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Causes of Han-Hui conflicts in the 1840's in Yongchang, Western Yunnan Fox, Pamela 1989

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CAUSES OF HAN-HUI CONFLICTS IN THE 1840'S IN YONGCHANG, WESTERN YUNNAN BY PAMELA FOX B.A., The University of British Columbia, 1984 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTERS OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of History) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May 1989 © Pamela Fox, 1989 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of WVS'TO^V The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 DE-6(3/81) ii ABSTRACT Muslim unrest and rebellion plagued nineteenth century China. Conflicts between Han Chinese and Hui (Muslims) in Yunnan flared up continuously throughout the first half of the nineteenth century culminating in the eighteen year Panthay Rebellion (1855-1873). The purpose of this study Is to ascertain the causes of Han-Hui conflicts in one prefecture, Yongchang, in western Yunnan in the 1840's. Examination of the events in Yongchang during this period does provide as well, some Insight Into the causes of Han-Hui conflicts in Yunnan In general. Documents written by Qing officials, at the central, provincial and local levels, as well as local histories and a few documents written by Muslims, are examined in order to determine the causative factors of Han-Hui conflicts In Yongchang. The findings of this thesis suggest that deteriorating socioeconomic conditions in Yunnan and China, combined with the frontier environment and the mentality that it created exacerbated existing ethnic tensions between Han and Hui to the point of open conflict. Yongchang during the 1840's was a hotbed of ethnic strife. Ethnic tensions between Han and Hui existed In Yongchang, and Yunnan, long before the nineteenth century. Religious and social customs set the Muslim population apart from the Han. There were distinct differences between Han and Hui and both groups wished to maintain strong ethnic boundaries. Under relatively prosperous economic conditions Han and Hui appear to have been able to co-exist with only minor hostilities. During the nineteenth century, however, the economy of Yunnan was in a state of decline and the population, due to immigration from China proper, had almost tripled. The resources of Yunnan were overtaxed. Competition for jobs and arable land became intense. Secret societies, banditry and anti-Muslim militia flourished in Yongchang. These conditions, coupled with a weak and inefficient local government, exacerbated already tense relations between Han and Hui. Open conflict was the result. i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT Ii LIST OF TABLES V LIST OF MAPS Vi ABBREVIATIONS USED IN NOTES vii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT viii CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION 1 The setting: geography, Yongchang prefecture, the physical isolation of Yunnan, natural resources, crops, land tenure and water control, commerce. The ethnic dimension: the Hul as an ethno-rellgious group, minority policies of the Qlng CHAPTER II: ISLAM IN YUNNAN 20 Islam In China from the Tang to the Ming a short history: entry of Islam, Islam in the Yuan dynasty, Islam in the Ming dynasty, origin of the term Huihui. Islam and its followers in Yunnan during the late Qlng: the Muslim population of Yunnan, Muslim communities, physical characteristics and language, occupations, Muslim standard of living, religious customs, proselytlsm, religious and social organization, the strength of faith of Muslims In Yunnan, tensions between Han and Hui iv CHAPTER III: SOCIOECONOMIC CONDITIONS IN YUNNAN 51 The economy, Immigration, Immigrant profile, . huiguan, secret societies, banditry, the local government and gentry, local militia, the problem of opium in western Yunnan CHAPTER IV: THE EVENTS IN YONGCHANG 1840-1848 82 CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION 112 GLOSSARY 120 BIBLIOGRAPHY 129 APPENDIX I 144 V LIST OF TABLES TABLE I: Muslim Unrest In China From The Tang To Qing Dynasties 50 vi LIST OF MAPS MAPI: Yunnan Province 18 MAP 2: Yunnan Province - Place Names In 19 In Chinese Characters vii ABBREVIATIONS HMQY - Hulmln Qiyi SL-D6 - DaQing Llchao Shllu - Daoguang reign XBH - Xiangbahui YCFZ - Yongchang Fuzhi YNHMQY - Yunnan Huimin Qiyi Shiliao XYNTZ6 - Xu Yunnan Tongzhigao viii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Many people have helped me throughout my thesis years. I would especially like to thank my family who gave generously of their time and were untiring in their moral support. I am deeply grateful to Allan who not only offered emotional support, but also spent many nights working on "Hal". I am indebted to Paulette, Ramona, Tina, Lanyan, and Zhao Yu all of whom provided invaluable assistance both while I was in Vancouver and after I had moved to Toronto. My thanks also go to my advisor, Ed Wickberg, for his guidance and suggestions. 1 ONE INTRODUCTION Late Qlng China was plagued by social unrest. Throughout the nineteenth century major rebellions threatened the Qlng dynasty and external pressures severely weakened the powers of the emperor. Large scale Muslim rebellions raged in Northwest and Southwest China, the areas with the largest Muslim populations, during the latter years of the eighteenth and the bulk of the nineteenth centuries. During the first half of the nineteenth century inter-ethnic strife between Han Chinese and Muslims (Hui) in Yunnan proliferated, increasing in both intensity and scale. The eighteen year Panthay Rebellion (1855-1873)1 marked the culmination of these conflicts. The study of Han-Hui hostilities during these years has received little scholarly attention. A dearth of Muslim sources creates difficulties for scholars researching these topics. Most available research materials have a strong Han gentry bias. One source, Bai Shouyl's Huimin Qiyi. furnishes documents written by Muslims and thus provides some counterbalance to Han biased documents. The paucity of Muslim sources should not negate the study of Han-Hui conflicts in the nineteenth century. Available sources do provide insights into Han-Hui relationships, albeit primarily from the Han point of view, and although they by no means furnish as complete a picture as would a more balanced combination of 1 The origin of the term Panthay is uncertain. It was completely unknown to Muslims in Yunnan and is thought to be either a corruption of the Burmese word Puthee, meaning Muslim in Burmese, or a Burmanized form of Pan-si, the name Yunnan Muslims apparently used for themselves. (I have not found Pan-si used in any of my research.) Another theory suggests that Panthay comes from the Chinese bendi meaning native or local. See John Anderson, "A Report on the Expedition to West Yunan via Bhamo", Edinburgh Review, v.87, 1873, p.299. Albert Fytche, Burma Past and Present, v.I, (London: Keagan & Paul, 1878), p.297. A.C. Hanna, "The Panthays of Yunnan", Moslem World, v.21, 1931, p.69. 2 sources, they are adequate to determine the causes of Han-Hui unrest in nineteenth century Yunnan. This study examines Han-Hui conflicts in one prefecture in western Yunnan - Yongchang2 - from 1840-1848 in an attempt to determine the causes of the unrest. Numerous conflicts between Han and Hui flared up throughout Yunnan during the first half of the nineteenth century.3 Yongchang prefecture was chosen for this study because it was in the region of Yunnan that had the largest Muslim population and because it was one of the few areas in the province during the first half of the nineteenth century that had a prolonged period of unrest. Yongchang saw some of the most violent fighting in the province prior to the Panthay Rebellion, including one of the largest Muslim massacres. Yongchang was also chosen because it was not a major mining area in the province. Conflicts therefore were not directly linked to competition over mineral wealth, as was the case in many Han-Hui conflicts in Yunnan. The absence of the volatility characteristic of most mining communities and direct economic competition over mining rights as factors in the unrest allows for the possibility of a more accurate determination of the Importance of ethnic strife and religion as causative factors in Han-Hui hostilities. There are a variety of possible causes of Han-Hui unrest in nineteenth century Yunnan. Raphael Israeli, in Muslims In China. A Study In Cultural  Confrontation, points to Islam itself as the main cause of Muslim unrest throughout China. Israeli contends that "Islam is, by definition, potentially rebellious and secessionist...". He argues that Islamic tenets such as the Jihad (holy war) lent a quality of "temporariness and inf inality" to Muslim communities 2 The main city In Yongchang prefecture is referred to as Yongchang cheng or Baoshan xian. For the purposes of this paper Yongchang will be used when referring to the prefecture and Baoshan will be used when referring to the city. In the People's Republic of China the city is known as Baoshan. See P. J. Geelan & D. C. Twitchett eds., Time Atlas of China. (London: Time Books, 1974), p.94. 3 See Appendix 1 3 in China. He further asserts that dynastic decline, in conjunction with the increasing oppression of Muslims under the Qlng, brought to the forefront the insurrectionary and secessionist nature of Islam and Muslims rebelled.4 Israeli, however, provides no documented proof that the Panthay Rebellion or any other Muslim rebellion was in fact a holy war. Surviving documents written by Du Wenxiu, the leader of the Panthay Rebellion, and other major Muslim figures do not mention that Muslims were fighting a Jihad. Israeli's "secessionist" thesis also fails to account for the tremendous ethnic diversity among Muslim communities and the variety of ways, religious and non-religious, in which Hui communities define themselves as Muslim.5 Works published out of the People's Republic of China, not surprisingly, emphasize social class over religious factors when discussing the causes of Hui unrest. Bai Shouyi, the most renowned Muslim historian in China, contends that Muslim unrest was "...a form of carrying out the class struggle of the Chinese people..." against the feudal oppression of Manchu rule. Bai and other Chinese historians, such as Lin Gan, argue that Muslim unrest was neither a religious movement nor a struggle between Han and Hui. The rebellions are viewed by these historians as part of the anti-QIng struggles of all the Chinese people.6 More recent works by P.R.C. historians continue to stress the Importance of class struggle in Muslim unrest, and as In the 1950's, attempt to show that Han and Hui were not always adversaries, but frequently joined together to fight 4 Raphael Israeli, Muslim in China. A Study in Cultural Confrontation. (London: Curzon Press, 1978), pp.58, 122 & 205. 5 See Alice Bihyun Gan Wei, "The Moslem Rebellion in Yunnan, 1855-1873", unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. of Chicago, 1974. For a discussion of how different communities define themselves as Muslim see Dru Gladney, "QingZhen: A Study of Ethnoreligious Identity Among Hui Muslim Communities in China", unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. of Washington, 1987b. The importance of Islamic tenets in Han-Hui conflicts Is discussed further in chapter 2. 6 Bai Shouyi ed, HuiminQiyi, v. 1, (Shanghai: 1953), pp. 1 -2. Lin Gan, Qingdal  HuiminQiyi. (Shanghai: Xinzhi shi Chubanshe, 1957), pp.37-38. 4 oppressive feudal landlords. A recent trend in the literature is to show the broadly based character of Muslim unrest in the Southwest. New works argue that minority groups, such as the Yi and Bai, joined the Hui and Han in the fight against Manchu oppression and feudalism.7 Research does not support the thesis that class struggle played a role in Muslim unrest in Yongchang in the 1840's. Muslims in the area did not organize along class lines and were rarely joined by Han Chinese. Muslims did fight on the side of government forces, aiding in the suppression of the Hui both In Yongchang and during the Panthay Rebellion. While there Is some indication that other minorities did join the Hui during the Panthay Rebellion, this does not appear to have been the case in Yongchang.8 Other possible causes of Han-Hui conflicts exist: ethnic conflict between Han and Hui, increasing population pressures in China and the massive influx of immigrants to Yunnan, the frontier environment extant in Yongchang and the mentality that it created among the inhabitants, the gradual decline of the Qing dynasty and its local ramifications (such as governmental abuses and the maladministration of the province), and the decline of the economy in Yunnan due to the collapse of the mining industry. Some scholars argue that economic conflicts took precedence over religious differences in Han-Hui hostilities. Others contend that religious 7 Bai Shouyi, Zhongguo Yisilan Shi Cungao, (Ningxia: Ningxia Chubanshe, 1983), p.52. Wu Qianjiu, "Yunnan Huizu de Lishi he Xianzhuang", Yunnan Lishi Yanjiusuo  J1kanr n.1, 1982, (Kunming: 1982), pp. 165-67. Jlng Dexln ed., YNHMQYf pp. 1-4. Lin Quan, "Du Wenxlu Chuql Huodong de Xingzhi Ji Qiyi Zhijie Yuanyi", Huizu Shi Lunji. (Ningxia: Ningxia Renmin Chubanshe, 1984), pp.366-70. Also see Dru Oladney, "The Panthay Rebellion in Nineteenth Century Yunnan: Ethno-religious Factionalism and the Hui Muslims", Paper presented at the Northwest Regional Seminar on East Asia, Univ. of Washington, April 9, 1983, pp. 12-13. 8 See chapter 4 for an example of Muslims fighting with the Han against the Hui. Also see Wei's dissertation. 5 differences and economic decline combined to cause Han-Hui conflict. 9 In this thesis I argue that deteriorating socioeconomic conditions In nineteenth century Yunnan, and China in general, combined with the frontier environment in the region, exacerbated existing tensions between Han and Hui in Yongchang to the point of open conflict. In an attempt to prove my thesis I will examine the social, economic and political conditions in Yunnan and, more specifically, in Yongchang, in the nineteenth century. I will begin by a discussion of the local setting and the Qing government's policy towards Muslims. I will then examine the nature of Islam in China, with an emphasis on Hui organization and Hui interaction with the Han in Yongchang. In the third chapter I will look at the socioeconomic conditions in nineteenth century Yunnan and their effect on Han-Hui relations. Finally, chapter four will provide a narrative of the events in Yongchang from 1840-1848. THE SETTING Yunnan is a southwestern frontier province. It is far removed from the centre of China and, in the nineteenth century, travel to the province and within it was extremely difficult. Even the name, meaning "South of the Clouds", implies a sense of distance. Yunnan is described by the Chinese as a poor and 9 See Wang Shuhuai, Xian-Tong Yunnan Huimin Shibian. (Taibei: Academia Sinica, 1968), pp.29-33. Wei, pp.30, 80-82, & 253-54. Raymond Wei-hsing Chu, "Causes of the Moslem Rebellion in Yunnan, 1856-1873", unpublished M.A. thesis, Univ. of Toronto, 1967, pp. 1 -2 & 92. 6 barren province. A scholar from Sichuan wrote, Yunnan has barren soil and the people are poor. That by which taxes are paid and entered does not match the Southeast. One large xian's harvest has bitterness and is in want. [Yunnan] constantly depends on other provinces for support and causes the state to be poor. 1 0 The poverty of inhabitants in Yunnan and aspects of the physical setting, such as the terrain of the region and the isolation of Yongchang from the provincial capital and from the rest of China, especially Beijing, were conducive to the proliferation of social unrest. GEOGRAPHY During the nineteenth century Yunnan was the second largest province in China, with a total area of 396,745 square kilometres. 1 1 It was bordered on the north by Sichuan and Tibet, on the east by Guizhou and Guangxi, on the south by Vietnam and Laos and on the west by Burma. The topography of Yunnan is hard and unremitting. The province is part of the Yunnan-Guizhou plateau; a spur of the great Tibetan plateau. High and rugged surfaces cut by deep valleys and crossed by towering mountains make up most of the region. Little of the area is actually level-Scattered throughout the tableland are high plains, small in area and separated by mountains.12 Gazetteers describe Yunnan as full of impassable mountains and narrow passes. JOXYNTZG. v.4. j.35, p.2381. Yunnan was subsidized by other areas in China. It received military provisions from neighbouring provinces, especially Hunan and Guangxi. James Lee, "China's Southwestern Frontier: State Policy and Economic Development", unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. of Chicago, 1982a, p. 198. A copy of the dissertation was kindly provided by the author. On taxation also see Wang Yeh-chien, Land Taxation in Imperial China. 1750-1911. (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press, 1973). 1 1 Lee, 1982a, p. 129. 1 2 George Cressev. China's Geographic Foundations. A Survey of the Land and Its  People. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1934), p.369. 7 The province's high north-south mountain ranges are separated by deep inaccessible valleys. The average elevation of Yunnan is six thousand feet. Yunnan is also a province furrowed by swiftly flowing, wild rivers. 1 3 These rivers are full of rapids and boulders and are almost totally unnavigable.14 Rivers in the province often created precipitous gorges up to two thousand feet deep, and could form serious barriers to land travel. Suspension bridges are built over most of the major rivers in western Yunnan. The destruction of a bridge could cut off an area in western Yunnan, or make travel to it even more difficult. Rebels in the 1840's did destroy suspension bridges in Yongchang, effectively protecting certain regions, albeit temporarily, from government forces. 1 5 Officials in the province reported that local geographical conditions frequently inhibited government forces from adequately protecting western Yunnan. He Changling, Governor-General of Yun-Gui 1845-1846, memorialized the emperor that Muslim "rebels" often "relied on the terrain" when resisting government forces. Mengting zhai, a Muslim stronghold throughout the 1840's, was surrounded by narrow passes and thick bamboo groves making it practically 13 XYNTZG. v.2, j. 10, p. 1142 & v.3, j. 19, p. 1596. Cressey, p.48. "Topography of Yunnan; Its Divisions, Area, Rivers, Mountains, Towns, Productions, and etc.", Chinese Repository, v. 18, 1849, p.589. The Chinese names of the two major rivers in Yongchang are indicative of their wild nature. The Sal ween is known to the Chinese as tfie Nujiang (angry river), the Mekong as the Lancangjiang (billowing cold river). 1 4 H.R. Davies. Yun-nan. The Link Between India and the Yangtze. (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1909), p.2. Sun Ching-chih ed. Economic Geography of  Southwest China. (New York: Crowell, Collier and Macmillan, 1959), pp.475-76. 1 5 YCFZ. j. 13, p.69a. Davies, pp. 52 & 54. Lin Zexu, "Yun-Gui Zougao", HMQY. v. 1, j .3, p.210. See Chapter 4 for examples. 8 Impregnable. Lin Zexu, Governor-General from 1847-1849, also noted the problems encountered by troops due to the treacherous nature of the terrain. 1 6 YONGCHANG PREFECTURE During the Qing, Yongchang prefecture, situated in the most western reaches of the province, was a frontier region. It was comprised of four districts: Baoshan xian (the leading city of the prefecture and where the fiercest fighting occurred), Yongping xian, Longling ting and Tengyue ting. Villages in Yunnan are generally set in oval plains surrounded by mountains. Baoshan is located at the foot of a small knoll which forms the end of a spur running down from the mountains to the west. It is located on a "fine level plain" and Its "mountains and rivers are fine looking".1 7 The town of Baoshan was divided into five districts: the east, south, west, north and middle. Outside the city walls it was divided into seven shao (outposts): four northern and three southern shao. The Han residents of the four northern shao were the most active in in the events of 1845-1848.1 8 THE PHYSICAL ISOLATION OF YUNNAN During the nineteenth century Yunnan was one of the most remote provinces in China. The physical isolation of Yongchang from the provincial capital compounded with the isolation of Yunnan in general from Beijing played a role In the breakdown of law and order in the 1840's. The great distances made it very difficult to strictly govern the area and maintain control. He Changllng noted in a memorial that Yongchang's remoteness from the provincial capital often placed the region beyond the reach of the law. Nineteen 1 6 He Changllng, "Nai'anZouyi Cungao", HMQY. v. 1, j . 11, pp.95 & 97, j . 12, p. 126. Lin Zexu, j.3, pp.209-10. Sheng Yuhua, "Yongchang Han-Hui Hudou An Jielue", YNHMQY. p.68. 1 7 YCFZ, j-8, p.47b. 1 8 Li Yuanbing, "Yongchangfu Baoshanxlan Han-Hui Hudou Ji Du Wenxiu Shixing Geming Zhi Yuanqi", HMQY. v. 1, p.3. See maps 1 and 2 for the location of Baoshan and other towns in western Yunnan. 9 days travelling time separated Baoshan from Kunming1 9 and the distance frequently weakened governmental controls in the region. Lin Zexu recorded in 1848 that the "chief cause" of unrest in Yongchang in the 1840's was its distance from the provincial capital. Officials in Kunming also enjoyed a degree of autonomy from the centre. Travelling time between Kunming and Beijing was forty days and this distance worked to diminish the centre's control over the province.2 0 The distance separating these areas meant that Kunming and Beijing frequently were unaware of the actual conditions in Yongchang, or in the province itself. This led to the formulation of inappropriate policies by provincial officials when dealing with Yongchang and by the central government when dealing with the province as a whole. This in turn fostered discontent among local inhabitants, especially the Hui, and increased the incidence of violence. 2 1 NATURAL RESOURCES Yunnan is a province with a wealth of mineral and metallic resources. Mining formed an important part of the provincial economy. The richest mining areas were located in the southwest and northeast sections of the province 2 2 At different times Yongchang had several operating gold, silver, copper and iron mines, but by 1800 most had shut down and there were few working mines in the 1 9 Kunming in the nineteenth century was known as Yunnanfu. The twentieth century name will be used throughout this work. 2 ° He, j. 11, pp.96-97. Lin Zexu, j. 1, p. 192, j.3, pp.210-11. 2 1 See Chapter 4 for examples of this. Mary Wright. The Last Stand of Chinese  Conservatism. The T'ung-chih Restoration. 1862-1874. (Stanford: Stanford Univ. Press, 1957), p. 113. 2 2 Cressey, p.381. See Chapter 3 for details on the mining industry in the nineteenth century. 10 prefecture. There are also many salt wells in Yunnan, though none are found in Yongchang.23 CROPS. LAND TENURE AND WATER CONTROL Crops in Yunnan differed from locality to locality due to climatic variations. Growing seasons also varied. In Yongchang the main crops were rice (the chief summer crop on the Yongchang plain), wheat, opium and beans. There was no double cropping of rice. After the rice was harvested winter crops of opium, wheat and beans were planted. Sugar cane was also grown in some areas of Yongchang 2 4 There are no reliable data for tenancy rates in Yunnan during the 1800's. Dwight Perkins records that some areas of the province had high tenancy rates while others had low rates. (He does not specify which areas.) In 1912 twenty-nine per cent of all farming families in Yunnan were tenants. The influx of immigrants into the province in the nineteenth century 2 5 may have led to an increase in tenancy rates. In Guizhou many immigrants did not have the means to purchase land and became squatters or tenants instead 2 6 Perkins records that percentage or shared rent was the dominant system of rental agreements in Yunnan in 1800. From available Information tenancy rates do not seem to have been particularly high in Yunnan 2 7 Water control was fairly well developed in Yongchang, especially on the Yongchang plain. The Yongchang Gazetteer records numerous irrigation systems 2 3 Y£FZ j.22, p.105a-b. 2 4 YCFZ, j.22, pp. 102-104. Sun, pp.513-19 & 629. Davies, pp.57 & 130. Davenport, "Report by Mr. Davenport Upon the Trading Capabilities of the Country Traversed by the Yunnan Mission", British Parliamentary Papers, v.84, 1877, p. 16. 2 5 This is discussed in Chapter 3. 2 6 Robert Jenks, "The Miao Rebellion, 1854-1872: Insurgency and Social Disorder in Kweichow During the Taiping Era", unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Harvard Univ., 1985, p.26. 2 7 Dwight Perkins. Agricultural Development in China. 1368-1968. (Chicago: Aldine, 1969), pp. 19, 105-06 & 249. 1 1 on the plain and water ditches and dikes in other areas of the prefecture. A stream runs through the plain and reservoirs collected the water from this and other streams for irrigation purposes.2 8 Travellers to the area after 1850 remarked on the irrigation systems in the prefecture, although by that time many of them had fallen into disrepair 2 9 COMMERCE Prior to the outbreak of the Panthay Rebellion, Baoshan, a thriving commercial city, was a major centre of trade in western Yunnan. Overland trade routes between Yunnan and Burma, Thailand and Laos date as far back as the Tang dynasty.3 0 The topography of Yunnan is not conducive to easy travelling and one would expect that this would severely hinder commercial trading activities. This, however, was not the case. Long distance trade flourished in the region. Trade westward from Dali and Baoshan to Bhamo was important, but trading in the province was primarily channelled southward through Simao to northern Thailand and Laos. Most of trade to the south, according to Andrew Forbes, originated in western Yunnan and traders from this region frequently plied the southern routes. Trade was also conducted between Yunnan and Lhasa. Long distance mule caravans were the dominant form for transporting goods.3 1 Traders on the Bhamo-Dali and southern routes imported cotton, ivory, wax, and rhinoceros and deer horns. Of all the goods, cotton was the most Important. During and after the Panthay Rebellion, when trading between Burma and Yunnan had all but ceased, cotton was still transported. Traders in western 2 8 YCFL j. 14, p.72a. Perkins, p.343. Sun, pp.515-16. 2 9 Edward Colborne Baber, "Report by Mr. Baber on the Route Followed by Mr. Grosvenor's Mission Between Tali-Fu and Momein", British Parliamentary Papers. v.75, 1878, p. 18. Davenport, p.23. Davies, p.57. 3 0 Andrew D.W. Forbes, "The Cfn-Ho (Yunnanese Chinese) Caravan Trade with North Thailand During the Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries", Journal of Asian History, v.21.1. 1987, pp.3-6. 3 1 Forbes, 1987, pp.7 & 14. "Religious Intelligence", Chinese Repository, v.5, 1833, p.287. 12 Yunnan exported goods from all over Yunnan. Raw and manufactured silks, tea (especially Pu'er tea from southern Yunnan one of the most famous teas of the province), gold leaf (for gilding pagodas), silver, copper, orpiment, tin, medicinal herbs and opium were exported.3 2 All trade, however, did not flow to the west or south. Yongchang also exported metals, betel nut, Chinese chess pieces and opium to the interior of China. Chinese chess pieces, according to a Yunnan gazetteer, were a specialty of Yongchang 3 3 Opium was a major source of revenue for Yunnan in the nineteenth century. The Yongchang Gazetteer compiled in 1885 records opium as one of the major products of the prefecture. Travellers in the late 1800's remarked on the "astonishing" number of poppy fields in Yunnan and it was estimated in 1923 that poppies occupied two-thirds of the cultivated land during the winter season. It is not clear when Yunnan began exporting opium to the interior. Considering the 3 2 YCFZ, J.22, p. 104a. XYNTZG, v.5, j.8, p.3388. Fytche, p.96. Anderson, 1873, p.302. F.S.A. Bourne, "Report by Mr. F.S.A. Bourne of a Journey in South-Western China", British Parliamentary Papers, v.48, 1888, p. 11. Sladen, "Copy Of Mr. Sladen's Report on the Bhamo Route", British Parliamentary Papers, v.51, 1871, p.72. Davenport, p.23. "Topography of Yunnan...", p.597. Davies, p.66. Forbes, 1987, pp. 19-22. 3 3 XMLZa v.5, J.58, p.3399. YJZZ, j.22, p. 104a. Davenport, p.24. 1 3 magnitude of opium production in the province though, it is probable that opium was exported to the interior during the Daoguang era (1821-1851 ). 3 4 THE ETHNIC DIMENSION THE HUI AS AN ETHNQ-RELI6I0US GROUP Although the Hul in China are frequently referred to as a religious minority, they are also an ethnic minority. 3 5 Defining the Hui in China using traditional ethnic models which rely on cultural traits or focus on socioeconomic and political circumstances to delineate ethnic identity presents problems. The Hui do not fit the criteria of these models. Dru Gladney in his excellent study of ethno-religious identity among Muslim communities argues that the fact that Hui do not meet the criteria of existing models does not imply that the Hui are not an ethnic group 3 6 Gladney discusses the shortcomings of existing models when applied to the Hui. He suggests that paradigms which rely on common cultural traits -language, religion, dress, locality and other customs - to define an ethnic group run into problems when dealing with the similarities between Hui and Han and the diversity within the Hui themselves. Hui under the cultural trait analysis are not an ethnic group as they do not share a common language nor live in a common locality. The circumstantial or functional approach views ethnicity as "...a 3 4 YCFJL j.22, p. 104b. Baber, p. 1. Alexander Hosie, "Her Majesty's Charge d'Affaires at Peking Forwarding a Report by Mr. Hosie, Student Interpreter in the China Consular Service, of a Journey Through the Provinces of Kueichow and Yunnan", British Parliamentary Papers, v.75, 1883, p. 17. Cressey, p.375. 3 5 In this paper ethnicity refers to a "...self-defined group of people who share certain traditions or ways of doing things that are not held by other groups In the surrounding social milieu." The people who constitute this group identify themselves and/or are identified by others as belonging to the group. Mark J. Hudson, "Religion and Ethnicity in Chinese Islam", Journal: Institute of Muslim  Minority Affairs, v.8.1, 1987, p. 156. 3 6 Dru Gladney, "O/ngZhen: A Study of Ethnorellgious Identity Among Hui Muslim Communities in China", unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. of Washington, 1987b. 14 dependent variable created and controlled by a combination of external interests and strategies." The problem with this approach when applied to the Hui is that it fails to explain why the Hui during the late Qlng did not renounce their ethno-religlous identity despite ethnic persecution. It also does not account for the unity of Hui which links Muslim communities across diverse religious, class, economic and geographical l ines. 3 7 Gladney argues that the identity of the Hui is embedded in their belief that they are one people and that they are descendants of foreign Muslims. Islam does not always have to be of central Importance to Hui identity. Gladney's study of four Muslim communities in China shows "...that expressions of Hui identity and understandings of Qing Zhen^ will be altered and adapted to each specific context." Gladney therefore provides a new model for the understanding of the Hui as an ethnic group: It is only through a dialectical approach to Hui ethnicity that we can begin to go beyond categorization of the Hui as a static, bound unit. Hui ethnicity may be best understood as a process of dynamic dialectical interaction between cultural ideas and social contexts 3 9 Muslims in Yongchang in the nineteenth century were united as a group and viewed themselves as distinct from the Han because of their descent from foreign Muslim ancestors and because they followed the Islamic religion. This would indicate that the Hui in Yongchang are an ethno-religious group. 4 0 3 7 Gladney, 1987b, pp.39-46. 3 8 Mandarin Chinese term which refers to the religion of the Hui people. It's literal meaning is "Purity and Truth". 3 9 Gladney, 1987b, pp.320 & 334 4 0 Gladney, 1987b, pp.320-333 15 MINORITY POLICIES QF THE Q1NQ Yunnan Is populated by more than seventeen different minority groups. Minorities have often been treated harshly under Chinese rule and this was the case in Yunnan in the nineteenth century. Under the Qing dynasty most minority groups were governed by Indirect rule. The tusi (native chief) system, applied in the frontier regions of south and southwest China, absorbed leaders of minority groups into the government hierarchy at lower levels. Western Yunnan had many areas administered under the tusi system. This meant that Chinese officials did not have direct control over certain areas in the region. Muslims in Yunnan were not incorporated Into the tusi system. This probably was due to the fact that the Hui had no single territory of their own in Yunnan, but rather were dispersed throughout the entire province.4' Islam during the Qing was not considered a heterodox religion. Muslims were considered the "children of the Middle Kingdom" and Islam was viewed by successive emperors as willing to accommodate with Confucianism. The attitudes expressed in the edicts of Manchu emperors, however, indicate an ambivalence towards Islam and its adherents in China. Edicts often commended certain traits of Muslims, but always ordered that Muslims must obey the law. By the late Qing, imperial edicts increasingly directed officials to draw distinctions between good and evil Hui, ordering that only those who transgressed the law were to be punished.4 2 Although laws limiting the freedom of worship of Muslims were periodically invoked from the Yongzheng reign onwards (1723-1736), adherents 4' For a more detailed discussion of the tuci system see Robert Jenks, "The Miao Rebellion, 1854-1872: Insurgency and Social Disorder in Kweichow During the Taiplng Era", unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Harvard Univ., 1985, pp.49-53. 4 2 Kdi 33.6.7 in Donald Daniel Leslie, Islam in Traditional China. A Short History  to 1800. (Canberra: Canberra College of Advanced Education, 1986), p. 122. Leslie, p.106. Israeli, 1978, p.70. 16 of Islam were treated with what Donald Leslie terms a "benevolent" approach. In an edict in 1729 the emperor wrote, As long as they [Muslims] peacefully keep their customs they are not to be compared with traitors, lawbreakers or those seeking to delude and lead people astray. In 1730 the emperor again noted that, ...Since I came to the throne I have looked upon them [Muslims] with the same benevolence as upon others...There is no lack among them of loyal servants of the country. 4 3 Under the Qianlong emperor (1736-1796) specific laws were introduced dealing solely with Muslims. According to Donald Leslie, the Hui were now "lumped" together as a specific group and were dealt with within that context. 4 4 Qlng policies continued to condemn the indiscriminate persecution of the Hui in the Daoguang era. By the first half of the nineteenth century, however, the weakened central government was unable to strictly enforce the policy of distinguishing between good and evil and the policy was not always implemented at the local level. During this period local officials increasingly were able to vent their hostilities towards Hui populations 4 5 The Qing government's policy probably was shaped by necessity, rather than by tolerance towards Muslims. The strength of Muslim communities, the fact that Muslims were dispersed throughout all of China and their great numbers must have influenced Qing policy. The Qing government, perhaps recognizing the difficulties of attempting to oppress all Muslims, did not advocate the indiscriminate repression of Muslims throughout China 4 6 4 3 Yongzheng. 7.47 & Yongzheng 8.5.10 in Lesl ie, pp. 123-24 4 4 Leslie, p. 126. 4 5 This is more fully discussed in Chapter 3. 4 6 J. J. M. de Groot, Sectarianism and Religious Persecution in China. A Page in  the History of Religions. (Taibei: Literature House, 1963 reprint), pp.316-22. Leslie, pp. 122-28. Israeli, 1978, p. 138. MAPS MAPS 1 and 2 are of Yunnan province. They are taken from Alice Wei, Moslem Rebellion in Yunnan, 1855-1873", n.p. The scale is approximate. 18 19 2 0 TWO ISLAM IN YUNNAN ISLAM IN CHINA FROM THE TANG TO THE MING:  A SHORT HISTORY THE ENTRY OF ISLAM Islam was brought to China during the Tang dynasty along both the Silk and Spice Routes. Persian soldiers, artisans and traders entered China through the Northwest and Arab merchants reached Guangzhou and other south China ports by way of the South China Sea. The first direct contact between the rulers of China and the Arabian Empire and Islam occurred in 651 A.D. when an embassy from Caliph Othman was received at Chang'an by Emperor Gaozong (649-763). Arabs also came to China during the An Lushan Rebellion (755-763). Uighurs and Arabs from Central Asia helped to suppress the rebellion and restore the Tang court. Many soldiers subsequently settled in north China, taking Chinese wives and raising families.1 Arab traders who first came to the south in the seventh century settled in Guangzhou and Yangzhou and In later years settled in Quanzhou and Hangzhou.2 During the Tang and Song dynasties China's connection with Arabia was basically trade related.3 Muslims lived in separate quarters in southern port cities and strictly followed the Islamic way of life. They enjoyed some extra-territorial ' OuYang Xiu, "Dashi - Arabia", New Tang History. (Shanghai: Commercial Press, 1936), 221b/1 lb-12, as cited in Hajji Yusuf Chang, "The Hui (Muslim) Minority in China: An^Hlstorical Overview", Journal: Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs, v. 8.1, 1987, pp.62-3. F.S. Drake, "Mohammedanism in The T'ang Dynasty", Monumenta Serica. v.8, 1943, pp.7, 10, 11, 17 & 23. Isaac Mason, "How Islam Entered China", Moslem World, v. 19, 1929, pp.249 & 262. 2 Bai Shouyi, "Huihui Minzu de Xingcheng he Chubu Fazhan", in Huizu Shi Lunji. (Ningxia: Ningxia Renmin Chubanshe, 1984), p. 16. Fu Tongxian, Zhongguo Huijiao  Shi. (Taibei: Cathay Publishing, 1969), p.89. 3 Bai Shouyi, Zhongguo Ylsllan Shi Cungao. (Ningxia: Ningxia Chubanshe, 1983), p.21. 21 privileges and this facilitated their seclusion from the general population. By the end of the Tang dynasty many Arabs had left Guangzhou due to adverse living and trading conditions. By the twelfth century though, Muslims had built public burial grounds and large mosques in both Guangzhou and Quanzhou4 By the late Tang dynasty popular sentiment was also mounting against Muslims (mainly Turks and Ulghurs) in the north. In 836 "all private intercourse with the various colored peoples was prohibited" and in 971 many Muslims in north China returned home along the silk road.5 Chinese Muslims have their own legends concerning the entry of Islam to China. One legend claims that Muslims came to China during the Sui dynasty. This is improbable as it was before Muhammed claimed to have received his commission from Allah. The Huihui Yuanlai. an apocryphal narrative of the introduction of Islam to China dated 1754, records that Muslims entered China in 628. According to this work, the Chinese emperor sent an envoy to Arabia in the year 628. The envoy returned to China accompanied by a Muslim holy man and three thousand followers who formed the foundation of the Muslim population in China. Doubt is shed on the veracity of the date 628 by Donald Leslie, who points 4 Bai, p. 16. Chan Wing-tsit, Religious Trends In Modern China. (New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1953), p.206. 5 Fu, p. J12. Mason, 1929, pp.249 & 262. Wang Shuhuai, Xian-Tong Yunnan Huimin  Shibian. (Taibel: Academla Sinica, 1968), p. 10. Cefu Yuangui (1642 ed.), 99, 26b in Edward Schafer, The Golden Peaches of Samarkand. (Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1963), p.20. Raphael Israeli, "Islam in the Chinese Environment", Contributions to Asian Studies, v. 17 1982, p.79. Yunnansheng Lishi  Yanjiu Suo YanjiuJikan. n.l, 1982, (Kunming: 1982), p.l 19. 22 out that the Hijra was only in 622. Neither legend is corroborated by historical records.6 ISLAM IN THE YUAN DYNASTY Research indicates that Muslims who came to China between the seventh and twelfth centuries are not the ancestors of present day Hui populations in the Southwest and throughout most of the interior. Muslims in these areas are primarily descendants of Middle Eastern and Central Asian soldiers who entered the Middle Kingdom under Mongol rule. Khubilai Khaghan conquered China in the thirteenth century and brought with him a large Muslim contingent. Under the Mongols, Islam put down permanent roots in China, establishing political and demographic importance.7 The character of Muslim settlement in China was established at this time. Muslims settled throughout the entire empire and mosques were built in numerous cities and towns. (During the Song dynasty only four cities had mosques.) The Mingshi Xiyu Chuan records that "During the Yuan Muslims were everywhere under heaven [in China]."8 The previous dominance of Muslim communities in southern China shifted to the north and west during the Yuan and Ming dynasties. The last major migration of Muslims to China occurred under Mongol rule 9 Some scholars suggest that Muslims first entered and settled in Yunnan in 801. Hajji Yusuf Chang argues that twenty thousand Arab soldiers, hired by Tibetans as mercenaries to fight the Kingdom of Nanchao in Yunnan, settled in the 6 Mason, 1929, p.252. Isaac Mason, "Chinese Mohamedanlsm", Chinese Recorder. v.10, 1919, p. 177. E. Bretschnelder, "Chinese Medieval Notices on Islam", Moslem  World, v.19, 1929, p.54. Donald Daniel Leslie, Islam in Traditional China. A Short  History to 1800. (Canberra: Canberra College of Advanced Education, 1986), p.75. See Leslie pp.70-78 for a discussion of Muslim legends concerning the entry of Islam into China. 7 Bai, 1983, p.23. Bai, 1984, pp. 17 & 20. 8 Bai, 1983, p.22. 9 Leslie, pp.40-42, 79 & 82. 23 province, took Chinese wives and served in military and domestic services. Lack of firm evidence casts doubt on this assertion. 1 0 Most scholarly works agree that Islam spread to Yunnan in the thirteenth century after the area was conquered by Khubllai Khaghan in 1252-53. Khubllai established military colonies in Yunnan and encouraged high ranking Muslim officials to move to the area, offering them money, land and other incentives. In 1274 a Central Asian Muslim, Saiyad Ajall Shams al-Din (Sai Dlanchi), was chosen to govern the province. Yunnan was the only region in China ruled by a Muslim. This was probably due to the fact that Yunnan was a major thoroughfare for trade with Burma and Muslims were the most important merchants in the empire. Muslims greatly improved the conditions of trade in Yunnan during the Yuan. Although mosques were built in Kunming and Dali under Governor Saiyad Ajall, the Islamic faith was not imposed on the inhabitants of Yunnan. Despite this, a large Muslim community developed in the province. Yunnan at this time was sparsely populated. Most of the inhabitants were non-Han and It is thought that many aboriginal peoples converted to Islam rather than Buddhism.11 During the Yuan dynasty Muslim soldiers frequently became farmers either on tuntian or in garrisons. Tuntian settlements were most concentrated in Shaanxi and Yunnan, but also were established in northern Gansu, the Ningxia area and in present day Hebel and Shandong. In Yunnan there was a large concentration of soldier-farmers in Dali and Yongchang.12 During the Yuan dynasty, Muslims served as trade commissioners in the coastal cities of southeast China, directed the financial administration of the empire, staffed the Bureau of Astronomy at 1 0 Chang, p.65. See Leslie, p.52. 1 1 Morris Rossabi, "The Muslims in the Early Yuan Dynasty", in China Under  Mongol Rule. John Langlois jr. ed., (Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1981), pp. 274-91. Muslims in Yunnan agree that it was Saiyad who brought Islam to the area. See "The Moslems of Yunnan from D'Ollone and Others", Friends of Moslems. v.9.2, 1935, p.29. Yunnan Fuzhi. 1696 ed., 18, p.394 in Leslie, pp.52-53 & 80. 1 2 Bai, 1984,pp.20-21. 24 the imperial court and aided the Mongols in medical and pharmaceutical matters. Muslims also worked as merchants, artisans, tax collectors and usurers. 1 3 Many of the occupations held by Muslims placed them in the role of adversary to the Chinese and this was one cause of Han-Hui animosity. During the Yuan, Han Chinese increasingly viewed Muslims as oppressors. Muslims lived In special sections of cities, separated from the Chinese. They often spoke Chinese, but retained their native tongues: Arabic and Persian. 1 4 The Mongols were also anti-Muslim. Khubllal Khaghan prohibited circumcision and demanded that Muslims adopt the Mongol way of slaughtering animals, which was very different from the Islamic method. Both these edicts were serious transgressions of Islamic beliefs and practices. Political considerations more than a hatred of Islam appears to have prompted these repressive edicts. Morris Rossabi suggests that the Mongols used Muslims as scapegoats, hoping to direct Chinese animosity away from themselves. Ibn Battuta recorded in 1342 that great strife between Muslims and Chinese existed. At the turn of the thirteenth century essays and popular anecdotes satirizing the vulgarity, avarice and "strangeness" of Muslims began to appear. Chinese enmity seems to have stemmed from the Muslims' financial activities and political positions, rather than anti-Islamic sentiments. 1 5 Towards the end of the Yuan dynasty popular sentiment against Muslims was rife. By the early 1300's many anti-Muslim laws had been proclaimed. These laws were greatly resented by the Islamic population and in the fourteenth 1 3 Rossabi, 1981, pp.258-9. Bai, 1984, pp. 15-16 & 21. Bai, 1983, p.22. Leslie, pp.86-87. 1 4 Bai, 1984, pp.22-23. Leslie, p. 106. 1 5 Rossabi, 1981, pp.292-3. Ibn Battuta, Les Voyages d'lbn Batoutah. (Paris, 1922), trans. B.R. Sanguietti & C. Defremery, v.4, p.285 as cited by Raphael Israeli, Muslims in China. A .Study in Cultural Confrontation. (London: Curzon Press, 1978), p.21. Bai, 1983, p.24. Bai, 1984, pp.20-22. 25 century Muslim rebellions occurred. When the Yuan was overthrown, many Muslims lent support to the founder of the Ming dynasty.1 6 ISLAM IN THE Ml NO PYNA5TY Some Chinese Muslim writers refer to the Ming dynasty as the Golden Age of Islam. This was essentially because Ming emperors did not impose restrictions on Muslims or attempt to suppress the expression of Islamic beliefs. Bai Shouyi, however, points out that the picture is not so black and white. Although Muslims were allowed to practice their faith, there were attempts at the forced sinicization of Muslims. 1 7 During the Ming, the Hui retained essentially the same occupations as in the Yuan, but their numbers in the army and government dropped significantly and they were no longer employed as tax collectors or as financial administrators. In the early Ming they continued to work as astronomers and calendar makers, but were later replaced by the Jesuits. Muslim business activities prospered under the Ming and Emperor Xuanzong (1426-35) wrote that "Muslims are good at seeking profits." 1 8 Islamic centres in China continued to be in Gansu and Shaanxi, but Yunnan also had a substantial Muslim population. During this dynasty many new Hui villages were established in China. 1 9 Under the Ming, Muslims absorbed Han culture to a greater degree than in previous years. Chinese became the common language of the majority of Hui and 1 6 Leslie, pp.90-91. See Table I for a description of Muslim unrest in the fourteenth century. 1 7 Morris Rossabl, "Muslim and Central Asian Revolts", in From Ming to Ch'lng. Jonathan D. Spence & John F. Wills jr. eds., (New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1979), p. 181. Dawood CM. Ting, "Islamic Culture in China", in Islam The Straight Path.  Islam Interpreted bv Muslims. Kenneth W. Morgan ed., (New York: Ronald Press, 1958), pp.350-1. Bai. Zhongguo Huijiao Xiaoshi. (Chongqing: 1944), pp.27-28, as cited in Israeli, 1978, pp.29 & 130. Leslie, p. 114. Also see Bai, 1984, p.23. 1 8 Bai, 1984, p.23. Also see Bai, 1984, pp.23-24. Rossabi, 1981,p.295. Rossabi, 1979, p. 180. 1 9 Bai, 1984, pp.23-24. Leslie, p. 106. 26 many Muslims adopted Han surnames. As Raphael Israeli points out, in the late Ming "...one could indeed speak of 'Chinese Muslims' and no longer about 'Muslims in China'". 2 0 Chinese Muslims, despite this change, remained a distinct ethnic group within China and cannot be considered as merely "Chinese of the Islamic Faith". Chinese Muslims were distinguishable from Han Chinese by their religion and its cultural consequences in their lives, and by their origins. During the Ming, Muslims were more integrated and became more involved with Han Chinese. This led to Increased daily contact between Han and Hui and consequently frictions of a new kind arose 2 1 Muslims also participated in conflicts during the Ming dynasty. Incidents of Hui banditry and commercial disputes were reported from Turkestan to Shandong, but these most often were provoked by economic factors, not religious issues. It was not until the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries that Muslims became involved with other anti-regime dissident groups and subsequently in rebellion. Most of the uprisings occurred in Northwest China. Although Muslims, especially those In the Northwest, were involved In the Ming-Qing transition, all of them did not Initially support the Manchus. In 1646 Muslims In Gansu led a rebellion against the Qing which was not suppressed until 1649 2 2 ORIGIN OF THE TERM HUIHUI The origins of the term Huihui, Mandarin Chinese for "Muslim", are unclear. Arabs and Persians who entered China during the Tang and Song were called 2 0 Israeli, 1982, p.79. Fu, p.89. Bai, 1984, pp.25 & 26. 2 1 Leslie, pp. 105-06. Ting, p.349. 2 2 Rossabi, 1979, pp.171 &184-85. Raphael Israeli, "Muslims in China: Islam's Incompatibility with the Chinese Order", in Islam in Asia. Southeast and East  Asia, v.2. Raphael Israeli & Anthony H. Johns eds, (Boulder, Colorado: Westview, 1984), p.278. Lanny B. Fields, Tso Tsung-T'ang and the Muslims. Statecraft in  Northwest China. 1868-1880. (Kingston, Ont.: Limestone Press, 1978), p.7l. Hajji Yusuf Chang, "Muslim Minorities in China: An Historical Note", Journal:  Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs, v.3.2, 1981, p.33. Also see Table I. 27 Fankz In the Tang dynasty they were also referred to as Huihe, Huigu and Dashi fa2* and in the Song as Dashi Jiaodu. The latter two names identified the traders by their religious beliefs. In the Southern Song and more frequently in the Yuan, Muslims were referred to as HuihuL The origins of this term are not certain, but it Is thought to have come from Huihe, as the pronunciation Is very close. At this time the term Huihui Included the Muslims of Turkestan as well as in the rest of China. In the fourteenth century though, the term Weiwu (Ulghur) was sometimes used to distinguish Muslims living In Turkestan. Under the Qing dynasty and the Nationalist government Muslims were commonly known as Huihui, Huimin or Huizu. Since 1950, the term Huihui refers specifically to Chinese-speaking Muslims and not to the other nine Turkic-Altaic Muslim language groups. 2 4 ISLAM AND ITS FOLLOWERS IN YUNNAN DURING THE LATE QING:  THE MUSLIM POPULATION OF YUNNAN During the late Qing, Yunnan had a substantial Hui population. Muslims were most concentrated in the western region, but were settled throughout the entire province. Muslims in Yunnan, as in the rest of China, were not a homogeneous entity. The Hui population in the province can be divided into three distinct groups. Muslims of northeastern Yunnan are the descendants of Uighurs (and their Chinese wives), sent to Yunnan from 1312-1320 to farm and garrison the area. In 1313 five thousand Ulghur soldiers and some Han soldiers were sent 2 3 During this period Arabs were referred to as Dashi The addition of fa to this would appear to make it an expression referring to religion. 2 4 Bai Shouyi, Huihui Minzu Dixlnxing. (Shanghai: Dongfang Sushe Chuban, 1951), pp. 1-3. Ma Shouqian, "Yisilan zai Zhongguo Weishemo You Chengwei Huijiao huo Qing Zhenjiao?" in Huizu Shi Lunji. (Ningxia: Ningxia Renmin Chubanshe, 1984), pp. 153-54. Bai, 1983, p.21. Bai, 1984, pp. 15-17. Wang Shuhuai, p.1. Dru Gladney, "Muslim Tombs and Ethnic Folklore: Charters for Hui Identity", Journal  of Asian Studies, v.46.3, 1987a, p.495. 28 to the area to settle. 2 5 The majority of Hui communities in south and southeastern Yunnan developed in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. This area was settled by Muslims who had fled the Northwest, essentially Shaanxi and Gansu, because of rebellion or famine. They tended to centre around Un'an in the south 2 6 Muslims in western Yunnan were centred in and around Dali. They claimed descent from the soldiers of Khubilai Khaghan and Salyad Ajall Shams al-Din. Hui in Yunnan are essentially Sunni (orthodox) Musl ims 2 7 The Hui population in Yunnan during the nineteenth century then, was not a cohesive unit. Three distinct groups existed within the province and there seems to have been little affinity between them. Li Xlngyuan, Governor-General of Yun-Gui from 1846-1847, noted distinctions between the groups. He pointed out that the Hui in Yunnan were better off than those Muslims who had recently immigrated to the province, but that the latter were stronger and more unyielding than the former. The divisions existing between the different groups were patently obvious during the Panthay Rebellion. Muslims In Lin'an who were involved in the Shiyang incident in 1854 were led by Ma Rulong. Ma, during the Panthay Rebellion, refused to accept the authority of Du Wenxiu (from western Yunnan) in Dali and sided with Qing forces in 1862. According to Alice Wei, Muslims in the northeastern region remained "very much aloof" from Du 2 5 Yuanshi, j.lOO, 27a as cited in Alice Bihyun Gan Wei, "The Moslem Rebellion in Yunnan, 1855-1873", unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. of Chicago, 1974, p.7. 2 6 John Anderson, Mandalay to Momien. (London: Macmillan, 1876), pp.223-25. Bai, 1984, p.27. A.C. Hanna, "The Panthays in Yunnan", Moslem World, v.21, 1931, p.69. F.S.A. Bourne, "Report by Mr. F.S.A. Bourne of a Journey in South-Western China", British Parliamentary Papers, v.48, 1888, p. 11. 2 7 Andrew D.W. Forbes, "The' Cin-Ho' (Yunnanese Chinese) Muslims of North Thailand". Journal: Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs, v.7.1. 1986, p. 181. Wei, p.7. Bourne, p.11. 29 throughout the years of the rebellion. The Hui within Yunnan did not act as a single community.28 In the 1800's the distribution of Muslims in Yunnan was quite uneven. It is estimated that Muslims in western Yunnan accounted for approximately half of the entire Hui population in the province. Dali, Baoshan and Yunzhou were the most densely populated cities. The concentration of Hui in the west was primarily due to two factors: (1) the settlement of Muslim soldiers in the region during the Yuan dynasty and (2) the the fact that it was a major trading area. Memorials written by Governors-General from 1845-1863 estimate a ratio of 1:2 to 1:3 Hui to Han in Yunnan. This would place the population of Muslims at roughly two mill ion. 2 9 Muslims suffered severe losses during the Panthay Rebellion and by the turn of the century their numbers were estimated at between three hundred thousand and one million. The Hui population In Yongchang was practically decimated during the rebellion. 3 0 MUSLIM COMMUNITIES In the rural areas of Yunnan Muslims preferred to form their own communities and often did not live Intermixed with Han Chinese. Muslim villages were called Huizhaf or Huicun and existed throughout the Yunnan countryside. 2 8 Li Xingyuan, "Li Wengong Gong Zouyi", HMQY, v.1, j.14, PP- 160-168. Raymond Wei-hsing Chu, "Causes of the Moslem Rebellion in Yunnan, 1856-1873", unpublished M.A. thesis, Univ. of Toronto, 1967, p.37. Wei, p.8. 2 9 SeeR. Chu, pp. 12-13. 3 0 Marshall Broomhall, Islam In China. A Neglected Problem. (London: Morgan & Scott, 1910), p.207. Broomhall, "The Mohammedan Population of China", Moslem ^orld, v . l , 1911, pp.32-53. H.R. Davies. Yun-nan. The Link Between India and the  Yangtze. (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1909), pp.53-54 & 210. L.H. Gulick, "Notices of Recent Publications", Chinese Recorder, v. 13.6, 1880, p.474. Also see Georges Cordier, Les Musulmans du Yunnan. (Hanoi: 1927). Paul A. Contento, "Islam in Yunnan Today", Moslem World, v.30, 1940, p.292. Henri Marl Gustav D'Ollone, Recherches sur les Musulmans Chinois. (Paris: Leroux. 1914). 30 This was not unique to Yunnan.31 In larger centres such as towns and cities, Hui had to live intermixed with Chinese. Muslims, however, still formed distinct communities, living in their own area of a town or simply dominating certain streets. Once again this was not unique to Yunnan. Hui in other Chinese cities often formed their own communities. Muslim homes were architecturally the same as the Chinese and frequently the appearance of Arabic script, rather than Chinese characters, on or above the doors was the only distinguishing feature. Hui, due to the tightly knit nature of their communities, preferred to live with their own kind. Muslims and Han occasionally lived in intermixed neighbourhoods, but this usually occurred when the Muslim population was quite small. Hui therefore tended to isolate themselves, to a degree, from the Han community at large. Muslim communities in the rural areas of western Yunnan though, were often near communication lines such as trading routes and consequently they maintained certain relations with the Han 3 2 PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND LANGUAGE Muslims in Yunnan generally were similar in appearance to Han Chinese. Frequent intermarriage with the Han meant that Muslims in Yunnan by the nineteenth century no longer retained the features of their Mongol and Arabian ancestors. Some western travellers to the province claimed to notice a difference, but the majority of Westerners remarked that Muslims were indistinguishable from the Chinese. The main distinctions noted by Western 3 1 HeChangling, "Nal'an Zouyi Cungao", HMQY. v. I, j. 11, pp.96 & 100. Also see Raymond Joyce, "Visiting Moslems in Yunnan", Friends of Moslems, v. 143, 1940, p.40. Davies, p. 146. "Visiting Moslems in Yunnan". Chinese Recorder, v.71.11. 1940, p.726. Charles E. Hicks, "News From the Field", Friends of Moslems, v. 1.2, 1927, p.5. Francis C.K. Hsu. Under the Ancestors' Shadow. Chinese Culture and  Personality. (New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1948), p. 195. 3 2 He, j. 11, p.8. He, j. 12, pp.96,110-11 & 131. "The Chinese Moslems", Friends of  Moslems, v. 1.4, 1927, p.3. H. Muller," Mohamedan and Chinese Common Opinion", T'oung Pao. 2"d series v.29. 1932, pp.118-121. Bai, 1984, p. 17. Cordier, chap. 2. Broomhall, 1910, p.226. Also see D'Ollone. 3 1 travellers were that Muslims were taller and stronger than the Chinese. Some of the non-Han features noted in the Hui may have come from the aboriginal peoples who converted to Islam during the Yuan dynasty, as well as from their Mongol and Arabian ancestry. Hui wore Chinese dress and often followed the Chinese custom of binding the feet of baby girls. A small white or blue cap worn at prayer time and sometimes into battle was the only distinguishing factor in dress. 3 3 The native tongue of Muslims in Yunnan is Chinese. Many Muslims in nineteenth century Yunnan knew a few words In Arabic and all were given Arabic names along with their Chinese names, but Chinese was their spoken and written language.34 Physical appearance, dress and language then, rarely set Hu1 apart from Han. OCCUPATIONS Muslims in western Yunnan most commonly were merchants and traders. This is not surprising as Islam was disseminated along the trade routes of Asia and Africa by merchants and traders. Islam is frequently referred to as the "religion of commerce" and Muslims are commonly noted for their "marked affinity" for commerce. Yongchang was an important centre on the Burma-China trade route and many Hui in the prefecture specialized in long distance caravan trade with Tibet, Burma, the Shan states and northern southeast Asian countries. They worked as caravaners, muleteers and coolies on the trade routes. The prevalence of Muslims in this profession earned them the nickname mafu(horse grooms). Han and aborigines were involved 1n trade, but Muslims dominated the long distance caravan trade in western Yunnan. The Hui were important in the fur trade as well, often purchasing meat and hides from aboriginal minorities, such 3 3 Cordier, chap. 2. Anderson, 1876, pp.231-32. D'Ollone. Broomhall, 1910, p. 126. Bourne, p. 11. "Visiting Moslems in Yunnan", Chinese Recorder, p.726. Davies, p.53. Mason, 1929, p.249. Wang, p.30. Sheng Yuhua, "Yongchang Han-Hui Hudou An Jielue", YNHMQY. p.64. 3 4 Bai, 1984, p. 18. Fu, p.89. D'Ollone. W. B. Pettus, "Chinese Mohammedanism", Chinese Recorder, v.44.2, 1913, p.91. 32 as the Miao, to sell in urban centres. Muslims were also involved in animal husbandry and raising and trading beef, horses and sheep. 3 5 During the nineteenth century, the Hui in Yunnan were very active small businessmen and worked In a variety of businesses. Many were proprietors of inns, tea shops and restaurants. Dietary laws, which will be discussed later, prohibited the Hui from eating In places which did not prepare the food in the proper way or which served pork. A water pitcher, similar to those used in Muslim bath houses, was often placed on a shop's sign board to signify the purity and cleanliness of a Hui establishment and to assure the faithful that the food was prepared according to Islamic law. Food shops, such as butcher shops, sometimes placed QingZhen or Huihui on their sign boards to indicate that they were Muslim shops. Hui were also involved in the jewelry and jade business. These occupations were typical of Muslims throughout China 3 6 Both the Chinese and Westerners in Yunnan remarked on the commercial abilities of Muslims. He Changling and the Pali Gazetteer both mention the skillfulness of Hui businessmen 3 7 There are several possible reasons why Muslims tended to congregate in certain occupations. One Is that it Is natural for minority groups to band together In certain professions simply for reasons of security and cohesion. Raphael Israeli suggests that Muslims tended to 3 5 Broomhall, 1910, p.224. Albert Fytche. Burma Past and Present. (London: Keagan & Paul, 1878), v.2, p.97. Hanna, p.70. Bai, 1984, p.27. Archibald Ross Colquhoun, Across Chryse. Being the Narrative of a Journey of Exploration  Through the South China Border Lands from Canton to Mandalay. v.2, (London: William Clowes, 1833), p. 151. Norma Diamond, "The Miao and Poison: Interactions on China's Southwestern Frontier", Ethnology, v.27.1, 1988, p.20. Yunnansheng Lishi Yanjiusuo Yanjiu Jikan. n. 1. 1982, (Kunming: 1982), p. 123. Pettus, 1913, p.90. Forbes, 1986, pp. 174-5. D*01 lone. 3 6 Qlnding Pingding Huifei Fanglue. v.1. 1896, p.83. Martin Hartmann, "China", The Encyclopedia of Islam. (London: Leyden, 1913), p.850. W.B. Pettus, "Mohammedanism in Nanjing, Notes on a Winter's Reading. Observations and Conversations Among the Moslems", Chinese Recorder, v.39.7, 1908, p.398. Muller, p. 120. Bai, 1984, p. 19. Chan, p.208. Yunnansheng.... p. 124. 3 7 He, j. 12, p. 134. Dalixian Zhlgao. j . lQ .p .H . 33 monopolize certain areas, such as trade, to preserve their self-sufficiency. Israeli argues that if the Hui were less dependent on Chinese society, then it was less likely that the Chinese would interfere in Muslim affairs. 3 8 This argument does not necessarily hold true, as the Hui were dependent on Chinese markets for their basic needs. There is also no evidence which suggests that Muslims purposely monopolized certain professions for the express reason of remaining independent of the Chinese. One factor which may have limited Muslims In their choice of employment was the Islamic prohibition of the consumption of pork. The Chinese system of apprenticeship In certain trades required that apprentices live and eat in the employer's store. Pork Is a mainstay of the Chinese diet and therefore a Muslim would not have been able to eat in a Chinese home. This would have been a barrier to Hui who wished to work in trades which required an apprenticeship with a Han Chinese. Muslims living In rural areas also engaged in farming. (Original Muslim settlers often were farmers.) During the Qing, Muslims held fewer government positions than in previous dynasties, but Yunnan did have some Hui who were successful in the imperial examinations. According to the Yunnan Gazetteer. Muslim degree holders, preferring military to civil rank, frequently held the status of military juren in the province. Many Muslims joined the army and pursued military careers. 3 9 The tendency of Muslims to dominate certain occupations and to run their own restaurants and Inns limited interaction between Hui and Han. There were few occupations where Han and Hui worked together. 3 8 Israeli, 1978, pp.46 & 120. Hanna, pp.69-70. 3 9 Yunnansheng..., p. 122. Bai, 1984, pp.19 & 27. Yang l-fan, Islam in China, (Hong Kong: Union Press, 1957), p.6. Ting, p.354. Dalixian Zhigaor j.24, p.42. Yunnan  Tongzhi. j . 150, 1894, as cited in R. Chu, p.21. Also see R. Chu, p.21 for a listing of the number of jinshi and juren in Yunnan during the Qing dynasty. 34 The preponderance of Muslims working in the commercial sphere was a source of friction. According to Confucian dogma commerce created a class of social parasites and businessmen were at the low end of the Chinese social scale. Even if this had not been the case, the fact that Muslims were more successful businessmen than the Chinese made them conspicuous. He Changling wrote that, Han-Hui conflicts started a long time ago. This is because the Hui are more enduring and labour more diligently; a great many of them have amassed wealth. The Han are not good at business and the Hui consequently fleece and obtain heavy profits from the Han 4 0 Some Han obviously felt that the Muslims were doing well in business at the expense of the Chinese population. This would have been a source of friction between the two groups. MUSLIM STANDARD OF LIVING The paucity of Muslim documents from the 1800's makes it almost impossible to ascertain whether Muslims, on the whole, were better off than their Han counterparts. Chinese documents only provide data on one side of the issue. Regardless of the accuracy of Chinese accounts, however, the perceptions the Chinese had of Muslims are important. Many documents refer to the wealth of the Hui in Yunnan in the I800's. A censor memorialized the emperor in 1856 40 He, j . 12, p. 134 3 5 writing that, The area of Yunnan province Is vast and extensive. Han and Hui live together intermixed...The Han common people till the land for a living. The Hui are good at business and trading and are wealthier than the Han. Because of this, in Yongchang, the Hui are able to acquire the best lands.4! Muslims in Tengyue during the 1800's were also perceived as being the "richest people In town" 4 2 The perception of Muslims as wealthier than the Chinese must have aroused the envy of the Han. Muslims settled in western Yunnan prior to large scale Han settlement in the province and therefore would have had the choice of the best lands. Han Chinese did not start to move to Yunnan in large numbers until the Ming dynasty and most of them were relatively poor when they arrived. Hui, originally at least, would have been better off than the new arrivals. 4 3 This would have been a cause for envy which had the potential of escalating into open hostilities. RELIGIOUS CUSTOMS The religious customs of Muslims in Yunnan set them apart from the Han. The Hui followed many customs, such as the observation of Ramadan and use the Islamic calendar, that distinguished them from the Han. One of the most prominent distinctions was the Islamic dietary law which prohibited the consumption of pork, a staple meat in Yunnan for the Han, as it is in China in general. In rural areas the raising of pigs is a chief side occupation of the Han farmer and one Western traveller noted that "pigs were everywhere" in the province. This dietary law set Muslims apart from the Han and also limited social intercourse between the two groups. Taking meals with friends and 41 Qinding Pingding Huifei Fanglue. v. 1. 1896, pp.82-83. Israeli, 1978, p. 140. 4 2 Zao Kun, "Tengyue Duiuan Jishi", HMQY, v. 1, as cited in R. Chu, p.21. 4 3 Lee, 1982a, pp.92, 96, 130, 139, & 194. 36 associates formed an Important part of social relations in nineteenth century China. Chinese could not have Muslims to their homes for a meal, if they had wanted to, because they served pork. Practically every Han restaurant served pork and because of this Hui and Han often did not frequent the same restaurants. The fact that Han and Hui rarely dined together further increased the isolation of the two groups. Muslims in Yunnan appear to have adhered to this dietary law. One Christian missionary noted that "...the almost universal question a Moslem asks in first contact with a missionary is 'Do you eat pork?'" The answer had to be no if the missionary wished to make "headway" with a Muslim. Any establishment that served pork or did not prepare food according to Islamic laws was considered "unclean". Missionaries frequently noted the importance of a "clean kitchen" to a Muslim. This must have been a cause of friction between Han and Hui. Han Chinese would have been offended by the Muslim attitude that Han homes and restaurants were unclean and impure. 4 4 Muslims not only adhered to this dietary law, but also held In contempt those who consumed pork. Their opinion of those who eat pork can be seen in one account of the origin of Muslims in China. The legend goes that Muslims came to 4 4 Yunnansheng.... p. 140. Davies, p.313. H. French Ridley, "The Mohammedan and the Pig", Friends of Moslems, v. 14.3, 1940, p.47. "Some Problems of the Future", Friends of Moslems, v. 1.3, 1927, p.2. D'01 lone. 37 China to help suppress a rebellion, The rebellion was at an end and the foreign contingent [Muslims] left China, to return to its own country. Here, however, a difficulty arose. Their rulers refused them admittance and alleged as a cause for doing so, that It was against the constitution of the country to receive back men who had come into contact with pork-eating infidels. They had herded in fact with pigs and infidels, and could no longer be regarded as unpolluted subjects, or as fit members of a society which held pork in religious detestation. They returned therefore to China, and became permanent sojourners in a foreign land 4 5 Muslims clearly were contemptuous of those who ate pork, and in this legend held the Chinese responsible for the fact that their ancestors had been unable to return to their homeland. It is interesting to note that in this legend Muslims label themselves "sojourners". Islamic birth, marriage and burial ceremonies also set Hui apart from Han. Ahongs, Muslim religious leaders, were involved at births: reading prayers in Arabic and giving the child an Arabic name. They also presided over distinct marriage ceremonies. Muslim burial rituals also differed from the Han. When a Muslim died the ahong recited prayers in Arabic at the death bed. The corpse was then bathed, wrapped in shrouds, placed in a common coffin and carried to the grave site. The deceased was placed in the grave with its head to the north and its face towards Mecca. The coffin was then returned to the mosque. Chinese sometimes ridiculed the custom of re-using the coffin, claiming that Muslims did this because they were stingy. Muslims in China often had their own 4 5 Anderson, 1876, pp.456-57. 38 burial grounds, but Georges Cordier claimed that In Yunnan they did not have separate cemeteries. 4 6 One source indicates that the Hui in Baoshan did not strictly adhere to the Islamic ritual of burying the dead without a coffin. Lin Zexu noted that desecrated Hui tombs in Baoshan were restored by local officials In 1848. Lin recorded that new coffins were supplied for those corpses already buried in one. This was not uncommon. Hui frequently did not strictly adhere to all the tenets of Islam. 4 7 Muslims had different bathing practices from the Han. They did not bathe with the Chinese, but had their own bath houses which were attached to the mosque. Islamic ritual requires that the hands, feet and face be bathed and the mouth rinsed with water from pitchers in the bath house before prayer. Every Friday a full ablution, consisting of a shower, is supposed to be performed. Muslims were very proud of their cleanliness. D'Ollone wrote, however, that the Hui in Yunnan were irregular about their bathing practices. 4 8 Ancestor worship and the worship of idols was strictly forbidden by Islamic law. This was a major distinction between Han and Hui as ancestor worship Is an Important tenet of Confucianism. Muslims had little tolerance of "idolaters" and were often disrespectful of Chinese image worship. This was one source of Han-Hui enmity in Baoshan during the early 1840's.4 9 4 6 Broomhall, 1910, pp.229-30. Bai, 1984, p. 18. CF. Hogg, "Mahommedanism. A Review", Chinese Recorder, v.22.10, 1891, p.404. D'Ollone. It is Interesting to note that the Miao also did not bury their dead in coffins. See Diamond, p. 13. Cordier, chap. 4. 4 7 Lin Zexu, "Yun-Gui Zouyl", HMQY. v. 1, j. 10, p.248. 4 8 Elda Matson, "A Visit to the Hankow Mosques", Friends of Moslems, v.2.4, 1928, p.5. Pettus, 1908, p.398. D'Ollone. Isaac Mason, "Hints for Friends of Moslems", Friends of Moslems. v2.2, 1928, p. 13. Fu, p. 114. 4 9 Isaac Mason, 1919, p. 179. Israeli, 1978, pp. 17-18 & 20. Li Yuanbing, "Yongchangfu Baoshanxian Han-Hui Hudou Ji Du Wenxiu Shixing Geming Zhi Yuanqi", HMQY. v. 1. pp.3-4. 3 9 Islamic religious customs then, set Muslims distinctly apart from the Chinese and helped to isolate them socially from the Han population. Islamic dietary laws and bathing practices severely limited social contact between the two groups. He Changling memorialized the emperor that Han and Hui were "mutually suspicious" of each other. 5 0 Isolation or limited contact between different groups commonly leads to mistrust, suspicions and misconceptions. This can be a source of friction and conflict, as it was between Hui and Han. PROSELYTISli The Hui in Yunnan did not overtly proselytize. Muslims, unlike Christian missionaries, originally settled in the area as soldiers and merchants, not because of a missionary zeal. They essentially increased their numbers through intermarriage and the purchasing of Han children during times of famine, rather than by conversions. Israeli suggests that intermarriage was a covert form of missionary work. It is more probable, however, that it originated out of necessity. Hui men were probably forced to take Chinese wives because of a lack of eligible Muslim women. The majority of Muslims who originally came to Yunnan were men and from the Tang dynasty onward intermarriage was fairly common. Women rarely married outside of their faith, although Bai Shouyi notes that it did happen occasionally. Women who married a Hui usually converted to the Islamic faith. Intermarriage was one way in which Muslims absorbed Han culture 5 1 Although Islamic law prohibited the adoption of children, Muslims in Yunnan, and throughout China, commonly purchased children from poor parents in 5 0 He, J.I2, p. 131. 5 1 Bai, 1984, p. 16. Bai & Ma Shouqian, "Jizhong Huihui Jiapu Zhong Suo Fanying de Lishi Wenti", Huizu Shi Lunji. (Ningxia: Ningxia Renmin Chubanshe, 1984), pp. 86-88. Drake, p.20. J.L. Bullock, "The Great Moslem Rebellion in Yunnan", China  Review, v. 16, 1887-88, p.84. "Review Of D'Ollone's 'Recherches sur les Musulmans Chinois'". Moslem World, v.2.3. 1912, p.320. Israeli, 1978, p.47. Chan, p.206. Fu, p.113. Israeli, 1982, p.79. 40 times of famine. 5 2 This was another way in which Muslims increased their numbers and may be viewed as a covert form of proselytism. It was a possible source of friction between Han and Hui, as the Han may have resented the fact that Muslims had the resources to purchase Han children and that they raised them as adherents of the Islamic faith. RELIGIOUS AND SOCIAL ORGANIZATION The mosque was the focal point of the Muslim community in Yunnan. Traditionally mosques in Arabia are independent and there is no hierarchy among religious leaders. This was also true in Yunnan. Islam in Yunnan, and China in general, had no organizational unit greater than the individual mosque. Each mosque was governed by recognized community leaders who elected their own Imam. The Imam was responsible for the general supervision of the mosque and leadership in prayer. The community in conjunction with the Imam elected an ahong to teach and interpret religious law, officiate at weddings, funerals and name giving and to settle disputes. The ahong is a teacher whose authority is derived from the common consent of the community. An ahong was usually in a community for three years, after which he could be replaced 5 3 The ahong and the mosque normally were supported by the Muslim community. Wealthy Muslims within a community frequently paid a tax called the tlanke, zakat, which was used to pay the ahong, take care of the mosque and give help to needy Muslims. The tlanke was a percentage of a person's income. Hui who were not well off generally did not pay the tlanke, but donated what they could to the mosque. Bai Shouyi writes that ahongs sometimes used this money 5 2 Joseph Fletcher, "Central Asian Sufism and Ma Ming-hsin's New Teachings", unpublished paper, p. 18, as cited in Rossabi, 1979, p. 197 fn. * 14 "The Chinese Moslems", p.3. Anderson, 1876, p.229. 5 3 Chan, p. 189. Bai, 1951, p.86. Cordier, chap. 2. D'Ollone. 6.6 Warren, "D'OUone's Investigations on Chinese Moslems", New China Review, v.2, 1920, p.270. 41 to amass land and rent it out. There is no mention of this happening in Yunnan and therefore may only refer to ahongs in the Northwest.5 4 Most towns and Muslim villages in Yunnan had their own mosques. They generally conformed to the Chinese style of architecture and many resembled Chinese temples. Muslims also referred to their mosques as si (Mandarin Chinese for temple), further demonstrating the Han Influence. Mosques in Yunnan did not have the traditional minaret and muezzins usually stood In the courtyard or just Inside the entrance of the mosque when giving the call to prayer. Islamic law forbids portraits, drawings or Images inside a mosque. The Qing government, however, dictated that the Emperor's Tablet was mandatory in any house of prayer, and Hui in Yunnan complied with this law 5 5 The presence of the tablet In the mosque has been interpreted as a sign of Muslim acceptance of the Chinese way and as an example of idol worship. 5 6 Such was not the case. Muslims did not place the tablet in their mosques by choice. It was often located near the door of the mosque far from the place of worship and usually removed during worship. Muslims when prostrating themselves in front of the tablet, as required, often placed a piece of paper bearing Muhammed's name behind the tablet. They also would avoid touching their head to the ground, doing this only when they prayed to Allah, and thus avoiding the true significance of 5 4 Sheng, p.63. He, j.12, p. 131. D'Ollone. S.M. Zwemer, "The Fourth Religion of China", Moslem World, v.24f 1934, p.8. Bai, 1984, pp. 18 & 24. Bai, 1951, p.87. Israeli, 1978, p. 100. 5 5 He Changling's memorials seem to indicate that most Muslim communities had their own mosques. He, j. 11, p. 105, j . 12, p. 126. Paul A. Contento, "Islam in Yunnan". Friends of Moslems, v.3, 1940, pp.36-37. 5 6 Broomhall, 19ll,p.47. Pettus, 1908, p.398. 4 2 the rite. Muslims probably placed the tablet In their mosques to avoid charges of "disloyalty"5? Mosques were also used as schools and as lodging for visiting Muslims. Educational conditions among Muslims did not differ significantly from the Han. The majority of Muslims could neither read nor write Chinese or Arabic. Hui in Yunnan began the study and teaching of Islam in the Yuan dynasty. Young Muslim boys were sent to the mosque to study liturgy, while older students who were studying to be religious leaders went to Gansu or Shaanxi for instruction. Muslim youths studying to be ahongs were usually supported by the richer members of their community.58 Muslims consider all followers of the Islamic faith to be their brothers, and this was true for Muslims in China. The Hui in China have the saying "All under heaven Muslims are one family." Many Muslims were traders and caravan workers and travelled extensively. They came into contact with numerous Islamic communities throughout Yunnan and China and were easily able to find lodging and food. One Hui saying claims that Muslims In China can "travel and stay with [Hui] families and always receive food; one thousand / / and you do not have to carry provisions." Muslims in China then, despite the lack of an unifying organizational structure, did have a certain sense of brotherhood 5 9 Although Muslims considered all followers of the Islamic faith their brothers and lodged and fed fellow travellers, Hui in Yunnan, and China in general, 5 7 Pettus, 1908, pp.398 & 399. D'Ollone. Wang, pp.33-34. H.V. Noyes, "Mohammedanism in China", Chinese Recorder, v.20.1, 1889, p.71. W.C. Milne, "Notice of a Seven Months' Residence in the City of Ningpo", Chinese Repository. v. 13.1, 1844, p.33. Broomhal 1, 1910, pp.210, 228 & 237. "Ta Langnan Anzheng Kuangji", HMQY. pp.259 & 260, as cited in R. Chu, p.24. 5 8 Li Yuanbing, p.4. Pettus, 1913, p.91. Bai, 1984, p. 18. Na Zhong, "Qingdai Yunnan Huizuren Yu Yisilan Wenhua", Huizu Shi Lunji. (Ningxia: Ningxia Renmin Chubanshe, 1984), pp.92 & 95. Broomhall, 1910, p.240. Cordier, chap.2. 5 9 Bai, 1951, p.9. Bai, 1984, p. 19. Li Songmao, "Yisilanjlao He Huimin Qiyi", Yisilanjiao zal Zhongguo. (Ningxia: Ningxia Renmin Chubanshe, 1982), p.238. Israeli, 1984, p.276. 43 tended to identify most strongly with Muslims within and in the Immediate vicinity of their own communities. Muslims within a town or village formed tightly knit, closed communities. This solidarity was frequently commented on by Governors-General of Yunnan and by local Han inhabitants. The Han in Yunnan lacked the cohesion that Hui communities achieved through their ahongs and the mosque. Jonathon Lipman suggests that the solidarity of local Hui communities was a response to Chinese pressures. 6 0 Islam in China then, was fragmented in nature. This fragmented nature was due in part to the total Independence of local congregations and in part to the diverse ethnic backgrounds of Muslims In China. As discussed above, the Hui in Yunnan came from disparate backgrounds and did not function as a unified minority. This was the case in other areas of China, such as Gansu. Muslims in China were separated by ethnic, linguistic, social, religious 6 1 and geographic differences. The Panthay Rebellion occurred concurrently with Muslim rebellions in Gansu and Xinjiang provinces. There appears to have been little contact, however, between Du Wenxiu, the leader of the Panthay Rebellion, and Muslim leaders in the Northwest and no attempts to form an alliance between the Muslims of the two areas. The lack of unity and cohesion of Muslims in Yunnan and China as a whole, as Lipman points out, "...did not obviate cultural identity of Muslims with one 6 0 Ting, pp.357-61. Jonathon N. Lipman, "Patchwork Society, Network Society: A Study of Sino-Musllm Communities", in Islam in Asia. Southeast and East Asia. v.2, R. Israeli & A. Johns ed., (Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1984), p.246. 6 1 The rise of Sufism, also known as the New Sect or New Teaching, In northwest China in the seventeenth century caused a religious split In Muslims of the area. Adherents of Sufism were rivalled by Muslims who did not follow Sufism, frequently termed followers of the Old Sect. Leaders of the New Sect often led Muslim rebellions In the northwest. Evidence suggests that prior to the 1850's Sufism had little impact on Muslims in Yunnan. For discussions of the New Sect see Israeli, 1978, pp. 155-94. Dru Gladney," QingZhen: A Study of Ethnorellgious Identity Among Hui Muslim Communities in China", unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. of Washington, 1987b, pp. 18-28. Wei, p. 10. 44 another...", but it did mean that Muslims Identified most strongly with their own local community. The fragmented nature of Islam In Yunnan and China In general served to weaken Hui attempts to defeat the Han majority. 6 2 THE STRENGTH OF FAITH OF MUSLIMS IN YUNNAN A lack of Muslim sources from the nineteenth century makes it difficult to ascertain how strictly the Hui in Yunnan adhered to their faith. Western travellers to the area noted that although Muslims did not consume pork, observed Ramadan, prayed to Mecca and generally did not worship images, they did not adhere as strictly to the Islamic faith as Muslims in the Middle East and India. Cordier noted that ahongs in some areas did not "frown upon" their believers following some Buddhist and Daolst practices. Islamic law prohibits the consumption of alcohol and tobacco, yet it appears that Muslims in Yunnan consumed both. D'Ollone claimed that the Hui did not smoke opium, but other Westerners In the province noted that opium was smoked by many adherents and in the 1940's a Christian missionary hospital in Yunnan treated Muslims for opium addiction. The Hui in Yunnan though, at least from 1839, made the pilgrimage to Mecca. The cost of the pilgrimage limited the number who were able undertake It and often those who could not afford to go would contribute to help someone else, hoping to share in the merit achieved from the pilgrimage.6 3 Hui seem to have adhered to many tenets of the Islamic faith, but were somewhat lax with regard to others. Despite a degree of laxness, Muslims in Yunnan identified strongly as Hui and considered themselves distinct from the Han majority. Christian 6 2 Gladney, 1987a, pp.516-17. Gladney points to the diversity of tombs in Muslim communities as demonstrative of the the fact that Muslims in China are not a single ethnic group. Wang Shuhuai, p. 1. Fu, pp. 112-13. Cordier, chap.2. Warren, p.268. Lipman, pp.246, 256, & 263-73. Fields, p.iv. 6 3 Anderson, 1876, p.232. Cordier, chap.4. Mason, 1919, p. 178. Hanna, pp.71 & 74. D'Ollone. Joyce, p.42. Hartmann, p.848. Broomhall, 1910, p.25l. "Chinese Mahommetans at Mecca", China Review, v.9, 1880-81, p.252. 45 missionaries in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries found it almost impossible to convert Muslims to the Christian faith. Reverend H.V. Noyes in 1889 recorded that the Hui held on to their religion "very tenaciously", but not necessarily to all of the doctrines of the Islamic faith. Dru Gladney found In his study of four Muslim communities in China that while for some communities Islam is of central Importance to Hui identity, for others it is not. Although some Muslim communities in Gladney's study did not follow the tenets of Islam, members of these communities still identified themselves as Hui and as ethnically distinct from the Han. As Dru Gladney writes, "Hui Identity Is rooted in the idea that they are one people..." and that they are descendants of foreign Muslim ancestors. The importance of the Islamic faith in a Muslim community in China then, does not necessarily indicate the strength of the community's identity as Hui . 6 4 Muslims in Yunnan prior to the 1860's were isolated from the outside spiritual base of Islam, the Middle East. They had little contact with the outside Islamic world and practically none of the intellectual movements of world Islam after the fifteenth century substantially affected Muslims in Yunnan prior to the 1850's. This isolation in conjunction with the fact that few Muslims could read Arabic, led to the comparative Intellectual poverty in religious doctrine of Muslims in Yunnan. A few Hui in the province kept in sporadic touch with Muslims in northern India and the Middle East, but the majority of Muslims were not aware of intellectual movements in the outside Islamic world and such movements do not appear to have affected their religious beliefs. 6 5 Raphael Israeli suggests that Muslims in China were influenced by the Indian Wahhabi movement which strongly advocated the Jihad, Muslim holy war, as a means of preserving Islamic values. Israeli also suggests that Islamic legal 6 4 Gladney, 1987b, p.332. 6 5 Israeli, 1978, pp.1, 29, & 83. Warren, p.268. Rossabi, 1979, p. 183. D'Ollone. 46 theory, which divides the world into Dar-ahlslam, comprising the Islamic territories held under Islamic sovereignty, and Dar-ahHarb, the rest of the world, influenced Muslims In China. Under Islamic law those Muslims who live in Dar-ahHarb are always in a state of war. This Is because the ultimate objective of a Muslim should be to live under Islamic rule. Israeli argues that the influence of the Wahhabi movement and Islamic legal theory may have helped cause Muslim rebellions in China. Evidence suggests that the influence of this movement may have reached China and may have played a role in Muslim rebellions in the Northwest in the 1780's. Such links, however, are tenuous.6 6 The isolation of Muslims In Yunnan from the outside Islamic world and the sparse literature which suggests that there was any Intellectual exchange between Indian and Yunnanese Muslims prior to the 1850's argues against the possible influence of the Wahhabi movement In Yunnan. It is also difficult to know whether Muslims in Yunnan were aware of the Islamic legal theory mentioned above. The fact that the majority could not understand Arabic and that even ahongs were sometimes unaware of many Islamic tenets argues against this as a possible explanation for a cause of unrest In Yongchang. It is possible that Muslim immigrants from the Northwest introduced these teachings and other New Sect teachings to the Hui in Yunnan. Documents written by three successive Governors-General of Yun-Gui, however, do not mention the existence of these teachings among the Hui in the province. Officials in the Northwest frequently memorialized the emperor concerning the problems created by the New Sect teachings and It is plausible to assume the same would have been the case in Yunnan had the New Sect Impacted significantly on the Hui in the province. Lack of firm evidence, however, especially on the Muslims side, does not allow for a complete dismissal of the idea that New Sect teachings influenced Hui unrest in Yunnan. 6 6 Israeli, 1978, pp.3, 54, 104, 107-08 & 178. TENSIONS BETWEEN HAN AND HUI Dissension between Muslims and Han has existed in China since the Yuan dynasty. Throughout the succeeding dynasties strife between the two groups sporadically flared up. Table I lists Muslim unrest in China from the Tang dynasty.6 7 By the turn of the nineteenth century conflicts between Han and Hui in Yunnan had become almost endemic. He Changllng and Lin Zexu repeatedly recorded the existence of long term animosity between the two groups. Lin and He both noted that the origins of the conflicts in the 1840's could be found In earlier hostilities. 6 8 Animosity between Han and Hui appears to have been most intense on the local level where the two groups were in contact on a daily basis. One Chinese commentator from the 1800's noted that Han and Hui were "...as compatible as ice and burning coal, water and fire." Local Han records frequently noted that although Muslims were courageous and enterprising, they were at the same time sly, obstinate and violent. Muslims were perceived as forming a closed group that protected its own kind. This led to the increased distrust of Muslims by Han. 6 9 Hui were also viewed as foreign by local Han inhabitants. One source noted that, Although the descendants [of Muslims who have come from foreign lands] grow up in China, they still are distanced and separated from the customs and habits of the Han people. 7 0 An epidemic in the Yongchang area which killed many Chinese was blamed on the Hui. The local gazetteer recorded that the epidemic was caused by Muslims who 6 7 Also see the first six pages of this chapter. 6 8 He, j . 11, pp.101 & 104, j . 12, pp.127 & 132. Lin Zexu, j.1, p. 191, j.3, p.206. Han Pengri, "Shixi Han-Hui Shtlue", HMQY, v. 1, p. 177. "Yongchang Huimin Xiwen", HMQY. v. 1, pp.88 & 91. "Dali Xianzhi Gao", HMQY, v. 1, p.25. 6 9 Sheng, pp.62 & 63. Wang Shusen, "Dianxi Huiluan Jilue", YNHMQY. pp.231 & 232. "Dali Xianzhi Gao", p.26. 7 0 Huang Chengyuan, "Woji Lu Suibl", YNHMQY. p. 179. 48 practiced black magic against the Han. It is also interesting to note that the section on temples in the Yongchang Gazetteer does not list the existence of mosques in the prefecture. According to Joseph Ford, this was very common in gazetteers from Yunnan.71 In the Ming dynasty the dog radical was first added to the front of the character for Muslim, and by the Qing dynasty this rendition was the common form used in local histories in Yunnan. The addition of the dog radical indicated that the Hui were considered to be barbarians by the Han and no better than animals. Provincial officials and officials in the Qing court do not appear to have rendered the character in this form when writing official documents about Hui unrest in Yongchang 7 2 This perhaps suggests that Chinese in daily contact with Muslims, such as those who compiled local histories, held the Hui in greater contempt than those who were more distanced from the Hui. The antipathy that Han and Hui felt towards each other is also demonstrated by the many derogatory sayings of both groups. Slurs and slanders against both groups were commonplace. Chinese claimed that Muslims refused to eat pork because their ancestors had been pigs. Another common saying was: three Muslims are one Muslim, two Muslims are half a Muslim and one Muslim is no Muslim, implying that Muslims only followed their faith in the presence of other adherents. Hui counter contempt was just as strong. When a Chinese converted to Islam it was customary in many parts of China for the convert to eat crude soda to obtain internal purification. 7 3 These are only a few examples of the mutual contempt often expressed by both groups. They clearly demonstrate the antipathy that existed. 7 1 YXFZ j.3, pp.33-34& j.25, 26 & 28. Joseph Francis Ford, The Local Histories  of Yunnan. (China Society Occasional Papers, n. 19, 1974), p. 19. 7 2 Leslie, p. 106. "Mldu Xuncheng Baozheng J1 Tongzhi Ziliao", YNHMQY. pp.312 & 314. 7 3 Wang Shuhuai, p.31. Broomhall, 1910, pp.227 & 229. 4 9 Han-Hui conflicts in Yongchang in the 1840's rarely involved disputes over religion or religious creed. The doctrines of Islam were not understood by the majority of Han Chinese. Literature In Chinese which discussed the tenets of Islam was not readily available and it was not until 1927 that the Qur'an was translated into Chinese. Materials on Islam therefore were not generally available to the Han literati and many had no understanding of the tenets of the religion. Under the Qing there was a proliferation of works on Islam in Chinese, but a large portion of these works attempted to justify Islam in Confucian terms for the benefit of educated Chinese. Han Chinese prejudices towards the Hui therefore generally were based on social not religious grounds. Chinese antipathy stemmed more from the alien origin of Muslims, their differing customs and their comparative success in business, rather than from the fact that the Hui followed a heterodox faith. 7 4 Tensions between Han and Hui existed in Yongchang prior to the 1840's. Despite these tensions, the two groups appear to have been able to co-exist with only minor problems, as long as other factors were not introduced to further aggravate the situation. Economic hardships had the potential of exacerbating existing tensions. Socioeconomic conditions in nineteenth century Yunnan, and China in general, were in a state of serious decline and these deteriorating conditions provided the spark which Ignited Han-Hui relations in Yongchang into open conflict. 7 4 Jin Yijiu, "The Qur'an in China", Contributions to Asian Studies, v. 17, 1982, pp.97-100. Mark J. Hudson, "Religion and Ethnicity in Chinese Islam", Journal:  Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs, v.8.1. 1987, pp. 156-57. Israeli, 1978, pp.1 & 145. Ford, p. 19. TABLE I 50 DYNASTY YEARS LOCATION DESCRIPTION TAN6 758,760 Guangzhou & Yangzhou Arabs, Persians and Chinese involved in fighting YUAN 1343 Shaanxl Muslim Rebellion - government troops needed to suppress unrest YUAN 1357-1368 Quanzhou Muslims rebel - troops needed MING 1450-1456 Beijing Muslims attack Buddhist temple MING 1476.1504.1514 Numerous Towns Muslim raids on Chinese towns MING 1573-1612 Northwest China Seven Muslim raids and uprisings in Northwest China MING-QING 1631-1644 Muslims participate in overthrow of TRANSITION Ming dynasty QING 1648-1649 Gansu Muslims claiming to be Ming loyalists set up Ming pretender as their Emperor -had support from Central Asian Muslims across the border - defeated by government forces QING 1781-1784 Northwest China Muslim followers of the New Sect rebel -government troops suppress, leaders executed and New Sect banned QING 1817 Xinjiang Muslim uprisings QING 1820 Gansu & Xinjiang Muslims uprisings QING 1821 Baiyang Mines, Yunnan Han-Hui conflict QING 1839 Mianning, Yunnan Muslims massacred by Han QING 1840-1848 Yongchang. Yunnan Han-Hui conflicts QING 1847 Northern Yunnan Han-Hui conflict at copper mine QING 1847 North Central Yunnan Han-Hui conflict at salt mines QING 1848 Midu. Yunnan Han-Hui conflict QING 1850 Pu'er, Yunnan Han-Hui conflict at mines QING 1854 Shiyang Silver Mine. Han-Hui conflict at mine Yunnan QING 1855-1873 Yunnan Panthay Rebellion QING 1862-1877 Northwest China Muslim Rebellion - led by Yakub Beg Information from: Donald Daniel Leslie, Islam In Traditional China. A Short  History to 1800. (Canberra: Canberra College of Advanced Education, 1986), pp. 122, 129-30 & 185-88. Alice Blhyun Gan Wei, "The Moslem Rebellion in Yunnan, 1855-1873", unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. of Chicago, 1974 51 THREE SOCIOECONOMIC CONDITIONS IN YUNNAN China during the nineteenth century was a state wracked by internal and external strife. Late Qing China was confronted with the problems of a population boom, increasing commodity prices, a serious shortage of arable land and a weakened and corrupt central government. Yunnan, plagued by all of these troubles, faced additional problems. During the first half of the nineteenth century Yunnan's economy was in a state of decline. The productivity of Yunnan's prosperous mining industry dropped sharply and by 1850 most of the province's mines had shut down. A flood of immigrants during this period, mainly men seeking their fortunes in the mines, substantially altered the ethnic composition of the population and overtaxed the resources of the province. By the 1840's the increasingly harsh socioeconomic conditions in Yongchang had exacerbated Han-Hui tensions to the point of open hostilities. THE ECONOMY Prior to the latter years of the eighteenth century Yunnan's economy had been booming. For over a century the expanding mining Industry had attracted a tremendous amount of money and men from other areas in China. The population of the province during this period Increased dramatically, cultivated acreage expanded and commercial activity grew. Tax revenues from the mining industries, especially copper and salt mines, rose considerably. During the Ming, revenues from mining provided one third of the province's Income; by the Qing, they supplied three quarters. According to James Lee, by the mid-eighteenth 52 century Yunnan had "...advanced from a primitive frontier society to a dynamic regional economy."1 Yunnan's booming economy by the late 1760's, however, was seriously affected by the declining prosperity of the mining industry. Provincial revenue from copper mining began to decline dramatically by 1760. James Lee argues that increased production costs at the mines, due to a decline in labour productivity and sporadic increases in the price of food and fuel, led to increased provincial subsidies for food, fuel, equipment and labour. The result of state subvention was a decline in provincial Income from the mines. By the beginning of the nineteenth century provincial income from the copper industry was practically nonexistent. Provincial subvention in the 1760's did revitalize copper production for a short period. From 1768-1770, however, heavy rainfall flooded the Southwest and during the same period the war with Burma (1765-70) drained the local resources of Yunnan. Copper prices subsequently fell and were not revived until the twentieth century. Yunnan, from 1765-1772, suffered a period of economic depression. Miners began to leave once lucrative shafts in search of work and mines throughout the province shut down.2 The central government made no effort to revive the mining industry. The provincial government attempted to subsidize the industry, but provincial loans and subsidies by 1800 had more than doubled the cost of copper production. The national inflation of copper in relation to silver forced the closure of all mints in China, including those in Yunnan, from 1794-96 and reduced the sale of copper. By the beginning of the nineteenth century more than one quarter of Yunnan's copper mines had closed. In 1838 the deficits of copper mines in Yunnan were considered unrecoverable. The Governor-General of the province at the time 1 James Lee, "China's Southwestern Frontier: State Policy and Economic Development, 1250-1850", unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Chicago, 1982a, pp.33 & 227. 2 Lee, 1982a, pp.239-52. 53 requested that the debt to the state be cancelled as the debtors had been "...either reduced to utter poverty or have absconded so that nothing is recoverable."3 By 1856 practically all of the province's mines had shut down. Hundreds of thousands of men worked the mines in Yunnan. The majority of miners were Han immigrants attracted to the area by high wages and the hope of quick profits. Muslims also were involved in mining. As the profitability of mines declined, conflicts between Hui and Han miners increased and by the first half of the nineteenth century, mining areas in the province had become hotbeds of inter-ethnic strife 4 Although Yongchang did not have a significant number of mines, the area was effected by the downturn in the economy. Many of the miners who lost their jobs turned to banditry for a living. He Changling constantly refers to the youfei from the mines causing trouble in western Yunnan. He, quoting a subordinate, noted the prevalence of bandits from the mines: "Youfei from gold, silver, copper, and tin mines are extremely troublesome and many." He noted that "...in recent years mines have gradually been exhausted, and youfei from all areas have scattered..." throughout the province. He Changling frequently memorialized the emperor concerning the troubles caused by bandits from the mines, advising that "If we do not avail of the opportunity to strike and destroy [the youfei], they will necessarily arrive at a conspiracy for evil." 5 Fluctuations in the copper industry also adversely affected the costs of grain, fuel and housing, and consequently prices of market goods in Yunnan were 3 Lee, 1982a, pp.253-62. "Journal of Occurrences", Chinese Repository, v.6.9, 1838, p.448. 4 See Appendix I for a discussion of Han-Hui conflicts in mining areas in nineteenth century Yunnan. Lee, 1982a, p.44. Edward Colbourne Baber, "Travels and Researches in Western China", Indian Antiquarian, v.30, 1901, p.40. For a discussion of conflicts over mining interests also see Alice Bihyun Gan Wei, "The Moslem Rebellion In Yunnan, 1855-1873", unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. of Chicago, 1974, pp.66-77. 5 He Changling, "Nal'an Zouyi Cungao", HMQY. v. 1, j. 12, pp. 119, 125 & 132. 54 higher than in other areas of the country. An eighteenth century observer noted that, All market goods are expensive in Yunnan... In 1772 one tael of silver was worth 1150 copper cash. By 1781 and 1782, however, the exchange rate had risen to 1500 and 1600 copper cash per tael of silver. In western Yunnan (Dali and Yongchang) the rate of exchange was as high as 2,000 cash per tael. As a result, the price of goods in silver may be approximately the same as in other provinces, but their actual cost Is much more expensive. The rate of inflation of copper In relation to silver appears to have been higher in Yunnan than in other parts of China. The price of rice in Yongchang from 1746-1805 was also one of the highest in the province.6 High prices in Yongchang coupled with an economy in a state of decline would have caused economic discontent among local inhabitants. The depletion of granary stocks during this period also adversely affected local Inhabitants. During the Ming the capacity of granaries in Yunnan had been limited and their stocks were only used to supply the military population of the province. Under the Qing, officials in Yunnan stored grain for civilians through an intraregional network of state granaries, and "evernormal granaries" (changping can$ were expanded. The difficulty of transporting goods over the rough terrain of Yunnan in times of need led authorities to emphasize the storage of grain in such granaries and during the Qianlong reign the holdings of civilian granaries rapidly expanded. Community granaries (shecan$ were established in the Southwest in 1724 and greatly increased the granary stocks of the region. Community granaries expanded mainly with grain procurred locally.7 6 Wu Daxun. Diannan Wenjian lu. 2.1b-2b. in Lee. 1982a, p. 189, fn. 13. Lee, 1982a, pp. 174-75. 7 Lee, 1982a, pp.201-08. Also see the Symposium on Food, Famine and The Chinese State in the Journal of Asian Studies, v.41.4, 1982, pp.685-801. 55 The local populace In Yunnan frequently borrowed from the granaries. In 1753 the Finance Commissioner of Yunnan recorded that "During the lean spring season they [the people of Yunnan] all borrow grain from the state. After the autumn harvest they return what they took." The state supply of grain was considered by officials to be one of the most Important services offered to the people. The rural poor frequently depended on granary stocks during the spring season. From 1725-1775 provincial granaries rapidly expanded. The war with Burma and years of disastrous weather, however, placed heavy strains on grain stores and all but exhausted holdings in the province. In 1772 alone the granaries distributed approximately one third to one half of their holdings. In 1801 the 6overnor-6eneral of Yun-Gui recorded that, "In 1770, the local notables gave up much of the community grain to supply the Burma campaign. These arrears have persisted for the last thirty years...".8 Granary stocks were not replenished during the nineteenth century. Officials continued to distribute grain in lean times 9, but stocks by the 1830's probably were not sufficient to meet all demands. The rural poor of Yunnan depended on the granaries during the lean spring season and the subsequent decrease in granary holdings in the nineteenth century must have caused hardships for portions of the local populace. Increasing taxes also must have been a cause for discontent. The commutation of taxes or surtaxes from grain to silver in late Qing China would have placed additional stresses on the local populace. During the late Qing, people in Yunnan, as In the rest of China, suffered from heavy land tax and grain tribute exactions as well as miscellaneous labour services. Taxes appear to have 8 QSLYYSH: 556 in Lee. 1982a, p.212. GZSL. 164.23a in Lee, 1982a, p.217. ZPZZ  CZCC. j.499, N I H A . in Lee, 1982a, p.215. 9 James Lee records thirty-seven memorials specifically reporting the distribution of grain to the civilian population in Yunnan and Guizhou between 1768 and 1822. Lee, 1982a, pp.215-6. 56 been no higher in Yunnan than in other areas of China, but Wang Yeh-chien notes that chaos and instability in local finance probably occurred to a considerable extent in low-revenue provinces such as Yunnan. This would have left room for official abuses, through heavy surcharges and other exactions. Taxes are cited as a direct cause of unrest In many parts of Gulzhou during the Miao rebellion. 1 0 The above discussion clearly demonstrates that Yunnan's economy was In a state of decline. By the first half of the nineteenth century, the economic expansion of the 1700's had all but ground to a halt. The decline of the copper industry, which had dominated the economy in the previous century, seriously affected the prosperity of the province. Prices in western Yunnan were high and granary holdings by the 1840's were severely depleted. All of these factors must have led to growing discontent among the inhabitants of Yunnan. IMMIGRATION A population boom added to and exacerbated the economic problems of Yunnan. The Southwest (Yunnan, Ouizhou and parts of present day northern Sichuan) experienced two major population movements from other areas in China. During the first migration, from 1250-1600, the population of the Southwest nearly doubled, increasing from three to five million. Two decades after the area had been subdued by the Qing, another massive migration from China, from 1700-1850, swelled the population from five to twenty one million. In Yunnan alone the population increased from approximately four million in 1775 to ten million 1 u Robert Jenks, "The Miao Rebellion, 1854-1872: Insurgency and Social Disorder in Kweichow During the Taiping Era," unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Harvard Univ., 1985, pp.69 & 102. Wang Yeh-chien. Land Taxation in Imperial China.  1750-1911. (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press, 1973), p. 109. Also see Wang Yeh-chien, An Estimate of Land-Tax Collection in China. 1753 & 1908. (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press, 1973). Susan Mann Jones and Philip Kuhn, "Dynastic Decline and the Roots of Rebellion", in The Cambridge History of China. v. 10, Denis Twitchett & J.K. Fairbank eds, (Cambridge, Mass: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1978), pp. 129-131. 57 in 1850.1 1 The sheer scale of immigration during the Qing is, as James Lee states, "overwhelming". Such a tremendous increase in population over a relatively short period of time precipitated new frictions and overtaxed the already weak authority of local officials. ' 2 During the Ming, migrants to the Southwest were largely involuntary. Most were soldiers and their dependents and they came from practically all areas of China. These immigrants usually were not self-supporting. During the Ming, migrants increased the amount of cultivated land and introduced major advances In agricultural technology. The majority of immigrants settled in the west, especially around Dali and Kunming.'3 Immigration during the Qing was voluntary and actively encouraged by the state. Tax remissions, grants of seed and land, and travel funds were used to entice migrants to the Southwest. From 1775 to 1825 the population of Yunnan increased at double the rate of the rest of China. Only in 1845 did population growth in the province slow to an average annual rate lower than the rest of the country.'4 Although the majority of migrants to Yunnan during this period settled in the eastern areas of the province, the rate of population growth did increased in practically all prefectures. Immigrants settled in greater numbers in core areas, such as Kunming, Dali and towns in the south and east, rather than in the peripheral regions of the province. Yongchang and Shunning were two of the more " Population figures for late Qing China present some problems. Many people, especially immigrants, were not registered. Inhabitants living in areas under native Jurisdiction also were frequently excluded from registration. The estimates given by Lee, therefore, only represent the minimum actual population of the province. 1 2 Lee, 1982a, pp.86 & 105. James Lee, "The Legacy of Immigration in Southwest China, 1250-1850", Annales de Demographie Historiaue. 1982b, pp. 283 & 286. 1 3 Lee, 1982a, pp. 92, 96, 130, 139 & 194. Lee, 1982b, pp. 287 & 290. '4 Lee, 1982a, p . l l i . Lee, 1982b, p.293. 58 lightly settled prefectures during this time. Population grew more rapidly in core areas and cities swelled. Prior to 1750, practically no city in Yunnan surpassed a population of fifty thousand. Cities such as Kunming and Dali are thought to have exceeded thirty thousand, while smaller centres such as Baoshan, Chuxiong and Jiancheng ranged from seven and a half thousand to twenty thousand, and Tengyue barely reached five thousand. By the beginning of the nineteenth century, Immigrants had swelled Kunming's population to approximately one hundred thousand and by 1820, Dali had exceeded the one hundred thousand mark as wel l . 1 5 In the 1800's the rate of growth began to decline In the core and people started to move to the periphery in search of land security. Population density In areas in the periphery, such as Yongchang, did not increase as dramatically as in eastern Yunnan or in Dali, but growth was substantial. The population density in Yongchang in 1775 was between 7.5 to 15 people per square kilometre. By 1815 it had risen to between 15 to 30 people per square kilometre. 1 6 The second wave of immigrants shaped the regional economy of the Southwest. Migrants expanded the amount of arable land and increased crop yields as well as supplying capital, and labour and organization to help build an urban network. During the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries Yunnan was Increasingly urbanized as small towns became centres for mining and commercial cities. Immigrants did settle In rural areas, but many of them, drawn by the growth of trade and the mining industry, initially migrated to towns and cities. Migrants, writes Lee, provided skilled labour in the cities for practically every occupation.'7 '5 Lee, 1982a, pp.37 & 508. Lee, 1982b, pp.300-01. '6 Lee, 1982a, pp. 111-116 & 508. Lee, 1982b, pp. 285,293 & 295-6. 1 7 Lee, 1982a, pp.39 & 43-46. Lee, 1982b, p.299. 59 In 1852 a Dali gazetteer recorded that many of the city's residents were recent immigrants. According to Lee, Immigrant merchants from Jiangxi and Hunan "...virtually created an urban commercial class that monopolized all interprovincial trade and industry." Merchant immigrants came In larger numbers than in the first migration and usually settled in the province for longer periods. Merchants from Shaanxi controlled most of the pawn shops and credit institutions, while those from Sichuan and other areas were involved in, and sometimes controlled, the horse trade, textiles (in western Yunnan), interprovincial trade and collaborated with native workers to dig in the salt mines of the province. By the mid-eighteenth century, according to one source, "Every village and hamlet had an inn or store run by an immigrant from Jiangxi, Sichuan or Hunan. These immigrants were renowned for their chicanery." 1 8. As discussed earlier, Muslims in western Yunnan had practically monopolized the transport industry and were heavily involved in trading and small businesses. The encroachment of Han Immigrants into their sphere of work would have caused tensions between migrants and local Muslims. Local Han residents also must have faced increasing competition from "outside" Chinese. Tensions must have been high as escalating numbers competed for business. Growing rivalry in the business sphere was coupled with intensified competition over arable land. Yunnan, although large in size, is mountainous in terrain and cultivable land makes up only a small portion of the total area. An 1 8 Lee, 1982a, pp. 39, & 43-46. ZPZZ. Record Group 4, Box 879, Documents 1-7, No. 1 Historical Archives, Beijing, as cited by Lee, 1982a, p.44. Lee, 1982b, pp.297-300. 60 edict issued in 1766 stated, In Yunnan the mountains are many and fields are few. All arable land is already ploughed and developed without excess. Only at the foot of mountains and by the sides of some rivers are there slices of land that can be cultivated. 1 9 Migrants to the Southwest competed directly with local inhabitants for land, and by the mid-nineteenth century were viewed as having "seized most of the arable land" in Yunnan and Guizhou. The richer migrants occupied the best lands while the poorer were more likely to settle in the hills and on less fertile lands. 2 0 The amount of arable land was increased by new settlers. Crops such as maize and sweet potato replaced traditional mountain foods, expanded yields and became a major source of food in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Increasing yields, according to Lee, occurred in areas where population density was lowest and therefore areas such as Yongchang may have had increased crop yields. Within the core areas of the province, however, output of food per cultivated acre per person probably declined and from 1700 on "...a constant flow of grain from the periphery to the core was needed to feed the growing southwestern population."21 The population density of Yongchang given above is not an estimate of population density per square kilometre of cultivated land. Figures on the amount of cultivated land In Yunnan during the nineteenth century present the same problems as population data. The amount of cultivated land during the late 1 9 Qingchao Wenxian Tongkao. v. 16, (Shanghai: Shangwu Yinshuguan, 1935), j.4, p.489a. Raymond Wei-hsing Chu, "Causes of the Moslem Rebellion in Yunnan, 1856-1873", unpublished M.A. thesis, Univ. of Toronto, 1967, p.40. Also see Wang Shuhuai, Xlan-Tong Yunnan Huimin Shibianr (Taibei: Academla Slnlca, 1968), pp.59-60. 20 zhaoyi (1727-1814), Yanou Zajl (Essays by Zhaoyi), (Taibei: 1959), 4.86 in Lee, 1982ap.39. 21 Lee, 1982a, pp.3-40 & 141-55. 61 Qing was greatly under-reported. (Under-registration of cultivated land was one method of tax evasion.) Data collected by James Lee indicate that during the nineteenth century the number of people per square kilometre of arable land in Yunnan increased. Exact numbers are not available for Yongchang, but the population/cultivated land ratios in the area would have been much higher than thirty to sixty people per square kilometre. Lee's data suggest that in 1825 the figure ranged from between one to three hundred people per square kilometre of arable land. Yunnan in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries was recorded as having one of the more unfavourable arable land/population ratios in China. In the 1930's the average size of a household's land was less than one acre. 2 2 Competition for land in Yunnan in general, and more specifically in Yongchang, must have increased significantly during the late Qing. Even though Yongchang received fewer immigrant settlers than other regions of the province, population density in the area over a period of forty years practically doubled. Taking into consideration the fact that the population/cultivated land ratio of Yongchang would have been much higher, only further supports an argument that competition over arable land must have been fierce. After the first Muslim massacre in Yongchang in 1845, Han inhabitants appropriated Muslim land. Du Wenxiu was one of the Muslims who lost his lands. Rivalry over land was especially prevalent in areas such as Yongchang where Muslim and Chinese 22 Lee, 1982a, pp.56, 147 & 151. H.R. Davies, Yun-nan. The Link Between India  and the Yangtze. (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1909), p.72. George Cressey, China's Geographic Foundations. A Survey of the Land and Its People. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1934), p.377. Fei Hsiao-tung, & Chang Chih-I, Earthbound China. A  Study of the Rural Economy in Yunnan. (Chicago: Chicago Univ. Press, 1945), pp.11, 19 & 207. Dwight Perkins. Agricultural Development in China. 1368-1968. (Chicago: Aldine Press, 1969), p.236. (amount of cultivated acreage in Yunnan in the nineteenth century) 62 populations were close in numbers. Ethnic tensions already extant in the prefecture would have been exacerbated by these conditions. IMMIGRANT PROFILE Immigrants substantially altered the composition of the population of Yunnan. Prior to 1750 non-Han had always outnumbered the Chinese, but by 1850 Han Chinese were the majority, representing over sixty per cent of the population in the province. Migrants, although not a homogeneous group, sinicized the southwestern frontier. During the Qing, most migrants came at first from Jiangxi, and Hunan and later on primarily from Sichuan. Immigrants also included people from the Northwest, Mongols, Yao and Miao. 2 3 Migrants to late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries Yunnan were a mixed combination of people ranging from merchants, to those seeking their fortune, to landless paupers forced from their homes by population pressures. In the nineteenth century for the first time a permanently depressed class of poverty-stricken people appeared for whom there were no lands or jobs. Many of the impoverished were migrants on the move. Deteriorating socioeconomic conditions in the rest of China, by the 1820's, were largely responsible for the increasing number of destitute migrants entering Yunnan. A memorial in the Shilu in 1838 recorded that a large number of poor men from Sichuan, Hubei, Guangxi and Guangdong were migrating to Yunnan and Guizhou. The prefecture of Dengchuan, Yunnan, also describes many of the immigrants to that area as poor and out of work 2 4 Government control in Yunnan was weak, and as a result the province may have attracted many social misfits. Tax delinquents, criminals, and other kinds of malcontents may have travelled to Yunnan to escape the law or merely to seek 23 Lee, 1982a, pp. 28 & 37. Lee, 1982b, pp. 286. 24 sizQk j.316, p.25. R. Chu, p.28. Lee, 1982a,p.43. 63 their fortune. 2 5 Immigrants of this nature often tended to be independently minded and were more likely to take the law into their own hands. This was especially true in a frontier region such as Yunnan. A "frontier mentality" can be said to have existed among the inhabitants of Yunnan as a whole and, more specifically, Yongchang. As Robert Jenks points out, this "frontier mentality...[can contribute] to the readiness of the population to use violence to achieve its own ends." The mining industry in Yunnan further compounded this problem as it often attracted rough, volatile men. Most immigrants to southwestern China were single males. This was another potential source of problems as single males are more easily organized and more likely to create disturbances than attached males 2 6 Although a large number of Muslim migrants did not come from Shaanxi, Gansu or Sichuan, some Hui from these provinces migrated or were exiled to Yunnan during the nineteenth century. The Southwest was one of the main areas of exile for Muslims from the Northwest and connections between Muslims in both areas therefore were assisted by government relocation policies. Shaanxi and Gansu Muslims led, or were involved in, many of the conflicts in Yongchang between 1840 and 1848. The first conflicts in 1845 were headed by Shaanxi 25 Robert Eric Entenmann, "Migration and Settlement in Sichuan 1644-1766", unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Harvard Univ., 1982, pp.258-9. Joseph Francis Ford. The Local Histories of Yunnan, (China Society for Occasional Papers, no. 19, 1974), p.23. G.W. Skinner, "Cities and the Hierarchy of Local Systems", in The  City in Late Imperial China. G.W. Skinner ed, (Stanford: Stanford Univ. Press, 1977), p.322. 26 Jenks, pp.5, 246-47 & 254-55. Hsu Wen-hsiung, "Frontier Social Organization and Social Disorder in Ch'ing Taiwan", in China's Island Frontier. Studies in the  Historical Geography of Taiwan. Ronald G. Knapp ed, (Honolulu: Univ. of Hawaii Press, 1980), p.94. 64 Muslims in conjunction with local Hui and later leaders, such as Huang Baba and others, were Shaanxi or Gansu Muslims. 2 7 A Chengdu Muslim, Min Yingkui, also instigated unrest in Yongchang. Min apparently went to Baoshan in 1845 where he practiced fortune telling and befriended Baoshan Muslim Ma Da. Min soon left Baoshan and In December 1845 travelled to a small village on the western edge of the prefecture. There he received lodging at the local mosque and attempted to convince the ahongto gather men to seek revenge against the Han in Yongchang for the events of 1845. Min claimed that he could enable men to resist spears and guns by the practice of martial arts and invulnerability rituals. The ahong, unswayed by Min, reported the plan to local officials. Min subsequently left and solicited the support of aborigines 2 8 in four other villages. He promised the aborigines control of Han land and wealth once the Han were killed and also gave the aborigines some silver, copper cash and oxen in advance. More than two hundred aborigines followed him Into battle. One aborigine headman, however, reported Min's plans to Li Hengqian, an official In Tengyue. When Min and his men attacked a military post In Tengyue ting on December 19, 1845, with the intention of proceeding on to Baoshan, Li was prepared. Government troops suppressed the attack and Min was captured and beheaded.29 Research indicates that immigrants "functioned as a major differentiating force" within.the province. During the Qing, the ethnic composition of Yunnan was significantly altered by immigrants and the divisions they created must have intensified existing tensions between Han and Hui. The character of migrants also must have exacerbated tensions, as the types of persons who 2 7 "Dali Xianzhigao", j.8, HMQY. v.1, p.25. He, p. 107. Sheng Yuhua, "Yongchang Han-Hui Hudou An Jielue", YNHMQY. pp. 63 & 64. Wang Shusen, "Dianxi Huiluan Jilue",Yitt1QY,P.232. 28 He Changllng refers to the aborigines as yeyi - wild barbarians. 29 He, j. 11, pp. 105-06. 65 migrated often tended to be troublemakers and easily organized. Migrant or relocated Hui also frequently helped to foment trouble in Yongchang in the 1840's. A government report written in 1777 indicates that the influx of immigrants was a problem. This report noted that the large number of recent settlers in western Yunnan, from Hunan, Jiangxi and Sichuan, had provoked the provincial government to complain to the Governors of those provinces. 3 0 HUI6UAN Han immigrants, as illustrated above, were a heterogeneous group varying in class distinctions, locality, dialects and customs, immigrants to Yunnan brought with them their own ethnic and religious traditions and as a result, during the late Qing many river and lake cults were introduced to the province. These religious groups often expanded into huiguan (voluntary associations), whose membership was based on common geographical origins. Men who were previously unrelated became bound by oath and, through the huiguan, formed a cohesive primary group. These associations proliferated in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries in Southwest China. Jiangxi, Huguang, and Sichuan cult temples and huiguan were established in Yongchang during this period. In mining areas voluntary associations were formed between people of common geographical origins in order to protect their digs and to keep other miners out of the a rea 3 1 Voluntary associations constitute a mechanism of social control. Often huiguan were formed for protection and for gambling and at times, also undertook some of the policing functions of the government. This was especially true in frontier areas where local governments were notoriously weak, such as Yongchang and Taiwan. The frequency of social unrest in an area served to 30 YCfZ (1785 ed.), 25 and Yunnan Tongzhi (1898 ed.), 55.13b in Lee, 1982a, p.296. 31 w. Hsu, p.91. Ma Shengfeng, "Poxi Shilue", HMQY. v.2, p.48. R. Chu, pp.33-34. Lee, 1982a, pp.47-48& 294-303. Wei, pp.68-9. 66 increase the number of huiguan. Inhabitants of an area afflicted by violence united to protect their own communities and themselves. Social organizations, as Hsu Wen-hsiung points out, "contained the seeds of social disorganization and posed as a counterweight to the state." 3 2 The influx of immigrants into a frontier region with a weak local government often led to the proliferation of voluntary associations which in turn led to Increased disorder. This was the case in western Yunnan. SECRET SOCIETIES Secret societies have existed for a long time throughout all of China and were found in Yunnan long before the nineteenth century. The frontier environment and socioeconomic conditions in western Yunnan from 1800-1848, however, were conducive to the proliferation and the increasing strength of such societies. In western Yunnan, according to Wu Qianjiu, local Han inhabitants often formed peasant organizations, known as Niucong and Huoganhui, in order to protect their crops. One source indicates that the Niucong was originally formed by villagers to keep watch over their grazing oxen. The Huoganhui apparently protected the forests of a village from marauders, served as a watch for fires and stopped bandits from pillaging crops 3 3 Deteriorating socioeconomic conditions coupled with increasing tensions between Han and Hui and the general nature of a frontier society led local inhabitants to fear for their safety. As a result, the character of the Niucong and Huoganhui changed from mutual help organizations into organizations to guard against banditry and in some cases to dispense their own forms of justice. 32 W. Hsu, pp.91-104. John Robert Shepherd, "Plains Aborigines and Chinese Settlers on the Taiwan Frontier in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries," unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Stanford Univ., 1981, p.323. 33 wu Qianjiu, "Yunnan Huizu de Lishi he Xianzhuang", Yunnan Lishi Yanjiusuo  Jikan. n.l, 1982, (Kunming: 1982), pp. 143-45. Lin Zexu records the existence of the Niucong and Huogan. Lin Zexu, "Yun-6ui Zougao", HMQY. v. l , j.1, p. 192. 67 Prior to this point, members of these organizations were essentially peasants, but as the character of the organizations altered their membership changed. Local landlords and gentry and local bullies came to dominate the memberships of these groups. 3 4 By at least 1833, Niucong organizations in Baoshan and the surrounding seven shao were being used by members to settle grievances and assert authority over local inhabitants. In 1833 the magistrate of Baoshan, while investigating a murder by Niucong members, was held by members of the organization and coerced into releasing the prisoner. The magistrate was also forced to write a letter stating that the government would not take any action against the Niucong. By 1833, Niucong were powerful organizations in western Yunnan. Lin Zexu recorded that Niucong were scattered throughout the province. 3 5 A powerful secret society In Yunnan is believed to have found its origins in the Niucong. The Xiangbahui (XBH), sometimes referred to as the Shaoxianghui, was formed in Yongchang by Niucong members. The XBH was found throughout nineteenth century Yunnan, but was particularly prevalent in western Yunnan in the first half of the century. He Changling records that the XBH in Banqiao was first formed in April 1845, at the Zunguang Temple, by Wan Lingui and more than thirty followers. Baoshan and its seven shao all had a branch of the XBH and each local unit was independent of outside control. The head of each XBH was called daye and many other ranks existed within the society. Members of the XBH were initiated by drinking wine and swearing an oath of allegiance to the 34 He Huiaing. Yunnan Duwenxiu Jianguo Shibaye Shimo in Wu. pp. 144-45. He, J. 12, pp. 131-34. Lin Zexu, J.I, p. 192. 3 5 "Yongchang Huimin Xiwen", HMQY v. 1, p.91. Wu, pp. 147-48. He, j. 12, p. 131. Lin Zexu, j . l , p. 192. 68 society, incense was burned at the time of initiation and this is given as one explanation of the origin of the name. Members called each other brothers.3 6 XBH initiates included many influential members of the community. Landlords, local gentry, degree holders, soldiers, local militia heads, as well as peasants and townspeople belonged. Leaders of the XBH, such as Wan Llngul and Zhang Jie held the status of wusheng and wensheng. Han Pengri noted that the XBH had "eyes" in almost all facets of life in Yongchang and that XBH members had people to inform, protect and support them when incidents occurred. Han Pengri recorded that at "one blast of a trumpet" members could be summoned from all over and would come "running". In 1850 one Qlng official recorded that sometimes even before a warrant for arrest was Issued, the suspect, if connected to the secret society, had already been advised by an XBH informant who worked for the government3 7 The power of an XBH daye in the 1840's often exceeded that of local officials. He Changling recorded that "all men fear and dread" XBH leaders. Members frequently used the power of the organization to settle grievances against nonmembers. In the 1840's Wan Lingui falsely accused a man of stealing an oxen. He Changling recorded that Wan did so because he believed that the man could be forced to pay a fine. When the accused refused to pay he was severely flogged and in fright took his own life. The dead man's relatives, according to He, did not dare bring the matter to the attention of local officials because they so greatly feared the power of Wan and his followers 3 8 Evidence Indicates that by 1845 the XBH had adopted an anti-Muslim stance. When members of the Han community in Yongchang were dissatisfied 36 He, j.l 1, pp. 106-09. Han Pengri, "Shixi Han-Hui Shilue", HMQY. v.1, pp. 178-79. Sheng, p.63. Li Yuanbing, "Yongchangfu Baoshanxian Han-Hui Hudou Ji Du Wenxiu Shixing Geming Zhi Yuanqi". HMQY v.1. p.3. Lin Zexu, j.5, p.221. 3 7 Han, p. 179. LI Yuanbing, p.3. Yunnan Tongzhl. j.228, p.23 in R. Chu, p.59. 38 He, j. 11, pp. 107-08. 69 with actions of local officials in Han-Hui conflicts, they often turned to the XBH to mete out "justice" to the Muslims. The May 1845 Incident in Banqiao, discussed in the next chapter, illustrates this point. Governor-General He attempted to curb the powers of the XBH by executing Wan and banishing Zhang Jie to the malarial districts of Yunnan after the May 1845 Incident. These actions do not appear to have significantly weakened the power of the XBH. 3 9 By the 1840's then, the XBH and local Muslims in Yongchang were fierce opponents. Han Pengri Indicated that both groups were attempting to establish dominance over the other. The local Han gentry were frustrated by their inability to exert effective influence over the entire society of Yongchang; they were constantly challenged by a strong and united Hui community. Muslims protected their own kind and Islam served as their uniting force. The changing character of mutual help organizations and the formation of secret societies can be linked to deteriorating socioeconomic conditions in western Yunnan and the subsequent escalation of violence between Han and Hui. The frontier environment also contributed to the organization of the inhabitants.4 0 BANDITRY For centuries Yunnan was plagued by the problem of banditry. The prevalence of banditry in border areas, such as Yunnan, was common in imperial China and bandits In these regions often stood in little fear of the governing forces. Early nineteenth century Yongchang saw a proliferation in the number of bandit gangs, as landless and jobless peasants provided a growing source of 39 He, J.I 1, pp. 107-08. 40 Han, p. 178. He, J.I2, p.132. Sheng, p.62. Zhang Mingzhai, "Xlan-Tong Bianhua Liji". YNHMQY. D.82. 70 recruits. Lin Zexu recorded that youfei (roaming bandits) In western Yunnan "...are In fact a group of wandering unemployed people...".41 Officials in Yunnan frequently memorialized the emperor concerning, the prevalence and dangers of banditry.4 2 He Changling memorialized in 1846 that if youfei from the mines were not destroyed they would "conspire to evil" In the province. In their 1846 petition Yongchang Muslims noted the Increasing number of bandits In the area, writing that in "...olden times men transformed from robbers to be good, nowadays, however, [men] flow from good to become robbers."4 3 Sheng Yuhua, a Han landlord in Baoshan, also recorded the prevalence of zei (outlaws) in Yongchang. He wrote that In July 1845, when Baoshan and surrounding areas were preparing for attack by Muslims, one village was pillaged by a band of zei. The zei were armed with knives and guns and many Han were killed in the attack 4 4 Both Han and Hui appear to have belonged to bandit gangs. He Changling also noted the problem of aboriginal bandits 4 5 Often the services of youfei were solicited by Han and Hui alike to help in conflicts. Bandits would fight for either side in return for monetary or other forms of reward. Successive Governors-General beginning with He Changling 4 1 Albert Feuerwerker, Rebellion in Nineteenth Century China. (Ann Arbor, Mich.: Univ. of Michigan Press, 1975), p.49. Philip Kuhn, Rebellion and Its Enemies in  Late Imperial China. (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press, 1970), p.9. Lin Zexu, j.1,p.194. He, j . 12, p. 119. Wang Shuhuai, p.5. 42 Qing Shi, v.6, j.422, p.4815. SL-DG j.327, p. 18. R. Chu, p.63. Li Xingyuan, "LI Wengong Gong Zouyl", HMQYr v.1, J.13, pp. 141 -44. Lin Zexu, j. 1, p. 186. 43 He, j.12, p.25. "Yongchang Huimln XIwen", p.92. 44 zei frequently were permanent brotherhoods of bandits, not simply ad hoc rural gangs whose membership fluctuated. Sheng, p.64. Also see Frederic Wakeman jr., Strangers at the Gate. Social Disorder in South Chinar 1839-1861. (Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1966), p. 122. 45 He Changling memorialized the emperor concerning Guofei In the vicinity of Baoshan and Yunlong zhou. He, j . 11, p. 102. 71 noted the existence of these temporary alliances. Lin Zexu wrote: Both Han and Hui seek revenge...both frequently unite with youfei and consequently have the strength of a disorderly mob...lf the Hui and fei unite then Han villages are burned, if Han and fei unite then Muslim zhai are destroyed. Mosques and wealthy Chinese families, in some areas in Yunnan, occasionally paid monthly fees to bandits for protection. Li Xingyuan noted that alliances with both Han and Hui enabled youfei to greatly increase their profits and added that such alliances also escalated the level of violence between Chinese and Muslims. 4 6 Bandits in Yunnan were difficult to control because of weak local governments, because of their great numbers, and because the area in which they were active was so large. LI Xingyuan also attributed the government's inability to control banditry to the fact that local people often did not cooperate with the government and the fact that bandits were well accepted by both the Han and Hui. Earlier, He Changllng had noted the Importance of controlling bandits if peace was to be secured in Yongchang. Later Li was to reiterate this point, memorializing the emperor that in order to control the Muslims in western Yunnan the bandits had to be suppressed first. "To control the Muslims [we] must first control the fei, if the Muslims are peaceful then the people [the Han] will be peaceful." Lin Zexu also memorialized the emperor concerning this issue, writing that fei who were native to Yunnan could be restrained only once those who came from outside the province were suppressed 4 7 The prevalence of bandits and their methods of operation helped to intensify and increase the number of Han-Hui conflicts. Bandits, by fighting for 46 He, j. 12, pp.131, 132 & 135. Lin Zexu, J.I, p. 192. Li Xingyuan, J.I4, pp. 160-67. Wang Shuhuai, p.69. 4 7 He, j.12, p. 124. Li Xingyuan, j.13, p. 142. Lin Zexu, J.I, p. 194. 72 both sides, exacerbated Han-Hui tensions in Yongchang. The increasing threat of banditry also induced the local population of Yongchang to further arm and organize themselves for protection. THE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND GENTRY By the nineteenth century, the government of China, both central and local, was plagued by corruption and inefficiency. Throughout the century the central government increasingly was unable to maintain law and order in the country. From 1839-1842 Beijing was preoccupied with the Opium Wars and did little to maintain loyalty In the state's periphery. After China's defeat In the Opium Wars the central government's prestige was severely weakened and throughout the 1840's social disorder In Guangdong province, problems with foreign powers and financial difficulties continually plagued Beijing. During 1845 the emperor was extremely ill and many anticipated his death. One source recorded that at this time there was a struggle for power among officials at the court. 4 8 The central government increasingly was unable to cope with the mounting domestic problems in China and this was evidenced in the governing of Yunnan. Corruption among officials in Yunnan probably was no more serious than in other areas of China. The deterioration of the economy and Han-Hui relations, however, created conditions under which the integrity and power of local officials played a more significant role in the maintenance of law and order than in other areas of China. 4 9 Weak and incompetent officials in Yunnan created an environment in which secret societies and banditry flourished and allowed the local gentry and militia to wield significant power. Corruption, prejudiced responses to legitimate grievances and incompetence among the provincial bureaucracy all contributed to unrest. 48 Charles Gutzlaff, The Life of Taou-Kwang. Late Emperor of China. (London: Smith, Eldon & Co., 1852), pp.212-13 & 225. For a discussion of social disorder In Guangdong In the 1840's see Frederic Wakeman jr., Strangers at the Gate. 49 R. Chu, pp.67-68. 73 Reports were often made detailing the corruption and inefficiency of local officials in Yunnan. In 1826 a censor criticized the local administration of the province, noting the prevalence of gift-giving and the payment of fees by lower officials to their superiors. A report in 1850 by Zhao Guang recorded that local officials often totally ignored their duties of arresting and charging criminals. Cases of robbery, wrote Zhao, frequently were not reported to superiors as local officials feared that they would be blamed for the prevalence of crime in the area. "Sometimes when their tenure in Yunnan Is almost finished, they [officials] simply conceal troubles and make up false accounts, so that before they leave, there will be no trouble." Zhao Guang also noted that local officials did not "make trouble" for local bandits because of the strength of bandit gangs. 5 0 The lack of power of local officials was noted by several men involved in Yongchang during the 1840's. He Changling memorialized the emperor in 1846 that the "...people [in Yongchang] are strong and government officials are weak, laws are not followed..." In western Yunnan. Sheng Yuhua wrote that once both Han and Hui had organized themselves "...the area's officials were unable to apprehend [them], and they also did not dare to." Lin Zexu also noted the Inability of officials to deal effectively with crime in the province.5 1 Prejudices harboured by local officials against Muslims also increased inter-ethnic tensions in Yunnan. During the Yongzheng reign the emperor, prompted by the growing number of secret memorials criticizing the Hui, 50 SL-DG. j.95, pp.28-9. Qing Shi, j.422, p.4815. R. Chu, pp.68 & 73. 5 1 He, j. 11, p. 108. Sheng, p.63. Lin Zexu, j.8, pp.5-6 in Wu, p. 145. 74 defended Chinese Muslims writing: Henceforth, when the Hui have basically done nothing wrong but officials, whether high or low, seize on the pretext of minor differences in customs in order to memorialize wildly, I shall certainly administer severe punishment.52 Often the policies of Beijing existed on paper only. Local officials, despite the Qing government's policies of tolerance towards Muslims, frequently sided with Han Chinese in disputes. In his editorial comments introducing documents in the collection Huimin Qiyi. Bai Shouyi notes the prejudicial statements made by local officials about Muslims. Wang Shuhuai also cites the discriminatory actions of officials, pointing out that during the late Qing Muslims often were punished more severely for ordinary crimes than Han Chinese. 5 3 The prejudice of officials In Yongchang towards Muslims was evident. One of the main grievances expressed by Yongchang Muslims in their 1846 declaration was the biased adjudications by Han officials of Han-Hui disputes. During the first half of the nineteenth century Muslims, dissatisfied with local rulings, also took complaints of ill treatment by local officials to both Kunming and Beijing 5 4 The prejudicial treatment that Muslims frequently received at the hands of local officials helped to aggravate tensions between Han and Hui. By 1845, Muslims in Yongchang felt that local authorities would no longer protect Muslims 5 2 Yongzheng, 85.10 1730. Shilu 94. pp.4v-5v in Donald Daniel Leslie, Islam in  Traditional China. A Short History to 1800. (Canberra: Canberra College of Advanced Education, 1986), p. 124. Also see Wang Shuhuai, pp.34 & 45. Raphael Israeli, Muslims in China. A Study in Cultural Confrontation. (London: Curzon Press, 1978), pp. 130-40. 53 For examples of harsher punishments for Hui than Han see Wang Shuhuai, pp.47-50 & 55-6 fn. 23 and R. Chu, p.36. 5 4 Muslims went to Kunming or Beijing after the 1821 incident at the Baiyang mines, in 1839 after the incident at Mianning and in 1847 to protest the handling of the 1845 massacre. "Yongchang Huimin Xiwen", pp.91 & 92. 75 from Han violence. As a result Muslims increasingly took the law into their own hands. Local officials in Yunnan relied heavily on the gentry to help maintain control in many areas of the province. The sheer size of many of the magistrate's areas made this a necessity and by the nineteenth century, many local officials were in alliance with or controlled by the local gentry. Local officials, when they were unable to handle a situation, at times depended on the power of the gentry in order to reach a solution. In 1843 the prefect of Yongchang, Chen Tongsheng, unable to settle a conflict between Han and Hui, prevailed upon members of the local gentry to resolve the grievance.5 5 The gentry therefore exerted great influence on the officials In Yongchang and other areas in Yunnan. The Han gentry were hostile to Muslims in Yongchang. This is evidenced by the fact that gentry and local officials from Baoshan and its surrounding shao planned the October 1845 massacre. 5 6 The reliance of officials on members of the local gentry frequently led to the oppression of the local Hui population. The corruption and Inefficiency of government in Yunnan cannot be laid completely at the feet of the officials. Some of the problems were inherent in the system of local government adopted by the Qing dynasty. Inland posts in China were normally five years in duration, while border posts such as Yunnan were only three years. Postings in malarial areas - and there were many in Yunnan -were less than three years. The average tenure of provincial judges, financial commissioners, prefects and district magistrates in Yunnan was approximately two years. This short tenure often forced officials.to rely on the local gentry to govern an area. Local officials also would have had little interest in investing 55 sheng, p.63. 56 See chapter 4 for details. 76 time in an unfavourable posting, for they knew they would be transferred to a different area in a relatively short period of time. During the period of greatest unrest in Yongchang, 1845-1848, Yunnan had a succession of three 6overnors-6eneral. When conflicts first broke out in Yongchang in 1845, Yunnan was without a Governor-General. (He Changling was posted to Kunming on June 9, 1845, but did not arrive until September 25, 1845.) He was unfamiliar with the past history of Han-Hui conflicts in the area and this may have played a part in his mishandling of events during his tenure. 5 7 The fact that Yongchang was a frontier region within a frontier province also exacerbated the problems of maladministration. A frontier society is often plagued with the problem of weak governmental control. He Changling frequently memorialized the emperor concerning the problems of governing a frontier region, indicating that western Yunnan was "corrupted by evil and barbarian customs". He wrote that maintaining order in a frontier region such as Yongchang was difficult. 5 8 The size of administrative units in Yunnan also inhibited proper administration by local officials. The size of administrative units in China is inversely correlated with population density. 5 9 The population density of nineteenth century Yunnan was much lower than many other provinces in China. Officials in Yunnan therefore administered large areas and were frequently forced to rely heavily on the local gentry and militia to govern an area. False reports concerning Han-Hui disputes were often filed by local officials or by members of the local gentry in order to protect themselves. The sheer size of Yunnan caused district magistrates and Governors-General to rely on these 5 7 He, j. 11. Yunnan Tongzhi. j. 127 in R. Chu, pp. 134-40 & 76. 5 8 He, j. 11, pp. 106 & 108. For a description of a frontier society see W. Hsu, pp.87-103. 5 9 Joseph B.R. Whitney, China: Area. Administration and Nation Building. (Chicago: Department of Geography, 1969), pp.117-29. 77 reports. Often, inappropriate actions were taken by Governors-General based on these reports. Such was the case in Yongchang after the October 1845 massacre. 6 0 LOCAL MILITIA By the nineteenth century existing military institutions, according to Philip Kuhn, "...had become irrelevant to the task of maintaining order and the status quo in rural China." The response of government troops to the White Lotus Rebellion (1796-1805) indicated the weakened nature of the Qing military system. The number of regular Qing troops garrisoned in Yunnan in the 1840's, as In many other areas In China, was inadequate for peace-keeping in the province. One source maintains that in some areas the number of soldiers in regular battalions was less than half the adequate strength. Troops from Guizhou were constantly sent to Yunnan throughout the 1840's to help repress Muslim and Han unrest. Han Pengri recorded that in Yongchang, "...troops are not sufficient to depend on [and] the laws cannot be carried out." He Changling frequently memorialized the emperor that troops in Yongchang in 1845 were insufficient to protect the prefecture 6 ' The Qing government could not afford the large expansion of government troops necessary to revitalize the regular army system and local militias frequently were formed to fill the gap. The military monopoly of the state was broken by these local militia, who often were beyond the state's control. Deteriorating conditions in western Yunnan led to the militarization of whole communities, both Han and H u i 6 2 6 0 For information on the false reports issued by local officials after the 1845 massacre see Chapter 4. 6' He Changling, "Jinsheng Xiayou Geying she Budao Bingdingyi.", in Hunan  Wencheng. Luo Ruhuai ed, (1871), 14, pp.8-11 in Kuhn, p.52. Kuhn, pp.37 & 38. R. Chu, p.56. Han, p. 177. He, j.H,p.97. Sheng, p.70. 62 Kuhn,pp,10&53. 78 Four different kinds of militia appear to have existed in Yongchang in the nineteenth century. He Changling frequently refers to binglian, or yonglian. Lin Zexu also hired yong in 1848 to help repress unrest in Baoshan.6 3 This type of militia seems to be what Frederic Wakeman and Philip Kuhn term yong (semi-professional fighters who enrolled in ad hoc armies for pay). This type of militia usually appeared in a region before militia organized by local gentry. Wakeman notes that yong, ...were the first recourse of local government if regular troops were either inefficient or insufficient-Genuine local militia would appear only if the crisis continued and if ...local notables had both enough power and enough Interest to lead them. 6 4 These were the conditions that existed in Yongchang in the nineteenth century. Minlian was another type of militia in Yongchang. This term is used by Sheng Yuhua and appears to refer to militia organized by local inhabitants. A third type of militia were shao If an. The name was probably derived from the fact that these militia were formed by, and made up of, men who lived in the shao surrounding Baoshan. They too were organized by lower degree holders, degree aspirants or commoners. Local officials in Yongchang seem to have had minimal control over these militia. The fourth kind of militia in Yongchang were tu/fan. Tu/fan were organized in tuci regions and were comprised of aborigines. These militia were sometimes hired by officials to help suppress unrest. Local militia in nineteenth century Yongchang resemble Philip Kuhn's simplex tuan. Research does not indicate that extended multiplex tuan existed in Yongchang in the 1840's 6 5 Shen Jucheng formed and led one of the most active militia forces in Yongchang. Shen, a member of the local gentry of Jinji, organized the youth of 63 Lin, j.3,p.210. 64 wakeman, pp.22-23. He, j.l 1, pp.95 & 97. Kuhn, pp.46-47. 65 He, j.l 1, pp.97 & 102. Lin Zexu, j.3, p.210. Sheng, pp.65-66. Kuhn, pp.50-67. 79 his village in July 1845 to fight local Muslims who were threatening to attack Jinji. Shen defeated the Muslims and was hailed as a hero by the village. Sheng Yuhua wrote that, "Shen formerly was without fame, and also without competence...", but after the victory he was known for his "cleverness". Shen Jucheng was referred to as lianzong (militia general) and his militia was most frequently termed a shaolian^ Members of local militia in Yunnan were of a low quality. Usually government organized militia and militia such as Shen's were comprised of improperly trained youths and youfei. In August of 1845 Prefect Jin of Baoshan directed a subordinate to gather youfei from two districts to form militia forces to fight the Hui. These fighting forces frequently "retreated like a falling mountain" in battle. The low quality of militia men caused many problems as members were difficult to control and once organized often fell into illegal activities. In 1857 a Yunnan official, Wu Zhenyu, memorialized that, "The militia system is essential in other provinces, but it causes a great many calamities in Yunnan...Most of the militia were originally vagabonds."67 Local militia such as Shen's adopted a distinctly anti-Muslim stance. Shen and his militia forces were largely responsible for the October 1845 massacre in Yongchang. Yongchang Muslims in their declaration cited the power of local militia, termed tuanfei (militia bandits), and their anti-Hui stance. The Muslims claimed that the power of the militia was tremendous and likened their nature to that of a ferocious animal. Yongchang Hui asserted that even He Changling could not control the power of the mil i t ia. 6 8 Local militia actively participated in fighting and massacring Muslims and became a potential source for the disintegration of law and order in western 66 Sheng, pp.65-6. He, j.11, pp. 105-06. 6 7 Qinding Pingding Huifei Fanglue. v.1, 1896, j.6, pp.333-36. R. Chu, p.57. Sheng, p.65. 68 "Yongchang Huimin Xiwen", pp.91 & 92. Sheng, pp.66-7. Han, pp. 177-8. 80 Yunnan. Shen's forces were so powerful that in 1848 they took over the magistrate's compound in Baoshan. Officials had little control over local military forces and often could not restrain the unlawful activities of the militia. This deepened the enmity between Han and Hui and led Muslims in the area to organize themselves for protection and revenge. THE PROBLEM OF OPIUM IN WESTERN YUNNAN The prominent position of opium production and trade in nineteenth century Yunnan was discussed In Chapter One. Opium was a major source of revenue for Yunnan during the nineteenth century. Opium addiction in Yunnan is thought to have been widespread. An edict in 1838 recorded that five or six out of every ten people in cities and towns in Yunnan smoked opium. According to this report, opium dens (yanguan) existed "openly" in the province. Peng Songyu, a prefect of Yongchang, wrote that during the Daoguang period most Chinese in Yunnan were opium addicts: "...although [the people] are poor and without trousers, if [they] do not smoke opium [they are] unable to live." Opium smoking was common among caravaneers and miners. 6 9 Trade in opium during the nineteenth century was Illegal and the Illicit production and transport of opium must have been extremely lucrative. One source recorded that the profits from planting opium were ten times that of r ice. 7 0 Local officials therefore may have taken bribes to allow farmers to produce opium. Opium trade in China often was guarded by secret societies. This may have been the case with the XBH in Yongchang. Muslims were also traders and heavily involved in the transport business. They may have transported opium as well. The 1838 edict noted that, "Those who trade in opium [in Yunnan] each day are many." Muslims and the XBH then, may have directly competed over the 69 SL-DG. j.316, pp.3-4. R. Chu, p.23. Peng Songyu, Yuzhou Jitan. shangjuan, pp.29-30 in Wu, p. 144. Zhao Qing, "Bianyuan Jieyuan Lu", HMQY. v. 1, p.45. 70 SL-DG. j.316,p.3. 81 opium trade in western Yunnan. Unfortunately, research to date has uncovered very little information on this matter. 7 1 The prevalence of opium addiction and trade in Yunnan probably led to corruption among local officials and direct economic competition between Han and Hui. Deteriorating socioeconomic conditions were an important factor in precipitating unrest in Yongchang. During the first half of the nineteenth century, economic expansion in Yunnan practically ground to a halt and many immigrants lured to the province by the hope of quick profits were unable to find work. As life became more difficult Muslims and Chinese competed more directly for land and in the commercial sphere. Secret societies, banditry and corruption among officials proliferated. Deteriorating socioeconomic conditions led to increasing disorder and lawlessness in Yongchang and exacerbated existing Han-Hui enmity. 7 1 SL-DG. j.316. DD.3-4. Wu in his article discusses the corruption of local officials due to opium production and the fact that the armed forces from the shaoxiang alliance guarded opium transports. Wu however, cites no sources for these assertions. Wu, pp. 144-5. Andrew D.W. Forbes, "The Cin-Ho (Yunnanese Chinese) Caravan Trade with North Thailand During the Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries", Journal of Asian History, v.21.1, 1987, pp. 23 & 26. 82 FOUR THE EVENTS IN YONGCHANG 1840-1848 Open conflicts between Han and Hui in Yongchang began as early as the first decades of the nineteenth century. Communal strife in the area culminated in the massacre of Muslims in 1845 followed by sporadic hostilities between Han and Hui. In 1848 a second massacre of Muslims occurred in Baoshan. Prior to 1847 most confrontations pitted Muslim against Han. By 1848, however, many Han who had previously fought with government troops, took control of Baoshan and became rebels themselves. Peace was finally brought to western Yunnan in 1848 under Governor-General Lin Zexu. Lin prophesied that peace in the region was secure for ten years, but that beyond that he could not tell what would happen. The Panthay Rebellion broke out in 1855 and Baoshan was conquered by Du Wenxiu's troops in 1861.1 One cause of friction between Han and Hui in Baoshan was the yearly celebration of the birthdays of the five gods of the sacred mountains ( Wuyud by the Chinese of Baoshan. Every year on the 27 t h day of the third month of the lunar calendar the statues of the five gods were brought from different temples in sedan chairs in an elaborate procession to the main temple of the city. Daoist and Buddhist monks chanted and worshipped there for two days. On the final day of festivities, the 29 t h day, the images of the five gods were carried in a procession to the temple of the sacred mountain god of the east outside of the city's south gate. The procession consisted of musicians, people dressed up as 1 Lin Zexu, "Yun-Gui Zougao", HMQY. v. 1, j. 10, pp.246-48. Li Yuzhen, "Dianshi Shuwen", YNHMQY. p. 189. Huang Chengyuan, "Woji Lu Suibi", YNHMQY. p. 179. Alice Bihyun Gan Wei, "The Moslem Rebellion in Yunnan, 1855-1873", unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. of Chicago, 1974, p.66. 83 the Images and horsemen who led the cortege, Incense burners and the mountain gods carried In sedan chairs. To reach the temple the parade had to pass by the Tongfeng marketplace and the doorway of Baoshan's largest mosque, situated on the main street. Muslim youths receiving training at the mosque would stand on the street and mock the "Idolaters". They hurled fruit peelings, sugar cane refuse and dirt at the Chinese in the parade. At times the ahongs attempted, "halfheartedly", to stop their students from harassing the yearly procession. Occasionally the Chinese would complain to the magistrate.2 Another example of Muslim intolerance of Chinese religious beliefs took place at a Daoist temple east of the eastern gate of Baoshan. Located in the temple was a wheel of transmigration. It was believed that every spirit had to pass through the wheel to be Incarnated. Every seventh and tenth month In the lunar calendar newly widowed young women would go to mourn their departed husbands and young women would go to mourn their dead mothers and fathers. Often Muslim youths would jeer at the women and ridicule them. Verbal altercations, which often flared into fights, were the result of these encounters.3 In August 1843 a quarrel broke out between Han and Hui in Shunyun. Ma Sihe, a Baoshan Muslim, gathered over one hundred men and went to help the Muslims fight outside of Baoshan's eastern gate. Many Chinese were Injured in the altercation and shopowners Inside Baoshan, frightened by the events, closed their doors. Ma Sihe was arrested by the prefect and placed in a bamboo cage in 2 Li Yuanbing, "Yongchangfu Baoshanxian Han-Hui Hudou Ji Du Wenxiu Shixing Geming Zhi Yuanqi", HMQY. v. 1, pp.3-4. Zhang Mingzhai, "Xian-Tong Bianluan Jing Liji",YiJhJMQY,PP.82-83. 3 Li Yuanbing, p.4. Zhang, p.83. 84 the marketplace. He died while incarcerated. Animosity between the two groups deepened.4 On September 23, 1843, a fist fight resulted in a severe beating of an XBH head by a Muslim. Han and Hui each gathered an armed force of men and fighting ensued. The prefect and district magistrate of Baoshan were unable to control the situation and eventually called on the Han gentry to achieve a shaky truce.5 The events of 1843 marked the beginning of increased fighting and bloodshed between Muslims and Han in Yongchang. The Yongchang Gazetteer marks the Ma Sihe incident as the "rift" that started all the troubles.6 Han-Hui enmity in Yongchang came to a head in 1845. The immediate cause, as was the case in previous Han-Hui conflicts in Yongchang and other areas in Yunnan, was a minor squabble. He Changling also points out the "minuteness" of the quarrel that sparked the violence of 1845. The fact that small incidents could flare up into large scale violence indicates how high tensions were in the area. The incident began on May 19 t h on market day in Banqiao, about ten kilometres northeast of Baoshan. The population of Banqiao was approximately six thousand. Hui constituted about one quarter of the inhabitants. Muslim youths from Shaanxi, Gansu and Yongchang were singing songs in Banqiao, ridiculing and deriding the Chinese present. A fight broke out and one Muslim youth was severely beaten.7 The Chinese angered by the altercation sought the aid of the XBH. Under the leadership of wusheng Wan Lingui, his younger brother, wusheng Fan Chun and 4 YCFZ, j.28, p. 137a. Sheng Yuhua, "Yongchang Han-Hui Hudou An Jielue", YNHMQY. p.63. Li Yuanbing, p.4. Li mentions a conflict in 1843 involving a Muslim Ma Youde. The date and description are similar to the case of Ma Sihe. Li, a Muslim, wrote his memoirs in 1931, at the age of seventy, from stories he had heard in his youth. Li may be either mistaken about the name or Ma may have been known by more than one name. Also see Li Yuzhen, pp. 185-86. 5 Sheng, p.63. Li Yuzhen, pp. 185-86. 6 Sheng, p.63. Y £ f X j.28, p. 137a. 7 He Changling, "Nai'an Zouyi Cungao", HMQY. v.1, J.l 1, p.l 15. Li Yuanbing, pp.4-5. 85 The Chinese angered by the altercation sought the aid of the XBH. Under the leadership of wusheng Wan Lingui, his younger brother, wusheng Fan Chun and wensheng Zhang Jie, all XBH members, the Chinese crowd destroyed the local mosque. The district magistrate, Li Zhengrong, attempted to repress the crowd, but the Chinese only heeded the orders of Wan and Zhang. On the following night Wan Lingui led a mob in the burning, looting and destruction of Hui homes in Banqiao. Muslims received no aid from the local authorities and many abandoned their homes and fled. 8 He Changling records a slightly different story. He memorialized the emperor that the May 19 t h confrontation between Hui and Han resulted in the severe beating of a Muslim by XBH members. As a result of this Ma Da and his followers began to practice boxing and fencing in the local mosque,9 planning to seek revenge later on. Baoshan's district magistrate, Li Zhengrong, decided to take action against Ma Da and despatched government troops to surround the mosque and arrest the Muslims. Ma Da and most of his followers escaped, but the boxing instructor was captured. When the government troops withdrew, Wan Lingui and his followers attacked and destroyed the mosque.1 0 He's account suggests that there was an undefined period of time between the singing incident and the destruction of the mosque. Both Sheng Yuhua and Li Yuanbing suggest that these events took place on consecutive days. It Is difficult to know which account is most accurate. He Changling based most of his reports on hearsay, and at the time many officials in Baoshan were shielding each other 8 Sheng, pp.63-64. Li Yuanbing, p.5. YCFZ, J.28, p. 137b. Li Yuzhen, p. 186. 9 Muslims up to the present day still practice martial arts in mosques. According to one source the practice of martial arts is especially prevalent in areas where isolated Muslim villages are situated in a Han-dominated region. See Dru Gladney," QingZhen : A Study of Ethnoreligious Identity Among Hui Muslim Communities in China", unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. of Washington, 1987b, pp.220-24. 1 0 He, j.l 1, pp. 107-08 & pp.110-11. 86 over the massacre of Muslims in October 1845. Since both Li and Sheng, a Han scholar residing in Baoshan, offer similar descriptions, their accounts are taken as most accurate. Regardless of the sequence of events, the outcome was the same. The Muslims decided to take matters into their own hands. Zhang Shixian, Zhang Zhaoqin, Ma Da and wusheng Ding Yongnian appealed for monetary aid and reinforcements from Muslims in neighbouring areas. In June 1845 more than three hundred Muslims, including one hundred Hui from Yunzhou under the leadership of Ma Xiaoqing, gathered to the north of Banqiao at Bada ying. The Muslims declared that their enmity towards the Han did not extend beyond Banqiao and Wan Lingui. Sheng writes that as a result of the threat of attack martial law was proclaimed in the village." On July 1, 1845 Ma Da and Ma Xiaoqing, nicknamed Da Baixiang, divided their followers and set out on separate paths to attack Banqiao and Jinji. Ma Da gathered additional men at a mosque outside of Banqiao and subsequently set out for the village. Enroute, a Han messenger who had brought the news of the Impending attack to the village was seized and killed. The Muslims proceeded to Banqiao to attack, but were greatly outnumbered and beat a precipitous retreat. Government troops and Han residents pursued the fleeing Muslims who scattered in all directions. One hundred Hui homes were looted and burned in the village and more than fifty Muslims were kil led.' 2 Ma Xiaoqing and his followers looted and plundered the area east of Jinji and then proceeded to move into the village. News of the attack on Banqiao and surrounding areas had reached Jinji. Shen Jucheng, a Jinji militia head, organized a militia force (the Baihujiao) to resist the Muslims. (The militia was so named because each member ate white pepper before going into battle.) The '1 Sheng, p.64. Li Yuanbing, pp.4-5. He, j.11, pp.95 &110-12. YCfZ j.28, p. 137b. 1 2 Sheng, pp.64-65. He, j. 11, pp.112-13. 87 militia killed a Hui leader and dispersed and scattered the Muslims "like birds and beasts". Shen pursued the retreating Muslims to Bada and slaughtered more than three hundred native Hui residents. He returned to Jinji a hero. These two victories sparked even more violence. Local militia and XBH members searched out and killed Muslims in the surrounding areas, regardless of whether or not they had been involved in the initial attacks. More than ten Hui zhai were looted and burned.1 3 Many Muslims, including Ma Xiaoqing, retreated to Mengting zhai, southeast of Baoshan.1 4 The Muslims forcibly occupied Mengting. Mengting was probably chosen by the Hui because the area surrounding the zhai was almost impregnable. He Changling repeatedly records that narrow passes and many diverging and forked paths leading from the zhai made it impossible for government troops to successfully surround and attack. 1 5 In August 1845 Zhang Shixian again led several thousand Muslims from Shunning to Kuke, attacking and destroying Han villages along the way. The prefect in Baoshan ordered the jail warden to gather and organize several hundred youfei from two villages near Baoshan into militia forces and, in conjunction with Shen's militia, attack the Hui. Most of the militia men were untrained and "retreated like a falling mountain" in battle. Zhang and his followers pursued the retreating militia, killing all but one. Zhang then seized and occupied Yaoguan. Zhang's men proceeded to defeat Shen's militia and advanced towards Baoshan, attacking and looting Han zhai along the way. 1 6 1 3 Sheng, p.65. KE1 j.28, p. 137b. Han Pengri, "Shixi Han-Hui Shilue", HMQY. v. 1. p. 178-79. 1 4 Mengting zhai during the nineteenth century was in Youdian xian In the PRC this area is known as Changning. Wu Qianjiu, "Yunnan Huizu de Lishi He Xianzhuang", Yunnansheng Lishi Yanjiusuo Jikan. n.1, 1982, (Kunming: 1982), p. 155. 1 5 He, j.l 1, p.97, 101, 112& 114. 1 6 YCfZ, j.28, p. 137b. Sheng, pp.65-66. He, j.l 1, p.112. Li Yuzhen, p. 186. 88 He Changling ordered the Indendant of Western Yunnan, Luo Tianchi, to go to Baoshan and bring the situation under control. He concluded from Luo's subsequent report that the Muslims no longer feared the law and decided to send the retired Intendant of Southern Yunnan, Zhou Shu, who was experienced in handling Han-Hui disputes, and a newly appointed Tichen, Zhang Bilu, to help out in Yongchang. He Changling also ordered local officials to summon Muslim religious leaders and inform them that they had a responsibility to help capture Muslim "rebels". (During the Qing dynasty officials frequently attempted to control Muslims by placing the responsibility for their good behavior on the religious leader.) In a memorial dated September 29 t h , He, overanxious to assure the emperor that everything was under control, concluded that peace had been secured in the area. 1 7 In September, Muslims, including Ma Xiaoqing, attacked and occupied Yangba and Bingma ying, thirty kilometres east of Baoshan. The proximity of the "rebels" terrified Baoshan residents and officials. Government troops and militia were called in from areas surrounding Baoshan and from outside of the prefecture. Luo Tianchi, in conjunction with local and outside officials ordered troops to Bingma and Yangba. Major Zhu Rigong led five hundred men to Yangba and captured most of the Muslims there. On September 30 t h more Muslims joined those in Bingma and together they occupied Lianhua Temple. According to Sheng Yuhua, the two captains leading the troops and militia, Yang Chunfu and Pan Huiyang, attempted to negotiate a peace. The Muslims demanded that the troops lay down their weapons to show good faith. When the soldiers complied, the Hui attacked en masse, overwhelming the troops. Captain Yang Chunfu retreated, while Pan stayed and fought to his death. (He Changling records that Yang 1 7 He, J.l 1, pp.95-96. Donald Daniel Leslie, Islam in Traditional China. A Short  History to 1800. (Canberra: Canberra College of Advanced Education, 1986), p. 125. The characters He uses for religious leader are zhangjiao. He is probably referring to the ahong. 89 retreated when the fighting became too intense.) By the end of the battle corpses were littered around the temple and more than one hundred soldiers, including officers, were taken prisoner. 1 8 News of the defeat reached Baoshan on October 1s t, 1845. Terror gripped the residents of the prefectural capital. That morning a meeting was held at wensheng Zhang Qicheng's home. Shen Jucheng arrived by sedan chair from Jinji; deputy magistrates Heng Wen and Li 6uo, XBH heads Wan Lingui, Zhang Jie, Zhou Yuexiang and Yang Jiu, and members of the local gentry also attended. The meeting lasted until late afternoon. After the meeting several Han coerced a Muslim from outside the city, Li Fa, to carry a forged letter. The letter, supposedly written by Zhang Zhaoqin, a Muslim from Bada, claimed that on October 2 n d Muslims from outside Baoshan would attack and requested that Muslims within the city prepare for battle. XBH members lay in waiting for Li at the city gate. When Li entered the city they seized him and took him to the yamen. Heng Wen questioned Li about the letter, but Li was drunk and no information was obtained. The XBH members who had apprehended Li, claiming that the letter was lost, informed Heng of the contents. Heng believed the XBH members, imprisoned L i 1 9 and later that evening met with Shen to discuss the impending attack. The XBH had successfully started the rumor that Muslim rebels, in league with Muslims within the city, were on the verge of attack. Considering the recent defeat in Bingma and the panic it generated, it is not surprising that officials and residents in Baoshan gave credence to the rumor. 2 0 He Changling does not mention this incident in his initial memorials. Later in January 1846, after He visited Yongchang, he wrote that Li Fa was a Muslim spy and that he had 1 8 Sheng, p.66. He, j.l 1, pp. 96-97 & 112-13. YCfZ j.28, p. 137b. The YCFZdoes not record that Yang Chunfu retreated from Bingma. 1 9 Two days later while still imprisoned Li Fa died. 2 0 Sheng, p.66. Wu, pp. 156-57. 90 carried information to the Muslims inside the city about the impending attack. He relied on reports from officials who were protecting themselves and therefore most of his initial information on the events of October 2 n d was incorrect.2 1 Prior to dawn on October 2 n d the residents of Baoshan were awakened by gunfire, screams and giant flames that lit the sky. News of a Muslim attack spread throughout the city. The XBH in conjunction with Shen's militia are thought to have started the disturbance, entering Baoshan by scaling the city walls. When the mosque went up in flames, ...Han anger mounted to the heavens, officers and soldiers stripped to their armor, seized their weapons and arranged in order throughout the city. They spread out and set forth with all the strength at their command and used it together with the Baihujiao militia to kill Muslims.. 2 2 The Han wore red scarves on their heads and yellow paper as a sign that they were not Musl ims 2 3 For almost two days Muslims within the city were murdered and their homes destroyed. "Corpses accumulated and filled up the roads, and blood flowed 2 1 He, j. 11, pp. 113-14. The misinformation He received is discussed later in the chapter. Li Yuzhen also records that there was a Muslim conspiracy to attack Baoshan on Oct. 2 n d , 1845. His report, however, was written in 1902 from the memories of men in Baoshan at the time and from government reports. Li Yuzhen, p. 186. 2 2 Sheng, p.67. 2 3 Li Yuanbing writes that the XBH told each Han household to mark their door with incense sticks and not to go out on the night of Oct. 1st. The first of the month, however, is when all Buddhist-Daolst families worship their gods; they would have burned incense at their doors at the time of the massacre. The existence of incense therefore cannot be interpreted as signs of a premeditated attack by the XBH. The fact that some Han marked themselves by scarves and paper may have been confused with the incense and related to Li many years later as a premeditated move on the part of the XBH. Li also contends that the XBH marked each Muslim door with a white lime fingerprint. This is not confirmed by any other documents. Li, pp.4-5. 91 like water...".24 Du Wenxiu, a Jinji native, was in Baoshan at the time. He escaped death on October 2 n d , but his betrothed, lia Xiaoyou, was not so lucky. Huang Oui, a servant of Heng Wen, went to Ma's home during the massacre. Huang killed Ma's father and kidnapped Ma Xiaoyou. Du was to seek retribution for this act in 1847.25 The events of October 2 n d came to be known as the Yongchang massacre. The number of Hui killed is disputed. Muslims claimed that eight to ten thousand were murdered. Sheng Yuhua recorded five hundred deaths. He Changling in 1846 estimated that four thousand Hui had died. Lin Zexu officially reported in 1849 that the number of casualties was approximately four thousand. Lin was unable to use population reports taken by the district magistrate of Baoshan as they had been destroyed by fire in 1847. Lin therefore relied on the prefectural population records which recorded that in 1844 the Hui population of Baoshan had been three thousand and fifty-one. Lin, taking into consideration the fact that Muslims from the countryside had entered Baoshan before the massacre in search of protection from violence in the countryside, concluded that approximately four thousand Muslims were killed on October 2 n d. This report appears to be the most accurate. Some Muslims escaped death in Baoshan and fled the city, scattering throughout the countryside. Government troops and the militia suffered few casualties. 2 6 Two days after the massacre Luo Tianchi sent a false report to He Changling, stating that he had successfully repressed a Muslim rebellion. Luo 2 4 Sheng, p.67. 2 5 Lin Zexu, j.7, p.230. Zhang, p.83. Wu, pp. 157-58 2 6 Li Yuanbing, p.5. Sheng, p.67. Zhang, p.83. He, j.l 1, p.99. Lin Zexu, j . l , p. 192. Lin Zexu, j.7, p231. 92 wrote that on October 2nd at 3 a.m, ...gun shots suddenly came from the upstairs of the city's mosque. All the Muslim residents in the city rushed out from all corners of the streets grasping weapons and seething with unrest. Immediately the soldiers opened fire and with all their strength attacked...Shen Jucheng ...united with them [the soldiers] ...and all [the Muslim rebels] were exterminated.27 Luo reported that Muslims had weapons cached throughout the city and requested Immediate reinforcements. He Changling's memorial to Beijing on October 13th reiterated Luo's report. He Changling was newly posted to his position of Governor-General of Yun-Gui. He had only arrived in Kunming on September 25th, 1845 and was unfamiliar with previous Han-Hui confrontations in Yunnan. The situation was further complicated by the great distance separating Yongchang from the provincial capital. He noted the "difficulty of knowing the state of affairs" in Yongchang, especially because of the remoteness of the prefecture. Due to these circumstances He was forced to rely on his officials for initial information on the events of October 2nd It is not surprising therefore that he believed Luo's report and that he recommended the promotion of Luo, Shen Jucheng, Heng Wen and several other officials for their contribution in suppressing the "rebels" 2 8 Later He was to rescind the recommendations. He Changling initially sent Tichen Zhang Bilu and the Intendant of Eastern Yunnan, Zhou Shu, with troops to investigate the events in Yongchang. He also requested that the court send Guizhou Tichen Wang Yifeng's troops to Yongchang to help secure peace and order. Deputy General Chang Jingyun was ordered to 2 7 He, J.11, p.98. 2 8 He, j. 11, pp.97 & 99. 93 search out and seize all privately cast Muslim weapons. Chang was unable to obtain all the weapons and committed suicide to escape punishment.29 On October 13 t h Muslims from Mengting, including Ma Da and Zhang Shixian, attacked Jinji in retaliation for the massacre. Major Zhu Rigong and Shen Zhencong, Shen Jucheng's son, led troops and militia forces to meet the Muslims. Zhang Bilu and Wang Yifeng arrived from Baoshan with troops from the area and, along with General Yin Debu's troops from Tengyue ting, helped to repress the Muslims. Sheng points out that if Zhang and Wang had not come with reinforcements, Jinji and Banqiao would have fallen. The Hui, pursued by government troops, fled north to Xiaosong zhai. Fighting continued for four days until the Muslims were overpowered and forced to flee to Mengting. Casualties on both sides were high. Both Major Zhu and Shen Zhencong died in battle along with many soldiers. The Muslims also suffered severe casualties. Ma Da was one of the dead. Government troops recaptured three cannons taken by Muslims from Bingma. 3 0 On October 13 t h He set out for Yongchang to personally investigate and deal with the unrest in the area. He noted that the situation in Yongchang was extremely volatile and changed from "morning to night". In a memorial to the emperor He stressed the importance of going in person to assess the situation. He Changling received news of the October 13 t h attack when he reached Dali and set out for Baoshan immediately. News of the impending arrival of He and troops from north and south Yunnan caused the Hui at Mengting to disband 3 1 He Changllng arrived in Baoshan in November. He immediately began an investigation into the Han-Hui conflicts dating back to May 1845. He ordered the Prefect of Shunning to go to Mengting to investigate the situation. The prefect found that all the Muslim "rebels" had fled and that no weapons were cached 2 9 He, j.l 1, pp.99, 114 & 117. Sheng, p.67. Wu, p. 158. 3 0 He, j.l 1, pp.97, 100-02, 109-10 & 114-15. Sheng, pp.67-68. 3 1 He, j.11,p.114. 94 there. The original Muslim population of about one hundred pleaded innocence, claiming that the Muslim "rebels" had overpowered them. The prefect suggested leniency towards the inhabitants and He concurred.3 2 As a result of He's investigation, Captain Yang Chunfu was stripped of his office, flogged and imprisoned because of his retreat at Bingma. Yang's punishment was ordered from Beijing. Previously the emperor had ordered the demotion of district magistrate Li Zhengrong for his actions in the May 19th Incident. He Changling recommended that Li be reinstated to his position. He memorialized the emperor that Li had done his best under the circumstances and praised Li for the capture of several fei after the October 13 t h incident. Prefect Jin Cheng was demoted. Jin, the prefect In October 1845, had claimed to be 111 at the time of the massacre and had requested permission to vacate his post. He Changling felt that Jin had shirked his duties and demoted him 3 3 From his investigation He concluded that the XBH members who were responsible for the destruction of Muslim property in May 1845 had to be punished. He sentenced Wan Lingui to death and banished Zhang Jie and Yang Jiu to the malarial regions of western Yunnan 3 4 He Changling continued to give credence to the story that the Muslims had attempted to rebel in October. He ordered the arrest of Zhang Shixian and Ding Yongnian, sending dispatches to Sichuan, Shaanxi and Gansu requesting that officials in these provinces search for and arrest Zhang and Ding. Both had escaped from Mengting. The sub-prefect of Tengyue apprehended the men and sent them to Baoshan to be tried. He Changling sentenced Zhang and Ding to death for acts of sedition. He then memorialized the emperor that he had beheaded 3 2 He, j.l 1, pp.101, 102, 109, 115 & 117. Sheng, p.68 3 3 He, j.11, pp.109 & 116-17. 3 4 He, j. 11, pp. 101 -04, 110-11 & 115-17. Wu, p. 158. Lin Zexu and Sheng Yuhua record that Zhang Jie and Fan Zhong, not Yang Jiu, were exiled. Lin, j.3, p.207. Sheng, p.69. 95 Zhang, Ding and Wan in order to clearly warn other "rebels" that the government would not tolerate acts of sedition. 3 5 It is unclear why He was unable to discover the facts of the October 2 n d massacre once he had gone to Yongchang. The victory over the Muslims on October 2 n d was decisive. No other confrontation between Han and Hui was as clear cut. As Sheng Yuhua pointed out, the militia's "superhuman strength could determine victory over the old and young [Hui] inside the city, but was unable to determine victory over the thieves outside!" This fact alone should have led He to question the reports of rebellion. If indeed the Muslims had coordinated a rebellion, they would have been better prepared for battle. 3 6 The massacre appears to have been sparked by a combination of fear over the proximity of Hui at Bingma and by the XBH who had planted the rumor that a Muslim attack on Baoshan was imminent. He Changling took the quietness at Mengting as the conclusion of Han-Hui confrontations in Yongchang. He sent most of the troops back to their respective bases. A few troops were left behind to guard against Muslim "rebels" and to train local militia. He Changling also issued more than six thousand taels in aid to Han households that had suffered destruction. The prefect of Shunning had requested the aid claiming that "...more than one hundred [Han] zhai have been plundered and burned by Muslim rebels and the people have no where to sleep." No aid was given to Muslims. Revenue from the salt tax was issued to help finance the government militia and to protect the frontier. He Changling also ordered that xian and zhou in the area give husked grain to supplement military supplies. 3 7 He Changling returned to Kunming in January 1846, confident that his actions had secured peace in western Yunnan. A few fei had eluded capture, but 3 5 He, j.l 1, pp. 101-04, 107-08. Wu, p. 158. 3 6 Sheng, p.67 He, j.l 1, pp. 107 & 108. 3 7 He, j. 11, pp. 102 & 117-18. Sheng, p.68. 96 the chief perpetrators of the conflicts had been punished. He Changling noted that he had taken adequate precautions to ensure that the region was properly guarded. He ordered that the baojia system 3 8 be strictly carried out, so that "rebels" would have no place to hide, and directed Muslim religious leaders to aid in capture of Hui "rebels". He memorialized the emperor on January 7 t h that peace reigned in the frontier. In this memorial He emphasized that governing in frontier regions was very different from governing in the interior and indicated that clear and decisive warnings had to be given in order to stop trouble from spreading. He Changling was afraid that aborigines in border areas in western Yunnan and Muslims would form alliances and that rebellion would spread rampantly throughout the western frontier. Conspiracies of this nature, wrote He, could be avoided by strictly enforcing the law. He felt he had solved the problems by dealing fairly with both Han and Hui and by severely punishing the leaders of both groups 3 9 He Changling, however, had misread the situation and his claims of peace were premature. The Muslims of Yongchang greatly resented the settlement and violence flared again in the region shortly after He's return to the capital. The Muslims of Baoshan who were killed or fled during the massacre had left behind their land and other possessions. In February 1846 Muslims who had fled Baoshan, and others from the surrounding area, especially Yongping, demanded the return of the property to Hui control. Muslims claimed that the property had been taken over by local Han inhabitants. Officials, however, recorded that local Han were not being allowed to appropriate Hui properties. Muslims also requested travelling expenses to return to Baoshan and take up their old occupations. The district magistrate of Yongping denied the request, claiming that the "good Muslims" who had originally fled were now returning to their old occupations, 3 8 See glossary for a definition of the baojia system. 3 9 He, J.11, pp.115-18. 97 and that only those who feared returning because they were guilty of misdeeds ("outside evil Muslims" and youfei from the mines) were demanding property. He Changling concluded from this report that "outside and evil" Hui were inciting and misleading those who had fled Baoshan.4 0 Muslims once again took matters into their own hands. Placards denouncing the actions of government officials and local militia (referred to as "militia bandits") when dealing with Muslims were posted throughout the countryside in marketplaces, villages and cities. The placards listed Hui grievances starting from 1833.41 The writers claimed that Muslims everywhere in western Yunnan were in danger, declaring that local authorities when dealing with Muslims "...did not inquire if [a Muslim's] principles were straight or crooked...", they simply killed all Hui indiscriminately. The events of October 2 n d were denounced and Luo Tianchi, Heng Wen, Jin Cheng and Shen Jucheng were fingered as the chief perpetrators of the massacre. It was written that if Muslims "...did not seek revenge, then every place [in Yunnan] would imitate and exceed this pattern in evil and not a solitary man would be left." The placards stressed that Muslims only wished to seek revenge and that they had no intentions of rebellion or of injuring innocent Han. The placards listed six incidents in which crimes against Muslims had been dealt with unfairly by local authorities. 4 2 The placards led to the gathering of more than two thousand men at Mengting under the leadership of Huang Baba, an ahong from Shaanxi, and Zhang Fu, a Muslim who had fled Baoshan after October 2 n d According to local officials, many of the men gathered at Mengting were youfei from the mines and Muslims who had no direct connection with the property under contention. He 4 0 He, j. l2, pp. 119-20. 4 1 Events in 1833, discussed in chapter 3, were cited as an example of the power that local Han had over officials in the area. 4 2 "Yongchang HuiminXiwen", HMQY, v. 1, pp.91 -92. 98 Changling also wrote that Huang Baba practiced black magic and deluded his followers into believing that they could resist the guns of government troops. This was confirmed later on by the testimony of captured Hui. He Changling reported to the court that the people involved in the unrest were "evil" Hui, Muslims "deluded" by Huang's claims of magical powers and youfei seeking profits. 4 3 When He reported the unrest to Beijing, he pointed out that he had allowed the Muslims to present their grievances at his investigation in 1845 and that the issue of property had not been mentioned. He Changling claimed that he had settled all problems and reiterated his view that "good" Muslims who had originally fled Baoshan were being encouraged by local officials to return to resume their old occupations. He once again memorialized the court concerning the importance of the enforcement of the baojia system in bringing peace to the region. 4 4 It is difficult to know if He really believed he had settled all the problems, or whether he simply wished to present his actions to the court in the best possible light. If He truly believed that all grievances were settled, he obviously did not comprehend the enormity and complexity of the problem In western Yunnan. Huang Baba and his followers initially plundered villages and robbed travellers at Daya Pass, amassing more than 4,800 silver taels. On April I, 1846 Huang attacked the barracks at Feishi pass with a contingent of more than two thousand men. The commanding second captain, a Muslim, refused to collaborate, was captured, and tortured to death. The Hui were victorious, inflicting severe losses on the troops stationed at the barracks and causing many to flee. Huang Baba then went on to sever and burn the Jihong bridge which spanned the Mekong 4 3 He, j. 12, pp. 119-20 & 130-31. Han, p. 178. 4 4 He, j. 12, pp. 119-20, 127, 128 & 130-32. Lin Zexu, j. 1, p. 193. 9 9 River and continued to raid villages in the area. Zhang Bilu heard of the attack and led government troops with General Yin Debu from Tengyue to stop Huang. A bloody battle was fought at Niujiao Pass and Huang, along with many of his followers, was killed. Muslims and youfei dispersed and retreated into the thick bamboo groves surrounding the area. Some withdrew to Guanpo where they once again fought government troops and militia forces, including tuaniian. Heavy losses were inflicted on the Hui. The prefect of Yongchang praised two militia heads, Zhang Wenru and Zhang Wenjian, for their valour in battle. 4 5 He Changling received a report from Zhang Bilu in April informing him of the events. He Changling memorialized the emperor that the actions of the Muslims constituted rebellion and that their punishment, once caught, would be death. He also determined from these reports that inept governing by Luo Tianchi and Heng Wen had caused the unrest. He Changling concluded from the report that Zhang and local authorities had brought the situation under control and therefore informed the court that it was unnecessary for him to go to Yongchang to oversee an investigation. The 1846 Muslim declaration and the troubles that ensued forced He, in a memorial dated April 22, 1846 to rescind the recommendations for promotion of Luo Tianchi and the other officials. He Changling now wrote that Luo and the others had gone to excess in the massacre of Muslims in Baoshan. Later, in 1847, the emperor, acting on a report from the then Governor-General Li Xingyuan, ordered that Luo be removed from office in disgrace. Despite this change in the records, the Yongchang Gazetteer, complied in 1885, still recorded the events of October 2 n d as the suppression of a Muslim rebellion 4 6 Unrest in the area was not suppressed. Muslims regrouped at Mengting under the leadership of Zhang Fu and Ma Xlaoqing and fighting continued 4 5 He, j.l2, pp. 120-23 & 127-29. Sheng, p.68. 4 6 He, j. 12, pp. 122 & 135. Li Xingyuan, "Li Wengong Gong Zouyi", HMQY. v. 1, j. 13, pp. 157-59. SL-DG. J.440. D.3. Wu, p. 159. YCF_Z, j.28, p. 137b. 100 sporadically into May with both sides suffering casualties. The rainy season and malaria were now hampering the government's efforts to repress the Muslims. The Hui were better acquainted with the terrain of the region and therefore the rains did not affect them as adversely as they did government troops, the majority of whom were not from the area. Mengting and the surrounding area were also almost impregnable and this severely hampered the government's attempts to defeat the Muslims. He Changling transferred additional troops from other districts to fight at Mengting.47 In June, He responded to an imperial edict from Beijing which expressed disapproval of the situation in western Yunnan. The edict noted that He had informed the court in January that all grievances were settled and peace with the Muslims secured. He's more recent reports of violence, however, led Beijing to believe that Muslims were running "wild" in Yongchang. The emperor feared that if the Hui were not repressed, a larger conspiracy between the Muslims and youfei would lead to rebellion on a wider scale. The youfei were obviously large enough in number to be considered a potential threat to imperial rule in western Yunnan. The court ordered He to go in person to tranquilize the frontier. He Changling set out for Dali at the end of May 4 8 In June, Zhang Fu's food supply was depleted and he and his followers were forced to retreat to Youdian. There they resorted to raiding the countryside for provisions. Fighting with government forces continued. Government troops and militia captured and killed many Muslims, but were unable to completely vanquish the Hui and neither Zhang Fu nor Ma Xiaoqing were captured. In July, He received a report from General Yin Debu and local officials stating that both Zhang and Ma had surrendered to officials. The report suggested that Zhang and Ma be pardoned, noting that if they were killed Muslim unrest in the area would 4 7 He, j. 12, pp. 123-24 4 8 He, j. 12, pp. 123-25. Sheng, pp.68-69. 101 continue to escalate. He Changling ordered Yin and the local officials to carefully investigate the claims of surrender. The claims were considered sincere and He subsequently recommended to the court that Zhang and Ma be pardoned "...in order to settle the disturbances" and ensure peace in the region. Officials were ordered by He to negotiate a peace settlement. In the peace agreement Zhang Fu and Ma Xiaoqing were pardoned and Muslims from Mengting were permitted to return to their homes. This settlement, however, did not bring an end to Han-Hui conflicts. 4 9 The emperor was displeased by the events in Yunnan. In October 1846 He again quoted an imperial edict. The edict noted that "someone" had informed the court in August that Muslim banditry was spreading rapidly in western Yunnan and that officials in Yongchang were not handling the situation. The Shilu records that several men memorialized the emperor concerning this situation. He Changling in his memorial pleaded that the situation was improving and stated that he always presented the court with the actual facts of unrest. In fact, He had often informed the emperor that the frontier was peaceful when it was not and had himself admitted that he had misinformed the court about the October 2 n d massacre. The court was also displeased that He had accepted the surrender of the two Hui leaders, Zhang and Ma, who were guilty of having taken part in many of the disturbances. After receiving the critical edict, He once again attempted to justify his decision to pardon Zhang and Ma and assured the emperor that they had both truly returned to the allegiance of the government. The court remained unswayed and removed He from his post. He Changling was subsequently demoted to the post of Financial Commissioner of Henan province. He left Kunming in November 1846. 5 0 4 9 He, j. 12, pp. 125-33 & 136-37. Sheng, pp.68-69. 50 He, j.12, pp. 133-38 SL-PG. j.432, pp.3-4, j.433, pp. 15-17. 102 LI Xingyuan succeeded He as Governor-General of Yun-Gui, retaining the post for six months. The only unrest recorded in the Baoshan area at this time was the murder of several Muslim rent collectors in Banqiao in February 1847. Although Yongchang was relatively peaceful during Li's tenure, Han-Hui conflicts did break out in other areas of Yunnan. Prior to Li's arrival in Kunming, more than one thousand Muslims had gathered in a village near Mianning, declaring that they intended to avenge the events of 1839.5 1 Muslims in Yunzhou subsequently freed two Muslim convicts who were about to be executed. The Muslims at Mianning joined those at Yunzhou and began to attack Chinese villages in the area. 5 2 Li Xingyuan despatched troops to the region and suppressed the unrest within two months. Zhang Fu and Ma Xiaoqing were involved in the fighting. Zhang Fu was killed in battle in January 1847 and Ma was captured by government forces in March of the same year and summarily executed. Li wrote several memorials to the emperor concerning Zhang's death in battle, but the court was not easily convinced. Zhang had been involved in numerous conflicts over the years and the court feared that he had in fact escaped. Beijing requested that Lin Zexu investigate the matter in 1847 to ensure that Zhang truly was dead. 5 3 Li Xingyuan secretly memorialized the emperor regarding the enmity between Han and Hui and how it should be controlled. He wrote that with the declining prosperity of the mining industry large numbers of unemployed, unattached men were roaming the countryside. These men readily took part in conflicts for profit. Li contended that this intensified the volatility of Han-Hui relations and as a result conflicts flared up more quickly. Li suggested, as had He Changling, that officials strictly enforce the policy of baojia and that local militia be trained in order to control Han-Hui conflicts. Beijing was pleased with the results Li obtained and six months after he had received the post of 5 1 See Appendix 1. 5 2 Li Yuzhen, p. 187. Lin Zexu, j . 1, p. 194. 5 3 SL-DG. j.440. pp. 1-3. Sheng, p.69. Lin Zexu, j.7, p.232. Wei, pp.47-48. 1 0 3 Governor-General Li was awarded the title of Taizi Taibao and the decoration of the peacock feather. Li was promoted to Governor-General of Liang-Jiang. 5 4 Lin Zexu succeeded Li as Governor-General. Shortly after Lin assumed the post, he received an order from Beijing instructing him to reopen the investigation of the events of October 2, 1845. Twice in 1847 Baoshan Muslims had travelled to Beijing to appeal to the throne for justice. Ding Canting and Mu Lianke accused Han xiangfef \T\ Baoshan of creating disturbances and killing innocent people. Du Wenxiu and Liu Yi arrived several days after Ding and Mu and again accused Han fei of causing unrest in Baoshan in October 1845. Acting on these accusations, Beijing ordered Lin to reopen the case 5 5 After receiving the orders, Lin Zexu expressed concern in a memorial to the court over the possibility of discovering the true circumstances surrounding the events of October 1845. Lin feared that local officials from the time would "gloss over" their indiscretions. Lin, after examining the records of Han-Hui conflicts in western Yunnan, informed the court that the authors of the two complaints had falsely listed Muslim unrest from May to September 1845 as occurring after the October massacre. Lin also wrote that the Han felt that local officials protected the Hui and that the Muslims felt that officials shielded the Han. Lin informed the court that the October 2 n d massacre was the most extreme case of Han-Hui enmity in Yunnan 5 6 From the records of the conflicts Lin concluded, as had Li Xingyuan, that the control of youfei in the region was paramount, if peace was to be achieved. He also concluded that both Han and Hui were guilty of misdoings. Lin memorialized that the baojia system had to be strictly carried out to ensure that there were no places for youfei to live. Lin ordered that officials in 5 4 SLzQG, j-440, pp. I-3, j.442, p.4. Lin Zexu, j. I, pp. 185 & 192. Wei, pp.48-49. 5 5 Lin Zexu, j . l , p. 190, j.3, p.206, j.7, p.228. 5 6 Lin Zexu, j . l , pp. 190-94. 104 Yongchang and Shunning carry out the law and not distinguish between Han or Hui. He also decreed that local gentry and Hui religious leaders should discipline members of their communities and mutually protect each other. 5 7 In total, two hundred and seven Han had been listed by Ding Canting and Du Wenxiu in their accusations. Lin noted that this was too large a number to transport all at once to the provincial capital. The distance and rough terrain made such a trip too hazardous. Lin also noted that in 1847 two Han, Zhang Jie and Fan Zhong, who had been sentenced by He Changling to exile, were murdered by Muslims while being transported to the malarial regions of Yunnan. Lin, wishing to avoid a repeat of this incident, ordered officials In Yongchang to forward the chief accused persons. Zhou Yuexiang and nine other men were selected to be transported to Kunming under heavy guard. Shen Jucheng was named as one of the ringleaders in the accusation, but he escaped from Jinji and eluded transfer to Kunming.58 Lin Zexu at this time was unaware of the fact that by 1847 a magician wielded significant power over the populace in Baoshan and its surrounding areas. Shen Jucheng and his family had long been disciples of an aboriginal magician named Jin Hunqiu. According to Sheng Yuhua, Jin was responsible for innumerable conflicts in the aboriginal regions of western Yunnan 5 9 Jin was the man who had given the charm of eating white peppers before battle to Shen Jucheng in 1845. Jin and many followers entered Baoshan in June of 1847. The district magistrate at the time, Han Pengri, spoke out against Jin, but Jin received great support from the local populace, many of whom believed in his magical powers. Jin and some of his followers took up residence in a temple in 5 7 Lin Zexu, j . l , pp. 190-94 & j.3, p.206. 5 8 Lin Zexu, j.3, pp.206-07, j.5, p.221, & j.7, p.229. Sheng, p.69. 5 9 Some sources note that Jin was an aboriginal. Li Yuzhen, p. 188. Sheng, p.70. Alice Wei writes that Jin was a Baiyi, however, I found no reference to that in my research. Wei, p.63. 105 the city. From there, Jin dispensed magical potions and charms that supposedly enabled recipients to withstand guns and cannons. Those who had formerly followed Shen Jucheng also followed J i n . 6 0 Upon hearing of the transfer of men to Kunming, Shen Zhenda, the adopted son of Shen Jucheng, and Zhang Shizhong planned to attack the convoy and release the accused. They turned to Jin for help. Jin consulted the gods and divined from oracle bamboo pieces that such an attack would be successful. Shen and Zhang subsequently secretly contracted a local man to manufacture guns for them. Local officials were becoming suspicious of Jin and ordered that he leave Baoshan. Shen Zhenda and a few others secretly moved Jin to Jinji. They then gathered several thousand men from the northern shao. On January 5, 1848 the prefect, Li Hengqian, and the district magistrate, Han Pengri, set out for the provincial capital with the ten accused under heavy guard. The convoy got as far as Ouanpo, only twenty kilometres from Baoshan. There they were attacked by Shen and his followers. Those guarding the convoy were unable to repel the attack and the accused were all freed. The sedan chairs of the officials were destroyed and the attackers seized several thousand taels of silver, horses, weapons and several trunks of clothing before retreating.61 The evening of the attack the prefect and district magistrate returned to Baoshan, shut the city gates and proclaimed martial law. The soldiers in the city at the time were insufficient to guard against attack and Han Pengri records that almost half of them were the "ears and eyes" of the XBH. The following day Shen 6 0 Sheng, pp.69-70. Han, p. 179. Both taking teachers or transmitting to disciples" and the practice of magic were i 1 legal in China by 1813. See Da Qing  Huidian Shilu. 766: 10 in Joseph Esherick, The Origins of the Boxer Uprising. (Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1987), p.42. 6 1 Sheng, pp.69-70. Lin Zexu, j.5, pp.221-22. Han, pp. 178-80. YCFZ, j.28, p. 138a. 106 Zhenda, Zhang Wenru 6 2, Zhang Shizhong and their followers from the four northern shao climbed over the city walls and proceeded to kill the Hui who had returned to Baoshan after the October 2 n d massacre. Many Muslims sought refuge in the district magistrate's compound. Shen and his followers released all the prisoners in the jail and then burned the compound to the ground, killing all the Hui inside. Muslim youths from Tengyue who were in Baoshan sitting government examinations were also murdered. The district magistrate and other officials were not killed, but their movements were restricted. Sheng Yuhua writes that Han Pengri was uninjured because he was considered to be a benevolent off icial . 6 3 After the attack members of the shao militia, fearing reprisals from government troops once news of the attack reached Kunming, attempted to convince local officials to blame Muslims for the unrest. When local officials refused to cooperate, Shen Zhenda and Zhang Shizhong began preparing for battle. They ordered the bridge spanning the Mekong River severed and posted guards at all the strategic passes surrounding the city in order to ensure that official despatches or travellers did not carry the news of the attack to Kunming. Food supplies were rationed by shao militia men. Jin Hunqiu made waxen images of wild beasts and had them buried in front of the city gate on the main road and again issued magical charms and potions to shao militia men. The images supposedly had the power to stop government troops from entering Baoshan and the potions the power to enable men to withstand bullets and knives 6 4 Back in Kunming Lin Zexu became concerned over the delay in the arrival of the prisoners from Yongchang. Twenty-five days after the convoy had set out, 6 2 Zhang Wenru, like so many of the militia heads and XBH members, had originally fought on the side of the government against the Muslims. Zhang had been praised by officials for his actions in battle against Huang Baba in 1846. 6 3 Sheng, pp.70-71. Han, pp. 178-80. Lin Zexu, j. 3, p.208 & j.5, p.222. 6 4 Sheng, p.70. Lin Zexu, j.3, p.208, j.5, pp.222-23. Han, p. 179. 107 (almost twice as long as usual), Lin simultaneously received despatches from the intendant, the prefect, the magistrate and the military commander in Baoshan. The reports claimed that the convoy with the prisoners had set out on January 6 t h , market day. Rumors were rampant that Muslims Intended to waylay the prisoners and the crowds from market day, along with the prisoners, beseeched the officials to postpone the transfer. In the confusion the prisoners escaped. The reports went on to state that the Hui then torched the magistrate's compound. Han prisoners in the jail had managed to put out the fire, but some escaped in the melee. Government troops supposedly brought the situation under control. 6 5 All of these despatches were forgeries. Shen Zhenda and others had forced local officials to write and seal the despatches. It is interesting to note that the Yongchang Gazetteer, although it records that Shen Zhenda attacked the convoy, freed the prisoners and then murdered Muslims inside Baoshan, still lays the destruction of the district magistrate's compound at the hands of the Muslims. 6 6 Lin Zexu's suspicions were aroused. He memorialized the emperor that it was too much of a coincidence for all the despatches to arrive on the same day and for them to be identical. Prior to the arrival of the despatches, Lin had received accounts from officials in districts neighbouring Baoshan detailing the actual events. Lin was able to ascertain the true facts from the military runners he despatched and from reports made by several men who had escaped from Baoshan after the initial attack. Lin, acting on these reports, memorialized the emperor that a state of rebellion existed in Baoshan. Lin immediately mobilized troops. He also took one hundred thousand taels from the salt tax reserves to finance the campaign.6 7 6 5 Lin Zexu, j.3, p.208 & j.5, p.222. 6 6 YCF_Z, j.28, pp.138a-b. 6 7 Lin Zexu, j.3, pp.209-10 & j.4, p.217. 108 Lin was aware that the rough terrain in western Yunnan and the weakness of the soldiers in Baoshan necessitated the transfer of many troops. He therefore mobilized troops and militia from several districts in the province and brought in forces from Guizhou. Lin recognized that the difficult terrain would hamper government troops unfamiliar with the area and therefore mobilized militia men from tuci regions who were familiar with the landscape. Lin organized the plan of attack in Kunming and despatched directives to his troops. On February 23, 1848, once everything was in order in the capital, Lin himself set out for Dal i . 6 8 Lin was concerned that those people who were coerced into joining the shao militia men would be killed indiscriminately with the truly "evil fei". Lin therefore issued a proclamation and had it posted throughout the countryside. The proclamation stated that those people who aided government troops in capturing the head fei would receive a lightened punishment. It also ordered that the severed bridge be repaired, that official despatches and travellers be allowed free travel through the Yongchang area and that all stolen government military weapons be returned. The proclamation stated that if the demands were not met, then "the jade and the stone would be burned together"6 9 and the fields of the area would be destroyed. Lin hoped that this would induce the local population to help government troops capture the chief perpetrators more swiftly and bring peace to the western frontier of the province. 7 0 Word reached Baoshan and the neighbouring areas that government troops and militia were advancing. This, combined with the proclamation and the recent defeat of rebels in Midu 7 1 , according to Lin, convinced inhabitants to cooperate 6 8 Lin, j.3, pp.209-10& j.4, p.217. Sheng, p.73. 6 9 A Chinese saying indicating the indiscriminate destruction of good and bad alike. 7 0 Lin Zexu, J.3, pp.210-11. Han, p. 180. 7 1 See Appendix 1 109 with officials. Sheng Yuhua, however, records a slightly different story. He writes that local officials in Baoshan, shortly after January 6 t h , attempted to negotiate peace with Shen Jucheng. (Shen was in Jinji at the time.) Apparently Shen's concubine, Shen Lizhi, obstructed these attempts and no progress was made. Shen's adopted son, Jin Hunqiu and Zhang Shizhong insisted on resisting officials. They tried to convince Shen Jucheng that Jin be instated as the leader of Yongchang. Shen remained undecided. Officials in Baoshan at this time were mustering what forces they could. In the beginning of March officials from the city sent an order to Shen Jucheng in Jinji commanding him to aid in the capture of shao fei, Shen complied. No reason is given by Sheng Yuhua for Shen's acquiescence. The local gentry, in conjunction with heads of the baojia system and local officials, ordered the bridge repaired and allowed official despatches to freely enter and leave the city. Most weapons were recovered and those men who had escaped from the jail were captured or returned on their own recognizance. Several shao militia men were captured and presented to authorities, including Shen Zhenda, Zhang Shizhong, Jin Hunqiu and Zhang Wenru. Shen aided in the arrest of his adopted son Shen Zhenda. Lin attributed the successful suppression of unrest to the local inhabitants' fear of the advancing army."72 Shortly after the arrests Lin went to Baoshan to ensure that the situation was under control. He noted that Jinji had become a veritable fortress and ordered the wall surrounding the village demolished and the moat filled in. Lin also ordered the district magistrate's compound and Baoshan's city wall repaired. 7 3 In total, four hundred and thirty-six "criminals" were arrested. The head fei were executed. Those who committed lesser crimes were flogged and 7 2 Lin, j.5, p.223 & j.7, p.229. Sheng, pp.71-73. Han, p. 180. Wu, p. 160. 7 3 Lin Zexu, j.5, pp.223-26 & j.7, p.232. 110 banished. Shen Jucheng was sentenced to banishment. His lighter sentence probably stemmed from the fact that in the end he had cooperated with authorities. Lin recorded that Shen died in prison, but other sources indicate that Shen and his concubine committed suicide in Yongping. Lin also arrested the men responsible for the murder of the Muslim rent collectors in Banqiao in 184774 Lin returned to Kunming satisfied that peace was secured in Baoshan. A number of men were transported to the provincial capital for trial. Lin suggested to the imperial court that the four Muslims who had taken their complaints to Beijing not be punished for inflating the number of dead in the October massacre or for claiming that Muslims had not created unrest in Yongchang before the initial massacre. Lin wrote that these men had already suffered enough through deaths in their families and loss of property. The men were not punished. Lin also sentenced Huang Gui, the man responsible for kidnapping Du Wenxiu's betrothed, to death. 7 5 Originally Lin had memorialized the emperor that Han and Hui could co-exist peacefully if the youfei In the region were controlled and the baojia system strictly carried out. After the events of 1848, however, it appears that Lin no longer felt that the Han and Hui of Baoshan could live together in peace. He consequently ordered the resettlement of the Muslim families still residing in the Baoshan area - approximately two hundred households - to Guannai Shan. It is unclear what choice Muslims in the area had regarding resettlement. They obviously were not allowed to remain in Baoshan, but research does not indicate whether or not they had a choice of moving to other areas in the province. Not all Muslims in the area were resettled. Du Wenxiu was one Muslim who did not move to Guannai Shan. Lin memorialized the emperor that the distance of Guannai Shan 7 4 Lin Zexu, j.5, pp.223-26 & j.7, p.232. Sheng, p.73. Han, p. 180. Wu, p. 161. 7 5 Lin Zexu, j.5, pp.223-24. Wu, p. 161. I l l from Baoshan, about one hundred kilometres, was great enough to put an end to Han-Hui conflicts. 7 6 Guannai Shan, bordered by the Salween River and mountains, had little arable land and was inhabited by aboriginals. Resettled Muslims received minimal compensation for the property they had previously lost or were forced to leave behind, including their mosques. They were forced to break in new land for their homes and start a community practically from scratch. Those who moved to Guannai Shan were given provisions for three months to help "ease" the difficulties of their resettlement. Lin recorded that in compensation for Muslim losses, local officials in Baoshan were ordered to repair Muslim graves desecrated during the unrest. Lin wrote that previous enmity was "melted away" by this action. Other sources, however, record that the Hui greatly resented the loss of their properties and the resettlement. This settlement was to become another cause for grievance among the Muslims of western Yunnan. Muslims were to seek vengeance in the area when Du Wenxiu's troops conquered Baoshan in 1861 7 7 7 6 Lin Zexu, j . l0, pp.246-48. Wei, p.62. 7 7 Lin Zexu, j.10, pp.246-48. Wu, p. 165-66 112 FIVE CONCLUSION Studies of conflicts between majority and minority groups in China have tended to overemphasize ethnic hostilities as a motivation for unrest, often to the exclusion of other factors. Such a one dimensional approach, frequently provides inadequate explanations for the causes of conflicts involving different ethnic groups. Recently historians have begun to look at other possible causative factors. The importance of analyzing the local setting and the socioeconomic conditions of a region, as well as ethnic tensions, is now recognized.1 The findings of this study indicate that while ethnic tensions in Yongchang were an important factor in Han-Hui conflicts, taken alone they were not sufficient to cause the hostilities that occurred throughout the 1840's. During the first half of the nineteenth century, the local setting and deteriorating socioeconomic conditions in the region exacerbated existing Han-Hui tensions to the point of open conflict. Economic and social decline were not problems unique to nineteenth century Yunnan. During the 1800's most of China faced problems similar to those in Yunnan and these conditions helped to foster discontent among the populace. Declining socioeconomic conditions which precipitated Han-Hui conflicts in Yongchang in the 1840's also were major causative factors in unrest in other areas of the country, especially in Guangdong and Guangxi. The further opening of China to the West as a result of the Opium Wars led to the disruption of established trade routes and increased social dislocation in southern China. Changes in trading patterns left large numbers of men in Guangdong unemployed 1 See Robert Jenks, "The Miao Rebellion, 1854-1872: Insurgency and Social Disorder in Kwelchow During the Taiping Era", unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Harvard Univ., 1985. 113 and, as in Yunnan, many of these men turned to banditry and secret societies for their source of livelihood. Many of the unemployed from Guangdong migrated to Guangxi where they also were involved with secret societies, gentry-run militia forces and bandit gangs. As in Yongchang, the increasing volatility of the environment in Guangxi and Guangdong led to rapid local militarization. Population pressures, corruption among officials, and the problem of a weakened central government affected all of nineteenth century China and onerous tax burdens and the rising value of silver in relation to copper were damaging to practically all social groups. These conditions bred discontent among much of Chinese society and armed conflicts were frequently the result. In Guangdong declining socioeconomic conditions along with ethnic tensions precipitated conflicts between the Bendi and the Hakkas in the first half of the nineteenth century. The Taiplng Rebellion also emerged from these conditions. Tensions between Han and Hui existed in China since the arrival of the first Muslims. Ethnic tensions were extant in Yongchang prior to the 1840's. He Changling and Lin Zexu both noted this fact. Han prejudices were conditioned more by cultural, racial and economic factors, than by religious ones. Hui prejudices appear to have stemmed from religious and social differences. Religious and social customs set Hui apart from Han and were a source of friction. Both groups viewed many of each other's customs as strange and at times contemptible. Muslims considered themselves distinct from and, in many ways, superior to the Chinese. The Han believed that they were superior to the Hui. The Chinese viewed Muslims as foreigners and animosity and suspicion stemmed from this belief. The greatest frictions in Yongchang occurred in situations where Han and Hui were in contact on a daily basis. Muslims were isolated socially and sometimes physically from the Han. The Hui appear to have been comfortable with this arrangement, often living in 114 totally Muslim villages or dominating certain sections of towns. The tightly knit nature of Hui communities was viewed by the Han as a potential threat and the mentality of 'us against them' easily arose out of this situation. Sharp differences existed between Han and Hui in social structure, cultural practices and religious beliefs and both groups worked to maintain strong ethnic boundaries.2 In the 1840's Hui and Han in Yongchang mobilized along ethnic, not class lines. Muslims and Chinese appear to have co-existed in Yongchang with only minor problems as long as other factors were not introduced to further aggravate the situation. During the first half of the nineteenth century, deteriorating socioeconomic conditions In Yunnan, and China in general, exacerbated existing Han-Hui tensions. The massive influx of migrants Into Yunnan (mostly Han in search of land and work) dramatically increased the population of the province. This rise In population substantially altered the ethnic composition of Yunnan and created social and administrative strains. The almost total collapse of the mining industry in the nineteenth century further worsened economic conditions. Many of the new immigrants were miners and they, along with numerous local inhabitants, had difficulties finding work. These men frequently turned to banditry as a source of livelihood. Competition between Han and Hui In Yongchang on the economic level had always been a source of friction. The Hui were predominantly involved in business and trade and appear to have owned a fair amount of land in Baoshan. The perceived success and wealth of Muslims In Yongchang evoked the envy of the Chinese. During the nineteenth century, both groups began to compete for increasingly scarce resources. As life became more difficult, Han and Hui competed more directly for land and in the commercial sphere. Land may have 2 Norma Diamond, "The Miao and Poison: Interactions on China's Southwestern Frontier", Ethnology, v.27.1, 1988, p. 18. 115 been an Issue in the events of October 1845, as local Han appropriated Hui lands in Baoshan after the massacre. The Han also were able to take over Muslim lands and other properties in 1848. The social environment in Yunnan was an important causative factor in the Han-Hui conflicts of the 1840's. The frontier environment, the prevalence of banditry, the many social misfits, magicians and malcontents who either migrated to Yunnan, or resided there, and the weakened and inefficient state of local government all affected the Incidence of Han-Hui conflicts. In the nineteenth century Yongchang was a frontier region within a frontier province. A frontier society is plagued with the problems of weakened governmental controls, an armed population and large numbers of unattached males. All of these conditions existed In Yongchang and all of them Invite violence. The frontier environment in the prefecture and the mentality it created facilitated the rise of illegal organizations and made it easier for conflicts to spread. This environment probably exacerbated Han-Hui tensions prior to the 1840's. Its effects, however, would have intensified as the population increased and economic conditions worsened. In the nineteenth century banditry was rampant in western Yunnan. Local officials were unable to control bandit gangs and this, in conjunction with weak governmental controls in the region, led inhabitants increasingly to take the law Into their own hands. Neither Han nor Hui felt that local officials were capable of fairly resolving grievances. Both groups armed themselves and the Han formed new organizations - the XBH and militia forces - to protect their interests and to fight the Hui. Muslims had no need to establish new organizations as Islam was their uniting force and local mosques served as organizational units and focal points for Hui communities. The existence of strong Han militia forces in Yongchang further demonstrates the weakened state of local government and the inability of regular troops to maintain order in the region. 116 The local setting also was a factor in Han-Hui strife. While it is not plausible to argue that the local setting caused unrest, its very nature - the harsh terrain and physical isolation from centres of governmental control -definitely facilitated the rise of illegal organizations and allowed men to more easily evade capture by government troops. The events of 1848 indicate the readiness of local inhabitants to take the law into their own hands. Neither Han nor Hui during the conflicts of the 1840's, however, were motivated by a desire to overthrow the local government. The Han who freed the ten accused men in 1848 appear to have been motivated by a desire to ensure that no Han were punished for their actions against the Hui in October 1845. The shao militia men Involved obviously felt that local officials, by allowing the transfer of the accused to Kunming, were no longer protecting the rights of the Han. Available sources indicate that their plan was simply to release the prisoners. There is no evidence to suggest that Shen Zhenda and the others wanted to overthrow the local government. It was only after officials refused to send a report to the Oovernor-Oeneral blaming the Hui for the violence, that Shen and the others took over the city and prepared for battle. The actions of Shen and the militia men do not appear to have had widespread popular support. Officials In Baoshan were able to convince Shen Jucheng to aid in the capture of the leaders of the violence, and Han in other areas of the prefecture also cooperated with authorities. It seems that the Inhabitants either felt that the militia had gone too far in their attack on Baoshan and the officials or that the fear generated by approaching troops prompted locals to support the government. Either way, Shen Zhenda and the others lost the backing of the majority of the local populace. Joseph Esherick, in his new work on the Boxer Uprisings, emphasizes the significance of the social environment when examining unrest. Esherick writes that the "...local socioeconomic environment [in Shandong] not only facilitated the 117 rise of these new organizations [the Boxers and Big Swords], but influenced the form that they would take."3 The findings of this study concur with Esherick's thesis that the local socioeconomic environment can facilitate the rise of heterodox organizations. The findings of this study, however, are not sufficient to determine whether or not the local socioeconomic environment influenced the form that these organizations took. Esherick explores the local socioeconomic environment of Shandong in far greater detail than this study does of Yongchang. By examining the strength of the orthodox elite and degrees and forms of stratification in Shandong as well as many other factors, Esherick is able to arrive at his conclusions. A more detailed study of the socioeconomic environment of Yongchang may also indicate that the social environment constrained the possible forms that organizations took in the area. During the later Panthay Rebellion Hui, under the leadership of Du Wenxiu, attempted to establish control over Yunnan and set up a Muslim government. Evidence does not suggest, however, that Hui unrest In Yongchang in the 1840's was motivated by a desire to overthrow the provincial government or by an ambition to form a Muslim state. Available sources indicate that the Hui simply wanted to receive "fair" treatment from local officials. Unrest in the prefecture was directed against Han inhabitants and local officials. Officials in the region were perceived by the Hui as anti-Muslim and neither capable nor willing to protect the Hui from Han violence. Four Muslims, including Du Wenxiu, sought redress in Beijing in 1847 for crimes against the Hui in Yongchang. Du and the others obviously anticipated that their complaints would be resolved by the central government. In 1847 then, Du still felt that the emperor was capable and willing to deal fairly with Hui 3 Joseph W. Esherick, The Origins of the Boxer Uprisings. (Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1987), pp.318 & 319. 118 grievances. It is unlikely that Du would have sought redress In the capital If he or Muslims In Yongchang had adopted an anti-QIng stance. The trip to Beijing did not result In the return of Hui lands. Du and other Muslims from Baoshan and the surrounding area received no compensation for the lands they had lost. Compounding this problem was the fact that once again In 1848 Muslims In the Baoshan area either lost their lands or were forced to sell to local Han. The actions of the Qlng government after complaints had been taken to Beijing, must have convinced Du Wenxlu and other Hui that the central government, by 1849, either was unable or unwilling to protect Muslim Interests In the province. This must have had some influence on Du's decision to form his own government in 1856. Local studies, such as this one, are necessary for a more complete understanding of Muslim unrest and Muslim communities in nineteenth century China. The importance of grounding studies of Hui unrest In the local context of each Muslim community has been emphasized by several works.4 Some studies have separated the Hui in China from their local context, assuming that all Muslim communities are similar. This has led to broad generalizations about Muslims in China which do not hold true for all Hui communities.5 Han-Hui relations in the nineteenth century, and in modern times, depended to a great extent on local factors. Studies therefore, need to be as firmly grounded in the local context as sources allow. The diversity within Muslim communities in Yunnan and the divisions among the Hui during the Panthay Rebellion indicate the 4 See Dru Gladney," QingZhen: A Study of Ethnoreligious Identity Among the Hui Muslim Communities in China"," unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. of Washington, 1987b, p.57. Wen-djana Chu. The Moslem Rebellion in Northwest  China. 1862-1878. A Study of Government Minority Policy. (The Hague: Mouton, 1966), p.246. 5 See Marshall Broomhall, Islam In China a Neglected Problem. (London: Morgan & Scott, 1910). Raphael Israeli. Muslims in China. A Study in Cultural  Confrontation. (London: Curzon Press, 1978). 119 need for local studies, if Muslim unrest in the province is to be more fully understood. The conclusions of this local study provide the most information about the causes of Muslim unrest in western Yunnan. Certain similarities, however, do exist between Muslim unrest in other areas of Yunnan and in the Northwest. Growing economic hardships coupled with discrimination by Han officials against Muslims and the decline of the Qing dynasty appear to be essential causative factors In Muslim unrest throughout nineteenth century China. 6 Therefore, while there is great diversity among Muslim communities in China, there are certain causative factors common to many Han-Hui conflicts in the nineteenth century. The findings of this study raise questions about the existence of links between Muslim communities in China during the nineteenth century, especially between the Hui in the Northwest and Yunnan. Religious networks must have existed between these two areas. The Hui in Yunnan since the Yuan dynasty, sent boys studying to be ahongs to Gansu and Shaanxi for training. Muslims from the Northwest, including religious leaders, travelled to Yunnan and were involved in many of the conflicts In the 1840's. In the nineteenth century many Hui were traders and long distance caravan workers and therefore economic networks linking Hui communities must have existed. More work needs to be done on the extent and Influence of these networks. The role of other minority groups In Yunnan in the nineteenth century also merits further examination. He Changling frequently memorialized the emperor concerning his fears over the potential of unrest in the aboriginal regions in western Yunnan. Little is known about relationships between aboriginal peoples and local Han and Hui in the province. The massive influx of Han must have affected these relationships in some way. 6 W. Chu, p.205. Lanny B. Fields, Tso Tsung-t'ang and the Muslims. Statecraft in  Northwest China. (Kingston, Ont., Limestone Press, 1978), p.46. Alice Bihyun Gan Wei, "Moslem Rebellion in Yunnan, 1855-1873", unpublished Ph.D.. dissertation, Univ. of Chicago, 1974. 120 Minorities were governed under the tusi system and with the large numbers of Han settling in the province in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, it Is reasonable to suggest that some areas under tusi control may have had Increasing numbers of Han inhabitants. This may have been a source of problems. It would also be Interesting to look in greater detail at the role of magicians and teachers, such as Jin Hunqiu, Huang Baba and Min Yingkui. Both Han and Hui in Yongchang appear to have been attracted to men who practiced invulnerability rituals. What does the popularity of Jin and his teachings tell us about the inhabitants of Yongchang? How did his Ideas attract a following and how prevalent and popular were magicians in Yunnan In general?7 Recently there has been renewed Interest in the study of minorities in the People's Republic of China. This has led to the proliferation of works published by Chinese historians on Muslims. This is especially true for studies on Hui communities and unrest in nineteenth century Yunnan. New collections of Qlng documents concerning Han-Hui conflicts are being published out of Kunming. Hopefully, as documents become available, non-Chinese historians also will devote more scholarly attention to the Muslim minority as well as other minorities in nineteenth century Yunnan and China in general. 7 Joseph Esherick notes the importance of understanding why certain teachings attracted an audience in a region. Esherick, p.326. 121 GLOSSARY Ahong -Badaylng east of Banqiao Baihujiao militia formed by Shen Jucheng to fight the Hui - name derived from the fact each member ate white pepper before going into battle Baiyang - yQ f mines northeast of Yongchang - site of Han-Hui conflict 1821 Baojia- % ¥ households organized into groups of ten, each with a headman The baojia system served two functions - ( D i t was an administrative base for militia conscription and (2) it was a surveillance and mutual responsibility organization. The local decline of the baojia was common in the nineteenth century. Bendi - ; f St. Bingllan - % Bingmaying- fT^'t? approximately 45 kilometres east of Baoshan Chang Jingyun - ^ $ 2 2 . ordered to seize all Hui weapons after the massacre -failed to do so and committed suicide Changplng cang - •f'T'ej evernormal granaries Chen Tongsheng -prefect 1843 122 Cheng - *j£ city Dashi(fa)- At Ot) DashUiaodu- X t ^ M t Daya Kou - A T 0 Daye- A ? title given to XBH heads Ding Canting -Muslim who went to Beijing to lay a complaint, 1847 Ding Yongnian -Muslim wusheng from Baoshan - executed in 1845 for his role as a Hui leader in the 1845 disturbances leader of the Panthay Rebellion - a Jinji native and xiucai (a successful candidate in the imperial examinations at the county level) Du Wenxiu -_^ Fan Chun -younger brother of Wan Lingui - a wusheng Fanke % FanZhong- fti^f wusheng XBH head banished for involvement in 1845 incidents -killed by Muslims while being transported to malarial regions of Yunnan Feishi Kou - ~fe ^ O F u - M prefecture Guanlian - '(T Guannai Shan - t73 & more than 100 kilometres west of Baoshan 123 Guanpo- iT 3^ 20 kilometres east of Baoshan Guofei % 6 Han Pengri - |M^6 district magistrate, Baoshan 1846 Heng Wen - + £ t Deputy magistrate, Baoshan 1845 He Changllng-Governor-General, Yun-Gui 1845-1846 Hljra -the emigration or transfer to Medina from Mecca - the commencement of the Islamic era Huoganhul -Huang Baba - ^ £ G Muslim Ahong from Shaanxi - attempted to lead Muslims in 1846 to receive the property left behind by Muslims In Baoshan after the massacre - killed in battle April 1846 Huang Gui - % fl kidnapped Du Wenxiu's betrothed in 1845 - sentenced to death by Lin Zexu Huicun - @ %j Huifei - ^ S Huiguan- % 'it • Huigu - Q f% Huihe- $ tt Huihui- & @ C|l3 4$; Huihui Yuanlai - \"3 @ JJL 7v Huimin- 19 ft Huizhai -Jin Cheng - £ ^ Prefect of Yongchang 1845 - demoted for shirking his duties during the massacre JinHunqiu- ^ ' & $ < - • 1847-1848 magician involved with Shen Jucheng Juren - ^ A a successful candidate in the imperial examinations at the provincial level Kuke-to the east of Baoshan approximately sixty-five kilometres L I - S a Chinese measure - approximately half a kilometre Li F a -Muslim forced to carry forged letter by XBH stating that the Hui were going to attack Baoshan - died in jail October 1845 Li 6uo - f ® deputy magistrate 1845 Li Hengqian - f TS \% sub-prefect of Tengyue ting 1845 - prefect in 1848 in Baoshan Li Xingyuan - ^ Governor-General, Yun-Gui 1846-1847 Li Zhengrong - f district magistrate of Baoshan May 1845 - demoted for his handling of the disturbance Lianhuasi - )x\\L f temple in Bingma where fighting took place Sept. 29, 1845 Li any ong- i%% Llanzong - * £ ^ 125 Lin Zexu- ^tfMt Governor-General, Yun-Gui 1847-1849 Luo Tianchi -Intendant of western Yunnan - demoted 1847 for his role in the Yongchang massacre Ma Da - -? X Muslim involved in May 19th incident - died in battle In Oct. 11, 1845 Mafu - 3 A Ma Rulong - 3 involved In the Panthay Rebellion and sided with government forces^against Du Wenxiu in 1862 - a military xiucai Ma Sihe - % €>i<$ Muslim arrested in Aug. 1843 quarrel - died while incarcerated MaXiaoqing- U^fa%~) nicknamed "Da Baixiang" - involved in initial attack on Jinji and later battles - pardoned in 1846 by He - executed by Li Xingyuan January 1847 Ma Xiaoyou - -S ' h ^ Du Wenxiu's betrothed - kidnapped in Oct. 1845 - eventually returned to Du unharmed Mengtlngzhai -Muslim stronghold southeast of Baoshan Minlian- ft, i% MinYingkui- ^ jE^ Muslim fortune teller who led aborigines to attack a military post in western Yunnan - sentenced to death December 1845. MuLlanke- ^ZifH" Muslim who went to Beijing to lay a complaint, 1847 Niucong - , ^ NiujtaoGuan- ^f]% Pan Huiyang - ' i A 7 ^ Han Captain who fought to his death at Lianhua Temple PengSongyu- l ^ f c f i Sub-prefect, Tengyue ting 1848 QingZhen-Islam - literally, "purity and truth" Shao -Shaollan- oft t% Shaoxianghui - ^TL t"zf Shecang-community granaries Shen Jucheng -militia head from Jinji - died 1848 Shen Lizhi - )%> f Shen Jucheng's concubine - died 1848 Shen Zhencong - 3fc >% son of Shen Jucheng - killed in battle October 11, 1845 Shen Zhenda- ttffi-te-adopted son of Shen Jucheng- executed 1848 st- f temple Tael - $jf a Chinese ounce of silver Taizl Taibao Grand Guardian to the Heir Apparent Tichen (jun)- ft $ Provincial Commander-in-Chief Tlanke- % \ % Ting - ff sub-prefecture Tusi - 3 a) Tulian-Tuanfei- SI ® Tuntian - % Wan Lingui -XBH head - beheaded for his role in the May 19 t h incident Wang Yifeng - 1 " J& Guizhou Tlchen - helped bring troops to suppress Han-Hui unrest In Yongchang 1845-1848 Welwu - 7D Wensheng - >T ^ person who has received a certificate permitting him to compete at examinations for the first degree Wusheng -graduate of the first military degree Wuyue- 3 fyfii five gods of the sacred mountains Xian - -fi county Xiangbahui- i ' f e ^ i Han secret society in Yongchang in nineteenth century Xiaosongzhai - l h ^ % east of Baoshan approximately 15 kilometres Yanguan- •%§ f t Yangba - -f a& 128 Yang Chunfu- tfb&'§ army captain who retreated from battle at Llanhua Temple -demoted from post Oct. 1845 Yang J i u - fflfl XBH member who was banished to remote part of western Yunnan for his role in the May 19 t h incident - killed by Muslims while being transported to the malarial regions of Yunnan Yaoguan- bfi% Yeyi- ffjt YlnDebu-General from Tengyue whose troops fought in Yongchang Ying - IT a barrack Yongchang - ^ ^ prefecture in western Yunnan where unrest took place Yong - |j braves Yonglian - | Youdlan /fa /®j southeast of Baoshan - now known as Changning ( f '7 Youfei gir roaming bandits or rebels Zei -Zhai - f stockade Zhang B i lu - 3 ^ X ^ Tichen who brought troops to secure peace in Yongchang 1845-1848 Zhang Fu - It % Muslim from Baoshan who fled after the massacre - was leader of Muslims in 1846 - pardoned in 1846 for his role in conflicts -died in battle January 1847 129 Zhangjlao - % ^ at Zhang Jie -Han wensheng Involved in May 19 t h incident - banished to malarial regions of Yunnan 1845 - killed by Muslims enroute Zhang Qicheng - 1%%?$ Han wensheng who held October 1, 1845 meeting Zhang Shlxlan - ^ ^ t f l Muslim involved in May 19*h incident - beheaded Oct. 1845 3te Bit Zhang Shizhong -Zhang Wenjian -Zhang Wenru -Han wensheng involved in events in Baoshan 1847-48 -executed 1848 Han militia head involved in fighting in 1846 Han militia head in 1846 - Involved in events in Baoshan 1847-48 Zhang Zhaoqin - ^ » Badaying wusheng Muslim Zhou - }'M Zhou Shu-Intendant of southern Yunnan - helped in Baoshan with Han-Hui unrest Zhou Yuexiang - M ^ $ Han wensheng XBH head involved in 1845 massacre executed 1848 Zhu Rigong - % g $ Han major who led the attack against Muslims October 11, 1845 -died in battle Zunguangsi- $ jC ^ 130 BIBLIOGRAPHY CHINESE SOURCES Bai Shouyi. 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Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, Univ. of Washington, 1987b. de Groot, J. J. M. Sectarianism and Religious Persecution in China. A Page  in the History of Religions. Taibei: Literature House, 1963 reprint. L.H. Gulick. "Notices of Recent Publications." Chinese Recorder, v. 13.6, 1880, pp.474-76. 138 Gutzlaff, Charles. The Life of Taou-Kwangr Late Emperor of China. London: Smith, Eldon&Co., 1852. Hanna, A.C. "The Panthays of Yunnan." Moselm World, v.21, 1931, pp.60-74. Hartmann, Martin. "China." In The Encyclopedia of Islam. London: Leyden, 1913, pp.839-854 Hicks, Charles E. "News From the Field." Friends of Moslems, v. 1.2, 1927, p.5. Hogg, CF. "Mahommedanism. A Review." Chinese Recorder, v.22.10. 1891, pp.401-05. Hosie, Alexander. "Her Majesty's Charge" d'Afffaires at Peking Forwarding A Report by Mr. Hosie, Student Interpreter in the China Consular Service, of a Journey Through the Provinces of Kueichow and Yunnan." British Parliamentary Papers, v.75, 1883, p. 159. 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Boulder, Colorado: Westvlew Press, 1984, pp.275-304 Muslims in China. A Study in Cultural Confrontation London: Curzon Press, 1978. Jenks, Robert. "The Miao Rebellion, 1854-1872: Insurgency and Social Disorder in Kweichow During the Taiping Era." Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, Harvard Univ., 1985. Jin, Yijiu. "The Qur'an In China." Contributions to Asian Studies, v. 17, 1982, pp.95-101. Joyce, Raymond. "Visiting Moslems in Yunnan." Friends of Moslems, v. 143, 1940, pp.39-42. "Journal of Occurrences." Chinese Repository, v.6.9, 1838, pp.447-48. Kuhn, Philip. Rebellion and Its Enemies in Late Imperial China. Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press, 1970. Lamley, Harry J. "Hsieh-tou: The Pathology of Violence in Southeastern China." Ch'ing-shih Wen-t'i. v.3.7r 1977, pp. 1-39. Lee, James. "China's Southwestern Frontier: State Policy and Economic Development, 1250-1850." Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, Univ. of Chicago, 1982a. 140 Lee, James. "The Legacy of Immigration in Southwest China, 1250-1850." Annales de Demographie Historiaue. 1982b, pp.279-304 Leslie, Donald Daniel. Islam In Traditional China. A Short History to 1800. Canberra: Canberra College of Advanced Education, 1986. Lipman, Jonathon N. "Patchwork Society, Network Society: A Study of Sino-Muslim Communities." In Islam in Asia. Southeast and East  Asia r v.2. R. Israeli & Anthony J. Johns eds. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1984 pp.246-74 Mason, Isaac. "Chinese Mohamedanism." Chinese Recorder, v. 10. 1919, pp. 176-87. "Hints For Friends of Moslems." Friends of Moslems. v.2.2, 1928, p. 13. "How Islam Entered China." Moslem World, v. 19, 1929, pp.249-63. Matson, Elda. "A Visit to the Hankow Mosques." Friends of Moslems, v.2.4, 1928, pp.4-6. Milne, W.C. "Notice of a Seven Months' Residence in the City of Ningpo." Chinese Repository, v. 13.1, 1844, pp. 14-43. "The Moslems of Yunnan from D'Ollone and Others." Friends of Moslems. v.9.2, 1935, p.29. Muller, H. "Mohamedan and Chinese Common Opinion." T'oung Paof 2na" series, v.29, 1932, pp. 118-121. Noyes, H.V. "Mohamedanism in China." Chinese Recorder, v.20.1, 1889, pp.68-71. D'Ollone, Henri Marl Gustav. Recherches sur les Musulmans Chinois. Paris: Leroux, 1914. Parker, Edward Harper. China and Religion. London: John Murray, 1905. Parker, Edward Harper. Studies in Chinese Religion. London: Chapman & Hall, 1910. Perkins, Dwight Agricultural Development In China. 1368-1968. Chicago: Aldine Press, 1969. Perry, Elizabeth. Rebels and Revolutionaries in North China. 1845-1945. Stanford: Stanford Univ. Press, 1980. Pettus, W.B. "Chinese Mohammedanism." Chinese Recorder, v.44.2, 1913, pp.88-94. "Mohammedanism in Nanjing. Notes on a Winter's Reading. Observations and Conversations Among the Moslems." Chinese Recorder, v.39.7, 1908, pp.395-402. Plllsbury, Barbara L.K. "Factionalism Observed: Behind the "Face" of Harmony in a Chinese Community." China Quarterly. v,74, 1978, pp.241-72. Rahman, Fazlur. Islam. London: William Clowes, 1966. "Religious Intelligence." Chinese Repository, v.5, 1833, pp.284-88. "Review of D'Ollone's 'Recherches sur les Musulmans Chinois.'" Moslem  World, v.2.3. 1912, pp.319-21. Ridley, H. French. "The Mohammedan and the Pig." Friends of Moslems. v.14.3, 1940, pp.46-47. 142 Rossabi, Morris. "Muslim and Central Asian Revolts." In From Ming To Ch'ing. Jonathan D. Spence & John E. Wills jr. eds. New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1979, pp. 167-200. Rossabi, Morris. "The Muslims in the Early Yuan Dynasty." In China Under  Mongol Rule. John Langlois jr. ed. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1981,pp.257-97. Schafer, Edward. The Golden Peaches of Samarkand. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1963. Shepherd, John Robert. "Plains Aborigines and Chinese Settlers on the Taiwan Frontier in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries." Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation Stanford Univ., 1981. Skinner, G.W. ed. The City in Late Imperial China. Stanford: Stanford Univ. Press, 1977. Sladen. "Copy of Mr. Sladen's Report on the Bhamo Route." British  Parliamentary Papers, v.51, 1871, pp.433-594 "Some Problems of the Future." Friends of Moslems, v. 1.3, 1927, p.2. Sun, Ching-chih ed. Economic Geography of Southwest China. New York: Crowell, Collier and Macmillan, 1959. Ting, Dawood CM. "Islamic Culture in China." In Islam - The Straight Path- Islam Interpreted bv Muslims. Kenneth W. Morgan ed. New York: Ronald Press, 1958, pp.344-74. "Topography of Yunnan; its Divisions, Area, Rivers, Mountains, Towns Productions, and etc." Chinese Repository, v. 18, 1849, pp.588-600. Twltchett, Denis &J.K. Falrbank eds. The Cambridge History of China v. 10 & 11. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1978 & 1980. "Visiting Moslems in Yunnan." Chinese Recorder, v.71.11, 1940, p.726. Vol!, John 0. "Muslim Minority Alternatives: Implications of Muslim Experiences in China and the Soviet Union." Journal Institute  of Muslim Minority Affairs, v.6.2, 1985, pp.322-53. Wakeman, Frederic jr. Strangers at the Gate. Social Disorder in South  China. 1839-1861. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1966. Wakeman, Frederic jr. & Carolyn Grant eds. Conflict and Control in Late  Imperial China. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1975. Wang Yeh-chien. An Estimate of Land-Tax Collection In China. 1753 & 1908 Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press, 1973. Land Taxation in Imperial China. 1750-1911. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press, 1973. Warren, G.G. "D'OUone's Investigations on Chinese Moslems." New China  Review, v.2, 1920, pp.267-89 & 398-414. Wei, Alice Bihyun Gan. "The Moslem Rebellion in Yunnan, 1855-1873." Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, Univ. of Chicago, 1974. Whitney, Joseph B. R. China: Area. Administration and Nation Building. Chicago: Department of Geography, 1969. Wright, Mary. The Last Stand of Chinese Conservatism. The T'ung-chih  Restoration, 1862-1874 Stanford: Stanford Univ. Press, 1957. Yang, l-fan. Islam in China. Hong Kong: Union Press, 1957. Yegar, Moshe. "The Panthay of Burma and Yunnan." Journal of Southeast  Asian History, v.7.1, 1966, pp.73-85. Zwemer, S.M. "The Fourth Religion of China." Moslem World, v.24r 1934, pp. 1 -12. H 5 APPENDIX I HAN-HUI CONFLICTS IN YUNNAN 1821-1856 The first major clash between Muslims and Han Chinese In nineteenth century Yunnan occurred in 1821 at the Baiyang mines in Yunlong zhou, northeast of Yongchang. It was a mining area, rich in copper and silver. During the 1800's the discovery of new mines was infrequent and competition over newly discovered veins was fierce. The influx of immigrants to Yunnan at this time Intensified the competition over mining Jobs and Han from different localities and Muslims often organized themselves into competing groups. There were the Lin'an (a prefectural capital in southeastern Yunnan) and Muslim groups, probably the two strongest, as well as the Jiangxl, Sichuan, Oulzhou, Fujlan, Hunan, Hubei, Guangdong and Guangxi groups. Most miners at Baiyang were members of the Lin'an, the Muslim, the Hubei and the Jiangxi groups. The conflict between the miners was caused by a member of the Lin'an group urinating in front of a mine shaft owned by a Muslim. More than five hundred miners were killed In the subsequent clash. The Yunnan Tongzhigao cited this incident as the origin of Han-Hui conflicts in the province.1 The next major conflict occurred in Mianning, southeast of Yongchang, in 1839. The Muslim population in Mianning at the time, about four thousand, lived, for the most part, in several villages outside of the city. Conflict between the Muslims and Chinese In the area seems to have stemmed from the refusal of the Hui to contribute a piece of land, belonging to the mosque, for the building of a public pavilion and their refusal to contribute forty taels of silver to a local official, Yang Yaodou, who was collecting money from the people to make a 1 Raymond Wel-hsing Chu, "Causes of the Muslim Rebellion in Yunnan, 1856-1873", unpublished M.A., Univ. of Toronto, 1967, p.43. Ma Shengfeng, "Poxi Shilue", HMQY, v.2, p.48. Yunnan Tongzhigao , j. 106, pp. 1-2, In Chu, p.44. Zhao Qing, "Bianyuan Jieyuan Lu", HMQY. v.I, p.45. 146 wanminsan2 for a military commander in the area. Yang and youfei from Sichuan and Jiangxi formed a gang and allegedly planned to kill the Muslims in Mianning and appropriate their property. The Muslims heard of the plan and sent a representative to Shunning prefecture to ask for aid. The Hui also requested protection from the local military commander. No help was forthcoming and on July 18, 1839 more than fifteen hundred Muslims were killed. The prefect of Shunning arrived a week after the massacre. The Muslims appealed to the throne for redress. The military commander and the district judge were dismissed, but the two Hui who had appealed to the throne were also punished for misrepresentation in parts of their accusations. The Muslims felt the officials should have been more severely punished and greatly resented the settlement.3 In January 1847 Han and Hui clashed again at the Tangdan copper mines in northern Yunnan. There had been a drought in the area and because of this some Muslims had blocked the water flow from a spring, traditionally used by both Chinese and Muslims, behind the mosque. Negotiations failed to resolve the water supply problem and fighting ensued. The Hui were defeated and fled. The Chinese involved in the fighting were punished and two Chinese miners were sentenced to exile in Xinjiang 4 Trouble flared again in September 1847 in north central Yunnan at the salt mines in Yaozhou, the centre of the province's salt industry. The fight appears to have been caused by Muslims envious of the wealth of some Chinese in the area. Muslims at the mines began to store weapons for a future attack on Han in the 2 A red silk umbrella, a symbol traditionally presented to honour officials of merit. 3 Wang Shuhuai, Xian-Tong Yunnan Huimin Shibian. (Taibei: Academia Sinica, 1968), p.53. "Chi ti Ma Wenzhao zhou su Mengmian Ting wen wu guan yuan mou sha Huimin an bi gao ren an jian", HMQY. v.1, pp.67-80 In Chu, pp.79-81 and Alice Bihyun Gan Wei, "The Moslem Rebellion in Yunnan, 1855-1873", unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. of Chicago, 1974, pp.30-31. 4 Lin Zexu, Yun-Gui Zougao.(n.d.). j.2, la-1 Ob, in Wei, pp.50-52. H 7 mines. Officials heard about the cache and confiscated the weapons. The Hui, however, continued to transport weapons into the area. A Han guard was killed by a Muslim during a later investigation Into the matter. Fighting and arson resulted, leaving three hundred and twenty-seven Chinese and sixty-five Muslims dead and more than twenty-six hundred homes destroyed by fire. Lin Zexu, the Governor-6eneral of Yun-Gui, sent in troops immediately. The proximity of Yaozhou to Kunming allowed officials to react quickly to the situation. Both sides raised no objections to the settlement.5 After Lin Zexu had mobilized troops to repress the rebellion in Yongchang in early 1848, unrest flared In Mldu, southeast of Dali. Local Muslims and horse traders from Sichuan robbed and burned seventeen villages from February 24 t h to 27 t h of 1848. The local militia was unable to bring the situation under control. Lin sent in troops and the unrest was quelled within a few days.6 In 1850 Muslims and Han Chinese clashed again at the Talang mines of Pu'er prefecture, southeast of Yongchang. The majority of miners at Talang were members of either the Lin'an or Hui groups. Gambling was rife in the mines and fights often broke out over unpaid debts. In 1850 Muslims wounded a well-known Chinese boxer and killed his friend. The boxer sought help from Lin'an. The Lin'an gentry sent five hundred men, hoping to severely weaken the Muslim presence in the mines. Fighting ensued. At the end of the conflict the mines were in a shambles and mining operations at Talang ceased. No action was taken by the government and Han-Hui enmity deepened.7 The final conflict between Muslims and Chinese before the outbreak of the Panthay Rebellion occurred In north central Yunnan at the Shiyang silver mine, in 5 Lin, j.2, 12a-16a, in Wei, pp.52-3. 6 Wei, pp.57-58. Li Yuzhen, "Dianshi Shuwen", YNHMQY. p. 188. Huang Chengyuan, "Wojl Lu Suibi", YNHMQY. p. 179. 7 "Talang Nanan Zheng Kuangji", HMQY. v. 1, pp.251 -25 in Wei, pp.66-67. "Talang..." & "Diannan Zaji", HMQY. v. 1, p.245 In Chu, p.45. 148 Chuxlong prefecture, in 1854 The miners in the area were a diverse group, originating from other provinces as well as Yunnan. Many of the miners had come from Talang after the mines had been destroyed. Once again Chinese and Muslims were the main antagonists. The dispute originated over the prices of ores between buyers and sellers. By 1855 fights between the Muslims and Chinese involved the inhabitants of the countryside. Throughout 1855 Han and Hui fought over control of the mine. Violence was rampant and culminated in the massacre of over one thousand Muslims in Kunming on May 19, 1856. This was the first time that a massacre of Muslims had occurred in the provincial capital. 8 The numerous clashes between Chinese and Muslims and the massacres of Muslims by Chinese described above were directly related to the outbreak of the Panthay Rebellion. The massacre in Kunming was the final straw; Muslims in Yunnan organized and rebelled. Du Wenxiu founded his government in Dali on October 23, 1856. 8 Lin Gan (ed.). Qingdai Huimin Qiyi. (Shanghai: Xinzhi. 1957), pp.37-39. Wang Shuhuai, pp. 99-108. Wei, pp.68-77. Chu, pp.45-49. 

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