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Pudlo Pudlat : images of change Lister, Beverley-Ann 1984

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PUDLO PUDLAT:  IMAGES OF CHANGE By  BEVERLEY-ANN LISTER B.A., C a r l e t o n U n i v e r s i t y , 1977  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in THE  FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES  (Department o f A r t H i s t o r y )  We a c c e p t t h i s to  t h e s i s as conforming  the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August 1984 (c) Beverley-Ann L i s t e r , 1984  In p r e s e n t i n g requirements of  British  it  freely  agree for  this  thesis  f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t  Columbia, available  that  for  permission  d e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s  for  I agree  that  financial  that  reference  gain  shall  not  be  DE-6  (2/79)  shall  and s t u d y .  I  copying of  Columbia  ll&j  the  make  further this  thesis  h e a d o f my It  this  allowed without  of  I^UfrMUT  Library  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of  of  University  or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  Date  the  may be g r a n t e d by t h e  permission.  Department  the  for extensive  s c h o l a r l y purposes  understood  in partial fulfilment  is  thesis my w r i t t e n  ABSTRACT  Two problems i n t h e a p p r e c i a t i o n o f I n u i t a r t a r e f i r s t l y , t h e commercial c o r n e r s t o n e and, s e c o n d l y , t h e c u l t u r a l gap, i n most c a s e s , between t h e v i e w e r and t h e a r t i s t . W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e f i r s t , a l t h o u g h commercialism i s a f a c t , i t s h o u l d n o t c l o u d t h e o b v i o u s v i s u a l and i n f o r m a t i v e e x p r e s s i v e n e s s o f the  works o f such a r t i s t s as Pudlo P u d l a t , t h e s u b j e c t o f t h i s  thesis.  Rather than d w e l l upon t h e n e g a t i v e a s p e c t s o f commercialism, we conc e n t r a t e on t h e b e n e f i t s .  F o r , w i t h o u t t h e monetary i m p u l s e , many  a r t i s t s might n o t have begun t o e x t e r n a l i z e , and t h e r e b y r e c o r d , t h e e v e n t s and f e e l i n g s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a c u l t u r e b o t h removed from our own and a l s o u n d e r g o i n g t h e d r a m a t i c changes o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n . T h i s i s t h e essence o f t h e second problem. f a c e s anybody w i s h i n g t o approach t h e u n f a m i l i a r .  I t i s one w h i c h In this  particular  case i t r e q u i r e d t h e r e a d i n g o f s o c i o l o g i c a l , a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l , and p s y c h o l o g i c a l a b s t r a c t s , among o t h e r s . primary experience, y e t a l l one's own c u l t u r a l b i a s .  geared  None o f t h e s e as good as t h e  t o h e l p i n g lower the b a r r i e r s of  I n s h o r t , e x t e n s i v e background  i n f o r m a t i o n on  t r a d i t i o n a l and a c c u l t u r a t i o n a l l i f e i n t h e N o r t h i s a n e c e s s i t y . P u d l o has been drawing f o r over twenty y e a r s , s i n c e t h e b e g i n ning of print-making.  I n r e v i e w i n g t h e development  o f h i s o e u v r e , one  comes t o an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f h i s work and o f t h e development  of p r i n t -  making i n t h e Canadian A r c t i c i n g e n e r a l , as w e l l as i n Cape D o r s e t , specifically. ii  The  themes of P u d l o ' s p r i n t s r e v e a l h i s brand of h i s t o r i c i s m to  be more t h a n a documentation of t r a d i t i o n a l l i f e i n the N o r t h .  The  h u n t e r - t u r n e d - a r t i s t i n f u s e s i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h a p r o f o u n d d e p t h of emotion.  H i s shamanic images educate the l e s s w e l l informed and  evoke memories and and  f e e l i n g s i n the i n i t i a t e d .  animals p r o j e c t the I n u i t ' s long-standing  bond w i t h ,  P o r t r a y a l s of the r e s p e c t f o r , and  surely land intimate  nature.  Pudlo i s one  of the v e r y few I n u i t a r t i s t s to i n c l u d e modern  o b j e c t s i n h i s drawings.  I n h i s c h o i c e and use of t h e s e m o t i f s ,  c r e a t e s a continuum between h i s shamanic p a s t and present.  iii  he  the r a p i d l y changing  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT  i i  LIST OF FIGURES  v  Chapter I II  INTRODUCTION . . . .  1  THE CRAFT REVIVAL AND AN INTRODUCTION TO PUDLO . . .  11  A REVIEW OF PUDLO'S GRAPHIC TECHNIQUES  15  IV  THE HUNTER/SHAMAN  26  V  THE HUNTER/ARTIST  32  VI  PUDLO AND NATURE:  THE BIRDS AND ANIMALS  41  VII  PUDLO AND NATURE:  THE LAND  51  III  VIII  CONCLUSION:  THE SEASONS . .  55  APPENDIX  58  GLOSSARY  61  BIBLIOGRAPHY  63  FIGURES  68  iv  LIST OF FIGURES  Figure 1  First  two maps drawn by I n u i t from memory.  i s an a c t u a l map o f Southampton I s l a n d .  The t h i r d  Source:  G. S u t t o n i n C a r p e n t e r , 1973, p. 10. Figure 2  S p i r i t With Symbols.  Figure 3  Man i n F i s h Weir.  Figure 4  S p i r i t Watching  Figure 5  Drawing by E n o o e s w e e t o k - — c o l l e c t e d by film-maker  #19-1961.  Games.  F l a h e r t y , 1913-14. Museum, Toronto. Figure 6  #49-1961.  Stonecut  SC.  #45-1964.  Collection:  Source:  (SC) .  SC. Robert  The Royal O n t a r i o  Vastokas,  1971/72, p. 72.  Drawing by Enooesweetok o f the S i k o s i l i n g m i n t T r i b e , Fox Land, B a f f i n I s l a n d . Source:  C a r p e n t e r , 1973, p. 169.  Figure 7  Long Journey.  Figure 8  Middle: Bay,  C o l l e c t e d by Robert F l a h e r t y .  #36-1974.  SC.  Bow f o r bow d r i l l ,  Thule c u l t u r e , near  i v o r y , 16 7/10" l o n g .  of Man, Ottawa.  Source:  Collection: Vastokas,  #38-1974.  N a t i o n a l Museum  1971/72, p. 71.  Figure 9  T u d l i k (Loon).  F i g u r e 10  F i s h Lake.  F i g u r e 11  Arctic Waterfall.  #15-1976.  SC and s t e n c i l  F i g u r e 12  S p r i n g Landscape.  #53-1977.  SC and SS.  F i g u r e 13  Shores o f the S e t t l e m e n t .  F i g u r e 14  Umingmuk (Musk-ox).  #37-1966.  Arctic  SC.  SC.  1978.  1979-commission. Lithograph.  (SS) . »  Lithograph.  F i g u r e 15  Naujaq U m i a l l u ( S e a g u l l and B o a t s ) .  F i g u r e 16  E a g l e C a r r y i n g Han.  #34-1963.  F i g u r e 17  Spirits.  SC.  F i g u r e 18  P e r i l s of the Hunter.  F i g u r e 19  Sea Goddess H e l d by B i r d .  F i g u r e 20  Sedna.  F i g u r e 21  Middle: Culture.  #36-1966.  #24-1.76.  Lithograph.  SC.  #38-1970.  SC.  #21-1961.  SS.  SC.  Female f i g u r i n e s .  I g l o o l i k area Thule  I v o r y , l e n g t h 1%" t o 2".  Eskimo Museum, C h u r c h i l l . p.  1978.  Collection:  Source:  S w i n t o n , 1972,  117.  Bottom:  Bird figurines.  I g l o o l i k area Thule C u l t u r e .  I v o r y , l e n g t h I V t o 2". Museum, C h u r c h i l l .  Collection:  Source:  Eskimo  S w i n t o n , 1972, p. 117.  F i g u r e 22  Woman W i t h B i r d Image.  #14-1961.  F i g u r e 23  Shaman's D w e l l i n g .  F i g u r e 24  Two Loons a t Sea.  #52-1979.  SC and SS.  F i g u r e 25  Thoughts o f Home.  #62-1975.  Lithograph.  F i g u r e 26  L a r g e Loon and Landscape.  F i g u r e 27  M e t i q on M a l l i k (Duck on a Wave).  F i g u r e 28  V i s i o n o f Two W o r l d s .  F i g u r e 29  Musk-ox i n t h e C i t y .  F i g u r e 30  Dream o f Bear.  F i g u r e 31  Bottom r i g h t :  #32-1975.  SC.  #27-1981.  #19-1983. #56-1979.  #12-1976.  SS.  #39-1983.  vi  SC.  L i t h o g r a p h and SS. SC and SS.  SC.  Landscape w i t h C a r i b o u .  Lithograph.  Lithograph.  1977.  F i g u r e 32  T i m i a t Nunamiut (The Body of Land). graph.  Habitat  commission.  Source:  p. 73. F i g u r e 33  The Seasons.  1976.  vi i  Lithograph.  1976.  Litho-  D o r s e t , 1981,  Chapter I  INTRODUCTION  The  r e l a t i o n s h i p between a r t and  Eskimo c u l t u r e had and  Inuit).  been a c l o s e one  Consideration  r e l i g i o n w i t h i n the  (see G l o s s a r y  and  intensely personal.  observing  a complex taboo system ( L a n t i s , 1970,  so opened the way e n t i r e community.  f o r use of words Eskimo  of the p e o p l e f o r the s p i r i t  pervasive  traditional  Each i n d i v i d u a l was  world was  both  responsible for  p. 319).  F a i l u r e to  f o r a p o s s i b l e p e n a l t y which might have a f f e c t e d Every Eskimo t h e r e f o r e had  some e x p e r i e n c e  do  the  with,  or  knowledge about, the unknown. The shaman and  i n d i v i d u a l was  1970,  pp.  attendant  to the s p i r i t  world.  T h i s r e q u i r e d the d e s i g n i n g  c e r e m o n i a l o b j e c t s and 201  - 203).  amulets (Boas, 1888,  and p.  crafting  184,  I f amulets were worn as found (e.g. r a r e  and  a shaman, or someone c o n s i d e r e d WAG—1978, p. 203, T h i s might be,  and  spiritually gifted  Rasmussen, 1929,  pp.  150  and  minerals, with  (Winnipeg A r t G a l l e r y — 153,  and  1931,  p.  269).  f o r example, a c o n s i s t e n t l y s u c c e s s f u l h u n t e r .  T r a d i t i o n a l s c u l p t u r a l s k i l l s , u s u a l l y a t t a i n e d by men, c a r v i n g of stone,  bone, i v o r y and  existed alongside  the g r a p h i c  (and  of  Balikci,  t e e t h , f e a t h e r s ) , they were made e f f e c t i v e (powerful) through c o n t a c t  applique  The  h i s a s s i s t a n t s were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r l o o k i n g a f t e r extreme s i t u -  ations i n psychic a f f a i r s . s a c r e d and  a constant  i n some a r e a s , wood.  skills.  i n t r i c a t e t h a t an  These a c t i v i t i e s  P a r t of the woman's c r a f t was  l a t e r s t i t c h e d ) d e c o r a t i o n of p a r k a s .  so s p e c i f i c and  These d e s i g n s  informed i n d i v i d u a l c o u l d 1  were the  the  were  identify  the  2  exact geographic 1967,  p.  60).  l o c a t i o n and  Men's g r a p h i c a r t i n c l u d e d the i n c i s e d embellishment of  t o o l s , t u s k s , and  antlers.  cartographic s k i l l s . Fig.  f a m i l i a l background of the wearer (Houston,  A l s o n o t a b l e were p a r t i c u l a r l y  remarkable  The drawings documented i n Carpenter  (1973, p.  1) show maps which were t r a d i t i o n a l l y made i n the snow.  p l a y astounding  d e t a i l with regard  10;  They d i s -  to memory, o b s e r v a t i o n , and n a t u r a l -  i s t i c representation. The limited  Eskimo were nomadic.  to o b j e c t s o f n e c e s s i t y .  l o g i c a l t a l e s were p r e s e r v e d accuracy  Therefore, Poetry,  t h e i r m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e was  songs, and  r e l i g i o u s and  by a p r e c i s e o r a l t r a d i t i o n .  mytho-  The demand f o r  on the p a r t of the t e l l e r of myths ( o f t e n the shaman) i s e v i -  denced by how  w e l l the s t o r i e s have remained the same over  w i t h i n groups, and  s i m i l a r l y , a c r o s s the A r c t i c  (Rink,  the c e n t u r i e s  1874,  pp.  85  and  86) . The  a r r i v a l of the hunters  hundred y e a r s ago,  of the b l u e whale, approximately  marked the s t a r t of i n c r e a s e d k a b l u n a i t - I n u i t (see  Glossary f o r t r a n s l a t i o n s ) i n t e r a c t i o n . i z a t i o n of a r t i s t i c p r o d u c t i o n . or f u n c t i o n a l . never c a r v e d .  Amulets now T h i s was  T h i s c o n t r i b u t e d to the s e c u l a r -  C a r v i n g became predominantly  c o n s i s t e d o n l y of found  the a c t u a l b e g i n n i n g  decorative,  o b j e c t s , and  were  of commercial p r o d u c t i o n  I n u i t a r t (George Swinton i n Canadian Eskimo A r t s p.  two  Council—CEAC—1971,  39). Throughout the whole n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h e r e was a steady demand f o r Eskimo s o u v e n i r c a r v i n g s i n the E a s t e r n A r c t i c . As e a r l y as 1812, w h i l e s t o p p i n g a t Upper Savage I s l a n d i n the Hudson S t r a i t , McKeevor (1819) watched how n a t i v e s ". . . no sooner got a l o n g s i d e than they began to t r a f f i c " ( M a r t i j n , 1964, p. 559).  of  3  These p i e c e s made f o r t r a d e were s m a l l models d e s c r i p t i v e of daily tasks.  S i g n i f i c a n t l y , the word  'model', when t r a n s l a t e d , i s the  o n l y word i n I n u k t i t u t which approximates ours of sananguaq which comes from s a n a — m a k i n g , and (Swinton i n CEAC, 1971,  p. 38).-  At the t u r n of the n i n e t e e n t h teachers  the g r a p h i c following  T h i s word i s  nguaq-—the i d e a of a model  That i s , a h a n d - c r a f t e d  d u c t i o n of a r e a l i t y , whether a c t u a l or  and  'art'.  q u a l i t y repro-  imagined.  century  s u p p l i e d the m a t e r i a l s f o r , and  Euro-American m i s s i o n a r i e s i n t r o d u c e d , drawing.  That  impulse a l r e a d y e x i s t e d i s noted above, as w e l l as by  the  anecdote:  The f i r s t drawings were done w i t h a j a c k k n i f e and a spoon on windows: When the window was f r o s t e d - the window of a b u i l d i n g - the f r o s t was scraped w i t h a spoon. We would put the spoon i n our mouths and make i t warm t h a t was how i t was done when we were s t i l l r e a l Eskimos. We were not t o l d by the w h i t e men how to draw; we d i d i t by o u r s e l v e s when we were c h i l d r e n . ( P e t e r P i t s e o l a k , 1976, p. 41) The Hudson's Bay resulted  kabluna presence (whalers, Co.  s t a f f ) was  very  m i s s i o n a r i e s , t r a d e r s , RCMP,  strongly f e l t .  This increased  i n the d i s r u p t i o n of the I n u i t l i f e s t y l e — i n  economic and  belief  systems.  The  particular  contact the  i n t r o d u c t i o n of the white man's t o o l s  and  f i r e a r m s s e v e r e l y l i m i t e d the amount of c a r v i n g which a hunter need  do,  and  1974,  caused the breakdown of t r a d i t i o n a l h u n t i n g  p. 3 ) .  Men  no  l o n g e r needed to hunt i n groups and  became more c o m p e t i t i v e w i t h one cooperation  and  systems (Graburn,  another.  they  Age-old laws of  gradually  in-group  s h a r i n g were s h a t t e r e d .  H u n t i n g f o r o u t s i d e r s i n exchange f o r southern r e l i g i o u s r e l a t i o n s h i p between man hunting were changed (WAG,  1978,  and  goods a l t e r e d the  the animal w o r l d .  p. 227).  I t was  no  The  longer  reasons f o r  the shamans'  4 powers and h u n t e r s ' r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s toward the s p i r i t s which were l i e v e d to t i l t  the b a l a n c e between man  and h i s prey,  F u r t h e r , the e c o l o g i c a l system which had  be-  i n man's f a v o u r .  e a s i l y accommodated the  frugal  s u b s i s t e n c e h u n t i n g p r a c t i c e s of the I n u i t , r e e l e d under the p r e s s u r e of the commercial  onslaught.  From the d e p r e s s i o n onward, the white f o x f u r t r a d e , which had been the p r i n c i p a l means of support 1964,  p. 50).  P e l t s which had  o n l y t h i r t y d o l l a r s i n 1930.  f o r the I n u i t , c o l l a p s e d  s o l d f o r f i f t y d o l l a r s i n 1929 Southern  c r e a s e of t w e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t .  p. 4 ) .  The p r i c e c o n t i n u e d  Government r e l i e f  income f o r most I n u i t  brought i n  goods were s u b j e c t to a p r i c e i n to drop and would  never a g a i n r i s e s u f f i c i e n t l y to keep up w i t h Southern 1962,  (Jenness,  i n f l a t i o n (Iglauer,  cheques became the p r i n c i p a l source of  ( I g l a u e r , 1962,  p. 53).  Often faced with  starvation,  the people became i n c r e a s i n g l y dependent upon the K a b l u n a i t f o r m a t e r i a l aid. The  F e d e r a l Government, r e a l i z i n g  people of the North  i t s moral r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to the  (as w e l l as the p o l i t i c a l l y  strategic position  and'  r e s o u r c e w e a l t h of the l a n d ) , made a number of attempts to p r o v i d e a f i n a n c i a l base f o r the A r c t i c efforts failed  (Jenness,  1964,  pp.  79f and  p. 109).  These  e i t h e r because the n e c e s s a r y n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s were non-  renewable and/or e a s i l y d e p l e t e d ; o r , as i n the case of r e i n d e e r h e r d i n g , because the people were f o r c e d i n t o an u n f a m i l i a r p r a c t i c e of a r i g i d timetable. Government s u b s i d i s e d a r t s and c r a f t s p r o j e c t s were t h e r e f o r e begun f o r e s s e n t i a l l y economic r e a s o n s .  As noted,  c r a f t p r o d u c t i o n was  What was  not a new  concept.  s e c u l a r , commercial new  was  the extent to  which these commercial had been t r i e d  e n t e r p r i s e s were o r g a n i z e d .  i n the past (Swinton,  1972,  i n s i g h t and p e r s e v e r e n c e which r e s u l t e d  p. 124).  Handicraft projects I t was  James Houston'  in this effort's v i r t u a l  immme-  d i a t e success. As c a r v i n g had g e n e r a l l y been a m a l e - o r i e n t e d t a s k , i t was hunters who 1940's. hunt  were i n i t i a l l y a t t r a c t e d  I f the weather was  (Houston,  1967,  T h i s supplemented  to the s c u l p t u r e p r o j e c t i n the l a t e  f a v o u r a b l e , the men  pp. 20 and  21).  were f r e e to pursue  I f i t became bad,  t h e i r incomes so t h a t they might  the l u x u r y goods from the South  the  the  they c o u l d c a r v e .  c o n t i n u e to  purchase  ( t h i s term i s used from the N o r t h e r n  p e r s p e c t i v e ) , to which they had become accustomed, without b e i n g dependent upon the F e d e r a l W e l f a r e a g e n c i e s .  As one a r t i s t  solely  s a i d of her  b e g i n n i n g s i n the g r a p h i c s p r o j e c t : I d i d n ' t want to be j u s t a person, not doing a n y t h i n g . I wanted to make something out o f myself and to buy some food . . . That's the way we l i v e today - w i t h money. (Pitaloosie i n WAG, 1980a, p. 25) Houston encouraged  p r o d u c t i o n and the c a r v e r was  pensated w i t h c r e d i t a t the Hudson's Bay  immediately com-  Company o u t l e t .  Whereas i n the  p a s t animal s k i n s had been the p r i n c i p a l source o f c r e d i t a t the s t o r e s , s c u l p t u r e s now p. 16).  I t was  hunter, who  became the g e n e r a l l y accepted commodity (Graburn, soon the most p r o l i f i c  r e c e i v e d the most c r e d i t .  1971,  a r t i s t , r a t h e r than the s u c c e s s f u l A c c o r d i n g l y , p r e s t i g e systems  showed s i g n s o f change. Many people s t i l l t r a d i t i o n a l manner.  lived  i n what outwardly appeared  However, h u n t i n g f o r the white man  to be  the  and u s i n g h i s  t o o l s had a l r e a d y shaken the r o o t s of s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , and had a l t e r e d extremely deep f e e l i n g s f o r the animal and s p i r i t w o r l d .  Never-  6  t h e l e s s , by s t i l l the  living  c l o s e to the l a n d , memories of and f e e l i n g s f o r  ' o l d ways' ( t h e times when the people were s t i l l  nomadic) remained  strong. T h i s would n o t have been too d i f f i c u l t Dorset,  the f i r s t Northern  Kingnait  artistic  community.  f o r the people o f Cape Known i n i n u k t i t u t as  ( t h e 'high l a n d ' ) , i t i s l o c a t e d on the Foxe P e n i n s u l a ,  Baffin Island.  In the l a t e 1950's i t was s t i l l  a relatively  spot c o n s i s t i n g o f t h r e e hundred semi-nomadic I n u i t and seven  south  isolated whites  (Houston, 1960, p. 8 ) . The p r o d u c t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g of c o o p e r a t i v e s , o f which the a r t s and c r a f t s i s o n l y one type, r a p i d l y became a source of p r i d e f o r the people (Graburn, Northern in  1971, p. 116).  They were i n i t i a l l y begun to boost both the  economy and community  efforts.  The i n t e n t was  to employ  Inuit  s p e c i f i c t r a d e s ( e . g . h u n t i n g , house and boat b u i l d i n g , m u n i c i p a l  s e r v i c e s , e t c . ) , and to p r o v i d e i n d i v i d u a l incomes ( I g l a u e r , 1962, x i ) . All of  r e s i d u a l monies were r e t u r n e d to the community as a whole i n the form e i t h e r cash o r goods. By the e a r l y s i x t i e s the c o o p e r a t i v e s i n many communities had  s t a r t e d t h e i r own r e t a i l o u t l e t s i n c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h those o f the Hudson's Bay Company (Graburn,  1971, p. 116).  By the l a t e 1970's they had become  the l a r g e s t s i n g l e employer of I n u i t i n Canada. Every year about s i x - a n d - a - h a l f m i l l i o n d o l l a r s go out to c o o p e r a t i v e members i n wages, s a l a r i e s , f o r goods produced - i n c l u d i n g the works o f a r t c h e r i s h e d a l l over the world - and o t h e r payments. A f t e r o n l y two decades, the A r c t i c c o o p e r a t i v e s a r e g e n e r a t i n g more money i n t h i s annual s i x - a n d - a - h a l f m i l l i o n i n wages and o t h e r r e l a t e d payments than the t o t a l amount of l o a n s and g r a n t s put into, them by a l l l e v e l s of government d u r i n g the p a s t twenty y e a r s . (Iglauer, 1962, x)  7  Since i t s s t a r t  i n 1959, t h e West B a f f i n Co-op i n Cape Dorset has r e c e i v e d  the c a r v i n g s and drawings from t h e a r t i s t s ,  seen to t h e i r commissions, and  a l s o ensured t h a t t h e i r p r o f i t s from s a l e s i n the South have been r e t u r n e d to t h e community. The commercialism o f the a r t s p r o j e c t s i n the N o r t h i s , f o r many, the most d i f f i c u l t h u r d l e "in the path toward of t h e I n u i t .  the a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the a r t s  T h i s paper w i l l f o l l o w George Swinton's l e a d i n t h i s  r e s p e c t , and o t h e r s , i n the b e l i e f  that:  The a b i l i t y t o a c h i e v e good r e s u l t s d e s p i t e - o r because o f a d v e r s i t y seems to be one o f the r e a l t r a d i t i o n s o f Eskimo a r t and m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f w i t h o r w i t h o u t commercialism. (Swinton, 1972, p. 127) So-called paintings.  'airport  (gift  shop) a r t ' e x i s t s as do Woolworth's v e l v e t  Neither d i s a l l o w the p o s s i b i l i t y of q u a l i t y production with-  i n t h e same c u l t u r e . S i m i l a r l y , a commercial  c o r n e r s t o n e does n o t p r e d i c a t e a s i t u a -  t i o n w i t h s o l e l y monetary b e n e f i t s .  That i s , much good can (and has)  come about f o r t h e p e o p l e o f the North as a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f t h e a r t s and c r a f t s  project.  As c h r o n i c l e r o f h i s community, t h e a r t i s t  i s giving expression  t o , i n an e x c i t i n g and p e r s o n a l manner, events which were p r e v i o u s l y o n l y seen o r done. form to i d e a s . is laid  Or, he may attempt t h e even more e l u s i v e — g i v i n g  The s u b j e c t matter, t h e e f f l u e n c e o f a d i s t i n c t i v e p a s t ,  o u t f o r o t h e r s to attempt to r e a d .  In the f u t u r e t h e time may come when t h e I n u i t no l o n g e r hunt game. T h e r e f o r e I r e c o r d on paper t h e s e events from the spoken word o f my p e o p l e and from my i m a g i n a t i o n . (Kananginak Pootoogook i n D o r s e t , 1981, p. 9) A l t e r a t i o n s brought about by the t r a u m a t i c i n t r i c a c i e s of an  8 a c e u l t u r a t i v e p r e s e n t , emphasize the e x p r e s s i v e p o t e n t i a l of the  arts.  That i s , the communication of a r e s o l u t i o n o f t e n s i o n s and doubts whether o f a l i e n a t i o n o r a n x i e t y o v e r p a s s i v e a c c e p t a n c e of the changes 1966,  p. 21).  The work may  be an a i d to making the c u l t u r a l changes im-  p l i c i t to the a c e u l t u r a t i v e s i t u a t i o n ( H e r s k o v i t s , 1959, as T i v i E t o o k s a i d :  I n the  (Jirth,  p. 63).  For,  past  . . . though we spent months a l o n e on the l a n d , we d i d not f e a r a n y t h i n g except hunger. Now we do not f i n d hunger but we f i n d f e a r . I n the p a s t we were never l o s t . Now we do not know where we a r e g o i n g . (1975, p. 9) Although  t h e r e a r e i n s t a n c e s i n w h i c h b o t h the i n c e n t i v e and  reward f o r c r a f t p r o d u c t i o n i s the f i n a n c i a l one, P u d l a t , who new  a r t i s t s such as Pudlo  w i l l be the main s u b j e c t o f t h i s paper, r i s e above t h i s .  c r e a t i v e underpinnings,  He may  then  i d e a s and a e s t h e t i c c o n c e p t s and r e a f f i r m h i s t e c h n i c a l and  aesthetic a b i l i t i e s . new  The  w h i c h a r e r e p l a c i n g the r e l i g i o u s b a s i s o f  the p a s t , a l l o w the a r t i s t to u t i l i z e f o r e i g n c o n c e p t s . a c q u i r e new  only  W h i l e e x p r e s s i n g h i s c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e he may  p e r s p e c t i v e s on o l d e r i d e a s ( F r a s e r , 1966,  p.  develop  19).  Many of the i s s u e s r a i s e d i n t h i s paper have a l r e a d y s u r f a c e d i n catalogues  on I n u i t a r t and a r t i s t s .  These g e n e r a l l y examine a p a r t i c u l a r  theme or s u b j e c t and the r e l e v a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f many a r t i s t s . g r a p h s , when they do o c c u r , o f t e n tend to be l i m i t e d to f o r m a l  Monoanalyses  of the a r t i s t s ' o e u v r e s . P u d l o ' s p r i n t s a l l o w i n s i g h t i n t o a man  who  s u c c e s s f u l l y made  the t r a n s i t i o n from the nomadism of the p a s t to s e t t l e m e n t l i f e i n Cape Dorset.  He was  r e a s o n and emotional  chosen t o be the f o c a l p o i n t of t h i s essay f o r t h a t  because, as w i l l be seen, h i s works d i s p l a y a d e p t h and a e s t h e t i c s e n s i b i l i t y .  considerable  That i s , he o f f e r s us a  g l i m p s e i n t o a w o r l d f a r removed from our e x p e r i e n c e s .  By c o n c e n t r a t i n g  on Pudlo we u n d e r l i n e t h e premise t h a t " i n d i v i d u a l i t y i s t h e foremost c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f Eskimo a r t " ( S w i n t o n , 1972, p. 143).  I r e t u r n t o my l i t t l e sdng And p a t i e n t l y I s i n g i t Above f i s h i n g h o l e s i n t h e i c e Else I too q u i c k l y t i r e When f i s h i n g upstream When t h e wind blows c o l d Where I s t a n d s h i v e r i n g Not g i v i n g m y s e l f t i m e t o w a i t f o r them I go home s a y i n g I t was t h e f i s h t h a t f a i l e d - upstream - South B a f f i n I s l a n d ( L e w i s , 1971, p. 76)  10  Chapter I I  THE  CRAFT REVIVAL AND AN INTRODUCTION TO PUDLO  The Houstons (Alma and James) f i r s t  introduced  the a r t s and c r a f t s  p r o j e c t , s p e c i f i c a l l y s c u l p t u r e , to Cape Dorset i n 1951 ( f o r a d e t a i l e d account see Houston, 1967, and Swinton, 1972).  When d i s c u s s i n g the i d e a  w i t h Pootoogook, the most i n f l u e n t i a l i n d i v i d u a l and hunter o f the a r e a , and  f a t h e r of the long-time president  of t h e a r t s and c r a f t s co-op, he  s a i d t h a t he would n e i t h e r h e l p nor h i n d e r (Alma Houston i n WAG, In f a c t ,  1980a, p. 15). One year l a t e r he was a c o n t r i b u t o r .  i t was g e n e r a l l y the most s u c c e s s f u l hunters who were  attracted artists  the p r o g r e s s o f t h e p r o j e c t  to s c u l p t i n g .  initially  They were a l s o o f t e n the most accomplished  (Graburn, 1971, p.  116).  P r i n t - m a k i n g was o r g a n i z e d  i n 1957 (see N a t i o n a l Museum o f Man,  1977).  W i t h i t s development came t h e i n c r e a s e d  p a r t i c i p a t i o n of I n u i t  women.  A l t h o u g h t r a d i t i o n a l Eskimo s o c i e t y was n e a r l y p e r f e c t l y e g a l i -  t a r i a n , c a r v i n g d i d tend to f i t i n t o the men's c r a f t .  Therefore,  few  women took an a c t i v e p a r t i n t h e a r t s and c r a f t s p r o j e c t p r i o r t o t h e growth o f drawing and p r i n t - m a k i n g  (Berry,  1966).  James Houston spent f i v e months i n 1958 i n Japan ( N a t i o n a l Museum of Man, 1977, p. 4 0 ) . There he l e a r n e d s p e c i f i c a l l y Japanese w o o d - c u t t i n g . o r g a n i z a t i o n and s t y l i s t i c  about p r i n t - m a k i n g  techniques,  T h i s a f f e c t e d both the workshop  q u a l i t i e s o f I n u i t p r i n t s (Houston, 1967,  p. 21, and Vastokas, 1971/72, p. 7 1 ) . The noted b o l d - s i l h o u e t t e d i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h b l a n k b i t s o f paper, and the framed s y l l a b i c 11  forms  signature,  12  a r e two t r a i t s o f Japanese o r i g i n which o c c u r r e d i n t h e e a r l y p r i n t s (see Appendix  #2).  S u g g e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g s u b j e c t m a t t e r and s t y l e were made by Houston, who the N o r t h .  was  the f i r s t o f a stream o f Southern a r t i s t i c a d v i s o r s to  M a r k e t i n g m a t t e r s such as d i s t r i b u t i o n , q u a n t i t y , and  c o n t r o l were l a t e r p o l i c e d by the Canadian Eskimo A r t Committee founded  price (CEAC),  i n 1961, and the Canadian A r c t i c P r o d u c e r s L i m i t e d (CAP),  i n 1965.(Vastokas,  1971/72, p. 7 ) ,  The c o u n t e r p a r t o f CAP  founded  i n Nouveau  Quebec i s La F e d e r a t i o n des C o o p e r a t i v e s du Nouveau Quebec (FCNQ). The f a v o u r i t e s u b j e c t m a t t e r o f contemporary  I n u i t a r t and i n  p a r t i c u l a r , t h e I n u i t p r i n t , a r e t h e ' o l d ways' o r the times when the p e o p l e were s t i l l nomadic.  The Southern market c e r t a i n l y had a d e t e r -  mining e f f e c t i n t h i s matter.  The  ' o l d ways' a r e p r e f e r r e d i n p a r t  because the s u b j e c t s meet w i t h t h e Euro-American t r u l y I n u i t ( S w i n t o n , 1972, p. 127).  i m p r e s s i o n o f what i s  T h i s has been c o u p l e d w i t h Houston's  hope t h a t : these p e o p l e who l a c k the w r i t t e n word may y e t g i v e us i n g r a p h i c terms t h e i r v i v i d concept of l i f e as i t i s l i v e d on the v a s t t u n d r a t h a t i s A r c t i c Canada. (Houston, 1956, p. 224) Jenness n o t e s t h a t the s e l e c t i o n of s u b j e c t m a t t e r , i n the drawi n g s which he d i s c u s s e s i n h i s 1922 p u b l i c a t i o n , was a l s o r e l a t e d to economic importance f o r the p e o p l e .  That i s , f a v o u r e d s u b j e c t s were t h o s e  w h i c h were most f a m i l i a r and/or of g r e a t e s t i n t e r e s t t o t h e I n u i t , namely, a n i m a l and h u n t i n g scenes.  The t r a d i t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p t o , and  cance o f , t h e s e themes had a l r e a d y been undermined.  signifi-  Yet, the a r t i s t s  c o n t i n u e d t o d e p i c t t h e beauty of t h e c r e a t u r e s w i t h a r e s p e c t  perhaps  tempered by t h e memory of t h e f e e l i n g s of communion w i t h t h e a n i m a l w o r l d .  13  Images o f t h e m y s t e r i e s and myths o f t h e past have, perhaps  for similar  r e a s o n s , become i n c r e a s i n g l y p o p u l a r (Cape Dorset Annual G r a p h i c s C o l l e c t i o n , D o r s e t , 1981, p. 8 ) . Perhaps  i n p a r t as a r e s u l t o f g r e a t e r female i n p u t , s u b j e c t  matter was expanded t o i n c l u d e scenes from d a i l y l i f e around A l t h o u g h t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e p r e s e n t a r e markedly of  t h e campsite.  d i f f e r e n t from  those  t h e p a s t , one can imagine t h a t t h e d i s t i n c t i v e , b a r r e n t u n d r a and  h a r s h c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s s e r v e as a c o n t i n u a l reminder o f a l i f e which had been d i c t a t e d by those elements  (Ray,  1977, p. 6 6 ) .  AN INTRODUCTION TO PUDLO  Pudlo began to make t h e change away from Qeatuk, a nearby camp, toward was  settlement l i f e  starting  i n Cape Dorset j u s t as t h e p r i n t - m a k i n g p r o j e c t  ( D o r s e t , 1977, p. 63).  Born t o Quppa and P u d l a t , Pudlo's  b i r t h d a t e i s now r e c o r d e d as February 4 t h , 1916, t h e exact date n o t b e i n g known.  He was born near Kamajuk, a campsite on Amadjuak Bay ( D o r s e t , 1977,  p. 63; 1979, p. 65; 1983, p. 11). Most o f h i s c h i l d h o o d was spent i n s m a l l camps on South B a f f i n I s l a n d , Coates and Southampton I s l a n d s . his  first  w i f e , Meetik,  He m a r r i e d  i n Cape Dorset and then h e r s i s t e r , Q u i v i r o k .  Both o f t h e s e women d i e d w h i l e Pudlo was r e l a t i v e l y young. The f o u r c h i l d r e n from h i s f i r s t  marriage d i e d i n i n f a n c y and t h e  o n l y son of h i s second m a r r i a g e , K e l l i p e l l i k , d i e d i n 1968.  Pudlo  m a r r i e d t h e widowed I n u k j u a k j u k ( l a t e r a l s o an a r t i s t ) i n t h e l a t e Together  1940's.  they had s i x c h i l d r e n , o f whom o n l y t h r e e daughters have s u r v i v e d . In  t h e l a t e f i f t i e s he and I n u k j u a k j u k (who i s now a l s o dead)  moved t o Cape Dorset t h a t he might  r e c e i v e medical a t t e n t i o n f o r h i s  14  r i g h t arm w h i c h was T h i s was  i n j u r e d i n a h u n t i n g a c c i d e n t ( D o r s e t , 1983,  p.  11).  one of the most common r e a s o n s f o r an I n u i t f a m i l y ' s s w i t c h to  settlement  l i f e (Schwartz,  s t i l l able-bodied  1978,  pp.  33 and 3 7 ) .  f e l t the p r e s s u r e to move.  Even those who  were  Government o f f i c i a l s  s t r o n g l y recommended the need f o r I n u i t c h i l d r e n to r e c e i v e a Southern education. The  traditional lifestyle  f l u e n c e d by w h i t e c o n t a c t .  t h a t Pudlo l e f t was  Nonetheless,  already heavily i n -  l e a v i n g the r e l a t i v e l y  small  h u n t i n g camps and e n t e r i n g communities w h i c h would r a p i d l y grow i n number and f u r t h e r a l t e r the p e o p l e ' s e x i s t e n c e , was  a traumatic  experience.  T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n s e r v e s to g i v e a b a s i c i d e a of P u d l o ' s background, his  s o c i a l environment, and  he began h i s new Pudlo was ways had memories.  the p r e s s u r e s w i t h w h i c h he was  d e a l i n g when  career i n drawing. a h u n t e r and a l t h o u g h w i t h i n h i s t i m e much of the o l d  been eroded away, t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e i n h i s work of  powerful  Images o f a t i m e when the h u n t e r w a i t e d p a t i e n t l y and  on the s t i l l ,  immense t u n d r a f o r the r e s u m p t i o n of the hunt.  quietly  A discipline  and a c o n c e n t r a t i o n a l l o w i n g r e v e r i e , perhaps to a d i f f e r e n t degree, but made of a s t u f f s i m i l a r to t h a t o f the shaman's ( L a n t i s , 1970, and 335).  Due  313  t o the s e n s i t i v e d e a l i n g s w i t h s o u l s p i r i t s , h u n t i n g  w i t h o u t a doubt, a s p i r i t u a l p. 128).  pp.  a c t w i t h s a c r e d commitments ( S w i n t o n ,  was, 1972,  These f a c t o r s make the contemporary a r t i s t / h u n t e r the most  l i k e l y r e c o r d e r o f among o t h e r s , shamanic images (WAG,  1978,  p.  215).  Chapter I I I  A REVIEW OF PUDLO'S GRAPHIC TECHNIQUES  Due extent.  to h i s i n j u r y , Pudlo d i d n o t pursue c a r v i n g to any g r e a t  Drawing became h i s s t r e n g t h .  H i s f i r s t p r i n t s were p u b l i s h e d i n  the 1961 Annual Cape D o r s e t C a t a l o g u e . These works a r e , i n many ways, exemplary of what i s now r e c o g n i z e d as b e i n g s t y l i s t i c a l l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Cape D o r s e t p r i n t s o f t h e time ( V a s t o k a s , 1971/72, p. 7 1 ) . or s i l h o u e t t e s .  The f i g u r e s a r e u s u a l l y l a r g e , f l a t masses,  The use of b o t h c o l o u r and d e t a i l i s l i m i t e d .  The  b o l d l y executed forms a r e complemented w i t h an a c u t e awareness o f the a e s t h e t i c p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f n e g a t i v e space.  That i s , a l t h o u g h the  grounds' a r e g e n e r a l l y 'empty', they i n t e r a c t w i t h t h e f i g u r a l and h e i g h t e n t h e d e s i g n q u a l i t y o f t h e s u r f a c e . tend to appear s t a t i c , i f not r i g i d . i m p l i c i t movement (WAG,  'back-  elements  Single figures generally  Groups u s u a l l y e v i d e n c e a c t u a l o r  1980, p. 4 3 ) .  A d r a m a t i c i l l u s t r a t i o n of an e a r l y p r i n t i s P u d l o ' s S p i r i t W i t h Symbols ( F i g . 2 ) .  As w i t h most o f t h e c o m p o s i t i o n s o f t h i s t i m e , the  figure i s centrally located.  B o t h the f a c e ( o r mask) and k e y h o l e d e s i g n  on t h e t o r s o a r e r e n d e r e d i n p o s i t i v e elements a g a i n s t u n p r i n t e d background.  That i t i s a woman i s s p e c i f i c a l l y i n d i c a t e d by t h e l o n g t a i l  of the amautik ( t r a d i t i o n a l woman's p a r k a ) , as seen between her l e g s . The p a t t e r n o f the k e y h o l d p l a t e echoes t h e exaggerated b u l g e s of her b r e a s t s and h i p s .  S i m i l a r l y , t h e c u r v e o f the o b j e c t i n her l e f t hand  16 (a doorhandle?  See N a t i o n a l Museum of Man,  1977,  p. 24) i s complemented  by t h a t o f her l e g g i n g s . T h i s c o m b i n a t i o n of b a s i c symmetry and r e p e t i t i o n demonstrates Pudlo's  interest i n pattern.  T h i s p r e d i l e c t i o n i s r e p e a t e d i n what i s  c l o s e r to an a p p l i q u e s t y l e i n Man  i n F i s h Weir ( F i g . 3 ) .  once a g a i n i n t h e m i d d l e of t h e page.  The  image i s  A w e i r i s a t r a p made of stones i n  the water and i s used to c a t c h f i s h on t h e i r summer m i g r a t i o n u p - r i v e r . They a r e l i t e r a l l y t r a p p e d by t h e i r i n s t i n c t s , w h i c h w i l l not a l l o w them t o t u r n around and escape.  T h i s makes i t r e l a t i v e l y easy f o r the w a i t i n g  p e o p l e t o c a t c h the f i s h . The w e i r , the s t o n e s on w h i c h t h e male f i g u r e ( i n d i c a t e d by s m a l l p a r k a hood—women have a l a r g e hood i n w h i c h the baby, on  the  the  mother's back, i s p r o t e c t e d ) s t a n d s , and the f i g u r e i t s e l f a r e t h e c e n t r e o f a c t i v i t y and b i s e c t t h e c o m p o s i t i o n . b i r d ' s - e y e vantage. the s p e c t a t o r .  The man  We  see the w e i r and water from a  i s a p p a r e n t l y s i t u a t e d on the same p l a n e  as  A number of b i r d s a t t h e 'top' a r e s i m i l a r l y seen from  such a p r o f i l e view.  Two  b i r d s a t t h e bottom of the page a r e t u r n e d  on  a f o r t y - f i v e degree a n g l e . Depth i s i n d i c a t e d by ( V a s t o k a s , 1971/72, p. 77).  ' p i l i n g ' f i g u r e s on top o f one  The b i r d s a t the 'top' a r e swimming.  i s i n d i c a t e d by t h e i r b o d i e s b e i n g t r u n c a t e d . a r e submerged.  We  another This  That i s , t h e lower p o r t i o n s  assume t h a t t h e o t h e r s a r e s t a n d i n g on r o c k s i n the  water. P u d l o ' s p e r s p e c t i v e i n t h i s work i s based on c o n t e n t r a t h e r than upon t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l space CCarpenter, F l a h e r t y , and V a r l e y , 1959, A l l of t h e elements of t h i s c o m p o s i t i o n a r e p l a c e d so t h a t t h e i r most  p. 1) .  17 r e c o g n i z a b l e . f e a t u r e s a r e most e v i d e n t i n the s i l h o u e t t e . the f i s h , which a r e the most i m p o r t a n t the l a r g e s t o b j e c t s .  The  a s p e c t o f the theme a r e ,  s e e m i n g l y random, a s y m m e t r i c a l  f i g u r e s c r e a t e s an i m p l i c a t i o n o f movement ( V a s t o k a s , and  77).  The  f i s h and ducks a t the  Similarly, relatively,  placement of  1971/72, pp.  73  'bottom' i n d i c a t e the water c u r r e n t .  T h i s p a r t i c u l a r manner of e x p r e s s i o n i s r e l a t e d to a s p e c i f i c of p e r c e i v i n g the w o r l d .  Edmund C a r p e n t e r  c a l l e d i t " a c o u s t i c space" (1960, pp.  and M a r s h a l l McLuhan have  65-70).  I t allows f o r depictions  w h i c h a r e as dynamic as n a t u r e i t s e l f f o r i t i s based on sound. may  hear a number of t h i n g s a t the same t i m e , so a r e the v a r i o u s  Of a s t o r y shown or r e l a t e d out of sequence. t h i n g s a t the same time w i t h o u t h a v i n g  way  As  one  aspects  B e i n g a b l e to hear v a r i o u s  to change one's own  f i n d s i t s v i s u a l c o r r e s p o n d e n t i n the c o m b i n a t i o n  position,  of v i e w p o i n t s .  This  t r a d i t i o n a l Eskimoan manner of s e n s a t i o n a l s o a c c o u n t s f o r the g r e a t e r a t t e n t i o n to n e g a t i v e space.  F o r , b e i n g a t t u n e d t o a l l o f the senses  a l l o w s f o r such n o n - t a c t i l e t h i n g s as sound and f r a g r a n c e to almost literally f i l l The  the a i r .  powerful  t a c t i l i t y of these e a r l y p r i n t s , t h e i r s o l i d i t y , i s  a r e f e r e n c e t o t h e i r a r t i s t i c p r e c e d e n t s i n Cape D o r s e t - — t h e ( D o r s e t , 1980,  p. 7 ) .  to o t h e r q u a l i t i e s .  I n the m i d - s i x t i e s t h i s aspect g r a d u a l l y gave W i t h the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f c o l o u r e d  i n c r e a s e i n the use of c o l o u r i n p r i n t s . f a i r l y subtle.  sculptures way  p e n c i l s came the  P u d l o ' s h a n d l i n g of i t remained  Even when h i s forms became more a b s t r a c t and hues appar-  e n t l y f l a m b o y a n t , the c o l o u r remained c l o s e to t h a t of  nature.  P u d l o began to show a growing i n t e r e s t i n a t t e n t i o n to the i n the form o f t e x t u r a l d e t a i l and m a r k i n g s .  T h i s was  the b e g i n n i n g  surface of  18  p r i n t - m a k i n g and drawing coming i n t o t h e i r own.  They were moving away  from t h e s c u l p t u r a l q u a l i t i e s toward t h e t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l as p r e c e d e n t e d i n i n c i s i n g (WAG,  1980a, p. 4 6 ) .  The f o l l o w i n g p r i n t i s an e a r l y example o f P u d l o ' s use of decor a t i v e and g e o m e t r i c elements. quite s c u l p t u r a l , i s lightened  S p i r i t Watching Games ( F i g . 4 ) , a l t h o u g h t h r o u g h t h e use o f l i n e a r e l e m e n t s .  T e x t u r a l markings w h i c h might be i m i t a t i v e of f e a t h e r s , on the wings and t a i l o f t h e s p i r i t .  are here s t y l i z e d  A ground l i n e was o f t e n used to  u n i t e the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n n a r r a t i v e scenes b o t h i n p r e h i s t o r i c g r a p h i c s and t h o s e of t h e r e c e n t p a s t ( V a s t o k a s , 1971/72, p. 7 7 ) . s e p a r a t e s t h e men w r e s t l i n g  Here, i t c l e a r l y  i n the c e n t r e and t h e women, from the s p i r i t  observer. V a s t o k a s r e p r o d u c e s a p e n c i l drawing by Enooesweetok ( F i g . 5, 1971/72, p. 72) from c a . 1913.  I n i t , a c a r i b o u hunt i s d e p i c t e d .  The  c e n t r e two l i n e s show the h u n t e r s l e a v i n g t h e camp w i t h empty s l e d s . the l i n e above, they a r e r e t u r n i n g w i t h t h e i r p r i z e . the men bou.  a r e seen t r a c k i n g .  row,  The n e x t one up, they a r e s t a l k i n g the c a r i -  F i n a l l y , a t t h e t o p , t h e chase, w i t h dogs.  the a n i m a l .  On the bottom  On  Below, the wounding of  Each t i e r o f t h e drawing i s u n i f i e d by a g r o u n d - l i n e and  the i m p l i c a t i o n o f the l a n d s c a p e .  However, t h e a c t u a l p i e c e s a r e not  o r g a n i z e d i n t o what we c a l l a s e q u e n t i a l  narrative.  From top to bottom  we see t h e chase, wounding, r e t u r n , d e p a r t u r e , s t a l k i n g , and  tracking.  As P e t e r P i t s e o l a k , sometimes n o t e d as t h e f i r s t h i s t o r i a n of t h e N o r t h ( R a i n e , 1980, p. 108), has s a i d o f h i s t a l e s : My s t o r y i s not i n sequence though i t seems t h a t way. Even our B i b l e i s not r e a l l y i n sequence. I n the B i b l e the f i r s t p e o p l e j u s t have a baby. And t h e newborn i s  19 a b l e t o do p o w e r f u l t h i n g s i n no t i m e . My s t o r y i s l i k e t h a t . I t i s n o t one t h i n g a f t e r a n o t h e r . (1975, p. 66) T h i s concept i s more e l a b o r a t e l y s t a t e d i n a n o t h e r e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y drawing o f a man h u n t i n g s e a l ( F i g . 6 ) . A g a i n we see a n a r r a t i v e , however t h e r e a r e n o t any g r o u n d - l i n e s d e m a r c a t i n g t h e various incidents.  I n t h e m i d d l e , t h e h u n t e r t r a v e l s by dog s l e d .  t h r e e l o c a t i o n s he and t h e dogs l o o k f o r a s e a l b r e a t h i n g h o l e . w a i t s , bends over s l i g h t l y as t h e s e a l approaches t h e n p r e p a r e s t o harpoon lower l e f t  it.  In  He  a t t h e t o p l e f t , and  The h u n t e r c a p t u r e s t h e a n i m a l i n t h e  scene.  F i s h Weir ( F i g . 3) i s perhaps more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h i s drawi n g i n i t s sense o f space.  However, t h e l a c k o f a t t e n t i o n t o unnecessary  d e t a i l and even anonymous ( o r s y m b o l i c ) f i g u r a t i o n may r e f e r back t o p r e h i s t o r i c t i m e s :  farther  s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e Thule (who i n h a b i t e d t h e  A r c t i c from c a . 1000 t o 1600 and a r e t h e d i r e c t a n c e s t o r s o f t h e contemp o r a r y I n u i t ) , as seen f o r example on t h e bows o f bow d r i l l s  (Jenness,  1922, p. 174 and F i g . 8 ) . I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e above two d r a w i n g s , t h e modern-ness o f S p i r i t W i t h Symbols ( F i g . 2 ) , F i s h Weir S p i r i t Watching  ( F i g . 3 ) , and  Games ( F i g . 4) l i e s i n t h e i r b o l d n e s s and a u r a o f m y s t e r y ,  beyond t h e s y m b o l i c , w h i c h pervades t h e images.  The f a c t t h a t they a r e  momentary, r a t h e r than n a r r a t i v e , scenes, i s a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t .  However,  t h i s t r a i t had been d e v e l o p i n g i n I n u i t g r a p h i c s s i n c e t h e e a r l y decades of t h i s c e n t u r y ( J e n n e s s , 1922, p. 173, and F i t z h u g h and K a p l a n , 1982, p. 175). P u d l o ' s Long Journey ( F i g . 7) i s s i m i l a r l y a c o m b i n a t i o n o f o l d and new m o t i f s .  We see a man i n t h e lower r i g h t - h a n d c o r n e r b e g i n n i n g  20 h i s j o u r n e y on f o o t .  H i s progress  i s traced to h i s d e s t i n a t i o n a t the  upper r i g h t o f t h e p a g e — a b u i l d i n g w i t h a c r o s s - t y p e shape on t h e top (see b e l o w ) .  On t h e way he passes many i n u k s u i t (man-made landmarks  g e n e r a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d o f s t o n e — s e e N a t i o n a l Museum o f Man, 1977, pp.  62 and 92, and B a l i k c i , 1970, p. 4 1 ) . The b l u e amoeba-type shapes  r e p r e s e n t l a k e s from an a e r i a l p e r s p e c t i v e . L i k e F i s h W e i r ( F i g . 3 ) , Long Journey i s e n c l o s e d w i t h t h e i m p l i c a t i o n o f a secondary frame.  I t i s a Thule t r a i t (Vastokas,  p. 73 and F i g . 8 ) , and one w h i c h Pudlo employs r e p e a t e d l y .  1971/72,  I t might a l s o  be l i k e n e d t o t h e P o v u n g n i t u k ( a n a r t i s t i c community i n Nouveau-Quebec) t r a d i t i o n o f showing t h e stone b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e p r i n t s .  By drawing  what l o o k s l i k e a t i m e l a p s e photograph, Pudlo has c r e a t e d a n a r r a t i v e w i t h a s i n g l e image. ments t h e r e b y The  The g r o u n d - l i n e u n i f i e s a s e r i e s o f r e l a t e d move-  implying s e q u e n t i a l time.  immediate s u c c e s s o f t h e a r t s and c r a f t s p r o j e c t and c o r r e -  sponding growth o f t h e s e n l a v i k (working p l a c e , i . e . t h e s t u d i o ) r e s u l t e d i n an i n c r e a s e o f i d e n t i t y f o r t h e I n u i t w i t h r e g a r d s an i n f l u x o f Euro-American c u l t u r e . and  t o t h e South, and  This increase i n c u l t u r a l  identity  t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e , coupled w i t h a c c u l t u r a t i o n , a l l o w e d t h e a r t i s t s  an even g r e a t e r w e a l t h o f sources  from w h i c h they might draw.  W i t h t h i s awareness o f t h e many s t y l i s t i c and f o r m a l which c o u l d be made from b o t h t h e p a s t and p r e s e n t , I n u i t (and s c u l p t u r e ) emphasized i t s m o d e r n i t y . this.  choices  print-making  Long Journey i s an example o f  The b o l d s i l h o u e t t e d forms o f t h e e a r l i e r y e a r s a r e combined w i t h .  an i n c r e a s e i n t e x t u r e , d e t a i l , and more complex m a n i p u l a t i o n  of c o l o u r .  S e q u e n t i a l t i m e and a c o u s t i c space o c c u r t o g e t h e r r e s u l t i n g i n a p a t t e r n  21 which creates a three-dimensional  e x p e r i e n c e d i s t i n c t i v e to P u d l o ' s work.  H i s l o v e f o r d e s i g n , and the g e o m e t r i c , and  t a l e n t f o r combining the n a t u r a l w i t h  the d e c o r a t i v e w i t h the f a c t u a l , i s perhaps most  s t r i k i n g i n his representations  of b i r d s .  I n T u d l i k (Loon, F i g . 9 ) ,  the  wading b i r d i s a d i s p l a y of b o t h i m a g i n a t i v e p a t t e r n and n a t u r a l u n d u l a tions.  The  the wing. The  l i n e of the neck and beak i s r e p e a t e d by the r i g h t s i d e of The  f e a t h e r s a r e o r n a t e l y s t y l i z e d as a r e the neck m a r k i n g s .  l i n e s o f the water p a r a l l e l some of those i n the b i r d ' s body.  metric  shapes a r e i n c l u d e d i n the t a i l  ( c i r c l e s ) , and neck ( s q u a r e s ) . from the waves.  The  The  ( t r i a n g l e s and  Geo-  c i r c l e s ) , wing  f e a t h e r s seem v i r t u a l l y l i k e s p r a y  colouring i s subtle.  T h i s almost g e o m e t r i c - t y p e of r e d u c t i o n from n a t u r e i s e v i d e n t i n P u d l o ' s l a n d s c a p e s as w e l l .  I n the e a r l i e r p a r t of h i s  career,  l a n d s c a p e , when i n c l u d e d , was  but a r e f e r e n c e or o u t l i n e , not a d e s c r i p -  tion.  F i s h Lake ( F i g . 10) a r e b o t h examples.  F i s h W e i r ( F i g . 3) and  the l a t t e r , the l a k e i s seen from above.  The  l a r g e f i s h a r e viewed from  the s i d e as a r e the s i l h o u e t t e d f i g u r e i n the f o r e g r o u n d and the f a r s h o r e .  B o t h the moon and  A r c t i c W a t e r f a l l ( F i g . 11) Pudlo's landscape s t y l e . composition.  red sun a r e i n the  i n u k s u i t on  sky.  i s exemplary of the mid-phase of  L i k e Long Journey ( F i g . 7 ) , i t i s an  enclosed  I n the f o r e g r o u n d a r e s i l h o u e t t e s of t h r e e i n u k s u i t , t h r e e  p e o p l e , and  two  scape.  season i s i n d i c a t e d by the c o l o u r , and  The  In  dogs.  They a r e dwarfed by a s p r i n g o r summertime l a n d f a c t t h a t the dogs  are c a r r y i n g packs i n s t e a d of p u l l i n g s l e d s . The  elements of t h i s l a n d s c a p e , as w i t h most of t h i s t y p e ,  s e t a g a i n s t a w h i t e background and  a r e s t y l i z e d i n t o l i n e s and  are  geometric  22 shapes. plexity.  I n S p r i n g Landscape ( F i g . 12), t h i s m o t i f t a k e s on g r e a t e r comAn e n c l o s e d  shape i s w i t h i n a n o t h e r and  number o f f i g u r e s and a b s t r a c t i o n s from n a t u r e . sealskin tent. men  who  The men  there are a l a r g e r I n the f o r e g r o u n d  is a  From i t to the mid-ground a r e the f o o t p r i n t s of the s i x  a r e i c e - f i s h i n g on what i s a p p a r e n t l y a l a k e seen from above. a r e h o l d i n g spears and w a i t i n g f o r the f i s h .  Pudlo continues  combine v i e w p o i n t s and t o d i s r e g a r d l i n e a r p e r s p e c t i v e .  to  In t h i s respect,  he c o n t i n u e s t o use the symbols o f the t r a d i t i o n a l I n u i t way  of  life.  T h i s c r e a t e s a s t i m u l a t i n g image w h i c h speaks of the s y n c h r o n i s t i c p e r c e p t i o n s of the ' o l d ways'.  I t i s s i m i l a r to the a l l - a r o u n d f e e l i n g  of a c o u s t i c space, and the a b i l i t y to p e r c e i v e a l l a s p e c t s o f the whole in i t s entirety.  T h i s c o n t r a s t e d t o t h e l i n e a r p r o c e s s of moving from  d e t a i l to d e t a i l . P u d l o i s an e x p e r i m e n t e r . graphy when i t was  He was  immediately  a t t r a c t e d to l i t h o -  i n t r o d u c e d to Cape D o r s e t i n 1971.  From 1971  Kay Graham spent a f a i r b i t of t i m e i n the community.  Her  to  presence  prompted Pudlo and a number of o t h e r a r t i s t s t o i n v e s t i g a t e the butes of a c r y l i c s as w e l l (Agnes E t h e r i n g t o n C e n t r e ,  1979,  1976  p.  attri-  20).  The p a r t i c u l a r appeal of l i t h o g r a p h y f o r some, i s t h a t i t narrows the gap between the drawing and p. 63).  The a r t i s t may  the f i n a l p r i n t p r o d u c t  (Dorset,  e x e c u t e t h e g r e a s e p e n c i l drawing on the same  s u r f a c e w h i c h w i l l e v e n t u a l l y be used f o r the a c t u a l p r i n t i n g . however, i s not t h e case w i t h P u d l o , who  freedom f r o m the l i m i t a t i o n s o f t e c h n i q u e  This,  p r e f e r s to r e t a i n the middleman  and work d i r e c t l y on paper (Agnes E t h e r i n g t o n C e n t r e ,  f l u e n c e d P u d l o ' s works.  1981,  1979,  p. 18).  seems to have g r e a t l y i n -  H i s s t o n e - c u t s were r e l a t i v e l y s t a t i c  and  This  23 c l o s e d i n by a frame.  S u b j e c t s were c e n t r a l l y p l a c e d and surrounded by  l a r g e amounts o f w h i t e paper. i s more open.  H i s new l a n d s c a p e s t y l e on t h e o t h e r hand  Use o f c o l o u r i s more complex and l i n e s a r e l o o s e r .  There i s a f l e x i b i l i t y o f form and o f t e n t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t t h e scene c o n t i n u e s beyond t h e paper edges ( D o r s e t , 1983, p. 12). L i n e a r p e r s p e c t i v e and a sense o f n a t u r a l i s m t a k e o v e r from a c o u s t i c  space.  C e r t a i n l y t h e r e a r e e x c e p t i o n s as q u a l i t i e s c r i s s - c r o s s o v e r t h e boundary.  However, u n t i l t h e merger i s complete, t h e comparison i s  o f t e n l i k e t h a t o f a Cezannesque s t i l l - l i f e t o t h e frame o f a m o t i o n picture. Shores o f t h e S e t t l e m e n t ( F i g . 1 3 ) , a commissioned erates Pudlo's e c l e c t i c i s m .  work, r e i t -  P a t t e r n i s created w i t h combinations of  c o l o u r s and c o n t r a s t i n g a r e a s o f l i g h t and d a r k .  The r o l l s o f t h e l a n d  i m i t a t e t h e movement t h a t one might expect t o see i n t h e w a t e r . the water i s l i k e a backdrop.  The s e a l ( o r w a l r u s ) s i t s almost  t u r a l l y on an i c e f l o w i n t h e mid-ground. and t h e many i n u k s u i t a r e s i l h o u e t t e d .  Instead, sculp-  I t , the hunter i n the boat,  The o l d e r p e r s p e c t i v a l t e c h n i q u e s  of p i l i n g , o v e r l a p p i n g ( n o t e t h e p r e - f a b b u i l d i n g s and l a n d s c a p e i n t h e f o r e g r o u n d ) and s c a l e r e d u c t i o n a r e combined t o h e i g h t e n b o t h t h e f e e l i n g of f l a t n e s s and p a t t e r n , w h i l e c r e a t i n g an almost n a t u r a l - l o o k i n g l a n d scape w h i c h c a p t u r e s t h e q u i e t o f t h e N o r t h . T h i s new l i g h t n e s s l e n d s i t s e l f w e l l t o making s t y l i s t i c r e f e r ences from t h e p a s t .  Two 1978 l i t h o g r a p h s , Umingmuk (Musk-ox, F i g . 14)  and Naujaq U m i a l l u ( S e a g u l l and B o a t s , F i g . 15), a r e d e l i c a t e l y rendered designs y e t n a t u r a l l y d e s c r i p t i v e . earlier  The s t y l e i s r e m i n i s c e n t o f t h e  drawings and i n c i s e d c a r v i n g s .  I n t h e f i r s t , musk-oxen a r e  24 s c a t t e r e d over t h e page on p a t c h e s o f l a n d s c a p e .  The second combines  t h r e e g r o u n d - l i n e s i n t o a s i n g l e scene.  P u d l o ' s e a r l y p r i n t s a r e as m y s t e r i o u s i n form as i n c o n t e n t . L a t e r on, g e o m e t r i c shapes and l i n e a r elements appear as e l e g a n t a b s t r a c t i o n s from n a t u r e .  From t h e o u t s e t one sees t h a t P u d l o i s a d e s i g n e r .  However, riot f o r t h e sake o f p a t t e r n i t s e l f , but r a t h e r t o u n i f y t h e page and m i r r o r t h e c o n t e n t . options. of  He c l e a r l y remains aware o f h i s s t y l i s t i c  I t w i l l be seen t h a t t h i s e c l e c t i c i s m , t y p i c a l o f t h e a r t i s t s  Cape D o r s e t , i n P u d l o ' s oeuvre becomes a complement t o h i s e q u a l l y  wide-ranged c o m b i n a t i o n o f symbols from t h e p a s t and p r e s e n t .  Hunter's I n v o c a t i o n I am ashamed, I f e e l humbled and a f r a i d . My grandmother sent me o u t Sent me o u t t o seek. I am o u t on an e r r a n d S e e k i n g t h e p r e c i o u s game, S e e k i n g t h e wandering f o x . But a l a s , i t may be I s h a l l f r i g h t e n away That which I seek. I am ashamed, I f e e l humbled and a f r a i d , My grandmother and great-grandmother Sent me o u t t o seek. I go on t h e i r e r r a n d a f t e r game, After the precious caribou But a l a s , i t may be I s h a l l f r i g h t e n away That w h i c h I seek. - Orpingalik (Colombo, 1981, p. 89)  25  Chapter IV  THE HUNTER/SHAMAN  I n t e g r a l t o t h e a p p r e c i a t i o n o f P u d l o ' s a r t i s t h e need t o have some u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f h i s l i f e as a h u n t e r .  P r i o r to the i n t r o d u c t i o n of  Euro-American t o o l s t o t h e N o r t h , t h e r e had been an unbroken c h a i n from t h e hunt t o t h e manufacture o f weapons t o t h e k i l l a g a i n (see David Gimmer i n Van S t e e n s e l , 1966, p. 2 6 ) .  That i s , t h e h u n t e r s c a p t u r e d t h e  a n i m a l s w h i c h p r o v i d e d f o o d and c l o t h i n g as w e l l as t h e implements which would f a c i l i t a t e c o n t i n u e d h u n t i n g .  The combined d i s c i p l i n e s o f n e c e s s i t y  and taboo c r e a t e d a s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h waste was v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e . As i n t h e case o f h u n t i n g c a r i b o u , a number o f methods were used by t h e Eskimo.  I n each c a s e , t h e emphasis was upon b o t h t h e p h y s i c a l and  mental a b i l i t i e s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l and p a r t i c u l a r l y h i s a b i l i t y t o coope r a t e w i t h o t h e r s ( B a l i k c i , 1970, pp. 3 7 f f ) . The ful  s u c c e s s f u l hunter b a l a n c e d a b o l d c o n f i d e n c e w i t h a r e s p e c t -  c a u t i o u s n e s s and an a c u t e s e n s i t i v i t y ( R a i n e , 1980, p. 8 2 ) .  Unnec-  e s s a r y chances were n o t t o be t a k e n , as t h e h a r s h A r c t i c environment knew no f a v o u r i t e s .  The i n d i v i d u a l had t o be c o n t i n u a l l y m i n d f u l o f t h e i n f o r -  mation r e c e i v e d from each o f h i s senses:  t h e s l i g h t e s t sound, t h e d i r e c -  t i o n o f t h e wind as i t brushed on h i s f a c e , o r t h e t e x t u r e o f t h e snow. The even-tempered t r a i t s which were p r e f e r r e d , i f n o t e x p e c t e d , o f i n d i v i d u a l s i n everyday l i f e  ( B r i g g s , 1970, pp. 328f and p a s s i m ) , were an  absolute n e c e s s i t y i n a s u c c e s s f u l hunter.  However, a deep e m o t i o n a l  i n t e n s i t y was evidenced by t h e e x t e n t o f t h e h u n t e r ' s p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h 26  27 the a n i m a l w o r l d . The t r a d i t i o n a l Eskimo pantheon c o n s i s t e d o f t h r e e c l a s s e s separ a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o f u n c t i o n , n o t power ( C a r p e n t e r , 1955, p. 6 9 ) . The f i r s t was o f t h e e a r t h l y s p i r i t s . t h a t l i v e d above t h e e a r t h . natural forces.  The second was t h e c l a s s o f s p i r i t s  They were e s s e n t i a l l y p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s o f t h e  L a s t l y was Sedna ( a l s o known as Sumna, T a l e e l a y o , e t c . ) .  She p r o t e c t e d t h e h u n t , s e a mammals, and t h e a f t e r - l i f e .  She i s comparable  to t h e g e n e r a l theme o f t h e L o r d o f A n i m a l s (Lommell, 1967a, pp. 27 and 28) . Each and e v e r y t h i n g i n c r e a t i o n whether l i v i n g o r i n a n i m a t e had an essence c a l l e d i t s i n u a ( V a s t o k a s , 1967, p. 2 7 ) . T h i s has been t r a n s l a t e d as "occupant, owner, d w e l l e r , o r inmate" ( W i l l i a m T h a b l i t z e r i n WAG, 1978, p. 4 7 ) . The i n u a " i s t h a t w h i c h g i v e s each l i v i n g t h i n g t h e p a r t i c u l a r appearance w h i c h i t h a s " and i s i n f a c t r e p r e s e n t e d as "a m i n i a t u r e image o f t h e c a r r i e r " (Lommell, 1967a, p. 3 0 ) . The s p i r i t u a l c h a i n between a l l l i v i n g t h i n g s was t h e r e f o r e unbroken and s t r o n g . T h i s bond was p a r t i c u l a r l y p o w e r f u l between men and a n i m a l s , f o r t h e r e was an a d d i t i o n a l commonality o f a s o u l f u l l i f e - f o r c e w h i c h guided t h o u g h t , f e e l i n g , and a c t i o n (Lommell, 1967a, p. 3 0 ) . T h i s made t h e l i v i n g t h i n g s s e n s i t i v e t o t h e same p r i n c i p l e s o f e x i s t e n c e . This anthropomorphising, coupled w i t h the threat of a l a c k of f o o d , r e s u l t e d i n t h e s p i r i t u a l i z a t i o n o f t h e hunt ( S w i n t o n , 1972, p. 128). The deep-seated empathy w h i c h man f e l t toward a n i m a l s , h i s s o u r c e o f f o o d , n e c e s s i t a t e d t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f body and s o u l and t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e concept o f an a f t e r - l i f e (Lommell, 1967a, p. 2 6 ) . There were many game taboos w h i c h were f o l l o w e d a c c o r d i n g t o s t r i c t r u l e s and t h e a d v i c e o f  28 the shaman. body had  For example, p a r t i c u l a r p a r t s o f the s l a u g h t e r e d  to be a t t e n d e d  to i n a s p e c i f i c way.  c a r n a t i o n ( L a n t i s , 1970,  p. 327).  The  animal's  This f a c i l i t a t e d  f e a r and/or g u i l t t h a t  rein-  "the  g r e a t e s t danger i n l i f e l i e s i n the f a c t t h a t man's food i s made up  of  s o u l s " was  be-  thereby  eased (Aua i n Lommell, 1967a, p. 3 1 ) .  tween a l l l i v i n g t h i n g s c o u l d be The  The u n i o n  maintained.  shaman served as b o t h m e d i a t o r and a d v i s o r i n the  s h i p between man  and n a t u r e / t h e  spiritual.  relation-  For example, i f man  angered  Sedna by b r e a k i n g a taboo, the angakoq (shaman) would descend to her under-water home ( v i a t r a n c e or seance) to p l a c a t e her (WAG, The  1978,  p.  122).  t r a d i t i o n a l Eskimo b e l i e f - s y s t e m a l s o p l a c e d enormous r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  upon the h u n t e r .  For example, i f game was  s c a r c e , i t was  up to him  seek out Sedna and demand t h a t she r e t u r n the a n i m a l s u p p l y 1955,  p. 71).  to  (Carpenter,  T h i s emphasized the b a s i c e g a l i t a r i a n i s m of Eskimo l i f e .  Sedna, l i k e man,  was  bound to the same laws.  I f she w i t h h e l d game o r  t o o k a l i f e .without j u s t cause, she would have t o answer f o r her a c t i o n s . The rifle  s o c i a l and  e c o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s of the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f  t o the N o r t h were many (Hughes, 1965,  ( o f t e n unnecessary) i n s l a u g h t e r . a l t e r e d and numbers were d e p l e t e d of a p p r o a c h i n g animals n o t e d t h e r e was ities.  and h u n t i n g  p. 16).  There was  the  an  increase  Animal m i g r a t i o n p a t t e r n s were (Schwartz,  1977,  pp.  17ff) .  i n g e n e r a l were changed.  As  Techniques already  an i n c r e a s e i n i n d i v i d u a l e f f o r t o v e r c o o p e r a t i v e  For example, c a r i b o u d r i v e s came to an end.  Seal hole  became e x t i n c t and the animals were shot a l o n g open w a t e r s .  activ-  hunting  W i t h the  end o f b r e a t h i n g h o l e s e a l i n g went the a s s o c i a t e d s h a r i n g r u l e s ( B a l i k c i , 1960,  p. 143)  and a c c o r d i n g l y , t r a d i t i o n a l t r a d i n g systems were eroded  29 (Hughes, 1965, The  p.  17).  economic base of the Eskimo had been one of s u b s i s t e n c e  d u c t i o n (Hughes, 1965,  p. 17).  B e f o r e the f o x f u r t r a d e , t h i s  had been c o n s i d e r e d r e l a t i v e l y w o r t h l e s s . m o d i t y i n a new  exchange p r o d u c t i o n economy.  of the Eskimo was *  I t now The  pro-  animal  became the v a l u e d comeconomic independence  r u i n e d as i t f l u c t u a t e d w i t h the needs and t r e n d s of  the Southern market. The bond between men to r e p r e s e n t  and a n i m a l s was  s h a t t e r e d as the l a t t e r came  the l u x u r i o u s m a t e r i a l o b j e c t s (which d i d make l i f e  c a n t l y e a s i e r ) f o r w h i c h they were t r a d e d . Euro-American t o o l s and  so the c h a i n was  p l a c e d w i t h the ready-made.  The  P r i v a t e h u n t i n g was  broken.  signifidone w i t h  The hand-made was  re-  emphasis t u r n e d away from knowledge and  c o n c e n t r a t i o n , toward a p p a r a t u s (Lommell, 1967b, p.  16).  The need f o r magic and r e l i g i o n decreased a c c o r d i n g l y as the equipment t i p p e d the s c a l e s i n the h u n t e r ' s  favour.  Now t h a t we have f i r e a r m s i t i s a l m o s t as i f we no l o n g e r need shamans, or taboo, f o r now i t i s not so d i f f i c u l t to p r o c u r e food as i n the o l d days. ( K k i n i l i k — f r o m Back R i v e r — i n Rasmussen, 1931, p. 227) Concomitant w i t h the s e c u l a r i z a t i o n o f the hunt, was bond between r e l i g i o n and a r t (Swinton,  new  1972,  p.  L t  the l o o s e n i n g o f  128).  the  Q u a l i t y and  q u a n t i t y o f p r o d u c t i o n s u f f e r e d as shamanism g r a d u a l l y became a l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r w i t h i n the I n u i t I n the magical (ca.  1000  B.C.  t o 1000  amulets and c e r e m o n i a l 1972,  p. 117).  The  lifestyle.  times of the p a s t , such as the D o r s e t p e r i o d A.D.), the h i g h l y s c u l p t u r a l and d e e p l y  incised  o b j e c t s betrayed  (Swinton,  an i n t e n s e m y s t i c a l i t y  shaman and h i s a s s i s t a n t s were the o n l y  specialists  30 i n t h i s c u l t u r e , and t h e i r m o t i v a t i o n was  clear.  They were by and  bound t o f o l l o w e s t a b l i s h e d symbols f o r the sake of in-group The  large  clarity.  shaman, w i t h h i s a c t i v i t i e s , brought "the c o l l e c t i v e psyche i n t o  o r d e r " (Lommell, 1967a, p. 12). he was 1965,  also reasonably p.  assured  As a d i r e c t r e s u l t of t h i s commitment, of h i s ' p u b l i c ' and  i t s support  (Firth,  32). The  ' a r t f o r b a r t e r i n g ' c a r v i n g s o f , f o r example, the  nineteenth  c e n t u r y , were of a q u a l i t y w h i c h o b v i o u s l y i n d i c a t e d the l a c k of a comparable emotional  intensity.  t a t i n g t u r n of e v e n t s .  T h i s change was  an i n d i c a t o r of the devas-  As each had been p r e o c c u p i e d  s h i p to t h e s p i r i t u a l , so d i d each one  s u f f e r a l o s s w i t h r e g a r d to the  f a d i n g of p s y c h i c r e a l i t i e s (Lommell, 1967a, p. Commercial a r t i s t i c p r o d u c t i o n was massive, concentrated g r e a t enthusiasm.  effort.  I t was  103).  s p o r a d i c u n t i l Houston's  The w h i t e S o u t h e r n market responded w i t h  only w i t h t h i s continued  o u t p u t t h a t the e m o t i o n a l u n d e r - p i n n i n g s evident.  with his relation-  Fading memories r e s u r f a c e d .  o f the new  support  and c o n t i n u a l  s e c u l a r a r t became  S p i r i t Song Do you hear The v o i c e from t h e deep! ajai-ji j a . The v o i c e from t h e deep! Ajai-ji j a . I will visit u n c l e a n women, probe b e h i n d man, b r e a k taboo. Aj , l e t t h e l a c e o f t h e boot hang l o o s e . Aj a i - j i j a. Do you hear the v o i c e from t h e deep? Ajai-j i j a The v o i c e from t h e deep! Aj a i - j i j a. I will visit u n c l e a n women, probe b e h i n d man, break taboo. A j , smooth t h e w r i n k l e s from t h e rounded cheeks! Ajai-ji j a . I walked o u t on t h e s e a . M a r v e l l i n g , I heard the v o i c e from t h e deep, the song o f t h e s e a . I went o u t s l o w l y , pondering myself. The v a s t young i c e - f l o e s s i g h e d , ajai-jija aj a i - j i j a . H e l p i n g s p i r i t seeks t h e f e a s t i n g - h o u s e . - Anonymous (Rasmussen,  31  1973, p. 3)  Chapter V THE HUNTER/ARTIST  H a v i n g b a s i c a l l y l o o k e d a t t h e f o u n d a t i o n s of P u d l o ' s h e r i t a g e , we now w i l l see what he as the h u n t e r / a r t i s t c o n t r i b u t e s .  That i s , what  the  c o n t e n t o f h i s i n d i v i d u a l works may  the  contemporary a r t i s t s have found t h e i r b e a r i n g s i n t h e v i s u a l docu-  m e n t a t i o n o f the ' o l d ways'.  t e l l us of h i s l i f e .  As n o t e d ,  A l r e a d y i n the e a r l y phases o f h i s c a r e e r ,  Pudlo tended toward making images o f the m y s t i c a l a s p e c t s o f l i f e Arctic.  i n the  B o t h Boas and Hoffman document t h a t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of the s p i r i -  t u a l were few (1888, p. 184 and 1897, p. 912 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) .  T h i s may  have  been out o f f e a r and r e s p e c t f o r the s p i r i t s , o r because o f words of d i s couragement from m i s s i o n a r i e s . the  case as shamanic  Whatever t h e r e a s o n , t h i s i s no l o n g e r  images a r e a most c h a l l e n g i n g a s p e c t and f r e q u e n t  s u b j e c t o f contemporary I n u i t a r t . In  S p i r i t W i t h Symbols ( F i g . 2) we see a f e m a l e f i g u r e h o l d i n g  what seems t o be a door h a n d l e i n one hand and a key w h i c h might f i t the  b r e a s t p l a t e i n t h e o t h e r ( N a t i o n a l Museum o f Man,  into  1977, p. 7 4 ) .  m a s k - l i k e q u a l i t y of her f a c e might be a r e f e r e n c e t o shamanism.  The  Although  c e r e m o n i a l masks were most common i n A l a s k a , they were t r a d i t i o n a l l y known on B a f f i n I s l a n d b o t h from D o r s e t remains (WAG,  1978, p. 180) and from  t h o s e made from t h e h i d e o f t h e bearded s e a l (Murdoch i n Hoffman, p. 914).  1897,  Masks were t r a d i t i o n a l l y made by shamans and t h e i r a p p r e n t i c e s .  T h e i r f u n c t i o n , and t h e r e f o r e t h e i r power, was not so much t o h i d e the wearer as i t was t o s e r v e as v i s u a l i z a t i o n s o f t h e s p i r i t f o r c e s 32  (WAG,  33 1978, p. 179). The shaman was p r i v y t o t h e s e images.  W i t h t h e mask, he  gave t h e p e o p l e a c o n c r e t e v i e w o f t h e s p i r i t w o r l d . The f a c t t h a t t h i s i s a f e m a l e f i g u r e opens t h e door t o many p o s s i b l e avenues o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h i s image.  B o t h men and women  c o u l d become shamans w i t h i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l Eskimo s o c i e t y (WAG, 1978, p. 6 1 ) . However, d u r i n g t h e d e l i c a t e t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d from t h e o l d t o the  new, C h r i s t i a n b e l i e f system, more women d i d so ( L e w i s , 1971, p. 1 6 9 ) . The shaman's many a b i l i t i e s r e p e a t e d l y emphasized  of  life.  t h e wholeness  Shamanic t r a n s f o r m a t i o n from human t o a n i m a l , and back, symbol-  i z e d t h e e s s e n t i a l u n i o n o f t h e s e two forms o f b e i n g .  The shaman was  a l s o a b l e t o be b o t h a man and a woman and t o change from one t o a n o t h e r as an i n d i c a t o r o f a n o t h e r sense o f wholeness  (WAG, 1978, p. 6 3 ) .  W i t h Symbols may r e p r e s e n t such a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n .  Spirit  I t l ^ w e a r i n g an amautik  w h i c h has o f t e n been used t o s y m b o l i z e such changes and t h e g i v i n g o f l i f e (WAG, 1980a, p. 1 0 5 ) . Another p o s s i b i l i t y i s t h a t t h i s image r e f e r s t o t h e ways i n w h i c h women were s i n g l e d o u t i n t h e Eskimo taboo system.  I n some p a r t s o f t h e  A r c t i c , t h e woman was s y m b o l i c a l l y l i n k e d t o t h e r i t u a l s u r r o u n d i n g , and the  e v e n t u a l outcome, o f t h e hunt ( L a n t i s , 1970, p. 3 2 9 ) . A c c o r d i n g l y ,  her taboo v i o l a t i o n s bore a p e n a l t y w h i c h would weigh more h e a v i l y upon the  i n d i v i d u a l , and t h e group, t h a n a man's ( L e w i s , 1971, p. 165). Could  S p i r i t W i t h Symbols be an acknowledgement o f t h i s burden o f a m o r a l i t y t h r o u g h f e a r ( L a n t i s , 1970, p. 330)? A concept b a s i c t o Eskimo b e l i e f s was t h a t t h e r e were n o t any 'good v e r s u s e v i l ' f o r c e s ( C a r p e n t e r , 1955, p. 7 2 ) . R a t h e r , good and e v i l were p a r t o f t h e same whole.  T h i s i s a k i n t o t h e p r i m o r d i a l image o f t h e  34 Great and T e r r i b l e Mother as she has appeared c u l t u r e s (Neumann, 1955, p a s s i m ) .  i n t h e c r e a t i o n s o f many  A number o f f e a t u r e s o f P u d l o ' s  S p i r i t W i t h Symbols a r e s t r i k i n g l y s i m i l a r t o those o f t h e a r c h e t y p e . For example, t h e exaggerated forms o f h e r t o r s o and h e r f r i g h t e n i n g v i s a g e (152).  The k e y h o l e , key and door h a n d l e might be r e f e r e n c e s t o  t h e g a t e o f r e b i r t h , o r t h e womb, a l s o connected w i t h t h e Great Mother (159).  She i s t h u s l i t e r a l l y  (physically) a vessel of transformation.  S p i r i t u a l l y , she r e p r e s e n t s t h e p r o c e s s o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n "which l e a d s t h r o u g h s u f f e r i n g and d e a t h , s a c r i f i c e and a n n i h i l a t i o n , t o r e n e w a l , r e b i r t h and i m m o r t a l i t y " ( 2 9 1 ) .  As good she i s l i f e - g i v i n g .  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e underworld  (157).  As bad she i s  I n S p i r i t W i t h Symbols t h e s e a r e  r e s p e c t i v e l y r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e amautik and t h e Eskimo legend o f A m a u t i l i k , the symbol o f d e a t h who kidnapped  c h i l d r e n (WAG, 1980, p. 1 0 5 ) .  The m y s t i c a l c o n t e n t i s somewhat l e s s d i f f i c u l t t o p i n p o i n t i n E a g l e C a r r y i n g Man ( F i g . 1 6 ) . I t i s a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f an angakoq b e i n g t a k e n on a s p i r i t f l i g h t w i t h t h e a i d o f h i s s p i r i t h e l p e r . hand he h o l d s a wand, o r a c o n j u r i n g s t i c k .  In h i s  T h i s was a c e r e m o n i a l o b j e c t  used f o r d i v i n a t i o n (WAG, 1978, p. 157). Shamans made such j o u r n e y s t o v i s i t and/or p l a c a t e a d e i t y , t o o b t a i n power from a s p i r i t , o r t o g e t i n f o r m a t i o n about l o s t s o u l s , p e o p l e , o r t h e l o c a t i o n s o f a n i m a l s f o r a hunt (WAG, 1978, p. 8 9 ) . The b i r d s p i r i t ' s presence i n S p i r i t Watching  Games ( F i g . 4)  u n d e r l i n e s t h e importance o f such a c t i v i t i e s i n t r a d i t i o n a l Eskimo s o c i e t y . I t o v e r s e e s what appears  t o be a w r e s t l i n g match between t h e two men.  woman s t a n d s on e i t h e r s i d e .  A  Such c o n t e s t s and j o u s t s were f r e q u e n t l y  the manner i n which q u a r r e l s were s e t t l e d ( U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a , 1978,  35 p. 8 ) .  The  event became a time f o r r e c o n c i l i n g d i f f e r e n c e s .  It  was  t h e r e f o r e an o c c a s i o n f o r c e l e b r a t i o n and not o n l y f o r a g g r e s s i o n . was  the p e a c e f u l s p i r i t and  c o h e s i v e n e s s of the community w h i c h  It  was  ensured. The w o r l d of the S p i r i t s ( F i g . 17) stonecut.  i s r e f e r r e d to i n the  I n the d a r k of the n i g h t two dogs i n the f o r e g r o u n d  a t a group of s p i r i t u a l  beings.  t e x t u r e f o r the backdrop.  The  1966  look  out  Pudlo has used an a n i m a l s k i n shape and l a r g e s p i r i t i n the c e n t r e s u b d i v i d e s  the  composition. A l l of the s p i r i t s a r e a n t h r o p o m o r p h i z e d . scribed with animals, spiritual  thereby  and n a t u r a l r e a l m s .  i n d i f f e r e n t or k i n d l y disposed o l e n t when m i s t r e a t e d by man, 1967a, p.  The  l a r g e one  a t t e s t i n g to the e s s e n t i a l u n i t y of I t was  is inthe  b e l i e v e d t h a t s p i r i t s were e i t h e r  towards humans.  They o n l y became malev-  as i n the b r e a k i n g of a taboo (Lommell,  31).  Another p o s s i b i l i t y  i s t h a t the l a r g e f i g u r e i n the c e n t r e i s a  shaman w e a r i n g an a w e - i n s p i r i n g mask.  Assuming t h a t i t i s , the i n s c r i b e d  a n i m a l s might then be h i s h e l p i n g s p i r i t s . lemmings w h i c h were c o n s i d e r e d  They l o o k somewhat l i k e  t o be p o w e r f u l  spirit familiars.  Lemmings  were thought to l i v e among the s t a r s and f e l l to the e a r t h when they became a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r shaman (WAG, The  shamanic t e e t h . 1978,  p.  49).  s m a l l ' s m i l i n g ' s p i r i t on the r i g h t i s i n t e r e s t i n g i n t h a t i t  has a f a c e on i t s t o r s o .  (WAG,  1978,  The mouth i s opened i n an  'o' shape and  shows  T h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c can be t r a c e d back t o D o r s e t imagery  p. 182).  The  open mouth, and b l o w i n g  most r e v e r e d n o t i o n , t h a t of b r e a t h and  are associated with a  the l i f e - f o r c e ,  or s o u l , of  the  36 individual. Man i n F i s h Weir ( F i g . 3) v i r t u a l l y evokes f e c u n d i t y l i k e an amulet. it  W i t h i t s p h a l l i c shape and l a r g e f i s h swarming toward t h e e n c l o s u r e ,  i s s u g g e s t i v e o f human f e r t i l i t y  was a concern o f t h e angakoq.  as w e l l as a p l e n t i f u l hunt.  This  W i t h amulets and r i t u a l he h e l p e d women i n  t h e i r hopes t o have c h i l d r e n (WAG, 1978, p. 120). As i n t e r m e d i a r y between the human and a n i m a l w o r l d , he was expected  t o know t h e h a b i t s o f t h e  c r e a t u r e s , and a d v i s e t h e h u n t e r s a c c o r d i n g l y .  T h i s was a measure o f h i s  u s e f u l n e s s and e f f e c t i v e n e s s w i t h i n t h e community (Lommell, 1967, p. 2 7 ) . F i s h Lake ( F i g . 10) i s e q u a l l y e v o c a t i v e . moon a r e h i g h i n t h e sky.  B o t h t h e sun and t h e  T h i s might be a r e f e r e n c e t o t h e myth about  their origin.  A b r o t h e r and a s i s t e r unknowingly had an i n c e s t u o u s  relationship.  When she d i s c o v e r e d who h e r l o v e r was, she r a n o u t o f t h e  snow-house c a r r y i n g a l i t t o r c h . a torch.  Her b r o t h e r f o l l o w e d h e r , a l s o c a r r y i n g  However, as they r o s e i n t o t h e s k y , h i s went o u t .  She became  the sun and he t h e moon, f o r e v e r c h a s i n g h e r a c r o s s t h e heavens ( N a t i o n a l Museum o f Man, 1977, p. 5 8 ) . T h i s then may be another a total experience—the  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of  u n i o n o f t h e day and t h e n i g h t s k y , o f l i g h t and  of d a r k (Neumann, 1955, p. 5 6 ) . The moon has a l s o been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f e r t i l i t y pp. 316, 323, and 324).  An angakoq might v i s i t  ( L a n t i s , 1970,  t h e man i n t h e moon who,  p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e Western A r c t i c , was s a i d t o have some c o n t r o l over animals.  I n t h e E a s t e r n A r c t i c , t h e moon's p r i m a r y f u n c t i o n was i t s  a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h human f e r t i l i t y and w i t h b e f r i e n d i n g orphans. I n u k s u i t a r e s i l h o u e t t e d on t h e f a r shore o f F i s h Lake. l a t e d , inukshuk means " i n t h e l i k e n e s s o f man".  Trans-  There a r e many o f them  37 i n t h e Cape Dorset a r e a .  They a r e a l l made o f s t o n e .  Theories  are that  they were l a n d and cache m a r k e r s , o r t h a t they were used i n t h e h e r d i n g and  c a p t u r i n g o f c a r i b o u ( N a t i o n a l Museum o f Man, 1977, pp. 62 and 92;  and B a l i k c i , 1970, p. 4 1 ) . They a r e a l s o r o u t e i n d i c a t o r s .  The ones a t  Inukshukgaliut,  p o i n t t h e way t o C o r a l Harbour w h i c h i s 450 km west by  boat (Schwartz,  1977, p. 1 7 ) .  I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e p r a c t i c a l , t h e i n u k s u i t had an e m o t i o n a l imp o r t f o r t h e Eskimo: ... we can say. t h a t t h e c a i r n s were, i n f a c t , a f o c a l p o i n t o f t h e i r f a i t h , b o t h f o r those d e p a r t i n g as w e l l as f o r t h o s e who had t o w a i t a n x i o u s l y f o r t h e h u n t e r s t o r e t u r n . The c a i r n s must have gone w i t h t h e men as c l e a r images - l i k e v i v i d p i c t u r e s i n t h e i r minds knowing t h a t t h e i r f a m i l i e s would be l o o k i n g a t t h e same c a i r n s and, i n a way, p r a y i n g t o them f o r a s a f e t r i p . I t c o u l d be t h a t t h i s was p a r t o f t h e i r f o r m a l r e l i g i o n . (Peter P i t s e o l a k i n R a i n e , 1980, p. 107) Hunters o f t e n placed a personal object w i t h i n a c a i r n . h i s symbol o f s a f e t y u n t i l he r e t u r n e d was  to i t .  I t then became  That i t was made o f stone  a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t , f o r stone was v a l u e d as b e i n g one o f t h e most p e r -  manent s u b s t a n c e s o f a l l . A s o l i t a r y f i g u r e i s on t h e near shore o f t h e l a k e .  He i s so  s m a l l i n comparison t o t h e l a k e w h i c h i s teeming w i t h l a r g e f i s h , and t o a l l o f t h e space w h i c h surrounds him. I t i s a reminder o f man's r e l a t i v e position. F e r t i l i t y , abundance, and t h e a w e - i n s p i r i n g environment f i g u r e prominently  i n t h e images above.  These q u a l i t i e s a l s o d e s c r i b e t h e E a r t h  Mother o f t r a d i t i o n a l Eskimo m y s t i c i s m , of t h e hunt and a n i m a l s ,  Sedna.  As goddess and p r o t e c t r e s s  she was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a l l changes i n t h e  r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e h u n t e r and h i s p r e y .  This i s f i g u r e d i n P e r i l s  38 of t h e Hunter ( F i g . 18).  A l o n e i n h i s kayak, the man f i n d s h i m s e l f  t h r e a t e n e d by, and f a c i n g , unknown c r e a t u r e s and dangers. the e n o r m i t y  o f t h e elements, he i s q u i t e d e f e n s e l e s s .  Compared t o  Sedna, a t t h e  l o w e r r i g h t , swims toward the v e s s e l , p o s s i b l y t o i n t e r v e n e . The  e a r l i e r Sea Goddess h e l d by B i r d ( F i g . 19) i s a l s o r e a l i z e d  i n b o l d s i l h o u e t t e d imagery. mouth, upside-down. her m a t e r n a l  Sedna i s h e l d i n t h e b i r d ' s (her husband?)  Her b r e a s t s a r e l a r g e and p e n d u l o u s ,  characteristics.  emphasizing  Her f i n g e r s a r e t r u n c a t e d and h e r l e g s  merge i n t o a f i s h t a i l on w h i c h another  bird  sits.  Compare t h e above two w i t h t h e 1976 Sedna ( F i g . 20). wears an e l a b o r a t e mask.  H e r e , she  The Sedna f e s t i v a l was t h e o n l y time d u r i n g  w h i c h masks were worn i n t h e c e n t r a l and E a s t e r n A r c t i c (WAG, 1978, pp. 138 and 181).  The goddess' hands a r e stumps w h i c h l o o k l i k e m i t t e n s .  Her f e e t a r e s i m i l a r t o those o f a w a l r u s . powerful s p i r i t f a m i l i a r .  That a n i m a l was c o n s i d e r e d a  Near h e r mouth a r e l i n e s w h i c h might r e p r e s e n t  the t r a d i t i o n a l t a t o o i n g o f m a r r i e d women. Sedna i s wearing  an amautik.  This i s i n keeping both w i t h h e r  m a t e r n a l n a t u r e and, combined w i t h h e r w a l r u s f e e t , w i t h t h e deep r e l a t i o n s h i p between people and a n i m a l s . (WAG,  1980b, p. 24 and p a s s i m ) .  of a n i m a l s .  The amautik i s an i m p o r t a n t  symbol  I n i t s d e s i g n i t r e p r e s e n t s a knowledge  I n i t s f u n c t i o n , i t houses l i f e and the magic o f b i r t h .  Although  the h u n t i n g was done by the man, i t s s u c c e s s , i n a  number o f r e s p e c t s , was determined by a woman (Neumann, 1955, T h i s woman was Sedna.  Her m a t e r n a l  p. 2 8 3 ) .  t r a i t s and c o n t r o l over t h e under-  w o r l d l i n k h e r s t r o n g l y t o t h e Great Mother a r c h e t y p e .  The c o n t r o l she  had o v e r t h e a n i m a l s ' s o u l s , and t h e i r number, s i m i l a r l y p i n p o i n t s h e r  39 as a symbol o f  transformation.  The ornamental d e t a i l on Sedna's amautik i s s t r i k i n g i n comparison to the s i l h o u e t t e s of the e a r l i e r y e a r s . the l o o k o f p r i n t s , as noted above, was t e c h n i c a l s o p h i s t i c a t i o n and  expertise.  due  The  particularly change i n  i n p a r t t o the i n c r e a s e i n  C e r t a i n l y , the f a v o u r a b l e market  response encouraged the c o n t i n u a t i o n of t h i s newer s t y l e .  The  patterns  h e r e a r e not d i s s i m i l a r t o those o f Thule swimming b i r d f i g u r i n e s ( F i g . 20).  The o r i g i n s and meanings of such e m b e l l i s h m e n t s a r e l o n g ago  gotten.  I t i s assumed, however, t h a t they d i d have a m y s t i c a l  for-  connection.  The use o f such s u r f a c e d e c o r a t i o n gave the p i e c e s a l i g h t e r , l e s s i n t e n s e l o o k than those of t h e i r D o r s e t p r e d e c e s s o r s p. 117).  (Swinton,  1972,  The p a t t e r n s on t h i s Sedna amautik a l s o r e f e r s t o the  original  f u n c t i o n o f such d e s i g n s . I n t h e coming s e c t i o n we w i l l see t h a t Pudlo moved away from the mysterious he was  s i l h o u e t t e s of the e a r l i e r years.  i n c o r p o r a t i n g the d e c o r a t i v e elements o f the  s t y l e , he was stance.  I t w i l l be shown t h a t as  a l s o i n f u s i n g them w i t h a new  'new  look' into h i s  (and perhaps renewed) sub-  There once was a g i a n t bear who f o l l o w e d p e o p l e f o r h i s p r e y . He was so b i g he swallowed them whole: Then they smothered to d e a t h i n s i d e him i f they hadn't a l r e a d y d i e d of f r i g h t . E i t h e r the bear a t t a c k e d them on the r u n , or i f they c r a w l e d i n t o a cave where he c o u l d not squeeze h i s enormous body i n , he stabbed them w i t h h i s w h i s k e r s l i k e t o o t h p i c k s , drawing them out one by one, and gulped them down. No one knew what t o do u n t i l a w i s e man went out and l e t the bear swallow him, s l i d i n g r i g h t down h i s t h r o a t i n t o the b i g , d a r k , h o t , s l i m y stomach. And once i n s i d e t h e r e , he t o o k h i s k n i f e and s i m p l y c u t him open, k i l l i n g him of c o u r s e . He c a r v e d a door i n the b e a r ' s b e l l y and threw out t h o s e who had been eaten b e f o r e , and then he stepped out h i m s e l f and went home t o get h e l p w i t h the b u t c h e r i n g . Everyone l i v e d on bear meat f o r a l o n g t i m e . That's t h e way i t goes: Monster one minute, f o o d the n e x t . - Kiakshuk ( G e d a l o f , n.d., p.  40  71)  Chapter V I PUDLO AND NATURE:  THE BIRDS AND ANIMALS  B e f o r e p i c k i n g up t h e p o i n t s o f t h e p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n , i t w i l l be necessary  t o t r a c e t h e development o f Pudlo's r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f b i r d s  w h i c h number s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h i n h i s oeuvre.  They f i g u r e i n h i s s c u l p -  t u r a l e f f o r t s (CEAC, 1971, pp. 156 and 172) and a r e a f a v o u r i t e s u b j e c t m a t t e r o f Cape Dorset a r t i n g e n e r a l (WAG, 1980a, p. 4 0 ) . i s n o t a new one.  The i n t e r e s t  S i n c e Dorset t i m e s , b i r d s have been, a l o n g w i t h b e a r s ,  the most commonly r e p r e s e n t e d o f t h e shamanic f a m i l i a r s ( T a y l o r , 1967, p. 3 8 ) . The e a r l i e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f b i r d s seen above ( S p i r i t Watching Games, F i g . 4; E a g l e C a r r y i n g Man, F i g . 16; and Sea Goddess H e l d by B i r d , F i g . 19) c o n t a i n o v e r t r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e shamanic m y s t e r i e s o f t h e p a s t . Woman W i t h B i r d Image ( F i g . 22) i s such a work as w e l l . Symbols ( F i g . 2) p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e combinations figure's torso.  T h i s t i m e , a woman w i t h a b i r d .  then t h i s may be a r e n d e r i n g o f a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n .  As i n S p i r i t w i t h  c r e a t e an image on t h e  I f t h e woman i s a shaman, That i s , o f an angakoq  assuming a b i r d - l i k e form, a b i r d b e i n g one o f h e r s p i r i t h e l p e r s , so t h a t she might be a b l e t o f l y . However, t h i s may a l s o be a v i s u a l i z a t i o n o f t h e legend o f women who  had t h e a b i l i t y t o t u r n i n t o b i r d s and f l y away w h i l e t h e i r men were  on a hunt (WAG, 1979,  p. 4 1 ) .  Bird/Woman imagery i s n o t u n u s u a l .  The Thule female  figurines  ( F i g . 21) a r e s i m i l a r i n form and t h e r e f o r e p o s s i b l y r e l a t e d c o n t e x t u r a l l y 41  42 to t h e b i r d f i g u r i n e s ( F i g . 22). marry, a b i r d .  Sedna shuns a l l s u i t o r s to e v e n t u a l l y  As a d i r e c t r e s u l t of t h i s u n i o n she becomes the symbol  o f the Great Mother i n Eskimo m y s t i c i s m .  Given the s i m i l a r i t y i n s t y l e  and P u d l o ' s p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r w o r k i n g i n s e r i e s , Woman W i t h B i r d Image i s l i k e l y a k i n i n meaning t o S p i r i t W i t h Symbols.  I n h i s t o r y , b i r d s have  been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the Great Mother a r c h e t y p e r e g u l a r l y (Neumann, p. 145f) .  They r e p r e s e n t a p o s i t i v e a s p e c t of her n a t u r e i n t h e i r  1955, link  w i t h t h e heavens and t h e r e b y b a l a n c e her r e l a t i o n s h i p to the u n d e r w o r l d . Shaman's D w e l l i n g ( F i g . 23) i s another example o f P u d l o ' s c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n of r e l i g i o n and b i r d s .  A snow-house i s s e t i n t o a s t y l i z e d  l a n d s c a p e and f l a n k e d by two v e r y l a r g e b i r d s . g u a r d i a n s o f the shaman and/or t h e d w e l l i n g ?  Are they meant to be The t i t u l a r r e f e r e n c e i s to  the o l d f a i t h , y e t t h e house has a c r o s s b o t h over the e n t r a n c e and on the 'roof.  I n t h e f o r e g r o u n d , e n c l o s e d by t h e house, a r e f i v e  another r e f e r e n c e to t h e o l d f a i t h .  inuksuit,  W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n of t h e i r  and the l a n d s c a p e f o r m a t i o n s , the c o m p o s i t i o n i s as b a l a n c e d and  placement symmetrical  as t h e c r o s s e s . Two precedents.  t r a i t s e v i d e n t i n Shaman's D w e l l i n g can be t r a c e d to Thule The f i r s t i s the symmetry, here around a c r u c i f o r m as i t i s  a l s o i m p l i e d i n S p i r i t s ( F i g . 17). ( V a s t o k a s , 1971/72, p. 78).  Within  P u d l o ' s p r i n t s i t c r e a t e s c o m p o s i t i o n s o f a n a t u r a l o r d e r w h i c h , when comb i n e d w i t h t h e c o n t e n t , i s v i r t u a l l y of a s a c r e d k i n d .  The second  t e r i s t i c i s t h a t o f the images b e i n g framed, o r s e l f - e n c l o s e d . b a l a n c e and harmony i s added a sense of containment: t h e i r p l a c e w i t h i n the environment Two  charac-  To the  f o r a l l t h i n g s have  (Myers, 1982, p. 7 7 ) .  Loons a t Sea ( F i g . 24) i s a l s o s y m m e t r i c a l and d i v i d e d by a  43 c r o s s w h i c h i s once a g a i n surrounded  by two b i r d s .  b e l i e f s , l o o n s were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s i g h t . whose s i g h t was  r e s t o r e d by a l o o n .  s i g h t , v i s i o n s , and i d e a s (WAG,  I n t r a d i t i o n a l Eskimo  A legend t e l l s of a b l i n d  boy  They a r e a l s o l i n k e d to shamanic  1978, p.  121).  I t seems p o s s i b l e t h a t t h i s image i s a r e f e r e n c e to a shamanic journey.  C l e a r l y , two l o o n s do not need a boat f o r water t r a v e l .  haps then they a r e not a c t u a l l y b i r d s . i n t h e form of t h e i r b i r d f a m i l i a r s .  Maybe they a r e shamans t r a v e l l i n g S i m i l a r l y , t h e two b i r d s i n Shaman's  D w e l l i n g ( F i g . 23) might be t h e angakoq's g u a r d i a n s p i r i t s . i s to u n d e r s t a n d  Per-  What remains  the c r o s s w h i c h r e c u r s c o n t i n u a l l y i n P u d l o ' s work.  I n t h e N o r t h , the c r o s s f i g u r e s as b o t h a contemporary and h i s t o r i c symbol.  I t appears as a f r e q u e n t marking on Dorset  p a r a p h e n a l i a ( S w i n t o n , 1967, c o n t e x t i s not known.  pp. 43 and 4 5 ) .  However, i t i s thought  a p a r t i c u l a r l y s e n s i t i v e area or item. i t i s a reminder man  I t s p r e c i s e meaning i n t h i s to have been a marker f o r  Although apparently d e c o r a t i v e ,  t o , t h e s p i r i t u a l ( F i t z h u g h and K a p l a n , 1982,  of t h e o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n , t h e ' p a s t ' and  added new  shamanic  of a language which once e x p r e s s e d , and t h e r e b y  e x i s t ( C a r p e n t e r , 1955, dimensions  p. 71).  pre-  p. 200).  linked  I n the f a i t h  ' p r e s e n t ' b e l i e f systems c o -  C h r i s t i a n i t y d i d not r e p l a c e , but r a t h e r  t o , the peoples'  creed.  P u d l o ' s s t y l i s t i c e c l e c t i c i s m complements h i s i n t e g r a t i o n of symbols from t h e o l d and the new  ways.  A s p e c t s of the p a s t a r e a l t e r e d  as they re-emerge i n t o a changed environment.  P e r c e p t i o n s of t h e p r e s e n t  a r e a f f e c t e d by t h e i r p o t e n t i a l to be e v o c a t i v e of memories. contemporary a r t i s t may vague r e c o l l e c t i o n s (WAG,  The  then even u n w i t t i n g l y r e c o r d t h e s e perhaps 1978,  p.  215).  44 The c r o s s most f r e q u e n t l y appears on b u i l d i n g s , o f t e n over an entrance.  I t i s a l s o connected w i t h a sense o f home, o r t h e end o f a  j o u r n e y as i n Long Journey ( F i g . 7) arid Shaman's D w e l l i n g ( F i g . 2 3 ) . Thoughts o f Home ( F i g . 25) c o n t a i n s b o t h o f t h e s e e l e m e n t s .  I n the f o r e -  ground i s a l a n d s c a p e from w h i c h a f i g u r e approaches a l a d d e r o r a s t a i r case-type object.  At t h e end o f t h i s means o f a s c e n t a r e two t e n t s .  Between them i s a f i g u r e i n a doorway, over w h i c h i s a c r o s s . I t has been n o t e d t h a t f o r m e r l y p o p u l a r d o m e s t i c themes such as mother and c h i l d p o r t r a y a l s , a r e p r e s e n t l y r a r e l y d e p i c t e d ( L e v i n e , 1977, p. 1 9 ) .  There a r e i m p l i c a t i o n s t h a t t h i s i s i n d i c a t i v e o f the breakdown  of t h e once a l l - i m p o r t a n t f a m i l y u n i t ( S c h a e f e r , 1976, p a s s i m ) .  That  themes a r e r e l a t i v e l y i m p e r s o n a l and t h e r e f o r e c o n t a i n p e s s i m i s t i c  under-  tones . T h i s i s c e r t a i n l y n o t t h e case w i t h P u d l o . of o p t i m i s m .  H i s images seem f u l l  The manner i n w h i c h Pudlo so h a r m o n i o u s l y combines r e f e r -  ences t o the o l d and the new s u r e l y i n d i c a t e s t h i s .  His use of the cross  -creates an a u r a o f i t b e i n g a symbol o f p r o t e c t i o n w i t h hope f o r t h e future.  I t i s an emblem w h i c h t r a n s c e n d s s p e c i f i c p e r i o d s o f t i m e . I t  oversees a l l eras. I t s C h r i s t i a n meaning was i n p a r t t o s y m b o l i z e man's need t o extend h i s f a i t h from h i s own c e n t r e and move outward, as f o r example toward n a t u r e ( J u n g , 1964, p. 273).  I n h i s p r i n t s , with the combination  of l a d d e r s , t h e r e i s an i m p l i c a t i o n o f movement and even a s c e n t .  Pudlo's  f i g u r e s o f t e n j o u r n e y toward t h e c r o s s (see Long Journey [ F i g . 7 ] and Thoughts o f Home [ F i g . 2 5 ] ) .  The themes o f memory, hope, and p r o t e c t i o n  meander i n and o u t o f P u d l o ' s o e u v r e , c o n t i n u a l l y .  45 P u d l o ' s e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e u n i o n o f t h e environment  and o f l i v i n g  t h i n g s as seen i n T u d l i k ( t h e b i r d and t h e water b e i n g j o i n e d by form and c o l o u r , F i g . 9 ) , r e c u r s i n t h e L a r g e Loon and Landscape ( F i g . 2 6 ) . Here, t h e two s u b j e c t s a r e v i r t u a l l y a r e f l e c t i o n o f one a n o t h e r . t h e b i r d and t h e l a n d tower i n t o t h e s k y .  Each u n d u l a t e s i n form and  i s made up o f c o n t r a s t i n g p a t c h e s o f c o l o u r . and o t h e r a r e a s o f b l u e .  Both  The l a n d e n c l o s e s l a k e s  The l o o n , w i t h i t s shamanic i m p l i c a t i o n s ,  hovers over t h e p r e f a b r i c a t e d homes, t h e man i n h i s b o a t , and t h e l a n d scape, w i t h a p r o t e c t i v e a i r .  The e n t i r e c o m p o s i t i o n seems e n c l o s e d —  t h i s time w i t h a n e a r l y c i r c u l a r f o r m — a  symbol o f wholeness.  T h i s l i t h o seems t o be a testament t o t h e e s s e n t i a l u n i t y o f l i f e as i t was p a r t i c u l a r l y f e l t i n t h e ' o l d ways'. n a t u r e , and f a i t h ( t h e s p i r i t u a l ) .  A union of land,  The i n c l u s i o n o f t h e contemporary  h o u s i n g might r e p r e s e n t hope f o r t h e p r e s e n t — a n d f u t u r e .  I f the t i n y  h i l l o c k s i n t h e mid-ground a r e c a i r n s , then t h i s might be P u d l o ' s b l e s s i n g f o r Cape D o r s e t , known f o r i t s abundance o f i n u k s u i t . i t i s high land  Also,  (Kingnait).  M e t i q on M a l l i k (Duck on a Wave, F i g . 27) i s a most r e s p l e n d e n t l a s t example o f t h i s e x p r e s s i o n o f u n i o n . s i l h o u e t t e d on a w h i t e background.  The c o m p o s i t i o n i s s o l i d l y  The b i r d i s on a wave.  The o u t l i n e  of t h e b i r d ' s w i n g s , t h e t e x t u r a l m a r k i n g s , t h e use o f c o l o u r , a l l c r e a t e an a m b i g u i t y o f r e f e r e n c e s t o l a n d , w a t e r , and a n i m a l . i s t h e r e f o r e a j o i n i n g of the three. and c o n t e n t .  By i m p l i c a t i o n i t  I t i s a l s o a p e r f e c t u n i o n o f form  The seemingly d e c o r a t i v e becomes a statement o f wholeness.  S i n c e 1976, P u d l o ' s i n c l u s i o n o f modern o b j e c t s i n h i s p r i n t s has been one o f h i s trademarks.  Only a v e r y few o t h e r a r t i s t s have done  46 so as w e l l .  I n P u d l o ' s works t h i s v i r t u a l l y c r e a t e s a continuum,  or  j o i n i n g , o f two v e r y d i f f e r e n t t i m e s . The most f r e q u e n t i s t h e a e r o p l a n e . have become contemporary scendence  Comparable to b i r d s , p l a n e s  symbols f o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l and p h y s i c a l  (June, 1964, p. 156).  tran-  To P u d l o , r i d i n g i n an a e r o p l a n e might  be a p r e s e n t - d a y a n a l o g y f o r shamanic f l i g h t (Lommell, 1967, p.  103).  That i s , t h e a e r o p l a n e c o u l d be r e m i n i s c e n t o f t h e s p i r i t h e l p e r ( L a n t i s , 1970, p. 316).  I n t h a t i t i s a reminder of the p s y c h i c memories o f the  p a s t , i t f u e l s t h e i m a g i n a t i o n and l e n d s a c r e d i b i l i t y to f a d i n g memories. Pudlo once t o o k an a e r o p l a n e r i d e o v e r R e s o l u t e Bay: . . . the a i r p l a n e swooped down to t a k e a good l o o k a t a musk-ox and some c a r i b o u . ( P u d l o i n D o r s e t , 1978, p. 66) V i s i o n o f Two Worlds  ( F i g . 28) i s perhaps a v a r i a t i o n of t h a t i n c i d e n t .  On i t s back, the musk-ox has a dog w i t h an o l d s t y l e harness on, and a h u n t e r w i t h a whip i n h i s hand. the ' o l d w o r l d ' .  We assume t h a t t h e s e a r e t h e symbols of  An a e r o p l a n e i s i n the s k y .  Pudlo seems to want to  r e t a i n t h e c o n n e c t i o n s between t h i s f l i g h t and the m y s t i c a l . seems l i g h t and almost animated.  The  plane  The a n g l e of t h e wings i s exaggerated  so as t o make them seem more l i k e t h a t of a b i r d ' s . That Pudlo i s f a s c i n a t e d by musk-oxen i s u n d e n i a b l e .  They appear  throughout h i s oeuvre.i' The a n i m a l s a r e not common to South B a f f i n I s l a n d . P u d l o says t h a t he was 1979, p. 65).  "the f i r s t one to t r y to draw a musk-ox" ( D o r s e t ,  A l t h o u g h t h i s may  be t r u e f o r t h e contemporary  Jenness r e c o r d s a p e n c i l drawing of one (1922, pp. 168 and  scene,  169).  Musk-oxen do have t r a d i t i o n a l l i n k s w i t h shamanism (WAG, p. 7 6 ) .  1978,  However, they seem to a p p e a l m o s t l y to P u d l o ' s sense of humour.  He appears t o have f u n p l a c i n g t h e s e awkward-looking  animals i n t o equally  47 p e c u l i a r s i t u a t i o n s , o r making them something t h a t they a r e n o t .  A  p r e v i o u s example was  Umingmuk ( F i g . 14) i n w h i c h Pudlo made the c r e a t u r e s  seem q u i t e l i g h t and  delicate.  Of Umiimmak K a l u n a n i i t u k (Musk-ox i n the C i t y , F i g . 29)  he  writes: When I d i d t h i s drawing, I was t h i n k i n g t h a t t h i s i s a c h u r c h and t h i s i s a musk ox on t o p . Because I have seen churches h a v i n g s t a t u e s on t o p , t h a t i s what I was t h i n k i n g about when I draw t h i s - even though t h i s i s not God o r anyt h i n g l i k e t h a t . ( D o r s e t , 1979, p. 65) In h i s frequent combination  of musk-oxen w i t h modern o b j e c t s ( i n t h i s  case, p o w e r l i n e s , a b u i l d i n g and a b u s ) , one wonders i f g e n e r a l l y he cons i d e r s the a n i m a l s  to be symbols of a time p a s t .  A l a s t l o o k a t an a n i m a l theme i s another p r i n t e n t i t l e d Dream of Bear ( F i g . 30).  light-hearted looking  I t i s the s o r t of p i e c e which  earned Pudlo h i s r e p u t a t i o n f o r b e i n g u n p r e d i c t a b l e (Gray, terms o f h i s p r i n t - p r o d u c t i o n , i t i s o n e - o f - a - k i n d .  1974).  In  This i s unusual  P u d l o , whose themes and m o t i f s g e n e r a l l y come i n s e r i e s .  for  Yet, t h i s p r i n t  i s d i f f i c u l t t o d i s m i s s because of i t s t h r e e apparent r e f e r e n c e s to shamanism.  F i r s t l y , i n the t i t l e ,  the word 'dream'; s e c o n d l y , the  bear;  and l a s t l y , t h a t i t i s s i t t i n g n e x t t o , what l o o k s l i k e , a t r e e . Bear imagery, a l t h o u g h r e l a t i v e l y i n f r e q u e n t i n P u d l o ' s work, i s prominent i n Eskimo c u l t u r e as b o t h a symbol and the b a s i s f o r a good tale.  I n the l a t t e r r e s p e c t , the bear i s always a f o r m i d a b l e and  adversary. the  feared  C o n q u e r i n g / k i l l i n g one o f the a n i m a l s g a i n s much r e s p e c t f o r  hunter. I n the shamanic r e a l m , the bear was  the b e s t , and  f u l , of a l l of the a n i m a l s p i r i t h e l p e r s (WAG,  1978,  the most power-  p. 148).  Perhaps  48 a c c o r d i n g l y , bear imagery  i s o u t s t a n d i n g i n the most m y s t i c a l  p e r i o d ( S w i n t o n , 1967, p. 41 and p a s s i m ) . was  The b e a r , l i k e the shaman,  thought to be b o t h e x t r e m e l y p o w e r f u l as w e l l as dangerous.  a n i m a l was for  Dorset  anthropomorphized  more than any o t h e r , and i t was  i t s h u n t i n g a b i l i t i e s on i c e , w a t e r , and l a n d (Thomson,  This  respected 1981,  p. 4 0 ) . A frequent Dorset m o t i f , the f l y i n g ic flight.  b e a r , was  s y m b o l i c of shaman-  T h i s i s r e l e v a n t to Dream of B e a r , i f the o b j e c t between t h e  a n i m a l and the man  i s a tree.  Shamanic T r e e s , o r World T r e e s , have been  i d e n t i f i e d i n b o t h p r e h i s t o r i c and contemporary ( V a s t o k a s , 1973/74, p. 110).  Eskimo a r t works  I n a s t a t e o f e c s t a s y , t h e shaman makes a  c e r e m o n i a l c l i m b up t h e cosmic t r e e .  The voyage i s s y m b o l i c of the  Ascent to Heaven where, f o r example, t h e angakoq may  seek out a s i c k  person's s o u l „fk>r c u r i n g ( E l i a d e , 1970, pp. 302 and 303). the l e f t the shaman who, p a r i n g the c e l e s t i a l The c o l l a r  I s the man  on  w i t h the a i d of h i s powerful h e l p e r , i s pre-  voyage?  might be a r e f e r e n c e to something  l i k e the Old B e r i n g  Sea w r i s t c u f f and neck c o l l a r s w h i c h i n d i c a t e d a c a p t u r e d a n i m a l ( F i t z h u g h and K a p l a n , 1982, p.  spirit  198).  I n the e a r l y p r i n t s , the depth o f P u d l o ' s c o n t e n t i s r e v e a l e d w i t h b o l d imagery and symbols.  L a t e r , the g e o m e t r i c elements  and  a b s t r a c t i o n s from n a t u r e o f t e n add an i n c r e a s e d harmony to t h e a l r e a d y balanced compositions.  These a d d i t i o n s a r e never p u r e l y d e c o r a t i v e .  They h e l p to r e v e a l the c o n t e n t o f the work, perhaps  i n much the same way  t h a t a b s t r a c t m o t i f s i n d i c a t e d t h e m a g i c a l i n the a r t of the p r e h i s t o r i c periods.  49 P u d l o ' s i n c o r p o r a t i o n of b o t h forms and o b j e c t s from h i s and  the  Euro-American c u l t u r e s i n h i s work proves t h a t he m a i n t a i n s h i s connect i o n s t o the ' o l d ways' w h i l e d e v e l o p i n g w i t h i n the p r e s s u r e s of change.  Marble I s l a n d Long ago, b e f o r e my g r a n d f a t h e r was b o r n , some Eskimo f a m i l i e s used t o t r a v e l from p l a c e t o p l a c e . One t i m e t h e r e was a f a m i l y o f f o u r w i t h an o l d woman. They l i v e d near R a n k i n I n l e t , N.W.T. The h u n t i n g was good f o r a few y e a r s , but n o t f o r l o n g . The U a n i k f a m i l y wanted to move t o a n o t h e r l a n d c a l l e d K a n u y a l i k , where t h e r e were l o t s o f c a r i b o u . One t h i n g t h a t stopped them was t h e o l d woman. She wanted them t o l e a v e h e r . U a n i k s a i d he h a t e d to l e a v e h e r h e l p l e s s . The o l d woman asked U a n i k i f he had f o r g o t t e n what she had s a i d once. She had s a i d t h a t she would s t a y b e h i n d i f they moved away and t h a t she would l i k e to l i v e on t h e i c e t h a t I l o o k e d l i k e an i s l a n d . So U a n i k ' s f a m i l y , w i t h sorrow i n t h e i r h e a r t s , l e f t t h e o l d woman. One v e r y c l e a r day t h e o l d woman s a t on a r o c k l o o k i n g a t the b i g i c e . She s a i d t o h e r s e l f , " I w i s h , how I w i s h , t h a t i c e c o u l d t u r n i n t o an i s l a n d so I c o u l d l i v e t h e r e . " Two y e a r s passed b e f o r e U a n i k came back t o t h e spot where he had l e f t t h e o l d woman. The o l d woman wasn't anywhere on the l a n d . U a n i k heard h e r s a y i n g : "Uanik, a t l a s t I g o t my w i s h , p l e a s e don't worry anymore." He saw t h a t t h e i c e had t u r n e d t o m a r b l e . "Uanik, my s p i r i t l i v e s on t h i s marble island." Now, when t h e p e o p l e o f R a n k i n I n l e t go t o t h e i s l a n d , they must c r a w l a few f e e t i n r e s p e c t o f t h e o l d woman's spirit. I n t h e summer, on a c l e a r day, t h e i s l a n d once a g a i n l o o k s l i k e an i c e i s l a n d . - Leonie Kappi ( G e d a l o f , ri.d.,  50  p. 72)  Chapter V I I PUDLO AND NATURE:  THE LAND  As shown, Pudlo b r i n g s t h e v i e w e r a s t e p c l o s e r t o t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of a p p r e c i a t i n g the emotional  b a s i s o f t h e ' o l d ways'.  As t h e  t r a d i t i o n a l f a i t h was founded upon a n i m i s t i c p r i n c i p l e s , t h e emphasis was upon t o t a l i t y o f , and communion w i t h , a l l a s p e c t s o f l i f e and n a t u r e . On b o t h t h e p r a c t i c a l and s p i r i t u a l l e v e l s , t h e n a t u r a l f o r c e s f i g u r e d prominently  i n t h e Eskimo l i f e - s t y l e .  We f e a r t h e Weather S p i r i t o f e a r t h , t h a t we must f i g h t a g a i n s t t o w r e s t our food from l a n d and sea. We f e a r S i l a ( t h e Weather S p i r i t ) . We f e a r d e a t h and hunger i n t h e c o l d snow h u t s . . . . We f e a r t h e e v i l s p i r i t s o f l i f e , those of t h e a i r , o f t h e s e a and o f t h e e a r t h . . . . (Rasmussen, I g l u l i k Eskimos, p. 56) R e s p e c t , tempered w i t h f e a r , was a d i c t u m . A h i g h e s t compliment p a i d t o a p e r s o n was t o be c a l l e d — o n e who f u l f i l l e d t h e I n u i t h e r i t a g e (Herchmer, 1980, p. 2 4 ) .  'Innumarit' This  was someone who was a good h u n t e r , p r o v i d e r , and who, above a l l , had respect f o r the land. A p e r s o n came t o f e e l r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l and i n s i g n i f i c a n t w h i l e i n the b a t t l e f o r s u r v i v a l w i t h such a f o r m i d a b l e  adversary.  T h i s was t o  some e x t e n t a l l e v i a t e d by shamanism (Lommell, 1967a, p. 147). The s o l a c e came w i t h some l i m i t e d sense o f c o n t r o l o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g  w i t h regard to  the environment. The  economic v a l u e o f t h e l a n d was t h e r e f o r e tempered by an emo-  t i o n a l r e s p e c t w h i c h was so deep t h a t t h e p e o p l e endowed i t w i t h  spiritual  52 a t t r i b u t e s (Herchmer, 1980,  p.  24).  There a r e a few p l a c e s where t h e s p i r i t s have to be shown your f r i e n d l y i n t e n t i o n s f i r s t b e f o r e you can go t h e r e . I n Baker Lake, even, t h e r e i s a s m a l l i s l a n d onto w h i c h you must c r a w l i f you l a n d t h e r e so as not to make t h e s p i r i t mad at you. (Ruth A n n a q t u u s i i n WAG, 1982, p. 18). Any  change i n the m a t e r i a l and s o c i a l c u l t u r e of a group a f f e c t s  b o t h t h e e c o l o g i c a l system and, e s p e c i a l l y , t h e way p e r c e i v e i t (Murphy, 1964,  pp. 851 and 852).  i n w h i c h the  people  The n o t i o n o f r e s p e c t , and  s t r i v i n g to work and i n t e r a c t w i t h i n a g i v e n s i t u a t i o n , changed w i t h the a r r i v a l o f t h e new  technology.  a t t i t u d e of mastery. ( S w i n t o n , 1972,  p.  I n i t s p l a c e grew t h e Euro-American  W i t h i t , came the new  p e r c e p t i o n s of the l a n d  108).  As n o t e d , t h e e a r l i e r o f P u d l o ' s l a n d s c a p e s approached w i t h r e l a t i v e c a u t i o n . an a t t i t u d e of mystery.  seem to have been  L i k e F i s h Lake ( F i g . 10), they  reflect  When p r i n t - m a k i n g and drawing moved away from  t h e i n f l u e n c e o f s c u l p t u r e , l a n d s c a p e s , b e l o n g i n g more to t h e d i m e n s i o n a l medium, became more d e t a i l e d .  two-  A r c t i c W a t e r f a l l ( J i g . 11)  and S p r i n g Landscape ( F i g . 12) f o r example, a l b e i t q u i t e a b s t r a c t e d , a r e n o n e t h e l e s s f a r more d e s c r i p t i v e o f : The a b r u p t f i o r d l a n d s of B a f f i n I s l a n d , w i t h t h e i r c l i f f s and s c r e e s , t h e i r v a s t g r a v e l l y outwash, t h e i r low domed h i l l s , t h e i r c o a s t a l s t r a n d s and marshes, and t h e i r permanent i c e - c a p s f r i n g e d w i t h y e a r l y - m e l t i n g snow patches .... (From the annual handbook of t h e Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Canada, 1971 i n Swinton, 1972, p. 107) In  A r c t i c W a t e r f a l l , t h e sense of the p a s t i s a t t r i b u t a b l e to the  manner i n w h i c h t h e f i g u r e s a r e d e p i c t e d .  They a r e s m a l l and  i n s i g n i f i c a n t compared to t h e r e s p l e n d e n t environment.  relatively  They do not  travel  w i t h s k i d o o s o r ATC's, but i n the o l d w a y — o n f o o t w i t h dogs as b e a s t s of  53 burden.  I n t h e s e r e n d e r i n g s o f t h e ' o l d ways', time seems f r o z e n , and  t h e image o f each i s monumental.  I n S p r i n g Landscapes, we imagine t h e  p a t i e n c e and q u i e t o f the f i s h e r m e n . B o t h of t h e s e images a r e c o n t a i n e d and  They too seem i s o l a t e d i n t i m e . complete.  Landscape w i t h C a r i b o u ( F i g . 31) on t h e o t h e r hand seems to come from a d i f f e r e n t t i m e . to be an i n s t a n t .  The a n i m a l has stopped, but f o r what o n l y appears  The a n t l e r s a r e d e l i c a t e l y t i p p e d .  One can  imagine  t h a t , i n response t o t h e s l i g h t e s t sound o r movement, t h e a n i m a l w i l l dart o f f .  I s o l a t e d , the forms i n t h i s p r i n t a r e so g e n e r a l i z e d  they b o r d e r upon a b s t r a c t i o n . nature.  that  I t i s t h e i r c o l o u r s which r e t u r n us to  The l a r g e and s m a l l amoeba-like p a t c h e s a t one g l a n c e c r e a t e a  f l a t applique-type pattern.  Y e t combined, they q u i t e n a t u r a l l y d e s c r i b e  the d i p s , r o l l s , d e l i c a c y , and s o l i t u d e o f t h e N o r t h e r n  environment.  The v i s u a l i z a t i o n s o f , and knowledge about t h e environment may new and changed.  be  However, w i t h the i n c r e a s e d c o g n i z a n c e has come a s t r o n g  d e s i r e to p r o t e c t t h e l a n d w h i c h f e d t h e p e o p l e f o r thousands of y e a r s . A l o n g w i t h c a r i n g f o r the w i l d l i f e , t h i s i s s u e has become germaine t o t h e maintenance  of a c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y i n the N o r t h ( S c h w a r t z , 1977, p. 5 3 ) .  T h i s c e l e b r a t i o n of the l a n d i s e v i d e n t i n P u d l o ' s T i m i a t Nunamiut (The Body of Land, F i g . 3 3 ) .  I t was commissioned  by t h e H a b i t a t  U n i t e d N a t i o n s Conference of Human S e t t l e m e n t s , 1976.  Pudlo  space and e n c l o s e s t h e p i c t u r e as i n h i s o l d e r s t y l e .  However, he works  from a s i n g l e vantage p o i n t .  The c u r v e s of t h e p l a n t s and  fills,  the  light-hearted  r e n d e r i n g s o f the w a l r u s e s p r e s e n t a j o y o u s image of the l a n d and a n i m a l s of  the A r c t i c .  54 A l o n g t h e l e f t - h a n d s i d e , a b i r d and a f i s h a r e each p l a c e d on a pedestal or a trophy-like display shelf.  At t h e t o p , on s i m i l a r  s t a n d s , a r e a h u n t e r w i t h a f i s h spear a p p r o a c h i n g a l a d d e r , and a s e a l . Next t o t h a t i s what l o o k s l i k e a s c u l p t u r e o f a h u n t e r and a b e a r . They a r e back-to^back w i t h a p o l e between them.  I n the middle, a ladder  r e a c h e s from t h e f o r e g r o u n d l a n d s c a p e , t o a w a l r u s .  I t i s an image  f i l l e d w i t h j o y , p r i d e , b o u n t i f u l d i s p l a y s o f t h e p a s t , and hope.  Chapter V I I I  CONCLUSION:  THE  SEASONS  N o t i o n s of h i s t o r i o g r a p h y are new the time o r i e n t a t i o n was Whereas we  of the  As  shaman was  guardian  now'  our  Traditionally,  ( L a n t i s , 1970,  p.  335).  sense of time as a l i n e ,  the  circle.  the s o u l s of a l l l i v i n g  so were such a s p e c t s The  'here and  might g r a p h i c a l l y r e p r e s e n t  Eskimos' might have been a  to the I n u i t .  t h i n g s were i n f i n i t e l y  reincarnated  of o r i g i n an e v e r l a s t i n g f e a t u r e of the  the educator w i t h regard  to these m a t t e r s .  of the t a l e s which f o r so l o n g had  present.  He was  been the b a s i s of l i f e  the in  the N o r t h . With the weakening of shamanic f o r c e s came the d i l u t i o n of values  and  ideas of an age-old  heritage.  c r a f t s p r o j e c t which l i t e r a l l y r e t a r d e d a s s i m i l a t i o n of the people ( I s a a c s , The  1972,  I t was  i n p a r t the a r t s  the p r o g r e s s p.  of the t o t a l  the and cultural  18).  m a t e r i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of f a d i n g i d e a s and  f e e l i n g s , and  the  r e c o r d i n g of events which might never r e c u r , prevented t h e i r being  lost  forever.  full  More than t h a t , i n t e l l i n g  the Southern market of a past  of depth, the a r t i s t p r o j e c t e d both h i s p r i d e , and  t h a t of which h i s  p e o p l e might f e e l more m e a n i n g f u l l y .  W i t h t h i s t h e r e may  e a s i n g of the t e n s i o n s of a t r a u m a t i c  present  p.  have been some  (Dawson e t . a l . ,  1974,  48). Pudlo, while allowing  c l e a r l y j o i n s the past and  the elements of the new  the p r e s e n t . 55  I f at f i r s t  i n t o h i s work, most the  Euro-American  56 o n s l a u g h t was overwhelming, i n P u d l o ' s oeuvre one sees t h e hope of a b l e n d i n g and u n i o n of two c u l t u r e s .  The younger g e n e r a t i o n of I n u i t  w i l l be reminded of t h e i r p a s t and w i l l even t r y t o r e c r e a t e i t (Dorothy Eber i n WAG,  1980a, p. 2 6 ) .  T h i s i s most a p t l y e x p r e s s e d i n The Seasons ( F i g . 3 3 ) . t r u l y an h i s t o r i c a l document. with a cruciform.  P u d l o has a g a i n o r g a n i z e d the c o m p o s i t i o n  I t r e a c h e s t o t h e heavens f i l l e d w i t h s t a r s .  them, l a n d s c a p e , i n u k s u i t , p o w e r l i n e s , and s h o w - h o u s e s — w i t h At  It is  Below  chimneys.  t h e m i d - r i g h t i s a ship.' Below the s h i p , a l a k e i s seen from above w i t h p e o p l e h i k i n g on  i t s s h o r e s and b i r d s wading w i t h i n . on the near s h o r e . skeleton?  There i s a p e c u l i a r - l o o k i n g o b j e c t  I t appears i n a number of P u d l o ' s p r i n t s .  Is i t a  V a r i a t i o n s on t h e s o - c a l l e d " x - r a y s t y l e " a r e common t o the  shamanic a r t s (Lommell, 1967, p. 133).  These have come to be i n t e r p r e t e d  as s y m b o l i c o f a s p i r i t u a l permanence ( S w i n t o n , 1967, p. 4 1 ) .  A f t e r the  f l e s h i s l o n g gone, t h e bones remain and hence r e p r e s e n t the e v e r - l a s t i n g soul. At  t h e m i d - l e f t of the p r i n t , a dog team i s a p p a r e n t l y t a n g l e d  up and i s t r y i n g t o p u l l a s l e d w i t h a kayak on i t . the  dogs.  structure.  F o o t p r i n t s a r e e v i d e n t i n the snow.  A man r u s h e s towards  Above t h i s i s a s t r i k i n g  I t resembles Shaman's D w e l l i n g ( F i g . 23) w i t h i t s c r o s s e s  and two g u a r d i a n b i r d s .  I t might be a f a n t a s t i c c h u r c h o r a v a r i a t i o n  on t h e l a r g e s o r t of i g l o o w h i c h was b u i l t f o r s p e c i f i c f e s t i v a l s  (WAG,  1978, p. 139). A l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the scene c o n t i n u i n g the  beyond  edges, i t i s framed i n . A s e l f - c o n t a i n e d image s u b j e c t t o the  57  n a t u r a l o r d e r as d i c t a t e d by t h e c r o s s . I t speaks o f t h e seasons o f a man's time and o f t h e time when h i s l i f e was governed by t h e seasons. sled travel.  Of s p r i n g by a l a k e , o r kayak and  I t a l s o speaks o f t h e seasons o f a t e c h n o l o g i c a l change.  From snow-houses t o e l a b o r a t e , never b e f o r e imagined  structures.  From  kayaks t o s h i p s . Pudlo was born i n t o t h e r o l e o f a h u n t e r and l e a r n e d from h i s f a t h e r on t h e b a s i s o f many y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e .  I n h i s p r i n t s , he  combines n a r r a t i v e and p a t t e r n , documentary and f a n t a s y .  He o f f e r s  v i s u a l i z a t i o n s of the various aspects of the m y s t i c a l — f e r t i l i t y , the Great Mother, e t c .  We a r e t h e r e b y a l l o w e d an i n s i g h t i n t o t h e d e e p l y  emotional aspects of Pudlo's t r a d i t i o n a l l i f e s t y l e . "best o f b o t h w o r l d s " i n h i s d r a w i n g s .  He u t i l i z e s t h e  W i t h t h i s e c l e c t i c i s m he c r e a t e s  a t r u l y three-dimensional experience f o r the spectator.  APPENDIX  A l t h o u g h e n g r a v i n g , l i t h o g r a p h y , e t c h i n g , and s i l k s c r e e n i n g have a l l , a t some p o i n t , been p a r t o f t h e Cape D o r s e t e x p e r i m e n t , s t o n e - c u t p r i n t s and s t e n c i l s ( e i t h e r a l o n e o r i n c o m b i n a t i o n ) have always been the most p o p u l a r .  Here t h e n i s a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e two.  (For a  d e t a i l e d account see J a c k s o n , 1981, and N a t i o n a l Museum of Man,  1977.)  The S t o n e - c u t A r t i s t s submit drawings t o the a r t s and c r a f t s co-op. then s e l e c t s t h o s e w h i c h a r e t o be p r i n t e d .  A  committee  Such a drawing i s t r a n s f e r r e d  ( t h r o u g h t h e use of t r a c i n g and carbon papers) onto the s u r f a c e o f a s t o n e w h i c h has been smoothed and p a i n t e d w h i t e .  ( S e r p e n t i n e , t h e green s t o n e  used a l s o f o r c a r v i n g , was o r i g i n a l l y q u a r r i e d where i t was found i n abundance i n West B a f f i n I s l a n d . quarries.  I t i s now  i m p o r t e d from commercial  I t was found t o r e a c t b e s t t o t h e o i l - b a s e d i n k .  n o t too p o r o u s , and good f o r c h i s e l l i n g .  When mined  I t i s soft,  i t o f t e n b r e a k s away  i n l a r g e s l a b s w h i c h a r e p e r f e c t i n s i z e f o r low r e l i e f c a r v i n g . ) t r a n s f e r r e d image i s t h e n d e f i n e d w i t h I n d i a i n k .  The  The w h i t e background  i s c a r e f u l l y c u t away w i t h c h i s e l s l e a v i n g o n l y the r a i s e d  image.  I n t h e p r i n t i n g room, s o f t r u b b e r r o l l e r s (one f o r each c o l o u r ) a r e used t o a p p l y the p a i n t (from l i g h t c o l o u r s f i r s t , then t o t h e d a r k ones) onto t h e s t o n e .  A heavy paper t e m p l a t e p r o t e c t s t h e background  from smudges d u r i n g t h e p r i n t i n g p r o c e s s . Other c o l o u r s may be s t e n c i l l e d on (see below) and t h e c o l o u r 58  59 pounded on w i t h a b r u s h t h e r e b y a c h i e v i n g more v a r i e t y o f c o l o u r and texture. The d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r (main p a r t i c i p a n t s b e i n g t h e a r t i s t and t h e c u t t e r ) and t h e f a c t t h a t a l o w r e l i e f d e s i g n i s c u t i n t o a hard s u r f a c e , a r e t h e two main s i m i l a r i t i e s t o t h e Japanese wood-cut p r i n t . Houston found i t n e c e s s a r y t o adapt u k i y o - e p r i n t methods s i g n i f i c a n t l y f o r the Northern s i t u a t i o n .  F o r example, u k i y o - e w o o d c u t t e r s make a  d i f f e r e n t b l o c k f o r each c o l o u r on t h e p r i n t .  The pigment used i s a  water s o l u b l e powder mixed w i t h a r i c e p a s t e and i s a p p l i e d w i t h b r u s h e s . (See S a f f and S a c i l o t t o , 1978, pp. 53-68.)  The  Stencil Houston g o t t h e i d e a from w a t c h i n g women work w i t h s e a l s k i n .  Shapes were c u t o u t i n t h e s k i n and then b r u s h - p a i n t e d t h r o u g h , l e a v i n g images on t h e paper below.  Scraped s e a l s k i n  was soon found t o be im-  p r a c t i c a l and l a t e r s t e n c i l paper ( o r heavy wax paper) was s u b s t i t u t e d .  U s u a l l y f i f t y p r i n t s a r e made and numbered f o r p u b l i c s a l e .  For  c l a r i t y i n a u t h e n t i c i t y they a r e a l s o embossed w i t h t h e Canadian Eskimo A r t s C o u n c i l S e a l , p r i n t e d w i t h t h e co-op mark, and s i g n e d by both t h e p r i n t - m a k e r and a r t i s t .  Three e x t r a p r i n t s a r e a l s o p u l l e d :  one f o r t h e  Cape D o r s e t permanent c o l l e c t i o n , a n o t h e r f o r t h e N a t i o n a l Museum o f Canada, and a t h i r d f o r t h e Department o f I n d i a n and N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s f o r p u b l i c a t i o n and c a t a l o g u e p u r p o s e s . then d e s t r o y e d .  The s t o n e , s t e n c i l , e t c . , a r e  A l l drawings u s u a l l y remain i n t h e co-op.  S i n c e 1981,  60  the  annual Dorset c a t a l o g u e s note t h a t f i v e p r o o f s a r e p u l l e d and  p r i n t e r s a r e now print.  identified  by p e r s o n a l chops which appear on each  that  GLOSSARY Amautik:  The woman's p a r k a .  Angakoq:  • Shaman.  Camp L i f e :  The t r a d i t i o n a l , nomadic l i f e s t y l e .  Contemporary P e r i o d :  Now used p r e d o m i n a n t l y as an a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l and a r c h a e o l o g i c a l term. I t comes from a d e r o g a t o r y "Algonquin word meaning ' e a t e r o f raw f l e s h ' .  Eskimo:  Historic  B e g i n s w i t h t h e time o f i n t e n s i f i e d w h i t e c o n t a c t , a f t e r World War I I , o r from 1945 onward.  Period:  From t h e d e c l i n e o f t h e Thule P e r i o d and a r r i v a l o f t h e k a b l u n a i t t o about t h e middle of the twentieth century.  Inuit:  'The P e o p l e ' . The name t h a t t h e i n h a b i t a n t s of t h e Canadian A r c t i c have g i v e n themselves. Used i n a l l contemporary r e f e r e n c e s . Comes from t h e stem ' i n u k ' — ' t h e man*.  Inukshuk:  G e n e r a l l y a s t o n e c a i r n i n t h e shape o f a man. Used as a landmark.  Inuktitut:  The language o f t h e I n u i t .  Kablunait:  'The p e o p l e w i t h heavy eyebrows'. The i n u k t i t u t term f o r t h e w h i t e p e o p l e .  Old Ways:  The times when t h e p e o p l e were s t i l l nomadic.  Prehistoric  Period;  Includes the Pre-Dorset Culture (or A r c t i c S m a l l T o o l T r a d i t i o n , ASTt, c a . 2500 B.C. 800 B.C.); Dorset C u l t u r e ( c a . 1000 B.C. 1000 A.D.); and Thule C u l t u r e ( c a . 1000 1600).  Sananguaq:  The making o f a model. The c l o s e s t term i n i n u k t i t u t to equal ours o f ' a r t ' .  Senlavik:  The w o r k i n g p l a c e , o r s t u d i o . 61  62  Settlement L i f e :  L i v i n g i n white established  towns.  South:  When used i n t h i s paper, r e f e r s t o the Inuit perspective.  SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY ' BALIKCI, ASEN 1960 "Some A c c u l t u r a t i v e Trends Among The Canadian Eskimo," A n t h r o p o l o g i c a , n . s . , V o l . 2, pp. 139-153. 1970 The N e t s i l i k Eskimo. Press.  :  Garden C i t y , New Y o r k : N a t u r a l H i s t o r y  BERRY, JOHN W. 1966 "Temne and Eskimo P e r c e p t u a l S k i l l s , " I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o l o g y , V o l . I , No. 3, P a r i s , pp. 207-229. BOAS, FRANZ 1888 "The C e n t r a l Eskimo," 6 t h Annual R e p o r t , Bureau o f E t h n o l o g y , Washington, D.C. and U n i v e r s i t y o f Nebraska P r e s s , L i n c o l n , 1964. BRIGGS, JOAN L. 1970 Never i n Anger.  Cambridge, Mass.: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s .  CARPENTER, EDMUND S. 1955 "Changes i n t h e Sedna Myth Among t h e A i v i l i k , " A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l Papers o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f A l a s k a , V o l . I l l , pp. 69-73. 1959 Eskimo. W i t h Robert F l a h e r t y and F r e d e r i c V a r l e y . U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto P r e s s . 1973 Eskimo R e a l i t i e s .  Toronto:  New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t , and W i n s t o n .  CARPENTER, E. S. and McLUHAN, M. 1960 " A c o u s t i c Space," i n E x p l o r a t i o n s i n Communication. Beacon P r e s s (BP-218) 1966, pp. 65-70. COLOMBO, JOHN ROBERT (ed.) 1981 Poems o f t h e I n u i t .  Oberon  Boston:  Press.  DAWSON, C. E., FREDRICKSON, V-M., AND GRABURN, N. H. H. 1974 T r a d i t i o n s i n T r a n s i t i o n C u l t u r e C o n t a c t and M a t e r i a l Change. B e r k e l e y , C a l i f o r n i a : L o u i s e Museum o f A n t h r o p o l o g y . ELIADE, MIRCEA 1970 "Shamanism," i n F o r g o t t e n R e l i g i o n s . E d i t e d by V e r g i l i u s T. A. Ferm. F r e e p o r t , New Y o r k : Books f o r L i b r a r i e s P r e s s . FIRTH, RAYMOND 1966 "The S o c i a l Framework o f P r i m i t i v e A r t , " i n The Many Faces o f P r i m i t i v e A r t . E d i t e d by D. F r a s e r . Englewood C l i f f s , New J e r s e y : Prentice Hall. 63  64 ISAACS, AVROM 1972 "On D e a l i n g i n Eskimo A r t , " Canadian Forum, V o l . 52, J u l y / August, pp. 16-19. JACKSON, MARION 1981 "The A r t o f S t o n e c u t s and S t e n c i l s : P r o c e s s , " N o r t h , Summer, pp. 8-15.  A Look a t t h e P r i n t m a k i n g  JENNESS, DIAMOND 1922 "Eskimo A r t s , " G e o g r a p h i c a l Review, V o l . X I I , A p r i l , pp. 161-174 1964 "Eskimo A d m i n i s t r a t i o n : I I . Canada," T e c h n i c a l Paper No. 14, A r c t i c I n s t i t u t e o f N o r t h America. JUNG, CARL G. 1964 Man and H i s Symbols. Inc.  Garden C i t y , New Y o r k : Doubleday and Co.,  LANTIS, MARGARET 1970 "The R e l i g i o n o f t h e Eskimos," i n F o r g o t t e n R e l i g i o n s . E d i t e d by V e r g i l i u s T. A. Ferm. F r e e p o r t , New Y o r k : Books f o r L i b r a r i e s Press. LEVINE, L. 1977 "We a r e S t i l l A l i v e , " Mayday, V o l . l , N o . 1, pp. 8-19. LEWIS, I . M. 1971 E c s t a t i c R e l i g i o n : An A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l Study o f S p i r i t and Shamanism. P e n g u i n Books L t d . LEWIS, RICHARD (ed.) 1971 I B r e a t h e a New Song. New York: Simon and S c h u s t e r .  Possession  LOMMELL, ANDREAS 1967a Shamanism: The B e g i n n i n g s o f A r t . T r a n s l a t e d by M i c h a e l B u l l o c T o r o n t o : M c G r a w - H i l l Book Company. 1967b W o r l d o f t h e E a r l y H u n t e r s . T r a n s l a t e d by M i c h a e l B u l l o c k . London: E v e l y n , Adams, and Mackay. MURPHY, R. F. 1964 " S o c i a l Change and A c c u l t u r a t i s m , " T r a n s a c t i o n s o f t h e New Y o r k Academy o f S c i e n c e s , V o l . 26, No. 7, pp. 845-854. MYERS, MARYBELLE 1980 Things Made by I n u i t . Nouveau Quebec.  M o n t r e a l : F e d e r a t i o n des C o o p e r a t i v e s du  1982 " J o s i e P a p i a l o o k , " B e a v e r , Summer, pp. 22-29.  65 NEUMANN, ERICH 1955 The G r e a t Mother: An A n a l y s i s of t h e A r c h e t y p e . T r a n s l a t e d R a l p h Manheim. P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1963. FITZHUGH, WILLIAM W. and KAPLAN, SUSAN A. 1982 I n u a . Washington, D.C.: S m i t h s o n i a n I n s t i t u t i o n FRASER, DOUGLAS 1966 The Many Faces of P r i m i t i v e A r t . Prentice Hall.  Press.  Englewood C l i f f s , New  GEDALOF, ROBIN (ed.) n.d. Paper S t a y s P u t : A C o l l e c t i o n of I n u i t W r i t i n g . Hurtig Publishers.  by  Jersey:  Edmonton:  GRABURN, NELSON H. H. 1971 " T r a d i t i o n a l Economic I n s t i t u t i o n s and t h e A c c u l t u r a t i o n of Canadian Eskimso," i n S t u d i e s i n Economic A n t h r o p o l o g y . E d i t e d by G. D a l t b n . Washington: American A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n . 1974 "A P r e l i m i n a r y A n a l y s i s o f Symbolism i n Eskimo A r t , " P r o c e e d i n g s of t h e F o r t i e t h I n t e r n a t i o n a l Congress of A m e r i c a n i s t s , V o l . 2, Rome, pp. 165-170. GRAY, PHILIP HOWARD 1974 Eskimo A r t i s t s .  Boze,  Montana.  HERCHMER, H. L. 1980 " T w e l f t h P r o v i n c e , "  Canadian H e r i t a g e ,  June, pp.  22-24.  HERSKOVITS, M. J . 1959 " A r t and V a l u e , " i n A s p e c t s of P r i m i t i v e A r t by R.obert R e d f i e l d , M. J . H e r s k o v i t s , and Gordon F. Ekholm. New Y o r k : Museum of P r i m i t i v e Art. HOFFMAN, WALTER J . 1897 The G r a p h i c A r t of t h e Eskimos.  Washington: S m i t h s o n i a n I n s t i t u t e .  HOUSTON, JAMES 1956 "My F r i e n d Angatiawak," Canadian A r t , V o l . 12, W i n t e r , pp. 222224. 1960 "Eskimo G r a p h i c A r t , " Canadian A r t , V o l . 17, J a n u a r y , pp. 8-15. 1967 Eskimo P r i n t s .  B a r r e Mass.: B a r r e P u b l i s h e r s .  HUGHES, C. C. 1965 "Under Four F l a g s : Recent C u l t u r e Change Among t h e Eskimos," C u r r e n t A n t h r o p o l o g y , V o l . V I , No. 1, F e b r u a r y , pp. 3-69.  66 IGLAUER, EDITH 1962 I n u i t Journey.  Vancouver:  PITSEOLAK, PETER 1975 P e o p l e From Our S i d e .  Douglas and M c l n t y r e , 1979.  Edmonton: H u r t i g P u b l i s h e r s .  1976 "Coming o f t h e Whitemen: How i t l o o k e d from o u r s i d e , " N o r t h , V o l . 23, J u l y / A u g u s t , pp. 40-42. RAINE, DAVID F. 1980 P i t s e o l a k : A Canadian Tragedy.  Edmonton: H u r t i g P u b l i s h e r s .  RASMUSSEN, KNUD 1929 I n t e l l e c t u a l C u l t u r e o f t h e I g l u l i k Eskimos. F i f t h Thule, V o l . V I I , No. 1. 1931 The N e t s i l i k Eskimos: S o c i a l L i f e and S p i r i t u a l C u l t u r e . Fifth T h u l e , V o l . V I I I , No. 1 & 2. 1973 Eskimo Poems: from Greenland and Canada. T r a n s l a t e d and e d i t e d by Tom L o w e n s t e i n . U n i v e r s i t y o f P i t t s b u r g h P r e s s . RAY, DOROTHY JEAN 1977 Eskimo A r t : T r a d i t i o n and I n n o v a t i o n i n N o r t h A l a s k a . S. S. Douglas L t d . RINK, HENRIK 1875 T a l e s and T r a d i t i o n s o f t h e Eskimo. and Sons, 1974. SAFF, DONALD and SACILOTTO, DELI 1978 P r i n t m a k i n g : H i s t o r y and P r o c e s s . Winston.  London: W i l l i a m  Vancouver:  Blackwood  New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t , and  SCHAEFER, OTTO 1976 " Y e s t e r d a y and Today," A r c t i c , V o l . 29, March, pp. 87-91. SCHWARTZ, F. H. 1978 "The Cape Dorset R e p o r t , " I n u i t Today, V o l . 4, No. 7, June, pp. 13-57. 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Stonecut.  F i g u r e 9.  T u d l i k (Loon).  #38-1974.  Stonecut.  F i g u r e 10.  F i s h Lake.  #37-1966.  Stonecut.  F i g u r e 12. S p r i n g Landscape. Stonecut and S t e n c i l .  #53-1977.  74  75  F i g u r e 15. Naujaq U m i a l l u ( S e a g u l l and B o a t s ) . 1978. Lithograph.  F i g u r e 16. Eagle C a r r y i n g #34-1963. Stonecut.  Man.  77  78  hut,,.  il, into id higl  JJJ  F i g u r e 21. M i d d l e : Female figurines. I g l o o l i k area Thule C u l t u r e . I v o r y , l e n g t h lh" t o 2". C o l l e c t i o n : Eskimo Museum, C h u r c h i l l . Source: Swinton, 1972, p. 117. Bottom: Bird figurines. I g l o o l i k a r e a Thule C u l t u r e . I v o r y , l e n g t h 1%" t o 2". Collection: Eskimo Museum, C h u r c h i l l . Source: Swinton, 1972, p. 117.  is n u d e » i t l i  F i g u r e 22. Woman W i t h B i r d Image. #14-1961. Stonecut.  79  F i g u r e 23.  Shaman's D w e l l i n g .  #32-1975.  Stonecut.  F i g u r e 24. Two Loons a t Sea. and S t e n c i l .  #52-1979.  Stonecut  81  F i g u r e 27.  Metiq  on M a l l i k  (Duck on a Wave).  F i g u r e 28.  V i s i o n o f Two Worlds.  #19-1983.  #39-1983.  Lithograph.  Lithograph  and S t e n c i l .  83  Pudlo GreyBirdlUn oiseau gns 20'/4-x 2 5 V , Edition 5 0  Pudlo Fishing/Peche 20'/4-x 2 5 V . Edition 5 0  F i g u r e 31.  Bottom r i g h t :  Pudlo Women at the Fish Lakes! Femmes se preparant A la peche 1 4 V x 1 8 V " . Edition 7 5 2  Pudlo L a n d s c a p e with Caribou! Paysage et cahbou 2 2 " x 2 5 V Edition 5 0  Landscape w i t h C a r i b o u .  1977.  Lithograph.  F i g u r e 32. T i m i a t Nunamiut (The Body of Land). 1976. Lithograph. H a b i t a t commission. Source: Dorset, 1981, p. 73.  1976.  

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