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Planning for urban lakes and residential development Reeve, Noelle Anne Watt 1987

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PLANNING FOR URBAN LAKES AND RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT by NOELLE ANNE WATT REEVE B.Sc. (Hons.) T r e n t U n i v e r s i t y , 1984 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES The S c h o o l of Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Jan u a r y 1988 (c) N o e l l e Anne Watt Reeve, 1987 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Community and Regional Planning The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 D a t e March 21,1988 D E - 6 ( 3 / 8 1 ) ABSTRACT The d e s t r u c t i v e impact of development upon the environment has been r e c o g n i z e d worldwide s i n c e the mid-1960s. One a s p e c t of t h i s environment-development c o n f l i c t i s the impact of urban development on water r e s o u r c e s . T h i s t h e s i s e v a l u a t e s how w e l l a m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s f o r an urban l a k e r e s o l v e d the problems of the impact of r e s i d e n t i a l development on l a k e water q u a l i t y and the c o n f l i c t over f u r t h e r development. The Burnaby, B r i t i s h Columbia p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s f o r Deer Lake i s used as a case s t u d y . Three b o d i e s of l i t e r a t u r e - urban l a k e p l a n n i n g , environment-development r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n -a r e used t o p r o v i d e the framework f o r the case s t u d y . Two c r i t e r i a a r e d e v e l o p e d from the l i t e r a t u r e t o e v a l u a t e the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s : i t s c a p a b i l i t y t o produce e c o l o g i c a l l y c o m p a t i b l e outcomes and i t s c a p a b i l i t y t o r e s o l v e c o n f l i c t . The main c o n c l u s i o n of the e v a l u a t i o n i s t h a t a l t h o u g h the e a r l y phase of the Deer Lake p r o c e s s (1972-1978) was weak, t h e r e was a marked improvement i n the most r e c e n t phase ( 1 9 8 3 - e a r l y 1987) i n t h e c a p a b i l i t y of the p r o c e s s t o produce e c o l o g i c a l l y c o m p a t i b l e outcomes t h r o u g h the use of r e l e v a n t s c i e n t i f i c / t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n ( t o reduce the impacts on l a k e water q u a l i t y caused by r e s i d e n t i a l d e velopment). W h i l e the a b i l i t y of the Burnaby p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s t o a n t i c i p a t e c o n f l i c t has always been s t r o n g , t h e r e i s room f o r f u r t h e r development of i i i t he c a p a b i l i t y t o r e s o l v e c o n f l i c t . A f u r t h e r c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t the Deer Lake p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s f i t s the t y p i c a l p r o f i l e of how urban l a k e p l a n n i n g has i n c r e m e n t a l l y e v o l v e d i n N o r t h America s i n c e the mid-1960s. A summary of the two s e t s of recommendations of the t h e s i s f o l l o w s . Recommendations r e g a r d i n g urban l a k e p l a n n i n g i n . g e n e r a l i n c l u d e : 1. M u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r s s h o u l d t a k e advantage of a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n r e s o u r c e s on l a k e p l a n n i n g ( u n i v e r s i t i e s , c o l l e g e s , h i g h e r l e v e l s of government, c o n s u l t a n t s ) t o broaden t h e i r awareness of p o t e n t i a l impacts and ways t o manage them. 2. M u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r s s h o u l d : u n d e r s t a n d w a t e r s h e d - l a k e r e l a t i o n s h i p s p r i o r t o f o r m u l a t i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r urban l a k e s ; seek a b a l a n c e between environment and development; and r e q u i r e m i n i m i z a t i o n of e c o l o g i c a l i m p a c t s . 3. M u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r s s h o u l d r e c o g n i z e t h a t urban l a k e p l a n n i n g may i n v o l v e c o n f l i c t s . They s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e make themselves aware of the v a r i e t y of c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n t e c h n i q u e s a v a i l a b l e . 4. The g u i d e l i n e s d e v e l o p e d i n s e c t i o n 6.5 s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d by m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n p l a n n i n g f o r urban l a k e s . Recommendations r e g a r d i n g Deer Lake i n c l u d e : 1. C o n t i n u e w i t h the i n t e r d e p a r t m e n t a l committee t o p l a n and manage the l a k e . 2. The committee s h o u l d implement f u r t h e r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n measures as soon as p o s s i b l e . 3. The committee s h o u l d c o n t i n u e t o a n t i c i p a t e and m i n i m i z e e c o l o g i c a l i m p a c t s . 4. The committee s h o u l d m a i n t a i n c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h UBC and Douglas C o l l e g e . 5. The p l a n n i n g department s h o u l d d e t e r m i n e the p u b l i c ' s views on the agreement reached w i t h the p r o v i n c e f o r r e s i d e n t i a l development of the p r i s o n s i t e i n the Deer Lake watershed and, i f n e c e s s a r y , c o n s i d e r the r e s o l u t i o n t e c h n i q u e s d e s c r i b e d i n Appendix 3. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS.... i v LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS ix. LIST OF TABLES v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT X CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 PURPOSE • 1 1.2 CONTENTS OF INTRODUCTION 1 1.3 GLOBAL RECOGNITION OF THE ENVIRONMENT-DEVELOPMENT CONFLICT 2 1.4 SEARCH FOR SOLUTIONS: ECODEVELOPMENT - 4 1.5 LOCAL LEVEL PLANNING RESPONSE: A KEY LINK 5 1.6 WATER RESOURCES IN THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT 6 1.7 GREATER VANCOUVER'S RESPONSE TO THE ENVIRONMENT-DEVELOPMENT CONFLICT 7 1 . 8 METHODOLOGY 8 1.9 CONTRIBUTION OF THE THESIS 8 1.10 CONTENTS OF THE THESIS 9 CHAPTER I I : RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT AND URBAN LAKES: IMPACTS AND CONFLICTS 11 2.1 BENEFITS OF URBAN LAKES 11 2.2 BIOPHYSICAL IMPACTS 13 2.2.1 Urban Human Ecology 14 •2.2.2 Impacts of U r b a n i z a t i o n on the Hydrol o g i c System 14 2.2.3 Impacts of U r b a n i z a t i o n on the Ecology of Urban Lakes 22 2.2.4 Impacts of U r b a n i z a t i o n on the Amenity Value of Urban Lakes 24 V 2.3 THE CONCEPT OF CONFLICT 25 2.3.1 D e f i n i t i o n of C o n f l i c t 25 2.3.2 Sources and Forms of C o n f l i c t 27 2.4 CONFLICTS OVER LAKE QUALITY AND AMOUNT OF RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT 30 CHAPTER I I I : URBAN LAKE PLANNING PROCESSES AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION 33 3.1 URBAN LAKE PLANNING PROCESSES 33 3.1.1 Urban Lake P l a n n i n g L i t e r a t u r e 33 3.1.2 O n t a r i o M i n i s t r y of the Environment 34 3.1.3 US F i s h and W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e 35 3.1.4 C a r i b o o R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t 37 3.1.5 US Army Corps of E n g i n e e r s 38 3.1.6 US EPA C l e a n Lakes Program 39 3.1.7 S e c t i o n 208 41 3.1.8 Summary 44 3.2 CONFLICT RESOLUTION 46 3.2.1 D e f i n i t i o n of R e s o l u t i o n 46 3.2.2 R e s o l u t i o n P r o c e s s and Techniques 47 3.2.3 Summary 49 CHAPTER IV: EVALUATION CRITERIA FOR THE CASE STUDY 50 4.1 FRAMEWORK FOR ANALYZING THE CASE STUDY 50 4.1.1 I m p l i c a t i o n s of the L i t e r a t u r e 50 4.2 CRITERIA FOR EVALUATING THE CAPABILITY OF THE PLANNING PROCESS TO PRODUCE ECOLOGICALLY COMPATIBLE OUTCOMES 52 4.2.1 R e c o g n i t i o n of the Need f o r E c o l o g i c a l C o m p a t i b i l i t y 53 4.2.2 Use of R e l e v a n t S c i e n t i f i c / T e c h n i c a l I n f o r m a t i o n 53 4.2.3 E f f e c t i v e n e s s of I n f o r m a t i o n G a t h e r i n g 55 4.3 CRITERIA FOR EVALUATING THE CAPABILITY OF THE PLANNING PROCESS TO RESOLVE CONFLICT 55 4.3.1 A n t i c i p a t i o n of C o n f l i c t 55 4.3.2 Review of P o t e n t i a l R e s o l u t i o n Responses.... 56 4.3.3 Implementation and F a c i l i t a t i o n of a R e s o l u t i o n P r o c e s s 56 v i CHAPTER V: THE PLANNING PROCESS FOR DEER LAKE, BURNABY, BRITISH COLUMBIA 58 5.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF DEER LAKE TO BURNABY 58 5.2 CHRONOLOGY OF DEER LAKE DEVELOPMENT 60 5.3 CHRONOLOGY OF DEER LAKE PARK PLANNING PROCESS 60 5.4 ORIGIN OF TOWN PARK CONCEPT 70 5.5 WATER QUALITY PLANNING 70 5.5.1 Lake and Watershed C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 71 5.5.2 I n i t i a l Stage 73 5.5.3 C o n f l i c t Stage 75 5.5.4 R e s o l u t i o n Stage 81 5.6 GOALS AND CONFLICTS 83 5.6.1 I n i t i a l Stage 84 5.6.2 C o n f l i c t Stage 88 5.6.3 R e s o l u t i o n Stage 91 CHAPTER V I : EVALUATION OF THE DEER LAKE PLANNING PROCESS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR URBAN LAKE PLANNING 95 6.1 EVALUATION OF THE CAPABILITY OF THE PLANNING PROCESS TO PRODUCE ECOLOGICALLY COMPATIBLE OUTCOMES 95 6.1.1 R e c o g n i t i o n of the Need f o r E c o l o g i c a l C o m p a t i b i l i t y 95 6.1.2 Use of R e l e v a n t S c i e n t i f i c / T e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n 97 6.1.3 E f f e c t i v e n e s s of I n f o r m a t i o n G a t h e r i n g 101 6.2 EVALUATION OF THE CAPABILITY OF THE PLANNING PROCESS TO RESOLVE CONFLICT 102 6.2.1 A n t i c i p a t i o n of C o n f l i c t 103 6.2.2 Review of P o t e n t i a l R e s o l u t i o n Response 104 6.2.3 Imp l e m e n t a t i o n and F a c i l i t a t i o n of R e s o l u t i o n P r o c e s s 104 6.3 SUMMARY 105 6.4 CONCLUSIONS 107 6.5 GUIDELINES FOR URBAN LAKE PLANNING 108 v i i 6. 6 RECOMMENDATIONS 112 6.6.1 Urban Lake Planning 112 6.6.2 Deer Lake 115 REFERENCES 116 APPENDIX 1: ECODEVELOPMENT EXAMPLES 128 APPENDIX 2: URBAN LAKE LITERATURE: HISTORIES AND MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES 135 APPENDIX 3: CONFLICT RESOLUTION TECHNIQUES 151 APPENDIX 4: TERMS OF REFERENCE FOR BEAK CONSULTANTS' WATER QUALITY STUDY 159 v i i i LIST OF TABLES Tab l e 1. Comparison of the N a t u r a l and Urban H y d r o l o g i c C y c l e s 16 2. T y p i c a l Runoff C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r D i f f e r e n t Land Use Types 18 3. Dust and D i r t A c c u m u l a t i o n i n Urban Runoff 18 4. C a l c u l a t e d Q u a n t i t i e s of P o l l u t a n t s Which Would E n t e r Waters i n an H y p o t h e t i c a l C i t y 19 5. Impacts of U r b a n i z a t i o n on Water Q u a n t i t y 20 6. Impacts of U r b a n i z a t i o n on Water Q u a l i t y 21 7. Steps f o r A q u a t i c Resource P l a n n i n g a t the M u n i c i p a l L e v e l 36 8. P r o c e d u r e s f o r I n t e g r a t i n g Water Resources i n t o S i t e Design 36 9. US Army Corps of E n g i n e e r s ' Water Q u a l i t y and Land Use P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s 40 10. The S e c t i o n 208 P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s ... 43 11. Chronology of Deer Lake Development 61 12. Land and Ownership i n the Deer Lake Watershed 62 13. Chronology of Deer Lake Park P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s 65 14. Sources of Phosphorus t o Deer Lake by S u b - b a s i n , 1981 78 15. Suggested R e s t o r a t i o n Methods f o r Deer Lake 79 16. D e r i v a t i o n of Ground R u l e s f o r Ecodevelopment 130 17. C o n t r i b u t i o n of the GEM Approach t o the P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s 133 i x LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS F i g u r e 1. Range of Choice i n Urban Lake Q u a l i t y and R e s i d e n t i a l Development 31 2. G u i d e l i n e s f o r Urban Lake Planning Processes 110 Map 1. L o c a t i o n of Deer Lake Park 59 2. 1982 P r o v i n c i a l Housing Proposal f o r O a k a l l a 63 3. 1986 P r o v i n c i a l Housing Proposal f o r O a k a l l a 64 4. Sub-basins of the Deer Lake Watershed 72 X ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would l i k e to thank the Canada Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n f o r the f i n a n c i a l support p r o v i d e d by t h e i r s c h o l a r s h i p f o r the 1986-87 school year. Thanks are given to my s u p e r v i s o r s , Tony Dorcey and W i l l i a m Rees, f o r t h e i r guidance and c r i t i c i s m and to Henry Hightower f o r h i s comments. I would l i k e to thank my husband f o r h i s generous support and u n f a i l i n g encouragement. Thanks are a l s o extended to B a s i l Luksun, the Long Range Planner f o r Burnaby, the Burnaby M u n i c i p a l C l e r k ' s O f f i c e , and Joan Sawicki, Land Sense L t d . , f o r the i n f o r m a t i o n they p r o v i d e d on the case study. 1 CHAPTER I : INTRODUCTION 1.1 PURPOSE The d e s t r u c t i v e impact of development upon the environment has been r e c o g n i z e d worldwide s i n c e the mid-1960s. One a s p e c t of t h i s environment-development c o n f l i c t i s the impact of urban development on water r e s o u r c e s . T h i s t h e s i s e v a l u a t e s how w e l l a m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s f o r an urban l a k e r e s o l v e d the problems of the impact of r e s i d e n t i a l development on l a k e water q u a l i t y and the c o n f l i c t over f u r t h e r development. The Burnaby, B r i t i s h Columbia p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s f o r Deer Lake i s used as a case s t u d y . 1.2 CONTENTS OF INTRODUCTION T h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n e l a b o r a t e s the c o n t e x t of the t h e s i s and r e v i e w s : . g l o b a l l e v e l r e c o g n i t i o n of the impacts of urban development on the environment: U n i t e d N a t i o n s c o n f e r e n c e s and programs . s e a r c h f o r s o l u t i o n s : ecodevelopment . the importance of a l o c a l l e v e l p l a n n i n g response . G r e a t e r Vancouver's response t o the environment-development c o n f l i c t . t h e s i s methodology . the c o n t r i b u t i o n of the t h e s i s 2 The i n t r o d u c t i o n c o n c l u d e s by o u t l i n i n g each of t h e subsequent c h a p t e r s . 1.3 GLOBAL RECOGNITION OF THE ENVIRONMENT-DEVELOPMENT CONFLICT The environment^development c o n f l i c t r e f e r s t o the d e g r a d a t i o n of the n a t u r a l environment t h r o u g h the p r o c e s s e s of economic growth, u r b a n i z a t i o n and i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . Concern c e n t r e s on impacts on w i l d l i f e , w i l d e r n e s s , a i r , s o i l and water q u a l i t y ( C l a r k and T i m b e r l a k e 1982, 6 ; B a c k s t r a n d i n U n i t e d N a t i o n s Environment Program 1982, 2 1 ) . V a r i o u s i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n f e r e n c e s and programs have d e l i n e a t e d the c o n f l i c t or have sought t o come t o g r i p s w i t h i t . The 1955 c o n f e r e n c e on Man's Ro l e In Changing the Face of the E a r t h ; the U.N. Conference On the Human Environment (1972); Man and the B i o s p h e r e Program ( 1 9 7 0 s ) ; the D e l o s Symposia (1963-1974); H a b i t a t 76; and the World Commission On Environment and Development (1985-7) a r e p a r t of the g l o b a l response t o the impact of humans on t h e environment. The 1955 c o n f e r e n c e Man's R o l e i n Changing the Face of the E a r t h , p r o v i d e d an e a r l y w arning t h a t development a c t i v i t i e s were h a v i n g a n e g a t i v e impact on the environment ( G l i k s o n 1971). However t h i s w a rning d i d not g a i n w i d e s p r e a d r e c o g n i t i o n f o r an o t h e r seventeen y e a r s . The U.N. Stockholm C o n f e r e n c e on the Human Environment i n 1972 succeeded i n b r i n g i n g the impacts of development on the 3 environment t o the w o r l d ' s a t t e n t i o n . I t e x p l o r e d p a r t i c u l a r problems such as s o i l d e g r a d a t i o n , marine p o l l u t i o n , problems of human s e t t l e m e n t s , and p o p u l a t i o n growth. I t produced a p r o c l a m a t i o n , 26 p r i n c i p l e s , an a c t i o n p l a n , and an agency --the U n i t e d N a t i o n s Environment Program (UNEP) — a l l of which are s t i l l r e l e v a n t today ( C l a r k e and T i m b e r l a k e 1982). The Man and the B i o s p h e r e program was e s t a b l i s h e d by the U.N. t o f u r t h e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the b i o s p h e r e and t o document the impacts of development on the environment and t o s e a r c h f o r ways t o overcome these i m p a c t s . In Canada, over 100 p o t e n t i a l e c o l o g i c a l r e s e r v e s were i d e n t i f i e d under t h i s program. The D e l o s Symposia and H a b i t a t 76 were b o t h c o n c e r n e d w i t h the s p e c i f i c impact of human s e t t l e m e n t s on the environment. The De l o s Symposia were a s e r i e s of i n f o r m a l meetings o r g a n i z e d by C. A. D o x i a d i s t o b r i n g t o g e t h e r p e o p l e c o n c e r n e d about human s e t t l e m e n t s and the environment t o propose ways t o meet the c h a l l e n g e of t h e i r mutual c o e x i s t e n c e . H a b i t a t 76 was a f o r m a l c o n f e r e n c e convened by the U.N. t o d e s c r i b e and a d d r e s s the problems of human s e t t l e m e n t s and t h e i r impact on the environment. The World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) i s an independent body c r e a t e d by the U.N. i n 1985 t o loo k ahead at c r i t i c a l environment and development problems and propose b e t t e r ways f o r the w o r l d community t o a d d r e s s them. The Commission t r a v e l l e d the w o r l d i n an open p r o c e s s s e e k i n g s u b m i s s i o n s of i d e a s and w i l l r e p o r t i n 1987 on t h e i r f i n d i n g s 4 (WCED 1985). T h e i r agenda i n c l u d e d the t o p i c s o f : p o p u l a t i o n , e n e rgy, i n d u s t r y , food s e c u r i t y , human s e t t l e m e n t s , i n t e r n a t i o n a l economic r e l a t i o n s , and d e c i s i o n s u pport systems f o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l management. The r o l e of human s e t t l e m e n t s was r e c o g n i z e d by the above c o n f e r e n c e s and programs as h a v i n g a s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the environment-development c o n f l i c t because " i t i s i n human s e t t l e m e n t s t h a t b oth the need f o r development and the dangers t o the human environment a r e most e v i d e n t and c o n c e n t r a t e d " ( T o l b a 1982, 8 ) . 1.4 SEARCH FOR SOLUTIONS: ECODEVELOPMENT One major outcome of the s e c o n f e r e n c e s and programs has been an attempt t o r e c o n c e p t u a l i z e environment and development t o promote a b a l a n c e between the two. Development s h o u l d imply " f u l f i l l m e n t of b a s i c human needs such a s : f o o d , s h e l t e r , c l o t h i n g , h e a l t h , and e d u c a t i o n " and beyond t h i s l e v e l "improvements i n the q u a l i t y of l i f e " r a t h e r than i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n ( C l a r k and T i m b e r l a k e 1982, 5 8 ) . Environment s h o u l d be p e r c e i v e d as both a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r development and i t s end r e s u l t (WCED 1985, 13). The ecodevelopment paradigm was adopted by the U n i t e d N a t i o n s Environment Programme t o p r o v i d e g u i d e l i n e s t o implement the maintenance of e c o l o g i c a l i n t e g r i t y i n a b a l a n c e w i t h development. Ecodevelopment i s based on the p r i n c i p l e s o f : c o n s i d e r a t i o n of i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r s u s t a i n a b l e development 5 m i n i m i z a t i o n of i n e v i t a b l e change and i r r e v e r s i b l e damage d i r e c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n of p e o p l e a f f e c t e d by development ( B u r t o n and White 1983, 29) Ecodevelopment i n c l u d e s p o s i t i o n s which range from a s i n g l e f o c u s on b i o p h y s i c a l s u s t a i n a b i l i t y ; a f o c u s on m a x i m i z a t i o n of human s a t i s f a c t i o n t h r o u g h optimum p a t t e r n s of consumption; t o a broader f o c u s on the e t h i c s of s t e w a r d s h i p f o r l i f e on e a r t h . F i v e examples of ecodevelopment approaches a r e p r o v i d e d i n Appendix 1. The f i r s t l i s t s the g u i d e l i n e s f o r an ecosystems approach t o human s e t t l e m e n t s p l a n n i n g i n the M i d d l e E a s t p r e p a r e d by UNEP. The second d e s c r i b e s the u t i l i z a t i o n of the n a t u r a l h y d r o l o g i c system i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a new town i n Woodlands, Texas. The t h i r d i s an example of an e c o l o g i c a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s d e v e l o p e d i n Europe. The f o u r t h i l l u s t r a t e s how s u b d i v i s i o n p r o v i s i o n s can p e r m i t a l a y o u t t h a t p r o t e c t s a l a k e environment i n an e c o n o m i c a l l y f e a s i b l e way. The f i f t h i s the development of a C o n s e r v a t i o n S t r a t e g y f o r P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d based on t h e World C o n s e r v a t i o n S t r a t e g y . The c o n s i d e r a t i o n of e c o l o g i c a l c o m p a t i b i l i t i e s and c o n s t r a i n t s and the m i n i m i z a t i o n of e c o l o g i c a l impact can p r o v i d e s t a n d a r d s f o r g u i d i n g or e v a l u a t i n g many p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s . 1.5 LOCAL LEVEL PLANNING RESPONSE: A KEY LINK The phrase " t h i n k g l o b a l l y , a c t l o c a l l y " summarizes the u r g i n g of a l l the i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n f e r e n c e s and programs 6 concerned w i t h the c o n f l i c t between environment and development. D o x i a d i s has p o i n t e d t o the need f o r l o c a l a c t i o n s because "the g l o b a l e c o l o g i c a l b a l a n c e i s dependent on the achievement and maintenance of a complete s e r i e s of b a l a n c e s a t lower l e v e l s " (1977, 4 3 ) . A l t h o u g h the m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s has been i d e n t i f i e d as "the weak l i n k i n t h e i n t e r - g o v e r n m e n t a l p o l i c y framework", m a i n l y because i t l a c k s t e c h n i c a l c a p a c i t y and i s u n d e r u t i l i z e d by h i g h e r l e v e l s of government, l o c a l l e v e l governments o f t e n have the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of res p o n s e s t o the environment-development c o n f l i c t ( K a i s e r e t a l . 1974, i i ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , " i t i s a t the p e r s o n a l and community l e v e l t h a t the consequences of problems a r e most o b v i o u s , the m o t i v a t i o n t o s o l v e them i s most d i r e c t and the b e n e f i t s from a c t i o n a r e most immediate" ( S t o k e s 1981, 14). A l s o the c o s t of l o c a l r e s p o n s e s can be l e s s than t h a t of c e n t r a l government responses ( S t o k e s 1981, 15). 1.6 WATER RESOURCES IN THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT One a s p e c t of the g l o b a l l e v e l environment-development c o n f l i c t i s the impact of urban development on water r e s o u r c e s . Urban development impacts i n c l u d e an i n c r e a s e i n the r a t e and volume of r u n o f f as w e l l as an i n c r e a s e i n p o l l u t i o n i n the r u n o f f . Urban l a k e s , which p r o v i d e r e c r e a t i o n , a e s t h e t i c , water s u p p l y , f l o o d c o n t r o l , and e c o l o g i c a l b e n e f i t s can be degraded 7 by the impacts of urban development t o the p o i n t where th e s e b e n e f i t s a r e l o s t . The U.S. E n v i r o n m e n t a l P r o t e c t i o n Agency r e p o r t e d t h a t 3,700 l a k e s i n the U.S. needed t o be r e h a b i l i t a t e d i n 1982 as a r e s u l t of urban development impacts (Hengeveld 1982). The t h e s i s case s t u d y i s an example of how one Canadian m u n i c i p a l i t y a t t e m p t e d t o r e s o l v e the problems of r e s i d e n t i a l development impacts on an urban l a k e and the c o n f l i c t s over proposed f u r t h e r development. 1.7 GREATER VANCOUVER'S RESPONSE TO THE ENVIRONMENT-DEVELOPMENT CONFLICT In response t o the e f f e c t s of u r b a n i z a t i o n on the environment, the L i v a b l e Region program was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1975 by the G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t . The program's purpose i s t o c o o r d i n a t e growth and changes i n j o b s , p o p u l a t i o n , h o u s i n g and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , and t o manage l a n d use (GVRD 1980). A f i v e p a r t s t r a t e g y f o r the achievement of t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s r e q u i r e s : . s h a r i n g r e s i d e n t i a l growth among a l l the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n G r e a t e r Vancouver . promoting a b a l a n c e of j o b s t o l a b o u r f o r c e i n each p a r t of the r e g i o n . c r e a t i n g r e g i o n a l town c e n t r e s . promoting a t r a n s i t o r i e n t e d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system . p r o t e c t i n g and d e v e l o p i n g r e g i o n a l open spaces (GVRD 1980, 6) The L i v a b l e Region program s u p p o r t s the r e s o l u t i o n of the 8 environment-urban development c o n f l i c t i n the G r e a t e r Vancouver r e g i o n . I t seemed n a t u r a l t h e r e f o r e t o l o o k f o r a m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s which d e a l t w i t h t h i s problem i n the G r e a t e r Vancouver r e g i o n ; Burnaby's Deer Lake p r o c e s s p r o v i d e d the case s t u d y f o r t h i s t h e s i s . 1 . 8 METHOD To d e v e l o p a framework f o r a n a l y z i n g t h e case study i n f o r m a t i o n was g a t h e r e d from the l i t e r a t u r e on: environment-development r e l a t i o n s h i p s , impacts of u r b a n i z a t i o n on l a k e s , urban l a k e p l a n n i n g , and c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n . In a d d i t i o n I used i n f o r m a l i n t e r v i e w s , newspapers, c o n s u l t a n t s ' r e p o r t s , and m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l documents t o g a t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n about the case s t u d y . As the t h e s i s i s f o c u s s e d on the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , no new b i o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s were i n i t i a t e d . 1 . 9 CONTRIBUTION OF THE THESIS The t h e s i s s h o u l d c o n t r i b u t e t o the urban p l a n n i n g and t o the environment-development c o n f l i c t l i t e r a t u r e by e v a l u a t i n g a m u n i c i p a l urban l a k e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s and recommending ways t o r e s o l v e the problems of r e s i d e n t i a l development impacts on urban l a k e water q u a l i t y and c o n f l i c t s over f u r t h e r proposed development. The t h e s i s has f o u r o b j e c t i v e s : . t o d e s c r i b e the n a t u r e of the impacts of r e s i d e n t i a l development on l a k e water q u a l i t y and the n a t u r e of the 9 c o n f l i c t s c r e a t e d by t h i s development . t o d e v e l o p a framework f o r a n a l y z i n g how w e l l the impacts and c o n f l i c t s a r e r e s o l v e d i n an urban l a k e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . t o e v a l u a t e how w e l l the case study p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s reduced the water q u a l i t y i mpacts and r e s o l v e d t h e c o n f l i c t s caused by r e s i d e n t i a l development i n the Deer Lake watershed . t o make recommendations t o improve the a b i l i t y of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s t o reduce the water q u a l i t y impacts and r e s o l v e the c o n f l i c t s c r e a t e d by r e s i d e n t i a l development The Deer Lake Park p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s the case study I chose t o e v a l u a t e . In the e a r l y 1970s the m u n i c i p a l i t y of Burnaby d e c i d e d t o ta k e advantage of the presence of Deer Lake and the s u r r o u n d i n g open a r e a t o d e v e l o p a "town p a r k " . The 35 h e c t a r e l a k e i s i n the g e o g r a p h i c a l c e n t r e of Burnaby i n a p a r t i a l l y s u b u r b a n i z e d watershed of 825 h e c t a r e s . The f a c t t h a t the l a k e was e x p e r i e n c i n g c u l t u r a l ( a c c e l e r a t e d ) e u t r o p h i c a t i o n and t h a t a c r u c i a l p i e c e of l a n d i n the l a k e watershed owned by the p r o v i n c e was b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d f o r c o n v e r s i o n t o r e s i d e n t i a l development made examining t h i s p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s the more a p p r o p r i a t e as a case s t u d y . 1.10 CONTENTS OF THE THESIS The second c h a p t e r of the t h e s i s i d e n t i f i e s the b i o p h y s i c a l i m p a c t s : the impacts of r e s i d e n t i a l development on the h y d r o l o g i c system, on l a k e e c o l o g y , and on the amenity v a l u e of l a k e s . I t then d e f i n e s c o n f l i c t and the t y p e s of c o n f l i c t which may d e v e l o p over urban l a k e q u a l i t y and r e s i d e n t i a l development. 10 In chapter three the recent p r a c t i c e of urban lake p l a n n i n g and c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n techniques i n North America are d e s c r i b e d . The i m p l i c a t i o n s of the l i t e r a t u r e f o r d e v e l o p i n g a framework to analyze the case study are d i s c u s s e d . S p e c i f i c c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i n g the case study are developed i n chapter f o u r . In chapter f i v e the t h e s i s s h i f t s to the case study. The water q u a l i t y p l a n n i n g process and the m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s goals and the c o n f l i c t s surrounding them i n the 1972 - e a r l y 1987 p e r i o d of the p l a n n i n g process f o r Deer Lake, Burnaby, B r i t i s h Columbia, are d e s c r i b e d . I evaluate t h i s p l a n n i n g process i n chapter s i x u s i n g the c r i t e r i a formulated i n chapter four and develop g u i d e l i n e s to a s s i s t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n urban lake p l a n n i n g . 11 CHAPTER I I : RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT AND URBAN LAKES: IMPACTS AND CONFLICTS T h i s c h a p t e r b e g i n s w i t h a d e s c r i p t i o n of the b e n e f i t s of urban l a k e s . The problem of r e s i d e n t i a l development impacts on urban l a k e water q u a l i t y c o n s i s t s of two a s p e c t s : b i o p h y s i c a l impacts and c o n f l i c t s over the use of the l a k e and wate r s h e d . The b i o p h y s i c a l impacts a r e d e s c r i b e d f i r s t - the impacts of r e s i d e n t i a l development on the h y d r o l o g i c system, on l a k e e c o l o g y , and on the amenity v a l u e of l a k e s . I then d i s c u s s the concept of c o n f l i c t - what i t i s and i t s s o u r c e s and forms. The c o n f l i c t s which a r i s e from the development of the watershed of an urban l a k e a r e d e s c r i b e d l a s t . 2 . 1 BENEFITS OF URBAN LAKES In t h i s t h e s i s "urban l a k e " r e f e r s t o a l a k e l o c a t e d w i t h i n t h e m u n i c i p a l b o u n d a r i e s of an urban a r e a ( 1 0 , 0 0 0 p e o p l e or more as d e f i n e d by S t a t i s t i c s Canada) i r r e s p e c t i v e of how much development has taken p l a c e i n i t s watershed. T h i s d e f i n i t i o n i s not dependent on the water q u a l i t y of the l a k e . Urban l a k e s a r e g e n e r a l l y p e r c e i v e d as p r o v i d i n g b e n e f i t s r e s u l t i n g from the r e c r e a t i o n , a e s t h e t i c , water s u p p l y , f l o o d c o n t r o l and e c o l o g i c a l q u a l i t i e s urban l a k e s may p o s s e s s . 12 R e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n c l u d e such a c t i v i t i e s a s : b o a t i n g , shore w a l k i n g , swimming, f i s h i n g , and p i c n i c k i n g on the beach (Leedy e t a l . 1981). Lynch has r e f e r r e d t o "the s p e c i a l s e n s o r y q u a l i t i e s of l a k e s " (1984, 363) r e g a r d i n g the a e s t h e t i c c o n t r i b u t i o n which l a k e s p r o v i d e i n urban a r e a s . Another member of the d e s i g n p r o f e s s i o n has s t a t e d t h a t "water, through s i g h t and sound, o f f e r s d i s t i n c t i o n t o our s u r r o u n d i n g s . Whether the environment i s b e i n g used f o r work, f o r p l a y or h a b i t a t i o n t h e r e i s enrichment of p l a c e by i t s p r e s e n c e " ( L i t t o n 1974, i ) . A e s t h e t i c v a l u e i s based l a r g e l y upon the "escape" a l a k e v i s t a p r o v i d e s from t h e urban, s u r r o u n d i n g s (Zube 1975, 3 ) . S t u d i e s on p r e f e r e n c e s f o r the v i s u a l appearance of neighbourhoods have r e p o r t e d a d e s i r e f o r neighbourhoods " i n harmony w i t h n a t u r e " , " c l o s e t o n a t u r e " , and, " c o u n t r y - l i k e " a c r o s s age and r a c e c a t e g o r i e s ( C r a i k and Zube 1976, 128). The n a t u r a l beauty of a body of water has been a t t r i b u t e d " m o r a l l y u p l i f t i n g " and " m y s t i c a l " q u a l i t i e s by Ivan I l l i c h (1985, 7 1 ) . For him, a l l water cannot be reduced t o H20. Water has a h i s t o r y p r o c e e d i n g from Greek myths t o the d o m e s t i c a t i o n of water f i n a l l y as r e c y c l e d t o i l e t f l u s h . He urges us t o d i s t i n g u i s h the l a t t e r , "a s o c i a l c r e a t i o n of modern t i m e s , a r e s o u r c e t h a t i s s c a r c e and c a l l s f o r t e c h n i c a l management" from n a t u r a l w a t e r b o d i e s or the "water of dreams" (1985, 7 6 ) . Symbolic a s s o c i a t i o n s f o r water i n c l u d e : p u r i t y , power, t i m e l e s s n e s s , s e r e n i t y , c o n t i n u o u s n e s s , and u n p r e d i c t a b i l i t y 13 ( L i t t o n 1974, 294). E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e c o n t a i n s f r e q u e n t r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e s e q u a l i t i e s i n l a k e s . Thoreau (1854) has w r i t t e n "A l a k e i s the l a n d s c a p e ' s most b e a u t i f u l and e x p r e s s i v e f e a t u r e . I t i s the e a r t h ' s eye; l o o k i n g i n t o which the b e h o l d e r measures the depth of h i s own n a t u r e " . P s y c h o l o g i s t s have been r e p o r t i n g the p s y c h o l o g i c a l need of humans f o r n a t u r e and p e o p l e ' s p r e f e r e n c e s f o r v i s t a s c o n t a i n i n g l a k e s s i n c e the 1960s ( C o n n e c t i c u t C o l l e g e 1981). "The s c i e n t i f i c b a s i s f o r t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n of the a e s t h e t i c s of an environment t o a p e r s o n ' s p e r c e i v e d sense of w e l l b e i n g i s t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t i m u l u s or i n f o r m a t i o n a p e r s o n r e c e i v e s from t h a t environment" ( C r a i k and Zube 1976, 127). The e c o l o g i c a l v a l u e of an urban l a k e l i e s i n i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o b i o p h y s i c a l p r o d u c t i v i t y and p r o v i s i o n of h a b i t a t f o r w i l d l i f e . To the e x t e n t t h a t the a r e a s u r r o u n d i n g the l a k e i s l e f t i n a n a t u r a l s t a t e i t p r o v i d e s a d d i t i o n a l b e n e f i t s t o humans by r e d u c i n g a i r p o l l u t i o n t h r o u g h d i l u t i o n and p h o t o s y n t h e s i s , and by r e d u c i n g n o i s e p o l l u t i o n (Grandjean and G i l g e n 1976). 2.2 BIOPHYSICAL IMPACTS T h i s t h e s i s i s concerned w i t h the impacts of r e s i d e n t i a l development on the water q u a l i t y of urban l a k e s . These impacts a r e d e s c r i b e d below. 14 2.2.1 Urban Human E c o l o g y The c e n t r a l i s s u e of contemporary human e c o l o g y i s "the r e l a t i o n s h i p s e x i s t i n g between n a t u r a l environments and the d i s t r i b u t i o n and a c t i v i t i e s of man" (Barrows i n M i t c h e l l 1979, 10). The f o c u s of urban human e c o l o g y i s urban development: the p r o c e s s whereby a s o c i e t y i s t r a n s f o r m e d from an e s s e n t i a l l y r u r a l one t o a p r e d o m i n a n t l y urban one c h a r a c t e r i z e d by an i n c r e a s i n g c o n c e n t r a t i o n of p o p u l a t i o n and i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n which b r i n g about fundamental changes i n the s p a t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of s o c i e t y (Yeates and Garner 1980, 19). The s o c i a l , economic and i n s t i t u t i o n a l f o r c e s of urban development produce impacts on the n a t u r a l ecosystem c r e a t i n g an urban ecosystem. An urban ecosystem i s "the consequence of a complex i n t e r a c t i o n between the m u l t i p l e purposes and a c t i v i t i e s of human b e i n g s and the n a t u r a l p r o c e s s e s t h a t govern the movement of a i r , the e r o s i o n of the e a r t h , the h y d r o l o g i c c y c l e , and the b i r t h and de a t h of l i v i n g o r ganisms" ( S p i r n 1985, 3 9 ) . T h i s t h e s i s i s concerned w i t h o n l y one p a r t of the urban ecosystem, t h a t i s , urban l a k e s . 2.2.2 Impacts of U r b a n i z a t i o n on the H y d r o l o g i c C y c l e The impacts of urban development on the h y d r o l o g i c c y c l e have o n l y been d e s c r i b e d i n the p a s t t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s , w i t h a major impetus p r o v i d e d by the U n i t e d N a t i o n s E d u c a t i o n a l , S c i e n t i f i c and C u l t u r a l O r g a n i z a t i o n (UNESCO) and the I n t e r n a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n f o r H y d r o l o g i c a l S t u d i e s (IAHS). In 15 1965 UNESCO laun c h e d the I n t e r n a t i o n a l H y d r o l o g i c a l Decade t o promote h y d r o l o g i c a l s c i e n c e . From 1976-1982 t h i s e f f o r t was c o n t i n u e d t h r o u g h the I n t e r n a t i o n a l H y d r o l o g i c Programme. The C l e a n Water Decade, 1980-1990, p a r t l y c o n t i n u e s t h i s r e s e a r c h . The f o c u s of urban h y d r o l o g y , t h e urban h y d r o l o g i c system, can more e a s i l y be d e f i n e d i f the s i m p l e r n a t u r a l h y d r o l o g i c system i s c o n s i d e r e d f i r s t . The n a t u r a l h y d r o l o g i c system i s composed of a s e r i e s of s t o r a g e s i n c l u d i n g the atmosphere and b o d i e s of s u r f a c e water. I t i s a l s o composed of a s e r i e s of f l u x e s such as p r e c i p i t a t i o n and e v a p o t r a n s p i r a t i o n (see T a b l e 1). The urban h y d r o l o g i c system i s much more complex, (see T a b l e 1 ) , w i t h a d d i t i o n a l s t o r a g e such as wastewater t r e a t m e n t p l a n t s and a d d i t i o n a l f l u x e s such as storm sewers. I f q u a l i t a t i v e changes were added t o the t a b l e i t s c o m p l e x i t y would be i n c r e a s e d f u r t h e r . A c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e of u r b a n i z a t i o n i s t h a t i t d r a s t i c a l l y changes the n a t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s of w a t e r s h e d s . Where water d i s t r i b u t i o n was governed by c l i m a t e , v e g e t a t i o n c o v e r , and the p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r of the l a n d s u r f a c e s , under u r b a n i z e d c o n d i t i o n s water d i s t r i b u t i o n i s governed by demand f o r water and the p a t t e r n of development ( L i n d h 1979, 2 ) . The magnitude of the impact of urban development depends on many f a c t o r s i n c l u d i n g : s i z e of urban a r e a ; topography; c l i m a t e ; s i z e of p o p u l a t i o n ; e x t e n t of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n ; r a t e of water consumption; q u a l i t y of s u r f a c e and sewage r u n o f f ( S k a k a l s k i i n 16 TABLE 1 COMPARISON OF THE NATURAL AND URBAN HYDROLOGIC CYCLES NATURAL URBAN S t o r a g e s S t o r a g e s Atmosphere Land S u r f a c e B o d i e s of S u r f a c e Water Zone of A e r a t i o n Zone of S a t u r a t i o n Atmosphere Land S u r f a c e ( M a n i p u l a t e d ) B o d i e s of S u r f a c e Water ( M a n i p u l a t e d ) Zone of A e r a t i o n Zone of S a t u r a t i o n Recharge B a s i n s R e t e n t i o n B a s i n s S e p t i c Tanks and C e s s p o o l s Water Systems Recharge or D i f f u s i o n W e l l s I n d u s t r i a l C o o l i n g Water Storm Drainage/Waste water seepage Imported Low Flow Augmenta-t i o n Imported Water Supply E x p o r t e d Water Supply F l u x e s F l u x e s P r e c i p i t a t i o n E v a p o t r a n s p i r a t i o n D i r e c t Runnoff I n f i l t r a t i o n C a p i l l a r y R i s e P e r c o l a t i o n Seepage Seepage/Spring Flow S u b s u r f a c e Groundwater Out-f l o w S u r f a c e Water O u t f l o w P r e c i p i t a t i o n E v a p o t r a n s p i r a t a t i o n D i r e c t Runoff I n f i l t r a t i o n C a p i l l a r y R i s e P e r c o l a t i o n Seepage Seepage/Spring Flow S u b s u r f a c e Groundwater Out-f l o w S u r f a c e Water O u t f l o w Sewer L e a k a g e / A c c r e t i o n Ground Water Pipage Lawn and Crop I r r i g a t i o n Deep I n t r u s i o n D i r e c t E f f l u e n t D i s c h a r g e E x p o r t e d I n d u s t r i a l Consumptive Uses (Sou r c e : Based on L i n d h 1979, 18-20) 17 IAHS 1977); a s s i m i l a t i v e c a p a c i t y of the r e c e i v i n g water ( C a i r n s 1977); s o c i a l , economic and p o l i t i c a l w i l l ( L i n d h 1979). One of the most c r i t i c a l consequences of urban development i s the i n c r e a s e i n i m p e r v i o u s s u r f a c e a r e a of a watershed and the r e s u l t i n g i n c r e a s e i n the r a t e and volume of r u n o f f from the watershed. I n c r e a s e s of 8 t o 40 t i m e s the o r i g i n a l r a t e of r u n o f f and a d o u b l i n g of the volume have been r e p o r t e d (see T a b l e 2) (Lakshmanan and C h a t t e r j e e 1977, 13). U r b a n i z a t i o n a l s o .changes the q u a l i t y of r u n o f f . Impervious s u r f a c e s accumulate h i g h l e v e l s of d u s t and d i r t g e n e r a t e d by urban a c t i v i t i e s which a r e removed w i t h each r a i n f a l l (see T a b l e 3 ) . A l t h o u g h stormwater r u n o f f u s u a l l y o n l y o c c u r s f o r a s h o r t time p e r i o d , the q u a n t i t i e s of sediment, n u t r i e n t s , c h e m i c a l s and t o x i c m e t a l s dumped i n t o water b o d i e s d u r i n g , the storm p e r i o d s "dwarf the q u a n t i t i e s of such m a t e r i a l s r e l e a s e d by the m u n i c i p a l t r e a t m e n t p l a n t s throughout the e n t i r e y e a r " ( T r a v e r i n EPA 1980, 279). The U.S. E n v i r o n m e n t a l P r o t e c t i o n Agency (EPA) has d i s t i n g u i s h e d t h e s p e c i f i c p o l l u t a n t s l i k e l y t o be found i n urban r u n o f f and p r e s e n t e d an h y p o t h e t i c a l g e n e r a l p i c t u r e f o r a c i t y of 100,000 which c o n t a i n s m a i n l y r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d use (see T a b l e 4 ) . An o v e r v i e w of the impacts of u r b a n i z a t i o n on t h e n a t u r a l h y d r o l o g i c system f o l l o w s i n t a b u l a r form f o r ease of p r e s e n t a t i o n (see T a b l e s 5 and 6 ) . In summary, the stage of the h y d r o l o g i c c y c l e which undergoes the g r e a t e s t changes w i t h i n urban a r e a s i s the r a t e of 18 TABLE 2 TYPICAL RUNOFF COEFFICIENTS FOR DIFFERENT LAND USE TYPES Land Use Type Runoff C o e f f i c i e n t B u s i n e s s Downtown 0.70-0.95 Neighbourhood 0.50-0.70 R e s i d e n t i a l S i n g l e - F a m i l y 0.30-0.50 M u l t i u n i t s d e t a t c h e d 0.40-0.60 M u l t i u n i t s a t t a c h e d 0.60-0.75 R e s i d e n t i a l Suburban 0.25-0.40 Apartment 0.50-0.70 I n d u s t r i a l L i g h t 0.50-0.80 Heavy 0.60-0.90 P a r k s , C e m e t e r i e s 0.10-0.25 P l a y g r o u n d s 0.20-0.35 R a i l r o a d Yards 0.20-0.35 Unimproved 0.10-0.30 Note: Runoff C o e f f i c i e n t i s the p e r c e n t of p r e c i p i t a t i o n which runs o f f the s u r f a c e (Source: H j e l m f e l t and C a s s i d y i n P a v o n i 1977, 69) TABLE 3 DUST AND DIRT ACCUMULATION IN URBAN RUNOFF Type Land-Use F i l t h per F i l t h per 1 0 0 - f t - c u r b A c r e 1 S i n g l e f a m i l y r e s i d e n t i a l 0.7 3.2 1 2 M u l t i - f a m i l y r e s i d e n t i a l 2.3 1 0. 5 1 3 Commerc i a l 3.3 1 5. 1 1 4 C r o p l a n d 3.5 1 16.0 5 Underdeveloped or Park 1 .5 6.9 1 'Cropland c a l c u l a t i o n s a r e per a c r e ; t h e o t h e r s a r e per 1 0 0 - f t -c u r b : 460 f t - c u r b per a c r e i s used f o r compa r i s o n . ( S o u r c e : A l d e r f e r and L o v e l a c e i n P a v o n i 1977, 70) 19 TABLE 4 CALCULATED QUANTITIES OF POLLUTANTS WHICH WOULD ENTER WATERS IN A HYPOTHETICAL CITY 1 S t r e e t S u r f a c e Raw Secondary Runoff Sewage P l a n t ( f o l l o w i n g a ( l b / h r ) E f f l u e n t 1 hr storm) ( l b / h r ) ( l b / h r ) S e t t l a b l e s p l u s suspended s o l i d s 560,000 1 ,300 130 BOD(5) 5,600 1 ,1 00 110 COD 13,000 1 ,200 120 K j e l d a h l N i t r o g e n 880 210 20 Phosphates 440 50 2.5 T o t a l C o l i f o r m ( b a c t e r i a o r g / h r ) 4,000X10 1° 460,000X10 1° 4 . 6 x 1 0 1 0 Note: S i n c e the above c a l c u l a t i o n s were based o n l y on a 5-day a c c u m u l a t i o n of s t r e e t l i t t e r , the above d i s c h a r g e of con-ta m i n a t e d r u n o f f c o u l d c o n c e i v a b l y occur many tim e s a y e a r . 1The h y p o t h e t i c a l c i t y has the f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : P o p u l a t i o n - 100,000 T o t a l l a n d a r e a - 14,000 a c r e s Land-use d i s t r i b u t i o n : R e s i d e n t i a l -75% Commercial - 5% I n d u s t r i a l -20% S t r e e t s ( t r i b u t a r y r e c e i v i n g w a t e r s ) - 400 c u r b m i l e s S a n i t a r y Sewage -12mgd (S o u r c e : URS Rese a r c h Co. i n Pa v o n i 1977, 72) 20 TABLE 5 IMPACTS OF URBANIZATION ON WATER QUANTITY U r b a n i z i n g I n f l u e n c e P o t e n t i a l H y d r o l o g i c Response Removal of t r e e s and v e g e t a t i o n Decreases e v a p o t r a n s p i r -a t i o n and i n t e r c e p t i o n I n i t i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n of houses, s t r e e t s and c u l v e r t s D ecreases i n f i l t r a t i o n and lo w e r s groundwater t a b l e I n c r e a s e s storm f l o w s and d e c r e a s e s base f l o w s d u r i n g d r y p e r i o d s Complete development of urban a r e a s I n c r e a s e s i m p e r v i o u s n e s s changes m i c r o c l i m a t e , reduces time of r u n o f f , i n -c r e a s i n g peak d i s c h a r g e s Volume of r u n o f f and f l o o d damage p o t e n t i a l g r e a t l y i n -c r e a s e s C o n s t r u c t i o n of storm d r a i n s and c h a n n e l s L o c a l r e l i e f from f l o o d i n g may a g g r a v a t e f l o o d problems downstream The speed of water d i s p o s a l becomes 10 tim e s g r e a t e r Change i n n a t u r a l heat regime and a i r p o l l u t i o n and i n c r e a s e i n imperv-i o u s a r e a P r e c i p i t a t i o n i n c r e a s e s R e d u c t i o n i n groundwater r e -charge o c c u r s 21 TABLE 6 IMPACTS OF URBANIZATION ON WATER QUALITY U r b a n i z i n g I n f l u e n c e P o t e n t i a l H y d r o l o g i c Response Atmospheric f a l l o u t and dust Heavy m e t a l p o l l u t i o n Changes i n pH C o r r o s i o n of b u i l d i n g s Z i n c and copper c o n t a m i n a t i o n Exhaust from a u t o m o b i l e s I n c r e a s e s l e v e l s of Pb, PAH, As, Cd Sewage e f f l u e n t d i s p o s a l i n t o w a t e r b o d i e s I n c r e a s e s B i o l o g i c a l Oxy-gen Demand (BOD), pathogen and e u t r o p h i c a t i o n problems L a n d f i l l s i t e s Runoff c o n t a m i n a t e d by heavy m e t a l s , PCBs, p e s t i c i d e s N u t r i e n t s from f e r t -i l i z e r s and d e t e r g e n t s Phosphorous r u n o f f c o n t r i b -u t e s t o e u t r o p h i c a t i o n Stormwater C o n t a i n s h i g h l o a d s of s u s -pended s o l i d s , a l s o phos-phorous and t r a c e m e t a l l e v e l s u s u a l l y worse than secondary sewage. Combined sewer o v e r f l o w O r g a n i c p o l l u t a n t s , pathogen contaminat i o n I n d u s t r i a l e f f l u e n t s Heavy m e t a l s c o n t a m i n a t i o n Road s u r f a c e r u n o f f PAH, Cd, Pb c o n t a m i n a t i o n Lawn r u n o f f P e s t i c i d e s , o r g a n i c waste, f e r t i l i z e r c o n t a m i n a t i o n D e i c i n g s u b s t a n c e s C h l o r i d e c o n t a m i n a t i o n Thermal e f f l u e n t B i o t a changes 22 r u n o f f ( K u p r i a n o v i n IAHS 1977). The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which most i n f l u e n c e t h i s change a r e : b u i l d i n g d e n s i t y and e x t e n t of paved a r e a s . C h e m i c a l p o l l u t i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d the most d i f f i c u l t water q u a l i t y impact t o r e d r e s s . A l t h o u g h sewage e f f l u e n t a c c o u n t s f o r the g r e a t e s t volume of p o l l u t i o n i t i s not the source of some of the more t o x i c c h e m i c a l p o l l u t a n t s ( S k a k a l s k i i n IAHS 1977). The above impacts cannot be c o n s i d e r e d t o r e p r e s e n t a d e f i n i t i v e u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the e f f e c t of u r b a n i z a t i o n on the n a t u r a l h y d r o l o g i c c y c l e . The h y d r o l o g y of urban a r e a s i s e x c e e d i n g l y complex and not y e t c o m p l e t e l y u n d e r s t o o d . One major reason f o r the p a r t i a l s t a t e of knowledge i s the gauging problem. Urban d r a i n a g e a r e a s a r e h i g h l y v a r i a b l e but many s t u d i e s have been l i m i t e d t o s m a l l c o n t r o l l e d s u b - p l o t s of these a r e a s . A l s o the f r e q u e n t assumptions of the randomness of peak f r e q u e n c i e s , and the assumptions of s i m i l a r i t i e s between water b a s i n s may not be v a l i d due t o changes i n l a n d use accompanying urban development over time ( L i n d h 1978, 4 ) . 2.2.3 Impacts of U r b a n i z a t i o n on the E c o l o g y of Urban Lakes As p a r t of the urban h y d r o l o g i c system, urban l a k e s become v u l n e r a b l e t o many of the impacts i d e n t i f i e d above. In many ca s e s the p o t e n t i a l e c o l o g i c a l and s o c i e t a l v a l u e of t h e s e l a k e s has become s e v e r e l y r e s t r i c t e d due t o u r b a n i z a t i o n of the l a k e w a t e r s h e d . In the l a s t 15 y e a r s the magnitude of l a k e d e g r a d a t i o n problems has g a i n e d w i d e s p r e a d r e c o g n i t i o n . In 1980, 23 the US C o u n c i l on E n v i r o n m e n t a l Q u a l i t y noted t h a t more than 80% of urban l a k e s were degraded and i n need of r e s t o r a t i o n (Duda and J o h n s t o n 1982, 1139). In 1982, 3700 urban l a k e s i n t h e U.S. were i d e n t i f i e d as needing r e s t o r a t i o n which would p r o v i d e s i g n i f i c a n t b e n e f i t t o over 94 m i l l i o n urban r e s i d e n t s (Hengeveld 1982). S i n c e the water q u a l i t y of l a k e s i s dependent on the l a n d uses i n t h e i r watershed, l a k e d e g r a d a t i o n may t a k e many forms: . s i l t a t i o n from e r o s i o n , d u r i n g and a f t e r c o n s t r u c t i o n , makes the l a k e s s h a l l o w e r , r e d u c i n g the amount of s u r f a c e a r e a a v a i l a b l e f o r r e c r e a t i o n . I t a l s o i m p a i r s a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s , p r o v i d e s r o o t i n g s u b s t r a t e f o r a q u a t i c p l a n t s , r a i s e s water t e m p e r a t u r e , abrades organisms . t o x i c s u b s t a n c e s such as cadmium, l e a d , and p o l y c h l o r i n a t e d b i p h e n o l s , p o l y c y c l i c h y d r o c a r b o n s , and p e s t i c i d e s may e n t e r l a k e s , a l t e r i n g or e r a d i c a t i n g n a t u r a l communities or p o s i n g t h r e a t s t o human h e a l t h . t h e r m a l p o l l u t i o n may be caused by -discharges of he a t e d waste water from i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t s . b a c t e r i a and v i r u s e s from a n i m a l wastes or garbage can con t a m i n a t e the water and p r e v e n t r e c r e a t i o n a l use of the l a k e . a c i d r a i n f a l l and c h l o r i d e from road s a l t i n g can cause pH a l t e r a t i o n s i n l a k e water c h e m i s t r y However, the most p r e v a l e n t l a k e water q u a l i t y problem of the 60s and 70s was c u l t u r a l or a c c e l e r a t e d e u t r o p h i c a t i o n (Born 1979; EPA 1980; Y a k s i c h e t a l . 1985). Lakes can be c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o the amount of n u t r i e n t s which they c o n t a i n . An o l i g o t r o p h i c l a k e has few n u t r i e n t s and t h e r e f o r e s u p p o r t s s m a l l p l a n t and a n i m a l p o p u l a t i o n s . Such l a k e s c o n t a i n a good s u p p l y of oxygen i n t h e i r bottom w a t e r s . E u t r o p h i c a t i o n , on the o t h e r hand, r e f e r s t o "the p r o c e s s 24 of enrichment w i t h n u t r i e n t s " and i s a n a t u r a l l y o c c u r r i n g p r o c e s s ( M c C a u l l and C r o s s l a n d 1974, 7 4 ) . A e u t r o p h i c l a k e c o n t a i n s l a r g e p l a n t and a n i m a l p o p u l a t i o n s . I n d i c a t o r s of e u t r o p h i c a t i o n a r e : f r e q u e n t a l g a l blooms, d e c r e a s e d oxygen c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n the deeper water w i t h s u p e r s a t u r a t i o n of upper l a y e r ; h i g h n u t r i e n t c o n c e n t r a t i o n ; lew water t r a n s p a r e n c y ; green/brown c o l o u r ; and the p r e s ence of s p e c i e s of z o o p l a n k t o n , b e n t h o s , and f i s h of l e s s d e s i r a b l e q u a l i t y ( M c C a u l l and C r o s s l a n d 1974). C u l t u r a l or a c c e l e r a t e d e u t r o p h i c a t i o n however, o c c u r s when man's a c t i v i t i e s speed up t h i s n a t u r a l p r o c e s s . The most f r e q u e n t s i n g l e s o u r c e of c u l t u r a l e u t r o p h i c a t i o n has been m u n i c i p a l e f f l u e n t . D i v e r s i o n of the i n f l o w has been the most common remedy. However, n o n - p o i n t s o u r c e s t a k e n t o g e t h e r c o n s t i t u t e a g r e a t e r s o u r c e (EPA 1980). A l t h o u g h e u t r o p h i c a t i o n i s s t i l l a problem, c h e m i c a l t o x i c i t y seems t o be r e p l a c i n g e u t r o p h i c a t i o n i n importance i n the l i t e r a t u r e as more r e c e n t s t u d i e s f o c u s on i t r a t h e r than on e u t r o p h i c a t i o n (Fox and J o s h i 1984; M i l l e r and Jude 1984; Sanderson e t a l . 1985). 2.2.4 Impacts of U r b a n i z a t i o n on the Amenity V a l u e of Urban Lakes L i t t o n warns t h a t when the water element of a l a n d s c a p e i s u r b a n i z e d " i t may be c o n c e a l e d by the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of i t s n a t u r a l form and l o s t i n the c o m p l e x i t y of the urban p a t t e r n " (1974, 54) . S t u d i e s of r e c r e a t i o n environments have found t h a t l a r g e numbers of p e o p l e and urban development had a n e g a t i v e 25 e f f e c t on the s c e n i c e v a l u a t i o n s of the m a j o r i t y of pe r s o n s sampled. R e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a s t r e s s e s t h a t "a pe r s o n ' s a t t i t u d e toward a stream or l a k e i s a f f e c t e d not o n l y by the c o n d i t i o n of the water, but more s t r o n g l y by the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the s u r r o u n d i n g l a n d ( C r a i k and Zube 1976, 226). Reduced e c o l o g i c a l i n t e g r i t y reduces the a e s t h e t i c and amenity v a l u e of the l a k e . P r e f e r r e d f i s h a r e r e p l a c e d by c o a r s e r s p e c i e s , the l a k e warms, d e v e l o p s an u n p l e a s a n t s m e l l and becomes an a l g a l and weed bowl ( V a l l e n t y n e 1976). 2.3 THE CONCEPT OF CONFLICT C o n f l i c t i s a b a s i c p a r t of human l i f e , p e r f o r m i n g c o n s t r u c t i v e as w e l l as d e s t r u c t i v e f u n c t i o n s . I t i s a phenomenon s t u d i e d by many f i e l d s - s o c i o l o g y , economics, p s y c h o l o g y , peace and m e d i a t i o n s c i e n c e , p o l i c y s c i e n c e , and urban p l a n n i n g . Each f i e l d has d e v i s e d i t s own s p e c i a l i z e d d e f i n i t i o n f o r the term. T h i s s e c t i o n of the t h e s i s w i l l d e f i n e and d i s c u s s the concept based on the l i t e r a t u r e of t h e l a t t e r t h r e e f i e l d s . 2.3.1 D e f i n i t i o n of C o n f l i c t The l i t e r a t u r e d i s t i n g u i s h e s between l a t e n t and m a n i f e s t c o n f l i c t as w e l l as s u b j e c t i v e and o b j e c t i v e c o n f l i c t . L a t e n t c o n f l i c t r e f e r s t o p s y c h o l o g i c a l antagonism as compared t o m a n i f e s t c o n f l i c t which r e f e r s t o a c t i o n ( F i n k 1968, 159). S u b j e c t i v e c o n f l i c t i s s a i d t o e x i s t when a c o n f l i c t i s o n l y 26 p e r c e i v e d as such by the p a r t i c i p a n t s . O b j e c t i v e c o n f l i c t , however, e x i s t s independent of t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n , as p a r t of the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e ( M i t c h e l l 1985, 9 ) . C o n f l i c t has been v a r i o u s l y d e f i n e d but i s commonly c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a f o c u s on i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y . One community p l a n n i n g study has d e f i n e d c o n f l i c t as "a c l a s h of d i f f e r i n g p o i n t s of view" ( Minnery 1985, 5) w h i l e a n o t h e r d e f i n e s i t as " i n c o m p a t i b i l i t i e s i n a c t i o n s " ( P a t r i c i o s 1979, 4 9 ) . Dryzek d e f i n e s c o n f l i c t i n a r e s o u r c e management c o n t e x t as the m a n i f e s t a t i o n of " i n c o m p a t i b i l i t i e s between i n t e r e s t s " (1983, 36) . C o n f l i c t i s p e r c e i v e d i n a systems sense i n the f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n , "two systems ( p e r s o n s , o r g a n i z a t i o n s ) a r e i n c o n f l i c t when they i n t e r a c t d i r e c t l y i n such a way t h a t the a c t i o n s of one t e n d t o p r e v e n t or compel some outcome a g a i n s t the r e s i s t a n c e of the o t h e r " ( K a t z and Kahn i n Minnery 1985, 7 ) . F i n a l l y , B o u l d i n g (concerned w i t h a g e n e r a l t h e o r y of c o n f l i c t ) d e f i n e s c o n f l i c t as "a s i t u a t i o n of c o m p e t i t i o n i n which the p a r t i e s a r e aware of the i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y of f u t u r e p o s i t i o n s and i n which each p a r t y wishes t o occupy a p o s i t i o n t h a t i s i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h the wishes of the o t h e r " (1962, 5 ) . The t h e s i s w i l l c o n s i d e r c o n f l i c t t o e x i s t where t h e r e i s a c l a s h i n g of i n c o m p a t i b l e i n t e r e s t s . F u r t h e r , the t h e s i s w i l l be c o n c erned w i t h how the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s h a n d l e d m a n i f e s t c o n f l i c t , whether s u b j e c t i v e or o b j e c t i v e . 27 2.3.2 Sources and Forms of C o n f l i c t Many s o u r c e s of c o n f l i c t have been i d e n t i f i e d and c l a s s i f i e d based on who i s i n v o l v e d or what the c o n f l i c t i s about. These c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s a r e u s e f u l i n r e s o l v i n g c o n f l i c t as i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o r e c o g n i z e the source of the c o n f l i c t . F i n k c l a s s i f i e s c o n f l i c t a c c o r d i n g t o whether i t s b a s i s i s i n t e r p e r s o n a l , community, p o l i t i c a l , e t h n i c , or r e l i g i o u s (1968, 417). B o u l d i n g ' s c a t e g o r i e s c o n s i s t of homogeneous o r g a n i z a t i o n s , h e t e r o g e n e o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s , p e r s o n and group, person and o r g a n i z a t i o n , group and o r g a n i z a t i o n (1962, 110-113). Urban p l a n n i n g c o n f l i c t can i n v o l v e p u b l i c a g e n c i e s , t h e i r s u p p o r t e r s , opponents, and t h o s e who a r e a f f e c t e d by t h e i r d e c i s i o n s . M i nnery has d e v e l o p e d a t y p o l o g y of f o u r c a t e g o r i e s of c o n f l i c t s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o urban p l a n n i n g : c o n f l i c t s o v e r , o f , i n , and t h r o u g h urban p l a n n i n g (1985, 5 7 ) . These can be more e a s i l y u n d e r s t o o d a s : i d e o l o g i c a l , m e t h o d o l o g i c a l / p r o c e d u r a l , r e s o u r c e use and a l l o c a t i o n , and i n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n f l i c t s . Each w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n t u r n , i . I d e o l o g i c a l C o n f l i c t s I d e o l o g i c a l c o n f l i c t s a r i s e from d i f f e r e n c e s among the p e o p l e who a r e urban p l a n n e r s . Sources f o r t h e s e c o n f l i c t s a r e d i f f e r e n c e s i n c o n c e p t i o n s of human n a t u r e and the n a t u r e of s o c i e t y (Minnery 1985, 5 9 ) . S t r e t t o n d i s c u s s e s two views of s o c i e t y which p l a n n e r s (and o t h e r s ) h o l d - c o n s e n s u a l and c o n f l i c t f u l . The c o n s e n s u a l view 28 b e l i e v e s t h a t s o c i e t y i s e s s e n t i a l l y c o o p e r a t i v e and c o n f l i c t i s an a b e r r a t i o n . The c o n f l i c t f u l view i s s u r p r i s e d so l i t t l e c o n f l i c t e x i s t s . S t r e t t o n i d e n t i f i e s Howard, Mumford and o t h e r garden c i t y p l a n n e r s as c o n s e n s u a l (1978, 19). They d i d not see c l a s s c o n f l i c t as an u n d e r l y i n g s t r u c t u r a l problem. He i d e n t i f i e s f e m i n i s t , m a r x i s t and s o c i a l i s t p l a n n e r s as c o n f l i c t p l a n n e r s as they a r e concerned w i t h "who g e t s what" (1978, 46-48) . i i . M e t h o d o l o g i c a l / P r o c e d u r a l C o n f l i c t M e t h o d o l o g i c a l / p r o c e d u r a l c o n f l i c t s a r i s e from d i s a g r e e m e n t s over the methods and p r o c e d u r e s of urban p l a n n i n g and from d i s a g r e e m e n t s over the j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r urban p l a n n i n g i t s e l f (Minnery 1985, 59). C o n f l i c t can a r i s e over s h o r t term v e r s u s l o n g term p l a n n i n g or over e f f i c i e n c y v e r s u s i n n o v a t i o n (Paget 1976). Urban p l a n n i n g c l a i m s l e g i t i m a c y b o t h t h r o u g h i t s a t t e n t i o n t o the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t and t h r o u g h attachment t o government. C o n f l i c t may a r i s e over the i s s u e of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i . e . , over how w e l l t h e v a r i o u s groups which make up the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t a r e s e r v e d ( K i r b y i n G o o d a l l and K i r b y i 979). The l e g i t i m a c y of the government may be q u e s t i o n e d l e a d i n g t o c o n f l i c t over the l e g i t i m a c y of i t s p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n s (Friedmann 1973, 4 9 ) . i i i . Resource Use and A l l o c a t i o n Resource use and a l l o c a t i o n c o n f l i c t s i n v o l v e the elements which urban p l a n n i n g d e a l s w i t h e.g., r e s o u r c e s , e s p e c i a l l y l a n d , but a l s o i n f o r m a t i o n , m o b i l i t y , and e q u i t y between c l a s s e s 29 (Minnery 1985, 5 9 ) . C o n f l i c t s over r e s o u r c e s i n c l u d e d i s t r i b u t i o n a l c o n f l i c t s which a r i s e over the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f : s c a r c e r e s o u r c e s such as f a c i l i t i e s d e s i r e d by more than one l o c a l government; f a c i l i t i e s not d e s i r e d but n e c e s s a r y ; or e x t e r n a l i t i e s ( R a i f f a 1981). U t i l i z a t i o n c o n f l i c t s (which a r i s e over u t i l i z a t i o n of s c a r c e r e s o u r c e s ) a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t r a c t a b l e when a z e r o sum or c o n s t a n t sum s i t u a t i o n r e g a r d i n g a s c a r c i t y of a r e s o u r c e e x i s t s . In t h i s s i t u a t i o n , one p a r t y can g a i n o n l y a t the expense of the o t h e r p a r t y or p a r t i e s so t h a t the sum of t h e i r rewards i s z e r o or a c o n s t a n t v a l u e (Raven and K r u g l a n s k i i n S w i n g l e 1970). I n c o m p a t i b i l i t y of d e s i r e d s p a t i a l c o n d i t i o n s i s a major s o u r c e of t h i s t y pe of c o n f l i c t i n urban p l a n n i n g . E n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n f l i c t over d i v e r g e n t or i n c o m p a t i b l e g o a l s f a l l s i n t o t h i s c a t e g o r y , f o r example w i l d e r n e s s v e r s u s l o g g i n g , g o l d v e r s u s f i s h and u r b a n i z a t i o n v e r s u s a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . In the Deer Lake case s t u d y , l a k e water q u a l i t y v e r s u s r e s i d e n t i a l development f a l l s i n t o t h i s c a t e g o r y of c o n f l i c t . C o n f l i c t s over r e s o u r c e a l l o c a t i o n among c l a s s e s a l s o o c c u r i n urban p l a n n i n g and have been s t u d i e d by Simmie (1974), C a s t e l l s (1977), and M i n g i o n e (1981). i v . I n s t i t u t i o n a l C o n f l i c t s I n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n f l i c t s a r i s e from a d m i n i s t r a t i v e or o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c l a s h e s as w e l l as from u n a n t i c i p a t e d e f f e c t s of p l a n n i n g . C o n f l i c t can oc c u r between government a g e n c i e s due t o i n c o m p a t i b i l i t i e s a r i s i n g from m u l t i - j u r i s d i c t i o n a l management 30 ( F r i e n d 1980, A l b e r t a A r b i t r a t i o n and M e d i a t i o n S o c i e t y 1983). C o n f l i c t can occur between government and the p u b l i c over d i s m i s s i v e p l a n n i n g p r o c e d u r e s e.g., obscure advance n o t i c e of p u b l i c m e e t i n g s , s e l e c t i o n of i n c o n v e n i e n t t i m e s and i n a c c e s s i b l e p l a c e s f o r me e t i n g s , p r e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the agenda, e t c . (Checkoway 1981, 580). F i s h e r c i t e s m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h r o u g h i n e f f e c t i v e communication as a f u r t h e r s o u r c e of c o n f l i c t (1982). 2.4 CONFLICTS OVER LAKE QUALITY AND AMOUNT OF RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT S e c t i o n 2.2 d e s c r i b e d the impacts of r e s i d e n t i a l development on urban l a k e s . These impacts p r e c l u d e the . r e t e n t i o n of urban l a k e s i n a n a t u r a l s t a t e . T h e r e f o r e , a spectrum of c h o i c e r e g a r d i n g the amount of r e s i d e n t i a l development i n the l a k e watershed and the e x t e n t of a c c e p t a b l e r e d u c t i o n i n l a k e q u a l i t y can be d e f i n e d (see F i g u r e 1 ) . C o n f l i c t can occur among pe o p l e whose p r e f e r e n c e s a l o n g the spectrum a r e i n c o m p a t i b l e . T h i s c o n f l i c t i s m o s t l y type i i i -c o n f l i c t over r e s o u r c e a l l o c a t i o n . Both B e r r y and Dryzek d e s c r i b e the p o t e n t i a l f o r r e s o u r c e a l l o c a t i o n c o n f l i c t s t o o c c u r . B e r r y i d e n t i f i e s e i g h t g o a l s f r e q u e n t l y sought i n water p o l i c y which r e p r e s e n t a wide range of v a l u e s i n c l u d i n g some which may be m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e . These g o a l s a r e : economic e f f i c i e n c y ; r e g i o n a l economic development; income r e d i s t r i b u t i o n ; minimum e n v i r o n m e n t a l d i s r u p t i o n ; p o l i t i c a l 31 Cost t o m a i n t a i n water q u a l i t y and amenity v a l u e i n c r e a s e s > > > > Amount of r e s i d e n t i a l development i n c r e a s e s > > > > complete no r e s i d e n t i a l 50% r e s i d e n t i a l r e s i d e n t i a l development development development l a k e water q u a l i t y depends s m e l l y , p o l -q u a l i t y p r i s t i n e on watershed l u t e d a l g a l management, bowl i n - l a k e r e s t o r -a t i o n < < < < Lake water q u a l i t y i n c r e a s e s < < < < Amenity v a l u e f o r urban p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e s The continuum extends from no development around the l a k e t o some development w i t h near o p t i m a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y and f l e x i b l e l a n d development d e c i s i o n s t o the f i n a l s t a g e where the l a k e i s manmade and the l a n d uses a r e f r o z e n . a r t i f i c i a l l a k e r e -p l a c e s n a t u r a l l a k e F i g . 1 Range of Choice In Urban Lake Q u a l i t y and R e s i d e n t i a l Development 32 e q u i t y ; p r e s t i g e ; a c c e p t a b i l i t y ; and w e l l b e i n g of p e o p l e ( B e r r y 1974, 229). Dryzek i d e n t i f i e s f o u r p o s s i b l e v a l u e b i a s e s i n t he a r e a of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e management - u t i l i t a r i a n i s m , r i g h t s of i n d i v i d u a l s , h e a l t h of the ec o s p h e r e , and p o l i t i c a l a c c e p t a b i l i t y . These b i a s e s p r o v i d e a number of d i f f e r e n t p o s i t i o n s t o argue from c o n c e r n i n g water q u a l i t y . For example, one can argue f o r a l e v e l of water q u a l i t y on the grounds t h a t i t i s e f f i c i e n t i n s a t i s f y i n g s o c i a l w e l f a r e ; t h a t i t i s j u s t ; t h a t i t i s e c o l o g i c a l l y sound; or t h a t i t i s p o l i t i c a l l y e x p e d i e n t (Dryzek 1983, 57, 145). Even when p e o p l e may agree on t h e l e v e l of l a k e water q u a l i t y d e s i r e d , a m e t h o d o l o g i c a l c o n f l i c t ( t y p e i i ) may d e v e l o p over how t o a c h i e v e t h a t l e v e l . Westman has i d e n t i f i e d two modes of p o l l u t i o n t r e a t m e n t . One emphasizes a s s i m i l a t i v e c a p a c i t y which assumes the water w i l l u l t i m a t e l y cause a p o l l u t a n t t o d i s s i p a t e l e a d i n g t o a new p o i n t of e q u i l i b r i u m . The o t h e r emphasizes s o u r c e c o n t r o l and no e m i s s i o n s t o m a i n t a i n the c u r r e n t e q u i l i b r i u m ( B e r r y 1974, 230). F i n a l l y , an i n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n f l i c t ( t y p e i v ) may d e v e l o p over which l e v e l of government or which agency s h o u l d choose and implement a p r e f e r r e d water q u a l i t y l e v e l . The remainder of the t h e s i s i s concerned w i t h the n a t u r e of a p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s t o reduce the e c o l o g i c a l impacts on urban l a k e water q u a l i t y and t o r e s o l v e the c o n f l i c t caused by t h e s e i m p a c t s . 33 CHAPTER I I I : URBAN LAKE PLANNING PROCESSES AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION The purpose of the f i r s t p a r t of t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o examine the l i t e r a t u r e on urban l a k e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s t o det e r m i n e how i t a d d r e s s e s the impacts of urban development on the l a k e e nvironment. The l i t e r a t u r e on c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n t e c h n i q u e s i s examined i n the l a s t h a l f of the c h a p t e r . 3.1 URBAN LAKE PLANNING PROCESSES 3.1.1 Urban Lake P l a n n i n g L i t e r a t u r e Much of the l i t e r a t u r e on urban l a k e s c o n s i s t s of e i t h e r the h i s t o r i e s of r e s t o r a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l l a k e s (see Appendix 2 f o r h i s t o r i e s of Lake Washington, Washington; Lac L a B e l l e , W i s c o n s i n ; Lake E o l a , F l o r i d a ; and f o u r l a k e s i n Los A n g e l e s ) or d e s c r i b e s s p e c i f i c management t e c h n i q u e s (see Appendix 2 f o r s t r u c t u r a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l l a k e management t e c h n i q u e s ) . L e s s i s r e p o r t e d on p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s f o r urban l a k e s . The i n f o r m a t i o n which i s a v a i l a b l e i s based l a r g e l y on the e x p e r i e n c e s of U.S. f e d e r a l a g e n c i e s and programs, e.g., the US Army Corps of E n g i n e e r s and the US EPA C l e a n Lakes Program. In Canada, on the o t h e r hand, f e d e r a l f u n d i n g i s o r i e n t e d m a i n l y toward r e s e a r c h , e.g., the E x p e r i m e n t a l Lakes Program and the 34 Canada C e n t r e f o r I n l a n d Waters. L e s s i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e on p l a n n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s . N o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n s e x i s t e.g., the Okanagan B a s i n , Lake Winnipeg, and Great Lakes p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e s . However, these r e p r e s e n t examples of l a r g e , r e g i o n a l b a s i n p l a n n i n g and are l e s s a p p l i c a b l e t o the p l a n n i n g of urban l a k e s (Okanagan B a s i n Implementation Board, 1982). Two k i n d s of urban l a k e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s a r e d e s c r i b e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e . The f i r s t i s undertaken t o p r e v e n t the o c c u r r e n c e of water q u a l i t y problems when d e v e l o p i n g a l a r g e l y u n u r b a n i z e d watershed. The U.S. Army Corps of E n g i n e e r s ' , U.S. F i s h and W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e , t h e O n t a r i o M i n i s t r y of the Environment, and C a r i b o o R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t p r o c e s s e s a r e examples of t h i s t y pe of l a k e p l a n n i n g . The second k i n d of l a k e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s undertaken i n r e a c t i o n t o the development of a water q u a l i t y problem due t o r a p i d u r b a n i z a t i o n w i t h o u t c o n s i d e r a t i o n of i t s impacts on water q u a l i t y . The EPA's C l e a n Lakes p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s and S e c t i o n 208 of the U.S. Water P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l A c t Amendments, a r e examples of t h i s t y p e of l a k e p l a n n i n g . The r e v i e w of p r o c e s s e s w i l l b e g i n w i t h those t h a t s o l e l y emphasize t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n and w i l l p r o c e ed t o those which a l s o i n c l u d e s o c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . 3.1.2 O n t a r i o M i n i s t r y of the Environment The O n t a r i o M i n i s t r y of the Environment has f o r m u l a t e d a p r o c e s s t o determine how much development s h o u l d be a l l o w e d t o 35 o c c u r around a l a k e . The p r o c e s s was d e s i g n e d f o r r u r a l l a k e s f a c i n g development p r e s s u r e from c o t t a g e s . However, i t i s a l s o a p p l i c a b l e t o urban l a k e p l a n n i n g . I t i s based on the a s s i m i l a t i v e c a p a c i t y of a l a k e and c o n s i s t s of the f o l l o w i n g s t e p s : . the M i n i s t r y d e f i n e s the l o n g range t r o p h i c s t a t u s of the l a k e . e x i s t i n g n a t u r a l and a r t i f i c i a l phosphorus l o a d i n g a r e d e t e r m i n e d a d d i t i o n a l development p e r m i t t e d i s computed u s i n g the D i l l o n and R i g l e r phosphorus a s s i m i l a t i v e c a p a c i t y model (Olmstead 1984, 134-136) The emphasis i n t h i s p r o c e s s i s upon g a t h e r i n g d a t a t o p e r m i t the use of the a s s i m i l a t i v e c a p a c i t y model t o a c h i e v e a p r e s e l e c t e d l e v e l of water q u a l i t y . 3.1.3 US F i s h and W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e The US F i s h and W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e p r o c e s s i n t e g r a t e s a q u a t i c r e s o u r c e s i n t o the m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s t h r o u g h the d e s i g n a t i o n of open space b u f f e r zones around w a t e r b o d i e s i n the m u n i c i p a l p l a n . The p r o c e s s c o n t a i n s e i g h t s t e p s f o r a c c o m p l i s h i n g t h i s g o a l (see T a b l e 7 ) . Primacy i s g i v e n t o a q u a t i c r e s o u r c e s p r o t e c t i o n i n t h i s p r o c e s s based on s c i e n t i f i c assessment of the h a b i t a t v a l u e of w a t e r b o d i e s throughout the m u n i c i p a l i t y . No o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s i n d i c a t e d . No c o n f l i c t i s a n t i c i p a t e d by the p r o c e s s between the open space system and o t h e r p o t e n t i a l uses of the l a n d . 36 TABLE 7 STEPS FOR AQUATIC RESOURCE PLANNING AT THE MUNICIPAL LEVEL 1) I d e n t i f y a q u a t i c h a b i t a t s and t h e i r r e l a t i v e v a l u e 2) Determine water q u a l i t y s t a n d a r d s f o r d e v e l o p i n g r e g u l a t o r y t o o l s 3) I d e n t i f y h a b i t a t s of t h r e a t e n e d and endangered s p e c i e s 4) A n a l y z e a d j a c e n t l a n d uses 5) I d e n t i f y l i m i t i n g f a c t o r s on f i s h and w i l d l i f e p o p u l a t i o n s 6) Develop a c o n t i n u o u s open space system 7) Review the development p l a n s 8) Implement the a q u a t i c r e s o u r c e development p l a n ( S o u r c e : Leedy e t a l . 1981, 57) TABLE 8 PROCEDURES FOR INTEGRATING WATER RESOURCES INTO SITE DESIGN 1) I d e n t i f y e x i s t i n g a q u a t i c r e s o u r c e s 2) I d e n t i f y f a c t o r s l i m i t i n g t o the a q u a t i c r e s o u r c e s 3) I d e n t i f y o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r e n h a n c i n g - r e h a b i l i t a t i n g a q u a t i c r e s o u r c e s 4) I d e n t i f y o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p r o v i d i n g a d d i t i o n a l a q u a t i c r e s o u r c e s 5) I n t e g r a t e a q u a t i c r e s o u r c e development i n t o c o n c e p t u a l and p r e l i m i n a r y d e s i g n 6) G i v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o a q u a t i c r e s o u r c e s d u r i n g the con-s t r u c t i o n phase 7) I n c o r p o r a t e the a q u a t i c r e s o u r c e i n t o the o v e r a l l p l a n n i n g program (Sou r c e : Leedy e t a l . 1981, 46) 37 At the s i t e l e v e l , the p r o c e d u r e shown i n T a b l e 8 i s s u g g e sted by the U.S. F i s h and W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e . T h i s p r o c e s s s i m i l a r l y r e l i e s on s c i e n t i f i c t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n t o d e t e r m i n e e x i s t i n g h a b i t a t , t h r e a t s t o i t from c o n s t r u c t i o n , and the p o t e n t i a l f o r c r e a t i n g new h a b i t a t . However, i n s t e p 5, i t a l s o i n c l u d e s the i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t t r a d e o f f s may be n e c e s s a r y t o ' i n t e g r a t e ' a q u a t i c r e s o u r c e s i n t o the s i t e p l a n . No mechanism f o r a c h i e v i n g t h i s i n t e g r a t i o n i s i n d i c a t e d . 3.1.4 C a r i b o o R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t The C a r i b o o R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t of B r i t i s h Columbia goes beyond the p r e v i o u s p r o c e s s e s t o i n c l u d e p u b l i c and o t h e r government a g e n c i e s ' i n p u t i n the l a k e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . Concern e x p r e s s e d by r e s i d e n t s over l a c k of p l a n n i n g f o r l a k e s ; growing i n d i c a t i o n s of d e t e r i o r a t i o n of water q u a l i t y of some l a k e s due t o e u t r o p h i c a t i o n from s e p t i c t a n k s ; c o n f l i c t between l a k e s u r f a c e a c t i v i t i e s ; and c oncern by the C a r i b o o R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t Board t h a t " i t was b e i n g f o r c e d t o d e a l w i t h s h o r e l a n d r e z o n i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s i n an ad hoc, i n c o n s i s t e n t manner on the b a s i s of i nadequate i n f o r m a t i o n " l e d the Board t o d e v e l o p a Management S t r a t e g y t o a i d i t s p l a n n i n g i n o r d e r t o " p r e s e r v e t h e water q u a l i t y of the l a k e s " (Olmstead 1982, 45,46,69). The Management S t r a t e g y c o n s i s t s of a water q u a l i t y i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g system c o n c e i v e d by Urban Systems L t d . and C a r i b o o R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t p l a n n i n g s t a f f . The 38 i n f o r m a t i o n system p r o v i d e s a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the t r o p h i c s t a t u s of l a k e s i n the a r e a and a s e n s i t i v i t y t o development r a t i n g . Phosphorus removal g u i d e l i n e s f o r s e p t i c t a n k s on s h o r e l a n d were a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d f o r d i f f e r e n t l a k e s v a r y i n g a c c o r d i n g t o c u r r e n t t r o p h i c s t a t e , water q u a l i t y s e n s i t i v i t y , proposed d e n s i t y of development, and s o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (Olmstead 1982, 70, 7 1 ) . The S t r a t e g y a l s o i n c l u d e s p o l i c i e s and g u i d e l i n e s r e l a t i n g t o : l a k e s h o r e r e s i d e n t i a l s u b d i v i s i o n d e s i g n , v i s u a l impact of s h o r e l a n d r e s i d e n t i a l development, p r o v i s i o n of a c c e s s t o t h e l a k e s h o r e , and t h e m i n i m i z a t i o n of c o n f l i c t s w i t h a g r i c u l t u r e , f o r e s t r y , and w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t . C u r r e n t l y when the C a r i b o o R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t r e c e i v e s a s h o r e l a n d r e z o n i n g a p p l i c a t i o n i t d e c i d e s whether the development p r o p o s a l i s s u i t e d t o a l a k e based on: . r e f e r r a l of the a p p l i c a t i o n t o a p p r o p r i a t e a g e n c i e s f o r comment . p u b l i c comments . ecosystem f u n c t i o n a l knowledge ( r e g a r d i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o i l c a p a b i l i t i e s f o r phosphorus removal and l a k e water q u a l i t y ) and the o t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n the Management S t r a t e g y 3.1.5 US Army Corps of E n g i n e e r s The U.S. Army Corp of E n g i n e e r s has d e v e l o p e d a m u l t i -o b j e c t i v e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s f o r c o n d u c t i n g f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d i e s f o r water and r e l a t e d l a n d r e s o u r c e s c o n s i s t i n g of t h r e e s t a g e s : R e c o n n a i s s a n c e , Development of I n t e r m e d i a t e P l a n s , and Development of D e t a i l e d P l a n s . The l e v e l of d e t a i l and 39 r e l i a b i l i t y of d a t a and a n a l y s i s a r e improved and i n c r e a s e d a t each s t e p . More p r e c i s e a l t e r n a t i v e p l a n s a r e t h e r e f o r e d e v e l o p e d i n c r e m e n t a l l y t hroughout the p r o c e s s . Four f u n c t i o n a l p l a n n i n g t a s k s composed of s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s a r e c a r r i e d out d u r i n g each s t a g e of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . A l l a c t i v i t i e s a r e c o n t i n u o u s l y i n t e g r a t e d and the t a s k s a r e performed c o n c u r r e n t l y ( A s t r a c k and Baumann i n S e w e l l and Ba r k e r 1980, 187). The Corps' p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s shown i n T a b l e 9. As w i t h the p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d p r o c e s s e s , the Corps p r o c e s s emphasizes d e t e r m i n i n g t h e b i o p h y s i c a l impacts of a development p r o p o s a l . However, as i n the case of the C a r i b o o R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , i t i n c l u d e s i n f o r m a t i o n on the p u b l i c ' s c o n c e r n s and i n s t i t u t i o n a l i s s u e s . I t a l s o c o n s i d e r s e q u i t y of d i s t r i b u t i o n of impacts and acknowledges the p o s s i b i l i t y of making t r a d e o f f s i n s t e p 4d, i m p l y i n g the need f o r a degree of f l e x i b i l i t y . 3.1.6 US EPA C l e a n Lakes Program The C l e a n Lakes Program began i n 1975 under U.S. P u b l i c Law 92-500. The program has p r o v i d e d the EPA w i t h funds f o r c o s t s h a r i n g g r a n t s f o r s t a t e s and c i t i e s t o r e s t o r e l a k e s degraded by u r b a n i z a t i o n . To ensure f e d e r a l money i s w e l l s p e n t , i t has a v a r i e t y of o b j e c t i v e s - water q u a l i t y improvement, an a c c e p t a b l e c o s t b e n e f i t r a t i o , and s o c i o l o g i c a l b e n e f i t s . 40 TABLE 9 U.S. ARMY ENGINEERS' WATER QUALITY AND LAND USE PLANNING PROCESS Task 1. Problem I d e n t i f i c a t i o n a. I d e n t i f y P u b l i c Concerns b. A n a l y z e Resource Management Problems c. D e f i n e the Study Area d. D e s c r i b e the Base C o n d i t i o n s e. P r o j e c t F u t u r e C o n d i t i o n s f. E s t a b l i s h P l a n n i n g O b j e c t i v e s Task 2. F o r m u l a t i o n of A l t e r n a t i v e s a. I d e n t i f y Measures b. C o n s i d e r P l a n s of Other Government A g e n c i e s c. D e v e l o p P l a n s Task 3. Impact Assessment a. Determine Sources of Impact b. I d e n t i f y and Trace Impacts c. Measure Impacts d. S p e c i f y I n c i d e n c e of Impacts Task 4. E v a l u a t i o n a. A p p r a i s e P l a n n i n g O b j e c t i v e F u l f i l m e n t b. A p p r a i s e System of Accounts C o n t r i b u t i o n s c. A p p l y S p e c i f i e d E v a l u a t i o n C r i t e r i a d. P e r f o r m T r a d e - o f f A n a l y s i s e. D e s i g n a t e the N a t i o n a l Economic Development P l a n ; E n v i r o n m e n t a l Q u a l i t y P l a n ( A s t r a k and Baumann i n S e w e l l and B a r k e r 1980, 189) 41 The f i r s t s t e p i n the C l e a n Lakes p r o c e s s d e t e r m i n e s which p a r t i c u l a r p o l l u t a n t or p o l l u t a n t s o u r c e r e p r e s e n t s the g r e a t e s t t h r e a t t o the l a k e and s h o u l d be e l i m i n a t e d . In making t h i s d e t e r m i n a t i o n , the p r o j e c t e d uses of the l a k e a r e c o n s i d e r e d . For i n s t a n c e , f o r l a k e s whose major use would be f o r swimming, c o n t r o l of n u t r i e n t , b a c t e r i a l and v i r a l i n p u t s may be c r i t i c a l whereas c o n t r o l of t o x i n s would be a p r i m a r y c o n c e r n i n any ecosystem used f o r domestic water s u p p l y ( M c i n t o s h i n Whipple 1978, 158). Next, a n a l y s i s and s e l e c t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s a r e u n d e r t a k e n . The p u b l i c i s i n v o l v e d throughout t h i s p r o c e s s . A d e t a i l e d d e s i g n f o r the l a k e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s then implemented. F i n a l l y , an e v a l u a t i o n s t e p i s r e q u i r e d . (An e v a l u a t i o n g r a n t i s s u p p l i e d a l o n g w i t h the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n g r a n t ) (Bouwes et a l i n EPA 1980). 3.1.7 S e c t i o n 208 of the US Water P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l A c t Amendments The U.S. Water P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Act Amendments p r e s c r i b e f o u r l e v e l s of p l a n n i n g programs: 1) s t a t e water q u a l i t y a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p l a n n i n g and o r g a n i z a t i o n under s e c t i o n 106; 2) b a s i n p l a n n i n g under s e c t i o n 3 0 3 ( e ) ; 3) areawide p l a n n i n g f o r u r b a n - i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s w i t h s u b s t a n t i a l water q u a l i t y problems under s e c t i o n 208; 4) f a c i l i t y p l a n n i n g under s e c t i o n 201 (Rowe et a l . 1978, 4 0 ) . S e c t i o n 208 r e q u i r e s : a n a l y s i s of e x i s t i n g water q u a l i t y ; d e t e r m i n a t i o n of waste l o a d s t o a c h i e v e r e c e i v i n g 42 waterbody s t a n d a r d s ; an i n v e n t o r y of p o i n t and n o n - p o i n t s u b s t a n t i a l d i s c h a r g e s ; s c h e d u l i n g the i n t r o d u c t i o n of c o n t r o l t e c h n o l o g i e s and o t h e r p r o c e d u r e s ( i n c l u d i n g l a n d use c o n t r o l s ) t o c o n t r o l t h e s e s o u r c e s of p o l l u t i o n (see T a b l e 10). I t a l s o recommends s i t i n g f o r 201 f a c i l i t i e s . Once the 208 p l a n i s completed no p o i n t source p e r m i t may be i s s u e d which i s not i n c o n f o r m a t i o n w i t h the p l a n (Rowe et a l . 1978, 141). As w e l l as i t s s c i e n t i f i c r e q u i r e m e n t s , the 208 p r o c e s s r e q u i r e s the development of a p p r o p r i a t e i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangements so t h a t the f i n a l management p l a n can be i m m e d i a t e l y implemented (Noble and F i n l e y i n P a v o n i 1977, 2 9 ) . A l s o , p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n s t r e s s i n g the i n v o l v e m e n t of a l l a f f e c t e d i n t e r e s t s i s r e q u i r e d throughout the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . W h i l e the 208 p l a n i s c o n cerned w i t h water q u a l i t y , the p r o c e s s r e c o g n i z e s t h a t the s e l e c t i o n of a f i n a l p l a n c o u l d a f f e c t o t h e r community g o a l s because S e c t i o n 208 has the power t o c o n t r o l l a n d uses a d j a c e n t t o w a t e r b o d i e s t h a t c o n t r i b u t e t o water p o l l u t i o n problems. T h e r e f o r e an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of community g o a l s and p l a n s , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h r e s p e c t t o o t h e r e n v i r o n m e n t a l g o a l s , h o u s i n g , economic development, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , e d u c a t i o n , and r e c r e a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d i n t h e p r o c e s s . In summary, the 208 p r o c e s s s t r e s s e s s c i e n t i f i c a n a l y s i s of water q u a l i t y and impact m i t i g a t i o n . However, i t a l s o i n c l u d e s a mandate f o r e d u c a t i o n ; p a r t i c i p a t i o n by t h e p u b l i c ; i n s t i t u t i o n a l and p h y s i c a l i m p l e m e n t a b i l i t y ; and the r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t water p l a n n i n g can a f f e c t and i s a f f e c t e d by a l l the o t h e r TABLE 10 THE SECTION 208 PLANNING PROCESS 1) I d e n t i f y water q u a l i t y problems and s t a n d a r d s 2) C o n s t r u c t an i n v e n t o r y of d i s c h a r g e s 3) P r i o r i z e p l a n n i n g and choose d e s i g n c o n d i t i o n s 4) Data c o l l e c t i o n 5) C a l i b r a t i o n and v e r i f i c a t i o n 6) P r o j e c t i o n s 7) Segment a n a l y s i s 8) Determine a l t e r n a t i v e s u b p l a n s of t r e a t m e n t , con-t r o l , and f l o w r e d u c t i o n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h e l i g i b l e waste l o a d r e d u c t i o n s 9) Screen s u b p l a n s t o s e l e c t l e a d i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s u b p l a n s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h e l i g i b l e waste l o a d r e d u c t i o n s 10) Combine s u b p l a n s i n t o a l t e r n a t i v e areawide p l a n s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h e l i g i b l e waste l o a d r e d u c t i o n s ( S o u r c e : A l d e r f e r and L o v e l a c e i n Pa v o n i 1977, 51) 44 t y p e s of urban p l a n n i n g . Rowe et a l . (1978) saw i t as p r o v i d i n g a major l e g i s l a t i v e b a s i s f o r r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i n the U.S.A. e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e 208 and 303 were bl e n d e d i n 1975. U n f o r t u n a t e l y "the f l u r r y of p l a n n i n g [under S e c t i o n 208] was p l a g u e d by u n r e a l i s t i c d e a d l i n e s t h a t r e s u l t e d i n h a s t y d a t a c o l l e c t i o n and computer m o d e l l i n g e f f o r t s . Many areawide a g e n c i e s opted f o r e x p e n s i v e computer s i m u l a t i o n s t o p r o v i d e an assessment of t h e i r assumed water q u a l i t y p r oblems, r a t h e r than c o l l e c t i n g c a u s e - a n d - e f f e c t d a t a . L o c a l o f f i c i a l s were wary of t h e s e s i m u l a t i o n s and c o n s e q u e n t l y l i t t l e s u b s t a n t i v e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n has r e s u l t e d " (Duda et a l . , 1982, 1139). A c c o r d i n g t o Duda et a l . (1982) l o c a l and s t a t e a g e n c i e s were t a k i n g a w a i t and see a t t i t u d e u n t i l the EPA's N a t i o n w i d e Urban Runoff Program i s - a v a i l a b l e (1139). 3.1.8 Summary of Urban Lake P l a n n i n g L i t e r a t u r e Common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s i n c l u d e : . g a t h e r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on water q u a l i t y parameters . e s t a b l i s h i n g a d e s i r e d l e v e l of water q u a l i t y . u n d e r s t a n d i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between watershed a c t i v i t i e s and l a k e water q u a l i t y - i d e n t i f y i n g p o t e n t i a l or a c t u a l p o l l u t a n t s , t h e i r s o u r c e s and impacts and d e t e r m i n i n g the a s s i m i l a t i v e c a p a c i t y of the l a k e . d e t e r m i n i n g a l t e r n a t i v e p l a n s f o r c o n t r o l or t r e a t m e n t . s e l e c t i n g a p l a n The f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s have been added t o the more r e c e n t urban l a k e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s : p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n and 45 i n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . T h i s t r e n d r e f l e c t s a s i m i l a r t r e n d i n urban p l a n n i n g i n g e n e r a l toward augmenting i t s o r i g i n a l t e c h n i c a l f o c u s . However, t e c h n i c a l p l a n n i n g , " i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of p r i o r i t y water q u a l i t y problems and development of a l t e r n a t i v e s t o a c h i e v e water q u a l i t y g o a l s " (Noble and F i n l e y i n P a v o n i 1977, 29) r e p r e s e n t s the major emphasis i n the l i t e r a t u r e on urban l a k e p l a n n i n g . Models have been dev e l o p e d t o d e t e r m i n e th e a s s i m i l a t i v e c a p a c i t y of l a k e s f o r s e l e c t e d p o l l u t a n t s ( e . g . , D i l l o n and R i g l e r 1975, V o l l e n w e i d e r 1968, Loehr e t a l . 1980). S o p h i s t i c a t e d equipment and l a b o r a t o r y t e c h n i q u e s e x i s t f o r i d e n t i f y i n g p o l l u t a n t s and m o n i t o r i n g c o n t r o l e f f e c t i v e n e s s (Fox and J o s h i 1984, Sanderson 1985). Models such as STORM and SWMM have been d e v e l o p e d t o s i m u l a t e r u n o f f changes and p o l l u t a n t p a t h s due t o u r b a n i z a t i o n as w e l l as t o p r e d i c t the s u c c e s s of p o s s i b l e a m e l i o r a t i v e s t r a t e g i e s ( W a n i e l i s t a 1978, Dunne and L e o p o l d 1978, I l m a v i r t a 1982). A l a r g e body of knowledge a l s o e x i s t s on l a k e r e s t o r a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s ( B j o r n 1979, B r i t t o n e t a l . 1979, Cooke et a l . 1986) (see Appendix 2 ) . The s t r o n g emphasis on and development of s c i e n t i f i c t e c h n i q u e s i n urban l a k e p l a n n i n g has not been matched by a t t e n t i o n t o p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n , i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangements and c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n . I n s u f f i c i e n t a t t e n t i o n t o the d e s i r e s of the p u b l i c , agency c a p a b i l i t i e s and agency g o a l s can l e a d t o problems i n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n due t o u n r e s o l v e d c o n f l i c t s . The l a c k of a d i s c u s s i o n of the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of c o n f l i c t and i t s 46 r e s o l u t i o n i s perhaps the g r e a t e s t area of n e g l e c t i n the urban lake p l a n n i n g l i t e r a t u r e . The p o t e n t i a l f o r c o n f l i c t i n the urban lake p l a n n i n g process was d e s c r i b e d i n s e c t i o n 2.4 yet only two of the e i g h t processes d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s chapter r e q u i r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the need f o r t r a d e o f f s . N e i t h e r of the processes p r o v i d e mechanisms f o r making these t r a d e o f f s and r e s o l v i n g the c o n f l i c t inherent i n the t r a d e o f f p r o c e s s . Since c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n i s not addressed i n the urban lake p l a n n i n g l i t e r a t u r e , i t i s necessary to examine the c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n l i t e r a t u r e f o r i n f o r m a t i o n on t h i s t o p i c . T h i s examination i s p r o v i d e d i n the next s e c t i o n . 3.2 CONFLICT RESOLUTION T h i s s e c t i o n of the t h e s i s i s concerned with the need to reduce the occurrence of the negative e f f e c t s of c o n f l i c t , (e.g., delays i n decision-making, i n e f f e c t i v e implementation, or c a n c e l l a t i o n of a needed programme or pl a n n i n g process) through c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n . 3.2.1 D e f i n i t i o n of C o n f l i c t R e s o l u t i o n F i r s t of a l l , c o n f l i c t management must be d i s t i n g u i s h e d form c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n . C o n f l i c t management r e f e r s to d i r e c t i n g and c o n t r o l l i n g c o n f l i c t but not n e c e s s a r i l y ending i t (Minnery 1985, 143). C o n f l i c t management c o v e r s : e v a s i o n , i g n o r i n g the c o n f l i c t , s u p p r e s s i o n , r e g u l a t i o n , r e s o l u t i o n , c o e r c i o n , and conquest. R e s o l u t i o n , then, i s only one of the 47 forms of c o n f l i c t management. H u z e l (1982) d e s c r i b e s r e s o l u t i o n as a l a c k of d o m i n a t i o n of one p a r t y by a n o t h e r . B e r c o v i t c h s t a t e s t h a t "a s u c c e s s f u l r e s o l u t i o n demands a change i n symptoms and u n d e r l y i n g c a u s e s , i n b e h a v i o u r and p e r c e p t i o n s " (1984, 22) a l t h o u g h he p l a c e s more emphasis on b e h a v i o r a l change. B o u l d i n g r e s e r v e s the term r e s o l u t i o n f o r "agreement r e g a r d i n g b a s i c i s s u e s which thu s t e r m i n a t e s the c o n f l i c t i n a s e l f - p e r p e t u a t i n g manner" (1962, 310). R e s o l u t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by r e a c h i n g an agreement a c c e p t a b l e t o a l l p a r t i e s i n the c o n f l i c t which w i l l c o n s e q u e n t l y end disagreement on the s u b j e c t . 3.2.2 C o n f l i c t R e s o l u t i o n P r o c e s s and Techniques The c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n l i t e r a t u r e i d e n t i f i e s t h r e e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n : a n t i c i p a t i n g c o n f l i c t , c h o o s i n g a r e s o l u t i o n response from the wide v a r i e t y of t e c h n i q u e s a v a i l a b l e , and i n i t i a t i n g a r e s o l u t i o n p r o c e s s . A n t i c i p a t i n g C o n f l i c t A n t i c i p a t i n g c o n f l i c t c o n s i s t s of " c a n v a s s i n g i n v o l v e d and a f f e c t e d p a r t i e s f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and acknowledgement of any c o n f l i c t over a l t e r n a t i v e s or g o a l s of a p r o p o s a l " (Mutunyagam i n M innery 1985, 121). Techniques 48 The l i t e r a t u r e d i s t i n g u i s h e s between c o n c i l i a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s (which attempt t o improve the a t t i t u d e s of d i f f e r e n t p a r t i e s toward each o t h e r and t h e r e f o r e l e a d up t o or a r e components of r e s o l u t i o n t e c h n i q u e s ) and r e s o l u t i o n t e c h n i q u e s t h e m s e l v e s . A v a r i e t y of c o n c i l i a t i o n and r e s o l u t i o n t e c h n i q u e s a r e l i s t e d below and d e s c r i b e d i n d e t a i l i n Appendix 3. C o n c i l i a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s i n c l u d e : i n f o r m a t i o n s h a r i n g , i m p r o v i n g communication, c r e a t i n g and c o n n e c t i n g d e c i s i o n n e t w o r k s , f a c i l i t a t i n g group dynamics, and s p e c i a l purpose mechanisms e.g., a n a l y s i s of o p t i o n s , c i t i z e n s ' a d v i s o r y committee, c h a r r e t t e . F i v e c a t e g o r i e s of c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n t e c h n i q u e s were i d e n t i f i e d from the l i t e r a t u r e : r e c o n c i l i a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s , compromise t e c h n i q u e s , s y n t h e s i s t e c h n i q u e , award t e c h n i q u e s , t e c h n i q u e s which change the f o c u s of c o n f l i c t . Implementing and F a c i l i t a t i n g a R e s o l u t i o n P r o c e s s F i n a l l y , a r e s o l u t i o n p r o c e s s must be implemented u s i n g the t e c h n i q u e ( s ) s e l e c t e d . H u z e l has found t h a t a number of f a c t o r s can c o n t r i b u t e t o a s u c c e s s f u l r e s o l u t i o n p r o c e s s . A c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n p r o c e s s must o b t a i n a u t h o r i z a t i o n t o ensure l e g i t i m a c y or i t w i l l l i k e l y f a i l . A time d e a d l i n e , and some reward f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g a r e a l s o i m p o r t a n t t o the s u c c e s s of the r e s o l u t i o n p r o c e s s ( H u z e l 1982, 8 6 ) . Dryzek i n c l u d e s i n v o l v e m e n t by a l l a f f e c t e d or i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i e s as a r e q u i r e m e n t f o r s u c c e s s . I f a p a r t y i s not i n v o l v e d i t may 49 c h a l l e n g e the r e s o l u t i o n (1983). 3.2.3 Summary of C o n f l i c t R e s o l u t i o n L i t e r a t u r e The l i t e r a t u r e on c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n d e s c r i b e s t h r e e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n : a n t i c i p a t i n g c o n f l i c t , c h o o s i n g a r e s o l u t i o n response form the wide v a r i e t y of t e c h n i q u e s a v a i l a b l e , implementing and f a c i l i t a t i n g a r e s o l u t i o n p r o c e s s . I t emphasizes the d i f f e r e n c e between r e s o l u t i o n t e c h n i q u e s and c o e r c i o n , c o n q u e s t , and s u p p r e s s i o n t e c h n i q u e s . I t a l s o p r o v i d e s u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n on f a c t o r s which f a c i l i t a t e a s u c c e s s f u l r e s o l u t i o n p r o c e s s . A s m a l l p a r t of the l i t e r a t u r e a l s o c r i t i c a l l y examines the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of the d i f f e r e n t t e c h n i q u e s f o r v a r i o u s c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s . However, more r e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a would be h e l p f u l . A l t h o u g h many d i f f e r e n t r e s o l u t i o n t e c h n i q u e s a re d e s c r i b e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e , few a r e s u i t e d f o r d e a l i n g w i t h p u r e l y q u a l i t a t i v e g o a l c o n f l i c t s or c o n f l i c t s which o c c u r " o u t s i d e of the r u l e s " . A f u r t h e r weakness of the l i t e r a t u r e i s the l i t t l e amount w r i t t e n on the h a z a r d s which may be p r e s e n t i n r e a c h i n g a compromise. Compromises u s u a l l y r e p r e s e n t what c u r r e n t i n t e r e s t s want based on power d i f f e r e n t i a l s , not e q u i t y or j u s t i c e (Minnery 1985). 50 CHAPTER IV: EVALUATION CRITERIA FOR THE CASE STUDY T h i s c h a p t e r d e v e l o p s a framework f o r a n a l y z i n g the case st u d y based on the key p o i n t s of the f o u r b o d i e s of l i t e r a t u r e examined by the t h e s i s : impacts of u r b a n i z a t i o n on l a k e s ; urban l a k e p l a n n i n g ; environment-development r e l a t i o n s h i p s ; and c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n . 4.1 FRAMEWORK FOR ANALYZING THE CASE STUDY 4.1.1 I m p l i c a t i o n s of t h e L i t e r a t u r e The i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d i n the f i r s t h a l f of the t h e s i s i s s y n t h e s i z e d below t o produce a framework f o r a n a l y z i n g t h e case s t u d y . The case s t u d y , the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s f o r Deer Lake Burnaby, B.C., i s an example of a response t o t h e problems of the impact of urban development on water r e s o u r c e s and c o n f l i c t over f u r t h e r development. The impacts of r e s i d e n t i a l development on l a k e water q u a l i t y a r e w e l l documented. R e s i d e n t i a l development a f f e c t s l a k e water q u a l i t y i n t h r e e ways: by i n c r e a s i n g the r a t e of r u n o f f , i n c r e a s i n g the volume of r u n o f f , and i n c r e a s i n g the amount of p o l l u t i o n i n the r u n o f f . These i n c r e a s e s can r e s u l t i n l a k e water q u a l i t y d e g r a d a t i o n due t o : s i l t a t i o n , c u l t u r a l e u t r o p h i c a t i o n , t o x i c c h e m i c a l p o l l u t i o n , t h e r m a l p o l l u t i o n , 51 b a c t e r i o l o g i c a l or v i r a l p o l l u t i o n , and pH changes. In response t o t h i s type of e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e g r a d a t i o n , a growing body of l i t e r a t u r e on environment-development r e l a t i o n s h i p s s u g g e s t s human a c t i v i t i e s s h o u l d be e c o l o g i c a l l y c o m p a t i b l e ( i . e . , r e s p e c t i n g e c o l o g i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s and m i n i m i z i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a l impact) as t h i s i s e s s e n t i a l t o the l o n g run s u s t a i n a b i l i t y of b o t h the environment and development. T h i s concept of e c o l o g i c a l c o m p a t i b i l i t y s e t s a g o a l f o r urban l a k e p l a n n i n g t o s t r i v e f o r i n e s t a b l i s h i n g water q u a l i t y g o a l s and f o r m u l a t i n g and s e l e c t i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s . A s m a l l e r body of l i t e r a t u r e d e s c r i b e s the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s f o r urban l a k e s . .This l i t e r a t u r e emphasizes g a t h e r i n g s c i e n t i f i c / t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n and d e v e l o p i n g and e v a l u a t i n g a l t e r n a t i v e ways t o a c h i e v e water q u a l i t y g o a l s . The i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r e d i n c l u d e s : the e x i s t i n g l e v e l of water q u a l i t y , the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the l a k e and i t s w atershed ( r e : p o l l u t i o n s o u r c e s and a s s i m i l a t i v e c a p a c i t y ) , and the p o t e n t i a l impact of development p r o p o s a l s . Development or r e h a b i l i t a t i o n a l t e r n a t i v e s (depending on the s i t u a t i o n ) a r e then f o r m u l a t e d . R e s u l t s of the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of the p l a n s h o u l d be m o n i t o r e d . The c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n l i t e r a t u r e o f f e r s a f u r t h e r e s s e n t i a l i n g r e d i e n t f o r the l a k e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . Because r e s i d e n t i a l development c r e a t e s impacts on l a k e water q u a l i t y i t i s l i k e l y c o n f l i c t s w i l l a r i s e over how much r e s i d e n t i a l development i s p r e f e r r e d vs what l e v e l of water q u a l i t y i s 52 p r e f e r r e d by government a g e n c i e s , l a n d owners, e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s , d e v e l o p e r s , or s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t groups. A few of the urban l a k e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s acknowledge the need f o r t r a d e o f f s between watershed uses which w i l l a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t water q u a l i t y t o a g r e a t e r or l e s s e r e x t e n t . The l a k e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s do not mention how t h e s e t r a d e o f f s and any c o n f l i c t s over them a r e t o be r e s o l v e d . However, the l i t e r a t u r e on c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n p r o v i d e s the f o l l o w i n g a d v i c e : a n t i c i p a t e c o n f l i c t ; i f i t e x i s t s choose an a p p r o p r i a t e response from the wide v a r i e t y of r e s o l u t i o n t e c h n i q u e s a v a i l a b l e ; and implement and f a c i l i t a t e a r e s o l u t i o n p r o c e s s . On the b a s i s of the l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w s d i s c u s s e d above, two s e t s of q u e s t i o n s a r e used t o a n a l y z e the case s t u d y . Q u e s t i o n s on the c a p a b i l i t y of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s t o produce e c o l o g i c a l l y c o m p a t i b l e outcomes and i t s c a p a b i l i t y t o r e s o l v e c o n f l i c t a r e p r e s e n t e d i n s e c t i o n s 4.2 and 4.3. 4.2 CRITERIA FOR EVALUATING THE CAPABILITY OF THE DEER LAKE PLANNING PROCESS FOR PRODUCING ENVIRONMENTALLY COMPATIBLE OUTCOMES The c a p a b i l i t y of an urban l a k e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s t o produce e c o l o g i c a l l y c o m p a t i b l e outcomes i s d e t e r m i n e d by t h r e e t h i n g s . The p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s must r e c o g n i z e the need t o c o n s i d e r the e c o l o g i c a l c o m p a t i b i l i t y of i t s p r o p o s a l s . The p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s must ga t h e r and use r e l e v a n t s c i e n t i f i c / t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n . The p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s must g a t h e r t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i n an 53 e f f e c t i v e manner. N e g a t i v e answers t o the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s would i n d i c a t e t h a t the c r i t e r i a were not s a t i s f i e d . 4.2.1 R e c o g n i t i o n of the Need f o r E n v i r o n m e n t a l C o m p a t i b i l i t y Chapter 1 of the t h e s i s r e p o r t e d t h a t c o n s i d e r a t i o n of e n v i r o n m e n t a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s and c o n s t r a i n t s when f o r m u l a t i n g p r o p o s a l s , i n o r d e r t o harmonize them w i t h the environment, has been s u g g e s t e d as e s s e n t i a l t o the l o n g run s u s t a i n a b i l i t y of both development and the environment. D i d the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s r e q u i r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o m p a t i b i l i t y i n the p r o p o s a l s i t produced f o r Deer Lake? 4.2.2 Use of R e l e v a n t S c i e n t i f i c / T e c h n i c a l I n f o r m a t i o n The r e l e v a n c y of the s c i e n t i f i c / t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r e d and used i n the Deer Lake p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s e v a l u a t e d i n f o u r a r e a s : water q u a l i t y p a r a m e t e r s ; w a t e r s h e d - l a k e r e l a t i o n s h i p s ; impact p r e d i c t i o n ; impact m i n i m i z a t i o n . Water Q u a l i t y Parameters In c h a p t e r 2 of the t h e s i s 9 water q u a l i t y parameters were i d e n t i f i e d as i n d i c a t o r s of urban development e f f e c t s on water q u a l i t y - oxygen c o n c e n t r a t i o n , n u t r i e n t c o n c e n t r a t i o n , t e m p e r a t u r e , water t r a n s p a r e n c y and c o l o u r , a l g a l p r o d u c t i o n , z o o p l a n k t o n , benthos, and f i s h s p e c i e s , d r a i n a g e b a s i n s i z e and shape. D i d the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s g a t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n on the minimum of parameters recommended by B a l d w i n 1982, ( t u r b i d i t y , 54 d i s s o l v e d oxygen, n i t r o g e n , organic phosphorus, temperature, t o x i c m a t e r i a l s ) before formulating planning a l t e r n a t i v e s ? Watershed-Lake R e l a t i o n s h i p s The planning processes described i n chapter 3 emphasize the importance of understanding the r e l a t i o n s h i p between land uses i n the watershed and lake water q u a l i t y . Did the planning process determine the e x i s t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between land use, v e g e t a t i o n , w i l d l i f e and lake water q u a l i t y by: t a k i n g an inventory of b i o t a ; determining r a t e s and volumes of runoff from p o i n t s i n the watershed; i d e n t i f y i n g p o l l u t a n t sources i n the watershed; and determining the a s s i m i l a t i v e c a p a c i t y of the lake f o r phosphorus and nitrogen before formulating a l t e r n a t i v e s ? Impact P r e d i c t i o n The planning processes i n chapter 3 a l s o emphasized the importance of determining the impacts of proposals f o r development i n the watershed. Did the planning process p r e d i c t impacts of planning a l t e r n a t i v e s or development proposals e.g., d i d i t use e x i s t i n g knowledge or undertake f i e l d t e s t s to produce c h e c k l i s t s , matrices, or networks i n d i c a t i n g p o t e n t i a l impacts? Impact M i n i m i z a t i o n Part of the c a p a b i l i t y to produce environmentally compatible outcomes i s the a b i l i t y to minimize impacts and 55 i r r e v e r s i b l e change. D i d the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s employ any of the m i t i g a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s d e s c r i b e d i n Appendix 2 which would s i g n i f i c a n t l y reduce impacts on the l a k e water q u a l i t y ? D i d the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s r e j e c t any p r o p o s a l on the b a s i s of i t c r e a t i n g an u n a c c e p t a b l e l e v e l of e n v i r o n m e n t a l impact? 4.2.3 E f f e c t i v e n e s s of I n f o r m a t i o n G a t h e r i n g As w e l l as knowing what i n f o r m a t i o n was g a t h e r e d i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o know how i t was g a t h e r e d . Was t h e i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r e d i n a comprehensive ( i . e . , a l l a t one time p r i o r t o f o r m u l a t i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s under the d i r e c t i o n of the p l a n n e r s ) and c o s t e f f e c t i v e ( i . e . , expense of t e c h n i q u e s used matched l e v e l of s o p h i s t i c a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d ) manner? 4.3 CRITERIA FOR EVALUATING THE CAPABILITY OF THE PLANNING PROCESS TO RESOLVE CONFLICT The c a p a b i l i t y of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s t o r e s o l v e c o n f l i c t i s d e t e r m i n e d by t h r e e t h i n g s . I t must: a n t i c i p a t e c o n f l i c t ; s e l e c t an a p p r o p r i a t e r e s o l u t i o n response from the wide v a r i e t y of t e c h n i q u e s a v a i l a b l e ; implement and f a c i l i t a t e a r e s o l u t i o n p r o c e s s . N e g a t i v e answers t o the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s would i n d i c a t e t h a t the c r i t e r i a were not met. 4.3.1 A n t i c i p a t i o n of C o n f l i c t I d e n t i f y i n g the e x i s t e n c e of a c o n f l i c t by c a n v a s s i n g the o p i n i o n s of those i n v o l v e d i n or a f f e c t e d by a p r o p o s a l i s 56 i d e n t i f i e d by the l i t e r a t u r e as the f i r s t s t e p i n r e s o l v i n g a c o n f l i c t . Common so u r c e s of c o n f l i c t i n p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s were i d e n t i f i e d i n c h a p t e r 2 of t h e t h e s i s . D i d the p l a n n e r s r e c o g n i z e the p o t e n t i a l c o n t r o v e r s i a l n a t u r e of the Deer Lake p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s and i n c l u d e an e x p l i c i t p r o c e s s f o r c o n f l i c t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n i n o r d e r t o promote a r e s o l u t i o n ? 4.3.2 Review of P o t e n t i a l R e s o l u t i o n Responses Choosing an a p p r o p r i a t e r e s o l u t i o n t e c h n i q u e from the wide v a r i e t y of c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n t e c h n i q u e s d e s c r i b e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e r a t h e r than i g n o r i n g or s u p p r e s s i n g a c o n f l i c t i s the next s t e p i n c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n . Was a r e s o l u t i o n t e c h n i q u e used by the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s as opposed t o c o e r c i o n , conquest or s u p p r e s s i o n t e c h n i q u e s ? Was the wide s e l e c t i o n of r e s o l u t i o n t e c h n i q u e s d e s c r i b e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e c o n s i d e r e d ? 4.3.3 Implementation and F a c i l i t a t i o n of a R e s o l u t i o n P r o c e s s Once a r e s o l u t i o n t e c h n i q u e i s chosen i t must be implemented t o a c h i e v e c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o H u z e l (1982) and Dryzek (1983) a r e s o l u t i o n p r o c e s s can be f a c i l i t a t e d by t h e f o l l o w i n g : o b t a i n i n g a u t h o r i z a t i o n , e s t a b l i s h i n g a time l i m i t , r e w a r d i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and i n v o l v i n g a l l i n t e r e s t e d or a f f e c t e d p a r t i e s . D i d the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i n c l u d e a mechanism f o r implementing a r e s o l u t i o n p r o c e s s w i t h i n a few months a f t e r a c o n f l i c t was i d e n t i f i e d ( e . g . , e s t a b l i s h weekly meetings, a 57 s p e c i a l group, e t c . ) which used the f a c i l i t a t i o n methods suggested by H u z e l and Dryzek? 58 CHAPTER V: THE PLANNING PROCESS FOR DEER LAKE, BURNABY, B.C. T h i s c h a p t e r d e t a i l s the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s f o r Deer Lake, Burnaby, and i t s watershed. I p r o v i d e a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e of Deer Lake t o Burnaby t o e s t a b l i s h the background of t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The c h r o n o l o g y of the p r o c e s s from 1972 t o e a r l y 1987 i s then o u t l i n e d f o l l o w e d by a more d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n of the key p o i n t s i n the p r o c e s s : . the o r i g i n of the i d e a f o r a town park . the a t t e m p t s t o det e r m i n e a management s t r a t e g y f o r the water q u a l i t y of the l a k e . the g o a l s of the m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s and t h e c o n f l i c t s t h a t d e v e l o p e d over them 5.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF DEER LAKE TO BURNABY Deer Lake i s l o c a t e d i n the g e o g r a p h i c c e n t r e of t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y of Burnaby and of the G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t . The park i s s i t u a t e d i n the Burnaby C e n t r a l V a l l e y w hich c o n t a i n s t h r e e major water systems - Burnaby Lake, Deer Lake and the B r u n e t t e R i v e r . Both l a k e s a r e p a r t of t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s l i n e a r park system. Deer Lake i s a l s o l o c a t e d between Metrotown and the m u n i c i p a l complex and c u l t u r a l c e n t r e (see map 1 ) . The Burnaby P a r k s department has r e p o r t e d the f o l l o w i n g Map 1. Location of Deer Lake Park (After: Mainland Southwest Tourist Association n.d., 9) 60 k i n d s of a c t i v i t i e s i n Deer Lake Park d u r i n g the summer: . Swimmers . Park Usage . S m a l l C r a f t . Fishermen approx. 20,000 approx. 30,000 approx. 5,000 approx. 10,000 T o t a l number of pe o p l e approx. 65,000 5.2 CHRONOLOGY OF DEER LAKE DEVELOPMENT The h i s t o r i c event of most s i g n i f i c a n c e t o Deer Lake was the l o c a t i o n of the O a k a l l a p r i s o n i n i t s watershed. A farm run by the inmates c o n t r i b u t e d t o the e u t r o p h i c a t i o n of the l a k e between 1912 and the e a r l y 1970s. Through t h e 70s and 80s p r o v i n c i a l p r o p o s a l s f o r the use of t h e O a k a l l a p r i s o n l a n d have c o m p l i c a t e d the m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s f o r the l a k e . W h i l e the p r o v i n c e has proposed r e s i d e n t i a l development of the l a n d o t h e r s f a v o u r expanding the park a r e a . (See Tab l e 11 f o r a c h r o n o l o g y of t h e h i s t o r i c a l use of the Deer Lake a r e a ) . 5.3 CHRONOLOGY OF THE DEER LAKE PARK PLANNING PROCESS The p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s f o r the development of Deer Lake as a park began i n the e a r l y 1970s. The l a n d s i n v o l v e d and t h e i r v a r i o u s o wnerships a r e o u t l i n e d i n T a b l e 12 and shown on maps 2 and 3. A c h r o n o l o g y of t h i s p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s p r o v i d e d i n Ta b l e 13 f o l l o w e d by a d i s c u s s i o n of the key p o i n t s i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . For ease of d i s c u s s i o n t h i s c h r o n o l o g y can be c o n s i d e r e d as h a v i n g t h r e e s t a g e s . The e a r l y s t a g e (1972-78) c o n s i s t s of 61 TABLE 11 DEER LAKE DEVELOPMENT 1800s: S e a s o n a l I n d i a n camps around the l a k e 1885: J a i l b u i l t on the s l o p e a t the s o u t h - w e s t e r n end of the l a k e 1892: Burnaby i n c o r p o r a t e d as a m u n i c i p a l i t y w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n of 250 peop l e most of whom l i v e i n the a r e a around Burnaby Lake and Deer Lake 1900: L o g g i n g o p e r a t i o n s b e g i n around Deer Lake R e c r e a t i o n a l use of the l a k e b e g i n s 1902: F i r s t permanent h o u s i n g on the s h o r e s of the l a k e , a boathouse, i s b u i l t a t Deer Lake Brook ( t h e o u t f l o w ) 1904: C e p e r l e y House i s b u i l t (now the Burnaby A r t G a l l e r y ) 1912: Main b r i c k s t r u c t u r e of O a k a l l a P r i s o n i s b u i l t ( the l a n d i s used as a farm t o support the inmates) 1920-1940s: O a k a l l a sewage, l a u n d r y and farm wastewaters d r a i n i n t o Deer Lake 1943: Swimming i s banned 1950: New sewage f a c i l i t i e s b u i l t f o r O a k a l l a 1954: The beach a t the e a s t end of the park i s reopened as an improved f a c i l i t y w i t h i n c r e a s e d sand a r e a , p a r k i n g , and s m a l l change rooms " 1972: Park concept p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s b e g i n s ( S o u r c e : N o r t h c o t e 1978, 6) 62 TABLE 12 LAND AND OWNERSHIP IN THE DEER LAKE WATERSHED 1972 - 1986 LAND AND OWNERSHIP AREA (ha and a c r e s ) Deer Lake Watershed 824. 7 2038 Deer Lake 35 86.4 Proposed Deer Lake Park 1972 259 640 . m u n i c i p a l l a n d 118. 1 292 . p r i v a t e l y owned l a n d 53. 8 1 33 . p r o v i n c i a l l a n d 87 215 ( O a k a l l a p r i s o n l a n d s ) O a k a l l a P r i s o n Lands 87 228 Upper l a n d s ( w i t h p r i s o n ) 23. 1 57 Lower l a n d s (swamp & f i e l d s ) 63. 9 158 O a k a l l a l a n d t r a n s f e r r e d t o 63. 9 158 Burnaby f o r Deer Lake Park 1976 P r o v i n c i a l Redevelopment 259 640 P r o p o s a l 1982 ( a l l of propos ed p a r k ) . h o u s i n g 64 .7 1 60 . g o l f c o u r s e , c h i l d r e n ' s . 194 .2 480 zoo, park P r o v i n c i a l Redevelopment 23 . 1 . 57 P r o p o s a l 1986 ( o n l y upper O a k a l l a l a n d p r i s o n s i t e ) . h o u s i n g 16 .2 40 . donated t o park 6 .9 17 ( m u n i c i p a l l a n d s c o n t r i b u t i o n ) 1 .2 3 (Sou r c e : Cameron e t a l . 1986, P a r r 1982, T o r r e n c e 1977) Map 2. 1982 P r o v i n c i a l Government Redevelopment Proposal f o r Oakalla Lands Map 3. 1986 P r o v i n c i a l Government Proposal, f o r Residential Development of Upper Oakalla Lands 65 TABLE 13 DEER LAKE PARK PLANNING PROCESS 1972: B a s i l Luksun, l o n g range p l a n n e r f o r Burnaby, r e c o g n i z e s the p o t e n t i a l f o r Deer Lake a r e a t o form a Town Park f o r the m u n i c i p a l i t y 1973: The Honourable James L o r i m e r , M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , announces O a k a l l a p r i s o n t o be phased out i n f i v e y e a r s and the p r i s o n b u i l d i n g s and farm a r e a t o be de v e l o p e d i n t o a park 1974: Jan 28 - M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l approves i n p r i n c i p l e Town Park c o n c e p t , a d o p t i n g the su g g e s t e d use of the p r i s o n a r e a f o r r e c r e a t i o n or p u b l i c use March 11 - The O f f i c e of the A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l a c c e p t s i n p r i n c i p l e the i d e a of park development f o r Deer Lake P u b l i c M e e t i n g s - r e : the f u t u r e of Burnaby - Phase One: p r e v a i l i n g p u b l i c c o n c e r n i s e x p r e s s e d t h a t t o a l a r g e degree the a b i l i t y of Burnaby t o remain a ' d e s i r a b l e p l a c e t o l i v e would be dependent on the p r e s e r v a t i o n of i t s t r a d i t i o n a l and i r r e p l a c e a b l e n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s i n c l u d i n g Deer Lake, Burnaby Lake, and Burnaby Mountain 1975: June 21 - The P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia and the M u n i c i p a l i t y of Burnaby s i g n an agreement t o l e a s e 158.34 a c r e s of O a k a l l a l a n d s t o t h e M u n i c i p a l i t y f o r a park f o r 99 y e a r s a t one d o l l a r a y e a r ; f o r m a l l e a s e t o be e x e c u t e d A p r i l 1 1976 Study group from UBC Zoo404 b e g i n s t o st u d y the l i m n o l o g y of Deer Lake 1976: J u l y 19 - Terms of r e f e r e n c e f o r Deer Lake Park p r o p o s a l drawn up; c o n t r a c t awarded t o C h a r l e s T o r r e n c e L t d . L e t t e r s were m a i l e d t o 58 o r g a n i z a t i o n s and i n d i v i d u a l s i n Burnaby i n t r o d u c i n g t h e p l a n n i n g study and a s k i n g f o r s u b m i s s i o n s r e g a r d i n g the use of the p a r k . M e e t i n g s were h e l d w i t h neighbourhood a s s o c i a t i o n s which b o r d e r e d the pa r k . The concept p l a n was drawn up a f t e r t h i s c o n s u l t a t i o n 1977: P u b l i c a t i o n of Deer Lake Park P l a n May 16 - P r o v i n c e g r a n t s 20 year l e a s e t o Burnaby f o r Deer Lake f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l purposes Aug 30 - A l e x F r a s e r , M i n i s t e r of Highways and P u b l i c Works, e s t a b l i s h e s the C i t i z e n ' s Committee f o r the D i s p o s a l of the O a k a l l a Lands t o h o l d p u b l i c h e a r i n g s on 66 proposed uses f o r the l a n d s Oct 3 - In response t o r e q u e s t s by Burnaby f o r f i n a l i z a t i o n of the agreement f o r the 99 year l e a s e , A l e x F r a s e r r e p l i e s t h a t the government i s r e - e x a m i n i n g the l e a s e agreement drawn up by the p r e v i o u s p r o v i n c i a l government 1978: March 16 - Zoo404 p r e s e n t s f i n d i n g s on e u t r o p h i c a t i o n of Deer Lake t o the Committee and recommends d e s i g n a t i o n of the l a n d s as a park t o p r e v e n t f u r t h e r d e t e r i o r a t i o n of the l a k e water q u a l i t y J u l y 20 - C i t i z e n ' s Committee f o r the D i s p o s a l of the O a k a l l a Lands submits t h e i r r e p o r t . Metrotown development p l a n adopted by Burnaby d e s i g n a t i n g Deer Lake as a major pa r k Burnaby m u n i c i p a l i t y e s t a b l i s h e s a committee composed of the P a r k s , H e a l t h , Long Range P l a n n i n g , and E n g i n e e r i n g departments t o p l a n f o r the l a k e 1979: A p r i l 25 - A t r a n s f e r of 158 a c r e s of the O a k a l l a Lands i s proposed by the p r o v i n c e t o the m u n i c i p a l i t y f o r a p a r k . One of the c o n d i t i o n s of t r a n s f e r r e q u i r e s s t e p s t o be t a k e n t o p r e s e r v e the water q u a l i t y of Deer Lake A p r i l 30 - Burnaby c o u n c i l adopts the t r a n s f e r c o n d i t i o n s May 10 - The l a n d i s t r a n s f e r e d from the p r o v i n c e t o the m u n i c i p a l i t y Burnaby c a l l s f o r b i d s on a water q u a l i t y s t u d y f o r Deer Lake t o m a i n t a i n and enhance the l a k e f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l purposes Nov 26 - Deer Lake Park P l a n approved i n p r i n c i p l e by c o u n c i l . The park i s e s t a b l i s h e d by a park d e d i c a t i o n by-law 1980: UBC Zoo404 r e v i e w s t h e b i d s on water q u a l i t y s tudy of Deer Lake t o a d v i s e Burnaby c o u n c i l on s e l e c t i o n Sept 29 - A q u a t i c weeds c l e a r e d i n an attempt t o improve the l a k e The water q u a l i t y study c o n t r a c t i s awarded t o Beak C o n s u l t a n t s 1981: Beak b e g i n s the water q u a l i t y s tudy of Deer Lake Jan 5 - The Department of the A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l b e g i n s a 67 f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d y i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h i m p r o v i n g the f a c i l i t i e s a t the O a k a l l a p r i s o n S p r i n g - O a k a l l a Must Go Committee forms s p o n t a n e o u s l y and g a t h e r s 7,000 s i g n a t u r e s on a p e t i t i o n a g a i n s t the p r i s o n May 14 - B.C. B u i l d i n g C o r p o r a t i o n i n t r o d u c e s a p r e l i m i n a r y d e s i g n f o r a new men's and women's maximum s e c u r i t y p r i s o n on the s i t e June 2 - The M u n i c i p a l Manager o u t l i n e s o p p o s i t i o n t o c o n s t r u c t i o n of the new p r i s o n 1982: Feb 8 - Burnaby m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l r e q u e s t s p r o v i n c i a l government t o phase out the O a k a l l a p r i s o n June: Beak water q u a l i t y s t u d y of Deer Lake i s s u b m i t t e d Sept 14 - Premier Bennett announces the c l o s u r e of the p r i s o n . P r o v i n c e proposes a j o i n t p r o j e c t w i t h the m u n i c i p a l government t o produce a major h o u s i n g development (1800 r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s a t a d e n s i t y of 7-35 u n i t s / a c r e and a g o l f c o u r s e ) on the O a k a l l a p r i s o n a r e a l a n d and some of the d e s i g n a t e d p a r k l a n d Dec 13 - M u n i c i p a l Managers r e p o r t #68 (from the P l a n n i n g and B u i l d i n g I n s p e c t i o n Department) recommends a g a i n s t p r o c e e d i n g w i t h the p r o v i n c e ' s redevelopment p l a n because i t i s a t t o o g r e a t a v a r i a n c e w i t h the M u n i c i p a l i t y ' s town park concept 1983: Jan 6 - A l e t t e r i s sent t o the Department of the A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l e x p r e s s i n g c o n c e r n over p r o c e e d i n g w i t h the j o i n t redevelopment Second Beak st u d y t o m o n i t o r Deer Lake water q u a l i t y b e g i n s 1984: Summer - Douglas C o l l e g e s t u d e n t s study the b i o t a of t h e l a k e and watershed and p u b l i s h a r e p o r t . An i n f o r m a t i o n campaign f o r r e s i d e n t s i s a l s o undertaken by Douglas C o l l e g e t o "save" Deer Lake from e u t r o p h i c a t i o n J u l y 23 - E n q u i r i e s from c i t i z e n s prompt the P l a n n i n g and B u i l d i n g I n s p e c t i o n Department t o r e q u e s t updated s t a t u s on the c l o s u r e of O a k a l l a from m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l Second Beak study w i t h the r e s u l t s of m o n i t o r i n g the water q u a l i t y of the l a k e i s p u b l i s h e d Aug 27 - M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l r e q u e s t s from the A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l : 1) an updated p r o g r e s s r e p o r t on the c l o s u r e of 68 Oakalla Prison 2) a response to the concerns expressed by the Municipal Council related to the proposed jo i n t redevelopment of the Oakalla lands Erosion control measures recommended by Beak are i n s t i t u t e d on the southern t r i b u t a r i e s , r i p rap i s i n s t a l l e d 1985: Monitoring of Deer Lake indicates some water quality improvement according to a report by the consultant hired by the municipality, N. Munteau Environmental Health Department assumes r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for monitoring Deer Lake Jan 16 - Attorney General Brian Smith's reply to the Aug 1984 Municipal Council l e t t e r r e i t e r a t e s the government's commitment to replace Oakalla Prison and states that alternate s i t e s are being sought in Burnaby. However, the schedule has been delayed by the state of the economy and diminished returns to the Province. The Attorney General is prepared to discuss alternatives to the redevelopment proposal 1986: Feb - B.C. Ministry of the Environment Water Management Branch is c a l l e d in to survey the lake and recommend ways to control the lake's weeds A p r i l - Provincial Oakalla Lands Proposal Committee formed with representatives from Burnaby planning department May 20 - Council approves the proposal to a hire a p r o v i n c i a l harvestor to harvest najas, a lake weed, in the summer July - 67 Canada Geese removed from Deer Lake to P i t t Meadows Aug 1 - Provincial government study "The Oakalla Lands, Burnaby, Proposal for Redevelopment" i s completed Sept 28 - As a pre-election promise B i l l Vander Zalm announces that the Oakalla Prison Lands w i l l be redeveloped for r e s i d e n t i a l and commercial use Oct - Council authorizes the h i r i n g of an environmental engineering consultant to propose suggestions for a nutrient sink pond to be constructed on the western tributary of Deer Lake Oct 1 - Burnaby Mayor B i l l Lewarne forecasts a five year time frame to transform the Oakalla Prison Lands to mixed 69 park and r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d use Oct 8 - A r t i c l e appears i n Burnaby Now newspaper a g a i n s t the l o s s of w i l d e r n e s s i n Deer Lake Park a n t i c i p a t e d i f the Town Park concept i s implemented Dec 8 - P l a n n i n g and B u i l d i n g Department r e c e i v e s a l e t t e r from the B. C. B u i l d i n g C o r p o r a t i o n r e q u e s t i n g the m u n i c i p a l i t y t o i n i t i a t e p r e p a r a t i o n of a community p l a n f o r t he O a k a l l a P r i s o n Lands t o be based upon the concept p l a n completed by the p r o v i n c e i n August. The community p l a n would p r o v i d e s p e c i f i c development g u i d e l i n e s f o r the s i t e and would be the b a s i s f o r r e z o n i n g the s i t e Dec 24 - Memo t o Burnaby M u n i c i p a l Manager from the P l a n n i n g and B u i l d i n g Department o u t l i n e s the terms of r e f e r e n c e f o r the development of a community p l a n f o r t.he O a k a l l a P r i s o n Lands s i t e . A h o u s i n g d e n s i t y of 10-12 u n i t s / a c r e i s proposed i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a p e d e s t r i a n walk way - l i n e a r park c o n c e p t t o connect Metrotown, the l a k e and the community c e n t r e 1987: Jan - C o n t r a c t f o r the development of a r e s i d e n t i a l and l i n e a r park s i t e f o r the O a k a l l a p r i s o n a r e a awarded t o Van Bourne Group L t d . and Waisman Dewar Grout C a r t e r A r c h i t e c t s and P l a n n e r s t o be completed by A p r i l 1987 Jan - UBC P l a n 521-2 u n d e r t a k e s s i t e p l a n f o r the p r i s o n l a n d s as a c l a s s p r o j e c t f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n t o Burnaby P l a n n i n g Department i n A p r i l 1987 F u t u r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s : - a p u b l i c meeting w i l l be n e c e s s a r y t o a l l o w f o r the r e z o n i n g of the l a n d s from i n s t i t u t i o n a l t o r e s i d e n t i a l and park l a n d - Town Park concept may be r e c o n s i d e r e d on b a s i s of e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s ( S o u r c e : Beak 1981, Burnaby Now 1986, Cameron e t a l . 1986, C i t i z e n Committee 1978, Luksun 1986, N o r t h c o t e 1978, P a r r 1982, T o r r e n c e 1977, The Sun) 70 Events up t o and i n c l u d i n g the C i t i z e n ' s Committee f o r the D i s p o s a l of the O a k a l l a Lands. The middl e s t a g e (1979-1982) c o n s i s t s of e v e n t s up t o and i n c l u d i n g the 1982 p r o v i n c i a l p r o p o s a l f o r redevelopment of the O a k a l l a l a n d s . The most r e c e n t stage ( 1 9 8 3 - e a r l y 1987) c o n s i s t s of e v e n t s up t o and i n c l u d i n g the J a n u a r y 1987 award of the c o n t r a c t f o r a community p l a n f o r the O a k a l l a p r i s o n a r e a . 5.4 ORIGIN OF TOWN PARK CONCEPT The c o n c e p t i o n of the Town Park i d e a i n 1972 by B a s i l Luksun was the f i r s t s t e p i n t h e e a r l y stage of the p r o c e s s . Mr. Luksun, the l o n g range p l a n n e r f o r Burnaby, r e c o g n i z e d the p o t e n t i a l f o r expanding the e x i s t i n g Deer Lake and C e n t u r y p a r k s around the l a k e . A Town Park concept f o r Deer Lake was de v e l o p e d t o c r e a t e a r e c r e a t i o n o r i e n t e d park t o complement the c o n s e r v a t i o n o r i e n t e d n a t u r e park around Burnaby Lake. The P l a n n i n g Department e x p r e s s e d t h e concept of a Town Park as "seen as a major f o c u s park s i m i l a r t o the r o l e p l a y e d by S t a n l e y Park w i t h i t s unique n a t u r a l s e t t i n g , c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n , p r o x i m i t y t o Metrotown and p o t e n t i a l t o accommodate a broad range of r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s " ( P a r r 1982, 3 ) . 5.5 WATER QUALITY PLANNING T h i s s e c t i o n r e v i e w s how t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s h a n d l e d the b i o p h y s i c a l impacts of r e s i d e n t i a l development on the e c o l o g i c a l 71 v i a b i l i t y of the l a k e . 5.5.1 Lake and Watershed C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Deer Lake i s a s m a l l and s h a l l o w e u t r o p h i c l a k e 900 m l o n g and 6.5 m deep. The l a k e i s f e d by s i x major streams and a dozen minor ones w i t h one o u t f l o w i n t o Burnaby l a k e . The watershed of Deer Lake i s 824.8 ha w i t h the l a k e c o v e r i n g 34.78 ha p r o d u c i n g a 25:1 r a t i o of d r a i n a g e a r e a t o l a k e s u r f a c e a r e a . The watershed can be d i v i d e d i n t o seven s u b d r a i n a g e b a s i n s (see map 4 ) . Land use i n the watershed i s dominated by s i n g l e f a m i l y r e s i d e n t i a l ( 5 5 % ) ; f o l l o w e d by park ( 2 8 % ) - f i e l d (16%) woods ( 1 2 % ) ; c o m m e r c i a l / i n d u s t r i a l / c o m p r e h e n s i v e development ( 3 % e a c h ) , i n s t i t u t i o n a l (4%) and m u l t i f a m i l y r e s i d e n t i a l (3%) (Beak 1981, 2-11). F u t u r e l a n d use c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n c l u d e r e s i d e n t i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n on the p r i s o n l a n d ( i n s t i t u t i o n a l ) and t h r e e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r o u t e m o d i f i c a t i o n s : the R o y a l Oak Avenue d i v e r s i o n , Moscrop S t r e e t c o n n e c t o r and Oakland S t r e e t e x t e n s i o n . The l a k e d i s p l a y s t y p i c a l s i g n s of a h i g h l y f e r t i l i z e d l a k e i n c l u d i n g : . low water t r a n s p a r e n c y . abundant weed growth i n s h a l l o w s . green/brown water c o l o u r . h i g h oxygen c o n c e n t r a t i o n a t the t o p , low a t the bottom . dominant c o a r s e f i s h (Beak 1981, 1) Map 4. Sub-basins of the Deer Lake Watershed (After: Northcote et a l . 1977, 5) 73 A t r a d i t i o n a l c i t y park v i s t a i s found a t the n o r t h e a s t and e a s t end of the l a k e . The A r t G a l l e r y and James Cowan Thea t r e a r e l o c a t e d on the n o r t h s i d e , surrounded by f l o w e r gardens. M a n i c u r e d lawns l e a d down from the b u i l d i n g s t o the l a k e w i t h the beach l o c a t e d a t the e a s t end. Deer Lake's w i l d e r n e s s a s p e c t i s l o c a t e d on the o l d O a k a l l a p r i s o n farm l a n d s which have been l a r g e l y untouched by the p a r k s department t o d a t e . A s m a l l bog, f o r e s t , t a l l g r a s s e s and l a k e s i d e s h r u b b e r y a r e found a t t h i s end. Loons, h e r o n , ducks, hawk, o w l , s a n d p i p e r and 28 s p e c i e s of s o n g b i r d a r e p r e s e n t i n t h i s a r e a . A l s o p r e s e n t a r e c o y o t e , muskrat, r a c o o n , t u r t l e s and g a r t e r snakes. In the l a k e , b r a s s y minnow i s t h e most abundant s p e c i e s ( S c h a e f e r and Peacock 1985, 76-79). 5.5.2 I n i t i a l Stage (1972-1978) The f i r s t s t e p t a k e n i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s was the development of a Town Park concept f o r t h e l a k e . T h i s concept shaped the t h i n k i n g by the p l a n n i n g department c o n c e r n i n g the water q u a l i t y l e v e l d e s i r e d as w e l l as the t y p e s of a c t i v i t i e s which would be a c c e p t a b l e i n the watershed. Body c o n t a c t water q u a l i t y and r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s were g i v e n p r i o r i t y over n a t u r e c o n s e r v a t i o n or r e s i d e n t i a l development. The park c o u l d not be undertaken on a l a r g e s c a l e u n t i l the l a n d s u r r o u n d i n g the l a k e h e l d p r i v a t e l y and by t h e p r o v i n c e c o u l d be a c q u i r e d . T h e r e f o r e p l a n n i n g e f f o r t s c o n c e n t r a t e d on m a i n t a i n i n g the swimming beach and C e n t u r y Park w h i l e t r y i n g t o 74 a c q u i r e more l a n d t o expand the, park b o u n d a r i e s (Luksun 1986). The Deer Lake Park P r o p o s a l produced by T o r r e n c e C o n s u l t a n t s i n 1977 l i s t e d i m p r o v i n g the water q u a l i t y of the l a k e as a f i s h h a b i t a t and f o c u s of p u b l i c use as one of i t s o b j e c t i v e s . I t d i d not undertake any water q u a l i t y s t u d i e s i t s e l f a l t h o u g h i t r e c o g n i z e d t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e was " l i m i t e d t o i r r e g u l a r t e s t s c o n ducted by s t u d e n t s from UBC s i n c e 1975" ( T o r r e n c e 1977, 30). A c t i v i t i e s which were proposed f o r the park were t h e r e f o r e d e t e r m i n e d t h r o u g h an assessment of a c t i v i t i e s and f a c i l i t i e s a l r e a d y a v a i l a b l e on the s i t e and i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y . A l s o , an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the e x i s t i n g and p r o j e c t e d need f o r l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s i n Burnaby t h a t c o u l d p o t e n t i a l l y be accommodated on the s i t e was u n d e r t a k e n . F u r t h e r , a number of a c t i v i t i e s were suggested by the n a t u r a l and h i s t o r i c f e a t u r e s of the s i t e . S u g g e s t i o n s from r e s i d e n t s and government a g e n c i e s were a l s o i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the d e s i g n p l a n ( T o r r e n c e 1977, 5 0 ) . T wenty-eight a c t i v i t i e s were proposed f o r the p a r k : . an arboretum . swimming beach e x p a n s i o n , boat l a u n c h . a f o u n t a i n i n the l a k e . s c i e n c e c e n t r e , museum, community c e n t r e , e d u c a t i o n a l farm, a r t s and c r a f t s i n the O a k a l l a p r i s o n b u i l d i n g s . water gardens, new pond c o n s t r u c t i o n , model boat a r e a , c a n a l a t west end of l a k e . s c u l p t u r e gardens, outdoor gardens . b i k e p a t h s , w a l k i n g t r a i l s . f i s h i n g a r e a , day camp a r e a , f a m i l y p i c n i c a r e a , c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y a r e a , a d v e n t u r e p l a y a r e a , view s i t e s . t e a h o u s e / r e s t a u r a n t , c o n s e r v a t o r y , outdoor forum . t e n n i s c o u r t s , b o w l i n g green ( T o r r e n c e 1977, 50-62) I t was not w i t h i n the mandate of the T o r r e n c e r e p o r t t o 75 e v a l u a t e the impacts of t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s on the water q u a l i t y of the l a k e . D u r i n g the h e a r i n g s of the C i t i z e n ' s Committee f o r the D i s p o s a l of the O a k a l l a Lands i n 1978, however, the i s s u e of the water q u a l i t y of Deer Lake came t o the f o r e . The UBC Zoology 404 c l a s s made a p r e s e n t a t i o n t o the Committee o u t l i n i n g the n a t u r e of the p r o c e s s of e u t r o p h i c a t i o n and the e u t r o p h i c s t a t e of Deer Lake. T h e i r s u b m i s s i o n c o n c l u d e d by u r g i n g t h a t no f u r t h e r u r b a n i z a t i o n be a l l o w e d i n the watershed and t h a t t h e O a k a l l a l a n d s be used f o r a p ark. The Committee u l t i m a t e l y recommended t r a n s f e r r i n g the lower p a r t of the O a k a l l a l a n d s t o the m u n i c i p a l i t y on the c o n d i t i o n s t h a t i t be used f o r a park and t h a t a water q u a l i t y s t u d y be u n dertaken b e f o r e any park p r o p o s a l s were implemented. 5.5.3 C o n f l i c t Stage (1979-1982) A l t h o u g h i t was known t h a t the l a k e had a water q u a l i t y problem, water q u a l i t y was not a major c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the e a r l y s t a g e of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s as the e x t e n t of the problem was not r e a l i z e d u n t i l the c l o s e of the e a r l y s t a g e . The e x t e n t was not r e a l i z e d as no s c i e n t i f i c s t u d i e s had been undertaken by the m u n i c i p a l i t y o t h e r than c o l i f o r m c o u n t s . A l s o , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the l a k e was d i s p e r s e d among f o u r d e partments. F o l l o w i n g the t r a n s f e r of the lower p a r t of the O a k a l l a l a n d , a m u n i c i p a l committee composed of a member of the P a r k s , 76 H e a l t h , Long Range P l a n n i n g and E n g i n e e r i n g Departments was s e t up t o p l a n f o r the l a k e . One of t h e i r f i r s t a c t i o n s was t o c a l l f o r b i d s on a water q u a l i t y s t u d y f o r Deer Lake. W i t h the a s s i s t a n c e of the new c l a s s of Zoology 404, the m u n i c i p a l i t y chose Beak C o n s u l t a n t s ' b i d (see Appendix 4 f o r terms of r e f e r e n c e ) . T h i s s t u d y r e p r e s e n t e d the f i r s t i n t e n s i v e s t u d y of the water q u a l i t y of Deer Lake. In a l e t t e r t o Dr. N o r t h c o t e of UBC, the l o n g range p l a n n e r f o r Burnaby acknowledged "the u n d e r t a k i n g of the Deer Lake water q u a l i t y s t u d y was a d i r e c t r e s u l t of the work you and your s t u d e n t s had undertaken on Deer Lake and the p r e s e n t a t i o n s you made t o members of C o u n c i l , P a r k s Commission, Committees and S t a f f " (Luksun 1982). The Beak s t u d y i d e n t i f i e d two p r i n c i p a l f a c t o r s c a u s i n g d e t e r i o r a t i o n of t h e - water q u a l i t y of Deer Lake - h i g h phosphorus l o a d and h i g h s i l t l o a d . "Both phenomena are d i c t a t e d by the h y d r o l o g y of the watershed which i s p r e s e n t l y [ s i c ] dominated by urban r u n o f f " (Beak 1981, 2 ) . Beak i d e n t i f i e d the main s o u r c e s of urban r u n o f f i n t o Deer Lake as the stream i n f l o w s which c a r r y stormwater from storm d r a i n s : the marsh i n f l o w a t the western end; the s t e e p l y graded i n f l o w s a t the s o u t h s i d e and the two i n f l o w s a t the beach s i t e on the e a s t e r n end of the l a k e . I n f l o w streams c o n t r i b u t e 57% of the water volume and 58-64% of the t o t a l phosphorus l o a d . Other s o u r c e s of phosphorus i n c l u d e d i f f u s e r u n o f f ( 1 0 % ) , i n t e r n a l r e g e n e r a t i o n from macrophytes and sediments ( 2 0 % ) , groundwater seepage ( 1 -10%) and a e r i a l l o a d i n g ( 1 % ) . The e r o s i o n and f l a s h f l o o d i n g of 77 the s o u t h s i d e i n f l o w s were i d e n t i f i e d as c o n t r i b u t i n g most of the h i g h s i l t l o a d t o the l a k e (Beak 1981, 3 ) . Beak p a r t i t i o n e d t h e phosphorus and r u n o f f t o Deer Lake by major s u b d r a i n a g e b a s i n as o u t l i n e d i n T able 14. Beak i d e n t i f i e d the w e t l a n d as a c t i n g as a s i n k f o r phosphorus i n the summer and f a l l but as a s o u r c e d u r i n g the w i n t e r and s p r i n g w i t h the onset of heavy r a i n s and urban r u n o f f (1981, 5 ) . T h e i r t e s t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t s i x t i m e s the phosphorus c o n c e n t r a t i o n c o n s i d e r e d t o l e r a b l e may be r e l e a s e d from the w e t l a n d s h o u l d d i s t u r b a n c e t a k e p l a c e . Three t i m e s the t o l e r a b l e c o n c e n t r a t i o n would be r e l e a s e d i f the u p l a n d a r e a were d i s t u r b e d (Beak 1981, 6 ) . Based on the above f i n d i n g s Beak d e v e l o p e d f i v e o b j e c t i v e s f o r a park p l a n - l a k e r e s t o r a t i o n program: . reduce s i l t i n g and e r o s i o n . reduce n u t r i e n t i n f l o w and a l g a l t u r b i d i t y . m a i n t a i n f l u s h i n g r a t e . improve the q u a l i t y of water e n t e r i n g the l a k e . p r e s e r v e and r e s t o r e the l a k e as a r e c r e a t i o n and f i s h i n g h a b i t a t The main g o a l was t o reduce the a l g a l d e n s i t y t o a l e v e l c o m p a t i b l e w i t h swimming, f i s h i n g and g e n e r a l r e c r e a t i o n . T h i s meant t h a t the a n n u a l phosphorus l o a d i n g would have t o be reduced more than h a l f , 338-494 k g / y r . To o b t a i n t h i s r e d u c t i o n Beak recommended the r e s t o r a t i o n measures o u t l i n e d i n T a b l e 15. 78 TABLE 14 SOURCES OF PHOSPHOROUS TO DEER LAKE BY SUB-BASIN, 1981 Sub-b a s i n Area Creek T o t a l Phosphorous Water (%) # Load Load ( k g / y r ) (%) (%) A 5 1,2 5 1 n e g l . B O a k a l l a . 48 3 161 44 30 C 14 1 1 43 1 1 1 D 6 12 19 5 5 E 6 13 58 15 12 F 8 1 4 5 1 n e g l . G h e a v i l y 13 16,17 86 23 52 u r b a n i z e d T o t a l 100 377 100 100 (So u r c e : Beak 1981, 5) 79 TABLE 15 SUGGESTED RESTORATION METHODS FOR DEER LAKE Technique Cost Phosphorous S i l t C o l i f o r m $'82 Removal Removal R e d u c t i o n ( k g / y r ) Storm D r a i n 1.2 206 v e r y h i g h D i v e r s i o n m i l l i o n h i g h - p a r t i a l 30- 50 h i g h h i g h d i v e r s i o n S e t t l i n g Ponds 1.35-4.1 1 12 h i g h h i g h m i l l i o n A r t i f i c i a l 10,000 60- 80 — — Marsh Watershed Source 50- 100 h i g h v e r y Treatment h i g h Rooted P l a n t 20,000 18 — — H a r v e s t • T o t a l 2.58-5.34 270-400 v e r y h i g h m i l l i o n h i g h ( S o u r c e : Beak 1981, 10) 80 S p e c i f i c watershed s o u r c e t r e a t m e n t r e q u i r e m e n t s i n c l u d e d : . f r e q u e n t s t r e e t c l e a n i n g . l e a f and g r a s s c l i p p i n g removal . moderate and e f f i c i e n t use of f e r t i l i z e r s . pet c o n t r o l . s e t up c r i t e r i a f o r c o n t r o l s on c o n s t r u c t i o n s i t e s . new c o n s t r u c t i o n t o i n c l u d e porous pavement ( Beak 1981, 7-17) In o r d e r t o improve Deer Lake as a h a b i t a t f o r s a l m o n i d s d r a s t i c and c o s t l y r e s t o r a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s such as d r e d g i n g and a e r a t i o n would be n e c e s s a r y . T h e r e f o r e i t was suggested t h a t a n g l e r s s h o u l d be encouraged t o a c c e p t the f i s h c u r r e n t l y i n the l a k e (Beak 1981 7-22). Beak a l s o suggested a number, of i n t e r i m measures which c o u l d be u n d e r t a k e n b e f o r e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of the park p l a n . These i n c l u d e d : h a r v e s t i n g the g r a s s l a n d and removing t h e c u t t i n g s from the park s i t e , removing the hog f u e l from the park t r a i l s ( t o p r e v e n t l e a c h i n g of t a n n i c and humic a c i d s ) and enforcement of b i r d f e e d i n g r e g u l a t i o n s i n the beach a r e a (Beak 1981, 7-24, 7-25). Two months a f t e r the Beak r e p o r t was s u b m i t t e d t o t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y i n June of 1982, the p r o v i n c i a l government proposed a redevelopment p l a n f o r the O a k a l l a l a n d s i n v o l v i n g a major h o u s i n g development as w e l l as a g o l f c o u r s e and c h i l d r e n ' s zoo. T h i s p r o p o s a l d i d not i n d i c a t e what the impacts of the development upon the water q u a l i t y of the l a k e would be. 81 The p r o p o s a l was r e j e c t e d because a l t h o u g h some funds d e r i v e d from the development were t o be used by the m u n i c i p a l i t y t o improve the pa r k , the m u n i c i p a l i t y f e l t the town park concept would have been so s e v e r e l y undermined they would not get any b e n e f i t from the funds ( P a r r 1982, 5 ) . A l s o the p r o p o s a l would c o n t r a v e n e one of the r e g i s t e r e d c o n d i t i o n s of agreement f o r the t r a n s f e r of the O a k a l l a l a n d s which r e q u i r e d the l a n d s t o be used f o r a p a r k . Members of the p u b l i c a l s o e x p r e s s e d o p p o s i t i o n t o the p r o p o s a l . One l e t t e r q u e s t i o n s the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of d r e d g i n g the l a k e a t the expense of the marshes which s u p p o r t and p r o t e c t the n a t u r a l w i l d l i f e , c o n s t r u c t i n g a g o l f c o u r s e , c h i l d r e n ' s zoo and b o t a n i c a l garden and c l e a r c u t t i n g the f o r e s t (Palmer 1982). The l e t t e r a l s o wondered " i f R o y a l Oak Avenue i s t o o s t e e p f o r t r a n s i t v e h i c l e s and p r i s o n buses i s n ' t i t t o o s t e e p f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n equipment?" (Palmer 1982) 5.5.4 R e s o l u t i o n Stage ( 1 9 8 3 - e a r l y 1987) In 1983 Beak was h i r e d t o undertake a m o n i t o r i n g program f o r t h e l a k e . A former member of Beak undertook the m o n i t o r i n g i n 1984 and by 1985 the E n v i r o n m e n t a l H e a l t h Department of the m u n i c i p a l i t y assumed the m o n i t o r i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . M o n i t o r i n g i n d i c a t e d some improvement i n water q u a l i t y due t o r i p - r a p p i n g of the e r o s i o n a l streams on the s o u t h s i d e (Luksun 1986). F u r t h e r study of the l a k e was conducted by Douglas C o l l e g e s t u d e n t s from June t o November 1984 under the f e d e r a l 82 government's Environment 2000 program. The purpose of the s t u d y was t o o b t a i n r e c e n t , s i t e - s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n about the n a t u r a l environment of Deer Lake t o complement the r e p o r t produced by Beak c o n s u l t a n t s i n 1981. "The i n f o r m a t i o n was needed by t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y t o make in f o r m e d d e c i s i o n s on l a k e management t o improve the water q u a l i t y of the l a k e f o r the purpose of m a i n t a i n i n g i t s r e c r e a t i o n v a l u e " ( S c o t t 1984, 2 ) . The r e s u l t of the p r o j e c t was a r e p o r t of d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n about the n a t u r a l environment of Deer Lake. In a d d i t i o n a b r o c h u r e was produced f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n t o r e s i d e n t s i n the watershed i n f o r m i n g them of how they c o u l d c o n t r i b u t e to the c o n s e r v a t i o n of the l a k e ( S c o t t 1984, 2 ) . The b r o c h u r e e x p l a i n e d how c o n t a m i n a n t s from r e s i d e n t s ' lawns, gardens and roadways f l o w d i r e c t l y i n t o Deer Lake from the storm sewers i n t h e i r neighbourhood. More r e c e n t l y i n F e b r u a r y of 1986, the m u n i c i p a l i t y c a l l e d i n the Water Management Branch of the B.C. M i n i s t r y of the Environment t o recommend s t e p s t o c o n t r o l and remove the weed n a j i s which i s s p r e a d i n g r a p i d l y a l o n g the s h o r e l i n e ( Burnaby  Now May 14 1986). Water q u a l i t y management s t e p s taken i n the summer of 1986 i n c l u d e d the h i r i n g of a p r o v i n c i a l weed h a r v e s t e r , g r a s s c u t t i n g a t the western end of the l a k e , and the removal of 67 Canada Geese t o reduce the h i g h l e v e l s of c o l i f o r m s i n the wat e r . These a c t i o n s have not been undertaken w i t h o u t c o n t r o v e r s y . 83 In an a r t i c l e i n Burnaby Now, George C l u l o w a c c u s e d the Burnaby p a r k s s u p e r i n t e n d e n t of "showing a l a c k of common sense and the absence of a s c i e n t i f i c approach t o the l a k e ' s problems" over the s u p e r i n t e n d e n t ' s c l a i m t h a t the p r a c t i c e of c u t t i n g g r a s s d e c r e a s e s the amount of n u t r i e n t s e n t e r i n g the l a k e ( J u l y 23 1986). C l u l o w s t a t e d t h a t l e a v i n g the c u t g r a s s t o r o t a c t u a l l y adds more n u t r i e n t s t o the l a k e than i f the g r a s s were a l l o w e d t o grow. F i n a l l y , a second r e s i d e n t i a l development p r o p o s a l by the p r o v i n c e has been agreed t o by the m u n i c i p a l i t y . T h i s development would be l i m i t e d t o the p r i s o n b u i l d i n g s i t e . In c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the water q u a l i t y i m p l i c a t i o n s of the proposed c o n s t r u c t i o n of h o u s i n g u n i t s on the p r i s o n l a n d s , the f o l l o w i n g measures a r e b e i n g i n s t i t u t e d . No c o n s t r u c t i o n w i l l be a l l o w e d below the 300 f o o t c o n t o u r l e v e l of the- h i l l on which the p r i s o n b u i l d i n g s a r e l o c a t e d . An e n g i n e e r i n g f i r m has been h i r e d t o make a p r o p o s a l r e g a r d i n g the c o n s t r u c t i o n of n u t r i e n t s i n k ponds a t the west end of the l a k e t o d e t a i n the urban r u n o f f from the h o u s i n g development. A l s o porous pavement w i l l be r e q u i r e d and s e t t l i n g ponds w i l l be c o n s t r u c t e d i n the p a r k i n g l o t s . 5.6 GOALS AND CONFLICTS T h i s s e c t i o n r e v i e w s the v a l u e c o n f l i c t s between the p u b l i c , Burnaby p l a n n i n g department and the p r o v i n c i a l government. 84 5.6.1 I n i t i a l Stage (1972-1978) In t he e a r l y s tage of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s the f o c u s was on d e v e l o p i n g a park p l a n , i m p r o v i n g e x i s t i n g p a r k l a n d , and a c q u i r i n g p r o v i n c i a l l a n d s i n the watershed t o a l l o w the concept of a Town Park t o become a r e a l i t y . P u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n was encouraged i n the e a r l y s t a g e of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s t h r o u g h a s u r v e y and p u b l i c meetings the m u n i c i p a l i t y of Burnaby h e l d t o det e r m i n e the n a t u r e of f u t u r e development d e s i r e d by the members of the m u n i c i p a l i t y . T h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o c e s s i d e n t i f i e d Burnaby M o u n t a i n , Burnaby Lake and Deer l a k e as s i g n i f i c a n t n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s which the p u b l i c wanted r e t a i n e d i n a n a t u r a l s t a t e ( P a r r 1981, 2 ) . As the f i r s t s t e p toward a c h i e v i n g the g o a l of a Town Park f o r Deer Lake, the m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l and the A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l ' s department approved the Town Park concept i n p r i n c i p l e i n 1974. T h i s concept suggested t h a t the p r o v i n c i a l l a n d i n the watershed be used f o r p u b l i c or r e c r e a t i o n a l purposes ( P a r r 1981,2). The use of the p r i s o n b u i l d i n g s and l a n d and the e f f e c t on the l a k e of the development of i t s watershed f o r a park remained the c e n t r a l f o c u s of a l l t h r e e s t a g e s of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . C h a r l e s T o r r e n c e C o n s u l t a n t s were h i r e d t o p r e p a r e a d e t a i l e d park p l a n f o r the Deer Lake a r e a ( i n c l u d i n g 158 a c r e s of t he p r o v i n c i a l O a k a l l a p r i s o n l a n d s a n t i c i p a t e d f o r l e a s e t o the m u n i c i p a l i t y ) i n 1976. P u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n was undertaken i n t h i s i n s t a n c e t h r o u g h the Burnaby P l a n n i n g Department P l a n n i n g I n f o r m a t i o n Program. L e t t e r s were m a i l e d t o 58 85 i n d i v i d u a l s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n Burnaby i n t r o d u c i n g the p l a n n i n g s t u d y and a s k i n g f o r s u b m i s s i o n s r e g a r d i n g the use of the p a r k . P r e v i o u s r e p o r t s of p u b l i c o p i n i o n such as The P u b l i c M e e t i n g s - Phase One were a l s o r e v i e w e d . P r e l i m i n a r y p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e s and an i n i t i a l park program were d e v e l o p e d based on comments from r e s i d e n t s and the n a t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the s i t e ( T o r r e n c e 1977, 3 9 ) . Once the o b j e c t i v e s and program had been e s t a b l i s h e d meetings were h e l d w i t h the f o l l o w i n g groups t o o b t a i n t h e i r comments: r e s i d e n t s from the F o r e s t Glen Park a r e a ; S p e r l i n g Avenue and Buckingham a r e a ; Monarch S t r e e t and R o y a l Oak a r e a . The p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e s and program were then r e f i n e d and a d e s i g n p l a n d e v e l o p e d based on t h i s i n p u t ( T o r r e n c e 1977, 3 9 ) . T o r r e n c e r e p o r t s t h a t r e s i d e n t s were s u p p o r t i v e of d e v e l o p i n g Deer Lake as "a M u n i c i p a l Park t h a t m a i n t a i n s the a r e a ' s n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s w h i l e p r o v i d i n g a d i v e r s i t y of a c t i v i t i e s f e l t t o be a p p r o p r i a t e t o Deer Lake" ( T o r r e n c e 1977, 3 9 ) . A c t i v i t i e s r e s i d e n t s d i s c u s s e d as p r i o r i t i e s were: more swimming beach; p l a c e s f o r b o a t i n g ; p l a c e s f o r f i s h i n g ; b i c y c l e and p e d e s t r i a n t r a i l s ; p i c n i c a r e a s ; s p o r t s a r e a s ; wooden walkways i n the swamp and a c h i l d r e n ' s a n i m a l farm a t O a k a l l a (Torrence 1977, 4 0 ) . S h o r t l y a f t e r the p l a n was p r e p a r e d , the p r o v i n c i a l government changed. A l t h o u g h the New Democratic P a r t y government had agreed t o l e a s e 158.34 a c r e s of the O a k a l l a l a n d s t o Burnaby f o r a park i n 1975, a S o c i a l C r e d i t government d e f e a t e d the NDP 86 b e f o r e a l e a s e c o u l d be e x e c u t e d . In 1977 the Honourable A l e x F r a s e r , M i n i s t e r of Highways and P u b l i c Works, reopened the i s s u e by c o n v e n i n g the C i t i z e n ' s Committee f o r the D i s p o s a l of the O a k a l l a P r i s o n Lands. The S o c i a l C r e d i t government s e t t h e f o l l o w i n g terms of r e f e r e n c e f o r the Committee: 1. The Committee s h o u l d recommend a phase by phase d i s m a n t l i n g of the p r e s e n t O a k a l l a s i t e , t o g e t h e r w i t h recommendations f o r the p r o p e r use and d i s p o s i t i o n of t h o s e l a n d s as t hey become a v a i l a b l e . 2. The Committee s h o u l d recommend t o the government the b e s t p o s s i b l e use and d i s p o s i t i o n of t h o s e p o r t i o n s of l a n d a d j a c e n t t o Deer Lake and R o y a l Oak Avenue i n Burnaby not now b e i n g used i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the p r i s o n . The recommendations s h o u l d be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the p r o p e r use and aims and a s p i r a t i o n s of the c i t i z e n s of Burnaby ( P a r r 1981, 2 ) . The Committee members c o n s i s t e d of MLA Elwood V e i t c h , Mayor Tom C o n s t a b l e , c o u n c i l members Mr. F i n g a r s o n , Mr. Norwood, Mr. Brown and Mrs. P a r l i a m e n t . They heard s u b m i s s i o n s from a wide v a r i e t y of i n t e r e s t groups w i t h d i f f e r e n t v iews on the p r e f e r r e d f u t u r e uses of the p r i s o n l a n d s . For example, a seven member model boat c l u b wanted model boat ponds t o be d e v e l o p e d i n the marshland a t the western end of the l a k e ( C i t i z e n ' s Committee 1978, 2 ) . I t was suggested by Mr. Yee, a c o u n s e l l o r a t BCIT and former s c h o o l t r u s t e e , t h a t the p r i s o n b u i l d i n g s be c o n v e r t e d f o r use t o a community c o l l e g e . Another s u g g e s t i o n was t h a t a c o n v e n t i o n c e n t r e be d e v e l o p e d on the b u i l d i n g s i t e . The Burnaby C i t i z e n ' s A s s o c i a t i o n ( r e p r e s e n t i n g 200 p e o p l e ) recommended t h a t the p r i s o n gymnasium become an a u d i t o r i u m or t h e a t r e . The p r i s o n 87 k i t c h e n c o u l d be used f o r c r a f t s purposes ( C i t i z e n ' s Committee 1978, 12 and 5 5 ) . The Burnaby A r t s C o u n c i l ( r e p r e s e n t i n g 1,000 Burnaby c i t i z e n s ) argued i n f a v o u r of " s t o p p i n g the t i d e of c o n c r e t e and p r e s e r v i n g an i s l a n d of g r e e n e r y " i n the a r e a t o b a l a n c e the h i g h d e n s i t y of Metrotown ( C i t i z e n ' s Committee 1978, 4 2 ) . Dr. O b e r l a n d e r , a UBC p r o f e s s o r , a l s o argued f o r the maintenance of open space f o r e c o l o g i c a l and amenity v a l u e s . The Burnaby C i t i z e n ' s A s s o c i a t i o n e x p r e s s e d the d e s i r e f o r the S o c i a l C r e d i t government t o honour the NDP agreement t o l e a s e t h e l a n d f o r p a r k l a n d . T h e i r b r i e f s t a t e d t h a t " w i t h good p l a n n i n g the l a n d c o u l d be u t i l i z e d i n the bes t way as t o p r o t e c t the environment and a t the same time make f u l l use of t h a t l a n d f o r the peopl e of Burnaby" ( C i t i z e n ' s Committee 1978, 55). The Zoology 404 c l a s s from UBC s t u d i e d the l i m n o l o g y of the l a k e as a term p r o j e c t and recommended the l a n d s be used f o r a park i n o r d e r t o p r e v e n t f u r t h e r e u t r o p h i c a t i o n of the l a k e ( N o r t h c o t e 1978, 2 2 ) . There was l i t t l e d i s agreement among p a r t i c i p a n t s over the d e s i r e f o r the l a n d t o be used f o r r e c r e a t i o n and n a t u r e a p p r e c i a t i o n . The m u n i c i p a l i t y was concerned over l o s i n g the l e a s e i t had almost s e c u r e d t o use the l a n d as p a r k l a n d , but i t d i d not i n s t i g a t e a c o n f l i c t w i t h the p r o v i n c i a l government. The Committee's r e p o r t was s u b m i t t e d t o the Honourable A l e x F r a s e r i n 1978. The r e p o r t o n l y a d d r e s s e d the second p a r t of the Committee's mandate - the d i s p o s i t i o n of the l a n d a d j a c e n t t o 88 Deer Lake not c u r r e n t l y i n use by the p r i s o n . The Committee recommended the t r a n s f e r of the lower p o r t i o n of the O a k a l l a l a n d s t o Burnaby w i t h the f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s : 1. Burnaby i r r e v o c a b l y s e t a s i d e both t h i s l a n d and the a d j a c e n t M u n i c i p a l l a n d as p r e s e n t l y owned and t h a t d e s i g n a t e d f o r a c q u i s i t i o n f o r purposes of a p a r k , i n p e r p e t u i t y , f o r the b e n e f i t of a l l the c i t i z e n s of B r i t i s h C o l umbia. 2. Burnaby un d e r t a k e i m m e d i a t e l y a program w i t h r e s p e c t t o water q u a l i t y i n Deer l a k e , which w i l l i n c l u d e the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of s u i t a b l e groundwater improvement from the p r e s e n t r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s and d e s i g n a t e d park a r e a s t o b r i n g water q u a l i t y t o l e v e l s a c c e p t a b l e t o r e c r e a t i o n a l purposes b e f o r e major park development i s a u t h o r i z e d . 3. A c c e s s t o the l a n d d e s c r i b e d above t o be p r o v i d e d as soon as the c o n d i t i o n s of t h e s e recommendations a r e a c c e p t e d by the M u n i c i p a l i t y of Burnaby ( P a r r 1981, 3 ) . The Committee acknowledged t h a t "the b a l a n c e of the l a n d , f i f t y t h r e e a c r e s , [ s i c ] i s a l s o of c r i t i c a l i mportance t o the c i t i z e n s of Burnaby" ( P a r r 1981, 3 ) . The Committee p l a n n e d "an a c t i v e program t o d e v e l o p o p i n i o n and a l t e r n a t i v e s r e l a t i v e t o the d i s p o s i t i o n of t h i s l a n d " ( P l a n n i n g Department 1981, 3 ) . However, t h i s f u r t h e r c o n s u l t a t i o n d i d not f o l l o w as the Committee was o f f i c i a l l y d i s b a n d e d . The t r a n s f e r of the lower p a r t of t h e O a k a l l a l a n d s i n 1978 however, made the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of the park concept more f e a s i b l e . 5.6.2 C o n f l i c t Stage (1979-1982) In the m i d d l e s t a g e , p r o v i n c i a l ownership of the O a k a l l a l a n d s c o m p l i c a t e d the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s f o r Deer Lake by i n t r o d u c i n g a h i g h l e v e l of u n c e r t a i n t y and c o n f l i c t . A l t h o u g h the m u n i c i p a l i t y had h i r e d T o r r e n c e t o d e v e l o p a concept f o r t h e 89 use of the l a k e and wate r s h e d , the p r o v i n c e i n t r o d u c e d two p r o p o s a l s t o which the m u n i c i p a l i t y then had t o r e a c t . The m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s g o a l s i n t h i s s tage were t o ad d r e s s the water q u a l i t y r equirement of the t r a n s f e r of the O a k a l l a l a n d s as p a r t of the park p l a n n i n g . I n 1980 Burnaby c a l l e d f o r b i d s on a water q u a l i t y study f o r Deer Lake and r e c e i v e d a s s i s t a n c e from UBC-Zoology 404 i n s e l e c t i n g a c o n s u l t a n t . However, c o n f l i c t e n t e r e d the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i n 1981 when the p r o v i n c e i n t r o d u c e d a p r e l i m i n a r y d e s i g n f o r a new men's and women's maximum s e c u r i t y p r i s o n on the O a k a l l a s i t e . In the year f o l l o w i n g the announcement a group of c i t i z e n s ' formed the O a k a l l a Must Go Committee t o p r o t e s t the p r o p o s a l . I t g a t h e r e d 7,000 s i g n a t u r e s on a p e t i t i o n a g a i n s t the new p r i s o n and c a l l e d f o r the c l o s u r e of the e x i s t i n g O a k a l l a f a c i l i t i e s as w e l l - a s h o l d i n g meetings and e n c o u r a g i n g l e t t e r w r i t i n g . The m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l p o s i t i o n r e f l e c t e d t h i s o p p o s i t i o n t o any a c t i o n but removal of the p r i s o n (Marble 1982). Meanwhile, Beak C o n s u l t a n t ' s r e p o r t on the water q u a l i t y of the l a k e was s u b m i t t e d i n June of 1982 and an i n t e r n a l committee composed of members from the departments of h e a l t h , p l a n n i n g , e n g i n e e r i n g and p a r k s was e s t a b l i s h e d t o p l a n f o r the f u t u r e of the park and l a k e u s i n g the recommendations i n the Beak r e p o r t . Then i n September of 1982 the p r o v i n c e i n t r o d u c e d a redevelopment p l a n f o r the s i t e . P r e m i e r Bennett announced t h a t O a k a l l a p r i s o n would c l o s e by 1986. J o i n t development was proposed w i t h the m u n i c i p a l i t y f o r the p r i s o n l a n d s and some of 90 the park l a n d . On 160 a c r e s of the 640 a c r e s under c o n s i d e r a t i o n , 750 townhouses, 900 apartments (135 f o r s e n i o r s ) and 150 semi-detached houses were t o be b u i l t . On the r e m a i n i n g 480 a c r e s a park w i t h bikeways, waterways, t e n n i s c o u r t s , p l a y i n g f i e l d s , a c h i l d r e n ' s zoo and p l a y a r e a , b o t a n i c a l gardens and a p u b l i c g o l f c o u r s e was proposed (Bennett 1982) (see map 2 ) . The p r o p o s a l was p r o c l a i m e d "an i m p o r t a n t p a r t of the p r o v i n c e ' s p l a n f o r economic r e c o v e r y . A l o n g w i t h c a p i t a l e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r c o r r e c t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s i t w i l l p r o v i d e 4,000 perso n y e a r s of employment" (Bennett 1982). The p r o p o s a l was d e s c r i b e d by The Vancouver Sun as "a shock t o Burnaby p o l i t i c i a n s , p l a n n e r s and r e s i d e n t s " who had been l e f t out of the p l a n n i n g f o r the p r o p o s a l and "had e x p e c t e d the p r i s o n l a n d s ' t o be d e v e l o p e d as a p a r k " (Sept. 1 6 1982, A 1 ) . Not o n l y was t h e p u b l i c not i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r o c e s s , but the m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l was a l s o l e f t out of s e c r e t agreements between the mayor and the p r o v i n c e (Palmer 1982). A number of r e s i d e n t ' s l e t t e r s o b j e c t e d t o "the i d e a of the p r o v i n c i a l government t a k i n g over the p l a n n i n g from Burnaby e s p e c i a l l y when f o r so l o n g t h a t l a n d has been promised t o us" f o r a park (Holbech 1982, Palmer 1982). F e a r s t h a t the c h a r a c t e r of the a r e a would be d e s t r o y e d by the housing* p r o j e c t and concern over the e n s u i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a l d i s r u p t i o n were a l s o e x p r e s s e d by c i t i z e n s . One l e t t e r s t a t e d t h a t a t an O a k a l l a Must Go meeting i n the s p r i n g of 1982 the e n t i r e a u d i e n c e opposed a r e a l e s t a t e d e v e l o p e r ' s s u g g e s t i o n t h a t h o u s i n g was the b e s t use of the O a k a l l a l a n d s 91 (Palmer 1982). Communication from B.C. P l a c e , the p r o v i n c e ' s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n the j o i n t p r o p o s a l , i n d i c a t e d t h a t agreement by the m u n i c i p a l i t y was a n t i c i p a t e d (Hardman 1982). However, th e m u n i c i p a l i t y r e j e c t e d the p r o v i n c e ' s p r o p o s a l because i t v a r i e d t o o g r e a t l y from t h e i r e x i s t i n g concept f o r the a r e a and v i o l a t e d one of the s t i p u l a t i o n s of t r a n s f e r of the l a n d s they a l r e a d y had r e c e i v e d from the p r o v i n c e . The p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s was t h e r e f o r e slowed down. 5.6.3 R e s o l u t i o n Stage ( 1 9 8 3 - e a r l y 1987) The g o a l of the most r e c e n t s t a g e of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , implementing a Town Park f o r Deer Lake, has i n v o l v e d a t t e m p t s by the c i t i z e n s and the m u n i c i p a l i t y of Burnaby t o d e t e r m i n e what the p r o v i n c e i n t e n d s f o r the r e m a i n i n g 68 a c r e s of the O a k a l l a p r i s o n l a n d s ; a c t i o n s by the m u n i c i p a l i t y t o improve the water q u a l i t y of Deer Lake; and most r e c e n t l y , m u n i c i p a l i n v o l v e m e n t i n a second p r o v i n c i a l redevelopment p r o p o s a l . P u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n remained a t the reduced l e v e l i t h e l d i n t h e m i d d l e s t a g e . In mid-1984 as p a r t of the ongoing c o n f l i c t over the use of the p r o v i n c i a l l y owned l a n d i n the watershed, the m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l r e q u e s t e d from the A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l : 1. An updated p r o g r e s s r e p o r t on the c l o s u r e and r e l o c a t i o n of O a k a l l a 2. A response t o the c o n c e r n s e x p r e s s e d by the m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l r e l a t e d t o the proposed j o i n t redevelopment ( P l a n n i n g Dept 1981,) 92 In J a n u a r y of 1985 the A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l responded t o the m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s e n q u i r i e s . He i n f o r m e d them t h a t the government i s committed t o the replacement of O a k a l l a p r i s o n . However, the o r i g i n a l s c h e d u l e has been d e l a y e d by the poor s t a t e of the economy. He was p r e p a r e d t o d i s c u s s a l t e r n a t i v e s t o the proposed j o i n t development of 1982 (Smith 1985). D u r i n g the summer of 1986 the m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l a u t h o r i z e d s t e p s t o be taken t o improve the water q u a l i t y of the l a k e i n c l u d i n g the h i r i n g of a p r o v i n c i a l weed h a r v e s t e r t o remove l a k e weeds, g r a s s c u t t i n g and b i r d removal (Burnaby Now May 1986). A l s o d u r i n g the s p r i n g and summer, the mayor and s e n i o r members of the e n g i n e e r i n g and p l a n n i n g departments were i n v i t e d by the p r o v i n c e t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n d e v e l o p i n g a new p r o v i n c i a l p r o p o s a l f o r the O a k a l l a l a n d s . However, the p u b l i c was not i n v o l v e d i n t h i s r e f o r m u l a t i o n of the development p r o p o s a l f o r the O a k a l l a l a n d s . On b e h a l f of the M i n i s t e r of Consumer and C o r p o r a t e A f f a i r s , Elwood V e i t c h , the Van Bourne Group and Waisman Dewar Grout and C a r t e r undertook a p r e - d e s i g n f e a s i b i l i t y s tudy f o r development of the O a k a l l a l a n d s . The t a s k s of the s t u d y were t o : . p r o v i d e a d d i t i o n a l impetus f o r the r e l o c a t i o n of the e x i s t i n g c o r r e c t i o n s c e n t r e . p r e p a r e a development framework t h a t i l l u s t r a t e s s i t e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r urban d e s i g n and c o n c e p t u a l l a n d use . e s t a b l i s h a p p r o v a l i n p r i n c i p a l f o r the redevelopment framework from the m u n i c i p a l i t y 93 . p r e p a r e a p r e l i m i n a r y l a n d development proforma t h a t i l l u s t r a t e s the p o t e n t i a l revenues t o the p r o v i n c e from the s a l e of s e r v i c e d l a n d p a r c e l s t o the p r i v a t e s e c t o r . r e v i e w o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s h a r i n g l a n d s a l e revenues between the m u n i c i p a l i t y and the p r o v i n c e t h a t c o u l d be a l l o c a t e d t o the c o n s t r u c t i o n of p u b l i c a m e n i t i e s w i t h i n Burnaby (Cameron e t a l 1986, i i ) . Of the 68.1 a c r e s of p r i s o n l a n d owned by the p r o v i n c e , 50.28 a r e proposed f o r m u l t i f a m i l y h o u s i n g . Three and one h a l f a c r e s now owned by the m u n i c i p a l i t y are proposed f o r i n c l u s i o n i n the redevelopment b r i n g i n g the t o t a l f o r r e s i d e n t i a l development t o 53.88 a c r e s . S i x hundred and f o r t y r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s w i l l be d i s t r i b u t e d a c r o s s t h e s i t e from n o r t h t o s o u t h at i n c r e a s i n g d e n s i t i e s of 10-12, 12-15, 15-22 u n i t s / a c r e . An open space b u f f e r a r e a w i l l be p l a c e d between the r e s i d e n t i a l a rea and 17.9 a c r e s of p r o v i n c i a l l a n d which a r e proposed t o be d e d i c a t e d t o the m u n i c i p a l i t y f o r park use. (Cameron e t a l . 1986, 3 and 6 ) . P r emier Vander Zalm c a l l e d the O a k a l l a l a n d s " p r o b a b l y the most e x p e n s i v e p i e c e of r e a l e s t a t e i n Burnaby" ( The Vancouver  Sun September 25 1986). Gross revenues t o the p r o v i n c e a r e p r o j e c t e d t o be $12,500,000. T o t a l development c o s t s a r e e x p e c t e d t o be $3,500,000 r e s u l t i n g i n a r e t u r n of a p p r o x i m a t e l y $9,000,000. Seven hundred and f o u r person y e a r s of employment are f o r e c a s t e d as a r e s u l t of the p r o j e c t . M a r k e t i n g and s a l e of the l a n d would be phased over a t h r e e t o f i v e y e a r p e r i o d w i t h a t a r g e t commencement of the summer of 1987 (Cameron et a l . 1986, 4,5). The redevelopment w i l l a l s o p r o v i d e the o p p o r t u n i t y t o 94 complete a p e d e s t r i a n l i n k a g e between Metrotown, the C i v i c C e n t r e complex, the BC Parkway under S k y t r a i n and the w a l k i n g t r a i l systems proposed f o r the Deer Lake park a r e a . A p e d e s t r i a n w a l k w a y / l i n e a r park i s proposed f o r the s i t e on a s o u t h w e s t / n o r t h e a s t a x i s e n t e r i n g a t R o y a l Oak and Oakland (Cameron e t a l . 1986, 7) (see map 3 ) . The B.C. B u i l d i n g C o r p o r a t i o n asked the m u n i c i p a l i t y i n December of 1986 t o i n i t i a t e a community p l a n f o r the O a k a l l a l a n d s u s i n g the p r o v i n c i a l p r o p o s a l as a base. The m u n i c i p a l i t y has h i r e d the Van Bourne Group and Waisman Dewar Grout and C a r t e r t o p r e p a r e t h i s s i t e p l a n by A p r i l 1987. The r e z o n i n g p r o c e s s w i l l then be i n i t i a t e d (Luksun 1987). P u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l be n e c e s s a r y a t t h i s p o i n t i n o r d e r t o change the c u r r e n t i n s t i t u t i o n a l z o n i n g of the l a n d . T h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l be f o c u s e d around a response t o the p r o v i n c i a l and m u n i c i p a l proposed p l a n f o r r e s i d e n t i a l development and a l i n e a r p a r k . 95 CHAPTER V I : EVALUATION OF THE DEER LAKE PLANNING PROCESS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR URBAN LAKE PLANNING U s i n g the c r i t e r i a d e v e l o p e d i n Chapter IV, t h i s c h a p t e r e v a l u a t e s the c a p a b i l i t y of the Deer Lake p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s t o produce e c o l o g i c a l l y c o m p a t i b l e outcomes and e v a l u a t e s i t s c a p a b i l i t y t o r e s o l v e c o n f l i c t . A summary, c o n c l u s i o n s , g u i d e l i n e s f o r urban l a k e p l a n n i n g , and recommendations f o l l o w the e v a l u a t i o n . 6.1 EVALUATION OF THE CAPABILITY OF THE PLANNING PROCESS TO PRODUCE ECOLOGICALLY COMPATIBLE OUTCOMES Three s e t s of c r i t e r i a a r e used t o e v a l u a t e the c a p a b i l i t y of the Deer Lake p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s t o produce e c o l o g i c a l l y c o m p a t i b l e outcomes: r e c o g n i t i o n of the need f o r e c o l o g i c a l c o m p a t i b i l i t y ; use of r e l e v a n t s c i e n t i f i c / t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n ; and e f f e c t i v e n e s s of i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r i n g . The e v a l u a t i o n c o n s i d e r s the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i n t h r e e s t a g e s : i n i t i a l (1973-1978); c o n f l i c t ( 1979-1982); .and r e s o l u t i o n ( 1 9 8 3 - e a r l y 1987). 6.1.1 R e c o g n i t i o n of t h e Need f o r E c o l o g i c a l C o m p a t i b i l i t y D i d t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s r e q u i r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the e c o l o g i c a l c o m p a t i b i l i t y of the p r o p o s a l s i t produced? No requ i r e m e n t was made i n the i n i t i a l s t age of the 96 p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s f o r c o n s i d e r i n g the e c o l o g i c a l c o m p a t i b i l i t y of p l a n n i n g p r o p o s a l s a t the time the T o r r e n c e p r o p o s a l f o r development of the park was f o r m u l a t e d . However, i n t e r e s t i n the e c o l o g i c a l c o m p a t i b i l i t y of p l a n n i n g p r o p o s a l s was demonstrated i n the i n i t i a l s t a g e of the p r o c e s s d u r i n g the h e a r i n g s of the Committee f o r the D i s p o s a l of the O a k a l l a Lands. D u r i n g the h e a r i n g s the d e s i r e t o m a i n t a i n the n a t u r a l environment of the a r e a was v o i c e d by the Burnaby A r t s C o u n c i l ( r e p r e s e n t i n g 1000 c i t i z e n s ) , - t h e Burnaby C i t i z e n ' s A s s o c i a t i o n , Dr. O b e r l a n d e r , a UBC p r o f e s s o r , and a number of r e s i d e n t s of Burnaby ( C i t i z e n ' s Committee 1978, 42-55). The a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d by UBC Zoology 404 d e s c r i b i n g the e u t r o p h i e d s t a t e of the l a k e prompted the Committee t o recommend a water q u a l i t y study of the l a k e b e f o r e any i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of park p r o p o s a l s . In the m i d d l e s t a g e of the p r o c e s s the m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s i n c r e a s e d r e c o g n i t i o n of the need f o r e c o l o g i c a l c o m p a t i b i l i t y i s i n d i c a t e d i n the terms of r e f e r e n c e f o r Beak C o n s u l t a n t s r e q u i r i n g them t o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n " t o p e r m i t the commencement of park development w i t h o u t b e i n g d e t r i m e n t a l t o the water q u a l i t y of Deer Lake" (Beak 1981, 1-5). A l s o the s c i e n t i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r e d by Beak c o n s u l t a n t s was used by the p l a n n e r s t o r e j e c t the 1982 p r o v i n c i a l h o u s i n g development p r o p o s a l because i t d i f f e r e d too much from the m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s park c o n c e p t . The r e c o g n i t i o n of the need f o r e c o l o g i c a l c o m p a t i b i l i t y c o n t i n u e s i n the most r e c e n t s t a g e . The o r i g i n a l concept of a 97 Town Park i s b e i n g r e c o n s i d e r e d on the b a s i s of the i n f o r m a t i o n which has been g a t h e r e d on the w a t e r s h e d - l a k e r e l a t i o n s h i p . A l s o , t h e m u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r s have r e q u i r e d measures t o ensure t h a t the 1986 h o u s i n g p r o p o s a l by the p r o v i n c e i s e c o l o g i c a l l y c o m p a t i b l e . 6.1.2 Use of R e l e v a n t S c i e n t i f i c / T e c h n i c a l I n f o r m a t i o n The use of r e l e v a n t s c i e n t i f i c / t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n t o produce e c o l o g i c a l l y c o m p a t i b l e p l a n n i n g by the Deer Lake p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s e v a l u a t e d on f o u r p o i n t s : i . water q u a l i t y p a r a m e t e r s ; i i . w a t e r s h e d - l a k e r e l a t i o n s h i p s ; i i i . impact p r e d i c t i o n ; i v . impact m i n i m i z a t i o n . i . D i d the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s g a t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n on the minimum water q u a l i t y parameters recommended by B a l d w i n (1982) b e f o r e f o r m u l a t i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s ? No. I n the i n i t i a l s t a g e of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s two groups s t u d i e d t h e l a k e . The Burnaby H e a l t h Department t e s t e d the l a k e water f o r the presence of c o l i f o r m s d u r i n g the summer months. UBC Zoology 404 c l a s s e s d i d i n t e r m i t t e n t l i m n o l o g i c a l s u r v e y s of the l a k e from 1975-1978. T e s t i n g f o r c o l i f o r m s was too narrow a f o c u s t o base p l a n n i n g p r o p o s a l s on. The UBC group d i d stu d y a l l the water q u a l i t y parameters recommended by B a l d w i n and produced l a k e t r o p h i c s t a t u s i n f o r m a t i o n . However, t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was not used by the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s b e f o r e p l a n n i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s were f o r m u l a t e d . 98 i i . Did the planning process determine the ex i s t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between land use, vegetation, w i l d l i f e and lake water qua l i t y by determining: an inventory of biota; rates and volumes of runoff from points in the watershed; pollutant sources in the watershed; and the as s i m i l a t i v e capacity of the lake for phosphorus and nitrogen before formulating alternatives? No. This information was not gathered in the i n i t i a l stage before the o r i g i n a l concept of a Town Park and i t s components were developed. However, th i s information was gathered through the middle and most recent stages of the planning process prior to implementing any of the park proposals. In the middle stage, Beak Consultants u t i l i z e d sampling and modelling techniques to develop a clearer picture of the limnology of the lake and i t s re l a t i o n s h i p to i t s watershed. They focussed on techniques for measuring the l e v e l of eutrophication and i t s sources. In the most recent stage, further information was gathered by the Water Branch of the p r o v i n c i a l Department of the Environment which was c a l l e d in s p e c i f i c a l l y to investigate the najis weed problem in the lake. An engineering firm was hired in the most recent stage to conduct f e a s i b i l i t y studies for nutrient sink ponds. Also, Douglas College students gathered general information on the f l o r a and fauna of the lake through grab samples. The Environmental Health Department plans to test Deer Lake for a wide variety of toxic chemicals as well as continuing i t s monitoring program. i i i . Did the planning process predict impacts of planning alte r n a t i v e s or development proposals by using existing 99 knowledge or by c o n d u c t i n g f i e l d t e s t s t o produce c h e c k l i s t s or m a t r i c e s o r networks d e t a i l i n g p o t e n t i a l i mpacts? No impact assessment was c a r r i e d out p r i o r t o s e l e c t i n g the Town Park c o n c e p t . In the i n i t i a l s t age of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s the p l a n n i n g department proposed the development of a Town Park s i m i l a r i n concept t o S t a n l e y Park. T o r r e n c e C o n s u l t a n t s produced a park p l a n based on e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s , n a t u r a l a t t r i b u t e s and p u b l i c p r e f e r e n c e s . The Town Park d e c i s i o n and subsequent park p l a n w i t h i t s gardens, c a n a l s , e t c . were undertaken w i t h o u t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the a c t u a l e c o l o g i c a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s and c o n s t r a i n t s e.g., b e a r i n g s t r e n g t h of s o i l s f o r heavy p e d e s t r i a n t r a f f i c , e f f e c t s of manicured lawns on the l a k e , e t c . T o r r e n c e C o n s u l t a n t s were not g i v e n a mandate t o det e r m i n e impacts of t h e i r p r o p o s a l and s t a t e d t h a t e c o l o g i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n on the l a k e "was l i m i t e d t o i r r e g u l a r t e s t s by UBC s t u d e n t s " (1977, 3 0 ) . I t was not u n t i l the c l o s e of the e a r l y s t a g e , d u r i n g the O a k a l l a H e a r i n g s , t h a t the i s s u e of the l a k e water q u a l i t y began t o be c o n s i d e r e d - a f t e r the Zoology 404 c l a s s i n f o r m e d the Committee t h a t the l a k e was e u t r o p h i c . However, a m a t r i x of impacts was d e v e l o p e d by Beak C o n s u l t a n t s i n the m i d d l e s t a g e of the p r o c e s s p r i o r t o i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of any proposed park development. Each development concept was r a t e d on i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e a c c o r d i n g t o a w e i g h t i n g scheme based on: degree of s i t e m o d i f i c a t i o n , s e r v i c i n g r e q u i r e d , d i s t a n c e from waters edge, s l o p e of proposed development a r e a , a n t i c i p a t e d d u r a t i o n of impact (Beak 1981, 6-4, 6-5). 100 No s p e c i f i c impact assessment was undertaken f o r the two subsequent h o u s i n g development p r o p o s a l s put f o r w a r d by the p r o v i n c e i n 1982 and 1986. However, the f i n d i n g s of the i n i t i a l impact assessment were used by the p l a n n e r s t o respond t o the p r o p o s a l s . The s i z e and scope of the p o t e n t i a l d i s t u r b a n c e of the 1982 p r o p o s a l was c l e a r l y f a r g r e a t e r than the park developments Beak had r a t e d as h a v i n g a h i g h impact so the h o u s i n g development p r o p o s a l was r e j e c t e d . Beak was c o n s u l t e d about the p o s s i b l e impacts of the 1986 h o u s i n g development p r o p o s a l and i n d i c a t e d t h a t w i t h c e r t a i n s t i p u l a t i o n s the impact c o u l d be m i n i m i z e d . M o n i t o r i n g of the l a k e water q u a l i t y was begun i n the m i d d l e s t a g e of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s t o p r o v i d e f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g i m p a c t s . i v . D i d the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s employ any of the m i t i g a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s d e s c r i b e d i n Appendix 2 which would s i g n i f i c a n t l y reduce impacts on the l a k e water q u a l i t y ? No m i n i m i z a t i o n of the impacts of r e s i d e n t i a l development on water q u a l i t y was implemented i n the i n i t i a l s t a g e . In the m i d d l e s t a g e Beak C o n s u l t a n t s were asked t o "recommend methods of m i n i m i z i n g any p o t e n t i a l n u t r i e n t i n p u t a r i s i n g out of the development of the O a k a l l a Lands as a p a r k " (Beak 1981, 1-4). Only a few of t h e s e recommendations have been implemented due t o l a c k of f u n d i n g . The r i p - r a p p i n g of streams and removal of hog-f u e l t r a i l s t h a t has been implemented has improved water q u a l i t y s l i g h t l y . 101 However, i n the most r e c e n t s t a g e of the p r o c e s s s i g n i f i c a n t m i t i g a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s have been r e q u i r e d f o r the 1986 h o u s i n g development p r o p o s a l t o m i n i m i z e an i n c r e a s e i n e u t r o p h i c a t i o n e.g., use of porous pavement, s e t t l i n g ponds i n p a r k i n g l o t s , e t c . The p l a n n e r s have a l s o h i r e d an e n g i n e e r i n g f i r m t o examine the f e a s i b i l i t y of n u t r i e n t s e t t l i n g ponds t o m i t i g a t e the impacts of r u n o f f from the h o u s i n g development. 6.1.3 E f f e c t i v e n e s s of I n f o r m a t i o n G a t h e r i n g Was the i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r e d i n an e f f e c t i v e manner i . e . , c o m p r e h e n s i v e l y ( a l l a t one time under the d i r e c t i o n of the p l a n n e r s p r i o r t o f o r m u l a t i n g p l a n n i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s ) and c o s t -e f f e c t i v e l y (the expense of the t e c h n i q u e s used matched the s o p h i s t i c a t i o n of the i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d ) ? No. The i n f o r m a t i o n was g a t h e r e d i n c r e m e n t a l l y by d i v e r s e groups f o r d i v e r s e reasons - u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t f i e l d i n s t r u c t i o n ; t o take advantage of a f e d e r a l l y funded program t o do some e n v i r o n m e n t a l r e s e a r c h ; t o p r o v i d e the m u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r s w i t h the i n f o r m a t i o n they r e q u i r e d . However, the comprehensiveness of i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t i o n i n c r e a s e d i n the m i d d l e s t a g e , when the f o u r departments i n v o l v e d w i t h the l a k e formed a j o i n t committee t o p l a n f o r the l a k e - E n g i n e e r i n g , H e a l t h , Long Range P l a n n i n g , and P a r k s . T h i s committee p r o v i d e d a mechanism w i t h a u t h o r i t y t o c o o r d i n a t e the g a t h e r i n g and use of i n f o r m a t i o n about the l a k e . The committee had t o g a i n knowledge b e f o r e i t f e l t f u l l y a b l e t o do so. I t r e l i e d upon the UBC Zoology 404 c l a s s f o r an e x p l a n a t i o n of 102 e u t r o p h i c a t i o n . I t a l s o used the c l a s s t o a i d i n i t s s e l e c t i o n of a c o n s u l t a n t f o r t h e water q u a l i t y s t u d y . The d i v e r s i t y of i n d e p e n d e n t l y funded groups ( u n i v e r s i t y and c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s and the B.C. Water Branch) reduced the c o s t of i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r i n g and t h e s e groups ( e s p e c i a l l y t h e Zoology c l a s s t h a t i d e n t i f i e d the l a k e as e u t r o p h i c ) p r o v i d e d needed i n f o r m a t i o n . However, the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s d i d not g a t h e r t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n when i t needed i t a t the b e g i n n i n g of t h e p r o c e s s so i t was not as e f f e c t i v e as i t c o u l d have been. C o n c l u s i o n The c r i t e r i a used t o e v a l u a t e the c a p a b i l i t y of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s t o produce e c o l o g i c a l l y c o m p a t i b l e outcomes were not s a t i s f i e d i n the i n i t i a l s t a g e of the' p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s but have been b e t t e r met i n the more r e c e n t s t a g e s . The improvement has o c c u r r e d i n c r e m e n t a l l y as the r e s u l t of t h e r e s e a r c h of a UBC Zoology c l a s s which brought the s e v e r i t y of the water q u a l i t y problem t o the a t t e n t i o n of t h e p l a n n e r s . T h i s prompted the f o r m a t i o n of a c o o r d i n a t i n g committee of r e l e v a n t m u n i c i p a l a g e n c i e s t o p l a n and manage the l a k e . As t h i s committee g a t h e r e d more i n f o r m a t i o n i t s r e c o g n i t i o n of the need f o r e c o l o g i c a l l y c o m p a t i b l e p l a n n i n g grew. 6.2 EVALUATION OF THE CAPABILITY OF THE PLANNING PROCESS TO RESOLVE CONFLICT The c a p a b i l i t y of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s t o r e s o l v e the 103 c o n f l i c t over u s i n g t h e watershed f o r a park or u s i n g i t f o r r e s i d e n t i a l development i s e v a l u a t e d on t h r e e p o i n t s : a n t i c i p a t i o n of c o n f l i c t ; r e v i e w of p o t e n t i a l r e s o l u t i o n r e s p o n s e s ; i m p l e m e n t a t i o n and f a c i l i t a t i o n of a r e s o l u t i o n p r o c e s s . 6.2.1 A n t i c i p a t i o n of C o n f l i c t D i d the p l a n n e r s r e c o g n i z e the p o t e n t i a l l y c o n t r o v e r s i a l n a t u r e of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s and i n c l u d e an e x p l i c i t p r o c e s s f o r c o n f l i c t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n i n o r d e r t o promote a r e s o l u t i o n ? Yes both the m u n i c i p a l i t y and the p r o v i n c e r e c o g n i z e d the need t o i d e n t i f y c o n f l i c t i n the i n i t i a l s t a g e of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . Much o p p o r t u n i t y was p r o v i d e d f o r comment on p l a n n i n g p r o p o s a l s and the d i s c o v e r y of c o n f l i c t over them. The Burnaby p l a n n i n g department sought the views of both the p u b l i c and the p r o v i n c i a l government on i t s Town Park p r o p o s a l t h r o u g h p u b l i c m e e t i n g s . The p r o v i n c i a l government a l s o sought the o p i n i o n of the p u b l i c r e g a r d i n g the use of the l a k e and i t s watershed t h r o u g h a C i t i z e n ' s A d v i s o r y Committee. No c o n f l i c t s o c c u r r e d a t t h i s s t a g e . In the c o n f l i c t s t a g e of the p r o c e s s , the m u n i c i p a l i t y p u r s u e d i t s Town Park concept and i n c o r p o r a t e d the recommendation of the p r o v i n c i a l Committee f o r the D i s p o s a l of the O a k a l l a Lands f o r a water q u a l i t y study of the l a k e . However, the p r o v i n c i a l crown c o r p o r a t i o n , BCDC, s e c r e t l y produced a new p r o p o s a l f o r l a n d use i n the watershed. T h i s 104 p r o p o s a l s t i m u l a t e d major c o n f l i c t s between the p r o v i n c i a l government on the one s i d e and t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y and r e s i d e n t s of Burnaby on the o t h e r . Through i t s s e c r e c y the p r o v i n c e m i s s e d a chance t o i d e n t i f y a r e a s of c o n f l i c t and v i r t u a l l y g u a r a n t e e d c o n f l i c t . The need f o r a n t i c i p a t i o n of c o n f l i c t from the m u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r s was u l t i m a t e l y r e a l i z e d by the p r o v i n c e toward the end of the r e s o l u t i o n s t a g e , however the p u b l i c was not c o n s u l t e d . 6.2.2 Review of P o t e n t i a l R e s o l u t i o n Response Was a r e s o l u t i o n t e c h n i q u e used as opposed t o c o e r c i o n , conquest or s u p p r e s s i o n t e c h n i q u e s ? Was the wide s e l e c t i o n of r e s o l u t i o n t e c h n i q u e s d e s c r i b e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e c o n s i d e r e d ? Yes. I n f o r m a l b a r g a i n i n g was the t e c h n i q u e used t o end the c o n f l i c t . T h i s i s i d e n t i f i e d by B o u l d i n g as a r e s o l u t i o n t e c h n i q u e . F u r t h e r , a r e s o l u t i o n may be s a i d t o have been reached as agreement on b a s i c i s s u e s was a c h i e v e d . The answer t o the second q u e s t i o n i s no as t e c h n i q u e s such as c o n c i l i a t i o n , m e d i a t i o n , e t c . c o u l d have been t r i e d i n o r d e r t o r e a c h an e a r l i e r r e s o l u t i o n . 6.2.3 Implementation and F a c i l i t a t i o n of a R e s o l u t i o n P r o c e s s D i d the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s implement a r e s o l u t i o n p r o c e s s w i t h i n a few months of d i s c o v e r i n g the c o n f l i c t ( e . g . , e s t a b l i s h weekly m e e t i n g s , a s p e c i a l group, m e d i a t o r , e t c . ) which used mechanisms t o f a c i l i t a t e the r e s o l u t i o n p r o c e s s ? No p r o c e s s was implemented t o a d d r e s s the c o n f l i c t over r e s i d e n t i a l development of the O a k a l l a s i t e f o r a p e r i o d of f o u r 105 y e a r s . D u r i n g t h i s time the Burnaby p l a n n i n g department sent a number of l e t t e r s e n q u i r i n g about th e p r o v i n c e ' s p l a n s . In the summer of 1986, however, the p r o v i n c e i n v i t e d members of the p l a n n i n g department t o s i t on a committee t o work out a p r o p o s a l which the p l a n n i n g department c o u l d approve i n p r i n c i p l e . T h e r e f o r e , w h i l e a r e s o l u t i o n p r o c e s s was d e v e l o p e d i t was not begun i n a t i m e l y f a s h i o n . A u t h o r i t y , a time frame, u n d e r s t a n d i n g the n a t u r e of the c o n f l i c t and reward f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n were u l t i m a t e l y used as p a r t of r e s o l v i n g the c o n f l i c t over the r e s i d e n t i a l development p r o p o s a l f o r the O a k a l l a s i t e . T h e r e f o r e , the f a c i l i t a t i o n of the r e s o l u t i o n p r o c e s s was l a r g e l y met as f o u r of the f i v e mechanisms were used. C o n c l u s i o n A l t h o u g h a n t i c i p a t i o n of c o n f l i c t was w e l l e x e c u t e d by the m u n i c i p a l i t y and the p r o v i n c e i n the i n i t i a l s t a g e of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , on the whole the c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n c r i t e r i a were not met u n t i l the most r e c e n t s t a g e of the p r o c e s s when the c o n f l i c t was r e s o l v e d . The p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s was s t a l l e d f o r f o u r y e a r s w h i l e a c o n f l i c t between the m u n i c i p a l i t y and the p r o v i n c e over use of the l a n d proposed f o r Deer Lake Park went u n r e s o l v e d . 6.3 SUMMARY A l t h o u g h the e a r l y phase of the Deer Lake p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , 1 06 1972-1978, was weak t h e r e was a marked improvement i n the c a p a b i l i t y of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s t o produce e c o l o g i c a l l y c o m p a t i b l e outcomes i n the r e c e n t phases t h r o u g h the use of r e l e v a n t s c i e n t i f i c / t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n . W h i l e the a b i l i t y of the Burnaby p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s t o a n t i c i p a t e c o n f l i c t has always been s t r o n g , t h e r e i s room f o r f u r t h e r development of the c a p a b i l i t y t o r e s o l v e c o n f l i c t . The improvement i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s was f a c i l i t a t e d by: . A u n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s o r and h i s c l a s s d rawing the a t t e n t i o n of the p l a n n e r s t o impacts on water q u a l i t y and c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y , t o the need f o r s c i e n c e t o i d e n t i f y e c o l o g i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s t o the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . . The m u n i c i p a l i t y f o r m i n g an i n t e r d e p a r t m e n t a l committee which d e v e l o p e d an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of and u t i l i z e d the s c i e n t i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r e d t o p l a n f o r the l a k e . . The m u n i c i p a l i t y s e t t i n g a water q u a l i t y g o a l f o r the l a k e which p r o v i d e d a b a s i s f o r r e s p o n d i n g t o f u t u r e r e s i d e n t i a l development p r o p o s a l s . . The p r o v i n c e e v e n t u a l l y a n t i c i p a t i n g c o n f l i c t , a d o p t i n g a r e s o l u t i o n t e c h n i q u e , and f a c i l i t a t i n g a r e s o l u t i o n p r o c e s s t o r e s o l v e a p r o t r a c t e d c o n f l i c t . . L e s s i m p o r t a n t were - h i r i n g c o n s u l t a n t s t o p r o v i d e the p l a n n e r s w i t h s c i e n t i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n , and m u n i c i p a l o w n e r s h i p of some l a n d i n the watershed. However, the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s was hampered by: . The l a c k of i n i t i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s of e c o l o g i c a l impacts of r e s i d e n t i a l development and ways t o m i n i m i z e the i m p a c t s . . The ad hoc use of s c i e n c e of v a r i a b l e q u a l i t y i n the e a r l y s t a g e of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . . The p r o v i n c e not a n t i c i p a t i n g c o n f l i c t e a r l i e r i n the p r o c e s s . . The p r o v i n c e and m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s slow movement toward a r e s o l u t i o n p r o c e s s and u t i l i z a t i o n of r e s o l u t i o n t e c h n i q u e s . 107 6.4 CONCLUSIONS The broad p i c t u r e of the Deer Lake p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s g e n e r a l l y f i t s the p r o f i l e of how urban l a k e p l a n n i n g has i n c r e m e n t a l l y e v o l v e d i n N o r t h America s i n c e the mid-1960s. At t h a t time m u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r s were s u r p r i s e d t o l e a r n urban l a k e s were degraded and were then a i d e d by o u t s i d e h e l p ( u s u a l l y h i g h e r l e v e l s of government) i n u s i n g s c i e n c e t o respond t o the problem. The e a r l y approaches e x h i b i t e d a n a i v e f a i t h i n t e c h n i c a l s o l u t i o n s and i g n o r e d p o s s i b l e c o n f l i c t s . (The m u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r s i n the Deer Lake p r o c e s s d e v i a t e from t h i s p r o f i l e as they were more aware of the need t o a n t i c i p a t e c o n f l i c t ) . F u r t h e r , the Deer Lake p r o c e s s has moved i n the d i r e c t i o n recommended by the l i t e r a t u r e - toward g r e a t e r a t t e n t i o n t o e c o l o g i c a l impacts and t h e i r m i n i m i z a t i o n and g r e a t e r a t t e n t i o n t o c o n f l i c t . The d e t a i l e d p i c t u r e of the Deer Lake p r o c e s s r e v e a l s the i mportance of the UBC Zoology c l a s s i n i n i t i a t i n g the r e c o g n i t i o n of water q u a l i t y impacts and the need f o r g r e a t e r e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o m p a t i b i l i t y and i n augmenting the t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e of the p l a n n e r s . F i n a l l y , r e g a r d i n g water q u a l i t y i m p a c t s , Deer Lake's water q u a l i t y has improved s l i g h t l y ; major r e h a b i l i t a t i o n s t e p s a r e c u r r e n t l y b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d ; and r e q u i r e m e n t s t o m i n i m i z e impacts of f u t u r e development e x i s t . R e g a r d i n g the c o n f l i c t s over l a n d use, the p r o v i n c e ' s o r i g i n a l l a r g e - s c a l e development p r o p o s a l has been s c a l e d down and b e t t e r r e f l e c t s the m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s 108 c o n c e r n s f o r m a i n t a i n i n g the n a t u r a l environment of the a r e a . 6.5 GUIDELINES FOR URBAN LAKE PLANNING The f o l l o w i n g g u i d e l i n e s f o r urban l a k e p l a n n i n g have been de v e l o p e d from the l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w i n Chapter I I I and the e v a l u a t i o n of the Deer Lake p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i n Chapter V I . An urban l a k e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s s h o u l d c o n t a i n the f o u r s t e p s common t o most p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s - g o a l s e t t i n g , d e v e l o p i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s , d e c i s i o n , i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . A c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n s t e p has been added i n r e c o g n i t i o n of the l i k e l i h o o d of c o n f l i c t o c c u r r i n g i n an urban l a k e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . G u i d e l i n e s f o r an urban l a k e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s f o r a l a r g e l y undeveloped watershed a r e i n d i c a t e d i n f i g u r e 2 below t h e f o u r common p l a n n i n g s t e p s w h i l e g u i d e l i n e s f o r a p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s t o r e s t o r e urban l a k e water q u a l i t y a r e shown above the f o u r common s t e p s . More d e t a i l on the g u i d e l i n e s f o r the two k i n d s of urban l a k e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s i s p r e s e n t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g p a r a g r a p h s . Requirements f o r s t e p 1 - g o a l s e t t i n g - of an urban l a k e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s f o r a l a r g e l y undeveloped watershed i n c l u d e : . D e s c r i b e base c o n d i t i o n s of l a k e water q u a l i t y ( t r o p h i c s t a t u s ) and l a n d use. D e t e r m i n e . r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the watershed and l a k e water q u a l i t y ( e . g . , amount and s o u r c e s of n u t r i e n t s , r o l e of l a n d use, e t c . ) . . Determine f u t u r e r e q u i r e m e n t s of the community. . Take advantage of i n f o r m a t i o n r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e ( e . g . , u n i v e r s i t i e s , c o l l e g e s , h i g h e r l e v e l s of government, c o n s u l t a n t s ) . . Ensure i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangements a r e a p p r o p r i a t e f o r 1 0 9 p l a n n i n g and managing the l a k e ( i . e . , a g e n c i e s whose a c t i v i t i e s a f f e c t the l a k e a r e c o o r d i n a t e d ) . . Set a g o a l f o r l a k e water q u a l i t y i . e . , d r i n k a b l e , body c o n t a c t or b o a t i n g . The p e o p l e who l i v e i n t h i s a r e a s h o u l d p a r t i c i p a t e . The p l a n n e r ' s j o b i s t o a f f o r d p e o p l e an o p p o r t u n i t y t o be i n v o l v e d , ensure they u n d e r s t a n d water q u a l i t y i n f o r m a t i o n , p r e s e n t i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the need t o c o n s i d e r e c o l o g i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s . . Set a g o a l f o r l a n d use i . e . , r e s i d e n t i a l development, r e c r e a t i o n , e t c . , c o n s i d e r i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o m p a t i b i l i t y . The p e o p l e who l i v e i n the a r e a s h o u l d p a r t i c i p a t e . The p l a n n e r s h o u l d ensure t h a t p e o p l e can p a r t i c i p a t e and t h a t t hey u n d e r s t a n d the p r o j e c t i o n s of the community's f u t u r e r e q u i r e m e n t s ( h o u s i n g , i n f r a s t r u c t u r e , e t c . ) . S p e c i f i c r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r s t e p 2 - a n a l y s i s t o produce a l t e r n a t i v e s - i n c l u d e : . Determine the impact of the s e l e c t e d l a n d use g o a l on the l a k e q u a l i t y u s i n g the V o l l e n w e i d e r or the D i l l o n and R i g l e r or the STORM or the SWMM models. A l s o determine the impact of the s e l e c t e d l a n d use g o a l on t h e amenity v a l u e of the l a k e by a s c e r t a i n i n g h i s t o r i c and contemporary uses of the l a k e and the importance of the r e s o u r c e t o the community. Determine who w i l l pay and who w i l l b e n e f i t . . F o r m u l a t e a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r r e d u c i n g the l a n d use i m p act, ( e . g . , a v o i d s e n s i t i v e a r e a s ) e s t i m a t e e f f e c t i v e n e s s , c o s t and ease of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . I n c l u d e l o c a l s u g g e s t i o n s . . Rank the a l t e r n a t i v e s . The p u b l i c s h o u l d p a r t i c i p a t e . S t e p 3 - d e c i s i o n - r e q u i r e s d e t e r m i n i n g which a l t e r n a t i v e p l a n meets water q u a l i t y and l a n d use g o a l s . I f one does, implement the p l a n . I f n o t , r e v i e w the p r e c e d i n g s t e p s . S t e p 4 - i m p l e m e n t a t i o n - r e q u i r e s a s s i g n i n g agency r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n and a time frame f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . A l s o , p e r i o d i c d a t e s f o r r e v i e w of the p l a n CONFLICT RESOLUTION CAPABILITY - c o n f l i c t anticipation -selection of a resolution response -implementation & f a c i l i t a t i o n of resolution process Urban Lake Plan-ning Considera-tions for Lake Restoration .determine lake water quality problems & sources / .set goal for jfr water quality determine mitiga tion p o s s i b i l i -t i e s to meet qoalff & their ecologi-cal compatabil- ff i t y , cost, & effectiveness '/ determine which a l t e r n -\ A JL ^ a t i v e meets the water qu a l i t y goal'V \\ \\ \ V .monitor the success of imple-mentation Typical Planning Process GOALS ) ALTERNATIVES ± DECISION * IMPLEMENTATION Urban Lake Plan-ning Considera-tions i n an Un-developed Water-shed .determine water-shed-lake r e l a -tionships .determine future community require-ments .formulate lake water quality & land use goals (reflecting eco-l o g i c a l compati -b i l i t y .determine impact of land use goal on water quality .formulate altern-atives which re-duce lake water quality impact .determine which alternative meets the land use & water q u a l i t y goals .monitor the success of imple-mentation o F i g u r e 2 . G u i d e l i n e s f o r Urban Lake P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s e s 111 S h o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d as w e l l as r e v i e w s of the p r o g r e s s of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n and of o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r l e a r n i n g from the p r o c e s s . The p u b l i c s h o u l d be i n v o l v e d i n the r e v i e w s . Requirements f o r s t e p 1 - g o a l s e t t i n g - of a p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s f o r urban l a k e r e s t o r a t i o n i n c l u d e : . Determine what l a k e water q u a l i t y p r o b l e m ( s ) the p u b l i c p e r c e i v e s . The p l a n n e r s h o u l d attempt t o i n v o l v e a l l a f f e c t e d members of the p u b l i c i n t h i s p r o c e s s . . Determine the water q u a l i t y p r o b l e m ( s ) which e x i s t i n the l a k e t h r o u g h a l i m n o l o g i c a l i n v e n t o r y . E x p l a i n r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s t o the p u b l i c . . Determine the s o u r c e of the water q u a l i t y p r o b l e m ( s ) i n the w atershed. E x p l a i n r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s t o the p u b l i c . . Take advantage of a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n s o u r c e s ( e . g . , u n i v e r s i t i e s , c o l l e g e s , h i g h e r l e v e l s of government, c o n s u l t a n t s ) . . Ensure i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangements a r e a p p r o p r i a t e t o c a r r y out the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o c e s s ( i . e . , a g e n c i e s whose a c t i v i t i e s a f f e c t the l a k e a r e c o o r d i n a t e d ) . . Set a g o a l f o r water q u a l i t y . The l o c a l p u b l i c s h o u l d p a r t i c i p a t e . The p l a n n e r s h o u l d f a c i l i t a t e p u b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t . S p e c i f i c r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r s t e p 2 - a n a l y s i s t o produce a l t e r n a t i v e s - i n c l u d e : . Determine a l t e r n a t i v e a m e l i o r a t i v e o p t i o n s t o a c h i e v e t h i s g o a l ( r e d u c t i o n , c o n t r o l or t r e a t m e n t ) , t h e i r e c o l o g i c a l c o m p a t i b i l i t y , c o s t (who w i l l pay and who w i l l b e n e f i t ) , and e f f e c t i v e n e s s . . Rank the a l t e r n a t i v e s . The p u b l i c s h o u l d p a r t i c i p a t e . S t e p s 3 - d e c i s i o n - and 4 - i m p l e m e n t a t i o n - a r e the same as f o r the urban l a k e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s f o r a l a r g e l y undeveloped watershed d e s c r i b e d above. 1 1 2 F i n a l l y , a t a l l s t e p s of bo t h p r o c e s s e s the p l a n n e r s must a n t i c i p a t e c o n f l i c t and be f a m i l i a r w i t h a v a r i e t y of t e c h n i q u e s they can c a l l upon t o r e s o l v e any c o n f l i c t t h a t may o c c u r . 6.6 RECOMMENDATIONS 6.6.1 Urban Lake P l a n n i n g i n G e n e r a l 1. The p l a n n e r s f o r Deer Lake were g r e a t l y a i d e d by a U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Zoology c l a s s who brought t h e i r r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s on the l a k e t o the a t t e n t i o n of the p l a n n e r s and made c l e a r t o the p l a n n e r s the s e v e r i t y of the d e g r a d a t i o n of the water q u a l i t y of Deer Lake. The p l a n n e r s r e c e i v e d f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n on the w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t the l a k e p r o v i d e s from Douglas C o l l e g e ' s t u d e n t s . L a t e r i n the p r o c e s s , the p l a n n e r s sought the a i d of the p r o v i n c i a l M i n i s t r y of the Environment's Water Branch t o p r o v i d e s u g g e s t i o n s f o r a q u a t i c weed c o n t r o l . C o n s u l t a n t s were a l s o used by the p l a n n e r s t o produce a n u t r i e n t budget of the l a k e and t o recommend ways t o r e h a b i l i t a t e t he l a k e . T h e r e f o r e I recommend: M u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r s s h o u l d t a k e advantage of a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n r e s o u r c e s on l a k e p l a n n i n g ( u n i v e r s i t i e s , c o l l e g e s , h i g h e r l e v e l s of government, c o n s u l t a n t s ) t o broaden t h e i r awareness of p o t e n t i a l impacts and ways t o manage them. 2. E a r l y i n the Deer Lake p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s a concept p l a n f o r a Town Park around Deer Lake was f o r m u l a t e d . T h i s concept emphasized r e c r e a t i o n a l use of the park and i n c l u d e d such 113 f e a t u r e s as c a n a l c o n s t r u c t i o n i n the marsh t o the west of the l a k e , b o a t i n g l a u n c h e s , and b i k e and p e d e s t r i a n t r a i l s t h r oughout the manicured park lawns. T h i s p l a n was d e s i g n e d p r i o r t o g a t h e r i n g e c o l o g i c a l d a t a on the s t a t u s of the l a k e , i t s r e l a t i o n t o l a n d use w i t h i n i t s w a t e r s h e d , or i t s r o l e as a h a b i t a t f o r w i l d l i f e . F o r t u n a t e l y , b e f o r e the concept p l a n was implemented the p l a n n e r s were i n f o r m e d by a UBC Zoo404 c l a s s t h a t such a p l a n would f u r t h e r degrade the a l r e a d y d e t e r i o r a t e d water q u a l i t y of the l a k e . Thus i n f o r m e d , the p l a n n e r s formed a j o i n t committee w i t h the m u n i c i p a l P a r k s , H e a l t h , and E n g i n e e r i n g departments t o p l a n f o r the l a k e on an e c o l o g i c a l b a s i s . A p r o p o s a l by the p r o v i n c e f o r development of a g o l f c o u r s e and an 1800 u n i t h o u s i n g p r o j e c t were r e j e c t e d on the grounds of t h e i r p o t e n t i a l d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t upon the l a k e and i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y w i t h the proposed p a r k . New r e s i d e n t i a l development was e v e n t u a l l y a g r e e d t o on a much s m a l l e r s c a l e , i n a l i m i t e d a r e a above a s p e c i f i e d e l e v a t i o n , and u s i n g r u n o f f m i t i g a t i o n measures such as porous pavement. T h e r e f o r e I recommend: M u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r s s h o u l d : u n d e r s t a n d w a t e r s h e d - l a k e r e l a t i o n s h i p s p r i o r t o f o r m u l a t i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r urban l a k e s ; seek a b a l a n c e between environment and development; and r e q u i r e m i n i m i z a t i o n of e c o l o g i c a l i m p a c t s . 3. At the b e g i n n i n g of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s the m u n i c i p a l i t y and the p r o v i n c e i n v o l v e d the p u b l i c and each o t h e r i n f o r m u l a t i n g p l a n s f o r Deer Lake and t h e r e f o r e a v o i d e d the development of 1 1 4 c o n f l i c t and s t a l e m a t e i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The m u n i c i p a l i t y h e l d p u b l i c h e a r i n g s on how the r e s i d e n t s of Burnaby would l i k e t h e i r open space t o be used. The p u b l i c i n d i c a t e d s u pport f o r Deer Lake p a r k . The p r o v i n c e s u b s e q u e n t l y e s t a b l i s h e d a C i t i z e n ' s A d v i s o r y Committee t o d e t e r m i n e what i t s h o u l d do w i t h i t s p r i s o n l a n d w i t h i n the proposed park a r e a . Over h a l f of t h i s a r e a was g i v e n t o Burnaby f o r p a r k l a n d . I n t h e m i d d l e of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , however, a c o n f l i c t d e v e l o p e d as a r e s u l t of a development p r o p o s a l the p r o v i n c e s e c r e t l y f o r m u l a t e d which would have f u r t h e r degraded the l a k e and p r e c l u d e d the park c o n c e p t . As a r e s u l t of t h i s p r o p o s a l an u n r e s o l v e d c o n f l i c t between the p r o v i n c e and the m u n i c i p a l i t y s t a l l e d the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s f o r f o u r y e a r s . A number of c o n c i l i a t i o n and r e s o l u t i o n t e c h n i q u e s c o u l d have been used t o r e s o l v e the c o n f l i c t e a r l i e r : c o n n e c t i v e p l a n n i n g (where a g e n c i e s w i t h o v e r l a p p i n g c o n c e r n s d e v e l o p a mutual r e f e r r a l p r o c e s s ) ; s u p e r o r d i n a t e g o a l ( i n t h i s case the g o a l c o u l d have been e i t h e r s a t i s f y i n g the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n h a v i n g a park or p r e v e n t i n g f u r t h e r d e t e r i o r a t i o n of the l a k e water . q u a l i t y ) ; or referendum. A l s o , the t e c h n i q u e u l t i m a t e l y used, b a r g a i n i n g , c o u l d have been i n i t i a t e d e a r l i e r . (See Appendix 3 f o r f u r t h e r d e t a i l s on c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n t e c h n i q u e s ) . T h e r e f o r e , I recommend: M u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r s s h o u l d r e c o g n i z e t h a t urban l a k e p l a n n i n g can i n v o l v e c o n f l i c t s . They s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e make thems e l v e s aware of the v a r i e t y of r e s o l u t i o n t e c h n i q u e s a v a i l a b l e . 115 4. F i n a l l y , the g u i d e l i n e s f o r urban l a k e p l a n n i n g d e v e l o p e d from the r e v i e w of the l i t e r a t u r e i n Chapter I I I and the e v a l u a t i o n of the Deer Lake p r o c e s s c o u l d p r o v i d e a s s i s t a n c e t o m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n t h e i r p l a n n i n g . T h e r e f o r e I recommend: The g u i d e l i n e s d e v e l o p e d i n s e c t i o n 6.5 s h o u l d be used by the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments t o a s s i s t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n p l a n n i n g f o r urban l a k e s . 6.6.2 Deer Lake Recommendations f o r the ongoing Deer Lake p r o c e s s i n c l u d e : 1. C o n t i n u e w i t h the i n t e r d e p a r t m e n t a l committee t o p l a n and manage the l a k e . 2. The committee s h o u l d implement f u r t h e r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n measures as soon as p o s s i b l e . 3. The committee s h o u l d c o n t i n u e t o a n t i c i p a t e and m i n i m i z e e c o l o g i c a l i m p a c t s . 4. The committee s h o u l d m a i n t a i n c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h UBC and Douglas C o l l e g e . 5. The p l a n n i n g department s h o u l d d etermine the p u b l i c ' s v iews on t h e r e s o l u t i o n agreement reached w i t h the p r o v i n c e f o r r e s i d e n t i a l development of the p r i s o n s i t e i n the Deer Lake watershed and, i f n e c e s s a r y , c o n s i d e r the r e s o l u t i o n t e c h n i q u e s d e s c r i b e d i n Appendix 3. 1 16 R e f e r e n c e s A l b e r t a A r b i t r a t i o n and M e d i a t i o n S o c i e t y . M e d i a t i o n and  A r b i t r a t i o n of P l a n n i n g and M u n i c i p a l D i s p u t e s ;  P r o c e e d i n g s of a Seminar on an A l t e r n a t i v e f o r D i s p u t e  R e s o l u t i o n . Edmonton: I n t e r - A g e n c y P l a n n i n g Branch A l b e r t a M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , 1983. Andrus, Newton W. 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T o r o n t o : York U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1983. 127 World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED). Mandate  f o r Change ^ Key I s s u e s , S t r a t e g y and Workplan. S w i t z e r l a n d : WCED, 1985. Y a k s i c h , Stephen M.; M e l f i , D. A.; Baker, D. B.; and Kramer, Jack W. "Lake E r i e N u t r i e n t Loads, 1970-1980." J o u r n a l of Great Lakes R e s e a r c h v o l . 1 1 no.2 (1985): 117-31. Y e a t e s , M a u r i c e and G a r n e r , B e r r y . The N o r t h American C i t y . San F r a n c i s c o : Harper and Row P u b l i s h e r s , 1980. Zube, E. H.; Brush R. 0.; and Fabos, J . G. Landscape Assessment:  V a l u e s , P e r c e p t i o n s , and R e s o u r c e s . Community Development S e r i e s , no. 11. S t r o u d s b u r g , P e n n s y l v a n i a : Dowden, H u t c h i n s o n and Ross, I n c . , 1975. 128 APPENDIX 1: ECODEVELOPMENT EXAMPLES The ecodevelopment paradigm was adopted by UNEP t o p r o v i d e g u i d e l i n e s t o implement the maintenance of e c o l o g i c a l i n t e g r i t y i n a b a l a n c e w i t h development. (Table 16 shows the d e r i v a t i o n of the ground r u l e s f o r ecodevelopment). Ecodevelopment embodies t h r e e p r i n c i p l e s : "development must be d i r e c t e d toward meeting the b a s i c needs of the p o o r e s t p e o p l e everywhere b e f o r e i t pays a t t e n t i o n t o the wants or l u x u r i e s of the w e l l t o do"; "development must encourage l o c a l s e l f - r e l i a n c e based on a p p r o p r i a t e t e c h n o l o g y " ; "development must enhance e c o l o g i c a l s u s t a i n a b i l i t y , i t must be i n a s y m b i o t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h n a t u r e " (Thibodeau and F i e l d 1984, 2 0 ) . I t s p r e m i s e , t h e r e f o r e , i s the maintenance of e c o l o g i c a l i n t e g r i t y i n a b a l a n c e w i t h development. I n c l u s i o n of dynamic a d a p t a b i l i t y ( s e l f - c o r r e c t i n g c a p a c i t y ) or f l e x i b i l i t y (uncommitted p o t e n t i a l f o r change) i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t (Berger and S i n t o n 1985, 153). Ecodevelopment s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d an a c c e p t a b l e g o a l i n a p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s s i n c e development which i s not . i n b a l a n c e w i t h the environment i s u l t i m a t e l y s u i c i d a l from an e c o l o g i c a l p o i n t of view. One example of ecodevelopment i s the g u i d e l i n e s f o r an ecosystems approach t o human s e t t l e m e n t s p l a n n i n g i n the M i d d l e E a s t p r e p a r e d by UNEP l i s t e d below: ". a l l o c a t e l a n d use a c c o r d i n g t o i t s p o t e n t i a l : the b e s t 129 a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d s h o u l d be used f o r f o o d . Watersheds, r i v e r b a s i n s , groundwater a q u i f e r s , d e l i c a t e w e t l a n d s , f o r e s t s and s l o p e s must be p r o t e c t e d . m a i n t a i n a b a l a n c e d d e n s i t y : h i g h enough t o make e f f i c i e n t use of s e t t l e m e n t s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t a t e community c o h e s i o n , and low enough t o a v o i d e n v i r o n m e n t a l damage and human s t r e s s . p l a n t h e s e t t l e m e n t a c c o r d i n g t o a v a i l a b l e water r e s o u r c e s and t h e i r e f f i c i e n t use . p l a n new s e t t l e m e n t s which a r e more s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g , r a t h e r than a l l o w i n g growth of e x i s t i n g s e t t l e m e n t s by unplanned a c c r e t i o n . m a i n t a i n mixed l a n d uses: i n d i g e n o u s v e g e t a t i o n and w i l d l i f e , a g r i c u l t u r e or urban f a r m i n g , i n d u s t r i a l p r o d u c t i o n , and s o c i a l u s e s , where f e a s i b l e , i n a l l s e t t l e m e n t s . d e c r e a s e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n d i s t a n c e s f o r both p e o p l e and goods by d e c r e a s i n g s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and i n c r e a s i n g d i v e r s i t y i n the s e t t l e m e n t . promote p a r t i c i p a t i o n t h r o u g h the d i r e c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the p e o p l e i n t h e i r own development . t a k e the c o n t r i b u t i o n of the I s l a m i c t r a d i t i o n i n t o account i n the b u i l d i n g of human s e t t l e m e n t s . m a i n t a i n the h e a l t h of the p o p u l a t i o n by s u p p l y i n g s e t t l e m e n t s e r v i c e s t o n e c e s s a r y l e v e l s of q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y . d e a l w i t h a l l s e r v i c e s w i t h i n the s e t t l e m e n t wherever p o s s i b l e i n o r d e r t o m i n i m i z e unnecessary i m p o r t s and e x p o r t s of energy and m a t e r i a l s " ( T o l b a 1982, 177) Anne W h i r s t o n S p i r n p r o v i d e s a re v i e w of h i s t o r i c examples of urban p l a n n i n g i n harmony w i t h the environment. She a l s o d e s c r i b e s a N o r t h American approach toward ecodevelopment i n the ar e a of urban development impacts on water r e s o u r c e s . She has w r i t t e n , " I f urban n a t u r e i s t o be w h o l l y i n t e g r a t e d i n t o c i t y d e s i g n and i t s v a l u e f u l l y r e a l i z e d , a new framework i s needed: TABLE 16 GROUND RULES FOR ECODEVELOPMENT 1 Fundamental C o n s i d e r a t i o n s Ground Rules f o r a Co n t i n u i n g Process 1. Pursue s u s t a i n a b l e growth a. Respect n a t u r a l c a p i t a l ( f o s s i l f u e l s , e t c . ) b. Respect Man/environ-ment r e l a t i o n s c. Respect Man/society r e l a t i o n s Longer term p l a n n i n g Minimize e r o s i o n of n a t u r a l c a p i t a l :avold use o f , or husband, non-renewables :s t r e s s d u r a b i l i t y of t e c h n o l o g i c a l products ' . u t i l i z e renewables Minimize e r o s i o n of t o l e r a n c e s of n a t u r a l environment :avold p o l l u t i o n of water a q u i f e r s , f o s t e r r e c y c l i n g Minimize e r o s i o n of human substance :malntaln good p h y s i c a l £ mental h e a l t h :avold e x p l o i t a t i o n of I n d i v i d u a l s & groups 2. Respect n a t u r a l environment ( I . e . In I t s own r i g h t , not J u s t es a support In s u s t a i n i n g Man's Immediate needs Minimize Impact on nature Plan with nature f o r s e t t l e m e n t systems, e.g. avoid b u i l d i n g on fl o o d p l a i n s Monitor environmental change U t i l i z e a p p r o p r i a t e t e c h n o l o g i e s Maintain nature's c o m p l e x i t y & d i v e r s i f y , s t a b i l i t y & r e s i l i e n c e , p r o d u c t i v i t y & energy f l o w s , . 3. Keep options open Minimize I n e v i t a b l e change Minimize I r r e v e r s i b l e damage 4. E n r i c h & d l v e r s l f y developmental e n v i r o n -ment Increase mixture of a c t i v i t i e s & reduce d i s t a n c e between a c t i v i t y areas" U t i l i z e & enhance p r o d u c t i v e c a p a c i t i e s of non-renewable & renewable n a t u r a l systems :provide Jobs f o r a l l w i t h c o n t i n u i n g p o s s i b i l i t i e s for Improvement and more f r e e time : r e d i r e c t unused p o t e n t i a l In n a t u r a l systems to extend or Improve h a b i t a t (e.g. c o o l i n g of towns through wind d i v e r s i o n ) Foster I n t e r a c t i o n w i t h environment by Increasing b i o l o g i c a l d1 v e r s I t y 5. Reduce d i s p a r i t i e s between r i c h & poor Improve e q u a l i t y In access t o re s o u r c e ' o p p o r t u n i t y ; e d u c a t i o n ; employment; c u l t u r e I n t e r n a l i z e a l l b e n e f i t s & c o s t s of developmental a c t i v i t y U t i l i z e t a x a t i o n f o r red 1str1 but 1ve purposes 6. Reduce waste consump-t i o n U t i l i z e a p p r o p r i a t e t e c h n o l o g i e s ( v i s - a - v i s need, c a p i t a l requirements, & o p e r a t i n g resource requirements) U t i l i z e comprehensive development p r o j e c t s t o ensure that e f f o r t expended In one area Is supported f u l l y by investments In o t h e r s 7. Enhance c i t i z e n " p a r t i c i p a t i o n end l o c a l l e a d e r s h i p In decision-making I d e n t i f y & m o b i l i z e I n t e r e s t s D e c e n t r a l i z e power over c a p i t a l , land & d e c i s i o n making Develop I n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s of processes r e f l e c t i n g l o c a l c a p a c i t i e s 8. Foster l o c a l I n t e r -group, Inter-govern-ment a 1 , 4 1 n t e r - . n a t i o n a l c ooperation Aggregate d i f f e r e n t I n t e r e s t s bearing upon development Issues U t i l i z e networks f o r exchanges of Information & experiences (.After : white and Burton 1983, 29) 131 One t h a t r e c o g n i z e s both the i n t e g r i t y and i n t e r c o n n e c t e d n e s s of the n a t u r a l w o r l d and the importance of a l l human c o n c e r n s , one t h a t r e l a t e s t o a l l elements of urban form a t a l l s c a l e s " (1985, 42) . She uses the example of Woodlands, Texas, a new town (which w i l l e v e n t u a l l y be a c i t y of 150,000) under c o n s t r u c t i o n i n 1985 on 20,000 a c r e s of pine-oak f o r e s t n o r t h of Houston, t o i l l u s t r a t e the p o t e n t i a l f o r a p p l y i n g t h i s new framework. "The c o n s t r u c t i o n of a c o n v e n t i o n a l storm d r a i n a g e system would have e n t a i l e d e x t e n s i v e c l e a r a n c e of woods and l o s s of much of the remainder over the l o n g run, due t o a lowered w a t e r t a b l e . In a d d i t i o n , s i n c e Woodlands l i e s a t o p the r e c h a r g e a r e a f o r an a q u i f e r t h a t u n d e r l i e s Houston, a c o n v e n t i o n a l storm d r a i n a g e system would have d e c r e a s e d the water e n t e r i n g t h e a q u i f e r and t h u s c o n t r i b u t e d t o ground s u b s i d e n c e under Houston" ( S p i r n 1985, 44). A " n a t u r a l " d r a i n a g e system was proposed, c o m p r i s i n g ponds, wooded f l o o d p l a i n s , and w e l l d r a i n e d s o i l s i n s t e a d of c o n c r e t e d i t c h e s , which saved the d e v e l o p e r $14 m i l l i o n compared t o the c o s t of a t r a d i t i o n a l system. S i n c e the d r a i n a g e system must be l i n k e d , open space i s a c c e s s i b l e t o e v e r y home and b u s i n e s s ( S p i r n 1985, 44-45). A s u b d i v i s i o n i n n o r t h e r n W i s c o n s i n i l l u s t r a t e s "how p l a n n e d s u b d i v i s i o n development p r o v i s i o n s can p e r m i t a t h o u g h t f u l l a y o u t t h a t p r o t e c t s the l a k e environment i n an e c o n o m i c a l l y f e a s i b l e way" (Yanggen i n EPA 1983, 7 8 ) . A l l r e s i d e n t i a l development i s l a i d out i n o f f - s h o r e c l u s t e r s . An 132 undeveloped b u f f e r s t r i p extends back 200 f e e t from the s h o r e l i n e , p r o v i d i n g a s u b s t a n t i a l p r o t e c t i v e b u f f e r . T h i s s h o r e l i n e s t r i p i s owned by p u r c h a s e r s of the i n d i v i d u a l l o t s as tenants-in-common. The r e s i d e n t i a l c l u s t e r s , i n t u r n , a r e t i e d t o g e t h e r by the s h o r e l a n d b u f f e r and a system of o t h e r commonly owned greenways, " g i v i n g the l o t owners a much l a r g e r a r e a i n which t o roam than even the l a r g e s t s i z e l o t c o u l d p r o v i d e . The i n c r e a s e d v a l u e of the more numerous o f f shore l o t s more than compensates f o r the v a l u e foregone by not d e v e l o p i n g the s h o r e l i n e s t r i p . The d e v e l o p e r , the l o t p u r c h a s e r s , and the l a k e a l l b e n e f i t " (Yanggen i n EPA 1983, 7 8 ) . The G e n e r a l E c o l o g i c a l Model, d e v e l o p e d i n t h e N e t h e r l a n d s , s p e c i f i c a l l y i n c o r p o r a t e s e c o l o g i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s throughout the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s r a t h e r than a d d i n g them i n as one s e p a r a t e s t e p (see t a b l e 17). I t i n c o r p o r a t e s norms and r e s t r i c t i o n s d e r i v e d from the n a t u r a l environment a t an e a r l i e r s t a g e than the s t a n d a r d e n v i r o n m e n t a l impact assessment s t e p . The GEM a l s o c o n s i d e r s i m p l e m e n t a b i l i t y and c o n t a i n s a m o n i t o r i n g s t e p t o p e r m i t l e a r n i n g from the p r o c e s s (Hengeveld 1982, 210). A f i n a l , Canadian example of an ecodevelopment approach i s p r o v i d e d by P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d which i s d e v e l o p i n g a C o n s e r v a t i o n S t r a t e g y based on the p r i n c i p l e s of the World C o n s e r v a t i o n S t r a t e g y . The t h r e e main o b j e c t i v e s of the World C o n s e r v a t i o n S t r a t e g y a r e : " t o m a i n t a i n e s s e n t i a l e c o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s and support systems (such as s o i l r e g e n e r a t i o n and p r o t e c t i o n , the r e c y c l i n g of n u t r i e n t s , and the c l e a n s i n g - o f 1 33 TABLE 17 CONTRIBUTION OF THE GEM APPROACH TO THE PLANNING PROCESS PLANNING PROCESS ECOLOGICAL CONTRIBUTION A n a l y s i s of problems and e x i s t i n g s i t u a t i o n D e s c r i p t i o n of f u n c t i o n s of n a t u r a l environment D e s c r i p t i o n of subsytems D e s c r i p t i o n of s i t u a t i o n of the n a t u r a l environment D e s c r i p t i o n of i n t e r a c t i o n s between systems D e s c r i p t i o n of i n t e r a c t i o n s between the n a t u r a l e n v i -onment and o t h e r systems F o r m u l a t i o n of o b j e c t i v e s F o r m u l a t i o n of o b j e c t i v e s e c o l o g i c a l system R e s t r i c t i o n s R e s t r i c t i o n s from e c o l o g i c a l system C r i t e r i a and norms C r i t e r i a and norms n a t u r a l e n v i ronment S p a t i a l a l t e r n a t i v e s E v a l u a t i o n ; c h o i c e of best a l t e r n a t i v e E c o l o g i c a l e v a l u a t i o n of e n v i r o n m e n t a l impacts Implementation program I m p l e m e n t a t i o n program n a t u r a l environment P r o c e s s m o n i t o r i n g and feedback ( S o u r c e : Hengeveld 1982, 210) 134 Waters) on which human s u r v i v a l and development depend; t o p r e s e r v e g e n e t i c d i v e r s i t y ( the range of g e n e t i c m a t e r i a l found i n the w o r l d ' s organisms) on which depend the f u n c t i o n i n g of many of the above p r o c e s s e s and l i f e s u p p o r t systems; t o ensure the s u s t a i n a b l e u t i l i z a t i o n of s p e c i e s and ecosystems ( n o t a b l y f i s h and o t h e r w i l d l i f e , f o r e s t s and g r a z i n g l a n d s ) , which s u p p o r t m i l l i o n s of r u r a l communities as w e l l as major i n d u s t r i e s " (Thibodeau and F i e l d 1984, i i ) . 135 APPENDIX 2: URBAN LAKE LITERATURE; HISTORIES AND MANAGEMENT  TECHNIQUES The l i t e r a t u r e on urban l a k e s c o n t a i n s a l a r g e number of h i s t o r i e s of the r e s t o r a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l l a k e s as w e l l as much i n f o r m a t i o n on s p e c i f i c l a k e management t e c h n i q u e s . Much l e s s i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e on p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s f o r urban l a k e s . For example, t h e p u b l i c a t i o n s of the N o r t h American Lake A s s o c i a t i o n , EPA C l e a n Lakes Program, and IAHS p r o v i d e d e s c r i p t i o n s of l a k e case h i s t o r i e s e.g., Lake Washington, Washington; Lac L a B e l l e , W i s c o n s i n ; Lake E o l a , F l o r i d a ; and t h r e e l a k e s i n Los A n g e l e s , C a l i f o r n i a , d e s c r i b e d below. The US G e o l o g i c a l Survey and EPA, on the o t h e r hand, have p u b l i s h e d i n f o r m a t i o n on urban water management and urban l a k e management t e c h n i q u e s . T o u r b i e r and Westmacott (1981) have produced an i l l u s t r a t e d handbook of t e c h n i q u e s t o p r o t e c t water r e s o u r c e s i n urban development. Both s t r u c t u r a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s a r e d e s c r i b e d below. CASE HISTORIES Case h i s t o r i e s of f o u r r e s p o n s e s t o l a k e e u t r o p h i c a t i o n a r e d e s c r i b e d below: Lake Washington, Washington; Lac L a B e l l e , W i s c o n s i n ; Lake E o l a , F l o r i d a ; and L i n c o l n , Echo, Harbor L a k e s , Los A n g e l e s , C a l i f o r n i a . 136 i . Lake Washington, Washington By 1955 20 m i l l i o n g a l l o n s a day of sewage e f f l u e n t were b e i n g dumped i n t o Lake Washington from s u r r o u n d i n g c i t i e s (Chasan 1971, 8 ) . O s c i l l a t o r i a rubescens , a b l u e - g r e e n a l g a e , which i n d i c a t e s an imminent change of l a k e s t a t u s t o e u t r o p h i c was d i s c o v e r e d i n the l a k e t h a t summer (Edmondson 1961, 167). I t s appearance seemed t o sound the d e a t h k n e l l f o r t h e l a k e as i t had f o r a number of European l a k e s e a r l i e r i n the c e n t u r y . However, the r e s i d e n t s of S e a t t l e and the o t h e r c i t i e s b o r d e r i n g the l a k e d i d not want t o l o s e the l a k e ' s amenity v a l u e s . W i t h the r e s e a r c h of a U n i v e r s i t y of Washington Zoology p r o f e s s o r b a c k i n g them up, a group of c i t i z e n s sought .to e s t a b l i s h an i n s t i t u t i o n a l mechanism c a p a b l e of c o o r d i n a t i n g the p l a n n i n g and management of the water q u a l i t y of the l a k e amongst a l l t he j u r i s d i c t i o n s i n v o l v e d - the M u n i c i p a l i t y of M e t r o p o l i t a n S e a t t l e (Metro) ( C l a r k 1967, 9 1 ) . Lake Washington i s a 240 f o o t deep, 24 m i l e l o n g , n a t u r a l l y m e s o t r o p h i c l a k e a d j a c e n t t o S e a t t l e . The h i s t o r y of development i n the Lake Washington watershed b e g i n s a t the t u r n of t h e c e n t u r y when p a l a t i a l houses w i t h manicured lawns and p r i v a t e docks were b u i l t s i d e by s i d e w i t h p a r k s ( C l a r k 1967, 9 1 ) . Raw sewage was dumped i n t o the l a k e from t h e s e homes u n t i l 1936 when the- i n c r e a s e i n e f f l u e n t due t o b u r g e o n i n g r e s i d e n t i a l development t h r e a t e n e d the s a f e t y of the d r i n k i n g water of some of the communities on the l a k e . The sewage was t h e r e f o r e d i v e r t e d t o Puget Sound (Eggers e t a l . 1978, 1561). 1 37 In 1940 a f l o a t i n g b r i d g e was b u i l t t o the o t h e r s i d e of the l a k e . S i n c e then r e s i d e n t i a l development has s p r e a d a l o n g most of the shore of the l a k e . At the same t i m e , 1941, secondary sewage t r e a t m e n t p l a n t s began t o d i s p e r s e e f f l u e n t i n t o the l a k e . By 1957 10 sewage t r e a t m e n t p l a n t s were emptying i n t o the l a k e . By t h i s t i m e , p e o p l e were b e g i n n i n g t o n o t i c e the d e t e r i o r a t i o n of the l a k e as s m e l l y a l g a l mats formed on i t s s u r f a c e . A group of p e o p l e l e d by J i m E l l i s , a young l a w y e r , had been t h i n k i n g about ways t o overcome the i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s and i n e f f i c i e n c y of the j u r i s d i c t i o n a l c o m p l e x i t i e s s u r r o u n d i n g the l a k e s i n c e the 1950s when he had worked f o r some s m a l l sewer d i s t r i c t s on the l a k e . In 1952 he was h i r e d t o draw up a r e v i s e d K i n g County c h a r t e r t o modernize l o c a l government. I t was d e f e a t e d by a p u b l i c v o t e . In 1956 a new mayor of S e a t t l e formed a M e t r o p o l i t a n Problems A d v i s o r y Committee t o study r e g i o n a l problems and named E l l i s as chairman. The committee, composed of 75 c i t i z e n s from a l l over the a r e a , d e c i d e d a sewer l i n e around the l a k e emptying i n t o Puget Sound was needed t o save the l a k e . To do t h i s would r e q u i r e a m e t r o p o l i t a n i n s t i t u t i o n . An e n a b l i n g a c t was passed i n the l e g i s l a t u r e and the p r o p o s a l was v o t e d on. A l t h o u g h a m a j o r i t y were f o r i t , i t d i d not pass as t h e r e was not enough s u p p o r t o u t s i d e of S e a t t l e . W i t h i n a month, a number of mayors r e a c t i v a t e d the committee and put a s m a l l e r p r o p o s a l t o the v o t e r s a few months 138 l a t e r . T h i s p r o p o s a l was v o t e d i n September 1958 (Chasen 1971, C l a r k 1967). The work of Dr. Edmondson, a U n i v e r s i t y of Washington z o o l o g i s t , was i n s t r u m e n t a l i n p r o v i d i n g s c i e n t i f i c a u t h o r i t y f o r the c a u s e . Dr. Edmondson had been c o l l e c t i n g d a t a on the l a k e s i n c e 1949 as i t was a handy l a b f o r him. H i s d a t a i n d i c a t e d t h a t the l a k e was becoming e u t r o p h i c . He p r e d i c t e d i t s f u r t h e r d e t e r i o r a t i o n u n l e s s r e m e d i a l measures were undertaken t o reduce the phosphorus l o a d s of 108,000 k g . , i n 1957 and 231,000 k g . , i n 1962 (Eggers e t a l . 1978, 1561). D i v e r s i o n of the sewage t o two t r e a t m e n t p l a n t s which empty i n t o Puget Sound began i n 1963. E f f l u e n t ceased t o e n t e r the l a k e i n 1968. Dr. Edmondson d e c l a r e d the l a k e f u l l y r e c o v e r e d i n 1975. S e c c h i d i s k v i s i b i l i t y r e t u r n e d t o i t s 1950 depth of 12 f e e t from i t s 1966 low of two-and-one-half f e e t (Chasen 1971, 10). B l u e green a l g a e d e c r e a s e d from 98% by volume of p l a n k t o n i n 1962 t o 44% i n 1974 (Eggers e t a l . 1978, 1561). Chasen i d e n t i f i e s f i v e f a c t o r s which c o n t r i b u t e d t o the s u c c e s s of the l a k e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n : . importance of the l a k e t o r e s i d e n t s . Dr. Edmondson's d a t a base . development of an i n s t i t u t i o n a l mechanism t o overcome j u r i s d i c t i o n a l problems . l a c k of commercial v e s t e d i n t e r e s t s a c c e s s t o Puget Sound 139 i i . Lac L a B e l l e , W i s c o n s i n A l a k e water q u a l i t y management p l a n was d e v e l o p e d by the S o u t h e a s t e r n W i s c o n s i n R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commission f o r Lac L a B e l l e i n 1980. The o b j e c t i v e s of the p l a n were " t o p r o v i d e a l e v e l of water q u a l i t y s u i t a b l e f o r the maintenance of a h e a l t h y warmwater f i s h e r y , t o reduce e x c e s s i v e a l g a l growth, and t o improve o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r water-based r e c r e a t i o n (Yanggen i n EPA 1983, 7 8 ) . The f i r s t s t e p the Commission took was t o d etermine the t r o p h i c s t a t u s of the l a k e , i d e n t i f y the amount of n u t r i e n t l o a d i n g t o the l a k e by s o u r c e , and p r o j e c t the l o a d i n g under c o n d i t i o n s e x p e c t e d 20 y e a r s i n the f u t u r e . The Commission then i d e n t i f i e d management measures n e c e s s a r y t o meet the water use o b j e c t i v e s f o r the l a k e . These i n c l u d e d a c t i o n s n e c e s s a r y t o e f f e c t a 30 p e r c e n t r e d u c t i o n i n n o n p o i n t s o u r c e phosphorus and an e v a l u a t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e l a k e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and i n - l a k e management t e c h n i q u e s . Techniques used i n c l u d e d : m o d i f i c a t i o n of the z o n i n g o r d i n a n c e ; p r o v i s i o n of s a n i t a r y sewer s e r v i c e t o a p o r t i o n of the w atershed; i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of n o n p o i n t s o u r c e c o n t r o l s i n urban and r u r a l a r e a s ; r e v i s i o n of the s a n i t a r y o r d i n a n c e ; i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of a c o n s t r u c t i o n e r o s i o n c o n t r o l o r d i n a n c e ; a e r a t i o n ; d r e d g i n g ; sediment c o v e r i n g ; weed h a r v e s t i n g ; and e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a l a k e p r o t e c t i o n d i s t r i c t (Yanggen i n EPA 1983, 7 8 ) . i i i . Lake E o l a , F l o r i d a 140 Lake E o l a i s a s m a l l l a n d - l o c k e d l a k e l o c a t e d i n the h e a r t of downtown O r l a n d o , F l o r i d a . The l a k e r e c e i v e s d i r e c t stormwater r u n o f f from storm sewers i n a watershed of about 65 h e c t a r e s of dense commercial and r e s i d e n t i a l development. C o n t i n u a l stormwater i n f l o w caused a s i g n i f i c a n t d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n water q u a l i t y t o the p o i n t where the l a k e was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by " h i g h r a t e s of a l g a l p r o d u c t i o n , an a n a e r o b i c h y p o l i m n i o n , and p e r i o d i c f i s h and duck k i l l s " ( Harper, W a n i e l i s t a , and Yousef i n EPA 1983, 13). As t h e l a k e i s a f o c a l p o i n t of the c i t y and a t o u r i s t a t t r a c t i o n , a r e s t o r a t i o n p r o j e c t was i n i t i a t e d i n 1978. A n a l y s i s of the V o l l e n w e i d e r t r o p h i c s t a t u s i n d i c e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t r e d u c i n g the phosphorus l o a d i n g s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 80% would reduce Lake E o l a from e u t r o p h i c s t a t u s " t o a b o r d e r l i n e o l i g o t r o p h i c / m e s o t r o p h i c s t a t e (Harper et a l . , i n EPA 1983, 15). The two main s o u r c e s of phosphorus were d e t e r m i n e d t o be stormwater r u n o f f and i n t e r n a l r e c y c l i n g ( 2 5 % ) . S t u d i e s of the d r a i n a g e s u b - b a s i n s i n d i c a t e d t h a t a l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e of the p o l l u t a n t s c o u l d be removed by d i v e r s i o n and r e t e n t i o n of f i r s t -f l u s h w a t e r s . Two r e s t o r a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s were used. S i n c e an a r e a was not a v a i l a b l e w i t h i n the h i g h l y u r b a n i z e d watershed f o r t r a d i t i o n a l r u n o f f r e t e n t i o n ponds, stormwater was d i v e r t e d from the main sewer l i n e , b e f o r e i t e n t e r e d the l a k e , t o underground p e r c o l a t i o n systems (Harper et a l . , i n EPA 1983, 17). The o t h e r r e s t o r a t i o n t e c h n i q u e c o n s i s t e d of u s i n g an alum wastewater 141 t r e a t m e n t s l u d g e t o i n a c t i v a t e phosphorus r e l e a s e from t h e l a k e bottom sediments (Harper e t a l . , i n EPA 1983, 19). These two t e c h n i q u e s have proved s u c c e s s f u l i n the tre a t m e n t of Lake E o l a (Harper e t a l . , i n EPA 1983, 2 2 ) . i v . L i n c o l n , Echo, and Harbor Lakes Los A n g e l e s , C a l i f o r n i a D.B. P o r c e l l a , a l i m n o l o g i c a l c o n s u l t a n t w i t h T e t r a Tech I n c . , p r e s e n t s a d i f f e r e n t response t o the d e g r a d a t i o n of t h r e e urban l a k e s i n s o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a . Based on a n a l y s i s of the l a k e s he s t a t e s , "I b e l i e v e i t i s i m p r a c t i c a l t o c o n s i d e r d i v e r t i n g urban r u n o f f away from the l a k e s . N u t r i e n t c o n t r o l i s s i m i l a r l y i m p r a c t i c a l . W i t h i n the magnitude of money a v a i l a b l e , I f e e l i t i s b e t t e r t o a c c e p t the h i g h p r o d u c t i v i t y , m i n i m i z e the major water q u a l i t y and a e s t h e t i c problems, and s t r i v e t o d e v e l o p a " f i s h e r y t h a t can p r o v i d e r e c r e a t i o n t o the urban communities" ( P o r c e l l a i n EPA 1983, 276). He e n v i s i o n s a g o a l of " c r e a t i n g a "commons" t h a t can p r o v i d e a sense of community a l o n g w i t h t a n g i b l e r e c r e a t i o n b e n e f i t s " ( P o r c e l l a i n EPA 1983, 276). T h i s g o a l r e q u i r e s making a b e n e f i t of h i g h p r o d u c t i v i t y . To make a b e n e f i t of h i g h p r o d u c t i v i t y , oxygen must be m a i n t a i n e d i n the water column, adequate depth must e x i s t t o meet the needs of a f i s h e r y , and l i t t e r problems must be m i n i m i z e d w h i l e m a i n t a i n i n g the p h y s i c a l environment of the l a k e ( P o r c e l l a i n EPA 1983, 276). He argues t h a t s i n c e most urban l a k e s a re d i r e c t e d by a 1 42 p a r k s department, the r e s t o r a t i o n approaches t h a t appear t o be most f e a s i b l e a r e thos e t h a t can be o p e r a t e d as p a r t of a c o n t i n u o u s maintenance p r o g r a m , r e q u i r i n g low t e c h n i c a l s o p h i s t i c a t i o n , and i n f r e q u e n t i nvestment of c a p i t a l . The r e s t o r a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s s u ggested by P o r c e l l a i n c l u d e : a e r a t i o n f o r m i x i n g , d r e d g i n g f o r deepening and c i r c u l a t i o n , and f l u s h i n g w i t h h i g h e r q u a l i t y w a t e r , supplemented by ongoing l i t t e r c l e a n - u p program and maintenance of t h e p h y s i c a l i n t e g r i t y of the l a k e ( i n EPA 1983, 276). LAKE WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES A v a r i e t y of s t r u c t u r a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s can be used t o p r e v e n t l a k e p o l l u t i o n or t o encourage l a k e r e s t o r a t i o n . S t r u c t u r a l t e c h n i q u e s c o n s i s t of two t y p e s of p h y s i c a l a c t i o n s : i . s o u r c e c o n t r o l s t o reduce n u t r i e n t and t o x i c i n f l o w s and i i . i n - l a k e c o n t r o l s t o d i s r u p t i n t e r n a l n u t r i e n t c y c l e s or t o a c c e l e r a t e n u t r i e n t o u t f l o w . I n s t i t u t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s on the o t h e r hand r e f e r t o government agency a c t i o n s or laws. S t r u c t u r a l Water Q u a l i t y Management Techniques i . Source C o n t r o l s Source c o n t r o l s reduce n u t r i e n t and t o x i c i n f l o w s by e i t h e r p r e v e n t i n g p o l l u t a n t s from e n t e r i n g the r u n o f f or p r e v e n t i n g t he r u n o f f from e n t e r i n g t he l a k e . Source c o n t r o l s i n c l u d e t he f o l l o w i n g : 143 . t r e a t m e n t of i n f l o w s . d i v e r s i o n of i n f l o w s i . e . , storm sewers . s t r e e t c l e a n i n g t o remove l i t t e r , h ydrocarbon r e s i d u e s , and d i r t p a r t i c l e s which have adsorbed phosphorus . r u n o f f and sediment d e t e n t i o n ponds t o reduce the amount of suspended s o l i d s e n t e r i n g the l a k e . Ten t o t h i r t y p e r c e n t of the phosphorus c o n c e n t r a t i o n can be reduced when f l o w s a r e d e t a i n e d and then r e l e a s e d . F o r t y t o s i x t y p e r c e n t of the s i l t can be removed by s e t t l i n g ponds. When d e t e n t i o n of the r u n o f f i n c l u d e s . i n f i l t r a t i o n and p e r c o l a t i o n removal of n i n e t y p e r c e n t of the phosphorus i s p o s s i b l e . r o o f t o p ponding t o reduce r a t e of r u n o f f . porous pavement and r e d u c t i o n of amount of i m p e r v i o u s l a n d i n urban a r e a s t o reduce volume and r a t e of r u n o f f . v e g e t a t i o n s e e d i n g or p l a n t i n g t o reduce e r o s i o n . u t i l i z a t i o n of n a t u r a l d r a i n a g e system (Born 1979; B a r t s c h , L a r s e n and Malueg, T r a v e r , W a n a l e i s t a and Yousef i n EPA 1980, 12,67,282, 311; Cooke et a l . 1986; L o v e l a c e and C a n t i n e i n Pavoni 1977, 328). i i . In-Lake C o n t r o l s I n - l a k e c o n t r o l s c o n s i s t of e i t h e r c h e m i c a l or m e c h a n i c a l t e c h n i q u e s . I n - l a k e t e c h n i q u e s i n c l u d e the f o l l o w i n g : . d r e d g i n g t o deepen the l a k e or remove phosphorus accumulat i o n . n u t r i e n t i n a c t i v a t i o n t h r o u g h the p r e c i p i t a t i o n of phosphorus from the water column t h r o u g h the a d d i t i o n of alum or i r o n s a l t s or the i n j e c t i o n of aluminum s u l p h a t e i n t o the t o p l a y e r of sediments t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r a d s o r p t i v e c a p a c i t y . d i l u t i o n or f l u s h i n g (has been h i g h l y s u c c e s s f u l but i s r a r e l y p r a c t i c a l ) . f l o w adjustment . sediment exposure and d e s i c c a t i o n . l a k e bottom s e a l i n g 144 . s h o r e l i n e m o d i f i c a t i o n . h a r v e s t i n g macrophytes t o reduce i n t e r n a l n u t r i e n t c y c l i n g from the sediments t o open water ( e f f e c t i v e n e s s i s q u e s t i o n a b l e ) . a l g i c i d e s h e r b i c i d e s . p r e d a t o r - prey m a n i p u l a t i o n s . a e r a t i o n of the h y p o l i m n i o n (Dunst, Bouwes e t a l . , G a r r o i n i n E.P.A. 1980, 86, 183, 115; Rupke i n Loehr e t a l . 1980, 357). R e g a r d i n g the above management t e c h n i q u e s , M c i n t o s h warns t h a t the c h e m i c a l t r e a t m e n t of a l g a e and a q u a t i c weeds and the d r e d g i n g of c o n t a m i n a t e d sediment, u s u a l l y o f f e r o n l y temporary improvement; i n a d d i t i o n they may have a v a r i e t y of n e g a t i v e s i d e e f f e c t s ( M c i n t o s h i n Whipple e t a l . 1978, 157). He p o i n t s t o the need f o r watershed p l a n n i n g t o p r e v e n t or a l l e v i a t e the p o l l u t i o n problem i n the f i r s t p l a c e . T h i s s u g g e s t i o n l e a d s n a t u r a l l y t o a d i s c u s s i o n of i n s t i t u t i o n a l water q u a l i t y management t e c h n i q u e s . I n s t i t u t i o n a l Water Q u a l i t y Management Techniques N o n - s t r u c t u r a l or i n s t i t u t i o n a l and l e g a l methods f o r r e d u c i n g the i n p u t s of p o l l u t a n t s i n t o a l a k e or e n c o u r a g i n g l a k e r e s t o r a t i o n i n c l u d e : i ) urban growth management i i ) l o c a l r e g u l a t i o n s i i i ) f i n a n c i a l i n c e n t i v e s i v ) p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n programs 1 45 i ) Urban Growth Management Two urban growth management approaches a r e debated i n the l i t e r a t u r e : c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y and "dead i s dead". The c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y approach i s based upon the premise t h a t t h e r e a r e d e t e r m i n a b l e l i m i t s t o the e x t e n t of r e s o u r c e use and r e s o u r c e impact t h a t can be used t o guide development d e c i s i o n s . Nieswand and P i z o r (1977), d e v e l o p e d a c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y a n a l y s i s f o r water s u p p l y and water q u a l i t y based upon consumption and p o l l u t a n t l o a d i n g d a t a c o n v e r t e d t o t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p o p u l a t i o n e q u i v a l e n t s e.g., i f a stream can p r o v i d e 1,000,000 l i t r e s of water per day f o r consumption, and a person needs 100 l i t r e s per day, 10,000 peop l e can l i v e i n t h a t a r e a . A s i g n i f i c a n t Canadian c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the s c i e n t i f i c b a s i s f o r the water q u a l i t y c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y concept has been the work done by D i l l o n and R i g l e r i n the E x p e r i m e n t a l Lakes Program and work a t the C e n t r e f o r I n l a n d Waters by V o l l e n w e i d e r t o d e t e r m i n e formulae which c a l c u l a t e how much phosphorus a l a k e can a s s i m i l a t e b e f o r e i t changes t r o p h i c s t a t u s i n the d i r e c t i o n of e u t r o p h i c a t i o n . These formulae have been used by s e v e r a l water management a u t h o r i t i e s i n Canada e. g., O n t a r i o M i n i s t r y of the Environment and the B.C. C a r i b o o R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t (Olmstead 1984, 70, 134). However, c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y can be p e r c e i v e d as p r o m o t i n g area-wide s a t u r a t i o n . To a v o i d t h i s outcome Mar (1981), recommends an a l t e r n a t i v e urban water management s t r a t e g y known as "dead i s dead". He argues t h a t most n a t u r a l ecosystems have 1 46 one or more t h r e s h o l d s beyond which severe changes i n tho s e ecosystems o c c u r as a r e s u l t of growing human s e t t l e m e n t . Once a t h r e s h o l d i s v i o l a t e d i t i s best t o c o n c e n t r a t e a c t i v i t y i n t h e "dead" a r e a (Mar 1981, 104). W h i l e t h i s i s an a t t r a c t i v e i d e a because i t p r e v e n t s urban s p r a w l , i t i m p l i e s t e c h n o l o g y can make the "dead" a r e a e n j o y a b l e t o l i v e i n . I t a l s o d i s r e g a r d s t h e need f o r i n p u t s t o support the dead a r e a , the e f f e c t the "dead" body of water has downstream and the p o t e n t i a l f o r r e s t o r a t i o n . A m o d i f i c a t i o n of the c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y approach which l i e s between t h e s e two s t a t i c extremes i s the a d a p t i v e e n v i r o n m e n t a l model. T h i s model r e c o g n i z e s the s t a t e of i m p e r f e c t knowledge of urban h y d r o l o g y and t h e r e f o r e recommends s m a l l a c t i o n s whose outcomes a r e then m o n i t o r e d and c o n s i d e r e d b e f o r e the next a c t i o n i s t a k e n . U n l i k e the o t h e r two approaches, whose consequences a r e seemingly i r r e v e r s i b l e , t h i s model by i t s a d a p t i v e n a t u r e has b u i l t - i n c o n t i n g e n c i e s which can a c t a g a i n s t p r o m o t i n g t r e n d s t h a t a r e i r r e v e r s i b l e . I t can a l s o d e v e l o p b e t t e r management p r o c e d u r e s as the knowledge and u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t he problem improves. Because of the s e f e a t u r e s the a d a p t i v e approach promotes a f l e x i b i l i t y i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s w h i l e m i n i m i z i n g the r i s k t o t h e p r e - u r b a n environment ( H o l l i n g 1978). i i ) L o c a l R e g u l a t i o n s L o c a l r e g u l a t i o n s can a d d r e s s such c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a s : d e n s i t y of development, p r e s e r v a t i o n of shore c o v e r , water q u a l i t y , e r o s i o n c o n t r o l , and c o n f l i c t i n g l a k e u s e s . Three 147 r e g u l a t o r y t o o l s can be used by p l a n n e r s t o p r o t e c t the water q u a l i t y of l a k e s and the amenity v a l u e s of l a k e s h o r e s : z o n i n g o r d i n a n c e s , s u b d i v i s i o n r e g u l a t i o n s , and s u r f a c e water r e g u l a t i o n s . A z o n i n g o r d i n a n c e e s t a b l i s h e s a r e a s i n which s p e c i f i c uses ar e p e r m i t t e d as a m a t t e r of r i g h t and o t h e r s are c o n d i t i o n a l l y p e r m i t t e d . Zoning i s a l s o c o n cerned w i t h the d i m e n s i o n of l o t s and s t r u c t u r e s and the l o c a t i o n of s t r u c t u r e s on the l o t . S p e c i a l p r o v i s i o n s such as the f o l l o w i n g can be added t o z o n i n g f o r l a k e p r o t e c t i o n p u r p o s e s . . s e t b a c k s can r e q u i r e t h a t b u i l d i n g s or s e p t i c t a n k s be p l a c e d a s p e c i f i e d d i s t a n c e from the water t o c r e a t e a s h o r e l a n d b u f f e r t h a t h e l p s p r e s e r v e shore c o v e r , n a t u r a l beauty, and w i l d l i f e (Yanggen i n EPA 1983, 77) . r e g u l a t i o n s t o r e t a i n s h o r e l a n d v e g e t a t i o n reduce e r o s i o n of the shore and a l l o w n u t r i e n t s and sediment t o be i n t e r c e p t e d by the v e g e t a t i o n b e f o r e they can e n t e r the l a k e (Yanggen i n EPA 1983, 77) . e r o s i o n c o n t r o l s d i r e c t i n g t h a t the s m a l l e s t amount of bare ground be exposed f o r as s h o r t a time as f e a s i b l e and mandating temporary or permanent ground c o v e r , d i v e r s i o n s , b a r r i e r s or d e s i l t i n g b a s i n s reduce e r o s i o n and s e d i m e n t a t i o n (EPA 1982) . c o n t r o l s over f i l l i n g and d r e d g i n g a l s o reduce e r o s i o n and can be one method of p r o t e c t i n g w e t l a n d s . Wetlands a r e i m p o r t a n t t o the l o n g term h e a l t h of a l a k e as they a c t as n a t u r a l t r e a t m e n t p l a n t s by f i l t e r i n g n u t r i e n t s and sediment and t a k i n g up phosphorus and n i t r o g e n as w e l l as p r o v i d i n g spawning ground f o r v a r i o u s f i s h s p e c i e s and r e a r i n g ground f o r w a t e r f o w l (Yanggen i n EPA 1983, 78) . p r e s e r v a t i o n and c o n s e r v a t i o n easements can l i m i t or c o n t r o l a l t e r a t i o n of a r e a s h a v i n g s p e c i a l n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s or s c e n i c or h i s t o r i c v a l u e s by e n c o u r a g i n g a landowner t o t r a n s f e r the r i g h t s of s p e c i f i e d uses of the l a n d t o a c o n s e r v a t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n (Leedy et a l . 1981, 6 4 ) . As a l a k e management d e v i c e p r e s e r v a t i o n easements c o u l d be used t o p r e s e r v e undeveloped s h o r e l i n e . C o n s e r v a t i o n easements c o u l d be used as a n o n s t r u c t u r a l 1 48 mechanism t o reduce r u n o f f or n o n p o i n t s o u r c e p o l l u t i o n e.g., by l i m i t i n g l a n d d i s t u r b a n c e t o g e n t l e s l o p e s (O'Connor and C h e s t e r s i n EPA 1983, 148). . e c o l o g i c a l l y s e n s i t i v e a r e a s can be e s t a b l i s h e d by m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t o p r e s e r v e e c o l o g i c a l l y s e n s i t i v e r e s o u r c e s ( H i l t s i n F r a z i e r e t a l . 1983, 105) . z o n i n g f o r the p r o t e c t i o n of open space or f o r p a r k l a n d can p r o v i d e b u f f e r zones f o r l a k e s (Leedy e t a l . 1981, 62) . z o n i n g bylaws can r e q u i r e the use of porous pavement i n new developments, f r e q u e n t s t r e e t c l e a n i n g , and p l a c e r e s t r i c t i o n s on the use of f e r t i l i z e r s and p e s t i c i d e s t o reduce r u n o f f p o l l u t i o n and volume (EPA 1982) . d e n s i t y s t a n d a r d s f o r l a k e s h o r e l i n e s , i n c l u d i n g minimum l o t a r e a and w i d t h and the maximum p e r c e n t a g e of a l o t t h a t may be c o v e r e d by a s t r u c t u r e , s h o u l d r e f l e c t the s i z e , shape, volume and f l u s h i n g r a t e of the l a k e t o ensure t h a t i t s c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y i s not exceeded (Yanggen i n EPA 1983, 78) S u b d i v i s i o n r e g u l a t i o n s c o n t r o l the d i v i s i o n of l a n d i n t o l o t s f o r s a l e or b u i l d i n g t o ensure p r o p e r and • o r d e r l y development. C e r t a i n s u b d i v i s i o n p r o v i s i o n s , such as the f o l l o w i n g , can p r o v i d e l a k e p r o t e c t i o n : . performance s t a n d a r d s d e s c r i b e a p a r t i c u l a r o b j e c t i v e t h a t a d e v e l o p e r must agree t o ( e . g . , r e t e n t i o n of open space) i n o r d e r t o r e c e i v e p e r m i s s i o n f o r maximum d e n s i t i e s , but l e a v e the s e l e c t i o n of the means t o the d e v e l o p e r (Leedy et a l . 1981, 64) S u r f a c e water r e g u l a t i o n s can h e l p p r o t e c t l a k e s and reduce c o n f l i c t s among v a r i o u s t y p e s of u s e r s (swimmers, w a t e r s k i e r s , f i s h e r s , and b o a t e r s ) . S u r f a c e water r e g u l a t i o n s i n c l u d e the f o l l o w i n g : . f i x e d a r e a z o n i n g r e s t r i c t s s p e c i f i e d water uses t o d e s i g n a t e d a r e a s . minimum s e p a r a t i n g d i s t a n c e s 149 . time z o n i n g . e x c l u s i o n of some uses e n t i r e l y ( e . g . , motors on l a k e s l e s s than a c e r t a i n s i z e ) (Yanggen i n EPA 1983, 79) i i i ) F i n a n c i a l I n c e n t i v e s The most o u t s t a n d i n g example of f i n a n c i a l i n c e n t i v e s f o r l a k e water q u a l i t y management was the US EPA's C l e a n Lakes Program. Under t h i s program $60 m i l l i o n was spent between 1975 and 1980 on 200 p r o j e c t s i n 46 s t a t e s on the b a s i s of matching s t a t e funds (Schatzow i n EPA 1980, 3 ) . The p r o j e c t s c o n s i s t e d of c o m b i n a t i o n s of s t r u c t u r a l t e c h n i q u e s t o r e s t o r e l a k e water q u a l i t y and were l a r g e l y s u c c e s s f u l . P r e f e r e n t i a l t a x a t i o n schemes can be used t o encourage the f o r m a t i o n of p r e s e r v a t i o n and c o n s e r v a t i o n easements t o reduce u r b a n i z a t i o n and i t s e f f e c t s around a l a k e (O'Connor and C h e s t e r s i n EPA 1983, 148). i v ) P u b l i c E d u c a t i o n Programs P u b l i c e d u c a t i o n programs a m u n i c i p a l i t y c o u l d u n d e r t a k e range from d e v e l o p i n g and d i s t r i b u t i n g a bro c h u r e o u t l i n i n g the a c t i o n s by r e s i d e n t s which a f f e c t l a k e water q u a l i t y , t o p r o d u c i n g a m o b i l e e x h i b i t t o t a k e t o shopping m a l l s , t o m a i n t a i n i n g an i n f o r m a t i o n h o t l i n e or o f f i c e i n the m u n i c i p a l h a l l (EPA 1982). C o s t s of M a i n t a i n i n g Water Q u a l i t y i n Urban Areas The c o s t s of p r e v e n t i n g or r e v e r s i n g a l a k e q u a l i t y problem 150 a r e dependent on the n a t u r e of the problem, the s i z e of the l a k e and the a m e l i o r a t i o n method s e l e c t e d . A c t i v i t i e s whose c o s t s must be c o n s i d e r e d i n c l u d e : p l a n n i n g , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , o p e r a t i o n s and maintenance, m o n i t o r i n g , c a p i t a l c o n s t r u c t i o n , enforcement (EPA 1982, 11-11). Beyond g e n e r a l s t a t e m e n t s t h a t l a k e water q u a l i t y p r o t e c t i o n and l a k e r e s t o r a t i o n a r e e x p e n s i v e , i n f o r m a t i o n on t e c h n i q u e s used f o r t h e s e purposes i s s c a n t y : . The p r o j e c t c o s t s of r e s t o r i n g a 5 h e c t a r e and a 17 h e c t a r e urban l a k e i n W i s c o n s i n t o t a l l e d $430,000 f o r storm sewer d i v e r s i o n , alum t r e a t m e n t , and a e r a t i o n (of the s m a l l e r l a k e ) (Bouwes e t a l . i n EPA 1980, 183). . The r e s t o r a t i o n of an urban l a k e i n Sweden t o t a l l e d $1,000,000 ( N o r t h c o t e 1977, 3 ) . . P a r k i n g l o t ponding and s t r e e t d i v e r s i o n c o s t $6,250/hectare i n O r l a n d o F l o r i d a ( W a n a l e i s t a and Yousef i n EPA 1980, 311). . D r e d g i n g has been r e p o r t e d t o c o s t .37-1.96 $/cubic metre based upon the purchase or l e a s e of a dredge and c o n s t r u c t i o n of a d i s p o s a l a r e a and l a b o u r c o s t s (Dunst i n EPA 1980, 8 6 ) . . F i b e r g l a s s s c r e e n s t o i n h i b i t p l a n t growth on the l a k e bottom c o s t $ l 2 , 0 0 0 / a c r e ( P e r k i n s i n EPA 1980, 245). . N o n - s t r u c t u r a l Techniques . H y p o t h e t i c a l c o s t s f o r an e d u c a t i o n program t o c o n t r o l c h e m i c a l r u n o f f from p e s t i c i d e s and f e r t i l i z e r s were e s t i m a t e d by the EPA i n 1982 as $48,000 (EPA 1982, I V - 1 0 ) . 151 APPENDIX 3_i CONFLICT RESOLUTION TECHNIQUES T h i s appendix d e s c r i b e s c o n c i l i a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s and c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n t e c h n i q u e s . C o n c i l i a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s r e f e r s t o a t t e m p t s t o improve a t t i t u d e s of d i f f e r e n t p a r t i e s toward each o t h e r ( C a r p e n t e r 1977) and l e a d up t o or a r e components of r e s o l u t i o n t e c h n i q u e s . C o n c i l i a t i o n Techniques I n f o r m a t i o n s h a r i n g , i m p r o v i n g communication ( C a r p e n t e r 1977); group dynamics (Rosener i n Langton 1978); c o n n e c t i v e p l a n n i n g - i n v o l v i n g c r e a t i n g and c o n n e c t i n g d e c i s i o n networks between agenci.es ( B r a z i e r and H a r r i s 1975); i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l i n k a g e t h rough p e r s o n a l l i n k s and l e g i s l a t e d c o o r d i n a t i o n ( F r i e n d 1980); and s p e c i a l purpose mechanisms (Rosener i n Langton 1978) a r e a l l c o n c i l i a t i o n methods. S p e c i a l purpose mechanisms a r e u s u a l l y c o n c erned w i t h s p e c i f i c but l i m i t e d p a r t s of t h e . c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n p r o c e s s , such as g a t h e r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , d e v e l o p i n g g o a l s t o be agreed upon by both p a r t i e s or h e l p i n g t o a l l o c a t e p r e f e r e n c e s t o competing g o a l s . Minnery i d e n t i f i e s membership exchange as a k i n d of s p e c i a l purpose mechanism (1985, 145). Out of the f o r t y p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n methods Rosener e v a l u a t e s , she i d e n t i f i e s e i g h t as h a v i n g c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n p o t e n t i a l . A s i d e from referendum and group dynamics, they a r e a l l s p e c i a l purpose 152 mechanisms: workshop, s h o r t c o n f e r e n c e , c i t i z e n s ' a d v i s o r y committee, c o o r d i n a t o r c a t a l y s t , and f i s h b o w l p l a n n i n g (Rosener i n Langton 1978, 58-59). The a n a l y s i s of o p t i o n s t e c h n i q u e ( B a i n , Howard and Saaty 1971) i s a n o t h e r s p e c i a l purpose mechanism. In t h i s t e c h n i q u e , s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s e x p l o r e s o l u t i o n s by c o n s i d e r i n g each p a r t y ' s p r e f e r e n c e s f o r p o s s i b l e outcomes. The premise i s t h a t more c r e a t i v e s o l u t i o n s a r e o b t a i n e d than would be p o s s i b l e t h r o u g h n e g o t i a t i o n . The c h a r e t t e and Aggen's t a b l e t e c h n i q u e a r e u n u s u a l s p e c i a l purpose mechanisms. The c h a r e t t e i s an a c t i v i t y t h a t b r i n g s members of a community and e x p e r t s t o g e t h e r under p r e s s u r e of l i m i t e d t i me t o s t u d y s p e c i f i c community problems. I t i s a p e r i o d of b r a i n s t o r m i n g and the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of b a s i c communication between groups t y p i c a l l y l a s t i n g e i g h t t o t e n days ( R i d d i c k 1971, 2 ) . In Aggen's t a b l e t e c h n i q u e , up t o 400 c i t i z e n s a r e s e a t e d i n c o n c e n t r i c c i r c l e s around a t a b l e . Those w i t h something t o say go t o the t a b l e . D i s c u s s i o n i s l i m i t e d a t any one time by the number of p e o p l e who can s i t a t the t a b l e . "Evidence from r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g commission h e a r i n g s has shown t h i s t o be a h i g h l y i n t e r a c t i v e method i n which d i s c u s s i o n c o n t i n u e s u n t i l some agreement i s reached" (Aggen i n Checkoway 1976, 576). R e s o l u t i o n Techniques B o u l d i n g d e f i n e s t h r e e main c a t e g o r i e s of c o n f l i c t 153 r e s o l u t i o n - r e c o n c i l i a t i o n , compromise, award. The t e c h n i q u e s which do not f i t i n t o t h i s c a t e g o r i z a t i o n - d i a l e c t i c s y n t h e s i s , c h a n g i n g the f o c u s of c o n f l i c t - w i l l be d i s c u s s e d s u b s e q u e n t l y . R e c o n c i l i a t i o n B o u l d i n g ' s f i r s t form of r e s o l u t i o n i s th r o u g h r e c o n c i l i a t i o n " i n which the v a l u e systems of the images of the p a r t i e s so change t h a t they now have i n common p r e f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r j o i n t f i e l d " (1962, 310). P e r s u a s i o n t e c h n i q u e s a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s form of r e s o l u t i o n i n c l u d i n g : argument, de b a t e , the moot, r e f e r e n t i n f l u e n c e and t h i r d p a r t y c o n s u l t a t i o n . The moot, r e f e r r e d t o by LaTour e t a l . , and r e f e r e n t i n f l u e n c e , r e f e r r e d t o by Raven and K r u g l a n s k i , are" based on p e r s u a s i o n . The moot i s an i n f o r m a l p r o c e d u r e of d i s c u s s i o n and unanimous consent common i n s m a l l groups and subgroups of l a r g e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s which i n v o l v e s a l l i t s members i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g (LaTour e t a l . 1976, 320). R e f e r e n t i n f l u e n c e r e f e r s t o p e r s u a s i o n by p l a y i n g on one p a r t y ' s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the o t h e r o r d e s i r e f o r such i d e n t i f i c a t i o n (Raven and K r u g l a n s k i i n Sw i n g l e 1970, 7 4 ) . B e r c o v i t c h s u g g e s t s p e r s u a d i n g the p a r t i e s t o view the c o n f l i c t as a p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g s i t u a t i o n i n which new o p t i o n s need t o be c r e a t e d t o s o l v e the 'shared dilemma' (1984, 2 2 ) . Both he and F i s h e r (1985) ~ p e r c e i v e the need f o r t h i r d p a r t y c o n s u l t a t i o n i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e the s h i f t from a w i n - l o s e t o a 1 54 c o l l a b o r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p . T h i s t h i r d p a r t y c o n s u l t a t i o n i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from m e d i a t i o n as a change w i t h i n the p a r t i e s ' r e l a t i o n s h i p i s the g o a l r a t h e r than a mediated s e t t l e m e n t . H u z e l s i m i l a r l y c r e d i t s the r e c o g n i t i o n of i n t e r d e p e n d e n c i e s w i t h p r o v i d i n g an i n c e n t i v e f o r r e s o l u t i o n because the p a r t i e s " r e a l i z e i t r e q u i r e s some c o o r d i n a t i o n and c o o p e r a t i o n t o p r o v i d e s t a b l e c o n d i t i o n s t o e f f e c t i v e l y pursue t h e i r g o a l s " (1982, 2 5 ) . Compromise B o u l d i n g ' s second c a t e g o r y of r e s o l u t i o n i s compromise " i n which the v a l u e systems a r e not i d e n t i c a l and the p a r t i e s have d i f f e r e n t optimum p o s i t i o n s i n t h e i r j o i n t f i e l d , however, each p a r t y i s w i l l i n g t o s e t t l e f o r something l e s s than h i s i d e a l p o s i t i o n r a t h e r than c o n t i n u e the c o n f l i c t " ' (1962, 310). B a r g a i n i n g , p r o f f e r , . m e d i a t i o n , advocacy, a p p e a l t o a s u p e r o r d i n a t e g o a l and compensation a r e the t e c h n i q u e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h compromise. B a r g a i n i n g i s t a k i n g a p o s i t i o n , a r g u i n g f o r i t and making c o n c e s s i o n s t o r e a c h agreement ( F i s h e r and Ury 1981, 3 ) . P r o f f e r i s a t o o l used i n V i r g i n i a f o r b a r g a i n i n g between a county and a d e v e l o p e r . The a p p l i c a n t p r o f f e r s or makes c e r t a i n commitments r e g a r d i n g a development t o the county i n advance of a r e z o n i n g h e a r i n g . In exchange, the p r o j e c t i s v i r t u a l l y a s s u r e d a p p r o v a l (Tremaine and Ya t e s 1977). M e d i a t i o n i s a p r o c e s s whereby a t h i r d p a r t y a t t e m p t s t o s e c u r e a s e t t l e m e n t of a d i s p u t e e i t h e r by p e r s u a d i n g the 155 p a r t i e s t o c o n t i n u e t h e i r n e g o t i a t i o n s or t o c o n s i d e r p r o c e d u r a l or s u b s t a n t i v e recommendations t h a t the me d i a t o r may make ( S t e r n i n Minnery 1985, 147). Advocacy i s the a c t i o n of a more p o w e r f u l t h i r d p a r t y t o r e d r e s s the l a c k of power of one p a r t y i n a c o n f l i c t by r e p r e s e n t i n g the weaker. "The p l a n n e r as advocate would p l e a d f o r h i s own and h i s c l i e n t ' s view of the good s o c i e t y " ( D a v i d o f f i n F a l u d i 1965, 282-283). I t i s assumed t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e t h r o u g h advocacy t o move from a s i t u a t i o n of c o e r c i o n t o one where r e s o l u t i o n may be a t t e m p t e d . A commonly used c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n t e c h n i q u e i n urban p l a n n i n g i s the s u p e r o r d i n a t e g o a l . A s u p e r o r d i n a t e g o a l i s a c o m p e l l i n g o b j e c t i v e not o b t a i n a b l e by one p a r t y a l o n e e.g., a v o i d i n g n u c l e a r a n n i h i l a t i o n ( F i s h e r 1976, 7 3 ) . A c t i n g f o r the good of t h e wider p u b l i c i n t e r e s t r a t h e r than f o c u s s i n g on narrow c o n c e r n s i s a f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d s u p e r o r d i n a t e g o a l of the urban p l a n n i n g p r o f e s s i o n . Dryzek has devel o p e d a s u p e r o r d i n a t e g o a l f o r r e s o u r c e management c a l l e d s t r a t e g i c c o l l e c t i v e i n t e r e s t . The s t r a t e g i c c o l l e c t i v e i n t e r e s t r e f e r s t o "the c o l l e c t i v e c a p a b i l i t y t o pursue l o n g - t e r m s u r v i v a l " (1983, 126). I t i s based on a h i e r a r c h y of r i g h t s and v a l u e s e s t a b l i s h e d by the p r e c e p t t h a t "any p r i n c i p l e whose a t t a i n m e n t i s a l o g i c a l p r e c o n d i t i o n t o the achievement of some o t h e r v a l u e s h o u l d be a c c o r d e d p r i o r i t y over t h a t v a l u e " (Dryzek 1983, 125). Dryzek a s s e r t s t h a t u s i n g the s u p e r o r d i n a t e g o a l of s t r a t e g i c c o l l e c t i v e i n t e r e s t r e n d e r s 156 c o n f l i c t i n g v a l u e s amenable t o r e s o l u t i o n . F i n a l l y , compensation - where one p a r t y p u r c h a s e s the o t h e r ' s r i g h t s - may be used t o a c h i e v e a compromise. Award B o u l d i n g ' s f i n a l c a t e g o r y of c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n i s award " i n w hich a s e t t l e m e n t i s reached because b o t h p a r t i e s have agreed t o a c c e p t the v e r d i c t of an o u t s i d e person or agency r a t h e r than c o n t i n u e the c o n f l i c t " (1962, 310). A r b i t r a t i o n , a d j u d i c a t i o n , referendum a r e t e c h n i q u e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s form of c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n . A r b i t r a t i o n i s a means of s e t t l i n g d i s p u t e s where a b i n d i n g d e c i s i o n i s made on the c o n f l i c t i n g c l a i m s of the p a r t i e s i n the d i s p u t e by a t h i r d p a r t y (Minnery 1985, 148). A d j u d i c a t i o n o c c u r s when "the d i s p u t e i s s u b m i t t e d t o a s t a n d i n g c o u r t " (Raymond i n Minnery 1985, 148). Two f u r t h e r c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n t e c h n i q u e s l i e o u t s i d e of B o u l d i n g ' s c a t e g o r i e s : d i a l e c t i c s y n t h e s i s , and ch a n g i n g the f o c u s of c o n f l i c t . D i a l e c t i c a l c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n i s the a n t i t h e s i s of the p e r s u a s i o n approaches. I t c a l l s f o r f o c u s s i n g t h e c o n f l i c t between the two p a r t i e s t o a c h i e v e , t h r o u g h d i s c u s s i o n , an i n t e g r a t i o n of the c o n f l i c t i n g v a l u e s a t a h i g h e r l e v e l ( P a t r i c i o s 1979, 4 9 ) . F i n a l l y , c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n may be a c h i e v e d by cha n g i n g the f o c u s of the c o n f l i c t . S p e c i f i c a l l y , i t i s d e s i r a b l e t o move 157 away from a z e r o sum c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n i n o r d e r t o a v o i d the w i n - l o s e outcome of conquest. I t may be p o s s i b l e t o do t h i s i n the c a s e of a l a n d use c o n f l i c t by i n c r e a s i n g the s c a r c e r e s o u r c e by o f f e r i n g s u b s t i t u t e s ; by v i e w i n g the i s s u e as one of v a l u e (good a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d ) r a t h e r than s p a t i a l l o c a t i o n (a s p e c i f i c p a r c e l of l a n d ) ; by r e d e f i n i n g ownership or o c c u p a t i o n e.g., s e q u e n t i a l o c c u p a t i o n (Minnery 1985). A p p l i c a b i l i t y of Techniques A l t h o u g h a v a r i e t y of c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n t e c h n i q u e s have been i d e n t i f i e d i n t h i s a p p e n d i x , they a r e not e q u a l l y a p p l i c a b l e i n a l l s i t u a t i o n s . A c c o r d i n g t o S t e r n , the major f a c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g c h o i c e of an a p p r o p r i a t e c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n t e c h n i q u e i s the degree of p e r c e i v e d i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e between the p a r t i e s ( i n Minnery 1985, 143). For example, the use of s u p e r o r d i n a t e g o a l s i s a p p r o p r i a t e where t h e r e i s a h i g h degree of i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e ; b a r g a i n i n g i s more a p p r o p r i a t e where the i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e i s low. LaTour et a l . s t u d i e d "the p r e f e r e n c e s of i n d i v i d u a l s i n c o n f l i c t f o r d i f f e r e n t d i s p u t e r e s o l u t i o n p r o c e d u r e s a r r a n g e d a l o n g a continuum of d e c r e a s i n g t h i r d p a r t y i n t e r v e n t i o n i n the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s " (1976, 349). They found t h a t the average person would most p r e f e r a r b i t r a t i o n , f o l l o w e d by the moot, m e d i a t i o n , and b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e d u r e s . The environment of the c o n f l i c t , however, has an i n f l u e n c e on p r e f e r e n c e s . I f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the p a r t i e s i s c o r r e s p o n d e n t (the p a r t i e s 158 share i n any g a i n s or l o s s e s ) , t h e r e i s no s t a n d a r d and no time p r e s s u r e " p r e f e r e n c e s s h i f t toward i n c r e a s e d d i s p u t a n t c o n t r o l over the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s " ( 1 9 7 6 , 349). S i m i l a r l y , when t h e r e i s time p r e s s u r e , t h e r e i s a s t a n d a r d a v a i l a b l e and outcomes a r e non c o r r e s p o n d e n t , ( g a i n s f o r one p a r t y mean l o s s e s f o r the o t h e r ) the p r e f e r e n c e i s f o r t h i r d p a r t y i n t e r v e n t i o n . 159 APPENDIX 4: TERMS OF REFERENCE FOR BEAK CONSULTANTS' WATER  QUALITY STUDY Burnaby s e t the f o l l o w i n g terms of r e f e r e n c e f o r the st u d y of methods t o m a i n t a i n and enhance the water q u a l i t y of Deer Lake f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s : " 1 ) Recommend a p r i o r i z e d water q u a l i t y improvement program f o r Deer Lake w i t h c o s t e s t i m a t e s 2) Examine i n d e t a i l the impact of the Deer Lake Park development concept on the water q u a l i t y of Deer Lake w i t h p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e t o : a) d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the p r e s e n t r o l e i n n u t r i e n t dynamics of the d r a i n e d marshland a t the western end of the l a k e . The p r o p o s a l t o c r e a t e ponds and water gardens s h o u l d be e v a l u a t e d a g a i n s t the r o l e of the marshland as a n u t r i e n t t r a p or donor b) recommend an a l t e r n a t i v e concept f o r the western end of the l a k e i f n e c e s s a r y c) i f the ponds and water gardens a r e c o n s i d e r e d a p p r o p r i a t e w i l l s i g n i f i c a n t e n g i n e e r i n g p r o c e d u r e s be r e q u i r e d t o implement the p r o p o s a l ' a s c o n c e i v e d d) recommend methods of m i n i m i z i n g any p o t e n t i a l n u t r i e n t i n p u t a r i s i n g out of the development of the O a k a l l a l a n d s as a park 3) Recommend measures t h a t c o u l d be undertaken t o improve Deer Lake as a h a b i t a t f o r f i s h 4) Recommend methods of m i n i m i z i n g p o l l u t a n t s e n t e r i n g Deer Lake from i t s watershed 5) The above items must be a n a l y z e d and p r e s e n t e d i n s u f f i c i e n t d e t a i l t o p e r m i t the commencement of park development w i t h o u t b e i n g d e t r i m e n t a l t o the water q u a l i t y of Deer Lake" (Beak 1981, 1-4, 1-5) 

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