UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The role of environmental colour Avakumovic, Fiona 1988

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1988_A8_2 A92.pdf [ 19.92MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0097845.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0097845-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0097845-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0097845-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0097845-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0097845-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0097845-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0097845-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0097845.ris

Full Text

THE ROLE OF ENVIRONMENTAL COLOUR by FIONA AVAKUMOVIC .A., Hon., U n i v e r s i t y Of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1984 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Sc h o o l Of Community And R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g We ac c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1988 © F i o n a Avakumovic, 1988 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date OCTOBER 17, 1988 DE-6 (2/88) 11 Abstract This thesis reviews the role of environmental colour, that found on the large manmade surfaces of pavements, facades and roofs. In addition, i t provides a conceptual framework for the planner 'to think through' urban colour, that i s , to r e f l e c t f u l l y upon as a basis for developing strategies and evaluating options. In the b u i l t environment, colour is an essential, ubiquitous, enjoyable, and, now, highly t o p i c a l element. However, much of the ava i l a b l e information i s , to the planner, too specialized, complicated by unresolved debates or dated. Therefore, to c l a r i f y the subject concisely and creatively for the planner, t h i s thesis reviews pertinent l i t e r a t u r e , with material mainly drawn from architecture, fine arts, geography, optics, psychology, and urban design. Examples of recent or renowned uses of environmental colour, primarily from the 'Western' world for reasons of s i m i l a r i t y of culture and climate to Canada, supplement the l i t e r a t u r e review. As a res u l t , t h i s thesis reveals to the planner that environmental colour may be thought through in terms of 'Place' and 'Power' and that, far from playing one p r i n c i p a l role, environmental colour has many precise parts. Each of the surfaces on which colour occurs o f f e r s d i f f e r e n t constraints and opportunities for colour use. At various scales of perception, di f f e r e n t factors also influence such use. Colour's power is both s p a t i a l , to transform the appearance of our surroundings i i i t h r o u g h c h a n g i n g l i g h t c o n d i t i o n s , s u r f a c e s p e c t r a l q u a l i t i e s , a n g l e s of p e r c e p t i o n , and s y n a e s t h e s i a , and p s y c h o l o g i c a l , to i n f l u e n c e our w e l l - b e i n g , through a r o u s a l , p l e a s u r e , and c o n t r o l . With t h i s 'Power i n P l a c e ' , c o l o u r ' s s y m b o l i c , a e s t h e t i c , and f u n c t i o n a l v a l u e s modify i t s s i x main r o l e s , Background, M e a n i n g f u l , T i m e l y , C i r u c u l a t o r y , I l l u s o r y , and P i c t o r i a l , to produce th e a r r a y of p r e c i s e p a r t s which range from 'Backdrop' t o ' A d v e r t i z e r ' . To r e a l i z e the importance of these p a r t s , the p l a n n e r promotes 'thought through' e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o l o u r through s t r a t e g i e s of e d u c a t i o n , e x e m p l i f i c a t i o n , encouragement and enforcement, and t h rough the c o n t r i b u t i o n s of v a r i o u s p r o f e s s i o n a l r o l e s . However, more r e s e a r c h i s s t i l l needed about c o l o u r ' s e n v i r o n m e n t a l p o t e n t i a l and the p u b l i c ' s p r e f e r e n c e s i n o r d e r t o d e v e l o p c l e a r c o l o u r p o l i c i e s , e s p e c i a l l y i f , as E l l e n Marx (1972) c o n f i d e n t l y p r e d i c t s : La t a c h e de l ' u r b a n i s t e f u t u r s e r a sans doute d ' a p p r o f o n d i r l e s c r i t e r e s q u a l i t a t i f s et q u a n t i t a t i f s de l a c o u l e u r e t de l a l u m i e r e , en c o l l a b o r a t i o n e ' t r o i t e avec des b i o l o g i s t e s , des p s y c h o l o g u e s , et des s o c i l o g u e s q u i a uront d € f i n i l e s b e s o i n s fondamentaux de s i l e n c e , de l ' e s p a c e , d ' i n f o r m a t i o n e t de communication de l ' e \ re humain. (The t a s k of the f u t u r e urban p l a n n e r w i l l undoubtably be t o deepen the q u a l i t a t i v e and q u a n t i t a t i v e c r i t e r i a of c o l o u r and l i g h t , i n d i r e c t c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h b i o l o g i s t s , p s y c h o l o g i s t s , and s o c i o l o g i s t s who w i l l have d e f i n e d the fundamentals of s i l e n c e , space, i n f o r m a t i o n , and communication needed to be human.) T a b l e of Contents A b s t r a c t i i T a b l e of Contents i v L i s t of T a b l e s . v i L i s t of F i g u r e s v i I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 (1) S e t t i n g the Scene 1 (2) Purpose of the T h e s i s 1 (3) R a t i o n a l e ....2 (4) Methodology 4 (5) L i m i t a t i o n s . 6 (6) O r g a n i z a t i o n 8 Endnotes . 11 Chapter 1 : The P l a c e of C o l o u r 13 (1 ) S u r f a c e s 13 (1.1) Pavements 14 (1.2) Facades 15 (1 .3) Roofs 17 (2) S c a l e 18 (2.1) R e g i o n a l and C i t y C o l o u r 19 (2.2) D i s t r i c t C o l o u r 22 (2.3) S t r e e t C o l o u r 23 (2.4) B u i l d i n g s and D e t a i l s 24 (3) The R o l e s of C o l o u r 25 Endnotes 27 Chapter 2: The Power of C o l o u r 30 (1) To Transform the Appearance of Our S u r r o u n d i n g s ....31 (1.1) Changing L i g h t C o n d i t i o n s 32 (1.2) V a r i a b l e S p e c t r a l Q u a l i t i e s 36 (1.3) A l t e r a b l e Angle of P e r c e p t i o n 40 (1.4) S y n e s t h e s i a 41 (2) To I n f l u e n c e our W e i l - B e i n g 42 (2.1) C o l o u r and A r o u s a l .....44 (2.2) C o l o u r and P l e a s u r e 45 (2.3) C o l o u r and C o n t r o l 54 (3) The V a l u e s of C o l o u r ...60 Endnotes 62 Chapter 3: Power i n P l a c e 68 (1) Background C o l o u r 70 (1.1) Symbolic Backdrop 70 (1.2) A e s t h e t i c F o i l ..72 (1.3) F u n c t i o n a l ' D i r t D i s g u i s e r ' 78 (2) M e a n i n g f u l C o l o u r 78 (2.1) Symbolic Metaphor 78 (2.2) A e s t h e t i c E x p r e s s i o n of M a t e r i a l & L i g h t . . . . 8 1 (2.3) F u n c t i o n a l Coding 85 V (3) T imely C o l o u r ;....88 (3.1) Symbolic H i s t o r i c a l R eference 88 (3.2) A e s t h e t i c Tempo S e t t e r 96 (3.3) F u n c t i o n a l Heat A b s o r b t i o n & R e f l e c t i o n 100 (4) C i r c u l a t o r y C o l o u r 104 (4.1) Symbolic I d e n t i t y 104 (4.2) A e s t h e t i c S p a t i a l P r o g r e s s i o n 111 (4.3) F u n c t i o n a l L e g i b i l i t y 116 (5) I l l u s o r y C o l o u r 117 (5.1) Symbolic Attachment & Detachment .119 (5.2) A e s t h e t i c A l t e r e d S p a t i a l P e r c e p t i o n 122 (5.3) F u n c t i o n a l Camouflage 127 (6) P i c t o r i a l C o l o u r 131 (6.1) Symbolic ' E d i f i e r ' 132 (6.2) A e s t h e t i c Artwork ...133 (6.3) F u n c t i o n a l A d v e r t i z e r 140 Endnotes 142 C o n c l u s i o n 149 (1) Summary of F i n d i n g s ....149 (2) Recommendations t o P l a n n e r s 151 (3) S u g g e s t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r Research 156 Endnotes 159 G l o s s a r y 160 B i b l i o g r a p h y 164 L i s t of T a b l e s Table 1 . Power i n P l a c e : The P r e c i s e P a r t s of E n v i r o n m e n t a l C o l o u r v i i L i s t of F i g u r e s F i g . 1 Symbolic Background C o l o u r : Backdrop 71 F i g . 2 A e s t h e t i c Background C o l o u r : F o i l 73 F i g . 3 A e s t h e t i c Backround C o l o u r : F o i l 73 F i g . 4 A e s t h e t i c - B a c k g r o u n d C o l o u r : F o i l ...75 F i g . 5 A e s t h e t i c Background C o l o u r : F o i l 76 F i g . 6 F u n c t i o n a l Background C o l o u r : ' D i r t D i s g u i s e r ' 77 F i g . 7 Symbolic M e a n i n g f u l C o l o u r : Metaphor 79 F i g . 8 Symbolic M e a n i n g f u l C o l o u r : Metaphor 80 F i g . 9 A e s t h e t i c M e a n i n g f u l C o l o u r : E x p r e s s i o n of M a t e r i a l s ..82 F i g . 1 0 A e s t h e t i c M e a n i n g f u l C o l o u r : E x p r e s s i o n of M a t e r i a l ..83 Fig.11 A e s t h e t i c M e a n i n g f u l C o l o u r : E x p r e s s i o n of L i g h t .....84 F i g . 1 2 F u n c t i o n a l M e a n i n g f u l C o l o u r : Coding 86 F i g . 13 Symbolic Timely C o l o u r : H i s t o r i c a l R e f e r e n c e 90 F i g . 14 Symbolic Timely C o l o u r : H i s t o r i c a l R e f e r e n c e 91 F i g . 1 5 Symbolic Timely C o l o u r : H i s t o r i c a l R e f e r e n c e 93 F i g . 16 Symbolic Timely Colour.: H i s t o r i c a l R e f e r e n c e 95 F i g . 1 7 Symbolic Timely C o l o u r : H i s t o r i c a l r e f e r e n c e 97 F i g . 1 8 Symbolic Timely C o l o u r : H i s t o r i c a l R e f e r e n c e 98 F i g . 1 9 Symbolic Timely C o l o u r : H i s t o r i c a l R e f e r e n c e 99 F i g . 2 0 A e s t h e t i c Timely C o l o u r : Tempo S e t t e r 101 Fig.21 F u n c t i o n a l T i m e l y C o l o u r : Heat A b s o r b t i o n 103 F i g . 2 2 Symbolic C i r c u l a t o r y C o l o u r : I d e n t i t y 105 F i g . 2 3 Symbolic C i r c u l a t o r y C o l o u r : I d e n t i t y 106 F i g . 2 4 Symbolic C i r c u l a t o r y C o l o u r : I d e n t i t y 107 F i g . 2 5 Symbolic C i r c u l a t o r y C o l o u r : I d e n t i t y 109 F i g . 2 6 Symbolic C i r c u l a t o r y C o l o u r : I d e n t i t y 110 F i g . 2 7 A e s t h e t i c C i r c u l a t o r y C o l o u r : S p a t i a l P r o g r e s s i o n ....114 Fig . 2 8 A e s t h e t i c C i r c u l a t o r y C o l o u r : S p a t i a l P r o g r e s s i o n ....115 F i g . 2 9 F u n c t i o n a l C i r c u l a t o r y C o l o u r : L e g i b i l i t y 118 F i g . 3 0 Symbolic I l l u s o r y C o l o u r : Attachment & Detachment ....120 Fig.31 Symbolic I l l u s o r y C o l o u r : Attachment & Detachment ....121 F i g . 3 2 A e s t h e t i c I l l u s o r y C o l o u r : A l t e r e d P e r c e p t i o n 124 F i g . 3 3 A e s t h e t i c I l l u s o r y C o l o u r : A l t e r e d P e r c e p t i o n 126 F i g . 3 4 F u n c t i o n a l I l l u s o r y C o l o u r : Camouflage 128 F i g . 3 5 F u n c t i o n a l I l l u s o r y C o l o u r : Camouflage 130 F i g . 3 6 F u n c t i o n a l I l l u s o r y C o l o u r : Camouflage 130 F i g . 3 7 A e s t h e t i c P i c t o r i a l C o l o u r : Artwork 134 F i g . 3 8 A e s t h e t i c P i c t o r i a l C o l o u r : Artwork 135 F i g . 3 9 A e s t h e t i c P i c t o r i a l C o l o u r : Artwork 136 F i g . 4 0 A e s t h e t i c P i c t o r i a l C o l o u r : Artwork 137 Fig.41 A e s t h e t i c P i c t o r i a l C o l o u r : Artwork 139 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n  (1) S e t t i n g the Scene In 1925, a r c h i t e c t Bruno Taut, then a r t i s t i c d i r e c t o r of B e r l i n ' s p u b l i c h o using's p l a n n i n g d i v i s i o n and a l e a d i n g advocate, of c o l o u r as an i n t e g r a l element of town p l a n n i n g , gave a l e c t u r e on "The R e b i r t h of C o l o u r " . In i t he s t r e s s e d : E v e r y t h i n g i n t h i s w o r l d of ours has t o have some c o l o u r or o t h e r . A l l of n a t u r e i s c o l o u r f u l , and even the grey of dust or s o o t , even the most d e p r e s s i n g and melancholy p l a c e s always have t h e i r own t y p i c a l c o l o u r s And s i n c e every o b j e c t i n n a t u r e has i t s c o l o u r , e v e r y t h i n g human b e i n g s c r e a t e must be thought through i n terms of c o l o u r t o o . 1 T a k i n g 'to t h i n k t h r o u g h ' t o mean 'to r e f l e c t f u l l y upon as a b a s i s f o r d e v e l o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s and e v a l u a t i n g o p t i o n s ' , how can the modern urban p l a n n e r , concerned w i t h the p h y s i c a l environment and aware of a r e c e n t ' r e b i r t h ' of c o l o u r i n townscape, ' t h i n k through' something as l a r g e and complex as a c i t y i n terms of c o l o u r ? (2) The Purpose of the T h e s i s . In answer, t h i s t h e s i s examines the r o l e of the dominant urban c o l o u r , t h a t of. the b u i l t environment formed by pavements, facades and r o o f s and encompassing both s t r u c t u r e s and the spaces 2 between them. The primary purpose i s to review the r o l e of environmental c o l o u r , paying s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n to knowledge needed by the planners promoting 'thought through' environmental c o l o u r . The secondary purpose of t h i s t h e s i s i s to develop a conceptual framework for s t r u c t u r i n g and o r g a n i z i n g m a t e r i a l i n a way which permits the planner to 'think through' environmental c o l o u r . (3) R a t i o n a l e The need fo r t h i s review and framework d e r i v e s from a number of r e l a t e d reasons. Above a l l , as P a t r i c k Nuttgens observes i n The Landscape of  Ideas, the b a s i s f o r planning the modern c i t y i s understanding man h i m s e l f . 2 Although c o l o u r i s d e f i n e d as the "aspect of t h i n g s that i s caused by d i f f e r i n g q u a l i t i e s of l i g h t r e f l e c t e d or emitted by them", 3 without an observer c o l o u r does not e x i s t . " Our d e c i s i o n s i n f l u e n c e the p l a c e of c o l o u r which, i n turn, has the power to a f f e c t our emotional w e l l - b e i n g and our environmental p e r c e p t i o n . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , c o l o u r , as an a t t r i b u t e of every m a t e r i a l , i s a v i t a l element of our surroundings. However, as Joseph Esherwick e x p l a i n s : c o l o u r i n the ' n a t u r a l ' world, the world of animals, i n s e c t s , p l a n t s and f i s h , i s used in a p u r p o s e f u l and 3 f u n c t i o n a l way. Man, on the o t h e r hand, appears t o be burdened by h a v i n g t o t h i n k about c o l o u r , t o study i t , t o make an i s s u e of i t , t o d e s i g n and p l a n f o r i t s u s e . 5 Every manmade o b j e c t , t h e r e f o r e , r e p r e s e n t s a c o l o u r c h o i c e , e i t h e r 'thought through' or spontaneous, by i t s maker or d e s i g n e r . In a d d i t i o n , e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o l o u r not o n l y i n t e r e s t s the p u b l i c , but i s i n the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . E n j o y a b l y e x p r e s s i v e , both of q u a l i t i e s of l i g h t and of a s s o c i a t e d e m o t i o n a l v a l u e s , 6 c o l o u r i s "necessary t o the t o t a l man, the p s y c h i c and s p i r i t u a l one as w e l l as the p h y s i c a l one." 7 F u r t h e r m o r e , c o l o u r i s c u r r e n t l y a t o p i c a l i s s u e . S i g n s of a ' r e b i r t h of c o l o u r ' a r e a l l around, v a r i o u s l y seen on pavements, facades and r o o f s t h a t a re new and c o l o u r f u l , r e c e n t and r e p a i n t e d , or o l d and r e s t o r e d . T h i s development, p a r t l y a g e n e r a l r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t p r e v i o u s e n v i r o n m e n t a l drabness and p a r t l y a p a r t i c u l a r a t t r i b u t e of the Post Modern movement, i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a l a c k of t r a d i t i o n a l g u i d e l i n e s f o r c o l o u r use and by an abundance of e c l e c t i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n w i t h c o l o u r . However, f o r p l a n n e r s s e e k i n g t o l e a r n more about t h i s c h r o m a t i c r e s u r g e n c e , much of the a v a i l a b l e c o l o u r l i t e r a t u r e i s e i t h e r too s p e c i a l i z e d , c o m p l i c a t e d by u n r e s o l v a b l e debates, or da t e d . C o l o u r r e s e a r c h o c c u r s i n many f i e l d s , o f t e n p r e s u p p o s i n g a p r e v i o u s knowledge of i s s u e s . These f i e l d s i n c l u d e : a n t h r o p o l o g y , a r c h e o l o g y , a r c h i t e c t u r e , b i o l o g y , c h e m i s t r y , f i n e a r t s , geography, n e u r o l o g y , o p t i c s , p h y s i c s , p h y s i o l o g y , 4 p s y c h o l o g y , and urban d e s i g n . A l l too o f t e n , i n t e r - d i s c i p l i n a r y d a t a i s p o o r l y connected and communicated, so t h a t the non-s p e c i a l i s t , as S i r Hugh Casson c o m p l a i n s i n the P r e f a c e t o C o l o u r  f o r A r c h i t e c t u r e ; " s c i e n t i s t s and a r t i s t s make of c o l o u r a p r o f e s s i o n a l m y s t e r y . " 8 R e c u r r e n t , u n r e s o l v a b l e debates a l s o c o m p l i c a t e the l i t e r a t u r e . C u r r e n t l y , they o f t e n o c c u r , t o use C h a r l e s J e n c k s ' terms, between 'Post-Moderns' such as M i c h a e l Graves and ' L a t e -Moderns' such as A r t h u r E r i c k s o n . 9 T o p i c s f o r debate i n c l u d e whether c o l o u r s h o u l d m a i n l y (1) be i n t r i n s i c or a p p l i e d ; (2) draw from an a c h r o m a t i c or c h r o m a t i c p a l e t t e ; (3) f e a t u r e p r i m a r y or secondary hues; and (4 ) be used t o make s u r f a c e s b l e n d i n or s t a n d out from t h e i r s u r r o u n d i n g s . By l e a r n i n g more about e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o l o u r the p l a n n e r , a c t i n g a t "the i n t e r f a c e between knowledge and a c t i o n , " 1 0 g a i n s a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the p l a c e s , the p e o p l e , and the times f o r whom he or she p l a n s . (4) Methodology. Research f o r t h i s t h e s i s i n v o l v e d a l i t e r a t u r e r e v iew of m a t e r i a l p e r t a i n i n g t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o l o u r , supplemented by r e c e n t or renowned examples of the r o l e of e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o l o u r , o f t e n i l l u s t r a t e d . The p r o c e s s had f i v e main s t e p s : (1) s e a r c h i n g f o r r e l e v a n t m a t e r i a l and examples; (2) s o r t i n g d ata i n t o d i s t i n c t a r e a s ; (3) s t u d y i n g i t f o r p e r t i n e n t themes; (4) 5 synthesizing findings into a theory of colour's power and place; and (5) structuring the resulting knowledge. The literature review draws on material from several diverse fields, especially architecture, fine arts, geograpy, optics, psychology and urban design. The literature represents the views of several noted advocates of environmental colour, both academic and popular. Several of the more academic advocates are: ( 1 ) in Sweden, Dr. Lars Sivik, of the University of Goteburg, a psychologist concerned with the systematic analysis of the meaning of colours, particularly those found on exteriors; in England, Tom Porter, of Oxford Polytechnic, author and editor of two solid books representing the views and activities of a range of researchers, and practioners of environmental colour in art and architecture; ( 3 ) Dr. Peter Smith, Director of the Design and Psychology Research Unit as the University of Sheffield, known for work on aesthetics relevant to colour; and ( 4 ) A.C. Hardy, now retired from Newcastle University, specialist on the impact of large-scale manmade surfaces in rural settings. More populist advocates of environmental colour include: (1) in Germany, the trio of Martina Duttmann, Friedrich Schmuck, and Johannes Uhl, co-authors of a popular book, Color in Townscape, intended as a "handbook in six parts for Architects, Designers and Contractors, for City Dwellers and other Observant People;" ( 2 ) in the United States, Faber Birren, author of many books and articles on a l l aspects of colour and a consultant to industry and government on colour concerns; and, ( 3 ) in Canada, Hubert 6 Roigt, a popular Quebecois proponent of ' t h i n k i n g through' c o l o u r who urges i n h i s c o n c l u s i o n to La Couleur: "ne l a i s s e z pas a l a jeunesse 1 ' e x c l u s i v i t e de l a c o u l e u r . I l y en a pour t o u s . " 1 1 However, since 1982, a l s o the date of a c o n t r o v e r s i a l and c o l o u r f u l landmark, the P o r t l a n d B u i l d i n g , the l i t e r a t u r e makes few d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e s to the recent resurgence i n the use of c o l o u r in the b u i l t environment. Instead, j o u r n a l s tend to d i s c u s s c o l o u r as a f e a t u r e of a p a r t i c u l a r ' b u i l d i n g , a r c h i t e c t or s t y l i s t i c movement. Thus, to supplement the l i t e r a t u r e review, t h i s t h e s i s i n c l u d e s examples, o f t e n i l l u s t r a t e d , of recent or renowned uses of environmental c o l o u r , p r i m a r i l y drawn from Vancouver but a l s o from elsewhere. (5) L i m i t a t i o n s Since a c i t y i s very l a r g e and complex to be 'thought through' in terms of c o l o u r , t h i s t h e s i s l i m i t s the t o p i c i n four main ways. F i r s t , t h i s t h e s i s only c o n s i d e r s the r o l e of e x t e r i o r , not i n t e r i o r , c o l o u r . T h i s i s p a r t l y because the former, not the l a t t e r , i s u s u a l l y the planner's concern, and p a r t l y because the c o n d i t i o n s i n f l u e n c i n g the use of c o l o u r on i n s i d e and outside s u r f a c e s are v a s t l y d i f f e r e n t . Above a l l , e x t e r i o r c o l o u r i s more l i k e l y than i n t e r i o r c o l o u r to be r e g u l a r l y i n the p u b l i c view; to experience more v a r i a b l e and harder to p r e d i c t l i g h t i n g 7 c o n d i t i o n s ; t o s u f f e r the e f f e c t s of w e a t h e r i n g ; and t o occur on s u r f a c e s t h a t have a l a r g e r a r e a , a r e t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l r a t h e r than two d i m e n s i o n a l , and are convex r a t h e r than concave. The second b a s i c l i m i t r e s t r i c t s the t o p i c t o c o l o u r i n the b u i l t environment r a t h e r than i n n a t u r e s i n c e , i n most c i t i e s , the former not the l a t t e r p redominates. Moreover, as Ru s k i n observes when d i s c u s s i n g a r c h i t e c t u r a l beauty, c o l o u r i n n a t u r e , u n l i k e c o l o u r i n the b u i l t environment, "never f o l l o w s form, but i s a r r a n g e d on an e n t i r e l y s e p a r a t e s y s t e m . " 1 2 However, the c o l o u r of the b u i l t environment does d e r i v e from n a t u r a l as w e l l as manmade m a t e r i a l s and o f t e n s e r v e s as a backdrop f o r l a n d s c a p i n g arrangements. The t h i r d l i m i t i s the f o c u s on l a r g e - s c a l e e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o l o u r , not d e t a i l s . In the b u i l t environment, c o l o u r d e r i v e s from a c o m b i n a t i o n of p e r s o n a l a t t i r e , d i s p l a y windows, t r a f f i c l i g h t s , a u t o m o b i l e s , s c a f f o l d i n g , s t r e e t f u r n i t u r e and a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e t a i l i n g on b u i l d i n g s seen a g a i n s t a backdrop of pavements, facades and r o o f s . These l a r g e s u r f a c e s p r o v i d e a more f i x e d source of c o l o u r than the d e t a i l s and c o n t r i b u t e immeasurably t o the o v e r a l l c o l o u r of a p l a c e . As the a u t h o r s of A r c h i t e c t u r e and You: How t o E x p e r i e n c e and Enjoy B u i l d i n g s , n o t e : When you d r i v e i n t o a c i t y f o r the f i r s t t i m e , the f l e e t i n g g l i m p s e of an i n d i v i d u a l b u i l d i n g , the t e x t u r e s and c o l o u r s of the b u i l d i n g ' s f a b r i c . . . m a k e a l a s t i n g i m p r e s s i o n . 1 3 F i n a l l y , f o r reasons of s i m i l a r i t y of c u l t u r e and c l i m a t e t o Canada, most examples i n t h i s t h e s i s come from N o r t h America and 8 Western Europe. T h i s somewhat s i m p l i f i e s the many v a r i a t i o n s i n c o l o u r use caused by d i f f e r e n c e s i n c u l t u r e and c l i m a t e , p a r t i c u l a r l y regarding the choice of b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s , type of b u i l d i n g technology, mental a s s o c i a t i o n s and r e l i g i o u s customs, e s p e c i a l l y as found i n Islamic and O r i e n t a l c u l t u r e s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , unique and r e l e v a n t examples of the 'non- Western' r o l e of c o l o u r , such as at the Imperial Palace i n Peking or, more r e c e n t l y , the environmental work of Venuzuelan Op a r t i s t , C a r l o s Curuz-Diez, are i n c l u d e d . ( 6 ) O r g a n i z a t i o n . O v e r a l l , t h i s t h e s i s takes a deductive approach to reviewing the r o l e of environmental c o l o u r , with p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n to knowledge needed f o r promoting 'thought through' c o l o u r i n the planni n g context. Throughout, the o r g a n i z a t i o n of ideas i s based on a conceptual framework developed to help the planner s t r u c t u r e and organize m a t e r i a l about c o l o u r that may seem h i g h l y s u b j e c t i v e , c o n t r a d i c t o r y or complicated to the n o n - s p e c i a l i s t . T h i s framework permits the planner to 'think through' the r o l e of environmental c o l o u r from four angles, each represented i n a chapter: 'The Place of Colour', 'The Power of Colour', 'Power in Pl a c e ' , and 'Promoting Power i n P l a c e ' . To begin with, Chapter 1, 'The Place of Colour', surveys the 'colour scene' i n order to present e s s e n t i a l information to the planner about f a c t o r s determining the place of c o l o u r i n the 9 b u i l t environment. In p a r t i c u l a r , t h i s overview examines: (1) the c o n s t r a i n t s and o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r c o l o u r use o f f e r e d by each of. p r i n c i p a l s u r f a c e s under c o n s i d e r a t i o n , namely pavements, facades, and r o o f s ; and (2) the d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g c o l o u r use at v a r i o u s s c a l e s of p e r c e p t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y the four s c a l e s of regions and c i t i e s , d i s t r i c t s , s t r e e t s , and b u i l d i n g s and d e t a i l s . When these s u r f a c e and s c a l e f a c t o r s of place combine, c o l o u r p l a y s s e v e r a l main r o l e s , here named: (1) Background; (2) Meaningful; (3) Timely; (4) C i r c u l a t o r y ; (5) I l l u s o r y ; and (6) P i c t o r i a l . Chapter 2, 'The Power of Colour', then o f f e r s more s p e c i f i c i n s i g h t s p e r t i n e n t to the planner about how c o l o u r a f f e c t s people. In the b u i l t environment, c o l o u r ' s power has both p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s p a t i a l a s p e c t s : the power to i n f l u e n c e our w e l l - b e i n g and the power to transform the appearance of our surroundings. Together, these aspects e x p l a i n much of c o l o u r ' s symbolic, a e s t h e t i c and f u n c t i o n a l v a l u e s . Chapter 3, 'Power i n P l a c e ' , next seeks to improve the planner's understanding of the many p r e c i s e p a r t s c o l o u r p l a y s when general r o l e s combine with v a l u e s . T h i s chapter ends with a b r i e f examination of the c o n t r i b u t i o n s to 'thought through' environmental c o l o u r that the planner can make through s t r a t e g i e s of education, e x e m p l i f i c a t i o n , encouragement and enforcement and through v a r i o u s p r o f e s s i o n a l r o l e s : technocrat, p u b l i c servant, bureaucrat, advocate, s t a t e agent, s o c i a l l e a r n e r or s o c i a l r e f o r m e r . 1 4 1 0 F i n a l l y , the Conclusion summarizes findings about the role of environmental colour and recapitulates the framework for 'thinking through' environmental colour c l e a r l y , concisely, and creatively in terms of 'Power' and 'Place'. The Conclusion also offers recommendations to the planner about further involvement with environmental colour and suggestions to researchers for further study about an issue whose importance w i l l only grow as we increasingly urbanize. A f t e r a l l , the 'tone' of town l i f e - the psychological relationship between environment and imagination- is also profoundly influenced by the quality and quantity of colours that we see every day. 1 5 11 Endnotes 1 Bruno Taut, c i t e d i n M a r t i n a Duttmann, F r r i e d r i c h Schmuck, & Johannes U h l , C o l o r i n Townscape (San F r a n c i s c o ; W.H. Freeman, 1981), p. 14. 2 P a t r i c k N u t t g e n s , The Landscape of Ideas (London: Faber & Fa b e r , 1972), p. 100. 3 P e t e r D a v i e s , Ed. The American H e r i t a g e D i c t i o n a r y of the  E n g l i s h Language (New York; D e l l , 1973). * Faber B i r r e n , L i g h t , C o l o r and Environment (New York: Van N o s t r a n d , 1982), p.7. 5 Joseph E s h e r w i c k , "Colour on B u i l d i n g s , " i n C o l o u r f o r  A r c h i t e c t u r e , Eds. Tom P o r t e r and Byron M i k e l l i d e i (London: S t u d i o V i s t a , 1976), p. 58. 6 J.S. Ackerman & C. P e t e r s o n , " A r t of A r c h i t e c t u r e , " E n c y c l o p a e d i a B r i t a n n i c a , V o l . 1 (New York: E n c y c l o p a e d i a B r i t a n n i c a I n c . , 1979), p. 951. 7 B i r r e n , p. 29. 8 S i r Hugh Casson, P r e f a c e , P o r t e r and M i k e l l i d e s , p.8. 3 C h a r l e s J e n c k s , The Language of Post-Modern A r c h i t e c t u r e , 4 t h . Ed. (New York: R i z z o l i , 1984), pp. 6-7. 1 0 John Friedmann & B a r c l a y Hudson, "Knowledge and A c t i o n : a Guide t o P l a n n i n g Theory", AIP J o u r n a l , J a n u a r y , 1971, p.2. 1 1 Hugh R o i g t , La C o u l e u r , 2nd. Ed. ( A r t h a b a s k a , P.Q., 1980), p. 132. "Don't l e a v e the e x c l u s i v e use of c o l o u r t o the young. There's enough f o r everyone." 1 2 John R u s k i n , The Seven Lamps of A r c h i t e c t u r e (1848; New York: F a r r a r , S t r a u s s & G i r o u x , 1986), p. 132. 12 1 3 W.W. C a u d i l l , W.M. Pena and P. Kennon, A r c h i t e c t u r e  and You: How t o e x p e r i e n c e and Enjoy B u i l d i n g s (New York: Watson-C u p t i l l , 1978), p.86. 1 4 T . I . Gunton, "The Ro l e of the P r o f e s s i o n a l P l a n n e r , " Canadian P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , V o l . 27, 3 ( F a l l 1984), pp.399-417. 1 5 P a o l o P o r t o g h e s i , " C o l o u r i n Town", Domus, 602 ( J a n . 1980), p.20. 13 Chapter 1: The P l a c e of C o l o u r . Whether s p a r k l i n g i n the sun s h i n e or subdued i n the shadows, c o l o u r surrounds us as l o n g as s u f f i c e n t l i g h t and a t l e a s t one o b s e r v e r a r e p r e s e n t . As an i n i t i a l s t e p i n ' t h i n k i n g through' such an u b i q u i t o u s element, the p l a n n e r a c t i n g a t 'the i n t e r f a c e between knowledge and a c t i o n ' 1 needs t o survey the ' c o l o u r scene' i n o r d e r t o understand where t o s e t g o a l s . The dominant urban c o l o u r , t h a t of the b u i l t environment encompassing both s t r u c t u r e s and spaces, d e r i v e s p r i m a r i l y from t h r e e l a r g e - s c a l e manmade s u r f a c e s , namely pavements, f a c a d e s , and r o o f s , and e x i s t s a t s e v e r a l s c a l e s of p e r c e p t i o n . For urban p l a n n e r s , these a r e , most n o t a b l y , r e g i o n s and c i t i e s , d i s t r i c t s , s t r e e t s , and b u i l d i n g s and d e t a i l s . At each s c a l e , c o l o u r i s one of the d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e s of a p l a c e ' s image. O v e r a l l , s u r f a c e and s c a l e f a c t o r s r e g a r d i n g where we d e c i d e t o p l a c e c o l o u r encourage i t t o p l a y s e v e r a l i m p o r t a n t r o l e s i n the b u i l t environment. (1) S u r f a c e s . Pavements, facades and r o o f s a l l have c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t o f f e r d i f f e r e n t c o n s t r a i n t s and o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r c o l o u r use. At t i m e s , however, these q u a l i t i e s o v e r l a p . R o o f s , f o r i n s t a n c e , when used as t e r r a c e s resemble pavements and when s e t a t s t e e p a n g l e s c o r r e s p o n d t o f a c a d e s . 1 4 Pavements and facades have t a c t i l e and visual q u a l i t i e s in common that allow them to serve as giant canvases for artwork. Used together, these surfaces three-dimensionally delimit structures and spaces in the b u i l t environment. ( 1 . 1 ) Pavements At the base of the b u i l t environment, pavements form the floor of the c i t y , ranging in style from simple gutters to grand staircases. They serve as safe s o l i d surfaces, occasionally punctured by drains, for f a c i l i t a t i n g the movement of pedestrians, vehicles and run-off water. Located near the eye of pedestrians, pavements are highly v i s i b l e . As the authors of Architecture and You: How to Enjoy and experience Buildings explain: when you walk, you look down more than you may r e a l i z e . People are more aware of the walking plane than they are of walls ... And roofs. 2 Overall, pavements are the single largest colour surface in a c i t y . In Europe, granite setts t r a d i t i o n a l l y provided the favorite common paving, 3 while in North America, black asphalt predominates. Indeed, 'asphalt jungle' is an urban metaphor. Rudovsky vehemently complains: streets pavements represent the low-water mark of the urban environment- sqaure miles of patched asphalt of no discernible texture and c o l o r . . . . 4 The i n t r i n s i c colour of pavements is usually dark to disguise d i r t and save money since pavements receive considerable 1 5 a b r a s i v e wear and t e a r . A p p l i e d c o l o u r , such as t r a f f i c m a rkings, i s u s u a l l y m i n i m a l , both t o a v o i d c o n f u s i o n and t o reduce maintenance c o s t s . R a i n c o n s i d e r a b l y a l t e r s the c o l o u r of pavements, e s p e c i a l l y when water c o l l e c t s and g a i n s an i r i d e s c e n t sheen from o i l s l i c k s . However, i f pavements are p r i m a r i l y f o r p e d e s t r i a n r a t h e r than v e h i c u l a r t r a f f i c , t h e i r l a r g e s i z e and easy v i s i b i l i t y make them e x c e l l e n t l o c a t i o n s f o r a d v e r t i z i n g , a r t w o r k and even ' a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e s ' . 5 As P o r t e r s t r e s s e s : "the a t t r a c t i o n t o the f l o o r p l a n e seems a n a t u r a l e x t e n s i o n facade p a i n t i n g . " 6 In f a c t , the l a r g e s t p a i n t i n g i n the w o r l d ws A r t p a r k , a g i g a n t i c s e r i e s of huge rainbow s t r i p e s a d o r n i n g a c a r p a r k i n N i a g a r a , New Y o r k . 7 The p a i n t e r , Gene D a v i s , sees no reason why a r t s h o u l d m a i n l y be s m a l l , i n d o o r s or seen head-on. (1.2) Facades Facades, s e r v i n g as v e r t i c a l edges t o the b u i l t environment, are s t r o n g f e a t u r e s of townscape, both v i s u a l l y and s o c i a l l y . They cue people as t o a p p r o p r i a t e a c t i v i t i e s and "being seen t o do so; they d i r e c t or f o r b i d . " 8 T y p i c a l l y , facades have t h r e e zones: a f o u n d a t i o n or base t h a t connects i t t o the e a r t h or pavement, middl e zone w i t h i t s rows of windows, and a r o o f - zone, which t e r m i n a t e s the b u i l d i n g and s e t s o f f i t s s i l h o u e t t e . 9 When facades i n c l u d e both w a l l s and windows, they o f f e r a c o n t r a s t between opaque and t r a n s p a r e n t c o l o u r . H i s t o r i c a l l y , 16 t h e r e have been t h r e e types of ways i n which a window i s r e l a t e d t o s t r u c t u r e : as a h o l e i n a masonry w a l l ; as a g l a s s f i l l i n g i n a cage of s t r u c t u r e ; or as an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the s t r u c t u r e , where the window and the w a l l are the same e l e m e n t . 1 0 L e s s c o n t i n u o u s than pavements, facades o f f e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r d i f f e r e n t c o l o u r t r e a t m e n t s both of background and f o r e g r o u n d d e t a i l and i n d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n s around a b u i l d i n g . By adding a c h r o m a t i c t h i r d d i m e n s i o n , they p r o v i d e shadowing e f f e c t s both on themselves and on pavements. The most prominant facade c o l o u r s are those e a s i e s t t o see. L o o k i n g up from s t r e e t l e v e l , these are the c o l o u r s of the f o u n d a t i o n and f i r s t few s t o r i e s . W ith a e r i a l p e r s p e c t i v e : as c o l o r s s h i f t or f a l l back i n the d i s t a n c e , t h a t which i s dark i n c r e a s e s i n v a l u e ; t h a t which i s l i g h t i n v a l u e s o f t e n s a b i t - and a l l t h i n g s e v e n t u a l l y fade i n t o a medium l i g h t g e r y . . . . I n the o l d days when m u l t i s t o r y b u i l d i n g s were g i v e n egg and d a r t or o t h e r d e c o r a t i v e c o r n i c e s , t h i s ran c o n t r a r y t o the f a c t s of a e r i a l p e r s p e c t i v e . 1 1 Once seen, facades c o l o u r i s memorable, l e a d i n g t o the o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t : " f a c e s are u n f o r g e t t a b l e - i n b u i l d i n g s as i n p e o p l e . " 1 2 P r a c t i c a l l y , facade c o l o u r h e l p s or h i n d e r s v i s i o n depending on the amount of l i g h t r e f l e c t e d . White w a l l s , f o r example, can be e i t h e r a problem or a p l u s depending on the g o a l they f u l f i l l . B i r r e n , f o r i n s t a n c e , c o m p l a i n s t h a t " f u n c t i o n a l l y c o n s i d e r e d , w h i t e i s a bad c o l o u r . Where i t i s accompanied by h i g h l e v e l s of n a t u r a l or a r t i f i c i a l l i g h t . . . i t p l a y s havoc w i t h human v i s i o n . " 1 3 However, Duttmann d e l i g h t s i n the i n t e n s i f y i n g e f f e c t 17 on l i g h t of whitewashed facades and pavements i n Greece where whi t e " t a k e s on c o l o r from the M e d i t a r r a n e a n a i r . F i r s t warm then p a l i n g as the day goes on, a w h i t e broken by sharp shadows and r e f l e c t e d by the c o l o r s of i t s s u r r o u n d i n g s . " 1 " Above a l l , though, a c o n s i s t a n t theme i n the l i t e r a t u r e i s the underdeveloped p o t e n t i a l of f a c a d e s as e a s e l s . 1 5 Blank monochrome w a l l s i n v i t e c h r o m a t i c e l a b o r a t i o n , whether as s o c i a l l y d e v i a n t g r a f f i t i or more a c c e p t a b l e , though s t i l l d e b a t a b l e , m u r a l s . 1 6 Large s c a l e w a l l p a i n t i n g s a r e one of the most c o n t r o v e r s i a l urban c o l o u r t o p i c s , s p u r r i n g community commotions over s t y l e and c o n t e n t . (1.3) Roofs Atop the b u i l t environment, r o o f s p r o v i d e the dominant c o l o u r i m p r e s s i o n of a p l a c e when viewed from above or a f a r . U s u a l l y opaque, they sometimes have s k y l i g h t s and dormers or are o c c a s i o n a l l y made of g l a s s . At s t r e e t l e v e l , f l a t r o o f s c o n t r i b u t e l e s s t o l o c a l c o l o u r than s l o p e d ones, whose hues p r o v i d e a t r a n s i t i o n between the c o l o u r s of the facade and the ever changing ones of the sky. However, awnings, as seen, f o r example a l o n g Robson S t r e e t i n Vancouver, are an i n c r e a s i n g l y p o p u l a r way of supplementing e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o l o u r when roof hues are not v i s i b l e . C h r o m a t i c a l l y , s l o p i n g r o o f s are not merely t i l t e d w a l l s . A.C. Hardy, a f t e r a s y s t e m a t i c study of apparent c h r o m a t i c 18 d i s c r e p a n c i e s between facades and r o o f s of the same m a t e r i a l , noted t h a t : t r a d i t i o n a l r o o f s appear d a r k e r than w a l l s . T h i s o c c u r s even though p i t c h e d r o o f s c o l l e c t more d i r e c t s u n l i g h t , and i s an almost u n i v e r s a l e f f e c t caused by m a c r o - t e x t u r e , t h a t i s , the e f f e c t on s u r f a c e c o l o u r of shadows p r o j e c t e d from r o o f i n g e l e m e n t s . 1 7 F l a t r o o f s sometimes o f f e r the same o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l enhancement as pavements, w i t h the degree of t h e i r v i s i b i l i t y g o v e r n i n g the amount of a t t e n t i o n . For i n s t a n c e , a s u r f a c e s c a t t e r i n g of c o l o u r e d p e b b l e s a t o p the b l u e and orange apartment b u i l d i n g s b o r d e r i n g the G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t B r i d g e i n Vancouver l i n k s the r o o f s t o facades and p r o v i d e s a c o l o u r f u l f o r e g r o u n d f o r p a s s i n g m o t o r i s t s a d m i r i n g the s c e n i c c i v i c view. When s t r u c t u r a l l y p o s s i b l e , r o o f s used as gardens and t e r r a c e s and c o l o u r e d a c c o r d i n g l y g i v e a unique dimension t o urban l i v i n g not known on the ground. C i t i n g the example of the the r o o f garden over the new garage a t the h i s t o r i c Fairmont H o t e l i n San F r a n s i s c o , H a l p r i n s t r e s s e s : Up h i g h on the r o o f t h e r e a re views over o t h e r b u i l d i n g s , s u n s e t s t o see, a r e l a x i n g freedom from c a r s and o t h e r t r a f f i c , a p r i v a c y and i n t i m a c y which no o t h e r f a c i l i t y can b r i n g and which are d i f f i c u l t t o a c h i e v e a t s t r e e t l e v e l . 1 8 (2) S c a l e We see the c o m b i n a t i o n of pavements, facades and r o o f s f o r m i n g the b u i l t environment a t s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t s c a l e s of p e r c e p t i o n : (1) r e g i o n s and c i t i e s ; (2) d i s t r i c t s ; (3) s t r e e t s ; 19 and (4) b u i l d i n g s and d e t a i l s . P l a n n i n g r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e , such as B o e s c h e n s t e i n ' s " E x p r e s s i v e Urban C o l o u r " (1986), the C i v i c T r u s t ' s P r i d e of P l a c e (1974), and U h l ' s " C o l o r Typology" (1981 i n Duttmann) f r e q u e n t l y r e f e r t o such s c a l e s as a means of c l a s s i f y n g the complex i n f l u e n c e s on urban c o l o u r . In c e r t a i n p l a c e s , such as S i e n a , c o l o u r use o c c u r s m a i n l y at the c i t y s c a l e , w i t h o n l y landmarks l i k e the C a t h e d r a l d i f f e r e n t i a t e d a t the b u i l d i n g s c a l e . T h i s c o n t r i b u t e s c h a r a c t e r and i d e n t i t y t o a p l a c e , so t h a t , as Duttmann s t r e s s e s , " c e r t a i n c o l o r s and the moods they c r e a t e seem t o belong t o a c e r t a i n s p o t " 1 9 Indeed, S i e n a even has a c o l o u r named a f t e r i t - burnt s i e n n a . When t h e r e i s more v a r i e t y i n s c a l e s of c o l o u r use, t h i s , as B o e s c h e n s t e i n emphasizes, a l l o w s people t o " r e l a t e t o a range of s c a l e s and v i s u a l l y u n i f y o t h e r w i s e d i s p a r a t e e n v i r o n m e n t s . " 2 0 (2.1) R e g i o n a l and C i t y C o l o u r At t h i s s c a l e , c i v i c customs and c u l t u r a l p r e f e r e n c e s temper the e f f e c t s of l o c a l g e o l o g y, topography and c l i m a t e t o produce d i s t i n c t urban c o l o u r , such as t h a t of J e r u s a l e m the G o l d e n . 2 1 T r a d i t i o n a l l y , the r e g i o n a l s u p p l y of b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s , i n c l u d i n g l i m e s t o n e , c l a y , g r a n i t e and s l a t e , as w e l l as s o i l s f o r b r i c k s and f o r pigments t o dye s t u c c o or woodwork, was the most a c c e s s i b l e and a f f o r d a b l e , w i t h imported a p p l i e d hues b e i n g s i g n s of s p e c i a l s t a t u s . 2 1 Over the y e a r s , the c o m b i n a t i o n of n a t i v e m a t e r i a l s w i t h i n d i g e n o u s b u i l d i n g s t y l e s c o n t r i b u t e d t o 20 l o c a l c h a r a c t e r , as i n the towns of n o r t h e r n B r i t t a n y known f o r t h e i r b l u i s h grey s l a t e r o o f s , f a c a d e s , and even pavements. Today, however, w i t h the i n c r e a s e d a v a i l a b i l i t y of d i v e r s e m a t e r i a l s , e s p e c i a l l y 'anonymous' 2 3 c o n c r e t e , the g e o l o g i c a l i n f l u e n c e on urban c o l o u r i s much l e s s than i n the p a s t . I t s i n f l u e n c e on l o c a l c o l o u r i s now most e v i d e n t on r o o f s . As R o i g t observes i n an overview of N o r t h America's e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o l o u r s : Prenons par exemple l e s t o i t s des maisons: l e s regions l e s p l u s chaudes de I'Amerique comme l a C a l i f o r n i e , l a F l o r i d e , c h o i s i r o n t des tons p a s t e l s , des tons chauds comme l e rouge, l ' o r a n g e . Par c o n t r e , l a preference pour l e s t u i l e s b l e u e s , une c o l o e u r p l u t o t f r o i d e , e s t s u r t o u t p o p u l a i r e au Mi n n e s o t a et dans l e Canada a n g l a i s . Dans l e sud on aimera l e rouge a l o r s qu'en N o u v e l l e - A n g l e t e r r e on p r e f ^ r e r a l e s tons g r i s . Au Canada franc^ais on vend s u r t o u t des t u i l e s de c o u l e u r s s a t u r e e s , prouvant que l e s c a n a d i e n s f r a n c a i s sont b i e n demeures l a t i n s . 2 4 ? Topography a f f e c t s the c o l o u r seen by p r o v i d i n g v a r i o u s n a t u r a l backdrops t o the b u i l t environment. Most n o t a b l y , f l a t l a n d s e t s s u r f a c e s a g a i n s t the background b l u e or grey of the sky, w h i l e s l o p i n g l a n d s e t s them a g a i n s t the background hues of the h i l l s i d e r o c k s and s o i l s , u s u a l l y a warm r e d , orange or y e l l o w , r i c h brown, or shades of grey and even d r a m a t i c b l a c k as i n once v o l c a n i c a r e a s such as Cap D'Agde i n southwestern F r a n c e . In a d d i t i o n , s l o p i n g s i t e s expose more facades t o o v e r a l l view and p e r m i t a g r e a t e r a p p r e c i a t i o n of roof hues. T h i s can produce d r a m a t i c c h r o m a t i c g r a d a t i o n s such as the one P o r t e r d e s c r i b e s of Brixham harbour i n Devon: As i f t o c e l e b r a t e t h e i r c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h the sea, houses descend from the upper l e v e l s of p r e d o m i n a n t l y a c h r o m a t i c facades down t o a c l i m a x of more s a t u r a t e d , c o n t r a s t i n g and v a r i e g a t e d c o l o u r s on the harbour f r o n t a g e . 2 5 21 The c l i m a t e of the r e g i o n d e t e r m i n e s the e x t e n t and q u a l i t y of the v e g e t a t i o n , ground c o v e r , waters and atmosphere a g a i n s t , by or t h rough which e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o l o u r i s seen. The q u a l i t y of l i g h t a l s o v a r i e s w i t h l a t i t u d e . In d r i e r c l i m a t e s w i t h s p a r k i n g s u n s h i n e , c o l o u r b e n e f i t s from a l i g h t e r ground s u r f a c e t h a t i n c r e a s e s the amount of both d i r e c t and and i n d i r e c t l i g h t . In c o n t r a s t , c o o l e r , c l o u d i e r c l i m a t e s d u l l the s a t u r a t i o n of c o l o u r . As Uhl n o t e s : even i n t e n s e c o l o u r s l o s e t h e i r b r i l l i a n c e i n subdued l i g h t , which i s perhaps why, i n n o r t h e r n Europe, l i g h t and broken hues a r e so common i n a r c h i t e c t u r e - o f f -w h i t e s , l i g h t y e l l o w , o c h r e , brown, p i n k , even l i g h t b l u e and p u r p l e . 2 6 D i f f e r e n t c i t i e s w i t h i n the same r e g i o n , however, such as Toulouse the 'Pink' and A l b i the 'Red' i n southwestern France do a c h i e v e c h r o m a t i c i d e n t i t y by d e c i s i o n s based on "sympathy and t r a d i t i o n " . 2 7 In F l o r e n c e , McCarthy o b s e r v e s : the ochre-and-dun f i l e of h o t e l s and p a l a z z i has the s p r u c e , spare l o o k of a regiment drawn up i n d r i l l o r d e r . The deep shades of melon and t a n g e r i n e t h a t you see i n Rome,the p i n k s of V e n i c e , the rose of S i e n a , the r e d of Bologna have been r u l e d out of F l o r e n c e as i f by m u n i c i p a l d e c r e e . 2 8 Only r a r e l y , though, does a m u n i c i p a l i t y a c t u a l l y implement c i v i c c o l o u r schemes. P o r t o g h e s i s t a t e s : " T u r i n , i n f a c t , can boast perhaps the o n l y example i n the w o r l d of c o l o u r planned on an urban s c a l e . " 2 9 There, i n 1800, the M u n i c i p a l i t y s e t up a C o u n c i l of B u i l d e r s , which l a s t e d u n t i l 1845, whose purpose was t o d e v e l o p and a p p l y a c o l o u r p l a n f o r the e n t i r e c i t y . P o r t e r e x p l a i n s : 22 t h e i r concept was t o i n v e s t p r i n c i p a l s t r e e t s and squares c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a u n i f o r m a r c h i t e c t u r e w i t h c o l o u r s a c c o r d i n g t o a c o - o r d i n a t e d system....The C o u n c i l d e v i s e d a s e r i e s of c h r o m a t i c pathways founded upon p o p u l a r c i t y c o l o u r s . The major r o u t e s were i n t e r c o n n e c t e d by a network of s m a l l e r s t r e e t s and squares f o r which secondary and more v r i e g a t e d c o l o u r sequences were p r e s c r i b e d . The b a s i c scheme e n l i s t e d around e i g h t y c o l o u r s . . . . 3 0 In 1978 the M u n i c i p a l i t y ' s S u p e r v i s o r of H ousing, Enzo B i f f i G e n t i l i , s e t up a r e s t o r a t i o n programme f o r t h i s p l a n , which i s now w i d e l y l a u d e d and was the s u b j e c t of a s p e c i a l c o n f e r e n c e . 3 1 (2.2) D i s t r i c t C o l o u r . D i s t r i c t c o l o u r l a r g e l y d e r i v e s from l o c a l a c t i v i t i e s , h i s t o r y or r e s i d e n t s ' e t h n i c b a c k g r o u n d . 3 2 J u s t as- z o n i n g maps i n d i c a t e d i f f e r e n t l a n d uses by c o l o u r c o d i n g and we c a s u a l l y speak of p l a c e s such as 'red l i g h t d i s t r i c t s ' , the a c t u a l c o l o u r of neighbourhoods o f t e n demonstrates d i s t i n c t v a r i a t i o n s based on l o c a l a c t i v i t i e s . F o o t e , i n a d e t a i l e d though dry study of c o l o u r i n p u b l i c spaces, c o n c l u d e d t h a t d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s use v e r y d i f f e r e n t c o l o u r schemes depending on the degree and type of i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h the p u b l i c . However, s i t e s of g r e a t e r monetary t r a n s a c t i o n s , such as h i g h - p r i c e d r e s t a u r a n t s and shops, as w e l l as banks, u s u a l l y share the same type of c o l o u r scheme, which i n v o l v e s m a i n l y c o o l ' e l e g a n t ' t o n e s , w i t h o u t seeming t o confuse anyone w i t h c h r o m a t i c cues t o b e h a v i o u r . 3 3 B o e s c h e n s t e i n a l s o r e p o r t s t h a t d i s t r i c t c o l o u r v a r i e s w i t h l a n d u s e . 3 " Most n o t a b l y , r e s i d e n t i a l and h o s p i t a l zones g e n e r a l l y have more subdued c o l o u r s w h i l e commercial and e n t e r t a i n m e n t a r e a s tend to boast b r i g h t e r hues. 23 D i s t r i c t c o l o u r may a l s o d e r i v e from the predominant m a t e r i a l s used i n a p a r t i c u l a r h i s t o r i c p e r i o d , r e f l e c t i n g the t e c h n o l o g y and s t y l i s t i c p r e f e r e n c e s . In Vancouver, Gastown i s known f o r the warm r e d of b r i c k s d a t i n g from the c i t y ' s e a r l y days and complemented by new s u r f a c e s s e n s i t i v e t o the p a s t . In a d d i t i o n , the e t h n i c background of a r e a r e s i d e n t s i n f l u e n c e s d i s t r i c t c o l o u r when they c o n t i n u e t o use the e n v i r o n m e n t a l hues of t h e i r n a t i v e l a n d s . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y n o t i c e a b l e i n , f o r example, Chinatowns f e a t u r i n g a l a v i s h use of t r a d i t i o n a l reds and greens. At f i r s t , because of d i f f e r e n c e s i n c l i m a t e , such t r a n s f e r s might appear c h r o m a t i c a l l y unbalanced. However, the new p r o f u s i o n of c o l o u r , P o r t e r s t r e s s e s based on B r i t i s h e x p e r i e n c e w i t h West and E a s t I n d i a n i m m i g r a n t s , can i n f l u e n c e i n d i g e n o u s r e s i d e n t s t o use more b r i g h t l y c o l o u r e d p a i n t s f o r e x t e r n a l d e c o r a t i o n . 3 5 (2.3) S t r e e t C o l o u r . S t r e e t c o l o u r , a c c o r d i n g t o s p e c i f i c t y p o l o g i e s , such as U h l ' s , a c t u a l l y o c c u r s i n fo u r k i n d s of spaces: s q u a r e s , c o u r t y a r d s , i n t e r s e c t i o n s , and the a c t u a l s t r e e t s . 3 6 Both a c t i v i t i e s and the v i s u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between b u i l d i n g s i n f l u e n c e c o l o u r at t h i s s c a l e . 3 7 C o l o u r may e x p r e s s a d e s i r e f o r u n i f o r m i t y , as when Taut urged i n 1929 t h a t : the a e s t h e t i c s of the new a r c h i t e c t u r e do not r e c o g n i z e any s e p a r a t i o n between... s t r e e t and c o u r t y a r d , between f r o n t and back. 3 8 24 More commonly, c o l o u r d i s t i n g u i s h e s space. The C i v i c T r u s t , f o r i n s t a n c e , s t r e s s e s t h a t : a square might w e l l have a d i f f e r e n t c o l o u r theme from a n e i g h b o u r i n g s t r e e t - f o r such changes of theme o f t e n c o i n c i d e w i t h changes of use and a c t i v i t y . . . T h e r e may be more o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s t r o n g c o l o u r s i n a busy shopping s t r e e t than i n a q u i e t n e i g h b o r i n g r e s i d e n t i a l s t r e e t , d e s p i t e the c o n t i n u i t y they have on the g r o u n d . 3 9 C o l o u r d i s t i n c t i o n a t s t r e e t s c a l e may a l s o have sy m b o l i c o v e r t o n e s . For i n s t a n c e , Japanese a r c h i t e c t , Kuniko Hayakawa, known f o r h i s use of c o l o u r t o downplay t e x t u r e and the q u a l i t y of m a t e r i a l s , a p p l i e d the 'kimono' p r i n c i p l e f o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o l o u r a t Hayakawa C o u r t s h o u s i n g i n Tokyo. There, the o u t e r f a b r i c of the s t r e e t facade i s a r e s t r a i n e d grey to b l e n d w i t h n e i g h b o u r s , but w i t h i n the c o u r t y a r d , seen i n a t e m p t i n g g l i m p s e from the s t r e e t through an a r c h , a r i o t of e x p l o s i v e c o l o u r breaks f o r t h on facades and even pavements, marking a c l e a r c o n t r a s t between p r i v a t e and p u b l i c urban open s p a c e s . 4 0 (3.4) B u i l d i n g s and D e t a i l s . At the s c a l e of b u i l d i n g s and d e t a i l s , i n f l u e n c e s on c o l o u r use o f t e n resemble those a f f e c t i n g i n d i v i d u a l s u r f a c e s , w i t h the p e r s o n a l c o l o u r p r e f e r e n c e s of p r o p e r t y owners p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t . A b a s i c concern i s how t o r e l a t e a s t r u c t u r e t o i t s s u r r o u n d i n g s . As the spokesman f o r F o s t e r A s s o c i a t e s e x p l a i n s i n an a r t i c l e t i t l e d "On the Use of C o l o u r i n B u i l d i n g s " : the j u x t a p o s i t i o n of b u i l d i n g s i n the landscape can be of two k i n d s : i m p o s i t i o n of the man-made o b j e c t on the 25 landscape, or c a r e f u l i n t e g r a t i o n of a man-made obj e c t which i s more akin to the e a r t h . " 1 Boeschenstein f u r t h e r s p e c i f i e s that a d i s t i n c t i n f l u e n c e on the c o l o u r at the s c a l e of b u i l d i n g s and d e t a i l s i s a d e s i r e to e n l i v e n s u r f a c e s , perhaps by h i g h l i g h t i n g a r c h i t e c t u r a l f e a t u r e s , and to c r e a t e intimate views, o f t e n achieved by simple c o l o u r c o n t r a s t s . " 2 Indeed, the C i v i c T r u s t recommends that small changes in the townscape- dark, hidden co r n e r s or shops which are only glimpsed from a main p e d e s t r i a n route, or a f o c a l p o i n t at the end of the s t r e e t - may o f t e n s u c c e s s f u l l y be given added s i g n i f i c a n c e with some r e a l l y strong c o l o u r , e s p e c i a l l y i f only seen f l e e t i n g l y . " 3 (3) The Roles of Colour. Colour i n Plac e , t h e r e f o r e , occurs i n the b u i l t environment on s u r f a c e s whose chromatic e f f e c t a c t s at s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t s c a l e s of p e r c e p t i o n . O v e r a l l , our d e c i s i o n s about the place of environmental c o l o u r i n f l u e n c e the general r o l e s i t p l a y s . V a r i o u s l y c l a s s i f i a b l e , these r o l e s , although they f r e q u e n t l y o v e r l a p , provide a way f o r the planner to 'think through' the many purposes environmental c o l o u r f u l f i l l s . Most fundamentally, c o l o u r i n the b u i l t environment, l i k e the n a t u r a l hues of r e g i o n a l topography, a c t s as a Background to other foreground c o l o u r s . More s i g n i f i c a n t l y , o f t e n r e f l e c t i n g the customs and c u l t u r a l a s s o c i a t i o n s of communities, colour p l a y s a Meaningful Role, speaking a chromatic 'language'. Occuring over time as w e l l as i n space, c o l o u r a l s o has a Timely 26 Role. By p r o v i d i n g v i s u a l connections and c o n t i n u i t y , e s p e c i a l l y at the s c a l e of s t r e e t s , c o l o u r a l s o achieves a C i r c u l a t o r y Role in a i d i n g movement. Then, as c o l o u r mediates v i s u a l r e l a t i o n between s u r f a c e s , i t p l a y s an I l l u s o r y Role too. F i n a l l y , given the scope f o r d e t a i l s provided by l a r g e manmade s u r f a c e s , c o l o u r a l s o performs a P i c t o r i a l Role, thereby c o n t r i b u t i n g to a d v e r t i z i n g and environmental a r t . For these general r o l e s to become the p r e c i s e p a r t s d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter 3, 'Power i n Pla c e ' , they must by tempered by the symbolic, a e s t h e t i c and f u n c t i o n a l values a r i s i n g from the s p a t i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l aspects of the Power of Colour. 27 Endnotes. 1 John Friedmann & B a r c l a y Hudson, "Knowledge and A c t i o n : a Guide t o P l a n n i n g Theory", AIP J o u r n a l , J a n u a r y , 1971, p.2 2 W.W. C a u d i l l , W.M. Pena & P. Kennon, A r c h i t e c t u r e and  You: How t o Enjoy and E x p e r i e n c e B u i l d i n g s (New York: Watson-G u p t i l l , 1978), p.87. 3 Lawrence H a l p r i n , C i t i e s . (New York: R e i n h o l d , 1963), p. 94. ft B e r n a r d Rudovsky, S t r e e t s f o r People (Garden C i t y , New York: Doubleday, 1969), p.265. 5 H a l p r i n , p.92. 6 Tom P o r t e r , C o l o u r O u t s i d e (New York: Watson G u p t i l l , 1982), p.28. 7 Guiness Book of Records, 1979. 8 C i v i c T r u s t , P r i d e of P l a c e : How t o Improve Your S u r r o u n d i n g s , 2nd. Ed. (London: C i v i c T r u s t ) , 1974, p. 64^ 9 Johannes U h l , " C o l o r T y p o l o g i e s , " i n C o l o r i n Townscape San F r a n c i s c o : W.H. Freema, 1981), p.86. 1 0 M i c h a e l F o s t e r , Ed. The P r i n c i p l e s of A r c h i t e c t u r e :  S t y l e , S t r u c t u r e and Design (New York: Q u i l l , 1982) , p.152. 1 1 Faber B i r r e n , L i g h t , C o l o r & Environment (New York: Van N o s t r a n d , 1982), p.51. 1 2 Eduard F. S e k l e r , P r o f e s s o r of V i s u a l A r t , Harvard U n i v e r s i t y , r e v i e w i n g Ronald Lee Fleming's Facade S t o r i e s (New York: H a s t i n g s House, 1982). 1 3 Faber B i r r e n , "'The O f f - W h i t e E p i d e m i c ' : A C a l l f o r a R e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of C o l o r , " A l A J o u r n a l , J u l y , 1977, p.66. 28 1 f t Martina Duttmann, Color i n Townscape, p.32. 1 5 E s p e c i a l l y C u l l e n , Duttmannn, H a l p r i n & P o r t e r . 1 6 Gorden C u l l e n , The Concise Townscape (New York: Van Nostrand, 1971). 1 7 P o r t e r , p.49. 1 8 H a l p r i n , p.179. 1 9 Duttmann, p. 32. 2 0 Warren Boeschenstein, "Expressive Urban C o l o r , " J o u r n a l  of A r c h i t e c t u r a l and Planning Research, 3 (1986), p. 275. 2 1 Boeschenstein, p. 276. 2 2 P o r t e r , p.38. 2 3 Major complaint of French c o l o u r i s t , L e n c l o s , c i t e d i n P o r t e r , p.42. 2 a Hubert Roigt, La Couleur, 2nd. Ed. (Arthabaska, P.Q.: E d i t i o n s Pourguoi Pas, 1981), p.154. (Let us take as an example the r o o f s of houses: the h o t t e s t regions of America, l i k e C a l i f o r n i a , F l o r i d a , choose p a s t e l tones, hot tones l i k e red and orange. In c o n t r a s t , the t i l e p reference f o r blue, a c o l d e r c o l o u r , i s e s p e c i a l l y popular i n Minnesota and anglophone Canada. In the south they l i k e red but i n New England they p r e f e r grey tones. In francophone Canada we s e l l , above a l l , t i l e s with s a t u r a t e d c o l o u r s , proving that French Canadians have r e a l l y remained L a t i n s ) . 2 5 P o r t e r , p.115. 2 6 Uhl i n Duttmann, p.94-99. 2 7 Duttmann, p.32. 2 8 Mary McCarthy, The Stones of F l o r e n c e (New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, p.1963), p.3. 29 2 9 P a o l o P o r t o g h e s i , "Colour i n Town," Domus, 602 ( J a n . 1980), p. 22. 3 0 P o r t e r , p. 40. 3 1 P r e l i m i n a r y review by A g o s t i n o Bureca and G i o g i o P a l a n d r i , " I l C o l o r e a T o r i n o , " B o l l e t t i n o d ' A r t e , 69 (28) pp. 107-114. 3 2 B o e s c h e n s t e i n , p. 276. 3 3 K.E. Fo o t e , C o l o r i n P u b l i c Spaces ( C h i c a g o : Department of Geography, U n i v e r s i t y of C h i c a g o , 1983), p. 106. 3 f t B o e s c h e n s t e i n , p. 276. 3 5 P o r t e r , p.69. 3 6 U h l , i n Duttmann, p. 85. 3 7 B o e s c h e n s t e i n , p.276. 3 8 Bruno Taut, D i e neueBaukunst i n Europa und Amerika c i t e d i n Leonard Benevolo, H i s t o r y of Modern A r c h i t e c t u r e (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT P r e s s , 1977), p.493. 3 9 C i v i c T r u s t , p.64. 4 0 G a b r i e l e V o r r e i t e r - W a j e d , "Hayakawa C o u r t s " , A r c h i t e c t u r a l Review, 179 (March 1986), pp.78-82. 4 1 F o s t e r A s s o c i a t e s , "On the Use of C o l o u r i n B u i l d i n g s " i n C o l o u r For A r c h i t e c t u r e , Tom P o r t e r and Byron M i k e l l i d e s , Eds. (London: S t u d i o V i s t a , 1976), p. 62. 4 2 B o e s c h e n s t e i n , p. 276. 4 3 C i v i c T r u s t , p. 46-47. 30 Chapter 2: The Power of C o l o u r , There i s l i t t l e doubt t h a t c o l o u r h o l d s g r e a t importance i n l i f e today, and the more man understands t h i s , the b e t t e r w i l l c o l o u r s e r v e h i s w e l f a r e and be put t o b e n e f i c i a l u s e . 1 W h i l e our d e c i s i o n s i n f l u e n c e the p l a c e of c o l o u r , i t , i n t u r n , a f f e c t s b oth our e n v i r o n m e n t a l p e r c e p t i o n and our e m o t i o n a l w e l l - b e i n g . We have known of c o l o u r ' s apparent power ever s i n c e the a n c i e n t s , not d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between the s t r u c t u r a l and image-making p o t e n t i a l of m a t e r i a l s , used e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o l o u r , e s p e c i a l l y on r o o f s , t o s c a r e away e v i l s p i r i t s . 2 Today, when c o n s i d e r i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o l o u r i n the p l a n n i n g c o n t e x t , we do d i f f e r e n t i a t e between the two i n t e r -r e l a t e d a s p e c t s of c o l o u r ' s power: the s p a t i a l , more e a s i l y s t u d i e d power t o t r a n s f o r m the appearance of our s u r r o u n d i n g s and the p s y c h o l o g i c a l , more s u b j e c t i v e power t o i n f l u e n c e our w e l l - b e i n g . T o g e t h e r , these a s p e c t s g i v e c o l o u r much of i t s s y m b o l i c , a e s t h e t i c and f u n c t i o n a l v a l u e s . B e v l i n s t r e s s e s t h i s power, s a y i n g : L i k e notes of the b a s i c s c a l e when expanded i n t o a symphony, c o l o r has seemingly u n l i m i t e d v a r i a t i o n and enormous c a p a c i t y t o m a n i p u l a t e our e m o t i o n s . 3 31 (1) The Power of C o l o u r t o Transform the Appearance of Our S u r r o u n d i n g s . C o l o u r ' s power t o t r a n s f o r m the appearance of our s u r r o u n d i n g s makes i t a dynamic element of the b u i l t environment. T h i s power d e r i v e s from s e v e r a l s o u r c e s , c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o the f o u r f a c t o r s of c o l o u r p e r c e p t i o n . P o r t e r and M i k e l l i d e s d e f i n e t h e s e f a c t o r s a s : (1) The S p e c t r a l Energy of the D i s t r i b u t i o n of L i g h t . (2) The S p e c t r a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the O b j e c t . (3) The S e n s i t i v i t y of the Eye and B r a i n . (4) P s y c h o l g i c a l F a c t o r s . 4 In p a r t i c u l a r , changing l i g h t c o n d i t i o n s , v a r i a b l e s p e c t r a l q u a l i t i e s , an a l t e r a b l e a n g l e of p e r c e p t i o n and s y n a e s t h e s i a a l l c o n t r i b u t e t o v i s u a l v a r i e t y . B i r r e n s t r e s s e s : i t i s not j u s t t h a t one c o l o u r i s b e t t e r than a n o t h e r . . . . What has been l e a r n e d from r e s e a r c h i s t h a t v a r i e t y i s , of i t s e l f , p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y benef i c i a l . 5 Such v a r i e t y a i d s s p a t i a l o r i e n t a t i o n by d i s t i n g u i s h i n g forms and i s an important source of sensory s t i m u l a t i o n , e n l i v e n i n g the urban scene w i t h c h r o m a t i c c o n t i n u i t y and c h a r a c t e r . P o r t o g h e s i , e mphasizing the ongoing, e v o l v i n g n a t u r e of 'Colour i n Town', e x p l a i n s : P s y c h o l o g i s t s t e a c h us t h a t we need t o enjoy c h r o m a t i c s e n s a t i o n s but we need e s p e c i a l l y t o p e r c e i v e t h e i r changes. And c o l o u r changes have o f t e n been the response t o the need t o renew the e n v i r o n m e n t . . . . 6 32 ( 1 . 1 ) Changing Light Conditions. Natural l i g h t a l t e r s the appearance of environmental colour over time and with weather. Environmental colour changes in time both diurnally and seasonally. For colour to be v i s i b l e , a certain threshold of illumination must exist. On a sunny day, natural l i g h t , especially well reflected by white surfaces, s h i f t s from dawn's pinkish-orange to yellow and then to white or even blue, as from a north sky in summer, before returning to the warm glow of sunset and the pale rays of moonlight. In general, during the day, exposed colours are most subdued at dawn and dusk, growing brighter in between and even 'washing out' to white in the bright glare of noon. This gives r i s e to a phenomenon known as 'lo c a l colour'which refers to the colour we know a surface to be as opposed to colours we actually see on i t . 7 Thus, for example, although we know that the roofs of two False Creek housing clusters in Vancouver are red, depending on the l i g h t i n g conditions, as well as the r e f l e c t i v e quality of the surfaces and our distance from them, these roofs might appear red, v i o l e t , yellow, orange or even green in some places. Sparkling highlights might be almost white. Throughout the day, surfaces facing d i f f e r e n t orientations receive varying amounts of l i g h t , with south-facing elevations, i f unobscured by the shadows of other structures, receiving the most and north-facing ones the least. Thus, except at high noon, moving around a building with the same colour treatment on 33 a l l sides reveals colour variations prompted by differences in orientation. Depending on the complexity of form and massing and on solar orientation, d i f f e r e n t surfaces p e r i o d i c a l l y darken with shadows, providing three dimensional chiaroscuro. Then, as darkness approaches: space tends to contract, distances cannot be e f f e c t i v e l y judged, forms tend to f l a t t e n out into silhouettes, d e t a i l s are l o s t , and colours and colour values undergo radical transformation. 8 Deep colours tend to melt together in brightness, i f not in hue, with a l l dark tones appearing to blend together and seem al i k e in brightness. Low levels of illumination, such as moonlight, permit the perception of shape, movement and the size of objects, but not colour. 9 At night, environmental colour ceases to come predominantly from large manmade surfaces, unless they are strongly f l o o d l i t . Instead, the main colour seen comes from the array of c i t y l i g h t s which give a golden, greenish or orangish glow, except when emitted from behind stained glass in a way that, for example, distinguishes church facades at night. At night, l i g h t s may be attached to surfaces or shine through openings such as windows, skylights or glass blocks giving l i g h t to basements below. A dramatic example of changing environmental colour over the day-night cycle i s the W i l l i s , Faber and Dumas Office in Ipswich, England, designed by Norman Foster. By day, i t appears a dark, r e f l e c t i v e c r y s t a l , but, at night, the reverse i s true. 34 Over the months, c o l o u r v a r i e s even more. C i t e d by P o r t e r on the s u b j e c t , noted F r e n c h c o l o u r i s t , J e a n - P h i l l i p p e L e n c l o s , s t a t e s : a l t h o u g h a b u i l d i n g may r e f l e c t the same range of c o l o u r as i t s m i n e r a l environment, i t s c o l o u r i s not s t a t i c . I t e v o l v e s , s h i f t s and changes s e a s o n a l l y as a r e s u l t of changes i n l i g h t , a i r h u m i d i t y , r a i n and d r o u g h t . 1 0 A prime example of t h i s v a r i a t i o n i s Walden 7, a g i a n t apartment near B a r c e l o n a by R i c a r d o B o f i l l . There, the chosen c o l o u r fades t o r e d d i s h brown i n the w i n t e r but blossoms t o orange-red i n the summer sun. Summer l i g h t may d i f f e r c o n s i d e r a b l y from w i n t e r l i g h t . The former may be c l e a r and c r i s p , w h i l e the l a t t e r i s m i s t y , as i n Vancouver, or the r e v e r s e may be t r u e , as i n Japan. B l u e summer s k i e s a r e u s u a l l y b r i g h t and v i b r a n t w h i l e grey w i n t e r ones are o f t e n d u l l and f l a t . Summer groundcover i s g r e e n e r , a l l o w i n g f o r t h e f i l t e r i n g of l i g h t t h r ough l e a v e s whose absence i n w i n t e r d u l l s the e f f e c t of l i g h t . Of c o u r s e , i n w i n t e r , a r e f l e c t i v e ground cover of snow combines the e f f e c t s of both d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t s u n l i g h t t o i n t e n s i f y e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o l o u r . Moreover, the e f f e c t s of p o l l u t i o n a re o f t e n more i n t e n s e i n dry seasons. - Lynch notes t h a t haze and smog d u l l e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o l o u r , f i r s t p e r c e p t u a l l y , as c o l o u r becomes har d e r t o see, and then a c t u a l l y as o v e r a l l s u r f a c e tones become w h i t i s h , y e l l o w i s h and e v e n t u a l l y b l a c k w i t h p o l l u t i o n . 1 1 Over the y e a r s , s o l u t i o n s t o t h i s problem have p r o v i d e d p l a c e s w i t h d i s t i n c t i v e c o l o u r s . Thus, p a r t s of London, such as Bed f o r d Square, are known f o r the c o m b i n a t i o n of p r a c t i c a l dark facades 35 w i t h s e l e c t i v e w h i t e d e t a i l s around windows and e n t r a n c e s , c o l o u r s adopted by e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y owners t o s i m p l i f y m a i n t e n a n c e . 1 2 Today, w i t h the r e d u c t i o n of p o l l u t i o n from f o s s i l f u e l b u r n i n g , b r i g h t e r s u r f a c e hues a r e more p r a c t i c a l than b e f o r e f o r i n d u s t i a l s i t e s such as s t e e l m i l l s which were p r e v i o u s l y p a i n t e d b l a c k f o r p r o t e c t i o n . On o v e r c a s t days, n a t u r a l l i g h t v a r i e s l e s s over time and reduces c o l o u r c o n t r a s t s . I f the l i g h t i s ' f l a t ' , v a r i a t i o n s i n c o l o u r caused by shadows d i s a p p e a r . On r a i n y days, the s t a i n i n g of exposed s u r f a c e s t e m p o r a r i l y darkens them, and some pavements gleam w i t h the i r i d e s c e n t p a t t e r n s of o i l s l i c k s . O p i n i o n d i f f e r s over the r e l a t i v e ' m e r i t of c h r o m a t i c v e r s u s a c h r o m a t i c c o l o u r s i n such weather c o n d i t i o n s . Bruno Taut, f o r i n s t a n c e , as a c h r o m a t i c a d v o c a t e , wrote: In an o l d s t r e e t i n Magdeburg h a l f a l r e a d y p a i n t e d and h a l f l e f t g rey, i t was p o s s i b l e t o see on a r a i n y day how the p a i n t e d h a l f p o s s e s s e d p l a s t i c and t r u l y m a t e r i a l l i f e w h i l e the grey p a r t seemed a d i s t u r b i n g and a b s t r a c t g h o s t . 1 3 Wilhem H a u s e n s t e i n , f o r example, s t r e s s e s t h a t poor weather a c t u a l l y a c c e n t u a t e s a c h r o m a t i c c o l o u r . P o e t i c a l l y comparing P a r i s t o "a p a i n t i n g of i n f i n i t e g r e y , grey i n g r e y " , he o b s e r v e s : the grey of dark and c l o u d y , even r a i n y days does not s u b t r a c t a t a l l from the e f f e c t . On the o t h e r s i d e of the Rhine i t sometimes d r i v e s us t o d e s p e r a t i o n ; not here....The greys of the b u i l d i n g s r e t i r e b ehind a sc r e e n of grey air....How l i v i d l y w h i t e Notre Dame stands i n the r a i n , an a p p a r i t i o n wrapped i n a s o f t grey web. 1 4 36 I r o n i c a l l y , - the same l i g h t that reveals colour also destroys i t as part of weathering. Generally, t h i s a f f e c t s applied colour, which fades and peels, more than i n t r i n s i c colour although iron rusts, copper takes on a green patina and, as Faulkner warns, in the choice of stone account must be taken of the changes wraught by time. Some kinds of stone become very dark, others bleach, some w i l l show beautiful time stains, others remain c o l d . 1 5 Reactions to the chromatic variety produced by weathering include acceptance as a sign of time, repeated restoration, e f f o r t s to overstate applied hues with emulsion paint, and even symbolic celebraton, as in Greek v i l l a g e s where: the annual r i t u a l of limewashing houses and pavements acts as a kind of rebi r t h . Paint redefines the close working relationship of inter-personal spaces, with progressive layers of pigment softening the corners of form and welding v e r t i c a l to h o r i z o n t a l . 1 6 ( 1 . 2 ) Variable Spectral Q u a l i t i e s . A surface's a b i l i t y to absorb, r e f l e c t or transmit l i g h t , also a l t e r s the colour seen. These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s mark the difference between surfaces with similar colour, and, since d e t a i l s blur over distance, help the eye convert a two-dimensional r e t i n a l image into three-dimensional information about the nature of space in general and distance and depth in pa r t i c u l a r . Colour seen varies with both the type and texture of materials. 37 Many urban c o l o u r s are i n t r i n s i c to t h e i r m a t e r i a l s , but, sin c e b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s are p r i m a r i l y chosen f o r t h e i r s t r u c t u r a l r ather than ex p r e s s i v e value, other a p p l i e d c o l o u r s are o f t e n added. I n t r i n s i c c o l o u r s are u s u a l l y of the e a r t h , m e t a l l i c , or c o n c r e t e . 1 7 B r i c k and stone both d i s p l a y e a r t h c o l o u r s , o f t e n with minute surface v a r i a t i o n s . These m a t e r i a l s , t h e r e f o r e , serve w e l l to r e l a t e s u r f a c e s to n a t u r a l s e t t i n g s . B r i c k comes i n many hues depending on the type of c l a y used i n manufacturing. The r e s u l t i n g hues, as seen i n Amsterdam, f o r example, range from yellow and red to brown and v i o l e t , a l l i n many shades. Stone has d i s t i n c t i v e c o l o u r s too, si n c e no two blocks are ever i d e n t i c a l . Some of the su r f a c e stones f r e q u e n t l y seen i n the b u i l t environment i n c l u d e : g r a n i t e , e s p e c i a l l y on pavements but a l s o facades, i n grey, pink and purple; limestone, i n white, b u f f , grey, yellow, cream, pink, brown and red; marble, f o r ornamental paving and facades as we l l as i n c h i p s f o r composition r o o f s , a l l i n many d i f f e r e n t hues; sandstone i n white, cream, yellow, red, black and green; and s l a t e , used most of t e n on r o o f s , in black, blue, grey, p u r p l e , green and red. The n a t u r a l c o l o u r s of metals are o f t e n shiny, as with c e r t a i n s t a i n l e s s s t e e l g i r d e r s on facades, or a l t e r e d by exposure to a i r . Prevalent m e t a l l i c hues, e s p e c i a l l y on r o o f s , i n c l u d e the gold of anodized aluminum and the r e d d i s h bronze of copper which l a t e r darkens and turns green. 38 Glass comes in almost every hue and is either clear, translucent, or opaque. An enduring material, glass usually preserves colour indefinitely, with exceptions gaining special significance. Faulkner, for example, cites the case of clear window glass in Boston which, because i t contained manganese, turned violet over time. Since i t came to represent 'Old' Boston, i t became fashionable and the coloured effect intentionally reproduced. 1 8 Concrete, as Foster explains, has a poor chromatic reputation: though surrounded by much evidence to the contrary, most of us s t i l l tend to think of concrete as invariably grey, dirty and stained: the epitome of soul-destroying ugliness. 1 9 In defence of such a maligned, product, the Portland Cement Association has published a pamphlet t i t l e d Colour and Texture in Architectural Concrete which promises that concrete has texture and color to satisfy the esthetic and functional needs of modern architecture...[with the] spectrum of color ranging from the icy blues of crystalline quartz, through delicate pastels to the flaming reds of vitreous and ceramic decorative aggregates. 2 0 However, despite this publicity, Foster insists: attempts to achieve a significant difference in the colour...by the addition of pigments has not been very successful: time and exposure result in fading. The shades of grey, however, can be brightened by using white cement, silver sand and a near-white granite when making up the concrete. 2 1 If the intrinsic colour of materials is displeasing or inappropriate, applied colour adds a protective and identifying finish. Plaster and stucco, naturally grey or white depending 39 on the hue of the sand used, may be co l o u r e d i n t e g r a l l y with c o l o u r e d sand of pigments. Limewash, or whitewash, to which other c o l o u r s may be added, i s the t r a d i t i o n a l c o a t i n g of ver n a c u l a r b u i l d i n g s and works best i n areas such as the Mediterranean where i t " r e f l e c t s s o l a r heat, s u i t s c l e a r b r i g h t l i g h t and i s not subject to such bad weather." 2 2 M a t e r i a l s forming s u r f a c e l a y e r s and sk i n s o f f e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r d e t a i l e d chromatic v a r i a t i o n . Mosaics, f o r in s t a n c e , gain t h e i r d i s t i n c t i v e c o l o u r s from samll p i e c e s of g l a s s or stone, c a l l e d t e s s e r a e , set i n mortar. When the g l a s s s p l i t s unevenly, i t has a h i g h l y valued r e f l e c t i v e q u a l i t y with many shades and s u b t l e c o l o u r g r a d a t i o n s . Environmental c o l o u r from mosaics u s u a l l y occurs on pavements but a l s o appears on facades as t r a d i t i o n a l as those of O r v i e t o C a t h e d r a l and as modern as those of the N a t i o n a l U n i v e r s i t y of Mexico's l i b r a r y . T i l e s , t e r r a c o t t a and, of course, p a i n t s and pigments come i n a ne a r l y u n l i m i t e d s e l e c t i o n of hues, o f f e r i n g f u r t h e r c h o i c e s f o r e n l i v e n l i n g the b u i l t environment with c o l o u r . Surface t e x t u r e , both t a c t i l e and v i s u a l , f u r t h e r a l t e r s c o l o u r s e e n . 2 3 T a c t i l e t e x t u r e , which expresses something of the nature of the m a t e r i a l , a f f e c t s c o l o u r by being rough or smooth and coarse and f i n e . Given the same l i g h t i n g c o n d i t i o n s , c o l o u r appears darker and more sa t u r a t e d on rough or coarse s u r f a c e s , such as shuttered concrete, than on smooth or f i n e s u r f a c e s such as p o l i s h e d marble. V e r i t y e x p l a i n s : rough t e x t u r e s give more v i s u a l v ibrancy to c o l o u r , because they give v a r i e t y of tone value through uneven d i s t r i b u t i o n of l i g h t , whether i n small s c a l e [as in a g r a v e l path] or i n the l a r g e r s c a l e of r u s t i c a t i o n on a b u i l d i n g . 2 " 40 V i s u a l t e x t u r e , which g i v e s a s p e c i a l q u a l i t y t o the l i g h t , d i s t i n g u i s h e s , most n o t a b l y , between d u l l and s h i n y , and opaque and t r a n s p a r e n t . Matt s u r f a c e s and matt p a i n t s r e f l e c t d i f f u s e l y w h i l e p o l i s h e d s u r f a c e s and g l o s s p a i n t s r e f l e c t s p e c u l a r l y , so t h a t c o l o u r s look d a r k e r and more s a t u r a t e d when r e f l e c t e d from a g l o s s y s u r f a c e than from a matt s u r f a c e . 2 5 S u r f a c e s l e t t i n g l i g h t t hrough a l s o tend t o lo o k l i g h t e r than opaque ones. (1.3) A l t e r a b l e Angle of P e r c e p t i o n . A t h i r d source of c h r o m a t i c v a r i e t y i n the b u i l t environment i s a changing a n g l e of p e r c e p t i o n as the viewer moves through space. W i t h normal v i s i o n , the l o c a t i o n of a s u r f a c e i n the v i s u a l f i e l d d e t e r m i n e s how much c o l o u r we see. P o r t e r and M i k e l l i d e s e x p l a i n : a t the edge of our v i s u a l f i e l d , the o b j e c t would appear gr e y . Then, as i t moved a c r o s s , i t s b l u e n e s s f o l l o w e d by i t s y e l l o w n e s s would become a p p a r e n t . I t s re d and green c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s would appear o n l y when the o b j e c t approaches the c e n t r e of our f i e l d of v i s i o n . 2 6 T h i s p e r c e p t u a l p r o c e s s appears t o r e i n f o r c e the t r a d i t i o n , d i s c u s s e d by Bacon i n The Design of C i t i e s , of h i g h l i g h t i n g landmark b u i l d i n g s w i t h s t r o n g e r c o l o u r s than t h e i r more subdued s u r r o u n d i n g s . 2 7 With i m p a i r e d v i s i o n , o n l y b r i g h t c o n t r a s t s of c o l o u r a re v i s i b l e . In a d d i t i o n , t h e r e a r e f o u r p o i n t s of view from which c o l o u r can be observed: 41 w a l k i n g down a s t r e e t we see c o l o u r s u r f a c e s from the s i d e , from the f r o n t , from below or from above, depending on how f a s t we walk and what a t t r a c t s our i n t e r e s t . 2 8 The v i e w e r ' s p r o x i m i t y t o a s u r f a c e a l s o i n f l u e n c e s the c h r o m a t i c appearance of our s u r r o u n d i n g s . V e n t u r i and Rauch, f o r example, have d e c o r a t e d facades w i t h 'auto' s c a l e murals v i s i b l e t o m o t o r i s t s as w e l l as t o p e d e s t r i a n s . 2 9 Furthermore, the j u x t a p o s i t i o n of v i s u a l events or whole o b j e c t s causes them t o undergo p e r c e p t u a l change. For example, two c o l o u r s p l a c e d s i d e by s i d e may appear t o change t h e i r hue. T h e i r r e s p e c t i v e l i g h t wavelengths have not a l t e r e d , but the b r a i n i s a f f e c t e d i n i t s p e r c e p t i o n . 3 0 In a d d i t i o n , g l a s s c u r t a i n w a l l s show some of the g r e a t e s t c h r o m a t i c changes w i t h an a l t e r a b l e a n g l e of p e r c e p t i o n : g l a s s w a l l s metamorphose through t h r e e s t a g e s : opaque and s o l i d from a d i s t a n c e , they begin t o m i r r o r what i s o p p o s i t e them as we move c l o s e r u n t i l , f i n a l l y , when we a r e s t a n d i n g d i r e c t l y b e f o r e them, they grow t r a n s p a r e n t and r e v e a l what i s behind t hem. 3 1 (1.4) S y n a e s t h e s i a . F i n a l l y , through s y n a e s t h e s i a , the p r o d u c t i o n of a mental sense i m p r e s s i o n by s t i m u l u s of another sense, c o l o u r t r a n s f o r m s the appearance of our s u r r o u n d i n g s by a l t e r i n g apparent s i z e , w e i g h t , and depth of v a r i o u s s u r f a c e s . The apparent temperature of v a r i o u s c o l o u r s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i mportant i n p r o d u c i n g these ef f e c t s . 42 Some c h r o m a t i c c o l o u r s seem warmer or c o o l e r than o t h e r s , t r a d i t i o n a l l y as an a t t r i b u t e of hue. Red, orange and y e l l o w , upon which the eye more c l e a r l y f o c u s e s , seem t o form the warm end of the spectrum, w h i l e green, b l u e and v i o l e t , on which the eye l e s s c l e a r l y f o c u s e s , are a t the c o o l end. However, r e s e a r c h by S i v i k shows t h a t s a t u r a t i o n i s a l s o r e l e v a n t , w i t h deeper tones a p p e a r i n g warmer than p a l e r t i n t s . 3 2 Thus, deep green may seem as warm as p a l e r e d . S p a t i a l l y , warm and dark c o l o u r e d s u r f a c e s appear l a r g e r , l o n g e r , and h e a v i e r than l i g h t and c o o l hued ones. Apparent depth changes t o o , as warm, dark or s a t u r a t e d c o l o u r s seem t o advance, w h i l e c o o l p a l e ones tend t o recede. (2) The Power of C o l o u r to I n f l u e n c e our W e i l - B e i n g . C o l o u r ' s power t o i n f l u e n c e our w e l l - b e i n g , i n p a r t i c u l a r moods and b e h a v i o u r , d e r i v e s from the n a t u r e of our r e a c t i o n , t o i t . As w i t h any e n v i r o n m e n t a l s t i m u l u s , we respond t o c o l o u r i n terms of t h r e e e m o t i o n a l d i m e n s i o n s : a r o u s a l and n o n - a r o u s a l ; p l e a s u r e and d i s p l e a s u r e ; and f e e l i n g s of dominance and s u b m i s s i o n . Depending on whether the o v e r a l l e f f e c t i s f a v o r a b l e or n o t , we e i t h e r approach or a v o i d the s t i m u l u s . Thus, an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of c o l o u r ' s dimensions h e l p s the p l a n n e r i n t e r e s t e d i n ' l i v e a b l e ' c i t i e s . B a l l s t r e s s e s : the u l t i m a t e reason f o r any s c i e n t i f i c study of c o l o r i s t o l e a r n how t o u t i l i z e c o l o r so as t o have a p r e d i c t a b l e e f f e c t on p e o p l e . 3 3 43 However, many s u b j e c t i v e f a c t o r s complicate the o b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n of colour p e r c e p t i o n , i n c l u d i n g aspects of p e r s o n a l i t y and previous experience with c o l o u r i n v a r i o u s c o n t e x t s . In gene r a l , regarding p e r s o n a l i t y , B i r r e n s t a t e s : e m o t i o n a l l y responsive persons w i l l r e a ct f r e e l y to c o l o r ; i n h i b i t e d mortals may be shocked or embarrassed by i t ; r e s t r i c t e d and detached types may be u n a f f e c t e d . 3 a Age i s one of the more p r e d i c t a b l e v a r i a b l e s of experience. C h i l d r e n , u n t i l the age of four and a h a l f years, are co l o u r 'dominant' more than form 'dominant.' 3 5 U n t i l the age of about twenty f i v e , we u s u a l l y p r e f e r d i s t i n c t c o l o u r s , o f t e n b r i g h t p r i m a r i e s . Then, as v i s i o n s t a r t s to b l u r and we slowly lose the a b i l i t y to d i s t i n g u i s h tones, we p r e f e r secondaries and r e l y more on experience than the eye to inform us about our s u r r o u n d i n g s . 3 6 The most famous example of t h i s p e r c e p t u a l c o l o u r s h i f t with age i s Monet's c e l e b r a t e d s e r i e s of p a i n t i n g s d e p i c t i n g the c o l o u r s of the facade of Rouen C a t h e d r a l . In a d d i t i o n , people t r a i n e d to c o n s i d e r c o l o u r p r o f e s s i o n a l l y respond d i f f e r e n t l y to i t than the general p u b l i c . In a f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d study, Margaret St. George showed that a r t students had more o b j e c t i v e and impersonal a t t i t u d e s to c o l o u r 3 7 while S i v i k found that l a s t term a r c h i t e c t u r e students evaluate the beauty or u g l i n e s s of environmental colour very d i f f e r n t l y from l a y p e o p l e . 3 8 Despite the many v a r i a t i o n s i n i n d i v i d u a l c o l o u r response, as a group people are more a l i k e than u n a l i k e , p e r m i t t i n g c o l o u r 44 increasingly to be used t h e r a p e u t i c a l l y . 3 9 While such uses mainly involve i n t e r i o r colour, colour outdoors in the b u i l t environment s t i l l a f f e c t s us s i g n i f i c a n t l y in terms of arousal, pleasure and control. (2.1) Colour and Arousal Most immediately, colour has the power to arouse varying levels of physical and mental a c t i v i t y in the viewer. As Birren explains: human beings w i l l react whether they l i k e color or not. Reason or emotion may not enter into the matter... responses are frequently involuntary and automatic. 4 0 Colour, in conjunction with l i g h t , has the power to trigger overall unconscious responses. Birren distinguishes between the centrifugal force of warm colours such as crimson or peach and the c e n t r i p e t a l force of cool colours l i k e turquoise and jade. 4 1 Warm colours, especially in conjunction with bright l i g h t , exert a centrifugal force which directs action away from the viewer towards the evironment. Without human v o l i t i o n , o p t i c a l stimulation causes an increase in muscular tension, an attraction to the stimulus, and a tendancy to lean towards the source of bright l i g h t and v i v i d colour. General autonomous arousal occurs as respiration rate., heart action, blood pressure and c o r t i c a l (brain) a c t i v i t y increase. In contrast, cooler hues and dimmer l i g h t have a ce n t r i p e t a l action, away from the body and towards the viewer, that produces the opposite physiological reactions. 45 The effects of each force promote s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s . The tension, excitement and warmth usually aroused by warm hues encourage muscular e f f o r t , action, awareness of surroundings and a cheerful s p i r i t . Thus, Birren recommends using warm hues in places where manual tasks and sports take place. However, resting and vi s u a l or mental tasks requiring good inward concentration better suit a cold coloured environment, where those hues usually produce feelings of well-being, calmness and coolness, as well as reducing anxiety. This d i s t i n c t i o n between warm hues in energetic areas and cooler ones in quieter ones correspond to Boeschenstein's observation that: " r e s i d e n t i a l neghborhoods generally have more subdued colours than commercial d i s t r i c t s , and hospitals are more muted than entertainment z o n e s . 2 (2.2) Colour and Pleasure. In addition to stimulating, automatically, different levels of physical and mental a c t i v i t y , colour also, more subjectively, s t i r s feelings of pleasure and displeasure depending on the emotions aroused. Bevlin explains: Each of us brings to the perception of visual stimuli a c o l l e c t i o n of experiences, associations and memories that may be triggered by a given color....color may evoke a strong response, pleasant or unpleasant, even i f the viewer does not understand the reason for the response. 4 3 The e a r l i e s t psychological research on human colour response focused on preferences. Most notably, when Bullough 46 s t u d i e d "The 'Perceptive Problem' i n the A e s t h e t i c A p p r e c i a t i o n of S i n g l e Colours", he d i s c o v e r e d four d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s towards c o l o u r l i k e s and d i s l i k e s . " 4 The ' o b j e c t i v e ' group l i k e c o l o u r because they are s a t u r a t e d or b r i g h t and d i s l i k e them because they are d u l l , mixed or foggy. The ' p h y s i o l o g i c a l ' are pleased by c o l o u r s that seem s t i m u l a t i n g , soothing or warming, but are d i s p l e a s e d by hues that appear somehow d a z z l i n g or d i s t u r b i n g . The ' a s s o c i a t i v e ' group f i n d c o l o u r s p l e a s i n g depending on the a s s o c i a t i o n s brought to mind, while the 'character' group a t t r i b u t e p o s i t i v e or negative t r a i t s to c o l o u r s as though they were people. Without n e c e s s a r i l y e x p l a i n i n g how or why, the l i t e r a t u r e f r e q u e n t l y mentions the p l e a s u r a b l e power of c o l o u r . Ackerman and Peterson, for example, s t r e s s t h a t , independent of m a t e r i a l and form, c o l o u r has emotional e f f e c t s : "yellow and red...are c a l l e d 'gay', black and deep blue 'sombre'."" 5 However, few authors r e f e r to a c t u a l r e s e a r c h , perhaps because most s t u d i e s of c o l o u r ' s power to e x c i t e emotions and f e e l i n g s concentrate on two-dimensional c o l o u r seen indoors where fewer v a r i a b l e s a f f e c t p e r c e p t i o n . Wright and Rainwater, for example, made a notable study of col o u r and emotions i n which they i d e n t i f i e d s i x p r i n c i p a l dimensions in f e e l i n g e x c i t e d by c o l o u r : (1) happiness, which depends mainly on l i g h t n e s s and, to a l e s s e r extent, on hue; (2) warmth, which depends on hue, e s p e c i a l l y redness; (3) calmness, which depends on darkness and blueness; (4) f o r c e f u l n e s s , which depends on co l o u r darkness; (5) showiness, which depends on 47 s a t u r a t i o n , and, t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t , on l i g h t n e s s ; and ( 6 ) e l e g a n c e , which depends on s a t u r a t i o n and hue, so t h a t w i t h g r e a t e r and deeper b l u e comes g r e a t e r e l e g a n c e . 4 6 However, two p s y c h o l o g i s t s , Dr. L a r s S i v i k of Goteborg U n i v e r s i t y , Sweden, and Dr. P e t e r Smith of S h e f f i e l d U n i v e r s i t y , England, have done o r i g i n a l r e s e a r c h on the p l e a s i n g and d i s p l e a s i n g a s p e c t s of e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o l o u r . S i v i k ' s s t u d i e s f o c u s on the c o n n o t a t i o n s of e x t e r n a l c o l o u r on b u i l d i n g s w h i l e Smith's work examines c o l o u r as an element of e n v i r o n m e n t a l a e s t h e t i c s . 4 7 S i v i k ' s experiments show t h a t we e v a l u a t e c o l o u r i n terms of s p a t i a l , s o c i a l and e m o t i o n a l f a c t o r s . S p a t i a l p l e a s u r e or d i s p l e a s u r e , such as a sense of i n v i t i n g i n t i m a c y or of overwhelming c l a u s t r o p h o b i a , depends on s y n a e s t h e s i c e f f e c t s . In p a r t i c u l a r , "the b l a c k e r or d a r k e r the house, the more e n c l o s e d i s p e r c e i v e d the space between the b u i l d i n g s . " 4 8 The s o c i a l f a c t o r c o ncerns what i s o f t e n c a l l e d ' t a s t e ' ; t h a t i s , whether e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o l o u r i s v u l g a r or c u l t u r e d , c a l m i n g or e x c i t i n g , and unusual or common. S i v i k showed t h a t t h i s f a c t o r has a c l e a r c o - v a r i a t i o n w i t h s a t u r a t i o n . S t r o n g e r c o l o u r s a r e , above a l l , most e x c i t i n g . 4 9 E m o t i o n a l l y , we respond t o c o l o u r as b e i n g b e a u t i f u l or u g l y , f r i e n d l y or h o s t i l e , and warm or c o l d . P r e f e r e n c e s tend t o r e f l e c t f a m i l i a r i t y . S i v i k found t h a t y e l l o w through r e d and the c h r o m a t i c area between green and y e l l o w are most p l e a s i n g . The o p p o s i t e hue a r e a s , between red and b l u e and between b l u e 48 and green are lik e d less, except for the l i g h t e s t colours. Pure grey and greyish buildings are displeasing, with black lik e d the l e a s t . 5 0 Indeed, black has depressing and dramatic connotations, 5 1 that sometimes make i t a risky environmental colour. Bla c k f r i a r s Bridge in London, for example, used to attract many suicides when i t was painted in acordance with i t s name. However,once repainted green, the number of suicides decreased by a t h i r d . 5 2 Sivik also showed that prolonged exposure to certain environmental colours changes connotations of pleasure and d i s p l e a s u r e . 5 3 Residents who intensely d i s l i k e d a shade of metallic blue in the laboratory, came to love i t once familiar with such a strange colour on their apartment blocks. Neighbours who simply saw the blue facades came to l i k e them, but others who only heard of the blue housing or saw photographs of i t continued to register deep d i s l i k e . However, residents of pale v i o l e t and grey buildings never came "to stomach" these colours. As a result, Sivik concluded that "people do adjust to unusual house colours i f they do not b a s i c a l l y d i s l i k e the colour as such." 5" Overall, Sivik found that "people consider i t  self-evident that colour is an important factor in environmental  design." 5 5 While Sivik's work concentrates on psychological responses to colour, Smith focuses physiological aspects too. According to his findings, the brain's reaction to colour involves two dif f e r e n t sections: the neocortex and the limbic system (in the 49 m i d - b r a i n and b r a i n stem). The n e o c o r t e x , which i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c o n s c i o u s r a t i o n a l t h i n k i n g , " i s r e s p o n s i v e t o the more s u b t l e c o l o u r s which are d e s c r i b e d as ' c e r e b r a l ' or ' s o p h i s t i c a t e d ' . In c o n t r a s t , the l i m b i c system, which i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r g e n e r a t i n g e m o t i o n a l response, has two a t t i t u d e s t o c o l o u r : f i r s t i t i s r e s p o n s i v e t o h i g h chroma, b r i g h t n e s s , s h i n e , and g l i t t e r f o r t h e i r e x o t i c q u a l i t y ; t h e i r sheer impact p o t e n t i a l . S e c o n d l y , i t a s c r i b e s s y m b o l i c meaning t o c e r t a i n h i g h chroma c o l o u r s : a sy m b o l i c programme w i t h a r c h e t y p a l o r i g i n s . 5 6 Each s e c t i o n of the b r a i n r e g i s t e r s a d i f f e r e n t type of a e s t h e t i c p l e a s u r e . The n e o c o r t e x responds t o what Smith c a l l s the f i r s t t h r e e ' o r d e r s ' of a e s t h e t i c s : (1) b a l a n c e and harmony; (2) c o m p l e x i t y and p a t t e r n ; and (3) a c o m b i n a t i o n of (1) and ( 2 ) . F o u r t h o r d e r a e s t h e t i c s c o ncerns the l i m b i c system: the p l e a s u r e d e r i v e d from the c o n t e m p l a t i o n of a mass of d e t a i l which by-passes the r a t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p r o c e s s because of i t s f e v e r i s h c o m p l e x i t y . U s u a l l y such p r e s e n t a t i o n s a r e s p i c e d w i t h b r i g h t c o l o u r and h i g h p o l i s h . 5 7 A e s t h e t i c a l l y , b a l a n c e and harmony are not synonymous. By a n a l o g y , b a l a n c e i n v o l v e s the s y n a e s t h e s i a of weight and harmony t h a t of sound. Whether o b s e r v i n g a l o c a l mural or an urban panorama, we n o t i c e the c o l o u r t o area r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n such a way t h a t : when c o l o u r s a t u r a t i o n i s equated w i t h a r e a , i t may be r e a s o n a b l e t o suggest t h a t the greyed c o l o u r s over l a r g e a r e a s e s t a b l i s h b a l a n c e w i t h b r i g h t c o l o u r s over much s m a l l e r e x p a n s e s . 5 8 50 Townscapes p o p u l a r l y l a b e l e d 'picturesque' r e v e a l balance at work. A n a l y z i n g Honfleur, f o r example, Smith s t a t e s : The m a j o r i t y of b u i l d i n g s are both roofed and walled with s l a t e , imposing straightaway a u n i t y of c o l o u r and tone as w e l l as t e x t u r e , s i n c e s l a t e s are of a r e g u l a r s i z e . T h i s l a r g e area of subdued blue-grey c o l o u r c o n t r a s t s with the more s t r i d e n t c o l o u r s and tones of the boats a g a i n s t the quayside. The water in the harbour represents a t h i r d element which echoes the muted c o l o u r s of the houses. Thus there are three d i s t i n c t bands of c o l o u r and tone which may be roughly s c h e m a t i c a l l y d e p i c t e d i n terms of c o l o u r to area r e l a t i o n s h i p . 5 9 Such knowledge of chromatic balance at the urban s c a l e i s e s p e c i a l l y p e r t i n e n t to planners i n p l a c e s that t r y to convey a s c e n i c image, for example, W h i s t l e r , B.C. Harmony i s appealing p r o p o r t i o n with "at l e a s t two e n t i t i e s which are not i d e n t i c a l and between which there i s s u f f i c i e n t d i f f e r e n c e to d i s p e l u n c e r t a i n t y , but not so much as to cause excessive dominance". 6 0 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n schemes f o r c o l o u r harmony are c o n t r o v e r s i a l , but, regarding c o l o u r b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s , Porter p r a i s e s Moon and Spencer's p r o p o s a l s f o r three kinds of d i s t i n c t c o l o u r harmony: ' i d e n t i t y ' , ' s i m i l a r i t y ' , and ' c o n t r a s t ' . 6 1 Each type of harmony may include the achromatics, has d i s t i n c t advantages and conveys a d i f f e r e n t mood. ' I d e n t i t y ' i s monochromatic, i n v o l v i n g c o l o u r s of the same or n e a r l y same hue but with w e l l spaced values and chromas inducing c o l o u r change. 6 2 Alexander advocates i t as the " s a f e s t route to p r o v i d i n g a r c h i t e c t u r a l c o l o u r harmony". 6 3 A p p l i e d w e l l , ' i d e n t i t y 1 , often a trademark of c e r t a i n a r c h i t e c t u r a l firms s p e c i a l i z i n g i n l a r g e s c a l e p r o j e c t s such as T a l l e r de 51 A r q u i t e c t u r a i n S p a i n , i s s o p h i s t i c a t e d and e l e g a n t , calm and s o o t h i n g . ' S i m i l a r i t y ' i n v o l v e s c o l o u r s s h a r i n g a common hue, f o r example, green and y e l l o w - g r e e n . 6 4 Tonal v a r i a t i o n s s t r e s s ' s i m i l a r i t y ' . Such a use of t h r e e a d j a c e n t hues, g e n e r a l l y c o n f i n e d t o e i t h e r the hot or the c o o l spectrum, i s u s u a l l y p l e a s i n g , s o o t h i n g and easy t o use. ' C o n t r a s t ' , i n which ba l a n c e i s v i t a l , r e f e r s t o c o l o u r s of d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t hues. T h i s harmony i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o see and does " e n l i v e n the e f f e c t of a group of more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d c o l o u r s " . 6 5 The most s t i m u l a t i n g c o n t r a s t o c c u r s betwen complementary c o l o u r s , those l o c a t e d d i r e c t l y o p p o s i t e each o t h e r on the c o l o u r wheel. In a d d i t i o n t o r e g i s t e r i n g p l e a s u r e from b a l a n c e and harmony, the neocortex a l s o a p p r e c i a t e s the t e n s i o n between c h r o m a t i c c o m p l e x i t y and p a t t e r n . C o m p l e x i t y , i n v o l v e s n o v e l t y , o r i g i n a l i t y and v a r i e t y , t o e n l i v e n the b u i l t environment and p r e v e n t monotony. Both a h i g h r a t i o of n o v e l t y t o f a m i l i a r i t y and r a t e of i n f o r m a t i o n a c r o s s a g i v e n s e t t i n g . Thus, as Smith e x p l a i n s : The bare wh i t e w a l l s of Rudoph Schwarz's F r o n l e i c h n a m s k i r c h e , Aachen are s t i l l complex because they r e p r e s e n t such a r a d i c a l d e p a r t u r e from the c h u r c h norm. The [monochromatic and s c u l p t u r e d ] west F r o n t of S t r a s b o u r g C a t h e d r a l , on the o t h e r hand, i s complex on the l e v e l of i t s r a t e of i n c i d e n t . 6 6 52 Environments which are complex on both counts, as in Paris at the Centre Georges Pompidou which b r i s t l e s with brightly coloured ducts and vents against a more subdued backdrop, have a d i s t i n c t attention-getting shock value suited to certain landmarks a t t r a c t i n g large numbers of people. Pattern counteracts the stimulating effects of complexity by providing coherence and c l a r i t y of perception. Much of the generation of aesthetic response derives from the sa t i s f a c t i o n achieved by pattern r e c o g n i t i o n . 6 7 Chromatic pattern occurs both at the scale of a single surface and throughout the b u i l t environment, link i n g spaces and structures of different styles and dimensions. Most frequently, large-scale pattern, which Smith likens to environmental 'rhyme', involves surfaces sharing a similar element of design, such as colour. Colours may be the same type, for instance, matt instead of glossy, or actually the same hue. Colour also aids dimensional co-ordination when used proportionately to link the dimensions or levels of a structure. This may be as simple as paving stones of contrasting hues warning of changes in elevation or as complex as a glass facade r e f l e c t i n g an older building using similar surface colours. In addition, colour contributes to the 'tone' of a place, both l i t e r a l l y , through related and contrasting q u a l i t i e s , and fi g u r a t i v e l y , by expressing the perceived status of a part of the b u i l t environment in rel a t i o n to the entire urban setting, perhaps, for example, as garish or refined. 5 3 When balance and harmony are present with complexity and pattern, we also experience a t h i r d 'order' of aesthetic pleasure. Smith considers this combination "perhaps the highest manifestation of the aesthetic p r i n c i p l e " . 6 8 The fourth 'order' of aesthetic pleasure provides simpler, more sudden environmental enjoyment. This involves the limbic system which "reacts pleasurably to exotic colours, brightness and simple rhythm." 6 9 Chromatic vibrancy in places l i k e Granville Island s a t i s f y this need and are an important reason for a t t r a c t i n g the public. Smith argues that limbic s a t i s f a c t i o n i s v i t a l to the urban scene: C i t i e s are kept a l i v e by their Times Squares and P i c c a d i l l y Circuses. Las Vegas f a i l s a e s t h e t i c a l l y because i t is Times Square repeated ad i n f i n i t u m . 7 0 The type of pleasure offered by the colour of a place also varies over time. The W i l l i s Faber and Dumas building at Ipswich, England, for example, appeals to the neocortex by day but, "becomes a limbic-intensive experience after dark when i t takes on a wholly new, sparkling image." 7 1 Personality and experience do, of course, influence the degree of pleasure f e l t from observing, both consciously and unconsciously, environmental colour. However, i d e a l l y , a well-planned community offers the public opportunities to experience both neocortex and limbic generated s p a t i a l , s o c i a l and emotional pleasure within the course of an average day's a c t i v i t i e s . 54 (2.3) C o l o u r and C o n t r o l In a d d i t i o n t o s t i m u l a t i n g v a r i o u s l e v e l s of a r o u s a l and p l e a s i n g or d i s p l e a s i n g the o b s e r v e r , c o l o u r ' s p s y c h o l o g i c a l power a l s o e l i c i t s f e e l i n g s of e n v i r o n m e n t a l dominance or s u b m i s s i o n . The n a t u r e of these f e e l i n g s depends on our sense of 'competence', the c a p a c i t y to i n t e r a c t e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h the environment, and of ' c o g n i t i o n ' , the a c t i v i t i e s and o p e r a t i o n s we perform i n o r d e r t o 'know' or 'understand' an o b j e c t or an e v e n t . 7 2 The p l a n n e r a i d s 'competence' and ' c o g n i t i o n ' by i n f o r m i n g and m e d i a t i n g . In " C o l o u r , Competence, and C o g n i t i o n : Notes Towards a P sychology of E n v i r o n m e n t a l C o l o u r " , Friedman and Thompson, f o l l o w i n g i n the t r a d i t i o n of Lynch and the Goodmans, l o g i c a l l y a s s e r t t h a t " f r e q u e n t l y , knowing and u n d e r s t a n d i n g an environment i s a n e c e s s a r y p r e c o n d i t i o n of h a v i n g an impact upon i t . " 7 3 In p a r t i c u l a r , Lynch s t r e s s e s t h a t s i n c e e n v i r o n m e n t a l 'sense' i s a m a tter of knowledge and a t t i t u d e s , i t s i n d i r e c t p o l i t i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o s t s may be h i g h f o r p a r t i c u l a r groups. For example, w h i l e more o f t e n used t o m a i n t a i n s o c a i l dominance, i t can a l s o be employed t o extend r e v o l u t i o n a r y c o n s c i o u s n e s s . . . i t w i l l be a b a t t l e g r o u n d , even when i t s m a t e r i a l and f u n c t i o n a l c o s t i s l o w . 7 " C o l o u r c o n t r i b u t e s t o ' c o g n i t i o n * through c h a r a c t e r and c o n t i n u i t y as an o r d e r i n g d e v i c e h e l p i n g t o e s t a b l i s h l i n k s between e n v i r o n m e n t a l elements. ' C o g n i t i o n ' c o r r e s p o n d s c l o s e l y t o Lynch's ' s t r u c t u r e ' , d i s c u s s e d i n Good C i t y Form: 55 At the s c a l e of a s m a l l p l a c e [ s t r u c t u r e ] i s the sense of how i t s p a r t s f i t t o g e t h e r , and i n a l a r g e • s e t t l e m e n t i s the sense of o r i e n t a t i o n : knowing where (or when) one i s , which i m p l i e s knowing how o t h e r p l a c e s (or ti m e s ) a re connected t o t h i s p l a c e . 7 5 C o l o u r c h a r a c t e r i n time and p l a c e d e r i v e s from c h r o m a t i c d i s t i n c t i o n i n hue, s a t u r a t i o n , and l i g h t n e s s t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h s u r f a c e s e i t h e r from t h e i r n e i g h b ours or from t h e i r tones a t o t h e r t i m e s . Landmarks, f o r i n s t a n c e , o f t e n a c c e n t u a t e t h e i r s p e c i a l s t a t u s by changes i n c o l o u r of r o o f s , f a c a d e s and even s u r r o u n d i n g pavements. Indeed, the San F r a n c i s c o Urban Design P l a n n o t e s , about c o l o u r i n c o n t e x t , t h a t "when h i g h l y v i s i b l e b u i l d i n g s a re l i g h t i n c o l o r , they r e e n f o r c e the v i s u a l u n i t y and s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r of the c i t y . " 7 6 C o l o u r c l u e s t o o r i e n t a t i o n i n time i n c l u d e b oth s h o r t t e r m s u r f a c e shadowing t h a t improves our "grasp of c l o c k time which e n a b l e s us t o o r d e r our day" and l o n g t e r m h i s t o r i c a l c o l o u r t h a t a p p e a l s t o "the deeper e m o t i o n a l sense of how the p r e s e n t moment i s l i n k e d t o the near or d i s t a n t p a s t and f u t u r e . " 7 7 Lynch a l s o emphasizes t h a t : s i n c e our i n t e r n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of time i s poorer than our i n t e r n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of space, we a r e more dependent on e x t e r n a l c l u e s t o keep us t e m p o r a r a l l y w e l l o r i e n t e d . 7 8 In a d d i t i o n t o u n d e r l i n i n g s p a t i a l and tempor a l c h a r a c t e r , c o l o u r a l s o c o n t r i b u t e s d i r e c t l y and i n d i r e c t l y t o c o n t i n u i t y i n both space and tim e . On the Boston Freedom T r a i l , f o r example, a s e r i e s of r e d f o o t s t e p s p a i n t e d on the pavement through the c o l o n i a l p a r t of town c l a r i f i e s the c o n f u s i n g maze of s t r e e t s 56 w i t h o u t d i s t u r b i n g the e x p e r i e n c e of urban c o m p l e x i t y . Less d i r e c t l y , on the I t a l i a n i s l a n d of Burano, b u i l d i n g s based on r e d d i s h grey pavements and topped by g r e y i s h r e d r o o f s s p o r t d i s t i n c t i v e facades of b r i l l i a n t r e d s , b l u e s and y e l l o w s . F o l l o w i n g c i t y board recommendations, these facades a r e r e p a i n t e d i n s i m i l a r shades and as the need a r i s e s , never a b l o c k a t once i n order t o e s t a b l i s h e a c e r t a i n f o r m a l c o n t i n u i t y and make the workings of time e s p e c i a l l y c l e a r . While the 'thought through' use of c o g n i t i v e c o l o u r h e l p s everyone, s i n c e poor o r i e n t a t i o n means l o s t time and wasted e f f o r t , i t i s v i t a l f o r people l i k e l y t o be l o s t or at r i s k i n t h e i r s u r r o u n d i n g s , namely s t r a n g e r s , c h i l d r e n , i n d u s t r i a l workers and the v i s u a l l y i m p a i r e d . Expo 86, f o r example, had c o l o u r coded zones t o reduce e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n f u s i o n and promotes v i s i t o r c o n f i d e n c e . P r i m a r y s c h o o l s i t e s c h r o m a t i c a l l y o r g a n i z e d i n hues t h a t promote a p p r o p r i a t e l e v e l s of a r o u s a l and p o s i t i v e emotions not o n l y a i d o r i e n t a t i o n but a l s o draw a t t e n t i o n t o s t r u c t u r a l components, b e n e f i c i a l l y demanding " t h a t the c h i l d u t i l i z e them as elements f o r l e a r n i n g " . 7 9 The a p p l i c a t i o n of set p i p e i d e n t i f i y i n g and s a f e t y c o l o u r s , such as the American Standard system, a t f a c t o r i e s , i n d u s t r i a l s i t e s , and even p u b l i c markets, w h i l e never a s u b s t i t u t i o n f o r the e l i m i n a t i o n of a h a z a r d , i n f o r m s and s i m p l i f i e s s u r r o u n d i n g s f o r workers. C o l o u r c o d i n g p l a c e s f r e q u e n t e d by the v i s u a l l y i m p a i r e d , who c r a v e any and every speck of c o l o u r or c o n t r a s t , w i t h b r i g h t s a t u r a t e d hues, such as at the I l l i n o i s R e g i o n a l L i b r a r y f o r the B l i n d and P h y s i c a l l y Handicapped, by S t a n l y Tigerman, not o n l y improves o r i e n t a t i o n but a l s o f u n c t i o n s , t o 57 quote P o r t e r , "as a c h a l l e n g e t o t h a t f a c i l e s u p e r f i c i a l i t y w i t h which the d i s a b l e d a re o f t e n r e g a r d e d " . 8 0 O v e r a l l , the p s y c h o l o g i c a l b e n e f i t s of ' c o g n i t i v e ' c o n t r o l t hrough c o l o u r a re c o n s i d e r a b l e . As P o r t e r and M i k e l l i d e s emphasize: C l e a r l y d e f i n e d c o l o u r , as an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and i n f o r m a t i o n a l a s p e c t of a r c h i t e c t u r a l e x p r e s s i o n i n p u b l i c and e x t e r n a l spaces, can p r o v i d e an unambiguous s t r u c t u r e which i s a b l e t o reduce a p p r e h e n s i o n i n complex, l a r g e - s c a l e of t o t a l l y a r t i f i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t s . 8 1 In a d d i t i o n to f a c i l i t a t i n g i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , c o l o u r a l s o p r o v i d e s i d e n t i t y i n the b u i l t environment. T r a d i t i o n a l l y , we have an c h r o m a t i c impact on our s u r r o u n d i n g s through e i t h e r the decor of p r i v a t e domain or g r a f f i t i . S u r f a c e c o l o u r d e m a r c a t i o n s , however, s u b t l e , e x p r e s s the i d e n t i t y of the s t r u c t u r e and i t s o c c u p a n t s , d i s t i n g u i s h between p u b l i c and p r i v a t e a r e a s , and g e n e r a l l y a i d i n e s t a b l i s h i n g t e r r i t o r i a l i t y . E s s e n t i a l t o our w e l l - b e i n g , t h i s i s a p a t t e r n of be h a v i o u r and a t t i t u d e s h e l d by an i n d i v i d u a l or group t h a t i s based on p e r c e i v e d , attempted or a c t u a l c o n t r o l of a d e f i n a t e p h y s i c a l space, o b j e c t or i d e a and may i n v o l v e h a b i t u a l o c c u p a t i o n , d e f e nce, p e r s o n a l i z a t i o n and marking of i t . 8 2 T y p i c a l l y , though, r e s i d e n t s of h i g h d e n s i t y , r e n t a l or p u b l i c h o u s i n g , p l a c e s where the urban p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s i n g l y l i v e s , do not have the o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o c o n t r o l e x t e r i o r c o l o u r and t h e r e b y e x p r e s s i n d i v i d u a l and c o l l e c t i v e i d e n t i t y . T h i s l a c k r e l a t e s to reduced e n v i r o n m e n t a l s a t i s f a c t i o n and involvement as w e l l as i n c r e a s e d c r i m e . 8 3 5 8 N o t a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s t o t h i s c h r o m a t i c anonymity, however, do e x i s t . In Germany, f o r example, c o l o u r i s t F r i e d e r i c h E r n s t von G a m i e r p e r s o n a l i z e s each l i v i n g u n i t w i t h i n a l a r g e - s c a l e mass by c o l o u r schemes t h a t v i s u a l l y d e t a c h s e c t i o n s t h rough c o l o u r weight or d e s c r i b e i l l u s i o n s of r e c e s s i o n and p r o j e c t i o n i n the fa c a d e . In San F r a n c i s c o , a r c h i t e c t Joseph Esherwick c o l o u r e d the facades of Banneker Homes, a l o w - r e n t h o u s i n g p r o j e c t i n a drab, d e t e r i o r i a t e d neighborhood, w i t h a p a l e t t e " l i m i t e d t o i n e x p e n s i v e c o l o u r s r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e w i t h a major aim b e i n g t h a t of g i v i n g i d e n t i t y t o p a r t i c u l a r l o c a t i o n s but c o h e s i v e n e s s t o the e n t i r e g r o u p . " 8 " In the c o n t e x t of crime p r e v e n t i o n , Oscar Newman r e p o r t s g r e a t s u c c e s s w i t h m o d i f i c a t i o n s t o the c o l o u r and t e x t u r e of facades a t C l a s o n P o i n t where he was o r i g i n a l l y a s t o n i s h e d at the c h r o m a t i c d i s c r e p a n c y between v i b r a n t , p e r s o n a l i z e d i n t e r i o r s and the d r e a r y u n i f o r m i t y of the a r c h i t e c t d e s i g n e d e x t e r i o r s : raw c o n c r e t e was the p r e v a l e n t m e t e r i a l ; grey and o f f -w h i t e the dominant c o l o u r . Only the g l a s s a r e a s o c c a s i o n a l l y broke up the drabness by r e f l e c t i n g a bl u e s k y . 8 5 In c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the r e s i d e n t s , who chose the c o l o u r and t e x t u r e f o r t h e i r own u n i t s i n c o - o r d i n a t i o n w i t h n e i g h b o r s , Newman d e v i s e d an e i g h t c o l o u r e x p e r i m e n t a l scheme. The New York Housing A u t h o r i t y deemed the a d d i t i o n a l twenty f i v e p e r c e n t c o s t of facade f i n i s h i n g w o r t h w h i l e as i t accompanied d r a s t i c a l l y reduced r e p a i r c o s t s . V a n d a l i s m d e c r e a s e d once the 59 new c o l o u r s were i n p l a c e and r e s i d e n t s , i n s p i r e d t o take more p r i d e i n t h e i r environment and t o undertake t h e i r own d e c o r a t i o n and maintenance of the p r o j e c t , s t a r t e d p a i n t i n g t h e i r own doors and windows. Such r e a c t i o n s a r e the b a s i s f o r the C i v i c T r u s t ' s book of e n v i r o n m e n t a l g u i d e l i n e s , P r i d e of P l a c e : How to Improve  Your S u r r o u n d i n g s . Indeed, such r e l a t i v e f e e l i n g of dominance and s u b m i s s i o n aroused by c o l o u r l e a d c h r o m a t i c a d v o c a t e s , such as F o s t e r Meagher, head of the San F r a n s i s c o d e s i g n group, 'Colour C o n t r o l ' , t o a s s e r t t h a t a w e l l thought through c o l o u r scheme, a p p r o p r i a t e to the s i t e and i t s u s e r s , spurs n e i g h b o r s t o a r e d e c o r a t i o n of t h e i r own domains and a t t r a c t s t o u r i s t s r a t h e r than g r a f f i t i s t s , a c l a i m shared by many N o r t h American and European m u r a l i s t s . 8 6 P o r t e r , i n an experiment sponsored by the C i t y of O x f o r d Highways Committee, t e s t e d the c o n n e c t i o n between planned and spontaneous c o l o u r by r e p a i n t i n g a drab a c h r o m a t i c p e d e s t r i a n underpass prone t o g r a f f i t i w i t h v e r t i c a l bands of f o u r b r i g h t , c h e e r f u l hues: green, y e l l o w , orange and r e d . A f t e r two y e a r s , " d e s p i t e the p r o j e c t ' s media exposure and i t s i n t e r m i t t e n t use by fans of v i s i t i n g f o o t b a l l teams," P o r t e r r e p o r t e d t o t a l s u c c e s s : no g r a f f i t i a t a l l . 8 7 T a k i n g i n t o account the key a s p e c t s of c o g n i t i o n and competence, a key i s s u e c o n c e r n i n g c o l o u r and c o n t r o l i s c l e a r l y the d i s c r e p a n c y between r e a c t i o n s of the g e n e r a l p u b l i c and those of the i n d i v i d u a l s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s t r u c t u r i n g the environment to which we respond. S i n c e c h r o m a t i c t a s t e s 60 g e n e r a l l y d i f f e r between the g e n e r a l p u b l i c and those people t r a i n e d t o c o n s i d e r c o l o u r p r o f e s s i o n a l l y , Friedman and Thompson warn: those i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the s t r u c t u r i n g of e nvironments- a r c h i t e c t s , p l a n n e r s and d e s i g n e r s - are p r o b a b l y unaware of the f a i l i n g of the p h y s i c a l environments i n a r e a s of 'competence' and ' c o g n i t i o n ' because they are the members of the v e r y groups which a r e most l i k e l y t o have these needs met. I f you a r e an urban p l a n n e r you can have the impact upon the c i t y and are p r o v i d e d w i t h models and c o n c e p t s which a l l o w you t o comprehend, or at l e a s t attempt t o comprehend, the c o m p l e x i t i e s of p h y s i c a l c o n t e x t s . 8 8 (3) The V a l u e s of C o l o u r . The power of c o l o u r t o t r a n s f o r m the appearance of our s u r r o u n d i n g s and t o i n f l u e n c e our w e l l - b e i n g makes i t a very important element of the b u i l t environment. In p a r t i c u l a r , we v a l u e c o l o u r f o r s y m b o l i c , a e s t h e t i c and f u n c t i o n a l reasons the p l a n n e r ' t h i n k i n g through' the s u b j e c t needs t o u n d e r s t a n d . C o l o u r ' s s y m b o l i c v a l u e d e r i v e s from our a b i l i t y t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e between hues and t o r e l a t e them, e m o t i o n a l l y and i n t e l l e c t u a l l y , t o a b s t r a c t i d e a s , v a l u e s or t h i n g s not p r e s e n t . U n t i l the R e n a i s s a n c e , t h i s was the p r i m a r y v a l u e of e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o l o u r , the e x p r e s s i o n of a t r a d i t i o n a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d system of meaning. Today, w h i l e f i x e d meanings are r a r e , c o l o u r s t i l l r e e n f o r c e s , t o use Lynch's term, ' l e g i b i l i t y ' : The urban environment i s a medium of communication, d i s p l a y i n g both e x p l i c i t and i m p l i c i t symbols: f l a g s , lawns, c r o s s e s , s i g n b o a r d s , p i c t u r e windows, orange r o o f s , s p i r e s , columns, g a t e s , r u s t i c f e n c e s . These 61 s i g n s i n f o r m us about ownership, s t a t u s , group a f f i l i a t i o n , hidden f u n c t i o n s , goods and s e r v i c e s , proper b e h a v i o u r , and many o t h e r t h i n g s which we f i n d i t u s e f u l or i n t e r e s t i n g t o know. 8 9 C u r r e n t l y , Faber B i r r e n i s a l e a d i n g exponent of s y m b o l i c c o l o u r and M i c h a e l Graves a l e a d i n g p r a c t i t i o n e r who "by a s s i g n i n g s y m b o l i c meanings t o h i s a r c h i t e c t u r a l p a l e t t e u s e s t h e i r p o t e n t i a l t o f u l l e f f e c t . " 9 0 C o l o u r ' s a e s t h e t i c v a l u e r e f l e c t s the p l e a s u r e we e x p e r i e n c e a t d i f f e r e n t times from c e r t a i n hues and t h e i r r e l a t i v e placement and p a t t e r n i n g . As Smith s t a t e s : " a e s t h e t i c v a l u e i s not an i n n a t e q u a l i t y of o b j e c t s , but an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n imposed by the m i n d . " 9 1 T h i s v a l u e now p r e v a i l s , d e c o r a t i v e l y c a l l i n g a t t e n t i o n t o v a r i o u s s u r f a c e s and s t r u c t u r e s . While no o b j e c t i v e t e s t e x i s t s f o r a e s t h e t i c or s y m b o l i c v a l u e , c o l o u r ' s f u n c t i o n a l v a l u e e s p r e s s e s our q u a n t i f i a b l e c a p a b i l i t y t o use a s p e c i f i c hue t o meet a p r a c t i c a l need f o r which i t i s e s p e c i a l l y s u i t e d . T h i s v a l u e i n i n c r e a s i n g i n importance as we l e a r n more about the s p e c i f i c s p e c t r a l q u a l i t i e s of d i f f e r e n t m a t e r i a l s , the dynamics of p e r c e p t i o n , and the p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y t h e r a p e u t i c p o t e n t i a l of c o l o u r . In p l a c e , these v a l u e s modify the g e n e r a l r o l e s of e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o l o u r i n or d e r t o produce the many p r e c i s e p a r t s t h a t c o l o u r p l a y s . 62 Endnotes 1 Faber B i r r e n , L i g h t , C o l o r and Environment (New York: Van N o s t r a n d , 1982), p.32. 2 Tom P o r t e r and Byron M i k e l l i d e s , Eds. C o l o u r f o r  A r c h i t e c t u r e (London: S t u d i o V i s t a , 1976), p.22. 3 M. B e v l i n , D e s i gn through D i s c o v e r y , 3 r d . Ed. (New York: H o l t , R i n h a r t and Winston, 1963), p.78. 4 P o r t e r and M i k e l l i d e s , pp.78-79. 5 Faber B i r r e n , "The Need f o r C o l o u r and L i g h t i n F u t u r e Manmade Spaces" i n P o r t e r and M i k e l l i d e s , p.19. 6 P a o l o P o r t o g h e s i , "Colour i n Town", Domus,602 1980, p. 22. 7 E.B. Feldman, V a r i e t i e s of V i s u a l E x p e r i e n c e (New York: H a r r y Abrams, 1971), pp.311-312. 8 Faber B i r r e n , 1982, p.49. 9 P o r t e r and M i k e l l i d e s , p.78. 1 0 L e n c l o s , c i t e d i n Tom P o r t e r , C o l o u r O u t s i d e (New York: Watson G u p t i l l , 1982), p.78. 1 1 K e v i n Lynch, The Image of the C i t y (Cambridge, Mass.:  MIT P r e s s , 1960), p.41. 1 2 Warren B o e s e n s c h e n s t e i n , " E x p r e s s i v e Urban C o l o r " , J o u r n a l of A r c h i t e c t u r a l and P l a n n i n g Research, 3 (1986), p.281. 1 3 Bruno Taut, c i t e d i n P o r t o g h e s i , p.20. 1 4 Wilhem H a u s e n s t e i n (1932), e x c e r p t s from "Europaische Haupstad", t r a n s l a t e d and c i t e d i n M a r t i n a Duttmann, F r i e d r i c h Schmuck and Johannes U h l , C o l o r i n Townscape (San F r a n c i s c o : W.H. Freeman, 1981), pp.127. 63 1 5 Quote from John B e l c h e r , E s s e n t i a l s i n A r c h i t e c t u r e , (1907) c i t e d i n W. F a u l k n e r , A r c h i t e c t u r e and C o l o u r (New York: W i l e y , 1972), p.78. 1 6 P o r t e r , p.110. 1 7 I n f o r m a t i o n drawn from F a u l k n e r and M i c h a e l F o s t e r , Ed. The P r i n c i p l e s of A r c h i t e c t u r e : S t y l e , S t r u c t u r e and Ornament (New Y o r k : Q u i l l , 1982). ~ ~ 1 8 F a u l k n e r , p.72. 1 9 F o s t e r , p.126. 2 0 P o r t l a n d Cement A s s o c i a t i o n , C o l o r and T e x t u r e i n  A r c h i t e c t u r a l C o n crete (1980), p.1. F o s t e r , p.126. 2 2 i b i d , p.188. 2 3 J.S. Ackerman and C. P e t e r s o n , " A r t of A r c h i t e c t u r e " , E n c y c l o p a e d i a B r i t a n n i c a , V o l . 1 (New York: E n c y c l o p a e d i a B r i t a n n i c a I n c . , 1979), p.951. 2 4 E. V e r i t y , C o l o r Observed (New York: Van N o s t r a n d , 1980), p.69. 2 5 P o r t e r , p.79. 2 6 P o r t e r and M i k e l l i d e s , p.83. 2 7 E.N. Bacon, " C o l o r as a Dimension of P r o g r e s s i o n through Space", The Design of C i t i e s (New York: V i k i n g , 1967), pp.3 7-41 . 2 8 U h l , p.94. 2 9 F l e m i n g , p.17. 64 3 0 P e t e r Smith, A r c h i t e c t u r e and the Human Dimension (London: George Godwin, 1979), p.9. 3 1 Duttmann, p.42. 3 2 L a r s S i v i k , "The Language of C o l o u r C o n n o t a t i o n s " , P o r t e r and M i k e l l i d e s . 3 3 V i c t o r i a K l o s s B a l l , "The A e s t h e t i c s of C o l o r : A Review of F i f t y Years of E x p r e i m e n t a t i o n " , J o u r n a l of A e s t h e t i c A r t  C r i t i c i s m , 23 (1965), p.441. 3 4 B i r r e n , 1982, p.29. 3 5 i b i d . 3 6 Hubert R o i g t , La C o u l e u r , 2nd. Ed. ( A r t h a b a s k a , P.Q.: E d i t i o n s Pourquoi Pas, 1981), p.154. 3 7 Margaret S t . George, " C o l o r P r e f e r e n c e s of C o l l e g e Students w i t h Reference t o Chromatic P u l l , L e a r n i n g and A s s o c i a t i o n , " American J o u r n a l of P s y c h o l o g y , 51 (1938), pp.714-716. 3 8 L a r s S i v i k , " C o n n o t a t i o n s t o E x t e r i o r C o l o u r on B u i l d i n g s , " A r c h i t e c t u r a l P s y c h o l o g y , P r o c . Of the Lund Conference, 26-29 June, 1973, Ed. Dowden R i k a r d k u l l e r ( S t r o u d s b u r g , Penn.: H u t c h i n s o n & Ross, 1973). 3 9 Jean D. Wineman, " C o l o r i n E n v i r o n m e n t a l D e s i g n : I t s Impact on Human B e h a v i o u r , " EDRA: E n v i r o n m e n t a l Design Research  A s s o c i a t i o n , 10 (1979), pp.436-439. 9 0 Faber B i r r e n , " C o l o r i t C o l o r " , P r o g r e s s i v e  A r c h i t e c t u r e , (Sept. 1967), pp.129-133. Faber B i r r e n , 1982, p.33. 4 2 B o e s c h e n s t e i n , p.276. 4 3 B e v l i n , p.92. 65 0 4 E. B u l l o u g h , "The ' P e r c e p t i v e Problem' i n the A e s t h e t i c A p p r e c i a t i o n of S i n g l e C o l o u r s , " B r i t i c h J o u r n a l of P s y c h o l o g y , 2 (1908), pp.406-463. 4 5 Ackerman and P e t e r s o n , p.951. 4 6 B. Wright and L. R a i n w a t e r , "The Meanings of C o l o r " , J o u r n a l of G e n e r a l P s y c h o l o g y , 67 (1962), pp.89-99. 4 7 The B i b l i o g r a p h y l i s t s s e v e r a l of t h e i r most noted works r e g a r d i n g c o l o u r . 4 8 S i v i k i n P o r t e r and M i k e l l i d e s , p.131. 4 9 i b i d , p.130. 5 0 i b i d . 5 1 L o i s Wexner, "The Degrees t o which C o l o r s (Hues) a r e A s s o c i a t e d w i t h Mood Tones," J o u r n a l of A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g y , 6 (1954), pp.432-435. 5 2 R o i g t , p.153. 5 3 S i v i k i n P o r t e r and M i k e l l i d e s , p.135. 5 4 i b i d , p.138. 5 5 i b i d . 5 6 P e t e r Smith, "The D i l a e c t i c s of C o l o u r " , P o r t e r and M i k e l l i d e s , p. 21. 5 7 Smith, 1979, p.iO. 5 8 i b i d , p.17. 5 9 i b i d , pp.56-57. 66 6 0 i b i d , p.20. 6 1 P o r t e r , p.85. 6 2 i d i d . 6 3 H a r o l d H. A l e x a n d e r , D e s i g n : C r i t e r i a f o r D e c i s o n s (New York: M a c m i l l a n , 1976), p.45. 6 4 P o r t e r , p.85. 6 5 i b i d , p.86. 6 5 Smith, 1979, p.44. 3 7 Ann Rathbone, "The G e n e r a t i o n of A e s t h e t i c Response t o C o l o u r " , AIC C o l o r 69. P r o c . Of a Conference sponsored by the I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o l o ( u ) r A s s o c i a t i o n , S t o l k h o l m , 9-13 June, 1969 ( Z u r i c h : Muster-Schmidt, 1970), p. 1056. 6 8 Smith, 1979, p.68. 6 9 i b i d , p.10. 7 0 i b i d , p.87. 7 1 i b i d . 7 2 S. Friedman and S. Thompson, " C o l o u r , Competence, and C o g n i t i o n : Notes Towards a P s y c h o l o g y of E n v i r o n m e n t a l C o l o u r " , P o r t e r and M i k e l l i d e s , p.31. 7 3 i b i d , p.34. 7 4 K e v i n Lynch, Good C i t y Form (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT P r e s s , 1981), p.146. 7 5 i b i d , p.134. 67 7 6 C i t y and County of San F r a n s i s c o , The Comprehensive  P l a n : Urban D e s i g n , (1971), p. 84. 7 7 Lynch, 1981, p.135. 7 8 i b i d . 7 9 Friedman and Thompson, p.34. 8 0 i b i d , p.32. 8 1 P o r t e r and M i k e l l i d e s , p.42. 8 2 Robert G i f f o r d , E n v i r o n m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y ( B o s t o n : A l l y n and Bacon, 1985), p.137. 8 3 Oscar Newman, "The Use of C o l o u r and Te x t u r e a t C l a s o n P o i n t " , P o r t e r and M i k e l l i d e s , pp.47-53. 8 4 Joseph E s h e r w i c k , "Colour i n B u i l d i n g s " , P o r t e r and M i k e l l i d e s , p.59. 8 5 Newman, pp.49-50. 8 6 P o r t e r , p.58. 8 7 i b i d , p.31 . 8 8 Friedman and Thompson, p.32. 8 9 Lynch, 1981 , p.139. 9 0 P o r t e r , p.72. 9 1 Smith, 1979, p.9. 68 Chapter 3 . Power i n P l a c e . Having reviewed e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o l o u r ' s p l a c e and power i n C h a p t e r s 1 and 2, t h i s c h a p t e r now examines the p e r c i s e p a r t s c o l o u r p l a y s when s y m b o l i c , a e s t h e t i c and f u n c t i o n a l v a l u e s modify i t s g e n e r a l r o l e s , namely Background, M e a n i n g f u l , T i m e l y , C i r c u l a t o r y , I l l u s o r y , and P i c t o r i a l . These p a r t s may be d i s c u s s e d and c l a s s i f i e d i n s e v e r a l ways, w i t h the t y p o l o g y p r e s e n t e d here (Table 1 ) developed t o c l a r i f y i s s u e s f o r the p l a n n e r . A l t h o u g h the l i t e r a t u r e g i v e s e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o l o u r ' s s p e c i f i c p a r t s many d i f f e r e n t names, where p o s s i b l e , the most common terms appear. Of c o u r s e , s i n c e these p a r t s f r e q u e n t l y o v e r l a p , on some s u r f a c e s c o l o u r s e r v e s many pur p o s e s . P l a n n e r s h a v i n g the most d i r e c t e x p e r i e n c e w i t h e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o l o u r ' s p r e c i s e p a r t s are u s u a l l y p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n the New Towns of France and England, such as N a n t e r r e and P e t e r l e e , or i n h i s t o r i c a r e a s l i k e C o l o n i a l W i l l i a m b s u r g . O t h e r w i s e , most p l a n n e r s encounter i s s u e s of e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o l o u r i n d i r e c t l y through urban d e s i g n , h o u s i n g , h e r i t a g e p r e s e r v a t i o n , e n v i r o n m e n t a l a r t , f e s t i v a l s or urban b l i g h t and renewal. A l t h o u g h a r t i s t s , a r c h i t e c t s , b u i l d e r s and p r o p e r t y owners are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p u t t i n g 'thought through' c o l o u r i n p l a c e , the p l a n n e r , aware of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of these v a r i o u s p a r t s , does much, both i n d i r e c t l y and d i r e c t l y , t o promote i t . 69 Table 1 Power i n P l a c e : The P r e c i s e P a r t of E n v i r o n m e n t a l C o l o u r . ROLES SYMBOLIC VALUE AESTHETIC VALUE FUNCTIONAL VALUE BACKGROUND COLOUR • (1) Backdrop F o i l ' D i r t D i s g u i s e r ' MEANINGFUL COLOUR (2) Metaphor E x p r e s s i o n of M a t e r i a l s & L i g h t L e g i b i l i t y TIMELY COLOUR (3) H i s t o r i c a l R e f e r e n c e Tempo S e t t e r R e f l e c t i o n & A b s o r b t i o n of Heat CIRCULATORY COLOUR (4) I d e n t i t y S p a t i a l P r o g r e s s i o n Coding ILLUSORY COLOUR (5) Attachment & Detachment A l t e r e d S p a t i a l P e r c e p t i o n Camouflage PICTORIAL COLOUR (6) E d i f i e r Artwork A d v e r t i z e r 70 ( 1 ) Background C o l o u r . In t h i s r o l e , e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o l o u r e i t h e r s u p p o r t s a n other element of d e s i g n or p r o v i d e s a f a v o u r a b l e c o n t r a s t t o f o r e g r o u n d hues. Background c o l o u r i s subued and f a i r l y u n i f o r m over l a r g e a r e a s whereas the foregound hues thus h i g h l i g h t e d a r e b r i g h t e r , more s a t u r a t e d and o f t e n more m o b i l e or more e a s i l y changed. E n v i r o n m e n t a l c o l o u r f r e q u e n t l y p l a y s t h i s r o l e i n p l a c e s w i t h abundant d e t a i l c o l o u r , f o r i n s t a n c e , a l o n g shopping s t r e e t s or by p a r k s . ( 1 . 1 ) Symbolic Background C o l o u r : Backdrop. S y m b o l i c a l l y , background c o l o u r s e r v e s as monochromatic backdrop t o the b u s t l i n g a c t i v i t i e s of the urban scene whose predominant hues come from people and produce. T r a d i t i o n a l l y , the s u r f a c e c o l o u r of markets e x e m p l i f y t h i s p a r t ( F i g . 1 ) . Smith e x p l a i n s : "at ground l e v e l t h e r e i s a r i c h p r o f u s i o n of t h i n g s t o s a t i s f y a l l l i m b i c c r i t e r i a : v i v i d c o l o u r s , g l i t t e r , n o i s e , s m e l l . . . t h e p r e s s of the crowd." 1 A l l around, the more n e u t r a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o l o u r " a c t s l i k e a p i c t u r e frame, an o r d e r e d and r e s t r a i n i n g boundary." 2 R e c e n t l y , though, as w i t h London's Covent Garden: the u n r u l y market p l a c e has taken a b e a t i n g i n B r i t a i n , v i c t i m of the o b s e s s i v e t i d i n e s s of p l a n n e r s . Where new towns a r e b u i l t , the commercial c e n t r e s a r e b u r i e d i n g r e a t windowless sheds. T h e i r most prominant a r c h i t e c t u r a l f e a t u r e s are d u c t s and a i r v e n t s . 3 71 (Fig.1) Symbolic Background Colour: Backdrop. Arab Market in Bethlehem. Environmental colour as neutral backdrop to the l o c a l , transient diverse hues of people and produce. The blue on window frames serves to scare away f l i e s who d i s l i k e that hue. 72 In Vancouver, however, a l t h o u g h markets a r e i n d o o r s , t h e i r e x t e r i o r s are f a r from drab. The facade and r o o f of Robson P u b l i c Market, f o r example, suggest a g i a n t greenhouse i n which much of the produce f o r s a l e w i t h i n c o u l d have been grown. The g l a s s r e f l e c t s outdoor a c t i v i t y and p e r m i t s p a s s e r s - b y g l i m p s e s of i n d o o r shoppers who a l s o see o u t , a l t h o u g h e n v i r o n m e n t a l p e r c e p t i o n i s somewhat t i n t e d i n the manner of L.F. Baum's f i c t i o n a l Emerald C i t y . The e x t e r i o r c o l o u r of most Vancouver markets, though, a c t s more as an a e s t h e t i c f o i l than a s y m b o l i c backdrop. (1.2) A e s t h e t i c Backround C o l o u r : F o i l . A e s t h e t i c Background C o l o u r a c t s as a f o i l . I t e i t h e r complements another element of d e s i g n , such as form, or c o n t r a s t s w i t h d e t a i l s of l a n d s c a p i n g , s t r u c t u r a l ornament, and window d i s p l a y s . S i n c e c o l o u r i s the means by which we p e r c e i v e o t h e r elements of d e s i g n , such as form or t e x t u r e , c o l o u r ' s s t r e n g t h or c o m p l e x i t y can d i s t r a c t a t t e n t i o n . R u s k i n , r e a l i z i n g t h i s , produced a famous though o f t - d e b a t e d d i c t u m : I n f i n i t e nonsense has been w r i t t e n about the union of p e r f e c t c o l o u r w i t h p e r f e c t form. They never w i l l , never can be u n i f i e d . C o l o u r , t o be p e r f e c t , must have a s o f t o u t l i n e or a s i m p l e one; i t cannot have a r e f i n e d one.* More r e c e n t l y , B i r r e n o b s e r v e s : c o l o r i s l i k e l y t o d e t r a c t from form. Because c o l o r i s more p r i m i t i v e i n i t s a p p e a l than form, a b u i l d i n g e x t e r i o r . . . d e s i g n e d , f o r example, i n r e d or y e l l o w , green or b l u e , may be judged by the average m o r t a l more f o r i t s hue r a t h e r than i t s shape. 5 73 ( F i g . 2 ) A e s t h e t i c Background C o l o u r : F o i l .  G eodesic Housing near J e r u s a l e m . S i m p l e , subdued c o l o u r emphasizes the c o m p l e x i t y of form and l i n k s the unusual s t r u c t u r e to the d u s t y landscape l i k e a b i z a r r e b a r n a c l e e n c r u s t e d on the e a r t h . ( F i g . 3 ) A e s t h e t i c Background C o l o u r : F o i l .  Yemin Moshe, J e r u s a l e m . Background C o l o u r as a e s t h e t i c f o i l t o n a t u r e , c r e a t i n g v a r i o u s v i s u a l c o n t r a s t s . 7 4 Thus, where form i s complex, s i m p l e and subdued c o l o u r as an a e s t h e t i c f o i l v a r i e s o n l y t o emphasize t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l edges ( F i g . 2 ) . However, not a l l a u t h o r s a p p r e c i a t e t h i s p r e j u d i c e "which equated s t r o n g c o l o u r - c o n s i d e r e d t o be e m o t i o n a l l y r a t h e r than i n t e l l e c t u a l l y judged- w i t h a d i s t r a c t i o n from f o r m . " 6 P o r t e r , f o r i n s t a n c e , b e l i e v e s t h a t , i n b r i l l i a n t s u n l i g h t , at l e a s t , a h i g h c o n t r a s t between s a t u r a t e d c o l o u r s i s an e x c e l l e n t means of pa t t e r n - m a k i n g w h i l e e x p l o i t i n g a r c h i t e c t u r a l e l e m e n t s . 7 A e s t h e t i c background c o l o u r a l s o a c t s as a f o i l t o n a t u r e , an e s p e c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n d e n s e l y b u i l t up a r e a s w i t h few gardens or p a r k s ( F i g . 3 ) . When e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o l o u r p l a y s t h i s p a r t , s e v e r a l c o n t r a s t s occur between c o l o u r s t h a t a r e , f o r example, subdued or s a t u r a t e d , l a r g e - s c a l e or s m a l l - s c a l e , h ard or s o f t , f i x e d of m i l d l y m o b i l e , and e t e r n a l or s e a s o n a l . In a d d i t i o n , a e s t h e t i c Background C o l o u r s e r v e s as a f o i l t o manmade d e t a i l . In t h i s p a r t , e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o l o u r a c t s as n e u t r a l frame t o polychrome d i s p l a y s of merchandise and a d v e r t i z i n g ( F i g . 4 ) or as a c o n t r a s t t o b u i l d i n g d e t a i l s ( F i g . 5 ) . At G r a n v i l l e I s l a n d P u b l i c Market, f o r example, p r a i s e d i n A r c h i t e c t s Forum f o r i t s encouragement of the " s u b j e c t i v e enjoyment of forms and c o l o r " , 8 the m e t a l l i c facade hues se r v e as a backdrop t o b r i g h t e r d e t a i l s of s i m p l e c o l o u r f u l l i g h t i n g l i n t e l s , s t r e e t f u r n i t u r e , and doorways l e a d i n g w i t h i n where, as p r o j e c t a r c h i t e c t J o o s t Bakker o b s e r v e s , "the t e n a n t s a re the show." 9 7 5 (Fig.4) A e s t h e t i c Background C o l o u r : F o i l . Robson S t r e e t , Vancouver. Grey shop f r o n t s a c t as a c o n t i n u o u s f o i l t o b r i g h t e r , d i s t i n c t i v e d e t a i l c o l o u r from window d i s p l a y s , a d v e r t i z i n g awnings and s t r u c t u r a l ornament such as the f a l s e blue pediment r i s i n g from r e d columns. Green m e t a l p o l e s a l s o suggest branch-denuded t r e e s . 76 ( F i g . 5 ) A e s t h e t i c Background C o l o u r : F o i l . R e s t a u r a n t , Vancouver. N e u t r a l facade c o l o u r as f o i l t o the lav e n d e r columns and s i g n . As an unusual c o l o u r , the d e t a i l hue a t t t r a c t s a t t e n t i o n , a l t h o u g h r e s e a r c h by S i v i k has shown a deep d i s l i k e f o r the use of p a l e v i o l e t i n the environment. Perhaps i t s appearance here s e r v e s t o u n d e r l i n e the i r o n y of the r e s t a u r a n t ' s name. 77 (Fig.6) Functional Background Colour; 'Dirt Disguiser'. Moped Parking Lot, Florence. Dark, s l i g h t l y variegated pavement colour functions as a ' d i r t disguiser'. Seen from above or from the side, a parking l o t such as this displays an everchanging kaleidescopic arrangement of individual colours against the background of a permanent, p r a c t i c a l communal hue. 78 (1.3) F u n c t i o n a l Background C o l o u r : ' D i r t D i s g u i s e r ' . F r e q u e n t l y , Background C o l o u r s i m p l y f u n c t i o n s as a low maintenance a t t r i b u t e of m a t e r i a l s d i s g u i s i n g d i r t d i f f i c u l t t o r e m o v e 1 0 . Pavement hues o f t e n p l a y t h i s p a r t , p r o v i d i n g a b a s i c background f o r the m o b i l e manmade e v e r - c h a n g i n g c h r o m a t i c p a t t e r n s of v a r i o u s v e h i c l e s ( F i g . 6 ) . (2) M e a n i n g f u l C o l o u r . M e a n i n g f u l C o l o u r e x p r e s s e s the customs and c u l t u r a l p r e f e r e n c e s of communities and the m a t e r i a l s they favour u s i n g i n the b u i l t environment. S i n c e v a r i o u s c o l o u r s have d i f f e r e n t a s s o c i a t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r hues g a i n s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e as a means of e n v i r o n m e n t a l communication. (2.1) Symbolic M e a n i n g f u l C o l o u r : Metaphor. In t h i s r o l e , c o l o u r a c t s as a metaphor, r e p r e s e n t i n g c o n c e p t s beyond the s u r f a c e s i t a d o r n s . 1 1 The r e f e r e n c e s may be d i r e c t , e s p e c i a l l y t o n a t u r e and the elements. T h i s i s one of the e a r l i e s t uses of e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o l o u r , n o t a b l y found on one of the o l d e s t b u i l d i n g s i n the w o r l d , the a n c i e n t z i g g u r a t a t Ur c a l l e d the 'Mountain of God.' There, as a r c h e o l o g i s t C.L. Wooley d i s c o v e r e d , the base of the tower was b l a c k , the upper p a r t r e d . The s h r i n e a t the top had w a l l s of b l u e g l a z e d t i l e and a g i l d e d r o o f . These c h r o m a t i c v a r i a t i o n s m y s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i e d the v a r i o u s d i v i s i o n s of the 79 (Fig.7) Symbolic Meaningful Colour: Metaphor. Blue Horizon Hotel, Vancouver, Colour used s y m b o l i c a l l y to r e i n f o r c e an establishment's name. Here i t suggests languid, e x o t i c repose and the co l o u r , at l e a s t , i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y r e s t f u l and unsual enough in the urban scene. 80 V ( F i g . 8 ) Symbolic M e a n i n g f u l C o l o u r : Metaphor. Dome of the Rock, J e r u s a l e m . Used over time and i n many p l a c e s , a t r a d i t i o n a l a p p l i c a t i o n of c o l o u r may come t o s y m b o l i z e the s t r u c t u r e upon which i t a c t s . A golden dome and a p a t t e r n i n g of b l u e , w h i t e , and y e l l o w t i l e s have, i n a d d i t i o n t o r e p r e s e n t i n g heaven and q u o t a t i o n s from the Koran, come t o s i g n i f y 'mosque' i n a g e n e r i c sense t o o . 81 U n i v e r s e : the dark u n d e r w o r l d , the h a b i t a b l e e a r t h , the heavens and the s u n . 1 2 Today, M e a n i n g f u l C o l o u r r e p r e s e n t s n a t u r a l elements most f r e q u e n t l y w i t h the b l a z i n g r e d of f i r e s t a t i o n facades or as a s y m b o l i c r e i n f o r c e m e n t of e s t a b l i s h m e n t s h a v i n g c h r o m a t i c names ( F i g . 7 ) . Symbolic M e a n i n g f u l C o l o u r a l s o r e p r e s e n t s i n d i r e c t a s s o c i a t i o n s t o i d e a s . S i n c e , f o r example, i n the West, w h i t e s y m b o l i z e s p u r i t y , by day, the s u r f a c e hue of the White House i n Washington gleams w i t h p r i s t i n e i n c o r r u p t i b i l i t y , w h i l e , f l o o d l i t a t n i g h t , the b u i l d i n g glows b r i g h t l y a g a i n s t the f o r c e s of d a r k n e s s . Such symbolism, though, may u n e x p e c t e d l y d e v e l o p i r o n i c c h r o m a t i c v a r i a t i o n s . At the c i t y s c a l e , f o r example, 'Bologna the Red' earned i t s nickname both f o r i t s predominant s u r f a c e hue and i t s major p o l i t i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n . At the b u i l d i n g s c a l e , the b r i g h t w h i t e of the V i c t o r Emmanuel I I Monument i n Rome r e p r e s e n t s the i d e a l i s t i c hopes f o r I t a l y ' s u n i f i c a t i o n , but i n the l e s s v i s i b l e background, p i l l a r s show grimy s t a i n i n g of p o l l u t i o n . A p p l i e d c o n s i s t e n t l y over time and i n many p l a c e s , M e a n i n g f u l C o l o u r a l s o comes t o s y m b o l i z e the type of s t r u c t u r e upon which i t a c t s , e x p r e s s i n g e i t h e r f u n c t i o n a l v a l u e s , as on a r o a d , or a e s t h e t i c ones, as on a mosque ( F i g . 8 ) . (2.2) A e s t h e t i c M e a n i n g f u l C o l o u r : E x p r e s s i n g M a t e r i a l s & The Q u a l i t y of L i g h t . In t h i s p a r t , e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o l o u r e x p r e s s e s e i t h e r the c h a r a c t e r of m a t e r i a l s or the q u a l i t y of the l i g h t . 82 (Fig.9 ) Aesthetic Meaningful Colour: Expression of Materials. Apartments, Vancouver. Framed between a blue sky and green plants growing from brown earth, the building's various colours d i f f e r e n t i a t e between materials used: grey concrete base; mauve stucco facing; pink wood trim; transparent, colourless glass windows and plexiglass balustrades; white piping, horizontally, as balcony r a i l s and, v e r t i c a l l y , as drainpipes; and grey asphalt roof t i l e s . Such chromatic d i s t i n c t i o n s also aid communication about the building's parts. 83 ( F i g . 1 0 ) Aesthetic Meaningful Colour: Expression of Material. Medici Palace,Florence. The same stone appears on a l l three stories, but the chromatic effect varies so that the building appears progressively lighter as the eye moves upwards. The ground floor has heavy ru s t i c a t i o n , the next two stories increasingly more dressed and li g h t e r coloured stone. F i n a l l y , at the top of the building, the cornice i s rougher, and therefore darker. 84 (Fig. 1 1 ) Aesthetic Meaningful Colour: Expression of Light. El-Asqa Mosque, Jerusalem. Light reveals starkly simple hues. The pavement and facade are both 'of this world', and accordingly share the same material cut d i r e c t l y from the earth. A dark wooden door and window openings, f i l l e d with brightly polychrome glass not v i s i b l e from the exterior, puncture the otherwise uniform facade. The dome, however, which represents a 'higher' world, is a contrasting dark and more precious colour, s i l v e r . Light reveals the colour of these materials and chiaroscuro further emphasizes the difference in materials and their location. Near noon, the top of the dome becomes bright white while the shadowed facade darkens, although the pavement remains bright for further contrast. 85 With r e g a r d t o m a t e r i a l s , a e s t h e t i c M e a n i n g f u l C o l o u r e i t h e r d i f f e r e n t i a t e s between them ( F i g . 9 ) , which p r e v e n t s b u i l d i n g s from l o o k i n g l i k e monochrome m o d e l s , 1 3 or emphasizes the c h r o m a t i c v e r s a t i l i t y of a s i n g l e m a t e r i a l , depending on the t reatment of s u r f a c e t e x t u r e ( F i g . 1 0 ) . In a d d i t i o n , the c o l o u r s c a l e from v e r y l i g h t t o v e r y dark p e r m i t s a g r e a t range of l i g h t r e f l e c t i o n t h a t a l s o d i s t i n g u i s h e s d i f f e r e n t s u r f a c e s ( F i g . 1 1 ) . 1 4 (2.3) F u n c t i o n a l M e a n i n g f u l C o l o u r : Coding. In a d d i t i o n t o p l a y i n g s y m b o l i c and a e s t h e t i c p a r t s , M e a n i n g f u l C o l o u r a l s o f u n c t i o n s as a code, i d e n t i f y i n g o b s t a c l e s and h a z a r d s , e s p e c i a l l y i n i n d u s t r i a l s e t t i n g s . Such a p a r t , as F a u l k n e r e x p l a i n s , "depends on b r i g h t c o l o r s t h a t a t t r a c t immediate a t t e n t i o n and are r e c o g n i z e d q u i c k l y . " 1 5 By e x t e n s i o n , such c o l o u r s serve as g u i d e s i n emergencies ( F i g . 1 2 ) . C o l o u r c o d i n g o r i g i n a l l y began f o r p i p e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , t o g e t h e r w i t h s a f e t y c o l o u r s . In Canada, R o i g t e x p l a i n s : (1) r e d i s f o r f i r e p r o t e c t i o n ; (2) orange and y e l l o w i n d i c a t e dangerous m a t e r i a l s ; (3) b l u e i s f o r p r o t e c t i v e m a t e r i a l s ; (4) green i s f o r s a f e m a t e r i a l s ; and (5) p u r p l e i s f o r e x t r a - v a l u a b l e m a t e r i a l s . 1 6 T h i s c o r r e s p o n d s c l o s e l y t o both the American and B r i t i s h i d e n t i f i c a t i o n schemes. 86 (Fig.12) Functional Meaningful Colour: Coding. Vancouver General Hospital Sign, Vancouver. Functional use of bright primary hues to colour code large freestanding signs in a setting where the background surface colours make a subdued or achromatic contrast. 87 To a i d memory, these c o l o u r have symbolic or p s y c h o l o g i c a l meanings a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e i r f u n c t i o n s . Red, a f t e r a l l , i s the c o l o u r of f i r e and y e l l o w and orange the hues of fl a m e s . Wexner showed i n a p s y c h o l o g i c a l study of t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l c o l o u r and mood tone r e l a t i o n s t h a t b l u e and green a re seen as t e n d e r , secure and calm, p a r t l y because of t h e i r p e a c e f u l a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h n a t u r e . 1 7 P u r p l e , u n t i l 1865 when chemist P e r k i n s a c c i d e n t a l l y developed the f i r s t s y n t h e t i c dye, f o r a shade of mauve, was e x t r e m e l y hard t o make from n a t u r a l s o u r c e s . Thus, as an a p p l i e d c o l o u r , r a t h e r than a v i o l e t i n t r i n s i c t o c e r t a i n b r i c k s or types of s t r e a k e d marble, p u r p l e appeared r a r e l y , and then most o f t e n on the robes of r o y a l or r e l i g i o u s d i g n i t a r i e s . An i m p r e s s i v e example of e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o l o u r c o d i n g a re the f i v e g i a n t c r a n e s a t a s t e e l m i l l near M a r s e i l l e s , c o l o u r e d by L e n c l o s t o serve a t r i p l e f u n c t i o n : f i r s t , t o make them c l e a r l y v i s i b l e i n a p o l l u t e d atmosphere, and t o g i v e each an i d e n t i t y ( p r i o r t o r e p a i n t i n g they had been a u n i f o r m g r e y ) ; second, t o fragment t h e i r huge s i z e , the d i f f e r e n c e s among them b e i n g i n d i c a t e d by a predominant p i l o t c o l o u r ( a f t e r w a r d s , [ L e n c l o s ] l e a r n e d t h a t each was g i v e n a nickname by o p e r a t i v e s ) ; t h i r d , t o a s s i g n d i f f e r e n t c o l o u r s t o each of the c r a n e ' s components i n or d e r t o code what was s a f e from what was d a n g e r o u s . 1 8 T h i s f u n c t i o n a l 'language' of c o l o u r has i n s p i r e d a r c h i t e c t u r a l ' h i g h - t e c h ' e x p e r i m e n t s w i t h s t r o n g c o l o u r s i n which: "the c o n t r o l of c o n t r a s t betwen hues l i e s a t the essence of ' i n d e x i n g ' a b u i l d i n g " , w i t h d e c i s i o n s on c o l o u r tone a l s o i m p o r t a n t . 1 9 Such c o d i n g o c c u r s , n o t a b l y , i n Vancouver, on the Geology B u i l d i n g a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t s h Columbia, and, i n P a r i s , a t the Centre Pompidou. There, the c h r o m a t i c a r r a y of 88 exposed s t r u t s , d u c t s and e s c a l a t o r s spark c o n t i n u a l c o n t r o v e r s y . Smith, f o r example, p r a i s e s the b r i g h t c o l o u r s f o r "adding a dr a m a t i c b i t of s p a r k l e t o a r a t h e r grey s e c t i o n of P a r i s " 2 0 w h i l e B i r r e n , f o r i n s t a n c e , warns t h a t these hues "may seem incongruous and grotesque indeed i n one of the most c o n s i s t e n t l y b e a u t i f u l c i t i e s i n the w o r l d . " 2 1 (3) T imely C o l o u r . T h i s r o l e emphasizes v a r i a t i o n s i n c o l o u r t h rough t i m e , e i t h e r over c e n t u r i e s or d i u r n a l l y . S p e c i f i c c o l o u r s s e r v e t o suggest c e r t a i n p e r i o d s , t o s e t v a r i o u s tempos or t o produce p r e d i c t a b l e r e a c t i o n s t o s o l a r h eat. (3.1) Symbolic Timely C o l o u r : H i s t o r i c a l R e f e r e n c e . S y m b o l i c a l l y , T i m e l y C o l o u r p l a y s a h i s t o r i c a l p a r t of s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t t o h e r i t a g e p l a n n e r s . H i s t o r i c a l c o l o u r r e f e r s to c e r t a i n p e r i o d s , such as the "Brown D e c a d e s " , 2 2 from 1865-1895, or h i s t o r i c a l p e r s o n a l i t i e s , such as the r u l e r s of the Sung Dynasty (960-1127) who a l s o f a v o r e d b r o w n . 2 3 Duttmann observes of t h i s p a r t : " c o l o r s f i x a c e r t a i n epoch f o r a l l time i n a c i t y ; t h i s has happened' i n Cracow, where the meloncholy hues of a r t nouveau l i n g e r on l i k e a p e r e p e t u a l t w i l i g h t " . 2 * T r a d i t i o n a l l y , o l d b u i l d i n g s d i s p l a y h i s t o r i c a l c o l o u r w i t h hues t y p i c a l of t h e i r time of c o n s t r u c t i o n . On the urban s c a l e , t h i s u s u a l l y r e p r e s e n t s the hues of a c i t y ' s p e r i o d of g r e a t e s t 89 growth, as w i t h Savannah's b r i c k d u s t reds and Georg i a n greens, or of a moment of g r e a t g l o r y , as w i t h the 'Maria Theresa' y e l l o w i n Vienn a ' s c o r e . Timely c o l o u r a l s o s y m b o l i z e s steady growth over the c e n t u r i e s , as w i t h J e r u s a l e m ' s p e r v a s i v e golden s t o n e s ; s p u r t s of development t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h new a r e a s from the o l d , as i n Vancouver where, o f t e n , the o r i g i n a l downtown core f e a t u r e s the warm hues of b r i c k and the l a t e r one the c o o l e r c o l o u r s of g l a s s and c o n c r e t e ; or v e s t i g e s of the r e c e n t past when a ' p e r i o d ' c o l o u r , r a t h e r than an e c l e c t i c s e l e c t i o n , p r e v a i l e d , as the o r i g i n a l e a r t h tones of Vancouver's r e m a i n i n g C a l i f o r n i a S t y l e bungalows. H i s t o r i c a l c o l o u r on o l d b u i l d i n g s u s u a l l y o c c u r s as a r e s u l t of c h r o m a t i c s u r v i v a l , p r e s e r v a t i o n , a l t e r a t i o n or r e s t o r a t i o n . C e r t a i n c o l o u r s , e s p e c i a l l y those of n a t u r a l m a t e r i a l s such as the warm y e l l o w sandstone of Cracow, l a s t as l o n g as t h e i r s u r f a c e s . Other c o l o u r s r e s u l t from the e f f o r t s of p r e s e r v a t i o n i s t s who d e v e l o p a l o c a l h i s t o r i c a l p a l e t t e , such as the one i n C o l o n i a l W i l l i a m s b u r g , f o r "those who wish t o r e l a t e t o v a l u e s they a t t r i b u t e t o t h a t p e r i o d . " 2 5 Other c o l o u r s s u r v i v e i n a l t e r e d s t a t e s . N e g l e c t , f o r i n s t a n c e , whether i n t e n t i o n a l or n o t , changes some hues ( F i g . 1 3 ) . O u t r i g h t d e s t r u c t i o n a l t e r s c o l o u r too ( F i g . 1 4 ) . In a d d i t i o n , l a c k of a t t e n t i o n t o t r a d i t i o n changes c o l o u r on o l d b u i l d i n g s . T u r i n , f o r example, g a i n e d a monochrome image due t o a p e r v a d i n g ' T u r i n y e l l o w ' which, because of i n d i s c r i m i n a t e r e d e c o r a t i o n t o g e t h e r w i t h a m i s c o n c e p t i o n t h a t i t i s a c o l o u r t r a d i t i o n a l l y a s o c i a t e d w i t h i t s a r c h i t e c t u r e , b l a n k e t s the c i t y . 2 6 (Fig.13) Symbolic Timely Colour: H i s t o r i c a l Reference. Granville Island Sheds, Vancouver. H i s t o r i c a l colour deriving from neglect and showing the destructive power of natural forces. This shed shows discoloured versions of o r i g i n a l hues as applied colour fades and peels and the exposed iron rusts. In such a part, colour represents change over time and provides a timely contrast to bright new hues on nearby restored buildings. 91 (Fig.14) Symbolic Timely Colour: H i s t o r i c a l Reference. Bombed building, near Jerusalem. H i s t o r i c a l colour from unplanned chromatic patterns acting as a timely reminder of the destructive forces of man. 9 2 However, h i s t o r i c a l c o l o u r does reappear as a r e s u l t of r e s t o r a t i o n . In T u r i n , f o r i n s t a n c e , the c i t y sponsored an a m b i t i o u s r e s t o r a t i o n program, s e t up by the M u n i c i p a l S u p e r v i s o r of Housing, Enzo B i f f i G e n t i l i , t o r e p a i n t b u i l d i n g s i n accordance w i t h the hues i n d i c a t e d on the h i s t o r i c m a s t e r p l a n . P o r t o g h e s i r e p o r t s : " T h i s i n f i n i t e l y e x t e n d i b l e 'Colour P a l e t t e ' became the p o i n t of r e f e r e n c e f o r p l a n n e r s . " 2 7 In N o r t h America, Dr. Roger Moss, a d i r e c t o r of the H i s t o r i c House A s s o c i a t i o n of America, r e p o r t s i n an a r t i c l e t i t l e d "You c a n ' t p a i n t 'em w h i t e anymore" t h a t " h i s t o r i c c o l o r r e v i v a l i s r a i s i n g p u b l i c c o n s c i o u s n e s s . " 2 8 Vehemently a g a i n s t 'whitewashing' the p a s t , Dr. Moss s t r e s s e s the importance of e i t h e r a c a r e f u l m i c r o a n a l y s i s or a c l o s e e x a m i n a t i o n of p e r t i n e n t documents i n o r d e r t o determine o r i g i n a l c o l o u r s . A danger of e x c e s s i v e p r e s e r v a t i o n or r e s t o r a t i o n , though, i s the r i s k of f r e e z i n g a s i n g l e c h r o m a t i c phase i n an e v o l v i n g c u l t u r e and r e s t r i c t i n g l a t e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n t o o c c u r i n g i n the g e n u i n e l y o l d b u i l t e nvironment, h i s t o r i c a l c o l o u r a l s o i n c r e a s i n g l y o c c u r s on new facades where i t p r o v i d e s an e x c e l l e n t l i n k between the o l d and the new. T h i s p a r t o f f e r s an a l t e r n a t i v e t o the d i m e n s i o n a l co-o r d i n a t i o n p l a n n e r s , a c c o r d i n g t o Smith, o f t e n f a v o u r as an attempt t o t i d y up "chaos [and] m a r s h a l l a l l new b u i l d i n g s i n t o the same form, w i t h v a r i a t i o n s o n l y i n the t r i m m i n g s . " 2 9 F r e q u e n t l y , l i n k i n g the o l d and the new i n v l o v e s d i r e c t c h r o m a t i c r e p l i c a t i o n . At the s c a l e of b u i l d i n g s , s i m i l a r c o l o u r harmonizes new s t r u c t u r e s w i t h o l d ones ( F i g . 1 5 ) . 93 ( F i g . 1 5 ) Symbolic Timely C o l o u r : H i s t o r i c a l R e f e r e n c e . E x t e n s i o n t o S t . P a u l ' s H o s p i t a l , Vancouver. A d a p t a t i o n of the o r i g i n a l b u i l d i n g ' s red and cream facade on the new a d d i t i o n p r o v i d e s a c l e a r l i n k between past and p r e s e n t c o n s t r u c t i o n s . At the same t i m e , the r e d b r i c k of the e x t e n s i o n i s a l s o a ' s i g n of the times' i n the immediate a r e a which, t o the south and e a s t , i s i n c r e a s i n g l y d i s p l a y i n g b r i c k facades whose hues p r o v i d e a chromatic l i n k t o the r e s t o r e d warehouses i n Yaletown. 94 In a d d i t i o n t o r e p l i c a t i n g c o l o u r , modern b u i l d i n g s w i t h w h i t e p a i n t , roughcast c o n c r e t e and g l a s s p r o v i d e an e x c e l l e n t c o n t r a s t t o more polychrome or p a t t e r n e d t r a d i t i o n a l ones, c r e a t i n g what Uhl c a l l s a " d i a l o g u e between o l d and new on a t o w n - p l a n n i n g s c a l e " . 3 0 G l a s s c u r t a i n w a l l f a c a d e s , i n p a r t i c u l a r , ( F i g . 1 6 ) , o f t e n a c t " l i k e a c o n s c i o u s homage t o the p a s t - g r e a t expanses of g l a s s , b e i n g i n t r i n s i c a l l y non-o r n a m e n t a l , f u n c t i o n l i k e m i r r o r s i n which o l d b u i l d i n g s l i v e a g a i n i n a r e f l e c t i o n " . 3 1 Not a l l o b s e r v e r s , though a r e e n t h u s i a s t i c . S m ith, f o r i n s t a n c e , c o m p l a i n s t h a t r e f l e c t i v e b u i l d i n g s a r e : a k i n d of s e l f - n e g a t i n g a r c h i t e c t u r e which d e r i v e s i t s r a i s o n d ' e t r e from i t s s u r r o u n d i n g s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , i r r e g u l a r i t i e s i n the r e f l e c t i v e s k i n a r e u n a v o i d a b l e , and so images appear d i s t o r t e d , r e s u l t i n g i n a k i n d of h a l l of m i r r o r s e f f e c t . 3 2 I n s t e a d , Smith p r a i s e s a r a r e r k i n d of c h r o m a t i c l i n k between o l d and new which he terms 'metaphoric.' T h i s i n v o l v e s s u b t l e echoes or h i n t s of s i m i l a r c o l o u r s r a t h e r than d i r e c t a n a l o g i e s . As an example, he c i t e s the C a t h e d r a l Square i n Rouen where "a c o u n c i l b u i l d i n g . . . d i s p l a y s i n f l e x i o n s towards the h a l f -t i m b e r e d t r a d i t i o n a l b u i l d i n g s common to o l d c i t y " by u s i n g w h i t e r i b s and a b l a c k background, r e v e r s i n g the t y p i c a l f i g u r e - g r o u n d r e l a t i o n s h i p . 3 3 O c c a s i o n a l l y , as on D i s n e y l a n d ' s 'Main S t r e e t ' , the i n t e n d e d e f f e c t of h i s t o r i c a l c o l o u r i s l e s s c o n n e c t i o n than c o n t r a s t w i t h hues normaly found i n the contemporary s u r r o u n d i n g s . R e t r o s p e c t i v e c h r o m a t i c v a r i e t y s i g n i f i e s humanizing welcome i n the c o n t e x t of the p r e v a l e n t n e u t r a l s and a c h r o m a t i c s of the 95 (Fig.16) Symbolic Timely Colour: H i s t o r i c a l Reference. Hotel Vancouver, Vancouver. Chromatic dialogue between the old and the new in which the glass curtain wall facade of a nearby highrise r e f l e c t s the hotel's grey facade and green roof with a golden tone and unexpected 'Gaudiesque' d i s t o r t i o n : Hommage or Hall of Mirrors? 96 Modern, though not Post-Modern, b u i l t environment. Such uses of t i m e l y c o l o u r o f t e n mix h i s t o r i c p e r i o d s w i t h w i l d e c l e c t i c i s m i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e n o s t a l g i c , e s c a p i s t p l e a s u r e . F i n a l l y , s y m b o l i c T i m e l y C o l o u r a l s o s e r v e s as a ' s i g n of the t i m e s ' . At the moment, c h r o m a t i c v a r i e t y i n the b u i l t environment i s f a s h i o n a b l e , s p u r r e d p a r t l y by g e n e r a l c y c l e s i n t a s t e and p a r t l y by the s p e c i f i c e f f o r t s of a r c h i t e c t s f o l l o w i n g the Post Modern movement. P o r t e r and M i k e l l i d e s s t r e s s : "exuberant c o l o u r has always f o l l o w e d p e r i o d s of a u s t e r i t y , and i s o f t e n a p p l i e d t o c o n t r a s t w i t h monochromatic or d i s m a l s u r r o u n d i n g s or t o r e - e s t a b l i s h i d e n t i t y . " 3 9 Whereas Modernism f a v o u r s a c h r o m a t i c hues e n l i v e n e d by o c c a s i o n a l b r i g h t p r i m a r i e s , Post Modernism i s , as J e ncks emphasizes when d i s t i n g u i s h i n g the movement from Late-Modernism, i s " p r o - o r n a m e n t " 3 5 w i t h a p a l e t t e , i n which "reds tend towards p i n k , y e l l o w to orange and b l u e t o p u r p l e . " 3 6 Thus, i n Vancouver today, s u r f a c e s i n the b u i l t environment r e v e a l s e v e r a l c u r r e n t c o l o u r t r e n d s , i n c l u d i n g : (1) the i n c r e a s e d p o p u l a r i t y of p a s t e l s , such as the p i n k and m i s t y mauve championed by M i c h a e l Graves ( F i g . 1 7 ) ; (2) a renewed i n t e r e s t i n warm e a r t h tones ( F i g . 1 8 ) ; and (3) the use of more s a t u r a t e d , unusual ' p o s t - i n d u s t r i a l ' hues ( F i g . 1 9 ) . (3.2) A e s t h e t i c T imely C o l o u r : Tempo S e t t e r . A c t i n g on a s h o r t e r temporal s c a l e than h i s t o r i c p e r i o d s , namely the d i u r n a l one, c o l o u r a l s o s e t s our tempo of b e h a v i o u r . 97 (Fig,17) Symbolic Timely Colour: H i s t o r i c a l Reference. Apartment, Vancouver. Facade, whose colours act as a 'sign of the times', displays the recently fashionable pastel hues, popularized by the Post-Modern movement. The colour easily dates the decor to the late eighties. 98 (Fig.18) Symbolic Timely Colour: H i s t o r i c a l Reference. Family Student Housing, U.B.C., Vancouver. Recently a p p l i e d warm earth tones, on roofs and pavements as well as the townhouse facades, act as a 'sign of the times.' Even the h i g h r i s e , p r e v i o u s l y p l a i n grey exposed concrete, has been r e p a i n t e d i n matching hues that symbolize i t s part i n the same housing development d e s p i t e i t s d i f f e r e n t d e n s i t y . » 99 (Fig.19) Symbolic Timely Colour: H i s t o r i c a l Reference. Apartment, Vancouver. Eye-catching orange-red brick with complementary blue-green trim, part of the building's 'Post-Industrial ' style , act as a 'sign of the times' s i g n i f y i n g current tastes. 100 Through synaesthesia, the a c t u a l passage of time seems slower in areas with warm c o l o u r s , on which the eye more c l e a r l y focuses, and f a s t e r i n c o o l hued s u r r o u n d i n g s . 3 7 L i v e l y t h e a t r e d i s t r i c t s , f o r example, such as Drury lane or Broadway, r e v e a l , by day and by n i g h t , l i g h t s and c o l o u r s of a p p a r e n t l y c o n t r a s t i n g temperature which u n d e r l i n e the temporal c h a r a c t e r of the area. By day, s t r e e t s , frequented f o r r o u t i n e or monotonous tasks such as commuting, have c o o l hued s u r f a c e s and are n a t u r a l l y l i t , o f t e n using q u i e t c o l o u r schemes that "may express d i g n i t y and r e p o s e " 3 8 and please the neocortex. However, at n i g h t , when apparent slow motion i s more p l e a s u r a b l e f o r e a t i n g and entertainment, these same s t r e e t s come ablaze with with b r i g h t l i g h t and glowing c o l o u r that "tends to express g a i t y and e x c i t e m e n t " 3 9 and o f f e r l i m b i c s a t i s f a c t i o n . I n d u s t r i a l zones a l s o b e n e f i t from a c l e a r c o l o u r d i s t i n c t i o n between c o o l hued work s i t e s where time i s underestimated and warm co l o u r e d r e c r e a t i o n areas where i t i s overestimated. O v e r a l l , regarding tempo, Porter and M i k e l l i d e s recommend in t h e i r c o n c l u s i o n to Colour f o r A r c h i t e c t u r e t h a t : red and the other f u l l y s a t u r a t e d hues- p a r t i c u l a r l y orange and yellow- appear to be i d e a l c o l o u r s f o r i n c o r p o r a t i o n i n t o dynamic spaces where b o d i l y locomotion, p h y s i c a l tasks or c i r c u l a t i o n are i n v o l v e d , such as...indeed, s t r e e t s , concourses and p e d e s t r i a n ways." 0 (Fig.20) (3.3) F u n c t i o n a l Timely Colour: Heat Absorbtion and R e f l e c t i o n . P r a c t i c a l l y , t i m e l y c o l o u r maximizes or minimizes the heat abs o r p t i o n and r e f l e c t i o n of m a t e r i a l s Over the d i u r n a l c y c l e . 101 (Fig.20) Aesthetic Timely Colour: Tempo Setter. Facade De t a i l , Vancouver. Red t i l e s enliven the lower level of a plain concrete building with a colour conducive to movement. The band of red also breaks up the building's height, provides visual interest at eye-level, and contrasts with the blue t i l e s l i n i n g the pond to intensify the chromatic effect of the water. 102 L i g h t c o l o u r e d opaque s u r f a c e s r e f l e c t h e a t , remain r e l a t i v e l y c o o l t o t o u c h , and are w e l l s u i t e d t o s o u t h - f a c i n g facades and pavements around swimming p o o l s where people are l i k e l y t o be b a r e f o o t . In c o n t r a s t , dark opaque s u r f a c e s absorb t h e r m a l l i g h t r a y s and c o n v e r t them i n t o heat l a t e r r a d i a t e d . T r a n s p a r e n t m a t e r i a l s , such as g l a s s , a re p a r t i c u l a r l y l i k e l y t o have c o l o u r c o n t r i b u t e t o heat a b s o r b t i o n or r e f l e c t i o n . Heat a b s o r b i n g g l a s s : c o n t a i n s a m e t a l l i c o x i d e t h a t g i v e s g l a s s a b l u e -green, bronze, or gray t i n t and absorbs much of the heat from the sun. A c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of heat i s d i s s i p a t d e x t e r n a l l y , thus r e d u c i n g the amount of heat t h a t i s t r a n s m i t t e d . 4 1 Green g l a s s i s i n c r e a s i n g l y p o p u l a r i n Vancouver, both on r o o f s such as the P r o v i n c i a l Courthouse, and f a c a d e s , e i t h e r as a c u r t a i n w a l l or windows ( F i g . 2 0 ) . However, t h i s f u n c t i o n a l use of c o l o u r , w h i l e a d d i n g t o the o v e r a l l c h r o m a t i c v a r i e t y of the e x t e r i o r environment, does not always c o m p l e t e l y reduce i n t e r i o r heat t r a n s m i s s i o n or g l a r e . H e a t - r e f l e c t i n g g l a s s , a v a i l a b l e i n deep or l i g h t g o l d , s i l v e r and gray a l s o c o n t r o l s s o l a r heat and reduces d a y l i g h t g l a r e by h a v i n g one f a c e of the g l a s s c o v e r e d w i t h a t h i n m e t a l l i c c o a t of h i g h t r a n s p a r e n c y and h i g h r e f l e c t i v e p r o p e r t i e s . 1 0 3 (Fig.21) Functional Timely Colour: Heat Absorption. New Building, Vancouver. Green glass windows promote heat absorption. A considerable amount of heat is dissipated externally, thus reducing the amount of heat that is transmitted indoors, functionally reducing a i r conditioning costs while adding visual variety to the exterior facade. Here, the green glass combines with the yellow walls for a harmony of ' s i m i l a r i t y ' . 104 (4) C i r c u l a t o r y C o l o u r . C o l o u r p l a y i n g the c i r c u l a t o r y r o l e e s t a b l i s h e s a s s o c i a t i o n s between d i f f e r e n t e n v i r o n m e n t a l elements. Both c o n t i n u i t y and c o n t r a s t s between n e i g h b o u r i n g hues i n d i c a t e l o c a t i o n a l c o n t e x t . In t h i s r o l e , c o l o u r c o n t r i b u t e s t o the urban ' l e g i b i l i t y ' a d vocated by Lynch: s t r u c t u r i n g and i d e n t i f y i n g the environment i s a v i t a l element among a l l m o b i l e a n i m a l s . Many k i n d s of cues ar e used: the v i s u a l s e n s a t i o n s of c o l o r , shape, motion or p o l a r i z a t i o n of l i g h t . 8 2 (4.1) Symbolic C i r c u l a t o r y C o l o u r : I d e n t i t y . In t h i s p a r t , c o l o u r , e s p e c i a l l y when a p p l i e d d e c o r a t i v e l y t o a t t r a c t a t t e n t i o n t o the' s u r f a c e s i t adorns, s i g n a l s a p a r t i c u l a r l o c a t i o n and r e p r e s e n t s e n v i r o n m e n t a l ' c o n t r o l ' . By g i v i n g i d e n t i t y t o a p l a c e , c o l o u r s i m p l i f i e s s p a t i a l o r i e n t a t i o n . Through s u r f a c e c o l o u r , we e x p r e s s : a wide range of v i s u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s from mutual a t t r a c t i o n t o e x c l u s i o n as w e l l as s u b t l e d i s t i n c t i o n s such as c o m p l e t i o n s , c l a s h e s , c o n t r a s t s , b r i d g e s and r e i n f o r c e m e n t s between components. 4 3 Chromatic i d e n t i t y o c c u r s a t s e v e r a l s c a l e s of p e r c e p t i o n and w i t h d i f f e r e n t p l a n n i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s . At the urban s c a l e , c o l o u r s e r v e s t o d i s t i n g u i s h a c i t y from the s u r r o u n d i n g c o u n t r y s i d e ( F i g . 2 2 & F i g . 2 3 ) . T h i s u s u a l l y r e q u i r e s c o n s i d e r a b l e m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g . At the d i s t r i c t s c a l e , c o l o u r a l s o c o n t r a s t s an ar e a from i t s n e i g h b o u r s , a p a r t o f t e n i n v o l v i n g community p l a n n i n g t o c o - o r d i n a t e e f f o r t s ( F i g . 2 4 ) . 1 05 (Fig.22) Symbolic Circulatory Colour: Identity. Festive Illumination, Grenoble. Colour through l i g h t s i g n a l l i n g location at the c i t y scale. This chromatic dynamism derives from a combination of c o l l e c t i v e planning and individual enterprise that leave no doubt as to the identity of the place. 1 06 (Fig.23) Symbolic C i r c u l a t o r y Colour. C i t y Roofs, F l o r e n c e . Seen from the highest p o i n t i n the c i t y , the roof of the C a t h e d r a l , the d i s t i n c t i v e red r o o f s of F l o r e n c e , which c o n t r a s t with the surrounding greenery, give the c i t y a s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r . To preserve the image of the p l a c e , planners have helped the c i t y d r a f t laws e n f o r c i n g a s t r i c t range of acceptable roof c o l o u r s . 1 07 (Fig.24) Symbolic C i r c u l a t o r y Colour: I d e n t i t y . G r a n v i l l e I s l a n d and Bridges Restaurant, Vancouver. The environmental colour found in t h i s area d i s t i n g u i s h e s i t from neighbouring ones. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the place a r e : (1) the use of intense c o l o u r s u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d with i n d u s t r y ; (2) a system of s t r o n g l y coloured i n d u s t r i a l p i p e s ; (3) s t e e l - o u t l i n e d and multi-paned windows and doors as well as c o l o u r f u l l y o u t l i n e d s k y l i g h t s - a l l expressive of 'technology'; and (4) corrugated s t e e l c l a d d i n g and stucco f i n i s h e s . The yellow roof and s i d e s of Bridges Restaurant make i t stand out as a l o c a l landmark, c l e a r l y v i s i b l e but, seemingly, m y s t e r i o u s l y i n a c c e s s i b l e from most d i r e c t i o n s . 108 At the s t r e e t s c a l e , e i t h e r a r c h i t e c t s , b u i l d e r s and owners d i s t i n g u i s h a s t r u c t u r e from a d j a c e n t ones ( F i g . 2 5 ) or a c o n s u l t a n t p r o v i d e s c o h e s i v e u n i t y w i t h a comprehensive c o l o u r scheme. U h l , f o r example, i n a d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t i o n of s t r e e t s c a p e u n i t y , o f f e r s s i x s u g g e s t i o n s f o r u n i f y i n g a s t r e e t w i t h 'thought through' c o l o u r : 1) Emphasizing the p l a n a r i t y of the facades by p a i n t i n g them a u n i f o r m , l i g h t tone on both s i d e s of the s t r e e t ; 2) Composing the s t r e e t i n s p a t i a l terms w i t h a homogeneous dark scheme f o r facades and dark a s p h a l t pavements; 3) Having the f o r e g r o u n d c o l o u r of the facade r e l i e f the same thro u g h o u t , w i t h v a r i a b l e c o l o r s of r e n d e r i n g or v i c e v e r s a ; 4) A p p l y i n g h o r i z o n t a l s t r i p e s of c o l o r , d i v i d i n g f acades i n t o f o u n d a t i o n , base, window zones, ro o f zone, and thus l e n g t h e n i n g the s t r e e t ' s p e r s p e c t i v e ; 5) Having the f o r e g r o u n d l i g h t and the background dark f o r c o n t i n u o u s c o n t r a s t ; and 6) Changing f o r e g r o u n d and background from b u i l d i n g t o b u i l d i n g i n a r e g u l a r p a t e r n . " " F i n a l l y , at the b u i l d i n g and d e t a i l s c a l e ( F i g . 2 6 ) , i n d i v i d u a l p r o p e r t y owners d e c o r a t e s u r f a c e s w i t h i n t h e i r domains w i t h c o l o u r t h a t r e p r e s e n t s : a s o r t of s i g n a t u r e which, a p a r t from a c t i n g as a p r o t e c t i v e l a y e r , d e s c r i b e s p e r s o n a l i t y , s t a t u s and t e r r i t o r y . . . . M o r e s u b t l e changes can be found i n h i g h -d e n s i t y areas where c o l o u r and t e x t u r e p l a y tandem r o l e s i n d e f i n i n g a r e a s of t e r r i t o r i a l s p a c e . " 5 A l t o g e t h e r , e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o l o u r i n the p a r t of ' i d e n t i t y ' a i d s c i r c u l a t i o n by s y m b o l i c a l l y s e r v i n g as s i g n s of l i t e r a l and f i g u r a t i v e ' p l a c e . ' In a d d i t i o n , s y m b o l i c C i r c u l a t o r y C o l o u r c o n t r i b u t e s immensely t o what the Townscape I n s t i t u t e , a n o n p r o f i t , p u b l i c i n t e r e s t o r g a n i z a t i o n i n Cambrige, M a s s a c h u s e t t s , concerned w i t h urban l i v e a b i l i t y , c a l l s : 1 0 9 (Fig.25) Symbolic Circulatory Colour; Identity. Broadway Streetscape, Vancouver. Colour here accentuates differences in the form of buildings along a street, stressing the identity of individual properties. The common colour is that of the public pavement, which in comparison with that on private facades is drab, d u l l and disorganized. A l l buildings in this group, however diverse in style, emphasise the roof or roof li n e with colour in some d i s t i n c t i v e way. 110 (Fig.26) Symbolic Circulatory Colour: Identity. Store, Vancouver. Unusual contrasting colours quite unlike those of neighbouring structures serve to draw attention to the place and give i t a d i s t i n c t identity, especially as the colours also act as locational clues. In addition, the type of colours used indicate the nature of the store: hues considered 'cheap' by conventional taste signal the p o s s i b l i t y of bargains within. 111 The human need for connection and identity with place, a relationship that enriches the spirit and heightens one's sense of aesthetic pleasure. 4 6 (4.2) Aesthetic Circulatory Colour: Spatial Progression. When playing this part, colour "gives continuity and form to the experience of moving through spaces." 4 7 Such colour use occurs both spontaneously and as a result of careful planning although, as Bacon laments at the start of a detailed analysis of this part in The Design of Cities: "the purposeful use of colour in a sequential sense is almost unknown in contemporary practice." 4 8 Both Lynch and Cullen stress that chromatic changes surrounding movement engenders an appreciation of urban beauty. Smith, in Architecture and the Human Dimension, offers a specific examination of circulatory aesthetics. 4 9 In particular, Smith distinguishes between teleological aesthetics, which involves progression towards a climax or goal, and lineal aesthetics, which relates to the kind of urbanism extending over considerable areas of a city without reaching any discernible goal. Colour contributes to both types of aesthete progression. Telelogical progression, according to Smith, has four possible attributes. The f i r s t is facades, such as arcades, which impel movement (Fig.27). The second factor contributing to teleological progression is a prestige gradient. Venetian pavement colours, for example, indicate proximity to the vital core of the city, the Piazza San Marco. In outlying streets, or, str i c t l y speaking, passages, grey granite setts provide the 1 1 2 v i s i b l e base fo r the b u i l t environment. Nearer the P i a z z a , i n more e x c l u s i v e areas, mosaics s t a r t to decorate pavements with unusual c o l o u r s and p a t t e r n s . Then, f i n a l l y , the Piazza San Marco boasts b e a t i f u l pink and white paving e x e m p l i f y i n g , as H a l p r i n notes of a l l great urban spaces in the world, that the c i t y f l o o r "can be patterned, t e x t u r e , c o l o r e d , and thrown l i k e a r i c h rug u n d e r f o o t . " 5 0 The t h i r d f a c t o r i s the presence of a v i s i b l e p art of the g o a l , which o f t e n has a d i s t i n c t i v e c o l o u r . Thus, for Vancouverites going downtown, the green roof of the Hotel Vancouver a c t s as a landmark i d e n t i f y i n g t h e i r d e s t i n a t i o n . F i n a l l y , as a f o u r t h f a c t o r , Smith i n d i c a t e s the importance of glimpsing f u r t h e r scenes along the way, such as the i n t e r m i t t e n t curves of a road whose hues c o n t r a s t with surroundings. One of the most dramatic uses of colour to emphasize s p a t i a l p r o g r e s s i o n occurs at the Imperial Palace i n Peking. I t has a l l four a t t r i b u t e s of t e l e o l o g i c a l p r o g r e s s i o n : e l e v a t e d arcades; a p r e s t i g e g r a d i e n t expressed in terms of a c c e s s i b i l i t y ; the h i g h l y v i s i b l e yellow and gold of the Forbidden C i t y ' s r o o f s , gleaming l i k e a s e c r e t t r e a s u r e trove; and glimpses of f u r t h e r scenes, most notably through the Green Gate. As d e s c r i b e d by Bacon, 5 1 the viewer passes through four zones, each with a d i s t i n c t c o l o u r , that heighten a n t i c i p a t i o n f o r the f i n a l chromatic climax: f i r s t , the Outer C i t y where b u i l d i n g s with n e u t r a l black r o o f s prepare the eye for f r e s h 1 13 experiences; then the Inner C i t y b r i g h t l y beckoning with b r i l l i a n t blue-purple t i l e r o o f s and red doors with gold ornaments; next the gate to the Imperial C i t y , o u t l i n e d i n green, the most immobile c o l o u r 5 2 which i n d i c a t e s s t a b i l i t y ; and, f i n a l l y , the chromatic splendor and i n t e n s i t y of the Forbidden C i t y with g o l d and yellow r o o f s marking a c o n t r a s t between the tops of the temporal world and the blue peak of the heavenly one. Environmental c o l o u r a l s o c o n t r i b u t e s to l i n e a l p r o g r e s s i o n through chromatic c o n s i s t e n c y and c o n t r a s t ( F i g . 2 8 ) . Smith s p e c i f i e s : i t i s the o l d e r c i t i e s that are r i c h i n c o n t r a s t between l i g h t and shade, between one b u i l d i n g plane and another, and between c o l o u r s and t e x t u r e s . 5 3 The -colours of a long p e d e s t r i a n mall i n Rotterdam, c i t e d by Bacon, 5" exemplify the chromatic c o n t r i b u t i o n to l i n e a l p r o g r e s s i o n . There, u n l i k e i n North America where of t e n flowers of many c o l o u r s are used together, monochromatic flowers are massed i n t o l a r g e zones "where the p r o g r e s s i o n of movement i s a r t i c u l a t e d . " 5 5 The n e u t r a l or subdued c o n t i n u i t y of sur f a c e c o l o u r on pavements and facades a c t s as a complementary backdrop to the everchanging n a t u r a l hues of p l a n t s and p e d e s t r i a n s . A e s t h e t i c C i r c u l a t o r y Colour, t h e r e f o r e , c o n t r i b u t e s to the pleasure of pr o g r e s s i o n through space. T e l e o l o g i c a l l y , v a r i a t i o n s i n colour convey a n t i c i p a t i o n and f u l f i l l m e n t , while, l i n e a l l y , they provide c o n t i n u i t y with o c c a s i o n a l change. 114 (Fig.27) Aesthetic Circulatory Colour: Spatial Progression. Rue de R i v o l i , Paris. The arcade's l i g h t and shade pavement patterns, similar in effect to railway t i e s , heighten the aesthetic pleasure of moving through space by psychologically impelling movement and, thus, contributing to the experience of t e l e o l o g i c a l progression. 115 ( F i g . 2 8 ) A e s t h e t i c C i r c u l a t o r y C o l o u r : S p a t i a l P r o g r e s s i o n P e d e s t r i a n M a l l , S t r a s b o u r g . B l a c k and w h i t e h a l f - t i m b e r e d facades i n the h i s t o r i c p a r t of town c o n t r i b u t e to l i n e a l p r o g r e s s i o n through c o n t i n u o u s c o n t r a s t s between l i g h t and shade, volumes and t e x t u r e s and between d i f f e r e n t b u i l d i n g p l a n e s . 116 (4.3) F u n c t i o n a l C i r c u l a t o r y C o l o u r : L e g i b i l i t y . F u n c t i o n a l l y , C i r c u l a t o r y C o l o u r a l s o improves a c t u a l l e g i b i l i t y and a c t s as a spur t o movement. T h i s p a r t a p p l i e s p a r t i c u l a r l y t o t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g , both f o r v e h i c l e s and f o r p e d e s t r i a n s . F u n c t i o n a l l e g i b i l i t y , n e c e s s a r y f o r the e x p r e s s i o n of e n v r i o n m e n t a l i n f o r m a t i o n , i s "the c a p a c i t y w i t h which a f i g u r e or shape can be r e c o g n i z e d a g a i n s t i t s b a c k g r o u n d . " 5 6 T h i s depends on t h r e e f a c t o r s : (1) a p p r o p r i a t e i l l u m i n a t i o n ; (2) the s i z e of the f i g u r e or i t s a n g u l a r s i z e ; and (3) the c o l o u r c o n t r a s t between the f i g u r e and i t s background. B i r r e n r e p o r t s t h a t the l i g h t - d a r k c o n t r a s t i s more important than the c h r o m a t i c c o n t r a s t : b l a c k on y e l l o w h o l d s f i r s t p l a c e , then green on w h i t e , r e d on w h i t e , b l u e on w h i t e , and b l a c k on w h i t e . In s t r o n g i l l u m i n a t i o n l i g h t c o l o r s on dark backgrounds ar e s u p e r i o r ; i n dim i l l u m i n a t i o n the l i g h t background seems e s s e n t i a l , w i t h dark c o l o r s c l e a r l y c o n t r a s t e d on i t . V i s i b i l i t y depends almost e n t i r e l y on c o n t r a s t , w i t h y e l l o w s u p e r i o r t o w h i t e because i t produces l e s s b l u r and comples a t t e n t i o n . 5 7 S u r f a c e l e g i b i l i t y i s r e l e v a n t t o r o o f s and facades s e r v i n g as backgrounds t o s i g n s g i v i n g d i r e c t i o n s and t o pavements w i t h t r a f f i c markings. At Lo n s d a l e Quay P u b l i c Market, f o r example, the n o r t h facade c a r r i e s a l a r g e c y l i n d e r announcing 'MARKET' i n white superimposed on a dark background. Pavement markings, u s i n g h i g h c o n t r a s t c o l o u r s , d i f f e r e n t i a t e between p e d e s t r i a n and v e h i c l e zones, as w e l l as d i v i d i n g d i r e c t i o n s of t r a f f i c and i n d i c a t i n g a p p r o p r i a t e d r i v i n g 1 17 b e h a v i o u r . Crosswalk m a r k i n g s , f o r example, a r e o f t e n s i m p l e a l t e r n a t i n g bands of w h i t e and b l a c k , as on E n g l i s h 'zebra' c r o s s i n g s whose p a t t e r n s y m b o l i c a l l y a l l u d e s t o n a t u r e . The a d d i t i o n of a t h i r d c o l o u r to c r o s s w a l k s improves l e g i b i l i t y by f u r t h e r c o l o u r and t e x t u r e c o n t r a s t . When the town of R u t l a n d , Vermont, h i r e d a r t i s t Fernand Leger t o e m b e l l i s h l o c a l c r o s s w a l k s w i t h c o l o u r i n the S i x t i e s , t h i s move was h a i l e d as "one of the v e r y few examples of c r e a t i v e c o l o r e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n t o be seen i n American urban p l a n n i n g . " 5 8 Such c h r o m a t i c v a r i a t i o n s are now more common. In Vancouver's K e r r i s d a l e , f o r example, the p r i n c i p a l p e d e s t r i a n c r o s s w a l k s a l s o c o n t a i n the warm red hues of b r i c k ( F i g . 2 9 ) . (5) I l l u s o r y C o l o u r . I l l u s o r y c o l o u r mediates the v i s u a l r e l a t i o n between s u r f a c e s t o a l t e r our p e r c e p t i o n of the b u i l t environment. T h i s r o l e ' s power d e r i v e s from our i n s t i n c t i v e a t t e n t i o n t o the b r i g h t e s t and most c o n t r a s t i n g f e a t u r e s of a scene, s y n a e s t h e s i a , and the eye's use of c o l o u r t o i d e n t i f y and t o d e f i n e o b j e c t s i n space. To be e f f e c t i v e i n t h i s r o l e , the c o l o u r s used must c o n t r a s t i n r e l a t i v e l i g h t n e s s , occur m a i n l y a t the s c a l e of b u i l d i n g s and d e t a i l s , and be seen i n c o n t e x t . 1 18 (Fig.29) Functional Circulatory Colour: L e g i b i l i t y . Kerrisdale Crosswalk, Vancouver. This crosswalk uses three colours to improve the l e g i b i l e discrimination of s p a t i a l zones, especially for pedestrians with impaired vision for whom the texture reinforces the chromatic markings. In addition, the continuity of the warm red hues of surrounding sidewalks across the asphalt roadway emphasizes the importance of pedestrian zones and v i s u a l l y links different segments of the shoppping area. 1 19 In p l a c e , I l l u s o r y C o l o u r p l a y s t h r e e p a r t s of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t t o p l a n n e r s concerned w i t h urban b e a u t i f i c a t i o n p r o j e c t s : (1) i t , s y m b o l i c a l l y , a t t a c h e s or detaches s u r f a c e s from t h e i r s e t t i n g s ; (2) i t a e s t h e t i c a l l y emphasizes a s p e c t s of appearance; and, (3) i t f u n c t i o n a l l y , camouflages. (5.1) Symbolic I l l u s o r y C o l o u r : Attachment and Detachment. In t h i s p a r t , c o l o u r , u s u a l l y symbolic of p r o p e r t y ownership, s i m i l a r i t y of a c t i v i t i e s or a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e , v i s u a l l y a t t a c h e s or detaches s u r f a c e s from t h e i r s u r r o u n d i n g s . T h i s i s one of e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o l o u r ' s o l d e s t p a r t s , p r e s e n t throughout h i s t o r y : back t o a n c i e n t t i m e s when a man l i v e d i n a cave a t the same time as he b u i l t t e m p l e s , d e l i b e r a t e l y and s y m b o l i c a l l y p l a c e d i n the l a n d s c a p e . 5 9 Symbolic I l l u s o r y C o l o u r i n t e g r a t e s s u r f a c e s w i t h t h e i r , s e t t i n g by u s i n g c o l o u r s c u l l e d from n e i g h b o u r i n g s u r f a c e s ( F i g . 3 0 ) . S i m i l a r hued pavements are e s p e c i a l l y important as e x t e n s i o n s of facade c o l o u r . Such v i s u a l attachment s e r v e s t o h i g h l i g h t group u n i t y . In c o n t r a s t , Symbolic I l l u s o r y C o l o u r a l s o i s o l a t e s s u r f a c e s from environment w i t h unusual or b r i g h t hues t h a t a t t r a c t a t t e n t i o n ( F i g . 3 1 ) . These c o l o u r s d i s t i n g u i s h between v a r i o u s m a t e r i a l s and d e f i n e form and volume i n a way t h a t c e l e b r a t e s a r c h i t e c t u r e and i n t e n s i f i e s our e x p e r i e n c e of i t . 6 0 C o n t r a s t i n g c o l o u r s on d i f f e r e n t s u r f a c e s as w e l l as on the l i n e s , p l a n e s and openings of a b u i l d i n g c l a r i f y the s c a l e of the b u i l t form. 120 ( F i g . 3 0 ) Symbolic I l l u s o r y C o l o u r : Attachment and Detachment. F l a s e Creek Townhouses, Vancouver. At t h i s h o u s i n g c l u s t e r , the i d e n t i c a l b e i g e facade c o l o u r a t t a c h e s i n d i v i d u a l u n i t s t o the group. In a d d i t i o n , as a shade of the brown predominant as a s u r f a c e hue i n the a r e a , c o l o u r l i n k s t h i s c l u s t e r t o n e i g h b o u r i n g ones, w h i l e , as an e a r t h tone, i t v i s u a l l y t i e s them t o the l a n d s c a p i n g . The r e d r o o f s f u r t h e r d i s t i n g u i s h the u n i t s as p a r t of a d i s t i n c t c l u s t e r , a l t h o u g h to a v o i d monotony and t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e somewhat between u n i t s , b l u e - r e d and orange-red hues a l t e r n a t e i n random p a t t e r n s . A d d i t i o n a l attachment t o the area o c c u r s by h a v i n g housing w i t h i d e n t i c a l hues i n both h a l v e s of the o r i g i n a l F a l s e Creek development. However, when seen from a d i s t a n c e , the r e d r o o f s d e t a c h the c l u s t e r s as a whole from t h e i r s u r r o u n d i n g s and a c t .as an o r i e n t a t i o n landmark r e p r e s e n t i n g F a l s e Creek i n g e n e r a l . 121 (Fig . 3 1 ) Symbolic I l l u s o r y C o l o u r : Attachment and Detachment. K i t s i l o n o Townhouses, Vancouver. Facade c o l o u r not o n l y detaches the development from a c h r o m a t i c , monotone n e i g h b o u r s , but a l s o s i g n a l s the d i f f e r e n c e between the commercial lower l e v e l s , p a i n t e d a dark, p r a c t i c a l grey, and the b r i g h t e r hued, polychrome housing s e c t i o n above. However, even the apparent c h r o m a t i c detachment between u n i t s i s an i l l u s i o n : each f l o o r of the same c l o u r e d s e c t i o n i s a c t u a l l y a s e p a r a t e u n i t . 122 Thus, by v i s u a l l y d e t a c h i n g s u r f a c e s , I l l u s o r y C o l o u r s y m b o l i c a l l y e x p r e s s e s i n d i v i d u a l d i s t i n c t i o n and the s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r of a b u i l d i n g . Whether t o a t t a c h or d e t a c h w i t h c o l o u r i s v e r y much a matter of e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n t e x t . The work of L e n c l o s e x e m p l i f i e s both approaches. He e i t h e r uses c o l o u r t h a t i s s y m p a t h e t i c t o the n a t u r a l and t r a d i t i o n a l environment o r , where no n a t u r a l environment e x i s t s , i n c o r p o r a t e s c o l o u r t h a t imposes an a r t i f i c i a l a e s t h e t i c f o r new urban and i n d u s t r i a l p r o j e c t s . 6 1 L e n c l o s b e l i e v e s t h a t c o l o u r , "by i t s p l a s t i c and r h y t h m i c a l powers of e x p r e s s i o n . . . i s a b l e t o r e l e a s e a p o e t i c dimension which complements the man-made e n v i r o n m e n t . " 6 2 (5.2) A e s t h e t i c I l l u s o r y C o l o u r : A l t e r e d S p a t i a l P e r c e p t i o n . In t h i s I l l u s o r y p a r t , c o l o u r p l e a s u r a b l y d e c e i v e s the mind and the eye about the appearance of the b u i l t environment. C o l o u r d e c e i v e s the mind through s y n a e s t h e s i a , i n c l u d i n g apparent s i z e , weight and depth. In p l a c e , t h i s power s e r v e s t o u n d e r l i n e s p a t i a l c h a r a c t e r . S i n c e warm and dark c o l o u r s make s u r f a c e s appear s m a l l e r , such hues make a l a r g e s t r u c t u r e or space, such as a g i g a n t i c p l a z a , seem s m a l l e r and more i n t i m a t e i n s c a l e . In c o n t r a s t , c o o l and l i g h t c o l o u r s seem t o expand space. Such hues, t h e r e f o r e , e n l a r g e the apparent s i z e of s m a l l c o u r t y a r d s or narrow passages. Along s t r e e t s , the background tone of facades i n f l u e n c e s the apparent s i z e of d e t a i l s and s t r e e t f u r n i t u r e seen 1 23 a t the same t i m e , w i t h l i g h t e r o b j e c t s l o o k i n g l a r g e r than d a r k e r ones, e s p e c i a l l y w i t h c o n t r a s t i n g f o r e g r o u n d and background shades. C o l o u r a l s o a l t e r s apparent s i z e by means of a p a t t e r n f r a g m e n t i n g l a r g e s u r f a c e s ( F i g . 3 2 & Fig.4.1) and v e r t i c a l or h o r i z o n t a l bands on facades t o emphasize e i t h e r h e i g h t ( F i g . 3 7 ) or w i d t h ( F i g . 2 0 ) . An a l t e r e d p e r c e p t i o n of weight a p p l i e s p a r t i c u l a r l y t o the v e r t i c a l arrangement of s u r f a c e s . A r e d roof s u p p o r t e d by y e l l o w columns r i s i n g from a w h i t e pavement, f o r i n s t a n c e , l o o k s t o p heavy. P o r t e r and M i k e l l i d e s o f f e r s u g g e s t i o n s f o r u s i n g the apparent weight of c o l o u r t o e s t a b l i s h s t a b i l i t y i n e x t e r n a l e n v i r o n m e n t s . 6 3 These range from a r t i c u l a t i n g heavy c o l o u r s , such as s a t u r a t e d r e d s , b l u e s and v i o l e t s t o encourage e q u i l i b r i u m i n spaces where a p o s i t i v e g r a v i t a t i o n a l l i n k e x i s t s between pavement and roof p l a n e , t o m a n i p u l a t i n g "the form of a s c e n d i n g h o r i z o n t a l g r a d a t i o n s on the facades of h i g h - r i s e b u i l d i n g s or s k y s c r a p e r s w i t h the h e a v i e s t c o l o u r a t t h e i r base." O v e r a l l , d a r k , heavy base c o l o u r s anchor s t r u c t u r e s t o the ground, w h i l e l i g h t hues at h i g h e r l e v e l s reduce the apparent h e a v i n e s s of a r c h i t e c t u r a l mass. A range of o r d e r e d c o l o u r g r a d a t i o n s a s c e n d i n g a facade g i v e s d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of a b u i l d i n g s p e c i a l i d e n t i t y ( F i g . 1 0 ) . R e garding p e r c e i v e d depth, s i n c e warm, dark or s a t u r a t e d c o l o u r s appear t o advance, used on facades edging spaces they h e i g h t e n the o v e r a l l sense of e n c l o s u r e and draw a t t e n t i o n t o p r o t u s i o n s In c o n t r a s t , c o o l , p a l e or u n s a t u r a t e d hues o p t i c a l l y m i n i m i z e facade p r o t r u s i o n s and widen spaces. 1 24 (Fig.32) Aesthetic Illusory Colour: Altered Spatial Perception. Fairmont Medical Building, Vancouver. Facade colour acts to alter spatial perception by fragmenting the apparent size of large surfaces: horizontal white bands emphasize width rather than height, while the alternating pattern of purple blocks further reduces the actual vastness of a massive block. 125 However, Bruno Taut demonstrated when a r t i s t i c d i r e c t o r of the p l a n n i n g d i v i s i o n on B e r l i n ' s p u b l i c h o u s i n g board i n the 1920's t h a t even r e l a t i v e l y dark c o l o u r s can produce o p t i c a l w i d e n i n g i f proper l i g h t i n g c o n d i t i o n s a r e taken i n t o account d u r i n g the p l a n n i n g of c o l o u r schemes. 6 4 In a d d i t i o n t o a l t e r i n g the appearance of our s u r r o u n d i n g s t hrough p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s , A e s t h e t i c I l l u s o r y C o l o u r a l s o p l a y s a more p i c t o r i a l p a r t . Thus, t o d e c i e v e the eye, e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o l o u r a c t s as an i n t e g r a l element of l a r g e - s c a l e trompe l ' o e i l p a i n t i n g s ( F i g . 3 3 ) . These attempt t o r e p r e s e n t o b j e c t s as though they e x i s t e d i n t h r e e d imensions a t the s u r f a c e of the p a i n t i n g . Used s i n c e a n c i e n t Greece, when Z e u x i s r e p o r t e d l y p a i n t e d such r e a l i s t i c grapes t h a t b i r d s t r i e d t o eat them, trompe 1'oei1 p a i n t i n g became p o p u l a r as a cheap s u b s t i t u t e f o r e x p e n s i v e b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s and e x t e r i o r ornament such as c o r n i c e s , r u s t i c a t e d stonework, s t u c c o and windows, w i t h or w i t h o u t s h u t t e r s . C i t i n g European examples, P o r t e r s t a t e s : At the time when the work of a s k i l l e d p a i n t e r and d e c o r a t o r c o s t f a r l e s s than the m a t e r i a l s of r i c h ornament, the t h r i f t y Genoese r e s o r t e d t o a sham d e c o r a t i o n i n orde r t o b r i n g an i m p r e s s i o n of opulence and elegance i n t o t h e i r s t r e e t s . 6 3 1 26 (Fig.33) Aesthetic Illusory Colour: Altered Spatial Perception. Kerrisdale Trompe l ' O e i l , Vancouver. Realistic but inexpensive facade embellishment enlivens a blank wall with witty colour that challenges our sense of perspective and gives character to the previously unremarkable building. 1 27 Today, when s k i l l e d trompe l ' o e i l painters are rare, such detailed i l l u s o r y colour is usually remedial, often on h i s t o r i c buildings such as the Old J a i l in Strasbourg where a very r e a l i s t i c trompe l ' o e i l f i l l s a blank marring the symmetry of facade fenestration. Now, trompe l ' o i e l ' s tend to be more p i c t o r i a l than material. Usually commissioned as part of a building improvement scheme, they either enliven a blank monochrome facade or make hi s t o r i c references, often producing unforeseen but positive repercussions in the community. 6 6 ( 5 . 3 ) Functional Illusory Colour; Camouflage. Functionally, environmental colour camouflages surfaces, making them as inconspicuous as possible or in some way changing apparent size or i d e n t i t y . 6 7 This i s the reverse of using v i v i d colours for i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . Colour plays this part naturally on the fur and feathers of many animals, and was o r i g i n a l l y used by man in war, especially to conceal m i l i t a r y i n s t a l l a t i o n s from the a i r . Thus, for instance, the walls and roof of a building may be painted so that a road appears to run across i t . In more ordinary settings with some unsightly elements, environmental colour as camouflage either disguises, d i s t r a c t s from or d i s t o r t s them. When, for example, "one of the objectives of a street improvement plan is to tidy up a l l the bits and pieces that accumulate on buildings over the y e a r s , " 6 8 the Civic Trust recommends 'painting out' badly sited pipes, wires, e l e c t r i c a l boxes and metal brackets that cannot be removed. 128 ( F i g . 3 4 ) F u n c t i o n a l I l l u s o r y C o l o u r : Camouflage. Parkade, Vancouver. T h i s parkade, i n s t e a d of h a v i n g a u n i f r o m facade c o l o u r , such as grey, w i t h v i s i b l e c a r s p r o v i d i n g the o c c a s i o n a l v i s u a l v a r i e t y , i s e n l i v e n e d by b r i g h t r e d p i p i n g . T h i s s t y l i z e d camouflage c r e a t e s a c e r t a i n mystery about the b u i l d i n g ' s f u n c t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y on the top f l o o r , as w e l l as b r i g h t e n i n g the edge of a d a r k , open i n t e r i o r , a c c e n t i n g a r c h i t e c t u r a l components such as g l a s s c a n o p i e s , and r e d u c i n g the apparent s i z e and massing of the s t r u c t u r e . 129 Camouflage c o l o u r a l s o s e r v e s t o d i s t r a c t a t t e n t i o n ( F i g . 3 4 ) . In a d d i t i o n t o b e i n g p l a n n e d at the time of c o n s t r u c t i o n , i t a l s o remedies unexpected problems. Jencks e x p l a i n s the camouflage at Le C o r b u s i e r ' s famous l ' U n i t e d ' H a b i t a t i o n i n M a r s e i l l e s : the use of c o l o r on the r e v e a l s was c o n c e i v e d as a r e s u l t of a m i s t a k e i n the m u l l i o n d e s i g n when Le C o r b u s i e r was away from h i s o f f i c e . The c o l o u r e d s i d e s were c r e a t e d t o take one's eye away from the monotony of the window p a t t e r n , but they a l s o s e r v e o t h e r i n c i d e n t a l f u n c t i o n s , one of which i s t o reduce the s c a l e of the g i g a n t i c p r o j e c t . 6 9 The camouflage was so s u c c e s s f u l t h a t P o r t e r now p r a i s e s Le C o r b u s i e r ' s use of e x t e r i o r c o l o u r t o d e f l e c t m o d i f i e d n a t u r a l l i g h t , t i n t e d by p a i n t , i n t o i n t e r i o r s . 7 0 C o l o u r as camouflage a l s o d i s t o r t s the appearance of the b u i l t environment by f r a g m e n t i n g s c a l e and mass. A r c h i t e c t C a r l o S a n t i , f o r example, d e c i d e d t o 'humanize' a massive h o u s i n g p r o j e c t i n Bologna by p a i n t i n g e x t e r i o r w a l l s w i t h c u r v e d , m u l t i -c o l o u r e d shapes t o t a l l y u n r e l a t e d t o the forms they c o v e r e d . Such a use of l a r g e - s c a l e e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o l o u r sometimes earns the name ' S u p e r g r a p h i c s ' . P o r t e r e x p l a i n s : Drawing from Pop A r t symbolism, s t r i p e s , a r r ows, and l e t t e r f o m s e t c . Have been m a g n i f i e d t o b u i l d i n g p r o p o r t i o n s as a means of b r e a k i n g up blank e x t e r i o r p l a n e s , i n some case used p a r a d o x i c a l l y t o change t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l i m p r e s s i o n s of p h y s i c a l f o r m . 7 1 Some of the most d i s t i n c i v e S u p e r g r a p h i c s adorn the c u r v a c i o u s facades of e i g h t tower b l o c k s i n N a n t e r r e ( F i g . 3 5 & F i g . 3 6 ) . These unusual and w i t t y c o l o u r schemes by F a b i o R i e t i e x p r e s s a p h i l o s o p h y t h a t : 1 30 ( F i g . 35 & 36) F u n c t i o n a l I l l u s o r y C o l o u r : Camouflage. Apartments, N a n t e r r e . 'The a r c h i t e c t u r a l monument t o S u p e r g r a p h i c s ' attempts to camouflage the s i z e of a monumental mass by a p p a r e n t l y random a r e a s of b r i g h t c o l o u r t h a t fragment a r e a . Some c o l o u r s suggest the c o n t o u r s and c o l o u r s of the e a r t h and n a t u r a l f o l i a g e ( F i g . 3 5 ) , w h i l e o t h e r s adapt the hues and f o r m a t i o n s of c l o u d f i l l e d s k i e s ( F i g . 3 6 ) . 131 When a building i s considered out of scale with i t s setting or a s i t e considered devoid of colour identity, promotes the injection of strong colour as a 'humanizing' element which w i l l introduce a sense of p l a c e . " 7 2 (6) P i c t o r i a l Colour. In this role, environmental colour contributes to large-scale outdoor art and advertizing. The power of P i c t o r i a l Colour is both p r a c t i c a l , since the information potential of a black and white image i s increased when transferred onto a coloured image, and pleasurable, as colourful murals and mosaics are excellent ways to beautify cityscape. In place, P i c t o r i a l Colour symbolically e d i f i e s , a e s t h e t i c a l l y entertains or, functionally educates about consumer products. In a l l these parts, environmetnal colour acts both as the frame and as an essential element of the picture. Of a l l the six main roles environmental colour plays, the P i c t o r i a l one is the most l i k e l y to reunify the three arts- painting, sculpture and architecture- whose paths diverged during the Renaissance when: the age of the s p e c i a l i s t was at hand....The painter kept color as his p r i n c i p a l means of expression; the sculptor turned to form and the architect to l i n e . This d i v i s i o n was true u n t i l recently, and each art lost something by being separated from the o t h e r s . 7 3 1 32 (6.1) Symbolic P i c t o r i a l C o l o u r : ' E d i f i e r ' . Symbolic P i c t o r i a l C o l o u r , most f r e q u e n t l y a p p l i e d t o facade p a i n t i n g s and s c u l p t u r e , s e r v e s t o e d i f y o b s e r v e r s by r e p r e s e n t i n g r e l i g i o u s m y s t e r i e s or moral p r i n c i p l e s . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , every c o l o u r had an a s s i g n e d meaning. B i r r e n s t r e s s e s : There were few a b s t r a c t i o n s as today, m urals t h a t attempt t o s p i r i t u a l i z e commerce, p r o g r e s s , and whatnot through the e m o t i o n a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of hue... symbols and hues were as f i x e d . . . a s the l e t t e r s of the a l p h a b e t . 7 " Such n o t a b l e and now monochrome b u i l d i n g s as the Parthenon, Notre-Dame and W e l l s C a t h e d r a l a l l e x e m p l i f i e d P i c t o r i a l C o l o u r ' s s y m b o l i c p a r t i n t h e i r polychrome p a s t . In a n c i e n t and m e d i e v a l t i m e s , s c u l p t u r e and p a i n t i n g were c o n s i d e r e d e s s e n t i a l t o a r c h i t e c t u r a l e l a b o r a t i o n , not s i m p l y as i s o l a t e d a r t forms. O r i g i n a l l y , the Parthenon was not a p r i s t i n e marble temple. Above columns t i n t e d i v o r y , g i l d i n g and c o n t r a s t i n g hues adorned the c a p i t a l s , r e l i e f s c u l p t u r e , c o r n i c e s and f r e i z e s , some of whose r e c o n s t r u c t e d c o l o u r can be seen at the R o y a l O n t a r i o Museum. P o r t e r e x p l a i n s : the pediments and f r i e z e s a c t e d as g i a n t b i l l b o a r d s n a r r a t i n g the mythology of a Golden Age. Here, a s t r o n g c o l o u r - much as i t does on modern h o a r d i n g s -p l a y e d a s y m b o l i c r o l e . B l u e , f o r example, was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h ' t r u t h ' and ' i n t e g r i t y ' , c o l o u r a t t r i b u t e s which were l a t e r t o re-emerge i n the c l o a k e d Madonna of C h r i s t i a n s y m b o l i s m . 7 5 In the M i d d l e Ages, P i c t o r i a l C o l o u r , e n f o r c i n g the t e a c h i n g of the M y s t e r i e s , s y m b o l i c a l l y e n l i v e n e d c a t h e d r a l facades such as W e l l s ' where a l l one hundred and seventy s i x f u l l s i z e s t a t u e s 133 were b r i l l i a n t l y c o l o u r e d . In g e n e r a l , as r e s e a r c h a t N o t re Dame r e v e a l e d , e x t e r i o r c o l o u r , seen i n b r i g h t s u n l i g h t , was much more v i v i d than i n t e r i o r c o l o u r , seen i n l i g h t d i f f u s e d by s t a i n e d g l a s s . Over t i m e , these e x t e r i o r s s u f f e r e d from w e a t h e r i n g , a problem t h a t s t i l l reduces the l i f e s p a n of P i c t o r i a l C o l o u r . In a d d i t i o n , i n c r e a s e d l i t e r a c y removed the need f o r c o l o u r symbolism w h i l e the P r o t e s t a n t Refomation c r i t i c i z e d i t s use as 'pagan' and 'sensuous'. Today, s y m b o l i c P i c t o r i a l C o l o u r o c c u r s m a i n l y on the s u r f a c e s s u r r o u n d i n g I s l a m i c mosques, O r i e n t a l s h r i n e s and E a s t e r n temples. (6.2) A e s t h e t i c P i c t o r i a l C o l o u r : A r t w o r k . S i n c e the R e n a i s s a n c e , P i c t o r i a l C o l o u r has p l a y e d a d i s t i n c t a e s t h e t i c p a r t , e n t e r t a i n i n g the viewer and f o r m i n g an i n c r e a s i n g l y p o p u l a r element of the 'urban e x p e r i e n c e ' . Outdoor a r t i s a l e a d i n g way of f a m i l i a r i z i n g the p u b l i c w i t h the p o t e n t i a l of e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o l o u r . P o r t e r recommends: G e n e r a l l y , the i n s t r u m e n t of c o l o u r can be used t o i n v e s t e x i s t i n g b u i l d i n g s w i t h a l l the elements of e x p r e s s i o n , s t o r y - t e l l i n g , a m b i g u i t y and communication t h a t i t l o s t some time a g o . 7 6 W a l l p a i n t i n g i s d e l i g h t f u l l y d i v e r s e i n s t y l e and s o u r c e . S t y l e ranges from the a b s t r a c t ( F i g . 3 7 ) t o the r e a l i s t i c ( F i g . 3 8 ) . M u r a l s , i n a d d i t i o n t o b e i n g p a i n t e d , may be t i l e d ( F i g . 3 9 ) or even s c u l p t u r a l i n e f f e c t ( F i g . 4 0 ) . Indeed, H a l p r i n advocates t r e a t i n g monochromatic w a l l s as g i a n t f r i e z e s g a i n i n g c o l o u r v a r i a t i o n from the i n t e r p l a y of l i g h t and dark. 134 (Fig.3 7 ) A e s t h e t i c P i c t o r i a l Colour: Artwork. O f f i c e B u i l d i n g , T e l Av i v . A b s t r a c t rainbow-style mural e x e m p l i f i e s l a r g e - s c a l e environmental a r t while a l s o educating observers about p o s s i b l e colour gradations and emphasizing the b u i l d i n g ' s height by chromatic fragmentation. The pavement hues and p a t t e r n a l s o serve to a l t e r s p a t i a l p e r c e p t i o n and a t t r a c t the eye. 135 (Fig.38) Aesthetic P i c t o r i a l Colour: Artwork. 'The Whale', Vancouver. R e a l i s t i c mural enlivens blank facade with giant outdoor artwork that shows the observer what they might have seen had no buildings existed between the parking lot and the waterfront. Adding an unexpected splash of colour and spontaneity to the largely subdued hues of the surrounding surfaces in the fi n a n c i a l d i s t r i c t , this mural i s now a Vancouver landmark, acting as an identifying marker aiding s p a t i a l or ientat ion. 1 36 (Fig.39) Aesthetic P i c t o r i a l Colour: Artwork. Courtyard, Barcelona. T i l e d mural offering a f l e e t i n g glimpse, through a gate, of P i c t o r i a l Colour primarily as an adornment of private space, but also v i s i b l e from public areas. 1 37 (Fig.40) Aesthetic P i c t o r i a l Colour: Artwork. Casa Batllo^, Barcelona. P i c t o r i a l Colour with a a sculptural twist. Both the facade and roof here act as a canvas, exemplifying the potential of o r d i n a r i l y f l a t surfaces for imaginative expression. 138 S p e c i f i c a l l y , c i t i n g the example of D a n z i g e r ' s e n t r a n c e t o Hebrew U n i v e r s i t y i n J e r u s a l e m , H a l p r i n urges making the most of a s u r f a c e s i n c e by u s i n g i t as a canvas f o r works of a r t , or modeling i t as s c u l p t u r e , the w a l l g a i n s another dimension and a c h i e v e s a sense of s c a l e , t e x t u r e and shadow p a t t e r n , which makes i t i n t e r e s t i n g f o r the p a s s e r b y . 7 7 W a l l p a i n t i n g s are e i t h e r sponsored or spontaneous. C i v i c s ponsors u s u a l l y a p p l y P i c t o r i a l C o l o u r t o improve d i l a p i d a t e d environments o r , as i n F r a n c e , t o a l l e v i a t e the harshness of modern a r c h i t e c t u r e . Spontaneous m u r a l s , o f t e n community based, e i t h e r c e l e b r a t e or c r i t i c i z e e v e n t s , i s s u e s or c h a r a c t e r s i n d i g e n o u s t o the s e t t i n g . One of the most famous facade murals was The Good, the Bad and the Ugly i n B a t t e r s e a , London which: " g r a p h i c a l l y documented l o c a l d i s c o n t e n t a t the d e c l i n e of t h e i r a r e a " , o n l y t o be d e s t r o y e d i n the p r o c e s s of urban r e n e w a l . 7 8 Pavements, as w e l l as f a c a d e s , p r o v i d e e x c e l l e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r outdoor a r t w o r k . The French are among the most i n n o v a t i v e w i t h a r t i s t i c f l o o r s c a p e s . These range from s i m p l e schemes of m u l t i - c o l o u r e d b r i c k s l a i d out l i k e a woven t a p e s t r y a l o n g a r e s o r t ' s promenade, ( F i g . 4 1 ) t o G e r a r d S i n g e r ' s p l a y f u l pavement p r o f u s i o n s and p r o t u s i o n s of b l u e , d e s i g n e d to amuse c h i l d r e n w i t h a f a n t a s t i c p r e t e n d l a k e a t a h i g h d e n s i t y h o u s i n g scheme i n E v r y , and t o V i c t o r V a s a r e l y ' s d r a m a t i c s p a t i a l i l l u s i o n s i n C r e t e i l New Town where c o l o u r and p a t t e r n i n g a l o n e t o t a l l y t r a n s f o r m e d the r o o f of the C e n t r e Commercial and the open p l a z a b e f o r e the p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s . There, as Duttmann e v o c a t i v e l y d e s c r i b e s : 1 39 ( F i g . 4 1 ) A e s t h e t i c P i c t o r i a l C o l o u r : Artwork. P l a z a , V a l r a s P l a g e . Pavements a l s o a c t as canvases f o r a r t i s t i c e f f e c t s w i t h c o l o u r . Here, the m u l t i c o l o u r e d b r i c k s weave a warm p a t t e r n i n the s t y l e of an a b s t r a c t t a p e s t r y . The polychrome i r r e g u l a r p a t t e r n a l s o s e r v e s t o fragment the apparent s i z e of the p l a z a . The roof of the huge shopping c e n t r e i s a l andscape of emergency e x i t s and v e n t i l a t o r s , p a i n t e d i n s t r i p e s of w h i t e and v a r i o u s b l u e s ; one t h i n k s of the s a i l b o a t s on the nearby l a k e , and the r o o f i t s e l f i s l i k e a body of water w i t h a new c i t y on i t s h o r i z o n . The p l a z a i n f r o n t of the C e n t r e de Commerce i s paved e n t i r e l y w i t h g l o s s y b l u e and w h i t e s l a b s ; g e n t l y u n d u l a t i n g l i n e s c r e a t e the i l l u s i o n , from near and f a r , of d e p t h , of m odelled s u r f a c e - water i n motion. The s u r r o u n i n g b u i l d i n g s , o t h e r w i s e u n r e l a t e d t o each o t h e r , seem a l l to f l o a t , detached from the e a r t h . 7 9 (6.3) F u n c t i o n a l P i c t o r i a l C o l o u r : A d v e r t i z e r . F u n c t i o n a l l y , P i c t o r i a l C o l o u r a l s o a c t s as an a d v e r t i z e r , a t t r a c t i n g a t t e n t i o n t o p u r c h a s i n g p o s s i b i l i t i e s . C o l o u r f u l a d v e r t i z i n g has e x i s t e d s i n c e about 3000 B.C. When the Summerians used p i c t u r e s t o promote t h e i r wares. E n v i r o n m e n t a l c o l o u r u s u a l l y p l a y s t h i s p a r t on blank f a c a d e s , f l a n k w a l l s and g a b l e ends, a l t h o u g h , o c c a s i o n a l l y , i t o c c u r s a t the s c a l e of the s t r e e t , as i n P i c c a d i l l y C i r c u s . F u n c t i o n a l P i c t o r i a l C o l o u r i s e i t h e r p a r t of an a c t u a l a d v e r t i z e m e n t or makes more i n d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e s to consumer p r o d u c t s . Hog's Heaven, f o r i n s t a n c e , a m u r a l . s u r r o u n d i n g a Los Angeles meat-packing p l a n t , w i t t i l y d e p i c t s the l i f e of a p i g from p i g l e t t o sausage. In Vancouver, music i s a prominant i n f l u e n c e on the commercial use of P i c t o r i a l C o l o u r w i t h , f o r example, an organ s t o r e b o a s t i n g a keyboard c o r n i c e , a s t e r e o shop a mural of g i a n t s p e a k e r s , and a r e c o r d s t o r e , p a i n t e d m u s i c i a n s a d o r n i n g a s i d e w a l l ( F i g . 4 2 ) . As the C i v i c t r u s t s t r e s s e s : P r o p e r l y handled i n terms of s i t i n g , s c a l e and volume, [ a d v e r t i z i n g ] can o f f e r a more r a t i o n a l use of c o l o u r than the sometimes a r b i t r a r y p a i n t i n g of b u i l d i n g s i n d i f f e r e n t c o l o u r s . 8 0 141 (Fig.41) Functional P i c t o r i a l Colour: Advertizer. Black Swan Records, Vancouver. The side facade of this store features an eye-catching ensemble of painted musicians whose a r t i s t i c e f f o r t s suggest the type of store they adorn. Not only does such functional P i c t o r i a l Colour attract business unostrusively, but i t also enhances the appearance of the neighborhood. 142 Endnotes 1 P e t e r Smith, A r c h i t e c t u r e and the Human Dimension (London: George Godwin, 1979), p.85. 2 i b i d , p.87. 3 i b i d , p.85. ft John Ruskin,, The Seven Lamps of A r c h i t e c t u r e (1848; r p t . New York: F a r r a r , S t r a u s s and G i r o u x , 1986), p.134. 5 Faber B i r r e n , "The O f f - W h i t e E p i d e m i c : A C a l l f o r a R e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of C o l o r " , AIA J o u r n a l , J u l y , 1977, p.66. 6 Tom P o r t e r , C o l o u r O u t s i d e (New York: Watson G u p t i l l , 1982), p.69. 7 i b i d , p.68. 8 R o s a l i e S t a l e y , " G r a n v i l l e I s l a n d ' s P o s t - I n d u s t r i a l , " A r c h i t e c t s Forum, 3 ( 1 ) , 1983, p.9. 9 J o o s t Bakker, c i t e d i n Sean R o s s i t e r , "The Market Men," Wesetern L i v i n g , 18 ( 3 ) , p.28. 1 0 W. F a u l k n e r , A r c h i t e c t u r e and C o l o r (New York: W i l e y , 1972), p.20. i 1 P o r t e r , p.110 143 1 2 C.L. Wo o l l e y , Ur of the Chaldees (New York: S c r i b n e r s , 1930). 1 3 F a u l k n e r , p.5. 1 4 J.S. Ackerman & C. P e t e r s o n , " A r t of A r c h i t e c t u r e , " E n c y c l o p a e d i a B r i t a n n i c a , 1 (New York: E n c y c l o p a e d i a B r i t a n n i c a I n c . , 1979), p.951. 1 5 F a u l k n e r , p.21. 1 6 Hubert R o i g t , La C o u l e u r , 2nd. Ed. ( A r t h a b a s k a , P.Q.: E d i t i o n s Pourquoi Pas, 1981), p.158. 1 7 L.B. Wexner, "The Degree t o which C o l o r s (Hues) are A s s o c i a t e d w i t h Mood Tones," J o u r n a l of A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g y , 6 (1954), pp.432-435. 1 8 P o r t e r , p.121 1 9 i b i d , p.123. 2 0 Smith, p.127. 2 1 Faber B i r r e n , L i g h t , C o l o r and Environment (New York: Van N o s t r a n d , 1982), p.55. 2 2 Lewis Mumford, The Brown Decades, a book whose t i t l e c a p t u r e d the mood of the American p o s t - C i v i l Wat e r a , when brown b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s were p o p u l a r . 2 3 B i r r e n , (1982). 144 2 4 M.F. Duttmann, F. Schmuck, & J . U h l , C o l o r i n  Townscape (San F r a n c i s c o : W.H. Freeman, 1981), p.32. 2 5 Warren B o e s c h e n s t e i n , " E x p r e s s i v e Urban C o l o r " , J o u r n a l  of A r c h i t e c t u r a l and P l a n n i n g Research, 3 (1986), p.279. 2 6 P o r t e r , p.40. 2 7 P a o l o P o r t o g h e s i , "Colour i n Town", Domus, 602 ( J a n . 1980), p.20. 2 8 Roger Moss, "You can't p i a n t 'em w h i t e anymore. 2 9 Smith, p.49. 3 0 U h l i n Duttmann et a l , p.90. 3 1 i b i d . P.91. 3 2 Smith, p.129. 3 3 i b i d , p.49. 3 4 Tom P o r t e r & Byron M i k e l l i d e s , C o l o u r f o r A r c h i t e c t u r e (London: S t u d i o V i s t a , 1976), p.39. 3 5 C h a r l e s J e n c k s , Late-Modern A r c h i t e c t u r e (New York:  R i z z o l i , 1980), p.32. 3 6 P o r t e r , p.72. 145 3 7 P o r t e r & M i k e l l i d e s , p.105. The e f f e c t of c o l o u r on our sense of time and tempo of b e h a v i o u r i s of s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t t o r e s e a r c h e r s concerned w i t h the t o t a l l y a r t i f i c i a l environments of manned s p a c e c r a f t c e n t r e s . 3 8 F a u l k n e r , p.5. 3 9 i b i d . 4 0 P o r t e r & M i k e l l i d e s , p.143. a i F a u l k n e r , p.17. 4 2 K e v i n Lynch, The Image of the C i t y (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT P r e s s , 1960), p.3. 4 3 B o e s c h e n s t e i n , p.278 4 4 U h l i n Duttman et a l , p.97. a 5 P o r t e r , p.110 4 6 Ronald Lee F l e m i n g , Facade S t o r i e s (New York: H a s t i n g s House, 1982), p.6. 4 7 E.N. Bacon, The Design of C i t i e s (New York: V i k i n g , 1967), p.37. 4 8 i b i d . 1 46 4 9 Smith, chap.9-11. 5 0 Lawrence H a l p r i n , C i t i e s (New York: R e i n h o l d , 1963), p.92. 5 1 Bacon, pp.232-239. 5 2 Ro i g t , p.16 5. 5 3 Smith, p.111. 5 4 Bacon, pp.228-231. 5 5 i b i d , p.228. 5 6 F a u l k n e r , p.21. 5 7 i b i d . 5 8 P a t r i c i a S l o ane, C o l o u r : B a s i c P r i n c i p l e s , New D i r e c t i o n s (London: S t u d i o V i s t a , 1967), p.70. 5 9 F o s t e r A s s o c i a t e s , i n P o r t e r and M i k e l l i d e s , p.62. 6 0 P o r t e r , p.116. 6 1 E. V e r i t y , C o l o r Observed (New York: Van N o s t r a n d , 1980), p.150. 147 6 2 L e n c l o s , i n P o r t e r & M i k e l l i d e s , p.75. 6 3 P o r t e r and M i k e l l i d e s , p.143. 6 4 Duttmann, p.24. 6 5 P o r t e r , p.32. 6 6 F l e m i n g , p.88. 6 7 F a u l k n e r , p.20. 6 8 C i v i c T r u s t , P r i d e of P l a c e : How to Improve Your  S u r r o u n d i n g s , 2nd. Ed. (London: C i v i c T r u s t , 1974), p.51. 6 9 C h a r l e s J e n c k s , Modern Movements i n A r c h i t e c t u r e (New York: Anchor P r e s s , 1973), p. 87. 7 0 P o r t e r , p.20. 7 1 i b i d , p.118. 7 2 i b i d , p.120. 7 3 F a u l k n e r , p.2. 7 4 B i r r e n , (1982), p.185. 7 5 P o r t e r , p.13. 7 6 i b i d , p.32. 7 7 H a l p r i n , p.132. 7 8 P o r t e r , p. 126. 7 9 Duttmann, p.159. 8 0 C i v i c T r u s t , p.50. 1 49 C o n c l u s i o n (1) Summary of F i n d i n g s about the R o l e of E n v i r o n m e n t a l C o l o u r . Based on a l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w supplemented by r e c e n t or renowned examples of c o l o u r use, t h i s t h e s i s shows the p l a n n e r t h a t e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o l o u r may be 'thought th r o u g h ' i n terms of ' P l a c e ' and 'Power' and t h a t , f a r from p l a y i n g one r o l e , e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o l o u r has many p r e c i s e p a r t s . The p l a c e of c o l o u r i s d e t e r m i n e d by a number of p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l f a c t o r s . Each l a r g e - s c a l e manmade s u r f a c e o f f e r s d i f f e r e n t c o n s t r a i n t s and o o p o r t u n i t i e s f o r c o l o u r use. Pavements form the l a r g e s t c o n t i n u o u s c o l o u r s u r f a c e i n a c i t y b ut, p a r t l y because of wear and t e a r and p a r t l y because they a r e m a i n l y i n the p u b l i c domain, they r e c e i v e r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n i n terms of t h e i r c h r o m a t i c p o t e n t i a l . Facades, however, r e v e a l the most c h r o m a t i c e l a b o r a t i o n and c h a r a c t e r . R o o f s , i n t u r n , g i v e c o l o u r i d e n t i t y t o a p l a c e whe seen from above or a f a r , w i t h c o l o u r on s l o p i n g r o o f s more v i s i b l e . > D i f f e r e n t f a c t o r s a l s o i n f l u e n c e c o l o u r i n p l a c e a t v a r i o u s s c a l e s of p e r c e p t i o n . At the s c a l e of r e g i o n s and c i t i e s , c i v i c customs and c u l t u r a l p r e f e r e n c e s m o d i f y the e f f e c t of l o c a l g eology, topography and c l i m a t e . At the scae of d i s t r i c t s , a c t i v i t i e s , h i s t o r y and the e t h n i c background of r e s i d e n t s a r e a l l i n f l u e n t i a l . At the s c a l e of s t r e e t s , v i s u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between b u i l d i n g s and i n t e n d e d moods ar e i m p o r t a n t , w h i l e a t the s c a l e of b u i l d i n g s and d e t a i l s , c o l o u r e n l i v e n s s u r f a c e s and 1 50 e i t h e r i n t e g r a t e s or i s o l a t e s them from n e i g h b o u r i n g ones. U n d e r s t a n d i n g these i n f l u e n c e s of p l a c e h e l p s the p l a n n e r know where t o s e t g o a l s f o r promoting ' though through' c o l o u r . C o l o u r ' s power i s both s p a t i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n e f f e c t . The power t o t r a n s f o r m the appearance of our s u r r o u n d i n g s p r o v i d e s v i t a l v i s u a l v a r i e t y . T h i s d e r i v e s from l i g h t i n g c o n d i t i o n s t h a t change over time and w i t h p l a c e , s u r f a c e s p e c t r a l q u a l i t i e s t h a t v a r y w i t h the type and t e x t u r e of m a t e r i a l s , a l t e r a b l e a n g l e s of p e r c e p t i o n r e g a r d d i r e c t i o n and d i s t a n c e , and s y n a e s t h e s i a of c o l o u r temparature, weight, d e p t h , and s i z e . The power t o i n f l u e n c e our w e l l - b e i n g a f f e c t s both our b e h a v i o u r and moods. We respond to c o l o u r i n terms o f : (1) a r o u s a l , e i t h e r h e i g h t e n e d or lowered; (2) p l e a s u r e , d e r i v i n g from e m o t i o n a l , s o c i a l and s p a t i a l a s s o c i a t i o n s , and from a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e s a p p e a l i n g t o both the n e o c o r t e x and the l i m b i c system; and (3) c o n t r o l , depending on the e f f e c t s c o l o u r has on our 'competence' and ' c o g n i t i o n ' . The p l a n n e r s e e k i n g t o promote 'thought t h r o u g h ' c o l o u r taps t h i s power. In p l a c e , e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o l o u r ' s s y m b o l i c , a e s t h e t i c and f u n c t i o n a l v a l u e s modify i t s g e n e r a l Background, M e a n i n g f u l , T i m e l y , C i r c u l a t o r y , I l l u s o r y , and P i c t o r i a l R o l e s t o produce the many p r e c i s e p a r t s c o l o u r p l a y s . S i n c e the l i t e r a t u r e p r e s e n t s them i n no c o n s i s t e n t way, t h i s t h e s i s d i s c u s s e s them i n terms o f : (1) Background 'Backdrop', ' F o i l ' , and ' D i r t D i s g u i s e r ' ; (2) M e a n i n g f u l 'Metaphor', ' E x p r e s s i o n of M a t e r i a l and L i g h t ' , and 'Coding'; (3) Timely ' H i s t o r i c a l R e f e r e n c e ' , 'Tempo S e t t e r ' , and 'Heat A b s o r b t i o n and R e f l e c t i o n ' ; (4) C i r c u l a t o r y ' I d e n t i t y ' , 151 ' S p a t i a l P r o g r e s s i o n ' , and ' L e g i b i l i t y ' ; (5) I l l u s o r y 'Attachment and Detachment', ' A l t e r e d S p a t i a l P e r c e p t i o n ' and 'Camouflage', and (6) P i c t o r i a l ' E d i f i e r ' , 'Artwork' and ' A d v e r t i z e r ' . P u t t i n g c o l o u r i n p l a c e i s , of course, the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of a r t i s t s , a r c h i t e c t s , b u i l d e r s and i n d i v i d u a l property owners. However, d e c i s i o n s by p l a n n e r s i n f l u e n c e the r o l e of environmental c o l o u r both d i r e c t l y and i n d i r e c t l y . (2) Recommendations to the Planner. Given the r e a l i z a b l e p o t e n t i a l of environmental c o l o u r to play a v a r i e t y of important r o l e s t h a t transform the appearance of our surroundings and i n f l u e n c e our w e l l - b e i n g , the planner concerned about the p h y s i c a l environment and aware of the recent ' r e b i r t h ' in c o l o u r , should undertake to promote 'thought through' c o l o u r by: (1) Reading about, o b s e r v i n g and d i s c u s s i n g c o l o u r i s s u e s to increase p r o f e s s i o n a l awareness of the importance of environmental colour and the e f f e c t s planning d e c i s i o n s are l i k e l y to have on i t s r o l e ; (2) Developing s t r a t e g i e s of education, e x e m p l i f i c a t i o n , encouragement, and enforcement. S t r a t e g i e s of education i n c l u d e p u b l i s h i n g and d i s t r i b u t i n g information about the use of environmental c o l o u r as w e l l as 1 52 Guidelines for l o c a l use and, i f necessary, setting up a commission to develop a c i v i c colour palette. To exemplify 'thought through' environmental colour, public authorities can develop strategies of systematic colour programming,1 for example public buildings could have similar colour designations to identify appropriate j u r i s d i c t i o n s and uses and public paths, such as the Boston Freedom T r a i l , could have continuous or graduated colour to aid 'cognition'. If a l o c a l palette i s developed, the hues could be c e n t r a l l y displayed, as at Turin's c i t y h a l l where they serve as an e a s i l y v i s i b l e reference for planners. Encouraging 'thought through' environmental colour generally involves strategies either of co-operative consultation and advising or of sponsorship and p u b l i c i t y . To enforce 'thought through' colour as a l o c a l t r a d i t i o n acceptable to the majority of c i t i z e n s , the planner must provide p o l i t i c i a n s with pertinent information in order to regulate the choice and treatment of environmental colour. Such laws, as in Venice, may l i m i t the surface colour to a prescribed range of hues, of, as in Siena known for d i s t i n c t l y hued pavements, protect colour by r e s t r i c t i n g vehicular access to avoid surface discolouration. These strategies aim to ameliorate the appearance of the b u i l t environment at various scales of perception and to improve the quality of l i f e for c i t i z e n s by tapping the po s i t i v e potential of colour to influence mood and behaviour. 1 53 The choice of s t r a t e g i e s i n any community depends, above a l l , on the c o l o u r needs and o p i n i o n s of the c i t i z e n s . In some p l a c e s , o f t e n for h i s t o r i c a l reasons, a consensus on the type and treatment of environmental c o l o u r e x i s t s which needs to be encouraged and e n f o r c e d . In other p l a c e s , a p l u r a l i t y of c o l o u r t a s t e s e x i s t s , r e q u i r i n g some r e f e r e e i n g by planners and education about the p o t e n t i a l power in p l a c e of various p a r t s played by environmental c o l o u r with p l a c e s i n the c i v i c domain s e t t i n g the example of 'thought through' c o l o u r use. ( 3 ) Applying the s p e c i a l p e r s p e c t i v e and s k i l l s of each plann i n g r o l e . T.I. Gunton, i n a c l a s s i c a r t i c l e of planning theory, "The Role of the P r o f e s s i o n a l Planner", o u t l i n e s s e v e r a l p r o f e s s i o n a l r o l e s p l a n n e r s can p l a y : technocrat, p u b l i c servant, r e f e r e e , advocate, bureaucrat, stage agent, s o c i a l l e a r n e r and s o c i a l reformer. He concludes t h a t , as no s i n g l e part s u f f i c e s , planners should c o n c e n t r a t e on l e a r n i n g which s i t u a t i o n s r e q u i r e which r o l e s . 2 With regard to c o l o u r i s s u e s , the r o l e of the planner as technocrat, i n which the p r o f e s s i o n a l sets g o a l s , i d e n t i f i e s and chooses means, c o n t r o l s implementation and f i n a l l y reviews the r e s u l t s i s , with one e x c e p t i o n , somewhat l i k e that of a c o l o u r i s t , such as L e n c l o s . Both c l a i m to use o b j e c t i v e s c i e n t i f i c knowledge i n t h e i r e f f o r t s to solve s o c i e t y ' s problems. 2 However, the c o l o u r i s t , whose scope i s narrower than that of the t y p i c a l planner, a l s o invokes a r t i s t i c c r e a t i v i t y . I d e a l l y , as a r e s u l t , the s i m i l a r i t i e s i n process improve 1 54 P r o f e s s i o n a l communication, while the d i f f e r e n c e s i n s t y l e prevent o v e r l a p and bridge the gap between knowing and doing. Then, the planner as p u b l i c servant p r o v i d i n g expert a n a l y s i s on value f o r m u l a t i o n , means i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and e f f e c t u a t i o n i s w e l l s u i t e d to evaluate chromatic s i t u a t i o n s and promote s o l u t i o n s such as g u i d e l i n e s . A l e a d i n g example of such a planner i s Enzo B i f f i G e n t i l i who, i n 1987, as T u r i n ' s municipal Supervisor of Housing, set up the l a r g e s c a l e , long term, now widely lauded program to r e s t o r e the c i t y to the chromatic g l o r y of i t s o r i g i n a l 1800 c i v i c c o l o u r scheme. As a r e f e r e e when goals are not s p e c i f i c a l l y i d e n t i f i e d , the planner, who keeps the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n mind in terms of a e s t h e t i c pleasure and ' c o n t r o l ' responses, serves to a d j u d i c a t e between d i f f e r i n g s ides i n chromatic debates. These o f t e n concern the need f o r a colour scheme at some s c a l e and the s e l e c t i o n and a p p l i c a t i o n of a p p r o p r i a t e c o l o u r s . Planners on design review panels often p l a y t h i s r o l e . Even more a c t i v e l y , i n the r o l e of advocate, the planner works for a s p e c i f i c i n t e r e s t group or cause, i d e n t i f y i n g a l t e r n a t i v e means, lobbying p o l i t i c i a n s to accept goals and reviewing r e s u l t s . T h i s r o l e s u i t s planners with a p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i n : (1) the o v e r a l l p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s of c o l o u r ; (2) i t s b e n e f i c i a l use i n a s p e c i f i c context such as h e r i t a g e s i t e s , or (3) i t s e f f e c t on the 'competence' of a s p e c i f i c group. Oscar Newman's e f f o r t s , on behalf of r e s i d e n t s of Clason P o i n t , u r g i n g the New York Housing A u t h o r i t y to provide facade c o l o u r and t e x t u r e m o d i f i c a t i o n s d e s p i t e an i n i t i a l e x t r a c o s t , exemplify 1 55 t h i s r o l e . Indeed, w i t h r e g a r d to p u b l i c w e l f a r e , Friedman and Thompson s t r e s s t h a t : i n the r e a l m of 'competence', advocacy p l a n n i n g and changes i n norms of b e h a v i o u r a l laws so t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s can have impact on t h e i r environment, i n the p l a n n i n g and p o s t - p l a n n i n g s t a g e s , e x e m p l i f y p o l i c y s o l u t i o n s . 3 In c o n t r a s t , the p l a n n e r as b u r e a u c r a t , a n a l y z i n g the e f f i c a c y of a v a i l a b l e means of a c h i e v i n g o b j e c t i v e s and a s s i s t i n g c l i e n t s i n t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of t h e i r own v a l u e s , works be h i n d the scenes and i s w e l l s u i t e d t o the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a s p e c t s of p l a n n i n g f o r and w i t h c o l o u r . As a s t a t e a g e n t , the p l a n n e r w o r king f o r s o c i a l harmony i n v o l v i n g c o l o u r f o l l o w s somewhat i n the t r a d i t i o n of Bruno Taut d u r i n g h i s term as A r t i s t i c D i r e c t o r f o r the P l a n n i n g D i v i s i o n of the B e r l i n H o u s i n g Board i n the mid 1920's. E a r l i e r , s p e a k i n g t o h i s c o l l e a g u e s i n a m a n i f e s t o t i t l e d " I n v i t a t i o n t o C o l o u r e d A r c h i t e c t u r e " , he s t r e s s e d the need: t o g i v e back t o a r c h i t e c t s and p l a n n e r s the t a s t e f o r c o l o u r i n s i d e and o u t s i d e h o u s e s . . . c o l o u r i s the j o y of l i f e , and s i n c e i t e n t a i l s o n l y l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e s we must i n s i s t t h a t i t be adopted." In the more Utopian r o l e of s o c i a l l e a r n e r , the p l a n n e r ' s a p p l i c a b l e t a l e n t s a r e s k i l l s a t communication and a t group dynamics, f o r example, promoting p u b l i c a t i o n s and w o r k i n g d i r e c t l y w i t h the p u b l i c . B r i t i s h p l a n n e r s a t the C i v i c T r u s t are among the l e a d e r s i n t h i s f i e l d , p u b l i s h i n g g u i d e l i n e s such as P r i d e of P l a c e : How t o Improve Your S u r r o u n d i n g s , w i t h a c h a p t e r d e v o t e d d i r e c t l y t o c o l o u r , nd c o n s u l t a t i v e l y c o -156 o r d i n a t i n g e f f o r t s w i t h house owners and shop keepers t o b r i n g some sense of order t o the c o l o u r s of s e l e c t e d H i g h S t r e e t s . F i n a l l y , as s o c i a l r e f o r m e r , the p l a n n e r ' s p e r s p e c t i v e on the need f o r fundamental s o c i a l change, e s p e c i a l l y the need f o r more s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t s o c i a l u n i t s , l e n d s i t s e l f t o c o n s i d e r a b l e e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n w i t h c o l o u r . One of the most n o t a b l e e x periemtns w i t h c o l o u r and s o c i a l reform occured a t the F r e n c h New Town of Marne l a V a l l e e . There, as P o r t e r e x p l a i n s , a r c h i t e c t F a b i o R i e t i , w i t h p l a n n i n g a p p r o v a l , i s s l o w l y ' b l u e i n g ' w i t h l o c a l hues r a n g i n g from t u r q u o i s e t o v i o l e t i n v a r i o u s v a l u e s . The m o t i v e , though, i s s o c i a l r a t h e r than a e s t h e t i c : t o improve the l o c a l q u a l i t y of l i f e by p r o v i d i n g d i s t i n c t i o n , t h u s e n c o u r a g i n g r e s i d e n t s t o i d e n t i f y themselves as c i t i z e n s of 'Marne l e B l e u ' . Each p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n i n g r o l e , t h e r e f o r e , has a s p e c i a l p e r s p e c t i v e and s k i l l s s u i t e d to promoting the power of c o l o u r i n p l a c e . In the f u t u r e , the p a r t of p l a n n e r as r e f e r e e w i l l p r o b a b l y grow as more c i t i e s d e c i d e t o r e v i e w c o l o u r use. O v e r a l l , though, the p l a n n e r as advocate c l e a r l y makes the l a r g e s t c o n t r i b u t i o n . Even then, the p r o c e s s of d e c i s i o n making and p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n about e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o l o u r i s complex, r e q u i r i n g f u r t h e r study. (3) S u g g e s t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h . The c o m p l e x i t y and d i v e r s i t y of e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o l o u r ' s r o l e p r o v i d e s ample scope f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n s e v e r a l d i r e c t i o n s l e a d i n g t o the development of c l e a r c r i t e r i a of what c o n s t i t u t e s 'good c i t y c o l o u r . ' These s u g g e s t i o n s c o n c e r n s t u d i e s about 1 57 c o l o u r and the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t , exemplary c o l o u r use e l s e h e r e , and ways of d e v e l o p i n g p e r t i n e n t c o l o u r p o l i c i e s . In p a r t i c u l a r , f u r t h e r knowledge i s needed, by the p l a n n e r s e e k i n g t o make informed d e c i s i o n s , r e g a r d i n g : (1) Ways of d i s c o v e r i n g and a p p l y i n g the e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o l o u r p r e f e r e n c e s of the m a j o r i t y , w i t h balance between p r i v a t e and p u b l i c i n t e r e s t s ; (2) Ways of enco u r a g i n g p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the promotion of 'thought through' e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o l o u r , w i t h p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n t o the needs of s p e c i f i c groups such as r e s i d e n t s of p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s ; ( 3 ) The c o s t s and b e n e f i t s of an i n c r e a s e d m u n i c i p a l support of l a r g e - s c a l e e n v i r o n m e n t a l a r t ; (4) The r e p o r t e d s u c c e s s e s and f a i l u r e s of p l a n n i n g e x p e r i m e n t s w i t h c o l o u r e l s e w h e r e ; (5) The importance of c o l o u r t o the 'image; of a p l a c e and the r e s u l t i n g sense of i d e n t i t y f e l t by r e s i d e n t s , w i t h s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n t o new, h i s t o r i c or rundown environments; and (6) The development of p o l i c y g u i d e l i n e s f o r c o l o u r use i n a p a r t i c u l a r l o c a l e , w i t h s p e c i a l e f f o r t s t o improve the use of c o l o u r t o improve e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o g n i t i o n f o r v a r i o u s groups whose 'sense of p l a c e * i s weak. A l t o g e t h e r , such i n c r e a s e d knowledge w i l l h e l p the pl a n n e r d e v e l o p s t r a t e g i e s and e v a l u a t e o p t i o n s about the r o l e of e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o l o u r , e s p e c i a l l y i f , as E i l e e n Marx c o n f i d e n t l y p r e d i c t s : l a tciche de l ' u r b a n i s t e f u t u r s e r a sans doute d ' a p p r o f o n d i r l e s c r i t e r e s q u a l i t a t i f s et q u a n t i t a t i f s de l a c o u l e u r e e t de l a l u m i e r e , en c o l l a b o r a t i o n 158 e t r o i t e avec l e s b i o l o g i s t e s , des p s y c h o l o g u e s , e t des s o c i o l o g u e s q u i auront d'e'fini l e s b e s o i n s fondamentaux de s i l e n c e , de l ' e s p a c e , d ' i n f o r m a t i o n e t de communication de l " e t r e humain. 5 1 59 Endnotes 1 As a d v o c a t e d by M.F. Duttmann, F. Schmuck, and J . U h l , C o l o r i n Townscape (San F r a n c i s c o : W.H. Freeman, 1981). 2 T . I . Gunton, "The Role of the P r o f e s s i o n a l P l a n n e r " , Canadian P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , 27, 3, ( F a l l , 1884), pp.399-417. 3 S. Friedman and S. Thompson, " C o l o u r , Competence and C o g n i t i o n : Notes towards a P s y c h o l o g y of E n v i r o n m e n t a l C o l o u r " , i n Tom P o r t e r & Byron M i k e l l i d e s , Eds., C o l o u r f o r A r c h i t e c t u r e (London: S t u d i o V i s t a , 1976), p.32. 4 C i t e d i n P a o l o P o r t o g h e s i , "Colour i n Town", Domus, 603 ( J a n . 1980), p.20. 5 E l l e n Marx, "Les C o n t r a s t e s de l a c o u l e u r " , D e s s e i n e t  T o l r a (1972) c i t e d i n Hubert R o i g t , La C o u l e u r 2nd. Ed. ( A r t h a b a s k a , P.Q.: E d i t i o n s P o u r q u o i Pas, 1981), p.159. (th e t a s k of the f u t u r e urban p l a n n e r w i l l undoubtably be t o deepen t h e q u a l i t a t i v e and q u a n t i t a t i v e c r i t e r i a of c o l o u r and l i g h t , i n d i r e c t c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h b i o l o g i s t s , p s y c h o l o g i s t s , and s o c i o l o g i s t s who w i l l have d e f i n e d the fundamentals of s i l e n c e , space, i n f o r m a t i o n and communication needed t o be human). 160 G l o s s a r y . A c h r o m a t i c : - p e r t a i n i n g t o hues t h a t are c o l o u r l e s s , t h a t i n no way are r e d d i s h , y e l l o w i s h , g r e e n i s h or b l u i s h . Thus, s i n c e w h i t e , grey and b l a c k have no c o l o u r , they a r e c a l l e d a c h r o m a t i c c o l o u r s . A e s t h e t i c C o l o u r : -the use of a s p e c i f i c c o l o u r t o produce f e e l i n g s of p l e a s u r e . Attachment, V i s u a l : - c l o s e degrees of v i s u a l c o n n e c t i o n between an o b j e c t and i t s s e t t i n g . B a l a n c e : - h a v i n g apparent e q u a l weight through s y n a e s t h e s i a . Camouflage: -the use of c o l o u r t o make o b j e c t s as i n c o n s p i c u o u s as p o s s i b l e or t o change t h e i r apparent shape, s i z e or i d e n t i t y . C h i a r o s c u r o : - l i g h t and shadow e f f e c t s . Chroma ( s a t u r a t i o n ) : - P u r i t y or i n t e n s t i y of c o l o u r . C h r o m a t i c : - p e r t a i n i n g t o hues h a v i n g a c o l o u r ; t h a t i s , t h a t are i n some way r e d d i s h , y e l l o w i s h , g r e e n i s h or b l u i s h . C o g n i t i o n : - p s y c h o l o g i c a l term f o r an organism's knowledge or u n d e r s t a n d i n g of an event or p l a c e . C o l o ( u ) r : -the a s p e c t of t h i n g s t h a t i s caused by q u a l i t i e s of l i g h t r e f l e c t e d or e m i t t e d by them. C o l o u r i s t : - p r o f e s s i o n a l s p e c i a l i z i n g i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g about c o l o u r e d s u r f a c e s . Competence: - p s y c h o l o g i c a l term f o r an organism's c a p a c i t y t o i n t e r a c t e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h the environment. C o m p l e x i t y : - v i s u a l n o v e l t y r e s u l t i n g from a mismatch between s t o r e d m a t e r i a l and e x t e r n a l phenomena (antonym of p a t t e r n ) . 161 C o n t r a s t : -type of harmony i n v o l v i n g c o l o u r s of d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t hue, f o r example, red and green. C o n t r o l : - p s y c h o l o g i c a l term f o r the emotions of dominance and s u b m i s s i o n caused by an e n v i r o n m e n t a l s t i m u l u s . Detachment, V i s u a l : - n o n - c o n f o r m i t y t o s e t t i n g . E n v i r o n m e n t a l C o l o u r : - c o l o u r s u r r o u n d i n g us o u t d o o r s i n the b u i l t environment, e s p e c i a l l y on the l a r g e manmade s u r f a c e s of pavements, facades and r o o f s . F u n c t i o n a l C o l o u r : -the use of a s p e c i f i c c o l o u r t o meet a p r a c t i c a l need f o r which i t i s e s p e c i a l l y s u i t e d . Harmony: - c o l o u r s forming an a g r e e a b l e , p r o p o r t i o n a t e whole. Cf. ' i d e n t i t y ' , ' s i m i l a r i t y ' and ' c o n r a s t ' . Hue: -the a t t r i b u t e by which we d i s t i n g u i s h c o l o u r by k i n d , the p r o p e r t y t h a t makes b l u e d i f f e r e n t from r e d . I n t e n s i t y : -chroma or s a t u r a t i o n of c o l o u r . I d e n t i t y : -(1) i n d i v i d u a l i t y of a s u r f a c e , o b j e c t or p l a c e ; (2) harmony of c o l o u r s of the same or n e a r l y the same hue, f o r example, monchrome shades of g r e y . L i m b i c System: -organs w i t h i n the m i d - b r a i n and b r a i n stem r e g i o n s t h a t are r e s p o n s i v e t o c o l o u r s s t r o n g i n chroma and l i g h t n e s s . L i g h t n e s s ( v a l u e ) : -a measure of how much l i g h t i s r e f l e c t e d from a s u r f a c e i n comparison t o the amount of l i g h t r e f l e c t e d from an o p t i m a l w h i t e s u r f a c e . In some c l a s s i f i c a t i o n systems, t o d e s i g n a t e a c o l o u r ' s l i g h t n e s s , a r e f e r e n c e v a l u e of 'A' i s used, which w i l l be somewhere between A=100 f o r p e r f e c t w h i t e and A=0 f o r a b s o l u t e b l a c k . L i n e a l P r o g r e s s i o n : - a e s t h e t i c term f o r movement f o r movement through space w i t h o u t any d i s c e r n i b l e v i s u a l g o a l . Monochrome: -ha v i n g or u s i n g o n l y one c o l o u r . 1 62 N e o c o r t e x : - h i g h e r b r a i n r e s p o n s i v e t o more s u b t l e c o l o u r s which a r e d e s c r i b e d as ' c e r e b r a l ' or ' s o p h i s t i c a t e d ' . P a t t e r n : (1) d e c o r a t i v e d e s i g n ; (2) r e g u l a r form or o r d e r (antonym of c o m p l e x i t y ) . Polychrome: - h a v i n g s e v e r a l c o l o u r s . P r i m a r y C o l o u r s : -any s e t of c o l o u r s from which o t h e r c o l o u r s may be d e r i v e d ; a l s o known as b a s i c or p r i n c i p a l c o l o u r s . Three t y p e s of. p r i m a r i e s may be d i s c u s s e d : 1) A d d i t i v e ( p e r t a i n i n g t o l i g h t ) - r e d , green and b l u e ; 2) S u b t r a c t i v e ( p e r t a i n i n g t o c o l o r a n t s ) - magenta (minus-green) y e l l o w ( m i n u s - b l u e ) , and cyan ( m i n u s - r e d ) ; 3) P s y c h o l o g i c a l (main mental p a i r i n g s ) - c h r o m a t i c r e d -green and b l u e y e l l o w , and a c h r o m a t i c b l a c k - w h i t e . Rhyme: - p l e a s u r a b l e t e n s i o n between c o m p l e x i t y and p a t t e r n . S a t u r a t i o n (chroma): - s t r e n g t h or i n t e n s i t y of c o l o u r , word taken from c h e m i s t r y where i t i s used t o d e s c r i b e the s t r e n g t h of a s o l u t i o n . By analogy t o c o l o u r , the more pigment i s c a r r i e d i n a medium, the s t r o n g e r , d a r k e r , more s a t u r a t e d t h a t c o l o u r becomes. I f any o t h e r c o l o u r i s added, s a t u r a t i o n d i m i n i s h e s . S c a l e : -a p r o g r e s s i v e s t e p i n a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system. Secondary C o l o u r s : -a m i x t u r e of e i t h e r two c h r o m a t i c or two a c h r o m a t i c c o l o u r s . Sense of P l a c e : - s p e c i a l i d e n t i t y of a p a r t i c u l a r s e t t i n g . Shade: -a term f o r c o l o u r p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h r e g a r d t o i t s depth, or as d i s t i n g u i s h e d from one n e a r l y l i k e i t , or made da r k e r by a d m i x t u r e of b l a c k ; a g r a d a t i o n of c o l o u r , f o r i n s t a n c e , a dark shade of p u r p l e . S i m i l a r i t y : -type of c o l o u r harmony r e f e r i n g t o c o l o u r s l i n k e d by h a v i n g a shared hue, f o r example, b l u e and b l u e - g r e e n . S u p e r g r a p h i c s : - l a r g e - s c a l e w a l l p a i n t i n g , o f t e n u s i n g Pop A r t symbolism, t o fragmetn s c a l e and mass. 1 6 3 Symbolic Colour: -the use of s p e c i f i c c o l o u r s to represent a b s t r a c t ideas, values or t h i n g s not present. Synaesthesia: -the production of a mental sense-impression by s t i m u l a t i o n of another sense; fo r example, apparent c o l o u r weight or temperature. T e l e o l o g i c a l P r o g r e s s i o n : - a e s t h e t i c term for movement through space towards a goal or climax. T e r r i t o r i a l i t y : -a p a t t e r n of behaviour and a t t i t u d e s h e l d by an i n d i v i d u a l or group that i s based on p e r c e i v e d , attempted or a c t u a l c o n t r o l of a d e f i n a t e p h y s i c a l space, o b j e c t or idea and may i n v o l v e h a b i t u a l occupation, defence, p e r s o n a l i z a t i o n and marking of i t . T i n t : - (1) a v a r i e t y of a c o l o u r , e s p e c i a l l y one made l i g h t e r by admixture of white; (2) a tendancy towards, admixture of, a d i f f e r e n t c o l o u r , such as red of a b l u i s h t i n t . Tone: -general e f f e c t of c o l o u r or of l i g h t and shade; t i n t , shade of c o l o u r , degree of l u m i n o s i t y of c o l o u r . U n i f o r m i t y : -unvarying sameness, c o n s i s t e n c y . U n i t y : -due i n t e r c o n n e c t i o n and coherence of p a r t s . Value: (1) synonym for l i g h t n e s s ; (2) worth, . d e s i r a b i l i t y , u t i l i t y . V a r i e t y : - d i v e r s i t y , absence of monotony or u n i f o r m i t y . 164 B i b l i o g r a p h y Ackerman, J.S. & C. Peterson. "Art of A r c h i t e c t u r e . " Encyclopaedia B r i t a n n i c a , V o l . 1. New York: Encyclopaedia B r i t a n n i c a Inc., 1979. A l b e r s , J o s e f . I n t e r a c t i o n of C o l o r . New Haven: Yale U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1975. Alexander, Harold H. Design: C r i t e r i a f o r D e c i s i o n s . New York: Macmillan, 1976. Ambaz, E. The A r c h i t e c t u r e of L u i s Barragan. New York: Museum of Modern A r t , 1976. Arnheim, Rudolf. Art and V i s u a l P e r c e p t i o n . Berkley: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1974. Baer, M. "The Painted Ladies of San F r a n c i s c o . " AIA J o u r n a l , October, 1972, pp. 37-40. Bacon, E.N. Design of C i t i e s . New York: V i k i n g , 1967. B a l l , V i c t o r i a K l o s s . "The A e s t h e t i c s of C o l o r : A Preview of F i f t y Years of Experimentation." J o u r n a l of A e s t h e t i c A r t C r i t i c i s m , 23 (1965), pp. 441-52. Benevolo, Leonard. H i s t o r y of Moder A r c h i t e c t u r e . Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. Press, 1982. B e v l i n , M. Design through Discovery. 3rd ed. New York: H o l t , Rinehart and Winston, 1963. B i l l m e y e r , F.W. Junior and Gunter Wyszecki, Eds. AIC Color 77. Proc. Of the 3rd Congress of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Colour A s o c i a t i o n , Troy, New York, 10-15 J u l y . B r i s t o l : Adam H i g l e r , 1978. 1 65 B i r r e n , F a b e r . " C o l o r and Manmade Envr ionrnent. " A l A J o u r n a l , August, 1972, pp. 15-19. B i r r e n , Faber. " C o l o r i t C o l o r . " P r o g r e s s i v e A r c h i t e c t u r e . 1 Sept., 1967, pp. 129-133. B i r r e n , F a b e r . C o l o r P e r c e p t i o n i n A r t . New York: Van N o s t r a n d , 1976. B i r r e n , F a b e r . L i g h t , C o l o r and Environment. New York: Van N o s t r a n d , 1982. B i r r e n , F a b e r . "The 'Off-White E p i d e m i c ' : A C a l l f o r a R e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of C o l o r . " A l A J o u r n a l , J u l y , 1977, pp. 6 6 - 6 7 . B i r r e n , F a b e r . "The P r a c t i c a l A p p l i c a t i o n of L i g h t and C o l o r t o Human Environmnets". C o l o r 73. P r o c . o f the 2nd Congress of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o l o r A s s o c i a t i o n . York U n i v e r s i t y , 2-6 J u l y 1973. London: Adam Hughes, 1973. B i r r e n , Faber. P r i n c i p l e s of C o l o r . New York: Van N o s t r a n d , 1969. B i r r e n , Faber. " R e a c t i o n s of Body & Eye". A l A J o u r n a l , September, 1972, pp.35-39. B i r r e n , Faber. " R e a c t i o n s of Mind & Emotion". A l A J o u r n a l , O c t o b e r , 1972, pp. 37-40. B l i s s , Anna Campbell. " A r t , C o l o r , A r c h i t e c t u r e " i n AlA J o u r n a l , F e b r u a r y , 1982, p. 48. B l i s s , Anna Campbell. " C o l o r S e l e c t i o n as a Design D e c i s i o n " . A l A J o u r n a l , October, 1978, pp. 37-40. B o e s c h e n s t e i n , Warren. " E x p r e s s i v e Urban C o l o r . " J o u r n a l of A r c h i t e c t u r a l and P l a n n i n g Research, 3 (1986), pp. 275-285. 1 66 B u l l o u g h , E. "The ' P e r c e p t i v e Problem' i n the A e s t h e t i c A p p r e c i a t i o n of S i n g l e C o l o u r s . " B r i t i s h J o u r n a l of P s y c h o l o g y , 2 (1908), pp. 406-463. Bureca, A g o s t i n o & G i o r g i o P a l a n d r i . " I l C o l o r e a T o r i n o . " B o l l e t t i n o d ' A r t e . 69 (28) pp. 107-114. C a u d i l l , W.W., W.M. Pena & P. Kennon, A r c h i t e c t u r e and You. New York: W a t s o n - G u p t i l l , 1978. C i v i c t r u s t . P r i d e of P l a c e : How t o Improve Your S u r r o u n d i n g s . 2nd. Ed. London: C i v i c T r u s t , 1974. C l a u s , R. James, and Karen E. C l a u s . V i s u a l Environment: S i g h t , S i g n and By-Law. Don M i l l s : C o l l i e r - M a c m i l l a n , 1971. C o l o r 69. P r o c . Of the 1st AIC Congress. Stockholm, June 9-13, 1969. F r a n k f u r t : Muster-Schmidt, 1973. C u l l e n , Gorden. The C o n c i s e Townscape'. New York: Van N o s t r a n d , 1971. D'Ornano, P i e r r e . "De l'Espace de Luscher a l'Espace A r c h i t e c t u r a l . " P s y c h o l o g i e M e d i c a l e . 14 (1982), pp. 277-279. Duttman, M., F. Schmuck, & J . U h l . C o l o r i n Townscape. San F r a n c i s c o : W.H. Freeman, 1981. Eysenck, H.J. "A C r i t i c a l and E x p e r i m e n t a l Study of C o l o u r P r e f e r e n c e s . " American J o u r n a l of P s y c h o l o g y , 54 (1941), pp. 385- 394. F a u l k n e r , W. A r c h i t e c t u r e and C o l o r . New York: W i l e y , 1 972. Feldman, E.B. V a r i e t i e s of V i s u a l E x p e r i e n c e . 2nd. Ed. New York: Hary Abrams, 1971. 167 F l e m i n g , Ronald Lee. Facade S t o r i e s . New York: H a s t i n g s House, 1982. Fo o t e , K.E. C o l o r i n P u b l i c Spaces. C h i c a g o : Department of Geography, U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago, 1983. F o s t e r , M i c h a e l , Ed. The P r i n c i p l e s of A r c h i t e c t u r e : S t y l e S t r u c t u r e and D e s i g n . New York: Q u i l l , 1982. Freeman, A l l e n . " P u r p o s e f u l Use of C o l o u r i n a F l o r i d a J a i l Complex." A r c h i t e c t u r e , 74 (Aug., 1985), pp. 76-78. Freedman, A d e l e , " D e v i s i n g a C o l o r Scheme f o r the E i g h t i e s " i n Globe & M a i l , 5 Nov., 1983. G a t z , K. & W. W a l l e n f a n g . C o l o u r i n A r c h i t e c t u r e . New York: R e i n h o l d , 1960. G i f f o r d , R o b e r t . E n v i r o n m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y . Boston: A l l y n and Bacon, 1987. G i l l i a t t , Mary. The Mary G i l l i a t t Book of C o l o r . T o r o n t o : L i t t l e , Brown, 1985. G i o v a n n i n i , J . "Making More of M a t e r i a l s . " A r c h i t e c t u r e , 75 ( J a n . 8 6 ) , pp. 68-69. Goodman, P a u l and P e r c i v a l . Communitas. 1947. Rpt. New York: V i n t a g e , 1960. H a l p r i n , Lawrence. C i t i e s . New York: R e i n h o l d , 1963. H a l s e , A l b e r t 0. The Use of C o l o r i n I n t e r i o r s . New York: M c G r a w - H i l l , 1978. Hardy, A.C. Co l o u r i n A r c h i t e c t u r e . London: Leonard H i l l , 1967. Hardy, H., M. Graves & P. B o h l i n . "Threee A r c h i t e c t s , Three Approaches t o C o l o r Use". AlA J o u r n a l , October, 1978, pp. 56-59. H e s s e l g r a n , Sven. Man's P e r c e p t i o n of Man-Made Environment. S t r o u d s b u r g , Penn.: Dowden, H u t c h i n s o n & Ross, 1975/ Hogg, J . "The P r e d i c t i o n of Semantic D i f e r e n t i a l R a t i n g s of C o l o r C o m b i n a t i o n s . " J o u r n a l of G e n e r a l P s y c h o l o g y , 80 (1969), pp. 141-152. Hogg, J . "A P r i n c i p a l Components A n a l y s i s of Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l Judgements of S i n g l e C o l o r s and C o l o r P a i r s . " J o u r n a l of G e n e r a l P s y c h o l o g y , 80 (1969), pp. 129-140. Hogg, J . Ed. P s y c h o l o g y and the V i s u a l A r t s . Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1969. I t t e n , Johannes. The A r t of C o l o r . Trans. E r n s t van Haagen. New York: R e i n h o l d , 1961. J e n c k s , C h a r l e s . The Language of Post-Modern A r c h i t e c t u r e . 4 t h . Ed. (New York: R i z z o l i , 1984). J e n c k s , C h a r l e s . Late-Modern A r c h i t e c t u r e . New York: R i z z o l i , 1980. J e n c k s , C h a r l e s . Modern Movements i n A r c h i t e c t u r e . New York: Anchor P r e s s , 1973. Kansaku, J . "The A n a l y t i c Study of A f f e c t i v e V a l u e s of C o l o r C o m b i n a t i o n s . A Study of C o l o r P a i r s . " Japanese J o u r n a l of P s y c h o l o g y , 34 (1963), pp.11-12. K o c h l e r , A.L. " C o l o r i n E a r l y American A r c h i t e c t u r e . " A r c h i t e c t u r a l Record , 64, O c t o b e r , 1928, pp. 278-290. K r e i t l e r , Hans & S h u l a m i t h K r e i t l e r . P sychology of the A r t s . Durham, N.C.:Duke U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1972. Kuehni, R o l f G. C o l o r : Esence and L o g i c . New York: Van N o s t r a n d , 1983. 169 Lang, J o n . "Symbolic A e s t h e t i c s i n A r c h i t e c t u r e : Toward a Research Agenda." E n v i r o n m n t a l Design Research A s s o c i a t i o n , (1982), pp. 172-182. Laurence, F.S. C o l o r i n A r c h i t e c t u r e . New York: R e i n h o l d , 1960. Levy, B e r n a r d I . "Research i n t o the P s y c h o l o g i c a l Meaning of C o l o r . " American J o u r n a l of A r t Therapy, 23 (1984), pp.58-62. Lynch, K e v i n . Good C i t y Form. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT P r e s s , 1981. Lynch, K e v i n . The Image of the C i t y . Cambridge, Mass.: MIT P r e s s , 1960. M a l t , H a r o l d L e w i s . F u r n i s h i n g the C i t y . New York: McGraw-H i l l , 1974. McCarthy, Mary. The Stones of F l o r e n c e . New York: H a r c o u r t , B r a c e , and World, 1963. M e l i s , P a o l o . " I n v i t a t o a l l 1 a r c h i t e t t u r a c o l o r a t a : Bruno Taut's own house a t D a h l e w i t z . " Domus, 657 (1985), pp. 24-29. M i l l e r , N. "The Re-emergence of C o l o r as a Design T o o l " . AlA J o u r n a l , October, 1978, pp. 40-45. Newman, Oscar. "The Use of C o l o u r and Te x t u r e at C l a s o n P o i n t . " 1975.. Rpt. In C o l o u r f o r A r c h i t e c t u r e . Tom P o r t e r and Byron M i k e l l i d e s , Ed. London: S t u d i o V i s t a , 1976, pp. 47-53. Nu t t g e n s , P a t r i c k . The Landscape of Ide a s . London: Faber & Faber, 1972. 170 0 ' C a l l a g h a n , D. The Use of C o l o r i n Contemporary A r c h i t e c t u r e : Vancouver as C o l o r s c a p e . U.B.C. B. A r c h . T h e s i s , 1983. O e h r e l i n , M.L. " C o l o r S e l e c t i o n as P a r t of P r e s e r v a t i o n " . A l A J o u r n a l , Oct o b e r , 1978, pp. 66-67. Ozen f a n t , Amadeus. " C o l o u r : In the Town." A r c h i t e c t u r a l Review, 82 (1937), pp. 41-44. Oz e n f a n t , Amadeus. " C o l o u r : Pro Domo." A r c h i t e c t u r a l Review, 82 (1937), pp.77-80. P i c k f o r d , R.W. P s y c h o l g y and V i s u a l A e s t h e t i c s . London: H u t c h i n s o n , 1972. P i c k f o r d , R.W. "P s y c h o l o g y , C u l t u r e and V i s u a l A r t . " Beyond A e s t h e t i c s . Ed. Don P r o t h w e l l . London: Thames and Hudson, 1976, pp. 151-164. P o r t e o u s , Douglas. "Approaches t o E n v i r o n m e n t a l A e s t h e t i c s . " J o u r n a l of E n v i r o n m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y , 2 (1982), pp. 53-66. P o r t e r , Tom. C o l o u r O u t s i d e . New York: Watson G u p t i l l , 1982. P o r t e r , Tom. & Byron M i k e l l i d e s , Eds. C o l o u r f o r A r c h i t e c t u r e , London: S t u d i o V i s t a , 1976. P o r t e r , Tom. & Byron M i k e l l i d e s . " C o l o r i n A r c h i t e c t u r e . " A r c h i t e c t u r a l D i g e s t , Oct o b e r , 1976, pp. 614-618. P o r t l a n d Cement A s s o c i a t i o n , C o l o r and Te x t u r e i n A r c h i t e c t u r a l C o ncrete , 1980. P o r t o g h e s i , P a o l o . "Colour i n Town." Domus, 602 ( J a n . 1980), pp. 20-24. 171 Rathbone, Ann. "The G e n e r a t i o n A e s t h e t i c Response t o C o l o u r . " In AIC C o l o r 69. P r o c . Of a Conference sponsored by the I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o l o ( u ) r A s s o c i a t i o n . Stockholm, 9- 13 June, 1969, Z u r i c h : M uster- Schmidt, 1970, pp. 1056-1063. R o i g h t , Hubert. La C o u l e u r . 2nd. Ed. A r t h a b a s k a , P.Q.: E d i t i o n s Pourquoi Pas, 1981. R o s s i t e r , Sean. "The Market Men." Western L i v i n g , 18 ( 3 ) , pp. 26-28. Ruda, K a z i m i e r z . " P e r s o n a l i t y D e t e r m i n a n t s of A e s t h e t i c P r e f e r e n c e s : H. Eysnck's Theory." P r e z e g a l d P s y c h o l o g i c z n y , 2 6 ( 1 9 8 3 ) , p p . 3 1 1 - 3 1 2 . Rudovsky, B e r n a r d . S t r e e t s f o r P e o p l e . Garden C i t y , New York: Doubleday, 1969. R u s k i n , John. The Seven Lamps of A r c h i t e c t u r e . (1848) New York: F a r r a r , S t r a u s s and G i r o u x , 1986. S t . George, Margaret W. " C o l o r P r e f e r e n c e s of C o l l e g e S t u d e n t s w i t h Reference t o Chromatic P u l l , L e a r n i n g and A s s o c i a t i o n . " American J o u r n a l of P s y c h o l o g y , 51 (1938), pp. 714-716. Sharpe, Deborah T. The P s y c h o l o g y of C o l o r and D e s i g n . C h i c a g o : N e l s o n - H a l l , 1974. S i v i k , L a r s . "Colour C o n n o t a t i o n s and P e r c e p t i v e V a l u e s . " In AIC C o l o u r 69. P r o c . Of a Conference sponsored by the I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o l o ( u ) r A s s o c i a t i o n . Stockholm, 9- 13 June 1969. Z u r i c h : M uster- Schmidt, 1970, pp. 1064- 1072. 172 Sivik, Lars. "Connotations to Exterior Colour on Buildings." In Architectural Psychology. Proc. Of the Lund Conference, 26- 29 June, 1973. Ed. Dowden Rikardkuller. Stroudsburg, Penn.: Hutchinson & Ross, 1973. Sivik, Lars. "The Language of Colour Connotations." In Colour For Architecture. Tom Porter and Byron Mikellides, Ed. London: Studio Vista, 1976, pp. 123- 139. Sloane, Patricia, Colour: Basic Principles, New Directions. London: Studio Vista, 1967. Smith, Peter F. Architecture and the Human Dimension. London: George Godwin, 1979. Smith, Peter. The Dynamics of Urbanism. London: Hutchinson, 1974. Smith, Peter F., The Syntax of Cities. London: Hutchinson, 1977. Staley, Rosalie. Granville Island's Post-Industrial." Architects Forum, Vol. 3, no. 1, 1983, pp. 8-10. Verity, E. Color Observed. New York: Van Nostrand, 1980. Vorreiter-Wajed, Gabriele. "Hayakawa Courts." Architectural Review, 179 (March 1986), pp. 78-82. Wexner, L.B. "The Degree to which Colors (Hues) are Associated with Mood Tones." Journal of Applied Psychology, 6 (1954), pp. 432-435. Wineman, Jean D. "Colour in Environmental Design: Its Impact on Human Behaviour." EDRA: Environmental Design Research  Association, 10 (1979), pp. 436-439. 173 W i l d b l o o d , N.C. "Colour and Community Wealth- A C r i t i c i s m and a S u g g e s t i o n . " In C o l o u r 73. P r o c . Of a Conference sponsered by the I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o l o ( u ) r A s s o c i a t i o n , York, 2- 6 J u l y , 1973. London: Adam H i l g e r , 1974. W o o l l e y , C.L. Ur of the C h a l d e e s . New York: S c r i b n e r s , 1930. W r i g h t , B. And L. R a i n w a t e r . "The Meanings of C o l o r . " J o u r n a l of G e n e r a l P s y c h o l o g y , 67 (1962), pp. 89-99. 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0097845/manifest

Comment

Related Items