Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Incentives for activism in a moribund political party : the case of the BC Liberals So, Robyn Ann 1988

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1988_A8 S59.pdf [ 3.69MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0097805.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0097805-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0097805-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0097805-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0097805-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0097805-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0097805-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0097805-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0097805.ris

Full Text

INCENTIVES FOR ACTIVISM  IN A MORIBUND P O L I T I C A L PARTY:  THE CASE OF THE BC LIBERALS By ROBYN ANN SO B.A., M c G i l l  University,  1986  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER  OF ARTS  in  THE FACULTY  OF GRADUATE  STUDIES  Department o f P o l i t i c a l  Science  We a c c e p t to  this  thesis  the required  THE UNIVERSITY  as  standard  OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  O c t o b e r 1988 (cj  conforming  Robyn Ann So  OF  In  presenting  degree freely  at  this  the  available  copying  of  department publication  of  in  partial  fulfilment  of  the  University  of  British  Columbia,  I  agree  for  this or  thesis  reference  thesis by  this  for  his  and  study.  scholarly  or  thesis  for  her  I  purposes  financial  gain  of  f°OL ! TIC A L-  T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f British Vancouver, Canada  Date  DE-6 (2/88)  Oc^ro^&K  Sci  Columbia  lb  t  e/VC  £•  shall  that  agree  may  representatives.  permission.  Department  further  requirements  It not  be is  that  the  Library  permission  granted  by  understood be  for  allowed  an  advanced  shall for  the that  without  head  make  it  extensive of  my  copying  or  my  written  ABSTRACT  This British  thesis explains  why  i n d i v i d u a l s are  Columbia L i b e r a l P a r t y ,  a viable force  i n BC  What a r e  motivations  their  that govern  politics  them, g i v e n  following  and  the  considering  using  approach p o s i t s f i r s t , independent o f , political it  inability  psychological Using  on,  and  Analysis  convention,  the  would not  the  party's  party  provincial  that and  i n party  are  realists the  activity,  I demonstrated  influences  party.  other  there  Paradoxically,  involved.  Liberal  factors  t o reward i t s  analysis i s This  dependent on,  being  elected.  BC  and  Second, gain  Liberal  I demonstrate that  f i t i n any  reveals  party.  most i n v o l v e d least  of  i d e o l o g i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n and  activists—optimists of  i t s goal  a v a r i e t y of m o t i v a t i o n s  also  the  i n c e n t i v e s a r i s e from b o t h p e r s o n a l  independent of,  activists  election.  ends, i n c l u d i n g i t s  s u r v e y d a t a c o l l e c t e d from the  by  distinct  i n c e n t i v e s are  as  and  needs.  leadership  inspired  The  the  finished  t h e o r e t i c a l approach.  L i b e r a l Party's  p r i n c i p l e s and  posits their  1987  the  that  1975  i n c e n t i v e s , and  party's  a two-pronged  i t was  the  w o r k e r s i n terms of w i n n i n g e l e c t i o n s ? conducted  active in  the  that are ends.  Party  activists  both dependent  Due  to  their  purposive concerns, provincial two  party.  the  future  l e a s t o p t i m i s t i c are the  most h o p e f u l  that closeness  realists'  the  g r o u p s of L i b e r a l  regarding  and  are  activism  t o the in  the  success the are  the  federal  The e x i s t i n g  l i t e r a t u r e on i n c e n t i v e s f o r p o l i t i c a l  a c t i v i s m tends to focus on patronage, r e l a t e d concerns, candidates.  ideology and  party-  such as p o l i c y , i s s u e s , leaders and  As such, i t diminishes the importance of  p s y c h o l o g i c a l motivations.  This t h e s i s found  the  latter  played an e q u a l l y powerful  r o l e i n governing  political  In t h i s regard, t h i s t h e s i s  party a c t i v i s m .  motivations f o r  c o n t r i b u t e d to a more comprehensive understanding ac t i v i s m .  party  has  of party  i v TABLE DF CONTENTS  page Abstract  i i  Table of Contents  iv  L i s t of Tables  v  Acknowledgements  vi  Introduction  1  Methodology  6  1  Decline and F a l l  9  2  Theory P o l i t i c a l Party L i t e r a t u r e Psychology L i t e r a t u r e  27 27 35  3  Incentives f o r A c t i v i s m I d e o l o g i c a l Commitment Loyalty P o l i c y O r i e n t a t i o n s and Opinion  44 46 47 55  4  Dimensions  Optimism and A c t i v i s m A Winning Party Sources of Optimism Optimism and A c t i v i s m  65 66 68 75  Conclusion  79  Bibliography  83  Appendix  BB  I  Appendix 11  89  V  L I S T DF TABLES  page 3.1  A t t i t u d e s Toward Government R e g u l a t i o n  by P a r t y  61  3.2  A t t i t u d e s Toward Government S p e n d i n g  by P a r t y  62  3.3  A t t i t u d e D i f f e r e n c e s Among A c t i v i s t s  by P a r t y  63  vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  Many thanks go t o P r o f e s s o r s Ken a n d E l a i n e C a r t y f o r e n c o u r a g i n g me t o f i n i s h a s e x p e d i t i o u s l y as p o s s i b l e , and I am e s p e c i a l l y g r a t e f u l f o r t h e k i n d n e s s they have shown me. I a l s o thank: Kathy Denton, who came up w i t h t h e i d e a i n the f i r s t p l a c e ; Donald B l a k e , f o r h i s h e l p f u l s u g g e s t i o n s ; Ramesh, f o r h i s g o o d - n a t u r e d e d i t o r i a l comments; N e i l S u t h e r l a n d , who r e s c u e d me from t h e SPSS quagmire w i t h p a t i e n c e beyond t h e c a l l o f d u t y . I thank my f e l l o w c l a s s m a t e s cum S o f t b a l l aficionados g i v i n g me t h e i n f i e l d p e r s p e c t i v e on l i f e a s a g r a d u a t e student. F i n a l l y , a s p e c i a l t h a n k s goes t o my p a r e n t s f o r t h e i r moral s u p p o r t and encouragement, and most i m p o r t a n t l y , f o r always b e i n g t h e r e . T h i s i s f o r them, w i t h l o v e .  for  1  INTRODUCTION  You have to believe. It's not a matter of kidding yourself. You have to believe you're winning. If you can't do that, you can't win.  — R i c h a r d H a t f i e l d , a f t e r h i s party's c o l l a p s e Prospects f o r a r e v e r s a l BC L i b e r a l Party are bleak.  i n the e l e c t o r a l Since the 1952  fortunes of the  debacle, when they  l o s t o f f i c e to the S o c i a l C r e d i t Party, t h e i r p o p u l a r i t y has steadily declined: 1975  e l e c t i o n and  t h e i r e l e c t o r a l support c o l l a p s e d i n the  then disappeared  i n 1979.  Despite t h i s  end,  the party has gained f u l l y 43 per cent of i t s c u r r e n t a c t i v i s t s s i n c e 1979.  On  the other hand, 40 per cent of  a c t i v e party members j o i n e d over 15 years ago when the party could p l a u s i b l y be perceived as a v i a b l e e l e c t o r a l  force.  In  the face of c o n t i n u i n g p r o v i n c i a l d e f e a t s , what u n d e r l i e s the motivations of the L i b e r a l s ' c o n t i n u i n g enthusiasm, in t h e i r who  lengthy party involvement?  reflected  As f o r the former,  those  have j o i n e d more r e c e n t l y , what motivates them to j o i n a  party whose experience of governing experience of most B r i t i s h  i s beyond the memory and  Columbians?  1  Suggested by Donald E. Blake, "The Consistency of Inconsistency: Party I d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l x  Politics,"  695.  Canadian  Journal  of Political  Science,  15  (19B2),  2 T h e r e a r e a v a r i e t y of a p p r o a c h e s t o the s t u d y political  party  activism.  analysed  the  both the  o r g a n i z a t i o n of  hand, examined and  of  the  its  of  exploratory classified  with  of  the  other  political  i n c e n t i v e s on  motives that l e a d e r and of  the  Clark  paper which  i n c e n t i v e s they  "govern  instability  and  3  members of  Wilson  of  used  an  essentially  f o u n d , and  r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o the ends and  organizations. This  various  on  to c o n t r o l i t s w o r k e r s .  leadership.*  approach i n t h e i r the  about t h e i r  Party  the^ e l e c t o r a l  i n c e n t i v e s t o the  party  concerned  i n c e n t i v e s on  Sorauf,  2  the c h a n g i n g n a t u r e  political was  of  p a r t i e s and  as a p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n  the C o n s e r v a t i v e  those  types  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a p a r t y  party,"  hand, R a p o p o r t e t a l .  choose to p u r s u e .  both the u t i l i t y  In c o n t r a s t , P e r l i n support  political  the e f f e c t s o f  the a b i l i t y  the one  c o n s e q u e n c e s of v a r i o u s  strategies activists  party  On  of  hypothesized  means of  s  thesis,  r a i s e d by  however, w i l l  Payne and  address questions  Woshinsky  (1972), who  similar  to  asked:  Why a r e p e o p l e i n p o l i t i c s ? . . . A s a t i s f a c t o r y u n d e r s t a n d i n g of p o l i t i c a l m o t i v a t i o n can p r o v i d e p o w e r f u l a n a l y t i c a l t o o l f o r e x p l a i n i n g why  a  R o n a l d B. R a p o p o r t , e t a l . , The Life of the Parties ( L e x i n g t o n : The U n i v . P r e s s of K e n t u c k y , 1986), e s p . p a r t s and f o u r . =  3  System  two  Frank J . S o r a u f , Political Parties in the American ( T o r o n t o : L i t t l e , Brown & Co., 1964), 60-97.  •* George C. P e r l i n , U n i v . P r e s s , 1980). * P e t e r B. Organizations," 129-166.  The  Tory  Syndrome  (Montreal:  Queen's  C l a r k , e t a l . , " I n c e n t i v e Systems: A T h e o r y Administrative Science Quarterly, 6 (1961),  of  3 d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s o f p a r t i c i p a n t s behave a s they do; u l t i m a t e l y i t can s u g g e s t why t h e y adopt and s u s t a i n different p o l i t i c a l i n s t i tutions . In o t h e r  words, i t s e e k s t o e x p l a i n  Liberals  in British  are  Columbia  the motivations  Liberal  i s widely  others,  (BC). Stated  a n o t h e r way, what  or incentives f o r activism  i n t h e BC  Party?  This question party  t h e a c t i v i s m o f BC  i s particularly  perceived  maintains  i n t e r e s t i n g because t h e  t o be moribund.  S o r a u f , among  that  i f t h e p a r t y i s t o c o n t i n u e f u n c t i o n i n g a s an o r g a n i z a t i o n i t must make 'payments' i n an a c c e p t a b l e ' p o l i t i c a l c u r r e n c y ' adequate t o m o t i v a t e and a l l o c a t e t h e l a b o r s o f i t s w o r k e r s . 7  And  he  continues:  F o r t h e p a r t y t o m a i n t a i n i t s reward system and p r o d u c e p a y o f f s on i t , i t must win elections...Even t h o s e s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l rewards depend u l t i m a t e l y on t h e p a r t y ' s m a i n t a i n i n g s t a t u s , v o t e r c l i e n t e l e , and t h e e x h i l a r a t i o n o f v i c t o r y [emphasis added]. s  This  implies  reward  that  i f a party  does n o t win e l e c t i o n s , i t c a n n o t  i t s w o r k e r s which, i n t u r n ,  incentives  for activism  A pertinent  i n that  question  precludes  t o ask, t h e r e f o r e , given  i s why does i t s i n a b i l i t y to  i t s w o r k e r s i n terms o f w i n n i n g e l e c t i o n s ?  they n o t w o r k i n g  or  party.  anybody work f o r t h e BC L i b e r a l P a r t y , reward  motivations  f o r the S o c i a l C r e d i t Party  Why a r e  o r t h e New  James L. Payne and O l i v e r H. Woshinsky, " I n c e n t i v e s f o r P o l i t i c a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n , " Mor Id Polities', 24 (1972), p. .518.. 7  B  Sorauf, Ibid.,  op. cit., 81. 89-90.  4 Democratic Party, e l e c t i o n s and is  reward  that winning  other  both of which a r e  assumption posit  an  t h e i r workers?  i s not  motivations.  much more l i k e l y  as  One  important  If t h i s  i s untenable.  possible  i s correct,  then  However, i t would  be  s p i t e of  the  the  party  future.  This  using will  thesis will  a two-pronged be  t h a t BC  L i b e r a l a c t i v i s t s are  that are  the  ends.  both p e r s o n a l strategic,  b o t h dependent on,  and  psychological  whereas p s y c h o l o g i c a l  o r enhancement of s e l f - e s t e e m , values  and  and  existing the  in  explanations, main  argument  a variety  independent  needs.  Personal  needs i n v o l v e as  their  h i s t o r y of  emphasizes i t s u n v i a b i l i t y  l i t e r a t u r e on  s e l f - k n o w l e d g e and Explanations  political  party  activism  and  and  for activism  chapters.  the  of  of,  gain  is  maintenance  beliefs,  f u t u r e s u c c e s s as  will  concluded  and  i s the  activism  i n the  in  A s u r v e y of  focus  examined  both  of C h a p t e r in  of Two.  the  explore  Chapter Four  optimism  incentives.  Liberal  cognitive theories  motivations.  activism  party's  that  on  are  BC  illustrated  Chapter Three w i l l  evaluative  analyze federal party  as  the  parties.  self-deception  posited  two  ideological  be  and  in  i n c e n t i v e s a r i s e from  as w e l l  h i g h l i g h t s the  l i t e r a t u r e on  following  The  win  to  attitudes.  C h a p t e r One Party  will  i n s p i r e d by  Essentially, their  gain  believe,  these  t h e o r e t i c a l approach.  motivations party's  a d d r e s s both of  are  justifiable  activists  that  as  Sorauf's  the  reality,  win  explanation  to these a c t i v i s t s  alternative explanation: present  to  will  i n the p r o v i n c i a l  From t h i s a n a l y s i s , i t BC  L i b e r a l Party  is  5 governed  by a v a r i e t y o f a f f e c t i v e ,  e v a l u a t i v e and m a t e r i a l  incentives. Undoubtedly, activism  is  As B e r n s t e i n and Dyer n o t e ,  Human b e h a v i o r  property.'"*  Therefore,  incomplete behavior."  institutions  in a single  any e x p l a n a t i o n  the discovery  o f f e r e d by t h i s  However, a s B e r n s t e i n and of those  t h a t advances o u r knowledge o f human  forpolitical  t h i s aspect  is a particular the BC L i b e r a l province  i n a complex  W h i l e many a s s u m p t i o n s have been made about  1 0  motivations  o f human  " I t i s the accumulation  explanations  live  c o n s t r a i n t s preclude  i s i n h e r e n t l y incomplete.  Dyer a l s o o b s e r v e d ,  Party i n  "We  by t h e v a r i a t i o n  Time and o t h e r  of a l l o f them.  on  and t h e b e h a v i o r  almost never e x p l a i n e d  thesis  of explanations f o r  i n g e n e r a l , and f o r t h e BC L i b e r a l  particular. world.  there are a multitude  party a c t i v i s m , empirical  of party cadres dearth Party,  forfifty  i s comparatively  research  recent.  There  o f e m p i r i c a l a n a l y s i s on a c t i v i s t s i n an i m p o r t a n t  years.  political  f o r c e i n our  T h i s t h e s i s attempts  to f i l l  these  gaps.  * R o b e r t A. B e r n s t e i n and James A. Dyer, An Introduction to Political Science Methods, 2nd e d . (New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e H a l l , 1984), 14. 1  0  Ibid.,  15.  6  METHODOLOGY  The of  data  delegates  provincial  analyzed who  in this  attended  Liberal  the l e a d e r s h i p convention  p r o h i b i t s v o t i n g on p o l i c y  leadership convention,  the d e l e g a t e s  a new  The  total  as t h e d e l e g a t e s number  of r e g i s t e r e d  by p o s t .  being  of the The  issues at a  there f o r the s o l e  by a group o f  registered  political  a t the c o n v e n t i o n .  delegates  224 o u t o f which n i n e t y c o m p l e t e d were r e t u r n e d  survey  leader.  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were d i s t r i b u t e d scientists  from a  P a r t y on t h e 1987 H a l l o w e e n weekend.  party's constitution  purpose of e l e c t i n g  paper i s d e r i v e d  1  a t the convention  and u s a b l e  Our r e t u r n r a t e was,  was  questionnaires t h e r e f o r e , 40 per  cent. This survey  f o c u s on t h e d a t a  o f t h e BC L i b e r a l  delegates. delegates  Party's  generated  leadership  However, f o r c o m p a r i s o n  purposes,  by t h e  convention the surveys of  a t t h e 1986 and 1987 l e a d e r s h i p c o n v e n t i o n s  The p r i n c i p a l i n v e s t i g a t o r s were R.K. M i c h a e l A. Mayer, Tony S a y e r s . 1  So,  thesis will  of the  C a r t y , Robyn A.  7 provincial  Social  respectively facilitated  will  C r e d i t and New a l s o be u s e d .  to p o l i c i e s ,  both  candidates  i s recognized  an e l i t e  First,  2  Comparison o f t h e s e  because t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s d i s t r i b u t e d  t h r e e p a r t i e s were i d e n t i c a l  It  Democratic P a r t i e s  to a l l  f o r some q u e s t i o n s  related  and l e a d e r s .  that i n general,  and a t y p i c a l  activists  except  data i s  stratum  distinguish  party a c t i v i s t s are  of the p o p u l a t i o n  i n BC.  t h e m s e l v e s from t h e e l e c t o r a t e by  v i r t u e o f h o l d i n g a c t i v e membership i n a p o l i t i c a l  party.  Second, [ w h i l e ] p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y a c t i v i s t s can be e x p e c t e d t o r e f l e c t many of t h e same d i s t i n g u i s h i n g s o c i o economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as t h e e l e c t o r a l base o f t h e i r p a r t i e s . . . they a l s o , however, tend t o be drawn i n p a r t from p a r t i c u l a r c l a s s e s o f s o c i e t y which p o s s e s s c e r t a i n p r e r e q u i s i t e p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l resources. 3  Thus, we a r e s p e a k i n g  o f a group t h a t has both  economic s t a t u s and more e d u c a t i o n  than  higher  socio-  the general  popu1ation. It  i s also recognized  bias i n survey  research  that there  i s an i n h e r e n t  because d e l e g a t e s  who  response  trouble  t h e m s e l v e s t o c o m p l e t e and r e t u r n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s These d a t a were made a v a i l a b l e by Donald B l a k e o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. P r o f e s s o r B l a k e b e a r s no r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e use made o f them i n t h i s t h e s i s . For d e t a i l s o f t h e i r s u r v e y s , s e e Donald E . B l a k e , R.K. C a r t y and Lynda E r i c k s o n , " R a t i f i c a t i o n o r R e p u d i a t i o n : The S o c i a l C r e d i t L e a d e r s h i p C o n v e n t i o n , " a paper p r e s e n t e d a t t h e a n n u a l meeting o f t h e C a n a d i a n P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e A s s o c i a t i o n , H a m i l t o n , O n t a r i o , 1987. 2  Norman J . R u f f , "A P r o f i l e o f B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l P a r t y A c t i v i s t s : P r e l i m i n a r y A n a l y s i s of Three C o n v e n t i o n s , November 1973, u n p u b l i s h e d d r a f t , U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a , n.d. 3  8 distinguish doing  so.  t h e m s e l v e s from the g e n e r a l In a d d i t i o n , a c t i v i s t s  leadership convention  are a d i f f e r e n t  activist  pool  that  respondents are e i t h e r  the  from which they  activists  or simply  represent  those  makers and  the  their  most  activists  and  the  population  choose to attend group than  a r e drawn.  One  have s t r o n g e r  opinions.  by  a  the l a r g e r  may  speculate  the most committed  of  the  Because they  also  l i k e l y to i n f l u e n c e p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n -  party's platform,  activism will  who  delegate  improve our  p a r t i e s they  investigating understanding  work f o r .  the c a u s e s o f of  the n a t u r e  of  9  Chapter  1  DECLINE AND  FALL  Antagonism toward the L i b e r a l Party i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s as o l d as the province. 1878,  George Walkam and  Upon r e - e l e c t i o n as premier i n  h i s government passed  a secessionist  r e s o l u t i o n d i s p l a y i n g t h e i r i r e against the L i b e r a l government's i n t r a n s i g e n c e regarding railway c o n s t r u c t i o n on Vancouver I s l a n d .  The p r o v i n c i a l government did not f o l l o w  through with the r e s o l u t i o n i n the wake of  Alexander  MacKenzie's L i b e r a l government defeat i n Ottawa.  The  Conservatives were returned to o f f i c e and r e l a t i o n s between B r i t i s h Columbia and Ottawa improved. P r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n s were not fought e i t h e r with disciplined  p a r t i e s or under party l a b e l s u n t i l  the government and  1903.  Rather,  i t s o p p o s i t i o n were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the  composite p r i n c i p l e .  That i s to say, they were composed of  federal L i b e r a l s and Conservatives, whether MPs and of non-partisan supporters.  Alignments  were personal  temporary as they were d i c t a t e d by personal and i n t e r e s t s i r r e s p e c t i v e of party l a b e l .  or a c t i v i s t s , and  business  According  to Robin,  10 "The  members of parliament  attached  returned were l o c a l  l o b b y i s t s who  themselves to the f e d e r a l bandwagon and  patronage necessary  received the  to assure t h e i r f u r t h e r e l e c t i o n . "  the f e d e r a l bandwagon was,  with one exception,  Since  Conservative  during t h i s period, the majority of MLAs were C o n s e r v a t i v e s . The  present p r o v i n c i a l party system had  the growing disenchantment with "Turnerism" scandal-ridden governments.  i t s genesis in and  2  successive  An a d d i t i o n a l major f a c t o r  the i n s t a b i l i t y of governments.  was  Members crossed the f l o o r at  w i l l and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with t h i s system peaked a f t e r province experienced  1  the  four d i f f e r e n t governments i n four years.  Neither i n s t a b i l i t y nor the s e c t a r i a n i s m inherent i n t h i s system was  conducive  to the province's economic development.  . . . i n d u s t r i a l promoters, whether i n the mining, railway, f i s h i n g or lumber i n d u s t r i e s , were r e l u c t a n t to i n v e s t f o r f e a r of changed c o n d i t i o n s . Railway c o n t r a c t s were made and unmade, mining laws passed and a l t e r e d . Investments could not be planned and undertaken where the l e g a l environment was not p r e d i c t a b l e . . . The primary f u n c t i o n of government, in the eyes of the company owners and t h e i r agents, was to p r o t e c t p r i v a t e property and provide a s t a b l e investment c l i m a t e . . . 3  Martin Robin, 7"ne Rush for Spoils and Stewart, 1972), B. 1  (Toronto:  McClelland  According to R.E. G o s n e l l , A History of B r i t i s h Columbia, Part 2, B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , Vancouver and V i c t o r i a , 1913, 143; quoted i n Robin, Ibid., 678, Turnerism meant " f a v o r i t i s m , a lax c i v i l s e r v i c e , extravagance i n the expenditure of p u b l i c money, looseness of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ... i n c r e a s i n g indebtedness, encouragement of s p e c u l a t o r s and promoters at the expense of p u b l i c a s s e t s , recklessness i n railway c h a r t e r s and subventions, lack of d e f i n i t e and comprehensive p o l i c i e s , non-sympathy with labour a s p i r a t i o n s and everything e l s e that might be chargeable against the government which had been f o r a long time i n power." =  3  Robin, Ibid.,  85.  11 A l s o of growing the s o c i a l i s t a  c o n c e r n t o company owners and  movement which was  increasingly  MLAs a l i k e perceived  was t o be  threat.-* In 1901,  Association  the E x e c u t i v e of t h e B r i t i s h  "declared  that  t h e o n l y way  d i s t u r b a n c e s and d i f f i c u l t i e s lines frankly  in provincial  was  principle  and  resolution  at their  McBride,  cabinet,  he composed  Liberal  existing party  Joseph Martin,  with a  c o n v e n t i o n i n the F a l l  dissolved  and  t o be f o u g h t by d i s c i p l i n e d  this  similar  of t h a t y e a r .  P r i o r ' s c o m p o s i t e government  i t entirely  chosen  c o n v e n t i o n , adopted  l e a d e r o f t h e o p p o s i t i o n , was  then a d j o u r n e d , was first  1902  0  the C o n s e r v a t i v e s f o l l o w e d  C o n s e q u e n t l y , when E.G. Richard  t o end  t o adopt Dominion  politics."  leader of the L i b e r a l s a t t h e i r  Columbia  fell  asked  of C o n s e r v a t i v e s .  t o form a The  the ensuing e l e c t i o n p a r t i e s under  and  House was  federal  the  party  labels. The n e x t t h i r t y p a r t y s y s t e m and during  this  y e a r s w i t n e s s e d t h e development  the b u i l d i n g  period,  o f p a r t y machines.  The  however, were n o t d i f f e r e n t i a t e d  of a  two-  parties by  "* See, among o t h e r s , E d i t h D o b i e , " P a r t y H i s t o r y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , " Historical Essays on British Columbia, eds. J . F r i e s e n and H.K. R a l s t o n , The C a r l e t o n L i b r a r y , No. 96 ( T o r o n t o : Gage P u b l i s h i n g , 1980), 72 and Donald B l a k e , 7"wo Political Worlds ( V a n c o u v e r : The U n i v . o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r e s s , 1985), c h . 2. Canadian , 82. s  cit.  Annual  Review,  1903,  214;  quoted  i n Robin,  op.  12 ideology or p o l i c y observed  principles.*'  Indeed, B r i t t o n  Cooke  that  Those c l u b s which they a r e p l e a s e d t o c a l l C o n s e r v a t i v e C l u b s a r e as i n n o c e n t of r e a l C o n s e r v a t i v e p r i n c i p l e s as a Siwash b r a v e i n l i q u o r . They would n o t know o f f h a n d whether t h e i r p o l i t i c a l a n c e s t o r s were Round Heads o r C a v a l i e r s . They a r e T o r y n e i t h e r by t r a d i t i o n nor p r i n c i p l e — o n l y by p r a c t i c e on p o l l i n g day. Were M c B r i d e L i b e r a l , she would be L i b e r a l , were he S o c i a l i s t e v e n , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n s would r e t u r n a S o c i a l i s t M.L.A. 7  Campaigns were "a b a t t l e  between i n s and  relating  to a d m i n i s t r a t i v e g o v e r n m e n t . "  almost  T h e r e was  entirely  no o t h e r  p u b l i c ' s mind.  d i f f e r e n c e between t h e p a r t i e s  Neither  party could avoid  o r a c c u s a t i o n s of p a t r o n a g e and severe  consequences f o r both  Unlike elected  public,  as L i b e r a l  t h e r e was Province  the  parties  in  however, T.D.  Premier  i n 1933,  f i r s t suggested  a coalition  e f f e c t i v e means of d e a l i n g w i t h  issues  in  the t a i n t  corruption.  3  the of  scandal  T h i s would  have  1952.  Pattullo,  who  was  passionately believed  a d i f f e r e n c e between the two  Depression,  outs, with  parties.  When  the  government as a more  the c r i s i s  he a d a m a n t l y r e j e c t e d i t .  b r o u g h t on  Some r e a s o n s  by  the  were  ** D o b i e , op. cit., 70 argued t h a t "An e x a m i n a t i o n o f p a r t y p l a t f o r m s , r e s o l u t i o n s of l o c a l and p r o v i n c i a l A s s o c i a t i o n s , s p e e c h e s from the t h r o n e , d e b a t e s i n t h e l e g i s l a t u r e r e v e a l a l m o s t c o m p l e t e agreement between L i b e r a l s and C o n s e r v a t i v e s both i n t h e o r y and i n p o l i c i e s . " B r i t t o n Cooke, "The S t a t e c r a f t of R i c h a r d M c B r i d e , " Canadian Collier's, March 8, 1913, 12; q u o t e d i n R o b i n , op. cit., 131. 7  V a n c o u v e r Province, J u l y 21, 1928; q u o t e d i n Don A l p e r , "From R u l e t o R u i n : The C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1928-1954," u n p u b l i s h e d Ph.D. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1975, 44. e  13 strategic.  Others,  progressive,  reform-oriented  philosophically doctrine. Eastern on  however, were i d e o l o g i c a l .  and f u n d a m e n t a l l y  and b u s i n e s s  had a  i d e o l o g y which he b e l i e v e d t o be opposed  Whereas t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e s  wealth  Pattullo  to the Conservative  exclusively  interests,  represented  " L i b e r a l s were a l w a y s  t h e s i d e o f humanity and a g a i n s t t h e p u r e d o l l a r s and c e n t s  viewpoint.'"*  " T r u l y may i t be s a i d , "  Pattullo  declared,  t h a t the L i b e r a l P a r t y i s a 'no-party' p a r t y . I t knows o f no c l a s s d i s t i n c t i o n s , and i t s p r i n c i p l e s i n v i t e e v e r y o n e o f e v e r y walk o f l i f e t o t h e i r support...Liberalism...stands f o r the p r o t e c t i o n of the w e l f a r e o f a l l from t h e m i s u s e o f power f o r any p a r t i c u l a r group o r c l a s s and t h a t t h e w e l f a r e o f t h e community a s a whole s h a l l p r e d o m i n a t e . 1 0  In k e e p i n g  with  Convention  endorsed  of  this  i d e o l o g y , t h e 1932 L i b e r a l the p r i n c i p l e  a l l c l a s s e s and a l l c r e e d s  common ground o f f a i r had  little  sympathy  t h a t t h e p a r t y was "a u n i o n  who can j o i n  together  p l a y , e q u a l i t y and j u s t i c e . "  f o r the p l i g h t  which had been disowned  by b o t h  Associating  with  p a r t y , R.B.  'such  i t w i t h waste m a t e r i a l . ' "  quoted  T.D. P a t t u l l o , P r i n c e R u p e r t News, A p r i l i n R o b i n , op. cit., 256. T.D. P a t t u l l o , 250. Vancouver  Party,  Bennett. "would  b r a i n s and c o u r a g e a s we may have by  mixing  1 1  Pattullo  the Conservatives, declared P a t t u l l o ,  have been t o d i l u t e  Ibid.,  1 1  t h e BC C o n s e r v a t i v e  and t h e l e a d e r o f t h e f e d e r a l  0  on t h e  of the Conservative  Association  1  Party  Victoria  1 3  Times, J u l y  20, 1933;  2, 1932; q u o t e d i n  Sun, O c t o b e r 4, 1932; q u o t e d  i n Ibid.,  251.  R o b i n , Ibid., 250; q u o t i n g T.D. P a t t u l l o t o G.H. S a l l a n s , J u l y 25, 1932, Pattullo Papers, P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia. 1  2  14 The  Liberal  p l a t f o r m , "Work and  e l e c t o r a t e demanding r e f o r m  Wages," a p p e a l e d  i n the f a c e of  t o an  spiralling  unemployment, wage r e d u c t i o n s , d e c r e a s i n g p r o d u c t i o n and  little  unemployment r e l i e f .  his  p a r t y was  P a t t u l l o ' s reassurances  a g a i n s t e x p r o p r i a t i o n and  direct  the economy, worked t o p l a c e the L i b e r a l s of  r e a c t i o n a r y c o n s e r v a t i s m and  undermined  the popular appeal  Pattullo's  tactic,  in  1933.  socialism  The  Liberal  and  capitalism  the  They g a i n e d of  32  and  the p a r t y w h i l e  although  seven  CCF  In  of minor  by  y e a r s up  re-attained  3  an end  t o World War  the D e p r e s s i o n .  because t h e CCF  ?-  parties  Suggested  left  to  the on  end a  seen  official  i n t h e 1941  I I , the  Liberal the  suffering  Subsequent e l e c t i o n s a f f i r m e d  first  by A l p e r , op.  109.  to debate  to a l l e v i a t e  i n 1933,  did either  election. cit.,  primarily  o p p o s i t i o n s t a t u s and  more of the p o p u l a r v o t e than  *•+ Ibid.,  the  c a n d i d a t e s were s e n t  and  i t s promise  to the  traditional  ostensibly  1  the r e a l i g n m e n t  garnered  was  issues. *  government made good on on  Party  between  In s p i t e of  1 3  and  trumpeting  per c e n t of the p o p u l a r v o t e , s i g n a l i n g  the ensuing  brought  CCF  t h e p a r t y became t h e o f f i c i a l o p p o s i t i o n .  a n o n - i d e o l o g i c a l p a r t y system  narrow range  It  f o r the L i b e r a l  the e l e c t i o n  ideologies.  extremes  founded  p l a t f o r m b r i d g e d t h e gap  against socialism,  legislature,  between the  of t h e r e c e n t l y  that  management of  communism.  assured v i c t o r y  a c o n t e s t between the two vitriol  radical  of d e n o u n c i n g  the v i r t u e s of h i s own,  levels  88-9.  The  of  the  Liberal  Party,  15 in  c o n t r a s t , watched  by  10  per c e n t o v e r  their  s h a r e of  t h e two  the p o p u l a r  elections.  Their  vote  decrease  reform  programme, which i n v o l v e d i n t e r f e r e n c e i n t h e economy social  w e l f a r e of t h e p r o v i n c e , had  c l a s s and in  industrial  the T o r y ' s  moving  p a r t i e s was  g e n u i n e f e a r of s o c i a l i s m the t r a d i t i o n a l appeal  appeared  was  final  Pattullo ideological  It  parties,  partly  and  not a t r a n s i e n t  this  initially associated  of t h e second  phenomenon.  deemed i m p o r t a n t  proposed,  the  of  the  s u p p o r t e r s of  Cooperation tenacious  but  Columbians.  government, however, came War.  t o have a s t a b l e  p e r i o d of n a t i o n a l  ideological  recognition that  among B r i t i s h  World  was  a reflection  t h e i r dawning  impetus f o r a c o a l i t i o n  was  The  among the members and  p o p u l a r i t y of t h e CCF  the o n s e t  during  t o the  t o be a means of c i r c u m v e n t i n g  increasing  from  The  l e f t w a r d to the c e n t r e .  c o n v e r g e n c e of t h e two  The  business  l e d t o a modest i n c r e a s e  vote.  by moving c l o s e r  the  Meanwhile, t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y i t s e l f  pragmatically  its  which  s h a r e of the p o p u l a r  government responded centre.  promoters,  alienated  and  crisis.  A coalition  t h e r e f o r e , to a l l e v i a t e  w i t h a m i n o r i t y government.  government was  problems  S a i d the  Sun,  for  example: The o n l y t h i n g f o r t h e P a t t u l l o government t o do a f t e r y e s t e r d a y ' s e l e c t i o n i s t o seek c o a l i t i o n immediately with the C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y . B.C. does not want, and must n o t have a weak m i n o r i t y government i n w a r t i m e . The p r o v i n c e c a n n o t a f f o r d a new e l e c t i o n and the d e f e a t of the government would mean p r e c i s e l y t h i s . * 1  i  S  Vancouver  Sun,  October  22,  1941;  quoted  i n Ibid.,  194.  16 Although  Pattullo  idea, events  remained adamant i n h i s o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e  c o n s p i r e d t o d e f e a t him.  c a u c u s were i n f a v o u r o f c o a l i t i o n c o n s t i t u e n c y a s s o c i a t i o n s passed leadership convention. Association, called  W.J.  and some L i b e r a l  resolutions calling  Pearson leader.  Pattullo  a general convention  left  p r o t e s t over  the convention  a c o n s p i r a c y of c o a l i t i o n i s t s fired  Hart  i n a desperate,  o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n on  as t h e p a r t y ' s  approach;  Pattullo,  with Hart as t h e i r  l a s t attempt  Pearson's  motion, closed,' Liberal  "then  nomination  immediately  of Hart,  caucus subsequently  agreed  sensing  l e a d e r , had  to r e t a i n  c o n t r o l of members.  someone seconded t h e  someone s h o u t e d ,  and t h e g r e a t c o n v e n t i o n  new  and r e s i g n e d i n  the p a r t y , l e a d i n g t o r e s i g n a t i o n s by MPs and c a u c u s After  was  i n d i s g u s t and George  had r e f u s e d a p o r t f o l i o  Pattullo's unilateral  Liberal  favouring c o a l i t i o n  g o t up and nominated John H a r t Pearson  for a  Knox, P r e s i d e n t o f t h e BC  December 2, and t h e r e , a r e s o l u t i o n passed.  H i s c o l l e a g u e s i n the  'I move  nominations  was p a s t h i s t o r y . " * 1  to support  Hart,  The  leaving  P a t t u l l o no c h o i c e but t o r e s i g n . Here, i t i s o f i n t e r e s t reasons  a s i d e from  his belief  enemies f o r r e j e c t i n g foresaw  disruption  that P a t t u l l o  t h a t t h e y were  coalition  " t h a t the L i b e r a l  organizational  to note  with  ideological  the C o n s e r v a t i v e s .  P a r t y would c o l l a p s e by opposed  had o t h e r  interests  He  through between t h e  John N. S u t h e r l a n d , "T.D. P a t t u l l o as a P a r t y L e a d e r , " u n p u b l i s h e d M.A. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1969, 135; quoted i n Ibid., 205. 1  &  17 federal  and p r o v i n c i a l  electoral  base would  wings and t h a t  be s t o l e n by t h e CCF." " 1  When t h e c o a l i t i o n join,  an i n v i t a t i o n  arguing  was formed  which H a r o l d  that the e x i g e n c i e s  required  an o f f i c i a l  consequences of t h i s were t w o f o l d .  the party's  First,  7  t h e CCF was i n v i t e d t o  Winch, i t s l e a d e r ,  of parliamentary  opposition  reformed  declined  democracy  i n the l e g i s l a t u r e .  f o r the fortunes  The  of the L i b e r a l  as Blake argues,  "the very  e x i s t e n c e of  the CCF a s t h e o f f i c i a l ,  and o n l y ,  s a l i e n c e of the d i v i s i o n  between f r e e e n t e r p r i s e and  socialism..." one  i n BC p o l i t i c s .  factor mitigating against  of L i b e r a l  support  "In s u r v e y i n g  the l i k e l i h o o d  i n BC, and t h i s  this  period  f e a t u r e o f BC's p o l i t i c a l  here.  Second, A l p e r  c l i p p i n g s covering  partisan lines. "  and r e s u l t e d i n an e r o s i o n  identification  policy  and  together debates.  where  anything  T h i s i s known a s t h e  1 S >  between them i n t h e minds o f t h e e l e c t o r a t e .  parties  asserts  the s e s s i o n s of  p a r t i e s d i v i d e d on a major i s s u e a l o n g  convergence e f f e c t  party  of a resurgence  [1942-1945], n o t a s i n g l e i n s t a n c e was found  the c o a l i t i o n resembling  press  r a i s e d the  Ideological polarization i s  1 S  c u l t u r e may have had i t s g e n e s i s that  opposition  Party  was e x a c e r b a t e d  with  of d i f f e r e n c e s The weakening o f  the t r a d i t i o n a l  t a k i n g one s i d e , and t h e CCF t h e o t h e r , i n Thus, when v o t e r s  M a r t i n R o b i n , Pillars S t e w a r t , 1973), 117.  registered their  of Profit  ±  7  i  e  Blake,  Two Political  x  *  Alper,  op. cit., 215.  Worlds,  (Toronto:  protest in  McClelland  op. cit., 17. v  18 1952  a g a i n s t government c o r r u p t i o n , f a c t i o n a l i s m  intransigence, penalized The praised end  of  the L i b e r a l  t o g e t h e r by coalition's  i t as  the  in particular,  harmonious.  engendered  by  But  i n January,  intra-coa1ition  1952.  was  their  of  highest share  would win  election. and  ever  Tory  indeed  had."  Winch  Until  Both p a r t i e s  potentially the p o p u l a r  The  Liberal  that i t s v i c t o r y  the  legislature  were  conflict,  dissatisfaction  i n t r a n s i g e n c e , l e d t o the disbandment o f  c o s t of d i s s o l u t i o n  the 1945  effective;  s e s s i o n s i n the  l e a d e r s h i p changes and  Liberal  were  electorate.  p e r f o r m a n c e was  relatively  coalition  Conservative Parties  "the b e s t government B.C.  t h e war  alleged  and  and  the  perceived that  h i g h ; t h e CCF v o t e y e t , 37.6  had  with  the  gained  per c e n t i n  P a r t y , however, b e l i e v e d i t would  be a t the expense o f  the  Conservatives. But The  the e l e c t i o n  coalition,  from  i n 1951,  to achieve  traditional  1952  anticipating  t r a n s f e r a b l e vote required  of  L i b e r a l s and  but  Credit  victory.  adopted  3 0  the  the t h r e e - p a r t y c o n t e s t  i t s intended  e a c h o t h e r , as w e l l as  Liberal  i t s breakdown, had  p a r t i e s expected  c h o i c e to the S o c i a l  d i d not y i e l d  effect  to a t t r a c t from  d i d not o c c u r . second  t h o s e who  Party.  The  choice  votes  gave t h e i r  first  However, a l t h o u g h  C o n s e r v a t i v e s d i d exchange s u p p o r t ,  the  a large  ° The f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on the 1952 e l e c t i o n i s found i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l i n A l p e r , Ibid., 334-48. F o r an a n a l y s i s on t h e e l e c t o r a t e ' s t r a n s i t i v e o r d e r i n g of p r e f e r e n c e i n the 1952 and 1953 e l e c t i o n , see D a v i d J . E l k i n s , " P o l i t i c s Makes S t r a n g e B e d f e l l o w s : The BC P a r t y System i n the 1952 and 1953 E l e c t i o n s , " BC Studies, no. 30 (Summer 1976), 3-26. =  number o f f i r s t  choice Social  credit  c h o i c e t o t h e CCF, and v i c e v e r s a .  b a l l o t s gave t h e i r On t h e f i r s t  L i b e r a l s g o t 23.5 p e r c e n t o f t h e v o t e Conservatives The  CCF e l e c t e d twenty-one members w i t h  3 1  ballot  The t h i r d  support  count  had a l l o w e d  come o u t ahead o f t h e CCF. parties'  and f o u r s e a t s .  30.8 p e r c e n t o f t h e  C r e d i t e l e c t e d f o u r t e e n members w i t h 27.2 p e r  cent of the v o t e . transferable  count, the  and s i x s e a t s w h i l e t h e  g o t 16.8 p e r c e n t o f t h e v o t e  v o t e and S o c i a l  revealed  the S o c i a l  that the  C r e d i t Party to  As t h e numbers i l l u s t r a t e ,  had s i g n i f i c a n t l y  the o l d  d e c l i n e d and would n o t have  been s u f f i c i e n t  t o win, even i f t h e f i r s t - p a s t - t h e - p o s t  had  The t r a n s f e r a b l e v o t i n g system s e r v e d  been u s e d .  increase The for  t h e magnitude o f t h e i r  vote,  subsequently  electing crossed  L i b e r a l ' s share lost  Party.  the death  The p o s i t i o n  Social  credit  CCF  second c h o i c e s u p p o r t  count  supporters  credit  of the S o c i a l  d i d n o t exchange v o t e s .  tended  party.  T h i s t i m e , CCF  tended  to give t h e i r  David  Alper,  Ibid.,  365.  second  In a d d i t i o n , v o t e r s whose  to  Credit Party  Rather,  t o go t o t h e L i b e r a l s .  gave t h e i r  1  The  Credit Party, i n  c h o i c e i n 1952 had been C o n s e r v a t i v e  =  who  t o s i t a s an Independent.  by t h e e l e c t i o n .  and C o n s e r v a t i v e s  the S o c i a l  knell  They r e c e i v e d one p e r c e n t o f t h e  the f l o o r  and  the S o c i a l  sounded  one member on t h e t h i r d  c o n t r a s t , was s t r e n g t h e n e d  to  only to  o f t h e v o t e d e c l i n e d by two p e r c e n t and t h e y  two s e a t s .  Liberals  system  defeat.  r e s u l t s o f t h e 1953 e l e c t i o n  the Conservative  popular  second  i n 1953.  J.  first  Elkins  choice first choice  suggests  20 that, the  "As  e a r l y as  formation  of  1953,  the  s t r u c t u r e which has system  in recent  I t can  be  characterized  years."  Party's,  suggests that coalition, governed viable  with  the  the  province  such,  i t is ironical  saved  the  set  party.  exception  since  saved  old  line  i n motion  the  party  L i b e r a l s maintained  than  L i b e r a l Party  supporters,  L i b e r a l Party,  discern  provincial  p a r t l y because  1916,  of one  the  Conservative  Alper  dominated  the  five-year  in giving  their  a  period,  appeared  Finally,  3 5 3  one  t o be  a  could  second c h o i c e s  to  i t from u t t e r e l e c t o r a l c o l l a p s e .  considering  p a r t i e s from  that the  "The  coalition  C.C.F. had,  f o r c e s w h i c h l e d t o b o t h of  which  i n the  As had  end,  their  defeats." * 3  The  forces  that  been d i s c u s s e d ,  the  led to t h e i r  f o r c e was  provincial  wings of e a c h p a r t y , The  3  E l k i n s , op.  3  3  Alper,  *  3  Ibid.,  the  ill-will  L i b e r a l Party  3  op. 344.  were many.  c o n v e r g e n c e e f f e c t was  additional  experience.  defeat  cit., cit.,  14. 383.  one  between t h e  stemming d i d not  a  their  Moreover,  they s t i l l  free-enterprise a 1 ternative.  argue t h a t CCF  perhaps  from s e v e r e f a c t i o n a l i s m and  federal  because the  and  the  the  B.C.  the  stronger  suffered  c o m p l e t e break w i t h  the  that  T h i s was  relatively  which had  can  2 =  seen, t h e r e f o r e ,  was  one  'free e n t e r p r i s e versus s o c i a l i s m '  d e g r e e of c r e d i b i l i t y . organization  therefore,  of  As  has  them.  An  federal  from the  and  coalition  experience a  complete  21 separation  as  did  the  Conservatives.  r e l a t i o n s h i p with  the  federal  provincial  party  administrative, wing.  coalition  era  f i n a n c i a l and of  that  followed  by  legislation socialized  no  the  of was  the  issues  and  longer could  polarized  importantly,  Appendix alternative  electorate  the  that  one  of  could  to  the  r i s e of  elites. maintained  merely and  i n a new  party  not  and  the  increasingly  welfare  benefits the  of  salience  electoral  corruption  left  One  liberalism,  social  n a t u r e of  they r e v o l v e  ushered  the  c o a l i t i o n ' s tenure  F i n a l l y , the  between the one  cadre during  p a r t i e s ' c a d r e became  q u e s t i o n s of  free-enterprise  the  the  i t s federal  t o g e t h e r , each party  as  the  and  i n t h e i r demise.  c o a l i t i o n was  affected  c o a l i t i o n had  Credit  the  c o a l i t i o n ' s r e f o r m s and  accustomed  administrative  s u p p o r t of  P a t t u l l o ' s progressive  capitalism.  ideological i n BC;  Third,  moral  their  organizational,  another f a c t o r  t o a decade, the  demoralized.  the  s u p p o r t e r s and  e l i t e s " governed  separate organizations lengthened  party  constituted  must bear i n mind A l t h o u g h the  wing d e t e r i o r a t e d  effectively lost  Alienation  = s  Nevertheless,  of  politics  around scandal.  The  s y s t e m , one  r i g h t , and  end that  more  accommodate more than  one  alternative.  I shows t h a t  the  f o r twenty y e a r s .  government i n 1975,  L i b e r a l Party The  remained  r e — e l e c t i o n of  a  a  viable  Social  however, c l e a r l y d e m o n s t r a t e d  that  F o r a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s of the e f f e c t s of c o a l i t i o n on the f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p , see J u d i t h B. Ward, " F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l R e l a t i o n s i n the L i b e r a l P a r t y , " u n p u b l i s h e d M.A. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1966. 3  0  22 the e l e c t o r a t e no  longer p e r c e i v e d the L i b e r a l  free-enterprise alternative.  Blake e t a l . argue  e l e c t o r a t e underwent a r e a l i g n m e n t o f v o t e r during  t h e 1970s.  public  s e c t o r under S o c i a l  expansion  Basically,  throughout  due  Credit  now  province-wide  electorate. on  The  2  i s another  support  political  prior  95  the S o c i a l  the p o s s i b i l i t y It  i s unlikely  n a t u r e o f BC that  to b u i l d  Party.  and  never  took  long-term retain  a  the  debate  by  the  Party  effects  stable political  against building  This i s reinforced  a base o f  by  the  t h e c u r r e n t major  i n the p r o v i n c e .  economy and  political  l e d t o changes i n  c u l t u r e c o u l d open  f o r a resurgence of L i b e r a l economy i s based  primary e x p o r t s .  society  from  the western  on  popularity.  happening.  and  c o a s t , and  the  He  argues  found  i n the  e a s t e r n Canada will  not i n  future.  * Donald E. B l a k e e t a l . , " S o u r c e s o f Change i n t h e P a r t y System," BC Studies, no. 50 (Summer 1981), 21-6. 58  up  resource  traditionalism  o l d e r s o c i e t i e s of c e n t r a l  root along  Party  Edwin B l a c k s u g g e s t s  precludes this  t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t a r i a n i s m and  comparatively  and  the  entrenchment of a p o l a r i z e d  w h i l e BC's  development and  BC  the  Credit  per c e n t o f  A c o n c a t e n a t i o n of c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h a t the n a t u r e o f BC's  of  t o 1975  f a c t o r s have had  of the l e f t - r i g h t  parties  and  factor mitigating  f o r the L i b e r a l  exploitation  rule  the  partisanship  to the expansion  comprise  Party's a b i l i t y  base o f s u p p o r t . * system  and  These economic  the L i b e r a l  that  the p r o v i n c e o f o c c u p a t i o n a l s e c t o r s ,  bases o f s u p p o r t f o r b o t h t h e NDP are  P a r t y t o be a  BC  23 Black evolving  describes B r i t i s h  frontier,"  unionized,  with  the small  Columbia as a  a population  business  "continuously  dominated  p e r s o n and t h e r e c e n t  They a r e a t t r a c t e d t o BC because o f t h e n a t u r e He a s s e r t s t h a t from s e c u r i n g the L i b e r a l constantly  this  has p r e v e n t e d  i s twofold.  i n flux  o f i t s economy.  First,  i n BC.  parties  The e f f e c t on  S7  a population  which i s  has a c o n c o m i t a n t a b s e n c e o f a s h a r e d  Newcomers  t o the province  political  alignment  by  immigrant.  t h e two t r a d i t i o n a l  a s t a b l e base o f s u p p o r t  Party  by t h e h i g h l y  will  past.  be u n f a m i l i a r w i t h i t s  i n general,  and w i t h  the o l d p a r t i e s i n p a r t i c u l a r .  the past  As B l a c k  role  played  points out:  Even i f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l C a n a d i a n p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s — the L i b e r a l s and C o n s e r v a t i v e s — h a d succeeded i n becoming f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s , they c o u l d n o t have r e l i e d long on f a m i l y v o t i n g t r a d i t i o n s to maintain t h e i r place. Such a t r a d i t i o n a l l y - v o t i n g p o p u l a t i o n would soon be u p s e t by new waves o f c i t i z e n s w i t h o u t any a t t a c h m e n t s t o the " e s t a b l i s h e d p a r t i e s . ° =  Blake's that  f i n d i n g s support  federal-only party  this contention. identifiers  newcomers t o t h e p r o v i n c e T h e r e was a d i r e c t and  partisans,  t o be  ( r e s i d e n t s f o r three  correlation  l e n g t h of r e s i d e n c e  tended  H i s data  relative  years  or  less).  between c o n s i s t e n t p a r t i s a n s h i p  i n BC o f t h r e e y e a r s  i n c o n t r a s t , tended  revealed  or l e s s .  t o have r e s i d e d  Split  i n BC f o r more  ^ Edwin R. B l a c k , " B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : T h e . P o l i t i c s o f E x p l o i t a t i o n " i n Party Politics in Canada, 4 t h e d . , Hugh G. T h o r b u r n , e d . ( S c a r b o r o u g h , O n t a r i o : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1979), 293. =  s  Ibid.  24 than  three years,  suggesting  with  the province's p o l i t i c a l Second, B l a c k  almost they  recall  the e s t a b l i s h e d e l i t e s  established  3  [or] their  i n BC p o l i t i c s  s e r v e as f o c a l  federal  Liberals  Liberal  provincial  traditions..."  exclusion voters.  The r e s u l t  "both  Social  C r e d i t and NDP  Columbians." left-right  i s illustrated  supporters  loyalty  Party.  3 1  o f an a n t i - e s t a b l i s h m e n t  division  first,  3 2  a r e more l i k e l y  than  Second, p o l a r i z a t i o n  of the L i b e r a l Federal Liberal  f o r the  by t h e f a c t  that  i n BC who adopt a d i f f e r e n t  t o s e e a wide gap between t h e p r o v i n c i a l Credit  of t h e i r  have much c a u s e t o r e s p e c t t h e  i n which,  s a l i e n c e of t h i s  provincial  respect  points f o r a n t i - e s t a b l i s h m e n t votes of the  majority of B r i t i s h The  have l i t t l e  and a r e i n t o l e r a n t  been t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n  tradition  to t r a d i t i o n i s  Columbia., f o r t h e p a s t  "Such p e o p l e  N e i t h e r do t h e y  parties  familiarity  of s t a g n a t i o n , of h a r d s h i p , or  He c o n t i n u e s ,  3 0  a  alignment. ^  c o n t e n d s t h a t , "An a p p e a l  may be a time  institutions.  has  had g a i n e d  r e a c t i o n a r y f o r many i n B r i t i s h  worse..." for  they  consistent partisans NDP and t h e S o c i a l  has r e s u l t e d  i n the  P a r t y a s an a l t e r n a t i v e c h o i c e among supporters  must a s s e s s e i t h e r  t h e NDP  Donald E . B l a k e , "The C o n s i s t e n c y o f I n c o n s i s t e n c y : P a r t y I d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l P o l i t i c s , " Canadian Journal of Political Science, 15 (19B2), 698-700. 3 , 9  703.  3  0  3  1  3  =  Black,  op. cit., 293.  Ibid.,  294.  Blake,  "The C o n s i s t e n c y  of Inconsistency,"  op. cit.,  25 or S o c i a l C r e d i t Polarization in  favourably  on e l e c t i o n day, o r a b s t a i n .  encourages negative  the a b s t r a c t ,  augers well  partisanship  f o r the L i b e r a l Party.  two-party system, s t r a t e g i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s the  voter.  considered If  A vote f o r the L i b e r a l Party, t o be a l o s t  undermined William  o r wasted  the L i b e r a l Party's  ideological  continuum  i s appealing  which, But i n a  a r e paramount t o therefore, i s  vote.  central  p o s i t i o n on t h e t o t h e BC e l e c t o r a t e , i t i s  by t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t h e c o n t a g i o n  effect.  C h a n d l e r a s s e r t s c o n t a g i o n o c c u r s when t h e p o l i c y  p o s i t i o n s of the o p p o s i t i o n in  as w e l l  3 3  an e f f o r t  a r e adopted  to "blunt...the  of o p p o s i t i o n  by t h e g o v e r n i n g  popular appeal  strength." '*  party  which i s t h e b a s i s  I t s c o n s e q u e n c e s a r e o u t l i n e d by  3  David E l k i n s : The ambiguous p o s i t i o n o f t h e B.C. S o c i a l C r e d i t stems from a t l e a s t two s o u r c e s . First, Social C r e d i t r h e t o r i c and p o l i c i e s a s w e l l a s t h e p e r s o n a l s t y l e s o f W.A.C. B e n n e t t and some o f h i s c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a c o m b i n a t i o n o f p o p u l i s t and c o n s e r v a t i v e f e a t u r e s . When q u e s t i o n e d , an o b s e r v e r o f S o c i a l C r e d i t c o u l d emphasize one o r t h e o t h e r e l e m e n t and t h e r e b y p l a c e t h e p a r t y on t h e l e f t , on t h e r i g h t , o r i n t h e middle. Second, t h e p a r t y formed t h e government, and g o v e r n i n g p a r t i e s t y p i c a l l y moderate t h e i r t e n d e n c i e s compared t o when t h e y a r e i n opposition. ' 3  C h a n d l e r ' s a n a l y s i s o f o v e r a l l e x p e n d i t u r e change i n potentially  3  3  r e d i s t r i b u t i v e p o l i c y areas of S o c i a l  Suggested  by Ibid.,  Credit  693.  * W i l l i a m M. C h a n d l e r , "Canadian S o c i a l i s m and P o l i c y Impact: C o n t a g i o n from t h e L e f t ? , " Canadian Journal of Political Science, 10 (1977), 755. 3  3  S  E l k i n s , op. cit., 4.  26 budgets r e v e a l e d by  t h a t they  have been s i g n i f i c a n t l y  influenced  t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e CCF/NDP i n o p p o s i t i o n . The  place with  Liberal  Party  i s c a u g h t between a rock  because the c o n t a g i o n the f o r c e s discussed  p a r t y dominance i n BC.  effect  has a c t e d  and a hard  i n conjunction  above t o c r e a t e a s i t u a t i o n  Maurice Pinard  describes  o f one-  the s i t u a t i o n  thus: I f t h e p a r t y has met r e p e a t e d l y w i t h resounding d e f e a t s i n the past, o r i f , as a r e s u l t of i n t e r n a l c r i s e s . . . t h e party i s suddenly i n a s t a t e of d i s a r r a y , i f ( l a r g e l y as a consequence of these) i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n i s i n v e r y poor shape, i f i t s c a d r e s have been d e s t r o y e d and have t o be c o m p l e t e l y r e c o n s t i t u t e d , i f v o t e r s f i n d few o f t h e i r r e l a t i v e s , f r i e n d s , o r a c q u a i n t a n c e s , a t work, i n t h e i r neighbourhood, or i n other areas of p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e a d y t o s u p p o r t t h a t p a r t y , then a c o l l e c t i v e d e f i n i t i o n of t h i s p a r t y as a hopeless c o n t e n d e r i s l i k e l y t o d e v e l o p , and a s i t u a t i o n o f o n e — p a r t y dominance p r e v a i l s . * * 3  The  consistent decline in provincial  demonstrates that the party changing  its  has, t o d a t e ,  i t s image a s an u n v i a b l e  of r e c o g n i z a b l e  candidates,  party  best,  resources,  base r e i n f o r c e and m a i n t a i n  potential for attracting  why does i t c o n t i n u e  Before  addressing  the e x i s t i n g  short  tenure of  the p o r t r a i t  Given  of a  that the L i b e r a l i s weak a t  a c t i v e party  we t u r n  I t s lack  and i t s t h i n  voter support  to attract  this question,  literature  force.  the comparatively  t h a t i s u n a b l e t o win e l e c t i o n s .  Party's  support  been u n s u c c e s s f u l i n  electoral  leaders, i t s lack of f i n a n c i a l  organizational  Liberal  loyalists?  t o an e x a m i n a t i o n o f  on i n c e n t i v e s f o r p a r t y  activism.  * M a u r i c e P i n a r d , " T h i r d P a r t i e s i n Canada R e v i s t e d , " Canadian Journal of Political Science, 6 (1973), 440-41. 3  27  Chapter  2  THEORY  In unites  the an  words of Samuel E l d e r s v e l d ,  a g g l o m e r a t i o n of  motivations, party that  d r i v e s , and  literature  Party  Payne and t h a t one  political  1  Analysis  party  motivations,  political  d r i v e s and  needs  i n c e n t i v e s as e m o t i o n a l  they a s s e r t are  I contend i s too  political  to instrumental  that  narrow.  goals  which, given to  this conceptualization  of  argue t h a t  are  fostered  only  recognizes  the  multiplicity  by  emotional  Parties: 1964),  A 303.  2  the  political  incentives  of m o t i v a t i o n s  Samuel J . E l d e r s v e l d , Political ( C h i c a g o : Rand M c N a l l y & Co.,  needs  participation.  incentives  To  not  activism  James L. Payne and Political Participation," 2  What does the  1  activism?  Woshinksy d e f i n e  above d e f i n i t i o n ,  motivations  party  Literature  i s in contrast  neither  needs."  seeks to s a t i s f y - t h r o u g h  activity.  political  people with a r i c h v a r i e t y of  a b o u t the  foster political  Political  This  say  "The  for  drives inherent  in  Behavioural  O l i v e r H. Woshinsky, " I n c e n t i v e s World Politics, 24 (1972), 519.  for  28 a s o c i e t y , nor fostering  the  important  role  a f f e c t i v e motivations.  instrumental As  goals  Frank S o r a u f  play  in  suggests,  P a r t y members and w o r k e r s may be a t t r a c t e d t o the p a r t y f o r any number of r e a s o n s , but as they i n v o l v e t h e m s e l v e s even more i n the p a r t y , they d e v e l o p t i e s and l o y a l t i e s t o i t , t o i t s norms and g o a l s , and t o i t s leaders. The o r g a n i z a t i o n i t s e l f a c h i e v e s a l i f e and a v a l u e f o r them; i t c e a s e s t o be m e r e l y an instrument f o r achieving t h e i r other i n c e n t i v e s , becoming an end i n i t s e l f . . . I d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the p a r t y r e i n f o r c e s and p e r h a p s even r e p l a c e s the i n c e n t i v e s t h a t i n i t i a l l y r e c r u i t e d the i n d i v i d u a l . 3  Resolving this  thesis.  complex are,  such t h e o r e t i c a l  S u f f i c e to r e c o g n i z e  human b e i n g s  activists e a c h of time.  by  that party  activists  a number and  them.  others  which a r e  the  party  activist  may  not  They  distinct. among  m o t i v e s have d i f f e r e n t  Furthermore, t h e i r motivations  Finally,  are  v a r i e t y of  p r i m a r y m o t i v e v a r i e s between and  because d i f f e r e n t  the s c o p e of  i n a complex e n v i r o n m e n t .  some which o v e r l a p ,  Moreover, the  of  operating  t h e r e f o r e , motivated  incentives,  d i f f e r e n c e s i s beyond  may  weights f o r change o v e r  be c o g n i z a n t  of a l l  them. Typically,  motivated  by  the  i t i s assumed b e n e f i t s of  o r the d e f e a t  of an  literature  motivations  on  dispositions  3  System  that  "party  a c t i v i s t s may  patronage, sensations  enemy p a r t y . " *  Specifically,  of  p e o p l e t o be a c t i v e p a r t y  Frank J . S o r a u f , Political Parties in ( T o r o n t o : L i t t l e , Brown & Co., 1964),  victory,  the  f o r party a c t i v i s m suggests  that stimulate  be  three members:  the American 86-7.  * Donald K. A l p e r , "From R u l e t o R u i n : The Conservative P a r t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1928-1954," u n p u b l i s h e d PhD d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1975, 196.  29 affective,  material  dispositions tangible  or  are  and  evaluative  two-dimensional.  i n t a n g i b l e rewards.  t h o s e rewards t o which one as  political  careers,  a p p o i n t m e n t s , and Intangible  may  career  preferred  incentives  are  these i n c e n t i v e s  independent of, Ideology i n d e p e n d e n t of policy  the  i s an  are  ends.  aspirations  They a r e  to s o c i a l  of  lead  yield  by  such  patronage the  government.  m o t i v a t i o n s which, i f s a t i s f i e d , rewards.  Second, the or  fulfillment  occur  ends.  ends and  thought to specific  recruit activity  mobility  and  the  civic  d u t y and  fellowship  also constitute solidary incentives.  and  and  a n o t h e r group i n d e p e n d e n t of  status  w i t h a powerful group or  act  issue  called solidary incentives  excitement, c o n g e n i a l i t y ,  either  a monetary v a l u e ,  advancement,  party's  a perceived  to  incentives  e i t h e r dependent on,  that  These  0  they  A f f e c t i v e d i s p o s i t i o n s are  from i d e n t i f i c a t i o n Fulfillment  attach  intangible incentive  intangible incentives party's  Tangible  organization's  both the  concerns.  First,  treatment  accrue i n c a l c u l a b l e personal of  incentives.  and  which may  of the  include come  personality.  desires  for  a sense of  Evaluative  belonging  dispositions  The l a b e l s v a r y w i t h the a u t h o r d i s c u s s i n g i n c e n t i v e s for activism. George C. P e r l i n , The Tory Syndrome: Leadership Politics in the Progressive Conservative Party (Montreal: McGi11-Queen's U n i v . P r e s s , 1980), 2-4 d e l i n e a t e s t h r e e t y p e s of m o t i v e s : a f f e c t i v e , p o l i c y and p a t r o n a g e . In c o n t r a s t , P e t e r B. C l a r k and James Q. W i l s o n , " I n c e n t i v e Systems: A T h e o r y of O r g a n i z a t i o n s , " Administrative Science Quarterly, VI (June 1961), 132-37 have l a b e l l e d them as s o l i d a r y , p u r p o s i v e and m a t e r i a l i n c e n t i v e s . Payne and Woshinsky, op. cit., 520, i d e n t i f y s i x d i s t i n c t i n c e n t i v e s : adulation, s t a t u s , program, m i s s i o n , o b l i g a t i o n and game. Frank J . S o r a u f , op. cit., 82-7 has grouped a v a r i e t y of i n c e n t i v e s under the r u b r i c of t a n g i b l e and i n t a n g i b l e r e w a r d s . s  30 are  i n t a n g i b l e i n c e n t i v e s a s w e l l , b u t tend  the  party's  ends.  Also  known a s p u r p o s i v e i n c e n t i v e s ,  comprise c a n d i d a t e concerns, concomitant d e s i r e party  itself  to influence public  with  from  the party's  policy.  party's,  are tangible  particularly  Since  the L i b e r a l Party  goals  as the d i f f e r e n c e Material  of g e t t i n g  activism  t o win e l e c t i o n s .  elected.  does n o t win e l e c t i o n s ,  incentives that are s a t i s f i e d ability  t o the  i n c e n t i v e s t h a t a r e dependent on t h e  the goal  thesis a n t i c i p a t e s that  Loyalty  l o y a l t y t o and  between s o l i d a r y and p u r p o s i v e i n c e n t i v e s . dispositions  they  i s s u e o r i e n t a t i o n s , and t h e  i s distinguished  identification  t o be dependent on  i s governed  this  by i n t a n g i b l e  independent of the party's  Included  i n t h i s category i s  ideology: S m a l l numbers o f i d e o l o g u e s c l i n g even i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t o minor, n o n - c o m p e t i t i v e p a r t i e s t h a t have no p r o s p e c t o f w i n n i n g e l e c t i o n s . Some w i t h i n t h e major p a r t i e s f e e l s i m i l a r l y t h a t t h e y would g l a d l y s a c r i f i c e v i c t o r y to p r i n c i p l e . * This  thesis will,  therefore,  among t h e a c t i v i s t s . personal  different Social  but a l s o  that  i s i t expected  will  their  their  ideology  It i s predicted  personal  that  d o m i n a t e among will  from t h e i d e o l o g i e s o f a c t i v i s t s  Credit Party.  perceive  Not o n l y  b e l i e f s and v a l u e s  motivations  analyze the s a l i e n c e of  their  their  be p e r c e i v e d  as  i n t h e NDP and  that a c t i v i s t s  b e l i e f s and v a l u e s  ideology  who  are congruent  with  ** A l a n I . Abramowitz, John McGlennon, R o n a l d B. R a p o p o r t , " I n c e n t i v e s f o r A c t i v i s m , " The Life of the Parties, eds. R o n a l d R a p o p o r t e t a l . ( L e x i n g t o n : The U n i v . o f Kentucky P r e s s , 1986), 61.  31 t h o s e of other  the L i b e r a l  two  Liberal  P a r t y , and  provincial  Party  polarization  than  parties,  incongruent  with  a r e more l i k e l y  t h o s e of  t o work f o r the  a r e t h o s e whose i d e o l o g i e s p a r a l l e l  of BC's  political  purposive  factors  i n c e n t i v e s as  for their  activism.  the most i m p o r t a n t The  7  authors  p u r p o s i v e m o t i v a t i o n s were p o s i t i v e l y loyalty. will  this  hold d i s t i n c t i v e  posited fit  As s u c h ,  e  that this  in with  reinforces  policy  p o l i c i e s germane t o BC's  therefore,  v a r i a b l e s expected  provincial  Liberal  many, of  First,  politics.  types of a c t i v e  that  with  that Liberal  party activists  It i s  ideologically  Ideology  political  t o govern  and  culture  or i n  attitudes are,  a c t i v i s m i n the  t h e y can  under a number of  be o r i e n t e d toward one  Edwin B l a c k  argues  level,  that there are  three  members:  t h o s e whose p o l i t i c a l i n t e r e s t s a r e p r i m a r i l y o r i e n t e d i n p r o v i n c i a l terms, t h o s e whose i n t e r e s t s f i n d p r i m a r y e x p r e s s i o n i n c e n t r a l government g o a l s and t h o s e whose i n t e r e s t s a r e m u l t i - f a c e t e d o r e l s e c o n c e n t r a t e d on some a s p e c t s of p o l i t i c a l life comprehending b o t h s p h e r e s of g o v e r n m e n t — s u c h as  7  Ibid.,  63.  e  Ibid.,  64.  not  Party.  Motivations f o r a c t i v i s m operate conditions.  found  p e r c e p t i o n t h a t they do  either  domains.  delegates  motivating  issue positions.  their  the o t h e r p a r t i e s ,  terms of i s s u e and toward  and  also  correlated  t h e s i s expects  policy  the  culture.  A l a n Abramowitz e t a l . r e p o r t e d t h a t c o n v e n t i o n rated  the  or  32 the a t t a i n m e n t of i d e o l o g i c a l o b j e c t i v e s o r g o v e r n m e n t a l power f o r the p a r t y .  general  9  Second, p a r t y work i s b o t h affected Sorauf  by  the m o t i v a t i o n s  underlying  a s s e r t s that personal  candidate and  qualitatively  less  or  activity  purposive  Third, different  1 0  and  importantly,  For as  example, loyalty  F o r example,  the c o n t i n u e d  on  That  transitory  ideological different  1 1  canvassing Fourth,  by  "the  may  the t i m e . "  p a r t y must a l s o have t h e c a p a c i t y t o  withhold  t h e g r a n t i n g of  activity  i n and  v a l u e of  incentives, a party's v i a b i l i t y  dependent on  of  these  itself.  the f a c i l i t y  o f f at least  p a r t of  i n c e n t i v e s as m o t i v a t i o n  Besides  the obvious  more  the  delivering  The  for  recruitment  i s , in part,  w i t h which i t can  manipulate  them.  Edwin R. B l a c k , " F e d e r a l S t r a i n s w i t h i n a C a n a d i a n P a r t y , " i n Party Politics in Canada, 4 t h ed., ed. Hugh S. T h o r b u r n ( O n t a r i o : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1979), 99. 9  1  0  1 1  1  2  Sorauf,  op.  Ibid. Ibid.,  88.  cit.,  87.  on  i t s active  i n c e n t i v e without 1 2  paying  likely  depend  t h e p a r t y , and  party cannot dangle  and  will  sustained  of a c t i v i s t s  rewarded  are not  whether the p a r t y i s a b l e t o reward i s to say,  to a  "Those i n c e n t i v e s which  support  are being  or  incentives attract  large c o n t r i b u t o r s . . . "  which m o t i v a t i o n s  members.  do  s i g n - p o s t i n g or neighborhood  to a t t r a c t  quantitatively  the d e s i r e f o r f e l l o w s h i p p r o d u c e more  kinds of a c t i v i s t s . attract  i t .  i n c e n t i v e s such  i n t e n s i v e work than  incentives.  and  33 Sorauf  contends that p o l i t i c a l  manipulate a c t i v i s t s '  motivations  p a r t i e s were b e s t  when p a t r o n a g e and  p r e f e r m e n t were t h e p r e d o m i n a t e i n c e n t i v e s g o v e r n i n g In f a c t ,  he m a i n t a i n s  incentive."  able to  t h a t i t was " a l m o s t  activism.  the i d e a l  1 3  Consider i t s advantages. I t s l u r e was so g r e a t , e s p e c i a l l y i n t i m e s and p l a c e s o f unemployment, t h a t i t produced c o n t i n u o u s a c t i v i t y . The machine enjoyed complete c o n t r o l over i t ; the p a r t y c o u l d d e l i v e r t h e payment w i t h a l m o s t 100 p e r c e n t r e g u l a r i t y , and i t c o u l d i n many c a s e s f r e e l y r e v o k e i t . . . F o r the party the patronage j o b not only rewarded a l o c a l w o r t h y . I f t h e r e were no l e g a l o r e t h i c a l r e s t r i c t i o n s , t h e p a r t y o f t e n 'maced' t h e patronage p a y r o l l f o r compulsory p a r t y c o n t r i b u t i o n s . . . T h e p u b l i c t r e a s u r y thus provided the j o b f o r t h e worker, f r e e l a b o r f o r t h e p a r t y , and c o n t r i b u t i o n s f o r t h e p a r t y c o f f e r s . Through the c h a r i t y o f p a t r o n a g e t h e p a r t y was t h r i c e blessed . Its  value,  however, d e c l i n e d f o r a v a r i e t y o f r e a s o n s ,  them, i t s d e c l i n i n g r e s p e c t a b i l i t y culture, public  and c o n c o m i t a n t l y ,  service.  ideological that  did.  the r i s e  of the merit  Because p a r t i e s c u r r e n t l y r e l y  motivations  p a r t i e s no l o n g e r  manipulate t h e i r  i n contemporary  to r e c r u i t  activists,  among  political system i n  on p o l i c y and  Sorauf  maintains  have t h e means t o c o n t r o l and  a c t i v e supporters  t o t h e d e g r e e they  once  l s  i  3  Ibid.,  90.  Ibid. Ibid. , 91 "To be s u r e , t h e s e i n c e n t i v e s a t t r a c t w o r k e r s ' a n d a c t i v i s t s who r e l a t e t o t h e p e r s o n a l i t i e s and i s s u e s o f t h e day, who a r e o r i e n t e d t o t h e c h a n g i n g p o l i t i c a l f u n c t i o n s o f t h e p a r t y , and who have t h e s k i l l s and r e s p e c t a b i l i t y the p a r t y needs. But t h e i r t i e s t o t h e p a r t y a r e u n i l a t e r a l ones t h a t they make and b r e a k . The p a r t y has the c a r r o t , but n o t t h e s t i c k , and o t h e r p o l i t i c a l A=i  34 The  l u r e of m a t e r i a l  r e w a r d s has  emergence of e x t r a - p a r l i a m e n t a r y for  f o s t e r i n g party  decision-making  processes,  strategies,  the  and  organizations  l o y a l t y and  the worker more i n v o l v e m e n t  t h i s d e v e l o p m e n t stems from  the  party  the  inspired their  level  and  from  suggestion  that  that are  influence  p o l i c y and  are  discussed the  decreasing  suggesting and  level  of  of  Political at  patronage-  That  the  therefore,  previously,  i s to  party.  say,  This  desire  federal ideologues  level are  to of increasing  same time t h a t m a t e r i a l l y - i n s p i r e d a c t i v i s t s  t o f o s t e r l o y a l t y and  that  party's  preferments  loyalists.  at the  i t i s i n f e r r e d that  If Sorauf  the  i n f e r s that  i n number among p o l i t i c a l  Consequently, difficult  ideology  allow  ideologically-motivated  l e s s p a r o c h i a l , and  As  i n number a t  local  p o l i c y - o r i e n t e d and  activists  politics.  t o the  These  patronage  politics.  Sorauf  a c t i v i s t s were p a r o c h i a l  commitment was  implies  this,  means  A consequence  p a r t i e s c o n t r o l l e d p a t r o n a g e a p p o i n t m e n t s and local  the  of e l e c t i o n  policy.  of  by  the  c o n t r o l over,  formulation  corresponds to a p a r t i c u l a r l e v e l  the  as  identification.  i n , and  making of  been d i s p l a c e d  and  local  party  activists. p a r t i e s are  correct in  been s u p e r s e d e d  p o l i c y — i n s p i r e d motivations,  this  finding i t  identification.  Abramowitz, e t a l . a r e  p a t r o n a g e has  i 4 >  by i d e o l o g i c a l  t h e s i s p o s i t s not  only  o r g a n i z a t i o n s have c a r r o t s , t o o . " The p o i n t i s , p a t r o n a g e rewards t i e d the worker t o the p a r t y , whereas i d e o l o g y o r a s p e c i f i c p o l i c y c o n c e r n do not o b l i g e one t o remain w i t h a given party. T h i s g i v e s the p a r t y l e s s s c o p e f o r manipulation. Alan  I. Abramowitz e t a l . , op.  c i t . , 61.  35 that  ideological  Liberal  Party  politics  be  purposive  activists,  but  t h a t they  Liberal  than  identify  Party.  a v a r i a b l e that  motivations  also that  t o be more i m p o r t a n t  anticipated federal  and  p r e d o m i n a t e among  they  consider  provincial  with,  and  federal  politics.  It i s  a r e more l o y a l  to  the  Hence, f e d e r a l a c t i v i s m i s e x p e c t e d  leads  t o a c t i v i s m i n the  provincial  to  Liberal  Party.  Psychology L i t e r a t u r e An  explanation  desire  t o be  On  f a c e of  the  f o r a c t i v i s m t h a t does n o t  associated i t , the  with  a winning  belief  t h a t the  future elections i s i r r a t i o n a l However, w i t h biased  i n c r e a s i n g evidence  c o g n i t i v e processes,  irrationality facie,  that  e v e n t s and rational  the  i s apparent.  rational  d e l i n e a t e s and  rationality  choice  a course  evaluates  values  by  paradigm  this  in  defeats.  supposed  accepted,  prima  representations a f t e r engaging  typically  of in  of a c t i o n , the  a t r a n s i t i v e ordering  o r she  then m a x i m i z e s h i s o r I t i s assumed  assumes t h a t  individual  a l t e r n a t i v e outcomes, and  her  that  her the  values  of  integrates  preference.  He  by c o s t / b e n e f i t  individual  See Graham A l l i s o n , " C o n c e p t u a l M i s s i l e C r i s i s , " The American Political (1969), e s p e c i a l l y 693-94. 7  of  longer  action only  h i s or  1  win  1 7  to i n i t i a t i n g  analysis.  party w i l l  t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s engage i n  I t i s no  a given  incomplete.  i t s histor.y of  individuals construct valid initiate  is  the  calculation. '  The prior  given  party  include  i s s e n s i t i v e to  Models and the Cuban Science Review, 63  36 pertinent  i n f o r m a t i o n and,  as s u c h ,  her a s s e s s m e n t of a l t e r n a t i v e becomes  least  infinite  a r e a number of problems w i t h of which i s i t s tendency  complexity  of e n g a g i n g decision action  outcomes as new  revises  h i s or  information  available.  There the  he o r she  until  To  t o be  paradigm,  learning  process  begin, i t i s highly  a l l evidence  i s gathered,  not  teleological.  of e x p e r i e n c e s p r e c l u d e s the  in a causal  taken.  this  possibility  f o r each  action  impractical i f indeed  The  to  one  or  suspend  could  do  so. Adages s u c h as 'he who h e s i t a t e s i s l o s t ' and 'the e a r l y b i r d g e t s t h e worm' i m p l y i t i s a d a p t i v e t o a c t on b e s t g u e s s e s . E a r l y humans who w a i t e d u n t i l they f u l l y u n d e r s t o o d t h e b e h a v i o u r of p o t e n t i a l mates b e f o r e making t h e i r move would have been no more f i t than t h e modern i n d i v i d u a l who s i t s a t home a l o n e , l o o k i n g a t the t e l e p h o n e . 1 3  Moreover, i t i s now  understood  t h a t , of n e c e s s i t y , i n d i v i d u a l s  take pragmatic  s h o r t c u t s to f a c i l i t a t e  i n f e r e n c e s and  decisions.  first, of  The  reason  t h e p r o c e s s of making for this  i s twofold:  i t i s a means of d e a l i n g w i t h the overwhelming  information that  natural  i s attended  t o ; second,  the  1y engages i n t h e s e s h o r t c u t s — b e c a u s e  positively  amount  individual  i t serves to  enhance one's s e l f - c o n c e p t , which i n t u r n ,  contributes  t o a s t a t e of o p t i m a l h e a l t h .  A c o g n i t i v e model of m o t i v a t i o n overcomes shortcomings  of t h e r a t i o n a l  c h o i c e model.  the  It postulates that  D e n n i s Krebs e t a l . , "On the E v o l u t i o n of S e l f Knowledge and S e l f - D e c e p t i o n , " i n Sociobiological Perspectives on Human Development, ed. K. MacDonald (New York: S p r i n g e r — V e r l a g , 1988), 124. i  e  37 each i n d i v i d u a l concerning  perceives a given  behaviour,  The  each i n d i v i d u a l ' s  system  belief  subsequent response  mediated causal  by  a c a u s e and  in order  effect  of  evidence  circumstances  i n t e r p r e t e d by  i s , therefore, resulting  the s t i m u l u s  in a  i s placed i n  context.  t o human a t t r i b u t i o n a l understanding  information  t o g i v e i t meaning.  processes,  i s to say,  the  i s then  to the s t i m u l u s  That  P s y c h o l o g i s t s and  valid  stimulus  i n t e r v e n i n g thought  attribution.  ( s e t of  i t s c o n s e q u e n c e s , and  under which i t o c c u r s ) .  The  stimulus  s o c i o b i o l o g i s t s apply c o g n i t i v e theory processes  in order  to i n c r e a s e  the phenomenon of o p t i m i s m  t o the c o n t r a r y .  i n the  their  f a c e of  This comparatively  new  research  i n the f i e l d s of s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n and s e l f - d e c e p t i o n  provides  the  terms o f  the emotional  The  foundation  psychology  processing  for explaining Liberal processes  underlying their  l i t e r a t u r e suggests  mechanisms, some c o n s c i o u s , process  i n f o r m a t i o n i n the  t h e o r i e s and  beliefs  about the w o r l d ,  using  form of  hypotheses,  o u r s e l v e s and  others.  themselves f o r a given  p u r p o s e , namely t h a t i t i s more a d a p t i v e  self-deceive  than  interpretations.  to make v a l i d That  c a u s e and  i s to say,  damages one's s e l f - c o n c e p t , then irrational, results  subconscious,  s t u d i e s demonstrate t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s are capable  t h e s e mechanisms t o d e c e i v e  serving  motivations.  that informationothers  p e r c e i v e and  Empirical  activism in  t o do  so.  in a healthy a f f e c t i v e  effect  i t i s maladaptive,  Conversely,  self-  (healthy)  i f p e r c e i v i n g the  i f distorting  truth hence  reality  state ( i . e . feeling  of  secure,  to  38 hopeful, is  i n c o n t r o l and  adaptive,  t h a t one's l i f e  hence r a t i o n a l ,  t o do  purpose to a p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t y induce i n d i v i d u a l s to maintain persevere are This justify  more l i k e l y  their  so.  and  their  to succeed  t h e s i s hypothesizes,  has  B e l i e f s that  efforts; than  t h o s e who that  losing party,  false  belief  inference  on  hope i n i t s f u t u r e .  t h a t one the  i s involved  e n a b l e s them t o f e e l  that  their  and  irrational  t o work f o r a p o l i t i c a l  futile  meaningless.  The serving  a t t r i b u t i o n a l biases, to occur,  exaggeration; prophecy;  ^  the  five  party,  in  and  Ibid.,  yet  that  1  to  foster a  hope a r i s e s party.  feel  or v i t a l  lies.  relevant  to t h i s  the  up. '  activists  i t would  mechanisms a r e  f a l s e consensus e f f e c t ;  beneffectance;  Suggested  are  give  the  This  i s r a t i o n a l because i t  In c o n t r a s t ,  information-processing  postulated  From f a l s e  who  a c t i v e membership i s  purposeful  and  meaningful.  control  i n order  with a winning  p a r t of a c t i v i s t s  lend  individuals  engage i n c e r t a i n c o g n i t i v e a t t r i b u t i o n a l b i a s e s f a l s e s e n s e of  both  f o s t e r a s e n s e of  therefore,  involvement with a  meaning), then i t  illusion  a o  the of  be that  called Of  i t is  self-  those  thesis: self-fulfilling  control.  2 1  127.  < ° See D a n i e l Goleman, V i t a i Lies, Simple Truths (New York: Simon and S c h u s t e r , 1985) and L i o n e l T i g e r , Optimism: The Biology of Hope ( New Y o r k : Simon and S c h u s t e r , 1979). =  S i m i l a r v a r i a b l e s are described i n decision-making theories. C f . John S t e i n b r u n e r , The Cybernetic Theory of Decision ( P r i n c e t o n , NJ: P r i n c e t o n U n i v . P r e s s , 1974), I r v i n g L. J a n i s , . Groupthink ( B o s t o n : Houghton M i f f l i n , 1982) and R. J e r v i s , Perception and Misperception in International Poli tics ( P r i n c e t o n , NJ: P r i n c e t o n U n i v . P r e s s , 1976). 3 1  39 Exaggeration  i s "the tendency  b e n e f i c i a l outcomes through  to amplify and exaggerate  repeated accounts of an e v e n t . "  2 2  The f a l s e consensus e f f e c t r e f e r s to the tendency to overrepresent the commonality of one's b e l i e f s , a t t i t u d e s and values.  2 3  As such, i n d i v i d u a l s tend to overestimate the  number of people who share t h e i r p o l i t i c a l  b e l i e f s and values,  thus overestimating the appeal of t h e i r p o l i t i c a l  party.  F a l s e b e l i e f s , when acted on with c o n v i c t i o n , may s e t up s e l f fulfilling  prophecies, thereby v a l i d a t i n g them.  when i n d i v i d u a l s , intending t h e i r behaviour  T h i s occurs  to r e s u l t i n a  desired outcome, expect the d e s i r e d outcome to occur.  They  expect e f f o r t to produce success, and when t h e i r expectation i s not met, they perceive the outcome to have occurred d e s p i t e their efforts.  When t h e i r expectation i s met, they a t t r i b u t e  the p o s i t i v e outcome to a combination  of w i l l and e f f o r t .  F a l s e b e l i e f s are f o s t e r e d by the i l l u s i o n of c o n t r o l . This r e f e r s to the need f o r i n d i v i d u a l s to b e l i e v e they are i n c o n t r o l of t h e i r  lives-  2 4  They tend to a t t r i b u t e success to  f a c t o r s over which they have c o n t r o l , and to a t t r i b u t e  failure  R. T r i v e r s , Social Evolution (Menlo Park, C f . : The Benjamin/Cummings P u b l i s h i n g Co., 19B5), 418; quoted i n Krebs et a l . , op. cit., 117. 2  2  I t may be a r e f l e c t i o n of a s s o c i a t i n g p r i m a r i l y with those who support one's opinions and may help to j u s t i f y one's a c t i o n s to oneself as appropriate and normal. Suggested by Krebs et a l . , Ibid., 121-22. 2 3  . * This i s reflected i n superstitious r i t u a l s , f o r example, the b e l i e f that blowing on d i c e i n c r e a s e s the p r o b a b i l i t y of r o l l i n g the d e s i r e d numbers, or that choosing one's l o t t e r y number, as opposed to a computer doing i t , increases the p r o b a b i l i t y of winning the l o t t e r y . 2  40 f a c t o r s over  which they  to f a c t o r s o v e r attributing internal being  have c o n t r o l ,  which they  failure  factors  have no  tendency  control.  increases particularly  The  to the  illusion  level  of  of c o n t r o l  a t t h e same time." *" 3  comprising  outcomes. ' 2  the  Benef f e e t a n c e  7  locus of c o n t r o l  d i s p o s i t i o n s ) and  the d i r e c t i o n  variable d i s p o s i t i o n s ) . success  to i n t e r n a l  effective  and  = e  beneficial  i s two  (internal  2  I n d i v i d u a l s tend  They tend  = s  "the  and  i t includes  are able to avoid dimensional,  versus external  of s t a b i l i t y  variable factors,  strategies. '  situation  i s beneffectance,  More i m p o r t a n t l y ,  of  to  self-esteem.  the i d e a t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s a l s o p e r c e i v e t h e y undesired  failure  likelihood  success  when the  t o r e p r e s e n t o u r s e l v e s as b e i n g  effective  to a t t r i b u t e  t o e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s and  i n t e r p r e t e d i n v o l v e s a high Related  and  (fixed  versus  to c r e d i t  such  their  as e f f o r t  t o blame t h e i r  or  failures  on  C f . e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s i n , among o t h e r s , D a l e T. M i l l e r , "Ego I n v o l v e m e n t and A t t r i b u t i o n s f o r S u c c e s s and F a i l u r e , " Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 34 (1976), 901-06, and B e r n a r d Weiner and Andy K u k l a , "An A t t r i b u t i o n a l A n a l y s i s of A c h i e v e m e n t M o t i v a t i o n , " Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 15 (1970), 1-20; c i t e d i n Edward J o n e s e t a l . , Attribution: Perceiving the Causes of Behavior ( M o r r i s t o w n , NJ: G e n e r a l L e a r n i n g P r e s s , 1972), 10607. 2  S  2  *  >  cit.,  Trivers, 117.  op.  cit.,  418;  quoted  i n Krebs e t a l . , op.  A.G. Greenwald and A.R. P r a t k a n i s , "The S e l f , " i n Handbook of Social Cognition, e d s . R.S. Wyer, J r . and T.K. S r u l l , v o l . 3 ( H i l l s d a l e , NJ: E r l b a u m , 1984), 139. 2 - 7  2  e  Success  B e r n a r d Weiner e t a l . , " P e r c e i v i n g t h e Causes of and F a i l u r e , " i n J o n e s e t a l . , op. cit., 96.  C r a i g A. Anderson and D e n n i s L. J e n n i n g s , "When e x p e r i e n c e s of f a i l u r e promote e x p e c t a t i o n s of s u c c e s s : The impact o f a t t r i b u t i n g f a i l u r e t o i n e f f e c t i v e s t r a t e g i e s , " 2  9  41 external ability  and or  fixed  bad  disappointing "atypical  luck.  3 1  -  that  display  task d i f f i c u l t y ,  Individuals  who  s h i f t s (increasing  task achievement w i l l blame f a i l u r e on  typical aspiration  they e x p e c t f u t u r e  attribute  internal  In o t h e r words, a f t e r  o t h e r hand, t h o s e who factors  3 0  s u c h as  outcome t o v a r i a b l e ,  aspiration  failure...)." optimistic  factors,  aspiration  be  shifts.  outcomes c o n s i s t e n t  display after  they  successful.  fixed  with  or  That past  of  a  factors  failure,  lack  remain On  the  external i s to  say,  ones.  3 2  Journal of Personality, 48, (1980), 403 a r g u e t h a t "when p e o p l e a r e s e t t o a t t r i b u t e t a s k outcome t o s t r a t e g i e s , t h e y a r e l i k e l y t o m o n i t o r how e f f e c t i v e l y t h e i r s t r a t e g i e s meet the demands o f the t a s k a t hand. For these s u b j e c t s , initial f a i l u r e i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e i r s t r a t e g i e s were i n e f f e c t i v e , and t h a t i n o r d e r t o s u c c e s s t h e y must m o d i f y t h o s e s t r a t e g i e s . . . I n c o n t r a s t , s u b j e c t s s e t to a t t r i b u t e task outcome t o t h e i r a b i l i t i e s [an u n c o n t r o l l a b l e d i s p o s i t i o n ] do not m o n i t o r the demands of the t a s k a t hand. They f a i l t o a t t e n d to s t r a t e g i c f e a t u r e s of t h e i r attempts, f a i l to l e a r n from t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s , and c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e y c a n n o t improve t h e i r performance." The a u t h o r s a s s e r t t h a t subjects' e x p e c t a t i o n s about the e f f e c t s of c o n t i n u a l m o n i t o r i n g and m o d i f i c a t i o n of t h e i r s t r a t e g i e s enhanced t h e i r o p t i m i s m . The adage, ' p r a c t i c e makes p e r f e c t ' b e s t d e s c r i b e s t h e i r f i n d i n g t h a t s u b j e c t s who a t t r i b u t e d f a i l u r e t o i n e f f e c t i v e s t r a t e g i e s m a i n t a i n e d t h e i r o p t i m i s m , even a f t e r many f a i l e d a t t e m p t s a t the t a s k . Luck i s a s p e c i a l c a s e . In r e a l i t y i t i s an external f a c t o r beyond our c o n t r o l , but p s y c h o l o g i s t s have found e v i d e n c e that i n d i v i d u a l s attempt to a s s e r t c o n t r o l over luck by m i s c o n s t r u i n g i t t o be dependent on o t h e r f a c t o r s , s u c h as c o n s i s t e n c y and e f f o r t . An example i s the w e l l - d o c u m e n t e d c a s e of "gambler's f a l l a c y : " i n games of c h a n c e , i n d i v i d u a l s tend t o a n t i c i p a t e an i n c r e a s e d p r o b a b i l i t y of s u c c e s s a f t e r a l o s s , and e s p e c i a l l y a f t e r c o n s i s t e n t l o s s e s . Conversely, i n d i v i d u a l s a n t i c i p a t e an i n c r e a s e d p r o b a b i l i t y of l o s i n g a f t e r t h e y have won a game o f c h a n c e . 3  0  3 1  3 2  Weiner e t Ibid.,  a l . , op.  108.  cit.,  97.  42 Together,  these s e l f - s e r v i n g a t t r i b u t i o n a l biases  foster  a s e n s e o f s e c u r i t y t h a t e v e n t s a r e p r e d i c t a b l e and t h a t t h e individual security  i s able  enables the i n d i v i d u a l to f e e l  h i s o r her a c t i v i t y o p t i m i s m o r hope. a t an a c t i v i t y ,  t h e s i s ' focus,  will  election  i f activist  to p e r s i s t  postdiction  t o win an e l e c t i o n on i n t e r n a l  party  have c o n t r o l , t h e y  As s u c h , t h e y w i l l  will  be o p t i m i s t i c  C o n v e r s e l y , a c t i v i s t s who blame t h e p a r t y ' s  f a i l u r e on f i x e d , e x t e r n a l control  arises  successes.  future success.  activists.  From t h i s  outcomes have been  f a c t o r s o v e r which t h e a c t i v i s t s predict  i n c o n t r o l , and t h a t  Optimism g o v e r n s t h e m o t i v a t i o n  terms o f t h i s  blames t h e f a i l u r e  T h i s sense of  has meaning and p u r p o s e ,  whether p r e v i o u s  disappointments or In  t o a n t i c i p a t e outcomes.  v a r i a b l e s that  predict failure  i n the f u t u r e .  a r e beyond  f o r the party  As s u c h ,  they w i l l  their  i f i t contests  an  be u n o p t i m i s t i c  activists. Although the L i b e r a l Party force,  this  biases,  t h e s i s posits that  Liberal activists  i s not a serious e l e c t o r a l because o f a t t r i b u t i o n a l  are hopeful  about the p a r t y ' s  future.  It anticipates, therefore,  that L i b e r a l activism i s  inspired  by t a n g i b l e and i n t a n g i b l e i n c e n t i v e s t h a t a r e  dependent on t h e p a r t y ' s  goal  o p t i m i s m and p e r s i s t e n c e  i n the face of c o n s i s t e n t  only  of winning e l e c t i o n s .  Their f a i l u r e not  t o win e l e c t i o n s , b u t t o e l e c t any c a n d i d a t e s makes s e n s e  when one u n d e r s t a n d s t h a t  i t i s governed  by f a l s e  beliefs.  43 These h y p o t h e s e s now  turn  t o an a n a l y s i s  motivations for Liberal  will  be examined  of i d e o l o g i c a l activism  in  BC.  i n Chapter and  Four.  purposive  We  44  Chapter  3  INCENTIVES FOR ACTIVISM  The  existing  incentives,  party  including  l i t e r a t u r e suggests  i s s u e o r i e n t a t i o n s and p o l i c y  a r e among t h e most i m p o r t a n t Besides  identification  ideology  and l o y a l t y  motivating  with  t h e p a r t y ' s ends,  to the party i t s e l f  t o govern A caveat  examine t h e d a t a  directly Liberal test  be n o t e d .  P a r t y , the questions  f o r the presence  m o t i v a t i o n s mentioned  and r e l a t i v e  Liberal  be  Party.  f o r a c t i v i s m i n the do n o t p e r m i t  importance  Two.  i n the survey,  f e l l o w s h i p and c o n g e n i a l i t y  of each of  As t h e d e l e g a t e s were n o t  i n our survey  by t h e r e s p o n d e n t s .  party.  that these v a r i a b l e s w i l l  m o t i v a t i o n s d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter  to  f o r evidence  q u e r i e d on t h e i r m o t i v a t i o n s  addressed  a r e powerful  a c t i v i s m i n the p r o v i n c i a l  must h e r e  personal  activism in a particular  t h e s e m o t i v a t i o n s and p r e d i c t s found  concerns,  motivations of party a c t i v i s m .  forces determining  This chapter w i l l  purposive  us t o  of a l l the  Even among t h e n o t a l l o f them were  F o r example, o n l y one a l l u d e d as reasons  T h i s i s n o t t o argue t h a t s o l i d a r y  f o r being  a Liberal.  m o t i v a t i o n s d i d n o t govern  45 BC  Liberal  Party  important  than  supported  by  received  a c t i v i s m , merely that  those  mentioned more o f t e n .  Abramowitz, who  [than  purposive  parties...[Republicans ideological  respondents' of  the  reported  that  were  less  This contention "personal  and  i n c e n t i v e s ] by Democrats]"  position  and  by  i n both  In c o n t r a s t ,  i t s congruence with  b e l i e f s were mentioned  r e s p o n d e n t s i n our  1  delegates  almost  the the  three-quarters  survey.  A l a n Abramowitz e t a l . , " I n c e n t i v e s f o r A c t i v i s m , " The Life of the Parties, e d s . R o n a l d B. R a p o p o r t e t a l . ( L e x i n g t o n : The U n i v . P r e s s of K e n t u c k y , 1986), 64. 1  is  benefits  from p a r t i c i p a t i o n . . . were r a t e d much lower i n  importance  party's  they  in  46  Ideological  Commitment  Liberal dissimilar cent  activists  from New  occupied  perceived  their  Social  C r e d i t Party  the  cent  centre  the  of  of  range on Social  the NDP, party was  Liberal  the  party  cent  of  To  Including  both those  cent  as  within  i t .  their  their  the  The  3  of c e n t r e of  the o t h e r  p o i n t t o the  from the  t o be  a r e you  t h a t i t was  one  87  the  right,  a  the  activists others. of  moderate  a L i b e r a l ? , " 50  a moderate  r e s p o n d e n t s who  hand,  party e i t h e r at  that these  by  them  Liberals positioned  party  "Why  cent  On  per  of L i b e r a l s  that range.  than 2 per  t o be d i f f e r e n t  them r e s p o n d e d  per  s c a l e o r one  the q u e s t i o n ,  Whereas 95  2  of c e n t r e  12  It i s evident  They a l s o b e l i e v e d ideology.  less  s c a l e i n t o which no  their  ideologically  w i t h i n a range r i g h t  Party  ideological  Credit Party.  perceived  only  the L i b e r a l s p l a c e d  the  left  t o be w i t h i n  put  were  Socreds.  a range  respondents, while  positioned per  by  own  t h a t they  Democrats and  of L i b e r a l s d e f i n e d  position  all  perceived  per  party.  were a t t r a c t e d t o  the  To the q u e r y , "Why a r e you a L i b e r a l ? " r e s p o n d e n t s u n d e r l i n e d t h e i r b e l i e f t h a t the L i b e r a l P a r t y i s noni d e o l o g i c a l and t h a t t h i s i s c o n g r u e n t w i t h t h e i r p e r s o n a l b e l i e f s and v a l u e s . A d j e c t i v e s commonly g i v e n t o d e s c r i b e the p a r t y were " m o d e r a t i o n , " " a d a p t a b i l i t y , " and "flexibility." An example of a t y p i c a l r e s p o n s e was "I l i k e what the L i b e r a l P a r t y s t a n d s for a b a l a n c e between ' b u s i n e s s government' and 'big government.' =  We p r o v i d e d the r e s p o n d e n t s w i t h a 7 - p o i n t s c a l e on which 1 was d e m a r c a t e d as ' L e f t ' and 7 as ' R i g h t ' . The e x a c t q u e s t i o n was, "In terms of t h e i r i d e o l o g y , p l e a s e i n d i c a t e where you would l o c a t e the p r o v i n c i a l p a r t i e s on t h i s s c a l e . " R e s p o n d e n t s l o c a t e d the t h r e e p a r t i e s as f o l l o w s : NDP 1-4 range; L i b e r a l P a r t y 3-5.5 r a n g e ; S o c i a l C r e d i t 5.0-7.0 r a n g e . 3  47 nonideological the  party's  for  almost  nature  stand  of  was  three-quarters  h a l f of  party  t o be  had over  their  careful  one  appropriate  the  careful may  not  aver  activists  ideologically  party  Liberal  that  f a r t o the (53X)  Party  their  left,  agreed  f a r t o the  the L i b e r a l  v e h i c l e f o r those  accounted  Credit  (447.) a g r e e d  t o move t o o  that  that  respective parties.  t o move too  Socred  added  beliefs  Social  in their  activists  not  who  respondents.  D e m o c r a t i c and  the NDP  h a l f of  p a r t y must be  and  the  about m o d e r a t i o n  L e s s than  Clearly,  of  those  were l e s s e n t h u s i a s t i c than t h e i r  counterparts  just  party,"* and  congruent with  In c o n t r a s t , New activists  the  and  that  their  left.  i s the  most  whose o r i e n t a t i o n i s moderate  neutral.  Loyalty This conclusion motivating the  Liberal  1970s.  party  As  the  The switched  loyalty  history.  a commitment during  activists  1960s and  t o the  values  identification  than c u r r e n t  footnote  p a r t i e s during  s t r e n g t h of  current  r e g a r d l e s s of i t s were n o t  joined other  motivated  provincial  First, belonged  Liberal  by  parties  2.  activists  t o the L i b e r a l  a free-enterprise alternative.  were more l i k e l y  •* See  party,  reasons  1970s.  argument i s t w o f o l d .  because i t was  examines the  to other  Those a c t i v i s t s who  to L i b e r a l  party  to d e f e c t  s u c h , i t d e m o n s t r a t e s the  activists'  electoral  i s enhanced when one  As  who  Party  such,  they  p o l i c y - o r i e n t e d L i b e r a l s to  see  48 BC p o l i t i c s  i n terms o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s t / c o l l e c t i v i s t  division.  That  negative,  rather  motivated  them t o seek a c t i v e membership w i t h  Party.  i s to say, t h e i r L i b e r a l p a r t i s a n s h i p than p o s i t i v e .  Second, t h e i r  with a winning  perquisites.  This  provincial shall  party  party  i n c e n t i v e was  a c t i v i s m of c u r r e n t  party  sought s a t i s f a c t i o n  of t h i s  one t h a t  the L i b e r a l  by t h e d e s i r e t o  and i t s a s s o c i a t e d  fulfilled  only  by j o i n i n g a  t h a t was a c t u a l l y w i n n i n g e l e c t i o n s .  see i n the next chapter,  route,  D i s l i k e of s o c i a l i s m  a c t i v i s m was g o v e r n e d  be a s s o c i a t e d  was  allowed  As we  t h i s d e s i r e governed the  w o r k e r s as w e l l .  However,  they  i n c e n t i v e through a d i f f e r e n t  them t o remain  loyal  to the L i b e r a l  Party. The leader  philosophy  of the party,  o f P a t r i c k McGeer, f o r m e r L i b e r a l MLA and is illustrative  f r e e - e n t e r p r i s e values salient  to previous  of the c o n t e n t i o n  and t h e d e f e a t  activists  than was  o f t h e NDP  that  were more  l o y a l t y to the L i b e r a l  Party.= The p o l i t i c a l e q u a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s b a s i c - and c r u d e . The economy i s r e s o u r c e o r i e n t e d , dependent on a f r e e f l o w o f f o r e i g n c a p i t a l i n t o t h e province. E x p r e s s e d i n p o l i t i c a l terms, t h a t means a f r e e — e n t e r p r i s e government. The s p e c t r e a t t h e feast i s socialism...  P a t r i c k L. McGeer, Politics in Paradise (Toronto: Peter M a r t i n A s s o c i a t e s L t d . , 1972), 220 a s s e r t s i n h i s autobiography that the L i b e r a l Party l o s t the c o n t e s t of the f r e e - e n t e r p r i s e p a r t i e s i n 1969 because t h e e l e c t o r a t e e q u a t e d the L i b e r a l P a r t y w i t h t h e NDP. s  49 He  continues: If (and i t ' s the ' i f ' t h a t haunts the minds of the m a j o r i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n s ) the f r e e e n t e r p r i s e v o t e were e v e r t o d i v i d e . . . I t happened t w i c e i n S a s k a t c h e w a n . . . 11 happened once i n M a n i t o b a . . . C o u l d i t happen i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ? [ e l l i p s e s his]**  H i s d e c i s i o n to leave the L i b e r a l P a r t y was  predicated  i n p a r t on  Social  C r e d i t P a r t y o f f e r e d the  return  o f an  The Liberal  NDP  1975 Party  socialist ensured  election was  not  that a Social Yet,  7  demonstrated  f o r the S o c i a l  strategic  reasoning.  b e s t c h a n c e of  The  preventing  clearly  e s t a b l i s h e d the  enough of an e l e c t o r a l Polarization  be  " a t the  results  clearly  free-enterprise alternative  by  the e l e c t o r a t e .  it  apparent simply  Liberal  declined cent,  Party's share  from t h e  their  lowest  i n the  formed  of t h e  previous  Another i n d i c a t i o n what was  because t h e S o c i a l  because t h e NDP  but  the  previously considered  l o s s of  as  a  First,  C r e d i t P a r t y won  vote  not  their  a safe seat.  only  to that  7  per  time.  stronghold David  the  opposition.  a l s o reached  p a r t y ' s h i s t o r y up  was  regarded  the o f f i c i a l  popular  election,  the  hands o f  viable  and  the  f o r c e t o keep  longer  The  the L i b e r a l  that  no  election,  the  of t h e e l e c t o r a t e had  C r e d i t d e f e a t would  subsequent e l e c t i o n  fact  P a r t y was  was  Credit  government.  w o l v e s a t bay.  the NDP.""  Party  over  Anderson,  *• Ibid. , 220-21. S u g g e s t e d by A l a n C a i r n s , " S o c i a l i s m , F e d e r a l i s m and the BC P a r t y Systems, 1933-1980," p r e s e n t e d t o t h e a n n u a l meeting of t h e L e a r n e d S o c i e t i e s , V a n c o u v e r , 1983, 32-33; c i t e d by D o n a l d E. B l a k e , Two Political Worlds ( V a n c o u v e r : The U n i v . of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r e s s , 1985), 21. 7  50 then-Liberal 1974  l e a d e r , hoped t h a t the b y - e l e c t i o n i n  would engender c o n f i d e n c e  viable  alternative.  Gibson  won  H i s hope, however, was  the e l e c t i o n  A n d e r s o n ' s hope had  by  Party consistently  popular  vote  Capilano 29.3  riding.  B  per c e n t compared  cent.  They  Social  C r e d i t ' s 44.8  well  lost  1974  opportunity total  of  commitment  C r e d i t P a r t y ' s 28.9 polling  37.4  per  percent  to  auger  members were r e s t l e s s l y c a s t i n g  Anderson  a dual  i n 1972  Rather,  riding  and  to another; of  personal  the S o c i a l  the NDP's s t r a t e g y of a i d i n g  appeal  d i d not  i t was  depend  due  to a  the c o n j o i n t  from one's p a r t y w i t h o u t  t h e u n p o p u l a r i t y of one  defeat a Social  the  b y - e l e c t i o n , however, i t p o l l e d  of h i s p a r t y .  factors:  to detach  the  Vancouver—  Such a showing d i d n o t  of D a v i d  i n h e r e n t appeal  concatenation  per c e n t more of i n the N o r t h  that  leave.  Even t h e v i c t o r y the  votes.  20  i n 1975,  percent.  57  a  f o r Gordon  the o b s e r v a t i o n  to the S o c i a l  f o r a p a r t y whose e l i t e to  dashed  on  parties  the r i d i n g  about f o r r e a s o n s  on  polled  the o t h e r In t h e  P a r t y as  a narrow margin of  been premised  Liberal  than  i n the L i b e r a l  February,  of  requiring the  candidate;  Credit candidates;  Anderson's v i c t o r y  a  i n order  and to  C r e d i t candidate.*"  In 1969, B r o u s s o n , t h e L i b e r a l c a n d i d a t e , p o l l e d 46V. compared t o 34.7V. and 19.3V. f o r t h e S o c i a l C r e d i t and New Democratic P a r t i e s r e s p e c t i v e l y . In 1972, t h e S o c r e d s and New Democrats s h a r e was 20.7'/. and 22.2V. r e s p e c t i v e l y , whereas B r o u s s o n took 35.9V. of t h e r i d i n g ' s p o p u l a r v o t e . The f i g u r e s a r e r e p o r t e d i n T. P a t r i c k B o y l e , Elections British Columbia ( V a n c o u v e r , L i o n s Gate P r e s s L t d . , 1982), 113, 170-71. e  Norman J . R u f f , " P a r t y Detachment and V o t i n g P a t t e r n s i n a P r o v i n c i a l Two-Member C o n s t i t u e n c y : V i c t o r i a , 1972," BC Studies, no. 23 ( F a l l 1974), 23 a r g u e s t h a t i f the dual-member 9  51 After Liberals, and  the  NDP  v i c t o r y i n 1972,  including  Garde Gardom, d e f e c t e d  t h e s i s argues that governing interest Party.  The  The Liberal  to  than  activism  of  Premised  the on  and NDP  the  current  Private  vote,  Enterprise  free-enterprise  "unifying  the  three  free-enterprise  the  the  was  to  This  ideologies  L i b e r a l Party, leave  affective  the  self-  Liberal  party  were a  motivation  unity  movement and  activists  illustrate  NDP  won  Majority  organized.  free-enterprise  exodus of  from the  party  this argument.  because of a s p l i t  1 0  in  Movement f o r Freedom I t s i n t e n t was  government i n B r i t i s h  vote."  Williams  Liberals.  the  b e l i e f that  and  t o the  l o y a l t y , an  v i c t o r y i n 1972  free—enterprise  personal  being with a winning  rank-and-file  the  McGeer, A l a n  Social Credit Party.  their decision  p e r q u i s i t e s of  elites  the  commitment  events surrounding  following  restore  of  influenced  incentive  governing  MLAs P a t r i c k  besides incongruent  t h e i r lack also  stronger  the  sitting  most p r o m i n e n t p r o v i n c i a l  p a r t i e s or  "to  Columbia" failing  by that,  1 1  r i d i n g had been d i v i d e d i n t o two single-member c o n s t i t u e n c i e s , A n d e r s o n ' s p o p u l a r i t y would not have been enough t o e n a b l e him t o win i n e i t h e r of them, g i v e n t h a t the t o t a l v o t e o b t a i n e d by the two S o c r e d c a n d i d a t e s exceeded t h a t of the two L i b e r a l s i n both h y p o t h e t i c a l constituencies. F o r a d e t a i l e d a c c o u n t of t h i s p e r i o d , see G.L. K r i s t i a n s o n , "The N o n - P a r t i s a n A p p r o a c h t o BC P o l i t i c s : The S e a r c h f o r a U n i t y P a r t y , " BC Studies, no.33 ( S p r i n g 1977), 13-29. I n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h i s s e c t i o n of the t h e s i s was a l s o found i n C h r i s t o p h e r H a r r i s , British Columbia 1972-1975: The Genesis of a Two-Party System, U n p u b l i s h e d M.A. thesis, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1987, e s p e c i a l l y c h . 4. 1  0  1 1  Quoted  in Kristianson,  Ibid.,  15.  52 The  leaders  of the f r e e — e n t e r p r i s e p a r t i e s , S c o t t  e x c e p t e d , were u n i n t e r e s t e d . Liberal  party.  Liberal  Party:  sitting  MLAs a t t e n d e d  disdained  to help  candidate  with  formation  election  alone.  "The t h r e e  untenable p o s i t i o n . " " * 1  party  By A p r i l ,  enough o f s u c c e s s  unless  i t united  to plan  with  caucuses  informal  regarding  the cooperation  of  1975, S o c r e d s were contesting  L i b e r a l s found  Williams  party  1 3  was p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t  Social Credit Party.  confident  party.  their  by-election.  they c o n t i n u e d  of the o p p o s i t i o n  of a t h i r d  their  f o r t h e n o m i n a t i o n as  and Gardom p r o c l a i m e d  members  agitated  Movement and  i n the North Vancouver—Capilano  died,  sitting  i s s u e f o r the  when  meetings of the M a j o r i t y  Gordon G i b s o n campaign  No s u c h o p t i o n the  were d e m o r a l i z e d  a f t e r t h e u n i t y movement  discussion the  I t became a d i v i s i v e  the f a i t h f u l  W h i l e McGeer, W i l l i a m s loyalty  However, p r o m i n e n t  MLAs and a s u b s t a n t i a l number o f a c t i v i s t s  for a non-partisan  Liberal  1 3  Wallace  said that  the other  the next  t h e m s e l v e s i n an he would q u i t t h e  parties.  1 3  Anderson  D a v i d A n d e r s o n , then l e a d e r o f t h e L i b e r a l P a r t y , argued t h a t t h i s was a d e l i b e r a t e a t t e m p t t o m a n i p u l a t e t h e e l e c t o r a t e , and as s u c h was u n d e m o c r a t i c . See G.L. K r i s t i a n s o n , Ibid., 17. K r i s t i a n s o n s u g g e s t s t h a t A n d e r s o n was d i s i n t e r e s t e d because he had r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e t h a t h i s p a r t y c o u l d win t h e b y - e l e c t i o n i n 1974 and d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t the L i b e r a l P a r t y was a v i a b l e f r e e - e n t e r p r i s e a l t e r n a t i v e . 1  3  F o r example, W i l l i a m s s a i d , " c o a l i t i o n o r e v e r y o n e j o i n i n g one o f t h e t h r e e p a r t i e s — a r e n o t a c c e p t a b l e [ a l t e r n a t i v e s ] , " and t h a t he f a v o u r e d t h e t h i r d o p t i o n , f o r m i n g a new p a r t y . Alan W i l l i a m s , Vancouver Province, 8/3/74; q u o t e d i n K r i s t i a n s o n , Ibid., 24. 1  3  1 4  1  5  Ibid.,  27  H a r r i s , op. cit., 46.  53 called  Williams  "dishonourable,"  McGeer r e s i g n e d than the  two  by Gardom, who  three p a r t i e s could s t i l l a fracturing  prominent f e d e r a l stand. for  of  non-socialist  BC  Liberal  no  longer supported  Gardom.  the end  Vancouver  state. . .  with  the p o s i t i o n s taken  month.  The  Liberal  Island L i b e r a l  party.  Anderson's e f f o r t s and  demoralized  7  i  e  See  now  ranks  and  from Don  that  that  and  to S o c i a l  C r e d i t of s i x  Then Jack  Davis,  C r e d i t P a r t y on  a  September  the u n i t y  the p a r t y t o g e t h e r l e a d e r of  the  48. A n d e r s o n , 17/5/74; quoted  K r i s t i a n s o n , Ibid.,  28.  at  former  ranks.  Clyne to David op. cit., 25.  the  Gardom  C r e d i t t o be  became the new  he  he  were f u r t h e r d e c i m a t e d  Social  to hold  Wray,  C r e d i t Party occurred  McGeer, W i l l i a m s and  judged  Gordon G i b s o n  Ibid.,  J.V. Kristianson, 1  temporary  by McGeer, W i l l i a m s  notables.  t h a t they  *  Liberals  the c o n v e r s i o n  announced  x  a  t o Anderson  In June, 1975,  1 1 1 7  the p r o v i n c i a l  B a r e l y a month l a t e r ,  failed,  Anderson's  appealed  t o u n i t e on  m i n i s t e r , j o i n e d the S o c i a l  i e  of  Executive Vice President, resigned, stating  of August by  cabinet  parties  Clyne  H i s d e f e c t i o n to the S o c i a l  following  Even  1  u n i t y o f p u r p o s e i n r e s c u i n g BC  becoming a s o c i a l i s t i c  concurred  the hope t h a t  free-enterprise vote *.  J.V.  less  agreement t h a t would  L i b e r a l s were u n s u p p o r t i v e  basis...to achieve  1st.  the  an  and  They were j o i n e d  expressed  reach  F o r example, t h e Hon.  "...the  w i t h i n days W i l l i a m s  t o s i t as i n d e p e n d e n t s .  weeks l a t e r  preclude  and  in  had  54 D e s p i t e McGeer's presumably joining  the S o c i a l  requires  that  Credit  people  To L i b e r a l  political told  the  put the o v e r — a l l 1 C ?  opposition."  "[the s i t u a t i o n ]  opportunism  MLAs McSeer, W i l l i a m s and  "I d o n ' t  another  also  Gardom,  uncertain.  want t o spend  for  good o f the p r o v i n c e  political  f u t u r e s must have appeared Sun,  justification  P a r t y , namely t h a t :  ahead o f p a r t y po 1 itr'.cs, " a role.  honourable  As  played their  McGeer  Parliament in  s o  The 1972 v i c t o r y o f t h e NDP was t h e l a s t s t r a w . They were p r o f o u n d l y d e p r e s s e d about the L i b e r a l P a r t y ' s and t h e i r own p o l i t i c a l c h a n c e s . . . A l 1 were i n t h e m i d s t o f s u c c e s s f u l c a r e e r s and not e a g e r t o spend more time i n V i c t o r i a e x c e p t as c a b i n e t ministers. = 1  As  incumbent S o c r e d  o n l y was  MLAs c o n t e s t i n g  the chance o f s e r v i n g  significantly a l s o prime The  improved,  candidates for m i n i s t e r i a l gamble p a i d  pointed  "their  with being reasons.  survival."  = =  left—right  political  Pat McGeer t o D a v i d  2  0  P a t McGeer, V a n c o u v e r  3  1  Kristianson, op.  to d e f e a t the  as t h e i r  Ibid., cit.,  division  Anderson, Sun,  28.  Harris,  government.  21. 53.  It i s  NDP  self-interest in  party f o r s t r a t e g i c  i < p  3 : 2  Gardom, b o t h o f whom  These a c t i v i s t s were more  p a r t of a w i n n i n g The  party  positions.  i n the B e n n e t t  e x p r e s s i o n s of d e s i r e  not  e x p e r i e n c e , t h e y were  o f f f o r McGeer and  them i n the same d i r e c t i o n  political  election,  i n the governing  but w i t h t h e i r  were g i v e n c a b i n e t p o s i t i o n s apparent  t h e 1975  was  concerned and  personal  more  salient,  9/5/75; quoted  10/5/75; quoted  in  in  Ibid. Ibid.,  55 in  contrast  current  t o the importance of i d e o l o g i c a l n e u t r a l i t y t o  activists.  would  have j o i n e d  party  itself,  motivations  I f t h i s was n o t o f p r i m a r y c o n c e r n , t h e exodus i n t h e 1970s.  as w e l l  Erickson system  a s t o i t s ends, t h e r e f o r e ,  of our long-term  Policy Orientation  Loyalty  i s one o f c l a s s i c  that  "The B r i t i s h  Columbia  party  ( t h e New D e m o c r a t i c P a r t y ) . "  opinion two  revealed  that while there  with  f a c i n g a mass Their  2 3  i s l i m i t e d convergence of  on some p o l i c y domains between t h e a c t i v i s t s o f t h e s e  p a r t i e s , on most i s s u e s  opinion  party  two-party p o l a r i z e d competition  of the r i g h t ( S o c i a l C r e d i t )  analysis  governed  Dimensions  a c a t c h - a l l party of the l e f t  to the  activists.  and O p i n i o n  e t a l . noted  they  "a b i - p o l a r d i s t r i b u t i o n o f  between NDP and S o c i a l C r e d i t a c t i v i s t s i s  typical..." * 2  We know t h a t L i b e r a l a c t i v i s t s as  ideologically distinct  Democratic P a r t i e s . opinions the  and  They w i l l  S o c r e d s on v a r i o u s  party  this  t h e s i s expects  their  n o t c o n v e r g e on e i t h e r p o l a r end o f  d i s t r i b u t i o n of opinion  activists.  their  from t h e S o c i a l C r e d i t and New  Consequently,  on p o l i c i e s w i l l  have d e f i n e d  between NDP and S o c i a l  Credit  have d i s s i m i l a r v i e w s from New  Democrats  p o l i c y o r i e n t a t i o n s and i s s u e  cleavages  Lynda E r i c k s o n , R.K. C a r t y and D o n a l d E . B l a k e , " I d e o l o g y and P a r t i s a n s h i p i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : A c t i v i s t s i n a B i - P o l a r P o l i t i c a l System," a paper p r e s e n t e d t o t h e 1 4 t h World C o n g r e s s o f t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l P o l i t i c a l Science A s s o c i a t i o n , Washington, DC, A u g u s t , 1988, 2. 2  3  *  2  Ibid.,  14.  56 t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e BC have p l a c e d t h e i r with  the NDP  and  between  Knowing  Socreds  firmly  their  policy  t h o s e o f t h e NDP  to e i t h e r  and  their  activists  left-right  side,  a t t i t u d e s and  Blake et a l . ' s examination that although  that L i b e r a l  p a r t y i n the c e n t r e o f t h e  also expects that fall  politics.  this  scale,  thesis  opinions will  Socreds.  of S o c r e d  a c t i v i s t s revealed  r a n k s were s w e l l e d w i t h  disaffected  L i b e r a l s d u r i n g the r e a l i g n m e n t o f the 1970s, the a t t r i t i o n the L i b e r a l suggested Socreds  ranks o c c u r r e d l a r g e l y  that  t h e NDP  a t the cadre  c e n t of p r o v i n c i a l  may  degree  of a f f i n i t y  expect  to f i n d  have b e n e f i t t e d  level,  given t h e i r  = s  L i b e r a l s who  have done so f o r the NDP.  a t the e l i t e  that  between L i b e r a l s and  not o n l y t h a t  more than finding  have worked  Presuming  level.  relative  t o the o t h e r p a r t i e s ,  weighted  in a direction  but a l s o  approaching  that  t h a t 67  Democrats,  per  party,  indicated  they o c c u p y c e n t r a l  was  the  f o r another  this  New  It  of  some  we  positions  they w i l l  the p o s i t i o n s of  be NDP  activists. As a n t i c i p a t e d , converged  on  dimension,  the m i d d l e g r o u n d .  L i b e r a l s were c l o s e s t  population, occupying Social  the o p i n i o n s of L i b e r a l  Credit. ' =:  i,  An  a position examination  On  the  activists  antiregulation  t o t h e mean f o r the  entire  between t h o s e o f t h e NDP of the  and  frequency  Donald E. B l a k e , R.K. C a r t y and Lynda E r i c k s o n , " I d e o l o g y and P a r t i s a n s h i p : A Comparison o f F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l A c t i v i s t s , " a paper p r e s e n t e d a t the annual meeting of the C a n a d i a n P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e A s s o c i a t i o n , H a m i l t o n , O n t a r i o , 1987, 8. =  s  = , s  See  T a b l e 3.3  f o r mean s c o r e s o f a c t i v i s t s '  attitudes.  57 distributions closer  revealed that L i b e r a l  in their  the NDP  activists,  environmental more l i k e l y land u s e . quo  v i e w s t o NDP  than  activists  L i b e r a l s wanted  protection  and  the NDP  In c o n t r a s t ,  hours,  Socreds  the t h r e e p a r t i e s '  preferred  tended on  be Like  2 7  t o see r e g u l a t i o n  involving but were  regarding  to support the  status  these three i s s u e s . gambling  activists  tended  a l t h o u g h the s u b s t a n t i a l  less regulation  to  than S o c r e d s .  t o s u p p o r t t h e s t a t u s quo  o f t h e s a l e of a l c o h o l ,  s t a t u s quo,  tended  human r i g h t s e x t e n d e d ,  or a r e d u c t i o n i n r e g u l a t i o n  regulation  activists  resembled  and  On  shopping  to support  the  m i n o r i t y of L i b e r a l s Socreds  rather  than  who  New  Democrats. C o n s i s t e n t with the i d e o l o g i c a l Socreds, Socreds decreased  supported  t r u e f o r NDP  who  or  favoured  daycare.  tended  The  = e  inverse  l e v e l s of spending.  Liberal  similar  t o t h o s e o f t h e NDP,  but were n o t o f t h e same  daycare. welfare  Most p r e f e r r e d They a l s o wanted  rates,  salaries.  But  =-7,  twoard 3  toward  e  activists'  i n c r e a s e d spending  attitudes  on e d u c a t i o n  t o see i n c r e a s e d s p e n d i n g  h e a l t h c a r e , j o b g r a n t s , and they were more l i k e l y  support c u r r e n t l e v e l s of spending  was  to support i n c r e a s e s i n  current  magnitude.  and  i n the a r e a s o f e d u c a t i o n ,  h e a l t h c a r e and  activists,  between the NDP  t h e s t a t u s quo  government s p e n d i n g  welfare rates,  gap  were  and  on  government  than New  Democrats t o  i n these areas.  Liberals  See T a b l e 3.1 f o r a c o m p a r i s o n government r e g u l a t i o n .  by  p a r t y of  attitudes  See T a b l e 3.2 f o r a c o m p a r i s o n government s p e n d i n g .  by  p a r t y of  attitudes  58 tended  t o agree with Socreds  highways, t o u r i s m ,  t h a t government s p e n d i n g  j o b g r a n t s and r e f o r e s t a t i o n  on  should  be  increased. C o n t i n e n t a l ism Support  for freer  substantial  i s a contentious  trade with  f o r e i g n ownership t h r e a t e n s  were d i v i d e d o v e r  i n d e p e n d e n c e even i f i t means a lower  on  than  these  items  hand, t h e y other  the independence of  standard  tended  hand, l i k e  of l i v i n g .  to support  two p a r t i e s .  freer  t h e NDP, they  trade with  agreed  i f i t means a lower  consensus  On t h e one t h e US.  On t h e  t h a t f o r e i g n ownership  t h r e a t e n s o u r i n d e p e n d e n c e and t h a t Canada s h o u l d i n d e p e n d e n c e even  In  on e a c h i t e m o f t h e  The L i b e r a l s showed much l e s s  d i d the other  They  maintain i t s  t h e NDP were a n t i - c o n t i n e n t a l i s t scale.  that  Credit activists.  whether Canada s h o u l d  continentalist  i s s u e i n BC.  t h e US, and d i s a g r e e m e n t  Canada's economy c h a r a c t e r i z e d S o c i a l  contrast,  political  standard  of  maintain i t s living.  A breakdown by p a r t y o f a t t i t u d e s toward e a c h o p i n i o n dimension  revealed Liberal  opinion consistently  between t h e b i p o l a r d i s t r i b u t i o n a c t i v i s t s . T h e parallels The  L i b e r a l s were c l o s e s t  individualist for  the S o c i a l  the r i g h t  S  toward  9  o f o p i n i o n o f NDP and S o c r e d  individual ist/col lectivist  the r i g h t / l e f t  fell in  political  cleavage  dimension i n BC  t o t h e mean and w e i g h t e d  end o f t h e s c a l e .  politics. toward t h e  In c o n t r a s t , t h e mean  scores  C r e d i t and New D e m o c r a t i c P a r t i e s were f a r t o  and l e f t  respectively  o f t h e mean s c o r e f o r t h e  See T a b l e 3.3 f o r a breakdown by p a r t y o f a t t i t u d e s i s s u e s s a l i e n t t o BC p o l i t i c s .  59 population. Liberals  Regarding  fell  attitudes  i n between t h e NDP  also occupied  Socreds  o t h e r two  p a r t i e s , although as  were more p o p u l i s t  for  that  formerly  Socred that  Credit  they  tended  worked  Like  Socred  Credit  to the r i g h t .  was  s i m i l a r to that  t o be  findings  As s u c h , found  reported  orientations  were e x t r e m e .  of  who now  Credit  working  provincial Liberal more  than S o c r e d s  collectivistwho  had  Former L i b e r a l  3 0  not  activists than  their orientation  to  their  agree  s h o u l d n o t move i t s p o s i t i o n  too  moderation  i n t h i s study. here r e v e a l and  New  that  from  Democratic  As s u c h ,  a Liberal's  policy  i t i s apparent  that  their  a t t i t u d e s were i n c o n g r u e n t w i t h t h o s e of L i b e r a l  activists.  L i b e r a l s would n o t  legislative  ends and  Ibid.,  4.  feel  comfortable with  p o l i c y p l a t f o r m s of e i t h e r  the p a r t i e s win  0  some e l e m e n t s  distinctive policy  less populist,  party.  Party  Social  3  As  i n the  r a n k s were a l s o more l i k e l y  perspective,  though  scale.  (65 per c e n t v e r s u s 55 p e r c e n t ) t o  far  and  the  Liberals  than a c t i v i s t s  displayed  current  f o r another  within  the S o c i a l  beliefs  the p o p u l i s t  exhibited  less anti-regulation  colleagues  The  The  those of Blake e t a l . ,  Party,  it.  and  presently  Socreds.  provincial Liberal activists,  within  activists, oriented,  support  former  the S o c i a l  positions  the NDP  c o n t i n e n t a 1 ism,  well.  These f i n d i n g s reported  and  the c e n t r e p o s i t i o n on  expected,  populism  toward  elections.  the  party,  even  60 I t was and  c o n c e r n s , would  party  activism.  of v i c t o r y o r assumed  that  party. party  The  that  ideology  defeat  The  an  party  that  varied  the  choice  because of  i n terms of  beliefs,  i s s u e s s u c h as  and  that  motivations excitement  I t was  would  be  also  a  powerful  of  political  the  party  with  incentives  lack  of  provincially salient  government r e g u l a t i o n ,  they would not  which  activist  moderate i d e o l o g y ,  welfare  from  Specifically,  BC's  a t t i t u d e s toward  social  party  differences in  group w i t h i n their  fostered  f i n d i n g t h a t emerged  activists.  c o n t i n e n t a l ism,  government s p e n d i n g on determined  itself  the  a l l these v a r i a b l e s  i n d i v i d u a l s t o be  population,  be  enemy p a r t y .  most i m p o r t a n t  L i b e r a l s were a d i s t i n c t  populist  of  d a t a showed t h a t  involved  most i m p o r t a n t  and  i n d i v i d u a l s t o remain w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r  a n a l y s i s was  motivating  among the  l o y a l t y t o the  activism.  t o be  be  O t h e r i n c e n t i v e s would  the  force motivating  the  i n the e x i s t i n g l i t e r a t u r e  purposive incentives, including issue o r i e n t a t i o n s  policy of  posited  programmes.  f i t i n any  other  and  This  provincial  party. They were committed values  were p e r c e i v e d  values. party  In c o n t r a s t ,  a f t e r the  NDP  t o the  t o be  was  more i m p o r t a n t .  congruent with  v i c t o r y i n 1972 gap  They j o i n e d  saw  their  personal  the  When i t became a p p a r e n t  that  left  the  the  between the  other  two  L i b e r a l Party  a f r e e - e n t e r p r i s e a l t e r n a t i v e , not  views.  because i t s  f o r m e r L i b e r a l a c t i v i s t s who  individualist/collectivist as  L i b e r a l Party  because of  the  party  was  parties  because i t i t s moderate no  longer  61 viable, the  they  were m o t i v a t e d  polarization  to d e f e a t  of  the enemy.  thereby  demonstrated  Liberal  Party.  the  to j o i n  province  a party  and  A c t i v i s t s who  was  sufficiently  d i d not  the magnitude of  that thrived  their  on  strong  follow  suit  loyalty  to  the  62 T a b l e 3.1 ATTITUDES TOWARD GOVERNMENT REGULATION BY PARTY*  Policy  Area  Direction  Party  o f Change" N  Environmental Protection  NDP Liberal Socred  82, 56, 7.  14.3 35.6 16. 5  3.0 4.6 44.9  .3 2.3 21.0  1.1 10. 5  370 87 334  Land Use  NDP Liberal Socred  59, 31. 4.  30.7 31.7 17.6  7, 31, 23.2  3.0 3.7 31.8  .3 1.2 22.9  368 82 336  Human R i g h t s Protection  NDP Liberal Socred  71.4 37.9 2.1  23.8 37.9 8.7  4.1 20.7 52.8  .5 1.1 20.6  .3 2.3 15.8  370 87 335  Sale of Alcohol  NDP Liberal Socred  10.7 7.9 8.4  15.3 14.6 17.4  56.3 44.9 27. 5  11.7 16.9 18.0  6.0 15.7 28.7  366 89 334  Marketing of Agricultural Produc t s  NDP Liberal Socred  28.7 7.1 21.1  28.1 21.4 12.4  32.0 31.0 8.8  9. 28. 22.  2.0 11.9 35.6  356 84 331  Shopping Hours  NDP Liberal Socred  8.5 12.6 9.2  15.6 14.9 12.4  47. 5 39.1 30.5  IB. 12. 12.  9.4 20.7 35.8  366 87 338  Gambling  NDP Liberal Socred  29.6 11.2 17.8  13.6 18.0 22.0  24.7 34.8 24.3  10.3 13.5 16.0  21.7 22. 5 19.9  368 89 337  * table entries are v a l i d ** l = s u b s t a n t i a l l y e x t e n d e d 2 = s l i g h t l y extended 3=kept a s now 4 = s l i g h t l y reduced 5=substantially reduced N=valid cases  percentage d i s t r i b u t i o n s  63 Table ATTITUDES  Policy  Area  Education  3.2  TOWARD GOVERNMENT SPENDING BY PARTY*  D i r e c t i o n o f Change** 2 3 4 5  Party  N  NDP Liberal Socred  77.7 58.0 4.2  19.8 34.1 27.4  2.1 8.0 54.5  7.8  6.0  373 B8 332  NDP Liberal Socred  68.0 19. 5 .9  29.3 46.0 14.3  2.4 27.6 48.2  5.7 21.1  .3 1.1 15.5  369 87 336  NDP Liberal Socred  57.7 20.7 3.3  35.5 52.9 29.0  6.2 21.8 59.8  5.7  2.1  369 87 331  NDP Liberal Socred  86.2 50.6 44.0  12.4 34. 5 40.1  1.4 9.2 13.9  3.4 .9  2.3 1.2  370 87 332  Job C r e a t i o n Grants  NDP L i bera1 Socred  58.5 14.5 19.8  24.0 32. 5 25. 5  3.0 11 ,5 24 . 1 16.9 8.7 30 ,3  3.0 12.0 15.6  366 83 333  Highways  NDP Liberal Socred  7.0 1.1 11.0  21.1 9.1 27.1  49 ,2 48 ,9 55 ,4  16.2 29.5 6.0  6.5 11.4 .6  370 88 336  Tourism  NDP Liberal Socred  6.3 9.3 24.7  22.3 22.1 30.1  48.4 55.8 39.9  14.7 11.6 2.7  8.4 1.2 2.7  368 86 336  Public Service Salaries  NDP Liberal Socred  14.3 1.2  56, 21, 13,  29. 65. 54.  .3 8.3 17.2  ,3 4 ,8 13 ,6  364 84 337  Daycare  NDP Liberal Socred  66.7 27.9 3.6  28. 42. 14.  5. 24. 46.  1.1 13.4  ,3 372 86 1,1 22 ,9 336  Welfare Rates Health  Care  Reforestation  * table entries are valid  percentage  ** l = s u b s t a n t i a 1 1 y e x t e n d e d 2 = s l i g h t l y extended 3=kept as now 4 = s l i g h t l y reduced 5 = s u b s t a n t i a l l y reduced N = t o t a l sample e x c l u d i n g m i s s i n g  .3  .5  distributions  responses  Table  3.3  ATTITUDE DIFFERENCES AMONG ACTIVISTS BY PARTY*  Attitude  Scale  Entire Sample  S i g . Level  3.74  1.94  .000  1.50  2.34  1.84  .000  .92  1.58  2.75  1.79  .000  .24  .96  2.31  1.16  .000  NDP  Lib  SC  .39  2.65  1.36  AntiRegulation C o n t i n e n t a l ism  Individual vs. Collective Responsibility Populism  * T a b l e e n t r i e s a r e mean s c o r e s . S c a l e s were i n d i r e c t i o n i n d i c a t e d by name o f s c a l e .  scored  65  Chapter  4  OPTIMISM AND  This analyze  chapter w i l l  the  associated Liberal  relationship  The  i s , of  p e r f o r m a n c e s of i m p o r t a n c e of  p a r t y and  b e l i e f that  course, the  a cognitive  A cognitive  f a l s e b e l i e f s i n the  a comprehensive e x p l a n a t i o n  posits  that  to j u s t i f y  a p p r o p r i a t e and  effective.  have c o n t r o l  over  the  their actions  c o u r s e of  future  perseverance, s e c u r i t y , dispositions,  naturally, awareness.  reinforcing  processes that and  and  control  or lead  most o f t e n ,  to are  below the  in  BC  individual  and  they a r i s e .  It  as  the  attributional meaningful,  events.  feel This,  persevere. positive  dispositions l e v e l of  they in  turn,  Hope,  affective  enhancing s e l f - e s t e e m . t o our  moribund  electoral  Thereby, i n d i v i d u a l s  hope; hope l e a d s i n d i v i d u a l s  cognitive  how  to  be  model a c c o u n t s f o r  healthy of  force  past  i n d i v i d u a l s engage i n c o g n i t i v e  biases in order  to  membership i n the  f a l s e , considering  party.  motivation  desire  i t i s a strong  offers  fosters  t h e o r y of  between a c t i v i s t s '  with a winning  Party.  politics  use  ACTIVISM  As  occur  conscious  such,  66 C o n c e p t s o f t h e c o g n i t i v e model i n c l u d e t h e t e n d e n c y t o e x a g g e r a t e and t o f e e l i s able  to achieve  outcomes. effect, thesis  beneffectance,  intended  The i l l u s i o n  outcomes and t o a v o i d  of c o n t r o l , the f a l s e  or s e l f - f u l f i l l i n g  prophecies  p r e d i c t s that a t t r i b u t i o n a l  optimism  i n the p a r t y ' s  contrary.  such t h a t  involvement  reality  would  a chance a t s u c c e s s ,  be seen as a s u c c e s s f u l  active  p a r t y members, and more i m p o r t a n t l y ,  A Winning The  electoral  data  revealed  government w i t h next e l e c t i o n . that winning  1  their  t o be  persistence  a p a r t y whose members b e l i e v e d  t h a t they  could  up t o 55 p e r c e n t This  of the popular  with  small  10 per c e n t  by o n l y  the party's  proportion  a minority  vote  to Sorauf's  importance t o a c t i v i s t s  and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  vote  i n the  assertion i n s p i r e d by  ends.  o r more o f t h e p o p u l a r  of respondents  p r e d i c t e d more r e a l i s t i c  of the popular  i t can  p o s s i b l y form t h e  i s i n contrast  i s of l e s s  were g i v e n  equally  motivations  defeats.  A l t h o u g h t a r g e t s o f 30 p e r c e n t vote  political  Party  win—some predicted  ideology  to the  be d i s t o r t e d i n o r d e r  In t u r n , o p t i m i s m would g u i d e t h e i r  the f a c e of repeated  This  b i a s e s would f o s t e r  force.  in  unintended  are also involved.  i n a party without  t h e p a r t y would  one  consensus  future, despite evidence  Essentially,  to j u s t i f y  which i s t h e b e l i e f  and l e s s .  This  (10.57.), an f i g u r e s of  t h e s i s assumes  The e x a c t q u e s t i o n was, "What do you t h i n k a r e r e a l i s t i c g o a l s f o r the L i b e r a l P a r t y i n the next p r o v i n c i a l election? a. "/. o f t h e v o t e b. 0 s e a t s ; 1-3 s e a t s ; 4-10 seats; s e a t s ; o p p o s i t i o n s t a t u s ; form t h e government 1  67 that  10  goals the  per  cent  or  l e s s of  f o r a p a r t y which has  last  4 elections.  p r e d i c t i o n s of 6 per realistic  goals  cent  or  i n the  and  less  than  the  r e s p o n d e n t s gave 6 per  1 per  realistic  goals  contrast,  83  f o r the  per  o r more of  cent the  median r e a l i s t i c  per  cent.  Party  party  goal  even  half that since  Nevertheless, activists  believed  expectation  of 43  between 4 and realistic  goal  per  around not  party cent  only  2.6  by  per  the v o t e  has  of  In 12  per goals.  r e s p o n d e n t s was the  19  Liberal  f i g u r e i n the e l e c t i o n s to p u l l  o p p o s i t i o n s t a t u s or party w i l l  i s t h a t BC  the a b i l i t y  that  the  slightly  between 1 and  attain  up  i t s share  who  Liberal  t o win:  party w i l l  less  3 seats. believed  their  elect  (40"/.) t h o u g h t The the  See Appendix I f o r the L i b e r a l r e s u l t s , 1903-19B6.  party  will those  previous  Party's  a  r e m a i n d e r were  form the government and repeat  the  performances.  3  that,  cent  unrealistic  that although this  to  6.74  as  thought t h a t  the  most  received only  Yet,  been a b l e  was  d i v i d e d between t h o s e  t h a t the  the  1972.  evenly  believed  are  previous  were n o t  over  that  i n the n e x t e l e c t i o n .  vote  10 MLAs, w h i l e was  cent  cent  what i s i m p o r t a n t the  vote  l e s s of  targeted  i t has  realistic  per  or  I t must here be n o t e d  t o 1966,  argue  party  the a c t i v i s t s  c o n s i s t e n t l y hovered  from 1952 to  cent  popular  The  2.69  i n 1979.  of  the  t h a t the  are  than 8 per  could  l e s s of  election, cent  vote  polled less  considering last  popular  Indeed, one  3  per c e n t  cent  the  election  who  68 Clearly,  the m a j o r i t y  were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h election an  defeats.  a winning  To  will  cognitive  party  Liberal  examine the d a t a  of  the  party  literature  engaged  in cognitive attributional  present  t h e m s e l v e s as  effective,  but  election  they  t o 6.74  per  of  belief  was  r e m a i n d e r of  of  as a u g u r i n g  confirmed  Clark  attention  will  and  the  In the  this  underlying  BC L i b e r a l s  Not  only  did  beneficial  well  The  vote  f o r the  repeated  last  rise  literature  party cadre,  f o r c e of  by  t h i s outcome  references  The  to producing spurious  the  election  produced  party.  they  and  from 2.69  saw  per elite  was  following  t o the  Wilson's p r e d i c t i o n that,  a l s o be d e v o t e d  the  biases.  party.  popular  accomplishment - o f t e n  in maintaining  revealed  simultaneously  f o r the  f o r the  q u o t e s , which c o n t a i n e d  s e n s e of  false  a l s o e x a g g e r a t e d what the outcome of  cent.  activists  interpreted  being  portended  the L i b e r a l ' s s h a r e  Liberal  i t s h i s t o r y of  a c t i v i s m , the f o r evidence  they  Optimism  Perusal  cent  despite  perceived  biases.  Sources of  last  activists  d e t e r m i n e whether t h i s  i n c e n t i v e governing  chapter  of L i b e r a l  outcome,  "Considerable  among members a  - which i s e s s e n t i a l  the i n c e n t i v e s . "  3  . . . t h e d o u b l i n g of our v o t e i n the p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n p r o v e s t o me t h a t we can and w i l l e l e c t L i b e r a l s t o the L e g i s l a t u r e . * -  P e t e r B. C l a r k and James Q. W i l s o n , A T h e o r y of O r g a n i z a t i o n s , " Administrative 6 (1961) 148. 3  •* Dove Hendren, P r e s i d e n t , Executive Convention, May 8, 9, 10, Richmond, BC.  " I n c e n t i v e Systems: Science Quarterly, Reports  to  the  1987  69 We d i d n ' t a c h i e v e t h e r e s u l t s we had hoped f o r d u r i n g the l a s t e l e c t i o n by w i n n i n g a s e a t , but we d i d manage t o r a i s e the p r o f i l e of l i b e r a l i s m i n B.C. That was e v i d e n c e d by our p e r c e n t a g e of t h e popular vote. The b r e a k t h r o u g h we hope f o r w i l l have t o a w a i t a n o t h e r e l e c t i o n and a new l e a d e r , but I know i t w i l l come. Dne day t h e r e w i l l be a L i b e r a l government i n V a n c o u v e r . * A r t [ L e e ] ' s t i r e l e s s e f f o r t s d u r i n g the l a s t campaign r e s u l t e d i n the d o u b l i n g of our p o p u l a r v o t e and have p r o v i d e d the f o u n d a t i o n upon w h i c h can a l l b u i l d . *  we  I t i s e x c i t i n g to contemplate the r i s e i n p o p u l a r i t y of our p a r t y i n B r i t i s h Columbia o v e r t h e l a s t two and one h a l f y e a r s and i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r our future. The r e c e n t p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n showed us that people i n t h i s p r o v i n c e are w i l l i n g to take a second look a t t h e L i b e r a l a l t e r n a t i v e . 7  ...we were a b l e t o d o u b l e o u r p e r c e n t a g e of t h e p o p u l a r v o t e i n the 1986 campaign. More p e o p l e began t o r e c o g n i z e the need f o r a moderate p a r t y of the c e n t r e . 6  Cognitive dissonance actual  figures.  conviction  was  T h i s enhanced  that L i b e r a l  These s t a t e m e n t s biases. Lee's  liberalism in  that,  i n B.C."  the a s s e r t i o n  Liberal  ability  was  on  the r i s e  in  f a l s e consensus  with BC.  cognitive  illustrated  d i d manage t o r a i s e  the  to a s s e r t  a number of o t h e r  f o r example, was  The  in Art  the p r o f i l e  effect  was  of  apparent  t h a t a d o u b l i n g of t h e v o t e r e f l e c t e d  Party's rising  A r t Lee, pamphlet, 4. s  their  reflected  "we  by n o t a c k n o w l e d g i n g  popularity  Beneffectance,  belief  avoided  Liberal  appeal  among the  Insight:  electorate.  Leadership  Convention  * John T u r n e r ,  letter  to d e l e g a t e s , October,  7  John T u r n e r ,  letter  to p o l i c y  e  John T u r n e r ,  Liberal  Insight,  cit.,  2.  1987,  1987.  c o n v e n t i o n , May, op.  the  1987.  70 According individuals  to the l i t e r a t u r e ,  their control.  they a r e primed c o g n i t i v e l y t o e x p e c t e f f o r t t o  produce s u c c e s s .  this  i s e x p e c t e d by  t o be a v a r i a b l e d i s p o s i t i o n w i t h i n  Specifically,  activists,  effort  The f o l l o w i n g  s t a t e m e n t s by e l i t e  A r t Lee and John T u r n e r r e s p e c t i v e l y ,  t h e s i s ' argument t h a t  optimism  Liberal  illustrate  i n the party's  future  s u c c e s s a r o s e from s u c h a t t r i b u t i o n a l b i a s e s . D u r i n g t h e p a s t two y e a r s , L i b e r a l s have a l l worked v e r y hard t o r e - e s t a b l i s h o u r P a r t y a s a p o l i t i c a l f o r c e i n B r i t i s h Columbia. A l t h o u g h we were n o t s u c c e s s f u l i n winning a seat i n the recent general e l e c t i o n , the Party d i d double i t s popular vote. L i b e r a l s can be v e r y proud o f t h i s a c h i e v e m e n t , and because o f o u r r e s u l t a t t h e p o l l s , we a l s o can be very o p t i m i s t i c about our f u t u r e r o l e i n B r i t i s h Columbia. 9  I am c o n v i n c e d t h a t we have what i t t a k e s t o make g r e a t i n r o a d s i n t h i s p r o v i n c e i n t h e coming months. If we s t r e n g t h e n o u r r e s o l v e , d i s c i p l i n e o u r e f f o r t s and u n i t e i n a common p u r p o s e , we w i l l move q u i c k l y and s u r e l y towards a b r i g h t e r f u t u r e . 1 0  They a t t r i b u t e d the  amount o f e f f o r t  this in  the party's  inference,  improved  expended  they p r e d i c t e d  an even b e t t e r  showing  standing  by L i b e r a l a c t i v i s t s . that  more e f f o r t  i n the next e l e c t i o n .  of c o n t r o l  fostered  outcomes.  I t a l s o gave them t h e s e c u r i t y  activism  confidence that  i n the L i b e r a l Party  Hard work had p a i d popular vote.  They were, t h e r e f o r e ,  0  would  result  The i l l u s i o n predict  to believe  that  of t h e i r share of the o p t i m i s t i c that the  t o p o l i c y c o n v e n t i o n , May, 1987.  John T u r n e r , l e t t e r d e l e g a t e s , O c t o b e r , 1987. 1  they c o u l d  Given  was n o t m e a n i n g l e s s and f u t i l e .  o f f i n a doubling  A r t Lee, l e t t e r  9  at the p o l l s to  to leadership  convention  71 outcome s i g n i f i e d such,  they  have s e t up  prophecy.  I f the  would c r e d i t the  a b r i g h t e r f u t u r e f o r the L i b e r a l  party  possibility  p a r t y wins a s e a t  their  success  again  failed  occurred  despite  their  continue  being  not  the  a seat,  efforts.  their  time and  argument as w e l l . the a c t i v i s t s  be o p t i m i s t s and party's  A new  those  we  who  in  h i s or  constituency  an  individual  with  who  rated  rated  the  realists.  a t t r i b u t e d the  was  created  by  groups, those t o be  An  we  considered  realists  o p t i m i s t was  about  as medium o r h i g h . low  of our  or  probing  the  the as  seat  A realist  was  nonexistent.  sample;  v a r i a b l e was  to  defined  p a r t y ' s c h a n c e of w i n n i n g a  The  to  the  remainder  crosstabulated  f a c t o r s to which  p a r t y ' s outcome i n the  the  previous  i i  According versus  party  this  v a r i a b l e was  per c e n t  a s e r i e s of q u e s t i o n s  election.  believe  this  the c h a n c e as  c o n s t i t u t e d 45  composed of  activists  would  support  chances.  individual  was  However, i f  i n the data  considered  an  Optimists  they  they  energy.  i n t o two  future electoral  her  effort.  T h i s would e n a b l e them  E v i d e n c e of c o g n i t i v e b i a s e s  dividing  i n the n e x t e l e c t i o n ,  to i n c r e a s e d  t o win  As  self-fulling  o p t i m i s t i c t h a t t h e i r work f o r the  a waste o f  thesis'  for a  Party.  t o the  e x t e r n a l , and  literature, fixed  versus  disparities  in  internal  v a r i a b l e , a t t r i b u t i o n s of  The e x a c t q u e s t i o n was, "How i m p o r t a n t do you t h i n k the f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s w i l l be i n d e t e r m i n i n g the L i b e r a l P a r t y ' s s u c c e s s i n t h e n e x t PROVINCIAL e l e c t i o n ( v e r y i m p o r t a n t , somewhat i m p o r t a n t , n o t v e r y i m p o r t a n t , n o t a t a l l important)?: the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r ; the p a r t y ' s l o c a l c a n d i d a t e s ; weakness of the S o c i a l C r e d i t ; weakness of the NDP; s t r e n g t h of the f e d e r a l L i b e r a l s ; the p r o v i n c i a l p l a t f o r m A 1  72 causality  when p o s t d i c t i n g  variations  i n expectancy  Specifically, fixed,  an e v e n t  of f u t u r e s u c c e s s and  i f blame f o r a f a i l e d  external characteristics,  likelihood  of p r e d i c t i n g  the p a s t .  If f a i l u r e  factors,  t h e r e would  atypical  aspiration  would  predict  are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r failure.  outcome i s p l a c e d  t h e r e would  be  on  less  a f u t u r e outcome i n c o n s i s t e n t  i s attributed  to v a r i a b l e ,  be more l i k e l i h o o d shift.  success w i l l  That  internal  of d i s p l a y i n g  i s to say,  the  occur with repeated  with  an  individual attempts  at  the  task. The likely  d a t a r e v e a l e d t h a t , as p r e d i c t e d , o p t i m i s t s were more  than  variable, party  realists  internal  l e a d e r and  to a t t r i b u t e  factors.  as i m p o r t a n t .  matters  internal they  strategies. determining  regarded Believing  p a r t y l e a d e r and  the c h o i c e s of t h e y would  Future  failure  last  i n meeting  Credit  p l a t f o r m , being controlled.  l e a d e r and  p l a t f o r m as  be of p r i m a r y  election,  and  importance  demonstrated  t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h e i r  p l a t f o r m i n the  concluded  t h e g o a l of e l e c t i n g  c o u l d be a v o i d e d  =  in that  c h o i c e of that  the  by m a n i p u l a t i n g  T h e r e was no d i f f e r e n c e between v a r i a t i o n i n the of o p t i m i s m and the i m p o r t a n c e w i t h which the p a r t y ' s c a n d i d a t e s were r e g a r d e d . A c c o r d i n g to the l i t e r a t u r e , o p t i m i s t s s h o u l d have seen t h i s as an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r . i  the  they  the outcome of t h e n e x t e l e c t i o n  they were i n e f f e c t i v e party.  The  to  to rate  t o a weak S o c i a l  t o t h e p a r t y , were f a c t o r s  o p t i m i s t s monitored l e a d e r and  1 2  failures  They were more l i k e l y  p l a t f o r m , as opposed  o r NDP,  As s u c h ,  past e l e c t i o n  these  level  73 strategies.  Clearly,  optimism d i s p l a y e d Realists, weak S o c i a l the  As  by t h i s s u b - s e t o f o u r sample.  Credit  o r NDP outcome.  parties,  activists'  likely  as t h e most i m p o r t a n t The s t r e n g t h  although v a r i a b l e ,  such, they a r e s t r a t e g i c  Liberal  i n s p i r e d the  on t h e o t h e r hand, were more  next e l e c t i o n  provincial  a t t r i b u t i o n a l biases  features  control.  to rate a  p o r t e n t s of  of the other  are external  factors.  o f BC p o l i t i c s  Realists  beyond  would n o t a t t e n d  t o the  effectiveness  of i n t e r n a l s t r a t e g i e s  as t h e y d i s a g r e e d t h e  outcome would  be dependent on them.  In t h i s r e g a r d ,  exhibited  a lack  of optimism  they were n o t o p e r a t i n g to  that  the  This  were more  the  biases.  likely  t h e y were more  locus  of o p t i m i s t s ;  was a m a t t e r w i t h i n  similar  likely  futility.  The d a t a a l s o  1 3  revealed  the strength  that  realists  of the f e d e r a l  factor  influencing  success f o r the p r o v i n c i a l  Liberal  of c o n t r o l  different  realists their  than  r e a l i s t s were n o t e n g a g i n g i n  P a r t y was an i m p o r t a n t s t r a t e g i c  internal  because  of c o n t r o l  some f e e l i n g s o f  to agree that  chance of f u t u r e  Their that  to d i s p l a y  In t u r n ,  i s not to argue that  attributional  Liberal  under an i l l u s i o n  of the o p t i m i s t s .  optimists  i n the party's future  they  was,  perceived  therefore, that  the f e d e r a l  Party. from  party  control.  When asked why they* t h o u g h t f e d e r a l L i b e r a l s u p p o r t e r s d e s e r t e d t h e p a r t y i n p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n s , o p t i m i s t s were more l i k e l y t o a t t r i b u t e t h e c a u s e t o a v a r i e t y o f p a r t y r e l a t e d m a t t e r s s u c h as t h e p l a t f o r m , poor o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e leader, o r the c a n d i d a t e s . R e a l i s t s were more l i k e l y t o s a y i t was because v o t e s were wasted on t h e L i b e r a l P a r t y . 1  3  74 It  follows  more o r i e n t e d federal  realistic  The  being  than o p t i m i s t s  data confirmed  held  1  less likely  the  party  t h o s e i n d i v i d u a l s who executive.  And  a f e d e r a l c a n d i d a t e or campaign, i n c l u d i n g the  federal  than o p t i m i s t s  t o have s e r v e d  (43*/. v e r s u s  to 10  ever serving  feel Provincial  i n the  on  t o have worked on  the  likely  higher  They p r e d o m i n a t e d  they were more l i k e l y  last  party  be  a l l other  r e a l i s t s were more  organization. reported  toward  expectation:  (437. v e r s u s 6 7 7 . ) .  were a l s o more l i k e l y  e c h e l o n s of  the  c l o s e r t o the  c l o s e t o both p a r t i e s  realists  riding  constant, "*  to f e e l  They were a l s o  equally  p r o v i n c i a l a c t i v i s t s would  than o p t i m i s t i c p r o v i n c i a l a c t i v i s t s  party.  properties  137.).  that  among  a federal  t o have e v e r  been  a federal election  one.  *••* V a r i a t i o n s i n the l e v e l of o p t i m i s m were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h most demographic and s o c i o economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Income was the o n l y SES v a r i a b l e s i g n i f i c a n t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l e v e l of o p t i m i s m ( s i g . level=.03). W h i l e o p t i m i s t s tended t o have an income between 420,000 and $50,000, r e a l i s t s tended t o make e i t h e r l e s s than $20,000 o r more than $50,000. T h e r e was a l s o no r e l a t i o n s h i p between l e v e l of o p t i m i s m and a number of c o n t e x t u a l f a c t o r s : l e n g t h of L i b e r a l P a r t y i n v o l v e m e n t ; l e n g t h and r e g i o n of r e s i d e n c e i n BC; whether the c o n s t i t u e n c y r e p r e s e n t e d by the d e l e g a t e r e c e i v e d a h i g h , medium o r low d e g r e e of s u p p o r t from v o t e r s i n the 19B6 e l e c t i o n . The level. 1 = 1  .01  r e l a t i o n s h i p was  statistically  significant  at  the  75  Optimism and A new of  variable  participation  predicted the  Activism was  created  reported  by  y e t a breakdown of  of o p t i m i s m  revealed  of o p t i m i s m  increased,  the  higher  the  of  were more l i k e l y  for a candidate,  in  provincial  party. and  variation  significant related the  federal  And  candidate,  t o have worked  in  the  They  they or  to  f o r the  party  was  found  between the  level  i n a c t i v i t y f o r the  provincial  federal  party  level.  Federal  l e v e l of o p t i m i s m  i n the  federal  constituency  party's  a c t i v i t y by  revealed  party  optimism  was  a c t i v i s m was  in provincial  provincial  provincial  t o be  decreased.  executive.  i n a c t i v i t y f o r the  were more l i k e l y  level  provincial  l e v e l of  leadership convention be  the  between  of o p t i m i s m  A breakdown of  to  or  l e v e l of a c t i v i t y f o r the  level  on  relationship  .05  the  level  election.  variation  a t the  t o the  As  party organization.  served  relationship  However, the  members i n  participation  constituency  have worked  of o p t i m i s m and  most a c t i v e  t o have been a p r o v i n c i a l  statistical  was  that r e a l i s t s predominated  provincial  or a p r o v i n c i a l  last  the  It  type  the amount of a c t i v i t y by  to have e v e r  were more l i k e l y  No  respondents.  the d e g r e e of  revealed  echelons  the d e g r e e and  inverse relationship.  Moreover, the d a t a  the  the  t h a t o p t i m i s t s would be  party,  executive  measuring  inversely  politics.  increased, future  c a p a c i t y at  provincial  constituency  the  decreased. the  t h a t r e a l i s t s were more  representatives while  As  likely  optimists  76 representatives. * 1  Therefore,  a c t i v i s m i n the f e d e r a l  party,  rather than optimism i n the p r o v i n c i a l party, governed a c t i v i s m i n the BC L i b e r a l Party. We have seen that almost half the a c t i v i s t s believed belonged to a party that could win.  tney  Their optimism stemmed  from a number of a t t r i b u t i o n a l biases, e s p e c i a l l y the i l l u s i o n of c o n t r o l over i n t e r n a l party features such as the leader and platform.  Yet, t h e i r optimism d i d not determine involvement  in the L i b e r a l Party.  Rather, f e d e r a l a c t i v i s m was found to  be the determinant of p r o v i n c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The  negative  r e l a t i o n s h i p between v a r i a t i o n s i n the l e v e l  of optimism and a c t i v i t y r e i n f o r c e s t h i s t h e s i s ' argument that p e r s i s t e n c e i n a c t i v i s m f o r the L i b e r a l Party was governed by attributional  biases.  i l l u s t r a t e this Optimists, were subject  The f o l l o w i n g h y p o t h e t i c a l example w i l l  contention. because of t h e i r lower p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s ,  to the f a l s e consensus e f f e c t .  Party  activists,  by d e f i n i t i o n , maintained contact with the e l e c t o r a t e . fallows that workers with higher  p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s would  have had more contact with the v o t e r s . opportunity  It  As such, the  was there f o r the r e a l i s t s to make v a l i d  assessments of the party's p o p u l a r i t y among the v o t e r s . However, the o p t i m i s t s , given  t h e i r lower p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s ,  did not have a s i m i l a r opportunity.  They associated  those who would not n e c e s s a r i l y support t h e i r  This was s i g n i f i c a n t at the .04 l e v e l .  l e s s with  political  77 values.  Consequently,  of  political  their  their  values  could  direction  of o v e r e s t i m a t i n g  attitudes  toward  the  little  the other  participation Belief  t o be  of  the  biased  in  t o which  the  their among v o t e r s .  p a r t y ' s p o p u l a r i t y meant  actively  hand, r e a l i s t s ,  r a t e s , s e t up  creates r e a l i t y ,  work pays o f f g o v e r n e d provincial  Liberal  enhanced  their  intended  outcome.  was  raising  party  successful  the  Party.  That  the  profile  of  in i t s e l f provided  t o be  reasonably  demonstrating  commitment  so was  twofold.  inspired  activity  of t h e L i b e r a l  federal party's  Party  results  in  the  candidates  Involvement with of v i c t o r y ,  to the L i b e r a l  a  the  desire  p a r t y and i t s Party.  a means  t o the L i b e r a l  Party.  First,  and  loyalty  f o r t u n e s i n the  The  party  potentially  In t u r n , t h i s province.  It  and  a c t i v i s m was  t h a t would  the  work.  a winning  i n BC.  hard  federal party  t o hard  Provincial  that  the  t h a t r e a l i s t s were, f i r s t  their  p u r p o s e of d o i n g  the  loyal  federal a c t i v i s t s .  profile  belief.  associated with  argued  help  this  attributed  can  the  belief  the  a vicarious t h r i l l  remaining  identification  i n t h i s case,  i n the f e d e r a l p a r t y a l s o f u l f i l l e d  realists  foremost,  prophecy.  federal party elected  of  higher  a self-fulfilling  A c t i v i s m i n the  p e r q u i s i t e s while be  v i r t u e of t h e i r  i n c e n t i v e t o work f o r  the  outcome they  Activism the  and  by  c o n v i c t i o n t h a t more e f f o r t  validation  federal  of  be  party. On  of  easily  representativeness  P a r t y were s h a r e d  estimates  reason  the  the e x t e n t  the L i b e r a l  In t u r n , o p t i m i s t i c t h e r e was  sense of  raise might  Second,  78 demonstrable party.  l o y a l t y and  Political  participation  i s usually  opportunism, t h e r e f o r e ,  i n the  satisfaction  of  be  i n the  activists  commitment  p r o v i n c i a l party  tangible, material federal  party.  rewarded  by  the  inspired  organization.  benefits required  But they  the also  i 7  The p l a u s i b i l i t y o f the argument t h a t t h e p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y was u n a b l e t o g i v e i t s w o r k e r s c e r t a i n p e r q u i s i t e s i s a p p a r e n t c o n s i d e r i n g the BC L i b e r a l P a r t y ' s poor f i n a n c i a l s t a t u s and t h i n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l b a s e . Presumption of t h e i r poor f i n a n c i a l s t a t u s was based on i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d i n the E x e c u t i v e R e p o r t s t o the 1987 ( P o l i c y ) C o n v e n t i o n of the BC L i b e r a l P a r t y , Richmond, BC, May 8-10, 1987. F o r example, Dove Hendren, President's Report, 1 commented on a new f u n d r a i s i n g method: " . . . t h e t r a d i t i o n a l f i n a n c i a l woes of our p a r t y can i n d e e d become p a r t of h i s t o r y i f we a l l work t o g e t h e r t o make the new s y s t e m work." She c o n t i n u e s : "...we have a l s o l a c k e d the r e s o u r c e s t o b u i l d our o r g a n i z a t i o n a l base and t o implement c o m m u n i c a t i o n s programs, and s p e c i a l projects. Our f u t u r e e f f o r t s must be d i r e c t e d t o making the new f u n d r a i s i n g program work to e n s u r e t h a t we have the n e c e s s a r y f u n d s f o r the p a r t y to be a v i a b l e f o r c e i n the p o l i t i c a l l i f e of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( 2 ) . " The Vice-President's Report s a i d the p a r t y had t o u n d e r t a k e a program of f i n a n c i a l restraint. T h i s meant l a c k of f u n d s f o r "the program component (Communication, O r g a n i z a t i o n , Membership, P o l i c y (1) . " i - 7  79  CONCLUSION  The are  p u r p o s e o f t h i s t h e s i s was  active  finished  i n t h e BC L i b e r a l P a r t y ,  as a v i a b l e f o r c e Related  incentives  and s e c o n d , t o a c c o u n t  them.  goals  This  were f i r s t ,  i n t h e BC L i b e r a l P a r t y .  incentives  for  would  to c l a s s i f y  on m o t i v a t i o n s .  incentives  was  This  the  1975  their  f o r the f a c t o r s  that  about i n c e n t i v e s It predicted  governing  that  both  activism.  from a s u r v e y o f L i b e r a l a c t i v i s t s was then  literature  suggested  activism  Party  Data  analyzed  i n the e x i s t i n g  E v i d e n c e f o r both t y p e s o f  found.  t h e s i s used c o g n i t i v e  classified: the  following  r e s u l t i n L i b e r a l Party  the presence of i n c e n t i v e s  party  i t was  dependent on, and i n d e p e n d e n t o f , t h e L i b e r a l  being e l e c t e d derived  individuals  t h e s i s used a two-pronged t h e o r e t i c a l  approach to formulate p r e d i c t i o n s activism  why  considering  i n BC p o l i t i c s  election.  governed  to explain  in a failed  optimists  motivational  party.  Two  and r e a l i s t s .  most o p t i m i s t i c a c t i v i s t s  theory  to explain  types of a c t i v i s t s The d a t a r e v e a l e d  had t h e l o w e s t  l e v e l of  were  that  i n v o l v e m e n t i n the activists  had  party.  the  In c o n t r a s t ,  highest  level  They were a l s o more l i k e l y  of  the  realistic  i n v o l v e m e n t i n the  t o work f o r the  federal  party.  party  as  wel 1 . This  t h e s i s argued  attributional o p t i m i s m and falsely  biases  engaged  activism.  believed  voters.  t h a t v a r i a t i o n i n the  the  Therefore,  optimists  saw  Realists,  on  I t was  party's since  little the  other  and  as  concluded  values  the  reason  party  was  f o r higher  party's  the  that  of  level  of  optimists  were w i d e l y s h a r e d  hand, b e l i e v e d  dependent v a r i a b l e i n t h e election,  i n determined  types  already  by  the  popular,  participation rates. that e f f o r t  outcome i n the  was  the  next  s u c h , they were more a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d  in  the  party. This  t h e s i s reported  evaluative different  BC  from  L i b e r a l s placed  party  the  left-right  nor  t o be  collectivist.  the  defectors  1972  party  then c o n t r a s t e d  election.  were members of  who  the  t o BC's  t o the joined  This  as  and  NDP  characterizes  they  perceived  to have moderate  political  culture.  beliefs  Social Credit  t h e s i s contended L i b e r a l Party  on  neither  political the  strikingly  the  that  In e f f e c t ,  i d e o l o g i c a l l y balanced  former L i b e r a l a c t i v i s t s after  their  p o l i c y domains s a l i e n t  T h i s was  continuum  and  activists.  S o c i a l C r e d i t and  They c l a s s i f i e d  individualist  v i e w s on  ideologies  t h o s e o f S o c i a l C r e d i t o r NDP  s i d e s of  politics.  their  personal  d i s p o s i t i o n s of L i b e r a l a c t i v i s t s were  Specifically, opposite  that  of Party  that L i b e r a l  because i t was  a  81 free-enterprise ideologically  a l t e r n a t i v e , not  balanced.  They were more l i k e l y  individualist/collectivist their  personal  ends of that in  the L i b e r a l  the  the  p a r t y was  province,  appropriate  they  comfortable  joined  to  be a s s o c i a t e d  with  sensations argued  the  this  the  associated with  Party  Party:  as w e l l .  p o l i t i c s was tended  the  a more  determining  i t s h i s t o r y of  defeats.  activists their  reward  not  including  motivation  were  desire  to  i t s workers.  than  chose a route loyal  f o r the  tended  provincial  to  was  This finding  by  the Liberal  that federal  politics This  and  satisfying  federal  to f e e l  federal party.  realists.  It  a l s o governed  them t o remain  activists  advancement  of v i c t o r y .  a c t i v i s m was  However, they  c l o s e r t o the  t r u e of  thrill  became a c t i v i s t s  Liberal  apparent  party winning e l e c t i o n s i n c l u d e  the  more i m p o r t a n t  to f e e l  especially  they  the  Therefore,  Party,  benefits, status, career  opportunism.  to  party.  because of  that could  i n c e n t i v e which a l l o w e d  Liberal  despite  party  that current L i b e r a l  political  committed  a c t i v i s t s would  t h a t former L i b e r a l  a party  patronage, m a t e r i a l  of  Credit Party,  the L i b e r a l  a strong  Party,  P e r q u i s i t e s d e p e n d i n g on  aspect  v i a b l e to d e f e a t s o c i a l i s m  provincial  the ends of  leave  the  beliefs.  p o s i t i o n , was  a l s o motivated  were n o t  the S o c i a l  other  This thesis asserted  t o see  a salient  that current Liberal  i n the L i b e r a l  moderate o r  C o n s e q u e n t l y , when i t was  sufficiently  i n any  with  ideological  activism  not  as  such, they  Party.  concluded  identification its  As  division  vehicle for their  I t was feel  views.  because i t was  and  was  suggested  that  82 provincial  activists  relied  on  the  r e w a r d s , t h e r e f o r e , o b v i a t i n g the party  t o win  active  e l e c t i o n s i n order  was  not  motivations have n o t  designed  and  strands  the  and  As  conclusions  i t was  Liberal  incentives for  ideology,  purposive  concerns  i n c e n t i v e s f o r a c t i v i s m , p a t t e r n s of  t h e s i s found  e q u a l l y powerful  political  observe t h i s .  has  While t h i s  in a p o l i t i c a l  party.  party  Consequently,  t o the  o r g a n i z a t i o n s and  the  role  in  Focussing  provided  an  accumulating  As  and to  be  cognitive governing  on  for  a weak, to  political  such, t h i s  knowledge on  i n d i v i d u a l s who  parties.  those  opportunity  the e x p l a n a t i o n  a c t i v i s m i s more c o m p r e h e n s i v e .  contributed  party  from s u c c e s s f u l p o l i t i c a l  important  unsuccessful  yet  Party.  opportunism.  involvement  or  f a c t o r s , i n v a r i o u s ways, c o n t r i b u t e d  evidence  an  I  these f a c t o r s .  i s not  political  i n f e r e n c e s played  such,  a p r e l i m i n a r y study,  the same e x p l a n a t i o n ,  on  As  are a l t e r n a t i v e explanations,  literature classifies  based on  The  measures o f  c o n t r i b u t i o n s of  a c t i v i s m i n the BC  such, i t focuses  party  retain i t s  must here be n o t e d .  t h e s i s were i n d i r e c t  relative  within  determining  activism  this  A l l these  Existing  As  their  provincial  t o probe f o r m o t i v a t i o n s .  incentives.  weighed  determined. to  by  whether t h e s e  simply  f o r the  to a t t r a c t  to t h i s c o n c l u s i o n  the methods used  So  need  for  supporters.  A caveat survey  federal party  thesis  party  compose them.  83 BIBLIOGRAPHY Primary  Sources  Data U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s , Data Archives. " B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L e a d e r s h i p Study 1986." B l a k e , Donald E., R.K. C a r t y and Lynda E r i c k s o n . U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s , Data Archives. " B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P a r t y and L e a d e r s h i p Study 1987." B l a k e , Donald E., R.K. C a r t y and Lynda E r i c k s o n . U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s , Data Archives. "BC L i b e r a l P a r t y and L e a d e r s h i p Study 1988." C a r t y , R.K., Robyn A. So, M i c h a e l A. Mayer, and Tony Sayers. Party  Documents  B r i t i s h Columbia L i b e r a l Provincial Election.  Party. 1987.  Policy  Platform  . Executive Reports to the 1987 Richmond, BC, May 8, 9, 10, 1987. . Undated  Liberal Insight: pamphlet.  Burnyeat, Grant. Letter O c t o b e r 30, 1987. Lee, A r t . 1987.  Letter  Turner, John. . October  Letter 1987.  Convention  Convention delegates, A p r i l  t o 1987  1987.  30,  C o n v e n t i o n d e l e g a t e s , May  1987.  to l e a d e r s h i p convention d e l e g a t e s , Secondary  Books and J o u r n a l  Convention.  to leadership convention delegates,  t o 1987  Letter  Leadership  1986  Sources  Articles  A n d e r s o n , C r a i g A. and D e n n i s L. J e n n i n g s . "When e x p e r i e n c e s of f a i l u r e promote e x p e c t a t i o n s of s u c c e s s : The impact o f a t t r i b u t i n g f a i l u r e to i n e f f e c t i v e s t r a t e g i e s . " Journal of Personality, 38 (19B0), 393-407. B e r n s t e i n , R o b e r t A., and James A. Dyer. An Introduction to Political Science Methods. 2nd e d . Englewood C l i f f s , NJ: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1984.  84 B e s t , R o b e r t S. "The O r g a n i z a t i o n of P r o v i n c i a l P a r t i e s . " In Provincial Government and Poli tics: Comparative Essays. 2nd e d . Ed. Donald C. Rowat. Ottawa: C a r l e t o n U n i v e r s i t y , 1973, 407-35. B l a c k , Edwin R. " B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : The P o l i t i c s o f Exploitation." In Party Politics in Canada. 4 t h ed. Ed. Hugh G. T h o r b u r n . Scarborough, O n t a r i o : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1979, 290-303. . " F e d e r a l S t r a i n s w i t h i n a C a n a d i a n P a r t y , " In Party Politics in Canada. 4th ed. Ed. Hugh G. T h o r b u r n . O n t a r i o : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1979, 89-99. B l a i s , Andre. " T h i r d P a r t i e s i n Canadian P r o v i n c i a l Politics." Canadian Journal of Political Science, (1973), 422-438.  3  B l a k e , Donald E. "The C o n s i s t e n c y o f I n c o n s i s t e n c y : P a r t y I d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l P o l i t i c s . " Canadian Journal of Political Science, 15 ( 1 9 8 2 ) , 691-710. . Two Political Worlds: British Columbia. Vancouver: C o l u m b i a P r e s s , 1985.  Parties and Voting in The U n i v . o f B r i t i s h  e t a l . " S o u r c e s o f Change i n t h e BC P a r t y BC Studies, no. 50 (Summer 1981), 3-28.  System."  e t a l . " I d e o l o g y and P a r t i s a n s h i p : A c o m p a r i s o n of F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l A c t i v i s t s . " A paper p r e s e n t e d a t the a n n u a l m e e t i n g of t h e C a n a d i a n P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e A s s o c i a t i o n , H a m i l t o n , O n t a r i o , 1987. e t a l . " R a t i f i c a t i o n o r R e p u d i a t i o n : The S o c i a l C r e d i t L e a d e r s h i p C o n v e n t i o n . " A paper d e l i v e r e d a t t h e a n n u a l meeting o f t h e C a n a d i a n P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e A s s o c i a t i o n , H a m i l t o n , O n t a r i o , 1987. B o y l e , T. P a t r i c k . Elections British Columbia Guide for Provincial Election Participants A l d e r g r o v e , BC: L i o n s Gate P r e s s , 1986.  2: and  The Unique Spectators.  C h a n d l e r , W i l l i a m M. "Canadian S o c i a l i s m and P o l i c y C o n t a g i o n from t h e L e f t ? " Canadian Journal of Science, 10 ( 1 9 7 7 ) , 755-780. C l a r k , P e t e r B. e t a l . " I n c e n t i v e Systems: Organizations." Administrative Science (1961), 129-166.  Impact: Political  A Theory of Quarterly, 6  85 Crotty, William J. "The P a r t y O r g a n i z a t i o n and I t s Activities." In Approaches to the Study of Party Organization. Ed. W i l l i a m J . C r o t t y . Boston: A l l y n Bacon, 1968, 247-306.  and  Dobie, E d i t h . " P a r t y H i s t o r y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1903-1933." Historical Essays on British Columbia. Eds. J . F r i e s e n and H.K. R a l s t o n . The C a r l e t o n L i b r a r y , No. 96. Toronto: Gage P u b l i s h i n g , 1980. Duverger, Maurice. Political Parties: Their Organization and Activity in the Modern State. 3 r d ed. T r a n s . B a r b a r a and Robert North. 1964; r p t . G r e a t B r i t a i n : Methuen, 1976, 61-132. E l d e r s v e l d , Samuel J . Political Parties: A Behavioral Analysis. C h i c a g o : Rand M c N a l l y , 1964, 272-303. E l k i n s , David J . " P o l i t i c s Makes S t r a n g e B e d f e l l o w s : The BC P a r t y System i n the 1952 and 1953 P r o v i n c i a l E l e c t i o n s . " BC Studies, no. 30 (Summer 1976), 3-26. E r i c k s o n , Lynda e t a l . " I d e o l o g y and P a r t i s a n s h i p i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : A c t i v i s t s i n a B i - P o l a r P o l i t i c a l System." A paper p r e s e n t e d a t the 14th World C o n g r e s s o f t h e International P o l i t i c a l Science Association, Washington, DC, 1988. G a l b r a i t h , Gordon S. " B r i t i s h Columbia." In The Provincial Political Systems: Comparative Essays. Eds. David J . B e l l a m y e t a l . T o r o n t o : Methuen, 1976, 62-75. Goleman, D a n i e l . "Who Are You 21, No. 3 ( 1 9 8 7 ) , 24-30. . Vital Self-Deception.  Lies, New  Kidding?"  Psychology  Today,  Simple Truths: The Psychology of York: Simon and S c h u s t e r , 1985.  I r v i n e , W i l l i a m P. "Does t h e C a n d i d a t e Make a D i f f e r e n c e ? The M a c r o - P o l i t i c s and M i c r o - P o l i t i c s o f G e t t i n g E l e c t e d . " Canadian Journal of Political Science, 15 (1982), 755-782. J a c e k , Henry e t a l . "The Congruence o f F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l Campaign A c t i v i t y i n P a r t y O r g a n i z a t i o n s : The I n f l u e n c e o f Recruitment P a t t e r n s i n Three Hamilton R i d i n g s . " Canadian Journal of Political Science, 5 (1972), 190-205. J o n e s , Edward E. e t a l . Attribution: Perceiving the Causes of Behavior. M o r r i s t o w n , NJ: G e n e r a l L e a r n i n g P r e s s , 1972. K o e n i g , D a n i e l J . e t a l . "The Year t h a t B r i t i s h NDP: NDP V o t e r S u p p o r t P r e - and P o s t - 1 9 7 2 . " no. 24 ( W i n t e r 1974-75), 65-86.  Columbia Went BC Studies,  66 K r a s h i n s k y , M i c h a e l and W i l l i a m J . M i l n e . "Some E v i d e n c e on the E f f e c t o f Incumbency i n O n t a r i o P r o v i n c i a l E l e c t i o n s . " Canadian Journal of Political Science, 16 (19B3), 489-500. K r e b s , D e n n i s e t a l . "On t h e E v o l u t i o n o f S e l f Knowledge and Self-Deception." In Sociobiological Perspectives on Human Development. E d . K. MacDonald. New York: S p r i n g e r — V e r l a g , 1988, 105-139. K r i s t i a n s o n , G.L. "The N o n - P a r t i s a n A p p r o a c h t o BC P o l i t i c s : The S e a r c h f o r a U n i t y P a r t y . " BC Studies, no. 33 ( S p r i n g 1977), 13-29. L e f c o u r t , H e r b e r t M. "The F u n c t i o n s o f t h e I l l u s i o n s o f C o n t r o l and Freedom." American Psychologist, 28 (1973), 417-25. McGeer, P a t r i c k L. Politics in Paradise. M a r t i n A s s o c i a t e s , 1972.  Toronto: Peter  McMenemy, J o h n . " P a r t y O r g a n i z a t i o n . " In The Provincial Political Systems: Comparative Essays. Eds. David Bellamy e t a l . T o r o n t o : Methuen, 1976, 102-17. M i l l e r , D a l e T. "Ego Involvement and A t t r i b u t i o n s f o r S u c c e s s and F a i l u r e . " Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 34 (1976), 901-06. Payne, James L. e t a l . " I n c e n t i v e s F o r P o l i t i c a l Participation." World Politics: A Quarterly Journal International Relations, 24 (1972), 518-546.  of  P e r l i n , George C. The Tory Syndrome: Leadership Politics in the Progressive Conservative Party. M o n t r e a l : Queen's U n i v . P r e s s , 1980. Pinard, Maurice. " T h i r d P a r t i e s i n Canada R e v i s i t e d : A R e j o i n d e r and E l a b o r a t i o n o f t h e Theory o f O n e - P a r t y Dominance." Canadian Journal of Political Science, 3 (1973), 439-460. R a p a p o r t , R o n a l d B. e t a l . , E d s . The Life of the Parties: Activists in Presidential Politics. L e x i n g t o n : The U n i v . P r e s s o f Kentucky, 1986. Resnick, P h i l i p . " N e o - C o n s e r v a t i s m on t h e P e r i p h e r y : The L e s s o n s from BC." BC Studies, no. 75 (Autumn 1987), 3-23. . " S o c i a l Democracy i n Power: The Case o f B r i t i s h Columbia." BC Studies, no. 34 (Summer 1977), 3-20.  87 Robin, M a r t i n . " B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : The Company P r o v i n c e . " In Canadian Provincial Politics: The Party Systems of the Ten Provinces. 2nd e d . Ed. M a r t i n R o b i n . Scarborough, O n t a r i o : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1978, 28-60. 1972.  . Pillars of Profit: The Company Province, T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t , 1973.  1934-  1933.  . The Rush for Spoils: The Company Province T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t , 1972.  1871-  Roy, P a t r i c i a . " P r o g r e s s , P r o s p e r i t y and P o l i t i c s : The Railway P o l i c i e s of Richard McBride." BC Studies, no. 47 (Autumn 1980), 3-28. R u f f , Norman J . "A P r o f i l e o f B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l P a r t y A c t i v i s t s : P r e l i m i n a r y A n a l y s i s of Three C o n v e n t i o n s , November 1973." Unpublished d r a f t , U n i v e r s i t y o f V i c t o r i a , n.d. . " P a r t y Detachment and V o t i n g P a t t e r n s i n a P r o v i n c i a l Two-Member C o n s t i t u e n c y : V i c t o r i a , 1972." Studies, no. 23 ( F a l l 1974), 3-24. S m i l e y , Donald Seventies. 83-113.  V. Canada in Question: Federal ism in the 2nd e d . T o r o n t o : M c G r a w - H i l l R y e r s o n , 1976,  S o r a u f , Frank J . Political B o s t o n : L i t t l e , Brown  Parties in the American & Co., 1964, 60-97.  Tiger, Lionel. Optimism: The Biology Simon and S c h u s t e r , 1979.  of Hope.  New  System. York:  White, Graham. "One-Party Dominance and T h i r d P a r t i e s : P i n a r d Theory R e c o n s i d e r e d . " Canadian Journal of Political Science, 3 (1973), 399-421. Unpublished  BC  The  Materials  A l p e r , Donald K. "From R u l e t o R u i n : The C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1928-1954." U n p u b l i s h e d PhD dissertation. U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1975. H a r r i s , C h r i s t o p h e r . " B r i t i s h Columbia 1972-1975: The of a Two-Party System." U n p u b l i s h e d M.A. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1987.  Genesis  Ward, J u d i t h B. " F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l R e l a t i o n s i n the L i b e r a l Party." U n p u b l i s h e d M.A. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1966.  88 APPENDIX I  BC LIBERAL PARTY ELECTION RESULTS, Election 1903 1907 1909 1912 1916 1920 1924 1928 1933 1937 1941 1945= 1949= 1952 1953 1956 I960* 1963 1966 1969 1972 1975 1979 1983 1986 1  i  3  Source:  Year  1903-1986  Candidates Elected  7. V o t e  17 12 2 0 37 26 23 12 34 31 21 36 39 6 4 2 4 5 6 5 5 1 0 0 0  38.5 37.1 36.3 25.2 50.3 39.0 31.3 40.0 41 .7 37.3 32.9 55.8 61.4 25.3 23.4 21.8 20.9 20.0 20.2 19.0 16.4 7.2 0.7 2.7 6.7  Statements of Votes, 1903 t o 19B6. Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, Chief E l e c t o r a l O f f i c e .  f i n a l r e s u l t s o f s i n g l e t r a n s f e r a b l e b a l l o t ( f i r s t and second c o u n t s were 23.467. and 23.597. r e s p e c t i v e l y f o r t h e Liberal Party) L i b e r a l P a r t y e l e c t e d as p a r t o f c o a l i t i o n L i b e r a l c a n d i d a t e e l e c t e d i n b y - e l e c t i o n ( V i c t o r i a ) November 24, 1953 g i v i n g t h e L i b e r a l P a r t y a t o t a l o f 5 s e a t s * Liberal candidate elected i n by-election (Vancouver—Point Grey) December 17, 1962 g i v i n g t h e L i b e r a l P a r t y a t o t a l o f 5 seats 1  =  3  B9 APPENDIX I I  Attitude  Scales  1  C o l l e c t i v e versus Individual R e s p o n s i b i l i t y (scale scored i n i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y d i r e c t i o n ) 1.  A f t e r a p e r s o n has worked u n t i l he i s 65, i t i s p r o p e r f o r the community t o s u p p o r t him. (Disagree)  2.  The government ought t o make s u r e t h a t e v e r y o n e has a decent standard of l i v i n g . (Disagree)  3.  L e t ' s f a c e i t , most unemployed p e o p l e they r e a l l y wanted t o . (Agree)  4.  Why s h o u l d t h e government spend my tax d o l l a r s on s i c k p e o p l e ; my f a m i l y a l w a y s p u t a s i d e s o m e t h i n g f o r a r a i n y day. (Agree)  5.  Government r e g u l a t i o n s t i f l e s p e r s o n a l i n i t i a t i v e . OR W i t h o u t government r e g u l a t i o n s , some p e o p l e w i l l j u s t t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f t h e r e s t o f u s . (Choose f i r s t s t a t e m e n t )  6.  I f I do my b e s t , i t i s o n l y r i g h t t h a t t h e government s h o u l d h e l p me o u t when I g e t some bad b r e a k s . OR Each i n d i v i d u a l s h o u l d a c c e p t t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t h e i r own actions. (Choose second s t a t e m e n t )  (scale scored  Continentalism in continentalist  have f r e e r  trade with  could  find  a job i f  direction)  1.  Canada s h o u l d (Agree)  the United S t a t e s .  2.  Canada's i n d e p e n d e n c e i s t h r e a t e n e d by t h e l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e o f f o r e i g n o w n e r s h i p i n key s e c t o r s o f o u r economy. (Disagree)  3.  We must e n s u r e an i n d e p e n d e n t Canada even i f t h a t were t o mean a lower s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g f o r C a n a d i a n s . (Disagree)  I am g r a t e f u l t o P r o f e s s o r Donald B l a k e o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia f o r t h e u s e o f t h e s e s c a l e s . 1  90  Populism (scale scored i n populist  direction)  1.  In t h e l o n g r u n , I ' l l put my t r u s t i n the s i m p l e , down-toe a r t h t h i n k i n g o f o r d i n a r y p e o p l e r a t h e r than t h e t h e o r i e s of e x p e r t s and i n t e l l e c t u a l s . (Agree)  2.  We would p r o b a b l y s o l v e most o f our b i g n a t i o n a l problems i f government c o u l d a c t u a l l y be b r o u g h t back t o the p e o p l e at the g r a s s r o o t s . (Agree)  3.  What we need i s government t h a t g e t s t h e j o b done w i t h o u t a l l t h i s red tape. (Agree) Antiregulation  T h i s s c a l e was c r e a t e d by summing t h e number o f a r e a s i n which a respondent favoured s l i g h t or s u b s t a n t i a l r e d u c t i o n s i n government r e g u l a t i o n . The p o l i c y a r e a s were: environmental p r o t e c t i o n marketing of a g r i c u l t u r a l land use s a l e of a l c o h o l s h o p p i n g hours gambling  products  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0097805/manifest

Comment

Related Items