UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

English translators and their project in the reign of Queen Elizabeth I Jensen, Erik 1989

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ENGLISH TRANSLATORS AND THEIR PROJECT IN THE REIGN OF QUEEN ELIZABETH 1 - By ERIK JENSEN B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1986 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of H i s t o r y ) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1989 E r i k Jensen, 1989 s In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT The s u b j e c t of t h i s study i s the t r a n s l a t i o n i n t o E n g l i s h of French P r o t e s t a n t works on r e l i g i o n i n the l a s t three decades of the s i x t e e n t h century. The study focuses on the t r a n s l a t o r s and the r e l i g i o u s impulse u n d e r l y i n g t h e i r t r a n s l a t i o n work. T h i s t r a n s l a t i o n p r o j e c t r e p r e s e n t s one aspect of a l a r g e and v a r i e d t r a n s l a t i o n i n d u s t r y a t work i n England i n the s i x t e e n t h and e a r l y seventeenth c e n t u r i e s . There are s e v e r a l reasons f o r t h i s study's p a r t i c u l a r f o c u s . F i r s t , r e l i g i o u s works c o n s t i t u t e the s i n g l e l a r g e s t c a t e g o r y of works i n t r a n s l a t i o n . Second, the l a r g e s t number of such t r a n s l a t i o n s appear i n the l a t e s i x t e e n t h century, and of these, French P r o t e s t a n t works predominate. T h i r d , the unique nature of the t r a n s l a t o r s ' p r e f a t o r y e p i s t l e s (the d e d i c a t o r y e p i s t l e s and 'Prefaces to the Reader*) i n t h i s p e r i o d a l l o w f o r a c l o s e examination of the m o t i v a t i o n a l d r i v e behind such a c t i v i t y . These e p i s t l e s are d i s t i n c t from the more c o n v e n t i o n a l p r e f a t o r y e p i s t l e s of the e a r l i e r s i x t e e n t h century and (to an even g r e a t e r extent) those of the e a r l y seventeenth century. The p r e f a t o r y e p i s t l e s , t h e r e f o r e , c o n s t i t u t e the primary source m a t e r i a l f o r t h i s study; the paper's methodolgy i n v o l v e s a c l o s e examination of these e p i s t l e s . The study shows that the t r a n s l a t o r s share a common r e l i g i o u s program. T h i s program i n v o l v e s the " e n g l i s h i n g " of f o r e i g n r e l i g i o u s works i n order to p r o v i d e r e l i g i o u s - i i -i n s t r u c t i o n f o r the common people. The paper e x p l o r e s both the t r a n s l a t o r s ' s t r o n g commitment to t h i s p r o j e c t and t h e i r common concerns r e g a r d i n g the s t a t e of r e l i g i o n i n E n g l a n d — c o n c e r n s that are used by the t r a n s l a t o r s as a j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h e i r t r a n s l a t i o n work. F i n a l l y , the paper p l a c e s t h i s a c t i v i t y i n the broader context of l a t e s i x t e e n t h century E n g l i s h P r o t e s t a n t i s m . One f i n d s that the t r a n s l a t o r s ' p r o j e c t t i e s i n with more recent s c h o l a r s h i p emphasizing the p a s t o r a l concerns of E n g l i s h P r o t e s t a n t s i n t h i s p e r i o d . - i i i -TABLE OF CONTENTS: A b s t r a c t i i Table of Contents i v L i s t of Tables v Pr e f a c e 1 Chapter One: I n t r o d u c t i o n 5 Chapter Two: The T r a n s l a t o r s and t h e i r Commitment to R e l i g i o u s I n s t r u c t i o n 19 Chapter Three: The T r a n s l a t o r s * Messages to the Reader 36 Chapter Four: C o n c l u s i o n 63 Notes 69 B i b l i o g r a p h y 74 Appendix A 76 Appendix B ' 81 Appendix C 89 - i v -LIST OF TABLES: TABLE ONE 7 TABLE TWO 8 TABLE THREE 9 TABLE FOUR 2 5 -V-PREFACE In the year 1580, John F i e l d , an E n g l i s h m i n i s t e r , complained b i t t e r l y about the s t a t e of r e l i g i o n i n England. He s t a t e d "that Sathan the f a t h e r of l i e s , and aduersary of Gods e u e r l a s t i n g t r u e t h , b e s t i r r e d h i m s e l f e neuer more b u s i l y . " "[T]here neuer l i u e d more v n t h a n k f u l wretches i n the worlde than wee", F i e l d a l s o claimed. [T]hese many g r a t i o u s y e ars of peace... should haue drawen vs forward and aduanced vs i n the s c h o l e of God", y e t , F i e l d a s s e r t e d , wee are f a r r e worse than we were i n the b e g i n n i n g . . . d u l l e r , f a r t h e r o f [ f ] from knowledge, and more i g n o r a n t , then l i t t l e c h i l d r e n . Consequently, F i e l d warned: Let the w o r l d . . . i n t h a t same godles contempt of God and h i s d i u i n e iudgement, see what f e l vpon t h e i r p r e d e c e s s o r s the wicked, that l i u e d i n Sodom and Gomorrhe.1. These passages, which might w e l l have been taken from a sermon, are a c t u a l l y drawn from an E p i s t l e D e d i c a t o r y f o r an E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n F i e l d made of a work by Theodore Beza. The concerns a r t i c u l a t e d by F i e l d , s p e c i f i c a l l y , h i s bleak assessment of the s t a t e of r e l i g i o n i n England, and h i s use of an E p i s t l e D e d i c a t o r y as a p l a t f o r m f o r e x p r e s s i n g such views i s t y p i c a l of a group of t r a n s l a t o r s committed to the " e n g l i s h i n g " of French P r o t e s t a n t works on r e l i g i o n i n the l a s t three decades of the s i x t e e n t h century. T h i s study i n v o l v e s a c l o s e examination of these t r a n s l a t o r s ' p r e f a t o r y e p i s t l e s ( i . e . d e d i c a t o r y e p i s t l e s and, to a l e s s e r extent, -1-'Prefaces to the Reader') i n order to understand the r e l i g i o u s impulse behind t h e i r t r a n s l a t i o n a c t i v i t y . A s i d e from a few s t u d i e s , the l a r g e and v a r i e d t r a n s l a t i o n i n d u s t r y o p e r a t i n g i n England i n the s i x t e e n t h and e a r l y seventeeth c e n t u r i e s has been g i v e n l i m i t e d a t t e n t i o n by h i s t o r i a n s . Among the s t u d i e s undertaken i n t h i s area i s a work e n t i t l e d : John F l o r i o , the l i f e of an I t a l i a n i n  Shakespeare's England, by F r a n c i s A. Yates. F l o r i o i s best known as the t r a n s l a t o r of Montaigne's Essays. Yate's study, however, r a t h e r than c o n c e n t r a t i n g on F l o r i o ' s t r a n s l a t i o n work, attempts a " r e c o n s t r u c t i o n " (Yate's term) of F l o r i o ' s l i f e . Two other s t u d i e s f o c u s s i n g e x c l u s i v e l y on the s u b j e c t of t r a n s l a t i o n are Renaissance T r a n s l a t i o n s of Erasmus. A  b i b l i o g r a p h y to 1700, by E.J. Devereux, and The F i r s t E n g l i s h  T r a n s l a t o r s of the C l a s s i c s , by C.H. Conley. The l a t t e r i s n e a r e s t i n approach to the present study: both take as t h e i r s u b j e c t s a group of t r a n s l a t o r s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the t r a n s l a t i n g of a p a r t i c u l a r type of work. One type of t r a n s l a t i o n a c t i v i t y o c c u r r i n g i n t h i s p e r i o d that has been gi v e n f a i r l y e x t e n s i v e a n a l y s i s i n v o l v e s the t r a n s l a t i o n of the B i b l e i n t o E n g l i s h . Such s t u d i e s i n c l u d e : E n g l i s h B i b l i c a l T r a n s l a t i o n s , by A. C. P a r t r i d g e , P r i n c i p l e s  and Problems of B i b l i c a l Translation'. Some Reformation  C o n t r o v e r s i e s and t h e i r Background, by W. Shwarz, The Making  of the E n g l i s h B i b l e , by G. Hammond, The E n g l i s h B i b l e . A  H i s t o r y of T r a n s l a t i o n s , by F.F. Bruce, The King James B i b l e  T r a n s l a t o r s , by Olga S. O p f e l l , and T r a n s l a t i n g f o r King -2-James, by John Bo i s ( t r a n s l a t e d and e d i t e d by Ward A l l e n ) . The i n t e r e s t i n B i b l i c a l t r a n s l a t i o n i s due to i t s involvement i n Reformation and post-Reformation r e l i g i o u s c o n t r o v e r s i e s , i n p a r t i c u l a r , debate over r i v a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of S c r i p t u r e and disagreement over the p l a c e of v e r n a c u l a r t r a n s l a t i o n s w i t h i n the C h r i s t i a n community. T h i s paper can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from other s t u d i e s i n two r e s p e c t s . F i r s t , the study employs a d i f f e r e n t methodology, u t i l i z i n g , more or l e s s e x c l u s i v e l y , the p r e f a t o r y e p i s t l e s to e x p l a i n the m o t i v a t i o n a l d r i v e behind the t r a n s l a t i o n s . Second, t h i s study concerns a t r a n s l a t i o n p r o j e c t t h a t has been, u n t i l now, ignored as a s u b j e c t f o r s y s t e m a t i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n . As t h i s r e s e a r c h e x p l o r e s more or l e s s u n chartered t e r r i t o r y , i t i s important at the o u tset to i n d i c a t e the broader context or framework f o r t h i s type of t r a n s l a t i o n work. Chapter One p r o v i d e s such an i n t r o d u c t i o n . I t a l s o e x p l a i n s the methodolgy employed i n t h i s paper. O v e r a l l , the chapter e x p l a i n s the study's focus. The next two chapters d e a l w i t h the r e l i g i o u s impulse behind t h i s type of t r a n s l a t i o n work. Chapter Two o u t l i n e s the t r a n s l a t o r s * commitment to a commonly shared r e l i g i o u s program. Chapter Three e x p l o r e s the t r a n s l a t o r s ' messages f o r t h e i r p r o s p e c t i v e r eaders, as conveyed i n the p r e f a t o r y e p i s t l e s to the t r a n s l a t i o n s . Such messages r e v e a l the concerns u n d e r l y i n g and d r i v i n g the t r a n s l a t o r s ' r e l i g i o u s program. -3-F i n a l l y , the c o n c l u d i n g chapter c o n s i d e r s t h i s t r a n s l a t i o n a c t i v i t y i n the broader context of l a t e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y E n g l i s h P r o t e s t a n t i s m . I t w i l l be e v i d e n t that t h i s t r a n s l a t i o n a c t i v i t y i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to some of the r e l i g i o u s i s s u e s permeating E n g l i s h s o c i e t y a t the time, and p r o v i d e s i n s i g h t i n t o a s p e c t s of E n g l i s h r e l i g i o u s sentiment i n t h i s p e r i o d . In r e g a r d to the use of f o o t n o t e s , -page r e f e r e n c e s w i l l o n l y be gi v e n f o r l a r g e r p r e f a t o r y e p i s t l e s (over f i v e pages). Unless otherwise i n d i c a t e d , these f o o t n o t e s r e f e r to the t r a n s l a t o r s ' e p i s t l e d e d i c a t o r i e s (some t r a n s l a t i o n s have both e p i s t l e d e d i c a t o r i e s and 'Prefaces to the Reader'). -4-CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION There was a s i g n i f i c a n t t r a n s l a t i o n i n d u s t r y o p e r a t i n g i n England i n the s i x t e e n t h century and e a r l y seventeenth c e n t u r i e s . T h i s i s evident from a c l o s e examination of the S h o r t - T i t l e Catalogue of E n g l i s h Books... 1475-1640, which has been used e x t e n s i v e l y i n d e t e r m i n i n g the context and parameters of t h i s r e s e a r c h . For the years between 1520 and 1640, t a k i n g i n t o account o n l y French works i n E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n , there are over 650 e n t r i e s l i s t e d i n the S h o r t - T i t l e Catalogue. I t should be p o i n t e d out that t h i s f i g u r e i s c o n s e r v a t i v e , as i t i s d i f f i c u l t to determine the n a t i o n a l i t y of the many anonymous works t r a n s l a t e d from L a t i n . In a d d i t i o n to French works, there are numerous E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n s of other f o r e i g n works from L a t i n , Dutch, I t a l i a n , German, and other languages, as w e l l as t r a n s l a t i o n s from L a t i n of E n g l i s h w r i t e r s . T h i s l i s t of over 650 French works r e p r e s e n t s w r i t i n g s on a broad range of t o p i c s : p o l i t i c a l and m i l i t a r y theory, medicine and d i s e a s e s , surgery and anatomy, h i s t o r y , p h i l o s o p h y , the o c c u l t , p r o g n o s t i c a t i o n s , "wonders" of the world, t r a v e l o g u e s ( i n c l u d i n g accounts of r e c e n t d i s c o v e r i e s i n the New World), l i t e r a t u r e ( c h i v a l r i c t a l e s , p o e t r y , drama), i n s t r u c t i o n i n f o r e i g n languages, guides to good manners and s o c i a l graces, guides to c o u r t l y conduct, and i n -5-fewer numbers, books on music, a r t , f i r e w o r k s , gardens, silk-worms, marriage, and husbandry. Aside from these, two broad c a t e g o r i e s of works i n E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n predominate: works d e a l i n g w i t h p o l i t i c a l and m i l i t a r y events, and works d e a l i n g w i t h r e l i g i o u s matters. I t should be p o i n t e d out that the t r a n s l a t i o n a c t i v i t y examined i n t h i s paper c o i n c i d e s w i t h the Wars of R e l i g i o n i n France. Such c o n f l i c t and upheaval f u r n i s h e d the impetus f o r many of the works w r i t t e n at t h i s time. Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , many French works combine r e l i g i o u s and p o l i t i c a l themes, and as such, the task of d i s t i n g u i s h i n g r e l i g i o u s works from other t r a n s l a t i o n s i s o f t e n d i f f i c u l t . {'Appendix A' shows works deemed more p o l i t i c a l than r e l i g i o u s , and consequently not i n c l u d e d i n t h i s paper). The s i n g l e l a r g e s t category of t r a n s l a t i o n s (almost h a l f the t o t a l ) d e a l w i t h r e l i g i o u s t o p i c s . Between 1520 and 1640, the p r i n t i n g of r e l i g i o u s works (as with works i n general) i n c r e a s e s q u a n t i t a t i v e l y with each s u c c e s s i v e decade (there are two ex c e p t i o n s as regards r e l i g i o u s works: the decades 1590-1599 and 1630-1639). These trends are shown below i n Table One. T h i s t a b l e , as w e l l as Tables Two and Three, are based on a sample c o n s i s t i n g of e n t r i e s i n Volume 1, S e c t i o n s 'A' to 'G' of the S h o r t - T i t l e Catalogue of E n g l i s h  Books...1475-1640. The s t a t i s t i c s d e r i v e d from t h i s sample group r e q u i r e two q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . F i r s t , as a l r e a d y noted -6-the d i s t i n c t i o n between ' r e l i g i o u s ' and ' n o n - r e l i g i o u s ' works i n t h i s p e r i o d i s not always c l e a r , and t h e r e f o r e the c a t e g o r i z a t i o n here i s imp r e c i s e . Second, i n the case of Tables Two and Three, the numbers p r o v i d e d f o r t r a n s l a t i o n s are low, as the S h o r t - T i t l e Catalogue does not always i n d i c a t e that works have been t r a n s l a t e d . The sampling technique u t i l i z e d i n these t a b l e s i s only intended to show ge n e r a l t r e n d s . * TABLE 1. DECADE: TOTAL NUMBER OF WORKS: RELIGIOUS WORKS: ( i n c l . t r a n s l a t i o n s ) 1520-1529 82 27 1530-1539 126 62 1540-1549 191 103 1550-1559 233 115 1560-1569 295 133 1570-1579 417 197 1580-1589 556 265 1590-1599 603 259 1600-1609 776 366 1610-1619 930 490 1620-1629 1057 492 1630-1639 1035 430 Table Two, below, focusses on the p r o d u c t i o n of works i n E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n . One f i n d s that the l a r g e s t number of r e l i g i o u s works i n E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n occur i n the 1570's and 1580's. *Note: the sample does not i n c l u d e the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s : 'Bookplates', 'England - Proclamations and S t a t u t e s ' , 'England, Church o f . -7-TABLE 2. DECADE: TOTAL NO. OF WORKS IN ENGLISH TRANSLATION: 1520-1529 26 1530-1539 53 1540-1549 51 1550-1559 66 1560-1569 104 1570-1579 128 1580-1589 123 1590-1599 121 1600-1609 86 1610-1619 123 1620-1629 122 1630-1639 131 RELIGIOUS WORKS IN ENGLISH TRANSLATION: 9 29 27 35 51 78 74 49 42 59 60 59 I t i s apparent from the above t a b l e that t r a n s l a t i o n a c t i v i t y does not f o l l o w the same ge n e r a l t r e n d or p a t t e r n i n d i c a t e d i n Table One. Beginning i n the 1570's, there i s a ge n e r a l l e v e l l i n g o f f i n t r a n s l a t i o n a c t i v i t y . R e l i g i o u s works i n t r a n s l a t i o n , due to the l a r g e number of such works i n the 1570's i n 1580's, begin to l e v e l o f f l a t e r , s t a r t i n g i n the 1590's. In terms of the p r o d u c t i o n of works i n E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n , there i s a marked c o n t r a s t between the s i x t e e n t h and e a r l y seventeenth c e n t u r i e s . While a g r e a t e r number of works are p r i n t e d i n the f i r s t four decades of the seventeeth ce n t u r y (as i n d i c a t e d i n Table One), -English t r a n s l a t i o n s account f o r a sm a l l e r percentage of the t o t a l . T h i s p a t t e r n a l s o a p p l i e s s p e c i f i c a l l y to r e l i g i o u s works p r i n t e d i n t h i s p e r i o d . These trends are shown i n Table Three. -8-TABLE 3 ENGLISH TRANS. AS A PERCENTAGE OF THE TOTAL NO. OF WORKS: ENGLISH TRANS. AS A PERCENTAGE OF THE TOTAL NO. OF REL. WORKS: 1520-1529 32% 33% 1530-1539 42% 47% 1540-1549 27% 26% 1550-1559 28% 30% 1560-1569 35% 38% 1570-1579 31% 40% 1580-1589 22% 28% 1590-1599 20% 19% 1600-1609 11% 11% 1610-1619 13% 12% 1620-1629 12% 12% 1630-1639 13% 14% In terms of these percentages, the 1570's and 1580's do not stand out as n u m e r i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t when compared to the pr e c e d i n g decades. Looking o n l y at r e l i g i o u s works, the above percentages are f a i r l y c o n s i s t e n t i n the s i x t e e n t h century (with the ex c e p t i o n of the 1590's): -the p e r i o d 1520-1569 averages t h i r t y - f i v e percent while the p e r i o d 1570-1599 averages t h i r t y - f o u r p e r c e n t . By c o n t r a s t , the percentages f o r the f i r s t f our decades of the seventeenth century are more than twenty percent lower (the average percentage i s j u s t over twelve p e r c e n t ) . The above s t a t i s t i c a l f i n d i n g s show the importance of E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n work i n the s i x t e e n t h c entury. The c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n t h i s paper on l a t e s i x t e e n t h century t r a n s l a t i o n s i s due, i n p a r t , to the l a r g e number of such works p r i n t e d at t h i s time. Due to t h i s l a r g e volume, the study has narrowed i t s focus to those works penned by French authors. Of the many E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n s of r e l i g i o u s works -9-p r i n t e d i n the l a s t three decades of the s i x t e e n t h century, works by French w r i t e r s predominate. Of these French works, as w i t h r e l i g i o u s works i n g e n e r a l , the m a j o r i t y are by P r o t e s t a n t authors. Between 1520-1640, and c o n s i d e r i n g only French r e l i g i o u s works i n t r a n s l a t i o n w i t h i d e n t i f i a b l e a u t h o r s , there are approximately f o r t y - f i v e C a t h o l i c works compared to over 230 P r o t e s t a n t works. The same b a s i c p r o p o r t i o n of C a t h o l i c to P r o t e s t a n t works i s found i n the p e r i o d 1570-1599. T h i s study, t h e r e f o r e , has c o n c e n t r a t e d on t h i s l a r g e group of French P r o t e s t a n t works. Leaving a s i d e anonymous works i n t r a n s l a t i o n , there are over one hundred of these works p r i n t e d i n the l a s t three decades of the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y (an average of 3.4 t r a n s l a t i o n s per y e a r ) . T h i s i n c l u d e s around s e v e n t y - f i v e t r a n s l a t i o n s i n the 1570's and 1580's. The most popular author i s Jean C a l v i n : i n t h i s p e r i o d , there are twenty-seven d i f f e r e n t w r i t i n g s of C a l v i n t r a n s l a t e d i n t o E n g l i s h . By c o n t r a s t , and i n keeping w i t h the trends i n d i c a t e d above, there are f a r fewer such t r a n s l a t i o n s i n the e a r l y seventeenth century. There are about s i x t y - f i v e such works p r i n t e d throughout the p e r i o d 1600-1640 (approximately 1.6 per y e a r ) . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , when one narrows the focus to French P r o t e s t a n t works, there i s an even sharper c o n t r a s t w i t h the t r a n s l a t i o n s of the e a r l i e r s i x t e e n t h century: there are o n l y twenty-one such t r a n s l a t i o n s between 1540 and 1569 (about .7 t r a n s l a t i o n s per year) -- about o n e - f i f t h of the -10-number of works appearing i n the l a s t three decades of that century. In the p r e c e d i n g s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s , French P r o t e s t a n t r e l i g i o u s works i n t r a n s l a t i o n i n the l a t e s i x t e e n t h century stand out as n u m e r i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . Upon c l o s e r examination, one f i n d s these t r a n s l a t i o n s have an a d d i t i o n a l p e c u l i a r i t y : t h i s i n v o l v e s the nature of t h e i r d e d i c a t o r y e p i s t l e s . As these e p i s t l e s c o n s t i t u t e the main source m a t e r i a l f o r t h i s study, i t i s important to understand something of t h i s commonplace l i t e r a r y p r a c t i c e . Moreover, as i t i s to be argued that the d e d i c a t o r y e p i s t l e s of t h i s p e r i o d are unique, i t i s necessary to e s t a b l i s h a standard a g a i n s t which these e p i s t l e s might be judged. The E p i s t l e D e d i c a t o r y , i n i t s rudimentary form, i s simply the d e d i c a t i o n of a g i v e n work to a p a r t i c u l a r p atron or group of patrons by the work's author, p r i n t e r , or (as i n the p r e s e n t i n s t a n c e ) t r a n s l a t o r . These e p i s t l e s adhere to c e r t a i n l i t e r a r y conventions. These can be reduced to a few b a s i c components found i n a l l such d e d i c a t i o n s . The most important component i n v o l v e s the formal o f f e r i n g or d e d i c a t i n g of the work to a p a t r o n , or p a t r o n s , by the t r a n s l a t o r . T h i s almost always i n v o l v e s the acknowledgment of past "debts" or "favours" owed the p a t r o n . Thomas Wilcox's e x p r e s s i o n of g r a t i t u d e i s t y p i c a l of such ackowledgements. He r e f e r s to -11-...the c h r i s t i a n f a u o r s , which you ( r i g h t honorable, r i g h t w o r s h i p f u l 1 , and my v e r i e deere f r i e n d s ) haue c a r r i e d towards me, and the memorie of some b e n e f i t s that I haue r e c e i u e d from you.... O c c a s i o n a l l y , a t r a n s l a t o r i s s p e c i f i c about the nature of such past " b e n e f i t s " . Thus, John Harmar c l a i m s he d e c i d e d to d e d i c a t e h i s t r a n s l a t i o n of C a l v i n ' s Sermons...vpon the X. commandments (1579) to the E a r l of L e i c e s t e r f o r the f o l l o w i n g reason: Your Honours good procurement of her M a i e s t i e s g r a t i o u s fauour, whereby I f i r s t became a s c h o l e r i n Winchester C o l l e d g e , a f t e r w a r d too bee remoued to the New C o l l e d g e of Oxford...I c o u l d neuer s i n c e f o r g e t . . . . 1 . A l s o , i n d e d i c a t i n g these works, t r a n s l a t o r s show great h u m i l i t y , beseeching t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e patrons to excuse the poor q u a l i t y of t h e i r e f f o r t s (the t r a n s l a t i o n s are u s u a l l y r e f e r r e d to as "rude", "simple trauels"', or "poore l a b o u r s " ) . The t r a n s l a t o r s a l s o note the b e n e f i t s to be d e r i v e d from such patronage. Often, i t i s the need f o r p r o t e c t i o n , to be defended, as N a t h a n i e l Baxter expresses i t , from "the venomous d a r t s of slanderous tongues." As Baxter e x p l a i n s to h i s p a t ronesse, U r s u l a Walsingham, co n c e r n i n g h i s t r a n s l a t i o n : "as i t seeketh to be shrouded vnder [your] name, so vouchsafe to harbor and s h i e l d e i t . " Often, t r a n s l a t o r s note that the l u s t r e of the patron's name w i l l e n t i c e p o t e n t i a l r e a d e r s . Thus, Thomas Tymme t e l l s h i s p a t r o n s : For what E n g l i s h man i s there which w i l l not t h i n k e i t a Booke most worthy the r e a d i n g , which he seeth warranted by your Names.2. A l s o , patrons are always p r a i s e d f o r t h e i r many v i r t u e s , -12-as w e l l as f o r v a r i o u s l a u d a t o r y a c t i o n s . For example, there i s C h r i s t o p h e r F e t h e r s t o n e ' s p r a i s e of h i s p a t r o n , the E a r l of Huntingdon: ...your e s p e c i a l 1 care to aduaunce Gods g l o r y , and to r oote out p a p i s t r i e , your f a i t h f u l n e s s e towarde your P r i n c e haue been suche, that t h i s Realme ge n e r a l l y . . . h a u e and s h a l l haue gr e a t cause to prayse God f o r you....3. The f i n a l formal component of the E p i s t l e D e d i c a t o r y i s the commendation of the work i t s e l f . T h i s u s u a l l y e n t a i l s p r a i s e of both t e x t and author. Thomas Tymme's comments are t y p i c a l i n t h i s regard: he maintains h i s t r a n s l a t i o n i s both "necessarye and p r o f i t a b l e to [the] church", and f o r the b e n e f i t of h i s countrymen. Robert Vaux, i n commending h i s t r a n s l a t i o n , i n d i c a t e s the author's " g o d l i n e s s e i n l i f e , e x c e l l e n c i e i n knowledge, and p a i n f u l n e s s e i n v t t e r i n g e the t r u t h . " 4 . These e p i s t o l a r y conventions c o n s t i t u t e deeply entrenched p r a c t i s e s . T h i s i s i l l u s t r a t e d by an E p i s t l e D e d i c a t o r y w r i t t e n by the t r a n s l a t o r Eusebius P a g i t . P a g i t observes that i n d i v i d u a l s u t i l i z e the E p i s t l e D e d i c a t o r y , e i t h e r i n the commendation of the worke, or i n the prayse of t h e i r patrone, or i n the d i s c h a r g i n g of themselues of the d i s c r e d i t e which t h e i r enemies woulde l a y vppon them. P a g i t r e q u ests h i s patron's f o r g i v e n e s s f o r not d o i n g so i n h i s own d e d i c a t i o n , but the work and i t s author, he a s s e r t s , " y e e l d more c r e d i t e and commendation to the matter, then a l l that I can say of i t a l l the dayes of my l i f e . "5. P a g i t , however, d e s p i t e c l a i m s to the c o n t r a r y , proceeds to -13-recommend the work, p r a i s e h i s p a t r o n , and "discharge" h i m s e l f . The above o u t l i n e of t h i s e p i s t o l a r y form i s d e r i v e d from an examination of a l l a v a i l a b l e d e d i c a t o r y e p i s t l e s of French r e l i g i o u s works i n E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n p r i n t e d between 1520 and 1640. The e p i s t l e s ' v a r i o u s components have been i l l u s t r a t e d w i t h passages from the d e d i c a t o r y e p i s t l e s of t r a n s l a t i o n s from the l a s t three decades of the s i x t e e n t h century. One c o u l d j u s t as e a s i l y i l l u s t r a t e such conventions w i t h q u o t a t i o n s from the e p i s t l e s of t r a n s l a t i o n s p r i n t e d i n the e a r l i e r s i x t e e n t h century or the f i r s t f our decades of the seventeenth century. The b a s i c e p i s t o l a r y form remains unchanged throughout t h i s p e r i o d . In the Index of D e d i c a t i o n s and Commendarv Verses i n  E n g l i s h Books b e f o r e 1641, one f i n d s the f o l l o w i n g statement: The e d i t o r r e f r a i n s without r e l u c t a n c e from d i s c u s s i n g the conventions of d e d i c a t o r y e p i s t l e s and t h e i r contents, a l l too o f t e n hackneyed and monotonous.6. As a broad g e n e r a l i z a t i o n , t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n i s v a l i d , but i n the p r e s e n t context r e q u i r e s c e r t a i n q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . One can separate the d e d i c a t o r y e p i s t l e s i n t o two d i s t i n c t groups. Type A e p i s t l e s o f f e r l i t t l e more than the c o n v e n t i o n a l components o u t l i n e d above. Such e p i s t l e s are marked by a formal prose s t y l e . In other words, these e p i s t l e s are "hackneyed and monotonous." On the other hand, Type B e p i s t l e s t r e a t the c o n v e n t i o n a l e p i s t l e form merely -14-as a s k e l e t a l framework. Using t h i s framework as a p l a t f o r m , a wide range of ideas are expressed and e x p l o r e d . I t should be noted that t h i s d i v i s i o n of the d e d i c a t o r y e p i s t l e s i s not always so c l e a r l y marked—some e p i s t l e s do not n e a t l y f a l l i n t o e i t h e r category. However, as a g e n e r a l r u l e , and f o r the purpose of t h i s d i s c u s s i o n , the d i s t i n c t i o n h olds t r u e . D e d i c a t o r y e p i s t l e s are o f t e n used by h i s t o r i a n s f o r a t t a i n i n g c e r t a i n kinds of i n f o r m a t i o n . The e p i s t l e s o c c a s i o n a l l y r e v e a l d e t a i l s c o n cerning the nature of p a t r o n - c l i e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s . A l s o , the e p i s t l e s o f t e n p r o v i d e other kinds of background i n f o r m a t i o n on the t r a n s l a t o r s . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y u s e f u l as many of the t r a n s l a t o r s examined here are obscure f i g u r e s . Some of the t r a n s l a t o r s a re anonymous, or on l y known by t h e i r i n i t i a l s . Others, who can be i d e n t i f i e d by name, n e v e r t h e l e s s have l i t t l e or no other a v a i l a b l e documentation of t h e i r l i f e and works. Sometimes, the on l y i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e on a t r a n s l a t o r i s what i s p r o v i d e d by h i s p r e f a t o r y e p i s t l e s . Type B e p i s t l e s a l s o p r o v i d e another k i n d of i n f o r m a t i o n . In a sense, these e p i s t l e s b u i l d on one of the c o n v e n t i o n a l f e a t u r e s of the E p i s t l e D e d i c a t o r y . In the d e d i c a t o r y e p i s t l e s , one i n v a r i a b l y f i n d s remarks e x p r e s s i n g love of church and country, as w e l l as i n d i c a t i n g the " p r o f i t " or " b e n e f i t " s p e c i f i c t r a n s l a t i o n s w i l l accrue to God's Church, i t s members, and the E n g l i s h n a t i o n . Type A e p i s t l e s do not e l a b o r a t e on such p o i n t s . Type B e p i s t l e s , however, u s u a l l y e x p l a i n , o f t e n i n some d e t a i l , why the t r a n s l a t i o n s are -15-p e r c e i v e d to be " p r o f i t a b l e " and "necessary" to the r e l i g i o u s community. T h i s study i s dependent on the e x i s t e n c e of a l a r g e number of the l a t t e r type of e p i s t l e , f o r o n l y these answer q u e s t i o n s concerning the m o t i v a t i o n a l d r i v e behind the t r a n s l a t i o n s . Indeed, these e p i s t l e s p r o v i d e the only a v a i l a b l e d i s c o u r s e on such t r a n s l a t i o n work, and moreover, d i s c u s s such a c t i v i t y from the t r a n s l a t o r s ' p e r s p e c t i v e . In the l a s t three decades of the s i x t e e n t h century, one can f i n d many Type B d e d i c a t o r y e p i s t l e s . By c o n t r a s t , there are very few such e p i s t l e s i n the p e r i o d 1600-1640. Thus, a s i m i l a r study of t r a n s l a t i o n a c t i v i t y f o r the e a r l y seventeeth c e n t u r y would be v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e . S i m i l a r l y , there i s a l i m i t e d number of Type B e p i s t l e s i n the e a r l i e r s i x t e e n t h century (although they are more common than i n the e a r l y seventeenth c e n t u r y ) . Due to t h e i r more s u b s t a n t i v e content, Type B e p i s t l e s are u s u a l l y longer than Type A e p i s t l e s . Thus, one f i n d s e a r l y seventeenth century e p i s t l e s are normally between two and four pages long, while l a t e s i x t e e n t h century e p i s t l e s tend to average at l e a s t double that amount, and some are as long as twenty or t h i r t y pages. Another c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Type B e p i s t l e s i s t h e i r impassioned tone. The p r e f a t o r y e p i s t l e s examined i n t h i s paper are s u f f u s e d with f o r c e f u l language and a sense of urgency. The e p i s t l e s r e v e a l pious i n d i g n a t i o n and outrage on the p a r t of t h e i r authors. Thus, the e p i s t l e s f r e q u e n t l y -16-sound more l i k e f i e r y sermons than formal d e d i c a t i o n s . ('Appendix B' i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s p o i n t by f u r n i s h i n g samples of both Type A and Type B d e d i c a t o r y e p i s t l e s ) . In order to get the f u l l e s t account of the t r a n s l a t o r s ' i d e a s , a l l t h e i r p r e f a t o r y e p i s t l e s f o r t r a n s l a t i o n s of r e l i g i o u s works have been u t i l i z e d . Consequently, while the study i s l i m i t e d to t r a n s l a t o r s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r French P r o t e s t a n t works i n t r a n s l a t i o n , non-French works t r a n s l a t e d by the same i n d i v i d u a l s have a l s o been i n c l u d e d ( i n most cases, however, the t r a n s l a t o r s have c o n c e n t r a t e d on French works). In a few cases, the t r a n s l a t o r s o r i g i n a l w r i t i n g s have been used i n order to g i v e a f u l l e r treatment of p a r t i c u l a r i d e a s . (For the l i s t of t r a n s l a t i o n s b e l o n g i n g to t h i s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t , see 'Appendix C ) . Th i s paper's methodology o b v i o u s l y p l a c e s l i m i t a t i o n s on the scope of i t s enquiry. Only t r a n s l a t i o n s w i t h p r e f a t o r y e p i s t l e s can be c o n s i d e r e d . One i s f u r t h e r l i m i t e d to t r a n s l a t i o n s with Type B e p i s t l e s . Thus, of the known t r a n s l a t o r s of works examined i n t h i s paper, approximately h a l f meet the above c r i t e r i a . Many t r a n s l a t o r s , t h e r e f o r e , f a l l o u t s i d e the framework of t h i s study. The t r a n s l a t o r s examined i n t h i s paper form a d i s t i n c t group. They are a l l i n v o l v e d i n the same s o r t of t r a n s l a t i o n work and i n the same p e r i o d . They a l s o share a s i m i l a r u t i l i z a t i o n of the E p i s t l e D e d i c a t o r y form. Most i m p o r t a n t l y , these t r a n s l a t o r s share common concerns i n regards the s t a t e of r e l i g i o n i n E n g l a n d — c o n c e r n s which u l t i m a t e l y e x p l a i n the -17-m o t i v a t i o n a l f o r c e behind t h e i r t r a n s l a t i o n s . I t i s to an examination of these commonly h e l d concerns that the d i s c u s s i o n now t u r n s . -18-CHAPTER TWO THE TRANSLATORS AND THEIR COMMITMENT TO RELIGIOUS INSTRUCTION I . The t r a n s l a t o r John F i e l d (quoted a t the b e g i n n i n g of the Preface) not o n l y expressed views shared by h i s f e l l o w t r a n s l a t o r s , but by many other E n g l i s h P r o t e s t a n t s i n t h i s p e r i o d . The Englishmen examined i n t h i s paper are unique i n t h e i r attempts to r e c t i f y such shortcomings w i t h i n the r e l i g i o u s community by the " e n g l i s h i n g " of f o r e i g n ( f o r the most p a r t , French P r o t s e s t a n t ) r e l i g i o u s works f o r t h e i r countrymen. There are two main audiences f o r which these r e l i g i o u s works are intended: the t r a n s l a t o r s ' r e s p e c t i v e patrons ( i n most cases t h i s i n c l u d e s the g i v e n p a t r o n ' s household), and the " v u l g a r " or "common s o r t " of Englishmen. Each t r a n s l a t o r ' s p r o s p e c t i v e readers are g e n e r a l l y easy to i d e n t i f y , as the p r e f a t o r y e p i s t l e s , w i t h few e x c e p t i o n s , e x p l i c i t l y d i s c u s s such i n t e n t i o n s . While most t r a n s l a t i o n s c o n s i d e r e d here are p u b l i c l y o f f e r e d by the t r a n s l a t o r s to a p a r t i c u l a r p a t r o n , or p a t r o n s , through the E p i s t l e D e d i c a t o r y , i t i s o n l y a m i n o r i t y of such works that have p a t r o n s , and other l e a r n e d i n d i v i d u a l s as t h e i r primary (or e x c l u s i v e ) audience. One such work i s Anthony G i l b y ' s t r a n s l a t i o n of C a l v i n ' s Commentaries vpon the Prophet Daniel1 (1570). On i t s t i t l e --19-page, i t i s s t a t e d : " t r a n s l a t e d i n t o E n g l i s h e , e s p e c i a l l y f o r the vse of the f a m i l y of the ryght honorable E a r l e of Huntingdon" ( G i l b y ' s p a t r o n ) . Even when such i n d i v i d u a l s are s i n g l e d out as intended readers, i t i s o f t e n so that they might a c t on b e h a l f of the "common s o r t " (as w i l l be seen i n Chapter Three). The t r a n s l a t o r s are p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h the s t a t e of r e l i g i o n amongst the "common s o r t " of Englishmen. I t i s t h i s lower s o c i a l stratum that c o n s t i t u t e s the primary audience f o r these t r a n s l a t i o n s . One can d e f i n e the t r a n s l a t o r s ' r e l i g i o u s program as an e f f o r t to c r e a t e , through r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n , a t r u l y godly community. Such i n s t r u c t i o n i s to be p r o v i d e d by t h e i r t r a n s l a t i o n s i n t o the E n g l i s h v e r n a c u l a r , commonly r e f e r r e d to as the "vulgar tongue"--the language of the common people. I I . To speak of t h i s r e l i g i o u s program as b e l o n g i n g to the t r a n s l a t o r s presupposes these i n d i v i d u a l s i n i t i a t e d the t r a n s l a t i o n s , or at l e a s t w i l l i n g l y engaged i n such a c t i v i t y . Indeed, i t appears to be u n l i k e l y that' the t r a n s l a t o r s were a c t i n g p r i m a r i l y as the c l i e n t s of patrons or other u n i d e n t i f i e d a u t h o r i t i e s . I t i s d i f f i c u l t , however, to determine the p r e c i s e extent to which p a t r o n s and other s o c i a l s u p e r i o r s encouraged or commissioned these t r a n s l a t i o n s . There a r e , however, i n d i c a t i o n s that at -20-l e a s t a few works were t r a n s l a t e d at the request of patrons. It i s known, f o r example, that French works were sometimes t r a n s f e r r e d t o England through d i p l o m a t i c channels, and through such means came i n t o the p o s s e s s i o n of p a t r o n s . One e n t r y i n the Calendar of State Papers (dated 4 May 1585, S t a f f o r d to Walsingham) a l s o makes r e f e r e n c e to the proposed t r a n s l a t i o n of such a work, w r i t t e n by P h i l i p p e de Mornay: T h i s l i t t l e book I sent you i s of P l e s s y ' s doing ...Navarre's agent wishes i t might be set out i n E n g l i s h and Flemish.1. I t seems l i k e l y that Walsingham preceded to commission i t s t r a n s l a t i o n i n t o E n g l i s h . Most of the t r a n s l a t o r s ' patrons are l a y o f f i c i a l s ( i n c l u d i n g many h i g h - r a n k i n g p o l i t i c a l f i g u r e s ) , but there are a l s o some bishops p a t r o n i z i n g these works. There i s reason to b e l i e v e that they too may have commissioned c e r t a i n of these t r a n s l a t i o n s . Of two works by Beza i n L a t i n ( u n i d e n t i f i e d ) , John Strype, i n g i v i n g an account of the year 1568, w r i t e s : . . . i t was thought convenient by the bishop of London, wi t h the a d v i c e , as i t seems, of other of the Queen's Commissioners f o r e c c l e s i a s t i c a l causes, to have them put i n t o E n g l i s h . . . . 2. There i s , t h e r e f o r e , a precedent f o r t h i s type of involvement on the p a r t of b i s h o p s . An examination of the p r e f a t o r y e p i s t l e s , however, r e v e a l s o n l y one i n s t a n c e i n which a work was p r o b a b l y t r a n s l a t e d and p r i n t e d at the request of a p a t r o n . T h i s passage i s found i n the E p i s t l e D e d i c a t o r y of Laurence Tomson f o r h i s -21-t r a n s l a t i o n of P i e r r e de La P l a c e ' s A t r e a t i s e of the  E x c e l l e n c i e of a C h r i s t i a n Man (1576). Tomson t e l l s h i s p a t r o n : A c c o r d i n g as your worships p l e a s u r e was, I haue perused t h i s booke, and as wynde and weather would serue f o r passage, haue brought i t out of France i n t o England.3. It i s more common to f i n d the p r e f a t o r y e p i s t l e s i n d i c a t i n g that t r a n s l a t i o n s were undertaken on the i n i t i a t i v e of the t r a n s l a t o r s . One f i n d s statements such as the f o l l o w i n g by N a t h a n i e l Baxter: "I then endeauored...to make that common to o t h e r s , which f i r s t I p r i u a t e l y red f o r mine owne commodity." Or t h i s comment by John Stockwood: Pe r u s i n g t h i s shorte and l e a r n e d t r e a t i s e of Master Beza...I thought with my s e l f e , that I c o u l d not be b e t t e r occupied, then at such times as I had l e y s u r e . . . t o turne i t i n t o o our mother tongue.... There i s a l s o the f o l l o w i n g statement by John Harmar co n c e r n i n g h i s t r a n s l a t i o n of Beza's Sermons vpon the f i r s t  t h r ee chapters of the C a n t i c l e of C a n t i c l e s (1587). He r e f e r s to having t r a n s l a t e d a work which "I had l i t t l e b e f o r e receaued from the F r a n c f o r t Mart i n French."4. Other p r e f a t o r y e p i s t l e s , i n d i c a t e t r a n s l a t o r s were encouraged or convinced to occupy themselves i n such endeavors by f r i e n d s and a s s o c i a t e s . For example, N a t h a n i e l Baxter c l a i m s C a l v i n ' s L e c t u r e s or D a l l y Sermons (1578) were "at the earnest sute of some of my dere f r e n d e s . . . turned i n t o our E n g l i s h tongue." C h r i s t o p h e r Fetherstone c o n s i s t e n t l y r e f e r s to such encouragement by "godly f r i e n d s " , of which the -22-f o l l o w i n g passages are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e : Being i n s t a n t l y requested (Gentle Reader) by my g o d l i e zealous f r i e n d e s to e n t e r p r i c e the t r a n s l a t i o n of the most l e a r n e d commentarie of M. Iohn C a l u i n , and b e i n g persuaded thereunto by manie g o d l i e reasons, whereof Gods g l o r y and the p r o f i t e of h i s Church should be the c h i e f e , I co u l d not, nor woulde not r e f u s e . . . . I was the unmeetest to attempt t h i s t r a u e l l : yet such was the earnest request of my g o d l i e f r i e n d e s that u n l e s s e I should haue take[n] i t i n hand, I should haue seemed voide of c o u r t e s i e , and a l s o of care to p r o f i t e God h i s church.5. One f i n d s i n both cases that Fetherstone has been convinced of the b e n e f i t to be gained by such t r a n s l a t i o n s , and has thus a c t e d out of a sense of o b l i g a t i o n or duty. The impetus f o r t r a n s l a t i o n , then, o r i g i n a t e s i n such cases with the t r a n s l a t o r s and t h e i r peers, or c o - r e l i g i o n i s t s . F i n a l l y , i t i s the extent of the t r a n s l a t o r s ' commitment to the r e l i g i o u s program o u t l i n e d above that suggests these i n d i v i d u a l s were not simply a c t i n g upon the wishes of t h e i r s o c i a l s u p e r i o r s . The remainder of t h i s chapter w i l l examine the t r a n s l a t o r s ' s t r o n g commitment to t h i s t r a n s l a t i o n work. I l l . I t i s known that t r a n s l a t i o n was not the primary occupation f o r most of these t r a n s l a t o r s . The S h o r t - T i t l e Catalogue r e v e a l s that eighteen of these i n d i v i d u a l s are each r e s p o n s i b l e f o r onl y a s i n g l e E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n . A l s o , many t r a n s l a t o r s l i s t e d i n Table Four (below) have on l y a few -23-t r a n s l a t i o n s a t t r i b u t e d to them. The p a r t - t i m e nature of much of t h i s t r a n s l a t i o n a c t i v i t y i s a l s o r e v e a l e d by comments found i n the p r e f a t o r y e p i s t l e s . W i l l i a m Hopkinson s t a t e s : "I employed mine endeauor by a l l the spare time that I had from other n e c e s s a r i e a f f a i r e s . . . . " John Stockwood, r e f e r r i n g to B u l l i n g e r ' s Common p l a c e s of C h r i s t i a n R e l i g i o n (1572), w r i t e s : I haue imployed a l l the spare time that I c o u l d get from other b u s i n e s , to the t u r n i n g of i t i n t o our E n g l i s h tung.... And Edward May has d e c i d e d , " i n those voide times which I found to t r a n s l a t e t h i s worke, to expel i d l e n e s s e . " 6 . S i m i l a r comments can be found i n the e p i s t l e s of other t r a n s l a t o r s . What then can be s a i d about these i n d i v i d u a l s ' other p u r s u i t s ? What background i n f o r m a t i o n i_s a v a i l a b l e concerning these t r a n s l a t o r s ? As i n d i c a t e d i n the p r e c e d i n g chapter, many of the t r a n s l a t o r s are obscure or, i n a few cases, unknown f i g u r e s . Conversely, c e r t a i n a s p e c t s of other t r a n s l a t o r s ' l i v e s are q u i t e w e l l documented, due to t h e i r known involvement i n c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s other than t r a n s l a t i o n (as w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter Fo u r ) . One i s l i m i t e d , t h e r e f o r e , i n the g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s that can be made about t h i s group as a whole, and can a t best g i v e o n l y a v ery uneven account of these t r a n s l a t o r s . What these i n d i v i d u a l s do have i n common, however, i s a s t r o n g commitment to the r e l i g i o u s program o u t l i n e d above. The f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n , t h e r e f o r e , w i l l l i m i t i t s e l f to a few g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s about the t r a n s l a t o r s p e r t a i n i n g to t h i s -24-shared commitment. It i s important to note that many t r a n s l a t o r s have l i m i t e d t h e i r t r a n s l a t i o n work to r e l i g i o u s t e x t s , suggesting a s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t i n t h i s type of w r i t i n g (those with o r i g i n a l w r i t i n g s a l s o tend to con c e n t r a t e on r e l i g i o u s t o p i c s ) . T h i s can be seen i n Table Four. TABLE 4.* TRANSLATOR: TOTAL NO. TOTAL NO. OF NO. OF RELIGIOUS OF TRANS.: RELIGIOUS WORKS WORKS IN TRANS. IN TRANS.: BETWEEN 1570-'99: A. G o l d i n g 30 17 12 T . Stocker 12 10 9 T . Tymme 12 7 6 J . F i e l d 9 9 9 T. Wilcox 8 7 7 J . Stockwood 8 7 7 T . Twyne 8 2 2 C. Fetherstone 7 7 7 J. Brooke 6 6 6 J . D. 6 2 1 A. G i l b y 5 5 5 R. Vaux 5 4 4 J . Shute 5 4 3 J . Golburne 5 4 1 L. Tomson 4 4 4 J . E l i o t 4 1 1 W. P h i s t o n 4 1 1 J. Coxe 4 4 3 J. Stubbs 3 3 2 P. A l l i b o n d 3 3 2 T . G. 3 1 1 W. Chauncie 3 3 2 R. B. 2 2 1 J . Harmar 2 2 2 H. H o l l a n d 2 2 1 M. Herbert 2 1 1 W. Watkinson 2 2 2 W. Whittingham 2 2 1 * One should be c a u t i o u s when c o n s i d e r i n g such s t a t i s t i c s f o r i n d i v i d u a l s o n l y known by t h e i r i n i t i a l s : d i f f e r e n t t r a n s l a t o r s s h a r i n g the same i n i t i a l s are sometimes i n c o r r e c t l y t r e a t e d as one i n d i v i d u a l i n the S.T.C. -25-A l s o , most (around s e v e n t y - f i v e percent) of the t r a n s l a t o r s are clergymen; as such, they would have a p r o f e s s i o n a l i n t e r e s t i n r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n . Some t r a n s l a t i o n s were pro b a b l y undertaken by m i n i s t e r s out of a sense of duty f o r t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c o n g r e g a t i o n s . For example, John Stockwood says that he hopes h i s t r a n s l a t i o n w i l l be of b e n e f i t to those of B a t t e l , ouer whom as unworthy i t hath p l e a s e d God to appoint me m i n i s t e r , whose s a l u a t i o n by a l means b i n d e t h me to seke.7. Stockwood adds that h i s t r a n s l a t i o n i s f o r the p r o f i t of these i n d i v i d u a l s , as w e l l as f o r the p u b l i c at l a r g e . A l s o , some m i n i s t e r s a s s o c i a t e t h e i r p r e a c h i n g w i t h the id e a s conveyed i n the works they have t r a n s l a t e d . Speaking to c e r t a i n " w o r s h i p f u l l k n i g h t e s and C h r i s t i a n gentlemen", Baxter w r i t e s : ...the moste p a r t e of you haue hearde my l e c t u r e s or readinge vppon Iosue, D a n i e l l , Ionas and Malachie you might a l s o by readinge t h i s booke, c a l l to remembraunce, to youre comfortes, some of the t h i n g e s which then you hearde a t my mouthe.8. I t must be s t r e s s e d that a few of the more important t r a n s l a t o r s f o r t h i s study are e x c e p t i o n s to the above g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s . Three such i n d i v i d u a l s (Arthur G o l d i n g , Thomas Stocker, and Laurence Tomson) are l a y t r a n s l a t o r s . A l s o , Table Four (above) r e v e a l s that G o l d i n g i n h i s t r a n s l a t i o n work d i d not c o n c e n t r a t e on r e l i g i o u s works (the S h o r t - T i t l e Catalogue i n d i c a t e s that G o l d i n g t r a n s l a t e d works on a v a r i e t y of s u b j e c t m a t t e r s ) . The p r e f a t o r y e p i s t l e s , however, suggest that these i n d i v i d u a l s were very committed -26-to the t r a n s l a t i o n p r o j e c t examined here. I t i s , i n f a c t , the p r e f a t o r y e p i s t l e s that o f f e r the most c o m p e l l i n g proof of the t r a n s l a t o r s ' commitment to t h i s r e l i g i o u s program. IV. The p r e f a t o r y e p i s t l e s o f t e n have an important e x p o s i t o r y f u n c t i o n { t h i s , i n p a r t , accounts f o r the l e n g t h of the e p i s t l e s ) . The t r a n s l a t o r s demonstrate gr e a t concern that such a simple and unlearned audience might not f u l l y comprehend the works they have " e n g l i s h e d . " T r a n s l a t o r s o f t e n i n d i c a t e that they have r e f r a i n e d from u s i n g d i f f i c u l t language i n t r a n s l a t i n g the works. Thus, Anthony G i l b y , r e f e r r i n g to h i s t r a n s l a t i o n of Beza's Psalmes of Dauid (1580), s t a t e s : I haue s i n c e r e l y performed the d u t i e of a f a i t h f u l l I n t e r p r e t e r , r a t h e r i n d e a u e r i n g too l a y f o o r t h t h i n g s p l a i n l y e (yea and sometimes a l s o homely and g r o s s e l y ) too the understanding of many, then too i n d y t e t h i n g s c u r y o u s l y too the p l e a s i n g of a fewe. Li k e w i s e , i n the 'Admonition to the Reader' f o r F r a n c o i s Du Jon's AppealVPSis (1592), the unknown t r a n s l a t o r w r i t e s : For the t r a n s l a t i o n . . . of the t e x t , I haue i n a maner wholly used that which i s most common and i n euery mans hand.... He a p o l o g i z e s that " c e r t a i n e words...and some other unwonted speech" c o u l d not be avoided.9. The p r e f a t o r y e p i s t l e s are o f t e n used by t r a n s l a t o r s to render the t e x t s more comprehensible f o r t h e i r r e a d e r s . The t r a n s l a t o r s sometimes p o i n t out to t h e i r audience that -27-marginal notes ( w r i t t e n e i t h e r by the author or t r a n s l a t o r ) are p r o v i d e d i n the t e x t . For example, the t r a n s l a t o r of Du Jon's A p p e a l y p s i s (1592) has no t a t e d c h a p t e r s and verses from S c r i p t u r e , a l o n g w i t h Tables c o n t a i n i n g " b r i e f e notes of Beza and o t h e r s " to a s s i s t the reader.10. Moreover, the t r a n s l a t o r goes even f u r t h e r than most: he a l s o p r o v i d e s the reader w i t h d e t a i l e d a d v i c e on how to read such a work. Furthermore, t r a n s l a t o r s o f t e n p r o v i d e summaries of the t e x t s and/or the p a r t s of S c r i p t u r e d e a l t w i t h i n the works. For example, f o r h i s t r a n s l a t i o n of the Sermons of Iohn C a l u i n , vpon the Booke of l o b (1574), A r t h u r G o l d i n g d e s c r i b e s h i s E p i s t l e D e d i c a t o r y as be i n g , i n p a r t , a " b r i e f e a b s t r a c t " of the work. Thus, i n the e p i s t l e , one f i n d s the f o l l o w i n g c o n c i s e overview of the s u b j e c t : God... knowing the forwardnesse of mankinde, and minding e i t h e r to b r i n g vs home to h i m s e l f e , or to leaue vs v t t e r l y vnecusable, doth i n t h i s booke p u r p o s e l y aboue a l l other p a r t e s of holye s c r i p t u r e , both defende h i s owne M a i e s t i e . . . a n d a l s o set downe a p e r f e c t p a t t e r n e of p a t i e n c e , c o n t e i n i n g the due obedience and s u b i e c t i o n of the c r e a t u r e to h i s maker. These are the two c h i e f e p o i n t s whereupon the whole booke of lob i s grounded.... 11. C e r t a i n works have been s e l e c t e d f o r t r a n s l a t i o n due to t h e i r a c c e s s i b i l i t y — t h e ease with which they might be read by the unlearned. In the 'Admonition to the Reader' f o r F r a n c o i s Du Jon's A p o c a l v p s l s (1592), the unknown t r a n s l a t o r w r i t e s : -28-Many I know haue w r i t t e n more l a r g e l y of t h i s book...Here b r e u i t y was sought... that a l l t h i n g s b e i n g i n a maner at once set b e f o r e t h i n e eye, thou mightest both more e a s i l y comprehend that which i s sayd, and b e t t e r i m p r i n t i t i n thy memory. C h r i s t o p h e r R o s d e l l notes that h i s t r a n s l a t i o n of C a l v i n ' s Commentaries upon the e p i s t l e of S a i n t Paui to the Romanes (1583) might seem s u p e r f l u o u s ; as he observes, there i s a l r e a d y Peter Martyr's commentaries on the same s u b j e c t . However, R o s d e l l maintains the l a t t e r i s d i f f i c u l t f o r the "simpler s o r t . " C a l v i n , by c o n t r a s t , i s p a r t i c u l a r l y a b l e to draw " f o r t h the t r u e sense of deepe m y s t e r i e s " , and to "always match h i s f a i t h f u l l s i n c e r i t i e w i t h a p l a i n e b r i e f n e s s e . " 1 2 . Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , then, a b r i d g e d works are p r e f e r r e d by some t r a n s l a t o r s . Anthony G i l b y , r e f e r r i n g to h i s t r a n s l a t i o n of C a l v i n ' s Commentaries...vpon the Prophet D a n l e l l (1570), w r i t e s : Good reader, blame not t h i s thyng I besech thee, which I haue done i n t h i s p l a i n e and rude s o r t , f o r the commoditie of the simple and vn l e a r n e d : whom I d i d t h i n k e vnable to comprehend i n theyr mindes, and apply vnto t h e i r c o n s c i e n c e s these l e a r n e d commentaries of t h i s d i v i n e C a l u i n e , u n l e s they were somethyng a b r i d g e d and [the] e x p o s i t i o n s of the Hebrue wordes... omitted. The work, G i l b y hopes, w i l l be most comfortable to t h e i r c o n s c i e n c e , and l e a s t t e d i o u s to such simple persons as are not a b l e to comprehend a l l h i s l a r g e and l e a r n e d d i s c o u r s e s . Edward May r e f e r s to h i s t r a n s l a t i o n of C a l v i n ' s I n s t i t u t i o n of C h r i s t i a n R e l i g i o n (1580) as a "compendium", intended f o r "those godly d i s p o s e d b r e t h r e n that are not of a b i l i t i e to b u i e the whole I n s t i t u t i o n s . " And although " a l l p l a c e s of s c r i p t u r e are not there expounded", May c o n t i n u e s , there i s s u f f i c i e n t " l i g h t . . . a s may e a s i l y shew the way to the true meaning of many other p l a c e s , not there contained."13. Another i n d i c a t i o n of the t r a n s l a t o r s ' commitment to t h i s p r o j e c t i s t h e i r g e n e r a l agreement wi t h the ideas conveyed i n the works that they t r a n s l a t e . T h i s i s r e v e a l e d i n a s s o r t e d passages from the p r e f a t o r y e p i s t l e s . Thus, a f t e r n o t i n g he has t r a n s l a t e d an abr i d g e d v e r s i o n of C a l v i n ' s Commentaries...vpon the Prophet D a n i e l l (1570), G i l b y goes on to say: ...1 do p r o f e s s e myself to bee one of h i s s c h o l a r s . . . so I do not of arrogaunce a l t e r or chaunge any t h i n g i n h i s writynges. Some of the o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n of t r a n s l a t o r s as e x i l e s d u r i n g the r e i g n of Queen Mary, made important c o n t a c t s with l e a d i n g reformers on the Continent. John Harmar, many years l a t e r , i n the e p i s t l e to a t r a n s l a t i o n of Beza, w r i t e s : [I] found him [Beza] no l e s s e then a f a t h e r vnto me i n c u r t e s i e and good w i l l , when I l i u e d as a st r a n g e r i n Geneua, and enjoyed the b e n e f i t e of h e a r i n g him i n l e c t u r e s and sermons.14. Fet h e r s t o n e ' s t r a n s l a t i o n of F r a n c o i s Hotman's The b r v t i s h t h u n d e r b o l t (1586) p r o v i d e s the best i l l u s t r a t i o n of t h i s c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n between t r a n s l a t o r and author. Fetherstone t r i e s to d i s s o c i a t e h i m s e l f from one element i n Hotman's book: he a p o l o g i z e s to the reader f o r the author's " t e d i o u s n a r r a t i o n s of Dominick and F r a n c i s . " Fetherstone e n j o i n s h i s readers to not l e t t h i s "keep thee backe", f o r -30-the author, Fetherstone assures h i s r e a d e r s , was no doubt " h a l f e ashamed to make r e c i t a l l of such grosse s t u f f e , and absurd f o l l i e s . " Hotman d i d so, Fetherstone suggests, " p a r t l y i n r e s p e c t f o r the present Pope", "and p a r t l y b i c a u s e such b e a s t l y [ s u b j e c t s ] . . . a r e h i g h l y esteemed i n the church of Rome." Fetherstone, f o r h i s p a r t , a s s o c i a t e s s a i n t Dominic and s a i n t F r a n c i s with the c o r r u p t J e s u i t s : underneath they are a l l " b i r d s of the same nest."15. By h i s o b j e c t i o n s , Fetherstone r e v e a l s a c l o s e involvement w i t h the m a t e r i a l he i s t r a n s l a t i n g . V. A deeply h e l d c o n v i c t i o n , the i d e a of C h r i s t i a n duty, u n d e r l i e s and d r i v e s much of the t r a n s l a t i o n a c t i v i t y c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s paper. I t has a l r e a d y been noted how t r a n s l a t o r s express f e e l i n g s of o b l i g a t i o n to re-pay, through t h e i r d e d i c a t i o n s , past "fauours" and " b e n e f i t s " p r o f e r r e d by t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p a t r o n s . Another sense of o b l i g a t i o n , one g i v e n c o n s i d e r a b l e emphasis i n some p r e f a t o r y e p i s t l e s , i n v o l v e s broader c i v i c d u t i e s — d u t i e s based on one's s t a n d i n g as a C h r i s t i a n , and d i r e c t e d towards one's f e l l o w man. John Stockwood makes r e f e r e n c e to t h i s n o t i o n i n s e v e r a l e p i s t l e s . A C h r i s t i a n ' s f i r s t and primary duty i s , of course, to God. Stockwood w r i t e s : "the whole c h r i s t i a n man should b i n d a l l h i s endeavor vnto the honoring of the name of God." One can honor God through s h a r i n g H i s Word with those that -31-are yet i g n o r a n t of h o l y t r u t h s . Thus, Stockwood c l a i m s , w h i l e o t h e r s might have done a b e t t e r job of t r a n s l a t i o n "both by reason of t h e i r g r e a t e r l e a s u r e and g r e a t e r s k i l " , Stockwood f e l t an o b l i g a t i o n to undertake the task. T h i s i s because many hide t h e i r g i f t s and t a l e n t s , a l l o w i n g them to " p e r i s h w i t h i n themselves"; and consequently, o f t e n the l e a s t t a l e n t e d "must h o l d the candel."16. Laurence Tomson a l s o speaks of C h r i s t i a n " d u e t i f u l n e s s e " , which, Tomson a s s e r t s , means "to meditate upon God's Word both f o r our s e l u e s , and f o r our c h i l d r e n , f o r our b r e t h r e n , f o r our f a m i l i e s . " And with t h i s i n mind, Tomson w r i t e s : i f wee w i l seeme to make a p r o p e r t i e of that which ought to be common, and to keepe i t to our s e l u e s as our owne, which i s not ours, but our b r e t h r e n s , the Lord i s f a i t h f u l l , who w i l l not bee s l a c k e to punish our v n f a i t h f u l n e s . . . . 1 7 . A sense of p u b l i c duty, t h e r e f o r e , leads such t r a n s l a t o r s to e l i m i n a t e the b a r r i e r of language, r e n d e r i n g God's Word the common p r o p e r t y of a l l Englishmen. Such " d u t i f u l n e s s " i s the dominant theme i n the E p i s t l e D e d i c a t o r y f o r Yves Rouspeau's A t r e a t i s e of the p r e p a r a t i o n to the h o l y Supper (1578?). I t s t r a n s l a t o r , known onl y by the i n i t i a l s 'R.B.', begins h i s e p i s t l e : Amongst the sundry works of many a n c i e n t , l e a r n e d and wise men...1 f i n d no one t h i n g more g e n e r a l l y commended then the t r a u e l that p r o c u r e t h p r o f i t and v t i l i t i e to the common welth. In t h i s l i f e , the t r a n s l a t o r c o n t i n u e s , "our whole indeauour should be i m p l o i e d to the b e n e f i t of our countrey i n some r e s p e c t . " From S c r i p t u r e , he p o i n t s out, one l e a r n s -32-w i t h what v i g o r God punished the v n p r o f i t a b l e seruant, how he commaunded that euery t r e which brought not f o r t h good f r u t e , shud be hewed down and c a s t i n t o the f i r e . "These warnings", the t r a n s l a t o r notes, should s t i r vp euery man to make some i n c r e c e of these t a l e n t s which God hath l e n t him, r a t h e r then through s l o u t h f u l n e s to bury them i n o b s c u r i t y . . . . B e a r i n g t h i s i n mind, the t r a n s l a t o r concludes, "I thought i t good to imploy my d i l i g e n c e i n t r a n s l a t i n g t h i s small T r e a t i s e . . . . " " [ D ] e s i r i n g " , the t r a n s l a t o r c o n t i n u e s , "to bee accounted a p r o f i t a b l e Bee: then to be s u s p e c t f u l f o r a h u r t f u l l D r o n e 1 8 . Other t r a n s l a t o r s ( f o r example, Arthur G o l d i n g and John Stockwood) a l s o express concern at the p r o s p e c t of appearing " d r o n e - l i k e . " The " e n g l i s h i n g " of r e l i g i o u s works h i t h e r t o i n a c c e s s i b l e to the masses does not o n l y serve an important s p i r i t u a l f u n c t i o n , but i s a l s o a pious g e s t u r e , the e x p r e s s i o n of the t r a n s l a t o r ' s d e v o t i o n to h i s community. Thus, Thomas Wilcox, a s i d e from i n s t r u c t i n g the unlearned, so that they are not " c a r r i e d away i n t o v n t r u t h " , s t a t e s another reason f o r h i s t r a n s l a t i o n : ...by r e a c h i n g them my weake hand and f e e b l e arme, i f not a l t o g i t h e r p u l l some out of that puddle...yet l e t them behold my loue and sound a f f e c t i o n f o r the e f f e c t i n g t h e r e o f to my uttermost.19. There are a few e s p e c i a l l y powerful passages i n which such t r a n s l a t i o n a c t i v i t y i s f e r v e n t l y p r a i s e d as a most pious e n t e r p r i s e . The duty of r e n d e r i n g h o l y t r u t h s a c c e s s i b l e to the people, that i s , to make them the "common p r o p e r t y " of -33-a l l humanity, was one reason, Tomson c l a i m s which moued the Fathers i n olde time, and our good Fathers of t h i s our b l e s s e d age, yet l i u i n g amongst vs, to do as they d i d , and do s t i l l , by p u b l i s h i n g those t h i n g s which they haue r e c e i u e d of God f o r vs...not only s a t i s f i e d to put these h i s notes f o r t h i n the L a t i n e tongue, but d e s i r e d a l s o some of our godly b r e t h r e n to communicate them with h i s C o u n t r i e men i n t h e i r owne language. S i m i l a r l y , Edward May w r i t e s : ...we haue much to p r a i s e God our heauenly Father f o r h i s g r e a t b l e s s i n g s bestowed vpon vs, by the worthy t r a u e l of godly l e a r n e d men, i n s e t t i n g f o r t h and t r a n s l a t i n g d i u e r s e and l e a r n e d bookes i n t o our v u l g a r tongue, to the e n c r e a s i n g of the knowledge of the a l m i g h t i e God i n them, that haue not the knowledge of tongues ....2o. Elsewhere, t r a n s l a t i o n s i n t o E n g l i s h are defended a g a i n s t the c r i t i c i s m s of p a p i s t s . C h r i s t o p h e r R o s d e l l i n defence of h i s t r a n s l a t i o n of C a l v i n ' s A commentary upon the e p i s t l e to the Romanes (1583), a t t a c k s those i n d i v i d u a l s who labour to persuade the vnlearned, that the E p i s t l e s of Paule are harde to bee understoode and obscure... and t h e r e f o r e are not to bee read of the common s o r t e ; but r a t h e r to bee r e s t r a y n e d and f o r b i d d e n . R o s d e l l then asks: s h a l l a l l the w r i t i n g s of Paule bee taken away from the people and Church of God, because of the d i f f i c u l t i e s and hardnes of certayne p l a c e s . . . . ? Such p a r t s , R o s d e l l c o n t i n u e s , "should bee f a i t h f u l l y , and s i n c e r e l y expounded, that the simple might vnderstand them." The S c r i p t u r e s , R o s d e l l notes, were not w r i t t e n j u s t f o r Bishops and m i n i s t e r s ! 2 1 . VI . The t r a n s l a t o r s ' b e l i e f i n C h r i s t i a n duty, as w e l l as t h e i r c o n v i c t i o n that the word of God should be a c c e s s i b l e to a l l , o n l y p a r t i a l l y accounts f o r the extent of such t r a n s l a t i o n a c t i v i t y i n the l a t e s i x t e e n t h century. These p r i n c i p l e s alone do not account f o r the sense of urgency and alarm that c h a r a c t e r i z e the t r a n s l a t o r s ' p r e f a t o r y e p i s t l e s . T h e i r r e l i g i o u s program i s to a l a r g e extent motivated by what they p e r c e i v e as the immmediate, p r e s s i n g needs of the E n g l i s h r e l i g i o u s community. Such concerns, a l l u d e d to b e f o r e , must now be looked at i n d e t a i l . -35-CHAPTER THREE THE TRANSLATORS' MESSAGES TO THE READER I . "A very lamentable and p i t i f u l t h i n g to c o n s i d e r " , Thomas Wilcox w r i t e s i n one E p i s t l e D e d i c a t o r y , howe much b l i n d n e s s e and ignoraunce p r e v a i l e t h i n these dayes, wherein the Lorde hath giuen suche g r e a t l i g h t of h i s t r u e t h , both by p r e a c h i n g and w r i t i n g . And worse s t i l l , a c c o r d i n g to Wilcox, i s "the h o r r i b l e heapes of t r a n s g r e s s i o n s , and the worlde of wickednesse, that g e n e r a l l y . . . o u e r f l o w e t h a l l . " . l . The pr e v a l e n c e of "ignoraunce" and "wickednesse" throughout the country are n o t i o n s expressed or t a c i t l y assumed i n a l l the e p i s t l e s t r e a t e d i n t h i s chapter. In the e p i s t l e s , the concept of ignorance i s equated with a l a c k of understanding of true r e l i g i o n (sometimes r e f e r r e d to as a " b l i n d n e s s " to God's Word). I t s c l o s e connection with the n o t i o n of wickedness w i l l be obvious from t h i s chapter. A l l the e p i s t l e s examined i n t h i s chapter, then, have one common f e a t u r e : they express d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h c e r t a i n a s p e c t s of the s t a t e of r e l i g i o n i n England. As a r e s u l t , most of the messages are n e g a t i v e i n tone, p e r t a i n i n g to p a r t i c u l a r problems or c o n f l i c t s i n the realm. While ignorance and wickedness c o n s t i t u t e common elements i n the e p i s t l e s , i n d i v i d u a l t r a n s l a t o r s d i f f e r i n t h e i r treatment of these i s s u e s , e x p l o r i n g d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s of such problems and w i t h v a r y i n g emphases. One can view these separate l i n e s -36-of thought as d i s t i n c t channels, a l l f l o w i n g from a common source. Such channels take a v a r i e t y of ro u t e s and i n t e r s e c t a t v a r i o u s p o i n t s . The task of d i s e n t a n g l i n g and grouping these l i n e s of thought i s the o b j e c t i v e of t h i s chapter. The messages of i n t e r e s t here are those that r epresent r e c u r r i n g themes i n the e p i s t l e s . These messages w i l l be grouped i n two ways. F i r s t , r e c u r r i n g o p i n i o n s or commentaries on p a r t i c u l a r a s p e c t s of r e l i g i o u s l i f e w i l l be i d e n t i f i e d . Second, common uses or f u n c t i o n s a t t r i b u t e d to t r a n s l a t i o n s w i l l be i n d i c a t e d . Both types of message are used to e x p l a i n and j u s t i f y the t r a n s l a t i o n and p u b l i c a t i o n of p a r t i c u l a r works. I I . Thomas Wilcox i s among those t r a n s l a t o r s who p a i n t a p a r t i c u l a r l y n e g a t i v e p i c t u r e of the populace as a whole, o f f e r i n g harsh condemnations of t h e i r a t t i t u d e s and a c t i o n s . Wilcox s t r e s s e s that the Gospel has "taken good r o o t e " i n on l y a few i n d i v i d u a l s . Wilcox r e f e r s to a "proud and tha n k l e s s e g e n e r a t i o n " , many of whom are h y p o c r i t i c a l (that i s , o n l y outwardly C h r i s t i a n ) . The masses are d e s c r i b e d as " b l i n d , w i l f u l l , and s u p e r s t i t i o u s . " People are g e n e r a l l y n e g l i g e n t or i n d i f f e r e n t i n regards to matters of f a i t h . 2 . Comparable statements can be found i n the e p i s t l e s of other t r a n s l a t o r s . Some o f f e r more e x t e n s i v e d i s c u s s i o n of s p e c i f i c -37-problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the b l i n d n e s s of the "common s o r t . " One such problem i s the masses' i n o r d i n a t e concern f o r w o r l d l y p o s s e s s i o n s and p u r s u i t s . N a t h a n i e l Baxter w r i t e s : [the people] b e i n g v t t e r l y v n s k i l f u l l of God and g o d l i n e s s , do yet apply t h e i r myndes to the vaine d e l i g h t e s of t h i s f l a t t e r i n g world. Baxter proceeds to e l a b o r a t e on the theme of the " p r i d e of l i f e " , which he views as a widespread problem: "who i s he almoste that i s not i n f e c t e d w i t h i t ? What n a t i o n i s voyde of i t ? " Another t r a n s l a t o r , Anne Prowse, w r i t e s i n a s i m i l a r v e i n , r e f e r r i n g to worldly-minded people and t h e i r deep attachment to the p l e a s u r e s of t h i s world. She then proceeds to underscore the v a s t i n f e r i o r i t y of " e a r t h l i e " to "heauenlie" t h i n g s . 3 . For Baxter, such f i x a t i o n on "vaine d e l i g h t e s " i s made manifest i n the n e g l e c t of godly books: We see some men bestowe t h e i r time i n w r i t i n g , some i n p r i n t i n g , and mo[re] men i n r e a d i n g of v i l e and blasphemous, or a t l e s t of prophan and f r i u o l o u s bokes.... Good books are u s u a l l y overlooked by p r i n t e r s , Baxter contends, who p r e f e r to "take i n hande r a t h e r those thinges that are p r o f i t a b l e to the purse...", those b e i n g works that are " r i d i c u l o u s " and " s a t i s f i e mens humors."4. A couple of t r a n s l a t o r s are e s p e c i a l l y severe i n t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n of the populace, emphasizing that there i s no excuse f o r t h e i r u n g o d l i n e s s . Wilcox speaks of mankind's c o r r u p t nature, what he c a l l s the "malice and r e b e l l i o n of our own h e a r t s . " R e j e c t i o n or i n d i f f e r e n c e to God's t r u t h , -38-however, cannot be excused on such grounds. For, as Wilcox argues, "we haue so much l i g h t and c l e a r e n e s s e w i t h i n us (no t w i t h s t a n d i n g our o r i g i n a l l s i n n e ) . " John Stockwood notes that "wee [are] d a y l y taught our d u t i e s out of euery p u l p i t . " Moreover, he observes that "the p r i c e of a B i b l e i n these dayes i s not so g r e a t . . . [ f ] o r the value of ten s h i l l i n g s a man may bye a f a i r e B i b l e . " A " l a c k of time" i s no excuse e i t h e r , a c c o r d i n g to Stockwood: . . . i f he bestowed but the one h a l f of the time that he a p p l y e t h unto v a n i t y , upon the r e a d i n g o f . . . the B i b l e , i t would i n short space make him a good s c h o l l e r i n gods heauenly mysteries.5. One v e r y important f u n c t i o n of the t r a n s l a t i o n s i s to r e c t i f y the peoples' b l i n d n e s s i n such matters by p r o v i d i n g rudimentary r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n i n the b a s i c t e n e t s of C h r i s t i a n i t y . As Stockwood observes, i t i s onl y through S c r i p t u r e that one might a t t a i n knowledge of God and C h r i s t . Stockwood u t i l i z e s a s h i p metaphor to make h i s p o i n t . I t i s l i k e "a mariner", Stockwood suggests, to t h i n c k that he w i l guide a Ship i n the midst of the vnquiet and r a g i n g sea, i n a n i g h t as dark as p i t c h . . . w i t h o u t a Starne, Oares, S a y l e s , and without the obs e r u i n g of the s t a r r e s , windes and d i r e c t i o n of the compasse.... Moreover, i t i s out of S c r i p t u r e that men "haue...drawen su n d r i e most e x c e l l e n t and p r o f i t a b l e works"--works to be r e c e i u e d "as meanes and he l p s to the b e t t e r understanding of Gods woord."6. Works f o r r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n are of e s s e n t i a l l y two types. Some works, such as C a l v i n ' s Aphorismes of C h r i s t i a n -39-R e l i g i o n (1596), o f f e r , as i t s t r a n s l a t o r Henry H o l l a n d expresses i t , "a syn o p s i s or short view of the whole bodie of Gods h o l y t r u t h . . . . " Another such work i s A Catechisme or  plavne i n s t r u c t i o n f o r a l l c h i l d r e n (1580), by Robert Le Macon, which i t s t r a n s l a t o r , Thomas Wilcox, r e f e r s to as "conteyning the summe of C h r i s t i a n i t i e . " 7 . The purpose of other t r a n s l a t i o n s i s to p r o v i d e r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n i n one s p e c i f i c a r e a. An example of t h i s i s Thomas Stocker's t r a n s l a t i o n of C a l v i n ' s An e x c e l l e n t  t r e a t i s e of the Immortalvtie of the soule (1581). Stocker r e f e r s to a past d i s c u s s i o n with a f r i e n d upon "the loosenes and d i s s o l u t e n e s of t h i s age." Stocker's f r i e n d concluded "that a gre a t p a r t , euen of such as beare the name of C h r i s t i a n s , doth suppose the s o u l e s of men to be m o r t a l l . " Consequently, Stocker c l a i m s , h i s f r i e n d wished him to "take the paynes to t r a n s l a t e i n t o E n g l i s h t h i s pamflet of M. Iohn C a l u i n e . " 8 . Some t r a n s l a t o r s observe with t r e p i d a t i o n a b r o a d l y based a t t i t u d e of complacency amongst the populace. John F i e l d commences one e p i s t l e : I t may bee... that men w i l l maruayle, whye I shoulde p u b l i s h e these foure e x c e l l e n t e Sermons of M a i s t e r Iohn C a l u i n e s , the Argumentes whereof bee not f i t t e and agreeable (as they thinke) i n these times.... For, as F i e l d proceeds to note, there i s peace, " l i b e r t i e from the Romish yoke", and the Gospel "spread f a r and wide."9. Others echo these sentiments. Most g i v e s p e c i a l emphasis to the r e l a t i v e peace and t r a n q u i l i t y enjoyed under -40-Queen E l i z a b e t h . However, as F i e l d a l s o notes, there i s s t i l l much darkness upon the land. People should be t h a n k f u l f o r those b l e s s i n g s that God has bestowed upon them, but not, as a r e s u l t , made c a r e l e s s and n e g l i g e n t i n regard to matters of f a i t h . Ignorance and v i c e stems, i n p a r t , from the tendency of people to be complacent i n such matters. Employing the i d e a of s l e e p as a metaphor, some t r a n s l a t o r s o f f e r messages intended to warn t h e i r countrymen a g a i n s t a f a l s e sense of s e c u r i t y . T y p i c a l l y , the warnings are equated w i t h b e l l s or trumpets sounding, and t h e i r purpose w i t h waking the masses from t h e i r slumbers. Eusebius P a g i t w r i t e s : ...1 beseech the mighty Lord t o . . . r a i s e vp them that f e l l away f o r feare- of t r o u b l e s , and to awaken those which i n t h i s q u i e t and calme time do s l e e p i n s e c u r i t i e , or waxe wanton with the wealth of the world.... The consequence of not b e i n g awakened i s c l e a r l y s p e l l e d out by P a g i t : God, he maintains, must ...bee i n t r e a t e d to continue h i s mercies toward vs, l e a s t He t u r n h i s c o r r e c t i n g r o d . . . i n t o a deuouring swoord to consume vs.10. In some cases i t i s the work i t s e l f t h a t p r o v i d e s the warning. Baxter d e c l a r e s that he w i l l " r i n g the Alarum b e l t o g e t h e r , w i t h a l godly p r e a c h e r s , vnto our s l e e p i e countrymen", h i s o b j e c t i v e b e i n g to t u r n the peoples' a t t e n t i o n from the v a i n p l e a s u r e s of t h i s l i f e to contemplation of God's Word. John C a l v i n , "the Lordes v i g i l a n t watchman", through h i s work, The l e c t u r e s or d a i l y sermons... upon the prophet Jonas (1578), w i l l "sound the -41-trumpe", and therby "geue them [the people] warning be f o r e t h e i r f a l l . . . " 1 1 . T h i s ' s e c u r i t y theme' w i l l be seen agai n i n other, s p e c i f i c c o n t e x t s . I l l . Another important type of message r e v o l v e s around the concept of r e l i g i o u s duty. As a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d (see Chapter Two), the t r a n s l a t o r s ' own a c t i v i t y of " e n g l i s h i n g " f o r e i g n t e x t s i s based on a s t r o n g sense of duty to Church and country. S i m i l a r d u t i e s are o f t e n extended to the C h r i s t i a n community as a whole. John Stockwood, f o r example, admonishes those that hide t h e i r g i f t s and t a l e n t s , and r a t h e r than share t h e i r l e a r n i n g , l e t i t " p e r i s h w i t h i n themselues." He r e f e r s to P l a t o , who teaches: "men...are not born on l y f o r themself, but a l s o f o r the b e n e f i t and commodity of ot h e r s . " Stockwood emphasizes the n e c e s s i t y of be i n g " w e l l i n s t r u c t e d i n matters of r e l i g i o n and [G]ods h o l y word", so that one might comprehend and f u l f i l l one's d u t i e s . The duty Stockwood i s p a r t i c u l a r l y concerned w i t h i s that a l l C h r i s t i a n s "bee ready to render an accompt of our f a y t h to euery one that demaundeth the same of vs."12. It i s t h e r e f o r e sad to behold, Stockwood d e c l a r e s , "the darke ignorance of the g r e a t e s t p a r t e of the people i n t h i s b e h a l f . " "Amongst a thousand nowe a d a l e s " , Stockwood en q u i r e s , "where s h a l l y e . . . f i n d e one, that i s a b l e promptly to gyue a reasonable aunswere of h i s f a y t h ? " Such a s i t u a t i o n -42-i s blamed on peoples' "great n e g l i g e n c e and d r o n i s h s l u g g i s h n e s i n h e a r i n g and r e a d i n g of the worde of God."13. Stockwood's t r a n s l a t i o n of B u l l i n g e r ' s Common p l a c e s of C h r i s t i a n R e l i g i o n (1572) i s intended to h e l p r e c t i f y t h i s s i t u a t i o n . In t h i s work, there i s p u r e l y and s i n c e r e l y taught whatsoeuer i s n e c e s s a r i e to be known of a C h r i s t i a n man or woman vnto g o d l i n e s and s a l u a t i o n . Through the comprehension of t h i s work, the reader w i l l be ab l e to defend and spread the word of God.14. As i d e from the p o p u l a t i o n at l a r g e , two s p e c i f i c segments of s o c i e t y are s i n g l e d out as having e s p e c i a l l y important d u t i e s to f u l f i l l . One such group i s pre a c h e r s . Wilcox f e e l s i t n e cessary to remind m i n i s t e r s of t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s : . . . i t i s not s u f f i c i e n t to preache now and then, as once i n a q u a r t e r , once i n a moneth or so: but as the A p o s t l e s a i t h , i n season and out of season, and labour not only p u b l i k e l y , but goe p r i u a t e l y from house to house.... To t h i s end, Wilcox a d v i s e s preachers to " c h i e f l y giue your s e l u e s to catechisms."15. Wilcox notes that there are many catechisms a v a i l a b l e and allowed: that of the Church of England, C a l v i n ' s , and now h i s t r a n s l a t i o n of Robert Le Macon's A catechlsme and plavne i n s t r u c t i o n f o r a l l c h i l d r e n . . . to communicate i n the Holy Supper (1580). A few t r a n s l a t o r s are a l s o h i g h l y c r i t i c a l of m i n i s t e r s . Wilcox w r i t e s : And what I pray you i s the cause, of t h i s so grea t d i s o r d e r and l i c e n t i o u s n e s ? Is [ i t ] not ignorance and n e g l i g e n c e i n P r i e s t s (as they c a l l them) and people.... -43-Not o n l y have m i n i s t e r s not been p r e a c h i n g " i n season and out of season", but preachers do not have s u f f i c i e n t knowledge of God's Word to c a r r y out such an endeavor. Anne Prowse has t r a n s l a t e d Jean T a f f i n ' s Of the markes of the c h i l d r e n of God (1590), i n p a r t , to awaken those ...abounding both i n knowledge and other graces, whom no t w i t h s t a n d i n g , Satan...hath so r o c k t a s l e e p e , that they seeme almost as they that are d i s e a s e d w i t h the L e t h a r g i e , to haue f o r g o t t e n both themselues, t h e i r h o l i e c a l l i n g and p r o f e s s i o n . Here, one f i n d s the metaphor of s l e e p a p p l i e d s p e c i f i c a l l y to those w i t h a " h o l i e c a l l i n g . " Prowse, u n l i k e Wilcox, does not c o n s i d e r preachers i g n o r a n t (they are s a i d to be "abounding... i n knowledge"), but she does f i n d them to be n e g l i g e n t i n t h e i r d u t i e s , having forgrotten t h e i r " c a l l i n g and p r o f e s s i o n . " 1 6 . Stocker, however, i n d i r e c t o p p o s i t i o n to t r a n s l a t o r s l i k e Wilcox and Prowse, has n o t h i n g but p r a i s e f o r E n g l i s h m i n i s t e r s : ...the church of England, hath g r e a t l y to thanke the Lorde our God, i n that hee hath f u r n i s h e d i t , with such a number of godly, f a i t h f u l and sound M i n i s t e r s . . . . They preach God's t r u t h to the people, Stocker c o n t i n u e s , "soundly, p e r f e c t l y , t r u e l y , v e r i e r e u e r e n t l y , and without f a l s i f y i n g . . . . " 1 7 . There i s a g e n e r a l consensus amongst t r a n s l a t o r s , however, on the e s s e n t i a l r o l e p l a y e d by the preacher i n the r e l i g i o u s l i f e of the community. Hopkinson d e c l a r e s that "where there i s no p r e a c h i n g the people p e r i s h . " S i m i l a r l y , Stocker -44-maintains "that without h e a r i n g of the word preached, there can be no f a y t h , and consequently, no s a l u a t i o n . " 1 8 . Many t r a n s l a t o r s a l s o use the p r e f a t o r y e p i s t l e s as pl a t f o r m s f o r reminding those i n p o s i t i o n s of power of t h e i r d u t i e s . Wilcox w r i t e s : You M a g i s t r a t e s . . . a n d men of p u b l i k e charge, set vp, and keepe c o n t i n u a l l y i n r e p a i r e amongst you these two s t r o n g p i H e r s , p i e t i e towards God, and i u s t i c e or rig h t e o u s n e s s e towards men.... Such f i g u r e s must s h i r k " p r i u a t e g a i n and wealth", Wilcox contends, and be "good commonwealthsmen." Stockwood, by c o n t r a s t , l i m i t s h i s comments to d u t i e s towards one's household. He reminds h i s p a t r o n : "God w i l r e q u i r e an account of m a i s t e r s f o r the b r i n g i n g vp of t h e i r seruantes." Stockwood t a c t f u l l y adds that he i s c e r t a i n that h i s patron i s not ignorant of such t h i n g s , and that as f a r as p o s s i b l e , he w i l l "be c a r e f u l l to haue [ h i s ] . . . h o u s e h o l d i n s t r u c t e d i n matters of r e l i g i o n , and concerning t h e i r s a l u a t i o n 1 9 . Stockwood's t r a n s l a t i o n of B u l l i n g e r ' s Common p l a c e s of C h r i s t i a n R e l i g i o n (1572) i s a p p a r e n t l y intended, i n p a r t , to h e l p h i s p a t r o n i n t h i s c a p a c i t y . T r a n s l a t o r s f r e q u e n t l y , i n f a c t , u t i l i z e the e p i s t l e s as p l a t f o r m s f o r e x h o r t i n g t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p a t r o n s . John F i e l d ' s comment to h i s p a t r o n s , the E a r l of Bedford and h i s wi f e , e x e m p l i f i e s t h i s s o r t of e x h o r t a t i o n . F i e l d w r i t e s : And I beseech your honours, as God hath c a l l e d you to the knowledge of h i s g l o r i o u s Gospel... so goe forwarde more and more i n the growth t h e r o f . . . Stand f a s t i n h i s t r u e t h i n these s l i p p e r i e d a l e s . . . d e l i g h t you i n h i s lawe, and be good examples to o t h e r s . -45-Others are c a r e f u l to f i r s t p r a i s e t h e i r p a t r o n s ' v i r t u e s , b e f o r e reminding them of t h e i r d u t i e s . F etherstone speaks of h i s p a t r o n ' s " g o d l i e magnanimitie", w i t h which he maintains the Lord's t r u t h and defends the realm, as w e l l as s u p p o r t i n g and e n f o r c i n g "good causes" amongst lowly m i n i s t e r s . F etherstone then concludes h i s e p i s t l e w i t h the statement: The Lord of heauen b l e s s e you...so you may continue to the g l o r i e of God, the i n c r e a s i n g of h i s church, and the p r o f i t e of t h i s common wealth.20. In both cases, patrons are being c a r e f u l l y reminded of t h e i r d u t i e s . I t i s assumed that the t r a n s l a t i o n s w i l l arm and i n s p i r e the patrons i n such endeavors. IV. So f a r o n l y broad admonitions and warnings c o n c e r n i n g the permeation of ignorance and wickedness amongst the populace have been c o n s i d e r e d . The process of e d u c a t i n g and e d i f y i n g the masses, however, i s complicated by the presence of o r g a n i z e d opponents of the t r u e Church. Some t r a n s l a t o r s only make b r i e f r e f e r e n c e to such groups, f o c u s s i n g more on b l a n k e t c r i t i c i s m s of s o c i e t y . Many o t h e r s , however, co n c e n t r a t e t h e i r messages on, and sometimes d e a l e x c l u s i v e l y with, purveyors of f a l s e d o c t r i n e s . The urgent need to have the people p r o p e r l y i n s t r u c t e d i n matters of f a i t h i s b e t t e r understood when p l a c e d i n the context of the t h r e a t posed by the formidable enemies of God's Church. The sense of t u r m o i l , the i d e a of p r o f l i g a c y e nveloping -46-s o c i e t y , i s i n t e n s i f i e d by r e f e r e n c e s to the very embodiment of E v i l , Satan, omnipresent and l u r k i n g , i t would seem, i n every c r a c k and c r e v i c e i n the common weale. Satan i s d e p i c t e d as an a c t i v e f o r c e or presence, working h i s v a r i o u s machinations upon the common people, undermining the pure l i g h t of the Gospel and t h r e a t e n i n g the t r u e Church of God. The n o t i o n of Satan as the t r a d i t i o n a l enemy of C h r i s t i a n i t y i s evoked by W i l l i a m Hopkinson, who speaks of Satan having through a l l ages... laboured, to haue and holde c a p t i u e i n the bond of i n t o l l e r a b l e s e r u i t u d e and s p i r i t u a l l s l a u e r i e . . . t h e whole m u l t i t u d e of men. Thus, apa r t from whatever shortcomings e x i s t amongst the populace at l a r g e , i n d i v i d u a l s must endure and withstand what another t r a n s l a t o r c a l l s "the many a s s a u l t e s of Sathan."21. Satan works h i s e v i l d e s i g ns through a v a r i e t y of means. Thomas Wilcox r e f e r s to these as "stumbling b l o c k s , c a s t by Satan and h i s seruants i n our waies."22. Often, the kinds of v i c e s and d e f i c i e n c i e s found amongst the people, and o u t l i n e d above, are blamed, i n p a r t , on S a t a n i c i n t e r f e r e n c e . U s u a l l y , Satan works through human agents and i n s t i t u t i o n s . He i s u s u a l l y l i n k e d by t r a n s l a t o r s w i t h p a r t i c u l a r r e l i g i o u s opponents, and thus manipulated as a powerful r h e t o r i c a l d e v i c e . Of the v a r i o u s "stumbling b l o c k s " c a s t by Satan, the worst and most i n s i d i o u s , a c c o r d i n g to Wilcox i s -47-...that m i serable s e c t of seduced P a p i s t s . . . whoe w i l l i n g l y embrace vnder the t i t l e of the Churche, euery fabulous f a l s e h o o d and c o r r u p t i o n whatsoeuer.... C h r i s t o p h e r Fetherstone i n a more expansive d i a t r i b e a g a i n s t the " p a p i s t s " , l a b e l s them "deuowed v a s s a l s of that beast".23. Indeed, while a v a r i e t y of h e r e t i c s are i d e n t i f i e d i n the e p i s t l e s , the c h i e f t a r g e t of the t r a n s l a t o r s i s the C a t h o l i c Church and i t s adherents. Beginning i n the 1570's, E n g l i s h p r i e s t s , t r a i n e d a t the E n g l i s h Seminary at Douai, were r e t u r n i n g to t h e i r homeland to spread the Roman C a t h o l i c f a i t h . 2 4 . T h e i r p a s t o r a l aims were of g r e a t concern to many E n g l i s h P r o t e s t a n t s . Some t r a n s l a t o r s make r e f e r e n c e to t h i s s i t u a t i o n which they p e r c e i v e as an immediate t h r e a t to the godly community i n England. John Swan, i n making the commonplace a s s o c i a t i o n between Pope and A n t i c h r i s t , r e f e r s to King Henry V l l l . , "(w)home i t p l e a s e d God to vse as the c h i e f e s t instrument to dismount the monster, and giue him h i s d eadly wound." "[T]o haue seen then", he c o n t i n u e s , the z e a l and forwardnes that was i n the N o b i l i t i e , the p a i n e f u l n e s of the C l e a r g i e , both by pen and i n p u l p i t , the triumphes and i o y f u l l a c c lamations of the people he would haue thought that n e i t h e r A n t i c h r i s t h i m s e l f would euer haue looked back, w i t h hope to haue set f o o t e i n amongst vs againe, nor that i n the heart of any one true English-man...hee might f i n d e any r e s i d e n c e or fauourable entertainment. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , Swan observes that i t i s a p p a r e n t l y "an e a s i e r matter to h u r l e out the Pope than p o p e r i e a t a suddaine." Swan r e f e r s to "the J e s u i t e s and Seminarie P r i e s t s sent ouer -48-unto vs, and...the hollow h a r t e d and t r a y t e r o u s s u b i e c t s f o s t e r e d amongst vs." Swan a l s o c l a i m s that "the Pope h i m s e l f e hath long s i n c e c a s t more than a g l a n c i n g eye toward England." John F i e l d , w r i t i n g ten years b e f o r e Swan, i n 1579, a l s o notes the i n c r e a s e d t h r e a t posed by the p a p i s t s i n t h i s e r a : Our c o l d s t a r u e d P a p i s t e s , I cannot t e l what warmeth hath drawn them out of t h e i r h o l e s , but now they begin a l i t l e to shew themselues...and t h e i r . . . looks shew what malice l u r k e t h i n t h e i r cankred h a r t s . . . . 2 5 . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , both the n o b i l i t y and c l e r g y are s i n g l e d out by Swan as having p l a y e d v i t a l r o l e s i n the A n t i c h r i s t ' s e x p u l s i o n d u r i n g King Henry V l l l ' s r e i g n . Swan, having observed the recent a c t i v i t y of p a p i s t s i n the realm, i s perhaps o f f e r i n g an i m p l i c i t c r i t i c i s m of nobles and c l e r g y f o r not remaining v i g i l a n t and committed to the cause of true r e l i g i o n . Swan's t r a n s l a t i o n of A t r e a t i s e , t o u c h i n g A n t i - C h r i s t (1589), by Lambert Daneau, i s not, Swan s t r e s s e s , f o r the le a r n e d , but f o r those unable to read t h i s work i n i t s o r i g i n a l language: And they be the men that be most endaungered, as not b e i n g a b l e to d i s c e r n e the Beast though d a i l y they see h i s f o o t i n g b e f o r e t h e i r f a c e . T h i s t r a n s l a t i o n , then, w i l l enable them "withstand (the Beast's) i n f e c t i o n . " S i m i l a r l y , F i e l d ' s t r a n s l a t i o n of Foure Sermons of Iohn C a l u i n (1579), i n an age of c o n f l i c t i n g ideas and h e r e t i c a l t e a c h i n g s , w i l l h e l p the "common s o r t " d i s t i n g u i s h between " f a l s e h o o d or t r u e t h , l i g h t or darknesse, -49-r e l i g i o n or s u p e r s t i t i o n . " 2 6 . Many t r a n s l a t i o n s are intended to p r o t e c t and arm the f a i t h f u l a g a i n s t the t r u e Church's enemies. There are a g r e a t number of t r a n s l a t i o n s of a n t i - p a p a l works. Some are comprehensive i n scope, d e a l i n g w i t h most of the major areas of disagreement between C a t h o l i c s and P r o t e s t a n t s , such as Stocker's t r a n s l a t i o n The popes canons: wherein the masters of Sorbone are confuted (1585?), by Theodore Beza. On the t i t l e - p a g e , a l l the s u b j e c t s handled i n the work are i d e n t i f i e d : Of the h o l y Supper, Of the one and o n l y Mediator, Of P u r g a t o r y O f the C o n f e s s i o n vnto God, Of the Church, Of f r e e w i l l , Of marriage and vowes, Of f a s t i n g and meates, Of images. Other t r a n s l a t i o n s focus on s p e c i f i c i s s u e s , or areas of c o n t r o v e r s y , the most popular being' the Mass and the d o c t r i n e of p r e d e s t i n a t i o n . Wilcox, i n h i s t r a n s l a t i o n . Two very l e r n e d sermons of M. Beza, t o g l t h e r w i t h a s h o r t sum of the sacrament of the Lordes Supper (1588), d e a l s with a s u b j e c t he says i s c o n t r o u e r t e d , not o n l i e betweene the s u p e r s t i t i o u s p a p i s t s and vs, i n the q u e s t i o n of t r a n s u b s t a n t i a t i o n , but w i t h such a l s o as...we c h a r i t a b l y take f o r our b r e t h r e n . . . . Wilcox f e e l s t h a t i t i s necessary i n the d a i e s of so g r e a t b l i n d n e s s e and ignorance... to i n s t r u c t the s i m p l e . . . i n the sound knowledge of these most h o l i e m y s t e r i e s . Wilcox, l i k e Swan and F i e l d , wants to ensure t h a t the "common s o r t " w i l l not "be d e c e i v e d and c a r r i e d away i n t o u n t r u t h " , on such a d i s p u t e d t o p i c , by e i t h e r "the i d l e and v n s k i l f u l l -50-c o n c e i t s of t h e i r owne heads, nor with the s u p e r s t i t i o u s and e r r o n i o u s o p i n i o n s of other men...."27. There are a l s o a number of t r a n s l a t i o n s of works r e p o r t i n g on f o r e i g n r e l i g i o u s c o n f l i c t s : these are o f t e n employed as a n t i - C a t h o l i c propaganda. C h r i s t o p h e r Fetherstone i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t r a n s l a t i n g two such works: The b r v t l s h  t h u n d e r b o l t : or r a t h e r f e e b l e f i e r - f l a s h of Pope S l x t v s the  f i f t , a g a i n s t Henrle the most e x c e l l e n t King of Navarre (1586), by F r a n c o i s Hotman, and the anonymous A C h r i s t i a n and  wholesome Admonition, d i r e c t e d to the Frenchmen, which are  r e u o l t e d from the true r e l i g i o n , and haue p o l l u t e d themselues  wi t h the s u p e r s t i t i o n and l d o l a t r i e of Poperle (1587). The propaganda value of such t r a n s l a t i o n s i s suggested i n t h e i r t i t l e s . U n l i k e most of the t r a n s l a t i o n s of t h i s type of work, both F e t h e r s t o n e * s t r a n s l a t i o n s i n c l u d e p r e f a t o r y e p i s t l e s . R e f e r r i n g to The b r v t i s h t h u n d e r b o l t . Fetherstone notes that "the I t a l i a n a t e a t h e i s t s and d i s c o n t e n t e d P a p i s t s " w i l l not l i k e t h i s book, f o r i t d e a l s w i t h such t h i n g s as the Pope's "pretended supremacie ouer Gods Church", and what Fetherstone c a l l s the " A n t i C h r i s t i a n synagog", ready to f a l l but kept a l i v e by t r e a c h e r y and a s s o r t e d " c r u e l l p r a c t i c e s " . The " v i l l a n i e s " , " u s u r p a t i o n s " , and "outrages" committed by the p a p i s t s , r e p o r t e d s e p a r a t e l y i n other books, are here drawn together " i n t o one e n t i r e body." Concerning h i s t r a n s l a t i o n , F e therstone w r i t e s : -51-my onely d r i f t e and purpose i n t r a n s l a t i n g t h i s T r e a t i s e , was to aquaint my countriemen, who are not s k i l f u l l i n the L a t i n e toong, w i t h such p a p a l l p r a c t i c e s as are h e e r i n d e s c r i b e d . 2 8 . F e t h e r s t o n e does not e l a b o r a t e on h i s i n t e n t i o n s i n t r a n s l a t i n g t h i s work. The purpose of such works i s a p p a r e n t l y to engender i n the people a n i m o s i t y towards C a t h o l i c i s m . The concept of C h r i s t i a n duty, d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r , i s o f t e n a p p l i e d to the c o n f l i c t between the t r u e Church and i t s opponents. Patrons, f o r example, i n u p h o l d i n g God's t r u t h , are expected, as Fetherstone expresses i t , to "subdue those proud a s p i r i n g p a p i s t s " , or "to roote out p a p i s t r i e . " Elsewhere, a g a i n a d d r e s s i n g h i s p a t r o n , F e t h e r s t o n e o f f e r s a c a l l to arms: Now, s e e i n g God hath d e a l t so m e r c i f u l l y w i t h you, i t i s your H[onour's] p a r t , to behaue your s e l f e v a l i a n t l y , and to f i g h t the Lords b a t t e l s w i t h courage. T h i s type of message i s g i v e n i t s f u l l e s t treatment i n an e p i s t l e by Arthur G o l d i n g . He notes h i s p a t r o n ' s " m a r t i a l " background and how he might be i n t e r e s t e d i n engaging i n a d i f f e r e n t k i n d of warfare. T h i s type of c o n f l i c t i s s p i r i t u a l , i n which one "must maintayne b a t t e l l both a g a i n s t v i s i b l e and i n u i s i b l e enimies." The stakes i n such combat are much h i g h e r , f o r to l o s e i s "to be plunged i n e u e r l a s t i n g darknes, torment, c o n f u s i o n , sorow, and shame." "Th i s i s the war", G o l d i n g contends, "that becommeth a noble minde, a wise minde, a v a l e a n t minde, a godly minde."29. While many t r a n s l a t i o n s are e x c l u s i v e l y f o r "those godly -52-d i s p o s e d b r e t h r e n " , other t r a n s l a t i o n s attempt to convert p a p i s t s and other h e r e t i c s to the t r u e f a i t h , as evidenced i n the case of G o l d i n g ' s t r a n s l a t i o n of A Woorke concerning  the trewnesse of the C h r i s t i a n R e l i g i o n (1587). G o l d i n g maintains i t s author, P h i l i p p e de Mornay, has so e f f e c t i v e l y c a r r i e d out h i s p l a n that "any A t h e i s t I n f i d e l or lew hauing read t h i s h i s work", i f not t o t a l l y l a c k i n g i n common sense or s t u b b o r n l y determined to "impugne the manifest t r u e t h " , would be f o r c e d to concede the C h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n as the "only path way to e t e r n a l l f e l i c i t i e . " The work i s intended to both i n c r e a s e the " f e l i c i t i e " of the f a i t h f u l and "reforme the m a l i c i o u s and stubbornhearted."30. S i m i l a r l y , there i s John Harmar's t r a n s l a t i o n of Beza's Sermons vpon the three f i r s t chapters of the C a n t i c l e s of  C a n t i c l e s (1587). The p o l e m i c a l f u n c t i o n of the work i s i n d i c a t e d by the remainder of i t s t i t l e : Wherein are handled  the c h l e f e s t p o i n t s of r e l i g i o n c o n t r o v e r s e d and debated  betweene us and the a d u e r s a r l e of t h i s day, e s p e c i a l l y  t o u c h i n g the t r v e Iesus C h r i s t and the t r v e Church. While Harmar notes that h i s t r a n s l a t i o n i s f o r "the v t i l i t y and p r o f i t e of manie", the sermons are c h i e f l y "aimed...to c o n u i n c i n g of the a d u e r s a r i e " (that i s , the p a p i s t s , as w e l l as other " c r a f t i e Heretiques") i n the fundamental p o i n t s of r e l i g i o n . 3 1 . F i n a l l y , John F i e l d , a l s o i n t e r e s t e d i n the " c o n u i n c i n g of the a d u e r s a r i e " , o f f e r s a message of warning: -53-These men must be warned not to abuse the Gospel ...who w h i l s t they speake of C h r i s t should indeauor to knowe him as he i s : that his...name deceaue them not, too l u l l them a sleepe i n s i n n e . . . t o continue i n t h e i r cursed s e c u r i t i e and f l e s h l y l i b e r t i e . 3 2 . Here, once agai n , i s the ' s e c u r i t y ' theme, wi t h i t s attendent metaphor. T h i s time r a t h e r than the mas~ses, or pr e a c h e r s , the message i s a p p l i e d to Roman C a t h o l i c s . V. So f a r , a number of warning messages have been i d e n t i f i e d . There are e x p l i c i t and i m p l i c i t warnings to the masses, p r e a c h e r s , and patrons, warnings a g a i n s t the dangers of f a l s e r e l i g i o n s , and warnings d i r e c t e d towards h e r e t i c s to mend t h e i r ways. Some t r a n s l a t o r s , however, go even f u r t h e r : they see i n the ignorance and wickedness that engulf s o c i e t y evidence that the end of the world i s a t hand. Consequently, they want to warn t h e i r countrymen about the impending Apocalypse. Some t r a n s l a t o r s i n t i m a t e , or f a l l j u s t short of e x p r e s s i n g t h i s idea.33. S e v e r a l other t r a n s l a t o r s , however, e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e t h i s theme i n t h e i r e p i s t l e s . The A p o c a l y p t i c theme i s perhaps g i v e n i t s most e x t e n s i v e treatment by Ar t h u r G o l d i n g . A c c o r d i n g to G o l d i n g , God has gi v e n men the " l i g h t " of the G o s p e l l , by which "we myght walke without stumbling as i n the open d a y l i g h t . " T h i s i s because through the S c r i p t u r e s , God -54-...hath armed vs a g e i n s t a l l temptations, h a r t b y t i n g s and stumblingblocks, by warning vs aforehand what th i n g e s should happen to h i s Churche from tyme to tyme too the end of the worlde.... The importance of h i s t r a n s l a t i o n i s thus apparent, f o r God has g i v e n important warnings " s p e c i a l l y i n t h i s presente R e u e l a t i o n to h i s h o l i e seruant S a i n c t e Iohn." Moreover, God uses d i v e r s e i n d i v i d u a l s to d i s s e m i n a t e such "knowledge and understanding"; i n t h i s case, i t i s M a r l o r a t ' s commentary on t h i s p a r t of S c r i p t u r e (Golding a l s o notes Englishmen a l r e a d y have, i n t h i s area, those " m y s t i c a l r e u e l a t i o n s " by H e i n r i c h B u l l i n g e r ) . 3 4 . Such warnings, furthermore, have s t i l l g r e a t e r import as G o l d i n g p e r c e i v e s h i s present age to be the l a s t , the time of the Apocalypse. Consequently, t h i s work, he concludes, . . . i s so muche the more n e e d e f u l , b i c a u s e that mannes nature growing d a y l y more and more i n t o decay with the p e r i s h i n g worlde nowe h a s t i n g too h i s ende, i s more s u b i e c t e too c o r r u p t i o n . . . . "And the d i u e l l " , G o l d i n g c o n t i n u e s , p e r c e y u i n g h i s Kingdome uppon e a r t h draye apeare too u t t e r r u i n e , l a b o u r e t h the more e a r n e s t l y to worke a l l the mojre s p i g h t and m i s c h i e f he can to C h r i s t and h i s members.35. H i s t r a n s l a t i o n i s thus necessary and t i m e l y f o r i t s e x p l i c a t i o n of B i b l i c a l prophecy. In one of h i s own works, A d i s c o u r s e vpon the Earthquake that happened throuahe t h i s Realme of Enqlande, and other p l a c e s of Chrlstendome, the f i r s t of A p r l l l . 1580, G o l d i n g warns of mankind's f a l s e sense of s e c u r i t y and the many -55-tokens or s i g n s of God's d i s p l e a s u r e and wrath. Although G o l d i n g does not s p e c i f i c a l l y r e f e r to t h i s as the l a s t age of the world, he does s t a t e that i f people's ways are not amended, God, on the day of Judgement, s h a l l d e c l a r e : Depart from me ye workers of wickednesse, which hardened your h a r t s a g a i n s t me...at such time as my long s u f f e r a n c e wayted f o r you by mildenesse and p a t i e n c e to ammendememt.36. Another t r a n s l a t o r , John Coxe, s u c c i n c t l y expresses the same a p o c a l y p t i c theme, a s s e r t i n g that i n these our dayes, beeing the l a s t e , and t h e r e f o r e the moste p e r i l l o u s and dangerous dayes, f o r so our sau i o u r C h r i s t him s e l f e teacheth vs, wherein we haue g r e a t neede to be f u r n i s h e d a g a i n s t the a s s a u l t e s of the enimies of true R e l i g i o n . . . . H i s t r a n s l a t i o n , however, i s not intended as an e x p l i c a t i o n of B i b l i c a l prophecy (as i n the case of Golding's t r a n s l a t i o n ) . Instead, i n such " p e r i l l o u s and dangerous" times, Coxe maintains, the common s o r t are i n even g r e a t e r need of works such as t h i s , which c o n t a i n "the whole summe of our C h r i s t i a n R e l i g i o n " , as w e l l as e f f e c t i v e l y answer the o b j e c t i o n s of the p a p i s t s ("the enimies of true R e l i g i o n " ) . 3 7 . Anthony G i l b y o f f e r s an i n t e r e s t i n g v a r i a t i o n on the A p o c a l y p t i c message. He begins by s t r e s s i n g the importance of knowing the "holy h i s t o r i e s . " One h i s t o r i c episode i n p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t s G i l b y , who uses i t to draw a comparison with h i s own age. G i l b y speaks of Monasses, that i d o l a t r o u s and c r u e l k i n g , who had brought on I d o l a t r i e againe a f t e r . . . h i s f a t h e r Hezekias had reformed r e l i g i o n . . . . -56-A f t e r Monasses' death, Amon r e i g n e d f o r two y e a r s , at which time "God i n mercie s t i r r e d up good I o s i a s , who r e s t o r e d the r e l i g i o n , and brought i t againe to f u l l p e r f e c t i o n . " However, God, angry w i t h Iudah f o r having so provoked Him under Monasses, d e c l a r e d : "I w i l l put Iudah a l s o out of my s i g h t , as I haue sent away I s r a e l . . . " "The which t e r r i b l e wordes and t h r e a t e n i n g s a g a i n s t Gods chosen people, when I read them", G i l b y c o n f e s s e s , "cause me to tremble and f e a r e f o r our s t a t e here i n Englande."38. G i l b y , w r i t i n g i n the year 1580, s t a t e s that England's r e l i g i o n " i s not yet brought to f u l l p e r f e c t i o n i n these 21. y e a r s " , and moreover, "the h o r r i b l e s i n n e s of former times are not yet purged with the t e a r e s of repentaunce." Many, he contends, s t i l l " c a r i e t h e i r I d o l s i n t h e i r h e a r t e s , many waite f o r the o c c a s i o n to shew the l i k e c r u e l t y they d i d b e f o r e . . . . " Few people r e a l i z e "how h o r r i b l y they d i d o f f e n d Gods s a c r a t e m a i e s t i e i n e r e c t i n g of I d o l e s c o n t r a r y to Gods h o l y commandement." Consequently, G i l b y f e a r s the l i k e punishment w i l l come vppon vs f o r the sinnes committed i n these dayes of Q. Marie, f o r a l l our outward shew of r e l i g i o n , as came vppon Iudah f o r t h e i r former sinnes committed i n the time of Monasses. People must t h e r e f o r e pray f o r God's mercy, e i t h e r to "turne h i s f e a r c e wrath from vs a l t o g e t h e r , or a t l e a s t . . . o b t e i n e that i t come not i n our dayes."39. I n t e r e s t i n g l y , G i l b y l a t e r c o n t r a d i c t s the former of the two p o s s i b i l i t i e s , when he d e c l a r e s : "we can not turne away the general1 plagues that are threatened and seene to hang -57-ouer England." I t i s only p o s s i b l e f o r people to be granted God's mercy, and t h e r e f o r e be "marked to s a l u a t i o n , when the plague cometh, as [G]od h i m s e l f promised."40. It i s i n the above context that G i l b y b e l i e v e s h i s t r a n s l a t i o n of Beza's The Psalmes of Dauld (1580) to be "most n e c e s s a r i e f o r e u e r i e C h r i s t i a n " : For whereas a l l other S c r i p t u r e s doe teach us what God s a i t h unto us, these prayers...doe teach us, what we s h a l l say unto God and how we must prepare our s e l u e s to appeare b e f o r e h i s m a i e s t i e . . . . For i n m e d i t a t i n g upon these psalmes, as expounded i n t h i s book, "and so by earnest and c o n t i n u a l i n u o c a t i o n and hea r t y p r a y e r s " , God might be moved to have mercy upon us.41. Fears concerning an impending Doomsday are more widespread amongst t r a n s l a t o r s than the e p i s t l e s might suggest. T h i s can be demonstrated by c o n s i d e r i n g the case of Thomas Tymme (or Timme). H i s b e l i e f t h a t the world i s i n r a p i d decay and the Apocalypse imminent i s onl y c l e a r l y a r t i c u l a t e d i n h i s o r i g i n a l w r i t i n g s . Tymme's concerns over the Apocalypse are d i s c l o s e d i n two o r i g i n a l w r i t i n g s : The f i g u r e of A n t l c h r i s t e , w i t h the tokens of the end of the world... (158 6), and A P r e p a r a t i o n a g a i n s t the p r o g n o s t i c a t e d dangers of t h i s veare, 1588. In the former, Tymme, having mentioned the v a r i o u s " b l e s s i n g s " God has bestowed on England (th a t i s , the peace and p r o s p e r i t y enjoyed under Queen E l i z a b e t h ) , warns: . . . i t i s to bee f e a r e d that our i n g r a t i t u d e and contempt of these h i s mercies, w i l l turne away h i s goodness, and f a t h e r l y kindnes from us. -58-Even more ominous and p o i n t e d i s the f o l l o w i n g statement from the same work: To conclude, l e t us a l l amend our l y u e s , and turne to the Lorde...that those plagues which wee haue deserued, and are now ready to f a l vppon us, may bee turned away.42. F i n a l l y , i n t i m a t i n g r a t h e r than d e a l i n g d i r e c t l y with the q u e s t i o n of the Apocalypse, there i s Tymme*s A S i l v e r Watch B e l l (1605), which o f f e r s a s t r o n g message of warning to h i s contemporaries. H i s use of the ' s e c u r i t y ' theme i s even suggested by i t s t i t l e . Employing v e r b a t i m the language found i n e p i s t l e s a l r e a d y examined, Tymme, i n h i s p r e f a c e , laments: ...the g r e a t e r number of men-at t h i s day, are so l u l l e d a s l e e p i n the c h a i r e of s e c u r i t i e , by the loue of the world, by the s i n f u l l d e l i g h t s of f l e s h , and by the s u b t i l e suggestions of Sathan ...that they can h a r d l y be awakened.... And as suche, there i s [ i ] n the one eare S e c u r i t y sounding. I t i s not yet time to repent. In the other eare, presumption s i n g i n g . I t w i l l be time s t i l l . As f o r the work's purpose: The c o n s i d e r a t i o n heereof moved me...to frame t h i s booke, as a Watch-bell, to sounde i n the ears of a l l men... thereby to awake the most drowsie h e a r t e d s i n n e r s . . . t o enter i n t o a c o n s i d e r a t i o n how t h e i r case standeth w i t h God. The v e r y same language and message can be found i n The Fi g u r e of A n t i c h r l s t e . In the E p i s t l e D e d i c a t o r y , he says that he wishes "to awaken c a r e l e s s e A t h e i s t e s , which are l u l l e d a s l e e p w i t h w o r l d l y p l e a s u r e i n the c r a d l e of s e c u r i t y . " 4 3 . Turning to Tymme's t r a n s l a t i o n s , one f i n d s only one -59-r e f e r e n c e to the t r o u b l e s and dangers of h i s age. Tymme commences one E p i s t l e D e d i c a t o r y with the f o l l o w i n g : When I had wel waied with my s e l f e . . . t h e d i u e r s happe and chaunce i n c i d e n t , and appertayning to the p a i n e f u l l p i l g r i m s and t r a u e l e r s i n the troublesome sea of t h i s world, I was not a l i t l e abashed. But be i n g encouraged-againe, and with the spurre and p r i c k e of good successe,...I launched my shippe a t the l a s t e from shore...and loused to the wynde. Tymme u t i l i z e s the metaphorical language of sea and v e s s e l to d e s c r i b e h i s undertaking. C o n t i n u i n g w i t h the metaphor, Tymme r e f e r s to the rocke, the r a g i n g sea, and sands, are now i n s i g h t e , n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g they made me not so muche a f r a i d e , as the maner and d i s p o s i t i o n of the countrey where I a r r i v e . The s h i p metaphor i s employed agai n i n one of h i s o r i g i n a l works: And s e e i n g God hath p l a c e d us E n g l i s h men i n one common wealth, a l s o i n one Church, as i n one s h i p together: and no storme so dangerous to a shippe on the sea, as i s d i s c o r d e i n a weale publique.44. L i k e Stockwood (quoted e a r l i e r ) , Tymme uses the metaphor, i n p a r t , to suggest a h o s t i l e or dangerous environment. Tymme, u n f o r t u n a t e l y , does not expand on these p e r c e i v e d dangers i n the d e d i c a t i o n to h i s t r a n s l a t i o n . I t i s a matter of c o n j e c t u r e whether or not the concerns expressed i n h i s o r i g i n a l w r i t i n g s a l s o motivated Tymme's t r a n s l a t i o n s . I t i s e v i d e n t , however, that Tymme does share the other t r a n s l a t o r ' bleak assessment of the s t a t e of r e l i g i o n i n England, and more s p e c i f i c a l l y , the b e l i e f of a -60-h a n d f u l of such i n d i v i d u a l s i n an impending Doomsday. P o s s i b l y , Tymme simply chose not to use the e p i s t l e s f o r h i s t r a n s l a t i o n s as v e h i c l e s or p l a t f o r m s f o r such views, but r a t h e r , opted f o r a more c o n v e n t i o n a l use of the E p i s t l e D e d i c a t o r y . VI. In Chapter One, i t was noted that what stands out i n many of the p r e f a t o r y e p i s t l e s i s a sense of urgency--an i n t e n s e , sermon-like tone. One need o n l y read the d e d i c a t o r y e p i s t l e s of John F i e l d f o r h i s t r a n s l a t i o n of Beza's The other p a r t e of C h r i s t i a n Questions and Answers (1580), or of the t r a n s l a t o r known onl y by the i n i t i a l s W.H. f o r h i s t r a n s l a t i o n of C a l v i n ' s The commentaries...vpon the  f i r s t e p i s t l e of S a i n t Iohn, and vpon the e p i s t l e of Jude (c.1580) to a p p r e c i a t e the manner i n which t r a n s l a t o r s o f t e n convey t h e i r messages to the reader. D r i v e n by r e l i g i o u s z e a l and concern over the e x c e s s i v e ignorance and wickedness of t h e i r countrymen, i t i s perhaps not " s u r p r i s i n g t r a n s l a t o r s would adopt such an impassioned tone. S e v e r a l f a c t o r s are p a r t i c u l a r l y important to bear i n mind i n t h i s matter. F i r s t , there i s a f e e l i n g of f r u s t r a t i o n w i t h the r a t e of change, w i t h the shortcomings of the E n g l i s h Reformation i n c r e a t i n g a godly s o c i e t y . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that three d i f f e r e n t t r a n s l a t o r s , a l l w r i t i n g w i t h i n a year of each other, make s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e to the l a s t twenty year -61-p e r i o d (the p e r i o d b e g i n n i n g w i t h the s u c c e s s i o n of Queen E l i z a b e t h to the th r o n e ) . A l l three o f f e r the same c o n c l u s i o n . In 1579, F i e l d observes the l a c k of " i n s t r u c t i o n " amongst the people d e s p i t e b e i n g taught f o r twenty odd years " i n Gods Schole." Wilcox, echoing F i e l d ' s comments, w r i t e s : . . . a f t e r twenty yeeres p u b l i q u e p r e a c h i n g and p r o f e s s i n g of the Gospel...the people are v e r i e l i t l e , or no whit a t a l l e d i f i e d i n the knowledge of f a y t h , and l e s s e b u i l d e d vp... i n the f r u i t e s of obedience and h o l y l i f e . F i n a l l y , a l s o i n 1580, Anthony G i l b y , laments "that our r e l i g i o n i s not yet brought to f u l l p e r f e c t i o n i n these 21. yeares...."45. Second, the t r a n s l a t o r s r e v e a l c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n s t e r n a t i o n over the presence of v a r i o u s opponents of the tr u e Church i n England, who want to subvert the tr u e f a i t h and entrap the "common s o r t " w i t h t h e i r blasphemous d o c t r i n e s . The t r a n s l a t o r s p e r c e i v e an immediate and dangerous t h r e a t to the r e l i g i o u s community. F i n a l l y , they are f e a r f u l of God's d i s p l e a s u r e and wrath, brought on by the i n d i f f e r e n c e or open h o s t i l i t y to God's word by many Englishmen. T h i s f e a r f i n d s i t s u l t i m a t e e x p r e s s i o n i n the A p o c a l y p t i c messages of some t r a n s l a t o r s . -62-CHAPTER FOUR CONCLUSION Much of the r e s e a r c h on l a t e s i x t e e n t h century E n g l i s h P r o t e s t a n t i s m focuses on the c r i s i s w i t h i n the Church of England. Many of the r e l i g i o u s c o n t r o v e r s i e s i n t h i s p e r i o d r e v o l v e around as p e c t s of t h i s c o n f l i c t . E s s e n t i a l l y , c e r t a i n E n g l i s h P r o t e s t a n t s , o f t e n r e f e r r e d to as " p u r i t a n s " or "non-conformists", wanted f u r t h e r reforms i n the Church of England. The " p u r i t a n s " wished to remove what they p e r c e i v e d as l i n g e r i n g "popish" elements from the church. The main c r i t i c i s m s of the Church of England i n t h i s p e r i o d i n v o l v e d the l i t u r g y and church p o l i t y . A d e t a i l e d account of t h i s s u b j e c t i s p r o v i d e d by P a t r i c k C o l l i n s o n i n h i s book The  E l i z a b e t h a n P u r i t a n Movement. C o l l i n s o n c h a r t s the course of r e l i g i o u s d i s s e n t and non-conformity d u r i n g Queen E l i z a b e t h ' s r e i g n . More recent s c h o l a r s h i p g i v e s g r e a t e r a t t e n t i o n to the p a s t o r a l concerns of E n g l i s h P r o t e s t a n t s i n t h i s p e r i o d . Peter Lake begins h i s work Moderate P u r i t a n s and the E l i z a b e t h a n Church with the f o l l o w i n g p r o p o s i t i o n : P u r i t a n i s m i s normally d e f i n e d i n n e g a t i v e terms. P u r i t a n s were people who, w i t h v a r y i n g degrees of i n t e n s i t y , d i s l i k e d the E l i z a b e t h a n Settlement. P u r i t a n i s m was a s e r i e s of n e g a t i v e g e s t u r e s d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t that s e t t l e m e n t and the church i t c r e a t e d . Such "negative g e s t u r e s " Lake c o n t i n u e s , i n v o l v e d e f f o r t s to " d i s s o c i a t e the godly elements i n the E n g l i s h church from -63-p o p i s h c o r r u p t i o n . " Lake argues i n h i s book t h a t p u r i t a n i s m cannot be viewed s t r i c t l y i n terms of these "negative g e s t u r e s . " Lake p o i n t s out that " p u r i t a n s " were a l s o i n t e r e s t e d i n r e l i g i o u s e d i f i c a t i o n f o r the masses. Lake's book focuses on "the p o s i t i v e e v a n g e l i c a l p r o t e s t a n t aims that l a y behind p u r i t a n a t t a c k s on, and r e j e c t i o n s of, the e s t a b l i s h e d church."1. A l s o , a more recent work by C o l l i n s o n , The R e l i g i o n of P r o t e s t a n t s pays c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n to popular r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i c e s and the attempts of E n g l i s h m i n i s t e r s to supply e f f e c t i v e r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n f o r the common people. T h i s p r e s e n t study has a r r i v e d at i t s c o n c l u s i o n s , which i n v o l v e a s p e c t s of E n g l i s h P r o t e s t a n t i s m i n the l a t e s i x t e e n t h century, independently of other r e s e a r c h . I t has f o c u s s e d on a d i f f e r e n t k i n d of source m a t e r i a l ( p r e f a t o r y e p i s t l e s ) and examined a d i f f e r e n t k i n d of a c t i v i t y ( E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n s of French P r o t e s t a n t works on r e l i g i o n ) . I t i s the nature of such t r a n s l a t i o n a c t i v i t y i n the l a s t three decades of the s i x t e e n t h century (the l a r g e number of t r a n s l a t i o n s and the unique use of p r e f a t o r y e p i s t l e s , as o u t l i n e d i n Chapter One), that has l e d to a c l o s e r examination of t h i s m a t e r i a l . T h i s , i n t u r n , has l e d to f i n d i n g s c o n s i s t e n t with those found i n other s t u d i e s on the i d e a s and a t t i t u d e s of E n g l i s h P r o t e s t a n t s i n t h i s p e r i o d . T h i s paper, l i k e r ecent s t u d i e s by Lake and C o l l i n s o n , demonstrates the importance to E n g l i s h P r o t e s t a n t s of e d u c a t i n g and e d i f y i n g the masses. I t r e i n f o r c e s , t h e r e f o r e , -64-the c u r r e n t emphasis of h i s t o r i a n s on the p a s t o r a l aims of E n g l i s h P r o t e s t a n t s i n t h i s p e r i o d . A d i f f e r e n t (although o v e r l a p p i n g ) group of i n d i v i d u a l s has been i d e n t i f i e d here, and i t has been t h e i r r e l i g i o u s program -- t h e i r c o l l e c t i v e agenda of p r o v i d i n g r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n f o r the "common s o r t " ( o u t l i n e d i n Chapter Two), that has been shown to c o n s t i t u t e the primary d r i v e behind t h e i r t r a n s l a t i o n work. The p r e c i s e nature of these p a s t o r a l aims i s e x p l o r e d i n Chapter Three. A l s o , the examination of t h i s a c t i v i t y has r e s u l t e d i n the d i s c o v e r y of A p o c a l y p t i c ideas amongst c e r t a i n of the t r a n s l a t o r s . As noted, such b e l i e f s were an important m o t i v a t i o n a l f o r c e behind some of the t r a n s l a t i o n work examined i n t h i s paper. D e t a i l e d accounts of A p o c a l y p t i c thought i n t h i s p e r i o d are p r o v i d e d i n Reformers and Babylon:  The E n g l i s h A p o c a l y p t i c V i s i o n s from the Reformation to the  Eve of the C i v i l War, by Paul C h r i s t i a n s o n , and The  A p o c a l y p t i c T r a d i t i o n i n Reformation B r i t a i n , 1530-1645, by K a t h a r i n e F i r t h . I t i s evident from these s t u d i e s that the t r a n s l a t o r s ' concerns r e f l e c t b e l i e f s shared by a s i g n i f i c a n t number of t h e i r countrymen. I t should be p o i n t e d out that many of the most important t r a n s l a t o r s f o r t h i s present study were a l s o a c t i v e i n the r e l i g i o u s c o n f l i c t s i n d i c a t e d above and examined i n C o l l i n s o n ' s book on The E l i z a b e t h a n P u r i t a n Movement. In f a c t , two t r a n s l a t o r s , John F i e l d and Thomas Wilcox, are at the c e n t e r of t h i s debate w i t h i n the E l i z a b e t h a n Church. -65-F i e l d and Wilcox, l i k e some of t h e i r f e l l o w t r a n s l a t o r s , are best known as "non-conformist" m i n i s t e r s . T h e i r t r a n s l a t i o n work, which has been more or l e s s ignored, i s , as a l r e a d y noted, an e x p r e s s i o n of t h e i r p a s t o r a l concerns, and as such c o n s t i t u t e s a separate r e l i g i o u s program. T h e i r t r a n s l a t i o n s are f o r a p o t e n t i a l l y v a st audience r a t h e r than f o r i d e o l o g i c a l opponents w i t h i n the church. It i s c l e a r that most of the t r a n s l a t i o n s b e l o n g i n g to t h i s p r e s e n t study are not intended as polemics a g a i n s t p e r c e i v e d c o r r u p t i o n s i n the E n g l i s h Church. In f a c t , the only d i r e c t a t t a c k on the Church to be found i n any of the p r e f a t o r y e p i s t l e s belongs to Thomas Wilcox. Wilcox r e f e r s to c e r t a i n " e x c e l l e n t matters", i n v o l v i n g the r e f o r m a t i o n of such c o r r u p t i o n s as yet remaine amongest vs, e i t h e r t o u c h i n g the m i n i s t r i e or the d i s c i p l i n e of the church.2. "Such c o r r u p t i o n s " are not e l a b o r a t e d on by Wilcox. It should be s t r e s s e d that the works t r a n s l a t e d are by f o r e i g n authors, and consequently, with few e x c e p t i o n s , they do not d i r e c t l y d e a l with i s s u e s p e c u l i a r to the E l i z a b e t h a n Church, and i t s unique s i t u a t i o n . The t r a n s l a t i o n s , of course, can be manipulated i n much the same way as S c r i p t u r e , with arguments b e i n g drawn from the t e x t s and a p p l i e d to immediate circumstances. In g e n e r a l , f o r those wanting to c r i t i c i z e or, c o n v e r s e l y , to defend the e s t a b l i s h e d Church, w r i t i n g s s p e c i f i c a l l y penned f o r such purposes would n a t u r a l l y be p r e f e r r e d . Thus, Peter Milward's R e l i g i o u s C o n t r o v e r s i e s of the -66-E l i z a b e t h a n Age. l i s t s only a few E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n s of French P r o t e s t a n t works among the l i t e r a r y c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the r e l i g i o u s debates being waged w i t h i n the E n g l i s h Church. They i n c l u d e : T r e a t i s e of the Church (1579), by P h i l i p p e de Mornay, Iudgement of the most reuerend and learned  man... con c e r n i n g the t h r e e f o l d order of bishops (1580), by Theodore Beza, T r e a t i s e of the Church (1581), by B e r t r a n d de Loque, and A defence of the o l d e , and t r u e p r o f e s s i o n of  c h r i s t i a n i t i e , a g a i n s t the jesuite's (1581), by P i e r r e Boquine. The t r a n s l a t i o n p r o j e c t examined i n t h i s study does not seem to have e l i c i t e d a h o s t i l e response from Church a u t h o r i t i e s . There are, of course, i n the p r e f a t o r y e p i s t l e s , commonplace requests to patrons f o r p r o t e c t i o n . Who these i n d i v i d u a l s are that t h r e a t e n the s e c u r i t y of the t r a n s l a t o r s i s not r e v e a l e d i n the p r e f a t o r y e p i s t l e s . Those t r a n s l a t o r s who were a l s o "non-conformists" might w e l l have been r e q u e s t i n g p r o t e c t i o n as a r e s u l t of t h e i r other a c t i v i t i e s . I t i s known, f o r example, that some of the t r a n s l a t o r s , f o r t h e i r non-conformist stances, were suspended or d e p r i v e d of t h e i r l i v i n g s . T h i s i s not to say that t h e i r t r a n s l a t i o n a c t i v i t y i s e n t i r e l y separate from the r e l i g i o u s c o n t r o v e r s i e s of the day. I t i s e v i d e n t from Milward's study that a major ar e a of c o n f l i c t i n t h i s p e r i o d i s the r e l i g i o u s c o n t r o v e r s y that he l a b e l s : " P a p i s t s vs. P r o t e s t a n t s . " As seen i n Chapter Three of t h i s paper, the t h r e a t of Roman C a t h o l i c s to the C h r i s t i a n -67-community was a primary concern of the t r a n s l a t o r s . Instead of w r i t i n g i n v e c t i v e s a g a i n s t "popish" c o r r u p t i o n s w i t h i n the Church, the t r a n s l a t o r s are concerned with C a t h o l i c s and other h e r e t i c s who pose an e x t e r n a l t h r e a t to godly thought and b e h a v i o r amongst the masses. The t r a n s l a t o r s are i n t e r e s t e d i n both p r o t e c t i n g the godly from such a menace and r e f u t i n g (and p o s s i b l y c o n v e r t i n g ) " p a p i s t s " , as w e l l as other h e r e t i c s . I t i s t h i s t h r e a t , a l o n g w i t h concern over the g e n e r a l ignorance, and sometimes h o s t i l i t y , of the common people i n regard to the t r u e C h r i s t i a n f a i t h t h a t l i e s behind t h i s t r a n s l a t i o n work. ***** -68-NOTES Pre f a c e 1. John F i e l d , t r a n s . , The other p a r t of C h r i s t i a n Questions and Answers (1580), by Theodore Beza, S i g . * 3 . r , sgg.*6.v-*7.v. Chapter One 1. Thomas Wilcox, t r a n s . , Two very l e a r n e d sermons (1588), by Theodore Beza, S i g . 2.r.; John Harmar, t r a n s . , Sermons...vpon the X. commandments (1579), by Jean C a l v i n . 2. N a t h a n i e l Baxter, t r a n s . , A f n l . . . e x p o s i t i o n vppon the  two l a s t E p i s t l e s of Iohn (1578), by Augustine M a r l o r a t ; Thomas Tymme, t r a n s . , A T n l . . . e x p o s i t i o n of the h o l y Gospel a f t e r S. John (1575), by Augustine M a r l o r a t . 3. C h r i s t o p h e r Fetherstone, t r a n s . , The Actes of the a p o s t l e s (1578), by Jean C a l v i n . 4. Thomas Tymme, t r a n s . , A f n l . . . e x p o s i t i o n a f t e r S. Marke  and Luke (1583), by Augustine M a r l o r a t ; Robert Vaux, t r a n s . , A commentarie...vpon the E p i s t l e to the  G a l a t h l a n s (1581), by Jean C a l v i n . 5. Eusebius P a g i t , t r a n s . , A harmonle vpon the three  e u a n g e l i s t s (1584), by Jean C a l v i n . 6. F r a n k l i n B. W i l l i a m s , Index of D e d i c a t i o n s and Commendarv  Vers e s. p . i x . Chapter Two 1. Calendar of State Papers, F o r e i g n Series...Aug. 1584 -Aug. 1585, p.462. For other r e f e r e n c e s to French works be i n g t r a n s f e r r e d to England see: I b i d , p.574; Calendar  of S t a t e Papers, F o r e i g n S e r i e s . . . June 1586 - June 1588, p.347; Calendar of State Papers, F o r e i g n S e r i e s ... Jan.- June 158 8, p.533. 2. John Strype, The L i f e and A c t s of Archbishop G r i n d a l , p.195. 3. Laurence Tomson, t r a n s . , A t r e a t i s e of the E x c e l l e n c l e  of a C h r i s t i a n Man (1576), by P i e r r e de La P l a c e , S i g . * i i j . r . 4. N a t h a n i e l Baxter, t r a n s . , The l e c t u r e s or d a i l y sermons (1578), by Jean C a l v i n , S i g . A . i j . r . ; John Stockwood, t r a n s . , A p l t h l e t r e a t i z e of the plague (1580), by Theodore Beza, S i g . 3 . r . ; John Harmar, t r a n s . , Sermons  vpon the f i r s t three chapters of the C a n t i c l e of  C a n t i c l e s (1587), by Theodore Beza. -69-5. N a t h a n i e l Baxter, t r a n s . , The l e c t u r e s or d a l l y sermons (1578), by Jean C a l v i n , S i g . A . i i i j . v ; C h r i s t o p h e r F e t h e r s t o n e , t r a n s . , A_ harmonle vpon the three  e u a n a e l i s t s (1584), by Jean C a l v i n ; C h r i s t o p h e r F e t h e r s t o n e , t r a n s . , The Actes of the a p o s t l e s (1585), by Jean C a l v i n . 6. W i l l i a m Hopkinson, t r a n s . , An euident d i s p l a y of pop i s h  p r a c t i s e s (1578), by Theodore Beza; John Stockwood, t r a n s . , Common p l a c e s of C h r i s t i a n R e l i g i o n (1572), by H e i n r i c h B u i l i n g e r , S i g . * i i . r . ; Edward May, t r a n s . , The  I n s t i t u t i o n s . . . a b r i d g e d , by Jean C a l v i n . 7. John Stockwood, t r a n s . , Common p l a c e s of C h r i s t i a n  R e l i g i o n (1572), by H e i n r i c h B u l l i n g e r , S i g . * v . v . 8. N a t h a n i e l Baxter, t r a n s . , The l e c t u r e s or d a l l y sermons (1578), by Jean C a l v i n , S i g . B . i . r . _ 9. Anthony G i l b y , t r a n s . , Psalmes of Dauld (1580), by Theodore Beza, S i g . * v . r . ; Anon t r a n s . ('Preface to the Reader'), A p o c a l y p s l s (1592), by F r a n c o i s Du Jon. 10. Anon, t r a n s . ('Preface to the Reader'), A p o c a l y p s l s (1592), by F r a n c o i s Du Jon. 11. A r t h u r G o l d i n g , t r a n s . , Sermons...vpon the Booke of lob (1574), by Jean C a l v i n . 12. Anon, t r a n s . ('Preface to the Reader'), A p o c a l y p s l s (1592), by F r a n c o i s Du Jon ; C h r i s t o p h e r R o s d e l l , t r a n s . , Commentaries vpon the e p i s t l e to the Romanes (1583), by Jean C a l v i n , Sig.C.4.v. 13. Anthony G i l b y , t r a n s . ('Preface to the Reader'), Commentaries...vpon the Prophet D a n l e l l (1570), by Jean C a l v i n . ; Edward May, t r a n s . , The I n s t i t u t i o n s . . . a b ridged (1580),by Jean C a l v i n . 14. Anthony G i l b y , t r a n s . , Commentaries...vpon the Prophet  Dan1e11 (1570), by Jean C a l v i n . ; John Harmar, t r a n s . , Sermons vpon...the C a n t i c l e s of C a n t i c l e s (1587), by Theodore Beza. 15. C h r i s t o p h e r Fetherstone, t r a n s . ('Preface to the Reader'), The b r v t l s h thunderbolt (1586), by F r a n c o i s Hotman. 16. John Stockwood, t r a n s . , Common p l a c e s of C h r i s t i a n  R e l i g i o n (1572), by H e i n r i c h B u l l i n g e r , S i g . * i i i i . v . 17. Laurence Tomson, t r a n s . , The New Testament (1576), S i g . a . i i j . r . 18. R.B., t r a n s . , A t r e a t i s e of the p r e p a r a t i o n to the ho l y  Supper (1578?), by Yves Rouspeau, s g g . A . i i . r . - A . i i i . r . 19. Thomas Wilcox, t r a n s . , Two very l e r n e d sermons (1588), by Theodore Beza, S i g . 4 . r . 20. Laurence Tomson, t r a n s . , The New Testament (1576), S i g . a . i i j . r . ; Edward May, t r a n s . . The I n s t i t u t i o n s . . .  a b r i d g e d (1580), by Jean C a l v i n . 21. C h r i s t o p h e r R o s d e l l , t r a n s . , A commentary upon the  e p i s t l e to the Romanes (1583), by Jean C a l v i n , Sig.C.3.r. -70-Chapter Three 1. Thomas Wilcox, t r a n s . , A_ catechlsme and plavne  I n s t r u c t i o n (1580), by Robert Le Macon, S i g . A i j . r . 2. Thomas Wilcox, t r a n s . , Three p r o p o s i t i o n s or speeches (1580), by Jean C a l v i n , sgg.*2.v.-*4.r.; Thomas Wilcox, t r a n s . , The true and v i s i b l e markes of the  c a t h o l l q u e church (1582), by Theodore Beza. 3. N a t h a n i e l Baxter, t r a n s . , The l e c t u r e s or d a i l y  sermons(1578), by Jean C a l v i n , S i g . A i j . v . ; Anne Prowse, t r a n s . , Of the markes of the c h i l d r e n of God (1590), by Jean T a f f i n , sgg.A.4.r.-A.5.r. 4. N a t h a n i e l Baxter, t r a n s . , The l e c t u r e s or d a l l y sermons (1578), by Jean C a l v i n , S i g A i j . r . , S i g . A i i j . r . 5. Thomas Wilcox, t r a n s . , A catechlsme and plavne  i n s t r u c t i o n (1580), by Robert Le Macon, S i g . A i i j . r . , S i g . A i i i j . r . ; John Stockwood, t r a n s . , Common p l a c e s  of C h r i s t i a n R e l i g i o n (1572), by H e i n r i c h B u l l i n g e r , S i g . * i i i . r . 6. John Stockwood, t r a n s . , Common p l a c e s of C h r i s t i a n  R e l i g i o n (1572), by H e i n r i c h B u l l i n g e r , s g g . * i i i i . r . -i i i i . v . 7. Henry H o l l a n d , t r a n s . , Aphorlsmes of C h r i s t i a n R e l i g i o n (1596), by Jean C a l v i n ; Thomas Wilcox, t r a n s . , A catechlsme and plavne i n s t r u c t i o n (1580), by Robert Le Macon, S i g . A v i i . r . 8. Thomas Stocker, t r a n s . , An e x c e l l e n t t r e a t i s e of the  imm o r t a l y t i e of the soule (1581), by Jean C a l v i n , S i g . A i i . r . 9. John F i e l d , t r a n s . , Foure Sermons (1579), by Jean C a l v i n , S i g . 2 . r . 10. Eusebius P a g i t , t r a n s . , A harmonie vpon the three  E u a n g e l i s t s (1584), by Jean C a l v i n . 11. N a t h a n i e l Baxter, t r a n s . , The l e c t u r e s or d a i l y sermons (1578), by Jean C a l v i n , S i g . A i i j . v . 12. John Stockwood, t r a n s . , Common p l a c e s of C h r i s t i a n  R e l i g i o n (1572), by H e i n r i c h B u l l i n g e r , S i g . * v . r . 13. I b i d . S i g . * i j . v . 14. I b i d . S i g . * i i i i . v . 15. Thomas Wilcox, t r a n s . , A catechlsme and plavne  i n s t r u c t i o n (1580), by Robert Le Macon, Sig.Av.v. 16. I b i d , Sig.Av.v.; Anne Prowse, t r a n s . , Of the markes  of the c h i l d r e n of God (1590), by Jean T a f f i n , sgg.A.3.r.-A.3.v. 17. Thomas Stocker, t r a n s . , D l u e r s sermons (1581), by Jean C a l v i n . 18. W i l l i a m Hopkinson, t r a n s . , An euident d i s p l a y of p o p i s h  p r a c t i s e s (1578), by Theodore Beza; Thomas Stocker, t r a n s . , D l u e r s sermons (1581), by Jean C a l v i n . 19. John Stockwood, t r a n s . , Common p l a c e s of C h r i s t i a n  R e l i g i o n (1572), by H e i n r i c h B u l l i n g e r , sgg.*6.r-*6.v. -71-20. John F i e l d , t r a n s . , T h i r t e e n e sermons (1579), by Jean C a l v i n , sgg.B.2.v.-B.3.r.; C h r i s t o p h e r F e t h e r s t o n e , t r a n s . , A harmonie vpon the three e u a n q e l l s t s (1584), by Jean C a l v i n . 21. W i l l i a m Hopkinson, t r a n s . , An euldent d i s p l a y of p o p i s h  p r a c t i s e s (1578), by Theodore Beza; W.H., t r a n s . , The  f i r s t E p i s t l e of S a i n t John (1580), by Jean C a l v i n , S i g . A i j . r . 22. Thomas Wilcox, t r a n s . , The t r u e and v i s i b l e markes of the  c a t h o l i q u e church (1582), by Theodore Beza, S i g . 7 . r . 23. I b i d , Sig.6.v.; C h r i s t o p h e r F e t h e r s t o n e , t r a n s . , The  b r v t l s h t h u n d e r b o l t (1586), by F r a n c o i s Hotman, Sig.A.5.r. 24. Peter Milward, R e l i g i o u s C o n t r o v e r s i e s of the E l i z a b e t h a n  Age, p.39. 25. John Swan, t r a n s . , A t r e a t i s e , t o u c h i n g A n t i - C h r i s t (1589), by Lambert Daneau; John F i e l d , t r a n s . , Foure  sermons (1579), by Jean C a l v i n , S i g . 3 . r . 26. John Swan, t r a n s . , A t r e a t i s e t o u c h i n g A n t i - C h r i s t (1589), by Lambert Daneau; John F i e l d , t r a n s . , Foure  Sermons (1579), by Jean C a l v i n , Sig.>2.v. 27. Thomas Wilcox, t r a n s . , Two very l e r n e d sermons (1588), by Theodore Beza, sgg.3.r.- 3.v. 28. C h r i s t o p h e r Fetherstone, t r a n s . , The b r v t l s h t h u n d e r b o l t (1586), by F r a n c o i s Hotman, sgg.A.3.v.-A.4.r. 29. C h r i s t o p h e r Fetherstone, t r a n s . , The Actes of the  a p o s t l e s (1585), by Jean C a l v i n ; C h r i s t o p h e r Fe t h e r s t o n e , t r a n s . , The b r v t l s h t h u n d e r b o l t (1586), by F r a n c o i s Hotman, Sig.A.4.v.; A r t h u r G o l d i n g , t r a n s . , The warfare of C h r i s t i a n s (1576), anon., s g g . A i i j . r . - A i i j . v . , S i g . A . i i i j . r . 30. A r t h u r G o l d i n g , t r a n s . , The trewnesse of the C h r i s t i a n  R e l i g i o n (1587), by P h i l i p p e de Mornay, S i g . * 3 . r . 31. John Harmar, t r a n s . , Sermons vpon the three f i r s t  c h a pters of the C a n t i c l e s of C a n t i c l e s (1587), by Theodore Beza. 32. John F i e l d , t r a n s . , T h i r t e e n e sermons (1579), by Jean C a l v i n , Sig.A.4.v. 33. For example, see: Thomas Wilcox, t r a n s . , Three  p r o p o s i t i o n s or speeches (1580), by Jean C a l v i n , Sig.*2.v.; Anne Prowse, t r a n s . , Of the markes of the  c h i l d r e n of God (1590), by Jean T a f f i n , Sig.A.2.r. 34. A r t h u r G o l d i n g , t r a n s . , E x p o s i t i o n vpon the R e u e l a t i o n of  S. Iohn (1574), by Augustine M a r l o r a t . 35. I b i d . 36. A r t h u r G o l d i n g , A d i s c o u r s e vpon the Earthquake (1580), S i g . C . i i i j . v . 37. John Coxe, t r a n s . , Questions of R e l i g i o n (1572), by H e i n r i c h B u l l i n g e r , s g g . * i j . r - * i i j . v . 38. Anthony G i l b y , t r a n s . , The Psalmes of Dauld (1580), by Theodore Beza, s g g . i j . v - i i j . r . 39. I b i d , s g g . i i j . r - i i j . v . 40. I b i d , s g g . i i i j . r . - i i i j . v . -72-41. I b i d , s g g . i i j . v - i i i j . r . 42. Thomas Tymme, The f i g u r e of A n t l c h r l s t e (1586), S i g . 8 . r . 43. Thomas Tymme, A S i l v e r Watch B e l l (1605), sgg.*2.v-*3.r.; f i g u r e of A n t l c h r l s t e (1586), Sig.9.v. 44. Thomas Tymme, t r a n s . , A ( n ) . . . e x p o s i t i o n . . . a f t e r S.  Mathewe (1570), by Augustine M a r l o r a t ; Thomas Tymme, Pr e f a c e , A p r e p a r a t i o n a g a i n s t the p r o g n o s t i c a t e d  dangers (1588), Sig.B.7.r. 45. John F i e l d , t r a n s . , Foure sermons (1579), by Jean C a l v i n , sgg.2.r.-3.r.; Thomas Wilcox, t r a n s . , Three  p r o p o s i t i o n s or speeches (1580), by Jean C a l v i n , sgg.*3.r.-*3.v.; Anthony G i l b y , t r a n s . . The psalmes of  Dauld (1580), by Theodore Beza, S i g . 3 . r . Chapter Four 1. Peter Lake, Moderate P u r i t a n s and the E l i z a b e t h a n Church, p.1-3. 2. Thomas Wilcox, t r a n s . , The tr u e and v i s i b l e markes of the  c a t h o l l g u e churche (1582), by Theodore Beza, S i g . S . r . -73-BIBLIOGRAPHY The f o l l o w i n g i n c l u d e s o r i g i n a l w r i t i n g s by the t r a n s l a t o r s (primary s o u r c e s ) , as w e l l as secondary sources. The main source m a t e r i a l f o r the study, the t r a n s l a t o r s ' p r e f a t o r y e p i s t l e s , i s l i s t e d i n 'Appendix C'. Primary Sources G o l d i n g , A r t h u r , A d i s c o u r s e vpon the Earthquake that  happened throughe t h i s Realme of Enqlande, and other p l a c e s  of Chrlstendome, the f i r s t of A p r i l l . 1580. London: H. Binneman, 1580. Tymme, Thomas, The f i g u r e of A n t l c h r i s t e . w i t h the tokens of  the end of the world, most p l a i n l y d e c i p h e r e d by a c a t h o l i k e  e x p o s i t i o n of the seconde e p i s t l e to the Th e s s a l o n i a n s . London: T. Dawson f o r F. Coldocke, 1586. Tymme, Thomas, A P r e p a r a t i o n a g a i n s t the p r o g n o s t i c a t e d  dangers of t h i s veare, 1588. London: J . Wolfe, 1588. Tymme, Thomas, A S i l v e r w a t c h - b e l l . The sound wherof i s abl e  to win the w o r l d l i n g , to become a true c h r i s t i a n . Where with  i s annexed a t r e a t i s e of the Lords Supper. London: T. Creede f o r W. Cotton, 1605. Secondary Sources C h r i s t i a n s o n , P a u l , Reformers and Babylon: The E n g l i s h  A p o c a l y p t i c V i s i o n s from the Reformation to the Eve of the  C i v i l War. U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , 1978. C o l l i n s o n , P a t r i c k , The E l i z a b e t h a n P u r i t a n Movement. Ber k e l e y & Los Angeles: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P ress, 1967. C o l l i n s o n , P a t r i c k , The R e l i g i o n of P r o t e s t a n t s . The Church  i n E n g l i s h S o c i e t y 1559-1625. Oxford: Clarendon P r e s s , 1982. F i r t h , K a t h a r i n e , The A p o c a l y p t i c T r a d i t i o n i n Reformation  B r i t a i n . 1530-1645. Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1979. Hagg, M.M., La France P r o t e s t a n t e ou v i e s des P r o t e s t a n t s  F r a n c a i s . v o l . s 1-10. Genieve: S l a t k i n e R e p r i n t s , 1966. Lake, P e t e r , Moderate P u r i t a n s and the E l i z a b e t h a n Church. Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1982. Lalanne, Ludovic, D l c t l o n n a l r e H l s t o r l q u e de l a France.  Contentent pour L ' H i s t o i r e C i v i l e . P o l i t i q u e et L i t t e r a l r e  (2nd. ed.). P a r i s : L i b r a i r i e Hachette et C . i e . , 1877. -74-Lomas, Sophie Crawford, ed., Calendar of State Papers,  F o r e i g n S e r i e s , of the r e i g n of E l i z a b e t h Aug. 1584 - Aug.  1585. P r e s e r v e d i n Her Majesty's P u b l i c Record O f f i c e . London: The H e r e f o r d Times L i m i t e d . , 1914. Lomas, Sophie Crawford, ed., Calendar of State Papers,  F o r e i g n S e r i e s , of the r e i g n of E l i z a b e t h June 1586 - June  1588. Preserved i n Her Majesty's P u b l i c Record O f f i c e . London: The H e r e f o r d Times L i m i t e d . , 1927. Lomas, Sophie Crawford, ed., Calendar of S t a t e Papers,  F o r e i g n S e r i e s , of the r e i g n of E l i z a b e t h Jan. - June 1588. P r e s e r v e d i n Her Majesty's P u b l i c Record O f f i c e . London: The H e r e f o r d Times L i m i t e d . , 1931. Milward, Peter, R e l i g i o u s C o n t r o v e r s i e s of the E l i z a b e t h a n  Age. A Survey of P r i n t e d Sources, with a foreword by G. R. E l t o n . London: The S c o l a r Press, 1977. P o l l a r d , A.W. & Redgrave, G.R., A S h o r t - T i t l e Catelogue of  Books P r i n t e d i n England, S c o t l a n d . and I r e l a n d and of  E n g l i s h Books P r i n t e d Abroad 1475-1640 (2nd. ed.). London: The B i b l i o g r a p h i c a l S o c i e t y , 1986 ( v o l . 1) & 1976 ( v o l . 2 ) . Stephens, L e s l i e & Lee, Sidney, ed.s, D i c t i o n a r y of N a t i o n a l  Biography. Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1921-1922 ( r e p r i n t ) . Strype, John, The H i s t o r y of the Most Reverend Father i n God.  Edmund G r l n d a l . Oxford: The Clarendon P r e s s , MDCCCXX1. W i l l i a m s , F r a n k l i n B., Index of D e d i c a t i o n s and Commendarv  Verses i n E n g l i s h Books Before 1641. London: The B i b l i o g r a p h i c a l S o c i e t y , 1962. -75-APPENDIX A The f o l l o w i n g l i s t r e p r e s e n t s French works i n E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n t h at c o n t a i n both p o l i t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s themes. These works are not i n c l u d e d i n t h i s paper as they were deemed more p o l i t i c a l than r e l i g i o u s . Judging by the s i z e of the l i s t , which i s not exhaustive, there was c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t i n England i n t h i s p e r i o d i n works d e a l i n g w i t h such matters (there i s a l s o a c o n s i d e r a b l e number of such t r a n s l a t i o n s i n the e a r l y decades of the seventeenth c e n t u r y ) . I f one compares t h i s group of t r a n s l a t i o n s with the group of t r a n s l a t i o n s that form the s u b j e c t of t h i s paper (see 'Appendix C ) , one f i n d s a g r e a t e r number of anonymous t r a n s l a t i o n s among the works l i s t e d below. A l s o , o n l y a m i n o r i t y of works i n the l i s t below c o n t a i n p r e f a t o r y e p i s t l e s by t h e i r t r a n s l a t o r s . Consequently, a s i m i l a r study of the works c o n t a i n e d i n the l i s t below would be d i f f i c u l t . One f i n d s two t r a n s l a t o r s i n v o l v e d i n both t r a n s l a t i o n p r o j e c t s : Thomas Tymme and A r t h u r G o l d i n g . Anon. A d i s c o u r s e of the C l u l l e w a r r e s . . . i n Fraunce (1570). T r a n s l a t e d by G e f f r a y Fenton. Hotman, F r a n c o i s , A true and p l a i n e r e p o r t of the f u r i o u s  outrages of Fraunce. and the h o r r i b l e and shameful s l a u g h t e r  of C h a s t l l l l o n the a d m l r a l l . and d l u e r s other noble and  e x c e l l e n t men, and of the wicked and straunge murder of  g o d l l e persons. committed i n many c i t i e s of Fraunce (1573). Anon, t r a n s l a t i o n . S e r r e s , Jean de, The f v r s t p a r t e of commentaries, concerning  the s t a t e of r e l i g i o n , and the common wealthe of Fraunce (1573). T r a n s l a t e d by T. Tymme. Se r r e s , Jean de, The three p a r t s of Commentaries, c o n t a i n i n g  the whole and p e r f e c t d i s c o u r s e of the c i u i l l warres of  Fraunce (1574). T r a n s l a t e d by T. Tymme. Pi t h o u , P i e r r e , A mervaylous d i s c o u r s e vpon the l v f e , deedes,  and behauiours of K a t h e r l n e de M e d l c i s . Oueene Mother:  wherein are d i s p l a y e d the meanes which she hath p r a c t i s e d to  a t t e v n e vnto the v s u r p i n g of the Klngedome of France, and to  the b r i n g i n g of the same vnto v t t e r r u l n e and d e s t r u c t i o n (1575). Anon, t r a n s l a t i o n . G e n t i l l e t , Innocent, A d e c l a r a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the  n e e d f u l n e s s e of peace to be made i n Fraunce, and the meanes  of the maklnhg of the same: e x h i b i t e d t o . . . H e n r l e the second  of that name...vpon two e d i c t e s put f o r t h by His  Maiestie...1574 (1575). T r a n s l a t e d by G. Harte. -76-Hotman, F r a n c o i s (or, S e r r e s , de Jean), The l v f e of the most  godly, v a l e a n t and noble c a p t e i n e and maintainer of the trew  C h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n i n Fraunce, Iasper C o l i g n i e S h a t l l i o n ,  sometyme gr e a t e admiral1 of Fraunce (1576). T r a n s l a t e d by A. G o l d i n g . S e r r e s , Jean de, The f o u r t h p a r t e of Commentaries of the  c l u i l l warres i n Fraunce, and of the lowe c o u n t r l e of  Flaunders (1576). T r a n s l a t e d by T. Tymme. Regnier, L o u i s , s i e u r de La Planche, A l e g e n d a r i e . c o n t e l n i n g  an ample d i s c o v r s e of the l i f e and behaviour of Ch a r l e s  c a r d i n a l of L o r r a i n e , and of h i s b r e t h r e n of the house of  Guise (1577). Anon, t r a n s l a t i o n . G e n t i l l e t , Innocent, Apology or defense of the C h r i s t i a n s of  Fraunce which are of the e u a n g e l l c a l l or reformed  r e l i g i o n . . . W r i t t e n to the k i n g of Navarre (1579). T r a n s l a t e d by I. Bowes. Casmir, John, C e r t a i n e o r a t i o n s and answeres made vnto the  French k i n g In defense of peace (1579). Anon, t r a n s l a t i o n . E s t i e n n e , H e n r i , The stage of pop i s h toves...With a f r l e n d l l e forewarning to our C a e t e l l n C a t h o l i k e s : and a b r i e f a d m i n l t i o n , of the su n d r l e b e n e f i t e s we r e c e i u e by H i r Ma:  b l e s s e d gouernment ouer v s . . . (1581). Anon, t r a n s l a t i o n . G r a n v e l l e , Antoine Perrenot de, C a r d i n a l , L e t t e r s contevning  sundry d e u i c e s . touching the s t a t e of Flaunders and  P o r t u g a l 1 : w r i t t e n by c a r d i n a l G r a n v e l l e and o t h e r s , and  l a t e l y i n t e r c e p t e d and p u b l i s h e d (1582). Anon, t r a n s l a t i o n . Mornay, P h i l i p p e de, An advertisement from a French  gentleman, touching the i n t e n t i o n and meaning which those of  the house of Guise haue i n t h e i r l a t e l e u v l n g of f o r c e s and  armes i n the realme of France: w r i t t e n as an answere to a  c e r t a i n e D e c l a r a t i o n p u b l i s h e d i n the name of the C a r d i n a l of  Burbon (1585). Anon, t r a n s l a t i o n . E r o n d e l l e , P i e r r e , A d e c l a r a t i o n and c a t h o l i c k e e x h o r t a t i o n  to a l 1 C h r i s t i a n p r i n c e s to succour the church of God and  realme of France... (1586). Anon, t r a n s l a t i o n . La Noue, F r a n c o i s de, The p o l l t l c k e and m i l l t a r i e d i s c o v r s e s  of the Lord de La Noue. Whereunto are adioyned c e r t a i n e  o b s e r u a t i o n s o f . . . t h i n g s happened d u r i n g the three l a t e  c i u i l l warres of France... (1587). T r a n s l a t e d by E. Aggas. H u r a u l t , M i c h e l , A d i s c o u r s e vpon the presen t s t a t e of France  [Together with a cople of the Kings l e t t e r s . . . d e c l a r i n g h i s  mind a f t e r h i s departure from P a r i s . Whereunto i s added two  L e t t e r s by the Duke of Guize... (1588). Anon, t r a n s l a t i o n . -77-Anon., A P o l i t l k e D i s c o u r s e most e x c e l l e n t f o r t h i s time  p r e s e n t : Composed by a French Gentleman, a g a i n s t those of the  League (1589). Anon, t r a n s l a t i o n . Anon., The Contre-Guvse: C o n t a i n i n g the e n t r y of the savde  Family i n t o Fraunce, with t h e i r ambitious p e r n i t l o u s  p r a c t i s e s f o r the o b t a i n i n g a s p i r i n g s , and of the crowne  th e r e o f (1589). Anon, t r a n s l a t i o n . Daneau, Lambert, A t r e a t i s e , touching A n t i - C h r i s t . . . p u b l i s h e d f o r the encouragement of those which  iovne i n the intended a c t i o n s a g a i n s t the Spaniard (1589). T r a n s l a t e d by J . Swan. Mornay, P h i l i p p e de, A l e t t e r written" by a French C a t h o l l k e  gentleman, to the m a l s t e r s of Sorbonne. Concerning the l a t e  v i c t o r i e s o b t a i n e d bv the k i n g of Nauarre (1588). Anon, t r a n s l a t i o n . La Noue, F r a n c o i s e de, The d e c l a r a t i o n of the Lord de La  Noue. vpon h i s t a k i n g armes (1589). T r a n s l a t e d by A. Munday. La Noue, F r a n c o i s de, A d i s c o u r s e vpon the d e c l a r a t i o n  p u b l i s h e d bv the Lord de La Noue (1589). Anon, t r a n s l a t i o n . F r e g e v i l l e , Jean de, The reformed p o l l t l c k e . That i s . an  a p o l o g l e f o r the g e n e r a l l cause of r e f o r m a t i o n w r i t t e n  a g a i n s t the slaunders of the pope and the League...Whereto i s  adlovned a d i s c o u r s e vpon the death of the Duke of Guise,  p r o s e c u t i n g the argument of the book... (1589). Anon, t r a n s l a t i o n . Mornay, P h i l i p p e de, A l e t t e r , w r i t t e n bv a French C a t h o l l k e  gentleman. Contevnlng a b r i e f e aunswere to the slaunders of  a c e r t a i n e pretended Englishman f L o u l s d'Orleans] (1589). Anon, t r a n s l a t i o n . H u r a u l t , M i c h e l [or, Anon.], The r e s t o r e r of the French  e s t a t e d l s c o u e r l n g the true causes of these warres In France  and other c o u n t r i e s , and d e l l u e r l n g the r i g h t course of  r e s t o r i n g peace and g u l e t to a l l Chrlstendome (1589). T r a n s l a t e d by M. H u r a u l t . H u r a u l t , M i c h e l , A n t l S l x t u s . An o r a t i o n of Pope S i x t u s the  F i f t , vppon the death of the l a t e French k i n g , Henrie the  T h i r d . With a c o n f u t a t i o n of the s a i d o r a t i o n . Wherein a l l  the treacherous p r a c t i s e s of the House of L o r r a i n e , are  l a r g e l y d e s c r i b e d (1590). T r a n s l a t e d by A.P. Viques, C a p t a i n , A l e t t e r w r i t t e n by a c a t h o l i c k e gentleman,  to the lady lane Clement, the h a u l t i n g p r i n c e s s e of the  League. From s a i n t Denis (1590). Anon, t r a n s l a t i o n . -78-Viques, C a p t a i n , The rodomantades of captavne Vlques...a  t r a v t o u r to h i s k i n g , slavne i n f i g h t under the banner of the  Leaguers. Wherein i s expressed. the d e s i r e of a bloudv  minde, and the reward of a f a l s e t r a i t o u r (1591). Anon, t r a n s l a t i o n . H u r a u l t , M i c h e l , A copple of the a n t i - S p a n i a r d , made at P a r i s  by a Frenchmen, a c a t h o l l g u e . Wherein i s d i r e c t l y proued how  the Spanish k i n g i s the onelv cause of a l l the t r o u b l e s i n  France...(1590). T r a n s l a t e d by A. Munday. Colyn e t , Antony, The true h i s t o r y of the c i u i l l warres i n  France, betweene k i n g Henry the 4. and the Leaguers.  Gathered from 1585 v n t i l l the present October 1591 (1591). Anon, t r a n s l a t i o n . D i g i u e r e s , Monsieur de, A most e x c e l l e n t e x p l o i t perfourmed  by monsieur de D i g i u e r e s , vpon the popes armle. With a  d i s c o u r s e of the ouerthrow of the duke of Sauoves army (1591). T r a n s l a t e d by E. Aggas. H u r a u l t , M i c h e l , An e x c e l l e n t d i s c o v r s e vpon the present  e s t a t e of France (1592). T r a n s l a t e d by E. Aggas. L a u z i e r e , Pons, Marquis de Themines, The coppy of a l e t t e r  w r i t t e n by the Lord of Themines. A l s o a decree of the court  of Parliament s l t t i n q e at Chaalons (1593). T r a n s l a t e d by E. Aggas. Renichon, M i c h e l de, The c o n f e s s i o n of M i c h e l Renichon.  Concerning, the bloudv e n t e r p r i s e , which should have bene  committed vpon Maurice, p r i n c e of Orange (1594). T r a n s l a t e d by R. Robinson. A d e c l a r a t i o n and p r o t e s t a t i o n . . . A l s o two l e t t e r s w r i t t e n by  the savd k i n g of Nauarre....More, an e p i s t l e w r i t t e n by  P h i l i p p e de Mornav to the French k i n g . Hereunto... are  I n s e r t e d the a r t i c l e s agreed vpon between the k i n g and the  Lordes of Guvze (1594). Anon, t r a n s l a t i o n . Le Roy, P i e r r e , A p l e a s a n t s a t v r e or p o e s l e : wherein i s  d i s c o u e r e d the C a t h o l l c o n of Spavne, and the c h i e f e l e a d e r s  of the French League (1595). T r a n s l a t e d by T. Wilcox. Pont-aymery, Alexandre de, A s t a t e d i s c o u r s e vpon the l a t e  h u rt of the French k i n g (1595). T r a n s l a t e d by E. Aggas. Maulette, Genevieve Petau, Devorevx, Vertues t e a r e s f o r the  l o s s e o f . . . k i n g Henry. t h i r d of that name, k i n g of Fraunce:  and the untimely death of...Walter Deuoreux, who was s l a i n e  b e f o r e Roan i n Fraunce (1597). T r a n s l a t e d by J . Markham. -79-Du Nesme, Jean, The m i r a c l e of the peace In Fraunce.  C e l e b r a t e d by the ghost of the d i u i n e Du B a r t a s (1599). T r a n s l a t e d by J . S y l u e s t e r . -80-APPENDIX B In order to i l l u s t r a t e the marked d i f f e r e n c e s between the two types of E p i s t l e D e d i c a t o r y d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter One, two p r e f a t o r y e p i s t l e s have been c o p i e d from the m i c r o - f i l m and i n c l u d e d here. The f i r s t e p i s t l e i s a t y p i c a l Type A E p i s t l e D e d i c a t o r y . I t i s from Thomas Tymme's t r a n s l a t i o n of An  c a t h o l l k e e x p o s i t i o n vpon the twoo l a s t e p i s t l e s of Iohn (1578), by Augustine M a r l o r a t . One would f i n d s i m i l a r Type A e p i s t l e s i n the e a r l y seventeenth century. The second example i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the Type B d e d i c a t o r y e p i s t l e s used i n t h i s paper. I t i s from Anne Prowse's t r a n s l a t i o n Of the  markes of the c h i l d r e n of God, and t h e i r comforts i n  a f f l i c t i o n s (1590), by Jean T a f f i n . -81-g T O . T H E R I G H T H O N O R A B L E "•::.':Lorde ThomasEarle of Su(Tex,Vicount Fitzwalter, jipzQeofcggranoat,anD:n^ HonorabIej}ruiieCounfa.y-Ic,aiid Lordeliijjli Cli.-.inbcrlaync of- hir.houfe, of djcnoblc q;0cr of tljc barter ilnrgijt ,3»(Kcc cif iD^ cr at t hr $a;rcQs, • Parkcs, VVarraynci, and .Cliales f "ram Tr'encSoudivvardc;' | andCaptavncofclicCcnt!c:iicn ' -j' Petitioners: j : .! ' • 3!no to tfycngtytfyonozabte j U D p t u p f c , encrcafc: 1 flf honour ano true hr.clDlzocc, in f HE q%EAT T%Jp^ lice which the Chnili ia minde sjo receyue by reading this Bool ce, was cne came; wny i K%§p£tyS' cpoke the paynes to Tranllate ic out of Latin..-into the E n -I mendinc thcror the mere di- . *^£<ij^2t£-:i Ad\\ tcuri<r * add theRecom-^rr7rc^^, . j ; ! | j - c n t j y to haue it read, wr Li the occafion which moued me co Dedicace my parte therein to your Honors. For what Englifhe man is there which wil l not thinke ic a BookcYnoil: worthy the reading, which he feeth warranted by your N a m e s : .The honorable and generall report whereof hartneth me to prefent it vnto you : wherein ye (hall finde the deepe and deuine Euangelilr SauiE falm: the'marrow o f all Commentaries vppon him, ruder the name o f o??v£arlomtes Collection : laii,and leait, my faychrull era-ucll to turne them bothe co che vie or my Countrey. . T h e thing I know your Honors will like well, bicaufe, as Iheare, vou can skilful!v iudpe. lo I doubt not but ' you haue made your choycewhat to reade,which lo.-, muchebrutethche credits of your abiliue, founde out -32-f^khj:Q&cl. A s forji'iy labbr^may' it pieafeydurljloiiors ^ t o j i k e i c , as com riitng from one,which caught with die • ^ commendat ion ofyour Learning and Wiidome-gche-/-•'rally noyzed, could not but offer my felfe to ydu[as the' 'wonder ingQueeneof ^^could .no t renr ty l l me had ' fe'ene Salomons perfon, of whole wifdome flic had hard fomuche. A n d withall I thought it good in dffenna: m y labor to your Honors, to ioyne you both tqgither, . thinking with my felfe thacitmuil needes fol low, that .Tuche"skill and judgement beein^'m fo Honorable a 'man., m u l l needes by foeietie of matche workc' l ike ef-: . • feci in fo honorable a Mate. Wherefore not tjo trou-ble your Honors with longer fpeachev, Intake m v" leaue^ Recommending my poo rcT^ww to your Honors ; protection, the recompence whereof you (hall rcceiue in your readingofthe bookc,\vIiofe fruite wil l bring, by Gods grace., health! • to yourfoules/and c o n t i n u a n c e ' o f your Honor. ' ' ' ? • • • / • ••• : r •• , i ./ Your Honor* s mofl humble, • • ^EhomasTmme: : "1/ -8 3 -1 o the right Honorable andnyertuous Laaze, The •' Countefle of" W a r - ' ( !S|§4§r fed almighricGod of his inhnfee 2:0odnciTc.ro s;iuc vnto the Gilonous OolDeli oi his crcrnall fonncfo long 8c pro-fDcrous fucccilc in this our C o n n -oriciic 15 now dmcfrishc Honorable and my vcric good Ladic)for cueric one char is a' true profcifor of the fame, all carnall perfwafions of hu-mane reafon deluding the fbulc be-ing (ccafidc, to prepare,our femes to t h e dayo f trial. Fo r alt h o ug h i t plea-fedrGod fometimes, for the gathc--nrigof" his Church,- to giue vnto ic-zsk\vciGFij[cycn daics : yet com-mori.ic is not,tha: ic fhould any Iong : rimecontinue, in reft and picafure.: Nsyybjr the word c f G O D ' A 1 know ^7" Orafmuch as ic hadi pica-- 8 4 -T H E E P I S T L E :kncw. Sc by experience fomecirrics :o:our(elues (her Maicfrfcs royail :cc:fon- noc executed ) and now of .ourneighbours rcuna about vs we •fee, chat chc Church of.God in this :worid,as ic euer hath bin, fo mufc ic ;euer be vndcr chc croiTc. A n d chere-:forc if wee w i i i bee comprca of the Church indeede, and giorie in that excellent name o f a Chri ichn, Ic: vs knowcafTuredliCjthat vnto vs, cucn vncovs (char haue fo iongiiuedin reitana pieaiure, iz wee oc cne clv.l-drcn of God_) in (bme fcrtand mca-fureacriail muff come. For, i f God chsfrifc cucric fonnc whom hcre-ccii:cch,aud euery member of Chr i -fecs body mufc be fafliiancd like vn-' :c chc head, i f chc afflictions-of this would are manifen: tokens to the children of God , of hisfauourand loue cowards chem.and lure elcdecs of chair adcpcio:how can wcicokc, or how can we defire co bee exemo-|. j D E D . I C A T . O . H T E . | ted from this common condition of | Gad his o w n : children and hou£c-jj hold?To this end therefore(ricrhc f. Honorable Ladie) I hauccranilaced | rhisiiccic booke , ruff ro admonifh ;1 fome (who forlackeof experience, . | heuer feeling other daies chanchefe | full of peace and quiccnesj char they . t lcarnc to applie vnto themfeiucs f; whacfocuer they heare orrcadeof :-i chc trial 1 of G O D his children, leail '.: faKeiie imagining ic co acDertainc cither to the cimes that are pafcorto " * other Nations, it fail fodainiie vpon -; them as a chccfc in chc nigbr,.S: they be deicicucc of all hope and co mf o r t. I • Secondlie, to awake ochcrs abotin--i dine; both in knowledge and other 1 graces, whom notwithiranding,fo-il tan (by the deceaucabic lulls Sc vaine h oieafurcs of this r,'ickcd world) harh i fo rock"a ilceoc. that thev iceme al-cr.e J_ctna:'G:iCjto nauc ror^otce eodi A 5 T f- - • Tl -85-!• . T H E ' E P I S T L E ; chemie!ues3 their hoiie calling and i profession. Lr.fi: of all] :o comfort an iodic: fcrc, whornc ic hath plesfcd '• G O D fo co prcife downe wichfor-! rowcs3and co cxcrcife with [he con-:cinuaii arnicnons ana calamities or I this.morcaii iifc3as no times feemmg 1 favourable vnco the. they can fcarfc rcceiucche wards of any comfort. A n d becaufc your Honor hach been oiiang cimemocanhc a profefibur, bu: alio a ioucrofchc :ruc:h,whom the Lordfcxaluns; :c an hidier place af'dignicic chan many ether) ham fecvpj as ic were a light vpo an high candlcfcicke, to g;tue light vnco ma-nie, I haue cfuccialiie dedicated vn-to your Honour this my poorc cra-iiaikj humbiie befceching the Lord to make it no IcfTc comfortable to yourHcnou^and to chafe that {hail rcade::: than ic ha:h been vnco mc who haue crauilared ic. En cue one in his calling is bound to doo iamc-w i i a c I ; D E D I C A T O R I E . ;] what to the furtherance of me hoiie t| ; building; bur becaufe great things | by reafonofmyfexjrmynot doo, a and that which I msyvl ought to u ; aoojlnauc according to my cucne,. A \ broughrmy poorc basket offlones | I tocheffrengthning o f the walks o f :;i ; that IernGilem. w hereof Ybv grace) ] \ wee are ail ooth Citizens andmem-A: 'bcrs. A n d now to returne ro thole \ ; who experience hath natyctraughr., -v and whom profperitic will not fuf-.; fcr to awake : I caVacfdic hciczzh !them both in the Lord , no longer to :] ;dcccfucrhcm£clucswithvaineima-:'J ;ginations neither to (hirer chcir .; 'hearts fo to be tied co earthlicvani-'tics, that thev fliould deubife a nice:-;i left rnofc things that ca cmclv make :"i .'them ha'nDic indeed. Whcn i t fha l l .': ~ica(c G O D to ooen their eves to * j -licerne betweene hcaueniic and ;i and chinas cacrhfeins. I know they •1 A ^. w i l l - 8 6 -; T H E ' . E P I S T L E • « wil l of chcrnfeiucs::bce afhamcd of % this their negHgericc. For what arc ^ aufhapieaianc things, of this world, if which -ijiq'fc-bewiccfi chc minds of ij men,:! they-be compared with hea- g ueuk'e and cterna^'things? If ftacciic *i 2e fimptuous buildings do delight; ' * what building is fo (latciic and s o - i rio.us as-newc Icrufalem ' I f riches; • whatfo rich as thatjwhofepaucmca :-i is of pure geld, w hole foundations ;:-and wails.or oreciousftones,&:urates :': of'orient pearlcs ^ If friends, kinf- ~ foikeand neighbours;whatCitiefo N renienifncd as ehis,whcrc God him- * leife in his M a i cfcic, I cfus Chriff the j head orchc Church in hisgiorie, &C i allrhcholieAugcis,Patriarchs,Pro- £ phecs,ApaiclcsandMarcirsdo dwei 3 together in happiiicfTc for euer? It 0 honor; what honor comDarablc to 'i chis,:o be the fcruant arid child of fo \\ miehcic a Kins , andhcircoffo<zio- :\ time :'i j D E D I C A T O R I Z . time • doth confurnc, nor cnufc de-sriueofhonaur, nor power of ad-uerfane foovlc ofgiorie, thai is end-Ics^incopreheufiblcr I f then there-be no comoarifon bctweenc things heaueniieand things chat are earth-lie ', and no man can actaine cache chihgs chac arc heauenlie. but by the fame way chat Chrifr himfcife at-caiacd vnco them; which was by chc croilc: why (cz.Ctin^ off ail impedi-ments chat arcilcch downe) dco wc not ruiinc on our ccunc wich chere-tuihes and hope, hauing Chrifr Co -mighcicaKingjfbrourCapcainc.Sc guide,who (as the Apofcic fikhjfor chc gloriethat was fc: before him, fndnrcd the croffe,and defpiiingthc fiiamc, Ci::cdi now ac the right hand of the chronc of God V H o w flowc and dull of hearcurc wee, if zslfm, (who for a rncfTc of pottage fold his birthright) wee are contented for a ore cieaiurc in this wic-k - 8 7 -I T H E E P I S T L E ' | Iced world , co ieefc thac inccmpa-' § rabic and cuerlaiting gloria, which | Chrifc the fonnc of G O D wich fo g great a price hath purchafedfor v?. | The Lord ginc vs wifedomeco vn- :'j deri"hfid,&: grace co heare his voice ;] while ic is (aide cod.iv, char when ' :i dales and niches SC znv.es find ceafc, J? r-'cemay (without cimej) enter inco \ his'iavc and red: which ncucr flialll % haue end; The Lord euer prefcrue ] your Honor; and addc vnco amul- :j tkudc of haooic vearcs fpene in his i fearc,a continual! incrcafe ofal % fbiritual graces co hisglo- :] r:e> and your cndlcs % comfort. :j YourHonors in the \ Lord % A •u I mofc humble ui.P. 'j "i -i :1 - 8 8 -APPENDIX C The f o l l o w i n g l i s t i n c l u d e s a l l r e l i g i o u s works by French P r o t e s t a n t authors t r a n s l a t e d i n t o E n g l i s h and p r i n t e d between 1570 and 1599. Some of t h e i r t r a n s l a t o r s are a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the t r a n s l a t i o n s of other (non-French) r e l i g i o u s works i n t h i s p e r i o d . These works have a l s o been i n c l u d e d . Works have been arranged a l p h a b e t i c a l l y by t r a n s l a t o r . KEY: (*): T r a n s l a t i o n s which i n c l u d e p r e f a t o r y e p i s t l e s . (+): T r a n s l a t i o n s which are u n a v a i l a b l e f o r examination. *A., E., t r a n s . , The defence of death (1576), by P h i l i p p e de Mornay. +Peter A l l i b o n d , t r a n s . , Comfort f o r an a f f l i c t e d c onscience (1591) , by Jean de L'Espine. * , A c o n f u t a t i o n of the Popish T r a n s u b s t a n t l a t i o n (1592) , by Jean de L'Espine. *Anon. t r a n s . , An e x c e l l e n t and l e a r n e d t r e a t i s e of  a p o s t a s l e . . . D i r e c t e d a g a i n s t the a p o s t a t e s i n the churches of  France (1587), by Jean de L'Espine. * , A p o c a l y p s l s . A b r i e f e and l e a r n e d commentarie vpon the R e u e l a t i o n of s a i n t John (1592), by F r a n c o i s Du Jon, the E l d e r . * , The c h r i s t i a n d i s p u t a t i o n s (1579), by P i e r r e V i r e t . , Job expounded...partly i n a commentary, p a r t l y i n a paraphrase. ( E c c l e s i a s t e s . With a paraphrase.) (1589?), by Theodore Beza. , A l i t t l e catechlsme. that i s to say, a short i n s t r u c t i o n t ouching c h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n (1578), by Theodore Beza. * , A moste p l a i n e and p r o f i t a b l e e x p o s i t i o n of the Booke of E s t e r , d e l i u e r e d i n 26. sermons (1599), by P i e r r e M e r l i n . , A sermon of the famous and godly l e a r n e d man, c o n t e i n l n g an e x h o r t a t i o n to s u f f e r p e r s e c u t i o n f o r  f o l l o w i n g e Jesus C h r i s t e (1581), by Jean C a l v i n . -89-* , A t r e a t i e of the good and e u e l l tounge . . . with a d i s c o u r s e of the punishment which the Lord hath shewed on a l  those which through swearing and p e r l u r l n g themselues. haue  broken God's commandments (1594?), by Jean de M a r c o n v i l l e . , A t r e a t i s e of the s i n a g a i n s t the h o l y ghost (1570), Augustine M a r l o r a t . , Two t r e a t i s e s of the Lord h i s h o l l e supper: one i n s t r v c t l n g the ser v a n t s of God how t h i n g s should be prepared  when they come to the Holy supper:the other s e t t i n g  f o r t h . . . t h e whole vse of the Supper: whereunto a l s o i s  adiovned a . . . t r e a t i s e of the true s a c r i f i c e and tr u e p r i e s t (1584), by Yves Rouspeau. *B., R., t r a n s . , A t r e a t i s e of the p r e p a r a t i o n of the Holy  Supper...Also a d i a l o g u e c o n t a i n i n g the p r l n c i p a l l p o i n t s  whiche thev that r e c e l u e the Supper uoght to knowe and  understand (1570?), by Yves Rouspeau. *Barbar, Thomas, t r a n s . The Apocalvps. or r e u e l a t i o n of S.  John. With a m e t h o d i c a l l e x p o s i t i o n vpon euery chapter (1596), by F r a n c o i s Du Jon, the E l d e r . *Baxter, N a t h a n i e l , t r a n s . , The l e c t u r e s or d a i l y  sermons ...vpon the prophet Jonas...Whereunto i s annexed an  e x p o s i t i o n of the two l a s t e p i s t l e s of S. John...by A.  M a r l o r a t (1578), by Jean C a l v i n . *Becket, N i c h o l a s , t r a n s . , A p r e p a r a t i o n to the most h o l l e  m i n i s t r l e : wherein Is set downe the tr u e means to be w e l l  prepared to the same (1593), by P i e r r e Gerard. *Becket, W i l l i a m , t r a n s . , A commentarle...vppon the e p i s t l e  to the P h i l i p p l a n s (1584), by Jean C a l v i n . +Brooke, John, t r a n s . , A b r i e f e and c l e a r e c o n f e s s i o n of the  c h r i s t i a n f a y t h . C o n t e l n l n g an hundreth a r t i c l e s , a f t e r the  reede of the a p o s t l e s (1579), by Jean G a m i e r . * , A c h r i s t i a n d i s c o u r s e vpon c e r t e i n e povnts of r e l i g i o n (1578), anon. + , A f a i t h f u l and f a m i l i a r e x p o s i t i o n (1582), by P i e r r e V i r e t . * , Of the two woonderful p o p i s h monsters, to wvt, of a p o p i s h asse and of a monkish c a l f e (1579), by P h i l i p p Melanchthon. * , The s t a f f e of C h r i s t i a n f a i t h gathered out of the works of a n c i e n t d o c t o r s (1577), Guy de Bres. -90-+Chapelin, George, t r a n s . , The c h r i s t i a n combat: wherein Is  set downe that daungerous f i g h t whereunto a l l the e l e c t are  c a l l e d (1591), by P i e r r e M e r l i n . *Chauncie, W i l l i a m , t r a n s . , A f a m i l i a r and c h r i s t i a n  i n s t r u c t i o n vpon the Lordes prayer (1582), anon. * , The worlde possessed w i t h d e u i l s . c o n t e i n v i n g three d i a l o g u e s . [The second p a r t t r a n s l a t e d by T. Stocker] (1583), by P i e r r e V i r e t . Coxe, John, t r a n s . , An e x h o r t a t i o n to the m i n i s t e r s of Gods  word that thev set a s i d e a l l mutual1 d i s c o r d , and preache the  onelv t r u e f a i t h i n C h r i s t e (1575), by h e i n r i c h B u l l i n g e r . * , Questions of R e l i g i o n c a s t abroad i n H e l v e t i a by the a d v e r s a r i e s of the same: and answered by M. H. B u l l i n g e r  of Z v r i c h : reduced i n t o 17. common p l a c e s (1572), by H e i n r i c h B u l l i n g e r . , A t r e a t i s e touching the word of God w r i t t e n a g a i n s t the t r a d i t i o n s of men...where a l s o i s set downe a  t r u e method to d i s p u t e d l u l n e l y and s c h o o l l i k e (158 3), by Antoine de Chandieu. +D., J . , t r a n s . , A c a t h o l l k e and e c c l e s l a s t l c a l l e x p o s i t i o n  vppon the e p i s t l e of S. Jude (1584), by Augustine M a r l o r a t . *Egerton, Stephen, t r a n s . , A l e a r n e d and e x c e l l e n t t r e a t i s e ,  c o n t a i n i n g a l l the p r l n c l p a l l grounds of C h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n (1596), by Mathieu V i r e l . + E l i o t , John, t r a n s . . The s l c k e mans comfort , a g a i n s t death (1590), by Jean de L'Espine. *Fe t h e r s t o n e , C h r i s t o p h e r , t r a n s . , An abridgement of the  I n s t i t u t i o n of c h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n . Wherein b r i e f e aunsweres  to the o b j e c t i o n s of the a d u e r s a r l e s are set downe. By W.  Lawne (1585/1586?), by Jean C a l v i n . * , The b r v t l s h t h u n d e r b o l t : or r a t h e r f e e b l e f i e r - f l a s h of Pope S l x t v s the f l f t , a g a i n s t Henrie the most  e x c e l l e n t King of Navarre (1586), by F r a n c o i s Hotman. * , A C h r i s t i a n and wholesome Admonition, d i r e c t e d to the Frenchmen, which are r e u o l t e d from the t r u e r e l i g i o n , and  haue p o l l u t e d themselues with the s u p e r s t i t i o n and i d o l a t r l e  of Poperie (1587), anon. * , The commentaries...vpon the Actes of the a p o s t l e s (1585), by Jean C a l v i n . + , Haggeus the prophet. Where-unto i s added a commentary, gathered out of J . J . Gryneus (1586). -91-+ The Lamentations of Jeremie (1587). + F i e l d , John, t r a n s . , C h r i s t i a n m e d i t a t i o n s , vpon the s l x t ,  twentle, f l u e . t h l r t l e , two and t h l r t l e psalmes...And  moreouer, a m e d i t a t i o n vpon the 137. psalme by P. P l l e s s o n (1587?), by P h i l i p p e de Mornay. , An e x c e l l e n t t r e a t i s e of C h r i s t i a n r l g h t e o v s n e s (1577), by Jean de L'Espine. * , An e x p o s i t i o n of the svmbole of the a p o s t l e s (1580), by O l e v i a n Caspar. * , Foure sermons... e n t r e a t i n g of matters very p r o f i t a b l e f o r our time, with a b r i e f e e x p o s i t i o n of the  LXXXVII. psalme (1579), by Jean C a l v i n . , The judgement of a most reuerend and l e a r n e d man from beyond the seas, concerning a t h r e e f o l d order of bishops (c.1585), by Theodore Beza. * , The other p a r t e of c h r i s t i a n g u e s t l o n s and answeares (1580), by Theodore Beza. * , T h l r t e e n e sermons... e n t r e a t i n g of the f r e e e l e c t i o n of God i n Jacob, and of r e p r o b a t i o n i n Esau (1579), by Jean C a l v i n . * , A t r e a t i s e of the Church (1579), by P h i l i p p e de Mornay. + , Two T r e a t i s e s : the f i r s t of c h r i s t i a n f r i e n d s h i p : the seconde of d i c e p l a v (1579), by Lambert Daneau. Fulke, W i l l i a m , t r a n s . , A commentarle...vpon the booke of  Josue (1578), by Jean C a l v i n . *G., T., t r a n s . , A defence of the o l d e , and t r u e p r o f e s s i o n  of c h r i s t l a n l t i e , a g a i n s t the l e s u l t e s (1581), by Petrus Boquinus. * G i l b y , Anthony, t r a n s . . Commentaries...vpon the prophet  D a n l e l l (1570), by Jean C a l v i n . , A p a r a p h r a s t i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n or opening of fourteene h o l l e psalmes chosen out of the o l d and new  Testament (1581), by Theodore Beza. * , The psalmes of Dauld, t r u e l v opened and e x p l a i n e d (1580), by Theodore Beza. , The testaments of the twelue p a t r i a r c h e s , the sonnes of Iacob (1574), anon. -92-* , The t r e a s u r e of t r u e t h , t ouching the grounde worke of man h i s s a l u a t i o n . and c h i e f e s t p o i n t e s of c h r i s t i a n  r eligion...Whereunto are added, these godly t r e a t v s e s . One bv  J. Foxe. The other of A. G v l b l e (1576), by Theodore Beza *Golburne, John, t r a n s . , A d i s c o u r s e vpon the catelogue of  d o c t o r s of God's church... together w i t h the c o n t i n u a l l  s u c c e s s i o n of the t r u e church of God v n t l l l the veare 1565 (1598), by Simon de Voyon. +Golding, A r t h u r , t r a n s . . The b e n e f l t e that c h r i s t i a n s  r e c e l u e by Jesus C h r i s t c r u c l f v e d (1573), by Antonio d a l l a Pag1la. * A booke of c h r i s t i a n g u e s t l o n s and answers (1572), by Theodore Beza. * A c o n f u t a t i o n of the popes b u l l a g a i n s t E l i z a b e t h gueene of England (1572), by H e i n r i c h B u l l i n g e r . * , A p o s t l l l or e x p o s i t i o n of the Gospels that are v s u a l l v r e d In the church of God (1570), by N i e l s Hemmingsen. * , The psalmes of Dauld and o t h e r s . With C a l u i n s commentaries (1571), by Jean C a l v i n . * The r e u e l a t l o n of S a i n c t John (1574), by Augustine M a r l o r a t . * , Sermons.. .vpon the booke of Job (1574), by Jean C a l v i n . * The sermons...vpon Deuteronomle: gathered as he preached them (bv D. Raguenlerl (1583), by Jean C a l v i n . * _ , The sermons...vpon the e p i s t l e too the Ephesians (1577), by Jean C a l v i n . * , Sermons...vpon the e p i s t l e to the G a l a t h i a n s (1574), by Jean C a l v i n . , A t r a g e d i e of Abrahams s a c r a f i c e (1577), by Theodore Beza. * , The Warfare of C h r i s t i a n s : Concerning the c o n f l i c t a g a i n s t the F l e s h e . the World, and the D e u l l l (1576), anon. * , A woorke concerning the trewnesse of the C h r i s t i a n R e l i g i o n (1587), by P h i l i p p e de Mornay. +H., F., t r a n s . , An e p i s t l e to the f a i t h f u l l , n e cessary f o r  a l l the c h i l d r e n of God: e s p e c i a l l y In these dangerous daves (1582), by P i e r r e V i r e t . -93-*H., W., t r a n s . , The commentaries...vpon the f i r s t e p i s t l e to  s a i n t John. and vpon the e p i s t l e of Jude (c.1580), by Jean C a l v i n . *Harmar, John, t r a n s . , Sermons...vpon the X. commandementes (1579), by Jean C a l v i n . * , Sermons vpon the three f i r s t c h apters of the C a n t i c l e s of C a n t i c l e s (1587), by Theodore Beza. Herbe r t , Mary, the Countesse of Pembroke, t r a n s . , A d i s c o u r s e  of l i f e and death (1592), by P h i l i p p e de Mornay. *Hol l a n d , Henry, t r a n s . , Aphorlsmes of c h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n :  or, a v e r l e compendious abridgement of J . C a l u l n s  I n s t i t u t i o n s , set f o r t h by J . P i s c a t o r (1596), by Jean C a l v i n . *Hopkinson, W i l l i a m , t r a n s . , An euldent d i s p l a y of popish  p r a c t i s e s , or patched Pelaglanlsme (1578), by Theodore Beza. *May, Edward, t r a n s . , The i n s t i t u t i o n s of c h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n ,  compendiously abridged bv E. Bunnle (1580), by Jean C a l v i n . * P a g i t , Eusebius, t r a n s . , A harmonle vpon the three  e u a n g e l l s t s . With the commentarle of J . C a l u i n e ( t r a n s l a t e d by C. Fetherstone) (1584). * P h i s t o n , W i l l i a m , t r a n s . , A t e s t l m o n l e of the t r v e church of  God...Wherein i s m a n i f e s t l y shewed how that God hath In a s l l  eves ravsed vp some...which haue been f a i t h f u l l stewards, and  t r u e d i s p e n c e r s of h i s w i l l (1580?), by Simon de Voyon. *Prowse, Anne, t r a n s . , Of the markes of the c h i l d r e n of God,  and of t h e i r comforts i n a f f l i c t i o n s (1590), by Jean T a f f i n . * R o s d e l l , C h r i s t o p h e r , t r a n s . , A commentarle vpon the e p i s t l e  to the Romanes (1583), by Jean C a l v i n . S., H., t r a n s . , The c o n s o l a t i o n of the s o u l e , b e i n g an  assurance of the f o r g l u e n e s s e of s l n n e s , w i t h the most  n o t a b l e promises of God c o n t e l n e d In Holy S c r i p t u r e (1590), by Jean Chassanion (La Chasse). *Shute, John, t r a n s . , A c h r i s t i a n i n s t r u c t i o n , contevning the  law and the g o s p e l l (1573), by P i e r r e V i r e t . * , The p r i n c i p a l p o i n t s which are at t h i s dave i n c o n t r o u e r s i e , c o ncerning the h o l y supper and of the masse (1579) , by P i e r r e V i r e t . + , A sweete c o n s o l a t i o n f o r a l l such as are a f f l i c t e d and oppressed w i t h the weight and burden of t h e i r s innes (1580) , anon. -94-+Smyth, Edward, t r a n s . , A very e x c e l l e n t and learned  d i s c o u r s e , t o u c h i n g the t r a n a u l l i t l e of the minde (159 2), by Jean de L'Espine. *Stocker, Thomas, t r a n s . , The c a u t e l e s , canon, and  ceremonies, of the p o p i s h masse (1584), by P i e r r e V i r e t . * , D l u e r s sermons... concerning the d i u i n i t i e . humanitie, and n a t i u l t l e of C h r l s t e : as a l s o t o u c h i n g h i s  p a s s i o n (1581), by Jean C a l v i n . * , An e x c e l l e n t t r e a t i s e of the i m m o r t a l v t i e of the sou l e (1581), by Jean C a l v i n . + , The h o l y loue of heauenlv wisdome. With many other godly t r e a t i s e s (1594), by Guillaume Du V a i r . + , The lamentations and h o l y mournings of the prophet Jeremiah, with a paraphrase (1587?), anon. * , The popes canons: wherein the masters of Sorbone are c onfuted (1585?), by Theodore Beza. * , The second p a r t of the demonlacke worlde, c o n t e i n i n g three d i a l o g u e s (1583), by P i e r r e V i r e t . * , Sermons...on the h l s t o r l e of Melchlsedech (1592), by Jean C a l v i n . * , Two and twentle sermons... In which i s handled, the hundreth and n i n e t e e n t h psalme (1580), by Jean C a l v i n . *Stockwood, John, t r a n s . , Common p l a c e s of C h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n (1572), by H e i n r i c h B u l l i n g e r . * , A f r u i t f u l 1 commentarle vpon the twelue small Prophets (1594), by Lambert Daneau. * , A g o d l i e and l e a r n e d Commentarie vpon E c c l e s i a s t e s (1585), anon. * , A r i g h t godly and l e a r n e d d i s c o u r s e vpon the booke of E s t e r (1584), by Johann Brenz. * , A shorte and f r u l t e f u l l t r e a t i s e of the p r o f i t e and n e c e s s i t i e of c a t e c h i s i n g (1580), by Robert Cawdry. * , A shorte l e a r n e d and p i t h i e t r e a t l z e of the plague (1580), by Theodore Beza. + , A v e r i e p r o f i t a b l e and n e c e s s a r i e d i s c o u r s e c o n c e r n i n g the keeping of the sabboth (1584), by Zacharias U r s i n u s . -95-*Stubbs, John, t r a n s . , C h r i s t i a n m e d i t a t i o n s vpon e i g h t  psalmes (1582), by Theodore Beza. * , The l i f e o f f the 70. a r c h b i s h o p o f f Canterbury (1574) , anon. *Swan, John, t r a n s . , A t r e a t i s e , t ouching A n t i - C h r i s t . . . p u b l i s h e d f o r the encouragement of those which  iovne i n the Intended a c t i o n s a g a i n s t the Spaniard (1589), by Lambert Daneau. *Tomson, Laurence, t r a n s . , The B i b l e [Geneua, with the New Testament i n L. Tomson's r e v i s i o n ] (1587). * , The New Testament... t r a n s l a t e d out of Greeke bv Theod. Beza. Whereunto are adiovned b r i e f e Summaries of  d o c t r i n e (1576). * , Sermons...on the e p i s t l e s to Timothle and T i t u s (1579), by Jean C a l v i n . * , A t r e a t i s e of the E x c e l l e n c l e of a C h r i s t i a n Man (1576), by P i e r r e de La P l a c e . *Twyne (Twine), Thomas, t r a n s . , The w o n d e r f v l l workmanship of  the world: wherein i s c o n t e i n e d an e x c e l l e n t d i s c o u r s e of  C h r i s t i a n n a t u r a l l p h i l o s o p h l e . . . s p e c i a l l y gathered out of  the f o u n t a i n e s of Holy S c r i p t u r e (1578)-, by Lambert Daneau. , The t r a g e d i e s of t v r a n t e s . E x e r c i s e d vpon the church of God, vnto 1572 (1575), by H e i n r i c h B u l l i n g e r . *Tymme (Timme), Thomas, t r a n s . , A c a t h o l i k e and  e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e x p o s i t i o n of the h o l y G o s p e l l a f t e r S. John (1575) , by Augustine M a r l o r a t . * , A c a t h o l i k e and e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e x p o s i t i o n a f t e r S. Marke and Luke. Gathered out of the s i n g u l a r and approued  deuines... (1583), by Augustine M a r l o r a t . * , A c a t h o l i k e and e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e x p o s i t i o n of the h o l y G o s p e l l a f t e r S. Mathewe (1570), by Augustine M a r l o r a t . * , A c a t h o l i k e e x p o s i t i o n vpon the twoo l a s t e p i s t l e s of Iohn (1578), by Augustine M a r l o r a t . * , A commentarle...vpon the f i r s t booke of Moses c a l l e d Genesis (1578), by Jean C a l v i n . * , A commentarle vpon S. Paules e p i s t l e s to the C o r i n t h i a n s (1577), by Jean C a l v i n . -96-* , Newes from N l n l v e to England, brought bv the prophet Jonas: p l a l n l v e p u b l i s h e d In the e x p o s i t i o n of J .  B r e n t l u s (1570), by Johann Brenz. *Vaux, Robert, t r a n s . , A commentarle...vpon the e p i s t l e to  the C o l o s s l a n s (1581), by Jean C a l v i n . * , A commentarle...vpon the e p i s t l e to the G a l a t h i a n s (1581), by Jean C a l v i n . + , A d i s c o u e r i e and b a t t e r i e of the gre a t s o r t of v n w r i t t e n t r a d i t i o n s : otherwise an examination of the  c o u n s e l l of Trent, touching the decree- of t r a d i t i o n s (1582), anon. * , A sermon made In l a t l n e i n Oxenforde. i n the rai g n e of K. Edwarde the s i x t (1581?), by John Jewel. *W. A., t r a n s . , A c h r i s t i a n and godly view of death and l i f e ,  as a l s o of human a c t i o n s (1593), by P h i l i p p e de Mornay. Watkinson, W i l l i a m , t r a n s . , The Moste e x c e l l e n t M e d i t a t i o n s  vppon the x x x l l . Psalme (1579), by Antoine de Chandieu. + , A n o t a b l e d i s c o u r s e of the happiness of t h i s our age, and of the I n g r a t i t u d e of men to God (1578), by Johannes R i v i u s . Whittingham, W i l l i a m , t r a n s . , A b r l e f e d e c l a r a t i o n of the  c h i e f e povntes of c h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n , s et f o o r t h i n a t a b l e (1575?), by Theodore Beza. +Wilcox, Thomas, t r a n s . , The a r t or s k l l , w e l l and  f r u l t e f u l l l e to heare the h o l y sermons of the church (1599), by Wilhelm Zepper. * , A catechlsme and plavne I n s t r u c t i o n f o r a l l c h l l d r e n . . . t o communicate i n the Holy Supper ... a c c o r d i n g to  the order of the Frenche churche of London (1580), by Robert Le Macon. * , A d i s c o u r s e . of the tr u e and v i s i b l e markes of the c a t h o l i g u e churche (1582?), by Theodore Beza. , M e d i t a t i o n s upon p s a l . 101 (1599), by P h i l i p p e de Mornay. * , Three p r o p o s i t i o n s or speeches (on John i . 1 - 5 : G a l . i i . 1 1 - 1 6 and 15-21.) To which i s added, an e x p o s i t i o n vpon  p a r t e of the catechlsme (1580), by Jean C a l v i n . , A t r e a t i s e of the Church (1581), by B e r t r a n d de Loque. -97-* , Two very l e r n e d sermons of M. Beza. t o g i t h e r with a sho r t sum of the sacrament of the Lordes supper...whereunto  i s added a t r e a t i s e of the Lords supper. Bv T.W. (158 8), by Theodore Beza. -98-

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