Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The role of instruction and task variability in transfer of children's pursuit rotor motor learning Sayyah, Mansour 1988

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1988_A8 S29.pdf [ 4.18MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0097801.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0097801-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0097801-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0097801-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0097801-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0097801-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0097801-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0097801-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0097801.ris

Full Text

THE ROLE OF INSTRUCTION AND TASK VARIABILITY IN TRANSFER OF CHILDREN'S PURSUIT ROTOR MOTOR LEARNING by MANSOUR SAYYAH M. Sc., Howard University, 1979 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Educational Psychology and Special Education We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April 1988 © MANSOUR SAYYAH, 1988 i i In p resen t ing this thesis in partial f u l f i lmen t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s fo r an advanced d e g r e e at t he Univers i ty o f Brit ish C o l u m b i a , 1 agree tha t t h e Library shall make it f ree ly available f o r re ference and s tudy . I fu r ther agree tha t pe rmiss ion f o r ex tens ive c o p y i n g o f th is thesis f o r scholar ly pu rposes may b e g r a n t e d by the head o f m y d e p a r t m e n t o r by his o r her representat ives. It is u n d e r s t o o d that c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f th is thesis f o r f inancial gain shall n o t b e a l l o w e d w i t h o u t m y w r i t t e n pe rm iss ion . D e p a r t m e n t o f fc/i>c.« ha^a I f ^('fS °~<J Sfc^d E ^ * ' " 1 The Univers i ty o f Brit ish C o l u m b i a Vancouver , Canada Date DE-6 (2/88) A b s t r a c t T h i s s t u d y examined t h e e f f e c t s o f I n s t r u c t i o n i n t r a n s f e r o f c h i l d r e n ' s P u r s u i t R o t o r motor l e a r n i n g . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e schema t h e o r y was examined. Two l e a r n i n g v a r i a b l e s were employed d u r i n g t h e l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s : I n s t r u c t i o n w i t h two t r e a t m e n t l e v e l s (LTI v s . L I O ) , and Task V a r i a b i l i t y w i t h t h r e e t y p e s o f t a s k v a r i a t i o n s (SPV v s . SV v s . PV). The p erformance o f t h e l e a r n e r s were measured i n terms o f t h e Amount o f Time on T a r g e t and t h e Number o f H i t s on P u r s u i t R o t o r . A 2 ( I n s t r u c t i o n ) by 3 (Task) by 4 ( b l o c k s ) r e p e a t e d measure d e s i g n was adopted f o r a n a l y s i n g d a t a o f t h e l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . Two a d d i t i o n a l moderator v a r i a b l e s o f R e s t I n t e r v a l ( 5 m i n u t e s v s . 3 0 seconds) and S h i f t o f Hands ( s h i f t e d v s . n o t - s h i f t e d ) were i n c l u d e d i n t h e d e s i g n f o r e v a l u a t i n g t r a n s f e r e f f e c t s . The e f f e c t s o f l e a r n i n g and m o d erator v a r i a b l e s were examined. The LTI t r e a t m e n t groups p e r f o r m e d t h e t r a n s f e r t a s k s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r t h a n t h e LIO. There was no s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t f o r t h e t a s k v a r i a b i l i t y . Only t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f Task, R e s t , and S h i f t o f Hands was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . I t means t h a t t h e p r e d i c t e d e f f e c t o f t h e t a s k v a r i a b i l i t y i s o b s e r v a b l e o n l y under t h e l i m i t i n g c o n d i t i o n o f 3 0 seconds p e r i o d and w i t h hand n o t s h i f t e d ( i . e., u n i l a t e r a l t r a n s f e r ) . I t i s c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e o b s e r v e d e f f e c t s o f I n s t r u c t i o n and Task V a r i a b i l i t y can be e x p l a i n e d by t h e schema t h e o r y . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page CHAPTER I . RESEARCH PROBLEM 1 A. The Statement o f t h e R e s e a r c h Problem 1 B. T h e o r e t i c a l Background and R a t i o n a l e 4 C. I n s t r u c t i o n as M o t i v a t i o n a l Parameter o f Schema F o r m a t i o n 9 D. Task V a r i a b i l i t y as a Schema F o r m a t i o n Parameter 14 E. R e s t I n t e r v a l s and H a n d - S h i f t e d n e s s as M o d e r a t o r V a r i a b l e s f o r T r a n s f e r 20 F. Performance measures 2 3 CHAPTER I I . METHODOLOGY 25 A. S u b j e c t and D e s i g n 25 B. L e a r n i n g Task 29 C. T r a n s f e r Task 30 D. A p p a r a t u s and P r o c e d u r e 3 3 CHAPTER I I I . RESULTS 37 A. An Overview o f Data A n a l y s i s 37 B. E x a m i n a t i o n o f L e a r n i n g Performance 38 1. Performance by Two I n s t r u c t i o n a l Groups 3 9 2. Performance by Task V a r i a b i l i t y 41 C. A n a l y s i s o f T r a n s f e r P e rformance.... ..42 1. A n a l y s i s o f t h e O v e r a l l T r a n s f e r E f f e c t o f T r a i n i n g 44 2. I n s t r u c t i o n E f f e c t s and i t s I n t e r a c t i o n 46 3. The E f f e c t s o f Task V a r i a t i o n on t h e T r a n s f e r Performance 48 4. The E f f e c t s o f R e s t I n t e r v a l s and S h i f t o f Hand 50 5. I n t e r a c t i o n Between L e a r n i n g and T r a n s f e r V a r i a b l e s 51 CHAPTER IV. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION 55 A. The R o l e o f The L e a r n i n g V a r i a b l e s 55 1. E f f e c t i v e n e s s o f i n s t r u c t i o n 56 2. E f f e c t i v e n e s s o f Task v a r i a b i l i t y 58 B. The E f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e T r a n s f e r V a r i a b l e s and T h e i r I n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e L e a r n i n g V a r i a b l e s 61 C. Summary and C o n c l u s i o n 62 R e f e r e n c e s 64 V Page T a b l e s 1 T a b l e 1. C e l l Means f o r t h e Amount o f Time (sec.) on T a r g e t and t h e Number o f H i t s f o r t h e L e a r n i n g C o n d i t i o n s , Task V a r i a n t s , and L e a r n i n g B l o c k s 69 2 T a b l e l a . M a r g i n a l Means f o r t h e Amount o f Time (sec.) on T a r g e t and t h e Number o f H i t s f o r Tasks by L e a r n i n g B l o c k 70 3 T a b l e l b . M a r g i n a l Means f o r t h e Amount o f Time (sec.) on T a r g e t and t h e Number o f H i t s f o r Tasks by Three Task V a r i a n t s 71 4 T a b l e l c . Combined Means f o r t h e Amount o f Time on T a r g e t (sec.) and t h e Number o f H i t s f o r I n s t r u c t i o n C o n d i t i o n s and Task V a r i a t i o n s 72 5 T a b l e 2. C e l l Means f o r t h e Amount o f Time on T a r g e t (sec.) and t h e Number o f H i t s on t h e T r a n s f e r t e s t by t h e Three I n s t r u c t i o n a l Treatment by Task V a r i a n t s , R e s t i n t e r v a l s and S h i f t e d n e s s (N=72 p l u s 10 C o n t r o l s ) 73 6 T a b l e 2a. Weighted T o t a l Means f o r t h e Amount o f Time (sec.) on T a r g e t and t h e Number o f H i t s f o r a l l t h e Treatment C o n d i t i o n s on t h e T r a n s f e r t e s t 78 7 T a b l e 2b. Means f o r t h e Amount o f Time (sec.) on T a r g e t and t h e Number o f H i t s f o r Two I n s t r u c t i o n a l Treatments by T r a n s f e r t r i a l s . . . 7 9 8 T a b l e 2c. Combined Means o f Time on T a r g e t (sec.) and t h e Number o f H i t s a c r o s s T r a n s f e r t r i a l s by Two I n s t r u c t i o n a l T r eatments and Task V a r i a b i l i t y 80 9 T a b l e 2d. M a r g i n a l Means f o r t h e Amount o f Time (sec.) on T a r g e t and t h e Number o f H i t s by t h e R e s t C o n d i t i o n s 81 10 T a b l e 2e. M a r g i n a l Means f o r t h e Amount o f Time (sec.) on T a r g e t and t h e Number o f H i t s by t h e S h i f t o f Hand C o n d i t i o n 82 11 T a b l e 2 f . Combined Means f o r t h e Amount o f Time (sec) on T a r g e t and t h e Number o f H i t s by R e s t , Task, and S h i f t o f Hand C o n d i t i o n s on t h e T r a n s f e r t a s k 83 v i Page FIGURES 1 F i g u r e l a . Mean Time on T a r g e t and t h e Number o f H i t s f o r f o u r B l o c k s o f Three L e a r n i n g T r i a l s u nder L TI C o n d i t i o n s v e r s u s t h e LIO C o n d i t i o n s (N=72) 84 2 F i g u r e 2a. Mean Time on T a r g e t and t h e Number o f H i t s f o r S i x T r i a l s o f T r a n s f e r Task f o r t h e LTI v e r s u s t h e LIO C o n d i t i o n , (N=72) 85 3 F i g u r e 2b. The Mean Time on T a r g e t (sec.) and t h e Number o f H i t s f o r Treatment c o m b i n a t i o n by Task V a r i a b i l i t y , S h i f t o f Hands, and R e s t I n t e r v a l s , (N=72) ^ 86 APPENDICES A S c h e m a t i c R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e E x p e r i m e n t a l D e s i g n 87 B The E x p e r i m e n t a l D e s i g n f o r L e a r n i n g and T r a n s f e r Task 88 v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would l i k e t o thank my a d v i s o r , Dr. Seong-Soo Lee f o r h i s p a t i e n c e , g u i d a n c e , a d v i c e , and s u p p o r t d u r i n g t h i s r e s e a r c h . I a l s o would l i k e t o e x p r e s s my thank t o my committee member, Drs. R o b e r t Conry and Gary S i n c l a i r f o r t h e i r v a l u a b l e s u g g e s t i o n s and comments, e s p e c i a l l y , I would l i k e t o e x p r e s s my s p e c i a l g r a t i t u d e t o Dr. Gary S i n c l a i r f o r h i s v a l u a b l e a d v i c e s and h i s generous c o n t r i b u t i o n i n p r o v i d i n g t h e t e s t i n g f a c i l i t y and Lab space. 1 Chapter I. Research Problem A. Statement of the Research Problem The purpose of t h i s study was twofold. Primarily, t h i s research was designed to investigate the e f f e c t s of i n s t r u c t i o n on u n i l a t e r a l and b i l a t e r a l t ransfer of motor s k i l l s . Secondly, the v a l i d i t y of the practice v a r i a b i l i t y hypothesis of the schema theory was examined. Instruction and p r a c t i c e are the most important variables i n any educational s e t t i n g . Instruction r e f e r s to one of the inputs that a learner receives p r i o r to learning. Instructions i n motor s k i l l learning can be given verbally, by demonstrating the task or by combining these two methods. Whether verbal i n s t r u c t i o n or demonstration i s more e f f i c i e n t depends on the task to be acquired and performed. Tasks with highly cognitive loading require verbal i n s t r u c t i o n , while tasks which are predominantly motor i n nature are often best learned by demonstration. The concept of t r a n s f e r r e f e r s to the process i n which the learner uses old learning that has occurred i n one s i t u a t i o n for a new or d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n . Such a process i s an important part of our educational t r a i n i n g . In many r e a l world learning settings, the task to be learned has more than one dimension. In fact, task d i f f i c u l t y may be considered as a function of the dimensional properties of the task. For example, considering learning a two dimensional task such as an 2 inside of the foot pass i n the game of soccer may reveal the way i n which task va r i e t y expands. Performing t h i s task i n general involves at l e a s t two variables, that i s , a learner, and a b a l l . The condition of the performer during the execution of the task i s one of the major dimensions of the task. A performer may execute the task i n a stable(fixed) or i n a moving po s i t i o n . The former p o s i t i o n i t s e l f may vary i n d e f i n i t e l y . In addition, the b a l l also can have s i m i l a r conditions. A learner may have to contact the b a l l while the b a l l i s i n a motionless state, or to pass the b a l l while the b a l l i s i n a moving state. Considering the v a r i a b i l i t y i n the speed with which the b a l l i s received plus state i n which the player i s i n may reveal the extent of the v a r i a b i l i t y of the performance of such a simple s k i l l . Attempt to learn such a s k i l l by p r a c t i c i n g a l l the possible combination of the instances of the task i s impractical and almost impossible. Therefore, a p r a c t i t i o n e r has to choose a li m i t e d number of instances of the task to teach and give i n s t r u c t i o n about the possible incoming s i t u a t i o n , and hope that the learner w i l l form a ru l e during learning to apply to v a r i a t i o n s of the s i t u a t i o n . The study of motor learning i n general and t r a n s f e r i n p a r t i c u l a r , being of secondary importance with the framework of t r a d i t i o n a l psychology u n t i l recently, i s now taking place not only i n experimental psychology, but also i n 3 numerous other related f i e l d s including i n d u s t r i a l and educational psychology. The area of motor learning i s an expanding f i e l d , i n which t h e o r e t i c a l prospectives are changing. Although the notion of 'practice makes perfect' i s s t i l l favored, t h i s i s not the only view toward learning. There are other ways, such as d i f f e r e n t techniques of i n s t r u c t i o n including demonstration, imitation, verbal i n s t r u c t i o n i n rules and p r i n c i p l e s , and mental p r a c t i c e which can a f f e c t motor learning, but which do not involve overt p r a c t i c e . Through i n s t r u c t i o n , the attention of the subject can also be focused on various aspects of the task (Keele, 1973). There are the research findings, showing that tasks requiring speed and accuracy instructions play an important r o l e (Livesey and Laszlo, 1979). The well known speed-accuracy trade-off phenomenon can be influenced by in s t r u c t i o n s . According to these authors, there i s a negative c o r r e l a t i o n between speed and accuracy, that i s , the greater the accuracy demand imposed by the task, the slower i s the performance; and the fas t e r a task i s performed, the less accurately i t i s done. The trade-off e f f e c t i s not t a s k - s p e c i f i c , i t i s a general trend across most tasks. Individuals show c h a r a c t e r i s t i c preference for fast or accurate performance (Pew, 1969). According to Kay (1970), the l i m i t i n g factor i n speed of performance i s the subjects' i n d i v i d u a l rate of information processing, and t h i s can not be affected by in s t r u c t i o n s . Goodman (1979) 4 r e p o r t e d t h a t i n s t r u c t i o n can induce a speed o r accuracy b i a s i n performance. There are t h r e e d i s t i n c t i v e phases i n a motor l e a r n i n g t a s k . F i t t s ( 1 9 6 4 ) i d e n t i f i e d two types o f p r o c e s s e s as c o g n i t i v e and n o n - c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s o f motor l e a r n i n g . He d i s t i n g u i s h e d an " e a r l y " stage, i n t h i s phase, s u b j e c t s l e a r n e d what was r e q u i r e d o f them from an i n t e r m e d i a t e o r a s s o c i a t i v e phase which c o u l d i n v o l v e the l e a r n i n g o f the c o g n i t i v e s e t s . In the l a t e phase of l e a r n i n g t h e s k i l l becomes automatized, and c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s are no l o n g e r e v i d e n t . C o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s r e f e r s t o those which i n v o l v e s p e c i f i c c o n s c i o u s experience and/or symbolic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f c r u c i a l a s p e c t s o f the ta s k . Annett(1985) d e s c r i b e d two k i n d s o f c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s , those which i n v o l v e analogue and those which i n v o l v e symbolic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s . For i n s t a n c e , the o v e r t a c t i o n of jumping may be c o g n i t i v e l y r e p r e s e n t e d by v i s u a l o r k i n a e s t h e t i c images of jumping and a l s o by symbolic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s such as words l i k e "jump", "hop", " l e a p " , and so on. He suggests t h a t both o f these p r o c e s s e s can be manipulated t o produce measurable improvement i n o v e r t performance. B. T h e o r e t i c a l Background and R a t i o n a l e In the study o f motor l e a r n i n g , the i s s u e o f t r a n s f e r i s of primary importance. Educators assume t r a n s f e r . In many l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n s , the primary o b j e c t i v e o f the i n s t r u c t o r may not be the t a s k i n hand but r a t h e r the r e a l concern may be f o r some o t h e r t a s k s b e l i e v e d t o be r e l a t e d t o t h i s 5 a c t i v i t y . The importance of t r a n s f e r becomes even more e v i d e n t when "time" becomes a c r i t i c a l f a c t o r . In many i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e t t i n g s , t h e r e i s a f i x e d amount of time t h a t can be devoted t o p r a c t i c e and the i n s t r u c t o r has the t a s k of making the most e f f i c i e n t use of time t o maximize the amount of l e a r n i n g . The study of motor l e a r n i n g and i n t e r l i m b t r a n s f e r s t a r t e d from the b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s c e n t u r y . A t h e o r y o f the mechanism of i n t e r l i m b t r a n s f e r o f t r a i n i n g i s g e n e r a l l y one of Thorndike and Woodworth(1901) "common elements" v a r i e t y . Based on t h i s theory, common elements v a r y from s t r i c t l y c o g n i t i v e such as s e l f - i n s t r u c t i o n through n o n - s p e c i f i c motor ( e.g., p o s t u r a l adjustments) t o t a s k s p e c i f i c motor components( e.g., i d e n t i c a l and m i r r o r image r e s p o n s e s ) . In motor l e a r n i n g t a s k s , i t has been assumed t h a t when one limb  i s t r a i n e d , and the o p p o s i t e limb i s subsequently t r a i n e d i n an i d e n t i c a l t ask, the performance i n the second t a s k reaches c r i t e r i o n a f t e r fewer t r i a l s than were needed f o r the f i r s t t a s k . H i c k s (1982) summarized the c e n t r a l mechanisms which are suggested f o r the occurrence of i n t e r l i m b t r a n s f e r as f o l l o w : 1. Submotor a c t i v i t y amounting t o p r a c t i c e i n the c o n t r o l c e n t e r o f the t e s t limb a t the time of i n i t i a l t r a i n i n g . 2. P a r t i a l assumption of c o n t r o l o f the t e s t performance by the c o n t r o l c e n t e r o f the 6 i n i t i a l l y t r a i n e d l i m b . 3. T r a n s f e r o f some elements o f t h e motor program t o t h e t e s t l i m b a t t i m e o f t r a n s f e r t e s t . Among t h e a f o r e m e n t i o n e d mechanisms, t h e l a s t one has been t h e f o c u s o f most r e s e a r c h i n t h e a r e a o f motor l e a r n i n g . The i d e a o f motor program i s a t t r i b u t e d t o L a s h l y ( 1 9 1 7 ) . I t was s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e human b e i n g has a s e t o f s t o r e d muscle commands read y f o r a c t i o n a t any t i m e . K e e l e (1968) d e f i n e d motor program as a sequence o f s t o r e d commands t h a t i s " s t r u c t u r e d " b e f o r e t h e movement b e g i n s and a l l o w s t h e e n t i r e sequence t o be c a r r i e d u n i n f l u e n c e d by p e r i p h e r a l feedback. Schmidt (1975) s t a t e s t h a t t h e i d e a o f t h e motor program i s l a r g e l y a d e f a u l t argument. However, he s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e o r i g i n a l i d e a o f motor program t h a t r e q u i r e s a s e p a r a t e motor program f o r e v e r y movement be m o d i f i e d t o a g e n e r a l i z e d motor program f o r a g i v e n c l a s s o f movements. He s u g g e s t s t h e c o n c e p t o f schema t o d e s c r i b e t h e m o d i f i e d v e r s i o n o f h i s motor program. The c o n c e p t o f schema i s o r i g i n a l l y a t t r i b u t e d t o Head(1932), and has been m o d i f i e d s e v e r a l t i m e s . Evans(19 67) d e s c r i b e d a schema as a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f some p o p u l a t i o n o f o b j e c t s w h i c h c o n s i s t o f a s e t o f r u l e s s e r v i n g as i n s t r u c t i o n f o r p r o d u c i n g a p o p u l a t i o n p r o t o t y p e . I n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f schema, Schmidt(1975) s t a t e s t h a t when t h e i n d i v i d u a l makes a movement a t t e m p t i n g s a t i s f y some g o a l s , s/he s t o r e s f o u r t h i n g s : ( a ) t h e i n i t i a l c o n d i t i o n s 7 which ref e r s to the information received from the various receptors p r i o r to the response, (b) the response s p e c i f i c a t i o n which i s referred to the v a r i a t i o n of elements, such as changing the speed with which a movement i s run o f f or the force involved i n the movement, (c) the sensory consequences of the response produced, which i s referred to the information stored a f t e r the response i s made, (d) and the outcome of that movement. According to Schmidt(1975), these four sources of information are stored together a f t e r the movement i s produced. A f t e r a number of such movements have been made, the learner begins to abstract the re l a t i o n s h i p among these four sources of information. With each successive movement of the same general type, the strength of re l a t i o n s h i p among the four stored elements increases with increased accuracy of feedback information from the response outcome. Schmidt(1975) suggests that t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s structured as the schema for the movement type under consideration, and i s more important to the subject than i s any one of the stored instances. The schema theory of motor learning was proposed to a l l e v i a t e two problems which the e a r l i e r theories (Adams, 1971; Henry & Rogers, 1960) were facing. One of the problems was "the storage problem". According to these theories, for every movement to be made there must be eithe r a motor program or a reference against which to compare feedback, and that there i s a one-to-one mapping between stored states 8 and movement t o be made. Schmidt(1975) s t a t e s t h a t t h i s p r e s e n t s problems f o r the c e n t r a l nervous system i n terms of the amount of m a t e r i a l t h a t must be s t o r e d . The second problem a l s o , i n companion wi t h the s t o r a g e i s s u e , was "the n o v e l t y problem". I f the performer has a motor program f o r every moment, then how are the novel movements executed? In o r d e r t o a l l e v i a t e the shortcomings of the motor program theory, Schmidt(1975) t h e o r y p r e s e n t e d the concept o f schema. T h i s t h e o r y p o s t u l a t e s two independent s t a t e s of memory, r e c a l l and r e c o g n i t i o n schemata as noted e a r l i e r . The r e c a l l schema i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r response p r o d u c t i o n , and the r e c o g n i t i o n schema i s concerned w i t h movement e v a l u a t i o n (Piggot and Shapiro, 1984). I t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t the more p r a c t i c e t r i a l s w i t h v a r i e d t a s k s (or schema i n s t a n c e s ) accompanied by knowledge of r e s u l t s , the s t r o n g e r the r e l a t i o n s h i p of schemata. The major p r e d i c t i o n of the schema h y p o t h e s i s i s t h a t p r a c t i c e w i l l f a c i l i t a t e the a c q u i s i t i o n o f a schema, t h a t i s , r u l e l e a r n i n g . In r e g a r d t o the content of the motor program, i t should be p o i n t e d out t h a t we do not y e t know what p a r t i c u l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of movement might be c o n t r o l l e d by motor programs. Schmidt (1977) suggests t h a t motor program may s p e c i f y the speed, f o r c e , and s p a t i a l p a t t e r n i n g of movement. More r e c e n t l y , however, t h e r e has been some evidence t o suggest t h a t motor programs may be s i m p l e r than p r e v i o u s l y c o n c e i v e d and t h a t c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of 9 movement may be functions of the muscles themselves (KelsoS Holt, 1980; Nichols, 1980; Schmidt, 1980). Most of the researchers i n the area of t r a n s f e r of t r a i n i n g focus on the task rather than on the subject. A t y p i c a l t r a n s f e r paradigm includes an experimenter presenting a task to the learner; demanding the learner to learn the task ; then examining to see whether the learner shows any t r a n s f e r of t r a i n i n g . There i s a lack of evidence i n regard to the r o l e of the learner's awareness for the t r a n s f e r task and the e f f e c t s of such awareness on the t r a n s f e r of t r a i n i n g . In other words, the e f f e c t s of the learner's awareness for the transfer task has not been investigated. C. Instruction as a Motivational Parameter of Schema  Formation The present study was designed to determine the r o l e of the learner's awareness on the transfer of t r a i n i n g . One of the major research questions i s : i f the learner receives i n s t r u c t i o n about the transfer task p r i o r to the learning of a motor task, then would his/her performance on the transfer task be s i g n i f i c a n t l y improved? The second question also i n conjunction with the schema theory i s : i f a learner learns a task by p r a c t i c i n g on more v a r i e t i e s of the task, then would his/her performance on the transfer task be better than a learner who learns the task with less v a r i a b i l i t y ? Both of these questions can be conceptually treated by the schema theory. The schema theory would predict the 10 o c c u r r e n c e o f t h e p o s i t i v e t r a n s f e r o f t r a i n i n g as a r e s u l t o f t h e p e r f o r m e r ' s awareness about t h e t r a n s f e r t a s k . Such p r e d i c t i o n i s d e r i v e d from t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t i n s t r u c t i o n can have an i m p o r t a n t e f f e c t on t h e r e c a l l schema. That i s , a l e a r n e r who r e c e i v e s i n s t r u c t i o n about t h e t r a n s f e r t a s k w i l l r e c a l l t h e a p p r o p r i a t e motor program, i n c o n t r a s t t o a l e a r n e r who has n o t b e n e f i t e d from such i n s t r u c t i o n . Once t h e l e a r n e r r e c e i v e s i n s t r u c t i o n about i n s t a n c e s o f a g i v e n t a s k f o r t r a n s f e r and p e r f o r m s on some o f t h e i n s t a n c e s , s/he b e g i n s t o a b s t r a c t t h e n e c e s s a r y i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p among t h e f o u r s o u r c e s d e s c r i b e d p r e v i o u s l y . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , i n s t r u c t i o n may have a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on a t l e a s t two s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n i n v o l v e d i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a g i v e n schema. These s o u r c e s a r e t h e i n i t i a l c o n d i t i o n o f t h e p a r t i c i p a t i n g l i m b s and t h e r e s p o n s e s p e c i f i c a t i o n w h i c h i s r e f e r r e d t o as t h e s e l e c t i o n o f a p p r o p r i a t e speed and f o r c e o f c o n t r a c t i o n . The l e a r n e r g i v e n i n s t r u c t i o n has t h e c r i t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e p o s i t i o n i n g o f h i s / h e r p a r t i c i p a t i n g l i m b on subsequent t a s k s and t h e r e b y l o c a t e s h i s / h e r l i m b on a p p r o p r i a t e l o c a t i o n s . I n a d d i t i o n , once a p e r f o r m e r knows t h e r e q u i r e d speed f o r c o n t r a c t i o n o f a group o f m u s c l e s t o be remained a c t i v e on a known t a r g e t , s/he p o s s e s s e s t h e c r i t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n f o r s e l e c t i n g t h e d e s i r a b l e r e s p o n s e . I n t h a t c i r c u m s t a n c e , a l e a r n e r sends t h e a p p r o p r i a t e i m p u l s e s t o t h e a p p r o p r i a t e m u s c l e s . Under t h e i n s t r u c t i o n c o n d i t i o n , t h e l e a r n e r c o n s t r u c t s a schema w h i c h i s 11 a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e known i n s t a n c e s o f a motor t a s k . "Known i n s t a n c e s 1 r e f e r s t o t h o s e t a s k s w h i c h b e l o n g t o t h e same c l a s s o f movements. F o r example, a p u r s u i t r o t o r r e v o l v i n g a t 45 RPM i s an i n s t a n c e o f p u r s u i t r o t o r t a s k , a r o t a t i o n o f 60 RPM would be c o n s i d e r e d as a n o t h e r i n s t a n c e o f t h e same c l a s s o f movements. However, Schmidt(1975) has n o t s p e c i f i e d t h e c r i t e r i o n , on w h i c h one d e c i d e s whether movements a r e i n t h e same c l a s s o r not (Smyth & Wing, 1984). I n summary, g i v i n g i n s t r u c t i o n about some p a r t i c u l a r i n s t a n c e s o f a t a s k may have a t r a i n i n g - l i k e - e f f e c t on t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e schema r e l a t e d t o t h a t motor t a s k . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , r e c e i v i n g i n s t r u c t i o n about s p e c i f i c i n s t a n c e s f o r t r a n s f e r may be e q u a l t o o v e r t p r a c t i c e o f t h e g i v e n i n s t a n c e s . Such an a s s u m p t i o n i s i n agreement w i t h what was p r o p o s e d by A n n e t t ( 1 9 8 5 ) , who s u g g e s t e d t h a t m a n i p u l a t i n g c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s o f a motor t a s k l e a d s t o improvement i n o v e r t p e r formance i n t h e absence o f o v e r t p r a c t i c e . I t i s n o t e w o r t h y h e r e f o r some c o n c e p t u a l c l a r i t y t h a t t h e schema t h e o r y i s c e n t r a l o r i e n t e d , whereas t h e motor program t h e o r y i s p e r i p h e r a l o r i e n t e d . F o r example, t h e motor program t h e o r y s u g g e s t s t h a t a c e r t a i n group o f m u s c l e s a r e i n v o l v e d i n a g i v e n t a s k and o n l y a motor program would a c t i v a t e t h e s e m u s c l e s . I n o t h e r words, a motor program c o n t r o l s a motor u n i t o r a group o f motor u n i t s , w i t h t h e end r e s u l t s b e i n g a s p e c i f i c a c t i o n ; w h i l e a n o t h e r motor program produces a d i f f e r e n t t y p e o f r e s p o n s e . A s h i f t i n t h e speed o f r o t a t i o n o f p u r s u i t r o t o r would 12 r e q u i r e the performer t o abandon one motor program i n the f a v o r o f another. T h i s i s n o t the case w i t h the schema t h e o r y . A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s theory, a schema i s s t o r e d i n l o n g term memory and the schema f o r a c l a s s o f movements i s not s p e c i f i c f o r a s i n g l e i n s t a n c e of the motor t a s k , but r a t h e r i t i n c l u d e s motor commands f o r a c a t e g o r y of movements. T h e r e f o r e , t a s k s which are w i t h i n the same c l a s s o f movements have the same schema. When a l e a r n e r i s i n s t r u c t e d f o r what s/he i s expected t o perform subsequent t o what s/he i s l e a r n i n g , the l e a r n e r not o n l y w i l l form the schema f o r t h a t g i v e n t a s k d u r i n g l e a r n i n g , but s/he w i l l p repare the same schema f o r the t a s k t o come. The motor program t h e o r y i s u n l i k e l y t o p r e d i c t the occurrence of any t r a n s f e r of t r a i n i n g e f f e c t . A c c o r d i n g t o the motor program theory, the performer has a s e t of s t o r e d commands f o r a g i v e n motor t a s k t h a t u l t i m a t e l y i n d i c a t e s which muscles s h a l l a c t a t what i n t e n s i t y . Once a l e a r n e r e s t a b l i s h e s a motor program, t h a t program can be r e t r i e v e d t o perform a s p e c i f i c t a s k . P r a c t i c e w i t h one of the i n s t a n c e s of a g i v e n t a s k would e s t a b l i s h the o r d e r and sequence o f the parameters w i t h i n a motor program. When the l e a r n e r i s informed about the v a r i a t i o n s i n the parameters of a motor program f o r performing d i f f e r e n t i n s t a n c e s of a g i v e n c l a s s o f movements, i t i s not c l e a r whether s/he would e s t a b l i s h a motor program w i t h f l e x i b l e parameters; a motor program not o n l y f o r one i n s t a n c e of a motor t a s k , but f o r o t h e r known i n s t a n c e s as w e l l . 13 Such a d i f f e r e n c e i n performance l e v e l o f t h e group t h a t r e c e i v e s i n s t r u c t i o n was assumed t o be caused by t h e m o t i v a t i o n a l l e v e l o f t h e l e a r n e r s i n t h e group. When t h e l e a r n e r s i n t h i s group r e c e i v e d i n s t r u c t i o n about t h e l e a r n i n g and t r a n s f e r t a s k , i t was e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s e s t a b l i s h e d a g o a l f o r t h e i r l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . I n o t h e r words, t h e l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s were assumed t o become g o a l d i r e c t e d . Under such c i r c u m s t a n c e s , t h e l e a r n e r s were e x p e c t e d t o pay more a t t e n t i o n t o t h e c r i t i c a l d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e t a s k . P e r f o r m i n g t h e l e a r n i n g t a s k w h i c h happened t o be t h e p u r s u i t r o t o r t a s k r e q u i r e s s u s t a i n e d a t t e n t i o n ( i . e., m o t i v a t e d ) . P e r f o r m i n g t h i s t a s k under t h e i n s t r u c t i o n c o n d i t i o n was p r e d i c t e d t o enhance t h e l e a r n e r s ' s s u s t a i n e d a t t e n t i o n . The r e a s o n f o r such p r e d i c t i o n was t h a t i f t h e l e a r n e r s i n t h i s group l e a r n e d more due t o m o t i v a t i o n a l f a c t o r on t h e l e a r n i n g t r i a l s , a l s o t r a n s f e r r e d more t o t h e t r a n s f e r t e s t . The l e a r n e r s i n t h e l e a r n i n g - t r a n s f e r - i n s t r u c t i o n group who were p r i m e d f o r t h e t r a n s f e r t a s k were e x p e c t e d t o b e n e f i t from t h e knowledge t h a t t h e t r a n s f e r t a s k were f o r t h c o m i n g . A s u p e r i o r p e r formance f o r t h e group t h a t i s more m o t i v a t e d and i s more a t t e n t i v e t o t h e t a s k i s p r e d i c t a b l e by t h e schema t h e o r y . A w e l l m o t i v a t e d g o a l o r i e n t e d l e a r n e r would be w e l l aware o f t h e c r i t i c a l a c t i o n s t h a t a r e t a k i n g p l a c e d u r i n g each l e a r n i n g t r i a l s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , on each subsequent t r i a l t h e l e a r n e r would employ t h e i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d from 14 t h e p r e v i o u s t r i a l s t o make t h e n e c e s s a r y a d j u s t m e n t f o r t h e o n g o i n g a c t i v i t i e s . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , a l e a r n e r under such c i r c u m s t a n c e s i s e x p e c t e d t o be w e l l aware o f t h e l o c a t i o n of h i s / h e r l i m b s p r i o r t o t h e e x e c u t i o n o f t h e t a s k and a l s o be more aware o f h i s / h e r r e s p o n s e s e l e c t i o n ( t h e speed and f o r c e o f m u s c u l a r movements). D. Task V a r i a b i l i t y as a Schema F o r m a t i o n Parameter Fo r t h e purpose o f i n v e s t i g a t i n g t a s k v a r i a b i l i t y i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , t h e p u r s u i t r o t o r t a s k was employed. T h i s i n s t r u m e n t makes i t p o s s i b l e t o produce r e s p o n s e s w i t h h i g h l y s i m i l a r movements w h i c h a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be w i t h i n t h e same c l a s s o f movements. T h i s t a s k , s i n c e i t s i n t r o d u c t i o n by K o e r t h (1922), has been w i d e l y used t o s t u d y v a r i o u s p a r a m e t e r s o f motor a c q u i s i t i o n . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e motor t a s k chosen f o r t h i s e x p e r i m e n t was a c l o s e d s k i l l . I n c o n t r a s t t o open s k i l l s where t h e p e r f o r m e r f a c e s e n v i r o n m e n t a l and s i t u a t i o n a l u n c e r t a i n t y , i n a c l o s e d motor s k i l l t h e p e r f o r m e r needs o n l y l e a r n one movement t h a t s a t i s f i e s t h e g o a l . The o b s e r v a b l e change i n performance on t h i s t a s k due t o i n s t r u c t i o n would i n d i c a t e t h a t l e a r n i n g has o c c u r r e d . S i n c e l e a r n i n g can n o t be o b s e r v e d d i r e c t l y , t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f l e a r n i n g can o n l y be i n f e r r e d from o b s e r v a b l e change i n p e r f o r m a n c e (Drawatzky, 1981). O b t a i n i n g an adequate p e r f o r m a n c e measure r e q u i r e s s p e c i f i c c r i t e r i o n . The measures most commonly used t o a s s e s s performance and motor l e a r n i n g i n c l u d e t h e amount o f r e s p o n s e , l a t e n c y o f 15 r e s p o n s e , r a t e o f r e s p o n s e , n u m b e r - k i n d - l o c a t i o n o f e r r o r s , r e m i n i s c e n c e , number and t i m e o f t r i a l s , and r e t e n t i o n . Drowatzky (19 69) s t a t e s t h a t no s i n g l e measure f u l l y meets a l l r e q u i r e m e n t f o r o p t i m a l measurement. He s u g g e s t s t h a t l e a r n i n g s k i l l s such as m i r r o r t r a c i n g p e r formance must be e v a l u a t e d on t h e b a s i s o f more t h a n one measure. The p r e s e n t e x p e r i m e n t i n t e n d e d t o employ two measures w h i c h would s a t i s f y t h e c r i t e r i o n s t a t e d by D r o w a t z k y ( 1 9 6 9 ) . These measures were t h e Number o f H i t s and t h e amount o f Time on T a r g e t . The t h e o r e t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e o f s e l e c t i n g a c l o s e d s k i l l f o r t h i s s t u d y r e s t s on t h e s u g g e s t i o n made by Schmidt (1975) t h a t , i n c l o s e d s k i l l s , t h e l e a r n e r d e v e l o p s t h e schema r u l e so t h a t s/he makes f i n e r and f i n e r p r e d i c t i o n on t h e b a s i s o f r u l e , and t h e e x p e c t e d s e n s o r y consequences becomes more and more a c c u r a t e e s t i m a t e o f t h a t one movement. The performance o f t h i s t a s k r e q u i r e s eye-hand c o o r d i n a t i o n . The l e a r n e r has t o t r a c e a moving t a r g e t w i t h a p r e - e s t a b l i s h e d p a t h . The movement o f t h e t a r g e t can be s e t t o a c l o c k o r c o u n t e r - c l o c k w i s e r o t a t i o n . Two t y p e s o f v a r i a b l e s a r e o f c r i t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e i n p e r f o r m i n g t h i s t a s k . These a r e t h e speed o f r o t a t i o n and t h e p a t h o f t h e moving t a r g e t . I n f a c t , t h i s i s one o f t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e schema t h e o r y and has been demonstrated e x p e r i m e n t a l l y w i t h bean bag t h r o w i n g t a s k s . I n a r e c e n t s t u d y by P i g g o t and S h a p i r o (1984), t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e v a r i a b i l i t y o f p r a c t i c e s e s s i o n and i t s subsequent i n f l u e n c e on t r a n s f e r performance 16 t o a n o v e l v a r i a t i o n o f t h e t a s k was examined. I n t h e i r e x p e r i m e n t t h e y employed c h i l d r e n t o t o s s a w e i g h t e d bean bag t o a f i x e d t a r g e t l o c a t i o n . Three groups e x p e r i e n c e d v a r i a b i l i t y i n p r a c t i c e w i t h f o u r bean bags o f v a r y i n g w e i g h t (3,4,5, and 6 oz) v e r s u s a f o u r t h group t h a t p r a c t i c e d o n l y a s i n g l e w e i g h t . F o l l o w i n g 24 p r a c t i c e t r i a l s , a l l s u b j e c t s t r a n s f e r r e d o u t s i d e t h e range o f p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e , r e c e i v i n g t h r e e t r i a l s w i t h one o f two p o s s i b l e t e s t w e i g h t s (2 o r 7 o z ) . T h e i r r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e v a r i a b i l i t y i n p r a c t i c e l e d t o s u p e r i o r performance a t t r a n s f e r t o n o v e l v a r i a t i o n o f t h e t a s k . T h i s e x p e r i m e n t may e x p l a i n t h e way t h a t a l e a r n e r l e a r n s t o s e l e c t a parameter f o r a motor program. The t a s k employed i n t h i s e x p e r i m e n t had a s i n g l e r e s p o n s e v a r i a b l e . The e x p e r i m e n t c o u l d have been s t r u c t u r e d by e m p l o y i n g two r e s p o n s e v a r i a b l e s by i n c l u d i n g d i s t a n c e as a second v a r i a b l e . I n most motor s k i l l t a s k s t h e n o v e l t a s k v a r i e s i n more t h a n one d i m e n s i o n . The p r e s e n t e x p e r i m e n t , though d i f f e r e n t i n n a t u r e o f t h e t a s k , i n c l u d e d a t l e a s t two i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s (speed and p a t h ) . A l e a r n e r had t o e s t a b l i s h a t l e a s t two p a r a m e t e r s f o r a motor program t o be e x e c u t e d c o r r e c t l y . I n t h e t r a i n i n g t a s k , i t was e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e i n s t r u c t i o n group would s t a r t t o b u i l d t h e schema f o r t h e t r a n s f e r t a s k . The r e a s o n f o r such a p r e d i c t i o n was t h a t i n s t r u c t i o n f a c i l i t a t e s s e l e c t i o n o f p a r a m e t e r s such as t h e d u r a t i o n , o v e r a l l f o r c e , and t h e movement s i z e f o r a g i v e n t a s k . I n r e s p o n s e s e l e c t i o n ( r e c a l l - s c h e m a ) , t h e 17 e f f e c t o f i n s t r u c t i o n becomes more e v i d e n t . When a p e r s o n makes a d e c i s i o n t o p e r f o r m a motor t a s k , t h e two t y p e s o f e r r o r may o c c u r , w h i c h d e t e r m i n e t h e outcome o f t h e a c t i o n . These a r e e r r o r i n s e l e c t i o n , and e r r o r i n e x e c u t i o n . Knowledge about t h e parameters o f a t a s k would a s s i s t t h e p e r f o r m e r t o s e l e c t t h e a p p r o p r i a t e p a r a m e t e r s t o be employed i n t h e program, and t h e r e f o r e would reduce t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f making e r r o r i n re s p o n s e s e l e c t i o n . The l e a r n i n g t a s k f o r t h e p r e s e n t e x p e r i m e n t i n c l u d e d two l e v e l s o f v a r i a t i o n i n speed and p a t h o f r o t a t i o n . The l e v e l s o f speed i n c l u d e 30, and 45 r o t a t i o n p e r minute (RPM). The v a r i a t i o n s i n p a t h i n c l u d e d t r i a n g l e , and square p a t h . Three t r e a t m e n t groups p r a c t i c e d t h r e e d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f t a s k s . One group p r a c t i c e d w i t h v a r i o u s speeds and d i f f e r e n t p a t h s . The second group p r a c t i c e d w i t h a c o n s t a n t p a t h (square) b u t w i t h two d i f f e r e n t speeds. The t h i r d group p r a c t i c e d w i t h a c o n s t a n t speed (45) b u t w i t h d i f f e r e n t p a t h s . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e schema t h e o r y , t h e t a s k c o n d i t i o n w i t h more v a r i o u s d i m e n s i o n s d u r i n g l e a r n i n g would be c o n d u c i v e t o t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f a schema t h a n t h e t a s k w i t h l e s s v a r i o u s d i m e n s i o n s . T h e r e f o r e , i t was e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e t a s k w i t h more v a r i a b i l i t y ( t a s k l : b o t h speed and p a t h v a r i e d ) would f a c i l i t a t e t r a n s f e r o f t r a i n i n g more t h a n t h e o t h e r two l e v e l s o f t a s k v a r i a b i l i t y . The o t h e r two t a s k s had e i t h e r t h e p a t h as a v a r i a b l e o r t h e speed as a v a r i a b l e . However, t h e s e two d i m e n s i o n s a r e n o t e q u a l l y 18 s a l i e n t d i m e n s i o n s . The p a t h v a r i a b l e i s p r o b a b l y a more s a l i e n t d i m e n s i o n t o a n o v i c e l e a r n e r t h a n t h e speed v a r i a b l e . A change i n t h e speed o f r o t a t i o n may n o t be d e t e c t e d by a l e a r n e r t o a c e r t a i n p o i n t . F o r example, i t i s much h a r d e r f o r a l e a r n e r t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t t h e speed o f r o t a t i o n i s s h i f t e d from 3 0 RPM t o 45 RPM t h a n t o n o t i c e t h a t t h e p a t h i s changed from a t r i a n g l e t o a s q u a r e . Though t h e p a t h parameter o f t h e t a s k was e x p e c t e d t o be d e t e c t e d by a l l t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s , such was n o t t h e c a s e f o r t h e speed parameter. The p e r f o r m e r s i n t h e l e a r n i n g -t r a n s f e r - i n s t r u c t i o n group were e x p e c t e d t o know t h e speed p a r a m e t e r as w e l l as t h e p a t h parameter p r i o r t o t h e s t a r t o f t h e t r a n s f e r t a s k . The l e a r n i n g - i n s t r u c t i o n - o n l y group were l e f t o u t t o f i n d out t h e q u a n t i t y o f t h e speed parameter. A c c o r d i n g t o t h e schema t h e o r y , t h e l e a r n i n g -t r a n s f e r - i n s t r u c t i o n group would b e n e f i t from t h e i n s t r u c t i o n t h a t was g i v e n and would r e c a l l t h e a p p r o p r i a t e motor program w i t h t h e a p p r o p r i a t e speed parameter. T h i s t a s k v a r i a b i l i t y h y p o t h e s i s would p r e d i c t t h a t t h e t a s k w i t h more v a r i a b i l i t y would be l e a r n e d q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t t h a n t h e o t h e r two t a s k s . Under t h i s c o n d i t i o n o f b o t h p a t h and speed v a r i e d , t h e l e a r n e r s a r e e x p e c t e d t o s t o r e more i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t e d t o t h e e x e c u t i o n o f t h e t a s k w h i c h a r e e s s e n t i a l f o r t h e schema f o r m a t i o n . S e c o n d l y , from t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f t a s k d i f f i c u l t y , i t was e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e second t a s k w i t h l e s s s a l i e n t d i m e n s i o n ( p a t h f i x e d and speed v a r i e d ) would be e a s i e r t o p e r f o r m t h a n t h e t h i r d 19 t a s k ( p a t h v a r i e d & speed f i x e d ) . The r e a s o n f o r such a p r e d i c t i o n was based on t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e l e a r n e r s p e r f o r m i n g on t h e second t a s k were u n l i k e l y t o d e t e c t any changes i n t h e t a s k t h r o u g h o u t t h e l e a r n i n g t r i a l s , and c o n s e q u e n t l y m a i n t a i n e d t h e i r a t t e n t i o n on t h e t a s k . I n c o n t r a s t , t h e group p e r f o r m i n g on t h e t h i r d t a s k were f a c e d w i t h a major a d j u s t m e n t o f t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s on t h e t a s k . Such a d i s c r e p a n c y i n t h e d i s c r i m i n a b i l i t y o f t h e d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e t a s k s was e x p e c t e d t o produce d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s . The l e a r n e r s on t h e t a s k w i t h f i x e d p a t h and v a r i e d speed were assumed t o c o n t i n u e t h e i r e f f o r t even though one o f t h e d i m e n s i o n o f t h e t a s k was changed w h i l e t h e y were on t h e t a s k . A motor program t h a t was a c t i v a t e d f o r t h e f i r s t few t r i a l s would p r o b a b l y be a c t i v e t h r o u g h o u t t h e t r i a l s . O nly m i n o r changes f o r a d j u s t i n g t h e speed parameter o f t h e motor program were n e c e s s a r y . W h i l e f o r t h e t h i r d t a s k , i t was assumed t h a t a change i n t h e p a t h o f t h e t a s k demanded a major a d j u s t m e n t f o r t h e motor program i f n o t r e c a l l o f a new motor program. Performance o f a l e a r n e r on a square p a t h seems t o be a l i n e a r p o s i t i o n i n g t a s k , v e r y much s i m i l a r t o a c i r c l e p a t h , whereas performance on a t r i a n g l e p a t h seems t o be non l i n e a r a t l e a s t i n t h e f i r s t few t r i a l s o f l e a r n i n g . Due t o t h e a p p a r e n t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e two p a t h s , t h e same motor program may n o t be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r b o t h p a t h s . When t h e new p a t h was i n t r o d u c e d h a l f w a y between t h e t r i a l s f o r t h e t h i r d group, i t was assumed t h a t t h e l e a r n e r had t o 20 r e c a l l a new motor program o r a t l e a s t become engaged i n a c o n s c i o u s e f f o r t t o change t h e p a r a m e t e r s o f t h e motor program w h i c h was a c t i v e f o r t h e p r e v i o u s p a t h . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e n a t u r e o f p r o d u c i n g v a r i a t i o n i n t h e p a t h i t s e l f c o u l d be more pronounced t h a n t h a t o f speed. A change i n t h e speed parameter r e q u i r e s minimum i n t e r v e n t i o n i n t h e t e s t i n g a p p a r a t u s w h i l e c h a n g i n g t h e p a t h p a rameter demanded a r e p l a c e m e n t o f a major component o f t h e t e s t i n g f a c i l i t y . T h i s d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e n a t u r e o f t a s k v a r i a t i o n was p r e d i c t e d t o l o w e r t h e performance o f t h e l e a r n e r s i n t a s k w i t h p a t h v a r i e d group i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e p e r f o r m e r s i n t h e t a s k w i t h speed v a r i e d . F o r t h e p r e s e n t e x p e r i m e n t , t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group r e c e i v e d i n s t r u c t i o n f o r t h e l e a r n i n g t a s k p l u s i n s t r u c t i o n f o r t h e t r a n s f e r t a s k (LTI group) p r i o r t o t h e l e a r n i n g o f t h e o r i g i n a l motor t a s k . The o t h e r group r e c e i v e d i n s t r u c t i o n f o r t h e l e a r n i n g t a s k o n l y (LIO g r o u p ) . The i n s t a n c e employed as t h e t r a n s f e r t a s k i n c l u d e d a hexagon p a t h o f r o t a t i o n a t t h e speed o f 65 RPM. Thus, t h e t r a n s f e r t a s k was c o n s t r u c t e d by i n t r o d u c i n g one v a r i a t i o n i n t h e speed o f r o t a t i o n and one v a r i a t i o n i n t h e p a t h o f r o t a t i o n . E. R e s t I n t e r v a l s and H a n d - S h i f t e d n e s s as M o d e r a t o r  V a r i a b l e s S i n c e l e a r n i n g p r a c t i c e t r i a l s were i n v o l v e d , i t was t h o u g h t t h a t some performance v a r i a b l e s , such as r e a c t i v e i n h i b i t i o n may be b u i l t up, t h a t r e t a r d s t h e t r a n s f e r o f t h e 21 presumably a c q u i r e d schema. I n a d d i t i o n , a n o t h e r p e rformance v a r i a b l e o f handedness was p r e s e n t e d t o d e t e r m i n e whether b i l a t e r a l t r a n s f e r as w e l l as u n i l a t e r a l t r a n s f e r o c c u r s . T h e r e f o r e , two more v a r i a b l e s r e f e r r e d t o as t h e moderator v a r i a b l e s were i n t r o d u c e d p r i o r t o t h e t r a n s f e r t e s t . The two v a r i a b l e s were r e s t i n t e r v a l and t h e s h i f t i n g o f hand. The l e a r n e r s were g i v e n two t y p e s o f r e s t i n t e r v a l p r i o r t o t h e t r a n s f e r t e s t . H a l f o f t h e l e a r n e r s i n e v e r y l e a r n i n g c o n d i t i o n were g i v e n 3 0 seconds o f r e s t and t h e o t h e r h a l f were g i v e n 5 m i n u t e s o f r e s t b e f o r e moving on t h e t r a n s f e r t a s k . S i n c e immediate and d e l a y e d r e s p o n s e s have been an i m p o r t a n t c o n c e p t i n t h e s t u d y o f motor p e r f o r m a n c e , t h i s v a r i a b l e was i n c l u d e d i n t h e d e s i g n . I n r e s p e c t t o t h e r o l e o f t h e r e s t i n t e r v a l p r i o r t o t h e pe r f o r m a n c e , t h e r e a r e two competing h y p o t h e s e s ; one i s t h e r e a c t i v e i n h i b i t i o n t h e o r y , and t h e o t h e r one i s t h a t o f t h e c o n s i s t e n t p r a c t i c e h y p o t h e s e s . The r e a c t i v e i n h i b i t i o n h y p o t h e s e s was proposed by H u l l (1943), i t s u g g e s t s t h a t , whenever an o r g a n i s m makes a r e s p o n s e , t h e r e i s an i n c r e m e n t o f r e a c t i v e i n h i b i t i o n t h a t works a g a i n s t t h e r e a c t i o n p o t e n t i a l f o r t h e ongoing r e s p o n s e and l o w e r s performance. A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s t h e o r y , r e a c t i v e i n h i b i t i o n d i s s i p a t e s as r e s t i n t e r v a l between r e s p o n s e s i n c r e a s e s . R e a c t i v e i n h i b i t i o n t h e o r y i s a p e r i p h e r a l o r i e n t e d t h e o r y t h a t c o n s i d e r s t h e a c t i v e r e s p o n d i n g l i m b as t h e main f a c t o r t h a t d e t e r m i n e s t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e performance. The c o n s i s t e n t p r a c t i c e h y p o t h e s e s i s a c e n t r a l c o n t r o l o r i e n t e d t h e o r y . 2 2 I t assumes t h a t h i g h e r b r a i n c e n t e r s a r e t h e p r i m a r y d e t e r m i n a t o r o f t h e q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y o f t h e p erformance. A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s t h e o r y once t h e motor c o n t r o l c e n t e r i s a c t i v a t e d t o c o n t r o l t h e a c t i v e l i m b , performance l e v e l r e mains s t e a d y , as l o n g as t h e o n g o i n g performance i s n o t u n d u l y i n t e r r u p t e d by u n n e c e s s a r y b r e a k s . These two d i f f e r e n t h y p o t h e s e s l e a d t o making two o p p o s i t e p r e d i c t i o n s . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e r e a c t i v e i n h i b i t i o n h y p o t h e s e s t h e group t h a t r e c e i v e d 5 m i n u t e s r e s t p r i o r t o t h e t r a n s f e r t e s t was e x p e c t e d t o p e r f o r m b e t t e r t h a n t h e groups w i t h 3 0 seconds r e s t . I n c o n t r a s t , t h e c o n s i s t e n t p r a c t i c e h y p o t h e s i s p r e d i c t s t h a t t h e groups w i t h 3 0 seconds r e s t p e r f o r m t h e t r a n s f e r t a s k b e t t e r t h a n t h e 5 m i n u t e r e s t g r o u p s . I t would be so because t h i r t y second r e s t i n t e r v a l can be r e g a r d e d as t h e c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h e o n g o i n g a c t i v i t i e s t h a t o r i g i n a t e d d u r i n g t h e l e a r n i n g t r i a l s . The second v a r i a b l e o f t h e s h i f t i n g v e r s u s no s h i f t i n g o f hand was i n t r o d u c e d t o d e t e r m i n e whether b i l a t e r a l o r u n i l a t e r a l t r a n s f e r o f t r a i n i n g o c c u r r e d . I t was p r e d i c t e d t h a t t h e t h e n o n - h a n d - s h i f t e d group would n a t u r a l l y p e r f o r m t h e t r a n s f e r t a s k b e t t e r t h a n t h e h a n d - s h i f t e d group. Such a p r e d i c t i o n was based on t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t p r e f e r r e d hand pe r f o r m a n c e on t h e t a s k would be s u p e r i o r t o t h e s h i f t e d group hand due t o p r i o r e x p e r i e n c e . I t s h o u l d be mentioned t h a t u n i l a t e r a l o r b i l a t e r a l t r a n s f e r e f f e c t s w i l l be confounded w i t h t h a t o f hand p r e f e r e n c e i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . 23 F i n a l l y , t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f t h e l e a r n i n g and moderator v a r i a b l e s were i n v e s t i g a t e d . I t was i m p o r t a n t t o d e t e r m i n e how t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l v a r i a b l e s e f f e c t t r a n s f e r p e r f o r m a n c e . C o n s i d e r i n g t h e two o p p o s i n g v i e w s o f t h e r e a c t i v e i n h i b i t i o n and c o n s i s t e n c y h y p o t h e s i s , two d i f f e r e n t i n t e r a c t i o n s between t h e t a s k v a r i a b l e and moderator v a r i a b l e s can be e x p e c t e d . I f t h e r e a c t i v e i n h i b i t i o n h y p o t h e s i s i s a t work, t h e n t h e s h i f t e d - h a n d group would do b e t t e r on t h e 30 second r e s t t h a n n o n - s h i f t e d . Such p r e d i c t i o n can be e x p l a i n e d by c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e n a t u r e o f t h e r e a c t i v e i n h i b i t i o n h y p o t h e s i s . The c o n c e p t o f r e a c t i v e i n h i b i t i o n b u i l d - u p r e f e r s t o a l o c a l r e s i s t i n g b u i l d - u p t h a t works a g a i n s t t h e w o r k i n g l i m b ; i n t h e c a s e o f t h i s e x p e r i m e n t , t h e n o n - s h i f t e d hand. A t t h e t i m e o f t r a n s f e r t e s t i f t h e hand i s s h i f t e d , t h e n t h e r e a c t i v e i n h i b i t o r y f a c t o r would be a v o i d e d o r a t l e a s t be r e d u c e d c o n s i d e r a b l y . I n t h e o t h e r hands, i f t h e c o n s i s t e n c y h y p o t h e s i s i s t r u e , t h e n i t would be e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e l e a r n e r s w i t h t h e two hand s h i f t i n g c o n d i t i o n s , r e g a r d l e s s o f s h i f t i n g c o n d i t i o n , do t h e t r a n s f e r t e s t e q u a l l y w e l l . F. Performance Measures F o r t h e p r e s e n t e x p e r i m e n t , two r e s p o n s e measures were r e c o r d e d t o q u a n t i f y t h e performance o f t h e l e a r n e r s on t h e t a s k . These measures were t h e amount o f Time on T a r g e t and t h e Number o f H i t s . The amount o f t i m e on t a r g e t r e f e r s t o t h e number o f seconds t h a t a p e r f o r m e r can t r a c k t h e moving t a r g e t , a r e c t a n g u l a r b r i g h t s p o t on t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e 24 p u r s u i t r o t o r machine. The second performance c r i t e r i o n , r e f e r r e d t o as t h e Number o f H i t s , i s a measure t h a t may q u a n t i f y t h e p r e c i s i o n o f performance. T h i s measure marks t h e number o f t i m e a p e r f o r m e r goes o f f t h e t a r g e t . C o n c e p t u a l l y i n a c o m p u t a t i o n sense, t h e two measures a r e n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d , as t h e amount o f Time on T a r g e t goes up, t h e Number o f H i t s goes down. An i d e a l i s t i c p e r f e c t p e r f o r m a n c e o f 20 seconds o u t o f 2 0-second t i m e i n t e r v a l w o uld n e a r l y r e s u l t i n z e r o Number o f H i t s . However, i n r e a l p r a c t i c e s i t u a t i o n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e two measures happens t o be q u i t e c o m p l i c a t e d . 25 C h a p t e r I I . METHODOLOGY A. S u b j e c t and D e s i g n The s u b j e c t s f o r t h e p r e s e n t e x p e r i m e n t were drawn from boys and g i r l s i n grade 5 t o 6 o f t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s o f Richmond, B r i t i s h Columbia. The c h i l d r e n o f t h e two grade l e v e l s were used i n t h e v i e w o f some e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e t h a t c h i l d r e n o f t h i s age c o u l d s u c c e s s f u l l y p e r f o r m t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l t a s k . I n a d d i t i o n , from t h e m a t u r a t i o n p o i n t o f v i e w , t h e s e c h i l d r e n a r e c a p a b l e o f b i l a t e r a l t r a n s f e r . T h i s c a p a b i l i t y i s b e l i e v e d t o r e s u l t from t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f c o r p u s c o l l o s u m . The f i b e r o f c o r p u s c o l l o s u m i s t h e major f i b e r b u n d l e c o n n e c t i n g t h e two c e r e b r a l hemispheres b e l i e v e d t o r e s u l t i n an i n c r e a s e i n t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f t r a n s f e r o f i n f o r m a t i o n between t h e hemispheres. I t was r e p o r t e d t o be al m o s t completed by t h e age 8 ( 0 , L e a r y , 1980). There a r e a l s o r e p o r t s showing t h a t t h e i n t e r h e m i s p h e r i c t r a n s f e r o f i n f o r m a t i o n o c c u r r i n g n o r m a l l y i n a n i m a l s and human f a i l s t o o c c u r a f t e r s u r g i c a l d i s c o n n e c t i o n o f t h e c e r e b r a l hemisphers ( S p e r r y , G a z z a n i n g , and Bogen, 1969). I n a s t u d y u s i n g t h e p u r s u i t r o t o r t a s k w i t h c h i l d r e n r a n g i n g i n age 9 t o 18 y e a r s , A l p r i n and Ammons(1955) found t h a t y o u t h s 15 t o 18 y e a r s o f age per f o r m e d s a t i s f a c t o r i l y a t t h e speed o f 60 r e v o l u t i o n s p e r minute (RPM), b u t t h a t Time on T a r g e t f o r t h e 9 and 12 y e a r s o l d s d e t e r i o r a t e d 26 s h a r p l y . Siniensen(1973) s u c c e s s f u l l y used speed o f 45 RPM i n t h e s t u d y o f t h e normal and r e t a r d e d 12-and 1 4 - y e a r - o l d s . I n t h e s t u d y o f speed o f r o t a t i o n on t h e p u r s u i t r o t o r t a s k , p e r f o r m a n c e o f c h i l d r e n from k i n d e r g a r t e n t o t h e f i f t h g r a d e , Davol(1968) r e p o r t e d t h a t , whereas Time on T a r g e t c o n s i s t e n t l y i n c r e a s e d as a f u n c t i o n o f age, t h e v a r i a b l e o f speed was t h e most predominant d e t e r m i n a n t o f p e r f o r m a n c e , w i t h s c o r e a t 30 RPM s t r i k i n g l y s u p e r i o r t o t h o s e a t 45 RPM. Such a f i n d i n g may be e x p l a i n e d by t h e f a c t t h a t o l d e r c h i l d r e n b e n e f i t more from t h e i r m u s c u l a r development. R e p o r t s on t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e p e r formance o f male v e r s u s female has been c o n t r o v e r s i a l . Simensen(1973) r e p o r t e d sex d i f f e r e n c e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f a v o r o f male, whereas Davol(1968) found no c o n s i s t e n t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e s exes i n s i x - t o e i g h t - y e a r - o l d c h i l d r e n a t e i t h e r 3 0 o r 45 RPM. The f i n d i n g s o f t h e s e s t u d i e s p r o v i d e s t r o n g s u p p o r t f o r t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f t h e t a s k s e l e c t e d f o r t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . A t o t a l o f 82 s u b j e c t s was randomly a s s i g n e d t o 26 i n d e p e n d e n t g r o u p s , o f w h i c h 24 groups r e s u l t e d from f a c t o r i a l v a r i a t i o n o f f o u r f a c t o r s : i n s t r u c t i o n , t a s k v a r i a b i l i t y , r e s t i n t e r v a l s , and hand s h i f t e d n e s s . Two a d d i t i o n a l t r e a t m e n t s were d e f i n e d as t h e l e a r n i n g p r a c t i c e c o n t r o l , one p e r f o r m i n g w i t h n o n - p r e f e r r e d and one w i t h p r e f e r r e d hand. The f a c t o r i a l d e s i g n was e s s e n t i a l l y a 2 by 3 by 2 by 2 d e s i g n ; where each f a c t o r r e p r e s e n t s l e v e l s o f I n s t r u c t i o n 27 (LTI v s . LIO g r o u p s ) , 3 l e v e l s o f Task v a r i e t y (SPV v s . PV, v s . S V), t h e 2 l e v e l s R e s t i n t e r v a l (5 mi n u t e s v s 30 s e c o n d s ) , and t h e 2 l e v e l s o f S h i f t e d n e s s o f hand ( p r e f e r r e d v s n o n - p r e f e r r e d ) . Thus, t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n i n c l u d e s 24 c e l l s . There were 3 s u b j e c t s a s s i g n e d t o each c e l l . The t o t a l number o f s u b j e c t s added up t o 72. Each c o n t r o l group was made up o f 5 s u b j e c t s , w h i c h r e s u l t e d from t h e same s a m p l i n g p r o c e s s , b u t by a d d i n g 2 more s u b j e c t s from t h e same s u b j e c t p o o l . The t o t a l number o f c e l l s f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l and t h e c o n t r o l group added up t o 26. The t o t a l number o f s u b j e c t s i n t h e ex p e r i m e n t summed up t o 82 ( i . e., 72 f o r t h e LTI and LIO grou p s , and 10 f o r t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p ) . The s c h e m a t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n and p r o c e d u r e s i s demo n s t r a t e d i n Appe n d i x A and B., Thus, t h e f i r s t 3 6 c h i l d r e n were g i v e n i n s t r u c t i o n f o r b o t h l e a r n i n g and t h e t r a n s f e r t a s k ( L T I ) . The second group o f 3 6 c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e d i n s t r u c t i o n f o r t h e l e a r n i n g t a s k o n l y ( L I O ) . The t h i r d group p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e t r a n s f e r t a s k and s e r v e d as t h e c o n t r o l group (C0NT). I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t , f o r t h i s e x p e r i m e n t , t h e r e were, i n a way, two t y p e s o f c o n t r o l t r e a t m e n t s . The LIO group s e r v e d as t h e c o n t r o l group w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e LTI group t o d e t e r m i n e whether i n s t r u c t i o n p roduced any s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s on t h e perf o r m a n c e o f t h e f i r s t group. The CONT group s e r v e d as t h e c o n t r o l group t o d e t e r m i n e whether t h e t r a n s f e r o f t r a i n i n g o c c u r r e d a t a l l . I t was e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e 28 performance o f f i r s t two i n s t r u c t i o n a l groups on t h e t r a n s f e r t a s k be s u p e r i o r t o t h e CONT group. Most o f t h e e v i d e n c e i n t h e a r e a o f t h e s t u d y o f t r a n s f e r o f t r a i n i n g have been o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h t h i s t y p e o f e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n s . The t a s k v a r i a b i l i t y as a l e a r n i n g v a r i a b l e i s m a n i p u l a t e d i n terms o f t h r e e v a r i a n t s , as d e s c r i b e d i n t h e s e q u e l . R e s t i n t e r v a l as a t r a n s f e r m e d i a t i n g v a r i a b l e was v a r i e d i n terms o f 5 m i n u tes o r 3 0 seconds b e f o r e t h e t r a n s f e r t a s k was g i v e n ; hand s h i f t e d n e s s i n terms o f o f s h i f t i n g t o n o n p r e f e r r e d and n o n s h i f t i n g f o r t h e t r a n s f e r t a s k b o t h from p r e f e r r e d hand used d u r i n g l e a r n i n g . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , Two t y p e s o f r e s t i n t e r v a l were i n t r o d u c e d between t h e t r a i n i n g t a s k and t h e t r a n s f e r t a s k f o r b o t h e x p e r i m e n t a l groups. S u b j e c t s i n t h e f i r s t r e s t i n t e r v a l were g i v e n a 5-minute r e s t i n t e r v a l and t h e n were asked t o p e r f o r m on t h e t r a n s f e r t a s k . The s u b j e c t s i n t h e second r e s t i n t e r v a l were g i v e n a 30-second r e s t i n t e r v a l and t h e n were a s k e d t o p e r f o r m on t h e t r a n s f e r t a s k . T h i s r e s t i n t e r v a l p r o c e d u r e was employed t o d e t e r m i n e whether t h e amount o f r e s t between t h e t r a i n i n g and t r a n s f e r t a s k had any s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s on t h e performance o f t h e t a s k a t t h e t i m e o f t r a n s f e r . The amount o f t i m e e l a p s e d between t h e l e a r n i n g s e s s i o n and t r a n s f e r p erformance i s an i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e i n t h e a r e a o f motor p e r f o r m a n c e as d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r . The a u t o m a t i c i t y o f performance w h i c h i s b e l i e v e d t o o c c u r i n t h e t h i r d phase o f motor l e a r n i n g i n a 29 c o n s i s t e n t manner o c c u r r e d d u r i n g l e a r n i n g o f t h e motor t a s k i n t h i s e x p e r i m e n t . I f t h i s i s t h e c a s e , t h e n t h e s u b j e c t s i n t h e 3 0-second r e s t i n t e r v a l b l o c k would p e r f o r m t h e t a s k b e t t e r t h a n t h e s u b j e c t s g i v e n t h e o t h e r r e s t i n t e r v a l . Such a d i s c r e p a n c y i n performance may be e x p l a i n e d by t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s u b j e c t s i n t h e 5-minute r e s t i n t e r v a l may not be a b l e t o r e t r i e v e t h e r e c a l l - s c h e m a f o r t h e t a s k as f a s t as t h e s u b j e c t s i n t h e 30-second r e s t i n t e r v a l . B. L e a r n i n g Task The l e a r n i n g t a s k f o r t h i s e x p e r i m e n t i n c l u d e d two t y p e s o f v a r i a t i o n i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l v a r i a b l e s . These v a r i a t i o n s were d e f i n e d i n t e rm o f t h e two k i n d s o f p a t h s ( t r i a n g l e and square) and t h e two l e v e l s o f speed o f r o t a t i o n (30 and 45 RPM) o f t h e p u r s u i t r o t o r t a s k . Three t y p e s o f t a s k s were c r e a t e d by m a n i p u l a t i n g t h e t a s k v a r i a b l e s w i t h i n a t o t a l s e t o f 12 t r i a l s . I n one t a s k , t h e speed and p a t h o f r o t a t i o n was v a r i e d (SPV) ; t h e r e f o r e , c r e a t i n g f o u r s u b - t a s k s . I n t h e second t a s k , p a t h was v a r i e d and t h e speed was k e p t c o n s t a n t ( P V ) ; and i n t h e t h i r d t a s k t h e p a t h was c o n s t a n t and t h e speed was v a r i e d ( S V ) . I n t h e SPV t a s k c o n d i t i o n , t h e s u b j e c t s p r a c t i c e d f o u r d i f f e r e n t s u b - t a s k s (SPV). I n t h e b e g i n n i n g t h e p a t h was s e t t o a t r i a n g l e a t t h e speed o f 3 0 RPM f o r t h r e e t r i a l s and t h e n t h e speed was changed t o 45 RPM. On t h e n e x t two subsequent s u b - t a s k s t h e p a t h was s e t t o a s q uare and t h e speed was s h i f t e d from 3 0 t o 45 RPM a f t e r t h r e e t r i a l s . 30 E v e r y s u b j e c t went t h r o u g h 3 t r i a l s on each s u b - t a s k . I n t h e SV t a s k c o n d i t i o n , t h e speed o f r o t a t i o n was s e t t o 30 RPM w h i l e t h e p a t h o f r o t a t i o n was changed from a t r i a n g l e i n t h e f i r s t s u b - t a s k t o a s q uare f o r t h e second s u b - t a s k . I n t h e PV t a s k c o n d i t i o n t h e speed was s e t t o 45 RPM w i t h a t r i a n g l e p a t h f o r t h e f i r s t s u b - t a s k and t h e n t h e p a t h was changed t o a s q u a r e f o r t h e second s u b - t a s k . The s u b j e c t s i n t h e SV and PV c o n d i t i o n went t h r o u g h 6 t r i a l s on each s u b - t a s k . Thus, t h e t o t a l number o f t r i a l s f o r e v e r y s u b j e c t i n each t a s k added up t o 12 t r i a l s , as was mentioned e a r l i e r . The s u b j e c t s were i n f o r m e d about t h e s h i f t from one t a s k t o a n o t h e r p r i o r t o t h e s t a r t o f t h e t r a i n i n g t a s k . A f t e r t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f each t a s k , t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r e s t a b l i s h e d t h e a p p r o p r i a t e t a s k by r e p l a c i n g t h e c u r r e n t p a t h w i t h t h e new p a t h . The p u r s u i t r o t o r t a s k p r o v i d e s such a f a c i l i t y f o r t h e exchange o f t h e p a t h . The change i n t h e speed o f r o t a t i o n was e s t a b l i s h e d by r e s e t t i n g t h e speed a d j u s t e r p r o v i d e d by t h e t e s t i n g a p p a r a t u s . C. T r a n s f e r Task The t r a n s f e r t e s t f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t i n c l u d e d e i t h e r a u n i l a t e r a l t r a n s f e r t e s t o r a b i l a t e r a l t r a n s f e r t e s t . H a l f o f 72 s u b j e c t s , 12 c e l l s ( i . e., 3 p e r c e l l ) t o o k a u n i l a t e r a l t r a n s f e r t e s t ( d i d not s h i f t hand) and t h e o t h e r h a l f t o o k a b i l a t e r a l t r a n s f e r t e s t ( s h i f t e d h and). The t a s k f o r b o t h groups was t h e same (hexagon w i t h 65 RPM). The two c o n t r o l groups t o o k e i t h e r a u n i l a t e r a l o r a b i l a t e r a l t r a n s f e r t a s k . 3 1 I f t h e two s u b s t a n t i v e h y p o t h e s e s o f t h i s s t u d y were t r u e , t h e n t h e l e a r n i n g - t r a n s f e r - i n s t r u c t i o n group would p e r f o r m t h e t r a n s f e r t a s k s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r t h a n t h e l e a r n i n g - i n s t r u c t i o n - o n l y group. S e c o n d l y , c o n s i d e r i n g t h e schema h y p o t h e s i s c o n c e r n i n g t a s k v a r i a b i l i t y , t h e SPV t a s k c o n d i t i o n would p e r f o r m t h e t r a n s f e r t a s k b e t t e r t h a n t h e SV and PV t a s k c o n d i t i o n s . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e schema t h e o r y , l e a r n e r s i n t h e l e a r n i n g - t r a n s f e r - i n s t r u c t i o n and l e a r n i n g -i n s t r u c t i o n group would p e r f o r m s u p e r i o r t o t h e c o n t r o l group on t h e t r a n s f e r t a s k . G i v e n t h a t i n s t r u c t i o n has no e f f e c t , v a r i o u s s t a g e s o f t h e l e a r n i n g t a s k would s e r v e as a v a r i a b i l i t y i n t h e p r a c t i c e s e s s i o n and, t h e r e f o r e , f a c i l i t a t e t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e a p p r o p r i a t e schema f o r t h e motor t a s k . Thus, p r i o r t o t h e t r a n s f e r t a s k s , t h e LTI and LIO groups i n c o mparison w i t h t h e c o n t r o l group had t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o p r a c t i c e w i t h v a r i o u s p a t h s and speeds. T h i s c o n d i t i o n was s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f P i g g o t and S h a p i r o ' s e x p e r i m e n t (1984). The motor program t h e o r y may p r e d i c t some improvement i n b i l a t e r a l t r a n s f e r o n l y i f t h e t r a n s f e r t a s k i s an e x a c t r e p l i c a t e o f t h e l e a r n i n g t a s k . I n s i t u a t i o n where t h e t r a n s f e r t a s k i s not an e x a c t r e p l i c a t e o f t h e l e a r n i n g t a s k , l i k e t h e t a s k employed i n t h i s e x p e r i m e n t , t h e motor program t h e o r y would not p r o v i d e a s a t i s f a c t o r y base f o r p r e d i c t i n g t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f b i l a t e r a l t r a n s f e r . I n such a s i t u a t i o n t h e t r a n s f e r t a s k i s c o n s i d e r e d as a n o v e l t a s k . The motor program t h e o r y may p r e d i c t performance o f a t a s k 32 under t h e r e t e n t i o n c o n d i t i o n where t h e p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e i s t o measure how much a l e a r n e r can r e p r o d u c e a f t e r t h e o r i g i n a l l e a r n i n g . L a s h l e y (1917), one o f t h e p i o n e e r s o f t h e motor program t h e o r y , r e p o r t e d t h a t a p a t i e n t w i t h gunshot wound t h a t e l i m i n a t e d s e n s a t i o n c o u l d r e p r o d u c e movements a c c u r a t e l y . S i m i l a r l y , Taub and Berman (1968) showed t h a t monkeys t h a t were s u r g i c a l l y d e p r i v e d o f normal p r o p r i o c e p t i v e f eedback c o u l d s t i l l c a r r y out s k i l l f u l r e a c h i n g and l o c o m o t o r movements. Numerous i n v e s t i g a t i o n s have been r e p o r t e d by o t h e r i n v e s t i g a t o r s w o r k i n g w i t h a wide range o f s p e c i e s ( K e e l e , 1968; E v a r t s , B i z z e , Burke, Delong, and Tach, 1971). The i m p l i c a t i o n from t h e s e s t u d i e s i s t h a t once an o r g a n i s m l e a r n s a s k i l l , t h e r e p r o d u c t i o n , o r i n o t h e r words, r e t r i e v a l o f t h a t s k i l l can be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a motor program w h i c h i s i n d e p e n d e n t o f s e n s o r y feedback. These s t u d i e s p r o v i d e no s u p p o r t f o r p r e d i c t i o n o f p r o d u c i n g n o v e l s k i l l f u l movements ( t r a n s f e r ) . I n summary, i n s t r u c t i o n would a f f e c t p e r formance i n d i f f e r e n t ways, depending on what t h e o r y i s a p p l i e d . The motor program t h e o r y would p r e d i c t t h a t t h e p e r f o r m e r on t h e t r a n s f e r t a s k w i l l c a l l a new program t o be e x e c u t e d o r w i l l use t h e same program as was employed on t h e t r a i n i n g t a s k . I f i n d e e d a new program were s e l e c t e d , t h e q u e s t i o n remains as t o how t h e new program would have been c r e a t e d . T h i s i s i n f a c t t h e n o v e l t y problem t h a t t h e motor program i s f a c i n g . But i f t h e o l d program i s used, t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f e r r o r i n r e s p o n s e w i l l e x i s t . The schema t h e o r y would make 33 a d i f f e r e n t p r e d i c t i o n when i n s t r u c t i o n i s g i v e n t o t h e s u b j e c t . A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s t h e o r y , t h e l e a r n e r w i l l form a schema w h i c h i s a p p l i c a b l e t o s e v e r a l i n s t a n c e s o f a t a s k . I n t h e c a s e o f b i l a t e r a l t r a n s f e r , t h e p e r f o r m e r w i l l r e c a l l t h e same schema b u t w i l l change t h e pa r a m e t e r s o f t h a t schema and, t h e r e f o r e , h i s / h e r performance w i l l be improved. A p p a r a t u s and P r o c e d u r e A L a f a y e t t e P h o t o e l e c t r i c R o t a r y P u r s u i t Model 54517 was employed i n t h i s e x p e r i m e n t . The p u r s u i t r o t o r machine was c o n n e c t e d t o a G u l t o n NP-7 P r i n t e r w h i c h t r a n s f o r m e d t h e performance s c o r e o f t h e l e a r n e r s from a d i g i t a l d i s p l a y t o a p r i n t e d o u t p u t . The p u r s u i t r o t o r was a l s o c o n n e c t e d t o Repeat C y c l e Timer Model 51013 w h i c h s e t t h e a p p r o p r i a t e p e r i o d s o f a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e machine. The e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l p r o c e d u r e d e s i g n e d f o r t h i s model o f p u r s u i t r o t o r p r o v i d e s a p p r o p r i a t e f a c i l i t i e s t o m a n i p u l a t e t h e d u r a t i o n o f r e s t and a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e machine. A S e i k o s t o p watch was a l s o employed t o keep t r a c k o f t h e r e s t i n t e r v a l s . P e r i o d i c m o n i t o r i n g o f t h e speed o f r o t a t i o n was done t o a s s u r e t h e a c c u r a c y o f t h e t e s t i n g i n s t r u m e n t . The L T I and LIO group r e c e i v e d i n s t r u c t i o n f o r t h e l e a r n i n g t a s k . T h i s i n s t r u c t i o n i n c l u d e d a v e r b a l e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e l e a r n i n g t a s k and t h e n a d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f i t . The e x p e r i m e n t e r e x p l a i n e d t o t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e s e groups t h a t t h e t a s k had two i m p o r t a n t d i m e n s i o n s . These d i m e n s i o n s were t h e speed and t h e p a t h o f r o t a t i o n and were shown t o t h e l e a r n e r s . The e x p e r i m e n t e r s e t t h e P u r s u i t 34 R o t o r t a s k t o a c i r c l e p a t h a t t h e speed o f 30 RPM. Then, w h i l e t h e a p p a r a t u s was a c t i v a t e d , t h e speed o f t h e moving t a r g e t was s e t t o d i f f e r e n t speeds i n o r d e r t o show t h e l e a r n e r t h e n a t u r e o f v a r i a b i l i t y o f t h e speed o f r o t a t i o n . Then t h e machine was t u r n e d o f f and t h e c i r c l e p a t h was r e p l a c e d w i t h a n o t h e r p a t h ( e.g., a s q u a r e ) . The s u b j e c t was i n f o r m e d t h a t h i s / h e r t a s k was t o t r a c e t h e moving t a r g e t w i t h a s t y l u s on a p r e - e s t a b l i s h e d p a t h . S/he was asked t o h o l d t h e s t y l u s w i t h h e r / h i s p r e f e r r e d hand so t h a t t h e r e were no v a r i a t i o n s among t h e s u b j e c t s i n r e g a r d t o t h e use o f t h e i r hands d u r i n g t h e l e a r n i n g t r i a l . The e x p e r i m e n t a l group (LTI) a l s o r e c e i v e d i n s t r u c t i o n f o r t h e t r a n s f e r t a s k . The e x p e r i m e n t e r gave t h e i n s t r u c t i o n t o each group a c c o r d i n g t o t h e t y p e o f t a s k t h a t t h e y were e x p e c t e d t o p e r f o r m . The e x p e r i m e n t e r t o l d t h e l e a r n e r s t h a t were a s s i g n e d t o t h e S h i f t o f hand c o n d i t i o n : " you a r e g o i n g t o l e a r n two t o f o u r t a s k s now (depending on t h e t a s k group) , b u t I w i l l ask you t o l e a r n a n o t h e r t a s k a f t e r you l e a r n t h e s e t a s k s . That t a s k w i l l be i d e n t i c a l t o t h e s e t a s k s you a r e g o i n g t o l e a r n now, b u t you w i l l have t o use y o u r o t h e r hand t o l e a r n t h a t t a s k . The t a s k t o come l a t e r w i l l have a h i g h e r speed and d i f f e r e n t p a t h t h a n t h e t a s k s you a r e t o l e a r n now. The p r e s e n t t a s k s have speed o f 30, and 45 r o t a t i o n p e r minute b u t t h e one you w i l l be d o i n g l a t e r w i t h t h e o p p o s i t e hand w i l l have a speed o f 65 r o t a t i o n p e r minute w h i c h i s f a s t e r t h a n t h e one you w i l l be l e a r n i n g f i r s t p l u s t h e p a t h o f t h e r o t a t i o n w i l l be s e t t o a hexagon p a t h ( t h e shape o f hexagon was shown t o t h e s u b j e c t s i n t h i s group so t h a t t h e y knew what a hexagon l o o k e d l i k e ) . " The L T I - N o - S h i f t group r e c e i v e d t h e same i n s t r u c t i o n b u t t h e y were t o l d t h a t t h e y were e x p e c t e d t o p e r f o r m t h e t r a n s f e r t a s k w i t h t h e same hand. The C o n t r o l group r e c e i v e d o n l y t h e s t a n d a r d i n s t r u c t i o n f o r t h e performance 35 o f p u r s u i t r o t o r t a s k p r i o r t o t h e t r a n s f e r t a s k . The l e a r n i n g and t r a n s f e r i n s t r u c t i o n were g i v e n t o t h e s u b j e c t s a f t e r t h e warm-up t a s k . A l l s u b j e c t s t o o k a t h r e e - t r i a l warm-up t r a i n i n g w i t h a c i r c u l a r p a t h a t t h e speed o f 65 RPM b e f o r e t h e s t a r t o f t h e main t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n . A l l s u b j e c t s were met a t t h e i r s c h o o l and were t e s t e d i n d i v i d u a l l y i n a t e s t i n g room. A f t e r t h e s t a n d a r d i n s t r u c t i o n s were g i v e n and t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r was c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e s u b j e c t s u n d e r s t o o d t h e p r o c e d u r e s , t e s t i n g began. The s u b j e c t p e r f o r m e d t h e t a s k i n a s t a n d i n g p o s i t i o n . The l e a r n i n g t a s k began w i t h a t r i a n g l e p a t h a t t h e speed o f 30 RPM w i t h a c l o c k w i s e r o t a t i o n . T r i a l d u r a t i o n s was m a i n t a i n e d f o r 2 0 seconds. Each t r i a l was i n t e r s p a c e d by 2 0 s e c . o f r e s t i n t e r v a l s . The t i m i n g f o r t h e t r i a l s was e s t a b l i s h e d t h r o u g h t h e a p p r o p r i a t e t i m i n g d e v i c e i n s t a l l e d on t h e p u r s u i t r o t o r . I t i s p o s s i b l e t o s e t t h e d e s i r a b l e t i m e p e r i o d f o r p r a c t i c e on t h e PR-14A p u r s u i t r o t o r . The r e s t i n t e r v a l s i n t e r p o l a t e d between t r i a l s were d e t e r m i n e d by an o t h e r independent t i m e r . The a p p r o p r i a t e speed o f r o t a t i o n was produced by s e t t i n g t h e speed a d j u s t e r i n s t a l l e d on t h e p u r s u i t r o t o r . V a r i a t i o n o f speed o f r o t a t i o n was made p o s s i b l e t h r o u g h t h i s f a c i l i t y and ranged from z e r o t o 100 RPM. A f t e r e v e r y t r i a l , t h e s c o r e o f t h e s u b j e c t s was r e c o r d e d on a p r i n t i n g d e v i c e c o n n e c t e d t o t h e p u r s u i t r o t o r . S u b j e c t s were i n f o r m e d about t h e i r s c o r e on e v e r y t r i a l (Number o f H i t s , and t h e amount o f Time on T a r g e t ) . A t o t a l o f 12 t r i a l s made up t h e e n t i r e t e s t i n g 36 s e s s i o n f o r e v e r y group, as d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r . The e n t i r e l e a r n i n g s e s s i o n l a s t e d f o r 8 m i n u t e s . A 5 m i n u t e o r 30 s e c . r e s t i n t e r v a l s e p a r a t e d t h e o r i g i n a l t r a i n i n g t a s k from t h e t r a n s f e r t a s k . A t t h e t i m e o f t r a n s f e r t e s t i n g a l l s u b j e c t s t o o k t h e same t a s k w h i c h was a hexagon p a t h a t t h e speed o f 65 RPM. The t r i a l d u r a t i o n s and r e s t i n t e r v a l s were i d e n t i c a l t o t h a t o f t h e o r i g i n a l t r a i n i n g t e s t . The s u b j e c t s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a 6 t r i a l t e s t f o r t h e t r a n s f e r t a s k . The e n t i r e t r a n s f e r t a s k l a s t e d f o r about 4 m i n u t e s . The t o t a l t e s t i n g s e s s i o n t o o k 20 m i n u t e s . 3 7 C h a p t e r I I I . RESULTS A. An Overview o f Data A n a l y s i s The l e a r n e r s 1 performance was o b s e r v e d i n terms o f two c r i t e r i o n measures. These r e s p o n s e measures were t h e amount o f Time on T a r g e t and t h e Number o f H i t s . S i n c e t h e q u a l i t y o f p e r f o r m a n c e was a f u n c t i o n o f two dependent v a r i a b l e s , i t was n e c e s s a r y t o d e t e r m i n e whether t h e s e two r e s p o n s e measures were independent o f one a n o t h e r . A s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t f o r t h e amount o f Time on T a r g e t and t h e Number o f H i t s on l e a r n i n g t r i a l s showed t h a t t h e s e measures were s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d d u r i n g t h e l e a r n i n g ( r=.62). C o n s e q u e n t l y , i t was n e c e s s a r y t o c o n s i d e r s i m u l t a n e o u s l y b o t h v a r i a b l e s i n t h e a n a l y s i s . M u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e (MAN0VA) was used t o t e s t t h e h y p o t h e s e s o f t h e s t u d y . The e x p e r i m e n t w i s e Type I e r r o r f o r t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e l e a r n i n g d a t a and t r a n s f e r p erformance was s e t t o .15. S i n c e t h e two f a c t o r s o f I n s t r u c t i o n and Task were t e s t e d s e p a r a t e l y (2 t e s t s ) , t h e e r r o r r a t e f o r each major m u l t i v a r i a t e t e s t o f s i g n i f i c a n c e was s e t t o .075. Only i f t h e m u l t i v a r i a t e F - s t a t i s t i c s was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , t h e u n i v a r i a t e F - t e s t s f o r t h e amount o f Time on T a r g e t and t h e Number o f H i t s were examined f o r t h e a n a l y s i s and each were t e s t e d a t .033. The n a t u r e o f t h e r e s p o n s e measures r e q u i r e d c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e performance o f t h e l e a r n e r s . Performance o f t h e l e a r n e r s on t h e p u r s u i t r o t o r 38 t a s k can be c o n c e i v e d i n terms o f f o u r p o s s i b l e t y p e s . A l e a r n e r w i t h h i g h s c o r e on t h e amount o f Time on T a r g e t and minimum s c o r e f o r t h e Number o f H i t s would d e m o n s t r a t e t h e b e s t p e r f o r m a n c e . Next t o t h i s p erformance i s p e r f o r m e r s who has h i g h s c o r e on t h e amount o f Time on T a r g e t b u t a l s o has a h i g h s c o r e on t h e Number o f H i t s as w e l l . Subsequent t o t h i s p e r f o r m e r i s a p e r f o r m e r w i t h h i g h s c o r e on t h e Number o f H i t s and low s c o r e on t h e amount o f Time on T a r g e t . And f i n a l l y , t h e w o r s t performance i s t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f a l e a r n e r w i t h low s c o r e on b o t h measures. MULTIVARIANCE program was used t o p e r f o r m t h e m u l t i v a r i a t e and u n i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e on t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l v a r i a b l e s . The p r e s e n t d a t a s t r u c t u r e r e q u i r e d a d o u b l y m u l t i v a r i a t e m u l t i f a c t o r i a l r e p e a t e d measure a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e (MANOVA) t o be p e r f o r m e d on t h e l e a r n i n g as w e l l as t r a n s f e r performance measures. B. E x a m i n a t i o n o f L e a r n i n g Performance The e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e performance o f t h e l e a r n e r s d u r i n g t h e l e a r n i n g t r i a l s i n c l u d e d t h e t e s t o f main e f f e c t s o f I n s t r u c t i o n , Task and t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n . Twelve l e a r n i n g t r i a l s o f t h e l e a r n i n g performance were b l o c k e d i n t o f o u r b l o c k s f o r a p a r s i m o n i o u s d e t e c t i o n o f l e a r n i n g phase. The a v e r a g e o f e v e r y t h r e e t r i a l s was o b t a i n e d t o make up a b l o c k . Such a b l o c k i n g p r o c e d u r e was c o n s i d e r e d t o be m e a n i n g f u l i n t h e sense t h a t f o r t h e SPV group e v e r y b l o c k r e p r e s e n t e d performance o f t h e l e a r n e r s on one o f t h e sub-t a s k v a r i a t i o n s , f o r example, T r i a n g l e & 30 RPM, T r i a n g l e & 39 45 RPM. On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e b l o c k i n g p r o c e d u r e r e d u c e d t h e number o f measured r e s p o n s e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e l e a r n i n g t r i a l s t o f o u r o c c a s i o n s . Such a r e d u c t i o n i n t h e number o f t r i a l s was c o n s i d e r e d t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e i n t e r p r e t i o n o f t h e l e a r n i n g p e r f o r m a n c e . The r e d u c t i o n p r o c e d u r e employed f o r t h i s e x p e r i m e n t r e d u c e d t h e p o l y n o m i n a l t r e n d components t o a c u b i c degree. K i r k (1982) s u g g e s t s t h a t i n e x p e r i m e n t s i n v o l v i n g many t r e a t m e n t l e v e l s , t h e t e s t beyond t h e c u b i c degree be t r e a t e d c o l l e c t i v e l y . I n c a s e s where t r e n d s i n d a t a go beyond t h e c u b i c degree, a c c o r d i n g t o o u r c u r r e n t knowledge o f motor l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s e s , i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t t e s t s o f t r e n d components beyond t h e c u b i c degree would add m a t e r i a l l y t o t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e d a t a . A 2 ( I n s t r u c t i o n : LTI v s . LIO) by 3 (Task: SPV, PV, SP) by 4 ( T r i a l B l o c k s : 1-4) f a c t o r i a l a n a l y s i s was p e r f o r m e d on t h e d a t a s t r u c t u r e o f t h e two r e s p o n s e measures o f l e a r n i n g p e r f o r m a n c e . V a r i o u s combined means d e r i v e d from T a b l e 1 f o r b o t h t h e Number o f H i t s and t h e amount o f Time on T a r g e t a r e p r e s e n t e d f o r b o t h b e t w e e n - s u b j e c t and w i t h i n - s u b j e c t f a c t o r s i n T a b l e 1, and l a t h r o u g h l c . They a r e a l s o p r e s e n t e d i n F i g u r e l a f o r easy v i s u a l i n s p e c t i o n . I n s e r t T a b l e s 1, l a t h r o u g h l c , and F i g u r e l a about h e r e 1. Performance by Two I n s t r u c t i o n a l Groups A r e p e a t e d measure d e s i g n was employed t o e v a l u a t e t h e b e t w e e n - s u b j e c t f a c t o r as w e l l as w i t h i n - s u b j e c t f a c t o r s 40 e f f e c t s . MANOVA f o r t h e f i r s t b e t w e e n - s u b j e c t f a c t o r r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e e f f e c t s o f I n s t r u c t i o n on t h e l e a r n i n g t a s k was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , m u l t i v a r i a t e F (2, 65)=4.99, p_<.009 ; u n i v a r i a t e Fs ( 1 , 66)=10.02 and 4.99, p_s<.002 and .029, f o r t h e amount o f Time on T a r g e t and f o r t h e Number o f H i t s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h i s t e s t r e s u l t means t h a t f o r t h e two r e s p o n s e measures a v e r a g e d o v e r t h e l e a r n i n g b l o c k s , t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e p e r f o r m a n c e s o f t h e LTI and t h e LIO group. The o b s e r v e d means were 4.86 and 3.76, 43.39 and 37.91 f o r t h e two measures, r e s p e c t i v e l y . The LTI group s t a y e d on t h e moving t a r g e t l o n g e r and h i t i t more f r e q u e n t l y t h a n t h e LIO group. These t e s t r e s u l t s was e x p e c t e d . I t was p r e d i c t e d t h a t t h e LTI group would be i n v o l v e d i n a g o a l d i r e c t e d a c t i v i t i e s d u r i n g t h e l e a r n i n g t r i a l s , and t h e r e f o r e , would p e r f o r m t h e t a s k b e t t e r t h a n t h e LIO group. The o v e r a l l t r e n d a n a l y s i s was p e r f o r m e d on d a t a on t h e f o u r b l o c k s (see T a b l e l a and F i g u r e l a ) . The o r t h o g o n a l p o l y n o m i n a l t e s t s showed t h a t t h e r e were o v e r a l l s i g n i f i c a n t l i n e a r , q u a d r a t i c , and c u b i c t r e n d s a c r o s s t h e l e a r n i n g b l o c k s , m u l t i v a r i a t e Fs (2, 65)=6.04, 7.52 and 3.58; p_<.004, .0012, and .034, r e s p e c t i v e l y . The o b s e r v e d l i n e a r and q u a d r a t i c t r e n d s a r e e x p e c t e d o f any l e a r n i n g t r i a l s e f f e c t s , t h a t i s , an i n i t i a l d i s c r i m i n a b l e p r o g r e s s f o l l o w e d by a t e m p o r a r y s t a t i o n a r y phase, t h e c u b i c t r e n d i s most l i k e l y due t o b r e a k p o i n t s o f 12 t r i a l s by changes i n t a s k v a r i e t i e s . 41 2. Performance by Task V a r i a b i l i t y The e f f e c t s o f t a s k v a r i a t i o n was a l s o examined g i v e n t h e d a t a p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e l b . There were two t a s k c o n t r a s t s i n t h e a n a l y s i s . I n t h e f i r s t c o n t r a s t , t h e e f f e c t s o f t a s k w i t h speed and p a t h v a r i e d (SPV) v e r s u s t a s k w i t h speed v a r i e d (SV) and t a s k w i t h p a t h v a r i e d (PV) was t e s t e d . MANOVA r e v e a l e d no s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t f o r t h e SPV t a s k v e r s u s t h e SV and PV t a s k combined. T h i s t e s t r e s u l t means t h a t t h e l e a r n e r s ' performance on average o v e r t h e f o u r l e a r n i n g b l o c k s SPV t a s k was s i m i l a r t o t h o s e on t h e o t h e r two t a s k s . The second c o n t r a s t f o r t h e b e t w e e n - s u b j e c t e f f e c t f o r t h e SV t a s k v e r s u s t h e PV t a s k a l s o showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e performance o f t h e l e a r n e r s on t h e s e two t a s k s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t t r e n d s a c r o s s t h e l e a r n i n g b l o c k s f o r t h e s e two t a s k s . The i m p l i c a t i o n o f t h e s e f i n d i n g s i s t h a t t h e Task f a c t o r d i d n o t have any s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on t h e p e rformance o f t h e l e a r n e r s d u r i n g t h e l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . T h i s f i n d i n g i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g i n v i e w o f t h e n a t u r e o f b l o c k s confounded w i t h t a s k s and d i f f e r i n g number o f p r a c t i c e t r i a l s . F o l l o w i n g t h e t e s t o f main e f f e c t o f t h e two f a c t o r s , t h e t e s t s o f i n t e r a c t i o n f o r t h e two f a c t o r s , g i v e n t h e d a t a p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e l c , were made. I n t h e f i r s t t e s t o f i n t e r a c t i o n , I n s t r u c t i o n and t h e f i r s t c o n t r a s t o f t a s k s were examined. The t e s t r e s u l t i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between I n s t r u c t i o n and t h e c o n t r a s t 42 o f SPV t a s k v e r s u s SV and PV t a s k , m u l t i v a r i a t e F (2, 65)=1.87, p_>.075. I n a d d i t i o n , no s i g n i f i c a n t p o l y n o m i n a l t r e n d was p r e s e n t f o r t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n c o n t r a s t . The second t e s t o f i n t e r a c t i o n was made between I n s t r u c t i o n and t h e c o n t r a s t o f SV t a s k v e r s u s t h e PV t a s k . A g a i n , MANOVA showed no s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n f o r t h i s p a r t o f d a t a a n a l y s i s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t p o l y n o m i n a l t r e n d a c r o s s t h e l e a r n i n g b l o c k s f o r t h i s c o n t r a s t . C. A n a l y s i s o f T r a n s f e r Performance The two measures o f t r a n s f e r performance were r e c o r d e d and a n a l y z e d u s i n g MANOVA. An o v e r a l l c o r r e l a t i o n o f .545 was found between t h e two measures a c r o s s t h e t r i a l s . A s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t o f s i g n i f i c a n c e showed t h a t c o r r e l a t i o n was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , w h i c h i n d i c a t e s t h e i r b e i n g f a r from m u l t i c o l i n e a r i t y , hence, t h e m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s e s were p e r f o r m e d . S i m i l a r p r o c e d u r e s were employed t o p e r f o r m t h e s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s f o r t h e performance on t h e t r a n s f e r t a s k . However, t o improve t h e i n t e r p r e t a b i l i t y o f t h e r e s u l t s , t h e t r e n d a n a l y s i s f o r t h e w i t h i n - s u b j e c t f a c t o r was l i m i t e d t o t h e c u b i c degree. The b l o c k i n g p r o c e d u r e employed f o r t h e l e a r n i n g d a t a was n o t c o n s i d e r e d t o be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h i s p a r t o f a n a l y s i s . The a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e b l o c k i n g p r o c e d u r e f o r t h e s m a l l e r number o f t r i a l s on t h e t r a n s f e r t e s t would mask t h e s e n s i t i v i t y o f t h e t r a n s f e r p erformance measures. 43 A 2 ( I n s t r u c t i o n : LTI v s . LIO) by 3 (Task: SPV, PV, SV) by 2 ( R e s t : 5 M i n u t e v s . 3 0 Second) by 2 ( S h i f t : P r e f e r r e d v s . N o n - P r e f e r r e d ) by 6 ( T r a n s f e r T r i a l s : 6 T r i a l s ) f a c t o r i a l d e s i g n a n a l y s i s was performed on t h e d a t a s t r u c t u r e o f t h e two re s p o n s e measures. C e l l means f o r t h e amount o f Time on T a r g e t and t h e Number o f H i t s f o r t h e b e t w e e n - s u b j e c t f a c t o r s i n T a b l e 2, from w h i c h v a r i o u s m a r g i n a l and combined means a r e d e r i v e d f o r i l l u s t r a t i v e p u r p o s e s , a r e shown. They a r e a l s o p r e s e n t e d i n F i g u r e 2a t h r o u g h 2b f o r easy v i s u a l i n s p e c t i o n . I n s e r t T a b l e s 2, and 2a t h r o u g h 2 f and F i g u r e s 2a 2b about h e r e The d a t a a n a l y s i s f o r t h e t r a n s f e r p e r formance was a l s o made a c c o r d i n g t o t h e main hy p o t h e s e s o f t h e s t u d y . I n t h e f i r s t s t e p , t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e l e a r n i n g t r e a t m e n t f a c t o r s were e v a l u a t e d . P r i o r t o c o n d u c t i n g t h e t e s t o f s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r t h e l e a r n i n g t r e a t m e n t f a c t o r s , i t was n e c e s s a r y t o c o n f i r m i f any t r a n s f e r has o c c u r r e d a t a l l . T h e r e f o r e , performance o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l groups was compared w i t h t h e c o n t r o l g roups. Second, t h e c o n t r a s t f o r t h e l e a r n i n g t r e a t m e n t f a c t o r s were made t o e v a l u a t e t h e v a r i o u s e f f e c t s p r e d i c t e d . T h i r d , t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e moderator v a r i a b l e s were e v a l u a t e d . F i n a l l y , t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f t h e l e a r n i n g and t r a n s f e r v a r i a b l e s were examined. 44 1. A n a l y s i s o f t h e O v e r a l l T r a n s f e r E f f e c t o f T r a i n i n g T h i s p a r t o f t h e d a t a a n a l y s i s was p a r t i c u l a r l y under s c r u t i n y t o a d d r e s s t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n . I n t h e f i r s t c o n t r a s t , t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e l e a r n i n g v a r i a b l e s , I n s t r u c t i o n and Task were d e t e r m i n e d by comparing t h e performance o f t h e l e a r n e r s i n t h o s e c o n d i t i o n s w i t h t h a t o f t h e two c o n t r o l g r o u p s . I t was p r e d i c t e d t h a t t h e a l l s u b j e c t s g i v e n t r a i n i n g on 12 l e a r n i n g t r i a l s would b e n e f i t from p r a c t i c e s on t a s k s under t h e two l e v e l s o f i n s t r u c t i o n (LTI and LIO) and c o n s e q u e n t l y p e r f o r m e d ' t h e t r a n s f e r t a s k b e t t e r t h a n t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p s . A l s o , i t was e x p e c t e d t h a t some b i l a t e r a l t r a n s f e r s h o u l d o c c u r as a r e s u l t o f 12 l e a r n i n g t r i a l s on v a r i o u s t a s k s , a l t h o u g h i t may n o t be as much as u n i l a t e r a l t r a n s f e r . The combined w e i g h t e d t o t a l means o f Time on T a r g e t and t h e Number o f H i t s f o r e v a l u a t i n g t h e s e p r e d i c t i o n s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 2a. The e s t i m a t i o n o f t h e e f f e c t s d e s i r e d n e c e s s i t a t e s e s t i m a t i n g t h e mean s q u a r e s o f e r r o r s f o r t h e two dependent v a r i a b l e s , b e i n g p o o l e d from t h o s e from 24 t r e a t m e n t c o n d i t i o n s i n v o l v i n g a t o t a l o f 10 s u b j e c t s . How t h e o r i g i n a l means s q u a r e s o f e r r o r s from b o t h s o u r c e s can be p o o l e d i s shown below T a b l e 2a. I t s h o u l d be n o t e d h e r e t h a t t h e y a r e t o o d i s p a r a t e t o be a cause f o r s e r i o u s c o n c e r n because o f h e t e r o g e n i t y o f v a r i a n c e s o b s e r v e d ( see t h e bottom o f t h e T a b l e 2 a ) , even though a q u i t e l a r g e sample s i z e ( i . e., N=82) w i t h t h e m a j o r i t y o f 26 e q u a l c e l l s i z e s ( i . e., 3 f o r t h e 45 e x p e r i m e n t a l groups and 5 f o r t h e c o n t r o l groups) a r e e q u a l . However, such c o n c e r n may be a l l e v i a t e d by u s i n g t h e Welch-A s p i n t * - t e s t (Welch, 1947) as t h e o n e - t a i l t e s t . The f i r s t c o n t r a s t was made between t h e o v e r a l l means o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l t r e a t m e n t groups and t h o s e o f t h e c o n t r o l g roups (see t h e l a s t column o f T a b l e 2a : 4.12 v s . 1 1 . 1 3 / s e c , 49.28 v s . 87.75 f o r Time and H i t s , r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . The l e a r n i n g t r e a t m e n t s h e l p t h e l e a r n e r s s t a y on t a r g e t l o n g e r w i t h more c o n t a c t s ( H i t s ) on t h e t a r g e t v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t l y , t * (25)=3.66 and t * (15)=4.42, ps<.005, f o r Time on T a r g e t and t h e Number o f H i t s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . Two f u r t h e r c o n t r a s t s were made t o a s c e r t a i n t h e q u e s t i o n s o f whether o r n o t u n i l a t e r a l and b i l a t e r a l t r a n s f e r o c c u r r e d . The a n a l y s i s showed t h a t t h o s e who l e a r n e d w i t h t h e p r e f e r r e d hand t r a n s f e r r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o t h e t r a n s f e r t a s k ( i . e., 11.73 v s . 5 . 0 3 / s e c , 92.82 v s . 53.97 f o r Time and H i t s , r e s p e c t i v e l y ) ; t * (13)=2.43 and t * (8)=3.21 ; ps<.025 and .01, r e s p e c t i v e l y . Under t h e c o n d i t i o n o f hand s h i f t e d , t h a t i s , p e r f o r m i n g t h e t r a n s f e r w i t h t h e hand s h i f t e d , t h e t r a i n i n g w i t h 12 l e a r n i n g t r i a l s l e d t o s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n s ( i . e., 10.53 v s . 3.20/sec. and 82.67 v s . 44.58 H i t s ) , t * (13)=2.47 and t*=3.15, ps<.025 and .01, r e s p e c t i v e l y , f o r Time on T a r g e t and t h e Number o f H i t s . S i n c e t h e l a t t e r c o n t r a s t e f f e c t s r e p r e s e n t b i l a t e r a l t r a n s f e r w i t h hand s h i f t e d an confounded w i t h p e r f o r m i n g by n o n - p r e f e r r e d hand, i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o e s t i m a t e t h e b i l a t e r a l e f f e c t w i t h p r e f e r r e d handedness e f f e c t t a k e n o f f . 46 T h i s c o n t r a s t r e q u i r e d i s e s s e n t i a l l y t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e two p r e c e d i n g c o n t r a s t s e f f e c t s ( i . e., t h e l a t t e r - t h e former=.32 and .38 f o r Time and H i t s ) , w h i c h t u r n e d o u t t o be n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , t * < 1.0. T h i s means t h a t t h e b i l a t e r a l t r a n s f e r o c c u r r e d i n as much as t h e u n i l a t e r a l t r a n s f e r . 2. The I n s t r u c t i o n e f f e c t s and i t s I n t e r a c t i o n The main e f f e c t o f I n s t r u c t i o n was e v a l u a t e d i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f i n s t r u c t i o n . I t was e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e LTI group would p e r f o r m t h e t r a n s f e r t a s k b e t t e r t h a n t h e LIO group. The m a r g i n a l means f o r LTI and LIO were 5.13 and 3.95/sec. f o r Time and 38.7 and 32.94 f o r H i t s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . The t e s t s t a t i s t i c s c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e main e f f e c t s o f t h e f i r s t b e t w e e n - s u b j e c t f a c t o r was found t o be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , m u l t i v a r i a t e F (2, 47)=2.797, p_<.071 ; u n i v a r i a t e Fs ( 1 , 48) =3.87 and 4.89, p_s<.055 and .032, f o r t h e amount o f Time on T a r g e t and t h e Number o f H i t s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h i s t e s t r e s u l t d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t t h e LTI group p e r f o r m e d t h e t r a n s f e r t a s k s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r t h a n t h e LIO c o n d i t i o n . These f i n d i n g s were i n agreement w i t h t h e p r e d i c t i o n o f t h e schema t h e o r y . I t was e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e LTI c o n d i t i o n would be more m o t i v a t e d on t h e l e a r n i n g t a s k and, t h e r e f o r e , would be c o g n i t i v e l y more i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r o c e s s o f f o r m i n g t h e schema d u r i n g l e a r n i n g . The v i s u a l i n s p e c t i o n o f F i g u r e 2a r e v e a l s t h e s u p e r i o r i t y o f t h e LTI i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e LIO on t h e t r a n s f e r t a s k . However, d e s p i t e t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e 47 p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e two groups on each t r a n s f e r t r i a l s , t h e two i n s t r u c t i o n a l t r e a t m e n t s showed no d i f f e r e n t i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t l i n e a r t r e n d s a c r o s s t h e t r a n s f e r t r i a l s , a l t h o u g h t h e r e i s an o v e r a l l l i n e a r t r e n d o v e r t h e s i x t r i a l s , m u l t i v a r i a t e F (2, 47)=2.89, p_<.066 (see T a b l e 2 b ) . The t e s t o f i n t e r a c t i o n o f I n s t r u c t i o n w i t h t h e t a s k v a r i a b i l i t y was c o n d u c t e d . Two i n t e r a c t i o n c o n t r a s t s were made and t e s t e d : an i n t e r a c t i o n between t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l g r oups and t h e f i r s t c o n t r a s t comparing t h e SPV w i t h t h e SV and PV t a s k s and a n o t h e r one w i t h t h e second c o n t r a s t comparing t h e SV w i t h t h e PV t a s k . These f i n d i n g s showed t h a t t h e l e a r n e r s under t h e LTI c o n d i t i o n p e r f o r m e d t h e t r a n s f e r t a s k l i k e t h e l e a r n e r s on t h e LIO c o n d i t i o n . I t i s c o n t r a r y t o t h e e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t t h e SPV t a s k c o n d i t i o n would be more c o n d u c i v e t o schema f o r m a t i o n under t h e LTI c o n d i t i o n t h a n any o t h e r t r e a t m e n t c o n d i t i o n s . However, t h e t e s t o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n c o n t r a s t i n t e rm o f t h e l i n e a r t r e n d r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n a c r o s s t h e t r a n s f e r t r i a l s , m u l t i v a r i a t e F ( 2 , 47) =3.16, p_<.051. The e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e l i n e a r t r e n d s on b o t h measures showed t h a t SPV t a s k c o n d i t i o n appear t o l e a d t o i n i t i a l growth o v e r t h e t r a n s f e r t r i a l s , w h i l e o t h e r t a s k c o n d i t i o n s f a i l i n g t o show t h e same t r e n d s . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e i n s p e c t i o n o f combined means f o r t h e s e c o n t r a s t i n g groups (see T a b l e 2c) r e v e a l s a complex p a t t e r n . W h i l e t h e SPV t a s k group i n LTI c o n d i t i o n p e r f o r m e d t h e f i r s t t h r e e t r i a l s b e t t e r t h a n t h e SV and/or t h e PV t a s k o r 48 b o t h combined, t h i s group f a i l e d t o show t h e same p a t t e r n i n t h e i r p e r formance on t h e LIO c o n d i t i o n and pe r f o r m e d worse t h a n t h e average o f t h e performance o f SV and PV t a s k c o n d i t i o n s l a t e r . The p r e s e n c e o f such complex f l u c t u a t i o n i n t h e perf o r m a n c e o f t h e SPV t a s k on t r a n s f e r t e s t may be due t o t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n q u a l i t y o f c o g n i t i v e i n v o l v e m e n t o f t h e two c o n t r a s t i n g t a s k g r o u p s . The SPV t a s k may t r y d i f f e r e n t s t r a t e g i e s on t h e l e a r n i n g t r i a l s on each s u b - t a s k and c a r r y o v e r t h e same t y p e o f approach t o t h e t r a n s f e r t a s k , whereas t h e o t h e r two t a s k s may m a i n t a i n a c o n s i s t e n t s t r a t e g y t h r o u g h o u t t h e l e a r n i n g and t r a n s f e r t r i a l s . The second t e s t o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n a l s o showed no s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l groups and t h e SV t a s k v e r s u s t h e PV t a s k . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s t e s t means t h a t t h e l e a r n e r s i n t h e LTI c o n d i t i o n on t h e SV t a s k c o n d i t i o n p e r f o r m e d t h e t r a n s f e r t a s k l i k e t h e l e a r n e r s i n t h e LIO c o n d i t i o n on t h e SV t a s k c o n d i t i o n . The absence o f i n t e r a c t i o n between t h e s e two f a c t o r s i s an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e c o n s i s t e n c y o f performance o f t h e l e a r n e r s on t h e LTI c o n d i t i o n . That i s , p e r f o r m e r s i n t h e LTI groups p e r f o r m e d t h e t a s k s b e t t e r t h a n t h e p e r f o r m e r s i n t h e LIO gro u p s . 3. The E f f e c t s o f Task V a r i a t i o n on t h e T r a n s f e r Performance The m a r g i n a l means f o r t h e l e a r n e r s * performance under t h e t r a i n i n g c o n d i t i o n s w i t h t h e SPV, SV, and PV t a s k s were o b s e r v e d t o be 4.05, 5.03, and 4.54 f o r Time on T a r g e t and 32.39, 36.75, and 38.31 f o r t h e Number o f H i t s , 49 r e s p e c t i v e l y . I t was p r e d i c t e d t h a t t h e l e a r n e r s on SPV t a s k would p e r f o r m t h e t r a n s f e r t a s k b e t t e r t h a n t h e l e a r n e r s on SV o r PV t a s k . T h i s was m a i n l y t h e p r e d i c t i o n i m p l i e d by t h e schema t h e o r y . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e t h e o r y , t h e l e a r n e r s who p r a c t i c e more v a r i e t i e s o f t h e t a s k d u r i n g t h e l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s were e x p e c t e d t o p e r f o r m t h e t r a n s f e r t a s k b e t t e r t h a n t h e l e a r n e r s who p r a c t i c e d fewer v a r i e t i e s o f t h e l e a r n i n g t a s k . Two t a s k c o n t r a s t s were made t o d e t e r m i n e whether t h e r e was any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e performance o f t h e l e a r n e r s i n t h e d i f f e r e n t t a s k s c o n d i t i o n s . The f i r s t c o n t r a s t comparing t h e l e a r n e r s ' p erformance under t h e SPV t a s k was compared w i t h t h o s e under t h e SV and PV t a s k c o n d i t i o n combined, as m entioned e a r l i e r . The second c o n t r a s t comparing, t h e p e r f ormance o f t h e l e a r n e r s under SV t a s k c o n d i t i o n w i t h t h a t under t h e PV t a s k . Though t h e SPV t a s k c o n d i t i o n s u b j e c t s c o n s i d e r a b l y p e r f o r m e d t h e t r a n s f e r t e s t b e t t e r t h a n t h e o t h e r two t a s k g r o u p s , however, t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n p e r formance was n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . A l s o , v a r i o u s t r e n d s o v e r t h e t r a n s f e r t r i a l s f o r t h i s c o n t r a s t were n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t . These t e s t r e s u l t s d i d n o t agree w i t h what were e x p e c t e d . I t s h o u l d be s a i d t h a t t h e l e a r n e r s g i v e n t h e SPV t a s k s p e r f o r m e d t h e t r a n s f e r t a s k j u s t l i k e any o t h e r l e a r n e r s g i v e n t h e SV and PV t a s k s combined. The r e s u l t f o r t h e second c o n t r a s t o f t h e t a s k v a r i a t i o n a l s o showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e 50 per f o r m a n c e o f t h e SV t a s k v e r s u s t h e PV t a s k n o r were t h e r e any s i g n i f i c a n t t r e n d s o v e r t h e s i x t r a n s f e r t r i a l s . The r e s u l t s o f t h e s e f i n d i n g s were i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h what was e x p e c t e d . I t was p r e d i c t e d t h a t t h e SV t a s k would p e r f o r m t h e t r a n s f e r t a s k b e t t e r t h a n t h e PV t a s k . 4. The E f f e c t s o f R e s t C o n d i t i o n s and S h i f t o f Hands The m a r g i n a l means o f t h e l e a r n e r s 1 t r a n s f e r p e r formance f o l l o w i n g 5 m i n u t e s and 30 seconds r e s t i n t e r v a l s were o b s e r v e d t o be 4.83 and 4.25 f o r Time on T a r g e t and 38.95 and 32.69 f o r t h e Number o f H i t s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . There were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e l e a r n e r s ' o v e r a l l p e r f o r m a n c e , g i v e n t h e two r e s t i n t e r v a l s t h r o u g h o u t t h e t r a n s f e r t r i a l s e x c e p t f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t q u a d r a t i c t r e n d s c o r e s (see T a b l e 2 d ) . That i s t o say, t h e l e a r n e r s g i v e n f i v e m i n u t e s r e s t showed a up-down convex q u a d r a t i c t r e n d , w h i l e t h o s e g i v e n o n l y 3 0 seconds showed a down-up concave q u a d r a t i c t r e n d . T h i s d i f f e r e n c e was s i g n i f i c a n t , m u l t i v a r i a t e F (2, 47) =3.70, p_<.033; u n i v a r i a t e Fs ( 1 , 48) =7.43 and 2.36, p_<.009 and .13 f o r Time on T a r g e t and t h e Number o f H i t s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h i s f i n d i n g a ppears t o be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h what was p r e d i c t e d from t h e t h e o r y o f r e a c t i v e i n h i b i t i o n . The m a r g i n a l means o f t h e l e a r n e r s ' t r a n s f e r p erformance w i t h hand s h i f t e d and n o t s h i f t e d were o b s e r v e d t o be 3.52 and 5.56 f o r t h e Time on T a r g e t and 31.94 and 39.70 f o r t h e Number o f H i t s , r e s p e c t i v e l y ( a l s o see T a b l e 2 e ) . I t was e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e l e a r n e r s who d i d n o t s h i f t hand on t h e 51 t r a n s f e r t a s k would p e r f o r m t h e t r a n s f e r t a s k b e t t e r t h a n t h e l e a r n e r s who d i d s h i f t hand on t h e t r a n s f e r t a s k . MANOVA showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e pe r f o r m a n c e o f t h e two groups when t h e t r a n s f e r t r i a l s were av e r a g e d o v e r t h e t r i a l s . The t r a n s f e r performance l e v e l o f t h e l e a r n e r s who s h i f t e d t h e i r hand on t h e t r a n s f e r t a s k i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f t h e l e a r n e r s who d i d n o t s h i f t hand. However, t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e s i x t r a n s f e r t r i a l s r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t c u b i c t r e n d a c r o s s t h e t r a n s f e r t r i a l s , m u l t i v a r i a t e F (2, 47)=5.70, p_<.006. T h i s means t h a t t h e l e a r n e r s w i t h hand not s h i f t e d showed t h e i n i t i a l l y r i s i n g p a t t e r n o f t h e c u b i c t r e n d ( i . e., up-down-up) more c l e a r l y t h a n t h o s e who d i d s h i f t hand on t h e t r a n s f e r t a s k w i t h l a c k o f any p a t t e r n . T h i s f i n d i n g i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g , c o n s i d e r i n g t h e l e a r n e r s who would t r y t o e s t a b l i s h t h e i r p e r f o r m a n c e b a s e l i n e w i t h t h e s h i f t e d hand. 5. I n t e r a c t i o n Between L e a r n i n g and T r a n s f e r V a r i a b l e s I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e t e s t o f main e f f e c t s o f t h e t a s k f a c t o r , t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f t a s k and t h e r e m a i n i n g two f a c t o r s , t h a t i s , R e s t I n t e r v a l s and S h i f t o f Hands, were a l s o t e s t e d . The main purpose o f t h e s e t e s t s was t o e x p l o r e whether t h e r e was any s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between each p a r a m e t e r o f t h e t a s k and r e s t i n t e r v a l o r t h e s h i f t i n g o f hand c o n d i t i o n s , s e p a r a t e l y o r c o l l e c t i v e l y . These t e s t s were c o n s i d e r e d t o be i m p o r t a n t i n t h e sense t h a t t h e y c o u l d p r o v i d e a d d i t i o n a l i n s i g h t i n t o t h e n a t u r e o f v a r i a b i l i t y i n p r a c t i c e w i t h t a s k s and t h e schema f o r m a t i o n . 52 The t e s t o f t h e second o r d e r i n t e r a c t i o n between Task, R e s t I n t e r v a l , and S h i f t o f Hand r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s among t h e s e f a c t o r s . The combined means f o r t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n i s shown i n T a b l e 2 f and F i g u r e 2b. MANOVA showed a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between t h e f i r s t c o n t r a s t o f t h e Task, R e s t , and S h i f t o f Hand, m u l t i v a r i a t e F (2, 47) =3.01, p_<.058 , u n i v a r i a t e Fs ( 1 , 48)=4.19 and 5.24, p<.001 f o r Time on T a r g e t and t h e Number o f H i t s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . The e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e combined means i n T a b l e 2 f r e v e a l s t h e main s o u r c e o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n . That i s , t h e s u p e r i o r i t y o f t h e SPV t a s k c o n d i t i o n t o t h e SV and PV i s c l e a r l y shown i n t h e c o n d i t i o n o f 30 second r e s t i n t e r v a l , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h s h i f t e d hand. When t h e l e a r n e r s had 30 seconds o f r e s t p r i o r t o t h e t r a n s f e r t e s t , t h e y p e rformed t h e t a s k w i t h t h e non-p r e f e r r e d hand s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r t h a n t h e p r e f e r r e d hand. F i r s t o f a l l , t h i s f i n d i n g i s as what was p r e d i c t e d from t h e schema t h e o r y , b u t w i t h l i m i t i n g c o n d i t i o n s , t h a t i s , i n c l u d i n g t h e c o n d i t i o n o f 3 0 second r e s t i n t e r v a l , and b e t t e r y e t w i t h hand s h i f t e d . Second, t h i s f i n d i n g i s c o n t r a r y t o what t h e r e a c t i v e i n h i b i t i o n h y p o t h e s i s would p r e d i c t . As was mentioned e a r l i e r , t h e r e a c t i v e i n h i b i t i o n b u i l d - u p i s p a r t i a l l y a l o c a l phenomenon t h a t r e t a r d s t h e i n v o l v e d l i m b on r e p e t i t i v e performance. These f i n d i n g s d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t t h e n o n - s h i f t e d hand on 30 second r e s t p e r f o r m e d t h e t r a n s f e r t a s k b e t t e r t h a n t h o s e w i t h t h e s h i f t e d - h a n d . T h i s may be i n t e r p r e t e d as e v i d e n c e f o r t h e 53 v a l i d i t y o f t h e c o n s i s t e n c y h y p o t h e s i s . When t h e t a s k i s c o n t i n u o u s , i t seems t h a t t h e r e i s a c o n n e c t i o n between t h e p e r i p h e r a l and c e n t r a l c o n t r o l d e v i c e s w h i c h c o n t i n u e s u n i n t e r r u p t e d . , T h i s i n t e r r e l a t i o n p r e s e r v e s t h e q u a l i t y o f per f o r m a n c e r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e c o n n e c t i o n . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t l i n e a r t r e n d f o r t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n , m u l t i v a r i a t e F (2, 47) =8.07, p_<.001 ; u n i v a r i a t e F ( 1 , 48) =8.77, p_<.004 f o r t h e Number o f H i t s o n l y . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s t e s t showed t h a t t h e performance o f t h e l e a r n e r s on t h e 30 second r e s t i n t e r v a l w i t h p r e f e r r e d hand had a c o n s i s t e n t upward improvement i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e 5 minutes r e s t i n t e r v a l s . F i n a l l y , t h e l a s t t e s t o f i n t e r a c t i o n was p e r f o r m e d on a l l f o u r f a c t o r s i n t h e d e s i g n . There was no s i g n i f i c a n t b e t w e e n - s u b j e c t f a c t o r i n t e r a c t i o n between t h e I n s t r u c t i o n , f i r s t c o n t r a s t o f t h e Task, R e s t I n t e r v a l s , and t h e S h i f t o f Hand c o n d i t i o n s . However, t h e same was n o t t r u e f o r t h e w i t h i n - s u b j e c t f a c t o r i n t e r a c t i o n . The r e s u l t s o f t h e t r e n d a n a l y s i s showed t h a t t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t q u a d r a t i c t r e n d i n t e r a c t i o n , m u l t i v a r i a t e F (2, 47)=3.25, p_<.047 ; u n i v a r i a t e F ( 1 , 48) =5.96, p_<.018 f o r t h e Number o f H i t s o n l y f o r t h e r e c e n t i n t e r a c t i o n t e s t . A c a r e f u l e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e c e l l means o v e r t h e t r a n s f e r t r i a l s r e v e a l s t h a t t h e l e a r n e r s i n t h e LTI c o n d i t i o n w i t h t h e SPV t a s k g i v e n t h e R e s t I n t e r v a l o f 5 m i n u t e s who s h i f t e d t h e i r hand p e r f o r m e d t h e t r a n s f e r t e s t on t r i a l s 3 and 4 s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r t h a n t h e l e a r n e r s on t h e LIO 54 c o n d i t i o n , SPV t a s k , w i t h 5 minutes r e s t i n t e r v a l who s h i f t e d t h e i r hand. The l e a r n e r s on t h e LTI w i t h t h e SV t a s k a l l o w e d t h e R e s t I n t e r v a l o f 5 minute c o n d i t i o n who d i d n o t s h i f t t h e i r hand on t h e t r a n s f e r t a s k p e r f o r m e d on a l l t h e t r a n s f e r t r i a l s s i m i l a r t o t h a t c o u n t e r p a r t group on t h e LIO c o n d i t i o n . The n e x t t e s t o f i n t e r a c t i o n f o r t h e second c o n t r a s t o f t h e Task, I n s t r u c t i o n , R e s t I n t e r v a l and S h i f t o f Hand showed no s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n f o r t h e between s u b j e c t n o r f o r t h e w i t h i n s u b j e c t f a c t o r s . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s t e s t mean t h a t t h e l e a r n e r s i n t h e LTI c o n d i t i o n on t h e SV t a s k w i t h 5 m i n u t e s r e s t who s h i f t e d t o t h e i r n o n - p r e f e r r e d hand s c o r e d on t h e t r a n s f e r t e s t l i k e t h o s e i n t h e LTI on t h e PV t a s k w i t h s i m i l a r r e s t and s h i f t o f hand c o n d i t i o n . The s i m i l a r i t y o f performance a l s o remained unchanged f o r t h e w i t h i n - s u b j e c t f a c t o r . There was no s i g n i f i c a n t t r e n d o v e r t h e t r a n s f e r t r i a l s . 55 C h a p t e r IV. D i s c u s s i o n and C o n c l u s i o n A. The R o l e o f The L e a r n i n g V a r i a b l e s The a n a l y s i s o f l e a r n i n g performance i n d i c a t e s t h a t u n i l a t e r a l and b i l a t e r a l t r a n s f e r o f t r a i n i n g o c c u r r e d . The base o f c o n t r a s t f o r t e a s i n g out t h e p r e s e n c e o f t r a n s f e r o f t r a i n i n g was t h e c o n t r o l groups. The c o n t r o l groups d i d n o t t a k e p a r t i n t h e l e a r n i n g t r i a l s . They were o n l y g i v e n t h e warm-up t a s k and were r e q u e s t e d t o p e r f o r m t h e t r a n s f e r t a s k . One o f t h e c o n t r o l groups s h i f t e d hand on t h e t r a n s f e r t a s k and t h e o t h e r group p e r f o r m e d t h e t a s k w i t h t h e p r e f e r r e d hand. The r e s u l t s o f t h e a n a l y s i s showed t h a t though t h e n o n - s h i f t e d group p e r f o r m e d t h e t a s k b e t t e r t h a n t h e s h i f t e d group, however, t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n p e r formance was n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . The u n i l a t e r a l and b i l a t e r a l t r a n s f e r o f t r a i n i n g was d e m o n s t r a t e d by comparing l e a r n i n g t r e a t m e n t groups w i t h t h e c o n t r o l groups on t h e t r a n s f e r t a s k . The t r a i n e d groups w i t h 12 l e a r n i n g t r i a l s p e r f o r m e d t h e t r a n s f e r t a s k s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r t h a n d i d t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p s . The g e n e r a l f i n d i n g s o f t h e p r e s e n t e x p e r i m e n t i n r e g a r d t o t h e r o l e o f p r a c t i c e were c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e f i n d i n g s o f H i c k s (1974), B o s w e l l and I r i o n (1975), K o h l and Roenker (1980), Fumoto (1981), S h a f f e r and Pyne (1982), H i c k s (1982), H i c k s (1983). The r e s u l t s o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t showed t h a t l e a r n i n g t h e o r i g i n a l t a s k improves t h e performance o f t h e l e a r n e r on a n o v e l t a s k . 56 1. E f f e c t i v e n e s s o f I n s t r u c t i o n The t r a i n e d g r o ups' s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r p erformance on t h e t r a n s f e r t a s k , as compared t o t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p s ' , i m p l i e s t h a t t h e y g a i n e d t h e s e s u p e r i o r i t i e s d u r i n g t h e l e a r n i n g t r i a l s . The e x a m i n a t i o n o f l e a r n i n g p erformance d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t a s u b s t a n t i a l amount o f l e a r n i n g t o o k p l a c e d u r i n g t h e t w e l v e t r i a l s . The o c c u r r e n c e o f l e a r n i n g was i n f e r r e d from t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e pe r f o r m a n c e s o f t h e two i n s t r u c t i o n a l t r e a t m e n t s ( i . e., LTI and L I O ) . The e f f e c t o f I n s t r u c t i o n was a l s o p r e s e n t on each l e a r n i n g b l o c k . The L e a r n i n g - T r a n s f e r - I n s t r u c t i o n groups p e r f o r m e d t h e l e a r n i n g t a s k b e t t e r t h a n t h e L e a r n i n g - I n s t r u c t i o n - O n l y on each l e a r n i n g b l o c k . T h i s f i n d i n g i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h what was p r e d i c t e d from t h e schema t h e o r y . I t p r e d i c t e d t h a t t h e l e a r n e r s who r e c e i v e d i n s t r u c t i o n f o r t h e t r a n s f e r t a s k would p e r f o r m t h e l e a r n i n g t a s k b e t t e r t h a n t h e group who d i d n o t b e n e f i t from such i n s t r u c t i o n . I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e l e a r n e r s i n t h e L e a r n i n g - T r a n s f e r - I n s t r u c t i o n c o n d i t i o n would engage i n g o a l o r i e n t e d a c t i v i t i e s and c o n s e q u e n t l y would be more m o t i v a t e d t o l e a r n t h e t a s k t h a n t h e l e a r n e r s i n L e a r n i n g -I n s t r u c t i o n - O n l y c o n d i t i o n , w h i l e presumably b e i n g i n t h e p r o c e s s o f f o r m i n g a schema. The r e s u l t s o f t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e l e a r n i n g performance o f t h e two groups c o n f i r m e d t h e i m p l i c a t i o n o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s . The d i f f e r e n c e i n performance o f t h e s e two groups i s most l i k e l y t o be 57 a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e c o g n i t i v e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e two groups. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , i t may be s u g g e s t e d t h a t i n s t r u c t i o n f o r t h e t r a n s f e r t a s k l e d t o a deeper l e v e l o f p r o c e s s i n g o f i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d on e v e r y i n s t a n c e o f t h e l e a r n i n g t a s k ; t h e i n f o r m a t i o n s uch as t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e l i m b s , t h e speed and f o r c e p a rameter employed d u r i n g t h e e x e c u t i o n , and f e e d b a c k r e c e p t i o n w h i c h a r e c r u c i a l f o r t h e schema f o r m a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e schema t h e o r y , t h e l e a r n e r r e c e i v e s and i n t e g r a t e s f o u r t y p e o f i n f o r m a t i o n on p e r f o r m i n g a g i v e n motor t a s k . However, d e t e c t i o n and i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e s e s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n may n o t be an a u t o m a t i c p r o c e s s . C o n t r a r y t o t h e T h o r n d i k e ' s (193 5) s t a t e m e n t t h a t l e a r n i n g i s an a u t o m a t i c p r o c e s s w i t h o u t i n t e r v e n t i o n o f c o n s c i o u s awareness, a l e a r n e r has t o d e t e c t t h e p r e s e n c e o f such i n f o r m a t i o n t o b e n e f i t from them i n subsequent performance. A l e a r n e r has t o remember t h e p o s i t i o n i n g o f h i s / h e r l i m b i n one i n s t a n c e o f a g i v e n t a s k i n o r d e r t o use t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i n subsequent e x e c u t i o n o f t h a t t a s k . I f t h e l e a r n e r was a p a s s i v e o p e r a t o r i n t h e p r o c e s s o f l e a r n i n g a g i v e n t a s k , t h e n t h e c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y and i n v o l v e m e n t o f t h e l e a r n e r i n a c q u i r i n g s uch a s k i l l w ould p r o b a b l y be i n s i g n i f i c a n t . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s e x p e r i m e n t w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e r o l e o f i n s t r u c t i o n d emonstrated t h a t l e a r n e r s i n t h e L e a r n i n g -T r a n s f e r - I n s t r u c t i o n c o n d i t i o n were i n d e e d b e t t e r l e a r n e r s because t h e y were g i v e n t h e i n s t r u c t i o n f o r t h e t r a n s f e r 58 t a s k . The s u p e r i o r i t y o f performance o f t h e l e a r n e r s i n t h a t c i r c u m s t a n c e may be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e q u a l i t y o f c o g n i t i v e i n v o l v e m e n t o f t h i s group d u r i n g t h e l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . I n summary, t h e l e a r n e r s i n t h e i n s t r u c t i o n c o n d i t i o n , as was p r e d i c t e d , were more m o t i v a t e d , t h e r e f o r e , p a i d more a t t e n t i o n t o t h e i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d on each i n s t a n c e o f t h e t a s k and used t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n more e f f e c t i v e l y t o p e r f o r m t h e f o l l o w i n g i n s t a n c e o f t h e t a s k . These f i n d i n g s p r o v i d e d t h e u n i q u e and new e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e s t r e n g t h o f schema f o r m a t i o n can be e f f e c t e d by a q u a l i t a t i v e v a r i a b l e such as i n s t r u c t i o n . 2. E f f e c t i v e n e s s o f Task V a r i a b i l i t y A c c o r d i n g t o t h e t a s k v a r i a b i l i t y h y p o t h e s i z e d based on t h e schema t h e o r y (Schmidt, 1975), t h e l e a r n e r s on t h e t a s k w i t h more v a r i a b i l i t y d u r i n g t h e l e a r n i n g t r i a l s s h o u l d p e r f o r m t h e t r a n s f e r t a s k b e t t e r t h a n t h e l e a r n e r s on t a s k s w i t h l e s s v a r i a b i l i t y . F o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r e x p e r i m e n t , t h e l e a r n e r s on t h e SPV t a s k were e x p e c t e d t o demo n s t r a t e a b e t t e r p e r formance on t h e t r a n s f e r t a s k . The i m p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s h y p o t h e s i s i s t h a t t h e l e a r n e r s on t h e SPV c o n d i t i o n a l s o p e r f o r m t h e l e a r n i n g t a s k b e t t e r t h a n t h e o t h e r t a s k s . The p e r f o r m e r s on t h e t a s k w i t h more t a s k v a r i a b i l i t y a r e e x p e c t e d t o l e a r n t h e t a r g e t t a s k q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t l y t h a n t h e p e r f o r m e r s on t h e t a s k w i t h l e s s t a s k v a r i a b i l i t y . F o r t h e p r e s e n t e x p e r i m e n t , comparing t h e Speed and P a t h V a r i e d t a s k w i t h t h e o t h e r two t a s k s s h o u l d r e v e a l some 5 9 i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s o f t h e t a s k t h a t c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e b e t t e r p e r f ormance o f t h e l e a r n e r s on t h e Speed and P a t h V a r i e d t a s k e i t h e r d u r i n g l e a r n i n g o r t r a n s f e r . The l e a r n e r s on t h e SPV t a s k p r a c t i c e d f o u r v a r i e t i e s o f t h e p u r s u i t r o t o r t a s k . C o n s i d e r i n g t h e schema t h e o r y n o t a t i o n s , a t l e a s t f o u r t y p e s o f u n i q u e i n f o r m a t i o n i n r e s p e c t t o t h e p o s i t i o n i n g o f t h e l i m b s p r i o r t o t h e s t a r t o f each v a r i e t y o f t h e t a s k was p r o v i d e d f o r t h e l e a r n e r s , i n c o n t r a s t t o two t y p e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n f o r o t h e r l e a r n e r s . The same c o n d i t i o n was t r u e f o r t h e o t h e r s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n , s u ch as t h e speed and f o r c e parameter, feedback, and t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e outcome. I n a d d i t i o n , c o n s i d e r i n g t h e s t r a t e g y a d a p t a t i o n t h a t may o c c u r on each v e r s i o n o f t h e Speed and P a t h V a r i e d t a s k r e v e a l s t h e n a t u r e o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e c o g n i t i v e i n v o l v e m e n t o f t h e l e a r n e r i n Speed and P a t h V a r i e d v e r s u s t h e l e a r n e r s i n t h e o t h e r two t a s k c o n d i t i o n s . The r e s u l t s o f t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e l e a r n i n g p e r f o r m a n c e showed t h a t t h e l e a r n e r s on t h e Speed and P a t h V a r i e d t a s k p e r f ormed t h e l e a r n i n g t a s k b e t t e r t h a n t h e o t h e r two t a s k s . C a r e f u l i n s p e c t i o n o f t h e p e r formance o f t h e l e a r n e r s i s n e c e s s a r y t o d e t e c t t h e s u p e r i o r i t y o f t h e p e r f ormance o f t h e l e a r n e r s i n Speed and P a t h V a r i e d t a s k . T h i s i s p a r t i a l l y due t o t h e u n i q u e n a t u r e o f t h e p e r f ormance measures. W h i l e t h e Speed P a t h V a r i e d group s t a y on t h e t a r g e t a l m o s t as l o n g as t h e o t h e r two g r o u p s , t h e y h i t i t l e s s f r e q u e n t l y t h a n t h e o t h e r two g roups. 60 F u r t h e r , t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e t r a n s f e r performance o f t h e Speed P a t h V a r i e d t a s k v e r s u s t h e o t h e r two t a s k s was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , b u t o n l y under t h e 30 second r e s t i n t e r v a l c o n d i t i o n p e r f o r m i n g w i t h hand s h i f t e d . These f i n d i n g a r e p a r t i a l l y c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e f i n d i n g s o f Cummings and C a p r a r o l a (1986) who found t h a t t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e performance o f t h e l e a r n e r s who l e a r n e d a t a s k under v a r i e d p r a c t i c e s w i t h t a s k s w i t h i n t h e schema range and t h o s e who l e a r n e d t h e t a s k under c o n s t a n t p r a c t i c e . The r e s u l t s o f t h e p r e s e n t f i n d i n g s about t a s k v a r i a b i l i t y a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e p r e v i o u s f i n d i n g s r e p o r t e d by C l i f t o n (1985), P i g g o t and S h a p i r o (1984), C a r s o n and Weight (1979), K e r r and Booth (1977), and Moore (1981). The r e a s o n f o r t h e l a c k o f s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d main e f f e c t o f t h e t a s k v a r i a b i l i t y i n t h e p r e s e n t e x p e r i m e n t might have been due t o t h e n a t u r e o f l e a r n i n g t r i a l s t h a t t h e l e a r n e r s went t h r o u g h . That i s , f o r t h e p r e s e n t e x p e r i m e n t , t h e c o n s t a n t t r i a l p r o c e d u r e w i t h 12 l e a r n i n g t r i a l s was employed. Such p r o c e d u r e was employed t o a v o i d i n t e r r u p t i o n i n t h e r e g u l a r academic a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e s t u d e n t s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e s t u d y . An a l t e r n a t i v e t o t h i s p r o c e d u r e would have been s e t t i n g t h e m a s t e r y c r i t e r i o n f o r t h e l e a r n i n g t r i a l s . I n a d d i t i o n , a l i m i t e d v a r i e t y o f t h e t a s k w i t h i n t h e schema range was employed. The r e s u l t s o f t h e p r e s e n t e x p e r i m e n t s u g g e s t t h a t t h e t a s k v a r i a b i l i t y a l o n e may n o t be a s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n f o r t h e t r a n s f e r o f 61 t r a i n i n g t o o c c u r , r a t h e r t h e v a r i a b i l i t y c o n d i t i o n i n t e r a c t s w i t h o t h e r c o n d i t i o n s such as t h e amount o f r e s t a l l o w e d between t h e l e a r n i n g t r i a l s and t h e t r a n s f e r t a s k . A n o t h e r p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e l a c k o f t h e main e f f e c t o f t h e t a s k v a r i a b i l i t y i n t h e p r e s e n t e x p e r i m e n t may w e l l be due t o t h e n a t u r e o f t h e l e a r n i n g t a s k . F o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r e x p e r i m e n t , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e o t h e r two t a s k s a l s o s e r v e d as t a s k s w i t h t h e t a s k v a r i a b i l i t y and c o n s e q u e n t l y a l l t h e t h r e e t a s k s might have caused schema f o r m a t i o n t o t h e same degree, though t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e schema f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e Speed and P a t h V a r i e d t a s k was more d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from t h e o t h e r two t a s k s . The E f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e T r a n s f e r V a r i a b l e s and T h e i r  I n t e r a c t i o n W i t h The Learning; V a r i a b l e s The a n a l y s i s o f d a t a f o r t h e r e s t i n t e r v a l s showed no s i m p l e e f f e c t t o be e x p l a i n e d . The o v e r a l l p e r formance o f b o t h r e s t i n t e r v a l groups a r e s i m i l a r . I n s t e a d what emerged from t h i s a n a l y s i s d emonstrated t h a t r e s t i n t e r v a l p r i o r t o t h e t r a n s f e r t e s t has an i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t w i t h t h e t y p e o f a c t i v i t i e s t h a t t h e l e a r n e r s have been i n v o l v e d e a r l i e r . The p r e d i c t i o n o f t h e c o n s i s t e n c y h y p o t h e s i s was t r u e o n l y i f t h e l e a r n e r s were on t h e LTI c o n d i t i o n engaged on t h e Speed and P a t h V a r i e d t a s k p e r f o r m i n g w i t h t h e p r e f e r r e d hand. The p r e s e n c e o f such i n t e r a c t i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p among t h e l e a r n i n g and t r a n s f e r t r i a l s d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t performance 62 o f t h e l e a r n e r s on t h e t r a n s f e r t a s k i s n o t r e a l l y e f f e c t e d by t h e r e a c t i v e i n h i b i t i o n b u i l d - u p ; f o r i f t h a t was t h e ca s e performance o f t h e l e a r n e r s i n 30 second r e s t i n t e r v a l , e s p e c i a l l y t h e p r e f e r r e d hand c o n d i t i o n would s u f f e r . S e c o n d l y , t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n shows t h a t t h e t a s k v a r i a b i l i t y c o n d i t i o n i n d e e d improves t r a n s f e r t o t h e n o v e l t a s k w i t h i n t h e schema range, o n l y i f t h e a c t i v i t y i s n o t i n t e r r u p t e d . T h i s f i n d i n g appear t o i n d i c a t e t h a t schema f o r m a t i o n i s a f u n c t i o n o f t a s k s t r u c t u r e , d e c a y ( e l a p s e o f t i m e between o r i g i n a l l e a r n i n g and t r a n s f e r p e r f o r m a n c e ) , and l i m b i n v o l v e m e n t . C. Summary and C o n c l u s i o n The r e s u l t s o f t h e p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t t h e q u a l i t a t i v e l e a r n i n g v a r i a b l e o f t h e L e a r n i n g -T r a n s f e r - I n s t r u c t i o n had a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on t h e t r a n s f e r o f t r a i n i n g . T h i s f i n d i n g was e x p e c t e d and was p r e d i c t e d by t h e schema t h e o r y . Only i n f o r m i n g t h e l e a r n e r about t h e o b j e c t i v e o f t h e l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s showed t o make such a d i f f e r e n c e n o t o n l y on t h e l e a r n i n g t a s k , b u t a l s o on t h e t r a n s f e r t a s k . I n r e t r o s p e c t , t h i s f i n d i n g was assumed t o be caused by t h e m o t i v a t i o n a l l e v e l o f t h e l e a r n e r s . F u r t h e r , i t was assumed t h a t when a l e a r n e r i s i n s t r u c t e d about t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s , s/he would e s t a b l i s h a g o a l f o r h e r / h i s a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h . c o n s e q u e n t l y must improve h e r / h i s p erformance on t h e f i n a l s t a g e o f perf o r m a n c e . 63 Though t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t r a n s f e r o f t r a i n i n g has been r e c o g n i z e d by a l l s e c t o r s o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l community and t h e s t u d y o f t r a n s f e r o f t r a i n i n g has been around f o r decades, t h e r e has been u n c l e a r o r weak t h e o r e t i c a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n . Only r e c e n t l y , t h r o u g h t h e advancement o f t h e schema t h e o r y (Schmidt, 1975), a new h o r i z o n a ppears t o have been opened t o t h i s l i n e o f i n q u i r y . T h i s s t u d y a l s o i n l i n e w i t h t h e new approach, a t t e m p t e d t o i n c o r p o r a t e t h e t a s k v a r i a b i l i t y as i t s q u a n t i t a t i v e v a r i a b l e t o s t u d y t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f t r a n s f e r o f t r a i n i n g . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y demonstrated t h a t t h e e f f e c t s o f l e a r n i n g v a r i a b l e o f t a s k v a r i a b i l i t y f o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r e x p e r i m e n t i s n o t s i m p l e . R a t h e r t h e e f f e c t o f t h i s v a r i a b l e i s a f u n c t i o n o f o t h e r v a r i a b l e s such as t h e amount o f r e s t e l a p s e d between t h e o r i g i n a l l e a r n i n g and t r a n s f e r t e s t . However, t h e f i n d i n g o f t h i s e x p e r i m e n t i n t h i s r e g a r d s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d c a r e f u l l y . Due t o t h e e x t e r n a l r e s t r i c t i o n s t h a t was beyond t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r , t h i s s t u d y had t o choose a c o n s t a n t t r i a l method i n i t s l e a r n i n g t r i a l s ; a method t h a t may n o t be i d e a l i n p r o d u c i n g t h e d e s i r e d m a s t e r y o f l e a r n i n g . More r e s e a r c h i s needed t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e t a s k v a r i a b i l i t y under d i f f e r e n t l e a r n i n g c o n d i t i o n s , such as t h e d e s i r e d l e v e l o f mastery c r i t e r i o n f o r l e a r n i n g . 64 REFERENCES Adams, J . A. (1975) A c l o s e d - l o o p t h e o r y o f motor l e a r n i n g . J o u r n a l o f Motor B e h a v i o r . 3, 111-150. Ammons, R. B. & A l p r i n , S. I . (1955) R o t a r y p u r s u i t p e r f o r m a n c e as r e l a t e d t o sex and age o f p r e - a d u l t s u b j e c t s . J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y , 49, 127-133. A n n e t t , J . A. (1985) Motor B e h a v i o r : motor l e a r n i n g , a r e v i e w . S p r i n g e r - V e r l o g , B e r l i n . B o s w e l l , J . J . & I r i o n , A. L. (1975). T r a n s f e r o f T r a i n i n g as a F u n c t i o n o f T a r g e t Speed i n P u r s u i t R o t o r P erformance: P r o a c t i v e and R e t r o a c t i v e E f f e c t . J o u r n a l  o f M otor B e h a v i o r . 7, 2, 105-111 Brown, S. H. C. & Cooke, J . D. (1981). A m p l i t u d e - a n d i n s t r u c t i o n a l - i n humans. J o u r n a l o f P h y s i o l o g y . 316. 97-107. C a r s o n , L. M. & Weigand, R. L. (1979). Motor schema f o r m a t i o n and r e t e n t i o n i n young c h i l d r e n : A t e s t o f Schmidt's schema t h e o r y . J o u r n a l o f Motor B e h a v i o r , 11, 247-251 C l i f t o n , M. A. (1985). P r a c t i c e v a r i a b i l i t y and c h i l d r e n 's motor b e h a v i o r . P e r c e p t u a l and Motor S k i l l s . 60, 471-476. Cummings , J . F. & C a p r a r o l a , A. C. (1986). S c h midt's Schema Theory : V a r i a b i l i t y i n p r a c t i c e and t r a n s f e r . J o u r n a l o f Human Movement S t u d i e s , 12, 51-57. D a v o l , S. H., & B r e a k n e l l , S. L. (1968). Sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n r o t a r y p u r s u i t performance o f young c h i l d r e n . P e r c e p t u a l and Motor S k i l l s , 26, 351-357. D a v o l , S. H., & B r e a k n e l l , S. L. (1968). Sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n r o t a r y p u r s u i t performance o f young c h i l d r e n . P e r c e p t u a l and Motor S k i l l s . 26, 351-357. Drawatzky, N. J . ( 1 9 6 9 ) . E v a l u a t i o n o f m i r r o r t r a c i n g p e r f ormance measures as i n d i c a t i o n o f l e a r n i n g . R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y . 40, 228-230. Drawatzky, N. J . (1981). Motor S k i l l L e a r n i n g . Burges P u b l i s h i n g Company. M i n n e s o t a . Evans, S. H. (1967) . A b r i e f s t a t e m e n t o f schema t h e o r y . Psvchonomic S c i e n c e . 8, 87-88. F i t t s , M. P. (1964) P e r c e p t u a l - M o t o r S k i l l L e a r n i n g . I n A.W. M e l t o n (ed.) C a t e g o r y o f Human L e a r n i n g . New York, Academic P r e s s . Fumoto, N. (1981). Asymmetric T r a n s f e r i n P u r s u i t T r a c k i n g Task R e l a t e d t o Change o f S t r a t e g y . J o u r n a l o f Motor B e h a v i o r . 13. 3, 197-206. Head, H. (1926). A p h a s i s and k i n d r e d d i s o r d e r s o f speech. Cambridge, E n g l a n d : Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . Henry, F. M. & Rogers, D.E. (1960) . I n c r e a s e d r e s p o n s e l a t e n c y f o r c o m p l i c a t e d movements and a "memory drum" t h e o r y o f neuromotor r e a c t i o n . R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , 31, 448-458. H i c k s , R. E., (1974). Asymmetry o f B i l a t e r a l T r a n s f e r J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o l o g y o f P s y c h o l o g y . 87, 4, 667-674. H i c k s , R. E. Frank, J . M. & K i n s b o u r n e , M. (1982). The l o c u s o f b i m a n u a l s k i l l t r a n s f e r . The J o u r n a l o f G e n e r a l  P s y c h o l o g y , 107, 277-281. 66 H i c k s , R. E., G u a l t i e r i , C. T., & S c h r o e d e r , S. R. (1983). C o g n i t i v e and Motor Component o f B i l a t e r a l T r a n s f e r . American J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o l o g y , 96, 2, 223-228. H u l l , C. L. (1943). P r i n c i p l e o f B e h a v i o r . New Y o r k : A l t o n -C e n t u r y . Kay, H. (1970). A n a l y z i n g motor s k i l l p e r f o r m a n c e . mechanism o f motor s k i l l development pp-139-155 New Y o r k Academic P r e s s . K e e l e , S. W. (1968) Movement c o n t r o l i n s k i l l e d motor perf o r m a n c e . P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n , 70, 387-403. K e l s o , J . A. & H o l t , K. G. (1980). E v i d e n c e f o r a mass-s p r i n g model o f human neu r o m u s c l u a r c o n t r o l , i n C. H. Nadeau, W. R. H a l l i w e l l , K. M. N e w e l l , & G. C. R o b e r t s ( e d s ) , P s y c h o l o g y o f Motor B e h a v i o r and S p o r t s . Human K i n e t i c s , I l l i n o i s . K e r r , R. (1982). Psychomotor L e a r n i n g . CBS C o l l e g e P u b l i s h i n g , New York. K e r r , R. & Booth, B. (1978). S p e c i f i c and v a r i e d p r a c t i c e o f motor s k i l l , P e r c e p t u a l and Motor S k i l l s . 46, 395-401 K i r k , R. E. (1982) E x p e r i m e n t a l D e s i g n : P r o c e d u r e f o r t h e B e h a v i o r a l S c i e n c e s . B r o o k s / C o l e P u b l i s h i n g I n c . , Belmont C a l i f o r n i a . K o h l , R. M.(1980) B i l a t e r a l T r a n s f e r as a F u n c t i o n o f M e n t a l Imagery, J o u r n a l o f Motor B e h a v i o r , 12. 3, 197-206. L i v e s e y , J . P. & L a s z l o , J . I . (1979). E f f e c t o f t a s k s i m i l a r i t y on t r a n s f e r p erformance. J o u r n a l o f Motor B e h a v i o r . 11. 11-21. 67 Moore, J . B., Reeve, G. T. & P i s s a n o s , B. (1981). E f f e c t s o f v a r i a b i l i t y i n a movement e d u c a t i o n program on motor s k i l l p e r f o r m a n c e , P e r c e p t u a l and Motor S k i l l s , 152, 779-784. N i c h o l s , T. R. (1980) . What do s p i n a l r e f l e x e s r e g u l a t e and why? P a r e r p r e s e n t e d a t 2 7 t h a n n u a l m e e t i n g o f A m e r i c a n C o l l e g e S p o r t M e d i c i n e , Las Vegas, Nevada. Pew, R. W. (1969). The speed a c c u r a c y o p e r a t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . A c t a P s y c h o l o g i c a . 35. 16-26. P i g g o t , R. E. & S h a p i r o , D. C. (1984). Motor schema : The s t r u c t u r e o f t h e v a r i a b i l i t y s e s s i o n . R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , 55, 41-45. K o e r t h , W.(1921). A p u r s u i t a p p a r a t u s : eye-hand c o o r d i n a t i o n . P s y c h o l o g i c a l Monograph, 31. 288-292. 0,Leary, D. S. (1980). A d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t u d y o f i n t e r h e m i s p h e r i c t r a n s f e r i n c h i l d r e n aged f i v e t o t e n . C h i l d Development. 51. 743-750. Schmidt, R. A. (1982). Motor l e a r n i n g and c o n t r o l . Human K i n e t i c P u b l i s h e r s I n c . I l l i n o i s . S c h m i d t , R. A. (1977). Schema Theory : i m p l i c a t i o n f o r movement e d u c a t i o n . Motor S k i l l s , Theory i n t o p r a c t i c e , 21. 36-38. Sc h m i d t , R. A. (1975). A scheme t h e o r y o f d i s c r e t e motor s k i l l l e a r n i n g . P s y c h o l o g i c a l Review, 4, 225-275. Simensen, R. J . (1973). A c q u i s i t i o n and r e t e n t i o n o f a motor s k i l l by normal and r e t a r d e d s t u d e n t s . P e r c e p t u a l and  M otor S k i l l s . 36, 791-799. 68 Smyth, M. M. & Wing, A. M. (1984). The P s y c h o l o g y o f Human Movement. Academic P r e s s , I n c . S p e r r y , R. W.; G a z z a n i g a , M. S.; & Bogan, J . E. (1969). I n t e r h e m i s p h e r i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s : t h e n e o c o r t i c a l commisures, syndromes o f h e m i s p h e r i c d i s c o n n e c t i o n . handbook o f c l i n i c a l n e u r o l o g y . New York, W i l y . T a n j i , J . (1980). Supplementary motor a r e a : n e u r o n a l r e s p o n s e t o motor i n s t r u c t i o n s . J o u r n a l o f N e u r o p h y s i o l o g y . 43., 60-68. Taub, E., & Berman, A. J . (1968). Movement and l e a r n i n g i n t h e absence o f s e n s o r y feedback. I n S. J . Freeman ( E d . ) , The n e u r o p s y c h o l o g y o f s p a t i a l l y o r i e n t e d b e h a v i o r (pp. 173-192). Homewood, I L : Dorsey. T h o r n d i k e , E. L. ; & Woodworth, R. S. (1901). t h e i n f l u e n c e o f improvement i n one m e n t a l f u n c t i o n upon t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f a n o t h e r f u n c t i o n s . P s y c h o l o g i c a l Review, 1901, 8, 247-261. T h o r n d i k e , E. L., (1935). The P s y c h o l o g y o f wants, i n t e r e s t a n d - a t t i t u d e . New York : A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y . Welch, B. L. (1947). The g e n e r a l i z a t i o n o f S t u d e n t ' s problem when s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t p o p u l a t i o n v a r i a n c e s a r e i n v o l v e d . B i o m e t r i k a . 34., 28-35. 69 T a b l e 1. C e l l Means f o r t h e amount o f Time (sec.) on T a r g e t and t h e Number o f H i t s f o r t h e L e a r n i n g C o n d i t i o n s , Task V a r i a n t s , and L e a r n i n g B l o c k s ( N=72 ) L e a r n i n g Tasks Time C o n d i t i o n H i t s #1 #2 #3 #4 Time on T a r g e t 4.92 4.82 5.68 4.64 SPV Number o f H i t s 36.47 39.34 40.04 37.25 LTI LIO Time on T a r g e t 4.57 5.88 4.23 4.67 SV Number o f H i t s 44.86 50.19 42.44 43.36 Time on T a r g e t 4.54 5. 04 4 . 64 4.66 PV Number o f H i t s 40. 88 43.05 45. 05 43 .97 Time on T a r g e t 3 . 68 2.86 3 . 47 2.74 SPV Number o f H i t s 32 . 05 35. 63 35.02 30.52 Time on T a r g e t 2.93 4.95 3 . 89 4.32 SV Number o f H i t s 29.75 45.41 40. 66 42.91 Time on T a r g e t 3.49 4.30 4. 00 4.51 PV Number of H i t s 37 . 00 40. 63 40. 55 40.83 MSEs (66)=8.647 and 439.321 f o r average Time on T a r g e t and aver a g e Number o f H i t s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . 70 T a b l e l a M a r g i n a l Means f o r t h e amount o f Time (sec.) on T a r g e t and t h e Number o f H i t s f o r Tasks by L e a r n i n g B l o c k Response Measures #1 #2 #3 #4 MSE d f Time on 4.02 4.65 4.32 4.26 1.361 198 T a r g e t Number 36.85 42.73 41.35 41.69 48.701 198 o f H i t s 71 T a b l e l b . M a r g i n a l Means f o r t h e amount o f Time (sec.) on T a r g e t and t h e Number o f H i t s f o r Tasks by Three Task V a r i a n t s Response Measures SPV SV PV Time on T a r g e t 4.10 4.43 4.40 Number o f H i t s 38.27 42.45 41.24 T a b l e l c . Combined Means f o r t h e amount o f Time on T a r g e t (sec.) and t h e Number o f H i t s f o r Two I n s t r u c t i o n a l C o n d i t i o n s and Task V a r i a t i o n s I n s t r u c t i o n a l C o n d i t i o n Response Measures L e a r n i n g T r i a l s SPV SV PV LTI Time on T a r g e t Number o f H i t s 5.01 43.24 4.72 41.73 4.84 45.14 LIO Time on T a r g e t Number o f H i t s 3.19 33.31 4.08 40.75 4.02 39.68 73 T a b l e 2 C e l l Means f o r t h e amount o f Time on T a r g e t (sec.) and t h e Number o f H i t s on t h e T r a n s f e r t e s t by t h e Three I n s t r u c t i o n a l Treatment by Task V a r i a n t s , R e s t I n t e r v a l s and S h i f t o f Hand (N=72 p l u s 10 C o n t r o l s ) Time on T a r g e t f o r LTI T r a n s f e r T r i a l s Task R e s t S h i f t #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 Hand 5 S h i f t e d 3.82 4.71 5.16 5.40 4.67 4. 05 Mi n . No-Hand S h i f t e d 5.90 5.52 5.17 4.43 6.13 5.98 SPV Hand 30 S h i f t e d 2.20 2.84 2.68 3.26 1.78 2.86 Sec. No-Hand S h i f t e d 8.32 8. 69 8.98 7.96 8 . 68 8.03 Hand 5 S h i f t e d 5.12 5.90 5.47 7.50 6.48 7 .26 Mi n . No-Hand S h i f t e d 5.43 6.57 5.97 6. 98 6. 25 5.86 SV Hand 30 S h i f t e d 3.23 2.78 3 . 85 3 .12 2 .75 2.72 Sec. No-Hand S h i f t e d 5.88 4.66 4.37 4.79 4.83 5.22 Hand 5 S h i f t e d 4.22 3 .56 4.46 3.40 3.95 4.79 Mi n . No-Hand S h i f t e d 5.44 5. 50 5.71 5.16 5.11 5.88 PV Hand 30 S h i f t e d 4.61 4.70 5.94 3 .80 2.90 5.35 Sec. No-Hand S h i f t e d 7.16 5.22 5.42 5.18 4.70 7.07 ( T a b l e 2 (....Continued) Time on T a r g e t f o r LIO T r a n s f e r T r i a l s Task R e s t S h i f t #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 Hand 5 S h i f t e d 1.70 1.88 1.49 1.59 2 .12 1.73 Mi n . No-Hand S h i f t e d 3.09 2.97 2.86 3.59 3.13 5. 67 SPV Hand 30 S h i f t e d 0.38 1.41 1.24 1.11 1.27 1.21 Sec. No-Hand S h i f t e d 3.79 3.47 3.99 6.04 6.25 5.19 Hand 5 S h i f t e d 4.21 7.25 5.18 6.97 7.19 7.63 Mi n . No-Hand S h i f t e d 3 .28 5.13 7.43 6.06 2.38 4.48 SV . Hand 30 S h i f t e d 2.26 2.89 2 .22 2 . 05 2 . 38 2.72 Sec. No-Hand S h i f t e d 4.25 5.31 5.94 5.92 6.22 6.66 Hand 5 S h i f t e d 2.93 3.21 2.72 3.25 2.55 2.94 Mi n . No-Hand S h i f t e d 5.61 5.68 6.60 6.14 5. 97 5.82 PV Hand 30 S h i f t e d 1.69 2.40 3 .15 1.78 3.04 2.42 Sec. No-Hand S h i f t e d 4.96 5. 66 5.15 4 . 83 4 . 64 5.94 T a b l e 2 ( Continued) Number o f H i t s f o r LTI T r a n s f e r T r i a l s Task R e s t S h i f t #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 Hand 5 S h i f t e d 31 36 40 45 38 38 M i n . No-Hand S h i f t e d 41 40 35 29 38 40 SPV Hand 30 S h i f t e d 27 29 39 21 26 29 Sec. No-Hand S h i f t e d 31 36 41 40 41 36 Hand 5 S h i f t e d 52 59 44 41 44 47 Mi n . No-Hand S h i f t e d 46 48 42 50 48 45 SV Hand 30 S h i f t e d 29 22 33 26 24 29 Sec. No-Hand S h i f t e d 41 28 35 33 42 38 Hand 5 S h i f t e d 54 34 39 31 34 34 M i n . No-Hand S h i f t e d 45 52 36 42 49 45 PV Hand 30 S h i f t e d 40 32 49 32 30 41 Sec. No-Hand S h i f t e d 43 41 39 41 35 47 76 T a b l e 2 ( Continued) Number o f H i t s f o r LIO T r a n s f e r T r i a l s T asks R e s t S h i f t #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 Hand 5 S h i f t e d 21 24 31 25 32 26 Mi n . No-Hand S h i f t e d 29 46 31 44 36 40 SPV Hand 30 S h i f t e d 4 15 15 14 18 17 Sec. No-Hand S h i f t e d 44 27 26 38 44 41 Hand 5 S h i f t e d 16 43 44 40 37 36 M i n . No-Hand S h i f t e d 34 29 25 31 30 33 SV Hand 30 S h i f t e d 34 29 25 31 29 23 Sec. No-Hand S h i f t e d 34 29 25 31 30 33 Hand 5 S h i f t e d 53 42 49 42 21 25 Mi n . No-Hand S h i f t e d 20 25 28 22 46 50 PV Hand 30 S h i f t e d 40 50 45 39 31 25 Sec. No-Hand S h i f t e d 34 38 38 40 36 43 77 T a b l e 2 ( Continued) Time on T a r g e t (sec.) and Number o f H i t s f o r CONT T r a n s f e r T r i a l s Hand Response C o n d i t i o n Measures #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 Time on .99 .92 .87 1.08 1.78 2.17 T a r g e t S h i f t e d Number 14 13 13 15 24 29 o f H i t s Time on 1.11 1.20 2.72 2.43 2.23 2.60 T a r g e t N o t - S h i f t e d Number 15 14 24 25 24 27 o f H i t s 78 T a b l e 2a. Weighted T o t a l Means f o r t h e amount o f Time (sec.) on T a r g e t and t h e Number o f H i t s f o r t h e Two I n s t r u c t i o n a l Treatment C o n d i t i o n s on t h e T r a n s f e r t a s k T r e a t m e n t s Response Measures S h i f t e d N o n - S h i f t e d O v e r a l l CONT (n=10) (df=8) Time on T a r g e t Number o f H i t s 3.20 44.58 5.03 53.97 4.12 49.28 LTI and LIO (n=72) (df=48) Time on T a r g e t Number o f H i t s 10.53 82.67 11.73 92.82 11.13 87.75 MSEs (48)=39.108 and 734.135 f o r average Time on T a r g e t and a v e r a g e number o f H i t s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . MSEs (8)=3.682 and 257.533 f o r average t i m e on T a r g e t and average number o f H i t s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . 79 T a b l e 2b. M a r g i n a l Means f o r t h e Amount o f Time (sec.) on T a r g e t and t h e Number o f H i t s by t h e Two I n s t r u c t i o n a l T r e a t m e n t s by T r a n s f e r T r i a l s T r a n s f e r T r i a l s T reatment Time C o n d i t i o n H i t s #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 Time on 4.15 4.50 4.63 4.60 4.49 4.87 LTI T a r g e t and Number 34.31 36.08 36.27 35.31 35.51 36.41 LIO o f H i t s Time on 1.05 1.06 1.80 1.75 2.00 2.37 CONT T a r g e t Number 14.90 14.20 19.20 20.20 24.20 28.00 o f H i t s 80 T a b l e 2c. Combined Means o f Time on T a r g e t (sec.) and t h e Number o f H i t s a c r o s s T r a n s f e r T r i a l s by Two I n s t r u c t i o n a l T reatments and Task V a r i a b i l i t y T r a n s f e r T r i a l s Time I n s t . Task H i t s #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 Time on 5.06 5.44 5.49 5.26 5.31 5.23 S T a r g e t P Number V o f 32.83 35.41 38.16 36.41 35.91 36.08 H i t s Time on 4.94 4.98 4.91 5.60 5.07 5.26 S T a r g e t LTI V Number o f 42.33 39.75 38.91 37.91 39.83 39.83 H i t s Time on 5.36 4.74 5.38 4.38 4.17 5.77 P T a r g e t V Number o f 45.83 40.08 41.08 36.75 37.33 42.16 H i t s Time on 2.24 2.43 2.39 3.08 3.24 3.45 S T a r g e t P Number V o f 25.00 28.08 26.08 30.75 32.83 31.16 H i t s Time on 3.50 5.14 5.19 5.25 5.11 5.37 LIO S T a r g e t V Number O f 29.41 36.50 34.75 35.16 33.50 33.16 H i t s Time on 3.80 4.24 4.41 4.00 4.05 4.17 P T a r g e t V Number O f 36.50 36.66 38.66 34.91 33.66 36.08 H i t s 81 T a b l e 2d. M a r g i n a l Means f o r t h e Amount o f Time (sec.) on T a r g e t and t h e Number o f H i t s by t h e R e s t C o n d i t i o n s T r a n s f e r T r i a l s R e s t Response I n t e r v a l s M e a s u r e r s #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 Time on 4.24 4.82 4.85 5.04 4.86 5.17 T a r g e t 5 M i n . Number 25.33 35.00 31.16 35.16 34.66 33.16 o f H i t s Time on 4.06 4.17 4.41 4.15 4.12 4.58 T a r g e t 3 0 Sec. Number 24.66 21.16 21.00 26.33 31.00 29.16 o f H i t s 82 T a b l e 2e. M a r g i n a l Means f o r t h e Amount o f Time (sec.) on T a r g e t and t h e Number o f H i t s by t h e S h i f t o f Hand C o n d i t i o n T r a n s f e r T r i a l s S h i f t Response C o n d i t i o n M e a s u r e r s #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 Time on 4.03 3.63 3.63 3.60 3.42 3.80 T a r g e t Hand S h i f t e d Number 31.77 31.27 34.36 31.52 30.66 32.02 o f H i t s Time on 5.26 5.36 5.63 5.59 5.56 5.94 T a r g e t No-Hand S h i f t e d Number 38.85 40.88 38.19 39.11 40.36 40.80 o f H i t s 83 T a b l e 2 f . Combined Means f o r t h e amount o f Time (sec) on T a r g e t and t h e Number o f H i t s by R e s t , Task, and S h i f t o f Hand C o n d i t i o n s on t h e T r a n s f e r t a s k T asks S h i f t Response C o n d i t i o n s Measures 5 M i n 30 Sec. SPV S h i f t e d N o t - S h i f t e d Time on T a r g e t 3.19 1.85 Number o f H i t s 32.55 22.05 Time on T a r g e t 4.55 6.61 Number o f H i t s 37.69 37.27 SV S h i f t e d N o t - S h i f t e d Time on T a r g e t 6.35 2.75 Number o f H i t s 42.94 29.02 Time on T a r g e t 5.67 5.34 Number o f H i t s 40.72 34.33 PV S h i f t e d N o t - S h i f t e d Time on T a r g e t 3.50 3.48 Number o f H i t s 3 3.52 31.52 Time on T a r g e t 5.72 5.4 6 Number o f H i t s 46.27 41.91 84 7 - 1 50 - i Figure la : Mean Time on Target and Number of Hits for Four blocks of Three Learning trials under LTI condition versus the LIO condition N=72 85 7 - 1 " I I 1 1 1 1 1 O 1 2 3 4 5 6 Trial Figure 2a : Mean Time on Target and Number of Hits for Six trials of Transfer test for the LTI group Versus the the LIO group for Transfer Task, N=72 86 i 3 1 SPV SV PV Task 50-i Figure 2b: The M e a n Time on Target sec. and the Number of Hits for treatment combination by Task Variabil ity, Shift of Hands, and Rest Intervals for Transfer Task. N=72 87 Appendex A G e n e r a l Learning Ins t ruc t i on ( Pursuit Rotor ) Warm-up Trials (3 Trials) Control Treatment Learning-Transfer-Instruction ( LTI ) Learning-Instruction-Only ( LIO ) 3 0 RPM ( 3 Trials ) 4 5 RPM / _ ( 3 Trials ) 3 0 RPM ( 3 Trials ) 4 5 RPM ( 3 Trials ) J ( 6 Trials ) ( 6 Trials ) 6 5 RPM ( 6 Trials ) 88 A p p e n d i x B L e a r n i n g T r e a t m e n t s T r a n s f e r T r e a t m e n t s Instruction Conditions Task Condi t ions Hast Interuol Shift Conditions Subjects <n=HZ } L e a r n i n g -Trans f e r -I n s t r u c t i o n (LTI ) Speed a n d P a t h D n a l IT k i i n Hond Shifted n=3 HC3 \ D Mill. Hnnd Not-Sifted n=3 U a r i e d (SPU ) Dual "?fl t a p Hand Shifted n=3 nca i ou l e u Hand Not-Sifted ft=3 Speed U a r i e d ( S U ) Res t 5 Min. Hand Shifted ft=3 Hand Not-SiftBd n=3 R e a l 30 Sec. Hand Shi f ted n=3 Hand Not-Sifted n=3 P a t h U a r i e d ( P U ) R e a l 5 Min. Hand Shifted n=3 Hand Not-Sifted n=3 Rest 30 Sec. Hand Shifted n=3 Hand Not-Sifted n=3 L e a r n i n g -I n s t r u c t i o n -Onlg ( L I O ) Speed a n d P a t h U a r i e d ( SPU ) Res t 5 Min. Hand Shifted *=3 Hond Not-Sifted n=3 R e a l 30 Sec. Hand Shifted n=3 Hand Not-Sifted n=3 Speed U a r i e d ( SU ) R e a l 5 Min. Hand Shifted &=3 Hand Not-Sifted n=3 R e a l 30 Sec. Hand Shifted ft=3 Hand Not-Sifted a=3 P a t h U a r i e d ( P U ) R e a l 5 Min. Hand Shifted ft=3 Hand Not-Sifted n=3 R e a l 30 Sec. Hand Shifted n=3 Hand Not-Sifted n=3 C o n t r o l T r e a t m e n t s ^^^^^^ Hand Shifted n=5 Hand Not-Shifted n=5 T h e E x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n f o r t h e L e a r n i n g a n d T r a n s f e r T a s k 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0097801/manifest

Comment

Related Items