m a i s demande de r ' v e n i r i c i t t e moe. C ' e s t t o u j o u r s t o e q u i r ' v i e n s ! Ben r ' v i e n s p u s , l a ! Ca f a i t d i x a n s que j ' t e d i s que t ' e s pus ma s o e u r , C a r m e n , v a s - t u f i n i r p a r c o m p r e n d r e ! (I n e v e r a s k e d y o u t o come b a c k h e r e . Y o u ' r e t h e one w h o ' s a l w a y s c o m i n g b a c k ! N e v e r come a g a i n ! I ' v e b e e n t e l l i n g y o u f o r t e n y e a r s t h a t y o u ' r e no l o n g e r my s i s t e r , a r e n ' t y o u e v e r g o i n g t o u n d e r s t a n d ! ) Carmen p r e t e n d s t o f o r g e t , b u t a s s h e s a y s h e r s e l f " C ' e s t ben s u r que c ' e s t p a s v r a i que j ' a i t o u t e o u b l i e " ( p . 7 0 ) (Of c o u r s e I remember Manon! - V a n B u r e k , p . 5 3 ) . T h r o u g h o u t t h i s s e q u e n c e , t h e s p e c t a t o r c a n i m a g i n e t h e r e p e t i t i v e n e s s o f t h e s c e n e : C a r m e n makes an a t t e m p t a t c o n v i n c i n g Manon t o c h a n g e h e r l i f e ; Manon r e f u s e s , a c c u s i n g h e r s i s t e r o f b e i n g a w h o r e , and t e l l i n g h e r n e v e r t o come b a c k a g a i n ; Carmen d i s a p p e a r s f o r a t i m e b u t e v e n t u a l l y r e t u r n s . In t h i s s h o r t s e q u e n c e , t h e d u a l i t y o f t h e c h a r a c t e r o f Manon i s r e a d i l y s e e n by t h e s p e c t a t o r . As Manon y e l l s a t C a r m e n , a t t h e t o p o f h e r l u n g s , on t h e v e r g e o f h y s t e r i a , t h e i n s a n i t y o f L e o p o l d s u r g e s f r o m h e r mouth and h e r e n t i r e b o d y i n waves o f m a n i c v i o l e n c e . A t t h e moment when t h e s c e n e becomes u n b e a r a b l e , Manon c l o s e s t h e window s h u t t e r s i n o r d e r t o c u t h e r s e l f f r o m C a r m e n . T h i s g e s t u r e has s e v e r a l l a y e r s o f m e a n i n g . I t d o e s n o t - 9 7 -o n l y s i g n i f y M a n o n ' s i n t e n t i o n t o e x c l u d e Carmen f r o m h e r l i f e . The d e s i g n , on t h e c l o s e d s h u t t e r s , b e h i n d w h i c h Manon i s h i d i n g , r e p r e s e n t s a c r o s s . If t a k e n a s a b a r r i e r e r e c t e d b e t w e e n Carmen a n d Manon , t h e c r o s s , on t h e s h u t t e r s , t a k e s on a p o l i t i c a l m e a n i n g a s i t makes r e f e r e n c e t o t h e i n t o l e r a n c e and p r e j u d i c i a l a t t i t u d e o f t h e c h u r c h i n Q u e b e c . A t y e t a n o t h e r l e v e l t h o u g h , t h e c r o s s c a n be i n t e r p r e t e d a s b e i n g a b a r r i e r w h i c h i s n o t e r e c t e d b e t w e e n Manon and C a r m e n , b u t b e t w e e n Manon and t h e a u d i e n c e - -t h e o b s e r v e r , t h e n o s y n e i g h b o u r . In t h i s c a s e , t h e c r o s s becomes l e s s t h e s i g n i f i e r o f r e l i g i o n t h a n t h e s i g n i f i e r o f M a r i e - L o u i s e : Manon h i d e s h e r h y s t e r i a b e h i n d t h e image o f S a i n t M a r i e - L o u . Once i n s i d e t h e m a t e r n a l e n c e i n t e , Manon becomes a c a l m , s e r e n e , e v e n h a p p y woman. P e r h a p s w i t h more s i m p l i c i t y t h a n i n t h e c a s e o f a n y o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s , Tremb1 a y - B r a s s a r d s u c c e e d i n t r a n s p o s i n g , u n t o t h e s c r e e n , t h e u n i v e r s e o f M a n o n . Her h e r e d i t a r y i n s a n i t y , h e r f i x a t i o n on r e l i g i o n , and h e r a t t e m p t a t i m i t a t i n g M a r i e - L o u i s e a r e a l l e f f e c t i v e l y p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s 90 s e c o n d s e q u e n c e . F o r t h e l a y m e n , t h e m e s s a g e i s c l e a r ; f o r t h e i n i t i a t e s , i t i s c o m p l e t e . The c i n e m a t i z a t i o n o f t h e c h a r a c t e r o f Carmen i s more c o m p l e x t h a n t h a t o f Manon . In t h e a b o v e a n a l y s i s , I p u t f o r w a r d t h e e x e g e t i c h y p o t h e s i s t h a t C a r m e n , i n t h e p l a y , d e f i n e s h e r s e l f as t h e a n t i t h e s i s o f h e r m o t h e r , w h i c h s h e p e r c e i v e s a s t h e c a u s e of t h e a f f l i c t i o n o f a l l t h e members o f h e r f a m i l y . In t h e f i l m , t h e p e r s o n a c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o c e s s i s t r a n s m u t e d . R a t h e r t h a n b e i n g i n o p p o s i t i o n w i t h t h e m o t h e r f i g u r e , t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f C a r m e n ' s p e r s o n a a p p e a r s t o be m o d e l e d on t h e f a t h e r i m a g e . B u t , as we - 9 8 -s h a l l s e e , t h e o u t c o m e o f C a r m e n ' s c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o c e s s , w h e t h e r t h r o u g h c o n t r a s t w i t h t h e m o t h e r o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h t h e f a t h e r , i s u n c h a n g e d : i n s p i t e o f h e r e f f o r t s Carmen r e m a i n s t h e d o u b l e o f M a r i e - L o u i s e . In s e q u e n c e 2 1 , a s H e l e n e , Carmen and P i e r r e t t e t a l k a b o u t men, Carmen t e l l s t h e o t h e r s t h a t t h e o n l y man s h e has e v e r l o v e d i s h e r f a t h e r . Y ' a p e r s o n n e , p i s r i e n q u i v a me l e f a i r e o u b l i e r c ' t ' h o m m e - 1 a . Ah y ' a v a i t r i e n d ' e x t r a o r d i n a i r e , Y ' a meme p a s s e i n a p e r c u t o u t e s a v i e . . . l e monde r e g a r d a i t a t r a v e r s de l u i comme s i y ' a v a i t p a s e t e l a . . . M a i s moe j ' l e v o y a i s ( . . . ) A i e s a v i e z - v o u s que ma mere p i s ma s o e u r on t u e mon p e r e ? ( 1 1 ) ( N o t h i n g and n o b o d y w i l l e v e r make me f o r g e t t h a t man. He had n o t h i n g s p e c i a l , he went u n n o t i c e d a l l h i s l i f e . P e o p l e a l w a y s i g n o r e d h i m . . . b u t I c o u l d s e e h i m . . . D i d y o u know t h a t my m o t h e r and my s i s t e r k i l l e d my f a t h e r ? ) A t t h e l e v e l o f t h e n a r r a t i v e , C a r m e n ' s f i x a t i o n on t h e f a t h e r image i s e x p r e s s e d t h r o u g h h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h M a u r i c e -t h e k i n g o f t h e M a i n . A l t h o u g h M a u r i c e i s f a r f r o m b e i n g t h e u n d i s p u t e d r u l e r o f t h e M a i n , he r e p r e s e n t s t h e o n l y p o s s i b l e f a t h e r image i n t h e f i l m . On t h e i r f i r s t e n c o u n t e r , i n s e q u e n c e 9 ( 1 2 ) , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p i s a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d a s one b a s e d on f a t h e r t o d a u g h t e r i n t e r a c t i o n . L i k e a g e n u i n e f a t h e r , M a u r i c e commands Carmen w i t h a g e s t u r e o f h i s h a n d , o f f e r s h e r h i s c o n d e s c e n d i n g h e l p , and e v e n c a l l s h e r and S a n d r a " l e s e n f a n t s " ( 1 3 ) ( c h i l d r e n ) . Carmen d o e s n o t o n l y r e s p o n d p o s i t i v e l y t o M a u r i c e ' s f a t h e r l y b e h a v i o u r , b u t s h e s u p p o r t s i t , a s w e l l , i n moments o f f a i l u r e . In s e q u e n c e 3 8 , as M a u r i c e , c o n f r o n t e d w i t h -99-H e l e n e a t M C h e z S a n d r a " , l o s e s c o n t r o l o f t h e c o n j u n c t u r e , Carmen t a k e s c h a r g e o f t h e s i t u a t i o n and e x p e l s e v e r y one f r o m t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t . Once t h e c r i s i s i s r e s o l v e d , h o w e v e r , s h e c o n s c i o u s l y g i v e s i n o n c e a g a i n t o M a u r i c e ' s f a l t e r i n g a u t h o r i t y . - M a u r i c e : (a Carmen) E n t e k a , moe, t u me m e t t r a s p a s a p o r t e , o k a y ? - C a r m e n : Ben s i c ' e s t l a s e u l e v i c t o i r e que t u peux t ' p a y e r a u j o u r d ' h u i , mon p ' t i t g a r s , j ' p e u x b e n f a i r e c a p o u r t o e . . . (14) ( M a u r i c e : Y o u ' r e n o t g o i n g t o t h r o w me o u t ! C a r m e n : If i t ' s t h e o n l y v i c t o r y y o u c a n g e t t o d a y , my b o y . . . I c a n do y o u t h i s f a v o u r ) C a r m e n ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h M a u r i c e i s one symptom o f h e r f i x a t i o n on t h e f a t h e r i m a g e . A n o t h e r s i g n o f t h e l i b i d i n a l a t t a c h m e n t , more s u b t l e t h a n t h e f o r m e r , i s t h e p h y s i c a l e x p r e s s i o n o f h e r f i x a t i o n t h r o u g h h e r mask - - h e r c o s t u m e . In t e r m s o f F r e u d i a n p s y c h o - a n a l y s i s , t h e a t t a c h m e n t o f t h e g i r l f o r h e r f a t h e r c a n be e x p l a i n e d t h u s : The w i s h w i t h w h i c h t h e g i r l t u r n s t o h e r f a t h e r i s no d o u b t o r i g i n a l l y t h e w i s h f o r t h e p e n i s w h i c h h e r m o t h e r has r e f u s e d h e r and w h i c h s h e now e x p e c t s f r o m h e r f a t h e r . ( 1 5 ) A l t h o u g h my g o a l i s n o t t o p s y c h o a n a l y s e C a r m e n , a p s y c h o - c r i t i c a l a p p r o a c h t o t h e p e r s o n a g e m i g h t be u s e f u l i n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d h e r c h a r a c t e r i o 1 o g i c a 1 a t t r i b u t e s . W i t h i n t h e f r a m e o f t h e s e m i o l o g i c a l e x i s t e n c e o f C a r m e n , p e n i s e n v y i s s i g n i f i e d . T h i s s i g n i f i e r i s t h e cowboy o u t f i t , and m o s t l y t h e cowboy h a t , w h i c h Carmen w e a r s t h r o u g h o u t t h e f i l m . Symbol o f t h e A m e r i c a n h e r o p a r e x c e l l e n c e , t h e cowboy h a t has become a s i g n i f i e r o f t h e - 1 0 0 -" s i g n i f i e r o f s i g n i f i e r s " ( J a c q u e s L a c a n , E c r 1 t s ) : t h e p h a l l u s . I t s p o s i t i o n on t h e h e a d , as w e l l a s i t s s h a p e and c o l o r , has come t o s i g n i f y ( m o s t l y i n c i n e m a ) t h e m o r a l v a l u e s , t h e s t r e n g t h and t h e s e x u a l p o t e n c y o f t h e men who wear i t . Worn by a woman, a cowboy h a t c a n c o n n o t e t h e w i s h t o a c q u i r e t h e p h a l l u s t h a t t h e m o t h e r h a s r e f u s e d h e r d a u g h t e r . In t h e s p e c i f i c c a s e o f C a r m e n , h o w e v e r , t h e s i g n i f i c a t i o n o f t h e cowboy h a t has t o be i n t e r p r e t e d i n c o n s i d e r a t i o n w i t h t h e r e s t o f t h e c o w g i r l d i s g u i s e , w h i c h , i n no m e a n s , a t t e m p t s t o h i d e C a r m e n ' s womanhood. Endowed w i t h b o t h a s i g n i f i e r o f t h e p h a l l u s and s i g n i f l e r s o f f e m i n i n i t y ( H i g h - h e e l s , t i g h t - f i t t i n g c l o t h e s ) , t h e c h a r a c t e r o f Carmen i s p e r c e i v e d l e s s , by t h e s p e c t a t o r , a s a " p h a l l i c w o m a n " ( 1 6 ) , t h a n a s a woman who d e s i r e s t o be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e p h a l l u s a s " o b j e c t and s i g n i f i e r o f d e s i r e " ( 1 7 ) . T h u s C a r m e n ' s b e h a v i o u r c a n be e x p l a i n e d i n t e r m s o f a p o s t - p u b e s c e n t O e d i p a l s t r u c t u r e w h i c h i s i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e T r e m b l a y i a n t h o u g h t t h a t " o n n ' a pas d'homme au Q u e b e c " ( 1 8 ) ( T h e r e a r e no men i n Q u e b e c ) . The i n f a n t i l e O e d i p a l s i t u a t i o n o c c u r s when a t h i r d p a r t y , t h e f a t h e r , b r e a k s t h e m o t h e r - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p . The c h i l d , r e c o g n i z i n g t h a t t h e m o t h e r i s l a c k i n g t h e p h a l l u s , i d e n t i f i e s t h e p h a l l u s a s t h e o b j e c t w h i c h t h e m o t h e r d e s i r e s . To a v o i d t h e d i s b a l a n c e , In t h e b i n a r y r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e m o t h e r , p r o v o k e d by t h e f a t h e r , t h e c h i l d t a k e s upon i t s e l f t o become t h e m i s s i n g p h a l l u s o f t h e m o t h e r . ( 1 9 ) The O e d i p a l s i t u a t i o n w h i c h o c c u r s i n t h e c a s e o f Carmen i s , o f c o u r s e , m e t a p h o r i c a l . B u t t h e c o r r e l a t i o n t h a t e x i s t s b e t w e e n t h e O e d i p a l s t r u c t u r e and C a r m e n ' s - 1 0 1 -p o s i t i o n i n t h e t r i a n g u l a r r e l a t i o n L e o p o l d - M a r i e - L o u / M a n o n -C a r m e n a l l o w s t h e a n a l i s t t o e s t a b l i s h a p a t t e r n o f b e h a v i o u r w h i c h i s q u i t e e n l i g h t e n i n g . The b i n a r y r e l a t i o n s h i p , b e t w e e n Carmen and h e r f a t h e r - whom, a l o n e , s h e c o u l d s e e - was r u p t u r e d by a t h i r d p a r t y : h e r m o t h e r and h e r s i s t e r . The c o n s t a n t a t t a c k s o f M a r i e - L o u i s e on h e r h u s b a n d , whom s h e c o n s i d e r s t o be a c o w a r d ( V a n B u r e k p . 4 5 ) , and an i m p o t e n t man J ' a r a i s p e u t - e * t r e e t e c a p a b l e de l e f a i r e , p i s j ' a r a i s p e u t - S t r e , p e u t - i t r e , a i m e c a , s i t o e t ' a r a i s e t e c a p a b l e , L e o p o l d ! ( p . 8 7 ) (I m i g h t h a v e b e e n a b l e t o do i t , and who k n o w s , I m i g h t h a v e e n j o y e d i t , i f y o u ' d known how, L e o p o l d . - Van B u r e k , p . 7 7 ) -p r e s e n t L e o p o l d a s an e u n u c h - a man l a c k i n g t h e p h a l l u s . L i k e t h e c h i l d , Carmen t a k e s u p o n h e r s e l f t o become L e o p o l d ' s m i s s i n g p h a l l u s i n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n t h e r e l a t i o n w i t h t h e image o f h e r f a t h e r , h e n c e h e r cowboy d i s g u i s e . The r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f Carmen a s a c h a r a c t e r f i x a t e d on t h e image o f t h e f a t h e r a l l o w s Tremb1 a y - B r a s s a r d t o p e r f o r m a t r a n s l a t o r y movement f r o m t h e t e r r i t o r y o f t h e p l a y - - t h e P l a t e a u - M o n t - R o y a l k i t c h e n - - t o t h e t e r r i t o r y o f t h e f i l m - - t h e M a i n . In J_l_ e t a i t une f o i s d a n s 1 ' E s t Carmen e v o l v e s i n t h e c e n t r i f u g a l s p a c e ( 2 0 ) of f i l m r a t h e r t h a n i n t h e l i m i t e d l o c u s d r a m a t i c u s o f t h e a t r e . T h u s h e r d e s i r e o f e s c a p i n g t h e c o n s t r i c t i v e l i e u i s l o g i c a l l y t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o one o f c o n q u e r i n g t h e e v a s i v e s p a c e . Hence Tremb1 a y - B r a s s a r d ' s c h o i c e t o p r e s e n t C a r m e n i n t h e t e r r i t o r y w h i c h s h e has c h o s e n , and w h i c h s h e wants t o c o n q u e r . Her o b j e c t , i n t h e f i l m , i s t o i m p o s e her d o m i n a t i o n -102-on a t e r r i t o r y she has not yet e n t i r e l y conquered: stardom. Carmen: Ca m'enerve, un peu, c'est l a premiere f o i s que chus t ' i n v i t e e comme v r a i e s t a r de mtme...(21) (I'm a b i t n e r v o u s . . . I t ' s the f i r s t time I've been i n v i t e d to perform as a s t a r ) P r e s e n t i n g Carmen d r i v e n by a d e s i r e of a c c e s s i o n (to the f a t h e r -to a new space) r a t h e r than one of estrangement (from the mother -from the p a s t ) , i s a choice which i s yet another proof of Tremblay-Brassard's understanding of the d i f f e r e n c e s that e x i s t between t h e a t r e and f i l m . But the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of Carmen's d e s i r e does not i n f l u e n c e the i d e n t i t y of the personage. I n s p i t e of her attempt at i d e n t i f y i n g h e r s e l f with the p h a l l u s of Leopold, the unavoidable presence of Marie-Louise, w i t h i n her, manifests I t s e l f at the end of the f i l m as her performance begins. The presence of Marie-Louise i s , f i r s t , s i g n i f i e d i n the words of Carmen's song, which r e c a l l s the t i t l e A to i . pour tou jours t a Mar ie-Lou: "Ensemble pour t o u j o u r s , je peux r e v i v r e a nouveau. Tu es l a dans mes bras, c e t t e f o i s pour t o u j o u r s . " (Together, f o r e v e r I can 1ive again. You are here i n my arms, Th i s time i t i s f o r e v e r . ) More important than t h i s however, i s the ci n e m a t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of Carmen's moment of happiness as she i s s i n g i n g on stage. A comparative a n a l y s i s of the close-up shots which show Carmen in her moment of g l o r y , and the d e s c r i p t i o n of Marie-Louise's dream - 1 0 3 -o f h a p p i n e s s , r e v e a l s t h e e x t e n t o f t h e a l t e r idem r e l a t i o n . L e t us c o n s i d e r , o n c e a g a i n , t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f M a r i e - L o u i s e ' s dream of p e a c e and h a p p i n e s s . J ' m ' a s s i r a i s t u s e u l e d a n s mon c o i n , d a n s l e s a l o n , d e v a n t l a t e l e v i s i o n , j ' p e n d r a i s l e p ' t i t a v e c m o e . . . p i s J ' t r i c o t e r a i s . . . s a n s a r r e t e r . . . j u s q u * a f i n de mes j o u r s . . . J ' t r i c o t t e r a i s . . . L a s a i n t e v i a r g e de p a i x ! J ' s ' r a i s - t u b e n ! ( p . 7 1 ) ( I ' l l s i t h e r e i n my c o r n e r a l l by m y s e l f and w a t c h t e l e v i s i o n . I ' l l k e e p t h e b a b y w i t h m e . . . And I ' l l k n i t . . . I w o n ' t s t o p t i l l t h e d a y I d i e . . . I ' 1 1 j u s t go on k n i t t i n g . . . O h L o r d , what p e a c e ! - Van B u r e k , p . 5 5 ) L a t e r s h e a d d s Le monde v i e n d r a i t me v o i r ( . . . ) P i s j ' l e u c o n t e r a i s t o u t e s s o r t e s d ' a f f a i r e s . . . E n t r i c o t a n t ( . . . ) J ' p o u r r a i s c o n t i n u e r de t r i c o t e r en p a i x , p i s j ' s a u r a i s q u ' a u m o i n s l e monde o n t p i t i e de m o e . . . ( p . 7 3 ) ( P e o p l e w i l l come t o c a l l ( . . . ) A n d w h i l e I'm k n i t t i n g I ' l l t e l l them s t o r i e s ( . . . ) I ' l l be a b l e t o k n i t i n p e a c e , and p e o p l e w i l l f e e l s o r r y f o r me. - Van B u r e k , p . 5 7 ) T h e r e a r e two e l e m e n t s , i n t h e s e few l i n e s w h i c h e s t a b l i s h t h e r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n M a r i e - L o u i s e and C a r m e n : t h e n e e d t o be a l o n e , k n i t t i n g b e f o r e an a u d i e n c e ; t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e b a b y . M a r i e - L o u i s e ' s n e e d t o be a l o n e i s u n l i k e t h a t o f L e o p o l d , who d r i n k s a l o n e a t t h e t a v e r n , o r t h a t o f Manon , who p r a y s a l o n e i n h e r h o u s e . W h i l e L e o p o l d s i m p l y has " n o t h i n g t o s a y . . . t o a n y o n e " ( p . 5 6 ) , M a r i e - L o u i s e wants t o be a l o n e t o t e l l t h e a u d i e n c e s t o r i e s . The same n e e d i s e x p r e s s e d by Carmen v e r b a l l y i n t h e s e two p a s s a g e s : C ' e s t moe l a v e d e t t e i c i t t e a s o i r , p i s j ' s u p p o s e que c ' e s t moe q u i v a t ' £ t r e h a b i l l e e l a p l u s s t r a i g h t ! ( 2 2 ) (I am t h e s t a r h e r e t o - n i g h t , and I b e t I'm g o i n g t o be t h e one who i s t h e most p l a i n l o o k i n g . ) - 1 0 4 -P i s moe mon show! Quand c ' e s t que j ' l e donne mon show! J ' e t a i s s u p p o s e e p a s s e r a v a n t l e c o n c o u r s , m o e . . . ( 2 3 ) (What a b o u t my show. When do I g i v e i t . I was s u p p o s e t o go b e f o r e t h e p a g e a n t ) Once s h e d o e s g e t on s t a g e , and g i v e s h e r p e r f o r m a n c e , t h e c l o s e - u p c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e s h o t i s o l a t e s h e r . The p r e s e n c e o f t h e a u d i e n c e i s i n d i c a t e d t h r o u g h s o u n d , b u t i c o n o g r a p h i c a 1 1 y , Carmen i s a l o n e . As p o i n t e d o u t e a r l i e r , M a r i e - L o u i s e ' s c h i l d c a n be l i n k e d t o C a r m e n ' s a u d i e n c e . In t h e l a s t few s h o t s o f t h e f i l m , h o w e v e r , t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e c h i 1 d - t o - c o m e , i n t h e p l a y , i s h e l d l e s s by t h e a u d i e n c e t h a n by t h e m i c r o p h o n e w h i c h i s c e n t e r e d i n t h e l o w e r p a r t o f t h e f r a m e i n s e q u e n c e s 97 and 101 ( 2 4 ) . A g a i n , a p s y c h o - c r i t i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e d a t a p r o v i d e s an i n t e r e s t i n g h y p o t h e s i s o f r e a d i n g . The d i s s o l u t i o n o f t h e p e n i s e n v y , i n t h e g i r l o r t h e woman, i s e x p l a i n e d , by F r e u d i a n p s y c h o a n a l y s i s , i n t h e s e t e r m s : The f e m i n i n e s i t u a t i o n i s o n l y e s t a b l i s h e d , h o w e v e r , i f t h e w i s h f o r a p e n i s i s r e p l a c e d by one f o r a b a b y , i f , t h a t i s , a b a b y t a k e s t h e p l a c e o f a p e n i s i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h an a n c i e n t s y m b o l i c e q u i v a 1 e n c e . ( 2 5 ) The w o r d s w h i c h M i c h e l T r e m b l a y p u t s i n M a r i e - L o u i s e ' s m o u t h , a s s h e d e c l a r e s t h a t t h e c h i l d t o come w i l l be h e r s a l o n e , t r a n s l a t e , i n t h e c h a r a c t e r , what c o u l d be c a l l e d a ' m o t h e r c o m p l e x ' w h i c h i s t h e d i m e n s i o n o f t h e O e d i p a l s t r u c t u r e r e g a r d i n g t h e b e h a v i o u r o f t h e m o t h e r who a c c e p t s t h e c h i l d as h e r p h a l l u s . The m i c r o p h o n e , an o b v i o u s p h a l l i c s y m b o l , p l a y s t h e same r o l e a s t h e c h i l d s i n c e i t becomes t h e s i g n i f i e r o f C a r m e n ' s d e s i r e t o r e a c h t h e a u d i e n c e -105-and make them h e r own. A t t h e l i m i t , one c o u l d s e e i n t h e p r o x i m i t y o f t h e m i c r o p h o n e t o C a r m e n ' s mouth a d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e t o E r n e s t J o n e s ' s p r o p o s i t i o n o f t h e f i r s t mode o f p e n i s e n v y : The w i s h t o a c q u i r e a p e n i s , u s u a l l y by s w a l l o w i n g , and t o r e t a i n i t w i t h i n t h e b o d y , o f t e n c o n v e r t i n g i t t h e r e i n t o a b a b y ( 2 6 ) As I h a v e t r i e d t o d e m o n s t r a t e , b o t h i n t h e p l a y and i n t h e f i l m , Carmen i s r e p r e s e n t e d a s a c h a r a c t e r who a t t e m p t s t o g u i s e h e r g e n u i n e p e r s o n a l i t y , t o a c h i e v e h a p p i n e s s b u t f a i l s i n d o i n g s o . As A n d r e L e r o u x w r i t e s Mime s i Carmen ( S o p h i e C l e m e n t ) se d e g a g e p a r t i e 1 1 e m e n t de l ' e m p r i s e p a r a l y s a n t e de s o n m i l i e u , s a r e u s s i t e p a r a i t b i e n p r e c a i r e e t i n c e r t a i n e . ( 2 7 ) ( E v e n i f Carmen e x t r i c a t e s h e r s e l f f r o m t h e p a r a l y s i n g h o l d o f h e r m i l i e u , h e r s u c c e s s seems p r e c a r i o u s and u n c e r t a i n . ) U n l i k e what M i c h e l B e l a i r s u g g e s t , Carmen d o e s n o t a t t a i n h a p p i n e s s by a c c e p t i n g h e r s e l f . She r e p e a t s t h e m i s t a k e o f He 1 e n e / T h e r e s e and t h e D u c h e s s e a s s h e t r i e s t o e s c a p e t h e p a r t o f h e r s e l f w h i c h s h e h a t e s , i n s t e a d o f a t t e m p t i n g t o come t o t e r m s w i t h i t . The f i r s t c h a r a c t e r t o a c t u a l l y a c h i e v e t h e s e l f - r e c o g n i t i o n w h i c h m i g h t e v e n t u a l l y l e a d t o g e n u i n e h a p p i n e s s i s C l a u d e L e m i e u x , a l s o known a s H o s a n n a . -106-2 . H o s a n n a ( 2 8 ) : H o s a n n a ( C l a u d e L e m i e u x ) ; C u i r e t t e (Raymond Bo 1 d u e ) . S e t i n a s e e d y b a c h e l o r s u i t e i n P l a z a S a i n t - H u b e r t , i n t h e e a s t - e n d o f M o n t r e a l , t h e a c t i o n o f H o s a n n a u n f o l d s a s C l a u d e L e m i e u x a l i a s H o s a n n a , a h o m o s e x u a l t r a n s v e s t i t e , r e t u r n s f r o m a masked b a l l i n a d r a g q u e e n c l u b . He had e x p e c t e d t o c r e a t e a s e n s a t i o n a t t h e p a r t y by m a k i n g h i s e n t r a n c e a s E l i z a b e t h T a y l o r i n t h e r o l e o f C l e o p a t r a . B u t , i n s t e a d o f e x p e r i e n c i n g t h e moment o f g l o r y w h i c h he had b e e n l o o k i n g f o r w a r d t o f o r d a y s , C 1 a u d e - H o s a n n a s u f f e r e d a b i t t e r h u m i l i a t i o n as a l l t h e o t h e r d r a g q u e e n s , f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f a c r u e l p r a c t i c a l j o k e , a r r i v e d a t t h e p a r t y a l s o d i s g u i s e d a s C l e o p a t r a . The p h y s i c a l u n d r e s s i n g o f C 1 a u d e - H o s a n n a , w h i c h t a k e s p l a c e t h r o u g h o u t t h e p l a y as h e / s h e r e m o v e s h i s / h e r d i s g u i s e , i s p a r a l l e l e d by a p s y c h o l o g i c a l e c d y s i s a s t h e c h a r a c t e r goes t h r o u g h a p r o c e s s o f s e l f - r e c o g n i t i o n . C 1 a u d e - H o s a n n a ' s a c k n o w l e d g e m e n t o f h i s / h e r g e n u i n e i d e n t i t y i s e c h o e d by t h a t o f h i s b o y f r i e n d Raymond B o l d u c a l i a s C u i r e t t e , a s t u d " g r o w n o l d and f a t " ( V a n B u r e k , p . 1 1 ) . D u r i n g t h e same e v e n i n g , R a y m o n d - C u i r e t t e u n d e r g o e s a s i m i l a r h u m i l i a t i o n , a l t h o u g h l e s s d e v a s t a t i n g , when he s e e s t h a t P a r k L a f o n t a i n e , i n t h e d a r k c o r n e r s o f w h i c h he made h i s d e b u t i n t h e d e m i - m o n d e o f t h e h o m o s e x u a l t r a n s v e s t i t e s , i s -107-now e n t i r e l y l i t up. Thus the refuges of both c h a r a c t e r s --d i s g u i s e f o r Hosanna and darkness f o r C u i r e t t e -- are destroyed. Forced out of t h e i r a r t i f i c i a l s h e l t e r s , C1aude-Hosanna and Raymond-Cuirette have to face the c r u e l r e a l i t y of t h e i r c o n d i t i o n , and, at the end of the play, f i n a l l y come to terms with themselves. Claude's acceptancy of himself as a man, and Raymond's r e c o g n i t i o n that h i s love f o r Claude does not have to be hidden i n the shadow of h i s l u s t f o r Hosanna mark what A l b e r t B r i e c a l l s "un moment precieux dans 1'evolution de l a dramaturgie quebecoise" (29) (A p r e c i o u s moment i n the e v o l u t i o n of Quebec drama). Rather than Carmen, i t i s Hosanna who " r e u s s i a se s o r t i r de l a ' l i e r d e ' " . In Yollande V i l l e m a i r e ' s words: C'est Hosanna qui v i e n t b r i s e r le c e r c l e v i c i e u x des i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s auquel Carmen n ' a v a i t pas r e u s s i a echapper. ( . . . ) Hosanna f a i t tomber les masques en me\ne temps que les a r t i f i c e s a l a C l e o p a t r e . S t r i p - t e a s e et " p e e l i n g " menent a l a mort du double.(30) ( I t i s Hosanna who f i n a l l y comes to break up the v i c i o u s c i r c l e of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n which Carmen had f a i l e d to escape... Hosanna t e a r s down the masks and the a r t i f i c e s a l a C l e o p a t r a . S t r i p - t e a s e and p e e l i n g lead to the death of the doub1e.) Hosanna i s c o n s t r u c t e d on the grounds of a d i d a s c a l i c d i s c o u r s e which r e v o l v e s around an i n t r i c a t e system of non-verbal s i g n s that c r e a t e s , on top of the dialogue, the u n i v e r s e of the c h a r a c t e r s and gives i t s meaning to the t e x t . The p o r t a b l e a p p l i a n c e s , the statue of David, the b o t t l e of eau de cologne whose perfume "has imprisoned Hosanna f o r years, and which leaves rather s i c k e n i n g t r a c e s wherever she goes"(Van Burek, p.8), the red and gold neon s i g n of the Beaubien pharmacy, and C l e o p a t r a ' s - 1 0 8 -d r e s s w i t h i t s n u m e r o u s h o o k s a l l s e r v e a s d e t e r m i n a n t s w h i c h f o r m t h e i d e n t i t y o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s . B u t , a b o v e a l l t h e s e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l p r o p e r t i e s , one s y m b o l c a n be d i s t i n g u i s h e d a s t h e d o m i n a t i n g Image o f t h e p l a y : t h e m i r r o r . The f o r e m o s t i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e s y m b o l o f t h e m i r r o r i n H o s a n n a i s p o i n t e d o u t i n s e v e r a l a r t i c l e s s u c h a s Y o l l a n d e V i 1 1 e m a i r e ' s r e v i e w o f t h e f i r s t p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e p l a y ( 3 1 ) a n d R o b e r t N u n n ' s e s s a y " M i c h e l T r e m b l a y ' s H o s a n n a and P i r a n d e l l o ' s ' t e a t r o d e l l o s p e c c i o ' " i n w h i c h t h e a u t h o r e x a m i n e s t h e p l a y i n t e r m s o f i t s r e l a t i o n to t h e P i r a n d e l l i a n t h e a t r e o f t h e m i r r o r ( t e a t r o d e l l o s p e c c i o ) ( 3 2 ) . The f u n c t i o n o f t h e m i r r o r a s g e n e r a t o r o f t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n p r o c e s s e x p l a i n e d by L a c a n i a n p s y c h o a n a l y s i s , e s s e n t i a l i n t h e u n i v e r s e o f H o s a n n a . i s s p e c i f i c a l l y r e - i n s t a t e d i n J_l_ e t a i t une f o i s d a n s  1 ' e s t . F o r t h i s r e a s o n I w i l l f o c u s t h i s a n a l y s i s on t h e r o l e o f t h e s p e c u l a r image b o t h on s t a g e and on s c r e e n . The drama of H o s a n n a a r i s e s f r o m t h e " d i f f e r a n c e " ( J . D e r r i d a ) t h a t e x i s t s b e t w e e n t h e image w h i c h s h e wants t o p r o j e c t and t h a t w h i c h i s r e f l e c t e d t o h e r . H o s a n n a : A s - t u d e j a vu c a , une femme p i s s e r d e b o u t e ? J ' m e r ' g a r d a i s p i s s e r d a n s l e m i r o I r . . . E 1 i s a b e t h T a y l o r , d e b o u t e , de p r o f i t , a v e c une q u e q u e t t e , q u i p i s s e . . . c ' e s t e c o e u r a n t . ( p . 3 4 ) ( D i d y o u e v e r s e e a woman pee s t a n d i n g up? I was w a t c h i n g m y s e l f i n t h e m i r r o r . E l i z a b e t h T a y l o r , i n p r o f i l e , w i t h t h i s t h i n g h a n g i n g o u t . . . p i s s i n g . D e g o u t a n t ! - Van B u r e k , p. 47) T h e m i r r o r p e r f o r m s , b o t h , t h e r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e d e t e s t e d image o f t h e m a l e b o d y , and t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h i s image a s t h e f e m a l e p e r s o n a i s c o n s t r u c t e d t h r o u g h H o s a n n a ' s u s e o f m a k e - u p . I t i s i n t h i s d u a l f u n c t i o n t h a t t h e m i r r o r f i n d s i t s s y m b o l i c a l -109-s i g n i f i c a t i o n . Throughout the play, the symbol of the mirror i s omnipresent i n the u n i v e r s e of Hosanna. In the i n t r o d u c t o r y moment of the play, before C u i r e t t e ' s entrance, the drama i s i n i t i a t e d through Hosanna's r e l a t i o n s h i p with the m i r r o r . She c o n f r o n t s her s p e c u l a r image as an a l t e r idem of her persona - "She looks at h e r s e l f ( i n the m i r r o r ) as one t r a n s v e s t i t e looks at another"(Van Burek, p.9). T h i s means that the frankness which she d i s p l a y s towards h e r s e l f , a f t e r the setback she has s u f f e r e d at the party, remains a mediated frankness. She acknowleges her flaws as Hosanna, not as Claude. Hosanna: S i les p a i l l e t t e s te coulent dans les yeux, t'es c o r r e c t pour le b r a i l l e dans pas longtemps, Hosanna! T r o i s heures d'ouvrage! Maudite Ketaine!(p.13) (Hosanna: That's r i g h t Hosanna. While you're at i t , get your face a l l s t r e k e d . Three hours of work(...) You s t u p i d b i t c h . - Van Burek, p.10) If Hosanna acknowledges the f a i l u r e of her attempt at making her great entrance at Sandra's place as E l i z a b e t h T a y l o r i n the r o l e of C l e o p a t r a , she r e f u s e s , at f i r s t , to admit the e s s e n t i a l : the d e s t r u c t i o n of the persona of Hosanna. The presence of C u i r e t t e , a c t i n g , as we s h a l l see, as opponent to Hosanna (but as adjuvant to Claude), motivates her to r e - a s s e r t her persona. It i s through the use of tableaux p r e s e n t i n g her f e m i n i n i t y , thus p r e s e r v i n g the d i o p t r i c schema of r e f e r e n c e , that she t r i e s to r e b u i l d Hosanna before C u i r e t t e ' s eyes. Hosanna: J ' p a r l e de 1'image generate que ca donne...C'est pas n e c e s s a i r e de s c r u t e r les d e t a i l s ! P i s c'est pas n e c e s s a i r e non plus de s a v o i r c'qui est v'nu avant p i s c'qui va v ' n i r a p r e s . . . J ' p a r l e de 1'image generale que ga donne...'gard...(e11e fume "vo1uptueusement") (p.24) (Hosanna: I'm t a l k i n g about the o v e r a l l e f f e c t , dummy! It's -110-not necessary to go Into d e t a i l s . Nor do you have to know what happened before, or what's going to happen a f t e r . . . J u s t the o v e r a l l e f f e c t . . . R e g a r d e s . . . (She smokes v o l u p t u o u s l y ) -Van Burek, p.29) But C u i r e t t e thwarts her p r o j e c t s by rend e r i n g f u t i l e her c l a i m to f e m i n i n i t y through a s h i f t of the pole of i n t e r e s t from f e m i n i n i t y to looks: " J ' s a i s pas s i y(Reynald) 'est "ben ben feminine", mais au moins y ' e s t plus regardable que toe!" (p.37) (I don't know i f he's " n i c e and l a d y - l i k e , " but he's a l o t be t t e r - 1 o o k i n g than you! - Van Burek, p.52). At t h i s moment, i t i s i n the mi r r o r that Hosanna takes refuge and f i n d s the s t r e n g t h to r e t a l i a t e by making a b i t t e r comment on C u i r e t t e ' s p a r a s i t i c a t t i t u d e : "C'est mon sofa, dans mon appartement" (p.37> ( i t ' s my bed i n my apartment -Van Burek, p.52). Subjugated by images of h e r s e l f which she t r i e s to destroy and c o n s t r u c t , Hosanna i s at the mercy of the mirror i n a master to s l a v e r e l a t i o n s h i p . It i s s i g n i f i c a n t that Hosanna's f i n a l r e c o g n i t i o n of h e r s e l f as a man occurs only a f t e r a moment of i n t r o s p e c t i o n i n f r o n t of the mirror.(p.75/p.102) As freedom can be acheived only through the s l a v e ' s r e f u s a l of the s t r u c t u r e provided by the master as a counter p a r t of the t h r e a t , Claude's acceptancy of himself could r e s u l t only from a c o n f r o n t a t i o n with the s p e c u l a r image of Hosanna. Instead of h i d i n g behind the image, Claude f i n a l l y f i n d s the courage to turn h i s back to the mirror and expose himself as a man. The symbol of the mirr o r , however, i s not only s i g n i f i e d through the a c t u a l presence, on stage, of a m i r r o r . It i s symbolized as well through the use of dramatic devices such as the -111-c h i a s t i c arrangement of Hosanna's f i r s t l i n e s : J ' v o u l a i s pus y a l l e r . J ' v o u l a i s pus. J ' v o u l a i s pus. ( . . . ) J ' v o u l a i s pus. J ' v o u l a i s pus.J'vou1ais pus y a l l e r . (p.12-13) (I knew I shouldn't have gone. I knew i t . I knew i t . / I knew i t . I knew i t . I should never have gone i n there. - Van Burek, p.8-9). The c r y nOse, Anna, Ose" (p.14) (Hosanna, Hosanna, Hosanna, Ho! -Van Burek, p.11) u t t e r e d by C u i r e t t e at the very beginning of the play achieves a s i m i l a r e f f e c t . But i n a d d i t i o n to r e p r e s e n t i n g the mirror-image, the chiasmus nOse, Anna, Ose" p r e f i g u r e s the death of Claude's double, Hosanna, as i t de c o n s t r u c t s the name of the a l t e r ego. T h i s b r i l l i a n t l i n g u i s t i c d e v i ce could serve as the p e r f e c t synecdoche of the drama: the d e s t r u c t i o n of Hosanna acheived through a c o n f r o n t a t i o n with the sp e c u l a r image which the other characters(p.73/p.97) c a s t back and f o r c e d upon her. For the mirror i s , indeed, a l s o symbolized by the c h a r a c t e r s themselves: Claude Lemieux's mother, f o r in s t a n c e . Although she does not appear on stage, she serves as a second degree mirror-image of her son. One could engage i n a p s y c h o l o g i c a l study of the c h a r a c t e r of Hosanna based on the behavioural background provided i n the passage i n which Hosanna r e c a l l s the moment when, at age seven, he/she r e a l i z e d that i t r e un t a p e t t e ca v o u l a i t pas j u s t e d i r e que t'as l ' a i r d'une f i l l e , mais que tu peux a u s s i a v o i r vraiment envie d'etre une f i l l e , une v r a i e f i l l e ( p . 4 1 ) (to be a queer doesn't j u s t mean that you act l i k e a g i r l , but can a l s o mean you r e a l l y want to be a g i r l , a r e a l g i r l -Van Burek, p.60). -112-One could conclude from t h i s passage, and the l i n e s which f o l l o w i t , that the h i a t u s i n the normal development of Claude occured when h i s mother, from whom he expected help and understanding, r e f u s e d to provide him with an e x p l a n a t i o n of h i s behaviour. The ex p l a n a t i o n , which might have allowed a u n i f i c a t i o n of the devided s e l f of the young boy (p.42/p.61), having been refused, the ch a r a c t e r remained incapable of harmonizing h i s i n t e r n a l f e m i n i n i t y with h i s male body i n any other way than by c o n s t r u c t i n g an image of himself i n conformity with h i s i d e a l ego: Woman. For the purpose of t h i s a n a l y s i s , however, what matters most i s not as much Claude's past than Hosanna's present. When Hosanna and her mother meet, the mother a c t s as a m i r r o r . She ca s t s back to Hosanna the image of her own d e l i b e r a t e o b 1 i v i o u s n e s s . Ca f a i t que de puis c'temps-la, quand on se v o i t , moe p i s e l l e , on f a i t semblant de r i e n . E l l e , a f a i t semblant qu'a v o i t r i e n pour pas &tre o b l i g e e d'en p a r l e r , p i s moe j ' a i pas envie pantoute de I ' e n t r e t e n i r de mes "aventures romanesques"! (p.42) (And e v e r s i n c e then, whenever she and I get together, we act l i k e nothing's happened. She pretends she doesn't see a t h i n g so she won't have to t a l k about i t . As f o r me, I have no wish to e n t e r t a i n her with my "great e r o t i c escapes". - Van Burek, p. 61) The r e f u s a l of the mother to see Hosanna a c t s as the mirror-image of Hosanna's d e n i a l of Claude. C u i r e t t e : Claude... Hosanna: J'm'appelle Hosanna. (...) Hosanna: J ' a r a i s du commencer par l a perruque. J ' a r a i s du commencer par ca, c ' a ' r a i t eu plus d'a 11ure.. .Mais ca me tente pas...Ca me tente pas de l ' o t e r . ( . . . ) Hosanna: J ' a r a i s envie de me coucher toute grimee, C u i r e t t e . -113-J'pense que j ' a i peur de c'qu'y'a en-dessous... (p.27) ( C u i r e t t e : Claude... Hosanna: My name i s Hosanna.(...) I should have s t a r t e d with the wig. If I'd s t a r t e d with that i t would have made more sense...But I don't f e l l l i k e i t . . . I don't f e e l l i k e t a k i n g i t o f f . . . (...) Hosanna: I think I ' l l go to bed with my make-up on, Cu i r e t t e . . . I ' m a f r a i d of what's underneath... - Van Burek p.33-34) C u i r e t t e r e p r e s e n t s , as w e l l , a sp e c u l a r image of Hosanna. As mentioned e a r l i e r , the process of s e 1 f - r e c o g n i t i o n which he undergoes r e f l e c t s that of Hosanna. C u i r e t t e a l s o c a s t s back to Hosanna the m e r c i l e s s image of an aging man; h i s own decay as a d e s i r a b l e " s t u d " m i r r o r s the d e c l i n e of Hosanna s i n c e i t i s by seducing him that she imposed h e r s e l f i n the world of the drag queens (p.65/p.87). But more s i g n i f i c a n t than t h i s i s C u i r e t t e ' s r o l e as the magic mirror who r e f l e c t s v e r b a l l y the image of Hosanna. At a f i r s t l e v e l , the m i r r o r i n g takes the form of a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d r e p e t i t i o n of l i n e s . The most obvious example i s the f o l l o w i n g : at one p o i n t i n the f i r s t few minutes of the play, Hosanna says Hosanna: C'est pas a toe que j'par 1 a i s . . .T'es pas assez important pour que j ' t e p a r l e tout le temps, t ' s a i s . (p.18) (I wasn't t a l k i n g to you...You're not so important that I t a l k to you a l l the time. - Van Burek, p.17) and l a t e r on i n the te x t , C u i r e t t e takes up the same formula to respond to Hosanna C u i r e t t e : Pas peur, j ' p a r l a i s pas de toe... T'es pas assez important pour que j ' p a r l e toujours de toe, t ' s a i s . . . ( p . 2 3 ) (I wasn't t a l k i n g to...You're not so important that I t a l k to -114-you a l l the time. - Van Burek, p.27) In the o r i g i n a l French t e x t , C u i r e t t e uses the masculine form to address Hosanna: T'es pas assez important. As we w i l l see, C u i r e t t e f u n c t i o n s as a m i r r o r , but a m i r r o r which r e f l e c t s the a u t h e n t i c image of Hosanna: man. At another l e v e l , the f u n c t i o n of C u i r e t t e as mirror p a r a l l e l s that of the v a n i t y t a b l e mirror which Hosanna uses to c o n s t r u c t her image. Having s u f f e r e d an h u m i l i a t i o n which, she knows, co u l d lead to the d e s t r u c t i o n of her persona, Hosanna makes an e f f o r t to deny any change i n her environment so as to maintain her image. She d e c l a r e s "Jamais j'demenagerai C u i r e t t e . . . p i s jamais j'changerai de parfum" (p.28) ( C u i r e t t e , I ' l l never move...And I ' l l never change my perfume. - Van Burek, p.35). In the f o l l o w i n g example, Hosanna uses C u i r e t t e as a s i g n of the p e r s i s t e n c e of her image. Hosanna: Quand tu vas t i r e r sur le s o f a p i s qu'y va r e s t e r poigne tu vas d i r e c S l i c e . C u i r e t t e : (comme le s o f a se bloque) C S l i c e Hosanna: (hausse les epaules) P i s tu vas me demander: "Quand es t - c e qu'on va en acheter un a u t r e . . . C u i r e t t e : Quand e s t - c e qu'on va en acheter un autre!(p.31) (Hosanna: And when you s t a r t to open up the bed, i t ' s going to get stuck and you're going to say " S h i t " . . . C u i r e t t e : S h i t ! Hosanna: (Shrungs her shoulders) Then you're going to ask me, "When are we going to get r i d of t h i s t h i n g ? " C u i r e t t e : When are we going to get r i d of t h i s thing? - Van Burek, p.42) Every gesture that C u i r e t t e makes in agreement with her p r e d i c t i o n , represents one of Hosanna's f e a t u r e s which she recognizes (In the m i r r o r ) as u n a l t e r e d and u n a l t e r a b l e . -115-F i n a l l y , at a t h i r d l e v e l , C u i r e t t e a c t s as the mi r r o r which r e f l e c t s , beyond the layer of make-up, the w r i n k l e s , the f u r u n c l e s and the male epidermis. C u i r e t t e : Ton probleme, tu 1'as pas autour d ' l a t a i l l e , t r e s o r , tu 1'as dans face!(p.44) ( C u i r e t t e : But your problem i s n ' t around your b e l l y , sweetheart, i t ' s i n your f a c e ! Van-Burek, p.63) De t e c t i n g Hosanna's I n c l i n a t i o n towards martyrdom(p.21/p.25) and the ambiguity of her s e x u a l i t y (p.47/p.68), C u i r e t t e simply c a s t s back to Hosanna a genuine image of h e r s e l f which her mask cannot hide. The s p e c u l a r f u n c t i o n of C u i r e t t e i s i m p l i c i t l y acknowledge by Hosanna at the beginning of Act II, as the flow of her thoughts leads her to s h i f t from her statement that "On d e v r a i t pas a v o i r le d r o i t de s'appeler Raymond Bodulc" (p.56) ( i t should be a g a i n s t the law to c a l l y o u r s e l f Raymond Bolduc - Van Burek, p.72) to looking at h e r s e l f i n the m i r r o r , and f i n a l l y a s s o c i a t i n g Raymond to herse1f: Y'a du monde, comme ca, qui meritent de v i v r e parce que leu r s noms sont trop l a i d s . C'est pour ca que les t r a v e s t i s p i s les act e u r s changent de noms: Par-ce-qu'y-me-ri-tent-pas-de-vivre (p.56) (Some people, they have ugly names they don't deserve to l i v e . That's why a c t o r s and t r a n v e s t i t e s change t h e i r names. Because they-don't-deserve-to-1ive - Van Burek p.75). T h i s r e c o g n i t i o n of C u i r e t t e as a mirror of Hosanna-C1aude i s e v e n t u a l l y extended to a l l the i n h a b i t a n t s of Hosanna's world. As Hosanna says " J ' s a v a i s pas que vous m'hassiez tant que - 1 1 6 -c a . . . " ( p . 7 4 ) (I n e v e r knew y o u a l l h a t e d me so much . - Van B u r e k , p . 9 8 ) , t h e s p e c t a t o r / r e a d e r c a n n o t h e l p b u t s e e t h e d o s e o f p a r a n o i a w h i c h u n d e r l i e s t h e s t a t e m e n t . The s p e c u l a r f u n c t i o n o f C u i r e t t e r e a c h e s i t s c u l m i n a t i o n when, a t t h e e n d , a s s h e / h e c r i e s " C h u s t ' u n homme, Raymond" ( p . 7 5 ) ( I ' m a man, Raymond - Van B u r e k , p . 1 0 2 ) , h e / s h e t u r n s t o w a r d s C u i r e t t e n a k e d . In r e l a t i o n s h i p t o C u i r e t t e , t h e g e s t u r e has l i t t l e m e a n i n g . C u i r e t t e ' s movement t o w a r d s C l a u d e d o e s n o t r e p r e s e n t t h e o u t c o m e o f a l o n g i n t e r n a l s t r u g g l e . F rom t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e p l a y C u i r e t t e has made e f f o r t s t o a p p r o a c h C l a u d e ( p . 2 1 / p . 2 3 / p . 2 7 / p . 3 3 ) . C 1 a u d e - H o s a n n a ' s g e s t u r e o n l y r e p r e s e n t s an o p p o r t u n i t y , f o r C u i r e t t e , t o e x p r e s s h i s l o v e f o r h i s b o y f r i e n d : " C u i r e t t e : Ben C r i s s , j ' t ' a i m e " ( p . 4 8 ) (I l o v e y o u , goddamn i t . I l o v e y o u ! - Van B u r e k , p . 6 9 ) In t h e c a s e o f C 1 a u d e - H o s a n n a , h o w e v e r , t h e g e s t u r e i s one o f p r i m e i m p o r t a n c e . B u t , u n l i k e what i t may seem a t f i r s t , i t i s n o t as much a g e s t u r e t o w a r d s R a y m o n d - C u i r e t t e , a s a g e s t u r e t o w a r d s C l a u d e h i m s e l f . R ' g a r d e , Raymond , c h u s t ' u n homme! C h u s t ' u n homme, R a y m o n d ! C h u s t ' u n homme! C h u s t ' u n homme! C h u s t ' u n h o m m e . . . ( L o o k Raymond , I'm a man! I'm a man Raymond! I'm a man! I'm a man! I'm a man! ) C l a u d e d o e s n o t go t o w a r d s Raymond , he o n l y shows h i m s e l f t o h i m . The t h r e e l a s t p h r a s e s ( C h u s t ' u n homme!) a r e n o t a i m e d a s much t o w a r d s Raymond a s t o w a r d s C l a u d e , who i s r e v e a l i n g h i m s e l f t o h i m s e l f t h r o u g h t h e i n t e r m e d i a r y o f Raymond. T h r o u g h h i s r e f l e c t i o n i n h i s b o y f r i e n d , C l a u d e f i n a l l y s e e s h i m s e l f as a h o m o s e x u a l man r a t h e r t h a n a s a s u c c e d a n e u m of woman. The end of H o s a n n a i s n o t t h e t a b l e a u o f two men who a r e n o t a f r a i d o f l o v i n g -117-e a c h o t h e r ; i t i s r a t h e r t h e s p l i t - i m a g e of a man who d a r e s t o l o v e a n o t h e r man, and of man who f i n a l l y manages t o l o v e h i m s e l f . As I have t r i e d t o show i n t h i s a n a l y s i s , t h e symbol of t h e m i r r o r i s p r e s e n t a t s e v e r a l l e v e l s of t h e drama, d i c t a t i n g the s t r u c t u r e of t h e c h a r a c t e r i o 1 o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . A l t h o u g h h i g h l y s i m p l i f i e d i n J_J_ e t a i t une f o i s dans 1 ' e s t . t h e f u n c t i o n of t h e m i r r o r r e m a i n s e s s e n t i a l t o t h e c i n e m a t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of Hosanna. The f i l m n a r r a t e s t h e e v e n t s t h a t t o o k p l a c e b e f o r e t h e b e g i n n i n g of p l a y : from t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h e mask of " E l i z a b e t h T a y l o r i n t h e r o l e of C l e o p a t r a " t o t h e a p p a l l i n g moment of t h e d e s t r u c t i o n of Hosanna's " p a p i e r mache l i f e " (Van Burek, p . 9 8 ) . Andre B r a s s a r d ' s g o a l , i n f i l m i n g t h e e v e n t s of t h e d r a g queen masked b a l l , was t o show, on t h e s c r e e n , what i s t o l d i n t h e p l a y . Dans Hosanna. par exemple, l e p e r s o n n a g e r a c o n t a i t t o u t e l a s o i r e e qu'on a pu v o i r dans J_l_ e t a i t une f o i s . . . Ben moi, j ' a v a i s e n v i e de l a m o n t r e r , p i s de l a f a i r e , p i s de l a v o i r . ( 3 3 ) ( I n Hosanna. f o r i n s t a n c e , t h e c h a r a c t e r was r e l a t i n g t h e e v e n i n g t h a t t h e a u d i e n c e saw i n J_l_ e t a i t une f o i s . . . W e l l , I f e l t l i k e showing i t , and d o i n g i t , and s e e i n g i t . ) Andre B r a s s a r d ' s i n t e n t i o n s g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d t h e f i n i s h e d p r o d u c t a t t h e l e v e l of i t s s i g n i f i c a t i o n . Indeed, th e p a r t s of t h e f i l m s h o wing Hosanna and C u i r e t t e seem more p r e s e n t a t i o n a l t h a n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l . A d d i n g t o t h i s , J e a n Archambau1t's uneven i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e t i t l e r o l e , t h e whole s e c t i o n d e v o t e d t o Hosanna a p p e a r s as t h e weakest i n t h e f i l m . But i n s p i t e of i t s f l a w s , t h e s e c t i o n on Hosanna d e s e r v e s t o be s t u d i e d , i n t h e -118-hermeneutica1 framework of t h i s a n a l y s i s , as i t i l l u s t r a t e s the l i m i t e d a b i l i t y of cinema to t r a n s l a t e the symbolism of t h e a t r e --i n t h i s case the symbol of the m i r r o r . The f i r s t scene i n t r o d u c i n g the u n i v e r s e of Hosanna takes p l a c e i n her apartment(34). The mise-en-scene of the sequence-shot i s aimed at p r e s e n t i n g a g l o b a l image of the bachelor s u i t e rather than at f o c u s i n g the a t t e n t i o n of the s p e c t a t o r on the s y m b o l i s t i c o b j e c t s mentioned e a r l i e r . The s t a t u e of David, the b o t t l e of eau de cologne, and the neon s i g n of the Beaubien pharmacy are e i t h e r l o s t i n the baroque decor of the f l a t or not s i g n i f i e d at a l l . The v a n i t y - t a b l e m i r r o r i s shown on screen but l i t t l e emphasis i s put on i t . One could argue that the s p e c u l a r Image does take on a symbolical meaning at the very end of the sequence as the image of C u i r e t t e , throwing a p i l l o w at Hosanna, appears on the back-wall m i r r o r . T h i s s e c t i o n of the sequence-shot could introduce the concept of C u i r e t t e as m i r r o r , f i r s t as he i s seen r e f l e c t e d i n the m i r r o r , and second as he i s seen throwing the p i l l o w towards Hosanna i n r e a c t i o n to the l a t t e r ' a c o n f e s s i o n of having s t o l e n 10 d o l l a r s from her b o y f r i e n d . In one other o c c a s i o n C u i r e t t e i s somewhat i d e n t i f i e d with the m i r r o r : i n sequence 43(35), when he i s seen coming i n t o h i s apartment through a r e f l e c t i o n i n the v a n i t y - t a b l e m i r r o r . But, one can h a r d l y conclude on the symbolical s i g n i f i c a t i o n of these two i n s t a n c e s , f o r the process i s not used c o n s i s t e n t l y . Several c h a r a c t e r s , other than C u i r e t t e , are seen through t h e i r r e f l e c t i o n i n a mirror e i t h e r f o r the sake of n a r r a t i o n or simply because there happens to be a r e f l e c t i n g -119-s u r f a c e i n the frame (36). T h i s f a i l u r e to e s t a b l i s h a c l e a r metaphorical r e l a t i o n s h i p between C u i r e t t e and the M i r r o r can be I n t e r p r e t e d as the outcome of the r e s t r i c t i o n s imposed by the medium. While the locus dramaticus of the stage, i n i t s l i m i t a t i o n , allows each prop to be a coherent s i g n , the c e n t r i f u g a l space(37) of cinema reduces the c o n n o t a t i v e powers of the o b j e c t . A mirror on stage i s a M i r r o r , a m i r r o r on screen i s j u s t a m i r r o r . In the case of Hosanna, however, there are e f f o r t s made to use the mirror c o n s i s t e n t l y as a symbol connected to her u n i v e r s e . The use of the s p e c u l a r image takes two forms. F i r s t , the mirror i s denoted through the a c t u a l presence, on screen, of m i r r o r s i n the p r o x i m i t y of Hosanna. In sequence 12(38), f o r example, a small m i r r o r i s p o s i t i o n e d on the bathroom sink so as to r e f l e c t the Image of Hosanna's face as she prepares to take a bath. In s e v e r a l other i n s t a n c e s , the mirror i s not u n i q u e l y present, but used by Hosanna, as i n sequence 52(39) when she i s admiring h e r s e l f i n the r o l e of C l e o p a t r a . The f u n c t i o n of the mirror i s pushed beyond the u t i l i t a r i a n mode i n sequence 32, as Hosanna does not only use the m i r r o r , but apprehends i t as an a l t e r idem: M S i j ' t e manque, ma C1eopatre...j'manque toute"(40) (If I mess you up, (my) C l e o p a t r a , I mess e v e r y t h i n g up.) In t h i s sentence addressed to the m i r r o r , which she i d e n t i f i e s as "ma C l e o p a t r e " , Hosanna does not only express the extent to which she I d e n t i f i e s with the r o l e , but a l s o her profound b e l i e f i n the power of Image. More than the s h a t t e r i n g of her dream of making -120-her "entrance i n Rome", the t r a g i c denouement which she i s about to experience i s the d e s t r u c t i o n of her image-imago. A d e s t r u c t i o n foreshadowed i n sequence 35 (41). In t h i s shot, the s p e c t a t o r sees Hosanna's p r o f i l e and three r e f l e c t i o n s of her face on three d i f f e r e n t planes. The deepest plane shows the face of Hosanna broken up by the r e f l e c t i o n of a flower. At the end of the f i l m , as Hosanna i s on stage at "Chez Sandra" f a c i n g the crowd which i s d e t r o y i n g her, a s i m i l a r shot presents Hosanna's face broken up by the c o i f f u r e of another C l e o p a t r a i n the foreground. T h i s use of the m i r r o r , although s i g n i f i c a t i v e i n c e r t a i n cases, remains at the l e v e l of the d e n o t a t i v e icon, that i s that "the image i s what i t I s " ( 4 2 ) . As mentioned e a r l i e r , the c e n t r i f u g a l space of cinema reduces the c o n n o t a t i v e power of the o b j e c t , however, i t i s p o s s i b l e to work at the l e v e l of c o n n o t a t i o n i n f i l m by breaking the c o n t i g u i t y of the s i g n i f i e r and the s i g n i f i e d through a suggestion of the s i g n i f i e d r a t her than a p r e s e n t a t i o n of i t s i c o n . And i t i s by doing so that Tremb1 ay-Brassard succeed, to a c e r t a i n degree, i n t r e a t i n g the t h e a t r i c a l symbolism of Hosanna i n c i n e m a t i c terms. One of the best examples of t h i s procedure i s found i n sequence 59 as Hosanna nears the foreground and, r e f l e c t i n g h e r s e l f beyond the plane of the camera, a n t i c i p a t e s the defeat of her enemies -- Sandra and the other t r a n s v e s t i t e s . At t h i s p o i n t , the suggested mirror e x i s t s o u t s i d e of the p a l p a b l e u n i v e r s e of the bachelor s u i t e , o u t s i d e of what the camera can "see", only i n s i d e the realm of Hosanna's world. In t h i s s y m b o l i s t i c mirror Hosanna sees h e r s e l f -121-as C l e o p a t r a , and f e e l s the power of her image to be i n v i n c i b l e . "Y vont toutes tomber sur le cu1, C u i r e t t e , toute l a gang, quand y vont v o i r C l e o p a t r e a r r i v e r . . . " (43) (They're a l l going to f a l l on t h e i r ass, a l l of them, when they see C l e o p a t r a e n t e r . . . ) . I r o n i c a l l y , i t i s at t h i s p o i n t that C u i r e t t e ventures to c a l l Hosanna "Claude". The dual f u n c t i o n of the m i r r o r i s thus p e r c e i v e d : on one hand, the c o n s t r u c t i v i s t s p e c u l a r image which supports the making-up of the persona, (as i n scene 35); on the other hand, the d e c o n s t r u c t i v i s t mirror which r e f l e c t s , beyond the make-up, the inescapable image of the s e l f . In sequence 73(44), i n a t a x i on the way to "Chez Sandra", the mirror i s , again, connoted ra t h e r than shown. But t h i s time, the m i r r o r i s not o u t s i d e the f i e l d of p e r c e p t i o n of the camera, It becomes the camera. Shot with a s l i g h t l y deforming lense, the scene shows Hosanna through the r e f l e c t i o n of a d i s t o r t i n g m i r r o r . S t r e e t l i g h t s become g l i t t e r i n g c h a n d e l i e r s , p e d e s t r i a n s become beloved s u b j e c t s , and the t a x i becomes a majestuous c h a r i o t . Thus the d i s t o r t i o n i s f o r c e d upon the s p e c t a t o r who f i n d s himself caught i n the play of Images. But i t i s the close-ups of the t r a n s v e s t i t e s i n g e r B e l i n d a Lee, i n t e r c u t t i n g the shots of Hosanna i n the t a x i , which epitomizes the f a l l a c y of both the s p e c u l a r and the cinematographic image. Pointed out by some f e m i n i s t c r i t i c s , such as Laura Mulvey(45), the f u n c t i o n of the close-up of the female face i n t r o d u c e s a d i f f e r e n t mode of p e r c e p t i o n i n the male heterosexual s p e c t a t o r watching a t r a d i t i o n a l n a r r a t i v e f i l m : from i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the s u b j e c t of the Image (male hero) to i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the camera as observer of the d e s i r a b l e image -122-(woman).Thls t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of modes i s e a s e l y processed by the s p e c t a t o r s i n c e i t i s a common n a r r a t i v e code i n the language of cinema. In the case of t h i s close-up, however, the e f f e c t i s extremely d i s t u r b i n g , s i n c e the n a r r a t i v i t y of the male heterosexual s p e c t a t o r i s caught between two c o n f l i c t i n g modes of o b s e r v a t i o n . On the one hand, he i s i n v i t e d to gaze at the image of the d e s i r a b l e female, and on the other hand, he i s f o r c e d to acknowledge the image as a p r e s e n t a t i o n of a man d i s g u i s e d as a woman(46). T h i s device alows the s p e c t a t o r to enter the u n i v e r s e of the t r a n s v e s t l t e Hosanna who i s d i v i d e d between the a e s t h e t i c s of the image and the e t h i c s of i t s content. The e f f e c t of the d i s t o r t i n g m irror i s c a r r i e d on to sequence 90(47). A d i f f u s i o n f i l t e r i s used to e m b e l l i s h the image of the stage on which Sandra and the other t r a n s v e s t i t e s show o f f t h e i r ambiguous beauty. Through out the parade of C l e o p a t r a s , the g l i t t e r i n g image p e r s i s t s . But the embellishment becomes a b e r r a t i o n as Sandra, s a v o r i n g her v i c t o r y , d e c l a r e s n L a Main te Salue, Hosanna!" (48) (The Main s a l u t e s you, Hosanna!). At that moment, the l i g h t s , that s o f t l y d i s g u i s e d the stage upto now, burn the image. Over-exposed, Hosanna's made-up image turns i n t o a mask of death. As she rushes back home, h o r r i b l y h u m i l i a t e d , Hosanna c a r r i e s with her the symbol of her broken image. The sh a t t e r e d m i r r o r accompanies her. Overhanging her bewigged head, the rear window of the t a x i s i g n i f i e s the mirror which no longer r e f l e c t s the l i g h t but absorbs i t . ( 4 9 ) The d e s t r u c t i o n , that leads to s e 1 f - r e c o g n i t i o n i n Hosanna. leads to a dead end i n the f i l m . -123-C u i r e t t e stays at "Chez Sandra" and Hosanna remains alone i n the t a x i , without even a r e f l e c t i o n to comfort her. As I wrote at the beginning of the second h a l f of t h i s a n a l y s i s , the p a r t s of the f i l m devoted to Hosanna c o n s t i t u t e the weakest s e c t i o n of the f i l m . I n s p i t e of a few s u c c e s s f u l c i n e m a t i c a d a p t a t i o n s of the t h e a t r i c a l symbolism of the play, the t r a n s p o s i t i o n of the u n i v e r s e of Hosanna onto the screen i s a f a i l u r e . Preoccupied with showing what i s s a i d , Andre Brassard presents the audience with an i c o n o g r a p h i c a l t r a n s l a t i o n of Hosanna's monologue. In doing t h i s , the filmmaker ignores the element of c o n n o t a t i v e power of the words. Too o f t e n , an image i s only what It i s , and by t r y i n g to equate the shot with the word, the icon loses i t s sense. But i f Hosanna, on screen, appears as a pale copy of Hosanna on stage, her n a r r a t i v e f u n c t i o n , w i t h i n the u n i v e r s e of the f i l m , i s e s s e n t i a l . It i s around her s t o r y , and that of Germaine Lauzon, that the p r o g r e s s i o n of the other c h a r a c t e r s r e v o l v e s . It i s on t h i s aspect of the f i l m -- the i n t e r r e l a t i o n of a l l the worlds brought out of the t h e a t r e i n t o the cinema --, that the second h a l f of t h i s t h e s i s w i l l c o ncentrate i n order to i d e n t i f y p r e c i s e l y the f u n c t i o n of I 1  eta 11 une f o i s dans 1'est i n the context of the " c y c l e des B e l l e s - s o e u r s " . -124-ENDNOTES 1 Michel Tremblay, A t o t , pour t o u l o u r s . t a Marle-Lou. Montreal: Lemeac, 1971, 94p. E n g l i s h T r a n s l a t i o n : Forever yours. Mar i e-Lou. John Van Burek, B i l l Glassco, Vancouver: Talonbooks, 1975, 86 p. 2 Michel B e l a i r , "A to i , pour tou.jours. ta Mar ie-Lou. ou quand Michel Tremblay se permet d'esperer", i n A to 1. pour  t o u l o u r s , t a Marle-Lou. (Montreal: Lemeac, 1971, 94p.) p. 30. 3 I b i d . , p.28,29. 4 Yollande V i l l e m a i r e , "Les pouvoirs de l a p a r o l e " , i n Les Cahters de 1 a nouve11e companie theatra1e. v o l . 9, n o . l , Oct. 1974, p.21 5 "Michel Tremblay p a r l e de...", i n t e r v i e w given to G i l l e s M a r s o l a i s , i n Les Cahlers de 1 a nouve11e compan1e  t h e a t r a l e . v o l . 9, n o . l , Oct. 1974, p.26. 6 Carmen s t a r t s s i n g i n g her own songs l a t e r on i n her ca r e e r . See Michel Tremblay, S a i n t e Carmen de 1 a Main. (Montreal: Lemeac, 1976, 88p.) p.14-15 7 Raymond J o l y , "Une douteuse l i b e r a t i o n Le denouement d'une pie c e de Michel Tremblay", i n Etudes f r a n c a i ses. Nov. 1972, vol V I I I , no. 4, p.368 8 Michel Tremblay, Sal n t e Carmen de 1 a Main. p.44 T r a n s l a t i o n : John Van Burek, Saint-Carmen of the Main (Vancouver: Talonbooks, 1981, 77p.) p.41. -125-9 Raymond J o l y , "Une douteuse l i b e r a t i o n Le denouement d'une p i e c e de Michel Tremblay", p.369. 10 L' uni vers de Miche 1 Tremb 1 ay /_ ll_ e t a i t une f o i s dans 1 ' E s t. Sequence 30, p.43. 11 I b i d . , Sequence 21, p.36. 12 I b i d . , Sequence 9, p.21-22. 13 I b i d . , Sequence 55, p.73. 14 I b i d . , Sequence 38, p.56. 15 Freud, Sigmund, quoted i n The Language of Psycho-ana l y s i s , by J. Laplanche, J.-B. P o n t a l i s , (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1973, 510p.) p.303. 16 Laplanche, P o n t a l i s , The Language of Psycho-ana l y s i s , p.312. 17 Jean-Michel Palmier, Lacan Le Symbo1i que et 1' I mag ina i re ( P a r i s : E d i t i o n s U n i v e r s i t a i r e s , " C o l l e c t i o n Psycotheque", 1968, 156p.), p.99. See Chapter IV, s e c t i o n 3: "Le p h a l l u s comme ob j e t et s i g n i f i a n t du d e s i r " , p.99-102. 18 Quoted i n Jean-Cleo Godin, Laurent Mailhot, Theatre  quebecois II ( V i l l e L a S a l l e : Hurtubise HMH, 1980, 247p.) p.177. 19 See N a r r a t i v e . Apparatus. I deo 1 ogy. P h i l i p Rosen ed., (New York: Columbia UP, 1986, 549p.) p.165-166. -126-20 Andre Bazin, What i s Cinema? J_, Hugh Gray t r a n s . (Berkeley: U. of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1967, p.183), p. 105. 21 L* uni vers de Miche 1 Tremb 1 ay /_ l_l_ eta i t une f o i s dans 1 ' Es t, Sequence 9, p.22. 22 I b i d . , Sequence 55, p.73. 23 I b i d . , Sequence 90, p.97. 24 I b i d . , Sequence 97, p.104, and sequence 101, p.106. 25 S. Freud quoted i n The Language of Psycho-ana l y s i s , p.303. 26 Ernest Jones i n The Language of Psycho-ana l y s i s , p.304. 27 Andre Leroux, " U L e t a i t une f o i s dans 1'est. un s q u e l e t t e decharne", Le. Devoir. March 9, 1974, p. 19. 28 Michel Tremblay, Hosanna. i n Hosanna/La Duchesse de Langeai s Montreal: Lemeac, 1984, 106p. E n g l i s h T r a n s l a t i o n : Hosanna. by J. Van Burek & B. Glassco, Vancouver: Talonbooks, 1974, 102p. 29 A l b e r t B r i e , "Hosanna au Quat'Sous Tremblay joue et gagne", Le Devo i r. May 15, 1973, p.10. See Vo i x et I mages. V o l . VII, No 2, p.284. 30 Yollande V i l l e m a i r e , "Hosana(sic) ou l a mort du double" Hobo Quebec, no 8, Sept. 1973, p.22. -127-31 Y. Vi11emaire, "Hosana(sic) ou l a mort du double". 32 Robert C. Nunn, "Michel Tremblay's Hosanna and P i r a n d e l l o ' s " t e a t r o d e l l o s p e c c i o " " , Canadian Drama/L'Art dramatigue canadien, f a l l 1980, v o l . 6, no 2, p.201-212. 33 Andre Brassard, "Face a face cannois: Brassard-Tremb1 ay s ' e x p l i q u e n t " , Cinema Quebec. V o l . 3, no 8, Oct. 22, 1974, p.22. 34 L' uni vers de M i che 1 Tremb 1 ay /_ J_l_ e t a i t une f o i s dans 1 ' es t Sequence 2, p. 14.-15. 35 I b i d . , Sequence 43, p.64. 36 I b i d . , Sequence 8, P.19: The image of Maurice i s r e f l e c t e d i n the window of a door; sequence 14, p.29: Sandra and P i e r r e t t e are seen i n the mirror behind the bar; Sequence 57, p.76: the image of an anonymous t r a n s v e s t i t e , washing g l a s s e s behind the bar at "Chez Sandra", i s r e f l e c t e d on the shinny s u r f a c e of the cash r e g i s t e r . 37 See Bazin, What 1 s Cinema J_, p. 105. 38 L' un 1 ver s de M1 che I Tremb 1 ay /_ J_L e t a i t une f o i s dans 1 ' est Sequence 12, p.28. 39 I b i d . , Sequence 52, p.70. 40 I b i d . , Sequence 32, p.48. -128-41 I b i d . , Sequence 35, p.50. 42 James Monaco, How to read a f i l m (New York: Oxford UP, 1981, 533p.), p.134 "The Icon: a s i g n i n which the s i g n i f i e r r e p r e s e n t s the s i g n i f i e d mainly by i t s s i m i l a r i t y to i t , i t l i k e n e s s . " - p.133. 43 L' uni vers de Miche 1 Tremb 1 ay /_ l_l_ e t a i t une f o i s dans 1 ' est Sequence 59, p.77. 44 I b i d . , Sequence 73, p.88. 45 See the a r t i c l e mentioned e a r l i e r i n t h i s t h e s i s : L. Mulvey, " V i s u a l P l easure and N a r r a t i v e Cinema", i n F i l m Theory  and C r i t i c i s m , p.809. 46 A male act o r i s p l a y i n g B e l i n d a : Mario Angers. See c r e d i t s . 47 L' un I ver s de MI che 1 Tremb 1 ay /_ JJ_ e t a i t une f o i s dans 1 ' e s t Sequence 90, p.96. 48 I b i d . , Sequence 90, p.100. 49 I b i d . , Sequence 94, p.103. -129-PART TWO The Fu n c t i o n of the F i l m i n the Context of the Cyc 1 e Re s o r t i n g to m a t e r i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s g u i s e , to transcend the m e d i o c r i t y of a given m i l i e u , c o n s t i t u t e s the c e n t r a l theme of Michel Tremblay's "Cycle des Be 1 1es-soeurs". Each of the c h a r a c t e r s examined p r e v i o u s l y represents a d i f f e r e n t f a c e t of the same d e s i r e to change one's l i f e by changing one's I d e n t i t y . As we have seen, i n order to achieve the passage, from stage to screen, of these d i f f e r e n t p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s of the d e s i r e to become someone e l s e , Tremb1 ay-Brassard re-model the characterio1ogica1 t r a i t s of the personae to s u i t the demands of the cinematographic u n i v e r s e . In the case of Helene/Therese, f o r instance, the e x p o s i t i o n of the persona c o n s t r u c t i o n process, which i s achieved mostly through spoken language i n the play, i s made v i s i b l e , thus f i l m i c , through the p h y s i c a l presence of the c o n s t r u c t e d c h a r a c t e r of Bec-de-Lievre. In the case of Carmen, the m a t e r i a l i t y of her d i s g u i s e being a l r e a d y adapted to the f i l m medium, i t i s at the le v e l of her mo t i v a t i o n that the transmutation process takes pl a c e . Since Carmen i s e v o l v i n g In the c e n t r i f u g a l space of the f i l m , r a t h e r than i n the enclosed locus dramaticus of the Plateau-Mont-Royal k i t c h e n , her d e s i r e of escaping i s l o g i c a l l y -130-transformed i n t o one of conquering, that i s , her a v e r s i o n to Marie-Lou (escape) becomes an a t t r a c t i o n f o r Leopold ( a c c e s s i o n -conquest). As f o r Edouard/La Duchesse, Tremb1 ay-Brassard compensate f o r the h e a v i l y t h e a t r i c a l nature of the ch a r a c t e r of the Duchesse de Langeais by b r i n g i n g out, i n the f i l m , the drama of Edouard Tremblay. As F e l l i n i , among a few others, has o f t e n proved, i t i s p o s s i b l e to cinematize s u c e s s f u l l y the grotesque magnificence of a burlesque stage c h a r a c t e r . But Andre Brassard and Michel Tremblay are not F e l l i n i , and, c o n s i d e r i n g t h e i r means, f a v o r i n g the r e a l i s m of Edouard at the expense of the t h e a t r i c a l i t y of the Duchesse i s a wise d e c i s i o n . As f o r t u n a t e a d e c i s i o n i s t h e i r c h o i ce to s i m p l i f y the c h a r a c t e r s of Les Be 11es-soeurs i n order to r e t a i n the s i g n i f i c a t i o n of the play. Exposing c l e a r l y the f o r c e s i n c o n f l i c t , and e l i m i n a t i n g the psychologism which would have muddled the p i c t u r e , Tremb1 ay-Brassard succeed i n adapting the content of the play f o r the screen. The e x e g e t i c approach u t i l i z e d i n the f i r s t three chapters of t h i s t h e s i s f o l l o wed the paradigmatic a x i s of the hermeneutica1 graph. Aimed at i d e n t i f y i n g the modes of c i n e m a t i z a t i o n used by Tremb1 ay-Brassard to extend t h e i r t h e a t r i c a l u n i v e r s e i n t o the domain of f i l m , part one focused on the v e r t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t i n g between the t h e a t r i c a l c h a r a c t e r s and t h e i r c i n e m a t i c c o u n t e r p a r t s . T h i s paradigmatic c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the c h a r a c t e r s i s e s s e n t i a l to the understanding of the f i l m f o r i t c o n s t i t u t e s the b a s i c g r i d of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the cinem a t i c product. But, as -131-c r u c i a l as i t may be, the approach used In the f i r s t s e c t i o n leaves the reader confronted with a fragmented v i s i o n of the f i l m . The purpose of the second part of t h i s work i s thus to u n i f y the v i s i o n i n t o a syntagmatic system of r e l a t i o n s h i p s , i n order to r e s o l v e the problamatic of the f u n c t i o n of the f i l m i n the context of the C y c l e . -132-CHAPTER FOUR I 1 e t a i t une f o i s dans 1'Est(1) "En regardant ll_ e t a i t une f o i s dans 1'Est on a 1'impression d ' a s s i s t e r a une agglomeration de pieces detachees. n ( 2 ) (While watching JJ_ e t a i t une f o i s . . . one has the impression that one i s w i t n e s s i n g a conglomeration of broken p i e c e s . ) This remark, made by Leo B o n n e v i l l e to Andre Brassard and Michel Tremblay i n an i n t e r v i e w reproduced i n , both, the winter 1977 issue of the magazine Sequences. and B o n n e v i l l e ' s book Le Cinema  Quebeco i s par ceux qui 1e f ont. touches on a fundamental q u e s t i o n with regard to the response of the p u b l i c to the f i l m . The j u x t a p o s i t i o n of h a l f a dozen v i r t u a l l y independent s t o r y l i n e s composes a n a r r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e which can i n c i t e the sp e c t a t o r to apprehend each anecdote as an i s o l a t e d e n t i t y whose only r e l a t i o n to the others i s one of i n c i d e n t a l time and space c o n j u n c t i o n . Adding to t h i s the f a c t that the paragon of the plays favors an approach which Is uniquely comparative, the response of most s p e c t a t o r s i s l i k e l y to be c l o s e l y a k i n to that of Leo B o n n e v i l l e , or that of Jack Kapica who c a l l s the f i l m a "choppy r e c a p i t u l a t i o n of e v e r y t h i n g (Michel Tremblay)'s done on stage". A thorough a n a l y s i s of the f i l m shows, however, that, beyond the fragmented s t o r y l i n e , there i s a global system of p a r a l l e l i s m -133-and i n t e r r e l a t i o n s which u n i f i e s the s i g n i f i c a t i v e s t r u c t u r e of the work. As Michel B e l a i r j u d i c i o u s l y p o i n t s out i n h i s long comment on the f i l m , L ' I n t r i g u e du f i l m n'est qu'une s o r t e de plan general, une c a r t e : c'est l a s t r u c t u r e d'ensemble qui s'en degage qui importe d'abord.O) (The s t o r y l i n e of the f i l m i s only a b l u e p r i n t , a map: i t i s the o v e r a l l s t r u c t u r e which emerges from i t that matters f i r s t . ) Having s u f f i c i e n t l y dwelt on the process of c i n e m a t i z a t i o n of each of the main c h a r a c t e r s , 1 intend to engage, i n t h i s s e c t i o n , i n an aggregative approach to the f i l m . It might be a p p r o p r i a t e to undertake the study of JJ_ e t a i t une f o i s dans 1'Es t by c o n s i d e r i n g , f i r s t , the b a s i c premise on which the s e m i o t i c system of the f i l m r e s t s : the Tremblayian m i l i e u . In the f i l m Tremb1 ay-Brassard re-produce the m i l i e u of Michel Tremblay's dramatic work without having to make ext e n s i v e r e f e r e n c e s to the stage p roductions. This r e - p r e s e n t a t i o n of the Tremblayian m i l i e u i s acheived through the use of a r e l a t i v e l y s e l f - c o n t a i n e d network of r e l a t i o n s h i p s , between the c h a r a c t e r s , which succeeds i n r e - c r e a t i n g the e s s e n t i a l determinants of the m i l i e u . Keeping i n mind W. Holdheim's n o t i o n of the Hermeneutic C i r c l e ( 4 ) , which presumes that to understand a work one must proceed i n terms of, both, u n i c i t y and g l o b a l i t y , i t i s obvious that one cannot expect Tremb1 ay-Brassard to e s t a b l i s h the m i l i e u i n the f i r s t shot of the motion p i c t u r e . However, the auteurs do succeed i n drawing i t s main l i n e s w i t h i n the f i r s t few scenes of the f i l m . -134-The i n t r o d u c t o r y scene i s montaged i n a way which a l r e a d y p o i n t s out to a d e f i n i t i o n of the m i l i e u i n q u e s t i o n . A number of shots of Germaine Lauzon, on her balcony, are i n t e r c a l a t e d w i t h i n the opening c r e d i t s of the f i l m . The c o n t r a s t that e x i s t s between the r e a l i s t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of Germaine's popular environment(through image and sound), and the mystic power of the musical score of the c r e d i t s , c r e a t e s a d i a l e c t i c a l o p p o s i t i o n between the banal e x i s t e n c e of the working-class housewife, on the one hand, and the realm of transcendence(5), on the other hand. It i s r e l e v a n t that, of a l l the r e a l i s t i c sounds which are heard i n the shots showing Germaine, the only one which i s prolonged i n t o the c r e d i t s i s the telephone r i n g i n g . T h i s r e f e r s to the f a c t that i t i s t h i s telephone c a l l that p r o j e c t s Germaine o u t s i d e of her d a i l y r o u t i n e i n t o the realm of transcendence. For Germaine, the telephone c a l l , announcing that she has won one m i l l i o n stamps, s i g n i f i e s an o p p o r t u n i t y to transcend her banal e x i s t a n c e through m a t e r i a l s u p e r i o r i t y . The d i a l e c t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p , thus e s t a b l i s h e d between the banal e x i s t e n c e of the c h a r a c t e r and the hope for transcendence, i s c a r r i e d on i n t o the next few sequences. Sequence 2, which shows Hosanna a r r i v i n g at her appartment, continues the movement of ascent towards transcendence i n i t i a t e d i n the previous sequence. For the past weeks, Hosanna has been preparing f o r t h i s e x t r a o r d i n a r y day: the "grand j o u r " when she w i l l perform " l a plus grande t r a n s f o r m a t i o n de 1 ' h i s t o i r e " ( p . 1 4 ) (The g r e a t e s t t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i n h i s t o r y ) . C r e a t i n g the image of E l i z a b e t h T a y l o r -135-as C l e o p a t r a i m p l i e s , f o r Hosanna, a p o s s i b i l i t y of transcendence s i m i l a r to that which the g o l d - s t a r t r a d i n g stamps represent f o r Germaine. Throughout the r e s t of the f i l m , Germaine and Hosanna w i l l keep p a r a l e l l i n g each other i n t h e i r attempt to transcend t h e i r c o n d i t i o n . It must be noted, however, that Hosanna and Germaine, while f o l l o w i n g the same course of ascent and f a l l throughout the f i l m , set up, In the f i r s t two sequences, the opposing b o r d e r l i n e s of the Tremblayian m i l i e u . That i s , at one end Fabre s t r e e t , and at the other end, the Main s t r e e t . In complete c o n t r a s t with the hopeful tone of the two f i r s t scenes, sequences 3, 4, 5 and 6 present an image of unchangeable m e d i o c r i t y . P i e r r e t t e ' s intemperance, L i s e ' s subsidence, and Helene's s e l f i s h n e s s appear as the symptomatic outcome of a s o r d i d e x i s t e n c e that o f f e r s no p o s s i b i l i t y of redemption. In such a s i t u a t i o n of d e s p a i r , the f a i n t e s t glimmer of hope begets the d e s i r e of transcendence. Hence, the re-appearance, i n sequence 7, of f a t Madame Lauzon, happier than ever, a l l ready to throw the stamp-pasting party which, she b e l i e v e s , w i l l mark the beginning of a new l i f e . Rather than exposing, In so many autonomous s e c t i o n s , the l i f e s of h a l f a dozen c h a r a c t e r s , these i n t r o d u c t o r y sequences serve to e s t a b l i s h a globa l v i s i o n of the m i l i e u represented i n the f i l m . Hosanna's great t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , whose completion r e s t s on f a l s e n a i l s bought at the five-and-dime s t o r e ( p . 1 5 ) , takes i t s s i g n i f i c a t i o n only i n r e l a t i o n to the c o n d i t i o n of Helene, L i s e -136-and P i e r r e t t e . The Tremblayian m i l i e u i s c o n s t r u c t e d , i n the f i r s t few minutes of the f i l m , on the grounds of a d i a l e c t i c o p p o s i t i o n between the c o n d i t i o n of m e d i o c r i t y of the c h a r a c t e r s , and the nature of the means devised to transcend t h i s c o n d i t i o n . Another device used by Tremb1 ay-Brassard to s p e c i f y the m i l i e u i s the absence, i n the a u d i o - v i s u a l s i g n system, of the o r i g i n a l statement which f i x a t e s the d e s i r e of transcendence on a d e f i n i t e o b j e c t . The a c t u a l announcement of Germaine's winning, for i n stance, i s not heard. What i s heard and seen i s Germaine's r e a c t i o n to i t . In the same way, Sandra's annoucement of the theme of her annual pa r t y i s e x t r a - d i e g e t i c ( p . 7 7 ) . It i s only i t s e f f e c t on Hosanna which i s p e r c e i v e d . S i m i l a r l y , when H61ene c a l l s her mother to t e l l her that the Duchesse de Langeais i s coming back from Mexico, the i n f o r m a t i o n , which b r i n g s to Robertine her only moment of joy i n the f i l m , i s never e x p l i c i t l y t r a n s m i t t e d to her. Sequence 27: ( . . . ) -Helene: Moman, moe a u s s i , j ' a i une p ' t i t e n o u v e l l e a t'annoncer... Sequence 28: -Robertine: (apres un long s i l e n c e ) Edouard r e v i e n t du Mex i que. . . (p.42) (Helene: Mom, I got hews f o r you too.. Robertine: ( a f t e r a long s i l e n c e ) Edouard i s coming back from Mex i co . . . ) This c o n s i s t e n t procedure gives the impression of a c l o s e d c i r c u i t i n which communication i s never f u l l y e s t a b l i s h e d . The message does not only belong to the r e c e i v e r , i t i s , a l s o , cut o f f from -137-the world of the em i t t e r . The s i n g l e most e f f e c t i v e example of the c a s t r a t e d mode of communication which the c h a r a c t e r s are a f f l i c t e d with i s found i n sequence 24. In t h i s scene, we f i n d L i s e i n a small o f f i c e , f a c i n g a man s i t t i n g at a desk. As we soon le a r n , she i s i n a f i n a n c i a l i n s i t i t u t i o n , a p p l y i n g f o r a loan. In the 90 seconds that the sequence l a s t s , the man r e s p o n s i b l e of her case remains s i l e n t . The irony a r i s e s as L i s e , i n the middle of her monologue, t e l l s the man " P i s j ' s a i s pas pourquoi vous me posez toutes ces q u e s t i o n s - l a . " (p.39) (I don't know why you're asking me a l l these questions.) The man has not asked and w i l l not ask any qu e s t i o n . The s i l e n c e of the man, and L i s e ' s s e r v i l e a t t i t u d e s i g n i f y the unbridgeable gap that separates the young woman from the s o l u t i o n to her problem. The f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n does not turn down her a p p l i c a t i o n ; she turns i t down h e r s e l f . Through the d e l i b e r a t e e x p o s i t i o n of a lack of a u t h e n t i c communication Tremb1 ay-Brassard emphasize the s t a t e of a l i e n a t i o n of the c h a r a c t e r s i n t h e i r m i l i e u . Though the message may seem to be g e t t i n g a c c r o s s , a break occurs between the subj e c t and the statement(verba 1 or gestual) of the Other, leading the subj e c t to m i s i n t e r p r e t the data. T h i s h i a t u s between the s u b j e c t - r e c e i v e r and the o b j e c t - e m i t t e r r e f e r s to a l a r g e r c o n d i t i o n of i s o l a t i o n from the o b j e c t i v e world. Thus the d e f i n i t i o n of the Tremblayian m i l i e u i s achieved through a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the s t a t e of a l i e n a t i o n which c h a r a c t e r i z e s the personages i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n to -138-the m i l i e u and the world i n general. F i n a l l y , Tremb1 ay-Brassard use j u x t a p o s i t i o n s of the concepts of i n t e r i o r and e x t e r i o r to c o n s t r u c t the m i l i e u . Introduced at the very beginning of the f i l m , as Germaine entered her apartment to answer the telephone, the concept of i n t e r i o r i s of primary importance i n the case of both Germaine and Hosanna. Germaine's attempt to transcend her m i l i e u i s i n t i m a t e l y r e l a t e d to the i n t e r i o r of her house. Germaine: Oui! oui!...j'm'en vas j ' t e r toute c'qu'y a dans' maison, j'garde r i e n , p i s j'vas toute remplacer par du neu'... (p.70) (Yes...I'm going to throw away e v e r y t h i n g i n the house, I keep nothing, and I'm going to r e p l a c e e v e r y t h i n g with new s t u f f ! ) Germaine's movement towards the e x t e r i o r , at the end of sequence 1, has the s o l e purpose of a t t r a c t i n g her s i s t e r Rose i n s i d e her t e r r i t o r y (the kitchen) to make her her s l a v e (see chapter one). I n t e r i o r i s a l s o e s s e n t i a l i n the case of Hosanna. As long as she remains surrounded by her m i r r o r s ( s e e s e c t i o n of Hosanna) and her b o t t l e s of perfume, Hosanna can a f f o r d to imagine her "Entrance i n Rome". But the moment she leaves her i n t e r i o r , and enters another t e r r i o r y -- "chez Sandra" --, the c o l l a p s e i s i n i a t e d . Sequence 3, at "chez N i c k ' s " performs the replacement of the p r o t e c t i v e i n t e r i o r , which seems to support the ascent towards transcendence, by the t h r e a t e n i n g e x t e r i o r . The zoom-out, from the close-up of L i s e ' s hands to the middle shot of the two w a i t r e s s e s , -139-c a t a p u l t s the n a r r a t i v e space o u t s i d e of Hosanna's bachelor s u i t e , i n t o the openess of the p u b l i c p l a c e . E x t e r i o r i s e x p l i c i t l y achieved i n sequence 4, as P i e r r e t t e i s seen on Lagauchetiere s t r e e t , near a l i q u o r s t o r e ( P . 1 6 ) . It must be pointed out that P i e r r e t t e i s not only l i t e r a l l y on the s t r e e t , but was thrown out on the s t r e e t by Johnny: "J'me sus f a i t e mettfefe a porte par mon chum. . .Du club, p i s de sa v i e . . . " (p.32) (I was f i r e d / k i c k e d out by my boy f r i e n d . . . o f the club, and of h i s l i f e ) . R e c a l l i n g Anne U b e r s f e l d ' s parable of the king who i s king i n h i s t e r r i t o r y but who ceases to be king In another t e r r i t o r y ( 6 ) , the s i g n i f i c a t i o n of the i n t e r i o r - e x t e r i o r d u a l i t y i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the m i l i e u becomes c l e a r e r . P i e r r e t t e , kicked out of her b o y f r i e n d ' s l i f e , and L i s e and Helene, a l i a n a t e d i n t h e i r c o n d i t i o n as working-class women, are p h y s i c a l l y and n a r r a t i v e l y o u t s i d e of t h e i r t e r r i t o r y . I n s p i t e of Helene's c l a i m " C ' t ' i c i t t e , c ' t ' i c i t t e " (p.79) ( I t ' s here, i t ' s here), r e f e r i n g to her belonging to the Main, none of these three c h a r a c t e r s w i l l ever t r u l y enter t h e i r t e r r i t o r y . P i e r r e t t e , and Helene f i n d themselves o u t s i d e at the end of the f i l m . And i t i s i n v a i n that Linda t e l l s L i s e "Va-t'en pas..." (p.107) (Don't go). The c i n e m a t i c Tremblayian m i l i e u i s thus c o n s t r u c t e d , i n the f i r s t few sequences of the f i l m , on a t r i p a r t i t e system of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n : F i r s t : i t i s represented through a d i a l e c t i c a l o p p o s i t i o n between the c o n d i t i o n of the c h a r a c t e r s and the nature of the means conceived to transcend t h i s c o n d i t i o n . The t h e t i c s i t u a t i o n of -140-Helene, f o r instance, as h o s t i l e w a i t r e s s i n a t h i r d r a t e r e s t a u r a n t , opposed to the a n t i t h e t i c a l means apprehended by Germaine to transcend t h i s c o n d i t i o n , that i s , the m a t e r i a l s u p e r i o r i t y brought by trading-stamps, leads to the s y n t h e t i c a l d e f i t i o n of the m i l i e u . That i s , a m i l i e u which i s c l o s e d on i t s e l f , f o r the means which are apprehended by i t s i n h a b i t a n t s to escape i t , are modeled on the very m e d i o c r i t y which they should transcend. Second: i t i s represented through a c o n s i s t e n t h i a t u s i n the c o n t i n u i t y of the communication process. The absence, i n the a u d i o - v i s u a l s i g n system, of the o r i g i n a l statement which f i x a t e s the d e s i r e of transcendence on a d e f i n i t e o b j e c t , puts the emphasis on the r e c e i v i n g end of the exchange. In a l l cases i n which the h i a t u s occurs, the d i s p l a c e d meaning r e v e a l s i t s e l f to be a m i s - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the o r i g i n a l message. The a l i e n a t i o n of the s u b j e c t s from the o b j e c t i v e world (the a c t u a l value or meaning of the message) c r e a t e s a c l o s e d c i r c u i t m i l i e u which i s a l i e n a t e d from the e x t e r i o r (Germaine and the trading-stamp company) because a l i e n a t e d from i n s i d e (Hosanna and Sandra; Robertine and Helene; Carmen and Sandra (p.73,97); Manon and Carmen(p.43); and more e x p l i c i t l y the Duchesse and Hosanna (p.84,90)). T h i r d : i t i s represented through a dichotomy between i n t e r i o r and e x t e r i o r . The syntagmatic o r g a n i s a t i o n of the f i l m e s t a b l i s h e s a c o n d i t i o n of a l i e n a n t i o n , w i t h i n the m i l i e u , which i s due to a process of e x p u l s i o n from the i n s i d e ; P i e r r e t t e , kicked out of the club, f i n d s h e r s e l f on the s t r e e t ; Helene " c a l i c e e dehors" (p.55) (throuwn out) by Maurice years ago, f i n d s h e r s e l f at "Chez N i c k ' s " -141-( i d e n t i f i e d syntagmaticaI 1y as a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of e x t e r i o r ) ; La Duchesse who only j u s t r e t u r n i n g to the Main, i s e v i c t e d from "Chez Sandra" (p.81,83). The i r o n y of t h i s dichotomy i s that, while e x t e r i o r i s understood as a s i g n i f i e r of a l i e n a t i o n from the m i l i e u , the I n t e r i o r r epresents an even greater a l i e n a t i o n : i t i s understood as a support f o r the d e s i r e of transcendance, but i n t r u t h , i t only i s o l a t e s the s u b j e c t from r e a l i t y . Once the premise of the Tremblayian m i l i e u i s d e l i m i t e d , the f i l m can be i n t e r p r e t e d In terms of the f u n c t i o n and e v o l u t i o n of the c h a r a c t e r s i n t h i s m i l i e u . Two personages present themselves at the opposing ends of the c h a r a c t e r i o 1 o g i c a 1 spectrum: Carmen, and L i s e . In the next few paragraphs, I w i l l c oncentrate on d e f i n i n g , through a study of the d i a l e c t i c a l f u n c t i o n of Carmen and L i s e , the b o r d e r l i n e s of the spectrum of the c h a r a c t e r s ' s c o n d i t i o n i n the m i l i e u . The reader w i l l allow me to introduce Carmen through an intermediary c h a r a c t e r : Maurice, the "king of the Main". As mentioned i n chapter three, Carmen, who appears f o r the f i r s t time i n sequence 9(p.20), has a r e l a t i o n s h i p with Maurice; a r e l a t i o n s h i p which i s based on daughter to f a t h e r i n t e r a c t i o n s . But Maurice does not represent the unshakeable f a t h e r f i g u r e . F i r s t , he has but a f a l t e r i n g a u t h o r i t y on the other c h a r a c t e r s : "Depuis a matin que j ' s u i s oubli^er de p l i e r devant tout le monde" (p.55) (Since morning, I have to y i e l d to everyone). Second, the scope of h i s r o l e , as the king of the Main, i s q u e s t i o n a b l e . -142-"Intermede blanc l " ( p . 5 9 ) , f o r i n s t a n c e , appears as a t a b l e a u r e p r e s e n t i n g the p e t t i n e s s of Maurice and h i s kingdom. Through the sequence, h i s a t t i t u d e i s that of a c h i l d : he threatens not to go along i f Helene j o i n s him, Sandra, P i e r r e t t e and the others i n t h e i r t r i p to the l a k e ( s h o t 2); he sulks on the way to the l a k e ( s h o t 3); and he has a f i t of j e a l o u s y when he sees h i s protege with P i e r r e t t e . F i n a l l y , h i s heterosexua1ity, which in the m i l i e u sets him up as the only r e a l male of the pack, i s a l s o u n c e r t a i n . Sequence 53(p.71), i n which he passes judgment on the homosexual crowd of "Chez Sandra", ends with an ambiguous gesture on h i s part, as he t e n d e r l y puts h i s hand on h i s protege's shoulder. Already i n "intermede blanc 1", h i s j e a l o u s behaviour towards the young man l e f t the impression that there i s more between him and "Le p ' t i t " than a f a t h e r and son r e l a t i o n s h i p . The e x p r e s s i o n , on the young man's face, at the end of sequence 53, c o r r o b o r a t e s t h i s impression. These and other i n s t a n c e s , show the p h a l l i c shortcomings of Maurice. As we have seen, Carmen must compensate for Maurice's p h a l l i c weaknesses. This ambiguous r e l a t i o n s h i p shapes the f u n c t i o n of Carmen, i n the f i l m , as the missing pha11 us. As proposed i n the s e c t i o n on A to i . pour tou j o u r s . ta  Mar ie-Lou Carmen takes upon h e r s e l f to become the missing p h a l l u s of Leopold (and e v e n t u a l l y of Maurice). Her f u n c t i o n as the p h a l l u s i s expressed in the s t r u c t u r e of the f i l m through her d e s i r e to conquer a new t e r r i t o r y . But her f u n c t i o n i s s i g n i f i e d , v i s u a l y and a u d i t o r i l y , as soon as she appears on screen i n -143-sequence 9. Erec t e d i n center stage, not fragmented by the camera ( u n l i k e the c l a s s i c c i n e m a t i c p r e s e n t a t i o n of the female body), her "presence" i s r e a d i l y p e r c e i v a b l e . The f l a b b i n e s s of the musicians aggravates her. She needs energy, movement, and place. She takes c o n t r o l of the s i t u a t i o n , and of the space; she moves back and f o r t h on stage and f i l l s the space with her vo i c e . As suggested i n chapter three, she plays Maurice's game i n order to c o n s t r u c t , f o r h e r s e l f , an o b j e c t father-image to set her f i x a t i o n on. But i f any c h a r a c t e r , i n the f i l m , does symbolize the generative power i n nature, i t i s Carmen. If Carmen emerges as the potent and ag g r e s s i v e c h a r a c t e r of the f i l m , other c h a r a c t e r s are q u a l i f i e d by t h e i r p a s s i v i t y and lack. The c h a r a c t e r of L i s e Paquette emerges as the c e n t r a l "feminine" f i g u r e of the f i l m : she i s c a s t r a t e d and l a c k i n g . While the hope of transcendence f o r Germaine and Hosanna i s t r i g g e r e d by the p o s s i b i l i t y of an a d d i t i o n i n t h e i r l i v e s , L i s e ' s c o n d i t i o n c o n s t i t u t e s a r e g r e s s i o n . Pregnant and unmarried(p.16), she f a l l s below the l e v e l above which the former are t r y i n g to e l e v a t e themselves. L i s e ' s r o l e as the "woman", i s s i g n i f i e d cinematica11y through her g u i l t and s i c k n e s s . C l a s s i c cinema, among other a c t i v i t i e s , has developed a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of woman as g u i l t y and/or s i c k . The si c k n e s s of woman has formed the n a r r a t i v e centre of a l i m i t l e s s number of american f i l m s ranging from melodramas a la Love Story to t h r i l l e r s i n the vei n of Fata 1 A t t r a c t i on. As f o r the g u i l t of woman, sev e r a l f i l m n o i r s and H i t c h c o c k i a n f i l m s such as To_ catc h a T h i e f or V e r t i g o , revolve e n t i r e l y around i t s -144-e x p o s i t i o n . In keeping with t h i s t r a d i t i o n Tremb1 ay-Brassard present L i s e as, both, s i c k (Helene s t i g m a t i z e s pregnancy as a "ma 1 a d i e " ( s i c k n e s s ) i n sequence 5, page 17), and g u i l t y (Linda c a l l s a b o r t i o n "un meurtre" (a murder) i n sequence 54, page 72); hence, the complete imaging of L i s e as the "woman". L i s e ' s development i s r e l a t e d to that Carmen's i n a reversed f u n c t i o n : they are each other's a n t i t h e s i s . While Carmen's venture i s uniq u e l y outwards, L i s e s t r u g g l e i s i n t e r n a l . Carmen's c o n f l i c t , r e v o l v i n g around her s p e c i a l appearance at "Chez Sandra", has, as i t s c o u n t erpart, L i s e ' s dilemma over the a b o r t i o n p r o j e c t . The former's d e s i r e i s to extend her t e r r i t o r y , the l a t t e r ' s i s to o b l i t e r a t e a part of h e r s e l f . T h e i r r e s p e c t i v e ends are, as w e l l , d i a m e t r i c a l l y opposed: Carmen i s the only c h a r a c t e r to catch a glimpse of transcendence; L i s e i s the only c h a r a c t e r to d i e because of the m e d i o c r i t y of her m i l i e u . In a way s i m i l a r to Hosanna and Germaine, who d e l i m i t a t e the s i t u a t i o n of the c h a r a c t e r s i n the m i l i e u , Carmen and L i s e c o n s t i t u t e the two poles of the c o n d i t i o n of the c h a r a c t e r s i n the m i l i e u . Hence between Germaine, watching her s l a v e s b u i l d i n g up her trading-stamp c a s t l e on rue Fabre, and Hosanna, who, by p u t t i n g on make-up, wants to turn Main s t r e e t i n t o a papier-mache Rome; and between Carmen, who i s s o l i d l y implanted on stage, f i x e d i n her d e s i r e to give a "bon show" (p.21), and L i s e , who i s c o n s t a n t l y changing her mind, who eats chips when she takes refuge near Linda (p.72), and smokes a c i g a r e t t e when she looks up to P i e r r e t t e (p.87), between a l l of t h i s , the other main c h a r a c t e r s -145-search a place i n the s t r u c t u r e . The numerous comings and goings of the c h a r a c t e r s i n the s t r u c t u r e renders very complex a d e t a i l e d c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the f u n c t i o n of each of them. F o r t u n a t e l y , TrembI ay-Brassard provide the s p e c t a t o r with one c h a r a c t e r who emerges as a model of the e v o l u t i o n of the o t h e r s . M a r t i n Knelman w r i t e s i n h i s review of the f i l m , which he c o n s i d e r s as " s u r e l y one of the most a s t o n i s h i n g f a i l u r e s ever produced i n Canada", that "the o u t s t a n d i n g l y funny c h a r a c t e r i n the movie (La Duchesse de Langeais) b a r e l y r e l a t e s to any of t h i s . " ( 7 ) . T h i s erroneous comment i s , d o u b t l e s s l y , based on the f a c t that the Duchesse i s introduced l a t e i n the f i l m , and has l i t t l e a c t u a l i n t e r r a c t i o n with most of the other c h a r a c t e r s . However, i n h i s / h e r short appearance on screen Edouard/La Duchesse, by c o v e r i n g a l l the t e r r i t o r y d e l i m i t e d by Germaine and Hosanna, and by going through a l l the important phases of the Carmen-Lise spectrum of c h a r a t e r s , serves as a guide through t h i s menagerie of personages. By sequence 30, as Manon i s seen e v i c t i n g Carmen from her t e r r i t o r y of "monde propre"(p.43) (c l e a n people), a l l the main c h a r a c t e r s have been introduced to the s p e c t a t o r , and t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l s t r u g g l e has been exposed. A p p r o p r i a t e l y enough, i t i s at t h i s p o i n t that Tremb1 ay-Brassard decide to c l a r i f y the p i c t u r e by p r e s e n t i n g the e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r of the Duchesse. As suggested i n chapter two, i n order to cinematize the c h a r a c t e r , Tremb1 ay-Brassard choose to go through a process of debunking of -146-the t h e a t r i c a l Duchesse, to r e v e a l , beneath the make-up, poor o l d Edouard. In sequence 31, as the debunking progresses, through the use of u n v e i l i n g devices such as the photograph of the " A r g e n t i n argente" which i s e x p l i c i t l y i d e n t i f i e d as a t r e a c h e r y (p.44), the audience can understand the c h a r a c t e r of Edouard. But an a t t e n t i v e s p e c t a t o r can a l s o extend h i s / h e r understanding of t h i s c h a r a c t e r to a number of other c h a r a c t e r s . The most obvious l i n k i s d o u b t l e s s l y between the Duchesse and Hosanna. The r e l a t i o n s h i p i s coveyed through the j u x t a p o s i t i o n of the shot of the Duchesse, t e n d e r l y r e f e r i n g to Hosanna as "Ma p ' t i t e f i l l e Hosanna" (p.47) (My l i t t l e g i r l Hosanna), and the f o l l o w i n g shot of Hosanna looking at h e r s e l f i n the m i r r o r . Here, the Eisensteinian-montage c l a s h occurs between the mental image induced by the words "ma p e t i t e f i l l e Hosanna" and the v i s u a l image of Claude Lemieux. Skinny, bald, and, a l l together, not very a t t r a t i v e , Hosanna/C1aude has nothing of the Duchesse's " p e t i t e f i l l e Hosanna". The p r o l o n g a t i o n , i n sequence 32, of the music which serves as the background f o r the l a s t segment of the Duchesse's f i r s t scene, s i t u a t e s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two c h a r a c t e r s at the l e v e l of t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of themselves and t h e i r entourage. As the Duchesse enumerates to the i n d i f f e r e n t couple the names of the drag queens who w i l l be w a i t i n g f o r her at the a i r p o r t , the zoom-in on the Duchesse, the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Claude Gai, and mostly, the music express both the s i n c e r i t y of the Duchesse, and the i l l u s i o n of Edouard. No one doubts, that the Duchesse/Edouard b e l i e v e s that her f r i e n d s w i l l be there. But no -147-one doubts e i t h e r that none of them w i l l have bothered to come. Cont i n u i n g the musical theme to q u a l i f y Hosanna's scene, which ends with n S i j ' t e manque ma C1eopatre...j'manque toute!"(p.48), cannot f a i l to t r a n s l a t e the f a l l a c y of Hosanna. As i n the case of the Duchesse, we p e r c e i v e both the s i n c e r i t y of the c h a r a c t e r , and h i s a l i e n a t i o n from the o b j e c t i v e world. Confronted with the image of Claude, who could never look l i k e C l e o p a t r a or E l i z a b e t h T a y l o r the s p e c t a t o r r e a l i z e s that Hosanna's venture i s bound to abort --perhaps even whishes that i t w i l l , so that Claude w i l l f r e e himself from the t r a p of Hosanna. The resemblance, between the Duchesse and her " p e t i t e f i l l e " , i s emphasized by the s i m i l a r i t y of the passages i n which they a n t i c i p a t e the r e a c t i o n of the other drag queens as they both make t h e i r "Entrance". Although Hosanna th i n k s i n terms of f a s c i n a t i o n ( p . 7 7 ) rather than worship, l i k e the Duchesse, both are convinced that they are the centre of i n t e r e s t of the people on the Main. In both cases, the t r u t h r e v e a l s to be q u i t e d i f f e r e n t . Although Hosanna i s the c e n t r e of a t t e n t i o n of the drag queen party, as soon as she leaves " l e s p e c t a c l e continue"(p.103) (the show goes on) as i f nothing had happened. Pushed a l i t t l e f u r t h e r , the f u n c t i o n of double of the Duchesse can be a p p l i e d to Germaine, as her f e e l i n g of power leads her to say "J'm'en va toutes vous ecraser comme des coquere11es"(p.93). Again, the i l l u s i o n of importance i s soon broken by r e a l i t y . The l i n k between the Duchesse and the other main c h a r a c t e r s -148-i s c e r t a i n l y not as s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d as that which l i n k s the o l d man to Hosanna. But i t e x i s t s n e v e r t h e l e s s . As noted above, the end of sequence 31 serves to debunk the c o n s t r u c t e d u n i v e r s e of the c h a r a c t e r . Although the content of t h i s scene does not r e f e r to P i e r r e t t e , Helene, or Carmen, i t i s s t i l l through i t that the s p e c t a t o r can understand the s i g n i f i c a t i o n of sequence 21(p.34) -the "intermede n o i r " . Sequence 31 i s the f i r s t scene that b r i n g s i n t o the open the i l l u s o r y world of a c h a r a c t e r . As one evaluates sequence 21, i n hermeneutica1 r e l a t i o n s h i p with sequence 31, c o n s i d e r i n g the composition of the shots, the background music, and the l o c a t i o n , one f i n d s s i m i l i t u d e s between the two scenes and can i n f e r a meaning from the corresponding elements of sequence 31. The f a c t that sequence 31 takes place i n a plane, f l y i n g somewhere over the North American s o i l , thus echoing the n o t i o n of " a i l l e u r s " (elsewhere) of sequence 21; the emphasis put on the use of close-ups as s i g n i f i e r of i n t r o s p e c t i o n i n both sequences; the s i m i l a r i t y of tone of the background music; a l l these c o r r e l a t i o n s i n v i t e the s p e c t a t o r to a s s o c i a t e the sequences at the l e v e l of t h e i r purpose, that i s , to expose the c o n s t r u c t e d i d e n t i t y and the i l l u s o r y u n i v e r s e of the c h a r a c t e r s . This hypothesis i s s t r o n g l y supported by P i e r r e t t e ' s l a s t l i n e of the sequence: "Johnny y va r'venir"(p.36) (Johnny w i l l come back). Already pointed out i n chapter one, t h i s l i n e expresses c l e a r l y that P i e r r e t t e feeds on i l l u s i o n s . In a s i m i l a r way, Carmen's comments on her f a t h e r confirm the p r o p o s i t i o n that t h i s sequence, l i k e sequence 31, serves to expose the u n i v e r s e of -149-i l l u s i o n of the c h a r a c t e r s . Although Carmen acknowledges her f a t h e r ' s o r d i n a r i n e s s (Ah.y'avait r i e n d ' e x t r a o r d i n a i r e ) , she gets caught i n the game of i l l u s i o n s . She transforms Leopold's o r d i n a r i n e s s i n t o martyrdom: "saviez-vous que ma mere p i s ma soeur ont tue mon pere?" ( d i d you know that my mother and my s i s t e r k i l l e d my f a t h e r ? ) . Her l i n e s betray her d e s i r e to c o n s t r u c t the image of her f a t h e r as a h e r o i c f i g u r e . Indeed, as she answers P i e r r e t t e ' s q u e s t i o n "As-tu un char Carmen"(p.36) (Do you have a c a r ? ) , by saying " T ' a u r a i s pas le guts" (You wouldn't dare), she i m p l i e s that Leopold, by k i l l i n g himself, performed a gesture which r e q u i r e s e x t r a o d i n a r y courage - a courage that P i e r r e t t e does not have. In the case of Helene, the e x p o s i t i o n of her c o n s t r u c t e d u n i v e r s e occurs i n two phases. The present scene int r o d u c e s the world of Claude: "Y'a r i e n qu'un homme que j ' a i aime dans toute ma v i e . Rien qu'un. C'est mon f r e r e . Mon f r e r e C1aude."(p.34) (there i s only one man I've ever loved i n my l i f e . Only one. My b r o t h e r . My brother Claude). For the i n i t i a t e , t h i s statement i s a c l e a r r e f e r e n c e to Helene's i l l u s o r y u n i v e r s e . For the s p e c t a t o r who i s not f a m i l i a r with the play En pieces detachees the e x p o s i t i o n of Helene's c o n s t r u c t e d world takes place i n sequence 55(p.74), as Helene a r r i v e s at "Chez Sandra" dressed-up in her white gown. The s i g n i f i c a t i o n of t h i s scene has a l r e a d y been d i s c u s s e d i n chapter two. What should be added here i s that, the s i g n i f i c a t i o n of the white dress as an o b j e c t endowed with an i l l u s o r y value, i s exposed to the audience through the r e l a t i o n s h i p that i s -150-e s t a b l i s h e d with the world of i l l u s i o n of the Duchesse. The musical theme, which accompanies the debunking of Edouard's c o n s t r u c t e d persona, and which i s used, throughout the f i l m , only with c h a r a c t e r s who use a d i s g u i s e (Hosanna; Bec-de-Lievre and Sandra(s.33, p.48)), i s used again i n sequence 55, and i s e x p l i c i t l y attached to Helene. It becomes c l e a r that Helene, l i k e Hosanna f o r that matter, wears a d i s g u i s e to impose her presence on the Main. I r o n i c a l l y , i t i s Helene's "Entrance", more than Hosanna's, which c r e a t e s the s e n s a t i o n (s.60, p.79). By a t t a c h i n g a s p e c i f i c s i g n system to the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of Edouard/La Duchesse, and by using t h i s code c o n s i s t e n t l y with other c h a r a c t e r s , Tremb1 ay-Brassard succeed i n g i v i n g a meaning to the c h a r a c t e r s without having to r e l y e x t e n s i v e l y on the s e m i o t i c system of the p l a y s . Tremb1 ay-Brassard do not only use Edouard/La Duchesse i n the world of the Main. The c h a r a c t e r serves as well to s p e c i f y the i d e n t i t y of some c h a r a t e r s on Fabre s t r e e t . The c h a r a c t e r of Robertine f o r instance, i s g r e a t l y d e f i n e d by her r e l a t i o n s h i p with her brother Edouard(see chapter two). But, the most e f f e c t i v e use of Edouard/La Duchesse, i n the t e r r i t o r y of Fabre s t r e e t , i s not as much in d e f i n i n g c h a r a c t e r s as i n d e f i n i n g the m i l i e u . The e n e r g e t i c , humourous o l d queer which we see i n the plane, appears i n Robertine's house as a d i s c r e e t and v u l n e r a b l e man. The c h a r a c t e r who proudly d e c l a r e d hours before "Vous saurez qu'on n'ose jamais r i e n repondre a l a duchesse de Langeais!"(p.44) (I w i l l have you know that no one ever t a l k s back to the Duchesse de L a n g e a i s ! ) , remains speechless before Henri as he t e l l s Helene -151-that the Duchesse "va s a c r e r son camp demain matin" (p.63) ( w i l l get the h e l l out of here tomorrow morning). It i s Robertine who has to defend him. Back i n the "meme maudit t r o u " (s.37,p.53) (same goddanm whole), Edouard i s taken over and harnessed by the m i l i e u . These images of the Duchesse, reduced to s i l e n c e w i t h i n a couple of hours of having returned to Fabre s t r e e t , d e s c r i b e , perhaps more e f f e c t i v e l y than any other scene, the e f f e c t of the m i l i e u on i t s i n h a b i t a n t s . Part of her quietness might be r e l a t e d to the decep t i o n which she experienced at the a i r p o r t . But s i n c e a s i m i l a r e f f e c t i s n o t i c e a b l e i n Helene, who simply blends i n with the others around the di n e r t a b l e (s.46,p.67), i t appears that no c h a r a c t e r , no matter how l i v e l y and strong can escape the lobotomy performed by Fabre s t r e e t on i t s i n h a b i t a n t s . Escaping Fabre s t r e e t f o r the Main might appear as a p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n , but, as we le a r n through the Duchesse, such a venture only performs the displacement of the problem, from one s t r e e t to the other, not i t s r e s o l u t i o n . I n s p i t e of the b a t r a y a l of her drag queen f r i e n d s , who d i d not show up at the a i r p o r t , the Duchesse, r e t u r n s to the Main. But the movement from Fabre s t r e e t to the Main only leads to more deception.(s.63, p.80-82) As she f i n d s out that Sandra i s pre p a r i n g to at t a c k her " p e t i t e f i l l e Hosanna", she stands up to defend her. It i s r e l e v e n t that, as the Duchesse s t a r t s a g g r a v a t i n g Sandra, the l a t t e r adresses the former d i r e c t l y as Edouard Tremblay. The p h y s i c a l passage from Fabre s t r e e t to the Main s t r e e t operated no genuine changes on Edouard and he r e a l i z e s i t . As he i s t o l d that no one even remembers the Duchesse, Edouard -152-does not defend h i m s e l f . He defends Hosanna. He e x p l a i n s h i s p r o t e c t i v e a t t i t u d e towards Hosanna i n these terms: La Duchesse: Hosanna va p e u t - i t r e f i n i r par a v o i r d ' l a c l a s s e un jour c'est pour ca que je m'en occupe...Tandis que nous autres...(p.81) (Hosanna might end up having some c l a s s , one day...That's why I take care of her...While us...) It i s through Hosanna that he wishes to perform the escape which he never r e a l i z e d h i m s e l f . It i s as he sees that the a t t a c k on Hosanna i s not only the work of Sandra and a few a c o l y t e s but of a l l of the Main, that he r e a l i z e s that h i s f a i l u r e on the Main i s not due to an i n d i v i d u a l but to the m i l i e u i t s e l f . La Duchesse: Ah Ben! S i toute l a Main s'est mis contre Hosanna, moe, moe t u - s e u l e , J'vas me mettre contre l a Main, Okay! (p.82) (Well. If the whole Main sets i t s e l f a g a i n s t Hosanna, I, by myself, w i l l set myself a g a i n s t the Main) It i s i n t h i s sentence that the f i l m reaches i t s climax, and takes i t s meaning. As before, the Duchesse leads the way to the other c h a r a c t e r s . Minutes l a t e r , as she r e a l i z e s i n turn the ignominy, Helene gets on stage and paraphrases the Duchesse. Helene: P i s moe qui v o u l a i s r ' v e n i r i c i t t e , h o s t i e ! Ben fourrez-vous-1 a dans l ' c u l votre c i l i c e de Main, s i c'est ca qu'est d'venue! Moe a m'interesse pus!(s.92, p.101) (And to think that I wanted to come back here on the Main. Well, you can s t i c k the Main up your ass! If that i s what the Main has become, i t doesn't i n t e r e s t me anymore.) P a r a l l e l i n g the condemnation of the M i l i e u of the Main by the Duchesse and Helene, P i e r r e t t e , as she witnesses the outrageous way i n which s i s t e r s can destroy each other, engages i n an outspoken r e p u d i a t i o n of Fabre s t r e e t . -153-P i e r r e t t e : C't'a mon tour de te r e n i e r ! C't'a mon tour de r e n t e r toute l a rue! Toute l a c i b o i r e de rue. (S.93, p.102) ( I t s my turn to r e j e c t you. I t ' s my turn to r e j e c t the whole s t r e e t . The whole f u c k i n g s t r e e t ! ) In more i m p l i c i t ways Hosanna and Germaine as well r e j e c t t h e i r m i l i e u . As Germaine t e l l s P i e r r e t t e "Vas t'en-toe, va t'en, tes p a r e i l l e come les a u t r e s . " ( l i n e not reproduced in the text.) (Go away, go away, you're j u s t l i k e the o t h e r s . ) , i t i s not as much P i e r r e t t e , as a l l of her s i s t e r s and " S i s t e r s - i n - l a w " that she i s r e j e c t i n g . In a s i m i l a r way, as Hosanna, s i t t i n g i n a t a x i , goes through the l i s t of t o r t u r e s which she w i l l i n f l i c t on a l l the " b i t c h e s " , the t h r e a t s of "crever les yeux...arracher les dents ...bru1er les perruques . .."(s.94, p.103) (gouge out the eyes, p u l l out the teeth, burn the wigs), are not aimed as much towards Sandra, or Bambi, or Candy Baby, as towards the Main i t s e l f ; for i t was i n the name of a l l of Main s t r e e t that Sandra s a l u t e d Hosanna: " l a Main te Salue, Hosanna!" (s.90, p.100). Thus the two s t r e e t s which form the Tremblayian m i l i e u are r e j e c t e d by some of t h e i r most prominent d w e l l e r s . P i e r r e t t e , Helene, Germaine, Hosanna, the Duchesse, a l l these "women", l a c k i n g , c a s t r a t e d , t r i e d to f i l l the gap with the d i s g u i s e s that t h e i r m i l i e u o f f e r e d them. But at the end of the f i l m , they r e a l i z e the inadequacy of t h e i r d e v i c e s , and the hopelessness of t h e i r attempts. By r e j e c t i n g the m i l i e u which they thought would provide the means to transcend t h e i r c o n d i t i o n , but which revealed i t s e l f to feed on t h e i r very misery, P i e r r e t t e , Helene and the -154-others reach a l e v e l of consciousness, which may allow them, at l a s t , to open up to something new. To borrow the words of Kaja Silverman, which she uses i n q u i t e a d i f f e r e n t context, the "women" reach a l e v e l at which they " p r e f e r c a s t r a t i o n to f a l s e p1eni tude."(8). Of the main personages of the f i l m , only the two a n t i t h e t i c c h a r a c t e r s do not r e j e c t t h e i r m i l i e u . Indulging i n her f a l s e p l e n i t u d e , s a t i s f i e d i n her r o l e as the p h a l l u s , Carmen manages to transcend, even though s l i g h t l y , the p e t t i n e s s of her m i l i e u . U n l i k e the other c h a r a c t e r s , except f o r Sandra who, i n terms of " c r i t i c a l Darwinism", could serve as a p e r f e c t model of a d a p t a t i o n to the m i l i e u , Carmen deals with the world of the Main by ac c e p t i n g to play by the r u l e s of the game; a game of s e l f i s h n e s s and e g o c e n t r i c i s m i n which d e c e i v i n g i s not only accepted, but i s the r u l e . C a s t r a t e d and l a c k i n g at every l e v e l , L i s e accepts the p h a l l u s from a l l that pretend to have i t . Taking advice from anyone, she takes one too many. She i s punished f o r her g u i l t and die s of her s i c k n e s s . The freeze-frame shot of the face of "woman", at the very end of the f i l m , presents death i n suspension. Perhaps i s i t an i n d i c a t i o n , from Tremb1 ay-Brassard to those who have not a l r e a d y r e j e c t e d t h e i r m i l i e u , that i t might not be too l a t e . . . y e t . - 1 5 5 -ENDNOTES 1 A l l t h e page numbers r e f e r t o t h e p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d p u b l i c a t i o n of t h e s c r e e n p l a y : A n d r e B r a s s a r d , M i c h e l T r e m b l a y , L' u n i v e r s de M i c h e 1 Tremb 1 ay /_ " I 1 e t a i t une f o i s dans 1 ' e s t " . M o n t r e a l : L ' A u r o r e , 1974, 107p. 2 Leo B o n n e v i l l e , " E n t r e t i e n a v e c A n d r e B r a s s a r d e t M i c h e l T r e m b l a y " , S e q u e n c e s . no 87, J a n u a r y 1977, p.9. a l s o i n L. B o n n e v i l l e , Le. C i n e m a Quebeco i s p a r c e u x q u i 1e f o n t ( M o n t r e a l : E d i t i o n s P a u l i n e s , 1979, 7 8 3 p . ) , p.112. 3 M i c h e l B e l a i r , " J _ l _ e t a i t une f o i s dans 1 ' e s t D'un o r a t o r i o s a c r e ou peut-£tre p r o f a n e q u i se d o n n e r a i t des a i r s c h e a p s pour r e s s e m b l e r a une c h a n s o n de M a r g o t L e f e b v r e " , C i n e m a Quebec. v o l . 3, no 6-7, A p r i l / M a y 1974, p.42. 4 W. Wolgang H o l d h e i m , The Hermeneut i c Mode, (1984) See C. Hugh Holman, W i l l i a m Harmon e d s . , A Handbook t o 1 i t e r a t u r e (New Y o r k : M a c m i l l a n P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1986, 647p.) p.234. 5 F o r t h e s a k e of a c k n o w l e d g e m e n t , I must n o t e t h a t J o h n R i p l e y w r o t e an a r t i c a l on M i c h e l T r e m b l a y ' s d r a m a t u r g y e n t i t l e d "From a l i e n a t i o n t o t r a n s c e n d e n c e : The q u e s t f o r s e l f h o o d i n M i c h e l T r e m b l a y ' s p l a y s . " , p u b l i s e h d i n Canad i an L i t e r a t u r e , no 85, summer 1980, p.44-59. A l t h o u g h J . R i p l e y and m y s e l f u s e t h e t e r m t r a n s c e n d e n c e i n t h e same s e n s e , t h e r e a d e r w i l l n o t i c e t h a t my s t u d y t a k e s a c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t a p p r o a c h t o M i c h e l T r e m b l a y ' s work. 6 Anne U b e r s f l e d , L i r e 1e t h e a t r e , p. 187-188. Roch T u r b i d i n "Hosanna ou l a q u S t e d'une t e r r i t o r i a l i t y " , Vo i x & I mages. v o l V I I , no 2, w i n t e r 1982, p.307-318, u s e s t h e p a r a b l e of t h e k i n g t o a n a l y s e t h e s t r u c t u r e of H osanna. -156-7 Martin Knelman, "The world of Michel Tremblay on the screen", The G1obe and Mai 1. Saturday, May 3, 1975, p.31 8 Kaja Silverman, "Suture ( E x c e r p t s ) " , i n N a r r a t i v e ,  Apparatus. Ideology, P h i l i p Rosen Ed.,(New York: Columpia UP, 1986, 549p.), p.235. -157-CHAPTER F I V E In t h e C o n t e x t o f t h e C y c l e I t Is t h e r e , i n t h e r e j e c t i o n o f t h e m i l i e u w h i c h i t d e p i c t s , t h a t J_l_ e t a i t une f o i s d a n s I ' Es t f i n d s i t s m e a n i n g . B u t what i s t h e m i l i e u i n q u e s t i o n ? In t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r I h a v e d e v o t e d s e v e r a l p a r a g r a p h s t o an a n a l y s i s o f t h e means u s e d by Tremb1 a y - B r a s s a r d t o c r e a t e t h i s c i n e m a t i c m i l i e u . One c o u l d a r g u e t h a t I h a v e o v e r l o o k e d t h e s i m p l e s t and most o b v i o u s means o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n : t h e s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d s h o w i n g o f f i l m - i c o n s o f F a b r e s t r e e t and M a i n s t r e e t . The b a s i s o f t h i s l e g i t i m a t e a r g u m e n t i s t h a t t h e d e n o t a t i v e power o f c i n e m a a l l o w s an u n c o d i f i e d i m a g i n g o f t h e m i l i e u o f t h e M o n t r e a l e a s t - s i d e . I t i s as s u c h , an u n c o d i f i e d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e e a s t e r n p a r t o f M o n t r e a l , t h a t some c r i t i c s p e r c e i v e A n d r e B r a s s a r d ' s f i l m . C o m m e n t i n g o n . t h e f i l m , L u c i e n F o u r n i e r w r i t e s II n ' y a r i e n d ' o r i g i n a l e t de g e n i a l dans l e f a i t de p r e s e n t e r d e s s c e n e s de c u i s i n e ou de f o n d s de t a v e r n e . Au l i e u de d o n n e r t r o i s d o l l a r s p o u r v o i r l e " s h o w " a l a P l a c e d e s A r t s , ne s e r a i t - i l pas m i e u x , p l u s s i n c e r e e t p l u s l o g i q u e de t r a v e r s e r l a r u e e t de p a s s e r une c o u p l e d ' h e u r e s d a n s un de c e s c a b a r e t s s u r l a r u e S t e - C a t h e r i n e ou s u r l a " M a i n " . (1) ( T h e r e i s n o t h i n g o r i g i n a l and no s i g n o f g e n i u s i n p r e s e n t i n g s c e n e s o f k i t c h e n s o r t a v e r n s . I n s t e a d o f s p e n d i n g -158-three d o l l a r s to see the show at Place des A r t s , would i t not be b e t t e r , more s i n c e r e , and more l o g i c a l , to cross the s t r e e t and spend a couple of hours i n one of these n i g h t c l u b s on S t e - C a t h e r i n e s t r e e t or the Main.) In h i s a r t i c l e , F o u r n i e r c r i t i c i z e s Michel Tremblay and Andre Brassard f o r b e t r a y i n g the audience by showing them a pure and simple image of the seedy si d e of Montreal; an image which any one can see i f one takes the time to go to a club such as "Chez Sandra" and observe the c l i e n t e l e . If t h i s were the case, JJ_ e t a i t  une f o i s dans 1 ' Es t would be, at best, a biased documentary. No need to say that I d i s a g r e e with a v i s i o n such as F o u r n i e r ' s . More accurate than F o u r n i e r ' s c r i t i q u e , although s t i l l n egative, i s Therese A r b i c ' s statement that JJ_ e t a i t une f o i s dans  1 ' E st ne renvoie pas le s p e c t a t e u r a une image o b j e c t i v e de l a v i e des gens de l ' e s t mais p l u t o t a l a v i s i o n s u b j e c t i v e d'un auteur. Le f i l m renvoie en e f f e t aux personnages des pieces de Tremblay et non a l a r e a l i t e des gens de l ' e s t . ( 2 ) (does not r e f e r the s p e c t a t o r to an o b j e c t i v e image of the l i f e of the people from the east, but to the s u b j e c t i v e v i s i o n of an author. The f i l m r e f e r s to the c h a r a c t e r s of Tremblay's plays and not to the r e a l i t y of the people of the east.) Indeed, the m i l i e u which Tremb1 ay-Brassard d e p i c t i s not that of the a c t u a l P l a t e a u Mont-Royal, or the a c t u a l Main s t r e e t . Hence, the emphasis that I put, i n the previous chapter, on demonstrating that the composition of the m i l i e u i s not accomplished through n a t u r a l i s t i c scenes of l i f e on the Main, but through an i n t r i c a t e network of p a r a l l e l i s m and i n t e r a c t i o n s between the c h a r c a t e r s of Michel Tremblay's u n i v e r s e . Already processed by the imagination -159-of the author, the m i l i e u which i s re-presented i n the f i l m , i s les s the East of Montreal than the " E s t " of Michel Tremblay. A t e r r i t o r y which belongs e x c l u s i v e l y to the n a r r a t i v e space of the "Cycle des Be 1 1es-soeurs". Considered from the marxist p o i n t of view which A r b i c adopts, the n a r c i s t i c i n t e r e s t of Michel Tremblay and Andre Brassard i n t h e i r own world, at the expense of the o b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y of the p r o l e t a r i a n s of the Montreal e a s t - s i d e , appears as a d e p l o r a b l e flaw. Within the framework of t h i s a n a l y s i s , however, which i s more akin to phenomenological than to marxist c r i t i c i s m , the choice of Tremb1 ay-Brassard to produce a f i l m based on t h e i r f i c t i o n a l t h e a t r e u n i v e r s e i s of primary importance. It re p r e s e n t s , i n f a c t , a t u r n i n g p o i n t i n the e v o l u t i o n of the tandem. Throughout t h i s study, I have i d e n t i f i e d some of the cinema t i c p r o p e r t i e s which d i f f e r e n t i a t e f i l m from t h e a t r e . Such p r o p e r t i e s are the c e n t r i f u g a 1 i t y of the cinem a t i c space, the i n d i v i d u a l i t y of the f i l m c h a r a c t e r , the de n o t a t i v e power of the f i l m - i c o n , and others. But the d i f f e r e n c e s that I have mentioned a l l r e f e r to the s p e c i f i c i t y of the f i l m - v i e w i n g experience as i t occurs. Seldom have I touched on the p o l i t i c s of f i l m . Now I w i l l . The fundamental d i s t i n g u i s h i n g aspect of f i l m , when compared to t h e a t r e , i s i t s technology. E s s e n t i a l l y , a l l that i s needed to have a t h e a t r i c a l a ct i s a human being observing a human gesture being performed (not n e c e s s a r i l y by another human being) f o r the purpose of i t being seen. The f i l m i c act on the other hand, can -160-never be achieved without a d e v i c e : a camera. And no matter how p r i m i t i v e and simple the camera may be, i t remains the product of a technology. From t h i s c o n c l u s i o n , our d i s c u s s i o n can take two tangents: the i n f l u e n c e of technology on the f i l m i c a c t ; the nature of the technology r e l a t e d to f i l m . In one of the chapters of her recent book A l i c e doesn't, Teresa de L a u r e t i s proposes to u t i l i z e Michel F o u c a u l t ' s n o t i o n of an e m p i r i c a l development of knowledge and ideas i n the context of a f e m i n i s t reading of N i c o l a s Roeg's f i l m Bad Timing. Although my i n t e n t i o n s are f a r remote from those of De L a u r e t i s , I would l i k e to r e f e r to her c o n s i d e r a t i o n of F o u c a u l t ' s work for the purpose of my own demonstration. De L a u r e t i s e x p l a i n s how F o u c a u l t ' s approach to h i s t o r y r e d e f i n e s the f u n c t i o n of thechnology and language as producers of ideas, rather than as simple instruments of ideas.(3) In other words, the power of technology to transform and d e f i n e r e a l i t y e f f e c t s our t h i n k i n g mode. F i l m being techno 1og i ca1 one would have to abandon the idea of cinema as a s e l f - c o n t a i n e d system, s e m i o t i c or economic, imaginary or v i s i onary. (4) Assuming Fo u c a u l t ' s n o t i o n to be r i g h t , the passage from t h e a t r e to f i l m takes on an important p o l i t i c a l meaning. While t h e a t r e can remain a s e l f - c o n t a i n e d system, f o r i t can l i m i t i t s i m p l i c a t i o n with technology, f i l m i s s u b j e c t to the p r a c t i c a l c h a r a c t e r of technology. Technology, rather than ideas or expressions of a c o l l e c t i v e unconsciousness, c o n t r o l s the s i g n i f i c a t i o n of the -161-f i l m i c product w i t h i n a c u l t u r e . While t h e a t r e can develop i t s s i g n system i n i s o l a t i o n and thus be n a t i o n a l , or even r e g i o n a l , cinema i s compelled to the i n t e r n a t i o n a 1 i t y of technology. A down-to-earth example w i l l c l a r i f y my p o i n t : few Canadian t h e a t r e c r i t i c s c ould name one A u s t r a l i a n playwright or stage performer; any l o c a l newspaper movie-reviewer would know at l e a s t a couple of A u s t r a l i a n filmmakers and could name h a l f a dozen A u s t r a l i a n f i l m a c t o r s . The reason f o r t h i s i s simple: A u s t r a l i a n t h e a t r e i s entrenched i n the A u s t r a l i a n c u l t u r e , A u s t r a l i a n cinema i s world-wide, f o r i t s codes are d i c t a t e d by u n i v e r s a l l y - d e p l o y e d t e c h n o l o g i e s . The of ten-ta1ked-about d i f f e r e n c e between the h o r i z o n t a 1 i t y of f i l m and the v e r t i c a l i t y of th e a t r e , thus goes f a r beyond the concept of n a r r a t i v e d i s t r i b u t i o n . It r e f e r s to the t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e r e l a t i o n to the domain of human a c t i v i t y at lar g e . Th i s leads us to the second part of our d i s c u s s i o n : the nature of the f i l m i c technology. The f i l m apparatus i s not only t e c h n o l o g i c a l , i t i s a technology of r e p r o d u c t i o n . Walter Benjamin once wrote that "the technique of r e p r o d u c t i o n detaches the reproduced o b j e c t from the domain of t r a d i t i o n " . T a l k i n g more s p e c i f i c a l l y about f i l m , he added Its s o c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n i t s most p o s i t i v e form, i s i n c o n c e i v a b l e without i t s d e s t r u c t i v e , c a t h a r t i c aspect, that i s , the l i q u i d a t i o n of the t r a d i t i o n a l value of the c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e . ( 5 ) Here t h e a t r e and f i l m are at complete odds. While the v e r s i o n of I 1 e ta i t.une f o i s dans 1'Es t which I have on video tape, and which -162-I have seen too o f t e n , i s the exact copy of the f i l m that was f i r s t shown in Montreal on March 1st 1974, the f i r s t p u b l i c reading of Les B e l l e s - s o e u r s . which occured on March 4th 1968, and which l e f t Jean-Claude Germain speechless, was an h i s t o r i c a l event which no one w i l l ever witness again. Theatre i s punctual, cinema i s ub i qu i tous. The d i r e c t e f f e c t of the p l u r a l i t y of f i l m i s that i t s h a t t e r s the n o t i o n of spacio-tempora1 d e t e r m i n a t i o n . Sarah Bernhardt, Eleanora Duse, or E l l e n T e r r y are f i g u r e s i r r e v o c a b l y a s s o c i a t e d with the h i s t o r y of the French, I t a l i a n and E n g l i s h n a t i o n a l t h e a t r e . Yet, before the death of any of these women, a young man c a l l e d Charles Spencer C h a p l i n had a l r e a d y become an i n t e r n a t i o n a l c e l e b r i t y , which the medium of f i l m had e r e c t e d as a myth o u t s i d e of time and space. F i l m c r e a t e s a mythology of global p r o p o r t i o n s . Almost twenty years a f t e r Greta Garbo had made her l a s t f i l m , Roland Barthes wrote Garbo's face represents t h i s f r a g i l e moment when the cinema i s about to draw an e x i s t a n t i a l from an e s s e n t i a l beauty, when the archetype leans towards the f a s c i n a t i o n of mortal faces, when the c l a r i t y of the f l e s h as essence y i e l d s i t s place to a l y r i c i s m of Woman.(6) Although Garbo l i v e d i n an epoch whose f a s h i o n modeled her image, she remains the t i m e l e s s " P l a t o n i c Idea of the human c r e a t u r e " ( 7 ) . Without the r e p r o d u c t i o n technology of f i l m , the world would lack t h i s Idea of beauty. A famous Canadian author once s a i d that "The medium i s the -163-message"(8). In the case of JJ_ e t a i t une f o i s dans 1'Est, the statement i s a b s o l u t e l y c o r r e c t . The meaning of the f i l m i s the F i l m . S e l f - c o n s c i o u s to the poin t of r e f e r i n g , i n i t s t i t l e , to another f i l m which, yet r e f e r s i t s e l f to a c i n e m a t i c t r a d i t i o n of my t h o l o g i c a l grandeur -- Ser g i o Leone's C e r a una vo 1ta i 1 West (Once upon a time i n the West, 1968) --, Tremb1 ay-Brassard's unique attempt at r e - c r e a t i n g , on f i l m , the u n i v e r s e of t h e i r t h e a t r i c a l p r o d u ction, marks, by i t s very e x i s t e n c e , the r e j e c t i o n of the Tremblayian m i l i e u . Thus, i t i s not only through the vo i c e s of the Duchesse and P i e r r e t t e that the m i l i e u i s repudiated, but through the v o i c e of the f i l m i t s e l f . Considered as the f a t h e r of "Theatre Quebecois", Michel Tremblay disowns i t s c h i l d by p u t t i n g i t on f i l m . I am not implying here that Michel Tremblay i s r e j e c t i n g h i s Quebecois o r i g i n s , or the P l a t e a u Mont-Royal, where he has spent more than twenty years of h i s l i f e . For, as mentioned e a r l i e r , Tremb1 ay-Brassard do not de a l , i n the f i l m , with the a c t u a l e a s t - s i d e of Montreal. What I am implying though, i s that the f i l m , through i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l meaning and i t s o n t o l o g i c a l s i g n i f i c a t i o n marks the end of Michel Tremb1 ay's "Theatre Quebecois" phase. It might be a p p r o p r i a t e to give a d e f i n i t i o n of what i s understood here by the term "Thelttre Quebecois". The word Quebecois can, of course, designate that which p e r t a i n s to the t e r r i t o r y of Quebec. But i t r e l a t e s as well to that which belongs -164-to the i d e o l o g i c a l n o t i o n of Quebec. It i s i n t h i s l a t t e r sense that i t i s used i n the e x p r e s s i o n "Theatre Quebecois". In 1973, M i che 1 Be 1 a i r pub l i s h e d a book ca l i e d Le. Nouveau Theatre  Quebecois. Although i t should not be considered as a d e f i n i t i v e work on "Theatre Quebecois", f o r i t i s too deeply entrenched i n the very movement which i t i s t r y i n g to analyze, i t s very b i a s does r e f l e c t the general a t t i t u d e of the time. Hence, the i m p l i c i t d e f i n i t i o n which B e l a i r gives of "Theatre Quebecois" appears to be most a k i n to the nature of the Quebecois movement. B e l a i r w r i t e s that "Theatre Quebecois" advocates "avant tout, 1 ' a f f i r m a t i o n d'une c u l t u r e et d'une i d e n t i t e quebecoise" (9) ( f i r s t and foremost, the a f f i r m a t i o n of a Quebec c u l t u r e and i d e n t i t y ) . Using Michel Tremblay's t h e a t r e as the best example of "Theatre Quebecois", B e l a i r adds Le the&tre de Michel Tremblay s'impose en f a i t comme la denegation l a plus concrete et l a plus f l a g r a n t e de l ' i n s e r t i o n d'une langue etrangere ( l e f r a n c a i s ) dans le context quebecois: un t h e a t r e tout e n t i e r voue a l a reconnaissance d'une c u l t u r e autonome ne peut s'exprimer autre que dans l a langue qui v e h i c u l e c e t t e nrime c u l t u r e . (10) (The t h e a t r e of Michel Tremblay imposes i t s e l f as the most concrete and most evident d e n i a l of the i n s e r t i o n of a f o r e i g n language (French) i n the Quebec context: a t h e a t r e which i s e n t i r e l y devoted to the acknowledgement of an autonomous c u l t u r e cannot express i t s e l f i n any other language that the one which serves as a v e h i c l e f o r t h i s c u l t u r e . ) "Theatre Quebecois" i s thus to be understood as a p u r e l y n a t i o n a l i s t , even c h a u v i n i s t , a r t i s t i c a c t i v i t y whose only aim i s to produce an image of Quebec which i s to be shown to the people of Quebec. B e l a i r ' s c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the French language as a f o r e i g n language as opposed to joual which i s the language of -165-Quebec, does not only appear as a d i s c o n c e r t i n g a b e r r a t i o n , but a l s o presents i t s e l f as an extremely dangerous approach to the c r e a t i o n of a n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y , f o r i t advocates the i s o l a t i o n of a peop1e. C o n s c i o u s l y or not, by d e c i d i n g to make a f i l m r e f e r i n g to t h e i r t h e a t r i c a l p r o d uction, Andre Brassard and Michel Tremblay break with t h i s v i s i o n of "Theatre Quebecois". As e x p l a i n e d e a r l i e r , the f i l m i c act i s one which p r o j e c t s i t s sub j e c t o u t s i d e of the time and space of i t s prod u c t i o n . To prolong the un i v e r s e of the stage i n t o the realm of the moving image i s to terminate the i s o l a t e d e v o l u t i o n of the a r t form and to give i t a global scope. Already with Hosanna Michel Tremblay had decided to take h i s d i s t a n c e from the phenomenon of joual by w r i t i n g " l a premiere piece ou un de (ses) personnages ne 'sacre' pas."(11) (the f i r s t play i n which one of h i s c h a r a c t e r s does not use swearwords). By showing the Duchesse, Helene, and P i e r r e t t e r e j e c t i n g the Main and Fabre s t r e e t on f i l m , T r e m b l a y - B r a s s a r d ' d e f i n i t i v e l y put an end to the network of s t e r i l e exchanges which take place In the st a g n a t i n g m i l i e u of Fabre s t r e e t and the Main -- used as a metonymy f o r Q_uebec(12) -- , and open up the door to the world. In order to determine the f u n c t i o n of the f i l m i n the context of the c y c l e , i t might be a p p r o p r i a t e to take an o v e r a l l look at the 9 major plays of the "Cycle des Be 11es-Soeurs". With Les  Be I 1es-soeur s. Michel Tremblay introduces the m i l i e u of Germaine and her neighbours. The m i l i e u i s so c l o s e d on i t s e l f that i t -166-forms a f a m i l y ; a f a m i l y which shares the same i d i o m a t i c e x p r e s s i o n s , the same "Maudite v i e p l a t e " , and, up to the beginning of the play, the same hopelessness. Hopelessness i s rendered bearable by i t s l e v e l l i n g f u n c t i o n : every one Is equal In hopelessness. Thus, Germaine's hope of escaping her misery i s seen, by the others, as an act of b e t r a y a l . Hence, the c o l l e c t i v e movement to r e - e s t a b l i s h the balance which Germaine's stamps have broken. Noone In Germaine's m i l i e u should have a chance to transcend t h e i r m e d i o c r i t y . For the happiness of one makes the misery of others even worse. Germaine, belonging to the same group, has the same a t t i t u d e towards the others, i n c l u d i n g her s i s t e r , P i e r r e t t e , who betrayed the f a m i l y by going to the west of the east, the world of the " c l u b " , the Main. In E_n pieces  detachees(2nd v e r s i o n ) , we catch a glimpse of the world which was j u s t mentioned i n Les be 11es-soeurs. Therese(He 1ene), l i k e P i e r r e t t e , has known the world of the Main. But as P i e r r e t t e , who, b l i n d e d by her love f o r Johnny, never saw her f a l l coming u n t i l i t was to l a t e , Therese, i n t o x i c a t e d by a l c o h o l , s c u t t l e d her own escape. Beaten by the Main, they both r e t u r n home, and t r y to f o r g e t t h e i r defeat i n the evanescent refuge of a l c o h o l . Alcohol c o n s t i t u t e s as well the s o l e nourishment of the Duchesse i n La  Duchesse de Langeai s. In t h i s play Michel Tremblay shows the specular image of P i e r r e t t e and Therese. F a l l e n as well from the world of the Main, the Duchesse r e f u s e s , though, to r e t u r n to the world which she has f i n a l l y escaped. Rather, she indulges i n a past whose accuracy i s i r r e l e v a n t . A g l o r i o u s past, invented or not, i s b e t t e r than nothing at a l l . -167-When, i n Demain Matin Montrea1 m'attend we f i n a l l y get to see t h i s m i l i e u which P i e r r e t t e , Therese and the Duchesse have i d e n t i f i e d as the place where they had been happy, one wonders what the a t t r a c t i o n may be. Through Louise T e t r a u l t one understands that i t i s the glamour of show business which makes of the Main the l i e u of p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r those who want to escape the "Maudite v i e p l a t t e " of the P l a t e a u Mont-Royal or S t - M a r t i n . Carmen, i n A to i , pour tou.jours. t a Mar ie-Lou, c o r r o b o r a t e s the impression given by Louise. While Manon, who stayed on Fabre s t r e e t , i s c a p t i v e of her past and knows no other p l e a s u r e i n l i f e than that provided by her h a l l u c i n a t o r y prayers, Carmen has found happiness by g e t t i n g on stage, at the "Rodeo", and s i n g i n g cowboy songs to an a t t e n t i v e crowd. It i s only i n Hosanna. that the f a l l a c y , behind the glamour of the Main, i s r e v e a l e d . The happiness of the Duchesse, l i k e that of Louise T e t r a u l t , or Carmen i s based on the d e n i a l of the s e l f . To be happy, the Duchesse as to be Sarah Bernhardt i n L'A i g1 on. Louise has to be L y l a Jasmin as L o l a Lee, Hosanna has to be E l i z a b e t h T a y l o r as C l e o p a t r a . Thus, with Hosanna Michel Tremblay shows that the s t r u g g l e to escape the f a m i l y nucleus leads to the dead end of the Main. A place which does not allow the c h a r a c t e r s to be themselves, and o f t e n does not even allow them to be someone e l s e . And suddenly, a f t e r J_l_ eta i t une f o i s dans 1 ' Est, the Main dis a p p e a r s ! Fabre s t r e e t i s passed over i n s i l e n c e ; and the Other i s f i n a l l y s i g n i f i e d . It i s Boniour. 1 a, bon j our c r e a t e d on stage -168-s i x months a f t e r the premiere of the f i l m . With i t s t i t l e s i g n i f y i n g , both, "goodbye" and " h e l l o " , Bon i our. 1 a. Bonjour, although s t i l l p u t t i n g on stage c h a r a c t e r s of the lower-middle c l a s s , bears l i t t l e r e l a t i o n to the m i l i e u of the s i x previous p l a y s . The s e 1 f - c e n t e r e d u n i v e r s e i s opened, and the Other comes i n t o play. F i r s t the Other i s the other world: Serge, the main c h a r a c t e r , j u s t returned from France. U n l i k e L i s e t t e de Courval, who has r e t a i n e d nothing of her t r i p s around the world except the f a c t that, i n Europe, people do not wash themselves, Serge, at l e a s t , acknowledges h i s c u l t u r a l indebtedness to Europe by r e c a l l i n g , i n the streetnames of P a r i s , f i l m s and books which he knows.(13). The Other i s a l s o , the "West" as opposed to " E s t " : Serge's o l d e r s i s t e r , Lucienne, has married an E n g l i s h doctor and l i v e s i n an expensive house away from the Montreal e a s t - s i d e . ( 1 4 ) The Other i s expressed as well through the m a n i f e s t a t i o n of heterosexual love: although Michel Tremblay r e t a i n s an element of m a r g i n a l i t y , s i n c e Serge i s i n love with h i s s i s t e r N i c o l e , the r e l a t i o n s h i p i s f i n a l l y opened to the Other sex. But the Other i s mostly the f a t h e r : f o r the f i r s t time i n the Cycl e , there i s a f a t h e r . A f a t h e r who i s not dead or absent, a f a t h e r who reads Hugo and Maupassant(15) , and a f a t h e r who i s loved by h i s son. In terms of L e v i - S t r a u s s ' s s t r u c t u r a l anthropology, Armend i s not a r e a l f a t h e r f o r he allows the incestuous r e l a t i o n s h i p of h i s c h i l d r e n to go on. But i n terms of Michel Tremblay's dramaturgy, he remains an e x c e p t i o n a l f i g u r e of f a t h e r l y love and unders tand ing. -169-The two l a s t plays of the c y c l e , Sa i nte Carmen de 1 a Ma i n, and Damnee Manon. Sacree Sandra take up with the dyadic m i l i e u of Fabre S t r e e t and the Main. But, i n these p l a y s , the m i l i e u i s nolonger e s s e n t i a l to the drama. Sain t e Carmen de 1 a Main i s Michel Tremblay's most obvious attempt at r e c r e a t i n g the form and the content of the Greek tragedy. In the play, we see Carmen, coming back from N a s h v i l l e (again a r e f e r e n c e to i n t e r n a t i o n a 1 1 t y ) , with the f i r m i n t e n t i o n of s i g n i n g her own o r i g i n a l cowboy songs. Her goal i s to d i r e c t l y address her audience and, thus, j o l t them out of t h e i r complacency. This c h a r a c t e r , half-way between Joan of Arc and Antigone, comes i n t o c o n f l i c t with the e s t a b l i s h e d order represented by Maurice, who, o b v i o u s l y , r e f u s e s to have h i s c l i e n t s d i s t u r b e d i n t h e i r p assiveness. Maurice w i l l have Carmen k i l l e d at the end of the play, hence her c a n o n i z a t i o n . U n l i k e i n A to i . pour to u j o u r s , ta  Marle-Lou and, mostly, Hosanna. In which the d e s c r i p t i o n of the s e t t i n g i s g r e a t l y r e l e v a n t to the drama, there i s no r e f e r e n c e at a l l , i n Sainte-Carmen de 1 a Main. to the decor. In h i s review of the play G i l b e r t David d e s c r i b e s the empty space in which the c o n f l i c t takes place as a R a c i n i a n "anti-chambre"(16): a s o r t e of no-man's land with l i t t l e background r e f e r e n c e to the Main. If the locus dramaticus i s a l i e n a t i n g , so i s the c h a r a c t e r of Carmen. Commenting on h i s two stage v e r s i o n s of Sa i nte Carmen de 1 a Ma i n, Andre Brassard admits that Carmen i s a c h a r a c t e r with whom one has d i f f i c u l t y i d e n t i f y i n g i n an everyday s e t t i n g ; she i s less a human being than the embodiment of an idea. For the other c h a r a c t e r s there i s a frame of r e f e r e n c e i n r e a l i t y but with Carmen one r e a l i z e s that t h i s c h a r a c t e r does not e x i s t i n r e a l i t y , i t ' s -170-a symbo1.(17) There i s an amazing d i f f e r e n c e between the humble country s i n g e r of the "Rodeo", who i s only t r y i n g to be happy, and " S a i n t e Carmen of the Main". If one could i d e n t i f y with the former, because of the r e a l i t y of her s i t u a t i o n , the l a t t e r remains a t h e a t r e c h a r a c t e r which belongs to another mode of a p p r e c i a t i o n . If the names r e f e r to Quebec, the drama of S a i n t e Carmen, even taken at a f i r s t l e v e l , has a u n i v e r s a l scope. Perhaps, there l i e s the reason f o r the f a i l u r e of the play. French-Canadian names seem to have been tacked on c h a r a c t e r s which belong to western c u l t u r e as a whole. Hence the negative r e a c t i o n of the s p e c t a t o r s , who might see, i n Michel Tremblay's Greek o p e r a t i c tragedy, a f u t i l e e x e r c i s e i n a c t u a l i z a t i o n . The l a s t play of the Cycle, Damnee Manon. Sacree Sandra. i s one of Michel Tremblay's harshest works. Dea l i n g with the a p p a r e n t l y a n t i t h e t i c a l concepts of r e l i g i o s i t y and sexual p e r v e r s i o n , i t t r i e s to u n i f y the devided s e l f of the author. Michel Tremblay himself d e s c r i b e s i t as "une piece sur l a s c h i z o p h r e n i e . " ( I S ) (a play about s c h i z o p h r e n i a ) , which i s a "Demi-confess ion"(19) of h i s own phantasmata. Again the d e s c r i p t i o n of the m i l i e u i s minimal: Manon i s i n a white k i t c h e n and she i s dressed i n b l a c k ; Sandra i s i n a black d r e s s i n g room, and she i s dressed i n white. Beyond that, the m i l i e u remains undefined. Undefined because u n d e f i n a b l e f o r the drama goes on i n Michel Tremblay's imagination. -171-From t h i s r e c a p i t u l a t i o n of the major plays of the "Cycle des Be 1 1es-soeurs" and the c o n s i d e r a t i o n s made throughout t h i s t h e s i s , we can draw the f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n : the f u n c t i o n of JJ_ e t a i t une f o i s dans 1 ' Es t i n the context of the "Cycle des Be 1 1es-soeurs" i s one of demarcation between a dramatic p r o d u c t i o n deeply entrenched i n the "Theatre Quebecois" p r a c t i c e on the one hand, and, on the other hand, a mode of w r i t i n g c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a l e s s e r i n t e r e s t i n the immediate p o l i t i c s of the n a t i o n , and a greater preoccupation with u n i v e r s a l themes. I am not denying the f a c t that A to i . pour tou j o u r s . ta Mar i e-Lou. f o r instance, touches on s u b j e c t s which go f a r beyond the l i m i t s of the Quebecois m i l i e u . But the c o n f l i c t which i t presents i s i n f i n i t e l y more a k i n to the Quebec c o n d i t i o n , than that of Damnee  Manon. Sacree Sandra, which could very well take place i n any country where r e l i g i o n and sexual h y p e r - a c t i v i t y c o - e x i s t . The fundamental f u n c t i o n of the f i l m , with regard to i t s s i t u a t i o n i n the Cycle, i s thus i t s t e r m i n a t i o n of the d e s c r i p t i o n of the comings and goings w i t h i n the m i l i e u d e l i m i t e d by Fabre s t r e e t and the Main s t r e e t . The geographical s i t u a t i o n of Bonjour,  1 a. Bon lour i s not s p e c i f i e d ; the m i l i e u of Sa i nte Carmen de 1 a  Main i s l a b e l l e d as the Main, but bares l i t t l e r e l a t i o n to the Main d e s c r i b e d i n Demain MatIn. Montrea1 M'attend f o r i n s t a n c e ; and as f o r Damnee Manon. Sacree Sandra. the a c t u a l l i e u of the drama i s so remote from Fabre s t r e e t , that i t might very well approach i t from the other end. -172-In h i s review of the f i l m , Luc P e r r e a u l t w r i t e s I 1 e t a i t une f o i s dans L'Est ne m'a r i e n a p p r i s que je ne s a v a i s deja sur l ' u n i v e r s de Michel Tremb1 ay. (20) (I 1 eta i t une f o i s . . . d i d not teach me anything that I d i d not a l r e a d y know about the u n i v e r s e of Michel Tremblay) What P e r r a u l t could have learned on " l ' U n i v e r s de Michel Tremblay" through JJ_ e t a i t une f o i s dans 1'Es t. i s i n s c r i b e d i n the very t i t l e of the f i l m . "II e t a i t un f o i s / Once upon a time" s i g n i f i e s less the beginning of a s t o r y than the f a c t that, as It begins, i t has a l r e a d y come to an end. But not the " f i n du Monde"(21) (end of the world) that Michel B e l a i r t a l k s about i n h i s review of the f i l m . Rather, i t i s the end of the s t o r y that Tremb1 ay-Brassard began t e l l i n g i n 1968. And what f o l l o w s t h i s end, i s yet another s t o r y . -173-ENDNOTES 1 Luc i e n F o u r n i e r , "Tremblay et B r a s s a r d : vous nous trompez", La Presse, March 19, 1974, p. A-4 2 Therese A r b i c , "Le t h e a t r e de Michel Tremblay et la degradation de l a personne humaine en m i l i e u o u v r i e r " , Chroniques. V o l . 1, no 1, January 1975, p.56. 3 Teresa De L a u r e t i s , A l i c e Doesn't. (B1oomington: Indiana UP, 1984, 220 p.), p.84. 4 I b i d . , p.85. 5 Walter Benjamin, "The Work of Art i n the Age of Mechanical Reproduction". C i t e d i n James Monaco, How to read a f i l m (New York: Oxford UP, 1981, 533p.) p.218. 6 Roland Barthes, "The Face of Garbo (1957)", i n F i l m theory and  C r i t i c i s m . G. Mast, M. Cohen eds. (New York: Oxford UP, 1985, 852p.) p.651. 7 I b i d . , p.650. 8 The author i s Marshall McLuhan. See M. McLuhan, "The Medium i s the Message", Understand ing Media (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964, 365p.), p.7-21. 9 Michel B e l a i r , Le. Nouveau Theat r e Quebeco i s . (Montreal: Lemeac, c o l l . " D o s s i e r " , 1973, 205p.), p.112. -174-10 I b i d . , p.113. 11 Michel Tremblay i n " E n t r e t i e n avec Andre Brassard et Michel Tremblay", Sequences. no 87, January 1977, p.7. 12 For a thorough a n a l y s i s of Michel Tremblay's plays as n a t i o n a l i s t a l l e g o r i e s see John R i p l e y "From A l i e n a t i o n to Transcendence: The Quest f o r Selfhood i n Michel Tremblay's p l a y s " , Canadian L i t e r a t u r e . No 85, summer 1980, p.44-59. 13 Michel Tremblay, Bon 1 our. 1 a, Bonjour. (Montreal: Lemeac, 1987, 105p.)p.32. 14 Ib i d . , p.40. 15 Ib i d . , p.30. 16 G i l b e r t David, " S p e c t a c l e s Sa i nte Carmen de 1 a Ma i n", Jeu 3 Summer/fall 1976, p.73. 17 Andre Brassard i n " D i s c o v e r i n g the Nuances", Canad i an Theatre  Review, no 24, F a l l 1979, p.39. 18 Michel Tremblay i n "II y a 20 ans, Les Be 1 1es-soeurs. "par l a porte d'en avant"", Jeu 47,June 1988, p.63. 19 Michel Tremblay i n "Quand Michel Tremblay t r a i t e du fanatisme en r e l i g i o n et en sexe", La. Presse. February 26, 1977, p. D-7. -175-20 Luc P e r r a u l t , "Tremblay et B r a s s a r d : "On est pas des Jeanne d' Arc", La. Presse. Saturday, March 2, 1974, p.D-10. 21 Miche 1 B e l a i r , " J_l_ e-tai t une f o i s dans 1 ' E s t . .. Lefebvre", v o l . 3 , no 6-7, April-May 1974, p.40. -176-S E L E C T I V E BIBLIOGRAPHY I A R T I C L E S 1. I 1 e t a i t une f o i s d a n s 1 ' E s t : A n . " F a c e a F a c e c a n n o i s : B r a s s a r d - T r e m b 1 ay s ' e x p l i q u e n t . " C i n e m a Q u e b e c . V o l . 3 , n o . 8 , O c t o b e r 1974, p . 2 1 - 2 3 . A n . " L ' I n q u i s i t i o n t o u c h e C a n n e s d a v a n t a g e que l e s t r a v e s t i s - m i d i n e t t e s de B r a s s a r d . " Le Devo i r . May 2 2 , 1974, p . 1 0 . A n . " L ' U n i v e r s de M i c h e l T r e m b l a y : JJ_ e t a i t une f o i s d a n s 1 ' e s t , un f i l m de A n d r e B r a s s a r d . " Le. L i v r e c a n a d i e n . v o l . 7 , A p r i l 1976 , no 154. A r b i c , T h e r e s e . " L e t h e a t r e de M i c h e l T r e m b l a y e t l a d e g r a d a t i o n de l a p e r s o n n e humaine en m i l i e u o u v r i e r . " C h r o n i q u e s . V o 1 1, no 1, J a n u a r y 1975 , p. 5 4 - 5 7 . A r b i c , T h e r e s e & C h a r t r a n d , R o b e r t . " E n t r e t i e n ( a v e c B e r n a r d D o r t ) . S u r l e T r a v a i l T h e a t r a l . 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" A n d r e B r a s s a r d : Comment p a s s e r du t h e a t r e au c i n e m a . . . " C i nema Q u e b e c . V o l . 3 , n o . 5 , F e b . - M a r c h 1974, p . 2 8 - 3 2 . T a d r o s , J e a n - P i e r r e , " C e S o i r , p r e m i e r e de H_ e t a i t une f o i s dans 1 ' e s t . A n d r e B r a s s a r d : ' u n e f i l m p y r a m i d e e n t r e T r e m b l a y e t B e r g m a n . . . ' . " L§_ J o u r . F r e b r u a r y 2 8 , 1974, p. 13. - 1 7 9 -V i l l e m a i r e , Y o l a n d e , " C r e a t i o n s e t a d a p t a t i o n s de M i c h e l T r e m b l a y . " L e s C a h i e r s de 1 a Nouve11e C o m p a g n i e  T h e a t r & l e . O c t o b e r 1974 , p . 6 - 1 3 ( p . 1 2 - 1 3 ) . 2 . P l a y s - g e n e r a l : B e a u d r y , P i e r r e . " L e s Q u e b e c o i s e t l a d i g n i t e . " La_ P r e s s e . A p r i l 11 , 1973 , p . A - 1 6 . B e a u l i e u , M i c h e l . 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" L e t t r e s Quebecoises, no.23, F a l l 1981, p.49-56. T r a i t , Jean-Claude. "Tremblay: Le Joual se defend tout seul La Presse. June 16, 1973, p.D-2. Tremblay, M i c h e l . "C'est comme ca (...) E c r i r e ne s'apprend pas a l ' e c o l e . " Acte J_, no.3, September 1981, p.3-5. Tremblay, M i c h e l . "Michel Tremblay par Michel Tremblay, Nous. Vol.1, no 4, September 1973, p.14-16. Tremblay, Michel, "Temoignages sur le t h e a t r e quebecois." Le Theatre canad i en-f r a n c a i s. v o l . 5, Montreal: F i d e s , A r c h i v e s des l e t t r e s canadiennes, 1976, p.789-93. Turbide, Roch. "Michel Tremblay. Du texte a l a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . " Vo i x & I mages. v o l . 7, no2, Winter 1982, p.213-224. -182-Usmiani, Renate. "The Tremblay Opus: Unity i n D i v e r s i t y (and other a r t i c l e s ) " Canadian Theatre Review. No 24, F a l l 1979, p.12-25, 26-37, 38-41. 3.A to i . pour tou j ours. t a Mar i e-Lou: Auteui1, Georges-Henri d'. "A t o i pour t o u j o u r s , ta Marie-Lou." Re 1ations. no 337, December 1972, p.346-347. Auteui1, Georges-Henri d'. "Theatre d'automne." Re 1 at i ons. vol.34, no 399, December 1974, p.346-347. Beau l i e u , M i c h e l . "A t o i pour tou i ours. ta Mar i e-Lou." Po i n t de Mire, v o l . 2,no 14, May 7 1971, p.42-43. B e l a i r , M i c h e l . "Le d e r n i e r Tremblay au Quat'Sous. Le Theatre V e r i t e . " Le Devoir. Mai 1, 1971, p.13. Dionne, Andre. "Le t h e a t r e qu'on joue: A t o i pour t o u j o u r s ,  ta Mar i e - L o u . " L e t t r e s quebeco i ses. no 30, Summer 1983, p. 34. G a l a n t i , Denise. "Theatre quebecois A t o i pour t o u j o u r s , ta Mar i e-Lou, une h i s t o i r e ancienne, und dramaturgy n o u v e l l e . " Bu11et in du Cere 1e J u l f . 18the year, no 161, December 1972, p. 4. J o l y , Raymond. "Une douteuse l i b e r a t i o n . Le Denouement d'une piece de Michel Tremblay." Etudes f r a n c a i ses. v o l . 8, no 4, November 1972, p.363-374. Macduff, P i e r r e . "A t o i pour toujours ta Mar i e-Lou. Entre 1' i n e a r n a t i o n et le h i e r a t i s m e : le t r a g i q u e . " Jeu 28, 3rd quarter 1983, p.136-137. Montmorency, Andre; Gaboriau, Linda. "Tremblay et le realisme e c l a t e . " and "Notre Marie-Lou..." Avant-premiere, vo l . 9 , no.4, A p r i l 1983, p.5-12. -183-Les Be 1 1es-Soeurs; Abrate, Jayne Halsne. "Le theme de 1'1nconscience dans Les Beaux Dimanches et les B e l l e s - S o e u r s . " Presence  francophone, no 24, Spring 1982, p.139-145. B a s i l e , Jean. "Les B e l l e s - S o e u r s . de Michel Tremblay au S t e l l a Une e n t r e p r i s e f a m i l i a l e de d e m o l i t i o n . " Le_ Devo i r. August 30 1968, p.8. Camp, Andre. " L ' a c t u a l i t e t h e & t r a l e : Les Be 11es-Soeurs." L'Avant-scene Theatre. January 1, 1974. C e l l a r d , Jacques. "Les Be 11es-Soeurs. quinze femmes du Quebec. Le Monde, November 25-26, 1973, p.19. Dassylva, M a r t i a l . "L'amour du " j o u a l " et des timbres-primes." La_ presse. August 29, 1968, p.50. Dassylva, M a r t i a l . "Le nouveau r e a l i s m e ( ? ) des Be 1 1 es-Soeurs et le J o u a l . " La. Presse. September 14, 1968, p. 28. D u q u e t t e - P e r r i e r , L i s e . "Analyse semiotique des B e l l e s - S o e u r s." J ourna1 canad i en de recherche semiotique, Vol.2, no.3, F a l l 1974, p.41-53. Francoeur, L o u i s . "TheStre, c u l t u r e et semiotique." E t u d e s L i t t e r a i r e s . v o l . 14, n o . l , A p r i l 1981, p.189. Garebian, K e i t h . " L i b e r a t i o n i n the rag-and-bone-shop. " Canad ian L i t e r a t u r e . no.66, F a l l 1975, p. 112-116. Gau t i e r , Jean-Jacques. "Les Be 1 1es-Soeurs de Michel Tremblay" Le F i garo. December 1 & 2, 1973. -184-Genovesiot, G. "Une F r a n c a i s e a l a defense du " j o u a l " . " La Presse. Dec. 17, 1973, p.A-4. Germain, Jean-Claude. "Les Be 11es-Soeurs: un evenement c a p i t a l . " Le. P e t i t Journa 1 . March 10, 1968, p.46. Germain, Jean-Claude. "Plus c'est absurde, plus c'est J o u a l . Le P e t i t Journa1. August 25, 1968, p.73. Germain, Jean-Claude. "Les B e l l e s - S o e u r s : Une condamnation sans a p p e l . " Le P e t i t Journa1. September 8, 1968, p.75. H i e s t e r , Jeanine. "La S t r u c t u r e c l a s s i q u e des Be 1 1es-Soeurs de Michel Tremblay." Inci dences. vo1.6,no.1-2, January-August 1982, p.59-67. Juery, Rene. "Michel Tremblay: Une i n t e r p r e t a t i o n psychana1ytique des B e l l e s - S o e u r s . " Etudes L i t t e r a i res. vol 11, no3, December 1978, p.453-489. Kattan, Nairn. "Le TheStre et les dramaturges a Montreal. Canad i an L i t e r a t u r e . no 40, Spring 1969, p.43-48. Kubler, C h r i s t i n e . " L e t t r e du Quebec. Le Theatre de Tremblay un monde dur et Ferme." La. Gazette 1 i t t e r a i r e . Lausanne, February 16, 1974, p.IV. 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Cu1-Q. nos 2-3, W i n t e r - s p r i n g 1974, p.7-20. 7.En pieces detachees: An. "Pas 'mosus' mais 'tabarnak'!" La. Presse. A r t s et L e t t r e s , December 17, 1966, p.3. Auteui1, Georges-Henri d'. "En. pieces detachees." R e l a t i o n s , no 339, June 1969, p.181-182. B e l a i r , M i c h e l . "Du n o i r au g r i s . Du Rideau-Vert a Michel Tremblay." Le Devo i r. March 10, 1971, p.8. C o l l e t , P a u l e t t e . "Fennario's Ba1conv i1 1e and Tremblay's En p i eces detachees: A u n i v e r s e of Backyards and D e s p a i r . " Canad i an Drama/L'Art dramat i que canad i en. V o l . 10, n o . l , 1984, p.35-43. Dassylva, M a r t i a l . "Du cote de l a rue Fabre." La Presse, A p r i l 23, 1969, p.64. Dumont, Martine. "En. pieces detachees. " Jeu 12 Summer 1979, p.203-206. Falardeau, Johanne. "En p i eces detachees: peut-on aimer Michel Tremblay?" Canad i an Drama/ 1'Art dramat ique canad i en. v o l . 2, no. 2, F a l l 1976, p.236-238. -187-8•Hosanna: Dassylva, M a r t i a l . "Andre Brassard et le message de Hosanna." La Presse. May 12, 1973, p. D-14. Dassylva, M a r t i a l . "Des roses et des epines pour Hosanna a Broadway." La Presse. October 16, 1974, p. H-4. J o l y , Raymond. "Hosanna. La Duchesse de Langeais de Michel Tremblay." L l v r e s et auteur s quebeco i s. 1972, p.160. Nunn, Robert C. "Michel Tremblay's Hosanna and P i r a n d e l l o ' s "Teatro d e l l o s p e c c i o " . " Canad i an Drama/1'Ar t dramat i que  canadien. vol.6, no 2, F a l l 1980,p.201-212. Pontaut, A l a i n . "Avant sa r e p r i s e samedi p r o c h a i n ( . . . ) : 'Hosanna. ce n'est pas un cas p a r t i c u l i e r : c'est le probleme d'une s o c i e t e qui veut dissoudre son a l i e n a t i o n ' . " Le_ Jour. May 24, 1975, p.11. Petrenko, D a n i e l . "Hosanna." Jeu 12, ete 1979, p.147-148. Turbide, Roch. 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