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Murder by slander? : a re-examination of the E.H. Norman case Rogers, Ann C. M. 1988

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MURDER BY SLANDER? A RE-EXAMINATION OF THE E.H. NORMAN CASE by C M . ANN ROGERS .A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o lumbia, 1986 k THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES ( P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA J u l y 1988 © , ." C.M.Ann Rogers, 1988 In p r e s e n t i n g this thesis in part ia l f u l f i lmen t o f t h e requ i remen ts fo r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e at t h e Univers i ty o f Bri t ish C o l u m b i a , I agree that t h e Library shall m a k e it f reely avai lable fo r re fe rence a n d s tudy . I f u r the r agree that permiss ion fo r ex tens ive c o p y i n g o f th is thesis fo r scholar ly p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e h e a d o f m y d e p a r t m e n t o r b y his o r her representa t ives . It is u n d e r s t o o d that c o p y i n g o r pub l i ca t ion o f th is thesis f o r f inanc ia l gain shall n o t b e a l l o w e d w i t h o u t m y w r i t t e n pe rm iss ion . D e p a r t m e n t o f P o l i t i c a l Science T h e Univers i ty o f Brit ish C o l u m b i a 1956 M a i n Ma l l Vancouve r , Canada V 6 T 1Y3 Date August, 1988 DE-6f 3/811 i i A b s t r a c t On 4 A p r i l , 1957 Egerton Herbert Norman, Canada's Ambassador t o Egypt, committed s u i c i d e i n C a i r o . Norman's death was a d i r e c t r e s u l t of s u s t a i n e d American a l l e g a t i o n s t h a t he was t h r e a t t o western s e c u r i t y . The c o n t r o v e r s y surrounding h i s s u i c i d e was r e k i n d l e d i n 1986 with the p u b l i c a t i o n of two b i o g r a p h i e s of Norman. James Barros contends i n No Sense of E v i l t h a t Norman should have been removed from h i s h i g h p o s i t i o n i n Canada's Department of E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s because he c o n s t i t u t e d a s e c u r i t y r i s k . Barros h y p o t h e s i s e s about the p o s s i b i l i t y of a DEA cover-up of Norman's M a r x i s t p a s t (Norman had b r i e f l y been a member of the B r i t i s h Communist P a r t y when he was a student a t Cambridge) and indeed suggests t h a t M i n i s t e r of E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s , L e s t e r B. Pearson might have been Moscow's u l t i m a t e xmole' who, by defending Norman, was p r o t e c t i n g h i s espionage r i n g . In Innocence i s Not Enough, author Roger Bowen takes i s s u e with such i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of Norman's l i f e , s c h o l a r s h i p and c a r e e r . Although Norman had been a Communist, Bowen concludes t h a t no evidence e x i s t s t o suggest t h a t he was d i s l o y a l t o Canada. Norman was caught up i n a maelstrom of anti-communist h y s t e r i a which caused him t o be u n j u s t i f i a b l y v i l i f i e d and harassed by the agents of McCarthyism i n an era of C o l d War p a r a n o i a . Instead of choosing a s i d e i n the c u r r e n t debate, I have sought t o widen i t by approaching the s t o r y of Norman as a case i i i s t u d y i n Canadian f o r e i g n p o l i c y . An e x a m i n a t i o n o f Canadian i n t e r n a l s e c u r i t y p o l i c i e s i n t h e p o s t w a r e r a , Canada's r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and G r e a t B r i t a i n , and o f Norman h i m s e l f r e v e a l s t h a t t h e i s s u e a t hand i s f a r t o o complex t o be amenable t o easy a n a l y s i s . T h i s t h e s i s was w r i t t e n w i t h t h e achievement o f a more o b j e c t i v e a n a l y s i s as i t s p r i m a r y g o a l . -"iv T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 Canada i n t h e Postwar C o n t e x t : The S e a r c h f o r I n t e r n a l S e c u r i t y ( i ) Canada i n t h e Postwar World 14 ( i i ) The I n t e r n a l S e c u r i t y Dimension 23 Norman's I d e o l o g y : A r m c h a i r M a r x i s t o r P a r t y S t a l w a r t ? 37 ( i ) A F l i r t a t i o n w i t h Communism 40 ( i i ) 1940: J o i n i n g E x t e r n a l 49 ( i i i ) Norman i n C o l d War Japan 55 ( i v ) 1950: Norman's F i r s t R e c a l l 64 (v) 1951: The Noose T i g h t e n s 70 ( v i ) 1952: The Second R e c a l l 79 F i n a l Days 89 ( i ) Postwar Canadian-American R e l a t i o n s 89 ( i i ) 1957: The Charges R e v i v e d 94 ( i i i ) S u i c i d e : The Canadian R e a c t i o n 100 C o n c l u s i o n 107 ( i ) The Government's Response 107 ( i i ) I n t e r n a l S e c u r i t y A f t e r Norman: The R o l e o f t h e RCMP 113 ( i i i ) Towards F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h 116 B i b l i o g r a p h y 124 Appendix 128 V Freedom i s an e a s i l y spoken word, but f a c t s are stubborn t h i n g s John C o r n f o r d 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n On 4 A p r i l 1957, E g e r t o n H e r b e r t Norman threw h i m s e l f from t h e n i n t h f l o o r apartment o f t h e Swedish ambassador i n C a i r o . The s u i c i d e o f a Canadian d i p l o m a t may n o t a t f i r s t g l a n c e be t h e most o b v i o u s p l a c e t o b e g i n an a n a l y s i s o f Canadian f o r e i g n p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n , b u t i n t h e f o l l o w i n g pages I i n t e n d t o demonstrate t h a t t h e e v e n t s l e a d i n g up t o t h e s u i c i d e o f Norman can p r o v i d e a v a l u a b l e c a s e s t u d y t h r o u g h w h i c h t o t e s t some t h e o r e t i c a l approaches t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s i n g e n e r a l , and C a n a d i a n -American r e l a t i o n s i n p a r t i c u l a r . The H e r b e r t Norman c a s e , when p l a c e d i n t h e b r o a d e r c o n t e x t o f Canadian-American r e l a t i o n s d u r i n g t h e C o l d War, n o t o n l y c h a l l e n g e s t h e dominant p e r c e p t i o n s g o v e r n i n g c u r r e n t approaches t o t h e s t u d y o f Canadian f o r e i g n p o l i c y , b u t a l s o r e v e a l s i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s and c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n t h e manner i n w h i c h Canada has pursued i t s autonomy v i s - a - v i s t h e n o r t h a t l a n t i c t r i a n g l e , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . F i n a l l y , i t a l l o w s us b e t t e r t o a s s e s s t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s and c o n s t r a i n t s w h i c h a f f e c t t h e p o l i c y making environment. Born i n Japan i n 1909 t o M e t h o d i s t m i s s i o n a r i e s from O n t a r i o , E.H. Norman s p e n t h i s f o r m a t i v e y e a r s g r o w i n g up i n a Canadian f a m i l y w h i l e s t e e p e d i n t h e c u l t u r e and language o f r u r a l J a p an. A t s i x t e e n he came t o Canada, completed h i s s c h o o l i n g , and t h e n a t t e n d e d t h e u n i v e r s i t i e s o f T o r o n t o , Cambridge and H a r v a r d , where he became an e x c e p t i o n a l s c h o l a r i n t h e f i e l d o f Japanese h i s t o r y . D u r i n g h i s y e a r s a t u n i v e r s i t y he became p o l i t i c i z e d , d e v e l o p i n g such a deep and e n d u r i n g i n t e r e s t i n Marxism and communism t h a t he 2 even j o i n e d t h e Communist P a r t y b r i e f l y . I n 1940, h a v i n g r e c e i v e d h i s Ph.D, he j o i n e d Canada's Department o f E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s and s e r v e d as an o f f i c e r t h e r e u n t i l t h e t i m e o f h i s d e a t h . I t i s f a i r l y e v i d e n t t h a t a f t e r he j o i n e d DEA, h i s more M a r x i a n i d e a l s d i s s i p a t e d , and as he matured he c o u l d more a c c u r a t e l y be c h a r a c t e r i s e d as a l e f t - l e a n i n g l i b e r a l r a t h e r t h a n a M a r x i s t . N e v e r t h e l e s s , a u t h o r i t i e s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , t h e i r p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e s d i c t a t e d by C o l d War p a r a n o i a , were u n w i l l i n g t o a c c e p t t h e f o r m e r l y M a r x i s t Norman as a t r u s t w o r t h y s e r v a n t o f t h e C a n a d i a n g o v e r n m e n t : t h e y r e g a r d e d him as a t h r e a t t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y . D e s p i t e r e p e a t e d a f f i r m a t i o n s o f Norman's l o y a l t y , t h e Canadian government was never a b l e t o stem t h e t i d e s o f g o s s i p and s u s p i c i o n . From 1940 t o 1957, harassment and p r e s s u r e s from a n t i - c o m m u n i s t f o r c e s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s p u r s u e d Norman, who a t l a s t , i n d e s p e r a t i o n , t o o k h i s own l i f e . T h i s t h e n , i s t h e s k e l e t o n o f t h e H e r b e r t Norman s t o r y . U s i n g i t as a c a s e s t u d y i n Canadian f o r e i g n p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n , t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h i s t h e s i s a r e t h r e e f o l d : f i r s t l y , t o r e d r e s s t h e inadequacy o f t h e p r e s e n t d i s c o u r s e on t h e s u b j e c t by e x p a n d i n g t h e parameters o f a debate w h i c h has so f a r been c o n f i n e d t o s t r o n g l y i d e o l o g i c a l and p e r s o n a l a c c o u n t s p r e s e n t e d most n o t a b l y by James B a r r o s and Roger Bowen; s e c o n d l y , t o a s s e s s t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f some o f t h e v a r i o u s t h e o r e t i c a l approaches t o t h e s t u d y o f Canadian f o r e i g n p o l i c y by a p p l y i n g them t o t h i s c a s e ; and f i n a l l y , t o use t h e c a s e t o make some u s e f u l g e n e r a l i s a t i o n s about t h e i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s which 3 a f f e c t t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f Canadian f o r e i g n p o l i c y . 1 The d e c i s i o n t o use t h e case s t u d y mode o f a n a l y s i s was d i c t a t e d by t h e f i r s t r e s e a r c h o b j e c t i v e . I n 1986, two e x h a u s t i v e and v e r y d i f f e r e n t a c c o u n t s o f Norman's l i f e and d e a t h were p u b l i s h e d . 2 I n No Sense o f E v i l , a u t h o r James B a r r o s a r t i c u l a t e d t h e more c o n s e r v a t i v e s i d e o f t h e debate. He contended t h a t Norman's M a r x i s t / c o m m u n i s t p r o c l i v i t i e s and a s s o c i a t i o n s made him u n s u i t a b l e f o r employment i n t h e s e r v i c e o f E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s . E v i d e n c e t h a t threw Norman's l o y a l t y i n t o doubt was never e x p l a i n e d t o t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f t h e RCMP, t h e more r i g h t wing elements o f t h e American Congress, B r i t i s h i n t e l l i g e n c e and even some members o f E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s . E x t e r n a l ' s c o n t i n u e d d e f e n c e o f Norman smacked o f a ^whitewash', p a r t i c u l a r y i n l i g h t o f t h e a l l e g a t i o n s about L e s t e r P e a r s o n , Norman's major p r o t e c t o r and h i m s e l f a v i c t i m o f a l l e g a t i o n s o f d i s l o y a l t y . B a r r o s c o n c l u d e s t h a t t h e c o n t i n u e d employment o f Norman i n h i g h - r a n k i n g p o s i t i o n s , where he had a c c e s s t o much t o p s e c r e t i n f o r m a t i o n and e x e r t e d no s m a l l i n f l u e n c e on t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f Canadian f o r e i g n p o l i c y , was i r r e s p o n s i b l e . By d o i n g s o , E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s p l a c e d w e s t e r n 1 A c e n t r a l theme o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t h e development o f Canadian i n t e r n a l s e c u r i t y p o l i c y i n t h e immediate postwar e r a , whic h may n o t be c o n s i d e r e d ^ f o r e i g n p o l i c y ' p e r s e . However, because i t s n e c e s s i t y was d i c t a t e d by t h e p r e v a i l i n g c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e c o l d war, and i t s f o r m u l a t i o n by t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f w e s t e r n ( r a t h e r t h a n s i m p l y Canadian) s e c u r i t y , f o r t h e purposes o f t h i s t h e s i s I t h i n k i t i s a p p r o p r i a t e t o d e s i g n a t e i t as a f o r e i g n p o l i c y , r a t h e r t h a n a d o m e s t i c , i s s u e . 2The major works a r e James B a r r o s , No Sense o f E v i l :  E s p i o n a g e , t h e Case o f H e r b e r t Norman ( T o r o n t o : Deneau, 1986) and Roger Bowen, Innocence i s n o t Enough: t h e L i f e and Death o f  H e r b e r t Norman (Vancouver: Douglas & M a c l n t y r e , 1986). 4 s e c u r i t y i n j e o p a r d y . Roger Bowen, on t h e o t h e r hand, has c o n t r i b u t e d a major b i o g r a p h y o f Norman i n h i s book, I n n o c e n c e _ i s Not Enough, i n which he argues t h a t Norman was c o m p l e t e l y i n n o c e n t o f t h e ch a r g e s o f d i s l o y a l t y l e v e l l e d a g a i n s t him. I n t h i s a c c o u n t , a n t i - c o m m u n i s t w i t c h h u n t e r s who f a i l e d t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e n a t u r e and depth o f Norman's i d e o l o g i c a l b i a s e s c o nducted an u n j u s t and u n j u s t i f i e d campaign a g a i n s t him, m i s t a k i n g i d e o l o g y f o r d i s l o y a l t y . I n t h i s v e r s i o n o f t h e Norman drama, t h e Senate I n t e r n a l S e c u r i t y Subcommittee (SISS) was t h e c h i e f , a l t h o u g h by no means t h e o n l y , v i l l a i n : n o t o n l y d i d t h e SISS sca p e g o a t an i n n o c e n t man, b u t i t made a mockery o f Canada's r i g h t t o d e t e r m i n e i t s own i n t e r n a l s e c u r i t y p o l i c y , t o a s s e s s t h e l o y a l t y o f i t s own s e r v a n t s and t o a s s e r t i t s own i n t e r e s t s v i s - a - v i s t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . Bowen's s t o r y , t h e n , i s based on a l i b e r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n w h i c h would p o s i t t h e r i g h t o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l o v e r t h e r i g h t o f t h e s t a t e , and t h e s o v e r e i g n t y o f t h e s t a t e o v e r t h e p e r c e i v e d o b l i g a t i o n s o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y . H i s book goes f a r beyond t h i s , however. I t i s a comprehensive b i o g r a p h y a s s e s s i n g Norman's s c h o l a r s h i p , h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o Canadian d i p l o m a c y , h i s r e l i g i o u s and p e r s o n a l b e l i e f s , and so on. There a r e o t h e r s t u d e n t s o f t h e Norman case who have c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e l i t e r a t u r e a v a i l a b l e , b u t none have t h u s f a r t r u l y s t e p p e d o u t s i d e o f t h e b a s i c i d e o l o g i c a l parameters o f C o l d 5 War t h i n k i n g . 3 The d e b a t e , couched as i t i s i n r i g h t and l e f t -w ing v i e w s , and t h e c o n c o m i t a n t d e s i r e o f t h e d e b a t i n g p a r t i e s t o p r o v e t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p o s i t i o n s , can t h e r e f o r e , I c o n t e n d , b e n e f i t from a more d i s p a s s i o n a t e d i s c u s s i o n . Thus f a r , t h e works a v a i l a b l e have been b a s i c a l l y b i o g r a p h i c a l . By p l a c i n g Norman i n t h e g r e a t e r f i e l d o f f o r e i g n p o l i c y , and by a d o p t i n g a l e s s p e r s o n a l approach t o t h e e v i d e n c e , I hope t o a r r i v e a t a more o b j e c t i v e v i e w o f t h e c a s e . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , I have adopted t h e methodology o f t h e c a s e s t u d y t o p r o v i d e some a n a l y t i c a l r i g o u r c u r r e n t l y l a c k i n g i n t h e d e b a t e . A few remarks o f c l a r i f i c a t i o n a r e i n o r d e r . Arend L i j p h a r t d e v e l o p e d a u s e f u l t y p o l o g y o f t h e d i f f e r e n t p urposes and k i n d s o f t h e t h e o r e t i c a l c a s e s t u d y . 4 These t y p e s can be summarised as f o l l o w s : t h e h y p o t h e s i s - g e n e r a t i n g s t u d y i n w h i c h vague hypotheses a r e r e f i n e d t o form a b a s i s f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a t h e o r e t i c a l framework; t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i v e s t u d y , i n w h i c h t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f a t h e o r y i s employed i n o r d e r t o g a i n a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s u b j e c t ; t h e t h e o r y - t e s t i n g o r h y p o t h e s i s - t e s t i n g s t u d y , i n w h i c h an a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d t h e o r e t i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n i s a p p l i e d t o t h e c a s e i n o r d e r t o examine 3 I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e book c i t e d , Bowen has a l s o e d i t e d E.H.  Norman: H i s L i f e and S c h o l a r s h i p ( T o r o n t o : U T o r o n t o P, 1984). C h a r l e s T a y l o r w rote an e a r l i e r and much b r i e f e r b i o g r a p h y o f Norman i n S i x J o u r n e y s : A Canadian P a t t e r n ( T o r o n t o : A n a n s i , 1977). Norman's s t o r y a l s o appeared f r e q u e n t l y i n b i o g r a p h i e s and magazine and newspaper a r t i c l e s . 4 A r e n d L i j p h a r t , "Comparative P o l i t i c s and t h e Comparative Method," American P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e Review 65 (1971): 682-693. Thanks t o P.S. R o b i n s o n f o r d r a w i n g my a t t e n t i o n t o t h i s a r t i c l e . 6 t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e approach; and f i n a l l y , t h e d e v i a n t c a s e , i n whic h an example i s examined i n o r d e r t o uncover v a r i a b l e s t o e x p l a i n i t s d e v i a t i o n from t h e p r e v i o u s l y c o n s i d e r e d c a s e s w h i c h have l e d t o t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a t h e o r y as a * c o n t r o l . ' These t y p o l o g i e s , o f c o u r s e , a r e n o t m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e . The p r i n c i p l e s g u i d i n g t h i s s t u d y o f Norman w i l l be t h e i n t e r p r e t i v e and t h e d e v i a n t t y p o l o g i e s . I do n o t i n t e n d t o prove t h e v a l u e o r u s e f u l n e s s o f any s p e c i f i c model, b u t r a t h e r t o u t i l i s e t h e s e a n a l y t i c a l t o o l s i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e a more s y s t e m a t i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e e v i d e n c e a t hand. I n o r d e r t o f u l f i l t h e second r e s e a r c h o b j e c t i v e , w i t h i n t h e framework o f t h e case s t u d y I w i l l l o o s e l y a p p l y two o f t h e t h r e e t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s d e v e l o p e d by D e w i t t and K i r t o n t o e x p l a i n v a r y i n g approaches t o Canadian f o r e i g n p o l i c y . 5 By i d e n t i f y i n g how t h e Norman case adheres t o and d e v i a t e s from t h e t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s o f l i b e r a l i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m and p e r i p h e r a l dependence, we w i l l a r r i v e a t a c l e a r e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e v a r i a b l e s w h i c h e f f e c t t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f Canadian f o r e i g n p o l i c y . I n t h e s t u d y o f American f o r e i g n p o l i c y making, innumerable a n a l y t i c a l models have been d e v e l o p e d t o p r o v i d e a more s y s t e m a t i c way o f a s s e s s i n g e m p i r i c a l d a t a . I n Canada, s t u d i e s have been f a r l e s s s y s t e m a t i c , as w r i t e r s have been governed more by g e n e r a l i s e d paradigms t h a n by h i g h l y d e v e l o p e d schemes, a l t h o u g h t h i s tendency i s c h a n g i n g . B e f o r e d i s c u s s i n g t h e t e n e t s o f t h e D e w i t t and 5 D a v i d D. D e w i t t and John J . K i r t o n , Canada as a P r i n c i p a l - Power: A Study i n F o r e i g n P o l i c y and I n t e r n a t i o n a l R e l a t i o n s ( T o r o n t o : W i l e y , 1983). 7 K i r t o n a pproach, i t i s w o r t h w h i l e t o b r i e f l y a d d r e s s some o f t h e o t h e r a v a i l a b l e approaches and why t h e y were n o t a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h i s s t u d y . M i c h a e l Hawes has s e t out f i v e g e n e r a l approaches t o t h e s t u d y o f Canadian f o r e i g n p o l i c y i n a c o n c i s e b u t v a l u a b l e monograph. 6 B e s i d e s t h e two t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s employed i n t h i s t h e s i s - - t h e s t i l l d o m i n a n t l i b e r a l - i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t p e r s p e c t i v e , w h i c h h as been c h a l l e n g e d by t h e economic-n a t i o n a l i s t / p e r i p h e r a l - d e p e n d e n c e p e r s p e c t i v e — t h e r e a r e more r e c e n t a t t e m p t s t o f o r m a l i s e t h e s t u d y o f Canadian f o r e i g n p o l i c y s t u d y . F o r example, s t u d i e s u s i n g a f e d e r a l i s t o r a p a r l i a m e n t a r y i n f l u e n c e approach have e n t e r e d t h e f i e l d , and t h e r e a l i s t a p proach, l o n g p o p u l a r i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , i s a l s o becoming a more common way t o e x p l a i n t r e n d s i n Canadian f o r e i g n p o l i c y . The f e d e r a l i s t and p a r l i a m e n t a r y approaches a r e t o o narrow t o a d e q u a t e l y encompass t h e number o f v a r i a b l e s r e l e v a n t t o t h e Norman c a s e , w h i l e t h e r e a l i s t approach i s more u s e f u l i n e x p l a i n i n g developments i n p o s t - P e a r s o n i a n d i p l o m a c y . N y e a n d K e o h a n e ' s w o r k c o n c e r n i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e has been a p p l i e d t o Canadian-American r e l a t i o n s w i t h some s u c c e s s . 7 The t e n e t s o f complex i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e — a n absence o f m i l i t a r y f o r c e , a l a c k o f h i e r a r c h y among i s s u e s , and 6 M i c h a e l K. Hawes, P r i n c i p a l Power, M i d d l e Power,, o r  S a t e l l i t e ? Competing P e r s p e c t i v e s i n t h e Study o f Canadian  F o r e i g n P o l i c y ( T o r o n t o : York UP, 1984). 7 J o s e p h Nye and R o b e r t Keohane, Power and Int e r d e p e n d e n c e :  World P o l i t i c s i n T r a n s i t i o n ( B o s t o n : L i t t l e , 1977). 8 t h e p r e s e n c e o f m u l t i p l e c h a n n e l s o f c o n t a c t — h a v e p r o v i d e d an e n c o u r a g i n g b a s i s f o r f u r t h e r s t u d y . However, as i s demonstrated by t h e Norman c a s e , i t s a n a l y t i c a l w o r t h i s somewhat s u p e r f i c i a l . A c c o r d i n g t o Nye and Keohane, w i t h t h e Norman c a s e , Canada *won' a d i p l o m a t i c b a t t l e a g a i n s t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . They a r r i v e a t t h i s c o n c l u s i o n by i d e n t i f y i n g t h e c o n f l i c t between t h e two s t a t e s as one i n w h i c h Canada p r o t e s t e d t h e Senate subcommittee's misuse o f c o n f i d e n t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t l e d t o s u i c i d e o f a Canadian o f f i c i a l . The US government t h e n acceded t o t h e Canadian r e q u e s t f o r g u a r a n t e e s a g a i n s t f u r t h e r m i s u s e . 8 By i d e n t i f y i n g t h e i s s u e t h i s way, Nye and Keohane a r e a b l e t o argue t h a t t h e r e i s a m u t u a l i t y o f dependence between t h e US and Canada t h a t a l l o w s Canada t o have s u f f i c i e n t l e v e r a g e t o a s s e r t i t s own o b j e c t i v e s s u c c e s s f u l l y i n many c a s e s . However, i n t h i s f o r m u l a t i o n , t h e f a c t t h a t t h e Canadian government f a i l e d t o r e c e i v e any m e a n i n g f u l r e c o g n i t i o n o f i t s i n t e r e s t s d e s p i t e t h e e f f o r t s c o n ducted by E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s o v e r t h e p r e c e d i n g seven y e a r s , and t h a t even a f t e r Norman's s u i c i d e t h e SISS was u n r e p e n t a n t and t h e US government i n d i f f e r e n t , would seem t o throw Nye and Keohane's c o n c l u s i o n s i n t o q u e s t i o n . A t i s s u e was t h e r i g h t o f t h e Canadian g o v e r n m e n t t o d e t e r m i n e i t s own s e c u r i t y p o l i c y w i t h o u t i n t e r f e r e n c e from a n o t h e r s t a t e . As we s h a l l s e e , Americans d i d n o t concede t h i s r i g h t even a f t e r Norman's d e a t h . I would t h e r e f o r e c o n t e n d t h a t Canada x l o s t ' t h i s c a s e a g a i n s t t h e US, i n t h a t i t f a i l e d t o w i n r e c o g n i t i o n o f Canadian s o v e r e i g n t y i n 8Nye and Keohane, Power 185. 9 i n t e r n a l s e c u r i t y m a t t e r s . The use o f D e w i t t and K i r t o n ' s t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s o f l i b e r a l i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m and p e r i p h e r a l dependence and t h e i r accompanying *model' e n a b l e us t o approach t h e t h i r d o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s t h e s i s . The model i s b a s i c a l l y an a ttempt t o s y s t e m a t i c a l l y a s s e s s t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f t h e t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s w h i c h commonly gover n t h e s t u d y o f Canadian f o r e i g n p o l i c y . 9 They have broke n down each paradigm i n t o a s e r i e s o f i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s w h i c h e f f e c t t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s . The ^ s a l i e n c e ' o f each v a r i a b l e - — i . e . , t h e e x t e n t o f i t s i n f l u e n c e on p o l i c y — i s graded t o be x h i g h , ' xmoderate,' o r x l o w . ' The l i b e r a l i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t approach p o s i t s t h a t i n t h e postwar e r a Canada emerged as a m i d d l e - r a n k e d power i n t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r d e r . I n f o r e i g n p o l i c y , a premium was p l a c e d upon t h e achievement o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l peace t h r o u g h t h e use o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i s a t i o n s such as t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s , c o l l e c t i v e s e c u r i t y a r r a n g e m e n t s s u c h as t h e N o r t h A t l a n t i c T r e a t y A s s o c i a t i o n (NATO), and t h e need f o r a c t i v e and r e s p o n s i b l e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l t h e a t r e . The postwar e r a i s c h a r a c t e r i s e d as *the g o l d e n age' o f Canadian d i p l o m a c y which a c h i e v e d i t s apogee w i t h P e a r s o n ' s r e c e i p t o f t h e Nobel P r i z e f o r Peace i n 1957 f o r h i s s k i l f u l h a n d l i n g o f t h e Suez C r i s i s . F o r e i g n p o l i c y making was i n f l u e n c e d ^ m o d e r a t e l y ' by e x t e r n a l a c t o r s s u c h as t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and G r e a t B r i t a i n as w e l l as m u l t i l a t e r a l o r g a n i s a t i o n s such as NATO. Other m i d d l e - r a n k e d 9 P l e a s e see Appendix I . 10 former c o l o n i e s a l s o became i m p o r t a n t i n f l u e n c e s . D o m e s t i c a l l y , s o c i e t a l d e t e r m i n a n t s were c o n s i d e r e d t o be o f moderate i m p o r t a n c e , w i t h P a r l i a m e n t , t h e media and t h e p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s e x e r t i n g some influence.,-.'Of t h e governmental d e t e r m i n a n t s , t h e Department o f E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s was t h e predominant d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g body, w h i l e t h e Prime M i n i s t e r ' s o f f i c e c o n t r i b u t i o n was modest. Canada's unprecedented postwar s t a t u r e i n t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l a r e n a , t h a t i s , i t s g r e a t e r autonomy, a s s e r t i v e n e s s and a b i l i t y t o manoeuvre i n t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n t e x t , i s w i d e l y a c c e p t e d . Many o f t h e f o r e i g n . p o l i c y s t u d i e s o f t h e postwar p e r i o d r e f l e c t t h i s v i e w o f Canada as a l i b e r a l i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t m i d d l e power. However, t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e has been e f f e c t i v e l y c h a l l e n g e d by t h e more M a r x i a n p e r s p e c t i v e o f p e r i p h e r a l dependence. A c c o r d i n g t o t h e D e w i t t and K i r t o n model, i n t h e postwar p e r i o d t h e r e a r e d e f i n i t e u n d e r c u r r e n t s o f p e r i p h e r a l dependence wh i c h s u g g e s t t h a t Canada was n o t as autonomous and independent as i t l i k e d t o p r e t e n d . T h i s r e v i s i o n i s t p e r s p e c t i v e would p o s i t t h a t Canada was n o t a m i d d l e - r a n k e d power a t a l l . I n s t e a d , Canada i s p e r c e i v e d as a s m a l l , p e n e t r a t e d s t a t e s u b s e r v i e n t t o t h e i n t e r e s t s and demands o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . I n t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , t h e n , e x t e r n a l d e t e r m i n a n t s a r e deemed t o have t h e g r e a t e s t i m p a c t on C a n a d i a n f o r e i g n p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n . The i n t e r e s t s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s (which r e p l a c e d t h e UK as t h e major, i n f l u e n c e upon Canada) a c t e d as t h e s i n g l e most i m p o r t a n t i n f l u e n c e w h i l e t h e Department o f E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s and t h e Prime M i n i s t e r a r e seen as b e i n g o f l i t t l e s a l i e n c e . These * models' o r i d e a l t y p e s t h a t have been d e v e l o p e d by D e w i t t and K i r t o n have been employed s e l e c t i v e l y i n t h e f o l l o w i n g a n a l y s i s . F o r example, because economic i n t e r e s t s a r e n o t d i r e c t l y p e r t i n e n t t o t h e i s s u e , i t t h e r e f o r e f o l l o w s t h a t b u s i n e s s g r o u p s , e t c . , a r e o f l i t t l e r e l e v a n c e as s o c i e t a l d e t e r m i n a n t s . S i m i l a r l y , t h e p r o v i n c e s had v e r y l i t t l e i mpact on what was a p o l i c y a r e a o f d i r e c t c o n c e r n o n l y t o a s m a l l and d i s c r e t e s e c t i o n o f s o c i e t y . T h e r e f o r e , I have t a k e n some l i b e r t i e s i n u s i n g o n l y t h e d e t e r m i n a n t s germane t o t h e a n a l y s i s . M o r e o v e r , t h e r e a r e some l i m i t a t i o n s i n t h e s e two p e r s p e c t i v e s , as might be e x p e c t e d , a l t h o u g h any such i n a d e q u a c i e s a r e e a s i l y overcome by augmenting t h e b a s i c b r o a d a n a l y t i c a l f r a m e w o r k s w i t h more p r e c i s e m e t hods. Two i m m e d i a t e l y i d e n t i f i a b l e problems r e q u i r e comment. F i r s t l y , because t h i s i s a model o f t h e d e t e r m i n a n t s e f f e c t i n g Canadian f o r e i g n p o l i c y , i t does n o t p r o v i d e a measure o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f d i f f e r e n t American p o l i t i c a l / g o v e r n m e n t a l a c t o r s t o t h e C a n a d i a n p r o c e s s ( s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e i n f l u e n c e s o f t h e American Congress, t h e S t a t e Department, and t h e American s e c u r i t y o r g a n i s a t i o n ) . S e c o n d l y , i t does n o t p r o v i d e a s u b s e t t o e x p l a i n t h e r e l e v a n c e o f groups such as t h e RCMP, which p l a y e d a l a r g e r o l e i n t h e Norman c a s e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n i t s t r a n s n a t i o n a l e x c h a n g e s o f s e c u r i t y i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h o t h e r i n t e l l i g e n c e n etworks. However, t h e use o f t h e s e p e r s p e c t i v e s i s i n t e n d e d t o be s u g g e s t i v e r a t h e r t h a n d e f i n i t i v e . They a r e u s e f u l o n l y i n s o f a r as t h e y a l l o w us t o encompass t h e v e r y wide a r e a o f i s s u e s , s t r u c t u r e s and p r o c e s s e s 12 t h a t make up t h e Norman c a s e . The s t o r y o f E.H. Norman o p e r a t e s on a wide v a r i e t y o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l l e v e l s , a l l o f which a r e l i n k e d t o t h e f i e l d o f Canadian f o r e i g n p o l i c y t o v a r y i n g d e g r e e s . I n t h e f o l l o w i n g pages I i n t e n d t o a d d r e s s some o f t h e c o m p l e x i t i e s i n v o l v e d i n Canadian and American e f f o r t s t o r e c o n c i l e Norman's i d e o l o g i c a l b e l i e f s w i t h t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f d o m e s t i c and i n t e r n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y . There was a d i r e c t c o n f l i c t between how American and C a n a d i a n p o l i c y - m a k e r s approached t h e problems o f i n t e r n a l s e c u r i t y w hich f o r Canada r e a c h e d i t s c l i m a x w i t h Norman's d r a m a t i c s u i c i d e . There was a l s o c o n f l i c t w i t h i n t h e Canadian e l i t e i t s e l f as t o how b e s t t o s e r v e t h e needs o f s t a t e s e c u r i t y . Norman's p l i g h t was d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e p o l i t i c a l and s t r u c t u r a l e x i g e n c i e s o f t h e C o l d War e r a , b u t o v e r t i m e we can see t h e h i s t o r i c a l and m o r a l d i m e n s i o n s o f h i s c a s e . Through a j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f t h e l i b e r a l i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t and t h e p e r i p h e r a l dependence p e r s p e c t i v e s , we can i s o l a t e t h e e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l c o n s t r a i n t s w h i c h a c t e d upon t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f Canadian p o l i c y . The f o l l o w i n g pages, t h e n , w i l l a d d r e s s t h i s c a s e s t u d y as f o l l o w s . I t w i l l s e l e c t i v e l y a p p l y t h e f o r e i g n p o l i c y d e t e r m i n a n t s o f l i b e r a l i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m and p e r i p h e r a l dependence t o t h e h i s t o r i c a l developments o f t h e Norman case b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e p o s t World War I I development o f Canadian i n t e r n a l s e c u r i t y p o l i c y . From t h e r e i t w i l l t r a c e Norman's c a r e e r , and w i l l i n c l u d e an e f f o r t t o demonstrate t h a t h i s M a r x i s t b e l i e f s and a s s o c i a t i o n s were f a r more e n d u r i n g t h a t h i s l i b e r a l c h r o n i c l e r s would have us b e l i e v e , though n o t as i n s i d i o u s as h i s d e t r a c t o r s have c l a i m e d . I t w i l l a l s o examine t h e c h r o n o l o g y o f t h e case b u i l t up a g a i n s t Norman i n c l u d i n g t h e e v i d e n c e t h a t accumulated and how such e v i d e n c e was i n t e r p r e t e d and used. F i n a l l y i t w i l l examine t h e Canadian and American r e s p o n s e s t o Norman's d e a t h . Of p a r t i c u l a r n o te i s t h e Canadian government's a t t e m p t s t o c o n v i n c e t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o f t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a problem i n t h e a r e a o f t r a n s n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y . I t w i l l a l s o a d d r e s s t h o s e c o n s t r a i n t s imposed on t h e Canadian government s p e c i f i c a l l y by a f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n campaign s h o r t l y a f t e r t h e s u i c i d e . From t h i s c a s e we w i l l be a b l e t o i d e n t i f y t h e a n a l y t i c a l v a l u e o f t h e p e r i p h e r a l dependence approach t o an e r a h i t h e r t o dominated by a p e r s p e c t i v e o f P e a r s o n i a n l i b e r a l i s m . More i m p o r t a n t l y , i t w i l l a l l o w us t o c a s t t h e Norman s t o r y i n t h e l i g h t o f a more o b j e c t i v e a n a l y s i s . 14 Canada i n t h e Postwar C o n t e x t : The Se a r c h f o r I n t e r n a l S e c u r i t y Canada i n t h e Postwar World I n t h e a f t e r m a t h o f World War I I t h e emergence o f a b i p o l a r w o r l d w i t h t h e S o v i e t Union as t h e head o f t h e communist b l o c and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s as t h e l e a d e r o f t h e * f r e e w o r l d ' r e s u l t e d i n a d r a m a t i c r e - o r d e r i n g o f t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l b a l a n c e o f power. Canada emerged i n t o t h i s changed g l o b a l regime w i t h an u n p r e c e d e n t e d amount o f power and p r e s t i g e : t h e p e r i o d 1947-1957 has o f t e n been c a l l e d Canada's x g o l d e n age' o f d i p l o m a c y . I t s emergence as a r a n k i n g power on t h e w o r l d s t a g e was f a c i l i t a t e d by b o t h t h e changed n a t u r e o f t h e postwar i n t e r n a t i o n a l system, and by t h e new i m p o r t a n c e a c c o r d e d f o r e i g n a f f a i r s by t h e combined e f f o r t s o f S t . L a u r e n t and P e a r s o n . Canadian f o r e i g n p o l i c y o f t h e p e r i o d was a r d e n t l y l i b e r a l i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t i n i t s i n t e n t , a l t h o u g h perhaps n o t always i n i t s e x e c u t i o n . By j u x t a p o s i n g t h e two t h e o r e t i c a l approaches o f l i b e r a l i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m and p e r i p h e r a l dependence, we can see how s u c c e s s f u l postwar d i p l o m a c y was. A l t h o u g h i n t h i s c h a p t e r I w i l l g e n e r a l l y r e f u t e t h e r e v i s i o n i s t v e r s i o n o f Canada's C o l d War h i s t o r y , I w i l l argue t h a t t h e p e r i p h e r a l dependence approach i s v a l u a b l e i n e x p l a i n i n g c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f postwar p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n . Canada emerged a f t e r t h e war w i t h an a t t i t u d e t o t h e S o v i e t t h r e a t t h a t d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y from t h o s e of t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and t h e U n i t e d Kingdom, b u t c e r t a i n l y i n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f Canada's i n t e r n a l s e c u r i t y p o l i c y , t h e a t t i t u d e s o f t h e s e o t h e r a c t o r s p l a y e d a l a r g e r o l e . Canadian p o l i c y - m a k e r s had a v e r y d i s t i n c t i v e p o l i c y p r e f e r e n c e i n t h e i n t e r n a l s e c u r i t y a r e a , r e f l e c t i v e o f a more moderate approach t o t h e communist t h r e a t i n g e n e r a l , w h i c h t h e y were a b l e t o a s s e r t t o an e x t e n t : b u t t h e Gouzenko c a s e , w h i c h a n t i c i p a t e s t h e problems o f t h e Norman c a s e , demonstrates t h a t t h e A m e r i c a n s , and t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t , t h e B r i t i s h , were a b l e t o i n f l u e n c e Canadian p o l i c y when t h e y saw f i t . D e s p i t e i t s new i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t a t u s , f o r Canada t h e r e v e r y c l e a r l y remained " t h e d e e p l y e m b e dded r e s i d u e o f [ i t s ] w a r t i m e a n d p r e w a r e x p e r i e n c e . " 1 0 I t s c o l o n i a l l i n k s w i t h t h e U n i t e d Kingdom, and i t s t r a n s f e r t o t h e s a t e l l i t e o r b i t o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s c o n t i n u e d t o d e e p l y i n f l u e n c e t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f Canadian f o r e i g n p o l i c y . Canada's performance d u r i n g t h e war e n a b l e d i t t o a s s e r t i t s i n d e p e n d e n c e v i s - a - v i s B r i t a i n t o an e x t e n t not p r e v i o u s l y p o s s i b l e , and i t s i n c r e a s e d economic c a p a b i l i t i e s a l l o w e d i t t o become a r a n k i n g power i n t h e new g l o b a l h i e r a r c h y . I n h i s 1947 Gray L e c t u r e , Canada's f i r s t f u l l t i m e f o r e i g n m i n i s t e r , L o u i s S t . L a u r e n t , announced a r e o r i e n t a t i o n o f f o r e i g n p o l i c y w h i c h would r e f l e c t Canada's new s t a t u r e . 1 1 The prewar p o l i c y o f i s o l a t i o n i s m was r e p u d i a t e d , and t h e c l a r i o n c a l l o f l i b e r a l i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m , w h i c h was t o become, w r i t e s Holmes, "almost a r e l i g i o n i n t h e decade a f t e r t h e Second World War" s o u n d e d . 1 2 Canada's postwar 1 0 D e w i t t and K i r t o n , P r i n c i p a l Power 49. 1 1 D e w i t t and K i r t o n , P r i n c i p a l Power 57. 1 2 Q u o t e d i n Kim R i c h a r d N o s s a l , The P o l i t i c s o f Canadian  F o r e i g n P o l i c y ( S c a r b o r o u g h : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1985) 58. i n t e n t i o n was t o t a k e up a p o l i c y o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o l l a b o r a t i o n and c o o p e r a t i o n . . . b e s t c a l c u l a t e d t o s e r v e n o t o n l y t h e immediate n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s o f Canada, b u t a l s o [ i t s ] o v e r r i d i n g i n t e r e s t i n t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f an i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r d e r w h i c h w i l l p r e v e n t t h e o u t b r e a k o f a n o t h e r w o r l d w a r . 1 3 I t has been s a i d o f t h e B r i t i s h Commonwealth t h a t World War I I "weakened t h e t r u n k and s t r e n g t h e n e d t h e b r a n c h e s . " 1 4 Canada's g r e a t e r autonomy was made p o s s i b l e i n l a r g e p a r t by t h e postwar d e c l i n e o f G r e a t B r i t a i n , w h i c h had h i t h e r t o been t h e dominant f o r c e s h a p i n g Canadian e x t e r n a l p o l i c y , as a major w e s t e r n power. I n o r d e r t o be r e c o g n i s e d as something o t h e r t h a n a mere appendage o f t h e Empire, Canada had made a massive c o n t r i b u t i o n t o two w o r l d wars, pr o m i s e d f u r t h e r l a r g e c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e t a s k o f postwar r e c o n s t r u c t i o n , and e x e r t e d a g r e a t d e a l o f d i p l o m a t i c p e r s u a s i o n . Even t h e n r e c o g n i t i o n o f Canada as something more t h a n a c o l o n y was o n l y g r u d g i n g l y g r a n t e d . N e v e r t h e l e s s , o p e r a t i n g i n tandem w i t h o t h e r medium-size powers l i k e A u s t r a l i a and I n d i a , Canada was a b l e t o a t t a i n a p l a c e as a m i d d l e - r a n k e d power i n t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l h i e r a r c h y , w i t h c o n c o m i t a n t power and s t a t u s . But t h e vacuum c r e a t e d by B r i t a i n ' s d e c l i n e as a c h i e f e x t e r n a l d e t e r m i n a n t on Canadian p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n was q u i c k l y f i l l e d by t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , w h i c h a r g u a b l y s i m p l y r e p l a c e d B r i t a i n i n t h i s c a p a c i t y and s e n t e n c e d Canada t o c o n t i n u e d s a t e l l i t e s t a t u s . I say a r g u a b l y because t h e i n t e n s i t y o f t h e 1 3 H o l m e s c i t i n g House o f Commons, Debates (17 Mar 1944) i n h i s book, The Shaping o f Peace: Canada and t h e Se a r c h f o r World  Order 1943-1957. 2 v o l s . ( T o r o n t o : U To r o n t o P, 1979) 1: 62. 1 4 H o l m e s , Peace 1: 141. American i n f l u e n c e has been h o t l y debated among a d h e r e n t s o f t h e p e r i p h e r a l dependence and l i b e r a l i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t s c h o o l s . F or r e v i s i o n i s t s , Canada d i d n o t emerge as a m i d d l e power a t a l l , b u t r a t h e r , " i n c i r c u l a r f a s h i o n . . . h a d gone from c o l o n y t o n a t i o n t o c o l o n y by t h e end o f t h e Second World War." 1 5 The U n i t e d S t a t e s , as t h e preeminent economic and m i l i t a r y power i n t h e w e s t e r n b l o c , was l o c k e d i n t o a b a t t l e f o r g l o b a l hegemony w i t h t h e S o v i e t U n i o n , a b a t t l e t h a t was t o be f o u g h t more w i t h i d e o l o g i e s t h a n w i t h guns and t a n k s . To t h i s end, t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s began t o e x p o r t i t s C o l d War p e r c e p t i o n s a b r o a d , and i n e v i t a b l y , American C o l d War t h i n k i n g began t o permeate t h e Canadian c o n s c i o u s n e s s . A l t h o u g h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s d i d i n d e e d become t h e c h i e f e x t e r n a l d e t e r m i n a n t on Canadian f o r e i g n p o l i c y , i t would be a m i s t a k e t o assume t h a t Canada a s s i m i l a t e d t h e American p o i n t o f v i e w w h o l e s a l e . I n f a c t , an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e d i v e r g e n c e o f a t t i t u d e s towards t h e C o l d War i n Canada and t h e US v e r y c l e a r l y d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e independence o f t h e Canadian s t a n c e . Canadian r e v i s i o n i s t h i s t o r i a n s have f o l l o w e d t h e p e r i p h e r a l dependence l i n e by a r g u i n g t h a t t h e American e x p o r t o f t h e communist t h r e a t was p a r t i c u l a r l y s u c c e s s f u l i n Canada owing t o "t h e C anadian dependence on American i n t e l l i g e n c e s o u r c e s , g i v e n t h e omnipresence o f American news s o u r c e s and w i r e s e r v i c e s , and N o s s a l , P o l i t i c s , 13. 18 g i v e n t h e s h a r e d v a l u e system o f Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . " 1 6 John Warnock, f o r example, has argued t h a t t h e US s u c c e s s f u l l y c o n v i n c e d t h e l e a d e r s o f t h e w e s t e r n s t a t e s t h a t t h e S o v i e t Union c o u l d and would use m i l i t a r y means t o s p r e a d communism t h r o u g h o u t t h e w o r l d . I t was t h i s t h r e a t p e r c e p t i o n w h i c h s u p p o s e d l y p r o v i d e d t h e impetus f o r t h e s e t t i n g up o f m i l i t a r y a l l i a n c e s . C a n a d i a n s , he w r o t e , " a c c e p t e d t h e a n t i - S o v i e t h y s t e r i a p u t f o r t h by t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s [and] Canada became a j u n i o r p a r t n e r i n t h e w o r l d - w i d e a n t i - c o m m u n i s t c r u s a d e . " 1 7 However, i n i t i a t i v e s l i k e t h e UN and t h e M a r s h a l l P l a n , and i n d e e d , t h e i n c l u s i o n o f non-m i l i t a r y c o o p e r a t i o n i n t h e NATO t r e a t y s u g g e s t t h a t w e s t e r n n a t i o n s were n o t i n t e n d i n g t o s u p p r e s s t h e S o v i e t Union t h r o u g h p u r e l y m i l i t a r y means. Moreover, t h e Canadian commitment t o p r i n c i p l e s o f f u n c t i o n a l i s m , m e d i a t i o n t h r o u g h t h e UN, and i n t e r n a t i o n a l economic and s o c i a l l i n k a g e s a r e i n d i c a t i v e o f i t s s t r o n g l y l i b e r a l i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t approach t o t h e postwar w o r l d . "There were Canadian hawks and American doves," wrote John Holmes, "but on t h e whole t h e Canadian a t t i t u d e t oward S o v i e t p o l i c y and S o v i e t i n t e n t i o n s was l e s s c a t e g o r i c a l . There were more d o u b t s . " 1 8 1 6 J . L. G r a n a t s t e i n and R. D. C u f f , " L o o k i n g Back a t t h e C o l d War, 1945-54," Canadian Forum. ( J u l / A u g 1972): 10. 1 7 S e e , f o r example, John Warnock, P a r t n e r t o Behemoth: The  M i l i t a r y P o l i c y o f a S a t e l l i t e Canada ( T o r o n t o : New P r e s s , 1970) 17. 1 8 J o h n W. Holmes, L i f e w i t h U n c l e : The Canadian-American  R e l a t i o n s h i p ( T o r o n t o : U T o r o n t o P, 1981) 31. Don Page and Don Munton have a l s o p o s i t e d t h a t t h e view o f Canadian p o l i c y - m a k e r s towards t h e S o v i e t Union was l e s s s t r i d e n t t h a n t h e American one: t h e consensus among t h e Canadian g o v e r n i n g e l i t e was t h a t S o v i e t p o l i c y was m o t i v a t e d by more c o n s e r v a t i v e c o n c e r n s such as h i s t o r i c a l i m p e r i a l i s m , tempered by c a u t i o n and r e a l i s m , and was n o t i n h e r e n t l y m i l i t a r i l y a g g r e s s i v e . I d e o l o g y was c o n s i d e r e d t o be a s e c o n d a r y f a c t o r . A s s e s s i n g a number of government documents o f t h e C o l d War p e r i o d , Page and Munton c o n c l u d e d t h a t Canada d i d not s i m p l y f a l l i n t o l i n e b e h i n d t h e A m e r i c a n s , b u t r a t h e r e x h i b i t e d "a s t r i k i n g l y wary and p r e s c i e n t assessment o f t h e emerging problems w i t h postwar American p o l i c y and o f t h e danger o f American e x p a n s i o n i s m . " 1 9 T h i s more moderate approach can be e x p l a i n e d by t h e c o n t r a s t i n g h i s t o r i c a l developments o f t h e two s t a t e s which have d i c t a t e d t h e i n t e r n a l d e t e r m i n a n t s a f f e c t i n g p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n . There a r e , o f c o u r s e , many s i m i l a r i t i e s and v a l u e s which a r e s h a r e d by Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , b u t t h e r e a r e a l s o pronounced d i f f e r e n c e s . D e s p i t e t h e p o w e r f u l i n f l u e n c e e x e r t e d on t h e Canadian s t a t e by American C o l d War t h i n k i n g , t h e o b v i o u s d i v e r g e n c e o f t h e Canadian approach was more i n d i c a t i v e o f i t s l e g a c y o f B r i t i s h c o l o n i a l i s m . I n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , f o r e i g n p o l i c y i s s u e s f r e q u e n t l y p l a y c r u c i a l r o l e s i n t h e making and b r e a k i n g o f governments, whereas i n Canada c i v i l s o c i e t y i s n o t o r i o u s l y d i s i n t e r e s t e d i n f o r e i g n 1 9 D o n Page & Don Munton, "Canadian Images o f t h e C o l d War 1946-7," I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l (Summer 1977): 599. 20 a f f a i r s a n d s e c u r i t y q u e s t i o n s . 2 0 A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y l i n k s i t s d o m e s t i c w e l l - b e i n g w i t h t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f American i n t e r e s t s abroad and t h u s i d e n t i f i e d s t r o n g l y w i t h a p e r c e i v e d S o v i e t t h r e a t . Hence t h e e v e n t s t h a t o c c u r r e d i n t h e e a r l y phase o f t h e C o l d W a r — t h e 1948 Czech coup, t h e l o s s o f C h i n a a y e a r l a t e r , and t h e Korean W a r — w h i p p e d up s u p p o r t f o r an a n t i - c o m m u n i s t w i t c h h u n t i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . But w i d e s p r e a d s u p p o r t f o r t h e McCarthyism was i n d i c a t i v e o f an American p r o c l i v i t y f o r p o p u l i s m w h i c h had no r e a l c o r o l l a r y i n Canada. A 1952 o p i n i o n p o l l i n d i c a t e d t h a t s i x t y p e r c e n t o f t h e American p o p u l a t i o n approved o f t h e a c t i o n s t a k e n by t h e v a r i o u s l o y a l t y boards and c o n g r e s s i o n a l committees, a l t h o u g h o n l y twenty p e r c e n t s u p p o r t e d McCarthy h i m s e l f . 2 1 I n Canadian s o c i e t y , i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h t h e communist t h r e a t as i t was posed by t h e s e d i s t a n t c r i s e s was l e s s a p p a r e n t . 2 2 The 2 U T h e d e v i a n c e of t h e s e a t t i t u d e s i s a t t r i b u t a b l e i n p a r t t o t h e p o l i t i c a l e v o l u t i o n s o f t h e two n a t i o n s . W i l l i a m C h r i s t i a n and C o l i n Campbell s u g g e s t t h a t Canada's d e e p l y e n t r e n c h e d l e g a c y o f B r i t i s h l i b e r a l i s m goes f a r t o e x p l a i n t h e apathy o f i t s s o c i e t y . L i b e r a l i s m p l a c e s i t s emphasis on t h e i n d i v i d u a l , n a t i o n a l i s m on t h e c o l l e c t i v e p o l i t y . Canadians t e n d t o s u p p o r t n a t i o n a l i s t g o a l s o n l y when i t appears t h a t such s u p p o r t w i l l enhance and promote i n d i v i d u a l as w e l l as n a t i o n a l l i b e r t y . See P o l i t i c a l P a r t i e s and I d e o l o g i e s i n Canada ( T o r o n t o : McGraw, 1974) c h a p t e r 6. 2 1 P a u l M i c h a e l R o g i n , The I n t e l l e c t u a l s and McCarthy: The  R a d i c a l S p e c t r e (Cambridge MA: MIT P, 1967) 242. 2 2 T h e c o u n t r y was somewhat a t odds w i t h t h e e x e c u t i v e o v e r t h e e x e c u t i o n o f t h e Korean c r i s i s . P u b l i c l y , t h e debate c o n c e r n e d t h e UN s a n c t i o n e d p o l i c e a c t i o n — C a n a d i a n s f e l t t h a t t h e government was n o t d o i n g enough. However, t h e Canadian f o r e i g n p o l i c y i n i t i a t i v e a l s o h i n g e d upon e f f o r t s t o c o n s t r a i n t h e American d e s i r e t o t u r n t h e Korean c r i s i s i n t o an a l l - o u t war a g a i n s t Communism. T h i s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n d e pth i n l a t e r chapters. l e g e n d a r y Canadian i n d i f f e r e n c e t o f o r e i g n p o l i c y i s s u e s was, and r e m a i n s , i n l a r g e p a r t due t o t h e government's s u c c e s s i n k e e p i n g f o r e i g n p o l i c y - m a k i n g o f f t h e p u b l i c agenda. P o l i t i c a l d i s a s t e r s l i k e t h e 1917 C o n s c r i p t i o n C r i s i s t h a t t o r e t h e c o u n t r y a p a r t d i d much t o c o n v i n c e s u c c e s s i v e g e n e r a t i o n s o f p o l i c y - m a k e r s o f t h e p o t e n t i a l d i v i s i v e n e s s o f f o r e i g n p o l i c y i s s u e s . They have d i s c o v e r e d t h a t a s o c i e t a l d i s i n t e r e s t i n f o r e i g n p o l i c y works t o t h e i r g r e a t advantage, and have t h e r e f o r e t r i e d t o a v o i d p u b l i c debate and c o n t r o v e r s y , a p r a c t i c e t h a t b e a r s t e s t i m o n y t o t h e p r i o r i t y a c c o r d e d p o l i t i c a l s u r v i v a l o v e r n a t i o n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . A l t h o u g h i n h i s Gray L e c t u r e S t . L a u r e n t c a l l e d f o r a b r o a d e n i n g o f t h e debate o v e r Canadian f o r e i g n p o l i c y , i n r e a l i t y , c h a n n e l s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p o l i c y - m a k i n g p r o c e s s remained r e l a t i v e l y narrow: i n f a c t , due t o t h e combined e f f o r t s o f S t . L a u r e n t and P e a r s o n t o f o r g e b o t h a new s e n s i b i l i t y o f Canadian s t a t e c r a f t ( t h e media a t t h e t i m e dubbed S t . L a u r e n t ' s e f f o r t s i n t h i s r e s p e c t a ^crusade') and an expanded and p r o f e s s i o n a l d i p l o m a t i c s e r v i c e , DEA p r o b a b l y e n j o y e d a g r e a t e r degree o f autonomy t h a n e v e r b e f o r e . Kim R i c h a r d N o s s a l has c o n c l u d e d t h a t , a l t h o u g h t h e Canadian s t a t e i s c o n s t r a i n e d c o n s i d e r a b l y by e x t e r n a l d e t e r m i n a n t s because o f i t s r e l a t i v e l a c k o f c a p a b i l i t i e s v i s - a - v i s g r e a t e r powers, i n i t s d o m e s t i c environment i t e n j o y s a r e l a t i v e l y g r e a t e r amount o f autonomy. There a r e many i n t e r e s t groups a c t i v e l y t r y i n g t o i n f l u e n c e f o r e i g n p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n , b u t t h e i r i n f l u e n c e i s v e r y l i m i t e d : a t b e s t , " s o c i e t a l a c t o r s shape t h e s t a t e ' s e x t e r n a l b e h a v i o u r a t a more g e n e r a l l e v e l , by i n f l u e n c i n g t h e environment i n w h i c h t h o s e d e c i s i o n s a r e t a k e n . " 2 3 T h e r e f o r e , a l t h o u g h Canadian s o c i e t y may have e s t a b l i s h e d t h e g e n e r a l p arameters f o r government a c t i o n , t h e s t a t e i t s e l f had c o n s i d e r a b l e c a p a c i t y f o r i n dependent a c t i o n . John P o r t e r e s t a b l i s h e d i n h i s p i o n e e r work The V e r t i c a l  M o s a i c t h a t d e s p i t e i t s c u l t u r a l , e t h n i c and r e g i o n a l d i v e r s i t y , Canada i s i n r e a l i t y governed by a s m a l l , f a i r l y homogeneous e l i t e w h i c h has been a b l e t o a c h i e v e a consensus on such b a s i c ground r u l e s as t h e t a c i t agreement t o keep f o r e i g n p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n o f f t h e p u b l i c a g e n d a . 2 4 Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , p u b l i c c o n c e r n s about Canadian f o r e i g n p o l i c y a r e g e n e r a l l y i s s u e - o r i e n t e d and c o n f i n e d t o a d i s c r e t e r e g i o n a l , c u l t u r a l , o r e t h n i c group. T h e r e f o r e , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s p r o v i d e d by D e w i t t and K i r t o n , i n t h e postwar p e r i o d t h e l i b e r a l i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t p e r s p e c t i v e would appear g e n e r a l l y t o h o l d t r u e . E x t e r n a l and s o c i e t a l d e t e r m i n a n t s were o f moderate i m p o r t a n c e , w h i l e o f t h e governmental d e t e r m i n a n t s , t h e Department o f E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s a c h i e v e d a r a t i n g o f * h i g h ' s a l i e n c e o v e r t h e Prime M i n i s t e r ' s o f f i c e and o t h e r d o m e s t i c departments. However, i f we a p p l y t h e s e i d e a l t y p e s t o t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f an a c t u a l p o l i c y — 2 3 K i m R i c h a r d N o s s a l , The P o l i t i c s o f Canadian F o r e i g n  P o l i c y ( S c a r b o r o u g h : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1985) 38. 2 4 J o h n P o r t e r , The V e r t i c a l M o s a i c : An A n a l y s i s o f C l a s s  and S o c i a l Power i n Canada. ( T o r o n t o : U T o r o n t o P, 1965) c h a p t e r X I I I . t h a t i s , t o t h e development o f Canadian i n t e r n a l s e c u r i t y p o l i c y — we c a n s e e t h a t i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c a s e t h e l i b e r a l i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t t y p o l o g y does n o t p r o v i d e a v e r y a c c u r a t e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e i n f l u e n c e s e f f e c t i n g i t s f o r m u l a t i o n . I t a l s o c a l l s i n t o q u e s t i o n t h e im p o r t a n c e o f t h e media, w h i c h i n t h e l i b e r a l i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t model i s r a t e d o f *low' s a l i e n c e , compared t o i t s ^moderate' s a l i e n c e i n t h e p e r i p h e r a l dependence p e r s p e c t i v e . I n e s s e n c e , by a p p l y i n g t h e p e r i p h e r a l dependence model i n t h i s c a s e we w i l l see t h a t d e s p i t e t h e autonomy o f t h e C a n a d i a n s t a t e w h i c h i s s u g g e s t e d by t h e o r t h o d o x l i b e r a l i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t a p proach, when t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s chose t o a s s e r t i t s p o l i c y p r e f e r e n c e s , i t c o u l d e f f e c t i v e l y do s o . The I n t e r n a l S e c u r i t y Dimension We have seen t h a t Canadians d i d n o t i d e n t i f y w i t h a p e r c e i v e d S o v i e t t h r e a t as i t e x i s t e d i n t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l t h e a t r e . However, t h e 1945 d e f e c t i o n o f S o v i e t c i p h e r c l e r k I g o r Gouzenko s e r v e d t o b r i n g t h e C o l d War *home.' The r e v e l a t i o n s by Gouzenko t h a t a S o v i e t e s p i o n a g e network was o p e r a t i n g w i t h i n Canada was something t h a t a l l Canadians f e l t : "To f i n d t h e m s e l v e s s p i e d upon, t o l e a r n t h a t some o f t h e i r f e l l o w c i t i z e n s had become age n t s o f an u n f r i e n d l y f o r e i g n power, was a shock t o C a n a d i a n s — b u t a u n i f y i n g shock," wrote B l a i r F r a s e r . 2 5 Almost o v e r n i g h t , 2 5 B l a i r F r a s e r , The S e a r c h f o r I d e n t i t y : Canada, 1945-1967 (New York: Doubleday, 1967) 44. The Gouzenko a f f a i r i s o f t e n c i t e d as t h e g e n e s i s o f anti-communism i n Canada. However, James L i t t l e t o n has argued t h a t Canada's a n t i p a t h y t o communism d a t e s back t o 1917 when t h e government s e n t t r o o p s and some o f t h e RCMP t h e C o l d War, w h i c h had seemed t o be some a b s t r a c t i d e o l o g i c a l s t r u g g l e t a k i n g p l a c e abroad and n o t o f any immediate consequence t o C a n a d i a n s , was i n t h e i r v e r y m i d s t : and t h e government was f o r c e d t o acknowledge t h e f a c t t h a t communism posed a t h r e a t d o m e s t i c a l l y as w e l l as e x t e r n a l l y . I r o n i c a l l y , t h e Canadian government s u p p r e s s e d from t h e e l e c t o r a t e t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t Gouzenko had f u r n i s h e d , and i t was o n l y t h r o u g h t h e l e a k a g e o f t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n from a US government o f f i c i a l t h a t t h e a f f a i r became p u b l i c . I n i t i a l l y , Prime M i n i s t e r MacKenzie K i n g had r e f u s e d t o t a k e p u b l i c a c t i o n a g a i n s t t h e s p i e s i d e n t i f i e d by Gouzenko f o r f e a r o f harming Canada's r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e S o v i e t U n i o n . Both t h e B r i t i s h and t h e Americans p r e s s u r e d K i n g t o a r r e s t t h e s p i e s , b u t B r i t a i n c o n f i n e d i t s e f f o r t s t o t h e a p p r o p r i a t e government c h a n n e l s . 2 6 However, a US government s o u r c e , i m p a t i e n t w i t h K i n g ' s r e l u c t a n c e t o r e v e a l t h e p r e s e n c e o f a S o v i e t e s p i o n a g e network, l e a k e d t h e s t o r y t o a New York H e r a l d T r i b u n e c o l u m n i s t . Soon t h e s t o r y t h a t t h e Canadian government was c o n c e a l i n g a d e f e c t o r who c o u l d expose massive e s p i o n a g e r i n g s was s p l a s h e d a c r o s s t h e f r o n t pages. K i n g was t h u s embarrassed i n t o d e a l i n g w i t h Canada's i n t e r n a l s e c u r i t y t o R u s s i a t o i n t e r v e n e i n t h e c i v i l war. See h i s book T a r g e t  N a t i o n : Canada and t h e Western I n t e l l i g e n c e Network ( T o r o n t o : CBC E n t e r p r i s e s / L e s t e r , 1986) 15. 2 6 L a w r e n c e M a r t i n r e p o r t s t h a t K i n g ' s r e l u c t a n c e was i n l a r g e p a r t due t o h i s advanced age, and was r e l i e v e d when P r e s i d e n t Truman a d v i s e d him t h a t Canada and t h e US s h o u l d work t o g e t h e r on t h e m a t t e r . The B r i t i s h were more eager t o t a k e a h a r d l i n e a g a i n s t t h e S o v i e t s and c a l l e d f o r a r r e s t s and p u b l i c d i s c l o s u r e s . See The P r e s i d e n t s and t h e Prime M i n i s t e r s ( T o r o n t o : Doubleday, 1982) 152. r e q u i r e m e n t s . 2 ' T h i s use o f t h e media i s d e m o n s t r a t i v e o f i t s p o t e n t i a l i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e Canadian government's p o l i c y - m a k i n g p r o c e s s , y e t a l s o i l l u m i n e s t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . As we w i l l see l a t e r , i t was t h i s same t a c t i c — t h e use o f p u b l i c i t y t o f o r c e t h e Canadian government i n t o a c t i o n — t h a t American c r i t i c s o f Norman employed when Canada was n o t c o m p l y i n g w i t h p e r c e i v e d American s e c u r i t y i n t e r e s t s . W i t h t h e Gouzenko r e v e l a t i o n s , t h e Canadian government was v i r t u a l l y f o r c e d t o l o o k i n t o t h e m a t t e r o f i n t e r n a l s e c u r i t y . A l t h o u g h w i t c h h u n t s o f t h e t y p e t h a t l a t e r became p o p u l a r i n t h e US were ad v o c a t e d by some o f t h e more r i g h t wing elements o f Canadian s o c i e t y , t h e government r e s p o n s e was c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y moderate: i t convened a commission t o l o o k i n t o Canadian s e c u r i t y and v e t t i n g p r o c e d u r e s . The advent o f t h e C o l d War had broug h t c o n c e r n s about i n t e r n a l s e c u r i t y t o t h e f o r e i n many w e s t e r n c o u n t r i e s . B e f o r e t h e Second World War, s e c u r i t y v e t t i n g o f c i v i l s e r v a n t s had been a r a t h e r i n f o r m a l a f f a i r . A p o t e n t i a l f o r d i s l o y a l t y was u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s p e c i f i c e t h n i c o r r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n s , and n o t w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r i d e o l o g i c a l b e n t . F o r example, i n B r i t a i n ( w h ich p r o v i d e d an example f o r t h e Canadian m o d e l ) , P e t e r W r i g h t , fo r m e r a s s i s t a n t d i r e c t o r o f MI5, n o t e d t h a t when he j o i n e d t h i s i n t e l l i g e n c e b r a n c h i n t h e 1950s he underwent b u t t h e most c u r s o r y 2 7 S e e L i t t l e t o n , T a r g e t , pp 17-18, and John E n g l i s h , " R e v i s i o n i s m R e v i s i t e d : A Response," Canadian Forum (Dec 1972): 16. o f v e t t i n g p r o c e d u r e s : a r o u t i n e p o l i c e check was f o l l o w e d by a p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w w h i c h i n c l u d e d a Masonic handshake and a few q u e s t i o n s a b o u t h i s p a s t v o t i n g i n c l i n a t i o n s and s e x u a l p r e f e r e n c e s . 2 8 I t was t h e d i s c o v e r y o f e s p i o n a g e networks t h a t d i c t a t e d t h e n e c e s s i t y o f a more f o r m a l i s e d system o f s e c u r i t y s c r e e n i n g o f government s e r v a n t s . I n Canada i n 1946 t h e T a s c h e r e a u - K e l l o c k Commission was convened t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e m a t t e r . The commission recommended t h a t a more s y s t e m a t i c approach t o t h e p r a c t i c e o f i n t e r n a l s e c u r i t y was r e q u i r e d i f t h e i n f i l t r a t i o n o f p e o p l e l i k e l y t o commit a c t s o f e s p i o n a g e i n t o government p o s i t i o n s was t o be p r e v e n t e d . 2 9 D i f f i c u l t y l a y i n e s t a b l i s h i n g p r o c e d u r e s w h i c h would a d d r e s s t h e problem o f weeding o u t p o t e n t i a l l y d i s l o y a l s u b j e c t s w i t h o u t i m p i n g i n g upon t h e l i b e r a l d e m o c r a t i c v a l u e s o f each c i t i z e n . " C h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e C o l d War e r a was t h e w i d e s p r e a d a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e n o t i o n t h a t e n t i r e c l a s s e s o f c i t i z e n s might form p o t e n t i a l f i f t h columns o f d i s l o y a l t y and s u b v e r s i o n on b e h a l f on t h e S o v i e t U n i o n , " wrote R e g i n a l d W h i t a k e r . 3 0 And s o , i n Canada, as i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and G r e a t B r i t a i n , i d e o l o g y became t h e y a r d s t i c k by w h i c h 2 8 P e t e r W r i g h t , S p y c a t c h e r (London: S t o d d a r t , 1987) 30-1. 2 9 R o y a l Commission on Espionage 1946, quoted i n Commission o f I n q u i r y C o n c e r n i n g C e r t a i n A c t i v i t i e s o f t h e R o y a l Canadian Mounted P o l i c e , Freedom and S e c u r i t y Under t h e Law (Aug 1981) 718. 3 0 T h e f o l l o w i n g argument i s d e r i v e d from R e g i n a l d W h i t a k e r , " O r i g i n s o f t h e Canadian Government's I n t e r n a l S e c u r i t y System 1946-1952," Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Review LXV:2 (2 Jun 1984): 154-183. The quote appears on 154. p o t e n t i a l d i s l o y a l t y was measured. T h i s y a r d s t i c k , however, was i n h e r e n t l y f l a w e d i n t h a t i t would prove v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e t o q u a n t i f y i d e o l o g i c a l b i a s i n a m e a n i n g f u l way, o r t o s u c c e s s f u l l y l i n k i d e o l o g i c a l b i a s w i t h d i s l o y a l t y . W h i t a k e r c o n t i n u e s : One o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s e c u r i t y programs s e t i n motion i n t h i s p e r i o d i s a c o n f l a t i o n o f es p i o n a g e ( p a s s i n g s e c r e t s t o a f o r e i g n power) and s u b v e r s i o n (an i n t e r n a l t h r e a t t o o r d e r ) . . . . The U n i t e d S t a t e s i n t h e s o - c a l l e d McCarthy e r a went f u r t h e s t i n d e f i n i n g a b r o a d range o f i d e a s as s u b v e r s i v e , t h u s d i s l o y a l . But t o some degree, t h i s t e ndency was a b y - p r o d u c t o f t h e C o l d War i n a l l Western n a t i o n s . The f a c t t h a t t h e r e was S o v i e t e s p i o n a g e , and t h a t e s p i o n a g e networks r e c r u i t e d from c i t i z e n s o f p r o - S o v i e t l e f t - w i n g i d e o l o g i c a l p e r s u a s i o n , o n l y made t h e dilemma o f l i b e r a l d e m o c r a c i e s more a c u t e . 3 1 From t h e recommendations o f t h e T a s c h e r e a u - K e l l o c k Commission i n 1946 a S e c u r i t y P a n e l was o f f i c i a l l y s e t up. I t was an i n t e r d e p a r t m e n t a l body c o n s i s t i n g o f permanent r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s , t h e RCMP, and t h e Department o f N a t i o n a l Defence. I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e US, whi c h chose t o be v e r y p u b l i c i n i t s e f f o r t s t o purge s u b v e r s i v e e l e m e n t s , Canadian p o l i c y - m a k e r s f o l l o w e d t h e B r i t i s h example and were low key i n t h e i r s e a r c h f o r communist i n f i l t r a t o r s . Here a g a i n , Canada's d i s t i n c t i v e B r i t i s h h e r i t a g e , w i t h i t s l o n g e n t r e n c h e d t r a d i t i o n s o f p a r l i a m e n t a r i s m and l i b e r a l i s m , i n f l u e n c e d t h e Canadian approach. The American h e r i t a g e , c o m p r i s e d o f a more pronounced i s o l a t i o n i s t i m p u l s e , an endemic s u s p i c i o n o f c e n t r a l i s e d government power (which was r e a l i s e d t h r o u g h i t s d i f f u s i o n o f a u t h o r i t y i n d i f f e r e n t e x e c u t i v e / l e g i s l a t i v e b r a n c h e s ) , and i t s v i o l e n t swings i n p e r c e p t i o n s o f n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y , was e x p r e s s e d i n i t s more 3 1 W h i t a k e r , " O r i g i n s " 155. 28 p o p u l i s t approach t o t h e t e n e t s o f i n t e r n a l s e c u r i t y . 3 2 i n Canada, t h e s e c u r i t y - i n t e l l i g e n c e mandate was k e p t w i t h i n t h e c o n f i n e s o f t h e s t a t e a p p a r a t u s . A 1948 c a b i n e t d i r e c t i v e on t h e s u b j e c t d i s c u s s e d Canada's a v e r s i o n t o US methods, s t a t i n g t h a t " the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f p r e c i s e and r i g i d s t a n d a r d s f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e x l o y a l t y ' o f government employees, a l o n g t h e l i n e s adopted by t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , i s open t o s e r i o u s o b j e c t i o n on grounds o f p r i n c i p l e . . . " 3 3 To t h i s end, t h e r e g u l a t i o n s g u i d i n g t h e S e c u r i t y P a n e l r e a f f i r m e d f o r m a l l y what had up u n t i l t h a t p o i n t been s t a n d a r d p r a c t i c e a n y w a y — t h e s o l e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e d e s i r a b i l i t y o f any g i v e n employee was l e f t t o t h e d i s c r e t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l department. T h e r e were b o t h a d v a n t a g e s and d i s a d v a n t a g e s t o t h i s a pproach. On t h e one hand, who b e t t e r t o judge t h e s u i t a b i l i t y o f a p r e s e n t o r p o t e n t i a l employee t h a n t h e department d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d ? But on t h e o t h e r hand, i t made t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s a s u b j e c t i v e b u s i n e s s i n d e e d , f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d by t h e f a c t t h a t i n d i v i d u a l departments were s i m p l y n o t q u a l i f i e d t o e v a l u a t e o r i n t e r p r e t s e c u r i t y i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d t o them by t h e RCMP. Moreover, t h i s system l e f t t h e RCMP i n charge o f a s s e m b l i n g 3 2 H e n r y Howe Ransom, " S e c r e t I n t e l l i g e n c e i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , 1947-1982: The CIA's S e a r c h f o r L e g i t i m a c y , " i n C h r i s t o p h e r Andrew and D a v i d D i l k s , eds., The M i s s i n g Dimension:  G o v e r n m e n t s and I n t e l l i g e n c e Communities i n t h e T w e n t i e t h  C e n t u r y . (London: M a c M i l l a n , 1984) 199. 3 3CD #4 (5 Mar 1948) quoted i n J . L . G r a n a t s t e i n , A Man o f  I n f l u e n c e : Norman A. R o b e r t s o n and Canadian S t a t e c r a f t 1929-1968 ( T o r o n t o : Deneau, 1981) 272. and p r o v i d i n g s e c u r i t y i n f o r m a t i o n , n o t i n i t s e l f a bad t h i n g , but n o t n e c e s s a r i l y t h e b e s t t h i n g g i v e n t h e n a t u r e o f i n t e r d e p a r t m e n t a l r i v a l r i e s . C e r t a i n l y i n t h e Norman c a s e DEA and th e RCMP d i d n o t always see eye t o eye on what c o n s t i t u t e d a s e c u r i t y r i s k , DEA b e i n g o f a r a t h e r more l i b e r a l i d e o l o g i c a l p e r s u a s i o n w h i l e t h e RCMP e x h i b i t e d "an i n c l i n a t i o n t o vi e w t h e w o r l d t h r o u g h a p r i s m o f a l m o s t u n i v e r s a l s u s p i c i o n . 1 , 3 4 The S e c u r i t y P a n e l d i d i s s u e v e r y c l e a r c r i t e r i a upon w h i c h t h e departments were t o base t h e i r judgments. I n any case where t h e r e were doubts about t h e l o y a l t y o f a g i v e n i n d i v i d u a l , t h e case was t o be r e s o l v e d i n f a v o u r o f t h e s t a t e . T h i s p r i n c i p l e , and i t s d i r e c t a p p l i c a t i o n t o communists, was r e a f f i r m e d and more n a r r o w l y d e f i n e d i n s u c c e s s i v e c a b i n e t d i r e c t i v e s . I t i s wo r t h q u o t i n g one such d i r e c t i v e a t l e n g t h because i t i s o b v i o u s t h a t by such r i g i d c r i t e r i a H e r b e r t Norman's c o n t i n u e d e m p l o y a b i l i t y by E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s would c e r t a i n l y have been d i s a l l o w e d . F o r example, t h e 1952 d i r e c t i v e r e a d : ...a p e r s o n who i s a member o f t h e Communist P a r t y , o r who by h i s words o r a c t i o n s shows h i m s e l f t o b e l i e v e i n Marxism-L e n i n i s m o r any o t h e r i d e o l o g y w h i c h a d v o c a t e s t h e o v e r t h r o w o f governments by f o r c e s h o u l d n o t be p e r m i t t e d t o e n t e r t h e p u b l i c s e r v i c e . Such p e r s o n s d i s c o v e r e d w i t h i n t h e p u b l i c s e r v i c e must n o t be a l l o w e d a c c e s s t o c l a s s i f i e d i n f o r m a t i o n , and t h e i r c o n t i n u e d employment by t h e government may not be d e s i r e a b l e . There i s always s e r i o u s doubt as t o t h e l o y a l t y o f a pe r s o n who was p r e v i o u s l y a member o f t h e Communist P a r t y o r who a t one t i m e by h i s words o r a c t i o n s showed h i m s e l f t o b e l i e v e i n [such an] i d e o l o g y . . . Where a r e a s o n a b l e doubt remains and where n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y i s i n v o l v e d , t h a t doubt L i t t l e t o n , T a r g e t 177. must n o t be r e s o l v e d i n f a v o u r o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l . - 5 4 There i s much e v i d e n c e t o s u g g e s t t h a t E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s , and c e r t a i n l y L e s t e r P e a r s o n , knew o f Norman's communist s y m p a t h i e s . Henry F e r n s c l a i m s t h a t E x t e r n a l was w e l l aware t h a t Norman was a x r e d , ' b u t was q u i t e w i l l i n g n e v e r t h e l e s s t o employ him because he was one o f Canada's few s k i l l e d J a p a n o l o g i s t s . 3 5 There i s l i t t l e d ebate among t h o s e o f a more l i b e r a l b i a s t h a t E x t e r n a l ' s c o n t i n u e d s u p p o r t o f Norman was p r o b a b l y w e l l - f o u n d e d , b u t even so t h e problems w i t h t h i s d i s c r e t i o n a r y approach t o s e c u r i t y a r e o b v i o u s . E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s had a d i f f i c u l t t i m e c o n v i n c i n g t h e Amer i c a n s , t h e B r i t i s h , and even t h e RCMP t h a t Norman was t r u s t w o r t h y . The e v i d e n c e a v a i l a b l e t o E x t e r n a l , and t h e a c t i o n s t a k e n , w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n subsequent c h a p t e r s . Of more immediate consequence i s t h e s t r u c t u r a l f l a w s o f Canada's new v e t t i n g p r o c e d u r e s . Norman's l o n g e v i t y i n E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s owed i t s e l f e n t i r e l y t o t h e s u b j e c t i v e n a t u r e o f t h e programme, as c o n s e r v a t i v e c r i t i c s have p o i n t e d o u t . James B a r r o s has w r i t t e n t h a t " the f a c t t h a t E g e r t o n H e r b e r t Norman had a charmed c a r e e r i n E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s becomes more u n d e r s t a n d a b l e i f j u x t a p o s e d w i t h what we may m o d e r a t e l y c a l l L e s t e r B. Pear s o n ' s i n o r d i n a t e p r o t e c t i o n o f h i m . " 3 6 C e r t a i n l y i f i t had been up t o t h e RCMP, Norman would 3 4 Q u o t e d i n W h i t a k e r , " S e c u r i t y , " 182-3. 3 5 H e n r y F e r n s , Readings from R i g h t t o L e f t : One Man's  P o l i t i c a l H i s t o r y ( T o r o n t o : U T o r o n t o P, 1983) 214. 3 6 B a r r o s , E v i l 158. have been removed as a s e c u r i t y r i s k . They, t o o , f e l t t h a t Norman was b e i n g u n d u l y p r o t e c t e d , as even t h e more l i b e r a l l y - i n c l i n e d s t u d e n t s o f t h e case w i l l a d m i t . John Sawatsky w r o t e t h a t i n t h e minds o f t h e RCMP I n [Norman's] case E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s k e p t an o f f i c e r w i t h a c c e s s t o s e n s i t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n who had been a committed Communist s t a l w a r t . The e s t a b l i s h e d p o l i c y d u r i n g t h a t p e r i o d was t o remove such p e o p l e from s e n s i t i v e a r e a s . . . Most o t h e r p e o p l e i n t h e same c i r c u m s t a n c e s would have been d i s m i s s e d . But Norman was a f r i e n d o f E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s M i n i s t e r Pearson...and he was g i v e n t h e b e n e f i t o f t h e doubt o t h e r s would n o t have r e c e i v e d . 3 7 W h i t a k e r , t o o , c o r r o b o r a t e s t h i s i m p r e s s i o n , w r i t i n g t h a t "one cannot h e l p wondering whether t h o s e l e s s prominent [ t h a n Norman], w i t h o u t d e f e n d e r s i n t h e e l i t e , d i d not s u f f e r many unremarked i n j u s t i c e s . Not everyone who appeared on an RCMP p i n k s l i p happened t o be p e r s o n a l l y known t o t h e chairman o f t h e S e c u r i t y P a n e l . " 3 8 P e a r s o n a l s o came under f i r e f o r h i s p r o t e c t i o n o f Norman because a l l e g a t i o n s t h a t he was a l s o a S o v i e t mole were abounding i n t h e e a r l y 1950s. I n 1951, American *spy queen' E l i z a b e t h B e n t l e y t e s t i f i e d b e f o r e t h e Senate I n t e r n a l S e c u r i t y Subcommittee t h a t P e a r s o n was "a s o u r c e o f s e c r e t i n f o r m a t i o n " who was communicating t o h e r v i a h e r agent, Hazen S i s e . I n r e a l i t y , one o f P e a r s o n ' s s t a f f members was l e a k i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , n o t mer e l y a c t i n g as a c o n d u i t between B e n t l e y and P e a r s o n . However, t h e rumours about P e a r s o n p e r s i s t e d i n a n t i - c o m m u n i s t c i r c l e s i n 3 7 J o h n Sawatsky, Men i n t h e Shadows: The RCMP S e c u r i t y  S e r v i c e ( T o r o n t o : Doubleday, 1980) 148. 3 8 W h i t a k e r , " S e c u r i t y , " 178. Washington, and even t o d a y a s u s p i c i o n t h a t Norman was s a c r i f i c e d i n o r d e r t o save Pear s o n e x i s t s . 3 9 D e s p i t e t h e immense power o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l departments t o cond u c t t h e i r own s e c u r i t y v e t t i n g p r o c e d u r e s , t h e RCMP d i d m a i n t a i n a f a i r amount o f l e v e r a g e . "The v e r y f a c t t h a t i t was t h e RCMP who d e c i d e d what c o n s t i t u t e d x f a c t ' and how t h e f a c t s f i t t e d t o g e t h e r a l r e a d y p l a c e d c o n s i d e r a b l e power o v e r t h e c a r e e r s o f c i v i l s e r v a n t s i n t h e i r hands," n o t e d W h i t a k e r , a d d i n g t h a t because c i v i l i a n s were r e l u c t a n t t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f RCMP r e p o r t s , t h e RCMP i n v a r i a b l y wound up making t h e e v a l u a t i o n s and recommendations t o t h e departments c o n c e r n e d . 4 0 I n t h e e a r l y s t a g e s o f Canada's i n t e r n a l s e c u r i t y programme, t h e RCMP o c c u p i e d a r a t h e r h a p l e s s p o s i t i o n . Charged w i t h c a r r y i n g o u t s e c u r i t y i n v e s t i g a t i o n s and e v a l u a t i o n s on b e h a l f o f t h e e n t i r e c i v i l s e r v i c e , l i k e t h e n a s c e n t B r i t i s h i n t e l l i g e n c e o r g a n i s a t i o n , t h e Canadian f o r c e was h o p e l e s s l y u n d e r s t a f f e d and u n d e r f u n d e d . H u n t i n g down s e c u r i t y r i s k s o f t e n i n v o l v e d i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e p r i v a t e l i v e s and m o r a l c h a r a c t e r s o f i n d i v i d u a l s . A l c o h o l i c s , c o m p u l s i v e g a m b l e r s , l a r g e d e b t o r s , i n d i v i d u a l s engaged i n e x t r a - m a r i t a l a f f a i r s o r who f r e q u e n t e d p r o s t i t u t e s were a l l c o n s i d e r e d t a r g e t s f o r b l a c k m a i l by enemy r e c r u i t e r s . The RCMP t o o k an e s p e c i a l l y dim vi e w o f homosexuals 3 9 S e e B a r r o s , E v i l . 106, and George I g n a t i e f f , The Makings  o f a Peacemonger: t h e Memoirs o f George I g n a t i e f f ( T o r o n t o : U To r o n t o P, 1985) 119. The American r i g h t ' s a t t i t u d e s towards P e a r s o n w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n a l a t e r c h a p t e r . 4 0 W h i t a k e r , " S e c u r i t y " 183. and had an e n t i r e i n v e s t i g a t i v e u n i t d e v o t e d t o f e r r e t i n g them o u t . I n t h e 1950s t h e department's p o l i c y was t o f i r e a l l homosexuals, r e g a r d l e s s o f whether t h e y c o n s t i t u t e d p o t e n t i a l s e c u r i t y r i s k s . 4 1 N a t u r a l l y , s uch i n v e s t i g a t i o n s were n o t w i l d l y p o p u l a r w i t h t h e Canadian e l e c t o r a t e , and l o a t h e t o appear t o be s u p p o r t i n g t h e un d e r m i n i n g o f c i v i l l i b e r t i e s , t h e government p r e f e r r e d t o d i s a s s o c i a t e i t s e l f from RCMP a c t i v i t i e s a l t o g e t h e r when p o s s i b l e . Of c o u r s e t h e RCMP was n o t by any means beyond r e p r o a c h . I t s methods were o f t e n q u e s t i o n a b l e , and d e c i d e d l y t a c t l e s s , b u t g i v e n t h e l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e t o i t , i t s performance i s a t l e a s t u n d e r s t a n d a b l e , i f n o t n e c e s s a r i l y l a u d a b l e i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n . 4 2 S e c r e t a r y o f t h e S e c u r i t y P a n e l A r n o l d Heeney wrote t o Norman R o b e r t s o n i n 1951 t h a t t h e P a n e l ' s d i f f i c u l t y was " t o s t r i k e a happy medium between t h e dangers o f u n r e s t r i c t e d w i t c h h u n t i n g on th e one hand, and a t o o c a s u a l approach t o t h e s e c u r i t y problem on t h e o t h e r . " 4 3 Canada d i d succeed i n s t r i k i n g a b a l a n c e — W h i t a k e r c a l l s i t * r e s t r i c t e d w i t c h h u n t i n g ' — b u t t h e programme was not w i t h o u t i t s c o s t s . I n t h e Norman case i t s i n a d e q u a c i e s were r e a d i l y a p p a r e n t . The RCMP f a i l e d d i s m a l l y i n i t s e f f o r t s t o c a r r y o u t adequate v e t t i n g o f him. I t n o t o n l y f a i l e d t o i d e n t i f y l i n k s between Norman and I s r a e l H a l p e r i n , who was accu s e d o f c a r r y i n g o u t es p i o n a g e f o l l o w i n g t h e Gouzenko d i s c l o s u r e s , but 4 1 S a w a t s k y , Men 124. 4 2 S e e , f o r example, L i t t l e t o n , T a r g e t , 168. 4 3 H e e n e y i s quoted i n Bowen, Innocence 213. 34 managed t o send o u t an i n a c c u r a t e r e p o r t c o n c e r n i n g Norman t o t h e F B I , w h i c h f o u n d i t s e l f i n "the hands o f t h e Senate subcommittee. F u r t h e r m o r e , much o f t h e e v i d e n c e a g a i n s t Norman was g a t h e r e d by Amer i c a n i n t e l l i g e n c e s e r v i c e s , and i t was t h e Americans who p o i n t e d o u t t h e im p o r t a n c e o f Canadian i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e RCMP. The f a i l u r e s o f t h e RCMP d i d l i t t l e t o i n s t i l l c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e American and B r i t i s h governments about Canada's a b i l i t y t o h a n d l e i t s own i n t e r n a l s e c u r i t y , e s p e c i a l l y as t h e y were e n t a n g l e d w i t h t h e g r e a t e r p roblems o f w e s t e r n s e c u r i t y i n a t i m e o f . g r o w i n g , p a r a n o i a . The e x p o s u r e o f A l g e r H i s s , Guy B u r g e s s , Donald Maclean and numerous o t h e r S o v i e t agents t h a t g a i n e d n o t o r i e t y i n t h i s p e r i o d p r o v e d a g a i n and a g a i n t h a n w e s t e r n s e c u r i t y p r o c e d u r e s were f a i l i n g , and governments were as q u i c k t o p l a c e t h e blame on o t h e r c o u n t r i e s , as upon t h e i r own s e c u r i t y s e r v i c e . Moreover, t h e i d e o l o g i c a l p r e f e r e n c e s o f t h e d i f f e r e n t s t a t e s c o m p l i c a t e d t h e . , , n e c e s s i t y o f a c h i e v i n g a consensus on v s e c u r i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s . Thus b o t h B r i t a i n and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s r e g a r d e d Canada as b e i n g somewhat * s o f t ' on communism, a l t h o u g h o n l y t h e most vehemently a n t i - c o m m u n i s t s e c t i o n s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s f e l t c o m p e l l e d t o i n t e r f e r e d i r e c t l y i n Ca n a d i a n p r o c e d u r e s . The p o s t w a r d o m i n a t i o n o f t h e w e s t e r n i n t e l l i g e n c e network by •the U n i t e d - S t a t e s m e a n t " t h a t t h e y w i e l d e d an i n o r d i n a t e amount o f i n f l u e n c e . . i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y , a n d t h e f a i l u r e o f Canada t o s u c c e s s f u l l y a s s e r t i t s own p r e f e r e n c e s i n t h i s i s s u e a r e a was t o some degree i n e v i t a b l e . When t h e Americans d i d n o t a c h i e v e s a t i s f a c t i o n ( i . e . , Canadian a c q u i e s c e n c e ) t h r o u g h c o n v e n t i o n a l means, t h e y s i m p l y employed more u n s c r u p u l o u s t a c t i c s , such as t h e e m b a r r a s s i n g p u b l i c i t y used i n t h e Gouzenko c a s e , t o f o r c e Canadian c o m p l i a n c e . Perhaps w i t h a more s y s t e m a t i c and r e l i a b l e i n t e r n a l s e c u r i t y system, Canada would have been a b l e t o c a r r y o u t i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n t h i s a r e a more e f f e c t i v e l y , and t h u s assuage t h e f e a r s o f t h e American and B r i t i s h governments. However, as i t s t o o d , Canadian p o l i c y - m a k e r s ' r e l a t i v e l e n i e n c e i n t h e a r e a o f i n t e r n a l s e c u r i t y , t h e u n c o n v i n c i n g performance o f t h e RCMP i n i t s b i d t o conduct e f f e c t i v e s e c u r i t y o p e r a t i o n s , and t h e d i s c r e t i o n a r y n a t u r e o f t h e v e t t i n g p r o c e s s a l l c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ' and G r e a t B r i t a i n ' s s c e p t i c i s m t oward t h e Canadian a b i l i t y t o h a n d l e i t s own s e c u r i t y needs, never mind t h e g r e a t e r needs t h e n a s c e n t w e s t e r n a l l i a n c e system. Thus, p r o c l a m a t i o n s t o t h e c o n t r a r y , Canada's middle-power s t a t u s was, i n t h i s r e s p e c t a t l e a s t , i l l u s o r y , depending as i t d i d upon American and B r i t i s h s u f f e r a n c e r a t h e r t h a n upon any Canadian a b i l i t y t o a s s e r t i t s own p o l i c y p r e f e r e n c e s t h r o u g h p o l i t i c a l l e v e r a g e i n t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l a r e n a . I n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f i n t e r n a l s e c u r i t y p o l i c y , a s t r o n g c a s e can be made f o r t h e n o t - r e a d i l y a p p a r e n t c o n s t r a i n t s imposed by Canada's s t a t u s v i s - a - v i s t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . Canada had a d i s t i n c t i v e s e t o f p o l i c y p r e f e r e n c e s d e r i v e d from a more moderate approach t o t h e S o v i e t t h r e a t , a p o l i t i c a l c u l t u r e t h a t l e f t f o r e i g n p o l i c y i s s u e s up t o t h e d i s c r e t i o n o f t h e e l i t e , and an e l i t e p r e d i s p o s e d t o a more f l e x i b l e approach t o t h e parameters o f a c c e p t a b l e i d e o l o g i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s w i t h i n i t s r a n k s . However, i t s a s s e r t i o n o f t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s was i n r e a l i t y s e v e r e l y c o n s t r a i n e d by t h e more r i g h t wing i d e o l o g i c a l parameters adopted i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . 37 Norman's I d e o l o g y ; A r m c h a i r M a r x i s t o r P a r t y S t a l w a r t ? H a v i n g t h u s e s t a b l i s h e d t h e c o n t e x t i n which Norman's s t o r y t a k e s p l a c e , we can now t u r n t o t h e t a s k o f a p p l y i n g t h e i n t e r n a l s e c u r i t y p o l i c i e s f o r m u l a t e d t o h i s s p e c i f i c c a s e . Norman's d e f e n d e r s , i n c l u d i n g Norman h i m s e l f , have l o n g t r i e d t o argue t h e n o t i o n t h a t h i s i d e o l o g i c a l c o n v i c t i o n s were s u p e r f i c i a l ones, and t h a t h i s c o n v e r s i o n t o communism was but a x y o u t h f u l i n d i s c r e t i o n ' committed when he was a n a i v e young u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t . Because t h i s c a s e h i n g e s on t h e q u e s t i o n o f whether h i s p r e v i o u s communist a s s o c i a t i o n s p r e c l u d e d him from b e i n g a * l o y a l ' government s e r v a n t i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o t r a c e t h e e v o l u t i o n , d u r a t i o n , and depth o f commitment, o f Norman's i d e o l o g i c a l c o n v i c t i o n s . From t h e i d e o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s o f some o f t h e key a c t o r s , l i k e t h e US Cong r e s s , Norman's s u i t a b i l i t y f o r government employment was open t o s e r i o u s q u e s t i o n . A l t h o u g h I have no b i o g r a p h i c a l p r e t e n s i o n s f o r t h i s t h e s i s , some f a i r l y d e t a i l e d remarks a d d r e s s i n g h i s i n d u c t i o n i n t o communist t h i n k i n g a r e n e c e s s a r y . My f i r s t r e s e a r c h o b j e c t i v e was t o expand t h e i d e o l o g i c a l p a r ameters o f t h e Norman debate beyond t h o s e a r t i c u l a t e d by Roger Bowen and James B a r r o s . To r e c a p b r i e f l y , Bowen's argument was t h a t a l t h o u g h Norman was a communist, he was i n n o c e n t o f any ch a r g e s o f d i s l o y a l t y a g a i n s t t h e Canadian government, whereas B a r r o s has argued t h a t he was g u i l t y p r e c i s e l y because he was a communist. I n a way, a l t h o u g h B a r r o s ' argument i s l e s s c o n v i n c i n g , he has a t l e a s t begun w i t h a more c o n c r e t e h y p o t h e s i s by c o n t e n d i n g t h a t Norman was a M a r x i s t , and t h e r e f o r e g u i l t y o f 38 d i s l o y a l t y . We have seen i n t h e p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r t h a t t h i s e q u a t i o n was p e r c e i v e d t o be t r u e even i n t h e eyes o f t h e Canadian p o l i c y - m a k e r s w h i c h c l e a r e d him, and i n s t i t u t i o n a l i s e d i n Canadian law. T h e r e f o r e , t o make a case a g a i n s t t h e Canadian government ( s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e Department o f E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s ) , a l l B a r r o s need do i s prove t h a t Norman was i n d e e d a M a r x i s t , and t h e n argue t h a t by t h e c r i t e r i a s e t by t h e Canadian government, he s h o u l d have been d i s m i s s e d . To an e x t e n t , B a r r o s a c h i e v e s t h i s . The f a c t t h a t h i s arguments a r e not u l t i m a t e l y c o n v i n c i n g , however, s u g g e s t s t h a t t h i s i s a case o f f a r g r e a t e r c o m p l e x i t y . Bowen, on t h e o t h e r hand, argues t h a t Norman was * g u i l t y ' o f communism, b u t * i n n o c e n t ' o f d i s l o y a l t y . He was v i c t i m i s e d u n j u s t l y f o r h i s communist b e l i e f s , m a i n l y by t h e American c o n g r e s s i o n a l subcommittee, which w r o n g l y equated communism w i t h d i s l o y a l t y . A l t h o u g h c e r t a i n l y more a c a d e m i c a l l y b a l a n c e d t h a n B a r r o s ' w o r k , Bowen s t i l l f a l l s i n t o t h e t r a p o f o v e r -s i m p l i f i c a t i o n by v i l i f y i n g v i r t u a l l y everyone o f a more c o n s e r v a t i v e i d e o l o g i c a l b e nt who was s u s p i c i o u s about Norman. I t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g , however, t h a t Bowen's p e r s p e c t i v e i s t h e more u n i v e r s a l l y a c c e p t e d one. C a n a d i a n s seem t o r e l i s h t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o p i l l o r y A m e r i c a n s , and t h e s u i c i d e o f Norman i s a s p l e n d i d examples o f Americans i l l e g i t i m a t e l y i n t e r v e n i n g i n Canadian a f f a i r s , b l a t a n t l y d i s r e g a r d i n g Canadian w i s h e s and u l t i m a t e l y b e i n g d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e d e a t h o f a v a l u e d Canadian s e r v a n t . Thus f a r , an i d e o l o g i c a l debate o v e r Norman's presumed g u i l t o r i n n o c e n c e has p r o v e d t o be a u s e f u l way o f g e n e r a l i s i n g about an e m p i r i c a l l y complex c a s e . Yet t h e debate s h o u l d range beyond t h e p a r a m e t e r s o f r i g h t i s t and l e f t i s t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s i n s o f a r as t h i s i s p o s s i b l e i n an i s s u e grounded i n competing i d e o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s . One way t o e x t e n d t h e debate i s t o p u t i t i n t h e c o n t e x t o f Canadian f o r e i g n p o l i c y , w h i c h I have done t h r o u g h t h e use o f D e w i t t and K i r t o n ' s t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s . A n o t h e r i s t o move away from t h e t i r e s o m e arguments about whether adherence t o communism c o n s t i t u t e s an i n t r i n s i c a l l y d i s l o y a l a c t and judge governmental p o l i c i e s i n terms o f t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t . The s e t t i n g o f t h e Norman case i n t h e y e a r s o f C o l d War p a r a n o i a , when t h e r e were i n d e e d x r e d s ' who were c o m m i t t i n g a c t s o f e s p i o n a g e on b e h a l f o f t h e S o v i e t s t a t e t o be found i n s e n s i t i v e government p o s i t i o n s , and when w e s t e r n governments f e l t t h a t S o v i e t - d i r e c t e d communism posed a t h r e a t t o w e s t e r n s o c i e t y and v a l u e s goes f a r t o e x p l a i n why d i s t i n c t i o n s between M a r x i s m - L e n i n i s m as a t o o l o f i n t e l l e c t u a l i n q u i r y , and communism as a b l u e p r i n t f o r t h e o v e r t h r o w o f c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y would have been academic ones i n d e e d . The q u e s t i o n s posed by Norman's a c c u s e r s (some o f who were r a b i d l y a n t i - c o m m u n i s t w i t c h h u n t e r s , o t h e r s who were s i m p l y d o i n g t h e i r j o b s ) were n o t n e c e s s a r i l y f a i r o r j u s t o r a p p r o p r i a t e , b u t t h e y were d e r i v e d from what were a p p a r e n t l y l e g i t i m a t e f e a r s . Norman's e v o l u t i o n from Communist P a r t y member t o * a r m c h a i r M a r x i s t ' d i d n o t e a s i l y f i t i n t o t h e frameworks d e v e l o p e d by w e s t e r n governments t o a s s e s s an i n d i v i d u a l ' s l o y a l t y . To i t s 40 c r e d i t , by n o t a d h e r i n g r i g i d l y t o i t s own c r i t e r i a , E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s d i d x s a v e ' a t l e a s t one l o y a l c i t i z e n from b e i n g s c a p e g o a t e d f o r h i s i d e o l o g i c a l b e l i e f s . But t h e f a c t t h a t a s t a t e has t o d i s r e g a r d i t s own p o l i c i e s i n o r d e r t h a t j u s t i c e be c a r r i e d o u t r a i s e s s e r i o u s doubts about such p o l i c i e s . T h e r e f o r e , a n o t h e r way t o expand t h e debate i s t o a n a l y s e t h e e t i o l o g y o f government p o l i c y . I t i s a p p a r e n t t h e n t h a t t h e r e a r e many p o i n t s o f e n t r y w i t h w h i c h one can a n a l y s e Norman as a c a s e s t u d y w i t h o u t r e s o r t i n g t o t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e p r e s e n t d i s c o u r s e . For a n a l y t i c a l p u r p o s e s , t h i s c h a p t e r w i l l b e g i n w i t h a r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f Norman's p o l i t i c i z a t i o n , w h i c h w i l l d i f f e r from o t h e r a t t e m p t s c h i e f l y i n t h a t i t w i l l n o t be found n e c e s s a r y t o make r a t i o n a l i s a t i o n s o r a p o l o g i e s f o r t h e f a c t t h a t Norman was, i n d e e d , a communist. From t h e r e I w i l l move i n t o t h e i n t r i c a c i e s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e e v i d e n c e w h i c h were b u i l t i n t o a c a s e a g a i n s t Norman, and l e d up t o h i s s u i c i d e . T h i s w i l l be n e c e s s a r i l y d e s c r i p t i v e r a t h e r t h a n a n a l y t i c a l , b u t w i l l p r o v i d e t h e n e c e s s a r y background t o l a t e r a l l o w me t o draw some c o n c l u s i o n s as p e r t h e i n t e n t o f t h e r e s e a r c h o b j e c t i v e s c o n c e r n i n g Canadian f o r e i g n p o l i c y . A F l i r t a t i o n w i t h Communism A l t h o u g h Norman's a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e Communist P a r t y was c o n f i n e d t o a r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t p e r i o d o f t i m e , h i s s o - c a l l e d x f l i r t a t i o n ' w i t h Marxism extended f a r beyond h i s u n i v e r s i t y days, and he c a r r i e d h i s i n t e r e s t i n i t , d e e p l y a l t e r e d by t i m e and c i r c u m s t a n c e b u t a p p a r e n t n e v e r t h e l e s s , t o h i s d e a t h . The g e n e s i s o f h i s i d e o l o g i c a l b e l i e f began p r o p e r l y upon h i s e n t r a n c e t o t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o i n 1929, a l t h o u g h he had begun r e a d i n g Marx w h i l e r e c o v e r i n g from t u b e r c u l o s i s i n a C a l g a r y s a n i t o r i u m a t t h e age o f s i x t e e n . I n i t i a l l y he pursued t h i s i n t e r e s t i n Marxism w i t h l i t t l e a p p a r e n t d e p t h o r commitment: as l a t e as t h e s p r i n g o f 1933 Bowen says he c o u l d o n l y be c h a r a c t e r i s e d as an x a r m c h a i r r a d i c a l . ' But a t u n i v e r s i t y , h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n was d r a m a t i c : Bowen n o t e s t h a t " i n t h e space o f a mere seven y e a r s , between 1927 and 1934, H e r b e r t Norman changed from b e i n g a C h r i s t i a n t o a C h r i s t i a n - S o c i a l i s t a l i g n e d w i t h t h e CCF, t o a T r o t s k y i s t , and f i n a l l y t o a S t a l i n i s t . " 4 4 T h i s d r a m a t i c p o l i t i c a l e v o l u t i o n p a r a l l e l s Norman's c h a n g i n g p o l i t i c a l environment a t t h r e e d i f f e r e n t u n i v e r s i t i e s . W h i l e s t u d y i n g c l a s s i c s a t V i c t o r i a C o l l e g e , U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o , Norman e x h i b i t e d a f a i r l y s u p e r f i c i a l i n t e r e s t i n Marxism. However, s i g n i f i c a n t l y , d u r i n g h i s undergr a d u a t e y e a r s t h e r e he d i d become a c q u a i n t e d w i t h s t u d e n t s who would l a t e r be ta g g e d as * r e d ' d u r i n g t h e C o l d War y e a r s . Most n o t a b l e among them was I s r a e l H a l p e r i n . A f t e r c o m p l e t i n g h i s b a c h e l o r ' s degree i n Canada, Norman a c c e p t e d a s c h o l a r s h i p t o s t u d y h i s t o r y a t T r i n i t y C o l l e g e , Cambridge. I t was n o t l o n g a f t e r h i s a r r i v a l a t T r i n i t y t h a t he became more d e e p l y i n d o c t r i n a t e d i n t o t h e Communist P a r t y . Cambridge i n t h e 1930s was something o f a hotbed o f p o l i t i c a l 4 4Bowen, Innocence 38. r a d i c a l i s m . 4 i > Economic d e p r e s s i o n , h i g h unemployment, t h e r i s e o f r i g h t i s t i d e o l o g i e s such as f a s c i s m and n a z i s m , t h e s e c u r r e n t s a l l c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e m o b i l i s a t i o n o f s t u d e n t s i n B r i t i s h u n i v e r s i t i e s . Cambridge gave r i s e t o a number o f s e m i n a l f i g u r e s i n t h e w e s t e r n communist movement, and a l s o t o some n o t o r i o u s S o v i e t a g e n t s . Many o f Norman's p e e r s t o o k t h e i r i d e a l s t o t h e b a t t l e f i e l d s o f S p a i n d u r i n g t h e c i v i l war. John C o r n f o r d , a * T r i n i t y h e r o ' who was Norman's c l o s e s t f r i e n d and mentor, and r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i n d u c t i n g him i n t o t h e Communist P a r t y , d i e d t h e r e . Among Norman's o t h e r p e e r s were Anthony B l u n t , Kim P h i l b y , Donald Maclean and Guy B u r g e s s , a v e r i t a b l e *who's who' o f S o v i e t e s p i o n a g e . A l l f o u r were r e c r u i t e d by S o v i e t * t a l e n t s p o t t e r s ' w h i l e a t Cambridge. That Norman became swept up i n t h e Cambridge communist movements i s no g r e a t s u r p r i s e . He a r r i v e d a t T r i n i t y as a c o m p a r a t i v e l y p o o r , u n d i s t i n g u i s h e d s c h o l a r s h i p s t u d e n t from t h e c o l o n i e s , and as such was v e r y much an o u t s i d e r : h i s e n t r a n c e i n t o u n i v e r s i t y s o c i e t y was made p o s s i b l e by c l a i m i n g an i d e o l o g i c a l a f f i n i t y w i t h t h e M a r x i s t s e t . Soon a f t e r h i s a r r i v a l he w rote t o h i s f a m i l y t h a t " i t seems i f one has r e a d S t r a c h e y ' s Coming S t r u g g l e f o r Power and speaks h i g h l y o f i t , t h e n you a r e 4 5 T h e r e a r e a number o f f a s c i n a t i n g d i s c u s s i o n s on Cambridge p o l i t i c s i n t h e 1930s. See, f o r example, V i c t o r K i e r n a n , " H e r b e r t Norman's Cambridge" i n Bowen, E.H. Norman 27-46; R o b e r t C e c i l , "The Cambridge C o m i n t e r n " i n Andrew and D i l k s , M i s s i n g 169-198; P h i l i p Toynbee, " J o u r n a l o f a N a i v e R e v o l u t i o n a r y " i n P h i l i p Toynbee, ed., The D i s t a n t Drum: R e f l e c t i o n s on t h e  S p a n i s h C i v i l War (New York: McKay, 1976) 144-184; and T.E.B. Howarth, Cambridge Between Two Wars (London: C o l l i n s , 1978) c h a p t e r 6. g r a n t e d a sesame i n t o t h e i r company." 4 6 The a p p e a l of communist company was o b v i o u s enough: R e v o l t a g a i n s t p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y ? Of c o u r s e . The p l e a s u r e s and i n n e r s e c u r i t y p r o v i d e d by b e l o n g i n g t o a s e m i - s e c r e t s o c i e t y ? Not a doubt o f i t . The pure r o m a n t i c i s m o f r e d f l a g s and c l e n c h e d f i s t s ? Who c o u l d deny i t ? 4 7 C o n t r a r y t o what Norman would t e l l h i s a c c u s e r s some f i f t e e n y e a r s l a t e r , t h e r e i s l i t t l e doubt t h a t he j o i n e d t h e B r i t i s h Communist P a r t y . He was a s s i g n e d t h e t a s k o f o r g a n i s i n g A s i a n s t u d e n t s on b e h a l f o f t h e P a r t y , a d u t y he was w e l l - s u i t e d f o r b e i n g a c o l o n i a l h i m s e l f , and a l r e a d y something of an A s i a n i s t . A l t h o u g h he p a r t i c i p a t e d a c t i v e l y i n p a r t y a c t i v i t i e s , i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e S o v i e t t a l e n t s p o t t e r s who r e c r u i t e d Cambridge M a r x i s t s would have been i n t e r e s t e d i n him as a p o t e n t i a l spy. By a l l a c c o u n t s , he was a p e r i p h e r a l f i g u r e i n t h e Cambridge movement, and as Bowen e x p l a i n s , n o t l i k e l y t o be c o n s i d e r e d a u s e f u l c a n d i d a t e f o r e s p i o n a g e a c t i v i t i e s f o r a number o f r e a s o n s : Norman's modest c o l o n i a l b a c k g r o u n d . . . d i s q u a l i f i e d him f o r any s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r membership i n t h e A p o s t l e s [an e l i t e c o m m u n i s t c e l l f r o m w h i c h B u r g e s s e t . a l . were r e c r u i t e d ] , and h i s s h o r t , two y e a r s t a y a t Cambridge m i n i m i s e d h i s chances o f b e i n g t a r g e t e d as a p o t e n t i a l mole t o t h e S o v i e t s . 4 8 F u r t h e r m o r e , Norman seemed t o be headed f o r a c a r e e r i n academe r a t h e r t h a n i n government s e r v i c e , a c a r e e r c h o i c e t h a t would have been o f l i m i t e d u s e f u l n e s s t o t h e S o v i e t s . 4 9 4 6Bowen, Innocence 58. 4 7 T o y n b e e , " J o u r n a l " 146. 4 8Bowen, Innocence 61. 4 9 F e r n s , Readings 221. D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , communist d o c t r i n e was d i c t a t e d by t h e K o m i n t e r n , w h i c h i n t u r n was c o n t r o l l e d by Moscow. Hence t h e i d e o l o g y f o l l o w e d by Norman and h i s c o l l e a g u e s was, a t t h i s j u n c t u r e , s t a u n c h l y S t a l i n i s t . P o l e m i c a l b a t t l e s between t h e r i g h t and l e f t r a g e d , and i t was n o t u n t i l t h e smoke c l e a r e d y e a r s l a t e r t h a t t h e f u l l e x t e n t o f t h e a t r o c i t i e s committed under S t a l i n ' s regime became a p p a r e n t . I n t h e 1930s, w i t h n a z i s m and f a s c i s m on t h e r i s e abroad and a c u t e economic and s o c i a l problems a t home, even t h e communism o f S t a l i n ' s R u s s i a was seen as a l e g i t i m a t e b l u e p r i n t f o r s o c i a l change. As Toynbee, a v i c t i m o f t h e same i d e o l o g i c a l a f f l i c t i o n a t O x f o r d w o u l d r e c a l l r e g r e t f u l l y , " i n our hunger f o r an e a r t h l y p a r a d i s e we g r o s s l y d e c e i v e d o u r s e l v e s about S t a l i n ' s R u s s i a n and f o o l i s h l y a c c e p t e d t h e h a r s h and c y n i c a l methods o f our p a r t y . " 5 0 B l i n d a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e P a r t y methodology was encouraged. Toynbee c o n t i n u e s t h a t a t y p i c a l admonishment from a P a r t y s u p e r i o r was "are we g o i n g t o i n d u l g e o u r s e l v e s i n b o u r g e o i s i n t e l l e c t u a l d o u b t s , comrade, o r a r e we g o i n g t o g e t on w i t h t h e j o b ? " 5 1 Norman r e t u r n e d t o Canada i n 1935. He t u r n e d down an o f f e r t o work as a language o f f i c e r i n E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s i n f a v o u r o f a t e a c h i n g p o s t i n c l a s s i c s a t Upper Canada C o l l e g e . He a l s o began g r a d u a t e work a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o . However, h i s t e n u r e as a t e a c h i n g master was s h o r t - l i v e d . A former u n i v e r s i t y companion, A l e x a n d e r Heakes, had recommended Norman f o r t h e 5 0 T o y n b e e , " J o u r n a l " 147. 5 1 T o y n b e e , " J o u r n a l " 178. p o s i t i o n b u t had warned headmaster Terence MacDermot o f Norman's p o l i t i c a l s y m p a t h i e s . MacDermot h i r e d him r e g a r d l e s s , b u t c a u t i o n e d him a g a i n s t c a r r y i n g h i s p o l i t i c s i n t o t h e c l a s s r o o m . A p p a r e n t l y Norman f e l t t h a t t h e w a r n i n g d i d n o t e x t e n d t o t h e b r e a k f a s t room: he r e l a t e d t o h i s companion Henry F e r n s t h a t on 7 March 1 9 3 6 — t h e day H i t l e r ' s t r o o p s e n t e r e d t h e R h i n e l a n d — h e d e l i v e r e d an a n t i - f a s c i s t r a n t t h a t c o s t him h i s j o b . The s t o r y may be a p o c r y p h a l . B a r r o s c o u n t e r s t h a t a t t h e t i m e a l e f t - w i n g t e a c h i n g master was a f a i r l y t y p i c a l specimen, and t h a t Norman's remarks would n o t have been r e g a r d e d as a m i s s . On t h e o f f i c i a l r e c o r d t h e r e a s o n c i t e d f o r Norman's d i s m i s s a l was " s o l e l y due t o h i s i n a b i l i t y t o m a i n t a i n d i s c i p l i n e . " 5 2 However, Fe r n s m a i n t a i n s t h a t "as f a r as H e r b e r t was c o n c e r n e d , he was c o m p l e t e l y c o n v i n c e d t h a t he had been u n j u s t l y d e p r i v e d o f h i s l i v e l i h o o d by p o l i t i c a l p r e j u d i c e . " 5 3 I f F e r n ' s s t o r y i s c o r r e c t , t h e n i t must have been a p p a r e n t t o Norman e a r l y i n h i s c a r e e r t h a t h i s chosen i d e o l o g i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n c o u l d become an l i a b i l i t y . F o l l o w i n g h i s d i s m i s s a l , Norman went t o H a r v a r d t o c o n t i n u e h i s g r a d u a t e s t u d i e s . H i s p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i s m c e r t a i n l y had not waned s i n c e l e a v i n g Cambridge, f o r upon h i s a r r i v a l a t H a r v a r d i n 1936 he soon was i n v o l v e d i n a number o f a c t i v i t i e s t h a t were d e m o n s t r a t i v e o f h i s e n d u r i n g i n t e r e s t i n a c t i v e communism: He i n v o l v e d h i m s e l f i n c o l l e c t i n g money and goods t o be s e n t t o t h e a n t i - F r a n c o S p a n i s h r e b e l s ; he h e l p e d o r g a n i z e a Canadian a f f i l i a t e o f t h e American F r i e n d s o f t h e C h i n e s e 5 2 B a r r o s , E v i l 13. 5 3 F e r n s , Readings 207. 46 P e o p l e , an o r g a n i z a t i o n s u p p o r t i n g Mao's f o r c e s ; he j o i n e d a M a r x i s t s t u d y group...; and he a i d e d P h i l l i p J a f f e , who i n t h e m i d - f o r t i e s was i n d i c t e d f o r communist spy a c t i v i t i e s d u r i n g t h e t i m e he headed A m e r a s i a , a magazine o p e n l y s y m p a t h e t i c t o what a r e now known as * n a t i o n a l l i b e r a t i o n movements.' 5 4 Norman's i d e o l o g i c a l b i a s e s were e q u a l l y o b v i o u s i n h i s s c h o l a s t i c p u r s u i t s . 5 5 H i s Ph.D t h e s i s , completed i n 1939 and s u b s e q u e n t l y p u b l i s h e d by t h e I n s t i t u t e o f P a c i f i c R e l a t i o n s (IPR) under t h e t i t l e Japan's Emergence as a Modern S t a t e f was a t t h e t i m e r e g a r d e d as a u n i q u e and s e m i n a l s t u d y o f t h e r o o t s o f contemporary Japanese p o l i t i c s . I t u t i l i s e d r e l a t e d Japanese-language t e x t s on t h e t o p i c , and employed a n a l y t i c a l t o o l s d e r i v e d from M a r x i a n and s o c i a l i s t t h o u g h t . From Japan's Emergence t h r o u g h h i s w o r k s c o m p l e t e d i n 1949, Norman's s c h o l a r s h i p e x h i b i t e d "a s t r i k i n g l e f t - l e a n i n g a n t i - a u t h o r i t a r i a n message t h a t was e m b e l l i s h e d by an i c o n o c l a s t i c r a d i c a l t o ne and a n a l y s i s " w r i t e s Bowen. 5 6 John Whitney H a l l adds t h a t i n Norman's work one can see t h a t he "had a p a s s i o n a t e d e d i c a t i o n t o t h e cause of human r i g h t s and d e m o c r a t i c s o c i e t y . H i s t o r y , t o him, was n e c e s s a r i l y 5 4 R o g e r Bowen, " C o l d War, M c Carthyism and Murder by S l a n d e r : E.H. Norman's Death i n P e r s p e c t i v e , " i n Bowen, Norman 52. 5 5 O n Norman's academic achievements see t h e s e r i e s o f e s s a y s i n Bowen, Norman 81-122; and John W. Dower, "E. H. Norman and t h e Uses o f H i s t o r y " i n John W. Dower, ed. O r i g i n s o f t h e Modern  Japanese S t a t e : S e l e c t e d W r i t i n g s o f E. H. Norman (New York: Pantheon, 1975) 3-103. A more c r i t i c a l a p p r a i s a l i s p r o v i d e d by George A k i t a , "An E x a m i n a t i o n o f E. H. Norman's S c h o l a r s h i p " J o u r n a l o f Japanese S t u d i e s 3:2 (Summer 1977) 375-419. Bowen, " C o l d War" 52. p o l i t i c a l and h i s w r i t i n g n e c e s s a r i l y p o l e m i c a l . " b ' Norman's s c h o l a r s h i p was i n d i c a t i v e o f h i s p o l i t i c a l s y m p a t h i e s , bu t f o r E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s a t l e a s t , t h i s d i d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y c a s t a s p e r s i o n s upon h i s l o y a l t y . W h i l e employed by t h e department, a l l o f Norman's a r t i c l e s and books were c l e a r e d by E x t e r n a l b e f o r e t h e i r p u b l i c a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , i t must have been f a i r l y o b v i o u s t o t h e department where Norman's p o l i t i c a l s y m p a thies l a y , w h i c h would s u g g e s t t h e y were c a p a b l e o f making a d i s t i n c t i o n between academic t o n e and p o l i t i c a l p e r f o r m a n c e . 5 8 Norman's enemies i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s saw t h i n g s d i f f e r e n t l y , however, m a i n l y because h i s academic work was p u b l i s h e d by t h e IPR. The IPR became t h e f o c a l p o i n t o f J o s eph McCarthy's 1950s a t t a c k s on communism. 5 9 To Norman's d e t r i m e n t , h i s works were h i g h l y p r a i s e d by Owen L a t t i m o r e , one o f t h e a l l e g e d x e v i l g e n i u s e s ' o f t h e IPR and e d i t o r o f P a c i f i c A f f a i r s , a l i b e r a l academic j o u r n a l t o w h i c h Norman c o n t r i b u t e d . L a t t i m o r e became McCarthy's f i r s t c a s e i n h i s e f f o r t s t o prove t h a t communists had i n f i l t r a t e d t h e American S t a t e Department. McCarthy a l l e g e d t h a t L a t t i m o r e was t h e x b o s s ' o f A l g e r H i s s and s t a t e d w i t h 5 7 J o h n Whitney H a l l , "E. H. Norman on Tokugawa Japan" J o u r n a l o f Japanese S t u d i e s 3:2 (Summer 1977) 373. 5 8 I r o n i c a l l y , Bowen f i r s t makes t h e p o i n t t h a t DEA c l e a r e d Norman's work, but t h e n l a t e r argues t h o s e members of t h e department s e t t h e t a s k o f i n v e s t i g a t i n g Norman's p a s t were not o f s u f f i c i e n t i n t e l l i g e n c e t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e nuances of h i s * i n t e l l e c t u a l ' marxism. See Bowen, Innocence 250 v e r s u s 265-67. 5 9 S e e , f o r example, L a t t i m o r e ' s r e c o u n t i n g o f t h e o r d e a l i n h i s book O r d e a l by S l a n d e r ( B o s t o n : L i t t l e , 1950). The s o u r c e s c i t e d i n t h e b i b l i o g r a p h y o f t h i s t h e s i s c o n c e r n i n g McCarthyism a l s o c o n t a i n a c c o u n t s o f t h e a t t a c k s on L a t t i m o r e and t h e IPR. 48 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c h y p e r b o l e , " I b e l i e v e you can ask a l m o s t any s c h o o l c h i l d who t h e a r c h i t e c t o f our F a r E a s t e r n p o l i c y i s and he w i l l say *Owen L a t t i m o r e . ' 1 1 6 0 Of c o u r s e L a t t i m o r e was not n e a r l y as i n f l u e n t i a l as t h a t , b u t h i s p o l i t i c a l b i a s e s were somewhat u n f o r t u n a t e i n C o l d War A m e r i c a . He had, f o r example, been v i l i f i e d by t h e M c C a r t h y i t e s f o r s a y i n g o f t h e 1938 Moscow t r i a l s " t h e y sound l i k e democracy t o me." 6 1 But t h i s d i s c u s s i o n i s t o a n t i c i p a t e somewhat: t h e IPR was n o t under d i r e c t a t t a c k u n t i l 1950, and Norman had made numerous enemies p r e v i o u s t o t h a t . I t i s w o r t h w h i l e t o u n d e r l i n e t h a t i t was Norman's a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h t h e IPR, r a t h e r t h a n t h e i d e o l o g i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n o f h i s s c h o l a r s h i p , t h a t was t o be used a g a i n s t him by t h e M c C a r t h y i t e s . Whether o r n o t h i s w r i t i n g s were x s u b v e r s i v e ' was o f l i t t l e i n t e r e s t t o h i s enemies: i t was Norman's r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a s u s p e c t o r g a n i s a t i o n , r a t h e r t h a n h i s academic work, t h a t was used t o i n d i c t him. 1940: J o i n i n g E x t e r n a l I n t h e s p r i n g o f 1940, h a v i n g r e c e i v e d h i s Ph.D from H a r v a r d , Norman a c c e p t e d a p o s t w i t h E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s and was soon en r o u t e t o Japan t o work as a language o f f i c e r . Bowen d e s c r i b e s him a t t h i s p o i n t o f h i s l i f e as a "warm and s e n s i t i v e S t a l i n i s t " on t h e t h r e s h o l d o f a t r a n s i t i o n from an a c t i v e communist t o a c a r e e r 6 0 D a v i d M. O s h i n s k y , A C o n s p i r a c y So Immense: The World of  Joe McCarthy (New York: F r e e P r e s s , 1983) 136. 6 1 0 s h i n s k y , C o n s p i r a c y 137. 49 d i p l o m a t who must now r e c o n c i l e h i s p a s t communist i d e a l s w i t h h i s new d u t y t o s e r v e t h e c a p i t a l i s t s t a t e . 6 2 I t i s a l m o s t c e r t a i n t h a t a t t h i s p o i n t Norman s e v e r e d h i s t i e s w i t h t h e Communist P a r t y i n s o f a r as by no l o n g e r a t t e n d i n g meetings and p e r f o r m i n g p a r t y t a s k s he c o u l d no l o n g e r b e , c o n s i d e r e d an a c t i v e member. I f a l i n e must be drawn between Norman's a c t i v e and i n a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n , t h e n i t i s h e r e , when he l e f t f o r Japan. But h i s i n t e r e s t i n communism never waned, i t m e r e l y changed c o u r s e , a l t h o u g h t h e d i s t i n c t i o n between Marxism and communism was n o t m e r e l y an academic one: f u t u r e e v e n t s would prove i t v i t a l . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , n e i t h e r Norman nor h i s a c c u s e r s were a b l e t o e f f e c t i v e l y s e p a r a t e t h e two c o n c e p t s : as F e r n s remarks, H e r b e r t seems never t o have made any e f f o r t t o s e p a r a t e communism as a p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y from Marxism as a body o f i d e a s , b u t had he done so he would n o t have been so v u l n e r a b l e t o . . . t h e c o u n s e l l o r s o f t h e US Senate. As i t was t h e y c o u l d make him l o o k l i k e a l i a r by t e l e s c o p i n g Communism and Marxism, and m i x i n g up a c t i v i t y i n 1936 w i t h a c t i v i t y i n 1946 o r 1 9 5 6 . 6 3 Yet Norman was a p p a r e n t l y aware o f t h e r i s k s i n h e r e n t i n h i s s u b s c r i p t i o n t o t h e communist i d e o l o g y . A f t e r h i s d i s m i s s a l from Upper Canada C o l l e g e , Norman had e n t e r e d E x t e r n a l . When t h e Communist P a r t y o f Canada was banned i n 1939, Norman was a f r a i d o f b e i n g * found o u t ' and d i s m i s s e d : F e r n s r e c a l l e d t h a t Norman c o n f e s s e d t h a t b o t h he and h i s l o n g t i m e f r i e n d C h a r l e s Holmes, who was employed by t h e C i v i l S e r v i c e Commission, were a f r a i d t h e y Bowen, Innocence 77. F e r n s , Readings 213. 50 would be f i r e d i f t h e i r p a s t a s s o c i a t i o n s became known. 6 4 He a l s o c l a i m s t h a t Norman was a f a i t h f u l r e a d e r o f t h e US Communist P a r t y j o u r n a l New Masses d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f t h e i r a c q u a i n t a n c e (1944-1945), and t h a t he d i d n o t b e g i n t o d i s a s s o c i a t e from h i s more * q u e s t i o n a b l e ' a c q u a i n t a n c e s u n t i l 1945. By t h i s t i m e i t must be remembered t h a t Norman was t h i r t y - s i x y e a r s o l d — t h e n o t i o n t h a t h i s was s i m p l y an i n n o c e n t and y o u t h f u l f l i r t a t i o n w i t h a d a n g e r o u s l y r o m a n t i c i d e o l o g y i s p a t e n t l y u n t r u e . T h i s i s not t o su g g e s t t h a t t h e r e i s t h e l e a s t e v i d e n c e o f d i s l o y a l t y on h i s p a r t i f one d e f i n e s d i s l o y a l t y as engaging i n a c t s o f espionage a t t h e be h e s t o f a p a r t y l i n e . There i s e v e r y e v i d e n c e , r a t h e r , t h a t Norman was l o y a l o n l y t o h i s own h u m a n i t a r i a n p r i n c i p l e s , a l b e i t t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s were d e r i v e d from M a r x i a n t h o u g h t . Norman had become an a r m c h a i r M a r x i s t , b u t t h i s , i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h h i s du b i o u s p a s t a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h t h o s e who were g u i l t y o f b o t h Marxism and e s p i o n a g e , and h i s e r r o r s i n judgement w h i l e s e r v i n g a s , an E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s o f f i c e r , were more t h a n enough t o i n c r i m i n a t e him i n t h e p e r c e p t i o n s o f a n t i - c o m m u n i s t x C o l d W a r r i o r s . ' Norman's f i r s t y e a r s as a d i p l o m a t i c o f f i c e r i n Japan [1940-1942] were r e l a t i v e l y u n e v e n t f u l . He q u i c k l y p r o v e d t o be a competent and r e s p e c t e d member o f t h e Canadian l e g a t i o n i n Tokyo, and i t was n o t u n t i l a f t e r t h e war, when he r e t u r n e d t o s e r v e under t h e a e g i s o f t h e American O c c u p a t i o n f o r c e s , t h a t h i s i d e o l o g i c a l v i e w s would b e g i n t o cause him problems. D u r i n g t h e 6 4 F e r n s , Readings 207. 51 o c c u p a t i o n , w h i c h t o o k p l a c e i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e e v o l v i n g C o l d War, p o l i t i c a l b i a s e s were hardened i n t o . i d e o l o g i c a l s t a n c e s t h a t drew a h a r s h l i n e between l e f t and r i g h t . B e f o r e t h e war, Norman had found i t easy t o f r e e l y a s s o c i a t e w i t h communist and l e f t i s t s i n J a p a n , b u t t h e a c q u a i n t a n c e s he made t h e r e were t o become g r a v e l i a b i l i t i e s i n t h e new Japan o f t h e O c c u p a t i o n . I n 1941 Norman f i r s t met John Emmerson, an o f f i c e r i n t h e American embassy who would l a t e r p l a y an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n Norman's M c C a r t h y i t e drama i n a d d i t i o n t o s t a r r i n g i n h i s own. Drawn t o Norman "because o f our mutual i n t e r e s t s i n Japanese h i s t o r y and p o l i t i c s , " Emmerson was soon me e t i n g f r e q u e n t l y w i t h Norman, a d d i n g t h a t a t t h e Canadian embassy he found "a r e t r e a t where t h e atmosphere was c o n d u c i v e t o f r a n k t a l k s w i t h our Japanese f r i e n d s . " 6 5 These f r i e n d s were f r e q u e n t l y i m p o r t a n t members i n t h e Japanese communist movement, M a r x i s t i n t e l l e c t u a l s , and o t h e r s , b o t h d o m e s t i c and f o r e i g n , who were o f d e c i d e d l y l e f t i s t s l a n t s . F o r example, Emmerson w r i t e s o f meeting U s h i b a Tomohiko, who was p u r p o r t e d t o be i n v o l v e d i n t h e wartime spy r i n g r u n by R i c h a r d Sorge, a t a d i n n e r p a r t y a t t h e Normans'. Undoubtedly such g u e s t s would have been r a t h e r l e s s welcome a t American h e a d q u a r t e r s . When t h e war broke o u t , Norman was i n t e r n e d w i t h o t h e r Canadian d i p l o m a t i c o f f i c e r s u n t i l 1942, when a p r i s o n e r exchange 6 5 J o h n K. Emmerson, The Japanese Thread: A L i f e i n t h e US  F o r e i g n S e r v i c e ( H o l t , 1978) 100. was a r r a n g e d w i t h t h e Japanese. b En r o u t e t o Canada, Norman's s h i p s t o p p e d b r i e f l y i n Mozambique: on t h e quay he r a n i n t o T s u r u S h i g e t o , a c l o s e f r i e n d from h i s H a r v a r d days. T s u r u was a renowned M a r x i s t e c o n o m i s t , had be l o n g e d t o t h e same s t u d y group as Norman, and had p r o v i d e d much v a l u a b l e a s s i s t a n c e t o Norman on h i s t h e s i s . T s u r u was b e i n g r e p a t r i a t e d t o Japan. On t h e quay he t o l d Norman t h a t he had l e f t some papers i n h i s Cambridge, M a s s a c h u s e t t s apartment w h i c h he wanted Norman t o have. S e v e r a l months l a t e r , Norman made t h e j o u r n e y t o Cambridge t o s e c u r e t h e p a p e r s . A l t h o u g h c o n f l i c t i n g a c c o u n t s o f t h e v i s i t e x i s t , i t seems t h a t he had some d i f f i c u l t y g a i n i n g a c c e s s t o Tsuru ' s apartment. He c o n t a c t e d t h e b u i l d i n g ' s j a n i t o r , e x p l a i n e d h i s m i s s i o n , and s a i d he would r e t u r n t h e f o l l o w i n g day a f t e r h i s c r e d e n t i a l s had been c h e c k e d . The j a n i t o r n o t i f i e d t h e a u t h o r i t i e s , and when Norman a r r i v e d t h e n e x t day, he found two FBI a g e n t s w a i t i n g f o r him. The c o n f r o n t a t i o n was not a f r i e n d l y one. One agent a p p a r e n t l y a c c u s e d him o f b e i n g an * a l i e n ' and had t o be c o n v i n c e d t h a t Canada, t o o , was an a l l y o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and a t war w i t h Japan. The r e p o r t f i l e d by t h e FBI r e a d : Norman f i r s t c l a i m e d t o be on an o f f i c i a l m i s s i o n f o r t h e Canadian government t o o b t a i n t h e books o f T s u r u f o r t h e use o f t h e Canadian government i n a s p e c i a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n . He i n d i c a t e d t h a t he h e l d d i p l o m a t i c immunity. Norman s t a t e d he was on a h i g h l y c o n f i d e n t i a l m i s s i o n and c o u l d n o t d i v u l g e t h e d e t a i l s o f t h e m i s s i o n . . . . L a t e r on, d u r i n g t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n , Norman changed h i s s t o r y and i n d i c a t e d t h a t he d i d have a p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t i n t h e p o s s e s s i o n s o f t h e s u b j e c t and t h a t he was n o t a c t u a l l y on a s p e c i a l m i s s i o n f o r 6 6 F o r a c c o u n t s o f t h e s o - c a l l e d *Tsuru A f f a i r , ' see Bowen, " C o l d War" 54-5 and Innocence 229-233; B a r r o s , E v i l 27-32; and F e r n s , Readings 218-220. 53 t h e Canadian g o v e r n m e n t . 6 7 The p a p e r s , w h i c h had been p r o m p t l y c o n f i s c a t e d by t h e FBI b e f o r e Norman's a r r i v a l , c o n s i s t e d o f a c o l l e c t i o n o f books on Japanese h i s t o r y , some communist propaganda m a t e r i a l s and c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , Senate r e p o r t s on m u n i t i o n s h e a r i n g s , e t c . . Norman's i n t e r e s t i n t h e r e s o u r c e s was p r o b a b l y p u r e l y academic, a l t h o u g h i t i s p o s s i b l e , as Bowen has s p e c u l a t e d , t h a t Norman was t r y i n g t o r e c o v e r m a t e r i a l s w h i c h m i g h t have l e d t o Tsur u ' s imprisonment i f t h e y had somehow f a l l e n i n t o t h e hands o f t h e Japanese wartime a u t h o r i t i e s . ' 6 8 C a v e a t o r s have q u i t e r i g h t l y r a i s e d o b j e c t i o n s about Norman's b e h a v i o u r i n t h i s i n c i d e n t , b u t such o b j e c t i o n s a r e c o m p a r a t i v e l y minor when one c o n s i d e r s t h a t t h i s was t o become a major p i e c e o f FBI e v i d e n c e a g a i n s t him. I t i s t r u e , f o r example, t h a t h i s e n c o u n t e r w i t h T s u r u s h o u l d have been r e p o r t e d t o t h e FBI o f f i c e r s who d e b r i e f e d t h e d i s e m b a r k i n g d i p l o m a t s and o f f i c i a l s when t h e y r e a c h e d p o r t . B a r r o s a r g u e s t h a t T s u r u was, " a f t e r a l l , a s u b j e c t o f . . . a c o u n t r y a t war w i t h Canada," and c i t e s a p r e c e d e n t t h a t i n a s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n , P e a r s o n c o n s c i o u s l y a v o i d e d s p e a k i n g t o a German o f f i c i a l he k n e w . 6 9 T h i s s h o u l d , however, be t a k e n o n l y as a c r i t i c i s m o f Norman's form, n o t h i s s u b s t a n c e : T s u r u was a M a r x i s t and much -more l i k e l y t o p o s e a t h r e a t t o h i s own 6 7 F B T f i l e #100-346993-2 (16 O c t 1946) quoted i n Bowen, " C o l d War" 54. € 8 B o w e n , " C o l d War" 55. 6 9 B a r r o s , E v i l 28. government t h a n t o t h o s e o f t h e west. Norman p r o b a b l y viewed t h e e n c o u n t e r as n o t h i n g more t h a n a chance meeting w i t h an o l d u n i v e r s i t y f r i e n d . A second, more s e r i o u s o b j e c t i o n i s t h a t he m i s r e p r e s e n t e d h i m s e l f t o t h e American a u t h o r i t i e s and t h e r e b y abused h i s p o s i t i o n as a member of t h e Canadian c i v i l s e r v i c e . Taken as an i s o l a t e d i n c i d e n t , t h i s c o u l d be d i s m i s s e d as poor judgement, b u t h a r d l y i n d i c a t i v e o f h i s d i s l o y a l t y . However, when combined w i t h o t h e r e x a m p l e s o f Norman's d e c e i t s and m i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s t h r o u g h o u t h i s c a r e e r , t h i s e p i s o d e becomes a weapon wh i c h c o n s e r v a t i v e s t u d e n t s o f t h e case use t o a t t a c k Norman's c h a r a c t e r , and t h u s open t h e f l o o d g a t e s o f moral c r i t i c i s m . Lapses o f mor a l judgement, however f r e q u e n t , do n o t n e c e s s a r i l y l e a d t o t r e a s o n , o f c o u r s e . The f a c t t h a t Norman i n i t i a t e d c o n t a c t w i t h t h e American a u t h o r i t i e s (he gave h i s c r e d e n t i a l s t o t h e b u i l d i n g ' s j a n i t o r so he c o u l d be checked by t h e l o c a l s e c u r i t y s e r v i c e ) would s u g g e s t t h a t t h e r e was n o t h i n g c o n s p i r a t o r i a l about h i s v i s i t t o Cambridge. F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e papers he hoped t o s e c u r e "were o f no p a r t i c u l a r v a l u e from a s e c u r i t y v i e w p o i n t . " However, t h e FBI would g l o s s o v e r t h e s e x d e t a i l s ' i n i t s a t t e m p t s t o i m p l y t h a t Norman's m i s s i o n was more s i n i s t e r t h a n i t a c t u a l l y w a s . 7 0 A t t h e t i m e , however, t h e i n c i d e n t was unremarked. Norman sp e n t t h e war i n Ottawa and r e t u r n e d t o Tokyo a f t e r t h e d e f e a t o f Bowen, Innocence 230-231. Japan. /J- He was q u i c k l y r e c r u i t e d by t h e American m i l i t a r y a u t h o r i t i e s t o work w i t h t h e Supreme Commander f o r t h e A l l i e d Powers f o r t h e O c c u p a t i o n and C o n t r o l o f Japan (SCAP) under M a c A r t h u r . Norman's j o b was t o i n t e r r o g a t e and c l a s s i f y thousands of Japanese p o l i t i c a l and m i l i t a r y f i g u r e s , i n t e l l e c t u a l s and businessmen. T a y l o r p o i n t s o ut t h e i r o n y t h a t " i n t h e l a s t few months o f 1945 we have t h e e x t r a o r d i n a r y s p e c t a c l e o f Norman, a Canadian d i p l o m a t o f d e c i d e d l y r a d i c a l t e n d e n c i e s , s e r v i n g as e f f e c t i v e head o f t h e US army's C o u n t e r - i n t e l l i g e n c e Corps i n J a p a n . " 7 2 He worked under G e n e r a l E l i o t Thorpe, and l a t e r under G e n e r a l C o urtney Whitney i n t h e G - l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n b r a n c h . One o f h i s c o l l e a g u e s was John Emmerson. Norman i n C o l d War Japan The development o f t h e American O c c u p a t i o n o f Japan m i r r o r s t h e i n c r e a s i n g l y c o n s e r v a t i v e n a t u r e o f t h e American p o l i t i c a l community. I n i t s i n i t i a l s t a g e s , t h e American i n t e n t i o n was t o d e m o c r a t i s e Japan by i n t r o d u c i n g a c o n s t i t u t i o n and r e f o r m programmes t h a t would purge t h e i n d i g e n o u s p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s o f t h e o l i g a r c h i c and m i l i t a r i s t i c elements t h a t had l e d Japan i n t o war. But by 1947-48, t h e t h r u s t o f Truman's emerging containment p o l i c i e s was b e i n g f e l t . As T a y l o r e x p l a i n s , t h e e a r l y r e f o r m s , such as M a c A r t h u r ' s r e l e a s e o f thousands o f p o l i t i c a l p r i s o n e r s , 7 1 A c c o u n t s o f Norman's f o r e i g n s e r v i c e y e a r s a r e f ou nd i n Bowen, Innocence c h a p t e r 6 and h i s e s s a y " C o l d War" 53-62; and i n T a y l o r , J o u r n e y s 123-134. 7 2 T a y l o r , J o u r n e y s 126. had succeeded i n c r e a t i n g a l e f t wing movement o f some i n f l u e n c e . But Japan's new p o s i t i o n i n American C o l d War s t r a t e g y was t o a c t as a bulwark a g a i n s t S o v i e t e x p a n s i o n i s m . The s t r e n g t h o f such l e f t i s t movements was t h u s seen as a d i r e c t t h r e a t t o American c o n t a i n m e n t p o l i c y . Over t i m e , t h e r e f o r m - o r i e n t a t e d O c c u p a t i o n p o l i c y became more c o n s e r v a t i v e as e a r l i e r d e m o c r a t i c measures were abandoned o r we a k e n e d . 7 3 W i t h i n SCAP, a c o n f l i c t emerged between t h e a d v o c a t e s o f t h i s ' r e v e r s e c o u r s e ' and t h e pro p o n e n t s o f a more l i b e r a l O c c u p a t i o n p o l i c y . The l i b e r a l s s u b s c r i b e d t o a x h a r d peace' l i n e t h a t demanded t h e m i l i t a r i s t i c and i m p e r i a l i s t i c f o r c e s t h a t had l e d J a p a n i n t o war be p u n i s h e d and/or e x c l u d e d from t h e governmental and p o l i c y - m a k i n g p r o c e s s e s i n postwar Japan. S o f t peace a d v o c a t e s , on t h e o t h e r hand, f e l t t h a t t h e p r e v i o u s r u l i n g e l i t e s h o u l d be g i v e n f r e e r e i g n t o c r u s h t h e n a s c e n t communist movements. The c o n f l i c t , i n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, s p l i t a l o n g d e p a r t m e n t a l l i n e s : G - l became a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e h a r d peace l i n e , and G-2, a n o t h e r c o u n t e r - i n t e l l i g e n c e b r a n c h under one C h a r l e s A. W i l l o u g h b y , a d v o c a t e d t h e f i r m a p p l i c a t i o n o f American c o n t a i n m e n t p o l i c y t o Japan. What r e s u l t e d was e s s e n t i a l l y a f a c t i o n a l s t r u g g l e w i t h i n SCAP h e a d q u a r t e r s , i n s t i g a t e d m a i n l y by W i l l o u g h b y , who had p e r s o n a l as w e l l as i d e o l o g i c a l r e a s o n s t o be a n t a g o n i s t i c towards G - l . He had s e r v e d w i t h b o t h Whitney and Thorpe d u r i n g M a c A r t h u r ' s campaign i n t h e P h i l l i p i n e s , and had axes t o g r i n d 7 3 S e e T a y l o r , J o u r n e y s 130 and Bowen, Innocence 178. w i t h b o t h men. F e u d i n g between t h e *Bataan boys' c o n t i n u e d when t h e y a l l found t h e m s e l v e s i n M a c A r t h u r ' s Tokyo h e a d q u a r t e r s , w i t h W i l l o u g h b y u s u a l l y l o s i n g o u t : " I n Tokyo, W i l l o u g h b y t r i e d t o r e s t t h e main r o l e i n m i l i t a r y government away from Whitney and f a i l e d . E a r l i e r , [ i n M a n i l l a ] he had t r i e d t o g e t c o u n t e r -i n t e l l i g e n c e way from...Thorpe...and had f a i l e d t h e r e t o o . " 7 4 I n a d d i t i o n t o h i s p e r s o n a l a n t i p a t h y towards some o f h i s c o l l e a g u e s , W i l l o u g h b y was a l s o f e r o c i o u s l y a n t i - c o m m u n i s t (he once t o a s t e d F r a n c o as "the second g r e a t e s t g e n e r a l i n t h e w o r l d " a f t e r M a c A r t h u r 7 5 ) . I n h i s b i o g r a p h y o f M a c A r t h u r , W i l l o u g h b y contended t h a t t h e web o f i n t r i g u e s u r r o u n d i n g t h e Sorge spy r i n g was perhaps j u s t t h e t i p o f t h e i c e b e r g o f communist i n f i l t r a t i o n , and c o m p l a i n e d b i t t e r l y about s u b v e r s i o n i n SCAP: l e f t i s t s and f e l l o w t r a v e l l e r s were h i r e d i n t h e S t a t e s and u n l o a d e d o n t h e c i v i l s e c t i o n s o f g e n e r a l h e a d q u a r t e r s . . . M a c A r t h u r had no c h o i c e o f s e l e c t i o n o r r e f u s a l . D e r o g a t o r y r e p o r t s e v e n t u a l l y r e a c h e d Tokyo from v a r i o u s s e c u r i t y a g e n c i e s i n Washington. Then began a t i m e consuming l o c a l p r o c e s s t o g e t r i d o f t h e s e p e o p l e , o f t e n made a b o r t i v e b y x L o y a l t y B o a r d s ' t h a t f a i l e d t o f u n c t i o n . . . t h e l e f t i s t i n f i l t r a t i o n was i n f u l l s w i n g . 7 6 I t was perhaps i n e v i t a b l e t h a t W i l l o u g h b y ' s c o n s e r v a t i v e gaze would f a l l upon Norman, who was damned i n W i l l o u g h b y ' s eyes f o r a number o f r e a s o n s . He was a f o r e i g n e r who f r a t e r n i s e d w i t h b o t h l o c a l and f o r e i g n l e f t i s t s , i n c l u d i n g a s s o c i a t e s o f t h e IPR, 7 4 F r a n k K l u c k h o h n , " H e i d e l b e r g t o M a d r i d — T h e S t o r y o f G e n e r a l W i l l o u g h b y " The R e p o r t e r 7:4 (19 Aug 1952): 29. 7 5 K l u c k h o h n , " W i l l o u g h b y " 25. 7 6 C h a r l e s A. W i l l o u g h b y w i t h John C h a m b e r l a i n , MacArthur  1941-1951 (New York: M c G r a w - H i l l , 1954) 323. 58 American 'China hands" and M a r x i s t i n t e l l e c t u a l s ; he was an i n f l u e n t i a l h a r d peace a d v o c a t e who was h i g h l y esteemed by Mac A r t h u r ; and he was sometimes c r i t i c a l o f M a c A r t h u r ' s s t a f f , a v i r t u a l h e r e s y i n W i l l o u g h b y ' s e y e s . F o r W i l l o u g h b y , "Norman was one o f t h o s e , i f n o t t h e c e n t r a l f i g u r e , i n a pro-communist group o f F a r E a s t e r n e x p e r t s who had some immeasurable impact on p o l i c y -m a k i n g and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n d u r i n g t h e e a r l y s t a g e s o f t h e O c c u p a t i o n . " 7 7 I n O c t o b e r 1 9 4 6 , W i l l o u g h b y i n i t i a t e d a s e c u r i t y i n v e s t i g a t i o n a g a i n s t Norman.: He q u i c k l y h i t upon Norman's and Emmerson's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e r e l e a s e o f some Japanese p o l i t i c a l p r i s o n e r s t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r as a c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n o f Norman's dangerous pro-communist s y m p a t h i e s . Defenders o f Norman and Emmerson have s t r e s s e d t h a t t h e p a i r were ' o n l y f o l l o w i n g o r d e r s ' when t h e y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e Fuchu P r i s o n r e l e a s e s , and i n t h e s t r i c t sense o f t h e meaning, t h i s i s c e r t a i n l y t r u e . However, i t does d i s t o r t t h e f a c t t h a t t h e impetus f o r t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e o r d e r i n t h i s c a s e came from Emmerson, e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y a s s i s t e d by Norman. There a r e a number o f c o n f l i c t i n g a c c o u n t s o f t h e i n c i d e n t , i n c l u d i n g one g i v e n by Norman t o h i s Canadian i n t e r r o g a t o r s i n 1952. P r o b a b l y t h e most a c c u r a t e one comes from Emmerson h i m s e l f . 7 8 7 7Bowen, Innocence 178. 7 8Norman's a c c o u n t , g i v e n w h i l e he was under t h e s t r a i n o f i n t e r r o g a t i o n , was e x t r e m e l y vague, and p u t t h e numbers o f p r i s o n e r s r e l e a s e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r . Emmerson's a c c o u n t , however, seemed f a i r l y p r e c i s e and g i v e n i t s c o n t e x t , perhaps t h e more a c c u r a t e o f t h e two. I n a l e t t e r t o t h e a u t h o r (Feb 1988), 59 Emmerson r e c o u n t s t h a t on 4 October 1945, SCAP i s s u e d a c i v i l r i g h t s d i r e c t i v e w h i c h a b r o g a t e d t h e prewar r e s t r i c t i o n s on freedom o f assembly, r e l i g i o n , speech, e t c . , and o r d e r e d t h e r e l e a s e o f p r i s o n e r s who had been char g e d under t h e s e l a w s . A Newsweek c o r r e s p o n d e n t who knew Emmerson t o l d him t h a t t h e r e were s e v e r a l communists i n Fuchu P r i s o n t h a t might be o f i n t e r e s t t o SCAP h e a d q u a r t e r s . Emmerson c o n t a c t e d Norman, t h e n a c t i n g as Canada's E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e and a l s o c h i e f o f t h e R e s e a r c h and A n a l y s i s s e c t i o n i n SCAP's c o u n t e r - i n t e l l i g e n c e o f f i c e . "Herb was e n t h u s i a s t i c , " Emmerson r e c a l l s , and s o , h a v i n g c l e a r e d i t w i t h h e a d q u a r t e r s , t h e p a i r s e t o u t f o r Fuchu P r i s o n t h e f o l l o w i n g day. There, among s i x t e e n p o l i t i c a l p r i s o n e r s t h e y found t w e l v e communists, i n c l u d i n g Tokuda K y u i c h i and S h i g a Y o s h i o , who were t o become l e a d i n g f i g u r e s i n Japan's postwar communist p a r t y . A p r e l i m i n a r y i n t e r r o g a t i o n was co n d u c t e d a t t h e p r i s o n , and t h e n , because Norman and Emmerson f e l t t h a t some o f t h e p r i s o n e r s might w e l l be i n f l u e n t i a l i n Japan's f u t u r e p o l i t i c a l l i f e , t h r e e o r f o u r were t a k e n down t o SCAP h e a d q u a r t e r s . C o n s e r v a t i v e c r i t i c s c l a i m e d t h a t t h e t r e a t m e n t a c c o r d e d t h e s e communists (who were, t h e y would have us b e l i e v e , paraded t h r o u g h t h e s t r e e t s and f e t e d by t h e s e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e O c c u p a t i o n ) c o n f e r r e d u n n e c e s s a r y l e g i t i m a c y upon t h e n a s c e n t Japanese l e f t . F o r example, i n 1951 Eugene Dooman, a s o f t peace a d v o c a t e w i t h SCAP who r e s i g n e d i n 1945 i n d i s g u s t o v e r i t s t o o Bowen s a i d he b e l i e v e s t h e d i s c r e p a n c i e s between them a r e due s i m p l y t o f a i l i n g memories, a r e a s o n a b l e enough e x p l a n a t i o n . See Bowen, Innocence 172-175 v e r s u s Emmerson, Thread 256-260. 60 l e n i e n t p o l i c i e s , t e s t i f i e d b e f o r e t h e SISS t h a t t h e o f f i c i a l a t t e n t i o n a c c o r d e d t h e s e Japanese communists enhanced p u b l i c r e g a r d f o r t h e p a r t y t o such an e x t e n t t h a t '100 000' new members were r e c r u i t e d . 7 9 W h i l e W i l l o u g h b y was busy i n v e s t i g a t i n g Norman's a c t i v i t i e s i n Tokyo, i n Washington t h e FBI was b u r r o w i n g i n t o t h e S o v i e t e s p i o n a g e networks d i s c l o s e d by I g o r G o u z e n k o . 8 0 I s r a e l H a l p e r i n had been i d e n t i f i e d by Gouzenko as a S o v i e t agent and now t h e FBI was i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e names t h a t appeared i n h i s a d d r e s s book. Norman's name appeared seven t i m e s , once b r a c k e t e d w i t h T s u r u ' s name. The FBI made some p e r f u n c t o r y e n q u i r i e s about him a t H a r v a r d and succeeded i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a c o n n e c t i o n between T s u r u , Norman, H a l p e r i n , and a n o t h e r Canadian who had a t t e n d e d around t h e same t i m e , L o r i e T a r s h i s . A l l f o u r were t e n u o u s l y l i n k e d t o a M a r x i s t s t u d y group, b u t f a i l i n g t o t u r n up a n y t h i n g s i g n i f i c a n t beyond t h a t , Norman's f i l e was a g a i n c l o s e d . I n c i d e n t a l l y , u n t i l W i l l o u g h b y made e n q u i r i e s o f t h e F B I , t h e a c c o u n t o f t h e 1942 T s u r u A f f a i r was n e v e r f o r w a r d e d t o t h e FBI's Washington h e a d q u a r t e r s . C i r c u m s t a n t i a l e v i d e n c e and s u s p i c i o n s were t h u s a c c u m u l a t i n g a g a i n s t Norman d u r i n g h i s y e a r s i n Japan, b u t t h e r e was c e r t a i n l y n o t h i n g w h i c h c o n c r e t e l y e s t a b l i s h e d him as a t h r e a t t o w e s t e r n s e c u r i t y . A s i d e from W i l l o u g h b y , whose i n v e s t i g a t i o n s were f u e l l e d by h i s own p e r s o n a l v e n d e t t a s , s e c u r i t y i n v e s t i g a t o r s 7 9Bowen, " C o l d War" 56. 8 0 S e e Bowen, Innocence 202-203 and B a r r o s , E v i l 50. found n o t h i n g about Norman t h a t was deemed s u f f i c i e n t l y w o r r y i n g t o r e q u i r e a more c o n c e r t e d i n q u i r y . T h i s was p a r t l y due t o t h e i n a d e q u a t e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s w i t h i n and b e t w e e n i n t e l l i g e n c e n e t w o r k s . There were no s y s t e m a t i c c h a n n e l s o f communication between t h e F B I , t h e RCMP, and American m i l i t a r y i n t e l l i g e n c e , and so , t h e i n f o r m a t i o n a c c u m u l a t i n g on Norman was never g a t h e r e d i n t o a s i n g l e e n t i t y , b u t i n s t e a d l a n g u i s h e d i n f i l i n g c a b i n e t s . I t perhaps would have remained t h e r e i f i t were n o t f o r t h e i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e an t i - c o m m u n i s t c r u s a d e i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . American w i t c h h u n t e r s were a b l e t o g a i n a c c e s s t o and u t i l i s e s u c h i n c o n c l u s i v e i n f o r m a t i o n . They employed i t s e l e c t i v e l y , d i s t o r t e d i t and p u t i t i n t o t h e p u b l i c domain where i t c o u l d do g r e a t harm by f e e d i n g s u s p i c i o n s . The f i r s t p u b l i c acknowledgement t h a t Norman was p o l i t i c a l l y s u s p e c t o c c u r r e d on 20 A p r i l 1950 when h i s name was r a i s e d d u r i n g t h e T y d i n g s Senate Committee h e a r i n g s c o n c e r n i n g t h e l o y a l t y o f Owen L a t t i m o r e . T e s t i f y i n g on L a t t i m o r e ' s b e h a l f was Norman's former G - l b o s s , G e n e r a l Thorpe. D u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f h i s q u e s t i o n i n g , Thorpe was asked whether he had p r e p a r e d i n t e l l i g e n c e r e p o r t s c o n c e r n i n g Norman w h i l e he was i n Japan. Thorpe c o u l d n o t r e c a l l d o i n g s o , and n o t h i n g damaging was s a i d . However, t h e f a c t t h a t h i s name was r a i s e d a t a l l i n such a c o n t e x t alarmed E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s and succeeded i n a r o u s i n g s u s p i c i o n s i n a number o f q u a r t e r s . 8 1 8 1 A c c o u n t s o f t h e e v i d e n c e assembled i n t h e 1950 p e r i o d a r e d i s c u s s e d a t l e n g t h i n Bowen, Innocence. c h a p t e r 6 ( e s p e c i a l l y 201-216) and B a r r o s , E v i l , c h a p t e r 5. Thorpe's t e s t i m o n y i s E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s q u e s t i o n e d Norman on t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f Thorpe's s t a t e m e n t s and a d v i s e d him n o t t o comment p u b l i c l y on t h e m a t t e r . W i t h t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r s e c r e c y , o f f i c e r s i n E x t e r n a l hoped t h a t i t would d i e q u i c k l y and q u i e t l y , b e l i e v i n g t h a t t h e mention o f Norman was i n c i d e n t a l t o t h e t r i a l . Norman c o r r o b o r a t e d t h i s , e x p l a i n i n g t o A r n o l d Heeney I am c o m p l e t e l y a t a l o s s t o e x p l a i n [ S e n a t o r ] H i c k e n l o o p e r ' s q u e r y . I t may p o s s i b l y be t h a t he had h e a r d some rumours o f bad f e e l i n g between Thorpe and W i l l o u g h b y . . . a n d hoped i n some d e v i o u s o r a c c i d e n t a l manner t o have t h i s m a t t e r a i r e d , hence d i s c r e d i t i n g Thorpe as a w i t n e s s . . . 8 2 Any hopes t h a t Thorpe's t e s t i m o n y would be f o r g o t t e n were i n v a i n . On 23 May 1950, t h e FBI reopened Norman's f i l e , and v e r i f i e d h i s c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h a M a r x i s t s t u d y g r o u p . I n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t o H a l p e r i n ' s a d d r e s s book had l e d t o t h e d i s c o v e r y o f K l a u s Fuchs, a n a t u r a l i s e d B r i t i s h s c i e n t i s t who was engaged i n atom bomb es p i o n a g e f o r t h e S o v i e t s . He was found g u i l t y under t h e B r i t i s h O f f i c i a l S e c r e t s A c t , and w i t h t h e s u c c e s s o f t h i s o p e r a t i o n , B r i t i s h , American and Canadian i n v e s t i g a t o r s were s p u r r e d i n t o r e v i e w i n g t h e i r own f i l e s on H a l p e r i n ' s a c q u a i n t a n c e s . To i t s l a t e r c h a g r i n , t h e RCMP f a i l e d t o e s t a b l i s h any c o n n e c t i o n between Norman and H a l p e r i n — t h i s c o n n e c t i o n was r e p r o d u c e d i n Bowen, Innocence 208. 8 2 C a b l e from Norman t o Heeney, 2 May 1950. C i t e d i n Bowen, Innocence 208. b r o u g h t t o i t s a t t e n t i o n by t h e FB I . 8 - 3 I t had, however, accumulated some s c r a p s o f i n f o r m a t i o n on Norman d u r i n g t h e p r e c e d i n g decade. RCMP f i l e s c o n t a i n e d a 1940 r e p o r t on a p e r s o n named Norman who was i d e n t i f i e d as a member o f t h e Canadian Communist P a r t y and somewhat resembled H e r b e r t Norman. A c t i n g on i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d by an RCMP i n f o r m a n t , i n 1940 t h e RCMP had cond u c t e d an i n c o n c l u s i v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o a P r o f e s s o r Norman who t a u g h t a t McMaster ( H e r b e r t t a u g h t a t Upper Canada C o l l e g e ) , who had been a p r o f e s s o r a t H a r v a r d (Norman had been a g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t ) and who had t i e s i n H a m i l t o n , O n t a r i o ( t h e RCMP checked on f a m i l i e s w i t h t h e surname xNorman' t h e r e u n s u c c e s s f u l l y ; b u t H e r b e r t ' s i n laws r e s i d e d i n H a m i l t o n , and one o f t h e a d d r e s s e s l i s t e d f o r him i n H a l p e r i n ' s notebook was t h a t o f t h e i n l a w s ) . T h i s 1940 i n v e s t i g a t i o n was f r u i t l e s s due t o t h e i n a c c u r a c y o f t h e a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n , and so t h e RCMP asked t h e s o u r c e t o c l a r i f y i t s i n f o r m a t i o n and t h a t was t h e end o f t h a t . 8 4 I n 19 48 t h e RCMP e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t H e r b e r t Norman was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Frank P a r k s , t h e n an employee o f t h e N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l f o r C a n a d i a n - S o v i e t F r i e n d s h i p , a well-known Communist P a r t y f r o n t o r g a n i s a t i o n . Norman's name and phone number appeared on P a r k ' s desk pad. A g a i n , a t t h e t i m e , t h e i n f o r m a t i o n seemed t o 8 3 S h o r t l y a f t e r Norman's d e a t h , t h e RCMP r e l e a s e d a r e p o r t d i s c u s s i n g i t s f a i l u r e s i n t h e c a s e . I t s t a t e d i n p a r t , "...we cannot f e e l t o o s a t i s f i e d o v e r t h e f a c t t h a t Norman's name was not p i c k e d o u t o f t h e H a l p e r i n notebook e a r l i e r , " and n o t e d t h a t a t t h e t i m e o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e T a s c h e r e a u - K e l l o c k r e p o r t was t a k i n g precedence o v e r o t h e r s e c u r i t y m a t t e r s . See Bowen, Innocence 209-210. 8 4 B a r r o s , E v i l 51-51. be o f no p a r t i c u l a r s i g n i f i c a n c e , and t h e overworked RCMP f i l e d t h i s b i t o f i n f o r m a t i o n away as w e l l . D u r i n g t h e r e - r e v i e w o f t h e H a l p e r i n notebook f o l l o w i n g t h e d i s c o v e r y o f Fuchs, t h e RCMP found i t had a n o t h e r r e f e r e n c e t o a 'Norman,' t h i s one r e g a r d i n g some i n q u i r i e s t h a t Moscow m i l i t a r y i n t e l l i g e n c e had made. Moscow had q u e r i e d an o f f i c i a l a t t a c h e d t o t h e S o v i e t embassy i n Ottawa, C o l o n e l Z a b o t i n , about whether he had any knowledge o f a 'Norman.' He s a i d he d i d n o t b u t made f u r t h e r e n q u i r i e s o f t h e KGB w h i c h i s a l l e g e d t o have responded "he i s o u r s , don't t o u c h him." T h i s exchange w h i c h o c c u r r e d i n 1944, was assumed by t h e RCMP t o have i n v o l v e d Norman F r e e d o r Norman V e a l l , who were a l r e a d y known as p r o - S o v i e t s y m p a t h i z e r s . I n r e t r o s p e c t t h e y r e f l e c t e d t h a t i t seemed odd t h a t S o v i e t i n t e l l i g e n c e would conduct e n q u i r i e s u s i n g a C h r i s t i a n name and p o s t u l a t e d t h a t t h e Norman r e f e r r e d t o might w e l l be H e r b e r t Norman, a l t h o u g h t h e y c o n c l u d e d t h a t i t was i m p o s s i b l e t o i d e n t i f y t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n v o l v e d . 8 5 1950: Norman's F i r s t R e c a l l On 13 September 1950 RCMP I n s p e c t o r R o b e r t M a c N e i l r e p o r t e d t o George G l a z e b r o o k , t h e n i n charge o f E x t e r n a l A f f a i r ' s i n t e r n a l s e c u r i t y , t o d i s c u s s Norman's f i l e . F o l l o w i n g t h e Fuchs i n c i d e n t , and t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a c o n n e c t i o n between Norman and H a l p e r i n , t h e RCMP's e v i d e n c e , however c i r c u m s t a n t i a l o r i n a c c u r a t e , c a s t some doubts upon Norman's s u i t a b i l i t y f o r employment i n a 8 5 B a r r o s , E v i l 54. s e n s i t i v e government p o s i t i o n . A l t h o u g h he had undergone s e c u r i t y v e t t i n g by t h e RCMP and E x t e r n a l i n 1948, when t h e p r o c e d u r e s f i r s t came i n t o u s e , t h e c h e c k s were somewhat c u r s o r y . Norman was a l r e a d y an e s t a b l i s h e d and f a i r l y s e n i o r E x t e r n a l o f f i c e r . Now, i n l i g h t o f t h e FBI and G-2 i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , c o n c e r n s about Norman were mounting i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . The American i n t e l l i g e n c e s e r v i c e and t h e SISS were d i s t r u s t f u l o f Canadian s e c u r i t y p r o c e d u r e s , p a r t l y because t h e y f e l t s e c u r i t y a g e n c i e s s h o u l d have t h e u l t i m a t e mandate r a t h e r t h a n t h e s t a t e , p a r t l y because o f t h e p e r c e i v e d i n c o m p e t e n c e o f C a n a d i a n c o u n t e r - i n t e l l i g e n c e o p e r a t i o n s , and were i n c l i n e d t o want t o s t e p i n t o t h e b r e a c h . I n any c a s e , E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s found i t s e l f h a v i n g t o move q u i c k l y t o pre-empt unwanted (but perhaps n o t unwarranted) i n t e r f e r e n c e i n t o what was u n d o u b t e d l y a Canadian s e c u r i t y m a t t e r . Both t h e RCMP and E x t e r n a l were unsure o f how much t h e FBI knew about Norman: as f a r as E x t e r n a l was c o n c e r n e d , t h e F B I ' s r e q u e s t f o r i n f o r m a t i o n was prompted s o l e l y by i t s H a l p e r i n i n v e s t i g a t i o n . I t seems l i k e l y , as Bowen s u g g e s t s , t h a t t h e FBI was w i t h h o l d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n from Canada, " p o s s i b l y i n o r d e r t o t e s t how f o r t h c o m i n g Canadian s e c u r i t y p e o p l e might b e . " 8 6 Norman was r e c a l l e d from Japan t o answer t o t h e s u s p i c i o n s t h a t had been a r o u s e d , b u t DEA was a l r e a d y s c e p t i c a l about i t s a b i l i t y t o q u i e t A merican f e a r s , and was a f r a i d t h a t Washington would use i t s p r o v e n method o f p u b l i c i t y t o f o r c e Norman o u t of s e r v i c e . Bowen s u g g e s t s t h a t Norman's r e c a l l was prompted by "a d i s i n g e n u o u s FBI 8 6Bowen, Innocence 214. and a f r i g h t e n e d E x t e r n a l , w h i c h , a c c o r d i n g t o Heeney, w o r r i e d t h a t Hoover might t a k e x p r e c i p i t o u s a c t i o n , i n c l u d i n g , p e r h a p s , p u b l i c i t y . ' " 8 7 T h i s would s u g g e s t t h a t i t was t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a Washington-fomented smear campaign, r a t h e r t h a n t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t Norman was d i s l o y a l , t h a t m o b i l i s e d t h e department t o t a k e a c t i o n . I f t h i s i s t r u e , t h e n i t c o u l d be t h a t E x t e r n a l had no qualms about Norman's l o y a l t y , o r , i f t h e e v i d e n c e c o u l d be judged as w a r r a n t i n g more s e r i o u s a t t e n t i o n , was s i m p l y shoddy i n i t s approach t o s e c u r i t y . James B a r r o s has contended t h a t E x t e r n a l ' s h a n d l i n g o f t h e Norman c a s e r e f l e c t e d "a m a l a i s e " w i t h i n t h e department t h a t was i n d i c a t i v e o f i t s d e s i r e " t o l o o k i n t o t h e Norman m a t t e r as p e r f u n c t o r i l y as p o s s i b l e . " 8 8 But a l t h o u g h v i r t u a l l y f o r c e d by t h e Americans t o conduct an i n v e s t i g a t i o n , DEA was a t l e a s t d e t e r m i n e d t o do t h e t h i n g p r o p e r l y , as f a r as i t s s e c u r i t y mandate c a r r i e d i t . One o f t h e f i r s t t h i n g s t h e department d i d was u n d e r t a k e s t e p s t h r o u g h i t s c o n t a c t s w i t h t h e US S t a t e Department t o keep t h e s u s p i c i o n s about Norman from t h e p u b l i c a t l e a s t u n t i l Norman's l o y a l t y c o u l d be a s s e s s e d . I n a d d i t i o n , P e a r s o n asked Norman R o b e r t s o n t o keep t h e RCMP from s e n d i n g i t s r e p o r t t o t h e American a u t h o r i t i e s u n t i l he had l o o k e d a t i t . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , h i s r e q u e s t came t o o l a t e : t h e e r r o n e o u s 17 October r e p o r t , w h i c h would a c h i e v e g r e a t s a l i e n c e l a t e r , had a l r e a d y been s e n t . T a y l o r 8 7Bowen, Innocence 214. 8 8 B a r r o s , E v i l 53. c i t e s t h i s as "a f r i g h t e n i n g example o f how t h e r o u t i n e exchange o f raw s e c u r i t y i n f o r m a t i o n had made t h e Canadian Government t h e a c c o m p l i c e o f t h e most r u t h l e s s elements i n W a s h i n g t o n . " 8 9 A l t h o u g h i n t h i s case t h e i n f o r m a t i o n was c e r t a i n l y m isused by American s o u r c e s , t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e p o r t was p a t e n t l y i n c o r r e c t i s a l s o w o r t h e m p h a s i s i n g i n t h a t i t reminds us t h a t Canada was not e n t i r e l y b l a m e l e s s . T h i s i s s u e cropped up a f t e r Norman's d e a t h , when t h e i s s u e o f s e c u r i t y i n f o r m a t i o n exchange was t a k e n up w i t h t h e American government. Of more immediate c o n c e r n was t h e p o s i t i o n o f E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s v i s - a - v i s t h e RCMP s e c u r i t y s e r v i c e . Once a g a i n , t h e d i v e r g e n c e o f American and Canadian approaches i s demonstrated by t h e d i f f e r e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e s t a t e and i t s s e c u r i t y o r g a n i s a t i o n . L i t t l e t o n n o t e s t h a t i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , t h e C o l d War p r o v i d e d an o c c a s i o n f o r an a l l i a n c e between r i g h t wing p o l i t i c i a n s and t h e e x e c u t i v e b ranch's i n t e r n a l s e c u r i t y organs w h i c h s e r v e d t o l e g i t i m i s e one a n o t h e r . 9 0 I n Canada, however, DEA had r e s e r v a t i o n s about t h e RCMP as an i n t e r n a l s e c u r i t y o r g a n , b u t t h e r e was no r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e . Only t h e RCMP had t h e p e r s o n n e l and s e c u r i t y f i l e s n e c e s s a r y t o t h e conduct o f c o u n t e r -i n t e l l i g e n c e o p e r a t i o n s . I n t h e Norman c a s e , t h i s l a c k o f c o n f i d e n c e was e x a c e r b a t e d by t h e 17 October r e p o r t w h i c h , w r i t e s Bowen, was u n r i v a l l e d : " p r o b a b l y no o t h e r r e p o r t about him, whether Canadian o r Americ a n , p r o v e d as i n f l u e n t i a l and r u i n o u s as 8 9 T a y l o r , J o u r n e y s 137. 9 0 L i t t l e t o n T a r g e t 13. 68 t h i s one; i t s c o n t e n t s haunted him f o r t h e remainder o f h i s l i f e . " The RCMP d i d send a c o r r e c t e d r e p o r t on 1 December, b u t t h e Senate p e r s i s t e d i n " [ k e e p i n g ] a l i v e a damaging and p a r t l y e r r o n e o u s r e p o r t t h a t t h e o f f i c i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e Canadian government n o t o n l y disavowed and o v e r t u r n e d , b u t a l s o r e q u e s t e d be d i s r e g a r d e d by t h e A m e r i c a n s . " 9 1 B a r r o s contends t h a t E x t e r n a l a t t e m p t e d a whitewash o f t h e Norman a f f a i r , and was t r y i n g t o s u p p r e s s t h e damaging RCMP r e p o r t . Y e t t h e f a c t t h a t t h e department might have l a c k e d f a i t h i n t h e RCMP s h o u l d n o t be c o n s t r u e d as an i n d i c a t i o n t h e y were u n s u s p i c i o u s o f Norman. G r a n a t s t e i n w r i t e s t h a t " t h e r e seems t o be l i t t l e doubt t h a t R o b e r t s o n was concerned t h a t Norman may have been s u b v e r t e d , " and Bowen remarks t h a t t h e p r e - r e c a l l l e t t e r s w h i c h f l e w between o f f i c i a l s i n t h e upper e c h e l o n s o f t h e department " a r e c a r e f u l t o a v o i d presuming g u i l t , [ b u t ] t h e r e i s o b v i o u s l y an i n t e r n a l debate g o i n g o n . " 9 2 A t t h e t i m e o f h i s r e c a l l , E x t e r n a l was p r o b a b l y w i l l i n g t o g i v e Norman t h e b e n e f i t o f t h e doubt, b u t n e v e r t h e l e s s , c a u t i o n was. t o be t h e watchword. Heeney wrote t o Hume Wrong s h o r t l y b e f o r e Norman's r e t u r n t h a t " a t t h e moment we a r e assuming n o t h i n g , e x c e p t t h a t i t i s p r o p e r t o with d r a w him from h i s r e s p o n s i b l e and c o n f i d e n t i a l work p e n d i n g a f u r t h e r e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e s i t u a t i o n . " 9 3 9 1Bowen, Innocence 89. F o r some background i n t o t h e DEA/RCMP r i v a l r y , see G r a n a t s t e i n , I n f l u e n c e 274. 9 2 G r a n a t s t e i n , I n f l u e n c e 275; Bowen, Innocence 211. 9 3 C i t e d i n Bowen, Innocence 214. 69 On 24 October 1950 Norman's i n t e r r o g a t i o n began, conducted by-Norman R o b e r t s o n and George G l a z e b r o o k . 9 4 A p p a r e n t l y s h o r t l y b e f o r e h i s m e e t i n g w i t h E x t e r n a l o f f i c i a l s , he was i n t e r v i e w e d b r i e f l y by t h e RCMP. A l t h o u g h no r e c o r d s o f t h i s RCMP meeting e x i s t , an u n s i g n e d memorandum i n t h e RCMP f i l e s s t a t e d t h a t Norman " a d m i t t e d t o an academic i n t e r e s t i n Communism but s a i d he had n e ver been a p a r t y member o r d i s l o y a l t o C a n a d a . " 9 5 E x t e r n a l ' s i n t e r r o g a t i o n l a s t e d a b o u t s i x w e e k s . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , B a r r o s s t r e s s e s t h a t t h i s was l e s s an i n t e r r o g a t i o n t h a n a " d i s c u s s i o n among gentlemen of b r e e d i n g . " By a l l o t h e r a c c o u n t s , however, t h e q u e s t i o n i n g was arduous, and l e f t a l a s t i n g mark on Norman, who "was s t i l l r e c o u n t i n g t h e n i g h t m a r e y e a r s l a t e r . . . " 9 6 Whatever t h e c a s e may have been, i t i s s t i l l easy t o see why s c e p t i c s would t a k e i s s u e w i t h Norman's u l t i m a t e s e c u r i t y c l e a r a n c e , as i t was g r a n t e d by h i s c o l l e a g u e s i n E x t e r n a l and was n e c e s s a r i l y s u b j e c t i v e . E x t e r n a l n o t o n l y c l e a r e d Norman o f any and a l l s u s p i c i o n s , b u t d e monstrated i t s c o n f i d e n c e i n him by a warding him t h e p o s i t i o n o f head o f t h e American and F a r E a s t e r n D i v i s i o n . The assignment was c e r t a i n l y commensurate w i t h Norman's a b i l i t i e s and 9 4 B a r r o s c l a i m s t h e i n t e r r o g a t o r s were R o b e r t s o n and Heeney; no w r i t t e n r e c o r d s o f .the i n t e r r o g a t i o n e x i s t s , b u t G l a z e b r o o k d i d p r e p a r e a memorandum on t h e f i r s t day's q u e s t i o n i n g . I t seems l i k e l y , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t G l a z e b r o o k r a t h e r t h a n Heeney was p r e s e n t . See .accounts i n B a r r o s , E v i l 58 v e r s u s Bowen, Innocence 225. 9 5RCMP f i l e (29 J a n 1968) c i t e d i n B a r r o s , E v i l 59. 9 6 B a r r o s , E v i l 60; Bowen, " C o l d War" 63. e x p e r i e n c e , and was p r o b a b l y d e s i g n e d t o s i g n a l t o t h e Americans t h a t Canadian f a i t h i n Norman was a b s o l u t e . On 21 J a n u a r y Norman was awarded S A ( S p e c i a l Assignment) s e c u r i t y c l e a r a n c e , a d e s i g n a t i o n above *Top S e c r e t . ' The Americans who, as E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s had f e a r e d , f a i l e d t o b e l i e v e i n Norman's i n n o c e n c e , were d u l y c h a g r i n n e d . Norman's s e n s i t i v e appointment, c o i n c i d i n g w i t h t h e Korean war, must have seemed a s t i n g i n g s l a p i n t h e f a c e t o t h o s e p e o p l e who, r i g h t l y o r w r o n g l y , r e g a r d e d Norman as a s e r i o u s r i s k t o w e s t e r n s e c u r i t y . 1951: The Noose T i g h t e n s I n t h e coming y e a r , h e a r s a y , * e v i d e n c e ' and a c c u s a t i o n s mounted a g a i n s t Norman, and t h e c o n g r e s s i o n a l subcommittee a g a i n f o r c e d t h e Canadian government's hand by u s i n g p u b l i c i t y i n an e f f o r t t o smear him. By e a r l y 1952 a n o t h e r i n t e r r o g a t i o n o f Norman was n e c e s s a r y , t h i s t i m e by t h e RCMP, as t h e Canadian government waged a l o s i n g b a t t l e t o m a i n t a i n c o n t r o l o f i t s s e c u r i t y mandate i n t h e f a c e o f mounting o p p o s i t i o n from t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , B r i t a i n , and t h e c o n s e r v a t i v e Canadian s e c u r i t y o r g a n i s a t i o n . The e s c a l a t i n g e f f o r t s t o x g e t ' Norman c o i n c i d e d w i t h t h e i n c r e a s i n g t i d e o f a n t i - c o m m u n i s t h y s t e r i a i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . As L i t t l e t o n has e x p l a i n e d , f o r t h e p r e v i o u s decade t h e American r i g h t had been l o s i n g c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e i r p o l i t i c a l e x e c u t i v e i n g e n e r a l and t h e S t a t e Department i n p a r t i c u l a r . " I n t h e i r v i e w , " he w r o t e , " t h e wartime a l l i a n c e w i t h t h e S o v i e t U n i o n . . . t h e Y a l t a Agreement, t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s , and t h e d e f e a t o f t h e C h i n e s e N a t i o n a l i s t s added up t o an u n f o r g i v a b l e s e r i e s o f b e t r a y a l s . 1 1 9 7 D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n was f u r t h e r e x a c e r b a t e d by t h e 1950 o u t b r e a k o f t h e Korean War: e f f o r t s t o purge t h o s e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e s e F a r E a s t e r n p o l i c y d e b a c l e s were s t e p p e d up. I n 1951 t h e SISS a t t a c k s on t h e IPR became more vehement. Meanwhile, i n B r i t a i n t h e May 1951 d e f e c t i o n s o f Guy Burgess and Donald Maclean s e n t a c h i l l down t h e s p i n e s o f s e c u r i t y o r g a n i s a t i o n s and f u e l l e d a n t i - c o m m u n i s t p a r a n o i a i n t h e west. F e a r s o f i n t e r n a l s u b v e r s i o n were i n no way l i m i t e d t o a d i s c r e t e group o f c o n g r e s s i o n a l w i t c h h u n t e r s , but were common t o g r e a t e r o r l e s s e r degrees i n Canada, t h e US, and B r i t a i n — s t a t e s d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e Norman c a s e — a n d o t h e r w e s t e r n c o u n t r i e s such as A u s t r a l i a , w h i c h were a l s o i n v o l v e d i n t h e w e s t e r n s t r u g g l e t o ' c o n t a i n ' communism. A l t h o u g h i t was t h e i l l e g i t i m a t e p r a c t i c e s o f t h e SISS w h i c h l e d d i r e c t l y t o Norman's d e f a m a t i o n and s u i c i d e , s u s p i c i o n s about him were r i f e i n many q u a r t e r s , as became a p p a r e n t when i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g him began t o f l o w i n from a v a r i e t y o f u n r e l a t e d s o u r c e s a f t e r he had been c l e a r e d . The d i s c o v e r y o f S o v i e t moles i n key p o s i t i o n s i n B r i t a i n , e s p e c i a l l y t h e s p e c t a c u l a r d e f e c t i o n s o f Burgess and Maclean prompted a Canadian c i t i z e n t o approach t h e government w i t h a number o f a l l e g a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g Norman's p a s t i n v o l v e m e n t i n communist a c t i v i t i e s . T h i s man was A l e x a n d e r Heakes, t h e former V i c t o r i a C o l l e g e c o l l e a g u e t h a t h e l p e d Norman g e t h i s j o b a t Upper 9 7 L i t t l e t o n T a r g e t 28. Canada C o l l e g e . y B Upon h e a r i n g o f Norman's appointment t o head t h e American and F a r E a s t e r n D i v i s i o n , he saw f i t t o approach P a u l M a r t i n , t h e n M i n i s t e r o f H e a l t h and W e l f a r e , t o v o i c e h i s c o n c e r n s about Norman's l o y a l t y and s u i t a b i l i t y t o s e r v e i n such a p o s i t i o n ( i t must be remembered t h a t a t t h i s p o i n t , American s u s p i c i o n s about Norman were l a r g e l y unknown o u t s i d e o f government and i n t e l l i g e n c e c i r c l e s , and t h a t Heakes was a c t i n g i n d e p e n d e n t l y ) . M a r t i n t o l d Heakes t h a t t h e government was a l r e a d y aware o f t h i s , h a v i n g r e c e i v e d s i m i l a r i n f o r m a t i o n from t h e F B I , and was l o o k i n g i n t o i t . When Heakes l a t e r r e a d o f t h e Burgess and Maclean d e f e c t i o n s , he wrote a l e t t e r t o M a r t i n , h y p o t h e s i s i n g t h a t t h e r e might w e l l be some c o n n e c t i o n between t h e B r i t i s h e s p i o n a g e a g e n t s and Norman, a l l o f whom had been a c t i v e i n t h e 1930s Cambridge Communist movement. A c c o r d i n g t o B a r r o s , t h e l e t t e r was f o r w a r d e d t o P e a r s o n , who n e i t h e r responded t o i t nor t o o k any a c t i o n . T h i s l a c k o f a c t i o n was perhaps due more t o E x t e r n a l ' s s c e p t i c i s m about A l e x a n d e r Heakes t h a n i t s s e c u r i t y ^ m a l a i s e . ' Heakes had p r e v i o u s l y w r i t t e n l e t t e r s t o t h e M i n i s t e r o f I n t e r n a l Revenue c o m p l a i n i n g about h i s income t a x . C o p i e s o f t h e s e l e t t e r s had been f o r w a r d e d t o M a r t i n , who i n t u r n had f o r w a r d e d them t o DEA. "The l e t t e r s a r e v i o l e n t t o s uch a degree," George G l a z e b r o o k o b s e r v e d i n a memorandum f o r t h e f i l e , " t h a t t h e y might e a s i l y s u g g e s t e i t h e r a p e r s o n o f u n b a l a n c e d mind o r a t l e a s t one 9 8 T h e Heakes i n c i d e n t i s d i s c u s s e d p r i m a r i l y by B a r r o s , E v i l 69-72. Bowen makes r a t h e r l e s s o f Heakes' a c t i o n s , p e r s o n a l c o r r e s p o n d e n c e w i t h a u t h o r , Feb 1988. who c o u l d n o t c o n t r o l h i s t e m p e r . I , y y The Heakes i n c i d e n t , a l t h o u g h m i n o r , i s i n t e r e s t i n g f o r a number o f r e a s o n s . F i r s t l y , i t n e a t l y c o n t r a s t s t h e Canadian and American a t t i t u d e s t o anti-communism. I n t h e US d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , h i s e f f o r t s t o u n v e i l a s u s p e c t e d communist would have been l a u d e d , as i t was o s t e n s i b l y t h e d u t y o f e v e r y American t o d i l i g e n t l y p r o t e c t h i s c o u n t r y from t h e communist menace by i n f o r m i n g t h e a p p r o p r i a t e a u t h o r i t i e s i f a s u s p i c i o n e x i s t e d . A l t h o u g h Heakes' m o t i v e s may have been p u r e , i n Canada h i s a c t i o n s were g r e e t e d w i t h f a r l e s s e n t h u s i a s m . A l t h o u g h t h e r e was v e r y l i k e l y some c o n c e r n i n E x t e r n a l t h a t Heakes might approach t h e RCMP, t h e American a u t h o r i t i e s , o r t h e media i f he d i d n o t f e e l C anadian o f f i c i a l s were t r e a t i n g t h e case w i t h due v i g i l a n c e , he was r e g a r d e d i n E x t e r n a l as a ' w h i s t l e b l o w e r ' b e t r a y i n g a f r i e n d . ' E v i d e n c e ' such as t h i s g a i n e d l i t t l e c u r r e n c y i n E x t e r n a l , b u t i t was e x a c t l y t h e s o r t o f t h i n g t h a t more vehement a n t i - c o m m u n i s t s i n t h e US would employ t o d i s c r e d i t Norman. S e c o n d l y , Heakes' a c t i o n i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h a t he was b u t one o f a wide range o f s o u r c e s t h a t came f o r w a r d t o c a s t a s p e r s i o n s upon Norman's l o y a l t y . And o f c o u r s e , as more and more i n f o r m a t i o n on Norman f i l t e r e d i n t o E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s , i t became more d i f f i c u l t t o d i s m i s s t h e doubts b e i n g r a i s e d . The B u r g e s s and M a c l e a n d e f e c t i o n s a l s o l e d t o an i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e hunt f o r communist s u b v e r s i v e s by B r i t a i n ' s MI5. The i n v e s t i g a t i o n l e d them t o Cambridge, and t o t h e s t u d e n t s " B a r r o s E v i l 95. t h a t had been a c t i v e i n t h e l e f t i s t movement t h e r e i n t h e 1930s. They t u r n e d up a *compromising' l e t t e r a u t h o r e d by one X E . Norman' t h a t had been w r i t t e n d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , i n t h e i r 1951 i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The l e t t e r was t u r n e d o v e r t o t h e RCMP, and t h e Canadian H i g h Commissioner i n London was i n f o r m e d . A t about t h e same t i m e , i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t h e SISS i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t o t h e IPR l e d t o t h e r a i s i n g o f Norman's name a g a i n . T h i s t i m e , an A s i a n i s t from t h e e a s t c o a s t t e s t i f i e d t h a t Norman had been a member of a M a r x i s t s t u d y group i n 1938. When SISS c o u n s e l R o b e r t M o r r i s asked t h e w i t n e s s , K a r l W i t t f o g e l , "was i t o b v i o u s t h a t he was communist?" W i t t f o g e l s a i d x y e s . ' M o r r i s t h e n r e a d a r e p o r t c o n c e r n i n g Norman's a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h t h e IPR i n t o t h e r e c o r d . 1 0 0 T h i s would have s e r i o u s r a m i f i c a t i o n s because, as L i t t l e t o n e x p l a i n s , I n t h e p o l i t i c a l atmosphere o f 1951, t o say t h a t Norman had, t h i r t e e n y e a r s b e f o r e , been a member o f a ^ d i s c u s s i o n group o f f r i e n d s , ' some of whom might have been Communists, was tantamount t o a c c u s i n g him o f t h e g r a v e s t k i n d o f t r e a c h e r y . I t a l s o amounted t o an a c c u s a t i o n t h a t t h e government o f Canada was c o m p l i c i t i n t h e t r e a c h e r y because i t employed Norman as a s e n i o r d i p l o m a t . 1 0 1 The a c c u s a t i o n t h a t Norman was a communist had been made i n a p u b l i c h e a r i n g , and i m m e d i a t e l y h i t t h e f r o n t pages. E x t e r n a l moved q u i c k l y t o d e f e n d him. A t t h e t i m e , Norman was i n New York, s e r v i n g as A c t i n g Permanent D e l e g a t e t o t h e UN: he was p r o m p t l y s e n t back t o Ottawa by P e a r s o n , who t h o u g h t t h a t i n Ottawa, Norman would be s a f e r from t h e r a v a g e s o f t h e American p r e s s c o r p s . The 1 0 0 B o w e n , Innocence 242-243. 1 0 1 L I t t l e t o n Target " 75 Canadian p r e s s , i n c o n t r a s t , was i n d i g n a n t o v e r t h e American p u b l i c a t i o n o f such a c c u s a t i o n s . A s t o r y t y p i c a l o f t h e Canadian r e a c t i o n p r o t e s t e d t h a t Canada i s j u s t as a n x i o u s as t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t o keep communists out o f key p o s i t i o n s . . . T h e American p e o p l e may b e l i e v e t h a t a p u b l i c e n q u i r y , w i t h names f r e e l y b a n d i e d about and r e p u t a t i o n s f r e e l y damaged, i s t h e r i g h t method. The f a c t t h a t Canada does n o t agree i s , p e r h a p s , something Washington n e i t h e r knows about nor c a r e s a hoot a b o u t . 1 0 2 E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s , as an o f f i c i a l endorsement o f c o n f i d e n c e , r e a f f i r m e d Norman's p o s i t i o n as head o f t h e American and F a r E a s t e r n D i v i s i o n , and i s s u e d a p u b l i c s t a t e m e n t d e n y i n g t h e a l l e g a t i o n s : Mr. Norman was s u b j e c t t o t h e normal s e c u r i t y i n v e s t i g a t i o n by t h e a p p r o p r i a t e a u t h o r i t i e s o f t h e Canadian government a c c o r d i n g t o r u l e s l a i d down, wh i c h a p p l y t o a l l members o f E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s . S u b s e q u e n t l y , r e p o r t s r e a c h e d t h e department w h i c h r e f l e c t e d on Mr. Norman's l o y a l t y and a l l e g e d p r e v i o u s a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h t h e Communist P a r t y . The r e p o r t s were v e r y c a r e f u l l y and f u l l y i n v e s t i g a t e d by t h e s e c u r i t y a u t h o r i t i e s o f t h e government, and as a r e s u l t o f w h i c h Mr. Norman was g i v e n a c l e a n b i l l o f h e a l t h . 1 0 3 P e a r s o n approached t h e American S t a t e Department and demanded t h a t t h e SISS s t o p smearing Canadian o f f i c i a l s . He asked t h a t i f q u e s t i o n s o r s u s p i c i o n s about a Canadian p u b l i c s e r v a n t a r o s e , t h e y be t r e a t e d i n t h e p r o p e r manner, t h a t i s , t h r o u g h d i p l o m a t i c c h a n n e l , n o t i n p u b l i c . The American e x e c u t i v e , p r e d i c t a b l y enough, was l o a t h e t o t a k e any r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e e x c e s s e s o f i t s C o n g r e s s , a p o s i t i o n w h i c h became i n c r e a s i n g l y pronounced 1 0 2 e d i t o r i a l , "The Smear Comes N o r t h " Globe and M a i l (11 Aug 1951) A6. 1 0 3 C P , "Top Canadian a t UN C l e a r e d o f Red Smear" Globe &  M a i l (10 Aug 1951) A l . d u r i n g t h e Norman c a s e . And t h e c o n g r e s s i o n a l subcommittee, as though eager t o add i n s u l t t o i n j u r y , p r o m p t l y b r o u g h t P e a r s o n ' s name up i n - a n e x e c u t i v e ; s e s s i o n o f t h e h e a r i n g s a few days l a t e r , d u r i n g t h e t e s t i m o n y o f E l i z a b e t h B e n t l e y . 1 0 4 F o r h i s p a r t , Norman i m m e d i a t e l y s e n t a memorandum t o G l a z e b r o o k i n w h i c h he c a t e g o r i c a l l y d e n i e d t h i s l a t e s t c h a r g e . He a d m i t t e d knowing W i t t f o g e l b u t d e n i e d h a v i n g p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a M a r x i s t s t u d y group w i t h him, p r o t e s t i n g e m p h a t i c a l l y , "he i s d e f i n i t e l y t e l l i n g a l i e . 1 , 1 0 5 Both Moses F i n k l e s t i n e and W i l l i a m C a n n i n g , who d i d b e l o n g t o , W i t t f o g e l f . s s t u d y group, i n d e p e n d e n t l y c o r r o b o r a t e d Norman's s t o r y , a t t e s t i n g t h a t t h e y c o u l d n o t r e c a l l him e v e r a t t e n d i n g . I n t h e same memo, Norman d i s c u s s e d h i s a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h t h e IPR, p o i n t i n g b u t t h a t a l l h i s p u b l i c a t i o n s had been c l e a r e d by h i s s u p e r i o r s i n E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s . D e s p i t e t h e C a n a d i a n g o v e r n m e n t ' s p r o t e s t s , t h e SISS - c o n t i n u e d t o b r i n g up Norman'.s name i n i t s h e a r i n g s . I t appears t h a t i t s a t t a c k s upon- him were l a r g e l y f a c i l i t a t e d by G e n e r a l W i l l o u g h b y , who f e d c o n f i d e n t i a l G-2 and FBI r e p o r t s t o R o b e r t M o r r i s . The FBI r e p o r t c o n t a i n e d t h e i n c o r r e c t i n f o r m a t i o n s e n t on by t h e RCMP i n i t s 17 October r e p o r t , and W l l l o u g h b y ' s G-2 r e p o r t o f 11 A p r i l 1951 w h i c h a t t e m p t e d t o l i n k Norman w i t h t h e Sorge s p y r i n g . I n subsequent h e a r i n g s w i t h t h o s e who had s e r v e d i n J a p a n — L a t t i m o r e , , W i l l o u g h b y , J5ooman and E m m e r s o n — t h e 1 0 4 H a r o l d G r e e r , "Death o f a D i p l o m a t " The N a t i o n 184:16 (20 Aug 1957) 340. L i t t l e t o n p r o v i d e s a more d e t a i l e d a c c o u n t o f t h e Pearson, smear - i n T a r g e t 30-31. 1 0 5 B o w e n , Innocence 245. subcommittee i n v a r i a b l y b r o u g h t up Norman's name, d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t W i t h one e x c e p t i o n [ p r e s u m a b l y W i t t f o g e l ' s t e s t i m o n y ] , n o t h i n g e x i s t s i n t h e p u b l i c r e c o r d o f t h e subcommittee o f an i n c r i m i n a t i n g n a t u r e a g a i n s t Norman o t h e r t h a t what had been p u t t h e r e by e i t h e r M o r r i s o r J e n n e r t h r o u g h t h e i r own i n s i n u a t i o n s and innuendos. W i t n e s s e s who f a i l e d t o p r o v i d e t h e r i g h t answers t o d i r e c t q u e s t i o n s have found t h e m s e l v e s l i s t e n i n g t o M o r r i s o r J e n n e r r e a d s t a t e m e n t s i n t o t h e r e c o r d . 1 0 6 I n t h e p r e c e d i n g pages we have seen t h a t t h e i n t e l l i g e n c e o r g a n i s a t i o n s i n Canada, t h e US and G r e a t B r i t a i n were a l l s h a r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about Norman, and f o r w a r d i n g i t t o t h e a p p r o p r i a t e ( o r i n t h e c a s e of W i l l o u g h b y , i n a p p r o p r i a t e ) government o f f i c i a l s ; a l l e g a t i o n s were b e i n g made p u b l i c l y i n t h e US; and b o t h t h e American and B r i t i s h governments were g r o w i n g s c e p t i c a l about Norman's c o n t i n u e d employment i n a p o s i t i o n r e q u i r i n g h i g h s e c u r i t y c l e a r a n c e . I n l i g h t o f t h e a c c u m u l a t i n g s u s p i c i o n s , i t began t o l o o k as though a n o t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f Norman was g o i n g t o be n e c e s s a r y . On 31 August 1951, Heeney s e n t a memorandum t o G l a z e b r o o k w h i c h r e v e a l e d t h a t "Norman's a l l e g e d Communist a s s o c i a t i o n s was a m a t t e r o f g o s s i p i n upper m i l i t a r y - d i p l o m a t i c c i r c l e s i n Tokyo b e f o r e Norman's own d e p a r t u r e f o r Canada [ i n 1 9 5 1 ] . " 1 0 7 A week l a t e r G l a z e b r o o k r e c e i v e d a c a b l e from t h e H i g h Commissioner i n London r e g a r d i n g MI5's d i s c o v e r y o f Norman's 'compromising l e t t e r . ' I n e a r l y J a n u a r y 1952, t h e RCMP c o n t a c t e d G l a z e b r o o k w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g Norman's a c t i v i t i e s a t t h e 1 0 6 G r e e r , "Death" 3 39. 1 0 7 C i t e d i n B a r r o s , E v i l 72. 78 U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o and a t C a m b r i d g e — i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h was p r o b a b l y s u p p l i e d by Heakes who a p p r o a c h e d t h e RCMP i n D e c e m b e r . 1 0 8 I t was o b v i o u s t h a t E x t e r n a l was g o i n g t o have t o a c t . There was j u s t t o o much i n f o r m a t i o n coming i n from t o o many d i f f e r e n t s o u r c e s . On 18 J a n u a r y 1952 G l a z e b r o o k d e t a i l e d t h e c u r r e n t s t a t e o f a f f a i r s o f t h e Norman case i n a s e c r e t memo f o r Heeney: The e f f e c t o f t h e new e v i d e n c e and s u b s e q u e n t c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h Mr. Norman i s , i n b r o a d o u t l i n e , as f o l l o w s : 1) I t shows t h a t a t one t i m e he was, i n e f f e c t , a Communist i n o p i n i o n . 2) The e v i d e n c e s t a t e s t h a t he was an a c t i v e member o f t h e P a r t y w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r j o b . 3) The new e v i d e n c e i n t r o d u c e s new communists who were a l l e g e d a s s o c i a t e s . 4) I t e x t e n d s t h e p e r i o d o f Communist b e l i e f t o some u n d e f i n e d p o i n t a f t e r he l e f t Cambridge f o r T o r o n t o [ i n 1 9 3 9 ] . 1 0 9 G l a z e b r o o k c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e problem f o r E x t e r n a l was " t o make up our minds whether Norman e f f e c t i v e l y b r o ke w i t h Communist t h i n k i n g b e f o r e he e n t e r e d t h e Department," a d d i n g t h a t even though Canada s t i l l s u p p o r t e d him, t h e US and B r i t a i n were r e l u c t a n t t o do so. Bowen w r i t e s t h a t by t h i s t i m e , Norman's p o s i t i o n was v i r t u a l l y u n t e n a b l e : " G u i l t y o r i n n o c e n t , he was ' t a i n t e d , " and t h e r e f o r e o f l i m i t e d u s e f u l n e s s t o E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s . 1 1 0 As t h e coming y e a r s would p r o v e , h i s r e p u t a t i o n and h i s c a r e e r were r u i n e d by t h e a c t i o n s o f t h e SISS. D e s p i t e t h e d i s m i s s a l o f t h e 1 0 8 T n e e v i d e n c e i s summarised i n B a r r o s , E v i l 73-72 and Bowen, Innocence 253-255. 1 0 9 C i t e d i n Bowen, Innocence 255. 1 1 0 B o w e n , Innocence 256. 79 c h a r g e s a g a i n s t him, he would n e v e r a g a i n e n j o y t h e t r u s t and r e s p e c t o f many o f h i s c o l l e a g u e s i n t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l a r e n a . 1952: The Second R e c a l l Norman's second i n t e r r o g a t i o n was con d u c t e d j o i n t l y by t h e RCMP and E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s sometime i n J a n u a r y 1952. I t was n o t n e a r l y as arduous as t h e p r e v i o u s one had b e e n — t h i s t i m e t h e i n t e r v i e w i s e s t i m a t e d t o have l a s t e d an h o u r — a n d d i d l i t t l e t o d i s p e l t h e doubts w h i c h were by now deep s e a t e d i n t h e RCMP. Norman's t e s t i m o n y was vague, weak, and i n c o n f l i c t w i t h h i s own p r e v i o u s s t a t e m e n t s . A l t h o u g h u l t i m a t e l y E x t e r n a l d i d n o t doubt Norman's l o y a l t y , a f t e r t h i s i n t e r v i e w t h e y r e a l i s e d t h a t he d i d v e r y o b v i o u s l y bear t h e t a i n t o f communism, and t h a t t h e y c o u l d no l o n g e r ' p r o t e c t ' him a g a i n s t American and B r i t i s h s u s p i c i o n s . E x t e r n a l ' s o n l y o p t i o n was t o remove him from h i s p r e s e n t c o n t r o v e r s i a l p o s i t i o n and ' e x i l e ' him t o a d i p l o m a t i c p o s t i n g i n New Z e a l a n d . Bowen has t r i e d t o r a t i o n a l i s e t h e f a l s e h o o d s and c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n Norman's t e s t i m o n y by d e n i g r a t i n g Norman's ' a c c u s e r s , ' t h o s e men who con d u c t e d t h e 1952 i n t e r r o g a t i o n . He a t t e m p t s t o d i s c r e d i t t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from t h e RCMP and DEA by s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e y were s i m p l y beyond comprehending t h e s u b t l e t y o f Norman's i n t e l l e c t . Norman t e s t i f i e d t h a t o f h i s b e l i e f , he t r i e d t o keep an open mind, s t a t i n g I d i d n ' t w i s h t o become f a n a t i c a l l y wedded t o any one o f t h e s e t h e o r i e s . I t h o u g h t l i f e s t a r t e d g e t t i n g t o o complex t o j u s t t a k e a t h e o r y and superimpose on i t and say 'now you g e t i t . ' I t ' s a n i c e l a z y way o f d o i n g i t , I have many 80 i n t e l l e c t u a l doubts about t h i n g s . 1 1 1 Bowen contends t h a t t h i s i s i n d i c a t i v e o f Norman's a t t e m p t t o e x p l a i n what was e s s e n t i a l l y an i n t e l l e c t u a l d i l e m m a — t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f r e c o n c i l i n g i n t e l l e c t u a l doubt w i t h " t h e one t r u t h w h i c h i s t h e n a t i o n a l t r u t h " w h i c h t h e s t a t e i s supposed t o be t h e r e p o s i t o r y o f , and Norman, as a p u b l i c s e r v a n t , t h e g u a r d i a n . 1 1 2 Be t h i s as i t may, Norman s t i l l l i e d t o h i s i n t e r r o g a t o r s . He d e n i e d b e i n g a communist, c o n s c i o u s l y a s s o c i a t i n g w i t h communists, c a r r y i n g o u t P a r t y t a s k s and a t t e n d i n g M a r x i s t s t u d y g r o u p s . 1 1 3 Bowen has a t t e m p t e d t o s h i f t t h e n a t u r e o f t h e debate about Norman away from t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a l s e c u r i t y i n f a v o u r o f an academic debate about t h e s e c u r i t y e s t a b l i s h m e n t ' s a b i l i t y t o d e t e c t i n t e l l e c t u a l nuances. Norman "must have wondered" he c o n t e n d s , "about t h e s o r t o f s h e l t e r e d l i f e t h a t h i s a n t a g o n i s t s had l i v e d , about how l i t t l e h i s t o r y t h e y seemed t o know, about how h a t e f u l t h e y must be toward a h i s t o r i c a l f o r c e o f which t h e y seemed c o m p l e t e l y i g n o r a n t . " I n r e f e r e n c e t o Norman's l i n e o f t e s t i m o n y he a s k s r h e t o r i c a l l y , " i s he t r y i n g t o educate h i s i n t e r r o g a t o r s a b o u t t h e w o r k i n g s o f t h e mind o f an i n t e l l e c t u a l ? " 1 1 4 Because t h i s i s b o t h a p a t e n t i n j u s t i c e t o t h e 1 1 1 C i t e d i n Bowen, Innocence 265. 1 1 2 S e e Bowen's arguments i n Innocence 265-267. 1 1 3 T h e r e a r e numerous examples o f Norman's * l i e s ' : eg. i n 1937 Norman wrote o f T s u r u , "He i s a paradigm o f what a Communist ought t o be..." y e t he e m p h a t i c a l l y d e n i e d t o h i s i n t e r r o g a t o r s t h a t he knew T s u r u was a communist. Norman i s quoted i n Bowen, Innocence 71. 1 1 4 B o w e n , Innocence 266. 81 men who q u e s t i o n e d Norman and an i n a d e q u a t e d e f e n c e o f Norman's c o n s c i o u s d e c i s i o n t o m i s l e a d them, i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o seek some r e d r e s s f o r t h e i n t e r r o g a t o r s . F o r t h e RCMP t h e i n t e r r o g a t o r s were T e r r y Guernsey and George M c C l e l l a n . Guernsey, who headed t h e RCMP's c o u n t e r - e s p i o n a g e department, B Br a n c h , was a h i g h l y r e g a r d e d f i g u r e i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n t e l l i g e n c e c i r c l e s . P e t e r W r i g h t a t t e s t s t h a t Guernsey " s i n g l e - h a n d e d l y b u i l t B Branch i n t o one o f t h e most modern and a g g r e s s i v e c o u n t e r e s p i o n a g e u n i t s i n t h e West," and t h a t some o f h i s i n n o v a t i o n s were adopted by b o t h B r i t i s h and American i n t e l l i g e n c e . 1 1 5 One o f Guernsey's p e e r s , C h a r l e s Sweeney s a i d o f him, "he had a c o m p l e t e l y a n a l y t i c a l mind and had a g e n i u s f o r c u t t i n g t h r o u g h t o t h e h e a r t o f any matter...He was so i n q u i s i t i v e and i n c i s i v e you had t o be a w f u l l y s u r e o f y o u r s e l f . " 1 1 6 The second RCMP man, M c C l e l l a n , had been i n charge o f t h e RCMP's S p e c i a l Branch i n 1947. He had l o n g e x p e r i e n c e i n c o n d u c t i n g c o u n t e r - i n t e l l i g e n c e work d u r i n g World War I I , and had been i n v o l v e d i n t h e Gouzenko c a s e . Sawatsky d e s c r i b e s him as t h e p e n u l t i m a t e m i l i t a r y m a n . 1 1 7 The t h i r d man p r e s e n t was E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s ' George G l a z e b r o o k . R e c r u i t e d from t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o ' s h i s t o r y department d u r i n g t h e war, G l a z e b r o o k , t o o , had l o n g been a c t i v e i n i n t e l l i g e n c e and s e c u r i t y m a t t e r s . He had been i n v o l v e d i n t h e Gouzenko case as w e l l , and t h e subsequent 1 1 5 W r i g h t , S p y c a t c h e r 61. 1 1 6 S a w a t s k y , Men 100. 1 1 7 S a w a t s k y , Men 96-100 pa s s i m . 82 r e o r g a n i s a t i o n o f n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y . I n 1945 he was p u t i n charge of E x t e r n a l ' s s e c u r i t y and i n t e l l i g e n c e f u n c t i o n s . 1 1 8 A l t h o u g h b o t h t h e RCMP and E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s made p r o c e d u r a l m i s t a k e s i n t h e Norman c a s e , t h e r e i s no r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e s e men were i n c a p a b l e o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g Norman's p o i n t o f v i e w d u r i n g t h e i n t e r r o g a t i o n . I t seems somehow u n l i k e l y t h a t Norman would have s a t a c r o s s from them m a r v e l l i n g a t t h e i r x i g n o r a n c e , ' t h e i r i n a b i l i t y t o u n d e r s t a n d i n t e l l e c t u a l doubt, t h e i r S h e l t e r e d l i v e s . ' He must have b e l i e v e d i n t h e a b i l i t y o f h i s own government t o judge him, and been aware of t h e i n f l u e n c e s e f f e c t i n g h i s government's b e h a v i o u r . The j o b o f h i s i n t e r r o g a t o r s was n o t , a f t e r a l l , t o t r y t o p l a c e him w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e march of h i s t o r i c a l f o r c e s : i t was t o a s s e s s whether h i s c o n t i n u e d p r e s e n c e i n a s e n s i t i v e E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s p o s i t i o n was w i s e from t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y on t h e one hand, and from t h e l i a b i l i t y he posed f o r s e c u r i t y c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h B r i t a i n and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s on t h e o t h e r . There was a l s o t h e problem, as G l a z e b r o o k t o l d Norman, o f " r e c o n c i l i n g e v i d e n c e c o n c e r n i n g h i s a c t i v e work f o r t h e Communist P a r t y w i t h h i s own (1950) e x p l a n a t i o n . " 1 1 9 Much o f t h e d i f f i c u l t y l a y i n t h e f a c t t h a t o f t e n t h e e v i d e n c e was s i m p l y one man's word a g a i n s t a n o t h e r ' s . V i c t o r K i e r n a n c l a i m e d t h a t Norman had been an a c t i v e member of t h e Communist P a r t y a t Cambridge: Norman d e n i e d i t . A l e x a n d e r 1 1 8 G r a n a t s t e i n , I n f l u e n c e 180-195 pa s s i m . 1 1 9 C i t e d i n Bowen, Innocence 257. 83 MacLeod, chairman o f t h e League A g a i n s t War and F a s c i s m , c l a i m e d t o have a t t e n d e d s e c r e t communist p a r t y meetings i n Norman's Ottawa r e s i d e n c e i n 1936, a c l a i m t h a t was l a t e r c o r r o b o r a t e d by an RCMP s o u r c e i n t h e 1960s: Norman d e n i e d i t . He d e n i e d " w i t t i n g l y o r c o n s c i o u s l y " k n o w i n g anyone i n t h e B r i t i s h Communist P a r t y , o r g a n i s i n g I n d i a n s t u d e n t s a t Cambridge, r e a l i s i n g t h a t T s u r u S h i g e t o was a M a r x i s t , o r t h a t t h e s t u d y group he a t t e n d e d a t H a r v a r d was M a r x i s t . He a d m i t t e d t o a b r i e f a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e League A g a i n s t War and F a s c i s m , w h i c h he has t e n e d t o t e r m i n a t e , f e a r i n g f o r h i s r e p u t a t i o n . ( A c c o r d i n g t o B a r r o s , t h e DEA t r a n s c r i p t o f t h e i n t e r r o g a t i o n r e a d s t h a t Norman " d i d n ' t t h e n know" t h a t t h e League was a communist f r o n t o r g a n i s a t i o n , a l t h o u g h i n t h e RCMP t h i s was t h e r e a s o n he a p p a r e n t l y gave f o r h i s d i s a s s o c i a t i o n from i t ) . 1 2 0 G l a z e b r o o k urged Norman a t i n t e r v a l s t h a t i f he had e v e r been a communist i t would be b e s t t o c o n f e s s . Norman e v e n t u a l l y conceded t h a t he had been a f e l l o w t r a v e l l e r and might have been c o n s i d e r e d a communist i n 1936. T h i s was a r a t h e r l a r g e a d m i s s i o n on Norman's p a r t . Even Bowen has had d i f f i c u l t y i n r e c o n c i l i n g Norman's c o n f l i c t i n g s t a t e m e n t s . Norman had w r i t t e n t o h i s b r o t h e r i n 1937 t h a t he had j o i n e d t h e P a r t y under John C o r n f o r d ' s t u t e l a g e , b u t had chosen, p r o b a b l y f o r v e r y good r e a s o n s , t o deny h i s p a s t t o h i s i n t e r r o g a t o r s . Bowen a r g u e s , q u i t e r i g h t l y from a h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e , t h a t t h e r e a l q u e s t i o n s h o u l d n o t have been whether o r n o t Norman 1 2 0 B a r r o s , E v i l 77-78. 84 had been a communist, b u t whether "out o f l o y a l t y t o communism H e r b e r t chose t o b e t r a y h i s g o v e r n m e n t . " 1 2 1 Set i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e 1950s however, Norman's communism was by no means an academic q u e s t i o n . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e i d e o l o g i c a l barometer was n o t s e n s i t i v e enough t o measure such i n t e l l e c t u a l nuances. Norman knew t h i s . Time and t i m e a g a i n he demonstrated t h a t he was aware h i s i d e o l o g i c a l p r e f e r e n c e was a dangerous one. A f t e r a l l , t h e b a s i c p r e m i s e o f w e s t e r n s e c u r i t y was t h a t i t was t h r e a t e n e d by communism, and t h e r e f o r e communists were n o t t h e s o r t o f p e o p l e one wanted i n one's d i p l o m a t i c c o r p s . Norman's adherence t o Marxism d i d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y pose a t h r e a t t o Canadian o r w e s t e r n s e c u r i t y , u n l e s s one r e g a r d ' s l e f t i s t p r i n c i p l e s t o be t h r e a t e n i n g : i n C o l d War Ameri c a t h i s was t h e c a s e . Norman was t h e r e f o r e p e r c e i v e d as a t h r e a t . And h i s b e l i e f s d i d n e c e s s a r i l y i n f l u e n c e h i s p o l i c y i n p u t and h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f i s s u e s i n a p r o f o u n d way. From M a c A r t h u r ' s Japan t o N a s s e r ' s Egypt, Norman's b i a s was l e f t i s t , and he was i n f l u e n t i a l . F u r t h e r m o r e , he l i e d , m i s r e p r e s e n t e d h i m s e l f t o Canadian and American a u t h o r i t i e s , and m a i n t a i n e d p o l i t i c a l l y s u s p i c i o u s a s s o c i a t i o n s . As B a r r o s has o b s e r v e d : ...Mr. Norman l i e d on t o o many o c c a s i o n s , t o t o o many p e o p l e , o v e r t o o l o n g a p e r i o d o f t i m e , p r o d u c i n g x e n o u g h c i r c u m s t a n t i a l e v i d e n c e t o l e a v e a s c i n t i l l a o f doubt' as t o h i s l o y a l t y , as [ C h a r l e s ] T a y l o r a d m i t s . Indeed, Mr. Norman's l y i n g would have j u s t i f i e d h i s d i s m i s s a l by any o r g a n i s e d body, and r a i s e s s e r i o u s doubts about h i s c r e d i b i l i t y on a wide f r o n t . I n a c o u r t o f law i t 1 2 1 B o w e n , Innocence 262. 85 would have amounted t o p e r j u r y . 1 2 2 N e v e r t h e l e s s , i n March 1952 Pe a r s o n proposed t h a t Norman be c l e a r e d and h i s f i l e c l o s e d . As f a r as E x t e r n a l was c o n c e r n e d , h i s l o y a l t y was not i n doubt, a l t h o u g h t h i s v i e w was s h a r e d n e i t h e r by t h e RCMP o r t h e Americans. I t was a t t h i s p o i n t , p r o b a b l y h o p i n g t o assuage t h e u n s a t i s f i e d American d o u b t s , t h a t E x t e r n a l made what would l a t e r amount t o be a t a c t i c a l e r r o r : i t t r a n s f e r r e d Norman from h i s p o s i t i o n as head o f t h e American and F a r E a s t e r n D i v i s i o n t o t h a t o f t h e l e s s i m p o r t a n t I n f o r m a t i o n D i v i s i o n , a move t h a t s i g n a l l e d t h a t he was "under somewhat o f a c l o u d " 1 2 3 . E x t e r n a l p r o b a b l y i n t e n d e d t o s i m p l y reduce h i s v i s i b i l i t y u n t i l t h e sto r m had blown o v e r , b u t t h e t r a n s f e r h a r d l y d e m o n s t r a t e d Canada's i m p l i c i t f a i t h i n Norman t o w e s t e r n i n t e l l i g e n c e . He d i d not l a n g u i s h t h e r e l o n g , however: on 24 J a n u a r y 1953 he was a p p o i n t e d Canadian H i g h Commissioner t o New Z e a l a n d , a r e s p e c t a b l e enough p o s t t h a t would n ot u n n e c e s s a r i l y provoke t h e a n t a g o n i s t s who p r o t e s t e d h i s a c t i v e s e r v i c e . F o r DEA i t seemed t o be a good compromise. Canada's autonomy i n t h e i n t e r n a l s e c u r i t y a r e n a was a p p a r e n t l y r e a f f i r m e d , w h i l e t h e move was n o t g o i n g t o a t t r a c t more p r e s s u r e s from t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . And s o , i n J u l y 1953 Norman a r r i v e d i n W e l l i n g t o n where he s e r v e d w i t h o u t mishap u n t i l t h e end o f 1955. 1 2 2 J a m e s B a r r o s , "On H e r b e r t Norman" l e t t e r t o t h e e d i t o r , Globe & M a i l (12 Nov 1986): A6. . 1 2 3 B a r r o s , E v i l 50. 86 Yet t h e doubts about him were n o t a l l o w e d t o d i e . The American embassy i n Ottawa s e n t a r e p o r t t h a t d e t a i l e d t h e SISS a l l e g a t i o n s t o i t s c o u n t e r p a r t i n New Z e a l a n d , w h i l e t h e RCMP f i l e d a recommendation t h a t h i s a c t i v i t i e s t h e r e be k e p t under r e v i e w . I n a d d i t i o n , from t i m e t o t i m e t h e New Z e a l a n d S o c i a l C r e d i t P a r t y would r e v i v e t h e i n c i d e n t , and c h a r g e s t h a t a communist was s e r v i n g as Canada's envoy would appear i n t h e p a p e r s . 1 2 4 N e v e r t h e l e s s , Norman's c a r e e r c o n t i n u e d more o r l e s s q u i e t l y and e f f i c i e n t l y , a l t h o u g h , i n t h e c o m p a r a t i v e t r a n q u i l i t y o f New Z e a l a n d he m i s s e d b e i n g away from t h e l o c i o f w o r l d power. I n March 1955 he wrote t o P e a r s o n , prompted by t h e r e c e i p t o f an o f f e r t o s e t up t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia's new F a r E a s t e r n S t u d i e s Department, and e n q u i r e d as t o h i s f u t u r e w i t h E x t e r n a l . P e a r s o n responded t h a t " t h e r e i s no doubt i n my mind t h a t as t i m e goes by you w i l l be asked t o u n d e r t a k e more and more r e s p o n s i b l e j o b s i n t h e D e p a r t m e n t . " 1 2 5 I n December, an o f f e r d u l y f o l l o w e d : DEA o f f e r e d him an appointment as Ambassador t o E g y p t . By A u g u s t 1956 he was p r e s e n t i n g h i s d i p l o m a t i c c r e d e n t i a l s i n C a i r o . Norman's d i p l o m a t i c c a r e e r has been a b l y c h r o n i c l e d by Bowen i n h i s b i o g r a p h y o f Norman. S u f f i c e i t t o say he r e t h a t Norman's v a l u e t o t h e Department o f E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s was s i g n i f i c a n t , p a r t i c u l a r l y d u r i n g t h e t u r b u l e n t t i m e s o f t h e Suez C r i s i s . H i s d e a l i n g s w i t h N a s s e r , h i s c a r e f u l and i n f o r m a t i v e r e p o r t i n g on t h e 1 2 4 B o w e n , Innocence 269 and T a y l o r , J o u r n e y s 140. 1 2 5 C i t e d i n Bowen, Innocence 273. 87 s i t u a t i o n t h e r e , and h i s i n s t r u m e n t a l n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h Nasser over a l l o w i n g Canadian t r o o p s (unhappily named the Queen's Own R i f l e s ) t o serve on the U n i t e d Nations Emergency Force p l a y e d no s m a l l p a r t i n the Middle East p o l i c y t h a t was t o earn Pearson a Nobel P r i z e . But the doubts about him p e r s i s t e d . For example, t h e r e were rumours c i r c u l a t i n g i n the Canadian c i v i l s e r v i c e t h a t Norman had x s o l d out' the Suez o p e r a t i o n by warning the S o v i e t Union of the impending F r a n c o - B r i t i s h i n v a s i o n of the c a n a l . 1 2 6 D e s p i t e h i s years of e x i l e , Norman was s t i l l the v i c t i m of h i s p a s t p o l i t i c a l h i s t o r y . H i s t a i n t endured. 1 2 6 F e r n s , Readings 216 58 F i n a l Days The e v e n t s l e a d i n g up t o Norman's 4 A p r i l 1957 s u i c i d e g a t h e r e d momentum i n t h e s p r i n g o f 1957. I n t h i s c h a p t e r I w i l l b e g i n w i t h a b r i e f s u r v e y o f Canadian-American r e l a t i o n s on a v a r i e t y o f f o r e i g n p o l i c y i s s u e s i n t h e 1949-1957 p e r i o d . Then I w i l l examine what o c c u r r e d i n Ottawa and Washington i n r e f e r e n c e t o t h e Norman case i n some d e t a i l . 1 2 7 Postwar Canadian-American R e l a t i o n s We have seen i n an e a r l i e r c h a p t e r t h a t t h e r e were o b v i o u s i d e o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n Canadian and American approaches t o f o r e i g n p o l i c y . W h i l e t h e f o r e i g n p o l i c y o f t h e Canadian g o v e r n m e n t r e m a i n e d s t a u n c h l y l i b e r a l i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t i n s e n t i m e n t , i n t h e US t h e i n t e n s i f y i n g C o l d War was e x p r e s s e d t h r o u g h an i n c r e a s i n g l y a n t i - c o m m u n i s t ( i . e . a n t i - S o v i e t ) f o r e i g n p o l i c y . I n t h e 1949-1957 p e r i o d , Canadian p o l i c y - m a k e r s were o f t e n c o n c e r n e d w i t h c o n s t r a i n i n g t h e more l u r i d o f Washington's i n t e r n a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s by, f o r example, c h a n n e l i n g d i s p u t e s t h r o u g h t h e m u l t i l a t e r a l frameworks o f t h e UN o r NATO. "Prudence, p e r s e v e r a n c e , m o d e r a t i o n , and r e a l i s m were i n g e n e r a l t h e h a l l m a r k s o f t h e Canadian approach t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c s •^'Norman's d e t e r i o r a t i n g p h y s i c a l and mental s t a t e , b r o u g h t about by t h e r e v i v a l o f t h e c h a r g e s , has been d e a l t w i t h s e n s i t i v e l y by Bowen. See Innocence c h a p t e r 11. 89 d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , " w r i t e s R o s s . 1 2 8 Canada made e f f o r t s t o d e f u s e p o t e n t i a l l y e x p l o s i v e i s s u e s i n S o u t h e a s t A s i a and t h e M i d d l e E a s t and, from t h e l o s s o f C h i n a t h r o u g h t h e Vietnam war, Canadian and American o b j e c t i v e s were o f t e n a t odds. The h a r d e n i n g o f t h e American i d e o l o g i c a l s t a n c e d u r i n g t h e E i s e n h o w e r - D u l l e s regime p r e c l u d e d a Canadian-American consensus on f o r e i g n p o l i c y , and c l a s h e s o c c u r r e d w i t h i n c r e a s e d f r e q u e n c y . A fundamental d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t e d between t h e two s t a t e s o v e r t h e a p p r o p r i a t e use o f t h e new American n u c l e a r d e t e r r e n t . The Canadian government, l i k e t h e B r i t i s h , was l e s s t h a n e n t h u s i a s t i c about D u l l e s ' m assive r e t a l i a t i o n d o c t r i n e , and Eisenhower's advocacy o f ' c o u n t e r - f o r c e ' t a r g e t i n g i n S o u t h e a s t A s i a . P e a r s o n adamantly d e s i s t e d t h e n o t i o n t h a t t h e r e c o u l d e v e r be an a p p r o p r i a t e use o f t h e bomb. "Pearson's p h i l o s o p h y , " n o t e s Ross, q u o t i n g P e a r s o n , "was t h a t 'use o f t h e u l t i m a t e weapon s h o u l d be k e p t u l t i m a t e . ' " 1 2 9 The r e c o g n i t i o n o f C h i n a , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e Korean c o n f l i c t , t h e I n d o c h i n a d i s p u t e , and t h e s t a t u s o f Taiwan were a l s o i r r i t a n t s t o Canadian-American r e l a t i o n s . 1 3 0 The Canadian approach t o t h e s e i s s u e s was always i n f a v o u r o f s t a b i l i z a t i o n . I n 1953 Pe a r s o n penned an a r t i c l e t h a t s t r e s s e d "Our p o l i c y i n 1 2 8 D o u g l a s A. Ross, I n t h e I n t e r e s t s o f Peace: Canada and  Vietnam 1954-1973. ( T o r o n t o : U T o r o n t o P, 1984) 10. 1 2 9 R o s s , Peace 54. 1 3 0 T h e d i s c u s s i o n o f I n d o c h i n a and Korea i s d e r i v e d l a r g e l y from Ross, Peace 1-62 p a s s i m . See a l s o C h a r l e s R o b e r s t o n , I n t e r n a t i o n a l P o l i t i c s S i n c e World War Two: A S h o r t H i s t o r y . (New York: W i l e y , 1975): c h a p t e r 4. 90 A s i a must be more t h a n a p o l i c y o f mere o p p o s i t i o n t o Communism. I t must be c o n s t r u c t i v e ; and anti-communism s h o u l d n o t be t h e o n l y c l a i m t o our a s s i s t a n c e . 1 , 1 3 1 Three t i m e s i n t h e 1950s Canada r a i s e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f r e c o g n i s i n g Communist C h i n a , f e e l i n g t h a t " r e c o g n i t i o n was s i m p l y a p r a c t i c a l d i p l o m a t i c n e c e s s i t y and n o t a good conduct p r i z e awarded f o r adherence t o t h e American way o f l i f e . " 1 3 2 Each t i m e , however, Ottawa was d e t e r r e d a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y by American i n t r a n s i g e n c e . Ottawa a l s o d i f f e r e d w i t h Washington o v e r i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e Korean War. D u r i n g t h e d r a f t i n g o f t h e UN c h a r t e r , Canada had t h e o r e t i c a l l y r e c o g n i s e d t h a t c o l l e c t i v e s e c u r i t y was t o be a v i t a l UN f u n c t i o n ; b u t when N o r t h Korea c r o s s e d t h e 38th p a r a l l e l i n t o South K o r e a , Ottawa was i n i t i a l l y r e l u c t a n t t o f o l l o w t h e Americans i n t o t h e a r e a . Canada was n o t a g a i n s t communism p e r s e , b u t r a t h e r i n t e r s t a t e a g g r e s s i o n , and was r e l u c t a n t t o g e t p u l l e d i n t o what c o u l d w e l l become an American a n t i - c o m m u n i s t c r u s a d e . Three weeks a f t e r t h e June i n v a s i o n , Ottawa r e l u c t a n t l y s e n t t h r e e d e s t r o y e r s f o r standby d u t y , and t h e Americans were unimpressed w i t h t h i s l i m i t e d s u p p o r t o f what was a f t e r a l l , a U N - s a n c t i o n e d a c t i o n . "To P e a r s o n ' s a s s e r t i o n t h a t [ t h e d e s t r o y e r s ] r e p r e s e n t e d xno mere t o k e n ' a s s i s t a n c e , an American embassy o f f i c i a l r e p l i e d : 1 3 1 P e a r s o n c i t e d i n Ross, Peace 55. 1 3 2 D o n a l d C r e i g h t o n , Canada's F i r s t C e n t u r y 1867-1967 ( T o r o n t o : M a c M i l l a n , 1970) 289. On t h e r e c o g n i t i o n i s s u e see a l s o Nye and Keohane, Power 191. x o k a y , l e t ' s c a l l i t t h r e e t o k e n s , ' " K i n g r e c o r d e d i n h i s d i a r i e s . 1 3 3 I n K o r e a , Canada p u b l i c l y s u p p o r t e d t h e UN a c t i o n , b u t b e h i n d t h e scenes made e f f o r t s t o l i m i t t h e war t o t h e p e n i n s u l a , b l o c k i t s e x t e n s i o n t o t h e Taiwanese c o a s t a l r e g i o n , and f o r e s t a l l t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n o f Communist C h i n a . L a t e r , i n I n d o c h i n a , Ottawa a l s o p r e a c h e d m o d e r a t i o n . Ross has demonstrated t h a t from 1954 on, Canadian f o r e i g n p o l i c y was committed t o p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e and t h e d i p l o m a c y o f c o n s t r a i n t . Canadian p o l i c i e s were c o n s i s t e n t l y more moderate t h a n t h o s e i n Washington. Of c o u r s e t h e man b e h i n d t h e s e Canadian p o l i c i e s was L e s t e r P e a r s o n , who was not a f a v o u r i t e o f t h e American r i g h t . Bowen n o t e s t h a t as o f 12 A p r i l 1 9 5 7 — a week a f t e r Norman's d e a t h — t h e FBI had a f i l e on P e a r s o n which c o n t a i n e d 475 r e f e r e n c e s . 1 3 4 Through most of t h i s p e r i o d P e a r s o n was s u s p e c t e d o f c o n d u c t i n g S o v i e t e s p i o n a g e . I n 1945 Communist o p e r a t i v e - t u r n e d - i n f o r m e r E l i z a b e t h B e n t l e y f i r s t a p p r o a c h e d t h e F B I t o g i v e e v i d e n c e o f e s p i o n a g e a c t i v i t i e s . 1 3 5 She c l a i m e d t h a t P e a r s o n had g i v e n i n f o r m a t i o n t o h e r agent Hazen S i s e d u r i n g 1943-1944. She gave s i m i l a r e v i d e n c e t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s Senate J u d i c i a r y Committee i n 1949, and, i n 1951, was c a l l e d b e f o r e t h e SISS o s t e n s i b l y t o f u r t h e r g i v e 1 3 3 C i t e d i n M a r t i n , P r e s i d e n t s 163. 1 3 4 A c c o r d i n g t o Bowen, from 1949 t o 1951 P e a r s o n was r e n d e r e d ' M i c h a e l P e a r s o n ' i n t h e F B I ' s f i l e s . Bowen, Innocence 348. 1 3 5 S e e a c c o u n t s o f t h e B e n t l e y r e v e l a t i o n s about P e a r s o n i n L i t t l e t o n , T a r g e t 30-33. i n f o r m a t i o n on S i s e . However, S i s e ' s FBI f i l e had been c l o s e d i n 1949: t h a t i t was reopened one week a f t e r W i t t f o g e l a l l e g e d t h a t Norman was a communist seemed t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e was an u l t e r i o r m o t i v e : I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o escape t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t E l i z b e t h B e n t l e y was b r o u g h t b e f o r e t h e McCarran subcommittee t o defame P e a r s o n . P e a r s o n , as S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e f o r E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s , had denounced t h e subcommittee and t h e C o l d War a s s u m p t i o n s t h a t u n d e r l a y e v e r y t h i n g i t d i d . He had a s s e r t e d t h a t i n t h i s a r e a Canada would make i t s own d e c i s i o n s . T h i s t h e McCarran subcommittee c o u l d n o t t o l e r a t e . . . 1 3 6 S i n c e 1946 when, as ambassador t o Washington P e a r s o n d e c r i e d American p r e s s u r e s f o r c l o s e r m i l i t a r y c o o p e r a t i o n between Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , i t was a p p a r e n t t h a t i d e o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s were i n e v i t a b l e . 1 3 7 I n 1953 P e a r s o n b l o c k e d an American e f f o r t t o have Gouzenko t e s t i f y i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , w h i c h f u r t h e r f u e l l e d t h e F B I ' s s u s p i c i o n s about him. Charges t h a t t h e Canadian E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s m i n i s t e r was d e l i b e r a t e l y s c u t t l i n g American c o u n t e r - i n t e l l i g e n c e o p e r a t i o n s were r i f e i n r i g h t wing c i r c l e s and t h e c o n s e r v a t i v e p r e s s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . Y e t P e a r s o n had a number o f sound r e a s o n s f o r d e n y i n g t h e Americans t h e r i g h t t o i n t e r v i e w Gouzenko. The FBI had a l r e a d y spoken t o him i n 1950: now, a f u l l e i g h t y e a r s a f t e r Gouzenko had l a s t had c o n t a c t w i t h S o v i e t i n t e l l i g e n c e , t h e RCMP doubted he c o u l d have any f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n t o add. That t h e American r e q u e s t came d u r i n g t h e h e i g h t o f McCarthyism s u g g e s t e d 1 3 6 L i t t l e t o n , T a r g e t 33. 1 3 7 P e a r s o n p u b l i s h e d an a r t i c l e s t a t i n g t h a t Canada, " d i d n o t r e l i s h t h e n e c e s s i t y o f d i g g i n g , o r o f h a v i n g dug f o r h e r , any Maginot l i n e i n h e r A r c t i c . " Quoted i n L i t t l e t o n , T a r g e t 72. t o P e a r s o n t h a t t h e m o t i v e was p r o b a b l y p o l i t i c a l r a t h e r t h a n i n f o r m a t i o n a l . F u r t h e r m o r e , Gouzenko h i m s e l f was somewhat u n r e l i a b l e . He had c a p i t a l i s e d on h i s s t a t u s as i n f o r m e r b e f o r e , s e l l i n g i n f o r m a t i o n t o newspapers and magazines. I n f a c t , when P e a r s o n f i n a l l y a g reed t o a l l o w him t o be i n t e r v i e w e d by t h e FBI i n 1953, under c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s , he had demanded money, and o n l y a greed t o g r a n t t h e i n t e r v i e w under d u r e s s , , a l t h o u g h had had v o l u n t a r i l y gone t o t h e FBI w i t h h i s o f f e r o r i g i n a l l y . 1 3 8 Gouzenko was t h e man t h e FBI b e l i e v e d had named Norman as a S o v i e t spy. I n 1957 when Pearson defended Norman, /American o f f i c i a l s would remember h i s r e l u c t a n c e t o have Gouzenko g i v e e v i d e n c e i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , and, as t h e case u n f o l d e d , accuse P e a r s o n o f a t t e m p t i n g a c o v e r - u p . " I f P e a r s o n was a spy f o r t h e S o v i e t s , " t h e l o g i c r a n , " . . . t h e n [ h i s ] p u b l i c d e f e n c e o f Norman's l o y a l t y meant t h a t he was s i m p l y p r o t e c t i n g a member of h i s spy r i n g . " 1 3 9 T h i s a s p e c t w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r : s u f f i c e i t t o say her e t h a t f o r t h e M c C a r t h y i t e r i g h t , t h e Canadian government, l i k e t h e American S t a t e Department, was x s o f t ' on communism. The pr e s e n c e o f P e a r s o n , f i r s t as E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s m i n i s t e r , and l a t e r as Prime M i n i s t e r , added t o American m i s g i v i n g s about Canadian s e c u r i t y . I n f a c t , t h e r e has l o n g been a s u g g e s t i o n t h a t Norman was x s a c r i f i c e d ' by t h e S t a t e Department t o save P e a r s o n . Bowen s u g g e s t s t h a t A c y n i c . . might argue t h a t t h e S t a t e Department d i d n o t do a 1 3 8 S a w a t s k y , Men 85. 1 3 9 B o w e n , Innocence 347. 94 b e t t e r j o b o f f o r c i n g t h e SISS t o keep h a r m f u l t e s t i m o n y a g a i n s t Norman from b e i n g p u b l i c i s e d because i t was d e c i d e d t h a t t h e s a c r i f i c e o f one Canadian Ambassador was a f a i r t r a d e f o r p r e s e r v i n g good r e l a t i o n s w i t h Canada's M i n i s t e r f o r E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s . 1 * 0 1957: The Charges R e v i v e d F o r H e r b e r t Norman, t h e f i n a l a c t o f h i s t r a g e d y began i n Washington when ch a r g e s o f d i s l o y a l t y were l e v e l l e d a g a i n s t John Emmerson who was c a l l e d b e f o r e t h e subcommittee t o d i s c u s s t h e s e renewed a l l e g a t i o n s . I n many ways, Emmerson's harassment by a n t i -communist w i t c h h u n t e r s r a n a c o u r s e p a r a l l e l t o Norman's. I n December 1951 he had been char g e d w i t h b e i n g a communist s y m p a t h i s e r d u r i n g h i s t e n u r e as a d i p l o m a t i c o f f i c e r i n C h i n a and Japan f o l l o w i n g World War I I . The c o n c l u s i o n drawn a f t e r t h i s h e a r i n g , which Emmerson n o t e d c o n s i s t e d o f e l e v e n days o f t e s t i m o n y , 1412 pages o f t r a n s c r i p t s and 150 e x h i b i t s , was t h a t no one, w i t h t h e p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n o f Eugene Dooman, u l t i m a t e l y q u e s t i o n e d h i s l o y a l t y . 1 4 1 I n May 1952 t h e L o y a l t y S e c u r i t y Board recommended t h a t Emmerson's case be c l o s e d on t h e grounds t h a t "no r e a s o n a b l e doubt e x i s t s as t o h i s l o y a l t y t o t h e government o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . " 1 4 2 L i k e o t h e r s who had been a s s o c i a t e d as x C h i n a hands', Emmerson was p r o h i b i t e d from s e r v i n g i n t h e F a r E a s t , b u t beyond t h a t s u f f e r e d no r e p e r c u s s i o n s from t h e subcommittee's e n q u i r y . L i k e N o r m a n , h o w e v e r , h i s a c t i v i t i e s were 1 4 0 B o w e n , Innocence 291. 1 4 1Emmerson, Thread 320-330 pa s s i m . 1 4 2 C i t e d i n Emmerson, Thread 328. i n t e r m i t t e n t l y s c r u t i n i z e d by a n t i - c o m m u n i s t watchdogs, a l t h o u g h h i s c a r e e r f o l l o w i n g h i s c l e a r a n c e was a d i s t i n g u i s h e d one. I n 1954 he r e c e i v e d a m e r i t o u s s e r v i c e award, i n 1955 a p r o m o t i o n t o C l a s s 1 d i p l o m a t i c s t a t u s ( o n l y c a r e e r m i n i s t e r s and c a r e e r ambassadors were s u p e r i o r t o him i n r a n k ) and was a s s i g n e d as deputy c h i e f o f m i s s i o n . I n 1956 he was moved t o t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s G e n e r a l Assembly. I n F e b r u a r y 1957 S e n a t o r J e n n e r r e v i v e d c h a r g e s a g a i n s t t h e f o r m e r C h i n a hands i n t h e S t a t e Department, c l a i m i n g t h a t t h e y were s a b o t a g i n g American p o l i c y by p e r s u a d i n g M i d d l e E a s t e r n governments t o a l l y w i t h t h e S o v i e t Union r a t h e r t h a n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . The immediate e f f e c t o f t h a t c h a rge was Emmerson's r e c a l l , and so on 12 March 1957, Emmerson once a g a i n appeared b e f o r e t h e Senate subcommittee. Because i t seemed l i k e l y t h a t Norman's name would be r a i s e d d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h e t e s t i m o n y , t h e s e s s i o n was t o be h e l d i n camera. Emmerson r e c a l l s t h a t R o b e r t M o r r i s , who was once a g a i n t h e SISS c o u n s e l , f o c u s s e d h i s q u e s t i o n i n g h e a v i l y upon Norman: " D i d I know he was a Communist? I r e p l i e d , % I have no r e a s o n t o t h i n k t h a t he was a Communist, e i t h e r t h e n ( i n Japan) o r now.'" 1 4 3 I n r e s p o n s e M o r r i s r e a d t h e 1952 W i t t f o g e l t e s t i m o n y i n t o t h e r e c o r d , f o l l o w e d by t h e 1952 FBI r e p o r t w h i c h was based i n p a r t upon t h e f a u l t y 17 O c t o b e r 1951 RCMP r e p o r t and G e n e r a l W i l l o u g h b y ' s r e p o r t . Hoping t o d i s c r e d i t t h e s e f a l l a c i o u s and m i s l e a d i n g a t t a c k s on h i s c o l l e a g u e , Emmerson t o l d t h e subcommittee t h a t 1 4 3Emmerson, Thread 334-5. Norman was p r e s e n t l y s e r v i n g as Canada's ambassador t o Egypt, and t h a t t h e y had r e c e n t l y l u n c h e d t o g e t h e r i n B e i r u t . R a t h e r t h a n a l l a y i n g t h e subcommittee's doubts about Norman, Emmerson's s t a t e m e n t e x a c e r b a t e d them. The i d e a o f a p r o - S o v i e t Norman, engaged i n d e l i c a t e n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h N a s s e r , was a v i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e subcommittee's f e a r s t h a t l e f t i s t s were s a b o t a g i n g t h e American war a g a i n s t Communism and t h a t t h e Canadian Department o f E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s was v e r y o b v i o u s l y s u f f e r i n g from t h e same M a r x i s t a f f l i c t i o n as t h e American S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t . 1 4 4 A l t h o u g h t h e s e s s i o n had been h e l d i n camera, i n acc o r d a n c e w i t h t h e e a r l i e r w i s h e s o f t h e C a n a d i a n government, t h e subcommittee judged t h a t t h e t h r e a t o f communist s u b v e r s i o n was g r e a t e r t h a t t h e need t o r e s p e c t d i p l o m a t i c n i c e t i e s . Emmerson's c o n f i d e n t i a l t e s t i m o n y c o n c e r n i n g Norman was l e a k e d t o t h e p r e s s two days l a t e r and Norman was once a g a i n on t h e f r o n t pages. F o l l o w i n g t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f Norman's name, e v e n t s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a moved q u i c k l y , and a l t h o u g h Norman was o b v i o u s l y a t t h e c e n t r e o f them, he was p h y s i c a l l y removed from t h e l o c i o f c o n t r o v e r s y ( i n f a c t , he d i d n o t even l e a r n o f t h e r e v i v a l o f t h e c h a r g e s f i r s t hand, b u t r a t h e r r e a d about them i n t h e E g y p t i a n newspapers t h e f o l l o w i n g d a y ) . I n Canada, E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s M i n i s t e r P e a r s o n u n d e r t o o k immediate a c t i o n . He i s s u e d a s t a t e m e n t m a i n t a i n i n g t h a t h i s department's s u p p o r t f o r Norman remained u n c o n d i t i o n a l , announcing t h a t "our c o n f i d e n c e i n Mr. 1 4 4 S e e a c c o u n t s o f Emmerson's meeting w i t h t h e SISS i n Bowen, Innocence 293 and " C o l d War" 48; and B a r r o s , E v i l 105. Norman has n o t weakened i n any r e s p e c t . . . . These s l a n d e r o u s and u n s u p p o r t e d i n s i n u a t i o n s a g a i n s t him c o n t a i n e d i n t h e USA s e n a t o r i a l subcommittee r e p o r t we can t r e a t w i t h t h e contempt t h e y d e s e r v e . 1 , 1 4 5 He a l s o s e n t a c a b l e o f s u p p o r t t o Norman i n C a i r o , and a l e t t e r t o American S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e John F o s t e r D u l l e s w h i c h he d e s c r i b e d i n h i s memoirs as "the s t r o n g e s t n o t e . . . t h a t I have e v e r s e n t as Prime M i n i s t e r o r S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e t o any c o u n t r y , even t o a communist c o u n t r y . " 1 4 6 Two days l a t e r t h e S t a t e Department responded, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e W a s h i n g t o n e x e c u t i v e had " e v e r y c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e Canadian g o v e r n m e n t ' s j u d g e m e n t i n t h e s e l e c t i o n o f i t s o f f i c i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , " and d i s t a n c e d i t s e l f from t h e a c t i o n s o f t h e c o n g r e s s i o n a l s u b c o m m i t t e e . 1 4 7 As we s h a l l s e e , t h r o u g h o u t t h e e n s u i n g a f f a i r , t h e American e x e c u t i v e b r a n c h c o n s i s t e n t l y r e f u s e d t o t a k e any s o r t o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e a c t i o n s o f t h e subcommittee, and t h e r e f o r e f e l t i t s e l f t o be above t h e n e c e s s i t y o f making amends on b e h a l f o f Canada. Meanwhile, whatever ' e r r o r ' w h i c h l e d t o t h e i l l i c i t r e l e a s e o f Emmerson's t e s t i m o n y was never s a t i s f a c t o r i l y i d e n t i f i e d . The SISS s a i d t h a t t h e S t a t e Department had approved t h e r e l e a s e o f t h e s t a t e m e n t s . The S t a t e Department m a i n t a i n e d t h a t o n l y t e s t i m o n y f a v o u r a b l e t o Norman had been approved. A f t e r Norman's d e a t h a r e m o r s e f u l s e n a t o r , A r t h u r W a t k i n s , came f o r w a r d t o say 1 4 5 C i t e d i n Bowen, Innocence 294. 1 4 6 P e a r s o n , Mike I I I : 169. 1 4 7 G l o b e & M a i l (18 Mar 1957) quoted i n E a y r s , A f f a i r s 154. 98 t h a t e i g h t o f t h e n i n e s e n a t o r s i n v o l v e d approved t h e r e l e a s e , t h e n i n t h b e i n g i n t h e h o s p i t a l a t t h e t i m e . He a l s o s a i d t h a t t h e S t a t e Department's s e c u r i t y s e c t i o n had c l e a r e d t h e r e l e a s e , b u t t h a t t h e d i p l o m a t i c s e c t i o n had n o t b e e n c o n s u l t e d . 1 4 8 A p p o r t i o n i n g blame and s e e k i n g r e d r e s s from t h e e x e c u t i v e and l e g i s l a t i v e b r anches o f t h e American government was t o prove d i f f i c u l t f o r Canada. The American S t a t e Department f o r w a r d e d P e a r s o n ' s f o r c e f u l p r o t e s t n o te t o t h e subcommittee b u t M o r r i s and h i s c o h o r t s a p p a r e n t l y had l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y i n r a t i o n a l i s i n g t h e i r a c t i o n s . F o r t h e w i t c h h u n t e r s , t h e e x i g e n c i e s o f d i p l o m a t i c p r o t o c o l and h e a l t h y Canadian-American r e l a t i o n s were secondary t o t h e t a s k o f p u r g i n g communists from t h e w e s t e r n w o r l d . M o r r i s and a n o t h e r c o u n s e l , W i l l i a m Rusher, met w i t h t h r e e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from S t a t e on 20 March t o d i s c u s s P e a r s o n ' s p r o t e s t n o t e . M o r r i s argued t h a t t h e FBI had done n o t h i n g about A l g e r H i s s and K l a u s Fuchs u n t i l t h e c a s e s had been b r o u g h t o u t p u b l i c l y by t h e subcommittee, a r g u i n g , "Because a f o r e i g n n a t i o n a l c r o s s e s t h e t r a i l , must we s t o p our i n v e s t i g a t i o n ? " 1 4 9 He asked t h e S t a t e Department r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s "What do you s u g g e s t about how t o p r o t e c t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ' s e c u r i t y a g a i n s t N o r m a n ? " 1 5 0 A f t e r Norman's d e a t h he remained u n r e p e n t a n t , s t a t i n g t h a t " s u i c i d e was a man's own 1 4 8 C P , "US S e n a t o r Wants Norman Death Probe," Globe & M a i l 6 A p r i l 1957: 1.. 1 4 9 C i t e d i n Bowen, Innocence 296. 1 5 0 C i t e d i n Bowen, Innocence 298. 99 t r a g e d y , " and t h a t t h e SISS had an o b l i g a t i o n t o p r e s e n t a f u l l r e c o r d t o t h e S e n a t e , w i t h o u t d e l e t i o n s o f r e f e r e n c e s t o p o l i t i c a l l y s e n s i t i v e i n d i v i d u a l s . 1 5 1 "The randomness o f t a r g e t s , t h e haphazardness o f s o - c a l l e d e v i d e n c e , and t h e l a c k o f c o n c e r n f o r f o l l o w i n g t h r o u g h made McCarthyism a v e r y s p e c i a l b u s i n e s s i n d e e d , " wrote one s t u d e n t o f t h e phenomenon, an o b s e r v a t i o n a p t l y demonstrated by t h e s u b c o m m i t t e e ' s r enewed 1957 e f f o r t s t o impugn N o r m a n . 1 5 2 Throughout March, t h e SISS e f f o r t s t o d i s c r e d i t Norman c o n t i n u e d . Emmerson v o l u n t a r i l y appeared b e f o r e t h e subcommittee a g a i n on 21 and 23 March t o c l a r i f y h i s p r e v i o u s t e s t i m o n y c o n c e r n i n g Norman, e x p l a i n i n g what had t r a n s p i r e d d u r i n g t h e i r l uncheon i n B e i r u t , and o t h e r such d e t a i l s . The SISS d a r e d n o t l e a k t h i s t e s t i m o n y r i g h t away, and i n any e v e n t , t h e r e was n o t h i n g damaging i n i t . A Senate s t a f f member t o l d a department s e c u r i t y o f f i c e r t h a t E m m e r s o n ' s l a t e s t t e s t i m o n y " c l e a r e d t h e a i r " f o r t h e subcommittee, Emmerson r e p o r t s . 1 5 3 A l t h o u g h Emmerson was c l e a r e d once a g a i n , t h e v i l i f i c a t i o n o f Norman was f a r from o v e r . The n e x t ace t h e subcommittee produced from i t s s l e e v e was T s u r u S h i g e t o , who was t h a t y e a r a v i s i t i n g p r o f e s s o r a t H a r v a r d . On 26 and 27 March he gave t e s t i m o n y t o t h e 1 5 1 H a r o l d G r e e r , "Death o f a D i p l o m a t , " The N a t i o n 184:16 (20 A p r i l 1957): 341; and CP, " F e l t A l l Hope Gone, Pl u n g e s 7 F l o o r s , " Globe & M a i l 5 A p r i l 1957: 1. 1 5 2 M a r k Landes, Joseph McCarthy: The P o l i t i c s o f Chaos ( S e l i n s g r o v e : Susquehanna UP, 1987) 135. 1 5 3Emmerson, Thread 335. 100 subcommittee, and was s u b j e c t e d t o heavy q u e s t i o n i n g about Norman. T s u r u t e s t i f i e d i n t h e manner o f a r e p e n t a n t former M a r x i s t , w r i t e s Bowen, and " p r e t t y much t o l d t h e subcommittee what i t wanted t o h e a r . " 1 5 4 He d i s c u s s e d t h e M a r x i s t s t u d y group a t H a r v a r d , t h e 1942 Cambridge, M a s s a c h u s e t t s i n c i d e n t , and h i s a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h o t h e r Canadians w h i c h t h e SISS was s u s p i c i o u s o f such as L o r i e T a r s h i s and R o b e r t B r y c e . He a l s o t o l d t h e subcommittee t h a t i t was Norman who i n t r o d u c e d him t o I s r a e l H a l p e r i n . By t h i s t i m e t h e Canadian embassy i n Washington had d e s p a i r e d o f e v e r e f f e c t i v e l y c u r b i n g t h e e f f o r t s o f t h e SISS t o r u i n o u s l y smear Norman. On 29 March A r n o l d Heeney c a b l e d home a d i s p a t c h w h i c h r e a d i n p a r t D e s p i t e t h e e f f o r t s w hich have been made by t h e S t a t e Department, t h e p u b l i c a t i o n [ o f Emmerson's t e s t i m o n y ] c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e subcommittee remains i n f u l l c o n t r o l o f i t s e x t r a o r d i n a r y p r o c e d u r e s , and i s u n l i k e l y t o dro p t h i s c a s e o r t o acknowledge i n any way t h a t i t s methods a r e a t f a u l t . " 1 5 5 S u i c i d e : The Canadian R e a c t i o n P e a r s o n m a i n t a i n s t h a t i n i t i a l l y t h e House o f Commons had been " p l e a s e d " w i t h E x t e r n a l ' s h a n d l i n g o f t h e c a s e . 1 5 6 Norman's d r a m a t i c s u i c i d e i n C a i r o on 4 A p r i l 1957 changed a l l t h a t . W i t h t h e d e a t h o f Norman, a wave o f p u b l i c o u t r a g e and c o n c o m i t a n t l y , 1 5 4 B o w e n , Innocence 296-7. 1 5 5 F r o m RCMP f i l e s 29 March 1957, quoted i n Bowen, Innocence 302. 1 5 6 P e a r s o n , Mike 171. 101 a n t i - A m e r i c a n i s m , swept t h r o u g h t h e c o u n t r y . The p r e s s , t h e government, and t h e p o p u l a t i o n were f u r i o u s a t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s f o r i t s c o n t i n u e d and u n j u s t i f i e d harassment o f Norman, t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s government's r e f u s a l t o p u t an end t o t h e smear campaign, and t h e t r a g i c s u i c i d e t h a t had r e s u l t e d . The Canadian government's r e a c t i o n was s u i t a b l y o u t r a g e d , b u t t h e subsequent p o l i t i c i z a t i o n o f t h e i s s u e a l t e r e d t h e t u r n o f e v e n t s . The Norman case u l t i m a t e l y r a n i t s c o u r s e a c c o r d i n g t o t h e e x i g e n c i e s o f t h e 1957 f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n campaign. The L i b e r a l government was q u i c k t o j e t t i s o n what soon prov e d t o be an e l e c t o r a l l i a b i l i t y . Once a g a i n , p o l i t i c a l pragmatism, a c o n s i s t e n t theme i n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f Canadian f o r e i g n p o l i c y , d i c t a t e d t h e n a t u r e o f t h e government's r e s p o n s e t o t h i s l a t e s t v i o l a t i o n o f Canadian s o v e r e i g n t y . A f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n had been c a l l e d f o r 10 June. Three days a f t e r Norman's d e a t h , o p p o s i t i o n l e a d e r John D i e f e n b a k e r , u n d o u b t e d l y s e n s i n g an o p p o r t u n i t y t o make p o l i t i c a l hay o u t o f t h e c u r r e n t wave o f a n t i - A m e r i c a n i s m i n Canada, d e l i v e r e d t h e o p e n i n g s a l l y a g a i n s t P e a r s o n ' s conduct o f t h e Norman a f f a i r . He d e c l a r e d i n a campaign speech, "How d i f f e r e n t might t h e c o u r s e o f e v e n t s had been had we a courageous government. T h i s government i s a f r a i d t o s t a n d up. I t s h o u l d have s a i d t o Washington "you l o o k a f t e r y o u r a f f a i r s and w e ' l l l o o k a f t e r o u r s . " 1 5 7 1 5 7 G l o b e & M a i l 8 A p r i l 1957 quoted i n E a y r s , A f f a i r s 159. I n an e a r l i e r speech he i s quoted as s a y i n g what s h o u l d have become a c l a s s i c Canadian p o l i t i c a l a p h o r i s m : " L e t t h e US l o o k a f t e r t h e i r own needs and we w i l l l o o k o u t f o r o u r s , i f we have any." See W i l l i a m K i n n a r d , " D i e f e n b a k e r Urges S t . L a u r e n t P r o t e s t Of c o u r s e t h i s i s what P e a r s o n had been a t t e m p t i n g a l l a l o n g , a l b e i t i t i m p o t e n t l y , t h r o u g h d i p l o m a t i c c h a n n e l s . D i e f e n b a k e r , who had l o n g e x h i b i t e d s e n t i m e n t s t h a t i n c l u d e d "a deep e m o t i o n a l attachment t o G r e a t B r i t a i n and a c o n v e r s e l y p r o f o u n d s u s p i c i o n o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s " was c o n s i s t e n t i n h i s l i n e o f a t t a c k . 1 5 8 However pure t h e i n t e n t i o n s o f t h e w a r r i n g p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s may have been, t h e p o l i t i c i z a t i o n o f t h e c a s e was u n f o r t u n a t e i n t h a t i t c o n s t r a i n e d t h e government from t a k i n g m e a n i n g f u l s t e p s t o r e d r e s s t h e problems Norman's s u i c i d e had so d r a m a t i c a l l y exposed. On 10 A p r i l , P e a r s o n undertook t o demonstrate t h a t t h e L i b e r a l government was t a k i n g a f i r m s t a n d . He i s s u e d a s t a t e m e n t w h i c h r e a d i n p a r t : The i s s u e b e f o r e u s . . . i s n o t o n l y t h e t r a g e d y o f one man... There i s a b r o a d e r q u e s t i o n o f p r i n c i p l e i n v o l v e d — t h e r i g h t , t o say n o t h i n g o f t h e p r o p r i e t y , o f t h e agency o f a f o r e i g n government, t o i n t e r v e n e i n our a f f a i r s i n such a way as t o h a r a s s one o f our c i t i z e n s . . . . I f we f a i l i n t h e d i s c h a r g e o f o ur s e c u r i t y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as a government, we a r e answerable t o our own p e o p l e , and n o t t o a subcommittee o f any f o r e i g n l e g i s l a t u r e . 1 5 9 D e s p i t e s u c h b o l d pronouncements, i t was o b v i o u s t h a t t h e r e a c t i o n t o t h e government's h a n d l i n g o f t h e "Norman A f f a i r " was becoming a p o l i t i c a l l i a b i l i t y , and t h e L i b e r a l government was eager t o sweep t h e whole a f f a i r under t h e mat as q u i c k l y as was d e c e n t l y p o s s i b l e . Prompted by t h e need t o c u r b D i e f e n b a k e r ' s e x p l o i t a t i o n Probes o f Ca n a d i a n s , " Globe & M a i l 5 A p r i l 1957: 4a. 1 5 8 P e t e r C. Newman, Renegade i n Power: The D i e f e n b a k e r Y e a r s ( T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d , 1963) 254. 1 5 9 P e a r s o n ' s s t a t e m e n t was p u b l i s h e d i n CP, " W i l l Deny F u t u r e S e c u r i t y Data t o US U n l e s s P r e v e n t a t i v e A c t i o n Taken: P e a r s o n , " Globe & M a i l 11 A p r i l 1957: 3. 103 o f a n t i - A m e r i c a n s e n t i m e n t w h i l e f u l f i l l i n g i t s o b l i g a t i o n o f m a i n t a i n i n g d e c e n t Canadian-American r e l a t i o n s , t h e u p s h ot was a l a c k l u s t e r and s u p e r f i c i a l e f f o r t t o r e d r e s s Norman's d e a t h . Canada has, o f c o u r s e , grown used t o p l a y i n g t h e r o l e o f n o t -v e r y - s i g n i f i c a n t n e i g h b o u r t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . As John Holmes once w r o t e , "The Power i s n ' t r e a l l y v e r y good a t s e e i n g l i t t l e s p a r r o w s f a l l , and i t i s d i f f i c u l t j u s t t o a t t r a c t h i s a t t e n t i o n . 1 , 1 6 0 N e e d l e s s t o s a y , t h e American government was a p o l o g e t i c and embarrassed about t h e subcommittee's a c t i v i t i e s and Norman's s u i c i d e , b u t he was, a f t e r a l l , a v e r y s m a l l sparrow. O v e r a l l , t h e A m e r i c a n s t r e a t e d t h e a f f a i r w i t h r e l a t i v e n o n c h a l a n c e . S p u r r e d on D i e f e n b a k e r ' s a t t a c k s , P e a r s o n s e n t a n o t h e r s t r i d e n t n o t e t o Washington on 10 A p r i l . T h i s t i m e he t h r e a t e n e d t o c u t o f f t h e exchange o f s e c u r i t y i n f o r m a t i o n between t h e two s t a t e s u n l e s s t h e US government would a s s u r e Canada t h a t c o n f i d e n t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n would n o t f i n d i t s way i n t o t h e hands o f u n c o n t r o l l a b l e c o n g r e s s i o n a l subcommittees. T h i s t h r e a t was p e r c e i v e d as 'too l i t t l e t o o l a t e ' f o r a v a r i e t y o f r e a s o n s . F i r s t l y , i t was somewhat h o l l o w i n t h a t because t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i s t h e dominant power i n t h e r e a l m o f w e s t e r n i n t e l l i g e n c e , t h e f l o w o f i n f o r m a t i o n was and i s s o u t h - n o r t h r a t h e r t h a n v i c e v e r s a . A Canadian r e f u s a l t o c o o p e r a t e i n t h i s a r e a would have been more damaging t o Canada t h a n t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , w h i c h had l i t t l e t o l o s e r e a l l y , g i v e n t h e Canadian p r o v i s i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n 1 6 0 H o l m e s , U n c l e 2. 104 was so s m a l l . S e c o n d l y , P e a r s o n would n ot even admit t h a t RCMP i n f o r m a t i o n had been used a g a i n s t Norman i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s h e a r i n g s , t e l l i n g t h e House on 12 A p r i l t h a t t h e SISS " d i d n o t , so f a r as we know, a c t on any Canadian o f f i c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n " even as he r e i t e r a t e d h i s t h r e a t t o c u t o f f i n f o r m a t i o n exchanges w i t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . "Then why p e n a l i z e t h e i r department f o r something t h e y d i d n o t do?" asked D i e f e n b a k e r . P e a r s o n responded w i t h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p a r l i a m e n t a r y e q u i v o c a t i o n : "My h o n o u r a b l e f r i e n d c o m p l a i n s t h a t we d i d n o t do a n y t h i n g and when we t r y t o do something he c o m p l a i n s t h a t what we a r e d o i n g i s n o t g o i n g t o be of any u s e . " 1 6 1 The p r e s s was s c a r c e l y k i n d e r t o Pearson's t h r e a t t o c u t o f t h e t r a n s n a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n f l o w . I n f l u e n t i a l e d i t o r i a l w r i t e r George B a i n s d e l i v e r e d a s t i n g i n g a t t a c k on Pe a r s o n i n t h e Globe &  M a i l on 11 A p r i l , and p o r t i o n s o f h i s column were r e a d i n t h e House t h e f o l l o w i n g day. B a i n s c o m p l a i n e d t h a t "The Canadian government's p r o t e s t t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . . . w a s 90 p e r c e n t a sham.... Y e s t e r d a y ' s n o t e , and Mr. Pearson's tough l i t t l e speech t h a t went w i t h i t , were aimed a l m o s t e n t i r e l y a t d o m e s t i c c o n s u m p t i o n . " 1 6 2 W i t h i n a m a t t e r o f days D i e f e n b a k e r ' s a c c u s a t i o n s o f RCMP f a l l i b i l i t y were proven c o r r e c t . P e a r s o n was f o r c e d t o admit t h a t p o r t i o n s o f t h e f a u l t y RCMP r e p o r t had i n d e e d found t h e i r way i n t o 1 6 1 H o u s e o f Commons, Debates 12 A p r i l 1957: 3494. 1 6 2 B a i n s was quoted i n t h e House, Debates, 12 A p r i l 1957: 3497. 105 t h e hands o f t h e c o n g r e s s i o n a l subcommittee. T h i s r e v e l a t i o n l e d t o f u r t h e r v i t r i o l i c c r i t i c i s m o f t h e government's a c t i o n s , and o f t h e RCMP's i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e a f f a i r . 1 6 3 I n f a c t , t h e d i s c o v e r y o f t h e RCMP's b o t c h e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f Norman, i n c l u d i n g i t s f a i l u r e t o i d e n t i f y h i s l i n k s w i t h H a l p e r i n e a r l i e r and i t s infamous 17 October r e p o r t were judged t o be o f such g r a v i t y t h a t t h e y e v e n t u a l l y l e d t o t h e development o f a new s e t o f s e c u r i t y p r o c e d u r e s . P e a r s o n a l s o r e v e a l e d t o t h e House on 12 A p r i l t h a t he had known a l l a l o n g o f Norman's M a r x i s t p a s t and had n o t d i v u l g e d t h e f u l l d e t a i l s o f i t i n 1951. Rumours of an E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s c o v e r u p were r i f e , and P e a r s o n was once a g a i n under f i r e f o r n o t b e i n g more f r a n k about t h e m a t t e r and c l e a r i n g i t up when t h e a l l e g a t i o n s were f i r s t made. Pe a r s o n defended h i m s e l f , e x p l a i n i n g i n a Maclean's i n t e r v i e w t h a t i t i s our s e c u r i t y p r a c t i c e i n t h i s government, based on B r i t i s h p r a c t i c e s and t r a d i t i o n s i n t h i s f i e l d , t h a t we d i s m i s s o r r e j e c t c h a r g e s a g a i n s t o f f i c i a l s and we make p u b l i c t h e d e c i s i o n when n e c e s s a r y , b u t t h a t we do n o t make p u b l i c t h e e v i d e n c e on w h i c h t h e d e c i s i o n i s b a s e d . " 1 6 4 L a t e r , i n h i s memoirs he m a i n t a i n e d h i s s t a n d on t h e m a t t e r . " I t h i n k we d i d t h e r i g h t t h i n g i n n o t m e n t i o n i n g d e t a i l s , " he w r o t e . "The f a c t t h a t t h e m a t t e r was n o t mentioned f o r s i x y e a r s would i e > 3 S e e , f o r example, e d i t o r i a l , "The P e a r s o n Case" Globe &  M a i l 19 A p r i l 1957: 6. P e a r s o n r e p l i e d i n a l e t t e r t o t h e e d i t o r on 21 A p r i l . 1 6 4 B l a i r F r a s e r and L i o n e l S h a p i r o , "The Norman Case," Maclean's 70:14 (6 J u l y 1957): 14. 106 seem t o v i n d i c a t e o ur j u d g e m e n t . " 1 6 5 The d o m e s t i c u p r o a r , t h e a t t a c k s on Pe a r s o n and E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s , t h e c r i t i c i s m o f t h e RCMP and t h e wave o f a n t i -A m e r i c a n i s m a l l amounted t o a g r a v e e l e c t o r a l drawback f o r S t . L a u r e n t ' s L i b e r a l s . By 26 A p r i l he was a l r e a d y t e l l i n g t h e p r e s s , " I t h i n k t h e r e has been t o o much s a i d about t h e Norman c a s e , " a s e n t i m e n t t h a t was echoed t h r o u g h o u t t h e L i b e r a l c o r p s . 1 6 6 E a y r s c o n c l u d e s , W h i l e i t was never a major i s s u e i n t h e campaign, t h e t r a g e d y o f H e r b e r t Norman c h a n n e l l e d and r e i n f o r c e d t h e u n d e r c u r r e n t o f a n t i - A m e r i c a n f e e l i n g f l o w i n g s t r o n g l y t h r o u g h t h e e l e c t o r a t e ; and i t was v e r y much i n t h e v o t e r s ' minds when t h e y went t o t h e p o l l s on June 1 0 . 1 6 7 1 6 5 P e a r s o n , Mike 172. 1 6 6 H a r v e y H i c k e y , "Too Much S a i d About Norman, PM T e l l s P r e s s , " Globe & M a i l 26 A p r i l 1957: 10. 1 6 7 E a y r s , A f f a i r s 159. 107 C o n c l u s i o n The Government's Response I t i s t h e g r e a t e r t r a g e d y o f Norman's d e a t h t h a t i t was i n v a i n : t h e o p p o s i t i o n e x p l o i t e d t h e a f f a i r f o r i t s p o l i t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e w h i l e t h e L i b e r a l government p o i n t e d l y i g n o r e d t h e d i f f i c u l t i s s u e s i t r a i s e d . Canada c o n t e n t e d i t s e l f w i t h a f o r m a l a p o l o g y and s i m p l y hoped t h a t i n f u t u r e , t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s would r e s p e c t i t s s o v e r e i g n t y i n i n t e r n a l s e c u r i t y m a t t e r s . N o t h i n g was done t o a d d r e s s t h e g r e a t e r problems endemic t o t h e C a n a d i a n -American r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t t h e Norman case i m p l i e d . M a r c e l C a d i e u x , a former Canadian ambassador t o Washington, when asked what c o u l d be done t o improve Canadian-American r e l a t i o n s once q u i p p e d , " I t ' s v e r y s i m p l e . A l l you have t o do i s change t h e American c o n s t i t u t i o n . " 1 6 8 T h e s t r u c t u r a l i n a d e q u a c i e s o f t h e c h a n n e l s o f communication between Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s became p a r t i c u l a r l y a c u t e f o l l o w i n g t h e Norman s u i c i d e . Canada was once a g a i n reminded t h a t a g a i n s t Congress i t had few avenues o f r e c o u r s e . That t h e American e x e c u t i v e was l a r g e l y d i s i n t e r e s t e d i n s t a n d i n g up a g a i n s t Congress i n t h i s a f f a i r m e r e l y compounded t h e i m p o t e n c e o f t h e C a n a d i a n government. As i s s u g g e s t e d by C a d i e u x ' s remark, t h e problem o f d e a l i n g w i t h t h e American e x e c u t i v e on t h e one hand, and Congress on t h e o t h e r , has l o n g been a d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e o f t h e C a n a d i a n -American r e l a t i o n s h i p . D i r e c t c o n t a c t s between t h e Canadian ambassador and Congress a r e seldom u n d e r t a k e n s i m p l y because 1 6 8 H o l m e s , U n c l e 127. 108 l e g a l l y , a r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e two does n o t e x i s t , f o r "the ambassador i s a c c r e d i t e d t o one element i n a s e v e r e l y d i v i d e d government, namely t h e e x e c u t i v e , and t h e l e g i s l a t u r e i s j e a l o u s o f i t s i n d e p e n d e n c e . 1 , 1 6 9 I n g e n e r a l , ...Canadian governments have c o n s i d e r e d i t w i s e t o make t h e i r approaches t o t h e e x e c u t i v e b r a n c h and l e a v e i t t o i n t e r p r e t and . p r o t e c t Canadian i n t e r e s t s v i s - a - v i s Congress. The r a t i o n a l e f o r t h i s p r a c t i c e i s t w o f o l d : a b e l i e f t h a t t h e e x e c u t i v e i s b e t t e r equipped t h a n t h e embassy t o d e a l w i t h C o n g r e s s , and a c o n c e r n n ot t o aro u s e s u s p i c i o n t h a t t h e embassy might be making d e a l s w i t h Congress b e h i n d t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' s b a c k . 1 7 0 Heeney w r i t e s t h a t when he f i r s t t o o k t h e j o b o f US Ambassador i n 1953, Pearson s u g g e s t e d he make an e f f o r t t o c u l t i v a t e f r i e n d s 'on t h e h i l l , ' an i n i t i a t i v e he ad m i t s he d i d not pursue w i t h a g r e a t d e a l o f a s s i d u i t y . On r e c e i v i n g word o f Norman's d e a t h , Heeney approached t h e S t a t e Department and t o o k up t h e i s s u e w i t h C h r i s t i a n H e r t e r , who was r e p l a c i n g t h e v a c a t i o n i n g John F o s t e r D u l l e s , and some o t h e r S t a t e Department o f f i c i a l s . " A l l were s y m p a t h e t i c , " he r e c a l l e d , " y e t t h e y were v i r t u a l l y p o w e r l e s s , t h e m s e l v e s p r i m a r y t a r g e t s o f r e d - b a i t e r s . " 1 7 1 A f t e r some b a d g e r i n g by Heeney, H e r t e r f i n a l l y s e n t Canada a r e p l y t o t h e 18 March p r o t e s t n o t e e x p l a i n i n g t h a t t h e S t a t e department had • L C > yHeeney, Caesar 126. 1 7 0 P e t e r C. D o b e l l , "The I n f l u e n c e o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s Congress on Canadian-American R e l a t i o n s " i n A n n e t t e Baker Fox, A l f r e d O. Hero, J r . , & Joseph S. Nye, J r . , Canada and t h e U n i t e d  S t a t e s : T r a n s n a t i o n a l and Tra n s q o v e r n m e n t a l R e l a t i o n s (New York: Columbia UP, 1976) 334. 1 7 1 H e e n e y , Caesar 145. 109 no c o n t r o l o v e r t h e a c t i o n s o f t h e s u b c o m m i t t e e . 1 ' ^ On 10 A p r i l , Heeney c a l l e d on P r e s i d e n t Eisenhower t o say good-bye, as he was t o be r e p l a c e d by Norman R o b e r t s o n on 9 May. I n e v i t a b l y , t h e i s s u e o f Norman came up. Eisenhower, t o o , was a p o l o g e t i c , b u t u n w i l l i n g t o t a k e a s t a n d a g a i n s t t h e subcommittee: he would n o t o p e n l y c r i t i c i s e J e n n e r and t h e o t h e r S e n a t o r s i n v o l v e d ; t h a t , he t h o u g h t , was j u s t what t h e y wanted. J e n n e r h i m s e l f was ' n u t s ' b u t l o o k what had happened t o McCarthy. The same f a t e , he a s s u r e d me, would e v e n t u a l l y o v e r t a k e J e n n e r and company. I t was not a v e r y s a t i s f a c t o r y r e a c t i o n t o my r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ; n o r c o u l d I q u i t e fathom Eisenhower's t h i n k i n g i n t h e m a t t e r . I had hoped f o r some p u b l i c c o n d e m n a t i o n . 1 7 3 When R o b e r t s o n a r r i v e d i n Washington, h i s f i r s t d i s p a t c h t o Ottawa a l s o r e l a t e d t o t h e Norman c a s e i n t h a t he met Eisenhower and d i s c u s s e d i t . R o b e r t s o n had been a p p a l l e d a t t h e s u i c i d e : an American o f f i c i a l c a n d i d l y l i k e n e d h i s r e a c t i o n t o t h a t o f a husband w a t c h i n g t h e man n e x t door a t t a c k h i s w i f e w i t h an a x e . 1 7 4 R o b e r t s o n s e n t o u t a r e p o r t on 17 May 1957 wh i c h r e a d i n p a r t : [ E isenhower] s a i d we knew how h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f e l t about i t . A t t h e same t i m e we s h o u l d know b e t t e r t h a n any o t h e r p e o p l e how American i n s t i t u t i o n s worked.... He d i d not r e f e r s p e c i f i c a l l y t o our [10 A p r i l ] n o te on s e c u r i t y p r o c e d u r e s w h i c h i s s t i l l w a i t i n g a r e p l y , b u t I f e l t t h e e a r n e s t n e s s w i t h w h i c h he was t r y i n g t o expound h i s g e n e r a l argument a b o u t t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f r e s t r a i n t , f o r b e a r a n c e and u n r e m i t t i n g e f f o r t s t o u n d e r s t a n d each o t h e r ' s s p e c i a l p r e o c c u p a t i o n and ways o f d o i n g t h i n g s , t h a t he was d e e p l y c o n c e r n e d about t h e d i f f e r e n c e between Canadian and American approaches t o s e c u r i t y problems. A t t h e same t i m e I had t h e 1 7 2 l l C a n a d a May Cut Flow o f I n f o r m a t i o n t o US," Globe & M a i l 11 A p r i l 1957: 2. 1 7 3 H e e n e y , Caesar 145. 1 7 4 G r a n a t s t e i n , R o b e r t s o n 314. f e e l i n g t h a t he was t r y i n g t o make me u n d e r s t a n d why i t would n o t be p o s s i b l e f o r him t o g i v e us t h e e x p l i c i t a s s u r a n c e s on s e c u r i t y t h a t our n ote had r e q u e s t e d . 1 7 5 L i k e Heeney, R o b e r t s o n was d i s a p p o i n t e d w i t h t h e f a i l u r e o f t h e A m e r i c a n e x e c u t i v e t o t a k e a c t i o n . He was s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i s i l l u s i o n e d , r e p o r t s G r a n a t s t e i n , upon r e a l i s i n g a t t h i s e a r l y s t a g e i n h i s American a m b a s s a d o r i a l c a r e e r t h a t " t h e American C o n g r e s s was e s s e n t i a l l y u n c o n t r o l l a b l e . " 1 7 6 On h i s own i n i t i a t i v e he approached t h e s e n a t o r s o f t h e s t a t e s b o r d e r i n g Canada and r e c e i v e d s u p p o r t f o r t h e Canadian p o s i t i o n t h a t i t had t h e r i g h t t o p r o t e c t i t s own i n f o r m a t i o n and s e c u r i t y . He remained s c e p t i c a l o f t h e Congress t h r o u g h o u t t h e r e m a i n d e r of h i s c a r e e r a n d o p p o s e d t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e Canada-US I n t e r p a r l i a m e n t a r y Group when t h e i d e a was r a i s e d i n t h e J u l y o f t h a t y e a r . I t has been argued t h a t when Eisenhower became p r e s i d e n t , i n t h e r e a l m o f f o r e i g n p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n t h e r e was a n o t i c e a b l e s h i f t o f power i n Washington from t h e hands o f t h e e x e c u t i v e t o t h e l e g i s l a t i v e b r a n c h of g o v e r n m e n t . 1 7 7 P r e d i c t a b l y , t h e n , t h e e v e n t u a l American r e s p o n s e d i d n o t go beyond what Eisenhower had i n d i c a t e d t o Heeney and R o b e r t s o n , and s t a t e d p u b l i c l y : "As u s u a l , " he t o l d t h e p r e s s , " I w i l l n o t c r i t i c i s e a n y o n e . " 1 7 8 The o f f i c i a l American r e s p o n s e was t h a t t h e y were s y m p a t h e t i c , but 1 7 5 G r a n a t s t e i n , R o b e r t s o n 314 1 7 6 G r a n a t s t e i n , R o b e r t s o n 315. 1 7 7 I g n a t i e f f , Peacemonger 120. 1 7 8 " C a n a d a May Cut Flow,": 1. I l l were n o t w i l l i n g t o do a n y t h i n g more t h a n was a l r e a d y b e i n g done t o s a f e g u a r d c o n f i d e n t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n . That i t was i m p o s s i b l e f o r t h e e x e c u t i v e t o p l a c e t h e blame f o r t h e t r a n s f e r o f c o n f i d e n t i a l s e c u r i t y i n f o r m a t i o n from t h e FBI t o t h e SISS on any s p e c i f i c department o r i n d i v i d u a l made t h e American f a i l u r e t o a t t empt t o make amends even more * j u s t i f i a b l e . ' A c c o r d i n g t o t h e news r e p o r t s o f t h e t i m e , even p r i o r t o Norman's d e a t h t h e r e was s u p p o r t b o t h i n Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t o t a k e a f i r m s t a n d a g a i n s t t h e American government on t h i s i s s u e . The Globe & M a i l r e p o r t e d i n March t h a t " P r i v a t e l y , US government o f f i c i a l s e x p r e s s e d t h e hope t h a t P e a r s o n would p u l l no punches i n h i s p r o t e s t , " an i m p r e s s i o n t h a t R o b e r t s o n had h i m s e l f r e c e i v e d from a number of US s e n a t o r s . 1 7 9 E d i t o r i a l o p i n i o n i n t h e US was a l s o s u p p o r t i v e o f a f i r m s t a n d , as was t h e Canadian p u b l i c . Y e t t h e Canadian government chose t o l e t t h e m a t t e r drop. The e x i g e n c i e s o f e l e c t i o n t i m e pragmatism d i c t a t e d t h i s , and no a c t i o n s were t a k e n t o p r e v e n t a f u t u r e abuse by Congress o f Canadian s e c u r i t y i n f o r m a t i o n . The S t a t e Department's a p o l o g y o f 15 August was s i m p l y a c c e p t e d as a t o k e n of good f a i t h . A y e a r l a t e r a l l t h e i s s u e s r a i s e d by t h e Norman case were exhumed once a g a i n when R o b e r t B r y c e , S e c r e t a r y t o D i e f e n b a k e r ' s C a b i n e t and C l e r k o f t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l , was named p u b l i c l y by t h e SISS. I n i t s 3000 page r e p o r t on t h e Norman i n v e s t i g a t i o n , t h e subcommittee c l a i m e d i t had been much m a l i g n e d by Canada's 1 7 9 H a r v e y H i c k e y , "Pearson Angered, P r o t e s t s S l a n d e r o f Norman," Globe & M a i l 15 March 1957: 1. 112 i n s i d i o u s a n t i - A m e r i c a n i s m , a r g u i n g t h a t Canada had e x p l o i t e d Norman's s u i c i d e " t o g e n e r a t e a f r e n z i e d wave o f a n t i - U . S . s e n t i m e n t . . . 1 , 1 8 0 R o b e r t B r y c e was named i n t h e r e p o r t as t h e p e r s o n who had i n t r o d u c e d T s u r u t o Norman a t H a r v a r d . Once a g a i n t h e subcommittee was a p p a r e n t l y o b l i v i o u s o f t h e h i g h government p o s i t i o n o c c u p i e d by i t s t a r g e t , and o n l y aware o f him as an a s s o c i a t e o f Norman's and a member o f t h e H a r v a r d M a r x i s t s t u d y group. The D i e f e n b a k e r government was s u i t a b l y i n d i g n a n t : Norman R o b e r t s o n d e l i v e r e d a s t r o n g p r o t e s t t o Washington, w h i l e t h e T o r i e s championed B r y c e ' s l o y a l t y i n t h e House. H a v i n g s e t t l e d f o r D u l l e s ' a p o l o g y and a s s u r a n c e t h a t h i s government was eager t o p r e v e n t a r e c u r r e n c e o f an e v e n t a l o n g t h e l i n e s o f t h e N orman a f f a i r , Canada was d i s a p p o i n t e d by t h i s l a t e s t C o n g r e s s i o n a l smear campaign, and f e l t t h e r e had been a b r e a c h o f t r u s t . The whole e v e n t was e x t r e m e l y s h o r t - l i v e d . That b o t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada were i n f a v o u r o f a v o i d i n g a s i m i l a r t r a g i c b a t t l e o v e r B r y c e s u g g e s t s t h a t b o t h s i d e s r e c o g n i s e d a m u t u a l i t y o f i n t e r e s t i n m a i n t a i n i n g good r e l a t i o n s . The Norman a f f a i r had been c o n s i d e r e d something o f an anomaly, and i s i n t e r e s t i n g i n t h a t n e i t h e r s i d e i n i t i a l l y f e l t i n c l i n e d t o i n s t i t u t i o n a l i s e t r a n s g o v e r n m e n t a l p r o c e d u r e s t h a t c o u l d f o r m a l l y p r e v e n t a r e c u r r e n c e . ( H o w e v e r , i n J u l y 1957 t h e 1 8 0 G e o r g e K i t c h e n , "Wide S l a n d e r Charged by US Senate P r o b e r s , " Globe & M a i l 15 May 1958: 1. I n t e r p a r l i a m e n t a r y Committee was e s t a b l i s h e d t o f a c i l i t a t e b e t t e r c o m m u n i c a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e A m e r i c a n Congress and Canadian l e g i s l a t u r e ) . The t h r e a t o f a r e p e a t w i t h B r y c e a t l e a s t s e r v e d t o m o b i l i s e t h e American government i n t o t a k i n g some c o n c r e t e s t e p s . 1 8 1 I n 1959 t h e Senate F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s Committee e s t a b l i s h e d a S u b c o m m i t t e e on C a n a d i a n A f f a i r s , w h i c h , u n f o r t u n a t e l y , " p r o v e d . . . t o be a n y t h i n g b u t a c t i v e . " 1 8 2 T h e r e f o r e , as f a r as e f f o r t s t o improve communications and r e l a t i o n s between t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada, Norman's s u i c i d e a c h i e v e d n o t h i n g . I n t e r n a l S e c u r i t y A f t e r Norman: The R o l e o f t h e RCMP The E.H. Norman c a s e can be seen as a s t u d y i n t h e v i o l a t i o n o f Canadian s o v e r e i g n t y . That t h e i n t e r n a l s e c u r i t y a p p a r a t u s a c t u a l l y h e l p e d t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e v i o l a t i o n has r a i s e d s e r i o u s q u e s t i o n s about t h e Canadian s e c u r i t y o r g a n i s a t i o n ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h i t s government. Throughout t h e w e s t e r n s e c u r i t y network, a t e n s i o n o f t e n e x i s t s b e t w e e n t h e i n t e l l i g e n c e o r g a n i s a t i o n and l i b e r a l d e m o c r a t i c governments, as t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s e c u r i t y f u n c t i o n 1 8 1 E a g e r t o d e f u s e a p o t e n t i a l c r i s i s , t h e American a m b a s s a d o r , L i v i n g s t o n Merchant, d e l i v e r e d what t h e p r e s s c o n s i d e r e d a s t a t e m e n t b r i l l i a n t f o r i t s t a c t f u l n e s s . He c a l l e d t h e Canadian p u b l i c ' s o u t r a g e a t t h e l a t e s t subcommittee a c t i o n s n o t an i n d i c a t i o n o f a n t i - A m e r i c a n i s m , b u t r a t h e r , "an a s s e r t i o n o f a p a s s i o n a t e f e e l i n g o f n a t i o n a l d e s t i n y and Canadianism." P h i l i p Deane, "Canada i s G u i l t y o f S i n s , Too, US Commentary on R e l a t i o n s , " Globe & M a i l 17 May 1958: 1. 1 8 2 D o b e l l , "Congress" 312. commonly v i o l a t e s t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f i n d i v i d u a l l i b e r t y . Throughout t h e C o l d War t h e RCMP s e c u r i t y o r g a n i s a t i o n and t h e L i b e r a l government d i s a g r e e d i n p r i n c i p l e upon what c o n s t i t u t e d a t h r e a t t o Canadian s e c u r i t y . As e a r l y as 1947 t h e RCMP was c a l l i n g f o r a communist purge o f t h e Canadian C i v i l S e r v i c e even as t h e L i b e r a l g o v e r n m e n t was d r a f t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n t o p r e c l u d e a communist w i t c h h u n t . 1 8 3 The RCMP found an i d e o l o g i c a l c o u n t e r p a r t i n t h e American i n t e l l i g e n c e community, and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e two o r g a n i s a t i o n s was c l o s e . A f t e r a l l , i n a d d i t i o n t o a s h a r e d p o l i t i c a l a f f i n i t y , t h e Canadian s e c u r i t y s e r v i c e s . . . d e p e n d e d h e a v i l y on t h e i r a l l i e d c o u n t e r p a r t s , and e s p e c i a l l y on t h e American s e c u r i t y and i n t e l l i g e n c e a g e n c i e s , f o r i n f o r m a t i o n , e x p e r t a d v i c e , and a c c e s s t o new t e c h n o l o g y . They have, i n t u r n , been g e n e r o u s i n t h e i r c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h t h e i r A m e r i c a n f r i e n d s . . . 1 8 4 The RCMP was unhappy w i t h E x t e r n a l A f f a i r ' s c l e a r a n c e o f Norman. I t f e l t t h a t t h e government d i d n o t t a k e t h e communist t h r e a t s e r i o u s l y enough and " t h e s u s p i c i o n o f t r e a c h e r y i n t h e h i g h e s t l e v e l s o f government o f Canada became an ong o i n g o b s e s s i o n w i t h i n t h e r i g h t wing o f b o t h t h e American and Canadian s e c u r i t y o r g a n i s a t i o n s . " 1 8 5 A l t h o u g h i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y l i t t l e was a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h Norman's d e a t h , d o m e s t i c a l l y t h e s u i c i d e l e d t o a c l o s e e x a m i n a t i o n o f 1 8 3 L i t t l e t o n , T a r g e t 16-17. 1 8 4 L i t t l e t o n , T a r g e t 107. 1 8 5 L i t t l e t o n , T a r g e t 33. 115 C anadian i n t e r n a l s e c u r i t y p o l i c y . The RCMP's r o l e i n s e c u r i t y s c r e e n i n g p r o c e d u r e s was s p e c i f i c a l l y reexamined. When t h e L i b e r a l s resumed power i n 1963 t h e new Prime M i n i s t e r , L e s t e r P e a r s o n , " a c t e d f i r m l y t o p r e v e n t t h e more extreme m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f C o l d War p a r a n o i a from t a k i n g r o o t i n C a n a d a . " 1 8 6 C a b i n e t D i r e c t i v e 35 was i s s u e d i n December 1963, f o l l o w i n g a l e n g t h y r e v i e w o f s e c u r i t y p r o c e d u r e s . CD 35 c o n t i n u e d t o form t h e b a s i s o f Canadian s e c u r i t y u n t i l i t was r e p l a c e d i n 1984 by t h e Canadian S e c u r i t y I n t e l l i g e n c e S e r v i c e [CSIS] A c t . I t s c r i t e r i a f o r d e t e r m i n i n g l o y a l t y s t i l l h i n g e d upon a p e r s o n ' s a f f i l i a t i o n s w i t h Communist and F a s c i s t p a r t i e s , f r o n t o r g a n i s a t i o n s o r groups t h a t a d v o c a t e d t h e use o f f o r c e f o r p o l i t i c a l p u r p o s e s , b u t i t now p r o v i d e d r e v i e w p r o c e d u r e s f o r i n d i v i d u a l s n o t g r a n t e d a s e c u r i t y c l e a r a n c e . F u r t h e r m o r e , and more germane t o t h e Norman c a s e , t h e new l e g i s l a t i o n now r e c o g n i s e d t h e d i s t i n c t i o n between a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n and i d e o l o g i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n : t h e d e f i n i t i o n s i n CD 35 r e p r e s e n t a c l e a r s t a t e m e n t o f l i b e r a l a ssumptions about t h r e a t t o n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y i n t h e l a t e C o l d War p e r i o d . They a r e s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d i n t h e e x p l i c i t naming o f Communists (and F a s c i s t s ) as b e i n g t h e enemies o f l i b e r a l democracy i n Canada. One o f t h e c o n s i d e r a b l e v i r t u e s o f CD 35, i n comparison w i t h o t h e r f o r m u l a t i o n s o f t h e ge n r e , i s t h a t i t does n o t condemn p o l i t i c a l i d e a l s as s u c h ; i t i s i n s t e a d c o n c erned w i t h a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n o r s u p p o r t o f p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i s a t i o n s . 1 8 7 The f o r m a l r e c o g n i t i o n o f a d i f f e r e n c e between a c t i v e and p a s t p a r t i c i p a t i o n was a c o n c r e t e improvement i n s e c u r i t y p o l i c y t h a t 1 8 6 L i t t l e t o n , T a r g e t 168. 1 8 7 L i t t l e t o n , T a r g e t 170. 116 s p r a n g d i r e c t l y from t h e Norman c a s e . When he j o i n e d E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s , Norman's a c t i v e work f o r t h e Communist P a r t y had l o n g s i n c e c e a s e d , y e t u n t i l 1963 such a c e s s a t i o n c o u l d n o t have been l e g a l l y r e c o g n i s e d . Towards F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h An awkward compromise o f a c q u i e s c e n c e and s o v e r e i g n t y , e x p e d i e n c e and d i g n i t y , has g e n e r a t e d a k i n d o f s c h i z o p h r e n i a i n C anadian p o l i t i c a l l i f e . From MacKenzie K i n g on, Canadian l e a d e r s have walked t h e narrow p a t h between t h e s t o n e w a l l o f A m e r i c a n ' s p e r c e i v e d s t r a t e g i c s e l f - i n t e r e s t and t h e w a s t e l a n d o f u n f u l f i l l e d a s p i r a t i o n s t o n a t i o n a l i n d e p e n d e n c e . 1 8 9 I n t h e postwar e r a , t h e tensions o f t h e A p o l i t i c a l s c h i z o p h r e n i a ' d e s c r i b e d above have o f t e n l e d t o i n c o h e r e n t and/or i n a d e q u a t e s t r a t e g i e s f o r c o p i n g w i t h f o r e i g n : p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n i n t h e Canadian c o n t e x t . S u c c e s s i v e governments have a t t e m p t e d t o a c h i e v e t h e i r s h o r t - and medium- term o b j e c t i v e s w h i l e t h e o v e r a l l g o a l o f genuine n a t i o n h o o d has r e c e d e d i n t h e d i s t a n c e , somewhere beyond t h e n e x t e l e c t i o n , economic summit o r s o c i a l i s s u e . Problems between s t a t e s t h a t have d i s t i n c t i v e and sometimes c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r e s t s a r e i n e v i t a b l e : t h e y cannot s i m p l y be l e g i s l a t e d o u t o f e x i s t e n c e . A c e r t a i n amount o f ad h o c e r y , f l e x i b i l i t y and w i l l i n g n e s s t o compromise i s r e q u i r e d a t a l l t i m e s i f r e l a t i o n s a r e t o remain i f n o t always a m i c a b l e , a t l e a s t w o r k a b l e . But S t a i r s has argued t h a t i n Canada, p o l i c y makers have gone t o o f a r : " p o l i t i c i a n s h e r e have made t h e p r a x i s o f L i t t l e t o n , T a r g e t 45-6. compromise t h e i r h i g h e s t — s o m e would say l o w e s t — a r t . " 1 9 0 What i s r e q u i r e d i s an a b i l i t y t o s t a n d f i r m when one f e e l s one's i n t e r e s t s a r e b e i n g compromised, o r i n t h i s c a s e , one's s o v e r e i g n t y v i o l a t e d . To do t h i s , Canadian l e a d e r s need a c l e a r v i e w o f t h e i r c o u n t r y ' s l o n g - t e r m o b j e c t i v e s , a s t r o n g sense of n a t i o n a l p u r p o s e , n o t s i m p l y "a r e s i g n e d a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e i n c o n v e n i e n c e s o f b e i n g w e a k . " 1 9 1 There must be a consensus w i t h i n t h e c o u n t r y o f what i n t e r e s t s a r e a t s t a k e , and o f whether t h e p r i n c i p l e s a t s t a k e a r e w o r t h d e f e n d i n g . I n t h e Norman c a s e , t h e i s s u e o f w e s t e r n s e c u r i t y came i n t o d i r e c t c o n f l i c t w i t h t h a t o f n a t i o n a l s o v e r e i g n t y : t h e outcome was u n s a t i s f a c t o r y i n t h a t n e i t h e r i s s u e was r e s o l v e d . I t i s s m a l l wonder t h a t a n a l y t i c a l paradigms and e x p l a n a t o r y models o f t e n f a l l s h o r t o f d e s c r i b i n g t h a t ephemeral essence which g u i d e s Canadian p o l i c y - m a k e r s , and can even f a i l t o e x p l a i n a r e l a t i v e l y minor e v e n t l i k e t h e s u i c i d e o f a Canadian d i p l o m a t . W h i l e remembering t h a t i t has been many y e a r s s i n c e Graham A l l i s o n f i r s t d e m onstrated t h a t t h e r e may n o t be a s i n g l e b e s t way t o approach a g i v e n a n a l y t i c a l problem, t h e employment of a sound t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e p r o c e s s o f h i s t o r i c a l e n q u i r y . I t e n a b l e s us t o n a v i g a t e t h e l a b y r i n t h i n e c a v e r n s o f p o l i t i c a l r e a l i t y w i t h b o t h a s y s t e m a t i c approach and a c l e a r o b j e c t i v e . 1 9 0 D e n i s S t a i r s , "The P o l i t i c a l C u l t u r e o f Canadian F o r e i g n P o l i c y , " Canadian J o u r n a l o f P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e XV:4 (Dec 1982): 667. 1 9 1 S t a i r s , " C u l t u r e " 679. 118 The j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f two b r o a d t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s l i k e D e w i t t and K i r t o n ' s t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s o f l i b e r a l i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m and p e r i p h e r a l dependence, and subsequent a p p l i c a t i o n t o a d i s c r e t e c a s e such as t h a t o f H e r b e r t Norman i s , o f c o u r s e , b u t one o f m y r i a d h y p o t h e t i c a l p a t h s t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f any e m p i r i c a l problem. The advantage o f t h e adopted approach i s t h a t i t not o n l y a f f o r d s a more o b j e c t i v e and comprehensive i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e Norman case t h a n has h i t h e r t o been p r o v i d e d , b u t a l s o c o n t r i b u t e s t o a deeper u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f Canadian f o r e i g n r e l a t i o n s i n more g e n e r a l t e r m s . The l i b e r a l / c o n s e r v a t i v e debate on Norman as a r t i c u l a t e d by B a r r o s , Bowen, and o t h e r s t u d e n t s o f t h e case i s l i m i t e d by i t s v e r y n a t u r e . An i d e o l o g i c a l approach t h a t p i t s t h o s e who b e l i e v e communism—or p r o - S o v i e t i s m — p o s e s a t h r e a t t o w e s t e r n s e c u r i t y a g a i n s t t h o s e who adv o c a t e t h e r e l a t i v e freedom o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o adhere t o whatever i d e o l o g y he chooses, can r a i s e p r o f o u n d q u e s t i o n s about t h e v a l i d i t y and m o r a l i t y o f t h e r o l e and n a t u r e o f t h e s t a t e . What i t cannot do i s a l l o w us t o s t a n d back and a s s e s s t h e u n d e r l y i n g p e r c e p t u a l / s o c i a l / h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t o f such q u e s t i o n s o b j e c t i v e l y . P l a c i n g t h e Norman s t o r y i n t h i s b r o a d e r c o n t e x t o f C o l d War r e l a t i o n s r e v e a l s t h e g r e a t c o m p l e x i t y o f i s s u e s and c o n s i d e r a t i o n s which cannot be d u l y d e a l t w i t h i n a i d e o l o g i c a l l y - d e r i v e d d e b a t e . By e x a m i n i n g some o f t h e s e i s s u e s — t h e i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s a f f e c t i n g s e c u r i t y p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n , t r a n s g o v e r n m e n t a l and t r a n s n a t i o n a l c o n t a c t s , o r g a n i s a t i o n a l r i v a l r i e s , d i v e r g e n t p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h r e a t and so 119 o n — i t becomes o b v i o u s t h a t t h e Norman c a s e i s n o t j u s t about t h e C o l d War. The c o mparison of D e w i t t and K i r t o n ' s models r e v e a l s some o f t h e s e competing v a r i a b l e s . We can see t h a t a l t h o u g h Canada s t r u c k o u t on an independent f o r e i g n p o l i c y c o u r s e i n t h e postwar y e a r s , e x h i b i t e d a t t i t u d e s and p e r c e p t i o n s markedly d i f f e r e n t from t h o s e o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and G r e a t B r i t a i n , and was committed t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l a c t i v i s m and c o l l e c t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , t h e r e were c o n s t r a i n t s upon i t s a s p i r a t i o n s t o independence. Norman's s u i c i d e s t i l l r a i s e s t h e q u e s t i o n s , "what c o u l d have been done t o p r e v e n t i t ? What p o l i c y o p t i o n s were a v a i l a b l e ? " The a l t e r n a t i v e s were e x t r e m e l y l i m i t e d . There i s n o t h i n g t o s u g g e s t t h a t as a former communist, Norman c o u l d have been a c c e p t a b l e t o t h e SISS, r i g i d s e c u r i t y s c r e e n i n g , r e c a n t a t i o n s o f b e l i e f o r avowals o f l o y a l t y by E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g . H i s p e r s e c u t i o n was n o t governed by t h e laws o f l o g i c , b u t r a t h e r by assumptions r o o t e d i n d i s t o r t e d p e r c e p t i o n s and h o s t i l e i d e o l o g i e s . Norman has been seen v a r i o u s l y as pawn, v i c t i m , and spy. I n t h e p r e s s a t t h e t i m e , he was q u i t e o f t e n p o r t r a y e d as a weapon w i t h w h i c h t h e SISS s t r u c k a t Emmerson, L a t t i m o r e and t h e IPR. James B a r r o s and o t h e r c o n s e r v a t i v e s such as B r i t i s h j o u r n a l i s t Chapman P i n c h e r have p o r t r a y e d him as a l e g i t i m a t e t h r e a t t o w e s t e r n s e c u r i t y , whereas t h o s e o f a more l i b e r a l i n c l i n a t i o n s u ch as Bowen and T a y l o r have p a i n t e d a p i c t u r e o f calumny and p e r s e c u t i o n . A c r a c k RCMP s e c u r i t y b r a n c h , a Congress more r e s p e c t f u l o f 120 Canadian i n t e r e s t s , improved t r a n s g o v e r n m e n t a l communications, b e t t e r v e t t i n g p r o c e d u r e s i n t h e Department o f E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s , a S t a t e department committed t o s i l e n c i n g an e r r a n t C o n g r e s s i o n a l s u b c o m m i t t e e — c o u l d any o f t h e s e t h i n g s have saved Norman from h i s 'murder by s l a n d e r ' ? The c o n s t r a i n t s on Canada's f o r e i g n p o l i c y l i m i t e d t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s o p t i o n s s i g n i f i c a n t l y . B o t h t h e p e r i p h e r a l dependence and t h e l i b e r a l i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t models a r e h e l p f u l i n i d e n t i f y i n g t h e i n f l u e n c e s most germane t o t h e Norman c a s e . We saw i n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n t h a t Canadian l e a d e r s p o s s e s s e d C o l d War a t t i t u d e s v e r y d i f f e r e n t from t h o s e o f t h e i r s o u t h e r n c o u n t e r p a r t s . We a l s o saw t h a t E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s e n j o y e d a h i g h e r degree o f autonomy v i s - a - v i s Canadian s o c i e t y , and made p o l i c y v i r t u a l l y u n f e t t e r e d by d o m e s t i c c o n s t r a i n t s , i n c l u d i n g i n t r u s i o n by t h e media. Such a a p o l i c y - m a k i n g environment i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e l i b e r a l i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t model as d e v e l o p e d by D e w i t t and K i r t o n . However, i n t h e r e a l m o f i n t e r n a l s e c u r i t y p o l i c y , ' e x t e r n a l d e t e r m i n a n t s , ' ( i . e . a t t i t u d e s i n Washington and London) p r o f o u n d l y i n f l u e n c e d Canadian i n t e r n a l s e c u r i t y p o l i c y , b o t h by d e f i n i n g t h e need f o r i t and d i c t a t i n g much o f t h e shape i t e v e n t u a l l y t o o k . The f a c t t h a t Canadian l e a d e r s were p o w e r l e s s t o s i l e n c e t h e f o r e i g n m a l i g n e r s o f Norman s u g g e s t s t h a t i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c a s e , t h e p e r i p h e r a l dependence e x p l a n a t o r y model seems much more a p p r o p r i a t e i n a c c o u n t i n g f o r t h e p a t t e r n o f e v e n t s . Of c o u r s e , t h e s i t u a t i o n was never s t a t i c , and what may h o l d t r u e a t one p o i n t o f t h e e x p l a n a t o r y a c c o u n t may n o t do so a t 121 a n o t h e r . F o r example, t h e autonomy o f Pear s o n and E x t e r n a l , which a l l o w e d them t o o p e r a t e r e l a t i v e l y f r e e o f d o m e s t i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n t h i s r e a l m t h r o u g h o u t much o f t h e p e r i o d , was s e v e r e l y c u r b e d by t h e p o l i t i c a l e x i g e n c i e s o f t h e 1957 e l e c t i o n campaign. But t h e p o l i t i c i z a t i o n o f t h e c a s e , D i e f e n b a k e r ' s a t t a c k s on t h e L i b e r a l government, and t h e r e c u r r i n g rumours t h a t P e a r s o n was a S o v i e t mole were f i n e f o d d e r b o t h i n t h e media and t h e House, and d i r e c t e d much p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n t o t h e m a t t e r . F o l l o w i n g t h e i l l i c i t p u b l i c a t i o n o f Norman's name i n t h e American p r e s s i n 1957, E x t e r n a l was no l o n g e r a b l e t o m a i n t a i n i t s t a c i t mandate o f s e c r e c y i n t h e i n t e r n a l s e c u r i t y f i e l d . T h i s e r o s i o n o f a c t o r autonomy and t h e c o n c o m i t a n t i n c r e a s e i n s a l i e n c e o f s o c i e t a l d e t e r m i n a n t s a l t e r s t h e a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f t h e t h e o r e t i c a l a p proaches. Of c o u r s e such approaches a r e o n l y g e n e r a l i s a t i o n s o f t r e n d s and themes o c c u r r i n g o v e r t i m e . I n t h i s c a s e , however, d e v i a t i o n from t h e norm i s h i g h l y i m p o r t a n t f o r i t s r a m i f i c a t i o n s on a t t e m p t s t o e x p l a i n t h e government's r e s p o n s e . I f some g e n e r a l i s a t i o n s can be made about t h e p r e c e d i n g e x e r c i s e t h e y a r e as f o l l o w s . F i r s t l y , t h e p r e s e n t d i s c o u r s e o f t h e l i f e and d e a t h o f Norman i s r e v e a l i n g , b u t i n a d e q u a t e : i t i l l u m i n e s t h e n a t u r e o f t h e man and h i s t r a g e d y — a s can be i e x p e c t e d from b i o g r a p h y — s e t a g a i n s t t h e backdrop o f McCarthyism and t h e C o l d War e r a . But u l t i m a t e l y , t h e s u b j e c t i v i t y o f t h e e x i s t i n g a c c o u n t s l i m i t s them: t h e y a r e u n a b l e t o t r a n s c e n d t h e i r i d e o l o g i c a l t r a p p i n g s , s e t as t h e y a r e upon p r o v i n g t h e r e s p e c t i v e a p r i o r i a s s umptions on w h i c h t h e y have been c o n s t r u c t e d . 122 T h e r e f o r e , i n o r d e r t o r e d r e s s t h e inadequacy o f t h i s d e b a t e , a f a i r l y l o o s e a p p l i c a t i o n o f two a n a l y t i c a l paradigms used t o e x p l a i n Canadian f o r e i g n p o l i c y e n a b l e s us t o approach t h e Norman c a s e more o b j e c t i v e l y , t h e r e b y meeting t h e second r e s e a r c h o b j e c t i v e . I n t h i s way b o t h r e s e a r c h o b j e c t i v e s a r e m u t u a l l y e n h a n c i n g i n t h a t t h e c o m p l e x i t i e s o f a c a s e s t u d y s u g g e s t t h e i n a d e q u a c y o f any monocausal e x p l a n a t i o n , i . e . t h e c o n t e n t i o n t h a t any g i v e n c a se s h o u l d adhere t o any one t h e o r e t i c a l model. The Norman case demonstrates t h a t a l t h o u g h v e r y u s e f u l , D e w i t t and K i r t o n ' s t h e o r e t i c a l approaches cannot t i d i l y e x p l a i n away a s p e c i f i c h i s t o r i c a l example. What t h i s model can do i s b r i n g us t o t h e t h i r d o b j e c t i v e , t h a t i s , an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f some of t h e i n f l u e n c e s on Canadian f o r e i g n p o l i c y . B oth e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l d e t e r m i n a n t s , i n an c o n s t a n t s t a t e o f f l u x , a f f e c t t h e p o l i c y outcomes o f t h e Canadian government. Because t h e Norman case o c u r r e d o v e r decades, i t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y amenable t o a s t u d y o f c h a n g i n g v a r i a b l e s as h i s t o r i c a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s changed. F o r example, we have seen t h a t adherence t o marxism and even membership i n t h e Communist P a r t y , was c o m p a r a t i v e l y ' a c c e p t a b l e ' i n t h e 1 9 3 0 s . 1 9 2 The a r r i v a l o f t h e C o l d War b u t a few y e a r s l a t e r made such s e n t i m e n t s and a c t i v i t i e s n o t o n l y ' u n a c c e p t a b l e , ' b u t i l l e g a l . U s i n g t h e c a se o f one man a l l o w s us t o i s o l a t e s uch d r a m a t i c s h i f t s i n p e r c e p t i o n and i d e n t i f y how t h e y a f f e c t e d t h e conduct o f C a n a d i a n -1 9 2 I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t b o t h Heeney and R o b e r t s o n p a r t i c i p a t e d a c t i v e l y i n t h e 1926 G e n e r a l S t r i k e i n L o n d o n — o n o p p o s i n g s i d e s . G r a n a t s t e i n , R o b e r t s o n 18. 123 American r e l a t i o n s o v e r t i m e . R o b e r t M o r r i s was wrong: no man's s u i c i d e i s b u t a p e r s o n a l t r a g e d y , p a r t i c u l a r l y n o t Norman's. H i s was a p u b l i c t r a g e d y — i n d e e d , a u n i v e r s a l t r a g e d y . I t i s a l l t h e more p o i g n a n t i n t h a t i t was u n n e c e s s a r y and p r e v e n t a b l e . S h o r t l y a f t e r Norman's d e a t h , S i d n e y K a t z wrote an a r t i c l e i n w h i c h he compared t h e Canadian d i p l o m a t t o Hamlet. A l t h o u g h Shakespearean p a r a l l e l s a r e w e l l worn, t h e words o f t h e t r a g i c Dane c a p t u r e Norman's s p i r i t , and a r e a f i t t i n g e p i t a p h . What a p i e c e o f work i s a man! How n o b l e i n r e a s o n ! how i n f i n i t e i n f a c u l t y ! i n form, i n moving, how e x p r e s s and a d m i r a b l e . i n a c t i o n how l i k e an a n g e l ! i n a p p r e h e n s i o n , how l i k e a god! t h e b e a u t y o f t h e w o r l d ! t h e paragon o f a n i m a l s ! And y e t t o me, what i s t h i s q u i n t e s s e n c e o f d u s t ? man d e l i g h t s n o t me... 124 B i b l i o g r a p h y Books Andrew, C h r i s t o p h e r . S e c r e t S e r v i c e . London: S c e p t r e , 1986. & D a v i d D i l k s , eds. The M i s s i n g Dimension: Governments and I n t e l l i g e n c e Communities i n t h e T w e n t i e t h C e n t u r y . London: M a c M i l l a n , 1984. B a r r o s , James. No Sense of E v i l : E s p i o n a g e , t h e Case of H e r b e r t  Norman. T o r o n t o : Deneau, 1986. B o t h w e l l , R o b e r t . P e a r s o n : H i s L i f e and World. T o r o n t o : McGraw, 1978. Bowen, Roger. Innocence i s Not Enough: The L i f e and Death o f  H e r b e r t Norman. Vancouver: Douglas & M a c l n t y r e , 1986. ™ , ed. E.H. Norman: H i s L i f e and S c h o l a r s h i p . T o r o n t o : U o f T o r o n t o P, 1984. C h r i s t i a n , W i l l i a m &. C o l i n C a m p b e l l . P o l i t i c a l P a r t i e s and  I d e o l o g i e s i n Canada. T o r o n t o : McGraw, 1974. C r e i g h t o n , Donald. Canada's F i r s t C e n t u r y 1867-1967. T o r o n t o : M a c M i l l a n , 1970. D e w i t t , D a v i d B. & John J . K i r t o n . Canada as a P r i n c i p a l Power: A  Study i n F o r e i g n P o l i c y and I n t e r n a t i o n a l R e l a t i o n s . T o r o n t o : W i l e y , 1983. E a y r s , James. Canada i n World A f f a i r s O c t o b e r 1955-June 1957. T o r o n t o : O x f o r d UP, 1959. Emmerson, John K. The Japanese Thread: A L i f e i n t h e US F o r e i g n  S e r v i c e . New York: H o l t , 1978. F e r n s , Henry S. Readings from L e f t t o R i g h t : One Man's  P o l i t i c a l H i s t o r y . T o r o n t o : U T o r o n t o P, 1983. F r a s e r , B l a i r . The S e a r c h f o r I d e n t i t y : Canada. 1945-1967. New York: Doubleday, 1967. G r a n a t s t e i n , J . L. A Man o f I n f l u e n c e : Norman A. R o b e r t s o n and  Canadian S t a t e c r a f t 1929-68. T o r o n t o : Deneau. 1981. — — & R.D. C u f f . Canadian-American R e l a t i o n s i n Wartime: From  t h e G r e a t War t o t h e C o l d War. T o r o n t o : H a k k e r t , 1975. G r a n t , George. Lament f o r a N a t i o n : The D e f e a t o f Canadian  N a t i o n a l i s m . T o r o n t o : M a c M i l l a n , 1978. 125 Hawes, M i c h a e l K. P r i n c i p a l Power, M i d d l e Power o r S a t e l l i t e ?  Competing P e r s p e c t i v e s i n t h e Study o f Canadian F o r e i g n  P o l i c y . T o r o n t o : York UP, 1984. Heeney, A r n o l d . The T h i n g s That A r e C a e s a r ' s : Memoirs of a  Canadian P u b l i c S e r v a n t . T o r o n t o : U T o r o n t o P, 1972. Holmes, John W. L i f e W i t h U n c l e : The Canadian-American R e l a t i o n - s h i p . T o r o n t o : U T o r o n t o P, 1981. . The Shaping o f Peace: Canada and t h e S e a r c h f o r World Order 1943-57. T o r o n t o : U T o r o n t o P, 1979. Howarth, T.E.B. Cambridge Between Two Wars. London: W i l l i a m C o l l i n s , 1978. Hutcheson, John. Dominance and Dependency: L i b e r a l i s m and  N a t i o n a l P o l i c i e s i n t h e N o r t h A t l a n t i c T r i a n g l e . T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d , 1978. I g n a t i e f f , George. The Makings o f a Peacemonqer: The Memoirs o f  George I g n a t i e f f . T o r o n t o : U T o r o n t o P, 1985. L i p s e t , Seymour M a r t i n and E a r l Raab. The P o l i t i c s o f Unreason:  R i g h t w i n g Extremism i n A m e r i c a 1790-1970. New York: H a r p e r , 1970. L i t t l e t o n , James. T a r g e t N a t i o n : Canada and t h e Western I n t e l l i g e n c e Network. T o r o n t o : L e s t e r / C B C , 1986. M a r t i n , Lawrence. The P r e s i d e n t s and t h e Prime M i n i s t e r s . T o r o n t o : Doubleday, 1982. Newman, P e t e r C. Renegade i n Power: The D i e f e n b a k e r Y e a r s . T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d , 1963. Norman, E.H. O r i g i n s o f t h e Modern Japanese S t a t e : S e l e c t e d  W r i t i n g s o f E.H. Norman. John W. Dower, ed. New York: Pantheon, 1975. N o s s a l , Kim R i c h a r d . The P o l i t i c s o f Canadian F o r e i g n P o l i c y . S c arborough: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1985. Nye, J o s e p h R o b e r t Keohane. Power and I n t e r d e p e n d e n c e : World  P o l i t i c s i n T r a n s i t i o n . B o s t o n : L i t t l e , 1977. O s h i n s k y , D a v i d M. A C o n s p i r a c y So Immense: The World Of Joe  McCarthy. New York: F r e e P r e s s , 1983. P e a r s o n , L e s t e r B. Mike: The Memoirs of t h e R i g h t Honourable  L e s t e r B. P e a r s o n . John A. Munro & A l e x I . I n g l i s , eds. T o r o n t o : U T o r o n t o P, 1975. 126 P o r t e r , J ohn. The V e r t i c a l M o s a i c : An A n a l y s i s o f C l a s s and  S o c i a l Power i n Canada. T o r o n t o : U T o r o n t o P, 1965. R e i d , E s c o t t . Time o f F e a r and Hope: The Making o f t h e N o r t h  A t l a n t i c T r e a t y 1947-1949. T o r o n t o : M a c l e l l a n d , 1977. R o b e r t s o n , C h a r l e s L. I n t e r n a t i o n a l P o l i t i c s S i n c e World War  Two: A S h o r t H i s t o r y . New York: W i l e y , 1975. R o g i n , P a u l M i c h a e l . The I n t e l l e c t u a l s and McCarthy: The R a d i c a l  S p e c t r e . Cambridge, MA: MIT P, 1967. Ross, Douglas A. I n t h e I n t e r e s t s o f Peace: Canada and Vietnam  1954-1973. T o r o n t o : U T o r o n t o P, 1984. Sawatsky, John. Men i n t h e Shadows: The RCMP S e c u r i t y S e r v i c e . T o r o n t o : Doubleday, 1980. S c h w a r t z , M i l d r e d A. The Environment f o r P o l i c y - m a k i n g i n Canada  and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . Canada-US P r o s p e c t s , 1981. S m i l e y , Donald V. The Canadian P o l i t i c a l N a t i o n a l i t y . T o r o n t o : Methuen, 1967. S y l v a n , Donald A. & S t e v e Chan, eds. F o r e i g n P o l i c y D e c i s i o n  Making: P e r c e p t i o n . C o g n i t i o n and A r t i f i c i a l I n t e l l i g e n c e . New York: P r a e g e r , 1984. T a y l o r , C h a r l e s . S i x J o u r n e y s : A Canadian P a t t e r n . T o r o n t o : A n a n s i , 1977. T h o r d a r s o n , B r u c e . Trudeau and F o r e i g n P o l i c y : A Study i n  D e c i s i o n - M a k i n g . T o r o n t o : O x f o r d UP, 1972. Toynbee, P h i l i p , ed. The D i s t a n t Drum: R e f l e c t i o n s on t h e  S p a n i s h C i v i l War. New York: McKay, 1976. Warnock, John. P a r t n e r t o Behemoth: The M i l i t a r y P o l i c y o f a  S a t e l l i t e Canada. T o r o n t o : New P r e s s , 1970. W i l l o u g h b y , C h a r l e s w i t h John C h a m b e r l a i n . MacArthur 1941-1951. New York: McGraw, 1954. W r i g h t , P e t e r . S p y c a t c h e r . London: S t o d d a r t 1987. J o u r n a l s A k i t a , George. "An E x a m i n a t i o n o f E.H. Norman's S c h o l a r s h i p . " J o u r n a l o f Japanese S t u d i e s 3:2 (Sum 1977): 375-419. 127 e d i t o r i a l . "The Washing o f Hands." The New R e p u b l i c (22 Apr 1957): 5. E n g l i s h , John. " R e v i s i o n i s m R e v i s i s t e d : A Response." Canadian  Forum (Dec 1972): 16-19. F r a s e r , B l a i r & L i o n e l S h a p i r o . "The Norman Case." Macleans 70:14 (6 J u l 1957): 14-15. G r a n a t s t e i n , J . L . & R.D. C u f f . " L o o k i n g Back a t t h e C o l d War, 1945-54." Canadian Forum ( J u l / A u g 1972): 8-11. G r e e r , H a r o l d . "Death o f A D i p l o m a t . " The N a t i o n 184: 15 (20 Apr 1957): 339-341. H a l l , John Whitney. "E.H. Norman on Tokugawa Jap a n . " J o u r n a l o f  Japanese S t u d i e s 3:2 (Sum 1977): 365-374. Hughes, Thomas L. "The T w i l i g h t o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m . " F o r e i g n  P o l i c y 61 (Win 1985/86): 25-48. K a t z , S i d n e y . "What K i n d o f Man Was H e r b e r t Norman?" Macleans 70:20 (28 Sep 1957): 22-K l u c k h o h n , Frank. " H e i d e l b e r g t o M a d r i d — T h e S t o r y o f G e n e r a l W i l l o u g h b y . " The R e p o r t e r 7:4 (19 Aug 1952): 25-30. L i j p h a r t , Arend. "Comparative P o l i t i c s and t h e Comparative Method." American P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e Review 65 (1971): 682-693. McClung, Mark. "Sawatsky's Men i n t h e Shadows." BR, I n t e r n a t i o n a l  P e r s p e c t i v e s (Nov/Decl980): 31-32. Page, Don & Don Munton. "Canadian Images o f t h e C o l d War 1946-7." I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l (Summer 1977): 577-604. S t a i r s , D e n i s . "The P o l i t i c a l C u l t u r e o f Canadian F o r e i g n P o l i c y . " Canadian J o u r n a l o f P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e XV: 4 (Dec 1982): 667-690. T y d i n g s , M i l l a r d E. "McCarthyism: how i t a l l began." The  R e p o r t e r 7:4 (19 Aug 1952): 11-14. U l l m a n , R i c h a r d H. " R e d e f i n i n g S e c u r i t y . " I n t e r n a t i o n a l  S e c u r i t y 8:1 (Sum 1983): 129-153. W h i t a k e r , Reg. " O r i g i n s o f t h e Canadian Government's I n t e r n a l S e c u r i t y System 1946-1952." Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Review LXV:2 (2 Jun 1984): 154-183. 128 Government P u b l i c a t i o n s . Canada, P a r l i a m e n t , House o f Commons. Debates. O f f i c i a l R e p o r t . 22 P a r l i a m e n t , 5 t h s e s s i o n : I I I . Commission o f I n q u i r y C o n c e r n i n g C e r t a i n A c t i v i t i e s o f t h e R o y a l Canadian Mounted P o l i c e . Freedom and S e c u r i t y Under t h e Law 2. (Aug 1981) T a s c h e r e a u , R o b e r t & R. L. K e l l o c k . The R e p o r t o f t h e R o y a l  Commission on E s p i o n a g e . 27 Jun 1946). Newspapers The Globe & M a i l ( n a t i o n a l e d i t i o n ) . APPENDIX I D e w i t t and K i r t o n ' s T h e o r e t i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e s FOREIGN POLICY DETERMINANT PERSPECTIVE l i b e r a l -i n t e r n a t ' l i s t p e r i p h e r a l -dependence EXTERNAL r e l a t i v e s a l i e n c e a c t o r r e l e v a n c e UK US moderate mod mod h i g h h i g h h i g h I I . SOCIETAL r e l a t i v e s a l i e n c e mod low a c t o r r e l e v a n c e i n s t i t u t i o n a l autonomy mod low P a r l i a m e n t low mod media h i g h low I I I . GOVERNMENTAL r e l a t i v e s a l i e n c e mod low a c t o r r e l e v a n c e Prime M i n . Group mod low DEA h i g h low o t h e r d o m e s t i c departments low mod 

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