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In their own image : Nuwara Eliya, a British town in the heart of Ceylon Wright, Judith Helen 1988

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IN THEIR OWN IMAGE: NUWARA ELIYA, A BRITISH TOWN IN THE HEART OF CEYLON B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1983 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF THE FACULTY...OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Geography We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1988 (cT) Judith Helen Wright, 19 88 By JUDITH HELEN WRIGHT MASTER OF ARTS i n In p resen t ing this thesis in partial f u l f i lmen t o f t he r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced d e g r e e at t he Univers i ty o f British C o l u m b i a , 1 agree tha t t h e Library shall make it f ree ly available f o r re ference and s tudy. I f u r the r agree that pe rmiss ion f o r ex tens ive c o p y i n g o f th is thesis f o r scholar ly pu rposes may be g ran ted by the head o f m y d e p a r t m e n t o r by his o r her representat ives. It is u n d e r s t o o d that c o p y i n g o r pub l i ca t i on o f th is thesis f o r f inancial gain shall n o t b e a l l o w e d w i t h o u t m y w r i t t e n pe rm iss ion . The Univers i ty o f Brit ish C o l u m b i a Vancouver , Canada D e p a r t m e n t o f DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT The thesis i s a study of Ceylon's only h i l l - s t a t i o n , Nuwara E l i y a . Nuwara E l i y a was established in 1829 as a m i l i t a r y sanitarium and gradually assumed the role of a seasonal resort in the second half of the century. Located at 6,280 feet elevation in the temperate h i l l region, Nuwara E l i y a came to have an important role in the s o c i a l and recreational l i f e of the B r i t i s h in Ceylon. The landscape resembled that of the English countryside, which inspired the B r i t i s h to shape the landscape in the image of their homeland. This thesis explores the sentimental attachment that B r i t i s h expatriates formed for Nuwara E l i y a . Based on evidence from the nineteenth century writings of expatriates arid t r a v e l l e r s who v i s i t e d the h i l l - s t a t i o n , i t suggests that the Romanticism prevalent during the period had a s i g n i f i c a n t influence on the manner in which expatriates perceived and interpreted the landscape of Nuwara E l i y a . Romanticism alone did not account for the emergence of Nuwara E l i y a as an English v i l l a g e . It argues that romanticism, in conjunction with the following factors, contributed to the development of the English landscape of the Nuwara E l i y a . The h i l l - s t a t i o n provided an accessible locale with a temperate climate and vegetation that offered an a l t e r n a t i v e to the heat of the lowlands. The B r i t i s h possessed a set of ethno-medical b e l i e f s which held that such an environment was the one to which Europeans were best suited. In addition, the recreational preferences of the B r i t i s h and the s p e c i f i c recreational and s o c i a l needs of the expatriate community contributed to the development of the recreational infrastructure of Nuwara E l i y a . The development of the plantation economy was a further prerequisite for the growth of the h i l l - s t a t i o n . Perhaps the most important consideration, though, was the longing B r i t i s h expatriates experienced for their homeland which made them desire a viable substitute for England. The study was conducted through a survey of nineteenth century t r a v e l writings of individuals who v i s i t e d or resided at Nuwara E l i y a . A content analysis was performed on the travel l i t e r a t u r e to determine the attributes of Nuwara E l i y a that were noted in the writings and which indicated the expatriate's and t r a v e l l e r ' s perceptions of the h i l l - s t a t i o n . Subsequent to the l i t e r a t u r e analysis, fieldwork was undertaken in S r i Lanka for a three month period in 1987. Archival research, conducted at the National Archives, Colombo, involved an examination of.the d i a r i e s of the Assistant Government Agent of the Nuwara E l i y a D i s t r i c t , as well as nineteenth century.English-language newspapers to assess the role of the h i l l - s t a t i o n in the s o c i a l l i f e of colonial. Ceylon. Fieldwork also entailed a period of time at Nuwara E l i y a to compile photographic evidence and to permit observation of the landscape and the b u i l t environment.. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Abstract i i L i s t of Figures - v Acknowledgements v i i CHAPTERS Chapter 1: In their own image: Nuwara E l i y a , an introduction 1 Chapter 2: Through eyes and lens: a photographic introduction to the landscape of Nuwara Eliya 13 Chapter 3: H i l l - s t a t i o n s in Colonial South Asia 60 Chapter 4: The plantation economy in Colonial Ceylon 113 Chapter 5: Recreation in Colonial Ceylon 152 Chapter 6: Nuwara Eliya. as a surrogate B r i t a i n : an analysis of nineteenth century t r a v e l writings • 190 Chapter 7: Nuwara E l i y a : conclusions • 250 Bibliography • \ • 255 Appendix: The Jymkhana . . - 267 The Dance in Neweralia . 268 iv LIST OF FIGURES Page Figure 1 .1 Map of Ceylon__ 3 2.1 "The calm waters of the lake r e f l e c t i n g the wooded h i l l s " , Lake Gregory, Nuwara E l i y a _ 17 2.2 "The lake of Nuwara E l i y a i s surrounded by a carriage drive six miles in length", Lake Gregory, Nuwara E l i y a 19 2.3 "A purling stream babbles through the v a l l e y " , the golf l i n k s , Nuwara E l i y a 20 2.4 "The links from White's f i e l d " , Nuwara Eliya_ 22 2.5 "The New Keena Hotel", Nuwara E l i y a . 23 2.6 "The eastern exit from Nuwara E l i y a " 25 2.7 The landscape in the v i c i n i t y of Nuwara E l i y a 27 2.8 The tea plantations surrounding Nuwara E l i y a 27 2.9 A bungalow in Nuwara E l i y a - • - . 31 2.10 A bungalow with bay windows, Nuwara E l i y a 32 2.11 The gate and garden of a bungalow, Nuwara E l i y a 33 2.12 A two-storey bungalow, Nuwara Eliya___ • 35 2.13 A two-storey bungalow on a h i l l - s i d e , Nuwara E l i y a 36 2.14 A faux-tudor bungalow, Nuwara E l i y a • 38 2.15 An elaborate bungalow, now used as an inn, Nuwara E l i y a ; 39 2.16 The bungalow of the National Bank of India, Nuwara Eliya_ ; 40 2.17 D e t a i l of the National Bank of India bungalow, Nuwara E l i y a _ _ . 41 2.18 National Bank of India building, Nuwara Eliy a _ _ • •  44 v L i s t of Figures Page 2.19 De t a i l of the National Bank of India building, Nuwara E l i y a _ 45 2.20 Post and Telegraph O f f i c e , Nuwara E l i y a 46 2.21 C a r g i l l s store building, Nuwara E l i y a 47 2.22 The approach to the H i l l Club, Nuwara E l i y a 50 2.23 The H i l l Club, Nuwara E l i y a ' • 51 2.24 The H i l l Club bungalow, Nuwara E l i y a _ _ 52 2.25 The Grand Hotel, formerly Barnes H a l l , Nuwara Eliya. ' 53 2.26 The Nuwara E l i y a Race Course 54 2.27 The grandstand of the Nuwara E l i y a Race Course_ 54 2.28 Holy T r i n i t y Church, Nuwara E l i y a 57 2.29 A stone angel headstone on a child' s grave, Holy T r i n i t y Church, Nuwara E l i y a • • 58 3.1 H i l l - s t a t i o n s in c o l o n i a l South Asia 62 5.1 The Nuwara E l i y a Golf Club _ _ 168 5.2 A view of the golf l i n k s , Nuwara E l i y a 169 5.3 A cric k e t match at the United Club, Nuwara E l i y a 173 5.4 "The Water Jump" at the Nuwara E l i y a Jymkhana 176 5.5 "Natives at the Jymkhana", Nuwara E l i y a . 177 v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e t o thank my a d v i s o r , A l f r e d Siemens, f o r h i s wise c o u n s e l , h i s warm humour, and h i s keen e n t h u s i a s m which h e l p e d t o buoy my s p i r i t s and spur my e f f o r t s . I would l i k e t o thank James Duncan f o r h i s s u g g e s t i o n t h a t I examine Nuwara E l i y a and f o r h i s a s s i s t a n c e i n the e a r l y s t a g e s of my r e s e a r c h . Thanks a l s o t o T i s s a Fernando, my second r e a d e r , who f o s t e r e d my i n t e r e s t i n S r i Lanka as an un d e r g r a d u a t e . I would l i k e t o acknowledge the a s s i s t a n c e of the Department of N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s , Colombo, S r i Lanka, and thank G.P..S.Harischandra de S i l v a , D i r e c t o r , f o r h i s guidance i n my a r c h i v a l r e s e a r c h . I am a l s o i n d e b t e d t o the s t a f f a t I n t e r l i b r a r y Loans, a t the Main L i b r a r y , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , f o r t h e i r e f f o r t s i n o b t a i n i n g the obscure volumes n e c e s s a r y f o r my r e s e a r c h . In a d d i t i o n , thanks a r e g i v e n t o M a c m i l i a n Co.. f o r t h e i r p e r m i s s i o n t o reproduce Henry Cave's photographs. I e s p e c i a l l y a p p r e c i a t e the k i n d n e s s of S h e l l e y T e g a r t i n the generous a c c e s s she gave me t o her computer and her . f r i e n d s h i p and moral s u p p o r t . I would l i k e t o thank C a r o l i n e M i l l s f o r her comments on an e a r l i e r d r a f t of t h i s t h e s i s and C a t h e r i n e Souch and Sue Grimmond f o r t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e i n the f i n a l p r e p a r a t i o n of t h i s document. A s p e c i a l thanks i s extended t o my f r i e n d , H a s b u l l a h , f o r h i s s u p p o r t and c o n s t a n t i n t e r e s t i n my work, h i s c a r t o g r a p h i c s k i l l s and the photographs he took on my b e h a l f . Warm thanks and g r a t i t u d e t o my f r i e n d s Gary, Lynne, P a t t i and Thomas f o r t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s t o l i s t e n , t h e i r a d v i c e and encouragement, t h e i r c a j o l i n g when a p p r o p r i a t e and t h e i r f a i t h t h a t t h i s t h e s i s would become a r e a l i t y . v i i CHAPTER 1: IN THEIR OWN IMAGE: NUWARA ELIYA, AN INTRODUCTION T h i s t h e s i s i s a study of C e y l o n ' s o n l y h i l l - s t a t i o n , Nuwara E l i y a . In South A s i a , the B r i t i s h e s t a b l i s h e d numerous h i l l - s t a t i o n s i n t h e i r c o l o n i e s , most n o t a b l y I n d i a , d u r i n g the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , w i t h the p r i n c i p l e s t a t i o n s b e i n g e s t a b l i s h e d between 1815 and 1870. As towns b u i l t i n the temperate h i l l r e g i o n s , h i l l - s t a t i o n s were i n t e n d e d p r i m a r i l y as " h e a l t h s a n i t o r i a " and l a t e r e v o l v e d i n t o s e a s o n a l r e s o r t s . . T h e y were deve l o p e d by the B r i t i s h " c o l o n i a l m asters i n o r d e r t o make s o j o u r n s i n a f o r e i g n l a n d l e s s u n c o m f o r t a b l e " (Spencer and Thomas, 1948:642). H i l l - s t a t i o n s were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the "temporary p a t r o n a g e " of t h e i r o c c u p a n t s , who r e s i d e d a t a s t a t i o n f o r a p e r i o d of weeks or months each y e a r , d u r i n g what was commonly r e f e r r e d t o as "the Season" ( K i n g , 1976a:157). They were p l a c e s of r e f u g e from the heat of l o w l a n d a r e a s . In a d d i t i o n , K i p l i n g r e c o r d e d t h a t women and c h i l d r e n were o f t e n sent "upcountry" to a h i l l - s t a t i o n t o escape p e r i o d i c o u t b r e a k s of d i s e a s e t h a t o c c u r r e d i n the d e n s e l y p o p u l a t e d l o w l a n d s of I n d i a , known as the " P l a i n s " ( K i p l i n g , 1889, 1987). Nuwara E l i y a was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1829 as a m i l i t a r y s a n i t a r i u m and g r a d u a l l y assumed the r o l e of a s e a s o n a l r e s o r t i n the second h a l f of the c e n t u r y . L o c a t e d a t 6,280 f e e t e l e v a t i o n i n the i s l a n d ' s temperate h i l l r e g i o n , Nuwara E l i y a came t o have an imp o r t a n t r o l e i n the s o c i a l and 1 Chapter 1 r e c r e a t i o n a l l i f e of the B r i t i s h i n Ceylo n (see f i g u r e 1.1). The h i l l - s t a t i o n was u n l i k e any o t h e r town on the i s l a n d because of i t s s t r o n g resemblance t o an E n g l i s h v i l l a g e , and most i m p o r t a n t , because of the e m o t i o n a l response i t evoked among B r i t i s h e x p a t r i a t e s . I t p o s s e s s e d a v e r d a n t l a n d s c a p e t h a t resembled the E n g l i s h c o u n t r y s i d e , which i n s p i r e d the B r i t i s h t o shape the l a n d s c a p e i n the image of t h e i r homeland. T h i s t h e s i s e x p l o r e s the s e n t i m e n t a l attachment t h a t B r i t i s h e x p a t r i a t e s formed f o r Nuwara E l i y a . I t i s e v i d e n t from the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y w r i t i n g s of e x p a t r i a t e s and t r a v e l l e r s who v i s i t e d or r e s i d e d a t Nuwara E l i y a , t h a t they viewed the h i l l - s t a t i o n i n h i g h l y r o m a n t i c i z e d terms. The i n t e n s i t y of emotion e x h i b i t e d towards Nuwara E l i y a i n the t r a v e l w r i t i n g s can o n l y be accounted f o r i f Nuwara E l i y a r e p r e s e n t e d something much g r e a t e r than a p l e a s a n t p l a c e t o v i s i t . Indeed, t h i s i s the c a s e . Nuwara E l i y a , as an E n g l i s h v i l l a g e , s y m b o l i z e d B r i t a i n , a l a n d and way of l i f e from which e x p a t r i a t e s were o f t e n u n w i l l i n g l y s e p a r a t e d . The r e s u l t s of a c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y t r a v e l l i t e r a t u r e suggest t h a t the Romanticism p r e v a l e n t d u r i n g t h a t p e r i o d had a s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e on the manner i n which e x p a t r i a t e s p e r c e i v e d and i n t e r p r e t e d the l a n d s c a p e of Nuwara E l i y a . T h i s was not h y p o t h e s i z e d a t the o u t s e t of r e s e a r c h on the h i l l - s t a t i o n but became 2 Chapter 1 F i g u r e 1.1: Map of Ceylon. 3 Chapter 1 apparent when i t was n e c e s s a r y t o e x p l a i n the c o n s i s t e n c y and i n t e n s i t y of e x p a t r i a t e s ' r e a c t i o n s t o the town. I n f l u e n c e d by r o m a n t i c i d e a l s which h e l d t h a t the beauty of n a t u r e was t o be found i n i t s " g l o r i o u s d i v e r s i t y of d e t a i l and e s p e c i a l l y i t s moral or e m o t i o n a l r e l a t i o n t o mankind", e x p a t r i a t e s s a v o r e d t h e i r e m o t i o n a l response t o the l a n d s c a p e ( H a l s t e d , 1969:13). Under the i n f l u e n c e of r o m a n t i c i s m , they were h i g h l y s e n s i t i z e d t o t h e i r s u r r o u n d i n g s . The i m a g i n a t i o n , f e e l i n g s of the h e a r t and a " l o v e f o r t h e . . . m e l a n c h o l y a s p e c t s of n a t u r e " were h e l d i n h i g h esteem ( P r a z , 1970:88). For e x p a t r i a t e s v i e w i n g the l a n d s c a p e of Nuwara E l i y a , t h i s s e n t i m e n t a l a t t i t u d e towards n a t u r e and the l a n d s c a p e was r e n d e r e d even more i n t e n s e by t h e i r l o n g i n g f o r B r i t a i n . B r i t a i n , t o o , became a r o m a n t i c image — g l o r i f i e d , i d e a l i z e d , e u l o g i z e d and c e l e b r a t e d i n the l a n d s c a p e of Nuwara E l i y a . Romanticism a l o n e d i d not account f o r the emergence of Nuwara E l i y a as an E n g l i s h l a n d s c a p e . However, r o m a n t i c i s m was the s p i r i t b e h i n d the d e s i r e t o c r e a t e an E n g l i s h v i l l a g e and had.much t o do w i t h the p o p u l a r i t y of the h i l l - s t a t i o n . I t p r o v i d e d the c o n t e x t which, i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the f a c t o r s o u t l i n e d below, c o n t r i b u t e d t o the emergence of Nuwara E l i y a as an E n g l i s h l a n d s c a p e . T h i s t h e s i s examines the development of the E n g l i s h l a n d s c a p e of Nuwara E l i y a . W h i l e r e c o g n i z i n g the i n f l u e n c e 4 Chapter 1 t h a t r o m a n t i c i s m had on e x p a t r i a t e s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of the h i l l -s t a t i o n , i t argues t h a t the development of Nuwara E l i y a as an E n g l i s h v i l l a g e can be e x p l a i n e d by the f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s . Nuwara E l i y a p r o v i d e d an a c c e s s i b l e l o c a l e t h a t resembled the E n g l i s h c o u n t r y s i d e , a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r the subsequent e s t a b l i s h m e n t of an E n g l i s h v i l l a g e . In a d d i t i o n , the temperate c l i m a t e and v e g e t a t i o n of Nuwara E l i y a o f f e r e d an a t t r a c t i v e a l t e r n a t i v e t o the heat and h u m i d i t y of the t r o p i c a l l o w l a n d s of C e y l o n which p l a c e d c o n s t r a i n t s on the movements and a c t i v i t i e s of e x p a t r i a t e s , a l t e r i n g t h e i r l i f e s t y l e s . The temperate c l i m a t e was a l s o a p p e a l i n g because the B r i t i s h p o s s e s s e d a s e t of e t h n o - m e d i c a l b e l i e f s i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y which h e l d t h a t a temperate environment was b e n e f i c i a l t o h e a l t h and was the one t o which Europeans were b e s t s u i t e d . The n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y r e c r e a t i o n a l and l e i s u r e p r e f e r e n c e s of the B r i t i s h as w e l l as the s p e c i f i c r e c r e a t i o n a l and s o c i a l needs of the e x p a t r i a t e community i n C e y l o n c o n t r i b u t e d t o the development of the r e c r e a t i o n a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e of the h i l l - s t a t i o n and, hence, b o l s t e r e d i t s p o p u l a r i t y . The development of the p l a n t a t i o n economy was a f u r t h e r p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r the growth of Nuwara E l i y a f o r the s u r p l u s g e n e r a t e d from c o f f e e and, l a t e r , t e a e s t a t e s e n a b l e d e x p a t r i a t e s t o i n v e s t i n the h i l l - s t a t i o n . The l a n d s c a p e of Nuwara E l i y a was the r e s u l t of the 5 Chapter 1 hegemony of B r i t i s h c u l t u r e and i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r the h i l l -s t a t i o n was a symbol of B r i t i s h power i n Ce y l o n and was a v i s i b l e e x p r e s s i o n of t h e i r d o m i n a t i o n of the l a n d s c a p e . Perhaps t h e most i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n , though, was the l o n g i n g B r i t i s h e x p a t r i a t e s e x p e r i e n c e d f o r t h e i r homeland which made them d e s i r e a v i a b l e s u b s t i t u t e f o r E n g l a n d . For the purposes of t h i s t h e s i s the f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n s of terms have been adopted. C o l o n i a l i s m r e f e r s t o the " e s t a b l i s h m e n t and maintenance, f o r an extended t i m e , of r u l e over an a l i e n p e o p l e t h a t i s s e p a r a t e and s u b o r d i n a t e t o the r u l i n g power" (Emerson i n K i n g , 1976a:17). The term " m e t r o p o l i t a n s o c i e t y " r e f e r s t o B r i t a i n . An e x p a t r i a t e i s an i n d i v i d u a l who l i v e s a b road, away from the m e t r o p o l i t a n s o c i e t y . The term " e x p a t r i a t e " may a l s o be a p p l i e d t o Europeans l i v i n g a b road, though f o r the sake of c l a r i t y I s p e c i f y B r i t i s h e x p a t r i a t e s when the d i s t i n c t i o n i s a p p l i c a b l e . The term "Home" w a r r a n t s a more d e t a i l e d e x p l a n a t i o n , f o r i t i s c r i t i c a l t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g B r i t i s h e x p a t r i a t e s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of Nuwara E l i y a . The term "Home" i s emotion-l a d e n . As K i n g s t a t e s , "Home" " l i k e G o d . . . [ i s ] always w r i t t e n w i t h a c a p i t a l l e t t e r " ( K i n g , 1976a: 74):. In A n g l o - I n d i a n and c o l o n i a l p a r l a n c e , i t was a r e f e r e n c e t o the m e t r o p o l i t a n c o u n t r y ( i b i d . ) . Yet i t was imbued w i t h a d d i t i o n a l l e v e l s of meaning f o r i t was used by e x p a t r i a t e s i n a w i s t f u l sense. 6 Chapter 1 As a p r o p e r noun, i t r e f e r r e d t o a p l a c e . However, the term a l s o i n c o r p o r a t e d the image a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h a t p l a c e and the image of England i n the minds of e x p a t r i a t e s was o f t e n a s e n t i m e n t a l and r o m a n t i c i z e d one. T h i s i s the f i r s t academic s t u d y of C e y l o n ' s o n l y h i l l -s t a t i o n . As such i t i s the f i r s t e f f o r t t o document n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y p e r c e p t i o n s of Nuwara E l i y a and t o d i s c u s s the f a c t o r s t h a t shaped the l a n d s c a p e and f a c i l i t a t e d the development of the town. T h i s s t u d y i n d i c a t e s t h a t Nuwara E l i y a can be p l a c e d w i t h i n the broader c o n t e x t of h i l l -s t a t i o n s i n c o l o n i a l South A s i a , e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e c r e a t e d by the B r i t i s h i n I n d i a . S i m i l a r v a r i a b l e s account f o r the e x i s t e n c e of both I n d i a n h i l l - s t a t i o n s and Nuwara E l i y a f o r they emerged from s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n s and performed comparable r o l e s w i t h i n the c o l o n i a l s o c i e t y . The study of n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y p e r c e p t i o n ' s of Nuwara E l i y a i s based upon a c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s of a s e l e c t i o n of the t r a v e l w r i t i n g s of i n d i v i d u a l s who v i s i t e d or r e s i d e d a t Nuwara E l i y a . T r a v e l w r i t i n g or t r a v e l l i t e r a t u r e i s d i s t i n c t from t r a v e l g u i d e s f o r the l a t t e r i s i n t e n d e d f o r "those who p l a n t o f o l l o w the t r a v e l e r , d o i n g what he has done, but more s e l e c t i v e l y " ( F u s s e l l , 1980:203). As F u s s e l l n o t e s , however: A t r a v e l book, at i t s p u r e s t , i s a d d r e s s e d t o those who do not p l a n t o f o l l o w the t r a v e l e r a t a l l , but who r e q u i r e the e x o t i c or comic anomalies,.wonders, and s c a n d a l s of the l i t e r a r y form romance which t h e i r own p l a c e or time cannot e n t i r e l y s u p p l y . T r a v e l books a r e a sub-7 Chapter 1 s p e c i e s of memoir i n which a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l n a r r a t i v e a r i s e s from the s p e a k e r ' s e n c o u n t e r w i t h d i s t a n t or u n f a m i l i a r d a t a , and i n which the n a r r a t i v e — u n l i k e the n o v e l or a romance — c l a i m s l i t e r a l v a l i d i t y by c o n s t a n t r e f e r e n c e t o a c t u a l i t y ( i b i d ) . As a g enre, t r a v e l l i t e r a t u r e does not f l o u r i s h t o d a y . The n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y and the p e r i o d between the F i r s t and Second World Wars marked the heyday of t r a v e l w r i t i n g f o r i t o f f e r e d r e a d e r s the o p p o r t u n i t y t o v i c a r i o u s l y share i n an a d v e n t u r e as no o t h e r medium c o u l d . The p o p u l a r i t y of t r a v e l l i t e r a t u r e d e c l i n e d as f i l m and t e l e v i s i o n p r o v i d e d new forms of e n t e r t a i n m e n t and improvements i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and l i v i n g s t a n d a r d s l e d t o the advent of mass t o u r i s m . T r a v e l w r i t i n g s a r e the r e c o r d s of a j o u r n e y , not u n l i k e , F u s s e l l t e l l s us, a romance " i n the o l d sense, w i t h the d i f f e r e n c e t h a t the a d v e n t u r e s a r e l o c a t e d w i t h i n an a c t u a l , o f t e n famous, topography" ( F u s s e l l , 1980:207). The t r a v e l l e r - w r i t e r and h e r o / h e r o i n e of the t a l e l e a v e s the w o r l d of the f a m i l i a r and embarks i n t o the l i t t l e known or unknown. He/she e n c o u n t e r s i n t e r e s t i n g e v e nts and p e r s o n s , "and f i n a l l y , a f t e r t r a v a i l and o r d e a l s , r e t u r n s s a f e l y " ( i b i d . : 2 0 8 ) . The t r a v e l l e r ' s account documents not o n l y the e v e n t s of the j o u r n e y b u t , i n a c c o r d w i t h r o m a n t i c p r e f e r e n c e s , e x p l o r e s the w r i t e r ' s f e e l i n g s d u r i n g t h a t time ( C l a r k , 1965: 90; Hugo, 1965:31). The "romantic t o u r i s t " , C l a r k s t a t e s , f r e q u e n t e d p l a c e s "where h a b i t s [ w e r e ] . . . . l i k e l y t o be s t r a n g e , m o t i v e s p a s s i o n a t e and u n u s u a l or the scenery 8 Chapter 1 s u i t a b l e , p l a c e s such a s . . . S w i t z e r l a n d or the M i d d l e E a s t " ( C l a r k , 1965:90), l o c a l e s t h a t provoked s t r o n g emotion and i n t r i g u e d t h e i m a g i n a t i o n of the w r i t e r . A b i b l i o g r a p h y of C e y l o n , c o m p i l e d by H.A.I. G o o n e t i l e k e (1970), p r o v i d e d the d e p a r t u r e p o i n t i n the s e a r c h f o r the t r a v e l w r i t i n g s of i n d i v i d u a l s who had e i t h e r v i s i t e d or r e s i d e d a t Nuwara E l i y a . A d d i t i o n a l m a t e r i a l was found t h r o u g h the r e f e r e n c e s c i t e d i n Nuwara E l i y a : the b e g i n n i n g s  and i t s growth, by G.P.S.H. de S i l v a (1978), as w e l l as thr o u g h l i b r a r y r e s e a r c h . To be i n c l u d e d i n the c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s of the t r a v e l l i t e r a t u r e , the w r i t i n g s had t o be n o n - f i c t i o n a l a c c o u n t s of e x p a t r i a t e s or t r a v e l l e r s who had f i r s t h a n d e x p e r i e n c e of Nuwara E l i y a . Not a l l s o u r c e s c o n s u l t e d were i n c l u d e d i n the c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s . The m a t e r i a l was s e l e c t e d p r i m a r i l y f o r i n f o r m a t i o n on the l a n d s c a p e , s o c i a l l i f e and o t h e r a t t r i b u t e s of the h i l l - s t a t i o n . The l i t e r a t u r e s e a r c h was e x t e n s i v e , a l t h o u g h some so u r c e s c o u l d not be l o c a t e d or were i n such a poor s t a t e of p r e s e r v a t i o n t h a t b o r r o w i n g t h r o u g h i n t e r - l i b r a r y l o a n or p h o t o c o p y i n g was p r o h i b i t e d . I r e v i e w e d a wide s e l e c t i o n o f . t r a v e l w r i t i n g s d e a l i n g w i t h Nuwara E l i y a and c o n s i d e r the m a t e r i a l c o n t a i n e d i n the t h e s i s t o be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , of the major s o u r c e s of i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e . A c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s of the s o u r c e s was performed t o d e t e r m i n e the a t t r i b u t e s of Nuwara E l i y a t h a t were noted i n the l i t e r a t u r e , thus Chapter 1 i n d i c a t i n g the e x p a t r i a t e ' s and t r a v e l l e r ' s p e r c e p t i o n s of the h i l l - s t a t i o n . Subsequent t o the l i t e r a t u r e a n a l y s i s , f i e l d w o r k was conducted i n S r i Lanka f o r a t h r e e month p e r i o d from May t o August, 1987. Res e a r c h a t the Department of N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s , Colombo, was undertaken w i t h the i n t e n t of r e v i e w i n g the d i a r i e s of the A s s i s t a n t Government Agent (A.G.A.) of the Nuwara E l i y a D i s t r i c t as w e l l as s o u r c e s such as l o c a l newspapers d a t i n g from the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y and o t h e r documents t h a t came t o my a t t e n t i o n . I had i n t e n d e d t o examine d i a r i e s d a t i n g from the i n c e p t i o n of the Nuwara E l i y a D i s t r i c t i n 1845 i n f i v e year i n t e r v a l s but found t h a t the d i a r i e s f o r the y e a r s 1845 t o 1883 had been l o s t . I a l t e r e d my s t r a t e g y t o sample a t random as many of the w r i t i n g s of the A s s i s t a n t Government Agents from the y e a r s 1884 t o 1899 as time p e r m i t t e d . G r e a t e s t a t t e n t i o n was g i v e n t o the w r i t i n g s of i n d i v i d u a l s who p r o v i d e d a c c o u n t s of l i f e a t Nuwara E l i y a , as opposed t o tho s e who o n l y documented t h e i r d a i l y d u t i e s . The e x a m i n a t i o n of l o c a l E n g l i s h - l a n g u a g e newspapers was a slow, though u l t i m a t e l y w o r t h w h i l e , procedure because of the l a c k of an index f o r n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y m a t e r i a l . The s e a r c h of the newspapers was undertaken to examine the r o l e of the h i l l - s t a t i o n i n the s o c i a l l i f e of the c o l o n y . F i e l d w o r k a l s o e n t a i l e d a p e r i o d spent a t the h i l l - s t a t i o n t o c o m p i l e p h o t o g r a p h i c e v i d e n c e and t o p e r m i t 10 Chapter 1 my own o b s e r v a t i o n s of the la n d s c a p e and the b u i l t e n vironment. The t h e s i s has seven c h a p t e r s . The second c h a p t e r p r o v i d e s an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the lan d s c a p e of Nuwara E l i y a and f e a t u r e s n i n e t e e n t h and e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y photographs of the h i l l - s t a t i o n as w e l l as photographs of r e c e n t v i n t a g e . The photographs w i l l f a m i l i a r i z e the reader w i t h the lan d s c a p e and b u i l t environment of Nuwara E l i y a and a s s i s t the r e a d e r t o imagine Nuwara E l i y a t h r ough the eyes of an e x p a t r i a t e d u r i n g the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . Chapter t h r e e i s a r e v i e w of h i l l - s t a t i o n s e s t a b l i s h e d by the B r i t i s h i n c o l o n i a l South A s i a . Nora M i t c h e l l ' s (1972). t y p o l o g y of I n d i a n h i l l - s t a t i o n s and the f a c t o r s t h a t i n f l u e n c e d the s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of h i l l - s t a t i o n s i n South A s i a a r e examined, as a r e the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y ethno-m e d i c a l b e l i e f s of the B r i t i s h t h a t c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e f o r temperate h i l l l o c a l e s as s a n a t a r i u m s . A survey of the major I n d i a n h i l l - s t a t i o n s of S i m l a , D a r j e e l i n g , Ootacamund and K o d a i k a n a l , as w e l l as some non-I n d i a n h i l l - s t a t i o n s , o f f e r s a b a s i s of comparison w i t h Nuwara E l i y a and su g g e s t s t h a t Nuwara E l i y a l a c k e d many of the f e a t u r e s of r e s o r t s t a t i o n s i n i t s e a r l y y e a r s . Chapter f o u r t r a c e s the f l u c t u a t i n g f o r t u n e s of the p l a n t a t i o n economy and i t s i n f l u e n c e on the development of the r e c r e a t i o n a l and s o c i a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e of the h i l l -11 Chapter 1 s t a t i o n . The slow development of the h i l l - s t a t i o n can be a t t r i b u t e d i n p a r t t o the l a c k of s u r p l u s c a p i t a l t o i n v e s t i n the town. W i t h the growth i n the economy r e s u l t i n g from c o f f e e and, l a t e r , t e a and the opening of p l a n t a t i o n s i n Nuwara E l i y a D i s t r i c t , the h i l l - s t a t i o n g a i n e d the impetus needed f o r development. Chapter f i v e examines the r e c r e a t i o n a l and l e i s u r e p r e f e r e n c e s of the B r i t i s h i n c o l o n i a l C e y l o n . W h i l e economic c o n d i t i o n s i n f l u e n c e d the e v o l u t i o n of Nuwara E l i y a , the h i l l - s t a t i o n t h r i v e d because of the r e c r e a t i o n a l p r e f e r e n c e s and the unique needs of the c o l o n i a l p o p u l a t i o n . Chapter s i x i s a s u r v e y and c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s of the l i t e r a t u r e produced by e x p a t r i a t e s and t r a v e l l e r s t o Nuwara E l i y a d u r i n g the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . They d e s c r i b e d Nuwara E l i y a i n a r o m a n t i c i z e d manner, f o c u s i n g upon the p i c t u r e s q u e a t t r i b u t e s of the h i l l - s t a t i o n t h a t reminded them of E n g l a n d . Indeed,, f o r many e x p a t r i a t e s , Nuwara E l i y a was a s u r r o g a t e B r i t a i n , a s u b s t i t u t e f o r Home. Chapter seven c o n c l u d e s the t h e s i s w i t h a summary of the main argument and c o n c l u s i o n s . 1 2 CHAPTER 2; THROUGH EYES AND LENS: a p h o t o g r a p h i c i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the l a n d s c a p e  of Nuwara E l i y a T h i s c h a p t e r i s an attempt t o t r a n s c e n d the b a r r i e r s of time and d i s t a n c e t h r o u g h the use of p h o t o g r a p h i c m a t e r i a l , t o e n able the reader t o g a i n a g l i m p s e of Nuwara E l i y a as an e x p a t r i a t e or v i s i t o r might have viewed the l a n d s c a p e d u r i n g the l a s t decade of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . The e x a m i n a t i o n of photographs i s i n t e n d e d t o a s s i s t the r e a d e r who l a c k s a f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h Nuwara E l i y a i n g a i n i n g an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the l a n d s c a p e and a t t r i b u t e s of the h i l l - s t a t i o n . The r a t i o n a l e f o r the i n c l u s i o n of t h e s e photographs i s the f a c t t h a t much of the a p p e a l of Nuwara E l i y a was i t s v i s u a l and a e s t h e t i c impact which l e f t few e x p a t r i a t e s u n a f f e c t e d . The photographs a r e more than i l l u s t r a t i o n s . They a r e the v i s u a l documentation of a l a n d s c a p e . Photographs o f f e r the v i e w e r the o p p o r t u n i t y t o a s s e s s the h i l l - s t a t i o n much as e x p a t r i a t e s would have done f o r the i n i t i a l r e a c t i o n of e x p a t r i a t e s was t o the v i s u a l s t i m u l i of the l a n d s c a p e . Indeed, " p h o t o g r a p h i c , d a t a a r e the c l o s e s t a p p r o x i m a t i o n t o the p r i m a r y e x p e r i e n c e t h a t we can g a t h e r " ( C o l l i e r and C o l l i e r , 1986:171). The photographs a r e , i n e s s e n c e , v i s u a l q u o t a t i o n s , c a p t u r i n g on f i l m the t e x t u r e and nuances of the Nuwara E l i y a l a n d s c a p e . The c h a p t e r u t i l i z e s the n i n e t e e n t h and e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y photographs of Henry Cave as w e l l as r e c e n t 13 Chapter 2 photographs of Nuwara E l i y a . The two s e t s of photographs c o n t r a s t i n t h e i r s t y l e , c o n t e n t and p e r s p e c t i v e . Cave, a B r i t i s h e x p a t r i a t e who wrote s e v e r a l books on C e y l o n , i n t e n d e d h i s photographs t o be viewed by o t h e r e x p a t r i a t e s i n Ceyl o n and by the r e a d e r s of h i s books i n E n g l a n d . As a member of the c o l o n i a l e l i t e and as an i n d i v i d u a l who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the s o c i a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l l i f e of the h i l l -s t a t i o n , Cave's p e r s p e c t i v e was t h a t of an i n s i d e r . He was fond of Nuwara E l i y a and sought t o p r e s e n t an a p p e a l i n g p o r t r a i t of the h i l l - s t a t i o n . Much of h i s work f o c u s e d upon r e c r e a t i o n a l e v e n t s , e s p e c i a l l y h i s f a v o r i t e s p o r t , g o l f . He a l s o r e c o r d e d the l a n d s c a p e w i t h which he was so i m p r e s s e d . H i s photographs g i v e the i m p r e s s i o n of Nuwara E l i y a as i d y l l i c , p e a c e f u l and p a s t o r a l . To enhance t h i s e f f e c t , h i s photographs were c a r e f u l l y posed and framed. In c o n t r a s t t o Cave's photographs are the photographs of Nuwara E l i y a taken by m y s e l f d u r i n g f i e l d w o r k a t the h i l l -s t a t i o n from June t o August, 1987. The photographs a r e i n t e n d e d as r e s e a r c h d a t a . L i k e Cave, I a s p i r e d t o c a p t u r e the aura of romance of the h i l l - s t a t i o n i n an e f f o r t t o r e c o r d on f i l m what had so a t t r a c t e d e x p a t r i a t e s d u r i n g the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . U n l i k e Cave, however, I adopted a spontaneous approach t o photography, s e e k i n g t o r e c o r d as. much of the town as p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t c o n t r i v i n g t o c r e a t e the most f a v o r a b l e i m p r e s s i o n of the h i l l - s t a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , I 14 Chapter 2 was i n t e r e s t e d i n the b u i l t environment of the h i l l - s t a t i o n as w e l l as the l a n d s c a p e . I t must be r e c o g n i z e d t h a t the r e c e n t photographs o f f e r o n l y a g l i m p s e of Nuwara E l i y a as i t was i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y f o r i t has e v o l v e d i n t o an A s i a n town w i t h B r i t i s h r o o t s . Because of t h i s , o n l y remnants remain of the r e c r e a t i o n a l and s o c i a l f a c i l i t i e s c o n s t r u c t e d by the B r i t i s h d u r i n g t h a t p e r i o d . The p e r s p e c t i v e and s t y l e of the r e c e n t photographs d i f f e r from those of Cave. A l t h o u g h I have immersed myself i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y t r a v e l l i t e r a t u r e , my p e r s p e c t i v e i s t h a t of an o u t s i d e r a t t e m p t i n g t o u n d e r s t a n d a c u l t u r e and way of l i f e o t h e r than my own. G i v e n the a l t e r a t i o n s t o Nuwara E l i y a t h a t have o c c u r r e d i n the post-Independence e r a , I chose t o photograph a r t i f a c t s and l a n d s c a p e t h a t I thought t o be l e a s t m o d i f i e d and t o be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of what the B r i t i s h b u i l t or shaped d u r i n g the n i n e t e e n t h and e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r i e s . I a l s o a t t e m p t e d t o convey something of the romance and the mood-evoking n a t u r e of the l a n d s c a p e by r e c o r d i n g the m i s t s and c l o u d s t h a t o f t e n shrouded the h i l l s and houses. I t i s suggested t o the reader t h a t p r i o r t o r e a d i n g the remainder of t h i s c h a p t e r t h a t he/she view the photographs as a group, s e p a r a t e from the t e x t . T h i s approach, r e f e r r e d t o as "open v i e w i n g " , i s "an u n s t r u c t u r e d immersion i n the v i s u a l r e c o r d , a r e p e a t e d v i e w i n g of a l l the m a t e r i a l t h a t 15 Chapter 2 a l l o w s you t o respond t o images as they a r e and not s i m p l y as you expect them t o be" ( C o l l i e r and C o l l i e r , 1986:181). T h i s approach w i l l e n a b l e the reader t o make a spontaneous v i s u a l assessment of the l a n d s c a p e ; an assessment s i m i l a r t o t h a t which e x p a t r i a t e s would have made upon v i e w i n g Nuwara E l i y a f o r the f i r s t t i m e . THE PHOTOGRAPHS OF HENRY CAVE Henry Cave was a p u b l i s h e r , i m p o r t e r and r e s i d e n t of Colombo. H i s f i r s t v i s i t t o Nuwara E l i y a o c c u r r e d i n 1877 and the h i l l - s t a t i o n q u i c k l y became h i s f a v o r i t e l o c a l e i n C e y l o n . Cave's numerous p u b l i c a t i o n s such as Nuwara E l i y a and  Adam's Peak (1895), Golden t i p s (1905), The C e y l o n Government  R a i l w a y (1910) and The book of Ce y l o n (1912), f u r n i s h i m p o r t a n t p h o t o g r a p h i c m a t e r i a l as w e l l as p r o v i d i n g some of the most i n f o r m a t i v e comments on h i l l - s t a t i o n l i f e . He does not a p o l o g i s e f o r h i s u n c r i t i c a l and s y m p a t h e t i c p o r t r a y a l of the h i l l - s t a t i o n f o r he was c a p t i v a t e d by the l a n d s c a p e . He used h i s camera as he d i d h i s pen, t o o f f e r an i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of h i s s u r r o u n d i n g s . Cave was most impressed by the a s p e c t s of the Nuwara E l i y a l a n d s c a p e t h a t resembled B r i t a i n . H i s photograph, e n t i t l e d "The calm waters of the l a k e r e f l e c t i n g the wooded h i l l s " , shows h i s c o n c e r n w i t h the p a s t o r a l , t r a n q u i l n a t u r e of the l a n d s c a p e (see f i g u r e 2.1). The g e n t l e h i l l s form a backdrop t o a scene t h a t c o u l d be E n g l i s h i n o r i g i n , but f o r 16 Chapter 2 Figure 2.1: "The calm waters of the lake r e f l e c t i n g the wooded h i l l s " , Lake Gregory, Nuwara E l i y a . (from Cave, 1905:231; used with permission) 1 7 Chapter 2 the presence of n a t i v e workers i n the f o r e g r o u n d . Cave's i n c l u s i o n of the n a t i v e s s u g g e s t s t h a t he sought t o g i v e the photograph g e o g r a p h i c c o n t e x t , t o h i g h l i g h t the uniqueness of f i n d i n g such an E n g l i s h s e t t i n g i n C e y l o n . The t r e e s a r e u n l i k e t h o s e found i n the t r o p i c a l p o r t i o n s of the i s l a n d . The boat-sheds i n d i c a t e t h a t Lake Gregory was used f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l b o a t i n g and f i s h i n g . The a p p e a l of the n a t u r a l s u r r o u n d i n g s of Nuwara E l i y a and the d e s i r e of e x p a t r i a t e s t o e n j o y the views i s suggested by Cave's photograph e n t i t l e d "The l a k e of Nuwara E l i y a i s s u rrounded by a c a r r i a g e d r i v e s i x m i l e s i n l e n g t h " (see. f i g u r e 2.2). V i s i t o r s and. r e s i d e n t s were a b l e t o t r a v e l the c i r c u m f e r e n c e of Lake Gregory. The photograph d e p i c t s n a t i v e s w a l k i n g the r o u t e , some w i t h p a r a s o l s p r o t e c t i n g them from the sun. Cave was v e r y fond of g o l f and p r o v i d e s an e x h a u s t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n of the Nuwara E l i y a G o l f C l u b l i n k s (see Cave, 1905). In h i s photograph, "A p u r l i n g stream b a b b l e s t h r o u g h the v a l l e y " , Cave combines h i s i n t e r e s t i n l a n d s c a p e a n d , s p o r t (see f i g u r e 2.3). The photograph d e p i c t s an e x p a t r i a t e , about t o s t r i k e h i s b a l l , accompanied by h i s n a t i v e g o l f c a d d i e —• the o n l y i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h i s i s not an E n g l i s h scene. The stream and the goat f e e d i n g on the .grass g i v e a p a s t o r a l d i m e n s i o n t o the photograph and the c a p t i o n s u g g e s t s Cave was aware of t h i s . 18 Chapter 2 Figure 2.2: "The lake of Nuwara E l i y a i s surrounded by a carriage drive six miles in length", Lake Gregory, Nuwara E l i y a . (from Cave, 1905:223; used with permission) 19 Chapter 2 Figure 2.3: "A purling stream the golf links at (from Cave, 1905:211; babbles through the va l l e y " , Nuwara E l i y a . used with permission) 20 Chapter 2 The photograph e n t i t l e d "The l i n k s from White's f i e l d " i s s i m i l a r t o the p r e v i o u s photograph i n i t s p a s t o r a l q u a l i t y (see f i g u r e 2.4). The l a n d s c a p e i s v e r y g e n t l e and l a c k s sharp c o n t r a s t s . The house i n the r i g h t f o r e g r o u n d s u g g e s t s the B r i t i s h l i v e d i n c o m f o r t f o r i t has a s o l i d and w e l l -m a i n t a i n e d appearance. The l a n d s c a p e i s open and s p a c i o u s i n c o n t r a s t w i t h the more d e n s e l y p o p u l a t e d l o w l a n d s . White's f i e l d may have been used t o graze c a t t l e f o r t h e r e i s no i n d i c a t i o n of c r o p growth. In h i s p h o t o g r a p h , "The New Keena H o t e l " , once a g a i n Cave p r o v i d e s an element of c o n t r a s t — the presence of the n a t i v e s r e m i n d i n g one t h a t t h i s i s C e y l o n (see f i g u r e 2.5). The'landscape appears l u s h w i t h f o l i a g e and the h o t e l i s surrounded by t r e e s and bushes, as w e l l as a f l o w e r garden. ; . Trees obscure the view of the t w o - s t o r i e d home i n the background, perched a t the base of the h i l l s . The a r c h i t e c t u r e of the h o t e l i s t y p i c a l of the s i n g l e s t o r i e d bungalows of the h i l l - s t a t i o n , and s u g g e s t s t h a t i t may have been a s i n g l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g o r i g i n a l l y . I t has a c o r r u g a t e d i r o n r o o f and the c e n t r e p o r t i o n of the b u i l d i n g i s s y m m e t r i c a l i n i t s p r o p o r t i o n s , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the non-s y m m e t r i c a l wings may have been an a d d i t i o n . The house i n the background of the photograph i s a l s o s y m m e t r i c a l . The use of symmetry i n domestic a r c h i t e c t u r e was p o p u l a r i n B r i t a i n i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y w i t h the r e s u r g e n c e of c l a s s i c a l 21 Figure 2.4: "The l i n k s from White's f i e l d " , Nuwara E l i (from Cave, 1905:262; used with permission) 22 Chapter 2 F i g u r e 2.5: "The New Keena H o t e l " , Nuwara E l i y a (from Cave, 1912:497; used with permission) 23 Chapter 2 s t y l e s ( P a r k e r , 1970:5). In the f o r e g r o u n d of the photograph a r e a horse-drawn c a r r i a g e and a human-powered r i c k s h a w , i n t r o d u c e d from Japan i n the l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y (see f i g u r e 2.5). The t e r r a i n of the h i l l - s t a t i o n i s r e l a t i v e l y f l a t , b e i n g a v a l l e y s u rrounded by h i l l s . U n l i k e the h i l l - s t a t i o n s of S i m l a and D a r j e e l i n g i n n o r t h e r n I n d i a , w i t h t h e i r narrow and s t e e p r o a d s , t h e r e was no d i f f i c u l t y i n u s i n g c a r r i a g e s a t Nuwara E l i y a . The f i n a l s e l e c t i o n from Cave's photographs i s "The e a s t e r n e x i t from Nuwara E l i y a " , t he road t o B a d u l l a (see f i g u r e 2.6). A g a i n , Cave d e p i c t s a slow-moving stream and a c o u n t r y road w i t h g e n t l e h i l l s as a backdrop. The two v e h i c l e s on the road a r e examples of both a n a t i v e b u l l o c k c a r t , i n the r e a r , and a B r i t i s h c a r r i a g e w i t h a n a t i v e groom who always accompanied the ho r s e i n h i s charge (Gordon-Cumming, 1893) .. The groom i s i n u n i f o r m i n d i c a t i n g he. i s a member of a h o u s e h o l d s t a f f . Cave's photographs have an element i n common: t h e i r p a s t o r a l n a t u r e . He sought t o c a p t u r e the most p i c t u r e s q u e aspects- of Nuwara E l i y a and t o convey t h r o u g h the camera h i s i m p r e s s i o n of the h i l l - s t a t i o n . Each of h i s photographs i s c a r e f u l l y composed, perhaps i n p a r t because of the n a t u r e of the equipment he was u s i n g . There i s l i t t l e doubt, however, t h a t Cave would have adopted such an approach whatever h i s 24 C h a p t e r 2 Chapter 2 equipment. H i s work i s of v a l u e b o t h because of i t s h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e n t and because he e n a b l e s us t o view the la n d s c a p e as i t was seen t h r o u g h B r i t i s h eyes and l e n s . RECENT PHOTOGRAPHS OF NUWARA ELIYA A l t h o u g h the B r i t i s h have d e p a r t e d from Nuwara E l i y a and from C e y l o n , they l e f t the l e g a c y of t h e i r a r c h i t e c t u r e and l a n d s c a p e . The lan d s c a p e of the h i l l - s t a t i o n has not remained unchanged i n the post-Independence y e a r s , y e t i t i s s u f f i c i e n t l y i n t a c t t o enable us t o a s s e s s how i t must have appeared t o e x p a t r i a t e s i n the n i n e t e e n t h and e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r i e s . I f t h e r e i s one c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t h a t i s n o t a b l e about the b u i l t environment, i t i s t h a t i t r e t a i n s much of i t s E n g l i s h n e s s . As the r e c e n t photographs s u g g e s t , changes t o Nuwara E l i y a s i n c e Independence have not e r a s e d the e v i d e n c e of i t s h i s t o r i c a l r o o t s nor d i m i n i s h e d the c o n t r a s t i t o f f e r s t o the remainder of the i s l a n d . Nuwara E l i y a i s surrounded by t e a e s t a t e s . The h i l l -s i d e s a r e d o t t e d w i t h the low t e a bushes, spaced i n such a manner as t o g i v e the la n d s c a p e a m o t t l e d appearance (see f i g u r e s 2.7 and 2.8). F i e l d s of v e g e t a b l e s i n t e r r u p t the expanses of t e a on the l e s s s t e e p t e r r a i n , but t e a remains the dominant c r o p . F i g u r e s 2.7 and 2.8 d e p i c t t e a p l a n t a t i o n s on the o u t s k i r t s of Nuwara E l i y a . The e s t a t e s a r e e a s i l y r e c o g n i z e d b o t h by appearance of the bushes and by the pres e n c e of the l o n g rows of d w e l l i n g s , " l i n e s " , f o r the 26 Chapter 2 F i g u r e 2.8: The t e a p l a n t a t i o n s s u r r o u n d i n g Nuwara E l i y a 27 Chapter 2 p l a n t a t i o n w o r k e r s , as shown i n f i g u r e 2.8. C l o u d s and m i s t o f t e n obscure the d i s t a n t h i l l s , c r e a t i n g a p l a y of l i g h t and shadow t h a t caused e x p a t r i a t e s t o remark upon the s p e c t a c u l a r views (see f i g u r e 2.7). In terms of E n g l i s h a r c h i t e c t u r e , the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y was a " b a t t l e of s t y l e s " ( G otch, 1909:301). No s i n g l e s t y l e dominated the p e r i o d and t h i s i s c l e a r l y e v i d e n t i n the b u i l t environment of Nuwara E l i y a . G o t h i c r e v i v a l , P a l l a d i a n i s m , n e o - c l a s s i c i s m and v e r n a c u l a r s t y l e s were j u s t some of the s t y l e s t h a t the a r c h i t e c t or i n d i v i d u a l c o u l d s e l e c t . The c h o i c e depended, i n p a r t , upon the mood and i m p r e s s i o n the i n d i v i d u a l wished t o c r e a t e . As Osborne s t a t e s : The V i c t o r i a n age was e s s e n t i a l l y r o m a n t i c , and i t s a r c h i t e c t u r e ( w i t h few e x c e p t i o n s ) was t h e r e f o r e t h o r o u g h l y e v o c a t i v e . P a s t s t y l e s and t h e i r e m b e l l i s h m e n t s were s e l e c t e d f o r the f e e l i n g s they a r o u s e d : e.g. ...the p o p u l a r i t y of G o t h i c was due t o a l i t e r a r y and muddled s e n t i m e n t a l i s m , f o r i t b r e a t h e d an a i r of peace, . c h i v a l r y , c r u s a d i n g z e a l , s t r e n g t h of mind or humble r e t i r e m e n t a c c o r d i n g t o the e m o t i o n a l needs of the owner and the p r e d i l e c t i o n s of h i s a r c h i t e c t . Hence t h e r e i s no V i c t o r i a n s t y l e , but numerous p e r s o n a l garments, the c r e a t i o n of i n g e n i o u s t a i l o r s a l l c l e a r l y a s s u r e d of t h e i r own competence i n the c r a f t (Osborne, 1954:104). The n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y was a time of r e v i v a l s w i t h no o r i g i n a l d e s i g n s , a l t h o u g h some i n t r i g u i n g h y b r i d s emerged (Yarwood, 1966:26). In no o t h e r p e r i o d , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of 28 Chapter 2 the p r e s e n t c e n t u r y , has t h e r e been such a v a r i e t y of s t y l e s and such a d i v e r s i t y of r e s u l t s . The homes of e x p a t r i a t e s i n Nuwara E l i y a ranged from s i m p l e t o grand. F i g u r e s 2.9 and 2.10 r e p r e s e n t the s i m p l e r d w e l l i n g s . The photographs d e p i c t the s i n g l e s t o r e y bungalows t h a t were the most common type of h o u s i n g . i n the mid t o l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , b e f o r e the wi d e s p r e a d i n t r o d u c t i o n of t w o - s t o r e y d w e l l i n g s a t the h i l l - s t a t i o n . The bungalows i n f i g u r e s 2.9 and 2.10 a r e t y p i c a l i n t h a t they d i s p l a y the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c use of s y m m e t r i c a l a r c h i t e c t u r a l e l e m e n t s . The bungalow i n f i g u r e 2.9 i s b a l a n c e d by d u a l chimneys as w e l l as o t h e r a t t r i b u t e s of the f a c a d e . The bungalow i n f i g u r e 2.10 has a s i n g l e chimney i n the c e n t r e of the r o o f and sym m e t r i c a l , bay windows which a r e , a c c o r d i n g t o Braun, the "most b e l o v e d of a l l E n g l i s h f e a t u r e s " (Braun, 1940:92). As mentioned above, symmetry was common i n B r i t i s h houses d u r i n g the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . B u i l d e r ' s copybooks, which were r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e , f r e q u e n t l y showed houses w i t h the " s t y l i s t i c f e a t u r e s of o r d e r and symmetry of c l a s s i c a l a r c h i t e c t u r e " ( P a r k e r , 1970:5). Such f e a t u r e s were common among farmhouses of the p e r i o d . P a r k e r n o t e s : i t was q u i t e u s u a l t o f i n d the d o u b l e -f r o n t e d s m a l l c l a s s i c a l house used both as a s i n g l e u n i t i n the f i e l d s and as p a r t of a t e r r a c e i n a nearby town ( i b i d . ) . I n Nuwara E l i y a , the bungalow was detached and l o c a t e d i n a 29 Chapter 2 y a r d w i t h a c a r e f u l l y tended garden. The bungalows p o s s e s s e d c l a s s i c a l elements y e t were not s t r i c t l y c l a s s i c a l i n d e s i g n as i s e v i d e n t from the use of p i e r c e d barge board seen i n f i g u r e 2.10. They were r e m i n i s c e n t of. the c o t t a g e orn£e, a v i l l a or " r u s t i c b u i l d i n g of r o m a n t i c d e s i g n , the Regency e q u i v a l e n t of the modern week-end c o t t a g e " t h a t was l o c a t e d i n the E n g l i s h c o u n t r y s i d e and was p o p u l a r amongst the upper and m i d d l e c l a s s e s d u r i n g the e a r l y and mid n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y (Osborne, 1954:28). L i k e the c o t t a g e orn£e, the bungalows f e a t u r e d p i c t u r e s q u e bay windows and ornamented g a b l e s . In Nuwara E l i y a , however, the t h a t c h e d r o o f of the c o t t a g e orn£e was r e p l a c e d by the l e s s p i c t u r e s q u e , but more p r a c t i c a l , c o r r u g a t e d i r o n s h e e t s (see f i g u r e 2.9 and 2.10). F i g u r e 2.11 d e p i c t s a view of the e n t r a n c e gate and garden of a bungalow w i t h the d w e l l i n g t o the r e a r of the camera. A p r o f u s i o n of f l o w e r s f l a n k the walkway and the i m p r e s s i o n i s p i c t u r e s q u e (see Chapter 6 ) . Gardens were prominent f e a t u r e s of the homes i n Nuwara E l i y a and r e f l e c t e d B r i t i s h g a r d e n i n g t r e n d s . Some gardens,, such as those of the H i l l C l u b , were of a f o r m a l l a y o u t . O t h e r s tended towards the i n f o r m a l "where the n a t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s of growth are everywhere improved upon and so n a t u r e i s a s s i s t e d , though i n such a way as t o a v o i d f a l s i f y i n g i t by a r t i f i c i a l s c e n e r y or s e t t i n g s " ( M u t h e s i u s , 1979:113) (see f i g u r e 2.11 and 2.12). 30 C h a p t e r 2 C h a p t e r 2 Chapter 2 Figure 2.11: The gate and garden of a bungalow, Nuwara E l i y a . 33 Chapter 2 The f l o w e r s and bushes were temperate v a r i e t i e s , such as r o s e s and geraniums, and e x p a t r i a t e s c o u l d c r e a t e gardens comparable t o those found i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n c o u n t r y . The gate d i s p l a y e d i n f i g u r e 2.11 i s one t h a t might have g r a c e d a garden i n E n g l a n d . I t i s made of c a s t and wrought i r o n . The spearheads a r e of c a s t i r o n and the remainder i s wrought i r o n (Osborne, 1954:42). Towards the c l o s e of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , t w o - s t o r e y homes became p o p u l a r i n Nuwara E l i y a . At the same t i m e , t h e r e emerged a p r e f e r e n c e f o r v e r n a c u l a r a r c h i t e c t u r e , such as Tudor. E x p a t r i a t e s were f o l l o w i n g the t r e n d s t h a t were o c c u r r i n g i n B r i t a i n ; "by the end of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y the c l a s s i c a l house w i t h i t s s y m m e t r i c a l p l a n and e l e v a t i o n r e p r o d u c e d i n s i z e s t o f i t every p o c k e t , had g i v e n way t o the i r r e g u l a r i t i e s of the p i c t u r e s q u e " as e x p r e s s e d i n v e r n a c u l a r a r c h i t e c t u r e ( P a r k e r , 1970:45; M u t h e s i u s , 1979:15). The house i n f i g u r e 2.12 shows t h i s i n f l u e n c e f o r i t has an asymmetric p l a n w i t h o n l y the f a i n t e s t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the c l a s s i c seen i n the columns i n the l e f t of the photograph. L i k e the bungalows d i s c u s s e d above, i t has a bay window. The a r b o r and the garden frame the house and c r e a t e an i n v i t i n g appearance. F i g u r e 2.13 shows a t w o - s t o r e y house of c l a s s i c a l d e s i g n i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the c l a s s i c a l had not been c o m p l e t e l y r e j e c t e d a t the end of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . The house has 34 C h a p t e r 2 Chapter 2 Figure 2.13: A two-storey bungalow on a h i l l - s i d e , Nuwara E l i y a . (photograph by James S. Duncan, used with permission) 36 Chapter 2 a s y m m e t r i c a l f a c a d e , bay windows and a p e d i m e n t above the door. The house o c c u p i e s an e l e v a t e d p o s i t i o n where the la n d s c a p e can be e a s i l y s u r v e y e d . Clouds and m i s t s u r r o u n d i t , a d d i n g a r o m a n t i c t o u c h . In c o n t r a s t t o the c l a s s i c a l p r o p o r t i o n s of the house i n f i g u r e 2.13, the d w e l l i n g i n f i g u r e 2.14 i s an example of v e r n a c u l a r Tudor a r c h i t e c t u r e . I t has a t i l e h i p r o o f , h a l f -t i m b e r f a c a d e and bay window. The chimney t r e a t m e n t i s not e w o r t h y . L i k e the house i n f i g u r e 2.13, i t r e p r e s e n t s the l a r g e r - s c a l e homes p r e s e n t a t the h i l l - s t a t i o n . The house i n f i g u r e 2.15 e x h i b i t s an I t a l i a n a t e i n f l u e n c e . The E n g l i s h i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of I t a l i a n R e n a i s s a n c e a r c h i t e c t u r e , known as P a l l a d i a n i s m , was based on the works of I t a l i a n a r c h i t e c t Andrea P a l l a d i o (1518-1580) and i n t r o d u c e d t o B r i t a i n i n the s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y by I n i g o Jones (Osborne, 1954:69). I t was one of the many s t y l e s t h a t e x p e r i e n c e d renewed p o p u l a r i t y d u r i n g the r e v i v a l i s m of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . The d w e l l i n g i n f i g u r e 2.15 i s a l o o s e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of P a l l a d i a n a r c h i t e c t u r e (see Osborne, 1954:69). I t p o s s e s s e s P a l l a d i a n windows on the upper f l o o r ( H a r r i s , 1977:563) and the remnants of a f o r m a l garden may be seen. The house shown i n f i g u r e s 2.16 and 2.17 was b u i l t by the N a t i o n a l Bank of I n d i a , c i r c a 1892, f o r the use of i t s bank manager i n Nuwara E l i y a . The house i s r e m i n i s c e n t of an 37 C h a p t e r 2 Chapter 2 igure 2.15: An elaborate bungalow, now used as an inn, Nuwara E l i y a . 39 Chapter 2 Figure 2.16: The bungalow of the National Bank of India, Nuwara E l i y a . 40 Chapter 2 Chapter 2 E n g l i s h c o u n t r y home f o r i t s garden i s one of i t s most prominent a t t r i b u t e s . I t has an e n c l o s e d verandah w i t h semi-e l l i p t i c a l a r c h e s . The verandah was a f e a t u r e found i n the bungalows c o n s t r u c t e d by the B r i t i s h i n I n d i a (Osborne, 1954:9). The f r o n t of the house has a c a r v e d r a i l i n g . In C e y l o n , B r i t i s h e x p a t r i a t e s c o n t i n u e d the E n g l i s h t r a d i t i o n of naming t h e i r houses, which M u t h e s i u s i n t e r p r e t s as e v i d e n c e of "the Englishman's l o v e of h i s house" f o r the "name s p r i n g s from s p e c i a l a f f e c t i o n " ( M u t h e s i u s , 1979:7). The houses bore names such as A y r s h i r e Lodge, Cambridge V i l l a , I vy C o t t a g e , D a i s y Bank, Devon C o t t a g e , Rosewood, B i s h o p ' s C o t t a g e , Peach C o t t a g e and Shamrock C o t t a g e (Burrows, 1 8 9 9 : x i v - x v i ) . The names of E n g l i s h towns, as w e l l as f l o w e r s or t r e e s were the f a v o r e d c h o i c e s f o r house names s u g g e s t i n g t h a t the names s e r v e d as s e n t i m e n t a l r e m i n d e r s of the e x p a t r i a t e ' s homeland. The a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e s of the p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s of Nuwara E l i y a a r e as v a r i e d as those of the domestic b u i l d i n g s . F i g u r e 2.18 and 2.19 d e p i c t the N a t i o n a l Bank of I n d i a b u i l d i n g , c o n s t r u c t e d i n 1892 and now o c c u p i e d by the H a t t o n N a t i o n a l Bank. The b u i l d i n g i s an i m p r e s s i v e example of the f o r m a l i t y of the P a l l a d i a n s t y l e . F i g u r e 2.18 shows the f r o n t e n t r a n c e t o the bank. The facade i s a s h l a r masonry, the use of which Osborne n o t e s , i s " r e s t r i c t e d t o the f a c i n g of b u i l d i n g s of i m p o r t a n c e " because of i t s c o s t (Osborne, 42 Chapter 2 1954:66). The e n t r a n c e t o the b u i l d i n g f e a t u r e s a p o r t i c o w i t h t r u s c a n columns and f i n i a l s as w e l l as a key p a t t e r n s t r i n g c o u r s e ( i b i d . : 8 2 , 9 4 ) . F i g u r e 2.19 i s a d e t a i l of the window t r e a t m e n t . A s t a i n e d g l a s s window i s framed by an a r c h w i t h k e y s t o n e . Above i t i s a t r i a n g u l a r broken pediment i n which i s p l a c e d a c a r t o u c h e , an ornamented p a n e l , b e a r i n g the i n t e r t w i n e d i n i t i a l s "NBI" f o r N a t i o n a l Bank o f . I n d i a ( C u r l , 1986:19, 127). The c a r v e d wooden barge board o f f e r s a q u a i n t c o n t r a s t t o the f o r m a l i t y of the f a c a d e . F i g u r e 2.20 i s a photograph of the Post and T e l e g r a p h O f f i c e . I t i s b u i l t i n a v e r n a c u l a r s t y l e and i s a p a s t i c h e of Swiss and Tudor m o t i f s . The b r i c k facade i s p a i n t e d p i n k i s h - r e d which g i v e s i t a s t o r y b o o k q u a l i t y . The pyramid r o o f e d c l o c k tower i s s u g g e s t i v e of a European i n f l u e n c e and the t i m b e r on the b r i c k of the upper s t o r e y i s r e m i n i s c e n t of Tudor h a l f - t i m b e r f a c a d e s . The upper f l o o r has a dormer w i t h diamond pane windows and o r n a t e barge board. The e n t r a n c e i s c o v e r e d by a p o r t i c o w i t h f i n i a l s . The presence of the c l o c k tower i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h i s i s a p u b l i c b u i l d i n g of importance t o the h i l l - s t a t i o n . F i g u r e 2.21 i s the C a r g i l l s b u i l d i n g , d e s c r i b e d by Burrows as a " g e n e r a l s t o r e and m e d i c a l h a l l " (Burrows, I 8 9 9 : x v i ) . I t i s f u n c t i o n a l i n d e s i g n and the facade i s q u i t e p l a i n . The b u i l d i n g has a c o r r u g a t e d i r o n h i p r o o f w i t h a 43 Figure 2.18: National Bank of India building, Nuwara E l i y a . 44 Chapter 2 Figure 2.19: Deta i l of National Bank of India building, Nuwara E l i y a . 45 Figure 2 . 2 0 : Post and Telegraph Office building, Nuwara E l i y a . 46 Chapter 2 47 Chapter 2 r a i s e d s e c t i o n to i l l u m i n a t e the i n t e r i o r . The focus of the b u i l d i n g ' s d e c o r a t i o n i s the entrance which i s f l a n k e d by columns with ornate c a p i t a l s . The entrance i s recessed and covered by a g l a s s awning with wrought i r o n d e c o r a t i o n . The . plan of the b u i l d i n g i s symmetrical and g l a s s cases, l i s t i n g the s t o r e ' s wares, are a f f i x e d to the e x t e r i o r . C a r g i l l s s o l d a range of goods imported from England. F i g u r e 2.22 d i s p l a y s the approach to the H i l l Club. A s i g n b e a r i n g the symbol of the H i l l Club, the l e o p a r d , g r e e t s the v i s i t o r . The H i l l Club can be seen i n the background of the photograph. In the foreground i s a wide expanse of lawn, which Muthesius s t a t e s i s the "most i n d i s p e n s a b l e p a r t of an E n g l i s h garden" (Muthesius, 1979:115). In the c e n t r e of- the lawn i s a grouping of rose bushes. The H i l l Club i s shown i n c l o s e r d e t a i l i n f i g u r e 2.23. B u i l t i n 1872, i t i s Tudor b a r o n i a l s t y l e . I t i s a massive b u i l d i n g with a roughly hewn stone and h a l f - t i m b e r facade. The H i l l Club has m u l l i o n e d windows with leaded panes and, on the r i g h t of the photograph, a dormer gable with f i n i a l s can be seen. The c l u b i s r e c r e a t i o n a l i n nature with t e n n i s c o u r t s , a b i l l i a r d room, c a r d room and polo grounds (see chapter 5). The photograph a l s o d e p i c t s some of the flowers that surround the b u i l d i n g . In the immediate v i c i n i t y of the b u i l d i n g there are rose bushes. Snapdragons can be seen i n the foreground o f . t h e photograph. 48 J Chapter 2 A d j a c e n t t o the H i l l C l u b i s the H i l l C l u b Bungalow (see f i g u r e 2.24). I t , t o o , d i s p l a y s a Tudor i n f l u e n c e d s t y l e w i t h h a l f - t i m b e r used on the g a b l e s . The facade of the b u i l d i n g i s b r i c k o v e r l a i d w i t h i v y . I t i s a s i n g l e s t o r e y bungalow w i t h bay windows. The Grand H o t e l , shown i n f i g u r e 2.25, i s the former Barnes H a l l , b u i l t by Governor Barnes (1823-1831) who e s t a b l i s h e d Nuwara E l i y a as a m i l i t a r y s a n a t a r i u m i n 1829. I t was expanded and c o n v e r t e d t o h o t e l use i n the e a r l y 1890s. L i k e the H i l l C l u b , the Grand H o t e l has a h a l f - t i m b e r facade but i s much l i g h t e r i n appearance than the former. The c o v e r e d e n t r a n c e i s of a h e i g h t i n t e n d e d f o r c a r r i a g e s . Beds of r o s e s s u r r o u n d the b u i l d i n g . The Nuwara E l i y a Race Course i s f e a t u r e d i n f i g u r e s 2.26 and 2.27. The r a c e c o u r s e can be seen i n the f o r e g r o u n d of f i g u r e 2.26. The g r a n d s t a n d , b u i l t i n the l a t e 1890s, can be viewed i n the background of the photograph as can the r i d i n g s t a b l e s . F i g u r e 2.27 shows the d e t a i l s of the g r a n d s t a n d which i s t w o - t i e r and has a c l o c k on the upper l e v e l . S e a t i n g c a p a c i t y f o r the g r a n d s t a n d i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y two hundred p e r s o n s . The f i n a l photographs a r e of H o l y T r i n i t y Church, an i m p o r t a n t i n s t i t u t i o n and l o c a l e f o r s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n a t at t h e h i l l - s t a t i o n (see f i g u r e 2.28 and 2.29). Holy T r i n i t y Church, b u i l t i n 1854, r e p r e s e n t s t h e Church of E n g l a n d . The 49 Chapter Chapter 2 52 C h a p t e r 2 Figure 2.25: The Grand Hotel, formerly Barnes' H a l l , Nuwara E l i y a . (photograph by S.H. Hasbullah, used with permission) 53 F i g u r e 2.27: The g r a n d s t a n d of the Nu„ara E l i y a Race Course. 54 Chapter 2 e x t e r i o r of the b u i l d i n g i s q u i t e p l a i n , g i v i n g no h i n t of the r i c h l y c a r v e d woodwork of the i n t e r i o r . The b u i l d i n g i s t y p i c a l of c h u r c h a r c h i t e c t u r e of the p e r i o d , the b u t t r e s s e s g i v i n g i t a g o t h i c appearance. W i t h i n the c h u r c h grounds i s a cemetery, a reminder t h a t t h e r e was a d a r k e r s i d e t o Nuwara E l i y a ' s r o l e as a s a n a t a r i u m . A stone a n g e l , k n e e l i n g i n p r a y e r w i t h eyes d i r e c t e d toward Heaven, guards the grave of a c h i l d i n f i g u r e 2.29. At the o u t s e t of t h i s e x a m i n a t i o n of r e c e n t photographs of Nuwara E l i y a , i t was suggested t h a t t h e r e remained s u f f i c i e n t e v i d e n c e i n the b u i l t environment and the l a n d s c a p e t o enable us t o a s s e s s how the h i l l - s t a t i o n appeared t o e x p a t r i a t e s i n the n i n e t e e n t h and e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r i e s . The v i s u a l r e c o r d i n d i c a t e s the e f f o r t e x p a t r i a t e s expended on c r e a t i n g a h i l l - s t a t i o n i n the t r a d i t i o n of an E n g l i s h v i l l a g e . I t i s not d i f f i c u l t t o a p p r e c i a t e why e x p a t r i a t e s saw Nuwara E l i y a as an E n g l i s h environment nor why they endeavored t o r e i n f o r c e t h a t resemblance t h r o u g h t h e i r a r c h i t e c t u r e . By such means, they were a b l e t o e x p r e s s and r e a f f i r m t h e i r c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y , and t o overcome the sense of s e p a r a t i o n from t h e i r mother c o u n t r y . These a r e p o w e r f u l m o t i v e s b e h i n d the E n g l i s h n e s s of Nuwara E l i y a . ' The a c c u r a c y of t h i s assessment i s c o n f i r m e d by the s e n t i m e n t a l and p i c t u r e s q u e t r e a t m e n t of the l a n d s c a p e 55 Chapter 2 and the b u i l t environment. England -- Home -- became a r o m a n t i c i z e d image. The Romantic movement gave substance t o t h a t i d e a f o r i t l e g i t i m i z e d i t s e x p r e s s i o n . Romanticism condoned — i n d e e d , encouraged -- the e x p r e s s i o n of sen t i m e n t i n b o th the la n d s c a p e and the b u i l t environment of the h i l l -s t a t i o n . SUMMARY Through the use of v i s u a l e v i d e n c e , t h i s c h a p t e r has i n t r o d u c e d the reader t o the l a n d s c a p e of Nuwara E l i y a . The n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y photographs of Henry Cave e n a b l e us t o view the la n d s c a p e as i t was seen by an e x p a t r i a t e who had a s t r o n g e m o t i o n a l t i e t o the h i l l - s t a t i o n . In h i s w r i t t e n work, Cave d e s c r i b e d Nuwara E l i y a i n e f f u s i v e terms. He managed t o e x p r e s s t h a t e n t h u s i a s m through the medium of f i l m . H i s photographs emphasize the p i c t u r e s q u e and p a s t o r a l n a t u r e of Nuwara E l i y a . To Cave, Nuwara E l i y a was much more, than a p l a c e t o escape the heat and h u m i d i t y of the l o w l a n d s . A v i s i t t o the h i l l - s t a t i o n was a f o r a y i n t o t he realm of the s e n t i m e n t a l and the r o m a n t i c . The r e c e n t photographs of Nuwara E l i y a d e p i c t the lan d s c a p e and b u i l t e nvironment. D e s p i t e the y e a r s t h a t have i n t e r v e n e d s i n c e the B r i t i s h d e p a r t e d from the h i l l - s t a t i o n , Nuwara E l i y a r e t a i n s much of c h a r a c t e r t h a t i t must have p o s s e s s e d i n the n i n e t e e n t h and e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r i e s . The photographs i n d i c a t e the d i v e r s e a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e s 5 6 Figure 2.28: Holy T r i n i t y Church, Nuwara E l i y a . 57 Chapter 2 Figure 2.29: A stone angel headstone on a c h i l d ' s grave, Holy T r i n i t y Church, Nuwara E l i y a . 58 Chapter 2 p r e s e n t ; the o r i g i n s of each may be t r a c e d t o B r i t a i n . The gardens, t o o , a re E n g l i s h i n s t y l e . Nuwara E l i y a was an i n t e n s e l y E n g l i s h environment, made more so by each g e n e r a t i o n of e x p a t r i a t e s who, i n s p i r e d by the examples of t h e i r p r e d e c e s s o r s , c o n t i n u e d t o shape the la n d s c a p e of Nuwara E l i y a i n the image of Home. 59 CHAPTER 3: HILL-STATIONS IN COLONIAL SOUTH ASIA T h i s c h a p t e r p r o v i d e s a c o n t e x t f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g the emergence of h i l l - s t a t i o n s w i t h i n c o l o n i a l South A s i a . The f u n c t i o n a l , s o c i o - e c o n o m i c and p o l i t i c a l f a c t o r s t h a t c o n t r i b u t e d t o the p r e f e r e n c e f o r h i l l - s t a t i o n s h e l d by European e x p a t r i a t e s a re examined. In a d d i t i o n , s e v e r a l of the major I n d i a n h i l l - s t a t i o n s a r e d e s c r i b e d i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e a b a s i s of comparison t o Nuwara E l i y a . T h i s i n c l u d e s a l o o k a t the v a r i a t i o n i n the c u l t u r a l l a n d s c a p e between the major I n d i a n h i l l - s t a t i o n s t o e s t a b l i s h the range of o p t i o n s chosen by the i n d i v i d u a l s and v a r i o u s government a g e n t s i n v o l v e d i n the p l a n n i n g and c o n s t r u c t i o n of the s t a t i o n s . The u l t i m a t e aim i s t o p l a c e Nuwara E l i y a w i t h i n t h i s framework. The f i n a l a s p e c t of t h i s c h a p t e r i s a su r v e y of some no n - I n d i a n h i l l - s t a t i o n s i n comparison t o t h e i r I n d i a n c o u n t e r p a r t s . As noted above, few geographers have w r i t t e n on the s u b j e c t of h i l l - s t a t i o n s a l t h o u g h such s t a t i o n s form a v i t a l p a r t of the c o l o n i a l network i n South A s i a . One stu d y i s Nora M i t c h e l l ' s work on K o d a i k a n a l (1972) which i n c l u d e s a t y p o l o g y of h i l l - s t a t i o n s encompassing t h r e e p e r i o d s ; the 1820s t o 1900, the e a r l y 1900s t o 1947, and the p o s t -independence p e r i o d from 1947 u n t i l 1970 ( M i t c h e l l , 1972:10). The f i r s t p e r i o d of her t y p o l o g y i s most r e l e v a n t f o r the purposes of t h i s paper. M i t c h e l l d e s c r i b e s t h r e e t y p e s of h i l l - s t a t i o n s t h a t 60 Chapter 3 came i n t o b e i n g i n what might be termed the f o r m a t i v e y e a r s of the e v o l u t i o n of h i l l - s t a t i o n s . The " o f f i c i a l m u l t i -f u n c t i o n a l h i l l - s t a t i o n s " c o n t a i n e d the g r e a t e s t number of f u n c t i o n s of the e a r l y h i l l - s t a t i o n s ( M i t c h e l l , 1972). Such s e t t l e m e n t s i n c l u d e d permanent m i l i t a r y b a r r a c k s , a g r i c u l t u r a l e s t a t e s which were n o t a b l y but not e x c l u s i v e l y t e a e s t a t e s , h o s p i t a l s and, most i m p o r t a n t , combined the d u a l f u n c t i o n s of a s e a s o n a l r e s o r t and o f f i c i a l government h e a d q u a r t e r s d u r i n g the summer p e r i o d ( M i t c h e l l , 1972:59). Some s t a t i o n s were a l s o t h e summer h e a d q u a r t e r s f o r the m i l i t a r y ( i b i d . ) . Examples of I n d i a n h i l l - s t a t i o n s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y i n c l u d e D a r j e e l i n g i n the H i m a l a y a s , S i m l a , M u s s o u r i and N a i n i Ta.l i n the n o r t h w e s t e r n r e g i o n , Ranchi i n n o r t h e a s t Deccan, Pachmarhi i n C e n t r a l Deccan, Poona i n the Bombay r e g i o n and Ootacamund i n s o u t h e r n I n d i a (see f i g u r e 3.1). The o f f i c i a l m u l t i - f u n c t i o n a l h i l l - s t a t i o n s d i d not m a n i f e s t a l l of t h e i r v a r i o u s f u n c t i o n s a t the o u t s e t but de v e l o p e d a complex of a c t i v i t i e s over t i m e . F r e q u e n t l y , as i n the case of S i m l a , D a r j e e l i n g and Nuwara E l i y a , a l t h o u g h i t was not the o f f i c i a l summer c a p i t a l of the Government of C e y l o n , t h e , h i l l - s t a t i o n s had t h e i r g e n e s i s as m i l i t a r y s a n a t a r i u m s f o r the r e c o v e r y of h e a l t h and l a t e r g a i n e d p o p u l a r i t y among non-m i l i t a r y e x p a t r i a t e s as l o c a l e s f o r the p r e v e n t i o n of i l l n e s s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t r o p i c a l c l i m a t e s . The p o p u l a r i t y of h i l l -s t a t i o n s as r e s o r t s g a i n e d momentum w i t h v i s i t s from h i g h -61 Chapter 3 DALHOUSIE m (6,660) S(7m) " *MUSSOURIE (6,500) • NAINI TAL i (6,400) DARJEELING • (7150) •SH1LL0NG (5,000) RANCHI m <\ PACHMARHI m (2,140) \ {% (3,500) 1 i \ • (1300) J \ 'MAHABLESHWAP y 1 (4,500) f \ ^/ B A Y OF \ \ B E N G A L | K0DA1KANAL ( N \ mNUWARA ELIYA \ y (6,200) I N D I A N 0 C 0 , W , 200 300 W E S l E A N F i g u r e 3 . 1 : H i l l - s t a t i o n s i n c o l o n i a l South A s i a . 62 Chapter 3 r a n k i n g government o f f i c i a l s which l e n t an a i r of a c c e p t -a b i l i t y and p r e s t i g e t o h i l l - s t a t i o n s as r e s o r t s (Kanwar, 1984:217). Other B r i t i s h e x p a t r i a t e s f o l l o w e d s u i t and w i t h i n a s h o r t p e r i o d , h i l l - s t a t i o n s were a f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d f i x t u r e of c o l o n i a l l i f e . I t became de r i g u e u r f o r i n d i v i d u a l s of means t o remove t h e i r h ouseholds from the heat and dust of the p l a i n s and r e t r e a t t o the h i l l s d u r i n g "the Season". Some h i l l - s t a t i o n s became the summer h e a d q u a r t e r s f o r c o l o n i a l governments. The I m p e r i a l Government i n C a l c u t t a , f o r example, chose S i m l a as i t s summer c a p i t a l i n 1864 and t h e r e a f t e r moved government a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and c l e r k s from s e v e r a l departments, t h e i r f a m i l i e s and s e r v a n t s each year f o r a p e r i o d of seven months and sometimes l o n g e r . Some government departments, as w e l l as the o f f i c e s of the Army h e a d q u a r t e r s and the I n d i a n M e d i c a l S e r v i c e , s e t up permanent o f f i c e s i n S i m l a (Kanwar, 1984:217-8). The Punjab Government i n Lahore f o l l o w e d the example of the C e n t r a l Government and b e g i n n i n g i n 1871 spent f i v e months out of e very t w e l v e at S i m l a . The m o t i v a t i o n t o move the s e a t s of government must have been s t r o n g , f o r the t a s k and expense of moving s e v e r a l hundred p e r s o n s , baggage, s u p p l i e s and f u r n i s h i n g s a n n u a l l y was q u i t e d a u n t i n g . The e s t a b l i s h m e n t of h i l l - s t a t i o n s as summer c a p i t a l s a t t r a c t e d merchants and s e r v i c e s which f u r t h e r enhanced the p o p u l a r i t y of the 63 Chapter 3 s t a t i o n s . The o f f i c i a l m u l t i - f u n c t i o n a l h i l l - s t a t i o n emerged as a nexus of some importance i n c o l o n i a l l i f e . A nother type of h i l l - s t a t i o n , which M i t c h e l l r e f e r s t o as the " p r i v a t e m u l t i - f u n c t i o n a l h i l l - s t a t i o n " , c o n t a i n e d some or many of the a t t r i b u t e s of the o f f i c i a l m u l t i -f u n c t i o n a l h i l l - s t a t i o n ( M i t c h e l l , 1972:59). The range of a c t i v i t i e s v a r i e d from p l a c e t o p l a c e . Examples of I n d i a n h i l l - s t a t i o n s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y i n c l u d e K o d a i k a n a l , Dharmasala and Yercaud ( i b i d . : 8 7 ) . Nuwara E l i y a i s an example of t h i s t y p e . These s t a t i o n s a c t e d as s e a s o n a l r e s o r t s and o f f e r e d such s e r v i c e s as may. have been r e q u i r e d by a s e a s o n a l p o p u l a t i o n . S o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s , such as h u n t i n g , f i s h i n g , t e n n i s and f u n c t i o n s such as t e a s , p i c n i c s , dances and c o n c e r t s o f t e n f o c u s e d upon c l u b s . C l u b s , l i k e the K o d a i k a n a l C l u b formed i n 1887 ( i b i d . : 1 2 5 ) , brought i n d i v i d u a l s of s i m i l a r s o c i a l s t a n d i n g t o g e t h e r which enhanced t h e i r group s o l i d a r i t y as Europeans and, f u r t h e r , the C l u b s a s s u r e d an a r r a y of s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s which c o n t r i b u t e d t o the " r e c u p e r a t i v e " or r e j u v e n a t i n g a s p e c t s of the h i l l - s t a t i o n s a s . r e s o r t s . H i l l - s t a t i o n s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y were even more dependent upon s e a s o n a l p a t r o n s than were the o f f i c i a l m u l t i - f u n c t i o n a l h i l l - s t a t i o n s . The presence of government o f f i c e s i n the l a t t e r as w e l l as the l o n g d u r a t i o n of European r e s i d e n c e a t the s t a t i o n s , l e n t an a i r of permanency t o them. When the season came t o a c l o s e , p r i v a t e 64 Chapter 3 m u l t i - f u n c t i o n a l h i l l - s t a t i o n s f a c e d a mass exodus. L i f e bore l i t t l e resemblance t o the h e i g h t of the season as the European p o p u l a t i o n went from s e v e r a l hundred t o a few dozen i n d i v i d u a l s . The s i t u a t i o n changed over time as t h e s e s t a t i o n s a t t r a c t e d permanent s e t t l e r s and f a c i l i t i e s , such as s c h o o l s , e n a b l i n g y e a r - r o u n d occupancy. T h i s was e s p e c i a l l y the case f o r Nuwara E l i y a where i n d i v i d u a l s , such as Samuel Baker and Henry S i r r , promoted the development of the h i l l -s t a t i o n as an E n g l i s h v i l l a g e . The t h i r d t y pe of h i l l - s t a t i o n t h a t d e v e l o p e d i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y was the " s i n g l e - p u r p o s e h i l l - s t a t i o n " ( M i t c h e l l , 1972:59). These were f r e q u e n t l y m i l i t a r y cantonments of s t r a t e g i c importance such as C h a k r a t a , which was l o c a t e d on a mountain road between M u s s o u r i e and S i m l a ( i b i d . : 5 8 ) . In a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e t y p e s of s t a t i o n s , t h e r e d e v e l o p e d d u r i n g a l a t e r p e r i o d a c l u s t e r of h i l l - s t a t i o n s around the m u l t i - f u n c t i o n a l h i l l - s t a t i o n s . These s t a t i o n s were of minor i m p o r t a n c e , f r e q u e n t l y of i n f e r i o r a l t i t u d e and were the r e s u l t of c r o w d i n g and l a c k of room f o r e x p a n s i o n i n the p r i m a r y s t a t i o n s ( M i t c h e l l , 1972:59). D a r j e e l i n g and S i m l a spawned a number of such s e t t l e m e n t s which were seldom c o n s i d e r e d as d e s i r a b l e or s o c i a l l y p r e s t i g i o u s as an e s t a t e i n a major s t a t i o n but d i d g a i n some, p o p u l a r i t y among i n d i v i d u a l s who had t i r e d of the crowds and the n o i s e of the 65 Chapter 3 l a r g e r s t a t i o n s . N e e d l e s s t o say, the f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e a t t h e s e s t a t i o n s v a r i e d , r a n g i n g from r u d i m e n t a r y t o f a i r , but as a r u l e fewer goods and s e r v i c e s were a v a i l a b l e a t t h e s e l o c a l e s than a t t h e i r more urbane s i s t e r - s t a t i o n s . M i t c h e l l (1972) has i s o l a t e d a number of f a c t o r s t h a t p l a y e d a r o l e i n the l o c a t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n of h i l l -s t a t i o n s . A l t i t u d e was one of the c h i e f c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n the l o c a t i o n of h i l l - s t a t i o n s . A h i g h e r a l t i t u d e h i l l - s t a t i o n was c o n s i d e r e d more a p p e a l i n g than one a t a lower a l t i t u d e because of the p r e f e r e n c e of e x p a t r i a t e s f o r temperate l o c a l e s , l a r g e l y due t o n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y e t h n o - m e d i c a l b e l i e f s about the b e n e f i t s of such e n v i r o n m e n t s . G i v e n t h a t many h i l l - s t a t i o n s were e s t a b l i s h e d as s a n a t a r i u m s , t h e i r o r i g i n owes much t o the b e l i e f h e l d by the B r i t i s h t h a t a temperate environment was b e s t s u i t e d t o the h e a l t h r e q u i r e m e n t s of Europeans. Joseph F a y r e r argued i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n of I n d i a n h i l l - s t a t i o n s as h e a l t h r e s o r t s t h a t h i l l - s t a t i o n s c o u l d not o b v i a t e the need f o r e x p a t r i a t e s t o r e t u r n t o B r i t a i n f o r the complete r e c o v e r y from d i s e a s e "or f o r the r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t of p e r f e c t h e a l t h " as w e l l as " f o r moral and s o c i a l r e a s o n s " ( F a y r e r , 1900:1394). He o b s e r v e d , however, t h a t h i l l - s t a t i o n s were c r u c i a l f o r the w e l l - b e i n g of Europeans when t h e r e was no o p t i o n of r e t u r n i n g t o E n g l a n d . George G i l e s was wary of the "raw, clammy c h i l l s of a sodden atmosphere" and o t h e r a i l m e n t s such as d i a r r h e a and 66 Chapter 3 t y p h o i d which o c c a s i o n a l l y beset v i s i t o r s t o h i l l - s t a t i o n s ( G i l e s , 1904:80). Yet he conceded t h a t the environment of the h i l l - s t a t i o n was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r an i n c r e a s e of a p p e t i t e and a r e s t f u l n i g h t ' s s l e e p , the want of which caused h a r d s h i p t o thos e r e s i d i n g i n hot c l i m a t e s ( i b i d . : 6 6 , 7 9 ) . T h e r e f o r e , i d e a l l y , the a l t i t u d e of a h i l l - s t a t i o n s h o u l d be such t h a t the c l i m a t e i s temperate r a t h e r than t r o p i c a l . A l t i t u d e and a temperate c l i m a t e were no gu a r a n t e e , however, t h a t a h i l l - s t a t i o n would have a lower i n c i d e n c e of d i s e a s e than l o w l a n d c i t i e s . T i l t s t a t e d : A l o c a l i t y t h a t promises t o make a h e a l t h y h i l l s t a t i o n may have m a l a d i e s , f e v e r s , and o t h e r d i s e a s e s f a t a l t o u n a c c l i m a t i z e d n a t i v e s , and doubly so t o Europeans;...many a p r o m i s i n g s t a t i o n has been g i v e n up, on f i n d i n g t h a t i t t o l d t oo s e v e r e l y on the h e a l t h of the e x p l o r i n g p a r t y of s o l d i e r s , sent t o r e s i d e t h e r e f o r a year ( T i l t , 1875:17). Even e s t a b l i s h e d h i l l - s t a t i o n s were not f r e e from d i s e a s e . Outbreaks of c h o l e r a , f o r example, were known a t S i m l a ( i b i d . : 1 2 4 ) . E m i l y Eden r e p o r t e d the death of a B r i t i s h woman, who was pr e g n a n t , from c h o l e r a c o n t r a c t e d a t the h i l l -s t a t i o n (Eden, 1866:242). A l t h o u g h c l e a n water was a v a i l a b l e a t most h i l l - s t a t i o n s , the p r a c t i c e of d i s t r i b u t i n g d r i n k i n g water i n g o a t s ' - s k i n s and the p o l l u t i o n of the water s u p p l y by b a t h i n g or washing c l o t h i n g i n the water t a n k s , as w e l l as poor s a n i t a t i o n c o n t r i b u t e d t o the t r a n s m i s s i o n of the d i s e a s e s such as c h o l e r a , d y s e n t e r y and t y p h o i d ( T i l t , 67 Chapter 3 1875:124; Ross I n s t i t u t e of T r o p i c a l Hygiene, 1968:40; P i e r c e , 1984:708). The Nuwara E l i y a D i s t r i c t , t o o , s u f f e r e d i n c i d e n t s of c h o l e r a , one of which r e s u l t e d i n the q u a r a n t i n e of a group of n a t i v e workers ( C o r n e r , 1908:282). The o p i n i o n s of p h y s i c i a n s d u r i n g the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y v a r i e d as t o the b e n e f i t s of h i l l - s t a t i o n s as s a n a t a r i u m s . Dr. B e a t s o n , the m e d i c a l o f f i c e r a t Nuwara E l i y a f o r t h r e e y e a r s d u r i n g the 1840s, thought the a i l m e n t s t h a t would most b e n e f i t from the environment of the h i l l - s t a t i o n t o be: f u n c t i o n a l derangements of the g a s t r i c , h e p a t i c , e n t e r i t i c and nervous systems, unaccompanied by o r g a n i c l e s i o n s ; f e v e r s u n c o m p l i c a t e d w i t h l o c a l a f f e c t i o n s ; d e b i l i t y a r i s i n g from t e d i o u s c o n v a l e s c e n c e or l o n g r e s i d e n c e w i t h i n the t r o p i c s ; and almost a l l the d i s e a s e s of c h i l d r e n (Mouat, 1852:127). T i l t , however, was more c a u t i o u s i n h i s assessment of the b e n e f i t s of h i l l - s t a t i o n s as h e a l t h r e s o r t s ( T i l t , 1875). He s t a t e d : A l l m e d i c a l a u t h o r i t i e s agree t h a t h i l l s t a t i o n s i n I n d i a o n l y s e r v e the purpose of B r i g h t o n or Scarborough i n E n g l a n d ; t h a t d u r i n g the hot season they a r e a d m i r a b l y c a l c u l a t e d t o improve the h e a l t h of those who a r e o n l y d e b i l i t a t e d by the h e a t ; but t h a t they a r e of no use t o those who have s t r u c t u r a l d i s e a s e s of any i n t e r n a l organ •— d i s e a s e s which a r e g r e a t l y a g g r a v a t e d by r e m a i n i n g i n the h i l l s d u r i n g the r a i n y season, when haze or m i s t , c l o u d s or r a i n , a r e f r e q u e n t ( T i l t , 1875:17) . D e s p i t e t h e i r d i f f e r i n g o p i n i o n s , Beatson and T i l t were i n 68 Chapter 3 agreement about the a m e l i o r a t i v e e f f e c t of h i l l - s t a t i o n s on d e b i l i t y r e s u l t i n g from " l o n g r e s i d e n c e w i t h i n the t r o p i c s " . T h i s p r o v i d e d a v e r y broad and f l e x i b l e c a t e g o r y of a i l m e n t s and.appears t o have been a w i d e l y used excuse by i n d i v i d u a l s who wanted t o escape the o p p r e s s i v e heat of the l o w l a n d s and spend some time i n the p l e a s a n t , temperate s u r r o u n d i n g s of a h i l l - s t a t i o n . One of the h e a l t h b e n e f i t s of h i l l - s t a t i o n s which was noted i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , and can be s u b s t a n t i a t e d by c u r r e n t m e d i c a l s c i e n c e , i s the reduced i n c i d e n c e of m a l a r i a . T i l t o b s e r v e d t h a t h i l l - s t a t i o n s c o n f e r r e d a "c o m p a r a t i v e immunity f r o m . . . m a l a r i a " ( T i l t , 1875:17). M a l a r i a i s t r a n s m i t t e d by v a r i o u s s p e c i e s of mosquitoes of the Anopheles genus (Spielman and R o s s i g n o l , 1984:167). The e f f e c t i v e n e s s of s p e c i e s as v e c t o r s of m a l a r i a i s i n f l u e n c e d by the presence, of a r e s e r v o i r of i n f e c t i o n , namely human gametocyte c a r r i e r s upon which p r e v i o u s l y u n i n f e c t e d mosquitoes may feed and a c q u i r e the Plasmodium, the p a r a s i t i c p r o t o z o a n which causes m a l a r i a , t o t r a n s m i t t o u n i n f e c t e d humans (McGregor, 1985:416). Assuming the e x i s t e n c e of a r e s e r v o i r of i n f e c t i o n , t r a n s m i s s i o n of m a l a r i a i s i n f l u e n c e d by the " i n t e r a c t i o n of a t m o s p h e r i c t e m p e r a t u r e , r a i n f a l l and h u m i d i t y " ( i b i d . ) which has an impact upon both the growth and l o n g e v i t y of the i n s e c t v e c t o r and the development of the Plasmodium w i t h i n i t ( R u s s e l l , 1952:101). 69 Chapter 3 The temperate environment of a h i l l - s t a t i o n reduces or e l i m i n a t e s the presence of m a l a r i a because the Plasmodium cannot s u r v i v e the c o n s i s t e n t l y c o o l t e m p e r a t u r e s p r e s e n t a t h i g h e r e l e v a t i o n s . McGregor s t a t e s : S i n c e the mosquito i s p o i k i l o t h e r m i c [ c o l d -b l o o d e d ] , none of the f o u r p l a s m o d i a l s p e c i e s t h a t i n f e c t man can d e v e l o p i n i t s u c c e s s f u l l y when the c o n s t a n t a i r temperature f a l l s below 15 degrees C.[59 degrees F . ] . Thus, the l i m i t s of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of P.[plasmodium] v i v a x , p r o b a b l y the h a r d i e s t of the human p a r a s i t e s , l i e w i t h i n the 15 degree C. summer i s o t h e r m s , w h i l e those f o r the P.  f a l e i p a r u m , which has more e x a c t i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s , l i e w i t h i n the 20 degree C. [68 degree F.] i s o t h e r m s . Temperature a l s o i n f l u e n c e s the r a t e of development of the p a r a s i t e ' s e x t r i n s i c c y c l e . At 16 degrees C. [60.8 degrees F . ] , P. v i v a x r e q u i r e s 55 days f o r f u l l development but a t 28 degrees C. (82 degrees F.) the c y c l e i s reduced t o seven days (McGregor, 1985:416). The mean annual temperature of h i g h e r e l e v a t i o n h i l l -s t a t i o n s , those above 6000 f e e t , f a l l s below the temperature n e c e s s a r y f o r the s u c c e s s f u l p r o p a g a t i o n of Plasmodium and t r a n s m i s s i o n of m a l a r i a . The mean annual temperature a t Nuwara E l i y a i s 15 degrees C. or 59 degrees F.. S i m l a and Ootacamund average 13 degrees C. or 55 degrees F.. D a r j e e l i n g ' s mean a n n u a l temperature i s 12 degrees C. or 54 degrees F. ( B l a n f o r d , 1889). In a d d i t i o n t o a l t i t u d e , the s i t e f o r a h i l l - s t a t i o n s h o u l d have a c l i m a t e t h a t d i f f e r s s i g n i f i c a n t l y from l o w l a n d c i t i e s ( T i l t , 1875:16; M i t c h e l l , • 1 9 7 2 : 5 7 ) . M i t c h e l l terms 70 Chapter 3 such l o c a l i s e d c l i m a t i c v a r i a t i o n s " m i c r o - c l i m a t e s " ( M i t c h e l l . , 197.2:57). Much of the a p p e a l of h i l l - s t a t i o n s was the c o n t r a s t between the heat of l o w l y i n g a r e a s and the temperate environment of the h i l l s t a t i o n s . In a d d i t i o n , the s p e c i f i c a t t r i b u t e s of an i n d i v i d u a l s i t e w i l l make i t more or l e s s a p p e a l i n g . " F a c t o r s of exposure t o , or s h e l t e r from, p r o l o n g e d s u n s h i n e , r a i n or p r e v a l e n t winds, o f t e n d e t e r m i n e d the a c t u a l h i l l - s t a t i o n s i t e w i t h i n a range of p o s s i b l e l o c a t i o n s " ( i b i d . ) . For lower a l t i t u d e s t a t i o n s , wind and even r a i n were p o s i t i v e a t t r i b u t e s because they p r o v i d e d a c o o l i n g i n f l u e n c e and compensated f o r the l a c k of a l t i t u d e ( i b i d . ) . . In the case of Nuwara E l i y a , r a i n and. m i s t , t h a t evoked images of the S c o t t i s h h i g h l a n d s , were c o n s i d e r e d d e s i r a b l e a t t r i b u t e s . As some w r i t e r s have no t e d , however, i n d i v i d u a l s c o u l d e a s i l y escape such weather, when i t proved o p p r e s s i v e , by h e a d i n g over a r i d g e t o Uva (Gordon Cumming, 1893:143; B l a n f o r d , 1889:124). S u l l i v a n wrote t h a t d e s p i t e heavy r a i n at Nuwara E l i y a which had " p e r f e c t l y s a t u r a t e d " the ground and f o l i a g e , t h r e e m i l e s e a s t of the h i l l - s t a t i o n t he r a i n c e a sed ( S u l l i v a n , 1854:140). . The road we were f o l l o w i n g down towards Badula [ s i c ] [and Uva] was f o r the f i r s t t h r e e m i l e s almost impassable from mud, when suddenly we came t o a l i n e , - a s d i s t i n c t l y drawn a c r o s s the road as i f the w a t e r - c a r t s had ceased t h e i r l a b o u r s a t t h a t p a r t i c u l a r s p o t . A l l b e f o r e us was 71 Chapter 3 parched and d r i e d up w i t h an unbroken drought of s e v e r a l months; a l l b e h i n d us s a t u r a t e d and steaming w i t h c o n t i n u e d wet of a l i k e d u r a t i o n . You c o u l d d i s t i n c t l y see the l i n e kept by the r a i n - c l o u d s i n t h e i r r a p i d c o u r s e t o the n o r t h - e a s t , beyond which the sky was b l u e and u n c l o u d e d , and h e l d not a s i n g l e drop of m o i s t u r e i n s u s p e n s i o n ( i b i d . ) . The e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s phenomenon l i e s i n the monsoon p a t t e r n and topography of the a r e a . C e y l o n i s s u b j e c t , t o the south-west monsoon from May t o November and the n o r t h - e a s t monsoon from November t o May, each a f f e c t i n g a p o r t i o n of the i s l a n d ( B l a n f o r d , 1889:186). Nuwara E l i y a r e c e i v e s p r e c i p i t a t i o n from the south-west monsoon and i t i s d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d t h a t Uva remains d r y , a w a i t i n g the r a i n f a l l of the n o r t h - e a s t monsoon (Le M e s u r i e r , 1893:12). L i k e w i s e , when Uva i s wet, Nuwara E l i y a remains d r y . The mountain r i d g e i n which Nuwara E l i y a i s l o c a t e d " a c t s as a b a r r i e r . t o the r a i n f a l l of the summer monsoon...producing a v e r y s t r i k i n g c o n t r a s t of weather on i t s e a s t e r n and western s l o p e s " ( B l a n f o r d , 1889:123). Another major c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n the l o c a t i o n of h i l l -s t a t i o n s i s a c c e s s i b i l i t y ( M i t c h e l l , 1972:57), which p l a y e d a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e e s p e c i a l l y i n the e a r l y t o m i d - n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y when the s t a t i o n s came t o prominence as s a n a t a r i u m s . A c c e s s i b i l i t y i s a f u n c t i o n of s e v e r a l f a c t o r s ; d i s t a n c e from the l o w l a n d c i t i e s t o the h i l l - s t a t i o n s , the c o n d i t i o n of the r o a d s , and the presence of the r a i l w a y . The l a t t e r f a c t o r i s 72 Chapter 3 i m p o r t a n t towards the c l o s e of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y and the b e g i n n i n g of the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . In terms of d i s t a n c e , M i t c h e l l (1972:57) s u g g e s t s t h a t a l e s s a t t r a c t i v e s t a t i o n c l o s e a t hand might be c o n s i d e r e d p r e f e r a b l e t o a more a t t r a c t i v e s t a t i o n f a r t h e r away. N e v e r t h e l e s s , c e r t a i n s t a t i o n s had an a p p e a l t h a t t r a n s c e n d e d d i s t a n c e . S i m l a was one such s t a t i o n . In March of each y e a r , b e g i n n i n g i n 1865, the V i c e r o y , c i v i l s e r v a n t s and t h e i r h o useholds braved a t r i p of 1,170 m i l e s from C a l c u t t a t o S i m l a ( M o r r i s and W i n c h e s t e r , 1983:200; B a r r and Desmond, 1978:24) and r e p e a t e d the j o u r n e y i n October when th e y r e t u r n e d t o C a l c u t t a . F o r t u n a t e l y , the d i s t a n c e between o t h e r h i l l - s t a t i o n s and t h e i r companion c i t i e s i n l o w l a n d a r e a s was not so g r e a t . Ootacamund, f o r example, i s 250 m i l e s from Madras. A j o u r n e y from C a l c u t t a t o D a r j e e l i n g r e q u i r e d a t l e a s t 26 hours (Duncan, 1893: 4 0 ) . Nuwara E l i y a i s 115 m i l e s from Colombo (Bake r , 1883:22), which e n t a i l e d a twenty hour t r i p by h orse (H.S., 1876:101). The t r a v e l time and e f f o r t r e q u i r e d t o go t o a h i l l - s t a t i o n c o n t r i b u t e d t o extended s t a y s a t the s t a t i o n . P r i o r t o the a r r i v a l of the r a i l w a y , s h o r t " v a c a t i o n s " were not f e a s i b l e . A c c e s s i b i l i t y was a l s o dependent upon the c o n d i t i o n of the roads which c o u l d make the d i f f e r e n c e between a t o l e r a b l e t r i p and one which l e f t nerves f r a y e d . A l t h o u g h the B r i t i s h had competent e n g i n e e r s , road c o n s t r u c t i o n was f r e q u e n t l y a 73 Chapter 3 c h a l l e n g i n g t a s k . In the H i m a l a y a s , f o r example, road beds were s u b j e c t t o e r o s i o n , e a r t h q u a k e s and l a n d s l i d e s ( M i t c h e l l , 1972: 6 1 ) . The s i t u a t i o n was f u r t h e r e x a c e r b a t e d by human i n t e r v e n t i o n t h r o u g h the removal of v e g e t a t i o n and the p r o c e s s of d e f o r e s t a t i o n as the v e g e t a t i o n and f o r e s t c o v e r had h e l p e d t o keep the s o i l s t a b l e . As a r e s u l t , road upkeep was e x p e n s i v e . The road t o M u s s o u r i e ( e l e v a t i o n 6,500 f e e t ) g i v e s some i d e a of the r o l e of roads i n making h i l l -s t a t i o n s a c c e s s i b l e . In 1828, an o f f i c i a l n oted t h a t the road was " d i f f i c u l t and p e r i l o u s i n the extreme. I t sometimes winds down the edge of r o c k s , sometimes z i g z a g s up the f a c e of the h i l l ; p l u n g e s i n t o dark depths of a r a v i n e , or c r e e p s over the summit of a n a t i v e c r a g " ( i b i d . : 6 3 ) . For the i n i t i a l s e c t i o n of the j o u r n e y t o M u s s o u r i e , i n d i v i d u a l s c o u l d t r a v e l by c a r t but the road d e t e r i o r a t e d and the upper-l e v e l s e n t a i l e d t r a v e l upon a pony's back. In a d d i t i o n , women, c h i l d r e n and i n v a l i d s were o f t e n c a r r i e d on p a l a n q u i n s by c o n s c r i p t e d n a t i v e l a b o u r . The need t o have a c c e s s i b l e h i l l - s t a t i o n s was e s p e c i a l l y s t r o n g when the p r i m a r y purpose of many s t a t i o n s was as s a n a t a r i u m s . A j o u r n e y as d e s c r i b e d above c o u l d be g r u e l l i n g f o r i n d i v i d u a l s i n good h e a l t h and, not s u r p r i s i n g l y , was p o t e n t i a l l y l i f e - t h r e a t e n i n g f o r i n v a l i d s . In terms of roads, Nuwara E l i y a s c o r e d f a v o r a b l y . A road s u i t a b l e f o r h o r s e s was undertaken i n 1827-28 and by 1836, 74 Chapter 3 the road had been expanded t o accommodate c a r t s ( F o r b e s , 1840:136,141; S k i n n e r , 1891:89). In 1833, one c o u l d t r a v e l from the h i l l c a p i t a l of Kandy t o Nuwara E l i y a , a d i s t a n c e of some f i f t y m i l e s , i n s i x hours ( B i d e n , 1833:221). By 1893, w i t h a c c e s s by road and r a i l , Nuwara E l i y a was c o n s i d e r e d more a c c e s s i b l e than many I n d i a n h i l l - s t a t i o n s ( F e r g u son, 1893:122). T r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o Nuwara E l i y a was not f r e e from r i s k s , however, and s l i g h t c a r e l e s s n e s s or i n a t t e n t i v e n e s s c o u l d have s e r i o u s consequences. Samuel Baker, who was i n s t r u m e n t a l i n d e v e l o p i n g Nuwara E l i y a , l o s t a c a r r i a g e and h o r s e s over a p r e c i p i c e , and v e r y n e a r l y l o s t h i s drunken coachman as w e l l (Murray and W h i t e , 1895:28). A c c e s s t o h i l l - s t a t i o n s improved as t h e i r i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a r i t y as s e a s o n a l r e s o r t s encouraged the government t o m a i n t a i n and upgrade the r o a d s . The c o n s t r u c t i o n of the r a i l w a y made h i l l - s t a t i o n s a c c e s s i b l e t o more i n d i v i d u a l s f o r s h o r t e r p e r i o d s of t i m e . Weekend o u t i n g s t o a h i l l - s t a t i o n became f e a s i b l e . The c o n s t r u c t i o n , o f the r a i l w a y was a t l e a s t as c h a l l e n g i n g as the b u i l d i n g of r o a d s . Steep t e r r a i n and mountains posed some d i f f i c u l t i e s . The r a i l w a y from K a l k a t o S i m l a , f o r example, i s s i x t y m i l e s i n l e n g t h w i t h a g r a d i e n t of 1 i n 33 and has 103 t u n n e l s ( i b i d . : 6 l ) . As a r e s u l t of the r a i l w a y , opened i n 1903, S i m l a became "even more open, more p u b l i c , [and] more c a s u a l " ( B a r r and Desmond, 1978:41). Perhaps what i s most s i g n i f i c a n t i s t h a t d e s p i t e 75 Chapter 3 the d i f f i c u l t i e s of a c c e s s t o many h i l l - s t a t i o n s i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , the s t a t i o n s grew i n p o p u l a r i t y and came t o have an i m p o r t a n t r o l e f o r the B r i t i s h i n c o l o n i a l South A s i a . P o l i t i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s l i m i t e d the a r e a t o which the B r i t i s h had a c c e s s f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of h i l l - s t a t i o n s ( M i t c h e l l , 1972:58). The ownership of a good p o r t i o n of the I n d i a n s u b - c o n t i n e n t was r e t a i n e d by n a t i v e p r i n c e s , e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g the e a r l y y e a r s of the B r i t i s h o c c u p a t i o n ( i b i d . ) . Thus, l a n d o f t e n had t o be a c q u i r e d f o r h i l l -s t a t i o n s i t e s which the B r i t i s h d i d i n a number of ways. In 1845, f o r example, the B r i t i s h l e a s e d the Northwest Deccan h i l l , on which the Mount Abu s t a t i o n i s s i t u a t e d , from i t s R a j p u t owner so t h a t a h i l l - s t a t i o n c o u l d be b u i l t f o r the b e n e f i t of the B r i t i s h R e s i d e n t of R a j p u t a n a ( i b i d . :81 )•.' Other s i t e s f o r h i l l - s t a t i o n s , such as S i m l a , were a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h t r e a t i e s , g i f t s from n a t i v e r u l e r s and p u r c h a s e . In the case of NUwara E l i y a , the B r i t i s h o c c u p i e d the e n t i r e i s l a n d of C e y l o n and so were f o r t u n a t e t o have the c h o i c e of the b e s t p o s s i b l e s i t e s f o r a h i l l - s t a t i o n . L e s s than two decades b e f o r e the i n i t i a l development of Nuwara E l i y a , the B r i t i s h , l i k e t h e i r Dutch and Portuguese p r e d e c e s s o r s , c o n t r o l l e d o n l y the c o a s t a l r e g i o n s and d i d not a c q u i r e the mountainous, c e n t r a l a r e a of C e y l o n u n t i l 1815. Nuwara E l i y a was " d i s c o v e r e d " i n 1819 by E n g l i s h o f f i c e r s h u n t i n g f o r 76 Chapter 3 e l e p h a n t s (Cook, 1951:341). Because of p o l i t i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s , the B r i t i s h o f t e n had t o n e g o t i a t e and a c q u i r e l a n d s u i t a b l e f o r h i l l - s t a t i o n s . The s t r a t e g i c i m p l i c a t i o n s of a h i l l - s t a t i o n were ta k e n i n t o account w i t h r e g a r d t o m i l i t a r y cantonments which were o c c a s i o n a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o h o s t i l e h i l l t r i b e s over whom the B r i t i s h wanted t o e x e r c i s e c o n t r o l ( i b i d . : 5 8 ) . C h a k r a t a , l o c a t e d between S i m l a and M u s s o u r i e , was such a s t a t i o n ( B l a n f o r d , 1889:106). In a d d i t i o n , m i l i t a r y t r a i n i n g s t a t i o n s were o f t e n l o c a t e d a t a c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s t a n c e from " d i s t r a c t i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l c e n t e r s " , which r e s u l t e d i n a number of s i n g l e - p u r p o s e s t a t i o n s , such as W e l l i n g t o n i n s o u t h e r n I n d i a and B a k l o h , Landour and R a n i k h e t i n the Himalayan r e g i o n ( M i t c h e l l , 1972:58). T e r r a i n was a f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n the c h o i c e of s i t e s . S o i l , s l o p e s , s l o p e s t a b i l i t y , l a n d f o r m a t i o n s , and type of bedrock had some i n f l u e n c e i n the s e l e c t i o n of a s t a t i o n s i t e . As M i t c h e l l n o t e s , the more o b v i o u s a s p e c t s of t e r r a i n , such as the s t e e p n e s s or l e v e l n e s s of a s i t e , p l a y e d a g r e a t e r r o l e i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of h i l l - s t a t i o n s than the l e s s o b v i o u s f a c t o r s such as s l o p e s t a b i l i t y or type of bedrock. Samuel Baker, f o r example, chose the s i t e f o r the development of h i s s e t t l e m e n t a t Nuwara E l i y a because the " g e n t l e u n d u l a t i o n s of the c o u n t r y would a l l o w the use of the 77 Chapter 3 pl o u g h " f o r a g r i c u l t u r e (Murray and White, 1985:27), and the l a n d , a p l a i n , was l e v e l and not t o o s h u t - i n by mountains ( i b i d . ) . S o i l and s l o p e s t a b i l i t y were l e s s o b v i o u s f a c t o r s and, as a r e s u l t , o f t e n d i d not e n t e r i n t o the minds of B r i t i s h c o l o n i a l i s t s u n t i l problems emerged t h a t w a r r a n t e d c o n s i d e r a t i o n of such f a c t o r s . D a r j e e l i n g and S i m l a were both s u b j e c t t o l a n d s l i d e s which c o u l d be t r i g g e r e d , as i n D a r j e e l i n g , by n a t u r a l e v e nts such as an earthquake or a c y c l o n e and, as mentioned above, the s t r i p p i n g of the t r e e s and v e g e t a t i o n t h a t had m a i n t a i n e d s l o p e s t a b i l i t y made many s t a t i o n s prone t o problems of t h i s n a t u r e . S c e n i c beauty was not o n l y a f a c t o r i n the i n i t i a l a p p e a l of a s i t e but an i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t of a s i t e ' s c o n t i n u e d p o p u l a r i t y . As M i t c h e l l (1972:57) n o t e s , "the presence of green g r a s s and woodlands" which reminded the B r i t i s h of t h e i r homeland was a s t r o n g a t t r a c t i o n . H i l l -s t a t i o n s became a f o c a l p o i n t i n B r i t i s h c o l o n i a l l i f e not o n l y because of t h e i r redeeming h e a l t h a s p e c t s . Much of t h e i r a p p e a l was due t o the e f f e c t , h i l l - s t a t i o n s had On the p s y c h o l o g y of the B r i t i s h i n South A s i a . Far from home, perhaps f o r y e a r s a t a t i m e , many e x p a t r i a t e s l o n g e d f o r B r i t a i n . The burden of Empire, l i f e i n l a n d s as f o r e i g n t o them as those of South A s i a , weighed h e a v i l y upon the B r i t i s h , e s p e c i a l l y because they c o u l d not r e a d i l y r e t u r n t o Eng l a n d . H i l l - s t a t i o n s were embraced w i t h such a l a c r i t y by 78 Chapter 3 both governments and i n d i v i d u a l s as the s t a t i o n s e n a b l e d the B r i t i s h t o r e c r e a t e , or c l o s e l y a p p r o x i m a t e , both the p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l e n v i r onments of a l a n d from which they were s e p a r a t e d by c o n t i n e n t s and c u l t u r e s . The element of chance was not absent i n the c h o i c e of l o c a t i o n s f o r h i l l - s t a t i o n s . "The p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t s of the f o u n d e r s was o f t e n the d e c i s i v e element i n h i l l - s t a t i o n l o c a t i o n , as a h u n t e r chose a d i f f e r e n t s i t e f o r h i s camp than a f i s h e r m a n a t t r a c t e d t o a l a k e , or a mountaineer d e s i r i n g a g l a c i e r w i t h i n easy r e a c h " ( M i t c h e l l , 1972:57). The element of chance was o f t e n p r e s e n t i n the " d i s c o v e r y " of the s i t e . T h i s was the case f o r Nuwara E l i y a , which was a c c i d e n t a l l y happened upon i n 1819 by Dr. John Davy w i t h h i s g u i d e s on a h u n t i n g e x p e d i t i o n (de S i l v a , 1978:6). The subsequent s i t e of the s e t t l e m e n t , however, was d e c i d e d by Governor Barnes based upon Nuwara E l i y a ' s s u i t a b i l i t y as a c o n v a l e s c e n t p o s t , and the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of the s o i l and c l i m a t e f o r a g r i c u l t u r e , n e c e s s i t a t e d by the l o g i s t i c s of o b t a i n i n g a food s u p p l y f o r the s a n a t a r i u m ' s p a t r o n s ( i b i d . ) . A d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r s i n c l u d i n g the p resence of p l u r a l s o c i e t i e s and the r e p u t a t i o n of a g i v e n s i t e were a l s o c i t e d by M i t c h e l l i n h e r . d i s c u s s i o n s of the f a c t o r s and p r i n c i p l e s g o v e r n i n g h i l l - s t a t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n ( M i t c h e l l , 1972:57-58). The presence of e t h n i c a l l y p l u r a l s o c i e t i e s had l i m i t e d i n f l u e n c e on the l o c a t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n of h i l l - s t a t i o n s 79 Chapter 3 i n I n d i a , a c c o r d i n g t o M i t c h e l l (1972:58). There i s no doubt, however, t h a t the absence of an i n d i g e n o u s s e t t l e m e n t a t Nuwara E l i y a enhanced i t s a p p e a l t o Europeans f o r two r e a s o n s . The f i r s t reason i s t h a t the B r i t i s h d i d not have t o c o n t e n d w i t h the problem of n a t i v e s o c c u p y i n g a chosen s i t e ( K i n g , 1976b); n a t i v e C e y l o n e s e o f t e n found the s i t e too c o l d and r a i n y t o be p l e a s a n t . The second reason i s an e x t e n s i o n of the f i r s t . The l a c k of a contemporary n a t i v e s e t t l e m e n t meant t h a t the l a n d s c a p e c o u l d be shaped i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h B r i t i s h p r e f e r e n c e s , l i k e a b l a n k c a n v a s . The l a t t e r reason was a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n because the B r i t i s h wanted t o c r e a t e a p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l environment . t h a t c l o s e l y resembled t h a t of t h e i r homeland. In i n s t a n c e s when p l u r a l s o c i e t i e s were p r e s e n t , M i t c h e l l s t a t e s (1972:58), "One would h a r d l y expect the B r i t i s h governor and army commanders t o spend t h e i r v a c a t i o n a t an i n f e r i o r s i t e w h i l e / t h e E u r a s i a n s t u d e n t s a t a m i s s i o n s c h o o l o c c u p i e d an i d e a l one nearby". Thus, w i t h i n a h i l l - s t a t i o n , the b e s t , s i t e s were o f t e n o c c u p i e d by the B r i t i s h , and the B r i t i s h a l s o chose the most f a v o r a b l e l o c a l e s f o r t h e i r h i l l -s t a t i o n s . As a r e s u l t of the c o m p e t i t i o n f o r space, n e i g h b o u r i n g h i l l - s t a t i o n s or s a t e l l i t e s t a t i o n s , such as Dharmasala, were e s t a b l i s h e d , o f t e n a t lower a l t i t u d e s than the major s t a t i o n s . I n d i v i d u a l s or groups who c o u l d not a f f o r d the l a n d or the c o s t of l i v i n g a t the p r i m a r y s t a t i o n s 80 Chapter 3 had l i t t l e c h o i c e but t o t a k e up occupancy at a s t a t i o n l e s s i n demand. The r e p u t a t i o n of a s i t e had a r e l a t i v e l y minor i n f l u e n c e on the l o c a t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n of h i l l - s t a t i o n s . As M i t c h e l l (1972:58) n o t e s , " P r e v i o u s occupance of the d i s t r i c t , d i s e a s e , and o t h e r f a c t o r s which may have c r e a t e d a r e p u t a t i o n f o r a c e r t a i n l o c a l i t y might have been e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s i n the u l t i m a t e a c c e p t a n c e or r e j e c t i o n of a p a r t i c u l a r s i t e as a h i l l - s t a t i o n l o c a t i o n had I n d i a n s been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n " . The B r i t i s h , however, p a i d l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n t o I n d i a n p r e j u d i c e s , e t h n o - m e d i c a l b e l i e f s or knowledge of l o c a l h i s t o r y . The f a c t o r s o u t l i n e d above weighed much more h e a v i l y i n t h e i r d e c i s i o n c o n c e r n i n g the l o c a t i o n of s t a t i o n s . A SURVEY OF HILL-STATIONS The f o l l o w i n g i s an e x a m i n a t i o n of some of the major I n d i a n m u l t i f u n c t i o n a l h i l l - s t a t i o n s t o e s t a b l i s h a b a s i s f o r comparison w i t h Nuwara E l i y a . I n c l u d e d i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n a r e the Himalayan s t a t i o n s of S i m l a and D a r j e e l i n g and the s o u t h e r n s t a t i o n s of K o d a i k a n a l and Ootacamund. These s t a t i o n s were s e l e c t e d because, l i k e Nuwara E l i y a , they s e r v e d as b oth s a n a t a r i u m s and r e s o r t s . SIMLA S i m l a was the f i r s t h i l l - s t a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d by the B r i t i s h . From the f i r s t humble t h a t c h e d c o t t a g e t h a t was 81 Chapter 3 c o n s t r u c t e d i n 1819, S i m l a emerged as "one of t h e g r e a t c a p i t a l s of the w o r l d " ( M o r r i s and W i n c h e s t e r , 1983:200). L o c a t e d a t an e l e v a t i o n of 7,200 f e e t on h i l l s above the Punjab, the l a n d on which S i m l a i s c o n s t r u c t e d was o b t a i n e d by the B r i t i s h i n 1816 under the terms of the Nepalese Peace T r e a t y "as compensation f o r the c o s t of r e s t o r i n g law and o r d e r t o the mountain f r o n t i e r s " ( M i t c h e l l , 1972:60). D u r i n g the two y e a r s the Gurkha wars l a s t e d , the B r i t i s h w i t n e s s e d the r e c u p e r a t i v e e f f e c t s of l i f e i n the h i l l s upon members of the m i l i t a r y e x p e d i t i o n s ( i b i d . ) . At the c l o s e of the war, the d i s t r i c t s of G a r h i v a l and Kumoan were ceded t o the B r i t i s h by the N e p a l e s e . I t i s i n t h i s r e g i o n t h a t t h r e e of the l a r g e s t and most well-known h i l l - s t a t i o n s were e s t a b l i s h e d : S i m l a , M u s s o u r i e and N a i n i T a l , i n a d d i t i o n t o s e v e r a l l e s s e r known s t a t i o n s ( i b i d . ) . The development of S i m l a was r a p i d . The f i r s t European s t y l e house was b u i l t i n 1822 by C a p t a i n C h a r l e s P r a t t Kennedy, the f i r s t P o l i t i c a l Agent of the h i l l s t a t e s (Buck, 1925:6), who s e t a much emulated example of r e f i n e d and l a v i s h l i v i n g (Buck, 1925:5; B a r r and Desmond, 1978:7). The major impetus t o the development of S i m l a came by way of a v i s i t from L o r d Amherst, G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l of the E a s t I n d i a Company, who spent the summer of 1827 a t the s t a t i o n (Buck, 1925:6; M i t c h e l l , 1972:60; B a r r and Desmond, 1978:8; Kanwar, '1984:217). 'The f a c t t h a t the G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l was Of sound Chapter 3 h e a l t h , h e l p e d t o encourage t h e r o l e of S i m l a as a r e c r e a t i o n a l r e s o r t i n a d d i t i o n t o b e i n g a c e n t r e f o r the p r e v e n t i o n of i l l - h e a l t h ( i b i d . ) . By 1838, S i m l a had become a f u l l - f l e d g e d m u l t i -f u n c t i o n a l h i l l - s t a t i o n and the u n o f f i c i a l summer seat of government ( M i t c h e l l , 1972:60). In 1864, S i m l a was promoted t o the rank of o f f i c i a l summer c a p i t a l (Kanwar, 1984:217). The s t a t i o n came t o po s s e s s c l u b s , h o t e l s , v i l l a s and a r e c r e a t i o n a l p a r k , Annandale, which i n c l u d e d a r a c e - c o u r s e , a c r i c k e t p i t c h , gardens, lawn t e n n i s c o u r t s and p o l o f i e l d s ( M o r r i s and W i n c h e s t e r , 1983:200). The "season", l a s t i n g from March t o Oc t o b e r , was the p e r i o d i n which S i m l a e x p e r i e n c e d an i n f l u x of Europeans. E m i l y Eden, w r i t i n g i n 1839 a f t e r the Queen's B a l l i n S i m l a , o f f e r s t h i s cameo of l i f e a t the t i m e : Twenty y e a r s ago no European had ever been h e r e , and t h e r e we were, w i t h the band p l a y i n g the " P u r i t a n i " and " M a s a n i e l l o " , and e a t i n g salmon from S c o t l a n d , and s a r d i n e s from the M e d i t e r r a n e a n , and o b s e r v i n g t h a t S t . Cloup's potage a l a j u l i e n n e was perhaps b e t t e r than h i s o t h e r soups... and a l l t h i s i n the f a c e of tho s e h i g h h i l l s , some of which have remained untrodden s i n c e the C r e a t i o n , and we 105 Europeans b e i n g surrounded by a t l e a s t 3,000 mountaineers who, wrapped up i n t h e i r h i l l - b l a n k e t s l o o k e d on a t what we c a l l our p o l i t e amusements, and bowed t o the ground i f a European came near them. I sometimes wonder they do not c u t a l l our heads o f f and say n o t h i n g more about i t (Eden, 1866 [ v . 2 ] : 1 1 6 ) . By 1838, S i m l a had two b a z a a r s , European shops and a 83 Chapter 3 c e n t r a l t h o r o u g h f a r e known as "the M a l l " . Over one hundred European r e s i d e n c e s had been c o n s t r u c t e d by both p r i v a t e c i t i z e n s and o f f i c e r s . B r i t i s h i n c h a r a c t e r , the houses bore such names as R o s e v i l l e , Rosewood, S t i r l i n g C a s t l e , A u c k l a n d House, Barnes C o u r t , E l y s i u m House, Chadwick and P r i m r o s e H i l l (Buck, 1925; B a r r and Desmond, 1978:8). S i m l a had been t r a n s f o r m e d from an I n d i a n w i l d e r n e s s i n t o a B r i t i s h c u l t u r a l l a n d s c a p e . Even i n the f i r s t decades of i t s e x i s t e n c e , p r i o r t o i t s s e l e c t i o n as the C e n t r a l Government's summer c a p i t a l , S i m l a was renowned f o r the v a r i e t y and i n t e n s i t y of. i t s s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s . O s t e n s i b l y , S i m l a was a s a n a t a r i u m ; i n the language of the time i t was "good f o r the l i v e r " and "good f o r the s o u l " , " i t shook the d r e a d f u l p l a i n s ' dust out of a f e l l o w ' s b r a i n " and "he l p e d t o p r e s e r v e the c o n s t i t u t i o n of those s u f f e r i n g from N t o o much.East'' ( B a r r and Desmond, 1978:11). I t i s a r g u a b l e t h a t S i m l a ' s t o n i c e f f e c t c o u l d have been a t t r i b u t e d as much t o the s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l a s p e c t s of the town as t o i t s n a t u r a l environment. A l t h o u g h the h e a l t h f u l a s p e c t s of S i m l a a r e d u l y r e c o r d e d i n the j o u r n a l s and d i a r i e s of the day, the s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s and the c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g i n which such a c t i v i t i e s took p l a c e were a c c o r d e d the g r e a t e s t prominence by many a u t h o r s (Eden, 1866 & 1872; K i p l i n g , 1889; Kanwar, 1984:215). I f the h e a l t h f u l n e s s of S i m l a ' s temperate c l i m a t e was the impetus 84 Chapter 3 f o r an i n i t i a l v i s i t u p c o u n t r y , the busy s o c i a l c a l e n d a r and a s e t t i n g t h a t bore a c o m f o r t a b l e resemblance t o E n g l a n d , ensured the c o n t i n u e d p o p u l a r i t y of the s t a t i o n . I t would n o t - b e ' t o o g r e a t a g e n e r a l i z a t i o n t o s t a t e t h a t , f o r many, l i f e a t S i m l a d u r i n g the Season was a w h i r l w i n d of s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s . D i n n e r p a r t i e s , l u n c h e o n s , garden p a r t i e s , t e n n i s p a r t i e s and fancy b a l l s were v e r y p o p u l a r . I t was not uncommon f o r an i n d i v i d u a l t o a t t e n d t h r e e t o f o u r luncheons and the same number of d i n n e r p a r t i e s per week ( A l l e n , 1976:131). P r o f e s s i o n a l e n t e r t a i n m e n t was r a r e , which encouraged the r e s i d e n t s of S i m l a t o make t h e i r own amusement. E m i l y Eden, whose b r o t h e r , L o r d A u c k l a n d , was G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l from 1836 t o 1842, o r g a n i z e d a m u s i c a l d i n n e r w i t h a borrowed p i a n o f o r t e , and a c o u p l e who p l a y e d t h e i r f l u t e s . Other g u e s t s sang a l o n g (Eden, 1866:214). S i m l a , l i k e o t h e r h i l l - s t a t i o n s , had s e v e r a l b a l l s each Season, the h i g h l i g h t of the year b e i n g the a n n u a l Queen's B a l l i n May. A nother p o p u l a r event was the "fancy f a i r " h e l d a t Annandale t o r a i s e s u p p o r t f o r S i m l a ' s c h a r i t i e s (Eden, 1 8 6 6 : 1 2 4 ) ( 1 ) . On t h e s e o c c a s i o n s i n d i v i d u a l s donated t h e i r h a n d i c r a f t s f o r s a l e or a u c t i o n . A f t e r a s u c c e s s f u l f a n c y f a i r i n 1838, E m i l y Eden wrote t h a t the event was "more E n g l i s h than a n y t h i n g I have seen i n t h i s c o u n t r y " ( i b i d . : 2 3 9 ) . The atmosphere of the fancy f a i r must have had 85 Chapter 3 an added dose of E n g l i s h f l a v o u r i n g , f o r she might e q u a l l y have w r i t t e n that a l l the s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s of Simla were E n g l i s h i n nature. A band c o n c e r t i n a garden, a p i c n i c at Annandale with archery and a swing set up, amateur t h e a t r i c s , r i d i n g ponies, s k e t c h i n g scenes of the mountains, reading p i r a t e d e d i t i o n s of B r i t i s h novels (2) or w r i t i n g i n one's d a i r y that was mailed i n i n s t a l l m e n t s to f a m i l y at Home, are a s e l e c t i o n of the a c t i v i t i e s t h a t occupied the time of B r i t i s h e x p a t r i a t e s i n Simla (Eden, 1866). L i k e other h i l l - s t a t i o n s , Simla possessed c e r t a i n l o c a l e s which f a c i l i t a t e d and encouraged B r i t i s h s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . The u b i q u i t o u s Club, common to B r i t i s h s t a t i o n s throughout I n d i a , was the f o c a l p o i n t of many s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s . The Simla Club and the United S e r v i c e Club from which n a t i v e s were excluded (3), were the l o c a t i o n s of dances, banquets and other f§tes. They were c e n t r a l g a t h e r i n g p l a c e s of the town where couples and i n d i v i d u a l s would go i n the evenings to p l a y a game of t e n n i s or a rubber of whist (4). The Club was of equal importance f o r both males and females, although women were not members and had no o f f i c i a l s t a nding (see A l l e n , 1976:99). The Club, with i t s B r i t i s h - s t y l e decor, provided a r e l a x i n g ambience and was the pla c e to see and be seen. Because membership was drawn e x c l u s i v e l y from the European community, the Club encouraged a sense of s o c i a l u n i t y and r e a f f i r m e d the c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y 86 Chapter 3 of the B r i t i s h in India. The Simla Mall, l i k e Malls in other h i l l - s t a t i o n s , was the central thoroughfare of the town. Its significance was greater than i t s function suggests for i t , too, served as a meeting place for residents of Simla. Because of the narrowness of the thoroughfares, only the Governor-General, Governor of the Punjab and the Commander-in-Chief were permitted to use a wheeled carriages on the paths and the Mall of Simla (Kincaid, 1973:253). A l l others were limited to walking, horses, jampan (an armchair on two s t i c k s c a r r i e d by coolies) or, l a t e r in the nineteenth century, rickshaws imported from Japan (Edwardes, 1969:91). These means of transportation l e f t the individual open to scrutiny from other passersby and promoted conversation as individuals encountered one another on the Mall. King suggests (1976b: 21 -1 ) that i t was almost impossible to avoid s o c i a l interaction in a h i l l - s t a t i o n , short of staying indoors, because the Mall was the access route to shops, the Club, the Church, the l i b r a r y and to most other places where the individual might want to venture. The Mall, l i k e other s o c i a l settings, strongly discouraged p r i v a t i z e d behaviour ( i b i d . ) . In addition to i t s function as a transportation thoroughfare, the Simla Mall was a recreational f a c i l i t y . In the early evening, individuals went for a walk or a ride along the Mall to "admire the view" or "to take the a i r " 87 Chapter 3 ( i b i d . : 2 1 0 ) . B a r r and Desmond note t h a t t h e r e was much i n t e r e s t i n appearances and p r e t e n s e s f o r the M a l l was a " c e n t r e of f a s h i o n , g o s s i p and i n t r i g u e " ( B a r r and Desmond, 1978:12, 6 1 ) . Annandale was a f e a t u r e t h a t was unique t o S i m l a , a l t h o u g h o t h e r h i l l - s t a t i o n s had t h e i r v e r s i o n s of the p a r k . Annandale was a v a l l e y , a s h o r t d i s t a n c e from S i m l a , t h a t was surrounded by p i n e s , f i r s and d e o d a r s , a type of cedar n a t i v e t o the western H i m a l a y a s , of up t o 150 f e e t i n h e i g h t ( B a r r and Desmond, 1978:11). M o r r i s and W i n c h e s t e r r e f e r t o Annandale as a " p l e a s u r e ground" (1983:200), w i t h a r a c e -c o u r s e , p o l o - f i e l d s and a f o r m a l garden. The s i t e was w e l l -l o v e d by the r e s i d e n t s of S i m l a . " I t was p o p u l a r because i t i d e a l l y s u i t e d the V i c t o r i a n t a s t e f o r romantic p a s t o r a l , the p e r f e c t backdrop f o r p i c n i c l u n c h e o n s , l o v e r ' s rendezvous, and f e t e champetres where l a d i e s and gentlemen h e l d a r c h e r y c o m p e t i t i o n s , p l a y e d b a t t l e d o r e and s h u t t l e c o c k and danced i n the c o o l e v e n i n g s t o the s t r a i n of a f i d d l e " ( B a r r and • Desmond, 1978:11). The homes of i n d i v i d u a l s and f a m i l i e s were a l s o i m p o r t a n t l o c a l e s f o r the S i m l a s o c i a l scene. D i n n e r s , . l u n c h e o n s , : t e a s , garden p a r t i e s , amateur t h e a t r i c s and c o n c e r t s were o f t e n h e l d i n p r i v a t e homes. Most of the homes were d e s i g n e d and c o n s t r u c t e d by amateurs who r e l i e d upon handbooks of B r i t i s h a r c h i t e c t u r e t h a t were p o p u l a r i n the 88 Chapter 3 e i g h t e e n t h and n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s ( M o r r i s and W i n c h e s t e r , 1983:20). The i n t e r i o r s of the homes were e q u a l l y B r i t i s h i n appearance. "Once you stepped i n s i d e the home you were back i n Cheltenham or B a t h . We brought w i t h us i n our home l i v e s a l most e x a c t r e p l i c a s of the s o r t of l i f e t h a t upper m i d d l e c l a s s p e o p l e l i v e d i n England a t the t i m e " ( A l l e n , 1976:72). A r c h i t e c t u r e , the n a t u r a l environment and the s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s of B r i t i s h e x p a t r i a t e s combined t o c r e a t e the i l l u s i o n t h a t S i m l a was a l i t t l e p i e c e of B r i t a i n . Another f a c t o r t h a t i n s p i r e d t h i s i m p r e s s i o n was the s o c i a l and s p a t i a l s e g r e g a t i o n of the n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n from the B r i t i s h . To be s u r e , i n I n d i a , the presence of n a t i v e s and the dependence on n a t i v e s was an i n e s c a p a b l e f a c t of l i f e . In S i m l a , however, c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f o r t was made t o m i n i m i z e the o v e r t p r e s ence of the n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n i n a manner t h a t was not p o s s i b l e , perhaps, on the P l a i n s . In S i m l a ' s r e l a t i v e l y i n a c c e s s i b l e l o c a l e , the n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n was l e s s dense than i n l o w l y i n g a r e a s . F u r t h e r m o r e , p e r m i s s i o n of the Commander-in-Chief was n e c e s s a r y b e f o r e r e g i m e n t s c o u l d t a k e t h e i r l e a v e a t S i m l a (Buck, 1925). Thus, n a t i v e and A n g l o -I n d i a n (5) re g i m e n t s were e a s i l y e x c l u d e d from the S i m l a s o c i a l scene. The government, a l s o sought t o r e s t r i c t the i n f l u x of "unemployed and unwanted I n d i a n s " ( i b i d . : 2 2 5 ) . R e s i d e n c y and b u s i n e s s ownership i n S i m l a were viewed as a p r i v i l e g e , not a u n i v e r s a l r i g h t , by the B r i t i s h who 89 Chapter 3 endeavored t o i n c r e a s e the e x c l u s i v e n e s s of the town by r e s t r i c t i n g a c c e s s . " S e n t i m e n t a l reasons of freedom of movement and p o l i t i c o - e c o n o m i c reasons of l i b e r t y of t r a d e do not a p p l y t o such a c a s e " ( i b i d . : 2 2 5 ) . ' Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , S i m l a was d i v i d e d i n t o European and I n d i a n d i s t r i c t s . The European a r e a , c a l l e d " S t a t i o n Ward", had a " d i s t i n c t i v e E n g l i s h c h a r a c t e r " (Kanwar, 1984:220). The lan d s c a p e of S t a t i o n Ward was d o t t e d w i t h a p p r o x i m a t e l y f o u r hundred p r i v a t e l y - o w n e d E n g l i s h s t y l e c o t t a g e s , v i l l a s and " c a s t l e s " b u i l t on an a c r e or more of l a n d ( i b i d . ) . In the 1880s, i t became s o c i a l l y p e r m i s s i b l e f o r w e a l t h y n a t i v e r u l e r s or " P r i n c e s " t o purchase houses i n the B r i t i s h s e c t i o n of S i m l a . Many P r i n c e s from the n o r t h e r n r e g i o n s of" I n d i a a v a i l e d t h e m s e l v e s of t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y . C o n c u r r e n t w i t h t h i s was the development of the B r i t i s h a t t i t u d e t h a t the I n d i a n r u l e r s s h o u l d g r a d u a l l y "assume the p o s i t i o n of noblemen" ( i b i d . ) . " I t was b e l i e v e d t h a t they ought t o be brought more and more i n t o s o c i a l i n t e r c o u r s e w i t h the ^ h i g h e r ' European community" ( i b i d . ) . T h i s was an e f f o r t on the p a r t of the B r i t i s h t o l e g i t i m i z e t h e i r r u l e and t o co-opt the n a t i v e r u l i n g c l a s s by a l l o w i n g them a l e g i t i m a t e and h i g h s t a t u s p o s i t i o n w i t h i n the B r i t i s h s o c i a l h i e r a r c h y . As of 1886, the n a t i v e e l i t e owned one-seventh of the f i r s t - q u a l i t y European houses ( i b i d . - : 221") . The f e a r on the p a r t of the B r i t i s h of b e i n g o v e r r u n by the n a t i v e s prompted a b a c k l a s h . A l t h o u g h 90 Chapter 3 t h e r e was no f o r m a l o r d e r f o r b i d d i n g the purchase of houses by the P r i n c e s , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p e r m i s s i o n r e q u i r e d t o make such a purchase was d e n i e d . In a d d i t i o n , the P r i n c e s were encouraged t o s e l l t h e i r l a n d s ( 6 ) . The I n d i a n p a r t of S i m l a was named the Bazar Ward and was found i n the h e a r t of the town. E f f o r t s , on t h e p a r t of the B r i t i s h , t o move the bazaar s t a r t e d e a r l y i n S i m l a ' s h i s t o r y . In 1861, a Deputy Commissioner wrote, "My i d e a i s t o g i v e S i m l a as much an European tone as p o s s i b l e . . . . I l o o k f o r w a r d t o the g r a d u a l removal of the Bazar a t S i m l a which i s a t p r e s e n t o c c u p i e d by n a t i v e s and t o s u b s t i t u t e European t r a d e r s i n t h e i r s t e a d , i n improved b u i l d i n g s " (Kanwar, 1984:221). Kanwar s u g g e s t s t h a t the bazaar was t o l e r a t e d s o l e l y because i t p r o v i d e d f o r the I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n (ibid.'.: 222) . The government sought t o c o n t r o l the s p a t i a l e x p a n s i o n of the b a z a a r . Thus, i t grew v e r t i c a l l y r a t h e r than h o r i z o n t a l l y ( i b i d . : 2 2 5 . ) . D e s p i t e a t t e m p t s t o remove i t , the bazaar remained, however, u n t i l 1875 when i t was moved because of a f i r e and a c h o l e r a o u t b r e a k . S o c i a l s e g r e g a t i o n of the n a t i v e and A n g l o - I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n went hand-in-hand w i t h s p a t i a l s e g r e g a t i o n . Of a l l the r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n s f o r s e g r e g a t i o n , perhaps the one t h a t s t r u c k the deepest c h o r d w i t h i n the B r i t i s h community was the d e s i r e t o f e e l a t ease and l e s s s e l f - c o n s c i o u s about t h e i r b e h a v i o u r . One man s t a t e d , on the s u b j e c t of 91 Chapter 3 s e g r e g a t i o n , "We spent our time w a t c h i n g our s t e p and wa t c h i n g what we s a i d — and t h e r e was a c e r t a i n r e l i e f t o go amongst peopl e of our own race and l e t our h a i r down" ( A l l e n , 1976:101). S i m l a , l i k e o t h e r h i l l - s t a t i o n s , p r o v i d e d a l e s s c o n s t r a i n e d environment than e x i s t e d i n the s e t t l e m e n t s on the P l a i n s . A l t h o u g h s e g r e g a t i o n a l s o o c c u r r e d i n s t a t i o n s on the P l a i n s , i t was perhaps more j e a l o u s l y guarded i n the c o n t e x t of h i l l - s t a t i o n s because the mi n i m a l n a t i v e p r e s e n c e was p a r t of the a p p e a l of h i l l - s t a t i o n l i f e . The c a t e g o r i z a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l s as "uncovenanted s e r v i c e " was another method used by the B r i t i s h t o m a i n t a i n s o c i a l and s p a t i a l d i s t a n c e . The "uncovenanted s e r v i c e " , p ersons of mixed B r i t i s h and I n d i a n h e r i t a g e , were the s u b j e c t of c o n s i d e r a b l e abuse on the p a r t of the B r i t i s h . E m i l y Eden wrote i n 1834: The *uncovenanted s e r v i c e ' i s j u s t one of our c h o i c e s t I n d i a n i s m s , accompanied w i t h our v e r y worst I n d i a n f e e l i n g s . We say the words j u s t as you t a l k of the x p o o r chimney-sweepers', or "those wretched s c a v e n g e r s ' - the uncovenanted being, i n f a c t , c l e r k s i n the p u b l i c o f f i c e s . Very w e l l - e d u c a t e d , q u i e t men, and many of them v e r y h i g h l y p a i d ; but as many of them a r e h a l f - c a s t e s ' , we, w i t h our pure Norman, or Saxon b l o o d , cannot r e a l l y t h i n k c o n t e m p t u o u s l y enough of them (Eden, 1866 [ v . 1 ] : 2 0 0 ) . The d i s p a r a g i n g comments made about the "uncovenanted s e r v i c e " may have been prompted p a r t i a l l y out of f e a r t h a t the A n g l o - I n d i a n s , w i t h t h e i r e d u c a t i o n and w e l l - p a i d 92 Chapter 3 p o s i t i o n s w i t h i n the c o l o n i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , might have a s p i r e d to j o i n the ranks of the B r i t i s h community, or even perhaps d i s p l a c e i t . The s o c i a l h i e r a r c h y of the B r i t i s h i n In d i a was r i g i d l y e n f o rced, o f t e n most s t r o n g l y by the memsahibs (7) whose s o c i a l s t a t u s was almost e n t i r e l y dependent on that of t h e i r husbands; the husband's p o s i t i o n being dependent upon h i s rank i n the c i v i l s e r v i c e or h i s type of employment ( A l l e n , 1976:89; Barr and Desmond, 1978:22). Indeed, the s o c i a l d i s t i n c t i o n s were more r i g i d than i n England; "the smaller the s o c i e t y , the broader are the l i n e s of demarcation" (Barr and Desmond, 1978:22). Thus, the women sought to p r o t e c t t h e i r p o s i t i o n from p o t e n t i a l u s u r p e r s . In a d d i t i o n , the a c t i v i t i e s of memsahibs were s o c i a l l y o r i e n t e d . They d i d not have the m i l i t a r y or commercial o u t l e t s that were a v a i l a b l e to men. Th e r e f o r e , s t a t u s boundaries as pa r t of the s o c i a l realm of the B r i t i s h tended to be of c o n s i d e r a b l e concern to the memsahibs ( i b i d . ) . . In p r a c t i c a l terms, these a t t i t u d e s towards the "uncovenanted s e r v i c e " manifested themselves i n the attempt to exclude Anglo-Indians from B r i t i s h s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s . Separate s e a t i n g s e c t i o n s were a v a i l a b l e f o r Anglo-Indians i n t h e a t r e s and the uncovenanted s e r v i c e were not perm i t t e d to enter Government House, the o f f i c i a l r e s i d e n c e of the Governor-General (Eden, 1866 [V.1]:200). When Emily Eden 93 Chapter 3 asked the wives of the uncovenanted s e r v i c e t o send c o n t r i b u t i o n s of h a n d i c r a f t s t o s e l l a t the fanc y f a i r a t Annandale i n 1838, she met r e s i s t a n c e from female e x p a t r i a t e s ; " T h i s was r a t h e r a shock t o the a r i s t o c r a c y of S i m l a , and they d i d suggest t h a t some of the wives were v e r y b l a c k . . That I met w i t h the argument t h a t the b l a c k would not come o f f on t h e i r works..." ( i b i d . : 2 2 8 ) . The appearance of n a t i v e s a t S i m l a s o c i a l e v e n t s met w i t h a s i m i l a r r e s p o n s e . S i k h envoys were i n v i t e d t o a t t e n d a b a l l and the l a d i e s a t S i m l a were o u t r a g e d as "they had no i d e a of d a n c i n g b e f o r e the n a t i v e s " (or w i t h the n a t i v e s ) ( i b i d . : 1 8 7 ) . On t h a t o c c a s i o n , most women r e l e n t e d e v e n t u a l l y , but not w i t h o u t p r o t e s t . S i m l a was a town c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a " p l e a s u r e - s e e k i n g " atmosphere ( B a r r and Desmond,.1978:35). A l l e n (1976:129) s u g g e s t s t h a t S i m l a was the "most glamorous" of the h i l l -s t a t i o n s w i t h a r e p u t a t i o n f o r f r i v o l i t y and f e s t i v i t i e s . P a r t of S i m l a ' s glamour was due, no doubt, t o the presence of the G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l , around whom S i m l a ' s s o c i a l l i f e r e v o l v e d (Edwardes, 1969:91). But even the G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l t i r e d of the c e a s e l e s s round o f - b a l l s , c o n c e r t s , t h e a t r i c s and o t h e r f e s t i v i t i e s . L o r d D a l h o u s i e wrote i n 1849 t h a t he welcomed h i s r e t u r n t o the r e l a t i v e q u i e t and u n e v e n t f u l n e s s of l i f e on the P l a i n s ( i b i d . ) . The presence of the I m p e r i a l Government gave S i m l a an a i r of pomp and c i r c u m s t a n c e t h a t 94 Chapter 3 d i f f e r e d from o t h e r h i l l - s t a t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g Nuwara E l i y a . K i n g notes (1976b:207) t h a t h i l l - s t a t i o n s were p l a c e s i n which B r i t i s h e x p a t r i a t e s c o u l d r e l a x , w i t h o u t the p r e s s u r e s of government and the need t o keep up appearances i n f r o n t of the n a t i v e s . S i m l a , however, was the e x c e p t i o n . S o c i a l g a i e t y was accompanied by a s t r o n g c o n s c i o u s n e s s of s o c i a l s t a t u s and rank, w e l l documented i n K i p l i n g ' s P l a i n t a l e s from the  h i l l s (1889), a s e r i e s of s h o r t - s t o r i e s on h i l l - s t a t i o n l i f e . S i m l a was the epitome of a s o p h i s t i c a t e d h i l l - s t a t i o n . Hence, S i m l a was " a v o i d e d by those w i s h i n g t o be f r e e of c o n s t r a i n t s imposed by t h e i r s o c i a l p o s i t i o n " ( K i n g , 1976b:207)(8). To note o n l y S i m l a ' s s o c i a l p r e t e n s i o n s and c o n s t r a i n t s would not be an a c c u r a t e p o r t r a y a l of the town's c h a r a c t e r nor an a c c u r a t e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of S i m l a ' s a p p e a l . S i m l a was a c u r i o u s c o n t r a s t of " e a r t h y s u r r o u n d i n g s and P a r i s gowns, and perfume" ( B a r r and Desmond, 1978:32). I t was t h i s m i x t u r e of B r i t i s h v a l u e s , b e l i e f s and p r a c t i c e s and a la n d s c a p e t h a t c a l l e d t o mind memories of Home t h a t accounted f o r S i m l a ' s e n d u r i n g p o p u l a r i t y . E m i l y Eden, c a p t i v a t e d by . S i m l a ' s charm, wrote thus t o her s i s t e r , "Such n i c e c l e a r a i r ; and a l t o g e t h e r i t f e e l s E n g l i s h and e x h i l a r a t i n g ; and I t h i n k of you, and Eden Farm, and Temple Walk, and Crouch Oak Lane, and the b l u e b u t t e r f l i e s . . . ; and a l l t h i s because the a i r i s E n g l i s h . . . . i f .the Himalayas were o n l y a c o n t i n u a t i o n of P r i m r o s e H i l l or Penge Common, I s h o u l d have no o b j e c t i o n 95 Chapter 3 t o pass the r e s t of my l i f e on them" (Eden, 1866 [V.1]:230 & 257). S i m l a was a h i l l - s t a t i o n where most of the c o n v e n i e n c e s of l i f e on the P l a i n s , such as European goods and even i c e f o r d r i n k s , were a v a i l a b l e , a l b e i t f o r a p r i c e . I t was a town where i n d i v i d u a l s c o u l d savour the beauty of n a t u r e and, y e t , on most o c c a s i o n s c o u l d do so i n r e l a t i v e c o m f o r t ; the awareness of b e i n g i n a f o r e i g n l a n d c o u l d recede t o the back of t h e i r c o n s c i o u s n e s s . „ DARJEELING L i k e S i m l a , D a r j e e l i n g was a p l e a s u r e town ( M o r r i s and W i n c h e s t e r , 1983:199). The town was e s t a b l i s h e d as a s a n a t a r i u m i n 1836, d u r i n g L o r d B e n t i n c k ' s term as Governor-G e n e r a l . B e n t i n c k was s u c c e s s f u l i n o b t a i n i n g l a n d from the R a j a of S i k k i m as the B r i t i s h had a s s i s t e d the.- r a j a i n r e g a i n i n g h i s throne a f t e r he was deposed ( M i t c h e l l , 1972:66). In 1857, D a r j e e l i n g , l o c a t e d f o u r hundred m i l e s from C a l c u t t a , became the o f f i c i a l summer seat of the B e n g a l i government ( F a y r e r , 1900:1396). The town i s c o n s t r u c t e d on s l o p e s so s t e e p t h a t houses almost appear t o be s t a c k e d one on t o p of the o t h e r ( A l l e n , 1885:93). Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , D a r j e e l i n g i s s u b j e c t t o e a r t h q u a k e s and l a n d s l i d e s t h a t have, i n the p a s t , caused c o n s i d e r a b l e damage. D e s p i t e such r i s k s , D a j e e l i n g became a v e r y p o p u l a r h i l l - s t a t i o n , so p o p u l a r t h a t by the c l o s e of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y a l l a v a i l a b l e b u i l d i n g s i t e s had been u t i l i z e d ( M i t c h e l l , 96 Chapter 3 1972:68). The town's overcrowdedness was one of the main c r i t i c i s m s of D a r j e e l i n g ' s d e t r a c t o r s . D a r j e e l i n g r e t a i n e d i t s r e p u t a t i o n as a s a n a t a r i u m a f f o r d i n g , as G i l e s s t a t e d , "an e x c e l l e n t r e f u g e from the extreme heat of the p l a i n s " ( G i l e s , 1904:61). L i f e on the p l a i n s o f t e n r e s u l t e d i n the d e t e r i o r a t i o n of the h e a l t h of the B r i t i s h from a c o m b i n a t i o n of h a r d work and e x h a u s t i o n ( F a y r e r , 1900:1396). D a r j e e l i n g was a s u i t a b l e o p t i o n f o r i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h "no d e f i n i t e o r g a n i c d i s e a s e , and no c o m p l i c a t i o n s , such as asthma, c a r d i a c or c e r e b r a l d i s e a s e , thought not t o do w e l l h e r e " ( i b i d . ) . C h i l d r e n and p ersons w i t h a d e l i c a t e c o n s t i t u t i o n were b e l i e v e d t o f l o u r i s h a t D a r j e e l i n g ( i b i d . ) . In s h o r t , D a r j e e l i n g o f f e r e d a p l e a s a n t environment where the B r i t i s h c o u l d r e s t and r e c u p e r a t e from the t r i a l s of l i f e i n o t h e r p a r t s of I n d i a . D a r j e e l i n g i s l o c a t e d a t 7,150 f e e t e l e v a t i o n i n the m i d s t of the Himalayas and has, what M i t c h e l l d e s c r i b e s as "an e x t r e m e l y b e a u t i f u l l o c a t i o n " (1972:68). Surrounded by m a g n o l i a , oak, c h e s t n u t and c o n i f e r t r e e s , i t i s not d i f f i c u l t t o u n d e r s t a n d why B r i t i s h e x p a t r i a t e s f l o c k e d t o the h i l l - s t a t i o n ( F a y r e r , 1900:1396). D u r i n g h i s s t a y i n D a r j e e l i n g i n 1848, Dr. Joseph Hooker wrote: E a r l y next morning I caught my f i r s t v i e w , and I l i t e r a l l y h e l d my b r e a t h i n awe and a d m i r a t i o n . S i x or seven s u c c e s s i v e ranges of f o r e s t - c l a d mountains as h i g h as t h a t whereon I s t o o d (8,000 f e e t ) i n t e r v e n e d between 97 Chapter 3 me and the d a z z l i n g w h i t e p i l e of snow-c l a d m o u n t a i n s , among which the g i a n t peak of Kanchenjunga r o s e 20,000 f e e t above the l o f t y p o i n t from which I gazed. Owing t o the c l e a r n e s s of the atmosphere the snow appeared t o my fancy but a few m i l e s o f f ( M i t c h e l l , 1972:68). The town's l a y o u t was a l s o a t t r a c t i v e f o r a l t h o u g h the s t a t i o n was s m a l l , i t was w e l l - k e p t , f u n c t i o n a l and w e l l -o r g a n i z e d ( M o r r i s and W i n c h e s t e r , 1983:200). A c c o r d i n g t o M o r r i s and W i n c h e s t e r , D a r j e e l i n g made the most of i t s s m a l l n e s s ( i b i d . ) . I t even p o s s e s s e d a r a c e c o u r s e t h a t "was c l a i m e d t o be the s m a l l e s t i n the w o r l d , space was so l i m i t e d t h a t the r a c i n g p o n i e s , when they had completed the c i r c u i t , were o b l i g e d t o dash headlong o f f the c o u r s e a l t o g e t h e r , and down a n e i g h b o u r i n g l a n e " ( M o r r i s , 1982:203). The t i n y r a c e c o u r s e c a p t u r e d the s p i r i t of the s t a t i o n ; D a r j e e l i n g l a c k e d the a ura of s e l f - i m p o r t a n c e t h a t S i m l a p o s s e s s e d . Nor d i d i t convey the i m p r e s s i o n of b e i n g e i t h e r a p o l i t i c a l or a commercial town ( M o r r i s and W i n c h e s t e r , 1983:200), t h o u g h . i t had c l a i m s t o both because i t was the summer seat of the B e n g a l i government and was a l s o a c ommercial c e n t r e f o r the r e g i o n ' s t e a p l a n t a t i o n s . L i k e S i m l a , D a r j e e l i n g was a town c e n t r e d around s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s , g a t h e r i n g s and o c c a s i o n s but i t s r e s i d e n t s were not p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h rank or s t a t u s i n the manner of the i n h a b i t a n t s of i t s s i s t e r - s t a t i o n , S i m l a . By comparison w i t h S i m l a , D a r j e e l i n g ' s atmosphere was r e l a x e d and c o n g e n i a l . To . 9 8 Chapter 3 many of i t s s o j o u r n e r s , D a r j e e l i n g was s p e c i a l ; "you were always c o n s c i o u s of the e x t r a o r d i n a r y n a t u r e of the p l a c e , so i s o l a t e d , so f a r away" ( i b i d . ) . I t was t h i s r e p u t a t i o n t h a t caused D a r j e e l i n g t o be c o n s i d e r e d one of the foremost h i l l -s t a t i o n s . OOTACAMUND Ootacamund, or "Ooty" ( e l e v a t i o n 7,400 f e e t ) , was the c h i e f s o u t h - I n d i a n h i l l - s t a t i o n . L o c a t e d i n the N i l g i r i h i l l s , e l e v e n degrees n o r t h of the e q u a t o r , Ootacamund was an " E n g l i s h town t r a n s p o r t e d t o the t i p of I n d i a " ( P a n t e r -Downes, 1967:8). The town was founded i n 1821 as a s a n a t a r i u m of the Madras P r e s i d e n c y and was " h a i l e d w i t h r a p t u r e as a m i r a c u l o u s g i v e r of h e a l t h , even of l i f e i t s e l f " ( i b i d . : 6 ) . F a y r e r noted t h a t Ooty p o s s e s s e d a c l i m a t e : w e l l s u i t e d t o the European c o n s t i t u t i o n , i n which our r a c e can m a i n t a i n i t s h e a l t h f u l v i g o u r , and where t h e r e i s good reason t o b e l i e v e t h a t . . . a permanent home f o r European race might be, and i n d e e d i s , e s t a b l i s h e d ( F a y r e r , 1900:1395). F a y r e r c o n c l u d e d t h a t the h i l l ^ s t a t i o n was s u i t a b l e f o r " a l l c o n d i t i o n s of d e p r e s s e d h e a l t h , or. a f t e r d i s e a s e c o n t r a c t e d i n the p l a i n s , e x c e p t , as i n most o t h e r h i l l c l i m a t e s , those of h e p a t i t i c or d y s e n t e r i c n a t u r e " ( i b i d . : 1 3 9 6 ) . B l a n f o r d c o n c u r s , s t a t i n g " i t would c e r t a i n l y be h a r d t o f i n d w i t h i n the l i m i t s of the I n d i a n empire, or perhaps e l s e w h e r e " a c l i m a t e more f a v o r a b l e t o Europeans ( B l a n f o r d , 1889:120). 99 Chapter 3 The r e l a t i v e u n i f o r m i t y of temperature duri n g the year and a c l i m a t e that resembled that of England i n the s p r i n g and summer accounted f o r i t s p o p u l a r i t y among e x p a t r i a t e s ( i b i d . : 1 2 0 - 1 ) . The morphology of Ooty d i f f e r s from that of e i t h e r Simla or D a r j e e l i n g . The N i l g i r i s are g e n t l e r h i l l s than the towering peaks of the Himalayas; l e v e l land upon which to b u i l d was not at such a premium. T h e r e f o r e , the s p a t i a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n of the s t a t i o n was not imperative and the r e s u l t i s that Ootacamund i s spread out over a s e r i e s of small h i l l s ( i b i d . : 14). Indeed, A r n o l d , on a tour of south I n d i a , wrote that Ooty was not l i k e a town f o r i t s v i l l a s and bungalows were s c a t t e r e d , with neighbours widely d i s p e r s e d (Arnold, 1881:382). The a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e most p r e v a l e n t i n Ooty i s an ornamental pseudo-Swiss c h a l e t s t y l e (9), which dates from 1860 when the s t a t i o n experienced i t s s t r o n g e s t p e r i o d of expansion (Panter-Downes, 1967:14; Darley, 1978:940). Though Swiss i n s t y l e , the names of the r e s i d e n c e s -- Apple Cottage, C h e e r f u l Cottage, Squire's H a l l , H arrow-on-the-Hill and Grasmere Lodge — : evoke images of the E n g l i s h c o u n t r y s i d e (Panter-Downes, 1967:11; Darley, 1978:940). If the a r c h i t e c t u r e of Ootacamund was Swiss i n nature, other aspects of the town were demonstrably B r i t i s h . L i k e i t s more n o r t h e r l y c o u n t e r p a r t s , Ooty possessed a Club, an 1 0 0 Chapter 3 E n g l i s h c h u r c h , assembly rooms and a l i b r a r y and because the t e r r a i n i s not as s t e e p as t h a t of the Himalayan s t a t i o n s , a g r e a t e r range of outdoor a c t i v i t i e s was p o s s i b l e ( M i t c h e l l , 1972:75). These a c t i v i t i e s or f e a t u r e s i n c l u d e d g o l f l i n k s , a c i r c u l a r c a r r i a g e road -- a r g u a b l y "the most a t t r a c t i v e d r i v e i n any h i l l s t a t i o n i n I n d i a " (Shaw, 1944:85), a r a c e -c o u r s e and an a n n u a l hunt, the Ootacamund Hunt, u s i n g h i l l -j a c k a l s and foxhounds i m p o r t e d from B r i t a i n (Shaw, 1944:86; M i t c h e l l , 1972:75). A l t h o u g h perhaps l e s s s o p h i s t i c a t e d than the n o r t h e r n h i l l - s t a t i o n s (Shaw, 1944:81), Ootacamund had a l i v e l y s o c i a l l i f e d u r i n g the.Season; b a l l s , c o n c e r t s , a f l o w e r show, a dog show, a u c t i o n s of guns and p r o p e r t y of gentlemen "going-home", t e n n i s , s h o o t i n g , p o l o , f i s h i n g and l o n g walks were some of the a c t i v i t i e s w i t h which i n d i v i d u a l s o c c u p i e d t h e i r time ( A r n o l d , 1881:389; Panter-Downes, 1967:10). The l a n d s c a p e resembled t h a t of B r i t a i n and was much admired and remarked upon by the numerous v i s i t o r s t o the a r e a . For L o r d L y t t o n , V i c e r o y of I n d i a from 1876 t o 1880, Ootacamund reminded him of " H e r t f o r d s h i r e l a n e s , D e v o n s h i r e downs, Westmoreland l a k e s , [and] S c o t c h t r o u t streams" (Brown, 1948:27). The " E n g l i s h r a i n " was " b e a u t i f u l " and the " E n g l i s h mud" was " d e l i c i o u s " ( i b i d . ) . The B r i t i s h a p p e a l of the s t a t i o n had been c u l t i v a t e d s i n c e i t s i n c e p t i o n f o r as e a r l y as 1821, Johnson, a B r i t i s h gardener employed by John 101 Chapter 3 S u l l i v a n , the f i r s t European s e t t l e r i n Ooty, brought a p p l e s and peach t r e e s , s t r a w b e r r i e s , f l o w e r seeds i n c l u d i n g h o l l y h o c k s , r o s e s and geraniums, and v e g e t a b l e seeds and s h o o t s i n c l u d i n g cabbage, sweet peas, r a d i s h e s and p o t a t o e s from Home. He a l s o t r a n s p o r t e d E n g l i s h f i r s and oaks (Panter-Downes, 1967:30). Other t r e e s , i n c l u d i n g w i l l o w s , e u c a l y p t u s and orange and l i m e t r e e s were impo r t e d from A u s t r a l i a ( A r n o l d , 1881:387). In 1858, government p l a n t a t i o n s of A u s t r a l i a n b l u e gums, w a t t l e s , c o n i f e r p i n e s and c y p r e s s e s were e s t a b l i s h e d t o augment the d w i n d l i n g s u p p l y of f i r e w o o d (Shaw, 1944:83). The e f f e c t upon t h e t r a v e l l e r of s e e i n g such a p r o f u s i o n of E n g l i s h v e g e t a t i o n i n a s e t t i n g t h a t bore a s t r o n g resemblance t o Home made i t " d i f f i c u l t t o t h i n k i t was I n d i a , and not England i n May" ( i b i d . : 3 7 9 ) . Such f a v o r a b l e i m p r e s s i o n s as the f o l l o w i n g were common among v i s i t o r s and r e s i d e n t s of the a r e a : Even the f l o w e r s were E n g l i s h , and as I drank i n t h e i r sweet s c e n t the p i c t u r e was made complete by a b r i g h t l i t t l e E n g l i s h g i r l coming down the road, w i t h her f a t h e r , her arms f u l l of f l o w e r s and c o n v o l u u l i , the s p o i l s of an e a r l y morning walk, and her y e l l o w h a i r f l o a t i n g on the wind, w h i l e she laughed and t a l k e d and l o o k e d so b e a u t i f u l I f e l t proud t o be her countryman ( A r n o l d , 1881:380). KODAIKANAL K o d a i k a n a l ( e l e v a t i o n 7,300 f e e t ) , l o c a t e d i n the P a l n i H i l l s i n s o u t h e r n I n d i a , d i f f e r s from S i m l a , D a r j e e l i n g or 1 0 2 Chapter 3 Ootacamund i n t h a t i t was e s t a b l i s h e d by both American and B r i t i s h i n t e r e s t s . The l a n d on which i t i s s i t u a t e d was f i r s t s u r v e y e d by the B r i t i s h i n 1821 but the s u r v e y o r ' s r e p o r t was not p u b l i s h e d u n t i l 1837 ( M i t c h e l l , 1972:93). A f t e r a t t e m p t s t o e s t a b l i s h s a n a t a r i u m s i n n e i g h b o u r i n g l o c a t i o n s met w i t h l i t t l e s u c c e s s because the e l e v a t i o n was i n s u f f i c i e n t t o p r e v e n t f e v e r , K o d a i k a n a l was s e l e c t e d as an a l t e r n a t e s i t e . A few European s e t t l e r s had p r e v i o u s l y b u i l t homes i n the v i c i n i t y but t h e r e was no t o w n s i t e when American m i s s i o n a r i e s a r r i v e d i n 1845. The f o l l o w i n g y e a r , some B r i t i s h c i v i l s e r v a n t s c o n s t r u c t e d houses and the h i l l -s t a t i o n had begun i n e a r n e s t ( i b i d . : 1 0 4 ) . D i f f i c u l t a c c e s s , due t o s t e e p s l o p e s of g r a n i t e , i n h i b i t e d the r a p i d e x p a n s i o n of the s e t t l e m e n t ( i b i d . : 9 3 ) . A s i d e from i t s slow s t a r t , K o d a i k a n a l d e v e l o p e d i n t o a " t y p i c a l f o r e i g n e n c l a v e of the c o l o n i a l e r a " ( i b i d . : 107);' a r e c r e a t i o n a l and h e a l t h c e n t r e f o r Europeans, p a t r o n i z e d p r e d o m i n a n t l y by B r i t i s h c i v i l s e r v a n t s and American m i s s i o n a r i e s . L i k e many o t h e r h i l l - s t a t i o n , K o d a i k a n a l had i t s s c e n i c a dvantages. "The houses of European r e s i d e n t s a r e p i c t u r e s q u e l y grouped about a n a t u r a l t h e a t r e of h i l l s s u r r o u n d i n g an a r t i f i c i a l l a k e which has been c o n s t r u c t e d a t the bottom of a b e a u t i f u l l i t t l e v a l l e y " ( M i t c h e l l , 1972:107). The town was o r g a n i z e d so t h a t the n a t i v e s e c t i o n w i t h i t s bazaar was out of s i g h t of European r e s i d e n c e s and 103 Chapter 3 d i d not impede t h e i r view of the p l a i n s below ( i b i d . : 1 0 6 ) . . U n l i k e S i m l a where the movement of I n d i a n s who were not a t t a c h e d t o Europeans was d i s c o u r a g e d , many I n d i a n s a r r i v e d i n K o d a i k a n a l by t h e m s e l v e s . Once t h e r e , they s e t - u p shops or c u l t i v a t e d f i e l d s of European v e g e t a b l e s t o s e l l t o the e x p a t r i a t e p o p u l a t i o n ( i b i d . : 1 2 0 ) . In a d d i t i o n t o b e i n g s p a t i a l l y s e p a r a t e , the n a t i v e and European s e c t i o n s of the s t a t i o n had d i f f e r e n t m o r p h o l o g i e s . The European s e c t o r was d i s p e r s e d a l o n g the e a s t e r n and s o u t h e r n s h o r e s of the man-made l a k e . The compounds f o r i n d i v i d u a l bungalows were l a r g e and s p a c i o u s ( i b i d . : 1 1 9 ) . The n a t i v e s e c t i o n , however, was v e r y d e n s e l y p o p u l a t e d . The c o m b i n a t i o n of B r i t i s h and American r e s i d e n t s and v i s i t o r s gave the h i l l - s t a t i o n a c h a r a c t e r t h a t d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y from S i m l a , D a r j e e l i n g or Ootacamund. In the e a r l y y e a r s of the s t a t i o n , p r i o r t o the 1880s, K o d a i k a n a l had a v e r y c l o s e - k n i t and f r a t e r n a l atmosphere. The s c a l e of s e t t l e m e n t was s m a l l . For example, o n l y s e v e n t y - f i v e Europeans came t o town i n 1875 ( M i t c h e l l , 1972:118) and were a m i x t u r e of B r i t i s h c i v i l s e r v a n t s , American m i s s i o n a r i e s , wives whose husbands were i n the army, mothers w i t h c h i l d r e n and i n d i v i d u a l s who were i n poor h e a l t h . Because a c c e s s t o K o d a i k a n a l was d i f f i c u l t , growth of the s t a t i o n was slow and many of i t s s e a s o n a l v i s i t o r s r e t u r n e d year a f t e r y e a r . The s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s , which i n c l u d e d h u n t i n g , f i s h i n g , f e r n and 104 Chapter 3 b u t t e r f l y ' c o l l e c t i n g , b o a t i n g , p i c n i c s , r i d i n g , h i k i n g , dances, t e n n i s , badminton, t h e a t r i c s and t e a s ( i b i d . : 1 2 4 ) were j o i n t l y engaged i n by B r i t i s h and American r e s i d e n t s . Thus, t h e r e was a sense of community among the Europeans w i t h o u t s t r o n g d i s t i n c t i o n s on the b a s i s of c o u n t r y of o r i g i n ( i b i d . ) . The a i r of i n f o r m a l i t y and the ease of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s d i m i n i s h e d w i t h the i n c r e a s e d a c c e s s and p o p u l a r i t y of the s t a t i o n d u r i n g the 1880s ( M i t c h e l l , 1972:124). As a r e s u l t , t h e r e was a s h i f t away from i n f o r m a l l y o r g a n i z e d a c t i v i t i e s t o c l u b - c e n t r e d a c t i v i t i e s . " E f f o r t s were p u r p o s e f u l l y made to keep up f r i e n d l y c o n t a c t s a t l e a s t w i t h o t h e r s of s i m i l a r i n t e r e s t s , and thus v a r i o u s . c l u b s sprang i n t o e x i s t e n c e " ( i b i d . ) . The sense of community was undermined w i t h the i n f l u x of new p a t r o n s and r i v a l r i e s d e v e l o p e d between the B r i t i s h and the Americans, m i s s i o n a r i e s and non-m i s s i o n a r i e s , where none had e x i s t e d b e f o r e . Attempts were made t o " r e g a i n l o s t u n i t y " ( i b i d . : 1 2 5 ) t h r o u g h i n s t i t u t i o n s such as the C l u b , w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t the f o r m e r l y r e l a x e d s o c i a l atmosphere of K o d a i k a n a l came t o resemble the more s t r u c t u r e d and h i e r a r c h i c a l s o c i a l w o r l d s of S i m l a , D a r j e e l i n g or Ootacamund. NON-INDIAN HILL-STATIONS L i k e the B r i t i s h , the Dutch c o l o n i a l i s t s d e v e l o p e d h i l l - s t a t i o n s i n the Dutch I n d i e s " i n o r d e r t o make s o j o u r n s 105 Chapter 3 i n a f o r e i g n l a n d l e s s u n c o m f o r t a b l e " (Spencer and Thomas, 1948:637). The Dutch e x c u r s i o n s i n t o the h i l l s of Java p r e d a t e d B r i t i s h f o r a y s i n t o the mountains but both the Dutch and the B r i t i s h reached s i m i l a r c o n c l u s i o n s about the r e c u p e r a t i v e e f f e c t s of h i l l l i f e . H i l l - s t a t i o n s f o r the Dutch were l e s s s e a s o n a l i n n a t u r e than were B r i t i s h h i l l -s t a t i o n s ( i b i d . : 6 4 0 ) . The s t a t i o n s tended t o be s i t e s of permanent r e s i d e n c e f o r government groups, w e a l t h y Dutch t r a d i n g f a m i l i e s as w e l l as m i l i t a r y g a r r i s o n s ( i b i d . ) . The Dutch c o n s t r u c t e d t w e n t y - t h r e e h i l l - s t a t i o n s , most of which were l o c a t e d on J a v a . The r e s u l t was t h a t i n J a v a t h e r e was a h i l l - s t a t i o n a v a i l a b l e t o e v e r y town of any importance w i t h i n a few hours j o u r n e y ( i b i d . :645).. The s t a t i o n s were t y p i c a l l y of lower e l e v a t i o n than those found i n I n d i a , most b e i n g l o c a t e d between 1600 f e e t and 4000 f e e t e l e v a t i o n ( i b i d . ) . Two of the most prominent Dutch h i l l - s t a t i o n s were B u i t e n z o r g ( e l e v a t i o n 865 f e e t ) and Bandoeng ( e l e v a t i o n 2324 f e e t ) . The former, l o c a t e d f o r t y m i l e s from B a t a v i a , was the permanent r e s i d e n c e of the G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l , and was a f a v o r i t e spot of weekend commuters ( i b i d . : 6 4 1 ; W i t h i n g t o n , 1961:418). The l a t t e r s t a t i o n , l o c a t e d i n West J a v a , was the permanent home of the army and o t h e r government i n s t i t u t i o n s ( i b i d . ) . C hina was a l s o the l o c a l e of h i l l - s t a t i o n s but t h e r e was r e s i s t a n c e from the C h i n e s e government and the l o c a l 106 Chapter 3 i n h a b i t a n t s t o the development of h i l l - s t a t i o n s . Thus, t h e r e were fewer s t a t i o n s i n China than the European p o p u l a t i o n would appear t o w a r r a n t (Spencer and Thomas, 1948:645). The f i r s t C h i n e s e h i l l - s t a t i o n , R u l i n g , was e s t a b l i s h e d as a s a n a t a r i u m by m i s s i o n a r i e s and was t y p i c a l of the C h i n e s e v a r i e t y of h i l l - s t a t i o n i n t h a t i t had few p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s , and the a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e was Chinese r a t h e r than European. The f i r s t bungalows were d e s t r o y e d by n a t i v e s ; European c o n t r o l of the a r e a was not s t r o n g ( i b i d . : 6 4 8 ) . The d i f f e r e n c e s between h i l l - s t a t i o n s i n China and those i n I n d i a were due t o s e v e r a l f a c t o r s . F i r s t , the C h i n e s e government never c o m p l e t e l y l o s t c o n t r o l of p r o p e r t y r i g h t s . Second, the Chinese p e o p l e b e l i e v e d t h a t the i n t r u s i o n of f o r e i g n e r s i n t o the mountainous r e g i o n s would d i s t u r b the harmony of n a t u r e and the l a n d s c a p e . T h i r d , most Europeans r e s i d e d a l o n g the s e a c o a s t and found i t e a s i e r t o t r a v e l t o Japan or the P h i l i p p i n e s f o r r e c r e a t i o n than t o f i g h t C h i n e s e r e s i s t a n c e t o h i l l - s t a t i o n s (Spencer and' Thomas,.1948:645). , The Japanese were l e s s r e s i s t a n t t o the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of mountain s t a t i o n s or r e s o r t s and w i l l i n g l y p o p u l a r i z e d h i s t o r i c hot s p r i n g s as t o u r i s t s i t e s . The f i r s t r e s o r t s were e s t a b l i s h e d by western m i s s i o n a r i e s t o escape the heat of l o w l y i n g a r e a s (Spencer and Thomas, 1948:644). Japan d i d not d e v e l o p these r e s o r t s u n t i l the l a t t e r p a r t of the 1 07 Chapter 3 nineteenth century with the emergence of the Meiji restoration. Unlike India, Japan was never colonized by European powers and thus the European presence in the country was not as prevalent nor as v i s i b l e as in India. H i l l - s t a t i o n s were also present in B r i t i s h Malaya and Burma. These stations, of which there were four in B r i t i s h Malaya and four in Burma,, were neither as large nor as well-developed as Indian h i l l - s t a t i o n s (Spencer and Thomas, 1948:642; Aiken, 1987). Established in the early 1820s, Penang H i l l (elevation 2503 fe e t ) , for example, was the oldest of the h i l l - s t a t i o n s in c o l o n i a l Peninsular Malaysia (Aiken,'1987:422). The station was u t i l i z e d i n i t i a l l y for the recovery of health. Penang H i l l lacked the recreational amenities that the smallest Indian h i l l - s t a t i o n possessed for there was no Club, race course or cricket ground (Aiken, 1987:433). The scenic surroundings, paths for walking and r i d i n g and the opportunity to "escape from t h e . . . s o c i a l l y r e s t r i c t i n g presence of non-Europeans" were the station's greatest attractions ( i b i d . ) . The paucity of Penang H i l l ' s recreational infrastructure was t y p i c a l of h i l l - s t a t i o n s in Malaya and Burma. With improvements in transportation,, t r a v e l to alternative s i t e s outside the region became popular, resulting in the stagnated growth of l o c a l h i l l - s t a t i o n s (Spencer and Thomas, 1948; Aiken, 1987:422). The factors influencing the s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of non-' 108 Chapter 3 Indian h i l l - s t a t i o n s are similar to those which account for the d i s t r i b u t i o n of Indian h i l l - s t a t i o n s . According to Spencer and Thomas (1948:644), these include the length of time Europeans have resided in the area and the t o t a l number of European residents. The r e l a t i v e harshness of the t r o p i c a l climate i s another factor of importance. Also of s ignificance is the p o l i t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between the c o l o n i a l i s t s and the native population and the degree of European control of the area. F i n a l l y , the nearness and a c c e s s i b i l i t y of the highlands influences the l i k e l i h o o d of p o t e n t i a l l y suitable locales being u t i l i z e d (ibid.:644). It does not appear that non-Indian h i l l - s t a t i o n s held the degree of symbolic significance or s o c i a l importance as the h i l l - s t a t i o n s of the B r i t i s h in India. The h i l l - s t a t i o n s of the B r i t i s h were a symbol of their power to dominate a country, seldom by force as there were merely a handful of B r i t i s h r e l a t i v e to the size of the native population. The B r i t i s h h i l l - s t a t i o n s symbolized the B r i t i s h b e l i e f that they could govern by example and by the sheer strength of their culture. H i l l - s t a t i o n s gained a niche in.the c o l o n i a l consciousness, for the B r i t i s h molded and formed the Indian landscape, to create a symbolic sanctuary in the image of the metropolitan country. Chapter 3 SUMMARY Nora M i t c h e l l ' s typology of h i l l - s t a t i o n s p r o v i d e s a u s e f u l departure p o i n t f o r understanding the d i f f e r e n c e s i n f u n c t i o n , c h a r a c t e r and morphology that emerged among the v a r i o u s s t a t i o n s . Of g r e a t e s t relevance to t h i s study, because they o f f e r a context to compare Nuwara E l i y a , are the " o f f i c i a l m u l t i - f u n c t i o n a l h i l l - s t a t i o n s " , such as Simla, D a r j e e l i n g and Ootacamund, and the " p r i v a t e m u l t i -f u n c t i o n a l h i l l - s t a t i o n s " , such as Kodaikanal ( M i t c h e l l , 1972), These s t a t i o n s , l i k e Nuwara E l i y a , i n c o r p o r a t e d an ar r a y of f u n c t i o n s that i n c l u d e d governmental i n the case of the l a t t e r , m i l i t a r y , commercial, s o c i a l , r e c r e a t i o n a l and h e a l t h - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s . There were c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s between the h i l l -s t a t i o n s of In d i a and Ceylon and those i n the remainder of South A s i a . In a l l i n s t a n c e s , h i l l - s t a t i o n s o f f e r e d an escape from and a c o n t r a s t with the c o n d i t i o n s of lower a l t i t u d e a reas. In the Indian and Ceylonese context, however, h i l l -s t a t i o n s , such as Nuwara E l i y a , played a v i t a l r o l e w i t h i n the c o l o n i a l s e t t i n g f o r they enabled e x p a t r i a t e s to r e -c r e a t e , or c l o s e l y approximate, the landscape and s o c i a l world of the m e t r o p o l i t a n s o c i e t y . S e v e r a l p a r a l l e l s emerge between Indian m u l t i - f u n c t i o n a l h i l l - s t a t i o n s and Nuwara E l i y a , e s p e c i a l l y as the l a t t e r developed i n t o a seasonal r e s o r t in the l a s t q u a r t e r of n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . Both 110 Chapter 3 Indian and Ceylonese h i l l - s t a t i o n s p r ovided a l o c a l e i n which the presence of n a t i v e s was minimized, a landscape which c o u l d be a l t e r e d with v a r y i n g degrees of success to resemble an E n g l i s h s e t t i n g and a s o c i a l environment i n which e x p a t r i a t e s c o u l d f i n d some measure of r e l i e f from the. burdens of Empire. 1 1 1 Chapter 3 ENDNOTES (1) For example, Eden (1866:124) notes that the proceeds of the 1838 fancy f a i r , an event in which homemade a r t i c l e s were sold, went towards the construction of a Dispensary. Other c h a r i t i e s included the Asylum and a caravanserai, a rest station for t r a v e l l e r s ( i b i d . ) . (2) Inexpensive, pirated editions of B r i t i s h novels produced in India were readily a v a i l a b l e . These editions were often preferred to the more costly B r i t i s h editions which took several months to arrive from England (Eden, 1866:224). (3) The exception to t h i s rule was the i n v i t a t i o n s to dances extended to the o f f i c e r s of native regiments from time to time. These occasions prompted much consternation from B r i t i s h women who did not wish to dance with natives (Eden, 1866). (4) a card game. (5) Also referred to as half-castes, the term "Anglo-Indian" denotes individuals of mixed B r i t i s h and Indian descent. Formerly the term referred to a l l B r i t i s h in India. As of 1900-, however, the term was used o f f i c i a l l y to indicate mixed descent (Allen, 1975:21). (6) The concept of Native Princes being viewed "as noblemen coming up to town also receded" (Kanwar, 1984:221). In 1890, formal rules were established concerning the v i s i t s of the native rulers to Simla. Such v i s i t s were to be accompanied by gun salutes and o f f i c i a l receptions, in contrast to the r e l a t i v e informality of previous v i s i t s . The intention of such pomp and circumstance was, according to Kanwar, to inspire "deference to Imperial authority" ( i b i d . ) . (7) Memsahib comes from Madame sahib. Sahib i s the term of respect formerly used by Indians when addressing Europeans. Memsahib i s the female form of respectful address. As a noun in ordinary use, sahib means Englishman (Kipling, 1987:298). (8) Mussourie was a h i l l - s t a t i o n favored by persons who wanted to avoid Simla's s o c i a l trappings. According to King (1976b:207), Mussourie provided an alternative setting where individuals were more tolerant of deviant behaviour. (9) The B r i t i s h e l i t e had developed a preference for mountains, both for their health value and their scenic beauty, and thus were familiar with the a r c h i t e c t u r a l styles of places such as Switzerland. 1 1 2 CHAPTER 4: THE PLANTATION ECONOMY IN COLONIAL CEYLON To understand the development of Nuwara E l i y a as a sanatarium and l a t e r as a seasonal r e s o r t , one must have an understanding of the socio-economic m i l i e u from which i t emerged. That Nuwara E l i y a came to prominence when i t d i d i s s i g n i f i c a n t . Nuwara E l i y a t r u l y came i n t o i t s own i n the l a t t e r h a l f of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . Why d i d Nuwara E l i y a not become a seasonal r e s o r t immediately upon i t s formation in 1829? Even i n the 1830s, there e x i s t e d h i l l - s t a t i o n s as seasonal r e s o r t s : Simla i s a notable example. Yet d u r i n g i t s nascent years, Nuwara E l i y a d i d not resemble Simla. Nuwara E l i y a , l i k e Simla, possessed s c e n i c views, a p i c t u r e s q u e landscape, a temperate c l i m a t e and a r e l a t i v e l y a c c e s s i b l e l o c a l e . However, Nuwara E l i y a ' s i n f r a s t r u c t u r e was slow i n e v o l v i n g and when i t d i d develop, i t d i d so s p o r a d i c a l l y . Nuwara E l i y a i n the f i r s t three decades of i t s e x i s t e n c e was l a r g e l y p a s t o r a l ; a sleepy E n g l i s h hamlet n e s t l e d i n the Ceylonese c o u n t r y s i d e . To a l a r g e extent, the e v o l u t i o n of Nuwara E l i y a p a r a l l e l e d the changes w i t h i n the p l a n t a t i o n economy. The p e r i o d of g r e a t e s t expansion w i t h i n the h i l l - s t a t i o n c o i n c i d e d with a p e r i o d of s u s t a i n e d growth and i n c r e a s i n g s t a b i l i t y of the economy. T h i s o c c u r r e d i n the l a s t q u a r t e r of the ni n e t e e n t h century, f o l l o w i n g the d e c l i n e of c o f f e e p r o d u c t i o n due to the c o f f e e b l i g h t and the i n t r o d u c t i o n of 113 Chapter 4 alternate crops such as tea, rubber and cinchona. Hand in hand with t h i s went a sense of permanency about the B r i t i s h presence in Ceylon; a sense that emerged following the successful, i f somewhat brutal, q u e l l i n g of the Rebellion of 1848 (Perera, 1958:43). The chapter traces the development and fluctuations within the plantation economy in Ceylon in the nineteenth century and some of the accompanying p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l changes during that period. The development of the plantation economy i s considered v i s - a - v i s the emergence and evolution of Nuwara E l i y a , f i r s t as a sanatarium and later as a sanatarium and seasonal resort. The chapter adopts a decade-by-decade approach, beginning with the establishment of the h i l l - s t a t i o n in 1829. The somewhat a r b i t r a r y d i v i s i o n of history into ten-year periods provides discrete, comprehendible units for analysis. As a colony, Ceylon came to depend on the plantation economy for i t s prosperity and for the development of the island's f a c i l i t i e s and infrastructure (1). Because i t was export-based, the island's economy was vulnerable to. variations in world market prices and to changes in t a r i f f s or duties. Thus, the colony's income would vary over, time and there was concern on part of the Colonial Office that the expenditures of the colony be met by the colony's revenues (Pakeman, 1964:66). Therefore, at the d i s c r e t i o n of the 1 1 4 Chapter 4 Colonial O f f i c e and the Governor, there would be periods of economic r e s t r a i n t in Ceylon. At those times, the maintenance and expansion of the infrastructure, for example, road-building and upkeep, would suffer. The development of Nuwara E l i y a r e f l e c t e d the fluctuations in the economy. Ceylon became a Crown Colony in 1802 when the authority of the East India Company was abolished ( M i l l s , 1933:99). The plantation economy did not emerge u n t i l two decades l a t e r . Several reasons account for the delay in plantation sector development. F i r s t , the B r i t i s h were reluctant to disturb the s o c i a l order of Ceylon and unauthorized Europeans were forbidden from s e t t l i n g on the island. In addition, under Dundas's Regulation of 1801, Europeans were not permitted to purchase land except within the d i s t r i c t of Colombo (Hulugalle, 1963:41). Arasaratnam states, "Ceylon was not to be a colony in the normally accepted sense, where migrant population from the mother country is encouraged and given every f a c i l i t y " (.1964:152). In the end, however, the benefits of agriculture were considered too advantageous to ignore. The r e s t r i c t i o n s imposed on the acquisition of land by Europeans were removed by GovernorMaitland (1805-1811) (Perera, 1955:146). Second, the B r i t i s h did not control the i n t e r i o r , h i l l region of the island u n t i l the 1815 when the Kandyan Kingdom was dissolved. Third, the B r i t i s h spent much of the following decade, the 1820s, consolidating their hold 115 Chapter 4 on the h i l l r e g i o n which Governor Barnes accomplished with the c o n s t r u c t i o n of roads ( i b i d . : 1 5 9 ) . The e a r l i e s t p l a n t a t i o n s date from t h i s p e r i o d as Barnes attempted to encourage the c u l t i v a t i o n of coffee., Although the c o n s t r u c t i o n of roads aided the development of the p l a n t a t i o n s e c t o r by f a c i l i t a t i n g the t r a n s p o r t of produce, the p l a n t a t i o n economy d i d not become f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d u n t i l the mid 1830s. S i r Edward Barnes c r e a t e d Nuwara E l i y a i n 1829 as a m i l i t a r y sanatarium. At t h i s time, cinnamon was the c h i e f export of the colony (Perera, 1955:146). The c u l t i v a t i o n of c o f f e e began i n 1824 ( Z e y l a n i c u s , 1970:129). Governor Barnes was among the f i r s t i n d i v i d u a l s to open .a c o f f e e p l a n t a t i o n , the Gannoruwa e s t a t e , l o c a t e d at Peradeniya (Pakeman, 1964:71; H u l u g a l l e , 1963:42). C i v i l s e r v a n t s , though for b i d d e n to engage in trade . ( B a i l e y , 1964:71), were pe r m i t t e d to own and manage a g r i c u l t u r a l land (Pakeman, 1964:71), a f a c t o r which played a r o l e i n both the d e t e r i o r a t i o n of the c i v i l s e r v i c e and the shaping of the economy durin g the 1830s. One of the most s i g n i f i c a n t events in the h i s t o r y of Ceylon as a B r i t i s h colony was the r e l e a s e of the Colebrpoke-Cameron Reports in 1832. L i e u t e n a n t - C o l o n e l W i l l i a m Colebrooke was appointed to review the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of government, the revenue of the colony, compulsory s e r v i c e , 116 Chapter 4 and the c i v i l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s ( 2 ) ( 3 ) . H is a s s o c i a t e , C h a r l e s Cameron, undertook an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the J u d i c i a l E s t a b l i s h m e n t s . Colebrooke's r e p o r t s , i n p a r t i c u l a r , had long-term consequences f o r the development of the p l a n t a t i o n economy and f o r the general w e l l - b e i n g of the colo n y . The recommendations, many of which were subsequently accepted, were "a d i v i d i n g l i n e i n Ceylon h i s t o r y " and marked a " t r a n s i t i o n i n Ceylon from the medieval to the modern" (Mendis i n Pakeman, 1964:67). Indeed, one w r i t e r c l a i m s the reforms were the "most d e f i n i t e t u r n i n g p o i n t i n the whole course of Ceylon h i s t o r y " ( i b i d . ) . Some of the Colebrooke recommendations that were adopted i n c l u d e d the f o l l o w i n g . F i r s t , the Kandyan t e r r i t o r i e s which had been administered: as a separate s t a t e were i n c o r p o r a t e d with the remainder of the i s l a n d . Thus Ceylon was u n i f i e d under a s i n g l e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e p r o v i n c e s (Pakeman, 1964:64). Each province was adm i n i s t e r e d by a Government Agent r e s p o n s i b l e to the Governor and was d i v i d e d f u r t h e r i n t o d i s t r i c t s which were overseen by an A s s i s t a n t Government Agent (A.G.A.). Nuwara E l i y a , f o r example, was i n Nuwara E l i y a D i s t r i c t i n the C e n t r a l P r o v i n c e . T h i s a l t e r a t i o n of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e boundaries was important because i t pr o v i d e d the c e n t r a l government with g r e a t e r c o n t r o l of the h i l l r egion and i n c o r p o r a t e d p o r t i o n s of the former Kandyan Kingdom i n t o v a r i o u s p r o v i n c e s . In 117 Chapter 4 a d d i t i o n , an A.G.A. was p o s t e d a t Nuwara E l i y a . One of h i s p r i n c i p a l d u t i e s was t o " f o s t e r t he p r o s p e r i t y " of h i s d i s t r i c t and, hence, he was a b l e t o e x e r c i s e some c o n t r o l over the development of the h i l l - s t a t i o n ( M i l l s , 1933-.96M4) .. Second, the system of compulsory l a b o u r , " r a j a k a r i y a " or "duty t o the k i n g " , was a b o l i s h e d . " R a j a k a r i y a " was a f e u d a l concept of l a b o u r i n r e t u r n f o r the r i g h t t o h o l d l a n d (Pakeman, 1964:64). W i t h i t s a b o l i t i o n , v i l l a g e r s were no l o n g e r t i e d t o the l a n d and t h u s , i n t h e o r y , l a b o u r became m o b i l e . A l t h o u g h the " f e t t e r s of the c a s t e system and s o c i a l c o n s e r v a t i s m " i n h i b i t e d the f o r m a t i o n of a m o b i l e l a b o u r f o r c e , p e a s a n t s c o u l d be ind u c e d t o s e l l t h e i r l a b o u r when i t was to. t h e i r b e n e f i t (Arasaratnam, 1 964: 159) . T h i s was im p o r t a n t f o r the development of the h i l l - s t a t i o n because i t meant a s u p p l y , a l b e i t a c o s t l y one, of n a t i v e l a b o u r t o draw upon. Labour was a l s o a v a i l a b l e f o r the p l a n t a t i o n s e c t o r , a l t h o u g h p l a n t a t i o n work was not adopted by many S i n h a l e s e ( P e r e r a , 1955:200). The B r i t i s h found i t n e c e s s a r y t o import T a m i l l a b o u r e r s from the south of I n d i a as s e a s o n a l workers f o r the c o f f e e p l a n t a t i o n s and l a t e r as permanent workers f o r the t e a p l a n t a t i o n s . The t h i r d C o l e b r o o k e r e f o r m of s i g n i f i c a n c e was the a b o l i t i o n of government m o n o p o l i e s . C o l e b r o o k e , an adherent of Adam Smith's i d e a s , wanted an end t o the E a s t I n d i a 118 Chapter 4 Company's monopoly of the cinnamon tr a d e , the company's l a s t l i n k with Ceylon (Pakeman, 1964:64) . The a b o l i t i o n of government monopolies paved the way f o r the expansion of the p l a n t a t i o n s e c t o r by encouraging p r i v a t e investment (Perera, 1955:146). The f i n a l Colebrooke reform was imposed upon the c i v i l s e r v i c e and was perhaps of g r e a t e s t consequence i n the emergence of the p l a n t a t i o n economy. P r i o r to the Colebrooke recommendations, the expenses of the colony had exceeded revenues (Perera, 1955:201). In an e f f o r t to reduce expenditures^ Colebrooke recommended that the s a l a r i e s of c i v i l s ervants be reduced and that pensions be a b o l i s h e d (i b i d . . : 129) . T h i s marked the onset of the gradual d e t e r i o r a t i o n of the c i v i l s e r v i c e that continued u n t i l a m e l i o r a t i v e a c t i o n was taken i n 1844 ( B a i l e y , 1952:101). F i r s t , morale d e c l i n e d ; there was l i t t l e i n c e n t i v e f o r e f f i c i e n c y and s a l a r i e s d i d not p r o v i d e an adequate standard of l i v i n g . F u r t h e r a g g r a v a t i n g the s i t u a t i o n was the system of promotion by s e n i o r i t y r a t h e r than a b i l i t y ( i b i d . ) . The r e s u l t s were d i s r u p t i v e . Each time a vacancy opened, as many as f i f t e e n i n d i v i d u a l s would be s h i f t e d from t h e i r c u r r e n t task, no matter what i t s s t a t u s , and moved to a new p o s i t i o n in the h i e r a r c h y to undertake a task f o r which they may have been u n q u a l i f i e d ( i b i d . ; Perera, 1955:130). The cumulative r e s u l t of low morale, inadequate 119 Chapter 4 renumeration and u n s a t i s f a c t o r y work c o n d i t i o n s was that as a group, c i v i l s e rvants f e l t l i t t l e l o y a l t y to the c i v i l s e r v i c e . They were under c o n s i d e r a b l e p r e s s u r e to supplement t h e i r incomes and the p l a n t a t i o n s e c t o r o f f e r e d them the op p o r t u n i t y to do so. Indeed, the c o l o n i a l government encouraged c i v i l s e rvants to open c o f f e e e s t a t e s , "with a view to f o s t e r i n g the i n d u s t r y u n t i l banks were open" H u l u g a l l e , 1963:69), as they were "almost the only Europeans in Ceylon who had c a p i t a l to i n v e s t " ( M i l l s , . 1 9 3 3 : 7 7 ) . T h e i r involvement with c o f f e e p l a n t a t i o n s d i d much to a i d the expansion of that s e c t o r but was d e t r i m e n t a l to the c i v i l s e r v i c e . O f f i c i a l d u t i e s were n e g l e c t e d which r e s u l t e d i n a d e c l i n e i n standards and a f u r t h e r drop i n morale (de S i l v a , 1981:272). The Colebrooke recommendations weakened the c i v i l s e r v i c e , and i n a d v e r t a n t l y a s s i s t e d the c o f f e e i n d u s t r y . I t was not u n t i l 1844 that the S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e , Lord S t a n l e y , r a i s e d the s a l a r i e s and r e s t o r e d the pensions of c i v i l s e r v a n t s , thereby c u r t a i l i n g the damage to the c i v i l s e r v i c e ( B a i l e y , 1952:102). The 1830s witnessed the r a p i d expansion of the c o f f e e i n d u s t r y . C o f f e e exports r e c e i v e d a boost when the B r i t i s h government e q u a l i z e d the d i f f e r e n t i a l duty on c o f f e e i n 1835 ( B a i l e y , 1952:102). Ceylon c o u l d now compete with West Indian c o f f e e imports to B r i t a i n . P l a n t e r s were quick to take advantage of t h i s break i n the market. Concurrent with t h i s 120 Chapter 4 was the dwindling of the cinnamon market; coffee exports f i l l e d the gap (Perera, 1955:146). In the Central Province alone, between 1838 and 1843 no fewer than 130 plantations were opened, almost a l l within t h i r t y miles of Kandy (de S i l v a , 1981:269). The sale of Crown lands in the Kandyan provinces, "a r e l i a b l e index of the growing interest in coffee" (Hulugalle, 1963:59), increased"dramatically between 1834 and 1845. Between 1835 and 1838 an annual average of 6,412 acres were sold, in contrast to the 49 acres that were sold in 1834 ( i b i d . ) . From 1840 to 1845, the annual average leapt to 42,880 acres ( i b i d . ) . Nuwara E l i y a , too, became a coffee planting d i s t r i c t (Ferguson and Ferguson, 1877). Coffee planting had become something of a "mania". The Governor, judges, members of the m i l i t a r y , the English clergy and over half of the c i v i l servants, "in fact every o f f i c i a l who could obtain the c a p i t a l , became the owner of a plantation, convinced that in a few years he would make his fortune" ( M i l l s , 1933:77; Perera, 1955:148). . Yet despite t h i s growth in the plantation sector and Nuwara E l i y a ' s emergence as a coffee planting d i s t r i c t , the h i l l - s t a t i o n i t s e l f did not experience s i g n i f i c a n t growth. In the 1830s, Nuwara E l i y a , as a m i l i t a r y sanatarium, suffered from a paucity of amenities and the infrastructure was l i t t l e improved. An explanation for t h i s can be found in the economic conditions in Ceylon. Although the plantation sector 121 Chapter 4 grew q u i c k l y , c o f f e e d i d not become f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d as an export u n t i l the B r i t i s h government moved to e q u a l i z e d u t i e s on c o f f e e imports. In a d d i t i o n , the formerly p r o f i t a b l e p e a r l f i s h e r i e s had become barren i n the l a s t h a l f of the decade, the revenue form the cinnamon monopoly had been l o s t and the tax on f i s h had been repealed, a l l of which took a t o l l on Ceylon's f i n a n c e s ( H u l u g a l l e , 1963:59). There was l i t t l e revenue to i n v e s t i n the development of Nuwara E l i y a . Governor J.A. Stewart Mackenzie (1837-1841) was f o r c e d to l i m i t road c o n s t r u c t i o n and other p u b l i c works, "thus i n c u r r i n g the enmity of p l a n t e r s and merchants who were clamouring f o r means of communication to the c o f f e e e s t a t e s " ( i b i d . ) . Furthermore, many p l a n t e r s were c i v i l s e rvants who had been drawn to p l a n t i n g as a means of supplementing t h e i r meager s a l a r i e s , and hence were not i n a f i n a n c i a l p o s i t i o n to i n v e s t i n Nuwara E l i y a . In a d d i t i o n , because a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of the p l a n t e r s h e l d f u l l time p o s i t i o n s w i t h i n the c o l o n i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n or elsewhere, they had l i t t l e time to spend on h e a l t h or r e c r e a t i o n a l p u r s u i t s at the h i l l -s t a t i o n The 1840s were b i t t e r s w e e t years f o r many p l a n t e r s , f o r many had had t h e i r f i r s t t a s t e of p r o s p e r i t y only to face f i n a n c i a l r u i n by the end of the decade. The economy experienced steady growth d u r i n g the f i r s t h a l f of the decade. P l a n t a t i o n s continued to open and i n c r e a s e i n acreage 122 Chapter 4 despite a government increase in the price of land by over 400 percent (Ludowyck, 1966:76; Capper, 1871:39); planters were optimistic about future prospects. The Bank of Ceylon was established in 1840. Founded by "London i n t e r e s t s " , the purpose of the bank was to provide c a p i t a l for commercial a g r i c u l t u r a l ventures in Ceylon (Hulugalle, 1963:69). It appeared to have a p o s i t i v e effect for in 1841, 78,685 acres of land, a record number, were sold for coffee estates ( i b i d . ) . In 1844, the Secretary of State, Lord Stanley caused . some consternation among c i v i l servants involved in a g r i c u l t u r a l pursuits. Aware that many c i v i l servants were more concerned about th e i r plantations than th e i r government jobs, he forbade c i v i l servants from owning land (Bailey, 1952:102-3; Balasingham, 1968:7). This provoked an outcry from those affected and from Governor Colin Campbell. With some misgiving, Stanley compromised. C i v i l servants owning land prior to Lord Stanley's announcement were permitted to retain their land, but not to supervise i t , as long as i t did not interfere with their duties. In future, however, no c i v i l servant could purchase land for a g r i c u l t u r a l use (Bailey, 1952:102-3). The blow of Stanley's announcement was softened somewhat by his reintroduction of pensions for c i v i l servants who served u n t i l age f i f t y - f i v e . He also increased th e i r s a l a r i e s and introduced a system of promotion by 1 23 Chapter 4 ab i l i t y rather than seniority (ibid.). Lord Stanley's restrictions on land ownership did not have an immediate impact on the plantation economy. The plantation sector continued to expand and attract foreign investment, and several British-owned agency houses, servicing the coffee estates, had been started in Colombo (Hulugalle, 1963:70). According to Ferguson and Ferguson (1877), however, with hindsight i t is apparent that 1845 marked the height of the "coffee mania". Under Governor Campbell's administration the economy was buoyant, which made the financial c r i s i s of 1845-1846 a l l the more devastating. The financial c r i s i s originated in Britain and spread quickly to Ceylon (Bailey, 1952:114). Sir Emerson Tennent wrote: In the midst of visions of riches, a crash suddenly came which awoke victims to the reality of ruin. The financial explosion of 1845 in Great Britain speedily extended its destructive influence to Ceylon, remittances ceased, prices f e l l , credit failed, and the f i r s t announcement on the subsidence turmoil was the doom of protection, and the withdrawal of the distinctive duty which had so long screened British plantations from competition with the coffee of Java and Brazil (in Ferguson and Ferguson, 1877) . The effects of the c r i s i s continued for three years though its impact on government coffers was felt until the end of Governor Anderson's administration (1850-1855) (ibid.). Merchants and planters were hard hit by the lowering of 1 24 Chapter 4 d i f f e r e n t i a l d u t i e s on c o f f e e by the B r i t i s h government Which had f a v o r e d C e y l o n e s e c o f f e e over B r a z i l i a n i m p o r t s (Ludowyck, 1966:76). The d i f f e r e n c e i n d u t i e s was lowered from 150 p e r c e n t t o 50 p e r c e n t , which meant t h a t B r a z i l i a n i m p o r t s c o u l d u n d e r s e l l those from Cey l o n ( i b i d . ; B a l a s i n g h a m , 1968:9). Many e s t a t e s were f o r c e d t o c l o s e when p r i c e s plummeted. The c r i s i s was compounded by poor p l a n t i n g p r a c t i c e s ; many p l a n t a t i o n s were n e g l e c t e d and u n p r o d u c t i v e . The commercial c r i s i s f o r c e d many c i v i l s e r v a n t s out of the p l a n t a t i o n s e c t o r . Merchants and those p l a n t e r s who were not c i v i l s e r v a n t s were not s y m p a t h e t i c , however. They l o b b i e d the government f o r a r e d u c t i o n of c i v i l s e r v a n t ' s s a l a r i e s , w i t h the s a v i n g s from the s a l a r i e s t o be used f o r the maintenance of roads (Balasingham, 1968:98). The c o u n t r y ' s d i f f i c u l t i e s were not o v e r . 1848 was the year of the Kandyan " R e b e l l i o n " . A s e r i e s of new t a x e s and f e e s , o r d e r e d by L o r d Grey t o make up f o r the 1846 budget d e f i c i t , as w e l l as an e d i c t o r d e r i n g each i n h a b i t a n t t o work s i x days per year on the c o n s t r u c t i o n or maintenance of roads or pay a commutation t a x , angered the n a t i v e p o p u l a c e and prompted a p r o t e s t ( H u l u g a l l e , 1963:77-8; Ludowyck, 1963:208). A d i s t u r b a n c e o c c u r r e d on a s m a l l s c a l e i n Colombo and a s l i g h t l y l a r g e r s c a l e at M a t a l e and K u r u n e g a l a , i n the h e a r t of the p l a n t a t i o n r e g i o n ( H u l u g a l l e , 1963:78). The l e a d e r s of the r e b e l l i o n were p e a s a n t s who wanted a r e t u r n t o 125 Chapter 4 the t r a d i t i o n a l Kandyan l i f e s t y l e (Ludowyck, 1963:279). The Governor, L o r d T o r r i n g t o n , b e l i e v e d the p r o t e s t e r s r e p r e s e n t e d a s e r i o u s t h r e a t and imposed m a r t i a l law. A l t h o u g h the r e b e l l i o n ended w i t h i n f o u r days, T o r r i n g t o n r e q u e s t e d t r o o p s from I n d i a . For a p e r i o d of two months, the t r o o p s and v o l u n t e e r s marched throughout the c o u n t r y s i d e " t e a c h i n g the r e b e l s a l e s s o n " (de S i l v a , 1981:210). T o r r i n g t o n was c e n s u r e d f o r h i s o v e r r e a c t i o n and unnecessary use of f o r c e and a committee was formed t o i n v e s t i g a t e the Cey l o n government's response t o the u p r i s i n g , which i n c l u d e d members such as D i s r a e l i , G l a d s t o n e and P e e l ( Z e y l a n i c u s , 1970:108). Governor T o r r i n g t o n was r e c a l l e d i n 1850. The r e b e l l i o n d i d not pose a s e r i o u s t h r e a t t o the w e l l - b e i n g of the c o l o n i a l government, but the a f t e r - e f f e c t s were d i s r u p t i v e . The r e b e l l i o n c r e a t e d a sense of p o l i t i c a l u n c e r t a i n t y and combined w i t h the l i n g e r i n g e f f e c t s of the . f i n a n c i a l c r i s i s , c a s t a p a l l on the c l o s i n g y e a r s of the decade A l t h o u g h the C e y l o n e s e economy e x p e r i e n c e d a c o f f e e "boom" d u r i n g the e a r l y 1840s, Nuwara E l i y a d e r i v e d l i t t l e b e n e f i t from t h i s p r o s p e r i t y . The h i l l - s t a t i o n was i n "a s t a t e of u t t e r n e g l e c t " a c c o r d i n g t o S i r Samuel Baker, when he f i r s t v i s i t e d i t i n 1845 (Murray and White, 1895:23). Nuwara E l i y a ' s r e p u t a t i o n as a s e a s o n a l r e t r e a t had grown, however. D e s p i t e n e g l e c t by the government, the s t a t i o n ' 126 Chapter 4 blossomed w i t h v i s i t o r s d u r i n g the season. The a b i l i t y of e x p a t r i a t e s t o s o j o u r n at Nuwara E l i y a i n d i c a t e s an i n c r e a s i n g l e v e l of p r o s p e r i t y w i t h i n t h a t community. The f i n a n c e s of the c o l o n y had improved c o n s i d e r a b l y from 1835 t o 1845, y e t t h e r e remained numerous demands on the c o l o n y ' s t r e a s u r y . G i v e n t h e s e demands, the government d i d not c o n s i d e r the development of Nuwara E l i y a a p r i o r i t y . The i n f r a s t r u c t u r e of the h i l l - s t a t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , d i d not p r o g r e s s beyond the r u d i m e n t a r y l e v e l of a m i l i t a r y s a n a t a r i u m . The h i s t o r y of Nuwara E l i y a might have d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y i f the f i n a n c i a l c r i s i s of 1846-1847 had not o c c u r r e d . The commercial c r i s i s d e s t r o y e d any chance t h a t Nuwara E l i y a may have had t o b e n e f i t from the government p u r s e . The economic s e t b a c k s f o l l o w e d by the Kandyan R e b e l l i o n of 1848 took t h e i r t o l l upon the c o l o n y ; p l a n t e r s s t r u g g l e d t o keep t h e i r e s t a t e s and the government had no o p t i o n but f i s c a l r e s t r a i n t . The p o l i t i c a l u n c e r t a i n t y r e s u l t i n g from the r e b e l l i o n and d e b a c l e of Governor T o r r i n g t o n ' s response made the c o l o n i a l government a l l the more c a u t i o u s i n i t s spending h a b i t s . D e s p i t e the f i n a n c i a l and p o l i t i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s i n C e y l o n d u r i n g the l a t e 1840s, the p e r i o d was s i g n i f i c a n t i n Nuwara E l i y a ' s development. The a s s i s t a n c e t h a t the h i l l -s t a t i o n r e c e i v e d a t t h i s time came from the p r i v a t e s e c t o r . 127 Chapter 4 Samuel Baker, the B r i t i s h a d v e n t u r e r who had v i s i t e d the s a n a t a r i u m i n 1845 t o r e c u p e r a t e from j u n g l e f e v e r , d e c i d e d t o s e t t l e a t Nuwara E l i y a . He r e t u r n e d t o B r i t a i n t o . e q u i p h i m s e l f w i t h a l l t h a t he would r e q u i r e t o c r e a t e an E n g l i s h v i l l a g e i n Ceylon (see Chapter 6 ) . In 1846, he and h i s f a m i l y and a dozen e m i g r a n t s proceeded t o b u i l d t h e i r homes and b e g i n t o farm. The f l u c t u a t i o n s i n the economy d i d not pr e v e n t Baker from c a r r y i n g out h i s p l a n . Baker had a p r i v a t e income, and was n e i t h e r a merchant nor a p l a n t e r and thus s u f f e r e d m i n i m a l l y from the commercial c r i s i s . B a k er's i n i t i a t i v e marked a t u r n i n g p o i n t f o r Nuwara E l i y a f o r he s e t the tone f o r i t s f u t u r e development as an E n g l i s h hamlet, r e s c u e d i t from the n e g l e c t which i t had s u f f e r e d , and i n j e c t e d the c a p i t a l n e c e s s a r y t o a t t r a c t f u r t h e r i n v e s t m e n t . The p e r i o d from 1850 t o 1855 was one of a u s t e r i t y under Governor George Anderson (1850-1855). As Ferguson and. Ferguson (1877) n o t e , "The p o l i t i c a l d i s t u r b a n c e s of the [ p r e v i o u s decade]...and the i m p o v e r i s h e d s t a t e of the revenue p r e v e n t e d due encouragement b e i n g g i v e n t o the e x t e n s i o n of p l a n t e r s " . Anderson was u n d e r . o r d e r s from the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e t o "save and hoard" ( i b i d . ) . Roads were n e g l e c t e d , b r i d g e s went u n r e p a i r e d . I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t Anderson i n c u r r e d the w r a t h of p l a n t e r s . In 1854, the P l a n t e r ' s A s s o c i a t i o n was formed as a means of l o b b y i n g the government f o r a s s i s t a n c e f o r t he p l a n t a t i o n s e c t o r ( i b i d . ) . D e s p i t e the l a c k of 128 Chapter 4 government h e l p f o r p l a n t e r s , the p l a n t a t i o n s e c t o r began t o make a h e a l t h y r e c o v e r y from the f i n a n c i a l s e t b a c k s of the p r e v i o u s y e a r s . T h i s was due p a r t i a l l y t o improved p l a n t i n g t e c h n i q u e s t h a t r e s u l t e d i n h i g h e r y i e l d s and more e f f i c i e n t e s t a t e s ( B alasingham, 1968:1). The p e r i o d from 1855 t o 1860 was one of renewed p r o s p e r i t y f o r C e y l o n . The f i s c a l r e s t r a i n t under Governor Anderson c r e a t e d a s u r p l u s t h a t p e r m i t t e d Governor Henry Ward (1855-1860) t o engage i n a program of p u b l i c works and the u p g r a d i n g of the i s l a n d ' s i n f r a s t r u c t u r e . As c o f f e e p l a n t a t i o n s f l o u r i s h e d , Ward proceeded t o r e p a i r and e x t e n d r o a d s , b u i l d b r i d g e s and open l a n d f o r s a l e (Ferguson and F e r g u s o n , 1877). From 1855 t o 1860, over one m i l l i o n pounds s t e r l i n g were spent on new roads and b r i d g e s (de S i l v a , 1981:283-4). Ward i n i t i a t e d the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a c o n t i n u o u s r o a d , 796 m i l e s i n l e n g t h , which e n c i r c l e d the i s l a n d , and brought t o 3000 the t o t a l m i l e s of roads ( H u l u g a l l e , 1963:92; de S i l v a , 1981:283-4). By the time Ward d e p a r t e d i n 1860, e v e r y town of importance i n Ceylon was c o n n e c t e d w i t h e i t h e r Colombo or Kandy ( H u l u g a l l e , 1963:92). Governor Ward a l s o began the c o n s t r u c t i o n a r a i l w a y from Colombo t o Kandy which he c o n s i d e r e d t o be e s s e n t i a l t o p l a n t i n g i n t e r e s t s ( H u l u g a l l e , 1963:92). E x p o r t d u t i e s were reimposed t o f i n a n c e the r a i l w a y . In 1858, the o r i g i n a l e s t i m a t e d c o s t of 856,557 pounds s t e r l i n g p r o v e d t o be f a r 129 Chapter 4 s h o r t of a subsequent e s t i m a t e of 2,214,000 pounds. As a r e s u l t , d e s p i t e a sod t u r n i n g ceremony w i t h much f a n f a r e , the p l a n s f o r the r a i l w a y were d i s c o n t i n u e d . The C e y l o n Government assumed c o n t r o l of the C e y l o n R a i l w a y Company and i n c u r r e d a l o s s of 386,275 pounds ( i b i d . ) . The c o l o n i a l government r e c o g n i z e d the importance of a r a i l w a y t o the economy and i t was o n l y a m a t t e r of time u n t i l a more s a t i s f a c t o r y arrangement f o r i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n c o u l d be a c h i e v e d . Nuwara E l i y a was n e g l e c t e d under Governor Anderson's a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Baker s t a t e s t h a t Governor Anderson d i d not even v i s i t Nuwara E l i y a ( Baker, 1890:8). A l t h o u g h the h i l l -s t a t i o n d i d not win the f a v o u r of Governor Anderson or r e c e i v e f u n d i n g t o expand or upgrade under h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , Nuwara E l i y a c o n t i n u e d t o have the patronage of S i r Samuel Baker. As p r o s p e r i t y began t o r e t u r n t o C e y l o n , Nuwara E l i y a began t o be viewed as a l o n g - t e r m a s s e t t o the c o l o n y . Baker had e s t a b l i s h e d a t h r i v i n g f a r m i n g community and a brewery ( S u l l i v a n , 1854:137). Henry S i r r had proposed a scheme t o produce c u r e d meats and cheeses a t Nuwara E l i y a f o r s a l e i n C e y l o n and abroad ( S i r r , 1850). There a l s o emerged a t t h i s time the f i r s t s u g g e s t i o n t h a t Nuwara E l i y a was e v o l v i n g i n t o a s e a s o n a l r e s o r t as w e l l as a s a n a t a r i u m (see Chapter 6 ) . Nuwara E l i y a had begun t o a t t r a c t i n d i v i d u a l s who were more i n t e r e s t e d i n the s o c i a l 130 Chapter 4 a s p e c t s of h i l l - s t a t i o n l i f e than i n the t r a n q u i l i t y of a mountain s a n a t a r i u m . Thus, a l t h o u g h Nuwara E l i y a l a c k e d o f f i c i a l s u p p o r t d u r i n g the e a r l y 1850s, i t c o n t i n u e d t o t h r i v e as an E n g l i s h v i l l a g e . In 1855, Samuel Baker, s u f f e r i n g from j u n g l e f e v e r , l e f t Nuwara E l i y a and r e t u r n e d t o England t o l i v e (Van T h a i , 1951:13). In the same y e a r , S i r Henry Ward became Governor of C e y l o n . A l t h o u g h the economy of the c o l o n y was p r o s p e r i n g , Nuwara E l i y a ' s r e c r e a t i o n a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e remained embryonic. The h i l l - s t a t i o n c o n t i n u e d t o expand but Baker's i n f l u e n c e had done much t o keep the s t a t i o n p a s t o r a l and q u i e t . T h i s was a time of t r a n s i t i o n f o r Nuwara E l i y a , however. W i t h the opening of new l a n d t o p l a n t e r s , the i n c r e a s e d a c c e s s i b i l i t y of the h i l l - r e g i o n due t o an improved network of roads and c o n t i n u e d growth of the'economy, the seeds were sown f o r the g r a d u a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of Nuwara E l i y a i n t o a s e a s o n a l r e s o r t . D u r i n g the 1860s c o f f e e was both the s t r e n g t h and the weakness of the Ceylonese economy. As the m a i n s t a y of the economy, c o f f e e was a l u c r a t i v e commodity; c o n t i n u e d p r o s p e r i t y seemed c e r t a i n . Yet i t i s p r e c i s e l y because c o f f e e p l a y e d such a preeminent r o l e i n the a f f l u e n c e of C e y l o n t h a t the c o l o n y was v u l n e r a b l e . Monocropping p r e s e n t e d u n f o r e s e e n dangers and p r o s p e r i t y was a n y t h i n g but a s s u r e d . D u r i n g most of the 1860s, however, the government and p l a n t e r s were 131 Chapter 4 b l i s s f u l l y unaware of the impending demise of c o f f e e c r o p s . A l o n e v o i c e , Dr. Th w a i t e s of the R o y a l B o t a n i c a l Gardens a t P e r a d e n i y a , warned of the p o t e n t i a l weaknesses t h a t monocropping p r e s e n t e d , but he was l a r g e l y i g n o r e d ( B a s t i a m p i l l a i , 1968:43). A l t h o u g h the economy was t h r i v i n g under the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Governor S i r C h a r l e s MacCarthy (1860-1863), t h e r e was l i t t l e p u b l i c money expended on r o a d s . P l a n t e r s c o m p l a i n e d of f a i l u r e t o m a i n t a i n or b u i l d roads and MacCarthy was acc u s e d of h a v i n g a " c h e e s e p a r i n g " approach t o the c o l o n y ' s f i n a n c e s ( B a i l e y , 1952:121). The Governor was under o r d e r s , however, from the S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e t o p r a c t i c e r i g i d economy ( H u l u g a l l e , 1963:96). S u f f i c i e n t s u r p l u s had t o be accumulated t o meet a s i g n i f i c a n t p o r t i o n of the c o s t of the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a r a i l w a y l i n e from Colombo t o Kandy. MacCarthy met the Home Government's o b j e c t i v e s . He accumulated a s u r p l u s of 525,505 pounds s t e r l i n g , of which 106,198 pounds came from funds v o t e d f o r p u b l i c works but not used ( i b i d . : 9 9 ) . Work began on the r a i l w a y from Colombo t o Kandy i n 1863, w i t h the c o n t r a c t awarded to a London f i r m ( H u l u g a l l e , 1963:93). The l i n e was opened i n 1867 a t a c o s t of 1,738,483 pounds s t e r l i n g , i n c l u d i n g the l o s s from the e a r l i e r attempt t o s t a r t the r a i l w a y ( i b i d . ) . From the b e g i n n i n g , the new r a i l w a y was p r o f i t a b l e . T h i s i s not s u r p r i s i n g c o n s i d e r i n g 132 Chapter 4 t h a t the o n l y means of t r a n s p o r t i n g goods from Kandy t o Colombo had been by b u l l o c k c a r t ; a t e d i o u s , u n r e l i a b l e and e x p e n s i v e method ( P e r e r a , 1955:163). The r a i l w a y r e p r e s e n t e d a major b r e a k t h r o u g h i n the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n methods of c o l o n y . F o r m e r l y , the c o s t of t r a n s p o r t i n g c o f f e e from Kandy t o Colombo exceeded the c o s t of s h i p p i n g c o f f e e from Colombo t o London (Capper, 1871:44). P l a n t e r s were not the o n l y b e n e f i c i a r i e s . P r i o r t o the r a i l w a y , the c o s t of r i c e was s i x t y p e r c e n t h i g h e r i n Kandy than i n Colombo and n a t i v e s , t o o , b e n e f i t t e d from d e c r e a s e d t r a n s p o r t c o s t s ( i b i d . ) . There i s l i t t l e doubt, however, t h a t the r a i l w a y was of g r e a t e s t a s s i s t a n c e t o the p l a n t a t i o n s e c t o r . No sooner was the l i n e c o mpleted when p l a n t e r s began t o lob b y f o r an e x t e n s i o n of the l i n e t o the south of Kandy, f u r t h e r i n t o the p l a n t a t i o n d i s t r i c t . The p e r i o d from 1865 t o .1870 was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the c o n t i n u e d e x p a n s i o n and p r o s p e r i t y of the economy. D u r i n g the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Governor H e r c u l e s Robinson (1865-1872), an average of 32,432 a c r e s of l a n d were s o l d per annum (Ferguson and Ferguson, 1877). C o f f e e was t h r i v i n g , y e t by 1'869 t h e r e were s i g n s t h a t a l l was not w e l l w i t h i n the p l a n t a t i o n s e c t o r . In May, 1869, a t Madulsima, a r e d fungus f i r s t , appeared on the l e a v e s of the c o f f e e p l a n t s ( i b i d . ) . As the c o f f e e d i s e a s e s p r e a d , i t s o r a n g e - r e d s p l o t c h e s "gave the h i l l s i d e s an autumnal s p l e n d o u r " (Ludowyk, 1966:89). The 1 33 Chapter 4 d e v a s t a t i o n t h a t the fungus e v e n t u a l l y wrought was slow i n emerging. The c o f f e e d i s e a s e , h e m i l e i a v a s t a t r i x , was c y c l i c a l and i t s " i n i t i a l a c t i o n appeared b e n i g n " ( B a s t i a m p i l l a i , .1968:7). In May, r e d s p o t s would appear on the c o f f e e l e a v e s and i n c r e a s e i n s i z e u n t i l J u l y or August (Ferguson and Ferguson, 1877). P l a n t s " r e c o v e r e d t e m p o r a r i l y , but o n l y l a t e r were t o m a n i f e s t f a t a l e f f e c t s " , as the bushes were denuded of l e a v e s ( B a s t i a m p i l l a i , 1968:7). Few p l a n t e r s were d e e p l y concerned about the fungus, however, c o n s i d e r i n g i t t o be one of those troublesome but e s s e n t i a l l y h a r m l e s s i n f e s t a t i o n s t h a t p e r i o d i c a l l y b e s e t c o f f e e e s t a t e s . T h e i r r e a c t i o n was a t e s t i m o n y t o t h e i r f a i t h i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o c u r e the d i s e a s e and t o the b e l i e f t h a t t h e i r hard-won-a f f l u e n c e would endure. The growth of Nuwara E l i y a c o n t i n u e d s l o w l y d u r i n g the 1860s. The opening of the Colombo-Kandy r a i l w a y in-186.7 i n c r e a s e d the a c c e s s i b i l i t y of the h i l l - s t a t i o n . Nuwara E l i y a ' s r e p u t a t i o n as a s e a s o n a l r e t r e a t and s a n a t a r i u m was f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d , and t h e r e was a s m a l l s e t t l e m e n t of permanent r e s i d e n t s . The stage was s e t f o r the e x p a n s i o n of the h i l l - s t a t i o n ; European p l a n t e r s and merchants were p r o s p e r i n g and the s a l a r i e s of c i v i l s e r v a n t s had i n c r e a s e d s u f f i c i e n t l y t o p e r m i t them t o e n j o y a v i s i t t o Nuwara E l i y a d u r i n g the Season. A l t h o u g h t h e r e was no d r a m a t i c development of the h i l l - s t a t i o n i n the 1860s, t h e r e was the type of 1 34 Chapter 4 steady growth t h a t suggested t h a t Nuwara E l i y a was a f i x t u r e of l i f e i n c o l o n i a l C e y l o n . The p e r i o d from 1872 t o 1877, under the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Governor S i r W i l l i a m G r e g ory, was the "golden age of the c o f f e e p l a n t e r " ( B a s t i a m p i l l a i , 1968:3). I r o n i c a l l y , t he 1870s a l s o marked the t w i l i g h t of the e r a of c o f f e e p r o d u c t i o n . B e f o r e the end, however, came a p e r i o d of unprecedented p r o s p e r i t y ; a p r o s p e r i t y so i m p r e s s i v e t h a t few c o u l d f o r e s e e the consequences t h a t would r e s u l t from a r e d fungus. As l a t e as 1877, p l a n t e r s , merchants and o t h e r s i n p o s i t i o n s of a u t h o r i t y b e l i e v e d t h a t the c o f f e e d i s e a s e , h e m i l e i a v a s t a t r i x , d i d not pose a permanent t h r e a t t o c o f f e e c u l t i v a t i o n . The j o u r n a l i s t s , Ferguson and Fe r g u s o n , w r o t e : D u r i n g the p a s t few y e a r s . . . t h e g e n e r a l o p i n i o n seems t o be t h a t i t [the c o f f e e d i s e a s e ] has been growing l e s s s e v e r e , and many s t i l l hope i t may d i s a p p e a r as c o m p l e t e l y as has b l a c k bug, which i s now v e r y r a r e l y heard of i n the c o u n t r y (Ferguson and Ferg u s o n , 1877) . Dr. T h w a i t e s , S u p e r i n t e n d e n t of the R o y a l B o t a n i c a l Gardens at P e r a d e n i y a , suggested t h a t t h e . d i s e a s e was c h r o n i c and t h a t new c r o p s must be s u b s t i t u t e d as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e ( B a s t i a m p i l l a i , 1968:9). Many d i s m i s s e d h i s warnings as p e s s i m i s t i c and those who d i d heed him d i d so g r u d g i n g l y , p l a n t i n g new c r o p s , such as t e a or c i n c h o n a , between t h e i r c o f f e e bushes ( i b i d : 1 3 ) . The s o l u t i o n t o the d i s e a s e , i t was 1 35 Chapter 4 b e l i e v e d , l a y i n improved p l a n t i n g p r a c t i c e s . C u l t i v a t i o n a t h i g h e r a l t i t u d e s such as those of the Nuwara E l i y a D i s t r i c t , the l i b e r a l use of manure, improved p r u n i n g and.the use of c h e m i c a l s p r a y s were thought t o a m e l i o r a t e t h e s i t u a t i o n ( i b i d . ; see L a i r d , 1875:95). P l a n t e r s l o b b i e d the government t o e x t e n d the r a i l w a y t o Nanu Oya so t h a t manure c o u l d be t r a n s p o r t e d more r e a d i l y from the l o w l a n d s ( i b i d . : 4 3 ) . E x p e r i m e n t s were conducted w i t h L i b e r i a n c o f f e e , a hardy v a r i e t y grown a t lower a l t i t u d e s , y e t t o no a v a i l (Ferguson and F erguson, 1877). L i k e the C e y l o n e s e v a r i e t y of c o f f e e , i t t o o succumbed t o the fungus. How i s i t t h a t p l a n t e r s remained o p t i m i s t i c d e s p i t e the o ngoing damage t o t h e i r c r o p s ? T h e i r o p t i m i s m may be a t t r i b u t e d , i n p a r t , t o t h e i r d e s i r e t o b e l i e v e t h a t the p r o s p e r i t y they had e x p e r i e n c e d would c o n t i n u e i n d e f i n i t e l y . They argued t h a t e a r l i e r i n f e s t a t i o n s had been d e f e a t e d (Ferguson and F e r g u s o n , 1877), and i t was o n l y a m a t t e r of t i me u n t i l s c i e n t i f i c knowledge p r o v i d e d the answer t o t h e i r woes. In a d d i t i o n , the market f o r c o f f e e i n the 1870s was s t r o n g and as B a s t i a m p i l l a i s u g g e s t s , " l u c r a t i v e markets tended t o v e i l the t r u e s i t u a t i o n and s u s t a i n e d p l a n t e r o p t i m i s m " (1968:7). D u r i n g the 1870s t h e r e had been a sudden r i s e i n c o f f e e p r i c e s i n Europe and the U n i t e d S t a t e s . A l t h o u g h t h e r e had been some u n e a s i n e s s about the c o f f e e d i s e a s e , by 1874: 136 Chapter 4 the a l a rm of the Governor and the p l a n t e r s passed away....Coffee f e t c h e d h i g h e r p r i c e s and huge p r o f i t s and a few c r o p s were good. C u l t i v a t i o n o f , or hope i n the permanency o f , the s t a p l e p r o d u c t s u f f e r e d l i t t l e ( i b i d . : 8 ) . To compensate f o r the d e c l i n e i n p r o d u c t i v i t y of t h e e x i s t i n g c r o p s , p l a n t e r s c o n t i n u e d t o p l a n t more a c r e s of c o f f e e ; s t i l l , p r o d u c t i v i t y d e c l i n e d ( L a i r d , 1875:95). In 1877-78, the t o t a l amount of c o f f e e e x p o r t e d was f o r t y p e r c e n t l e s s than the amount e x p o r t e d i n 1869, a l t h o u g h the number of a c r e s under c u l t i v a t i o n had i n c r e a s e d by 100,000 (Ferguson and F e r g u s o n , 1877). The s c a r c i t y of the c r o p had done much t o c o n t r i b u t e t o the r i s e i n c o f f e e p r i c e s . Governor W i l l i a m Gregory was not unaware of t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s of the c o f f e e d i s e a s e , though he too b e l i e v e d i t was o n l y temporary. He wrote t h a t he wished he had l i s t e n e d t o the "wise a d m o n i t i o n s " of Dr. Thwaites "as t o the i n s t a b i l i t y of c o f f e e . Year a f t e r year he f o r e t o l d i t s d o w n f a l l , and was s u b j e c t e d t o obloquy and r i d i c u l e f o r h i s d i s l o y a l t y t o the great- K i n g C o f f e e " (quoted i n H u l u g a l l e , 1963:122). Yet Gregory was a prudent a d m i n i s t r a t o r . He encouraged the i n t r o d u c t i o n and c u l t i v a t i o n of new p r o d u c t s t h a t c o u l d prove of b e n e f i t t o the c o l o n y (Ferguson and F e r g u s o n , 1877). Gregory r e c o g n i z e d t h a t d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n of the economy would enable i t t o endure such s e t b a c k s as d i s e a s e or f l u c t u a t i o n s i n commodity p r i c e s . Tea, c i n c h o n a and, l a t e r , rubber were the c r o p s t h a t 1 37 Chapter 4 s u p p l a n t e d c o f f e e . Each c o u l d be grown i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h c o f f e e or on abandoned c o f f e e e s t a t e s ( P e r e r a , 1955:149-50). Of p r i m a r y importance was t e a . Tea h e l d s e v e r a l advantages over c o f f e e . I t c o u l d be grown a t e l e v a t i o n s above and below t h o s e t o l e r a t e d by c o f f e e and i n a w i d e r range of s o i l t y p e s , was h a r d i e r than c o f f e e and d i d w e l l under c o n d i t i o n s of h i g h p r e c i p i t a t i o n t h a t would have r u i n e d a c o f f e e c r o p and, u n l i k e c o f f e e , c o u l d be h a r v e s t e d y e a r - r o u n d ( B a s t i a m p i l l a i , 1968:15). Tea was not new t o the c o l o n y . I t had been i n t r o d u c e d i n 1839 and c u l t i v a t e d a t the R o t h s c h i l d E s t a t e a t P u s s e l l a v a and the C o n d e g a l l e E s t a t e a t Ramboda ( P e r e r a , 1955:150), and l a t e r a t the L o o l e c o n d e r a E s t a t e , southwest of Kandy ( Z e y l a n i c u s , 1970:131). In the e a r l y y e a r s of c u l t i v a t i o n , the t e c h n o l o g y of t e a m a n u f a c t u r i n g was p o o r l y d e v e l o p e d and the c o s t s made l a r g e - s c a l e p r o d u c t i o n p r o h i b i t i v e . By the l a t e 1860s, p r o d u c t i o n t e c h n i q u e s had improved, y e t i n 1867 t h e r e were no e x p o r t s of t e a from C e y l o n (Ludowyck, 1966:92). W i t h the encouragement of the R o y a l B o t a n i c a l Gardens a t P e r a d e n i y a , under the guidance of Dr. T h w a i t e s , p l a n t e r s were g i v e n seeds from Assam t e a p l a n t s . a n d a d v i s e d on t h e i r use. In 1872, 270 a c r e s of t e a were c u l t i v a t e d . The f i r s t e x p o r t s , t w e n t y - t h r e e pounds i n t o t a l , o c c u r r e d the f o l l o w i n g year ( B a s t i a m p i l l a i , 1968:15). By 1877, 2,720 a c r e s had been p l a n t e d and e x p o r t s t h a t year t o t a l l e d 2,105 pounds ( i b i d . ) . 138 Chapter 4 The o u t l o o k f o r t e a c u l t i v a t i o n was p r o m i s i n g , but the major growth of the i n d u s t r y d i d not o c c u r u n t i l the 1880s when p l a n t e r s c o u l d no l o n g e r deny t h a t c o f f e e was i n i t s d e a t h t h r o e s . C i n c h o n a , the bark of which was used t o produce q u i n i n e , was i n t r o d u c e d t o C e y l o n i n 1868 from Peru and Ecuador ( P e r e r a , 1955:149; B a s t i a m p i l l a i , 1968:13). I t was f i r s t c u l t i v a t e d a t the Hakgala Gardens near Nuwara E l i y a . Cinchona g a i n e d p o p u l a r i t y r a p i d l y because i t c o u l d be p l a n t e d between c o f f e e bushes and market demand was s t r o n g ( i b i d . ) . I t s p o p u l a r i t y proved t o be i t s d o w n f a l l , however. In l e s s than t e n y e a r s 60,000 a c r e s were c u l t i v a t e d , r e s u l t i n g i n o v e r p r o d u c t i o n and lowered p r i c e s ( i b i d . ) . By 1884, c i n c h o n a was no l o n g e r a s i g n i f i c a n t e x p o r t f o r the c o l o n y ( B a s t i a m p i l l a i , 1968:14). N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the economy of C e y l o n s h o u l d not be d i s c o u n t e d . The c u l t i v a t i o n of c i n c h o n a a s s i s t e d m a n y . p l a n t e r s t h r o u g h the l e a n y e a r s of the l a t e 1870s. A l a t e c o m e r , rubber was i n t r o d u c e d t o C e y l o n from Kew Gardens i n 1876 and p l a n t e d c o m m e r c i a l l y i n the K a l u t a r a d i s t r i c t i n 1883. I n i t i a l l y , rubber was the l e a s t s u c c e s s f u l of the t h r e e c r o p s . Rubber p l a n t s were slow t o mature and t h e r e was l i t t l e demand f o r the p r o d u c t u n t i l the t u r n of the c e n t u r y ( H u l u g a l l e , 1963:146). Rubber was a l o n g - t e r m i n v e s t m e n t , however, and proved t o be of c o n s i d e r a b l e b e n e f i t 1 39 Chapter 4 t o the c o l o n y i n l a t e r y e a r s . The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of S i r W i l l i a m Gregory had been a time of p r o s p e r i t y f o r C e y l o n , but by the time Governor James Longden.(1877-1883) assumed the r e i n s of government i n 1877 the e r a of a f f l u e n c e had p a s s e d . The a r e a under c o f f e e c u l t i v a t i o n had.been reduced t o 100,000 a c r e s by 1878 ( H u l u g a l l e , 1963:121). By 1883 c o f f e e e x p o r t s were a t t h e i r l o w e s t l e v e l i n t h i r t y - f i v e y e a r s ( i b i d . ) . Of t h e 1700 European p l a n t e r s t h a t had l i v e d i n C e y l o n d u r i n g the peak y e a r s of c o f f e e , 400 had r e t u r n e d t o B r i t a i n by the e a r l y 1880s ( i b i d . ) . Hence, the r e c o v e r y of the p l a n t a t i o n s e c t o r was a c r u c i a l o b j e c t i v e of Longden's a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . D e s p i t e the retrenchment of the c o l o n y ' s f i n a n c e s , Governor Longden a s s i s t e d p l a n t e r s by u n d e r t a k i n g the e x t e n s i o n of the r a i l w a y from N a w a l a p i t i y a to Nanu Oya, w i t h i n easy a c c e s s of Nuwara E l i y a ( i b i d . ) . Tea was judged the g r e a t e s t hope f o r economic r e c o v e r y , but the l a p s e between the f a l l of c o f f e e and the emergence of t e a proved a t r y i n g time f o r the c o l o n y . At the b e g i n n i n g of the 1870s, the a r e a s u r r o u n d i n g Nuwara E l i y a was "an almost empty e x t e n t of c o u n t r y composed of u n i n h a b i t e d j u n g l e t r a c t s and a few v i l l a g e s " (Ferguson i n B a s t i a m p i l l a i , 1968:3). The e a r l y 1870s was a time of growth f o r the h i l l - s t a t i o n as c o f f e e p l a n t a t i o n s expanded i n t o h i g h e r e l e v a t i o n s . By 1874, t h e r e were 84,000 a c r e s of c o f f e e under c u l t i v a t i o n i n t h e v i c i n i t y of Nuwara E l i y a 1 40 Chapter 4 ( i b i d . ) . D e s p i t e the d e c l i n e of c o f f e e , Nuwara E l i y a ' s development d i d not f a l t e r . The r e g i o n was i d e a l l y s u i t e d to the c u l t i v a t i o n of t e a , and the government, c e r t a i n that i t c o u l d promote the new crop, surveyed land f o r s a l e to p l a n t e r s i n the Nuwara E l i y a D i s t r i c t ( i b i d . : 1 5 ) ( 5 ) . The f i r s t h a l f of the 1870s were a time of economic optimism i n Ceylon and the development of the h i l l - s t a t i o n r e f l e c t e d t h i s a t t i t u d e . S e v e r a l events of s i g n i f i c a n c e o c c u r r e d d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . The r e c r e a t i o n a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e of Nuwara E l i y a underwent a r a p i d and unprecedented expansion. With the s u r p l u s generated from a prosperous economy, e x p a t r i a t e s were able to i n v e s t i n the h i l l - s t a t i o n , to b u i l d bungalows and to enjoy sojourns d u r i n g the season. The opening of the d i s t r i c t to p l a n t a t i o n a g r i c u l t u r e promoted the expansion of Nuwara E l i y a as the s t a t i o n assumed the r o l e of a s e r v i c e c e n t r e , o f f e r i n g goods and s e r v i c e s to the i n h a b i t a n t s of the neighbouring e s t a t e s . In a d d i t i o n , Nuwara E l i y a was a l s o a r e c r e a t i o n a l l o c a l e f o r p l a n t e r s . In 1872, the H i l l Club was c o n s t r u c t e d . With a membership composed l a r g e l y of p l a n t e r s , the c l u b p r o v i d e d members with a t e n n i s c o u r t , b i l l i a r d room and f a c i l i t i e s f o r s o c i a l i z i n g . In 1872, S i r W i l l i a m Gregory became Governor of Ceylon. F o r t u n a t e l y f o r Nuwara E l i y a , he became fond of the h i l l -s t a t i o n . He b u i l t Queen's Cottage, f o r 1500 pounds s t e r l i n g , as the o f f i c i a l r e s i d e n c e of the Governor duri n g the season. 141 Chapter.4 He was a l s o i n s t r u m e n t a l i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n of Lake Gregory, which d i d much t o improve the r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s of the s t a t i o n . B o a t i n g became p o s s i b l e and f i s h i n g i n c r e a s e d i n p o p u l a r i t y . The Governor, i n k e e p i n g w i t h the buoyant s p i r i t of the t i m e s , was i n t e n t upon u p g r a d i n g the appearance of the h i l l - s t a t i o n and a l l o c a t e d funds f o r ornamental p l a n t s and s h r u b s , new roads and d r i v e s and the d r a i n i n g of p o r t i o n s of t h e town ( B a s t i a m p i l l a i , 1968:119). The p r e s e n c e of the Governor d u r i n g the season gave Nuwara E l i y a an added b o o s t , f o r i t enhanced the r e p u t a t i o n of the s t a t i o n and a t t r a c t e d i n d i v i d u a l s who sought s t a t u s v a l i d a t i o n . In 1873, Nuwara E l i y a ceased t o be a m i l i t a r y s a n a t a r i u m . D e s p i t e the o b j e c t i o n s of the m i l i t a r y e s t a b l i s h m e n t i n C e y l o n , the m i l i t a r y f o r c e a t the s t a t i o n was withdrawn by o r d e r of the Governor (Le M e s u r i e r , 1893:64). B a s t i a m p i l l a i n o t e s , "Although Nuwara E l i y a h i t h e r t o had been r e s e r v e d f o r the m i l i t a r y , e x p e n s i v e army q u a r t e r s remained u n t e n a n t e d . The army c o u l d spare no d o c t o r f o r r u n n i n g i t as a h e a l t h r e s o r t " (1968:119). The r o l e of the m i l i t a r y i n C e y l o n had become i n c o n s e q u e n t i a l f o l l o w i n g the u p r i s i n g i n 1848, f o r t h e r e had been peace i n the c o l o n y . Nuwara E l i y a c o n t i n u e d t o be the " p r i n c i p l e s t a t i o n and h e a d q u a r t e r s of the revenue and j u d i c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the D i s t r i c t " (Le M e s u r i e r , 1893:64), y e t i t was a l s o assuming the r o l e of a s e a s o n a l r e s o r t . The d e p a r t u r e of the 142 Chapter 4 m i l i t a r y marked the t r a n s i t i o n the h i l l - s t a t i o n was u n d e r g o i n g . In the same y e a r , the Nuwara E l i y a Jymkhana Cl u b was e s t a b l i s h e d and, two y e a r s l a t e r , the r a c e c o u r s e was b u i l t . In the second h a l f of the 1870s, Nuwara E l i y a ' s pace of e x p a n s i o n slowed, but d i d not c e a s e . With the s e t b a c k s the c o l o n y f a c e d due t o the c o f f e e d i s e a s e , t h e r e was l e s s money t o i n v e s t i n the h i l l - s t a t i o n . In 1877, the A s s i s t a n t Government Agent, A.C. Murray, wrote i n an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e p o r t t h a t he wished t o u n d e r t a k e improvements t o the s t a t i o n but funds were not a v a i l a b l e (de S i l v a , 1978:61) . T h i s d i d not d i m i n i s h the p o p u l a r i t y of Nuwara E l i y a , however. The h i l l - s t a t i o n had come i n t o i t s own, and began t o p l a y an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n the r e c r e a t i o n a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e of the i s l a n d . Nuwara E l i y a ' s r e p u t a t i o n as a s a n a t a r i u m endured but i t had e v o l v e d a g r e a t e r d i v e r s i t y of f u n c t i o n s . When S i r A r t h u r H a m i l t o n Gordon (1883-1890) became Governor i n 1883, C e y l o n was s t i l l e x p e r i e n c i n g the e f f e c t s of the c o f f e e c r i s i s . A hew s e t b a c k o c c u r r e d i n 1884 w i t h the f a i l u r e of the O r i e n t a l Banking C o r p o r a t i o n i n C e y l o n , which had been e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1845 ( H u l u g a l l e , 1963:126). Owned by S c o t t i s h i n t e r e s t s , the c o r p o r a t i o n was a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d by the f a i l u r e of the C i t y of Glasgow Bank ( B a s t i a m p i l l a i , 1968:10). The c o r p o r a t i o n owned numerous c o f f e e e s t a t e s and h e l d mortgages on many o t h e r s . I t had 143 Chapter 4 p l a y e d a c r i t i c a l r o l e i n the promotion of a g r i c u l t u r e i n the c o l o n y w i t h a network of branch o f f i c e s i n p r i n c i p l e towns and p l a n t i n g c e n t r e s ( H u l u g a l l e , 1963:126). When the O r i e n t a l .Banking C o r p o r a t i o n ' s " d r a m a t i c s u s p e n s i o n o c c u r r e d , the g r e a t e s t d i s t r e s s and commercial upheaval ever known i n the i s l a n d was o c c a s i o n e d " ( i b i d . ) . C o n c u r r e n t w i t h t h i s was a d e c l i n e i n the p r i c e of c o f f e e . B r i t a i n e x p e r i e n c e d a d e p r e s s i o n from 1879 u n t i l 1885, d u r i n g which time E n g l i s h consumers f a v o r e d the l e s s e x p e n s i v e B r a z i l i a n c o f f e e over the C e y l o n e s e p r o d u c t . The c o s t of p r o d u c i n g c o f f e e i n C e y l o n was too h i g h t o compete w i t h i t s l o n g t i m e r i v a l ( B a s t i a m p i l l a i , 1968:10). T h i s , i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the f a i l u r e of the O r i e n t a l Banking C o r p o r a t i o n , d e a l t the f i n a l blow t o C e y l o n ' s c o f f e e i n d u s t r y . By the time Governor Gordon l e f t the c o l o n y i n 1890, Ce y l o n had r e c o v e r e d from the c o f f e e c r i s i s . Once a g a i n t h e r e was s u r p l u s revenue i n the t r e a s u r y . ( H u l u g a l l e , 1963:125). Gordon had been a b l e t o undertake a l i m i t e d number of p u b l i c works, i n c l u d i n g the c o m p l e t i o n of the r a i l w a y from Kandy t o Nanu Oya, which began o p e r a t i n g i n 1885 and brought the r a i l w a y t o w i t h i n f i v e m i l e s of Nuwara E l i y a . He was a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n of 261 m i l e s of new roads ( i b i d . : 1 3 2 ) , and the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the t e l e g r a p h t o C e y l o n . T h i s d i d much t o c o n t r i b u t e t o the r e c o v e r y of the p l a n t a t i o n s e c t o r . The t e a i n d u s t r y was b e g i n n i n g t o e x p e r i e n c e the 144 Chapter 4 s u c c e s s t h a t c o f f e e had e n j o y e d . In 1889, 10,525,381 pounds of t e a were e x p o r t e d ( i b i d . : 1 3 4 ) . As the end of the c e n t u r y drew n e a r e r , C e y l o n f a c e d a p r o m i s i n g f u t u r e . With the opening of the r a i l w a y from Kandy t o Nanu Oya i n 1885, Nuwara E l i y a became much more a c c e s s i b l e . I t was p o s s i b l e t o t r a v e l t o the h i l l - s t a t i o n f o r s h o r t e r p e r i o d s of time than was f e a s i b l e p r e v i o u s l y . G r a d u a l l y weekend t r i p s t o the h i l l - s t a t i o n g a i n e d i n p o p u l a r i t y . The r a i l w a y l i n k s e r v e d t o enhance Nuwara E l i y a ' s a t t r a c t i v e n e s s as a r e s o r t and v i s i t o r s were no l o n g e r o b l i g e d t o s t a y f o r an extended p e r i o d t o make t h e i r j o u r n e y w o r t h w h i l e . The h i l l - s t a t i o n a l s o b e n e f i t t e d from the e x p a n s i o n of the t e a i n d u s t r y . Nuwara E l i y a became l e s s and l e s s remote i n the p e r c e p t i o n of the e x p a t r i a t e community, as t e a e s t a t e s made i n c u r s i o n s i n t o t h e r e g i o n . Nuwara E l i y a , though s t i l l e x p e r i e n c i n g s e a s o n a l f l u c t u a t i o n s i n p o p u l a r i t y , f l o u r i s h e d as the economy r e g a i n e d the ground i t had l o s t w i t h the end of the c o f f e e e r a . The p e r i o d from 1880 t o 1910 was one of i n c r e a s i n g s t a b i l i t y and s u s t a i n e d growth of the economy (de S i l v a , 1981:286). By 1894, over 330,000 a c r e s of t e a had been p l a n t e d (Ludowyck, 1966:92). Thus, w i t h i n e i g h t e e n y e a r s of the f a i l u r e of c o f f e e , t e a had emerged as the m a i n s t a y of the economy. L i k e the c o f f e e i n d u s t r y , t e a was not i n v u l n e r a b l e as demonstrated by the slump t h a t o c c u r r e d i n the i n d u s t r y i n 145 Chapter 4 the 1890s. P r o d u c t i o n methods f o r d r y i n g t e a had become outmoded and new e f f o r t s were n e c e s s a r y t o keep the i n d u s t r y e f f i c i e n t . D u r i n g the e a r l y s t a g e s of t e a p l a n t i n g , t e a e s t a t e s had been run m a i n l y by i n d i v i d u a l European e n t r e p r e n e u r s ( Z e y l a n i c u s , 1970:133). Yet by the 1890s i t was e v i d e n t a change of s t r a t e g y was r e q u i r e d . Few i n d i v i d u a l p r i v a t e i n v e s t o r s p o s s e s s e d the c a p i t a l t o upgrade t h e i r equipment f o r p r o c e s s i n g t e a . As. a r e s u l t , the t e a i n d u s t r y underwent a r e o r g a n i z a t i o n d u r i n g the 1890s. T h i s e n t a i l e d b e t t e r methods of c u l t i v a t i o n , i n c r e a s e d m e c h a n i z a t i o n i n the t e a f a c t o r i e s , and the s h i f t from i n d i v i d u a l e n t r e p r e n e u r s t o c o r p o r a t e i n v e s t o r s (Pakeman, 1964:75). In some i n s t a n c e s , s e v e r a l e s t a t e owners formed a c o r p o r a t i o n and amalgamated t h e i r p l a n t a t i o n s . The r e - o r g a n i z a t i o n of the t e a i n d u s t r y h e l p e d t o m a i n t a i n the h e a l t h of the p l a n t a t i o n s e c t o r . . Tea had become b i g b u s i n e s s i n C e y l o n . I n v e s t o r s such as Thomas L i p t o n , w i t h h i s trademark s l o g a n " s t r a i g h t from the t e a gardens t o the t e a p o t " , o f t e n p r e f e r r e d t o run t h e i r i n v e s t m e n t s from a f a r and h i r e d managers t o o v e r s e e t h e i r e s t a t e s (Ludowyck, 1966:91; Pakeman, 1964:75). Tea was t h r i v i n g but the days of monocropping were gone. The rubber i n d u s t r y made headway d u r i n g the slump i n t e a t o become the second most i m p o r t a n t e x p o r t c r o p i n the c o l o n y (Pakeman, 1964:75). I t c o n t i n u e d t o prove l u c r a t i v e and by 1908, 150,000 a c r e s were under 1 46 Chapter 4 c u l t i v a t i o n ( H u l u g a l l e , 1963:146). The market f o r plumbago, or g r a p h i t e , was a l s o s t r o n g ( i b i d . : 1 3 4 ) . The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s of S i r A r t h u r Havelock (-1890-1895) and S i r Joseph West Ridgeway (1895-1903) b o t h p r o v e d t o be f i n a n c i a l l y b e n e f i c i a l f o r C e y l o n . With the s u r p l u s g e n e r a t e d from the t e a i n d u s t r y , each Governor c o n t i n u e d a p o l i c y of r a i l w a y e x p a n s i o n and road b u i l d i n g . West Ridgeway extended the r a i l w a y from K u r u n e g a l a t o Anuradhapura, t h u s making the p l a n t a t i o n d i s t r i c t even more a c c e s s i b l e ( H u l u g a l l e , 1963:140). He a l s o oversaw the e x p a n s i o n of the Colombo docks which improved the e f f i c i e n c y of the s h i p p i n g i n d u s t r y ( i b i d . ) . As the c e n t u r y came t o a c l o s e , C e y l o n p o s s e s s e d a s t a b l e and l u c r a t i v e e x p o r t economy. These were good y e a r s f o r e x p a t r i a t e s i n C e y l o n . There was a sense of permanence about the B r i t i s h p resence on the i s l a n d , f o s t e r e d i n p a r t by the e n d u r i n g r e i g n of V i c t o r i a , an almost g o d d e s s - l i k e f i g u r e who i t seemed would s u r v i v e f o r e v e r . The 1890s and the f i r s t decade of the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y p r o v e d t o be good y e a r s f o r Nuwara E l i y a , as w e l l , f o r the p r o s p e r i t y of the c o l o n y was r e f l e c t e d i n the development of the h i l l - s t a t i o n . The r e c r e a t i o n a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e c o n t i n u e d t o expand w i t h the opening of the Nuwara E l i y a g o l f c o u r s e i n 1890,.the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the g o l f p a v i l i o n i n 1892 and the e x t e n s i o n of the l i n k s i n 1893 (de S i l v a , 1978:91). The r a c e c o u r s e was a l s o improved and a new p a v i l i o n and a r i f l e 147 Chapter 4 range, w i t h t a r g e t s i m p o r t e d from B r i t a i n , were b u i l t i n 1898 (Government of C e y l o n , J a n . 19, Mar. 12, 15, Apr. 13, 1898). F a c i l i t i e s f o r v i s i t o r s had been a m e l i o r a t e d , t o o , as Barnes H a l l , the home t h a t Governor Barnes c o n s t r u c t e d f o r h i m s e l f i n 1829, became the Grand H o t e l i n the l a t e 1890s. The r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s of Nuwara E l i y a had improved d r a m a t i c a l l y s i n c e the 1870s and g i v e n the r e s o u r c e s of the e x p a t r i a t e community, the c o n t i n u e d e x p a n s i o n of the h i l l -s t a t i o n was not i n doubt. Indeed, the h i 1 1 - s t a t i o n ' h a d become s u f f i c i e n t l y p o p u l a r by 1904 t o warrant the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a narrow gauge r a i l w a y l i n k i n g Nuwara E l i y a t o Nanu Oya. The development of Nuwara E l i y a r e f l e c t e d the sense of c o n f i d e n c e t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e d the B r i t i s h p r e s e n c e i n C e y l o n . The B r i t i s h had overcome the economic h u r d l e s t h a t had beset the c o l o n y and, as the c e n t u r y ended, they were s a v o r i n g t h e i r a f f l u e n c e . They c o u l d a f f o r d t o i n d u l g e t hemselves i n the l u x u r i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h power, and were w i l l i n g t o expend the s u r p l u s g e n e r a t e d from t h e i r c o mmercial v e n t u r e s i n c r e a t i n g a s u b s t i t u t e f o r Home. Thus, the development.of Nuwara E l i y a was an e x p r e s s i o n of both t h e i r s a t i s f a c t i o n and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h c o l o n i a l l i f e . Nuwara E l i y a , an E n g l i s h v i l l a g e superimposed on the Ceyl o n e s e l a n d s c a p e , r e p r e s e n t e d the power the B r i t i s h had amassed and the p r i c e they had p a i d — the s e p a r a t i o n from a l a n d and way of l i f e they now sought t o r e p l i c a t e . 148 Chapter 4 The development of Nuwara E l i y a p a r a l l e l e d the e v o l u t i o n and f l u c t u a t i o n s of the p l a n t a t i o n s e c t o r , the p a r t of the economy w i t h which the B r i t i s h were most c l o s e l y l i n k e d . The g r e a t e s t e x p a n s i o n of the h i l l - s t a t i o n o c c u r r e d i n the second h a l f of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y f o l l o w i n g the u p r i s i n g of 1848, which marked the b e g i n n i n g of the Pax B r i t a n n i c a , a p e r i o d of p o l i t i c a l calm i n C e y l o n l a s t i n g u n t i l 1918. T h i s p e r i o d w i t n e s s e d the r i s e and f a l l of the c o f f e e i n d u s t r y , and the emergence of t e a as the new s t a p l e c r o p . I t was d u r i n g t h i s time t h a t Nuwara E l i y a a c h i e v e d a p o s i t i o n of prominence w i t h i n the c o l o n i a l framework and as the f i n a n c e s of C e y l o n improved so, t o o , d i d the r e c r e a t i o n a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e of the h i l l - s t a t i o n . SUMMARY T h i s c h a p t e r has examined the development and f l u c t u a t i o n s of the p l a n t a t i o n economy i n C e y l o n d u r i n g the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . I t has been argued t h a t p e r i o d of the g r e a t e s t growth of Nuwara E l i y a c o i n c i d e s w i t h the development of a s t a b l e , p r o s p e r o u s e x p o r t economy i n the l a s t t h r e e decades of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . P r i o r t o t h i s p e r i o d , the growth of the h i l l - s t a t i o n was s p o r a d i c and r e f l e c t e d the i n s t a b i l i t y and c r i s e s w i t h i n the p l a n t a t i o n s e c t o r . In a d d i t i o n , the e x p a n s i o n of the p l a n t a t i o n s e c t o r from 1830 t o 1860 r e q u i r e d l a r g e i n p u t s of c a p i t a l , which l e f t l i t t l e s u r p l u s t o i n v e s t i n the development of Nuwara 1 49 Chapter 4 E l i y a . The s t a b i l i t y of coffee plantations increased with improved planting and processing techniques and coffee became the l u c r a t i v e mainstay of the economy. With the surplus generated from coffee exports, expatriates had the c a p i t a l to invest in Nuwara E l i y a and could expend greater sums on l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s . The coffee c r i s i s , resulting from the coffee disease hemiliea vastatrix, ended coffee's reign as the colony's major export crop. The c r i s i s , though causing f i n a n c i a l hardship to expatriates, did not have the dire consequences that i t might have; tea provided an alternative export crop. Nuwara E l i y a continued to expand despite the coffee c r i s i s as both the government and planters were optimistic that coffee would recover. The increasing price of coffee provided a f i n a n c i a l buffer for planters, despite declining productivity. Later, when the f a i l u r e of coffee could no longer be denied, other crops, such as cinchona and tea, were available to replace coffee. During the lapse between the decline of coffee and the emergence of tea as the primary export, the development of Nuwara E l i y a slowed. The expansion of the h i l l - s t a t i o n resumed with vigour when tea exports began to match the l u c r a t i v e levels that once characterized coffee exports. 1 50 Chapter 4 ENDNOTES (1) C o - e x i s t i n g w i t h the p l a n t a t i o n economy was the peasant-economy which had few economic b e n e f i t s f o r the B r i t i s h and to which the B r i t i s h had few t i e s u n t i l l a t e r i n the c e n t u r y as c a p i t a l i s t p e n e t r a t i o n o c c u r r e d i n the peasant s e c t o r . (2) A Ro y a l Commission was e s t a b l i s h e d on Ja n u a r y 18, 1823 w i t h L i e u t e n a n t - C o l o n e l C o l e b r o o k e and two o t h e r s a p p o i n t e d as c o m m i s s i o n e r s . A l s o r e f e r r e d t o as the Commissioners of the E a s t e r n I n q u i r y , they were t o " e n q u i r e i n t o the s t a t e of the c o l o n i e s of the Cape of Good Hope, M a u r i t i u s and C e y l o n " ( M i l l s , 1933:65; H u l u g a l l e , 1963:46). C o l e b r o o k e a r r i v e d i n C e y l o n i n A p r i l , 1829 and d e p a r t e d f o r England^ i n F e b r u a r y 1831 ( M i l l s , 1933:65). He was f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e c o l o n y , h a v i n g s e r v e d w i t h the m i l i t a r y i n C e y l o n . (3) The c i v i l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s i n c l u d e d a l l o f f i c e s i n the c i v i l , j u d i c i a l , m e d i c a l , e c c l e s i a s t i c a l , e d u c a t i o n a l , p o l i c e and f i s c a l departments of the Government of Ce y l o n ( B a l a s i n g h a m , 1968:97). The c i v i l s e r v i c e was the o l d e s t of the s e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , h a v i n g been founded i n 1802 (Woolf, 1 9 6 2 : i x ) . (4) Nuwara E l i y a D i s t r i c t was c r e a t e d i n 1833 and headed by an A s s i s t a n t Government Agent l o c a t e d a t Nuwara E l i y a (Le M e s u r i e r , 1893:64). I t was one of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the A.G.A. t o account f o r h i s a c t i v i t i e s and s i g n i f i c a n t e v e n t s i n the d i s t r i c t i n a d a i l y d i a r y (Woolf, I 9 6 2 : x x x i i ) . As one may imagine, these d i a r i e s o f f e r c o n s i d e r a b l e h i s t o r i c a l i n s i g h t . D i a r i e s were kept f o r the Nuwara E l i y a D i s t r i c t f o r the y e a r s 1845 t o 1945 ( i b i d . ) . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the d i a r i e s f o r the y e a r s 1845 t o 1883 a r e m i s s i n g , which l e a v e s a gap i n our knowledge of Nuwara E l i y a ' s e a r l y y e a r s . The remainder of the d i a r i e s a r e l o c a t e d , a t the Department of N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s , Colombo. (5) The government was not unfounded i n i t s o p t i m i s m . By 1883 t h e r e were f i f t y - o n e e s t a t e s i n the Nuwara E l i y a D i s t r i c t (Weekly C e y l o n O b s e r v e r, J a n . 4, 1883). . 151 CHAPTER 5: RECREATION IN COLONIAL CEYLON In addition to the economic factors, the recreational and lei s u r e preferences of the B r i t i s h in Ceylon contributed to the emergence of Nuwara E l i y a . The recreational pastimes of the B r i t i s h in Ceylon reflected the preferences of the English in the metropolitan society. Yet the recreational a c t i v i t i e s of the expatriate community were also an adaptation to the conditions of c o l o n i a l l i f e . As expatriates and agents of Empire, the B r i t i s h had needs that were not present among their countrypeople at home. There was a need to reinforce their c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y to maintain a sense of group cohesiveness and enable them to withstand the pressures of immersion in an a l i e n culture. There was also the. burden of Empire; from t h i s they sought d i s t r a c t i o n in the company of fellow expatriates. They sought r e l i e f , too, from the environment in which they worked and l i v e d . From the heat of the lowlands, they headed towards the temperate h i l l country. F i n a l l y , the B r i t i s h in Ceylon suffered from a longing to go Home. To appease their sense of homesickness, they shaped.their h i l l - s t a t i o n in the image of their homeland. It was here that they engaged in the sports and s o c i a l pastimes that were their heritage. The following i s a consideration of recreational and le i s u r e preferences of the B r i t i s h in the nineteenth century, especially within the c o l o n i a l context of Ceylon. 152 Chapter 5 P a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n i s g i v e n t o the development of the r e c r e a t i o n a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e of Nuwara E l i y a and the manner i n which i t b o t h r e f l e c t e d and met the needs of the e x p a t r i a t e community. The emergence of Nuwara E l i y a as a p o p u l a r s e a s o n a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l r e s o r t amongst B r i t i s h e x p a t r i a t e s i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y can be a t t r i b u t e d i n no s m a l l measure t o the r e c r e a t i o n a l and l e i s u r e p r e f e r e n c e s p r e v a l e n t d u r i n g the p e r i o d . Nuwara E l i y a p r o v i d e d an optimum l o c a l e f o r B r i t i s h s o c i a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l p u r s u i t s f o r i t o f f e r e d a r e l a t i v e l y a c c e s s i b l e and h i g h l y c o n v i n c i n g s u b s t i t u t e f o r the E n g l i s h c o u n t r y s i d e . In a d d i t i o n , the l a n d s c a p e bore l i t t l e i m p r i n t of i t s e a r l i e r uses. Thus, i t was m a l l e a b l e under the c r e a t i v e v i s i o n of the B r i t i s h , who succeeded i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a v i l l a g e t h a t c l o s e l y a p p r o x i m a t e d a r u r a l hamlet i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n s o c i e t y . Formed i n i t i a l l y as a h e a l t h s a n a t a r i u m i n 1829, Nuwara E l i y a reached i t s apex much l a t e r i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y ; i t s e v o l u t i o n p a r a l l e l i n g the c h a n g i n g B r i t i s h a t t i t u d e s towards r e c r e a t i o n and, as d i s c u s s e d above, the f l u c t u a t i n g f o r t u n e s of the p l a n t a t i o n economy. A l t h o u g h the a n n u a l s o j o u r n a t Nuwara E l i y a was an a d a p t a t i o n t o the s o c i o -economic c o n d i t i o n s of C e y l o n d u r i n g the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , i t was not w i t h o u t i t s B r i t i s h a n t e c e d e n t s . The concept of a " r e s o r t " was a f a m i l i a r one t o B r i t i s h u pper-middle and 153 Chapter 5 u p p e r - c l a s s f a m i l i e s . Spas, such as B a t h , t h a t u t i l i z e d the m i n e r a l waters of p a r t i c u l a r s i t e s f o r t h e i r supposed h e a l t h -g i v i n g b e n e f i t s , were the f o r e r u n n e r s of the mature concept of the r e s o r t as i t d e v e l o p e d i n the mid t o l a t e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y ( K i n g , 1976a:160). The spa and, l a t e r , the r e s o r t s e r v e d as a nexus "where an e l i t e and o t h e r s a s p i r i n g t o e n t e r i t c o u l d meet and p a r t i c i p a t e i n e s t a b l i s h e d s o c i a l r i t u a l s " ( i b i d . ) . The development of c o a s t a l r e s o r t s o f f e r e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r an expanded c l i e n t e l e t h a t were not p o s s i b l e a t the i n l a n d s i t e s of the spas. E t h n o - m e d i c a l b e l i e f s of the l a t e e i g h t e e n t h and n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s h e l d t h a t "the a i r " , "the w a t e r s " and e x e r c i s e a v a i l a b l e a t s e a s i d e r e s o r t s were b e n e f i c i a l f o r v i s i t o r s . These e t h n o - m e d i c a l b e l i e f s p r o v i d e d an e x p l i c i t r eason f o r the c h o i c e of c o a s t a l r e s o r t s as r e c r e a t i o n a l l o c a l e s . Though perhaps not e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e d , s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n was a l s o a s i g n i f i c a n t a t t r a c t i o n of t h e s e r e s o r t s . The c o a s t a l r e s o r t s of the l a t e e i g h t e e n t h andl n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s : . o f f e r e d s o c i a l r e t u r n s i n the a c c e s s they gave t o e l i t e c i r c l e s and the o p p o r t u n i t i e s a f f o r d e d f o r f u r t h e r i n g p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Here o p p o r t u n i t i e s were sought f o r e x t e n d i n g economic and s o c i a l i n f l u e n c e , e xchanging i n f o r m a t i o n , o r p r o m o t i n g s o c i a l m o b i l i t y , t h r o u g h a c q u a i n t a n c e , f r i e n d s h i p or m a r r i a g e ( K i n g , 1976a:161). The r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s such as the "Parade", a c e n t r a l l y 154 Chapter 5 l o c a t e d avenue, and the "Promenade", a walkway a l o n g the sea c o a s t , enhanced s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n and e n a b l e d p e r s o n a l d i s p l a y w i t h i n a r e c r e a t i o n a l framework ( i b i d . ) . By f a r the most i m p o r t a n t l o c a l e a t the spa and, l a t e r , the r e s o r t , were the "Assembly Rooms". T h i s a r e a of the spa or r e s o r t was a c e n t r a l meeting p l a c e where one would be a s s u r e d of both s e e i n g and b e i n g seen. G i v e n t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l s were temporary v i s i t o r s t o the r e s o r t , the Assembly Rooms o f f e r e d immediate and s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e a c c e s s t o f e l l o w v i s i t o r s t h r o u g h such r e c r e a t i o n a l p u r s u i t s as d a n c i n g and d i n n e r g a t h e r i n g s (see K i n g , 1976a:161). There were o t h e r l o c a l e s t h a t performed a s i m i l a r f u n c t i o n . These i n c l u d e d the l i b r a r y , t h e a t r e and race c o u r s e which were " p a t r o n i s e d by a . s e c t i o n of the urban p o p u l a t i o n s u f f i c i e n t l y l e i s u r e d , l i t e r a t e and a f f l u e n t t o use them" ( i b i d . ) . ' ' . -A f u r t h e r f a c t o r c o n t r i b u t i n g t o r e c r e a t i o n a l p r e f e r e n c e s i n B r i t a i n from the m i d - n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y onwards were the v a l u e s t h a t were f o s t e r e d by the " p u b l i c s c h o o l s " of the m e t r o p o l i t a n s o c i e t y . R e c r e a t i o n was p e r c e i v e d as an e x t r o v e r t e d a c t i v i t y t h a t s h o u l d i n v o l v e p h y s i c a l e x e r t i o n p r e f e r a b l y i n the form of " o r g a n i z e d s p o r t " ( K i n g , 1976a:157). Team games were thought t o encourage l a u d a b l e moral t r a i t s t h a t i n c l u d e d the development of " c h a r a c t e r " and "team s p i r i t " ( i b i d . : 1 5 7 ) . 'Games of c h o i c e 155 Chapter 5 such as c r i c k e t , p o l o , t e n n i s , badminton, g o l f and lawn b o w l i n g r e q u i r e d s p e c i a l i z e d l o c a l e s and equipment. Because of t h e s e s p e c i a l i z e d r e q u i r e m e n t s , r e c r e a t i o n e v o l v e d i n t o an "away from home" a c t i v i t y o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h o l i d a y s ( i b i d . ) . Yet another i n f l u e n c e t h a t " a f f e c t e d r e c r e a t i o n a l p u r s u i t s and r e s u l t e d i n m o d i f i c a t i o n t o the p h y s i c a l - s p a t i a l e n vironment" ( K i n g , 1976a:.157) was an a d m i r a t i o n , or what K i n g terms " v e n e r a t i o n " , of f l o w e r s , b i r d s and i n s e c t s which a t t r a c t e d i n d i v i d u a l s i n t e r e s t e d i n r e a d i n g , d i s c u s s i n g , w r i t i n g about and p u r s u i n g t h e s e phenomena. " T h i s s h a r e d sense of v a l u e s h e l p e d t o bond s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and l e d t o the f o r m a t i o n of o r g a n i s a t i o n s such as the ' N a t u r a l H i s t o r y S o c i e t y ' t o pursue such i n t e r e s t s a t a group l e v e l " ( i b i d . ) . As a r e s u l t of t h e s e i n t e r e s t s , a c t i v i t i e s such as " g a r d e n i n g " , " s k e t c h i n g " , " w a l k i n g " , " r i d i n g " , " a d m i r i n g the v i e w s " became f a v o r e d p a s t i m e s . The l o c a l e s f o r t h e s e p u r s u i t s i n c l u d e d p r i v a t e gardens a t t a c h e d t o d w e l l i n g s , p u b l i c p a r k s and b o t a n i c a l g a r d e n s , and f o r e s t e d a r e a s w i t h s u i t a b l e views and p a t h s . A l o o k a t the r e c r e a t i o n a l p r e f e r e n c e s and p a t t e r n s of the European community i n C e y l o n i n ' t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d i n view of the p r e f e r e n c e s of t h e B r i t i s h i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n s o c i e t y . Yet the c o n d i t i o n s w i t h i n the c o l o n i a l c o n t e x t of C e y l o n e x e r c i s e d a s i g n i f i c a n t 1 56 Chapter 5 i n f l u e n c e upon r e c r e a t i o n a l p a s t i m e s . P a r a l l e l s emerge between r e c r e a t i o n a l p u r s u i t s i n B r i t a i n and those i n C e y l o n . In both c a s e s , r e c r e a t i o n was an "away from home" a c t i v i t y , most commonly i n v o l v i n g a s p e c i a l i z e d s e t t i n g i n t e n d e d f o r the p u r s u i t of such a c t i v i t i e s . " H o l i d a y s " t h a t i n v o l v e d j o u r n e y s from one's r e s i d e n c e f o r v a r y i n g l e n g t h s of time were common t o both c o n t e x t s . In C e y l o n , however, an escape from the heat and h u m i d i t y of the c o a s t a l r e g i o n s was the d e s i r e d g o a l and thus s e a s i d e r e s o r t s d i d not f l o u r i s h . The h i l l c o u n t r y , e s p e c i a l l y Nuwara E l i y a , o f f e r e d a d e s i r a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e , h a v i n g s a t i s f a c t o r y l o c a l e s f o r the p u r s u i t of team s p o r t s , the study of " n a t u r a l h i s t o r y " and a s t r o n g resemblance t o the la n d s c a p e of B r i t a i n . The C l u b was a l s o an a d a p t a t i o n t o a c o l o n i a l c o n t e x t though i t too had i t s B r i t i s h a n t e c e d e n t s . The r e c r e a t i o n a l and s o c i a l l i f e i n Colombo was more urbane than the s o c i a l l i f e of the o u t s t a t i o n s but i t was a f a r c r y from the s o c i a l l i f e of London or o t h e r urban m e t r o p o l i t a n c e n t r e s . Whatever one's p o s i t i o n i n the s o c i a l h i e r a r c h y , t h e r e were l i m i t e d r e c r e a t i o n a l o p t i o n s . As Z e y l a n i c u s s t a t e s : U n f o r t u n a t e l y , because they [ t h e B r i t i s h ] d i d not make t h e i r homes i n Ceylon they d i d not b r i n g t h e i r c u l t u r e t o the i s l a n d . There was no t h e a t r e , o r c h e s t r a , o p e r a , b a l l e t or even a l i b r a r y of note i n Colombo ( Z e y l a n i c u s , 1970:144-5). 157 Chapter 5 S o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s r e v o l v e d around the C l u b s w hich, i n t u r n , f o c u s e d upon s p o r t s . A f f i l i a t i o n w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r c l u b was based on one's o c c u p a t i o n and s o c i a l c l a s s . B r o a d l y , the s o c i a l h i e r a r c h y was demarcated i n t o Europeans and non-Europeans, c i v i l s e r v a n t s and n o n - c i v i l s e r v a n t s and w i t h i n t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s t h e r e were f i n e r s o c i a l d i s t i n c t i o n s t h a t i n f l u e n c e d one's r e f e r e n c e group. S o c i a l c l a s s , o c c u p a t i o n and e d u c a t i o n a l background r e s u l t e d i n f i n e d i s t i n c t i o n s w i t h i n the European c o l o n i a l community (Ludowyk, 1966:102). As a g e n e r a l r u l e , t h e r e was l i t t l e s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n between the C e y l o n e s e and the B r i t i s h , a l t h o u g h t h i s was more t r u e i n urban a r e a s than i n o u t s t a t i o n s where the number of Europeans was l i m i t e d . C i v i l s e r v a n t s were at the top of the c o l o n i a l h i e r a r c h y . I n d i v i d u a l s i n v o l v e d i n commercial v e n t u r e s ranked below the c i v i l s e r v a n t s . W i t h i n t h i s c a t e g o r y were the management e x e c u t i v e s and the c l e r k s and o t h e r employees. The p l a n t e r s , t o o , formed a d i s t i n c t group as d i d the m i s s i o n a r i e s who tended t o have the most c o n t a c t w i t h the n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n (Pakeman, 1964:106-108). The c i v i l s e r v a n t s , the upper and lower e c h e l o n s of b u s i n e s s p e o p l e and the p l a n t e r s tended t o have t h e i r own c l u b s f o r s p o r t i n g and s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s . As Ludowyk n o t e s : The s o c i a l l i f e of the B r i t i s h e r i n the E a s t r e v o l v e d around c l u b s r e s t r i c t e d t o Europeans, each g r a d a t i o n of the w h i t e community h a v i n g i t s own c l u b w i t h i n i t s own c i r c l e . L i f e i n the E a s t r e p r o d u c e d , as c a r e f u l l y and 1 58 Chapter 5 d e l i b e r a t e l y as was p o s s i b l e i n a t r o p i c a l s e t t i n g , u p p e r - c l a s s l i f e i n the home c o u n t r y (Ludowyk, 1966:108). The C l u b , whatever the c o m p o s i t i o n of i t s membership, o f f e r e d a v e r y B r i t i s h environment t o which i t s members would r e t r e a t e i t h e r on a d a i l y or weekly b a s i s . W i t h i n i t s compound and the c o n f i n e s of i t s b u i l d i n g s , members would s o c i a l i z e w i t h one a n o t h e r w h i l e p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n s p o r t s such as c r i c k e t , p o l o , badminton, t e n n i s or e n j o y i n g b i l l i a r d s or a game of b r i d g e ( R i c k e t t s , 1912:683). At the C l u b , " t h e r e were green lawns, c o o l i n g d r i n k s , a m u l t i t u d e of E n g l i s h p a p e r s , a l i b r a r y , t e n n i s , r a c q u e t and badminton c o u r t s " ( i b i d . ) . To t h i s l o c a l e "at the end of a busy day, those who a r e s o c i a l l y i n c l i n e d , or who want games or books, f o r g a t h e r t i l l d i n n e r t i m e " ( i b i d . ) . The o c c a s i o n a l dance, p r i v a t e t h e a t r i c a l , "or the much r a r e r l e c t u r e " ( i b i d . ) supplemented the s o c i a l f a r e . In Colombo, the l e a d i n g European c l u b f o r men was the Colombo C l u b , founded i n 1871, which i n Pakeman's o p i n i o n , o c c u p i e d the f i n e s t s i t e i n the c i t y , c l o s e t o the sea (Pakeman, 1964:108; Ferguson, 1962). O u t s t a t i o n s had t h e i r somewhat l e s s g r a n d . v a r i a t i o n s t h e r e o f . In the c o l o n i a l c o n t e x t , the c l u b p l a y e d a c r i t i c a l r o l e . O s t e n s i b l y , i t was a r e c r e a t i o n a l r e t r e a t . In r e a l i t y , i t s purpose was f a r more encompassing. The c l u b was an i n t e g r a l component of the c o l o n i a l c o n t e x t . As an i n s t i t u t i o n , the c l u b r e t a i n e d a l l of the f u n c t i o n s i t 159 Chapter 5 p o s s e s s e d i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n s o c i e t y , y e t when t r a n s f e r r e d t o a c o l o n i a l s e t t i n g i t s importance i n c r e a s e d m a n i f o l d . Through the e x p e r i e n c e of c o l o n i a l i s m , i n d i v i d u a l s as a g ents of Empire were exposed t o a l t e r n a t e c u l t u r a l b e l i e f s and v a s t l y v a r i e d l a n d s and p e o p l e . I f the Empire was t o s u r v i v e and indeed expand, the i n t e g r i t y of m e t r o p o l i t a n norms, b e l i e f s and v a l u e s had t o remain l a r g e l y i n t a c t . Yet extreme r i g i d i t y of b e l i e f was u n d e s i r a b l e . I n d i v i d u a l s had t o be s u f f i c i e n t l y f l e x i b l e t o adapt t o l i f e i n the c o l o n i e s . The c r u c i a l a s p e c t i s t h a t the p r o c e s s of a d a p t a t i o n had t o o ccur i n a p r e s c r i b e d manner — one t h a t d i d not t h r e a t e n the accomplishments or a s p i r a t i o n s of Empire. In t h i s r e g a r d , the c l u b s e r v e d t o r e i n f o r c e c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y . As K i n g e x p l a i n s : The c l u b , w i t h i t s f a m i l i a r s u r r o u n d i n g s and e s t a b l i s h e d r i t u a l s , p r o v i d e d the s e t t i n g f o r the exchange o f . . . s o c i a l knowledge, the p l a c e where community b e l i e f s and s e n t i m e n t s were c o n t i n u o u s l y r e i n f o r c e d and m o d i f i e d , the c o n t e x t i n which newcomers were: s o c i a l i s e d i n t o the f o l k w a y s of the c o l o n i a l c u l t u r e ( K i n g , 1976b:2TO). Thus the c l u b i n the c o l o n i e s was a r e c r e a t i o n a l c e n t r e , a means of d u l l i n g homesickness and a source of companionship and s o l a c e . At a more s u b t l e l e v e l , the c l u b was a l o c a l e f o r the s o c i a l i z a t i o n of new r e c r u i t s . The c l u b f a c i l i t a t e d t h e p r o c e s s of d i s c u s s i n g , s o r t i n g , c l a s s i f y i n g and r e s p o n d i n g t o the e x p e r i e n c e s of l i f e as an e x p a t r i a t e member 160 Chapter 5 of a r u l i n g e l i t e . As an i n s t i t u t i o n , the c l u b s e r v e d t o remind e x p a t r i a t e s of t h e i r home, t h e i r duty and t h e i r c u l t u r e . . B e f o r e t r a v e l t o and from England became e a s i e r w i t h the opening of the Suez C a n a l i n 1869 ( 1 ) , t h e r e were few European women i n C e y l o n (Ludowyk, 1966:110). Thus, i t was not uncommon t o encounter b a c h e l o r s . Z e y l a n i c u s i n d i c a t e s t h a t amongst Europeans i n C e y l o n , the " s o c i a l system e v o l v e d on a c u r i o u s p a t t e r n . B r o a d l y t h e r e were two grou p s , the m a r r i e d and the u n m a r r i e d " (1970:144). Wealthy b a c h e l o r s , whether i n m e r c a n t i l e p u r s u i t s or the upper l e v e l s of the c i v i l s e r v i c e f r e q u e n t l y l i v e d a l o n e i n l a r g e bungalows ( i b i d . ) . In Colombo, t h e i r l e s s p r o s p e r o u s countrymen i n c l u d i n g " j u n i o r r a n k e r s i n o f f i c e s and banks, heads of s m a l l departments i n s t o r e s , e n g i n e e r s and p o r t o f f i c i a l s " ( i b i d . ) r e s i d e d o u t s i d e the c i t y c e n t r e i n l e s s e x p e n s i v e h o t e l s , b o a r d i n g houses and houses shared by un m a r r i e d males, known as chummeries ( i b i d . ) . Because the s o c i a l w o r l d s of the m a r r i e d and unmarr i e d tended t o be d i s t i n c t , t he C l u b was an i m p o r t a n t p o i n t of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n f o r b a c h e l o r s f o r i t p r o v i d e d s o c i a l companionship, d i s t r a c t i o n , e n t e r t a i n m e n t and, p e r h a p s , an i n v i t a t i o n t o d i n n e r a t a m a r r i e d f r i e n d ' s home. S p o r t s and o t h e r group a c t i v i t i e s a l s o o f f e r e d s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n f o r European women i n what was, i n ess e n c e , a 161 Chapter 5 c o n s t r a i n e d e x i s t e n c e . A d a p t a t i o n t o l i f e i n c o l o n i a l C e y l o n was a c h a l l e n g e f o r e x p a t r i a t e f e m a l e s , d e s p i t e the presence of s e r v a n t s and the amount of l e i s u r e time a v a i l a b l e . Indeed, i t was perhaps because of t h e s e f a c t o r s t h a t women found t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s were undermined and t h a t a sense of discomposure pervaded. The European women found i t d i f f i c u l t t o a d j u s t themselves t o a s o c i e t y i n which domestic work as a housewife was reg a r d e d as a sti g m a by the S i n h a l e s e and T a m i l s and a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the commercial l i f e of the town was not p e r m i t t e d ( Z e y l a n i c u s , 1970:144). E x p a t r i a t e females found an o u t l e t f o r t h e i r e n e r g i e s i n a c t i v i t i e s such as t e n n i s , g o l f , r i d i n g , d a n c i n g , b r i d g e , s o c i a l v i s i t s and c h a r i t a b l e work ( i b i d . ) . A l t h o u g h women were not p e r m i t t e d t o be members of many c l u b s , they were p e r m i t t e d t o use the f a c i l i t i e s . Thus, the c l u b and a c t i v i t i e s beyond the home were p a r t of the s o c i a l r e a l i t y of European women i n n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y C e y l o n . P l a n t e r s were another group t h a t formed an i m p o r t a n t p a r t of the e x p a t r i a t e community i n C e y l o n . They had an i n c r e a s i n g l y p i v o t a l r o l e i n the economy as the w e l f a r e of the c o l o n y came t o depend on p l a n t a t i o n c r o p s . In s p i t e of t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n as " i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c " and shunning the s o c i a l companionship of t h e i r f e l l o w s ( Z e y l a n i c u s , 1970:143), p l a n t e r s a l s o c o n g r e g a t e d a t c l u b s . They d i d not f r e q u e n t t h e i r c l u b s as o f t e n as t h e i r urban c o u n t e r p a r t s but they d i d 162 [ ' • • ' ' : • • • : • • •• • ' • • Chapter 5 not lack either amenities or a c t i v i t i e s (2). Their l i v e s involved both hard work and hard play. It was not uncommon to find c r i c k e t pitches, tennis courts and even swimming pools on estates. "An estate was a show piece which attracted v i s i t o r s and i t s s o c i a l l i f e was characterized by a variety unknown elsewhere in Ceylon" (Zeylanicus, 1970:144). Like their countrymen in other parts of the island, planters tended to favour team sports, both on their estates and at th e i r clubs. Pakeman notes that the planter's s o c i a l l i f e entailed "dropping in on each other — their neighbours were usually a few miles away - _ and a great feature of planter's l e i s u r e [were] v i s i t s to their clubs " (Pakeman, 1964:109). Weekly v i s i t s to the.club were the norm and in the h i l l country there were at least half a dozen large d i s t r i c t clubs and a number of smaller ones ( i b i d . ) . Like their urban counterparts, the clubs were s o c i a l and sporting in nature and excluded native Ceylonese ( i b i d . ) . Most had one special evening a week that involved dancing and entertainment ( i b i d . ) . The planters were a d i s t i n c t s o c i a l group in nineteenth century Ceylon and faced problems, and challenges that were unique to t h e i r occupation. Social gatherings and team sports, in addition to being relaxing, were an important means of exchanging information and enhancing their corporate i d e n t i t y . 163 Chapter. 5 In view of the p r e f e r e n c e of e x p a t r i a t e s i n C e y l o n f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s away from home and t h e i r a p p r e c i a t i o n of n a t u r e and s c e n i c v i e w s , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t Nuwara E l i y a came t o prominence i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . Nuwara E l i y a was w e l l s u i t e d t o the needs of the European community i n C e y l o n . B e f o r e the 1870s, t h e r e were few f a c i l i t i e s at. the h i l l - s t a t i o n . The H i l l C l u b had y e t t o be b u i l t . There was no g o l f c o u r s e and Lake Gregory was not completed u n t i l 1873. D e s p i t e the l a c k of . r e c r e a t i o n a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e , Nuwara E l i y a was a p o p u l a r s i t e among e x p a t r i a t e s . The h i l l - s t a t i o n o f f e r e d a p r o f u s i o n of l o v e l y v i ews w i t h " p i c t u r e s q u e w a t e r f a l l s of g r e a t beauty" (Cave, 1895:31). P r i o r t o the development of r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s a t Nuwara E l i y a , t he h i l l - s t a t i o n ' s g r e a t e s t a t t r a c t i o n was i t s n a t u r a l environment. T h i s was b o t h because of i t s resemblance t o B r i t a i n and because e x p a t r i a t e s were a b l e t o i n d u l g e i n f a v o r i t e p a s t i m e s such as r i d i n g , w a l k i n g , s k e t c h i n g , p i c n i c o u t i n g s and, f o r the sportsman, h u n t i n g . . The p h y s i c a l l a n d s c a p e of Nuwara E l i y a was c o n d u c i v e t o the study of " n a t u r a l h i s t o r y " , t a k i n g i n the views and b r e a t h i n g the a i r t h a t " i s as pure as a t S t . M o r i t z " ( S c o t t i n Cave, 1895:27). A l l of t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s took p l a c e i n a s e t t i n g t h a t had an added f a s c i n a t i o n f o r many e x p a t r i a t e s , o d d l y enough, because i t was f a m i l i a r t o them. Yet i t was 164 Chapter 5 a l s o " e x o t i c " because of i t s l o c a t i o n i n C e y l o n , seven degrees n o r t h of the equator (see Gordon-Cumming, 1893). The n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y B r i t i s h penchant f o r s a v o r i n g the v i e w s , e n j o y i n g walks and p i c n i c s , o b s e r v i n g the f l o r a and fauna found many o u t l e t s f o r e x p r e s s i o n a t Nuwara E l i y a . Nearby a r e the Hakgala Gardens, the government b o t a n i c gardens t h a t were e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1861. L o c a t e d a t 5400 f e e t e l e v a t i o n , a p l e a s a n t s i x m i l e r i d e from the h i l l - s t a t i o n , t he gardens were the "seat of e x p e r i m e n t s i n the a c c l i m a t i s a t i o n of p l a n t s from temperate l a n d s o u t s i d e the t r o p i c s and from the t r o p i c a l h e i g h t s of o t h e r c o u n t r i e s " (Cave, 1895:36). E x p a t r i a t e s c o u l d purchase many of the s e p l a n t s a t the Hakgala Garden n u r s e r i e s f o r use i n t h e i r gardens a t Nuwara E l i y a (Le M e s u r i e r , 1893:51). A c a r r i a g e d r i v e surrounded an ornamental garden and t h e r e were numerous paths w i t h s c e n e r y s u i t a b l e f o r s k e t c h i n g . One s i t e was e s p e c i a l l y f a v o r e d f o r p i c n i c b r e a k f a s t s because from i t c o u l d be seen a "mighty c r a g " t o w e r i n g 1600 f e e t above the gardens and beneath i t l a y ah "unbroken view of the u n d u l a t i n g p l a i n s of Ouva [Uva] s t r e t c h i n g f a r below" (Cave, 1895:36). Another p o p u l a r walk or r i d e was t o the summit of Mount P i d u r u t a l l a g a l l a , or Mount Pedro as i t was a f f e c t i o n a t e l y known by the e x p a t r i a t e community. Mt. Pedro i s the t a l l e s t peak on the i s l a n d a t 8,300.feet e l e v a t i o n , y e t i t s summit i s o n l y 2000 f e e t above the h i l l - s t a t i o n (Cave, 1910:160-1). The 165 Chapter 5 j o u r n e y t o the summit was f o u r m i l e s which took about two and a h a l f h o u r s . L a d i e s o f t e n p r e f e r r e d t o be c a r r i e d i n bamboo c h a i r s by c o o l i e s t o the t o p (Cave, 1905:225). The walk t o and from the peak would e n t a i l f r e q u e n t s t o p s t o c o l l e c t w i l d f l o w e r s . The views t h a t a w a i t e d the c l i m b e r a r e t h e s u b j e c t of much d i s c o u r s e i n the t r a v e l w r i t i n g s of the p e r i o d ( s e e , f o r example, Cave, 1895, 1912). Other s i t e s w i t h p i c t u r e s q u e views of w a t e r f a l l s and o t h e r l a n d s c a p e f e a t u r e s were p l e n t i f u l and were d e s c r i b e d f o r the newcomer t o Nuwara E l i y a i n many of the contemporary t r a v e l w r i t i n g s and guide books (see Burrows, 1899). The B r i t i s h i n C e y l o n sought t o make the r e c r e a t i o n a l l i f e of Nuwara E l i y a resemble as c l o s e l y as p o s s i b l e the r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s of a r e s o r t i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n c o u n t r y . T h e i r e f f o r t s i n c l u d e d the i m p o r t a t i o n of the equipment and o t h e r goods r e q u i r e d t o . d u p l i c a t e the r e c r e a t i o n a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e of t h e i r homeland. The p h y s i c a l -s p a t i a l environment was a l s o m o d i f i e d t o make i t more s u i t a b l e f o r B r i t i s h l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s . Fox h u n t i n g w i t h the use of hounds and h o r s e s i m p o r t e d from England was a p o p u l a r s p o r t (see Baker, 1883, 1884). One of the major a l t e r a t i o n s of the l a n d s c a p e was t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of Lake Gregory i n 1873 (Cave, 1895:50; H.de S i l v a , 1978:87). A c h i e v e d by c o n v e r t i n g a swamp ( 3 ) , the l a k e o c c u p i e s a s i t e c l o s e t o the town c e n t r e . Lake Gregory f a c i l i t a t e d b o a t i n g 166 Chapter 5 and encouraged the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the Nuwara E l i y a Boat C l u b w i t h i t s f r e q u e n t r e g a t t a s . In a d d i t i o n , f i s h i n g became one of the c h i e f a t t r a c t i o n s of t h e s t a t i o n (Government of C e y l o n , A p r i l 15, 1898). The l o c a l streams and the l a k e were s t o c k e d w i t h c a r p and t r o u t d e v e l o p e d from ova i m p o r t e d y e a r l y from England (Burrows, 1899:50; Cave, 1905; Ferguson and F e r g u s o n , 1877:55). A c a r r i a g e d r i v e s i x m i l e s i n l e n g t h embraced Lake Gregory and added t o the l o n g l i s t of p a t h s f o r w a l k i n g and r i d i n g . A l a t e r m o d i f i c a t i o n t o the p h y s i c a l environment of Nuwara E l i y a was the a d d i t i o n of the g o l f c o u r s e . Opened i n 1890 w i t h n i n e h o l e s , the c o u r s e was upgraded and expanded by a n o t h e r n i n e h o l e s i n 1893. A G o l f P a v i l i o n , b e l o n g i n g t o t h e Nuwara E l i y a G o l f C l u b , and c o n s i s t i n g of f i v e rooms o v e r l o o k i n g the l i n k s , was b u i l t i n 1892 (H. de S i l v a , 1978:89; Burrows, 1899:50) (see f i g u r e 5.1). G o l f was a y e a r - r o u n d a c t i v i t y and the c o u r s e was w i d e l y r e g a r d e d by e n t h u s i a s t s as "the b e s t .to be found i n the E a s t " (Burrows, 1899:50) (see f i g u r e 5.2). Indeed, some b e l i e v e d the c o u r s e t o be "the best g o l f l i n k out of S c o t l a n d " (Cave, 1895:50). The Nuwara E l i y a G o l f C l u b welcomed the temporary membership of male and female v i s i t o r s , p r o v i d e d they were recommended by two permanent members and p a i d the fee of two rupees per week ( i b i d . ) . The s t i p u l a t i o n t h a t temporary members be recommended by two permanent members i n d i c a t e s 167 Chapter 5 Figure 5.1: The Nuwara E l i y a Golf Club. (from Cave, 1912:497; used with permission) The photograph of the Nuwara E l i y a Golf Club shows native children, who acted as golf caddies, in the foreground. 168 Chapter 5 Chapter 5 that the s o c i a l network of the h i l l - s t a t i o n was exclusive. The membership requirement also suggests that the barr i e r s between the so c i a l classes were both defined and defended. Yet i t i s l i k e l y that given the r e s t r i c t e d size of the European community in Ceylon, an individual of the appropriate s o c i a l class seeking temporary membership would know at least two individuals who belonged to the Golf Club. If he or she did not, such a proviso encouraged him or her to become acquainted with permanent club members and thus, i n d i r e c t l y , i t served to promote s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . The H i l l Club was another members only f a c i l i t y in Nuwara E l i y a (4). B u i l t in 1872 as a club composed mainly of planters, i t became a bulwark of B r i t i s h culture and remains so even today. Morris describes i t as "a low, baronial sort of building with gardens a l l around i t " (1979:292). From the half-timber facade and mullioned windows to the mammoth fire p l a c e of the l i b r a r y , the H i l l Club offered an ambience that compared favorably with any Club in the metropolitan country. F a c i l i t i e s included tennis courts, a polo f i e l d , a b i l l i a r d room with hunting prints and boar's heads upon the walls, a dining room with linen tablecloths, and s i t t i n g rooms for r e t i r i n g to smoke a pipe, sip a cup of tea and converse with other members. Described as a "charming r e s i d e n t i a l club in the best s i t e in Nuwara E l i y a " ( E l l i o t t , 1937:71), the H i l l Club, had bedrooms available for members 170 Chapter 5 from out of town. That the c l u b was popular with hunters i s a t t e s t e d to by the numerous s e t s of a n t l e r s and s t u f f e d heads of deer, l e o p a r d and other animals upon the w a l l s , and the hollowed l e g o f an elephant that served as an umbrella stand at the entrance to the Club. The H i l l Club was the preeminent c l u b i n the h i l l r e g i on o u t s i d e of Kandy. As such, i t was an important nexus of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . The H i l l Club p r o v i d e d an i n v i t i n g s e t t i n g f o r p l a n t e r s to gather to s o c i a l i z e and conduct b u s i n e s s . Yet the membership was not e x c l u s i v e l y p l a n t e r s but i n c l u d e d c i v i l s e r v a n t s , persons engaged i n commerce and o t h e r s . Thus the H i l l Club was a place where p l a n t e r s c o u l d i n t e r a c t with non-planters and c i v i l s e r vants c o u l d meet i n d i v i d u a l s i n the p r i v a t e s e c t o r , as w e l l as m i s s i o n a r i e s , c l e r g y and members of the m i l i t a r y . Although i n Colombo and at other s t a t i o n s there might', be a tendency to l i m i t one's s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n to members of one's own occu p a t i o n , the H i l l Club encouraged broader f r a t e r n i z i n g . I t was here that the B r i t i s h gathered to enjoy the a c t i v i t i e s of the m e t r o p o l i t a n country, ensconced i n a s e t t i n g that was g r a t i f y i n g l y E n g l i s h . As an i n s t i t u t i o n , the H i l l Club f o s t e r e d a sense of c u l t u r a l s o l i d a r i t y amongst the B r i t i s h . W i t h i n i t s w a l l s , a member was not merely a p l a n t e r or a c i v i l servant but an Englishman. The H i l l Club was not the only r e c r e a t i o n a l and s p o r t i n g 171 Chapter 5 c l u b at the h i l l - s t a t i o n . There was a l s o the U n i t e d Club which admitted both male and female members. The c l u b was n e i t h e r as l a r g e nor as imposing as the H i l l C l ub.(see f i g u r e 5.3) but c o u l d boast of a l i b r a r y and reading room, g o l f l i n k s , croquet, lawn t e n n i s c o u r t s , a c r i c k e t p i t c h i n f r o n t of the clubhouse and, by the e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , i t possessed a ballroom and a concert h a l l (Burrows; I899:errata; Cave, 1912:507). L i k e the H i l l Club, the United Club was a l o c a l e f o r s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . The U n i t e d Club, however, o f f e r e d a f e a t u r e that the H i l l Club d i d not: the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r unmarried male and female e x p a t r i a t e s to i n t e r a c t on a r e g u l a r b a s i s . T h i s was e s p e c i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n the Ceylonese context where the B r i t i s h were o f t e n i s o l a t e d from one another i n remote areas, and unmarried E n g l i s h women were l e s s than p l e n t i f u l . The decade between 1870 and 1880 marked a t r a n s i t i o n i n the s o c i a l l i f e of Nuwara E l i y a . In a d d i t i o n to the i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a r i t y of the h i l l - s t a t i o n and perhaps because of i t , there was a s h i f t towards more f o r m a l i z e d s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s . P r i o r to t h i s p e r i o d , the r e c r e a t i o n a l pastimes a v a i l a b l e at the h i l l - s t a t i o n were l a r g e l y u n s t r u c t u r e d , r e q u i r i n g only a loose consensus among i n d i v i d u a l s to p a r t i c i p a t e . For example, p i c n i c s , nature walks or s k e t c h i n g c o u l d be undertaken i n small groups with a minimum of equipment and without s p e c i a l i z e d f a c i l i t i e s . As Nuwara E l i y a 172 Chapter 5 Figure 5.3: A cricket match at the United Club, Nuwara E l i y a . (from Cave, 1905:277; used with permission) 173 Chapter 5 became more popular and a c c e s s i b l e , there emerged a concomitant trend towards the formation of s o c i a l c l u b s with s p e c i a l i z e d f u n c t i o n s . These i n c l u d e d , as noted above, the H i l l Club, the Nuwara E l i y a G o l f Club, and the U n i t e d Club as w e l l as the Nuwara E l i y a C r i c k e t Club, Ceylon F i s h i n g Club, Nuwara E l i y a Boat Club, Nuwara E l i y a L a d i e s ' Club, and the Nuwara E l i y a Jymkhana Club (Burrows, 1899: x i i i , e r r a t a ; Cave, 1912:507). The emergence and development of c l u b s i s s i g n i f i c a n t f o r four reasons. F i r s t , the formation of c l u b s i n d i c a t e s that Nuwara E l i y a was e v o l v i n g i n t o a seasonal r e s o r t and away from i t s e a r l i e r - r o l e as a h e a l t h sanatorium. The landscape of the h i l l - s t a t i o n c o ntinued to be the major a t t r a c t i o n , however, i t was u t i l i z e d i n a d i f f e r e n t , l e s s p a s s i v e ^ way. Second, the development of c l u b s i s evidence that the h i l l - s t a t i o n a t t r a c t e d a r e t u r n crowd. Permanent membership in a Nuwara E l i y a c l u b was a committment to the h i l l - s t a t i o n . T h i r d , the formation of c l u b s suggests that Nuwara E l i y a ' s importance or s o c i o - c u l t u r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e to the B r i t i s h i n Ceylon had i n c r e a s e d s u f f i c i e n t l y by the 1870s to warrant the energy expended i n c r e a t i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g clubs.. Fourth, the Nuwara E l i y a s o c i a l c l u b s r e i n f o r c e d the bonds between members because of shared i n t e r e s t s and the r e c i p r o c a l o b l i g a t i o n s that c l u b membership e n t a i l e d . U l t i m a t e l y , s o c i a l c l u b s at the h i l l - s t a t i o n encouraged the 174 Chapter 5 c u l t u r a l c o h e s i o n of the B r i t i s h i n the c o l o n i a l c o n t e x t of C e y l o n . The Nuwara E l i y a Jymkhana C l u b was one of the c l u b s t h a t emerged i n the post-1870 p e r i o d . I n a u g u r a t e d i n A p r i l , 1873 (Ferguson and Ferguson, 1877:48) , the Nuwara E l i y a Jymkhana C l u b o r g a n i z e d the a n n u a l jymkhana, a week l o n g event t h a t i n c l u d e d h orse r a c e s and o t h e r e q u e s t r i a n e v e n t s , lawn t e n n i s matches, p i g e o n s h o o t i n g and s e v e r a l b a l l s (Cave, 1912:507; Weekly C e y l o n O b s e r v e r , March 6, 1883) (see f i g u r e s 5.4 and 5.5). The jymkhana q u i c k l y became one of the most p o p u l a r e v e n t s of the season and one of the most p o p u l a r jymkhanas on the i s l a n d . The jymkhana, a c c o r d i n g t o Cave, was " q u i t e the event of the y e a r " (Cave, 1895:58). Burrow termed i t a week of " h i g h l i v i n g " (Government of C e y l o n , March 2, 1898). A l l Colombo f l o c k s t o Nuwara E l i y a f o r the r a c e s , and the s p o r t i n g f e v e r extends even t o the l a d i e s , who v i e w i t h one a n o t h e r i n the l a t e s t P a r i s i a n c o n f e c t i o n s . . . . n o w h e r e i s t h e r e more fun crammed i n t o a s i n g l e week than amongst the g e n i a l s o c i e t y and v i v a c i o u s s p i r i t s t o be found i n Nuwara E l i y a d u r i n g the Jymkhana (Cave, 1895:58). • . D u r i n g the .jymkhana, the h i l l - s t a t i o n w a s . o v e r f l o w i n g w i t h Europeans from a l l over the i s l a n d ( 5 ) . The h o t e l s , c l u b s and bungalows were f u l l and many persons were f o r c e d t o t a k e accommodation o u t s i d e the s t a t i o n ; " d i s t a n c e s of twenty and t h i r t y m i l e s not b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d too g r e a t [ t o t r a v e l t o Nuwara E l i y a ] even when f o l l o w e d by a dance a t the end of the 175 Chapter 5 176 Chapter Figure 5.5: "Natives at the Jymkhana", Nuwara E l i y a . (from Cave, 1905:258; used with permission) The grandstand for the racetrack can be seen in the background. 1 7 7 Chapter 5 day" (Cave, 1912:507). . One of the major e v e n t s of the jymkhana was the horse r a c e s on the " w e l l l a i d out r a c e c o u r s e " (Cave, 1895:58) (see f i g u r e 5.5). The r a c e s were, however, r a t h e r "poor s p o r t " a c c o r d i n g t o the Weekly C e y l o n Observer c o r r e s p o n d e n t who w r o t e , "Animals the Nuwara E l i y a Jymkhana has seen year a f t e r year make t h e i r ' appearance b e f o r e the Grand Stand and when they were t r y i n g t o get over the ground, p e o p l e l o o k e d away and t a l k e d of other, m a t t e r s " (Weekly C e y l o n O b s e r v e r , A p r i l 9, 1883: 295). These d e f i c i e n c i e s d i d not d e t e r i n d i v i d u a l s from a t t e n d i n g the jymkhana, f o r t h e s o c i a l i z i n g and c a r e f r e e atmosphere of the event more than compensated f o r the i n a d e q u a c i e s of the a n i m a l s . The jymkhana was r e c o g n i z e d as h a v i n g a t h e r a p e u t i c e f f e c t , t o which H a m i l t o n and Fasson (1881) a l l u d e d i n t h e i r poem "The Jymkhana" (see appendix I ) . Ye. s a l l o w merchants of the F o r t (6) Come, p a t r o n i s e the n o b l e s p o r t (7) A f o r t n i g h t t o N e w ' r a i i y a ' s h i l l s I s worth a ton of .drugs and p i l l s -Jymkhana oh! I f t h e r e i s any v a l i d i t y t o t h e a s s e r t i o n t h a t the jymkhana was of t h e r a p e u t i c v a l u e i t can be a t t r i b u t e d t o the c o n t r a s t t h a t the e v e n t s and atmosphere of the jymkhana p r o v i d e d compared w i t h the workaday a t t i t u d e i n Colombo and o t h e r s t a t i o n s . The B r i t i s h were i n C e y l o n f o r a p u r p o s e , whether i t was f o r commerce or government. O v e r a l l , they 178 Chapter 5 were, c o n s c i o u s of a sense of duty and of t h e i r r o l e i n s e t t i n g an example of c i v i l i z e d conduct f o r the n a t i v e s of the i s l a n d (Gooneratne, 1968). As a r e s u l t , the b e h a v i o u r of the B r i t i s h was o f t e n c o n s t r a i n e d f o r i t was as i f they were always on stage and must be ever ready t o p l a y t h e i r r o l e (Woolf, 1975:24). A v i s i t t o Nuwara E l i y a and the jymkhana was a welcome r e l i e f , f o r t h e r e was l e s s of a need t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r personae b e f o r e the n a t i v e s . I f t h e r e i s any doubt t h a t the overwhelming s u c c e s s of the Nuwara E l i y a Jymkhana may be a t t r i b u t e d t o the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s o c i a l i z i n g and i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h o t h e r e x p a t r i a t e s , one need o n l y l o o k a t the a c t i v i t i e s t h a t o c c u r r e d . To be s u r e , t h e r e were s e r i o u s s p o r t s e v e n t s , such as the t e n n i s matches, t h a t a t t r a c t e d e n t h u s i a s t s (Government of C e y l o n , Feb. 16 t o 23, 1898). Ther.e were, however, o t h e r e v e n t s of a l e s s s e r i o u s n a t u r e . The "bumblepuppy jymkhana" i n v o l v e d a " d r i v i n g r a c e of geckoes ( 8 ) , p o r c u p i n e s and a l l manner of q u a i n t a n i m a l s " (Cave, 1905:276). The event was v e r y p o p u l a r among female e x p a t r i a t e s . The d i v e r s i t y of a c t i v i t i e s d u r i n g the jymkhana ensured t h a t the event would a p p e a l t o a wide range of i n d i v i d u a l p r e f e r e n c e s w i t h i n the e x p a t r i a t e community. A f u r t h e r example of p o p u l a r s o c i a l p a s t i m e s a t the jymkhana were the numerous b a l l s . D u r i n g the jymkhana of 1883, t h e r e were t h r e e dances i n c l u d i n g an "impromptu dance", 1 79 Chapter 5 a " F a n c y - d r e s s " b a l l and the "Race b a l l " (Weekly C e y l o n  O b s e r v e r , A p r i l 9, 1883:295). The Fancy Dress Assembly was the " m e r r i e s t " w i t h 120 persons a t t e n d i n g ( i b i d . : 2 9 0 ) . The Weekly C e y l o n Observer c o r r e s p o n d e n t wrote e f f u s i v e l y , "The d r e s s e s were w i t h o u t doubt not o n l y v e r y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c and t a s t e f u l , but s p l e n d i d and b e w i l d e r i n g i n appearance" ( i b i d . ) . " F l o a t i n g . . . t o the s t r a i n s of the most d e l i g h t f u l m u sic" were women d r e s s e d as Peacock, Carmen, Queen E l i z a b e t h , H y p a t i a , a.Wimbledon costume and B l a c k and White ( i b i d . ) . The men c o u l d be seen i n costumes r e p r e s e n t i n g an Afghan, Napoleon, a B e e f e a t e r , a c h e f , W i l l i a m T e l l and C o n s u l d r e s s ( i b i d . ) . Nuwara E l i y a p r o v i d e d a m i l i e u where s o c i a l p a s t i m e s p o p u l a r i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n s o c i e t y c o u l d be s u c c e s s f u l l y t r a n s f e r r e d t o the c o l o n i a l e nvironment. The s o c i a l e v e n t s a t Nuwara E l i y a d u r i n g the season, i n c l u d i n g the Jymkhana, were s i g n i f i c a n t f o r two r e a s o n s . F i r s t , f o r the d u r a t i o n of t h e i r s t a y i n Nuwara E l i y a , i n d i v i d u a l s c o u l d behave as i f they had r e t u r n e d t o B r i t a i n . T h i s s e r v e d t o r e i n f o r c e t h e i r c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y and t o a c t as a balm t o soothe the p a i n s of homesickness. Second, the s o c i a l e v e n t s a t Nuwara E l i y a b o l s t e r e d the morale of e x p a t r i a t e s and a l s o f o s t e r e d s o c i a l t i e s between i n d i v i d u a l s . The c o m b i n a t i o n of r e i n f o r c e d c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y , temporary a l l e v i a t i o n of homesickness, h e i g h t e n e d morale and improved i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s enhanced the 180 Chapter 5 a b i l i t y of the B r i t i s h t o p e r f o r m t h e i r r o l e s w i t h i n the c o l o n i a l c o n t e x t . One of the most s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s of a s o j o u r n a t Nuwara E l i y a was t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l c o u l d emerge w i t h a g r e a t e r sense of b e i n g a p a r t of the whole — of b e i n g a p a r t i c i p a n t i n the p r o c e s s of Empire. P a r t of the a p p e a l t o e x p a t r i a t e s of the jymkhana and o t h e r e v e n t s d u r i n g the season was the s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y the i n t e r a c t i o n among unmarr i e d males and f e m a l e s . As noted above, i n Ce y l o n the number of un m a r r i e d B r i t i s h males exceeded the number of unmarr i e d E n g l i s h women, which was the r e v e r s e of the s i t u a t i o n i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n c o u n t r y . Thus, u n m a r r i e d E n g l i s h males s e e k i n g a b r i d e would o f t e n have t o r e t u r n t o B r i t a i n . Lack of female companionship, the remote l o c a t i o n of many o u t s t a t i o n s .which made meeting p o t e n t i a l mates d i f f i c u l t and the i n c o n v e n i e n c e and expense of r e t u r n i n g home t o marry, made Nuwara E l i y a i d e a l l y s u i t e d t o assume the r o l e of a meeting p l a c e f o r p o t e n t i a l spouses. Nuwara E l i y a a l s o a p p e a l e d t o females d e s i r i n g a husband. H a m i l t o n and Fasson o f f e r e d t h e i r o b s e r v a t i o n of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n a t a Nuwara E l i y a dance. U n l i k e l i f e i n B r i t a i n : Here the n a t u r a l o r d e r of t h i n g s i s r e v e r s e d -Ten "Beaux" s i m u l t a n e o u s l y r u s h a t a " B e l l e " -E n t r e a t i n g , b e s e e c h i n g , where none but the f i r s t Can escape a r e f u s a l and snubbing as w e l l ( H a m i l t o n and Fas s o n , 1881). H a m i l t o n and Fasson's humorous d e s c r i p t i o n s a t i r i z e s the dilemma of unmarried European males i n C e y l o n . Gordon-181 Chapter 5 Cumming's w r i t i n g s convey a somewhat d i f f e r e n t i m p r e s s i o n of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n a t the h i l l - s t a t i o n . In Two Happy Years i n C e y l o n , she d e s c r i b e d the s o c i a l l i f e of Nuwara E l i y a d u r i n g the jymkhana: Nowhere have I ever met a whole community so t h o r o u g h l y g e n i a l and h e a r t y , or i n which the a f f e c t i o n of b l a s e - n e s s i s so t o t a l l y unknown. As f o r any womenfolk a t t e m p t i n g t o p l a y the dowagers, the t h i n g was i m p o s s i b l e ; f o r so many of thes e e x - B r i t o n s had r i d d e n t h i r t y or f o r t y m i l e s on purpose f o r a dance, t h a t t h e y would dance w i t h one another r a t h e r than s i t o u t , so, under such c i r c u m s t a n c e s , f e m i n i n e i n d o l e n c e would have been downright s e l f i s h n e s s (Gordon-Cumming, 1893:143). As a r e s o r t and l o c a l e f o r s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n , Nuwara E l i y a p erformed an i m p o r t a n t r o l e . W i t h the p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n of Colombo, d u r i n g the season from December t o May, Nuwara E l i y a a t t r a c t e d a g r e a t e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n of European females than any o t h e r s t a t i o n i n C e y l o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , e x p a t r i a t e s of both sexes came from a l l p a r t s of Ceylon t o con g r e g a t e a t the h i l l - s t a t i o n . L i k e Colombo and Kandy, Nuwara E l i y a was one of the c e n t r a l g a t h e r i n g p l a c e s f o r the B r i t i s h i n C e y l o n (see W r i g h t , 1951; Bremer, 1 9 3 0 ) ( 9 ) . P i c k e n s i n d i c a t e s t h a t Nuwara E l i y a was second o n l y t o Colombo as meeting p l a c e f o r p l a n t e r s (1964:141). In c o n t r a s t t o Colombo and Kandy, Nuwara E l i y a o f f e r e d a venue i n which e x p a t r i a t e s c o u l d meet one a n o t h e r i n a s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l environment t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e d t h a t of the m e t r o p o l i t a n c o u n t r y . Thus, f o r the 182 Chapter 5 B r i t i s h i n C e y l o n , Nuwara E l i y a had a preponderance of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t were most c o n d u c i v e t o r e l a x e d s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . A l t h o u g h the s o c i a l atmosphere of Nuwara E l i y a was r e l a x e d i n comparison w i t h Colombo or the major I n d i a n h i l l -s t a t i o n s such as S i m l a or D a r j e e l i n g , s o c i a l p r e t e n s i o n s were not a b s e n t . L i k e i t s B r i t i s h a n t e c e d e n t s , the spa and l a t e r the s e a s i d e r e s o r t , Nuwara E l i y a met the needs of i t s v i s i t o r s f o r s t a t u s v a l i d a t i o n and s o c i a l d i s p l a y . The w r i t i n g s of Constance Gordon-Cumming suggest t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s r e i n f o r c e d t h e i r s o c i a l s t a t u s t h r o u g h consumer goods t h a t s y m b o l i z e d t a s t e f u l consumption. She wrote, " I t r e a l l y i s e x t r a o r d i n a r y t o see what t r o u b l e p e o p l e do g i v e t h e m s e l v e s , even i n P a r a d i s e , t o keep up w i t h the changes of the v e r y l a t e s t f a s h i o n s ~ a l l the newest P a r i s i a n m i l l i n e r y , d r e s s e s from Worth, and k i d g l o v e s f r e s h by e v e r y m a i l ! " (Gordon-Cumming, 1893:146). Nuwara E l i y a o f f e r e d m y r i a d o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s o c i a l d i s p l a y and i n t e r a c t i o n f o r those who wished both t o see and be seen. D e s p i t e the l a c k of assembly rooms ( 1 0 ) , the r a c e c o u r s e , t h e c l u b s , the b a l l s , and p a r t i e s , the t h e a t r i c s , s p o r t i n g e v e n t s and even a t t e n d a n c e a t c h u r c h were but a s m a l l s e l e c t i o n of the p o t e n t i a l o c c a s i o n s f o r s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n (Government of C e y l o n , May 21, 1898). Nuwara E l i y a p o s s e s s e d a d i s t i n c t advantage over Colombo f o r such p u r p o s e s . As i n Colombo, one 183 Chapter 5 c o u l d i n t e r a c t w i t h a d i v e r s e group of i n d i v i d u a l s i n a v a r i e t y of c i r c u m s t a n c e s but the c o n d i t i o n s i n Nuwara E l i y a most c l o s e l y resembled th o s e p r e v a l e n t i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n c o u n t r y . Nuwara E l i y a was a l s o w e l l s u i t e d t o the r e c r e a t i o n a l and s o c i a l needs of female e x p a t r i a t e s i n C e y l o n . At the h i l l - s t a t i o n , l e s s i n h i b i t e d by the presence of n a t i v e s and surrounded by a lan d s c a p e t h a t resembled E n g l a n d , B r i t i s h women c o u l d p a r t a k e i n the a c t i v i t i e s t h a t were p o p u l a r i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n c o u n t r y i n the l a t e - V i c t o r i a n p e r i o d . These a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e d t e n n i s , c r o q u e t , a r c h e r y and g o l f , as w e l l as n a t u r e walks and s k e t c h i n g (Government of C e y l o n , J a n . 2, 1896; D u t t o n , 1954,169). C h a r i t y r e l a t e d e v e n t s were a l s o a p o p u l a r pastime ( 1 1 ) . The w r i t i n g s of Constance Gordon-Cumming r e v e a l the a c t i v i t i e s of an u p p e r - c l a s s female d u r i n g her s t a y a t the h i l l - s t a t i o n . D u r i n g the Season, she n o t e s , "a most ch e e r y s o c i a l l i f e i s kept up, p i c n i c s and r a c e s , games, b a l l s , and d i n n e r p a r t i e s e n l i v e n i n g both day and n i g h t " (GOrdon-Cumming, 1893:143). A t y p i c a l day f o r Gordon-Cumming o f t e n began b e f o r e dawn when she went out s k e t c h i n g . She would r e t u r n home f o r lu n c h e o n , d e p a r t a f t e r w a r d s t o watch some games, a t t e n d a d i n n e r and dance u n t i l two o ' c l o c k the f o l l o w i n g morning and be out s k e t c h i n g a g a i n by s i x a.m.. Another day i n c l u d e d a walk t o Mount Pedro t o p i c k f l o w e r s and a walk a c r o s s a m o o n l i t p l a i n a t 184 Chapter 5 f o u r a.m. f o l l o w i n g a d i n n e r p a r t y ( i b i d . : 1 4 4 ) . Nuwara E l i y a met the s o c i a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l needs of European women i n C e y l o n because the temperate environment of the h i l l - s t a t i o n e n a b l e d the women t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a range of a c t i v i t i e s t h a t were p r o h i b i t e d by the heat of the low-l y i n g a r e a s . F u r t h e r , Nuwara E l i y a o f f e r e d the promise of the s o c i a l c ompanionship of o t h e r e x p a t r i a t e females i n a c o n g e n i a l and o f t e n f e s t i v e atmosphere.. Nuwara E l i y a was e n t i c i n g because i t p r o v i d e d an o u t l e t f o r the e n e r g i e s of European women i n the c o l o n y , w h i l e a t the same time p r o v i d i n g a v i a b l e s u b s t i t u t e f o r Engl a n d . The emergence of Nuwara E l i y a as a h e a l t h s a n a t a r i u m - . cum-seascnal r e s o r t r e f l e c t e d the r e c r e a t i o n a l p r e f e r e n c e s p r e v a l e n t i n B r i t a i n d u r i n g the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . L i k e the E n g l i s h spas and l a t e r the c o a s t a l r e s o r t s , Nuwara E l i y a o f f e r e d c l e a n a i r and pure water t h a t were c o n s i d e r e d t o be b e n e f i c i a l . The h i l l - s t a t i o n a l s o p o s s e s s e d the c e n t r a l m eeting p l a c e s and l o c a l e s t h a t were r o u g h l y e q u i v a l e n t t o the "Parade" and the "Promenade" and c e r t a i n l y p r o v i d e d ample o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p e r s o n a l d i s p l a y and s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . A l t h o u g h the r o o t s of the h i l l - s t a t i o n can be t r a c e d t o the m e t r o p o l i t a n c o u n t r y , Nuwara E l i y a was an a d a p t a t i o n t o t h e c o l o n i a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s of C e y l o n . Nuwara E l i y a ' s e n d u r i n g s u c c e s s and i t s w i d e s p r e a d p o p u l a r i t y a r e e v i d e n c e t h a t the h i l l - s t a t i o n met the r e c r e a t i o n a l needs of the 185 Chapter 5 e x p a t r i a t e community. In the c o l o n i a l s e t t i n g t h e r e was a pronounced need t o r e i n f o r c e c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y , t o be d i s t r a c t e d from the burdens of Empire and t o a l l e v i a t e the sense of homesickness. A temperate c l i m a t e , an a c c e s s i b l e l o c a t i o n and an environment t h a t c a l l e d t o mind the l o v e l i e s t l a n d s c a p e s of B r i t a i n , c o n t r i b u t e d t o the s u c c e s s of Nuwara E l i y a . However, much of Nuwara E l i y a ' s s u c c e s s as a h i l l -s t a t i o n must be a t t r i b u t e d t o B r i t i s h e f f o r t s t o a l t e r t h a t l a n d s c a p e . Not s a t i s f i e d w i t h p r e t t y views and temperate f l o r a , the B r i t i s h imposed the r e c r e a t i o n a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e of t h e i r homeland upon a s m a l l p l a i n i n the u p l a n d s of C e y l o n . The c l u b s , the race c o u r s e , the g o l f c o u r s e , Lake Gregory, the t e n n i s c o u r t s , the E n g l i s h h u n t i n g hounds and the i m p o r t e d t r o u t i n the streams t e s t i f y t o the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the B r i t i s h i n C e y l o n t o mold an a l i e n environment i n the image of a faraway l a n d . SUMMARY The c h a p t e r d i s c u s s e d the r e c r e a t i o n a l and l e i s u r e p r e f e r e n c e s of the B r i t i s h i n C e y l o n . The l e i s u r e p r e f e r e n c e s of the B r i t i s h i n C e y l o n r e f l e c t t h e i r E n g l i s h h e r i t a g e , y e t a r e not i d e n t i c a l t o t h o s e of t h e i r c o m p a t r i o t s a t Home. T h i s c h a p t e r has argued t h a t Nuwara E l i y a was w e l l s u i t e d t o the r e c r e a t i o n a l needs of e x p a t r i a t e s i n the c o l o n i a l c o n t e x t of C e y l o n . As i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n s o c i e t y , e x p a t r i a t e s e n j o y e d team s p o r t s , " h o l i d a y s " i n v o l v i n g t r a v e l away from home — 186 Chapter 5 often to s i t e s with scenic views and clean a i r , as well as b a l l s and fetes that provided opportunities for personal display and status v a l i d a t i o n . In the c o l o n i a l context, however, there were also additional needs/These included the need to escape the heat and humidity of the lowlands, a need to reinforce c u l t u r a l identity and to d i s t r a c t expatriates from the pressures of l i f e that resulted from l i v i n g in and r u l i n g over a foreign culture, and, perhaps most important, the need to find an adequate substitute for B r i t a i n . Nuwara E l i y a , with i t s temperate environment and accessible locale, offered expatriates a suitable setting for. their l e i s u r e pastimes, and a landscape which could be transformed into an English v i l l a g e . 187 Chapter 5 ENDNOTES (1) P r i o r : t o the use of s t e a m s h i p s , the j o u r n e y t o Ceylon from B r i t a i n by s h i p i n the 1830s took t h r e e t o f o u r months. Wi t h the i n t r o d u c t i o n of steamships on t h a t r o u t e i n 1841, the l e n g t h of the j o u r n e y was reduced t o f o u r t o f i v e weeks. W i t h the opening of the Suez C a n a l i n 1869, a t r i p by steam s h i p from B r i t a i n t o Ce y l o n took o n l y t h r e e weeks ( Z e y l a n i c u s , 1970:115). (2) At l e a s t one o b s e r v e r would d i s a g r e e w i t h t h i s assessment. Matheson (1870:176) d e s c r i b e d the p l a n t e r ' s l i f e as b e i n g h a r d and c o m f o r t l e s s . He c i t e d t he p l a n t e r ' s bungalow as e v i d e n c e of t h i s . E x t e r n a l l y , the d w e l l i n g was a t t r a c t i v e but the i n t e r i o r was most o f t e n bare and p l a i n . A l s o , p l a n t e r s had t o cont e n d w i t h h a r d s h i p s on a d a i l y b a s i s , such as the d i f f i c u l t i e s e n c o u n t e r e d i n t r a n s p o r t i n g goods. (3) The c o n s t r u c t i o n of Lake Gregory was, a c c o r d i n g t o Governor S i r W i l l i a m G r e g o r y , one of h i s e a r l i e s t u n d e r t a k i n g s as go v e r n o r . Upon w i t n e s s i n g the swamp-like c o n d i t i o n s of the p l a i n , he recommended t h a t a l a k e be c r e a t e d by an embankment. The l a k e i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y a m i l e i n l e n g t h and h a l f a m i l e i n w i d t h (Cave, 1895:50). E v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s t h a t Gregory was not the f i r s t p erson t o c o n c e i v e of the i d e a f o r a l a k e a t Nuwara E l i y a . D u r i n g h i s f i r s t v i s i t t o the h i l l - s t a t i o n i n A p r i l , 1872, Gregory e n c o u n t e r e d a s u r v e y o r c o n d u c t i n g a su r v e y f o r a l a k e ( C e y l o n O v e r l a n d  O b s e r v e r , May 6 , 1 8 7 2 ) . (4) The H i l l C l u b s ' membership was r e s t r i c t e d t o the " s t e r n e r sex" as Henry Cave termed i t (Cave, 1910:165). Women were a b l e t o a t t e n d c l u b f u n c t i o n s but were not g r a n t e d membership. N a t i v e C e y l o n e s e were e x c l u d e d and as of 1965, "the H i l l C l u b s t i l l had not a d m i t t e d a s i n g l e C eylonese t o membership" ( M o r r i s , 1979:293). (5) The v a r i e t y of i n d i v i d u a l s who a t t e n d e d the jymkhana i s a l l u d e d t o by A.G.A. Burrows. He wrote i n h i s d i a r y t h a t o n l y one e x t r a c o n s t a b l e was n e c e s s a r y d u r i n g the jymkhana of 1898. D e s p i t e the "mass of s t r a n g e r s , temporary s e r v a n t s , and d o u b t f u l c h a r a c t e r s t h a t c o l l e c t here d u r i n g the season, the cri m e r e c o r d of the town i s remarkably s a t i s f a c t o r y " (Government of C e y l o n , May 19,1898). (6) " F o r t " i s a r e f e r e n c e t o the commercial d i s t r i c t of Colombo which was f o r m e r l y a f o r t . The w a l l s were d e m o l i s h e d i n 1869 and the moat was f i l l e d w i t h e a r t h i n 1871 (Ferguson and Ferguson, 1877:42). 188 Chapter 5 (7) h o r s e r a c i n g (8) Harmless n a t i v e l i z a r d s of t h r e e t o f i v e i n c h e s i n l e n g t h . (9) See T.Y. W r i g h t ' s (1951) C e y l o n i n my t i m e . 1889-1949. H i s book, a stream of c o n s c i o u s n e s s a u t o b i o g r a p h y , was i n t e n d e d t o be read by e x p a t r i a t e s who had r e s i d e d i n C e y l o n . I t o f f e r s , however, an i n t e r e s t i n g g l i m p s e of C e y l o n i n the l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . He does not d i s c u s s Nuwara E l i y a d i r e c t l y but makes s e v e r a l r e f e r e n c e s t o e v e n t s a t the h i l l -s t a t i o n i n p a s s i n g . H i s w r i t i n g i s s i g n i f i c a n t because i t documents the importance of Nuwara E l i y a v i s - a - v i s s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n i n the c o l o n y . Wright r e f e r s t o weddings, p a r t i e s t h a t t o o k . p l a c e t h e r e and a p l a n t e r who r e t i r e d t o the h i l l -s t a t i o n . Mounsteven Bremer's Memoirs of a Ceylon p l a n t e r ' s t r a v e l s  1851 t o 1921 (1930) i s s i m i l a r t o W r i g h t ' s account of l i f e i n C e y l o n . Bremer was a member of the H i l l C l u b and l a t e r i t s s e c r e t a r y (Bremer, 1930:84). H i s w r i t i n g s u g g e s t s the importance of Nuwara E l i y a t o the p l a n t i n g community and the i n t e g r a t i o n of the h i l l - s t a t i o n i n t o the s o c i a l network of c o l o n i a l C e y l o n . (10) On March 11, 1895, A s s i s t a n t Government Agent H. White noted i n h i s d i a r y e n t r y , e n t i t l e d "Want of Assembly Rooms i n Nuwara E l i y a " : "I v e n t i l a t e d the s u b j e c t of c o n v e r t i n g the L o c a l Board room i n t o the semblance of Assembly Rooms by ad d i n g a wing f o r a Supper room e t c . i n case of a dance. A l l the members approved and w i t h o u t t a k i n g any f o r m a l r e s o l u t i o n s we d e c i d e d t o get a p l a n and e s t i m a t e so t h a t the work might be taken i n hand e a r l y i n 1896" (Government of C e y l o n , March 11, 1895). (11) • P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c h a r i t y a c t i v i t i e s was not l i m i t e d t o fe m a l e s . A.G.A. L u s h i n g t o n noted i n h i s d i a r y e n t r y f o r December 21, 1895 t h a t " In the a f t e r n o o n [ I ] a t t e n d e d a Fancy Bazaar i n the L o c a l Board Room ' f o r a c h a r i t a b l e o b j e c t ' and a i d e d i n f l e e c i n g o t h e r s and g e t t i n g f l e e c e d m y s e l f ! A l l the b e a u t i f u l ' f a s h i o n ' of Nuwara E l i y a was t h e r e , but u n f o r t u n a t e l y i t was a v e r y wet a f t e r n o o n " (Government of C e y l o n , Dec. 21, 1895). 189 CHAPTER 6: NUWARA ELIYA AS A SURROGATE BRITAIN: An a n a l y s i s of n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y t r a v e l w r i t i n g s In a t t e m p t i n g t o u n d e r s t a n d why the E n g l i s h l a n d s c a p e was r e c r e a t e d a t Nuwara E l i y a , i t i s e s s e n t i a l t o examine the f a c t o r s t h a t m o t i v a t e d B r i t i s h e x p a t r i a t e s t o c r e a t e "a home away from home". D i a r i e s and a c c o u n t s of B r i t i s h t r a v e l l e r s and r e s i d e n t s i n Ceylon d u r i n g the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y o f f e r some i n s i g h t i n t o t h i s q u e s t i o n . The w r i t i n g s of i n d i v i d u a l s who r e c o r d e d t h e i r i m p r e s s i o n s of Nuwara E l i y a a r e s i g n i f i c a n t f o r two r e a s o n s . F i r s t , such w r i t i n g s p r o v i d e a u s e f u l h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d of e v e n t s of the day. Second, t r a v e l w r i t i n g s , d i a r i e s and l e t t e r s r e v e a l an i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r c e p t i o n s and a t t i t u d e s . In the case of Nuwara E l i y a , h i s t o r i c a l w r i t i n g s i n d i c a t e a t t i t u d e s towards the l a n d s c a p e . By c o n d u c t i n g a c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s of n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y w r i t i n g s on Nuwara E l i y a , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o a s s e s s the f e a t u r e s or a t t r i b u t e s of the town t h a t a p p e a l e d t o B r i t i s h e x p a t r i a t e s and t r a v e l l e r s . The r e s u l t of such an a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t Nuwara E l i y a s e r v e d an im p o r t a n t f u n c t i o n as a " s u r r o g a t e B r i t a i n " . C l i m a t e , l a n d s c a p e , a r c h i t e c t u r e and s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s t h a t resembled a s p e c t s of t h e i r homeland c o n t r i b u t e d t o the p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l a p p e a l of the h i l l - s t a t i o n . V i s i t s t o Nuwara E l i y a by B r i t i s h e x p a t r i a t e s were a means of a l l e v i a t i n g homesickness and overcoming a p r o f o u n d sense of i s o l a t i o n from t h e i r 190 Chapter 6 mother c o u n t r y . The c h a p t e r examines Nuwara E l i y a as an e x p r e s s i o n of r o m a n t i c i s m which was m a n i f e s t t h r o u g h p i c t u r e s q u e l a n d s c a p e i d e a l s t h a t were p o p u l a r amongst the B r i t i s h upper and m i d d l e c l a s s e s d u r i n g the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . The p i c t u r e s q u e environment was one i n which Nature was r e v e r e d but i t was a Nature subdued by humans, p r o d u c i n g a "tamed and i n h a b i t e d , warm, c o m f o r t a b l e , humanized" c o u n t r y s i d e (Lowenthal and P r i n c e , 1965:190). T h i s i s f o l l o w e d by an e x a m i n a t i o n of n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y w r i t i n g s of B r i t i s h t r a v e l l e r s and e x p a t r i a t e s who v i s i t e d or r e s i d e d a t Nuwara E l i y a . The c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s of t h i s l i t e r a t u r e d e t e r m i n e s the a s p e c t s of Nuwara E l i y a t h a t were emphasized by i n d i v i d u a l w r i t e r s , i n an e f f o r t t o e s t a b l i s h the degree t o which a t t i t u d e s towards Nuwara E l i y a were h e l d i n common. The c h a p t e r a l s o a s s e s s e s changes i n the t r a v e l w r i t i n g s on Nuwara E l i y a over time as a r e f l e c t i o n . o f the e v o l u t i o n of the s e t t l e m e n t and a t t i t u d e s towards i t . NUWARA ELIYA AS A PICTURESQUE LANDSCAPE The Romantic movement, from which p i c t u r e s q u e l a n d s c a p e i d e a l s emerged, had i t s o r i g i n s i n the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , though i t s most f l u e n t e x p r e s s i o n was i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . Romanticism was a r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t the r a t i o n a l i s m of the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , a " c r i t i q u e of the inadequacy of what i t h e l d to be E n l i g h t e n m e n t a b s t r a c t i o n s and t e n d e n c i e s " 191 Chapter 6 ( H a l s t e d , 1969:11). The Romantic movement was: the r e b e l l i o n of f e e l i n g a g a i n s t i n t e l l e c t , of s u b j e c t i v i s m and r e l i g i o s i t y a g a i n s t o b j e c t i v i s m and s c i e n c e , of the i n d i v i d u a l a g a i n s t s o c i e t y , of i m a g i n a t i o n and p o e t r y a g a i n s t r e a l i t y and p r o s e , of n a t u r e a g a i n s t c i v i l i z a t i o n , of myth a g a i n s t h i s t o r y , and f i n a l l y of democracy a g a i n s t the a r i s t o c r a c y and the e l i t e . The r o m antic movement was f i n a l l y , the r e v o l t of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , the age of p o e t s , a g a i n s t the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , the age of p h i l o s o p h e r s ( L e s n i k o w s k i , 1982:148). Romanticism r e j e c t e d the s t e r i l i t y of r a t i o n a l i s t p e r c e p t i o n s and a f f i r m e d the importance of "emotion and i m a g i n a t i o n " ( C l a r k , 1965:89). The e x t e r n a l w o r l d was i m p o r t a n t o n l y i n s o f a r as i t p r o v i d e d a m i r r o r i n which t o examine the i n t e r n a l w o r l d of the h e a r t . The "motions of the h e a r t " were apt t o be " c o n s i d e r e d t o be of g r e a t e r v a l i d i t y and i n t e r e s t than what may be c a l l e d the motions of the head...reason" ( i b i d . ) . . The r o l e of the i n d i v i d u a l was e l e v a t e d and out of t h i s r e g a r d f o r the i n d i v i d u a l , came a r e s p e c t f o r the i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r c e p t i o n s , i n t u i t i o n , f e e l i n g s and emotions. There d e v e l o p e d a " c u l t of the h e a r t " f o r the h e a r t was " h e l d t o be a sour c e of knowledge, the l o c a t i o n of i n n a t e i d e a s " ( H a l s t e d , 1969:13). By means of i n t u i t i o n and the i m a g i n a t i o n , the i n d i v i d u a l "might apprehend the e s s e n t i a l r e a l i t y " ( i b i d . ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , a c t i o n s caused by "pure emotions came t o be g l o r i f i e d i r r e s p e c t i v e of the 192 Chapter 6 consequences" ( i b i d . : 1 4 ) . As a r e s u l t of the emphasis on e m o t i o n s , t h e r e emerged a p r e f e r e n c e f o r l a n d s c a p e s and e n v i r onments which encouraged " p r i v a t e r e v e r i e , m e l a n c h o l y i n t r o s p e c t i o n , and the c o n t e m p l a t i o n of the o v e r f l o w i n g h e a r t " (Hugo, 1965:34). Nature was v e n e r a t e d by the r o m a n t i c s , who c o n s i d e r e d i t " p r i m a r i l y i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o man, and more s p e c i f i c a l l y t o t h e m s e l v e s " ( F u r s t , 1979:88). By a d m i r i n g or r e f l e c t i n g upon "the w o r l d a p a r t from man's achievements, the l a n d s c a p e and the c o u n t r y s i d e , the sea and the mountains", the i n d i v i d u a l was a b l e t o a c h i e v e " u n i t y w i t h , and submergence i n , n a t u r e " (Hugo, 1965:34; Jo n e s , 1961:134). By p e r m i t t i n g t h e i r i m a g i n a t i o n s t o c o n t e m p l a t e the beauty and i n t r i c a c y of the n a t u r a l environment, a person e n t e r e d the domain of the s e n s e s . Through e x p e r i e n c i n g and i n t e r p r e t i n g n a t u r e , an i n d i v i d u a l c o u l d b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d h i s / h e r own t r u e n a t u r e . In the same manner t h a t Nature became i d e a l i z e d , so too d i d the p a s t . The h i s t o r y of a p l a c e , such as B r i t a i n , was g l o r i f i e d , "the p a s t was r e v i s i t e d w i t h a new z e a l and n e c e s s i t y " (Hugo, 1965:33). A new v i s i o n of n a t i o n a l i s m emerged, the "deepened i m a g i n a t i v e c o n c e p t i o n of the s i g n i f i c a n t p a s t and p e c u l i a r i d e n t i t y of a p a r t i c u l a r n a t i o n " ( C l a r k , 1965:90). For e x p a t r i a t e s r e s i d i n g i n C e y l o n , t h i s sense of c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y assumed an a d d i t i o n a l i n t e n s i t y . The i d e a of B r i t a i n , p a s t and p r e s e n t , was 193 Chapter 6 g l o r i f i e d f o r i t became a means of r e t a i n i n g p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y i n an a l i e n s e t t i n g . The l a n d s c a p e of Nuwara E l i y a was a l i n k w i t h t h a t i d e a l i z e d image of B r i t a i n . L owenthal and P r i n c e have s t a t e d t h a t " l a n d s c a p e s a r e formed by l a n d s c a p e t a s t e s " (1965:186). In the case of Nuwara E l i y a , l a n d s c a p e p r e f e r e n c e s c l e a r l y f a v o r e d t h e p i c t u r e s q u e and the p a s t o r a l ; a l a n d s c a p e t h a t was c o n t r i v e d t o evoke images of Home and t o p l a y upon the emotions of the s p e c t a t o r . Indeed, e x p a t r i a t e s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of the l a n d s c a p e of Nuwara E l i y a were unabashedly s e n t i m e n t a l . I t was t h i s a s p e c t of Nuwara E l i y a t h a t a p p e a l e d so s t r o n g l y and so c o n s i s t e n t l y over time t o e x p a t r i a t e s i n C e y l o n . Other l o c a l e s i n C e y l o n might have resembled a l u s h p a r a d i s e , but none c o u l d match the l u r e of Nuwara E l i y a . As noted below, and documented by the A s s i s t a n t Government A g e n t s , Nuwara E l i y a was not w i t h o u t i t s f a u l t s . However, n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y w r i t e r s d i d not seek t o c a t a l o g u e the d e f i c i e n c i e s of the h i l l - s t a t i o n . . T h e s h o r t - c o m i n g s were overshadowed b y t h e i r e l a t i o n upon e n c o u n t e r i n g E n g l a n d i n C e y l o n . P i c t u r e s q u e l a n d s c a p e i d e a l s a r e an e x p r e s s i o n of r o m a n t i c i s m f o r they e x e r t an i n f l u e n c e on the v i e w e r s ' i m a g i n a t i o n and emotion ( P r a z , 1970:88). P r e f e r e n c e s f o r the p i c t u r e s q u e a r e : d e r i v e d e s s e n t i a l l y from the E n g l i s h fondness f o r n a t u r a l s c e n e r y , and, by e x t e n s i o n , from t h e i r fondness f o r ' p a i n t i n g s of n a t u r a l s c e n e r y as 1 94 Chapter 6 e x e m p l i f i e d i n the h i g h l y p r i z e d E l y s i a n or V e r g i l i a n l a n d s c a p e s by N i c h o l a s P o u s s i n and Claude L o r r a i n — hence the term ' p i c t u r e s q u e ' ( C o l l i n s , 1978:49).. A p i c t u r e s q u e l a n d s c a p e i s one which resembles a l a n d s c a p e p a i n t i n g , f o r a c c o r d i n g t o Joseph A d d i s o n , "the works of n a t u r e appear s t i l l more p l e a s i n g the more they resemble t h o s e of a r t " ( i b i d . : 5 0 ) . Such l a n d s c a p e s s h o u l d i n t r i g u e b o t h the eyes and the i m a g i n a t i o n , d e l i g h t i n g the v i e w e r w i t h unique o r s u r p r i s i n g a t t r i b u t e s and e v o k i n g "a t r a i n of a s s o c i a t i o n s . . . a d d i t i o n a l t o those which the scene i t s e l f i s c a l c u l a t e d t o e x c i t e " ( i b i d . : 4 9 - 5 0 ) . A p i c t u r e s q u e l a n d s c a p e i s one which t a k e s the n a t u r a l environment and improves upon i t . I t i n v o l v e s the g e n t l e r e m o d e l l i n g of the n a t u r a l s u r r o u n d i n g s i n a manner which i d e a l i z e s Nature and r e f l e c t s the w o r l d not as i t i s , "but the w o r l d as i t might have been had the C r e a t o r been an I t a l i a n a r t i s t of the s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y " (Lowenthal and P r i n c e , 1965:195). The p i c t u r e s q u e i s a p r e f e r e n c e f o r the " i r r e g u l a r , the complex, the i n t r i c a t e , [and] the o r n a t e " , y e t the l a n d s c a p e must not appear s e l f - c o n s c i o u s or a r t i f i c i a l ( i b i d . : 1 9 2 ) . From the condemnation of p l a n n i n g and r e g i m e n t a t i o n , one might w e l l suppose the p i c t u r e s q u e t o be a s e r i e s of happy a c c i d e n t s , and c o n c l u d e t h a t the d e s i r e d i m p r e s s i o n of roughness and i r r e g u l a r i t y was e n t i r e l y f o r t u i t o u s . N o t h i n g i s f u r t h e r from the t r u t h ; the p i c t u r e s q u e i s c o n t r i v e d and composed 195 Chapter 6 w i t h as much c a r e as any g e o m e t r i c a l l a y o u t ( i b i d . : 1 9 3 ) . The p i c t u r e s q u e l a n d s c a p e i s a r o m a n t i c i z e d one which seeks t o expose the essence of the c o u n t r y s i d e , u n i n h i b i t e d by the c o n s t r a i n t s of r e a l i s m . The p i c t u r e s q u e i s a s e n t i m e n t a l v e n e r a t i o n of n a t u r e , a l b e i t n a t u r e as i n t e r p r e t e d by the B r i t i s h upper and mi d d l e c l a s s e s . d u r i n g the n i n e t e e n t h . c e n t u r y (Cosgrove, 1984:235). A r u r a l l a n d s c a p e i s not n e c e s s a r i l y a p i c t u r e s q u e l a n d s c a p e . A p a s t o r a l s e t t i n g i s an i n t e g r a l a s p e c t of p i c t u r e s q u e landscape p r e f e r e n c e s , however, the " f a v o r e d l a n d s c a p e i s what Turner denoted ' e l e g a n t p a s t o r a l ' as d i s t i n c t from merely ' p a s t o r a l ' ; i t c a l l s t o mind t r a d i t i o n a l u p p e r - c l a s s t a s t e s and p u r s u i t s " (Lowenthal and P r i n c e , 1965:192). I t i s a la n d s c a p e which p l a y s upon " f e e l i n g , i n t u i t i o n , and o t h e r more immediate forms of c o g n i t i o n " ( J o n e s , 1961:129). I t must be a p p e a l i n g t o the eye and s o o t h i n g t o the mind ( C o l l i n s , 1978:50). A l a n d s c a p e may induce the vi e w e r t o r e f l e c t upon the b l i s s f u l d o m e s t i c i t y of a f a r m e r ' s c o t t a g e or the w i s t f u l m e l a n choly of a m i s t -c o v e r e d pond ( P r a z , 1970:90). Lowenthal and P r i n c e d e s c r i b e p i c t u r e s q u e l a n d s c a p e p r e f e r e n c e s as f o l l o w s : What i s c o n s i d e r e d ' e s s e n t i a l l y E n g l i s h ' i s a calm and p e a c e f u l deer pa r k , w i t h slow-moving streams and wide expanses of meadowland studded w i t h f i n e t r e e s . The scene s h o u l d i n c l u d e f r e e - r a n g i n g a n i m a l s , s i n c e 'the s i g h t of g r a z i n g c a t t l e . . . [ i s ] one of the 196 Chapter 6 t r a d i t i o n a l d e l i g h t s . . . . W h e n i t i s a r a b l e l a n d , hedgerows and s m a l l f i e l d s a r e u s u a l l y o b l i g a t o r y (Lowenthal and P r i n c e , 1965:192). The p i c t u r e s q u e i s c a l c u l a t e d t o " s t i m u l a t e moral r e f l e c t i o n , [and] t o a p p e a l t o emotion" ( i b i d . : 1 9 6 ; L e s n i k o w s k i , 1982:148). The p i c t u r e s q u e l a n d s c a p e i s human-scale, a p p r o a c h a b l e and i n v i t i n g . Indeed, the p i c t u r e s q u e i s the a n t i t h e s i s of the monumental; the i n t i m a t e and the i n f o r m a l a r e v a l u e d h i g h l y . The E n g l i s h l i k e l a n d s c a p e s compartmented i n t o s m a l l scenes f u r n i s h e d w i t h b e l f r i e d c h u r c h t o w e r s , h a l f - t i m b e r e d t h a t c h e d c o t t a g e s , r u t t e d l a n e s , r o o k e r i e d elms, l i c h g a t e s , and s t i l e s — i n s h o r t , 'the i n t i m a t e and a p p e a l i n g beauty which our f o r b e a r s impressed upon i t ' . The devotee of the p i c t u r e s q u e d i s l i k e s what i s f o r m a l , g e o m e t r i c a l , a n t i c i p a t e d , too e v i d e n t l y p l a n n e d or d i c t a t e d (Lowenthal and P r i n c e , 1965:192). The p i c t u r e s q u e l a n d s c a p e i s r i c h l y t e x t u r e d . The s m a l l - s c a l e p e r m i t s the viewer t o become e n g r o s s e d i n the i n t r i c a t e d e t a i l . There i s a sense of h i s t o r i c a l c o n t i n u i t y t o the p i c t u r e s q u e f o r i t i s p o s s i b l e t o view the la n d s c a p e and t o imagine t h a t i t has always appeared so and w i l l c o n t i n u e t o e x i s t unmarred by the hand of p r o g r e s s (Cosgrove, 1984:204). The p i c t u r e s q u e l a n d s c a p e i s e s s e n t i a l l y p e a c e f u l , i n s p i r i n g i n t r o s p e c t i o n . I t conveys the i m p r e s s i o n t h a t humans a r e a t one w i t h the environment. A l t h o u g h the 1 97 Chapter 6 lan d s c a p e i s v a r i e d , t h e r e a r e no h a r s h j u x t a p o s i t i o n s . Above a l l , the p i c t u r e s q u e c o u n t r y s i d e i s c o m f o r t i n g . I t r e p r e s e n t s t r a d i t i o n a l E n g l i s h v a l u e s ; i t i s q u i e t , e n d u r i n g , u n d e r s t a t e d . The p i c t u r e s q u e l a n d s c a p e s y m b o l i z e s the h e r i t a g e of the B r i t i s h . I t r e f l e c t s t h e i r a g r a r i a n r o o t s . For the v i e w e r , i t evokes a sense of p r i d e i n b e i n g E n g l i s h as o n l y a r o m a n t i c i z e d v i s i o n can do. The n a t u r a l l a n d s c a p e of Nuwara E l i y a p o s s e s s e d a s c e n i c beauty t h a t was grand and e v o c a t i v e , y e t by i t s e l f i t was not p i c t u r e s q u e f o r i t l a c k e d "those q u a l i t i e s which make la n d s c a p e s p i c t u r e s q u e : an i n t i m a t e , l i v e d - i n appearance, or a desuetude i n s p i r i n g r o m a ntic m e l a n c h o l y " (Lowenthal and P r i n c e , 1965:190-2). These the h i l l - s t a t i o n c o u l d a c q u i r e o n l y w i t h the i n t e r v e n t i o n and e f f o r t s of e x p a t r i a t e s . Yet t h i s l o c a l e i n t h e uplan d s Of Ce y l o n c l e a r l y p o s s e s s e d the p o t e n t i a l t o become a p i c t u r e s q u e l a n d s c a p e . Even i n i t s e a r l i e s t y e a r s as a s a n a t a r i u m , Nuwara E l i y a won fa v o u r w i t h e x p a t r i a t e s f o r i t s E n g l i s h atmosphere and the r e f r e s h i n g c o n t r a s t i t o f f e r e d t o the l o w l a n d s of C e y l o n . I t was Samuel Baker, however, who made the g r e a t e s t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o Nuwara E l i y a as a p i c t u r e s q u e v i l l a g e . P r i o r t o Samuel Baker's d e c i s i o n t o s e t t l e a t Nuwara E l i y a , t he h i l l - s t a t i o n had p i c t u r e s q u e a t t r i b u t e s . Baker's v i s i o n of Nuwara E l i y a as a t r a n q u i l , p r o s p e r o u s E n g l i s h v i l l a g e and h i s d e c i s i o n t o commit h i s r e s o u r c e s t o the 198 Chapter 6 development of the h i l l - s t a t i o n made a s i g n i f i c a n t impact on the l a n d s c a p e . T h i s was e s p e c i a l l y the case because he i n t e r v e n e d when Nuwara E l i y a was e v o l v i n g i n t o a s a n a t a r i u m -cum-seasonal r e s o r t and g e n t l y g u i d e d the development of the h i l l - s t a t i o n i n a manner t h a t h i g h l i g h t e d i t s p i c t u r e s q u e a s p e c t s (see b e l o w ) . Baker d i d not r e c o g n i z e h i s p l a n f o r Nuwara E l i y a as a c o n s c i o u s attempt t o shape a p i c t u r e s q u e landscape., but i t i s apparent from h i s w r i t i n g s t h a t he f a v o u r e d p i c t u r e s q u e l a n d s c a p e . i d e a l s . He wrote of the h i l l -s t a t i o n : The sky i s s p o t l e s s and the a i r calm. The f r a g r a n c e of m i g n o n e t t e s , and a hundred f l o w e r s t h a t r e c a l l E n g l a n d , f i l l s the a i r . Green f i e l d s of g r a s s and c l o v e r , n e a t l y f e n c e d , s u r r o u n d a c o m f o r t a b l e house and grounds. W e l l - f e d c a t t l e of the c h o i c e s t b r e e d s , and E n g l i s h sheep, are g r a z i n g i n the paddocks....But a few y e a r s p a s t , and a l l t h i s was w i l d e r n e s s (Baker, 1884:25-6). The f l o w e r s , f e n c e d f i e l d s and the domestic a n i m a l s a r e t y p i c a l a t t r i b u t e s of a p i c t u r e s q u e scene. I t i s e v i d e n t that. Baker c o n s i d e r e d h i s p a s t o r a l v i l l a g e a v a s t improvement over the p r e v i o u s w i l d e r n e s s . Yet i t was the n a t u r a l beauty of the a r e a t h a t had a t t r a c t e d h i s o r i g i n a l i n t e r e s t i n Nuwara E l i y a . In keeping w i t h p i c t u r e s q u e l a n d s c a p e i d e a l s , Baker r e v e r e d Nature w h i l e a t the same time e n d e a v o r i n g t o enhance N a t u r e . L i k e Baker, o t h e r B r i t i s h e x p a t r i a t e s and t r a v e l l e r s had 199 Chapter 6 a s e n t i m e n t a l attachment t o Nuwara E l i y a . They, t o o , r e c a l l e d E n gland when they saw the p i c t u r e s q u e l a n d s c a p e of the h i l l -s t a t i o n . The w r i t i n g s of n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y v i s i t o r s c o n s i s t e n t l y d w e l l on the a t t r i b u t e s of N u w a r a . E l i y a t h a t c a l l e d t o mind scenes of Home. They d e s c r i b e d the h i l l -s t a t i o n i n g l o w i n g terms; Nuwara E l i y a s y m b o l i z e d the b e s t of t h e i r h e r i t a g e and eased t h e i r sense of i s o l a t i o n from B r i t a i n . The w r i t i n g s of Constance Gordon-Cumming a r e t y p i c a l of the p i c t u r e s q u e d e s c r i p t i o n s w r i t t e n by v i s i t o r s . M o r n i n g s , e v e n i n g s , and mo o n l i g h t a r e each more e n c h a n t i n g than words can t e l l , and a l l a l i k e perfumed w i t h the b r e a t h of E n g l i s h c l o v e r from c u l t i v a t e d f i e l d s , m i n g l i n g w i t h t h a t of m i g n o n e t t e s , musk s t o c k s , p a n s i e s , v i o l e t s , l i l i e s , c a r n a t i o n s , p h l o x e s , sweetpeas, h o n e y s u c k l e s , a z a l e a s and a l l manner of f r a g r a n t garden f l o w e r s (Gordon-Cumming, 1893:141). The t r a v e l a c c o u n t s of e x p a t r i a t e s a r e o f t e n i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c ; they s t r o v e t o c a p t u r e the au r a of romance and the s e n t i m e n t a l a p p e a l of Nuwara E l i y a . Much of the a t t r a c t i o n of Nuwara E l i y a f o r e x p a t r i a t e s was i t s resemblance t o England and the c o n t r a s t i t p r o v i d e d w i t h the l o w l a n d s of C e y l o n . The s i m i l a r i t i e s of l a n d s c a p e between B r i t a i n and the h i l l - s t a t i o n were no mere: c o -i n c i d e n c e . There was a c o n s c i o u s e f f o r t t o enhance the E n g l i s h n e s s of Nuwara E l i y a , prompted by the d e s i r e and need of e x p a t r i a t e s f o r a s u r r o g a t e Home. In many r e s p e c t s a p i c t u r e s q u e l a n dscape was i d e a l l y s u i t e d t o the needs of the 200 Chapter 6 e x p a t r i a t e community i n C e y l o n . The p i c t u r e s q u e l a n d s c a p e was i n v i t i n g , c o m f o r t i n g , i n f o r m a l and s u i t e d t o the r e c r e a t i o n a l and s o c i a l p a s t i m e s of the B r i t i s h . Henry Cave's d e p i c t i o n of Nuwara E l i y a o f f e r s some i n s i g h t i n t o the a p p e a l of the h i l l - s t a t i o n . The bungalows of the r e s i d e n t s are m o s t l y b u i l t upon g r a s s y k n o l l s a t the f o o t of the mountains, and a r e surrounded by c h o i c e gardens, not i n f r e q u e n t l y b o r d e r e d by geraniums. Water of unimpeachable q u a l i t y f l o w s from the h e i g h t s over p i c t u r e s q u e w a t e r f a l l s of g r e a t beauty. A p u r l i n g stream b a b b l e s t h r o u g h the m i d d l e of the v a l l e y , f i n a l l y l o s i n g i t s e l f i n a l a k e which i s surrounded by a c a r r i a g e d r i v e (Cave, 1895:31) . The p i c t u r e s q u e l a n d s c a p e of Nuwara E l i y a was u n e q u i v o c a l l y E n g l i s h and remarkably un-Ceylonese. A s o j o u r n a t Nuwara E l i y a was an e m o t i o n a l r e l e a s e f o r e x p a t r i a t e s . They c o u l d r e t u r n from the h i l l - s t a t i o n renewed and r e f r e s h e d ; t h e i r y e a r n i n g f o r E n g l a n d t e m p o r a r i l y assuaged. As Lowenthal and P r i n c e n o t e , " l a n d s c a p e s and b u i l d i n g f a c a d e s a r e l i k e costumes or v e s t m e n t s , s t r e s s i n g the r e s p e c t a b i l i t y , p r o p r i e t y , and a s p i r a t i o n s of the wearers....To induce the p r o p e r frame of mind i n the s p e c t a t o r , a p l a c e s h o u l d be p r o p e r l y a t t i r e d " (Lowenthal and P r i n c e , 1965:200-1). In the case of Nuwara E l i y a , p i c t u r e s q u e l a n d s c a p e i d e a l s conveyed the d e s i r e of the e x p a t r i a t e e l i t e t o shed the personae they assumed i n t h e i r r o l e s as c o l o n i a l i s t s . They a c q u i r e d , i n s t e a d , an a i r of r e l a x e d 201 Chapter 6 informality as they sought to recreate the physical, social and recreational environment of their homeland. The frequency with which the picturesque landscape of Nuwara Eliya was mentioned in the travel literature, and the emotional intensity that was associated with such references, suggests that much of the appeal of Nuwara Eliya was due to its picturesque attributes. Through the picturesque, expatriates could express their sentimental attachment to Britain while at the same time creating a substitute for Home. NINETEENTH CENTURY PERCEPTIONS OF NUWARA ELIYA The nineteenth century was a p r o l i f i c period for British chroniclers of foreign lands. During this century the British Empire expanded to an unprecedented extent and both the British public and the agents of Empire -- c i v i l servants, members of the military, missionaries, individuals involved in trade and commerce, as well as travellers and adventurers— felt a mixture of pride and awe at their country's involvement in exotic and little-known lands. Concomitant with British expansionism, and fueled by i t , was a growing intellectual curiosity about places and people on the far-flung corners of the earth. The writings of persons who had gone abroad to work or tour wet the appetite of readers at Home, who relished descriptions and narratives of locales and events that were very un-British. Such writings were also reassuring, for although expatriates were 202 Chapter 6 c o n f r o n t e d with f o r e i g n b e l i e f s , v a l u e s and p r a c t i c e s , there i s an u n d e r l y i n g sense which pervades much of the l i t e r a t u r e t h a t B r i t i s h c u l t u r e and code of conduct was i n t r i n s i c a l l y s u p e r i o r to that with which the B r i t i s h came i n c o n t a c t . The w r i t i n g s of B r i t i s h e x p a t r i a t e s i n the c o l o n i e s f r e q u e n t l y r e g a l e the reader with myriad d e t a i l s , f o r they saw through, eyes that had not yet been jaded by the mundane and the commonplace. The t r a v e l l i t e r a t u r e r e f l e c t s the n o v e l t y of l i f e i n the c o l o n i e s f o r e x p a t r i a t e s that made each new experience and encounter assume a heightened importance. W r i t e r s f a i t h f u l l y recorded t h e i r impressions f o r an audience at. Home who had no other source of knowledge of events abroad and who were eager to share i n the experience of Empire. The f o l l o w i n g i s a content a n a l y s i s of some of the w r i t i n g s of t r a v e l l e r s , c i v i l s e r v a n t s , m i s s i o n a r i e s and others who v i s i t e d or r e s i d e d at Nuwara E l i y a . The t r a v e l l i t e r a t u r e i s examined u t i l i z i n g both thematic and c h r o n o l o g i c a l approaches for the reasons o u t l i n e d below. The d i s c u s s i o n of the themes that c h a r a c t e r i z e e x p a t r i a t e s ' p o r t r a y a l s of Nuwara E l i y a i s f o l l o w e d by an examination of the t r a v e l l i t e r a t u r e i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l sequence by date of p u b l i c a t i o n . A review of the themes that emerge, the a t t r i b u t e s of Nuwara E l i y a t h a t are noted with c o n s i s t e n c y . i n the w r i t i n g s of v i s i t o r s to the h i l l - s t a t i o n , underscores the extent to 203 Chapter 6 which such p e r c e p t i o n s were shared by e x p a t r i a t e s . I t h i g h l i g h t s the importance of the l a n d s c a p e of Nuwara E l i y a as a means of e x p r e s s i n g c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y and the manner i n which the l a n d s c a p e was imbued w i t h meaning. The c h r o n o l o g i c a l approach t o the l i t e r a t u r e . h a s been adopted t o show the h i s t o r i c a l development of the h i l l -s t a t i o n as i t e v o l v e d from a s a n a t a r i u m t o sanatarium-cum-r e s o r t . The e x a m i n a t i o n of the t r a v e l w r i t i n g s i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l sequence a l s o r e v e a l s change or c o n s i s t e n c y i n e x p a t r i a t e ' s a t t i t u d e s and p e r c e p t i o n s of Nuwara E l i y a . F u r t h e r m o r e , i t e n a b l e s each a u t h o r ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o be d i s c u s s e d as a c o h e r e n t u n i t f o r the w r i t e r s f r e q u e n t l y d i s c u s s s e v e r a l a t t r i b u t e s of Nuwara E l i y a t h a t c a p t u r e t h e i r a t t e n t i o n . Themes i n the t r a v e l l i t e r a t u r e I f t h e r e i s one f e a t u r e of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y w r i t i n g s of e x p a t r i a t e s on Nuwara E l i y a t h a t i mpresses the r e a d e r , i t i s the c o n s i s t e n t themes t h a t emerge. M.D.'s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the Colombo J o u r n a l i n F e b r u a r y , 1832, made note of a t t r i b u t e s of the h i l l - s t a t i o n t h a t were t o become r e c u r r e n t s u b j e c t s i n the l i t e r a t u r e on Nuwara E l i y a over the next s e v e r a l decades (M.D., 1832:59). The h e a l t h y appearance of a d u l t s and c h i l d r e n , the c l i m a t e , a i r , v e g e t a t i o n i n c l u d i n g f l o w e r s and v e g e t a b l e s , and the homey d w e l l i n g s w i t h t h e i r white-washed w a l l s and chimneys were remarked upon 204 Chapter 6 by M.D., d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t Nuwara E l i y a was r e l a t i v e l y u ndeveloped. At t h i s t i m e , the h i l l - s t a t i o n had o n l y a few p r i v a t e r e s i d e n c e s , and l a c k e d a h o t e l , c h u r c h , c l u b house and a number of o t h e r a m e n i t i e s t h a t i t would come t o p o s s e s s i n l a t e r y e a r s ( 1 ) . A l t h o u g h Nuwara E l i y a was somewhat p r i m i t i v e by the s t a n d a r d s of the day,, the a s p e c t s of the town t h a t a p p e a l e d t o M.D. i n 1832 were t h o s e t h a t s t r u c k a c h o r d i n the h e a r t s of many E n g l i s h e x p a t r i a t e s t hroughout the h i s t o r y of the town. He w r o t e : Nuwera E l l i a [ s i c ] , where w i l d shrubs and f l o w e r s n a t i v e s of temperate c l i m a t e s are i m m e d i a t e l y r e c o g n i z e d , the a i r f e e l s c o o l , e v e r y t h i n g  o r i e n t a l and t r o p i c a l d i s a p p e a r s , and the g l a z e d windows, smoking chimneys, and white-washed w a l l s of the houses remind one of an E n g l i s h hamlet (M.D., 1832:59; my e m p h a s i s ) . I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t even at t h i s e a r l y d a t e , Nuwara E l i y a r e p r e s e n t e d a d e p a r t u r e from l i f e as i t was known i n c o a s t a l C e y l o n . The d i s a p p e a r a n c e of a l l t h a t i s " o r i e n t a l and t r o p i c a l " ( i b i d . ) i s accompanied by a sense of r e l i e f w i t h the welcome s i g h t of s u r r o u n d i n g s t h a t reminded B r i t i s h e x p a t r i a t e s of Home. J u s t f o u r y e a r s a f t e r i t s e s t a b l i s h m e n t as a s a n a t a r i u m f o r i n v a l i d s , Nuwara E l i y a had a l r e a d y g a i n e d a r e p u t a t i o n as an E n g l i s h v i l l a g e i n C e y l o n . In h i s a r t i c l e , M.D. n o t e d s e v e r a l a t t r i b u t e s of. the h i l l - s t a t i o n t h a t emerged as themes w i t h i n the t r a v e l l i t e r a t u r e of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . A c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s of 205 Chapter 6 the t r a v e l writings reveals that expatriates and t r a v e l l e r s focused upon seven main themes when discussing the attributes of Nuwara E l i y a that appealed to them. They remarked upon the climate, the health benefits'of the h i l l - s t a t i o n , the temperate vegetation including the flowers and gardens, the dwellings, the recreational a c t i v i t i e s and f a c i l i t i e s , the scenic beauty of the landscape and the English appearance of Nuwara E l i y a . The contrast in climate between the hot, humid lowland areas and Nuwara E l i y a is pronounced and thus i t i s not surprising that climate was a major factor in the appeal of Nuwara E l i y a . Forbes wrote that the climate of Nuwara E l i y a was "congenial to the natives of Great B r i t a i n " (Forbes, 1840). Because temperatures were mild, "never approaching... t r o p i c a l heat", expatriates could l i v e in "salubrity and comfort" at the h i l l - s t a t i o n ( i b i d . ) . For Binning, Nuwara E l i y a was the only town in Ceylon were one could experience anything that resembled a winter night in the metropolitan country. He found the cold to be "invigorating" and enjoyed the hoar frost that would appear on the ground after a c h i l l y night (Binning, 1857:73,76). H.S. preferred Nuwara E l i y a to Colombo for he considered the l a t t e r to have a "trying climate" with a "hot and close atmosphere" (H.S., 1876:104). In contrast, he f e l t the r e l a t i v e coolness of the h i l l - s t a t i o n to be "bracing" 206 Chapter 6 ( i b i d . ) . These r e f e r e n c e s t o the c l i m a t e of Nuwara E l i y a are t y p i c a l f o r the m a j o r i t y of i n d i v i d u a l s who commented on the s u b j e c t l i k e d the c o o l t e m p e r a t u r e s , the c o n t r a s t w i t h the t r o p i c a l p a r t s of C e y l o n and the s i m i l a r i t y of c l i m a t e t o t h a t of B r i t a i n . The h e a l t h b e n e f i t s of Nuwara E l i y a were l a u d e d t h roughout the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . Some of the c o n t r i b u t o r s t o the t r a v e l l i t e r a t u r e had r e c o v e r e d a t the h i l l - s t a t i o n from i l l n e s s or d e b i l i t y r e s u l t i n g from an extended s t a y i n the t r o p i c s . Samuel Baker, f o r example, r e c o v e r e d from f e v e r (Murray and White, 1895:30). L e i t c h found t h a t she c o u l d "eat and s l e e p w e l l " at Nuwara E l i y a ( L e i t c h and L e i t c h , 1890:77). Mouat, t o o , noted an improvement i n a p p e t i t e and d e s i r e f o r e x e r c i s e (Mouat, 1852:127). Nuwara E l i y a was c o n s i d e r e d by most o b s e r v e r s t o be "a v a l u a b l e s a n a t a r i u m " (H.S., 1876:101). The " c r i s p , c l e a n a i r " and pure water were p a r t of the h i l l - s t a t i o n ' s h e a l t h f u l a p p e a l as was the temperate c l i m a t e (Gordon-Cumming, 1893:141; Cave, 1910:156). The r e s u l t of t h e s e f a v o r a b l e c o n d i t i o n s was seen i n the appearance of the a d u l t s and c h i l d r e n who v i s i t e d or r e s i d e d t h e r e . Gordon-Cumming was one of s e v e r a l p e r s o n s who remarked on t h i s . She w r o t e , the " p a l e c h i l d r e n who have l o s t a l l t h e i r r o s e s i n the heat of the low c o u n t r y , q u i c k l y r e g a i n them and l o o k the v e r y p i c t u r e of h e a l t h " (Gordon-Cumming, 1893:135; see a l s o M.D., 1832; S e l k i r k , 1844:18; 207 Chapter 6 Mouat, 1 852: 127;•Baker , 1883:42). As a sanatarium, Nuwara E l i y a was perceived to be of benefit both for the maintenance of health and the recovery from i l l n e s s . The temperate vegetation o,f Nuwara E l i y a was mentioned frequently in the t r a v e l l i t e r a t u r e for i t was a potent reminder of Home. The s o i l of Nuwara E l i y a is f e r t i l e and i t s climate makes i t well-suited to the growth of English vegetables and flowers. Numerous authors remarked with delight on the variety of vegetation to be found at the h i l l -s t a t i o n . Mouat noted that in the "gardens of the station may be seen every variety of rose, dahlia, mignonette, heart's ease and excellent strawberries" (Mouat, 1852:126). Haeckel commented that the European flowers were "blossoming in perfection" (Haeckel, 1883:298). "Splendid crops of English vegetables" as well as other f r u i t s and "luxuriant f i e l d s of sweet white clover" attracted Gordon-Cumming's attention (Gordon-Cumming, 1893:137). Clearly, the presence of temperate vegetation, some of i t imported from B r i t a i n and Europe, did much to create the impression that one had been transported to the English countryside. Another factor that influenced the expatriates' perception of Nuwara E l i y a as an English v i l l a g e was the b u i l t environment, es p e c i a l l y the homes. The "stone-built houses with chimneys" were a marked contrast with the houses of the lowlands where there was never a need for fireplaces 208 Chapter 6 (Gordon-Cumming, 1893:138-9). The s i g h t of the homes w i t h chimneys gave S i r r a p l e a s a n t s e n s a t i o n of f a m i l i a r i t y ( S i r r , 1850:120). L a i r d found a f i r e t o be "very a c c e p t a b l e " ( L a i r d , 1875:94). O t h e r s shared h i s assessment; Cave e n j o y e d the r i t u a l of a f t e r - d i n n e r " c i g a r s and toddy" by the f i r e p l a c e (Cave, 1895:13; see Mouat, 1852: 127) . The homes, some of which were t r a d i t i o n a l E n g l i s h farmhouses, enhanced the a b i l i t y of e x p a t r i a t e s t o r e c r e a t e the s o c i a l environment of the m e t r o p o l i t a n c o u n t r y . In a d d i t i o n t o Nuwara E l i y a ' s a p p e a l as a s a n a t a r i u m , i t a l s o earned f a v o r a b l e r e g a r d f o r i t s r e c r e a t i o n a l p u r s u i t s . Mouat su g g e s t e d t h a t "those who have r e c o v e r e d h e a l t h " would e n j o y the f i e l d s p o r t s or o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s i n the open a i r such as e l k or e l e p h a n t h u n t i n g (Mouat, 1852:127). Gordon-Cumming p r e f e r r e d s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s such as the p a r t i e s , p i c n i c s and dances d u r i n g the jymkhana (Gordon-Cumming, 1893:143, 147). S i t t i n g w i t h f r i e n d s around a p i a n o and p l a y i n g tunes was another pastime ( C a r p e n t e r , 1892:38). Cave termed the h i l l - s t a t i o n t he " p l a y g r o u n d of C e y l o n " , c i t i n g t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y of g o l f , c r i c k e t , l a w n - t e n n i s , f i s h i n g and the jymkhana t o support h i s a s s e r t i o n (Cave, 1905:202). M e n t i o n of the r e c r e a t i o n a l a s p e c t s o f . t h e h i l l - s t a t i o n i n the t r a v e l l i t e r a t u r e i n c r e a s e d as the r e c r e a t i o n a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e expanded i n the l a s t q u a r t e r of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . 209 Chapter 6 The s c e n i c beauty of the l a n d s c a p e and the E n g l i s h appearance of Nuwara E l i y a a r e two r e l a t e d themes t h a t a re p r e s e n t i n the t r a v e l l i t e r a t u r e . To e x p a t r i a t e s , the beauty of Nuwara E l i y a ' s l a n d s c a p e and s c e n e r y seemed a l l the more i n t e n s e because of i t s resemblance t o t h e i r homeland. There were numerous a t t r i b u t e s t h a t a p p e a l e d t o e x p a t r i a t e s , from the w a t e r f a l l s of " g r e a t beauty" t o the "gorgeous t i n t s " c a s t by the r i s i n g sun upon the l a n d s c a p e (Cave, 1895:31; Mouat, 1852:122). Whether one c o n s i d e r e d Nuwara E l i y a t o resemble the h i g h l a n d s of S c o t l a n d or the c o u n t r y s i d e of E n g l a n d , most e x p a t r i a t e s would agree t h a t the h i l l - s t a t i o n p o s s e s s e d a " s p e c i a l charm" (Cave, 1905:206; B i n n i n g , 1857:71; H a e c k e l , 1883:290). The beauty of the l a n d s c a p e and i t s E n g l i s h appearance were i n t e r t w i n e d i n the minds of e x p a t r i a t e s and c o n t r i b u t e d t o the e n d u r i n g a p p e a l of the h i l l - s t a t i o n . The themes t h a t emerge i n the t r a v e l l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e a re many f a c t o r s t h a t c o n t r i b u t e d t o Nuwara E l i y a ' s p o p u l a r i t y . Yet t h e r e i s a common element t h a t l i n k s the themes. The c l i m a t e , v e g e t a t i o n , : d w e l l i n g s , r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s and the beauty of the la n d s c a p e each were a c c l a i m e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e because they a p p r o x i m a t e d or r e p l i c a t e d t h a t which would be found i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n c o u n t r y . F u r t h e r m o r e , Nuwara E l i y a ' s s t r e n g t h as a s a n a t a r i u m was i t s temperate environment t h a t "best s u i t e d " the h e a l t h r e q u i r e m e n t s of Europeans (Cave, 1912:495). 210 Chapter 6 A survey of the t r a v e l l i t e r a t u r e The f o l l o w i n g i s a c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y t r a v e l l i t e r a t u r e on Nuwara E l i y a i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l sequence. M.D. found t h a t the p l a n t s and f l o w e r s of Nuwara E l i y a -- b a r b e r r y , b r i a r , s o u t h e r t l e , d a n d e l i o n s , d a i s i e s , b u t t e r c u p s , r o s e s , m i g n o n e t t e s and c a r n a t i o n s "as f r a g r a n t as i n E n g l a n d " (M.D., 1832:59) — w e r e a p l e a s a n t c o n t r a s t t o the t r o p i c a l v e g e t a t i o n of l o w l a n d a r e a s . V e g e t a t i o n and a r t i f a c t s t h a t would have w a r r a n t e d l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n i n England were the s u b j e c t of much d i s c o u r s e among e x p a t r i a t e s . F r e s h v e g e t a b l e s from p l a n t s of E n g l i s h o r i g i n i n c l u d i n g p o t a t o e s , c a r r o t s , peas, cabbages, t u r n i p s , p a r s n i p s and a r t i c h o k e s , were a h i g h l y a p p r e c i a t e d a d d i t i o n t o the c o l o n i a l i s t ' s d i e t . European v e g e t a b l e s h e l d a s t r o n g a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h Home, f o r food c o n j u r e d up images of f a m i l y g a t h e r i n g s and f a v o r i t e meals t h a t o t h e r w i s e seemed d i s t a n t i n time and p l a c e . The s i m i l a r i t i e s of c l i m a t e between Great B r i t a i n and Nuwara E l i y a were o f t e n noted by v i s i t o r s and r e s i d e n t s i n C e y l o n . I t was a s t r o n g l y h e l d b e l i e f by e x p a t r i a t e s d u r i n g the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h a t n a t i v e s of B r i t a i n d i d not or c o u l d not f l o u r i s h i n the t r o p i c s . Some w r i t e r s have even suggested t h a t the t r o p i c s s h o u l d be a v o i d e d by Europeans. James S t e u a r t wrote i n 1862 t h a t C e y l o n i s "not s u i t e d f o r 211 Chapter 6 the Permanent Residence of Europeans" ( S t e u a r t , 1862:36). Thus, i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t Nuwara E l i y a was p o p u l a r because of i t s c l i m a t e . M.D. s t a t e d t h a t European s o l d i e r s r e s i d i n g a t Nuwara E l i y a "appear ruddy and h e a l t h y , p o s s e s s i n g t h e i r s t r e n g t h , v i g o u r and s p i r i t s t o the same e x t e n t as i n t h e i r own c o u n t r y " (M.D., 1832:59-60). He c o n t i n u e d : i n d e e d , the c o n t r a s t between new-comers and t h o s e who have been f o r some time r e s i d e n t i s p e c u l i a r l y s t r i k i n g , the former appear s a l l o w and d e b i l i t a t e d , h a v i n g the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c u n h e a l t h y countenance of Europeans r e s i d i n g i n a t r o p i c a l c l i m a t e , w h i l e the l a t t e r seen t o p o s s e s s t h a t r o b u s t n e s s of frame which we commonly meet w i t h among the n a t i v e s of an E n g l i s h a g r i c u l t u r a l d i s t r i c t (M.D., 1832:60). The s i m i l a r i t i e s i n c l i m a t e between Nuwara E l i y a and B r i t a i n and the apparent h e a l t h f u l e f f e c t s of the h i l l - s t a t i o n upon e x p a t r i a t e s , p l a y e d a r o l e i n i n s p i r i n g the B r i t i s h i n C e y l o n t o mold Nuwara E l i y a i n the image of t h e i r home c o u n t r y . Both Major F o r b e s , who p u b l i s h e d E l e v e n Years i n C e y l o n i n 1840 and h i s contemporary, the Reverend James S e l k i r k who wrote R e c o l l e c t i o n s of C e y l o n i n 1844, a l s o made note of the a p p e a l i n g c l i m a t e of Nuwara E l i y a ( F o r b e s , 1840:132-33; S e l k i r k , 1844:17). S e l k i r k e l a b o r a t e d by i n d i c a t i n g t h a t i n "December, J a n u a r y , F e b r u a r y and p a r t of March, t h e r e i s l i t t l e r a i n , and the a i r i s pure and h e a l t h y " ( S e l k i r k , 1 844 : 1 7 )•. • L i k e M.D. , S e l k i r k r e j o i c e d a t the presence of 212 Chapter 6 European vegetables "common in gardens" ( i b i d . : 1 8 ) . ' F o r both Forbes and S e l k i r k , Nuwara E l i y a was a p l a c e of simple charms. T h e i r w r i t i n g s stand i n c o n t r a s t to those of Emily Eden who v i s i t e d Simla at approximately the same time as S e l k i r k and Forbes were at Nuwara E l i y a . Her w r i t i n g s d e l i g h t the reader with d e s c r i p t i o n s of b a l l s , p i c n i c s and other f e t e s which are notably l a c k i n g i n the w r i t i n g s on Nuwara E l i y a (Eden, 1866). In the e a r l y 1840s, Nuwara E l i y a was the l o c a t i o n of an a s s i s t a n t government agent, a c o u r t -house, a rest-house, barracks and " s e v e r a l E n g l i s h gentlemen's r e s i d e n c e s " ( S e l k i r k , 1844:18), and l a c k e d h o t e l s or a. Club. The absence of r e f e r e n c e s to p a r t i e s and b a l l s and other e x t r o v e r t e d s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s suggests that i n i t e a r l y years, the settlement was popular f o r reasons other than those which accounted f o r the p o p u l a r i t y of Simla and D a r j e e l i n g and the other l a r g e Indian h i l l - s t a t i o n s . C l i m a t e , v e g e t a t i o n and the q u i e t l y r e a s s u r i n g s i g h t of E n g l i s h s o l d i e r s , t h e i r wives and c h i l d r e n who "look as he a l t h y and f r e s h - c o l o u r e d as i n England" ( i b i d . ) , were f a c t o r s t h a t c o n t r i b u t e d to the E n g l i s h image of Nuwara E l i y a and, hence, to i t s appeal. For Charles Henry S i r r , • who wrote Ceylon and the  Cinghalese i n 1850, Nuwara E l i y a was a t t r a c t i v e because there was a f e e l i n g of f a m i l i a r i t y a s s o c i a t e d with the settlement ( S i r r , 1850:120). J u s t seven degrees l a t i t u d e from the 213 Chapter 6 e q u a t o r , the temperature c o u l d drop below f r e e z i n g on w i n t e r mornings, when v i s i t o r s and r e s i d e n t s would awake t o f i n d i c e on the water and h o a r - f r o s t g l i m m e r i n g i n the e a r l y l i g h t ( i b i d . ) . So s t r o n g was the resemblance between the h i l l -s t a t i o n and B r i t a i n , S i r r s u g g e s t e d t h a t Nuwara E l i y a was a good s u b s t i t u t e f o r people who c o u l d not a f f o r d t o r e t u r n Home ( i b i d . ) ( 2 ) . In S i r r ' s" o p i n i o n , Nuwara E l i y a was not merely t o be viewed as a temporary r e s p i t e from an i n t o l e r a b l e t r o p i c a l environment; r a t h e r the h i l l - s t a t i o n had the p o t e n t i a l t o be a l o n g - t e r m a s s e t t o the c o l o n y and t o G r e a t B r i t a i n . In a d d i t i o n t o European f l o w e r s and v e g e t a b l e s grown at the s t a t i o n , S i r r proposed a scheme t o produce c u r e d meats and c h e e s e s - a t l o w - c o s t f o r l o c a l consumption and e x p o r t ( i b i d . : 1 2 6 ) . A s h o r t a g e of l a b o u r e r s c o u l d be a l l e v i a t e d by B r i t i s h e m i g r a t i o n t o Nuwara E l i y a ( i b i d . : v i i ) . Thus, the s i m i l a r i t i e s between a B r i t i s h v i l l a g e and Nuwara E l i y a were, i n S i r r ' s o p i n i o n , t o be encouraged. In 1852, F r e d e r i c Mouat p u b l i s h e d a book on h i s t r a v e l s t o C e y l o n , Reunion and M a u r i t i u s t h a t i n c l u d e d "remarks on t h e i r e l i g i b i l i t y as s a n a t a r i a f o r I n d i a n I n v a l i d s " . He wrote t h a t Colombo " i s a h o t , d i s a g r e e a b l e p l a c e , a t which I recommend t r a v e l l e r s t o remain as s h o r t a time as p o s s i b l e " (Mouat, 1852:117). In c o n t r a s t , the landscape around Nuwara E l i y a was d e s c r i b e d i n much more f a v o r a b l e terms. He wrote: 214 Chapter 6 "The d i s t a n t h i l l - t o p s were capped w i t h a dense m i s t , which g r a d u a l l y c l e a r e d away as the sun r o s e , g i l d i n g the l a n d s c a p e w i t h the most gorgeous t i n t s " ( i b i d . : 1 2 2 ) . There i s no doubt t h a t whatever the s h o r t c o m i n g s of o t h e r a r e a s of C e y l o n , Mouat approved of Nuwara E l i y a . The c o o l mornings and c h i l l y e v e n i n g s r e q u i r e d a " b r i g h t , b l a z i n g , c h e e r f u l wood f i r e " ( i b i d . : 1 2 7 ) , a l u x u r y t h a t was not p o s s i b l e i n the s w e l t e r i n g l o w l a n d s . From a more p r a c t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e , (Mouat was, a f t e r a l l , i n t e r e s t e d i n Nuwara E l i y a as a s a n a t a r i u m ) , Mouat noted t h a t the h i l l - s t a t i o n ' s e l e v a t i o n produced a " p e c u l i a r s t i m u l a n t , e x h i l a r a t i n g e f f e c t upon the s p i r i t s " which " e x e r t s a most b e n e f i c i a l i n f l u e n c e on the g e n e r a l h e a l t h " by i n c r e a s i n g d e s i r e f o r e x e r c i s e and i m p r o v i n g d i g e s t i o n ( i b i d . : 127). I t i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e t h a t Nuwara E l i y a a t t r a c t e d p e r s o n s who were more i n t e r e s t e d i n the r e c r e a t i o n a l a s p e c t s of the s a n a t a r i u m than i n i t s r e c u p e r a t i v e a s p e c t s . Mouat a l l u d e d t o t h i s s i t u a t i o n when he proposed t h a t a l a k e s h o u l d be e x c a v a t e d which would i n c r e a s e the beauty and h e a l t h i n e s s of the h i l l - s t a t i o n ( 3 ) . The l a k e would not be c o s t l y , he wrote, because i t would be c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h the l a b o u r of "the s o l d i e r s of the detachment q u a r t e r e d t h e r e , and [would] a l s o g i v e o c c u p a t i o n f o r some time t o come t o the number of drunken, i d l e European i n v a l i d s , who a r e now b e g i n n i n g t o c o n g r e g a t e a t the p l a c e " ( i b i d . :•! 2 6 ) . The 215 o Chapter 6 presence of "drunken, i d l e European i n v a l i d s " s u g g e s t s t h a t Nuwara E l i y a was u n d e r g o i n g a t r a n s i t i o n and was b e g i n n i n g t o f u n c t i o n not o n l y as a s a n a t a r i u m but as a r e s o r t . The metamorphosis was v e r y g r a d u a l , however, f o r t h e r e i s l i t t l e mention i n the m i d - n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y t r a v e l w r i t i n g s about Nuwara E l i y a of the s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s , such as b a l l s and f e t e s , t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e d r e s o r t s t a t i o n s such as S i m l a and D a r j e e l i n g . Of the many v i s i t o r s and r e s i d e n t s i n Nuwara E l i y a , few had as s i g n i f i c a n t an impact upon the l a n d s c a p e and the subsequent development of the h i l l - s t a t i o n as Samuel Baker. Samuel Baker ( l a t e r S i r Samuel Baker) p u b l i s h e d a s e r i e s of books r e c o u n t i n g h i s l i f e and deeds a t Nuwara E l i y a (see Baker 1883, 1884, 1890). H i s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the s t a t i o n spanned the y e a r s 1846 t o 1855 (Van T h a i , 1951:13). Even a f t e r he r e t u r n e d t o E n g l a n d , h i s f a m i l y r e t a i n e d t h e i r farm and h i s b r o t h e r c o n t i n u e d t o l i v e a t Nuwara E l i y a (Murray and White, 1895:33). H i s i n i t i a l c o n t a c t w i t h the h i l l - s t a t i o n was the r e s u l t of a bout of f e v e r he c o n t r a c t e d w h i l e on a h u n t i n g e x p e d i t i o n i n C e y l o n i n 1845 ( i b i d . : 2 3 ) . H i s d e c l i n i n g h e a l t h " n e c e s s i t a t e d h i s removal t o the mountain h e a l t h r e s o r t of Nuwara E l i y a " where he r e c o v e r e d w i t h i n two weeks ( i b i d . ) . Baker found Nuwara E l i y a i n a " s t a t e o f - u t t e r n e g l e c t " (Baker, 1890; Murray and White, 1895:23), the o n l y 216 Chapter 6 s u b s t a n t i a l house h a v i n g been b u i l t f o r S i r Edward Barnes, the Governor of C e y l o n from 1820 t o 1822 and from 1824 t o 1831, which s u g g e s t s t h a t the s t a t i o n had y e t t o blossom as a f u l l - f l e d g e d s e a s o n a l r e s o r t . N e v e r t h e l e s s , he was impressed by the n a t u r a l beauty of the a r e a , i t s resemblance t o B r i t a i n and i t s p o t e n t i a l f o r development as a permanent s e t t l e m e n t (Ba k e r , 1884). In Baker's o p i n i o n , Nuwara E l i y a was not b e i n g u t i l i z e d t o i t s f u l l advantage. The s e a s o n a l p o p u l a r i t y of the s t a t i o n from J a n u a r y t o May meant t h a t i t was n e g l e c t e d d u r i n g p a r t of the y e a r , and i t s a g r i c u l t u r a l p o t e n t i a l was not b e i n g r e a l i z e d ( i b i d . : 2 8 ) . Nuwara E l i y a was e i t h e r overcrowded or empty depending upon the season and i t s o n l y permanent r e s i d e n t s were the -Commandant, the o f f i c e r i n command of the detachment of t r o o p s ; the A s s i s t a n t Government Agent; the d o c t o r ; the clergyman; and, e v e n t u a l l y , Baker's f a m i l y ( i b i d . ) . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , Baker made l i t t l e mention of Nuwara E l i y a as a s e a s o n a l r e s o r t , though he l a u d e d the s t a t i o n as a s a n a t a r i u m . I n s t e a d , he saw the p o t e n t i a l of Nuwara E l i y a as an a g r a r i a n s e t t l e m e n t and viewed h i m s e l f as the i n d i v i d u a l w i t h the v i s i o n and the means t o d e v e l o p t h i s p o t e n t i a l . The t i m i n g of h i s i n t e r v e n t i o n in' Nuwara E l i y a ' s h i s t o r y i ' i s s i g n i f i c a n t f o r i t i s a t a p o i n t when the s t a t i o n was b e g i n n i n g t o undergo a t r a n s i t i o n from a u t i l i t a r i a n s a n a t a r i u m f o r the r e c o v e r y of h e a l t h . t o the d u a l r o l e of a 217 Chapter 6 s t a t i o n f o r the p r e v e n t i o n of i l l h e a l t h and a s e a s o n a l r e s o r t . Baker r e c o g n i z e d t h a t the c h a r a c t e r of Nuwara E l i y a was i n t r a n s i t i o n and t h a t he c o u l d e x e r c i s e some i n f l u e n c e on the subsequent development of the h i l l - s t a t i o n . Yet the a s p e c t s of Nuwara E l i y a t h a t a p p e a l e d t o Baker -- the c l e a n a i r , the " p e r f e c t c l i m a t e " (Baker, 1884:26), the views and s c e n i c n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s — were the same as tho s e t h a t a t t r a c t e d the s e a s o n a l v i s i t o r . Baker, however, d i d not p e r c e i v e Nuwara E l i y a as a s e a s o n a l r e s p i t e from c o n d i t i o n s i n the l o w l y i n g a r e a s . He saw the h i l l - s t a t i o n as an im p o r t a n t and u n d e r u t i l i z e d a s s e t t o the B r i t i s h Empire. Nuwara E l i y a was England i n C e y l o n . How o f t e n ...have I thought of the thousands of s t a r v i n g wretches a t home, who here might earn a c o m f o r t a b l e l i v e l i h o o d ! . . . . I have scanned the v a s t t r a c t of c o u n t r y ; and i n my i m a g i n a t i o n I have c l e a r e d the dark f o r e s t s , and s u b s t i t u t e d waving c r o p s of c o r n , and pe o p l e d a hundred i d e a l c o t t a g e s w i t h a t h r i v i n g p e a s a n t r y (quoted i n Murray and White, 1895:24-25). Baker d e c i d e d t o s e t t l e i n Nuwara E l i y a w i t h h i s f a m i l y and devote h i s a t t e n t i o n t o c r e a t i n g an " ' E n g l i s h v i l l a g e ' w i t h the whole of C e y l o n f o r h i s 'manor, and no expense of gamekeepers'" (Baker, 1883:26). He was a i d e d i n h i s a m b i t i o u s p l a n by h i s b r o t h e r , John, and f a m i l y . A f t e r h a v i n g p u r c h a s e d a thousand a c r e s of l a n d i n Nuwara E l i y a from the c o l o n i a l government a t twenty s h i l l i n g s per a c r e (Murray and White, 1895:26), Baker r e t u r n e d t o England t o 218 Chapter 6 o b t a i n the a r t i f a c t s and a n i m a l s he r e q u i r e d t o t r a n s f o r m Nuwara E l i y a i n t o a l i t t l e p i e c e of B r i t a i n . In September 1848, the E a r l of Hardwicke, c h a r t e r e d by Baker, s a i l e d from London l a d e n w i t h farm equipment, a b u l l and cow, t h r e e rams, a th o r o u g h - b r e d s t a l l i o n , c a r r i a g e h o r s e s , p o u l t r y , p i g s and hounds/ as w e l l as B aker's f a m i l y , a b a i l i f f and t w e l v e o t h e r e m i g r a n t s (Baker, 1883:27). An i n d i v i d u a l who o b s e r v e d t h e i r d e p a r t u r e wrote: Young men and w i v e s ; b a b i e s and n u r s e s ; the b a i l i f f and h i s w i f e and d a u g h t e r ; the groom w i t h the h o r s e s , a n i m a l s , two of e v e r y k i n d - r e m i n d i n g one of the toy f i g u r e s i n the Noah's Ark of one's c h i l d h o o d ; the c a c k l e of p o u l t r y , the sad l o w i n g of the cow, the p l u n g i n g of the b u l l i n m i d - a i r , as he was h a u l e d up; and, l a s t of a l l , the pack of hounds, s c r a m b l i n g on board over the s h i p ' s s i d e (Murray and W h i t e , 1895:27). Baker took an o v e r l a n d r o u t e t o C e y l o n and a r r i v e d p r i o r t o the E a r l of Hardwicke. W i t h the a s s i s t a n c e of one hundred and f i f t y n a t i v e l a b o u r e r s , Baker c l e a r e d the l a n d , p r e p a r e d i t f o r p l o u g h i n g , c o n s t r u c t e d a road t h r o u g h the e s t a t e and b u i l t homes f o r the s e t t l e r s ( B a k e r , .1883; Murray and White, 1895:29). Baker was p l e a s e d w i t h h i s e f f o r t s , f o r the p r e v i o u s l y dense f o r e s t was changed "by the hand of c i v i l i s a t i o n and i n d u s t r y " i n t o an " o a s i s " w i t h i n a " t e r r i t o r y of savage n a t u r e " ( B a k e r , 1884:26). Baker's i n f l u e n c e - o n Nuwara E l i y a i s s i g n i f i c a n t f o r a number of r e a s o n s . When s e a s o n a l v i s i t s t o the h i l l - s t a t i o n 219 Chapter 6 were the norm, Baker took a l o n g - t e r m i n t e r e s t i n the development of the town and encouraged permanent B r i t i s h s e t t l e m e n t of Nuwara E l i y a by e m i g r a n t s and e x p a t r i a t e s . Perhaps most i m p o r t a n t , though, was Baker's u n p a r a l l e l e d e n t h u s i a s m f o r Nuwara E l i y a as a B r i t i s h v i l l a g e . Nuwara E l i y a c a p t u r e d Baker's i m a g i n a t i o n f o r he saw i n the h i l l -s t a t i o n an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the B r i t i s h t o h a r v e s t the bounty of a new l a n d , w h i l e p l a c i n g t h e i r i n d e l i b l e mark upon the l a n d s c a p e . Through the c o n s t r u c t i o n of roads and houses and the t i l l i n g of the f i e l d s , Baker h e l p e d t o shape Nuwara E l i y a i n the image of h i s homeland. He wrote: The road e n c i r c l e s the p l a i n ; and c a r t s a r e busy removing the produce of the l a n d . Here, where w i l d f o r e s t s s t o o d , a r e gardens teeming w i t h E n g l i s h f l o w e r s ; r o s y - f a c e d c h i l d r e n and ruddy countrymen a r e about the c o t t a g e d o o r s ; e q u e s t r i a n s of both sexes a re g a l l o p i n g round the p l a i n s ; and the c r y of the hounds i s r i n g i n g on the m o u n t a i n s i d e ! And...the c h u r c h - b e l l sounds where the el e p h a n t trumpeted of y o r e (quoted i n Murray and White, 1895:30). Baker's i n t e r c e s s i o n i n the h i l l - s t a t i o n made a l a s t i n g . i m p r e s s i o n on i t s development. He h e l p e d t o ensure t h a t Nuwara E l i y a was not merely a s e a s o n a l r e s o r t ; a temporary r e t r e a t from the a i l s of Empire. U n l i k e c o s m o p o l i t a n S i m l a or D a r j e e l i n g , i t was Baker's i n t e n t i o n t h a t Nuwara E l i y a p r o v i d e a home f o r B r i t i s h e x p a t r i a t e s . Englishmen would grow t h e i r own produce, t i l l t h e i r own s o i l , and p r o s p e r from t h e i r own i n d u s t r i o u s n e s s . Baker endeavored t p g i v e Nuwara 220 . Chapter 6 E l i y a an a i r of permanence t h a t many of the I n d i a n h i l l -s t a t i o n s l a c k e d , and i f one judges from the w r i t i n g s of l a t e r a u t h o r s , i t appears Baker a c h i e v e d h i s g o a l s , though perhaps not on the s c a l e t h a t he had e n v i s i o n e d . Not a l l v i s i t o r s t o Nuwara E l i y a had as e n t h u s i a s t i c a r esponse t o the h i l l - s t a t i o n as Baker d i d . S i r Edward Robert S u l l i v a n p u b l i s h e d d e t a i l s of h i s v i s i t t o Nuwara E l i y a i n h i s book Bungalow and the Tent; or a V i s i t t o C e y l o n (1854). U n f o r t u n a t e l y , he caught h i s f i r s t g l i m p s e of the h i l l -s t a t i o n i n J u l y when i t seemed t o him t h a t i t was the "most damp, u n p i c t u r e s q u e abode of d i s c o m f o r t " ( S u l l i v a n , 1854:136). He d i d concede, however, t h a t the s t a t i o n had i t s redeeming f e a t u r e s . The immediate neighbourhood p r e s e n t s a much more c o z y , E n g l i s h appearance than c o u l d be e x p e c t e d w i t h i n t e n degrees of the L i n e , from th e s e t t l e m e n t and c o n t i n u e d r e s i d e n c e of two E n g l i s h gentlemen and t h e i r f a m i l i e s , who, w i t h ample means, have b u i l t some e x c e l l e n t houses and farm b u i l d i n g s , t h a t c h e d and f i n i s h e d i n the o rthodox s t y l e of E n g l i s h farm-houses. They have made c o n s i d e r a b l e c l e a r i n g s , and c u l t i v a t e p o t a t o e s , t u r n i p s , c a r r o t s , and o t h e r European v e g e t a b l e s w i t h t o l e r a b l e s u c c e s s ; they a l s o have e s t a b l i s h e d * a b r e w e r y . . . ( i b i d . : 1 3 7 ) . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , the a s p e c t s of the h i l l - s t a t i o n t h a t S u l l i v a n found a t t r a c t i v e were a r e s u l t of the e f f o r t s of Baker and h i s b r o t h e r . P a r t i e s , f e t e s , b a l l s and o t h e r a s p e c t s of t h e s o c i a l scene t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e d the l a r g e r I n d i a n h i l l -221 Chapter 6 s t a t i o n s a r e not mentioned i n h i s account of the Ceylonese s t a t i o n . I t was the q u i e t , p a s t o r a l n a t u r e of Nuwara E l i y a t h a t e l i c i t e d h i s f a v o r a b l e r e s p o n s e . When James Emerson Tennant p u b l i s h e d h i s book C e y l o n i n 1860, Nuwara E l i y a was s c a r c e l y more de v e l o p e d i n terms of f a c i l i t i e s f o r t r a v e l l e r s than i t was a decade e a r l i e r . A c c o r d i n g t o Robert B i n n i n g , who wrote J o u r n a l of Two Y e a r s '  T r a v e l i n P e r s i a , C e y l o n e t c . (1857), Nuwara E l i y a had two r e s t - h o u s e s or l o d g i n g s , n e i t h e r of which were v e r y c o m f o r t a b l e , The beds and f u r n i s h i n g s were not c l e a n ; the p r o v i s i o n s were bad and the c o o k i n g was worse ( B i n n i n g , 1857:85). P r i v a t e accommodation was p r e f e r a b l e as i t e n a b l e d i n d i v i d u a l s t o e x p e r i e n c e the h i l l - s t a t i o n i n a h o m e - l i k e s e t t i n g . D e s p i t e the r u d i m e n t a r y f a c i l i t i e s f o r v i s i t o r s , Tennent gave a g l o w i n g r e p o r t of Nuwara E l i y a ' s a t t r i b u t e s . He wrote t h a t he had t r a v e l l e d " t hrough s c e n e r y u n s u r p a s s e d i n i t s l o v e l i n e s s and g r a n d e u r , t o r e s t i n an E n g l i s h c o t t a g e , w i t h a b l a z i n g wood f i r e , t o s l e e p under b l a n k e t s , and awake i n the morning t o f i n d , t h i n i c e on the water" (Tennant, 1977:759). Tennant's o b s e r v a t i o n s a r e h a r d l y o r i g i n a l y e t they a r e i n s i g h t f u l i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g the e n d u r i n g a p p e a l of a town t h a t t h r i v e d d e s p i t e an apparent l a c k of s o c i a l a m e n i t i e s . Much of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y t r a v e l l i t e r a t u r e on Nuwara E l i y a i s f a v o r a b l e i n i t s assessment of the h i l l -222 Chapter 6 s t a t i o n . James S t e u a r t ' s a c c o u n t , however, o f f e r s a l e s s f a v o r a b l e view of the h i l l - s t a t i o n . When James S t e u a r t wrote Notes on Ce y l o n and i t s a f f a i r s d u r i n g a p e r i o d of t h i r t y - e i g h t y e a r s , e n d i n g i n 1855, he d i d not c r i t i c i z e t he h i l l -s t a t i o n per se ( S t e u a r t , 1862). R a t h e r , he was c r i t i c a l of the use of the s t a t i o n f o r permanent s e t t l e m e n t and was f e a r f u l of the outcome f o r B r i t i s h e m i g r a n t s . H i s c o n c e r n s f o c u s e d upon e t h n o - m e d i c a l b e l i e f s ; namely, t h a t a marked change of seasons was e s s e n t i a l f o r the maintenance of the h e a l t h of persons of B r i t i s h o r i g i n . He b e l i e v e d t h a t " i t i s the change i n temperature between Colombo and Nuwera E l l i a [ s i c ] which makes a temporary s o j o u r n a t the l a t t e r p l a c e so b e n e f i c i a l t o the h e a l t h of tho s e Europeans whose o c c u p a t i o n i s i n Colombo" ( S t e u a r t , 1862:37). In h i s o p i n i o n , Nuwara E l i y a , l i k e o t h e r a r e a s of C e y l o n , d i d not have a d i s t i n c t change i n seasons or t e m p e r a t u r e . T h i s , he b e l i e v e d , was the reason t h a t E n g l i s h f r u i t t r e e s and c e r e a l s d i d not t h r i v e , as i n B r i t a i n ( i b i d . : 3 6 - 3 7 ) . More o m i n o u s l y , the marked change of seasons was a l s o r e q u i r e d f o r the " p r e s e r v a t i o n of Englishmen's h e a l t h " f o r i t made them hardy ( i b i d . ) . The l o n g - t e r m consequences Of the permanent s e t t l e m e n t of e x p a t r i a t e s i n Nuwara E l i y a c o u l d o n l y prove d i s a s t r o u s . Any attempt t o c o l o n i z e the mountain r e g i o n of Ceylon would be a t t e n d e d w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e s a c r i f i c e of l i f e ; and the race which might descend from such c o l o n i s t s would soon degenerate and become unworthy of t h e i r p r o g e n i t o r s 223 Chapter 6 ( S t e u a r t , 1862:37). S t e u a r t ' s vehemence on the t o p i c may have been a r e s u l t of h i s p e r c e p t i o n of the growing p o p u l a r i t y of Nuwara E l i y a w hich made him f e a r t h a t e x p a t r i a t e s would be unable t o r e s i s t the charms of the h i l l - s t a t i o n . H i s o p i n i o n of Nuwara E l i y a c o n t r a s t s w i t h the m a j o r i t y of n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y w r i t e r s who mention the s t a t i o n . What i s s u r p r i s i n g , p e r h a p s , i s t h a t d e s p i t e h i s s t r o n g o p i n i o n s on the d e l e t e r i o u s e f f e c t s of the environment, S t e u a r t remained i n C e y l o n f o r t h i r t y - e i g h t y e a r s . S t e u a r t ' s commentary on Nuwara E l i y a was one of the most o r i g i n a l p e r s p e c t i v e s on the h i l l - s t a t i o n o f f e r e d by n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y a u t h o r s . He d i d not a c t i v e l y d i s l i k e t he ' h i l l - s t a t i o n and y e t managed t o convey h i s d i s a p p r o v a l of what might be d e s c r i b e d as i t s ' " s u b v e r s i v e r o l e " . The m a j o r i t y of a u t h o r s who wrote of Nuwara E l i y a were not n e a r l y so c o n t r o v e r s i a l i n t h e i r pronouncements. Throughout the t r a v e l l i t e r a t u r e , w r i t e r s tended t o f o c u s upon common themes and t o use s i m i l a r language i n d e s c r i b i n g the a t t r i b u t e s of Nuwara E l i y a t h a t a p p e a l e d t o them. T h i s c o n s i s t e n c y over time i n d i c a t e s t h a t Nuwara E l i y a s u c c e s s f u l l y met the needs of e x p a t r i a t e s f o r an a l t e r n a t i v e , a c c e s s i b l e environment t h a t s u b s t i t u t e d f o r the m e t r o p o l i t a n c o u n t r y and a l s o t h a t the needs of the e x p a t r i a t e p o p u l a t i o n m a n i f e s t e d c o n t i n u i t y t h roughout the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . 224 Chapter 6 The w r i t i n g s of A e l i a n a K i n g , the A s s i s t a n t Government Agent, c a p t u r e the essence of Nuwara E l i y a ' s a p p e a l : i t s resemblance t o B r i t a i n . In a r e p o r t w r i t t e n i n 1867, he s t a t e s : the view of the p l a i n below, s h e l t e r e d on the r i g h t and l e f t by h i l l s t h i c k l y c o v e r e d w i t h f o r e s t , and studded over w i t h l i t t l e w h i t e c o t t a g e s , from the chimneys of which the smoke p e a c e f u l l y r i s e s a g a i n s t the b l u e sky, i s most r e f r e s h i n g and s u r p r i s i n g t o one who sees i t f o r the f i r s t time a f t e r a r e s i d e n c e among the s u l t r y p l a i n s i n the l o w - c o u n t r y . The resemblance t o an E n g l i s h scene i s f u r t h e r h e i g h t e n e d by the number of t r e e s of E n g l i s h - l i k e f o l i a g e , which are c l u s t e r e d here and t h e r e upon a few h i l l s r i s i n g out of the p l a i n ( A e l i a n a K i n g quoted i n de S i l v a , 1978:3) . A l t h o u g h a s u r v e y of the w r i t i n g s of t r a v e l l e r s t o Nuwara E l i y a may impress the reader w i t h t h e i r r e p e t i t i v e n a t u r e , such as the o b l i g a t o r y mention of the white-washed c o t t a g e s n e s t l e d m i d s t the f i e l d s , the b l a z i n g f i r e s or the smoking chimneys, the reader s h o u l d imagine the awe of the v i s i t o r who b e h e l d the h i l l - s t a t i o n f o r the f i r s t t i m e . The r e p e t i t i v e n e s s w i t h i n the t r a v e l l i t e r a t u r e i s s i g n i f i c a n t . I t c o r r o b o r a t e s the a s s e r t i o n t h a t the s p a t i a l and c u l t u r a l d i s t a n c e from England took i t s t o l l upon e x p a t r i a t e s , who t h e r e f o r e embraced such a c o n v i n c i n g s u b s t i t u t e f o r the E n g l i s h c o u n t r y s i d e . A c c o r d i n g t o G.P.S.H. de S i l v a (1978:iv) , the growth of Nuwara E l i y a p r o g r e s s e d s t e a d i l y f o l l o w i n g Baker's r e s i d e n c e 225 Chapter 6 a t the h i l l - s t a t i o n . Baker's i n i t i a t i v e s encouraged f u r t h e r development and e x p a n s i o n of the h i l l - s t a t i o n . He p l a n t e d the seeds of change t h a t were t o come t o f r u i t i o n i n the l a s t q u a r t e r of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . De S i l v a n o tes t h a t d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , "we see the g r a d u a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of Nuwara E l i y a from a, w i l d open p l a i n t o a busy E n g l i s h hamlet" (de S i l v a , I 9 7 8 : i v ) . At l e a s t p a r t of t h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n can be a t t r i b u t e d t o the growing p r o s p e r i t y of the h i l l -c o u n t r y . W i t h the i n t r o d u c t i o n of c o f f e e p r o d u c t i o n i n the m i d - n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y and, l a t e r , c h i n c h o n a and t e a c r o p s , the u p l a n d s became i n c r e a s i n g l y i n t e g r a t e d w i t h the commercial and p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s of the l o w - c o u n t r y . The economic p o t e n t i a l of the h i l l - c o u n t r y a t t r a c t e d commercial e n t e r p r i s e s t o the a r e a and Nuwara E l i y a , because of i t s s e a s o n a l p o p u l a r i t y , was a f a v o r e d i o c a l e f o r the investment ] of commercial c a p i t a l . Merchants such as C a r g i l l ' s , M i l l e r ' s and the N a t i o n a l Bank of I n d i a p r o v i d e d goods and s e r v i c e s t o the e x p a t r i a t e p o p u l a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g b oth s e a s o n a l v i s i t o r s and p l a n t e r s (Burrows, I 8 9 9 : x v i ; Cameron, 1926). The w i d e s p r e a d a v a i l a b i l i t y of B r i t i s h commercial goods, a l t h o u g h e x p e n s i v e , f u r t h e r a c c e n t e d the B r i t i s h c h a r a c t e r of Nuwara E l i y a . The development of the h i l l - s t a t i o n was a l s o a s s i s t e d by the p r e s ence of the Governor d u r i n g the Season, e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g the c l o s i n g q u a r t e r of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . Baker 226 Chapter 6 s u g g e s t s t h a t a l t h o u g h Nuwara E l i y a f l o u r i s h e d under the i n i t i a l guidance of Governor Barnes (1824-31), the s t a t i o n d i d not t h r i v e under h i s s u c c e s s o r s (Baker, 1890:8). Under Barne's p a t r o n a g e , Nuwara E l i y a was " r a p i d l y becoming a p l a c e of importance b u t , u n f o r t u n a t e l y , a t the e x p i r a t i o n of h i s term the p l a c e became n e g l e c t e d . H i s s u c c e s s o r [ S i r Robert Wilmot H o r t o n , 1831-37] took no i n t e r e s t s i n the p l a n s of h i s p r e d e c e s s o r , and from t h a t p e r i o d , each s u c c e s s i v e g o v e r n o r , b e i n g i n f l u e n c e d by an i n c r e a s i n g s p i r i t of parsimony" p a i d l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n t o the development of Nuwara E l i y a ( B a k e r , 1890:8) ( 4 ) . C o n s i s t e n t w i t h the l a c k of o f f i c i a l f a v o u r f o r Nuwara E l i y a d u r i n g the m i d d l e decades of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , t h e r e a r e few r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e presence of the Governor and h i s entourage i n the t r a v e l l i t e r a t u r e d a t i n g from t h i s t i m e . However, Nuwara E l i y a e n j o y e d renewed g u b e r n a t o r i a l f a v o u r under Governor Gregory (1872-1877). He g a i n e d n o t o r i e t y by a f f r o n t i n g the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e when he s o l d the Governor's s e a s o n a l r e s i d e n c e i n G a l l e , and c o n s t r u c t e d Queen's C o t t a g e i n Nuwara E l i y a i n 1872, as an o f f i c i a l r e s i d e n c e of the Governor, w i t h o u t the consent of the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e ( B a s t i a m p i l l a i , 1968:118) ( 5 ) . Here he would r e s i d e from January u n t i l May of each y e a r , a t r a d i t i o n m a i n t a i n e d by subsequent Governors (see Government of C e y l o n , Mar. 24, 1884, Feb. 18, 1895) ( 6 ) . The Governor would d e p a r t from 227 Chapter 6 Nuwara E l i y a and proceed t o Kandy a t the end of May, i n time t o c e l e b r a t e Queen V i c t o r i a ' s b i r t h d a y (Gordon-Cumming, 1893:143). In a d d i t i o n t o the c o n s t r u c t i o n of Queen's C o t t a g e , Governor Gregory c h a n n e l l e d government funds i n t o the improvement of the h i l l - s t a t i o n i n an e f f o r t " t o r e n d e r the c i t y as a t t r a c t i v e as the I n d i a n h i l l s t a t i o n s " ( B a s t i a m p i l l a i , 1968:119). P o r t i o n s of Nuwara E l i y a were d r a i n e d and p l a n t e d w i t h f l o w e r s and s h r u b s . F u r t h e r m o r e , " p u b l i c grounds were l a i d o u t , new roads and d r i v e s c o n s t r u c t e d " , the h o s p i t a l improved w i t h b a t h i n g f a c i l i t i e s and Governor S i r W i l l i a m Gregory i n i t i a t e d the e x c a v a t i o n of a l a k e t h a t bore h i s name ( i b i d . ) . There can be l i t t l e doubt t h a t the development of the h i l l - s t a t i o n was enhanced by the presence of the Governor f o r he and h i s entourage l e n t p r e s t i g e t o Nuwara E l i y a and i n c r e a s e d the e x p a t r i a t e p o p u l a t i o n ' s awareness of Nuwara E l i y a as an a l t e r n a t i v e s o c i a l environment. In a d d i t i o n , the c o n s i s t e n c y of the Governor's v i s i t s over t i m e , and the d u r a t i o n of h i s s t a y s , encouraged the e x p a n s i o n of Nuwara E l i y a ' s commercial s e c t o r . F u r t h e r m o r e , one v i s i t o r t o Nuwara E l i y a s u g g e s t e d t h a t the h i l l - s t a t i o n was w e l l - m a i n t a i n e d w i t h a m e n i t i e s such as c a r r i a g e d r i v e s and walks i n response t o the Governor's patronage of the town ( L e i t c h and L e i t c h , 1890:80). 228 Chapter 6 Mention of the Governor and h i s impact upon the s o c i a l l i f e of Nuwara E l i y a appeared i n the t r a v e l l i t e r a t u r e with g r e a t e r frequency d u r i n g the c l o s i n g q u a r t e r of the n i n e t e e n t h century, as d i d other r e f e r e n c e s to s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s , i n c l u d i n g p a r t i e s and d i n n e r s , as w e l l as s p o r t s such as g o l f and f i s h i n g . T h i s corresponds with the expansion of the r e c r e a t i o n a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e of Nuwara E l i y a and the e v o l u t i o n of the s t a t i o n as a seasonal r e s o r t . The s o c i a l scene in Nuwara E l i y a d u r i n g the l a s t p a r t of the n i n e t e e n t h century was l i v e l y , i n c o n t r a s t with e a r l i e r decades when s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s were much more subdued. The presence of the Governor and h i s entourage, the growing p o p u l a r i t y of Nuwara E l i y a among.British e x p a t r i a t e s , the i n c r e a s e d a c c e s s i b i l i t y of the town as a r e s u l t of the r a i l w a y opening in 1885, encouraged the expansion of the r e c r e a t i o n a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e of Nuwara E l i y a and c o n t r i b u t e d to f e s t i v e atmosphere that was present d u r i n g the Season. A l l of these f a c t o r s played a r o l e i n the development of Nuwara E l i y a as a seasonal r e s o r t . E r n s t Haeckel p u b l i s h e d A V i s i t to Ceylon i n 1883. Haeckel was one of the e a r l i e s t s o c i a l commentators on Nuwara E l i y a . L i k e other authors, he remarked upon the f e a t u r e s of the landscape that appealed to B r i t i s h e x p a t r i a t e s . He possessed an e n q u i r i n g mind, however, and was not s a t i s f i e d with shallow d e s c r i p t i o n s of s c e n i c views. With a wry sense of humour, he probed the reasons behind "the love of the 229 Chapter 6 B r i t i s h c o l o n i s t f o r Newera E l l i a " ( H a e c k e l , 1883:289). In a d d i t i o n t o t h i s i n q u i r y , H a e c k e l p r o v i d e d a r a r e and e n t i c i n g g l i m p s e of the l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y s o c i a l w o r l d of C e y l o n ' s o n l y h i l l - s t a t i o n . H a e c k e l c o n c l u d e d t h a t much of Nuwara E l i y a ' s p o p u l a r i t y was based upon i t s resemblance t o a far-away l a n d . He wrote: I t i s sometimes i m p o s s i b l e not t o fanc y t h a t one has been t r a n s p o r t e d t o the S c o t c h h i g h l a n d s , f i f t y degrees f u r t h e r t o the n o r t h , and here i n Newera E l l i a p r e c i s e l y the same gloomy f e e l i n g came over me a g a i n and a g a i n as had p o s s e s s e d me when I t r a v e l l e d t h r o u g h [ S c o t l a n d i n ] . . . 1 8 7 9 . I b e l i e v e , i n d e e d , t h a t i t i s t h i s v e r y s i m i l a r i t y i n c l i m a t e and sc e n e r y which a c c o u n t s . . . f o r the l o v e of the B r i t i s h c o l o n i s t f o r Newera E l l i a [ s i c ] ( i b i d . ) . Yet i t i s not merely the resemblance of Nuwara E l i y a ' s l a n d s c a p e . t o t h a t of B r i t a i n t h a t a ccounted f o r the e n d u r i n g p o p u l a r i t y of the h i l l - s t a t i o n . The s i m i l a r i t y of the la n d s c a p e and c l i m a t e of Nuwara E l i y a w i t h t h a t of England e n a b l e d e x p a t r i a t e s t o r e p l i c a t e B r i t i s h customs and p r a c t i c e s i n an a l i e n e nvironment, thus enhancing t h e i r sense of c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y . H a e c k e l r e c o g n i z e d t h a t Nuwara E l i y a had a " s i n g u l a r l y r e f r e s h i n g e f f e c t on the h e a l t h of Europeans, when they have become d e b i l i t a t e d by t o o l o n g a r e s i d e n c e i n the hot low c o u n t r y " ( H a e c k e l , 1883:290). H i s subsequent comments suggest t h a t he was a l s o aware t h a t i t was not so much the c l i m a t e per se t h a t r e v i t a l i z e d the 230 Chapter 6 e x p a t r i a t e p o p u l a t i o n , as the o p p o r t u n i t y t o behave as i f one had been m a g i c a l l y t r a n s p o r t e d back t o Engl a n d . A s o j o u r n n Nuwara E l i y a promised e x p a t r i a t e s : the unwonted p l e a s u r e of s h i v e r i n g w i t h c o l d , and h a v i n g o n l y one s i d e warm a t a time i n f r o n t of a f i r e ; the e x q u i s i t e d e l i g h t of b e i n g o b l i g e d t o encumber y o u r s e l f w i t h a g r e a t c o a t and shawl when you go out of d o o r s , and of h a v i n g t o p i l e b l a n k e t s on your bed b e f o r e you can go t o s l e e p — t h e c o n t r a s t , i n s h o r t , t o the easy g o i n g and l i g h t c l o t h i n g of the hot c o a s t , makes the Englishman f e e l q u i t e a t home, and he does n o t h i n g but s i n g the p r a i s e s of Newara E l l i a [ s i c ] ( i b i d . : 2 9 p ) . H a e c k e l added the comment t h a t i f the e x p a t r i a t e were " t r a n s p o r t e d b o d i l y t o our wretched n o r t h e r n c l i m a t e , perhaps he would not f i n d i t s charms q u i t e so g r e a t " ( i b i d . ) . H a e c k e l i s one of the few- w r i t e r s on Nuwara E l i y a t o p r o v i d e any i n f o r m a t i o n about the s o c i a l l i f e of the h i l l -s t a t i o n . When t r a v e l l e r s t o Nuwara E l i y a d i s c u s s e d the p h y s i c a l a t t r i b u t e s of the s e t t l e m e n t they found a t t r a c t i v e , the homey d w e l l i n g s w i t h the b l a z i n g f i r e p l a c e s won much a c c l a i m . Yet d e s c r i p t i o n s of i n d i v i d u a l s who r e s i d e d w i t h i n t hese homes and t h e i r d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s a r e seldom e n c o u n t e r e d . However, H a e c k e l ' s w r i t i n g s , as w e l l as the expanding r e c r e a t i o n a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e t h a t i n c l u d e d the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the H i l l C l u b , lawn t e n n i s c o u r t s , a r a c e -t r a c k and, e v e n t u a l l y , a g o l f - c o u r s e , s u g g e s t s t h a t s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s p l a y e d an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n the l i v e s of the 231 Chapter 6 expatriate population in Nuwara E l i y a . Furthermore, such recreational pastimes discouraged pr i v a t i z e d behaviour as they required the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of more than one in d i v i d u a l . As evidence of the importance of s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s to the v i s i t o r s and residents of Nuwara E l i y a , Haeckel compared the h i l l - s t a t i o n to the bathing places of Europe — which were l o c i of s o c i a l interaction and a c t i v i t i e s (Haeckel, 1883:292). Haeckel's writings on the s o c i a l l i f e of Nuwara E l i y a are informative because they suggest that Nuwara E l i y a had a strong s o c i a l hierarchy. Nuwara E l i y a may have been perceived by expatriates as a place of rest and relaxation but there remained a strong desire to keep up appearances in front of their countrypeople. The h i l l - s t a t i o n provided the opportunity for personal display and status v a l i d a t i o n . Haeckel's comparison of Nuwara E l i y a to the bathing-places of Europe was apt. With a sense of bemusement, he wrote: The stronger and the f a i r e r sexes vie with each other in the elegance, c o s t l i n e s s , and bad taste of their dress....The richest among the residents try to out-do each other in the elegance of their carriages out of doors, and in the luxury of their furniture within (Haeckel, 1883:292). Keeping up appearances in Nuwara E l i y a may have been a considerable undertaking. Haeckel indicates that the cost of both goods and services was high and, in his opinion, "overpriced" ( i b i d . ) . In addition, the rents for houses were 232 Chapter 6 steep e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g the Season. Despite the c o s t s , however, there was no shortage of i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l i n g to pay the p r i c e to immerse themselves i n the B r i t i s h atmosphere of the h i l l - s t a t i o n . Much e f f o r t was devoted on the p a r t of the B r i t i s h i n Ceylon to making t h e i r stay at Nuwara E l i y a as much l i k e a v i s i t to t h e i r homeland as was p o s s i b l e . T h i s e f f o r t extended to t h e i r meals, as w e l l . "The i l l u s i o n t h a t one i s a c t u a l l y i n a European wate r i n g - p l a c e i s rendered s t i l l more complete by the u n i v e r s a l attempt to make the dinner resemble, as f a r as p o s s i b l e , an European meal" (Haeckel, 1883:292). Potatoes, green beans, peas, cabbage and other European vegetables t h r i v e d i n the gardens of Nuwara E l i y a , though they f a i l e d i n the low-country. In a d d i t i o n to having t h e i r f a v o r i t e v e getables f o r d i n n e r , e x p a t r i a t e s c o u l d decorate t h e i r t a b l e s with a bouquet of v i o l e t s or f oxglove, and they c o u l d conclude the meal with a d e s s e r t made of l o c a l l y grown r a s p b e r r i e s . Margaret and Mary L e i t c h were two s i s t e r s who worked as m i s s i o n a r i e s i n J a f f n a , i n northern Ceylon. In t h e i r c o l l e c t i o n of l e t t e r s and reminiscences e n t i t l e d Seven Years  i n Ceylon. S t o r i e s of M i s s i o n a r y L i f e , one of the s i s t e r s p r o v i d e d her impressions of a b r i e f v i s i t to Nuwara E l i y a i n 1885 ( 7 ) . The response of Miss L e i t c h to the h i l l - s t a t i o n was very f a v o r a b l e , d e s p i t e the f a c t that she v i s i t e d Nuwara 233 Chapter 6 E l i y a i n J u l y , d u r i n g the o f f - s e a s o n . What she found most r e f r e s h i n g was the c o n t r a s t between Nuwara E l i y a and J a f f n a . In a l e t t e r to her s i s t e r , she wrote: Now, a f t e r a l i t t l e p e r f e c t q u i e t and freedom from care, i n t h i s d e l i g h t f u l c l i m a t e , with the b e a u t i f u l wooded h i l l s a l l about me, reminders of the dear home land, and a pl e a s a n t change from J a f f n a which i s q u i t e f l a t , I f e e l my o l d s e l f again, am able to eat and s l e e p w e l l and to take long walks of two or three miles morning and evening ( L e i t c h and L e i t c h , 1890:77). The house i n which she was s t a y i n g was s i t u a t e d c l o s e to Lake Gregory " n e s t l e d i n the l a p of the h i l l s " with three w a t e r f a l l s i n s i g h t , "winding down the s i d e s of these h i l l s l i k e s i l v e r threads" ( i b i d . : 8 0 ) . Much of her time was spent outdoors. In a d d i t i o n to her d a i l y walks, she o f t e n accompanied her hostess on c a r r i a g e d r i v e s i n the aft e r n o o n s , with frequent stops to gather w i l d f l o w e r s and f e r n s . Flowers and t r e e s , some of which were " o l d home f r i e n d s " , were given much a t t e n t i o n i n her l e t t e r and she spent some time p r e s s i n g the flowers to send home ( i b i d . ) . I t i s apparent that the most a p p e a l i n g aspect of the h i l l - s t a t i o n f o r L e i t c h was the n a t u r a l beauty of the area and the o p p o r t u n i t y to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a c t i v i t i e s that c o n t r a s t e d with those she experienced i n J a f f n a . V i s i t i n g Nuwara E l i y a was p e r c e i v e d by e x p a t r i a t e s to a f f o r d the chance to regain one's e q u i l i b r i u m and to renew o n e s e l f before r e t u r n i n g to the lowlands. L e i t c h ' s w r i t i n g i s of i n t e r e s t because i t i n d i c a t e s the 234 Chapter 6 c o n t i n u i n g appeal of the s c e n i c a t t r i b u t e s of Nuwara E l i y a and the p l e a s u r e expressed by e x p a t r i a t e s when p a r t i c i p a t i n g in a c t i v i t i e s that resembled those i n B r i t a i n . Her l e t t e r i s a l s o of i n t e r e s t because i t suggests that there was a marked c o n t r a s t between the a c t i v i t i e s of e x p a t r i a t e s d u r i n g the Season and d u r i n g the off-Season p e r i o d . L e i t c h v i s i t e d Nuwara E l i y a d u r i n g the o f f - s e a s o n and her time there was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by subdued, q u i e t a c t i v i t i e s such as walks and g a t h e r i n g f l o w e r s . She made no mention of p a r t i e s , b a l l s or other f e t e s which, although she may have chose not to attend, she would l i k e l y have noted i n her l e t t e r . She mentioned, however, that the "Governor and h i s s u i t e come here i n the season. Then the p l a c e i s very gay" ( L e i t c h and L e i t c h , 1890:80) which suggests that Nuwara E l i y a had become f i r m l y entrenched as a seasonal r e s o r t . •Yet another f a c t o r i n Nuwara E l i y a ' s a t t r a c t i v e n e s s to e x p a t r i a t e s i s suggested by Edward Carpenter. In h i s book From Adam's Peak to Elephanta: sketches i n Ceylon and I n d i a , he d e s c r i b e d h i s v i s i t to Nuwara E l i y a . He was l e s s than impressed with the h i l l - s t a t i o n , and he wrote h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of town as i f he found the behaviour of e x p a t r i a t e s and the appeal of Nuwara E l i y a d i f f i c u l t to., fathom. Carpenter surmised that h i s lac k of enthusiasm was the r e s u l t of h i s j u s t having a r r i v e d from B r i t a i n . Hence, he c o u l d not savour the reminders of Home to the same extent as 235 Chapter 6 his compatriots. He wrote; Here the Britisher finds fires in the sitting-rooms and thick mists outside, and dons his great-coat and feels quite at home. But we, having only just come from the land of fogs, did not appreciate these joys, and thought the place a l i t t l e bleak and bare (Carpenter, 1892:39). Thus, i t appears that in some instances the perception of the desirability of Nuwara Eliya as an alternate environment to Home may have borne a direct relationship to the length of time expatriates had been absent from Britain and their degree of homesickness. Carpenter also alluded to the desire of expatriates to minimize the intrusion of the native population into the social realm of the British. There is l i t t l e doubt that the British were reconciled to their dependence upon the natives to provide for their daily.needs, yet they frequently resented the natives for their foreign and often incomprehensible ways. Though they could not completely escape the native presence, the British could ignore them as much as possible. Carpenter wrote, " i t seemed to be a point of honour" among expatriates "to act throughout as if the colored folk didn't exist or were invisible -- also as if they were deaf, to judge by the shouting" (Carpenter, 1892:38). Constance Gordon-Cumming was to Nuwara Eliya as Emily Eden was to Simla. Each played a prominent role in the social 236 Chapter 6 a c t i v i t i e s of t h e i r s t a t i o n s and enjoyed the company of h i g h -ranking o f f i c i a l s i n the c o l o n i a l government. Gordon-Cumming spent two years i n Ceylon and was very fond of Nuwara E l i y a . As a r e s u l t , she devoted c o n s i d e r a b l e space i n her book, Two  Happy Years i n Ceylon (1893), to d e s c r i p t i o n s of the landscape and the s o c i a l l i f e of the h i l l - s t a t i o n . Her a f f e c t i o n f o r Nuwara E l i y a was rooted i n the beauty of the landscape and i t s resemblance to B r i t a i n . In a d d i t i o n , she e x t o l l e d the h i l l - s t a t i o n ' s t o n i c e f f e c t on the h e a l t h of e x p a t r i a t e s and the g a i e t y of i t s s o c i a l l i f e d u r i n g the Season (Gordon-Cumming, 1893). Gordon-Cumming wrote that when i t was sunny, the c l i m a t e of-Nuwara E l i y a was " l i k e that of our very l o v e l i e s t summer days i n S c o t l a n d " (Gordon-Cumming, 1893:141). Of the r e j u v e n a t i v e e f f e c t s of the h i l l - s t a t i o n , she s t a t e d , "the c r i s p c l e a n a i r i s so marvelously i n v i g o r a t i n g and i n s p i r i t i n g that every breath i s an e l i x i r " ( i b i d . ) . She found the landscape a p p e a l i n g f o r s k e t c h i n g , though there were days when the c l i m a t e d i d not co-operate. On one such day, she wrote: Sketching was hopeless, and I f u l l y a p p r e c i a t e d the reasons why houses here are b u i l t of stone and have f i r e p l a c e s , with f i r e s morning and evening, round which f r i e n d s gather as n a t u r a l l y as i f in Europe ( i b i d . : 1 4 0 - 1 ) . Gordon-Cumming was c a p t i v a t e d by the charm and quaintness of Nuwara E l i y a and she c o n s i s t e n t l y d e s c r i b e d i t s a t t r i b u t e s i n 237 Chapter 6 the most f a v o r a b l e terms. A l a r g e p a r t of the appeal of Nuwara E l i y a f o r her was a e s t h e t i c . The h i l l - s t a t i o n o f f e r e d a subdued and t a s t e f u l environment, r e f l e c t i n g p i c t u r e s q u e landscape i d e a l s (see below). Gordon-Cumming found Nuwara E l i y a a p e r f e c t backdrop f o r s o c i a l g a t h e r i n g s . There was a comfortable f a m i l i a r i t y about the h i l l - s t a t i o n with i t s "peace and q u i e t n e s s " and "pleasant h i g h l a n d homes" that encouraged e x p a t r i a t e s to r e c a l l a f a v o r i t e s e t t i n g i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n country ( i b i d . : 1 4 2 ) . The d e s c r i p t i o n s Gordon-Cumming f u r n i s h e d of the s o c i a l l i f e of Nuwara E l i y a i n d i c a t e s the h i l l - s t a t i o n ' s success as a seasonal r e s o r t . She wrote: Of course, wherever Government makes i t s headquarters f o r the season, there white men and women congregate; and so du r i n g these s p r i n g months, u n t i l the end of May, each of the n e s t - l i k e homes e n c i r c l i n g the p l a i n i s w e l l - f i l l e d , and a most cheery i s s o c i a l l i f e kept up...(Gordon-Cumming, 1893:142). Gordon-Cumming's r e c o r d of the s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s of Nuwara E l i y a are an important c o n t r i b u t i o n to the ni n e t e e n t h century t r a v e l l i t e r a t u r e on the h i l l - s t a t i o n . She focused upon the events she found most a p p e a l i n g : the dances and p a r t i e s , the long walks to gather w i l d f l o w e r s , s o c i a l i z i n g with other e x p a t r i a t e s . One of the most notable f e a t u r e s of her work i s that i t r e i n f o r c e s the idea that r e c r e a t i o n a l and s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s were only p a r t of the a t t r a c t i o n of the h i l l -s t a t i o n . Her se n t i m e n t a l d e p i c t i o n of Nuwara E l i y a as a 238 Chapter 6 pastoral English v i l l a g e and her delight with the landscape reveal perhaps the most compelling reason that the h i l l -station gained and maintained such popularity with the expatriate community; Nuwara E l i y a represented the most appealing aspects of England. Henry Cave was a p r o l i f i c photographer and writer of tr a v e l books on Ceylon and was one of the most avid supporters of Nuwara E l i y a (see Chapter 2). He f i r s t v i s i t e d the h i l l - s t a t i o n in 1877 (Cave, 1895:13). Though his love of golf may have contributed to his numerous v i s i t s to Nuwara E l i y a , Cave was also captivated by other aspects of the station. The h i l l - s t a t i o n ' s resemblance to the English countryside, i t s attributes as a sanatarium, recreational f a c i l i t i e s and events such as the Jymkhana, and the comfort of a cozy home and hearth were recounted in each of his books. In many respects, Cave's work resembles that of e a r l i e r writers for he focused upon the features that attracted their attention. His work d i f f e r s from the travel writings of previous decades only in the extent of his discussion of the s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s and recreational f a c i l i t i e s which r e f l e c t s the evolution of the h i l l - s t a t i o n as a seasonal resort. In addition, to i t s development as a seasonal resort, Nuwara E l i y a continued to earn a reputation as a sanatarium. In the West Highlands of Scotland, both landscape and climate, at their best, 239 Chapter 6 may be s u g g e s t i v e of Nuwara E l i y a , but the l a t t e r has a s p e c i a l charm of s i t u a t i o n w h i c h . . . p o s s e s s e s advantages over every o t h e r h e a l t h r e s o r t i n the w o r l d (Cave, 1895:4). Cave noted t h a t a t Nuwara E l i y a "we can e n j o y the p u r i s t and most i n v i g o r a t i n g a i r , w i t h a t emperature b e s t s u i t e d t o the h e a l t h of Europeans" (Cave, 1912:495). Thus, a l t h o u g h Nuwara E l i y a c e a s e d t o be an o f f i c i a l m i l i t a r y s a n a t a r i u m i n 1873, the h i l l - s t a t i o n c o n t i n u e d t o be used by e x p a t r i a t e s f o r t h a t purpose. Nuwara E l i y a ' s e n d u r i n g r o l e as a s a n a t a r i u m throughout the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y s u g g e s t s t h a t B r i t i s h b e l i e f s about the b e n e f i t s of a temperate c l i m a t e changed l i t t l e w i t h i n t h a t p e r i o d . I t i n d i c a t e s , t o o , t h a t Nuwara E l i y a was e v o l v i n g ; m a i n t a i n i n g i t s e a r l i e r f u n c t i o n s as i t assumed new r o l e s as a r e c r e a t i o n a l r e s o r t and commercial and s e r v i c e c e n t r e f o r the s u r r o u n d i n g p l a n t a t i o n s . As a p u b l i s h e r and i m p o r t e r r e s i d i n g i n Colombo, Cave's e n t h u s i a s t i c response t o Nuwara E l i y a may be t r a c e d t o a l o n g i n g f o r Home, f o r c e r t a i n l y the a t t r i b u t e s of the h i l l -s t a t i o n t h a t he found most d e s i r a b l e were those t h a t resembled the f e a t u r e s of E n g l a n d . H i s d e s c r i p t i o n of a v i s i t t o Nuwara E l i y a s u p p o r t s t h i s a s s e r t i o n . The homely d i n n e r , the c i g a r s and toddy by a b l a z i n g wood f i r e , the r e f r e s h i n g s l e e p t h a t f o l l o w e d , and the morning . s t r o l l w h i l e the g r a s s was w h i t e w i t h hoar f r o s t and the l e a v e s c r a c k l e d under one's f e e t , and above a l l the c o o l mountain a i r , were n o t h i n g s h o r t of d e l i c i o u s ( i b i d . : l 3 ) . 240 Chapter 6 Like many of his fellow expatriates who wrote of Nuwara E l i y a from the 1830s onward, Cave f e l t a sense of pleasure, even e l a t i o n , when he witnessed the landscape and climate of the h i l l - s t a t i o n that were so similar to England. Cave found the t r o p i c a l lowlands of Ceylon pleasant, too, but his descriptions of Nuwara E l i y a are characterized by a degree of sentimentality that i s absent in his depiction of other parts of the island. By 1908, when Reginald Farrer's In Old Ceylon was published, the V i c t o r i a n era had ended. Expatriate's perceptions of Nuwara E l i y a , however, remained largely unaltered. Farrer i s the f i n a l selection of the t r a v e l l i t e r a t u r e examined in this chapter. Although his writing^ could be c l a s s i f i e d as twentieth century, i t has been included because i t demonstrates that B r i t i s h expatriate's perceptions of Nuwara E l i y a did not undergo an abrupt change with the new century. Indeed, many of the attributes of the h i l l - s t a t i o n that appealed to expatriates in the nineteenth century continued to do so up u n t i l Independence and beyond (see Pickens, 1964:140). In a sardonic and.humourous fashion, Farrer captured the essence of Nuwara E l i y a ' s appeal. About expatriates residing in Colombo, he wrote that they were: counting the days u n t i l they may.be off to play at being in England amid the Grasmere-scenery of Newera Eliya...where the lettuces are 241 Chapter 6 sometimes browned with a f r o s t which t h e i r e a t e r s h a i l with joy -- dear reminders of f a r - o f f c o u n t r i e s where the odiousness of c l i m a t e are the r u l e , and not the rare d e l i c i o u s e x ception ( F a r r e r , 1908:32). F a r r e r remained unconvinced that Nuwara E l i y a was an a t t r a c t i v e a l t e r n a t i v e to the l u s h , t r o p i c a l lowlands of Ceylon. H i s assessment of the h i l l - s t a t i o n was s c a t h i n g but i n s i g h t f u l and supports the a s s e r t i o n that much of the appeal Nuwara E l i y a h e l d f o r e x p a t r i a t e s was the i l l u s i o n of r e t u r n i n g to B r i t a i n . N o o r a y l i a [ s i c ] (8) i s not Ceylon, has nothing to do with Ceylon. I t i s simply a p r o j e c t i o n of t h a t c u r i o u s E n g l i s h s p i r i t which, i n c o u n t r i e s no matter how c e l e s t i a l l y b e a u t i f u l , i s never s a t i s f i e d u n t i l i t has made i t s e l f some s o r t of c l o s e f a c s i m i l e of an E n g l i s h country town, a p l a c e where you can race and p l a y g o l f and dance, without being too much bothered by the consciousness that you are not i n England, where you may, f o r a happy f o r t n i g h t , f o r g e t that you are pr i s o n e d i n such a p a r a d i s e as Ceylon ( i b i d . : 3 2 - 3 3 ) . . F a r r e r noted that " f o r those chained f o r a term of years i n Ceylon, i t : i s abundantly necessary to have a s a f e t y - v a l v e such as N o o r a y l i a [ s i c ] , where e x i l e and bondage may be l o s t s i g h t of f o r a time" ( i b i d . : 3 3 ) . He advised the short-term v i s i t o r to the colony, however, to a v o i d the h i l l - s t a t i o n f o r i f "you simply want E n g l i s h company, g o l f , and a race-course, why not r e s t r i c t your p e r e g r i n a t i o n s to Esher and S u r b i t o n ? " ( i b i d . ) . Although he d i d not share the enthusiasm of 242 Chapter 6 expatriates for the landscape or s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s of Nuwara E l i y a , Farrer had an accurate understanding of i t s importance to the B r i t i s h in Ceylon. He re a l i z e d that because there was "nothing in the least Cingalese.... up at Nooraylia", the h i l l -s t ation offered a retreat from the a l i e n surroundings of a c o l o n i a l possession ( i b i d . ) . Despite his disparaging comments, Farrer recognized the burden of ex i l e took i t s t o l l upon the B r i t i s h abroad and that the emotional attachment of expatriates to Nuwara E l i y a was a means of compensating for the loss of Home. With a few notable exceptions, the nineteenth century t r a v e l l i t e r a t u r e on Nuwara E l i y a portrayed the h i l l - s t a t i o n in a consistently favorable l i g h t . Descriptions of the scenic beauty.of the landscape, the charm of the houses with f i r e p l a c e s , the frosts and the Scottish mist, and the appeal of the European vegetables grown in the gardens gave the impression of Nuwara E l i y a as an almost Utopian s e t t i n g . The tr a v e l l i t e r a t u r e is evidence of expatriates' desire for a land and way of l i f e that e x i l e denied them. They perceived Nuwara E l i y a in a romanticized way, glossing over or ignoring i t s d e f i c i e n c i e s , and never apologizing for their sentimental veneration of anything vaguely B r i t i s h . In contrast to the writings of expatriates and v i s i t o r s , were the d i a r i e s of the Assistant Government Agents of the Nuwara E l i y a D i s t r i c t . The d i a r i e s offer insight into the 243 Chapter 6 everyday workings of the h i l l - s t a t i o n . Eloquent d e s c r i p t i o n s of the landscape are r a r e l y encountered i n these p u b l i c records of the a c t i v i t i e s of A.G.A.s. The d i a r i e s r e v e a l a d i f f e r e n t p o r t r a i t of the h i l l - s t a t i o n from that p a i n t e d by other e x p a t r i a t e s and p r o v i d e a counterbalance to t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of Nuwara E l i y a . A.G.A. White was a c u t e l y aware of the shortcomings of the h i l l - s t a t i o n and the need f o r funding to a m e l i o r a t e the s i t u a t i o n ( 9 ) . White may have been exaggerating s l i g h t l y the f a u l t s of Nuwara E l i y a f o r h i s s u p e r i o r s who read h i s d i a r y when he wrote in 1895: There i s the p l a i n f a c t that Rs. 10,000 or ...500 [pounds s t e r l i n g ] i s a l l that i s spent on the c h i e f sanatarium of the I s l a n d which does not possess,a water . supply, has about 6 beggarly s e a t s , no Town H a l l , no band stand, which i s without a s i n g l e s treetlamp. Many of the houses are roofed with kerosine t i n and p a r t i t i o n e d by sacking, about h a l f of the open spaces are bogs and the most conspicuous o b j e c t s i n the town proper are the cabbage gardens and the f o u l tenements. The whole amount a v a i l a b l e f o r i t s improvement i s l e s s than the value of one...of the horses which ran at the races (Government of Ceylon, March 4,1895) (10). White's p e r c e p t i o n of the h i l l - s t a t i o n , devoid of romanticism, c o n t r a s t s s h a r p l y with the p e r c e p t i o n s of e x p a t r i a t e s . E x p a t r i a t e s tended.to focus upon the f e e l i n g s that the s i g h t of an E n g l i s h landscape evoked. T h e i r d e s i r e f o r an a l t e r n a t i v e environment to that of the t r o p i c a l lowlands and t h e i r need f o r a s u b s t i t u t e f o r B r i t a i n , shaped 244 Chapter 6 t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of Nuwara E l i y a , r e s u l t i n g i n a sentimental and n o s t a l g i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of 1 the landscape. Through a content a n a l y s i s of a s e l e c t i o n of the n i n e t e e n t h century t r a v e l l i t e r a t u r e , i t i s e v i d e n t that B r i t i s h e x p a t r i a t e s and v i s i t o r s shared s i m i l a r p e r c e p t i o n s of Nuwara E l i y a over a span of n e a r l y e i g h t y y e a r s . From i t s e a r l i e s t days, Nuwara E l i y a was p e r c e i v e d as an E n g l i s h v i l l a g e . The h i l l - s t a t i o n captured the imagination of the e x p a t r i a t e community i n Ceylon and f o r a short time they c o u l d p i c t u r e themselves in the f a m i l i a r comfort of the E n g l i s h c o u n t r y s i d e or the S c o t t i s h h i g h l a n d s . What M.D. wrote about Nuwara E l i y a i n 1832, that " e v e r y t h i n g o r i e n t a l and t r o p i c a l d i s a p p e a r s " , c o u l d have been w r i t t e n s i x decades l a t e r f o r i t was the essence of Nuwara E l i y a ' s appeal (M.D., 1832:59). The v e g e t a t i o n , c l i m a t e , European flowers and v e g e t a b l e s , stone d w e l l i n g s , the h e a l t h i n e s s of r e s i d e n t s and the renewed energy that v i s i t o r s d i s p l a y e d were c o n s i s t e n t themes i n the l i t e r a t u r e . The c o n s i s t e n c y i n the t r a v e l l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s the i n t e n s i t y of e x p a t r i a t e s ' need f o r a s u b s t i t u t e f o r B r i t a i n and the success of Nuwara.Eliya in f i l l i n g that need. Although there was a high degree of c o n s i s t e n c y i n the t r a v e l l i t e r a t u r e of the n i n e t e e n t h century, i t was not s t a t i c . The changes in the l i t e r a t u r e r e f l e c t the e v o l u t i o n of the h i l l - s t a t i o n as a seasonal r e s o r t . The appeal of 245 Chapter 6 Nuwara E l i y a as a pastoral English hamlet, frequently mentioned in the writings of t r a v e l l e r s in the mid-nineteenth century, continued throughout the century. These references were later supplemented, however, by discussions of the social.and recreational a c t i v i t i e s of the h i l l - s t a t i o n . Yet i t was not the so c i a l a c t i v i t i e s per se that held such an attrac t i o n for expatriates, but the fact that these a c t i v i t i e s took place in surroundings that resembled their homeland. At Nuwara E l i y a , the B r i t i s h in Ceylon could gather and enjoy the company of their compatriots, p a r t i c i p a t e in the recreational a c t i v i t i e s of the metropolitan country, in a setting that was a close approximation of England. Afterwards., they could return to the business of Empire; the sense.of s p a t i a l and c u l t u r a l distance from Home having been transcended, at least temporarily. SUMMARY Nuwara E l i y a i s a manifestation of picturesque landscape ideals. Sentimental, romantic and nostalgic, the picturesque landscape played upon the emotions of spectators. There were few expatriates who were unmoved by a v i s i t to Nuwara E l i y a . Even those who decried the maudlin sentimentality of their compatriots were not without a reaction to the h i l l - s t a t i o n . The landscape of Nuwara E l i y a was adaptable to picturesque landscape ideals for in i t s natural state i t possessed the prerequisite scenic q u a l i t i e s . Unlike the jungles in other 246 Chapter 6 parts of Ceylon, Nuwara E l i y a could be tamed and shaped into a t r a n q u i l , pastoral setting. Expatriates found the informality of the picturesque landscape i n v i t i n g for they could l e t down the defenses they had assumed as rulers of a foreign land. Above a l l , in the picturesque surroundings of Nuwara E l i y a the consciousness of their Imperial duty receded. Expatriates were no longer assailed by the sense of loss that exile from B r i t a i n entailed. The chapter has reviewed a selection from the nineteenth century travel l i t e r a t u r e on Nuwara E l i y a . The B r i t i s h in Ceylon had a profound and la s t i n g attachment to Nuwara E l i y a for i t was much more than a sanatarium or a resort. Frequently, the descriptions and narratives provided by expatriates and t r a v e l l e r s were imbued with an emotional intensity that i s s t r i k i n g . Drawn to Nuwara E l i y a because of i t s temperate climate and a landscape that resembled B r i t a i n , expatriates imposed an English v i l l a g e on the Ceylonese uplands. Yet Nuwara E l i y a was no ordinary English v i l l a g e for i t symbolized a l l of the most a t t r a c t i v e aspects of i t s distant parentland. For each expatriate, Nuwara E l i y a assumed a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t r o l e . To' some, the h i l l - s t a t i o n was the Scottish highlands; to others, i t was the Grasmere countryside. For a l l , Nuwara E l i y a represented Home. The loyalty of expatriates to Nuwara E l i y a was a sublimated loyalty to a faraway land and way of l i f e . 247 Chapter 6 ENDNOTES (1) In 1833, the e d i t o r of the Bombay Gazette wrote at the i n t r o d u c t i o n to an a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d "Convalescent S t a t i o n s i n I n d i a . Sketch of a V i s i t to Nuwera E l l i a i n Ceylon", " A l l that i s wanting to Newera E l l i a i s an i n f l u x of v i s i t o r s , who w i l l i n t r o d u c e the n e c e s s i t y of conveniences which i t does not at present s u f f i c i e n t l y possess" (Biden, 1833). (2) S i r r was one of a number of authors who urged the permanent settlement of Nuwara E l i y a by Europeans. Such w r i t e r s i n c l u d e d Samuel Baker (1883, 1884, 1890) and a c o n t r i b u t o r to the Ceylon Overland Observer who s t a t e d that "We do not see... why a more extended settlement should not take p l a c e . . . [ a t ] our own Newera E l l i a " f o r many had found i t to be a "congenial home" (Ceylon Overland Observer, June 25, 1872) . (3) Lake Gregory was excavated c i r c a 1873 by order of Governor S i r W i l l i a m Gregory (1872-1877). The land on which the lake i s l o c a t e d i s marshy and was e x p r o p r i a t e d by the government under the Waste Lands Ordinance Act (de S i l v a , 1978:87). (4) B r o h i e r (1948:7) suggests that Governor S i r Robert Wilmot Horton's lac k of enthusiasm f o r Nuwara E l i y a may be " t r a c e d to a r i v a l c l a i m set up by the d i s c o v e r y of another s i t e f o r a Ceylon ' h i l l s t a t i o n " ' . Horton d i d v i s i t Nuwara E l i y a , having rented a house, Barnes H a l l , from h i s predecessor, S i r Edward Barnes, but complained about the high rent and the leaky roof ( H u l u g a l l e , 1963:42). In 1831, two years a f t e r Nuwara E l i y a was made a m i l i t a r y sanatarium, Mr. F i s h e r of the 78th Regiment and Mr. Watson of the 58th Regiment " d i s c o v e r e d " a p l a t e a u approximately twenty m i l e s southeast of Nuwara E l i y a . Located at 7000 f e e t e l e v a t i o n , the p l a t e a u was named Horton P l a i n s , a f t e r Governor and Lady Horton ( B r o h i e r , 1948:7). Burrows s t a t e s that the scenery of Horton P l a i n s " i s f a r f i n e r than anything Nuwara E l i y a can o f f e r " (1899:53) yet Horton P l a i n s never a t t a i n e d the prominence of Nuwara E l i y a . T h i s may be because the former i s l e s s a c c e s s i b l e than Nuwara E l i y a and never r e c e i v e d the support of a patron such as S i r Samuel Baker. Horton P l a i n s does not possess the f a c i l i t i e s of a h i l l - s t a t i o n and i s noted i n the t r a v e l l i t e r a t u r e f o r i t s p r o x i m i t y to World's End, so named because of the steep escarpment with a drop of 5000 f e e t which a f f o r d s a f i n e view of the southern p o r t i o n of Ceylon. (5) Governor Gregory's d e c i s i o n to s e l l the Governor's r e s i d e n c e at G a l l e was based on a combination of p e r s o n a l 248 Chapter 6 preference and economic motives. The house was "old, uncomfortable and useless except for affording Downing Street o f f i c i a l s the means of exercising h o s p i t a l i t y at Ceylon's cost" (Bastiampillai, 1968:118). Galle had been the primary harbour for Ceylon u n t i l the 1870s. With the improvements to the Colombo harbour in the early 1870s, Gregory lobbied the Colonial O f f i c e to make Colombo the major port. Thus i t was imperative that the Governor's residence in Galle be sold quickly f o r . i t was anticipated that property values in that town would decline ( i b i d . ) . (6) The exact amount of time that individual Governors spent at the h i l l - s t a t i o n varied according to their schedules and the demands of o f f i c e . (7) It i s unclear from the text of the book which of the s i s t e r s was the v i s i t o r to Nuwara E l i y a and the author of the l e t t e r and which s i s t e r remained in Jaffna. (8) Phonetic s p e l l i n g of English pronunciation of Nuwara E l i y a . (9) A.G.A. Burrows also argued in favour of increased funding for Nuwara E l i y a . He urged in his diary that the co l o n i a l government provide loans for the improvement of Nuwara E l i y a as "no one who sees the place on a fine afternoon can doubt that i t is and ought to be the playground and health depot of the Island....If bad times are coming so much the more important is i t . t o improve Nuwara E l i y a , for expensive as i t i s , i t i s far cheaper than England" (Government of Ceylon, Apr. 19, 1898). (10) A.G.A. Burrows concurred with A.G.A. White's assessment of Nuwara E l i y a . Burrows suggested that a Winter Garden close to the H i l l Club would make "this part of Nuwara E l i y a . . . r e a l l y beautiful instead of abandoned scrub" (Government of Ceylon, May 17, 1898). 249 CHAPTER 7: NUWARA ELIYA: c o n c l u s i o n s T h i s t h e s i s has examined the s e n t i m e n t a l attachment t h a t e x p a t r i a t e s formed f o r Nuwara E l i y a . Nuwara E l i y a was an e x p r e s s i o n of r o m a n t i c i s m which was m a n i f e s t t h r o u g h p i c t u r e s q u e l a n d s c a p e i d e a l s t h a t were p o p u l a r w i t h the B r i t i s h upper and m i d d l e c l a s s e s d u r i n g the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . As a p i c t u r e s q u e l a n d s c a p e , the h i l l - s t a t i o n a r o u s e d the emotions of e x p a t r i a t e s and f e d t h e i r i m a g i n a t i o n s . Nuwara E l i y a ' s resemblance t o B r i t a i n i n s p i r e d r e c o l l e c t i o n s of f a v o r i t e l a n d s c a p e s i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n c o u n t r y . In the minds of e x p a t r i a t e s , Nuwara E l i y a s y m b o l i z e d a r o m a n t i c i z e d image of B r i t a i n -- Home. The i n t e n s i t y of emotion d i s p l a y e d i n the t r a v e l l i t e r a t u r e a t t e s t s t o t h i s . R omanticism was the s p i r i t b e h i n d the d e s i r e t o c r e a t e an E n g l i s h v i l l a g e i n the Ceylonese c o u n t r y s i d e . Yet i t was the c u l m i n a t i o n of a number of f a c t o r s t h a t a c c o u n t e d f o r Nuwara E l i y a ' s development. I t i s no a c c i d e n t t h a t Nuwara E l i y a e v o l v e d as i t d i d , when i t d i d . There e x i s t e d the . r e q u i s i t e i n g r e d i e n t s . The B r i t i s h p o s s e s s e d the b e l i e f i n the h e a l t h - g i v i n g v i r t u e s of the temperate h i g h l a n d s which went hand-in-hand w i t h the d e s i r e t o escape the o p p r e s s i v e heat of the l o w l a n d s . The presence of an a t t r a c t i v e and a c c e s s i b l e l o c a l e t h a t bore such a remarkable resemblance t o t h e i r homeland — f r e e from n a t i v e s e t t l e m e n t s --.was c o m p e l l i n g . A growing economic p r o s p e r i t y , r e s u l t i n g i n 250 Chapter 7 g r e a t e r l e i s u r e time and the s u r p l u s t o en j o y i t , enhanced the a l l u r e of the h i l l - s t a t i o n as a r e c r e a t i o n a l a l t e r n a t i v e . In c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a y e a r n i n g f o r the cam a r a d e r i e of f e l l o w e x p a t r i a t e s and d e s i r e t o share i n the r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s of t h e i r c u l t u r e , Nuwara E l i y a p r o v e d i n c r e a s i n g l y a p p e a l i n g . The s e p a r a t i o n from B r i t a i n , immersion i n an a l i e n l a n d and c u l t u r e , caused a homesickness f o r a way of l i f e they t r e a s u r e d . In Nuwara E l i y a , they sought s o l a c e . Though the h i l l - s t a t i o n o f f e r e d o n l y a temporary a l l e v i a t i o n of t h e i r symptoms, the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y w r i t i n g s of e x p a t r i a t e s and t r a v e l l e r s a r e a t e s t i m o n y of t h e i r g r a t i t u d e . Nuwara E l i y a i s a symbol of Empire f o r i t r e p r e s e n t s i r r e f u t a b l e p r o o f of the hegemony of B r i t i s h i n s t i t u t i o n s and c u l t u r e . The l a n d s c a p e of Nuwara E l i y a speaks of the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the B r i t i s h t o succeed, t o dominate, t o remain d e s p i t e a d v e r s i t y as a matter of honour. The c h a l l e n g e s i n h e r e n t i n g o v e r n i n g such a l a n d as C e y l o n , though i t h e l d a r e p u t a t i o n as the most a n g l i c i z e d of England's A s i a n c o l o n i e s ( M o r r i s , 1979:511), were taken i n s t r i d e by the B r i t i s h f o r i t was a p r i v i l e g e , as w e l l as a du t y , t o r e p r e s e n t the Queen and Empire. The i m p o s i t i o n of a B r i t i s h town i n the h e a r t of C e y l o n was no s m a l l accomplishment. In c r e a t i n g Nuwara E l i y a , the B r i t i s h were d e m o n s t r a t i n g the s t r e n g t h of t h e i r c u l t u r e and the power 251 Chapter 7 they commanded. For the B r i t i s h i n C e y l o n , Nuwara E l i y a ' s e x i s t e n c e i n the m i d s t of a f o r e i g n l a n d was r e a s s u r i n g e v i d e n c e of the s u p e r i o r i t y of t h e i r way of l i f e and the might of the I m p e r i a l Regime. U n l i k e I n d i a , C e y l o n p o s s e s s e d o n l y one t r u e h i l l -s t a t i o n . Whereas e x p a t r i a t e s i n I n d i a c o u l d v i s i t one or more h i l l - s t a t i o n , e x p a t r i a t e s i n C e y l o n f o c u s e d t h e i r a t t e n t i o n upon Nuwara E l i y a . Yet Nuwara E l i y a was not p o p u l a r s o l e l y because i t was the o n l y o p t i o n f o r e x p a t r i a t e s . As a h i l l -s t a t i o n i t p o s s e s s e d many d e s i r a b l e a t t r i b u t e s and c o u l d compare f a v o r a b l y w i t h any I n d i a n h i l l - s t a t i o n . I t even had some advantages t o the I n d i a n h i l l - s t a t i o n s such as a m i l d c l i m a t e t h a t never e x h i b i t e d the severe c o l d of Himalayan s t a t i o n s ^ l i k e S i m l a . When the r a i n became t i r e s o m e , i t c o u l d be e a s i l y a v o i d e d by a s h o r t j o u r n e y over the h i l l s t o Uva. U n l i k e some I n d i a n h i l l - s t a t i o n s , a c c e s s i b i l i t y was never an impediment to. the development of Nuwara E l i y a . F u r t h e r m o r e , Nuwara E l i y a ' s m e r i t s as a h e a l t h s a n a t a r i u m were the e q u a l of any I n d i a n h i l l - s t a t i o n . Nuwara E l i y a d i d not a c h i e v e the prominence of h i l l -s t a t i o n s such as S i m l a or D a r j e e l i n g . I t may not have been d e s i r a b l e had i t done so, f o r the r e p u t a t i o n of S i m l a and D a r j e e l i n g was based upon t h e i r preeminence as s o c i a l r e s o r t s . Nuwara E l i y a was f i r s t and foremost a q u i e t E n g l i s h h amlet. I t enjoy e d a s o l i d r e p u t a t i o n as a l i t t l e p i e c e of 252 Chapter 7 B r i t a i n n e s t l e d i n the C e y l o n e s e c o u n t r y s i d e . The l o y a l t y of v i s i t o r s and r e s i d e n t s was due t o i t s resemblance t o Home and the f a c t t h a t the s o c i a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l l i f e of the h i l l - s t a t i o n a p p r o x i m a t e d t h a t of the m e t r o p o l i t a n s o c i e t y . As Nuwara E l i y a e v o l v e d i n t o a r e c r e a t i o n a l r e s o r t i n the l a s t q u a r t e r of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , i t c o n t i n u e d t o earn a r e p u t a t i o n as- a s a n a t a r i u m . From a c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s of the t r a v e l l i t e r a t u r e i t i s apparent t h a t the p r i m a r y a t t r a c t i o n of Nuwara E l i y a was i t s p i c t u r e s q u e l a n d s c a p e , the c o n t r a s t i t p r o v i d e d w i t h c o a s t a l C e y l o n , and f r e e r e i g n i t gave t o the i m a g i n a t i o n s of e x p a t r i a t e s who e n t e r t a i n e d f a n t a s i e s of r e t u r n i n g t o Engl a n d . A s t u d y of Nuwara E l i y a i s not merely the st u d y of a town, r a t h e r i t i s the study of the a d a p t a t i o n of the B r i t i s h t o the p r o c e s s of c o l o n i a l i s m . The impact of the c o l o n i a l e x p e r i e n c e was not l i m i t e d t o the n a t i v e s of c o l o n i z e d c o u n t r i e s . A l t h o u g h the e x p e r i e n c e s of the r u l e r s and the r u l e d c e r t a i n l y d i f f e r e d , the c o l o n i a l e x p e r i e n c e had a p r o f o u n d impact on b o t h . In C e y l o n , as e l s e w h e r e , c o l o n i a l i s m was the sum t o t a l of the a c t i o n s of myriad i n d i v i d u a l s . Thus i t i s more than an i n t e r e s t i n g e x e r c i s e t o t h i n k of the B r i t i s h abroad as i n d i v i d u a l s who ha r b o r e d hopes, a s p i r a t i o n s and f e a r s ; i t i s e s s e n t i a l t o the u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the I m p e r i a l u n d e r t a k i n g . 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And ye who scorn both "book" and "stake," And riding love for riding's sake --Jymkhana ho! Ye sallow merchants of the Fort, Come, patronise the noble sport. A fortnight to New'raliya's h i l l s Is worth a ton of drugs and p i l l s Jymkhana oh! [ s i c ] Arid ye small big-wigs, with big l i v e r s , Big berths, f u l l purses, and f u l l quivers. Old dried-up red-tape-tied c i v i l i a n s , Who rule. - - or mis-rule -- swarthy millions --Jymkhana ho! Poor planter, overworked and worn, Waking to cares and t o i l each morn; "Reports" and "pay l i s t s " cast, aside, And l e t the d -d old "toturn" s l i d e --Jymkhana ho! 267 The Dance in Neweralia (from: Hamilton and Fasson, 1881) There's a dance in New'ralia, Jack -- do you hear? 'Twill be a grand spree, as you well can conceive. H.E., and a l l the big guns w i l l by there, And Camilla de Snoppington Snooks, I believe. "You'll come?" "No, I can't. The old mare's cast a shoe; And the journey's too much -- i t w i l l precious near k i l l her. Oh, bother the B a l l ! By the way, what do you Mean by c a l l i n g Miss Snooks by the name of Camilla?" "No offence meant, old man; pray do not get r i l e d ; Camill -- beg your pardon -- Miss Snopping Snooks, If you give her the s l i p w i l l be perfectly wild, And w i l l spoon someone e l s e in these nice l i t t l e nooks!" 'Twere needless to mention their f i n a l decision. They resolved in society's vortex to shine. So prepared, being dressed with the utmost precision, To encounter the p e r i l s of women and wine. Heterogeneous! Euphonious expression, Which means, I believe, " a l l the world and his wife," Can scarcely s u f f i c e to convey an impression Of the mass here col l e c t e d for pleasure and s t r i f e . "Hurrah! Here we are! Doesn't Maud look a duck? I've s p l i t my kid gloves! Look at Ethel — the dear! There's Mrs. de Racy! -- Confound my bad luck! There's my white t i e got twisted up under my ear!" See the slender white "baton," now poised in mid-air, By immortal Herr Pappe. One wave of the hand, And the sweet notes of "Dreamland" -- so witching, so f a i r --So tender and touching, break soft from the band. Oh! the memories roused by that haunting, sweet s t r a i n , Neath the masculine s h i r t - f r o n t s of dances at "Home;" Where, petted and ogled, securely they reign, And partnerless damsels disconsolate they roam. Here the natural order of things is reversed -- ' Ten "Beaux" simultaneously rush at a "Belle" --Entreating, beseeching, where none but the f i r s t Can escape a refusal and snubbing as well. 268 The Dance in Neweralia cont'd... Appendix And the method of dancing is varied and strange: One couple comes d r i f t i n g down under f u l l s a i l , Then suddenly stop, spinning round for a change, Like a t e r r i e r chasing the t i p of his t a i l . A second, apparently trying to solve Some problem e l l i p t i c , regardless where wax i s ; Unconsciously deluged with drippings revolve With awful solemnity on their own axis. "This r e a l l y is 'Pucka;' the music's superb; One turn more, Mrs. T. -- what, Finale already? C o l l i s i o n , by Jove! Pray your energy curb, Jack, my boy. Is he cocked? I say, steady, Jack, steady! "What's wrong with you, man?" "Why, i t ' s just t h i s , my friend, I came here to dance, not to watch you perform. And under th'impression I'm out on the 'bend,' I've taken the Champagne department by storm. "I'd dance i f I could, but i t ' s out of the question, When every g i r l swears she's engaged twenty deep. A nice state of things. Now (hie), 'scuse the suggestion, Just sheer o f f , old man, for I'm anxious to sleep. "Why the (hie) did I come? Pleasure always beguiles me. But there's no fun in t h i s . What (hie) l i e s they do t e l l , When they swear they're already engaged -- that's what r i l e s me. Confound i t ! Here, boy, some more sparkling Moselle." Hark! a voice of authority supper announces. To describe the result of this news I'm unable, For the r a t t l e of fans and the rustle of flounces, And confusion of tongues forms a regular Babel. "Yes, thank you" -(smash, c l a t t e r ) " I ' l l take mayonnaise" -"Afther you wid the corkscrew"—"Boy bring some more ice" -"Sampagne, Sar?"-"No, did she"—"How well the band plays" -"What beautiful lace!"'-- "May I send you a . s l i c e ? " "How Miss Mulligan paints"—"Yes, and prunes twice a year" -"Mr. Jones, have you seen my"-"Capped hocks and a s p l i n t " -"Shoots snipe with"-(pop, • f i z z , bang)"Your dress, Lucy dear"-"Mango t a r t , madam?"—"Makes you as hard as f l i n t . " 269 The Dance in Neweralia cont'd... Appendix "Ah, Miss Snooks, my poor heart!"--"And dried buffalo hump"--"Just pass me the bottle!" -- "Bedad, but i t s thrue!" — "Hi, boy!" -- "So he aimed just over the lump" — "And gave her two kisses"--"Turned out with blue l i g h t . " "Who is that pretty girl?"--"Dressed with parsley and eggs"--"Sore mouth! Goodness gracious, the very best thing Is" -- "Bone dust and Poonac" — "Such beautiful legs" --"A medium choke-bore" "You should just hear her sing!" Meanwhile, some who at spooning are quite indefatigable, '. Have, during the supper, retreated to b l i s s , In some corner, they fondly suppose, ungetatable, To eavesdroppers anxious to witness a ki s s . But, dancing and spooning, and eating and drinking, Like everything else, must at last have an end. And hitherto sparkling eyes begin to blink, As daylight concludes this New'ralia "bend." 270 

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