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Development planning in the Northwest Territories : the case of tourism Weeres, Scot David 1988

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Development Planning in the Northwest Territories: The Case of  Tourism  by  Scot David Weeres B.A. University of British Columbia, 1981  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTERS OF ARTS  in  THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES School of Community and Regional Planning  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA S e p t e m b e r 1988 © Scot David W e e r e s  In  presenting  degree freely  at  this  thesis  in  partial  fulfilment  t h e University  of  British  Columbia,  available  copying  of  department publication  f o r reference  this or of  thesis by  this  and study.  f o r scholarly  his  or  thesis  her  of I  1 further  purposes  gain  agree agree  may be  representatives.  f o r financial  the  shall  It  is  requirements that that  for  an  t h e Library  shall  permission  for  granted  by  understood  not b e allowed  advanced make  extensive  the head that  without  it  of my  copying my  or  written  permission.  Department  of  £clool  T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f British Vancouver, Canada  •ate  DE-6  C^/^AtT  (2/88)  6^  CemMUtbl^J  Columbia  Ctfjl H^(OA^l P'hnJttfiJ.  ABSTRACT  The purpose of this thesis is to argue that effective d e v e l o p m e n t planning policy-making, Government  cannot occur without integrating the planning,  and  of  economic  programme  the  Northwest  development Territories'  processes.  tourism  The  development  planning efforts are e x a m i n e d and a n a l y s e d in an effort to  identify  the determinants of successful development planning.  For a number of d e c a d e s economic development activity in the Northwest  Territories  extraction.  The  has  result  been  has  based  on  non-renewable  been the creation  of an  resource  unstable  and  d e p e n d e n t e c o n o m y that largely serves the needs of  non-residents.  Increasingly  (GNWT),  Government  of the  Northwest  Territories  like  other governments across C a n a d a and around the world, has turned to development  planning  to deal  with  p r o b l e m s that are an inevitable based  economies.  The  the  instability  and  dependency  adjunct to n o n - r e n e w a b l e  Government  of  the  Northwest  resource Territories  (GNWT) has concluded that tourism can provide some protection from the  economic  storms  that  periodically  sweep  across  the  non-  renewable resource based northern economy.  A review of planning, policy, a n d p r o g r a m m e theory that  while  the  study or activity.  three  are  different  they  are  not d i s c r e t e  indicated fields  of  Rather, they are all integral parts of d e v e l o p m e n t  i i  planning.  Thus,  it is n e c e s s a r y ,  planning d o c u m e n t s before  and  upon,  and  planning activities.  examples  examine  but also g o v e r n m e n t a l  commenting  development  to  from  a  not just  government  policy and  learning  from,  a  programmes, government's  This thesis has drawn  variety  of  GNWT  planning,  information policy,  and  programme sources relating to tourism development in the N W T . examination interviews  of with  these  documents  those  planning  and  the  numerous  development  An  unstructured of  the  NWT's  tourism sector have led to .the following findings:  1.  The G N W T  diversifying  and  has a s s u m e d that tourism is an effective tool for stabilizing  the  economy  of the  NWT.  Indeed,  it  could be said that the G N W T has focused its hopes for an improved economic future on tourism.  2.  The quantity a n d quality of information for planning  by the G N W T has been 'inadequate'.  collected  No information on the tourism  perceptions, desires and concerns of N W T residents w a s collected.  3.  The  Department  of  Economic  Development  and Tourism  has  recognized the shortage of data as a problem a n d has taken steps to address  it.  However,  most  new d a t a being c o l l e c t e d  is  marketing  information with little relevance for policy and p r o g r a m m e planning.  4.  The goals a n d objectives of the N W T T o u r i s m Strategy  drafted  by  information  technically on  the  oriented  perceptions,  iii  planners desires  with and  were  access  to  little  concerns  of  NWT  residents. a  The Strategy implicitly a s s u m e d that tourism w o u l d  positive  cost-benefit  ratio,  that  increased  tourism  diversify a n d stabilize the NWT's economic base, a n d that  have would  increased  tourism w o u l d be well received in the small/remote c o m m u n i t i e s  of  the Northwest Territories.  5. policy  The  GNWT's  (the  only  formal  NWT Tourism  Based' Tourism:  statement  of  tourism  Strategy) w a s articulated  A Strategy  for  the  Northwest  in  development Community  Territories  Tourism  Industry.  6.  The G N W T used its Territorial Parks p r o g r a m m e as a tool to  foster tourism and spread its benefits across the NWT.  7.  GNWT  tourism  unquestioningly industry  for  the  planners  and  the  of  accepted Northwest  notion  policy-makers "tourism  Territories", without  [as]  a  exploring  have desirable the  long  term implications of the striving for a tourism dependent e c o n o m y .  8.  The G N W T did not recognize/acknowledge  that tourism  an export industry that may be subject to many of the  was/is  unpredictable  fluctuations that the primary industries were/are noted for.  9.  The Northwest Territories is an example of a jurisdiction in  which d e v e l o p m e n t planning, at least with regard to tourism development, has not occurred.  By removing its planning efforts  f r o m the complex s o c i o - e c o n o m i c  iv  reality of the  Northwest  Territories the GNWT's planning efforts can be said to be rational, but also top-down, and technocratic.  v  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Abstract Table List  ii  of of  Contents  .vi  Illustrations  viii  Acknowledgements  ix  Chapter 1 Introduction Method Rationale Organization  1 3 3 10  References  12  Chapter 2 P l a n n i n g / P o l i c i e s / P r o g r a m m e s : T h e Linkages Planning Theory Policy Theory Programme Theory Conclusions Implications  15 17 22 26 29 31  References  35  vi  Chapter 3 The Informational Resources of the G N W T : Planning and Policies in a Vacuum Implications  39 52  References  53  Chapter 4 Tourism Policy and Regulation in the N W T  56  References  68  Chapter 5 G N W T Tourism Development Programmes: The Example of Territorial  Parks  .70  References  80  Chapter 6 Tourism as an -Economic Base: The Underlying  Assumptions  82  References  90  Chapter 7 C o n c l u s i o n s a n d Implicaitons Findings Planning Implications Bibliography Personal Communications  92 92 96 99 103  v ii  LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS  Illustration  p  1  a  g  e  73  viii  Acknowledgements  Often those who manage to finally attain some long desired goal, be it completing a thesis or climbing a mountain, do so only with the assistance of a great many individuals. My completion of this thesis is a testament to the many to w h o m I owe a great deal. Space limitations and a poor memory do not permit me to thank everyone of them here. There are a few individuals w h o have been of particular assistance and inspiration and to w h o m I w a n t to express my heartfelt gratitude. I owe a great intellectual debt to Peter B o o t h r o y d and Bill Rees. Their patience, willingness to a c c o m m o d a t e my interest in northern development planning, a n d expertise in guiding me have been important factors in my actually finishing this thesis. By far the greatest debt, however, is o w e d to the w o m e n of my life; my wife Annette and my daughter Ashley. Between t h e m they have kept me sane, calm, confident, and interested in seeing this task through to the end. My son Ryan is also owed a vote of thanks. His imminent arrival during the closing stages of the thesis process provided some extra incentive. I also w a n t to express appreciation for the financial support I received during part of my graduate work from a grant made to Rees and Boothroyd by the Donner Canadian Foundation. I alone bear responsibility for any errors or omissions in this thesis.  Scot Weeres Fort Simpson, N W T  ix  Chapter  1  INTRODUCTION  This thesis attempts to assist in the evolution of planning  by d r a w i n g  lessons, of both a specific and  nature, f r o m the tourism d e v e l o p m e n t Government  of  the  Northwest  Territories.  c o u l d not, and w o u l d not, evolve critically  revisited.  Simply  in one of two w a y s :  planning  development generalizable  experiences  Development  of  planning  if past planning efforts w e r e  put learning f r o m experience can  repeating a course of  that  The  produced  desired  not  and then avoid repeating them  in the future;" s e c o n d , by c o n s c i o u s l y has  not  occur  first, by examining past actions that have  w o r k e d , recognize them as mistakes,  the  results.  process  of  action  experiential  learning, however, be it first or second hand, cannot occur if one is unable to understand why a particular action did or did not work.  This thesis argues that effective development planning occur  without  integrating  the  planning,  p r o g r a m m e development processes. examination Territories,  of  tourism  policy-making,  and  The conclusions drawn from an  development  both those specific  cannot  planning  in  the  to the case of tourism  Northwest planning  in  the N W T and those applicable to development  planning in g e n e r a l ,  rest  relevant  upon  literature  the  careful  examination  a n d the G o v e r n m e n t  of  the  theoretical  of the Northwest Territories'  development planning experience.  1  tourism  At the level of general applicability this thesis seeks to a n s w e r following  *  the  questions:  What  are  the  respective  roles  that  planning,  policy,  and  p r o g r a m m e s play in the development planning process?  *  Can there be sound development planning without the planning,  p o l i c y - m a k i n g , and p r o g r a m m e d e v e l o p m e n t activities of being integrated into a procedurally rational  With  regard  planning  in  the  following  questions:  to  the  specific  Northwest  case  Territories  government  whole?  of  this  tourism thesis  will  development answer  *  Has the G N W T articulated a tourism development policy?  *  Has the G N W T ' s tourism d e v e l o p m e n t  the  tourism  tourism  resources are developed in a manner consistent with G N W T  tourism  * of  programmes  such  that  orient  important  development  development  policy s e r v e d to  the  policy?  Does the G N W T have, at its disposal, informational sufficient  development  quantity  and  quality  planning?  2  to  do  proceduarally  resources rational  *  Has  the  GNWT  critically  analysed  the  ability  of  tourism  provide diversity and stability within the economy of the  to  NWT?  Method  The  information  upon  which  this  thesis  is  based  has  been  obtained from the following primary and secondary sources:  *  relevant literature on .planning, policy, and p r o g r a m m e  theory;  *  personal,  officials,  consultants,  unstructured  and  persons  interviews  knowledgeable  with  government  about t o u r i s m  planning  in  the NWT;  *  documents,  files of  m e m o r a n d a , and letters made available  the G o v e r n m e n t  from  of the Northwest Territories a n d the  the Deh  Cho Regional Council.  Rationale  Over the last four d e c a d e s much of the economic planning  and  extraction Gurston  and Dacks  significant  activity  in  the  exportation has  northern  pointed  NWT  of  has  been  hydrocarbon  out that  decisions  less  on  closely  and  "Ottawa  development  mineral  [has] its  tied  to  the  resources.  b a s e d its  commitment  most to  northerners than on its hopes that the North would contribute to the country's e c o n o m i c health generally and energy supply  3  particularly."  1  The  recurrent  emphasis  that  governments  and the  southern  private sector have placed upon developing the non-renewable sector of  the  northern  economy  resulted  in  a  resource  extraction  logic  prevailing over much of the e c o n o m i c thinking and planning in the NWT.  As one report pointed out, "mining and oil and gas development  have  received  government significant  the  greatest  financial  support  implications  share and  for the  of  federal  attention."  residents  2  and  territorial  This situation  of the the  NWT  has  since  to  s o m e extent the nature of a region's economic base determines w h o the primary beneficiaries of e c o n o m i c activity will be.  In the  case  of the N W T it has been argued that non-native northerners are the most  likely recipients of both the direct and indirect benefits  non-renewable  resource based e c o n o m y .  gone  as  as  far  northerners  state  depends  development."  The  to  that  "the  ultimately  on  well  being  of  a  even  non-native  non-renewable  resource  3  concentration of economic interest and power in the hands  of the central g o v e r n m e n t , the southern non-native  S o m e authors have  of  northerners  has resulted  b a s e d private sector,  in the creation  of an  and  unstable  and d e p e n d e n t economy that is structured to serve the needs of a few  northerners  and  a great  many  non-northerners.  Indeed,  the  outside and non-native influence on the territorial e c o n o m y has been so pervasive that as James Cameron puts it; "in traditional e c o n o m i c terms, the e c o n o m y of the N W T is neither balanced nor mature.  4  It  lacks  diversity  service  within  sectors."  and  between  the  primary,  secondary,  and  4  Southern/non-Native  territorial  economy  appear to have been little c o n c e r n e d about adapting their  economic  development  and  people.  projects  to  stake  holders  satisfy  the  in the  needs  of  the  North  her  Most often it has been a s s u m e d that the North a n d , more  particularly, northerners would change to a c c o m m o d a t e and adapt to the needs of the d e v e l o p m e n t s . the  North  is essentially  Consequently, the wage economy of  5  a staples  based economy  that  exists  not  b e c a u s e of an internal dynamic, but rather b e c a u s e of the demands a n d desires of metropolitan centres in southern C a n a d a , the States, E u r o p e , and A s i a .  As one author has argued, the "staples  6  basis [of the northern e c o n o m y ] bust e c o n o m y  a n d [the]  brake  development."  on  [its]  regional d e v e l o p m e n t  necessarily  makes  it a b o o m - a n d -  lack of internal e c o n o m i c  links acts as  Another author has c o n t e n d e d  7  is primarily held back or s u p p r e s s e d  outward drain of economic surplus from the r e g i o n . "  Significant  numbers  United  of  northerners,  a  that  "by the  8  especially  the  58%  of  northerners w h o claim a Native heritage, are b o u n d to the North by bonds  more enduring  interest. personal  Native and  and compelling than t h o s e of economic  northerners  cultural  in  identity  particular  from  living  derive  much  in  North.  the  of  emmigration  from the North during periods of e c o n o m i c slow  or  can  collapse  be  expected  to  impose  significant  their Thus, down  psychological  costs on those forced to adopt such a strategy in order to  5  self-  ensure  personal  and/or  familial  costs  associated  being  has  Native  with  economic  leaving  the  meant that a great  northerners)  are  security. North  many  virtually  The  to  assure  northerners  forced  enormity  to  of  economic  (again,  remain  the well  especially  in  the  North  regardless of the state of the economy.  During the a u t u m n were  "girding  for  This,  because  "the  [were]  one  of of  their  primary  under considerable  1986  it w a s  reported that  toughest  industries  pressure  economic  of the  northerners  winters  Northwest  resulting f r o m  yet."  Territories  [a] recent  fall of oil prices and the c o n t i n u e d low metal prices  9  sharp  world-wide."  1 0  Oil a n d mining companies responded to  the collapse in international  oil  northern  and  pullout  metals left  prices  "an  ever  by  closing  growing  their  number  of  facing  the  northerners"  unemployed  and  welfare.  Newspapers  reported  1 1  Delta region of the their  full  time  that  once  as  the  oil  proudly  prospect  in the  N W T an e s t i m a t e d 7 0 0  jobs  operations.  of  self-reliant going  onto  Beaufort/Mackenzie  individuals w o u l d  companies  The  closed  down  lose NWT  operations to wait out the slump in the world d e m a n d , and price, for o i l . 12  In the Deh Cho region, located in the southwestern corner of the  Northwest  Territories, f e w  positions  during  however,  many  basis.  the  boom  residents  years  of  people w h o w o r k e d  the  held full time oil  in the  sector.  industry  oil  industry  There on a  were,  seasonal  These individuals w e r e affected by the pull out of the n o n -  renewable  resource  companies.  During  6  1985/86  regional  residents  found  approximately  companies  exploring  1800 for  person  hydrocarbons,  1986/87 exploration  season  were  hydrocarbon  generated  Region  by  hundreds  months one  only 80 person  of lay-offs  of year  Pine  latter  months  exploration.  at the  employment during  of  the  employment  In the South Slave  13  Point  lead/zinc  Mine,  twenty years the single largest private sector employer in the made inevitable the closure of an entire t o w n , as well as unemployment  with  for  NWT,  swelling  rolls.  The Government of the Northwest Territories r e s p o n d e d to the difficult economic situation by adopting a range of short t e r m 'bandaid' actions.  One example w a s , the announcement that "$1.8 million  would be added to the current [territorial]  budget of the  Department  [of Social Services] to cover [any] increased d e m a n d for  assistance  that may occur as a result of lay-offs in the non-renewable sector." in the  The territorial a n d federal governments also  1 4  creation  investigate western  and  Arctic  of  an Action  implement  Force  economic  in the face of the  With the release of the Action the  Force  on  had c o n c e n t r a t e d  creation  activities.  Indeed,  Western  Arctic, w h o  was  Economic  resource  co-operated  Development  development  non-renewable  options sector's  for  the  also  Member  a member  of  the  collapse.  Force's report it b e c a m e clear  on the d e v e l o p m e n t  to  that  of short t e r m j o b  Parliament  of the  Action  for  the  Force  on  Economic Development, noted that "not a single new dollar w a s used [in  any  of  the  Action  Force's  twenty  proposals;  budgeted for activities w e r e just brought forward a  7  instead] bit."  1 5  already  In the sector  northern  renewable new  face  of  employment as  collapse  politicians  resource]  identified  the  began  sector  of  the  to  [would]  areas  that  non-renewable  promise  continue[d]  alternatives  one  of the  to  be  that  "as  the  experience  sought."  was  to  resource [non-  difficulties, Tourism was  1 6  receive  increased  attention from the G N W T ' s policy, economic planning, and programme development  personnel.  At the  November,  1986,  First  Minister's  Conference on the Economy in Vancouver, B.C. the GNWT's Government Leader a r g u e d that there was great potential for northern development  in t h r e e  sectors  of the  economy.  The  economic  Government  Leader specified: *  mining  *  tourism  *  hydrocarbon exploration and  development  17  The increased attention paid to tourism has occured largely in response vitality  to in  the the  dependent  twin NWT  upon  realizations is  lost  economic  that  when and  the  potential  "survival  for  economic  becomes  decision-making  forces  entirely that  lie  outside the control of those w h o will be affected by such c h a n g e s " ; and that relatively few Native northerners appear willing accept  the  personal, cultural, a n d psychological costs that must be paid if they w e r e to move to access economic o p p o r t u n i t i e s . concerns identify  the new  Government "opportunities  of the for  Northwest  economic  18  To address these  Territories  health  and  set  out  growth"  to and  tourism w a s been singled out as an economic opportunity that could be used to  stimulate economic development.  8  1 9  Both within a n d without g o v e r n m e n t circles tourism  has  come  to be seen as a w a y of providing economic opportunities that less boom/bust resource  (i.e. more stable) than those  sector.  A  Department  of  prepared  1986, for  record  in  of  Economic  also is  particularly  the  noted  attractive  "tourism in  "this  now  the  that  the  is also  sector." interested  relatively  in d e v e l o p i n g  labour  opportunities (e.g.  The Government  2 1  intensive  that  guiding)".  sector  'spin-off  and  can  with  Tourism  benefits  well  solid The  2 0  economic in  world  recession  in the  Territories  because  provide  many  a  it  is  employment  existing  native  skills  In addition, the tourism sector 'dove tails' nicely  2 2  as  especially  is s e e n as being able to provide  and  people of the N W T .  As  for  slumps  further  with s o m e aspects of the traditional sector; a n d crafts.  has  of the N o r t h w e s t  the  "are c o m p a t i b l e  document  NWT."  record  mineral a n d p e t r o l e u m prices have c a u s e d severe industrial  Territories,  Tourism  that  declines that  non-renewable  Northwest  and  argued  economic  pointedly  of  Development  example,  weathering  document stability  Government  in the  are  opportunities  for  the  artisans  native  arts  substantial and  crafts  2 3  focusing  on  tourism  for  strategic  reasons  there  appear to be a couple of opportunistic reasons for seeking to further e n h a n c e the tourism sector. tourism  is "one of the world's  "fastest g r o w i n g also  an  Primary, among these is the fact that fastest growing  industries" a n d  sector of the territorial e c o n o m y . " ,  attractive  2 4  sector  for  the  9  GNWT  to  2 5  attempt  the  Tourism is to  develop  because  n u m e r o u s travel  industry experts  Northwest  Territories  has  attractive  range  tourism  adventure  of  markets, the most  North A m e r i c a . " , 2 6  capitalize  "the  on,  2 7  an  have c o n c l u d e d that  the  to  and  potential products  rapidly  supply  in  the  expanding  a  wide  wilderness  [tourism]  and  market  in  Thus, the G N W T hopes to be able to turn to, and economic  activity  that  requires  just  the  raw  repeatedly  that  material that the NWT has the most of; wilderness.  Since the mid 1980's the G N W T tourism  offers  an opportunity  economic base  of the NWT.  has a r g u e d  to b r o a d e n  and  stabilize  the  NWT's  Given this, and the fact that the tourism  industry is still very much in a nascent stage one w o u l d expect that the  GNWT  would  be  putting  a  significant  amount  of  effort  into  planning and developing the sector in an orderly and rational fashion.  Organization  This thesis has been organized into seven chapters.  T h e first  chapter discusses the purpose of, rationale behind, m e t h o d used in researching, a n d finally the organization of the thesis.  Chapter two  e x a m i n e s p l a n n i n g , policy, a n d p r o g r a m m e theory a n d explores linkages w h i c h form the t h r e e development  planning.  resources  the  developed  in  diversifying  Chapter  Government its  and  activities  effort  to  stabilizing  of  into a p r o c e d u r a l  three  examines  the  Northwest  turn  tourism  component  10  in  the  into the  the  whole  -  informational  Territories an fabric  has  important of  the  territorial  economy.  regulatory  environment  NWT.  Chapter  programs,  with  five  Chapter  four  examines  the  in which tourism d e v e l o p m e n t examines  special  the  emphasis  GNWT's  on the  and  o c c u r s in the  tourism  Territorial  policy  development Parks  system.  Chapter six examines the extent to which the G N W T has considered w h e t h e r d e v e l o p i n g tourism is an appropriate to  attain  discusses  economic  development  the conclusions  the e x a m i n a t i o n  in  the  and planning  of tourism d e v e l o p m e n t  Territories.  1 1  m e a n s through  North.  Chapter  implications that flow planning  in the  which seven from  Northwest  References Chapter  1  G u r s t o n Dacks, A C h o i c e of F u t u r e s : Canadian North. (Toronto: Methuen, 1 9 8 1 , P. 89). 1  Politics  in the  G o v e r n m e n t of t h e N o r t h w e s t T e r r i t o r i e s , D e p a r t m e n t of Renewable Resources and Department of Economic Development and Tourism, Developing a Planning Framework for Renewable Resource Development in the Northwest Territories (Drafti. Phase 1 : R e s o u r c e Information a n d R e s o u r c e M a n a g e m e n t S t r a t e g i e s a n d P r o g r a m s . (Yellowknife: No date), P. D 3 1 . 2  Dacks, A Choice of Futures. P. 67.  3  J a m e s J o s e p h C a m e r o n , Culture and Change in the Northwest Territories: Implications f o r C o m m u n i t y I n f r a s t r u c t u r e Planning. (Masters T h e s i s , University of British Columbia, October 1985), P. 32. 4  5  L o u i s - E d m o n d Hamelin, Canadian Nordicitv: It's Your North T o o , trans. William Barr, (Montreal: Harvest House , 1978), P. 279.  6  Dacks,  A Choice of Futures. P. 13.  7  Ibid., P. 20.  Mel Watkins, "From Underdevelopment to Development", ed. Mel Watkins, Dene N a t i o n : T h e Colony W i t h i n . (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1977), P. 86. 8  9  T h e Edmonton Journal.  Saturday, November, 1, 1986.  Briar I n t e r n a t i o n a l B u s i n e s s R e s o u r c e s L t d . , A Strategic Marketing Plan for T o u r i s m for the G o v e r n m e n t of t h e N o r t h w e s t T e r r i t o r i e s . (Ottawa: April, 1986), P. A 1 0  1 1  The Edmonton Journal,  Saturday, November, 1, 1986  12  1 2  Ibid., Saturday, November, 1, 1986.  F i g u r e s c o m p i l e d by the a u t h o r after r e v i e w i n g Deh Regional Council files., (Fort Simpson, NWT) April 25, 1987. 1 3  1 4  The Edmonton Journal.  Cho  Saturday, November, 1, 1986.  David Nickerson, Hon., M e m b e r of Parliament, W e s t e r n Arctic, Personal communication during meeting at Deh Cho Regional Council offices, Fort Simpson, NWT, February 26, 1987. 1 5  Briar I n t e r n a t i o n a l B u s i n e s s Marketing Plan for Tourism. P. A 1 6  1 7  Resources  Ltd.,  A  Strategic  News North(Yellowknife). Friday, November 28, 1986, P.  A10  B.R. Blishen et al, S o c i o - e c o n o m i c Impact Model for Northern D e v e l o m e n t ( O t t a w a : D e p a r t m e n t of Indian Affairs a n d N o r t h e r n D e v e l o p m e n t , R e s e a r c h B r a n c h , Policy R e s e a r c h a n d E v a l u a t i o n Group; 1979), P. 54 (emphasis in original). 1 8  Briar I n t e r n a t i o n a l B u s i n e s s Marketing Plan for Tourism. P. A. 1 9  Resources  Ltd.,  A  Strategic  Government of the Northwest Territories, Schedule A. C a n a d a N o r t h w e s t Territories T o u r i s m D e v e l o p m e n t Subsidiary A g r e e m e n t . (Draft Document), October 23, 1986, P. 3.  2 0  1  Ibid.  2 2  Ibid.  2 3  Ibid.  2 4  Ibid.,  2 5  News North. Friday, November 28, 1986, P.  2 6  G o v e r n m e n t of the Northwest Territories, Schedule A.  2  P. 1  13  A10 P. 4  Briar I n t e r n a t i o n a l B u s i n e s s R e s o u r c e s Marketing Plan for T o u r i s m . O t t a w a : April, 1986  2 7  14  Ltd.,  A  Strategic  Chapter 2  Planning/Policies/Programmes:  Planning, related  to  Territories  economic or  vacuum.  policy-making, and  anything  and  tourism  else  cannot  The  programme  Linkages  development  development be  in  understood  be  it  the  Northwest  in a  conextual  This chapter provides the reader with a link b e t w e e n  theories of planning, policy, and p r o g r a m m e planning and the  the  reality  of planning, policy, and programme activtiy in the N W T .  The objective of this chapter is threefold: while  p l a n n i n g , policy, and p r o g r a m m e s  completely  discrete  when  viewed  first, to argue that  are different, they  from  a  development  are  not  planning  perspective; s e c o n d , to embark on a brief, and selective, discussion of the theoretical and  programme  literature  debates  in the areas of p l a n n i n g ,  development;  and  theoretical  third,  debates  to  draw  criteria  policy-making,  from which  the  relevant  define  good  planning, good policy-making, and g o o d programme development.  The  literature  voluminous  on  planning,  policies,  a n d v a r i e d , as are the definitions  and programmes.  and  programmes  of p l a n n i n g ,  is  policies,  Indeed, one is often pressed to discern consensus,  within the literature, on much other than the fact that all three c a n , and do, occur in the public sector, though not exclusively. volume however,  of  the an  literature  unmistakable  on  planning,  policy,  and  indicator that a great 1 5  The very  programmes  many  people  is, see  some divergence between the planning process and the processes of policy development or programme design.  To s o m e degree the divergences in the literature are of the  intellectual  models  built to e n a b l e  people  and better understand organizational behaviour. the  divergences  understanding  are  intellectual  constructs  to  artifacts  conceptualize  To the extent that which  facilitate  of a complex process the reader of p l a n n i n g ,  the  policy,  and p r o g r a m m e theory has to be aware that w h e n models are being developed  a "process  is going o n . "  [of] a b s t r a c t i o n ,  selection, and  simplification  The careful reader c o m e s to realize that  1  polices, and p r o g r a m m e s differ in w a y s that are seldomly clearly  in  planning  the is  literature.  a  Generally,  process  for  the  literature  decision-making,  planning, addressed  argues  policies  establish  sectoral goals and define the organizational sanctions (both and  negative)  articulate by  that  the  which  will  be  objectives,  positive  used  to  attain  activities,  sanctions  and  can  be  them  and  to  positive  programmes  administrative used  that:  procedures  pursue  overall  goals.2 3,4 5 6  Regardless  of  the  definition, a n d the variety planning, interesting  policy,  and  divergence,  of v i e w s  expressed  programmes  convergences  divergences,  apparent  intellectually  as w e l l . explore  one  is  As o n e the  the  disparity  of  in the  literature  on  able  discern  some  begins to p r o b e  these  intricacies  to  of  organizational  d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , and actually attempt to p l a n , a n d d e v e l o p  policies  or  working  programmes  independent  of e a c h  16  other  in a practical  environment,  one  increasing  divergences.  Experience  drives  three  home  programmes and/or  are  working  points:  separate,  programmes  realizes  do  with  first  but  not  the  policies  that  highly  arbritrariness and  planning,  emerge,  the  programmes policy,  interrelated; second  simply  of  they  are,  and  policies instead,  formulated by people intent on bringing rationality to bear on future situations a n d actions; third, that the main point of planning get  action  toward  the  attainment  of  defined  goals  through  d e v e l o p m e n t of appropriate policies a n d p r o g r a m m e s . point  that  is  understand  the  programmes. become  of  little  fundamental relationship  Without more  proper  than  a  importance between  planning,  planning,  policies  series  of  that  merely  facilitates  the  the  It is the first attempting policies,  and  unrelated,  r e s p o n s e s to the crisis of the m o m e n t . activity  when  is to  to and  programmes  often  irrational,  Planning is more than development  policies  an and  p r o g r a m m e s ; planning is the process by which appropriate goals and objectives which  are e s t a b l i s h e d .  Planning  also  provides  the  rational, goal d i r e c t e d , policies a n d p r o g r a m m e s  means are  by  brought  into being a n d , as such, forms a procedural c e m e n t that ensures the formation development planning.  Planning  Planning  is an  ever  changing  Theory  field.  Consequently,  there  is  little  a g r e e m e n t about exactly what planning is; and even less about how it can and should be done.  In the Canadian context Page and Lang,  17  after  documenting  the  confusion  surrounding  the  profession  and  practice of planning, noted: The very fact that there is no c o n s e n s u s on the p u r p o s e of p l a n n i n g tells us s o m e t h i n g about the variety of p e r c e p t i o n s a n d beliefs that enter into planning a c t i v i t y . 7  In the American context work by Hudson and H e m m e n s point to a very similar situation - a p r o f e s s i o n , its theory, a n d its all in a state of f l u x . , 8  9  practice  Indeed, so significant and pervasive is the  state of flux that at least a couple authors have gone as far as to c o n t e n d that planning is experiencing a paradigm shift or c r i s i s .  10  In the midst of such change and so many conflicting perspectives it is  hardly  surprising  that t h e r e  is  no  agreement  on  basic, a n d as important, as a definition of planning.  something Planning  as has  been defined in diverse w a y s ; below are but a few of the countless definitions: "Planning directing  may be d e f i n e d as the method for change. 1 1  " P l a n n i n g m a y be b r o a d l y d e f i n e d as the a p p l i c a t i o n of k n o w l e d g e , in an o r g a n i z e d manner, to maintain a n d / o r c h a n g e a given system." 1 2  " . . . p l a n n i n g is a p r o c e s s of s e l e c t i n g a n d d e s i g n i n g a rational c o u r s e of a c o l l e c t i v e action to achieve a future state of a f f a i r s . " 13  "Planning involves bringing rationality bear on future actions, linking k n o w l e d g e actions." 1 4  18  to to  Although  planning  in  the  professional  sense  is  a  relatively  recent development, the number of planning theories that have been espoused  is  significant.  Theories  of  planning  are  almost  as  numerous, and as varied as the definitions of planning.  Transactive,  rational,  radical,  incremental  theories  of  espoused  synoptic,  planning at  one  comprehensive  adaptive,  have time  all or  been  a n d incremental  become  the  reference  and  formulated,  another.  proposed,  However,  schools of t h o u g h t  the field of planning for sometime. have  advocacy,  the  have  and  rational dominated  Indeed, to a great degree they  points  against  which  other  planning  theory is c o m p a r e d .  The most persistent school of planning t h o u g h t is often called 'rational'  or  'rational  comprehensive' (depending  on  comprehensive',  approach the  author)  planning.  consists  of  steps  which,  rational and c o m p r e h e n s i v e p l a n . , 1 5  1 6  between if  The four  followed,  'rational and  nine  produce  a  According to one author these  stages are;  * * *  Determination of Goals Needs Assessment Specification of Objectives Development of Alternatives Evaluation/Ranking of Alternatives Selection of Alternative Courses of Action Implementation Evaluation of Actions Feedback 1 7  W h e n the 'rational c o m p r e h e n s i v e ' and espoused  model w a s first  explicated  it w a s generally seen as a linear process, with  19  the  planner  proceeding  directly  from  result being the e m e r g e n c e comprehensive,  plan.  one  stage  of a perfectly  As  the  'rational  to  the  next,  rational, a n d  the  end  completely  comprehensive'  model  of  planning w a s first e n v i s i o n e d , c o m p r e h e n s i v e n e s s w a s seen as the planner  attempting  to  be  exhaustive.  That  is,  the  planner  e x p e c t e d to conduct a "detailed analysis using quantitative and  examine  all  possible  actions  and  outcomes.  was  methods"  Reviews  1 8  of  planning practice have indicated that very seldomly did this actually occur.  It w a s observed that, in general, the world did not change and  evolve in a stricly linear fashion. applying of  As a result, planners  steadfastly  a linear interpretation of the rational-comprehensive  planning  and  policy-making  found  their  work  and  model  observations  repeatedly thwarted.  As  experience  accumulated  with  the  'rational  world,  with and  change  it.  model  it b e c a m e clear that the strict linearity of the  w a s o n e of its greatest problems. planner  comprehensive'  an  thus  accurate  Thus,  The model did not provide  representation  significantly faithfully  model  limited appling  or  his/her the  understanding ability  to  'rational  of  influence  the the or  comprehensive'  model did not ensure an the outcome that was originally expected.  Over  time  the  definition  of c o m p r e h e n s i v e n e s s  S o m e of the more recent proponents of the 'rational  has  evolved.  comprehensive'  model point out that the model does not have to be, and indeed never w a s , strictly linear.  The rational c o m p r e h e n s i v e model, it has been  a r g u e d , is not comprehensive "in the sense of being exhaustive but in  20  the  sense  of being  integrative."  point out that "planning  19  The authors who hold this view  is a d y n a m i c  rather than a static  a n d often follows a spiral rather than a linear c o u r s e " .  process  They also  2 0  argue that there is feedback between the various steps which makes the entire 'rational c o m p r e h e n s i v e ' interdependent  planning  process  interactive  linking a variety of ends a n d means into a  and  rational  whole.  T h e s e c o n d , and some would argue the "most pervasive" model of planning w a s "formally proposed in response to the of  the  rational  incrementalism,  comprehensive incrementalism,  approach." adaptive  2 1  ,  shortcomings Disjointed  2 2  planning,  or  even  'muddling through' are all labels used to refer to this s e c o n d theory of planning.  The development and espousal of this theory of planning  is most closely associated with the w o r k of Charles  Lindblom. , 2 3  Lindblom a r g u e d that the rational c o m p r e h e n s i v e theory of w a s neither practical nor desirable.  2 4  planning  Lindblom also c o n t e n d e d  that  is was impossible for any person, or group of persons, to think both rationally a n d comprehensively about the ends, the implications  of  all  planning  problems,  means, and the  situations,  or  options.  Lindblom pointed out that plans a n d decisions made in large organizations, be they in the  scale  private or public sectors, tend to made  in an a t m o s p h e r e of s o m e crisis, which is often simultaneously  rife  with  the  a  plurality  disjointed, planning "talk  and  and  about  of  competing  interests.  essentially  incremental  decision-making  Linblom  policies  at  all".  21  a  nature  of  felt  In place  2 5  As  it made  result  of  organizational little s e n s e  of carefully  thought  to out  policies  Lindblom  found  what  could  be  discribed  as  a  series  of  f r a g m e n t e d and often unrelated decisions.  One theory  of  of  of  most  planning  incremental means  the  theory  is  significant its  lack  of  of planning  planning.  That  problems a  normative  focuses  is,  with  is  incremental  base.  almost  emphasis  the  Lindblom's  exclusively  placed  on  on  the  using  the  technical aspects of planning to discern which one of a small number of options, which differ only marginally from the status q u o , is the most  suitable.  Thus  limitations  of time  bargaining  and  incremental very  the  and  mutual  final  money  product as well  adjustment  descriptive.  It  does  plan)  as to the  process  planning/decision-making  largely  (the  not  help  subject  to  outcome  of  the  is  integral  to  the  The  theory  that  process.  is  the  planner  is  also  or  the  decision-maker determine how an organization "would have to act in order to be in s o m e sense more effective or efficient" b e c a u s e model does not prescribe how planning should be done. only argues that planning is done i n c r e m e n t a l l y .  26  the  Instead it  The fundamental  premise of the incremental theory is that planning should occur with as little disruption to the status quo as is possible.  Policy Theory  As with planning, policy and policy-making have also been the subject  of  Within this  a  burgeoning  body  of  literature  since  body of literature the term policy  wide variety of different w a y s .  the  has been  late  1950's.  used in a  In s o m e sources the term has been  22  used to denote "the goal of g o v e r n m e n t a l intervention," in others it is used to refer to the means by which a goal will be achieved. Lowi, and actually  Nagel after  refers to  intervention.  both  Lowi  the  argues  some governmental behavior  him, a r g u e d that ends that  and  in reality the term  the  policy  means  of  by  use  of  is "a g e n e r a l  positive  or  7  'policy'  governmental  authority defining an intention to  of citizens  2  negative  statement  by  influence  the  sanctions."  2 8  Nagel c h o s e to define policy as "governmental decisions designed to deal w i t h various  matters  such as t h o s e  related to foreign  environmental protection, crime, unemployment, social  problems."  policy,  and numerous  other  29  Both Lowi and Nagel have, of course, overlooked the fact that organizations clubs,  sport  neither  other  than  federations)  can, and  do,  credibility,  as  the  In  addition,  and  or  between  policy.  service  organization from which a general statement of intent emanates value,  linkage  make  corporations,  the  statement's  the  (e.g.  point within  that  author d i s c u s s e s  governments  policy.  Clearly,  those  general statements of intent made by low level public or corporate bureaucrats do  not carry the s a m e authority that those  statements  issued from the Cabinet or Board of Directors level do.  Bauer,  like Lowi a n d N a g e l , c h o s e to limit his discussion  of  policy to the public sector w h e n he contended that policies are the highest making. time  level  and  most  complex  form  of  governmental  Policy decisions have the widest implications, the  frame,  and  require  the  23  greatest  amount  of  decisionlongest  information,  analysis, a n d t h o u g h t to p r o d u c e .  3 0  Despite the public sector bias,  and the a t t e n d a n t over simplifications, the essential point m a d e all three authors  remains valid.  That is, policy orients the  by  activity  of g r o u p s of people, be they in public or private organizations,  or  members of the general public.  Policy-making  has  experienced  many  of  the  theoretical  dilemmas that planning has, and as in planning theory, the greatest debate rages between those who see policy-making as a rational and comprehensive process and those who argue that it is an incremental activity. , , 3 1  the  3 2  'rational'  policies.  Nagel identifies five stages which those w h o pursue  3 3  approach  to  policy  formation  use  to  arrive  their  They are: Agenda Setting Adoption Imp e m e n t a t i o n Eva uation Termination of Policy  It c a n  be  argued  that  the  above  c o m p r e h e n s i v e ' process of policy-making.  listing  3 4  implies  subjects c a n  'rational respect  respective  be given a sense of order a n d c o m p r e h e n s i b i l i t y ,  complex  conceptually discrete  When  a  Both Nagel, with  to policy, a n d Mayer with respect to p l a n n i n g , feel their  breaking  at  the  and  highly  interdependent  processes  by into  stages.  concept  of  'rational'  policy-making  was  explicated in the literature the policy maker w a s (some may  24  first argue  still  is)  expected  with  the  end  to  dutifully  result  being  proceed  the  with 'rational c o m p r e h e n s i v e '  from  production  one  of  planning there  stage  rational  Charles  Lindblom  again  their a r g u m e n t s .  undertake  T h e writings of  provide the critics with the f o u n d a t i o n  for  The critics of rational policy-making a r g u e that it  a  completely  d e v e l o p m e n t exercise. commit  As  3 5  considerable  is unlikely that an organization can martial the resources to  another  policy.  has been  criticism of the concept of 'rational' policy-making.  to  resources  rational  and  necessary  comprehensive  policy  In addition to organizations being unable to  sufficient  to ensure  the d e v e l o p m e n t  of  rational  policy, the critics argue that it is impossible to think rationally  and  c o m p r e h e n s i v l e y about all the available policy options a n d the long, medium, and short term implications of each.  Nagel  acknowledges  that  theory  of  'rational  comprehensive'  policy-making as originally p r o p o s e d is flawed in that it "requires degree  of  rationality w h i c h  Nagel g o e s pointing  on  out  exhaustive  to d e f e n d  that and  is impossible to a c h i e v e . " the  policy-making encompassing  t e r m e d 'rational'.  rational does of  theory not  all  levels  However,  3 6  of p o l i c y - m a k i n g  necessarily of  a  by  have  to  be  rationality  to  be  Nagel a r g u e s that policy-making is 'rational' w h e n  a set of procedures "that will maximize benefits minus costs if one has  adequate  development  Since making  information process.  both  spring  the  from  and  average  luck"  are  used  during  the  3 7  incremental the  same  theory  body  25  of  of  planning  literature.  and  The  policy-  reader  is  invited to refer to the earlier discussion of the attributes a n d comings  of  the  incremental  the theory of incremental  theory  of  planning  short  for clarification  on  policy-making.  A third theory of policy-making has been developed in response to the difficulties  inherent  in the other theories.  This third  theory  of policy-making, usually referred to as "mixed scanning", has c o m e to o c c u p y rational  what  and  might  incremental  acknowledges  back  theories  that in the  decision-making however,  be t e r m e d the  is,  out  middle  of  ground  policy.  between  Mixed  3 8  real world of policy-making of  necessity,  incremental.  scanning  much  of the  The  theory,  goes on to argue that policy makers c a n , and should, step  from  the  fury  of  day  to  day  activity  and  'scan'  the  policy  horizon to identify broad or long term policy issues a n d options. is  this  the  broader  opportunity  to  scanning  achieve  that  Etzioni  'fundamental'  sees  changes  as in  providing policy  It the  direction.  Once the broad scanning process has been completed and a new, or significantly  altered,  policy  goal  has  been  identified  the  policy-  maker can revert to an incremental mode to deal with d a y to day issues and problems. the  policy  By virtue of having stepped back and scanned  h o r i z o n , the  policy-maker,  is able to direct  incremental  activity in the context of a more clearly defined policy goal.  Programme  The somewhat  literature  relating  to  Theory  programme  less v o l u m i n o u s t h a n  26  development  is the literature of either  theory  is  planning  or policy theory.  This does not, however, indicate the existence of  an a r e a little c o n c e r n e d with theoretical matters. some  considerable  theoretical  debates  Indeed, there are  occurring  within  the  literature.  The  theoretical  development programmes for  is  debate  divided  within  between  the  literature  programmes  as  as activities, or sets of activities.  example  see  organizational  explicit  linkages  decision-making  between  activites. , 3 9  on  programme  process  Simon a n d the  and  Bauer,  various  types  In the work of these  4 0  authors, and others, programmes are seen to be integral c o m p o n e n t s in the continuum of organizational decision-making.  A 'process' Bauer,  of  or c o n t i n u u m  programmes  and  view,  similar  programme  to that f o r w a r d e d development  implicity  permeates the definition and discussion presented by Mayer.  Mayer  argues that " a p r o g r a m is an a t t e m p t to achieve a given e n d providing  activities  that are v o l u n t a r y . "  by  by  Programmes are linked,  41  in Mayer's argument, to policy a n d development planning in that, like a policy or a plan, a p r o g r a m m e has a set of objectives, a set of activities  for  procedures  achieving  objectives  (or m e c h a n i s m s )  programmes "strategic"  the  have,  (administrative  for carrying  contained  (objectives),  "tactical"  procedures).  and  within  a set of  out the activities. them,  (activities),  aspects as  Programmes,  4 2  administrative  well  Thus,  that as  "trivial"  like policies,  provide  the "initial conditions of intervention" a n d are thus, more than 'follow  through'  or  implementation;  27  which  is  are  a  set  of  mere  specific  actions that "complete the casual chain that runs from to the attainment of desired  The  competing  objectives." , 4 3  perspective  within  intervention  4 4  programme  literature  usually associated with the h u m a n services professions work,  health  process  care,  education,  perception  of  etc.),  and  programmes.  does  In  not  this  is  (e.g. social  recognize  literature,  collaborating authors argued "programmes are usually seen  as  the two  as being  the m e a n s by which g o v e r n m e n t s pursue their broader p u r p o s e s or ends"  and  it  is  only  "poorly  objectives of their o w n . , 4 5  The  'human  defined  presents  service  evaluation. that  it  is  problems  that  have  4 6  view  of  1  development is s o m e w h a t simplistic. view  programmes"  during  programmes  and  programme  In addition, the human programme  sevice  implementation  and  Pressman and Wildavbsky, for example, have contended vital  development  to  understand  and  the  implementation  distinction  between  activities.  programme  Implementation  4 7  activities they argue, are those actions which, w h e n taken  together,  bring about the attainment of stated objectives.  Programmes  refine, s h a r p e n , or focus the p o l i c y - m a k i n g  policy implementation  process.  A p r o g r a m m e is an  intervention that is b a s e d on the premise of voluntary As  Mayer  constitutes change."  4 8  has  written,  a service  or  a  programme  activity  is  ... p r o v i d e d  "an  28  organizational compliance.  intervention  to facilitate  It is in this sense that p r o g r a m m e s  and  that  volitional  refine the  policy  process; for it is through p r o g r a m m e s that organizations are able to bring  'positive  sanctions'  to  bear  in  the  interest  of  meeting  articulated goals and objectives.  Conclusions  Planning, other.  policies  and  programmes  are  different  from  each  In the first place, planning is an activity - something  one does.  that  Policies and programmes, on the other hand, constitute the  outputs (on two different levels - one more general than the other) of p l a n n i n g .  The literature on p l a n n i n g , policies, and  has  to  tended  activities  more  differences  emphasize than  the  is necessary  differences and/or  between  productive.  is a well r e s p e c t e d p e d a g o g i c a l  programmes the  three  Emphasizing  t o o l , however,  it  must  be realized that instructive  models can " c r e a t e  simply  While it is true that planning is not the  observing]  it."  4 9  s a m e thing as policy or p r o g r a m m e d e v e l o p m e n t  'reality' rather than  it is very  closely  related and c a n n o t be constructively v i e w e d , understood, or done in isolation from t h e m .  In an effort to clarify the theoretical d e b a t e s about policy, and long  programme  standing  theory this c h a p t e r  tradition  of  discussing  a d o p t e d the planning,  planning, literature's  policy,  and  programme theory in relative isolation from each other each.  Planning integrative".  5 0  can  be  rational  Planning  is  a  29  and  comprehensive  dynamic  by  decision-making  "being process  which proceeds in a spiral  fashion, as a result of feedback from the  various steps of the process. refinement  of  planning. interdependent,  the  policies  The  entire  The continual f e e d b a c k facilitates the and  programmes  planning  that  process  is  flow  from  the  interactive  linking a variety of e n d s a n d m e a n s into a  and  rational  whole.  Policies planning.  are  the  first  order  (the  most  reaching  are  'motherhood  most  policy  statements'  - statements  reference  to  the  lacks  means  are  of g e n e r a l  activites,  specificity.  by  they  often  far  called  intent with  which  While policy statements may make some  implementation  often  that  of with  Indeed, so broad and  statements  almost everyone can agree.  detail  outputs  Usually a policy is a broad s t a t e m e n t of objectives  regard to a particular a r e a of interest.  activites  general)  which  any  Seldomly  the  do  'motherhood'  discussion policiy  of  the  statements  objectives  will  be  attained.  Programmes are second order outputs of planning. like  policies h a v e within them a set of objectives.  Programmes Programmatic  goals , however, tend to be much more specific than those outlined at  the  planned  policy "to  voluntary." (positive  5 1  or  motherhood  achieve  statement  a given  end  by  providing  As a result programmes  sanctions)  and  a  set  of  level.  Programmes activities  that  are are  establish a set of activities  administrative  procedures  for  bringing those positive sanctions to bear on a given situation.  Well  planned  from  programmes  complete  30  the  causal  chain  that  runs  defining  a planning  interventioneist desired g o a l .  issue  activites,  or task,  through  to the realization  the implementation or a c h e i v e m e n t  of  of the  5 2  Implications  It r e m a i n s  to explicate  the criteria this  thesis  will  use to  good planning, policy-making and programme development.  A  'process'  programmes of  good  Planning, cannot one  view  must  of  be  planning,  planning,  the  basis  policy,  policy-making,  of  policies any  and/or  be properly, v e i w e d as remaining  another.  programme  Rather,  planning,  development  are  They are:  and  definition  programmes.  and programme  development separate  from  policy-making,  and  ingredients  that,  when  blended, produce unique a n d mutually supporting, whole the development planning process. the context  Together they provide  (or environment) within, a n d t h e m e a n s by,  which an organization works toward change.  Rationality policy, the  and  earliest  theory  is  the  cornerstone  programmes. explications  but the procedural  of  good  planning,  Not the linear rationality of of  'rational  comprehensive'  rationality of the more  recent  versions of the theory which stress the desirability of a rational  process.  That  is, a p r o c e s s  31  which  define  leads the  planner,  policy-maker  articulate  his/her  or p r o g r a m m e  goals,  and then  developer  derive  to  first  policies  and  p r o g r a m m e s that are c o n s i s t e n t w i t h , a n d move  toward  the realization of the goals.  Good  planning,  integrally  policies,  linked  characteristics.  and  and  share  programmes  a  set  policies  developed  in  and  a  reference/linkage the otherwise  vacuum, between  would  result  the  implications  of  5 3  programmes  cannot  be  must  be  there  t h e m . To attempt to do  in policies  that are as misleading as helpful. thesis  common  Namely: Change Directed Goal Oriented Choice Maximizing Procedurally Rational Collectively Oriented  Meaningful  of  are  the  and  programmes  In the context of this linkages  are that  any  exploration and analysis of t h e planning associated  with  the development of the tourism sector in the N W T c a n n o t be c o n d u c t e d without an exploration a n d analysis of the outputs and  of the p l a n n i n g  programmes  process  - t h e tourism  of t h e G o v e r n m e n t  Territories.  32  of the  policies  Northwest  For  development  efficient and  it  is  planning  necessary  programmes  whole. and  to  be  that  integrated  be  successful  planning, into  an  and  policies,  operational  A n operational whole is created w h e n a rational  systematic  planning  process  informs  the  development of policies, a n d then guides the selection of appropriate  programmes,  a n d finally  (though  this  area  has been d e e m e d to be beyond the scope of this thesis and  therefore  not d i s c u s s e d ) ,  directs  the  and implementation of specific  projects.  Planning  the  mechanistic  an  acceptable  to  a  is  more  planning  not  be  than  method,  produced  cultural,  and  addressed.  if  local  participatory  identification  adherence result  social,  will  political,  realities  are  not  Development planning is as much a social  and political process as an economic or technocratic one. Governments problems public, want  have  attempted  without  the s u p p o r t  in g e n e r a l ,  however,  to  solve  developmental  a n d participation the efforts  of c l e a r a n d realistic goals  of  their  have failed for  a n d objectives.  The  issue in planning is not which planning theory or model is right a n d should be a d h e r e d t o , but h o w decisions are made, a n d whether or not the people most affected have had a n opportunity to affect the o u t c o m e . planning  must  address  not only  the  Development  narrow  technical  issues o l planning development, it must also address the  33  broader social, political, and e c o n o m i c issues inherent in planning fo_r d e v e l o p m e n t .  34  References Chapter  2  Brian W. Hogwood and Lewis A. Gunn, Policy Analysis in the Real W o r l d . (London: Oxford University Press, 1984), P. 63. 1  Robert R. Mayer, Policy and Program Planning: A Developmental Perspective. (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall Inc., 1985).  2  Stuart S. Nagel, Public Policy: Goals. Means, and Methods. (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1984). 3  Henry Mintzberg and Jan Jorgensen, "Emergent Strategy for Public Policy", C a n d i a n Public Administration. Vol 30, No. 2, (Summer 1987), Pp. 214-229.  4  5  Mayer,  Policy and Program Planning..  6  Nagel,  Public  Policy..  J . Page and R. Lang, "Canadian Planners in Profile", Presented to the C a n a d i a n Institute of Planners A n n u a l C o n f e r e n c e , T o r o n t o , June 27, 1977 Toronto: York University, P. 7. 7  B.M. H u d s o n , " C o m p a r i s o n of C u r r e n t P l a n n i n g T h e o r i e s : C o u n t e r p a r t s a n d Contradictions", American Planning Association J o u r n a l Vol. 46, #1,1977, Pp. 387-398. 8  G.C. H e m m e n s , "New Directions in Planning Theory", A m e r i c a n Planning A s s o c i a t i o n Journal Vol. 46, #3, 1980, Pp. 259-260.  9  T.D. Galloway and R.G. Mahayni, "Planning Theory in Retrospect: T h e Process of Paradigm Change", A m e r i c a n Institute of Planners J o u r n a l Vol. 43, # 1 , 1977, Pp. 62-71 1 0  Kevin O'Reilly, "An Evaluation of the Territorial L a n d Use R e g u l a t i o n s as a L a n d M a n a g e m e n t Tool in the Y u k o n " , Masters Thesis, University of Waterloo, 1983, P.17. 1 1  35  12 John Friedmann, Retrackinq A m e r i c a : A T h e o r y of Transactive Planning. (New York: Anchor Press, Doubleday, 1973), P.50. 1 3  Mayer, Policy and Program Planning. P. 4.  J a m e s Joseph C a m e r o n , "Culture and Change in the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s : I m p l i c a t i o n s for C o m m u n i t y I n f r a s t r u c t u r e P l a n n i n g " , Masters Thesis, University of British Columbia, 1985, P. 169. 1 4  1 5  Hudson, "Comparison of Current Planning Theories",  Pp. 387-  398. 1 6  Mayer, Policy and Program Planning. Pp. 104-105.  17  ibid.  O'Reilly, "An Regulations", P. 16  1 8  Evaluation  of  the  Territorial  1 9  Mayer, Policy and Program Planning. P. 30  20  ibid., P.  21  Ibid., P. 29  2 2  O'Reilly,  Land  Use  Land  Use  103  "An  Evaluation  of  the  Territorial  Regulations", P. 16 Charles E. Lindblom, "The Science of 'Muddling Through", P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n R e v i e w . 1959, Vol. 19 (Spring), Pp. 79-88.  2 3  David B r a y b r o o k e a n d C h a r l e s E. L i n d b l o m , D e c i s i o n . (New York: The Free Press, 1968)  2 4  Mintzberg and Policy," Pp. 214-229.  2 5  Jorgensen,  "Emergent  A  Strategy  Strategy  for  of  Public  Edward C. Banfield, "Ends and Means in Planning", I n t e r n a t i o n a l Social Science Journal. 1959, Vol. 1 1 , #3, P. 368.  2 6  2 7  Mayer, Policy and Program Planning. P. 16.  36  T h e o d o r e J . L o w i , " P o p u l a t i o n Policies a n d t h e A m e r i c a n Political S y s t e m " , in Political S c i e n c e in P o p u l a t i o n Studies. (Eds.) R i c h a r d L. C l i n t o n , W i l l i a m , S. F l a s h , a n d R. K e n n e t h G o d w i n , (Lexington: Lexington Books, 1972), P. 27.  2 8  2 9  Nagel, Public Policy. P.1.  R a y m o n d A. B a u e r , " T h e S t u d y of Policy F o r m a t i o n : An Introduction" in The Study of Policy F o r m a t i o n . (Eds.) R a y m o n d A. Bauer and Kenneth J . Gergen, (New York: The Free Press, 1968), Pp. 126  3 0  3 1  Lindblom, "The Science of 'Muddling Through", Pp. 79-88.  Paul R. Shulman, "Non-incremental Policy Making: Notes Toward an Alternative P a r a d i g m " , American Political Science R e v i e w . Vol. 69, #4, (December), 1975, Pp. 1354-1370  3  2  3 3  Nagel, Public  3 4  Ibid., P. 3  3 5  Ibid.  3 8  Ibid.  3 7  Ibid., P. 4.  A. Making" 392. 3 8  Policy  E t z i o n i , " M i x e d S c a n n i n g : A T h i r d A p p r o a c h to Decision Public A d m i n i s t r a t i o n R e v i e w Vol. 27, #5, 1967, Pp. 385-  H. A. Simon, The New Science of Management Decision. E n g l e w o o d Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1960  3 9  4 0  Bauer, "The Study of Policy Formation", Pp. 1-26  4 1  Mayer,  4 2  Ibid., P. 20  Policy and Program Planning. P. 18.  37  4 3  Ibid.  44  Ibid.  45 Brian W. Hogwood and Lewis A. G u n n , Policy Analysis in the Real W o r l d . (London: Oxford University Press, 1984), P. 16. 46  Ibid., P.  16  47 Jeffery L. Pressman and Aaron W i l d a v b s k y , (Berkley: University of California Press, 1973) 48  Mayer, Policy and Program Planning. P. 21  4 9  Hogwood and  5 0  Mayer, Policy and Program Planning. P. 30  5 1  Ibid., P. 18  5 2  Ibid., P. 20  5 3  Lowi, "Population Policies",  Gunn,  Policy Analysis. P. 42  38  1972  Implementation.  Chapter 3  THE INFORMATIONAL RESOURCES OF THE GNWT: Planning, Policies, and Programmes  The  objective  demands  of  the  of this chapter planning,  is to  policy,  and  in a Vacuum  identify  the  informational  programme  development  processes, and then c o m p a r e these with the informational  resources  available  resources  in the  NWT  to d e t e r m i n e  whether  or  not  the  available are sufficient to meet the demands being placed upon them.  As has been pointed out in Chapter 2 the planning of policies and p r o g r a m m e s actions.  is i n t e n d e d to bring  To d e s i g n  1  rationality  a "rational course  application of [information and] knowledge must occur. development  2  ,  to bear on  of collective  action"  in an o r g a n i z e d  In short, planning, policy-making, a n d  3  are  all  information  intensive  activities.  future "the  manner"  programme  As  a  result,  without g o o d information, good planning can not occur.  Before specific policy and programme options can be proposed the  planner  economic  must  reality  understand  in  which  the  general  political  planning  occurs,  as  current  i m p e d i m e n t s to d e v e l o p m e n t .  makes  the  possible  by  impediments  task  of  making more  formulating the  linkages  understandable 39  plans,  well  and as  In addition, g o o d policies,  between  the  and allowing  and  socioany  information programmes  environment, planner  the  to  goals, identify  w h a t specific policy and p r o g r a m m e  options will do, w h o they  will  benefit, how effective each will be.  Robert C h a m b e r s writing about planning  noted  generated  [in  irrelevant,  late,  that  "a  support wrong  great  of  information a n d  deal  of  development  and/or  the  development  information  planning  unusable  that  is  is  ...  efforts]  anyway."  In the most  4  general sense then, good information, in the context of development, can be defined as information that is relevant, timely, correct,  and  usable for the task at hand.  Given that adequate to g o o d  information  glean  important clues about the extent a n d quality of the planning  going  policies  and  programmes  programmes,  pre-condition to  into  p l a n n i n g , policy a n d  is a necessary  by  it is possible  examining  the  amount,  and  quality of information being collected for use in the process. all policy  and programme  options  cannot  be a c c e p t e d  or  the After  rejected  without understanding what they will d o , w h o they will benefit, how effective each option might be. Northwest the  Territories,  government  development.  to  three do  types  credible  In the case of tourism in the of  information  job  of  are  planning  required the  for  sector's  First, planners have to have a g o o d understanding  the current, as well as the potential, scope a n d depth of the tourism sector. currently  and  coming  of  NWT  That is, planners must know how many tourists are to  the  Northwest  Territories,  they are s p e n d i n g , how many Territorial  how  much  money  residents are e m p l o y e d  the tourism sector, w h a t is it that the tourists c o m e for, how  in  long  they stay, and how they travel. understanding  of the  needs,  Second, planners must have a clear aspirations,  residents with regard to t o u r i s m .  derive  significant  NWT  benefit  Will, for e x a m p l e ,  from the d e v e l o p m e n t  or will it be largely non-resident lodge owners?  W h a t factors  Does tourism fit with the value systems of the people What  kind  Territorial  residents  are,  sector?  Territories?  of  tourism,  constrain  Northwest  involvement  of  Native  or c o u l d  the  the  of  The planners must k n o w w h o will  benefit from the d e v e l o p m e n t of tourism. people  and capabilities  of t o u r i s m  in  currently  subsistence  in  the  if  Third,  w h a t are the tourism r e s o u r c e s of the Northwest Territories?  resources  in  development,  they w a n t it at all, do the people in the communities prefer?  these resources accessible?  the  Are  To w h a t degree are the N W T ' s tourism  being  utilized  case  of  for  hunting  tourism and  or o t h e r  fishing)?  uses  What  (e.g. is  the  potential impact of tourism development on the resource base?  Understanding the scope a n d depth of the NWT tourism sector is  a  basic  effective  step  tourism  in  attempting  policies  and  to  develop  sound,  programmes.  While  rational, the  and  GNWT's  tourism planners have a c c e s s to s o m e basic information on tourism in the N W T , there is reason to question its reliability. prepared  by  the  Government  D e p a r t m e n t of Economic  of  the  Northwest  A  document  Territories'  D e v e l o p m e n t and Tourism on O c t o b e r  1986 discussed the size and scope of the NWT's tourism sector. document argued that: Today, available reaches 44,000.  d a t a s u g g e s t that a n n u a l v i s i t a t i o n T h e s e v i s i t o r s s p e n d an e s t i m a t e d  41  23, The  $ 1 , 0 0 0 e a c h to g e n e r a t e s o m e $ 4 0 to $ 5 0 million in b u s i n e s s revenues a n d m o r e than 1500 full time a n d 2 0 0 0 p a r t - t i m e j o b s , m o s t l y for t e r r i t o r i a l r e s i d e n t s ; business travelers spend even more per c a p i t a . 5  A  consultant's  territorial  report  government's  prepared,  Department  T o u r i s m painted a similar picture.  in  of  April  of  Economic  1986,  for  the  Development  and  T h e consultant c o n c l u d e d , b a s e d  on d a t a from the years 1982-84, that: More than 40,000 b u s i n e s s a n d pleasure travelers visit the N o r t h w e s t T e r r i t o r i e s e v e r y y e a r . It has b e e n estimated that this activity injects approximately $60,000,000 Cdn. into the territorial economy, s t i m u l a t i n g a b o u t 4 , 0 0 0 p e r s o n - y e a r s of e m p l o y m e n t annually. As a private sector economic activity, tourism is the s e c o n d largest p r o d u c e r of e m p l o y m e n t in the Northwest Territories. 6  A third consultant's report, again prepared for the  Department  of Economic Development a n d T o u r i s m in 1986, again d r a w s similar conclusions about the size and nature of the N W T tourism This  third  report  looked  at  the  level  of  tourism  industry.  and  travel  expenditures for the year 1 9 8 1 - 8 2 a n d extrapolated from that figure ($58  million)  industry  to  would  conclude employ  indirectly."  7  The  important  in  that  Development sector.  that  1,943  information it  "the people  Northwest directly  provided  provides  the  a n d Tourism w i t h s o m e  Territories' and  in each  a  further  of the  Department  of  684  reports  is  Economic  sense of the size the tourism  The information is, however, of a relatively general  and perhaps should have its reliability questioned.  42  tourism  nature,  Within the Department of Economic Development a n d T o u r i s m , s o m e officials have noted that even the most 'up to date* d a t a (i.e. any of the three studies discussed above) regarding the 'state of the tourism very  industry'  is at least five years o l d .  significant  handicap  when  This fact b e c o m e s  8  attempting  to  plan  for  a  the  development of an industry that is rapidly changing and in w h i c h five year old data can be significantly, even dangerously, misleading.  The  problems of relying on five year old data are driven home w h e n one realizes that "the value of t o u r i s m around the w o r l d totalled than $ 6 5 8  billion  US  in  1979,  representing  2.4  million  more  trips.  By  1983, only five years latter, this had grown to $1.09 trillion US - or 3.6  million  trips  (66%  programmes  utilizing  significantly  increases  increase)".  data the  that  Thus,  9  are  five  possibility  or  of  planning more  policies  years  developing  old  and very  inappropriate  policies and programmes.  As well as being seriously  out of d a t e , the G N W T ' s  tourism  d a t a has b e e n , a n d still is , collected in c i r c u m s t a n c e s w h i c h  are  considerably  that  the  most recent data are less than a d e q u a t e for planning  and  GNWT's  less  than  decision-making purposes.  optimum.  It  has  been  claimed  The "data has an error rate of at least 40  - 50 % because the data collections exercises w e r e [structured] in a very b i a s e d w a y . "  1 0  Additionally, because the G N W T " c h a n g e d [its  d a t a collection] m e t h o d part w a y through [the research exercise c a n n o t do  [any] c o m p a r i s o n s ,  A s a result of switching  [it is] left with contradictory  d a t a collection  43  method  part w a y  it]  data."  1 1  through  the  exercise  the  Government  further c o m p r o m i s e d  already of very questionable utility given their  The  reported  data  utilization  age.  practices  of  d a t a that  were  1 2  some  long  time  employees of the Department of Economic Development a n d Tourism may  have  problems.  even  further  exacerbated  already  significant  It has been reported, that those w h o used the  data  available  tourism d a t a on a daily basis were aware of the s h o r t - c o m i n g s the  'official'  statistics,  and  developed  d a t a in r e s p o n s e to this k n o w l e d g e . daily  duties  some  (policy  Government  their p e r s o n a l figures. 'factual'  1 3  by  and  to  discount  Thus, w h e n discharging  programme  officials  a tendency  planning,  regularly  utilized  report w r i t i n g , estimates,  in the  their etc.),  based  on  knowledge of tourism in the N W T , in place of factual  Thus, over time, d a t a that have c o m e to be a c c e p t e d as Economic  Development  and  Tourism  officials,  private  operators in the industry, and even the g o v e r n m e n t of C a n a d a  are  actually only u n s u b s t a n t i a t e d g u e s s e s , which have, over the years, been given the appearance of fact.  Observers  from  outside  the  GNWT  have  found  reason  to  question both the quantity and quality of the d a t a available for use in  planning  the  development  of the  NWT's  tourism  sector.  consulting c o m p a n y noted: m a n a g e m e n t i n f o r m a t i o n has not b e e n a c c e s s i b l e or a c h i e v a b l e t h r o u g h r e s e a r c h of s u f f i c i e n t q u a n t i t y or uality necessary for the formulation of policy, informed ecision-making, economic planning, program d e v e l o p m e n t , implementation and m a n a g e m e n t .  D  14  44  One  At another point in the s a m e report the consulting firm argued "research "vital  and statistical  ...  planning  growth  rates  information  and  15  obtuse  available  in  its  are g e n e r a l l y  concerning  competitive  G N W T ' s data b a n k s . " , more  information  inadequate"  [tourism]  initiatives  are  plant  and  capacity,  missing  from  the  A second consulting firm, while somewhat  1 6  criticism  of  the  quantity  and  quality  of  makes much the s a m e point by noting that "the  data  available  data on travel activity ... is not as complete or specific as would be desirable."  1 7  This is a particular problem given that the N W T is an  e n o r m o u s jurisdiction diverse  geographic,  fundamentally  (over  1.6  million square kilometers) with  cultural, and  different  social  socio-economic  resources realities  which  in  very  establish  different  areas  of the NWT.  An additional d a t a p r o b l e m is that most of the tourism  related  d a t a available pertains to one region of the N W T - the Fort (administrative) Region.  Smith  The fostering of tourism d e v e l o p m e n t on a  territorial basis requires, d a t a base that provides onformation on all regions  of the N W T a n d  not just the Fort Smith  (administrative)  Region.  One consultant to the G N W T , while attempting to discuss the  state  the  of  NWT  tourism  industry  noted  that  beyond  what  was  available for the Fort Smith region "data [were] not available for the other  regions  significant the  NWT  [of  liability Tourism  the for  NWT]." planners  Strategy  [were] d i s p e r s e d t h r o u g h o u t  This  1 8  reality  attempting  to  may fulfill  have the  been goals  a of  a n d e n s u r e that t o u r i s m  "opportunities  the  ...".  Northwest  45  Territories  19  At the  very minimum the GNWT's tourism planners need to k n o w whether or not there currently in person travel,  days  reason  is t o u r i s m  and cash  will  the  viability  investment  planners in  its v o l u m e  in-flow), type, the  for visiting, a n d  information of  activity,  destinations. be  able  tourism  to  related  (expressed  most For,  usual only  assess  the  ventures  of  both  mode with  of  such  economic the  NWT  (other than in the Fort Smith Region).  Significant  inconsistencies  in  the  data  quickly  become  apparent w h e n one begins to c o m p a r e certain aspects of the 'official* d a t a to the underlying trends in the sector.  For instance, it has  been noted that: [ G ] N W T internal d a t a s h o w s a dramatic rise in [tourism] s p e n d i n g of 6 2 . 5 % in t h e s u m m e r of 1983 o v e r t h e s u m m e r of 1982. This increase is extremely remarkable - or suspect - given that there was no recorded increase in visitation in the N W T data for these two p e r i o d s . 20  The quality of the d a t a available to help plan the d e v e l o p m e n t of the tourism sector, a n d thus of the entire e c o n o m y of the  NWT,  b e c o m e s even more suspect w h e n one begins to c o m p a r e the data generated territorial  by  internal  sources.  sources One  with  that  extra-territorial  generated source,  the  by  extra-  consulting  firm Canadian Facts, p r o d u c e d data on the N W T tourism sector that w a s at considerable variance to aggregated [ G ] N W T internal d a t a " . H  C a n a d i a n Facts records total visitation to the Northwest Territories as being d o w n 7 % while total e x p e n d i t u r e s are up by 1 % . N W T d a t a has visitation up by 4 0 . 2 % and spending up by 2 6 . 3 % . 2 2  46  2 1  The  Territories'  Fort  Smith  Region, as noted a b o v e , contains the vast majority of  the  NWT's  tourism  Government  investment  of  the  (especially  Northwest  in the f o r m  of fishing  and  hunting  lodges) a n d receives the largest level of visitation with 6 6 . 5 % of all travellers to the N W T visiting this r e g i o n .  The high visitation rate  2 3  reflects the fact that two of the NWT's three highway access run through the Fort Smith region. when  discussing  the  NWT's  routes  As one consultant's report noted  Tourism  market:  "the  primary  destination a r e a [within the N W T ] is the Fort Smith region. due  to the  markets  fact that this  (Alberta a n d  region  British  is road a c c e s s i b l e ,  Columbia)  is c l o s e s t  a n d off the Liard  connection between the Mackenzie and Alaska H i g h w a y s . "  When  one  moves  from  available at the territorial the regional of  the  Smith decline The  Facts,  region  level to examining  actually  tourism  24  information  the d a t a available  deteriorates.  reports a decline  between  in total  tourism  the  1982  tourism  and  expenditures  data generated  within  The  in visitation 1983  of  NWT,  research  to the crucial  22%  for the  the  with  a  region of on  in  the  government's  area  of  Department  tourism of  marketing  Economic  Development  firm, Fort  2 5  2 6  hand,  in tourism Consultants  2 7  for  utility  resultant  the other  expenditures within the Fort Smith region of 1 8 . 3 % .  at  1.5%. ,  reports a decline in visitation of 2 4 . 9 % but an i n c r e a s e  working  to  Highway  level it b e c o m e s obvious that the reliability a n d  information  Canadian  examining  This is  the and  territorial Tourism,  w h e n they b e c a m e aware of the very significant data problems, felt compelled  to  caution  those  who  47  might  use  their  report.  The  c o n s u l t a n t s , with reference to the inconsistency of the d a t a " G i v e n such discrepancies interpreting  The  this  data."  complete  in the d a t a , caution should  be  wrote:  used  in  2 8  lack  of  information  about  the  NWT's  travel  account provides but one more example of how the G N W T ' s  tourism  planners  tourism  are t h w a r t e d  in their a t t e m p t s to  c o m p o n e n t of the N W T economy.  understand  the  It is k n o w n , for e x a m p l e , that for  southern C a n a d a "the largest Canadian travel market is the domestic market.  It  Canada." travel  2 9  now  accounts  for  80%  of  all  tourism  expenditure  Because there is no reliable information  patterns  of  NWT  residents  GNWT  tourism  in  regarding the  planners  simply  have no way of determining whether a similar situation exists in the N W T or not.  In the a b s e n c e of any information on the  travel account the tourism d e v e l o p m e n t of coming to  planners  territorial  have little  understand the travel patterns of northerners.  chance Without  such understanding tourism d e v e l o p m e n t planners are left w o n d e r i n g w h e t h e r fostering domestic (i.e. intra N W T travel for N W T is  needed,  desirable,  or  feasible.  For  without  the  residents) means  to  understand the dynamics of the N W T travel account planners cannot even  determine  a d d r e s s e d with  whether  there  is  a  problem  policies and/or p r o g r a m m e s  that  needs  to  in the first place.  one consultant lamented: Unfortunately w e c o u l d find no travel a c c o u n t d a t a for the N o r t h w e s t Territories. As a result w e are unable to c o m m e n t on the size of the Northwest Territories' travel deficit or surplus. If the N o r t h w e s t Territories's travel a c c o u n t is in a s u r p l u s position it w o u l d be a positive sign of a healthy tourism economy. If it is [in] a  48  be As  n e g a t i v e position t h e n the N o r t h w e s t Territories w o u l d IOOK to import s u b s t i t u t i o n possibilities to d e v e l o p its o w n r e s i d e n t travel m a r k e t s a n d stop the l e a k a g e of income and employment associated with residents traveling outside the N o r t h w e s t T e r r i t o r i e s . 3 0  At  some  levels  Development  and  quantity  quality  and  within  Tourism of  the  there  data  is  Department an  of  Economic  acknowledgment  available  must  be  that  improved  if  the the  Department is to assist the G N W T do serious economic planning with a focus on the tourism s e c t o r . knowledge  with  Concern about the state of the  31  regard to t o u r i s m  in the  Northwest  also begun to surface in government documents.  Territories  has  Recently the G N W T  acknowledged that "there is a critical need to develop and maintain a comprehensive data base  to monitor and assess the progress of all  aspects" of the tourism s e c t o r . Northwest  Territories  Travel  Industry  officials a r g u e d that "research and  implementing  strategy".  [an]  Similarly, before a meeting of the  3 2  Association  government  is the f u n d a m e n t a l tool for  effective  and  efficient  ...  planning  development  3 3  T h e new d a t a the G N W T has p r o p o s e d that it collect is of a particular  type,  useful  territorial  in  for a particular  may  be  directly  related research and planning r e c o m m e n d e d by g o v e r n m e n t  officials  and  to  date  has  related  marketing of N W T tourism products. document argues:  49  planning.  not  tourism  to  development  and  The  consultants  tourism  purpose,  almost  exclusively  the  For example, one g o v e r n m e n t  R e s e a r c h is especially important, f r o m the gathering of i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t the t y p e of v i s i t o r w h o a l r e a d y travels in the N W T and what his/her preferences are ... to determining the type of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which a p o t e n t i a l visitor has, including the t o u r i s m facilities he e x p e c t s to find, the type of experiences he prefers a n d the v a l u e - f o r money relationships which are n e c e s s a r y . Only with the input and information f e e d b a c k from the i n d u s t r y will w e be able to d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r our collective initiatives are successful or n o t . 3 4  Based resources  on  the  foregoing  examination  the  informational  available to facilitate the tourism d e v e l o p m e n t  of o b s e r v a t i o n s c a n be m a d e . the  of  GNWT  have  been  a  number  First, the d a t a collection efforts  seriously  flawed.  As  a  result,  there  of is  'inadequate' information, both in the quantity and quality senses, for s o u n d planning.  S e c o n d , there are indications that the reliability, of  even the most basic information about the scope and depth of the NWT's  tourism  available  is  handicap  for  sector,  five,  or  is  in  more,  planners  question.  years  attempting  old, to  Third, and  this  encourage  d e v e l o p m e n t of a very rapidly changing industry. there  the is  data a  and  is  significant direct  the  Fourth, w h a t data  is pertains almost exclusively to one administrative  the N W T - the Fort Smith Region;  that  region  of  Fifth, there is s o m e evidence that  in r e s p o n s e to an informational v a c u u m , individuals w o r k i n g  in the  a r e a have taken to generating their o w n 'facts' about tourism in the NWT.  While this s h o w s ingenuity and drive on the part of  people  working in the field of tourism development it d o e s not enhance the chances  of t h o s e  decisions. Tourism  individuals  making  rational  tourism  Sixth, the Department of Economic is  working  to  improve  50  its  development  Development  informational  and  resources.  However,  it a p p e a r s  collection  of  information  would  planning  marketing be  context.  planners  that  the  of the  Department  oriented relevant  Seventh,  consulting  understanding  that the  there  public  aspirations,  information in  is in  is c o n c e n t r a t i n g  a  no an  rather  policy  and  evidence  of  attempt  needs,  on  to  the than  programme the  tourism  develop  and c a p a b i l i t i e s  of  an NWT  residents with regard to t o u r i s m .  Rather  than  expending  its  resources  collecting  marketing  oriented d a t a the G N W T  s h o u l d be attempting to s e c u r e  policy  planning  and  programme  relevant  for  information.  itself Such  information would make it possible for tourism planners to do three things: first, u n d e r s t a n d w h o travelles  in the N o r t h w e s t  Territories,  w h e n they come, how they get there and what brings t h e m ; second clearly NWT  u n d e r s t a n d w h a t the residents  (particularly  n e e d s , aspirations that  majority  of the  a n d capabilities population  of Native decent a n d w h i c h resides in the many small a n d communities  of  the  NWT)  with  regard  to  tourism;  third,  that  of is  remote develop  some feel for the type of tourism resources present in the N W T , the degree  to  tourism  and  human  which  those  non-tourism  resources  managers/administrators,  resources  are  already  contexts),  the  availability  (e.g.  skilled  accountants,  utilized  guides, etc.)  to  of  (in  specialized seasoned  facilitate  emergence of a broadly based and well rounded tourism industry.  51  both  the  Implications  The implications, for planning and planners, of having poor information are several and significant.  While plentiful a n d  accurate information alone will not ensure that s o u n d decisions will be made.  However, decisions made on the basis of accurate in  formation will, on average, be better than those made utilizing less than reliable information.  by people  The planning, policy a n d  p r o g r a m m e processes are information intensive and dependent. Planners, policy-makers and p r o g r a m m e developers collect, process, a n d analyze information as they work to understand the situation they are faced w i t h ,  determine the goals, and objectives that will  be strived for, and finally, propose, rank and implement a variety of policy and p r o g r a m m e options that will bring about a more desirable state of affairs or future.  Planning, policy-making, or p r o g r a m m e  d e v e l o p m e n t that occurs without a c c e s s to relevant, accurate, a n d timely information does not have the benefit of all the facts a n d therefore is unable to develop the most rational and/or set of alternatives.  appropriate  Without s o u n d information planners a n d policy-  makers are unable to c o m p r e h e n d what it is about the present situation that is undesirable, let alone propose rank a n d  implement  policy a n d p r o g r a m m e s to improve the situation at some future point.  52  References Chapter  1  3  See Chapter 2, Planning/Policies/Programmes: the Linkages.  Robert R. Mayer, Policy and Program Planning: A D e v e l o p m e n t a l P e r s p e c t i v e (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice - Hall Inc., 1985), P. 4.  2  John Friedmann, Retracking A m e r i c a : A T h e o r y of Transactive Planning (New York: Anchor Press, Doubleday, 1973), P. 50.  3  Robert Chambers, "Rapid Rural Appriasal; Rationale and Reportoire" presented to the W o r l d Bank Agricultural Sector S y m p o s i a . January 1980 (mimeo).  4  G o v e r n m e n t of the Northwest Territories, "Schedule A, C a n a d a Northwest Territories Tourism Development Subsidiary Agreement, Draft Document", (October 23, 1986), P.1.  5  Briar I n t e r n a t i o n a l B u s i n e s s R e s o u r c e s L t d . , "A S t r a t e g i c M a r k e t i n g Plan for T o u r i s m for the G o v e r n m e n t of the N o r t h w e s t Territories", (Ottawa: April, 1986), P. A. 6  Derek Murray Consulting Association, "Discussion Paper R e v i e w a n d S u m m a t i o n of t h e N o r t h w e s t T e r r i t o r i e s Tourism Industry, Documents and Programs", (Regina: Department of Economic Development and Tourism,1986), P. 10.  7  Personal c o m m u n i c a t i o n with G. Hamre, Special Advisor, Park Development, Economic Development and Tourism, Government of the Northwest Territories, January 20, 1987.  8  G o v e r n m e n t of t h e N o r t h w e s t T e r r i t o r i e s , D e p a r t m e n t of Economic Development and Tourism, "Strategic Marketing Plan: A P r e s e n t a t i o n to t h e N W T T o u r i s m I n d u s t r y A s s o c i a t i o n A n n u a l General Meeting -1986", P. 2 (Emphasis added.).  9  Personal telephone communication with Aimee Britton, Briar International Business Resources Ltd., April 8, 1987. 1 0  53  of  11  Ibid.  1 2  Personal communication with G. Hamre, January 20, 1987.  13  ibid.  1 Briar International Business Resources Ltd., Marketing Plan", P. G. 4  is  ibid., P. 13.  16  Ibid.  "A Strategic  1 Derek Murray Consulting Association, "Review a n d Summation of the Northwest Territories Tourism Industry", P. 12. 7  1  8  Ibid.,  P. 17.  1 G o v e r n m e n t of the Northwest Territories, Department of Economic Development and Tourism, Community Based T o u r i s m : A S t r a t e g y for the Northwest Territories T o u r i s m Industry. (Yellowknife: Department of Economic Development a n d T o u r i s m , 1 9 8 3 ) , Pp. 1 0 - 1 1 . 9  Briar International Business Resources Ltd., "A Marketing Plan", P. 28.  2 0  20 2 2  Strategic  Ibid. Ibid.,  P. 29.  P e r c e n t a g e figures c o m p u t a t e d by the author f o r m information c o n t a i n e d in, Derek M u r r a y C o n s u l t i n g A s s o c i a t i o n , " R e v i e w a n d S u m m a t i o n of the Northwest Territories Tourism Industry", P. 14. 2 3  Derek Murray Consulting Association, "Review and of the Northwest Territories Tourism Industry", P. 14. 2 4  Summation  C a n a d i a n Facts is a c o n s u l t i n g firm c o m m i s s i o n e d by the D e p a r t m e n t of Economic Development a n d Tourism to undertake the 1984 Northwest Territories Travel Survey. Canadian Facts collected  2 5  54  field d a t a by sampling the traveling public at eight airport a n d two h i g h w a y locations in t h e N W T . D a t a collection t o o k place at all points between J u n e 25 a n d September 4, 1984. A stratified, multis t a g e p r o b a b i l i t y s a m p l i n g t e c h n i q u e w a s u s e d to identify d a t a collection stints. Two q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , one a personal interview (of three to five minutes in duration) a n d the other a s e l f - c o m p l e t e d mailback interview w e r e used. Briar International Business Resources Ltd., "A Marketing Plan", P. 28  2 6  2 7  Ibid.  2 8  Ibid.  Strategic  Derek Murray Consulting Association, "Review a n d Summation of the Northwest Territories Tourism Industry", P. 6  2 9  so  Ibid.,  Pp. 8-9  3 1  Personal communication with G. Hamre, January 20, 1987.  G o v e r n m e n t of the Northwest Territories, "Schedule A, C a n a d a N o r t h w e s t Territories T o u r i s m D e v e l o p m e n t S u b s i d i a r y Agreement",. (Draft Document), October 23, 1986, P. 5.  3 2  G o v e r n m e n t of the Northwest Territories, Department of Economic Development and Tourism, "Strategic Marketing Plan: A Presentation to the N W T Tourism Industry A s s o c i a t i o n " , P. 3  3 3  3 4  Ibid.  55  Chapter 4  TOURISM POLICY AND REGULATION IN THE NORTHWEST TERRITORIES  The objective of this chapter is to e x a m i n e the most  general  level of outputs (policies and regulations) of the G o v e r n m e n t of the Northwest  Territories's  Planning,  is  observed  or  an  intellectual  measured.  observation  and  insight  planning  into  policy-making  tourism  activity  which  Consequently,  measurement  and/or  development  of  activity.  The  programme  cannot  one  planning links  planning  must  be resort  indicators between  development  make  to  efforts. directly to  the  gain  an  planning  and  it possible  to  glean information about the d e v e l o p m e n t planning being done by an organization by examining the policies that have been forwarded by that organization.  In short, policies and p r o g r a m m e s can be planning  indicators.  There is a wide spread perception, both within and without the G o v e r n m e n t of the Northwest Territories, that there is a shortage of tourism shortage  development of  tourism  policy policy  in t h e was  NWT.  most  Within  clearly  government  identified  in a  the 1983  Department of Economic Development a n d Tourism d o c u m e n t entitled Community Tourism  Based T o u r i s m : A Strategy for the Northwest  Industry.  Territories  The document noted that:  To d a t e there has been not one overall g o v e r n m e n t or industry strategy or set of policies to guide the direction 56  of the tourism industry. There are a few isolated policy statements, s o m e fragmented planning a n d a set o f now out-of-date legislation. 1  More recently, from outside the G N W T the shortage of a clear policy  has  been  commented  on  by  consultants  retained  by  the  Department of E c o n o m i c Development and T o u r i s m to assist in the development  of the N W T ' s tourism sector.  O n e of these, after  "a  review of all current d o c u m e n t s , programs a n d studies dealing with t o u r i s m in the Northwest Territories", noted that  while:  2  the G o v e r n m e n t of the Northwest Territories has always e x p r e s s e d an i n t e r e s t in d e v e l o p i n g t o u r i s m ... tne interest e x p r e s s e d by the G o v e r n m e n t of the Northwest Territories has always been unstructured ... 3  Non-governmental organizations have also expressed concern about the paucity of tourism development policy in the NWT.  The Deh  Cho Regional Council, for example, pointed out to the Department of Economic Development and Tourism that the 1983 d o c u m e n t Community  B a s e d T o u r i s m is the only tourism development policy  statement published by the government.  To the Regional Council "the  irony [of the G N W T ' s tourism policy situation was] clear a n d obvious; ... [given that] the only 'solid piece' of [tourism development] policy documentation l a m e n t e d ] the fact that there [was] 'not one overall g o v e r n m e n t or industry strategy or set of p o l i c i e s . "  57  4  THE  NWT TOURISM STRATEGY  Despite the deficiencies of  Community  G o v e r n m e n t of the Northwest Territories  Based Tourism  the  has stated that the paper  "can be referred to as the N W T Tourism Strategy".  5  Given this, and  the fact there are no other policy documents to turn to it is necessary that C o m m u n i t y  Based Tourism be mined for whatever  nuggets of insight into the G N W T ' s economic development planning efforts it may contain.  Within C o m m u n i t y  Based  T o u r i s m one broad goal for tourism  d e v e l o p m e n t in the N W T is made explicit. of the N W T Tourism Strategy is to residents across the N W T e m p l o y m e n t objectives and  aspirations.  6  It is stated that the goal  "assist  communities  in achieving their t o u r i s m  in a manner c o m p a t i b l e It is also a r g u e d ,  revenue  with their  however, that the  Strategy is built upon twelve 'Guiding Principles'.  their and  lifestyles Tourism  They are listed as  being: a) T o u r i s m is a desirable industry for the N o r t h w e s t T e r r i t o r i e s ; a n d , its o p p o r t u n i t i e s should be dispersed throughout the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s a n d not to j u s t a f e w large centres. b) T o u r i s m s h o u l d only be d e v e l o p e d a n d p r o m o t e d in t h o s e c o m m u n i t i e s w h i c h are ready and interested in being involved in the industry, and w h e r e a tourism w a g e e c o n o m y is, j u d g e d by the c o m m u n i t y residents, to be compatible and complementary to their lifestyles. Priority will be g i v e n to t h o s e c o m m u n i t i e s that h a v e a limited r a n g e of e c o n o m i c development opportunities.  58  and  c) Opportunities for jobs, training and b u s i n e s s d e v e l o p m e n t snail be d i r e c t e d to e n s u r e m a x i m u m e c o n o m i c b e n e f i t s for the N o r t h w e s t Territories' r e s i d e n t s ; a n d t o u r i s m development shall be phased to reflect and be integrated w i t h , the training a n d skill levels of Northwest Territories residents. d) T o u r i s m s h o u l d be primarily a private sector industry; a n d this includes all profito r i e n t e d f o r m s of b u s i n e s s e s , d e v e l o p m e n t c o r p o r a t i o n s a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n v o l v e d in the travel industry. e) R e s i d e n t o w n e r s h i p of f a c i l i t i e s a n d services shall be e n c o u r a g e d . The private s e c t o r s h o u l d t a k e the lead in d e v e l o p i n g viable operations, with the Government involved in the provision of support services (roads, airports, research, general information d i s t r i b u t i o n ) . In the short t e r m , h o w e v e r , g o v e r n m e n t will n e e d to p r o v i d e incentives to encourage and facilitate tourism development. f) The private sector shall be e n c o u r a g e d to provide p r o d u c t s a n d s e r v i c e s to visitors at a fair price. g) Communities, local and regional development corporations and associations, and the general public shall be afforded the o p p o r t u n i t y to p a r t i c i p a t e in c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o g r a m s to h e l p e n s u r e t h a t Northwest Territories residents derive maximum b e n e f i t s f r o m t o u r i s m - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s in and around their community. h) T o u r i s m in t h e N o r t h w e s t T e r r i t o r i e s s h o u l d be a year round industry, not just a seasonal one. The spring season has much potential. i) Large volumes of visitors at one time in o n e location are not desirable in all by the larger c o m m u n i t i e s . Avoiding large n u m b e r s will ensure high quality e x p e r i e n c e s for the v i s i t o r s , be w i t h i n t h e c a p a b i l i t i e s of o u r smaller tourism businesses, and minimize disturbances to c o m m u n i t y residents. j) T o u r i s m s h o u l d build on the n a t u r a l , cultural a n d historic r e s o u r c e s of the N W T ;  59  and, emphasize the identification and d e v e l o p m e n t of attractions b a s e d on l e a r n , observe and experience opportunities. To m i n i m i z e social a n d e n v i r o n m e n t a l i m p a c t s , the tourism industry should not c o m p e t e with h u n t e r s a n d t r a p p e r s for s c a r c e natural resources. k) It is recognized that the various tourism destination zones across the N W T are d i f f e r e n t f r o m e a c h o t h e r w i t h r e s p e c t to their sophistication a n d level of d e v e l o p m e n t n e e d s ; a n d , this will determine the selection of p r o g r a m s d r a w n u p o n by e a c h , and influence the w a y in which the p r o g r a m s are used. I) Each tourism destination zone has specialized geographical/historical/cultural p r o d u c t s to offer, a n d this will r e s u l t in distinctive and c o m p l e m e n t a r y tour p a c k a g e s for each a r e a . 7  By critically examining the content of C o m m u n i t y Tourism  the author w a s able to develop  a much  more  picture of the scope a n d intent of the NWT's tourism policies and programmes.  principles c o u l d  being one of three different types of statements. by  initiatives  and  defining then  complete  development  An analysis of C o m m u n i t y Based Tourism  indicated t h a t the t w e l v e g u i d i n g  conducted  Based  principles, examining  goals/objectives each  principle  be classified  as  The analysis was and in  programme  light  of  the  definitions a n d assigning the appropriate category.  Principles in the c o n t e x t of planning, policy, a n d are s t a t e m e n t s  of f u n d a m e n t a l  that are a s s u m e d to be fact. decisions/activities Tourism  are  programmes  or self-evident t r u t h , s t a t e m e n t s  of  Principles provide the base from which  initiated.  Although  Community  Based  identified twelve principles which were to guide the  60  NWT  Tourism  Strategy,  only  statements of principle.  two  of  the  statements  were  actually  T h e two statements of principle w e r e :  a) "Tourism is a desirable industry for the Northwest Territories;" and i) "Large v o l u m e s of visitors at one t i m e in o n e location are not desirable in all but the larger c o m m u n i t i e s . " 8  Goals/objectives are statements which describe the desired or expected outputs of planning, policy, and p r o g r a m m e activities, are also t h e primary Very  commonly,  statements.  means  of determining the intent of a  Goals/objectives  There  were  a  are  number  of  expressed  as  goal/objective  statements  Namely: a) " [ T o u r i s m ] o p p o r t u n i t i e s dispersed throughout the T e r r i t o r i e s a n d not to j u s t a centres."  s h o u l d be Northwest few large  b) "Tourism should only be d e v e l o p e d and promoted in those communities which are ready and interested in being involved in the industry," d) "Tourism should private sector industry;"  be  primarily  a  e) "The private sector should take the lead in developing viable [tourism] operations," h) "Tourism in the Northwest Territories s h o u l d be a year round industry, not just a seasonal one." j) "Tourism should build on the natural, c u l t u r a l , a n d historic resources of the N W T ; and, emphasize the identification and d e v e l o p m e n t of attractions b a s e d on l e a r n ,  61  policy.  normative  c o n t a i n e d within the twelve 'guiding principles' of the N W T Strategy.  they  Tourism  observe and experience opportunities. To m i n i m i z e social a n d e n v i r o n m e n t a l i m p a c t s , the tourism industry should not c o m p e t e with h u n t e r s a n d t r a p p e r s for s c a r c e natural resources." 9  Programme  initiatives  procedures  implemented  Programme  are  organization initiatives  most  to  N W T Tourism Strategy.  within  the  activities  achieve  frequently  w i i i undertake.  contained  are  the  and  stated  expressed  as  administrative  goals/objectives. activities  There w e r e a n u m b e r of the  twelve  'guiding  b) "[Tourism d e v e l o p m e n t ] priority will be g i v e n to t h o s e c o m m u n i t i e s t h a t h a v e a limited r a n g e of e c o n o m i c development opportunities." c) "Opportunities for jobs, training and b u s i n e s s d e v e l o p m e n t shall be d i r e c t e d to e n s u r e m a x i m u m e c o n o m i c b e n e f i t s for the N o r t h w e s t Territories' residents; a n d t o u r i s m development shall be phased to reflect and be i n t e g r a t e d w i t h , the training a n d skill levels of N o r t h w e s t Territories residents." e) " R e s i d e n t o w n e r s h i p of f a c i l i t i e s a n d services shall be encouraged. ... In the short t e r m , h o w e v e r , g o v e r n m e n t w i l l n e e d to provide incentives to encourage a n d facilitate t o u r i s m development." f) "The private sector shall be e n c o u r a g e d to p r o v i d e p r o d u c t s a n d services to visitors at a fair price." g) "Communities, local and regional development corporations and associations, a n d the general public shall be afforded the o p p o r t u n i t y to p a r t i c i p a t e in consultation p r o g r a m s to h e l p e n s u r e t h a t Northwest Territories residents derive maximum b e n e f i t s f r o m t o u r i s m - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s in a n d a r o u n d their c o m m u n i t y . " 10  62  an  programme  principles'  Namely:  that  of  the  From  the  foregoing  GNWT's Tourism tourism  analysis  a  more  D e v e l o p m e n t Strategy  development  policy)  begins  complete  view  (and therefore the to  emerge.  The  of  the  GNWT's analysis  indicates that the additional tourism development goals of the G N W T are as follows:  1)  the wide dispersion of tourism  2) private industry; 3)  sector  across the N W T ;  development  of  the  tourism  the development of a year round tourism industry;  4) the development and marketing of tourism products b a s e d on the comparative advantages of the N W T - the natural, cultural, and historic resources of the N W T ; and 5) the development of n o n - c o n s u m p t i v e tourism products which do not be compete with the n u n t i n g / t r a p p i n g / f i s h i n g e c o n o m i e s of t h e s m a l l e r a n d remote c o m m u n i t i e s .  B a s e d on the analysis of the N W T T o u r i s m Strategy's 'guiding  principles',  important Community  policy Based  it  is  clear  directions  and  Tourism.  that  a  significant  statements  are  twelve  number  contained  within  However, they w e r e expressed not as  clear policy directions and statements but as guiding principles. guiding principles statements  of  As  they are seen as statements of fact a n d not as  indicating  the  direction  change in tourism development.  and  magnitude  of  a  desired  As a result, much of their ability to  direct a n d orient the actions a n d activities of both the public the bureacracy w a s lost.  63  and  The point of policy is to orient the activity of g r o u p s of people within organizations. if there  People cannot be oriented to strive for a goal  is no a g r e e m e n t  upon just w h a t goals  are  being  worked  t o w a r d , or if the goals are poorly or inappropriately e x p r e s s e d . the  case  explicitly  of  the  NWT  Tourism  Strategy  being  t o : "assist  identified, that  residents across the N W T e m p l o y m e n t objectives and  aspirations.  a single  in achieving their t o u r i s m  addition  to  this  goal  communities  in a manner compatible  In  1 1  only  very  In was  and  their  revenue  with their general  and  lifestyles  'motherhood  statement' the Strategy w a s also found to contain a number of other goal/objective  (i.e.  policy)  statements.  These  however,  were  expressed as guiding principles rather than as policy statements. a  result  they  lost  much  of  their  ability to orient the  activities  As of  the bureaucracy.  In chapter (programmatic) negative  of  noted that policies contain both  sanctions  sanctions  implementation limits  2 it w a s  of  activity,  find a  and  expression  regulatory  and  negative  the  sanctions.  through  regime,  mechanisms  the  which of  In  positive general,  planning  defines  redress  both  available  and the to  government should those limits be exceeded.  In the sector  in the  context  of  Northwest  directing  the  Territories,  development  of  it is the Tourist  the  tourism  Establishment  Regulations and the Outfitter's Regulations which provide the  GNWT  with the legal m e a n s to orient those w h o do not voluntarily  accept  the policies a n d g o a l s of the  N W T T o u r i s m Strategy.  64  There  is,  however, been  s o m e e v i d e n c e to suggest that the regulations have  successful  June,1984  in  orienting  tourism  m e m o to his Minister, then  development Economic  activity.  Development  not In  a  and  Tourism Deputy Minister B. James Britton, noted: Under the Travel and Tourism Ordinance and a s s o c i a t e d regulations, the following key criteria are set out for reviewing lodge applications: i) ii) iii) iv)  impact on current/traditional land uses biological c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y of t h e a f f e c t e d waterbody(s) nature of the proposed building plan; and, public "interest".  R e g i o n s are g i v e n m u c h latitude in e s t a b l i s h i n g m o r e specific c r i t e r i a (within the u m b r e l l a of t h e four key criteria), and detailing a process for actually c a r r y i n g out the r e v i e w . Unfortunately, the present a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r a c t i c e s a n d p r o c e d u r e s for r e v i e w i n g lodge applications do not: (i) ii) iii) (iv) (v)  adequately respond to the wishes of area residents; facilitate k n o w l e d g e a b l e public input; clearly set out the responsibilities of the Department, local groups and the applicant; facilitate a prompt a n d standardized processing of license application; a n d , reflect the spirit of guidelines of the recently a p p r o v e d T o u r i s m S t r a t e g y . 12  It s h o u l d be e m p h a s i z e d that, the Deputy  Minister  effectively  argued that the regulatory regime put in place w a s inconsistent with the policy goals espoused by the G N W T in its N W T Tourism Strategy w h e n he noted that: The p r e s e n t administrative reviewing lodge applications (v)  practices a n d p r o c e d u r e s do not:  reflect the spirit of the recently Tourism S t r a t e g y . 13  65  approved  for  T h e 1983 conclusion of the Deputy Minister w a s implicitly restated  four  Development addressing  years  latter  and  Tourism  deficiencies  regulations.  when  the  sought  Department  assistance  in it's t o u r i s m  in  of  Economic  identifying  and  legislation  and  development  In a "Request for Proposals: Licensing and Enforcement"  inviting consultants to prepare proposals to identify and address the problems  in  existing  Department  tourism  acknowledged  legislation  that  its  tourism  regulations/practices  [have  not  been]  Department's  goals  and  objectives  stated  and  fully for  regulations  the  development  "...  consistent the  with  industry."  the In  1 4  addition, the same d o c u m e n t stated that "... there has not been uniform  application  of  the  legislation  and  regulations  across  a  the  N W T ..." s 1  The  Department  reportedly  issued  comments  made  Regional  1 6  by  Council,  concerned NWT.  the  about  of  Economic  "Request  for  Development Proposals"  non-governmental Tourism  the  state  groups  Industry of  in  Tourism  response  (i.e.  Association  tourism  and  the of  development  Deh the  policy  to Cho  NWT) in  the  The Department hoped that it could address the concerns and  p r o b l e m s identified by the non-governmental g r o u p s by  re-designing  the tourism development regulatory regime in the N W T . By preparing a 'request for proposals' the Department of Economic and  Tourism  implicitly  practices  and  GNWT's  Tourism  Legislative  acknowledged  procedures"  Assembly  still  Strategy of the  did  well  its  "administrative  not  "reflect the  into  1987,  Northwest  66  that  even  Territories  Development  spirit"  of  though  had a d o p t e d  the the the  N W T T o u r i s m Strategy in 1983 a n d despite the fact that the Deputy Minister had high-lighted the problem in  mid-1983.  1 7  Having e x a m i n e d the tourism policy a n d regulation of the the GNWT state  it is possible to make a n u m b e r of observations of  tourism  development  policy  in t h e  Northwest  about  Territories.  First, there is a perception both within and outside the G N W T the G N W T with  has little more than a f e w "isolated policy  r e g a r d to t o u r i s m  isolated s t a t e m e n t s  development.  Second, that most of these  18  of policy are c o n t a i n e d within one d o c u m e n t  Industry,  development  that  statements"  C o m m u n i t y Based T o u r i s m : A Strategy for the Northwest Tourism  the  which  policy.  1 9  itself  laments  the  lack  T h i r d , an analysis of t h e  -  Territories of  tourism  NWT  Tourism  Strategy indicated that the G N W T had in fact identified a number of important  policy  development  directions  and  but that t h e s e w e r e  statements expressed  as  regarding  tourism  self-evident  truths  a n d thereby lost much of their ability to orient the activities of the G N W T bureaucracy. clear policy example,  Fourth, there is some evidence that the lack of  has h a d repercussions for the regulatory the  administrative  practices  associated  regulatory regime do "not reflect the spirit of", a n d are with, the N W T Tourism Strategy's g o a l s .  67  2 0  regime. with  For the  inconsistent  References Chapter  4  G o v e r n m e n t of the N o r t h w e s t T e r r i t o r i e s , Department of Economic Development and Tourism, Community Based T o u r i s m : A Strategy for. \h& Northwest Territories Tourism Industry. (Yellowknife: Department of Economic Development and Tourism,1983), P. 5. 1  Derek Murray Consulting Association, "Discussion Paper R e v i e w a n d S u m m a t i o n of t h e N o r t h w e s t T e r r i t o r i e s Tourism Industry, Documents and Programs", (Regina:1986), P. 1.  2  3  Ibid., P. 2.  Deh Cho Regional Council, "Deh Cho Regional Tourism Development A r e a : Background Paper", (Fort Simpson: Deh Cho Regional Council, November 12, 1986), P. 4.  4  Government T o u r i s m . P. 1. 5  of the  Northwest  Territories,  6  Ibid., P. 9 (emphasis in original text)  7  s  Ibid., Pp. 10-11 Ibid.  9  Ibid.  1 0  Ibid.  1 1  Ibid., P. 9 (emphasis in original text)  Community  Based  B. J a m e s Britton, Deputy Minister, D e p a r t m e n t of E c o n o m i c D e v e l o p m e n t a n d T o u r i s m , G o v e r n m e n t of the Northwest Territories, M e m o r a n d u m to A r n o l d M c C u l l u m , Minister, E c o n o m i c D e v e l o p m e n t and Tourism, June 7, 1984, P. 1 1 2  68  13  Ibid.  G o v e r n m e n t of t h e N o r t h w e s t T e r r i t o r i e s , D e p a r t m e n t of Economic Development and Tourism, "Request of Proposals: Licensing and Enforcement", Sept. 1987, P. 1. 1 4  is  ibid.  Personal communication with John Sheehan, A r e a Superintendent, Department of Economic Development and T o u r i s m , Fort Simpson, NWT, October 13, 1987 1 6  17  Ibid.  18  Government  of the  Northwest  Territories,  Community  Based  Tourism, P. 5. 19  Ibid.  B. James Britton, M e m o r a n d u m to Arnold M c C u l l u m , Minister, Economic Development and Tourism, P. 1.  2 0  69  Chapter 5  GNWT TOURISM DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES  The objective of this chapter is to examine the order  outputs  (programmes)  of the  Territories's t o u r i s m d e v e l o p m e n t  Government  of the  planning efforts.  As  second  Northwest  noted in an  earlier chapter, planning, is an intellectual activity which c a n n o t directly observed or measured. observation  and  insight  planning  into  policy-making  Consequently, one must resort to the  measurement  of  activity.  and/or  be  planning  The  programme  indicators  links  between  development  make  to  gain  planning  an and  it p o s s i b l e  to  glean information about the development planning being d o n e by an organization by examining the programmes that have been developed and  implemented  by  the  organization.  More  particularly,  it  is  because ideally the goals and objectives of programmes are sub-sets of  those  outlined  effective  planning  complete  the  in  policy  programmes  Further,  well  planned  process  issue or task, t h r o u g h the of  of  that  interventionist  space  of  activities,  policy to  a  options  the  can  planning and  realization  the or  1  make  it  impossible  to  examine  analyse all the G N W T ' s tourism development p r o g r a m m e s (a of G N W T  be  programmes  runs f r o m defining  identification  achievement of a desired g o a l .  Limitations  that  indicators.  planning  implementation  statements  tourism development  programmes  review  reveals that t h e r e  p r o g r a m m e s to: publish tourism guide books, pamphlets, a n d  70  and  are  maps;  support  for  tourism  operators  wanting  to  attend  sport  shows; promote package tours; promote community events;  promote  the  development  of  new  within the confines of a single thesis.  markets;  and  travel  attractions etc.)  and  of  the  As a result, the examination  and analysis of the G N W T ' s tourism development programmes will be limited to the park development programme.  The G N W T ' s  park d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m m e  is but one of the  tools to used by the government to develop the tourism industry and the  entire  confirmed  economy that  of  the  the  Territorial  NWT. Parks  Senior  GNWT  system  has  officials  been  have  created  to  created to serve a n d enhance the tourism sector by  attracting free  spending  of  tourists  Development  to  the  North.  The  2  Minister  Economic  a n d T o u r i s m , during an interview, s t r e s s e d that  there  w a s a "desperate need for more parks in the N W T to enhance northern experience of people in the North on v a c a t i o n . "  3  T h e G o v e r n m e n t of the Northwest Territories' Act Parks  in the  parks,  v'/.--  Territorial  Northwest  Park  system  because  Northwest  Territories  sets out five classifications  of  as been  of  the places  on o u t d o o r  importance on  "the  economic  recreation  and  Government development  public of  the  through  4  By planned  Respecting  It has been argued that the emphasis of the  enjoyment  tourism."  Territories  the  examining  and existing  the  spatial  Territorial  parks  71  and  category  distribution  it is possible to  of  determine  where  the  focusing  Department its  park  Department's ascertain  of  Economic  development  efforts  to the  NWT  Development  efforts. Tourism  By  and  comparing  Strategy  the d e g r e e to w h i c h the p r o g r a m m e  Tourism  the  is p o s s i b l e  assists  in  is  to  achieving  the Strategy's goals.  Currently  there  s y s t e m , with an consideration. within  the  "virtually fig.1)."  6  forty  parks  in the  NWT  Territorial  Park  additional twenty four proposed parks under active The vast  5  Fort  all  are  Smith  [Territorial  majority  region;  as  Parks]  are  I n d e e d , thirty two  (80%)  of existing one  parks  government  in the  Fort  are  located  official  Smith  noted  region  of the forty existing  (see  parks  are  located in the Fort Smith region, and twenty three (71%) of t h e m are Wayside  Parks. , 7  8  Largely because of the the spatial and categorical  specialization in the Territorial Park s y s t e m s o m e have a r g u e d that the system is "essentially a collection of public access a r e a s " along NWT  highways  catering  to  "rubber  tire traffic"  (i.e.  those  The disproportionate c o n c e n t r a t i o n of parks in the Fort  Smith  who tour in recreational vehicles) in the N o r t h .  tourists  9  region is an artifact of the period a n d manner in which many of the existing  Territorial  Parks w e r e  created.  Much  of the s y s t e m  c r e a t e d during the 1960's and 1970's, concomitant with the of the first highways Parks  were  into the N W T .  established  to  comforts to the traveling public.  As a result, many  provide  rudimentary  By and large a linkage  72  was  pushing Territorial  services between  and  Source:  Community B a s e d T o u r i s m : A S t r a t e g y T e r i t o r i e s Tourism Industry  73  f o r the  Northwest  park d e v e l o p m e n t a n d tourism w a s not made until s o m e t i m e However,  o n c e the postulation  of a linkage b e t w e e n  a larger  improved park system a n d increased tourism a n d g r e a t e r opportunities practice  of  was  made,  building  tire" tourists.  it s e r v e d  parks  along  to  the  reinforce highways  and to  latter. and  economic  entrench  service  the  "rubber  For, during the 1960's and 1970's t o u r i s m t e n d e d to  be dependent on highway access.  In addition, there w e r e no formal  policy statements to guide tourism and/or park d e v e l o p m e n t  in the  NWT during that period.  The evidence suggests that many of the G N W T ' s previous park development  priorities  and  discussed  Chapter  3 the  tourism  in  development  encourage  the  NWT  activities  dispersement  across the N W T .  practices  have  Tourism  (such  of t o u r i s m  as  been  abandoned.  Strategy park  benefits  stresses  creation) and  As that  should  opportunities  T h e development of the Strategy has significantly  changed the focus of park development in the N W T .  An examination  of those parks being considered for future d e v e l o p m e n t is indicative of the change in focus.  At present of Economic Development and T o u r i s m has twenty four new parks under active consideration/planning/development. the  twenty  eleven  four  new  parks  being  considered  (46%) are classified as W a y s i d e  along existing highways. the Fort Smith  by  the  Of  Department,  parks a n d will be  located  Of these, seven (64%) are to be located in  region, with the balance (four parks) to be  along the Dempster highway in the Inuvik region.  74  located  Significantly, the  majority  of  the  new  parks  under  active  consideration  by  the  Department of Economic Development and T o u r i s m are to be located outside the  Fort Smith region.  past  development  significant  proportion of new parks away from the road s y s t e m the  Department  it will  be  able  practices.  to  give  By  small  locating  from  a  feels  park  This is a d r a m a t i c d e p a r t u r e  and/or  remote  communities  a  means to attract tourists and an opportunity to capture s o m e of the economic the  benefits associated with t o u r i s m .  "Department  [of  Economic  As one official  Development  and  Tourism]  attempting to use parks to disperse the benefits of tourism the N W T . "  noted, is  across  10  The  Department  of  Economic  Development  and  Tourism's  enthusiasm for its parks p r o g r a m m e has been predicated on several planning assumptions:  First,  the  provision  of  attract tourists to the Second,  once  in  services,  such  as  parks,  NWT;  the  NWT  tourists  will  spend  vacation dollars on territorial goods and services; Third, a net e c o n o m i c tourists  and  will  will  benefit will result f r o m lead  to  increased  their and  attracting economic  development in the NWT.  W h i l e these a s s u m p t i o n s  are t h e very u n d e r - p i n n i n g s  development  Department  programme,  the validity of t h e m .  1 1  has  never  of t h e  rigourously  parks tested  Constraints of time a n d space do not allow  75  the definitive testing the above a s s u m p t i o n s , however an  indication  of their validity can  economic  be o b t a i n e d  by e x a m i n i n g  benefit generated by Blackstone Territorial  Blackstone  Territorial  Park  is  the  net  Park.  one  of  the  largest  (1430  hectares) and newest (formally o p e n e d in the August of 1985) parks in the Territorial  Park s y s t e m .  It w a s  also t h e  most  expensive,  consuming six years and over one (1) million dollars during planning and development.  As a result Blackstone Park boosts 19 tent/R.V.  sites, 20 kilometers of walking trails, a superintendent's and a 14 by 24 foot log interpretive centre. an additional $ 3 0 0 , 0 0 0 . 0 0  residence,  Between 1988 a n d 1992  will be spent to c o m p l e t e the park  and  provide a s e w a g e lagoon, an outfitters' area, more trails, signs and park  gates.  1 2  The scale of the expenditure and resultant  place  Blackstone  park  in  the  Park  in a class  Territorial  facilities  by itself relative to every  system.  The  Department  of  other  Economic  Development a n d Tourism in g e n e r a l , and in particular the  officials  involved during planning and development are justifably proud of the park.  Some have even g o n e as far as terming Blackstone "the only  real park in the Territorial  Despite  Blackstone's  system."  well  1 3  developed  facilities  and  location  beside one of the only two highways into the southern N W T , during the summer of 1987 park utilization w a s a disappointing six hundred visitor  (party)  nights.  spends  approximately  1 4  It has  3 days  in  been  estimated  Blackstone.  1 5  that  each  During each of the  previous two seasons of operation utilization w a s approximately  76  party  the  same. were  In 1987, as in previous y e a r s , visitors to territorial  1 6  charged  collecting  a flat  user fee  approximately  Blackstone  nine  Park visitors during  of five dollars thousand the  per  dollars  1987  night.  in  tourist  in  1987  were  $15,000/season  park  more  than  $36,000,  superintendent's  season  supplies, a n d $7,500 in park officers  salary.  from  operating  Total operating  and  contract,  Despite  revenue  costs exceeded user fee revenues by a wide margin. costs  parks  included  $9,000  in  a  park  17  The ability of the Government of the N W T to enhance the economic  development  of  the  North  by  must be questioned given the above. suggests In  that Territorial  addition,  they  do  not  Parks  have  generate  building  territorial  parks  The evidence from Blackstone not b e c o m e enough  g o v e r n m e n t to recoup operating costs.  tourist  revenue  attractors.  to  allow  the  As a result it appears  that  the e c o n o m i c benefits associated with parks may c o m e in the f o r m of transfer payments (i.e. the spending of N W T tax dollars to the parks operational) into the  rather than f r o m the tourists bringing  keep money  N W T economy.  T h e ability of Blackstone  and  many  other territorial parks  contribute to N W T economic d e v e l o p m e n t has been further  to  impaired  by the G N W T ' s failure to secure legal tenure to a significant portion of the Territorial clearly  requires  Parks s y s t e m . that  "the  land  The G N W T ' s Territorial Parks included  o w n e d by the Territorial G o v e r n m e n t . . . " . for  the  Deh  Cho  Regional  Council  in a territorial 18  ...  be  However, research d o n e  confirmed  77  park  Act  that  "the  land  for  Blackstone  [and  fourteen  other  Territorial]  Parkfs]  hafye]  not  been transferred [from the federal to the territorial g o v e r n m e n t , thus  Blackstone  and  the  other  parks]  created under the Territorial Parks  ...  Act."  ha[ve]  not  been  is the land holder, for the G o v e r n m e n t of the Northwest obtain  legal t e n u r e  to  any  land  it  and  legally  1 9  In the Northwest Territories the the Queen in Right of  to  yet  must  apply  to  Canada  Territories  the  Federal  Cabinet for an Order in Council transferring the land to the  GNWT.  Fourteen  System  of the  parks  (35%)  within the Territorial  have been developed by the G N W T even though it  Parks  does not have legal  tenure to the land upon which the parks sit.  The percent  discovery  of  of territorial  the  parks  GNWT's resulted  lack in the  of  tenure  Deputy  to  thirty-five  Minister  of  the  Department of Economic Development and Tourism directing that the collection  of  park  user  fees  be  discontinued  in t h o s e  Territorial  parks to which the G N W T lacks legal tenure until title is s e c u r e d . The  Deputy  Minister  took  this  extra-ordinary  action  after  Department of Justice c o u n s e l l e d that the G N W T c o u l d not  2 0  the  legally  collect user fees from tourists in the parks it did not have tenure to. The  Deputy  Minister's  directive  it  is  expected  to  significantly  reduce revenues from the Territorial Parks system during the tourist season. drain  on  historically  the  Thus, the parks system will become an even economy  of  the  Northwest  been.  78  Territories  than  1988 bigger it  has  Having e x a m i n e d the Parks P r o g r a m m e of the of the some  interesting  observations  can  be  made.  First the  GNWT  Territorial  Park System is viewed as a tool to be used to strengthen the tourism sector. Tourism  S e c o n d , at the Strategy,  micro  which  level  the  identifies  introduction  the  benefits a n d opportunities to the smaller  of t h e  dispersion more remote  of  NWT  tourism  communities  as one of its primary goals appears to have had an impact on the dispersion  of  tourism  resources  (i.e.  parks).  That  is,  Territorial  Parks have increasingly been located in a greater variety of areas. The evidence of this being the fact that since the introduction of the Strategy  a  majority  of  the  parks  proposals  under  consideration are to be located outside the Fort Smith region.  active Third,  at the macro level the park d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m has not been economically successful as the G N W T had expected it would be.  79  as  References Chapter  5  1 Robert R. Mayer, Policy and Program Planning: A Developmental Perspective. (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall Inc., 1985). Personal c o m m u n i c a t i o n with Mike Stilwell, Deputy Minister, Economic Development and Tourism, G N W T and Don Weisbeck, Chief of Tourism, Economic Development and Tourism, G N W T , Yellowknife, August 29, 1985. 2  Personal communication with the Hon. Tagak Curley, Minister, Government of the Northwest Territories, Economic Development and Tourism., April 8, 1986, During the Deh Cho Regional Council meeting, Fort Providence, NWT., April 7,8,9, 1986.  3  4  Ibid.  Figures derived from a 'Draft List of Territorial Parks* provided by the Department of Economic Development and Tourism, April 29, 1987.  5  Personal telephone communication with Gordon Hamre, Special Advisor, Parks Development, Department of Economic Development and T o u r i s m , G o v e r n m e n t of the Northwest Territories, April 13, 1987. 6  Figures derived from a 'Draft List of Territorial Parks' provided by the Department of Economic Development and Tourism, April 29, 1987. 7  8  Ibid., April 29, 1987.  Personal telephone c o m m u n i c a t i o n with Peter Nuegebauer, Head, Program Development, Tourism and Parks, Economic Development and T o u r i s m , G o v e r n m e n t of the Northwest Territories, April 13, 1987. 9  1 0  Ibid., June 2 1 , 1988  80  Personal telephone communication with 20, 1987. 1 1  Gordon Hamre, April  12  Ibid., P. 6  1 3  Personal communication with Peter Nuegebauer, April 13,  1987 Personal communication with John Sheehan, A r e a Superintendent, Department of Economic Development and T o u r i s m , Fort Simpson, NWT, June 22, 1988 1 4  Personal communication with John Sheehan,  June 22, 1988  1 6  Personal communication with John Sheehan,  June 22, 1988  1 7  Personal communication with John Sheehan, June 22, 1988  is  Ibid.  1  5  19 Irving, Kate, A Territorial Park Near Wrigley. N.W.T. : R e p o r t , P. 32 20  Final  Personal communication with Peter Nuegebauer, June 2 1 , 1988  81  Chapter 6  TOURISM AS AN ECONOMIC BASE: THE UNDERLYING ASSUMPTIONS  The object of this chapter is to examine extent or d e g r e e to which  tourism  q u e s t i o n e d the  planners  and  policy-makers  in  the  NWT  have  assumptions, or premises, that underlie the G N W T ' s  push toward tourism.  Clearly one of the most important tasks of planners involved in a  development  planning  process  is  to  ask  questions,  not  only  technical questions about the means of planning but also  questions  about the implications of pursuing one set of g o a l s a n d  strategies  over  another.  From  the  perspective  of  rational  comprehensive  planning theory, planners must spend a great deal of time in the:  *  Specification of  Objectives;  *  Development of Alternatives;  *  Evaluation/Ranking  *  Selection of Alternative Courses of A c t i o n ;  of  Alternatives; 1  If these planning stages, phases, or activities are not completed one has to ask w h e t h e r planning, in its best, most c o m p l e t e , a n d powerful sense has occurred.  82  most  As c h a p t e r document  that  3 n o t e d , the outlines  d e v e l o p m e n t policy. desirable  Territories  for  should  and  Tourism  GNWT's  Strategy  policy  regarding  not  the  be  to  Northwest  dispersed  just  a  few  Territories;  throughout  does  not  provide  a  large  rationale  conditions tourism d e v e l o p m e n t of  Department  of  only  tourism  centres"  as  Economic  Development  Northwest its  point  or  under  An e x t e n s i v e  and  its  of  However, the  2  as to w h y ,  is 'desirable'.  and,  the  departure for discussing t o u r i s m d e v e l o p m e n t p o l i c y . Strategy  is t h e  T h e Strategy uses the statement "tourism is a  industry  opportunities  the  NWT  Tourism  what review  files  and  interviews with key policy a n d planning officials failed to  highlight  evidence  industry"  that the validity  assumption sources  had  provided  therefore  the  development remote  ever  to the  been  for the  communities  questioned  statements  suitability,  of  NWT  "tourism  or t e s t e d .  affirming  the  tourism  as  generally,  and  in p a r t i c u l a r .  3  is a d e s i r a b l e  a for  Instead, desirability,  means  of  all and  economic  its small  and  more  A staff person with a consulting  firm assisting the Department of Economic Development a n d Tourism in developing tourism in the N W T , noted that in her experience the Department  never  questioned  whether  tourism  was  appropriate vehicle to 'piggy back' territorial e c o n o m i c on.  4  in  fact  an  development  Quite the contrary, the consultant reported that it w a s apparent  f r o m the outset of  her d e a l i n g s with the G N W T that  "one of  the  [Government's] assumptions w a s the need to increase e m p l o y m e n t [in the N W T ] dramatically, the quick fix!"  a n d [that] tourism was the a n s w e r ; part of  The consultant w e n t on to point out that G o v e r n m e n t  officials had decided that  "tourism was going to be the number one  83  [economic development]  b a n d - a i d " for the N W T .  5  From the point of  view of s o m e officials within the G N W T there w a s , apparently,  no  need to discuss whether or not tourism development w a s appropriate since the appropriateness  of tourism as an e c o n o m i c  development  tool w a s self evident.  Despite  the  GNWT's  effectiveness,  and  development,  there  carefully  examine  certainty  efficiency have  the  of  about  tourism  been  some  development  of  the  as calls  a to  a tourism  appropriateness, tool  of  economic  thoughtfully based  and  economic  strategy for the NWT.  The Department of Economic Development and  Tourism  urged  alternative  has  been  economic  to  investigate,  development  vehicles  evaluate, prior  to  rank  committing  full scale implementation of a tourism based e c o n o m i c strategy.  and  to  development  One example of this admittedly small body of thought w a s  contained in a letter to the editor of a major N.W.T. newspaper. author argued that: Recently a great deal has been written a b o u t b r i n g i n g t o u r i s m to t h e N W T in a greater scale as a viable alternative to the downturn in the economy. I think the should be given and consideration land claims, for effect on the of life.  issue of e x p a n d i n g t o u r i s m the same amount of thought as division [of the NWT] and it can have the s a m e lasting l a n d , wildlpfeople a n d w a y  Perhaps the question of how to attract tourists should be readdressed to ask, "What t y p e of t o u r i s m will bring in t h e n e e d e d dollars, but will have the least adverse effect on the l a n d , wildlife, a n d people that live in the N W T ? T h e r e are many types of  84  The  tourists, s o m e make great g u e s t s a n d should stay home.  others  I sincerely hope the Minister will heed a w o r d of caution and temper his zest for the tourist dollar with a good dose of thought and projection to the future. No tourist dollar is ever free. T h e cost is usually an a d v e r s e impact on land, wildlife, people a n d the w a y of l i f e . 6  O n the surface letter  expressed  ecological  and  it may appear that the author  concern  solely  socio-cultural  about  implications  the of  of the  possible  striving  to  above  negative create  on  tourism b a s e d economy.  However, a different, and more  important  point is also being made.  The author has implicitly asked the G N W T  to consider its position carefully and be sure that it understands the issues  involved  course.  prior  to  committing  the  economy  to  a  particular  Developing an understanding the issues surrounding tourism  d e v e l o p m e n t g o e s well beyond a routine gathering of the facts a n d analyzing of the data.  The letter's author is questioning whether the  G N W T has really planned for tourism development or merely planned the d e v e l o p m e n t of tourism. often  limited  to  the  technical  a n d selecting cost/benefit Worse  the  rationalization  planning or  The planning of tourism development is tasks  optimizing  of  tourism  professionalization  have already been made.  of  the  identifying,  solutions to p r o b l e m s . development of  is  bureaucratic  and  concerns  At  its  merely  the  decisions  that  Planning for tourism development, on the  other h a n d , focuses on the identification of the public's expectations,  priorizing,  and  the  integration  policy and programme options that are developed.  85  aspirations,  of t h o s e  into  the  In its enthusiasm to e m b r a c e w h a t are seen to be the positive aspects  of  tourism  investigating developing  and  the  GNWT  resolving  a tourism  has  the  based  spent  negative  economy.  little  time  economic The  or  effort  implications  tourism  industry,  g e n e r a l , is k n o w n to have high costs (owing largely to the intensive  nature  of  owner/operators.  the  industry)  and  low  returns  This problem of low returns to  of in  labour to  the  owner/operators  has already been d o c u m e n t e d in the NWT's tourism industry. example, sales  in  1980  it w a s  been d e t e r m i n e d that the  ratio for sport fishing  lucrative  'up-scale'  only 2 % .  segment  lodges in the N W T of  the  tourism  For  net i n c o m e  to  (which cater to  market)  in  1980  a  was  The low rate of return that appears to accrue to owners in  7  the t o u r i s m  sector c o m b i n e d  generate  situation  a  with  in w h i c h  a high  the  "new  labour  requirement  employment  may  alternatives"  that the G N W T is hoping tourism will generate will be low skill, low pay, low responsibility, seasonal or part-time, personal service (e.g. fishing  guide)  jobs.  United  States  "new  employment  8  duration  In s o m e circles in southern C a n a d a a n d the employment profiles  very  alternatives" similar  to  with  skill,  many  pay  tourism  and  sector  " e m p l o y m e n t alternatives" have been referred to, only half jokingly, as 'Mac-jobs'.  Others argue better a job than no job.  The salient  point from a planning, policy, and programme point of view, however, is not w h i c h group is correct but that the G N W T appears to given no consideration to, and entered into no discussion the  possibility  limited  range  that a t o u r i s m  based  of  opportunities  employment  86  economy for  have  regarding,  may only p r o v i d e northern  a  residents.  It appears that the G N W T has not asked a number of  fundamental  questions before deciding to identify tourism as the engine of future economic development for the NWT. The fundamental questions are: a) W h a t type of e m p l o y m e n t opportunities should people of the Northwest Territories nave? b)  the  Can tourism provide the desired opportunities?  c) Can better or comparable opportunities be provided in industries other than tourism?  As argued and documented extensively above in Chapter 1, one of  the  primary  reasons  for  pursuing  tourism  development  is  the  G N W T ' s desire to create s o m e diversity within, and add stability to, the NWT's economy.  The development of a larger tourism sector will  clearly provide some diversity to an e c o n o m y that is  fundamentally  geared  provision  to  primary  resource  g o v e r n m e n t services.  production  and  the  of  The ability of tourism to provide the economic  stability so greatly desired by northerners is not nearly as certain.  There are a number of factors, which w h e n c o m b i n e d , limit the ability of t o u r i s m to ensure  economic  stability within  an  economy.  Not the least of these factors is the fact that "the tourism is  becoming  competitiveness  competitive".  Examples  9  of  the  industry  increased  within the global tourism sector are easy to  find.  During the mid 1980's, for example, "Canada's market share of world tourism ... declined ... in a world of increased c o m p e t i t i o n " . past  decade  marketplace.  tourism As  a  has result  become the  87  an  NWT,  industry must  with  compete  10  a for  In the global tourism  revenue not only with other Canadian areas, or areas in the USA, but with  tourism  destinations  commercialization  of  around  exotic  or  the  world.  adventure  In  travel  addition,  the  eroded  the  has  NWT's traditional a n d potential markets substantially a n d forced the NWT  to  compete  with  exotic  adventure  diverse as Nepal and Antarctica. such  as a c h a n g e s  vacation  destinations  as  In such and environment factors  in transportation  costs can  impact on tourism visitation rates in the NWT.  have a  significant  Taylor has noted, for  e x a m p l e , that w h e n air travel costs to and in the North rose during 1979-81  a sharp  drop  in the  tourist  visitation  National Park o n Baffin Island w e r e immediately  Tourism is a unique export industry.  rates  evident.  North  through  recognized, of  the  acknowledged,  commodity  commodity,  tourism.  tourism  The  export is  GNWT,  or dealt reality  linked  to  with of  Auyuittuq  11  Just as the N W T exports  minerals, and other resource products so it exports the  at  however, the  or  has  potential  tourism.  national  impressions  explicitly  implications  As  an  export  international  markets  which react to a wide variety of national a n d international d e v e l o p m e n t s a n d trends.  of  economic  The export nature of tourism m e a n s that  it is subject to forces completely b e y o n d the capability of people in the N W T to influence, let alone control.  Thus, w h e n factors such as  oil prices, air fares, the external debts of some countries, fluctuations,  high  rates  of  unemployment,  and  currency  budget  fluctuate so w o u l d the tourism market and thus the economic of the N W T . , 1 2  sector  1 3  deficits health  Thus, even it tourism were to be come the dominant  of the Territorial  economy  88  its export  nature  may  leave  the  NWT  as  vulnerable  to  boom/bust  cycles  as  the  current  non-  renewable resource based economy.  Chapter five highlighted s o m e additional c o n c e r n s with to t o u r i s m ' s the  NWT.  investment of  park  ability There  to  bring  economic  stability  to the  economy  is s o m e e v i d e n c e to s u g g e s t that public  in support of tourism d e v e l o p m e n t  infrastructure)  returns  limited,  if  programmes.  89  of  sector  (at least in the f o r m  any,  economic  I n d e e d , such public initiatives can b e c o m e little more than transfer p a y m e n t  regard  benefits. defacto  References Chapter  6  Robert R. Mayer, Policy and Program Planning: A D e v e l o p m e n t a l P e r s p e c t i v e . Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall 1985, Pp.104-105  1  Inc.,  G o v e r n m e n t of the Northwest Territories, Department of Economic Development and Tourism, Community Based Tourism: A Strategy for the Northwest Territories T o u r i s m Industry. Yellowknife: Department of Economic Development and T o u r i s m , 1983, P. 10 2  Personal interviews with the following: Mike Minister, August 29, 1985; Peter Nuegebauer, H e a d , Development, April 13, 1987; Gordon Hamre, Special 13,1987; Don Weisbeck, Chief of Tourism, August 29,  3  Stilwell, Deputy Program Advisor, April 1985.  Personal telephone c o m m u n i c a t i o n with A i m e e Britton, Briar International Business Resources Ltd., April 8, 1987  4  5  Ibid., April 8, 1987  6 "NWT tourism has potential," Nancy B. Jewell, News North. Friday, April 10, 1987, P. A5 7 76  N W T Data Book: 1986-87. Yellowknife: Outcrop Ltd., 1986, P.  Briar International Business Resources Ltd., A Strategic Marketing Plan for Tourism for the Government of the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s . O t t a w a : April, 1986, P. A  8  9  Ibid.,  P. 11  1°  Ibid., P. 10  90  Michelle E. Taylor, Auvuittuq National Park Reserve Visitor Study 1982 Report on Findings. Winnipeg: Natural Resources Institute, University of M a n i t o b a , prepared for S o c i o - E c o n o m i c Division, Prairie Regional Office, Parks Canada, 1983 1 1  Briar International Business Resources Ltd., A Marketing Plan for T o u r i s m . P. 10 1 2  Strategic  Derek Murray Consulting Association, Discussion Paper Review a n d S u m m a t i o n of the N o r t h w e s t T e r r i t o r i e s T o u r i s m IndustryD o c u m e n t s a n d P r o g r a m s . R e g i n a : D e p a r t m e n t of Economic Development and Tourism, 1986 1 3  91  Chapter 7  CONCLUSION and IMPLICATIONS  To this point in the thesis w e have e x a m i n e d the of  the  tourism  Northwest sector  Territories'  of the  NWT  rationale  for  economy.  seeking  We  to  have  Government expand  briefly  the  reviewed  planning, policy, and p r o g r a m m e theory and explicated a number of criteria w h i c h define g o o d development.  And  different  aspects  efforts.  It remains  we  of  have  the to  explicate the planning  p l a n n i n g , policy-making examined,  GNWT's  summarize  in  tourism the  some  programme  detail,  development  findings  implications/lessons  and  of the  several planning  thesis  that can be d r a w n  and from  the experiences of planning tourism development in the N W T .  Findings  1.  The  GNWT,  Development  and  effective  tool  for  NWT.  In  particularly Tourism,  the  Department as  of  an  Economic  viewed  tourism  and  stabilizing  the  economy  GNWT  appeared  to  have  diversifying  addition,  the  important  tourism industry.  the  increasing  expectations about e c o n o m i c a n d e m p l o y m e n t opportunities residents w o u l d have a c c e s s to as a result of a greatly  of  and  northern expanded  Indeed, it could be said that the G N W T has focused  its hopes for an improved economic future on tourism.  92  2.  The  quantity  and  quality  of  planning  relevant  information  collected by the G N W T has been 'inadequate' for sound planning. basic information about the scope and depth of the N W T ' s  Even tourism  sector w a s not a c c e p t e d by N W T staff planners as being useful or reliable for making policy and p r o g r a m m e decisions.  The  planners  had no information on the perceptions, desires and c o n c e r n s  NWT  residents had about tourism.  3.  The  recognized  Department the s h o r t a g e  address the problem. efforts  have  rather  policy  programme  Economic  Development  programme  than  on  the  collection  information planning.  that While  of  has b e g u n  has  marketing some  to  planning,  on  average  the  right  oriented  relevance  appropriate  information will improve the policy and p r o g r a m m e by planners.  Tourism  However, the Department's new d a t a collection  information alone will not e n s u r e that d e v e l o p m e n t and  and  of d a t a as a p r o b l e m a n d  concentrated  information and  of  and  accurate  of s o u n d type  of  for  policy  accurate  decisions  made  After all, the planning, policy and programme processes  are information intensive and dependent.  4.  Tourism  bureaucrats.  development  planning  is  controlled  by  GNWT  The goals a n d objectives of the N W T Tourism Strategy  w e r e drafted by technically oriented, southern t r a i n e d , planners.  As  a result, it is reasonalbe to expect that the goals and objectives of the Strategy reflect the values a n d perceptions of its framers. Strategy has implicitly a s s u m e d that tourism w o u l d have a cost-benefit  ratio  and  that  increased  93  tourism  would  The  positive  diversify  and  stabilize the NWT's economic base. increased  tourism  would  be well  It also implicitly a s s u m e d that  received  in the  small  and  more  remote c o m m u n i t i e s of the Northwest Territories.  5.  The  policy  GNWT's  (the  Based  only  NWT Tourism  Tourism:  A  formal  statement  of  tourism  Strategy) w a s articulated  Strategy  for  the  Northwest  in  development Community  Territories  Tourism  Industry-  6.  The GNWT  foster  used its Territorial Parks p r o g r a m m e as a tool to  increased tourism and spread  its beneifts  across  the  NWT.  The N W T T o u r i s m Strategy produced a significant shift in the focus of the Territorial 80  percent  of  Parks p r o g r a m m e .  all  Smith r e g i o n .  Territorial  Parks  For the previous two had  been  created  decades  in the  After the adoption of the Strategy a majority of all  parks p r o p o s e d for development have been located in regions than Fort Smith. Tourism  Fort  other  The change in focus was consistent with the N W T  Strategy's  major  policy goal  of s p r e a d i n g  the  benefits  of  tourism to the smaller communities of the NWT.  7.  GNWT  accepted  the  Northwest  tourism  planners  notion  of "tourism  Territories",  and  policy-makers  [as] a d e s i r e a b l e  without  exploring  unquestioningly industry  the  for  long  the term  implications of the striving for a tourism d e p e n d e n t e c o n o m y .  No  attempt w a s  made to determine w h e t h e r tourism w o u l d provide  the  sort  a n d futures  of j o b s  that  northerners  wanted/needed/deserved.  In place of a careful examination of either the employment profile of  94  tourism  economy  or  its  ability  to  create  jobs  and  economic  opportunities there w e r e been statements a r g u i n g that tourism w a s "compatible would  with  nicely  many  existing  compliment  native  the  skills"  and  arts/crafts,  that  and  the  sector  hunting/fishing  sectors of the N W T economy.  8.  The G N W T did not recognize/acknowledge  an export  industry  unpredictable noted for.  and as such could  fluctuations  that  the  that tourism was/is  be s u b j e c t to primary  many  industries  of the  were/are  Although the G N W T argued that tourism held considerable  potential to "weather economic declines" the e v i d e n c e marshalled to support the argument w a s very limited.  9.  The  which  Northwest  Territories  is an e x a m p l e  of a jurisdiction  development  planning,  at  regard  development, has not occurred. not d o n e  a great  development.  deal  least  with  to  planning,  policy-making  and/or  programme  Clearly the G N W T has been active on all of  emphasize  the  rational,  planning.  It has also  efforts  the  Territories.  By  complex doing  positivistic,  removed  so  and  technocratic  its t o u r i s m d e v e l o p m e n t  socio-economic the  GNWT  these  H o w e v e r , the G N W T  p u r s u e d its planning with limited information a n d yet has  from  tourism  This is not to say that the G N W T has  fronts, as this thesis has d o c u m e n t e d .  to  in  reality  corrupted  of its  the  has  attempted side  of  planning Northwest  development  planning p r o c e s s and denied its citizens the right to be involved in, a n d responsible for, determining their o w n future.  95  Planning  Implications  Lessons can be d r a w n from the N W T experience with tourism development  planning  regardless of their  that  are  be valid for d e v e l o p m e n t  planners  location/situation.  T h e first lesson that development planners should learn, not so much f r o m the particular case of tourism planning in the N W T  but  from  is  the  cornerstone of g o o d technical planning, policy, a n d p r o g r a m m e s  and  thus  the  of  review  good  development explications rationality  of  the  literature,  development planners  of  is  'rational  of the m o r e  is  planning.  not  the  that  The  linear  comprehensive' recent v e r s i o n s  rationality  rationality  rationality theory  but  of  required the  the  by  earliest  procedural  of the theory w h i c h  stress  the desirability of a rational process.  The s e c o n d lesson that d e v e l o p m e n t planners should learn is that  the  goals  programme people  most  and  should  objectives reflect  directly  the  of  a  values  affected.  plan, and  a  policy,  perceptions  Assumptions  of  and of  positive  /or its  a the  impacts,  c o s t - b e n e f i t ratios, increased d e v e l o p m e n t and ready a c c e p t a n c e  of  the proposed polices and programmes should be avoided.  T h e third lesson that planners should learn from the particular case of tourism planning in the N W T s o p h i s t i c a t e d , are only models. and  not  mirrors  of  it.  As  is that models, no matter how  T h e y are representations of  noted  96  in Chapter  2 many  reality  models  of  organizational  decision-making  have  long  seen  planning,  policies,  a n d p r o g r a m m e s as separate or discrete fields of study a n d activity. Viewing  them  as  discrete  fields  has  enabled  individuals  to  conceptualize a very complex process and thereby c o m e to a better understanding  of organizational d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g .  the  tourism  case  of  development  planning  planning  programmes  a  in  'process'  the  NWT,  view  of  As highlighted in t h e  planning,  context policies  must be the basis of any definition of g o o d  policy, and/or programmes.  Planning, policy-making, a n d  by of and  planning,  programme  d e v e l o p m e n t cannot be properly, viewed as remaining separate from one  another.  Rather,  development  mutually s u p p o r t i n g , w h o l e - the d e v e l o p m e n t  planning  process.  Planning,  components  of the d e v e l o p m e n t  are  linked.  development  policies,  and  rational w h o l e  development planning.  work,  are  process.  in w h i c h the  policies,  they  when  programmes  planning  Planning,  planning  that,  programme  unique and  procedurally  ingredients  and  produce  means  distinct  policy-making,  blended,  integrated,  are  planning,  and  are  integral  They  form  an  ends  and  the  programmes  necessary  make  preconditions  to  Should one or more be missing development  planning cannot occur.  The fourth generalizable lesson to be learned from the tourism development  planning  experience  development  planning  will  policy-making,  and  not  programme  integrated into a procedurally  of  occur  the  simply  development  rational w h o l e .  97  GNWT  is  that  because  activities  sound  planning, have  been  That is, if the  goals  and the  objectives wants  goals  and  articulated  and  needs  objectives  by  planners  people at the  do  affected, policy  not  the  and  faithfully  faithful  programme  represent  translation level  will  of not  ensure development.  Finally development planning should enable the affected people to  identify,  understand  a n d deal with the p r o b l e m s  and  conditions  that confront them on a daily basis.  Development development involvement  planning  planning and  planning  appropriate  policies,  study,  cyclical  feedback  process and  planning  programme-design)  the  continual  systematic  development  as  practitioners  process results  leading  to  programmes.  process  represent  The  (planning, different  must  in  in  the  a  to  view  which  public  rational  development  three  phases  of  policy-development,  yet  r e s e a r c h , and practice w h i c h planners  T h e c h a l l e n g e for those interested  come  interrelated  areas  may w i s h to  in d e v e l o p m e n t  planning  and of the and for  pursue. in  the  tourism sector of the N W T or anywhere else, is to move a w a y from the notion that it is a d h e r e n c e to a particular planning  model  brings success and focus on the process of development planning.  98  that  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Banfield, Edward C , "Ends and Means in Planning", International Social Science Journal. 1959, Vol. 1 1 , #3, P. 368 Bauer, Raymond A., "The Study of Policy Formation: An Introduction", in The Study of Policy Formation. (Eds.) Raymond A. Bauer and Kenneth J . Gergen, New York: The Free Press, 1968 Blishen, B.R. and A. Lockhart et al., Socio-economic Impact Model for Northern Develoment, O t t a w a : Department of Indian Affairs a n d N o r t h e r n D e v e l o p m e n t , R e s e a r c h B r a n c h , Policy Research and Evaluation Group; 1979 Braybrooke, David a n d Charles E. Lindblom, A Strategy of Decision New York: The Free Press, 1968 Briar International Business Resources Ltd.,"A Strategic Marketing Plan for T o u r i s m for the G o v e r n m e n t of t h e Northwest Territories" O t t a w a : April, 1986 Cameron, James Joseph, "Culture and Change in the Northwest Territories: Implications for Community Infrastructure P l a n n i n g " , M a s t e r s T h e s i s , V a n c o u v e r , U n i v e r s i t y of British Columbia, October, 1985 Dacks, Gurston, A Choice of Futures: Politics in the Canadian North Toronto: Methuen, 1981 Deh Cho Regional Council, "Deh Cho Regional Tourism Development Area: Background Paper", Fort Simpson: Deh Cho Regional Council, November 12, 1986 Derek Murray Consulting Association, "Discussion Paper Review and S u m m a t i o n of the Northwest Territories T o u r i s m Industry, Documents and Programs", Regina: 1986 E d m o n t o n J o u r n a l . 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Yellowknife: Territorial Printer,1983 G o v e r n m e n t of the Northwest Territories, Department of E c o n o m i c Development and T o u r i s m , Briefing Note for H e a d , Program Development, Tourism and Parks prepared by Karen Le Gresley, Site Development Officer, October 10, 1986 G o v e r n m e n t of the Northwest Territories, Department of Economic Development and Tourism, Letter from T. Auchterlonie, Chief, D i v i s o n of T o u r i s m , D e p a r t m e n t of Economic Development to the Regional Manager, Water, Forests and Lands Division, Department of Indian and Northern Affairs, Yellowknife, NWT, January 25, 1974 G o v e r n m e n t of the Northwest Territories, Department of Economic Development and Tourism, Memo from Deputy Minister, B. J a m e s B r i t t o n to t h e Minister, Economic Development and Tourism, Arnold McCullum, June 7, 1984 G o v e r n m e n t of the Northwest Territories, Department of Economic Development and T o u r i s m , "Strategic Marketing Plan: A P r e s e n t a t i o n to t h e N o r t h w e s t T e r r i t o r i e s T r a v e l Industry Association's Annual General Meeting - 1986" Government of the Northwest Territories, Letter from Manager of L a n d s , L a n d s Division, D e p a r t m e n t of Local G o v e r n m e n t , Yellowknife, NWT ( R i c h a r d A s h t o n ) to A c t i n g Regional M a n a g e r of Land Resources, Indian a n d Inuit Affaris C a n a d a , Yellowknife, N W T (Flyod N. Adlem), April 2 1 , 1986  100  G o v e r n m e n t of the Northwest Territories, Department of Renewable Resources and Department of Economic Development and Tourism,"Developing a Planning Framework for Renewable R e s o u r c e D e v e l o p m e n t in t h e N o r t h w e s t T e r r i t o r i e s (Draft), Phase 1: Resource Information and Resource Management Strategies and Programs", Yellowknife: G N W T , No date G o v e r n m e n t of the Northwest Territories, "Schedule A, Canada-Northwest Territories Tourism Subsidiary Agreement, Draft Document", October 23, 1986  Development Yellowknife:  Hamelin, L o u i s - E d m o n d , Canadian Nordicitv: It's Your North Too William Barr (trans,) Montreal: Harvest House , 1978 Hamre, Gordon M., "An Overview of Territorial Parks in the N o r t h w e s t T e r r i t o r i e s " , Park N e w s : J o u r n a l of the C a n a d i a n ParKs and Wilderness Society, Spring 1987, V o l . 2 3 , No. 1 , P.27 H e m m e n s , G . 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Kenneth G o d w i n , Lexington: Lexington Books,1972 101  Mayer, Robert R., Policy and Program Planning: A Developmental P e r s p e c t i v e . Englewood Cliffs: Prentice - Hall Inc., 1985 Nagel, Stuart S., Public Policy. Goals. Means, and Methods. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1984 News  N o r t h . ' N W T tourism has potential* Friday, April 10, 1987 P. A5  N W T Data Book: 1986-87.  letter to the Editor,  Yellowknife: Outcrop Ltd., 1986,  O'Reilly, Kevin, "An Evaluation of the Territorial Land Use Regulations as a Land, Management Tool in the Y u k o n " , Masters Thesis, W a t e r l o o : University of Waterloo, 1983 Page, J. and R. Lang, Canadian Planners in Profile. Presented to the C a n a d i a n Institute of Planners A n n u a l C o n f e r e n c e , T o r o n t o , June 27, 1977, Toronto: York University, 1977 Pressman, Jeffery L. a n d Aaron Wildavbsky, I m p l e m e n t a t i o n . Berkley: University of California Press, 1973 Shulman, Paul R., "Non-incremental Policy Making: Notes Toward an Alternative P a r a d i g m " , A m e r i c a n Political S c i e n c e Review. Vol. 69, # 4 , (December), 1975, Pp. 1354-1370 Simon, H. A., The New Science of Management Decision. Englewood Cliffs: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1960 Taylor, Michelle E., Auvuittuq National Park Reserve Visitor Study 1982 Report on Findings. W i n n i p e g : Natural R e s o u r c e s Institute, University of Manitoba, p r e p a r e d for S o c i o - E c o n o m i c Division, Prairie Regional Office, Parks Canada, 1983 Watkins, Mel "From Underdevelopment to Development" in Dene N a t i o n : T h e C o l o n y W i t h i n . T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y of T o r o n t o Press, 1977 Weeres, S a n d G. Hamre, "Planning for the Establishment of a Park: A C a s e S t u d y f r o m the N o r t h w e s t Territories", Park News: Journal of the National and Provincial Parks A s s o c i a c t i o n of C a n a d a . Spring, 1987, Vol 23, No. 1  102  PERSONAL  COMMUNICATIONS  Britton, A i m e e Briar International Business Resources Ltd., O t t a w a , April 8, 1987 G r a h a m , Bill Acting Deputy Minister, Economic Development and Tourism, G o v e r n m e n t of the Northwest Territories, February 10, 1987 Hon. Curley, Tagak Minsiter, Economic Development and Tourism, G o v e r n m e n t of the Northwest Territories, April 8, 1986 Hamre, Gordon Special Development and Territories, Yellowknife,  A d v i s o r , Park D e v e l o p m e n t , E c o n o m i c T o u r i s m , G o v e r n m e n t of t h e N o r t h w e s t NWT, January 20, April 13,1987  Hon. Nickerson, David Member of Parliament, Western Arctic, Fort Simpson, NWT, February 26, 1987 Nuegebauer, Peter Head, Program Development, Tourism a n d Parks, Economic Development and Tourism, Government of the Northwest Territories, April 13, 1987, and June 2 1 , 1988. Sheehan, John Area Superintendent, Economic Development and Tourism, G o v e r n m e n t of the Northwest Territories, Fort Simpson, N W T , April 16, 1986, and June 22, 1988. Stilwell, Mike Deputy Minister, Economic Development a n d T o u r i s m , GNWT Yellowknife, A u g u s t 29, 1985 Weisbeck, Don Chief of Tourism, Economic Development a n d Tourism, G N W T Yellowknife, August 29, 1985  103  

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