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Development planning in the Northwest Territories : the case of tourism Weeres, Scot David 1988

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Development Planning in the Northwest Terri tories: The Case of Tourism by Scot David Weeres B.A. University of British Columbia, 1981 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTERS OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES School of Community and Regional Planning We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1988 © Scot David Weeres In p resen t ing this thesis in partial f u l f i lmen t o f t he r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced d e g r e e at t he Univers i ty o f British C o l u m b i a , I agree tha t t h e Library shall make it f reely available f o r re ference and s tudy . 1 fu r ther agree tha t pe rmiss ion f o r ex tens ive c o p y i n g o f this thesis f o r scholar ly pu rposes may be g ran ted by the head o f m y d e p a r t m e n t o r by his o r her representat ives. It is u n d e r s t o o d that c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f this thesis f o r f inancial gain shall n o t b e a l l o w e d w i t h o u t m y w r i t t e n pe rm iss ion . D e p a r t m e n t o f £clool 6^ CemMUtbl^J Ctfjl H^(OA^l P'hnJttfiJ. The Univers i ty o f British C o l u m b i a Vancouver , Canada • a t e C^/^AtT DE-6 (2/88) A B S T R A C T The purpose of this thesis is to argue that effective economic development planning cannot occur without integrating the planning, p o l i c y - m a k i n g , and p r o g r a m m e d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s e s . The G o v e r n m e n t of the Nor thwes t Ter r i to r ies ' tour ism d e v e l o p m e n t planning efforts are examined and analysed in an effort to identify the determinants of successful development planning. For a number of decades economic development activity in the Nor thwest Terr i tor ies has been based on non-renewable resource extract ion. The result has been the creat ion of an unstable and dependent economy that largely serves the needs of non-residents. Increasingly Government of the Northwest Terri tories (GNWT) , like other governments across Canada and around the world, has turned to deve lopment planning to deal with the instabil i ty and dependency problems that are an inevitable adjunct to non-renewable resource based economies. The Government of the Northwest Terr i tor ies (GNWT) has concluded that tourism can provide some protection from the economic s to rms that per iod ica l ly sweep across the non-renewable resource based northern economy. A review of planning, policy, and programme theory indicated that whi le the three are di f ferent they are not d iscrete f ields of study or activity. Rather, they are all integral parts of development i i planning. Thus, it is necessary, to examine not just government planning documents but also governmental policy and programmes, be fore c o m m e n t i n g upon , and learn ing f r o m , a g o v e r n m e n t ' s development planning activit ies. This thesis has drawn information and examp les f rom a var iety of G N W T p lann ing , pol icy, and programme sources relating to tourism development in the NWT. An examina t i on of these d o c u m e n t s and n u m e r o u s uns t ruc tu red in terv iews wi th those p lanning the deve lopmen t of the NWT's tourism sector have led to .the following f indings: 1. The G N W T has assumed that tourism is an effective tool for diversi fy ing and stabi l iz ing the economy of the NWT. Indeed, it could be said that the GNWT has focused its hopes for an improved economic future on tourism. 2. The quant i ty and quali ty of information for planning col lected by the G N W T has been ' inadequate'. No information on the tourism perceptions, desires and concerns of NWT residents was col lected. 3. The Depar tment of Economic Development and Tour ism has recognized the shortage of data as a problem and has taken steps to address it. However, most new data being col lected is market ing information with little relevance for policy and programme planning. 4. The goals and object ives of the NWT Tour ism Strategy were dra f ted by techn ica l l y o r ien ted p lanners wi th access to l i tt le in format ion on the percept ions , des i res and concerns of N W T i i i residents. The Strategy implicitly assumed that tourism would have a pos i t i ve cos t -bene f i t ra t io , tha t i nc reased t o u r i s m w o u l d diversify and stabilize the NWT's economic base, and that increased tour ism would be well received in the small /remote communi t ies of the Northwest Territories. 5. The GNWT's only formal s tatement of tour ism deve lopment policy (the NWT Tour ism Strategy) was art iculated in C o m m u n i t y  Based ' Tour ism: A Strategy for the Northwest Terr i tor ies Tour ism  Indus t ry . 6. The GNWT used its Territorial Parks programme as a tool to foster tourism and spread its benefits across the NWT. 7. G N W T t o u r i s m p l a n n e r s a n d p o l i c y - m a k e r s h a v e unquest ion ingly accepted the not ion of " tour ism [as] a des i rab le industry for the Northwest Terr i tor ies" , wi thout explor ing the long term implications of the striving for a tourism dependent economy. 8. The GNWT did not recognize/acknowledge that tour ism was/is an export industry that may be subject to many of the unpredictable f luctuations that the primary industries were/are noted for. 9. The Northwest Territories is an example of a jur isdict ion in which development planning, at least with regard to tourism development, has not occurred. By removing its planning efforts f rom the complex socio-economic reality of the Northwest i v Territories the GNWT's planning efforts can be said to be rational, but also top-down, and technocratic. v TABLE OF CONTENTS P a g e A b s t r a c t ii Table of Contents .vi L is t of I l l us t ra t i ons v i i i A c k n o w l e d g e m e n t s ix Chapter 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 Method 3 Rationale 3 Organization 10 References 12 Chapter 2 Planning/Pol ic ies/Programmes: The Linkages 15 Planning Theory 17 Policy Theory 22 Programme Theory 2 6 Conclusions 29 Implications 31 References 35 v i Chapter 3 The Informational Resources of the GNWT: Planning and Policies in a Vacuum 39 Implications 5 2 References 53 Chapter 4 Tourism Policy and Regulation in the NWT 56 References 68 Chapter 5 GNWT Tourism Development Programmes: The Example of Territorial Parks .70 References 80 Chapter 6 Tourism as an -Economic Base: The Under ly ing Assumpt ions 82 References 90 Chapter 7 Conclusions and Implicaitons 92 Findings 92 Planning Implications 96 B i b l i o g r a p h y 99 Personal C o m m u n i c a t i o n s 103 v i i LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS I l l u s t r a t i o n p a g e 1 73 v i i i A c k n o w l e d g e m e n t s Often those who manage to finally attain some long desired goal, be it completing a thesis or climbing a mountain, do so only with the assistance of a great many individuals. My completion of this thesis is a testament to the many to whom I owe a great deal. Space limitations and a poor memory do not permit me to thank everyone of them here. There are a few individuals who have been of particular assistance and inspiration and to whom I want to express my heart-felt grat i tude. I owe a great intellectual debt to Peter Boothroyd and Bill Rees. Their patience, wil l ingness to accommodate my interest in northern development planning, and expertise in guiding me have been important factors in my actually f inishing this thesis. By far the greatest debt, however, is owed to the women of my life; my wife Annette and my daughter Ashley. Between them they have kept me sane, calm, confident, and interested in seeing this task through to the end. My son Ryan is also owed a vote of thanks. His imminent arrival during the closing stages of the thesis process provided some extra incentive. I also want to express appreciation for the f inancial support I received during part of my graduate work from a grant made to Rees and Boothroyd by the Donner Canadian Foundation. I alone bear responsibil ity for any errors or omissions in this thesis. Scot Weeres Fort Simpson, NWT i x C h a p t e r 1 INTRODUCTION This thesis attempts to assist in the evolution of development planning by drawing lessons, of both a specif ic and general izable nature, f rom the tour ism development planning experiences of the Government of the Nor thwest Terr i tor ies. Development planning could not, and would not, evolve if past planning efforts were not crit ically revisi ted. Simply put learning f rom experience can occur in one of two ways: first, by examining past actions that have not worked, recognize them as mistakes, and then avoid repeating them in the future;" second, by consciously repeating a course of action that has produced desired resul ts. The process of exper ient ia l learning, however, be it first or second hand, cannot occur if one is unable to understand why a particular action did or did not work. This thesis argues that effective development planning cannot o c c u r w i t h o u t i n teg ra t i ng the p l a n n i n g , p o l i c y - m a k i n g , and programme development processes. The conclusions drawn from an examina t ion of tour ism deve lopment p lanning in the Nor thwest Terr i tor ies, both those specif ic to the case of tour ism planning in the NWT and those applicable to development planning in general , rest upon the carefu l examina t ion of the re levant theore t ica l l i terature and the Government of the Northwest Terri tories' tour ism development planning experience. 1 At the level of general applicability this thesis seeks to answer the fol lowing quest ions: * Wha t are the respect ive roles that p lann ing, pol icy, and programmes play in the development planning process? * Can there be sound development planning without the planning, pol icy-making, and programme development activit ies of government being integrated into a procedurally rational whole? Wi th regard to the speci f ic case of tour ism deve lopmen t p lanning in the Northwest Terr i tor ies this thesis wil l answer the fol lowing quest ions: * Has the GNWT articulated a tourism development policy? * Has the GNWT's tourism development policy served to orient the tour ism development programmes such that important tour ism resources are developed in a manner consistent with GNWT tourism development policy? * Does the GNWT have, at its disposal, informational resources of su f f i c ien t quant i ty and qual i ty to do proceduara l l y ra t ional deve lopment planning? 2 * Has the G N W T cri t ical ly analysed the abil i ty of tour ism to provide diversity and stability within the economy of the NWT? M e t h o d The information upon which this thesis is based has been obtained from the following primary and secondary sources: * relevant literature on .planning, policy, and programme theory; * persona l , uns t ruc tured interviews with government of f ic ials, consul tants, and persons knowledgeable about tour ism planning in the NWT; * documents , memoranda, and letters made avai lable f rom the fi les of the Government of the Northwest Territories and the Deh Cho Regional Council. R a t i o n a l e Over the last four decades much of the economic development p lanning and act iv i ty in the NWT has been c losely t ied to the extract ion and exportat ion of hydrocarbon and mineral resources. Gurston Dacks has pointed out that "Ottawa [has] based its most s i g n i f i c a n t n o r t h e r n d e c i s i o n s less on its c o m m i t m e n t to northerners than on its hopes that the North would contr ibute to the country's economic health generally and energy supply part icularly." 1 3 The recurrent emphasis that governments and the southern private sector have placed upon developing the non-renewable sector of the northern economy resul ted in a resource extract ion logic prevai l ing over much of the economic thinking and planning in the NWT. As one report pointed out, "mining and oil and gas development have rece ived the g rea tes t share of federa l and te r r i to r ia l gove rnmen t f inancial support and a t t en t i on . " 2 This situation has signif icant implicat ions for the residents of the the NWT since to some extent the nature of a region's economic base determines who the primary beneficiaries of economic activity will be. In the case of the NWT it has been argued that non-native northerners are the most likely recipients of both the direct and indirect benefi ts of a non-renewable resource based economy. Some authors have even gone as far as to state that "the wel l be ing of non-na t ive n o r t h e r n e r s d e p e n d s u l t ima te ly on n o n - r e n e w a b l e r e s o u r c e deve lopmen t . " 3 The concentration of economic interest and power in the hands of the central government, the southern based private sector, and non-nat ive northerners has resulted in the creation of an unstable and dependent economy that is structured to serve the needs of a few northerners and a great many non-nor therners. Indeed, the outside and non-native influence on the territorial economy has been so pervasive that as James Cameron puts it; "in traditional economic terms, the economy of the NWT is neither balanced nor mature. It 4 lacks d ivers i ty within and between the pr imary, secondary , and service sec to rs . " 4 Southern/non-Nat ive stake holders in the terr i torial economy appear to have been little concerned about adapting their economic deve lopment projects to satisfy the needs of the North and her people. Most often it has been assumed that the North and, more particularly, northerners would change to accommodate and adapt to the needs of the developments. 5 Consequently, the wage economy of the North is essential ly a staples based economy that exists not because of an internal dynamic, but rather because of the demands and desires of metropoli tan centres in southern Canada, the United States, Europe, and A s i a . 6 As one author has argued, the "staples basis [of the northern economy] necessari ly makes it a boom-and-bust economy and [the] lack of internal economic links acts as a brake on [its] deve lopment . " 7 Another author has contended that regional development is primarily held back or suppressed "by the outward drain of economic surplus from the reg ion. " 8 Signi f icant numbers of nor therners , especia l ly the 5 8 % of northerners who claim a Native heritage, are bound to the North by bonds more enduring and compel l ing than those of economic self-interest. Nat ive nor therners in par t icu lar der ive much of their personal and cul tural ident i ty f rom l iving in the Nor th . Thus, emmigrat ion from the North during periods of economic slow down or co l lapse can be expected to impose signi f icant psychological costs on those forced to adopt such a strategy in order to ensure 5 personal and/or famil ial economic securi ty. The enormity of the costs associated with leaving the North to assure economic wel l being has meant that a great many northerners (again, especial ly Nat ive nor therners) are v i r tual ly fo rced to remain in the North regardless of the state of the economy. During the autumn of 1986 it was reported that northerners were "girding for one of their toughest economic winters y e t . " 9 This, because "the primary industr ies of the Northwest Terr i tor ies [were] under considerable pressure result ing f rom [a] recent sharp fall of oil prices and the cont inued low metal prices w o r l d - w i d e . " 1 0 Oil and mining companies responded to the collapse in international oil and metals prices by c losing their northern operat ions. The pul lout left "an ever growing number of once proudly sel f - re l iant nor therners" unemployed and facing the prospect of go ing onto w e l f a r e . 1 1 Newspapers repor ted that in the Beaufor t /Mackenz ie Delta region of the NWT an est imated 700 individuals wou ld lose their ful l t ime jobs as the oil compan ies c losed d o w n N W T operations to wait out the slump in the world demand, and price, for o i l . 12 In the Deh Cho region, located in the southwestern corner of the Nor thwest Terr i tor ies, few residents held full t ime oil industry posi t ions dur ing the boom years of the oil sector. There were, however, many people who worked in the industry on a seasonal basis. These individuals were affected by the pull out of the non-renewable resource companies. During 1985/86 regional residents 6 f ound approx imate ly 1800 person months of e m p l o y m e n t wi th companies exploring for hydrocarbons, one year latter dur ing the 1986/87 exploration season only 80 person months of employment were generated by hydrocarbon e x p l o r a t i o n . 1 3 In the South Slave Region hundreds of lay-offs at the Pine Point lead/zinc Mine, for twenty years the single largest private sector employer in the NWT, made inevitable the closure of an entire town, as well as swell ing unemployment rolls. The Government of the Northwest Territories responded to the difficult economic situation by adopting a range of short term 'band-aid' actions. One example was, the announcement that "$1.8 million would be added to the current [territorial] budget of the Department [of Social Services] to cover [any] increased demand for assistance that may occur as a result of lay-offs in the non-renewable resource s e c t o r . " 1 4 The territorial and federal governments also co-operated in the creat ion of an Act ion Force on Economic Deve lopment to invest igate and implement economic deve lopment opt ions for the western Arctic in the face of the non-renewable sector 's col lapse. With the release of the Action Force's report it became clear that the Force had concentrated on the development of short term job creat ion act iv i t ies. Indeed, the Member of Par l iament for the Western Arctic, who was also a member of the Act ion Force on Economic Development, noted that "not a single new dollar was used [in any of the Act ion Force's twenty proposals ; instead] a l ready budgeted for activit ies were just brought forward a b i t . " 1 5 7 In the face of the col lapse of the non- renewable resource sector nor thern pol i t ic ians began to promise that "as the [non-renewable resource] sector cont inue[d] to exper ience di f f icul t ies, new employment al ternat ives [would] be s o u g h t . " 1 6 Tourism was ident i f ied as one of the areas that was to receive increased attention from the GNWT's policy, economic planning, and programme deve lopment personnel . At the November, 1986, First Minister 's Conference on the Economy in Vancouver, B.C. the GNWT's Government Leader argued that there was great potential for northern economic deve lopment in three sectors of the economy. The Government Leader specif ied: * mining * tour ism * hydrocarbon exploration and d e v e l o p m e n t 1 7 The increased attention paid to tourism has occured largely in response to the twin real izat ions that the potent ia l for economic v i ta l i ty in the N W T is lost w h e n "surv iva l b e c o m e s ent i re ly d e p e n d e n t upon economic and dec is ion-mak ing forces that lie outside the control of those who will be affected by such changes"; and that relatively few Native northerners appear wil l ing accept the personal , cultural, and psychological costs that must be paid if they were to move to access economic oppor tun i t ies . 1 8 To address these concerns the Government of the Northwest Terr i tor ies set out to identi fy new "opportuni t ies for economic health and g rowth " and tourism was been singled out as an economic opportunity that could be used to stimulate economic development. 1 9 8 Both within and without government circles tourism has come to be seen as a way of providing economic opportuni t ies that are less boom/bust (i.e. more stable) than those in the non-renewable resource sector . A Gove rnmen t of the Nor thwest Terr i tor ies , Depar tmen t of Economic Deve lopment and Tour i sm d o c u m e n t prepared in 1986, for example, argued that " tour ism has a solid record of wea the r ing economic dec l ines in the N W T . " 2 0 The d o c u m e n t also po in ted ly noted that "this record for economic stabi l i ty is par t icu lar ly at t ract ive now that the s lumps in wor ld mineral and petroleum prices have caused severe recession in the industr ia l s e c t o r . " 2 1 The Government of the Northwest Territories is also interested in develop ing the sector fur ther because it is r e l a t i v e l y l a b o u r i n t e n s i v e a n d can p r o v i d e e m p l o y m e n t opportuni t ies that "are compat ib le with many exist ing native skil ls (e.g. g u i d i n g ) " . 2 2 In addit ion, the tourism sector 'dove tails' nicely with some aspects of the tradit ional sector; especial ly native arts and crafts. Tour ism is seen as being able to provide substantial ' sp in -o f f benef i ts and oppor tun i t ies for the ar t isans and craf ts people of the N W T . 2 3 As well as focusing on tour ism for strategic reasons there appear to be a couple of opportunistic reasons for seeking to further enhance the tour ism sector. Primary, among these is the fact that tour ism is "one of the world 's fastest growing industr ies" and the "fastest growing sector of the territorial e c o n o m y . " 2 4 , 2 5 Tourism is also an at t ract ive sector for the G N W T to at tempt to deve lop 9 because numerous travel industry experts have concluded that the Nor thwest Terr i tor ies has "the potent ia l to supply a w ide and a t t rac t ive range of t ou r i sm p roduc ts in the w i l d e r n e s s and adventure markets, the most rapidly expanding [tourism] market in North A m e r i c a . " 2 6 , 2 7 Thus, the GNWT hopes to be able to turn to, and capi ta l ize on , an economic act iv i ty that requires jus t the raw material that the NWT has the most of; wilderness. Since the mid 1980's the GNWT has argued repeatedly that tour ism offers an opportuni ty to broaden and stabi l ize the NWT's economic base of the NWT. Given this, and the fact that the tourism industry is still very much in a nascent stage one would expect that the G N W T wou ld be putt ing a s igni f icant amount of effort into planning and developing the sector in an orderly and rational fashion. O r g a n i z a t i o n This thesis has been organized into seven chapters. The first chapter discusses the purpose of, rationale behind, method used in researching, and finally the organization of the thesis. Chapter two examines planning, policy, and programme theory and explores the l inkages which form the three activit ies into a procedural whole -deve lopment p lanning. Chapter three examines the informat ional resources the G o v e r n m e n t of the No r thwes t Te r r i t o r ies has d e v e l o p e d in its e f fo r t to tu rn t o u r i s m into an i m p o r t a n t d i ve rs i f y ing and s tab i l i z ing c o m p o n e n t in the fab r i c of the 1 0 te r r i to r ia l e c o n o m y . Chap te r four examines the po l icy and regulatory environment in which tourism development occurs in the NWT. Chapter f ive examines the GNWT's tour ism deve lopment programs, with special emphasis on the Terr i tor ial Parks sys tem. Chapter six examines the extent to which the GNWT has considered whether developing tourism is an appropriate means through which to at ta in economic deve lopment in the Nor th . Chapter seven discusses the conclusions and planning implicat ions that f low from the examinat ion of tour ism development planning in the Northwest Terr i tor ies. 1 1 R e f e r e n c e s C h a p t e r 1 1 Gurston Dacks, A Choice of Futures: Poli t ics in the  Canadian North. (Toronto: Methuen, 1981, P. 89). 2 G o v e r n m e n t of the Nor thwest Ter r i to r ies , Depar tmen t of Renewable Resources and Department of Economic Development and Tourism, Developing a Planning Framework for Renewable Resource  Development in the Northwest Territories (Draft i . Phase 1: R e s o u r c e Informat ion and Resource Management Strategies and Programs. (Yellowknife: No date), P. D31. 3 Dacks, A Choice of Futures. P. 67. 4 James Joseph Cameron, Culture and Change in the Northwest Terr i tor ies: Impl icat ions for Commun i t y In f rast ructure P lann ing . (Masters Thesis, University of British Columbia, October 1985), P. 32. 5 Louis-Edmond Hamelin, Canadian Nordicitv: It's Your North Too, trans. Will iam Barr, (Montreal: Harvest House , 1978), P. 279. 6 Dacks, A Choice of Futures. P. 13. 7 Ibid., P. 20. 8 Mel Watkins, "From Underdevelopment to Development", ed. Mel Watkins, Dene Nat ion: The Colony Within. (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1977), P. 86. 9 The Edmonton Journal. Saturday, November, 1, 1986. 1 0 Briar In ternat ional Business Resources Ltd. , A S t ra teg ic  Market ing Plan for Tour ism for the Government of the Nor thwes t  Ter r i to r ies . (Ottawa: April, 1986), P. A 1 1 The Edmonton Journal, Saturday, November, 1, 1986 12 1 2 Ibid., Saturday, November, 1, 1986. 1 3 F igures compi led by the author af ter rev iewing Deh Cho Regional Council files., (Fort Simpson, NWT) April 25, 1987. 1 4 The Edmonton Journal. Saturday, November, 1, 1986. 1 5 David Nickerson, Hon., Member of Parl iament, Western Arctic, Personal communicat ion during meeting at Deh Cho Regional Council offices, Fort Simpson, NWT, February 26, 1987. 1 6 Br iar In ternat ional Bus iness Resources Ltd . , A S t ra teg ic  Marketing Plan for Tourism. P. A 1 7 News North(Yellowknife). Friday, November 28, 1986, P. A10 1 8 B.R. Blishen et al, Socio-economic Impact Model for Northern D e v e l o m e n t (Ot tawa: Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development , Research Branch, Policy Research and Evaluat ion Group; 1979), P. 54 (emphasis in original). 1 9 Br iar In ternat iona l Bus iness Resources L td . , A S t ra teg ic Marketing Plan for Tourism. P. A. 2 0 Government of the Northwest Territories, Schedule A. C a n a d a -Northwest Terr i tor ies Tour ism Development Subsidiary A g r e e m e n t . (Draft Document), October 23, 1986, P. 3. 2 1 Ibid. 2 2 Ibid. 2 3 Ibid. 2 4 Ibid., P. 1 2 5 News North. Friday, November 28, 1986, P. A10 2 6 Government of the Northwest Territories, Schedule A. P. 4 13 2 7 Br iar In ternat iona l Bus iness Resources L td . , A S t ra teg ic Market ing Plan for Tour ism. Ottawa: April, 1986 1 4 Chapter 2 P lann ing /Po l i c i es /P rog rammes : The L inkages Planning, po l icy-mak ing, and programme deve lopment be it re lated to economic and tour ism deve lopment in the Nor thwest Terr i tor ies or anything else cannot be understood in a conextual vacuum. This chapter provides the reader with a link between the theories of planning, policy, and programme planning and the reality of planning, policy, and programme activtiy in the NWT. The objective of this chapter is threefold: first, to argue that whi le planning, policy, and programmes are dif ferent, they are not comple te ly d iscrete when v iewed f rom a deve lopmen t p lanning perspect ive; second, to embark on a brief, and selective, discussion of the theoret ical debates in the areas of p lanning, pol icy-making, and p rog ramme deve lopment ; th i rd , to draw f rom the re levant l i te ra ture and theore t i ca l d e b a t e s c r i te r ia wh ich de f ine g o o d planning, good policy-making, and good programme development. The l i terature on p lann ing , po l ic ies , and p r o g r a m m e s is vo luminous and var ied, as are the definit ions of p lanning, pol icies, and programmes. Indeed, one is often pressed to discern consensus, within the literature, on much other than the fact that all three can, and do, occur in the public sector, though not exclusively. The very vo lume of the l i terature on p lanning, policy, and programmes is, however, an unmistakable indicator that a great many people see 1 5 some divergence between the planning process and the processes of policy development or programme design. To some degree the divergences in the l iterature are artifacts of the intel lectual models built to enable people to conceptual ize and better understand organizational behaviour. To the extent that the d i ve rgences are inte l lectual cons t ruc ts wh ich fac i l i ta te the understanding of a complex process the reader of p lanning, policy, and programme theory has to be aware that when models are being developed a "process [of] abstract ion, select ion, and simpli f icat ion is going o n . " 1 The careful reader comes to realize that planning, polices, and programmes differ in ways that are seldomly addressed c lear ly in the l i terature. Genera l ly , the l i terature a rgues that: p lann ing is a p rocess for d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , po l ic ies es tab l ish sectoral goals and define the organizational sanctions (both positive and negat ive) that wil l be used to attain them and programmes art iculate the object ives, act iv i t ies, and adminis t rat ive procedures by wh ich pos i t i ve sanc t ions can be used to pu rsue overa l l goals.2 3,4 5 6 Regard less of the apparen t d i ve rgence , the d ispar i ty of def ini t ion, and the variety of v iews expressed in the l i terature on p lanning, pol icy, and programmes one is able to d iscern some interesting convergences as wel l . As one begins to probe these d ivergences, intel lectual ly explore the intr icacies of organizat ional decis ion-making, and actually at tempt to p lan, and develop policies or p rogrammes independent of each other in a pract ical work ing 16 env i ronmen t , one increas ing real izes the arbr i t ra r iness of the d ivergences . Exper ience work ing wi th pol ic ies and p rogrammes d r i ves h o m e th ree po in t s : f i rs t tha t p l a n n i n g , po l i cy , and programmes are separate, but highly interrelated; second pol icies and/or p r o g r a m m e s do not s imply emerge , they are , i ns tead , formulated by people intent on bringing rationality to bear on future si tuat ions and act ions; third, that the main point of planning is to get act ion toward the a t ta inment of def ined goals through the development of appropriate policies and programmes. It is the first po in t that is of f u n d a m e n t a l impor tance w h e n a t tempt ing to u n d e r s t a n d the re la t ionsh ip b e t w e e n p l a n n i n g , po l i c ies , and p rogrammes. Wi thout proper p lanning, pol icies and programmes become litt le more than a ser ies of unre la ted, often i r rat ional , responses to the crisis of the moment . Planning is more than an act iv i ty tha t mere ly fac i l i ta tes the d e v e l o p m e n t po l ic ies and programmes; planning is the process by which appropriate goals and object ives are establ ished. Planning also provides the means by which rat ional, goal d i rected, policies and programmes are brought into being and, as such, forms a procedural cement that ensures the formation development planning. Planning Theory Planning is an ever changing f ield. Consequent ly , there is little agreement about exactly what planning is; and even less about how it can and should be done. In the Canadian context Page and Lang, 1 7 after document ing the confus ion sur rounding the profess ion and practice of planning, noted: The very fact that there is no consensus on the purpose of p lanning tel ls us something about the variety of percept ions and beliefs that enter into planning act iv i ty . 7 In the American context work by Hudson and Hemmens point to a very similar situation - a profession, its theory, and its pract ice all in a state of f l u x . 8 , 9 Indeed, so signif icant and pervasive is the state of flux that at least a couple authors have gone as far as to contend that planning is experiencing a paradigm shift or c r i s i s . 1 0 In the midst of such change and so many conflicting perspectives it is hardly surpr is ing that there is no agreement on someth ing as basic, and as important, as a definit ion of planning. Planning has been def ined in diverse ways; below are but a few of the countless def in i t ions: "Planning may be def ined as the method for directing c h a n g e . 1 1 "P lanning may be broadly def ined as the appl icat ion of knowledge , in an organ ized manner, to maintain and/or change a given s y s t e m . " 1 2 " . . .p lanning is a process of se lect ing and designing a rat ional course of a col lect ive action to achieve a future state of a f fa i rs . " 1 3 "P lann ing invo lves b r ing ing ra t iona l i ty to bear on future act ions, l inking knowledge to a c t i o n s . " 1 4 1 8 Al though planning in the professional sense is a relatively recent development, the number of planning theories that have been espoused is s igni f icant . Theor ies of p lann ing are a lmost as numerous, and as varied as the definit ions of planning. Transactive, ra t iona l , rad ica l , synopt ic , adapt ive , advocacy , and incrementa l theor ies of p lanning have all been fo rmu la ted , p roposed , and e s p o u s e d at one t ime or ano ther . H o w e v e r , the ra t ional comprehensive and incremental schools of thought have dominated the field of planning for sometime. Indeed, to a great degree they have become the reference points against which other planning theory is compared. The most persistent school of planning thought is often called ' ra t iona l ' or ' ra t ional comprehens i ve ' , p lann ing . The ' ra t ional c o m p r e h e n s i v e ' app roach cons is ts of b e t w e e n four and nine (depending on the author) s teps wh ich , if fo l lowed, produce a rational and comprehensive p l a n . 1 5 , 1 6 According to one author these stages are; Determination of Goals * Needs Assessment Specif icat ion of Object ives * Development of Alternat ives * Eva lua t ion /Rank ing of Alternatives Selection of Al ternat ive Courses of Action Implementat ion Evaluation of Actions Feedback 1 7 When the 'rat ional comprehensive ' model was first expl icated and espoused it was general ly seen as a linear process, with the 19 planner proceeding direct ly f rom one stage to the next, the end result being the emergence of a perfectly rational, and completely comprehens ive , p lan. As the ' rat ional comprehens ive ' model of planning was first envis ioned, comprehensiveness was seen as the p lanner a t tempt ing to be exhaust ive. That is, the planner was expected to conduct a "detailed analysis using quanti tat ive methods" and examine all possib le act ions and o u t c o m e s . 1 8 Reviews of planning practice have indicated that very seldomly did this actually occur. It was observed that, in general, the world did not change and evolve in a stricly linear fashion. As a result, planners steadfastly applying a l inear interpretation of the rat ional-comprehensive model of p lanning and pol icy-making found their work and observat ions repeatedly thwarted. As e x p e r i e n c e wi th the ' ra t iona l c o m p r e h e n s i v e ' mode l a c c u m u l a t e d it became clear that the strict l inearity of the model was one of its greatest problems. The model did not provide the p lanner wi th an accurate representat ion or understanding of the wor ld , and thus signif icantly l imited his/her abil i ty to inf luence or change it. Thus , fai thful ly appl ing the ' rat ional comprehens ive ' model did not ensure an the outcome that was originally expected. Over t ime the definit ion of comprehens iveness has evolved. Some of the more recent proponents of the 'rational comprehensive' model point out that the model does not have to be, and indeed never was, strictly linear. The rational comprehensive model, it has been argued, is not comprehensive "in the sense of being exhaustive but in 2 0 the sense of being in teg ra t i ve . " 1 9 The authors who hold this view point out that "planning is a dynamic rather than a static process and often fol lows a spiral rather than a linear c o u r s e " . 2 0 They also argue that there is feedback between the various steps which makes the entire 'rat ional comprehensive ' planning process interactive and interdependent linking a variety of ends and means into a rational whole. The second, and some would argue the "most pervasive" model of planning was "formally proposed in response to the shortcomings of t he r a t i o n a l c o m p r e h e n s i v e a p p r o a c h . " 2 1 , 2 2 D is jo in ted i n c r e m e n t a l i s m , i n c r e m e n t a l i s m , a d a p t i v e p l a n n i n g , or e v e n 'muddling through' are all labels used to refer to this second theory of planning. The development and espousal of this theory of planning is most closely associated with the work of Charles L i n d b l o m . 2 3 , 2 4 Lindblom argued that the rational comprehensive theory of planning was neither practical nor desirable. Lindblom also contended that is was impossible for any person, or group of persons, to think both rationally and comprehensively about the ends, the means, and the imp l i ca t ions of all p lann ing p r o b l e m s , s i tua t ions , or op t i ons . L indblom pointed out that plans and decisions made in large scale organizations, be they in the private or public sectors, tend to made in an atmosphere of some crisis, which is often simultaneously rife wi th a p lura l i ty of compe t ing in terests . As a resul t of the d is jo in ted , and essent ia l ly incrementa l nature of o rgan iza t iona l p lanning and decis ion-making Linblom felt it made little sense to "talk about pol ic ies at a l l " . 2 5 In place of careful ly thought out 2 1 pol ic ies L indblom found what cou ld be discr ibed as a ser ies of f ragmented and often unrelated decisions. One of the most s igni f icant problems with the incrementa l theory of p lanning is its lack of a normat ive base. L indblom's incremental theory of planning focuses almost exclusively on the means of p lanning. That is, emphas is is p laced on using the technical aspects of planning to discern which one of a small number of opt ions, which differ only marginal ly from the status quo, is the most sui table. Thus the f inal product (the plan) is subject to l imitat ions of t ime and money as well as to the outcome of the bargaining and mutual ad justment process that is integral to the incremental p lanning/decis ion-making process. The theory is also very largely descr ip t ive . It does not help the p lanner or the decision-maker determine how an organization "would have to act in order to be in some sense more effective or efficient" because the model does not prescribe how planning should be done. Instead it only argues that planning is done incrementa l ly . 2 6 The fundamental premise of the incremental theory is that planning should occur with as little disruption to the status quo as is possible. Policy Theory As with planning, policy and pol icy-making have also been the subject of a burgeoning body of l i terature since the late 1950's. Within this body of l i terature the term policy has been used in a wide variety of different ways. In some sources the term has been 2 2 used to denote "the goal of governmental intervention," in others it is used to refer to the means by which a goal will be achieved. 2 7 Lowi, and Nagel after him, argued that in reality the term 'policy' actual ly refers to both the ends and the means of governmenta l intervent ion. Lowi argues that policy is "a general s tatement by some governmental authori ty def ining an intention to influence the behavior of ci t izens by use of posit ive or negat ive s a n c t i o n s . " 2 8 Nagel chose to define policy as "governmental decisions designed to deal wi th var ious matters such as those related to foreign policy, environmental protection, cr ime, unemployment, and numerous other social p r o b l e m s . " 2 9 Both Lowi and Nagel have, of course, overlooked the fact that organ izat ions other than governments (e.g. corpora t ions , service c lubs, sport federat ions) can, and do, make pol icy. In addi t ion, neither author d iscusses the l inkage between the point within the organization from which a general statement of intent emanates and that s ta tement 's va lue, or credibi l i ty, as pol icy. Clear ly, those general statements of intent made by low level public or corporate bureaucrats do not carry the same authority that those statements issued from the Cabinet or Board of Directors level do. Bauer, like Lowi and Nagel , chose to limit his discussion of policy to the public sector when he contended that policies are the highest level and most complex form of governmenta l dec is ion-making. Policy decis ions have the widest impl icat ions, the longest t ime f rame, and requi re the greates t amoun t of in fo rmat ion , 2 3 analysis, and thought to p r o d u c e . 3 0 Despite the public sector bias, and the at tendant over simplif ications, the essential point made by all three authors remains val id. That is, policy orients the activity of groups of people, be they in public or private organizat ions, or members of the general public. Po l i cy -mak ing has expe r ienced many of the theore t i ca l di lemmas that planning has, and as in planning theory, the greatest debate rages between those who see policy-making as a rational and comprehensive process and those who argue that it is an incremental a c t i v i t y . 3 1 , 3 2 , 3 3 Nagel identifies five stages which those who pursue the ' rat ional ' approach to policy format ion use to arr ive at their policies. They are: Agenda Setting Adoption Imp ementat ion Eva uation Termination of Policy 3 4 It can be argued that the above l isting impl ies a ' rat ional comprehensive ' process of pol icy-making. Both Nagel, with respect to policy, and Mayer with respect to planning, feel their respective subjects can be given a sense of order and comprehensibi l i ty , by b reak ing c o m p l e x and h igh ly i n t e r d e p e n d e n t p r o c e s s e s into conceptual ly discrete stages. W h e n the c o n c e p t of ' ra t iona l ' po l i cy -mak ing w a s f i rs t expl icated in the l i terature the policy maker was (some may argue 2 4 still is) expected to dut i ful ly proceed f rom one stage to another with the end result being the product ion of rat ional p o l i c y . 3 5 As with 'rational comprehensive ' planning there has been considerable crit icism of the concept of 'rational' pol icy-making. The wri t ings of Charles L indblom again provide the crit ics with the foundat ion for their arguments. The crit ics of rational pol icy-making argue that it is unlikely that an organizat ion can martial the resources necessary to under take a comp le te l y rat ional and c o m p r e h e n s i v e pol icy development exercise. In addit ion to organizat ions being unable to commit resources suff ic ient to ensure the deve lopment of rational policy, the crit ics argue that it is impossible to think rationally and comprehensiv ley about all the available policy options and the long, medium, and short term implications of each. Nagel acknowledges that theory of ' rat ional comprehens ive ' pol icy-making as originally proposed is f lawed in that it "requires a degree of rat ionali ty which is impossible to a c h i e v e . " 3 6 However, Nagel goes on to defend the rational theory of po l icy-making by point ing out that pol icy-making does not necessar i ly have to be exhaust ive and encompass ing of all levels of rat ional i ty to be termed 'rational ' . Nagel argues that pol icy-making is 'rational ' when a set of procedures "that will maximize benefits minus costs if one has adequate information and average luck" are used dur ing the development p r o c e s s . 3 7 Since both the incrementa l theory of p lanning and pol icy-making spring f rom the same body of l i terature. The reader is 2 5 invited to refer to the earl ier discussion of the attr ibutes and short comings of the incremental theory of planning for c lar i f icat ion on the theory of incremental pol icy-making. A third theory of policy-making has been developed in response to the diff icult ies inherent in the other theories. This third theory of pol icy-making, usually referred to as "mixed scanning", has come to occupy what might be te rmed the middle ground between the rat ional and incrementa l theor ies of p o l i c y . 3 8 Mixed scanning acknowledges that in the real world of pol icy-making much of the dec is ion-mak ing is, out of necessi ty , incrementa l . The theory, however, goes on to argue that policy makers can, and should, step back f rom the fury of day to day activity and 'scan' the policy horizon to identify broad or long term policy issues and options. It is th is b roader scann ing that Etzioni sees as p rov id ing the oppor tuni ty to achieve ' fundamenta l ' changes in pol icy d i rect ion. Once the broad scanning process has been completed and a new, or s igni f icant ly a l tered, pol icy goal has been ident i f ied the pol icy-maker can revert to an incremental mode to deal with day to day issues and problems. By virtue of having stepped back and scanned the policy hor izon, the pol icy-maker, is able to direct incremental activity in the context of a more clearly defined policy goal . P r o g r a m m e T h e o r y The l i terature relat ing to programme deve lopment theory is somewhat less voluminous than is the l i terature of either planning 2 6 or policy theory. This does not, however, indicate the existence of an area little concerned with theoretical matters. Indeed, there are s o m e c o n s i d e r a b l e t h e o r e t i c a l d e b a t e s occu r r i ng w i th in the l i terature. The theoret ical debate wi th in the l i terature on p rog ramme d e v e l o p m e n t is d iv ided b e t w e e n p r o g r a m m e s as p rocess and programmes as activit ies, or sets of activit ies. Simon and Bauer, for examp le see expl ic i t l i nkages be tween the va r ious t ypes organ iza t iona l dec is ion-mak ing a c t i v i t e s . 3 9 , 4 0 In the work of these authors, and others, programmes are seen to be integral components in the cont inuum of organizational decision-making. A 'process' or cont inuum view, similar to that fo rwarded by Bauer , of p r o g r a m m e s and p r o g r a m m e d e v e l o p m e n t impl ic i ty permeates the definit ion and discussion presented by Mayer. Mayer argues that " a program is an at tempt to achieve a given end by providing activit ies that are vo lun ta ry . " 4 1 Programmes are l inked, in Mayer's argument, to policy and development planning in that, like a policy or a plan, a programme has a set of objectives, a set of act iv i t ies for achieving the object ives and a set of administ rat ive procedures (or mechanisms) for carrying out the activi t ies. Thus, p r o g r a m m e s have , c o n t a i n e d w i th in t h e m , aspec ts tha t are "s t rategic" (object ives) , " tact ica l " (act iv i t ies) , as well as " t r iv ia l " (admin is t ra t i ve p r o c e d u r e s ) . 4 2 Programmes, like policies, provide the "initial condit ions of intervention" and are thus, more than mere ' fo l low th rough ' or imp lemen ta t i on ; wh ich is a set of spec i f ic 2 7 act ions that "complete the casual chain that runs from intervention to the attainment of desired o b j e c t i v e s . " 4 3 , 4 4 The compet ing perspect ive wi th in p rog ramme l i terature is usually associated with the human services professions (e.g. social work, health care, educat ion, etc.) , and does not recognize the process percept ion of p rog rammes . In this l i terature, as two collaborating authors argued "programmes are usually seen as being the means by which governments pursue their broader purposes or ends" and it is only "poor ly de f ined p r o g r a m m e s " that have object ives of their o w n . 4 5 , 4 6 The 'human serv ice v iew 1 of p rogrammes and p rog ramme development is somewhat simplistic. In addit ion, the human sevice v iew presents p rob lems dur ing p rog ramme imp lementa t ion and evaluation. Pressman and Wildavbsky, for example, have contended that it is vital to unders tand the dist inct ion between programme d e v e l o p m e n t and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . 4 7 Imp lementa t ion activit ies they argue, are those actions which, when taken together, bring about the attainment of stated objectives. Programmes refine, sharpen, or focus the pol icy-making and policy implementat ion process. A programme is an organizat ional intervention that is based on the premise of voluntary compl iance. As Mayer has wr i t ten , a p rog ramme is "an in tervent ion that const i tutes a service or activity ... provided to faci l i tate vol i t ional c h a n g e . " 4 8 It is in this sense that programmes refine the policy 2 8 process; for it is through programmes that organizations are able to br ing 'pos i t ive sanct ions ' to bear in the in terest of meet ing articulated goals and objectives. Conclus ions Planning, pol icies and p rogrammes are di f ferent f rom each other. In the first place, planning is an activity - something that one does. Policies and programmes, on the other hand, constitute the outputs (on two different levels - one more general than the other) of p lanning. The literature on planning, pol icies, and programmes has tended to emphas ize the d i f fe rences be tween the th ree activit ies more than is necessary and/or product ive. Emphasiz ing di f ferences is a well respected pedagogical tool , however, it must be realized that instructive models can " c r e a t e 'reality' rather than s imply o b s e r v i n g ] i t . " 4 9 While it is true that planning is not the same thing as policy or programme development it is very closely related and cannot be constructively v iewed, understood, or done in isolation from them. In an effort to clarify the theoret ical debates about p lanning, policy, and programme theory this chapter adopted the l i terature's long s t a n d i n g t rad i t i on of d i s c u s s i n g p l a n n i n g , po l i cy , and programme theory in relative isolation from each other each. P lann ing can be rat ional and c o m p r e h e n s i v e by "be ing i n t e g r a t i v e " . 5 0 Planning is a dynamic dec is ion-making process 2 9 which proceeds in a spiral fashion, as a result of feedback from the various steps of the process. The continual feedback facilitates the ref inement of the pol ic ies and p rog rammes that f low f rom the p lann ing . The ent i re p lann ing p rocess is in terac t ive and interdependent, l inking a variety of ends and means into a rational whole. Pol ic ies are the f irst order (the most genera l ) outputs of planning. Usually a policy is a broad statement of objectives with regard to a part icular area of interest. Indeed, so broad and far reaching are most pol icy s ta tements that they are often cal led 'motherhood statements ' - statements of general intent with which almost everyone can agree. While policy statements may make some re fe rence to imp lementa t ion ac t iv i tes , any d i scuss ion of the act iv i tes of ten lacks specif ic i ty. Se ldomly do pol iciy s ta tements detai l the means by which the 'mo therhood ' ob ject ives wil l be attained. Programmes are second order outputs of planning. Programmes like policies have within them a set of object ives. Programmatic goals , however, tend to be much more specific than those outl ined at the pol icy or motherhood s ta tement level . Programmes are planned "to achieve a given end by providing act ivi t ies that are v o l u n t a r y . " 5 1 As a result programmes establish a set of activities (posi t ive sanct ions) and a set of admin is t ra t ive procedures for bringing those positive sanctions to bear on a given situation. Well p lanned p rog rammes complete the causa l chain that runs f rom 3 0 def in ing a planning issue or task, through the implementat ion of intervent ioneist act iv i tes, to the real izat ion or acheivement of the desired g o a l . 5 2 Imp l i ca t ions It remains to expl icate the cr i ter ia this thesis wil l use to def ine good planning, policy-making and programme development. They are: A ' p rocess ' v iew of p lann ing , po l i c ies and programmes must be the basis of any def in i t ion of good p l a n n i n g , po l i cy , and/or p r o g r a m m e s . P lann ing, po l icy -mak ing , and p rog ramme deve lopment cannot be properly, ve iwed as remaining separate f rom one another . Rather, p lann ing , po l i cy -mak ing , and p r o g r a m m e d e v e l o p m e n t are ingred ien ts that , w h e n blended, produce unique and mutually support ing, whole -the development planning process. Together they provide the context (or environment) within, and the means by, which an organization works toward change. Rat ional i ty is the corners tone of good p lann ing , po l icy , and programmes. Not the linear rationality of the ear l ies t exp l ica t ions of ' ra t ional c o m p r e h e n s i v e ' theory but the procedural rationality of the more recent versions of the theory which stress the desirabil i ty of a rat ional process. That is, a process which leads the 31 planner, pol icy-maker or p rogramme developer to f irst ar t iculate his/her goa ls , and then der ive pol ic ies and programmes that are consistent wi th, and move toward the realization of the goals. Good p l a n n i n g , p o l i c i e s , and p r o g r a m m e s are in tegra l l y l inked and share a set of c o m m o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Namely: Change Directed Goal Oriented Choice Maximizing Procedural ly Rational Collectively Oriented 5 3 Meaningfu l po l i c ies and p rog rammes cannot be d e v e l o p e d in a v a c u u m , t h e r e m u s t be re fe rence / l inkage be tween t h e m . To attempt to do the otherwise would result in policies and programmes that are as misleading as helpful. In the context of this thes is the impl icat ions of the l inkages are that any explorat ion and analysis of the planning associated with the development of the tourism sector in the NWT cannot be conducted without an explorat ion and analysis of the outputs of the planning process - the tour ism pol ic ies and programmes of the Government of the Nor thwest Terr i tor ies. 3 2 For deve lopment p lann ing to be success fu l and ef f ic ient it is necessary that p lann ing , po l i c ies , and programmes be integrated into an operat ional w h o l e . An operational whole is created when a rational a n d s y s t e m a t i c p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i n f o r m s the development of policies, and then guides the selection of appropr iate p rogrammes, and f inal ly ( though this area has been deemed to be beyond the scope of this thesis and therefore not d iscussed) , directs the ident i f icat ion and implementat ion of specif ic projects. Planning is more than the mechanis t ic adherence to a p lann ing method , an acceptable resul t w i l l not be p r o d u c e d if l oca l s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l , c u l t u r a l , and p a r t i c i p a t o r y r e a l i t i e s are not a d d r e s s e d . Development planning is as much a social and political process as an economic or technocratic one. Governments have a t tempted to so lve deve lopmenta l problems without the support and part ic ipat ion of their public, in general , however, the efforts have fai led for want of c lear and realist ic goals and object ives. The issue in planning is not which planning theory or model is right and should be adhered to, but how decisions are made, and whether or not the people most affected have had an opportunity to affect the outcome. Development planning must address not only the narrow technica l issues o l planning development, it must also address the 3 3 broader social, polit ical, and economic issues inherent in planning fo_r development. 3 4 References Chapter 2 1 Brian W. Hogwood and Lewis A. Gunn, Policy Analysis in the  Real Wor ld. (London: Oxford University Press, 1984), P. 63. 2 Robert R. Mayer, Policy and Program Planning: A Developmental  Pe rspec t i ve . (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall Inc., 1985). 3 Stuart S. Nagel, Public Policy: Goals. Means, and Methods. (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1984). 4 Henry Mintzberg and Jan Jorgensen, "Emergent Strategy for Public Policy", Candian Public Administrat ion. Vol 30, No. 2, (Summer 1987), Pp. 214-229. 5 Mayer, Policy and Program Planning.. 6 Nagel, Public Policy.. 7 J . Page and R. Lang, "Canadian Planners in Profile", Presented to the Canadian Institute of Planners Annual Conference, Toronto, June 27, 1977 Toronto: York University, P. 7. 8 B.M. Hudson , "Compar ison of Cur rent P lanning Theor ies : Counterpar ts and Contradict ions", Amer ican Planning Assoc ia t ion  Journa l Vol. 46, #1,1977, Pp. 387-398. 9 G.C. Hemmens, "New Directions in Planning Theory", A m e r i c a n  Planning Associat ion Journal Vol. 46, #3, 1980, Pp. 259-260. 1 0 T.D. Galloway and R.G. Mahayni, "Planning Theory in Retrospect: The Process of Paradigm Change", American Institute of Planners  Jou rna l Vol. 43, # 1 , 1977, Pp. 62-71 1 1 Kevin O'Reil ly, "An Evaluat ion of the Terr i tor ial Land Use Regulat ions as a Land Management Tool in the Yukon" , Masters Thesis, University of Waterloo, 1983, P.17. 35 12 John Friedmann, Retrackinq Amer ica: A Theory of Transact ive  Planning. (New York: Anchor Press, Doubleday, 1973), P.50. 1 3 Mayer, Policy and Program Planning. P. 4. 1 4 James Joseph Cameron, "Culture and Change in the Northwest Ter r i to r ies : Impl icat ions for Communi ty In f ras t ruc ture P lann ing" , Masters Thesis, University of British Columbia, 1985, P. 169. 1 5 Hudson, "Comparison of Current Planning Theories", Pp. 387-398. 1 6 Mayer, Policy and Program Planning. Pp. 104-105. 17 ibid. 1 8 O 'Re i l l y , "An E v a l u a t i o n of the T e r r i t o r i a l Land Use Regulations", P. 16 1 9 Mayer, Policy and Program Planning. P. 30 20 ibid., P. 103 21 Ibid., P. 29 2 2 O 'Re i l l y , "An E v a l u a t i o n of the T e r r i t o r i a l L a n d Use Regulations", P. 16 2 3 Charles E. Lindblom, "The Science of 'Muddling Through", Pub l i c  Adminis t rat ion Review. 1959, Vol. 19 (Spring), Pp. 79-88. 2 4 David Braybrooke and Char les E. L indb lom, A Strategy of  Decis ion. (New York: The Free Press, 1968) 2 5 M in tzberg and J o r g e n s e n , "Emergent S t ra tegy for Publ ic Policy," Pp. 214-229. 2 6 Edward C. Banfield, "Ends and Means in Planning", I n t e r n a t i o n a l  Social Science Journal . 1959, Vol. 11 , #3, P. 368. 2 7 Mayer, Policy and Program Planning. P. 16. 36 2 8 Theodore J . Lowi , "Populat ion Pol ic ies and the Amer ican Political System", in Political Science in Populat ion Studies. (Eds.) Richard L. Cl in ton, Wi l l iam, S. F lash, and R. Kenneth Godwin , (Lexington: Lexington Books, 1972), P. 27. 2 9 Nagel, Public Policy. P.1. 3 0 Raymond A. Bauer , "The Study of Pol icy Format ion : An Introduct ion" in The Study of Policy Format ion. (Eds.) Raymond A. Bauer and Kenneth J . Gergen, (New York: The Free Press, 1968), Pp. 1-26 3 1 Lindblom, "The Science of 'Muddling Through", Pp. 79-88. 3 2 Paul R. Shulman, "Non-incremental Policy Making: Notes Toward an Alternat ive Paradigm", American Political Science Rev iew . Vol. 69, #4, (December), 1975, Pp. 1354-1370 3 3 Nagel, Public Policy 3 4 Ibid., P. 3 3 5 Ibid. 3 8 Ibid. 3 7 Ibid., P. 4. 3 8 A. Etz ioni , "Mixed Scann ing: A Thi rd Approach to Decision Mak ing" Publ ic Admin is t ra t ion Review Vol. 27, #5, 1967, Pp. 385-392. 3 9 H. A. Simon, The New Science of Management Decision. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hal l , 1960 4 0 Bauer, "The Study of Policy Formation", Pp. 1-26 4 1 Mayer, Policy and Program Planning. P. 18. 4 2 Ibid., P. 20 37 4 3 Ibid. 44 Ibid. 45 Brian W. Hogwood and Lewis A. Gunn, Policy Analysis in the  Real World. (London: Oxford University Press, 1984), P. 16. 46 Ibid., P. 16 47 Jeffery L. Pressman and Aaron Wi ldavbsky, I m p l e m e n t a t i o n . (Berkley: University of California Press, 1973) 48 Mayer, Policy and Program Planning. P. 21 4 9 Hogwood and Gunn, Policy Analysis. P. 42 5 0 Mayer, Policy and Program Planning. P. 30 5 1 Ibid., P. 18 5 2 Ibid., P. 20 5 3 Lowi, "Population Policies", 1972 3 8 Chapter 3 THE INFORMATIONAL RESOURCES OF THE GNWT: Planning, Pol icies, and Programmes in a Vacuum The object ive of this chapter is to identify the informational demands of the p lann ing, pol icy, and p r o g r a m m e deve lopmen t processes, and then compare these with the informational resources avai lable in the NWT to determine whether or not the resources available are sufficient to meet the demands being placed upon them. As has been pointed out in Chapter 2 the planning of policies and programmes is intended to bring rationality to bear on future a c t i o n s . 1 To design a "rational course of col lect ive act ion" "the application of [ information and] knowledge in an organized manner" must occur. 2 , 3 In short, planning, pol icy-making, and programme deve lopment are all in format ion intensive act iv i t ies. As a result, without good information, good planning can not occur. Before specific policy and programme options can be proposed the p lanner must unders tand the genera l pol i t ica l and soc io-economic reality in wh ich planning occurs, as wel l as any the current impediments to development. In addi t ion, good information makes the task of formulat ing plans, pol ic ies, and programmes possible by making the l inkages between the env i ronment , goals, impediments more understandable and al lowing planner to identify 3 9 what specif ic policy and programme options will do, who they will benefit, how effective each will be. Robert Chambers writ ing about information and development p lanning noted that "a great deal of the in format ion that is g e n e r a t e d [in suppor t of d e v e l o p m e n t p lann ing ef for ts ] is ... i r re levant , late, wrong and/or unusab le a n y w a y . " 4 In the most general sense then, good information, in the context of development, can be def ined as information that is relevant, t imely, correct, and usable for the task at hand. Given that adequate information is a necessary pre-condit ion to good planning, policy and programmes, it is possible to g lean important clues about the extent and quality of the planning going into pol icies and programmes by examining the amount , and the quality of information being col lected for use in the process. After all policy and programme opt ions cannot be accepted or rejected without understanding what they will do, who they will benefit, and how effective each option might be. In the case of tourism in the Nor thwest Terr i tor ies, three types of informat ion are required for the g o v e r n m e n t to do c red ib le j ob of p lann ing the sec tor 's development. First, planners have to have a good understanding of the current, as well as the potent ial , scope and depth of the NWT tourism sector. That is, planners must know how many tourists are current ly coming to the Nor thwest Terr i tor ies, how much money they are spending, how many Terri torial residents are employed in the tour ism sector, what is it that the tourists come for, how long they stay, and how they travel. Second, planners must have a clear understanding of the needs, aspirat ions, and capabi l i t ies of NWT residents with regard to tour ism. The planners must know who will benefit f rom the development of tour ism. Will, for example, Native people derive signif icant benefi t f rom the development of tour ism, or will it be largely non-resident lodge owners? What factors are, or could constra in the invo lvement of Terr i tor ial residents in the sector? Does tourism fit with the value systems of the people in the Northwest Terr i tor ies? What kind of tour ism deve lopment , if they want it at all, do the people in the communit ies prefer? Third, what are the tourism resources of the Northwest Terr i tor ies? Are these resources accessible? To what degree are the NWT's tourism resources current ly being ut i l ized for tour ism or other uses (e.g. subs is tence in the case of hunt ing and f ishing)? What is the potential impact of tourism development on the resource base? Understanding the scope and depth of the NWT tourism sector is a basic step in a t tempt ing to deve lop sound, ra t ional , and ef fect ive tour ism pol ic ies and p rogrammes. Whi le the GNWT's tourism planners have access to some basic information on tourism in the NWT, there is reason to quest ion its reliability. A document p r e p a r e d by the G o v e r n m e n t of the N o r t h w e s t Te r r i t o r i es ' Department of Economic Development and Tourism on October 23, 1986 discussed the size and scope of the NWT's tourism sector. The document argued that: Today , ava i lab le da ta sugges t that annua l v is i ta t ion reaches 44 ,000 . These v is i tors spend an es t imated 4 1 $1,000 each to generate some $40 to $50 mil l ion in business revenues and more than 1500 full t ime and 2000 par t - t ime jobs , most ly for ter r i tor ia l res idents ; business travelers spend even more per cap i ta . 5 A consu l tant 's report p repa red , in Apri l of 1986, for the terr i torial government 's Depar tment of Economic Development and Tour ism painted a similar picture. The consultant concluded, based on data from the years 1982-84, that: More than 40,000 business and pleasure travelers visit the Nor thwest Terr i tor ies every year. It has been e s t i m a t e d tha t th is ac t i v i t y in jec ts a p p r o x i m a t e l y $ 6 0 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 C d n . in to t h e t e r r i t o r i a l e c o n o m y , s t imula t ing about 4 ,000 person-years of emp loymen t annually. As a private sector economic activity, tour ism is the second largest producer of employment in the Nor thwest Te r r i t o r i es . 6 A third consultant 's report, again prepared for the Department of Economic Development and Tour ism in 1986, again draws similar conclusions about the size and nature of the NWT tourism industry. Th is th i rd report looked at the level of tou r i sm and t rave l expenditures for the year 1981-82 and extrapolated from that f igure ($58 mil l ion) to conclude that " the Nor thwest Terr i tor ies ' tour ism industry wou ld employ 1,943 people direct ly and a fur ther 684 i n d i r e c t l y . " 7 The information provided in each of the reports is impor tan t in tha t it p r o v i d e s the D e p a r t m e n t of E c o n o m i c Development and Tourism with s o m e sense of the size the tourism sector. The information is, however, of a relatively general nature, and perhaps should have its reliability quest ioned. 4 2 Within the Department of Economic Development and Tour ism, some officials have noted that even the most 'up to date* data (i.e. any of the three studies discussed above) regarding the 'state of the tour ism industry' is at least five years o l d . 8 This fact becomes a very s ign i f i can t hand icap w h e n a t tempt ing to p lan for the development of an industry that is rapidly changing and in which five year old data can be significantly, even dangerously, misleading. The problems of relying on five year old data are driven home when one realizes that "the value of tour ism around the wor ld total led more than $658 bil l ion US in 1979, represent ing 2.4 mill ion tr ips. By 1983, only f ive years latter, this had grown to $1.09 trill ion US - or 3.6 mil l ion tr ips (66% inc rease ) " . 9 Thus, planning pol ic ies and p rogrammes uti l izing data that are f ive or more years o ld very s igni f icant ly increases the possibi l i ty of deve lop ing inappropr ia te policies and programmes. As well as being seriously out of date, the GNWT's tour ism data has been, and still is , col lected in c i rcumstances which are cons iderab ly less than op t imum. It has been c la imed that the GNWT's most recent data are less than adequate for planning and decision-making purposes. The "data has an error rate of at least 40 - 50 % because the data collections exercises were [structured] in a very biased w a y . " 1 0 Addit ionally, because the GNWT "changed [its data col lect ion] method part way through [the research exercise it] cannot do [any] compar isons, [it is] left with contradictory d a t a . " 1 1 As a result of switching da ta col lect ion method part way through 4 3 the exercise the Government further compromised data that were already of very quest ionable utility given their a g e . 1 2 The repor ted da ta ut i l izat ion pract ices of some long t ime employees of the Department of Economic Development and Tourism may have even fu r ther exace rba ted a l ready s ign i f i can t da ta problems. It has been reported, that those who used the available tour ism data on a daily basis were aware of the short -comings in the 'off icial ' stat ist ics, and developed a tendency to d iscount the data in response to this knowledge. Thus, when discharging their daily dut ies (policy and programme planning, report wr i t ing, etc.) , some Government off icials regularly ut i l ized est imates, based on their p e r s o n a l knowledge of tourism in the NWT, in place of factual f i g u r e s . 1 3 Thus, over t ime, data that have come to be accepted as ' factual ' by Economic Development and Tour ism off ic ials, pr ivate operators in the industry, and even the government of Canada are actually only unsubstant iated guesses, which have, over the years, been given the appearance of fact. Observers f rom outs ide the G N W T have found reason to quest ion both the quantity and quality of the data available for use in planning the deve lopment of the NWT's tour ism sector. One consulting company noted: m a n a g e m e n t in format ion has not been access ib le or ach ievab le th rough research of suf f ic ient quant i ty or Duality necessary for the formulat ion of policy, informed e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , e c o n o m i c p l a n n i n g , p r o g r a m development, implementation and m a n a g e m e n t . 1 4 44 At another point in the same report the consult ing f irm argued "research and statist ical information are general ly inadequate" and "vital ... p lanning informat ion concern ing [ tour ism] plant capaci ty , g rowth rates and compet i t i ve in i t ia t ives are miss ing f rom the GNWT's data b a n k s . " 1 5 , 1 6 A second consulting f irm, while somewhat more obtuse in its cr i t ic ism of the quanti ty and qual i ty of data available makes much the same point by noting that "the available data on travel activity ... is not as complete or specific as would be d e s i r a b l e . " 1 7 This is a particular problem given that the NWT is an enormous jurisdict ion (over 1.6 mill ion square ki lometers) with very d iverse geographic, cu l tura l , and social resources which establ ish fundamenta l ly di f ferent soc io -economic real i t ies in di f ferent areas of the NWT. An additional data problem is that most of the tourism related data available pertains to one region of the NWT - the Fort Smith (administrative) Region. The fostering of tour ism development on a territorial basis requires, data base that provides onformation on all regions of the NWT and not just the Fort Smith (administrat ive) Region. One consultant to the GNWT, while attempting to discuss the state of the NWT tour ism industry noted that beyond what was available for the Fort Smith region "data [were] not available for the other regions [of the N W T ] . " 1 8 This reality may have been a s igni f icant l iabil i ty for p lanners at tempt ing to fulf i l l the goals of the NWT Tour ism Strategy and ensure that tour ism "opportuni t ies [were] d ispersed throughout the Northwest Terr i tor ies . . . " . 1 9 At the 45 very minimum the GNWT's tourism planners need to know whether or not there current ly is tour ism activity, its vo lume (expressed both in person days and cash in-f low), type, the most usual mode of t ravel , reason for v is i t ing, and dest inat ions. For, only wi th such in format ion wil l the p lanners be able to assess the economic viabi l i ty of investment in tour ism related ventures of the NWT (other than in the Fort Smith Region). S ign i f i can t i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s in the d a t a q u i c k l y b e c o m e apparent when one begins to compare certain aspects of the 'official* data to the underlying t rends in the sector. For instance, it has been noted that: [G]NWT internal data shows a dramatic rise in [ tourism] spending of 6 2 . 5 % in the summer of 1983 over the summer of 1982. This increase is extremely remarkable - or suspect - given that there was no recorded increase in visitation in the NWT data for these two p e r i o d s . 2 0 The quality of the data available to help plan the development of the tourism sector, and thus of the entire economy of the NWT, becomes even more suspect when one begins to compare the data g e n e r a t e d by in ternal sou rces wi th that g e n e r a t e d by ex t ra -terr i tor ial sources . One extra- terr i tor ia l source, the consul t ing f irm Canadian Facts, produced data on the NWT tour ism sector that was at considerable variance to aggregated H [G]NWT internal d a t a " . 2 1 Canadian Facts records total visitation to the Northwest Terr i tor ies as being down 7% whi le total expendi tures are up by 1 % . NWT data has visitation up by 40 .2% and spending up by 2 6 . 3 % . 2 2 4 6 The Gove rnmen t of the Nor thwest Terr i tor ies ' Fort Smi th Region, as noted above, contains the vast majority of the NWT's tour ism investment (especial ly in the form of f ishing and hunting lodges) and receives the largest level of visitation with 66 .5% of all travellers to the NWT visit ing this r e g i o n . 2 3 The high visitation rate reflects the fact that two of the NWT's three highway access routes run through the Fort Smith region. As one consultant's report noted w h e n d i scuss ing the N W T ' s Tour i sm marke t : " the p r imary destination area [within the NWT] is the Fort Smith region. This is due to the fact that this region is road accessib le, is c losest to markets (Alberta and British Columbia) and off the Liard Highway connection between the Mackenzie and Alaska H ighways . " 2 4 When one moves f rom examin ing the tour ism informat ion avai lable at the territorial level to examining the data avai lable at the regional level it becomes obvious that the reliability and utility of the in fo rmat ion ac tua l ly de te r io ra tes . The research f i rm, Canadian Facts, reports a decl ine in visi tat ion to the crucial Fort Smith region between 1982 and 1983 of 2 2 % with a resul tant decl ine in total tour ism expendi tures for the region of 1 . 5 % . 2 5 , 2 6 The tour ism data generated within the NWT, on the other hand, reports a decl ine in visitation of 24 .9% but an i n c r e a s e in tourism expenditures within the Fort Smith region of 1 8 . 3 % . 2 7 Consultants work ing in the a r e a of tou r i sm marke t ing for the ter r i to r ia l government 's Depar tment of Economic Development and Tour ism, when they became aware of the very signif icant data problems, felt compe l led to caut ion those who might use their report . The 4 7 consul tants, with reference to the inconsistency of the data wrote: "Given such discrepancies in the data, caut ion should be used in interpret ing this d a t a . " 2 8 The comple te lack of in format ion about the NWT's t ravel account provides but one more example of how the GNWT's tourism planners are thwarted in their at tempts to understand the tour ism component of the NWT economy. It is known, for example, that for southern Canada "the largest Canadian travel market is the domestic market . It now accounts for 8 0 % of all tour ism expendi ture in C a n a d a . " 2 9 Because there is no reliable information regarding the travel patterns of NWT residents G N W T tour ism p lanners s imply have no way of determining whether a similar situation exists in the NWT or not. In the absence of any information on the terr i torial travel account the tourism development planners have little chance of coming to understand the travel patterns of northerners. Without such understanding tourism development planners are left wonder ing whether fostering domestic (i.e. intra NWT travel for NWT residents) is needed, des i rab le , or feas ib le . For w i thout the means to understand the dynamics of the NWT travel account planners cannot even de termine whether there is a p rob lem that needs to be addressed with policies and/or programmes in the first place. As one consultant lamented: Unfortunately we could f ind no travel account data for the Northwest Terri tories. As a result we are unable to comment on the size of the Nor thwes t Ter r i to r ies ' t ravel defici t or surplus. If the Northwest Terr i tor ies's travel account is in a surplus posit ion it would be a positive sign of a healthy tourism economy. If it is [in] a 48 negat ive posit ion then the Nor thwest Terr i tor ies would IOOK to import subst i tut ion possibi l i t ies to deve lop its own resident travel markets and stop the leakage of i ncome and e m p l o y m e n t a s s o c i a t e d wi th res iden ts t ravel ing outside the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s . 3 0 At s o m e leve ls w i th in the D e p a r t m e n t of E c o n o m i c Development and Tour ism there is an acknowledgment that the quant i ty and quali ty of da ta avai lable must be improved if the Department is to assist the GNWT do serious economic planning with a focus on the tour ism s e c t o r . 3 1 Concern about the state of the knowledge with regard to tour ism in the Northwest Terr i tor ies has also begun to surface in government documents. Recently the GNWT acknowledged that "there is a critical need to develop and maintain a comprehensive data base to monitor and assess the progress of all aspects" of the tourism s e c t o r . 3 2 Similarly, before a meeting of the No r thwes t Ter r i to r ies T rave l Indus t ry Assoc ia t i on g o v e r n m e n t officials argued that "research is the fundamental tool for planning and imp lement ing [an] e f fec t ive and ef f ic ient ... d e v e l o p m e n t s t r a t e g y " . 3 3 The new data the GNWT has proposed that it col lect is of a part icular type, for a part icular purpose, and may not be direct ly useful in terr i tor ia l tour ism deve lopment p lann ing. The tour ism related research and planning recommended by government officials and consu l tan ts to da te has re lated a lmost exc lus ive ly to the marketing of NWT tourism products. For example, one government document argues: 4 9 Research is especial ly important, f rom the gather ing of in fo rmat ion about the type of v is i tor who a l ready travels in the NWT and what his/her preferences are ... to d e t e r m i n i n g the t ype of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h a potent ia l visitor has, including the tour ism faci l i t ies he expects to f ind, the type of experiences he prefers and the value-for money relat ionships which are necessary. Only with the input and information feedback from the industry wil l we be able to de te rmine whe the r our col lect ive init iatives are successful or n o t . 3 4 Based on the foregoing examinat ion of the in format iona l resources avai lable to facil itate the tourism development a number of observat ions can be made. First, the data col lect ion efforts of the G N W T have been ser iously f lawed. As a result , there is ' inadequate' information, both in the quantity and quality senses, for sound planning. Second, there are indications that the reliability, of even the most basic information about the scope and depth of the NWT's tour ism sector, is in quest ion . Th i rd , the da ta that is avai lable is f ive, or more, years old, and this is a signi f icant hand icap for p lanners a t tempt ing to encourage and di rect the development of a very rapidly changing industry. Fourth, what data there is pertains almost exclusively to one administrat ive region of the NWT - the Fort Smith Region; Fifth, there is some evidence that in response to an informational vacuum, individuals working in the area have taken to generating their own 'facts' about tourism in the NWT. Whi le this shows ingenuity and drive on the part of people working in the field of tourism development it does not enhance the chances of those individuals making rational tour ism deve lopment decis ions. Sixth, the Department of Economic Development and T o u r i s m is w o r k i n g to improve its i n fo rma t iona l r e s o u r c e s . 5 0 However, it appears that the Department is concentrat ing on the c o l l e c t i o n of m a r k e t i n g o r i e n t e d i n f o r m a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n in format ion would be that re levant in a pol icy and p rogramme planning context. Seventh , there is no evidence of the tour ism p lanners consu l t ing the publ ic in an a t tempt to deve lop an understanding of the aspirat ions, needs, and capabi l i t ies of NWT residents with regard to tour ism. Rather than expend ing its resources co l lec t ing market ing or iented data the G N W T should be attempting to secure for itself po l icy and p r o g r a m m e p lann ing re levant i n f o r m a t i o n . Such information would make it possible for tourism planners to do three things: first, understand who travel les in the Northwest Terri tories, when they come, how they get there and what brings them; second clearly understand what the needs, aspirat ions and capabi l i t ies of NWT residents (part icularly that majority of the populat ion that is of Native decent and which resides in the many smal l and remote communi t ies of the NWT) wi th regard to tour ism; th i rd, develop some feel for the type of tourism resources present in the NWT, the degree to wh ich those resources are a l ready ut i l ized (in both tour ism and non- tour ism contexts) , the avai labi l i ty of specia l ized h u m a n r e s o u r c e s ( e . g . s k i l l e d g u i d e s , s e a s o n e d m a n a g e r s / a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , a c c o u n t a n t s , e tc . ) to f ac i l i t a te the emergence of a broadly based and well rounded tourism industry. 51 Imp l i ca t i ons The implications, for planning and planners, of having poor information are several and significant. While plentiful and accurate information alone will not ensure that sound decisions will be made. However, decisions made on the basis of accurate in formation will, on average, be better than those made by people utilizing less than reliable information. The planning, policy and programme processes are information intensive and dependent. Planners, pol icy-makers and programme developers collect, process, and analyze information as they work to understand the situation they are faced wi th, determine the goals, and objectives that will be strived for, and finally, propose, rank and implement a variety of policy and programme options that will bring about a more desirable state of affairs or future. Planning, pol icy-making, or programme development that occurs without access to relevant, accurate, and t imely information does not have the benefit of all the facts and therefore is unable to develop the most rational and/or appropriate set of alternatives. Without sound information planners and policy-makers are unable to comprehend what it is about the present situation that is undesirable, let alone propose rank and implement policy and programmes to improve the situation at some future point. 52 R e f e r e n c e s C h a p t e r 3 1 See Chapter 2, Planning/Pol icies/Programmes: the Linkages. 2 Robert R. Mayer, Policy and Program Planning: A Deve lopmenta l  Pe rspec t i ve (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice - Hall Inc., 1985), P. 4. 3 John Friedmann, Retracking Amer ica: A Theory of Transact ive  Planning (New York: Anchor Press, Doubleday, 1973), P. 50. 4 Robert Chambers, "Rapid Rural Appriasal; Rationale and Reportoire" presented to the World Bank Agricultural Sector Sympos ia . January 1980 (mimeo). 5 Government of the Northwest Territories, "Schedule A, Canada-Nor thwest Terr i tor ies Tour ism Development Subsid iary Agreement , Draft Document", (October 23, 1986), P.1. 6 Br iar In ternat iona l Bus iness Resources L td . , "A St ra teg ic Market ing Plan for Tour ism for the Government of the Northwest Territories", (Ottawa: April, 1986), P. A. 7 Derek Murray Consul t ing Assoc ia t ion , "D iscuss ion Paper Rev iew and S u m m a t i o n of the Nor thwes t Ter r i to r ies Tou r i sm Industry, Documents and Programs", (Regina: Department of Economic Development and Tourism,1986), P. 10. 8 Personal communicat ion with G. Hamre, Special Advisor, Park Development, Economic Development and Tourism, Government of the Northwest Territories, January 20, 1987. 9 G o v e r n m e n t of the Nor thwes t Ter r i to r ies , Depar tmen t of Economic Development and Tour ism, "Strategic Marketing Plan: A Presenta t ion to the NWT Tour ism Industry Assoc ia t ion Annua l General Meeting -1986", P. 2 (Emphasis added.). 1 0 Persona l te lephone commun ica t ion w i th A imee Br i t ton, of Briar International Business Resources Ltd., April 8, 1987. 53 11 Ibid. 1 2 Personal communication with G. Hamre, January 20, 1987. 13 ibid. 1 4 Briar International Business Resources Ltd., "A Strategic Market ing Plan", P. G. i s ibid., P. 13. 16 Ibid. 1 7 Derek Murray Consult ing Association, "Review and Summation of the Northwest Territories Tourism Industry", P. 12. 1 8 Ibid., P. 17. 1 9 Government of the Northwest Territories, Department of Economic Development and Tourism, Community Based Tour ism: A Strategy for the Northwest Terri tories Tour ism Industry. (Yellowknife: Department of Economic Development and Tour ism,1983), Pp. 10-11. 2 0 Briar International Business Resources Ltd., "A Strategic Market ing Plan", P. 28. 20 Ib id. 2 2 Ibid., P. 29. 2 3 Percentage f igures computated by the author form information con ta ined in, Derek Murray Consul t ing Assoc ia t ion , "Rev iew and Summation of the Northwest Territories Tourism Industry", P. 14. 2 4 Derek Murray Consult ing Associat ion, "Review and Summation of the Northwest Territories Tourism Industry", P. 14. 2 5 Canad ian Facts is a consul t ing f i rm commiss ioned by the Department of Economic Development and Tourism to undertake the 1984 Northwest Territories Travel Survey. Canadian Facts col lected 54 f ield data by sampl ing the travel ing public at eight airport and two highway locations in the NWT. Data col lect ion took place at all points between June 25 and September 4, 1984. A stratif ied, multi-s tage probabi l i ty sampl ing techn ique was used to identi fy da ta col lect ion st ints. Two quest ionnaires, one a personal interview (of three to f ive minutes in durat ion) and the other a sel f -completed mailback interview were used. 2 6 Briar International Business Resources Ltd., "A Strategic Marketing Plan", P. 28 2 7 Ibid. 2 8 Ibid. 2 9 Derek Murray Consult ing Association, "Review and Summation of the Northwest Territories Tourism Industry", P. 6 so Ibid., Pp. 8-9 3 1 Personal communicat ion with G. Hamre, January 20, 1987. 3 2 Government of the Northwest Territories, "Schedule A, Canada-Northwest Terr i tor ies Tour ism Development Subsidiary Agreement",. (Draft Document), October 23, 1986, P. 5. 3 3 Government of the Northwest Territories, Department of Economic Development and Tourism, "Strategic Marketing Plan: A Presentat ion to the NWT Tourism Industry Associat ion", P. 3 3 4 Ibid. 5 5 Chapter 4 TOURISM POLICY AND REGULATION IN THE NORTHWEST TERRITORIES The object ive of this chapter is to examine the most general level of outputs (policies and regulations) of the Government of the N o r t h w e s t Te r r i t o r ies ' s t ou r i sm d e v e l o p m e n t p lann ing e f fo r ts . P lann ing , is an inte l lectual ac t iv i ty wh ich canno t be d i rect ly observed or measured. Consequent ly , one must resort to the observat ion and measurement of p lanning indicators to gain an insight into p lanning act ivi ty. The l inks be tween p lanning and pol icy-making and/or programme development make it possible to glean information about the development planning being done by an organizat ion by examining the policies that have been forwarded by that organization. In short, policies and programmes can be planning indicators. There is a wide spread percept ion, both within and without the Government of the Northwest Territories, that there is a shortage of tour ism deve lopment policy in the NWT. Within government the shor tage of tour ism policy was most clearly identi f ied in a 1983 Department of Economic Development and Tourism document entit led Communi ty Based Tour ism: A Strategy for the Northwest Territories Tour ism Industry. The document noted that: To date there has been not one overal l government or industry strategy or set of policies to guide the direction 5 6 of the tour ism industry. There are a few isolated policy statements, some fragmented planning and a set o f now ou t -o f -da te l eg i s la t i on . 1 More recently, f rom outside the GNWT the shortage of a clear pol icy has been c o m m e n t e d on by consul tants reta ined by the Department of Economic Development and Tour ism to assist in the development of the NWT's tourism sector. One of these, after "a review of all current documents, programs and studies deal ing with tour ism in the Northwest Territories", noted that wh i l e : 2 the Government of the Northwest Terri tories has always expressed an interest in deve lop ing tour i sm ... tne interest expressed by the Government of the Northwest Territories has always been unstructured ... 3 Non-governmental organizations have also expressed concern about the paucity of tourism development policy in the NWT. The Deh Cho Regional Council, for example, pointed out to the Department of Economic Development and Tourism that the 1983 document Communi ty Based Tour ism is the only tourism development policy statement published by the government. To the Regional Council "the irony [of the GNWT's tourism policy situation was] clear and obvious; ... [given that] the only 'solid piece' of [tourism development] policy documentat ion l amen ted ] the fact that there [was] 'not one overall government or industry strategy or set of pol ic ies." 4 5 7 THE NWT TOURISM STRATEGY Despite the deficiencies of Communi ty Based Tour ism the Government of the Northwest Territories has stated that the paper "can be referred to as the NWT Tourism Strategy". 5 Given this, and the fact there are no other policy documents to turn to it is necessary that Community Based Tourism be mined for whatever nuggets of insight into the GNWT's economic development planning efforts it may contain. Within Communi ty Based Tour ism one broad goal for tourism development in the NWT is made explicit. It is stated that the goal of the NWT Tourism Strategy is to "assist communi t ies and t h e i r  residents across the NWT in achieving their tour ism revenue and employment object ives in a manner compat ib le with their l i festyles  a n d a s p i r a t i o n s . 6 It is also argued, however, that the Tourism Strategy is built upon twelve 'Guiding Principles'. They are listed as being: a) Tour ism is a desirable industry for the Nor thwest Terr i tor ies; and , its oppor tuni t ies should be dispersed throughout the Northwest Ter r i to r ies and not to jus t a few large centres. b) Tour ism should only be developed and p romoted in those communi t ies wh ich are ready and interested in being involved in the industry, and where a tourism wage economy is, judged by the community residents, to be c o m p a t i b l e and c o m p l e m e n t a r y to the i r l i festy les. Priori ty wi l l be g iven to those communi t ies that have a l imited range of economic development opportunit ies. 5 8 c) Oppor tun i t i es for j obs , t ra in ing and bus iness deve lopment snai l be d i rected to ensure max imum economic benef i ts for the Northwest Terr i tor ies' residents; and tour ism development shall be phased to reflect and be integrated wi th , the training and skill levels of Northwest Terr i tor ies residents. d) Tour ism should be primari ly a pr ivate sector industry; and this includes all profit-or iented forms of bus inesses, deve lopment corpora t ions and organ iza t ions involved in the travel industry. e) Res ident ownersh ip of fac i l i t ies and services shall be encouraged. The private sector should take the lead in deve lop ing v iab le o p e r a t i o n s , w i th the G o v e r n m e n t involved in the provision of support services ( r o a d s , a i r p o r t s , r e s e a r c h , g e n e r a l information dist r ibut ion). In the short te rm, however , government wi l l need to prov ide i n c e n t i v e s to e n c o u r a g e a n d f a c i l i t a t e tourism development. f ) The private sector shall be encouraged to provide products and services to visi tors at a fair price. g) C o m m u n i t i e s , l oca l a n d r e g i o n a l deve lopment corpora t ions and assoc ia t ions, and the general public shall be afforded the oppor tun i t y to par t i c ipa te in consu l ta t i on p r o g r a m s to help ensu re that Nor thwes t T e r r i t o r i e s r e s i d e n t s d e r i v e m a x i m u m benef i t s f rom tou r i sm- re la ted act iv i t ies in and around their community. h) Tour ism in the Nor thwest Terr i tor ies should be a year round industry, not just a seasonal one. The spring season has much potent ial . i ) Large volumes of visitors at one t ime in one location are not desirable in all by the larger communi t ies. Avoiding large numbers wi l l ensure high qual i ty exper iences for the v is i tors , be w i th in the capabi l i t ies of our smal le r tour ism bus inesses , and min imize disturbances to communi ty residents. j ) Tour ism shou ld bui ld on the natura l , cultural and historic resources of the NWT; 5 9 a n d , e m p h a s i z e the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n a n d deve lopment of at t ract ions based on learn, observe and exper ience oppor tuni t ies. To minimize social and envi ronmental impacts, the tourism industry should not compete with hun ters and t rappe rs for sca rce natura l resources. k) It is r e c o g n i z e d tha t the v a r i o u s tourism destination zones across the NWT are d i f ferent f rom each other wi th respect to their sophist icat ion and level of development needs; and, this wil l determine the select ion of p r o g r a m s d r a w n upon by e a c h , and influence the way in which the programs are used. I ) Each t o u r i s m des t ina t ion zone has s p e c i a l i z e d g e o g r a p h i c a l / h i s t o r i c a l / c u l t u r a l p roducts to of fer, and this wil l resul t in dist inct ive and complementary tour packages for each a rea . 7 By critically examining the content of C o m m u n i t y Based  T o u r i s m the author was able to develop a much more complete picture of the scope and intent of the NWT's tour ism development policies and programmes. An analysis of Community Based Tourism indicated that the twelve guiding principles could be classi f ied as being one of three different types of statements. The analysis was conducted by def in ing pr inciples, goals/object ives and programme in i t ia t ives and then examin ing each pr inc ip le in l ight of the definit ions and assigning the appropriate category. Principles in the context of planning, policy, and programmes are s ta tements of fundamenta l or self-evident t ru th, s tatements of that are assumed to be fact. Principles provide the base from which dec is ions /ac t iv i t ies are in i t ia ted. A l though C o m m u n i t y B a s e d  T o u r i s m identif ied twelve principles which were to guide the NWT 6 0 Tour i sm St ra tegy , only two of the s ta temen ts w e r e actua l ly statements of principle. The two statements of principle were: a) "Tourism is a desirable industry for the Northwest Territories;" and i) "Large vo lumes of visi tors at one t ime in one location are not desirable in all but the larger communi t ies . " 8 Goals/object ives are statements which describe the desired or expected outputs of planning, policy, and programme activit ies, they are also the pr imary means of determining the intent of a policy. Very c o m m o n l y , Goa ls /ob jec t i ves are exp ressed as normat ive s ta tements . There were a number of goal /ob ject ive s ta tements contained within the twelve 'guiding principles' of the NWT Tourism Strategy. Namely: a) " [Tour ism] oppor tuni t ies should be d i s p e r s e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e N o r t h w e s t Ter r i to r ies and not to just a few large centres." b) "Tourism should only be developed and promoted in those communit ies which are ready and interested in being involved in the industry," d) "Tour ism shou ld be pr imar i ly a private sector industry;" e) "The private sector should take the l e a d in d e v e l o p i n g v i a b l e [ t o u r i s m ] operat ions," h) " T o u r i s m in t he N o r t h w e s t Terr i tor ies should be a year round industry, not just a seasonal one." j) "Tourism should build on the natural, cul tural , and historic resources of the NWT; a n d , e m p h a s i z e the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n a n d deve lopment of at t ract ions based on learn, 6 1 observe and exper ience oppor tun i t ies . To minimize social and env i ronmenta l impacts, the tourism industry should not compete with hun te rs and t rappers for s c a r c e natura l resou rces . " 9 Programme ini t iat ives are the act iv i t ies and admin is t ra t ive p rocedures imp lemented to ach ieve the s ta ted goa ls /ob jec t ives . Programme are most f requent ly expressed as act iv i t ies that an organ izat ion w i i i undertake. There were a number of programme ini t iat ives conta ined within the twelve 'guid ing pr inciples ' of the NWT Tourism Strategy. Namely: b) " [Tour ism development ] pr ior i ty wil l be g iven to those commun i t i es that have a l im i ted range of e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t opportuni t ies." c ) "Oppor tun i t ies for j obs , t ra in ing and bus iness deve lopment shal l be d i rec ted to ensure maximum economic benef i ts for the Nor thwest Terr i tor ies' residents; and tour ism development shall be phased to reflect and be integrated wi th, the training and skil l levels of Northwest Terr i tor ies residents." e) "Res ident ownersh ip of fac i l i t ies and services shall be encouraged. ... In the short t e r m , however , g o v e r n m e n t wi l l need to provide incentives to encourage and facil itate tour ism development." f ) "The private sector shall be encouraged to provide products and services to visi tors at a fair price." g) " C o m m u n i t i e s , loca l a n d r e g i o n a l deve lopment corporat ions and assoc ia t ions , and the general public shall be af forded the o p p o r t u n i t y to par t i c ipa te in consu l ta t i on p r o g r a m s to help ensure that Nor thwes t T e r r i t o r i e s r e s i d e n t s d e r i v e m a x i m u m benef i t s f rom tou r i sm- re la ted ac t iv i t ies in and around their commun i t y . " 1 0 6 2 From the foregoing analysis a more comple te v iew of the GNWT's Tour ism Development Strategy (and therefore the GNWT's tour ism d e v e l o p m e n t pol icy) begins to emerge . The analys is indicates that the additional tourism development goals of the GNWT are as fol lows: 1) the wide dispersion of tourism across the NWT; 2) p r i v a t e s e c t o r d e v e l o p m e n t of the t o u r i s m industry; 3 ) the development of a year round tourism industry; 4 ) the development and marketing of tour ism products based on the comparat ive advantages of the NWT - the natural, cultural, and historic resources of the NWT; and 5) the d e v e l o p m e n t of n o n - c o n s u m p t i v e t o u r i s m p r o d u c t s w h i c h do not be c o m p e t e w i t h the nunt ing/ t rapping/ f ish ing economies of the smal ler and remote communit ies. Based on the analysis of the NWT Tour ism Strategy's twelve 'gu id ing p r inc ip les ' , it is c lear that a s ign i f i can t number of impor tant pol icy d i rect ions and s ta tements are con ta ined within Communi ty Based Tour ism. However, they were expressed not as clear policy direct ions and statements but as guiding principles. As guiding principles they are seen as statements of fact and not as s ta tements indicat ing the di rect ion and magni tude of a desi red change in tourism development. As a result, much of their ability to direct and orient the act ions and activit ies of both the public and the bureacracy was lost. 6 3 The point of policy is to orient the activity of groups of people within organizations. People cannot be oriented to strive for a goal if there is no agreement upon just what goals are being worked toward, or if the goals are poorly or inappropriately expressed. In the case of the NWT Tour ism Strategy only a s ingle goal was explici t ly ident i f ied, that being to: "assist communi t ies and their  residents across the NWT in achieving their tour ism revenue and employment object ives in a manner compat ible with their l i festyles  and a s p i r a t i o n s . 1 1 In addi t ion to this very general 'motherhood statement' the Strategy was also found to contain a number of other goa l /ob jec t i ve ( i .e. po l icy) s ta tements . These however , were expressed as guiding principles rather than as policy statements. As a result they lost much of their ability to orient the act iv i t ies of the bureaucracy. In chapter 2 it was noted that policies contain both posit ive (p rog rammat i c ) sanc t ions a n d negative sanct ions. In genera l , negat ive sanc t ions f ind exp ress ion th rough the p lann ing and implementa t ion of a regula tory regime, wh ich def ines both the l imits of act iv i ty, and the mechan isms of redress ava i lab le to government should those limits be exceeded. In the context of d i rect ing the deve lopment of the tour ism sector in the Northwest Terr i tor ies, it is the Tourist Establ ishment Regulat ions and the Outfi t ter 's Regulations which provide the G N W T with the legal means to orient those who do not voluntari ly accept the pol icies and goals of the NWT Tour ism Strategy. There is, 6 4 however, some evidence to suggest that the regulat ions have not been successfu l in or ient ing tour ism deve lopment act iv i ty. In a June,1984 memo to his Minister, then Economic Development and Tourism Deputy Minister B. James Britton, noted: Under the Travel and Tour ism Ord inance and associated regulat ions, the fol lowing key cri teria are set out for reviewing lodge applications: i) impact on current/tradit ional land uses i i ) b iological carry ing capaci ty of the af fected waterbody(s) i i i ) nature of the proposed building plan; and, iv) public "interest". Regions are g iven much lat i tude in establ ish ing more specif ic cr i ter ia (within the umbrel la of the four key c r i te r ia ) , and deta i l ing a p rocess for ac tua l ly car ry ing out the review. Unfor tunate ly , the present admin is t ra t ive pract ices and procedures for rev iewing lodge applications do not: (i) adequately respond to the wishes of area residents; i i ) facil i tate knowledgeable public input; i i i ) clearly set out the responsibil i t ies of the Department, local groups and the applicant; ( i v ) facil itate a prompt and standardized processing of l icense application; and, (v) reflect the spirit of guidel ines of the recently approved Tour ism S t r a t e g y . 1 2 It should be emphasized that, the Deputy Minister effectively argued that the regulatory regime put in place was inconsistent with the policy goals espoused by the GNWT in its NWT Tourism Strategy when he noted that: The present administrat ive pract ices and procedures for reviewing lodge applications do not: (v) reflect the spirit of the recently approved Tour ism S t r a t e g y . 1 3 6 5 The 1983 conclusion of the Deputy Minister was implicitly re-s ta ted four years lat ter w h e n the D e p a r t m e n t of Economic Deve lopment and Tour ism sought ass is tance in ident i fy ing and addressing def ic iencies in it's tour ism development legislation and regulations. In a "Request for Proposals: Licensing and Enforcement" inviting consultants to prepare proposals to identify and address the p r o b l e m s in ex is t ing t o u r i s m leg is la t ion and regu la t ions the D e p a r t m e n t a c k n o w l e d g e d tha t its t o u r i s m d e v e l o p m e n t ". . . regu la t ions/pract ices [have not been] ful ly cons is tent wi th the Depar tment 's stated goals and object ives for the i n d u s t r y . " 1 4 In addi t ion, the same document stated that "... there has not been a uni form appl icat ion of the legis lat ion and regulat ions across the NWT ..."1s The Depar tment of Economic Deve lopment and Tour ism repor ted ly issued the "Reques t for Proposa ls " in response to comments made by non-governmenta l groups (i.e. the Deh Cho Reg iona l Counc i l , Tour i sm Indust ry Assoc ia t i on of the NWT) concerned about the state of tour ism deve lopment policy in the N W T . 1 6 The Department hoped that it could address the concerns and problems identif ied by the non-governmental groups by re-designing the tourism development regulatory regime in the NWT. By preparing a ' request for proposals ' the Department of Economic Development and T o u r i s m impl ic i t l y a c k n o w l e d g e d that its "admin i s t ra t i ve pract ices and procedures" stil l did not "ref lect the spirit" of the G N W T ' s Tour i sm St ra tegy we l l into 1987, even t h o u g h the Legislat ive Assembly of the Northwest Terr i tor ies had adopted the 6 6 NWT Tour ism Strategy in 1983 and despite the fact that the Deputy Minister had high-l ighted the problem in m i d - 1 9 8 3 . 1 7 Having examined the tourism policy and regulation of the the G N W T it is possible to make a number of observat ions about the state of tour ism deve lopment pol icy in the Nor thwest Terr i tor ies. First, there is a perception both within and outside the GNWT that the G N W T has little more than a few "isolated policy statements" with regard to tour ism d e v e l o p m e n t . 1 8 Second, that most of these isolated statements of policy are conta ined within one document -Communi ty Based Tour ism: A Strategy for the Northwest Terri tories  T o u r i s m I n d u s t r y , wh ich i tself laments the lack of tou r i sm d e v e l o p m e n t p o l i c y . 1 9 Third, an analysis of the NWT Tour ism Strategy indicated that the GNWT had in fact identified a number of impor tan t po l icy d i rec t ions and s ta temen ts regard ing tou r i sm deve lopment but that these were expressed as sel f-evident truths and thereby lost much of their ability to orient the activit ies of the GNWT bureaucracy. Fourth, there is some evidence that the lack of c lear policy has had repercussions for the regulatory regime. For e x a m p l e , the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r a c t i c e s a s s o c i a t e d w i th the regulatory regime do "not reflect the spirit of", and are inconsistent wi th, the NWT Tourism Strategy's g o a l s . 2 0 6 7 R e f e r e n c e s C h a p t e r 4 1 Government of the Nor thwest Terr i tor ies, Depar tment of Economic Development and Tourism, Community Based Tour ism: A S t r a t e g y for. \h& N o r t h w e s t Te r r i t o r ies T o u r i s m I n d u s t r y . ( Y e l l o w k n i f e : D e p a r t m e n t of E c o n o m i c D e v e l o p m e n t a n d Tourism,1983), P. 5. 2 Derek Mur ray Consu l t ing Assoc ia t i on , "D iscuss ion Paper Rev iew and S u m m a t i o n of the Nor thwes t Ter r i to r ies Tour i sm Industry, Documents and Programs", (Regina:1986), P. 1. 3 Ibid., P. 2. 4 Deh Cho Regional Council, "Deh Cho Regional Tourism Development Area: Background Paper", (Fort Simpson: Deh Cho Regional Council, November 12, 1986), P. 4. 5 Government of the Northwest Terr i tor ies, C o m m u n i t y Based Tour i sm. P. 1. 6 Ibid., P. 9 (emphasis in original text) 7 Ibid., Pp. 10-11 s Ibid. 9 Ibid. 1 0 Ibid. 1 1 Ibid., P. 9 (emphasis in original text) 1 2 B. James Br i t ton, Deputy Minister, Depar tment of Economic Development and Tour ism, Government of the Northwest Terri tories, Memorandum to Arnold McCul lum, Minister, Economic Development and Tourism, June 7, 1984, P. 1 68 13 Ibid. 1 4 G o v e r n m e n t of the Nor thwes t Ter r i to r ies , Depar tmen t of Economic Development and Tourism, "Request of Proposals: Licensing and Enforcement", Sept. 1987, P. 1. i s ibid. 1 6 Personal communicat ion with John Sheehan, Area Superintendent, Department of Economic Development and Tour ism, Fort Simpson, NWT, October 13, 1987 17 Ibid. 18 Government of the Northwest Terr i tor ies, C o m m u n i t y Based Tourism, P. 5. 19 Ibid. 2 0 B. James Britton, Memorandum to Arnold McCul lum, Minister, Economic Development and Tourism, P. 1. 6 9 Chapte r 5 GNWT TOURISM DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES The objective of this chapter is to examine the second order outputs (programmes) of the Government of the Nor thwest Terri tories's tour ism development planning efforts. As noted in an earl ier chapter, planning, is an intellectual activity which cannot be directly observed or measured. Consequently, one must resort to the observat ion and measurement of p lanning indicators to gain an insight into p lanning act iv i ty. The l inks between p lanning and pol icy-making and/or programme development make it possible to glean information about the development planning being done by an organization by examining the programmes that have been developed and imp lemented by the organ izat ion . More par t icu lar ly , it is because ideally the goals and objectives of programmes are sub-sets of those out l ined in pol icy s tatements that p rogrammes can be ef fect ive p lanning indicators. Further, wel l p lanned programmes complete the planning process that runs f rom defining a planning issue or task, through the identif ication of policy opt ions and the imp lementa t ion of in tervent ionis t act iv i t ies, to the real izat ion or achievement of a desired goal . 1 Limi ta t ions of space make it imposs ib le to examine and analyse all the GNWT's tourism development programmes (a review of G N W T tour ism development programmes reveals that there are programmes to: publish tourism guide books, pamphlets, and maps; 7 0 support for tour ism operators want ing to at tend sport and travel shows; promote package tours; promote communi ty attract ions and events ; promote the deve lopment of new markets ; etc.) of the within the confines of a single thesis. As a result, the examination and analysis of the GNWT's tourism development programmes will be limited to the park development programme. The GNWT's park development programme is but one of the tools to used by the government to develop the tourism industry and the ent i re economy of the NWT. Senior G N W T off ic ials have conf i rmed that the Terri torial Parks system has been created to created to serve and enhance the tourism sector by attracting free s p e n d i n g tour is ts to the N o r t h . 2 The Min is ter of Economic Development and Tour ism, during an interview, stressed that there was a "desperate need for more parks in the NWT to enhance the northern experience of people in the North on vacat ion." 3 The Government of the Northwest Terri tories' Act Respect ing  Parks in the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s sets out f ive classif icat ions of parks, v ' / . - - It has been argued that the emphasis of the Terr i tor ial Park system as been on outdoor recreat ion and public en joyment because of the impor tance "the Government of the Nor thwest Terr i tor ies p laces on economic deve lopment through t o u r i s m . " 4 By examin ing the spatial and category dist r ibut ion of p lanned and exist ing Terri torial parks it is possible to determine 7 1 where the Department of Economic Development and Tour ism is f o c u s i n g its park d e v e l o p m e n t e f fo r ts . By c o m p a r i n g the Depar tment 's efforts to the NWT Tour ism Strategy is possible to ascertain the degree to which the programme assists in achieving the Strategy's goals. Current ly there are forty parks in the NWT Terr i tor ial Park system, with an additional twenty four proposed parks under active c o n s i d e r a t i o n . 5 The vast majori ty of exist ing parks are located wi th in the Fort Smith reg ion; as one government off icial noted "vir tual ly all [Territorial Parks] are in the Fort Smith region (see f i g . 1 ) . " 6 Indeed, thirty two (80%) of the forty exist ing parks are located in the Fort Smith region, and twenty three (71%) of them are Wayside P a r k s . 7 , 8 Largely because of the the spatial and categorical special izat ion in the Territorial Park system some have argued that the system is "essentially a collection of public access areas" along NWT h ighways cater ing to "rubber t ire traff ic" tourists ( i .e. those who tour in recreational vehicles) in the Nor th . 9 The disproport ionate concentrat ion of parks in the Fort Smith region is an artifact of the period and manner in which many of the exist ing Terri torial Parks were created. Much of the system was created during the 1960's and 1970's, concomitant with the pushing of the first highways into the NWT. As a result, many Terri torial Parks w e r e es tab l i shed to p rov ide rud imen ta ry serv ices and comforts to the traveling public. By and large a linkage between 7 2 Source: Community Based Tourism: A S t r a t e g y f o r the Northwest T e r i t o r i e s Tourism I n d u s t r y 73 park development and tourism was not made until somet ime latter. However, once the postulat ion of a l inkage between a larger and improved park system and increased tourism and greater economic opportuni t ies was made, it served to reinforce and entrench the pract ice of bui lding parks along the h ighways to serv ice "rubber tire" tourists. For, during the 1960's and 1970's tour ism tended to be dependent on highway access. In addition, there were no formal policy statements to guide tourism and/or park deve lopment in the NWT during that period. The evidence suggests that many of the GNWT's previous park deve lopment pr ior i t ies and pract ices have been abandoned. As d iscussed in Chapter 3 the NWT Tour ism Strategy st resses that tour ism d e v e l o p m e n t act iv i t ies (such as park c reat ion) shou ld encourage the d ispersement of tour ism benef i ts and opportuni t ies across the NWT. The development of the Strategy has significantly changed the focus of park development in the NWT. An examination of those parks being considered for future development is indicative of the change in focus. At present of Economic Development and Tour ism has twenty four new parks under active considerat ion/planning/development. Of the twenty four new parks being considered by the Department, eleven (46%) are classif ied as Wayside parks and wil l be located along existing highways. Of these, seven (64%) are to be located in the Fort Smith region, with the balance (four parks) to be located along the Dempster highway in the Inuvik region. Signif icantly, the 7 4 major i ty of the new parks under act ive cons idera t ion by the Department of Economic Development and Tour ism are to be located outside the Fort Smith region. This is a dramat ic departure from past park d e v e l o p m e n t p rac t i ces . By locat ing a s ign i f i cant proportion of new parks away from the road system the Department feels it will be able to give small and/or remote communi t ies a means to attract tourists and an opportunity to capture some of the economic benefi ts associated with tour ism. As one official noted, the "Depar tmen t [of Economic Deve lopmen t and Tour ism] is attempting to use parks to disperse the benefi ts of tour ism across the N W T . " 1 0 The Depar tment of Economic Deve lopment and Tour ism's enthusiasm for its parks programme has been predicated on several planning assumptions: First, the provis ion of serv ices, such as parks, wi l l attract tourists to the NWT; Second , once in the N W T tour is ts wi l l spend their vacation dollars on territorial goods and services; and Third, a net economic benefit will result f rom attracting t o u r i s t s a n d w i l l l e a d to i n c r e a s e d e c o n o m i c development in the NWT. Whi le these assumpt ions are the very under-pinnings of the parks deve lopment programme, Department has never r igourously tested the validity of t h e m . 1 1 Constraints of t ime and space do not allow 7 5 the definit ive testing the above assumpt ions, however an indication of their val idi ty can be obta ined by examining the net economic benefit generated by Blackstone Territorial Park. B lacks tone Terr i tor ia l Park is one of the largest (1430 hectares) and newest (formally opened in the August of 1985) parks in the Terri torial Park sys tem. It was also t h e most expens ive , consuming six years and over one (1) million dollars during planning and development. As a result Blackstone Park boosts 19 tent/R.V. sites, 20 ki lometers of walking trails, a super intendent 's residence, and a 14 by 24 foot log interpretive centre. Between 1988 and 1992 an addit ional $300,000.00 will be spent to complete the park and provide a sewage lagoon, an outfitters' area, more trails, signs and park g a t e s . 1 2 The scale of the expenditure and resultant facil it ies place Blackstone Park in a class by itself relative to every other park in the Terr i tor ia l sys tem. The Depar tment of Economic Development and Tourism in general , and in particular the officials involved during planning and development are justifably proud of the park. Some have even gone as far as terming Blackstone "the only real park in the Territorial s y s t e m . " 1 3 Despite Blackstone 's wel l deve loped faci l i t ies and locat ion beside one of the only two highways into the southern NWT, during the summer of 1987 park utilization was a disappointing six hundred v is i tor (party) n i g h t s . 1 4 It has been est imated that each party spends approx imate ly 3 days in B l a c k s t o n e . 1 5 During each of the previous two seasons of operat ion util ization was approximately the 7 6 s a m e . 1 6 In 1987, as in previous years, visitors to territorial parks were charged a flat user fee of f ive dol lars per night. Despite co l lec t ing approx imate ly nine thousand dol lars in revenue f rom Blackstone Park visitors during the 1987 tourist season operat ing costs exceeded user fee revenues by a wide margin. Total operating c o s t s in 1987 were more than $ 3 6 , 0 0 0 , and i n c l u d e d a $15 ,000 /season park super in tendent ' s cont rac t , $9 ,000 in park supplies, and $7,500 in park officers s a l a r y . 1 7 The ability of the Government of the NWT to enhance the economic deve lopment of the North by bui ld ing terr i tor ial parks must be quest ioned given the above. The evidence from Blackstone suggests that Territorial Parks have not become tourist at t ractors. In addi t ion, they do not generate enough revenue to al low the government to recoup operating costs. As a result it appears that the economic benefits associated with parks may come in the form of transfer payments (i.e. the spending of NWT tax dollars to keep the parks operational) rather than f rom the tourists bringing money into the NWT economy. The abil i ty of Blackstone and many other territorial parks to contr ibute to NWT economic development has been further impaired by the GNWT's failure to secure legal tenure to a significant portion of the Terri torial Parks system. The GNWT's Territorial Parks Act clearly requires that "the land included in a terri torial park ... be owned by the Territorial Government . . . " . 1 8 However, research done for the Deh Cho Regional Counci l conf i rmed that "the land for 7 7 Blackstone [and fourteen other Terr i tor ial ] Parkfs] hafye] not yet been transferred [from the federal to the territorial government , and thus Blackstone and the other parks] ... ha[ve] not been legally created under the Territorial Parks A c t . " 1 9 In the Northwest Territories the the Queen in Right of Canada is the land holder, for the Government of the Northwest Terri tories to obtain legal tenure to any land it must apply to the Federal Cabinet for an Order in Counci l transferring the land to the GNWT. Fourteen of the parks (35%) within the Territorial Parks System have been developed by the GNWT even though it does not have legal tenure to the land upon which the parks sit. The d iscovery of the GNWT's lack of tenure to thir ty- f ive percent of terri torial parks resul ted in the Deputy Minister of the Department of Economic Development and Tourism directing that the col lect ion of park user fees be d iscont inued in those Terr i tor ia l parks to which the GNWT lacks legal tenure until title is s e c u r e d . 2 0 The Deputy Min is ter took th is ex t ra -ord inary act ion af ter the Department of Just ice counsel led that the GNWT could not legally collect user fees from tourists in the parks it did not have tenure to. The Deputy Minister 's d i rec t ive it is expected to s igni f icant ly reduce revenues from the Terri torial Parks system during the 1988 tourist season. Thus, the parks system will become an even bigger drain on the economy of the Nor thwest Terr i tor ies than it has histor ical ly been. 7 8 Having examined the Parks Programme of the of the G N W T some interest ing observat ions can be made. First the Terr i tor ial Park System is v iewed as a tool to be used to strengthen the tourism sector. Second, at the micro level the introduct ion of the NWT T o u r i s m S t ra tegy , wh ich ident i f ies the d ispers ion of t o u r i s m benefi ts and opportunit ies to the smaller more remote communi t ies as one of its primary goals appears to have had an impact on the d ispers ion of tour ism resources (i.e. parks). That is, Terr i tor ial Parks have increasingly been located in a greater variety of areas. The evidence of this being the fact that since the introduction of the S t r a t e g y a ma jo r i t y of the pa rks p r o p o s a l s u n d e r ac t i ve considerat ion are to be located outside the Fort Smith region. Third, at the macro level the park development program has not been as economically successful as the GNWT had expected it would be. 7 9 References Chapter 5 1 Robert R. Mayer, Policy and Program Planning: A Developmental  Pe rspec t i ve . (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall Inc., 1985). 2 Personal communicat ion with Mike Sti lwell, Deputy Minister, Economic Development and Tourism, GNWT and Don Weisbeck, Chief of Tourism, Economic Development and Tourism, GNWT, Yellowknife, August 29, 1985. 3 Personal communicat ion with the Hon. Tagak Curley, Minister, Government of the Northwest Territories, Economic Development and Tourism., April 8, 1986, During the Deh Cho Regional Council meeting, Fort Providence, NWT., April 7,8,9, 1986. 4 Ibid. 5 Figures derived from a 'Draft List of Territorial Parks* provided by the Department of Economic Development and Tourism, April 29, 1987. 6 Personal telephone communicat ion with Gordon Hamre, Special Advisor, Parks Development, Department of Economic Development and Tour ism, Government of the Northwest Terri tories, April 13, 1987. 7 Figures derived from a 'Draft List of Territorial Parks' provided by the Department of Economic Development and Tourism, April 29, 1987. 8 Ibid., April 29, 1987. 9 Personal telephone communicat ion with Peter Nuegebauer, Head, Program Development, Tourism and Parks, Economic Development and Tour ism, Government of the Northwest Territories, April 13, 1987. 1 0 Ibid., June 2 1 , 1988 80 1 1 Personal telephone communicat ion with Gordon Hamre, April 20, 1987. 12 Ibid., P. 6 1 3 Personal communicat ion with Peter Nuegebauer, April 13, 1987 1 4 Personal communicat ion with John Sheehan, Area Superintendent, Department of Economic Development and Tour ism, Fort Simpson, NWT, June 22, 1988 1 5 Personal communication with John Sheehan, June 22, 1988 1 6 Personal communication with John Sheehan, June 22, 1988 1 7 Personal communication with John Sheehan, June 22, 1988 i s Ibid. 19 Irving, Kate, A Territorial Park Near Wrigley. N.W.T. : Final Report , P. 32 20 Personal communication with Peter Nuegebauer, June 2 1 , 1988 8 1 Chapter 6 TOURISM AS AN ECONOMIC BASE: THE UNDERLYING ASSUMPTIONS The object of this chapter is to examine extent or degree to wh ich tou r i sm p lanners and po l i cy -makers in the N W T have quest ioned the assumptions, or premises, that underl ie the GNWT's push toward tourism. Clearly one of the most important tasks of planners involved in a deve lopmen t p lanning process is to ask ques t ions , not only technical quest ions about the means of planning but also questions about the implicat ions of pursuing one set of goals and strategies over another . From the perspect ive of rat ional comprehens ive planning theory, planners must spend a great deal of t ime in the: * Specif icat ion of Object ives; * Development of Alternatives; * Evaluat ion/Ranking of Al ternat ives; * Select ion of Alternative Courses of Ac t ion ; 1 If these planning stages, phases, or activities are not completed one has to ask whether planning, in its best, most complete, and most powerful sense has occurred. 8 2 As chapter 3 noted, the NWT Tour ism Strategy is the only d o c u m e n t that ou t l ines the G N W T ' s pol icy regard ing tou r i sm development policy. The Strategy uses the statement "tourism is a d e s i r a b l e i ndus t r y for t he N o r t h w e s t T e r r i t o r i e s ; a n d , its o p p o r t u n i t i e s shou ld be d i s p e r s e d th roughou t the N o r t h w e s t Terr i tor ies and not to just a few large centres" as its point of departure for discussing tour ism development pol icy . 2 However, the Strategy does not provide a rat ionale as to why, or under what condit ions tourism development is 'desirable'. An extensive review of Depar tment of Economic Deve lopment and Tour ism fi les and interviews with key policy and planning officials fai led to highlight ev idence that the val idi ty to the " tour ism is a desi rable industry" assumpt ion had ever been quest ioned or tested. Instead, all sou rces p rov ided s t a t e m e n t s a f f i rming the des i rab i l i t y , and there fore the sui tabi l i ty , of tour ism as a means of economic deve lopment for the NWT general ly , and for its small and more remote communi t ies in par t icu lar . 3 A staff person with a consult ing firm assisting the Department of Economic Development and Tourism in developing tourism in the NWT, noted that in her experience the Depar tment never ques t i oned whether tour ism w a s in fact an appropriate vehicle to 'piggy back' territorial economic development o n . 4 Quite the contrary, the consultant reported that it was apparent f rom the outset of her deal ings with the GNWT that "one of the [Government's] assumptions was the need to increase employment [in the NWT] dramatical ly, and [that] tour ism was the answer; part of the quick fix!" The consultant went on to point out that Government officials had decided that "tourism was going to be the number one 8 3 [economic development] band-a id" for the N W T . 5 From the point of v iew of some officials within the GNWT there was, apparent ly, no need to discuss whether or not tourism development was appropriate since the appropr iateness of tour ism as an economic development tool was self evident. Despi te the G N W T ' s cer ta in ty about the appropr ia teness , e f fec t iveness, and ef f ic iency of tour ism as a tool of economic deve lopment , there have been some cal ls to thought fu l ly and careful ly examine the deve lopment of a tour ism based economic strategy for the NWT. The Department of Economic Development and T o u r i s m has been u rged to inves t iga te , eva lua te , and rank al ternat ive economic deve lopment vehic les prior to commit t ing to full scale implementation of a tourism based economic development strategy. One example of this admittedly small body of thought was contained in a letter to the editor of a major N.W.T. newspaper. The author argued that: Recently a great deal has been written about br inging tour i sm to the NWT in a greater scale as a viable al ternat ive to the downturn in the economy. I think the issue of expanding tour ism should be given the same amount of thought and consideration as division [of the NWT] and land claims, for it can have the same lasting ef fect on the l and , wildlpfeople and way of life. Perhaps the quest ion of how to attract tourists should be readdressed to ask, "What type of tour ism wi l l br ing in the needed do l la rs , but wi l l have the least adverse effect on the land, wildl i fe, and people that live in the NWT? There are many types of 8 4 tourists, some make great guests and others should stay home. I sincerely hope the Minister will heed a word of caution and temper his zest for the tourist dollar with a good dose of thought and projection to the future. No tourist dollar is ever free. The cost is usually an adverse impact on land, wildlife, people and the way of l i fe . 6 On the surface it may appear that the author of the above let ter e x p r e s s e d c o n c e r n sole ly abou t the poss ib le negat ive ecological and socio-cul tural impl icat ions of str iv ing to create on tourism based economy. However, a different, and more important point is also being made. The author has implicitly asked the GNWT to consider its position carefully and be sure that it understands the issues involved prior to commit t ing the economy to a part icular course. Developing an understanding the issues surrounding tourism development goes well beyond a routine gathering of the facts and analyzing of the data. The letter's author is questioning whether the GNWT has really planned for tourism development or merely planned the development of tour ism. The planning of tourism development is often l imi ted to the technical tasks of the ident i fy ing, pr ior iz ing, and select ing cost/benefi t optimizing solut ions to problems. At its Worse the p lann ing of tou r i sm d e v e l o p m e n t is mere ly the rat ional izat ion or professional izat ion of bureaucrat ic decis ions that have already been made. Planning for tourism development, on the other hand, focuses on the identif ication of the public's aspirat ions, expectat ions, and concerns and the integrat ion of those into the policy and programme options that are developed. 8 5 In its enthusiasm to embrace what are seen to be the posit ive aspec ts of tour ism the G N W T has spent l i t t le t ime or ef for t invest igat ing and resolv ing the negat ive economic impl icat ions of deve lop ing a tour ism based economy. The tour ism industry, in general , is known to have high costs (owing largely to the labour i n tens ive na tu re of the indus t ry ) and low re tu rns to the owner/operators. This problem of low returns to owner/operators has already been documented in the NWT's tourism industry. For example, in 1980 it was been determined that the net income to sales ratio for sport f ishing lodges in the NWT (which cater to a lucrat ive 'up-scale ' segment of the tour ism market) in 1980 was only 2 % . 7 The low rate of return that appears to accrue to owners in the tour ism sector combined wi th a high labour requi rement may genera te a si tuat ion in which the "new employment a l ternat ives" that the GNWT is hoping tourism will generate will be low skil l , low pay, low responsibi l i ty, seasonal or part-t ime, personal service (e.g. f ishing guide) j o b s . 8 In some circles in southern Canada and the Uni ted States "new employment a l ternat ives" wi th ski l l , pay and employment durat ion prof i les very similar to many tour ism sector "employment al ternat ives" have been referred to, only half jokingly, as 'Mac-jobs'. Others argue better a job than no job. The salient point from a planning, policy, and programme point of view, however, is not which group is correct but that the GNWT appears to have given no considerat ion to, and entered into no discussion regarding, the possibi l i ty that a tour ism based economy may only provide a l imited range of employment opportuni t ies for northern res idents. 8 6 It appears that the GNWT has not asked a number of fundamental quest ions before deciding to identify tourism as the engine of future economic development for the NWT. The fundamental questions are: a) What type of employment opportunit ies should the people of the Northwest Territories nave? b) Can tourism provide the desired opportunit ies? c ) Can better or comparable opportunit ies be provided in industries other than tourism? As argued and documented extensively above in Chapter 1, one of the pr imary reasons for pursuing tour ism deve lopment is the GNWT's desire to create some diversity within, and add stability to, the NWT's economy. The development of a larger tourism sector will clearly provide some diversity to an economy that is fundamental ly g e a r e d to p r imary resource p roduc t ion a n d the p rov is ion of government services. The ability of tourism to provide the economic stability so greatly desired by northerners is not nearly as certain. There are a number of factors, which when combined, limit the abil i ty of tour ism to ensure economic stabil ity within an economy. Not the least of these factors is the fact that "the tourism industry is b e c o m i n g c o m p e t i t i v e " . 9 Examples of the inc reased compet i t iveness within the global tour ism sector are easy to f ind. During the mid 1980's, for example, "Canada's market share of world tourism ... decl ined ... in a world of increased c o m p e t i t i o n " . 1 0 In the past decade tour ism has b e c o m e an indust ry wi th a g loba l marketp lace. As a result the NWT, must compete for tour ism 8 7 revenue not only with other Canadian areas, or areas in the USA, but wi th tour i sm des t ina t ions a round the wor ld . In add i t ion , the commerc ia l i za t ion of exot ic or adventure travel has eroded the NWT's tradit ional and potential markets substantial ly and forced the NWT to compete with exot ic adventure vacat ion dest inat ions as diverse as Nepal and Antarct ica. In such and environment factors such as a changes in t ransportat ion costs can have a signif icant impact on tourism visitation rates in the NWT. Taylor has noted, for example, that when air travel costs to and in the North rose during 1979-81 a sharp drop in the tourist visi tat ion rates at Auyui t tuq National Park on Baffin Island were immediately ev iden t . 1 1 Tourism is a unique export industry. Just as the NWT exports minerals, and other resource products so it exports impressions of the North through tour ism. The GNWT, however, has expl ic i t ly recognized, acknowledged, or deal t with the potential impl icat ions of the c o m m o d i t y expor t real i ty of t ou r i sm. As an expor t commodi ty , tour ism is l inked to nat ional or internat ional markets which react to a wide variety of national and international economic developments and trends. The export nature of tourism means that it is subject to forces completely beyond the capabil i ty of people in the NWT to influence, let alone control. Thus, when factors such as oil prices, air fares, the external debts of some countr ies, currency f luc tua t ions , h igh rates of unemp loymen t , and budget def ic i ts f luctuate so would the tourism market and thus the economic health of the N W T . 1 2 , 1 3 Thus, even it tourism were to be come the dominant sector of the Terri torial economy its export nature may leave the 8 8 N W T as vu lnerab le to boom/bus t cyc les as the cur rent non-renewable resource based economy. Chapter f ive highlighted some addit ional concerns with regard to tour ism's abil i ty to bring economic stabil i ty to the economy of the NWT. There is some evidence to suggest that public sector investment in support of tour ism development (at least in the form of park infrastructure) returns l imi ted, if any, economic benef i ts . Indeed, such public initiatives can become little more than defacto transfer payment programmes. 8 9 R e f e r e n c e s C h a p t e r 6 1 Robert R. Mayer, Policy and Program Planning: A  Developmenta l Perspect ive. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall Inc., 1985, Pp.104-105 2 Government of the Northwest Territories, Department of Economic Development and Tourism, Community Based Tourism: A Strategy for the Northwest Territories Tour ism Industry. Yel lowknife: Department of Economic Development and Tour ism, 1983, P. 10 3 Personal interviews with the fol lowing: Mike Sti lwell , Deputy Minister, August 29, 1985; Peter Nuegebauer, Head, Program Development, April 13, 1987; Gordon Hamre, Special Advisor, April 13,1987; Don Weisbeck, Chief of Tourism, August 29, 1985. 4 Personal telephone communicat ion with Aimee Brit ton, Briar International Business Resources Ltd., April 8, 1987 5 Ibid., April 8, 1987 6 "NWT tourism has potential," Nancy B. Jewell , News North. Friday, April 10, 1987, P. A5 7 NWT Data Book: 1986-87. Yellowknife: Outcrop Ltd., 1986, P. 76 8 Briar International Business Resources Ltd., A Strategic Marketing Plan for Tourism for the Government of the Northwest  Te r r i t o r i es . Ottawa: April, 1986, P. A 9 Ibid., P. 11 1° Ibid., P. 10 90 1 1 Michelle E. Taylor, Auvuit tuq National Park Reserve Visitor  Study 1982 Report on Findings. Winnipeg: Natural Resources Institute, University of Mani toba, prepared for Socio-Economic Division, Prairie Regional Office, Parks Canada, 1983 1 2 Briar International Business Resources Ltd., A Strategic Marketing Plan for Tour ism. P. 10 1 3 Derek Murray Consult ing Associat ion, Discussion Paper Review  and Summat ion of the Nor thwes t Ter r i to r ies Tour i sm Industry- D o c u m e n t s and P r o g r a m s . Reg ina : Depar tmen t of Economic Development and Tourism, 1986 9 1 Chapter 7 CONCLUSION and IMPLICATIONS To this point in the thesis we have examined the Government of the Northwest Terr i tor ies ' rat ionale for seeking to expand the tour ism sector of the NWT economy. We have briefly reviewed planning, policy, and programme theory and explicated a number of cr i ter ia which def ine good p lanning, pol icy-making and programme deve lopment . And we have examined , in some deta i l , several d i f ferent aspects of the G N W T ' s tour ism deve lopment p lanning efforts. It remains to summar ize the f indings of the thesis and expl icate the planning impl icat ions/ lessons that can be drawn from the experiences of planning tourism development in the NWT. F i n d i n g s 1. T h e G N W T , p a r t i c u l a r l y the D e p a r t m e n t of E c o n o m i c Deve lopment and Tour ism, v iewed tour ism as an impor tant and ef fect ive tool for d iversi fy ing and stabi l iz ing the economy of the N W T . In add i t ion , the G N W T appeared to have increas ing expectat ions about economic and employment opportunit ies northern residents would have access to as a result of a greatly expanded tourism industry. Indeed, it could be said that the GNWT has focused its hopes for an improved economic future on tourism. 9 2 2. The quant i ty and qual i ty of p lanning re levant in format ion collected by the GNWT has been 'inadequate' for sound planning. Even basic information about the scope and depth of the NWT's tourism sector was not accepted by NWT staff planners as being useful or reliable for making policy and programme decisions. The planners had no information on the percept ions, desires and concerns NWT residents had about tourism. 3. The Depar tmen t of Economic Deve lopmen t and Tou r i sm recognized the shortage of data as a problem and has begun to address the problem. However, the Department's new data collection efforts have concent ra ted on the col lect ion of market ing or iented informat ion rather than informat ion that has some re levance for pol icy and programme planning. While appropr iate and accurate information alone will not ensure that development of sound policy and programme p lanning, on average the right type of accurate information will improve the policy and programme decis ions made by planners. After all, the planning, policy and programme processes are information intensive and dependent. 4. T o u r i s m d e v e l o p m e n t p lann ing is c o n t r o l l e d by G N W T bureaucrats. The goals and objectives of the NWT Tourism Strategy were drafted by technical ly or iented, southern t ra ined, planners. As a result, it is reasonalbe to expect that the goals and objectives of the Strategy reflect the values and perceptions of its f ramers. The Strategy has implicitly assumed that tourism would have a posit ive cost-benef i t ratio and that increased tour ism wou ld diversi fy and 93 stabil ize the NWT's economic base. It also implicitly assumed that increased tour ism would be well received in the smal l and more remote communi t ies of the Northwest Territories. 5. The G N W T ' s only formal s ta tement of tour ism deve lopment policy (the NWT Tour ism Strategy) was art iculated in C o m m u n i t y Based Tour i sm: A Strategy for the Nor thwest Terr i tor ies Tour ism Industry-6. The GNWT used its Territorial Parks programme as a tool to foster increased tour ism and spread its beneifts across the NWT. The NWT Tour ism Strategy produced a signif icant shift in the focus of the Terri torial Parks programme. For the previous two decades 80 percent of all Terr i tor ial Parks had been created in the Fort Smith region. After the adoption of the Strategy a majority of all parks proposed for development have been located in regions other than Fort Smith. The change in focus was consistent with the NWT Tour ism Strategy's major policy goal of spreading the benefi ts of tourism to the smaller communit ies of the NWT. 7. G N W T tour ism p lanners and po l icy -makers unquest ion ing ly accepted the not ion of "tourism [as] a desireable industry for the N o r t h w e s t T e r r i t o r i e s " , w i t h o u t e x p l o r i n g t he long t e r m implicat ions of the striving for a tourism dependent economy. No attempt was made to determine whether tourism would provide the sort of jobs and futures that northerners wanted/needed/deserved. In place of a careful examination of either the employment profile of 9 4 tou r i sm e c o n o m y or its abi l i ty to c rea te j obs and economic opportunit ies there were been statements arguing that tour ism was "compat ib le wi th many exist ing native ski l ls" and that the sector w o u l d n ice ly c o m p l i m e n t the a r t s / c ra f t s , a n d hun t ing / f i sh ing sectors of the NWT economy. 8. The GNWT did not recognize/acknowledge that tour ism was/is an export industry and as such could be subject to many of the unpred ic tab le f luc tua t ions that the p r imary indust r ies were /a re noted for. Although the GNWT argued that tour ism held considerable potential to "weather economic decl ines" the evidence marshal led to support the argument was very limited. 9. The Nor thwest Terr i tor ies is an example of a jur isdict ion in wh ich d e v e l o p m e n t p lann ing , at least w i th regard to tour ism development, has not occurred. This is not to say that the GNWT has not done a great deal p lanning, pol icy-making and/or programme development . Clearly the GNWT has been act ive on all of these fronts, as this thesis has documented. However, the GNWT has pursued its planning with limited information and yet has attempted to emphas ize the rat ional , posi t iv ist ic, and technocra t ic s ide of p lanning. It has also removed its tour ism development planning efforts f rom the complex socio-economic reali ty of the Northwest Terr i tor ies. By do ing so the G N W T cor rup ted its deve lopment planning process and denied its cit izens the right to be involved in, and responsible for, determining their own future. 9 5 Planning Impl ica t ions Lessons can be drawn from the NWT experience with tourism deve lopment planning that are be val id for deve lopment planners regardless of their location/si tuat ion. The first lesson that development planners should learn, not so much f rom the particular case of tourism planning in the NWT but f r o m the rev iew of the l i te ra ture , is that ra t iona l i ty is the cornerstone of good technical planning, policy, and programmes and thus of good deve lopment p lanning. The rat ionali ty required by deve lopment p lanners is not the l inear rationali ty of the ear l iest expl icat ions of ' rat ional comprehens ive ' theory but the procedura l rat ionali ty of the more recent vers ions of the theory which stress the desirabil i ty of a rational process. The second lesson that development planners should learn is that the goa ls and object ives of a p lan, a pol icy, and /or a p rogramme should ref lect the va lues and percept ions of its the people most direct ly af fected. Assumpt ions of posi t ive impacts , cost-benef i t ratios, increased development and ready acceptance of the proposed polices and programmes should be avoided. The third lesson that planners should learn from the particular case of tourism planning in the NWT is that models, no matter how sophist icated, are only models. They are representat ions of reality and not mirrors of it. As noted in Chapter 2 many models of 9 6 organizat ional dec is ion-making have long seen p lann ing, pol icies, and programmes as separate or discrete fields of study and activity. V iew ing them as d isc re te f ie lds has e n a b l e d ind iv idua ls to conceptual ize a very complex process and thereby come to a better understanding of organizational decis ion-making. As highl ighted by the case of tour ism p lann ing in the NWT, in the con tex t of deve lopment planning a 'process ' v iew of p lann ing, pol ic ies and programmes must be the basis of any definit ion of good planning, policy, and/or programmes. Planning, pol icy-making, and programme development cannot be properly, v iewed as remaining separate from one another . Rather, p lann ing, po l i cy -mak ing , and p rogramme deve lopment are dist inct ingredients that, when b lended, produce unique and mutually support ing, whole - the deve lopment planning p r o c e s s . P lann ing , po l i c ies , and p r o g r a m m e s are in tegra l components of the development planning process. They form an integrated, procedural ly rational whole in which the ends and the means are l inked. P lann ing, pol ic ies, and p r o g r a m m e s make deve lopment planning work, they are necessary precondi t ions to development planning. Should one or more be missing development planning cannot occur. The fourth general izable lesson to be learned from the tourism deve lopmen t p lanning exper ience of the G N W T is that sound d e v e l o p m e n t p lanning wi l l not occur s imply because p lann ing , po l icy -mak ing , and p rogramme deve lopment act iv i t ies have been integrated into a procedural ly rational whole. That is, if the goals 97 and object ives art iculated by planners do not fai thful ly represent the wants and needs people af fected, the fai thful t ranslat ion of goals and object ives at the pol icy and programme level wil l not ensure development. Finally development planning should enable the affected people to identify, understand and deal with the problems and condi t ions that confront them on a daily basis. D e v e l o p m e n t p lann ing p rac t i t i oners must c o m e to v iew deve lopmen t p lanning as the cycl ical p rocess in wh ich publ ic invo lvement and cont inua l feedback resul ts in a rat ional and s y s t e m a t i c p lann ing p r o c e s s lead ing to the d e v e l o p m e n t of appropr iate pol ic ies, and programmes. The three phases of the deve lopment p lanning process (p lanning, po l icy-deve lopment , and p rogramme-des ign) represent d i f ferent yet in terre lated areas for study, research, and practice which planners may wish to pursue. The chal lenge for those interested in development planning in the tourism sector of the NWT or anywhere else, is to move away from the notion that it is adherence to a particular planning model that brings success and focus on the process of development planning. 98 BIBLIOGRAPHY Banfield, Edward C , "Ends and Means in Planning", International  Social Science Journal. 1959, Vol. 1 1 , #3, P. 368 Bauer, Raymond A., "The Study of Policy Formation: An Introduction", in The Study of Policy Formation. (Eds.) Raymond A. Bauer and Kenneth J. Gergen, New York: The Free Press, 1968 Blishen, B.R. and A. Lockhart et al., Socio-economic Impact Model for Northern Develoment, Ot tawa: Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Research Branch, Policy Research and Evaluation Group; 1979 Braybrooke, David and Charles E. Lindblom, A Strategy of Decision New York: The Free Press, 1968 Briar International Business Resources Ltd.,"A Strategic Marketing Plan for Tou r i sm for the G o v e r n m e n t of the Nor thwes t Terr i tor ies" Ot tawa: Apri l , 1986 Cameron, James Joseph, "Culture and Change in the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s : I m p l i c a t i o n s fo r C o m m u n i t y I n f r a s t r u c t u r e P lanning" , Masters Thesis, Vancouver , Universi ty of Brit ish Columbia, October, 1985 Dacks, Gurston, A Choice of Futures: Politics in the Canadian North Toronto: Methuen, 1981 Deh Cho Regional Council, "Deh Cho Regional Tourism Development Area: Background Paper", Fort Simpson: Deh Cho Regional Council, November 12, 1986 Derek Murray Consulting Association, "Discussion Paper Review and Summat ion of the Northwest Terri tories Tour ism Industry, Documents and Programs", Regina: 1986 Edmonton Journa l . "Environmentalists plotting defense of parks against development push", Tuesday, April 7, 1987 Edmonton Journa l . "Minister dismisses takeover of parks", Friday, April 10,1987, P. B1 Edmonton Journal . "MPs pro-toursim on parks act", 9 9 Friday, April 3, 1987 Etzioni, A., "Mixed Scanning: A Third Approach to Decision Making" Public Administration Reyjew Vol. 27, #5, 1967 Friedmann, J. , Retracking America: A Theory of Transactive Planning New York: Anchor Press, Doubleday, 1973 Galloway, T.D. and R.G. Mahayni, "Planning Theory in Retrospect: The Process of Paradigm Change", American Institute of Planners Journa l Vol. 43, # 1 , 1977 Government of the Northwest Territories, An Ordinance Respecting  Parks in the N o r t h w e s t T e r r i t o r i e s . Ye l lowkn i fe : Ter r i to r ia l Pr in ter ,1983 Government of the Northwest Territories, Department of Economic Development and Tour ism, Briefing Note for Head, Program Development, Tourism and Parks prepared by Karen Le Gresley, Site Development Officer, October 10, 1986 Government of the Northwest Territories, Department of E c o n o m i c D e v e l o p m e n t a n d T o u r i s m , Le t te r f r o m T. A u c h t e r l o n i e , Chief , D iv ison of T o u r i s m , D e p a r t m e n t of Economic Development to the Regional Manager, Water, Forests and Lands Division, Department of Indian and Northern Affairs, Yellowknife, NWT, January 25, 1974 Government of the Northwest Territories, Department of Economic Deve lopment and Tour i sm, Memo f rom Deputy Min is te r , B. J a m e s Br i t ton to the Min is te r , E c o n o m i c Development and Tourism, Arnold McCullum, June 7, 1984 Government of the Northwest Territories, Department of Economic Development and Tour ism, "Strategic Marketing Plan: A Presentat ion to the Nor thwest Terr i tor ies Travel Industry Association's Annual General Meeting - 1986" Government of the Northwest Territories, Letter from Manager of Lands, Lands Divis ion, Depar tment of Local Government , Ye l lowkn i fe , NWT (Richard Ashton) to Act ing Reg iona l Manager of Land Resources, Indian and Inuit Affaris Canada, Yellowknife, NWT (Flyod N. Adlem), April 2 1 , 1986 1 0 0 Government of the Northwest Territories, Department of Renewable Resources and Department of Economic Development and Tourism,"Developing a Planning Framework for Renewable Resource Deve lopment in the Nor thwest Terr i tor ies (Draft) , Phase 1: Resource Informat ion and Resource Management Strategies and Programs", Yellowknife: GNWT, No date Government of the Northwest Territories, "Schedule A, C a n a d a - N o r t h w e s t T e r r i t o r i e s T o u r i s m D e v e l o p m e n t S u b s i d i a r y A g r e e m e n t , Draf t D o c u m e n t " , Y e l l o w k n i f e : October 23, 1986 Hamelin, Louis-Edmond, Canadian Nordicitv: It's Your North Too Wil l iam Barr (trans,) Montreal: Harvest House , 1978 Hamre, Gordon M., "An Overview of Territorial Parks in the Nor thwest Terr i tor ies" , Park News: Journal of the Canadian ParKs and Wilderness Society, Spring 1987, Vol. 23, No. 1, P.27 Hemmens, G . C , "New Directions in Planning Theory", American  Planning Associat ion Journal Vol. 46, #3, 1980 Hogwood, Brian W. and Lewis A. Gunn, Policy Analysis in the Real  W o r l d . London: Oxford University Press, 1984 Hudson, B.M., "Comparison of Current Planning Theories: Counterparts and Con t rad ic t ions" .Amer ican Planning Assoc ia t ion Journa l Vol. 46, # 1 , 1977 Irving, Kate Fee Yee Consulting Group, "Consideration Regarding A Territorial Park on the Deh Cho Highway Near Wrigley, N.W.T. Final Report", Yellowknife, NWT: Deh Cho Regional Council, November, 1986 Lindblom, Charles E., "The Science of 'Muddling Through", Public Administration Review, 1959, Vol. 19 (Spring) Lowi, Theodore J. , "Population Policies and the American Political System", in Political Science in Population S t u d i e s . (Eds.) Richard L. Clinton, Wil l iam, S. Flash, and R. Kenneth Godwin, Lexington: Lexington Books,1972 101 Mayer, Robert R., Policy and Program Planning: A Developmental  P e r s p e c t i v e . Englewood Cliffs: Prentice - Hall Inc., 1985 Nagel, Stuart S., Public Policy. Goals. Means, and Methods. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1984 News North. 'NWT tourism has potential* letter to the Editor, Friday, April 10, 1987 P. A5 NWT Data Book: 1986-87. Yellowknife: Outcrop Ltd., 1986, O'Reilly, Kevin, "An Evaluation of the Territorial Land Use Regulations as a Land, Management Tool in the Yukon", Masters Thesis, Water loo: University of Water loo, 1983 Page, J. and R. Lang, Canadian Planners in Profile. Presented to the Canadian Inst i tute of Planners Annual Conference, Toronto, June 27, 1977, Toronto: York University, 1977 Pressman, Jeffery L. and Aaron Wildavbsky, Imp lementa t ion . Berkley: University of California Press, 1973 Shulman, Paul R., "Non-incremental Policy Making: Notes Toward an Alternat ive Paradigm", American Polit ical Science Review. Vol. 69, #4, (December), 1975, Pp. 1354-1370 Simon, H. A., The New Science of Management Decision. Englewood Cliffs: Prent ice-Hal l , 1960 Taylor, Michelle E., Auvuit tuq National Park Reserve Visitor Study 1982 Report on Findings. Winn ipeg: Natural Resources Institute, University of Manitoba, prepared for Socio-Economic Division, Prairie Regional Office, Parks Canada, 1983 Watkins, Mel "From Underdevelopment to Development" in Dene Nat ion: The Co lony W i t h i n . Toronto : Univers i ty of Toronto Press, 1977 Weeres, S and G. Hamre, "Planning for the Establishment of a Park: A Case Study f rom the Northwest Terr i tor ies", Park News : Journal of the National and Provincial Parks Assoc iact ion of Canada . Spring, 1987, Vol 23, No. 1 1 0 2 PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS Britton, Aimee Briar International Business Resources Ltd., Ottawa, April 8, 1987 Graham, Bill Acting Deputy Minister, Economic Development and Tour ism, Government of the Northwest Territories, February 10, 1987 Hon. Curley, Tagak Minsiter, Economic Development and Tourism, Government of the Northwest Territories, April 8, 1986 Hamre, Gordon Specia l Advisor , Park Deve lopment , Economic Development and Tour ism, Government of the Nor thwest Terr i tor ies, Yel lowkni fe , NWT, January 20, April 13,1987 Hon. Nickerson, David Member of Parliament, Western Arctic, Fort Simpson, NWT, February 26, 1987 Nuegebauer, Peter Head, Program Development, Tourism and Parks, Economic Development and Tourism, Government of the Northwest Territories, April 13, 1987, and June 2 1 , 1988. Sheehan, John Area Superintendent, Economic Development and Tour ism, Government of the Northwest Terri tories, Fort Simpson, NWT, April 16, 1986, and June 22, 1988. Stilwell, Mike Deputy Minister, Economic Development and Tour ism, GNWT Yel lowknife, August 29, 1985 Weisbeck, Don Chief of Tourism, Economic Development and Tourism, GNWT Yel lowknife, August 29, 1985 1 0 3 

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