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A study of the impact and value of a personal development program on adolescents Scotten, Sandey A. 1988

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A STUDY O F T H E IMPACT AND V A L U E O F A P E R S O N A L D E V E L O P M E N T P R O G R A M O N A D O L E S C E N T S by-SANDEY A. SCOTTEN B.A., Bishop's University, 1977 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department Of Mathematics And Science Education We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SEPTEMBER, 1988 © Sandey A. Scotten, 1988 In p r e s e n t i n g this thesis in part ia l f u l f i lmen t o f t he requ i remen ts fo r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e at t h e Univers i ty o f Bri t ish C o l u m b i a , I agree that t h e Library shall m a k e it f reely available f o r re ference and s tudy . I fu r ther agree that permiss ion fo r ex tens ive c o p y i n g o f th is thesis f o r scholar ly p u r p o s e s may b e g r a n t e d by the h e a d o f m y d e p a r t m e n t o r b y his o r he r representa t ives . It is u n d e r s t o o d that c o p y i n g o r pub l i ca t i on o f th is thesis f o r f inanc ia l ga in shall n o t b e a l l o w e d w i t h o u t m y w r i t t e n pe rm iss ion . D e p a r t m e n t o f Science and Mathematics Education T h e Univers i ty o f Brit ish C o l u m b i a 1956 M a i n M a l l Vancouver , Canada V6T 1Y3 Date September 1988 DE-6(3 /81) ABSTRACT A d o l e s c e n c e has been c h a r a c t e r i z e d as a f o r m a t i v e t i m e o f s t r e s s , a n x i e t y , and change. Any i n d e x o f a d o l e s c e n t development c o n f i r m s t h e f a c t t h a t t h i s i s a d i f f i c u l t d e v e l o p m e n t a l p e r i o d . Youths a r e d e a l i n g w i t h demands from a m y r i a d o f d i r e c t i o n s and t h u s r e q u i r e g u i d a n c e and s k i l l t o o p t i m a l l y grow t h r o u g h t h i s s t a g e . An a f f e c t i v e , p e r s o n a l development program d e s i g n e d t o a d d r e s s a d o l e s c e n t needs i s i n v e s t i g a t e d i n t h i s s t u d y . A l t h o u g h t h e l i t e r a t u r e s u p p o r t s t h e need f o r a f f e c t i v e , d e v e l o p m e n t a l e d u c a t i o n , l i t t l e e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e e x i s t s t o document t h e im p a c t , v a l u e and v a l i d i t y o f such e d u c a t i o n a l programs. T h i s s t u d y t e s t e d a h y p o t h e s i s t h a t an a f f e c t i v e , p e r s o n a l development program would enhance t h e o v e r a l l p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g o f a d o l e s c e n t p a r t i c i p a n t s . A se c o n d a r y h y p o t h e s i s was t h a t t h i s e d u c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g would have a d i f f e r e n t i a l outcome f o r gender. S i x t y n i n e s u b j e c t s , aged f o u r t e e n t o n i n e t e e n , c o m p l e t e d t h e P e r s o n a l O r i e n t a t i o n I n v e n t o r y : 37 f e m a l e s , 26 males, and 6 r e t u r n e e s . The POI i s p u r p o r t e d t o measure p o s i t i v e m e n t a l h e a l t h ; t h e i n t e r v i e w s and q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were d e s i g n e d t o r e f l e c t t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' s e l f - p e r c e i v e d g a i n s . S t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s i n d i c a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e changes on a l l POI s c a l e s f o r t h e p o o l e d male and female s c o r e s . Gender d i f f e r e n c e s were found, f a v o r i n g f e m a l e s , on t h e two POI major s c a l e s and s i x o f t h e t e n s u b s c a l e s . A l l f i n d i n g s , q u a l i t a t i v e and q u a n t i t a t i v e , i n d i c a t e t h a t an a f f e c t i v e p e r s o n a l development program does enhance p e r s o n a l and i n t e r p e r s o n a l growth, t h u s t h e o v e r a l l p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l -b e i n g o f a d o l e s c e n t s . T h i s program, a l t h o u g h b e n e f i c i a l t o b o t h males and f e m a l e s , appears t o have a more f a v o r a b l e outcome f o r f e m a l e s . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS A b s t r a c t ; i i T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s i v L i s t o f T a b l e s v i L i s t o f F i g u r e s v i i Acknowledgements v i i i CHAPTER: ONE STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 1 R a t i o n a l e and Purpose o f Study 1 Background o f t h e Problem 2 Development and T h e o r e t i c a l B a s i s o f Study .... 3 Summary 6 Q u e s t i o n s t o be Answered 7 H y p o t h e s i s 7 D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms 8 Overview o f t h e Study 12 TWO REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 13 Overview 13 S e l f - A c t u a l i z a t i o n 14 Youth Development 16 Gender D i f f e r e n c e s 21 Youth needs 25 Review o f E d u c a t i o n a l Trends 29 Theory/Research on Developmental Programs. 32 The Developmental B a s i s f o r C u r r e n t Program 38 THREE METHODOLOGY 43 Overview 43 R a t i o n a l e f o r D e s i g n 44 The E x p e r i m e n t a l Measures 45 The Supplementary Measures 45 S u b j e c t s 46 The I n s t r u m e n t s 49 R a t i o n a l e f o r C h o i c e 52 R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y 52 Data C o l l e c t i o n 54 A n a l y s i s 56 The P i l o t 58 FOUR RESULTS 61 Overview 61 The POI S c a l e s 64 P i l o t R e s u l t s 69 I n t e r v i e w Summary 70 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Summary 73 FIVE DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS 76 Statement o f R e s u l t s 76 L i m i t s o f Study 86 T h e o r e t i c a l and P r a c t i c a l S i g n i f i c a n c e .... 88 R e f e r e n c e s 95 Appe n d i x : A - L e t t e r s o f Consent 104 B - Program S e s s i o n s 107 C - T a b l e s f o r POI s c a l e r e s u l t s 120 D - F i g u r e s 136 E - I n t e r v i e w t r a n s c r i p t 1 46a v i L i s t o f T a b l e s T a b l e I -Summary o f s u b j e c t p o p u l a t i o n (N=69) 48 T a b l e I I -Summary o f p i l o t s u b j e c t p o p u l a t i o n (N=28) ....59 T a b l e I I I -Summary o f o v e r a l l POI r e s u l t s 63 T a b l e IV - I n t e r v i e w Summary 71 T a b l e V - Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Summary 73 T a b l e V I -Means, s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s , t s c o r e s , f r a t i o s f o r Tc + I , Tc, and I s c a l e 121 T a b l e V I I - D e t a i l e d r e s u l t s f o r t h e SAV s c a l e 122 T a b l e V I I I - D e t a i l e d r e s u l t s f o r t h e Ex s c a l e 123 T a b l e I X - D e t a i l e d r e s u l t s f o r t h e F r s c a l e 124 T a b l e X - D e t a i l e d r e s u l t s f o r t h e S s c a l e .....125 T a b l e XI - D e t a i l e d r e s u l t s f o r t h e S r s c a l e 126 T a b l e X I I - D e t a i l e d r e s u l t s f o r t h e Sa s c a l e 127 T a b l e X I I I - D e t a i l e d r e s u l t s f o r t h e Nc s c a l e 128 T a b l e XIV - D e t a i l e d r e s u l t s f o r t h e Sy s c a l e 129 T a b l e XV - D e t a i l e d r e s u l t s f o r t h e A s c a l e 130 T a b l e XVI - D e t a i l e d r e s u l t s f o r t h e C s c a l e 131 T a b l e X V I I - D e t a i l e d r e s u l t s f o r p o o l e d s c o r e s 132 T a b l e X V I I I - D e t a i l e d r e s u l t s f o r " r e t u r n e e " group 133 T a b l e XIX - D e t a i l e d r e s u l t s f o r P i l o t 134 T a b l e XX - D e t a i l e d P i l o t r e s u l t s f o r gender 135 v i i L i s t o f F i g u r e s F i g u r e 1 - P r o f i l e f o r P o o l e d male\female s c o r e s 138 P r e t e s t < > P o s t t e s t F i g u r e 2 - P r o f i l e f o r P r e t e s t s c o r e s 139 M a l e s < > Females F i g u r e 3 - P r o f i l e f o r P o s t t e s t s c o r e s 140 M a l e s < > Females F i g u r e 4 - P r o f i l e f o r Female s c o r e s 141 P r e t e s t < > P o s t t e s t F i g u r e 5 - P r o f i l e f o r Male s c o r e s 142 P r e t e s t < > P o s t t e s t F i g u r e 6 - P r o f i l e f o r "Returnee" group 143 P r e t e s t < > P o s t t e s t F i g u r e 7 - P r o f i l e f o r P o o l e d male\female PILOT s c o r e s ..144 P r e t e s t < > P o s t t e s t F i g u r e 8 - P r o f i l e f o r PILOT P r e t e s t s c o r e s 145 M a l e s < > Females F i g u r e 9 - P r o f i l e f o r PILOT P o s t t e s t s c o r e s 146 M a l e s < > Females v i i i Acknowledgements I would l i k e t o e x t e n d my g r a t i t u d e and a p p r e c i a t i o n t o my t h e s i s a d v i s o r , Dr. K i p A n a s t a s i o u , whose p a t i e n c e and s u p p o r t g r e a t l y f a c i l i t a t e d t h i s r e s e a r c h s t u d y . I am a l s o g r a t e f u l t o Dr. C. Inge W i l l i a m s f o r h e r warm s u p p o r t , s u g g e s t i o n s and encouragement. As w e l l , I would l i k e t o acknowledge my p a r t n e r , D a v i d R a i t h b y , who c o - a u t h o r e d t h e program and whose c o u n s e l and g i f t o f f r i e n d s h i p has been i n v a l u a b l e . F i n a l l y , I would l i k e t o t h a n k a l l t h e y o u t h s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s s t u d y and t h o s e who a s s i s t e d w i t h t h e v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f i t . 1 CHAPTER ONE STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM T h i s r e s e a r c h examines t h e impact and v a l u e o f a p e r s o n a l development e d u c a t i o n a l program on a d o l e s c e n t development, more s p e c i f i c a l l y , on t h e i r p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l -b e i n g . A s e c o n d a r y purpose i s t o d e t e r m i n e i f program outcome i s i n f l u e n c e d by gender. A s p e c i f i c , week-long, d e v e l o p m e n t a l y o u t h program i s i n v e s t i g a t e d i n t h i s s t u d y . T h i s t w e n t y - f i v e hour program i s a comprehensive, s e q u e n t i a l s e t o f e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s d e s i g n e d t o s t i m u l a t e p e r s o n a l and i n t e r p e r s o n a l growth. S i x t y n i n e a d o l e s c e n t s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e program were p r e -and p o s t t e s t e d u s i n g Shostrom's (1974) P e r s o n a l O r i e n t a t i o n ' I n v e n t o r y w h i c h g i v e s an o b j e c t i v e measure o f p o s i t i v e m ental h e a l t h . These d a t a , c o u p l e d w i t h a q u a l i t a t i v e component a r e i n t e g r a t e d i n t o a d e s c r i p t i o n o f program outcome, as i t p a r t i c u l a r l y p e r t a i n s t o s a l i e n t a d o l e s c e n t d e v e l o p m e n t a l i s s u e s . R a t i o n a l e and Purpose o f Study: T h i s s t u d y i n v e s t i g a t e s t h e impact and v a l u e o f an a f f e c t i v e , p e r s o n a l development e d u c a t i o n a l program on a d o l e s c e n t s as measured by t h e P e r s o n a l O r i e n t a t i o n I n v e n t o r y . The o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o d e t e r m i n e what t h e outcome o f such a program might be. G i v e n p o s i t i v e m u l t i p l e outcomes, t h i s s t u d y may c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e e x i s t i n g l i t e r a t u r e a f f i r m i n g 2 t h e f a c i l i t a t i v e v a l u e o f a f f e c t i v e , p e r s o n a l development e d u c a t i o n on a d o l e s c e n t p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g . T h i s r e s e a r c h i s j u s t i f i e d i n t h e l i g h t o f p a s t and c u r r e n t l i t e r a t u r e on a d o l e s c e n t development w h i c h i n v a r i a b l y a r t i c u l a t e s a d o l e s c e n c e as a f o r m a t i v e t i m e o f s t r e s s , a n x i e t y and change (Rogers, 1983; D r e y f u s , 1972; C s i k s z e n t m i h a l y i , 1984; E r i k s o n , 1968; O f f e r e t a l . 1986; Mosher & S p r i n t h a l l , 1971; Morse e t a l . , 1980). The v a l u e and need f o r h u m a n i s t i c , a f f e c t i v e e d u c a t i o n a l programs i s w e l l documented (Maslow, 1954; R o g e r s, 1983; D r e y f u s , 1972; O f f e r e t a l . , 1981; R i n g n e s s , 1975; Mosher & S p r i n t h a l l , 1971; Morse e t a l . , 1980) however t h e r e e x i s t s a d e a r t h o f l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t i n g t h e o v e r a l l , f a c i l i t a t i v e f u n c t i o n o f such programs ( L e c r o y , 1986). The r e l a t i o n s h i p between a d o l e s c e n t development and a f f e c t i v e , p e r s o n a l development e d u c a t i o n w i l l c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e c l a r i f i c a t i o n and e l a b o r a t i o n o f t h o s e c o n d i t i o n s s a l i e n t i n t h e enhancement o f h e a l t h y human development a t t h a t s t a g e deemed most c r u c i a l : a d o l e s c e n c e . Background o f t h e problem: An abundance o f l i t e r a t u r e s u p p o r t s t h e need f o r a f f e c t i v e , d e v e l o p m e n t a l e d u c a t i o n d u r i n g a d o l e s c e n c e (Mosher & S p r i n t h a l l , 1971; Morse e t a l . , 1 9 8 0 ; R i n g n e s s , 1975; D r e y f u s , 1972; Sanders, 1982; Rogers, 1983). A f f e c t i v e l e a r n i n g p l a y s an i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n a young p e r s o n ' s development. I t i s d u r i n g a d o l e s c e n c e t h a t t h e a f f e c t i v e 3 components o f t h e s e l f emerge most c l e a r l y and a c q u i r e a d i f f e r e n t q u a l i t y t h a n p r e v i o u s l y p o s s e s s e d ( O f f e r , O s t r o v , & Howard, 1981). The need f o r a f f e c t i v e , p e r s o n a l development e d u c a t i o n can be v i e w e d from two r e l a t e d p e r s p e c t i v e s . P r i m a r i l y , t h e development o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g r e q u i r e s an u n d e r s t a n d i n g and f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h one's f e e l i n g s and e m o t i o n s . S e c o n d l y , an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e l a t t e r f u r t h e r f a c i l i t a t e s t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e c o g n i t i v e and psychomotor domains t h u s f a c i l i t a t i n g p e r s o n a l growth and p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g . E d u c a t i o n a l c u r r i c u l a do n o t always a t t e m p t t o d e a l w i t h t h e a f f e c t i v e , w h i c h i s o f t e n d i s p l a c e d by t h e more measurable and c l e a r l y o b j e c t i v e c o g n i t i v e s u b j e c t m a t t e r . The l i t e r a t u r e documenting outcome c r i t e r i a f o r programs o r c u r r i c u l a d e a l i n g w i t h a f f e c t and p s y c h o s o c i a l , p e r s o n a l development i s l i m i t e d . Development and T h e o r e t i c a l B a s i s o f t h e Problem: Development, a c c o r d i n g t o B l o c h e r (1974), i s a " l i f e - l o n g s e t o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l , s o c i a l , and p h y s i o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s t h a t encompass t h e e n t i r e p a t t e r n o f human e x i s t e n c e from b i r t h t o d e a t h " (p. 6 2 ) . P h y s i o l o g i c a l , e n v i r o n m e n t a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s p e r p e t u a l l y i n t e r a c t t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l p r o c e s s . B l o c h e r , f u r t h e r d e f i n e s t h i s i n t e r a c t i v e p r o c e s s as f o l l o w s : "These p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e t h e ways i n w h i c h t h e i n d i v i d u a l p e r c e i v e s h i m s e l f and h i s 4 env i r o n m e n t , t h e s e t o f meanings t h a t he o r g a n i z e s around t h e s e p e r c e p t i o n s , and t h e b e h a v i o r s t h a t he a c q u i r e s i n c o p i n g w i t h h i s needs and h i s e n vironment" (p. 62) . I t i s t o t h e c o n c e p t o f needs t h a t we w i l l now t u r n . Human development i s c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as t h e p r o c e s s t h r o u g h w h i c h b a s i c human t e n d e n c i e s a r e a c t u a l i z e d and f u l l human p o t e n t i a l i t i e s a r e f u l f i l l e d ( B l o c h e r , 1974). I t i s t h e s e v e r y t e n d e n c i e s t h a t g i v e r i s e t o needs. Abraham Maslow p o s t u l a t e d t h e c o n d i t i o n s f o r o p t i m a l human development w i t h i n a " h i e r a r c h y o f needs". Samuels (1984) s t a t e s t h a t "A need o f an i n d i v i d u a l i s something w h i c h i s e s s e n t i a l t o h i s o r h e r w e l l - b e i n g ; i t may o r may not be so p e r c e i v e d " (p. 1 7 ) . I n t r i n s i c t o human n a t u r e i s an o r g a n i s m i c d r i v e t o w a r d f u l f i l l m e n t and s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n (Maslow, 1962).. Maslow, a l o n g w i t h h i s a s s o c i a t e , E v e r e t t Shostrom, b e l i e v e d t h a t once t h e l o w e r b i o l o g i c a l needs were t a k e n c a r e o f , humans s t r i v e d t o f u l f i l l t h e i r own i n n a t e p o t e n t i a l (Maslow, 1962; Shostrom, 1976). T h i s t h e o r y f u r t h e r p o s t u l a t e s t h a t a l l p e o p l e a r e m o t i v a t e d by t h e same needs which a r e a r r a n g e d i n a h i e r a r c h i c o r d e r : p h y s i o l o g i c a l needs, s a f e t y needs, needs f o r l o v e and b e l o n g i n g , need f o r s e l f - e s t e e m , and need f o r s e l f -a c t u a l i z a t i o n . I n t h i s r e g a r d , a p e r s o n i n need o f f o o d o r s h e l t e r w i l l be m o t i v a t e d t o f u l f i l l t h e s e b a s i c p h y s i o l o g i c a l needs. The o p e r a t i v e b e h a v i o r l e a d i n g t o t h e f u l f i l l m e n t o f h i g h e r o r d e r needs, such as s e l f - e s t e e m , w i l l n o t be engaged u n t i l l o w e r o r d e r needs a r e s a t i s f i e d . The d e v e l o p m e n t a l p r o c e s s w i l l be impeded i f one remains f i x a t e d a t any g i v e n 5 s t a g e o r l e v e l , t h u s a r r e s t i n g one's f u l f i l l m e n t t o w a r d f u l l p o t e n t i a l . An i n d i v i d u a l ' s f a i l u r e t o a c h i e v e " r e a l g r owth" o r t o a c t u a l i z e p o t e n t i a l can be t h e r o o t o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l and/or p s y c h o s o m a t i c problems (Shostrom, 1976; Rogers, 1977; C l a r k e e t a l . , 1982; Ekstrom, 1986; Seeman & Seeman, 1983). C o n v e r s e l y , Maslow s t a t e s t h a t t h e s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g p e r s o n engenders p o s i t i v e m e n t a l h e a l t h and p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g . T h i s v i e w i s most commonly h e l d by h u m a n i s t i c p s y c h o l o g i s t s , t h a t i s , one's b a s i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s t o f u l f i l l one's p o t e n t i a l . I n o r d e r t o f a c i l i t a t e human development one must en s u r e t h a t t h e b a s i c t a s k s n e c e s s a r y f o r n e g o t i a t i n g l i f e ' s needs a r e a c h i e v e d ( B l o c h e r , 1974; Egan, 1984). A l t h o u g h change i s an i n e v i t a b l e a s p e c t o f l i f e , growth i s n o t ; t h e r e a c h i n g o f one's f u l l p o t e n t i a l i s o f t e n impeded by d e v e l o p m e n t a l b l o c k s . Any i n d e x o f a d o l e s c e n t development c o n f i r m s t h e f a c t t h a t t h i s i s a d i f f i c u l t d e v e l o p m e n t a l p e r i o d a t t h e b e s t o f t i m e s (Mosher & S p r i n t h a l l , 1971; O f f e r e t a l . , 1981; D r e y f u s , 1972; Morse e t a l . , 1980; L e c r o y , 1986). Youth a r e d e a l i n g w i t h demands from a m y r i a d o f d i r e c t i o n s . E r i k s o n (1968), C s i k s z e n t m i h a l y i (1984), and O f f e r e t a l (1981), among many o t h e r s , have d i s c u s s e d a d o l e s c e n c e as a t i m e and s o u r c e o f s t r a i n o r t e n s i o n between s e l f and s o c i e t y . A d o l e s c e n t s r e q u i r e g u i d a n c e and s k i l l i n o r d e r t o o p t i m a l l y grow t h r o u g h t h i s s t a g e o f development. S u c c e s s f u l n e g o t i a t i o n o f t h e 6 c r i t i c a l t a s k s a l l o w s y o u t h s t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o f u r t h e r t h e i r p e r s o n a l growth and a c t u a l i z e t h e i r p o t e n t i a l . I t i s t h e r e f o r e d u r i n g a d o l e s c e n c e t h a t a program d e s i g n e d t o be d e v e l o p m e n t a l l y f a c i l i t a t i v e i s most a p p r o p r i a t e and i n s t r u m e n t a l ( L e c r o y , 1986; Mosher & S p r i n t h a l l , 1971). T h i s s t u d y i n v e s t i g a t e s t h e outcome o f a y o u t h program, d e v e l o p e d t o s p e c i f i c a l l y a d d r e s s y o u t h needs i n t h e a f f e c t i v e domain. Summary: The i n t e n t i o n o f t h i s r e s e a r c h i s t o document t h e outcome o f a f f e c t i v e , p e r s o n a l development e d u c a t i o n d u r i n g m i d d l e t o l a t e a d o l e s c e n c e . That i s , what i s t h e impact and v a l u e o f t h i s t y p e o f e d u c a t i o n on a d o l e s c e n t s ? More s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e p u rpose o f t h i s r e s e a r c h i s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e outcome o f a week l o n g r e s i d e n t i a l program u s i n g m u l t i p l e measures ( q u a l i t a t i v e and q u a n t i t a t i v e ) . T h i s s t u d y i s c o n cerned w i t h d e t e r m i n i n g t o what e x t e n t a p e r s o n a l development program enhances a d o l e s c e n t s 7 o v e r a l l p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g as measured by Shostrom's P e r s o n a l O r i e n t a t i o n I n v e n t o r y (1974). A q u a n t i t a t i v e measure i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t t o f u l l y g r a s p such a s u b j e c t i v e , e x p e r i e n t i a l phenomena as p e r s o n a l development. Thus a q u a l i t a t i v e component, i n t h e form o f i n f o r m a l i n t e r v i e w s and q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , a r e employed t o g a i n an a d d i t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e on t h e e x p e r i e n c e . I n t h i s v e i n J . C. N u n a l l y ( c i t e d i n 7 B a t t l e , 1982) s t a t e d : "Long ago t h e a u t h o r came t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t g e n e r a l l y t h e most v a l i d , e c o n o m i c a l , and sometimes t h e o n l y way t o l e a r n about a p e r s o n ' s s e n t i m e n t s i s t o ask him" (p. 9 8 ) . Q u e s t i o n s t o be answered: The s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s t h a t a r e a d d r e s s e d i n t h i s s t u d y a r e as f o l l o w s : - What i s t h e v a l u e o f a p e r s o n a l development program on t h i s age group? - What i s t h e impact o f a p e r s o n a l development program on t h i s age group? - What a r e t h e outcomes o f a one-week r e s i d e n t i a l , p e r s o n a l development program f o r a d o l e s c e n t s ? - Does t h i s t r e a t m e n t have a d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t on males and f e m a l e s ? - Does a p e r s o n a l development program enhance a d o l e s c e n t o v e r a l l p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g as measured by t h e P.O.I.? - W i l l a d o l e s c e n t s become more s e l f - a c t u a l i z e d as a r e s u l t o f a p e r s o n a l development program? - What a r e t h e s e l f - p e r c e i v e d g a i n s as i n d i c a t e d by t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ? Hypotheses 1. A p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between p e r s o n a l development e d u c a t i o n and i n c r e a s e d p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l -b e i n g as measured by t h e P e r s o n a l O r i e n t a t i o n I n v e n t o r y . 2. The t r e a t m e n t w i l l have a d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t on males and f e m a l e s . 3. Females w i l l d emonstrate i n c r e a s e d g a i n s on t h e p o s t t e s t as compared t o males.. 8 D e f i n i t i o n o f terms A d o l e s c e n c e : The s t a g e o f b i o s o c i a l development f o l l o w i n g c h i l d h o o d and p r e c e d i n g a d u l t h o o d . T h i s t r a n s i t i o n a l s t a g e i s c o n s i d e r e d t o b e g i n somewhere between t h e ages o f t h i r t e e n and n i n e t e e n . F o r t h e purpose o f t h i s s t u d y a d o l e s c e n t s w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o as y o u t h s , s t u d e n t s and p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y . D evelopmental T a s k s : A d e v e l o p m e n t a l t a s k i s an e x p e c t a t i o n o r demand p l a c e d on a p e r s o n t o d e v e l o p c e r t a i n s k i l l s and c o m p e t e n c i e s . The demand may come from s o c i a l s e t t i n g s , t h e c u l t u r e , o r s i m p l y a r e s u l t o f p h y s i c a l o r i n t e l l e c t u a l m a t u r a t i o n . The mastery o f t a s k s a t any g i v e n s t a g e o f development o f t e n depends on t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f e a r l i e r and s i m p l e r ( p r e - r e q u i s i t e ) s k i l l s . The t a s k s may r e f l e c t g a i n s i n motor s k i l l s , i n t e l l e c t u a l s k i l l s , s o c i a l s k i l l s , and e m o t i o n a l s k i l l s . M e n t a l H e a l t h : The c a p a c i t y f o r a p e r s o n t o be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e w e l l b e i n g o f one's s e l f b o t h m e n t a l l y and p h y s i c a l l y . P o s i t i v e m e n t a l h e a l t h i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by growth d i r e c t e d n e s s r a t h e r t h a n maintenance, e x p l o r a t i o n v e r s u s a c c e p t a n c e , a c t i v e v e r s u s p a s s i v e , i n n e r d i r e c t e d n e s s v e r s u s o u t e r ( i n t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l v s . e x t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l ) , artd a p o s i t i v e r e g a r d f o r s e l f and o t h e r s . P s y c h o l o g i c a l W e l l - B e i n g : A c c o r d i n g t o Webster, t h e term p s y c h o l o g i c a l i s d e f i n e d as " r e l a t i n g t o p s y c h o l o g y " . P s y c h o l o g y i s d e f i n e d as " t h e mental o r b e h a v i o r a l 9 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f an i n d i v i d u a l . W e l l - b e i n g i s d e f i n e d as " t h e s t a t e o f b e i n g happy, h e a l t h y , o r p r o s p e r o u s " . Combined, one c o u l d d e f i n e p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g as a m e n t a l o r b e h a v i o r a l ( p h y s i c a l ) s t a t e o f h a p p i n e s s , h e a l t h and p r o s p e r i t y . P s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g , a f e a t u r e o f w e l l -a d j u s t e d i n d i v i d u a l s , e x p r e s s e s a p o s i t i v e b a l a n c e w i t h i n t h e i n t r a p e r s o n a l and i n t e r p e r s o n a l a s p e c t s o f s e l f : s e l f r e l a t i v e t o s e l f , o t h e r s , and t h e environment. A f f e c t i v e E d u c a t i o n : The l i t e r a t u r e a d d r e s s e s t h r e e domains o f human b e h a v i o r : c o g n i t i v e , psychomotor, and a f f e c t i v e . The c o g n i t i v e domain p e r t a i n s t o human i n t e l l e c t u a l and t h i n k i n g a c t i v i t i e s ; t h a t t o w h i c h t h e t r a d i t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l system has been d i r e c t e d . The psychomotor domain p e r t a i n s t o a l l p h y s i c a l , m u s c u l a r , and body movement a c t i v i t i e s . And f i n a l l y , t h e a f f e c t i v e i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e e m o t i o n a l a s p e c t s o f b e h a v i o r ; c h a r a c t e r , p e r s o n a l i t y , e m o t i o n s , t a s t e s , p r e f e r e n c e s , and a p p r e c i a t i o n s ( R i n g n e s s , 1975; Gazda, 1978; D r e y f u s , 1972). A f f e c t i v e e d u c a t i o n i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h e m o t i o n a l development and as such i s r e l a t e d t o a t t i t u d e s , v a l u e s , and f e e l i n g s . The purpose o f a f f e c t i v e e d u c a t i o n , a c c o r d i n g t o Morse e t a l . (1980) i s t o f o s t e r a p o s i t i v e s e l f -c o n c e p t combined w i t h h i g h s e l f - e s t e e m i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l . The g o a l s o f a f f e c t i v e e d u c a t i o n can be s t a t e d a s : s e l f adequacy, s o c i a l competency, and p o s i t i v e e m o t i o n a l e x p r e s s i o n . P s y c h o - s o c i a l e d u c a t i o n : The c o n v e r t i n g o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s i n t o t e a c h a b l e s k i l l s t h r o u g h s y s t e m a t i c methods and programs w i t h an o b j e c t i v e t o promote 10 p o s i t i v e m e n t a l h e a l t h . D e f i n e d i n Webster's D i c t i o n a r y a s : " r e l a t i n g s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s t o m e n t a l h e a l t h " . P e r s o n a l Development: P e r s o n a l development i s t h e p r o c e s s by w h i c h an i n d i v i d u a l g a i n s i n s i g h t and u n d e r s t a n d i n g i n t o s e l f , i n c l u d i n g one's v a l u e s , b e l i e f s , a s s u m p t i o n s , a t t i t u d e s , f e e l i n g s and emotions. I n s h o r t , i t i s t h e f o s t e r i n g o f g e n e r a l w e l l - b e i n g : p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , e f f e c t i v e r e l a t i n g , enhanced s e l f - e s t e e m , i n c r e a s e d autonomy, and f e e l i n g s o f p e r s o n a l competence. P e r s o n a l Development E d u c a t i o n : A comprehensive s e t o f e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s d e s i g n e d t o a f f e c t p e r s o n a l , e t h i c a l , a e s t h e t i c and p h i l o s o p h i c a l development. Such a program f o s t e r s t h e development o f a more complex and more i n t e g r a t e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f o n e s e l f ; t h e enhancement and f o r m a t i o n o f p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y ; g r e a t e r p e r s o n a l autonomy; a g r e a t e r a b i l i t y t o r e l a t e t o and communicate w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e ; t h e growth o f more complex e t h i c a l r e a s o n i n g ; and t h e development o f more complex s k i l l s and competencies (Mosher e t a l . , 1971). S e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n : The term * a c t u a l i z e ' i s d e f i n e d by Webster a s , " t o make a c t u a l o r r e a l ; r e a l i z e i n a c t i o n , " and t h e r e l a t e d t e r m x a c t u a t e ' i s , " t o p u t i n t o a c t i o n o r m o t i o n . " Maslow (1954) p o p u l a r i z e d t h e term " s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n " and r e f e r s t o t h e a c t u a l i z i n g p e r s o n as one who i s more f u l l y f u n c t i o n i n g and l i v i n g a more e n r i c h e d l i f e t h a n t h e average p e r s o n (Shostrom, 1974). The term, w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h i s s t u d y , r e f e r s t o t h e p r o c e s s o f making a c t u a l o r r e a l , o f 11 i m p l e m e n t i n g o r p u t t i n g i n t o a c t i o n , t h e p o t e n t i a l r e s o u r c e s o f an i n d i v i d u a l . L i f e S k i l l s : Competencies t h a t a r e n e c e s s a r y f o r e f f e c t i v e l i v i n g i n such a r e a s as self-management, i n t e r p e r s o n a l c o mmunication, and e f f e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n communities and o r g a n i z a t i o n s (Egan, 1984). 12 Overview o f t h e Study The b a l a n c e o f t h i s t h e s i s i s o r g a n i z e d i n f o u r c h a p t e r s . R e l e v a n t , t h e o r e t i c a l and e m p i r i c a l l i t e r a t u r e a r e r e v i e w e d i n c h a p t e r two. T h i s r e v i e w p e r t a i n s t o : s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n , a d o l e s c e n t development i n c l u d i n g t h e t a s k s , c o n c e r n s , and needs t h a t accompany t h i s s t a g e , gender d i f f e r e n c e s , e d u c a t i o n a l t r e n d s , r e l a t e d programs, and c o n c l u d e s w i t h a r e v i e w o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l b a s i s o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r program. The r e s e a r c h methodology i s d e s c r i b e d i n c h a p t e r t h r e e . T h i s i n c l u d e s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e r e s e a r c h d e s i g n , i n s t r u m e n t s used, sample, as w e l l as d a t a c o l l e c t i o n and d a t a a n a l y s e s p r o c e d u r e s . The r e s u l t s p r e s e n t e d i n c h a p t e r f o u r a r e o r g a n i z e d i n terms o f t h e d i f f e r e n t d a t a c o l l e c t i o n methods used and t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n s t r u m e n t s c a l e s . F i n a l l y , r e s u l t s a r e d i s c u s s e d r e l a t i v e t o t h e r e s e a r c h h y p o t h e s i s p r e s e n t e d i n c h a p t e r two and i n t e g r a t e s d a t a from d i f f e r e n t s o u r c e s . The t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , a l o n g w i t h s u g g e s t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h a r e d i s c u s s e d i n c h a p t e r f i v e . 13 CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW Overview T h i s l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w c o v e r s seven a r e a s deemed i m p o r t a n t f o r a comprehensive u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e r a t i o n a l e , b ackground, and d e v e l o p m e n t a l sequence o f t h e problem. The r e v i e w s t a r t s w i t h t h e g e n e r a l and p r o g r e s s i v e l y narrows t o a d d r e s s a r e a s and i s s u e s more s p e c i f i c and p e r t i n e n t t o t h e c o r e o f t h i s s t u d y . A r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e on s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y because t h e program t h i s s t u d y i n v e s t i g a t e s u s e s " s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n " as t h e model f o r p e r s o n a l growth. The c r i t e r i o n i n s t r u m e n t used i s t h e P e r s o n a l O r i e n t a t i o n I n v e n t o r y w h i c h i s p u r p o r t e d t o a s s e s s s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n and d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f what i s b r o a d l y termed m e n t a l h e a l t h . The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n d i s c u s s e s a d o l e s c e n c e as a d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a g e i n t h e l i f e c y c l e , i n c l u d i n g t h e t a s k s and i s s u e s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h i s s t a g e . G e n e r a l gender d i f f e r e n c e s a r e d i s c u s s e d r e l a t i v e t o development and s p e c i f i c a l l y i n t h e a r e a o f s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n . The needs o f y o u t h s , and more s p e c i f i c a l l y t h o s e u n f u l f i l l e d needs l e a d i n g t o m a l a d a p t i v e o r d e v i a n t b e h a v i o r , a r e r e v i e w e d . F i n a l l y , two avenues d e v e l o p e d i n an a t t e m p t t o a d d r e s s y o u t h needs a r e r e v i e w e d . W i t h i n t h e domain o f t r a d i t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n , e x i s t i n g t r e n d s a r e d i s c u s s e d as w e l l as where t h i s s ystem i s l a c k i n g i n terms o f a f f e c t i v e and d e v e l o p m e n t a l 14 c u r r i c u l a . A second avenue r e v i e w e d i s t h a t o f community e d u c a t i o n programs and p e r s o n a l growth g r o u p s . The l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w i s c o n c l u d e d w i t h a r e v i e w o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l b a s i s o f t h e program under i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The c r i t e r i a and r a t i o n a l e f o r d e v e l o p m e n t a l e d u c a t i o n i s d i s c u s s e d as w e l l as t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t e p s o f t h i s program. S e l f - A c t u a l i z a t i o n : S e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n i s a d e s c r i p t i v e c o n c e p t f i r s t f o r m u l a t e d by Maslow (1962). Maslow d e f i n e d s e l f -a c t u a l i z a t i o n as t h e a b i l i t y o f a p e r s o n t o b r i n g h i s o f h e r powers t o g e t h e r i n an e f f i c i e n t and i n t e n s e l y e n j o y a b l e way. Among t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s e l f - a c t u a l i z e d p e o p l e a r e : s u p e r i o r p e r c e p t i o n o f r e a l i t y , i n c r e a s e d a c c e p t a n c e o f s e l f and o t h e r s , i n c r e a s e d s p o n t a n e i t y and problem c e n t e r i n g , g r e a t e r autonomy, and a d e s i r e f o r e m o t i o n a l r e a c t i o n , a more d e m o c r a t i c c h a r a c t e r s t r u c t u r e , and i n c r e a s e d c r e a t i v i t y . S e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n i s t h e p r o c e s s o f f u r t h e r i n g one's r e s o u r c e s and p o t e n t i a l . "No one e v e r a c h i e v e s a c t u a l i z a t i o n . I t i s n o t and end, i t i s a p r o c e s s " (Shostrom, 1976, p. 302). E v e r e t t Shostrom d e s c r i b e s t h e s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g p e r s o n a s , "one who i s f u n c t i o n i n g more f u l l y t h a n t h e ave r a g e i n d i v i d u a l and t h e r e b y i s l i v i n g a more e n r i c h e d l i f e " (1967, p. 2 2 ) . He goes on t o say, " H i s l i f e i s e n r i c h e d because he i s u s i n g a l l h i s p o t e n t i a l " (1967, p. 2 2 ) . Shostrom c l e a r l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e s between t h e s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g p e r s o n and t h e 15 " s u p e r human" o r " p e r f e c t p e r s o n " . An i n t e g r a l p a r t o f human p o t e n t i a l i s t h e r e c o g n i t i o n and i n t e g r a t i o n o f a l l a s p e c t s o f s e l f ; s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses. The r o u t e t o s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n , a c c o r d i n g t o F i t t s (1971), i s w i t h t h e development o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l competence. He f u r t h e r s t a t e s t h a t s e l f - c o n c e p t and s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n a r e h i g h l y r e l a t e d t o each o t h e r and t h a t s e l f - c o n c e p t s e r v e s as an i n d e x , o r c r i t e r i o n o f s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n . A l o n g a s i m i l a r c ontinuum, S u l l i v a n ( c i t e d i n D e s j a r l a i s & Rackauskas, 1986) i n f o r m u l a t i n g h i s i n t e r p e r s o n a l t h e o r y o f a d o l e s c e n t development found i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o be an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n t h e development o f a p o s i t i v e s e l f -c o n c e p t . The l i t e r a t u r e s u p p o r t s t h e t h e o r y t h a t a good s e l f -c o n c e p t , h i g h s e l f - r e g a r d and a c c u r a t e s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n f a c i l i t a t e s t h e development o f a h e a l t h y , w e l l b a l a n c e d p e r s o n ( O f f e r e t a l , 1981; R i n g n e s s , 1975). A c c o r d i n g t o R i n g n e s s , "A h e a l t h y u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f one's a t t r i b u t e s and a h e a l t h y , a c c e p t i n g s e l f - c o n c e p t a r e i m p o r t a n t t o a good l i f e a d j u s t m e n t and t o s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n . I f one f e e l s i n f e r i o r , he w i l l a c t i n f e r i o r , c a u s i n g o t h e r s t o e v a l u a t e him n e g a t i v e l y ; and a v i c i o u s c i r c l e has begun. And o f c o u r s e , a h e a l t h y s e l f -c o n c e p t l e a d s t o h e a l t h y b e h a v i o r and f u r t h e r s t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s u c c e s s f u l i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h o t h e r s " (p.130-131). On t h e c o n t r a r y , t h e a d o l e s c e n t who has low s e l f -a c c e p t a n c e , t h a t i s a l a r g e gap between i d e a l s e l f and p e r c e i v e d a c t u a l s e l f , i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y and e m o t i o n a l l y 16 u n h e a l t h y ( O f f e r e t a l , 1981). O f f e r e t a l , (1981) f u r t h e r c o n t e n d t h a t "an a d o l e s c e n t u n a b l e t o acknowledge i m p o r t a n t s e l f - f e e l i n g s , u n a b l e t o make a c c u r a t e p r e d i c t i o n s about h i m s e l f i n t e r p e r s o n a l l y o r u n a b l e t o r e g a r d h i m s e l f h i g h l y , c o u l d be seen as e m o t i o n a l l y u n h e a l t h y " (p. 2 5 ) . The " s e l f " i s d e f i n e d by O f f e r e t a l , (1981) as " t h e sum t o t a l o f p e r c e p t i o n s , t h o u g h t s and f e e l i n g s h e l d by a p e r s o n i n r e f e r e n c e t o h i m s e l f " (p. 2 4 ) . Reddy and Beers (1977) n o t e t h a t s e n s i t i v i t y t r a i n i n g has a d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t on p a r t i c i p a n t s c o n t i n g e n t on t h e i r i n i t i a l l e v e l o f p o s i t i v e s e l f - c o n c e p t . Those w i t h s t r o n g s e l f - c o n c e p t s t e n d t o show g r e a t e r g a i n s i n P.O.I, s c o r e s t h a n t h o s e w i t h l o w e r s e l f - c o n c e p t s . I n t h i s r e g a r d Knapp and Shostrom (1976) c l a i m t h a t t h e r i c h g e t r i c h e r o r t h e s e l f -a c t u a l i z e d become more s e l f - a c t u a l i z e d . These a u t h o r s equate s e l f - c o n c e p t w i t h p s y c h o l o g i c a l h e a l t h and n o t e t h a t a h i g h l e v e l o f s e l f - c o n c e p t engenders t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r t h e g r e a t e s t g a i n s i n s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n . Y o u t h Development: Theory and r e s e a r c h The word a d o l e s c e n c e d e r i v e s from t h e L a t i n v e r b a d o l e s c e r e w h i c h means " t o grow up". The o n s e t o f a d o l e s c e n c e i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d on two d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s : p h y s i o l o g i c a l l y , i t r e f e r s t o t h e b e g i n n i n g o f p u b e r t y ( s e x u a l m a t u r i t y , Shostrom, 1976) and ends w i t h t h e v a r i a b l e a t t a i n m e n t o f f u l l p h y s i c a l m a t u r i t y ; and p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y , i t r e f e r s t o t h e i n c r e a s e i n c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y and ends when t h e i n d i v i d u a l has a t t a i n e d 17 e m o t i o n a l and s o c i a l m a t u r i t y . N e e d l e s s t o say s u c h a d e f i n i t i o n does n o t l e n d i t s e l f t o any s p e c i f i c age span. A d o l e s c e n c e i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e emergence o f what P i a g e t (1952) has l a b e l e d " f o r m a l o p e r a t i o n s " . A t t h i s t i m e t h e a d o l e s c e n t i s c a p a b l e o f e x e r c i s i n g g r e a t e r c o n t r o l o v e r e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l i n f o r m a t i o n . P i a g e t (1952) s u g g e s t s t h a t i t i s d u r i n g a d o l e s c e n c e , and n o t b e f o r e , t h a t t h e c h i l d i s c a p a b l e o f t h i s mode o f t h o u g h t . He f u r t h e r comments t h a t i t i s most a p p r o p r i a t e d u r i n g a d o l e s c e n c e t o f o c u s on p e r s o n a l i s s u e s because t h i s s t a g e a f f o r d s t h e y o u t h a c o g n i t i v e means t o c o n c e p t u a l i z e s e l f and f u t u r e i n a n o n - a b s o l u t i s t way. S i m i l a r l y , K o h l b e r g ' s ( c i t e d i n Mosher & S p r i n t h a l l , 1971) t h e o r y i d e n t i f i e s t h e emergence o f t h e " c o n v e n t i o n a l " l e v e l o f m o r a l development d u r i n g a d o l e s c e n c e . The y o u t h i s now a b l e t o make m o r a l and e t h i c a l judgements r e l a t i v e t o s e l f w h i l e t h e p r e v i o u s " p r e - c o n v e n t i o n a l " s t a g e o f a b s t r a c t t h o u g h t ( P i a g e t , 1952) does not a l l o w f o r t h e s e developments. D e s j a r l a i s & Ruckauskas (1986) d e f i n e a d o l e s c e n c e as a u n i v e r s a l l y t r a n s i t i o n a l s t a g e i n p e r s o n a l i t y development. They go on t o say t h a t " t r a n s i t i o n a l p e r i o d s by t h e i r v e r y n a t u r e s h a r e many p r o p e r t i e s i n common and g e n e r a t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c o n s t e l l a t i o n s o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l problems t h a t i n e v i t a b l y a r i s e when i n d i v i d u a l s a r e c o n f r o n t e d by r a d i c a l changes i n t h e i r b i o s o c i a l s t a t u s " ( p . 7 ) . Many d e v e l o p m e n t a l changes t h a t o c c u r d u r i n g a d o l e s c e n c e a f f e c t f u t u r e p s y c h o l o g i c a l h e a l t h ( H a n s e l l e t a l . , 1986; D e s j a r l a i s & Ruckauskas, 1986). 18 There i s a l a c k o f consensus on t h e o r i g i n o f a d o l e s c e n t change and d i f f i c u l t y , be i t b i o l o g i c a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l , o r c u l t u r a l . The m a j o r i t y do, however, agree on t h e p r i m a r y d e v e l o p m e n t a l t a s k s o r " a d j u s t i v e d i f f i c u l t i e s " c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f a d o l e s c e n c e . These t a s k s can be c a t e g o r i z e d i n t o t h r e e a r e a s : p h y s i c a l m a t u r a t i o n , e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h e c u l t u r e , and i n d i v i d u a l a s p i r a t i o n s ( D e s j a r l a i s & Ruckauskas, 1986). B e n i s k o s (1980, c i t e d i n D e s j a r l a i s & Ruckauskas, 1986) d e l i n e a t e s a l i s t o f a d o l e s c e n t t a s k s w h i c h a r e somewhat d i f f e r e n t from t h o s e c i t e d by p r e v i o u s t h e o r i s t s . The essence o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e l i e s i n t h e c u r r e n t s t a t e o f s o c i a l t u r m o i l w i t h i n w h i c h t h e a d o l e s c e n t e x i s t s . B e n i s k o s c l e a r l y s t a t e s : "The t r a g e d y f o r a d o l e s c e n t s t o d a y i s t h a t t h e y must weather t h e i r a d o l e s c e n c e a t t h e v e r y t i m e s o c i e t y i s w e a t h e r i n g i t s own." ( D e s j a r l a i s & Ruckauskas, 1986, p. i x ) . Those t a s k s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f a d o l e s c e n c e , a c c o r d i n g t o a number o f t h e o r i s t s (Gazda, 1978; O f f e r e t a l . , 1981) a r e : 1. S e l f - d i s c o v e r y , "who am I ? " 2. Independence 3. S e x u a l r o l e d e f i n i t i o n 4. S o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n 5. E s t a b l i s h h e t e r o s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s 6. D e f i n e s e l f r e l a t i v e t o t h e w o r k p l a c e 7. I n t e g r a t e i n t e l l e c t and emotions 8. D e f i n e c i v i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s 9. Develop a system o f v a l u e s 10. Seek meaning i n l i f e I d e n t i t y f o r m a t i o n i s , however, t h e c e n t r a l t a s k o f i n d i v i d u a l development ( B l o c h e r , 1974). I t appears p r i m a r i l y d u r i n g t h e a d o l e s c e n t s t a g e o f development ( E r i k s o n , 1968). I t i s t h e r e f o r e e s s e n t i a l t o f o s t e r t h e means t o n e g o t i a t e t h i s and o t h e r t a s k s , a t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n s t r u m e n t a l phase 19 o f development. B l o c h e r (1974) i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e c o n s t r u c t o f i d e n t i t y i n v o l v e s t h e development o f an e l a b o r a t e p s y c h o s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n between one's envi r o n m e n t , v a l u e s , and i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s ; i d e n t i t y i s c e n t r a l t o s e l f -c o n c e p t w h i c h i s c e n t r a l t o p e r s o n a l i t y development. I d e n t i t y i s an " a c t i v e , o n going p r o c e s s o f i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h e n v i r o n m e n t " ( B l o c h e r , 1974, p. 1 2 ) . The d e v e l o p m e n t a l t a s k s o f a d o l e s c e n c e pose s e r i o u s c h a l l e n g e s t o t h e i r s e l f - e s t e e m . A d o l e s c e n t s who e x p e r i e n c e d i f f i c u l t i e s s u ch as d e p r e s s i o n , l o s s o r d i s a p p o i n t m e n t t e n d t o e x p r e s s t h e i r d i s t r e s s i n an o v e r t b e h a v i o r a l way (Weiner, 1980). A l o n g w i t h i n c r e a s e d c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y , f o r m a l t h o u g h t b r i n g s an i n c r e a s e d p o t e n t i a l f o r w orry and a n x i e t y ( D e s j a r l a i s & Rackauskas, 1986). T h i s mode o f t h i n k i n g g i v e s t h e y o u t h a more v i v i d i m a g i n a t i o n and a new found a b i l i t y t o e x a g g e r a t e and t o "borrow t r o u b l e " ( D e s j a r l a i s & Rackauskas, 1986). Shostrom (1976) r e f e r s t o a d o l e s c e n c e as t h e p o t e n t i a l l y s c h i z o p h r e n i c y e a r s due t o a s p l i t i n p o l a r i t i e s : s e x u a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , c a r e e r d e c i s i o n s and c o p i n g w i t h a "new s e t o f r u l e s f o r r e l a t i n g t o t h e w o r l d " . The c u r r e n t s t u d y i n v o l v e s t h a t s t a g e o f a d o l e s c e n c e termed " l a t e a d o l e s c e n c e " , t h a t i s s i x t e e n t o n i n e t e e n y e a r s o f age. Not o n l y a r e o l d e r a d o l e s c e n t s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e c o n t i n u e d p h y s i c a l and e m o t i o n a l changes t a k i n g p l a c e , t h e y a r e a l s o c o n f r o n t e d w i t h a m y r i a d o f a d j u s t m e n t s i n h e r e n t i n t h e t r a n s i t i o n t o t h e a d u l t w o r l d o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . 20 A d o l e s c e n t s o c i a l development depends on t h e degree t o w h i c h t h e y can i n t e r a c t w i t h t h e i r environment and t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s p r o v i d e d f o r t h i s ( D e s j a r l a i s & Ruckauskas, 1986). I t i s p r e c i s e l y a t t h i s t i m e t h a t e x p l o r a t i o n b e g i n s : t h i s s t a g e i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f m i d - a d o l e s c e n c e and moves t h e i n d i v i d u a l t h r o u g h l a t e r a d o l e s c e n c e and e a r l y a d u l t h o o d ( B l o c h e r , 1974). D u r i n g t h i s t i m e t h e r e i s a r e a c h i n g o u t f o r new v a l u e s , i d e a l s , m o t i v a t i o n s , and p u r p o s e s . I t i s t o t h e s u r r o u n d i n g environment t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s i n t e n t on l o o k i n g . P i a g e t ' s f o r m a l o p e r a t i o n s , K o h l b e r g ' s c o n v e n t i o n a l l e v e l , and E r i k s o n ' s i d e n t i t y f o r m a t i o n t h e o r y a l l p o i n t t o t h e a d o l e s c e n t as p h y s i o l o g i c a l l y and p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y p r e p a r e d t o n e g o t i a t e t h e upward movement toward s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n . P i a g e t , E r i k s o n , and K o h l b e r g a l l i n d i c a t e t h a t i t i s d u r i n g a d o l e s c e n c e t h a t p s y c h o l o g i c a l , d e v e l o p m e n t a l growth a c t i v i t i e s s h o u l d be f o s t e r e d . The a d o l e s c e n t has t h e a b i l i t y t o t h i n k on an a b s t r a c t l e v e l and t h e r e f o r e a b l e t o comprehend v a l u e s t r u c t u r e s . A d o l e s c e n c e i s , t h e r e f o r e , an o p t i m a l t i m e f o r f o r m a t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t a l g u i d a n c e as s u p p o r t e d by t h e major t h e o r i s t s . 21 Gender d i f f e r e n c e s : The l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s gender d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e r a t e o f a d o l e s c e n t development, g e n e r a l l y f a v o r i n g f e m a l e s . Females de m o n s t r a t e a s h a r p i n c r e a s e i n m a t u r i t y between t h e ages o f 13 and 15 w h i l e males show a more even and g r a d u a l i n c r e a s e i n m a t u r i t y ( D e s j a r l a i s & Ruckauskas, 1986). N o l l and W a t k i n s (1974) s u g g e s t t h a t males may be more d i f f i c u l t t o work w i t h t h a n f e m a l e s i n so f a r as growth groups a r e c o n c e r n e d . They s u g g e s t t h a t t h i s may be due t o f e m a l e s h a v i n g a g r e a t e r t e ndency toward p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l l y o r i e n t e d a c t i v i t i e s as compared t o males. T h i s would i n d i c a t e t h a t a d e v e l o p m e n t a l program may have a d i f f e r e n t e f f e c t on males and f e m a l e s . S c h r o e d e r (1973), i n s t u d y i n g freshmen s t u d e n t s , r e p o r t e d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s f a v o r i n g f e males on e l e v e n o f t w e l v e POI s c a l e s . I n i t i a l p r e t e s t d i f f e r e n c e s on t h e I n n e r D i r e c t e d (I) s c a l e were f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e d on t h e p o s t t e s t . The l a t t e r w ould i n d i c a t e t h a t f e males demonstrated g r e a t e r g a i n s t o w a r d s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n t h a n males d u r i n g t h e f i r s t y e a r o f c o l l e g e . L e c r o y (1986) r e p o r t e d c l e a r gender d i f f e r e n c e s on s e v e r a l outcome measures f o l l o w i n g competency s k i l l t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s . The s o c i a l s k i l l s t r a i n i n g f o c u s e d on i n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s and r a n f i f t y m i n u t e s d a i l y f o r two c o n s e c u t i v e weeks. On a l m o s t a l l measures, females showed g r e a t e r g a i n s compared w i t h m ales. L e c r o y (1986) s u g g e s t s t h a t group purpose may be confounded w i t h gender and c o n s e q u e n t l y , males may r e s pond 22 d i f f e r e n t l y i f t h e group had a d i f f e r e n t f o c u s . Based on t h e s e f i n d i n g s , i n t e r p e r s o n a l competency e d u c a t i o n a p p a r e n t l y p r o d u c e s b e t t e r outcomes f o r a d o l e s c e n t f e m a l e s . S i m i l a r l y , Adams e t a l . (1979) f u r t h e r s u b s t a n t i a t e d a d o l e s c e n t gender d i f f e r e n c e s , r e l a t i v e t o empathy. E i g h t y j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l a d o l e s c e n t s were a s s e s s e d on empathy development and p e r c e i v e d c o m p e t e n c i e s . F i n d i n g s s u p p o r t e d t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t s o c i a l competency would c o r r e l a t e p o s i t i v e l y w i t h empathic s k i l l s and t h a t gender d i f f e r e n c e s f a v o r i n g f e m a l e s would emerge. On e v e r y measure o f empathy f e m a l e s s c o r e d h i g h e r t h a n males, o v e r a l l age l e v e l s . These a u t h o r s f u r t h e r s u g g e s t t h a t e f f e c t i v e s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n may l e a d t o empathic s k i l l development and t h a t e mpathic s k i l l s a r e a n t e c e d e n t s t o s o c i a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , i t was found t h a t empathy was n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h c o g n i t i v e and p h y s i c a l competency. These f i n d i n g s a r e a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e f a c t t h a t c o g n i t i v e and p h y s i c a l c o m p e t e n c i e s u s u a l l y engender c o m p e t i t i v e n e s s . The l a t t e r i s t h o u g h t t o impede t h e development o f c e r t a i n a f f e c t i v e r e l a t e d s o c i a l s k i l l s s u ch as empathy. Adams (1983), i n a more r e c e n t s t u d y o f a d o l e s c e n t s o c i a l competency, found a r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o c i a l competency and p e e r p o p u l a r i t y ; he a l s o n o t e d gender d i f f e r e n c e s . I n d i c e s o f s o c i a l competency, i n c l u d i n g elements o f s o c i a l knowledge, empathy and l o c u s o f c o n t r o l , were found t o be l o o s e l y r e l a t e d c o n s t r u c t s w i t h d i f f e r e n t i a l gender c o r r e l a t e s . Based on t h e s e r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s , Adams c o n c l u d e d t h a t e mpathic 23 a b i l i t i e s t e n d t o enhance female a d o l e s c e n t s ' c a p a c i t y t o s h a r e i n t e r p e r s o n a l l y w i t h o t h e r s and t h u s f a c i l i t a t e p o s i t i v e p e e r r e l a t i o n s . He f u r t h e r added t h a t males p r o v i d e g r e a t e r l e a d e r s h i p i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h p e e r s , stemming from t h e i r s e l f - i n i t i a t e d d i r e c t e d n e s s . Adams (1983) c l a i m s t h a t a d o l e s c e n c e i s a p e r i o d o f c o n t i n u i n g s o c i a l competency f o r m a t i o n based on t h e l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p between age and s o c i a l competency. C o n t i n u i n g a l o n g t h e same l i n e s , i t has been found t h a t t h e q u a l i t y o f p e e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e e x p l a n a t i o n o f v a r i a n c e i n a d o l e s c e n t s e l f - e s t e e m f o r fe m a l e s b u t n o t f o r males (Walker & Greene, 1986). The q u a l i t y o f at t a c h m e n t t o p a r e n t s , however, was r e l a t e d t o a d o l e s c e n t s e l f - e s t e e m r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e age o r sex o f t h e a d o l e s c e n t . I n s h o r t , W a l k e r & Greene (1986) s u b s t a n t i a t e t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , b o t h w i t h f a m i l y and p e e r s , t o t h e development o f g l o b a l s e l f - e s t e e m i n a d o l e s c e n c e . B o t h s e x e s i d e n t i f y "making f r i e n d s " as a major c o n c e r n , y e t f e m a l e s d e m o n s t r a t e d more i n t e n s e f e e l i n g s about i t ( D e s j a r l a i s & Rackauskas, 1986) . F u r t h e r Konopka ( c i t e d i n L i p s i t z , 1977) r e p o r t s s e l f - c o n c e p t as a p e r p e t u a l c o n c e r n f o r f e m a l e s . T h i s s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s i s p a r t i a l l y a r e s u l t o f b e i n g a d o l e s c e n t b u t more so from b e i n g female a t a t i m e o f h e i g h t e n e d s e l f - a w a r e n e s s . H a n s e l l e t a l . (1986) found t h a t a d o l e s c e n t f e m a l e s s c o r e d h i g h e r t h a n males on a measure o f i n t r o s p e c t i v e n e s s and no d i s c r i m i n a t i o n e x i s t e d between genders f o r t h e age-24 i n t r o s p e c t i o n c o r r e l a t i o n . Age and i n t r o s p e c t i v e n e s s were p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d : o l d e r a d o l e s c e n t s t e n d t o be more i n t r o s p e c t i v e . A l t h o u g h a s u b s t a n t i a l m i n o r i t y o f t h e a d o l e s c e n t s i n t e r v i e w e d r e p o r t e d t h a t i n t r o s p e c t i o n c o n t r i b u t e d t o p o s i t i v e s e l f - k n o w l e d g e , i n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s and c r e a t i v i t y , r e s u l t s g e n e r a l l y i n d i c a t e d t h a t a d o l e s c e n t s w i t h h i g h e r i n t r o s p e c t i v e n e s s s c o r e s r e p o r t e d more d e p r e s s i o n and more p h y s i c a l symptoms t h a n t h o s e low on i n t r o s p e c t i v e n e s s . As e x p e c t e d , females were found t o r e p o r t more p h y s i c a l symptoms, more a n x i e t y , and g r e a t e r d e p r e s s i o n t h a n males. F i n a l l y , gender d i f f e r e n c e s were found i n o v e r a l l s e l f -a c t u a l i z a t i o n as measured by t h e POI. S c h r o e d e r (1973) s t u d i e d sex d i f f e r e n c e s and growth toward s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n i n freshman s t u d e n t s . He found p r e t e s t s c o r e d i f f e r e n c e s and i n c r e a s e d p o s t t e s t d i f f e r e n c e s f a v o r i n g f e m a l e s . The i n n e r d i r e c t e d (I) major s c a l e s c o r e s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r f o r f e m a l e s and t h e d i f f e r e n c e s were even h i g h e r on t h e p o s t t e s t . S c h r o e d e r (1973) c o n c l u d e d t h a t d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n s o f change emerge f o r men and women d u r i n g t h e f i r s t y e a r o f c o l l e g e . These f i n d i n g s a r e f u r t h e r s u p p o r t e d by Burke & W e i r (1976, c i t e d i n Kowal, 1985) who r e s e a r c h e d 274 a d o l e s c e n t s aged 13 t o 20 and c o n c l u d e d t h a t f e males appeared t o be under g r e a t e r s t r e s s and a r e l i k e l y e x p e r i e n c i n g g r e a t e r p s y c h o l o g i c a l and p s y c h o - p h y s i c a l s t r a i n as compared t o males. I n a s i m i l a r v e i n , House (1980, c i t e d i n Kowal, 1985) found f e m a l e s e x p r e s s e d c o n c e r n s o f p e r s o n a l appearance, 25 r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h p a r e n t s , e m o t i o n a l s t r e s s and s e x - r e l a t e d problems as compared t o males. Youth needs; R a l p h Waldo Emerson e l o q u e n t l y w r o t e : "Need b r e a k s i r o n " . The a f f e c t i v e needs o f t h e p e r s o n , s p e c i f i c a l l y t h o s e o f y o u t h , a r e b e i n g n e g l e c t e d . T h i s l a c k o f need f u l f i l l m e n t has t a k e n i t s t o l l b o t h on t h e i n d i v i d u a l and on s o c i e t y . The b a s i c needs o f t h e human p e r s o n , f o l l o w i n g t h e s a t i a t i o n o f p h y s i o l o g i c a l needs, a r e l o v e and b e l o n g i n g , t h e need f o r s e l f - e s t e e m and t h e need t o s e l f - a c t u a l i z e (Maslow, 1962). Needs a r e d e f i n e d as something t h a t i s e s s e n t i a l t o t h e w e l l - b e i n g o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l (Samuels, 1984) and t h e r e f o r e c r u c i a l t o p o s i t i v e human development. I n a s u r v e y o f 16 t o 18 y e a r o l d s c o n d u c t e d by Samuels (1984) t h e b e l o n g i n g n e s s and l o v e needs were found t o t a k e p r i o r i t y o v e r a l l t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l needs. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e , however, t h a t p h y s i o l o g i c a l needs were found t o be i n f i r s t p l a c e f o r e a r l y a d o l e s c e n t s . I n k e e p i n g w i t h Maslow's model, i t would appear t h a t l a t e a d o l e s c e n t s a r e p r o g r e s s i n g up t h e h i e r a r c h y i n an at t e m p t t o f u l f i l l t h o s e needs wh i c h a r e beyond t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l b u t precede t h e need f o r s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n . F o r t h e most p a r t , s o c i e t y has f a i l e d t o promote p o s i t i v e and h e a l t h y p e r s o n a l and i n t e r p e r s o n a l development, t h u s p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g , d u r i n g a d o l e s c e n c e . Some o f t h e ca u s e s f o r t h i s l a c k have been i d e n t i f i e d by Mosher e t a l . (1971): p o s t - i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f t h e 26 ex t e n d e d f a m i l y , t h e r a t e o f s o c i e t a l change, m a t e r i a l i s m , t h e exposure t o a d u l t h y p o c r i s y , t h e r i s e o f a s e p a r a t e y o u t h c u l t u r e , t h e d e c l i n e o f t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s and t h e growth o f emergent v a l u e s , a f f l u e n c e and p o v e r t y , and t h e f a i l u r e t o v a l u e p a r e n t i n g . These a r e s u g g e s t e d as m e r e l y a few o f t h e p o s s i b l e c a u s e s f o r s o c i e t y ' s l a c k o f c o n c e r n f o r f a c i l i t a t i n g y o u t h development. The l a t t e r has c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e m u l t i p l e d i f f i c u l t i e s e x p e r i e n c e d by t o d a y ' s y o u t h : h i g h s c h o o l d r o p - o u t r a t e s , low academic achievement, d r u g usage, runaways, p r o m i s c u i t y , p e r s o n a l a l i e n a t i o n , and y o u t h gangs. Numerous r e s e a r c h e r s have found c o r r e l a t i o n s between c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f t h e a f f e c t i v e domain, deemed t o be l a c k i n g o r u n d e r d e v e l o p e d , and i n e f f e c t u a l , d e v i a n t b e h a v i o r i n y o u t h (Kondel e t a l . , 1982; C l a r k e e t a l . , 1982; K a i s e r & Von A a l s t , 1982; Ekstrom, 1986; Seeman & Seeman, 1983). D e l i n q u e n t b e h a v i o r , i n p a r t , i s a consequence o f a r r e s t e d s o c i a l development (Morse e t a l . , 1980). The v a r i e d a s p e c t s o f i n e f f e c t i v e , d e l i n q u e n t b e h a v i o r a r e numerous. Almost two decades ago Mosher e t a l . (1971) used t h e t e r m " t e r r i f y i n g " t o d e s c r i b e t h e i n c r e a s e i n a d o l e s c e n t d r u g use. The s i t u a t i o n has n o t improved. S t u d i e s c i t e d i n Mangham (1985) i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f a d o l e s c e n t s r e p o r t i n g a l c o h o l use i s i n c r e a s i n g , w h i l e t h e age o f a l c o h o l u s e r s i s d e c r e a s i n g . Youths a r e o f t e n t u r n i n g t o dr u g s i n an at t e m p t t o e x p l o r e t h e i r e m o t i o n a l and s p i r i t u a l 27 s e l v e s and i n an a t t e m p t t o e x p e r i e n c e i n t i m a c y w i t h o t h e r s ( M u l l i n s & P e r k i n s , 1973). S t a t i s t i c s p o i n t out t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 76% o f a l l v i o l e n t d e a t h s (motor v e h i c l e , s u i c i d e , h o m i c i d e ) i n v o l v e a d o l e s c e n t s from t h e age o f 15 t o 19 ( c i t e d i n Kowal, 1985). H o l i n g e r ( c i t e d i n S t i v e r s , 1985) i n d i c a t e s t h a t a d o l e s c e n t s u i c i d e r a t e s i n t h e U.S. i n c r e a s e w i t h age and have d o u b l e d from 1961 t o 1975. S i n c e 1970, s u i c i d e has gone from t h e f i f t h l e a d i n g cause o f d e a t h among p e o p l e aged 15 t o 24 t o t h e second l e a d i n g cause o f d e a t h (Doan & P e t e r s o n , c i t e d i n S t i v e r s , 1985). ^ A l t h o u g h a d u l t s show a g e n e r a l downward t r e n d i n s u i c i d e r a t e s , a d o l e s c e n t r a t e s i n c r e a s e d a t an a l a r m i n g r a t e ( O f f e r e t a l . , 1981). These a u t h o r s s u g g e s t t h a t y o u t h s t o d a y may be e x p e r i e n c i n g more i s o l a t i o n r e s u l t i n g i n an i n c r e a s e i n t h e r a t e o f s u i c i d e . T h i s i n c r e a s e d i s o l a t i o n i s t h e r e s u l t o f t h e i n c r e a s e d d i f f i c u l t y i n a d o l e s c e n t achievement o f a sense o f s e l f - w o r t h and i n making f r i e n d s i n t h e l a r g e i m p e r s o n a l h i g h s c h o o l s o f t o d a y . S i m i l a r l y , D r e y f u s (1972) c i t e s a l i e n a t i o n as t h e p r e v a l e n t c o n d i t i o n o f t o d a y ' s y o u t h . A l i e n a t i o n i s d e f i n e d h e r e as f e e l i n g out o f t o u c h w i t h o n e s e l f , w i t h o t h e r s , and w i t h one's environment. O f f e r argues t h a t a d o l e s c e n t s i n t h e 1970's d e m o n s t r a t e d a g e n e r a l l y l o w e r p s y c h o l o g i c a l s e l f t h a n t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s i n t h e 1960's. One does not have t o c o n s u l t t h e l i t e r a t u r e t o c o n f i r m t h a t t h i s t r e n d has n o t a l t e r e d , i n f a c t , i f a n y t h i n g i t has worsened. D r e y f u s (1972), i n s u p p o r t o f t h e l a t t e r , 28 c l a i m s t h a t y o u t h e x p e r i e n c e a g r e a t e r l a c k o f i n t i m a c y t h a n d i d y o u t h s i n p r e v i o u s g e n e r a t i o n s . B u t t o n (1984) c l a i m s t h a t t h e r e i s a g r o w i n g d e p e r s o n a l i z a t i o n i n our s o c i e t y as w e l l as a w o r l d wide c h a l l e n g e t o a u t h o r i t y . P e e r p r e s s u r e i s f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d as t h e r e a s o n f o r a d o l e s c e n t d e l i n q u e n c y . S t u d i e s have found t h a t p o s i t i v e s e l f - e s t e e m l e s s e n s an i n d i v i d u a l ' s s u s c e p t i b i l i t y t o p e e r p r e s s u r e (Coleman, 1980). As s u c h , a s s i s t i n g y o u t h s i n d e v e l o p i n g a p o s i t i v e s e l f - c o n c e p t and h i g h s e l f - e s t e e m i s e s s e n t i a l . C s i k s z e n t m i h a l y i (1984) and D r e y f u s (1972) c i t e t h e p o t e n t i a l i n a b i l i t y t o d e a l c r e a t i v e l y w i t h t h e openness and i n t e r a c t i o n s o f p e e r r e l a t i o n s and an a t t e m p t t o a v o i d a l i e n a t i o n as two f a c t o r s p o s s i b l y l e a d i n g t o d e v i a n t b e h a v i o r . From t h e o p p o s i t e p e r s p e c t i v e , t h a t i s , l o o k i n g a t t h e l i t e r a t u r e w i t h a v i e w t o l e a r n i n g what c o n s t i t u t e s t h e development o f e f f e c t i v e b e h a v i o r , t h e r e i s no g r e a t w e a l t h o f knowledge a v a i l a b l e ( B l o c h e r , 1974). T h e r e f o r e any e f f o r t s t o i l l u m i n a t e t h o s e f a c t o r s l e a d i n g t o t h e development o f e f f e c t i v e b e h a v i o r i s v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n . 29 Review o f e d u c a t i o n a l t r e n d s : Abraham Maslow b e l i e v e d , "The f u n c t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n , t h e g o a l o f e d u c a t i o n . . . i s u l t i m a t e l y t h e * s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n ' o f a p e r s o n , t h e becoming f u l l y human, t h e development o f t h e f u l l e s t h e i g h t t h a t t h e human s p e c i e s can s t a n d up t o o r t h a t t h e p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l can come t o . I n a l e s s t e c h n i c a l way, i t i s h e l p i n g t h e p e r s o n t o become t h e b e s t t h a t he i s a b l e t o become" (1971, pp. 162-163). The e d u c a t i o n a l system has at t e m p t e d t o d e a l w i t h t h i s a s p e c t o f human development t h r o u g h what has been c a l l e d a f f e c t i v e e d u c a t i o n . The l a t t e r has been t h e h o s t o f a v a r i e t y o f l a b e l s : h u m a n i s t i c e d u c a t i o n , p r i m a r y p r e v e n t i o n , b e h a v i o r a l s c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n , m e n t a l h e a l t h e d u c a t i o n , c o n f l u e n t e d u c a t i o n , d e l i b e r a t e p s y c h o l o g i c a l e d u c a t i o n among o t h e r s ( L a r s o n , 1984; Morse e t a l . , 1980; Mosher & S p r i n t h a l l , 1971). A l t h o u g h Mosher & S p r i n t h a l l , (1971) s t a t e g o a l s f o r a f f e c t i v e e d u c a t i o n c o n g r u e n t w i t h t h o s e o f p e r s o n a l development e d u c a t i o n , t h e former i s c o n s i d e r e d t o o narrow (Gazda, 1978) i n i t s scope f o r t h e purposes o f t h i s s t u d y . P e r s o n a l development e d u c a t i o n , on t h e o t h e r hand, conveys t h e p r o a c t i v e - p r e v e n t a t i v e emphasis t h a t i s i n t e n d e d i n t h i s model o f e d u c a t i o n and i n t h i s program. As opposed t o d e a l i n g w i t h o n l y t h e emotions, d e v e l o p m e n t a l e d u c a t i o n encompasses a w i d e r range o f d e v e l o p m e n t a l a r e a s i n c l u d i n g t h e i n t e r p e r s o n a l . The program t h a t t h i s s t u d y i n v e s t i g a t e s i s b e s t r e f e r r e d t o as an a f f e c t i v e , p e r s o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t a l program. Maslow (1971) u r g e s s c h o o l s t o a l l o w s t u d e n t s t o l o o k w i t h i n t o f i n d a s e t o f v a l u e s t o l i v e by t h u s e n h a n c i n g t h e development o f a p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y and s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n . 30 S c h o o l s c u r r e n t l y o f f e r y o u t h l i t t l e a s s i s t a n c e i n d e v e l o p i n g a g a i n s t , what Mosher and S p r i n t h a l l (1971) c a l l , " u n u s u a l v i c i s s i t u d e s " . They, among o t h e r s , f u r t h e r c o n t e n d t h a t p e r s o n a l development s h o u l d be t h e major f o c u s o f e d u c a t i o n . I n The A f f e c t i v e Domain o f E d u c a t i o n , R i n g n e s s (1975) c i t e s t h e g o a l s o f h u m a n i s t i c e d u c a t i o n a s : " t h e development o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o h i s f u l l e s t e x t e n t as a r a t i o n a l , m o r a l and humane human b e i n g . The p e r s o n i s t o t h i n k o f o t h e r s as w e l l as h i m s e l f . He i s t o t h i n k o f t h e f u t u r e as w e l l as t h e p r e s e n t . He i s t o a c t as w e l l as r e a c t . And he i s t o a c c e p t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h i s own a c t i o n s " (p. 122). He f u r t h e r adds "Other c o n c e r n s o f t h e h u m a n i s t i c e d u c a t i o n i n c l u d e : knowing o n e ' s - s e l f (one's a t t i t u d e s , v a l u e s , b i a s e s , p r e j u d i c e s , a b i l i t i e s - w hatever t h e r e i s t o know), r e l a t i n g t o o t h e r s , and d e v e l o p i n g one's own g o a l s , a t t i t u d e s , and v a l u e s r a t h e r t h a n b u y i n g t h o s e p r e s c r i b e d by o t h e r s " (p. 122). The l a t t e r i s n o t i n t e n d e d t o be a t t h e expense o f c o g n i t i v e and i n t e l l e c t u a l l e a r n i n g b u t r a t h e r as a compliment. R i n g n e s s (1975) c l a i m s t h a t s c h o o l s would be much more e f f e c t i v e and p o s i t i v e l y v i ewed i f more o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n o f s t u d e n t s was p r o v i d e d . Mosher and S p r i n t h a l l (1971) r e s e a r c h e d a v a r i e t y o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l e d u c a t i o n approaches. The program d e s i g n e d by Mosher & S p r i n t h a l l , (1971) had as i t s main o b j e c t i v e t o e n a b l e s t u d e n t s t o c r e a t e p e r s o n a l meaning around c e n t r a l i s s u e s i n t h e i r l i v e s . T h i s program was found t o be h i g h l y v a l u a b l e t o p a r t i c i p a n t s as i n d i c a t e d by s u b j e c t i v e r e p o r t s . 31 Morse e t a l . (1980) i n r e v i e w i n g e v a l u a t i o n s o f v a r i o u s a f f e c t i v e e d u c a t i o n a l e f f o r t s found t h e r e s u l t s i n c o n s i s t e n t i n r e g a r d t o g a i n s i n s e l f c o n c e p t o r s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t . C a r t l e d g e & M i l b u r n ( c i t e d i n Morse e t a l . , 1980) d i d a comprehensive e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e v a r i o u s f a c e t s o f a f f e c t i v e e d u c a t i o n and found c o r r e l a t i o n s between s o c i a l s k i l l s and a c a d e m i c . s u c c e s s . T h i s f i n d i n g l e a d t h e s e r e v i e w e r s t o s u b s t a n t i a t e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f t e a c h i n g s o c i a l s k i l l s . C a r l Rogers (1983) summarized t h e r e s u l t s o f many r e s e a r c h e f f o r t s i n v o l v i n g a f f e c t i v e e d u c a t i o n . R e s e a r c h r e s u l t s showed p o s i t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n between a f f e c t i v e e d u c a t i o n and growth, i n t e r e s t , c o g n i t i o n , p r o d u c t i v i t y , s e l f -c o n f i d e n c e , and t r u s t . R o gers' e v i d e n c e comes from s t u d i e s i n numerous s e t t i n g s and c o u n t r i e s , a c r o s s a l l l e v e l s o f e d u c a t i o n and w i t h s t u d e n t s o f d i f f e r e n t r a c e , s e x , and s o c i o -economic s t a t u s . Rogers documented e v i d e n c e t h a t s t u d e n t s l e a r n more, a t t e n d s c h o o l more o f t e n , and a r e more c r e a t i v e and c a p a b l e o f problem s o l v i n g when a h u m a n i s t i c , a f f e c t i v e c u r r i c u l u m i s employed. Gazda (1978) s u p p o r t s t h e need and v a l u e o f d e v e l o p m e n t a l e d u c a t i o n i n t h e s c h o o l s . He o u t l i n e s a s e r i e s o f modules t h r o u g h w h i c h l i f e - s k i l l s can be t a u g h t . Each module would i n v o l v e d i d a c t i c i n s t r u c t i o n , e x p e r i e n t i a l i n v o l v e m e n t , s k i l l a c q u i s i t i o n , and a p p l i c a t i o n t o t h e s t u d e n t ' s e n v i r o n m e n t . The need f o r such a program i s based on t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t s t u d e n t s r e q u i r e a c c u r a t e and t i m e l y i n f o r m a t i o n and s k i l l s t o make and f o l l o w t h r o u g h w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e l i f e d e c i s i o n s 32 (Gazda, 1978). He f u r t h e r adds t h a t t h e most e c o n o m i c a l and e f f i c i e n t means i s t h r o u g h r e g u l a r l y s c h e d u l e d d a i l y c l a s s e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e s c h o o l l i f e o f t h e s t u d e n t . The m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f h e a l t h , as s u g g e s t e d by a number o f h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s ( L e d w i t h , 1984), i s comparable t o t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g p e r s o n as d e l i n e a t e d by Maslow. Such c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as h o l i s t i c . These h e a l t h e d u c a t o r s encouraged t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n as a c o n s t a n t g o a l o f e d u c a t i o n t h e r e b y l e s s e n i n g t h e emphasis on academic achievement and c o m p e t i t i o n ( L e d w i t h , 1984). Browne (1984) argued f o r t h e need t o a d d r e s s t h e whole p e r s o n i n h e a l t h e d u c a t i o n : t o f o s t e r t h e development' o f p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as s e l f - e s t e e m , s e l f -c o n f i d e n c e , independence i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , s e l f -s a t i s f a c t i o n , s e l f - m a s t e r y , and a s s e r t i v e n e s s . I n s h o r t , he s u p p o r t e d t h e need f o r an i n c r e a s e i n c o u r s e s aimed a t d e a l i n g w i t h p s y c h o - s o c i a l i s s u e s . Tones (1984) s i m i l a r l y s t a t e d t h a t a p e r s o n a l - s o c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t a l approach t o h e a l t h e d u c a t i o n i s w a r r a n t e d . Theory and r e s e a r c h on p e r s o n a l development programs: The f o l l o w i n g i s a r e v i e w o f a more n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l avenue d e v e l o p e d i n an a t t empt t o f u r t h e r human p o t e n t i a l and a d d r e s s human needs. The m a j o r i t y o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l and growth o r i e n t e d program r e s e a r c h t o o k p l a c e d u r i n g t h e s e v e n t i e s under t h e a u s p i c e s o f t h e human p o t e n t i a l movement. Such 33 programs were l a b e l e d as t - g r o u p s , s e n s i t i v i t y t r a i n i n g , e n c o u n t e r g r o u p s , growth groups,and human r e l a t i o n s t r a i n i n g . They a l l f a l l under t h e g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i v e t i t l e " p e r s o n a l -g rowth e x p e r i e n c e " (Knapp & Shostrom, 1976). These programs s h a r e s i m i l a r k i n d s o f l e a r n i n g o b j e c t i v e s : s e l f i n s i g h t , l e a r n i n g s about f e e l i n g s and m o t i v a t i o n s and consequences o f b e h a v i o r i n o t h e r s , h e a r i n g o t h e r s , a c c e p t i n g f e e d b a c k and communicating w i t h o t h e r p e r s o n s , s k i l l s o f a p p r o p r i a t e i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h o t h e r p e r s o n s , s k i l l s f o r c o n t i n u o u s l e a r n i n g (Reddy & B e e r s , 1977). Rogers (1970) d i s c u s s e d t h e common t h r e a d s o f a v a r i e t y o f g rowth groups as h a v i n g a c o g n i t i v e component (though n o t always) and t h e f a c i l i t a t i o n o f e x p r e s s i o n o f b o t h f e e l i n g s and t h o u g h t s on t h e p a r t o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s as i t s g o a l . A d e f i n i t i o n c o i n e d by Rogers w h i c h seems a p p r o p r i a t e t o a l l growth groups i s a tendency t o "emphasize p e r s o n a l growth and t h e development and improvement o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l communication and r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h r o u g h an e x p e r i e n t i a l p r o c e s s " (1970, p. 4 ) . A l t h o u g h t h i s movement has s i n c e waned (Yalom, 1975; Liberman e t a l . , 1973) due t o a v a r i e t y o f r e a s o n s , t h e f i n d i n g s a r e a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e c u r r e n t s t u d y as t h e l e a r n i n g o b j e c t i v e s r e m a i n s i m i l a r . As w e l l , most s t u d i e s employed t h e P e r s o n a l O r i e n t a t i o n I n v e n t o r y (P.O.I.) as a measure o f p e r s o n a l growth i n d i c a t i n g a s i m i l a r i t y i n t h e h y p o t h e s i z e d outcome v a r i a b l e s . The POI w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n t h e 34 i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n s e c t i o n , however f o r t h e pur p o s e s o f t h i s s e c t i o n a b r i e f e x p l a n a t i o n i s c a l l e d f o r . Shostrom (1974) d e v e l o p e d t h e POI as a much needed comprehensive measure o f v a l u e s and b e h a v i o r s t h a t a r e c o n s i d e r e d i m p o r t a n t i n t h e development o f s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n . I t c o n s i s t s o f 150 t w o - c h o i c e c o m p a r a t i v e v a l u e judgments w h i c h a r e s c o r e d t w i c e , once f o r t h e two major s c a l e s and once f o r t h e t e n s u b s c a l e s . The program under i n v e s t i g a t i o n has as i t s c o r e , i n t e n s i v e group e x p e r i e n c e c o u p l e d w i t h a d i d a c t i c e d u c a t i o n a l component. S t u d e n t s p a r t i c i p a t e as members o f s m a l l groups i n w h i c h t h e f o c u s i s upon t h e m s e l v e s ( i n t r a p e r s o n a l ) and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s ( i n t e r p e r s o n a l ) t o o t h e r s members i n t h e group. I t , t h e r e f o r e , seems a p p r o p r i a t e t o r e v i e w t h e l i t e r a t u r e on p e r s o n a l growth groups. Shostrom (1976) c l a i m s t h a t i n t e l l e c t u a l , e m o t i o n a l and body awareness can be l e a r n e d t h r o u g h p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a group i n t e r p e r s o n a l s e t t i n g . S h o s t r o m 7 s s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g group emphasizes b o t h d i d a c t i c and e x p e r i e n t i a l components d i r e c t e d t o w a r d h e l p i n g an i n d i v i d u a l d e v e l o p a p h i l o s o p h y o f f u n c t i o n i n g i n l i f e . The emphasis i s on means r a t h e r t h a n ends. I t i s commonly agreed t h a t t h e l a t t e r i s t h e f o c u s o f p s y c h o s o c i a l and p e r s o n a l development e d u c a t i o n ( L a r s o n , 1984; Egan, 1984; Mosher e t a l . , 1971). Ware & B a r r (1977) s t a t e : " . . . i t w ould appear t h a t movement to w a r d * s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n ' as measured by t h e POI c o u l d o c c u r from a number o f 35 e x p e r i e n c e s d e s i g n e d t o i n c r e a s e s e l f - a w a r e n e s s , whether t h e y a r e l o n g - o r s h o r t - t e r m " (p.98). The f o l l o w i n g i s a r e v i e w o f r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s s p a n n i n g o v e r a f i f t e e n y e a r p e r i o d . Knapp and Shostrom (1976) p r o v i d e a f a i r l y comprehensive r e v i e w o f t h e outcome l i t e r a t u r e f o r f o u r t e e n growth group s t u d i e s , a l l o f w h i c h used t h e P.O.I, as a measure o f change. These s t u d i e s i n v a r i a b l y i n d i c a t e p o s i t i v e s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n s f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l groups on t h e major I s c a l e , and on a t l e a s t f o u r s u b - s c a l e s . The l a t t e r was t r u e f o r t w e l v e o f t h e s t u d i e s mentioned. I n t h e n i n e s t u d i e s u s i n g a c o n t r o l group, o n l y two r e p o r t e d s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n t h e c o n t r o l group on t h e major I s c a l e w h i l e one s t u d y showed changes on two o f t h e s u b s c a l e s . The Knapp and Shostrom (1976) r e v i e w c i t e s o n l y one s t u d y i n v o l v i n g a d o l e s c e n t s . I n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s t u d y , A l p e r s o n , A l p e r s o n , and L e v i n e (1971) examined t h e e f f e c t o f an i n t e n s i v e growth group e x p e r i e n c e on t h i r t y - t w o v o l u n t e e r s t u d e n t s randomly a s s i g n e d t o a c o n t r o l o r t r e a t m e n t group. R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e s i n POI s c o r e s f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group. S i g n i f i c a n c e was r e a c h e d on t h e two major s c a l e s and f o u r o f t h e s u b s c a l e s . Only one s u b s c a l e showed a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e a t t h e .05 l e v e l f o r t h e c o n t r o l group. These a u t h o r s c o n c l u d e d t h a t growth groups can c o n t r i b u t e t o p e r s o n a l growth i n terms o f t h e POI s c a l e s . U s i n g a r i g i d e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n , Ware e t a l . (1982) r e p o r t e d s i m i l a r f i n d i n g s t o t h o s e o f Knapp and Shostrom (1976). P r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t POI measurements showed 36 s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e s on one major s c a l e , i n n e r s u p p o r t , and t h r e e s u b - s c a l e s . O t h e r measures r e v e a l e d l i t t l e e f f e c t . Himber (1970) r e p o r t e d on t h e s u b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n s from 384 t e e n - t e e n a g e r s who had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a one-week human-r e l a t i o n s group s i x months e a r l i e r . Those changes c i t e d most by p a r t i c i p a n t s i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g t h e group and s i x months l a t e r were a " b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f o t h e r s , i n c r e a s e d s e l f -i d e n t i t y , more a c c e p t a n c e o f o t h e r s , i n c r e a s e d t r u s t , openness and a v a i l a b i l i t y , i n c r e a s e d a b i l i t y t o e x p r e s s s e l f , and g r e a t e r autonomy" (P. 316). Himber (1970) c i t e s f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e , based on a r e v i e w o f 44 r e s e a r c h e f f o r t s , t h a t T-Group t r a i n i n g i n d u c e s b e h a v i o r a l changes i n t h e "back-home" s i t u a t i o n . As w e l l , Himber c i t e s an e a r l i e r r e s e a r c h s t u d y whereby t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s and e v a l u a t i o n s o f p a r e n t s a f t e r t h e i r t e e n s had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a growth group e x p e r i e n c e i n d i c a t e d : i n c r e a s e d t o l e r a n c e o f o t h e r s , i n c r e a s e d m a t u r i t y , and improved r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h f a m i l y and p e e r s . A l t h o u g h t h e l a t t e r was t r u e f o r b o t h g i r l s and boys, g r e a t e r change was i n d i c a t e d f o r g i r l s . J e p s o n (1969) i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e e f f e c t s o f a weekend s e l f -a c t u a l i z i n g growth workshop on s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s . T h i r t y two s u b j e c t s i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group and t h i r t y two i n t h e c o n t r o l group were p r e - and p o s t t e s t e d u s i n g t h e POI and two v a l u e s c a l e s . R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e workshop was n o t e f f e c t i v e i n c h a n g i n g v a l u e s , a l t h o u g h i t was t h o u g h t t o have i n h i b i t e d some n e g a t i v e changes w h i c h o c c u r r e d i n t h e 37 c o n t r o l group. These r e s u l t s may p o s s i b l y be due t o t h e f a c t t h a t a l m o s t h a l f o f t h e t w e l v e s e s s i o n s were d e v o t e d t o t h e o r y and d e m o n s t r a t i o n . S t u d e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y v a l u e d t h e s m a l l group i n t e r a c t i o n more t h a n t h e t h e o r y , t h u s a l l u d i n g t o t h e l a t t e r b e i n g more d e s i r a b l e and p o s s i b l y more c o n d u c i v e t o change. Numerous s t u d i e s have found p o s i t i v e changes, t h a t i s an i n c r e a s e i n s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n as measured by t h e POI f o l l o w i n g v a r i o u s t r e a t m e n t s , a l l o f w h i c h a r e p u r p o r t e d t o be p e r s o n a l and i n t e r p e r s o n a l growth programs. F o u l d s (1970) i n d i c a t e d t h a t a p e r s o n a l growth group e x p e r i e n c e was an e f f e c t i v e method f o r f o s t e r i n g p o s i t i v e m e n t a l h e a l t h and p e r s o n a l growth i n r e l a t i v e l y h e a l t h y s t u d e n t s . These r e s u l t s were r e p l i c a t e d i n a l a t e r s t u d y by F o u l d s and Hannigan (1977, 1976a, 1976b). F o u l d s and Hannigan (1976b) a l s o n o t e d what t h e y termed "a d e l a y e d s l e e p e r e f f e c t " , t h a t i s , t h a t t h e workshop had s t i m u l a t e d a d d i t i o n a l p o s i t i v e changes i n t h e s i x - m o n t h p e r i o d f o l l o w i n g t h e workshop. h i g h e r t h a n t h e c o n t r o l group on e l e v e n o f t h e t w e l v e POI s c a l e s and on a l l seven o f t h e g o a l a t t a i n m e n t i n v e n t o r i e s . Klemke (1977) s t a t e s t h a t t h e s e n s i t i v i t y group p r o v i d e s a u n i q u e s o c i a l microcosm t h a t enhances t h e s e l f - c o n c e p t and r e a l w o r l d r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f p a r t i c i p a n t s . S t u d e n t s , i n a t h r e e month f o l l o w - u p q u e s t i o n n a i r e , r e p o r t e d n o t i c e a b l y b e t t e r f e e l i n g s about t h e m s e l v e s , more f a v o r a b l e f e e l i n g s t o w a r d o t h e r s , and b e t t e r communication w i t h t h e i r " s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s " . 38 The d e v e l o p m e n t a l b a s i s f o r t h e c u r r e n t program: The program t h a t t h i s s t u d y i s i n v e s t i g a t i n g i s co n g r u e n t w i t h c r i t e r i a c i t e d by Mosher (1971), Egan (1984) and, B l o c h e r (1974) f o r p s y c h o s o c i a l , p e r s o n a l development e d u c a t i o n . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h i s c u r r i c u l u m w i l l o f f e r y o u t h a s y s t e m a t i c e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e t o e f f e c t i v e l y f a c i l i t a t e t h e i r movement t h r o u g h l i f e t a s k s , t h u s l e a d i n g t o c o n t i n u e d p e r s o n a l development. Egan (1984) i n r e l a t i n g t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l t a s k s t o t h e l e a r n i n g o f a p p r o p r i a t e l i f e s k i l l s , c l a i m s t h a t p e o p l e need t o a c q u i r e " w o r k i n g knowledge and s k i l l s " t h a t w i l l empower them. Those e s s e n t i a l l i f e s k i l l s as d e l i n e a t e d by Egan a r e : s k i l l s r e l a t e d t o p h y s i c a l development, l e a r n i n g t o l e a r n s k i l l s , v a l u e c l a r i f i c a t i o n and r e f o r m u l a t i o n s k i l l s , s e l f -management s k i l l s : i n t e r p e r s o n a l communication s k i l l s , s m a l l group s k i l l s , and systems i n v o l v e m e n t s k i l l s . I n f o l l o w i n g w i t h Egan's s t e p s , t h e i n i t i a l l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s were f o c u s e d on t h e s e l f . Under t h e g e n e r a l f o c u s o f s e l f , s e s s i o n s f o s t e r e d s e l f - a w a r e n e s s t h r o u g h t h e p r o c e s s o f i n t r o s p e c t i o n , i n s i g h t and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f one's v a l u e s and b e l i e f s . As w e l l , self-management, i n t h e form o f r e l a x a t i o n , s e l f - r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r s e l f -d i s c o v e r y was encouraged. The n a t u r a l p r o g r e s s i o n a f t e r t h e f o c u s on s e l f , was movement toward i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s k i l l s , f o l l o w e d by s m a l l group i n t e r a c t i o n and s k i l l 39 development and f i n a l l y , i n v o l v e m e n t and i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e whole community o f p a r t i c i p a n t s . S e l f - a w a r e n e s s : An o p p o r t u n i t y was p r o v i d e d f o r e x p e r i e n c i n g t h e s e l f i n a p o s i t i v e , n o u r i s h i n g , i n t r o s p e c t i v e manner. I t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t one must s t a r t w i t h i n t r o s p e c t i o n t o g a i n s e l f -u n d e r s t a n d i n g and s e l f - a c c e p t a n c e and t h u s a means t o w a r d p e r s o n a l empowerment. I n t r o s p e c t i o n i s s a i d t o be a n e c e s s a r y component f o r t h e o r d e r i n g o f t h o u g h t s ( C s i k s z e n t m i l a l y i , 1984) . S e l f -r e f l e c t i o n f a c i l i t a t e s a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f what one b e l i e v e s and v a l u e s (Morse e t a l . , 1980; S c h u r - L e v y & F a r b e r , 1986). E r i k s o n (1968) has i n d i c a t e d t h a t : " t h e a d o l e s c e n t ' s ego-development demands and p e r m i t s p l a y f u l , i f n o t d a r i n g e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n i n f a n t a s y and i n t r o s p e c t i o n " (p. 164). I n t r o s p e c t i o n s e r v e s t o f a c i l i t a t e s t r u c t u r a l c o h e s i o n and o f f e r s a d o l e s c e n t s i n s i g h t i n t o t h e i r i d i o s y n c r a t i c needs and t e n d e n c i e s (Schur-Levy & F a r b e r , 1986) . They f u r t h e r add t h a t t h r o u g h i n t r o s p e c t i o n , t h e a d o l e s c e n t ' s i n t e r n a l w o r l d becomes an " a l l y " , t h u s he/she i s a s s u r e d o f a r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h s e l f . C s i k s z e n t m i h a l y i (1984) i n a major a d o l e s c e n t r e s e a r c h e f f o r t , i d e n t i f i e d a number o f p o i n t s s u p p o r t i n g t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f d e v e l o p i n g adequate p e e r r e l a t i o n s . He f u r t h e r added, t h a t t h e most i m p o r t a n t c r i t e r i a i s t h e development o f a r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h s e l f . Youths i n t h i s s t u d y r e p o r t e d t h a t t i m e w i t h f r i e n d s was t h e b e s t p a r t o f t h e i r d a i l y l i v e s and c o n v e r s e l y , t i m e s p e n t a l o n e , i n s o l i t u d e , was c i t e d as t h e 40 t i m e t h e y f e e l w o r s t . I n f a c t , t h e l o n e l i n e s s e x p e r i e n c e d by a d o l e s c e n t was found t o be f a r deeper t h a n t h a t o f a d u l t s ( C s i k s z e n t m i l a l y i , 1984). A l t h o u g h a d o l e s c e n t l o n e l i n e s s may seem i n c o n s e q u e n t i a l , s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e o t h e r w i s e . N i e l s e n (1987) c i t e s a number o f s t u d i e s showing c o r r e l a t i o n s between l o n e l i n e s s i n a d o l e s c e n c e and academic d i f f i c u l t y , d e l i n q u e n c y , p h y s i c a l i l l n e s s and m e n t a l problems i n l a t e r y e a r s . I n f o l l o w i n g , C s i k s z e n t m i l a l y i s u g g e s t s t h a t t e a c h i n g a d o l e s c e n t s how t o use s o l i t u d e i n a p o s i t i v e , n o u r i s h i n g way i s t o p r o v i d e them w i t h a s i g n i f i c a n t o p p o r t u n i t y f o r growth. A d o l e s c e n t s must l e a r n t o d e v e l o p s k i l l s t o i n t e r a c t w i t h t h e m s e l v e s t h u s e n a b l i n g them t o b e n e f i t from s o l i t u d e as opposed t o v i e w i n g i t as r e j e c t i o n o r i s o l a t i o n . I n t r o s p e c t i o n has been r e l a t e d t o i n t e r p e r s o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n i n so f a r as a c c e s s t o one's own f e e l i n g s and t h o u g h t s f a c i l i t a t e s an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f o t h e r s ' f e e l i n g s and t h o u g h t s ( O f f e r e t a l , 1981; Schur-Levy & F a r b e r , 1986). Thus f o l l o w i n g t h e development o f s e l f - s k i l l s , p a r t i c i p a n t s g r a d u a l l y move tow a r d i n c r e a s e d p e e r i n t e r a c t i o n , w i t h a v i e w t o e n h a n c i n g t h e i r i n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s . I n t e r p e r s o n a l awareness: The s m a l l group e x p e r i e n c e i s a major component o f t h i s program. The j u s t i f i c a t i o n and r a t i o n a l e f o r i m p l e m e n t i n g a s m a l l group component as an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e program comes from a w e a l t h o f l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t i n g t h e i m p o r t a n c e and u n e q u i v o c a l v a l u e o f p e e r i n t e r a c t i o n (Morse e t a l . , 1980; Mosher & S p r i n t h a l l , 1971; C s i k s z e n t m i h a l y i , 1984; N i e l s e n , 1987; Coleman, 1980). C s i k s z e n t m i h a l y i , (1984) c l a i m s t h a t p e e r s p r o v i d e each o t h e r w i t h an environment f o r growth and s e l f - k n o w l e d g e t h a t t h e f a m i l y and o t h e r s cannot p r o v i d e . The i m p o r t a n c e o f p e e r s i s u n r i v a l e d i n terms o f h e l p i n g young p e o p l e hone t h e i r s o c i a l s k i l l s and e x p e r i e n c e t h e m y r i a d d i m e n s i o n s o f f r i e n d s h i p ( N i e l s e n , 1987). P o s i t i v e p e e r group r e l a t i o n s can make a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e t o a d o l e s c e n t development (Coleman, 1980); poor p e e r r e l a t i o n s have been found t o be p r e d i c t i v e o f l o n g - r a n g e and e x t e n s i v e m e n t a l h e a l t h problems (Adams, 1983). Morse e t a l . (1980) c o n s i d e r a d o l e s c e n t development as p r i m a r i l y r e l a t e d t o t h e i n t e r p e r s o n a l l e v e l o f f u n c t i o n i n g and n o t e t h a t group work i s t h e b e s t v e h i c l e f o r d e v e l o p i n g s o c i a l s k i l l s . They remind us o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f i n t e r a c t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y p e e r i n t e r a c t i o n , i n f u r t h e r i n g a d o l e s c e n t growth. I n t h i s r e g a r d , Morse e t a l . (1980) d e s c r i b e t h e use o f p e e r groups as c a p i t a l i z i n g on a v e r y n a t u r a l , y e t f r u i t f u l s i t u a t i o n . B e i n g seen by p e e r s , approved by p e e r s and w o r k i n g w i t h p e e r s a l l o w s i s s u e s o f s e l f - c o n c e p t t o be r a i s e d and r e s o l v e d . H e a l t h y p e e r c o n f r o n t a t i o n i s a l s o c o n s i d e r e d a s a l i e n t i n g r e d i e n t i n a d o l e s c e n t growth ( P i a g e t , 1965; Morse e t a l . , 1980). As mentioned e a r l i e r , o n l y p e e r s can g i v e u n b i a s e d f e e d b a c k t h a t i s needed f o r a g r o w i n g p e r s o n t o d e v e l o p a r e a l i s t i c sense o f s e l f ( C s i k s z e n t m i l a l y i , 1984; Morse e t a l . , 42 1980). Once a g a i n t h e need and v a l u e o f an i n t e r p e r s o n a l program i n t h e enhancement o f s e l f - c o n c e p t i s e v i d e n t . T h e o r e t i c a l l y , b o t h t h e c o g n i t i v e and p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l t h e o r i s t s a t t r i b u t e t h e s e l f - c o n c e p t f o r m a t i o n i n a d o l e s c e n c e t o a c o m b i n a t i o n o f s e l f - r e f l e c t i o n ( i n t e r n a l ) and o u t s i d e ( e x t e r n a l ) f eedback ( N i e l s e n , 1987). T h i s program i s d e s i g n e d t o b a l a n c e t h e i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l e x p l o r a t i o n o f c o n s t r u c t s , c o n c e p t s , and f e e d b a c k w h i l e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y e n c o u r a g i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s t o f o r m u l a t e a c c u r a t e c o n c e p t s t h a t f i t f o r them i n d i v i d u a l l y . The i m p o r t a n c e o f feedback from o t h e r s i s c o n s i d e r e d c r u c i a l i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f and changes i n s e l f - c o n c e p t (Klemke, 1977). F i t t s (1971) h o l d s t h e p o s i t i o n t h a t s e l f - c o n c e p t and s e l f -a c t u a l i z a t i o n a r e h i g h l y r e l a t e d t o each o t h e r . F i t t s f u r t h e r h y p o t h e s i z e s t h a t s e l f - c o n c e p t s e r v e s as an i n d e x , o r c r i t e r i o n , o f s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , g i v e n t h e r e l a t i o n o f s e l f - c o n c e p t t o s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n , one cannot u n d e r e s t i m a t e t h e v a l u e and i m p o r t a n c e o f f o s t e r i n g p o s i t i v e s e l f - c o n c e p t b o t h t h r o u g h a deepening i n s e l f - a w a r e n e s s and i n t e r p e r s o n a l feedback. 43 CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY Overview: T h i s r e s e a r c h i n v e s t i g a t e s a c a u s a l - c o m p a r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h r e e v a r i a b l e s : t h e a f f e c t i v e , p e r s o n a l development t r a i n i n g t r e a t m e n t (independent v a r i a b l e ) , gender (i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e ) and, a d o l e s c e n t p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l -b e i n g as measured by t h e POI (dependent v a r i a b l e ) . The r e s e a r c h d e s i g n i s q u a s i - e x p e r i m e n t a l u s i n g a one group p r e t e s t - p o s t t e s t d e s i g n . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l measure, two i n f o r m a l q u a l i t a t i v e measures a r e used t o supplement t h e d a t a . The more o b j e c t i v e q u a n t i t a t i v e measure, t h e P e r s o n a l O r i e n t a t i o n I n v e n t o r y , i s augmented w i t h i n t e r v i e w s and s e l f - r e p o r t q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t o i l l u m i n a t e t h e t r e n d s i n d i c a t e d . The l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s t h a t r e s e a r c h i n t h e a r e a o f h e a l t h e d u c a t i o n can and s h o u l d be a c c o m p l i s h e d t h r o u g h t h e use o f q u a l i t a t i v e and q u a n t i t a t i v e measures (Browne, 1984). The i n t e r v i e w and q u e s t i o n n a i r e method was s e l e c t e d as an a p p r o p r i a t e method f o r g e n e r a t i n g d e s c r i p t i v e d a t a t o f u r t h e r e x p l i c a t e t h e o b j e c t i v e q u a n t i t a t i v e r e s u l t s . The l a t t e r was i n t e n d e d t o have a h e u r i s t i c v a l u e , t o g e n e r a t e e v i d e n c e f o r t h e e l a b o r a t i o n and r e f i n e m e n t o f t h e f i n d i n g s . 44 R a t i o n a l e f o r d e s i g n : T h i s d e s i g n was implemented because t h e program under i n v e s t i g a t i o n d i d n o t a l l o w f o r d i f f e r e n t i a l t r e a t m e n t : n o r was i t f e a s i b l e t o s e t up a matched c o n t r o l group g i v e n t h e r e s i d e n t i a l i n t e n s i t y o f t h e s i t u a t i o n . T h i s d e s i g n i s e s p e c i a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e when a t t e m p t i n g t o change a b e h a v i o r p a t t e r n o r i n t e r n a l p r o c e s s e s t h a t a r e n o t l i k e l y t o change u n l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t e f f o r t i s made (Borg & G a l l , 1983). The q u a s i - e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n and l a c k o f a c o n t r o l group would n o r m a l l y be a t h r e a t t o t h e i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y o f t h e s t u d y . D e s p i t e t h i s p o t e n t i a l l i a b i l i t y , t h e i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y i s n o t s e r i o u s l y t h r e a t e n e d . The p r e - p o s t t e s t g a i n s due t o e x t r a n e o u s v a r i a b l e s a r e reduced f o r a number o f r e a s o n s : g i v e n a one week i n t e n s i v e program d u r a t i o n t h e m a t u r a t i o n o r m o r t a l i t y ( a t t r i t i o n ) e f f e c t i s n o t l i k e l y and, v a r i a n c e due t o gender i s c o n t r o l l e d f o r . I n a d d i t i o n , t e m p o r a l p r ecedence i s c l e a r , i m i t a t i o n o f t r e a t m e n t , compensatory e q u a l i z a t i o n o f t r e a t m e n t s , compensatory r i v a l r y and, r e s e n t f u l d e m o r a l i z a t i o n a r e a v o i d e d i n a one group d e s i g n (Cook & Campb e l l , 1979). To l e n d f u r t h e r j u s t i f i c a t i o n t o t h e d e s i g n , a s i m i l a r s t u d y c o n d u c t e d by Watkins e t a l . (1975) o m i t t e d a no-t r e a t m e n t c o n d i t i o n based on t h e f i n d i n g s o f e a r l i e r s t u d i e s ( F o u l d s , 1970) wh i c h demonstrated t h a t t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t POI changes i n c o n t r o l groups. 45 The experimental measure P e r s o n a l O r i e n t a t i o n I n v e n t o r y : The POI p r o v i d e s an o b j e c t i v e d e l i n e a t i o n o f t h e l e v e l o f t h e s u b j e c t ' s m e n t a l h e a l t h (Shostrom, 1974). T h i s i n s t r u m e n t w i l l be f u r t h e r d i s c u s s e d i n t h e i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n s e c t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e POI manual i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e a r e few o r no o b s e r v a b l e sex d i f f e r e n c e s on t h e s e s c a l e s , S c h r o e d e r (1973), on t h e o t h e r hand c a u t i o n s a g a i n s t p o o l i n g s c o r e s f o r males and f e m a l e s . Gender was used as an indepe n d e n t v a r i a b l e so as t o c o n t r o l f o r v a r i a n c e i n s c o r e s as w e l l as t o i n v e s t i g a t e p o s s i b l e i n i t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s as w e l l as d i f f e r e n t i a l t r e a t m e n t e f f e c t s . The supplementary measures I n t e r v i e w s : A l l i n t e r v i e w s were a u d i o - t a p e r e c o r d e d . The i n t e r v i e w s a l l o w e d f o r more d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n t h a n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l measure, g i v e n t h e v e r b a l open ended n a t u r e o f t h e q u e s t i o n s . Q u e s t i o n s were d e s i g n e d t o g e n e r a t e d a t a on t h e v a l u e and impact o f t h e program from t h e p a r t i c i p a n t ' s p e r s p e c t i v e . A t t e n t i o n was g i v e n t o t h e s t u d e n t ' s comprehension o f t h e q u e s t i o n s and any i n d i c a t i o n o f a l a c k o f comprehension l e a d t o f u r t h e r c l a r i f i c a t i o n . A l l q u e s t i o n s were open-ended, t h u s a l l o w i n g s t u d e n t s t o re s p o n d i n t h e i r own words. S t u d e n t s were i n t e r v i e w e d i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e program. The c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y was v e r i f i e d t h r o u g h a comparison o f r e s p o n s e s and q u e s t i o n s . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s : A program e v a l u a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d e s i g n e d t o e l i c i t i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e p r a g m a t i c s o f t h e 46 program, ( f a c i l i t i e s , p r e - c o n f e r e n c e p r e p a r a t i o n , i n d i v i d u a l s e s s i o n s , c o n t e n t ) and s u b j e c t i v e s e l f - r e p o r t s from p a r t i c i p a n t s on t h e impact, v a l u e , and a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e program c o n t e n t . T h i s s t u d y i s p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f t h e e v a l u a t i o n . T h i s e v a l u a t i o n was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e program. P a r t i c i p a n t s were asked t o i n d i c a t e i f t h e y f e l t t h a t t h e program o b j e c t i v e s were a c h i e v e d , p a r t l y a c h i e v e d o r n o t a c h i e v e d . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e open-ended q u e s t i o n s were d e s i g n e d w i t h a v i e w t o c o l l e c t i n g d a t a on: s t u d e n t e x p e c t a t i o n s and wants; t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e b e n e f i t o f t h e l e a r n i n g ; t h e p o s s i b l e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n and s k i l l s ; and, t h e p e r c e i v e d impact o f t h e program f o r each i n d i v i d u a l . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t e m v a l i d i t y was v e r i f i e d by a s i m i l a r i t y i n t h e i t e m and t h e v o l u n t a r y r e s p o n s e s p r o v i d e d by s u b j e c t s . As w e l l , e x p e r t o p i n i o n and t h e p i l o t s u b j e c t s g e n e r a t e d f e e d b a c k on t h o s e i t e m s w h i c h may have l a c k e d v a l i d i t y . SUBJECTS The d a t a t o be examined were g a t h e r e d from 69 s u b j e c t s , i n c l u d i n g 39 f e m a l e s and 3 0 males. S u b j e c t s ranged from s i x t e e n t o n i n e t e e n y e a r s o f age, w i t h a mean age o f 16.7 y e a r s . P a r t i c i p a n t s were a l l i n v o l v e d i n t h e B r i t i s h Columbia 4-H y o u t h o r g a n i z a t i o n . S u b j e c t s , e n r o l l e d i n t h e 1988 P r o v i n c i a l C l u b Week, an annual seven day r e s i d e n t i a l y o u t h program, were s e l e c t e d f o r t h i s s t u d y . These y o u t h s a r e 47 r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f B r i t i s h Columbia 4-H r u r a l y o u t h ; communities from e v e r y c o r n e r o f B.C. a r e r e p r e s e n t e d . The sample i s a p r e d o m i n a n t l y w h i t e , m i d d l e - c l a s s s o c i o - e c o n o m i c group. T h i s p o p u l a t i o n was chosen f o r c o n t e n t o f t h e program and a u t h o r a c c e s s i b i l i t y . A l t h o u g h t h e y o u t h s a r e p r i m a r i l y f rom a r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n , i t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t a d o l e s c e n t s , r e g a r d l e s s i f r u r a l o r u r b a n , a l l e x p e r i e n c e s i m i l a r d e v e l o p m e n t a l i s s u e s . The g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f t h e r e s u l t s w i l l , no doubt, be l i m i t e d t o a comparable p o p u l a t i o n . The use o f an u r b a n s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n sample i n t h e p i l o t s t u d y , c o u p l e d w i t h t h e r u r a l sample may a m e l i o r a t e t h i s s i t u a t i o n . The a u t h o r , a l o n g w i t h a p a r t n e r , have been i n v o l v e d w i t h t h i s and o t h e r y o u t h o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r t h e l a s t s i x y e a r s i n t h e c a p a c i t y o f r e s o u r c e s t a f f : r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n c l u d e program p l a n n i n g , program p r e s e n t a t i o n , and s t a f f t r a i n i n g . Based on e x t e n s i v e e x p e r i e n c e i n d e l i v e r i n g p e r s o n a l development programs t o b o t h r u r a l and u r b an y o u t h , t h i s a u t h o r f e e l s c o n f i d e n t t h a t l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t s i n t h e r e s u l t i n g v a l u e and impact o f t h e program on e i t h e r group, b u t f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s needed t o v e r i f y such a c l a i m . S u b j e c t s i n t h e p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t groups were " f i r s t t i m e " program p a r t i c i p a n t s who had not a t t e n d e d p a s t programs. S i x s u b j e c t s termed " r e t u r n e e s " , had been p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e same program one y e a r e a r l i e r . These s u b j e c t s were grouped s e p a r a t e l y t o a v o i d c o n f o u n d i n g t h e o v e r a l l r e s u l t s . These s u b j e c t s were compared f o r dependent s c o r e s on t h e p r e t e s t and 48 p o s t t e s t measures so as t o g l e a n i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e l o n g t erm e f f e c t s o f t h e program. TABLE 1 D e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e Sample (N=69) A. AGE: 16 17 18 19 FEMALE 16/23% 16/23% 6/9% 1/1.5% n=39 MALE 17/25% 11/16% 2/3% 0 n=30 n=33 n=27 n=8 n=l N=69 10 11 B. GRADE: 12 C o l l e g e Work No r e s p . FEMALE 2/3% MALE 4/6% 23/33% 10/14% 1/1.5% 1/1.5% 2/3% 14/20% 7/10% 0 1/1.5% 4/6% n=6 n=37 n=17 n=l n=2 n=6 TOTAL SAMPLE: females males n=39 n=30 56.53 43.53 N=69 PRE-POST GROUP: fema l e s males n=37 n=26 53.6% 37.7% N=63 RETURNEE GROUP: females males n=2 n=4 2.9! 5.85 N=6 49 THE INSTRUMENTS The P e r s o n a l O r i e n t a t i o n I n v e n t o r y (POI) i s a m u l t i - s c a l e i n s t r u m e n t based on Maslow's s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n c o n c e p t . The i n s t r u m e n t p r o v i d e s an o b j e c t i v e d e l i n e a t i o n o f t h e s u b j e c t s l e v e l o f p o s i t i v e m e n t a l h e a l t h (Shostrom, 1974). The POI r e q u i r e s a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h i r t y m i n u t es t e s t i n g t i m e . The manual i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e i n v e n t o r y has been s u c c e s s f u l l y used w i t h h i g h s c h o o l s u b j e c t s . The POI c o n s i s t s o f 150 f o r c e d - c h o i c e , p a i r e d - o p p o s i t e v a l u e and b e h a v i o r judgement i t e m s . The t i m e competence (Tc) and i n n e r d i r e c t i o n ( I) s c a l e s t o g e t h e r i n v o l v e a l l 150 i t e m s o f t h e POI mea s u r i n g two major a r e a s i m p o r t a n t i n p e r s o n a l development and i n t e r p e r s o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n . These two s c a l e s combined a r e b e l i e v e d t o be t h e b e s t o v e r a l l measure o f s e l f -a c t u a l i z a t i o n as no i t e m o v e r l a p e x i s t s . The t e n co m p l i m e n t a r y , s u b r s c a l e s a r e t h o u g h t t o measure o t h e r i m p o r t a n t f a c e t s o f s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n . Shostrom (1976) g i v e s t h e f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e POI s c a l e s : M a j o r S c a l e s Time competence/incompetence ( T c ) : T h i s r a t i o s c a l e i s a measure o f t h e degree t o w h i c h one i s t i m e competent, o r p r e s e n t o r i e n t e d , as c o n t r a s t e d w i t h t i m e i n c o m p e t e n t , o r l i v i n g p r i m a r i l y i n t h e p a s t ( w i t h g u i l t s , r e g r e t s , and re s e n t m e n t s ) and/or i n t h e f u t u r e ( w i t h i d e a l i z e d g o a l s , p l a n s , e x p e c t a t i o n s , p r e d i c t i o n s , and f e a r s ) . A c c o r d i n g t o Shostrom (1976), t h e s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g p e r s o n i s more p r e s e n t o r i e n t e d a l t h o u g h , t h i s p e r s o n s t i l l r e f l e c t s a p r o p o r t i o n a l 50 b a l a n c e between t i m e competence and incompetence; t h e former b e i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y more dominant t h a n t h e l a t t e r . I n n e r D i r e c t e d ( I ) : T h i s r a t i o s c a l e measures whether one's o r i e n t a t i o n i s toward o t h e r s o r s e l f . A c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e i n n e r d i r e c t e d p e r s o n , a c c o r d i n g t o Shostrom (1976), i s independence, i n t h a t he/she i s g u i d e d by i n t e r n a l m o t i v a t i o n s r a t h e r t h a n e x t e r n a l i n f l u e n c e s . On t h e c o n t r a r y t h e o t h e r d i r e c t e d p e r s o n i s c o n s i d e r e d more m a n i p u l a t i v e i n an at t e m p t t o p l e a s e o t h e r s and i n s u r e c o n s t a n t a c c e p t a n c e . S u b s c a l e s S e l f - A c t u a l i z i n g V a l u e (SAV) i s d i r e c t e d toward measurement o f v a r i o u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and v a l u e s t h a t a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o a f f i r m t h o s e v a l u e s o f s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g p e o p l e . One who s c o r e s h i g h would h o l d and l i v e by v a l u e s o f s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g p e o p l e , w h i l e t h o s e who s c o r e low would r e j e c t s uch v a l u e s . E x i s t e n t i a l i t y (Ex) r e f l e c t s one's f l e x i b i l i t y i n a p p l y i n g v a l u e s o r p r i n c i p l e s t o one's l i f e . I n o t h e r words i t i s a measure o f g e n e r a l good v a l u e judgement and a p p r o p r i a t e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e s e v a l u e s . One who s c o r e s low i s t h o u g h t t o have r i g i d v a l u e s and i s t h e r e f o r e c o m p u l s i v e o r dogma t i c . F e e l i n g R e a c t i v i t y (Fr) measures t h e degree o f s e n s i t i v i t y t o one's own needs and f e e l i n g s . S p o n t a n e i t y (S) o f f e e l i n g e x p r e s s i o n i s measured, t h a t i s , t h e degree o f freedom t h a t one has t o r e a c t s p o n t a n e o u s l y o r t o be o n e s e l f . S e l f - R e g a r d (Sr) i s t h e a f f i r m a t i o n o f s e l f because o f w o r t h o r s t r e n g t h . A h i g h s c o r e would i n d i c a t e t h a t one has t h e 51 a b i l i t y t o l i k e o n e s e l f , w h i l e a low s c o r e s u g g e s t s low s e l f -w o r t h . S e l f - A c c e p t a n c e (Sa) i n d i c a t e s t h e l e v e l o f a c c e p t a n c e o f o n e s e l f i n s p i t e o f weaknesses o r d e f i c i e n c i e s . A c c o r d i n g t o Shostrom, i t i s p r o b a b l y more d i f f i c u l t t o a c h i e v e s e l f -a c c e p t a n c e t h a n s e l f - r e g a r d , a l t h o u g h s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g r e q u i r e s b o t h . N a t u r e o f Man C o n s t r u c t i v e (Nc) measures t h e degree o f one's c o n s t r u c t i v e v i e w o f t h e n a t u r e o f man. One who s c o r e s h i g h i s a b l e t o r e s o l v e t h e g o o d - e v i l , m a s c u l i n e - f e m i n i n e , s e l f i s h -u n s e l f i s h , s p i r i t u a l - s e n s u a l , o r o t h e r extreme d i c h o t o m i e s i n t h e n a t u r e o f man. Synergy (S) r e l a t e s t o one's a b i l i t y t o t r a n s c e n d d i c h o t o m i e s on a b r o a d b a s i s . A low s c o r e would i n d i c a t e t h a t one s e e s o p p o s i t e s o f l i f e as a n t a g o n i s t i c , w h i l e a h i g h s c o r e i n d i c a t e s t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f o p p o s i t e s as m e a n i n g f u l l y r e l a t e d . A c c e p t a n c e o f A g g r e s s i o n (A) measures t h e a b i l i t y t o a c c e p t one's n a t u r a l a g g r e s s i v e n e s s as opposed t o d e f e n s i v e n e s s , d e n i a l , and r e p r e s s i o n o f a g g r e s s i o n . A h i g h s c o r e r e f l e c t s t h e a b i l i t y t o a c c e p t anger o r a g g r e s s i o n w i t h i n o n e s e l f as n a t u r a l . A low s c o r e s u g g e s t s t h a t one d e n i e s h a v i n g such f e e l i n g s and a v o i d s e x p r e s s i o n o f them. C a p a c i t y f o r I n t i m a t e C o n t a c t (C) measures t h e a b i l i t y t o d e v e l o p i n t i m a t e c o n t a c t - r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h o t h e r human b e i n g s , unencumbered by e x p e c t a t i o n s and o b l i g a t i o n s . A h i g h s c o r e r e f l e c t s t h e p e r s o n ' s a b i l i t y t o d e v e l o p t h e l a t t e r , 52 w h i l e a low s c o r e shows t h a t one may have d i f f i c u l t y w i t h warm i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . R a t i o n a l e f o r c h o i c e o f instrument: T h i s i n s t r u m e n t was deemed a p p r o p r i a t e as i t i s p u r p o r t e d t o measure t h o s e c o n s t r u c t s a n t i c i p a t e d as p o t e n t i a l outcome v a r i a b l e s . T h i s i n s t r u m e n t , as compared t o o t h e r s r e v i e w e d , was most c o n g r u e n t w i t h t h e t r a i t s , v a l u e s and, g o a l s o f t h e program under s t u d y . T h i s i n s t r u m e n t has been shown t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e between s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g and n o n - s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g i n d i v i d u a l s and i s based on a p o s i t i v e model o f human f u n c t i o n i n g as opposed t o one o f p a t h o l o g y ( M u l l i n s & P e r k i n s , 1973; Shostrom, 1976; Knapp & Shostrom, 1976). The POI i s s a i d t o i n v o l v e e v e r y d a y v a l u e s more c l o s e l y t h a n do t r a d i t i o n a l p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t s such as t h e M i n n e s o t a M u l t i p h a s i c P e r s o n a l i t y I n v e n t o r y (MMPI) ( M u l l i n s & P e r k i n s , 1973). Shostrom (1976) i n d i c a t e s t h a t c o r r e l a t i o n s between t h e POI and MMPI r e v e a l t h a t t h e y a r e m e a s u r i n g d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f what i s g e n e r a l l y termed m e n t a l h e a l t h . R e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y : R e l i a b i l i t y s t u d i e s o f t h e POI have shown t h a t i t i s comparable t o o t h e r i n s t r u m e n t s o f t h i s t y p e . R e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s have been n o t e d t o range from .32 t o .74 ( i n n e r d i r e c t e d s c a l e was h i g h e r a t .84), w h i c h i s s a i d t o be w e l l w i t h i n t h e range o f comparable t e s t - r e t e s t s t u d i e s w i t h 53 i n v e n t o r i e s s uch as t h e MMPI. Knapp & Shostrom (1976) i n d i c a t e t h a t numerous s t u d i e s have e s t a b l i s h e d r e s p e c t a b l e v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r t h e POI. Hyman (1979) i n r e v i e w i n g numerous s t u d i e s , c o n c l u d e d t h a t c o n s i d e r a b l e e v i d e n c e e x i s t s i n s u p p o r t o f t h e c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y o f t h e major POI s c a l e s , I and Tc. Hyman s t a t e s : " E v i d e n c e r e l e v a n t t o b o t h v a r i a b l e s s u p p o r t s t h e i r v a l i d i t y as measures o f q u a l i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d by Maslow w i t h s e l f -a c t u a l i z a t i o n . The I s c a l e i n p a r t i c u l a r has de m o n s t r a t e d s e n s i t i v i t y t o change o v e r t h e c o u r s e o f e x p e r i e n c e s h y p o t h e s i z e d t o a f f e c t s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n " (1979, p. 182). As w e l l , t h e major i n n e r d i r e c t e d s c a l e has been found t o measure c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o r d i m e n s i o n s d i r e c t l y r e l e v a n t t o a c t u a l i z a t i o n , r a t h e r t h a n m e r e l y c o r r e l a t e s o f a c t u a l i z a t i o n (Leak, 1984). Leak (1984) r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e I s c a l e was r e l a t e d t o numerous o b j e c t i v e i n d i c e s o f s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as empathy and s e l f - e s t e e m . R e s e a r c h d a t a b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r by Anderson e t a l (1984) , and Braun & La F a r o (1969) s u g g e s t t h a t t h e POI i s h i g h l y r e s i s t a n t t o f a k i n g . Anderson (1984) i n d i c a t e d t h a t h i g h IQ s u b j e c t s were as u n s u c c e s s f u l as low IQ s u b j e c t s i n f a k i n g a good s c o r e on t h e POI. Braun & LaFaro (1969) found t h a t s u b j e c t s i n s t r u c t e d t o " f a k e good", were n o t o n l y u n a b l e t o do so , b u t a l s o t e n d e d t o l o w e r t h e i r s c o r e s . Those s u b j e c t s i n s t r u c t e d i n t h e c o n c e p t s o f s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n and t h e POI were, however, s u c c e s s f u l i n r a i s i n g t h e i r s c o r e s (Braun & L a F a r o , 1969). 54 DATA COLLECTION The POI and q u e s t i o n n a i r e were group a d m i n i s t e r e d , w h i l e i n t e r v i e w s were done w i t h w i l l i n g i n d i v i d u a l s s e l e c t e d d u r i n g f r e e t i m e . The POI was a d m i n i s t e r e d p r i o r t o t h e f i r s t program s e s s i o n t o a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s . A l l s u b j e c t s were g i v e n one s e t o f i n s t r u c t i o n s . They were i n s t r u c t e d t h a t t h e r e were no r i g h t o r wrong answers; t h e y were t o i n d i c a t e t h e r e s p o n s e t h a t f i t b e s t f o r them most o f t h e t i m e . They were a s s u r e d t h a t t h e i r r e s p o n s e s would be c o m p l e t e l y c o n f i d e n t i a l . S t u d e n t s were t o l d t h a t t h e POI was b e i n g u t i l i z e d as p a r t o f a r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t e x p l o r i n g t h e v a l u e and impact o f t h e program, t h a t i t was s i m p l y a more i n - d e p t h e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e program. The POI was r e - a d m i n i s t e r e d i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g t h e f i n a l program s e s s i o n i n t h e same manner. A s h o r t q u e s t i o n n a i r e was i n c l u d e d i n t h e r e g u l a r o v e r a l l program e v a l u a t i o n . T h i s s e c t i o n o f t h e e v a l u a t i o n c o n s i s t e d o f f i v e open-ended q u e s t i o n s i n t e n d e d t o g l e a n f u r t h e r s u b j e c t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e s t u d e n t ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e v a l u e and impact o f t h e program f o r them. T h i s measure was a l s o a d m i n i s t e r e d i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g t h e f i n a l s e s s i o n . A g a i n s t u d e n t s were a s s u r e d o f complete anonymity and c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y and t h e r e f o r e encouraged t o answer as h o n e s t l y as p o s s i b l e . I n f o r m a l i n t e r v i e w s were conducted f o l l o w i n g t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e program. Those s t u d e n t s s e l e c t e d were i n v i t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a p r i v a t e , t h i r t y m inute i n t e r v i e w . They were t o l d t h a t t h i s was an added means o f g a t h e r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on how t h e y f e l t about t h e program. 56 ANALYSIS The P e r s o n a l O r i e n t a t i o n I n v e n t o r y ; The d a t a were a n a l y z e d u s i n g t h e s t a t i s t i c a l package f o r t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s (SPSS-X). M u l t i p l e t - t e s t s were used t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n c o r r e l a t e d means between and w i t h i n each gender group f o r p r e - and p o s t t e s t s c o r e s . The s t r o n g e r t w o - t a i l e d t e s t was employed, i n s p i t e o f a p r e d i c t e d d i r e c t i o n o f p r e - p o s t change, due t o t h e degree o f i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n among some POI s c a l e s . The i n c r e a s e d r i s k o f c o m m i t t i n g a t y p e 1 e r r o r when p e r f o r m i n g m u l t i p l e t - t e s t s can be a v o i d e d w i t h t h e i n c l u s i o n o f a n a l y s e s o f c o v a r i a n c e ( W a t k i n s e t a l . , 1975; F o u l d s & Hannigan, 1976a, 1976b). Only u s i n g t - t e s t s would s u g g e s t e r r o n e o u s premature c o n c l u s i o n s ( r e j e c t i n g t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s ) due t o t h e h i g h i n t e r - c o r r e l a t i o n s on some POI s c a l e s . As such t h e BMDP2V s t a t i s t i c a l program was employed f o r an a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e and c o v a r i a n c e w i t h r e p e a t e d measures. A one w i t h i n - s u b j e c t s r e p e a t e d measures d e s i g n was used. Each s c a l e was s u b j e c t e d t o a 2 X 2 ANCOVA t o r e v e a l any i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t between gender and t r e a t m e n t . Means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s on a l l POI s c a l e s were c a l c u l a t e d f o r each group: p o o l e d p r e t e s t group, p o o l e d p o s t t e s t group, p r e t e s t female group, p r e t e s t male group, p o s t t e s t female group, p o s t t e s t male group and, f o r t h e p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t " r e t u r n e e " group. The sum o f t h e t i m e competence (Tc) and i n n e r - d i r e c t e d (I) s c a l e , w h i c h have no i t e m o v e r l a p , have been s a i d t o be 57 t h e b e s t o v e r a l l measure o f s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n ( S u l z b a c h e r e t a l . , 1981; F o u l d s & Hannigan, 1976a,1976b, 1977; Leak, 1984; Hyman, 1979). The v a r i o u s s c a l e s o f t h e POI a r e n o t ind e p e n d e n t d i m e n s i o n s , t h u s c o n s i d e r a b l e o v e r l a p and h i g h i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s e x i s t among some o f t h e POI s c a l e s ( F o u l d s & Hannigan, 1976a, 1976b). The Tc + I s c o r e s , Tc, I , and each o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s u b s c a l e s c o r e s were used f o r a n a l y s i s . I n t e r v i e w s ; A c a t e g o r y system was used i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e i n t e r v i e w d a t a . M a j o r c a t e g o r i e s were i d e n t i f i e d f o r q u e s t i o n s and a f r e q u e n c y count i n d i c a t e d where r e s p o n s e s were r e p o r t e d more t h a n once. The i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e was d e s i g n e d t o be v e r y i n f o r m a l and was not i n t e n d e d t o be h i g h l y s y s t e m a t i c . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s ; C o n t e n t a n a l y s i s o f t h e w r i t t e n r e s p o n s e s p r o d u c e d r e l e v a n t c a t e g o r i e s t o w h i c h each r e s p o n s e was a l l o c a t e d . Sample r e s p o n s e s f o r each o f t h e open-ended q u e s t i o n s and a f r e q u e n c y c o u n t f o r each s t a t e m e n t was t a b u l a t e d . The i n f o r m a l q u a l i t a t i v e measures were n o t s u b j e c t e d t o s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s as t h e l a t t e r was s i m p l y i n t e n d e d t o compliment and i l l u m i n a t e t h e q u a n t i t a t i v e d a t a . The i n t e r v i e w and q u e s t i o n n a i r e d a t a i s c i t e d so as t o g i v e t h e r e a d e r a sense o f t h e s u b j e c t i v e p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e program w i t h i n t h e p o p u l a t i o n . 58 PILOT A s i m i l a r methodology was employed: a q u a s i - e x p e r i m e n t a l one group p r e t e s t - p o s t t e s t d e s i g n c o u p l e d w i t h i n t e r v i e w s , o b s e r v a t i o n s , and s u b j e c t i v e w r i t t e n s e l f - r e p o r t s . T h i s t r i a n g u l a t i o n o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n methods and, t o some e x t e n t , s o u r c e s , s e r v e d t o enhance t h e i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y o f t h e s t u d y . Purposes o f P i l o t s t u d y : 1) To r e v e a l any problems i n t h e p r o c e d u r e s used t o implement t h e P e r s o n a l O r i e n t a t i o n I n v e n t o r y . 2) To r e v e a l any problems w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t s might have i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g i t e m s i n t h e i n s t r u m e n t . 3) To d e t e r m i n e t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s and s e n s i t i v i t y o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t f o r t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h i s s t u d y . 4) To p r o v i d e an o p p o r t u n i t y t o p r a c t i c e i n t e r v i e w i n g s k i l l s and d e t e c t any problems i n t h e i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e and fo r m a t . 5) To t e s t t h e r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t e m s i n c l u d e d i n t h e s t u d e n t program e v a l u a t i o n form. P i l o t Sample: S u b j e c t s were randomly s e l e c t e d from 122 s t u d e n t s who had v o l u n t a r i l y e n r o l l e d i n t h e two day S t u d e n t L e a d e r s h i p C o n f e r e n c e A s s o c i a t i o n F e b r u a r y C o n f e r e n c e . A l t h o u g h t h i s i s a l e a d e r s h i p program, t h e u n d e r l y i n g i n t e n t i o n i s t o p r o v i d e p e r s o n a l development and s e l f - a w a r e n e s s t r a i n i n g t o a d o l e s c e n t s . S u b j e c t s ranged from f o u r t e e n t o e i g h t e e n y e a r s o f age, w i t h a mean age o f 16.3, and r e p r e s e n t e d a v a r i e t y o f a r e a s from a c r o s s t h e p r o v i n c e . As w e l l , s t u d e n t s t e n d t o r e p r e s e n t a wide range o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c backgrounds. 59 A t o t a l o f 33 (27%) o f t h e 122 s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n t h e c o n f e r e n c e c o mpleted t h e P e r s o n a l O r i e n t a t i o n I n v e n t o r y e x p e r i m e n t a l measure. S u b j e c t s were randomly s e l e c t e d and a s k e d i f t h e y would l i k e t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s t u d y . The l a t t e r was e x p l a i n e d as an i n d e p t h e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e S.L.C.A. program. F i v e o f t h e t h i r t y t h r e e s t u d e n t s who d i d n o t c o m p l e t e t h e p o s t t e s t , were r e q u e s t e d t o r e t u r n t h e c o m p l e t e d s c o r e s h e e t and b o o k l e t by m a i l as soon as p o s s i b l e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e m a t e r i a l was n o t r e t u r n e d and t h e i r p r e t e s t s h e e t s were d e l e t e d from t h e s t u d y . The r e m a i n i n g sample o f 28, c o n s i s t e d o f 16 p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t s u b j e c t s and 12 " r e t u r n e e " s u b j e c t s who had a t t e n d e d t h e p r e v i o u s c o n f e r e n c e , seven months e a r l i e r . TABLE I I D e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e Sample (N=28) AGE: 14 15 16 17 18 FEMALE 1/3% 4/14% 7/25% 6/21% 1/3% n=19 MALE 1/3% 2/7% 2/7% 4/14% 0 n=9 n=2 n=6 n=9 n=10 n=l N=28 60 GRADE: FEMALE MALE 3/11% 2/7% n=5 10 3/113 1/3% 11 7/25? 2/7% 12 6/21% 4/14% n=19 n=9 n=4 n=9 n=10 N=28 TOTAL SAMPLE: PRE-POST GROUP: RETURNEE GROUP: females males females males females males n=19 n=9 n = l l n=5 n=8 n=4 68% 32% 69% 31% 673 33? N=28 N=16 N=12 A l l 122 p a r t i c i p a n t s c ompleted t h e p i l o t q u e s t i o n n a i r e i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e program. Three s u b j e c t s were i n f o r m a l l y i n t e r v i e w e d i n t h e p i l o t s t u d y ; two r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , a d o l e s c e n t , females and one s t u d e n t t e a c h e r who had a t t e n d e d as a p a r t i c i p a n t . The major s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e i n t e r v i e w s was t h e p r a c t i c e i t p r o v i d e d f o r t h e i n t e r v i e w e r . A l s o , i t r e s u l t e d i n t h e a d d i t i o n and/or d e l e t i o n o f q u e s t i o n s i n t h e i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e . 61 CHAPTER FOUR R e s u l t s Overview The f o l l o w i n g i s a b r i e f summary o f a l l r e s u l t s w h i c h a r e f u r t h e r d e l i n e a t e d i n T a b l e I I I . R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e p o s i t i v e g a i n s f o r t h e p o o l e d s c o r e s (male and female) on a l l t w e l v e POI s c a l e s ( T a b l e X V I I , Appendix C ) . However, r e s u l t s f o r t h e s e p a r a t e male and female s c o r e s r e v e a l a d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n o f change. W h i l e f e m a l e s showed s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n s on a l l s c a l e s , male g a i n s were l i m i t e d t o f i v e s c a l e s : I , F r , S, Nc, and C. No d i f f e r e n c e s were found when comparing t h e male and female mean s c o r e s on t h e p r e t e s t measure. A l t h o u g h t h e r e were no i n i t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e mean s c o r e s f o r males and f e m a l e s , d i f f e r e n c e s d i d emerge on t h e p o s t t e s t measure; s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found on a l l s c a l e s w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f S r , Nc, and S. The ANCOVA a n a l y s e s r e v e a l e d an i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t on o n l y t h e I major s c a l e , t h u s i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e t r e a t m e n t had a d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t f o r gender, f a v o r i n g f e m a l e s . The p i l o t r e s u l t s s u p p o r t t h e major s t u d y f i n d i n g s , however, changes were l i m i t e d t o o n l y f o u r s c a l e s . T h i s i s t o be e x p e c t e d , g i v e n t h e f a c t t h a t t h e p i l o t s t u d y was based on a program one t h i r d t h e d u r a t i o n and i n t e n s i t y o f t h e major program. F i n a l l y , p r e - p o s t r e s u l t s f o r t h e " r e t u r n e e " group i n d i c a t e s i g n i f i c a n t changes on t h e I major s c a l e and f o u r s u b s c a l e s , F r , Sa, A, and C. I n a v i s u a l c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e 62 r e t u r n e e s and t h e f i r s t t i m e p a r t i c i p a n t s , t h e mean s c o r e s f o r t h e r e t u r n e e group g e n e r a l l y f a l l between t h e f i r s t t i m e p a r t i c i p a n t s p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t mean s c o r e s ( F i g u r e 1, Appendix D). S t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s was n o t p o s s i b l e f o r t h e l a t t e r c o m p a r i s o n due t o t h e d r a s t i c d i f f e r e n c e i n c e l l numbers. P i l o t r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s on t h e p r e t e s t measure f o r t h e " r e t u r n e e s " and " f i r s t t i m e " p a r t i c i p a n t s on two s u b s c a l e s and no d i f f e r e n c e s on t h e p o s t t e s t measure. S u b j e c t i v e r e s p o n s e s g l e a n e d from t h e i n t e r v i e w s and q u e s t i o n n a i r e s f u r t h e r c o r r o b o r a t e t h e POI f i n d i n g s . 63 TABLE I I I SUMMARY OF RESULTS FOR MAJOR STUDY & PILOT POI Sd!:s vO II c JJ o PH I 01 u PH CO fcj z e. 01 0] 01 r» 01 01 01 CJ m ' 4) 1-1 01 c vo U vO ?—t 10 t l 01 11 C CM to E c u c II £ 01 01 01 u c )H U - l c 4J to PH 01 l u 0 (0 o u 1 tn U- l •H TH O PH CO 0] 01 <u c JJ P- 1 o 01 i—t "u 1 OJ PH f—i to c i j a oi u 1 10 0] U VH P« 01 )H 0 01 PH u E- 01 PH u to P - E-* t o •u 1 c e w to w c 01 M LE t o w ' H 01 u LE «c LE S-1 u PH o X LE W t o ea c E - «c PS O •• P- &H 2 PH PH < < Tc + I MAJOR STUDY RESUtt 'S: * *** Time Competence (Tc) ** *** * * ** Inner Directed (I) *** *** ** ** * *** * Self-Actualizing Value (SAV) *** *** * ** * . Existentiality (Ex) *** *** ** Feeling Reactivity (Fr) ** *** *** * ** ** *** Spontaneity (S) *** *** * ** *** Self Regard (Sr) ** ** ** Self-Acceptance (Sa) * ** ** * * ** Nature of Man (Constructive) (Nc) *** *** ** *** Synergy (Sy) * ** Acceptance of Aggression (A) * *** *** *** * ** Capacity for Intimate Contact (C) * *** *** * ** * *** PILOT RESULTS R l R2 Time Competence (Tc) ** ** Inner Directed (0 * ** *** Self-Actualizing Value (SAV) Existentiality (Ex) * Feeling Reactivity (Fr) ** ** ** Spontaneity (S) ** Self Regard (Sr) ** * Self-Acceptance (Sa) ** * Nature of Man (Constructive) (Nc) * Synergy (Sy) * Acceptance ot* Aggression (A) . * Capacity for Intimate Contact (O *• ** * Two T a i l e d T-Tescs * p .05 Rl=Pre— •Returnee G r . .01 .001 R2=?ost-Returnee Gr . (n=16) (n-12) 64 The POI S c a l e s : A n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e and c o v a r i a n c e w i t h r e p e a t e d measures was used t o d e t e r m i n e whether t h e between group v a r i a n c e was s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r t h a n t h e w i t h i n group v a r i a n c e . As w e l l t h e l a t t e r ( c o v a r i a n c e ) a l l o w e d f o r t h e t e s t i n g o f gender as a p o s s i b l e i n t e r v e n i n g f a c t o r c o n f o u n d i n g t h e o v e r a l l p r e - p o s t r e s u l t s . The a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e was used t o c o n t r o l f o r i n i t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s between groups on t h e gender f a c t o r . I t was hoped t h a t t h e o v e r a l l group d i f f e r e n c e c o u l d be more c l e a r l y e x p l a i n e d i n l i g h t o f i n i t i a l gender d i f f e r e n c e s . The l a t t e r i n d i c a t e d t h e p r e t e s t t o p o s t t e s t d i f f e r e n c e s , gender d i f f e r e n c e s , as w e l l as t h e i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t between t h e s e v a r i a b l e s . I n o r d e r t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e i n i t i a l gender d i f f e r e n c e s p r i o r t o t r e a t m e n t , t - t e s t s were used t o s p e c i f i c a l l y i d e n t i f y d i f f e r e n c e s i n independent means f o r males and f e m a l e s on b o t h t h e p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t . T - t e s t s f o r c o r r e l a t e d means were employed w i t h i n each gender group f o r p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t s c o r e s . O v e r a l l , p o o l e d s c o r e r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s showed s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e g a i n s on a l l POI s c a l e s ( F i g u r e I , Appendix D). Both t h e t - t e s t s and f r a t i o s c o n f i r m t h e s e f i n d i n g s . These r e s u l t s , however, v a r y when t h e gender v a r i a b l e i s c o n s i d e r e d ; a l t h o u g h f emales had s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n s on a l l s c a l e s ( F i g u r e 4 ) , males g a i n s were o n l y found f o r t h e major I s c a l e and f o u r s u b s c a l e s : F r , S, Nc, & C ( F i g u r e 5 ) . 65 S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were n o t found between t h e male and f e m a l e group f o r p r e t e s t s c o r e s ( F i g u r e 2) . However, i i i c omparing males and f e m a l e s on t h e p o s t t e s t measure s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found f o r t h e two m a jor Tc and I s c a l e s and f o r seven s u b s c a l e s : SAV, Ex, F r , S, Sa, A, & C ( F i g u r e 3 ) . A n a l y s i s and v a r i a n c e and c o v a r i a n c e r e v e a l e d a d i f f e r e n t i a l t r e a t m e n t e f f e c t on gender, f a v o r i n g f e m a l e s , f o r t h e o v e r a l l Tc + I measure. T h i s i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t was a l s o e v i d e n t f o r t h e major I s c a l e , b u t n o t f o r t h e Tc s c a l e . The l a t t e r i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e o v e r a l l i n t e r a c t i o n (Tc+I X Gender) can be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e I s c a l e w h i c h c o m p r i s e s a major p o r t i o n o f t h e i t e m s f o r t h e o v e r a l l measure. The d i f f e r e n c e f o r t h e mean p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t s c o r e s f o r " r e t u r n e e " p a r t i c i p a n t s i n d i c a t e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s f o r t h e m a jor I s c a l e and f o u r s u b s c a l e s : F r , Sa, A, & C ( T a b l e X V I I I & F i g u r e 6 ) . The extreme d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e number o f s u b j e c t s i n each c e l l d i d not a l l o w f o r a c o m p a r i s o n between t h e " r e t u r n e e " (n=6) group and t h e " f i r s t t i m e " p a r t i c i p a n t group (n=69). Time competence and I n n e r d i r e c t e d (Tc + I ) : On t h e combined Tc + I s c a l e s s i g n i f i c a n t p r e - p o s t d i f f e r e n c e s were found a t t h e .001 l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e u s i n g a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e a n d ' c o v a r i a n c e . S i g n i f i c a n t gender d i f f e r e n c e s were a l s o found (p < .05) as w e l l as a t r e a t m e n t X gender i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t (p. < .05). F u r t h e r s t a t i s t i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f each o f t h e above s c a l e s i n d e p e n d e n t l y 66 r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t was a t t r i b u t a b l e t o t h e m a j or I ( i n n e r d i r e c t e d ) s c a l e . A l t h o u g h b o t h t h e Tc and I s c a l e s i n d i c a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t p r e - p o s t (p < .01 & p < .001) and gender d i f f e r e n c e s (p < .05 & p < .05), o n l y t h e I s c a l e showed an i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t (p < .05) w h i l e t h e Tc s c a l e showed p a r a l l e l changes f o r b o t h genders. These r e s u l t s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e V I , Appendix C. A l t h o u g h t h e t - t e s t s r e v e a l e d s i g n i f i c a n t p r e - p o s t d i f f e r e n c e s f o r t h e p o o l e d male and female sample on each o f t h e Tc and I s c a l e s , t h i s f i n d i n g i s d e c e p t i v e . F u r t h e r t -t e s t s r e v e a l e d no gender d i f f e r e n c e s on t h e p r e t e s t f o r e i t h e r t h e Tc o r I s c a l e and s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s a t t h e .01 l e v e l f o r b o t h s c a l e s on t h e p o s t t e s t . Females d e m o n s t r a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t changes on b o t h t h e Tc and I s c a l e s from p r e - t o p o s t t e s t i n g , w h i l e males o n l y demonstrated a s i g n i f i c a n t change on t h e I s c a l e s ( T a b l e V I , Appendix C ) . S e l f A c t u a l i z i n g V a l u e (SAV): A n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e and c o v a r i a n c e r e v e a l e d s i g n i f i c a n t changes on t h e p r e - p o s t v a r i a b l e (p < .05) and t h e gender v a r i a b l e (p < .01) b u t no i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t . T - t e s t s i n d i c a t e d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e f o r males and f e m a l e s on t h e p r e t e s t measure, however, a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e (p < .05) emerged on t h e p o s t t e s t . A l t h o u g h b o t h genders showed i n c r e a s e s on t h e SAV s c a l e , t h e f e m a l e group d i f f e r e n c e s were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t (p < .001) b u t t h o s e f o r t h e males were not ( T a b l e V I I , Appendix C ) . 67 E x i s t e n t i a l i t y ( E x ) : A n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e and c o v a r i a n c e i n d i c a t e d a p r e - p o s t d i f f e r e n c e (p < .01), w i t h no gender d i f f e r e n c e s o r i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t . On t h e c o n t r a r y , t h e t - t e s t s r e v e a l e d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n mean s c o r e s between genders on t h e p o s t t e s t . A l t h o u g h males and females had a l m o s t i d e n t i c a l mean s c o r e s on t h e p r e t e s t , f e males g a i n e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y (p < .001), w h i l e males g a i n e d o n l y m a r g i n a l l y on t h e p o s t t e s t ( T a b l e V I I I , Appendix C ) . F e e l i n g R e a c t i v i t y ( F r ) : H i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t changes on t h e f e e l i n g r e a c t i v i t y s c a l e emerged f o r t h e p r e - p o s t v a r i a b l e (p < .001) as w e l l as s i g n i f i c a n t gender d i f f e r e n c e s (p < .01) b u t no i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t . A g a i n , t - t e s t s r e v e a l e d no d i f f e r e n c e s f o r males and fe m a l e s on t h e p r e t e s t , y e t a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n means on t h e p o s t t e s t , f a v o r i n g f e males (p < .01) ( T a b l e I X , Appendix C ) . S p o n t a n e i t y ( S ) : C o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e o t h e r s c a l e r e s u l t s , h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t p r e - p o s t changes were r e c o r d e d (p < .001) and s i g n i f i c a n t gender d i f f e r e n c e s as w e l l (p < .05), w i t h no i n t e r a c t i o n o f gender and t r e a t m e n t as measured by t h i s s c a l e . T - t e s t s a g a i n showed no d i f f e r e n c e s f o r males and f e m a l e s on t h e p r e t e s t , s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e mean p o s t t e s t s c o r e s , and fe m a l e s showing s t r o n g e r g a i n s as compared t o mal e s , however b o t h were s i g n i f i c a n t ( T a b l e X, Appendix C ) . 6 8 S e l f - R e g a r d ( S r ) : S i g n i f i c a n t p r e - p o s t d i f f e r e n c e s (p < .01) emerged w i t h no gender d i f f e r e n c e s o r i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t . The means f o r t h e males and female p r e t e s t group were e x t r e m e l y c l o s e w i t h o n l y t h e f e m a l e s showing s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e d g a i n s on t h e p o s t t e s t (p < .05) (T a b l e X I , Appendix C ) . S e l f - A c c e p t a n c e ( S a ) : A n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e and c o v a r i a n c e r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e s i g n i f i c a n t p r e - p o s t d i f f e r e n c e s (p < .01), and gender d i f f e r e n c e s (p < .05) w i t h no e v i d e n c e o f v a r i a b l e i n t e r a c t i o n . The m i n i m a l , b u t n o t s i g n i f i c a n t , gender d i f f e r e n c e on t h e p r e t e s t changed t o a s i g n i f i c a n t gender d i f f e r e n c e on t h e p o s t t e s t , f a v o r i n g f e males (p < .05). T-t e s t s i n d i c a t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e w i t h i n t h e femal e group f o r p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t means (p < .01) b u t no d i f f e r e n c e s were found f o r males ( T a b l e X I I , A ppendix, C ) . N a t u r e o f Man C o n s t r u c t i v e (Nc): Only t h e p r e - p o s t v a r i a b l e showed a h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e (p < .001) u s i n g t h e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e and c o v a r i a n c e . T - t e s t s i n d i c a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s f o r b o t h male and female groups on t h e o c c a s i o n v a r i a b l e ( T a b l e X I I I , A p pendix C ) . Synergy ( S y ) : P r e - p o s t d i f f e r e n c e s were found t o be s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e p < .05 c o n f i d e n c e l e v e l f o r t h i s s c a l e . Females and males d i d n o t d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from each o t h e r on e i t h e r t h e p r e t e s t o r p o s t t e s t measure. W i t h i n t h e female group, mean 69 s c o r e s showed s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s from p r e - t o p o s t t e s t i n g ( T a b l e XIV, Appendix C ) . A c c e p t a n c e o f A g g r e s s i o n ( A ) : R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e s i g n i f i c a n t p r e - p o s t changes (p < .01), and gender d i f f e r e n c e s (p < .05). More s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e t -t e s t s r e v e a l t h a t a l t h o u g h no d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t e d between males and f e m a l e s on t h e p r e t e s t , h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t gender d i f f e r e n c e s were found on t h e p o s t t e s t (p < .001) f a v o r i n g f e m a l e s . C o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e p r e v i o u s t r e n d s i n d i c a t e d , f e m a l e s showed p o s i t i v e g a i n s (p < .001) i n t h i s a r e a w h i l e males d i d n o t show a s i g n i f i c a n t change f o l l o w i n g t r e a t m e n t ( T a b l e XV, Appendix, C ) . C a p a c i t y f o r I n t i m a t e C o n t a c t ( C ) ; A n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e and c o v a r i a n c e i n d i c a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t p r e - p o s t d i f f e r e n c e s , as w e l l as s i g n i f i c a n t p a r a l l e l gender changes. M i n i m a l gender d i f f e r e n c e s were found on t h e p r e t e s t , w h i l e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s emerged on t h e p o s t t e s t (p < .01). A l t h o u g h b o t h genders showed s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e g a i n s , f e m a l e s (p < .001) showed f a r g r e a t e r g a i n s as compared t o males (p < .05) ( T a b l e XVI, Appendix C ) . POI- P i l o t r e s u l t s ; S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s f o r t h e p o o l e d s c o r e s on t h e p r e -and p o s t t e s t were found f o r t h e major I s c a l e and t h r e e s u b s c a l e s : F r , S r , & C ( T a b l e XIX & F i g u r e 7 ) . C o n t r a r y t o t h e m a jor s t u d y , gender d i f f e r e n c e s were found on t h e p r e t e s t measure f o r t h e two Tc and I major s c a l e s and t h r e e s u b s c a l e s : 70 S r , Sa, & A ( F i g u r e 8 ) . Those d i f f e r e n c e s were m a i n t a i n e d on t h e p o s t t e s t measure f o r t h e two Tc and I major s c a l e s and on o n l y one s u b s c a l e : Sa. The p o s t t e s t measure i n d i c a t e d t h a t gender d i f f e r e n c e s on t h e p r e t e s t S r and A s c a l e s were n o t m a i n t a i n e d , however a d d i t i o n a l gender d i f f e r e n c e s were found f o r t h e Ex, F r , S, Nc, Sy, & C s c a l e s ( T a b l e XX & F i g u r e 9 ) . I n comparing t h e " r e t u r n e e " p r e t e s t group s c o r e s (n-12) t o t h e " f i r s t t i m e " p r e t e s t group s c o r e s (n=16), s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found f o r o n l y two s u b s c a l e s ( F r & C) w h i l e no d i f f e r e n c e s were found on p o s t t e s t group mean s c o r e s ( F i g u r e 7 ) . I n t e r v i e w summary; C a t e g o r i e s were i d e n t i f i e d f o r t h e major i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n s . I n t e r v i e w r e s p o n s e s a r e d e l i n e a t e d i n t a b l e IV: sample r e s p o n s e s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f each o f t h e c a t e g o r i e s and t h e f r e q u e n c y (when c i t e d more t h a n once) o f each r e s p o n s e i s i n d i c a t e d . A complete i n t e r v i e w t r a n s c r i p t i s p r e s e n t e d i n Appendix E. 71 TABLE IV I n t e r v i e w Summary 1) P a r t i c i p a n t s answers t o Q u e s t i o n , "What s k i l l s o r c o n c e p t s d i d you l e a r n ? " C a t e g o r y : Freguencv; Examples: S e l f : 5 - I l e a r n e d more about m y s e l f - l e a r n e d how t o open up t o o t h e r s -how t o l o o k i n s i d e m y s e l f , -how t o d e a l w i t h my emotions I n t e r p e r s o n a l : Communication s k i l l s : 3 - l e a r n e d how t o u n d e r s t a n d o t h e r s 2 - u n d e r s t a n d how o t h e r s f e e l / v i e w s -how t o t r u s t o t h e r s -more aware o f how I t r e a t o t h e r s - I have more empathy f o r o t h e r s - b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f d i f f e r e n c e s -how t o d e a l w i t h p e e r p r e s s u r e - I can communicate much b e t t e r - I can t a l k t o o t h e r s b e t t e r -how t o s h a r e my f e e l i n g s 2) P a r t i c i p a n t s answers t o t h e Q u e s t i o n , "How do you t h i n k you w i l l a p p l y t h e s k i l l s and c o n c e p t s l e a r n e d ? " C a t e g o r y : Freguencv: Examples: To d e a l w i t h Problems: A t home/school: - I ' l l be a b l e t o d e a l w i t h my problems b e t t e r . - e x t r a knowledge t o use a t home and s c h o o l - t o communicate w i t h my p a r e n t s - t o g e t a l o n g w i t h my s i s t e r and b r o t h e r b e t t e r - l e a r n e d t h i n g s I can use d a i l y - p e o p l e w i l l n o t i c e t h e changes i n me, I f e e l more grown-up and mature W i t h s e l f : - b e t t e r i n t o u c h w i t h my emotions 72 3) P a r t i c i p a n t s answers t o t h e Q u e s t i o n , "What impac t e d you most?" C a t e g o r y : Frequency: Examples: I n t e r p e r s o n a l : - t h e p e r s o n a l feedback was a g r e a t e x p e r i e n c e - t h a t I c o u l d a c c e p t o t h e r s 7 p o i n t s o f v i e w - b e i n g a b l e t o a c c e p t c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m 4 - f e e l i n g c a r e d about/ - t h e c a r i n g - b e i n g a b l e t o s h a r e deep f e e l i n g s w i t h o t h e r s - t h a t o t h e r s have t h o u g h t about s u i c i d e S e l f : -I 7m l o o k i n g a t l i f e t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t now - t h a t o t h e r s have t h e same problems as me -I 7m n o t as a l o n e as I t h o u g h t -how I p u t on a mask because I 7m a f r a i d p e o p l e w i l l r e j e c t me 73 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e summary: Frequency c o u n t s and p e r c e n t a g e s a r e l i s t e d f o r each o f t h e i n i t i a l q u e s t i o n s as s t a t e d i n t h e program q u e s t i o n n a i r e . As w e l l , sample r e s p o n s e s f o r each o f t h e open-ended q u e s t i o n s and t h e f r e q u e n c y w i t h w h i c h each s t a t e m e n t was made i s d e l i n e a t e d i n T a b l e V. TABLE V Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Summary P a r t i a l l y Not No Ans A c h i e v e d A c h i e v e d 1. To d i s c u s s c o n c e r n s and i s s u e s t h a t a r e i m p o r t a n t 52/75% 13/19% 0 4/6% t o you. 2. To p a r t i c i p a t e as p a r t o f a c a r i n g and t r u s t i n g 62/90% 3/4% 0 4/6% community. 3. To "grow" as an i n d i v i d u a l . 56/81% 9/13% 0 4/6% 4. To l e a r n s k i l l s and have e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t w i l l b e n e f i t y o u r home s i t u a t i o n . 50/72% 15/22% 0 4/6% 5. To i n c r e a s e y o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f s e l f and o t h e r . 51/74% 14/20% 0 4/6% G e n e r a l Comments: FREQUENCY: - b e n e f i t e d g r e a t l y / g a i n e d a l o t / l e a r n e d a l o t 13 ( l e a r n e d more t h a n i n a whole y e a r p u t t o g e t h e r ) - l e a r n e d a l o t about m y s e l f and o t h e r s 12 I'm a d i f f e r e n t p e r s o n now/ h e l p e d me u n d e r s t a n d a l o t / a n y t h i n g b u t b o r i n g / w i l l h e l p me improve my r e l a t i o n s h i p s - e x c e l l e n t program/ e n l i g h t e n i n g / i n t e r e s t i n g / f u l f i l l i n g 9 -became aware o f what I t h i n k and f e e l about m y s e l f & o t h e r s 5 -improved m y s e l f as a p e r s o n / improved my r e l a t i o n s h i p s 3 - I ' l l n e v e r f o r g e t t h i s week 3 - h e l p e d me show my f e e l i n g s and emotions 3 - l i k e d s e x u a l i t y because we l e a r n e d what we t h i n k o f each 2 o t h e r -gave me more c o n f i d e n c e i n m y s e l f 2 - l e a r n e d t h a t I'm n o t a l o n e i n my i n n o c e n c e 1 - t o o s p e c i a l f o r words 1 -opened my eyes t o a l o t o f t h i n g s 1 - I know who " I " am OVERALL IMPRESSIONS 1. S t a t e 2 e x p e c t a t i o n s you had o f t h e program FREQUENCY: -meet new f r i e n d s & have f u n 46 - l e a r n & u n d e r s t a n d about m y s e l f and o t h e r s 38 - t o be a b l e t o e x p r e s s m y s e l f b e t t e r / 13 communicate emotions & f e e l i n g s - n o t t o be so j u d g m e n t a l / a c c e p t s e l f & o t h e r s more 4 -how t o g e t a l o n g w i t h o t h e r s 3 - b u i l d s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e / overcome shyness 3 - l e a r n how t o r e s p e c t t h e o p i n i o n s o f o t h e r s 1 - t o s t r e n g t h e n my r o l e as a l e a d e r 1 - t o be more i n - d e p t h about l i f e 1 - t o know more about my c a p a b i l i t i e s 1 2. What s k i l l s o r i n f o r m a t i o n d i d you l e a r n t h a t w i l l b e n e f i t you most and why? -how t o open up/ e x p r e s s my emotions & f e e l i n g s 19 -communication s k i l l s 13 - t o be l e s s j u d g m e n t a l o f p e o p l e 10 - s o c i a l s k i l l s / b e t t e r r e l a t i o n s w i t h o t h e r s 9 - l e a r n i n g and u n d e r s t a n d i n g about m y s e l f ( s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e ) 9 -how t o show c a r i n g and t r u s t 4 - s e l f - a c c e p t a n c e 4 - t o n o t h i d e b e h i n d a mask ( c l e a r e r p e r c e p t i o n o f s e l f ) 3 - t h e feedback from o t h e r s 1 - u n d e r s t a n d i n g my f e e l i n g s and t h o s e o f o t h e r s 1 3. Where and how do you f o r e s e e u s i n g t h e s k i l l s and i n f o r m a t i o n ? -everywhere (home, community, s c h o o l ) 38 - w i t h f r i e n d s 8 - a t s c h o o l 7 - a t home 6 - w i t h m y s e l f 1 - i n arguments 1 - t a k i n g t h i s s t u f f home i s g o i n g t o be tough 1 -won't h e l p back home because a t s c h o o l t h e y don't c a r e 1 -won't b e n e f i t me a t home because f r i e n d s l a c k u n d e r s t a n d i n g 1 75 4. What program c o n t e n t was f a m i l i a r t o you a l r e a d y , and where d i d you l e a r n i t ? - s c h o o l : sex e d u c a t i o n 12 v a l u e s 2 -drama: r e l a x a t i o n 2 v i s u a l i z a t i o n 2 t r u s t 1 - y o u t h c o n f e r e n c e : communication s k i l l s 1 knowing s e l f / o t h e r s 1 - p e e r c o u n s e l l i n g 1 - l e a d e r s h i p c o u r s e 1 5. What impac t e d you most o f a l l and why? - t h e c a r i n g and c o n t a c t i e : ( f e l t d i f f e r e n t i n s i d e / f e l t l o v e d / i n t e n s e emotion/ f e l t c a r e d about/ f e l t i m p o r t a n t / I don't g e t t h i s k i n d o f c o n t a c t a t home d i d n ' t know how p o w e r f u l my f e e l i n g s were) 34 - s h a r i n g my f e e l i n g s w i t h o t h e r s 5 -images, and t h e masks we wear 4 -how c l o s e t h e s m a l l group got 4 - l e a r n i n g about m y s e l f (my emotions & f e e l i n g s ) 4 - t h e v i s u a l i z a t i o n 3 -open d i s c u s s i o n s / h o n e s t y & t r u s t 3 - s e x / r e l a t i o n s h i p s s e s s i o n 3 - s e e i n g t h e problems t h a t o t h e r s have 2 -how o t h e r s a f f e c t me/ feedback from o t h e r s 2 - t h a t o t h e r s f e e l t h e same as me/that o t h e r s a r e 2 w i l l i n g t o l i s t e n 6 A d d i t i o n a l comments: -keep i t t h e same/ w i n n i n g f o r m u l a 7 - f a n t a s t i c / e x c e l l e n t 7 - d i d me a l o t o f g o o d / l e a r n e d new ways o f l o o k i n g a t t h i n g s 7 - t h e b e s t e x p e r i e n c e o f my l i f e 4 - t h i s i s something I w i l l n e ver f o r g e t / 2 i t w i l l s t a y w i t h me f o r e v e r 1 - t h e most f u n & enjoyment I c o u l d have had on s p r i n g b r e a k 1 - t h i s week was v e r y r e w a r d i n g / l o v e d i t / awesome/ 1 i n c r e d i b l e / superb i n e v e r y way f u n & e n j o y a b l e / 1 76 CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSION\CONCLUSIONS T h i s c h a p t e r d i s c u s s e s t h e o v e r a l l r e s u l t s i n c l u d i n g gender d i f f e r e n c e s and p o s s i b l e g a i n endurance. The l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e s t u d y , t h e c u r r e n t f i n d i n g s , and s u g g e s t i o n s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h a r e a l s o d i s c u s s e d . The c h a p t e r c o n c l u d e s w i t h t h e t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e s t u d y . Statement o f r e s u l t s O v e r a l l f i n d i n g s : The h y p o t h e s i s t h a t a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between p e r s o n a l development e d u c a t i o n and i n c r e a s e d p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l b e i n g , as measured by t h e POI i s s u p p o r t e d . C l e a r o v e r a l l p r e - p o s t g a i n s were found on a l l POI s c a l e s . A l t h o u g h i t i s r i s k y t o make c a u s a l i n f e r e n c e s , one c o u l d c o n f i d e n t l y d e d u c t t h a t t h i s t y p e o f e d u c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g does i n d e e d produce s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e g a i n s f o r a d o l e s c e n t p a r t i c i p a n t s . The major s t u d y r e s u l t s a r e f u r t h e r s u p p o r t e d by t h e p i l o t f i n d i n g s . These f i n d i n g s r e f l e c t t h e d i f f e r e n t outcomes, a p p a r e n t l y c o n t i n g e n t on program ( t r e a t m e n t ) i n t e n s i t y and d u r a t i o n . P i l o t r e s u l t s , though s i g n i f i c a n t , were fewer and l e s s d r a m a t i c , b u t ne v e r t h e l e s s p o s i t i v e changes were e v i d e n t . 77 The i n t e r v i e w and q u e s t i o n n a i r e d a t a l e n d f u r t h e r i n s i g h t i n t o t h e n a t u r e o f t h e changes i n d i c a t e d i n t h e p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t e x p e r i m e n t a l measures. The s u b j e c t i v e r e s p o n s e s c o r r o b o r a t e t h e o b j e c t i v e f i n d i n g s i n such a r e a s a s : i n c r e a s e d s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g , s e l f a c c e p t a n c e (Sa) and s e l f - w o r t h ( S r ) ; i n c r e a s e d c a p a c i t y f o r warm i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s ( C ) ; g r e a t e r s e n s i t i v i t y t o t h e i r own needs and f e e l i n g s and t h o s e o f o t h e r s ( F r ) , an i n c r e a s e d a b i l i t y t o a c c e p t d i f f e r e n c e s o f o p i n i o n and a g g r e s s i v e f e e l i n g s ( A ) , becoming more t r u s t i n g o f t h e i r own t h o u g h t s , v a l u e s and b e l i e f s and t h e r e f o r e p o s s i b l y more in d e p e n d e n t and s e l f - s u p p o r t i v e ( I ) . Some l i t e r a t u r e s u g g e s t s t h a t s e l f - r e p o r t s t a t e m e n t s , e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e made by t e e n a g e r s , a r e n o t r e l i a b l e s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n (Watkins e t a l . , 1975). C s i k s z e n t m i l a l y i ( 1984), on t h e o t h e r hand, found t h a t t e e n a g e r s a r e c a p a b l e o f making r e l i a b l e judgements about t h e i r e m o t i o n a l s t a t e s . S e v e r a l v e r b a t i m s t a t e m e n t s a r e i n c l u d e d h e r e i n an e f f o r t t o r e p r e s e n t t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s e l f - p e r c e i v e d g a i n s by a d o l e s c e n t s from t h i s e x p e r i e n c e . There i s s t a t i s t i c a l and s u b j e c t i v e c o n f i r m a t i o n t h a t t h e y o u t h s had a c h i e v e d more i n s i g h t i n t o t h e m s e l v e s . S e l f -u n d e r s t a n d i n g and s e l f - a c c e p t a n c e , w h i c h a r e e s s e n t i a l f o r t h i s age group t o a c h i e v e , were c o n s t a n t l y mentioned. P a r t i c i p a n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y had become more open, more w i l l i n g t o e x p r e s s t h e m s e l v e s , and t h a t t h e y u n d e r s t o o d o t h e r s more, t r u s t e d o t h e r s more, and a c c e p t e d o t h e r ' s d i f f e r e n c e s . 78 The f o l l o w i n g a r e a few q u o t a t i o n s g l e a n e d from t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , i n t e r v i e w s and l e t t e r s : " I f e e l b e t t e r about m y s e l f and u n d e r s t a n d m y s e l f more", " I d i d n x t know t h a t so many p e o p l e had t h e same f e e l i n g s as me", " I ' v e l e a r n e d how t o r e c o g n i z e and u n d e r s t a n d o t h e r p e o p l e ' s f e e l i n g s " , " I f e e l I can a c c e p t o t h e r p e o p l e more f o r who t h e y a r e and n o t j u s t j u d g e them", " I ' v e l e a r n e d how t o t e l l p e o p l e how I f e e l w i t h o u t h u r t i n g them o r e m b a r r a s s i n g m y s e l f " . One quote w h i c h i s e v i d e n c e o f one a d o l e s c e n t ' s need f o r v a l i d a t i o n o f a newfound a d u l t i d e n t i t y : " I f e e l t h a t we were b e i n g t r e a t e d l i k e a d u l t s . I t h i n k t h a t makes t h e atmosphere what i t was, d e f i n i t e l y a p o s i t i v e e x p e r i e n c e . " B e i n g t r e a t e d l i k e an a d u l t would no doubt f a c i l i t a t e t h e development o f i n c r e a s e d independence and s e l f - s u p p o r t as i n d i c a t e d i n t h e h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n s on t h e (I) i n n e r d i r e c t e d s c a l e . F u r t h e r s u b j e c t i v e r e s p o n s e s t h a t c o r r o b o r a t e t h e i n c r e a s e d i n n e r d i r e c t e d n e s s g a i n s a r e : " I l e a r n e d ways t o make c h o i c e s based on my. v a l u e s and t o u n d e r s t a n d o t h e r p o i n t s o f v i e w t h a t a r e based on o t h e r s ' v a l u e s . I t t a u g h t me t o weigh t h e p r o s and cons o f a d e c i s i o n " . And from a n o t h e r male p a r t i c i p a n t : " I t r e a l l y made me t h i n k about where I'm g o i n g and about t h e c h o i c e s I'm making". Above and beyond t h e s p e c i f i e d g a i n s , t h e program appears t o s a t i s f y t h e a d o l e s c e n t need f o r b e l o n g i n g and a c c e p t a n c e . One s u b j e c t i v e comment from a male p a r t i c i p a n t c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s t h e l a t t e r : " I l o o k upon t h e program as a week i n my c o n f u s e d w o r l d t o j u s t l e t i t a l l hang out i n t h e open and be 79 a s s u r e d t h a t p e o p l e w i l l a c c e p t me." Only p e e r s can g i v e u n b i a s e d f eedback t h a t i s needed f o r a g r o w i n g p e r s o n t o d e v e l o p a r e a l i s t i c sense o f s e l f ( C s i k s z e n t m i l a l y i , 1984). The l a t t e r c o n f i r m s and v a l i d a t e s t h e f r e q u e n t s t a t e m e n t s made by p a r t i c i p a n t s about t h e v a l u a b l e impact o f p e e r feedback. A s t a t e m e n t made by one female p a r t i c i p a n t e x e m p l i f i e s t h i s : " I l e a r n e d a l o t about m y s e l f , l i k e what k i n d o f p e r s o n I am and h a v i n g t h e p e r s o n a l feedback was a g r e a t e x p e r i e n c e . You d e f i n i t e l y l e a r n what p e o p l e a r e t h i n k i n g about you." I n r e s p o n s e t o t h e achievement o f program o b j e c t i v e s s e c t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , 81% o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y had grown as i n d i v i d u a l s , 74% i n d i c a t e d an i n c r e a s e i n s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f o t h e r s , and 72% f e l t t h a t t h e e x p e r i e n c e and s k i l l s l e a r n e d would b e n e f i t them i n t h e i r "back home" s i t u a t i o n . The f o c u s o f t h e program was upon t h e s e l f and i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The program e x p e r i e n c e was r e l a t e d t o two g e n e r a l a r e a s o f growth: i n t r a p e r s o n a l and i n t e r p e r s o n a l . The f i r s t g a i n i n v o l v e d t h e growth o f s e l f : more s e l f - a w a r e n e s s , more s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g , g r e a t e r s e l f -a c c e p t a n c e and w o r t h and a more i n t e r n a l i z e d l o c u s o f c o n t r o l . I n t e r p e r s o n a l growth i n v o l v e d an i n c r e a s e d c a p a c i t y f o r warm and m e a n i n g f u l i n t e r a c t i o n s , a g r e a t e r sense o f s e e i n g o t h e r s as e s s e n t i a l l y "good", and g r e a t e r s k i l l i n communicating t h o u g h t s and f e e l i n g s t o o t h e r s . The changes were e s s e n t i a l l y i n t h e a r e a o f p e r s o n a l g r o w t h and development, t h u s l e a d i n g t o i n c r e a s e d 80 p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g and s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n . I n s h o r t , most p a r t i c i p a n t s t o o k home w i t h them a new v i e w o f what r e l a t i n g t o s e l f and o t h e r s i n more t h a n s u p e r f i c i a l way c o u l d r e a l l y mean. Gender d i f f e r e n c e s : The h y p o t h e s e s t h a t t r e a t m e n t would have a d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t on males and f e m a l e s , f a v o r i n g f e m a l e s , was s u p p o r t e d . The ANCOVA r e v e a l e d a d i f f e r e n t i a l t r e a t m e n t e f f e c t f o r gender, f a v o r i n g f e m a l e s , as measured by t h e combined Tc + I s c o r e s as w e l l as t h e major i n n e r d i r e c t e d (I) s c a l e . As s t a t e d e a r l i e r , t h e i n n e r d i r e c t e d s c a l e has been c i t e d t o be t h e b e s t o v e r a l l measure o f s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n ( S u l z b a c h e r e t a l . , 1981; F o u l d s & Hannigan, 1976a, 1976b, 1977; Leak, 1984; Hyman, 1979) t h u s i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r t y p e o f t r a i n i n g has an d i f f e r e n t o v e r a l l e f f e c t on fe m a l e s and males, g e n e r a l l y f a v o r i n g t h e former. F r a t i o s i n d i c a t e d p a r a l l e l gender d i f f e r e n c e s from p r e -t o p o s t t e s t i n g f o r t h e t i m e competence (Tc) major s c a l e and t h e f o l l o w i n g s u b s c a l e s : s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g v a l u e (SAV), f e e l i n g r e a c t i v i t y ( F r ) , s p o n t a n e i t y ( S ) , s e l f - a c c e p t a n c e ( S a ) , a c c e p t a n c e o f a g g r e s s i o n (A) and, c a p a c i t y f o r i n t i m a t e c o n t a c t ( C ) . These r e s u l t s a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h o t h e r r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s ( S c h r o e d e r , 1973; Adams e t a l . , 1979; Himber, 1970; L e c r o y , 1986). S c h r o e d e r (1973) f o r i n s t a n c e , r e p o r t e d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s f a v o r i n g females on e l e v e n o f t h e t w e l v e POI 81 s c a l e s . I n i t i a l p r e t e s t d i f f e r e n c e s on t h e I n n e r D i r e c t e d (I) s c a l e were f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e d on t h e p o s t t e s t . S c h r o e d e r n o t e s , w i t h i n t e r e s t , t h a t t h e men's p o s t t e s t I s c a l e mean (81.3) was h i g h l y s i m i l a r t o t h e women's p r e t e s t I s c a l e mean (8 0 . 9 ) , i n d i c a t i n g t h e d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n s o f change f o r men and women. Men appear t o have r e a c h e d t h e l e v e l o f s e l f -a c t u a l i z a t i o n w h i c h t h e women e x h i b i t e d a t e n t r y . A l t h o u g h male and female p r e t e s t s c o r e s were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t , s i g n i f i c a n t p o s t t e s t d i f f e r e n c e s were found. S i m i l a r t o t h e S c h r o e d e r f i n d i n g s , t h e male p o s t t e s t mean (81.4) was comparable t o t h a t o f t h e female p r e t e s t mean (80.4) . The l a t t e r was t h e case f o r a l l s c a l e s b u t f o r Ex, Sy, A, and C. Ma l e s and fe m a l e s were a t a comparable l e v e l o f s e l f -a c t u a l i z a t i o n p r i o r t o t r e a t m e n t , b u t f o l l o w i n g t r e a t m e n t male and female s c o r e s d i f f e r e d . The program appears t o have f a c i l i t a t e d g r e a t e r s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n f o r t h e female p a r t i c i p a n t s . Males i n c r e a s e d t h e i r l e v e l o f s e l f -a c t u a l i z a t i o n t o t h a t o f t h e i n i t i a l f emale e n t r y l e v e l . Based on t h e s e f i n d i n g s i t i s ap p a r e n t t h a t p o o l e d POI s c o r e s a r e d e c e p t i v e as i n d i c a t e d by t h e c u r r e n t f i n d i n g s and t h o s e o f S c h r o e d e r (1973). R e s u l t s s u g g e s t t h a t females a r e more s e n s i t i v e t o t h i s t y p e o f t r a i n i n g as compared t o males. The q u a n t i t a t i v e f i n d i n g s a r e however, somewhat d i s c r e p a n t w i t h t h e s u b j e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t r e p o r t s . Males appeared t o have been e q u a l l y i m p a c t e d as e v i d e n c e d by t h e i r i n t e r v i e w comments, t h e i r 82 q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s p o n s e s , and t h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s o b s e r v a t i o n s . One mi g h t q u e s t i o n one o f two t h i n g s : t h a t t h e measurement i n s t r u m e n t i s somehow n o t s e n s i t i v e enough t o measure t h e more s u b t l e male changes o r , t h a t t h e males' v e r b a l and w r i t t e n r e s p o n s e s a r e i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e i r a c t u a l i n n e r f e e l i n g s . More r e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a i s c e r t a i n l y w a r r a n t e d . P o s t t e s t r e s u l t s do i n d i c a t e s i g n i f i c a n t male g a i n s on t h e o v e r a l l s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n measure, t h e i n n e r d i r e c t e d n e s s s c a l e ( I ) and f o u r s u b s c a l e s : f e e l i n g r e a c t i v i t y ( F r ) , s p o n t a n e i t y ( S ) , n a t u r e o f man (Nc), and c a p a c i t y f o r i n t i m a t e c o n t a c t ( C ) . Perhaps one c o u l d s p e c u l a t e t h a t males do e x p e r i e n c e g a i n s , however not t o t h e same e x t e n t as f e m a l e s . The s i g n i f i c a n t gender d i f f e r e n c e s may be e x p l a i n e d by t h e f a c t t h a t s o c i e t y encourages females t o conform and p l e a s e o t h e r s w h i l e males a r e t a u g h t t o be more indepe n d e n t and t o a v o i d succumbing t o t h e o p i n i o n s o f o t h e r s , i n s h o r t , t o be " i n s e n s i t i v e " (Coleman, 1980). Thus t h e r e s u l t s would r e f l e c t t h i s t e n d e n c y f o r females t o adopt t h e i d e a s p r e s e n t e d more so t h a n males o r b e t t e r s t a t e d , a l t h o u g h b o t h may adopt t h e i d e a s , p o s s i b l y o n l y t h e females demonstrate t h e measurable b e h a v i o r a l changes a f f i l i a t e d w i t h t h e c o n c e p t u a l s h i f t o r change. F u r t h e r , t h e program format i s v e r y i n t e r p e r s o n a l l y o r i e n t e d and seeks t o a v o i d an overemphasis on c o g n i t i v e , t a s k - o r i e n t e d a c t i v i t i e s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e l a t t e r may a c c o u n t , i n p a r t , f o r t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t on gender. P a r s o n s ( c i t e d i n F e a t h e r , 1980) argued t h a t t h e male r o l e i s 83 i n s t r u m e n t a l o r t a s k - o r i e n t e d w h i l e t h e female r o l e t e n d s t o be e x p r e s s i v e and p e r s o n o r i e n t e d . I n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h i s model, an i n t e r p e r s o n a l program would be more s u i t a b l e t o f e m a l e s . Perhaps t h e q u e s t i o n i s not i n r e g a r d t o t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f t h e program c o n t e n t , r a t h e r , why does one f o c u s as opposed t o a n o t h e r produce d i f f e r e n t i a l gender outcomes. What a r e we t e a c h i n g o r f o s t e r i n g i n o u r y o u t h t h a t makes f o r m e c h a n i c a l , t a s k - o r i e n t e d men and i n t e r a c t i v e , e x p r e s s i v e women? Both genders c o u l d most c e r t a i n l y b e n e f i t from s h a r i n g t h e o t h e r s ' q u a l i t i e s . R a t h e r t h a n d e s i g n i n g programs o r e d u c a t i o n a l c u r r i c u l a t h a t w i l l p e r p e t r a t e t h e d i f f e r e n c e s , a c o n c e r t e d e f f o r t i s w a r r a n t e d t o w a r d p r o m o t i n g b a l a n c e and t h u s e q u a l i t y . Endurance o f f i n d i n g s : E v i d e n c e from p a s t s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e s t h a t l a s t i n g p o s i t i v e changes were found a l o n g w i t h t h e development o f a d d i t i o n a l g a i n s (Himber 1970; S u l z b a c h e r e t a l . , 1981; Banmen & C a p e l l e , 1972; F o u l d s & Hannigan, 1976a, 1976b; Klemke, 1977). F o u l d s & Hannigan, (1976b) termed t h i s l a t e n t g a i n t h e " s l e e p e r e f f e c t " . A l t h o u g h a c t u a l f o l l o w - u p measures a r e n o t a v a i l a b l e f o r t h i s s t u d y two means e x i s t f o r t h e p u rpose o f g l e a n i n g p o s t - p r o g r a m i n f o r m a t i o n : v i s u a l c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e p r o f i l e s f o r " r e t u r n e e " s c o r e s compared t o " f i r s t t i m e " p a r t i c i p a n t p r e t e s t s c o r e s , and t h e p o s i t i v e comments found i n l e t t e r s r e c e i v e d from p a r t i c i p a n t s f o l l o w i n g t h e program. 84 A q u i c k g l a n c e a t F i g u r e 1 demonstrates t h a t t h e " r e t u r n e e " group p r e t e s t means a r e g e n e r a l l y h i g h e r t h a n t h e mean p r e t e s t s c o r e s and s l i g h t l y l o w e r t h a n t h e p o s t t e s t s c o r e s f o r " f i r s t t i m e " p a r t i c i p a n t s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e s e d a t a d i d n o t a l l o w f o r s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s o f d i f f e r e n c e s between " r e t u r n e e s " and " f i r s t t i m e " p a r t i c i p a n t s as t h e number o f s u b j e c t s i n each c e l l v a r i e d d r a s t i c a l l y : 6 and 63 r e s p e c t i v e l y . The " r e t u r n e e " group means appear s l i g h t l y h i g h e r t h a n t h e f i r s t t i m e p a r t i c i p a n t p r e t e s t group means on seven o f t h e t w e l v e s c a l e s . S t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s were p o s s i b l e f o r t h e p i l o t r e s u l t s . I n comparing " r e t u r n e e s " and " f i r s t t i m e " p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e p i l o t s t u d y (see F i g u r e 7, Appendix D), t h e forme r had s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r s c o r e s t h a n t h e l a t t e r on two p r e t e s t s u b s c a l e s : F r and C. No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found on t h e p o s t t e s t . These f i n d i n g s c o u l d t e n t a t i v e l y i n d i c a t e t h a t g rowth i n t h e a r e a o f f e e l i n g r e a c t i v i t y ( Fr) and c a p a c i t y f o r i n t i m a t e c o n t a c t (C) endured f o r t h o s e s u b j e c t s r e t u r n i n g a f t e r t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f a s i m i l a r program seven months e a r l i e r . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e above mentioned measures, f a c i l i t a t o r s f o r w a r d e d l e t t e r s r e c e i v e d from p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e f o u r month p e r i o d f o l l o w i n g t h e program. The l e t t e r s , a l t h o u g h f a r from a r i g o r o u s measure, do s e r v e t o c o n t r i b u t e a d d i t i o n a l s u b j e c t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e post - p r o g r a m outcome. L e t t e r s r e v i e w e d from 1/3 (23) o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s g e n e r a l l y 85 i n d i c a t e s e l f - p e r c e i v e d c o n t i n u e d b e n e f i t s and p o s i t i v e g a i n s i n t h e i r e v e r y d a y l i f e . One male p a r t i c i p a n t w r i t e s : "The program d i d me a l o t o f good because when I came back I c o u l d n ' t s t o p t a l k i n g about i t . I had a p o s i t i v e o u t l o o k on a l o t o f t h i n g s and somehow I've been more c o n f i d e n t i n m y s e l f and my r e l a t i o n s w i t h o t h e r s " . A n o t h e r female p a r t i c i p a n t s t a t e s i n h e r l e t t e r : "The program has made me a b e t t e r p e r s o n a l l around. I u sed t o be shy, t h i n k i n g what I had t o say wasn't what everyone wanted t o h e a r . I used t o t h i n k t h a t I had t o be l i k e everyone e l s e t o f i t i n , and t h a t everyone e l s e had t h e i r l i v e s under c o n t r o l e x c e p t me. But I now r e a l i z e t h a t i s n ' t so. I t has t a u g h t me t o r e c o g n i z e weaknesses and s t r e n g t h s i n m y s e l f as w e l l as i n o t h e r s , and how t o overcome them. I no l o n g e r s i t i n c o r n e r s and w a i t f o r someone t o t a l k t o me. I use what I l e a r n e d t o communicate w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e e a s i e r and t h i s has h e l p e d me i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h f r i e n d s and f a m i l y . I t h e l p e d me cope w i t h e v e r y d a y l i f e , i t has shown me how t o c a r e more d e e p l y about m y s e l f and about o t h e r s , and i t showed me how t o e x p r e s s m y s e l f . I have t r i e d t o i n c o r p o r a t e a l l t h e s e t h i n g s i n t o my l i f e s i n c e l e a v i n g and I have seen improvement. I t has b r o u g h t out a new me." A f e m a l e p a r t i c i p a n t who was d e a l i n g w i t h a r a s h o f s u i c i d e s and d r i n k i n g / d r i v i n g r e l a t e d d e a t h s i n h e r h i g h s c h o o l w r i t e s : "The program i t s e l f , p r o v i d e d me t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o d e v e l o p a b e t t e r awareness f o r m y s e l f , my f e e l i n g s , my v a l u e s and m o r a l s , as w e l l as g i v i n g me a d v i c e on how t o d e a l w i t h t h e changes t h a t a r e o c c u r r i n g i n my l i f e . " She f u r t h e r w r i t e s about i n c r e a s e d s e l f - c a r i n g : "The program b r o u g h t t o my a t t e n t i o n j u s t how i m p o r t a n t I am t o m y s e l f . I t gave me a l o t o f encouragement towards my f u t u r e p l a n s . The f r i e n d s h i p s t h a t I d e v e l o p e d and t h e e x p e r i e n c e s I e n c o u n t e r e d have h e l p e d me t o t a k e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r my f u t u r e . " Quotes from o t h e r female p a r t i c i p a n t s i n c l u d e : " I t was one o f t h e g r e a t e s t t i m e s I have e v e r e x p e r i e n c e d . I l e a r n e d new t h i n g s and t h o u g h t i n ways I have n e v e r t h o u g h t o f b e f o r e . I t has h e l p e d me u n d e r s t a n d m y s e l f and my r e l a t i o n s w i t h o t h e r s . " 86 " I l e a r n e d t o know m y s e l f and t r u s t m y s e l f and t o f o c u s on t h e i n s i d e o f t h e p e r s o n , n o t t h e appearance." Quotes from male p a r t i c i p a n t s : " I am more aware o f m y s e l f , my v a l u e s , my f e e l i n g s and how I i n t e r a c t w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e around me. H a v i n g done t h i s program I f e e l more c o n f i d e n t communicating w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e b e i n g t h a t I'm a s o r t o f shy p e r s o n . I t h i n k t h a t i t has broadened my p e r s p e c t i v e on l i f e . " " I have l e a r n e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f o t h e r s o p i n i o n s and f e e l i n g s and how t o l i s t e n t o o t h e r s . " " I f e e l t h e program h e l p e d me l e a r n about m y s e l f , as w e l l as how p e o p l e l o o k a t me." " I l e a r n e d t h a t you s h o u l d n e v e r be a f r a i d t o g i v e y o u r own o p i n i o n s and never be a f r a i d t o show f e e l i n g s o r e m o t i o n s . " "The t h i n g s I saw wrong w i t h m y s e l f , my prejudgment and a g g r e s s i v e n e s s , I have t r i e d t o c o n t r o l and I t h i n k t h a t I now t r y t o g e t t o know a p e r s o n b e f o r e I say I don't l i k e them. These a r e some o f t h e t h i n g s I l e a r n e d t h a t have a f f e c t e d my l i f e i n some way." L i m i t s o f Study The h i g h s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e r e s u l t s may be a t t r i b u t e d t o a number o f f a c t o r s beyond t h e t r e a t m e n t e f f e c t . Reddy (1-972) found c o m p a t i b i l i t y and group c o m p o s i t i o n t o be a s a l i e n t f a c t o r a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n g a i n s i n a s e n s i t i v i t y t r a i n i n g group. The s u b j e c t s o f t h i s s t u d y were c o m p a t i b l e i n age, and t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n a g r i c u l t u r e : a l l were members o f r u r a l 4-H c l u b s . As w e l l , numerous s t u d i e s c i t e d by Knapp and Shostrom (1974) s u g g e s t t h a t t h o s e i n d i v i d u a l s s e e k i n g group e x p e r i e n c e s may i n f a c t be more s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g compared t o t h o s e who don't. Knapp and Shostrom (1974) have termed t h i s phenomenon as " t h e r i c h g e t t i n g r i c h e r o r t h e s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g becoming more s o . " (p. 191) 87 There a r e some d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h t h e r e s e a r c h d e s i g n w h i c h m e r i t m e n t i o n . F i r s t and f o r e m o s t , q u a s i - e x p e r i m e n t s c e r t a i n l y have weaknesses, however t h e s i t u a t i o n d i d n o t l e n d i t s e l f t o a more r i g o r o u s e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n . The l a c k o f random as s i g n m e n t , i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e l a c k o f a c o n t r o l group, f u r t h e r l i m i t s t h e g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f t h e r e s u l t s . The l a t t e r i s s l i g h t l y a m e l i o r a t e d w i t h t h e use o f a p r e t e s t -p o s t t e s t d e s i g n . The r e s u l t s may o n l y be g e n e r a l i z a b l e t o a s i m i l a r c o h o r t o f r u r a l a d o l e s c e n t s . Two t h r e a t s e x i s t t o t h e i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y o f t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y , t e s t i n g e f f e c t s and p r e t e s t i n t e r a c t i o n . The use o f a Solomon 2 X 2 d e s i g n would have a m e l i o r a t e d t h i s s i t u a t i o n by i n d i c a t i n g t h e e f f e c t s o f r e p e a t e d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s o f t h e same i n s t r u m e n t ( F o u l d s & Hannigan, 1977; Ware & B a r r , 1982). However, l a c k o f a c o n t r o l group d i d n o t a l l o w f o r t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h i s d e s i g n . F o u l d s & Hannigan (1977) a l o n g w i t h Ware & B a r r (1977) found, however, t h a t no s i g n i f i c a n t p r e t e s t s e n s i t i z a t i o n o r i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s were o b s e r v e d on any POI s c a l e i n a s t u d y o f s e l f -a c t u a l i z a t i o n and growth groups u s i n g c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s . As w e l l , f o l l o w - u p t e s t i n g would have g r e a t l y c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e s t u d y . The r e s u l t s cannot be c o n s i d e r e d l o n g - t e r m o r e n d u r i n g w i t h o u t f u r t h e r e m p i r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n . As s u g g e s t e d e a r l i e r , a f o l l o w - u p i n v e s t i g a t i o n would be h e l p f u l i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e permanency o f change, and t h e t r a n s f e r o f l e a r n i n g . F u t u r e r e s e a r c h may i n c l u d e a s t u d y o f p a r e n t s and s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e y see t h e same 88 b e h a v i o r a l changes t h a t s u b j e c t s may e x h i b i t a f t e r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a p e r s o n a l development program. The d i s c r e p a n c y between t h e s u b j e c t i v e and POI measurement outcomes i n d i c a t e s t h a t f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s needed t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e essence o f t h i s d i s c r e p a n c y . Perhaps t h e POI i s n o t s e n s i t i v e t o male changes and t h e r e f o r e w a r r a n t s f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . T h e o r e t i c a l and P r a c t i c a l S i g n i f i c a n c e I n c o n c l u s i o n , one can assume, based on t h e q u a l i t a t i v e and q u a n t i t a t i v e r e s u l t s , t h a t a f f e c t i v e , p e r s o n a l development e d u c a t i o n does f o s t e r i n c r e a s e d s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n i n r u r a l 4-H a d o l e s c e n t s as measured by t h e P e r s o n a l O r i e n t a t i o n I n v e n t o r y . POI r e s u l t s , s t u d e n t i n t e r v i e w s , q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s p o n s e s and p ost-program l e t t e r s a l l i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f p a r t i c i p a n t s d i d e x p e r i e n c e p o s i t i v e b e n e f i t s as a r e s u l t o f t h e t r a i n i n g ; t h e y g a i n e d i n f o r m a t i o n and s k i l l s t h a t were d e f i n i t e l y a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e i r e v e r y d a y l i v e s . Outcome measures have been shown t o v a r y depending on t h e sex o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t ; t h i s program produced i n c r e a s e d g a i n s f o r f e m a l e p a r t i c i p a n t s . I n l i g h t o f a d o l e s c e n t d e v e l o p m e n t a l i s s u e s , t h i s program appears t o f a c i l i t a t e t h o s e t a s k s deemed t o be c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f a d o l e s c e n c e . Q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s g a i n e d i n c r e a s e d s e l f -u n d e r s t a n d i n g and a c c e p t a n c e , a g r e a t e r sense o f s e l f -r e l i a n c e , i n c r e a s e d independence, and improved i n t e r p e r s o n a l 89 s k i l l s . One c o u l d s a f e l y s p e c u l a t e t h a t t h e l a t t e r can be s a i d t o f a c i l i t a t e i d e n t i t y f o r m a t i o n , t h e c e n t r a l t a s k o f a d o l e s c e n c e . M a r c i a (1980), a major t h e o r i s t and r e s e a r c h e r i n t h e a r e a o f a d o l e s c e n t i d e n t i t y f o r m a t i o n , s t a t e s t h a t a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between i d e n t i t y achievement and an i n t e r n a l i z e d l o c u s o f c o n t r o l o r i n n e r d i r e c t e d n e s s . I n n e r d i r e c t e d n e s s (I) i m p l i e s t h a t one p e r c e i v e s t h i n g s as b e i n g c o n t r o l l e d from w i t h i n . C o n t r a r y t o o t h e r d i r e c t e d n e s s , t h e i n n e r d i r e c t e d p e r s o n i s a b l e t o t a k e more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h i s / h e r a c t i o n s and d e c i s i o n s and t h u s does n o t a t t r i b u t e m i s t a k e s t o t h e f a u l t s o f o t h e r s ; i n s h o r t , t h e i n n e r d i r e c t e d p e r s o n does not f e e l l i k e a v i c t i m o f c i r c u m s t a n c e s . P e r s o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y has been found t o be a r e l i a b l e and v a l i d measure o f i n t r a p e r s o n a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l h e a l t h (Genthner & F a l k e n b e r g , 1977). The l a t t e r l e n d s s u p p o r t t o t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f a h i g h i n n e r d i r e c t e d s c o r e as i n d i c a t i n g a h i g h e r l e v e l o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g o r m e n t a l h e a l t h . A d o l e s c e n t s need t o t r u s t t h e i r own i n n e r t h o u g h t s and d e c i s i o n s t h u s l e a d i n g t o an i n c r e a s e d i n t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l . T h i s program, based on t h e c u r r e n t f i n d i n g s , most c e r t a i n l y does f a c i l i t a t e movement to w a r d i n c r e a s e d i n n e r d i r e c t e d n e s s ( I ) . R e s e a r c h e f f o r t s b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r by Adams e t a l . ( 1 9 8 3 ) , S c h u r - L e v y and F a r b e r (1986) and Walker and Greene, (1986) h e l p t o e x p l i c a t e and i n t e g r a t e t h e d i f f e r e n t p s y c h o - s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t s i n t o a comprehensive f l o w . T h e i r combined f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h a t i n t r o s p e c t i o n f a c i l i t a t e s s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g 90 w h i c h f u r t h e r enhances t h e development o f empathy and t h u s i n c r e a s e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f o t h e r s . Empathy i s b e l i e v e d t o be t h e p r e c u r s o r t o s o c i a l competency and t h u s e f f e c t i v e s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n ; t h e l a t t e r i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e a n t e c e d e n t t o p o s i t i v e m e n t a l h e a l t h , p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g , and h e i g h t e n e d s e l f - e s t e e m . C e n t r a l t o t h i s continuum i s empathic a b i l i t y . Females have been found t o have g r e a t e r e mpathic s k i l l s (Adams e t al.,1979) and t e n d t o be more i n t r o s p e c t i v e ( H a n s e l l e t a l . , 1986), and show more i n t e r e s t i n s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s ( L e c r o y , 1986) as compared t o males. I n t h i s r e g a r d , gender d i f f e r e n c e s a r e f u r t h e r e x p l i c a t e d . G i v e n t h a t p o s i t i v e i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s engender p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g (Walker & Greene, 1986), i t i s t h e r e f o r e n o t u n l i k e l y t h a t f e m a l e s would demonstrate i n c r e a s e d g a i n s as compared t o males. As s t a t e d by L e c r o y (1986): "Because o f g r e a t e r c o m f o r t i n s h a r i n g , f e m a l e s may be more i n v o l v e d i n t h e t r e a t m e n t p r o c e s s , and because boys may be l e s s c o m f o r t a b l e , t h e y may be l e s s i n v o l v e d and be l e s s l i k e l y t o a c h i e v e as p o s i t i v e an outcome." He f u r t h e r c l a i m s t h a t a program w i t h an i n t e r p e r s o n a l f o c u s may be confounded w i t h gender. T h i s r e s e a r c h i s t h e o r e t i c a l l y and p r a c t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t because i t p r o v i d e s i n s i g h t t o one p r o v e n means o f f a c i l i t a t i n g p o s i t i v e a d o l e s c e n t development. A l t h o u g h t h e t h e o r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e d i s c u s s e s a d o l e s c e n t d e v e l o p m e n t a l 91 t a s k s , i t i s l a c k i n g i n so f a r as p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e means f o r s u c c e s s f u l l y n e g o t i a t i n g t h e s e t a s k s . The rewards o f such a program can be g r e a t . The p l e t h o r a o f e v i d e n c e c i t e d e a r l i e r r e i n f o r c e s t h e v i e w t h a t p e r s o n a l development t r a i n i n g , b o t h s t r u c t u r e d and u n s t r u c t u r e d , f a c i l i t a t e s p e r s o n a l growth and p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g . The answer t h e n i s t o i n t e g r a t e i n t o s o c i e t y , v i a o u r s o c i a l and e d u c a t i o n a l systems, t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p s y c h o s o c i a l l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s as a means t o f o s t e r p e r s o n a l development, s e l f -a c t u a l i z a t i o n , and p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g a t an e a r l y age. Dinkmeyer ( c i t e d i n Thompson, 1986, p. 106) emphasized t h e need f o r p e r s o n a l development t r a i n i n g i n t h e s c h o o l s : The l a c k o f a r e q u i r e d s e q u e n t i a l l y d e v e l o p m e n t a l program i n s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g and human b e h a v i o r t e s t i f i e s t o an e d u c a t i o n a l paradox; we have t a u g h t c h i l d r e n a l m o s t e v e r y t h i n g i n s c h o o l e x c e p t t o u n d e r s t a n d and a c c e p t t h e m s e l v e s and t o f u n c t i o n more e f f e c t i v e l y i n human r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Mosher e t a l . (1971) f u r t h e r c o n t e n d t h a t " . . . p e r s o n a l o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l growth must be a c e n t r a l e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e and t h a t such e d u c a t i o n must i n c o r p o r a t e e x p e r i e n c e s i n l e a r n i n g t h a t w i l l p a r t i c u l a r l y f i t a d o l e s c e n c e as a s t a g e o f development" (p. 1 1 ) . These r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s , c o u p l e d w i t h t h o s e r e v i e w e d , i n d i c a t e t h a t a d o l e s c e n c e i s in d e e d a l u c r a t i v e t i m e f o r t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f a p e r s o n a l development program. A d o l e s c e n t s h a v i n g j u s t been i n i t i a t e d i n t o t h e f o r m a l o p e r a t i o n mode o f t h o u g h t a r e pri m e r e c i p i e n t s as t h e y a r e a b l e t o r e f l e c t on t h e i r own m e n t a l p r o c e s s e s and p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s i n a new way. 92 As s t a t e d by Schur-Levy and F a r b e r (1986) : " A d o l e s c e n t s can now o b s e r v e t h e m s e l v e s as t h e y say one t h i n g and t h i n k a n o t h e r . They can b e g i n t o acknowledge t h e i r f a b r i c a t i o n s and d i s g u i s e s as w e l l as t h e i r o f t e n p a i n f u l , i n n e r t r u t h s " (p. 571). Not o n l y does t h e s h i f t upward toward f o r m a l o p e r a t i o n s p r o v i d e t h e o p e n i n g t o a s s i s t a d o l e s c e n t s l e a r n who t h e y a r e , b u t i t may w e l l be t h e l a s t o f t h e r e a l l y f o r m a t i v e t i m e s i n w h i c h t o a c h i e v e t h i s t a s k . K o h l b e r g ' s work ( c i t e d i n Mosher e t a l . , 1971) i n d i r e c t l y i n d i c a t e s t h a t i f growth e x p e r i e n c e s do n o t t a k e p l a c e d u r i n g t h i s s t a g e o f i n d i v i d u a l development, f u r t h e r development may be impeded o r ce a s e . Adams e t a l . (1979) found e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e a b i l i t y t o d e v e l o p empathic s k i l l s may be r e l a t i v e l y c r y s t a l l i z e d by a d o l e s c e n c e . Perhaps one c o u l d say t h a t t h e average p e r s o n i n o u r s o c i e t y i s s i m p l y g e t t i n g by; t h e l a t t e r i s a n o t h e r term f o r what Maslow (1968) has c a l l e d " the p s y c h o p a t h o l o g y o f t h e ave r a g e " . Our s o c i e t y a l l o w s t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f " l i f e s k i l l s " t o be l e f t t o chance (Egan, 1984) t h e r e f o r e p e r p e t r a t i n g a s o c i e t y o f p e o p l e who a r e i g n o r a n t o f , o r n o t c o n c e r n e d w i t h , f u r t h e r i n g t h e i r p o t e n t i a l . As i n d i c a t e d e a r l i e r , t h e l i t e r a t u r e s u p p o r t s t h e c o n t e n t i o n t h a t a r r e s t e d p e r s o n a l development i s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h d e v i a n c e , p a t h o l o g y and/or p s y c h o s o m a t i c i l l n e s s (Shostrom, 1967; Adams, 1983; C l a r k e e t a l . , 1982; K a i s e r & Von A a l s t , 1982; Ekstrom, 1986; Seeman & Seeman, 1983). On t h e c o n t r a r y , t h e p o s i t i v e movement t h r o u g h l i f e s t a g e s enhances t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s o v e r a l l m a t u r i t y and p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g . 93 An a d o l e s c e n t ' s l e v e l o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l m a t u r i t y i s one o f t h e most p o w e r f u l p r e d i c t o r s o f h i s a d u l t m e n t a l h e a l t h and i s a m a jor c o n t r i b u t o r t o t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f s i t u a t i o n a l a d a p t a t i o n (Heath, 1980). Genthner & F a l k e n b e r g (1977) found t h a t i n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s t r a i n i n g i n c r e a s e d t h e s u b j e c t ' s m a t u r i t y and l e v e l o f p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y w h i c h i n t u r n i n c r e a s e d t h e i r l e v e l o f i n t r a p e r s o n a l and i n t e r p e r s o n a l f u n c t i o n i n g . I t would be i n t e r e s t i n g t o i n v e s t i g a t e t o what e x t e n t t h i s t y p e o f t r a i n i n g would show s i m i l a r r e s u l t s i f i t i s implemented i n a c l a s s r o o m s i t u a t i o n . S i m i l a r l y , f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s needed t o a s c e r t a i n t h e r o l e t h a t t h e r e s i d e n t i a l component p l a y s . Perhaps i t i s c r u c i a l t o o f f e r y o u t h s an a l t e r n a t e e nvironment t o t h e i r "normal" e v e r y d a y s u r r o u n d i n g s i n o r d e r t o f a c i l i t a t e change and growth. Whatever t h e answer may be, i t i s t i m e l y t o r e - a s s e s s t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p r i o r i t i e s and c o n s i d e r a l t e r n a t i v e s t o t h e c u r r e n t " b a c k - t o - b a s i c s " c u r r i c u l u m . A mere 33% o f t h e major s t u d y p o p u l a t i o n and 21% o f t h e p i l o t i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e some a s p e c t ( s ) o f t h e c o n t e n t was f a m i l i a r t o them; t h e l e a r n i n g was d e r i v e d from a v a r i e t y o f s o u r c e s . Youth t o d a y a r e f a c e d w i t h a m a t r i x o f d i f f i c u l t i e s and p r e s s u r e s r e q u i r i n g some g u i d a n c e i n s u r v i v i n g t h i s t r a u m a t i c l i f e s t a g e . S o c i e t y must b e g i n t o t a k e some r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n p r o v i d i n g f o r t h e a f f e c t i v e e d u c a t i o n o f i t s y o u t h , not j u s t t h e c o g n i t i v e domain. I n agreement w i t h Mosher (1971), Rogers (1983), and Morse (1980) t h i s t y p e o f l e a r n i n g s h o u l d n o t be l e f t t o chance, r a t h e r i t s h o u l d be t h e c e n t r a l f o c u s o f e d u c a t i o n . 95 R e f e r e n c e s Adams, G. R. (1983). 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H e a l t h e d u c a t i o n and y o u t h : A r e v i e w o f  r e s e a r c h and development. London: The Falmer P r e s s . B u t t o n , L. (1984). S o c i a l and e m o t i o n a l development w i t h i n t h e s c h o o l c o n t e x t . I n G. Campbell (ED). H e a l t h e d u c a t i o n and  y o u t h : A r e v i e w o f r e s e a r c h and development. London: The Falmer P r e s s . C l a r k e , J . H., Macpherson, B. V., & Holmes, D. R. (1982). C i g a r e t t e smoking and e x t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l among young a d o l e s c e n t s . J o u r n a l o f H e a l t h and S o c i a l B e h a v i o r . 23. 253-259. Coleman, J . C. (1980). F r i e n d s h i p and t h e p e e r group i n a d o l e s c e n c e . I n J . A d e l s o n . Handbook o f a d o l e s c e n t p s y c h o l o g y . New York: W i l e y . Cook, T. D. & C a m p b e l l , D. T. (1979). 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D i f f e r e n c e s between p e r s o n s s e e k i n g e n c o u n t e r group e x p e r i e n c e s and o t h e r s on t h e P e r s o n a l O r i e n t a t i o n I n v e n t o r y . J o u r n a l o f C o u n s e l i n g  P s y c h o l o g y . 21, 206-209. O f f e r , D., O s t r o v , E., & Howard, K. I . (1981). The a d o l e s c e n t :  a p s y c h o l o g i c a l s e l f p o r t r a i t . New York: B a s i c Books. 101 P i a g e t , J . (1952). The Language & t h o u g h t o f t h e c h i l d . London: R o u t l e d g e & Kegan, P a u l . P i a g e t , J . (1965). The m o r a l judgment o f t h e c h i l d . T r a n s l a t e d by M. Gabain, New York: F r e e P r e s s . Reddy, B. W. (1972). I n t e r p e r s o n a l c o m p a t i b i l i t y and s e l f -a c t u a l i z a t i o n i n s e n s i t i v i t y t r a i n i n g . The J o u r n a l o f  A p p l i e d B e h a v i o r a l S c i e n c e . 8 ( 2 ) , 237-241. Reddy, B. W., B e e r s , T. (1977). 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(ERIC Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. ED 276 683). S u l z b a c h e r , S., Wong, B., McKeen, J . , G l o c k , J . , Macdonald, B. (1981). Long term t h e r a p e u t i c e f f e c t s o f a t h r e e month i n t e n s i v e growth group. J o u r n a l Of C l i n i c a l P s y c h i a t r y . 4 2 ( 4 ) , 148-153. Thompson, R. A. (1986). D e v e l o p i n g a p e e r group f a c i l i t a t i o n program on t h e secondary s c h o o l l e v e l : An i n v e s t m e n t w i t h m u l t i l p l e r e t u r n s . S m a l l Group B e h a v i o r . 1 7 ( 1 ) , 105-112. Tones, K. (1984). E p i l o g u e . I n G. Campbell (ED). H e a l t h  e d u c a t i o n and y o u t h : A r e v i e w o f r e s e a r c h and  development. London: The Falmer P r e s s . W a l k e r , L. W., & Greene, J . W. (1986). The s o c i a l c o n t e x t o f a d o l e s c e n t s e l f - e s t e e m . J o u r n a l o f Youth and A d o l e s c e n c e . 1 5 ( 4 ) . 315-322. 103 Ware, R. J . , B a r r , J . E. (1977). E f f e c t s o f a nine-week s t r u c t u r e d and u n s t r u c t u r e d group e x p e r i e n c e on measures o f s e l f - c o n c e p t and s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n . S m a l l Group  B e h a v i o r . 8 ( 1 ) , 93-100. W a t k i n s , J . T . , N o l l , G. A., Breed, G. R. (1975). Changes t o w a r d s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n . S m a l l Group B e h a v i o r . 6 ( 3 ) , 272-281. Weiner, I . B. (1980). P s y c h o p a t h o l o g y i n a d o l e s c e n c e . I n J . A d e l s o n . Handbook i n a d o l e s c e n t p s y c h o l o g y . New York: W i l e y . Yalom, I . D. (1975). The t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e o f group  p s y c h o t h e r a p y (2nd e d . ) . New York: B a s i c Books. APPENDIX A LETTERS OF CONSENT APPENDIX B PROGRAM SESSIONS T h i s program package was d e v e l o p e d by Sandey A. S c o t t e n and D a v i d C. R a i t h b y 108 SESSIONS O v e r a l l Format Each s e s s i o n began w i t h a s m a l l group c h e c k - i n and c o n c l u d e d w i t h a s m a l l group d e b r i e f i n g . P r i o r t o a r r i v a l , p a r t i c i p a n t s were randomly a s s i g n e d t o a s m a l l group, c o n s i s t i n g o f n i n e members (two groups c o n s i s t e d o f e i g h t members) and one f a c i l i t a t o r p e r group. There were a t o t a l o f e i g h t s m a l l g r o u p s . Check-In : S e s s i o n s i n v a r i a b l y began w i t h a c h e c k - i n whereby a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s had t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o t a l k about t h e f e e l i n g s and t h o u g h t s t h a t t h e y b r o u g h t t o t h e s e s s i o n . The i n t e n t i o n was s i m p l y t o o f f e r p a r t i c i p a n t s an o p p o r t u n i t y t o d i s c u s s p e r t i n e n t i s s u e s t h a t may have s u r f a c e d between s e s s i o n s . I n a d d i t i o n , i t g i v e s t h e f a c i l i t a t o r s some i n s i g h t i n t o t h e g e n e r a l " f l a v o r " o f t h e group. D e b r i e f i n g : Each s e s s i o n c o n s i s t e d o f an o f f i c i a l c l o s i n g t i m e where p a r t i c i p a n t s were g i v e n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o d e b r i e f t h e s e s s i o n and e x p r e s s any p o s i t i v e f e e l i n g s o r d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t t h e s e s s i o n may have t r i g g e r e d f o r them. I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s h o r t c h e c k - i n and d e b r i e f i n g t i m e , t h e s m a l l groups met each e v e n i n g f o r a two hour s m a l l group p r o c e s s m e e t i n g . D u r i n g t h i s t i m e groups engaged i n a more i n t e n s e i n t e r a c t i o n ; t h e s e meetings were c o m p l e t e l y u n s t r u c t u r e d . T h i s s t u d y w i l l f o c u s on t h e a c t u a l s t r u c t u r e d s e s s i o n s , a l t h o u g h an added f a c i l i t a t i v e component o f t h e program was l e i s u r e t i m e . The l a t t e r a l l o w e d p a r t i c i p a n t s t h e o p p o r t u n i t y 109 t o f u r t h e r a p p l y and p r a c t i s e t h e i r newly a c q u i r e d s k i l l s i n a s a f e , s u p p o r t i v e environment. As w e l l , t h e f a c t t h a t t h e program was r e s i d e n t i a l a l s o f o s t e r e d : 1) a sense o f s e p a r a t e n e s s and independence from home, s c h o o l and community, t h u s a l l o w i n g s t u d e n t s t h e o p t i o n t o e x p e r i m e n t w i t h new images and ways o f b e i n g , 2) t h e i n t e n s e l i v e - i n s i t u a t i o n encouraged c o - o p e r a t i v e l i v i n g and s h a r i n g , a f a c t o r t h a t would, no doubt, f a c i l i t a t e t h e development o f c a r i n g and empathy. Some s e s s i o n s i n c l u d e d t h e use o f overhead p r o j e c t o r s so as t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e d i d a c t i c , e d u c a t i o n a l component. A l m o s t a l l s e s s i o n s i n c l u d e d t o use o f a p p r o p r i a t e r e c o r d e d music as a means t o f u r t h e r communicate t h e c o n c e p t s b e i n g d i s c u s s e d . The l a t t e r i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be an e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t means o f r e a c h i n g a d o l e s c e n t s . I n a d d i t i o n , numerous handouts and work s h e e t s were p r o v i d e d . The f o l l o w i n g i s a d e l i n e a t i o n o f t h e major p o i n t s c o v e r e d i n each s e s s i o n ; t h i s scope o f t h i s s t u d y d i d n o t a l l o w f o r complete coverage o f a l l a s p e c t s o f t h e program. SESSION ONE: I n t r o d u c t i o n Time: 2 h o u r s Purpose: -To g i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s an o v e r v i e w o f t h e theme and s e s s i o n s -To o f f e r p a r t i c i p a n t s an o p p o r t u n i t y t o d i s c u s s e x p e c t a t i o n s and wants -To i n t r o d u c e p a r t i c i p a n t s t o t h e o t h e r members o f t h e i r s m a l l group and t o a l l o w t i m e f o r s h o r t i n t r o d u c t o r y a c t i v i t i e s R a t i o n a l e : P r o v i d i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h an o v e r v i e w h e l p s t o s l i g h t l y a l l e v i a t e any m i s c o n c e p t i o n s about t h e upcoming week. As w e l l , knowing what i s t o be e x p e c t e d a l s o p r o v i d e s some r e a s s u r a n c e and c o m f o r t . A c t i v e i n v o l v e m e n t a l l o w s p a r t i c i p a n t s t o f e e l v a l u e d and f u r t h e r a l l o w s p r e s e n t e r s t o i d e n t i f y what i s e x p e c t e d and wanted by t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s . P r o c e d u r e s / .The program theme and a breakdown o f t h e A c t i v i t i e s : s e s s i o n s was p r e s e n t e d w i t h t h e use o f an overhead v i s u a l a i d . .An open ended q u e s t i o n / a n s w e r p e r i o d f o l l o w e d . . P a r t i c i p a n t s were t h e n asked t o j o i n t h e i r p r e - a r r a n g e d s m a l l groups i n t h e d e s i g n a t e d a r e a f o r t h e d u r a t i o n o f t h e e v e n i n g . I l l SESSION TWO: B u i l d i n g B l o c k s Time: 3 ho u r s Purpose: -To r e s t a t e t h e theme and o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e program -To promote an atmosphere o f c o m f o r t and t r u s t -To p r o v i d e an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s t o g e t a c q u a i n t e d w i t h each o t h e r -To i n t r o d u c e b a s i c i n t e r p e r s o n a l communication s k i l l s -To l o o k a t d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l s t y l e s o f communication R a t i o n a l e : The o p e n i n g s e s s i o n has two major i n t e n t i o n s . The f i r s t i s t o g i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s p l e n t y o f o p p o r t u n i t y t o g e t t o know each o t h e r and become c o m f o r t a b l e . The second i s t o i n t r o d u c e some i n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s ( t o o l s ) t h a t can be used, and b u i l t on, d u r i n g t h e r e s t o f t h e week. P r o c e d u r e / A c t i v i t i e s : . I n t r o d u c t o r y t a l k r e s t a t i n g theme & o b j e c t i v e s f o l l o w e d by an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e communication s e s s i o n . . P a r t i c i p a n t s e x p e r i e n c e d a v a r i e t y o f dyad e x e r c i s e s i n t e n d e d t o f o s t e r b a s i c i n t e r p e r s o n a l communication s k i l l s : l i s t e n i n g , n o n - v e r b a l communication, body language, feedback, p e r c e p t i o n c h e c k i n g , I messages, e t c . . P a r t i c i p a n t s v o l u n t e e r e d t o r o l e p l a y an i n t e r n a t i o n a l s o c i a l scene. The l a t t e r was i n t e n d e d t o p r o v i d e them w i t h a sense o f d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l communications. 112 . SESSION THREE: Home b u i l d i n g Time: 2 h o u r s Purpose: -To b u i l d group c o h e s i o n and s u p p o r t i n a f u n , y e t p r o d u c t i v e manner. -To s t i m u l a t e c r e a t i v e and, c o - o p e r a t i v e work -To b u i l d a warm atmosphere i n t h e gym -To f o s t e r i n d i v i d u a l and group i d e n t i t y R a t i o n a l e : The home b u i l d i n g s e s s i o n was d e s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h a f u n y e t purpose o r i e n t e d a c t i v i t y r e q u i r i n g each i n d i v i d u a l t o v e r b a l i z e and s h a r e t h e i r i d e a s and wants f o r a group d i s p l a y . T h i s a c t i v i t y n o t o n l y p r o v i d e s f o r a warm d e c o r i n wh i c h t o work, b u t a l s o g i v e s each group a g r e a t e r sense o f b e l o n g i n g a f t e r h a v i n g p a r t i c i p a t e d i n c r e a t i n g a group motto, d e s i g n and theme. The major i n t e n t i o n i n t h i s s e s s i o n i s i n s t i l l i n p a r t i c i p a n t s an awareness o f t h e im p o r t a n c e o f envi r o n m e n t . P r o c e d u r e / A c t i v i t i e s : .Large group i n t r o d u c t o r y t a l k about t h e r a t i o n a l e and purpose o f t h e s e s s i o n and, t h e im p o r t a n c e o f environment i n t h e p r o c e s s o f b e l o n g i n g . . P a r t i c i p a n t s r e t u r n t o t h e i r s m a l l groups f o r d i s c u s s i o n , p l a n n i n g and p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e t a s k . . D i s t r i b u t i o n o f a wide range o f a r t i s t i c m a t e r i a l s f o r t h e h o m e b u i l d i n g t a s k . . P a r t i c i p a n t s a r e g i v e n t h e r e s t o f t h e s e s s i o n t o complete t h e t a s k . 113 SESSION FOUR: I n s i d e — > Knowing S e l f Time: 3 h o u r s Purpose: -To b e g i n an i n n e r e x p l o r a t i o n o f s e l f . -To i d e n t i f y v a l u e s t h a t a r e c u r r e n t l y o p e r a t i v e i n t h e i r l i v e s . -To i d e n t i f y t h e v a l u e s o f s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s i n t h e i r l i v e s (and t h e s o c i a l system) and i n v e s t i g a t e t h e ways t h e s e p e o p l e a r e i n f l u e n c i n g them t o conform t o t h o s e v a l u e s . -To p o s s i b l y r e f o r m u l a t e v a l u e s . -To e x p r e s s v a l u e s i n an outward form -To become aware o f one's s e l f - i m a g e -To t a l k about s e l f i n a dyad -To b u i l d t r u s t , w i t h a t l e a s t one i n d i v i d u a l -To i n i t i a t e t h e b e g i n n i n g o f "community b u i l d i n g " R a t i o n a l e : T h i s s e s s i o n b e g i n s t h e "community b u i l d i n g " component. I n an attempt t o g i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s a s i m u l a t e d e x p e r i e n c e o f how a Community' i s b u i l t , t h e y a r e e s c o r t e d t h r o u g h a v a r i e t y o f e x e r c i s e s w h i c h s y s t e m a t i c a l l y span t h e e n t i r e week. B e g i n n i n g by b e i n g a l o n e , each p a r t i c i p a n t w i l l be i n v i t e d t o e x p l o r e t h e i r p e r s o n a l v a l u e s and b e l i e f s , and t h e n t o b e g i n s h a r i n g w i t h one o t h e r p e r s o n . T h i s s e s s i o n i s t h e i n i t i a l s t e p i n t h e "community b u i l d i n g " p r o c e s s : p a r t i c i p a n t s spend t h e b e t t e r p a r t o f t h e morning " w i t h i n " , e x p l o r i n g s e l f and t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f t h e s e s s i o n s h a r i n g t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e w i t h one o t h e r p e r s o n . P r o c e d u r e / . I n t r o d u c t o r y t a l k about v a l u e s , b e l i e f s , and A c t i v i t i e s : t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e s e l f . • P a r t i c i p a n t s were g i v e n m a t e r i a l s t o c r e a t e an i n d i v i d u a l v a l u e s c o l l a g e ( i n s i l e n c e ) . . P a r t i c i p a n t s completed a v a l u e s and b e l i e f s e x e r c i s e s h e e t ( a l o n e , i n s i l e n c e ) . . S t u d e n t s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n an e x e r c i s e t o e x p l o r e s e l f - i m a g e . .Dyad d i s c u s s i o n o f v a l u e s and b e l i e f s . .Completed dyad p a r t o f s e s s i o n w i t h a b l i n d t r u s t walk. 114 SESSION FIVE; Making C o n t a c t — > A c c e p t a n c e Time: 2 h o u r s Purpose: -To c o n t i n u e i n t h e "community b u i l d i n g " p r o c e s s . -To d e v e l o p a c c e p t a n c e o f s e l f and o t h e r s . -To e x p e r i e n c e g i v i n g and r e c e i v i n g , " c a r i n g " . -To f u r t h e r e x p l o r e i n n e r t h o u g h t s & f e e l i n g s . R a t i o n a l e : T h i s s e s s i o n i n c r e a s e s t h e s i z e o f t h e w o r k i n g group t o f o u r , and f o c u s e s e n t i r e l y on f e e l i n g s and a c c e p t a n c e o f s e l f and o t h e r . T h i s s e s s i o n i n i n t e n d e d t o be t h e m a jor " w o r k i n g " p a r t o f t h e program. P r o c e d u r e / A c t i v i t i e s : . I n t r o d u c t o r y t a l k on c a r i n g , a c c e p t a n c e , f e e l i n g s , and r i s k t a k i n g . .Dyad e x e r c i s e s .Two dyads combine t o form a foursome .Foursome: g i v i n g and r e c e i v i n g c a r i n g e x e r c i s e .Guided v i s u a l i z a t i o n .Large group d e b r i e f i n g SESSION SIX: O u t s i d e : S e l f <—> O t h e r 3 h o u r s -To c o n t i n u e "community b u i l d i n g " . -To l e a r n t o l i v e w i t h o t h e r s . -To i d e n t i f y what r o l e one p l a y s w i t h i n a group and i d e n t i f y t h e needs t h a t a r e b e i n g met by b e l o n g i n g t o a group. -To u n d e r s t a n d group dynamics and i n t e r a c t i o n -To c o n t i n u e b u i l d i n g t r u s t and s a f e t y . -To l e a r n t o g i v e and r e c e i v e feedback. -To d e v e l o p g r e a t e r s e l f - r e s p o n s i b i l i t y r e : one's a t t i t u d e s and judgements o f o t h e r s . T h i s s e s s i o n f o c u s e s on p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e s m a l l group. I t i s i n t e n d e d t o g i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o d i s c o v e r how t h e y i n t e r a c t i n a group, e x p e r i m e n t w i t h new b e h a v i o r s , and r e c e i v e f eedback from o t h e r s . T h i s s e s s i o n g i v e s t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s an o p p o r t u n i t y t o l o o k a t t h e i r group i n v o l v e m e n t s k i l l s : a s s e r t i v e n e s s , o r l a c k o f a s s e r t i v e n e s s w i t h i n t h e group. . I n t r o d u c t o r y t a l k and d i s c u s s i o n on s m a l l group i n t e r a c t i o n : group r o l e s and group dynamics. .Group " s u r v i v a l " e x e r c i s e . S m a l l group d e b r i e f i n g . A d o p t i o n o f c o m p l e t e l y new, o p p o s i t e r o l e from one's u s u a l f u n c t i o n i n g . . . e x e r c i s e . . P r e s e n t e r s t a l k about t r u s t , g i v i n g and r e c e i v i n g feedback. .S m a l l group " t r u s t f a l l " . " J o h a r i Window" feedback e x e r c i s e . 116 SESSION SEVEN: R e l a t i o n s h i p s / S e x u a l i t y Time: 3 h o u r s Purpose: -To p r o v i d e p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h an o v e r v i e w o f t h e s t a g e s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p . -To d i s c u s s t h e s t y l e s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p -To o f f e r p a r t i c i p a n t s an o p p o r t u n i t y t o d i s c u s s t h e i r t h o u g h t s / c o n c e r n s about r e l a t i o n s h i p s and s e x u a l i t y -To have males and females g a i n a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e o t h e r ' s v i e w s R a t i o n a l e : A f t e r g i v i n g t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s an o p p o r t u n i t y t o i n t e r a c t w i t h o t h e r s , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o e x p l o r e one o f t h e more i m p o r t a n t i n t e r a c t i o n s . S t u d e n t s a r e p r o v i d e d w i t h f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n r e : s e x u a l i t y i n t h e s c h o o l s , however t h e y a r e seldom g i v e n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o o p e n l y d i s c u s s t h e i r t h o u g h t s and f e e l i n g s . I t i s i m p o r t a n t , as w e l l , f o r s t u d e n t s t o g a i n an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f some o f t h e m o t i v a t i o n s t h a t d r i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Youths need t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e between i n t i m a c y , c l o s e n e s s , and p o w e r / c o n t r o l i s s u e s i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s . P r o c e d u r e / . I n t r o d u c t o r y d i s c u s s i o n and t a l k on A c t i v i t i e s : r e l a t i o n s h i p s and s e x u a l i t y . ."Gold f i s h b o w l " ( a l t e r n a t e l y , males t a l k i n c e n t e r , females a u d i t i n p e r i p h e r a l c i r c l e ) d i s c u s s i o n o f c o n c e r n s and i s s u e s f o r males and f e m a l e s . . S eparate male and female d i s c u s s i o n groups l e a d by same sexed f a c i l i t a t o r s . . S e x u a l i t y : q u e s t i o n and answer p a n e l . 117 SESSION EIGHT; F a c i n g t h e W o r l d Time: 2 h o u r s Purpose: -To l o o k a t s e l f r e l a t i v e t o t h e l a r g e r community -To become aware o f t h e "mask w i t h i n " and t h e " e x t e r n a l mask" and t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e y a r e c o n g r u e n t o r d i s c r e p a n t . -To l o o k a t t h e l a r g e r system t h a t we a r e a l l a p a r t o f . -To s y m b o l i c a l l y r e p r e s e n t one's i n n e r mask e x t e r n a l l y . -To d i s c u s s one's e x p e r i e n c e w i t h i n a s m a l l group. R a t i o n a l e : T h i s s e s s i o n i s i n t e n d e d t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e movement from t h e i n n e r t o t h e o u t e r i n a p l a y f u l , c r e a t i v e and u n t h r e a t e n i n g manner. The h i d d e n agenda i s t o a l l o w p a r t i c i p a n t s t o e x p l o r e how t h e y p r e s e n t t h e m s e l v e s t o t h e w o r l d and t o become aware o f t h e gap between t h e i r i n n e r s e l v e s and t h e i r o u t e r p r e s e n t a t i o n s . S t u d e n t s a r e a s s u r e d t h a t t h e l a t t e r i s not good o r bad b u t s i m p l y a m a t t e r o f c h o i c e . P r o c e d u r e / A c t i v i t i e s : . I n t r o d u c t o r y t a l k and d i s c u s s i o n on t h e t o p i c . . S h o r t g u i d e d v i s u a l i z a t i o n t o g e n e r a t e a symbol t h a t r e p r e s e n t s one's " i n n e r mask". . D i s t r i b u t i o n o f m a t e r i a l s f o r f a c e p a i n t i n g . . I n d i v i d u a l f a c e p a i n t i n g e x e r c i s e . . S m a l l group s h a r i n g and d e b r i e f i n g o f masks. . I n c l u s i o n / e x c l u s i o n e x e r c i s e . .Large group e x e r c i s e . 118 SESSION NINE; L o o k i n g back / L o o k i n g ahead Time: 3 hour s Purpose: -To d i s c u s s t h e im p o r t a n c e o f c l o s u r e . -To r e v i e w t h e weeks' e v e n t s and themes. -To r e v i e w p e r s o n a l and community r e s o u r c e s . -To g i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s an o p p o r t u n i t y t o p r a c t i c e t h e language needed t o communicate t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s . -To p r o v i d e an "as i f " r o l e p l a y e x p e r i e n c e whereby p a r t i c i p a n t s can p r e p a r e f o r f a m i l y , p e e r and s c h o o l homecoming s i t u a t i o n s . -To p a r t i c i p a t e i n i n d i v i d u a l and group c l o s i n g e x e r c i s e s . R a t i o n a l e : I n t h i s s e s s i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s w i l l be encouraged t o b r i n g t h i n g s t o a c l o s e , imagine what i t w i l l be l i k e g o i n g home, and s e t some g o a l s f o r t h e f u t u r e . G i v e n t h a t t h i s i s a c o m p l e t e l y new e x p e r i e n c e f o r most i n d i v i d u a l s , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o p r o v i d e them w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e language t o communicate t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e t o o t h e r s . As w e l l , f o r t h o s e w i s h i n g t o c o n t i n u e t h e i r growth, p e r s o n a l and community r e s o u r c e systems a r e d i s c u s s e d . P r o c e d u r e / A c t i v i t i e s : . I n t r o d u c t o r y t a l k and d i s c u s s i o n on t h e imp o r t a n c e o f c l o s u r e . .A b r i e f r e v i e w o f t h e week i s p r e s e n t e d . . S t u d e n t s w r i t e a " l e t t e r t o s e l f " ( t o be m a i l e d t o each i n d i v i d u a l by f a c i l i t a t o r s s i x months t i m e ) . . D i s c u s s i o n and l i s t i n g o f r e s o u r c e s . .Role p l a y s . . W r i t t e n e v a l u a t i o n s a r e com p l e t e d . i n SESSION TEN; C l o s u r e Time: 2 ho u r s Purpose: -To c e r e m o n i o u s l y c l o s e t h e program. -To acknowledge each p e r s o n i n d i v i d u a l l y w i t h a c e r t i f i c a t e o f c o m p l e t i o n . R a t i o n a l e : The i m p o r t a n c e o f c l o s i n g cannot be u n d e r e s t i m a t e d . T h i s s e s s i o n g i v e s each p a r t i c i p a n t s i n d i v i d u a l r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e i r v a l u e d i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e "community". What i s s t r e s s e d i s b e g i n n i n g s , n o t e n d i n g s . P r o c e d u r e / . F o l l o w i n g t h e banquet d i n n e r , p a r t i c i p a n t s A c t i v i t i e s : g a t h e r i n t h e gym f o r t h e c l o s i n g c e r e m o n i e s . . C e r t i f i c a t e s a r e d i s t r i b u t e d i n d i v i d u a l l y . . P a r t i c i p a n t s g a t h e r i n one l a r g e c i r c l e f o r a c a n d l e l i g h t i n g ceremony w h i c h c o n c l u d e s t h e program. 120 APPENDIX C T a b l e s Not I n c l u d e d i n t h e Main Body o f t h e T e x t ( T a b l e s V I , V I I , V I I I , IX, X, X I , X I I , X I I I , XIV, XV, XVI, X V I I , and X V I I I ) 121 TABLE VI . Summary o f means / s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s / t / f (N=63) GENDER; A Females M a l e s n=37 n=26 OCCASION:B M. S.D. M. S.D. P r e 96 12.2 91 14.3 TC + I P o s t 106.2 13.2 96.6 14.1 B: f=53.34 *** A: f=5.11 * A/B: f=4.74 * P r e 15.3 2.8 14.3 3.3 Tc * P o s t 16.6 3.3 14.8 3.2 t=2.24 t=-3.47 *** B: f=7.92 ** A: f=3.90 * P r e 80.4 10 76.7 11.6. ** P o s t 89.6 10.6 81.4 11.8 t=2.87 t=-7.01 *** t=-3.20 ** B: f=48.71 *** A: f=5.14 * A/B: f=5.14 * * p < . 0 5 t w o - t a i l e d ** p < .01 t w o - t a i l e d *** p < .001 t w o - t a i l e d 122 TABLE V I I D e t a i l e d R e s u l t s F o r SAV S c a l e GENDER: A Females Males n=37 n=26 OCCASION:B M. S.D. M. S.D. t P r e 19.5 2.5 18.3 3.7 SAV * P o s t 20.9 2.6 19.4 3.6 t=1.85 t=-3.57 *** B: f=24.54 * A: f=6.58 ** * p < .05 t w o - t a i l e d ** p < .01 t w o - t a i l e d *** p < .001 t w o - t a i l e d 123 TABLE V I I I D e t a i l e d R e s u l t s F o r EX S c a l e GENDER; A Females n=37 Males n=26 OCCASION:B M. S.D. M. S.D. EX P r e P o s t 19.1 21.8 4.5 4.7 19.2 18.9 3.8 4.9 * t=2.33 t=-6.21 *** B: f=10.09 ** * p < .05 t w o - t a i l e d ** p < .01 t w o - t a i l e d *** p < .001 t w o - t a i l e d 124 TABLE IX D e t a i l e d R e s u l t s F o r F r S c a l e GENDER: A Females M a l e s n=37 n=2 6 OCCASION:B M. S.D. M. S.D. P r e 15.2 2.9 13.8 3.6 F R * * P o s t 16.9 2.6 14.9 2.8 t=2.95 t=-3.68 *** t=-2.41 * B: f=16.15 *** A: f=6.08 ** * p < .05 t w o - t a i l e d ** p < .01 t w o - t a i l e d *** p < .001 t w o - t a i l e d 125 TABLE X Detailed Results For S Scale GENDER; A Females Males n=37 n=26 OCCASION;B M. S.D. M. S.D. Pre 11.8 2.5 11 2.9 s * * Post 13.7 2.3 12 2.5 t=2.67 t=-5.78 *** t=-2.41 * B: f=30.67 *** A: f=4.10 * * p < .05 two-tailed ** p < .01 two-tailed *** p < .001 two-tailed 126 TABLE XI D e t a i l e d R e s u l t s F o r S r S c a l e GENDER; A Females Males n=37 n=26 OCCASION:B M. S.D. M. S.D. P r e 11.7 , 1.8 11.4 2.5 SR P o s t 12.8 1.9 11.8 2.3 t=-3.18 ** B: f=6.14 ** * p < .05 t w o - t a i l e d ** p < .01 t w o - t a i l e d *** p < .001 t w o - t a i l e d 127 TABLE X I I D e t a i l e d R e s u l t s F o r Sa S c a l e GENDER: A Females Males n=37 n=26 OCCASION:B M. S.D. M. S.D. Pr e 14.8 3 13.7 3.1 SA * P o s t 16.1 3.1 14.3 2.9 t=2.34 t=-2.89 ** B: f=8.32 ** A: f=4.19 * * p < .05 t w o - t a i l e d ** p < .01 t w o - t a i l e d *** p < .001 t w o - t a i l e d TABLE X I I I D e t a i l e d R e s u l t s F o r Nc S c a l e GENDER: A Females M a l e s n=37 n=26 OCCASION:B M. S.D. M. S.D. P r e 11.1 1.7 10.3 2.4 NC P o s t 12 1.6 11.6 1.8 t=-4.02 *** t=-2.70 ** B: f=20.51 *** * p < .05 t w o - t a i l e d ** p < .01 t w o - t a i l e d *** p < .001 t w o - t a i l e d 129 TABLE XIV D e t a i l e d R e s u l t s F o r Sy S c a l e GENDER; A Females Males n=37 n=26 OCCASION:B M. S.D. M. S.D. t P r e 6.3 1.4 6.5 1.6 SY P o s t 6.8 1.5 6.6 1.4 t=-2.57 ** B: f=4.10 * * p < .05 t w o - t a i l e d ** p < .01 t w o - t a i l e d *** p < .001 t w o - t a i l e d 130 TABLE XV D e t a i l e d R e s u l t s F o r A S c a l e GENDER; A Females Males n=37 n=26 OCCASION:B M. S.D. M. S.D. Pr e 15.8 3.4 15.4 3.3 *** P o s t 18.1 3.2 15.2 2.9 t=3.72 t= -5.34 *** B: f=10.29 ** A: f=4.73 * * p < .05 t w o - t a i l e d ** p < .01 t w o - t a i l e d *** p < .001 t w o - t a i l e d 131 TABLE XVI D e t a i l e d R e s u l t s F o r C S c a l e GENDER; A Females n=37 Males n=26 OCCASION:B M. S.D. M. S.D. P r e P o s t 16 19.4 4.2 3.9 15.4 16.6 3.6 3.3 ** t=3.72 t=-7.30 *** t=-2.04 * B: f=36.31 *** A: f=3.64 *? • * p < .05 t w o - t a i l e d ** p < .01 t w o - t a i l e d *** p < .001 t w o - t a i l e d TABLE X V I I means / s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s / t f o r POOLED s c o r e s (N=63) PRETEST POSTTEST S c a l e : M. S.D. M. S.D. t Tc 14.9 3 15.9 3.4 -3.07 ** I 78.9 10.8 86.2 11.7 -7.25 *** SAV 19 3.1 20.3 3.2 -3.69 *** EX 19.2 4.2 20.6 5 -3.53 *** FR 14.5 3.2 16.1 2.8 -4 . 39 *** S 11.4 2.7 13 2.6 -5.84 *** SR 11. 6 2 .1 12.4 2.1 -2.71 ** SA 14.4 3.1 15.3 3.1 -3.12 ** NC 10.8 2 11.9 1.7 -4.44 *** SY 6.4 1.5 6.7 1.5 -2.27 * A 15.6 3.3 16.9 3.4 -3.61 *** C 15.8 3.9 18.2 3.9 -6.38 *** * p < .05 t w o - t a i l e d ** p < .01 t w o - t a i l e d *** p < .001 t w o - t a i l e d TABLE X V I I I means / s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s / t f o r RETURNEES (N=6) PRETEST POSTTEST S c a l e : M. S.D. M. S.D. t Tc 15.5 2.4 15.8 1.6 -2.92 * I 81.6 12.9 89.8 10. 3 SAV 19 3.6 20.8 1.6 EX 20.2 4.2 21.5 5.5 PR 14.3 2.2 16.5 1.9 -3.99 ** S 12.5 1 12 1.5 SR 11.3 2.8 12.5 2.2 SA 15.3 4.7 17.7 4.5 -3.07 * NC 10.8 2.8 11.8 1.5 SY 6.7 1.5 7.3 1 A 15.7 2.3 17.8 2.8 -2.89 * 1 16.5 3 19.3 2 -3.58 ** * p < .05 t w o - t a i l e d ** p < .01 t w o - t a i l e d TABLE XIX means / s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s / t f o r PILOT (N=16) PRETEST POSTTEST S c a l e : M. S.D. M. S.D. t Tc 14.7 3.8 15.2 3.5 I 80 12.2 84.5 13.6 -2.11 * SAV 20.5 6.8 19.8 3.4 EX 19 3.7 19 3.8 PR 13 .7 2.8 16.1 3.5 -3.31 ** f= 4.56 * S 12.6 2.4 13.3 2.9 SR 11.9 3.1 13.2 4.2 -2.95 ** SA 15.4 3.7 15.2 3.9 NC 10.7 2 10.9 2.5 SY 6.2 1.1 6.3 1.3 A 14.9 4 16. 6 4.1 C 15.7 3.6 18.7 3.6 -3.66 ** f= 5.25 * * p < .05 t w o - t a i l e d ** p < .01 t w o - t a i l e d 135 TABLE XX D e t a i l e d PILOT R e s u l t s f o r gender D i f f e r e n c e s GENDER: A Females n=19 Males n=9 OCCASION:B M. S.D. M. S.D. TC P r e 16.4 P o s t 16.6 4.1 3.9 12.2 12.7 3 3 ** t=2.68 ** t=2.60 P r e 85.1 P o s t 88.6 10.7 11.2 73.7 74.2 10.2 9.3 * * *** SAV P r e P o s t 2.2 21.6 5.9 2 . 4 18 7 28.3 3.8 4.4 EX P r e P o s t 20.7 20.9 3 . 3 3 . 6 18.2 17.8 3.8 2.7 * t=2.29 FR P r e 15.5 P o s t 17.5 3.5 2.9 14.5 14.6 2.4 2.9 ** t=2.55 S P r e P o s t 13.3 14.2 3 2.9 11.4 10.9 1.7 2.1 ** t=3.01 SR P r e P o s t 12.9 13.5 2 . 3 2.1 10.8 11.8 3.2 2.5 t=2.01 136 SA P r e 16 3.8 P o s t 15.7 3.8 12.3 12.5 2.1 2.7 ** t=2.71 t=2.22 NC P r e P o s t 11.3 11.7 2.2 2.2 10 9.3 2.8 2.9 t=2.41 SY P r e P o s t P r e P o s t 6.8 6.9 16.9 17.5 1.1 1.2 3.2 3.8 5.9 5.8 13.7 15.7 1.4 1.6 3.5 2.5 t=2.26 * t=2.48 P r e P o s t 17.6 19.8 3.3 2.9 15.3 16 4.2 3.2 ** t=3.14 * p < .05 t w o - t a i l e d ** p < .01 t w o - t a i l e d *** p < .001 t w o - t a i l e d APPENDIX D FIGURES: 4, 5, 6, 7, 138 FIGURE 1 PROFILE FOR POOLED MALE AND FEMALE SCORES PRETEST < > POSTTEST / \ i i (n=63) (n=63) RETURNEES (N=6) TIME COMPETENT Lives in the present INNER-DIRECTED Independent, self-supportive VALUING FEELING SELF-PERCEPTION SYNERGISTIC AWARENESS INTERPERSONAL SENSITIVITY SELF-ACTUALIZING VALUE Holds values of self-actualizing petple EXISTENTI-ALITY Flexible in application of values FEELING REACTIVITY Sensitive to own needs and feelings SPONTA-NEITY Freely expresses feelings behaviorally SELF-REGARD Has high self-worth SELF-ACCEPTANCE Accepting of self in spite of weaknesses NATURE OF MAN. CON- . STRUCTIVE Sees man as essentially good SYNERGY Sees oppo-site: of life as meaning-fully related ACCEPTANCE OF AGGRESSION Accepts feelings of anger or aggression CAPACITY FOR INTIMATE CONTACT Has warm interpersonal relationships * * * * * SAV Ex Fr S Sr Sa Nc Sy A C * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * — 125 — 120 — 115 - 2 5 — 110 — 105 — —23 — — - 2 5 _ _ " - ~ -9 - " - _ J 0 - 1 5 _ — - 2 0 -100 — 20 — 93 — 90 - 2 5 - " " - J ° " ~* — s - - " - 2 0 1 -73 — —'o — —65 — ~ —10 _ —15 _ — — ~ —10 ~ — - - 10 _ ~* —5 — ~~6 0 — — 5 5 — 30 —10 - | 0 - 1 0 _ — — 5 — _ — io — — _ —3 — _ — —4 — 43 — 5 - 1 0 - 5 -— 3 TIME INCOMPE-TENT Lives in the past or future OTHER DIRECTED Dependent, seeks sup-part of others' views Rejects ratues of seii-actualiz-int pee pie Rigid in application o( values Insensitive to own needs and feelings Fearful of eipressing feelings behaviorally Has low self-wortft Unable ts accept self with weaknesses Sees man ts essentially evil Sets opposites of lire as antagonistic Denies feelings of anger or aggression Has diffi-culty with warn inter-personal relations Prei rest - P o s t t e s t (n=63) Xwo Tailed T-Tests * p .05 *** .01 .001 139 FIGURE 2 PROFILE FOR PRETEST SCORES MALES < > FEMALES (n=26) (n=37) TIME COMPETENT Lives in the present INNER-DIRECTED Independent, sell-supportive VALUING FEELING SaF-PERCEPTION SYNERGISTIC AWARENESS INTERPERSONAL SENSITIVITY SELF-ACTUALIZING VALUE Holds values of serf-actualizing peiple EXISTENTI-ALITY Flexible in application of values FEELING REACTIVITY Sensitive to own needs and feelings SPONTA-NEW Freely expresses feelings behaviorally SELF-REGARD Has nigh self-worth SELF-ACCEPTANCE Accepting of self in spite of weaknesses NATURE OF MAN, CON- . STRUCTIYE Sees man as essentially good SYNERGY Sees oppo-sites of life as meaning-fully related ACCEPTANCE OF AGGRESSION Accepts feelings of anger or aggression CAPACITY FOR INTIMATE CONTACT Has warm interpersonal relationships SAV E> Fr S Sr Sa Nc Sy A C — 133 — 130 — IIS - J J — HO —103 — — 2 3 — — - J J _ ~ - J O — 100 — 70 — 95 — 90 — _ — i - — _ " ~ — — J O —83 — ' 1 - ' _ — ^ X > S S S S S N ^ ^ ^ ^ ~ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ — i s — — 7 0 _ — 6 3 • - _ - 4 — — 1 0 — —13 _ — _ ~ — 1 0 — ~ — ~ ' 5 - - 1 0 _ _ — — 5 ~" — - 3 3 — 50 —10 - | 0 - 1 0 _ — 5 — _ - i o - — — — — « J — 3 - 1 0 - 3 -- 3 TIME INCOMPE-TENT Lives in the paxt or future OTHER DIRECTED Dependent, seeks sup-part ot others' views Re wets values i t seit-actna lin-ing peiple Rigid in application of values Insensitive to own needs and feelings Fearful of expressing feelings behaviorally Has low self-wortA Unable to accept self with weaknesses Sees man as essentially evil Sets opposite! of life as antagonistic Denies feelings of anger or aggression Has diffi-cult* witlt want inter-personal relations 50 o 3 20 140 FIGURE 3 PROFILE FOR POSTTEST SCORES M A L E S < > F E M A L E S (n=26) (n=37) 20 TIME COMPETENT Lives in the present INNER-DIRECTED Independent, self-supportive VALUING FIE LING SEIF-PERCEPTION SYNERGISTIC AWARENESS INTERPERSONAL SENSITIVITY SELf-ACTUALIZING VALUE Holds values of seif-actualizinj peiple EXISTENTI-ALITY Flexible in application at values FEELING REACTIVITY Sensitive to own needs and feelings SPONTA-NEITY Freely expresses feelings behaviorally SELF-REGARD Has high self-worth SELF-ACCEPTANCE Accepting of self in spite of weaknesses NATURE OF MAN, CON- . STRUCTIVE Sees man as essentially good SYNERGY Sees oppo-sites of life as meaning-fully related ACCEPTANCE OF AGGRESSION Accepts feelings of anger or aggression CAPACITY FOR INTIMATE CONTACT H3S warm interpersonal relationships * * * SAV E< Fr S Sr Sa Nc Sy A C * * * * * * * * * * * * — 125 — 120 — 115 - 2 3 — 110 — 103 — — 2 3 — — - 2 3 - 3 0 _ " -•> - 2 0 - | 5 — 2 0 — 1 3 — _ ~ ' 3 - 2 0 — 100 — 20 — ?3 - 7 y _ — — 13 _ — ? 0 _ — « 3 — ~ — 1 0 _ —13 _ - _ — — 1 0 ~ — _ —53 — 50 —10 - , 0 - 1 0 "~ _ — s — _ - 1 0 ~" — — — — 45 — 3 - 1 0 _ 5 -— 3 TIME INCOMPE-TENT Lives in the past or future OTHER DIRECTEO Oependent. seeks sup-p i n of others' views Rejects values i f sell-actualiz-ing peapie Rigid In application of values Insensitive t t awn needs and feelings Fearful of eioressing feelings behaviorally Hat low self-wort). Unable ts accept self with weaknesses Sees man i s essentially evil Sets opposites of life as antagonistic Denies feelings of anger or aggression Has diffi-culty will] warm inter-personal relations 70 SO i X 1 Two T a i l e d T-Tescs * P .05 ** P -.01 P .001 141 FIGURE 4 PROFILE FOR FEMALE SCORES PRETEST < > POSTTEST ( 1 1 = 3 7 ) ( n = 3 7 ) VALUING FEELING SELF-PERCEPTION SYNERGISTIC AWARENESS INTERPERSONAL SENSITIVITY TIME COMPETENT Lives in the present INNER-DIRECTED Independent, sell-supportive SELF-ACTUALIZING VALUE Holds values of self-actualizing people EXISTENT!-ALITY Flexible in application of values FEELING REACTIVITY Sensitive to own needs and feelings SPONTA-NEITY Freely expresses feelings behaviorally SELF-REGARD Has high self-worth SELF-ACCEPTANCE Accepting of self in spite of weaknesses NATURE OF MAN. CON- . STRUCTIVE Sees man as essentially good SYNERGY Sees oppo-sites of life as meaning-fully telated ACCEPTANCE OF AGGRESSION Accepts feelings of anger or aggression CAPACITY FOR INTIMATE CONTACT Has warm interpersonal relationships Tc 1 SAV Ex Fr s Sr ' So Nc Sy A c *** *** *** *** *** ** ** *** ** *** *** — 123 — 120 — 23 — 115 _ — - — — — 23 — — — 110 — 25 — 20 — - — — — — 9 - 2 5 - — 105 - - — 20 — 15 — 15 ' - — 13 — 20 -70 TIME INCOMPE-TENT Lives in the past or future OTHER OIRECTED Dependent, seeks sup-port ol others' views Reiects values i t seil-2ctna!i2-ing people Rigid in Insensitive Fearful of Has low Unable to Sets man u Sees Denies Has diffi-application to own expressing sell-worm accept self essentially opposites of feelings of culty with of values needs and feelings with eril life as anger er warn inter-feelings benaviorafly weaknesses antagonistic aggression personal relations Two T a i l e d T-Tescs * p .05 * * p .01 * * * p .001 142 FIGURE 5 PROFILE FOR MALE SCORES PRETEST < > POSTTEST (n=26) (n=26) TIME COMPETENT Lives in the present INNER-DIRECTED Independent, self-supportive VALUING FEELING SELF-PERCEPTION SYNERGISTIC AWARENESS INTERPERSONAL SENSITIVITY SELF-ACTUALIZING VALUE Holds values of self-actualizing people EXISTENTI-ALITY Flexible in application of values FEELING REACTIVITY Sensitive to own needs and feelings SPONTA-NEITY Freely expresses feelings behaviorally SELF-REGARD Has high self-worth SELF-ACCEPTANCE Accepting of self in spite of weaknesses NATURE OF MAN, CON- . STRUCTIVE Sees man as essentially good SYNERGY Sees oppo-sites of life as meaning-fully related ACCEPTANCE OF AGGRESSION Accepts feelings of anger or aggression CAPACITY FOR INTIMATE CONTACT Has warm interpersonal relationships ** SAV Ex Fr S Sr So Nc Sy A C * * ** * — 125 — 120 — 115 — 25 — 110 — 103 — —23 — — - 2 3 - ™ _ - " -- 2 0 -100 — 20 — 93 — 90 - 2 5 - ~ " - J 0 ~ _ _ ~ ~ — - 2 0 —«3 — :o — — IV"""^  * \ r ! * - - rr< -> - t o - 1 0 — 13 Z -70 — —63 - _ - _ - W - o - _ — —10 — — 1 5 — — — — —10 ~ — - - 1 0 _ ~ — 5 =60 — - 5 5 — 50 —10 - ' 0 __ l 0 _ — t o — — _ — 3 — _ — ~ 4 _ -45 — 3 - 1 0 - J -- 3 TIME INCOMPE-TENT Lives in the past or future OTHER DIRECTED Dependent, seeks sup-port of others' views Rejects values si sett-actuaiiz-ing peaple Rigid in application of values Insensitive to own needs and feelings Fearful of expressing feelings behaviorally Has low sett-wort* Unable to accept self with weaknesses Sees man as essentially evil Sets opposite* of life as antagonistic Denies feelings of anger or aggression Has diffi-culty with warn inter-personal relations 70 50 50 Two T a i l e d T-Tescs * p .05 * * p .01 p .001 *** 143 FIGURE 6 PROFILE FOR "RETURNEES" PRETEST <—-> POSTTEST (n=6) (n=6) TIME COMPETENT Lives in the present INNER-DIRECTED Independent, self-supportive VALUING FEELING SELF-PERCEPTION SYNERGISTIC AWARENESS INTERPERSONAL SENSITIVITY SELF-ACTUALIZING VALUE Holds values of sell-actualizing peiple EXISTENTI-ALITY Flexible in application of values FEELING REACTIVITY Sensitive to own needs and feelings SPONTA-NEITY Freely expresses feelings behaviorally SELF-REGARD Has high self-warth SELF-ACCEPTANCE Accepting of self in spite of weaknesses NATURE OF MAN. CON- . STRUCTIVE Sees man as essentially good SYNERGY Sees oppo-sites of life as meaning-fully related ACCEPTANCE OF AGGRESSION Accepts feelings of anger or aggression CAPACITY FOR INTIMATE CONTACT Has warm interpersonal relationships * c ' SAV Ex Fr S Sr Sa Ne Sy A C ** * * * * - 1 2 3 — 120 — IIS - 2 3 — n o — 103 — —23 — — - 2 5 - M _ ~ - ~ ~ - , 3 - 7 0 - 1 0 0 — 20 — 95 - 2 5 " / —15 " * —75 — 15 — — ? o _ —«3 — _ — 1 0 _ — 1 3 — - — — —10 — ~ — ~ ' s - - . 0 _ ~ — 5 =60 _ —35 — 50 —10 - ' o - . 0 ~~ _ — 5 — _ — i o — — _ — 3 — __ — 4 — <5 — 3 -10 . - 5 — 3 TIME INCOMPE-TENT Lives in the past or future OTHER DIRECTED Dependent, seeks sup-port of others' views Rekcts values at seit-actoaliz-int peapie Rigid in application ot values Insensitive to own needs and feelings Fearful of expressing feelings behaviorally Has low self-wort* Unable to accept self with weaknesses Sees man as essentially evil Sees opposites of life as antagonistic Denies feelings of anger or aggression Has diffi-culty with warm inter-personal relations 70 Two T a i l e d T-Tascs * P .05 ** P .01 *** P .001 144 FIGURE 7 PROFILE FOR POOLED MALE/FEMALE PILOT SCORES PRETEST <---> POSTTEST (n=16) v (n=16) RETURNEES (n=12) TIME COMPETENT Lives in the present INNER-DIRECTED Independent, sell-supportive VALUING FEELING SELF-PERCEPTION SYNERGISTIC AWARENESS INTERPERSONAL SENSITIVITY SELF-ACTUALIZING VALUE Holds values of sell-actualizing people EXISTENTI-ALITY Flexible in application of values FEELING REACTIVITY Sensitive to own needs and feelings SPONTA-NEITY Freely expresses feelings behaviorally SELF-REGARD Has high, self-worth SELF-ACCEPTANCE Accepting of self in spite of weaknesses NATURE OF MAN, CON- . STRUCTIVE Sees man as essentially good SYNERGY Sees oppo-sites of life as meaning-fully related ACCEPTANCE OF AGGRESSION Accepts feelings oi anger or aggression CAPACITY FOR INTIMATE CONTACT H a warm interpersonal relationships * SAV Ex Fr S Sr Sa Nc Sy A C * * * * * * X X X — 123 — 120 — 115 - 2 3 — 110 — 103 — _ — 2 3 — — - 2 3 - 1 0 _ ~ - - ~ -» ~ " - 2 0 TIME INCOMPE-TENT Lives in the past or future OTHER DIRECTED Dependent, seeks sup-port of others' views Reiects va:ues i f sen-actualiz-ing people Rigid in Insensitive Fearful of Has low Unable to Sees man as Sees Denies Has diffi-application to own expressing seif-worU accept self essentially ooposites of feelings of culty with of values needs and feelings with evil life as anger or warn inter-feelings behaviorally weaknesses antagonistic aggression personal relations * = Pre -x = Pre — - Post - Returnee Gr. Two T a i l e d T-Tescs * P .05 ** P .01 **•* P .001 145 FIGURE 8 PROFILE FOR PILOT PRETEST SCORES MALES <—> FEMALES (n=9) ( n = l 9 ) TIME COMPETENT Lives in the present INNER-DIRECTED Independent, sell-supportive VALUING FEELING SELF-PERCEPTION SYNERGISTIC AWARENESS INTERPERSONAL SENSITIVITY SELF-ACTUALIZING VALUE Holds values ol sell-actualizing people EXISTENTI-ALITY Flexible in application of values FEELING REACTIVITY Sensitive to own needs and feelings SPONTA-NEITY Freely expresses feelings behaviorally SELF-REGARD Has high self-worth SELF-ACCEPTANCE Accepting of self in spite of weaknesses NATURE OF MAN, CON- . STRUCTIVE Sees man as essentially good SYNERGY Sees oppo-sites ol lite as meaning-fully related ACCEPTANCE OF AGGRESSION Accepts feelings of anger or aggression CAPACITY FOR INTIMATE CONTACT Has warm interpersonal relationships ** *** SAV Ex Fr S Sr Sa Ne Sy A C * ** * — 125 — 120 — 115 — 25 — 110 — 105 — — 2 3 — — - 2 5 - « > _ " - 9 - » — — 1 3 - 2 0 — 100 — 20 — 95 — 90 - 2 5 - " " - ' ° , " " —10 - ' J — •1 / / _ f -70 1 I / ~" * * K* _A - -- 1 3 ' - _ ~ — 1 0 — ~ — - - 1 0 _ ~" — 5 — - 3 5 — 50 — 1 0 _ — 5 — _ — t o — — — 4 — 45 — 3 —10 - 3 — 3 TIME INCOMPE-TENT Livei in the past or luture OTHER DIRECTED Dependent, seeks sup-port ol others' views Refects values i f scit-actualiz-ing peapie Rigid in application of values Insensitive ta awn needs and feelings Fearful of expressing feelings behaviorally Has tow s elf-worm Unable to accept self with weaknesses S i ts man as essentially evil Sets opposite] of life as antagonistic Denies feelings of anger or aggression Has diffi-culty with warm inter-personal relations 70 Two T a i l e d T - T e s c s * P . 0 5 ** P . 0 1 *** P . 0 0 1 146 FIGURE 9 PROFILE FOR PILOT POSTTEST SCORES MALES < > FEMALES (n=9) (n=19) TIME COMPETENT Lives in the present INNER-DIRECTED Independent, self-supportive VALUING FEELING SELF-PERCEPTION SYNERGISTIC AWARENESS INTERPERSONAL SENSITIVITY SELF-ACTUALIZING VALUE Holds values of sell-actualia'ng peiple EXISTENTI-ALITY Fleiible in application of values FEELING REACTIVITY Sensitive to own needs and feelings SPONTA-NEITY Freely eipresses feelings behaviorally SELF-REGARD Has high self-worth SELF-ACCEPTANCE Accepting of self in spite of weaknesses NATURE OF MAN. CON- . STRUCT1VE Sees man as essentially good SYNERGY Sees oppo-sites of life as meaning-fully related ACCEPTANCE OF AGGRESSION Accepts feelings of anger or aggression CAPACITY FOR INTIMATE CONTACT Has warm interpersonal relationships * * * * * SAV E> Fr S Sr So Ne Sy A C * * * * * * * * * * — 123 — 120 — 115 — 25 — n o — 103 — — 2 3 — — - 2 5 - » " - ~ - -» -~ " - 2 0 — 100 — 20 — 95 — 90 - 2 5 - 2 0 - -~ S^ — ^ \ — ~ ' — / \ — — 2 0 70 -10 \ -/ - 7 0 TIME INCOMPE-TENT Lives in the past or future OTHER DIRECTED Dependent, seeu sup-port ot others' views Rejects values of seil-actualjz-in| peapie Rigid in application of values Insensitive t i own needs and feelings Fearful of expressing feelings behaviorally Has low self-worth Unable to accept self with weaknesses Sees man as essentially evil Sats oooosites of life as antagonistic Denies feelings of anger or aggression Has diffi-culty with warn inter-persoaal re la tuns Two T a i l e d T - T e s c s * *** .05 .01 .001 APPENDIX E INTERVIEW TRANSCRIPT 147 INTERVIEW TRANSCRIPT S u b j e c t : s i x t e e n y e a r o l d female p a r t i c i p a n t T = s u b j e c t I = i n t e r v i e w e r I : What s k i l l s o r c o n c e p t s d i d you l e a r n t h i s week? T: I t has been such a l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e . I t ' s r e a l l y i n c r e d i b l e . The e x e r c i s e s t h a t we d i d , ...you don't r e a l l y r e a l i z e what's g o i n g on i n s i d e y o u r head u n t i l you a r e made t o t h i n k about them. L i k e f o r example t h e e x e r c i s e s we d i d when you had t o t e l l someone something r e a l about y o u r s e l f . I : What d i d you l e a r n from t h a t e x e r c i s e ? T: W e l l , I r e a l i z e d how h a r d i t i s t o t h i n k . . . y o u know...to s t a r t - o f f w i t h c a s u a l t h i n g s and t h e n you r e a l i z e . . . I have t o t h i n k deeper and I was b r i n g i n g out t h i n g s t h a t r e a l l y s u r p r i s e d me and I ' d go xWOW'...that's r i g h t , I r e a l l y do f e e l t h a t way. But u n l e s s you a r e f o r c e d t o say i t , i t ' s r e a l l y n o t spoken about. I : So y o u ' r e s a y i n g t h a t you l e a r n e d something new about y o u r s e l f ? T: Ya, I d i d . I l e a r n e d e s p e c i a l l y how e m o t i o n a l I am. I was r e a l l y s t r u c k . When we were d o i n g t h e e x e r c i s e s where we t o u c h , i t was r e a l l y good because i n o u r s o c i e t y t o u c h i n g i s k i n d o f bad and you always have t h i s n e g a t i v e e f f e c t , t o u c h i n g i s o n l y supposed t o be s e x u a l b u t r e a l l y i t i s n o t , i t ' s c o m f o r t i n g and i t was so good t o h o l d hands and t o t o u c h someone and j u s t be r e a l l y r e l a x e d and n o t have t o w o r r y . . . i s t h i s g o i n g t o b o t h e r them, o r , what a r e p e o p l e g o i n g t o t h i n k . I have n e v e r done t h a t and i t was r e a l l y n i c e . . . r e a l l y good...I l i k e d i t . I: D i d you l e a r n any o t h e r s k i l l s o r c o n c e p t s ? T: I l e a r n e d a l o t more about m y s e l f , l i k e what k i n d o f p e r s o n I am and h a v i n g t h e p e r s o n a l f e e d b a c k from o t h e r s was a g r e a t e x p e r i e n c e . I r e a l l y t h i n k t h a t I u n d e r s t a n d o t h e r s more t o o . I : Do you have a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f how t o d e a l w i t h o t h e r s ? . T: F o r s u r e , I t h i n k t a l k i n g i n t h e s m a l l groups you g e t t h e f e e l i n g o f what p e o p l e a r e t h i n k i n g e s p e c i a l l y one-on-one when you a r e w i t h them a l l day and e a t w i t h them and t a l k i n g t o them. I f e e l l i k e I can communicate much 148 b e t t e r and t r u s t so much more. We c o u l d t a l k about t h i n g s t h a t I wou l d n ' t t a l k t o anyone about b e f o r e . I don't t h i n k I have e v e r t a l k e d t o a guy about a n y t h i n g c l o s e , a l t h o u g h I have a l o t o f f r i e n d s who a r e boys. I t was r e a l l y , l i k e l o o k i n g back i t was l i k e xWOW' I d i d t h a t . So, I t h i n k I can u n d e r s t a n d o t h e r s maybe a l i t t l e b i t more and see what o t h e r ' s f e e l i n g s a r e . I : What im p a c t e d you most o f a l l ? T : I t h i n k t h e c a r i n g and t h e emotion t h a t I f e l t . I f e e l much more i n t o u c h w i t h my emotions. And l i k e I s a i d e a r l i e r , t h e t o u c h . I don't t h i n k we t o u c h each o t h e r v e r y much i n o u r l i v e s . L i s t e n i n g t o t h e music you p l a y e d was g r e a t , t h e songs r e a l l y a f f e c t e d me. G e t t i n g t o know o t h e r p e o p l e ' s v i e w s i s good t o o , j u s t knowing what o t h e r p e o p l e a r e t h i n k i n g . Sometimes you t h i n k : I am a l l a l o n e and t h i s i d e a , you know, maybe what I am t h i n k i n g i s n o t r i g h t o r maybe I am n o t r e a l l y w i t h i t and I don't r e a l l y k n o w . . . i t ' s h a r d t o base o p i n i o n on something you don't r e a l l y know much about. And t h e more you know about i t t h e more you can base y o u r o p i n i o n on something. I : What s o r t s o f i s s u e s a r e you d e a l i n g w i t h i n y o u r l i f e r i g h t now? T : I guess maybe t h e b i g g e s t i s s u e r i g h t now i s s e x u a l , h a v i n g t o d e a l w i t h y o u r s e l f , h a v i n g t o d e a l w i t h y o u r body and what you can do w i t h i t and what you e x p e r i e n c e . I t i s h a r d t o l o o k a t i t i n a way o f a m a t u r i n g a d u l t when t h e r e i s something t h a t you a r e n o t r e a d y f o r and you j u s t don't know. I t ' s h a r d t o t a l k about a t t h i s age because you a r e suppose t o be r e a l l y open and a l l t h a t . So t h a t ' s t h e b i g g e s t i s s u e . I: Do you mean s e x u a l i t y ? T : S e x u a l i t y y e s , b u t , a l s o w i d e r a s p e c t s , n o t j u s t s e x u a l i t y as i n t h e a c t o f sex b u t s e x u a l i t y as i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s and f e e l i n g s and s t u f f l i k e t h a t . A n o t h e r i s s u e f o r me i s t h e f u t u r e . There's so much p r e s s u r e t o s u c c e e d and p a r e n t s o f t o d a y a r e t r y i n g r e a l l y h a r d t o g e t t h e r e k i d s a r e a l l y w ide scope and l e t them e x p e r i e n c e e v e r y t h i n g and make s u r e t h e i r k i d has t h e b e s t chance and g e t s t h e r i g h t e d u c a t i o n and a l l t h a t and i t s j u s t sometimes t h e p r e s s u r e s a r e s c a r y . When you a r e t h i n k i n g a b o u t . . . I mean i n Kamloops t h e r e ' s a l r e a d y been two s u i c i d e s t h i s y e a r i n h i g h - s c h o o l and i t ' s j u s t s c a r y . I : Do you t h i n k t h a t what you've l e a r n e d i n t h e l a s t few days w i l l h e l p you t o d e a l w i t h any o f t h e s e i s s u e s ? 149 T: I t h i n k s o , y e s , l o o k i n g i n t o y o u r s e l f t o see whats r e a l l y down t h e r e has been a b i g h e l p . I t h i n k I can p r o b a b l y d e a l w i t h problems b e t t e r . I t h i n k i f you can u n d e r s t a n d y o u r s e l f you can p r o b a b l y d e a l w i t h j u s t about a n y t h i n g . I t h i n k I ' l l be a b l e t o t a l k t o my f r i e n d s more. You k i n d o f need...because you a r e a l w a y s , even w i t h y o u r f r i e n d s you a r e always a f r a i d w e l l , what i f t h e y l a u g h o r something, so i f you know you a r e g o i n g t o be s a f e . . . l i k e everyone h e r e i s i n t h e same b o a t and everyone i s t r y i n g t o f i n d out about t h e m s e l v e s t o o so t h e n you f e e l a l o t more s e c u r e . I : Have you l e a r n e d t h e s e s k i l l s o r c o n c e p t s anywhere e l s e ? T: Not r e a l l y t o t h e degree t h a t we a r e l e a r n i n g i t h e r e . I have n e v e r gone so deep i n t o a n y t h i n g l i k e t h a t . Some o f t h e t h i n g s l i k e t h e v i s u a l i z a t i o n , we have done t h a t b e f o r e on t h e a t h l e t i c team. They w i l l do i t , b u t t h e n i t s j u s t t o r e l a x t h e m s e l v e s and I have done i t i n c l a s s e s and r e t r e a t s and t h i n g s . But as f a r as g o i n g as f a r as c ommunications, n o t r e a l l y . Not r e a l l y l o o k i n g i n t o y o u r s e l f t o t h e same degre e . . . n o t deep, n o t as p e r s o n a l o r i n v o l v e d . I t h i n k i t ' s sad t h e r e ' s so many k i d s o u t t h e r e . . . I mean 70 p e o p l e were a l l o w e d t o go t o t h i s and t h a t ' s j u s t 4H k i d s and t h e r e ' s everyone e l s e and t h e y a r e n o t g e t t i n g a chance. I t h i n k maybe i t s h o u l d even be l i k e s o mething t h a t t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l system s h o u l d p u t on where i t ' s p a r t o f Grade 11 o r Grade 12, t h e y t a k e t h i s as p a r t o f t h e i r g r a d u a t i o n . •I: Do you see t h i s program w o r k i n g i n a s c h o o l s e t t i n g ? T: I t h i n k s o . . . I don't know, you would have t o work i t a l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t t h a n h e r e . I n f a c t , I t h i n k i t would have t o be t a k e n away. Because we a r e a l l t a k e n away from ou r home, ou r s c h o o l , and our f r i e n d s and we a r e clumped t o g e t h e r and we have t o l i v e t o g e t h e r . And i t ' s l i k e we a r e f o r c e d i n t o a s i t u a t i o n , b u t f o r c e d i n a good way. We a r e a l l p u t i n t o an a r e a where we have t o l i v e t o g e t h e r and work t o g e t h e r . Where as a t s c h o o l i t m i g h t be t o o easy t o go i n t o y o u r l i t t l e c l i q u e s and y o u r l i t t l e groups and make y o u r j o k e s and n o t r e a l l y g e t i n t o i t . Because one o f t h e t h i n g s t h a t t h i s has done i s i t has made me make a l o t o f f r i e n d s . L i k e you w a n t . . . l i k e e v e r y p e r s o n I see I j u s t want t o go up and say how a r e you and where a r e you from. I want t o make f r i e n d s where as i f you a r e a t a s c h o o l you always f e e l a l i t t l e h e l d back. I : I f i t was a weekend o u t s i d e o f s c h o o l t i m e , would t h a t h e l p ? 150 T: Ya. I f i t was t h e same group because I f i n d when ou r c l a s s goes on camping t r i p s , we g e t away from t h e s c h o o l and i t ' s an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t group. I t can be t h e same c l a s s , i t can be t h e same p e o p l e you see day i n and day o u t b u t i t s d i f f e r e n t . I : So what makes t h e d i f f e r e n c e ? T: I t s h a r d t o say. I've had a l o t o f e x p e r i e n c e s . . . o r gone on camping t r i p s o r something, o r an exchange group w i t h y o u r c l a s s and a l l o f a sudden you a r e l i k e t h i n k i n g xI'm w i t h t h e s e p e o p l e e v e r y d a y and I don't even know them and you want t o know them'. Maybe t h e a c t u a l b u i l d i n g i t s e l f h o l d s p e o p l e a p a r t , o r maybe i t s t h e whole c o n c e p t o f s c h o o l somehow. I t h i n k i t s t h e c o m p e t i t i o n . There's academic c o m p e t i t i o n , p o p u l a r i t y c o m p e t i t i o n , a t h l e t i c c o m p e t i t i o n , i t ' s a l l t h e r e . I: So you f i n d s c h o o l r e a l l y c o m p e t i t i v e ? T: Ya, t h e whole system i s b a s e d . . . I mean, t h e f a c t t h a t we're g r a d e d , t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e i s an honor r o l e , t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e i s always a s t a r t i n g l i n e - u p . . . t h e system i s based on t h e c o m p e t i t i o n base, and you c a n ' t r e a l l y g e t away from i t , o r i t ' d be v e r y d i f f i c u l t . I t s sad because I t h i n k t h e r e a r e some p e o p l e who, a l t h o u g h t h e y ' r e v e r y i n t e l l i g e n t , t h e y c o u l d p r o b a b l y do a l o t more b u t t h e y d on't f i t v e r y w e l l i n t o t h a t system. I : How do you t h i n k you w i l l a p p l y t h e s k i l l s and c o n c e p t s t h a t you've l e a r n e d ? T: I t s h o u l d h e l p me t o communicate t o o t h e r p e o p l e b e t t e r . I t h i n k w e ' l l a l l use what we l e a r n e d a l o t , I mean, i t s s o r t o f l i k e an e v e r y d a y t h i n g . I t ' l l be s u b c o n s c i o u s I t h i n k , because you l e a r n e d i t and you know how t o a p p l y i t so you might n o t r e a l i z e y o u ' r e t h i n k i n g about i t i n t h e back o f y o u r mind. But t h e changes i n me w i l l show, p e o p l e w i l l n o t i c e t h e changes i n me. I f e e l more grown-up and mature. 

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