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English translators and their project in the reign of Queen Elizabeth I Jensen, Erik 1989

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ENGLISH TRANSLATORS AND THEIR  PROJECT  IN THE REIGN OF QUEEN ELIZABETH 1 - By ERIK JENSEN B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y  of B r i t i s h  Columbia,  1986  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS  FOR THE DEGREE OF  MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE (Department  We a c c e p t t h i s to  STUDIES  of H i s t o r y )  thesis  the r e q u i r e d  as conforming standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA O c t o b e r 1989 Erik  J e n s e n , 1989  s  In presenting  this thesis in partial fulfilment of the  degree at the  and  study. I further agree that permission for extensive  copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may or  by  his or  her  representatives.  be  permission.  Department The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  (2/88)  granted by  It is understood  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be  DE-6  advanced  University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it  freely available for reference department  requirements for an  the head of  my  that  or  copying  allowed without my  written  ABSTRACT  The of  subject  French  decades  of  of  the  translation  work.  of a  i n the  There focus.  This  First,  and  of  these,  allow  more  sixteenth the  early  these  for  the  appear  this  i n the  century  the  late  and  to  the  examination  of  and  These e p i s t l e s a r e  ( t o an  seventeenth  even g r e a t e r  century.  c o n s t i t u t e the  The  primary  paper's methodolgy  single  of  l a r g e s t number century, Third,  (the  in  this  distinct the  extent)  prefatory  a close  the  motivational  source material  involves  in  largest  epistles  the  one  particular  Reader*)  epistles  their  centuries.  sixteenth  prefatory  prefatory  the  a t work  study's  translators'  conventional  on  represents  works p r e d o m i n a t e .  'Prefaces  three  underlying  e a r l y seventeenth  such a c t i v i t y .  therefore, study;  and  for a close  last  translation industry  reasons  the  epistles  d r i v e behind the  impulse  English  focuses  translation project  French Protestant  n a t u r e of  dedicatory  the  study  o f works i n t r a n s l a t i o n . S e c o n d ,  such t r a n s l a t i o n s  period  The  in  r e l i g i o u s works c o n s t i t u t e t h e  of  unique  century.  varied  several  translation into  religion  religious  sixteenth  are  category  the  l a r g e and  i s the  works on  sixteenth  and  England  study  Protestant  translators  aspect  this  from  earlier those  of  epistles, for  this  examination  of  epistles.  The  study  shows  that  the  translators  r e l i g i o u s program. T h i s program i n v o l v e s foreign  religious  works  in  -ii-  order  the to  share  a  common  "englishing" provide  of  religious  instruction the  f o r t h e common p e o p l e .  translators'  common  strong  concerns  regarding  England—concerns justification Finally, context finds  of late  that  scholarship Protestants  that  for their the  commitment the  are  state  of  both  and t h e i r  religion  translators  in as  a  t r a n s l a t i o n work.  sixteenth  this activity  century  the t r a n s l a t o r s '  i n this  to this project  used by t h e  paper p l a c e s  emphasizing  The p a p e r e x p l o r e s  ties  the p a s t o r a l  -iii-  the  broader  English Protestantism.  project  period.  in  i n w i t h more  concerns  of  One recent  English  TABLE OF CONTENTS:  Abstract  i i  Table of Contents List  iv  of Tables  v  Preface Chapter  1 One:  Introduction  5  C h a p t e r Two: The T r a n s l a t o r s a n d t h e i r Commitment t o R e l i g i o u s I n s t r u c t i o n Chapter  Three:  19  The T r a n s l a t o r s *  Messages t o the Reader  36  Chapter  63  Four: Conclusion  Notes  69  Bibliography  74  Appendix  A  76  Appendix  B  Appendix  C  '  81 89  -iv-  L I S T OF  TABLES:  TABLE ONE  7  TABLE TWO  8  TABLE THREE  9  TABLE FOUR  2  -V-  5  PREFACE  In  the  year  complained He  stated  Gods  1580,  bitterly "that  busily."  about  Sathan  euerlasting  John  Field,  the s t a t e  the f a t h e r  trueth,  " [ T ] h e r e neuer  of l i e s ,  bestirred  liued also  and  minister,  in  England.  aduersary  himselfe  neuer  more v n t h a n k f u l w r e t c h e s  t h a n wee",  years  o f p e a c e . . . s h o u l d haue drawen v s  i n t h e s c h o l e o f God",  English  of r e l i g i o n  worlde  vs  Field  an  claimed.  yet, F i e l d  of more  i n the  [ T ] h e s e many  gratious  f o r w a r d and  aduanced  asserted,  wee a r e f a r r e w o r s e t h a n we were i n t h e b e g i n n i n g . . . d u l l e r , f a r t h e r o f [ f ] from knowledge, and more i g n o r a n t , t h e n l i t t l e c h i l d r e n . Consequently,  Field  warned:  L e t t h e w o r l d . . . i n t h a t same g o d l e s c o n t e m p t o f God and h i s d i u i n e i u d g e m e n t , s e e what f e l vpon t h e i r p r e d e c e s s o r s t h e w i c k e d , t h a t l i u e d i n Sodom and Gomorrhe.1. These  passages,  which  might  well  sermon,  a r e a c t u a l l y drawn f r o m an  English  translation  The  concerns a r t i c u l a t e d  assessment of  an  views  of the s t a t e  Epistle  three  by  Field,  of r e l i g i o n  of a group  decades  of  taken  the  examination  Theodore  specifically, i n England, for  of t r a n s l a t o r s works on  sixteenth  and  -1-  bleak  his  expressing  use such  committed  to  the  religion  in  the  century.  and,  a  Beza.  his  of these t r a n s l a t o r s '  ( i . e .dedicatory epistles  from  D e d i c a t o r y f o r an  made o f a work by  of French P r o t e s t a n t  involves a close epistles  Epistle  D e d i c a t o r y as a p l a t f o r m  is typical  "englishing" last  Field  have b e e n  to a  This  study  prefatory  lesser  extent,  'Prefaces  to  religious  Reader')  impulse behind  Aside  from a  industry  few  has  Among t h e  entitled:  John  the  however,  rather  life.  Two  other  bibliography  One that  to of  a  translating  English  the  History  life A.  by  E.J.  of  the  of and  English  the  of  of  Italian  an  Florio  by  Florio's  C.H.  present  fairly  Bible  their  Bible,  O l g a S.  G. by  occurring analysis  A.  C.  -2-  Erasmus. First The  A  English  latter  is  as  their  for  the  Bruce, and  in this  period  involves  the  include:  Partridge,  Principles  Some  Reformation  W.  Hammond,  Opfell,  study,  subject  Such s t u d i e s  Translation'.  F.F.  best  work.  B a c k g r o u n d , by by  the  responsible  into English.  Biblical  in  Florio's  study: both take  extensive  T r a n s l a t i o n s , by  of  Conley.  is  a  translation  term) o f  The  by  is  Yate's  e x c l u s i v e l y on  translators  Translations,  Translators,  area  D e v e r e u x , and by  early  in this  (Yate's  focussing  and  attention  Yates.  on  translation activity  Biblical  of  Francis  Classics,  been g i v e n  Problems  the  1700,  of  Controversies of  limited  Renaissance Translations  group  type has  the  of a p a r t i c u l a r type of  translation  and  studies  the  varied translation  sixteenth  undertaken  Florio,  i n approach to  subjects  i n the  "reconstruction"  t r a n s l a t i o n are  nearest  l a r g e and  than c o n c e n t r a t i n g  attempts a  Translators  understand  t r a n s l a t o r of Montaigne's E s s a y s .  work,  of  the  been g i v e n  by  to  translation activity.  studies  Shakespeare's England, known as  their  order  i n England  centuries  historians.  in  studies,  operating  seventeeth  work  the  Shwarz,  The The  The  English King  Making  Bible.  James  Translating  for  A  Bible King  James, The  by  John B o i s  interest  involvement  in  Biblical  in  interpretations vernacular  of  be  First,  utilizing,  more o r  to  the  Second,  until  Ward  is  and  debate  the  from o t h e r  motivational drive  ignored  the  behind  translation as  a  rival  the  place  community.  studies  the  in  two  methodology,  prefatory  epistles  translations.  project  subject  its  religious  over  Christian  exclusively,  concerns a  to  over  disagreement  within  Allen).  due  s t u d y employs a d i f f e r e n t  less  now,  by  post-Reformation  distinguished  the  t h i s study  been,  translation  Scripture  respects.  edited  particular,  translations  T h i s p a p e r can  explain  and  i n R e f o r m a t i o n and  controversies,  of  (translated  that  for  has  systematic  investigation. As  this  territory, broader work.  it  Chapter  chapter  the  or  next  behind  this  the for  the  two  the  readers,  epistles  to  concerns  u n d e r l y i n g and  type  indicate of  the  translation  introduction.  with work.  to a  Three e x p l o r e s  prospective  this  to  unchartered  It  also the  focus.  translation  commitment  less  i n t h i s paper. O v e r a l l ,  chapters deal  type of  program. Chapter  study's  or  outset  p r o v i d e s s u c h an  m e t h o d o l g y employed  translators*  their  more  at  framework  One  explains  The  explores  i s important  context  explains  the  research  as  translations. driving  program.  -3-  the  religious  C h a p t e r Two  commonly s h a r e d  the  translators'  conveyed Such the  in  impulse outlines religious  messages  the  messages translators'  for  prefatory reveal  the  religious  Finally, translation century  the activity  religious provides this In only  the both  is  context  It w i l l  closely  considers of l a t e  be e v i d e n t  related  to  this  sixteenth that  some  this  of  the  i s s u e s permeating E n g l i s h s o c i e t y a t the time, insight  into aspects  of E n g l i s h r e l i g i o u s  and  sentiment  period. regard  be  pages).  activity  chapter  i n the broader  English Protestantism.  translation  in  concluding  t o the use of f o o t n o t e s , - p a g e  given Unless  translators' epistle  for larger otherwise  prefatory  epistles  i n d i c a t e d , these  e p i s t l e d e d i c a t o r i e s (some  d e d i c a t o r i e s and  'Prefaces  -4-  references (over  will five  footnotes refer translations  to the  Reader').  to  have  CHAPTER  ONE  INTRODUCTION  T h e r e was England  a significant  in  the  translation  sixteenth  century  industry and  early  This  Short-Title  C a t a l o g u e o f E n g l i s h B o o k s . . . 1475-1640, w h i c h  used  extensively  parameters of t h i s 1640,  taking  there  Short-Title figure  is  English Dutch,  of  In  on  addition  Italian,  medicine  the  drama),  of  and  works  entries  i t is difficult  works,  and  in  listed  650  the o c c u l t ,  has and and  English in  that  the this  to determine translated  there  are  works  other languages,  of E n g l i s h  diseases,  works  other foreign  German,  of over  French  650  to French  range of t o p i c s :  philosophy,  in  as  the  context  I t s h o u l d be p o i n t e d o u t  from L a t i n  list  only  many anonymous  translations  a broad  world,  the  the  of  F o r t h e y e a r s b e t w e e n 1520  over  conservative,  translations This  are  Catalogue.  nationality Latin.  account  examination  determining  research.  into  translation,  in  in  seventeenth  centuries.  been  i s e v i d e n t from a c l o s e  operating  from  numerous  from as  the  Latin, well  as  writers.  F r e n c h works r e p r e s e n t s political surgery  and  and  military  anatomy,  prognostications,  writings theory, history,  "wonders"  of  the  t r a v e l o g u e s ( i n c l u d i n g accounts of r e c e n t d i s c o v e r i e s New  World),  literature  instruction  in foreign  manners and  social  (chivalric languages,  graces, guides to c o u r t l y  -5-  tales, guides conduct,  poetry, to  good and  in  fewer  numbers,  silk-worms, broad  books  marriage,  on m u s i c ,  a r t , fireworks,  and husbandry. A s i d e  c a t e g o r i e s o f works i n E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n  works d e a l i n g w i t h p o l i t i c a l dealing with It  religious  should  and m i l i t a r y  be p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e  i n t h i s paper c o i n c i d e s with  France.  Such c o n f l i c t  many  of  such,  other  and upheaval  t h e works w r i t t e n a t t h i s  many F r e n c h  i s often  included i n this The  the the  single  are  printing  translation  works  than  activity  f u r n i s h e d t h e impetus f o r time.  Not  surprisingly, themes, and  religious  difficult.  category  religious  works  {'Appendix A'  religious,  from shows  and consequently  of t r a n s l a t i o n s topics.  o f r e l i g i o u s works  q u a n t i t a t i v e l y with  two e x c e p t i o n s a s r e g a r d s  1590-1599  and  paper).  largest  total) deal with  increases  events,  t h e Wars o f R e l i g i o n i n  the task of d i s t i n g u i s h i n g  translations  two  predominate:  works combine r e l i g i o u s a n d p o l i t i c a l  w o r k s deemed more p o l i t i c a l not  these,  matters.  examined  as  from  gardens,  a n d 1630-1639).  (almost  half  Between 1520 a n d 1640,  ( a s w i t h works  in  general)  each s u c c e s s i v e decade r e l i g i o u s works:  the  T h e s e t r e n d s a r e shown  (there decades  below  in  T a b l e One. This a  table,  sample  'A' t o  as w e l l as Tables  consisting  'G'  of  Books...1475-1640. group r e q u i r e  the  of  Two a n d T h r e e ,  entries  Short-Title  The s t a t i s t i c s  two q u a l i f i c a t i o n s .  -6-  in  a r e based  Volume 1,  Catalogue d e r i v e d from First,  as  on  Sections of  English  this already  sample noted  the  d i s t i n c t i o n between  in  this  period  categorization  i s n o t always here  low, a s  indicate  that  technique general  the  and  Second,  t h e numbers p r o v i d e d  Short-Title  works  utilized  clear,  i s imprecise.  T a b l e s Two a n d T h r e e , are  ' r e l i g i o u s ' and ' n o n - r e l i g i o u s '  have  i n these  Catalogue  been  therefore  i n the for  i s only  the  case  of  translations  does  translated.  tables  works  not The  intended  always  sampling to  show  trends.*  TABLE 1. DECADE:  TOTAL NUMBER OF WORKS: (incl. translations)  1520-1529 1530-1539 1540-1549 1550-1559 1560-1569 1570-1579 1580-1589 1590-1599 1600-1609 1610-1619 1620-1629 1630-1639  82 126 191 233 295 417 556 603 776 930 1057 1035  T a b l e Two, English  translation.  religious and  below,  RELIGIOUS WORKS: 27 62 103 115 133 197 265 259 366 490 492 430  f o c u s s e s on t h e p r o d u c t i o n One f i n d s  works i n E n g l i s h  that  the largest  t r a n s l a t i o n occur  in  o f works i n number the  1570's  1580's.  * N o t e : t h e sample d o e s n o t i n c l u d e t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s : 'Bookplates', 'England - P r o c l a m a t i o n s and S t a t u t e s ' , 'England, Church o f . -7-  of  TABLE 2. DECADE:  1520-1529 1530-1539 1540-1549 1550-1559 1560-1569 1570-1579 1580-1589 1590-1599 1600-1609 1610-1619 1620-1629 1630-1639  It  from t h e above  activity  does n o t f o l l o w  indicated  i n T a b l e One. levelling  t h e 1570's i n 1580's,  in  t h e 1590's.  translation, and  of there  that  t h e same g e n e r a l  trend  Beginning  translation  begin  to level  the production  works a r e p r i n t e d century account  period.  i n the f i r s t  (as i n d i c a t e d f o r a smaller  also applies  of  i s a marked c o n t r a s t  e a r l y seventeenth centuries.  o f such  -8-  works  starting  in  English  between t h e s i x t e e n t h number  of  decades o f the seventeeth -English  translations This  r e l i g i o u s works p r i n t e d  a r e shown  isa  Religious  off later,  works  pattern  there  activity.  percentage of the t o t a l . to  or  While a g r e a t e r  i n T a b l e One),  specifically  These t r e n d s  four  translation  i n t h e 1570's,  due t o t h e l a r g e number  in  terms  table  off in  works i n t r a n s l a t i o n ,  In  9 29 27 35 51 78 74 49 42 59 60 59  26 53 51 66 104 128 123 121 86 123 122 131  i s apparent  general  RELIGIOUS WORKS IN ENGLISH TRANSLATION:  TOTAL NO. OF WORKS IN ENGLISH TRANSLATION:  i n Table  Three.  pattern i n this  TABLE 3 ENGLISH TRANS. AS A PERCENTAGE OF THE TOTAL NO. OF REL. WORKS:  ENGLISH TRANS. AS A PERCENTAGE OF THE TOTAL NO. OF WORKS: 1520-1529 1530-1539 1540-1549 1550-1559 1560-1569 1570-1579 1580-1589 1590-1599 1600-1609 1610-1619 1620-1629 1630-1639 In not  33% 47% 26% 30% 38% 40% 28% 19% 11% 12% 12% 14%  32% 42% 27% 28% 35% 31% 22% 20% 11% 13% 12% 13%  terms o f these p e r c e n t a g e s ,  t h e 1570's a n d  stand out as n u m e r i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t  p r e c e d i n g decades. percentages (with  averages  thirty-five  more  first  than over  The  i n the  percent  while  sixteenth  -the p e r i o d  1520-1569  the period  1570-1599  By c o n t r a s t ,  lower  century  the  (the average  percentages century  are  percentage  is  of  twelve p e r c e n t ) . statistical  translation  concentration translations printed  in  work  this  i s due, at this  study has narrowed authors.  percent  w o r k s , t h e above  four decades of the seventeenth  twenty  above  English  works  consistent  thirty-four percent.  the  just  are fairly  do  when compared t o t h e  only at r e l i g i o u s  t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e 1590's):  averages  for  Looking  1580's  findings  show t h e  importance  in  sixteenth  century.  paper  on  i npart, time.  the  late  sixteenth  t o t h e l a r g e number  Due t o t h i s  century of  translations  -9-  such  l a r g e volume, t h e  i t s f o c u s t o t h o s e works p e n n e d b y  Of t h e many E n g l i s h  The  of  religious  French works  printed  i n the  w o r k s by  French  as  with  t h r e e decades of the  w r i t e r s predominate.  authors.  religious  in  there are approximately  compared  to  proportion period  230  study,  in translation,  works  printed  century  (an  includes  i n the average  around The  period,  there are  translated  by  identifiable  Catholic The  By above,  printed  works  same  basic in  the  of  one  3.4  translations  author  i s Jean  twenty-seven d i f f e r e n t  there  f a r fewer s u c h  are  century.  i n keeping  with  this  aside  large  anonymous  hundred  of  of  sixteenth  the  per  these  year).  i n the  This  1570's  Calvin:  and  in  w r i t i n g s of  the  this Calvin  translations  when one there  of the  o n l y twenty-one such .7 t r a n s l a t i o n s p e r  earlier  the  early  such  works  (approximately  narrows  i s an  indicated  in  sixty-five  t h e p e r i o d 1600-1640  Interestingly,  trends  translations  There are about  P r o t e s t a n t works,  the  over  three decades  and  year).  Leaving  on  English.  throughout  French  last  contrast,  seventeenth  concentrated  there are  most p o p u l a r  into  has  seventy-five translations  1580's.  (about  with  works.  P r o t e s t a n t works.  works  are  are  t o P r o t e s t a n t works i s f o u n d  therefore,  group of French  with  works,  1570-1599.  This  per  French  c o n s i d e r i n g only  forty-five  Protestant  of C a t h o l i c  and  translation  authors,  over  these  century,  the m a j o r i t y  Between 1520-1640, works  sixteenth  Of  r e l i g i o u s works i n g e n e r a l ,  Protestant French  last  the  even s h a r p e r  year)  -10-  focus  -- a b o u t  one-fifth  to  contrast  sixteenth century:  t r a n s l a t i o n s b e t w e e n 1540  1.6  and of  there 1569 the  number  o f works a p p e a r i n g  i n the  last  three decades of  that  century. In t h e p r e c e d i n g s t a t i s t i c a l r e l i g i o u s works i n t r a n s l a t i o n stand  out  as one  peculiarity:  this  As for  something  of t h i s  it  is  to  finds  this  be  commonplace that  which these e p i s t l e s  simply  the  certain  components  The or  most  dedicating  translator. past  expression He  refers  source  understand Moreover,  epistles  of  a  found  component  always  "favours"  of g r a t i t u d e  is  These e p i s t l e s  form,  involves  the  -11-  patron  or  (as i n  adhere  to  to a  few  reduced  of  formal  or p a t r o n s ,  offering by  t h e acknowledgment  owed t h e p a t r o n .  to  is  dedications.  involves  typical  this  standard  rudimentary  T h e s e c a n be  i n a l l such  as  judged.  o f t h e work t o a p a t r o n ,  or  to  practice.  in i t s  translator.  T h i s almost  "debts"  main  t h e work's a u t h o r , p r i n t e r ,  conventions.  important  additional dedicatory  to e s t a b l i s h  be  closer  o f a g i v e n work t o a p a r t i c u l a r  instance)  literary  might  Dedicatory,  o f p a t r o n s by  present  basic  i t i s necessary  the d e d i c a t i o n  or group  literary  the d e d i c a t o r y  against  the  important  century  Upon  their  constitute  i t is  are unique,  Epistle  Protestant  sixteenth  the n a t u r e of  study,  period  The  late  significant.  epistles  argued  French  t h e s e t r a n s l a t i o n s h a v e an  involves  these  material  i n the  numerically  examination,  epistles.  analysis,  such  the of  Thomas W i l c o x ' s ackowledgements.  ...the c h r i s t i a n f a u o r s , which you ( r i g h t h o n o r a b l e , r i g h t w o r s h i p f u l 1 , and my v e r i e d e e r e f r i e n d s ) haue c a r r i e d t o w a r d s me, and t h e memorie o f some b e n e f i t s t h a t I haue r e c e i u e d from you.... Occasionally,  a translator  such past  "benefits".  dedicate  his translation  commandments following  is specific  about  the  nature  of  Thus, J o h n Harmar c l a i m s he d e c i d e d  (1579)  o f C a l v i n ' s Sermons...vpon  to  the  Earl  of  Leicester  the  to X.  for  the  reason: Your H o n o u r s g o o d p r o c u r e m e n t o f h e r M a i e s t i e s g r a t i o u s f a u o u r , whereby I f i r s t became a s c h o l e r i n Winchester C o l l e d g e , a f t e r w a r d too bee remoued t o t h e New C o l l e d g e o f O x f o r d . . . I c o u l d neuer s i n c e f o r g e t . . . . 1 .  Also,  in  d e d i c a t i n g these works,  humility, poor  quality  referred The  beseeching  their  respective  (the t r a n s l a t i o n s are  "rude",  "simple  trauels"',  t r a n s l a t o r s a l s o note  as  Often,  Baxter  venomous d a r t s o f s l a n d e r o u s patronesse,  Ursula  translation:  "as  so v o u c h s a f e  to harbor  note  that  potential  the  i t seeketh  lustre  the b e n e f i t s  i t i s the need  Nathaniel  and  or  t o be  As  t o be  labours").  derived  i t ,  Baxter  the  usually  from  for protection,  Walsingham,  to  from  be  "the  e x p l a i n s to  concerning  shrouded  his  vnder  [ y o u r ] name,  it."  Often,  translators  patron's  name  shielde  of the  "poore  expresses  tongues."  great  t o excuse  efforts  such patronage.  his  patrons  show  of t h e i r  to as  defended,  translators  r e a d e r s . Thus, Thomas Tymme t e l l s  will  entice  h i s patrons:  F o r what E n g l i s h man i s t h e r e w h i c h w i l l n o t t h i n k e i t a Booke most w o r t h y t h e r e a d i n g , w h i c h he s e e t h w a r r a n t e d by y o u r Names.2. Also,  patrons are always p r a i s e d  -12-  for their  many  virtues,  as w e l l is  as  for various laudatory  actions.  Christopher Fetherstone's praise  of  F o r example,  of h i s p a t r o n ,  there  the  Earl  Huntingdon: ...your e s p e c i a l 1 c a r e t o a d u a u n c e Gods g l o r y , and t o r o o t e out p a p i s t r i e , y o u r f a i t h f u l n e s s e towarde y o u r P r i n c e haue b e e n s u c h e , t h a t t h i s Realme g e n e r a l l y . . . h a u e and s h a l l haue g r e a t c a u s e t o p r a y s e God f o r y o u . . . . 3 . The  the  final  f o r m a l component  of the E p i s t l e  commendation o f t h e work i t s e l f .  praise  of both  typical  text  in this  "necessarye benefit  and  author.  regard:  and  he  profitable  excellencie  indicates  to  [the] church",  Robert  Vaux,  and  is  entails  Thomas Tymme's comments  the a u t h o r ' s  i n knowledge,  usually  maintains h i s t r a n s l a t i o n  of h i s countrymen.  translation,  This  Dedicatory  and  are  i s both for  the  i n commending  his  "godlinesse  in  life,  painfulnesse in vtteringe  the  truth."4. These e p i s t o l a r y practises. w r i t t e n by  This the  conventions c o n s t i t u t e  is  illustrated  translator  individuals utilize  by  an  Eusebius Pagit.  deeply  entrenched  Epistle  Dedicatory  Pagit  observes  that  the E p i s t l e D e d i c a t o r y ,  e i t h e r i n t h e commendation o f t h e worke, o r i n the p r a y s e of t h e i r p a t r o n e , or i n the d i s c h a r g i n g of t h e m s e l u e s o f t h e d i s c r e d i t e w h i c h t h e i r e n e m i e s woulde l a y vppon them. Pagit his  requests h i s patron's dedication,  but  t h e work and  i t s author,  " y e e l d more c r e d i t e  and  commendation  to the matter,  that  own  f o r g i v e n e s s f o r n o t d o i n g so  I  however,  can  say of i t a l l the dayes of  despite  claims  to  the  -13-  my  contrary,  he  l i f e . "5.  in  asserts, then a l l Pagit,  proceeds  to  recommend  the  work,  praise  his  patron,  and  "discharge"  himself. The an  above o u t l i n e  examination  religious and  epistles'  with  translations One  the  the  could  just  of  the  earlier  form  from  English  last as  Books  century.  throughout  Index  components  illustrate  epistles  of  or The  this  1641,  French  been  epistles the  such  first  basic  1520  have  of  sixteenth conventions  translations  the  printed  four  decades  epistolary  form  period.  o f D e d i c a t i o n s and before  of  from  p r i n t e d between  three decades of  easily  the  seventeenth  the  i s derived  from the d e d i c a t o r y  sixteenth century  remains unchanged In  various  passages  from  quotations  in  epistolary  of a l l a v a i l a b l e d e d i c a t o r y e p i s t l e s  The  illustrated  with  this  works i n E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n  1640.  century.  of  one  Commendarv finds  Verses  the  in  following  statement: The e d i t o r r e f r a i n s w i t h o u t r e l u c t a n c e f r o m d i s c u s s i n g the c o n v e n t i o n s of d e d i c a t o r y e p i s t l e s and t h e i r c o n t e n t s , a l l t o o o f t e n h a c k n e y e d and monotonous.6. As  a broad  generalization, this  the p r e s e n t One  can  groups.  context separate  Type  conventional marked epistles  by are  A  observation  requires certain  offer  little  components o u t l i n e d a b o v e . a  formal  prose  " h a c k n e y e d and  Type B e p i s t l e s  treat  the  style.  In  monotonous." conventional  -14-  but  in  qualifications.  the d e d i c a t o r y e p i s t l e s epistles  is valid,  into more  Such other  two  distinct  than  the  epistles  are  words,  these  the  other  hand,  epistle  form  merely  On  as  a skeletal  framework.  Using  this  framework a s a  a w i d e r a n g e o f i d e a s a r e e x p r e s s e d and e x p l o r e d . be n o t e d always into  that  this division  of the d e d i c a t o r y  so c l e a r l y marked—some  either  c a t e g o r y . However,  purpose of t h i s d i s c u s s i o n , Dedicatory attaining  epistles  certain  are  kinds  of  patron-client  relationships.  translators.  This  as a general  of  is  Also,  especially  a r e anonymous,  little  Sometimes,  translator  a sense,  features  church  one  invariably  build  name,  finds  and t h e E n g l i s h  on s u c h p o i n t s .  explain,  often  in  on of  the  Some o f  the  initials. have  life  available  and on  a  epistles.  of  information.  on one o f t h e  conventional  In  the  dedicatory  remarks e x p r e s s i n g  will  nation.  accrue  why  the  love  of  "profit"  or  t o God's  Type A e p i s t l e s  Type B e p i s t l e s ,  -15-  the  nevertheless  as i n d i c a t i n g  some d e t a i l ,  of often  many  figures.  Dedicatory.  as w e l l  elaborate  nature  information as  for  epistles  epistles  information  specific translations  members,  the  provide another kind  Epistle  and c o u n t r y ,  "benefit" its  the  The  i s p r o v i d e d by h i s p r e f a t o r y also  true.  documentation of t h e i r  only  these e p i s t l e s  of  epistles,  the  i s what  Type B e p i s t l e s In  i d e n t i f i e d by  fall  and f o r t h e  o r o n l y known by t h e i r  o r no o t h e r a v a i l a b l e  works.  neatly  historians  useful  translators  c a n be  by  the  background  examined h e r e a r e o b s c u r e  who  i s not  rule,  concerning  translators  Others,  epistles  information.  details  kinds  should  do n o t  o f t e n used  reveal  other  It  the d i s t i n c t i o n holds  occasionally  provide  epistles  platform,  the  however,  Church, do n o t usually  translations  are  perceived  to  religious This of  i s d e p e n d e n t on  latter  questions  type  available  the  of  concerning  translations.  discuss  "profitable"  the  three  study  of  century limited  seventeenth Due  longer  four pages  are  t h a n Type A  long,  twenty or Another  while  least  late  double  tone.  The  In  one  can  find  there  are  very  a  early  similar  seventeeth there  earlier in  is a  sixteenth the  early  are  Type B e p i s t l e s  Thus,  one  normally  t h a t amount,  finds  between  sixteenth century and  The of  epistles  of  Type  B  two  some a r e  are  early and  epistles  epistles  prefatory epistles  suffused with  the p a r t  only  moreover,  Thus,  than  content,  epistles.  epistles  characteristic  are  and  Similarly,  more common  the  perspective.  the  i n the  the  tend  as  long  t h i r t y pages.  impassioned  on  they  work,  1600-1640. for  answer  behind  provide  contrast,  v i r t u a l l y impossible.  century  to average at  urgency.  the  century).  seventeenth  paper  By  activity  t o t h e i r more s u b s t a n t i v e  usually  as  i n the p e r i o d  (although  these  sixteenth century,  number o f Type B e p i s t l e s  century  to  l a r g e number  drive  translators'  epistles.  translation  w o u l d be  the  of a  only  epistles  such t r a n s l a t i o n  decades of  such e p i s t l e s  for  motivational these  on  many Type B d e d i c a t o r y few  "necessary"  existence  epistle,  Indeed,  discourse  the  such a c t i v i t y from the  last  and  community.  study  the  be  forceful  reveal pious  t h e i r authors.  Thus,  -16-  is  examined  l a n g u a g e and  in  a  sense  i n d i g n a t i o n and the  epistles  their this of  outrage  frequently  sound  more  like  fiery  ('Appendix B' i l l u s t r a t e s  sermons  than  this point  formal  dedications.  by f u r n i s h i n g  samples of  b o t h Type A a n d Type B d e d i c a t o r y e p i s t l e s ) . In  order  ideas,  t o get the f u l l e s t  a l l their  prefatory  account  epistles  r e l i g i o u s works have b e e n u t i l i z e d . study  is  limited  Protestant by  the  cases,  however,  been  used ideas.  translations translators half fall  with  Type  B  in  translations One  most  on F r e n c h writings of  belonging to  is  l i m i t a t i o n s on with  further Thus,  prefatory limited  of  paper,  the  of t h i s  known  therefore,  study.  examined i n t h i s p a p e r form i n t h e same s o r t They a l s o  of the E p i s t l e Dedicatory  a  distinct  of t r a n s l a t i o n  share  f o r m . Most  s h a r e common c o n c e r n s  a  similar  importantly,  i n regards  r e l i g i o n i n E n g l a n d — c o n c e r n s which u l t i m a t e l y  -17-  to  approximately  Many t r a n s l a t o r s ,  t h e same p e r i o d .  translators  (in  treatment  of t r a n s l a t i o n s  epistles.  They a r e a l l i n v o l v e d and  French  translated  original  fuller  examined i n t h i s  t h e framework  translators  utilization  of  considered.  o f works  outside  group.  these  Only  meet t h e a b o v e c r i t e r i a .  The  work  be  for  included  paper's methodology o b v i o u s l y p l a c e s  can  while the  have c o n c e n t r a t e d  a  of  s e e 'Appendix C ) .  scope of i t s enquiry.  epistles  been  to give  (For the l i s t  translations  Consequently,  the t r a n s l a t o r s  order  research project, This  the  in  for  translators'  n o n - F r e n c h works  the t r a n s l a t o r s  I n a few c a s e s ,  particular this  in translation,  the  responsible  same i n d i v i d u a l s have a l s o  works). have  works  to translators  of  the  state  e x p l a i n the  motivational  force behind  examination  of  discussion  now  these  their  commonly  turns.  -18-  translations. held  It i s  concerns  that  to  an the  CHAPTER THE  TWO  TRANSLATORS AND THEIR COMMITMENT TO INSTRUCTION  RELIGIOUS  I .  The  translator  Preface)  not  John  only  translators, The  in  attempts  religious most  (quoted a t the b e g i n n i n g of  expressed views  shared  by  his  b u t by many o t h e r E n g l i s h P r o t e s t a n t s  period. their  Field  Englishmen  to r e c t i f y  community by  part,  examined  the  i n t h i s paper  such  "englishing"  of  in  this unique  within  foreign  French Protsestant) r e l i g i o u s  fellow  are  shortcomings  the  works  the  (for for  the their  countrymen. There  are  works a r e  two  main a u d i e n c e s  intended:  most  cases  this  the  "vulgar"  the t r a n s l a t o r s '  includes or  "common  prospective  identify,  as  the p r e f a t o r y  explicitly  d i s c u s s such  offered patrons, minority  most by  through  One  such  as  their  respective patrons (in  of  readers  Englishmen.  are  epistles,  generally with  considered  translators the  religious  few  and Each  easy  to  exceptions,  intentions.  to  Epistle  o f s u c h works t h a t  individuals  sort"  translations  the  these  the g i v e n p a t r o n ' s h o u s e h o l d ) ,  translator's  While  f o r which  a  here  particular  Dedicatory,  have p a t r o n s ,  primary  work i s A n t h o n y G i l b y ' s  C o m m e n t a r i e s vpon t h e P r o p h e t  (or  it  and  patron, is  exclusive)  (1570).  publicly  only  other  translation  Daniel1  -19-  are  On  of  or a  learned audience. Calvin's  its  title-  page, the  i t i s stated: vse  of  Huntingdon" singled  behalf  into  of the  patron).  out as intended  Chapter  Englishe,  ryght  honorable  Even when s u c h  readers,  translators  religion  amongst  social these  o f t h e "common s o r t "  Earle  of  individuals are  i t i s often  so  that  (as w i l l  are primarily  the  concerned with  "common s o r t "  they  be s e e n i n  stratum  that  translations.  instruction,  constitutes One c a n  the  vernacular,  by  their  the  l a n g u a g e o f t h e common  audience  translators'  through  religious  Such i n s t r u c t i o n  translations  commonly r e f e r r e d  It i s this  primary  define  a t r u l y g o d l y community.  provided  the s t a t e of  of Englishmen.  r e l i g i o u s program as an e f f o r t t o c r e a t e ,  be  especially for  Three).  The  for  family  (Gilby's  m i g h t a c t on  lower  the  "translated  into  the  t o as the "vulgar  i s to English  tongue"--the  people.  II.  To  speak  translators  of t h i s r e l i g i o u s program as b e l o n g i n g presupposes  translations,  these  individuals  o r a t l e a s t w i l l i n g l y engaged  Indeed,  i t a p p e a r s t o be u n l i k e l y  acting  primarily  unidentified determine social  as  the  precise  superiors  translations.  There  It  extent  encouraged  is  of  i n such  the  activity.  patrons  difficult,  t o which or  a r e , however,  -20-  initiated  that' t h e t r a n s l a t o r s  the c l i e n t s  authorities.  t o the  or  were other  however,  patrons  and  commissioned indications  to  other these  that  at  least It  a few  works were t r a n s l a t e d a t t h e r e q u e s t o f  i s known,  transferred through entry  f o r example, to  England  that  in  Stafford  the Calendar  F r e n c h works were  through  s u c h means came i n t o  patrons.  diplomatic  channels,  and  patrons.  One  the p o s s e s s i o n of  of S t a t e Papers  sometimes  (dated 4  May  1585,  t o Walsingham) a l s o makes r e f e r e n c e t o t h e  translation  o f s u c h a work, w r i t t e n by  P h i l i p p e de  proposed Mornay:  T h i s l i t t l e book I s e n t you i s o f P l e s s y ' s d o i n g . . . N a v a r r e ' s a g e n t w i s h e s i t m i g h t be s e t o u t i n E n g l i s h and F l e m i s h . 1 . It  seems l i k e l y  translation Most  t h a t Walsingham p r e c e d e d  into  of  the  translators'  patrons  many h i g h - r a n k i n g p o l i t i c a l  are  some b i s h o p s p a t r o n i z i n g  reason of  to believe  these  1568,  that  they  translations.  (unidentified),  commission  its  English.  (including also  to  John  t o o may  Of  two  are  lay  figures),  these  officials but  works.  There  have c o m m i s s i o n e d works  by  Beza  S t r y p e , i n g i v i n g an a c c o u n t  there is  certain in  Latin  of the  year  writes: . . . i t was t h o u g h t c o n v e n i e n t by t h e b i s h o p o f London, w i t h t h e a d v i c e , a s i t seems, o f o t h e r of t h e Queen's C o m m i s s i o n e r s f o r e c c l e s i a s t i c a l c a u s e s , t o have them p u t i n t o E n g l i s h . . . . 2.  There on  i s , therefore,  the p a r t An  printed the  for this  type of  involvement  of b i s h o p s .  examination  o n l y one  a precedent  of the  prefatory  epistles,  i n s t a n c e i n w h i c h a work was  however,  probably  translated  a t the r e q u e s t of a p a t r o n . T h i s passage  Epistle  Dedicatory  of  -21-  Laurence  reveals  Tomson  i s found for  and in his  translation  of  Pierre  Excellencie  of  a  de  La  Place's  C h r i s t i a n Man  A  treatise  (1576).  Tomson  of  the  tells  his  patron: A c c o r d i n g a s y o u r w o r s h i p s p l e a s u r e was, I haue p e r u s e d t h i s b o o k e , and a s wynde and w e a t h e r w o u l d s e r u e f o r p a s s a g e , haue b r o u g h t i t out o f F r a n c e i n t o England.3. It  is  more  indicating initiative the  that of  the  following  make t h a t  common  by  to  find  translations translators. Nathaniel  common t o  others,  mine owne commodity." Or  the  prefatory  were One  undertaken  finds  Baxter:  epistles  "I  as  endeauored...to  I priuately  t h i s comment by  the  statements such  then  which f i r s t  on  John  red  for  Stockwood:  P e r u s i n g t h i s s h o r t e and l e a r n e d t r e a t i s e o f M a s t e r B e z a . . . I t h o u g h t w i t h my s e l f e , t h a t I c o u l d n o t be b e t t e r o c c u p i e d , t h e n a t s u c h t i m e s as I had l e y s u r e . . . t o t u r n e i t i n t o o our mother tongue.... There  is  also  concerning three to  his  the  t r a n s l a t i o n of  c h a p t e r s of  having  receaued  the  prefatory or  e n d e a v o r s by  friends  "at our  the  English  refers  convinced and  to  s u t e of  by  John  B e z a ' s Sermons vpon of  Canticles  Mart  in  "I  to  occupy  tongue." C h r i s t o p h e r  s u c h e n c o u r a g e m e n t by  -22-  ( 1 5 8 7 ) . He  refers  little  before  translators themselves  For  L e c t u r e s or D a l l y my  first  French."4.  associates.  some o f  Harmar  the  had  epistles, indicate  claims Calvin's earnest  statement  a work w h i c h  Francfort  encouraged  Baxter  Canticle  translated  from the  Other  following  dere  example, Sermons  friends",  such  Nathaniel  (1578)  frendes... turned  Fetherstone  "godly  in  were  were into  consistently of  which  the  f o l l o w i n g passages a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e : B e i n g i n s t a n t l y r e q u e s t e d ( G e n t l e R e a d e r ) b y my godlie zealous friendes to e n t e r p r i c e the t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h e most l e a r n e d c o m m e n t a r i e o f M. Iohn C a l u i n , a n d b e i n g p e r s u a d e d t h e r e u n t o b y manie g o d l i e r e a s o n s , w h e r e o f Gods g l o r y a n d t h e p r o f i t e o f h i s C h u r c h s h o u l d be t h e c h i e f e , I c o u l d n o t , n o r woulde n o t r e f u s e . . . . I was t h e u n m e e t e s t t o a t t e m p t t h i s t r a u e l l : y e t s u c h was t h e e a r n e s t r e q u e s t o f my g o d l i e f r i e n d e s t h a t u n l e s s e I s h o u l d haue t a k e [ n ] i t i n hand, I s h o u l d haue seemed v o i d e o f c o u r t e s i e , a n d a l s o o f c a r e t o p r o f i t e God h i s c h u r c h . 5 . One  finds  of  the  i n both  benefit  cases  that Fetherstone  t o be g a i n e d b y s u c h  a c t e d out of a sense  of o b l i g a t i o n  for  translation,  originates  t r a n s l a t o r s and t h e i r Finally, to  peers,  social the  or  duty.  i n such  and  i t i s the extent  The i m p e t u s  cases  with  of the t r a n s l a t o r s '  translators'  the  commitment  above t h a t s u g g e s t s  these  were n o t s i m p l y a c t i n g upon t h e w i s h e s o f  superiors.  has  or c o - r e l i g i o n i s t s .  the r e l i g i o u s program o u t l i n e d  individuals  convinced  translations,  thus  then,  has been  The r e m a i n d e r  of t h i s  s t r o n g commitment  chapter  to this  will  their examine  translation  work.  Ill.  It for  i s known t h a t t r a n s l a t i o n was n o t t h e p r i m a r y most  reveals  of these that  responsible  eighteen  for  many t r a n s l a t o r s  translators. of  The  these  Short-Title individuals  only  a single  English  listed  i n Table  Four  -23-  occupation Catalogue are  translation.  each Also,  (below) have o n l y a few  translations attributed of  to  them. The  this translation activity  found "I  i n the  prefatory  is also  epistles.  e m p l o y e d mine e n d e a u o r by  from other n e c e s s a r i e to  Bullinger's  part-time nature revealed  William  a l l the  by  of  comments  Hopkinson  spare  time  much  states:  that  I  had  a f f a i r e s . . . . " John Stockwood, r e f e r r i n g  Common p l a c e s  of  Christian  Religion  (1572),  writes: I haue i m p l o y e d a l l t h e s p a r e t i m e t h a t I c o u l d get from o t h e r b u s i n e s , to the t u r n i n g of i t i n t o our E n g l i s h t u n g . . . . And  Edward May  found  to  translate  comments can What  be  then  pursuits? these  has  decided,  t h i s worke, t o  found can  of  unknown  the  As  translators'  are  limited, about  (as w i l l  therefore,  t h i s g r o u p as  v e r y uneven a c c o u n t What t h e s e strong  quite  well  certain  be  discussed  of  these  The  following  few  generalizations  to  the  discussion, about  and  a  few  aspects  documented,  can  other  to  their  other  than  Four). that  at best  cases,  of  due  activities i n Chapter  chapter,  can  give  One be  is made  only  a  translators.  i n d i v i d u a l s do  commitment  in  other  concerning  preceding  generalizations  a whole,  translators.  i_s a v a i l a b l e  i n the  I  Similar  individuals'  certain  in  i n the  other  obscure or,  Conversely,  involvement  translation  indicated  times which  idlenesse."6.  these  information  t r a n s l a t o r s are  lives  expel  e p i s t l e s of  s a i d about  What b a c k g r o u n d  figures.  known  i n the  be  translators?  many  " i n those voide  have i n common, however,  r e l i g i o u s program therefore, the  -24-  will  outlined limit  is a above.  itself  translators pertaining  to  to  a  this  shared  commitment.  It limited a  i s important their  special  original topics).  t o note  that  many  t r a n s l a t i o n work t o r e l i g i o u s  interest writings  i n this also  T h i s c a n be s e e n  tend  type to  of  translators texts,  writing  concentrate  i n Table  suggesting  (those on  have  with  religious  Four.  TABLE 4.* TRANSLATOR:  A. T . T. J. T. J . T. C. J. J . A. R. J . J . L. J. W. J. J. P. T. W. R. J . H. M. W. W.  Golding Stocker Tymme Field Wilcox Stockwood Twyne Fetherstone Brooke D. Gilby Vaux Shute Golburne Tomson Eliot Phiston Coxe Stubbs Allibond G. Chauncie B. Harmar Holland Herbert Watkinson Whittingham  TOTAL NO. OF TRANS.:  TOTAL NO. OF RELIGIOUS WORKS IN TRANS.:  30 12 12 9 8 8 8 7 6 6 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2  17 10 7 9 7 7 2 7 6 2 5 4 4 4 4 1 1 4 3 3 1 3 2 2 2 1 2 2  NO. OF RELIGIOUS WORKS IN TRANS. BETWEEN 1570-'99: 12 9 6 9 7 7 2 7 6 1 5 4 3 1 4 1 1 3 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 1  * One s h o u l d be c a u t i o u s when c o n s i d e r i n g s u c h s t a t i s t i c s f o r individuals only known by t h e i r initials: different translators sharing t h e same initials are sometimes i n c o r r e c t l y t r e a t e d a s one i n d i v i d u a l i n t h e S.T.C. -25-  Also,  most  translators  are  professional  of  example, will  be  seventy-five  clergymen;  interest  translations sense  (around  as  in  such,  for  their  that  he  of  would  the  have  instruction. by  respective  J o h n Stockwood s a y s of b e n e f i t  they  religious  were p r o b a b l y u n d e r t a k e n  duty  percent)  Some  m i n i s t e r s out  of  congregations.  hopes  his  a  a For  translation  to  t h o s e o f B a t t e l , o u e r whom a s u n w o r t h y i t h a t h p l e a s e d God t o a p p o i n t me m i n i s t e r , whose s a l u a t i o n by a l means b i n d e t h me t o s e k e . 7 . Stockwood these  adds  that  individuals,  Also,  as w e l l  some m i n i s t e r s  i d e a s conveyed certain  his translation as  i s for  the  f o r the p u b l i c  associate their  at  profit  large.  preaching with  i n t h e works t h e y have t r a n s l a t e d .  "worshipfull  knightes  and  of  the  Speaking  Christian  to  gentlemen",  Baxter w r i t e s : . . . t h e moste p a r t e o f y o u haue h e a r d e my l e c t u r e s o r r e a d i n g e vppon I o s u e , D a n i e l l , I o n a s and M a l a c h i e you m i g h t a l s o by r e a d i n g e t h i s b o o k e , c a l l t o remembraunce, t o y o u r e c o m f o r t e s , some of t h e t h i n g e s w h i c h t h e n you h e a r d e a t my mouthe.8. It  must  be  translators  stressed  for  this Three  Thomas  Stocker,  and  Also,  Table  on  Catalogue  a variety  however,  such  (above)  few  that  the  important  to  the  (Arthur  Tomson) a r e  lay  reveals  that  c o n c e n t r a t e on  indicates  these  more  individuals  in  his (the  that Golding t r a n s l a t e d  works  The  individuals  -26-  Golding,  translators.  Golding  religious  above  works  of s u b j e c t m a t t e r s ) .  suggest  of  are exceptions  Laurence  t r a n s l a t i o n work d i d n o t Short-Title  a  study  generalizations.  Four  that  prefatory were v e r y  epistles, committed  to  the  translation project  prefatory the  e p i s t l e s that  examined h e r e .  o f f e r the  t r a n s l a t o r s ' commitment  to  It i s , in fact,  most c o m p e l l i n g  this  the  proof  of  r e l i g i o u s program.  IV.  The  prefatory  function  {this,  epistles). such  a  The  simple  comprehend often  e p i s t l e s often in part,  in  referring (1580),  unlearned  works t h e y  i n d i c a t e that  language  f o r the  his  audience  have  expository  length  great  the  not  fully  might  t r a n s l a t i o n of  Thus,  Beza's  the that  "englished."  works.  of  concern  Translators  t h e y have r e f r a i n e d f r o m u s i n g  translating  to  accounts  important  t r a n s l a t o r s demonstrate and  the  have an  difficult  Anthony  Psalmes  Gilby,  of  Dauid  states: I haue s i n c e r e l y p e r f o r m e d t h e d u t i e o f a f a i t h f u l l Interpreter, rather indeauering too l a y f o o r t h t h i n g s p l a i n l y e ( y e a and s o m e t i m e s a l s o homely and g r o s s e l y ) t o o t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f many, t h e n t o o i n d y t e t h i n g s c u r y o u s l y t o o the p l e a s i n g o f a fewe.  Likewise,  i n the  Jon's AppealVPSis  'Admonition  to  (1592),  unknown t r a n s l a t o r  the  the  Reader'  for Francois  Du  writes:  F o r t h e t r a n s l a t i o n . . . o f t h e t e x t , I haue i n a maner w h o l l y u s e d t h a t w h i c h i s most common and i n e u e r y mans h a n d . . . . He  apologizes  speech" The render  could  that not  prefatory the  translators  be  " c e r t a i n e w o r d s . . . a n d some o t h e r  unwonted  avoided.9.  e p i s t l e s are  often  t e x t s more c o m p r e h e n s i b l e sometimes  point  -27-  out  u s e d by  translators  for their to  their  to  readers.  The  audience  that  marginal  notes  are provided Jon's from  in  and  translator  vpon  to assist  following  the than  reader.10. most:  and  the  Booke  of  with  Thus,  c o n c i s e overview  the  a work. of  i n the  Sermons  (1574),  D e d i c a t o r y as being,  o f t h e work.  notes of  summaries  of the  lob  verses  Moreover,  such  often provide  for h i s translation  o f Du  he a l s o p r o v i d e s t h e  a d v i c e on how t o r e a d  translators  describes h i s Epistle abstract"  chapters  the p a r t s of S c r i p t u r e d e a l t  example,  translator)  the t r a n s l a t o r  has n o t a t e d  goes even f u r t h e r  t e x t s and/or  or  along with Tables containing "briefe  others"  Furthermore,  Caluin,  F o r example,  (1592)  reader with d e t a i l e d  For  e i t h e r by the author  the text.  Appealypsis Scripture,  Beza  (written  i n part, a  i n the e p i s t l e ,  works.  of  Arthur  the  Iohn  Golding "briefe  one f i n d s t h e  of the s u b j e c t :  God... k n o w i n g t h e f o r w a r d n e s s e o f m a n k i n d e , and m i n d i n g e i t h e r t o b r i n g v s home t o h i m s e l f e , or t o leaue vs v t t e r l y vnecusable, doth i n t h i s booke p u r p o s e l y aboue a l l o t h e r p a r t e s o f h o l y e s c r i p t u r e , b o t h d e f e n d e h i s owne M a i e s t i e . . . a n d a l s o s e t downe a p e r f e c t p a t t e r n e o f p a t i e n c e , c o n t e i n i n g t h e due o b e d i e n c e a n d s u b i e c t i o n o f t h e c r e a t u r e t o h i s maker. T h e s e a r e t h e two c h i e f e p o i n t s whereupon t h e w h o l e booke o f l o b i s g r o u n d e d . . . . 11. Certain their by  works have b e e n s e l e c t e d  accessibility—the  the unlearned.  for translation  due  e a s e w i t h w h i c h t h e y m i g h t be  In t h e 'Admonition  F r a n c o i s Du J o n ' s A p o c a l v p s l s  (1592),  writes:  -28-  to the  Reader'  t h e unknown  to read for  translator  Many I know haue w r i t t e n more l a r g e l y o f t h i s b o o k . . . H e r e b r e u i t y was s o u g h t . . . t h a t a l l t h i n g s b e i n g i n a maner a t once s e t b e f o r e t h i n e e y e , t h o u m i g h t e s t b o t h more e a s i l y comprehend t h a t w h i c h i s s a y d , a n d b e t t e r i m p r i n t i t i n t h y memory. Christopher  R o s d e l l notes  Commentaries (1583)  might  already  "simpler  the e p i s t l e  Martyr's  sort."  "always  the  match  Calvin,  the l a t t e r  of  to  the  observes, the  Calvin's Romanes there  same  of  is difficult  deepe  faithfull  for  mysteries",  sinceritie  with  is  subject.  by c o n t r a s t , i s p a r t i c u l a r l y  t r u e sense his  a s he  c o m m e n t a r i e s on  Rosdell maintains  "forth  of Saint Paui  seem s u p e r f l u o u s ;  Peter  However,  draw  upon  that h i s t r a n s l a t i o n  a  the  able to and  to  plaine  briefnesse."12. Not  surprisingly,  some t r a n s l a t o r s . of  then,  a b r i d g e d works a r e p r e f e r r e d  Anthony G i l b y ,  referring  C a l v i n ' s Commentaries...vpon  by  to h i s t r a n s l a t i o n  the Prophet  Danlell  (1570),  writes: Good r e a d e r , blame n o t t h i s t h y n g I b e s e c h t h e e , w h i c h I haue done i n t h i s p l a i n e and r u d e s o r t , f o r t h e c o m m o d i t i e o f t h e s i m p l e and v n l e a r n e d : whom I d i d t h i n k e v n a b l e t o comprehend i n t h e y r mindes, and a p p l y vnto t h e i r c o n s c i e n c e s these l e a r n e d commentaries of t h i s d i v i n e C a l u i n e , u n l e s t h e y were somethyng a b r i d g e d a n d [ t h e ] e x p o s i t i o n s o f the Hebrue wordes... o m i t t e d . The work, G i l b y h o p e s , w i l l  be  most c o m f o r t a b l e t o t h e i r c o n s c i e n c e , a n d l e a s t t e d i o u s t o such simple persons as a r e not a b l e to comprehend a l l h i s l a r g e a n d l e a r n e d d i s c o u r s e s . Edward May of  refers  Christian  "those  to h i s t r a n s l a t i o n  Religion  (1580) a s a  godly disposed brethren  of C a l v i n ' s  "compendium",  that  are not  Institution intended for  of a b i l i t i e  to  buie  t h e whole  scripture  Institutions."  are not there  sufficient  Another  the  works t h a t  has  places  indication  i s their  passages  expounded",  " l i g h t . . . a s may e a s i l y  m e a n i n g o f many o t h e r  project  And a l t h o u g h  they  May c o n t i n u e s , shew t h e way t o  , not there  agreement w i t h  translate.  This  translated  an  Commentaries...vpon  abridged  the ideas  Thus,  the  true  to this  conveyed i n in  after  version  the Prophet D a n i e l l  there i s  commitment  i s revealed  from the p r e f a t o r y e p i s t l e s .  of  contained."13.  of the t r a n s l a t o r s '  general  " a l l places  assorted n o t i n g he  of  Calvin's  ( 1 5 7 0 ) , G i l b y g o e s on  to say: ...1 do p r o f e s s e m y s e l f t o b e e one o f h i s s c h o l a r s . . . s o I do n o t o f a r r o g a u n c e a l t e r o r chaunge a n y t h i n g i n h i s w r i t y n g e s . Some o f t h e o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n the  r e i g n o f Queen Mary, made i m p o r t a n t  reformers the  of t r a n s l a t o r s  on t h e C o n t i n e n t .  epistle  as e x i l e s  contacts with  J o h n Harmar, many y e a r s  to a translation  o f Beza,  during leading  later, i n  writes:  [ I ] f o u n d h i m [ B e z a ] no l e s s e t h e n a f a t h e r v n t o me i n c u r t e s i e a n d good w i l l , when I l i u e d a s a s t r a n g e r i n Geneua, a n d e n j o y e d t h e b e n e f i t e o f h e a r i n g h i m i n l e c t u r e s a n d sermons.14. Fetherstone's brvtish this  translation  thunderbolt close  Fetherstone  Hotman's book: "tedious  (1586) p r o v i d e s  association tries  between  Francois the best  narrations  not l e t t h i s  -30-  The  illustration  of  and  author.  f r o m one e l e m e n t  to the reader  of Dominick and to  Hotman's  translator  to d i s s o c i a t e himself  he a p o l o g i z e s  enjoins h i s readers  of  f o r the  in  author's  Francis."  Fetherstone  "keep t h e e  backe", f o r  the  author,  Fetherstone assures h i s readers,  "halfe  ashamed t o make r e c i t a l l  of such grosse  absurd  follies."  so,  "partly  i n respect  such b e a s t l y of  Rome."  Dominic  f o r the present  Fetherstone,  underneath  did  [subjects]...are  and  saint  for  Francis  Fetherstone  Pope",  highly his  part,  with  the  Fetherstone reveals  a close  and  suggests,  "and p a r t l y  esteemed  doubt  stuffe,  bicause  i n the  church  associates  saint  corrupt  Jesuits:  t h e y a r e a l l " b i r d s o f t h e same n e s t . " 1 5 .  objections, material  Hotman  was no  By h i s  involvement w i t h the  he i s t r a n s l a t i n g .  V.  A  deeply  underlies  held  and  conviction,  drives  considered  in  translators  express  dedications,  their  respective  given  considerable  as  broader  of  t h i s paper.  their  involves  much  the idea the  of  Christian  translation  I t has a l r e a d y  been  activity noted  f e e l i n g s of o b l i g a t i o n t o re-pay, past  "fauours"  patrons.  civic  in  through  sense of o b l i g a t i o n , some  duties—duties  prefatory  b a s e d on o n e ' s  standing  man.  John  in  epistles.  A Christian's f i r s t  to  Stockwood w r i t e s :  bind  God.  a l l h i s endeavor vnto  to this notion  and p r i m a r y d u t y  several  i s , of course,  " t h e whole c h r i s t i a n  man  should  t h e h o n o r i n g o f t h e name o f  One c a n h o n o r God t h r o u g h s h a r i n g  -31-  H i s Word  one  epistles,  a C h r i s t i a n , and d i r e c t e d towards one's f e l l o w Stockwood makes r e f e r e n c e  how  a n d " b e n e f i t s " p r o f e r r e d by  Another  emphasis  duty,  with  those  God." that  are  yet  ignorant  while  others  "both  by  felt  of  an  b e c a u s e many h i d e "perish within talented  truths.  Thus,  m i g h t have done a b e t t e r  reason  Stockwood  of h o l y  their  greater  Stockwood job  l e a s u r e and  o b l i g a t i o n to undertake their  gifts  and  t h e m s e l v e s " ; and  "must h o l d  the  of  the  talents,  both for  our  And  This  is  them  to  the  least  "duetifulnesse",  means " t o m e d i t a t e upon God's  s e l u e s , and  families."  task.  skil",  candel."16.  Tomson a s s e r t s ,  f o r our  greater  often  L a u r e n c e Tomson a l s o s p e a k s o f C h r i s t i a n which,  translation  allowing  consequently,  claims,  f o r our  with  this  children,  f o r our  Word  brethren,  i n mind, Tomson w r i t e s :  i f wee w i l seeme t o make a p r o p e r t i e o f t h a t w h i c h ought t o be common, and t o k e e p e i t t o our s e l u e s a s our owne, w h i c h i s n o t o u r s , b u t our b r e t h r e n s , t h e L o r d i s f a i t h f u l l , who will n o t bee s l a c k e t o p u n i s h our v n f a i t h f u l n e s . . . . 1 7 . A  sense of p u b l i c duty,  eliminate  the b a r r i e r  common p r o p e r t y Such  the  such t r a n s l a t o r s to  rendering  i s the dominant  f o r Yves Rouspeau's A  holy  initials  language,  leads  God's Word  the  of a l l Englishmen.  "dutifulness"  Dedicatory to  of  therefore,  Supper  (1578?).  'R.B.', b e g i n s  his  theme i n t h e  treatise  of  the  Epistle  preparation  I t s t r a n s l a t o r , known o n l y by  the  epistle:  Amongst t h e s u n d r y w o r k s o f many a n c i e n t , l e a r n e d and w i s e men...1 f i n d no one t h i n g more g e n e r a l l y commended t h e n t h e t r a u e l t h a t p r o c u r e t h p r o f i t and v t i l i t i e t o t h e common w e l t h . In t h i s  life,  should  be  respect."  the  t r a n s l a t o r continues,  imploied  t o the b e n e f i t of  From S c r i p t u r e , he  points  -32-  "our our  out,  whole  countrey  one  learns  indeauour in  some  w i t h what v i g o r God p u n i s h e d t h e v n p r o f i t a b l e s e r u a n t , how he commaunded t h a t e u e r y t r e w h i c h b r o u g h t n o t f o r t h g o o d f r u t e , s h u d be hewed down and c a s t i n t o t h e f i r e . "These w a r n i n g s " ,  the t r a n s l a t o r  notes,  s h o u l d s t i r vp e u e r y man t o make some i n c r e c e of t h e s e t a l e n t s w h i c h God h a t h l e n t him, r a t h e r t h e n t h r o u g h s l o u t h f u l n e s t o b u r y them i n obscurity.... Bearing good  this  to  i n mind, t h e t r a n s l a t o r  imploy  my  diligence  Treatise...."  "[D]esiring",  accounted  profitable  a  hurtfull  D r o n e 1 8 .  Golding  and  prospect  of a p p e a r i n g  The to  John  Other  but  then  t o be  translators  this  small  continues, "to suspectful  for  ( f o r example,  express  bee  concern  a  Arthur at  the  "drone-like." o f r e l i g i o u s works h i t h e r t o  masses d o e s n o t  function,  Bee:  "I thought i t  translating  the t r a n s l a t o r  Stockwood) a l s o  "englishing"  the  in  concludes,  only serve  an  inaccessible  important  spiritual  i s a l s o a p i o u s g e s t u r e , the e x p r e s s i o n of  the  t r a n s l a t o r ' s d e v o t i o n t o h i s community. T h u s ,  Thomas W i l c o x ,  aside  they  are  not  reason  for  his  from  "carried  instructing  the u n l e a r n e d ,  away i n t o v n t r u t h " ,  so t h a t  states another  translation: ...by r e a c h i n g them my weake hand and f e e b l e arme, i f n o t a l t o g i t h e r p u l l some out o f t h a t p u d d l e . . . y e t l e t them b e h o l d my l o u e and s o u n d a f f e c t i o n f o r t h e e f f e c t i n g t h e r e o f t o my uttermost.19. There  are a  few  e s p e c i a l l y powerful passages  translation  activity  enterprise.  The  the people,  that  duty  i s fervently praised  as a  i n which most  such pious  of r e n d e r i n g h o l y t r u t h s a c c e s s i b l e  i s , to  make  them  -33-  the  to  "common p r o p e r t y " o f  all  h u m a n i t y , was  one  reason,  Tomson  claims  w h i c h moued t h e F a t h e r s i n o l d e t i m e , and o u r g o o d F a t h e r s o f t h i s o u r b l e s s e d age, y e t l i u i n g amongst v s , t o do a s t h e y d i d , and do s t i l l , by p u b l i s h i n g t h o s e t h i n g s w h i c h t h e y haue r e c e i u e d of God f o r v s . . . n o t o n l y s a t i s f i e d t o p u t t h e s e h i s notes f o r t h i n the L a t i n e tongue, but d e s i r e d a l s o some o f o u r g o d l y b r e t h r e n t o communicate them w i t h h i s C o u n t r i e men i n t h e i r owne l a n g u a g e . Similarly,  Edward May  writes:  ...we haue much t o p r a i s e God o u r h e a u e n l y F a t h e r f o r h i s g r e a t b l e s s i n g s b e s t o w e d vpon v s , by t h e w o r t h y t r a u e l o f g o d l y l e a r n e d men, in setting f o r t h and t r a n s l a t i n g d i u e r s e and l e a r n e d b o o k e s i n t o our v u l g a r t o n g u e , t o t h e e n c r e a s i n g o f t h e k n o w l e d g e o f t h e a l m i g h t i e God i n them, t h a t haue n o t t h e k n o w l e d g e o f t o n g u e s ....2o. Elsewhere,  translations into  the  criticisms  his  translation  t h e Romanes  of p a p i s t s .  E n g l i s h are defended  Christopher  Rosdell  i n defence  o f C a l v i n ' s A commentary upon t h e  (1583), a t t a c k s  those  individuals  epistle  then  of to  who  l a b o u r to persuade the v n l e a r n e d , t h a t the E p i s t l e s o f P a u l e a r e h a r d e t o bee u n d e r s t o o d e and o b s c u r e . . . and t h e r e f o r e a r e t o bee r e a d o f t h e common s o r t e ; b u t r a t h e r t o bee r e s t r a y n e d and f o r b i d d e n . Rosdell  against  not  asks:  s h a l l a l l t h e w r i t i n g s o f P a u l e bee taken away f r o m t h e p e o p l e and C h u r c h o f God, b e c a u s e o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s and h a r d n e s o f c e r t a y n e places....? Such  parts,  sincerely The  Rosdell continues,  expounded,  Scriptures,  Bishops  and  that  the  simple  Rosdell notes,  ministers!21.  "should  bee  faithfully,  might v n d e r s t a n d  were n o t  written  and  them."  just  for  VI .  The their  translators' conviction  all,  only  translation  belief  that  the  partially activity  i n the  a l o n e do  alarm  characterize  Their  religious  before,  religious must now  not  late  account the  be  as  the  the  f o r the  Such in  -35-  as  well  extent  of  century.  prefatory extent  pressing concerns,  detail.  as  accessible  to  such These  sense of urgency  large  immmediate,  at  be  sixteenth  translators'  community. looked  should  for  program i s to a  what t h e y p e r c e i v e English  word o f God  accounts  principles that  i n C h r i s t i a n duty,  and  epistles.  motivated needs of alluded  by the to  CHAPTER THREE THE TRANSLATORS' MESSAGES  TO THE READER  I. "A v e r y Wilcox  lamentable  and p i t i f u l  w r i t e s i n one E p i s t l e  thing to consider",  Thomas  Dedicatory,  howe much b l i n d n e s s e and ignoraunce p r e v a i l e t h i n these dayes, wherein the Lorde h a t h g i u e n suche g r e a t l i g h t o f h i s t r u e t h , b o t h by p r e a c h i n g and w r i t i n g . And  worse s t i l l ,  according to Wilcox,  is  "the  horrible  heapes o f t r a n s g r e s s i o n s , and t h e worlde o f w i c k e d n e s s e , generally...ouerfloweth "ignoraunce"  expressed  treated  i n this is  religion Word). will  common  chapter.  equated  the e p i s t l e s feature:  aspects  assumed i n  of the s t a t e  the n o t i o n  i n this  express  negative  particular  problems  conflicts  these and  and wickedness c o n s t i t u t e individual  issues,  chapter,  i n England.  messages a r e  epistles,  of  to  of true  God's  wickedness  then,  dissatisfaction  of r e l i g i o n  or  of  to as a "blindness"  most o f t h e  ignorance  concept  chapter.  examined  they  the  epistles  with a l a c k of understanding  this  of  the country are  a l l the  In t h e e p i s t l e s ,  referred  from  prevalence  throughout  close connection with  be o b v i o u s  All  or t a c i t l y  (sometimes Its  The  and "wickednesse"  notions  ignorance  all.".l.  that  i n tone, in  As  a  the  result,  realm.  i n their  aspects  certain  pertaining  to While  i n the  treatment  of such  w i t h v a r y i n g emphases. One c a n v i e w t h e s e  -36-  with  common e l e m e n t s  translators differ  exploring different  h a v e one  of  problems  separate  lines  of  thought as d i s t i n c t channels,  source. at  Such c h a n n e l s t a k e a v a r i e t y  various points.  these  messages  recurring grouped  in  two  ways.  identified.  Second,  translations  will  of  to  explain  particular  common  of t h i s  grouping  chapter.  that  represent  T h e s e messages  First,  c o m m e n t a r i e s on p a r t i c u l a r  and  here a r e those  i n the e p i s t l e s .  a  o f r o u t e s and i n t e r s e c t  i s the objective  of i n t e r e s t  themes  from  The t a s k o f d i s e n t a n g l i n g  l i n e s of thought  The  used  a l l flowing  recurring  aspects of r e l i g i o u s  will  be  opinions  or  life  be  will  common u s e s o r f u n c t i o n s a t t r i b u t e d t o  be i n d i c a t e d . and j u s t i f y  Both  t y p e s o f message  the t r a n s l a t i o n  and  are  publication  works.  II.  Thomas  Wilcox  particularly offering Wilcox  negative picture  that  who  of the populace  a few i n d i v i d u a l s .  only  "blind,  Wilcox  as a  negligent  refers  to  a  actions.  roote"  in  "proud  and (that  The masses a r e d e s c r i b e d  and s u p e r s t i t i o u s . "  or i n d i f f e r e n t  Comparable  and  i n regards  s t a t e m e n t s c a n be f o u n d  People a r e  to matters  of  i n the e p i s t l e s  a  whole,  many o f whom a r e h y p o c r i t i c a l  outwardly C h r i s t i a n ) . wilfull,  paint  t h e G o s p e l has "taken good  thanklesse generation", is,  translators  h a r s h condemnations of t h e i r a t t i t u d e s stresses  only  i s among t h o s e  as  generally faith.2. of  other  translators. Some  offer  more  extensive  -37-  discussion  of  specific  problems a s s o c i a t e d with One  such  problem  the b l i n d n e s s of  i s the  w o r l d l y p o s s e s s i o n s and  masses'  pursuits.  the  "common  inordinate  sort."  concern  Nathaniel Baxter  for  writes:  [ t h e p e o p l e ] b e i n g v t t e r l y v n s k i l f u l l o f God and g o d l i n e s s , do y e t a p p l y t h e i r myndes t o the v a i n e d e l i g h t e s of t h i s f l a t t e r i n g world. Baxter  proceeds  t o e l a b o r a t e on  life",  w h i c h he  views as a widespread  almoste  that i s not  it?"  Another  vein,  attachment to  "heauenlie"  problem:  Anne Prowse,  vast  "pride "who  of  is  he  i t ? What n a t i o n i s v o y d e  worldly-minded  the  writes in a  people  inferiority  and She  of  of  similar  their then  deep  proceeds  "earthlie"  to  things.3.  Baxter,  manifest  to  theme o f t h e  to the p l e a s u r e s of t h i s world.  underscore  For  infected with  translator,  referring  the  such  fixation  on  i n the n e g l e c t of g o d l y  "vaine d e l i g h t e s "  is  made  books:  We see some men b e s t o w e t h e i r t i m e i n w r i t i n g , some i n p r i n t i n g , and m o [ r e ] men i n r e a d i n g o f v i l e and b l a s p h e m o u s , o r a t l e s t o f p r o p h a n and f r i u o l o u s bokes.... Good  books  contends, that are  who  p r e f e r to  are p r o f i t a b l e "ridiculous"  A  couple  evaluation excuse corrupt our  are u s u a l l y  own  for  overlooked "take  and  "satisfie  of t r a n s l a t o r s of  nature,  Baxter  i n hande r a t h e r t h o s e  thinges  are  especially  emphasizing  ungodliness. Wilcox what he  calls  h e a r t s . " R e j e c t i o n or  t h o s e b e i n g works t h a t  mens humors."4.  the populace,  their  printers,  to the p u r s e . . . " ,  by  the  in  that there  speaks  " m a l i c e and  indifference  -38-  severe  to  of  their is  no  mankind's  rebellion God's  of  truth,  however,  cannot  argues,  "we  be e x c u s e d  on s u c h g r o u n d s .  haue s o much l i g h t  and  (notwithstanding  our  notes  [are] d a y l y taught  that  pulpit." these  "wee  originall  M o r e o v e r , he o b s e r v e s  dayes  is  not  so  a man may b y e a f a i r e  no  either,  excuse  clearenesse  sinne)."  that  as Wilcox within  John  us  Stockwood  our d u t i e s  out of  "the p r i c e  of a Bible i n  great...[f]or  shillings  For,  the  Bible."  value  euery  of  A " l a c k of time"  ten is  a c c o r d i n g t o Stockwood:  . . . i f he b e s t o w e d b u t t h e one h a l f o f t h e t i m e t h a t he a p p l y e t h u n t o v a n i t y , upon t h e r e a d i n g of... t h e B i b l e , i t w o u l d i n s h o r t s p a c e make h i m a g o o d s c h o l l e r i n gods h e a u e n l y m y s t e r i e s . 5 . One  very  rectify  important  the peoples'  rudimentary Christianity.  As  Scripture  one might  Stockwood u t i l i z e s like  "a m a r i n e r " ,  of the  translations  b l i n d n e s s i n such matters by  religious  that  function  instruction  Stockwood  observes,  attain  i t  basic is  providing tenets  of  only  through  k n o w l e d g e o f God a n d  Christ.  a s h i p metaphor Stockwood  i n the  i s to  t o make h i s p o i n t .  It i s  suggests,  t o t h i n c k t h a t he w i l g u i d e a S h i p i n t h e midst o f the v n q u i e t and r a g i n g s e a , i n a n i g h t as dark as p i t c h . . . w i t h o u t a Starne, Oares, S a y l e s , and w i t h o u t the o b s e r u i n g o f the s t a r r e s , windes and d i r e c t i o n o f t h e compasse.... Moreover,  i t  i s out of S c r i p t u r e excellent  that  and p r o f i t a b l e  men  sundrie  most  receiued  "as meanes a n d h e l p s t o t h e b e t t e r  "haue...drawen  works"--works  to  be  understanding  of  essentially  two  Gods woord."6. Works types.  for religious  instruction  Some w o r k s , s u c h a s  Calvin's  -39-  are of  Aphorismes of C h r i s t i a n  Religion  (1596),  offer,  expresses  i t , "a s y n o p s i s o r s h o r t v i e w o f t h e w h o l e b o d i e o f  Gods h o l y t r u t h . . . . "  as i t s  Another  plavne  instruction  Macon,  which i t s t r a n s l a t o r ,  "conteyning The  instruction  refers and  f o ra l l children  in  one  of  specific  (1580),  or  Robert  refers  translation  the Immortalvtie  i s to provide  of  Calvin's  of the soule  to a past discussion with a f r i e n d  a  by  a r e a . An example  d i s s o l u t e n e s o f t h i s age."  "that  Holland  A Catechisme  Thomas W i l c o x ,  of other t r a n s l a t i o n s  Stocker's  treatise  s u c h work i s  Henry  Le  to  as  t h e summe o f C h r i s t i a n i t i e . " 7 .  purpose  Thomas  translator  great  Christians,  part,  doth  Consequently,  euen o f s u c h a s  of An  friend  beare  into  English  Stocker loosenes concluded  the be  Stocker c l a i m s , h i s f r i e n d wished  is  excellent  "the  s u p p o s e t h e s o u l e s o f men t o  the paynes t o t r a n s l a t e  this  (1581).  upon  Stocker's  religious  name  of  mortall."  him t o "take  t h i s pamflet  o f M.  Iohn  Caluine."8. Some t r a n s l a t o r s attitude  of  observe  with  trepidation  c o m p l a c e n c y amongst  a broadly  the populace.  based  John  Field  commences one e p i s t l e : I t may b e e . . . t h a t men w i l l m a r u a y l e , whye I s h o u l d e p u b l i s h e t h e s e f o u r e e x c e l l e n t e Sermons o f M a i s t e r Iohn C a l u i n e s , t h e A r g u m e n t e s w h e r e o f bee n o t f i t t e a n d a g r e e a b l e ( a s t h e y t h i n k e ) i n these times.... For,  as F i e l d  from  the  wide."9. emphasis  proceeds  Romish Others  to note,  yoke",  and the  echo t h e s e  to the r e l a t i v e  there i s Gospel  sentiments.  peace and  -40-  peace, "spread  Most  tranquility  give  "libertie f a r and special  enjoyed  under  Queen still  Elizabeth.  However,  as F i e l d  also notes,  much d a r k n e s s  upon t h e  land.  for  those b l e s s i n g s  t h a t God  h a s b e s t o w e d upon them, b u t  as  a  result,  matters  made c a r e l e s s and  of f a i t h .  tendency  Employing  against are  offer  equated  Pagit  t o be  the  a false  purpose  Ignorance  of people  translators  People  there  and  negligent  vice  complacent  idea  of  s h o u l d be  in  in part,  i n such  matters.  as  a  with  of s e c u r i t y .  bells  w i t h waking the  or  Typically,  trumpets  masses f r o m  from  to the  some  countrymen  the  sounding,  their  not,  metaphor,  messages i n t e n d e d t o warn t h e i r  sense  thankful  regard  stems,  sleep  is  warnings and  slumbers.  their  Eusebius  writes: ...1 b e s e e c h t h e m i g h t y L o r d t o . . . r a i s e vp them t h a t f e l l away f o r f e a r e - o f t r o u b l e s , and t o awaken t h o s e w h i c h i n t h i s q u i e t and c a l m e t i m e do s l e e p i n s e c u r i t i e , o r waxe wanton w i t h the wealth of the w o r l d . . . .  The by  consequence Pagit:  God,  o f n o t b e i n g awakened he  is clearly  spelled  out  m a i n t a i n s , must  ...bee i n t r e a t e d t o c o n t i n u e h i s m e r c i e s t o w a r d vs, l e a s t He t u r n h i s c o r r e c t i n g r o d . . . i n t o a d e u o u r i n g swoord t o consume v s . 1 0 . In  some  warning.  c a s e s i t i s t h e work i t s e l f  Baxter  together,  with  countrymen", attention  al  his from  contemplation vigilant  declares  of  watchman",  that  godly  vain  God's  "ring  preachers,  objective the  he w i l l  that  being  to  pleasures  Word.  John  Jonas  -41-  the Alarum  bel  our  sleepie  turn  the  peoples'  of  this  Calvin,  (1578),  the  vnto  t h r o u g h h i s work, The  s e r m o n s . . . upon t h e p r o p h e t  provides  life "the  lectures will  to  Lordes or  "sound  daily the  trumpe", their  and t h e r b y  fall..."11.  other,  specific  "geue them  This  [the people] warning  ' s e c u r i t y theme' w i l l  before  be s e e n a g a i n i n  contexts.  Ill.  Another concept  important  t y p e o f message  of r e l i g i o u s duty.  As a l r e a d y  Two),  t h e t r a n s l a t o r s ' own a c t i v i t y  texts  is  country.  based  on a s t r o n g  Similar duties  that  share  their  refers  hide  their  learning,  to Plato,  themself,  but a l s o  extended  comprehend is  Christians  "bee r e a d y  It darke  fulfill  and  Christian admonishes  rather  than  themselues."  "well  word",  one's  concerned  He for  others."  instructed  so  that  one  duties.  The  duty  with  that  a l l  t o r e n d e r an accompt  is  of our  fayth  to  demaundeth t h e same o f v s . " 1 2 . sad t o behold,  ignorance of the g r e a t e s t  enquires,  to the  and  of being  and [G]ods h o l y  particularly  i s therefore  behalf."  Church  "men...are n o t b o r n o n l y  the n e c e s s i t y  Stockwood  e u e r y one t h a t  to  foreign  f o r t h e b e n e f i t a n d commodity o f  and  the  (see Chapter  f o r example,  and t a l e n t s ,  teaches:  matters of r e l i g i o n  might  duty  l e ti t "perish within  who  Stockwood emphasizes in  gifts  discussed  sense of  are often  around  of " e n g l i s h i n g "  community a s a w h o l e . J o h n Stockwood, those  revolves  "Amongst  a  "where s h a l l  thousand  Stockwood d e c l a r e s ,  parte  of the people  nowe  a  ye...finde  dales",  one, t h a t  t o gyue a r e a s o n a b l e aunswere o f h i s f a y t h ? "  -42-  i s able  in  "the this  Stockwood promptly  Such a s i t u a t i o n  is  blamed  on  sluggishnes  peoples'  "great  negligence  and  dronish  i n h e a r i n g a n d r e a d i n g o f t h e worde o f God."13.  Stockwood's  translation  Christian  Religion  situation.  I n t h i s work,  of Bullinger's  Common  (1572) i s i n t e n d e d t o h e l p  places  rectify  of this  there  i s p u r e l y and s i n c e r e l y taught whatsoeuer i s n e c e s s a r i e t o be known o f a C h r i s t i a n man o r woman v n t o g o d l i n e s a n d s a l u a t i o n . Through able  the comprehension  t o defend Aside  of  society  duties it  from  and spread  to f u l f i l l .  the reader w i l l  two s p e c i f i c  out as having  especially  One s u c h g r o u p i s p r e a c h e r s .  t o remind  be  t h e word o f God.14.  the population a t large,  are singled  necessary  o f t h i s work,  ministers of their  segments important  Wilcox  feels  responsibilities:  . . . i t i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t t o p r e a c h e now a n d t h e n , a s once i n a q u a r t e r , once i n a moneth o r s o : but as the A p o s t l e s a i t h , i n season and out of s e a s o n , a n d l a b o u r n o t o n l y p u b l i k e l y , b u t goe p r i u a t e l y f r o m house t o h o u s e . . . . To  this  selues  end,  Wilcox  advises preachers  t o catechisms."15.  catechisms  available  England,  Calvin's,  Macon's  A  notes  and allowed: and  catechlsme  c h i l d r e n . . . t o communicate A  Wilcox  to "chiefly  there are  your many  of  the  Church  of  now h i s t r a n s l a t i o n  of  Robert  Le  and  plavne  i n the Holy  few t r a n s l a t o r s a r e a l s o h i g h l y  that  that  giue  instruction Supper critical  for a l l  (1580). of  ministers.  Wilcox w r i t e s : And what I p r a y y o u i s t h e c a u s e , o f t h i s s o g r e a t d i s o r d e r and l i c e n t i o u s n e s ? I s [ i t ] not ignorance and n e g l i g e n c e i n P r i e s t s (as they c a l l them) a n d p e o p l e . . . .  -43-  Not of  o n l y have m i n i s t e r s n o t b e e n p r e a c h i n g season",  God's  but  p r e a c h e r s do n o t  Word t o c a r r y o u t  translated (1590),  Jean  in part,  have s u f f i c i e n t  s u c h an  T a f f i n ' s Of t o awaken  " i n season  endeavor.  and  out  k n o w l e d g e of  Anne Prowse  t h e markes o f t h e c h i l d r e n  has  of  God  those  . . . a b o u n d i n g b o t h i n knowledge and o t h e r g r a c e s , whom n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g , S a t a n . . . h a t h so r o c k t a s l e e p e , t h a t t h e y seeme a l m o s t a s they that are d i s e a s e d w i t h the L e t h a r g i e , to haue f o r g o t t e n b o t h t h e m s e l u e s , t h e i r h o l i e c a l l i n g and p r o f e s s i o n . H e r e , one  finds  those with a consider  t h e metaphor o f s l e e p a p p l i e d  "holie  calling."  preachers  "abounding... i n negligent  Prowse, u n l i k e W i l c o x ,  ignorant  knowledge"),  in their duties,  specifically  (they  are  but  she d o e s  having  forgrotten  does  said find  to  not be  them t o  their  to  be  "calling  and p r o f e s s i o n . " 1 6 . S t o c k e r , however, Wilcox  and  in direct  Prowse,  has  o p p o s i t i o n to t r a n s l a t o r s  nothing  but  praise  for  like  English  ministers: ...the church of England, hath g r e a t l y to t h a n k e t h e L o r d e o u r God, i n t h a t hee h a t h f u r n i s h e d i t , w i t h s u c h a number o f g o d l y , f a i t h f u l and s o u n d M i n i s t e r s . . . . They  preach  "soundly,  God's t r u t h  perfectly,  t o the p e o p l e ,  truely,  verie  Stocker  reuerently,  continues, and  without  falsifying...."17. There on  the e s s e n t i a l  life is  i s a g e n e r a l consensus  no  r o l e p l a y e d by  o f t h e community. preaching  amongst  the  translators,  the p r e a c h e r  i n the  Hopkinson d e c l a r e s that people  perish.  -44-  however, religious  "where  " Similarly,  there Stocker  maintains can  "that without hearing  o f t h e word p r e a c h e d ,  be no f a y t h , a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y , no Many  translators  platforms  also  for reminding  d u t i e s . Wilcox  use  those  the  there  saluation."18. prefatory  epistles  i n p o s i t i o n s o f power o f  as  their  writes:  You M a g i s t r a t e s . . . a n d men o f p u b l i k e c h a r g e , s e t vp, a n d keepe c o n t i n u a l l y i n r e p a i r e amongst y o u t h e s e two s t r o n g p i H e r s , p i e t i e t o w a r d s God, and i u s t i c e o r r i g h t e o u s n e s s e t o w a r d s men.... Such  figures  must  contends,  and  contrast,  limits  shirk  be "good  "priuate  gain  and  commonwealthsmen."  h i s comments  to  "God w i l  of  vp  Stockwood  f o r the  tactfully  i s not ignorant he  will  adds t h a t  t o haue  matters of r e l i g i o n ,  and t h a t  of  (1572) i s a p p a r e n t l y  to help  i n this  Translators platforms Field's wife,  frequently,  f o r exhorting  comment  this  his  patron  possible,  instructed  in  s a l u a t i o n 1 9 . Common  intended,  places in  of  part,  capacity. i n fact, their  to h i s patrons,  exemplifies  one's  seruantes."  as far as  Bullinger's  by  an a c c o u n t  their  their  Christian Religion h i s patron  require  [his]...household  and c o n c e r n i n g  translation  of  towards  he i s c e r t a i n t h a t  o f such t h i n g s ,  "be c a r e f u l l  Stockwood's  bringing  Wilcox  Stockwood,  duties  h o u s e h o l d . He r e m i n d s h i s p a t r o n : maisters  wealth",  utilize  respective  the e p i s t l e s as patrons.  the E a r l of Bedford and h i s  sort of exhortation.  Field  writes:  And I b e s e e c h y o u r h o n o u r s , a s God h a t h c a l l e d you t o t h e k n o w l e d g e o f h i s g l o r i o u s G o s p e l . . . so goe f o r w a r d e more a n d more i n t h e g r o w t h t h e r o f . . . Stand f a s t i n h i s t r u e t h i n these s l i p p e r i e d a l e s . . . d e l i g h t y o u i n h i s lawe, a n d be g o o d e x a m p l e s t o o t h e r s .  -45-  John  Others  are c a r e f u l  before his  reminding  patron's  the Lord's and  to f i r s t  their  them o f t h e i r d u t i e s .  "godlie magnanimitie",  t r u t h and  enforcing  Fetherstone  praise  defends  "good  virtues,  F e t h e r s t o n e speaks  w i t h w h i c h he  the realm,  causes"  patrons'  as w e l l  amongst  then concludes h i s e p i s t l e  maintains  as s u p p o r t i n g  lowly  ministers.  w i t h the  statement:  The L o r d o f h e a u e n b l e s s e y o u . . . s o y o u may c o n t i n u e t o t h e g l o r i e o f God, t h e i n c r e a s i n g h i s c h u r c h , and t h e p r o f i t e o f t h i s common wealth.20. In b o t h  cases,  duties. inspire  It  patrons are being c a r e f u l l y i s assumed t h a t  the p a t r o n s  i n such  the  of  reminded  translations will  of  of  their  arm  and  concerning  the  endeavors. IV.  So  f a r only broad  permeation  admonitions  o f i g n o r a n c e and  have b e e n c o n s i d e r e d . the  masses,  organized make  reference  criticisms  concentrate with,  however,  wickedness  the  populace  p r o c e s s o f e d u c a t i n g and  edifying  i s complicated  their  purveyors  of  to such  messages on, of  understood  and  by  the  focussing  sometimes d e a l The  i n matters  of t u r m o i l ,  the  urgent of  of only on  however, exclusively  need t o  faith threat  is  have better  posed  by  Church.  idea  -46-  more  others,  when p l a c e d i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e  sense  presence  Some t r a n s l a t o r s  Many  false doctrines.  f o r m i d a b l e e n e m i e s o f God's The  amongst  groups,  society.  the people p r o p e r l y i n s t r u c t e d  the  warnings  opponents of the t r u e Church.  brief  blanket  The  and  of p r o f l i g a c y  enveloping  society,  is intensified  of  Satan,  Evil,  every  crack  crevice  d e p i c t e d a s an a c t i v e  light The is  force  and  lurking,  i n the  or p r e s e n c e ,  n o t i o n of Satan as  the t r a d i t i o n a l who  weale. working  true  speaks  is  his various the  Church  enemy o f  in  Satan  undermining  t h r e a t e n i n g the  by W i l l i a m H o p k i n s o n ,  embodiment  i t w o u l d seem,  common  upon t h e common p e o p l e ,  o f t h e G o s p e l and  evoked  r e f e r e n c e s to the v e r y  omnipresent  and  machinations  by  pure  of  God.  Christianity  of Satan  having  t h r o u g h a l l a g e s . . . l a b o u r e d , t o haue and h o l d e c a p t i u e i n the bond of i n t o l l e r a b l e s e r u i t u d e and s p i r i t u a l l s l a u e r i e . . . t h e w h o l e m u l t i t u d e o f men. Thus,  apart  populace what  from whatever  at  large,  another  shortcomings  exist  i n d i v i d u a l s must e n d u r e  translator  calls  "the  many  amongst and  the  withstand  assaultes  of  Sathan."21. Satan  works h i s e v i l  Thomas W i l c o x S a t a n and vices  refers  to  above, a r e blamed, works  usually  these as  on  and  by  means. cast  by  O f t e n , the k i n d s of  t h e p e o p l e , and  outlined  Satanic interference.  Usually,  t h r o u g h human a g e n t s  linked  opponents,  f o u n d amongst  in part,  of  "stumbling blocks,  h i s s e r u a n t s i n our w a i e s . " 2 2 .  and d e f i c i e n c i e s  Satan  designs through a v a r i e t y  translators  and with  thus m a n i p u l a t e d as  institutions. particular  a  powerful  He  is  religious rhetorical  device. Of and  the v a r i o u s "stumbling b l o c k s "  most  insidious,  c a s t by  according to Wilcox i s  -47-  Satan,  the  worst  . . . t h a t m i s e r a b l e s e c t of seduced P a p i s t s . . . whoe w i l l i n g l y embrace v n d e r t h e t i t l e o f t h e C h u r c h e , e u e r y f a b u l o u s f a l s e h o o d and corruption whatsoeuer.... Christopher the  Fetherstone  "papists",  beast".23.  labels  Indeed,  identified  in  translators  i s the  Beginning English to  the  of  great  translators  Catholic  concern  an  England.  J o h n Swan, Pope and  chief  faith.24.  this  threat  to  Antichrist, God  monster,  haue s e e n t h e n " , he  to vse and  target  to  g i u e him  of  their  the  the  homeland aims  Protestants.  Some  godly  which  chiefest  they  community  commonplace  the  are  pastoral  r e f e r s to King as  that  t r a i n e d at  situation the  i n making the  of  heretics  Their  English  to  against  i t s adherents.  were r e t u r n i n g  t o many  immediate  "(w)home i t p l e a s e d the  the  of  English priests,  reference  as  vassals  variety  C h u r c h and  Roman C a t h o l i c  make  "deuowed a  1570's,  perceive  dismount  while  Seminary at Douai, the  between  them  epistles,  i n the  spread  were  i n a more e x p a n s i v e d i a t r i b e  in  association Henry  Vlll.,  instrument  h i s d e a d l y wound."  to  "[T]o  continues,  t h e z e a l and f o r w a r d n e s t h a t was i n t h e N o b i l i t i e , the p a i n e f u l n e s of the C l e a r g i e , b o t h by pen and i n p u l p i t , t h e t r i u m p h e s and i o y f u l l a c c l a m a t i o n s o f t h e p e o p l e he w o u l d haue t h o u g h t t h a t n e i t h e r A n t i c h r i s t h i m s e l f w o u l d e u e r haue l o o k e d b a c k , w i t h hope t o haue s e t f o o t e i n amongst v s a g a i n e , n o r t h a t i n t h e h e a r t o f any one t r u e E n g l i s h - m a n . . . h e e m i g h t f i n d e any r e s i d e n c e or f a u o u r a b l e e n t e r t a i n m e n t . Unfortunately, matter  to  Swan o b s e r v e s t h a t  hurle  Swan r e f e r s t o  out  "the  the  i t i s apparently  Pope t h a n p o p e r i e a t  Jesuites  and  -48-  a  "an  easier  suddaine."  Seminarie P r i e s t s sent  ouer  unto  vs,  and...the  fostered  amongst  himselfe hath England." 1579,  hollow harted  vs."  Swan  long since  John  a l s o notes  also  cast  Field,  and  more  writing  trayterous  claims  that  subiects "the  t h a n a g l a n c i n g eye ten years before  the i n c r e a s e d t h r e a t  posed  Pope toward  Swan,  in  by the p a p i s t s i n  this era: Our c o l d s t a r u e d P a p i s t e s , I c a n n o t t e l what warmeth h a t h drawn them o u t o f t h e i r h o l e s , b u t now t h e y b e g i n a l i t l e t o shew themselues...and t h e i r . . . l o o k s shew what m a l i c e l u r k e t h i n t h e i r cankred harts....25. Interestingly,  both  the n o b i l i t y  o u t b y Swan a s h a v i n g p l a y e d v i t a l expulsion  during  observed perhaps  the  King  Henry  an i m p l i c i t  for not remaining v i g i l a n t  roles  Vlll's  recent a c t i v i t y  offering  and c l e r g y  are  i n the  Antichrist's  reign.  of p a p i s t s criticism  singled  Swan,  i n the  having  realm,  is  of n o b l e s and  clergy  t o the cause  of true  and committed  religion. Swan's (1589),  translation  of A t r e a t i s e ,  b y Lambert Daneau,  learned,  but  for  original  language:  i s not,  those unable  touching  Anti-Christ  Swan s t r e s s e s ,  to read  this  work  f o r the in i t s  And t h e y be t h e men t h a t be most e n d a u n g e r e d , as n o t b e i n g a b l e t o d i s c e r n e the Beast though d a i l y they see h i s f o o t i n g b e f o r e t h e i r f a c e . This  translation,  Beast's)  then,  infection."  enable  Similarly,  Sermons o f Iohn  Caluin  and  teachings,  heretical  will  (1579),  them  Field's  "withstand  translation  of  i n an age o f c o n f l i c t i n g  will  help  d i s t i n g u i s h between " f a l s e h o o d or t r u e t h ,  -49-  the  "common  light  (the Foure ideas sort"  or darknesse,  religion to  or  superstition."26.  protect  and  arm  the  Many t r a n s l a t i o n s a r e  faithful  against  the  intended  true  Church's  enemies. There  are  a great  w o r k s . Some a r e the  major  comprehensive  areas  of  Protestants,  such as  wherein  masters  the  T h e o d o r e B e z a . On t h e work a r e  number o f  the  translations  anti-papal  i n scope, d e a l i n g with  disagreement Stocker's of  of  between  translation  Sorbone a r e  title-page,  Catholics The  popes  confuted  a l l the  most  of and  canons:  (1585?),  by  s u b j e c t s handled  in  identified:  Of t h e h o l y S u p p e r , Of t h e one and o n l y M e d i a t o r , Of P u r g a t o r y O f t h e C o n f e s s i o n v n t o God, Of t h e C h u r c h , Of f r e e w i l l , Of m a r r i a g e and vowes, Of f a s t i n g and m e a t e s , Of i m a g e s . Other  translations  controversy,  focus  on  specific  t h e most p o p u l a r  issues,  or  b e i n g ' t h e Mass and  areas  the  of  doctrine  of p r e d e s t i n a t i o n . Wilcox, Beza,  in his translation.  toglther  L o r d e s Supper  with  a short  Two sum  (1588), d e a l s w i t h  very of  the  l e r n e d sermons o f sacrament  a s u b j e c t he  says  of  M. the  is  c o n t r o u e r t e d , n o t o n l i e betweene t h e s u p e r s t i t i o u s p a p i s t s and v s , i n t h e q u e s t i o n of t r a n s u b s t a n t i a t i o n , but w i t h such a l s o as...we c h a r i t a b l y t a k e f o r o u r b r e t h r e n . . . . Wilcox  feels  that  i t is  necessary  i n t h e d a i e s o f so g r e a t b l i n d n e s s e and i g n o r a n c e . . . to i n s t r u c t the s i m p l e . . . i n the k n o w l e d g e o f t h e s e most h o l i e m y s t e r i e s . Wilcox, sort" on  like will  Swan and not  "be  such a d i s p u t e d  Field,  deceived topic,  by  wants t o e n s u r e t h a t and  carried  either  -50-  "the  away i n t o idle  and  the  sound "common  untruth", vnskilfull  conceits  o f t h e i r owne h e a d s , n o r w i t h  erronious  foreign  a number o f t r a n s l a t i o n s  religious conflicts:  anti-Catholic responsible  propaganda. for  thunderbolt: fift,  or rather  against  religion,  from the t r u e  Referring  translations  Italianate atheists  like  t h i s book,  the " A n t i C h r i s t i a n  alive  by  "villanies",  and a s s o r t e d  separately  in  The their  epistles.  Fetherstone notes Papists"  ready "cruell  will  as the  to f a l l  and "outrages"  that not  Pope's  Fetherstone but  kept  practices".  The  committed by the  i n o t h e r b o o k s , a r e h e r e drawn  " i n t o one e n t i r e body."  Fetherstone  (1587).  prefatory  such t h i n g s  synagog",  are  themselues  suggested  and d i s c o n t e n t e d  "usurpations",  reported  the  Navarre  which  s u p r e m a c i e o u e r Gods C h u r c h " , a n d what  treachery  brvtlsh  o f t h i s t y p e o f work,  include  f o r i tdeals with  calls  papists,  is  most o f t h e t r a n s l a t i o n s  "the  together  of Poperle  t o The b r v t i s h t h u n d e r b o l t .  "pretended  of  a n d haue p o l l u t e d  of such t r a n s l a t i o n s  Fetherstone*s  King  t o t h e Frenchmen,  t h e s u p e r s t i t i o n and l d o l a t r i e  Unlike  The  is  Hotman, a n d t h e anonymous A C h r i s t i a n and  reuolted  titles.  employed a s  o f Pope S l x t v s  t h e most e x c e l l e n t  directed  propaganda value  reporting  Fetherstone  works:  fier-flash  wholesome A d m o n i t i o n ,  both  these a r e often  two s u c h  feeble  Henrle  o f works  Christopher  translating  (1586), by F r a n c o i s  with  and  o p i n i o n s o f o t h e r men...."27.  There a r e a l s o on  the s u p e r s t i t i o u s  writes:  -51-  Concerning h i s t r a n s l a t i o n ,  my o n e l y d r i f t e and p u r p o s e i n t r a n s l a t i n g t h i s T r e a t i s e , was t o a q u a i n t my c o u n t r i e m e n , who are not s k i l f u l l i n the L a t i n e toong, w i t h such p a p a l l p r a c t i c e s as a r e h e e r i n d e s c r i b e d . 2 8 . Fetherstone  does  translating  not  this  apparently  to  elaborate  work.  The  engender  in  on  his  purpose the  intentions  of  people  such  in  works  is  animosity  towards  discussed earlier,  i s often  Catholicism. The  concept  applied  to  opponents. are  the  aspiring  Elsewhere, call  conflict  Patrons,  expected,  proud  of C h r i s t i a n duty,  as  between t h e  f o r example,  Fetherstone papists",  true  i n upholding  expresses or  Church  "to  i t ,  roote  again addressing h i s patron,  and  God's  to  truth,  "subdue  out  its  those  papistrie."  Fetherstone  offers  a  t o arms: Now, s e e i n g God h a t h d e a l t so m e r c i f u l l y w i t h y o u , i t i s y o u r H [ o n o u r ' s ] p a r t , t o behaue y o u r s e l f e v a l i a n t l y , and t o f i g h t t h e L o r d s b a t t e l s w i t h courage.  This  type  epistle  by  background  o f message i s g i v e n  i t s fullest  Arthur Golding.  notes  and  different  kind  how  he  of  m i g h t be  warfare.  spiritual,  i n w h i c h one  visible  inuisible  much  higher,  darknes, war",  and  He  f o r to lose  The  type  i s " t o be  stakes  of  many t r a n s l a t i o n s a r e  -52-  in  both  a is  against  combat  are  in  euerlasting  shame."  " T h i s i s the  " t h a t becommeth a n o b l e  minde, a v a l e a n t minde, a g o d l y  an  "martial"  conflict  i n such  plunged  t o r m e n t , c o n f u s i o n , sorow, and  in  i n engaging  "must m a i n t a y n e b a t t e l l  enimies."  G o l d i n g contends,  While  h i s patron's  interested This  treatment  minde, a  wise  minde."29. exclusively  f o r "those  godly  disposed  brethren",  p a p i s t s and the  case  the  of G o l d i n g ' s  maintains  read or  out  his plan  "any  i f not  both  by  there  the  chlefest  betweene  us  touching  the  Harmar  notes  profite  of  conuincing other  (1587).  has  so  effectively  Atheist Infidel  or  lew  totally  lacking  "impugne t h e  felicitie."  "felicitie"  manifest  of  The  the  hauing  i n common  faithful  sense  trueth", as  the  intended  and  i s J o h n Harmar's t r a n s l a t i o n  three  first  The  chapters  polemical  remainder of  and  Christ  "reforme  the  "craftie  (that  Heretiques")  are  is  handled debated  Church.  "the  of  especially While  vtility  chiefly  and  "aimed...to  i s , the p a p i s t s ,  i n the  Beza's  work  and  day,  trve  i s for  sermons  the a d u e r s a r i e "  the  Wherein are  this  the  of  Canticles  controversed  and  that h i s t r a n s l a t i o n  the  f u n c t i o n of  the a d u e r s a r l e of  t r v e Iesus  of  its title:  p o i n t s of r e l i g i o n  manie", of  Golding  stubbornhearted."30.  (1587).  indicated  in  concerning  work i s  to e t e r n a l l  vpon t h e  Canticles  Woorke  Mornay,  convert  evidenced  way  i n c r e a s e the  Sermons  to  as  religion  Similarly,  as  that  to  f o r c e d to concede the C h r i s t i a n  t h e m a l i c i o u s and  the  P h i l i p p e de  stubbornly determined be  of A  the C h r i s t i a n R e l i g i o n  i t s author,  "only path to  of  attempt  true f a i t h ,  translation  t h i s h i s work",  would  translations  other h e r e t i c s to the  trewnesse  carried  other  as  well  fundamental p o i n t s  of  religion.31. Finally,  John F i e l d ,  also interested  t h e a d u e r s a r i e " , o f f e r s a message o f  -53-  i n the  warning:  "conuincing  of  T h e s e men must be warned n o t t o a b u s e t h e G o s p e l ...who w h i l s t t h e y s p e a k e o f C h r i s t s h o u l d i n d e a u o r t o knowe h i m a s he i s : t h a t h i s . . . n a m e d e c e a u e them n o t , t o o l u l l them a s l e e p e i n s i n n e . . . t o c o n t i n u e i n t h e i r c u r s e d s e c u r i t i e and fleshly libertie.32. Here, once a g a i n ,  i s the ' s e c u r i t y '  metaphor. T h i s time message i s a p p l i e d  r a t h e r than t o Roman  theme, w i t h  i t s attendent  t h e mas~ses, o r p r e a c h e r s , t h e  Catholics. V.  So  far,  identified.  a  There  number  of  warning  are explicit  messages  and i m p l i c i t  have  been  warnings t o the  masses,  p r e a c h e r s , and p a t r o n s , warnings a g a i n s t the dangers  of  religions,  false  mend t h e i r they  ways. Some t r a n s l a t o r s ,  towards h e r e t i c s t o  however,  go e v e n  further:  engulf  society  see i n t h e i g n o r a n c e and wickedness t h a t  evidence they  that  want  t h e end o f t h e w o r l d  to  Apocalypse. of  and warnings d i r e c t e d  warn t h e i r  this  however, e x p l i c i t l y The  idea.33. state  men t h e " l i g h t "  walke w i t h o u t  about  Several  this  by A r t h u r G o l d i n g .  Consequently, the  intimate, or f a l l other  theme i n t h e i r  A p o c a l y p t i c theme i s p e r h a p s  treatment given  countrymen  Some t r a n s l a t o r s  expressing  i s a t hand.  given  the S c r i p t u r e s ,  -54-  God  short  translators,  epistles.  i t s most  by which  s t u m b l i n g a s i n t h e open d a y l i g h t . "  because through  just  extensive  According to Golding,  of the G o s p e l l ,  impending  God "we  has myght  This i s  . . . h a t h armed v s a g e i n s t a l l t e m p t a t i o n s , h a r t b y t i n g s and s t u m b l i n g b l o c k s , by w a r n i n g v s a f o r e h a n d what t h i n g e s s h o u l d h a p p e n t o h i s C h u r c h e f r o m tyme t o tyme t o o t h e end o f t h e worlde.... The  importance  has  given  important  Reuelation uses  of h i s t r a n s l a t i o n warnings  to h i s h o l i e  understanding"; t h i s p a r t of have,  in this  apparent,  "specially  seruant  diverse individuals  i s thus  Saincte  such  those  presente God  "knowledge  i t i s Marlorat's  S c r i p t u r e (Golding a l s o notes  i n t h i s area,  this  God  Iohn." Moreover,  to disseminate case,  in  for  and  commentary  Englishmen  on  already  " m y s t i c a l r e u e l a t i o n s " by H e i n r i c h  Bullinger).34. Such w a r n i n g s ,  furthermore,  have s t i l l  Golding perceives h i s present  age  the Apocalypse.  t h i s work, he  Consequently,  t o be  the  greater last,  import  the  time  as of  concludes,  . . . i s so muche t h e more n e e d e f u l , b i c a u s e t h a t mannes n a t u r e g r o w i n g d a y l y more and more i n t o d e c a y w i t h t h e p e r i s h i n g w o r l d e nowe h a s t i n g t o o h i s ende, i s more s u b i e c t e too c o r r u p t i o n . . . . "And  the d i u e l l " ,  Golding  continues,  p e r c e y u i n g h i s Kingdome uppon e a r t h d r a y e a p e a r e t o o u t t e r r u i n e , l a b o u r e t h t h e more e a r n e s t l y t o worke a l l t h e mojre s p i g h t and m i s c h i e f he c a n t o C h r i s t and h i s members.35. His  translation  explication In one that places  is  thus  of B i b l i c a l  o f h i s own  happened  and  timely  A d i s c o u r s e vpon t h e  t h r o u a h e t h i s Realme o f E n q l a n d e ,  mankind's  for  its  prophecy.  works,  of Chrlstendome,  warns o f  necessary  the  false  first  of A p r l l l .  sense of  -55-  security  Earthquake and  other  1580,  Golding  and  t h e many  tokens  or  Golding of  signs  o f God's d i s p l e a s u r e  does n o t s p e c i f i c a l l y  the world,  and  wrath.  Although  r e f e r t o t h i s as the l a s t  he d o e s s t a t e t h a t  i f p e o p l e ' s ways  amended, God, on t h e d a y o f Judgement, s h a l l  age  a r e not  declare:  D e p a r t f r o m me y e w o r k e r s o f w i c k e d n e s s e , w h i c h h a r d e n e d y o u r h a r t s a g a i n s t me...at s u c h t i m e a s my l o n g s u f f e r a n c e w a y t e d f o r y o u b y m i l d e n e s s e and p a t i e n c e t o ammendememt.36. Another  translator,  same a p o c a l y p t i c  J o h n Coxe,  s u c c i n c t l y expresses  the  theme, a s s e r t i n g  that i n these our dayes, beeing the l a s t e , and t h e r e f o r e t h e moste p e r i l l o u s a n d d a n g e r o u s dayes, f o r so our s a u i o u r C h r i s t him s e l f e t e a c h e t h v s , w h e r e i n we haue g r e a t neede t o be furnished against the a s s a u l t e s of the enimies of t r u e R e l i g i o n . . . . His  translation,  of  Biblical  translation). times,  prophecy Instead,  Coxe m a i n t a i n s ,  need of of  however,  i s not intended (as  i n such  works such a s t h i s ,  objections  of  the  case  of  Golding's  "perillous  and  dangerous"  t h e common s o r t a r e i n e v e n  our C h r i s t i a n R e l i g i o n " ,  the  in  a s an e x p l i c a t i o n  the  which  contain  as well as  papists  greater  " t h e w h o l e summe  effectively  ("the  enimies  answer  of  true  Religion").37. Anthony  Gilby  Apocalyptic knowing  with  an i n t e r e s t i n g  variation  on  the  message. He b e g i n s b y s t r e s s i n g t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f  the  particular  offers  "holy  histories."  interests Gilby,  One  who u s e s  historic  episode  i t t o draw a c o m p a r i s o n  h i s own a g e . G i l b y s p e a k s o f M o n a s s e s , t h a t i d o l a t r o u s a n d c r u e l k i n g , who h a d b r o u g h t on I d o l a t r i e a g a i n e a f t e r . . . h i s f a t h e r H e z e k i a s had r e f o r m e d r e l i g i o n . . . .  -56-  in  A f t e r Monasses' time  "God  i n mercie  religion, God,  and  angry  Monasses, as  death,  stirred  brought with  Amon r e i g n e d f o r two up  good  i t againe  Iudah  declared:  to f u l l  for having  "I w i l l  put  I haue s e n t away I s r a e l . . . "  here  c o n f e s s e s , "cause in  me  so  provoked also  out  people,  However, under  o f my  sight,  wordes  when I r e a d  and  feare  the  Him  which t e r r i b l e  to tremble  writing  i n the year  religion  " i s not yet brought  years",  and  moreover,  not yet purged  contends, waite  restored  and  them",  f o r our  state  Englande."38.  Gilby,  are  who  a t which  perfection."  Iudah  "The  t h r e a t e n i n g s a g a i n s t Gods c h o s e n Gilby  Iosias,  years,  still  for  1580,  to f u l l  "the h o r r i b l e  Few  that  perfection  England's  i n these  s i n n e s of former  w i t h the t e a r e s of repentaunce." "carie  their  Idols  t h e o c c a s i o n t o shew t h e  before...."  states  people  realize  "how  in their like  horribly  Gods s a c r a t e m a i e s t i e i n e r e c t i n g  of  holy  Gilby  commandement." C o n s e q u e n t l y ,  times  Many,  heartes,  cruelty  21.  he many  they  did  they d i d o f f e n d  Idoles c o n t r a r y to  Gods  fears  t h e l i k e p u n i s h m e n t w i l l come vppon v s f o r t h e s i n n e s c o m m i t t e d i n t h e s e d a y e s o f Q. M a r i e , f o r a l l our o u t w a r d shew o f r e l i g i o n , a s came vppon Iudah f o r t h e i r f o r m e r s i n n e s c o m m i t t e d i n t h e t i m e of M o n a s s e s . People  must  therefore pray  his  f e a r c e wrath  that  i t come n o t  from vs a l t o g e t h e r , i n our  Interestingly, two  f o r God's mercy,  the g e n e r a l 1 plagues  or a t  to  "turne  least...obteine  dayes."39.  Gilby  possibilities,  either  later  contradicts  when he d e c l a r e s : that  "we  are threatened  -57-  the  former  can not and  of  turne  seene  the away  t o hang  ouer  England."  I t i s only possible  f o r people  t o be  God's mercy, a n d t h e r e f o r e be "marked t o s a l u a t i o n , plague  granted when t h e  cometh, a s [G]od h i m s e l f p r o m i s e d . " 4 0 .  It  is  in  translation necessarie  t h e above c o n t e x t  that  Gilby  o f B e z a ' s The P s a l m e s o f D a u l d  believes  his  (1580) t o be "most  for euerie Christian": For whereas a l l o t h e r S c r i p t u r e s doe t e a c h us what God s a i t h u n t o u s , t h e s e p r a y e r s . . . d o e t e a c h u s , what we s h a l l s a y u n t o God a n d how we must prepare our s e l u e s t o appeare b e f o r e h i s maiestie....  For  i n m e d i t a t i n g upon t h e s e p s a l m e s ,  book,  "and s o b y e a r n e s t a n d c o n t i n u a l  p r a y e r s " , God m i g h t Fears  suggest. Thomas  amongst  decay  articulated the  translators  ( o r Timme). and  i n his  Apocalypse  figure  impending  T h i s c a n be d e m o n s t r a t e d Tymme  rapid  an  of  the Apocalypse original  are disclosed  Antlchriste,  the  are  more  epistles  might  by c o n s i d e r i n g that  imminent  writings.  this  us.41.  Doomsday  than  Hisbelief  in  i n u o c a t i o n and h e a r t y  be moved t o have mercy upon  concerning  widespread  a s expounded  the case of  the world is  only  is in clearly  Tymme's c o n c e r n s  i n two o r i g i n a l  with the tokens  writings:  o f t h e end  over The  of the  world...  (158 6 ) , a n d A P r e p a r a t i o n a g a i n s t t h e p r o g n o s t i c a t e d  dangers  of t h i s veare,  mentioned (that  1588. I n t h e f o r m e r ,  the various "blessings"  i s , the  Elizabeth),  peace and  Tymme,  having  God h a s b e s t o w e d on E n g l a n d  prosperity  enjoyed  under  Queen  warns:  . . . i t i s t o bee f e a r e d t h a t o u r i n g r a t i t u d e and contempt o f t h e s e h i s mercies, w i l l turne away h i s g o o d n e s s , a n d f a t h e r l y k i n d n e s f r o m u s .  -58-  Even more ominous a n d p o i n t e d i s t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t the  from  same work: To c o n c l u d e , l e t u s a l l amend o u r l y u e s , a n d turne t o the Lorde...that those plagues which wee haue d e s e r u e d , a n d a r e now r e a d y t o f a l v p p o n u s , may b e e t u r n e d away.42. Finally,  the  question  Watch B e l l to  i n t i m a t i n g r a t h e r than d e a l i n g of the Apocalypse,  (1605),  found  A  H i s use of the ' s e c u r i t y '  by i t s t i t l e .  i n epistles  i s Tymme*s  Employing  a l r e a d y examined,  verbatim  Tymme,  with Silver  w h i c h o f f e r s a s t r o n g message o f  h i s contemporaries.  even s u g g e s t e d  there  directly  warning  theme  is  t h e language  i n his  preface,  laments: . . . t h e g r e a t e r number o f men-at t h i s d a y , a r e s o l u l l e d a s l e e p i n t h e c h a i r e o f s e c u r i t i e , by t h e loue o f t h e w o r l d , by t h e s i n f u l l d e l i g h t s o f f l e s h , and by t h e s u b t i l e s u g g e s t i o n s o f Sathan . . . t h a t t h e y c a n h a r d l y be awakened.... And  a s suche,  there i s  [ i ] n t h e one e a r e S e c u r i t y s o u n d i n g . I t i s n o t y e t time t o r e p e n t . In t h e o t h e r e a r e , p r e s u m p t i o n s i n g i n g . I t w i l l be t i m e s t i l l . As  f o r t h e work's  purpose:  The c o n s i d e r a t i o n h e e r e o f moved me...to frame t h i s b o o k e , a s a W a t c h - b e l l , t o sounde i n t h e e a r s o f a l l men... t h e r e b y t o awake t h e most drowsie hearted s i n n e r s . . . t o enter i n t o a c o n s i d e r a t i o n how t h e i r c a s e s t a n d e t h w i t h God. The  very  same l a n g u a g e a n d message c a n be f o u n d  of A n t i c h r l s t e . wishes  In the E p i s t l e D e d i c a t o r y ,  " t o awaken  carelesse Atheistes,  i n The F i g u r e  he s a y s which  that  are  he  lulled  asleep with worldly pleasure i n the cradle of security."43. Turning  to  Tymme's t r a n s l a t i o n s ,  -59-  one  finds  only  one  reference  to  the  t r o u b l e s and dangers of  commences one E p i s t l e D e d i c a t o r y w i t h  h i s age.  Tymme  the following:  When I h a d w e l w a i e d w i t h my s e l f e . . . t h e d i u e r s happe a n d c h a u n c e i n c i d e n t , a n d a p p e r t a y n i n g to the p a i n e f u l l p i l g r i m s and t r a u e l e r s i n the t r o u b l e s o m e s e a o f t h i s w o r l d , I was n o t a l i t l e abashed. But b e i n g encouraged-againe, and with the s p u r r e a n d p r i c k e o f g o o d s u c c e s s e , . . . I l a u n c h e d my s h i p p e a t t h e l a s t e from shore...and l o u s e d t o t h e wynde. Tymme u t i l i z e s  the metaphorical  describe h i s undertaking.  language o f s e a and v e s s e l t o  Continuing with  t h e metaphor,  Tymme  refers to t h e r o c k e , t h e r a g i n g s e a , a n d s a n d s , a r e now i n s i g h t e , n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h e y made me n o t so muche a f r a i d e , a s t h e maner a n d d i s p o s i t i o n o f t h e c o u n t r e y where I a r r i v e . The  s h i p metaphor  i s employed a g a i n  i n one o f  his  original  works: And s e e i n g God h a t h p l a c e d u s E n g l i s h men i n one common w e a l t h , a l s o i n one C h u r c h , a s i n one s h i p t o g e t h e r : a n d no s t o r m e s o d a n g e r o u s t o a s h i p p e on t h e s e a , a s i s d i s c o r d e i n a w e a l e publique.44. Like part,  Stockwood  (quoted  t o suggest  unfortunately,  a hostile  i s a matter  expressed  in  translations. the  other  religion  Tymme u s e s t h e m e t a p h o r , i n  o r dangerous environment.  Tymme,  d o e s n o t expand on t h e s e p e r c e i v e d d a n g e r s i n  the d e d i c a t i o n t o h i s It  earlier),  translation.  o f c o n j e c t u r e whether o r n o t t h e  his original  writings also  I t i s e v i d e n t , however,  translator'  i n England,  motivated  Tymme's  t h a t Tymme d o e s  bleak assessment  a n d more s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  -60-  concerns  of  the  share  state  the b e l i e f  of  of a  handful  of  Possibly, his  such  individuals  Tymme s i m p l y  t r a n s l a t i o n s as  but  rather,  opted  in  an  chose not  vehicles  impending  t o use  Doomsday.  the e p i s t l e s  or p l a t f o r m s f o r  f o r a more c o n v e n t i o n a l u s e  for  such  views,  of the  Epistle  Dedicatory.  VI.  In many an  Chapter of  the  it  was  prefatory  intense,  dedicatory  One,  tone.  o f John  Beza's  The  (1580),  or of the t r a n s l a t o r  for  epistle  One  Field  need  for  Iohn,  The and  zeal of  their  and  their  would  countrymen,  adopt  particularly First, change,  each  Answers W.H.  commentaries...vpon  the  vpon t h e e p i s t l e  of  translators  impassioned to bear  not " s u r p r i s i n g  tone.  Several  i n mind i n t h i s of f r u s t r a t i o n  often  translators factors  matter.  of the E n g l i s h R e f o r m a t i o n to  note  a l l writing within a  r e f e r e n c e to  -61-  the  are  w i t h the r a t e  It i s interesting  translators,  o t h e r , make s p e c i f i c  Driven  Jude  wickedness  godly society.  different  and  of  t h e e x c e s s i v e i g n o r a n c e and  there i s a f e e l i n g  a  the  religious  i t i s perhaps  important  read  by  w i t h the shortcomings  creating three  s u c h an  urgency--  the i n i t i a l s  messages t o t h e r e a d e r .  concern over  in  translation  Questions  (c.1580) t o a p p r e c i a t e t h e manner i n w h i c h convey  of  only  his  known o n l y by  of C a l v i n ' s  of S a i n t  what s t a n d s o u t  i s a sense  other p a r t e of C h r i s t i a n  his translation  first  that  epistles  sermon-like epistles  noted  last  year  twenty  of in  that of year  period  (the period  Elizabeth  to  beginning with  the  throne).  conclusion.  In  1579,  "instruction"  amongst  t w e n t y odd y e a r s comments,  the succession  A l l three Field  offer  observes  the people d e s p i t e  " i n Gods S c h o l e . "  of  Queen  the  same  the  being  Wilcox,  lack  of  taught  for  echoing  Field's  writes: . . . a f t e r twenty y e e r e s p u b l i q u e p r e a c h i n g and p r o f e s s i n g of the Gospel...the people a r e v e r i e l i t l e , o r no w h i t a t a l l e d i f i e d i n t h e knowledge o f f a y t h , a n d l e s s e b u i l d e d v p . . . i n the f r u i t e s of obedience and h o l y l i f e .  Finally,  also  i n 1580,  Anthony G i l b y ,  religion  i s not y e t brought  to f u l l  laments  perfection  "that  our  i n these  21.  yeares...."45. Second, over  the t r a n s l a t o r s reveal  the presence of various  England,  who want  "common  sort"  translators perceive religious  word  their  the true  faith  blasphemous  and  Church entrap  doctrines.  an immediate and dangerous t h r e a t  in the The  t o the  community.  Finally, brought  consternation  opponents of the t r u e  to subvert with  considerable  on  by  expression  they a r e f e a r f u l  o f God's d i s p l e a s u r e  and wrath,  b y t h e i n d i f f e r e n c e o r open h o s t i l i t y  many  Englishmen.  This  i n the A p o c a l y p t i c  fear  messages o f  -62-  finds  its  to  God's  ultimate  some t r a n s l a t o r s .  CHAPTER FOUR CONCLUSION  Much  of  the  Protestantism England.  research  focuses  Many o f  the  around aspects  English  Protestants,  England. as  The  the  is  Elizabethan  of  controversies conflict.  by  certain  as  r e l i g i o u s d i s s e n t and  "puritans"  i n the they  The  of  his  this  book  the  Queen  main  involved  A d e t a i l e d account  non-conformity during  of  perceived  in this period  Collinson charts  or  Church  church.  Patrick Collinson in  P u r i t a n Movement.  of  Essentially,  elements from the England  Church  period  t o remove what  church p o l i t y .  provided  the  English  in this  r e f e r r e d to  Church of  century  within  wanted f u r t h e r r e f o r m s  the and  sixteenth  crisis  this  often  "popish"  of  liturgy  subject  the  " p u r i t a n s " wished  lingering  criticisms  on  late  religious  revolve  "non-conformists",  on  The  course  of  Elizabeth's  reign. More  recent  pastoral Peter  scholarship gives  concerns  Lake  Elizabethan  begins  of  greater  English Protestants  his  Church with  work the  Moderate  attention in  this  Puritans  to  the  period. and  the  following proposition:  Puritanism i s normally defined i n negative t e r m s . P u r i t a n s were p e o p l e who, with varying d e g r e e s of i n t e n s i t y , d i s l i k e d the E l i z a b e t h a n S e t t l e m e n t . P u r i t a n i s m was a s e r i e s o f n e g a t i v e gestures d i r e c t e d against that settlement and the church i t c r e a t e d . Such  "negative  "dissociate  the  gestures" godly  Lake c o n t i n u e s ,  elements i n  -63-  the  involved English  efforts church  to  from  popish  corruption."  cannot  be  Lake argues  viewed  gestures."  strictly  Lake  interested  in  points  focuses  that  lay behind puritan  Collinson, attention English for  the  in  out  terms that  on  "the  attacks  on,  Also,  a  R e l i g i o n of  to popular ministers  present aspects  sixteenth  century,  focussed  on  epistles)  and  also  masses.  Lake's aims  r e j e c t i o n s of,  more  recent pays  the  work  by  considerable  the  attempts  effective religious  of  a r r i v e d at  English  of  instruction  i n d e p e n d e n t l y of  a d i f f e r e n t kind  of  the  of  such  of  the  translations  and  outlined  Chapter  in  examination findings and  of  the  with  a t t i t u d e s of  demonstrates and  One),  like the  those  has  This, found  i n other  s t u d i e s by  importance  e d i f y i n g the  to  masses.  -64-  is  three of  epistles,  as  to  a has  in this  closer led  studies  L a k e and  English  It  number  i n turn,  English Protestants recent  (English  last  large  led  has  (prefatory  i n the  (the  late It  religion).  of p r e f a t o r y  that  this material.  consistent  paper,  u n i q u e use  the  of a c t i v i t y  works on  century  which  research.  translation activity  sixteenth  in  material  examined a d i f f e r e n t k i n d French Protestant  decades  other  source  of  nature  i t s conclusions,  Protestantism  translations  educating  and  were  protestant  r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i c e s and  s t u d y has  involve  This  f o r the  Protestants  to supply  "negative  common p e o p l e .  This  ideas  these  positive evangelical  church."1. The  of  puritanism  "puritans"  religious edification  book  established  i n h i s book t h a t  on  the  period. Collinson,  Protestants  It reinforces,  to  of  therefore,  the  current  English  e m p h a s i s o f h i s t o r i a n s on  Protestants  overlapping) and  i t has  agenda sort"  group of  of  providing  (outlined the  precise  Chapter  n a t u r e of  the  translators.  examination of of A p o c a l y p t i c As  noted,  ideas  such  here,  collective the  been  "common shown  translation is  to  work.  explored  in  t h i s paper. D e t a i l e d  in  behind  i n t h i s p e r i o d are  The  English Apocalyptic  Eve  of  the  Apocalyptic Katharine  Civil  Firth.  religious Collinson's two  center  Visions  War,  by  the  resulted  in  of  from the  number o f be  their  pointed  book  on  out  t h a t many o f  this  above  Elizabethan  t r a n s l a t o r s , John F i e l d of  debate  and  The  that  shared  by  the  most  by the a  important  s t u d y were a l s o a c t i v e  indicated The  the  1530-1645,  studies  beliefs  to  countrymen.  for t h i s present conflicts  Babylon:  Christianson,  reflect  work  Apocalyptic  Reformation  from these  the  important  i n R e f o r m e r s and  Paul  It i s evident  an  of  translation  accounts  provided  concerns  should  translators  of  were  T r a d i t i o n i n Reformation B r i t a i n ,  translators' significant  some  has  amongst c e r t a i n  beliefs  examined  the  their  this activity  force  fact,  their  these p a s t o r a l aims  motivational  It  --  of  (although  identified  t h a t has  primary d r i v e behind  discovery  thought  been  instruction for  C h a p t e r Two),  aims  different  r e l i g i o u s program religious  pastoral  Three.  Also, the  in  A  i n d i v i d u a l s has  been t h e i r  constitute The  in this period.  the  and  within  -65-  and  Puritan  in  the  examined  in  Movement.  In  Thomas W i l c o x , the  Elizabethan  are  at  Church.  Field best  and Wilcox,  like  some o f t h e i r  known a s " n o n - c o n f o r m i s t "  work,  translators,  ministers.  w h i c h h a s b e e n more o r l e s s  noted,  fellow  an e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e i r  Their  ignored,  pastoral  concerns, Their  are  rather  for  a  ideological It this  is  present  that  study  prefatory  audience  are not intended  a t t a c k on t h e C h u r c h  "excellent  and as such translations than  for  as  belonging  polemics  the E n g l i s h Church.  e p i s t l e s belongs  already  the church.  most o f t h e t r a n s l a t i o n s  corruptions i n  direct  certain  vast  opponents w i t h i n clear  perceived only  potentially  translation  i s , as  c o n s t i t u t e s a s e p a r a t e r e l i g i o u s program.  are  matters",  against  In f a c t ,  t o be f o u n d  t o Thomas W i l c o x .  to  i n any Wilcox  the  of  the  refers to  involving  the r e f o r m a t i o n of such c o r r u p t i o n s as y e t r e m a i n e amongest v s , e i t h e r t o u c h i n g t h e m i n i s t r i e or the d i s c i p l i n e of the church.2. "Such c o r r u p t i o n s " It  a r e n o t e l a b o r a t e d on b y W i l c o x .  s h o u l d be s t r e s s e d  that  t h e works t r a n s l a t e d  f o r e i g n a u t h o r s , and c o n s e q u e n t l y , w i t h do  not d i r e c t l y  Church,  and  course,  can  Scripture, applied wanting  to  established purposes Thus,  be  with  to  few e x c e p t i o n s ,  deal with issues peculiar  i t s unique  situation.  manipulated  in  to the  The much  the  Elizabethan  same  the  immediate c i r c u m s t a n c e s . In g e n e r a l ,  Church,  writings  would n a t u r a l l y Peter  or,  conversely, specifically  to  by  they  translations,  a r g u m e n t s b e i n g drawn f r o m  criticize  are  way  texts  of as and  for  those  defend  the  penned  for  such  be p r e f e r r e d .  Milward's  Religious  -66-  C o n t r o v e r s i e s of the  Elizabethan French the  Age.  lists  Protestant  only  Mornay,  T r e a t i s e of  Iudgement  man... c o n c e r n i n g Theodore Beza, Loque,  and  of  the  English  literary  waged w i t h i n the  Church  the  most  A d e f e n c e of  the  the  against  of  contributions  to  the  English by  reuerend  olde,  and  ( 1 5 8 1 ) , by  and  true  jesuite's  Church.  Philippe  of b i s h o p s  Church  the  translations  (1579),  t h r e e f o l d order  T r e a t i s e of  christianitie,  few  works among t h e  r e l i g i o u s debates being  They i n c l u d e :  a  de  learned (1580),  by  Bertrand  de  profession  (1581),  by  of  Pierre  Boquine. The seem  translation project to  have  authorities.  elicited  There are,  examined  a of  hostile course,  commonplace r e q u e s t s  to patrons  i n d i v i d u a l s are  that  threaten  is  i n the  not  who  revealed were  also  requesting It  i s known,  their their  non-conformist  entirely  from  epistles.  that  these  translators  Those t r a n s l a t o r s  might  well  their  other  some o f  epistles,  Who  the  not  Church  prefatory  s e c u r i t y of  a r e s u l t of  stances,  is  not  t o say  separate  It i s evident  the  have  been  activities.  translators,  for  were s u s p e n d e d o r d e p r i v e d  labels:  "Papists the  their  translation  vs.  i s the  that  As  seen  o f Roman C a t h o l i c s  -67-  of  of  that  i n Chapter to  the  is the  a major a r e a  r e l i g i o u s controversy  Protestants."  threat  activity  religious controversies  from M i l w a r d ' s study  in this period  t h i s paper,  that  from the  conflict  of  the  does  livings.  This  day.  response  i n the  "non-conformists"  f o r example,  study  for protection.  prefatory  p r o t e c t i o n as  in this  of he  Three  Christian  community  was  of w r i t i n g  invectives against  Church,  the  a primary  behavior  interested and  refuting  people this  "popish"  i n both  the  masses.  It i s this  ignorance,  The  converting) threat,  Catholics to godly  from  "papists",  and sometimes h o s t i l i t y ,  work.  *****  -68-  such  faith  a  and  thought  translators  along with  i n r e g a r d t o the t r u e C h r i s t i a n  translation  with  p r o t e c t i n g the godly  (and p o s s i b l y  Instead  c o r r u p t i o n s w i t h i n the  p o s e an e x t e r n a l t h r e a t  amongst  other h e r e t i c s . the g e n e r a l  of the t r a n s l a t o r s .  t r a n s l a t o r s are concerned  o t h e r h e r e t i c s who and  concern  are menace  as w e l l as  concern  over  o f t h e common  that l i e s  behind  NOTES  Preface 1.  J o h n F i e l d , t r a n s . , The o t h e r p a r t o f C h r i s t i a n Q u e s t i o n s and Answers (1580), by Theodore Beza, sgg.*6.v-*7.v.  Sig.*3.r,  C h a p t e r One 1. Thomas W i l c o x , t r a n s . , Two v e r y l e a r n e d sermons ( 1 5 8 8 ) , by T h e o d o r e B e z a , S i g . 2 . r . ; John Harmar, t r a n s . , Sermons...vpon t h e X. commandments ( 1 5 7 9 ) , b y J e a n Calvin. 2. N a t h a n i e l B a x t e r , t r a n s . , A f n l . . . e x p o s i t i o n v p p o n t h e two l a s t E p i s t l e s o f Iohn ( 1 5 7 8 ) , b y A u g u s t i n e M a r l o r a t ; Thomas Tymme, t r a n s . , A T n l . . . e x p o s i t i o n o f t h e h o l y G o s p e l a f t e r S. J o h n ( 1 5 7 5 ) , b y A u g u s t i n e M a r l o r a t . 3. C h r i s t o p h e r F e t h e r s t o n e , t r a n s . , The A c t e s o f t h e a p o s t l e s (1578), by Jean C a l v i n . 4. Thomas Tymme, t r a n s . , A f n l . . . e x p o s i t i o n a f t e r S. Marke and Luke ( 1 5 8 3 ) , b y A u g u s t i n e M a r l o r a t ; R o b e r t Vaux, t r a n s . , A commentarie...vpon t h e E p i s t l e t o t h e G a l a t h l a n s (1581), by Jean C a l v i n . 5. E u s e b i u s P a g i t , t r a n s . , A h a r m o n l e vpon t h e t h r e e e u a n g e l i s t s (1584), by Jean C a l v i n . 6. F r a n k l i n B. W i l l i a m s , Index o f D e d i c a t i o n s a n d Commendarv Verses. p . i x . Chapter  Two  1. C a l e n d a r o f S t a t e P a p e r s , F o r e i g n S e r i e s . . . A u g . 1584 Aug. 1585, p.462. F o r o t h e r r e f e r e n c e s t o F r e n c h works b e i n g t r a n s f e r r e d t o E n g l a n d s e e : I b i d , p.574; C a l e n d a r of S t a t e P a p e r s , F o r e i g n S e r i e s . . . J u n e 1586 - June 1588, p.347; C a l e n d a r o f S t a t e P a p e r s , F o r e i g n S e r i e s ... J a n . June 158 8, p.533. 2. J o h n S t r y p e , The L i f e a n d A c t s o f A r c h b i s h o p G r i n d a l , p.195. 3. L a u r e n c e Tomson, t r a n s . , A t r e a t i s e o f t h e E x c e l l e n c l e of a C h r i s t i a n Man ( 1 5 7 6 ) , b y P i e r r e de L a P l a c e , Sig.*iij.r. 4. N a t h a n i e l B a x t e r , t r a n s . , The l e c t u r e s o r d a i l y sermons (1578), by Jean C a l v i n , S i g . A . i j . r . ; John Stockwood, t r a n s . , A p l t h l e t r e a t i z e o f t h e p l a g u e (1580), by T h e o d o r e B e z a , S i g . 3 . r . ; J o h n Harmar, t r a n s . , Sermons vpon t h e f i r s t t h r e e c h a p t e r s o f t h e C a n t i c l e o f C a n t i c l e s (1587), by Theodore Beza.  -69-  5. N a t h a n i e l B a x t e r , t r a n s . , The l e c t u r e s o r d a l l y sermons (1578), by Jean C a l v i n , S i g . A . i i i j . v ; Christopher F e t h e r s t o n e , t r a n s . , A_ h a r m o n l e vpon t h e t h r e e e u a n a e l i s t s (1584), by Jean C a l v i n ; Christopher F e t h e r s t o n e , t r a n s . , The A c t e s o f t h e a p o s t l e s (1585), by J e a n C a l v i n . 6. W i l l i a m H o p k i n s o n , t r a n s . , An e u i d e n t d i s p l a y o f p o p i s h p r a c t i s e s (1578), by Theodore Beza; John Stockwood, t r a n s . , Common p l a c e s o f C h r i s t i a n R e l i g i o n ( 1 5 7 2 ) , b y H e i n r i c h B u i l i n g e r , S i g . * i i . r . ; Edward May, t r a n s . , The I n s t i t u t i o n s . . . a b r i d g e d , by Jean C a l v i n . 7. J o h n Stockwood, t r a n s . , Common p l a c e s o f C h r i s t i a n R e l i g i o n (1572), by H e i n r i c h B u l l i n g e r , S i g . * v . v . 8. N a t h a n i e l B a x t e r , t r a n s . , The l e c t u r e s o r d a l l y sermons (1578), by Jean C a l v i n , S i g . B . i . r . _ 9. A n t h o n y G i l b y , t r a n s . , P s a l m e s o f D a u l d ( 1 5 8 0 ) , b y T h e o d o r e B e z a , S i g . * v . r . ; Anon t r a n s . ( ' P r e f a c e t o t h e Reader'), Apocalypsls ( 1 5 9 2 ) , b y F r a n c o i s Du J o n . 10. Anon, t r a n s . ( ' P r e f a c e t o t h e R e a d e r ' ) , Apocalypsls ( 1 5 9 2 ) , b y F r a n c o i s Du J o n . 11. A r t h u r G o l d i n g , t r a n s . , Sermons...vpon t h e Booke o f l o b (1574), by Jean C a l v i n . 12. Anon, t r a n s . ( ' P r e f a c e t o t h e R e a d e r ' ) , Apocalypsls (1592), b y F r a n c o i s Du J o n ; C h r i s t o p h e r Rosdell, t r a n s . , Commentaries vpon t h e e p i s t l e t o t h e Romanes (1583), by Jean C a l v i n , Sig.C.4.v. 13. A n t h o n y G i l b y , t r a n s . ( ' P r e f a c e t o t h e R e a d e r ' ) , Commentaries...vpon t h e Prophet D a n l e l l (1570), by Jean C a l v i n . ; Edward May, t r a n s . , The I n s t i t u t i o n s . . . a b r i d g e d (1580),by Jean Calvin. 14. A n t h o n y G i l b y , t r a n s . , C o m m e n t a r i e s . . . v p o n t h e P r o p h e t Dan1e11 ( 1 5 7 0 ) , b y J e a n C a l v i n . ; J o h n Harmar, t r a n s . , Sermons v p o n . . . t h e C a n t i c l e s o f C a n t i c l e s ( 1 5 8 7 ) , b y Theodore Beza. 15. C h r i s t o p h e r F e t h e r s t o n e , t r a n s . ( ' P r e f a c e t o t h e R e a d e r ' ) , The b r v t l s h t h u n d e r b o l t (1586), by F r a n c o i s Hotman. 16. J o h n S t o c k w o o d , t r a n s . , Common p l a c e s o f C h r i s t i a n R e l i g i o n (1572), by H e i n r i c h B u l l i n g e r , S i g . * i i i i . v . 17. L a u r e n c e Tomson, t r a n s . , The New T e s t a m e n t (1576), Sig.a.iij.r. 18. R.B., t r a n s . , A t r e a t i s e o f t h e p r e p a r a t i o n t o t h e h o l y Supper ( 1 5 7 8 ? ) , b y Yves R o u s p e a u , s g g . A . i i . r . - A . i i i . r . 19. Thomas W i l c o x , t r a n s . , Two v e r y l e r n e d sermons ( 1 5 8 8 ) , by T h e o d o r e B e z a , S i g . 4 . r . 20. L a u r e n c e Tomson, t r a n s . , The New T e s t a m e n t (1576), S i g . a . i i j . r . ; Edward May, t r a n s . . The I n s t i t u t i o n s . . . a b r i d g e d (1580), by Jean C a l v i n . 21. C h r i s t o p h e r R o s d e l l , t r a n s . , A commentary upon t h e e p i s t l e t o t h e Romanes ( 1 5 8 3 ) , b y J e a n C a l v i n , Sig.C.3.r.  -70-  Chapter 1. 2.  3.  4. 5.  6. 7.  8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19.  Three  Thomas W i l c o x , t r a n s . , A_ c a t e c h l s m e and p l a v n e Instruction ( 1 5 8 0 ) , b y R o b e r t L e Macon, S i g . A i j . r . Thomas W i l c o x , t r a n s . , T h r e e p r o p o s i t i o n s o r s p e e c h e s (1580), by Jean C a l v i n , sgg.*2.v.-*4.r.; Thomas W i l c o x , t r a n s . , The t r u e a n d v i s i b l e markes o f t h e c a t h o l l q u e c h u r c h (1582), by Theodore Beza. N a t h a n i e l B a x t e r , t r a n s . , The l e c t u r e s o r d a i l y s e r m o n s ( 1 5 7 8 ) , b y J e a n C a l v i n , S i g . A i j . v . ; Anne Prowse, t r a n s . , Of t h e markes o f t h e c h i l d r e n o f God (1590), by Jean T a f f i n , sgg.A.4.r.-A.5.r. N a t h a n i e l B a x t e r , t r a n s . , The l e c t u r e s o r d a l l y sermons (1578), by Jean C a l v i n , S i g A i j . r . , S i g . A i i j . r . Thomas W i l c o x , t r a n s . , A c a t e c h l s m e a n d p l a v n e i n s t r u c t i o n ( 1 5 8 0 ) , b y R o b e r t Le Macon, S i g . A i i j . r . , S i g . A i i i j . r . ; John Stockwood, t r a n s . , Common p l a c e s of C h r i s t i a n R e l i g i o n (1572), by H e i n r i c h B u l l i n g e r , Sig.*iii.r. J o h n Stockwood, t r a n s . , Common p l a c e s o f C h r i s t i a n R e l i g i o n (1572), by H e i n r i c h B u l l i n g e r , sgg.*iiii.r.iiii.v. Henry H o l l a n d , t r a n s . , Aphorlsmes of C h r i s t i a n R e l i g i o n ( 1 5 9 6 ) , b y J e a n C a l v i n ; Thomas W i l c o x , t r a n s . , A c a t e c h l s m e a n d p l a v n e i n s t r u c t i o n ( 1 5 8 0 ) , b y R o b e r t Le Macon, Sig.Avii.r. Thomas S t o c k e r , t r a n s . , An e x c e l l e n t t r e a t i s e o f t h e i m m o r t a l y t i e o f t h e s o u l e (1581), by Jean C a l v i n , Sig.Aii.r. J o h n F i e l d , t r a n s . , F o u r e Sermons ( 1 5 7 9 ) , b y J e a n C a l v i n , Sig.2.r. E u s e b i u s P a g i t , t r a n s . , A h a r m o n i e vpon t h e t h r e e Euangelists (1584), by Jean C a l v i n . N a t h a n i e l B a x t e r , t r a n s . , The l e c t u r e s o r d a i l y sermons (1578), by Jean C a l v i n , S i g . A i i j . v . J o h n Stockwood, t r a n s . , Common p l a c e s o f C h r i s t i a n R e l i g i o n (1572), by H e i n r i c h B u l l i n g e r , S i g . * v . r . Ibid. Sig.*ij.v. Ibid. S i g . * i i i i . v . Thomas W i l c o x , t r a n s . , A c a t e c h l s m e a n d p l a v n e i n s t r u c t i o n ( 1 5 8 0 ) , b y R o b e r t L e Macon, S i g . A v . v . I b i d , Sig.Av.v.; Anne Prowse, t r a n s . , Of t h e markes o f t h e c h i l d r e n o f God (1590), by Jean T a f f i n , sgg.A.3.r.-A.3.v. Thomas S t o c k e r , t r a n s . , D l u e r s sermons ( 1 5 8 1 ) , b y J e a n Calvin. W i l l i a m H o p k i n s o n , t r a n s . , An e u i d e n t d i s p l a y o f p o p i s h p r a c t i s e s ( 1 5 7 8 ) , b y T h e o d o r e B e z a ; Thomas S t o c k e r , t r a n s . , D l u e r s sermons ( 1 5 8 1 ) , b y J e a n C a l v i n . J o h n Stockwood, t r a n s . , Common p l a c e s o f C h r i s t i a n R e l i g i o n (1572), by H e i n r i c h B u l l i n g e r , sgg.*6.r-*6.v.  -71-  20.  21.  22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29.  30. 31. 32. 33.  34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40.  J o h n F i e l d , t r a n s . , T h i r t e e n e sermons ( 1 5 7 9 ) , by J e a n C a l v i n , sgg.B.2.v.-B.3.r.; C h r i s t o p h e r F e t h e r s t o n e , t r a n s . , A h a r m o n i e vpon t h e t h r e e e u a n q e l l s t s ( 1 5 8 4 ) , by J e a n C a l v i n . W i l l i a m H o p k i n s o n , t r a n s . , An e u l d e n t d i s p l a y o f p o p i s h p r a c t i s e s ( 1 5 7 8 ) , by T h e o d o r e B e z a ; W.H., t r a n s . , The f i r s t E p i s t l e o f S a i n t John ( 1 5 8 0 ) , by J e a n C a l v i n , Sig.Aij.r. Thomas W i l c o x , t r a n s . , The t r u e and v i s i b l e markes o f t h e c a t h o l i q u e c h u r c h ( 1 5 8 2 ) , by T h e o d o r e B e z a , S i g . 7 . r . I b i d , S i g . 6 . v . ; C h r i s t o p h e r F e t h e r s t o n e , t r a n s . , The b r v t l s h t h u n d e r b o l t ( 1 5 8 6 ) , by F r a n c o i s Hotman, Sig.A.5.r. P e t e r Milward, R e l i g i o u s C o n t r o v e r s i e s of the E l i z a b e t h a n Age, p.39. J o h n Swan, t r a n s . , A t r e a t i s e , t o u c h i n g A n t i - C h r i s t ( 1 5 8 9 ) , by Lambert Daneau; J o h n F i e l d , t r a n s . , F o u r e sermons ( 1 5 7 9 ) , by J e a n C a l v i n , S i g . 3 . r . J o h n Swan, t r a n s . , A t r e a t i s e t o u c h i n g A n t i - C h r i s t ( 1 5 8 9 ) , by Lambert Daneau; J o h n F i e l d , t r a n s . , F o u r e Sermons ( 1 5 7 9 ) , by J e a n C a l v i n , S i g . > 2 . v . Thomas W i l c o x , t r a n s . , Two v e r y l e r n e d sermons ( 1 5 8 8 ) , by T h e o d o r e B e z a , s g g . 3 . r . - 3.v. C h r i s t o p h e r F e t h e r s t o n e , t r a n s . , The b r v t l s h t h u n d e r b o l t ( 1 5 8 6 ) , by F r a n c o i s Hotman, s g g . A . 3 . v . - A . 4 . r . C h r i s t o p h e r F e t h e r s t o n e , t r a n s . , The A c t e s o f t h e a p o s t l e s ( 1 5 8 5 ) , by J e a n C a l v i n ; C h r i s t o p h e r F e t h e r s t o n e , t r a n s . , The b r v t l s h t h u n d e r b o l t ( 1 5 8 6 ) , by F r a n c o i s Hotman, S i g . A . 4 . v . ; A r t h u r G o l d i n g , t r a n s . , The w a r f a r e o f C h r i s t i a n s ( 1 5 7 6 ) , anon., sgg.Aiij.r.-Aiij.v., Sig. A . i i i j . r . A r t h u r G o l d i n g , t r a n s . , The t r e w n e s s e o f t h e C h r i s t i a n R e l i g i o n ( 1 5 8 7 ) , by P h i l i p p e de Mornay, S i g . * 3 . r . J o h n Harmar, t r a n s . , Sermons vpon t h e t h r e e f i r s t c h a p t e r s o f t h e C a n t i c l e s o f C a n t i c l e s ( 1 5 8 7 ) , by Theodore Beza. J o h n F i e l d , t r a n s . , T h i r t e e n e sermons ( 1 5 7 9 ) , by J e a n C a l v i n , Sig.A.4.v. F o r example, s e e : Thomas W i l c o x , t r a n s . , T h r e e p r o p o s i t i o n s o r s p e e c h e s ( 1 5 8 0 ) , by J e a n C a l v i n , S i g . * 2 . v . ; Anne Prowse, t r a n s . , Of t h e markes o f t h e c h i l d r e n o f God ( 1 5 9 0 ) , by J e a n T a f f i n , S i g . A . 2 . r . A r t h u r G o l d i n g , t r a n s . , E x p o s i t i o n vpon t h e R e u e l a t i o n o f S. Iohn ( 1 5 7 4 ) , by A u g u s t i n e M a r l o r a t . Ibid. A r t h u r G o l d i n g , A d i s c o u r s e vpon t h e E a r t h q u a k e ( 1 5 8 0 ) , Sig.C.iiij.v. J o h n Coxe, t r a n s . , Q u e s t i o n s o f R e l i g i o n ( 1 5 7 2 ) , by Heinrich Bullinger, s g g . * i j . r - * i i j . v . A n t h o n y G i l b y , t r a n s . , The P s a l m e s o f D a u l d ( 1 5 8 0 ) , by Theodore Beza, s g g . i j . v - i i j . r . Ibid, s g g . i i j . r - i i j . v . Ibid, s g g . i i i j . r . - i i i j . v . -72-  41. 42. 43. 44.  45.  Ibid, s g g . i i j . v - i i i j . r . Thomas Tymme, The f i g u r e o f A n t l c h r l s t e ( 1 5 8 6 ) , S i g . 8 . r . Thomas Tymme, A S i l v e r Watch B e l l ( 1 6 0 5 ) , s g g . * 2 . v - * 3 . r . ; f i g u r e o f A n t l c h r l s t e (1586), S i g . 9 . v . Thomas Tymme, t r a n s . , A ( n ) . . . e x p o s i t i o n . . . a f t e r S. Mathewe ( 1 5 7 0 ) , b y A u g u s t i n e M a r l o r a t ; Thomas Tymme, Preface, A preparation against the prognosticated dangers (1588), S i g . B . 7 . r . John F i e l d , t r a n s . , F o u r e sermons ( 1 5 7 9 ) , b y J e a n C a l v i n , s g g . 2 . r . - 3 . r . ; Thomas W i l c o x , t r a n s . , T h r e e p r o p o s i t i o n s o r speeches (1580), by Jean C a l v i n , s g g . * 3 . r . - * 3 . v . ; A n t h o n y G i l b y , t r a n s . . The p s a l m e s o f D a u l d (1580), by Theodore Beza, S i g . 3 . r .  Chapter  Four  1. P e t e r L a k e , M o d e r a t e P u r i t a n s a n d t h e E l i z a b e t h a n C h u r c h , p.1-3. 2. Thomas W i l c o x , t r a n s . , The t r u e a n d v i s i b l e markes o f t h e c a t h o l l g u e churche (1582), by Theodore Beza, S i g . S . r .  -73-  BIBLIOGRAPHY The following includes original writings by the t r a n s l a t o r s (primary sources), as w e l l as secondary sources. The main source m a t e r i a l f o rthe study, the t r a n s l a t o r s ' p r e f a t o r y e p i s t l e s , i s l i s t e d i n 'Appendix C'. Primary  Sources  Golding, Arthur, A discourse vpon the Earthquake that h a p p e n e d t h r o u g h e t h i s Realme o f E n q l a n d e , and other places of Chrlstendome, the f i r s t of A p r i l l . 1580. L o n d o n : H. Binneman, 1580. Tymme, Thomas, The f i g u r e o f A n t l c h r i s t e . w i t h t h e t o k e n s o f the end o f t h e w o r l d , most p l a i n l y d e c i p h e r e d b y a c a t h o l i k e exposition o f t h e seconde e p i s t l e to the Thessalonians. L o n d o n : T. Dawson f o r F. C o l d o c k e , 1586. Tymme, Thomas, A Preparation against the prognosticated d a n g e r s o f t h i s v e a r e , 1588. London: J . W o l f e , 1588. Tymme, Thomas, A S i l v e r w a t c h - b e l l . The s o u n d w h e r o f i s a b l e t o w i n t h e w o r l d l i n g , t o become a t r u e c h r i s t i a n . Where w i t h i s a n n e x e d a t r e a t i s e o f t h e L o r d s S u p p e r . L o n d o n : T. Creede f o r W. C o t t o n , 1605. Secondary  Sources  Christianson, Paul, Reformers and Babylon: The Apocalyptic V i s i o n s f r o m t h e R e f o r m a t i o n t o t h e Eve C i v i l War. U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1978.  English of the  Collinson, Patrick, The E l i z a b e t h a n Puritan Movement. B e r k e l e y & L o s A n g e l e s : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1967. Collinson, P a t r i c k , The R e l i g i o n o f P r o t e s t a n t s . The C h u r c h i n E n g l i s h S o c i e t y 1559-1625. O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1982. Firth, Katharine, The A p o c a l y p t i c T r a d i t i o n i n R e f o r m a t i o n B r i t a i n . 1530-1645. O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1979. Hagg, M.M., L a F r a n c e P r o t e s t a n t e ou v i e s des Protestants F r a n c a i s . v o l . s 1-10. G e n i e v e : S l a t k i n e R e p r i n t s , 1966. Lake, Peter, Moderate P u r i t a n s and t h e E l i z a b e t h a n C a m b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1982.  Church.  Lalanne, Ludovic, Dlctlonnalre Hlstorlque de l a F r a n c e . Contentent pour L ' H i s t o i r e C i v i l e . Politique et Litteralre (2nd. e d . ) . P a r i s : L i b r a i r i e H a c h e t t e e t C . i e . , 1877. -74-  Lomas, Sophie Crawford, ed., Calendar of State Foreign Series, o f t h e r e i g n o f E l i z a b e t h Aug. 1584 1585. Preserved in Her Majesty's Public Record L o n d o n : The H e r e f o r d Times L i m i t e d . , 1914.  Papers, Aug. Office.  Lomas, Sophie Crawford, ed., Calendar of State Foreign Series, o f t h e r e i g n o f E l i z a b e t h June 1586 1588. Preserved in Her Majesty's Public Record L o n d o n : The H e r e f o r d Times L i m i t e d . , 1927.  Papers, June Office.  Lomas, Sophie Crawford, ed., Calendar of State Papers, Foreign Series, of the r e i g n of E l i z a b e t h Jan. - June 1588. P r e s e r v e d i n Her M a j e s t y ' s P u b l i c R e c o r d O f f i c e . L o n d o n : The H e r e f o r d Times L i m i t e d . , 1931. Milward, Peter, Religious Controversies Age. A Survey of P r i n t e d S o u r c e s , w i t h a E l t o n . L o n d o n : The S c o l a r P r e s s , 1977.  of the Elizabethan f o r e w o r d by G. R.  Pollard, A.W. & R e d g r a v e , G.R., A S h o r t - T i t l e C a t e l o g u e of Books Printed i n England, Scotland. and Ireland and of English Books P r i n t e d A b r o a d 1475-1640 (2nd. ed.). London: The B i b l i o g r a p h i c a l S o c i e t y , 1986 ( v o l . 1) & 1976 (vol.2). Stephens, Biography.  L e s l i e & Lee, S i d n e y , ed.s, D i c t i o n a r y of N a t i o n a l O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1921-1922 ( r e p r i n t ) .  S t r y p e , J o h n , The H i s t o r y o f t h e Most R e v e r e n d F a t h e r i n Edmund G r l n d a l . O x f o r d : The C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , MDCCCXX1. Williams, F r a n k l i n B., Index o f D e d i c a t i o n s Verses in English Books Before 1641. Bibliographical Society, 1962.  -75-  God.  and Commendarv London: The  APPENDIX A The following l i s t represents French works in English translation that contain both political and religious themes. T h e s e works a r e n o t i n c l u d e d i n t h i s p a p e r as they were deemed more p o l i t i c a l t h a n r e l i g i o u s . Judging by the size of the list, which i s not exhaustive, there was considerable interest i n England i n t h i s period in works dealing with such matters (there i s a l s o a considerable number of such t r a n s l a t i o n s i n the e a r l y decades of the seventeenth century). If one compares this group of translations with the group of t r a n s l a t i o n s t h a t form the s u b j e c t o f t h i s p a p e r (see 'Appendix C ) , one f i n d s a g r e a t e r number of anonymous t r a n s l a t i o n s among the works listed below. Also, only a m i n o r i t y o f works i n the list below contain prefatory epistles by their translators. Consequently, a s i m i l a r s t u d y of the works c o n t a i n e d i n the list below w o u l d be d i f f i c u l t . One f i n d s two translators involved in both translation projects: Thomas Tymme and Arthur Golding. Anon. A d i s c o u r s e of T r a n s l a t e d by G e f f r a y  the C l u l l e Fenton.  warres...in  Fraunce  (1570).  Hotman, Francois, A t r u e and p l a i n e r e p o r t o f the furious o u t r a g e s of Fraunce. and t h e h o r r i b l e and s h a m e f u l s l a u g h t e r of Chastllllon the a d m l r a l l . and d l u e r s other noble and excellent men, and o f t h e w i c k e d and straunge murder of godlle persons. c o m m i t t e d i n many c i t i e s o f F r a u n c e (1573). Anon, t r a n s l a t i o n . S e r r e s , J e a n de, The f v r s t p a r t e o f c o m m e n t a r i e s , the state of r e l i g i o n , and t h e common w e a l t h e (1573). T r a n s l a t e d by T. Tymme. S e r r e s , J e a n de, the whole and Fraunce (1574).  The t h r e e p a r t s o f C o m m e n t a r i e s , p e r f e c t d i s c o u r s e of the ciuill T r a n s l a t e d by T. Tymme.  of  concerning Fraunce  containing warres of  P i t h o u , P i e r r e , A m e r v a y l o u s d i s c o u r s e vpon t h e l v f e , d e e d e s , and behauiours of Katherlne de Medlcis. Oueene Mother: w h e r e i n a r e d i s p l a y e d t h e meanes w h i c h she h a t h p r a c t i s e d to a t t e v n e v n t o t h e v s u r p i n g o f t h e Klngedome o f F r a n c e , and t o the bringing o f t h e same v n t o v t t e r r u l n e and destruction (1575). Anon, t r a n s l a t i o n . Gentillet, Innocent, A declaration concerning the n e e d f u l n e s s e o f p e a c e t o be made i n F r a u n c e , and t h e meanes o f t h e m a k l n h g o f t h e same: e x h i b i t e d t o . . . H e n r l e the second of that name...vpon two edictes put forth by His M a i e s t i e . . . 1 5 7 4 (1575). T r a n s l a t e d by G. H a r t e .  -76-  Hotman, F r a n c o i s ( o r , S e r r e s , de J e a n ) , The l v f e o f t h e most godly, v a l e a n t a n d n o b l e c a p t e i n e a n d m a i n t a i n e r o f t h e trew Christian r e l i g i o n i n Fraunce, Iasper Colignie Shatllion, sometyme g r e a t e a d m i r a l 1 o f F r a u n c e ( 1 5 7 6 ) . T r a n s l a t e d b y A. Golding. Serres, Jean d e , The f o u r t h p a r t e o f C o m m e n t a r i e s of the cluill warres i n Fraunce, a n d o f t h e lowe c o u n t r l e of F l a u n d e r s (1576). T r a n s l a t e d b y T. Tymme. R e g n i e r , L o u i s , s i e u r de L a P l a n c h e , A l e g e n d a r i e . c o n t e l n i n g an ample discovrse o f t h e l i f e and b e h a v i o u r of Charles cardinal of L o r r a i n e , and o f h i s b r e t h r e n o f t h e house o f G u i s e (1577). Anon, t r a n s l a t i o n . Gentillet, Innocent, Apology or defense of the C h r i s t i a n s of Fraunce which are of the euangellcall or reformed r e l i g i o n . . . W r i t t e n t o the k i n g o f Navarre (1579). Translated by I . Bowes. Casmir, John, C e r t a i n e o r a t i o n s a n d a n s w e r e s made v n t o t h e F r e n c h k i n g In d e f e n s e of peace (1579). Anon, t r a n s l a t i o n . E s t i e n n e , H e n r i , The s t a g e o f p o p i s h t o v e s . . . W i t h a f r l e n d l l e forewarning t o our C a e t e l l n Catholikes: and a brief adminltion, o f t h e s u n d r l e b e n e f i t e s we r e c e i u e b y H i r Ma: b l e s s e d gouernment o u e r v s . . . ( 1 5 8 1 ) . Anon, t r a n s l a t i o n . Granvelle, Antoine Perrenot de, C a r d i n a l , L e t t e r s contevning sundry deuices. touching the s t a t e of Flaunders and Portugal1: written by c a r d i n a l G r a n v e l l e and o t h e r s , and l a t e l y i n t e r c e p t e d and p u b l i s h e d (1582). Anon, t r a n s l a t i o n . Mornay, P h i l i p p e de, An a d v e r t i s e m e n t from a French gentleman, t o u c h i n g t h e i n t e n t i o n and meaning which those o f the h o u s e o f G u i s e haue i n t h e i r l a t e l e u v l n g o f f o r c e s a n d armes i n t h e r e a l m e o f F r a n c e : w r i t t e n a s an a n s w e r e to a c e r t a i n e D e c l a r a t i o n p u b l i s h e d i n t h e name o f t h e C a r d i n a l o f Burbon (1585). Anon, t r a n s l a t i o n . Erondelle, P i e r r e , A d e c l a r a t i o n and c a t h o l i c k e e x h o r t a t i o n to a l 1 C h r i s t i a n p r i n c e s t o s u c c o u r t h e c h u r c h o f God a n d realme of France... (1586). Anon, t r a n s l a t i o n . L a Noue, F r a n c o i s d e , The p o l l t l c k e a n d m i l l t a r i e d i s c o v r s e s of t h e L o r d de L a Noue. Whereunto a r e a d i o y n e d certaine obseruations of...things happened during the three late c i u i l l warres of France... (1587). T r a n s l a t e d b y E. A g g a s . H u r a u l t , M i c h e l , A d i s c o u r s e vpon t h e p r e s e n t s t a t e o f F r a n c e [Together with a cople of the Kings l e t t e r s . . . d e c l a r i n g h i s mind a f t e r h i s d e p a r t u r e f r o m P a r i s . Whereunto i s a d d e d two L e t t e r s b y t h e Duke o f G u i z e . . . ( 1 5 8 8 ) . Anon, t r a n s l a t i o n . -77-  Anon., A P o l i t l k e D i s c o u r s e most e x c e l l e n t for this time p r e s e n t : Composed by a F r e n c h G e n t l e m a n , a g a i n s t t h o s e o f t h e League (1589). Anon, t r a n s l a t i o n . Anon., The C o n t r e - G u v s e : C o n t a i n i n g the e n t r y of the savde Family into Fraunce, with their ambitious pernitlous practises for the o b t a i n i n g a s p i r i n g s , and o f the crowne t h e r e o f (1589). Anon, t r a n s l a t i o n . Daneau, Lambert, A treatise , touching A n t i - C h r i s t . . . p u b l i s h e d f o r the encouragement of t h o s e which iovne i n the i n t e n d e d a c t i o n s a g a i n s t the Spaniard (1589). T r a n s l a t e d by J . Swan. Mornay, P h i l i p p e de, A l e t t e r w r i t t e n " by a F r e n c h C a t h o l l k e gentleman, t o the m a l s t e r s of Sorbonne. C o n c e r n i n g the l a t e victories obtained bv t h e k i n g o f Nauarre (1588). Anon, translation. La Noue, F r a n c o i s e de, The d e c l a r a t i o n o f t h e L o r d Noue. vpon h i s t a k i n g armes ( 1 5 8 9 ) . T r a n s l a t e d by A. La Noue, Francois de, p u b l i s h e d bv t h e L o r d de  de La Munday.  A discourse vpon the declaration L a Noue ( 1 5 8 9 ) . Anon, t r a n s l a t i o n .  Fregeville, J e a n de, The r e f o r m e d p o l l t l c k e . That i s . an apologle for the generall cause of reformation written a g a i n s t t h e s l a u n d e r s o f t h e pope and t h e L e a g u e . . . W h e r e t o i s adlovned a d i s c o u r s e vpon t h e d e a t h o f t h e Duke of Guise, prosecuting the argument of the book... (1589). Anon, translation. Mornay, P h i l i p p e de, A l e t t e r , w r i t t e n bv a F r e n c h C a t h o l l k e gentleman. C o n t e v n l n g a b r i e f e aunswere t o the s l a u n d e r s of a certaine pretended Englishman fLouls d'Orleans] (1589). Anon, t r a n s l a t i o n . Hurault, Michel [or, Anon.], The r e s t o r e r o f the French e s t a t e d l s c o u e r l n g t h e t r u e c a u s e s o f t h e s e w a r r e s In France and other countries, and d e l l u e r l n g t h e right course of restoring peace and gulet to a l l Chrlstendome (1589). T r a n s l a t e d by M. Hurault. Hurault, Michel, AntlSlxtus. An o r a t i o n o f Pope S i x t u s the Fift, vppon the d e a t h of the l a t e F r e n c h k i n g , Henrie the Third. With a c o n f u t a t i o n of the s a i d o r a t i o n . Wherein a l l the treacherous practises o f t h e House of Lorraine, are l a r g e l y d e s c r i b e d (1590). T r a n s l a t e d by A.P. Viques, to the League.  C a p t a i n , A l e t t e r w r i t t e n by a c a t h o l i c k e g e n t l e m a n , lady lane Clement, the h a u l t i n g princesse of the From s a i n t D e n i s ( 1 5 9 0 ) . Anon, t r a n s l a t i o n .  -78-  Viques, Captain, The r o d o m a n t a d e s of captavne Vlques...a t r a v t o u r t o h i s k i n g , s l a v n e i n f i g h t under the banner of the Leaguers. Wherein i s expressed. the d e s i r e of a bloudv minde, and the reward of a f a l s e traitour (1591). Anon, translation. H u r a u l t , M i c h e l , A c o p p l e o f t h e a n t i - S p a n i a r d , made a t P a r i s by a Frenchmen, a c a t h o l l g u e . Wherein i s d i r e c t l y proued how the S p a n i s h k i n g i s the o n e l v cause of a l l the troubles in France...(1590). T r a n s l a t e d by A. Munday. Colynet, Antony, The t r u e h i s t o r y o f t h e c i u i l l warres in France, betweene king Henry the 4. and the Leaguers. Gathered f r o m 1585 v n t i l l t h e p r e s e n t O c t o b e r 1591 (1591). Anon, t r a n s l a t i o n . Digiueres, M o n s i e u r de, A most e x c e l l e n t e x p l o i t p e r f o u r m e d by monsieur de D i g i u e r e s , vpon t h e p o p e s armle. With a discourse of the ouerthrow of the duke of Sauoves army ( 1 5 9 1 ) . T r a n s l a t e d by E. A g g a s . Hurault, Michel, An e x c e l l e n t d i s c o v r s e e s t a t e o f F r a n c e ( 1 5 9 2 ) . T r a n s l a t e d by E.  vpon the Aggas.  present  Lauziere, Pons, M a r q u i s de T h e m i n e s , The c o p p y o f a letter w r i t t e n by t h e L o r d o f T h e m i n e s . A l s o a d e c r e e of the court of P a r l i a m e n t s l t t i n q e at Chaalons (1593). T r a n s l a t e d by E. Aggas. Renichon, Michel de, The c o n f e s s i o n of Michel Concerning, the bloudv e n t e r p r i s e , which should c o m m i t t e d vpon M a u r i c e , p r i n c e o f Orange ( 1 5 9 4 ) . by R. R o b i n s o n .  Renichon. have bene Translated  A d e c l a r a t i o n and p r o t e s t a t i o n . . . A l s o two l e t t e r s w r i t t e n by the savd k i n g of Nauarre....More, an epistle written by Philippe de Mornav to the French king. Hereunto... are Inserted t h e a r t i c l e s a g r e e d vpon between t h e k i n g and the L o r d e s o f Guvze ( 1 5 9 4 ) . Anon, t r a n s l a t i o n . Le Roy, Pierre, A p l e a s a n t s a t v r e or p o e s l e : wherein is d i s c o u e r e d t h e C a t h o l l c o n o f Spavne, and t h e c h i e f e leaders o f t h e F r e n c h League ( 1 5 9 5 ) . T r a n s l a t e d by T. W i l c o x . Pont-aymery, A l e x a n d r e de, A state discourse h u r t of the F r e n c h k i n g (1595). T r a n s l a t e d by  vpon t h e E. A g g a s .  late  Maulette, Genevieve Petau, D e v o r e v x , V e r t u e s t e a r e s f o r the l o s s e o f . . . k i n g Henry. t h i r d o f t h a t name, k i n g of Fraunce: and t h e u n t i m e l y d e a t h o f . . . W a l t e r D e u o r e u x , who was slaine b e f o r e Roan i n F r a u n c e ( 1 5 9 7 ) . T r a n s l a t e d by J . Markham.  -79-  Du Nesme, Jean, The m i r a c l e of the Celebrated by the ghost of the d i u i n e T r a n s l a t e d by J . S y l u e s t e r .  -80-  peace In Du Bartas  Fraunce. (1599).  APPENDIX B  In o r d e r t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e marked d i f f e r e n c e s between the two t y p e s o f E p i s t l e D e d i c a t o r y d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r One, two prefatory e p i s t l e s have b e e n c o p i e d f r o m t h e m i c r o - f i l m and included here. The f i r s t e p i s t l e i s a t y p i c a l Type A E p i s t l e Dedicatory. I t i s f r o m Thomas Tymme's translation of An cathollke exposition vpon t h e twoo l a s t e p i s t l e s of Iohn (1578), by A u g u s t i n e M a r l o r a t . One w o u l d f i n d s i m i l a r Type A e p i s t l e s i n t h e e a r l y s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . The s e c o n d example is r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e Type B d e d i c a t o r y e p i s t l e s u s e d in this paper. I t i s f r o m Anne P r o w s e ' s translation Of the markes of the children o f God, and their comforts in a f f l i c t i o n s ( 1 5 9 0 ) , by J e a n T a f f i n .  -81-  g T O . T H E R I G H T H O N O R A B L E "• :.' Lorde ThomasEarle of Su(Tex,Vicount Fitzwalter, :  :  jipzQeofcggranoat,anD n^ HonorabIej}ruiieCounfa.y-Ic,aiid Lordeliijjli Cli.-.inbcrlaync of- hir.houfe, of djcnoblc q;0cr of tljc barter ilnrgijt ,3»(Kcc cif iD^cr at t hr $a;rcQs, • Parkcs, VVarraynci, and .Cliales f"ram Tr'encSoudivvardc;' | andCaptavncofclicCcnt!c:iicn ' -j' Petitioners: j : .! ' :  • 3!no to tfycngtytfyonozabte j U D p t u p f c , encrcafc: 1 flf honour ano true hr.clDlzocc, in  f  HE q%EAT T%Jp^ lice which the Chniliia minde sjo receyue by reading this Boolce, was cne came; w n y i K%§p£tyS' cpoke the paynes to Tranllate ic out of Latin..-into the E n *^£<ij^2t£-:i Ad\\ tcuri<r * add theRecomI mendinc thcror the mere d i - . ^rr7rc^^,.j | j j to haue it read, wr ;!  c n t  y  Li  the occafion which moued me co Dedicace my parte therein to your Honors. For what Englifhe man is there which will not thinke ic a BookcYnoil: worthy the reading, which he feeth warranted by your N a m e s : .The honorable and generall report whereof hartneth me to prefent it vnto y o u : wherein ye (hall finde the deepe and deuine Euangelilr SauiE falm: the'marrow o f all Commentaries vppon him, ruder the name o f o??v£arlomtes Collection : laii,and leait, my faychrull eraucll to turne them bothe co che vie or my Countrey. . T h e thing I k n o w your Honors will like well, bicaufe, as Iheare, v o u can skilful!v iudpe. lo I doubt not but ' y o u haue made your choycewhat to reade,which lo.-, muchebrutethche credits of your abiliue, founde out  -32-  "1/  f^khj:Q&cl. A s forji'iy labbr^may' it pieafeydurljloiiors ^ t o j i k e i c , as com riitng from one,which caught w i t h die • ^ c o m m e n d a t i o n ofyour Learning and W i i d o m e - g c h e /-•'rally noyzed, could not but offer m y felfe to ydu[as the' ' w o n d e r i n g Q u e e n e o f ^ ^ c o u l d . n o t r e n r t y l l me had ' fe'ene Salomons perfon, o f whole wifdome flic had hard fomuche. A n d withall I thought it good in dffenna: m y labor to your Honors, to ioyne you both tqgither, . thinking with my felfe thacitmuil needes f o l l o w , that .Tuche"skill and judgement beein^'m fo Honorable a 'man., m u l l needes by foeietie o f matche workc'like ef. • feci in fo honorable a Mate. W h e r e f o r e not tjo trouble y o u r H o n o r s with longer fpeachev, Intake m v" leaue^ R e c o m m e n d i n g m y p o o r c T ^ w w to your H o n o r s ; protection, the recompence whereof y o u (hall rcceiue in your readingofthe bookc,\vIiofe fruite will bring, by Gods grace., health! • to yourfoules/and c o n t i n u a n c e ' o f your H o n o r . ' ' ' :  ?  • • •  / •••  • ••• :  ,  i  r  ./ Your Honor*s mofl humble, ^EhomasTmme: :  -8 3 -  ••  1 o the right Honorable andnyertuous Laaze, The •' Countefle of" W a r - '  (  ^7" Orafmuch as ic hadi picafed almighricGod of inhnfee 2:0odnciTc.ro  his s;iuc vnto the Gilonous OolDeli oi his crcrnall fonncfo long 8c pro!S|§4§r  fDcrous fucccilc in this our C o n n oriciic 1 5 now dmcfrishc Honorable Ladic)for cueric one char is a' profcifor of the all carnall perfwafions of humane reafon deluding the fbulc being femes to th f trial. Fo r ho t pleafometimes, gathc-nrigof" his Church,vnto zsk\vciGFij[cycn commori.ic is Iong rimecontinue, in and picafure.: Nsyybjr the w o r d c f G O D '  and my vcric good true fame, (ccafidc, to prepare,our e dayo alt ug h i fedrGod for the to giue icdaics : yet not,tha: ic fhould any reft A 1 know  -84-  :  T H E  |. j  E P I S T L E  D E D . I CA T . O . HT E .  :kncw. Sc by experience fomecirrics | ted from this common condition of o:our(elues ( h e r Maicfrfcs royail | Gad his o w n : children and hou£c:cc:fon- noc executed ) and now of jj hold?To this end therefore(ricrhc .ourneighbours rcuna about vs we f. Honorable Ladie) I hauccranilaced •fee, chat chc C h u r c h of.God in this | rhisiiccic booke , ruff ro admonifh :worid,as ic euer hath bin, fo mufc ic ;1 fome (who forlackeof experience, euer be vndcr chc croiTc. A n d chere- . | heuer feeling other daies chanchefe :forc if wee w i i i bee comprca of the | full of peace and quiccnesj char they . Church indeede, and giorie in that t lcarnc to applie vnto themfeiucs excellent name o f a Chriichn, Ic: vs f whacfocuer they heare orrcadeof knowcafTuredliCjthat vnto vs, cucn -i chc trial 1 of G O D his children, leail vncovs (char haue fo iongiiuedin '. faKeiie imagining ic co acDertainc cither to the cimes that are pafcorto " reitana pieaiure, iz wee oc cne clv.ldrcn of God_) in (bme fcrtand mca- * other Nations, it fail fodainiie vpon fureacriail muff come. For, if God -; them as a chccfc in chc nigbr,.S: they be deicicucc of all hope and co mf o r t. chsfrifc cucric fonnc w h o m hcreccii:cch,aud euery member of C h r i - I • Secondlie, to awake ochcrs abotinfecs body mufc be fafliiancd like vn- -i dine; both in knowledge and other ' :c chc head, i f chc afflictions-of this 1 graces, whom notwithiranding,fowould are manifen: tokens to the il tan (by the deceaucabic lulls Sc vaine children of G o d , of hisfauourand h oieafurcs of this r,'ickcd world) harh loue cowards chem.and lure elcdecs i fo rock"a ilceoc. that thev iceme al:  ;  ;  :  :  of chair adcpcio:how can w c i c o k c , or how can we defire co bee exemo-  cr.e J_ctna:'G:iCjto nauc ror^otce eodi T f- - • Tl A 5  -85-  !•  . T H E ' E P I S T L E  D E D I C A T O RI ; chemie!ues their hoiie calling and I ; i profession. Lr.fi: of all] :o comfort an ;] what to the furtherance of me hoiie iodic: fcrc, whornc ic hath plesfcd t| ; building; bur becaufe great things '• G O D fo co prcife downe wichfor- | by reafonofmyfexjrmynot doo, ! rowcs and co cxcrcife with [he con- a and that which I m s y v l ought to :cinuaii arnicnons ana calamities or u aoojlnauc according to my cucne,. I this.morcaii iifc as no times feemmg A \ broughrmy poorc basket offlones favourable vnco the. they can fcarfc | I tocheffrengthning o f the walks o f rcceiucche wards of any comfort. ;i ; that IernGilem. w hereof Ybv grace) A n d becaufc your Honor hach been ] \ wee are ail ooth Citizens andmemoiiang cimemocanhc a profefibur, A 'bcrs. A n d now to returne ro thole bu: alio a ioucrofchc :ruc:h,whom \ ; who experience hath natyctraughr., the Lordfcxaluns; :c an hidier place -v and whom profperitic will not fufaf'dignicic chan many ether) ham .; fcr to awake : I caVacfdic hciczzh fecvpj as ic were a light vpo an high them both in the L o r d , no longer to candlcfcicke, to g;tue light vnco ma- ] ;dcccfucrhcm£clucswithvaineimanie, I haue cfuccialiie dedicated vn- 'J ;ginations neither to (hirer chcir to your Honour this my poorc cra- .; 'hearts fo to be tied co earthlicvani'tics, that thev fliould deubife a nice:iiaikj humbiie befceching the L o r d to make it no IcfTc comfortable to i left rnofc things that ca cmclv make yourHcnou^and to chafe that {hail :"i .'them ha'nDic indeed. W h c n i t f h a l l rcade:: than ic ha:h been vnco mc .': ~ica(c G O D to ooen their eves to * who haue crauilared ic. En cue one j -licerne betweene hcaueniic and in his calling is bound to doo iamc- ;i and chinas cacrhfeins. I know they w i i a c •1 A ^. will 3  3  ;  3  1  :  :  !  :  :  ;  :  -86-  E  .  ;  THE'. E P I S T L E  • «  j  DEDICATORIZ.  will of chcrnfeiucs :bce afhamcd of % time • doth confurnc, nor cnufc dethis their negHgericc. For what arc ^ sriueofhonaur, nor power o f adaufhapieaianc things, of this world, if uerfane foovlc ofgiorie, thai is endwhich -ijiq'fc-bewiccfi chc minds o f ij Ics^incopreheufiblcr I f then theremen,:! they-be compared with hea- g be no comoarifon bctweenc things ueuk'e and cterna^'things? If ftacciic *i heaueniieand things chat are earth2e fimptuous buildings do delight; ' * lie ', and no man can actaine cache what building is fo (latciic and s o - i chihgs chac arc heauenlie. but by the rio.us as-newc Icrufalem ' I f riches; • fame way chat Chrifr himfcife atwhatfo rich as thatjwhofepaucmca -i caiacd vnco them; which was by chc is of pure geld, w hole foundations - croilc: why (cz.Ctin^ off ail impediand wails.or oreciousftones,&:urates ' ments chat arcilcch downe) dco wc of'orient pearlcs ^ If friends, kinf- ~ not ruiinc on our ccunc wich cherefoikeand neighbours;whatCitiefo N tuihes and hope, hauing Chrifr Co renienifncd as ehis,whcrc G o d h i m - * mighcicaKingjfbrourCapcainc.Sc leife in his M a i cfcic, I cfus Chriff the j guide,who (as the Apofcic fikhjfor head orchc Church in hisgiorie, &C i chc gloriethat was fc: before him, allrhcholieAugcis,Patriarchs,Pro- £ fndnrcd the croffe,and defpiiingthc phecs,ApaiclcsandMarcirsdo dwei 3 fiiamc, Ci::cdi now ac the right hand together in happiiicfTc for euer? It 0 of the chronc of God V H o w flowc honor; what honor comDarablc to 'i and dull of hearcurc wee, if zslfm, chis,:o be the fcruant arid child of fo \\ (who for arncfTcof pottage fold his miehcic a K i n s , andhcircoffo<zio- \ birthright) wee are contented for a ore cieaiurc in this w i c time 'i k :  :  :  ;  : :  :  :  -87-  -  I  T H E EPISTLE '  |  Iced w o r l d , co ieefc thac inccmpa-' § rabic and cuerlaiting gloria, which | Chrifc the fonnc of G O D wich fo g great a price hath purchafedfor v?. | The Lord ginc vs wifedomeco vn- :'j deri"hfid,&: grace co heare his voice ;] while ic is (aide cod.iv, char when ' i dales and niches SC znv.es find ceafc, ? r-'cemay (without cimej) enter inco \ his'iavc and red: which ncucr flialll % haue end; The Lord euer prefcrue ] your Honor; and addc vnco amul- :j tkudc of haooic vearcs fpene in his i fearc,a continual! incrcafe ofal % fbiritual graces co hisglo:] r:e> and your cndlcs % comfort. :j :  J  YourHonors in the \ Lord % A •u  mofc humble ui.P.  I 'j "i -i  :1  -88-  APPENDIX C The f o l l o w i n g l i s t i n c l u d e s a l l r e l i g i o u s works by French Protestant authors translated into English and printed between 1570 and 1599. Some o f t h e i r t r a n s l a t o r s are also responsible for the translations of other (non-French) religious works i n t h i s p e r i o d . These w o r k s have also been included. Works have been arranged alphabetically by translator. KEY: (*): (+):  Translations Translations  *A., E., Mornay.  trans.,  which which The  include prefatory epistles. are unavailable f o r examination.  defence  of death  +Peter A l l i b o n d , t r a n s . , Comfort (1591) , by J e a n de L ' E s p i n e .  ( 1 5 7 6 ) , by  Philippe  f o r an a f f l i c t e d  * , A c o n f u t a t i o n of the P o p i s h (1592) , by J e a n de L ' E s p i n e .  de  conscience  Transubstantlation  *Anon. trans., An excellent and learned treatise a p o s t a s l e . . . D i r e c t e d a g a i n s t the a p o s t a t e s i n the churches F r a n c e ( 1 5 8 7 ) , by J e a n de L ' E s p i n e .  of of  * , Apocalypsls. A b r i e f e and l e a r n e d commentarie vpon t h e R e u e l a t i o n o f s a i n t John ( 1 5 9 2 ) , by F r a n c o i s Du J o n , the E l d e r . * Viret.  ,  The  christian  disputations  (1579),  by  Pierre  , J o b e x p o u n d e d . . . p a r t l y i n a commentary, p a r t l y i n a paraphrase. ( E c c l e s i a s t e s . With a paraphrase.) (1589?), by Theodore Beza. , instruction Beza.  A l i t t l e catechlsme. that touching c h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n  i s to say, (1578), by  a short Theodore  * , A moste p l a i n e and p r o f i t a b l e e x p o s i t i o n o f the Booke o f E s t e r , d e l i u e r e d i n 26. sermons ( 1 5 9 9 ) , by P i e r r e Merlin. , A sermon o f t h e famous and g o d l y learned conteinlng an exhortation to suffer persecution f o l l o w i n g e J e s u s C h r i s t e ( 1 5 8 1 ) , by J e a n C a l v i n .  -89-  man, for  * , discourse of those which b r o k e n God's  A t r e a t i e o f t h e good and e u e l l tounge . . . w i t h a t h e p u n i s h m e n t w h i c h t h e L o r d h a t h shewed on a l through swearing and p e r l u r l n g themselues. haue commandments ( 1 5 9 4 ? ) , b y J e a n de M a r c o n v i l l e .  , A treatise Augustine Marlorat.  of the s i n against  the h o l y ghost  (1570),  , Two t r e a t i s e s of the Lord h i s h o l l e supper: one i n s t r v c t l n g t h e s e r v a n t s o f God how t h i n g s s h o u l d be p r e p a r e d when they come to the Holy supper:the other setting forth...the whole v s e o f t h e Supper: whereunto also i s adiovned a . . . t r e a t i s e of the t r u e s a c r i f i c e and t r u e priest (1584), by Yves Rouspeau. *B., R., trans., A t r e a t i s e of the p r e p a r a t i o n of the Holy Supper...Also a d i a l o g u e c o n t a i n i n g the p r l n c i p a l l points whiche thev that r e c e l u e t h e Supper uoght t o knowe a n d u n d e r s t a n d ( 1 5 7 0 ? ) , b y Yves R o u s p e a u . *Barbar, Thomas, trans. The A p o c a l v p s . o r r e u e l a t i o n o f S. John. With a methodicall exposition vpon euery chapter ( 1 5 9 6 ) , b y F r a n c o i s Du J o n , t h e E l d e r . *Baxter, Nathaniel, trans., The lectures or daily sermons ...vpon t h e prophet Jonas...Whereunto i s annexed an exposition o f t h e two l a s t e p i s t l e s o f S. John...by A. M a r l o r a t (1578), by Jean C a l v i n . *Becket, Nicholas, trans., A p r e p a r a t i o n t o t h e most h o l l e ministrle: wherein I s s e t downe t h e t r u e means t o be well p r e p a r e d t o t h e same ( 1 5 9 3 ) , b y P i e r r e G e r a r d . *Becket, W i l l i a m , t r a n s . , A commentarle...vppon to t h e P h i l i p p l a n s (1584), by Jean C a l v i n .  the e p i s t l e  +Brooke, John, t r a n s . , A b r i e f e and c l e a r e c o n f e s s i o n of the c h r i s t i a n fayth. C o n t e l n l n g an h u n d r e t h a r t i c l e s , a f t e r the reede o f t h e a p o s t l e s (1579), by Jean G a m i e r . * religion + Pierre  , A christian ( 1 5 7 8 ) , anon.  , A faithful Viret.  d i s c o u r s e vpon and f a m i l i a r  certeine  exposition  * , Of t h e two w o o n d e r f u l p o p i s h m o n s t e r s , a popish asse and o f a monkish c a l f e (1579), Melanchthon.  povnts  of  (1582),  by  t o wvt, o f by Philipp  * , The s t a f f e o f C h r i s t i a n f a i t h g a t h e r e d o u t o f t h e works o f a n c i e n t d o c t o r s ( 1 5 7 7 ) , Guy de B r e s .  -90-  +Chapelin, G e o r g e , t r a n s . , The c h r i s t i a n combat: wherein Is set downe t h a t d a u n g e r o u s f i g h t w h e r e u n t o a l l t h e e l e c t are c a l l e d ( 1 5 9 1 ) , by P i e r r e M e r l i n . *Chauncie, instruction  William, trans., A f a m i l i a r and vpon t h e L o r d e s p r a y e r ( 1 5 8 2 ) , anon.  * , The w o r l d e p o s s e s s e d three dialogues. [The s e c o n d p a r t ( 1 5 8 3 ) , by P i e r r e V i r e t .  christian  with deuils. conteinving t r a n s l a t e d by T. Stocker]  Coxe, John, t r a n s . , An e x h o r t a t i o n t o t h e m i n i s t e r s o f Gods word t h a t t h e v s e t a s i d e a l l m u t u a l 1 d i s c o r d , and p r e a c h e t h e o n e l v t r u e f a i t h i n C h r i s t e ( 1 5 7 5 ) , by h e i n r i c h B u l l i n g e r . * , Q u e s t i o n s o f R e l i g i o n c a s t a b r o a d i n H e l v e t i a by t h e a d v e r s a r i e s o f t h e same: and a n s w e r e d by M. H. Bullinger o f Z v r i c h : r e d u c e d i n t o 17. common p l a c e s ( 1 5 7 2 ) , by H e i n r i c h Bullinger. , A t r e a t i s e touching the word of God written against the t r a d i t i o n s o f men...where a l s o i s s e t downe a true method t o d i s p u t e d l u l n e l y and s c h o o l l i k e (158 3 ) , by A n t o i n e de C h a n d i e u . +D., J., t r a n s . , A c a t h o l l k e and e c c l e s l a s t l c a l l e x p o s i t i o n v p p o n t h e e p i s t l e o f S. Jude ( 1 5 8 4 ) , by A u g u s t i n e M a r l o r a t . *Egerton, S t e p h e n , t r a n s . , A l e a r n e d and e x c e l l e n t containing a l l the p r l n c l p a l l grounds of C h r i s t i a n ( 1 5 9 6 ) , by M a t h i e u V i r e l . +Eliot, J o h n , t r a n s . . The s l c k e mans c o m f o r t ( 1 5 9 0 ) , by J e a n de L ' E s p i n e .  treatise, religion  , against  death  *Fetherstone, Christopher, trans., An a b r i d g e m e n t of the I n s t i t u t i o n of c h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n . Wherein b r i e f e aunsweres to the o b j e c t i o n s o f t h e a d u e r s a r l e s a r e s e t downe. By W. Lawne ( 1 5 8 5 / 1 5 8 6 ? ) , by J e a n C a l v i n . * , The brvtlsh thunderbolt: or rather feeble f i e r - f l a s h o f Pope S l x t v s t h e f l f t , a g a i n s t H e n r i e the most e x c e l l e n t K i n g o f N a v a r r e ( 1 5 8 6 ) , by F r a n c o i s Hotman. * , A C h r i s t i a n and wholesome A d m o n i t i o n , d i r e c t e d to t h e Frenchmen, w h i c h a r e r e u o l t e d f r o m t h e t r u e r e l i g i o n , and haue p o l l u t e d t h e m s e l u e s w i t h t h e s u p e r s t i t i o n and idolatrle o f P o p e r i e ( 1 5 8 7 ) , anon. * , The ( 1 5 8 5 ) , by J e a n  commentaries...vpon Calvin.  the A c t e s of the  + , Haggeus the prophet. Where-unto is commentary, g a t h e r e d o u t o f J . J . G r y n e u s ( 1 5 8 6 ) . -91-  apostles added  a  +  The  Lamentations  of Jeremie  (1587).  +Field, John, t r a n s . , C h r i s t i a n m e d i t a t i o n s , vpon t h e s l x t , twentle, flue. thlrtle, two and thlrtle psalmes...And moreouer, a m e d i t a t i o n vpon t h e 137. p s a l m e by P. Pllesson ( 1 5 8 7 ? ) , by P h i l i p p e de Mornay. , ( 1 5 7 7 ) , by  An excellent treatise J e a n de L ' E s p i n e .  * , An e x p o s i t i o n of the ( 1 5 8 0 ) , by O l e v i a n C a s p a r .  of  Christian  svmbole  rlghteovsnes  of  the  apostles  * , Foure sermons... e n t r e a t i n g of matters profitable f o r our t i m e , with a b r i e f e exposition of L X X X V I I . p s a l m e ( 1 5 7 9 ) , by J e a n C a l v i n .  very the  , The judgement o f a most r e u e r e n d and learned man from beyond the seas, c o n c e r n i n g a t h r e e f o l d o r d e r of b i s h o p s ( c . 1 5 8 5 ) , by T h e o d o r e B e z a . * , The other parte of christian a n s w e a r e s ( 1 5 8 0 ) , by T h e o d o r e B e z a .  guestlons  and  * , T h l r t e e n e sermons... e n t r e a t i n g of the free e l e c t i o n o f God i n J a c o b , and o f r e p r o b a t i o n i n E s a u ( 1 5 7 9 ) , by J e a n C a l v i n . * Mornay.  ,  A treatise  of the Church  (1579),  by  Philippe  + , Two T r e a t i s e s : t h e f i r s t o f c h r i s t i a n f r i e n d t h e s e c o n d e o f d i c e p l a v ( 1 5 7 9 ) , by Lambert Daneau. Fulke, William, trans., A commentarle...vpon J o s u e ( 1 5 7 8 ) , by J e a n C a l v i n . *G., T., t r a n s . , A defence of the o l d e , of christlanltie, a g a i n s t the l e s u l t e s Boquinus. *Gilby, Danlell  Anthony, ( 1 5 7 0 ) , by  , A paraphrastical e x p l a n a t i o n or fourteene holle psalmes chosen out of the Testament ( 1 5 8 1 ) , by T h e o d o r e B e z a .  sonnes  , The of Iacob  testaments of the ( 1 5 7 4 ) , anon. -92-  truelv  ship:  t h e booke  of  and t r u e p r o f e s s i o n (1581), by Petrus  trans.. Commentaries...vpon Jean C a l v i n .  * , The p s a l m e s o f D a u l d , ( 1 5 8 0 ) , by T h e o d o r e B e z a .  de  the  prophet  opening o l d and  of new  opened and e x p l a i n e d  twelue  patriarches,  the  * , The t r e a s u r e o f t r u e t h , t o u c h i n g t h e g r o u n d e worke of man his saluation. and c h i e f e s t pointes of christian r e l i g i o n . . . W h e r e u n t o a r e a d d e d , t h e s e g o d l y t r e a t v s e s . One bv J . Foxe. The o t h e r o f A. G v l b l e ( 1 5 7 6 ) , by T h e o d o r e B e z a *Golburne, John, trans., A d i s c o u r s e vpon t h e c a t e l o g u e o f doctors of God's church... together with the continuall succession o f t h e t r u e c h u r c h o f God v n t l l l t h e veare 1565 ( 1 5 9 8 ) , by Simon de Voyon. +Golding, Arthur, trans.. The recelue by J e s u s C h r i s t c r u c l f v e d Pag1la. * by  Theodore  A booke o f c h r i s t i a n Beza.  beneflte that christians (1573), by A n t o n i o dalla  g u e s t l o n s and  answers  * A c o n f u t a t i o n of the popes b u l l a g a i n s t g u e e n e o f E n g l a n d ( 1 5 7 2 ) , by H e i n r i c h B u l l i n g e r . * vsuallv  (1572),  Elizabeth  , A p o s t l l l or e x p o s i t i o n of the Gospels that are r e d I n t h e c h u r c h o f God ( 1 5 7 0 ) , by N i e l s Hemmingsen.  * , The p s a l m e s o f D a u l d and c o m m e n t a r i e s ( 1 5 7 1 ) , by J e a n C a l v i n . * Marlorat.  The  reuelatlon  of S a i n c t  others.  John  With  ( 1 5 7 4 ) , by  Sermons.. .vpon t h e booke o f J o b  Augustine  * Calvin.  ,  * preached  The s e r m o n s . . . v p o n D e u t e r o n o m l e : g a t h e r e d as them (bv D. R a g u e n l e r l ( 1 5 8 3 ) , by J e a n C a l v i n .  *_ , The ( 1 5 7 7 ) , by J e a n  sermons...vpon Calvin.  * , Sermons...vpon ( 1 5 7 4 ) , by J e a n C a l v i n . , Theodore * against * Religion  A tragedie Beza.  of  the e p i s t l e  the  epistle  Abrahams  (1574),  Caluins  too the to  the  sacrafice  by  Jean he  Ephesians Galathians  (1577),  by  , The W a r f a r e o f C h r i s t i a n s : C o n c e r n i n g t h e c o n f l i c t t h e F l e s h e . t h e W o r l d , and t h e D e u l l l ( 1 5 7 6 ) , anon. , A woorke c o n c e r n i n g t h e t r e w n e s s e ( 1 5 8 7 ) , by P h i l i p p e de Mornay.  of the  Christian  +H., F., t r a n s . , An e p i s t l e t o t h e f a i t h f u l l , necessary for a l l t h e c h i l d r e n o f God: e s p e c i a l l y In t h e s e d a n g e r o u s daves ( 1 5 8 2 ) , by P i e r r e V i r e t . -93-  *H., W., trans., s a i n t John. and Calvin. *Harmar, John, ( 1 5 7 9 ) , by J e a n  The c o m m e n t a r i e s . . . v p o n t h e f i r s t e p i s t l e t o vpon t h e e p i s t l e o f Jude ( c . 1 5 8 0 ) , by Jean t r a n s . , Sermons...vpon t h e X. Calvin.  * , Sermons vpon t h e t h r e e first C a n t i c l e s o f C a n t i c l e s ( 1 5 8 7 ) , by T h e o d o r e  commandementes  chapters Beza.  of  the  H e r b e r t , Mary, t h e C o u n t e s s e o f Pembroke, t r a n s . , A d i s c o u r s e of l i f e and d e a t h ( 1 5 9 2 ) , by P h i l i p p e de Mornay. *Holland, Henry, trans., Aphorlsmes of c h r i s t i a n or, a verle compendious abridgement of J. Institutions, set forth by J . P i s c a t o r (1596), Calvin.  religion: Calulns by Jean  *Hopkinson, William, trans., An e u l d e n t d i s p l a y o f p r a c t i s e s , o r p a t c h e d P e l a g l a n l s m e ( 1 5 7 8 ) , by T h e o d o r e *May, Edward, t r a n s . , The c o m p e n d i o u s l y a b r i d g e d bv  i n s t i t u t i o n s of c h r i s t i a n E. B u n n l e ( 1 5 8 0 ) , by J e a n  *Pagit, Eusebius, trans., A harmonle vpon e u a n g e l l s t s . With the commentarle of J. Caluine by C. F e t h e r s t o n e ) ( 1 5 8 4 ) .  popish Beza.  religion, Calvin.  the three (translated  * P h i s t o n , W i l l i a m , t r a n s . , A t e s t l m o n l e of the t r v e church of G o d . . . W h e r e i n i s m a n i f e s t l y shewed how t h a t God h a t h In asll e v e s r a v s e d vp some...which haue b e e n f a i t h f u l l s t e w a r d s , and t r u e d i s p e n c e r s o f h i s w i l l ( 1 5 8 0 ? ) , by Simon de V o y o n . *Prowse, Anne, t r a n s . , Of t h e markes o f t h e c h i l d r e n o f God, and o f t h e i r c o m f o r t s i n a f f l i c t i o n s ( 1 5 9 0 ) , by J e a n T a f f i n . * R o s d e l l , C h r i s t o p h e r , t r a n s . , A c o m m e n t a r l e vpon t o t h e Romanes ( 1 5 8 3 ) , by J e a n C a l v i n .  the  epistle  S., H., trans., The c o n s o l a t i o n o f the soule, being an assurance of the f o r g l u e n e s s e of slnnes, with the most notable p r o m i s e s o f God c o n t e l n e d In H o l y S c r i p t u r e (1590), by J e a n C h a s s a n i o n ( L a C h a s s e ) . *Shute, law and  John, t r a n s . , A c h r i s t i a n i n s t r u c t i o n , t h e g o s p e l l ( 1 5 7 3 ) , by P i e r r e V i r e t .  c o n t e v n i n g the  * , The p r i n c i p a l p o i n t s w h i c h a r e a t controuersie, concerning t h e h o l y s u p p e r and (1579) , by P i e r r e V i r e t .  this dave in of the masse  + , A sweete c o n s o l a t i o n f o r a l l s u c h a s a r e a f f l i c t e d and oppressed w i t h t h e w e i g h t and b u r d e n of their sinnes (1580) , a n o n . -94-  +Smyth, Edward, trans., A very excellent and learned d i s c o u r s e , t o u c h i n g t h e t r a n a u l l i t l e o f t h e minde (159 2 ) , by J e a n de L ' E s p i n e . *Stocker, ceremonies,  Thomas, trans., The cauteles, canon, o f t h e p o p i s h masse ( 1 5 8 4 ) , by P i e r r e V i r e t .  and  * , Dluers sermons... c o n c e r n i n g the diuinitie. humanitie, and n a t i u l t l e o f C h r l s t e : as a l s o touching h i s p a s s i o n ( 1 5 8 1 ) , by J e a n C a l v i n . * soule  , An e x c e l l e n t t r e a t i s e ( 1 5 8 1 ) , by J e a n C a l v i n .  of the i m m o r t a l v t i e of  + godly  , The h o l y l o u e o f h e a u e n l v wisdome. W i t h t r e a t i s e s ( 1 5 9 4 ) , by G u i l l a u m e Du V a i r .  the  many o t h e r  + , The l a m e n t a t i o n s and h o l y m o u r n i n g s o f t h e J e r e m i a h , w i t h a p a r a p h r a s e ( 1 5 8 7 ? ) , anon.  prophet  * are  of  Sorbone  * , The second part of the demonlacke c o n t e i n i n g t h r e e d i a l o g u e s ( 1 5 8 3 ) , by P i e r r e V i r e t .  worlde,  * by  (1592),  , The p o p e s c a n o n s : w h e r e i n t h e m a s t e r s c o n f u t e d ( 1 5 8 5 ? ) , by T h e o d o r e B e z a .  Jean  * hundreth  , Sermons...on t h e h l s t o r l e Calvin.  of M e l c h l s e d e c h  , Two and t w e n t l e s e r m o n s . . . 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A verie profitable and the k e e p i n g of the sabboth  -95-  necessarie (1584), by  discourse Zacharias  *Stubbs, John, trans., Christian psalmes (1582), by Theodore Beza. * , The (1574) , a n o n .  life  o f f t h e 70.  meditations  archbishop  vpon  off  eight  Canterbury  *Swan, John, trans., A treatise , touching A n t i - C h r i s t . . . p u b l i s h e d f o r the encouragement of those which i o v n e i n t h e I n t e n d e d a c t i o n s a g a i n s t t h e S p a n i a r d ( 1 5 8 9 ) , by Lambert Daneau. *Tomson, Testament  Laurence, t r a n s . , The B i b l e [Geneua, i n L. Tomson's r e v i s i o n ] ( 1 5 8 7 ) .  * , The New T e s t a m e n t . . . t r a n s l a t e d o u t Theod. Beza. 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(1575) , by A u g u s t i n e M a r l o r a t .  the and John  * , A c a t h o l i k e and e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e x p o s i t i o n after S. Marke and Luke. G a t h e r e d o u t o f t h e s i n g u l a r and a p p r o u e d d e u i n e s . . . ( 1 5 8 3 ) , by A u g u s t i n e M a r l o r a t . * , A c a t h o l i k e and e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e x p o s i t i o n o f t h e h o l y G o s p e l l a f t e r S. Mathewe ( 1 5 7 0 ) , by A u g u s t i n e M a r l o r a t . * of  Iohn  * called  , A c a t h o l i k e e x p o s i t i o n vpon t h e twoo l a s t ( 1 5 7 8 ) , by A u g u s t i n e M a r l o r a t . , A Genesis  * , Corinthians  commentarle...vpon the f i r s t ( 1 5 7 8 ) , by J e a n C a l v i n .  A c o m m e n t a r l e vpon S. Paules ( 1 5 7 7 ) , by J e a n C a l v i n .  -96-  booke epistles  epistles of  Moses to  the  * prophet Brentlus  , Newes from N l n l v e t o England, brought Jonas: p l a l n l v e p u b l i s h e d In the e x p o s i t i o n (1570), by Johann Brenz.  *Vaux, Robert, trans., A commentarle...vpon the C o l o s s l a n s ( 1 5 8 1 ) , b y J e a n C a l v i n . * , A commentarle...vpon (1581), by Jean C a l v i n .  the e p i s t l e  bv the of J .  the e p i s t l e to  to the Galathians  + , A d i s c o u e r i e and b a t t e r i e of t h e g r e a t sort of vnwritten traditions: otherwise an e x a m i n a t i o n of the counsell of Trent, t o u c h i n g t h e decree- o f t r a d i t i o n s ( 1 5 8 2 ) , anon. * of  , A sermon made I n l a t l n e i n O x e n f o r d e . K. Edwarde t h e s i x t ( 1 5 8 1 ? ) , b y J o h n J e w e l .  i n the raigne  *W. A., t r a n s . , A c h r i s t i a n a n d g o d l y v i e w o f d e a t h a n d a s a l s o o f human a c t i o n s ( 1 5 9 3 ) , b y P h i l i p p e de Mornay.  life,  Watkinson, W i l l i a m , t r a n s . , The M o s t e e x c e l l e n t M e d i t a t i o n s vppon t h e x x x l l . P s a l m e ( 1 5 7 9 ) , b y A n t o i n e de C h a n d i e u . + , A n o t a b l e d i s c o u r s e of the happiness of t h i s our a g e , a n d o f t h e I n g r a t i t u d e o f men t o God ( 1 5 7 8 ) , b y J o h a n n e s Rivius. Whittingham, William, trans., A b r l e f e d e c l a r a t i o n of the chiefe povntes of c h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n , s e t f o o r t h i n a table (1575?), by Theodore Beza. +Wilcox, Thomas, trans., The a r t o r s k l l , well and f r u l t e f u l l l e t o h e a r e t h e h o l y sermons o f t h e c h u r c h (1599), by W i l h e l m Z e p p e r . * , A catechlsme and p l a v n e Instruction for a l l chlldren...to communicate i n t h e H o l y Supper ... a c c o r d i n g t o the o r d e r o f t h e F r e n c h e c h u r c h e o f London ( 1 5 8 0 ) , by Robert Le Macon. * the  , A discourse. of the t r u e and v i s i b l e c a t h o l i g u e churche (1582?), by Theodore Beza. ,  M e d i t a t i o n s upon p s a l .  101 ( 1 5 9 9 ) ,  markes  of  b y P h i l i p p e de  Mornay. * , T h r e e p r o p o s i t i o n s o r s p e e c h e s (on J o h n i . 1 - 5 : G a l . ii.11-16 a n d 15-21.) To w h i c h i s a d d e d , an e x p o s i t i o n vpon p a r t e o f t h e c a t e c h l s m e (1580), by Jean C a l v i n . ,  A treatise  of the Church  Loque. -97-  (1581),  by  Bertrand  de  * , Two v e r y l e r n e d sermons o f M. B e z a . togither with a s h o r t sum o f t h e s a c r a m e n t o f t h e L o r d e s s u p p e r . . . w h e r e u n t o i s a d d e d a t r e a t i s e o f t h e L o r d s s u p p e r . Bv T.W. (158 8 ) , by Theodore Beza.  -98-  

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