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Success factors in inter-community cooperation : a case analysis Macdonald, Terence Alan 1988

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SUCCESS FACTORS IN INTER-COMMUNITY COOPERATION: A CASE ANALYSIS By Terence A l a n Macdonald B.A. U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1970 l t i s h Columbia T e a c h i n g C e r t i f i c a t e , Western Washington S t a t e Col 1ege, 1972 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS. FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES School of Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA November 1988 c Terence A l a n Macdonald, 1988 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my writ ten permission. Department of School of Community & Regional Planning The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date September 2 6 , 1988 DE-6G/81) Ci i > For many I n d i a n bands a c r o s s Canada, community development p l a n n i n g has emerged as an im p o r t a n t approach t o change. By f o r g i n g c l o s e economic and p o l i t i c a l l i n k s w i t h one a n o t h e r , s m a l l bands can a c c e l e r a t e t h e i r development through new economies of s c a l e , h e i g h t e n e d p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e , more i n n o v a t i v e c a p a c i t i e s and o t h e r advantages of c o o p e r a t i o n . In p r a c t i c a l terms, however, the i n i t i a t i o n , f o r m a l i z a t i o n and c o n s o l i d a t i o n of c l o s e i n t e r - b a n d c o o p e r a t i o n p r e s e n t s s e v e r a l problems. N a t i v e c u l t u r e l a c k s t r a d i t i o n s i n i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d i n t e r - c o m m u n i t y c o o p e r a t i o n , i n t e r n a l disharmony i n many I n d i a n v i l l a g e s f r u s t r a t e s u n i t y on such Important d e c i s i o n s as whether o r not t o c o o p e r a t e , and many. I n d i a n communities a r e poor i n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s k i l l s e s s e n t i a l t o p l a n n i n g and implementing c o o p e r a t i v e s t r a t e g i e s . The purpose of t h i s t h e s i s i s t o determine the f a c t o r s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a p p a r e n t l y s u c c e s s f u l c o o p e r a t i o n i n the case of f i v e I n d i a n bands i n the N i c o l a V a l l e y and t o a s s e s s the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of f i n d i n g s t o o t h e r groups of I n d i a n communities < i i i ) a c r o s s the c o u n t r y . A l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w g u i d e s the s e l e c t i o n of r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s and c r i t e r i a u s ed i n a s s e s s i n g the c a s e . F i f t e e n f a c t o r s f o r e f f e c t i v e i n ter-communlty c o o p e r a t i o n a r e i s o l a t e d from a l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w and grouped i n t o t h r e e g e n e r a l c a t e g o r i e s : t h o s e Important t o the i n i t i a t i o n of c o o p e r a t i o n , those r e l a t i n g t o the d e l i v e r y of the rewards of c o o p e r a t i o n , and those a f f e c t i n g the c a p a b i l i t y of the c o o p e r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n . S i x f a c t o r s f o r I n i t i a t i o n i n c l u d e the presence of a common c r i s i s o r t h r e a t , i nter-community s l m l l l a r l t y and f a m i l i a r i t y , c o n sensus, committed l e a d e r s h i p , a p r o p e n s i t y t o c o o p e r a t e and p r e l i m i n a r y p l a n n i n g . S u c c e s s f u l c o o p e r a t i o n was a l s o found t o be l i n k e d t o the c a p t u r e by c o o p e r a t i n g communities of f o u r t y p e s of rew a r d s , each r e p r e s e n t i n g a f a c t o r : Improved r e s o u r c e a c q u i s i t i o n , a d a p t a b l i 1 i t y t o change, e f f i c i e n c y i n community r e s o u r c e use and a b i l i t y t o a c h i e v e common g o a l s . F i n a l l y , o n g o i n g s u c c e s s was found t o be r e f l e c t e d i n the c a p a b i l i t y of inter-community c o o p e r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o a c c o m p l i s h f i v e t a s k s : b u i l d community and s t a f f commitment, p l a n harmonious inter-community r e l a t i o n s , manage i t s environment, e x p l o i t common geography and c u l t u r e , and s o l v e problems. Case r e s e a r c h f o c u s s e s on f i v e I n d i a n bands i n the N i c o l a V a l l e y of s o u t h e r n B r i t i s h Columbia and i s based on f o r t y - o n e I n t e r v i e w s h e l d i n the v a l l e y . These bands a r e r e p r e s e n t e d by C i v ) the N i c o l a V a l l e y I n d i a n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n CNVIA), a c e n t r a l i z e d b u r e a c r a c y which c o o r d i n a t e s on b e h a l f of the f i v e communities a wide range of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s e r v i c e s . F i f t e e n q u e s t i o n s - each c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o a s u c c e s s f a c t o r d e r i v e d from the l i t e r a t u r e - were asked i n I n t e r v i e w s w i t h p e o p l e r e p r e s e n t i n g a b r o a d spectrum of the n a t i v e communities. Responses were c o m p i l e d and a n a l y z e d t o a s s e s s the degree t o which i n t e r - b a n d c o o p e r a t i o n conformed t o e x p e c t a t i o n s from the l i t e r a t u r e on s u c c e s s f u l inter-community c o o p e r a t i o n . A n a l y s i s l e d t o the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t d e s p i t e d e f i c i e n c i e s i n p r e l i m i n a r y p l a n n i n g , o n g o i n g p l a n n i n g and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g , NVIA i s a s u c c e s s f u l i n t e r - c o m m u n i t y c o o p e r a t i v e e n t e r p r i s e which has d e l i v e r e d many s i g n i f i c a n t b e n e f i t s t o i t s member communities. W h i l e NVIA's e x i s t e n c e s u g g e s t s a s u c c e s s f u l i n i t i a t i o n p r o c e s s , b e t t e r p l a n n i n g i n the f o r m a t i v e y e a r s would l i k e l y have a v o i d e d s e v e r a l problems e n c o u n t e r e d i n l a t e r y e a r s . Some of the rewards of c o o p e r a t i v e e f f o r t have been i n e q u i t a b l y d i s t r i b u t e d t o member bands and v a r i o u s c o o p e r a t i v e programs have been a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d by p o l i t i c a l i n t e r f e r e n c e . Perhaps most s e r i o u s l y , NVIA i t s e l f was found t o be d e f i c i e n t i n b u i l d i n g b r o a d commitment and d e s i g n i n g m u t u a l l y a c c e p t a b l e s o l u t i o n s t o i n t e r n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s . E f f e c t i v e p l a n n i n g i n the e a r l y s t a g e s i s v i t a l t o e s t a b l i s h i n g and, more i m p o r t a n t l y , u l t i m a t e l y m a i n t a i n i n g <v> inter-community c o o p e r a t i o n . Incomplete p l a n n i n g d u r i n g the f o r m a t i o n of NVIA l e d t o l a c k of c l e a r consensus on the purpose of c o o p e r a t i o n , the n a t u r e of i n t e r - b a n d power r e l a t i o n s , the o b l i g a t i o n s of each band, and ways of d i s t r i b u t i n g rewards and m i n i m i z i n g r i s k s t o p a r t i c i p a n t bands. NVIA p r o v i d e s e v i d e n c e t h a t I n d i a n communities can e s t a b l i s h c l o s e formal r e l a t i o n s w i t h each o t h e r and t h u s c a p t u r e c e r t a i n Important b e n e f i t s . Problems e n c o u n t e r e d s u g g e s t , however, t h a t bands ought t o temper e n t h u s i a s m w i t h d e l i b e r a t i o n when c o n s i d e r i n g f o r m a l c o p p e r a t l v e r e l a t i o n s . A n a l y s i s of the N i c o l a V a l l e y s t o r y c o n f i r m e d t h a t c onsensus, e a r l y p l a n n i n g , reward d e l i v e r y , o n g o i n g p l a n n i n g and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g c a p a c i t y are e s p e c i a l l y Important f a c t o r s i n e s t a b l i s h i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g lnter-communlty c o o p e r a t i o n . The case makes a key c o n t r i b u t i o n t o i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s t h e o r y by h i g h l i g h t i n g the importance of I n f o r m a l c o o p e r a t i o n as a means of p r e p a r i n g I n d i a n bands f o r more s t r u c t u r e d c o o p e r a t i o n . I t a l s o r e v e a l s the c r i t i c a l r o l e of p e r s i s t e n t and f a r - s i g h t e d l e a d e r s h i p i n the f o r m a l i z a t i o n of i n t e r - b a n d c o o p e r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s . <vi) T a b l e of C o n t e n t s A b s t r a c t i i L i s t of T a b l e s x L i s t of F i g u r e s x i Acknowledgement x i i G l o s s a r y x i i i C h apter 1 - I n t r o d u c t i o n 1. Purpose 1 2. The N i c o l a V a l l e y I n d i a n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 2 3. The Meaning of Community Development 5 4. I n d i a n Community Development 7 5. I n t e r - B a n d C o o p e r a t i o n 8 6. Problem Statement 9 7. Methods 16 < v l l ) Chapter 2 - F a c t o r s f o r E f f e c t i v e Inter-Communltv C o o p e r a t i o n 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n 19 2. F a c t o r s f o r E f f e c t i v e C o o p e r a t i o n 19 a) F a c t o r s Important t o the I n i t i a t i o n of C o o p e r a t i o n 20 1) C r i s i s o r T h r e a t 20 i i ) Mutual S i m i l a r i t y and F a m i l i a r i t y 21 i i i ) Consensus 22 i v ) L e a d e r s h i p 24 v) O r g a n i z a t i o n a l P r o p e n s i t y t o Cooperate 25 v i ) P r e l i m i n a r y P l a n n i n g 26 b) F a c t o r s R e l a t e d t o Reward D e l i v e r y 27 i ) Resource A c q u i s i t i o n 28 i i ) A d a p t a b i l i t y 28 i i i ) E f f i c i e n c y 30 i v ) Goal Achievement 31 c) F a c t o r s A f f e c t i n g the C a p a b i l i t y of the C o o p e r a t i v e O r g a n i z a t i o n 32 1) B u i l d i n g Commitment 32 1 i ) P l a n n i n g 33 i i i ) E n v i r o n m e n t a l Management 35 i v ) Common Geography and C u l t u r e 36 v) P r o b l e m - S o l v i n g C a p a c i t y 37 3. Summary 38 Chapter 3 - I n t e r - B a n d C o o p e r a t i o n i n the N i c o l a V a l l e v 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n 43 2. Background I n f o r m a t i o n 43 a) L o c a t i o n and Geography 43 b) E t h n o l o g y and H i s t o r y 45 c) Demography and Reserve Lands 47 d) Economy 49 < v i 11 > 3. R e s u l t s : Comparison t o F a c t o r s f o r C o o p e r a t i o n Found In L i t e r a t u r e 50 a) F a c t o r s Important t o the I n i t i a t i o n of C o o p e r a t i o n 50 i ) C r i s i s o r T h r e a t 51 i i ) Mutual S i m i l a r i t y and F a m i 1 l a r i t y 51 i i i ) Consensus 52 i v ) L e a d e r s h i p 53 v) O r g a n i z a t i o n a l P r o p e n s i t y t o Cooperate 54 v l ) P r e l i m i n a r y P l a n n i n g 55 b) F a c t o r s R e l a t e d t o Reward D e l i v e r y 57 i ) Resource A c q u i s i t i o n 57 i i ) A d a p t a b i l i t y 59 i i i ) E f f i c i e n c y 61 i v ) Goal Achievement 62 c ) F a c t o r s A f f e c t i n g the C a p a b i l i t y of the C o o o p e r a t i v e O r g a n i z a t i o n 65 i ) B u i l d i n g Commitment 65 i i ) P l a n n i n g 67 i i i ) E n v i r o n m e n t a l Management 69 i v ) Common Geography and C u l t u r e 70 v) P r o b l e m - S o l v i n g C a p a c i t y 71 4. Summary 74 Chapter 4 - C o n c l u s i o n 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n 77 2. A n a l y s i s of NVIA 77 a) Category 1: F a c t o r s Important t o the I n i t i a t i o n of C o o p e r a t i o n 78 b) Category 2: F a c t o r s R e l a t e d t o Reward D e l i v e r y 80 c ) C a t e g o r y 3: F a c t o r s A f f e c t i n g the C a p a b i l i t y of the C o o p e r a t i v e O r g a n i z a t i o n 81 3. Summary of F i n d i n g s 84 4. L i m i t a t i o n s 85 5. D i s c u s s i o n 86 6. C o n c l u s i o n s 89 B i b l i o g r a p h y 96 Appendix 1 - L i s t of Respondents 105 Appendix 2 - I n t e r v i e w Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 108 (X) Table I - NVIA Member Bands: 1986 Membership, Number of Reserves and Area of Reserves page 49 <xi > L i s t Qf F i g u r e s F i g u r e 1 - N i c o l a V a l 1 e y O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Chart page 4 F i g u r e 2 - R e l a t i v e L o c a t i o n of the N i c o l a V a l l e y page 44 F i g u r e 3 - L o c a t i o n of Reserve Lands page 48 <xl 1 > Acknowledgement I t a k e t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y t o thank the n a t i v e p e o p l e of the N i c o l a V a l l e y f o r t h e i r s u p p o r t of my e f f o r t s t o document t h e i r s t o r y . I am e s p e c i a l l y g r a t e f u l f o r the encouragement of Gordon A n t o i n e and the l o g i s t i c a l a s s i s t a n c e of L o r r a i n e Moses and F r a n c i s S h u t e r . W i t h o u t e x c e p t i o n , the band membership and p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s h i p d e s e r v e c r e d i t f o r t h e i r h o s p i t a l i t y and openness w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n and o p i n i o n s . I am a l s o i n d e b t e d t o band and NVIA s t a f f , who gave f r e e l y of t h e i r time i n i n t e r v i e w s e s s i o n s . S teve Kozey, A l a i n Cunningham and Hugh K e l l a s a l s o e arn r e c o g n i t i o n f o r c o n t r i b u t i n g u s e f u l i n s i g h t and i d e a s t o my r e s e a r c h . Thanks a r e a l s o due Murphy Shewchuk f o r p r o v i d i n g me w i t h d a t a on the h i s t o r y of the N i c o l a V a l l e y . F i n a l l y , I acknowledge P r o f e s s o r s B i l l Rees and P e t e r B o o t h r o y d , whose o n g o i n g a d v i c e and p a t i e n c e were c r i t i c a l t o the c o m p l e t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s . < x l 1 1 > Glossary 1. 2, 4, A b o r i g i n a l Band Band Counc1 1 Band Counc1 1 R e s o l u t 1 on Band Funds C o n t a c t 7. Department of I n d i a n A f f a i r s and N o r t h e r n Development 8 , E t h n o l o g y R e l a t i n g t o I n d i a n or I n u l t l i f e b e f o r e the coming of n o n - n a t i v e p e o p l e . A l e g a l group d e f i n e d by the I n d i a n A c t . In t h i s s e n s e , a Band i s the b a s i c u n i t of I n d i a n government r e c o g n i z e d by the f e d e r a l government. Each has i t s own Band C o u n c i l and l e g a l membership l i s t . Most have r e s e r v e l a n d and a t r u s t f u n d as w e l l . The g o v e r n i n g body of a Band under the I n d i a n A c t . I t i s composed of one or more C h i e f s , and u s u a l l y s e v e r a l C o u n c i l l o r s . Some Bands chose t h e i r C o u n c i l s today under the e l e c t i v e system, and some by custom. A document by which a Band C o u n c i l r e c o r d s a formal d e c i s i o n o r a Band Bylaw. Monies b e l o n g i n g t o i n d i v i d u a l I n d i a n Bands, h e l d and managed by the f e d e r a l government f o r each Band. Most a r e made up of p r o c e e d s from the s a l e , l e a s e o r e x p r o p r i a t i o n of r e s e r v e l a n d s and the r e s o u r c e s on them. The term used f o r the time i n h i s t o r y when N o r t h American n a t i v e p e o p l e , f i r s t met w i t h n o n - n a t i v e s from o t h e r p a r t s of the w o r l d . T h i s m e e t i n g c o u l d be e i t h e r f a c e t o f a c e , or i n d i r e c t - t h a t i s , through f o r e i g n t r a d e goods and i n f l u e n c e . F e d e r a l department e x e r c i s i n g d e l e g a t e d d u t i e s , powers and f u n c t i o n s of the M i n i s t e r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the I n d i a n A c t . A type of a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l s t u d y which d e s c r i b e s , compares and I n t e r p r e t s ways of l i f e of s p e c i f i c groups of p e o p l e . <xiv) 9. I n d i a n A c t 10. I n d i a n S t a t u s 11. Membersh1p 12. N a t i v e The f e d e r a l s t a t u t e t h a t , s i n c e 1876, has embodied most of the f e d e r a l law c o n c e r n i n g I n d i a n p e o p l e . B e f o r e 1876, t h e r e were a l a r g e number of c o l o n i a l and l o c a l s t a t u t e s r e l a t i n g t o I n d i a n s . P a r t s of t h e s e were r e w r i t t e n , expanded, and i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o two new f e d e r a l a c t s r e l a t i n g t o I n d i a n s p a s s e d In 1868 and 1869. The f i r s t complete " I n d i a n A c t ' as such was p a s s e d i n 1876. New v e r s i o n s were i s s u e d i n 1880 and 1951. The c u r r e n t I n d i a n A c t i s t h a t of 1970. I t has had o n l y a few minor r e v i s i o n s s i n c e t h a t d a t e . arson's l e g a l s t a t u s as an I n d i a n , and : l f l c a l l y h i s or her s t a t u s as d e f i n e d I n d i a n A c t . A p e rspec the by T h i s term r e f e r s s p e c i f i c a l l y t o the r i g h t s of an I n d i a n p e r s o n as a member of a band. Membership I s s u e s a r e g e n e r a l l y the same as I n d i a n S t a t u s i s s u e s . Canadians of a b o r i g i n a l d e s c e n t . T h i s term can i n c l u d e s t a t u s or n o n - s t a t u s I n d i a n s , I n u l t and M e t i s . 13. O f f - R e s e r v e 14. Reserve L o c a t i o n s o t h e r than on a r e s e r v e . Land s e t a s i d e f o r the use and occupancy of an I n d i a n group or Band. R e s e r v e s a r e d e f i n e d i n the I n d i a n A c t and a r e p r o v i d e d f o r o r mentioned i n the Consi11 t u t i o n , v a r i o u s t r e a t i e s , v a r i o u s f e d e r a l s t a t u t e s , and v a r i o u s o t h e r Crown agreements and e x e c u t i v e a c t i o n s . I t i s s t i l l not e n t i r e l y c l e a r i n law e x a c t l y what s o r t of l a n d an I n d i a n r e s e r v e i s , or how r e s e r v e s a r e e s t a b l i s h e d . The c u r r e n t p o s i t i o n of the f e d e r a l government I s t h a t a l 1 I n d i a n r e s e r v e s a r e l e g a l l y the p r o p e r t y of the Crown, and t h a t I n d i a n Bands have s i g n i f i c a n t r i g h t s t o or i n t e r e s t s i n them, but not f u l l o wnership i n the o r d i n a r y s ense. <xv) 15. T r i b a l C o u n c i l A term t h a t has r e c e n t l y come i n t o use i n some r e g i o n s t o r e f e r t o a g r o u p i n g of t r i b a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s o r band c o u n c i l s i n t o a r e g i o n a l p o l i t i c a l u n i t . The t r i b a l c o u n c i l may or may not be empowered t o r e p r e s e n t the Bands e x t e r n a l l y , o r t o a d m i n i s t e r common funds o r r e s o u r c e s . Chapter One - Introduction - 1 -1. Purpose The substantive focus of this thesis is the role of cooperation in community development. The Nicola Valley Indian Administration, an organization representing five closely integrated native communities in southern British Columbia, provides the case study. The purpose of the study is to analyze NVIA as a case of apparent successful inter-community cooperation and to assess the applicability of findings to other groups of Indian communities in the country. For the purpose of this study, I define vinter-community cooperation'' as x joint action undertaken voluntarily by two or more communities to change specified conditions for their mutual advantage''. Thesis research concentrates on NVIA's strengths and weaknesses, and on how the case compares to expectations drawn from the literature on interorganlzational and lnter-communlty cooperat i on. My hope is that thesis findings will enlighten other groups of communities on the benefits of inter-community cooperation and the application of cooperative principles to the community development process. Indian communities in particular should be able to apply the lessons derived from this research to enhance their prospects for meaningful self-government. -2-2. The N i c o l a V a l l e v I n d i a n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n For over twenty y e a r s , inter-community c o o p e r a t i o n has been an i m p o r t a n t element i n the community development approach of f i v e I n d i a n bands i n the N i c o l a V a l l e y of s o u t h e r n B r i t i s h C o lumbia. These bands c o n t r o l t w e n t y - f i v e r e s e r v e l a n d s and t w e l v e v i l l a g e s w i t h i n a f i f t y - k i l o m e t e r r a d i u s of the C i t y of M e r r i t t . S i n c e 1973, they have been t i g h t l y o r g a n i z e d I n t o a p o l i t i c a l and economic c o n f e d e r a t i o n r e p r e s e n t e d by the N i c o l a V a l l e y I n d i a n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (NVIA), a t r i b a l c o u n c i l agency which c e n t r a l i z e s and c o o r d i n a t e s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s e r v i c e s i n p o l i c y p l a n n i n g , f i n a n c i a l management, h o u s i n g and i n f r a s t r u c t u r e e x p a n s i o n , e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g , s o c i a l development, band membership and r e s e r v e l a n d s . What i s c o m p e l l i n g about NVIA i s the manner i n which i t has f a c i l i t a t e d b r o a d e r and deeper int e r - c o m m u n i t y c o o p e r a t i v e a c t i v i t y than i s t y p i c a l l y the case w i t h o t h e r t r i b a l c o u n c i l s i n the p r o v i n c e . A s i g n i f i c a n t a s p e c t of band development i n the v a l l e y i s the i n t e n s i t y w i t h which i t s d i r e c t i o n and scope i s c o n t r o l l e d by the I n d i a n p e o p l e t h e m s e l v e s (Kozey 1986). The f o l l o w i n g l i s t p r e s e n t s an o v e r v i e w of NVIA i n I t s p r e s e n t form, I d e n t i f y i n g e i g h t j o i n t l y c o n t r o l l e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s and i n d i c a t i n g t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e mandates and s i z e s : a) A r e a C o u n c i l - e x e c u t i v e body f o r NVIA, c o n s i s t i n g of s i x t e e n band c o u n c i l a p p o i n t e e s ; - 3 -b) NVIA Core - centralized administrative body providing super-visory and policy planning duties, advisory services in capital project planning, land regis-tration, band membership, and band management and planning (staff of 15); c) Nicola Valley Indian - non-profit, Incorporated advisory Development Corporation body providing venture capital to public and private business and administering employment programs and forest management planning (staff of six); d) Valley Business - incorporated company owned by the five Computer Services NVIA member bands, preparing and proces-sing monthly financial statements for over 40 cost centers (staff of five); e) NVIA Social Development - body of advisory staff delivering social services to the bands' mem-bership (staff of six); f) NVIA Education - body of advisory staff administering band education budgets, post-secondary training applications and student counselling ser-vices (staff of four); g) Nicola Valley Institute - Indian-controlled post-secondary of Technology institution offering pre-entry, certificate, diploma and university transfer programs (staff of seven); and h) Nicola Valley Indian - jointly owned incorporated company Services Association owning government building and other real estate in Merrltt area (staff of three). Figure 1 illustrates the interrelationships between the five bands and the numerous cooperative entities organized on their behalf. Ultimate authority lies with the bands' general membership, which is depicted at the top of the diagram. Directly accountable to this membership are the five autonomous band councils, which are elected bodies providing p o l i t i c a l - 5 -l e a d e r s h i p and p o l i c y d i r e c t i o n a t the band l e v e l . As NVIA's e x e c u t i v e body, the A r e a C o u n c i l c o m p r i s e s a p p o i n t e e s from each e l e c t e d band c o u n c i l . T h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e system e n s u r e s t h a t the A r e a C o u n c i l - and through i t , NVIA - i s a c c o u n t a b l e t o the g e n e r a l membership of the f i v e bands. R e p o r t i n g t o the A r e a C o u n c i l i s the NVIA A d m i n i s t r a t o r , who o v e r s e e s the day-to-day o p e r a t i o n s of the v a r i o u s J o i n t l y c o n t r o l l e d a g e n c i e s l i s t e d above. Each agency i s s u p e r v i s e d by a manager. 3. The Meaning of Community Development For over twenty y e a r s , the N i c o l a V a l l e y bands have been i n v o l v e d i n a d e l i b e r a t e community development p r o c e s s . The goal of c o o p e r a t i v e p l a n n i n g has been t o enhance from w i t h i n the s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l and p o l i t i c a l w e l l - b e i n g of band members. T h i s means b u i l d i n g the c a p a c i t i e s of I n d i v i d u a l s t o s h o u l d e r i n c r e a s e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the growth and improvement of t h e i r c o mmunities. T h i s s e c t i o n p r o v i d e s background on the g o a l s and i n h e r e n t d i f f i c u l t i e s of the community development approach as i t i s a p p l i e d more g e n e r a l l y . The term "community development'' f i r s t came i n t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l p a r l a n c e i n 1948 ( G r i f f i t h s 1981). I t i s a h y b r i d of "community o r g a n i z a t i o n ' ' and "economic development'' ( C h r i s t e n s o n and Robinson 1980). Most a d v o c a t e s of community -6-development s t a t e t h a t the o n l y way t o e f f e c t s u b s t a n t i a l and e n d u r i n g change In the community i s t o I n v o l v e everyone -i n d i v i d u a l c i t i z e n s , i n t e r e s t g r o u p s , and l o c a l l e a d e r s - i n the p r o c e s s of i d e n t i f y i n g problems and g o a l s and d e v e l o p i n g a p p r o p r i a t e c o u r s e s of a c t i o n . An i m p o r t a n t debate i n the l i t e r a t u r e c o n c e r n s the degree t o which community development s h o u l d be p r o c e s s - o r p r o d u c t -o r i e n t e d . Voth e t a l . (1980:188) e l a b o r a t e on t h i s argument among s c h o l a r s : Some p l a c e more emphasis on s u b s t a n t i v e achievement (improvements i n economic w e l 1 - b e i n g , s e r v i c e s , e t c . ) , and o t h e r s p l a c e more emphasis on p r o c e s s a s p e c t s of community development. To d a t e , the major emphasis i n the l i t e r a t u r e has been on p r o c e d u r a l c o n c e r n s such as d e v e l o p i n g l o c a l p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g c a p a c i t i e s ( K h l n d u k a 1979? N e l s o n e t a l . 1960; Kozey 1976). B o r r o w i n g from e s s e n t i a l elements i n both s c h o o l s of tho u g h t , I d e f i n e "community development'' as "a p r o c e s s which i n c r e a s e s the c a p a c i t y of the community t o i d e n t i f y , a n a l y z e and s o l v e l o c a l problems f o r the purpose of p r o d u c i n g p o s i t i v e change i n the s o c i a l , economic and p o l i t i c a l l i f e of the commun i t y / . -7-4. I n d i a n Community Development For o v er one hundred y e a r s , n a t i v e I n d i a n communities a c r o s s Canada have s u f f e r e d from unemployment, a l c o h o l i s m , f a m i l y breakdown, imprisonment, inadequate h o u s i n g , low e d u c a t i o n a l achievement and h e a l t h problems a t r a t e s f a r e x c e e d i n g the n a t i o n a l average (Canada 1983). S i n c e e a r l y i n the c e n t u r y , t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s have h e l p e d spawn v a r i o u s n a t i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l n a t i v e groups w i t h mandates t o lobby s e n i o r governments f o r i n c r e a s e d c o n s t i t u t i o n a l , l e g i s l a t i v e and f u n d i n g s u p p o r t t o I n d i a n o r g a n i z a t i o n s and communities ( D u f f 1964). A more a c t i v i s t s t r a t e g y a r o s e i n the 1960's and g a i n e d impetus i n r e c e n t y e a r s w i t h a s e r i e s of c r o s s - c o u n t r y c a r a v a n s , d e m o n s t r a t i o n s and s i t - i n s ( R o b e r t s 1979). Both approaches have s e r v e d t o o r g a n i z e d i s s e n t , p u b l i c i z e and l e g i t i m i z e the c o n c e r n s of n a t i v e p e o p l e , and i n s t i l l a measure of r a c i a l and c u l t u r a l p r i d e . But the s u b s t a n t i v e impact of p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s and c o n f r o n t a t i o n a l t a c t i c s on the l i v e s of o r d i n a r y I n d i a n p e o p l e and t h e i r communities has been l i m i t e d . A t h i r d approach t o change - community development - a l s o g a i n e d p o p u l a r i t y i n the 1960's and began t o a t t r a c t I n d i a n bands i n the 1970's. T h i s approach has been g u i d e d by a renewed sense of t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s . As R o b e r t s (1979:100) o b s e r v e s : -8-The I n d i a n p e o p l e can t a k e i n t o account t h e i r own c u l -t u r e , which i s a n a l a g o u s t o the o l d e r , t r a d i t i o n a l sense of community, and w i t h the c o n f i d e n c e t h a t t h i s engenders they a r e b e t t e r equipped t o engage i n development at the community l e v e l .... Khlnduka (1979:363) a l s o e l a b o r a t e s on the n a t u r e of community development's s p e c i a l appeal t o n a t i v e p e o p l e : Community development a c t i v i t i e s , which c r e a t e l i n k a g e s between v a r i o u s communities, c a n , s i m i l a r l y , be h e l p f u l i n Improving l n t e r - c o m m u n l t y r e l a t i o n s . By s u c c e s s f u l l y c o m p l e t i n g even r e l a t i v e l y i n c o n s e q u e n t i a l community p r o j e c t s , the p a r t i c i p a n t s may d e v e l o p a sense of compe-t e n c e , a new f a i t h i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o overcome f o r c e s of n a t u r e . T h i s f a i t h i n t h e i r c a p a c i t y may be v e r y i m p o r t a n t f o r p e o p l e who l i v e i n s m a l l , r u r a l a r e a s of t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s . 5. Inter-Band Cooperation Much has been w r i t t e n about c l o s e c o o p e r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s among p r e - c o n t a c t a b o r i g i n a l groups i n the t e r r i t o r y now known as B r i t i s h C olumbia. As w i t h o t h e r groups of Indigenous p e o p l e s around the w o r l d , t h e s e r e l a t i o n s were r o o t e d i n the need f o r f o o d , s o c i a b i 1 I t y , t r a d e and s t a b l e p o l i t i c a l l i n k s . On the c o a s t and i n l a n d , i n t e r - t r i b a l c o o p e r a t i v e b e h a v i o u r was r o o t e d i n a need t o s h a r e r e s o u r c e s t h a t were o n l y s p a s m o d i c a l l y a v a i l a b l e i n the n o r t h w e s t e r n p a r t of t h e c o n t i n e n t ( S u t t l e s 1960; Jenness 1960; H i l l - T o u t 1978; T e i t 1967). T h i s was e s p e c i a l 1y the case i n the i n t e r i o r , where f o o d g a t h e r i n g was more d i f f i c u l t than on the c o a s t C B a l f 1978). U n l i k e the p r e s e n t - d a y c o o p e r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e s i n the N i c o l a V a l l e y , however, e a r l y m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of i n t e r - b a n d c o o p e r a t i o n -9-were not I n s t i t u t i o n a l i n n a t u r e ( D u f f 1964). The h i s t o r y of a b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia s i n c e d i r e c t c o n t a c t has been marked by the e r e c t i o n of s o c i a l b a r r i e r s between W h i t e s and I n d i a n s which have p r e v e n t e d the l a t t e r from e n t e r i n g mainstream s o c i e t y . Combined w i t h a deep sense of g r i e v a n c e or " h e r i t a g e of b i t t e r n e s s ' ' , t h e s e b a r r i e r s have induced some n a t i v e p e o p l e and t h e i r communities t o work t o g e t h e r f o r common g o a l s . C o o p e r a t i v e a c t i v i t y has a l s o been s u p p o r t e d by modern t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and communication t e c h n o l o g y and the p e r s i s t e n c e of s t r o n g c u l t u r a l a f f i n i t i e s among c e r t a i n bands ( D u f f 1964). The statement t h a t the s i n g l e I n d i a n band i s u s u a l l y t o o s m a l l a u n i t t o be e f f e c t i v e was made over twenty y e a r s ago by Duff (1964:105), who adds: The a d a p t a t i o n of the I n d i a n s t o modern Canadian s o c i e t y may be measured i n terms of t h e i r s u c c e s s i n a d o p t i n g p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s t o govern t h e i r l o c a l a f f a i r s and t o g a i n some measure of c o n t r o l over i s s u e s which a f f e c t I n d i a n s as a whole. 6. Problem statement Wherever i t i s a p p l i e d , the community development approach e n c o u n t e r s t y p i c a l o b s t a c l e s . P e o p l e a re f r e q u e n t l y u n a b l e t o f o r m u l a t e t h e i r own i d e a s f o r community b e t t e r m e n t ( B a t t e n 1974). Opponents may c o n s i d e r i t s approach t o o r a d i c a l ( A l d e n and Morgan 1974) or oppose i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c emphasis on b r o a d -10-p u b l l c p a r t i c i p a t i o n ( L l t t r e l l 1980). As w e l l , the I n t r a c t a b l e n a t u r e of the v e r y problems t h a t s t i m u l a t e community development p r o c e s s e s may l a t e r l i m i t t h e i r c a p a c i t y t o e f f e c t s i g n i f i c a n t , l o n g - t e r m change (Warren 1969; Warren 1974; B a t t e n 1974; M u l f o r d ( 1 9 8 4 ) . Community development p r o c e s s e s may be s u b v e r t e d by o p p o r t u n i s t i c i n d i v i d u a l s i n t e r e s t e d o n l y i n p e r s o n a l g a i n , o r they may be s t a l l e d by t r a n s i e n c e ( B l d d l e 1965). The I d e a l s of community development a d v o c a t e s may e v e n t u a l l y succumb t o u n r e s o l v e d c o n f l i c t among i n d i v i d u a l s and groups (Khinduka 1979; L l t t r e l l 1980). To the s e problems i s added t h a t of a c c u r a t e l y a s s e s s i n g the Impact of v a r i o u s t y p e s of community development i n i t i a t i v e s (Voth 1979). In a d d i t i o n t o the above problems, I n d i a n community d e v e l o p e r s c o n f r o n t o t h e r s which a r e more t y p i c a l of t h e i r own s i t u a t i o n . For example, a band's l a n d use and economic development schemes a r e o f t e n f e t t e r e d by sweeping f e d e r a l government powers. P l a n s t h a t have managed t o c i r c u m v e n t b u r e a u c r a t i c h u r d l e s a r e u s u a l l y c o n s t r a i n e d by an inadequate l a n d and r e s o u r c e base (Read 1976; Kozey 1976). Other l i m i t i n g f a c t o r s i n the n a t i v e community a r e the l a c k of a v a i l a b l e v o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s and p r o j e c t management a b i l i t i e s (Read 1978). Many p o t e n t i a l l y b e n e f i c i a l s o c i a l and economic development i n i t i a t i v e s a r e d i f f i c u l t t o Implement i n s m a l l I n d i a n communities due t o l i m i t e d human and n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , -11-poor d i v i s i o n of l a b o u r and s e r i o u s s k i l l d e f i c i e n c i e s (Cunningham 1987). Because band o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c a p a c i t i e s a r e a l s o i n such s h o r t s u p p l y , l o c a l l y t r a i n e d p e r s o n s o f t e n s e i z e employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s o u t s i d e of t h e i r v i l l a g e s . Development p l a n n i n g i s a l s o r e s t r i c t e d by i n c o n s i s t e n t government p o l i c i e s r e s u l t i n g i n the f u n d i n g of fragmented and u n c o o r d i n a t e d band programs (Brodhead 1981). F u n d i n g programs o r i e n t e d more t o the i n d i v i d u a l than t o the whole community, the f e d e r a l government has d i s p l a y e d i t s i n s e n s i t i v l t y t o s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a t i o n i n the needs and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of I n d i a n bands (Read 1978). Inter-community c o o p e r a t i o n I s a v a l u a b l e component of commmunlty development which may have s p e c i a l r e l e v a n c e t o s m a l l n a t i v e I n d i a n bands. I n c r e a s e d a c c e s s t o f u n d i n g and t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e (Thompson and McEwen 1969), more I n n o v a t i v e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g ( A i k e n and Hage 1978), enhanced a d a p t a b i l i t y t o change and u n c e r t a i n t y ( H a s e n f e l d and Tropman 1979; M u l f o r d 1984), improved e f f i c i e n c y (Schermerhorn 1975; W e l l s 1984), and g r e a t e r p o l i t i c a l c l o u t ( S h e r l f 1958) a r e some of the p o t e n t i a l b e n e f i t s t o be c a p t u r e d from b u i l d i n g c o o p e r a t i v e l i n k a g e s between communities. Whatever p o t e n t i a l v a l u e i t may have, c l o s e formal c o o p e r a t i o n among communities i s n o n e t h e l e s s d i f f i c u l t t o a c h i e v e and m a i n t a i n . I f lnter-communlty c o o p e r a t i o n were l e s s p r o b l e m a t i c , i t would l i k e l y o c c u r more o f t e n . F i r s t , p h y s i c a l -12-p r o x l m l t y does not n e c e s s a r i l y g uarantee a p r o d u c t i v e w o r k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p among a g i v e n s e t of communities. Cap low (1964:24), who s u g g e s t s t h a t c o o p e r a t i o n may be more a t t a i n a b l e among a s e t of o r g a n i z a t i o n s than among a s e t of communities, s t r e s s e s t h i s p o i n t : The community has some but not a l l the a t t r i b u t e s of an o r g a n i z a t i o n . There i s a c o l l e c t i v e i d e n t i t y - o r d i n a -r i l y the name of the p l a c e - but t h a t i d e n t i t y need not imply the p o s s i b i l i t y of c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n . O p p o s i t i o n t o c o o p e r a t i o n may stem from those v i e w i n g i t as an o v e r l y r a d i c a l approach ( W i l l i a m s 1982), i n s u l a r a t t i t u d e s on the p a r t of l o c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s ( A l d e n and Morgan 1974), l a c k of r e s o u r c e s t o implement c o o p e r a t i v e systems ( W e l l s 1984) and f e a r of d i m i n i s h e d autonomy ( M u l f o r d 1984). Once thes e h u r d l e s a r e surmounted, o r g a n i z e r s f a c e the d a u n t i n g t a s k of c o o r d i n a t i n g c r i t i c a l c o n d i t i o n s a t a p p r o p r i a t e phases i n t h e i r a t t e m p t s t o b u i l d c o o p e r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s (Gray 1984). S h e r l f s (1958) s t u d y of a d o l e s c e n t s I l l u s t r a t e s how c o o p e r a t i o n i s f a i r l y e a s i l y a t t a i n e d among a group of i n d i v i d u a l s but i s o f t e n e x c e e d i n g l y p r o b l e m a t i c among groups. M u l f o r d (1984) i d e n t i f i e s the f o l l o w i n g b a r r i e r s t o e s t a b l i s h i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g c o o p e r a t i v e i n t e r o r g a n l z a t i o n a l n e t w o r k s : a) p a r t i c i p a n t s f e a r l o s s of autonomy; b) p a r t i c i p a n t s may t r y t o dominate the network; c) the government may t r y t o dominate the network; d) s t a f f may have o p p o s i n g I d e o l o g i e s ; -13-e) a p o w e r f u l e x t e r n a l p a r t y may t r y t o b l o c k a new c o o p e r a t i v e i n i t i a t i v e ; and f> s o u r c e s of c o n f l i c t may d i v i d e would-be c o o p e r a n t s . C o o p e r a t i o n w i t h i n o r among communities i s o f t e n c o m p l i c a t e d by the f a c t t h a t many Important l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s owe a l l e g i a n c e not t o t h e i r community o r r e g i o n but t o l a r g e r p r o v i n c i a l o r n a t i o n a l systems (Warren 1969). Even where c o o p e r a t i v e arrangements a re begun, p r o g r e s s may be hampered by d i s p r o p o r t l o n a l dependence on a p a r t i c u l a r community o r o r g a n i z a t i o n i n the c o o p e r a t i v e network ( A i k e n and Hage 1978) or by poor r e l a t i o n s and c o n f l i c t i n g g o a l s i n the network ( S h e r i f 1958). We a r e reminded by Warren (1974) t h a t the scope of community development based on i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s i s l i m i t e d by the e x i s t i n g power s t r u c t u r e , and by Morgan (1957) t h a t c o o p e r a t i n g communities must c a u t i o u s l y d e t e r m i n e how much Independence they a r e p r e p a r e d t o r e l i n q u i s h f o r the sake of p u r s u i n g common o b j e c t i v e s . The development p o t e n t i a l i n many I n d i a n communities i s s e r i o u s l y r e s t r i c t e d by t h e i r s m a l l p o p u l a t i o n - a c o n d i t i o n r e s u l t i n g i n l i m i t e d human r e s o u r c e s , s k i l l s , I n n o v a t i v e c a p a c i t i e s and p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e (Cunningham 1987). As a p o i n t of i n t e r e s t , 166 out of B r i t i s h Columbia's 195 I n d i a n bands have memberships of l e s s than 500 p e r s o n s ; even s o , t o g e t h e r t h e s e s m a l l v i l l a g e s c omprise f u l l y 54% of the p r o v i n c e ' s s t a t u s I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n (Canada 1985). -14-Community smallness precludes the capture of benefits associated with economies of scale. The average Indian band has too few people to effectively perform the productive, distributive and consumptive functions vital to many kinds of feasible enterprises (Cunningham 1987). Reduced capacity for Innovation also results from community smallness. Limited " c r i t i c a l mass" presents d i f f i c u l t i e s in brainstorming and sharing experiences and knowledge - act i v i t i e s which, given a larger population, often lead to creative problem-solving at the community level (Cunningham 1987). But even where imaginative ideas for local change are generated, financial drawing power from public funding agencies Is often adversely impacted by the po l i t i c a l limitations associated with small community size (Cunningham 1987). A major assumption of this paper is that strengthening inter-band cooperative relations can help to address the many community development constraints accompanying small size. Fortunately, Indian bands possess an historical and cultural -inclination to cooperate - at least informally - with one another. But putting cooperative theory into action in the context of Indian communities means overcoming several obstacles. Underdeveloped organizational competence may handicap efforts by these communities to create effective inter-band cooperative mechanisms. Building consensus within a band - not always an -15-easy t a s k - i s n e c e s s a r y t o u n d e r t a k e major i n i t i a t i v e s such as the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of c l o s e c o o p e r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s w i t h n e i g h b o u r i n g bands. In r e c e n t y e a r s , I n d i a n p e o p l e have c o m p l a i n e d about i n t e r n a l f a c t i o n s i n t h e i r v i l l a g e s and i n s u f f i c i e n t i n p u t i n t o d e c i s i o n s made a t the band o r pan-band l e v e l ( R o b e r t s 1979; Dosman 1972). Community consensus on c o o p e r a t i o n may i n t u r n r e q u i r e abandoning o r a l t e r i n g c u l t u r a l norms g o v e r n i n g I n t e r a c t i o n between band members and band l e a d e r s , o r r e c o n c i l i n g l o n g - s t a n d i n g d i s p u t e s between f a m i l i e s , f a c t i o n s and r i v a l I n t e r e s t groups. C o o p e r a t i o n among bands may be d e s i r a b l e f o r a number of r e a s o n s but i s p r o b l e m a t i c among a s e t of communities, each of which i s wracked by i n t e r n a l disharmony. S i m i l a r l y , s t r u c t u r i n g c o o p e r a t i v e p o l i t i c a l r e l a t i o n s among bands may i n v o l v e s e t t i n g a s i d e t r a d i t i o n a l p r o s c r i p t i o n s a g a i n s t i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z i n g c o o p e r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s , or w o r k i n g f o r the f i r s t time through the o f t e n t o r t u o u s p r o c e s s of r e a c h i n g consensus on problems, needs, p r i o r i t i e s and p l a n s . F o r m a l l y e s t a b l i s h i n g pan-band o r g a n i z a t i o n s p r o b a b l y a l s o e n t a i l s s t r u g g l i n g t o r e a s s u r e band members - p a r t i c u l a r l y those In p o s i t i o n s of p o l i t i c a l power - who f e a r l o s s of autonomy. The o b s t a c l e s t o p r o g r e s s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a l i m i t e d human and p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e base pose a s e r i o u s t h r e a t t o f u t u r e development i n n a t i v e communities. I t appears t h a t a p r o d u c t i v e approach may i n v o l v e f o s t e r i n g i n t e r - b a n d t r u s t and p o o l i n g -16-human and f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s . In t h e o r y , the c o o p e r a t i v e approach seems t o promise at l e a s t a p a r t i a l s o l u t i o n t o the community development dilemma f a c i n g s m a l l I n d i a n bands. In o r d e r f o r bands t o t a k e f u l l advantage of t h i s a l t e r n a t i v e , however, they must f i r s t l e a r n how t o overcome the many c o n c e p t u a l , c u l t u r a l and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l b a r r i e r s t o c l o s e l n t e r - b a n d c o l l a b o r a t i o n . T h i s s t u d y t h e r e f o r e i d e n t i f i e s f o r I n t e r e s t e d communities the most imp o r t a n t elements i n the p r o c e s s of i m p l e m e n t i n g inte r - c o m m u n i t y c o o p e r a t i v e p l a n n i n g and p r o v i d e s e m p i r i c a l i n s i g h t i n t o s t r a t e g i e s f o r overcoming d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t h i s p r o c e s s . 7. Methods Based on a s u r v e y of e m p i r i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e on i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and inter-community c o o p e r a t i o n , t h i s t h e s i s I d e n t i f i e s the e lements of s u c c e s s f u l i n t e r - b a n d c o o p e r a t i o n i n the N i c o l a V a l l e y . Conducted i n 1986 and 1987, o n - s i t e r e s e a r c h c o n s i s t e d of f o r t y - o n e s t r u c t u r e d I n t e r v i e w s w i t h t h i r t y - s i x i n d i v i d u a l s , I n c l u d i n g f o u r c h i e f c o u n c i l l o r s , f o u r band c o u n c i l l o r s , NVIA and band s t a f f s , and band members. The s e l e c t i o n of i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n s was g u i d e d by the l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w . T h i s case s t u d y compares the N i c o l a V a l l e y e x p e r i e n c e t o my -17-e x p e c t a t l o n s f o r s u c c e s s f u l lnter-communlty c o o p e r a t i o n d e r i v e d from the l i t e r a t u r e and a s s e s s e s the i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h e s e f i n d i n g s f o r c o o p e r a t i v e community development p o l i c y and p r a c t i c e . The p r o c e s s of s e l e c t i n g i n t e r v i e w e e s I n v o l v e d a d e l i b e r a t e attempt t o s t r i k e a b a l a n c e between those i n p o l i t i c a l power, s e n i o r and j u n i o r s t a f f , and the g e n e r a l membership. Some re s p o n d e n t s were e l e c t e d p o l i t i c i a n s and a l s o employees of NVIA or the bands. P o l i t i c i a n s and s t a f f o p e r a t i n g a t both NVIA and band l e v e l s were i n t e r v i e w e d . Among the g e n e r a l membership, I spoke t o a range of age and i n t e r e s t g r o u p s , i n c l u d i n g those I n v o l v e d i n the f o r m a t i o n of NVIA, e l d e r s , y o u t h , b u s i n e s s p e o p l e , r a n c h e r s and unemployed p e o p l e . The r a t i o n a l e f o r t h i s b r o a d approach was t o o b t a i n a r e a s o n a b l y a c c u r a t e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of p r e v a i l i n g knowledge and views throughout the l o c a l n a t i v e community (Appendix 1 ) . The i n t e r v i e w format was d e s i g n e d around the f i f t e e n f a c t o r s f o r e f f e c t i v e i n t e r - c o m m u n i t y c o o p e r a t i o n d e r i v e d from the l i t e r a t u r e and i d e n t i f i e d i n Chapter Two. Designed t o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n and o p i n i o n s , the s u r v e y c o m p r i s e d c a r e f u l l y worded and c o n s i s t e n t l y a p p l i e d q u e s t i o n s (Appendix 2 ) . A l l t h i r t y - s i x i n t e r v i e w e e s were approached, except on q u e s t i o n s d e a l i n g w i t h the i n i t i a t i o n of c o o p e r a t i o n } f o r t h i s s e c t i o n , j u s t n i n e p e r s o n s were i n t e r v i e w e d . In the i n t e r e s t of - 1 8 -confidentiality, no statements of fact or opinion have been ascribed to any particular individuals or bands. It is important to distinguish between two types of questions used in the survey: f i r s t , those Intended to obtain objective, factual information, such as the scale of new housing construction; and second, those intended to obtain opinions, such as views on NVIA's effectiveness. It is primarily on the latter type of question that I have based my comparison of the Nicola Valley with the success factors generated from the literature. However, factual comments bearing upon community development success are weighted as heavily as opinions. Where respondents failed to bring up obvious and relevant facts in their answers, I have provided this information myself. Chapter Two - F a c t o r s For E f f e c t i v e Inter-Communitv C o o p e r a t i o n -19-1. I n t r o d u c t i o n The o b j e c t i v e of t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o i d e n t i f y from t h e o r e t i c a l and case s t u d y l i t e r a t u r e the d e t e r m i n a n t s of f r u i t f u l i n t e r - c o m m u n i t y c o o p e r a t i o n . S p e c i f i c a l l y , my aim i s t o d e t e r m i n e what community development w r i t e r s i d e n t i f y as the most imp o r t a n t c o n d i t i o n s f o r c o o p e r a t i v e arrangements i n v o l v i n g s o v e r e i g n community governments t o be e f f e c t i v e l y i n i t i a t e d and implemented. F a c t o r s wi11 t h u s emerge as the b a s i s of a model f o r o r g a n i z i n g or a n a l y z i n g i n t e r - c o m m u n i t y c o o p e r a t i v e i n i t i a t i v e s . 2. F a c t o r s For E f f e c t i v e C o o p e r a t i o n A r e v i e w of the l i t e r a t u r e on i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s r e v e a l s a range of f a c t o r s w h i c h , t o v a r i o u s degrees i n v a r i o u s s i t u a t i o n s , d e t e r m i n e whether the g o a l s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c o o p e r a t i o n a r e u l t i m a t e l y r e a l i z e d . These f a c t o r s a r e grouped i n t o t h r e e b r o a d c a t e g o r i e s : t h o s e n e c e s s a r y f o r the i n i t i a t i o n of c o o p e r a t i o n , t h o s e r e l a t e d t o the d e l i v e r y of rewards t o the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n c o o p e r a t i o n , and those a f f e c t i n g the c a p a b i l i t y of the c o o p e r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n i t s e l f . -20-a) F a c t o r s Important t o the I n i t i a t i o n of C o o p e r a t i o n W r i t e r s i d e n t i f y a number of c o n d i t i o n s which must be s a t i s f i e d i n o r d e r f o r i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o o p e r a t i o n t o be p r o p e r l y i n i t i a t e d . V a r i e d p e r s p e c t i v e s a r e r e f l e c t e d i n d i f f e r e n t emphases p l a c e d on s i x f a c t o r s : c r i s i s o r t h r e a t , mutual s i m i l l a r i t y and f a m i l i a r i t y , c onsensus, l e a d e r s h i p , o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p r o p e n s i t y t o c o o p e r a t e , and p r e p l a n n i n g , i > C r i s i s or Threat Groups o f t e n c o o p e r a t e i n the absence of a n e g a t i v e s t i m u l u s . However, c r i s e s o r t h r e a t s o f t e n a c t as c a t a l y s t s i n b r i n g i n g groups t o g e t h e r . In a r e v i e w of i n t e r o r g a n i z a t l o n a l l i t e r a t u r e , Gray (1984) c o n c l u d e s t h a t c r i s e s i n c r e a s e the chances f o r i n i t i a t i n g i n t e r - g r o u p c o o p e r a t i o n . O f t - c i t e d s t i m u l a n t s of c o l l a b o r a t i v e a c t i v i t y a r e t h r e a t s of n e g a t i v e s a n c t i o n s f o r f a i l u r e t o work t o g e t h e r ( A l d r i c h 1976; Henderson and Thomas 1981) or d i s a s t e r ( B l d d l e 1965). I t i s u n l i k e l y , however, t h a t a c o o p e r a t i o n - b a s e d community development p r o c e s s can be s u s t a i n e d by a s i n g l e c r i s i s o r t h r e a t . In the words of B i d d l e (1965:274): O f t e n community development w i l l b e g i n as a r e s u l t of a d i s a s t e r o r of some o t h e r e m o t i o n - s t i r r i n g event .... i f d i s a s t e r - b o r n i n i t i a t i v e i s the o n l y m o t i v a t i o n , the p r o c e s s w i l l be s h o r t - l i v e d and a d d r e s s e d t o a s i n g l e accomplishment. Our e x p e r i e n c e w i t h many c o n t r a s t i n g p o p u l a t i o n s l e a d s us t o b e l i e v e t h a t the f r u s t r a t i o n s and the hopes f o r b e t t e r m e n t a ccumulated from c r i s e s of the pa s t a r e a sounder b a s i s f o r p r o g r e s s . C r u c i a l t u r n i n g p o i n t s , such as a government d e c i s i o n t o -21-w i t h d r a w s u p p o r t t o a group of o r g a n i z a t i o n s , a t a k e o v e r by a r i v a l group, o r a t r a g e d y i n d u c e d by l o n g - t e r m d e p r i v a t i o n , o f t e n compel groups t o c o o p e r a t e ( B i d d l e 1965). In the case of s o u t h e r n A l b e r t a , a p e r s i s t e n t w o r s e n i n g t r e n d i n the r u r a l economy i g n i t e d c l o s e c o o p e r a t i o n among ten s m a l l towns (Bodmer 1980). S i m i l a r c o n c e r n s m o t i v a t e d t h r e e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n Vancouver's N o r t h Shore ( K e l l a s 1987; C o r i o l i s C o n s u l t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n and Nemtin C o n s u l t a n t s 1987). Commonly, the c r i s i s w h ich p r o v o k e s c o o p e r a t i o n i s the l a s t i n a s e r i e s of i n c i d e n t s i m p a c t i n g n e g a t i v e l y on the a f f e c t e d groups. i i ) Mutual S i m i l a r i t y and F a m i l i a r i t y S c h o l a r s debate the l i n k s between i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s i m i l a r i t y and c o o p e r a t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n . Some c l a i m t h a t a l i k e groups a r e more l i k e l y t o c o o p e r a t e w i t h each o t h e r and view such c o m p a r a t i v e p r o p e r t i e s as f u n c t i o n , s t r u c t u r e , amount and a v a i l a b i l i t y of r e s o u r c e s , s i z e , c o m p a t a b i 1 i t y of p h i l o s o p h i e s and degree of p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m as o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r i n i t i a t i n g c o o p e r a t i o n ( M u l f o r d 1984). O t h e r s s t r e s s c o m p a r a t i v e p r o p e r t i e s such as v a l u e s (Gray 1984), g e o g r a p h i c a l p r o x i m i t y (Schermerhorn 1975; Gray 1984), enemies ( S h e r i f 1958), o r g a n i z a t i o n a l t a r g e t (Akinbode and C l a r k 1976; Henderson and Thomas 1981), or r e l a t i v e weakness ( M u l f o r d 1984; Johnson and Tropman 1979). K r o p o t k i n (1955) f i n d s t h a t s o l i d a r i t y i n a c o n f e d e r a t i o n of f o r t y - s i x S i b e r i a n t r i b e s was - 2 2 -s t r e n g t h e n e d by a common c u l t u r a l background. On the o t h e r s i d e of t h i s debate a r e s c h o l a r s c l a i m i n g t h a t s i m i l a r groups a r e more prone t o compete w i t h each o t h e r and t h a t the o r i g i n a l s t i m u l u s f o r c o o p e r a t i v e b e h a v i o u r i s more l i k e l y t o be found among groups w i t h d i f f e r e n t g o a l s and complementary r e s o u r c e s (Evan 1965; A i k e n and Hage 1978). I t i s l i k e l y t h a t l o c a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s d i c t a t e whether groups c o o p e r a t e w i t h t h e i r p e e r s o r w i t h o t h e r t y p e s of groups. That i s , a l i k e groups c o l l a b o r a t e i f they a n t i c i p a t e b e n e f i t s from p o o l i n g supplementary r e s o u r c e s t o a c h i e v e common g o a l s , and o t h e r w i s e u n r e l a t e d groups come t o g e t h e r i f they a n t i c i p a t e b e n e f i t s from p o o l i n g complementary r e s o u r c e s t o a c h i e v e c o i n c i d e n t a l g o a l s ( R o n d o n e l l i 1975). To launch s u c c e s s f u l c o o p e r a t i v e programs, p o t e n t i a l c o o p e r a t o r s s h o u l d h o l d some degree of mutual f a m i l i a r i t y . C o o p e r a t i o n i s more e f f e c t i v e l y i n i t i a t e d when r e l a t i o n s among groups are s t r u c t u r e d i n f a v o u r of f r e q u e n t and l o n g - l a s t i n g l i a i s o n s , e s p e c i a l l y when tho s e groups s h a r e common g e o g r a p h i c a l , c u l t u r a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( A x e l r o d 1984; M u l f o r d 1984). i i i ) Consensus To i n i t i a t e s t r o n g c o o p e r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s , p o t e n t i a l c o l l a b o r a t o r s s h o u l d f o r m a l l y acknowledge t o each o t h e r t h a t they r e c o g n i z e common problems, programs, c l i e n t e l e s , f u n c t i o n s -23-and g o a l s . C o o p e r a t i o n i s a l s o more l i k e l y t o be i n i t i a t e d i f i t engages p r e c i s e l y t h a t s e t of o r g a n i z a t i o n s a f f e c t e d by the problem o r i s s u e which j o i n t a c t i o n i s s u p p o s e d l y a d d r e s s i n g (Akinbode and C l a r k 1976; Gray 1984). R o n d o n e l 1 i ' s C1975) s t u d y of r e g i o n a l development p o l i c y making by s e v e r a l P e n n s y l v a n i a communities i n d i c a t e s t h a t the f o u n d a t i o n f o r consensus i s a minimal amount of e i t h e r s y m b i o t i c i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e based on complementary d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o r commensal in t e r d e p e n d e n c e based on i n t e r a c t i o n among groups p e r f o r m i n g s i m i l a r o r supplementary f u n c t i o n s . Consensus may o c c u r e i t h e r w i t h i n a community i n which a s e t of l i n k e d groups f u n c t i o n o r w i t h i n a r e g i o n c o n t a i n i n g a group of communities. However, g e o g r a p h i c a l p a r a m e t e r s may not be the c r i t i c a l f a c t o r i n c o n s e n s u s - b u i l d i n g ; f o r example, a group of w i d e l y d i s p e r s e d communities may c o o p e r a t e due t o s h a r e d c u l t u r a l or p o l i t i c a l v a l u e s . In the more s p a t i a l l y c o n f i n e d environment of Jamestown, New Y o r k , two r i v a l l i n g subcommunities - l a b o u r and management - responded t o economic d e c l i n e by r e c o g n i z i n g a s h a r e d c o n c e r n - the l o c a l economy -and c o o p e r a t e d i n i t s I n t e r e s t by e s t a b l i s h i n g a J o i n t committee t o a t t r a c t l o c a l b u s i n e s s ( W i l l i a m s 1982). Vancouver's N o r t h Shore i n i t i a t i v e c i t e d above a r o s e out of int e r - c o m m u n i t y consensus based on s h a r e d r e c o g n i t i o n of common economic o p p o r t u n i t i e s and c o n s t r a i n t s ( K e l l a s 1987; C o r i o l i s C o n s u l t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n and Nemtin C o n s u l t a n t s 1987). -24-i v ) L e a d e r s h i p Lack of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l e a d e r s h i p i n h i b i t s the onset of i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o o p e r a t i o n . The i n i t i a l d e c i s i o n t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n c o o p e r a t i v e e n t e r p r i s e i s i n v a r i a b l y l e f t t o l e a d e r s w i t h the v i s i o n t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t the p o t e n t i a l b e n e f i t s of c o o p e r a t i o n exceed i t s a n t i c i p a t e d c o s t s (Gray 1984). In t h e i r s t u d y of c o l l a b o r a t i o n among Americam government a g e n c i e s , Akinbode and C l a r k (1976:112) suggest two o t h e r l e a d e r s h i p a t t r i b u t e s : c h a r i s m a and a sense of l o c a l c o n t r o l . most of the c o o p e r a t i v e e f f o r t s were f a c i l i t a t e d by dynamic and d e m o c r a t i c l e a d e r s h i p , w h i l e c o m p e t i t i o n and c o n f l i c t s were a t t r i b u t e d t o changes i n l e a d e r s h i p s t y l e and c e n t r a l i z e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r a c t i c e . The d e c i s i o n t o c o o p e r a t e r e q u i r e s v i s i o n and i m a g i n a t i o n -q u a l i t i e s g e n e r a l l y a s c r i b e d t o e f f e c t i v e l e a d e r s . In the case of Jamestown, New Y o r k , the j o i n t committee was o r g a n i z e d not by the two p r i n c i p l e a n t a g o n i s t s but by the mayor of the l a r g e r community ( W i l l i a m s 1982). Sometimes c o o p e r a t i v e l e a d e r s h i p i s p r o v i d e d not by those i n f o r m a l p o s i t i o n s of a u t h o r i t y but by those whose c o n c e r n s may bear o n l y p a r t i a l resemblance t o the u l t i m a t e form and mandate of the j o i n t i n i t i a t i v e . For example, c o o p e r a t i o n on Vancouver's N o r t h Shore o r i g i n a t e d w i t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s and laymen c o n c e r n e d w i t h the i s s u e of unemployed youth ( K e l l a s 1987; C o r i o l l s C o n s u l t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n and Nemtin C o n s u l t a n t s 1987). -25-v) O r g a n i z a t i o n a l P r o p e n s i t y t o Cooperate The l i k l i h o o d of an o r g a n i z a t i o n e n t e r i n g i n t o c o o p e r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s w i t h o t h e r groups has been shown t o be p a r t l y dependent on whether i t v i e w s i t s e l f as a c l o s e d or open system w i t h r e s p e c t t o i t s environment ( M u l f o r d 1984; H a s e n f e l d and Tropman 1979). Schermerhorn (1975:850) w r i t e s : To the e x t e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l b o u n d a r i e s a r e open or p e r -meable v i s - a - v i s the e x t e r n a l environment, i n t e r o r g a n l -z a t i o n a l c o o p e r a t i o n becomes more l i k e l y as an element i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s b e h a v i o r a l r e p e r t o i r e . From t h e i r r e s e a r c h on s i x t e e n w e l f a r e a g e n c i e s i n a l a r g e American c i t y , Akinbode and C l a r k (1976) note t h a t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l openness - or more f r e q u e n t and i n t e n s e i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h the environment - i s congruent w i t h an a p p r e c i a t i o n of i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e w i t h o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s . To commence an e f f e c t i v e c o o p e r a t i v e p r o c e s s , p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a n t s r e q u i r e more than an open a t t i t u d e ; a minimum degree of i n t r a - g r o u p competence i s a l s o e s s e n t i a l (Akinbode and C l a r k 1976). That i s , the e x t e n t and manner by which a group i n i t i a t e s c o o p e r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s w i t h i t s n e i g h b o u r s depends p a r t l y on i t s own i n t e r n a l a t t r i b u t e s , such as c o o p e r a t i v e norms and s t r u c t u r e s (Schermerhorn 1975) or p u r p o s e , o p e r a t i o n s and competence ( S t o g d i l l 1962). Groups s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e p o s s e s s l a t e n t r e s o u r c e s t o e x p l o r e ways of i n i t i a t i n g and b u i l d i n g c o o p e r a t i o n . O r g a n i z a t i o n a l b o u n d a r y - s p a n n i n g and e n v i r o n m e n t - s c a n n i n g c a p a c i t i e s are -26-e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t t o t h i s p r o c e s s (Schermerhorn 1975). Gans C1962) p o i n t s t o the l a c k of i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a b i l i t i e s among v a r i o u s subcommunities l i v i n g and w o r k i n g i n a Boston i n n e r - c i t y n eighbourhood as a key f a c t o r i n the neighbourhood's f a i l u r e t o p r e v e n t i t s own d e m o l i t i o n by c i t y d e v e l o p e r s . v i ) P r e l i m i n a r y P l a n n i n g By e n s u r i n g t h a t p o t e n t i a l c o o p e r a t o r s f u l l y u n d e r s t a n d and agree on the g o a l s of j o i n t e f f o r t , the r o l e s of each p a r t i c i p a n t , ways of r e d u c i n g r i s k s and the d i s t r i b u t i o n of c o o p e r a t i o n ' s rewards, p r o p e r p l a n n i n g i n the e a r l y s t a g e s i n c r e a s e s the l i k l l h o o d t h a t they w i l l be i nduced t o c o o p e r a t e . P o t e n t i a l c o o p e r a t o r s need r e a s s u r a n c e t h a t measures w i l l be put i n p l a c e t o c o r r e c t the p o s s i b l e unequal d i s t r i b u t i o n of rewards. T h i s can be done by a l t e r i n g the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' i n p u t t o more c l o s e l y match a n t i c i p a t e d rewards o r by making the reward d i s t r i b u t i o n system as e q u i t a b l e as p o s s i b l e . C o o p e r a t i o n i s a l s o more l i k e l y when mechanisms are s e t up t o m i t i g a t e the i n c r e a s e d r i s k s accompanying c o o p e r a t i o n (Low 1979; N e l s o n e t a l . 1960). C a r e f u l p l a n n i n g d u r i n g the formal i n i t i a t i o n of c o o p e r a t i o n can e s t a b l i s h p e n a l t i e s r e s t r a i n i n g p o t e n t i a l v i o l a t o r s of c o o p e r a t i v e agreements, d i s t r i b u t e a p p r o p r i a t e rewards t o c o o p e r a n t s , and reduce r i s k s t o a manageable l e v e l (Low 1979). E a r l y p l a n n i n g o f f e r s t o groups a p p r e h e n s i v e about -27-c o o p e r a t i o n some a d d i t i o n a l i n c e n t i v e s t o e n t e r i n t o formal c o l l a b o r a t i v e arrangements. Akinbode and C l a r k (1976:100) expand on the need t o p r o t e c t a measure of each o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s . a u t o n o m y when o r g a n i z i n g c o o p e r a t i v e u n d e r t a k i n g s : P a r t i a l i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e among o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s an o t h e r n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n f o r i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o o p e r a t i o n t o f l u o r i s h . The int e r d e p e n d e n c e s h o u l d be p a r t i a l t o the e x t e n t t h a t no one o r g a n i z a t i o n c o n t r o l s a l l the i n p u t and output of an o t h e r agency w i t h i n the system. b) F a c t o r s R e l a t e d t o Reward D e l i v e r y Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , w r i t i n g s on i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o o p e r a t i o n i n d i c a t e t h a t groups c o o p e r a t e out of s e l f - i n t e r e s t . Where the f a c t o r s n o t e d above have i n t e r a c t e d t o i n i t i a t e a c o o p e r a t i v e arrangement, each new member group t r i e s t o ensure t h a t i t s own i n t e r e s t s a r e b e i n g f u r t h e r e d by the c a p t u r e of c e r t a i n t y p e s of rewards. I f i t s o n g o i n g m o n i t o r i n g p r o c e s s r e v e a l s a f a i l u r e t o c a p t u r e t h e s e r ewards, the group i s l i k e l y t o d isengage i t s e l f from c o n t i n u e d c o o p e r a t i v e i n v o l v e m e n t . To be v i a b l e i n the l o n g term, t h e r e f o r e , a c o o p e r a t i v e u n d e r t a k i n g s h o u l d be p e r c e i v e d by each of i t s groups as m e e t i n g needs i d e n t i f i e d by c e r t a i n g r o u p - d e t e r m i n e d c r i t e r i a . O r g a n i z a t i o n s a s s e s s the net worth of t h e i r J o i n t v e n t u r e s by eng a g i n g i n formal measurement p r o c e d u r e s o r by more s u b j e c t i v e l y r e l y i n g on g e n e r a l o p i n i o n . T h i s l i t e r a t u r e s u r v e y r e v e a l s t h a t a g i v e n group e v a l u a t e s i t s c o o p e r a t i v e -28-p a r t i c i p a t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o how w e l l i t enhances i t s own r e s o u r c e a c q u i s i t i o n , a d a p t a b i l i t y , e f f i c i e n c y , and goal achievement, i ) Resource A c q u i s i t i o n A group i s m o t i v a t e d t o work w i t h o t h e r groups o n l y when i t b e l i e v e s t h a t the b e n e f i t s of d o i n g so exceed the c o s t s (Gray 1984; Van de Ven and Walker 1984; P e r r u c c i and P i l i s u k 1970). I t s main co n c e r n i s t o f u r t h e r i t s own mandate, which i s always dependent on the a v a i l a b i l i t y of r e s o u r c e s such as money, i n f o r m a t i o n , s p e c i a l s k i l l s , c l i e n t s , l a b o u r o r a c c e s s t o c e r t a i n m a r k e t s . O r g a n i z a t i o n s c o n f r o n t e d w i t h r e s o u r c e s h o r t a g e s wi11 t h u s look t o the c o o p e r a t i v e body t o " d e l i v e r the goods'. L e v i n e and White (1969:120) e x p l a i n : T h e o r e t i c a l l y , ... were a l l the e s s e n t i a l elements i n i n f i n i t e s u p p l y t h e r e would be l i t t l e need f o r o r g a n i -z a t i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n and f o r s u b s c r i p t i o n t o c o - o p e r a -t i o n as an i d e a l . In t h e i r a n a l y s i s of s i x t e e n s o c i a l w e l f a r e and h e a l t h a g e n c i e s i n a l a r g e American c i t y , A i k e n and Hage (1978) d e s c r i b e how groups were a b l e t o a c c e s s e s s e n t i a l a d d i t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s by engaging i n j o i n t programs. The N o r t h Shore's Economic Development A d v i s o r y Committee e x e m p l i f i e s how communities can c o o p e r a t e i n a t t r a c t i n g more markets and p r o v i d i n g new employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s ( K e l l a s 1987; C o r i o i l s C o n s u l t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n and Nemtin C o n s u l t a n t s 1987). -29-i i ) A d a p t a b i 1 i t v Community development l i t e r a t u r e r e f e r s t o the t u r b u l e n t and u n c e r t a i n environment w i t h i n which p o s t - i n d u s t r i a l communities and community groups must f u n c t i o n . Technology advances, laws change, p u b l i c p o l i c y i s s u b j e c t t o p o l i t i c a l e x p e d i e n c y , economic o p p o r t u n i t i e s f l u c t u a t e and p l a n s a r e c o n t i n u a l l y redrawn. These c u r r e n t s of change a r e so p r e v a l e n t and p e r v a s i v e t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n s i n c r e a s i n g l y p e r c e i v e t h e m s e l v e s as b e i n g u n a b l e t o adapt (Schon 1971). G r e a t e r a d a p t a b i l i t y depends on r e d u c i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n a l u n c e r t a i n t y caused by r a p i d change. T h i s i s p o s s i b l e through the p r o m o t i o n of exchange r e l a t i o n s among groups (Cook 1977) and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t a f f ( A i k e n and Hage 1968). In p a r t , c o o p e r a t i v e networks a r e t h u s e v a l u a t e d by t h e i r member o r g a n i z a t i o n s a c c o r d i n g t o the degree of i n c r e a s e d a d a p t a b i l i t y t o change which they p r o v i d e . From t h e i r r e s e a r c h , Emery and T r i s t (1973:178) c o n c l u d e t h a t o n l y by f o r s a k i n g t r a d i t i o n a l " c l o s e d - s y s t e m t h i n k i n g ' i n f a v o u r of an a d a p t i v e , more open approach can groups r e a l i s t i c a l l y hope t o e f f e c t i v e l y s o l v e t h e i r problems: Growing up ... i s the c o n v e r s i o n of dependence i n t o i n t e r - d e p e n d e n c e . C a p a c i t y f o r i n t e r - d e p e n d e n c e w i l l c a r r y an e v e r h i g h e r premium i n the p o s t - i n d u s t r i a l s o c i -e t y , g i v e n t h a t h i g h e r l e v e l s of c o m p l e x i t y and u n c e r -t a i n t y can o n l y be met by the g r e a t e r a d a p t i v e r e s o u r c e s brought i n t o b e i n g by s e l f - r e g u l a t o r y c o l l a b o r a t i v e endeavour. C e n t r a l l y a s s i s t e d l o c a l c o o p e r a t i o n e n a b l e d n i n e v i l l a g e s i n the Codroy V a l l e y of Newfoundland t o adapt e f f e c t i v e l y by -30-t u r n i n g an u n c e r t a i n economic f u t u r e i n t o a p r o m i s i n g one (Wismer and P e l l 1981). i l l ) E f f i c i e n c y W r i t e r s such as M u l f o r d (1984) and H a l l e t a l . (1977) comment on the v a l u e of c o o r d i n a t i o n among c o o p e r a t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s and communities i n s t r e a m l i n i n g the community development p r o c e s s . I f groups a r e o v e r p r o t e c t i v e of t h e i r mandate and c l i e n t e l e , the outcome i s o f t e n w a s t e f u l d u p l i c a t i o n of community r e s o u r c e s . Schermerhorn's (1975) s t u d y of s o c i a l s e r v i c e a g e n c i e s i d e n t i f i e s e f f i c i e n c y b e n e f i t s t o c o o r d i n a t i o n , which was i d e n t i f i e d by H a l l e t a l . (1977) as a key dimensi o n of c o o p e r a t i o n . These i n c l u d e i n c r e a s e d r e s o u r c e u t i l i z a t i o n , improved community c a p a c i t i e s and reduced d u p l i c a t i o n of s e r v i c e s . In complex s i t u a t i o n s , a c o o r d i n a t i v e mechanism may be r e q u i r e d t o f a c i l i t a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n ( H a s e n f e l d and Tropman, 1979). However, N e l s o n e t a l . (1960) c a u t i o n a g a i n s t o v e r - r e l i a n c e on formal c o o r d i n a t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s and urge o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o c o o p e r a t e i n f o r m a l l y as much as p o s s i b l e . Morgan (1957) e n v i s i o n s community f e d e r a t i o n s , whereby towns o r c i t i e s s h a r e r e c r e a t i o n a l , m e d i c a l , e d u c a t i o n a l and f i r e - f i g h t i n g f a c i l i t i e s . The above-mentioned case s t u d y i n r u r a l A l b e r t a i l l u s t r a t e communities e f f i c i e n t l y s h a r i n g complementary r e s o u r c e s such as r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , government programs and p r o f e s s i o n a l - t e c h n i c a l s e r v i c e s (Bodmer -31-1980). i v ) Goal Achievement The need f o r communities and o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o c o l l a b o r a t e i n the p u r s u i t of common g o a l s i s e s p e c i a l l y a c u t e when they a r e c o n f r o n t e d by a common, po w e r f u l a d v e r s a r y . S i l l s (1975) draws t h i s c o n c l u s i o n a f t e r comparing the s u c c e s s of groups which c o o p e r a t e d i n c o u n t e r i n g e x t e r n a l t h r e a t s w i t h t h a t of groups a c t i n g a l o n e . The f a i l u r e of B o s ton's West End r e s i d e n t s t o c o o p e r a t e on p l a n s t o t h w a r t a development p l a n l e d t o the d e s t r u c t i o n of t h e i r community (Gans 1962). C o o p e r a t i o n a l s o h e l p s o r g a n i z a t i o n s or communities a t t a i n s u p e r o r d i n a t e g o a l s ( S h e r i f 1958; M i l l e r 1958). S h e r i f (1958) d e f i n e s " s u p e r o r d i n a t e g o a l s ' as those which can o n l y be s o l v e d by j o i n t e f f o r t . These k i n d s of g o a l s a r e a l s o termed " i n d i v i s i b l e p roblems' by Gray (1984) and A l d r i c h ( 1 9 7 6 ) , or "meta-problems' by Emery and T r i s t ( 1 9 7 3 ) . From the o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s s t a n d p o i n t , the degree t o which these t y p e s of g o a l s can be r e a l i z e d through j o i n t e f f o r t w i l l d e termine the u s e f u l n e s s and l o n g - t e r m s u r v i v a l of the c o o p e r a t i v e arrangement. From t h e i r s t u d y of B r i t i s h m e d i c a l , c o r r e c t i o n a l and e d u c a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , Emery and T r i s t (1973) c o n c l u d e t h a t communities i n c r e a s i n g l y r e c o g n i z e the i n t e r r e 1 a t e d n e s s of d i f f i c u l t problems and w i l l s e t t l e f o r n o t h i n g l e s s than a comprehensive approach i n v o l v i n g everyone w i t h a s t a k e i n -32-r e s o l v i n g them. In the N o r t h Shore and Jamestown examples c i t e d above, the o p e r a t i v e s u p e r o r d i n a t e goal e n g a g i n g j o i n t e f f o r t i s a h e a l t h y l o c a l economy ( K e l l a s 1987; C o r i o l i s C o n s u l t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n and Nemtin C o n s u l t a n t s 1987; W i l l i a m s 1982). c) F a c t o r s A f f e c t i n g the C a p a b i l i t y of the C o o p e r a t i v e Organization The l i t e r a t u r e on 1 n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a i r e l a t i o n s i n d i c a t e s t h a t u l t i m a t e s u c c e s s i n c o o p e r a t i o n i s c l o s e l y t i e d t o the a t t r i b u t e s of the c o o p e r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n i t s e l f and the p e o p l e b e h i n d t h a t o r g a n i z a t i o n . T h e o r i s t s argue t h a t i n o r d e r f o r the o r g a n i z a t i o n t o g a i n c r e d i b i l i t y i n the eyes of i t s c o n s t i t u e n t s and e s t a b l i s h i t s own i d e n t i t y and sense of purp o s e , i t must conform t o c e r t a i n s e l f - i m p o s e d s t a n d a r d s of e f f e c t i v e n e s s and e f f i c i e n c y . Imbuing t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h c o l l e c t i v e purpose and momentum, t h i s p r o c e s s i s f a c i l i t a t e d by an a b i l i t y t o b u i l d commitment, p l a n and promote harmonious r e l a t i o n s , m o n i t o r and m a n i p u l a t e e n v i r o n m e n t a l change, e x p l o i t common g e o g r a p h i c a l and c u l t u r a l a t t r i b u t e s , and deal e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h problems and t h r e a t s . i ) B u i l d i n g Commitment W h i l e a c k n o w l e d g i n g t h a t the i n t e r e s t s and a c t i v i t i e s of c o o p e r a t i n g p a r t i e s cannot a l w a y s c o i n c i d e , w r i t e r s i n s i s t t h a t j o i n t e n t e r p r i s e i s s u s t a i n e d by a minimum l e v e l of commitment t o c o o p e r a t i o n . A c o o p e r a t i v e " c h a i n ' i s o n l y as s t r o n g as i t s -33-weakest l i n k . The j o i n t agreement must g e n e r a t e a minimum l e v e l of commitment by e n l i s t i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s who a p p r e c i a t e the importance of b u i l d i n g a sense of purpose and h o n o u r i n g formal agreements (Gray 1984; Stogdi11 1962). C l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h commitment i s e m o t i o n a l z e a l , which Goodenough (1968) c i t e s as a key f a c t o r i n i m p l e m e n t i n g c o o p e r a t i v e community development p l a n s . Another v i t a l i n g r e d i e n t i n b u i l d i n g commitment based on i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e i s i n t e r - g r o u p t r u s t (Emery and T r i s t 1973). The s i g n i f i c a n c e of commitment t o o v e r a l l s u c c e s s i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the N o r t h Shore Economic Development A d v i s o r y Committee, one of whose member m u n i c i p a l i t i e s compromised the s u c c e s s of a p r o p o s e d r e g i o n a l s t u d y by r e f u s i n g t o p a r t i c i p a t e ( K e l l a s 1987). i i ) Planning In any g i v e n r e g i o n , the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r m a i n t a i n i n g c o o p e r a t i o n may not be p r e s e n t , or t h e i r d e f i c i e n c y may s e r i o u s l y impede c o o p e r a t i v e p r o c e s s e s . T h i s p o i n t i s amply demonstrated i n A l d e n and Morgan's (1974) a n a l y s i s of f u t i l e a t t e m p t s t o b r i n g t o g e t h e r j e a l o u s and i n s u l a r l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s i n Wales and e x p l a i n s the need t o p r o a c t i v e l y work f o r c o o p e r a t i o n ( M u l f o r d 1984; H a s e n f e l d and Tropman 1979). P l a n n i n g has been shown t o be e s s e n t i a l t o the l o n g - t e r m v i a b i l i t y of any c o l l a b o r a t i v e u n d e r t a k i n g . I t i s t h u s i m p o r t a n t not o n l y i n i n i t i a t i n g c o o p e r a t i o n , but i n m a i n t a i n i n g - 3 4 -and c o n s o l i d a t i n g i t as w e l l . H a s e n f e l d and Tropman (1979) and M u l f o r d (1984) h o l d t h a t p l a n n e r s o r those f u l f i l l i n g a p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n must be a b l e t o diag n o s e c e r t a i n i s s u e s as i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l i n n a t u r e , d e v e l o p and implement a p p r o p r i a t e i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e s p o n s e s t o them and p r o a c t i v e l y encourage p o s i t i v e i n t e r - g r o u p r e l a t i o n s on an on g o i n g b a s i s . Some w r i t e r s e n v i s i o n p l a n n e r s from d i f f e r e n t communities i n t e g r a t i n g t h e i r e f f o r t s , c o n t e n d i n g t h a t the a p p l i c a t i o n of i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s (IOR) t h e o r y t o community development problems s h o u l d s h i f t i t s o r i e n t a t i o n away from s i n g l e o r g a n i z a t i o n s and toward whole communities (Ryan 1984; W e l l s 1984; Emery and T r i s t 1973). Boundary-spanning c a p a c i t i e s a r e t h u s i m p o r t a n t i n b o t h i n i t i a t i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g c o o p e r a t i v e arrangements. Gray's (1984) p r o c e s s model of c r e a t i n g and s u s t a i n i n g i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l domains i d e n t i f i e s the need t o c o n s c i o u s l y s a t i s f y c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s a t each of t h r e e s e q u e n t i a l phases: p r o b l e m - s e t t i n g , d i r e c t i o n - s e t t i n g and s t r u c t u r i n g . In the p r o b l e m - s e t t i n g phase, consensus i s rea c h e d on j o i n t problems and the groups h a v i n g a s t a k e i n r e s o l v i n g them. The d i r e c t i o n -s e t t i n g phase i n t r o d u c e s a sense of common v a l u e s and purp o s e , and m a i n t a i n s an a p p r o p r i a t e power b a l a n c e among p a r t i c i p a n t s . W i l l i a m s (1982) d e s c r i b e s " s e a r c h c o n f e r e n c i n g ' - a v a l u a b l e d i r e c t i o n - s e t t i n g t e c h n i q u e i n v o l v i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a th r e e - d a y p r o c e s s of d e f i n i n g s h a r e d g o a l s . S u c c e s s f u l l y -35-w o r k i n g through t h e s e s t a g e s and a c t i v i t i e s r e q u i r e s a p l a n n i n g c a p a b i 1 i t y . In the s t r u c t u r i n g phase, s t a k e h o l d e r s r e a l i z e a need t o manage t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n s more s y s t e m a t i c a l l y . P l a n n i n g a b i l i t i e s a r e t h u s r e q u i r e d t o d e v e l o p J o i n t r e c o g n i t i o n of a h i g h degree of i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e , r e d i r e c t r e s o u r c e s , c l o s e l y m o n i t o r s t a k e h o l d e r a c t i v i t i e s and r e a l l o c a t e power w i t h i n the network of groups (Gray 1984). i l l ) E n v i r o n m e n t a l Management In many i n s t a n c e s , o r g a n i z a t i o n s c o o p e r a t e i n response t o e x t e r n a l p r e s s u r e s o r s u p p o r t (Gray 1984; Schermerhorn 1975). I t i s t h e r e f o r e i m p o r t a n t t h a t they keep a b r e a s t of government p o l i c y changes, market t r e n d s and o t h e r exogenous i n f l u e n c e s . I f i t i s s u f f i c i e n t l y a t t u n e d t o i t s environment, a c o o p e r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s i g n i f i c a n t l y improves i t s chances of c r e a t i v e l y m a n i p u l a t i n g e v e n t s i n o r d e r t o ensure t h a t i t s own i n t e r n a l agreeements are e f f e c t i v e l y c a r r i e d out (Gray 1984). A boundary-spanning p e r s p e c t i v e i s t h u s an imp o r t a n t a t t r i b u t e not o n l y of o r g a n i z a t i o n s c o n t e m p l a t i n g c o o p e r a t i o n i n the i n i t i a t i o n phase, but of the i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l network I t s e l f . C o o p e r a t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s and communities w i l l not always f e e l o b l i g e d t o s o l i c i t the s u p p o r t of i n s t i t u t i o n s o u t s i d e t h e i r own sphere of i n f l u e n c e . S o l i c i t e d o r n o t , however, e x t e r n a l s u p p o r t may prove c r u c i a l t o the l o n g - t e r m v i a b i l i t y of -36-the c o o p e r a t i v e p l a n . For example, l i m i t e d government i n t e r f e r e n c e i s c i t e d as a v i t a l f a c t o r i n the s u c c e s s of i n t e r -community c o o p e r a t i v e p l a n n i n g i n r u r a l A l b e r t a (Bodmer 1980). S u c c e s s f u l e n v i r o n m e n t a l management t h u s e n t a i l s l o b b y i n g c a p a b i 1 i t i e s . i v ) Common Geography and C u l t u r e An i n t e r e s t i n g debate c e n t e r s on geography's s i g n i f i c a n c e i n c o o p e r a t i o n . Some w r i t e r s deny an a u t o m a t i c c o r r e l a t i o n between p h y s i c a l p r o x i m i t y and c o l l a b o r a t i v e arrangements (Caplow 1964; A l d e n and Morgan 1974). However, g e o g r a p h i c p r o x i m i t y can be an impo r t a n t f a c t o r i n m a i n t a i n i n g , as w e l l as i n i t i a t i n g , h e a l t h y c o o p e r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s among groups (Bodmer 1980; Wismer and P e l l 1981; K e l l a s 1987; C o r i o l i s C o n s u l t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n and Nemtin C o n s u l t a n t s 1987). I t a v o i d s the h i g h c o s t of me e t i n g s among g e o g r a p h i c a l l y d i s p e r s e d p a r t n e r s and enhances the l i k l i h o o d of a h i g h degree of c o n t i n u i n g i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e (Schermerhorn 1975; Gray 1984). Common c u l t u r e can s t r e n g t h e n and m a i n t a i n c o - a c t i o n among communities. S t r o n g s e n t i m e n t s of e t h n i c u n i t y h e l p e d h o l d t o g e t h e r a c o n f e d e r a t i o n of S i b e r i a n t r i b e s over a l o n g p e r i o d of time ( K r o p o t k i n 1955). Other d i m e n s i o n s of c u l t u r a l s i m i l a r i t y , such as r u r a l l i f e s t y l e ( A x e l r o d 1984; Khinduka 1979) or d i s a d v a n t a g e d economic c o n d i t i o n s (Johnson and Tropman 1979) can be e q u a l l y e f f e c t i v e s t i m u l a n t s t o on g o i n g - 3 7 -cooperat ion. In cases involving two opposing "cultures' such as labour and management in Jamestown, New York, the intent of cooperation was to harness the dynamics of conflict in the interest of the broader community (Williams 1982). On the other hand, the Alberta and Newfoundland examples show how poverty among rural villages can provide a strong foundation for productive and durable inter-community cooperation (Bodmer 1980; Wismer and Pell 1981). v) Problem-Solving Capacity In Chapter One, the following barriers to establishing interorganizational cooperation were identified: domination by a participant or the government, fear of diminished autonomy, intervention by an external party, ideological differences and sources of conflict among potential participants. These obstacles may emerge at different stages in the process of building cooperative relations - some at more than one stage (Mulford 1984). Once cooperative processes begin to become consolidated, other problems may arise. Henderson and Thomas (1981) note cooperative representatives compromising time commitments to their own groups, or latent divisions emerging in newly federated structures which threaten to weaken the network's position relative to the rest of society. -38-C o o p e r a t i v e a g e n c i e s s h o u l d be c a p a b l e of d e a l i n g e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h t h e s e problems. R o n d o n e l l i (1975) v a l u e s the peacemaking r o l e of the c o o r d i n a t i v e p l a n n e r , who r e c o n c i l e s s e r i o u s i n t e r - g r o u p d i f f e r e n c e s , c o n t i n u a l l y s e a r c h e s f o r compromises and bases f o r exchange, and c o u n t e r s t h r e a t s t o inter-community s t a b i l i t y . A l l d r e d (1976) s u g g e s t s t h a t p l a n n e r s , can t u r n p o t e n t i a l l y d i v i s i v e c o n f l i c t i n t o " c r e a t i v e d i s s i d e n c e ' . P l a n n e r s and o t h e r s can more e f f e c t i v e l y d e al w i t h o b s t a c l e s t o inter-community c o o p e r a t i o n by c o n s c i o u s l y a p p l y i n g i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o o p e r a t i v e t h e o r y t o community development problems ( W e l l s 1984; A l d e n and Morgan 1974; M u l f o r d 1984). Community c i t i z e n s need t o u n d e r s t a n d t h a t f r u i t f u l i n t e r -community c o o p e r a t i o n , l i k e community development i t s e l f , h i n g e s on s u c c e s s f u l 1y w o r k i n g through a p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s c o n s i s t i n g of a number of s e q u e n t i a l s t a g e s . A minimal p l a n n i n g c a p a b i l i t y i s t h e r e f o r e r e q u i r e d t o a s s i s t communities through each s t a g e and t o c o u n t e r a n t i c i p a t e d t h r e a t s t o inter-community harmony. 3. Summary Inter-community c o o p e r a t i o n i s a p o t e n t i a l l y v a l u a b l e approach t o community development. I t s s u c c e s s f u l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n depends on the i n t e r a c t i o n of f i f t e e n key f a c t o r s d e r i v e d from the l i t e r a t u r e . These f a c t o r s can be o r g a n i z e d i n t o a p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s f o r i n i t i a t i n g , i m p lementing and m a i n t a i n i n g p r o d u c t i v e -39-inter-community cooperation. Grouped into three broad categories, the factors relate to each other as part of a process. That is, establishing successful inter-communlty cooperation involves working through a sequence of goals and related tasks. Deliberate planning in the formative stages of cooperation capitalizes on certain key community characteristics and qualities essential to init i a t i n g joint effort, and lays the groundwork for each community to capture an acceptable measure of rewards. This process implies a close relationship between the f i r s t two categories of factors - those relating to initiation and reward delivery. Cooperative momentum generated by the capture of rewards is sustained only by a conscious effort to build and maintain commitment to cooperation, an abil i t y to design cooperative solutions to common problems and a willingness to overcome obstacles associated with internal conflict, dissatisfaction with power relationships and fears of lost autonomy. In this way, the capabilities and qualities of the cooperative organization itse l f - factors comprising the third category -determine whether the goals identified in the initiation of cooperation are realized effectively over time. The fifteen factors therefore do not stand on their own but relate to each other both causally and sequentially. They are listed below in terms of the three major categories. - 4 0 -a> To i n i t i a t e c o o p e r a t i v e p r o c e s s e s , communities u s u a l l y : i ) r e s p o n d t o a c r i s i s o r e x t e r n a l t h r e a t ; i i ) h o l d some degree of mutual s i m i l a r i t y and f a m i l i a r i t y ; i i i ) a c h i e v e consensus on common problems and the communi-t i e s a f f e c t e d by them; have l e a d e r s w i t h v i s i o n and i m a g i n a t i o n ; d e m o n s t r a t e , through t h e i r openness, f u n c t i o n s , o p e r a t i o n s and competence, a p r o p e n s i t y t o c o o p e r a t e w i t h o t h e r communities; and engage i n d e l i b e r a t e p r e l i m i n a r y p l a n n i n g t o ensure t h a t p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a n t s u n d e r s t a n d the purpose of c o o p e r a t i o n , the r o l e s they w i l l p l a y i n i t , the r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n p u t and reward, and ways of m i n i m i z i n g r i s k . b) To g a i n c r e d i b i l i t y , an inter-community c o o p e r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n u s u a l l y d e l i v e r s c e r t a i n rewards t o i t s members, i n c l u d i n g i n c r e a s e d : i ) a c c e s s t o r e s o u r c e s such as money, I n f o r m a t i o n , and t e c h n i c a l - p r o f e s s i o n a l s k i l l s ; i l ) a d a p t a b i l i t y t o r a p i d change In government p o l i c y , economic c o n d i t i o n s and o t h e r e x t e r n a l i n f l u e n c e s ; i i i ) e f f i c i e n c y i n the use of s o c i a l and e d u c a t i o n a l s e r -v i c e s , community f a c i l i t i e s and s p e c i a l s k i l l s ; and i v ) a b i l i t i e s i n a c h i e v i n g common development g o a l s . c) To m a i n t a i n i t s own momentum and sense of p u r p o s e , an i n t e r -community c o o p e r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n u s u a l l y : i ) e n s u r e s a h i g h l e v e l of commitment among i t s s t a f f and member communities by i n s t i l l i n g a sense of m i s s i o n and o b l i g a t i o n t o honour for m a l agreements based on i n t e r - c o m m u n i t y t r u s t and e m o t i o n a l z e a l ; i v ) v) v i ) -41-i i ) has a p l a n n i n g c a p a b i l i t y t o p r o a c t i v e l y promote p o s i t i v e i nter-community r e l a t i o n s , f i n d inter-commu-n i t y approaches t o common i s s u e s , s a t i s f y n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n s a t s p e c i f i e d phases of b u i l d i n g c o o p e r a -t i o n ; i l l ) m o n i t o r s and manages change i n i t s e x t e r n a l e n v i r o n -ment i n o r d e r t o ensure t h a t i t s own i n t e r n a l arrangements a re implemented; i v ) i n v o l v e s p a r t i c i p a n t s who sh a r e common g e o g r a p h i c a l , c u l t u r a l and economic c i r c u m s t a n c e s ; and v) i s c a p a b l e of d e a l i n g w i t h t h r e a t s t o i t s e x i s t e n c e r e l a t e d t o i n t e r n a l c o n f l i c t and o v e r e x t e n d e d communi-t y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s by r e a c h i n g compromise and a p p y l i n g i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s t h e o r y t o community development problems. Some of the above f a c t o r s a r e r e p e a t e d i n the p r o c e s s . For example, bound a r y - s p a n n i n g c a p a c i t i e s a r e c r i t i c a l i n both the i n i t i a t i o n of c o o p e r a t i o n and i n the o n g o i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the c o o p e r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n i t s e l f . The same a p p l i e s w i t h p l a n n i n g and a common g e o g r a p h y - c u l t u r e . As n o t e d b r i e f l y above, some f a c t o r s a r e not c r u c i a l t o s u c c e s s f u l 1nter-commun1ty c o o p e r a t i o n i n e v e r y i n s t a n c e . For example, the pr e s e n c e of a c r i s i s o r t h r e a t i s not alwa y s e s s e n t i a l t o the i n i t i a t i o n of c o o p e r a t i o n , a l t h o u g h i n some c a s e s i t i s more im p o r t a n t than any o t h e r f a c t o r . Second, common g e o g r a p h i c a l o r c u l t u r a l f e a t u r e s a r e not always r e q u i r e d , but i f p r e s e n t they f a c i l i t a t e the i n i t i a t i o n and maintenance of j o i n t endeavour and a r e p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h deeper and b r o a d e r forms of c o o p e r a t i o n . A t t e n t i o n now t u r n s t o c o o p e r a t i v e community development among the f i v e I n d i a n bands of the N i c o l a V a l l e y and the degree - 4 2 -to which it conforms to the above conditions of success. -43-Chapter Three - I n t e r - B a n d C o o p e r a t i o n i n The N i c o l a V a l l e v 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n T h i s c h a p t e r o f f e r s i n s i g h t i n t o c o o p e r a t i v e community development among the f i v e I n d i a n bands of the N i c o l a V a l l e y . I t compares the case s t u d y a g a i n s t the d e t e r m i n a n t s f o r i n t e r -community c o o p e r a t i v e s u c c e s s i d e n t i f i e d from the l i t e r a t u r e i n the l a s t c h a p t e r . Data u t i l i z e d f o r t h i s assessment were g a t h e r e d through p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s c o n d u c t e d i n the N i c o l a V a l l e y over a two-day p e r i o d i n F e b r u a r y of 1986 and a t w e l v e -day p e r i o d i n May of 1987. Background i n f o r m a t i o n on the v a l l e y ' s l o c a t i o n , geography, h i s t o r y , demography and economy i s i n t r o d u c e d . Most of the c h a p t e r examines the N i c o l a V a l l e y case i n terms of the t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s of s u c c e s s f a c t o r s e s t a b l i s h e d at the end of Chapter Two: i n i t i a t i o n , r eward d e l i v e r y and c a p a b i l i t i e s of the c o o p e r a t i v e body. 2. Background I n f o r m a t i o n T h i s s e c t i o n b r i e f l y o u t l i n e s the geography, h i s t o r y , demography and economy of the N i c o l a V a l l e y , a) L o c a t i o n and Geography The N i c o l a V a l l e y i s l o c a t e d i n the c e n t e r of the Thompson P l a t e a u of B r i t i s h Columbia's s o u t h e r n I n t e r i o r ( F i g u r e 2 ) . -44-Figure % " Relative. Location of the, Nicola Vn/)ey Scales appro*. I : tpoofiQO o f° /ot> xoo 300 ftm -45-M e r r i t t , the g e o g r a p h i c a l and commercial h e a r t of the v a l l e y , i s s i t u a t e d two hundred s i x t y k i l o m e t e r s n o r t h e a s t of Vancouver and n i n e t y - t h r e e k i l o m e t e r s s o u t h of Kamloops. S u r r o u n d i n g t h i s c i t y of 6,500 a r e t w e n t y - f i v e I n d i a n r e s e r v e s c o n t r o l l e d by the f i v e case s t u d y bands. R e s e r v e s c o n t r o l l e d by f o u r of the bands s t r a d d l e o r a r e a d j a c e n t t o the N i c o l a R i v e r ; those b e l o n g i n g t o the C o l d w a t e r Band a r e l o c a t e d i n the v a l l e y of the C o l d w a t e r R i v e r , the N i c o l a R i v e r ' s c h i e f t r i b u t a r y . The lower N i c o l a V a l l e y f e a t u r e s f a i r l y s t e e p t e r r a i n and a f f o r d s l i m i t e d p a s t u r e l a n d , but most of the v a l l e y i s a b r o a d f l o o d p l a i n bounded by r o l l i n g h i l l s . G r a s s l a n d s predominate i n e x t e n s i v e a r e a s near the r i v e r and lower h i l l s , w h i l e p i n e and Douglas F i r dot the upper s l o p e s of the v a l l e y . The c l i m a t e i s c o n t i n e n t a l and s e m i - a r i d (Shewchuk 1981). b) E t h n o l o g y and H i s t o r y The e a r l i e s t a b o r i g i n a l s of the N i c o l a V a l l e y were A t h a p a s c a n - s p e a k i n g p e o p l e s who were absorbed i n the e a r l y 19th Cent u r y by the Nicola-Thompson and the Upper Okanagan, two sub-branches of the I n t e r i o r S a l i s h <Teit 1967). The I n t e r i o r S a l i s h a r e composed of f o u r major language g r o u p i n g s : the Shuswap, L i l l o o e t , Okanagan and Thompson. The Upper N i c o l a Band i s one of f o u r bands i n the Upper Okanagan subgroup, which i s one of t h r e e l i n g u i s t i c b r a n c h e s of the Okanagan. The o t h e r f o u r case s t u d y bands b e l o n g t o the Nicola-Thompson subgroup of -46-the Upper Thompson, which i s one of two branches of the Thompson ( D u f f 1964). Human pr e s e n c e i n the v a l l e y d a t e s back 5,000 y e a r s o r more (Fox and Lean 1985). A semi-nomadic l i f e s t y l e was p r a c t i c e d by the v a l l e y ' s p r e - c o n t a c t p e o p l e s , whose s o c i a l u n i t was the "band' - an uneasy a l l i a n c e of f a m i l i e s or k i n groups r e l a t e d by b l o o d and m a r r i a g e ( J e n n e s s 1960). Each band was a v i l l a g e community governed by an h e r e d i t a r y c h i e f who e n l i s t e d the s u p p o r t of an e l d e r ' s c o u n c i l . T rade, s o c i a b i l i t y , f o o d g a t h e r i n g , h u n t i n g and war-making were the b a s i s f o r i n t e r t r i b a l c o o p e r a t i o n ( H i 11-Tout 1978; B a l f 1978). I n c r e a s e d i n t e r t r i b a l commerce r e s u l t e d from the f u r t r a d e , c h a n g i n g n a t i v e l i f e i n the N i c o l a V a l l e y from 1813 t o 1858. D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , the I n d i a n s ' s e t t l e m e n t s became more permanent and t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l independence, d i g n i t y and l i f e s t y l e began t o break down (Wyatt 1972; Wooliams 1979). The White i n f l u e n c e i n t e n s i f i e d a f t e r 1858 w i t h the i n f l u x of p a c k e r s on t h e i r way t o the g o l d f i e l d s , the a r r i v a l of the f i r s t permanent s e t t l e r s , a major s m a l l p o x e p i d e m i c and the r e l e g a t i o n of the I n d i a n s t o new r e s e r v e l a n d s (Fox and Lean 1985; B a l f 1978; Wooliams 1979). The l a t e 19th Century w i t n e s s e d the e r o s i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l h u n t i n g and f i s h i n g r i g h t s i n the v a l l e y , the i n t r o d u c t i o n of f a r m i n g and r a n c h i n g t o the n a t i v e p e o p l e and the c o n s t r u c t i o n of new r o a d s b r i n g i n g i n more s e t t l e r s . A new r a i l l i n k -47-s t i m u l a t e d f u r t h e r economic growth a f t e r 1916, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n c o a l m i n i n g (Shewchuk 1981). c ) Demography and Reserve Lands The N i c o l a V a l l e y ' s n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n d e c l i n e d d r a s t i c a l l y t o a low of 250 i n 1927 but has s i n c e c l i m b e d t o t o t a l o v e r 2,800 p e o p l e (Fox and Lean 1985). The v a l l e y i s now home t o about 12,000 p e o p l e . Lower N i c o l a and C o l l e t t v i l l e a r e bedroom communities near M e r r i t t , w h i l e the remainder of the r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n r e s i d e on a r e a r a n c h e s , r u r a l r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s , l a k e f r o n t l o t s a t N i c o l a Lake and I n d i a n r e s e r v e s (Shewchuk 1981). With t w e l v e s e t t l e m e n t s on t w e n t y - f i v e r e s e r v e s ( F i g u r e 3 ) , the f i v e bands have a t o t a l membership of 1,499 (Canada 1986). The r e s e r v e s a r e a l s o home t o an a d d i t i o n a l 350 p e o p l e who a r e e i t h e r members of o t h e r bands o r n o n - s t a t u s I n d i a n s . Another 1,000 I n d i a n s l i v e i n the v a l l e y o f f - r e s e r v e . Thus about 3,000 p e o p l e , or o n e - q u a r t e r of the t o t a l v a l l e y p o p u l a t i o n , c l a i m n a t i v e descent (Weir 1985). Due t o B i l l C-31 - f e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n e n d i n g d i s c r i m i n a t o r y laws which removed the s t a t u s of I n d i a n women and o t h e r s - p o t e n t i a l membership i n the f i v e bands i s 2,300, an i n c r e a s e of 53% over p r e s e n t numbers. T a b l e I on the f o l l o w i n g page p r e s e n t s demographic and r e s e r v e l a n d d a t a f o r the f i v e bands of the N i c o l a V a l l e y (Canada 1986; Canada 1985). -48-8: 5 3 05 1 o c o o o <0 01 _3 I uj Z L ~ r 5 u -49-T a b l e I - NVIA Member Bands: 1986 Membership, Number of Re s e r v e s and A r e a of R e s e r v e s BAND MEMBERSHIP NQ, OF RESERVES TOTAL AREA <HA.) Cold w a t e r 359 3 2498.9 Lower N i c o l a 438 9 7096.3 N o o a i t c h 112 2 1693.4 Shackan 93 3 3873.7 Upper N i c o l a 422 8_ 12503.1 TOTAL 1499 25 27665.4 d) Economy A g r i c u l t u r e , a s t a b i l i z i n g f a c t o r i n the v a l l e y economy, c o n s i s t s of a few l a r g e r a n c h e s and s m a l l e r farm u n i t s . Of 107 farms i n the v a l l e y i n 1979, 57 were on I n d i a n r e s e r v e l a n d s . However, l e s s than o n e - t h i r d of a l l v a l l e y farms had annual s a l e s e x c e e d i n g $5,000 CFox and Lean 1985; Cambrit C o n s u l t i n g 1985). Coal m i n i n g waned a f t e r W o r l d War Two and was r e p l a c e d by copper m i n i n g i n the nearby H i g h l a n d V a l l e y , where t h r e e mines employ 700 w o r k e r s . L o g g i n g a c t i v i t y and s a w m i l l i n g make the f o r e s t i n d u s t r y the most im p o r t a n t employer and income g e n e r a t o r i n the v a l l e y (Shewchuk 1981; C l e a s b y 1958). Drawing on e x c e l l e n t s c e n e r y , c l i m a t e and s p o r t f i s h i n g , the l o c a l t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y has c o n t r i b u t e d t o st e a d y economic growth i n the v a l l e y . When completed, the C o q u i h a l l a Highway i s ex p e c t e d t o s t i m u l a t e t o u r i s m , l i g h t m a n u f a c t u r i n g and t h e . t r u c k i n g - d i s t r i b u t i o n b u s i n e s s (Weir 1985). To d a t e , n a t i v e p e o p l e have p a r t i c i p a t e d m i n i m a l l y i n the -50-m i n i n g and t o u r i s m i n d u s t r i e s , but many work i n the f o r e s t r y s e c t o r as l a b o u r e r s , equipment o p e r a t o r s , and l o g g i n g -s i l v i c u l t u r e c o n t r a c t o r s ( M e r r i t t and D i s t r i c t Chamber of Commerce 1985). 3. R e s u l t s ; Comparison t o F a c t o r s f o r C o o p e r a t i o n Found i n  L i t e r a t u r e A n a l y s i s of the N i c o l a V a l l e y d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e p a r t s , each a d d r e s s i n g a b r o a d c a t e g o r y of f a c t o r s found i n the l i t e r a t u r e and r e l a t i n g t o i nter-community c o o p e r a t i o n . The t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s a r e i n i t i a t i o n , r eward d e l i v e r y and c a p a b i l i t y of the c o o p e r a t i v e body. a) F a c t o r s Important t o the I n i t i a t i o n of C o o p e r a t i o n Statement: Communities i n v o l v e d i n s u c c e s s f u l c o o p e r a t i o n u s u a l l y r e s p o n d t o a c r i s i s o r e x t e r n a l t h r e a t , h o l d some degree of s i m i l a r i t y and f a m i l i a r i t y , r e a c h consensus on common problems, have l e a d e r s w i t h v i s i o n and i m a g i n a t i o n , have a p r o p e n s i t y t o c o o p e r a t e w i t h t h e i r n e i g h b o u r s , and c a r r y out p r e l i m i n a r y p l a n n i n g t o d e v e l o p j o i n t a g r e e -ment on the purpose of the c o o p e r a t i v e o r g a n i z a -t i o n , p a r t i c i p a n t s ' r o l e s i n i t , and mechanisms t o ensure t h a t c o o p e r a t i o n ' s rewards are matched t o p a r t i c p a n t s ' i n p u t and i t s r i s k s m i n i m i z e d . Data on i n i t i a l c o n d i t i o n s were g a t h e r e d by i n t e r v i e w i n g n i n e p e r s o n s w i t h i n t i m a t e knowledge of the p e r i o d l e a d i n g up t o the f o r m a t i o n of NVIA. The i n t e r v i e w e e s i n c l u d e t h r e e c h i e f c o u n c i l l o r s , two s e n i o r NVIA s t a f f (one of whom i s a c h i e f c o u n c i l l o r ) , f o u r e l d e r s and one former c h i e f c o u n c i l l o r . -51-i ) C r i s i s o r T h r e a t Everyone i n the i n t e r v i e w sample responded i n the a f f i r m a t i v e when asked whether some s o r t of c r i s i s o r e x t e r n a l t h r e a t m o t i v a t e d the f i v e bands t o b e g i n w o r k i n g t o g e t h e r . I n t e r v i e w s e s s i o n s r e v e a l e d t h a t by about 1965, l e a d e r s and o t h e r c o n cerned c i t i z e n s were b e g i n n i n g t o r e c o g n i z e and d i s c u s s t h e i r bands as b e i n g i n a c r i s i s s i t u a t i o n due t o h i g h unemployment, heavy r e l i a n c e on s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e and s h o r t - t e r m employment programs, minimal government encouragement and, most s e r i o u s l y , d e p r e s s e d c i t i z e n i n t e r e s t and involvement i n l o c a l a f f a i r s . Concern was e x p r e s s e d at band m e e t i n g s about the l o s s of t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e u n i t y and i t s t h r e a t t o the bands' f u t u r e as v i a b l e communities. C l e a r l y r e c o g n i z e d was the need f o r u n i t y w i t h i n each band and among the f i v e bands t o de a l w i t h t h i s t h r e a t , which was p e r c e i v e d t o o r i g i n a t e more d i r e c t l y from i n t e r n a l apathy and d i s u n i t y than from e x t e r n a l i n f l u e n c e s . i i ) Mutual S i m i l a r i t y and F a m i l i a r i t y When q u e s t i o n e d on the r o l e of s i m i l a r i t y and f a m i l i a r i t y among the f i v e bands i n p r o m p t i n g c o o p e r a t i v e a c t i v i t y , a l l n i n e r e s p o n d e n t s r e p l i e d t h a t i t was a key f a c t o r . E l d e r s r e f e r r e d t o a l o n g h i s t o r y of f e a s t s , m e e t i n g s and o t h e r i n t e r - v i l l a g e s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s , some even i n v o l v i n g bands o u t s i d e the v a l l e y . Ongoing, e s p e c i a l l y c l o s e r e l a t i o n s among the f i v e bands were -52-t i e d t o i n t e r m a r r i a g e , p r o x i m i t y and s h a r e d c u l t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . A l l r e s p o n d e n t s c l a i m e d t h a t these d i m e n s i o n s of i n t e r - • v i l l a g e s i m i l a r i t y and f a m i l i a r i t y f a c i l i t a t e d i n i t i a l i n f o r m a l a t t e m p t s at i n t e r - b a n d c o o p e r a t i o n . They a l s o c i t e d c l o s e g e o g r a p h i c a l , h i s t o r i c a l and s o c i a l t i e s between Upper N i c o l a Band, whose members speak the Okanagan tongue, and the f o u r Thompson-speaking bands. Other r e l e v a n t a s p e c t s of i n t e r - b a n d s i m i l a r i t y not n o t e d i n i n t e r v i e w s were s i z e , f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e . A l t h o u g h i n the mid 1960's two of the bands were each about f i v e t i m e s as l a r g e as each of the two s m a l l e s t bands, a l l had p o p u l a t i o n s under 400 and l i m i t e d a c c e s s t o f u n d i n g e s s e n t i a l t o the r e a l i z a t i o n of many community g o a l s . Except f o r Shackan Band w i t h i t s h e r e d i t a r y system, the bands were l e d by e l e c t e d c o u n c i l s . Band f u n d i n g was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o t a l l y by the Department of I n d i a n and N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s Canada ( I N A O . i i i > Consensus When asked i f the bands h a r n e s s e d consensus t o o r g a n i z e NVIA, a l l n i n e r e s p o n d e n t s agreed t h a t f o r m a l agreement on common problems and the communities a f f e c t e d by them was a p r e r e q u i s i t e t o e s t a b l i s h i n g NVIA i n 1973. F i v e r e s p o n d e n t s n o t e d t h a t about e i g h t y e a r s e a r l i e r , p e o p l e from the f i v e bands -53-had a l r e a d y begun t o d i s c u s s common problems such as apathy, dependence and l a c k of community i n v o l v e m e n t . They c i t e d t h i s r e c o g n i t i o n of common p l i g h t as c o n t r i b u t i n g t o subsequent i n f o r m a l c o o p e r a t i v e a t t e m p t s t o deal w i t h these problems. Two r e s p o n d e n t s v o l u n t e e r e d the o p i n i o n t h a t t h e r e was an u n s t a t e d r e c o g n i t i o n of a degree of in t e r d e p e n d e n c e among the f i v e bands. That i s , i n t h e i r view t h e r e was and s t i l l i s a common u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t i m p o r t a n t a c t i o n s taken by or upon one band u s u a l l y c r e a t e r e p e r c u s s i o n s throughout the v a l l e y . i v ) L e a d e r s h j p Respondents were asked about the r o l e of l e a d e r s h i p . I n v a r i a b l y , b o l d , i m a g i n a t i v e and p e r s i s t e n t l e a d e r s h i p was c i t e d as the p r i m a r y m o t i v a t i n g f a c t o r i n the i n i t i a t i o n of i n t e r - b a n d c o o p e r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s i n the N i c o l a V a l l e y . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , s i x i n d i v i d u a l s p o i n t e d out t h a t c o o p e r a t i v e l e a d e r s h i p d i d not f l o w e n t i r e l y from c h i e f c o u n c i l l o r s , band c o u n c i l l o r s o r o t h e r s i n formal p o s i t i o n s of a u t h o r i t y . They p r a i s e d o r d i n a r y band members f o r h e l p i n g t o d e v e l o p and c o o r d i n a t e i n f o r m a l , area-wide s t r a t e g i e s t o s o l v e problems s h a r e d by the f i v e bands. S i x r e s p o n d e n t s r e v e a l e d t h a t i n the i n t e r e s t of r e s u r r e c t i n g t r a d i t i o n a l community s t r e n g t h , the l e a d e r s of the 1960's promoted i n f o r m a l c o o p e r a t i v e s t r a t e g i e s among the bands. They sensed t h a t by w o r k i n g t o g e t h e r , the f i v e communities c o u l d - 5 4 -a c c o m p l i s h more than they c o u l d be w o r k i n g a l o n e . Those who l a t e r l o b b i e d f o r a more s t r u c t u r e d form of c o o p e r a t i o n r e a l i z e d t h a t l o c a l programs a d m i n i s t e r e d by INAC on b e h a l f of the bands c o u l d be a d m i n i s t e r e d e q u a l l y w e l l - and p r o b a b l y b e t t e r - by the I n d i a n p e o p l e t h e m s e l v e s . The a d v o c a t e s of formal c o o p e r a t i o n i n i t i a l l y e n c o u n t e r e d some r e s i s t a n c e and were sometimes p h y s i c a l l y e v i c t e d from band m e e t i n g s . They were e n c o u n t e r i n g f e a r s of d i m i n i s h e d autonomy and the e f f e c t s of l o n g - s t a n d i n g i n t e r - b a n d c o n f l i c t s o r i g i n a t i n g p r i m a r i l y from a few c a s e s of i n t e r p e r s o n a l h o s t i l i t y . However, the v i s i o n and p e r s i s t e n c e of t h i s c o r e of a c t i v i s t s r e s u l t e d e v e n t u a l l y i n the f o r m a t i o n of NVIA i n 1973. v) O r g a n i z a t i o n a l P r o p e n s i t y t o Cooperate Only seven of the n i n e r e s p o n d e n t s f e l t t h e m s e l v e s a b l e t o p r o v i d e knowledgeable answers when q u e s t i o n e d about the c o n t r i b u t i o n of the f i v e bands' boundary-spanning and e n v i r o n m e n t - s c a n n i n g p r o p e n s i t i e s t o the i n t r o d u c t i o n of f o r m a l c o o p e r a t i o n . The seven agreed t h a t t h e s e q u a l i t i e s were impo r t a n t i n e s t a b l i s h i n g c o o p e r a t i o n i n the v a l l e y , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t l e a d e r s demonstrated th e s e community a t t r i b u t e s by o r g a n i z i n g two s u c c e s s f u l r e g i o n a l t r a i n i n g programs i n l i f e s k i l l s and d r i v i n g . As i n d i c a t e d above, many v i l l a g e r s r e c o g n i z e d s t r o n g s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l t i e s among the f i v e bands. Responses i n d i c a t e t h a t -55-a t l e a s t w i t h i n the immediate environment of the v a l l e y , members of a g i v e n band viewed t h e i r community as an "open system-'. However, t h e r e was no p r e - e x i s t i n g c u l t u r a l f o u n d a t i o n f o r i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d forms of i n t e r - b a n d c o o p e r a t i o n - something f i n a l l y r a t i f i e d by the f i v e band c o u n c i l s f o l l o w i n g a b o l d and unprecendented d e c i s i o n . Four i n t e r v i e w e e s r e v e a l e d t h a t some l e a d e r s l o o k e d beyond v a l l e y b o r d e r s t o improve t h e m s e l v e s and t h e i r communities. Some became i n v o l v e d i n the Union of B.C. I n d i a n C h i e f s " p r o t e s t a g a i n s t the f e d e r a l government's c o n t r o v e r s i a l White Paper i n 1969. Four f u t u r e c h i e f s upgraded p e r s o n a l s k i l l s o u t s i d e the v a l l e y , two o b t a i n i n g u n i v e r s i t y degrees and two o t h e r s o p t i n g f o r p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g i n the army. Two r e s p o n d e n t s n o t e d t h a t t e n d e n c i e s toward c o o p e r a t i o n were f u r t h e r s t r e n g t h e n e d by c o m m o n a l i t i e s i n the purpose, s t r u c t u r e and o p e r a t i o n s of the f i v e bands' p o l i t i c a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e systems. v i > P r e l i m i n a r y P l a n n i n g The n i n e r e s p o n d e n t s were q u e s t i o n e d about the r o l e of p r e l i m i n a r y p l a n n i n g - t h a t i s , d e l i b e r a t e l y r e a c h i n g agreement on the p r e c i s e g o a l s of j o i n t e f f o r t , the s p e c i f i c r o l e s of p a r t i c i p a n t bands, and ways of m i n i m i z i n g r i s k s and e n s u r i n g f a i r d i s t r i b u t i o n of the rewards of c o o p e r a t i o n - i n h e l p i n g t o i n i t i a t e c o o p e r a t i o n . T h e i r answers i n d i c a t e t h a t p r e l i m i n a r y p l a n n i n g - as d e f i n e d above - was not c a r r i e d out i n the months - 5 6 -p r e c e d i n g the f o r m a t i o n of NVIA. D u r i n g t h a t p e r i o d , l i t t l e a p p ears t o have been done t o r e a s s u r e bands a p p r e h e n s i v e about the r i s k s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c o o p e r a t i o n . A l l r e s p o n d e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t when the bands were i n the p r o c e s s of f o r m i n g NVIA, c o n c e r n s s u r f a c e d about autonomy, r i s k and reward, a t l e a s t t o some e x t e n t . W h i l e f o u r s t a t e d t h a t autonomy i s s u e s were s a t i s f a c t o r i l y a d d r e s s e d p r i o r t o s e t t i n g up NVIA, f i v e o t h e r s m a i n t a i n e d t h a t much more work s h o u l d have been done i n the e a r l y s t a g e s t o ensure t h a t bands would not l a t e r be p l a c e d i n v u l n e r a b l e p o s i t i o n s by o t h e r bands a c t i n g i r r e s p o n s i b l y . They s t a t e d t h a t the autonomy of some member bands had been compromised by o t h e r bands' i r r e s p o n s i b l e s p e n d i n g b e h a v i o u r . S i x r e s p o n d e n t s s a i d t h a t b e t t e r p l a n n i n g i n NVIA's f o r m a t i v e months might w e l l have y i e l d e d a f a i r e r a l l o c a t i o n of v o t i n g power - one which would not have l e f t the t h r e e s m a l l e s t bands i n a m i n o r i t y v o t i n g p o s i t i o n . I t must be p o i n t e d o u t , however, t h a t many f u n d i n g - and p o w e r - r e l a t e d problems which a r o s e y e a r s l a t e r were l i k e l y not f o r e s e e n i n 1973. To be s u r e , at t h a t time r e l a t i v e l y few band r e s o u r c e s were a t s t a k e and t h e r e was nowhere i n the p r o v i n c e an i n t e r - b a n d c o o p e r a t i v e model t o i n f o r m the p r e l i m i n a r y p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . One may argue t h a t more i n t e n s i v e and comprehensive p l a n n i n g i n NVIA's f o r m a t i v e p e r i o d w ould have h e l p e d the bands a v o i d problems which s u r f a c e d y e a r s l a t e r . However, i t i s -57-o b v i o u s t h a t the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s engaged i n 1973 s u f f i c e d t o i n i t i a t e f ormal c o o p e r a t i o n . At t h a t t i m e , c o o p e r a t i v e g o a l s were a r t i c u l a t e d i n r a t h e r n o n - s p e c i f i c terms. For example, f i v e r e s p o n d e n t s r e f e r r e d t o l e a d e r s e m p h a s i z i n g NVIA's f u t u r e r o l e i n a d v a n c i n g the w e l l - b e i n g of n a t i v e p e o p l e i n the v a l l e y or i n c o n s o l i d a t i n g community-based development and change. C l e a r l y , t h e s e g e n e r a l i z e d p l a n n i n g d i s c u s s i o n s p r o v i d e d the impetus f o r a d e c i s i o n t o c o o p e r a t e f o r m a l l y i n 1973. b) F a c t o r s R e l a t e d t o Reward D e l i v e r y S tatement: To g a i n c r e d i b i l i t y w i t h t h e i r member communi-t i e s , i n t er-community c o o p e r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s u s u a l l y d e l i v e r c e r t a i n rewards t o t h e i r mem-b e r s , i n c l u d i n g i n c r e a s e d : a c c e s s t o d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of r e s o u r c e s e s s e n t i a l t o t h e i r g o a l s , a d a p t a b i l i t y t o r a p i d change i n government p o l i c y and economic c o n d i t i o n s , e f f i c i e n c y i n the use of s o c i a l and e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s , community f a c i l i t i e s and s p e c i a l s k i l l s , and s u c c e s s i n a c h i e v i n g common g o a l s . Data on f a c t o r s c o n s t i t u t i n g t h i s c a t e g o r y were g a t h e r e d i n i n t e r v i e w s e s s i o n s w i t h the e n t i r e s u r v e y sample, my i n t e n t b e i n g t o s o l i c i t u n b i a s e d v i e w s on the o v e r a l l e f f e c t i v e n e s s of NVIA. Seven r e s p o n d e n t s who a d m i t t e d p e r s o n a l l i m i t a t i o n s i n o f f e r i n g i n f o r m e d o p i n i o n s n o n e t h e l e s s c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h i s s e c t i o n of the s u r v e y . i ) Resource A c q u i s i t i o n A l l t h i r t y - s i x r e s p o n d e n t s were asked i f band a c c e s s t o r e s o u r c e s such as program o r c a p i t a l f u n d i n g , i n f o r m a t i o n , or -58-t e c h n i c a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l s k i l l s had improved s i n c e the i n c e p t i o n of NVIA. T w e n t y - s i x r e s p o n d e n t s a g r e e d t h a t a c c e s s t o r e s o u r c e s had improved s i g n i f i c a n t l y s i n c e 1973, c i t i n g a c c e l e r a t e d b u s i n e s s a s s i s t a n c e , h o u s i n g and community f a c i l i t i e s c o n s t r u c t i o n , community i n f r a s t r u c t u r e development, and b e n e f i t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s h a r e d t e c h n i c a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r t i s e . Respondents mentioned t w e l v e t i m e s the bands' enhanced p o l i t i c a l c l o u t i n l o b b y i n g f o r band f u n d i n g through NVIA. S i x c i t e d c a s e s of band-sponsored economic development p r o j e c t s r e c e i v i n g s u p p o r t from o t h e r member bands, w h i l e t h r e e r e f e r r e d t o u n p r e c e d e n t e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s m a l l e r bands t o u n d e r t a k e a m b i t i o u s p r o j e c t s . Three NVIA s t a f f and two band members a l l u d e d t o the N i c o l a V a l l e y I n d i a n Development C o r p o r a t i o n , which a d m i n i s t e r s v e n t u r e l o a n s t o band-owned and p r i v a t e b u s i n e s s e s . E s t a b l i s h e d i n 1981 as a n o n - p r o f i t c o r p o r a t i o n by p o o l i n g the f e d e r a l government's L o c a l Economic Development C o r p o r a t i o n program w i t h each band's economic development d o l l a r s , NVIDC has met w i t h some s u c c e s s i n e n c o u r a g i n g p r i v a t e b u s i n e s s . E i g h t r e s p o n d e n t s tempered t h e i r p r a i s e , s t a t i n g t h a t r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t d o w n s i z i n g by INAC and the a v a i l a b i l i t y of f u n d i n g t h rough n a t i o n a l i n i t i a t i v e s such as C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n ' s S o c i a l Housing Program mean t h a t w i t h or w i t h o u t NVIA, improved l e v e l s of program f u n d i n g would have been a v a i l a b l e t o the bands. Two s e n i o r NVIA s t a f f s t r e s s e d -59-t h a t NVIA's annual a l l o c a t i o n s f o r program and c a p i t a l d o l l a r s a r e based on e l i g i b i l i t y f o r INAC's c r i t e r i a and s u g g e s t e d t h a t most development i n the v a l l e y i s d i r e c t l y dependent on s e n i o r government p o l i c y . Three p e r s o n s a l l e g e d t h a t NVIA's a l l o c a t i v e d e c i s i o n s on band members' e d u c a t i o n and economic development a s s i s t a n c e a p p l i c a t i o n s are p o l i t i c a l l y m o t i v a t e d . Two NVIA s t a f f and t h r e e band members o b s e r v e d t h a t average band members had not s u f f i c i e n t l y b e n e f i t t e d from i n c r e a s e d a c c e s s t o h o u s i n g d o l l a r s and o t h e r t y p e s of a s s i s t a n c e d o l l a r s , c l a i m i n g t h a t the more a g g r e s s i v e p e r s o n a l i t i e s i n the v a l l e y were the major b e n e f i c i a r i e s of i n c r e a s e d f u n d i n g l e v e l s . These s t a f f a l s o p o i n t e d out t h a t most of NVIA's annual budget of about $2.5 m i l l i o n c o v e r s s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e and e d u c a t i o n c o s t s . v. A s i g n i f i c a n t p o i n t was made by f o u r i n t e r v i e w e e s , who remarked t h a t l o c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of a v a i l a b l e f u n d i n g means t h a t l o c a l needs can be more e f f e c t i v e l y i d e n t i f i e d and a d d r e s s e d . Two o t h e r s mentioned t h a t c o o p e r a t i o n - b a s e d l o c a l c o n t r o l r e p r e s e n t e d by NVIA opens the door f o r many n a t i v e p e o p l e t o be employed i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of t h e i r own programs. i i ) A d a p t a b i 1 i t v The sample of t h i r t y - s i x i n t e r v i e w e e s was asked whether i n t e r - b a n d c o o p e r a t i o n had improved the bands' a b i l i t i e s t o -60-adapt t o major changes i n government p o l i c y , economic c o n d i t i o n s or o t h e r e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n f l u e n c e s beyond t h e i r t o t a l c o n t r o l . Nine were not s u r e whether bands were b e t t e r a t a d a p t i n g , e i g h t s a i d t h e r e was l i t t l e the bands c o u l d do about d e c i s i o n s made e l s e w h e r e , t w e l v e s t a t e d t h a t c o l l e c t i v e l o b b y i n g c o u l d i n f l u e n c e e x t e r n a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and seven made no comment. A response n o t e d t w e n t y - e i g h t t i m e s i n r e l a t i o n t o the b e n e f i t s of c o o p e r a t i o n was the o p p o r t u n i t y of bands t o sh a r e i d e a s on p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g . Respondents p o i n t e d t o the monthly A r e a C o u n c i l m e e t i n g s as an e f f e c t i v e , o n g o i n g forum f o r engaging i n c o l l e c t i v e l e a r n i n g and g e n e r a t i n g a d a p t i v e s t r a t e g i e s t o deal w i t h new developments. An Area C o u n c i l s t r a t e g y s e s s i o n was h e l d d u r i n g the p e r i o d of my f i e l d r e s e a r c h , r e s u l t i n g i n a d e l e g a t i o n b e i n g s e n t t o INAC's r e g i o n a l o f f i c e i n Vancouver t o e x p r e s s and s u c c e s s f u l l y a l l a y r e g i o n a l c o n c e r n s about a p e n d i n g change i n e d u c a t i o n p o l i c y . E l e v e n r e s p o n d e n t s p o i n t e d t o the N i c o l a V a l l e y I n d i a n S e r v i c e s A s s o c i a t i o n as p r o v i d i n g a degree of c o n t r o l over the l o c a l economy. D i r e c t e d by the f i v e bands and r e g i s t e r e d as a n o n - p r o f i t s o c i e t y , NVISA owns p r o p e r t y a l o n g the F r a s e r R i v e r , 160 a c r e s of M e r r i t t r e a l e s t a t e w i t h p o t e n t i a l f o r r e s i d e n t i a l , commercial and i n d u s t r i a l development, and a l a r g e b u i l d i n g i n downtown M e r r i t t from which i t l e a s e s o f f i c e space t o NVIA and a number of government a g e n c i e s . The F r a s e r R i v e r p r o p e r t y a f f o r d s a f o o d f i s h e r y t o the bands' members. -61-E i g h t r e s p o n d e n t s n o t e d t h a t bands p r e v i o u s l y u n a b le t o adapt t o new c h a l l e n g e s a r e now more a b l e t o p r o f i t from the e x p e r i e n c e of o t h e r bands. Three r e f e r r e d t o i n c r e a s e d a d a p t a b i l i t y t h rough i d e a s g e n e r a t e d a t the i n t e r - b a n d t h i n k -tank s e s s i o n h e l d a n n u a l l y a t Glimpse Lake. i i i ) E f f i c i e n c y When q u e s t i o n e d on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between c o o p e r a t i o n and e f f i c i e n c y , the m a j o r i t y of r e s p o n d e n t s ( t w e n t y - t h r e e ) a s s e r t e d t h a t c l o s e r e l a t i o n s e n a b l e d the bands t o more e f f i c i e n t l y c o o r d i n a t e human, f i n a n c i a l and p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s a t t h e i r d i s p o s a l . S e v e r a l key s t a f f were c i t e d , i n c l u d i n g the T e c h n i c a l S e r v i c e s A d v i s o r , who h e l p s the bands de v e l o p and implement t h e i r h o u s i n g and i n f r a s t r u c t u r e development p l a n s . A l s o mentioned was the P o l i c y P l a n n i n g A d v i s o r , a lawyer and b u s i n e s s management e x p e r t who was p r e p a r i n g , at the time of my f i e l d r e s e a r c h , a comprehensive r e s e r v e l a n d s r e g i s t r y system and was a l s o a s s i s t i n g the Manager of N i c o l a V a l l e y I n d i a n Development C o r p o r a t i o n by a d v i s i n g c l i e n t s on t h e i r b u s i n e s s p l a n s . NVIDC's p r o f e s s i o n a l f o r e s t e r has h e l p e d t h r e e bands p r e p a r e woodlot l i c e n c e p l a n s and i s d e v e l o p i n g an i n t e r - b a n d , l a b o u r - i n t e n s i v e o n - r e s e r v e s i l v i c u l t u r e p r o j e c t through a F o r e s t Resource Development Agreement w i t h the Canadian F o r e s t r y S e r v i c e . NVIA's S o c i a l Development C o o r d i n a t o r s t a t e d t h a t c o o p e r a t i o n f a c i l i t a t e d the m a t c h i n g of s o c i a l w o r k e r s ' d i v e r s e -62-s k i l l s and p e r s o n a l i t i e s w i t h i n d i v i d u a l band needs. The t w e n t y - t h r e e r e s p o n d e n t s l i s t e d j o i n t b e n e f i t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the N i c o l a V a l l e y I n s t i t u t e of Technology and e d u c a t i o n c a p i t a l f u n d i n g . E s t a b l i s h e d i n 1983 through NVIA's e d u c a t i o n b r a n c h , NVIT o f f e r s c e r t i f i c a t e and d i p l o m a programs i n f o r e s t management, b u s i n e s s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , f a s h i o n d e s i g n , h o s p i t a l i t y and t o u r i s m , and community economic development. NVIT's a c c r e d i t a t i o n agreements a r e i n p l a c e w i t h F r a s e r V a l l e y , C a r i b o o and New C a l e d o n i a C o l l e g e s . E n r o l l m e n t has grown from t w e l v e s t u d e n t s i n 1983 t o two hundred i n 1987". C o o p e r a t i v e use of e d u c a t i o n c a p i t a l budgets has p e r m i t t e d c o n s t r u c t i o n of the j o i n t l y run N i c o l a V a l l e y A l t e r n a t e S c h o o l , as w e l l as community-based s c h o o l s o p e r a t e d by Upper N i c o l a , C o l d w a t e r and Lower N i c o l a Bands. Twelve r e s p o n d e n t s a l s o r e f e r r e d t o j o i n t use of V a l l e y B u s i n e s s Computer S e r v i c e s , which c h a r g e s a c c o u n t i n g s e r v i c e s t o NVIA and the bands at f u l l market v a l u e and p r o c e s s e s monthly f i n a n c i a l s t a t e m e n t s f o r a l a r g e number of c l i e n t s , i n c l u d i n g s e v e r a l n o n - I n d i a n c o n c e r n s . NVIA employs a f u l 1 y q u a l i f l e d C o n t r o l l e r , who a l s o s e r v e s as s u p e r v i s o r of the a c c o u n t i n g s t a f f a t VBCS. i v ) Goal Achievement A l l r e s p o n d e n t s were asked whether i n t e r - b a n d c o o p e r a t i o n has l e d , through NVIA, t o the achievement of s u p e r o r d i n a t e g o a l s - 6 3 -common t o the f i v e bands. I n t e r v i e w s e s s i o n s w i t h two A r e a C o u n c i l l o r s r e v e a l e d NVIA's b r o a d l y s t a t e d s u p e r o r d i n a t e goal as " d e v e l o p i n g an improved l i f e s t y l e f o r a l l band members'. They i d e n t i f i e d two o b j e c t i v e s as b e i n g complementary t o t h i s g o a l : f i r s t , " s a f e g u a r d i n g e v e r t h i n g a l r e a d y g a i n e d , such as r i g h t s of a c c e s s t o d e p a r t m e n t a l program d o l l a r s , s o c i a l programs, and w i l d l i f e , f i s h , f o r e s t and water r e s o u r c e s ' ; and, second, " b u i l d i n g and e n h a n c i n g e v e r y t h i n g t h a t has been a c c o m p l i s h e d t o d a t e ' . However, t h i r t e e n r e s p o n d e n t s s t a t e d t h a t they were not aware of o f f i c i a l NVIA goal s t a t e m e n t s . C o o p e r a t i v e community development goal achievement i s u s u a l l y d i f f i c u l t w i t h o u t b r o a d awareness and u n d e r s t a n d i n g of those g o a l s , and an attempt has been made t o a d d r e s s t h i s i s s u e . Two s e n i o r NVIA s t a f f s a i d they were p r e p a r i n g the a r t i c l e s of a new c o n s t i t u t i o n f o r NVIA. T h i s e x e r c i s e was d e s c r i b e d as a d e l i b e r a t e attempt t o educate and u n i t e band members, band l e a d e r s , and NVIA and band s t a f f b e h i n d the c o o p e r a t i v e body's g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s . Once a d v i s e d of the goal statement as p r e s e n t e d above, a l l r e s p o n d e n t s were i n a p o s i t i o n t o o f f e r t h e i r o p i n i o n s . Twenty-f i v e f e l t t h a t NVIA had a c c e l e r a t e d , at l e a s t t o some e x t e n t , community development i n the v a l l e y . Goal achievements most commonly c i t e d were i n the a r e a s of h o u s i n g and i n f r a s t r u c t u r e , e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g , s m a l l b u s i n e s s i n c u b a t i o n and e x p a n s i o n , and, perhaps most i m p o r t a n t , a sense of g r e a t e r l o c a l c o n t r o l - 6 4 -over change. S i g n i f i c a n t l y , however, two c h i e f c o u n c i l l o r s and t h r e e s e n i o r NVIA s t a f f j u d g e d t h a t o t h e r f a c t o r s , such as community p r i d e , f u n d i n g a s s i s t a n c e , key e v e n t s , a r e t u r n t o o l d e r v a l u e s and i n d i v i d u a l l e a d e r s h i p have been more imp o r t a n t t o p r o g r e s s i n the v a l l e y than i n t e r - b a n d c o o p e r a t i o n . Perhaps s u r p r i s i n g l y , seventeen o t h e r s e x p r e s s e d the view t h a t i n t e r -band c o o p e r a t i o n had not been c r u c i a l t o community development s u c c e s s . T h i s response c a l l s i n t o q u e s t i o n my assumption about the importance of c o o p e r a t i o n . A l l but f i v e of the t h i r t y - s i x r e s p o n d e n t s f e l t t h a t a t the time of r e s e a r c h , a f i n a l judgment on NVIA's e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n a c h i e v i n g the bands' common g o a l s was premature. One c h i e f c o u n c i l l o r and t h r e e s e n i o r NVIA p e r s o n n e l acknowledged t h a t the f i v e bands have come a l o n g way s i n c e 1973 but s u g g e s t e d t h a t NVIA's r e c o r d i s not so i m p r e s s i v e when measured a g a i n s t the p o t e n t i a l f o r growth and development. Two e l d e r s s t i l l r e f e r r e d t o the NVIA o f f i c e b u i l d i n g as the " I n d i a n a g e n t ' s o f f i c e ' ; NVIA had a p p a r e n t l y not made a g r e a t d i f f e r e n c e t o the l i v e s of t h e s e p e o p l e . One s e n i o r NVIA s t a f f s u g g e s t e d t h a t the l o n g - t e r m community development t h r u s t s h o u l d emphasize the promotion of band s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y through t r u e m a r k e t - d r i v e n economic development and t a x a t i o n of w e a l t h c r e a t e d by band members. - 6 5 -c ) F a c t o r s A f f e c t i n g the C a p a b i l i t y of the C o o p e r a t i v e O r g a n i z a t i o n Statement: In m a i n t a i n i n g t h e i r own momentum and sense of pu r p o s e , inter-community c o o p e r a t i v e o r g a n i z a -t i o n s u s u a l l y n u r t u r e a h i g h l e v e l of commitment among t h e i r s t a f f and member communities, p r o -a c t i v e l y promote inter-community approaches t o common i s s u e s , s a t i s f y n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n s a t a p p r o p r i a t e phases of b u i l d i n g c o o p e r a t i o n , m o n i t o r and manage change i n t h e i r e x t e r n a l environment, i n v o l v e communities which s h a r e common g e o g r a p h i c a l , c u l t u r a l and economic c i r c u m s t a n c e s , and are a b l e t o overcome problems and s e r i o u s t h r e a t s t o t h e i r e x i s t e n c e . The f u l l sample of t h i r t y - s i x p e o p l e p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i n g t o t h i s c a t e g o r y of s u c c e s s f a c t o r s . i ) B u i l d i n g Commitment As s u g g e s t e d i n the above d i s c u s s i o n on goal achievement, l i t t l e was r e v e a l e d by r e s p o n d e n t s on c o n c e r t e d e f f o r t s by NVIA t o b u i l d and m a i n t a i n commitment t o i n t e r - b a n d endeavour, e i t h e r among the bands o r w i t h i n the b u r e a u c r a c y i t s e l f . Other than the monthly A r e a C o u n c i l m e e t i n g s and p r e p a r a t i o n of an NVIA c o n s t i t u t i o n , no mention was made of c o n s c i o u s e f f o r t s t o broaden and s t r e n g t h e n the base of s u p p o r t f o r NVIA's p o l i c i e s , programs o r o t h e r j o i n t i n i t i a t i v e s . However, one c h i e f c o u n c i l l o r r e p o r t e d t h a t he c i r c u l a t e d r e g u l a r l y among s i m p o r t a n t ' f a m i l i e s i n h i s community t o i n f o r m them of new p l a n s and r e g i s t e r t h e i r c o n c e r n s . As mentioned above, few r e s p o n d e n t s e x p r e s s e d awareness of NVIA's s t a t e d mandate. However, n i n e r e s p o n d e n t s , i n c l u d i n g f o u r c h i e f c o u n c i l l o r s , s t r e s s e d t h a t the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r band members t o -66-a t t e n d A r e a C o u n c i l m e e t i n g s and v o i c e t h e i r c o n c e r n s f a c i l i t a t e s b r o a d commitment t o s h a r e d g o a l s . Two c h i e f c o u n c i l l o r s s t r e s s e d the importance of m a i n t a i n i n g i n t e r - b a n d t r u s t through c o n t i n u o u s communication, c l a i m i n g t h a t A r e a C o u n c i l m e e t i n g s were an e x c e l l e n t forum f o r t h e s e exchanges. Communication was c i t e d by the c h i e f c o u n c i l l o r s of the t h r e e l a r g e s t bands as b e i n g c r u c i a l t o commitment, e s p e c i a l l y g i v e n the e x i s t e n c e of d i f f e r i n g approaches t o community development. I n t e r v i e w s e s s i o n s w i t h the c h i e f s r e v e a l e d emphasis by one band on economic development, a n o t h e r on s o c i a l development and a t h i r d s p e c i f i c a l l y on e d u c a t i o n . One s e n i o r and t h r e e j u n i o r NVIA s t a f f acknowledged NVIA's monthly s t a f f m e e t i n g s but p o i n t e d t o inadequate i n t e r d e p a r t m e n t a l communication w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n as a problem which o c c a s i o n a l l y d e p r e s s e s s t a f f m o r a l e . D i s c u s s e d l a t e r i n more d e t a i l , s e v e r a l i n t e r v i e w e e s c o m p l a i n e d about some bands f a i l i n g t o e x e r c i s e f i s c a l r e s t r a i n t . E i g h t of these c o m p l a i n a n t s r e a s o n e d t h a t commitment t o NVIA i s j e o p a r d i z e d by bands which f a i l t o honour j o i n t f u n d i n g agreements. Respondents were asked an a d d i t i o n a l q u e s t i o n about the r o l e of e m o t i o n a l z e a l i n b o l s t e r i n g commitment. Only one p e r s o n c i t e d t h i s f a c t o r as s t i l l b e i n g i m p o r t a n t ; most s t a t e d t h a t i t was more o p e r a t i v e d u r i n g the c o n f r o n t a t i o n s of the 1970's. F i n a l l y , the q u e s t i o n of commitment ar o s e i n s e s s i o n s wih two r e s p o n d e n t s from C o l d w a t e r Band who spoke of t h e i r -67-band's p l a n s t o drop out of NVIA e a r l y i n 1988. i i > Planning Responses t o the q u e s t i o n on NVIA's p l a n n i n g c a p a b i l i t i e s i n p r o m o t i n g p o s i t i v e i n t e r - b a n d r e l a t i o n s r e v e a l e d the need f o r more work i n t h i s a r e a . Twenty-four p e r s o n s acknowledged the work of a c o r e of key p e r s o n s who h a r n e s s e d consensus t o form NVIA i n 1973, and of o t h e r s who l a t e r i d e n t i f i e d common needs and e s t a b l i s h e d a p p r o p r i a t e s u b s i d i a r y c o o p e r a t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s such as NVISA, VBCS, NVIDC and NVIT. F i f t e e n i n d i v i d u a l s , however, d i s c e r n e d a drop i n NVIA's p l a n n i n g c a p a c i t i e s t o improve and m a i n t a i n i n t e r - b a n d r e l a t i o n s a f t e r the i n c e p t i o n of NVIA. These r e s p o n d e n t s r e l a t e d t h i s d e c l i n e t o NVIA's l a c k of a b i l i t y o r w i l l i n g n e s s t o a d d r e s s two a r e a s of c o n c e r n : o v e r s p e n d i n g by some bands and the p r e s e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n of power among the f i v e bands. The p r e s e n t system a l l o c a t e s v o t i n g power on a l l j o i n t v e n t u r e s , i n c l u d i n g the A r e a C o u n c i l , a c c o r d i n g t o band p o p u l a t i o n , as f o l l o w s : Upper N i c o l a and Lower N i c o l a Bands, s i x v o t e s each; C o l d w a t e r Band, f o u r v o t e s ; and N o o a i t c h and Shackan Bands, t h r e e v o t e s each. The s i x r e s p o n d e n t s r e f e r r i n g t o the power b a l a n c e p r o t e s t e d t h a t the two l a r g e r bands c o n t r o l the v o t e s and can t h e r e b y o v e r r u l e the w i s h e s of the t h r e e s m a l l e r bands. Three r e s p o n d e n t s s p e c i f i c a l l y e x p r e s s e d the d e s i r e f o r improved methods of m o n i t o r i n g and r e g u l a t i n g the bands' s p e n d i n g -68-b e h a v i o u r , but acknowledged the d i f f i c u l t i e s of d o i n g so w i t h o u t o v e r l y compromising t h e i r autonomy. They a l s o remarked on the apparent d i f f i c u l t y of bands p u l l i n g out of NVIA i f they owe money t o o t h e r member bands. Two NVIA p e r s o n n e l added t h a t when NVIA a c c e p t s blame f o r band d e f i c i t s , as i t has been known t o do, i t p e r p e t u a t e s a dependency a t t i t u d e w hich does n o t h i n g t o improve i n t e r - b a n d r e l a t i o n s . Seven r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the s m a l l e r bands r e g i s t e r e d deep c o n c e r n about the f i r s t decade or so of NVIA's e x i s t e n c e , when much of t h e i r funds were used t o f o s t e r development programs f o r the l a r g e r bands. They e x p r e s s e d f e a r s t h a t the l a r g e r bands, h a v i n g reaped these b e n e f i t s , might soon abandon NVIA and l e a v e the s m a l l e r bands t o f e n d f o r t h e m s e l v e s . T h i s problem r e f l e c t s i n c o m p l e t e p r e l i m i n a r y p l a n n i n g , a l a c k of o n g o i n g , long-range p l a n n i n g c a p a b i l i t y , and perhaps an u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o implement p l a n s c a l l i n g f o r repayment t o the smal1er bands. When asked d i r e c t l y , twenty-one r e s p o n d e n t s acknowledged monthly A r e a C o u n c i l m e e t i n g s as s e r v i n g a s e l f - e v a l u a t i v e p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n f o r NVIA; of t h e s e , t w e l v e c a l l e d f o r more f o r m a l i z e d s e i f - r e g u l a t o r y mechanisms. Three s e n i o r and two j u n i o r NVIA p e r s o n n e l spoke of p o l i t i c i a n s b e i n g u n a b l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h between management and a u t h o r i t y . T h i s problem r e s u l t e d , they s a i d , i n program managers b e i n g g i v e n the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y but l i t t l e a u t h o r i t y t o c a r r y out t h e i r d u t i e s -69-e f f e c t i v e l y . These same r e s p o n d e n t s and t h r e e band members p o i n t e d t o s i m i l a r problems of p o l i t i c a l i n t e r f e r e n c e i n e x p l a i n i n g the f i n a n c i a l woes of s e v e r a l band-owned and j o i n t l y owned b u s i n e s s e s . i i i ) E n v i r o n m e n t a l Management The sample was s u r v e y e d on NVIA's a b i l i t y t o manage change i n i t s e x t e r n a l environment. Most r e s p o n d e n t s p r a i s e d NVIA's a b i l i t y t o m a n i p u l a t e i t s own environment, w i t h twenty-two o f f e r i n g f a v o u r a b l e r e p l i e s . E l e v e n r e f e r r e d t o s t r a t e g i e s of e n v i r o n m e n t a l management employed i n 1975, when the f i v e bands r e j e c t e d government f u n d i n g as i r r e l e v a n t and demonstrated s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g c a p a c i t i e s o v er a p e r i o d of months. Two d i s t r i c t INAC o f f i c e s i t - i n s the same year by NVIA l e a d e r s and I n d i a n s from e l s e w h e r e i n the s o u t h e r n i n t e r i o r paved the way f o r more n a t i v e employment i n a g r a d u a l l y e x p a n d i n g NVIA. Seven r e s p o n d e n t s r e f e r r e d t o c o n t i n u a l m o n i t o r i n g of government p o l i c y t r e n d s by NVIA's program managers. F i v e d i r e c t e d a t t e n t i o n t o a p r a c t i c e which they f e l t was f a c i l i t a t e d by c o o p e r a t i v e p l a n n i n g : t h a t of s e n d i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t o i m p o r t a n t m e e t i n g s , whereever they may be h e l d . They e x p l a i n e d t h a t c o o p e r a t i o n p e r m i t s a g r e a t e r p o p u l a t i o n base from which t o s e l e c t a p p r o p r i a t e d e l e g a t e s who l a t e r r e p o r t back t o the A r e a C o u n c i l on p r o c e e d i n g s and d e c i s i o n s . A c o n s t r a i n i n g f a c t o r , they a d m i t t e d , i s inadequate f u n d i n g t o f i n a n c e d e l e g a t e s ' -70-t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o a l l r e l e v a n t m e e t i n g s . S i x p e r s o n s n o t e d t h a t NVIA r e g u l a r l y t a k e s advantage of i t s p r o x i m i t y t o Vancouver, which i s the l o c a t i o n of INAC's C e n t r a l D i s t r i c t ( t h i s d i s t r i c t i n c l u d e s the N i c o l a V a l l e y ) and B.C. R e g i o n a l o f f i c e s . They n o t e d t h a t when NVIA r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s p e r c e i v e a need t o meet d i r e c t l y w i t h department o f f i c i a l s t o d i s c u s s u r g e n t i s s u e s , they do so r e a d i l y . i v ) Common Geography and C u l t u r e When r e s p o n d e n t s were asked i f common g e o g r a p h i c a l , c u l t u r a l and economic c i r c u m s t a n c e s c o n t r i b u t e d t o the maintenance of h e a l t h y i n t e r - b a n d r e l a t i o n s , 100% r e p l i e d i n the a f f i r m a t i v e . Ten r e s p o n d e n t s e l a b o r a t e d , c l a i m i n g t h a t w h i l e p r o x i m i t y sometimes c o n t r i b u t e s t o c o n f l i c t and deb a t e , i t a l s o r e i n f o r c e s i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e and f r e q u e n t l y f a c i l i t a t e s the r e s o l u t i o n of i n t e r n a l d i s a g r e e m e n t s . The s u r v e y went f u r t h e r , i n c l u d i n g a q u e s t i o n on whether NIVA had taken f u l l advantage of s h a r e d c i r c u m s t a n c e s . F o u r t e e n r e s p o n d e n t s p o i n t e d t o NVIA l o c a t i n g i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e s i n downtown M e r r i t t , the g e o g r a p h i c c e n t e r of the t w e l v e v i l l a g e s and t w e n t y - f i v e r e s e r v e s . Two r e f e r r e d t o the annual Glimpse Lake r e t r e a t , which i n t e g r a t e s i n t e r - b a n d c u l t u r a l e v e n t s w i t h b r a i n s t o r m i n g s t r a t e g y s e s s i o n s . -71-v) P r o b l e m - S o l v i n g C a p a c i t y I asked r e s p o n d e n t s how w e l l NVIA has d e a l t w i t h v a r i o u s problems and t h r e a t s t o i t s e x i s t e n c e . H a l f ( e i g h t e e n ) e x p r e s s e d the view t h a t NVIA has been a t l e a s t somewhat e f f e c t i v e i n t h i s a r e a . E i g h t r e f e r r e d t o o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r band i n p u t on problems through the v o t i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n system a p p l i e d i n a l l c o o p e r a t i v e v e n t u r e s . Monthly A r e a C o u n c i l m e e t i ngs were c i t e d by f i v e p e o p l e as a u s e f u l forum f o r d e a l i n g w i t h i n t e r - b a n d d i s p u t e s . In g e n e r a l , however, r e s p o n s e s i n d i c a t e a c l o s e c o r r e l a t i o n between inadequate p l a n n i n g and low l e v e l s of p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g c a p a c i t y . Nine i n t e r v i e w e e s c l a i m e d t h a t i n s u f f i c i e n t a t t e n t i o n was b e i n g p a i d t o the problems of bands whose i n t e r e s t s they s a i d were b e i n g compromised by the e x i s t i n g i n t e r - b a n d b a l a n c e of d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g power o r by i r r e s p o n s i b l e f i s c a l b e h a v i o u r on the p a r t of o t h e r member bands. These i s s u e s were c i t e d by the n i n e as the most s i g n i f i c a n t s o u r c e s of i n t e r - b a n d c o n f l i c t . They were i n agreement t h a t NVIA had done l i t t l e t o deal w i t h them and c a s t doubt on i t s a b i l i t y t o a d d r e s s them i n the f u t u r e . T h i s l e v e l of n e g a t i v e r e s p onse s u g g e s t s t h a t NVIA and i t s member bands a r e e i t h e r u n a b l e or u n w i l l i n g t o deal w i t h some of the o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s most p o t e n t i a l l y d i v i s i v e problems: those g e n e r a t i n g d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n and d i s s e n t from w i t h i n . F i v e r e s p o n d e n t s c l e a r l y s t a t e d t h a t s e v e r a l c o n c e r n s -72-e x p r e s s e d a t the band l e v e l were not b e i n g a d e q u a t e l y a d d r e s s e d , e i t h e r by NVIA or the band c o u n c i l s . Two r e f e r r e d t o l a c k of communication w i t h i n NVIA as the main o b s t a c l e t o s o l v i n g band problems. Three o t h e r s were upset over a l l e g e d m e d d l i n g by some NIVA a c t o r s i n a member band's i n t e r n a l c o n f l i c t over a l a n d development scheme i n v o l v i n g the new C o q u i h a l l a Highway. S i x i n t e r v i e w e e s , i n c l u d i n g two c h i e f c o u n c i l l o r s , acknowledged t h a t p o l i t i c a l i n t e r f e r e n c e i n b u s i n e s s and program o p e r a t i o n a t both band and NVIA l e v e l s was a s e r i o u s problem w h i c h had not yet been c o m p l e t e l y r e s o l v e d . They r e f e r r e d t o an i n a b i l i t y , a t l e a s t on the p a r t of p r e v i o u s band c o u n c i l s and A r e a C o u n c i l s , t o d i s t i n g u i s h between b u s i n e s s and community s e r v i c e d e c i s i o n s . Four l i n k e d the demise of the j o i n t l y owned c o n s t r u c t i o n company t o band l e a d e r s i g n o r i n g sound b u s i n e s s management p r a c t i c e by c u r r y i n g p o l i t i c a l f a v o u r through o v e r e m p h a s i z i n g c o s t l y home r e n o v a t i o n s and overemp1oying c a r p e n t e r s . On the p o s i t i v e s i d e of the l e d g e r , s i x r e s p o n d e n t s r e f e r r e d t o a v a l u a b l e l e s s o n t h a t has been l e a r n e d from p a s t p o l i t i c a l m e d d l i n g i n band or j o i n t l y owned b u s i n e s s v e n t u r e s . Due t o c o u n t e r - p r o d u c t i v e i n t e r f e r e n c e i n the p a s t , NVIDC i s now more wary of s u p p o r t i n g community-owned b u s i n e s s v e n t u r e s and i s p l a c i n g the b u l k of i t s v e n t u r e a s s i s t a n c e b e h i n d p r i v a t e l y owned i n i t i a t i v e s . A l l f o u r c h i e f c o u n c i l l o r s who were i n t e r v i e w e d s t a t e d t h a t -73-t h e i r time commitments w i t h the A r e a C o u n c i l were not o v e r b u r d e n i n g and t h a t they were t h e r e f o r e a b l e t o g i v e t h e i r r e q u i r e d a t t e n t i o n t o g l o b a l c o n c e r n s . Three c h i e f s s a i d t h a t d e l e g a t i n g v a r i o u s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t o t h e i r band c o u n c i l l o r s e n a b l e d them t o b e t t e r cope w i t h p r e s s i n g A r e a C o u n c i l m a t t e r s w i t h o u t n e g l e c t i n g the needs of t h e i r own bands. A l l r e s p o n d e n t s were asked i f they f e l t t h a t the f i v e communities c o u l d b e n e f i t from the a p p l i c a t i o n of i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o o p e r a t i v e t h e o r y t o s o l v i n g community development problems i n the v a l l e y . S i x t e e n r e p l i e d t h a t any new i d e a s w i t h the p o t e n t i a l f o r b r i n g i n g the bands t o g e t h e r f o r mutual b e n e f i t was worthy of a t t e n t i o n . Two n o t e d t h a t i t might h e l p r e s o l v e major i n t e r - b a n d problems. S i g n i f i c a n t l y , seven r e s p o n d e n t s p o i n t e d t o a need t o a p p l y u s e f u l c o o p e r a t i v e t h e o r y i n b u i l d i n g i n t r a - b a n d consensus, c i t i n g t h r e e c a s e s of u n r e s o l v e d c o n f l i c t a t the band l e v e l . As was mentioned e a r l i e r i n the s e c t i o n on a d a p t a b i l i t y , t w e n t y - e i g h t r e s p o n d e n t s s t a t e d t h a t p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g c a p a c i t y was g r e a t l y enhanced through the p o o l i n g of i d e a s . Four r e s p o n d e n t s s a i d t h a t over the l a s t twenty y e a r s , l o c a l bands had b e n e f i t t e d from a c o l l e c t i v e l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s marked by many v i c t o r i e s and d e f e a t s ; n i n e o b s e r v e d t h a t t h i s e x p e r i e n c e would p r e p a r e them w e l l f o r s u c c e s s f u l l y m e e t i n g f u t u r e c h a l l e n g e s . O v e r a l l , t h i s s e c t i o n s u g g e s t s t h a t NVIA does not f u l l y e x h i b i t the q u a l i t i e s of an e f f e c t i v e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g -74-o r g a n i z a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y where problems a r e i n t e r n a l i n n a t u r e . However, band l e a d e r s a r e g e n e r a l l y a b l e t o b a l a n c e t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s between NVIA and t h e i r community. The problem of p o l i t i c a l i n t e r f e r e n c e i n b u s i n e s s has been a d d r e s s e d f o r the most p a r t , a l b e i t by a v o i d i n g the problem r a t h e r than d i r e c t l y c o n f r o n t i n g i t . Important d e c i s i o n s have been r e a c h e d through the s h a r i n g of i d e a s and the a p p l i c a t i o n of a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , though some say u n f a i r , i n t e r - b a n d v o t i n g system. However, i t does not appear t h a t the l e g i t i m a t e c o n c e r n s of bands who w i s h more i n p u t i n t o c o l l e c t i v e d e c i s i o n s d i r e c t l y a f f e c t i n g them a r e b e i n g s a t i s f a c t o r i l y a d d r e s s e d . In a d d i t i o n , inadequate communication w i t h i n NVIA appears t o be l i m i t i n g the r e s o l u t i o n of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e m a t t e r s c a l l i n g f o r i n t e r - p r o g r a m a c t i o n . 4. Summary The s t o r y of int e r - c o m m u n i t y c o o p e r a t i o n i n the N i c o l a V a l l e y i s p u n c t u a t e d by i n s t a n c e s of c h a l l e n g e s b e i n g met and surmounted by i n d i v i d u a l s , bands and the c o o p e r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n i t s e l f . In the e a r l y days, i n e r t i a , a p athy, l a c k of t r u s t and a few i n t e r p e r s o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s were overcome, t h a n k s l a r g e l y t o the l e a d e r s h i p of a s m a l l , v o c a l c o r e of a c t i v i s t s . L a t e r , c o l l e c t i v e p o l i t i c a l w i l l e n a b l e d a newly -75-e s t a b l i s h e d NVIA t o endure minimal f u n d i n g s u p p o r t b e f o r e e m p l o y i n g shrewd c o n f r o n t a t i o n a l t a c t i c s i n s u p p l a n t i n g an i n s e n s i t i v e and i r r e l e v a n t b u r e a u c r a c y . NVIA was a b l e t o b u i l d upon i t s e l f , g r a d u a l l y assuming from INAC i n c r e a s e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r band programs. L o c a l p e o p l e were employed t o a d m i n i s t e r t h e s e programs. P o l i t i c a l c l o u t grew. I n i t i a t i v e s i n e d u c a t i o n , economic development and l a n d s p e c u l a t i o n were u n d e r t a k e n . P h y s i c a l development a c c e l e r a t e d i n the e a r l y 1980's and t r a n s f o r m e d the f a c e of the I n d i a n v i l l a g e s of the N i c o l a V a l l e y . A l o n g w i t h the c o n c r e t e accomplishments accompanying c o l l e c t i v e endeavour, s e v e r a l problems emerged. P o l i t i c a l i n t e r f e r e n c e impacted n e g a t i v e l y on J o i n t v e n t u r e s and community owned b u s i n e s s e s . Program managers were o v e r r u l e d by a few p o l i t i c i a n s w i t h contempt f o r INAC f u n d i n g c r i t e r i a . Some of the l a r g e r bands o v e r e x t e n d e d t h e i r budgets. S m a l l e r bands came t o lament t h e i r l i m i t e d i n p u t i n t o NVIA d e c i s i o n s and f e a r e d p u l l - o u t s by l a r g e r bands which owe them f u n d i n g from e a r l i e r s h a r i n g arrangements. I n t e r n a l band problems o c c a s i o n a l l y became i n t e r t w i n e d w i t h v e s t e d i n t e r e s t s w i t h i n NVIA i t s e l f . S e v e r a l s u c c e s s f a c t o r s i d e n t i f i e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e have a c o u n t e r p a r t i n the N i c o l a V a l l e y . However, o t h e r f a c t o r s are not n o t i c e a b l e a t a l l , o r a r e not p r o m i n e n t . I t i s l i k e l y t h a t community development s u c c e s s and f a i l u r e i n the v a l l e y i s t i e d , a t l e a s t i n p a r t , t o the degree of convergence w i t h t h e s e -76-f a c t o r s . The f i n a l c h a p t e r examines t h i s p remise i n more d e t a i 1 . Chapter Four - Conclusion -77-1. Introduction This chapter is a synopsis of the analysis presented in Chapter Three. Inter-band cooperation in the Nicola Valley is summarized in terms of the fifteen success factors viewed by scholars as contributing to successful inter-community cooperation and discussed in detail in Chapter Two. These factors are grouped into three broad categories. An acknowledgment of the limitations of this study is presented, followed by a section on thesis findings. A final discussion treats the findings in terms of their implications for other groups of native communities. 2. A n a l y s i s of NVIA In this section, inter-band collaboration in the Nicola Valley is compared to the fifteen factors drawn from the literature. These factors are classified into three categories: those relating to initi a t i o n , those relating to reward delivery and those relating to the capability of the cooperative organizat ion. - 7 8 -a) Category 1 ; F a c t o r s Important t o the I n i t i a t i o n of  C o o p e r a t i v e E f f o r t In g e n e r a l , c i r c u m s t a n c e s l e a d i n g t o the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of NVIA conform t o c o n d i t i o n s t y p i c a l l y p r e s e n t t o s t i m u l a t e inter-community c o o p e r a t i o n , as i d e n t i f i e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e . I n f o r m a l i n t e r - b a n d c o o p e r a t i o n i n the l a t e 1960's was a r e a c t i o n t o a g e n e r a l l y p e r c e i v e d c r i s i s s i t u a t i o n . R e i n f o r c e d by l o n g - s t a n d i n g c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l t i e s , the h i g h degree of inter- c o m m u n i t y s i m i l a r i t y and f a m i l i a r i t y c r e a t e d the c o n d i t i o n s f o r consensus. S u c c e s s i n i n f o r m a l c o o p e r a t i v e s t r a t e g i e s i n human r e s o u r c e development c r e a t e d an awareness among a few key band l e a d e r s of the p o t e n t i a l b e n e f i t s of deeper and b r o a d e r forms of i n t e r - b a n d c o o p e r a t i o n . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t the c r i s i s w hich h e l p e d launch j o i n t e f f o r t was l a r g e l y viewed by l o c a l s as o r i g i n a t i n g from w i t h i n the I n d i a n v i l l a g e s t h e m s e l v e s r a t h e r than from e x t e r n a l s o u r c e s . Wide r e c o g n i t i o n of the need f o r i n t e r n a l l y g e n e r a t e d change i n c r e a s e d the l i k l i h o o d of c o l l e c t i v e a m e l i o r a t i v e a c t i o n b e i n g t a k e n , whereas b l a m i n g e x t e r n a l s o u r c e s f o r l o c a l problems c o u l d w e l l have c r e a t e d e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r e x t e r n a l r e s p o n s e s and th e r e b y e n t r e n c h e d the p r e v a i l i n g dependency a t t i t u d e which had been e r o d i n g s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n among the f i v e bands. A key r e s e a r c h d i s c o v e r y i s the c r i t i c a l r o l e p l a y e d by i n f o r m a l i n t e r - b a n d s t r a t e g i e s i n l e g i t i m i z i n g formal c o o p e r a t i v e p r o c e s s e s i n the v a l l e y . J o i n t p l a n n i n g of l i f e s k i l l s t r a i n i n g programs and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p o l i t i c a l p r o t e s t s -79-h a r n e s s e d and r e i n f o r c e d a l r e a d y h i g h l e v e l s of s i m i l a r i t y , f a m i l i a r i t y and boundar y - s p a n n i n g p r o p e n s i t i e s . The o t h e r c r i t i c a l f a c t o r i n c r e a t i n g NVIA was the pr e s e n c e of i n d i v i d u a l s i n the r e g i o n who p o s s e s s e d the f o r e s i g h t t o r e c o g n i z e the p o t e n t i a l b e n e f i t s of more f o r m a l l y w o r k i n g t o g e t h e r toward common g o a l s . T h i s c o r e of l e a d e r s e x h i b i t e d p e r s i s t e n c e and b o l d n e s s - e s s e n t i a l q u a l i t i e s g i v e n the i n t e n s e r e s i s t a n c e t o c o o p e r a t i o n i n i t i a l l y e n c o u n t e r e d and the l a c k of n a t i v e I n d i a n t r a d i t i o n s i n i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d i n t e r - b a n d c o o p e r a t i on. The p e r i o d l e a d i n g up t o the i n c e p t i o n of NVIA was marked by animated debates between the a d v o c a t e s and d e t r a t o r s of formal c o o p e r a t i o n . The s u c c e s s of i n f o r m a l c o o p e r a t i v e s t r a t e g i e s i n l o c a l s k i l l development was c i t e d by the pr o p o n e n t s of formal c o o p e r a t i o n as e v i d e n c e of the p o t e n t i a l of more i n t e n s e c o l l a b o r a t i v e e f f o r t t o f u r t h e r advance the w e l l - b e i n g and s e l f - g o v e r n i n g c a p a c i t i e s of the n a t i v e p e o p l e of the N i c o l a V a l l e y . Comprehensive p l a n n i n g was not done i n the f o r m a t i v e s t a g e s t o o u t l i n e the g o a l s of the c o o p e r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n , i d e n t i f y the r o l e s and o b l i g a t i o n s of member bands, e s t a b l i s h mechanisms f o r m i t i g a t i n g r i s k and r e s t r a i n i n g p o t e n t i a l v i o l a t o r s of j o i n t agreements, and d i s t r i b u t e the rewards of c o o p e r a t i o n . Because p r e l i m i n a r y p l a n n i n g f a i l e d t o f o c u s on these key i s s u e s , p roblems l a t e r s u r f a c e d . -80-In f a i r n e s s t o the o r g a n i z e r s , however, t h e r e was i n 1973 l i t t l e p r e c e d e n t f o r the formal s t r u c t u r i n g of c o o p e r a t i o n among groups of n a t i v e I n d i a n bands. E a r l y p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t y f o c u s e d on g e n e r a l "motherhood'' s t a t e m e n t s about the p o t e n t i a l v a l u e of for m a l c o o p e r a t i o n . Whatever i t s e v e n t u a l s h o r t c o m i n g s , an i n t e r - b a n d , c o o p e r a t i v e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g body was, i n f a c t , e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1973 - a major achievement g i v e n the l a c k of n a t i v e I n d i a n t r a d i t i o n s i n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e democracy. b) Category 2: F a c t o r s R e l a t e d t o Reward D e l i v e r y The NVIA case conforms t o the f a c t o r s c a t e g o r i z e d under the h e a d i n g "reward d e l i v e r y . S i n c e NVIA's e s t a b l i s h m e n t i n 1973, the f i v e bands have b e n e f i t t e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y from Improved f u n d i n g l e v e l s and r e l a t e d programs, a d a p t a b i l i t y t o economic and p o l i t i c a l change, e f f i c i e n c y of r e s o u r c e use and a b i l i t y t o a c h i e v e common g o a l s i n s o c i a l development, h o u s i n g and I n f r a s t r u c t u r e , e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g , s m a l l b u s i n e s s development and, most s i g n i f i c a n t l y , enhanced l o c a l c o n t r o l . NVIA has t h e r e f o r e g a i n e d c o n s i d e r a b l e c r e d i b i l i t y among i t s member bands by " d e l i v e r i n g the goods'. A wide range of community development i n i t i a t i v e s have been made p o s s i b l e through j o i n t p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n . By p o o l i n g human and f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s , the bands have managed t o e s t a b l i s h companies, b u i l d and r e n o v a t e h o u s i n g , expand community i n f r a s t r u c t u r e , n u r t u r e new b u s i n e s s e s , b u i l d band s c h o o l s and dev e l o p the a r e a ' s - 8 1 -n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . O p p o r t u n i t i e s have been s e i z e d through j o i n t c o n t r o l of a g e n c i e s w i t h mandates i n f i n a n c i a l management, s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , p o s t - s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n , economic development and r e a l e s t a t e i n v e s t m e n t . C o l l e c t i v e p o l i t i c a l l o b b y i n g has e n a b l e d the f i v e bands t o i n f l u e n c e , t o a degree unmatched i n the p a s t , p u b l i c p o l i c y makers and b u r e a u c r a t s i n m a t t e r s d i r e c t l y a f f e c t i n g t h e i r f u t u r e . L o b b y i n g has c o n t r i b u t e d t o improved a d a p t a b i l i t y t o change and u n c e r t a i n t y , r e s u l t i n g i n an enhanced c a p a c i t y t o c a r r y out j o i n t agreements. At the band l e v e l , i n n o v a t i v e s t r a t e g i e s and improved p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g have r e s u l t e d from the c o o p e r a t i v e s h a r i n g of i d e a s and e x p e r i e n c e . C o o r d i n a t i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l s e r v i c e s through NVIA has f a c i l i t a t e d c o s t - e f f e c t i v e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of a range of community development s t r a t e g i e s . c) Category 3: F a c t o r s A f f e c t i n g the C a p a b i l i t y of the C o o p e r a t i v e O r g a n i z a t i o n In g e n e r a l , NVIA i s weakest i n the c a t e g o r y of f a c t o r s r e l a t i n g t o o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c a p a b i l i t i e s . However, t h e r e a r e e x c e p t i o n s . R e c o g n i z i n g t h a t i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e a l s o o p e r a t e s at l e v e l s beyond the b o r d e r s of the v a l l e y , NVIA's l e a d e r s have demonstrated a c a p a c i t y t o i n f l u e n c e d e c i s i o n making by s e n i o r government p o l i c y makers f o r w e l l over a decade. To a degree, NVIA has a l s o c a p i t a l i z e d on the bands' s h a r e d g e o g r a p h i c a l . - 8 2 -c u l t u r a l and economic c i r c u m s t a n c e s . However, NVIA does not c l e a r l y demonstrate the a b i l i t y t o b u i l d broad-based commitment, promote h e a l t h y i n t e r - b a n d r e l a t i o n s and r e s o l v e i t s own i n t e r n a l problems. In any i n t e r -band c o o p e r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e i n which the t h r e e l a r g e s t members emphasize t h r e e d i f f e r e n t d i m e n s i o n s of community development, c o n t i n u o u s c o n s e n s u s - b u i l d i n g i s e s s e n t i a l . Yet t h e r e i s a g e n e r a l l a c k of awareness of NVIA's s t a t e d mandate and a r e l a t i v e l y p a s s i v e approach t o community involvement on the p a r t of the c o o p e r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n i t s e l f . R e c o g n i z i n g the v i t a l r o l e of communication t o o r g a n i z a t i o n a l commitment, some NVIA s t a f f have p e r c e i v e d a need f o r an improved system of i n f o r m a t i o n - s h a r i n g among the o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s numerous program a r e a s . A l t h o u g h some band members a r e d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h the p r e s e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n of v o t i n g power among the f i v e bands, NVIA has not demonstrated an a b i l i t y o r w i l l i n g n e s s t o a l l a y t h e i r c o n c e r n s . The A r e a C o u n c i l may be r e l u c t a n t t o ac c e p t the p o l i t i c a l consequences of amending the e x i s t i n g b a l a n c e of power. For example, i f the d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s were amended, the problem of some l a r g e r bands owing money t o s m a l l e r bands would p r o b a b l y have t o be a d d r e s s e d . Maintenance of p o s i t i v e and p r o d u c t i v e i n t e r - b a n d r e l a t i o n s has become more d i f f i c u l t i n the absence of mechanisms f o r m o n i t o r i n g and r e g u l a t i n g the f i s c a l b e h a v i o u r of member bands. -83-Respondents spoke of the need t o r e s t r i c t bands from s p e n d i n g i n a r e a s where o t h e r bands' f u n d i n g c o u l d be a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d . To d a t e , however, the A r e a C o u n c i l appears t o have t u r n e d i t s a t t e n t i o n t o o t h e r m a t t e r s . I t s i n a b i l i t y o r u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o c r e a t e e f f e c t i v e s e 1 f - r e g u 1 a t o r y mechanisms may u l t i m a t e l y weaken the bands' commitment t o a c o o p e r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n i n w hich the t h r e e l a r g e s t bands pursue community development from t h r e e d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e s : s o c i a l development, e d u c a t i o n and economic development. S i g n i f i c a n t l y , c o n t r o v e r s i a l power r e l a t i o n s and f i s c a l c o n f l i c t stem from i n c o m p l e t e p l a n n i n g d u r i n g the f o r m a t i o n of NVIA. E a r l y p l a n n i n g was s u f f i c i e n t t o h e l p e s t a b l i s h NVIA i t s e l f but i t l a c k e d a d e l i b e r a t e , comprehensive approach i n s e t t i n g up the c o o p e r a t i v e body's g o a l s and each member band's s p e c i f i c r i g h t s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . S i m i l a r l y , NVIA has demonstrated a l a c k of c a p a c i t y t o d e v e l o p p o l i c i e s r e s t r i c t i n g p o l i t i c a l i n t e r v e n t i o n i n program and b u s i n e s s management. Lea d e r s w i t h contempt f o r government r e g u l a t i o n s a r e perhaps more prone than o t h e r s t o d i s r e g a r d p r o p e r p r o t o c o l i n t h e i r own b a c k y a r d . S e r i o u s l i m i t a t i o n s a r e p l a c e d on the impact of p o l i c y improvements i f t h e r e i s i n s u f f i c i e n t p o l i t i c a l w i l l t o e n f o r c e them. As the bands' c o o p e r a t i v e agency, NVIA has not c o n f r o n t e d t h i s i s s u e . In any c a s e , i t s p o l i c y - m a k i n g a u t h o r i t y i s l i m i t e d t o j o i n t l y c o n t r o l l e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s , as i t does not e x t e n d t o those - 8 4 -c o n t r o l l e d by i n d i v i d u a l bands. On the p o s i t i v e s i d e , however, NVIA's economic development agency - NVIDC - has s i d e s t e p p e d p o l i t i c a l m e d d l i n g i n j o i n t l y or band-owned e n t e r p r i s e s by p l a c i n g g r e a t e r emphasis on i n d i v i d u a l l y owned b u s i n e s s e s . NVIA has an i m p r e s s i v e r e c o r d i n d e a l i n g w i t h e x t e r n a l l y g e n e r a t e d p r o b l e m s , such as i r r e l e v a n t government programs, i n s e n s i t i v e INAC p o l i c i e s o r i n s u f f i c i e n t f u n d i n g s u p p o r t f o r l o c a l i n i t i a t i v e s . However, i t s r e c o r d i s l e s s i m p r e s s i v e i n a d d r e s s i n g i t s own i n t e r n a l problems, such as d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h e x i s t i n g i n t e r - b a n d power r e l a t i o n s and imprudent f i s c a l p r a c t i c e s on the p a r t of some bands. 3. Summary of F i n d i n g s Below are l i s t e d the t h r e e major f i n d i n g s of t h i s t h e s i s . Each r e l a t e s t o a major c a t e g o r y of f a c t o r s f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g e f f e c t i v e i n ter-community c o o p e r a t i o n . a) The N i c o l a V a l l e y case e x h i b i t s a l l s i x f a c t o r s f o r i n i t i a t i n g i n t er-community c o l l a b o r a t i o n . These f a c t o r s i n c l u d e the f i v e bands r e s p o n d i n g t o a c r i s i s o r t h r e a t , h o l d i n g a degree of mutual s i m i l a r i t y and f a m i l i a r i t y , a c h i e -v i n g c o n s e n s u s , p o s s e s s i n g e f f e c t i v e l e a d e r s h i p , demonstra-t i n g a p r o p e n s i t y t o work t o g e t h e r , and p l a n n i n g f o r m a l c o o p e r a t i o n . The case t h e r e f o r e conforms t o e x p e c t a t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o the i n i t i a t i o n of i nter-community c o o p e r a t i o n . - 8 5 -b) The N i c o l a V a l l e y case e x h i b i t s a l l f o u r of the f a c t o r s f o r d e l i v e r i n g rewards t o the p a r t i c i p a t i n g communities. These rewards i n c l u d e enhanced r e s o u r c e a c q u i s i t i o n , improved a d a p t a b i l i t y , g r e a t e r e f f i c i e n c y and more s u c c e s s f u l goal achievement. The case t h e r e f o r e conforms t o e x p e c t a t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o the d e l i v e r y of rewards t o p a r t i c i p a t i n g communities c ) The N i c o l a V a l l e y case e x h i b i t s o n l y two of f i v e f a c t o r s r e s p e c t i n g the a b i l i t i e s of NVIA t o m a i n t a i n p o s i t i v e momen-tum: the a b i l i t y t o manage the e x t e r n a l environment and t o e x p l o i t common c u l t u r a l and g e o g r a p h i c a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s . How-e v e r , NVIA does not e x h i b i t t h r e e a b i l i t i e s : b u i l d i n g commit-ment, p l a n n i n g harmonious i n t e r - b a n d r e l a t i o n s h i p s and s o l v i n g i n t e r n a l problems. In g e n e r a l , t h e r e f o r e , the case does not conform t o e x p e c t a t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o the ong o i n g c a p a b i l i t y of c o o p e r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s . 4. L i m i t a t i o n s Two t h e s i s l i m i t a t i o n s a r e worthy of n o t e . F i r s t , case s t u d y r e s e a r c h f a l l s t o a d d r e s s f a c t o r s o t h e r than i n t e r - b a n d c o o p e r a t i o n which may have been c r i t i c a l t o community development s u c c e s s i n the N i c o l a V a l l e y . Indeed, the s u r v e y r e s u l t s c a l l i n t o q u e s t i o n my assumption about the v i t a l r o l e of inte r - c o m m u n i t y c o o p e r a t i o n , w i t h about h a l f of the r e s p o n d e n t s c l a i m i n g t h a t c o o p e r a t i o n was not c r i t i c a l t o p r o g r e s s . F i v e i n t e r v i e w e e s j u d g e d o t h e r f a c t o r s , such as community p r i d e , e x t e r n a l f u n d i n g a s s i s t a n c e , key l e a d e r s , i m p o r t a n t e v e n t s and a r e t u r n t o t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s as b e i n g more c r u c i a l t o development than i n t e r - b a n d c o o p e r a t i o n . However, t h i s r e v e l a t i o n does not e l i m i n a t e c o o p e r a t i o n as a key f a c t o r . For a v a r i e t y of r e a s o n s , such as p r i d e i n one's - 8 6 -own band, p e r s o n a l d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h NVIA or l a c k of awareness of the l i n k s between c o o p e r a t i o n on the one hand and key l e a d e r s and e v e n t s , t r a d i t i o n , and f u n d i n g s u p p o r t on the o t h e r , some r e s p o n d e n t s may be u n d e r e s t i m a t i n g c o o p e r a t i o n as a f a c t o r i n the bands' development. N e v e r t h e l e s s , r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s suggest t h a t i n the N i c o l a V a l l e y at l e a s t , c o o p e r a t i o n was o n l y one of s e v e r a l f a c t o r s b e h i n d community development s u c c e s s over the l a s t two decades. Second, one may w e l l q u e s t i o n the r e l e v a n c e of t h e s i s f i n d i n g s t o the needs of s m a l l , g e o g r a p h i c a l l y i s o l a t e d I n d i a n bands which f a c e many of the c o n s t r a i n t s t o development once c o n f r o n t e d by the N i c o l a V a l l e y bands a c t i n g s e p a r a t e l y , but which do not sh a r e t h e i r r e g i o n s w i t h o t h e r bands. 5. D i s c u s s i o n C r i t i c a l t o the i n i t i a t i o n of i n t e r - b a n d c o o p e r a t i o n i n the N i c o l a V a l l e y was the c o n t r i b u t i o n of a h i g h degree of s i m i l a r i t y and f a m i l i a r i t y among the bands t o the development of consensus. F u r t h e r s t r e n g t h e n e d by i n f o r m a l c o o p e r a t i v e s t r a t e g i e s , consensus h e l p e d t o m a i n t a i n c l o s e i n t e r - b a n d r e l a t i o n s h i p s a f t e r c o o p e r a t i o n was f o r m a l i z e d i n 1973. A l s o c r i t i c a l i n the f o r m a t i v e s t a g e was the a b i l i t y of a few l e a d e r s t o a n t i c i p a t e the b e n e f i t s of c o o p e r a t i o n and then b u i l d s u f f i c i e n t l y b r o a d s u p p o r t t o implement t h e i r i d e a s . - 8 7 -Given the l a c k of p r e c e d e n t i n Canada of c o o p e r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e s i n v o l v i n g n a t i v e communities, s t r o n g l e a d e r s h i p was p a r t i c u l a r y i m p o r t a n t . To e s t a b l i s h formal c o o p e r a t i o n , n a t i v e communities l a c k i n g s t r o n g t r a d i t i o n s i n i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d forms of c o o p e r a t i o n may t h e r e f o r e be more dependent than o t h e r t y p e s of communities on i m a g i n a t i v e , b o l d and p e r s i s t e n t l e a d e r s h i p . I t i s im p o r t a n t t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t formal i n t e r - b a n d c o o p e r a t i o n was s u c c e s s f u l l y i n i t i a t e d i n the N i c o l a V a l l e y i n the absence of comprehensive e a r l y p l a n n i n g t o e s t a b l i s h the purpose of NVIA, the r o l e s , r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and power of each member band, how band i n p u t s c o u l d be matched t o rewards and how bands c o u l d be compensated f o r v i o l a t i o n s by o t h e r member bands of c o o p e r a t i v e agreements. C l e a r l y , some p r e p a r a t o r y work had been done p r i o r t o the f o r m a t i o n of NVIA o r the bands would not have been induced t o p a r t i c i p a t e . I t i s o n l y i n h i n d s i g h t t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t number of r e s p o n d e n t s d e c r i e d the l a c k of adequate p l a n n i n g i n the f o r m a t i o n of NVIA. The p o i n t here i s not t o de-emphasize the importance of p r e l i m i n a r y p l a n n i n g i n i n t r o d u c i n g i n t e r - b a n d c o o p e r a t i o n , but t o s t r e s s t h a t the e a r l y p l a n n i n g t h a t was cond u c t e d s u f f i c e d t o I n i t i a t e f ormal c o o p e r a t i o n i n the N i c o l a V a l l e y . However, i t i s l i k e l y t h a t many of NVIA's i n t e r n a l p roblems which s u r f a c e d y e a r s a f t e r i t s i n c e p t i o n o r i g i n a t e , at l e a s t i n p a r t , from inadequate p r e l i m i n a r y p l a n n i n g . NVIA's s u c c e s s i n " d e l i v e r i n g the goods' i n terms of - 8 8 -p r o v i d i n g improved a c c e s s t o r e s o u r c e s , a d a p t a t i o n , e f f i c i e n c y and a b i l i t y t o a c h i e v e the p h y s i c a l , economic and s o c i a l development g o a l s of i t s member bands has been c r u c i a l t o i t s s u r v i v a l o v er a p e r i o d of f i f t e e n y e a r s . However, t o date some of the b e n e f i t s of c o o p e r a t i o n - p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e a c c r u i n g from new h o u s i n g and s u b d i v i s i o n development p r o j e c t s - have been d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y d i s t r i b u t e d t o the l a r g e r bands. At l e a s t i n r e c e n t y e a r s , NVIA appears not t o have extended i t s e l f i n b u i l d i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g b r o a d commitment and p o s i t i v e i n t e r - b a n d r e l a t i o n s . I t i s now t h e r e f o r e l e s s a b l e t o r e s o l v e s e r i o u s problems stemming from the p e r c e i v e d u n f a i r n e s s of p r e s e n t J o i n t d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g arrangements, i r r e s p o n s i b l e f i s c a l b e h a v i o u r by some bands, and f e a r s of band autonomy b e i n g compromised by p r e v i o u s i n t e r n a l f u n d i n g agreements g o i n g awry. In t h i s way, the N i c o l a V a l l e y s t o r y s u p p o r t s l i t e r a t u r e f i n d i n g s s t r e s s i n g the importance of comprehensive p r e l i m i n a r y p l a n n i n g , which would have a v o i d e d or a t l e a s t m i t i g a t e d many of these problems. C o n t i n u a t i o n of the c l o s e and p r o d u c t i v e i n t e r - b a n d c o l l a b o r a t i o n t h a t has made NVIA o u t s t a n d i n g among t r i b a l c o u n c i l s i n B r i t i s h Columbia depends on i t s ongoing p l a n n i n g c a p a b i l i t y . NVIA must d e l i b e r a t e l y c o n f r o n t and f i n d agreement on the r e s o l u t i o n of the s e key i s s u e s r e l a t e d t o r e s o u r c e s h a r i n g and J o i n t d e c i s i o n making. Ot h e r w i s e the consensus upon which the o r g a n i z a t i o n was founded and m a i n t a i n e d w i l l b e g i n t o - 8 9 -break down. An i m p o r t a n t l e s s o n t o be drawn from t h i s t h e s i s i s t h a t i n t e r - c o m m u n i t y c o o p e r a t i o n i s not so much a goal i n i t s e l f as i t i s a community development t o o l . B u i l d i n g c o o p e r a t i o n i n v o l v e s one i n a p r o c e s s c o m p r i s e d of s t a g e s , each t o be n u r t u r e d a l o n g toward m a t u r i t y . Key f a c t o r s i n t h i s p r o c e s s are t e m p o r a l l y a r r a n g e d i n t o t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s , each r e p r e s e n t i n g a s t a g e . F i r s t , communities i n i t i a t e c o o p e r a t i v e p r o c e s s e s i n the e x p e c t a t i o n of c e r t a i n rewards; second, they s e t up a c o o p e r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n and reap these rewards; and t h i r d , they n u r t u r e w i t h i n t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n an o n g o i n g c a p a c i t y t o f u r t h e r t h e i r common g o a l s . The importance of p r e l i m i n a r y p l a n n i n g t o t h i s p r o c e s s cannot be o v e r s t a t e d . U n l e s s t h e r e i s a c a p a b i l i t y and w i l l i n g n e s s t o b r i n g l o c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n t o agreement on the p r e c i s e p u r p o s e , s t r u c t u r e and o p e r a t i o n s of c o l l a b o r a t i v e endeavour, c o o p e r a t i o n w i l l e i t h e r not o c c u r a t a l l o r , as i n the case of NVIA, i t w i l l not e v o l v e t o i t s f u l l p o t e n t i a l f o r e n h a n c i n g community growth and improvement. 6. C o n c l u s i o n s Based on a n a l y s i s of the N i c o l a V a l l e y c a s e , I have l i s t e d below the seven most imp o r t a n t f a c t o r s f o r s u c c e s s f u l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n and maintenance of formal i n t e r - b a n d c o o p e r a t i o n . - 9 0 -One f a c t o r - o r g a n i z i n g i n f o r m a l c o o p e r a t i v e s t r a t e g i e s - i s drawn s o l e l y from the case i t s e l f . These f a c t o r s r e p r e s e n t s t e p s t h a t o t h e r groups of n a t i v e communities s h o u l d c o n s i d e r i n p l a n n i n g t h e i r own c o o p e r a t i v e e f f o r t s . a) D e v e l o p i n g Consensus To i n i t i a t e f o r m a l c o o p e r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s , groups of I n d i a n bands s h o u l d f o r m a l l y r e c o g n i z e and a t t a i n a degree of consensus, whereby needs and i n t e r e s t s a r e c l e a r l y d e f i n e d and a c t e d upon, not i n terms of a s i n g l e band but i n terms of the common needs and c o n c e r n s of a l l bands s h a r i n g the r e g i o n . b) O r g a n i z i n g I n f o r m a l C o o p e r a t i v e S t r a t e g i e s To c o n s o l i d a t e consensus and l e g i t i m i z e more s t r u c t u r e d forms of c o o p e r a t i o n , I n d i a n bands s h o u l d i n i t i a l l y p l a n and implement s m a l l - s c a l e , i n f o r m a l J o i n t s t r a t e g i e s . c ) L e a d e r s h i p To i n i t i a t e f o r m a l c o o p e r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s , groups of I n d i a n bands s h o u l d depend on the f o r e s i g h t , p e r s i s t e n c e and l e a d e r s h i p of a c o r e of band members who, r e c o g n i z i n g t h a t the b e n e f i t s of c o o p e r a t i o n outweigh i t s d i s a d v a n t a g e s , a r e w i l l i n g t o commit the m s e l v e s t o b r i n g i n g the communities t o g e t h e r . d) P r e l i m i n a r y P l a n n i n g To i n t e r e s t groups of I n d i a n bands i n s t r u c t u r e d forms of c o o p e r a t i o n , p r o p o n e n t s s h o u l d engage i n a d e l i b e r a t e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s t o r e a c h formal agreement on the purpose of c o l l a b o r a t i v e endeavour, the p r e c i s e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of each band, and ways of d i s t r i b u t i n g the rewards and m i n i m i -z i n g the r i s k s of c o o p e r a t i o n . - 9 1 -e) Reward D e l I v e r y To. gain c r e d i b i l i t y , an i n t e r - b a n d c o o p e r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n should d e l i v e r to i t s member bands improvements in access to v i t a l r e s o u r c e s , a d a p t a b i l i t y to change and u n c e r t a i n t y , e f f i c i e n c y i n the use of human and f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s and success in a t t a i n i n g common community development g o a l s . f ) P l a n n i n g To be e f f e c t i v e i n an ong o i n g way, an i n t e r - b a n d c o o p e r a -t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s h o u l d have a p l a n n i n g c a p a b i l i t y t o b u i l d commitment t o i t s purpose through a c t i v e encourage-ment of broad-based involvement i n c o l l e c t i v e d e c i s i o n making, promote p o s i t i v e i n t e r - b a n d r e l a t i o n s and d e l i b e r a t e l y time c e r t a i n key a c t i v i t i e s w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e phases i n the p r o c e s s of c o n s o l i d a t i n g c o o p e r a t i o n . g> P r o b l e m - S o l v i n g C a p a c i t y To m a i n t a i n v i a b i l i t y , an i n t e r - b a n d c o o p e r a t i v e o r g a n i z a -t i o n s h o u l d d e l i b e r a t e l y c o n f r o n t and r e s o l v e i t s p r o b l e m s , whether they o r i g i n a t e e x t e r n a l l y or I n t e r n a l l y . As n o t e d i n the d i s c u s s i o n of t h e s i s l i m i t a t i o n s , i n t e r -band c o l l a b o r a t i o n has been j u s t one of s e v e r a l f a c t o r s d r i v i n g community development i n the N i c o l a V a l l e y . Other elements such as community p r i d e , e x t e r n a l f u n d i n g a s s i s t a n c e and dynamic l e a d e r s h i p have a l s o been i m p o r t a n t . J u s t as c o o p e r a t i o n s h o u l d not be c i t e d as the s o l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r p r o g r e s s over the l a s t two decades, nor s h o u l d i t accept f u l l blame f o r the bands' o n g o i n g h i g h l e v e l s of unemployment. Indeed, the c o n t r i b u t i o n of c o o p e r a t i o n and o t h e r f a c t o r s t o p o s i t i v e change i s c o n s t r a i n e d by the v a l l e y ' s r e l a t i v e p o v e r t y i n n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s and i t s heavy emphasis on a g r i c u l t u r e , w hich l i m i t s o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r y e a r - r o u n d employment. - 9 2 -C l e a r l y , i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s t h e o r y c o n t r i b u t e s t o the N i c o l a V a l l e y case s t u d y by h i g h l i g h t i n g the importance of comprehensive p r e l i m i n a r y p l a n n i n g and o n g o i n g p l a n n i n g t o the e s t a b l i s h m e n t and maintenance of i n t e r - c o m m u n i t y c o o p e r a t i o n . Indeed, r e c e n t d i f f i c u l t i e s i n the v a l l e y s u p p o r t t h e o r y d e a l i n g w i t h the need f o r i n t e r - b a n d c o o p e r a t i v e networks t o c o n s c i e n t i o u s l y b u i l d commitment and p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s "from the bottom up'. To s o l v e i n t e r n a l problems and m a i n t a i n momentum, c o o p e r a t i v e groups must f i r s t s t i m u l a t e debate among t h e i r c o n s t i t u e n t s t o ensure a b r o a d base of s u p p o r t f o r j o i n t d e c i s i o n s and then promote i n t e r - d e p a r t m e n t a l s t a f f communication t o o p t i m i z e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of j o i n t s t r a t e g i e s . I t must be emphasized, however, t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t rewards have been c a p t u r e d through c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n d e s p i t e inadequate p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e s . Case a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t w h i l e s t a r t i n g c o o p e r a t i o n and r e a p i n g i t s rewards may not be t o t a l l y dependent on a commitment t o p l a n n i n g , m a i n t a i n i n g the j o i n t v e n t u r e over the l o n g term may w e l l be. The case a n a l y s i s makes s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o knowledge about i n t e r - c o m m u n i t y , and more s p e c i f i c a l l y i n t e r -band, c o o p e r a t i o n . As n o t e d above, f a c t o r s such as consensus, l e a d e r s h i p and i n f o r m a l c o o p e r a t i o n were shown t o be more imp o r t a n t than o t h e r s i n o r g a n i z i n g and c o n s o l i d a t i n g formal i n t e r - b a n d endeavour. U t i l i z i n g i n f o r m a l c o o p e r a t i v e s t r a t e g i e s can be i m p o r t a n t , a t l e a s t i n some n a t i v e communities - 9 3 -unaccustomed t o i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d J o i n t e f f o r t , t o b u i l d i n g c o n f i d e n c e i n subsequent, more f o r m a l i z e d c o o p e r a t i o n . Implementing such s t r a t e g i e s can be a l o w - r i s k v e n t u r e which bands may use t o a s s e s s the f e a s i b i l i t y of more s t r u c t u r e d and b i n d i n g forms of c o o p e r a t i o n . The documented p r o g r e s s of the f i v e bands r e i n f o r c e s w r i t i n g s about the c r i t i c a l importance t o the c r e d i b i l i t y and l o n g e v i t y of i n t e r - b a n d c o o p e r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t they p r o v i d e t o t h e i r member communities measurable and p r e v i o u s l y u n a v a i l a b l e b e n e f i t s e s s e n t i a l t o the a t t a i n m e n t of community development g o a l s . I t i s through NVIA's r o l e as t r a i l b l a z e r t h a t the v a l u e of i t s e x p e r i e n c e i s most c l e a r l y r e c o g n i z e d . For the f i v e s u b j e c t bands, l e a d e r s h i p and i n f o r m a l c o o p e r a t i o n p r o v e d t o be i n d i s p e n s i b l e t o the i n i t i a t i o n of s t r u c t u r e d c o o p e r a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y g i v e n the absence of p r e - e x i s t i n g c o o p e r a t i v e models. For o t h e r groups of I n d i a n bands i n t e r e s t e d i n s i m i l a r forms of c o l l a b o r a t i o n , t h e s e two c o n s i d e r a t i o n s w i l l be perhaps l e s s i m p o r t a n t . NVIA's s u c c e s s c l e a r l y d e monstrates t h a t i n t e r - b a n d c o o p e r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s can be advantageous t o t h e i r member communities. On the o t h e r hand, i t s d i f f i c u l t i e s h i g h l i g h t the importance of d e l i b e r a t e p r e l i m i n a r y p l a n n i n g and o n g o i n g p l a n n i n g t o the c o n t i n u i n g I n t e g r i t y and e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the c o o p e r a t i v e c o n s t r u c t . T h e s i s a n a l y s i s s u g g e s t s t h a t comprehensive p r e l i m i n a r y p l a n n i n g i s not always as c r u c i a l t o -94-i n i t i a t i n g f o r m a l inter-community c o o p e r a t i v e networks as i t i s t o e s t a b l i s h i n g the b a s i s f o r t h e i r o n g o i n g u t i l i t y o v e r the l o n g term. N a t u r a l l y p r e d i s p o s e d t o c o o p e r a t i v e endeavour by h i s t o r y and c u l t u r e , g e o g r a p h i c a l l y and c u l t u r a l l y r e l a t e d I n d i a n communities s t a n d t o b e n e f i t from b u i l d i n g c l o s e p o l i t i c a l and economic l i n k a g e s w i t h each o t h e r . C o o p e r a t i v e e n t e r p r i s e h o l d s out t o s i n g l e I n d i a n bands the promise of g r e a t e r p o l i t i c a l c l o u t , c o o r d i n a t e d p l a n n i n g , economies of s c a l e and more i n n o v a t i v e s t r a t e g i e s . These i n c e n t i v e s a r e e s s e n t i a l t o the r e a l i z a t i o n of many k i n d s of community development g o a l s . However, I n d i a n bands need t o e x e r c i s e c a u t i o n i n embracing formal c o o p e r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e i r n e i g h b o u r s . That i s , i n t h e i r own l o n g - t e r m i n t e r e s t bands need t o r e a c h formal agreement not o n l y on the s p e c i f i c p u rposes of the c o o p e r a t i v e body and t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e r o l e s i n i t , but a l s o on how the a n t i c p a t e d b e n e f i t s of c o o p e r a t i o n are t o be d i s t r i b u t e d and i t s p o t e n t i a l r i s k s m i t i g a t e d . Once bands have e s t a b l i s h e d a c o o p e r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n , the c h a l l e n g e has j u s t begun. The o r g a n i z a t i o n must meet the d i v e r s e needs of each community w h i l e a d d r e s s i n g c o l l e c t i v e c o n c e r n s i n a way t h a t w i l l not o v e r l y compromise each community's p o l i t i c a l and economic autonomy. T h i s i s not an easy t a s k and a measure of band autonomy w i 1 1 have t o be r e l i n q u i s h e d i n o r d e r t o a t t a i n s h a r e d g o a l s . - 9 5 -I t i s hoped t h a t t h i s t h e s i s w i l l e n l i g h t e n groups of communities, p a r t i c u l a r l y I n d i a n bands, on ways of e f f e c t i v e l y i n t r o d u c i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g c l o s e c o o p e r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s f o r mutual advantage, and t h a t t h e s e groups w i l l be i n s p i r e d by the p o t e n t i a l rewards of c o o p e r a t i o n w h i l e s y s t e m a t i c a l l y r e c o g n i z i n g and c o n f r o n t i n g i t s d i f f i c u l t i e s and r i s k s . -96-B i b l i o a r a p h v A i k e n , M. and J . Hage. " O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Interdependence and I n t r a - O r g a n i z a t i o n a l S t r u c t u r e " , i n W i l l i a m M. Evan ( E d . ) , I n t e r o r a a n l z a t i o n a l R e l a t i o n s . 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Vancouver: Douglas and M c l n t y r e , 1979. Wyatt, D. The I n d i a n H i s t o r y Of The N i c o l a V a l l e v . B r i t i s h  Co1umbia. Phd T h e s i s , Brown U n i v e r s i t y , 1972. -105-Appendix 1 - L i s t of Respondents The a l p h a b e t i c a l l i s t of names below i d e n t i f i e s t hose p e r s o n s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the N i c o l a V a l l e y i n t e r v i e w s e s s i o n s . 1. H a r o l d AlJam 2. Gordon A n t o i n e 3. R o s e - L i n d a Archachan 4. Doug Baker 5. W i l l i e B a s i 1 6. Donna Char 1ie 7. Mary June C o u t l e e 8. Jimmy F o u n t a i n 9. John Hi 1 ton 10. F r e d Holmes 11. R i c h a r d J a c k s o n , J r . 12. B a r b a r a Joe - Band C o u n c i l l o r , C o l d w a t e r Band - Program Manager, C o l d w a t e r Band School - A d m i n i s t r a t o r , NVIA - C h i e f , C o l d w a t e r Band - Band Membership C l e r k , NVIA - Upper N i c o l a Band member - Manager, N i c o l a V a l l e y I n s t i t u t e of Technology - Lower N i c o l a Band member - Shackan Band member - Band C o u n c i l l o r , Lower N i c o l a Band - Band C o u n c i l l o r , N o o a i t c h Band - Businessman - T e c h n i c a l S e r v i c e s A d v i s o r , NVIA - C h i e f C o u n c i l l o r and Band P l a n n e r , Upper N i c o l a Band - Membership C o - o r d i n a t o r , NVIA - Lower N i c o l a Band member - E x e c u t i v e S e c r e t a r y , NVIA - Shackan Band member -106-13. Mabel Joe 14. P e r c y Joe 15. Rose Joe 16. Harvey Mcleod 17. D a n i e l Manuel 18. B r i a n M i c h e l 19. L o r r a i n e Moses 20. C h a r l o t t e Ned 21. C l a r e n c e Oppenheim 22. P h i l l i p Oppenheim 23. Rena Sam 24. Dave Schaab 25. Joan Seymour 26. F r a n c i s S h u t e r 27. G i b S h u t e r 28. P h i l Smith E l d e r , Lower N i c o l a Band C h i e f C o u n c i l l o r , Shackan Band E l d e r , Shackan Band Small B u s i n e s s A d v i s o r , N i c o l a V a l l e y I n d i a n Development C o r p o r a t i o n Upper N i c o l a Band member former C h i e f C o u n c i l l o r , Upper N i c o l a Band Resource P l a n n e r , Upper N i c o l a Band Upper N i c o l a Band member Manager and Small B u s i n e s s A d v i s o r , N i c o l a V a l l e y I n d i a n Development C o r p o r a t i on Lower N i c o l a Band member P a y r o l l C l e r k , V a l l e y B u s i n e s s Computer S e r v i c e s Upper N i c o l a Band member Band Manager, C o l d w a t e r Band C o l d w a t e r Band member Col d w a t e r Band member Bus i nessman A c c o u n t s R e c e i v a b l e C l e r k , V a l l e y B u s i n e s s Computer S e r v i c e s Shackan Band member C o n t r o l l e r , NVIA S u p e r v i s o r , V a l l e y B u s i n e s s Computer S e r v i c e s S o c i a l Development C o o r d i n a t o r , NVIA C h i e f C o u n c i l l o r , Lower N i c o l a Band Band Manager, Lower N i c o l a Band Lower N i c o l a Band member R e g i s t e r e d P r o f e s s i o n a l F o r e s t e r , N i c o l a V a l l e y I n d i a n Development C o r p o r a t i on -107-29. Doug S p r i n g f o r d 30. A u s t i n S t i r l i n g 31. C I i f f o r d S t i r l i n g 32. Deanna S t i r l i n g 33. Sophie St i r l i n g 34. Amy Tom 35. T r acey Tomma 36. May Voght P o l i c y P l a n n i n g A d v i s o r , NVIA Band C o u n c i l l o r , Lower N i c o l a Band Businessman Computer Systems O p e r a t o r , V a l l e y B u s i n e s s Computer S e r v i c e s Lower N i c o l a Band member E l d e r , Lower N i c o l a Band o r g a n i z e r , Upper N i c o l a Band School Upper N i c o l a Band member Lands R e g i s t r a r , NVIA E l d e r , Lower N i c o l a Band member Businesswoman -108-Appendix 2 - I n t e r v i e w Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Below a r e l i s t e d the f i f t e e n q u e s t i o n s which were used i n t h e i n t e r v i e w s e s s i o n s h e l d i n the N i c o l a V a l l e y : 1. For the c a t e g o r y of f a c t o r s i m p o r t a n t t o the i n i t i a t i o n of i n t e r - b a n d c o o p e r a t i o n , the f o l l o w i n g s i x q u e s t i o n s were asked of n i n e r e s p o n d e n t s : a) Were the f i v e bands r e s p o n d i n g t o some s o r t of c r i s i s or e x t e r n a l t h r e a t when they began w o r k i n g t o g e t h e r i n f o r -m a l l y i n the m i d - s i x t i e s , and l a t e r f o r m a l l y b e g i n n i n g i n 1973? b) Were mutual s i m i l a r i t y and f a m i l i a r i t y among the f i v e bands imp o r t a n t f a c t o r s i n s t i m u l a t i n g c o o p e r a t i v e a c t i v i -t y ? I f s o , how impo r t a n t were they? c) How im p o r t a n t a r o l e d i d consensus - or the r e c o g n i t i o n of common problems and g o a l s among the f i v e bands - p l a y i n the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of NVIA? d> Were t h e r e i n d i v i d u a l s who p l a y e d a l e a d e r s h i p r o l e i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n of c l o s e r c o o p e r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s among the f i v e bands? I f s o , how im p o r t a n t a f a c t o r were these p e o p l e ? e) In- the y e a r s l e a d i n g up t o the f o r m a t i o n of NVIA i n 1973, d i d the bands view the m s e l v e s as communities open t o n e i g h b o u r i n g communities, d i d t h e i r members demonstrate boundary-spanning and e n v i r o n m e n t - s c a n n i n g p r o p e n s i t i e s , and what were some of the f a c t o r s which induced the bands t o b e g i n w o r k i n g t o g e t h e r ? -109-f ) Was p r e l i m i n a r y p l a n n i n g an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n NVIA's f o r m a t i v e p e r i o d i n 1973 and, more s p e c i f i c a l l y , d i d t h i s p l a n n i n g ensure t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t bands c l e a r l y u n d e r s t o o d the purpose of the p r oposed j o i n t u n d e r t a k i n g , t h e i r own r o l e s and o b l i g a t i o n s , the r i s k s i n v o l v e d and the r e l a -t i o n s h i p between p a r t i c i p a n t i n p u t and reward? For the c a t e g o r y of f a c t o r s d e a l i n g w i t h reward d e l i v e r y , a l l t h i r t y - s i x r e s p o n d e n t s were asked the f o l l o w i n g f o u r quest i o n s : a) Has i n t e r - b a n d c o o p e r a t i o n , as r e p r e s e n t e d by NVIA, r e s u l t e d i n improved band a c c e s s t o r e s o u r c e s , such as government f u n d i n g f o r v a r i o u s programs and c a p i t a l p r o j e c t s , key i n f o r m a t i o n , and t e c h n i c a l - p r o f e s s i o n a l s k i 1 I s ? b) S i n c e the f o r m a t i o n of NVIA, have the bands i n c r e a s e d t h e i r a b i l i t y t o adapt t o s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n government p o l i c y , economic c o n d i t i o n s or o t h e r e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n f l u e n c e s ? c ) Have the bands been a b l e t o c o o r d i n a t e human, f i n a n c i a l and p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s more e f f i c i e n t l y than they d i d p r i o r t o the f o r m a t i o n of NVIA? d) Has i n t e r - b a n d c o o p e r a t i o n l e d , through NVIA, t o s u c c e s s i n the achievement of common p h y s i c a l , economic and s o c i a l development g o a l s ? To determine the c a p a b i l i t y of the c o o p e r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n i n m a i n t a i n i n g i t s own momentum and sense of purpose, the t h i r t y - s i x r e s p o n d e n t s were asked the f o l l o w i n g f i v e quest i o n s : a) How e f f e c t i v e has NVIA been i n b u i l d i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g b r o a d commitment t o i t s own a c t i v i t i e s and g o a l s among the membership i n the f i v e bands, band s t a f f and i t s own s t a f f , and how i m p o r t a n t a r o l e has e m o t i o n a l z e a l p l a y e d i n t h i s p r o c e s s ? -110-b) Has NVIA i t s e l f d e m onstrated an ongoing a b i l i t y and w i l l i n g n e s s t o a c t i v e l y promote p o s i t i v e i n t e r - b a n d r e l a t i o n s ? c ) To f u r t h e r i t s own g o a l s , has NVIA been a b l e t o manage change i n i t s e x t e r n a l environment? d) How i m p o r t a n t a re the bands' common g e o g r a p h i c a l and c u l t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n m a i n t a i n i n g and s t r e n g t h e n i n g c o o p e r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s , and has NVIA been a b l e t o ta k e advantage of the s e s h a r e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ? e) Over the y e a r s , how s u c c e s s f u l l y has NVIA d e a l t w i t h s e r i o u s problems and t h r e a t s ? 

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