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Accounting for the male-female earnings differential : results from the 1986 survey of consumer finances Pelletier, Lou Allan 1988

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ACCOUNTING FOR THE MALE-FEMALE EARNINGS DIFFERENTIAL RESULTS FROM THE 1986 SURVEY OF CONSUMER FINANCES by LOU ALLAN PELLETIER B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1985 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (School of Community and Regional Planning) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1988 i n 1988 In p r e s e n t i n g this thesis in part ia l f u l f i lmen t o f t h e requ i remen ts f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e at t h e Univers i ty o f Bri t ish C o l u m b i a , I agree that t h e Library shall m a k e it f reely avai lable fo r re ference and s tudy . I fu r the r agree that permiss ion fo r ex tens ive c o p y i n g o f th is thesis f o r scholar ly p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d b y the h e a d o f m y d e p a r t m e n t o r by his o r her representa t ives . It is u n d e r s t o o d that c o p y i n g o r pub l i ca t i on o f th is thesis f o r f inanc ia l gain shall n o t b e a l l o w e d w i t h o u t m y w r i t t e n pe rm iss ion . D e p a r t m e n t o f SCHOOL OF COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING T h e Un ivers i ty o f Brit ish C o l u m b i a 1956 M a i n M a l l Vancouver , Canada V 6 T 1Y3 D a t e APRIL 9 . 1 9 8 8  DE-6(3/81) i i A b s t r a c t T h i s study seeks to e x p l a i n the observed d i f f e r e n c e s i n the earnings of i n d i v i d u a l Canadians by sex. The study uses data from the micro data f i l e of the 1986 Survey of Consumer Finances of i n d i v i d u a l s age 15 and over, with and without income. To a la r g e extent, the study f o l l o w s the examples p r e s e n t e d i n other Canadian s t u d i e s conducted by Holmes (1974), Robb (1978), Gunderson (1980), Goyder (1981) and O r n s t e i n (1983). Employment earnings account f o r an overwhelming p r o p o r t i o n of the t o t a l income r e c e i v e d by i n d i v i d u a l s . Thus, the examination of the earnings d i f f e r e n t i a l attempts to address the root causes of many of the problems faced by n o n t r a d i t i o n a l f a m i l i e s . Canadian s o c i e t y i s no longer l a r g e l y composed of the t r a d i t i o n a l f a m i l y with a working f a t h e r and the homemaking mother. The growing number of dual-earner c o u p l e s , s i n g l e and c h i l d l e s s a d u l t s , and households headed by women p r e s e n t s a d i f f i c u l t c h a l l e n g e f o r s o c i a l p o l i c y . The male-female earnings d i s p a r i t y i s a key component i n ex a c e r b a t i n g problems that i n c l u d e the a v a i l a b i l i t y of c r e d i t f o r women, the f e m i n i z a t i o n of poverty, access to a f f o r d a b l e and adequate housing, and adequate incomes f o r re t i r e m e n t . To e f f e c t i v e l y address the problems that have r e s u l t e d from the i n t e r a c t i o n of g r e a t e r female p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the labour f o r c e and the formation of a l t e r n a t e household types, planners and p o l i c y makers need to address the root problem of sexual i n e q u a l i t y i n the labour f o r c e , and not s o l e l y the symptoms. In the con t e x t of changing f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e and the economic p o s i t i o n of women, the focus of t h i s study i s to i d e n t i f y the s i z e of the male-female earnings gap, and to determine the extent to which the ea r n i n g s gap can be e x p l a i n e d by p e r s o n a l , work and p r o d u c t i v i t y - r e l a t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The impact of these f a c t o r s are an a l y z e d from two p o i n t s of view. F i r s t , the impact of i n d i v i d u a l f a c t o r s on the l e v e l of earnings are analyzed through a simple comparison of mean earnings of men and women across a v a r i e t y of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Second, the i n f l u e n c e of these f a c t o r s on ea r n i n g s , and the degree of i n e q u a l i t y between the e a r n i n g s of men and women, i s analyzed using m u l t i p l e l i n e a r r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s . R egression a n a l y s i s i s used to estimate separate earnings equations f o r men and women. From the separate earnings equations, the wage gap can be p a r t i t i o n e d i n t o three p a r t s , due to d i f f e r e n c e s i n ( l ) constant terms, (2) mean l e v e l s of the independent v a r i a b l e s , and (3) the r e t u r n s of the independent v a r i a b l e s . F u r t h e r , to assess the impact of o c c u p a t i o n a l and i n d u s t r i a l s e g r e g a t i o n on the earnings gap, a second set of earnings equations are c a l c u l a t e d that do not inc l u d e measures of o c c u p a t i o n a l and i n d u s t r i a l s e g r e g a t i o n . The c a l c u l a t i o n s of separate e a r n i n g s equations f o r men and women, f o r the s e l e c t e d sample, produced an unadjusted earnings r a t i o of 0.66. A f t e r adjustments were made f o r the ten p r o d u c t i v i t y and p r o d u c t i v i t y - r e l a t e d f a c t o r s c o n s i d e r e d i n the a n a l y s i s , i n c l u d i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l and i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s , the r a t i o i n c r e a s e d to 0.79. T h i s l e f t an e a r n i n g s gap of $5,985 (1985 d o l l a r s ) that c o u l d not be a s s i g n e d to any of the measured v a r i a b l e s . While p a r t of the unexplained r e s i d u a l may be e x p l a i n e d by v a r i a b l e s not i n c l u d e d i n the a n a l y s i s , or by more c a r e f u l measurement of e x i s t i n g v a r i a b l e s , i t seems l i k e l y that at l e a s t 20 percentage p o i n t s of the e a r n i n g s gap i s a t t r i b u t a b l e to "an amalgam of d i f f e r e n t forms of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n which, taken together, disadvantage women r e l a t i v e to men", (Denton and Hunter, 1982). D i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s d e f i n e d as d i f f e r e n t r e t u r n s i n earnings f o r equal p r o d u c t i v i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , as given by the r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s . Of the t o t a l e a r n i n g s gap of 34 percent, approximately 60% of t h i s i s a t t r i b u t a b l e to wage d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , and approximately 40% i s due to d i f f e r e n c e s i n p r o d u c t i v i t y - r e l a t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s O c c u p a t i o n a l and i n d u s t r i a l s e g r e g a t i o n account f o r a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of the earnings gap. The a d j u s t e d earnings r a t i o , when o c c u p a t i o n a l and i n d u s t r i a l s e g r e g a t i o n are not c o n s i d e r e d endowments, i s 0.69. Thus, the d i f f e r e n c e between the f u l l -r e g r e s s i o n equation and the p a r t i a l r e g r e s s i o n equation i n d i c a t e s that o c c u p a t i o n a l and i n d u s t r i a l s e g r e g a t i o n accounts f o r approximately 30% of the earnings gap. V TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS V LIST OF TABLES ix I. INTRODUCTION 1 A. I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 B. Changes i n Family S t r u c t u r e and Women's Employment . 5 C. T h e o r e t i c a l Viewpoints 9 1. D e f i n i t i o n s of D i s c r i m i n a t i o n , 10 2. N e o c l a s s i c a l Approaches 13 a. Becker's Taste Model 14 b. Bergmann's Crowding Hypothesis 16 c. Arrow's M o d i f i c a t i o n s 17 3. Human C a p i t a l Model 18 4. Monopsony Model «. 23 5. Dual Labour Markets 24 6. Sex-Role S o c i a l i z a t i o n 26 7. Ma r x i s t T h e o r i e s 28 8. Summary 30 D. Earnings D i f f e r e n t i a l s and P r o d u c t i v i t y D i f f e r e n c e s 33 I I . METHODOLOGY 38 A. I n t r o d u c t i o n 38 B. M e t h o d o l o g i c a l Issues . ... 38 1. Wages Versus Income 39 2. R e l a t i v e Verses Absolute D i f f e r e n c e s 39 3. Unadjusted and Adjusted Measures 40 4. P r o d u c t i v i t y Adjustment Techniques 42 a. Sample S e l e c t i o n 42 b. Regression Analyses 43 C. Method of A n a l y s i s 45 v i D. The Data 47 1 . Data L i m i t a t i o n s 49 2. Data S e l e c t i o n 50 E. S p e c i f i c a t i o n of the C o n t r o l V a r i a b l e s 52 I I I . DATA ANALYSIS 56 A. Explanatory V a r i a b l e s Considered S e p a r a t e l y .... 56 1 . Education and Experience 57 2. M a r i t a l Status 61 3. Urban Area 63 4. Region 64 5. Average Hours Worked per Week 66 6. Sector of Work 67 7. Number of C h i l d r e n 69 B. Occ u p a t i o n a l and I n d u s t r i a l Segregation 71 1. The Occ u p a t i o n a l Segregation of Work 71 2. H i s t o r i c a l P a t t e r n of Occ u p a t i o n a l Segregation, 1951-1981 73 3. Measuring Changes i n Occ u p a t i o n a l Segregation 79 4. The Impact on Women's Earnings of Oc c u p a t i o n a l Segregation 82 5. Oc c u p a t i o n a l and I n d u s t r i a l Segregation i n the 1986 Survey of Consumer Finances 86 C. Regression A n a l y s i s 95 1. Decomposition of the Earnings Gap 95 2. A s s e s s i n g the Impact of O c c u p a t i o n a l Segregation 98 3. C o n t r i b u t i o n of I n d i v i d u a l V a r i a b l e s to the Earnings Gap 103 4. Regression R e s u l t s 110 a. Education 111 b. Experience 113 c. M a r i t a l Status 113 d. Urban Area and Region 114 e. Hours Worked . ... 115 f. Sector of Work 115 v i i IV. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PUBLIC POLICY 122 A. C o n t r i b u t i o n of each F a c t o r to P u b l i c P o l i c y .. 124 1 . Education 125 2. Experience 126 3. M a r i t a l Status 127 4. Urban S i z e and Region 129 5. C l a s s of Work . 129 6. Number of C h i l d r e n 131 7. Occ u p a t i o n a l and I n d u s t r i a l Segregation 133 B. P o l i c y C o n c l u s i o n s 134 C. Problems with Approach 140 D. Areas f o r Furth e r Research 143 E. C o n c l u s i o n 145 Appendix A: R e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the 1951, 1961, and 1971 Occu p a t i o n a l Data 147 Appendix B: 1981 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n S t r u c t u r e 148 Appendix C: Table Showing the B r i d g i n g of 1971 Occupa t i o n a l Codes to the 1981 Occupa t i o n a l Codes and C l a s s i f i c a t i o n 151 Appendix D: Table Showing the B r i d g i n g of 1961 Occ u p a t i o n a l Codes to the 1981 Occupa t i o n a l Codes and C l a s s i f i c a t i o n .. 155 Appendix E: Table Showing the B r i d g i n g of 1951 Occupa t i o n a l Codes to the 1981 Occupa t i o n a l Codes and C l a s s i f i c a t i o n 161 Appendix F: Occ u p a t i o n a l S t a t i s t i c s f o r the 1951, 1961, 1971 and 1981 Census P e r i o d s by Sex f o r Canada, Large, Small and Non-CMAs' 167 Appendix H: Percentage of Female Labour Force i n Occ u p a t i o n a l C a t e g o r i e s f o r Canada, Large, Small and Non-CMAs, 1951 - 1981 ... 175 Appendix I: L i s t i n g of Canadian Census M e t r o p o l i t a n Areas f o r the 1951 - 1981 Census Periods 177 Appendix J : L i s t i n g of Large, Small and Non-CMAs 178 v i i i Appendix K: L i s t of V a r i a b l e s to be used i n the a n a l y s i s of the 1986 Survey of Consumer Finances 179 Appendix L: 1980 Standard O c c u p a t i o n a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n . 182 Appendix M: I n d u s t r i a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n 185 Appendix N: Summary Tables of the A n a l y s i s of R e c a l c u l a t e d Labour Force Experience 186 B i b l i o g r a p h y 187 ix LIST OF TABLES Page Table 1. Average Income of Husband F a m i l i e s , by Wife's C o n t r i b u t i o n to Family Income, 1971 to 1984 7 Table 2. Summary of R a t i o s of Women's to Men's Earn i n g s , Unadjusted and Adjusted f o r Va r i o u s C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Workers and Jobs 35 Table 3. Average Earnings by Sex 57 Table 4. Average Earnings by Education by Sex 58 Table 5. Average Earnings by Experience by Sex 59 Table 6. Average Earnings by M a r i t a l Status by Sex 63 Table 7. Average Earnings by Urban Area by Sex 64 Table 8. Average Earnings by Region by Sex . 65 Table 9. Average Earnings by Hours Worked Per Week by Sex 67 Table 10. Average Earnings by C l a s s of Work by Sex 68 Table 11. Average Earnings by Number of C h i l d r e n by Sex .. 70 Table 12. Percentage of Women i n Each Occupation For Canada, 1951-1 981 75 Table 13. Index of Segregation f o r Canada, 1951-1981 82 Table 14. R a t i o of Female-to-Male Average F u l l - t i m e Earnings f o r Canada, 1951 - 1981 83 Table 15. R a t i o of Female-to-Male Average Earnings For Canada, Using The Male O c c u p a t i o n a l D i s t r i b u t i o n f o r Men and Women 85 Table 16. Average Earnings by Occupation by Sex 87 Table 17. Average Earnings by Industry by Sex 93 Table 18. Decomposition of the Male-Female Earnings Gap, Canada 1986, SCF, F u l l Equation 98 X Table 19. Decomposition of the Male-Female Earnings Gap, Canada 1 986, S C F , . P a r t i a l Equations 100 Table 20. Unadjusted and Adjusted Earnings R a t i o from F u l l and P a r t i a l Regression Equations 102 Table 21. C o n t r i b u t i o n of Each V a r i a b l e to the Earnings Gap 104 Table 22. Earnings Equations f o r Males and Females F u l l - r e g r e s s i o n Equation 107 Table 23. Earnings Equations f o r Males and Females' P a r t i a l r e g r e s s i o n Equation 109 Table 24. Mean Percentage Change i n Earnings from a U n i t Change i n the Independent V a r i a b l e 117 Table 25. F - S t a t i s t i c s and Standardized Regression Values 118 Table 26. R a t i o of Female-to-Male Earnings, Adjusted f o r D i f f e r e n c e s i n Endowments, f o r D i f f e r e n c e s i n the C o e f f i c i e n t s Component, and f o r D i f f e r e n c e s due to both 120 1 No one d i s p u t e s that there i s a pay gap. The d i s p u t e i s over what causes i t . (Chavez, 1984) I. INTRODUCTION A. I n t r o d u c t i o n The purposes of t h i s study are to estimate the s i z e of the o v e r - a l l earnings gap between male and female f u l l - t i m e workers i n Canada, and to i d e n t i f y the main sources of the sex-wage d i f f e r e n t i a l . The gap i s decomposed i n t o two p a r t s across ten p r o d u c t i v i t y - r e l a t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Estimates are given f o r the p o r t i o n of the earnings gap that i s due t o : 1) d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s i n the p r o d u c t i v i t y - r e l a t e d a t t r i b u t e s of men and women; and 2) d i f f e r e n t r e t u r n s f o r the same p r o d u c t i v i t y - r e l a t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , l a b e l l e d wage d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . D e t a i l e d a t t e n t i o n i s given to the issue of o c c u p a t i o n a l , and to some extent, i n d u s t r i a l s e g r e g a t i o n which account f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n of the earnings gap. A review of a broad range of t h e o r i e s i s given that o f f e r p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r the d i f f e r e n c e i n the earnings of men and women, and provide the context f o r the data a n a l y s i s . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the r e s u l t s are made with r e f e r e n c e to the v a r i o u s t h e o r e t i c a l p o s i t i o n s as an a i d to the formation of p o l i c y designed to improved the earnings of women, and reduce the male-female earnings gap. Why should the male-female earnings gap be of i n t e r e s t to planners? A j u s t i f i c a t i o n of work i n t h i s s u b s t a n t i v e area w i l l 2 depend upon how p l a n n i n g i s d e f i n e d . The d e f i n i t i o n s of p l a n n i n g vary between one s u b s t a n t i v e area and another, and whether p l a n n i n g i s d e f i n e d as a p r o f e s s i o n , philosophy or a methodology (Moore, 1978). For the purposes of t h i s t h e s i s , p l a n n i n g i s d e f i n e d as "the use of knowledge to modify c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s so as to i n c r e a s e the l i k e l i h o o d of a c h i e v i n g a d e s i r e d r e s u l t . " (Moore, 1978). In t h i s case, p l a n n i n g s t r i v e s to improve the p o s i t i o n of women, i n the labour market. Beyond the b e l i e f that i n t e r v e n t i o n i n the labour market by planners i s more l i k e l y to r e s u l t i n improvement than not, a f u r t h e r j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r p l a n n i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n can be found i n economic theory. Economic theory argues that optimum welfa r e i s most e f f i c i e n t l y achieved through a system of p e r f e c t c o m p e t i t i o n , where p e r f e c t competition i s most e f f i c i e n t l y a c h ieved i n the t o t a l absence of p l a n n i n g (Oxley, 1975). The three elements of optimum performance of an economic system are i d e n t i f i e d as: 1) E f f i c i e n c y i n p r o d u c t i o n . 2) E f f i c i e n c y in exchange. 3) E q u i t y i n d i s t r i b u t i o n (Oxley, 1975). The f i r s t two c r i t e r i a set the c o n d i t i o n s f o r Pareto o p t i m a l i t y , d e f i n e d as the s i t u a t i o n where the r e a l l o c a t i o n of resources can improve the welfare of some only by reducing the w e l f a r e of o t h e r s . T h i s does not imply that there i s only one optimum d i s t r i b u t i o n of r e s o u r c e s . The t h i r d c r i t e r i o n r e q u i r e s that each s i t u a t i o n i s judged on i t s e q u i t y of d i s t r i b u t i o n . There i s a b u i l t i n c o n t r a d i c t i o n i n the three elements of optimum 3 performance of an economic system. To achieve e q u i t y i n d i s t r i b u t i o n , we must be w i l l i n g to s a c r i f i c e some measure of e f f i c i e n c y i n pr o d u c t i o n and exchange. From t h i s set of c r i t e r i a , and the many r e s t r i c t i v e assumptions of p e r f e c t c o m p e t i t i o n , a v a r i e t y of market f a i l u r e s can be i d e n t i f i e d that j u s t i f y p l a n n i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n , the most notable of which i s the eq u i t y of d i s t r i b u t i o n . I f s o c i e t y i s u n w i l l i n g to accept the a r b i t r a r y d i s t r i b u t i o n of rewards pr o v i d e d without i n t e r v e n t i o n , and i f one sees the income d i s t r i b u t i o n as the root of many urban problems, then the market system has f a i l e d to promote o p t i m a l i t y (Ox-ley, 1975). The c o n d i t i o n s f o r Pareto o p t i m a l i t y p r o v i d e the planner with avenues to c h a l l e n g e the market system on the b a s i s of e f f i c i e n c y or e q u i t y . The c h a l l e n g e to the market system can occur on three i d e n t i f i e d f r o n t s : 1) the i n p u t s to the system; 2) i t s i n t e r n a l o p e r a t i o n s ; or 3) i t s outputs (Oxley, 1975). These three p o i n t s of c h a l l e n g e to the market system can be used to organize t h i s t h e s i s . F i r s t , outputs of the system are examined i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to the changing f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e , and the p o s i t i o n and c o n t r i b u t i o n of women in the labour f o r c e to fam i l y income. Furt h e r examination of the outputs of the system i s presented i n the a n a l y s i s of data from the Survey of Consumer Finance (1986). Second, an examination of s e v e r a l t h e o r e t i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r the e x i s t e n c e of the male-female earnings gap, and o c c u p a t i o n a l segregation p r o v i d e some i n s i g h t i n t o the i n t e r n a l o p e r a t i o n of the labour market. And t h i r d , the 4 c o n c l u s i o n s and p o l i c y i m p l i c a t i o n s of the t h e s i s w i l l focus on means to improve the p o s i t i o n of women i n the labour f o r c e through changes i n the inputs to the system, i t s i n t e r n a l o p e r a t i o n s , and m o d i f i c a t i o n of i t s outputs through r e d i s t r i b u t i o n p o l i c i e s . The outputs of the labour market provide measurable i n d i c a t o r s , by which the o p e r a t i o n of the labour market can be judged. As employment earnings accounted f o r 86 percent of a l l the income r e c e i v e d by Canadians from a l l sources (Kuch, 1979), the d i s t r i b u t i o n of employment income i s the major i n d i c a t o r of the economic h e a l t h of i n d i v i d u a l s i n our s o c i e t y . Issues of c e n t r a l concern to planners — access to adequate a f f o r d a b l e housing, poverty, and p r o v i s i o n of many p u b l i c s e r v i c e s — rev o l v e around the economic w e l l - b e i n g of i n d i v i d u a l s and f a m i l i e s . The changing household composition i n concert with the economic i n e q u a l i t y between men and women i n the labour f o r c e has exacerbated problems f a c i n g n o n t r a d i t i o n a l f a m i l i e s . For example, the growth of s i n g l e parent f a m i l i e s headed by women, of dual income households, and of unattached i n d i v i d u a l s s t r e s s e s the importance of labour f o r c e income f o r women. Thus, p o l i c i e s that attempt to achieve employment e q u a l i t y address the root cause of inadequate income i n households headed by women, rather than the i n d i v i d u a l symptoms of access to c h i l d c a r e , the f e m i n i z a t i o n of poverty, and access to adequate a f f o r d a b l e housing, although i t i s noted that there are many l i n k a g e s 5 between these s u b s t a n t i v e i s s u e s and the economic p o s i t i o n of women i n the labour f o r c e . B. Change i n Family S t r u c t u r e and Women's Employment The focus on the p o s i t i o n of women i n the labour f o r c e a r i s e s from s i g n i f i c a n t s o c i a l s h i f t s i n the household p a t t e r n s and the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of women i n the labour f o r c e . The t r a d i t i o n a l f a m i l y of a working f a t h e r , a homemaker mother, and many c h i l d r e n no longer r e p r e s e n t s the dominant f a m i l y form. The t r a d i t i o n a l f a m i l y today c o e x i s t s with a growing number of d u a l -earner couples, s i n g l e and c h i l d l e s s a d u l t s , and households headed by women. The r e a l i t y of changes i n f a m i l y p a t t e r n s , and the f a c t t h a t a m a j o r i t y of women now p a r t i c i p a t e i n the labour f o r c e has c r e a t e d a range of problems f o r i n d i v i d u a l s and s o c i e t y as a whole. Since the 1950s, s i g n i f i c a n t changes have occurred i n household and f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e s . The share of the t r a d i t i o n a l f a m i l y with a breadwinning husband and a homemaking wife has s t e a d i l y d e c l i n e d . There have been s u b s t a n t i a l i n c r e a s e s i n the number of people l i v i n g alone, and i n f a m i l i e s headed by a lone parent, a m a j o r i t y of which are women. In 1986, one i n ten f a m i l i e s was headed by a female lone parent, or 590,000 f a m i l i e s , an i n c r e a s e of 59% from 1971. The number of people l i v i n g alone has a l s o i n c r e a s e d r a p i d l y s i n c e 1971. One person households almost doubled from 800,000 to 1.7 m i l l i o n from 1971 to 1981 and 6 of the 1.7 m i l l i o n people l i v i n g alone, one m i l l i o n were women ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada March, 1985). At the same time, changes i n f a m i l y p a t t e r n s stem from, and r e i n f o r c e the changes t a k i n g p l a c e i n women's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the labour f o r c e (Gerson, 1983). The percentage of women p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the labour f o r c e has i n c r e a s e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y s i n c e 1951. In 1951, only 24.4% of women p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the labour f o r c e ; by 1985, the p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e has in c r e a s e d d r a m a t i c a l l y to 54.3.%. While women composed only 22 percent of the labour f o r c e i n 1951, by 1981, women made up 40.6 percent of the labour f o r c e ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada, March, 1985). Yet, the growing p a r t i c i p a t i o n of women i n the labour f o r c e has not r e s u l t e d i n s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n the s i z e of the earnings gap. The earnings r a t i o of average f u l l - t i m e , f u l l - y e a r women workers to male workers has only i n c r e a s e d s l i g h t l y from 0.59 i n 1961 (Ostry, 1968), to 0.60 i n 1970, and to 0.64 i n 1982. 1 I t i s proposed that the changed f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e and the in c r e a s e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n of women i n the labour market i n d i c a t e s a s i t u a t i o n i n which the earnings of women are e s s e n t i a l to the economic h e a l t h of dual income and female-headed f a m i l i e s . Table 1 g i v e s the f i g u r e s f o r the percent of Canadian f a m i l i e s where the husband i s the only income r e c i p i e n t , and the percent of 1 Source f o r 1970 and 1982: S t a t i s t i c a l I n d i c a t o r s :  Status of Women Canada, M i c r o l o g Number 87-01527, Table A-2. f a m i l i e s where both the husband and wife c o n t r i b u t e to the f a m i l y income. From 1971 to 1984 the percentage of t r a d i t i o n a l f a m i l i e s has decreased from 31 percent to 12 perc e n t . At the same time, the percent of f a m i l i e s where the wife c o n t r i b u t e s to household income has i n c r e a s e d from 36 percent to 49.5 pe r c e n t . Women i n t r a d i t i o n a l f a m i l i e s have made i n c r e a s i n g c o n t r i b u t i o n s to f a m i l y income. From 1971 to 1984 the c o n t r i b u t i o n of women to f a m i l y income i n c r e a s e d from 19.9 percent to 28 pe r c e n t . Table 1. Average Income of Husband F a m i l i e s , by Wife's C o n t r i b u t i o n to Family Income, 1971 to 1984 Husband i s Only Husband and Wife are Only Income Income R e c i p i e n t R e c i p i e n t s i n Family in Family Percent of A l l Percent of a l l Percent of Wife's Canadian F a m i l i e s Canadian F a m i l i e s Income as Family Income Year 1971 31.3 36.1 19.9 1975 24.0 43.5 15.8 1979 19.2 45.2 21.6 1981 15.1 47.7 24.2 1984 12.8 49.5 28.0 Source: S t a t i s t i c a l I n d i c a t o r s : Status of Women Canada, M i c r o l o g Number 87-01527, Table F-3. The formation of more female-headed f a m i l i e s , and unattached i n d i v i d u a l s , as w e l l as the dependence of i n t a c t f a m i l i e s on the earnings of the female p a r t n e r , h i g h l i g h t s the importance of the earnings of women i n the labour market. T h i s p o s i t i o n i s f u r t h e r supported by a study conducted by the N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of Welfare 8 that r e p o r t e d i n 1979, 65 percent more two-parent f a m i l i e s would have f a l l e n below the poverty l i n e i f both parents had not been employed. The growing p r o p o r t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e household types has c o n t r i b u t e d to the c o n c e n t r a t i o n of poverty among households headed by women, as a m a j o r i t y of s i n g l e person households and 80% of s i n g l e parent f a m i l i e s are headed by women. The i n c i d e n c e of low income i s hig h e s t among female-headed lone-parent f a m i l i e s with 47.7% of a l l female-headed lone-parent f a m i l i e s recorded as being below the c u t - o f f p o i n t . The corresponding f i g u r e f o r male headed lone-parent f a m i l i e s i s 20.9% ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada, March, 1985). As husband/wife f a m i l i e s with unmarried c h i l d r e n c o n s t i t u t e the l a r g e s t p r o p o r t i o n of fa m i l y types, they form the l a r g e s t p r o p o r t i o n of a l l low income f a m i l i e s 41.1%. The second l a r g e s t group i s female-headed lone-parent f a m i l i e s , 30.4% of a l l low income f a m i l i e s . These f i g u r e s i n d i c a t e the economic need of s i n g l e parent female-headed f a m i l i e s , as w e l l as the need of i n t a c t f a m i l i e s with c h i l d r e n , f o r the income a women can generate working i n the p a i d labour f o r c e . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the c o n t r i b u t i o n to f a m i l y income made by women, and the male-female earnings gap, and the inc i d e n c e of low income among female-headed f a m i l i e s i s not as d i s t a n t as one might t h i n k , but n e i t h e r i s i t a simple r e l a t i o n s h i p (Gunderson, 1980). The preceding d i s c u s s i o n of changing f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e s , and the r e l a t i o n s h i p between female incomes and the in c i d e n c e of low income has h i g h l i g h t e d the 9 importance of women's income, not j u s t as secondary income, but as the primary source of economic w e l l - b e i n g f o r a growing p r o p o r t i o n of Canadian f a m i l i e s and s i n g l e i n d i v i d u a l s . T h i s " f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y " argument i s not intended to j u s t i f y s e t t i n g wages higher f o r i n d i v i d u a l s with f a m i l i e s to support, but to d i s p e l the b e l i e f that i t i s f a i r to pay women l e s s because they are secondary ea r n e r s . We must recognize that a l l a d u l t s have r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the support of themselves and t h e i r c h i l d r e n r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n , and that a l l are e n t i t l e d to p o l i c i e s which w i l l f a c i l i t a t e the c a r r y i n g out of t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , r e g a r d l e s s of sex, m a r i t a l , or p a r e n t a l s t a t u s . (Freeman, 1980) C. T h e o r e t i c a l Viewpoints The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n w i l l e x p l o r e s e v e r a l t h e o r i e s that attempt t o account f o r the earnings d i f f e r e n t i a l . T h e o r i e s attempting to account f o r gender d i f f e r e n t i a l s cover a range of t o p i c s from employment d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and pay d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n the labour market, to s o c i a l i z a t i o n theory and fa m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o u t s i d e the labour market. The t h e o r e t i c a l p o s i t i o n adopted i n the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the i s s u e of e q u i t y i n employment has a c o n s i d e r a b l e impact on the development and implementation of p o l i c i e s that address the p o s i t i o n of women i n the Canadian labour f o r c e through the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n the i n t e r n a l o p e r a t i o n s of the system. The extent to which income d i f f e r e n c e s due to unequal pay f o r equal work, o c c u p a t i o n a l s e g r e g a t i o n , or d i f f e r e n t q u a l i t i e s of 10 p r o d u c t i v e a t t r i b u t e s can be a t t r i b u t e d to sex d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n the labour f o r c e w i l l depend to some extent on the t h e o r e t i c a l approach which u n d e r l i e s the a n a l y s i s (Gunderson and Reid, 1981). Thus, a key u n d e r l y i n g c u r r e n t i n any d i s c u s s i o n of the d i f f e r e n c e s between the labour f o r c e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of men and women i s the quest i o n of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . Before proceeding f u r t h e r , a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the v a r i o u s d e f i n i t i o n s of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s needed. 1. D e f i n i t i o n s of D i s c r i m i n a t i o n D i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s a phenomenon which i s so p e r v a s i v e i n a l l human s o c i e t i e s that there i s no doubt at a l l that i t e x i s t s . I t i s not, however, a u n i t a r y phenomenon but a complex of a number of r e l a t e d forms of human behaviour, and t h i s makes i t not only hard to d e f i n e but f r e q u e n t l y d i f f i c u l t to comprehend f u l l y (Boulding, 1976). The above q u o t a t i o n p o i n t s to the r e a l i t y of the range of f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n the e x i s t e n c e of wage and occupation d i f f e r e n t i a l s . There i s agreement that the problem e x i s t s , but strong disagreement on the s i z e of the problem and how i t should be addressed ( K e l l y , 1986). Consequently, there are many d e f i n i t i o n s of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , and "There i s no reason, ... to expect that economic and l e g a l d e f i n i t i o n s of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n w i l l be c o n s i s t e n t with one another." ( J a i n and Sloane, 1981). The f o l l o w i n g three examples provide an i l l u s t r a t i o n of the range of p o s s i b l e d e f i n i t i o n s of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n employment, and the i m p l i c a t i o n s of each to the d i s c u s s i o n of p o l i c y s o l u t i o n s . 11 F i r s t , d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n employment i s s a i d to e x i s t i f the employer does not apply the same o b j e c t i v e standards to a l l a p p l i c a n t s f o r a p a r t i c u l a r job (Hiestand, 1970). D i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s viewed here as a problem of a t t i t u d e or p r e j u d i c e which would r e s u l t i n an employer making "...what an o b j e c t i v e observer would c o n s i d e r an i r r a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n with respect to the h i r i n g and placement of workers, c o n s i d e r i n g t h e i r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and the q u a l i t i e s necessary f o r the t e c h n i c a l performance of the job." (Hiestand, 1970) A second d i s t i n c t form of employment d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s that of unequal treatment. T h i s d e f i n i t i o n c o n s i d e r s not only the t e c h n i c a l a b i l i t i e s of the person seeking a job, but the s o c i a l e f f e c t s of h i r i n g a p a r t i c u l a r person (Hiestand, 1970). In t h i s view, i t i s c o n s i d e r e d d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i f the employer bases h i s judgments or job c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n requirements on conceptions a t t r i b u t e d to a c l a s s of persons ( K e l l y , 1986), but not n e c e s s a r i l y evident i n a l l persons in that c l a s s . T h i s i s a l s o r e f e r r e d to as s t a t i s t i c a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , and i s d e f i n e d by the s c r e e n i n g of i n d i v i d u a l s f o r employment on the b a s i s of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , r e a l or p e r c e i v e d , of the group to which they belong ( J a i n and Sloane, 1981). A t h i r d view of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s the c r e a t i o n of a c l a s s of people who are u n j u s t i f i a b l y impacted by " . . . the i n t e r a c t i o n of people's behaviour throughout e s t a b l i s h e d i n s t i t u t i o n s and socio-economic networks." ( K e l l y , 1986) T h i s systemic conception of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s not t i e d to any d e f i n i t i o n of 12 d i s c r i m i n a t i o n that c o n s i d e r s i n t e n t i o n a l a c t i o n or s p e c i f i c a l l y d i r e c t e d a c t i v i t i e s ( K e l l y , 1986), but i s the r e s u l t of the o p e r a t i o n of an e n t i r e s o c i a l and economic system. There i s no suggestion that the system i s i n h e r e n t l y d i s c r i m i n a t o r y , only that the end r e s u l t i s i n t e r p r e t e d as i n e q u i t a b l e , whether by impact or design ( A b e l l a , 1984). The A b e l l a Royal Commission rep o r t on e q u a l i t y i n employment, i n l i n e with the view that the fundamental problem i s that d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s systemic ( K e l l y , 1986), recognizes t h a t : I t i s not a q u e s t i o n of whether t h i s d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s motivated by an i n t e n t i o n a l d e s i r e to o b s t r u c t someone's p o t e n t i a l , or whether i t i s the a c c i d e n t a l by-product of i n n o c e n t l y motivated p r a c t i c e s or systems. If the b a r r i e r i s a f f e c t i n g c e r t a i n groups i n a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a l l y negative way, i t i s a s i g n a l that the p r a c t i c e s that l e a d to t h i s adverse impact may be d i s c r i m i n a t o r y . ( A b e l l a , 1984) I t i s t h i s systemic d e f i n i t i o n of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n which i s accepted here as being most e f f e c t i v e f o r the implementation of p u b l i c p o l i c y to address the p o s i t i o n of women i n the labour f o r c e . I t encompasses d i r e c t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n that a r i s e s from the e f f e c t s of p e r s o n a l a t t i t u d e s or p r e j u d i c e s , the e f f e c t s of s t a t i s t i c a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , as w e l l as e f f e c t s of the o p e r a t i o n of the s o c i a l and economic system. The f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n of employment d i f f e r e n t i a l ( d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ) t h e o r i e s w i l l o u t l i n e the major c o n t r i b u t i o n s of each to the e x p l a n a t i o n of labour market d i f f e r e n t i a l s . The goal of t h i s d i s c u s s i o n i s to gain an understanding of the a l t e r n a t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n s , and to i n d i c a t e the d i v e r s e means through which 13 d i f f e r e n c e s between the employment p a t t e r n s of men and women can occur. Moreover, the purpose i s to i n d i c a t e support f o r the view that d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s systemic, and that the adoption of a systems approach, as suggested by the A b e l l a r e p o r t , may be an e f f e c t i v e framework from which to develop p o l i c y to address the que s t i o n of e q u i t y i n employment. From the examination of the many t h e o r e t i c a l viewpoints that attempt to o f f e r an e x p l a n a t i o n of the p o s i t i o n of women i n the labour market, I have reached the commonly accepted c o n c l u s i o n that the causes are m u l t i p l e , i n t e r r e l a t e d , and not completely accounted f o r by any s i n g l e t h e o r e t i c a l approach. Employment and earnings d i f f e r e n t i a l s by sex do not have one comprehensive e x p l a n a t i o n , but by combining the i n s i g h t s o f f e r e d by the v a r i o u s t h e o r i e s i t i s p o s s i b l e to achieve a more complete e x p l a n a t i o n . For the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n , the t h e o r i e s w i l l be organized under the f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i e s : n e o c l a s s i c a l models, dual and segmented labour market a n a l y s i s , s e x - r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n , and Marxis t theory. 2. N e o c l a s s i c a l Approaches To understand the economic approach to e x p l a i n i n g employment d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , i t i s important to note a key assumption. Most economic a n a l y s i s i s based upon the assumption that a l l behaviour i s g o a l - d i r e c t e d and that i n d i v i d u a l s operate to maximize t h e i r s e l f - i n t e r e s t (Gunderson, 1983). Thus, a l l economic phenomena f 14 are the r e s u l t of maximizing behaviour of the a c t o r s i n the market p l a c e . a. Becker's Taste Model S t a r t i n g from t h i s assumption, Gary S. Becker developed a model to d e f i n e and e x p l a i n employment d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . In h i s book, The Economics of D i s c r i m i n a t i o n , Becker a s s e r t s t h a t : Money, commonly used as a measuring rod, w i l l a l s o serve as a measure of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . If an i n d i v i d u a l has a " t a s t e f o r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , " he must act as i f he were w i l l i n g to pay something, e i t h e r d i r e c t l y or in the form of a reduced income, to be a s s o c i a t e d with some persons i n s t e a d of o t h e r s . When a c t u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n occurs, he must in f a c t , e i t h e r pay or f o r f e i t income f o r t h i s p r i v i l e g e . (Becker, 1 957) While h i s model was developed i n the context of race d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , Becker s t a t e s that the framework "...has been proposed f o r a n a l y z i n g d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n the market place because of race, r e l i g i o n , sex, c o l o u r , s o c i a l c l a s s , p e r s o n a l i t y , or other non-pecuniary c o n s i d e r a t i o n s " (Becker, 1957) although he rec o g n i z e s that d i f f e r e n c e s i n the a n a l y s i s of race, r e l i g i o u s , sex, c o l o u r , s o c i a l c l a s s and p e r s o n a l i t y d i s c r i m i n a t i o n do e x i s t . D i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n t h i s model i n v o l v e s the s u b s t i t u t i o n of p r e j u d i c e or d i s c r i m i n a t o r y behaviour f o r maximizing economic behaviour. I t i s assumed that an employer i s w i l l i n g to incur e x t r a c o s t or lower p r o f i t s to av o i d a s s o c i a t i n g with c e r t a i n groups of people. As w e l l , some employees w i l l be w i l l i n g to 1 5 accept lower wages to a v o i d working with a d i s f a v o u r e d group ( J a i n and Sloane, 1981). Because employers, employees and consumers a l l incur c o s t when they d i s c r i m i n a t e , the long run outcome of t h i s model i s a no n - d i s c r i m i n a t o r y d i s t r i b u t i o n of earnings, based on the p r o d u c t i v i t y of men and women. As n o n - d i s c r i m i n a t i n g firms gain a c o m p e t i t i v e advantage, competition i s the cure f o r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ( O r n s t e i n , 1982). In a co m p e t i t i v e market, non-d i s c r i m i n a t i n g firms would be able to ga i n a c o m p e t i t i v e advantage over i t s competitors, f o r c i n g them out of the market, or to change t h e i r d i s c r i m i n a t o r y behaviour. In a market that i s not p e r f e c t l y c o m p e t i t i v e , the c o n t i n u i n g d i f f e r e n c e s i n the earnings between e q u a l l y p r o d u c t i v e men and women can be exp l a i n e d by the " t a s t e s " of employers, employees and consumers. The model does not provide an e x p l a n a t i o n of o c c u p a t i o n a l s e g r e g a t i o n , which i s s t r o n g l y a s s o c i a t e d with d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n employment (Gunderson, 1983). The model does p r e d i c t the p h y s i c a l s e g r e g a t i o n of men and women between i n d i v i d u a l f i r m s w i t h i n each occupation, but again, t h i s i s not c o n s i s t e n t with e m p i r i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n s (Gunderson, 1983) that show se g r e g a t i o n by occupation a c r o s s f i r m s . P o l i c y i m p l i c a t i o n s of the Becker model are ap p e a l i n g to advocates of n e o c l a s s i c a l economics. The model p r e d i c t s the e l i m i n a t i o n of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n the labour market through the com p e t i t i v e a c t i o n s of employers. A l l that i s necessary to c o r r e c t present and past d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s the f r e e o p e r a t i o n of 16 the market, and the e l i m i n a t i o n of market i m p e r f e c t i o n or monopoly power through the enforcement of a n t i t r u s t laws (LaMond, 1974). b. Bergmann's Crowding Hypothesis M o d i f i c a t i o n s to Becker's theory of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n attempt to address the obvious shortcoming that there i s no r a t i o n a l e , except p e r s o n a l p r e j u d i c e , to motivate d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n the labour market ( O r n s t e i n , 1982). Bergmann (1971, 1974) develops the Becker model f u r t h e r , to e x p l a i n o c c u p a t i o n a l s e g r e g a t i o n by sex (Gunderson, 1983). She develops the notion of a crowding h y p o t h e s i s . In t h i s model, d i s c r i m i n a t o r y behaviour by employers r e s t r i c t s the m i n o r i t y group to c e r t a i n low p r e s t i g e o c c u p a t i o n s . Only when the c o s t s of h i r i n g the m a j o r i t y group exceed a c e r t a i n l e v e l , w i l l members of the m i n o r i t y group be h i r e d to f i l l the l e s s p r e s t i g i o u s occupations ( O r n s t e i n , 1982). Bergmann's a n a l y s i s a l s o suggests that d i s c r i m i n a t i o n can r e s u l t i n wage d i f f e r e n t i a l s between occupations r e q u i r i n g equal s k i l l s . I f the s t a t u s of two occupations with equal s k i l l requirements are d i f f e r e n t , then the crowding of the m i n o r i t y group i n t o the lower s t a t u s occupations w i l l r e s u l t i n lower pay fo r that occupation ( M a r s h a l l , 1974). Bergmann's a n a l y s i s suggests that wage d i f f e r e n t i a l s are maintained by o c c u p a t i o n a l segregation r a t h e r than by overt wage d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ( M a r s h a l l , 1974). T h i s removes some of the d i f f i c u l t y i n accounting f o r 17 Becker's concept of an employer's t a s t e or d i s t a s t e f o r p h y s i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n . As Bergmann's a n a l y s i s c o n s i d e r s the s t a t u s of occupations, t h i s model c r e a t e s a more r e a l i s t i c e x p l a n a t i o n of segregated occupations, than that of women doing i d e n t i c a l jobs as men but r e c e i v i n g lower pay ( M a r s h a l l , 1974). Bergmann's focus on o c c u p a t i o n a l segregation as the source of earnings d i f f e r e n t i a l s i s supported by e m p i r i c a l evidence that i n d i c a t e s o c c u p a t i o n a l segregation i s an important source of the earnings d i f f e r e n t i a l . A Canadian study conducted by Ostry (1968), using 1961 census data, found that the d i f f e r e n t o c c u p a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s of f u l l - y e a r male and female workers accounted f o r 6.3 to 7.9 p o i n t s of the o r i g i n a l 41 percentage p o i n t d i f f e r e n c e i n annual ear n i n g s . A study conducted by the Ont a r i o M i n i s t r y of Labour, using 1971 data f o r 22 broad o c c u p a t i o n a l groups, found that g i v i n g women the o c c u p a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of men would r a i s e the earnings r a t i o from .57 to .66 (Gunderson, 1983). A study conducted by Robb (1978), u s i n g the 1971 Census data f o r O n t a r i o , found that o c c u p a t i o n a l s e g r e g a t i o n accounted f o r about 16 percent of the earnings gap. c. Arrow's M o d i f i c a t i o n s A f u r t h e r extension of the Becker t a s t e model was formulated by Kenneth Arrow (1974) i n h i s a r t i c l e , "Models for Job D i s c r i m i n a t i o n " . In the n e o c l a s s i c a l t r a d i t i o n , Arrow accepts Becker's b a s i c assumptions, but m o d i f i e s the model i n an attempt 18 to e x p l a i n why wage d i f f e r e n t i a l s are not erased by com p e t i t i v e p r e s s u r e s ( O r n s t e i n , 1982), while assuming an e q u a l l y p r o d u c t i v e male and female labour f o r c e ( M a r s h a l l , 1974). Arrow argues that segregation i s maintained p a r t l y due to the c o s t of h i r i n g and r e t r a i n i n g , so "...marginal adjustments are punished, not rewarded" (Arrow, 1974). Arrow r e p l a c e s Becker's t a s t e f o r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n with the pe r c e p t i o n of r e a l i t y made by the employer. Rather than having a t a s t e f o r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , employers b e l i e v e that members of the m i n o r i t y group are l e s s p r o d u c t i v e or e f f i c i e n t i n c e r t a i n jobs ( O r n s t e i n , 1982). If employers b e l i e v e that female workers are l e s s p r o d u c t i v e than male workers, female workers w i l l only be h i r e d i f t h e i r wages were lower than male wages by a f a c t o r l a r g e enough to compensate f o r the p e r c e i v e d d i f f e r e n t i a l . The que s t i o n of why these b e l i e f s p e r s i s t i n the presence of c o n f l i c t i n g evidence ( M a r s h a l l , 1974) i s not r e s o l v e d i n the model. 3. Human C a p i t a l Model The human c a p i t a l model, presented by Becker (1964), Mincer (1974), and Blau and Jusenius (1976), contends that the investments in' human c a p i t a l makes labour more p r o d u c t i v e . I n d i v i d u a l earning power i s set by the value of i n d i v i d u a l human c a p i t a l (England, 1984). The term human c a p i t a l r e f e r s to those aspects that c o n t r i b u t e to an i n d i v i d u a l ' s a b i l i t y to be 19 p r o d u c t i v e on the job. Examples of human c a p i t a l a t t r i b u t e s a r e : education l e v e l , job experience, job t r a i n i n g , absenteeism, and turnover r a t e s (Fox and Hesse-biber, 1984). The human c a p i t a l model p r o v i d e s an e x p l a n a t i o n of o c c u p a t i o n a l and earnings d i f f e r e n t i a l s by sex i n terms of the vo l u n t a r y c h o i c e s of women, rat h e r than labour market d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a g a i n s t them (Blau, 1984). I f men and women inv e s t d i f f e r e n t l y i n human c a p i t a l , the theory suggests they w i l l not be e q u a l l y p r o d u c t i v e , and thus they w i l l have unequal o c c u p a t i o n a l attainment and d i f f e r e n t wage l e v e l s (Mincer, 1962). Polachek (1976, 1978, 1979) extended the model to e x p l a i n o c c u p a t i o n a l segregation i n terms of v o l u n t a r y c h o i c e s of women. S t a r t i n g from the assumption that women's employment i s i n t e r m i t t e n t because of f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , Polachek argues that women choose occupations with s k i l l requirements that do not d e p r e c i a t e r a p i d l y (England, 1984). Given t h e i r i n t e r m i t t e n t employment p a t t e r n s , Polachek reasons that women make economically-motivated c h o i c e s , and thus gain from being segregated i n t o jobs with low human c a p i t a l d e p r e c i a t i o n (England, 1984). While the human c a p i t a l model s h i f t s the a t t e n t i o n from d i s c r i m i n a t o r y p r a c t i c e s to the i n d i v i d u a l human c a p i t a l attainment p a t t e r n s of men and women, i t s u f f e r s from many conceptual and e m p i r i c a l problems (Fox and Hesse-Biber, 1984). The d e t e r m i n a t i o n that women i n v e s t d i f f e r e n t l y i n human c a p i t a l because of f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i s an assumption that i s made 20 o u t s i d e the model. Though the human c a p i t a l theory makes no d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e to s o c i a l i z a t i o n , i t i s the process of s e x - r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n that accounts f o r women's primary r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s in the home and i n c h i l d r e a r i n g (England, 1984). I f Polachek's theory i s c o r r e c t , then a complete e x p l a n a t i o n of o c c u p a t i o n a l s e g r e g a t i o n c o u l d be p o s s i b l e without r e f e r e n c e to other aspects of s e x - r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n , (England, 1984), or f e a t u r e s of the labour market. The model suggests that women are segregated i n t o jobs with low human c a p i t a l d e p r e c i a t i o n , and that d i f f e r e n c e s i n job experience c o n t r i b u t e to the absence of women from jobs which r e q u i r e s e n i o r i t y (England, 1984). T h i s e x p l a n a t i o n does not hold up to s c r u t i n y , because even entry l e v e l jobs, which r e q u i r e no experience, are sex segregated (England, 1984). Expanding on t h i s evidence, England concludes, i n a 1982 study of women aged t h i r t y to f o r t y - f o u r , using data from the 1967 N a t i o n a l L o n g i t u d i n a l Survey i n the Un i t e d S t a t e s , that human c a p i t a l theory f a i l s to e x p l a i n o c c u p a t i o n a l s e g r e g a t i o n . F u r t h e r evidence, presented by Blau and Jusenius (1976), suggests that the model i s not supported e m p i r i c a l l y . The model proposes that women would enter occupations which o f f e r few o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r i n c r e a s e s i n p r o d u c t i v i t y through experience. Blau and Jus e n i u s p o i n t out that some female, as w e l l as male dominated occupations, r e q u i r e v a r y i n g amounts and types of s k i l l s . For example, nursing and the occupation of ex e c u t i v e s e c r e t a r y are dominated by women, but r e q u i r e a s u b s t a n t i a l 21 degree of t r a i n i n g . As w e l l , some occupations which r e q u i r e few s k i l l s , and have low p o t e n t i a l f o r p r o d u c t i v i t y i n c r e a s e s through experience can be dominated by women or men -- f o r example, w a i t r e s s i n g and j a n i t o r i a l work (Blau and J u s e n i u s , 1976). A d d i t i o n a l l y , i f as i s suggested by the model, d e c i s i o n s on investment i n human c a p i t a l are dependent on e x p e c t a t i o n s of rewards i n the labour market, e m p i r i c a l work using the model w i l l underestimate the extent of labour market d i s c r i m i n a t i o n (Weiss and Gronau, 1981). As women evaluate t h e i r expected r e t u r n s on investment, present and past labour market d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a g a i n s t women c o u l d i n f l u e n c e t h e i r l e v e l of investment i n human c a p i t a l . Thus, i f women have lower human c a p i t a l investment, i t may be a r e f l e c t i o n of past and present d i s c r i m i n a t o r y r e s t r i c t i o n s to o c c u p a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s . The model has shown the strong r e l a t i o n s h i p between education and earnings, between age and ear n i n g s , and pr o v i d e s a good p r e d i c t i o n of income with these two v a r i a b l e s ( O r n s t e i n , 1982). In p r a c t i c e , the human c a p i t a l approach has been expanded to i n c l u d e a v a r i e t y of explanatory v a r i a b l e s to capture the e f f e c t of s u p p l y - s i d e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , such as educati o n , work experience, e t h n i c group, m a r i t a l s t a t u s , and demand-side c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , such as occup a t i o n , i n d u s t r y , g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n , union membership, c l a s s of worker, time worked and a u t h o r i t y r e l a t i o n i n the workplace, on the d i s t r i b u t i o n of ea r n i n g s . 22 Gunderson (1976) r e p o r t s that when adjustments are made f o r p r o d u c t i v i t y - r e l a t e d f a c t o r s , there remains a 10 to 20 percent wage d i f f e r e n t i a l that i s unexplained. T h i s leaves 10 to 20 percent of the wage gap as a r e s i d u a l that c o u l d be due to d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , assuming that none of the p r o d u c t i v i t y - r e l a t e d f a c t o r s arose out of d i s c r i m i n a t o r y p r a c t i c e s ; but i f the present p r o d u c t i v i t y d i f f e r e n c e s arose from past d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , then a l l of the unadjusted wage gap c o u l d be a t t r i b u t e d to d i s c r i m i n a t i o n (Gunderson, 1976) given that a l l p r o d u c t i v i t y f a c t o r s are con s i d e r e d and p r e c i s e l y measured. Other s t u d i e s by Holmes (1976), Gunderson (1979), Goyder (1981), and O r n s t e i n (1983) found s i m i l a r r e s u l t s u sing a v a r i e t y of d i f f e r e n t e xplanatory v a r i a b l e s . Research conducted by Detray and Greenberg (1977) presents s t r o n g evidence that omitted v a r i a b l e s and imprecise measurement of v a r i a b l e s has a c o n s i d e r a b l e impact on the s i z e of the unexplained d i f f e r e n c e i n the earnings of men and women. Human c a p i t a l theory argues f o r a n o n - i n t e r v e n t i o n i s t approach to the r e l a t i v e l y poorer p o s i t i o n of women i n the labour market. T h i s f o l l o w s from the assumption that i n d i v i d u a l investment i n human c a p i t a l r e f l e c t s i n d i v i d u a l p r e f e r e n c e s and c h o i c e s (Fox and Hesse-Biber, 1984). I t assumes that women f r e e l y choose to ac q u i r e l e s s education and pursue c e r t a i n jobs at lower wages because of other s o c i a l , f a m i l y and other r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . However, i n a world with an unequal d i s t r i b u t i o n of power, re s o u r c e s , human c a p i t a l and s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , the a b i l i t y to e x e r c i s e freedom of ch o i c e d i f f e r s g r e a t l y from i n d i v i d u a l to i n d i v i d u a l (Fox and Hesse-B i b e r , 1984). 23 4. Monopsony Model It i s understood i n economic models, that a worker who faces a monopsonist w i l l r e c e i v e a wage that i s l e s s than the value of h i s or her marginal product (Blau and Jusen i u s , 1976). A l l of the economic t h e o r i e s c o n s i d e r e d so f a r have assumed p e r f e c t c o m p e t i t i o n . In a s i t u a t i o n where a f i r m i s a l a r g e employer i n a l o c a l market area, the f i r m can have an e f f e c t on the wage ra t e in an occupation (Gunderson, 1983). By changing the amount of labour i t uses, the f i r m can, f o l l o w i n g the l o g i c of supply and demand, a f f e c t the p r i c e of labour. A f i r m i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s s a i d to have monopsony power (Gunderson, 1983). If the assumption i s made that the supply of female labour i s more open to the e f f e c t s of monopsony power because women are t i e d to the l o c a t i o n of the husband's employment, an argument c o u l d be made i n support of the monopsony model. But the counter argument has a l s o been put forward by Blau and Jusenius (1976). They argue that women have the o p t i o n of dropping out of the labour f o r c e and becoming a housewife, and thus may a c t u a l l y be l e s s s u s c e p t i b l e to monopsony power. One i m p l i c a t i o n of the model i s th a t wage d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a g a i n s t women may be l e s s pronounced i n la r g e c i t i e s than i n small towns or r u r a l areas, because the i n f l u e n c e of the husband's work l o c a t i o n w i l l be l e s s pronounced (Gunderson, 1983). E m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h on t h i s aspect i s i n c o n c l u s i v e . Gunderson (1975) f i n d s that the male wage advantage over women i n la r g e c i t i e s i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y s m a l l e r , implying support f o r the monopsony model. However, another study by Gunderson, (1976) showed that the incomes of men and women i n c r e a s e d f o r urban r e s i d e n c e s , but that the e f f e c t was l a r g e r f o r men than women, r e s u l t i n g i n a decrease i n female-to-male earnings r a t i o s . 5. Dual Labour Markets An economic approach which n e o c l a s s i c a l model i s the "dual ( M a r s h a l l , 1974). The dual or has presented a c h a l l e n g e to the labour market" hypothesis segmented labour market hypothesis i s c l e a r l y s t a t e d by Michael P o i r e : The b a s i c hypothesis of the dual labor market was that the market i s d i v i d e d i n t o two e s s e n t i a l l y d i s t i n c t s e c t o r s , termed the 'primary' and the 'secondary' s e c t o r s . The former o f f e r s jobs with r e l a t i v e l y high wages, good working c o n d i t i o n s , chances of advancement, e q u i t y and due process i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of work r u l e s and, above a l l , employment s t a b i l i t y . Jobs i n the secondary s e c t o r , by c o n t r a s t , tend to be low-paying, with poorer working c o n d i t i o n s , l i t t l e chance of advancement; a h i g h l y p e r s o n a l i z e d r e l a t i o n s h i p between workers and s u p e r v i s o r s which l e a v e s wide l a t i t u d e f o r f a v o r i t i s m and i s conducive to harsh and c a p r i c i o u s work d i s c i p l i n e ; and with c o n s i d e r a b l e i n s t a b i l i t y in jobs and a high turnover among the labour f o r c e . The hypothesis was designed to e x p l a i n the problems of disadvantaged, p a r t i c u l a r l y black workers i n urban areas, which had p r e v i o u s l y been diagnosed as one of unemployment ( P i o r e , 1972, c i t e d from M a r s h a l l , 1974). E a r l y work by P i o r e (1970, 1974, 1975) s t r e s s e s that the e x p e c t a t i o n of the labour f o r c e i s an independent determinant f o r the e x i s t e n c e of a dual labour market. According to P i o r e , c e r t a i n groups have a t t i t u d e s to work that make them l e s s s u i t a b l e f o r jobs w i t h i n the primary s e c t o r . In h i s a n a l y s i s , people have c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s formed from l i f e p a t t e r n s and r o l e models that f o s t e r b e h a v i o r a l t r a i t s that are a n t a g o n i s t i c to primary employment ( P i o r e , 1970). F u r t h e r , the e f f e c t s of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , other systemic f a c t o r s or even random f a c t o r s that s t a r t workers o f f i n the secondary labour market, r e i n f o r c e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n the worker that are not conducive to employment i n the primary labour market (Cain, 1976). The ch a r a c t e r of bad jobs i n the secondary sector shapes the t a s t e s , a t t i t u d e s and pr e f e r e n c e s of workers, thus c r e a t i n g a v i c i o u s c i r c l e or s e l f - f u l f i l l i n g prophecy that c o n f i n e s i n d i v i d u a l s to the secondary market (Cain, 1976). The cause and e f f e c t are u n c l e a r . People are p a i d low wages and given u n d e s i r a b l e jobs because of t h e i r poor work c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; and many of t h e i r work c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are formulated from t h e i r p o s i t i o n s i n poor jobs with low wages (Gunderson and Reid, 1983). As i t i s d i f f i c u l t to move from a secondary job to a primary one, recruitment to the primary labour market i s very important to the economic p o s i t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l s and groups. Thus, employer d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , whether by pr e f e r e n c e , p r e j u d i c e or s t a t i s t i c a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , combined with the developed p r e f e r e n c e s of i n d i v i d u a l s i n the labour market, can r e s u l t i n 26 earnings d i f f e r e n t i a l s between groups through t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n the primary or secondary labour market (Lundahl and Wadensjo, 1984). Approaches to improving the jobs themselves have three b a s i c d i r e c t i o n s : 1) to break up the primary labour market with i t s p r o t e c t i v e and e x c l u s i o n a r y p o l i c i e s ; 2) break down the b a r r i e r s that prevent the movement from the secondary to the primary labour market; and 3) extend the b e n e f i t s of the primary labour market to the secondary labour market (Gunderson, 1983). 6. Sex-Role S o c i a l i z a t i o n A f a c t o r i n the segregation of occupations that i s m i s s i n g , or taken as given, i n the economic models d i s c u s s e d above i s the process of s e x - r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n . F r e q u e n t l y c a l l e d a " s o c i a l i z a t i o n paradigm", t h i s approach i s now the most acc e p t a b l e way of e x p l a i n i n g the se g r e g a t i o n of labour by sex (Armstrong and Armstrong, 1984). From t h i s approach, female and male c h i l d r e n are encouraged to behave and t h i n k d i f f e r e n t l y . The e a r l y s o c i a l i z a t i o n of c h i l d r e n r e s u l t s i n feminine and masculine thoughts, a t t i t u d e s and behaviour p a t t e r n s (Armstrong and Armstrong, 1984). T h i s encourages men and women to choose types of education and jobs that are a p p r o p r i a t e f o r them i n t h e i r s o c i a l s e t t i n g . T h i s approach i s c l e a r l y set out by Coulson and R i d d e l l . Most p s y c h o l o g i s t s and s o c i o l o g i s t s are now agreed t h a t i n s t i n c t i s of l i t t l e s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the e x p l a n a t i o n 2 7 of human behaviour, which overwhelmingly d e r i v e s from what we l e a r n . What we l e a r n d e r i v e s from our c u l t u r e - the s e t s of e s t a b l i s h e d ways of doing t h i n g s developed i n our s o c i e t y . Each i n d i v i d u a l as he grows up i s s o c i a l i z e d ( t r a i n e d ) to i n t e r n a l i z e (accept as h i s own) t h i s c u l t u r e . T h e r e f o r e , the c e n t r a l concept in e x p l a i n i n g behaviour i s c u l t u r e . Sex-role a c q u i s i t i o n i s a complex process, i n v o l v i n g an e n t i r e range of i n t e r r e l a t e d f a c t o r s . Although the l e a r n i n g i n v o l v e d i n the process of s e x - r o l e a c q u i s i t i o n may occur i n a v a r i e t y of ways, gender i s a s s o c i a t e d with p a r t i c u l a r types of behaviour i n the p a r t i c u l a r c u l t u r e of the c h i l d ( Marini and B r i n t o n , 1984). As a r e s u l t of s e x - r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n , sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n o c c u p a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n occur before e n t r y i n t o the labour market (Ma r i n i and B r i n t o n , 1984). A major d i f f i c u l t y with the s o c i a l i z a t i o n approach i s d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between the a s p i r a t i o n s and e x p e c t a t i o n s of i n d i v i d u a l s pursuing sex-typed o c c u p a t i o n s . While many s t u d i e s have shown that young women are more l i k e l y to choose "female" occupations, and young men are more l i k e l y to choose "male" occupations (Marini and B r i n t o n , 1984), i t i s d i f f i c u l t to determine i f these c h o i c e s r e f l e c t a s p i r a t i o n s or are a r e f l e c t i o n of the r e a l i s t i c e x p e c t a t i o n s given a r e s t r i c t e d set of o p t i o n s . Armstrong and Armstrong (1984) make a strong argument a g a i n s t the power of a s o c i a l i z a t i o n paradigm to e x p l a i n the s e g r e g a t i o n of work. The use of s o c i a l i z a t i o n theory to approach an e x p l a n a t i o n of the p o s i t i o n of women in the labour f o r c e ignores the i n f l u e n c e of the e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e s i n s o c i e t y . I f 28 the s e g r e g a t i o n of occupations i s the r e s u l t of ideas about a p p r o p r i a t e r o l e s , developed through s o c i a l i z a t i o n , then by merely changing our conception of the s i t u a t i o n , the p o s i t i o n of women i n the labour f o r c e should be changed (Armstrong and Armstrong, 1984). "The assumption i s that a t t i t u d e s and ideas, e s p e c i a l l y those t r a n s m i t t e d through the s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s , can be changed independently of other s t r u c t u r e s , that these ideas w i l l i n t u r n a l t e r the c u l t u r e and thus the s e g r e g a t i o n . " (Armstrong and Armstrong, 1984) Armstrong and Armstrong (1983) conducted a survey i n which they found that many women work i n t y p i c a l l y female jobs not because women thin k these are a p p r o p r i a t e jobs f o r women, and not because women thought the jobs are the c o r r e c t r o l e s f o r women, but because they are the jobs that are a v a i l a b l e to women. T h i s does not deny t h a t people act on t h e i r ideas, and that ideas do j u s t i f y and r e i n f o r c e i n e q u a l i t i e s , but from a p o l i c y viewpoint, a c t i o n s d i r e c t e d only at i n d i v i d u a l a t t i t u d e s w i l l meet with only p a r t i a l success i f s t r u c t u r a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l f a c t o r s are ignored (Armstrong and Armstrong, 1984). 7. M a r x i s t Theories M a r x i s t e x p l a n a t i o n s of o c c u p a t i o n a l sex segr e g a t i o n assume that employers d i v i d e the labour f o r c e i n t o smaller groups to keep i t from working together i n o p p o s i t i o n to c a p i t a l i s m ( M a r s h a l l , 1974). Mar x i s t t h e o r i s t s argue that c a p i t a l i s t s 29 employ the " d i v i d e and conquer s t r a t e g y " a g a i n s t workers (England, 1984). The d i v i s i o n of jobs i n t o segments i s seen as a means to l i m i t the extent to which people i n d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s of jobs i d e n t i f y with each other. Thus, s e g r e g a t i o n by sex, as w e l l as other i d e n t i f i a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , h e lps to minimize the development of s o l i d a r i t y among workers (England, 1984). The M a r x i s t p e r s p e c t i v e c o n s i s t s p r i m a r i l y of h i s t o r i c a l accounts of the use of race or sex d i v i s i o n by employers to weaken labour movements (Gordon, 1982). There are many problems with t h i s approach i n e x p l a i n i n g the p o s i t i o n of women i n the labour market. As women's work has always been segregated, there i s no b a s i s f o r knowing whether worker s o l i d a r i t y would be i n c r e a s e d or decreased from the desegregation of work. The approach a s s i g n s most of the emphasis f o r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n to the employer. D i s c r i m i n a t i o n by other employees i s a l s o a f a c t o r that needs to be c o n s i d e r e d ( M a r s h a l l , 1974). F u r t h e r , i t seems u n l i k e l y that employers w i l l always segregate. I f employers are motivated by other f a c t o r s , such as p r o f i t , i t i s d i f f i c u l t to show that s e g r e g a t i o n i s c o n s i s t e n t with these other motives ( M a r s h a l l , 1974), as employers do not always p r o f i t by the s e g r e g a t i o n of workers. The p o l i c y i m p l i c a t i o n of t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e i s that there needs to be a fundamental r e s t r u c t u r i n g of the b a s i c power r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n s o c i e t y f o r change i n the area of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n to occur (Gunderson, 1984). 30 8. Summary From t h i s survey of a l t e r n a t i v e approaches taken by economists and other s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s , i t i s c l e a r that there i s not one d e f i n i t i v e theory of " d i s c r i m i n a t i o n " that p r o v i d e s an i n t e r n a l l y c o n s i s t e n t and r e a l i s t i c e x p l a n a t i o n of the p o s i t i o n of women i n the labour f o r c e . M a r s h a l l concludes, a f t e r h i s examination of n e o c l a s s i c a l theory, that there i s no s i n g l e , systematic statement of theory ( M a r s h a l l , 1974). Other authors, (England, 1984; Oaxaca, 1977) surveying n e o c l a s s i c a l , as w e l l as a l t e r n a t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n s of the sex seg r e g a t i o n of work, have reached s i m i l a r c o n c l u s i o n s . England proposes that there i s "...no one parsimonious e x p l a n a t i o n ; i t i s embedded i n systems ranging from the p s y c h o l o g i c a l to the i n s t i t u t i o n a l l e v e l . " Both England and Oaxaca i d e n t i f y the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r o v e r l a p between what are commonly regarded as competing t h e o r i e s . The l a c k of a d e f i n i t i v e e xplanatory theory of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n r a i s e s a d i f f i c u l t q u e s t i o n with regard to p o l i c y (Oaxaca, 1977). P o l i c y makers can choose t o : 1) address the causes of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n from one or many of the view p o i n t s of e x i s t i n g t h e o r i e s , and a l t e r the inputs and the i n t e r n a l o p e r a t i o n s of the system or 2) act without a complete understanding the u n d e r l y i n g causes and address the r e s u l t s of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , or the outputs of the system (Oaxaca, 1977). In l i g h t of the d i s c u s s i o n of employment d i s c r i m i n a t i o n theory, the adoption of the d e f i n i t i o n of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n as 31 systemic i s com p e l l i n g . I t i s able to mediate between, and attempt to r e c o n c i l e , 1) the pressure groups who regard men and women as b a s i c a l l y equal i n terms of t h e i r a b i l i t i e s and tend t o see any d i f f e r e n c e s i n the employment c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as an a b e r r a t i o n , 2) human c a p i t a l t h e o r i s t s who s t a r t from the assumption t h a t p e r s o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s between groups and i n d i v i d u a l s g i v e s r i s e to d i f f e r e n c e s i n outcomes ( J a i n and Sloane, 1981), 3) the maximizing behaviour of employers p r e d i c t e d by the n e o c l a s s i c a l approaches, 4) the s t r u c t u r a l f a c t o r s suggested by the Monopsony, Dual Labour Market, and M a r x i s t t h e o r i e s , and 5) the s e x - r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s . Given that d i f f e r e n c e s i n earnings, and the d i s t r i b u t i o n of men and women acros s occupations i s very d i f f i c u l t to ass i g n to p r e j u d i c e or i n e q u i t a b l e treatment, p e r s o n a l a b i l i t i e s , economic determinants, or to the a c t o r s i n the system ranging from employers, unions, employees, consumers, or government, the concept of systemic d i s c r i m i n a t i o n p r o v i d e s a b a s i s f o r i n t e r v e n t i o n grounded i n an e v o l v i n g d e f i n i t i o n of e q u i t y . The concept of systemic d i s c r i m i n a t i o n p r o v i d e s a b a s i s f o r a c t i o n that i s independent of a complete understanding of the cause and e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p of the v a r i o u s components of the socio-economic system. P o l i c y a c t i o n s formulated from the idea of systemic d i s c r i m i n a t i o n seek to break down e s t a b l i s h e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n the system through a f f i r m a t i v e a c t i o n programs. Once p o l i c y designed to a c t i v e l y reverse the e x i s t i n g p a t t e r n has been implemented, the cumulative e f f e c t s of the 3 2 a c t i o n w i l l b u i l d i n the other d i r e c t i o n as components of the system, a t t i t u d e s , laws, r o l e models, i n s t i t u t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s , i n d i v i d u a l economic power of women, begin to change (Gunderson, 1984). Systemic d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s not n e c e s s a r i l y the r e s u l t of conscious attempts to exclude c e r t a i n groups from economic o p p o r t u n i t i e s . For t h i s reason, i t does not only i n v o l v e the examination of i n t e n t and m o t i v a t i o n ( P h i l l i p s , 1984). Rather i t focuses on the examination and a n a l y s i s of the r e s u l t s . Working from the a n a l y s i s of the r e s u l t s , i t i s determined i f c e r t a i n groups are under-represented, and under-paid given t h e i r a b i l i t y and the r e q u i r e d s k i l l s ( P h i l l i p s , 1984). From t h i s knowledge, s p e c i f i c causes f o r the d i f f e r e n t i a l s are i d e n t i f i e d , and then a c t i o n can be taken to provide a remedy. Knowledge of the u n d e r l y i n g c a u s a l determinants of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and i n e q u a l i t y are necessary f o r p o l i c y makers to be able to t r e a t the causes, to f o r e c a s t expected f u t u r e changes, and to p r e d i c t the expected impact of a l t e r n a t i v e p o l i c i e s (Gunderson, 1984). The n o t i o n of systemic d i s c r i m i n a t i o n does not pr e c l u d e the d e f i n i t i o n of the components and the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between the v a r i o u s components of the system. Leaving the r e l a t i o n s h i p s and components undefined has the u n s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s u l t of a t t r i b u t i n g the problem to "the system". Undoubtedly, socio-economic systems are the r e s u l t of the i n t e r a c t i o n of v a r i o u s a c t o r s , i n s t i t u t i o n s , and the context i n which they operate. However, an incomplete understanding of 33 these i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s does not preclude the implementation of e f f e c t i v e , g o a l - d i r e c t e d p o l i c y t h at seeks to address the r e s u l t s of the o p e r a t i o n of system. The concept of systemic d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , and the broader view of employment e q u i t y that i t e n t a i l s , can make a c o n t r i b u t i o n to p o l i c y by encouraging p o l i c y makers to c o n s i d e r a wider range of f a c t o r s and i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s (Davies, 1977). Moreover, by p l a c i n g employment e q u i t y i s s u e s i n an h i s t o r i c a l , s o c i a l and economic p e r s p e c t i v e , theory can a l s o act as a guide to l i k e l y consequences of d i f f e r e n t a c t i o n s (Davies, 1977). D. Earnings D i f f e r e n t i a l s and P r o d u c t i v i t y D i f f e r e n c e s The e m p i r i c a l work that f o l l o w s p a r a l l e l s work completed by Oaxaca (1973), Holmes (1974), Robb (1978), Gunderson (1980), Goyder (1981) and O r n s t e i n (1983). These do not represent a complete l i s t of past s t u d i e s . More complete summaries of past r e s e a r c h can be found i n Gunderson (1976), Gunderson (1980) and Agarwal and J a i n (1978). T h i s r e s e a r c h has r e v o l v e d around the development of l e a s t squares r e g r e s s i o n models designed to ad j u s t f o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n p r o d u c t i v i t y through the use of a v a r i e t y of expla n a t o r y v a r i a b l e s use to measure the extent and sources of wage d i f f e r e n t i a l s . Each c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l study d i f f e r s i n i t s data source and s e l e c t i o n of. v a r i a b l e s , making general c o n c l u s i o n s d i f f i c u l t . Table 2 summarizes some of the e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s that attempt to e x p l a i n the earnings d i f f e r e n t i a l through r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s . I t p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n on the data set used i n the study, the unadjusted and a d j u s t e d earnings r a t i o s , and the e x planatory v a r i a b l e s that were used i n the a n a l y s i s . The v a r i a b l e s used are l i m i t e d by the a v a i l a b i l i t y of data, and the d e f i n i t i o n of p r o d u c t i v i t y - r e l a t e d v a r i a b l e s . Thus there i s a s u b s t a n t i a l v a r i a t i o n i n the s i z e of the sex d i s c r i m i n a t i o n earnings d i f f e r e n t i a l i d e n t i f i e d i n each study. The a d j u s t e d earnings r a t i o f o r these s t u d i e s range from 50 to 80. The v a r i a t i o n i n r e s u l t s i s due p r i m a r i l y to d i f f e r e n c e s i n the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s used to adjust the d i f f e r e n t i a l (Gunderson, 1982). 35 T a b l e 2 . Summary o f R a t i o s o f Women's t o Men 's E a r n i n g s , U n a d j u s t e d and A d j u s t e d f o r V a r i o u s C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Workers and J o b s S t u d y D a t a S o u r c e s and P o p u l a t i o n S t u d i e d G r o s s U n a d j u s t e d R a t i o E x p l a n a t o r y A d j u s t e d V a r i a b l e s R a t i o Oaxaca (1973) Su rvey o f Economic G5 O p p o r t u n i t y (1967) U . S . A . , u rban w o r k e r s age +1G Holmes (1974) Survey o f Consumer 41 F i n a n c e (1967) Canada, i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h and w i t h o u t income 72 56 e d u c a t i o n , age , r a c e , p r o x y f o r l a b o u r f o r c e e x p e r i e n c e , m a r i t a l s t a t u s , h e a l t h , hours o f work , s i z e o f c i t y a n d r e g i o n . a g e , weeks worked , r e g i o n , s i z e o f u r b a n a r e a , i m m i g r a t i o n s t a t u s c l a s s o f w o r k e r , m a r i t a l s t a t u s , o c c u p a t i o n and n a t u r e o f work . Robb (1978) 1970 C e n s u s , 30 y e a r s and o l d e r , O n t a r i o 59 76 age , m a r i t a l s t a t u s , e d u c a t i o n , t r a i n i n g , t i m e w o r k e d , o c c u p a t i o n and i n d u s t r y . Gunderson (1980) 1970 Census , O n t a r i o 60 Goyder (1981) C a n a d i a n M o b i l i t y S tudy 49 Supplement t o t h e 1973 Labour F o r c e S u r v e y , age 18 - 64 76 67 p o t e n t i a l e x p e r i e n c e , m a r i t a l s t a t u s , e d u c a t i o n , t r a i n i n g , t i m e worked , l anguage , o c c u p a t i o n and i n d u s t r y ; e d u c a t i o n , o c c u p a t i o n coded by B l i s h e n s c o r e s , h o u r s w o r k e d , j o b i n t e r r u p t i o n s and age . O r n s t e i n (1983) Q u a l i t y o f L i f e S u r v e y , 62 3000 c a s e s , 1981 80 e d u c a t i o n , e x p e r i e n c e , s e n i o r i t y , h o u r s o f work , o w n e r s h i p a n d employer s i z e , u n i o n membership , a u t h o r i t y r e l a t i o n s h i p . Most a n a l y s i s agree that there i s an earnings gap between men and women. The impetus f o r t h i s body of rese a r c h , that attempts to c a l c u l a t e an a d j u s t e d earnings r a t i o , a r i s e s from disagreement on the s i z e of the gap and i t s causes. Some argue that the earnings gap i s the r e s u l t of lower w o r k - p r o d u c t i v i t y among women. For example, women are p a i d l e s s because they have fewer s k i l l s , l e s s t r a i n i n g , and l e s s work experience (Calzavara 1985). They argue that these f a c t o r s should be taken i n t o account when t r y i n g to e x p l a i n the gap. Other a n a l y s t s argue that the e n t i r e gap re p r e s e n t s past d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a g a i n s t women and that by accounting f o r these f a c t o r s past d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s ignored ( C a l z a v a r a , 1985). Previous e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h has attempted to determine the extent of the earnings gap and i d e n t i f y the cause by t r a c i n g the impact on the gap when adjustments have been made f o r v a r i o u s p r o d u c t i v i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The r e s u l t s from past s t u d i e s have a f f e c t e d the e m p i r i c a l work i n t h i s t h e s i s by demonstrating that past work experience, average hours worked per year, occupation and i n d u s t r y d i s t r i b u t i o n are important v a r i a b l e s i n the accounting of the earnings d i f f e r e n t i a l . The e f f e c t of hours worked, while i n c l u d e d i n the a n a l y s i s , has been e s s e n t i a l l y accounted f o r through the sample s e l e c t i o n process which s e l e c t e d only those cases where the i n d i v i d u a l worked f u l l - t i m e and f u l l - y e a r i n 1985. F u r t h e r , the review of the t h e o r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e has r a i s e d s e v e r a l q u e s t i o n s with regard to the impact of educati o n , s e c t o r of work ( p r i v a t e versus p u b l i c s e c t o r ) , and the impact of m a r i t a l s t a t u s and number of c h i l d r e n on the earnings d i f f e r e n t i a l . F i r s t , education i s i n c l u d e d i n the a n a l y s i s because of i t s strong r e l a t i o n s h i p to earnings, but a l s o because of the assumption that women have lower earnings as a r e s u l t of lower l e v e l s of ed u c a t i o n . Second, d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , f o l l o w i n g the l o g i c of the n e o c l a s s i c a l approach and the r o l e of competition i n reducing d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , i s proposed to be lower i n the p r i v a t e s e c t o r as opposed to the p u b l i c s e c t o r . Through the a n a l y s i s of the data, i t w i l l be p o s s i b l e to explo r e t h i s assumption. And t h i r d , i t i s commonly assumed that women choose t o be l e s s p r o d u c t i v e i n the labour market so they can c o n t r i b u t e more to fam i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , i n d i c a t e d by m a r i t a l s t a t u s and number of c h i l d r e n . By i n c l u d i n g m a r i t a l s t a t u s and number of c h i l d r e n i n the r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s i t w i l l be p o s s i b l e to explore whether these i n d i c a t o r s of domestic r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s have a negative impact on the earnings of women. 38 11 . METHODOLOGY A. I n t r o d u c t i o n Using data from the 1986 Survey of Consumer Finance (SCF), which i s based upon the A p r i l , 1985 Labour Force Survey, and c o n s i d e r i n g the e f f e c t s of education, experience, m a r i t a l s t a t u s , urban area, r e g i o n , average hours worked per year, c l a s s of work, and number of c h i l d r e n , r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s w i l l be used to measure the impact of these human c a p i t a l and r e l a t e d f a c t o r s on the earnings gap. Before proceeding with the a n a l y s i s i t i s important to have a c l e a r understanding of the methodological i s s u e s i n v o l v e d i n t h i s type of a n a l y s i s . B. M e t h o d o l o g i c a l Issues Gunderson (1980) p r o v i d e s an e x c e l l e n t summary of the i s s u e s i n v o l v e d i n the a n a l y s i s of the male-female earnings gap. He notes that much of the disagreement over the s i z e and source of the earnings gap stems from the use of d i f f e r e n t methods of a n a l y s i s . D i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s a r i s e from the use of h o u r l y wages or annual income, a b s o l u t e or r e l a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s , a d j u s t e d or unadjusted measures. A c l e a r understanding of the d i f f e r e n t measures, and d e f i n i t i o n s w i l l reduce the c o n f u s i o n surrounding the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , and a n a l y s i s of the r e s u l t s of t h i s , and other s t u d i e s i n t o the male-female earnings gap. 39 1. Wages Versus Income A l l measures of the male-female earnings gap r e f e r to some measure of labour market income (Gunderson, 1980). Measures can examine d i f f e r e n c e s i n wages per u n i t of time worked, or income over a s p e c i f i c p e r i o d of time. The v a l i d i t y of e i t h e r measure depends upon the purpose of the a n a l y s i s . I f the a n a l y s i s i s attempting to i d e n t i f y the extent of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n the labour market, both measures can be used. For a n a l y s i s that focuses on qu e s t i o n s of poverty and income d i s t r i b u t i o n , the annual income becomes the more u s e f u l measure (Gunderson, 1980). 2. R e l a t i v e Versus Absolute D i f f e r e n c e s The disagreement over whether the wage gap i s i n c r e a s i n g or d e c r e a s i n g over time stems l a r g e l y from the use of r e l a t i v e versus a b s o l u t e measures of the gap. The a b s o l u t e measure i s the d i f f e r e n c e between male wages and female wages. Over time, these va l u e s tend to in c r e a s e due to changes i n the l e v e l of wages (Gunderson, 1980). The r e l a t i v e measure of wage d i f f e r e n c e s accounts f o r changes i n the l e v e l of wages by using the r a t i o of female wages d i v i d e d by male wages. In the f o l l o w i n g e m p i r i c a l work, t h i s w i l l be the measure used. 3. Unadjusted and Adjusted Measures 40 The f a c t o r that generates the most d i s c u s s i o n about the magnitude of the male-female earnings gap, and the amount of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n v o l v e d i s the degree to which the gap i s a d j u s t e d f o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n p r o d u c t i v i t y and work r e l a t e d f a c t o r s (Gunderson, 1980). I t i s accepted that d i f f e r e n c e s i n earnings can l e g i t i m a t e l y a r i s e from d i f f e r e n t p r o d u c t i v i t y f a c t o r s , such as l e v e l s of education, t r a i n i n g , experience, and work r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and c o n d i t i o n s . When p r o d u c t i v i t y f a c t o r s are equal, then any pay d i f f e r e n c e s that a r i s e may be a t t r i b u t e d to d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . Unadjusted wage d i f f e r e n c e s r e f l e c t the wage gap before p r o d u c t i v i t y - r e l a t e d f a c t o r s are c o n t r o l l e d . Adjusted wage gaps r e f e r to the unexplained d i f f e r e n c e s i n the wages of men and women a f t e r adjustments have been made. The degree to which a d j u s t e d wage gaps r e f l e c t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s c o n t r o v e r s i a l (Gunderson, 1980). The c o n f l i c t a r i s e s because the value of p r o d u c t i v i t y - r e l a t e d f a c t o r s may have a r i s e n due to d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . C u l t u r e , t r a d i t i o n and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a l l c o n t r i b u t e to d i f f e r e n c e s between men and women in q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y of e d u c a t i o n , job t r a i n i n g , h i r i n g p r a c t i c e s and f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . Because there may be d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n v o l v e d i n the a c q u i s i t i o n of p r o d u c t i v i t y -r e l a t e d f a c t o r s , c o n t r o l l i n g f o r these may ignore important sources of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n (Gunderson, 1980). To the extent that d i f f e r e n c e s i n the work and p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of men and women arose from d i s c r i m i n a t o r y p r a c t i c e s , a l l of the wage gap may be a t t r i b u t a b l e to d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , in and ou t s i d e the labour market. On the other hand, the unexplained r e s i d u a l , and the d i f f e r e n t r e t u r n s men and women r e c e i v e f o r p r o d u c t i v e a t t r i b u t e s may r e f l e c t unobserved gender d i f f e r e n c e s in labour market p r o d u c t i v i t y that stem from f a c t o r s o u t s i d e the labour market. For example, the unexplained r e s i d u a l i n c l u d e s p r o d u c t i v i t y f a c t o r s , such as mo t i v a t i o n and a p t i t u d e , that can not be measured. C o n t r o l l i n g f o r p r o d u c t i v i t y - r e l a t e d f a c t o r s that account f o r a l a r g e p a r t of the wage gap does not mean that d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s not r e s p o n s i b l e (Gunderson, 1980). The t o t a l amount of the gap a t t r i b u t a b l e to d i s c r i m i n a t i o n may be the same, but a s s i g n e d to wage and employment d i s c r i m i n a t i o n w i t h i n the labour market, or to d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n the a c q u i s i t i o n of p r o d u c t i v i t y - r e l a t e d f a c t o r s o u t s i d e the labour market. Thus, i t i s necessary to d i s t i n g u i s h between pay d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , which can be d e f i n e d as unequal pay l e v e l s f o r employees h o l d i n g equal jobs (Agarwal, 1981), employment d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , which can be broadly d e f i n e d as unequal job l e v e l s f o r men and women with s i m i l a r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s (Agarwal, 1981), and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n "before the market" (Osberg, 1981). D i s c r i m i n a t i o n before the market r e f e r s to d i f f e r e n c e s i n the s o c i a l i z a t i o n of men and women which d i r e c t s them to ob t a i n d i f f e r e n t types of education, to pursue d i f f e r e n t employment p a t t e r n s , and c o n t r i b u t e s to f a c t o r s that determine t h e i r earnings i n the labour f o r c e . Thus, employment d i s c r i m i n a t i o n can be due to d i s c r i m i n a t i o n o u t s i d e the labour f o r c e , as w e l l as w i t h i n the labour f o r c e through the d e v a l u a t i o n of female-dominated occupations, the crowding of women i n t o those occupations (Bergmann, 1971), and unequal pay f o r equal work. 4. P r o d u c t i v i t y Adjustment Techniques Gunderson (1980) o u t l i n e s two techniques that are widely used i n the l i t e r a t u r e to ad j u s t f o r p r o d u c t i v i t y - r e l a t e d d i f f e r e n c e s . The two techniques are sample s e l e c t i o n and r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s e s . a. Sample S e l e c t i o n The sample s e l e c t i o n approach c o n t r o l s p r o d u c t i v i t y - r e l a t e d d i f f e r e n c e s by s e l e c t i n g groups of men and women that are s i m i l a r i n t h e i r p r o d u c t i v i t y - r e l a t e d f a c t o r s (Gunderson, 1980). For example, the s e l e c t i o n of men and women 35-45 years of age, working i n the same occupation and having the same job t i t l e attempts to c o n t r o l f o r a l a r g e number of p r o d u c t i v i t y - r e l a t e d f a c t o r s that may i n f l u e n c e pay l e v e l s . T h i s approach i s focused on i d e n t i f y i n g pay d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . 4 3 b. Regression Analyses There are two ba s i c r e g r e s s i o n techniques that have been used in the l i t e r a t u r e . The f i r s t i n v o l v e s the e s t i m a t i o n of an earnings equation by r e g r e s s i n g a measure of earnings on v a r i o u s explanatory v a r i a b l e s (Gunderson, 1980). The i n c l u s i o n of a sex dummy v a r i a b l e enables an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the e f f e c t of being male or female on earnings while h o l d i n g constant the other p r o d u c t i v i t y - r e l a t e d v a r i a b l e s . The main weakness of t h i s technique i s that i t assumes that men and women r e c e i v e the same r e t u r n s from p r o d u c t i v i t y - r e l a t e d f a c t o r s . I t accounts f o r d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of p r o d u c t i v i t y -r e l a t e d f a c t o r s and d i f f e r e n t payments to men and women independent of these f a c t o r s , but i t c o n s t r a i n s the r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r the other v a r i a b l e s to be the same f o r men and women (Gunderson, 1980). The second r e g r e s s i o n approach c a l c u l a t e s separate earnings equations f o r men and women. The r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s show the e f f e c t of an a d d i t i o n a l u n i t of an expla n a t o r y v a r i a b l e i n d i v i d u a l l y f o r men and women. T h i s enables comparisons of d i f f e r e n c e s i n the r e t u r n s to t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p r o d u c t i v i t y -r e l a t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (Gunderson, 1980). I t a l s o enables the earnings gap to be decomposed i n t o i t s component p a r t s : a p o r t i o n a t t r i b u t a b l e to d i f f e r e n c e s i n endowments of p r o d u c t i v i t y - r e l a t e d f a c t o r s , and a p o r t i o n due to d i f f e r e n t r e t u r n s they r e c e i v e f o r the same p r o d u c t i v i t y - r e l a t e d f a c t o r s (Gunderson, 1980). The l a t t e r p o r t i o n i s a measure of labour market d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n that i t re p r e s e n t s the d i f f e r e n c e i n re t u r n s to men and women f o r s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The former term can be thought of as l e g i t i m a t e d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e t u r n s based upon d i f f e r e n t p r o d u c t i v i t y - r e l a t e d f a c t o r s (Gunderson, 1980). By c o n t r o l l i n g f o r some f a c t o r s that may be due to d i s c r i m i n a t i o n o u t s i d e or i n s i d e the labour f o r c e , such as o c c u p a t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s , t h i s method r e s u l t s i n the removal of t h i s source of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n from the o v e r a l l earnings gap. As-a r e s u l t , many s t u d i e s omit o c c u p a t i o n a l c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e s from the earnings equations to allow the r e s i d u a l , which c o n t a i n s the f a c t o r s not accounted f o r i n the equation, to r e f l e c t d i f f e r e n c e s i n o c c u p a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n , and p o s s i b l y d i s c r i m i n a t i o n (Gunderson, 1980). A methodological s o l u t i o n to t h i s problem i n v o l v e s c a l c u l a t i n g two separate earnings equations. One r e g r e s s i o n equation i s c a l c u l a t e d with the o c c u p a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d e d , and a second equation i s c a l c u l a t e d without the o c c u p a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s . By t a k i n g the d i f f e r e n c e between the two equations, the o v e r a l l e f f e c t of o c c u p a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n on earnings can be a s c e r t a i n e d (Robb, 1978). By i n c l u d i n g a l l v a r i a b l e s f o r which there i s accurate data, the debate over what should be l a b e l l e d d i s c r i m i n a t i o n can be l e f t up to the i n d i v i d u a l (Gunderson, 1980). By i n c l u d i n g a l l p r o d u c t i v i t y - r e l a t e d v a r i a b l e s , an examination of the channels through which d i f f e r e n c e s i n earnings a r i s e can be conducted, and 4 5 then arguments over the extent that these d i f f e r e n c e s represent d i s c r i m i n a t i o n can be d i s c u s s e d (Gunderson, 1980). C. Method of A n a l y s i s Based on the data from the 1986 Survey of Consumer Finan c e s , separate earnings equations w i l l be estimated f o r males and females using m u l t i p l e l i n e a r r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s . Regression a n a l y s i s w i l l allow the i n f l u e n c e on earnings of a l l the explanatory v a r i a b l e s to be c o n s i d e r e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . T h i s approach i s used, r a t h e r than the sample s e l e c t i o n method, because i t w i l l allow the a n a l y s i s of the i n d i v i d u a l e f f e c t of the d i f f e r e n t wage determining f a c t o r s on the earnings of women and men. A sample s e l e c t i o n approach does not allow t h i s l e v e l of a n a l y s i s . The sample s e l e c t i o n approach i s p r i m a r i l y designed to determine i f there i s pay d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n the labour f o r c e , and cannot a i d i n the a n a l y s i s of the p o s s i b l e sources of the d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . F u r t h e r , the sample s e l e c t i o n approach c o n s i d e r s only a small segment of the labour f o r c e p o p u l a t i o n , and the r e s u l t s are not g e n e r a l l y a p p l i c a b l e to a wider p o p u l a t i o n . Regression a n a l y s i s a l l o w s f o r the examination of i n d i v i d u a l wage determining f a c t o r s , and produces r e s u l t s that can be more g e n e r a l l y a p p l i e d , and used in the development of p o l i c y . The t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s of the earnings equations i s the human c a p i t a l model which i m p l i e s that the l e v e l of earnings of an i n d i v i d u a l depends on the amount that the i n d i v i d u a l has i n v e s t e d i n a c q u i r i n g s k i l l s of v alue i n the labour market. Thus, v a r i a b l e s d e s c r i b i n g years of education and p o t e n t i a l work experience are i n c l u d e d to serve as p r o x i e s f o r accumulated s k i l l s and knowledge. Other v a r i a b l e s are i n c l u d e d which d e s c r i b e p e r s o n a l a t t r i b u t e s , such as m a r i t a l s t a t u s , age and number of c h i l d r e n , which can be b roadly d e f i n e d as p r o d u c t i v i t y -r e l a t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . M a r i t a l s t a t u s and number of c h i l d r e n a f f e c t the m o t i v a t i o n or p r o d u c t i v i t y of men and women i n the labour f o r c e through the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of domestic r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s that may compete f o r an i n d i v i d u a l ' s time or energy. I t i s a common assumption that women, more than men, w i l l r e j e c t a d d i t i o n a l work r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , that may r e q u i r e a d d i t i o n time away from home, in order to ensure that t h e i r domestic r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s are met f i r s t . The human c a p i t a l v a r i a b l e s , r e p r e s e n t i n g accumulated s k i l l s and knowledge, c o n s t i t u t e what are c a l l e d p r o d u c t i v i t y - r e l a t e d v a r i a b l e s . They are intended to capture those c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the worker that a f f e c t h i s or her e a r n i n g s . In a d d i t i o n , a set of v a r i a b l e s i s i n c l u d e d to account f o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n employment c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . T h i s set i n c l u d e s o ccupation, i n d u s t r y , hours worked per week, hours worked per year, c l a s s of worker, r e g i o n , and urban s i z e . The purpose of these v a r i a b l e s i s to i d e n t i f y the impact of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the work s i t u a t i o n which produce d i f f e r e n c e s i n e a r n i n g s . The e f f e c t s of o c c u p a t i o n a l and i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n are c o n t r o l l e d f o r because of the s e g r e g a t i o n of men and women between hi g h and low-paying occupations and i n d u s t r i e s . Since the sample s e l e c t e d i n c l u d e s a l l types of employed persons, i t i s necessary to i n c l u d e c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e s which account f o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n weeks worked per year, and hours worked per week. The v a r i a b l e i d e n t i f y i n g the c l a s s of worker, p u b l i c or p r i v a t e s e c t o r , i s used to i d e n t i f y d i f f e r e n c e s i n the earnings a c r o s s these two d i s t i n c t s e c t o r s . A major o r g a n i z i n g theme of a book e d i t e d by Block and Walker of Vancouver's F r a s e r I n s t i t u t e i s the c l a i m that the d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s s h o r t - l i v e d (Denton and Hunter, 1982) i n the c o m p e t i t i v e p r i v a t e s e c t o r , as opposed to the noncompetitive p u b l i c s e c t o r . Thus the i n c l u s i o n of c l a s s of work v a r i a b l e s w i l l a llow the a n a l y s i s of t h i s p r o p o s i t i o n . The use of c i t y s i z e and region v a r i a b l e s i s c o n s i s t e n t with Becker's (1971) p r o p o s a l that the l e v e l of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n may vary across c i t y s i z e and r e g i o n s , and with the monopsony model that i n d i c a t e s d i s c r i m i n a t i o n may be more p r e v a l e n t i n i s o l a t e d r e g i o ns and small towns (Gunderson, 1975). These estimated earnings f u n c t i o n s are then used to analyze the e f f e c t s of these v a r i a b l e s on the d i s t r i b u t i o n of e a r n i n g s . D. The Data The main data source f o r t h i s r e s e a r c h i s the p u b l i s h e d micro data tapes for the 1986 Survey of Consumer F i n a n c e s . S t a t i s t i c s Canada has conducted the Survey of Consumer Finances on a p e r i o d i c b a s i s between 1951 and 1971, and a n n u a l l y s i n c e 1971. The 1986 Survey of Consumer Finances i s designed to represent 98% of the Canadian p o p u l a t i o n . P o p u l a t i o n groups excluded from the sample are: 1. r e s i d e n t s of the Yukon and Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s 2. r e s i d e n t s of Indian Reserves 3. r e s i d e n t s of m i l i a r y barracks 4. inmates of i n s t i t u t i o n s such as p r i s o n s , p e n i t e n t i a r i e s , j a i l s , r e f o r m a t o r i e s , mental h o s p i t a l s , TB h o s p i t a l s , s a n i t o r i a , orphanages and homes f o r the aged (1983 SCF). The survey was conducted as a supplement to t w o - t h i r d s of the Labour Force Survey sample for A p r i l 1985. The 1986 Survey of Consumer Finances data c o n t a i n s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r i n d i v i d u a l s and f a m i l i e s c o v e r i n g earnings and income, geographic l o c a t i o n , f a m i l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s by sex, m a r i t a l s t a t u s , age, education l e v e l , work s t a t u s , o c c u p a t i o n , i n d u s t r y and job tenure. A d d i t i o n a l data was a l s o c o l l e c t e d from the 1951, 1961, 1971, and 1981 censuses on the o c c u p a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of men and women. The purpose of t h i s data i s to p r o v i d e c o n s i s t e n t i n f o r m a t i o n on the changes that have taken p l a c e i n the o c c u p a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n , and to allow separate a n a l y s i s of changes i n o c c u p a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n . While not d i r e c t l y comparable with the data from the Survey of Consumer Finances, i t w i l l r e v e a l the r e l a t i v e importance of o c c u p a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n to the o v e r a l l earnings gap through time. 1. Data L i m i t a t i o n s There are c l e a r l i m i t a t i o n s i n the a v a i l a b l e data. In attempting to analyze why and how d i f f e r e n c e s i n earnings occur, d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n i s needed on a wide v a r i e t y of f a c t o r s i n c l u d i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the workplace, as w e l l as the i n d i v i d u a l employee. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , i n f o r m a t i o n of t h i s type i s not r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e . T h i s data base s u f f e r s some of the same l i m i t a t i o n s as many other sources: 1) there i s no d i r e c t measure of work experience 2) only formal education i s measured, and i n a c a t e g o r i c a l form; 3) the accurate measurement of o c c u p a t i o n a l and i n d u s t r i a l s e g r e g a t i o n i s l i m i t e d because of the lack of d e t a i l e d o c c u p a t i o n a l and i n d u s t r i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s ; and 4) i n f o r m a t i o n f o r an i n d i v i d u a l ' s o c c u p a t i o n , i n d u s t r y , c l a s s of worker, and hours worked u s u a l l y r e f e r to the r e f e r e n c e week f o r the survey ( A p r i l , 1985), where the annual rep o r t e d incomes r e f e r to earnings f o r 1984. Thus, a job h e l d at the time of the survey may not be the same job that produced the m a j o r i t y of the earnings f o r 1984. Many of the v a r i a b l e s used i n the a n a l y s i s are i n d i c a t o r or dummy v a r i a b l e s . Dummy v a r i a b l e s are given a value of one when an i n d i v i d u a l belongs to a category, or zero when they do not. For example, C l a s s of Work i s code 1 i f the i n d i v i d u a l i s employed i n the p r i v a t e s e c t o r and i s zero i f employed i n the p u b l i c s e c t o r . The estimated c o e f f i c i e n t from the r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s i s i n t e r p r e t e d as the p r e d i c t e d d i f f e r e n c e i n the dependent v a r i a b l e , e a rnings, when an i n d i v i d u a l belongs to the p r i v a t e s e c t o r as opposed to the p u b l i c s e c t o r , when a l l other f a c t o r s are h e l d constant. As the sum of a l l the c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r dummy v a r i a b l e s always equals zero, i t i s p o s s i b l e to c a l c u l a t e the value f o r the excluded or r e f e r e n c e category. For example, i f we know the values f o r two of the three c a t e g o r i e s f o r m a r i t a l s t a t u s : M a r r i e d = 300; Other = 450; then the value f o r the s i n g l e m a r i t a l category can be c a l c u l a t e d as (0 - 300 -450) = -750. 2. Data S e l e c t i o n The Survey of Consumer Finances c o n t a i n s i n f o r m a t i o n on f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e , i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and income for a l l persons surveyed who are 15 years and over, with and without income i n 1985. The income f i g u r e s r e f e r to income from a v a r i e t y of sources i n a d d i t i o n t o wages and s a l a r i e s . In order to make meaningful comparisons of male-female e a r n i n g s , the s e l e c t i o n of the sample from the survey was c o n t r o l l e d . From the t o t a l number of cases a v a i l a b l e i n the Survey of Consumer Finances, a 60% sample was taken of the i n d i v i d u a l s who: 1) were employed in the r e f e r e n c e week of the survey; 2) were not s e l f employed; 3) r e p o r t e d u s u a l l y working more than zero hours per week, and r e p o r t e d working more than zero weeks per year; 4) were employed f u l l - t i m e and were f u l l - y e a r workers, and 5) r e p o r t e d earnings g r e a t e r than zero. A 60% sample, rather than a 100% sample of cases that met the above c r i t e r i a was taken to reduce the cost of conducting the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s . T h i s provided a sample of 8,787 cases f o r men and 5,620 cases f o r women. The 60% sample d e r i v e d from the 1986 Survey of Consumer Finances was randomly s p l i t i n t o two sub-samples of 4,450 and 2,753 cases f o r each men and women. The f i r s t sub-sample i s used to formulate the earnings equations, and the second sub-sample i s used to t e s t the v a l i d i t y , or the goodness of f i t , (Norusis, 1985) of the equations f i t t e d to the f i r s t sample. The survey c o l l e c t e d data on the average hours worked per week, and the number of weeks worked per year. I n d i v i d u a l s who were not working at the time of the survey were excluded because they tended to report zero average hours per week, but s t i l l r e p o r t e d the number of weeks they work i n a year. F u r t h e r , some cases were excluded because i n d i v i d u a l s who worked in the r e f e r e n c e week, but had not worked d u r i n g the p r e v i o u s year, rep o r t e d usual hours worked, but had zero earnings f o r the p r e v i o u s year. These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s would make accounting f o r time worked and income d i f f i c u l t f o r these cases. I n d i v i d u a l s with self-employment earnings where excluded because one of the q u e s t i o n s i n v e s t i g a t e d i n t h i s study i s the extent of sex d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n wages and s a l a r i e s . Thus, i t i s presumed that income from self-employment would not r e f l e c t sex d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , or that d i f f e r e n c e s i n income would be due to a d i f f e r e n t set of f a c t o r s . As w e l l , the long-term investment made i n many s e l f -5 2 employment e n t e r p r i s e s p r e c l u d e s the accurate comparison of male-female earnings given the s t a t i c time-frame of the data. F u r t h e r , t h i s a n a l y s i s focuses on f u l l - y e a r , f u l l - t i m e workers. The q u e s t i o n of part-time work i s important to the p o s i t i o n of women in the labour f o r c e , but i t i s not i n c l u d e d i n t h i s a n a l y s i s . E. S p e c i f i c a t i o n of The C o n t r o l V a r i a b l e s The broad sample used i n t h i s a n a l y s i s a l l o w s a l a r g e number of c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e s to be i n c l u d e d , to r e f l e c t the d i f f e r e n c e s i n the p r o d u c t i v i t y - r e l a t e d , and labour market c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of employed persons. These i n c l u d e measures of educat i o n , experience, o c c u p a t i o n , i n d u s t r y , time worked, c l a s s of worker, r e g i o n , s i z e of urban area, number of c h i l d r e n , and m a r i t a l s t a t u s . Since data on the a c t u a l number of years worked i n the labour f o r c e i s not a v a i l a b l e , a proxy i s d e f i n e d to represent a c t u a l work experience. F o l l o w i n g the example of Oaxaca (1973), and Gunderson (1980), the age and education v a r i a b l e s are used as a proxy f o r experience i n the labour f o r c e . P o t e n t i a l experience of a person i s represented by: X = (A - E - 6) where: X = p o t e n t i a l experience; A = age; and E = number of years of s c h o o l i n g completed; 53 If work experience i s a c q u i r e d without i n t e r r u p t i o n a f t e r the completion of formal s c h o o l i n g , then a c t u a l and p o t e n t i a l experience would be equal age minus years of education minus 6 fo r both men and women (Oaxaca, 1973). Since males tend to e x h i b i t s t r onger labour f o r c e attachment than women, t h i s c a l c u l a t i o n of the p o t e n t i a l experience v a r i a b l e would l i k e l y o v e r - r e p r e s e n t the experience of women, to the extent that they have taken more time out from the labour f o r c e . The experience v a r i a b l e was f u r t h e r m o d i f i e d by the tenure v a r i a b l e , which i n d i c a t e s how long the i n d i v i d u a l has been employed with the present employer. I f the le n g t h of tenure was great e r than the value f o r the experience v a r i a b l e , tenure was taken as the value f o r experience. The poor estimate of labour f o r c e experience produced by the c a l c u l a t i o n of the v a r i a b l e r e q u i r e d that an a d d i t i o n a l r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s be conducted. To produce a b e t t e r estimate of labour f o r c e experience, data on p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s f o r e i g h t age c a t e g o r i e s f o r both men and women taken from the Monthly Labour Force Survey, were used to modify the experience v a r i a b l e . For each age category, the estimated value of the experience v a r i a b l e d e f i n e d above was m u l t i p l i e d by the corresponding p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e . Thus f o r each age cohort, experience equaled (age - years of education - 6) m u l t i p l i e d by the p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e . T h i s estimate of labour f o r c e experience i s l i k e l y , on average, to overestimate female labour f o r c e experience and underestimate male experience, because the p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e 54 used r e p r e s e n t s the average r a t e i n 1985, and not the average through time f o r each age coho r t ; however, comparatively, the measure of experience w i l l be more a c c u r a t e . The r e s u l t s from t h i s second a n a l y s i s of labour f o r c e experience are summarized i n the t e x t . D e t a i l e d s t a t i s t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n i s presented i n Appendix N. T h i s appendix c o n t a i n s the d e t a i l e d r e s u l t s from the a n a l y s i s of t h i s new estimate of labour f o r c e experience. The t a b l e s i n Appendix N f o l l o w the same format as the t a b l e s presented i n Chapter 3 for the non-cohort a d j u s t e d labour f o r c e experience. The remaining c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e s are: E d u c a t i o n : a c a t e g o r i c v a r i a b l e i n d i c a t i n g the l e v e l of s c h o o l i n g completed. C l a s s of Worker: a dummy v a r i a b l e r e p r e s e n t i n g p r i v a t e and p u b l i c s e c t o r wage and s a l a r y workers -- p u b l i c s e c t o r employees are used as the r e f e r e n c e group. Indu s t r y : mean earnings f o r each of the t h i r t e e n i n d u s t r i a l codes were c a l c u l a t e d using the 1986 Survey of Consumer Finances, and then each i n d u s t r y was coded to these mean v a l u e s . A l i s t i n g of each i n d u s t r y code and t i t l e i s given i n Appendix L. Occupation: mean earnings i n each of 47 o c c u p a t i o n a l codes were d e r i v e d from the 1986 Survey of Consumer Finances, and then each occupation was coded to these mean v a l u e s . A l i s t i n g of each o c c u p a t i o n a l code and t i t l e i s given i n Appendix M. Hours Worked; i s the estimated a c t u a l number of hours worked i n the r e f e r e n c e year (average hours worked per week m u l t i p l i e d by weeks worked l a s t y e a r ) . M a r i t a l S t a t u s : dummy v a r i a b l e s f o r s i n g l e (never m a r r i e d ) , married (or common law) and other (separated, widowed or d i v o r c e d ) , with the s i n g l e (never married) category used as the r e f e r e n c e group. S i z e of Urban Area: dummy v a r i a b l e s f o r residence i n urban areas of gr e a t e r than 500,000; between 100,000 to 499,000; 5 5 between 30,000 and 9 9 , 9 9 9 ; l e s s than 3 0 , 0 0 0 ; and r u r a l areas, with the r u r a l area category used as the ref e r e n c e group. Region: dummy v a r i a b l e s f o r Canadian regions of A t l a n t i c , Quebec, O n t a r i o , P r a i r i e s , and B r i t i s h Columbia, with A t l a n t i c Canada used as the ref e r e n c e group. Number of c h i l d r e n : dummy v a r i a b l e s f o r the number of never married c h i l d r e n under the age of 18 i n the census f a m i l y , with e x a c t l y two c h i l d r e n used as the re f e r e n c e group. In the census survey, t h i s v a r i a b l e was coded only f o r persons who were heads or wives i n census f a m i l i e s . Other i n d i v i d u a l s who are not heads or wives were coded as having zero c h i l d r e n . E a r n i n g s : i s the dependent v a r i a b l e . The s e l e c t i o n of the sample was designed to s e l e c t cases where the values f o r earnings i s g r e a t e r than zero. I l l . DATA ANALYSIS The a n a l y s i s of the data from the 1986 Survey of Consumer Finances w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d i n two d i s t i n c t formats. F i r s t , a simple comparison of mean earnings a c r o s s each explanatory v a r i a b l e i s conducted. In t h i s s e c t i o n , other v a r i a b l e s that may i n f l u e n c e the mean earnings of men and women f o r the v a r i a b l e c o n s i d e r e d , such as d i f f e r e n c e s i n education, experience, and occupa t i o n , are not accounted f o r . Second, the r e s u l t s from two separate m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n s are presented. The " F u l l Regression Equation" i s the primary source of data a n a l y s i s , which w i l l c o n t r o l f o r the e f f e c t s of a l l of the v a r i a b l e s c o n s i d e r e d . The " P a r t i a l Regression Equation", which excludes from the a n a l y s i s the o c c u p a t i o n a l and i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s , i s used to a s c e r t a i n the c o n t r i b u t i o n of the o c c u p a t i o n a l and i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n to the s i z e of the earnings gap. A. Explanatory V a r i a b l e s Considered S e p a r a t e l y The data a n a l y s i s of each of the f a c t o r s c o n s i d e r e d w i l l begin with an examination of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between each v a r i a b l e and earnings through a comparison of mean values f o r men and women. The data presented w i l l i n d i c a t e , f i r s t , how the d i s t r i b u t i o n s of men and women d i f f e r a c r o s s each c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ; second, the r e l a t i o n s h i p between each a t t r i b u t e and earnings; and t h i r d , the combined e f f e c t of these two p a t t e r n s on the wage 57 d i f f e r e n t i a l . For example, i f men have g r e a t e r l e v e l s of job experience than women, and earnings i n c r e a s e with experience, then gender d i f f e r e n t i a l s i n earnings due to d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of experience can be expected to occur. The unadjusted earnings r a t i o of the sample s e l e c t e d f o r t h i s study i s 0.66 (Table 3). T h i s f i g u r e r e p r e s e n t s the r a t i o of women's earnings to men's earnings, unadjusted f o r p r o d u c t i v i t y f a c t o r s . Thus, women, i n t h i s sample, earn 66% of men. Men, on average, earn $10,047 more per year than women. Table 3. Average Earnings by Sex MEAN STD DEV CASES DIFFERENCE RATIO DISTRIB Sex $ (M-F) (F/M) 10,047 0.66 Men 29,514 14747 127902 100% Women 19,467 10115 80561 100% T o t a l Cases 25,632 14032 208463 Note: The number of cases i s i n f l a t e d by the Survey of Consumer Finances U n i v e r s a l Weight to pre-determined p o p u l a t i o n t o t a l s . 1. Education and Experience Tables 4 and 5 pro v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n on mean earnings, number of cases, d i f f e r e n c e between male and female mean earnings, the r a t i o of female to male ea r n i n g s , and the d i s t r i b u t i o n of men and women acro s s the d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s f o r education l e v e l s and Table 4. Average Earnings by Education by Sex 58 MEAN STD DEV CASES DIFFERENCE RATIO DISTRIB Education $ (M - F) (F/M). NO SCHOOLING OR ELEMENTARY 10,832 0.57 Men 25,209 12313 14742 11.5% Women 14,377 7525 5306 6.6% 9 - 1 0 YEARS OF ELEMENTARY OR SECONDARY 9,624 0.62 Men 25,051 11793 16253 12.7% Women 15,426 6580 7993 9.9% 11 YEARS OF ELEMENTARY OR SECONDARY 10,918 0.59 Men 26,633 11398 11082 8.7% Women 15,715 7146 7773 9.6% 12 YEARS OF ELEMENTARY OR SECONDARY 10,721 0.61 Men 27,434 12906 26830 21.0% Women 16,714 7543 20028 24.9% 13 YEARS OF ELEMENTARY OR SECONDARY 7,47 9 0.73 Men 27,333 14103 4047 3.2% Women 19,854 8862 4044 5.0% SOME POST-SECONDARY 9,104 0.68 Men 28,462 13531 13410 10.5% Women 19,358 9128 8011 9.9% POST-SECONDARY CERTIFICATE OR DIPLOMA 9,346 0.70 Men 30,899 13550 19715 15.4% Women 21,553 10585 14945 18.6% UNIVERSITY DEGREE 11,132 0.72 Men 39,568 18475 21823 17.1% Women 28,436 12030 12461 15.5% Table 5. Average Earnings by Experience by Sex 59 % MEAN STD DEV CASES DIFFERENCE RATIO DISTRIB Work Experience $ (M - F) (F/M) Experience i n Years 0 - 4 Years Men 18,440 10753 9445 Women 15,732 8724 9541 5 - 9 Years Men 25,047 12405 19118 Women 18,064 7552 14158 10 - 14 Years Men 29,346 13177 19781 Women .21,039 9781 12130 1 5 - 1 9 Years Men 33,272 15254 17634 Women 22,203 12122 11813 20 - 24 Years Men 33,892 14755 15737 Women 22,666 11233 9536 25 - 29 Years Men 33,676 16536 10825 Women 19,334 9372 6358 30 or More Years Men 29,886 14636 35362 Women 17,968 9804 17025 2,708 0.85 6,983 0.72 8,307 0.72 11,069 0.67 11,226 0.67 14,342 0.57 11,918 0.60 7.4% 1 1.8% 14.9% 17.6% 1 5.5% 15.1% 13.8% 14.7% 12.3% 11.8% 8.5% 7.9% 27.6% 21.1% l e v e l s of experience. Table 4 shows a strong r e l a t i o n s h i p between education and e a r n i n g s . Earnings f o r both men and women inc r e a s e d with l e v e l s of ed u c a t i o n . Women with no s c h o o l i n g earn on average $14,377 compared with $28,436 f o r women with a u n i v e r s i t y degree; f o r men the corresponding f i g u r e s are $25,209 and $39,568. Women with a u n i v e r s i t y degree s t i l l only earn a 60 l i t t l e more than men who repor t e d having no s c h o o l i n g or elementary education, while men with u n i v e r s i t y degrees earn s u b s t a n t i a l l y more than t h e i r female c o u n t e r p a r t s . The r a t i o of women's to men's earnings changes ac r o s s education c a t e g o r i e s from a low of 0.57 for men and women with no formal education to 0.72 for men and women with a u n i v e r s i t y degree. The r a t i o i n c r e a s e s moving upward from the bottom category of "No S c h o o l i n g or Elementary" education to the f i f t h c ategory of "13 Years of Elementary and Secondary", and then drops s l i g h t l y to 0.68 f o r "Some Post Secondary", and "Post-Secondary C e r t i f i c a t e or Diploma". The high value of 0.73 f o r the f i f t h category might be accounted f o r by the small sample s i z e f o r that category which a p p l i e s only to the O n t a r i o school system. If d i f f e r e n c e s i n education were l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the earnings gap, the earnings r a t i o i n a l l e d u c a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s should be l a r g e r than the o v e r a l l earnings gap of 0.66 ( O r n s t e i n , 1983). That i s , the earnings w i t h i n e d u c a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s should be c l o s e r , thus reducing the s i z e of the earnings r a t i o i f education was l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the earnings gap. T h i s i s true i n only three of the ei g h t c a t e g o r i e s . From t h i s a n a l y s i s , d i f f e r e n c e s i n the l e v e l of education does not account f o r a l a r g e p a r t of the earnings gap, although women with higher l e v e l s of e d u c a t i o n do f a r e b e t t e r than t h e i r l e s s educated c o u n t e r p a r t s . On average, women have higher l e v e l s of education than men, but r e c e i v e lower r a t e s of r e t u r n from that e d u c a t i o n . 61 The c a l c u l a t i o n s f o r l e v e l s of experience provide a c l e a r e r e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the earnings gap. Men, on average, have twenty-one years of work experience, compared with eighteen and h a l f years of experience f o r women. Women with 0 to 4 years of experience earn on average $15,732. T h i s f i g u r e i n c r e a s e s to $22,666 f o r women with "20 to 24 Years of Experience", a f t e r which, mean earnings decrease s l i g h t l y f o r the remaining c a t e g o r i e s . For men the average earnings i n c r e a s e from $18,440 for "0 to 4 Years of Experience" to $33,892 f o r "20 to 24 Years of Experience." That men r e c e i v e g r e a t e r r e t u r n s f o r i n c r e a s e s in experience i s shown in the d e c l i n e of the r a t i o of women's to men's average earnings from 0.85 i n the lowest category of experience to 0.60 i n the "30 or More Years of Experience" category. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of mean l e v e l s of experience f o r women and men are a l s o d i f f e r e n t . A g r e a t e r percentage of women have lower l e v e l s of experience, while a g r e a t e r percentage of men are represented i n the higher experience c a t e g o r i e s . Thus, the earnings gap r e f l e c t s the lower l e v e l s of experience of . women, and the lower ra t e of r e t u r n women r e c e i v e f o r a d d i t i o n a l experience as compared to men. 2. M a r i t a l Status M a r i t a l s t a t u s a l s o r e l a t e s to the l e v e l of e a r n i n g s . M a r r i e d men and women earn more than t h e i r s i n g l e (never married) c o u n t e r p a r t s . S i n g l e women earn, on average, $18,517, while married women earn $19,593; f o r men, the corresp o n d i n g values are $21,464 and $31,393. What i s s i g n i f i c a n t i s that the r a t i o of women's to men's earnings decreases from the s i n g l e to the married category. The unadjusted r a t i o i s 0.86 f o r the s i n g l e category, but 0.62 f o r the married category. While both men and women gain, on average, from being married, the gains f o r men are c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r . The incomes of married men i n c r e a s e by $9,929, compared to the $1,076 i n c r e a s e f o r married women. The earnings r a t i o of separated, d i v o r c e d or widowed men and women i s 0.75, an improvement from the married category. Women i n t h i s category earn more than women i n e i t h e r of the other two c a t e g o r i e s , while separated, d i v o r c e d or widowed men s t i l l earn more than s i n g l e men, but l e s s than t h e i r married c o u n t e r p a r t s . Thus, t h i s i n d i c a t e s that women b e n e f i t more than men from being separated, d i v o r c e d or widowed. C l e a r l y , the impact of m a r i t a l s t a t u s cannot be c o n s i d e r e d i n i s o l a t i o n of other r e l e v a n t f a c t o r s . For example, d i v o r c e d , separated or widowed i n d i v i d u a l s may have g r e a t e r l e v e l s of experience, education, and a greater attachment to the labour f o r c e than do t h e i r s i n g l e or married c o u n t e r p a r t s . 63 Table 6. Average Earnings by M a r i t a l S tatus by Sex MEAN STD DEV CASES DIFFERENCE RATIO % DISTRI M a r i t a l S t atus $ (M - F) (F/M) SINGLE (NEVER MARRIED) 2,947 0 .86 Men 21,464 12987 21 950 17.2% Women 18,517 9844 20106 25.0% MARRIED (OR COMMON LAW) 11,799 0 .62 Men 31,393 14524 99991 78.2% Women 19,593 10002 51333 63.7% OTHER 6,800 0 .75 Men 27,652 14328 5961 4.7% Women 20,852 1 1093 9122 11.3% 3. Urban Area T h i s v a r i a b l e i n d i c a t e s the p o p u l a t i o n s i z e of the area i n which the respondent i s l o c a t e d . T h i s v a r i a b l e , along with the v a r i a b l e that i d e n t i f i e s the r e g i o n , p r o v i d e some i n s i g h t i n t o the e f f e c t of d i f f e r e n t labour markets. I t i s expected t h a t women w i l l b e n e f i t from being l o c a t e d i n l a r g e urban areas as opposed to r u r a l or small urban areas. Large urban areas are expected to pro v i d e a g r e a t e r v a r i e t y of occupations and i n d u s t r i e s i n which women can f i n d work, as w e l l as access to s e r v i c e s , such as day c a r e , that w i l l i n c r e a s e the p r o b a b i l i t y of women i n c r e a s i n g t h e i r e a r n i n g s . These e x p e c t a t i o n s are supported to the extent that the earnings r a t i o i s h i g h e s t i n la r g e urban a r e a s . Again, the impact of urban area can not be c o n s i d e r e d i n i s o l a t i o n from the other explanatory f a c t o r s to the extent that men and women i n l a r g e urban areas d i f f e r from men and women i n other urban s i z e areas. Table 7. Average Earnings by Urban Area by Sex % MEAN STD DEV CASES DIFFERENCE RATIO DISTRI Urban Area $ (M - F) ( F/M) POP > 500,000 Men Women 30,652 20,479 16164 10493 64261 45620 10,174 0 .67 50 56 .2% .6% POP 100,000 - 499,999 Men 30,591 Women 19,482 13992 9646 13589 8722 11,109 0 .64 1 0 10 .6% .8% POP 30,000 - 99,999 Men Women 29,270 19,178 1 2342 9426 15059 8234 10,092 0 .66 1 1 10 .8% .2% URBAN < 30,000 Men Women 28,218 17,736 1 1 928 9375 1 7087 9074 10,483 0 .63 1 3 1 1 .4% .3% RURAL AREAS Men Women 26,056 16,307 1 3571 8966 17906 891 1 9,750 0 .63 14 1 1 .0% . 1% 4. Region T h i s v a r i a b l e i n d i c a t e s the region i n which the respondent i s l o c a t e d . I t i s expected that women w i l l b e n e f i t from being l o c a t e d i n some regions as opposed to other r e g i o n s . The s t r u c t u r e of occupations and i n d u s t r y i n s e l e c t r e g i o ns of Canada may provide g r e a t e r access to b e t t e r - p a y i n g occupations and i n d u s t r i e s than other r e g i o n s . As w e l l , the e f f e c t of d i f f e r e n t r e g i o n a l t r a d i t i o n s , employment programs and laws may have an impact on the r e l a t i v e earnings of women. There i s some support f o r the e x p e c t a t i o n that women fa r e d i f f e r e n t l y i n d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of the country. In B r i t i s h Columbia and the P r a i r i e s , the earnings r a t i o was the lowest, while Quebec and A t l a n t i c Canada had the hig h e s t earnings r a t i o s . The r a t i o ranged from a high of 0.68 f o r Quebec to a low of 0.62 f o r B r i t i s h Columbia. Table 8. Average Earnings by Region by Sex MEAN STD DEV CASES DIFFERENCE RATIO DISTRI $ (M - F) (F/M) Region ATLANTIC Men Women QUEBEC Men Women ONTARIO Men Women PRAIRIES Men Women BRITISH COLUMBIA Men Women 26,762 13067 9049 18,034 9277 5097 27,864 13667 30999 19,075 9738 20309 30,192 14909 52170 20,009 10407 34110 30,090 15833 22331 19,064 9762 12857 31,602 15097 13353 19,708 10675 8188 8,728 0.67 8,790 0.68 10,182 0.66 11,026 0.63 11,894 0.62 7.1% 6.3% 24.2% 25.2% 40.8% 42.3% 17.5% 16.0% 10.4% 10.2% 5. Average Hours Worked Per Week 66 For the sample taken from the Survey of Consumer Finances, which excluded part-time and p a r t - y e a r workers, two percent of the women worked l e s s than 29 hours per week, and another seven percent worked l e s s than 34 hours per week, f o r a t o t a l of nine percent. In c o n t r a s t , only two and h a l f percent of men are employed l e s s than 34 hours per week. Average earnings f o r women r i s e s t e a d i l y through the c a t e g o r i e s of average hours worked per week. The p a t t e r n f o r men i s more complicated. The f i r s t category does have the lowest average earnings, but average earnings f o r men drop i n the f o u r t h category to 28,480 from $31,418 f o r the t h i r d category of "35 through 39 hours". The e f f e c t of hours worked on the r e l a t i v e earnings of women i s expressed i n the r a t i o of women's to men's e a r n i n g s . Women working 0 through 29 hours per week have the h i g h e s t r a t i o of 0.92. From t h i s high p o i n t , the earnings r a t i o decreases to a low of 0.65 f o r "40 thru 44 hours", and i n c r e a s e s l i g h t l y to 0.71 i n the f i n a l category. The earnings r a t i o of 0.92 f o r 0 through 29 hours of work, rather than being an i n d i c a t i o n of the improved p o s i t i o n of women, i s more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the g r e a t e r negative impact on male earnings of working l e s s than 30 hours of work per week. 67 Table 9. Average Earnings by Hours Worked Per Week by Sex % MEAN STD DEV CASES DIFFERENCE RATIO DISTRI $ (M - F) (F/M) Average Hours Worked Per Week 0 THRU 29 HOURS Men Women 16,542 13487 516 15,253 9132 1524 1,289 0.92 0.4% 1 .9% 30 THRU 34 HOURS Men Women 35 THRU 39 HOURS Men Women 40 THRU 44 HOURS Men Women 45 OR MORE HOURS Men Women 23,357 17502 2623 15,269 7979 5759 31,418 13583 21375 20,746 9291 31629 28,480 13132 74283 18,462 9485 33205 31,542 18257 29105 22,254 14406 8444 8,088 0.65 10,671 0.66 10,018 0.65 9,288 0.71 2.1% 7.1% 16.7% 39.3% 58. 1% 41 .2% 22.8% 10.5% 6. Sector of Work The d i f f e r e n c e between p u b l i c s e c t o r and p r i v a t e s e c t o r earnings i s shown i n Table 10. Women i n the p u b l i c s e c t o r , on average, earn $6,504 more than women i n the p r i v a t e s e c t o r . Men i n the p u b l i c s e c t o r earn $5,402 more than t h e i r p r i v a t e s e c t o r c o u n t e r p a r t s . The earnings r a t i o s of 0.72 f o r the p u b l i c s e c t o r and 0.63 f o r the p r i v a t e s e c t o r i n d i c a t e that women working i n the p u b l i c s e c t o r are r e l a t i v e l y b e t t e r o f f i n terms of average earni n g s . T h i s p a t t e r n c o u l d be a consequence of the f a c t that 68 men and women i n the p r i v a t e s e c t o r d i f f e r more from one another in t h e i r e a r n i n g s - r e l a t e d a t t r i b u t e s than they do i n the p u b l i c s e c t o r , but ex t e n s i v e work by Denton and Hunter (1983), confirms the r e s u l t s which i n d i c a t e that d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s more evident i n the p r i v a t e s e c t o r . Using data from the J u l y 1973 Monthly Labour Force Survey (LFS), i n which they equated men and women i n terms of e a r n i n g s - r e l a t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r each s e c t o r , Denton and Hunter found that the p a t t e r n of earnings r a t i o s was the same from the r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s as was reve a l e d i n t h e i r mean comparisons. The r a t i o was hi g h e s t i n the p u b l i c s e c t o r and lowest i n the co m p e t i t i v e p r i v a t e s e c t o r . An a d d i t i o n a l study, conducted by Shapiro and S t e l c n e r (1986), using data from the 1981 Census P u b l i c Use Sample Tape, concludes "that the p r i v a t e s e c t o r tends to d i s c r i m i n a t e more a g a i n s t women than does the p u b l i c s e c t o r . " Table 10. Average Earnings by Sector of Work by Sex Sector of Work MEAN STD DEV CASES DIFFERENCE RATIO DISTRI (M - F) (F/M) PUBLIC SECTOR Men Women 9,345 0.72 33,733 12937 28023 24,389 9572 19602 21 .9% 24.3% PRIVATE SECTOR Men Women 10,446 0.63 28,331 15004 99879 17,885 9771 60959 78. 1% 75.7% 6 9 7. Number of C h i l d r e n The number of c h i l d r e n under eighteen years of age i n the household i s used as an i n d i c a t o r of household r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . I t i s expected that the average earnings of women w i l l decrease with the number of c h i l d r e n . The f i g u r e s i n Table 11 supports t h i s t r e n d . As the number of c h i l d r e n i n c r e a s e , the average earnings of women decrease. For men, the t r e n d i s the o p p o s i t e . The average earnings of men g e n e r a l l y i n c r e a s e as the number of c h i l d r e n present i n c r e a s e s . The e f f e c t on the earnings r a t i o i s ev i d e n t . I t has a high value of 0.71 f o r cases with no c h i l d r e n , d e c r e a s i n g to 0.53 for cases with f i v e or more c h i l d r e n under the age of eighteen present i n the household. 70 Table 11. Average Earnings by Number of C h i l d r e n by Sex MEAN STD DEV CASES DIFFERENCE RATIO DISTRI Number of C h i l d r e n $ (M - F) (F/M) NO CHILDREN 7,889 0.71 Men 27,171 14918 65709 51 .4% Women 19,282 1 0092 49521 61 .5% ONE CHILD 10,153 0.66 Men 30,008 1 3526 21779 17 .0% Women 19,855 1 0278 15799 19 .6% TWO CHILDREN 13,263 0.60 Men 33,321 13989 28826 22 .5% Women 20,058 1 0262 1 1 941 14 .8% THREE CHILDREN 14,146 0.57 Men 32,672 1 5687 1 0328 8 . 1% Women 18,526 8797 2923 3 .6% FOUR CHILDREN 14,471 0.53 Men 30,8 16 1 0641 1 045 0 .8% Women 16,345 9685 335 0 .4% FIVE OR MORE CHILDREN 1 2,889 0.53 Men 27,437 8583 215 0 .2% Women 14,548 1877 42 0 . 1% C l e a r l y , each of these v a r i a b l e s can not be c o n s i d e r e d in i s o l a t i o n of the other f a c t o r s that may i n f l u e n c e e a r n i n g s . The r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s to be conducted on a l l f a c t o r s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y p r o v i d e s adequate s t a t i s t i c a l c o n t r o l s f o r the other r e l a t e d v a r i a b l e s . B. O c c u p a t i o n a l and I n d u s t r i a l Segregation 1. The o c c u p a t i o n a l s e g r e g a t i o n of work While women have made some progress in d i v e r s i f y i n g t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e , the f a c t that a m a j o r i t y of women now work i n the p a i d labour f o r c e has not d r a m a t i c a l l y changed the type of occupations women hold (Boulet and L a v a l l e e , 1984). The d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n of the o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e , with women moving i n t o most occupations, has c r e a t e d the impression that they are being t r e a t e d e q u a l l y i n the labour market; however, to a l a r g e extent women are s t i l l predominantly employed i n s p e c i f i c o ccupations, c h a r a c t e r i z e d by lower l e v e l s of pay. Occ u p a t i o n a l s e g r e g a t i o n by sex occurs when men and women, r e l a t i v e to t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s , are d i s t r i b u t e d over occupations i n d i f f e r e n t ways ( T a n g r i , 1976). Depending on the l e v e l of d i s a g g r e g a t i o n of the o c c u p a t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , ( ' h o r i z o n t a l ' s e g r e g a t i o n ) , the sexes may not appear to be h i g h l y segregated. Broad o c c u p a t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , l i k e c l e r i c a l or s a l e s , i n d i c a t e that men and women do not ho l d s i m i l a r jobs, and f u r t h e r d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n w i t h i n each o c c u p a t i o n a l category, and i n job c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s w i t h i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s ( ' v e r t i c a l ' segregation) r e v e a l s a g r e a t e r degree of segr e g a t i o n between male and female job s . Using d e t a i l e d census o c c u p a t i o n a l codes, Armstrong (1984) found that out of 494 o c c u p a t i o n a l codes, the twenty-one l e a d i n g female occupations accounted f o r 60% of employed women, while the 72 twenty-one l e a d i n g male occupations accounted f o r only 35.1% of employed men. T h i s f i n d i n g i n d i c a t e s that not only are women o c c u p a t i o n a l l y - s e g r e g a t e d , but that they work i n a l i m i t e d number of occ u p a t i o n s . I t i s important to note that the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of occupations can have an impact on the l e v e l of o c c u p a t i o n a l s e g r e g a t i o n . G e n e r a l l y , male occupations have been d e f i n e d i n more d e t a i l than female occupations (OECD, 1985). I n t e r e s t i n o c c u p a t i o n a l s e g r e g a t i o n stems from the f a i r l y e s t a b l i s h e d r e l a t i o n s h i p between the sex d i f f e r e n t i a l i n earnings and women's c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n a small number of occupations. ( B e l l e r , 1984) The more 'female' the occupation i s , the l e s s i t t y p i c a l l y pays (Rytina, 1982). The sex composition of occupations can i n f l u e n c e what an employer i s w i l l i n g to pay those people who work i n those o c c u p a t i o n s . The pay i n predominantly female jobs i s f r e q u e n t l y lower than the pay i n male jobs, and o f t e n the d i f f e r e n t i a l s are gr e a t e r than can be e x p l a i n e d by the s k i l l l e v e l s , c o n t r i b u t i o n s to p r o f i t , or la b o r supply curves of the jobs, or the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of the jobs' incumbents. (England, 1984) Some of the d i f f e r e n c e s i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of women and men acr o s s occupations may not be pro b l e m a t i c , i f they represent the vo l u n t a r y s o r t i n g out of people and occupations (Reskin, 1986), f r e e from d i s c r i m i n a t o r y p r e s s u r e s ; but, i f the p a t t e r n of o c c u p a t i o n a l segregation represents d i s c r i m i n a t o r y p r a c t i c e s , produced by i n t e n t or through the u n i n t e n t i o n a l o p e r a t i o n of our s o c i a l and economic systems, and i f i t c o n t r i b u t e s to the lower earnings of women, i t c o n s t i t u t e s an important o b j e c t of p u b l i c p o l i c y . 73 2. H i s t o r i c a l P a t t e r n of Occupa t i o n a l Segregation, 1951-1981 The p e r s i s t e n c e of o c c u p a t i o n a l segregation over the p e r i o d from 1951-81 i s shown i n Table 12. To c o n s t r u c t t h i s t a b l e , 1 2 3 4 census data f o r 1951 , 1961 , 1971 and 1981 , census years were c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g to the two, three and some four d i g i t o c c u p a t i o n a l codes from the 1980 S t a t i s t i c s Canada Standard O c c u p a t i o n a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Manual. The o c c u p a t i o n a l codes were then s o r t e d under the a p p r o p r i a t e headings of E x t r a c t i v e , C o n s t r u c t i o n , Manufacturing, D i s t r i b u t i v e , Consumer, Advanced, and N o n - p r o f i t , as shown i n Appendices A, B, C, and D. Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t to t h i s e x e r c i s e i s the d i s t r i b u t i o n of women acro s s the v a r i o u s o c c u p a t i o n s . While women's Nin t h Census of Canada. V o l . IV. Labour Force -Occupations and I n d u s t r i e s . Tables 12 & 14. Labour Force 14 years of age and over, by occupation and sex showing age group, m a r i t a l s t a t u s , and the number of wage-earners f o r the census m e t r o p o l i t a n areas of c i t i e s of 100,000 p o p u l a t i o n and over, 1951. Census of Canada, 1961, Catalogue 94.501 - 94.517, Table 7, 8. Census of Canada, Catalogue 94-715-727, t a b l e 4. Labour f o r c e 15 years and over, by d e t a i l e d occupation and sex, for census m e t r o p o l i t a n areas, 1971. 4 Census of Canada, 1981, P r o v i n c i a l S e r i e s , Catalogue 93-961 to 93-970, Table 10. p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the labour f o r c e has in c r e a s e d at a r a p i d r a t e , women do not enter occupations i n an even manner. Men tend to be d i s t r i b u t e d more evenly a c r o s s the occupations while women are more co n c e n t r a t e d i n fewer o c c u p a t i o n s . In 1951, men were d i s t r i b u t e d evenly between goods and s e r v i c e occupations with 45.4% of the t o t a l male labour f o r c e i n each. In 1951, women's occupations were predominantly i n the s e r v i c e s e c t o r with 80.0% of a l l women's employment i n s e r v i c e s and only 17.1% i n goods occupations. By 1981, as a l l occupations s h i f t e d towards the s e r v i c e s e c t o r , the male d i s t r i b u t i o n of occupations s p l i t one-t h i r d goods and two-thirds s e r v i c e o c c u p a t i o n s . During the same p e r i o d , the o c c u p a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of women a l s o became more concentrated with over 87.4% of a l l women working i n the s e r v i c e s e c t o r . The c o n c e n t r a t i o n of women i n c e r t a i n occupations can be demonstrated by c o n s i d e r i n g what percent of an occupation would be occupied by women i f they were represented i n equal p r o p o r t i o n to t h e i r share of the labour f o r c e . In 1981, women comprised approximately 40.6% of the t o t a l labour f o r c e of Canada. I f women and men had the same p r e f e r e n c e s , s k i l l s , r e s o u r c e s , m o t i v a t i o n and access to occupations, we would expect women to make up about 40.0% of each o c c u p a t i o n . As expected, t h i s only occurs i n a few occupations. For the most p a r t , women (or men) are over or under-represented i n most of the o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s . Table 12 shows the percentage of women i n each occupation. Occupations that are over 50% female from 1951 to 1981 f o r Canada a r e : C l e r i c a l , Food and Beverage, Lodging, P e r s o n a l , Apparel and F u r n i s h i n g , Elementary and Secondary Teaching, Nursing and Therapy, S o c i a l Work, and L i b r a r y and Museum. Occupations h e l d l a r g e l y by men from 1951 -1981 a r e : E x t r a c t i v e , C o n s t r u c t i o n , Manufacturing, Mechanic and Repair, Transport Equipment Operating, N a t u r a l S c i e n c e s , D i a g n o s i s and Treatment, and P r o t e c t i v e o c c u p a t i o n s . Table 12. Percentage of Women i n Each Occupation For Canada, 1951-81 Percent Point Change Census Year 1951 1961 1971 1981 1951-81 I. GOODS 1. E x t r a c t i v e : 3.1 9.2 21.6 16.9 1 3 .7 2. C o n s t r u c t i o n (87) 0.3 2.5 0.9 1 .9 1 .6 3. Manufacturing: 23.0 19.4 22.0 25.0 2 .0 GOODS TOTAL: 9.6 12.7 15.1 16.9 7 .3 I I . SERVICES: 1. D i s t r i b u t i v e : a. C l e r i c a l (41) 55.3 61.1 68.4 77.8 22 .4 b. S a l e s : 35.4 33.9 30.4 42.3 6 .9 c. Trans Equip Op. (91) 0.4 0.7 2.4 6.5 6 . 1 d. M a t e r i a l Handl (93) 0.8 1 .3 19.7 22.6 21 .8 e. E l e c t r & Comm (955) 48.9 71.0 8.1 16.6 -32 .3 f. Mechan Repair (858) 0.5 0.4 0.9 1 .3 0 .8 g. P r i n t i n g (951 & 959) 18.4 18.9 22.9 34.0 15 .7 D i s t r i b u t i v e t o t a l : 32.2 35. 1 41 . 1 51 .6 19 .4 76 Table 12 co n t i n u e d . . . 2. Consumer: a. A r t and L i t e r (33) 31.1 32 .5 27.2 39.4 8 .3 b. Food and Bever (612) 58.6 62 .9 64. 1 67.4 8 .8 c. Lodging (613) 77.9 78 .4 64.3 70.6 -7 .3 d. Personal (614) 76.8 79 .2 78.2 82.7 5 .9 e. Appar F u r n i s h (616) 63. 1 71 .4 63.9 67.9 4 .8 f. Other (619) 28.0 31 .8 34. 1 40.4 1 2 .4 Consumer t o t a l : 60.2 61 .4 54.5 59.0 -1 .2 3. Advanced: a. Non-govt A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (113/114) 9.2 10. 1 1 1 .9 21.2 1 2 .0 b. N a t u r a l S c i e n c e s : 10.0 8. 4 8.4 13.9 3 .9 c. S o c i a l S c i e n c e s : 2. 1 4. 0 14.7 28.3 26 .2 d. Other (117) 12.4 7. 1 15.8 33. 1 20 .8 Advanced t o t a l 9.5 9. 4 11.5 21.8 1 2 .3 4. N o n - P r o f i t : a. Gov't Admin (111) 8.9 9. 2 13.8 22.4 1 3 .5 b. E d u c a t i o n : 69.3 66. 4 57.4 57.4 -1 1 .9 c. H e a l t h : 69.8 72. 0 73.9 77.3 7 .6 d. R e l i g i o u s (25) 39.7 28. 9 15.7 29.9 -9. .8 e. P r o t e c t i v e (611) 0.9 2. 4 3.9 12.2 11 .3 f. S o c i a l Work (233 & 239) 63.2 53. 3 47.6 64.9 1 .7 g. L i b r a r y and Museum (235) 86.7 81 . 7 71.9 76.3 -10 .4 N o n - P r o f i t t o t a l 41 .4 42. 8 49.3 55.3 1 3 .9 SERVICES TOTAL: 33.2 35. 7 41 .6 48.6 15 .4 I I I . OTHER: 8.2 23. 4 37.7 38.2 30 .0 TOTAL 22.0 27. 3 34.3 40.6 18 .6 Source: Canada, Census of Economic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 1951, 1961, 1971, 1981. The percentage of women i n a l l occupations, except E l e c t r o n i c s and Communications, Lodging, Elementary and Secondary Teaching, Other Teaching, Product F a b r i c a t i o n and L i b r a r y and Museum, has i n c r e a s e d from 1951 to 1981. The l a r g e s t i n c r e a s e s in the percentage of women i n occupations has occurred i n the lower paying occupations of C l e r i c a l , M a t e r i a l Handling, Other H e a l t h , A g r i c u l t u r a l , and Consumer o c c u p a t i o n s . Women have remained c o n c e n t r a t e d i n a l i m i t e d number of o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s . Taking the l a r g e s t s i x s e r v i c e s e c t o r o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s f o r women, ( C l e r i c a l (41), Commodities Sales (513/514), Food and Beverage (612), Personal (614), Elementary and Secondary Teaching (273), and Nursing and Therapy (313), i t i s p o s s i b l e to show the degree of c o n c e n t r a t i o n of women i n a few occup a t i o n s . These s i x c a t e g o r i e s comprise 63.4% in 1951, 64.8% i n 1961, 64.8% i n 1971 and 65.33% i n 1981 of a l l women's employment. These f i g u r e s i n d i c a t e , with the exception of 1971, that the c o n c e n t r a t i o n of women i n these s e l e c t occupations has been i n c r e a s i n g , and that the b a s i c o c c u p a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of women has not changed d r a m a t i c a l l y . In comparison, the s i x l a r g e s t s e r v i c e s e c t o r occupations f o r men, C l e r i c a l (41), Commodities Sales (513/514), Transport Equipment Operating (91), Non-government A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (113/114), Mechanics and R e p a i r e r s (858) and P r o t e c t i v e (611), only comprised 32.4% i n 1951, 39.9% i n 1961, 32.1% i n 1971 and b 35.5% i n 1981 of a l l men's employment. Men are not as conc e n t r a t e d i n a small number of oc c u p a t i o n s . 78 In 1971, Non-government A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (113/114) was re p l a c e d by M a t e r i a l Handling (93). In 1981, Non-government A d m i n i s t r a t i o n was again one of the top s i x male oc c u p a t i o n s . The percentage decrease i n the p r o p o r t i o n of men i n Non-government A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n 1971 i s probably due to the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and coding of 1971 occupations to the 1981 standard. The dramatic drop i n the percentage of women i n the E l e c t r o n i c and Rel a t e d Communication, Equipment Operating Occupations (955) i s p a r t l y due to the replacement of telephone o p e r a t o r s with e l e c t r o n i c s w i t c h i n g equipment. A l s o , i t i s r e l a t e d to the l a r g e i n c r e a s e i n female c o n s t r u c t i o n workers from 1951 to 1961 (0.3% to 2.5%). The 1961 c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of E l e c t r i c i a n s and Rel a t e d E l e c t r i c a l and E l e c t r o n i c Workers (83) was ass i g n e d completely to the C o n s t r u c t i o n category. As such, i t in c l u d e s i n d i v i d u a l s who should be c l a s s i f i e d as belonging to E l e c t r o n i c and Re l a t e d Communication, Equipment Operating Occupations (955). T h i s r e s u l t e d i n an i n f l a t e d estimate of the number of women i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n t r a d e , and d e f l a t e d estimates of women i n Communication (955). The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n w i l l examine the changes in the o c c u p a t i o n a l s e g r e g a t i o n using data from 1 9 5 1 - 8 1 f o r 4 7 o c c u p a t i o n a l codes.^ 3 . Measuring Changes in O c c u p a t i o n a l D i s t r i b u t i o n Trends i n o c c u p a t i o n a l s e g r e g a t i o n are commonly measured by the index of s e g r e g a t i o n (Duncan and Duncan, 1 9 5 5 ) . Segregation i s o f t e n d e f i n e d as the complete s e p a r a t i o n a c c o r d i n g to a given c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . Here, segregation i s determined by the d i f f e r e n c e between the p r o p o r t i o n of men or women i n an occupation and t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the labour f o r c e . The 7 index of s e g r e g a t i o n i s s i m i l a r to the index of d i s s i m i l a r i t y . A d i s s i m i l a r i t y index shows the extent to which two d i s t r i b u t i o n s Data f o r P h y s i c a l S c i e n c e s , S o c i a l S c i e n c e s , Teaching A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and Health A d m i n i s t r a t i o n were not a v a i l a b l e f o r the 1 9 5 1 o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s . The e x c l u s i o n of these c a t e g o r i e s i n the c a l c u l a t i o n of the 1 9 6 1 index of s e g r e g a t i o n , f o r the purpose of comparing the 1 9 5 1 and 1 9 6 1 i n d i c e s , had a n e g l i g i b l e e f f e c t on the value of the index. The d i s s i m i l a r i t y index i s the sum of the absolute d i f f e r e n c e s between two d i s t r i b u t i o n s d i v i d e d by two. n 1 / 2 sum abs (P - P ) Where; P 1 ' = N f i / N t i i n category i i n year 1 . P . Q = the p r o p o r t i o n of the t o t a l i n category i i n year 6l The sum of a l l values i n P 1 equals 1 0 0 . The sum of a l l v a l u e s i n P N equals 1 0 0 . are d i f f e r e n t . Values f o r the index range from 0, meaning there i s no d i f f e r e n c e between the two d i s t r i b u t i o n s , and 100, i n d i c a t i n g that the two d i s t r i b u t i o n s are completely d i f f e r e n t , or d i s s i m i l a r . o The se g r e g a t i o n index may have a value between 0 and 100. Zero r e p r e s e n t s p e r f e c t i n t e g r a t i o n ; men and women are d i s t r i b u t e d i n the same manner acr o s s a l l occupations, r e l a t i v e to t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the labour f o r c e . One-hundred repr e s e n t s complete s e g r e g a t i o n , a s i t u a t i o n where men and women do not share any o c c u p a t i o n a l category. The index can be i n t e r p r e t e d as the p r o p o r t i o n of women or men that would have to be r e d i s t r i b u t e d among occupations f o r the o c c u p a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n to be equal. For example, a value f o r the seg r e g a t i o n index of 50.0 i n d i c a t e s that 50% of men, women, or some combination of the two, would need to change occupations i n order f o r se g r e g a t i o n , at the l e v e l represented by the o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s , to be removed. The segregation index (SI) compares the o c c u p a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of men and women i n one time p e r i o d . I t i s c a l c u l a t e d as f o l l o w s : n N f. N . SI = 1/2 sum | _ . - m * | * 100% N,^ = the number of women i n occupation i ; N f = the t o t a l number of women; the number of men i n occupation i ; N = the t o t a l number of men. Where: N . = mi The value of the index depends upon the r e l a t i v e s i z e of the v a r i o u s occupations, the sex composition w i t h i n occupations, and the degree of aggregation of o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s (England, 1981). In order to compare changes i n a s e g r e g a t i o n index over time, the same number of occupations needs to be used f o r each year. The index of segregation produced by the 47 o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s used, does not, however, r e v e a l the f u l l extent of o c c u p a t i o n a l s e g r e g a t i o n by sex. For example, i n Food and Beverage occupations, women tend to be w a i t r e s s e s , employed i n d i n e r s and c a f e s , while waiters and bus boys, i n the more expensive r e s t a u r a n t s , are more l i k e l y to be men (Reskin, 1986). The index of s e g r e g a t i o n can be much higher depending upon the d e t a i l of the o c c u p a t i o n a l breakdown. Segregation can occur, not only at the h o r i z o n t a l l e v e l , (between o c c u p a t i o n a l t i t l e s ) , but a l s o v e r t i c a l l y , ( w i t h i n job t i t l e s ) , (Blau and Ferber, 1986). The index of segregation f o r Canada, using 47 o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s , has d e c l i n e d from 63.5 i n 1951 to 50.36 i n 1981. The index reached i t s lowest l e v e l at the 1971 census p e r i o d with a value of 48.15, but rose 2.21 p o i n t s to 50.36 i n 1981. Table 13 p r o v i d e s a summary of the index of segregation f o r Canada from 1951 to 1981. 82 Table 13. Index of Segregation f o r Canada, 1951-1981 Census Year Canada 1 951 1 961 1 971 1981 63.50 58.64 48. 15 50.36 4. The Impact of Occ u p a t i o n a l Segregation on Women's Earnings From the above a n a l y s i s , i t i s c l e a r that occupations continue to be dominated by one sex, but some s i g n i f i c a n t changes have o c c u r r e d . While the degree of o c c u p a t i o n a l s e g r e g a t i o n has shown some improvement over the l a s t t h i r t y years, women are s t i l l predominantly employed i n a few low-paying o c c u p a t i o n s . To understand the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the o c c u p a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of men and women, and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to the r a t i o of female-to-male earnings, i t i s u s e f u l to examine what happens t o the o v e r a l l r a t i o when we assume that women have the same o c c u p a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n as men, but r e t a i n t h e i r e arnings w i t h i n o c c u p a t i o n s . Using the o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s presented in Table 12, women were given the o c c u p a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of men, but r e t a i n e d t h e i r own ea r n i n g s . On t h i s b a s i s , Table 14 shows that the earnings gap i s reduced. For 1981, the r a t i o of female-to-male earnings i n c r e a s e d from 0.627 to 0.663. In other words, the adoption of the male d i s t r i b u t i o n by women would 83 i n c r e a s e t h e i r average earnings from 62.7% to 66.3% of men's ear n i n g s . Table 14. R a t i o of Female-to-Male Average Earnings For Canada, Using The Male Oc c u p a t i o n a l D i s t r i b u t i o n f o r Men and Women. For the o c c u p a t i o n a l groups used in t h i s study, the desegregation of occupations would s l i g h t l y reduce the earnings gap. The remaining gap in the earnings r a t i o i s the r e s u l t of d i f f e r e n c e s i n earnings between men and women w i t h i n o c c u p a t i o n s . Because the a n a l y s i s i s l i m i t e d to the 46 o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s i d e n t i f i e d i n Appendix I, the f u l l extent of the e f f e c t of o c c u p a t i o n a l s e g r e g a t i o n on the earnings gap i s not re v e a l e d . To the extent that women are segregated i n t o low-wage jobs w i t h i n each broad o c c u p a t i o n a l category, desegregation would f u r t h e r narrow the earnings gap (Gunderson, 1983). The e f f e c t of the number of o c c u p a t i o n a l groups on the r e s u l t s of t h i s a n a l y s i s can be demonstrated by l o o k i n g at pre v i o u s s t u d i e s that used s i m i l a r methods. A study by Gunderson (1976) found that the d i s t r i b u t i o n of women a c c o r d i n g to the o c c u p a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of men, using 23 broad o c c u p a t i o n a l groups and 1971 census data, would a c t u a l l y have a negative 1 951 1961 1 971 1981 0.664 0.652 0.666 0.663 impact, lowering the earnings r a t i o from 0.59 to 0.58. A study conducted by the O n t a r i o M i n i s t r y of Labour (1976), using 1971 data f o r O n t a r i o , but using 332 d e t a i l e d o c c u p a t i o n a l groups, r e s u l t e d i n an inc r e a s e i n the earnings r a t i o from 0.57 to 0.67 ( c i t e d from Gunderson, 1983). T h i s suggests that there i s a stro n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between o c c u p a t i o n a l segregation and the earnings of men and women that becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y c l e a r with the l e v e l of d e t a i l used i n the o c c u p a t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . An a l t e r n a t e means of e s t a b l i s h i n g the impact of o c c u p a t i o n a l s e g r e g a t i o n on the earnings gap i s to maintain the i n d i v i d u a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s of men and women, but to make the earnings r a t i o f o r each i n d i v i d u a l occupation equal 1.00. By g i v i n g men and women the same l e v e l of earnings i n each occu p a t i o n , the e f f e c t of wage d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n o c c u p a t i o n a l groups i s e l i m i n a t e d . T h i s method assumes that men and women r e c e i v e the same pay w i t h i n o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s r e g a r d l e s s of the l e v e l of other f a c t o r s l i k e education or experience that c o n t r i b u t e to t h e i r e a r n i n g s . The male/female earnings gap i s caused by (1) d i f f e r e n c e s i n pay w i t h i n occupations, (2) d i f f e r e n c e s i n men's and women's o c c u p a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n , and (3) the i n t e r a c t i o n of these two causes. T h i s method o v e r s t a t e s the e f f e c t of o c c u p a t i o n a l s e g r e g a t i o n by i n c l u d i n g the i n t e r a c t i o n term in the c a l c u l a t i o n , and by not t a k i n g i n t o account any d i f f e r e n c e s in human c a p i t a l and other r e l a t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that c o n t r i b u t e to earnings ( A l d r i c h , 1986). 85 Table 15 pr o v i d e s the r a t i o of female-to-male earnings when men and women maintain t h e i r own o c c u p a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s , but women adopt the f u l l - t i m e earnings of men. For Canada, t h i s r e s u l t e d i n a female-to-male earnings r a t i o of 0.905 i n 1981. E q u a l i z i n g wages w i t h i n occupations reduces the female earnings to only 90.5% of men's. The remaining 9.5% i s the e f f e c t due s o l e l y to the d i f f e r e n t o c c u p a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s . The c o n c l u s i o n can be drawn that the r e d u c t i o n i n the segr e g a t i o n of occupations would only reduce the earnings gap by 25.5%, while more equal wages w i t h i n each occupation would reduce the earnings gap by 74.5%, at the l e v e l of aggregation used i n t h i s a n a l y s i s . Based on t h i s a n a l y s i s , o c c u p a t i o n a l s e g r e g a t i o n has a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on the male/female earnings gap, although i f the e f f e c t of d i f f e r e n t o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s and human c a p i t a l d i f f e r e n c e s were co n s i d e r e d t h i s f i g u r e would be reduced. Table 15. Ra t i o of Female-to-Male Average Earnings For Canada, 1951-81, Using Male F u l l - t i m e Earnings f o r Men and Women. 1 951 1961 1971 1981 0.938 0.907 0.911 0.905 5. Oc c u p a t i o n a l and I n d u s t r i a l Segregation i n the 1986 Survey of Consumer Finances The data from the Survey of Consumer Finances 1986, i s not d i r e c t l y compared with the data on occupations compiled from the 1951 to 1981 censuses. The data from the 1951 to 1981 census p r o v i d e s an i n d i c a t i o n of the extent of o c c u p a t i o n a l s e g r e g a t i o n i n the Canadian labour f o r c e . As w e l l , i t pr o v i d e s a rough i n d i c a t i o n of the changes that have taken p l a c e over the l a s t t h i r t y years i n the o c c u p a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of the Canadian labour f o r c e . The sample d e r i v e d from the Survey of Consumer Finances confirms the l e v e l of o c c u p a t i o n a l s e g r e g a t i o n found i n the examination of the 1951-81 census data. The index of o c c u p a t i o n a l s e g r e g a t i o n c a l c u l a t e d from the 47 o c c u p a t i o n a l codes from the survey i s 0.52. F u r t h e r , the Survey of Consumer Finances p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h i r t e e n i n d u s t r i a l codes. I n d u s t r i e s and occupations are very c l o s e l y r e l a t e d , and segr e g a t i o n by sex can occur i n both. The index of seg r e g a t i o n f o r i n d u s t r i e s i s 0.32. T h i s f i g u r e i s not d i r e c t l y comparable with the f i g u r e f o r occupations, because the value of the index i s dependent, to some extent, on the number of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s used i n the c a l c u l a t i o n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t i n d i c a t e s a s u b s t a n t i a l degree of seg r e g a t i o n by i n d u s t r y , c o n s i d e r i n g that only fourteen i n d u s t r i a l codes were i n c l u d e d i n the a n a l y s i s . Tables 16 and 17 pro v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n f o r occupations and i n d u s t r i e s , r e s p e c t i v e l y , on the mean earnings, the percentage of women and men i n each o c c u p a t i o n a l and i n d u s t r y code, the percentage of men's and women's t o t a l employment i n a p a r t i c u l a r occupation and i n d u s t r y , and the earnings r a t i o f o r each. Table 16. Earnings by Occupation by Sex -MEAN STD DEV CASES DIFFERENCE RATIO DISTRI Occupation $ (M-F) (F/M) 01. O f f i c i a l s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , govt SOC 111 32,083 13653 1192 9,647 0.72 Men 33,888 13366 969 0.8% Women 24,241 12046 223 0.3% 02. Other managers and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s SOC 113,114 32,555 18212 25384 12,988 0.64 Men 36,240 18655 18182 14.2% Women 23,252 13022 7202 8.9% 03. Management and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n r e l a t e d SOC 117 31,096 13824 8587 8,713 0.75 Men 34,434 13494 5298 4.1% Women 25,720 12603 3289 4.1% 04. P h y s i c a l , l i f e s c i e n c e s , math, s t a t s , systems a n a l y s i s and r e l a t e d SOC 211,213,218 32,359 15830 4387 14,060 0.60 Men 35,285 15810 3474 2.7% Women 21,225 9829 913 1.1% 05. A r c h i t e c t s and engineers SOC 214,215 39,944 13237 3552 9,262 0.77 Men 40,166 13191 3467 2.7% Women 30,904 11976 85 0.1% 06. A r c h i t e c t u r e and en g i n e e r i n g r e l a t e d SOC 216 30,489 11504 2019 (23,005) 1.78 Men 29,452 10310 1928 1.5% Women 52,457 13432 91 0.1% 07. S o c i a l s c i e n c e s and r e l a t e d , R e l i g i o n SOC 23,25 27,915 16888 4697 8,350 0.74 Men 32,215 21351 2278 1.8% Women 23,865 9528 2419 3.0% 88 08. Health d i a g n o s i n g and t r e a t i n g SOC 311 43,708 31578 Men 48,741 33628 Women 28,232 16481 09. SOC Men Women 10. SOC Men Women Nursing, therapy and r e l a t e d 313 23,168 8657 26,508 9412 22,389 8280 546 412 134 7094 1 343 5751 Other medicine and h e a l t h r e l a t e d 315 25,976 14703 2678 37,495 26590 520 23,201 7647 2158 20,509 0.58 4,119 0.84 14,295 0.62 1 1 . Art i s t i c SOC 33 Men Women l i t e r a r y , r e c r e a t i o n a l and r e l a t e d 24,105 10715 2361 7,804 27,063 10796 1466 19,259 8615 895 12. SOC Men Women U n i v e r s i t y 271 and r e l a t e d 38,533 14940 1282 40,897 16703 810 34,477 10086 472 13. Elementary, secondary and r e l a t e d SOC 273 31,157 9879 7401 Men 34,965 9873 2627 Women 29,061 9235 4774 14. Other teaching and r e l a t e d SOC 279 30,625 11046 2646 Men 33,984 9822 1060 Women 28,380 11250 1586 15. SOC Men Women Stenographic 41 1 and t y p i n g 18,023 8030 10025 20,642 11599 159 17,980 7954 9866 0.71 6,421 0.84 5,904 0.83 5,604 0.84 2,662 0.87 0.3% 0.2% 1.1% 7.1% 0.4% 2.7% 1 . 1: 1.1! 0.6% 0.6% 2.1% 5.9% 0.8% 2.0% 0.1% 12.2% 16. SOC Men Women Bookkeeping, 413 ac c o u n t - r e c o r d i n g 17,842 8413 23,702 8972 16,869 7907 and r e l a t e d 8329 6,833 1 186 7143 0.71 0.9% 8.9% 17. O f f i c e machine and E.D.P. o p e r a t o r s SOC 414 18,513 8169 2775 Men 26,905 6007 151 Women 18,030 8014 2624 8,875 0.67 0.1% 3.3% 89 18. M a t e r i a l SOC 415 Men Women re c o r d i n g , s c h e d u l i n g 23,372 8362 25,117 8295 17,726 5642 and d i s t r i b u t i o n 4341 7,392 0 3316 1025 71 19. Reception, i n f o r m a t i o n , m a i l and message SOC 417 19,732 8651 3796 7,563 Men 24,171 8204 1568 Women 16,608 7519 2228 20. L i b r a r y , f i l e , correspondence, other c l e r i c a l SOC 416, 419 20,899 8665 7790 6,064 Men 25,024 11015 2490 Women 18,960 6451 5300 d i s t r i b u t i o n 0.69 0.76 2.6% 1 .3% 1 .2% 2.8% 1 .9% 6.6% 21. S a l e s , commodities SOC 513, 514 21,148 13104 12161 Men 26,039 13660 7531 Women 13,194 6734 4630 12,844 0.51 5.9% 5.7% 22. S a l e s , s e r v i c e s and other s a l e s SOC 517, 519 33,528 20928 4387 Men 39,097 23144 2835 Women 23,356 9979 1552 15,741 0.60 2.2% 1 .9% 23. SOC Men Women P r o t e c t i v e 611 s e r v i c e 31,681 32,173 23,339 1 1 227 1 1 1 55 8943 3819 3606 213 8,835 0.73 2.8% 0.3% 24. Food and beverage accommodation SOC 612, 613 14, Men 17, Women 12, p r e p a r a t i o n & r e l a t e d , l o d g i n g and 295 548 142 1 1 571 16416 5702 6081 2422 3659 5,407 0.69 1 .9% 4.5% 25. P e r s o n a l , a p p a r e l and f u r n i s h i n g s e r v i c e SOC 614, 616 14,273 8526 3735 6,216 Men 18,978 9029 908 Women 12,762 7777 2827 26. Other SOC 619 Men Women s e r v i c e occupations 20,493 9975 5239 23,224 9651 3988 11,787 4494 1251 0.67 11,437 0.51 0.7% 3.5% 3.1% 1 .6% 27. SOC Men Women Farmers 71 1 16,084 16,923 6,650 12939 1 31 79 149 649 596 53 10,272 0.39 0.5% 0.1% 90 28. Other farming, h o r t i c u l t u r a l and animal husbandry SOC 718, 719 13,716 8049 1494 Men 14,605 8372 1179 Women 10,387 5570 315 4,219 0.71 0.9% 0.4% 29. SOC Men Women F i s h i n g , 73 t r a p p i n g 18 18 and ,951 ,951 0 r e l a t e d 1 0829 1 0829 0 108 108 0 18,951 N/A 0.1% 0.0% 30. F o r e s t r y and lo g g i n g SOC 75 30,081 12259 Men 31,342 11161 Women 5,000 0 31. Mining and q u a r r y i n g i n c l u d i n g SOC 77 34,945 15568 Men 34,945 15568 Women 0 0 418 398 20 26,342 0.16 gas and o i l f i e l d 1289 34,945 N/A 1289 0 0.3% 0.0% 1 .0% 0.0% 32. Food, beverage and r e l a t e d SOC 821, 822 22,569 10150 2953 Men 23,625 9184 2178 Women 19,601 11991 775 4,023 0.83 1 .7% 1 .0% 33. Other p r o c e s s i n g occupations SOC 811-817, 823- 27,719 10064 5036 Men 28,421 10083 4650 Women 19,264 4408 386 9,157 0.68 34. SOC Men Women Metal shaping and forming occupations 833 25,740 26,551 13,651 10549 1 031 2 5393 2593 2430 163 12,900 0.51 3.6% 0.5% 1 .9% 0.2% 35. Other machining occupations SOC 831, 835-839 28,108 11220 .2550 Men 28,965 10886 2409 Women 13,468 5025 141 15,497 0.46 1 .9% 0.2% 36. Metal products, n.e.c, SOC 851, 852 23,360 Men 25,468 Women 13,210 9069 8293 4771 2577 2134 443 12,258 0.52 1 .7% 0.5% 37. E l e c t r i c a l , e l e c t r o n i c and r e l a t e d equipment SOC 853 28,578 11043 2627 11,695 Men 30,421 10682 2213 Women 18,727 6984 414 0.62 1 .7% 0.5% 91 38. T e x t i l e s , f u r and l e a t h e r goods SOC 855, 856 14,054 6093 3400 Men 17,222 7313 611 Women 13,360 5556 2789 3,862 0.78 0.5% 3.5% 39. Wood SOC 854, Men Women products, 857, 859 rubber, 20,732 22,242 16,375 p l a s t i c 9341 9264 8121 and other 2833 5,867 21 04 729 0.74 1 .6% 0.9% 40. Mechanics and repairmen except SOC 858 28,477 12108 Men 28,636 11991 Women 20,211 14954 e l e c t r i c a l 8568 8,425 8406 162 0.71 6, 0. 6% 2% 41 . SOC Men Women Excavation, 871 grading, paving and r e l a t e d 27,214 10080 1611 27,214 10080 1611 0 0 0 27,214 N/A 1 0 42. E l e c t r i c a l power, l i g h t i n g and wire communications equipment, e r e c t i n g , i n s t a l l i n g SOC 873 29,530 13003 2423 (9,740) 1 Men 29,260 13087 2356 Women 39,000 0 67 33 1 .8% 0.1% 43. Other c o n s t r u c t i o n trades SOC 878, 879 25,433 10651 Men 25,541 10497 Women 17,361 17202 4948 4883 65 8,180 0.68 3, 0, 1% 44. Motor t r a n s p o r t o p e r a t o r s SOC 917 23,211 10315 6326 Men 23,702 10333 6001 Women 14,147 3605 325 9,555 0.60 4, 0, 7% 4% 45. Other t r a n s p o r t equipment opera t o r s SOC 911-915, 919 35,748 14224 1639 Men 35,812 14251 1628 Women 26,260 0 11 9,552 0.73 1.3% 0.0% 46. SOC Men Women M a t e r i a l 93 handl i n g and 22,372 23,969 15,787 r e l a t e d 10733 1 0761 7677 4553 3664 889 8,182 0.66 2.9% 1.1% 47. Other c r a f t s and equipment opera t o r s SOC 95 27,259 10442 3564 Men 28,862 9850 3060 Women 17,523 8465 504 11,339 0.61 2.4% 0.6% Note: Complete t i t l e s f or each of the Standard O c c u p a t i o n a l Codes (SOC) are presented i n Appendix L. Again, an i n d i c a t i o n of the impact of o c c u p a t i o n a l and i n d u s t r i a l s e g r e g a t i o n on mean earnings can be obtained by a s s i g n i n g the average earnings f o r each occupation and i n d u s t r y to each i n d i v i d u a l i n the sample i n pl a c e of t h e i r own. T h i s e l i m i n a t e s the impact of other v a r i a b l e s , such as time worked, educat i o n , or experience, i n the det e r m i n a t i o n of the earnings r a t i o . Thus, the remaining d i f f e r e n c e i n the earnings i s due to the e f f e c t of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of men and women ac r o s s high and low-paying occupations and i n d u s t r i e s . Thus t h i s approach assumes that men and women have i d e n t i c a l wage-determining c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The average d i f f e r e n c e i n earnings due to o c c u p a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n i s $4,241 or 42% of the t o t a l observed d i f f e r e n c e i n o v e r a l l mean e a r n i n g s . The earnings r a t i o i n c r e a s e d from 0.66 to 0.84 when earnings w i t h i n each occupation are equal. T h i s i n d i c a t e s that o c c u p a t i o n a l s e g r e g a t i o n reduces the earnings of women by a f u l l eighteen percent, assuming that other f a c t o r s that i n f l u e n c e the o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e are removed from c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Thus, o c c u p a t i o n a l s e g r e g a t i o n can account f o r 18 out of the 34 p o i n t s that comprise the earnings gap, or 52.9% of the gap, assuming that men and women possess s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The f i g u r e s f o r i n d u s t r i e s i n d i c a t e d that i n d u s t r i a l s e g r e g a t i o n does not c o n t r i b u t e as much as to the income d i f f e r e n c e s . The r e s u l t i n g d i f f e r e n c e i n the average wages i s $817, or 8.1% of the t o t a l observed d i f f e r e n c e i n o v e r a l l mean ear n i n g s . The earnings r a t i o i s i n c r e a s e d from 0.66 to 0.97, l e a v i n g only a three percent gap i n the earnings between men and women that i s due to the e f f e c t of t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n a c r o s s high and low-paying i n d u s t r i e s . These f i g u r e s are most l i k e l y an o v e r e s t i m a t i o n of the e f f e c t of o c c u p a t i o n a l and i n d u s t r i a l s e g r e g a t i o n on the earnings of women, because no c o n t r o l s f o r the human c a p i t a l , and other wage-determining f a c t o r s were i n c l u d e d . The a n a l y s i s of the e f f e c t of o c c u p a t i o n a l and i n d u s t r i a l s e g r e g a t i o n w i l l be extended through the r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n . The r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s w i l l c o n t r o l f o r the other wage-related c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and allow the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the impact of o c c u p a t i o n a l and i n d u s t r i a l s e g r e g a t i o n on the earnings of women. Table 17. Earnings by Industry by Sex Occupat ion MEAN STD DEV $ CASES DIFFERENCE (M - F) RATIO (F/M) % DISTRI AGRICULTURE Men Women 14,576 16,117 10,805 1 0463 1 1 1 89 71 47 2307 1638 669 5,311 0 .67 1 .3% 0.8% OTHER PRIMARY Men Women 35,657 37,388 24,696 16568 16682 10561 5105 4409 696 12,691 0 .66 3.4% 0.9% MANUFACTURING, (non-durable) Men Women 24,828 28,756 17,443 13352 13003 10584 22784 1 4872 7912 17,443 0 .61 1 1.6% 9.8% 94 MANUFACTURING, (durable) 28 084 1 2547 22572 16,701 0. 55 Men 30 262 1 21 42 18947 14. 8% Women 16 701 7436 3625 4. 5% CONSTRUCTION 25 683 14049 7996 18,973 0. 72 Men 26 408 1 3844 721 6 5. 6% Women 18 973 14170 780 1 . 0% TRANS, COMM, OTHER 29 809 13175 21 086 23,928 0. 76 Men 31 555 1 3481 16258 12. 7% Women 23 928 1 0062 4828 6. 0% WHOLESALE TRADE 25 518 1 3340 1 1 923 18,007 0. 64 Men 28 065 1 3559 8904 7. 0% Women 18 007 9223 3019 3. 7% RETAIL TRADE 18 790 1 1 248 20792 0. 60 Men 22 871 1 2536 1 1597 9. 1% Women 1 3 642 6355 91 95 1 1 . 4% F.I.R.E. 26 998 1 7488 1 5000 18,878 0. 51 Men 36 691 201 65 6838 5. 3% Women 18 878 8761 8162 10. 1% COMMUNITY SERVICES 25 827 1 3041 37048 23, 1 1 5 0. 76 Men 30 504 1 5797 1 3598 10. 6% Women 23 ,115 10195 23450 29. 1% PERSONAL SERVICES 15 093 1 1463 9857 12,306 0. 65 Men 18 ,805 14708 4226 3. 3% Women 12 ,306 7042 5631 7. 0% BUSINESS SERVICES 25 1 1 4 14466 1 2920 21,288 0. 75 Men 28 ,568 1 5937 6790 5. 3% Women 21 ,288 1 1 485 6130 7. 6% PUBLIC ADMIN. 29 ,579 1 2934 1 9073 12,145 0. 64 Men 33 ,695 1 3017 12609 9. 9% Women 21 ,550 8101 6464 8. 0% Note: Complete t i t l e s f o r each i n d u s t r i a l s e c t o r are presented in Appendix M. 95 C. Regression A n a l y s i s 1. Decomposition of the Earnings Gap Fo l l o w i n g the m u l t i p l e l i n e a r r e g r e s s i o n technique o u t l i n e d i n the pr e v i o u s methodological s e c t i o n , i t i s p o s s i b l e , w i t h i n the l i m i t a t i o n s of the approach d i s c u s s e d , to decompose the earnings gap i n t o two p a r t s . One par t r e p r e s e n t s the d i f f e r e n c e s i n earnings due to d i f f e r e n c e s i n endowments of p r o d u c t i v i t y -r e l a t e d f a c t o r s , l a b e l l e d the endowment component. The second pa r t i s due to d i f f e r e n t r e t u r n s f o r the same p r o d u c t i v i t y f a c t o r s . T h i s component, commonly l a b e l l e d wage or pay d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , i s c a l l e d the c o e f f i c i e n t s component.. I t i s acknowledged that t h i s measure may overestimate the l e v e l of pay d i s c r i m i n a t i o n to the extent that other v a r i a b l e s o u t s i d e the r e g r e s s i o n equation have not been accounted f o r ; f u r t h e r , i t may represent inaccuracy i n the measurement of v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d e d i n the r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s , and i t may underestimate the l e v e l of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n to the extent that d i f f e r e n c e s i n the p r o d u c t i v i t y endowments of men and women are the r e s u l t of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n w i t h i n and o u t s i d e the labour f o r c e . C a l c u l a t i n g separate earnings equations f o r men and women allows an examination of r e t u r n s , i n the form of earnings, f o r each of the explanatory v a r i a b l e s . The separate earnings equations, using the b e s t - f i t t i n g l i n e a r model, are estimated as: Y m = Constant + b . X . ... b .X . ; and m ml ml mi mi Y, = Constant + b^X.. ... b.-X.-; r 11 r 1 r i i r where Y i s the annual earnings, X i s the mean value of the explanatory v a r i a b l e s used to account f o r e a r n i n g s , b i s the estimated r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s , and the s u b s c r i p t s of m and f i n d i c a t e males and females. In other words, "X" i s the value of the wage-producing endowments of such f a c t o r s as time worked, experience and education, and the valu e s f o r "b" can be thought of as the earnings or r e t u r n s to these endowments. They i n d i c a t e the change i n earnings that would r e s u l t from an a d d i t i o n a l u n i t of an explanatory f a c t o r while h o l d i n g the other f a c t o r s i n the equation c o n s t a n t . The constant term in the equation r e p r e s e n t s earnings when the explanatory f a c t o r s have a t h e o r e t i c a l value of zero. The p o r t i o n of the earnings gap due to d i f f e r e n c e s i n the endowments of wage-determining f a c t o r s can be represented by the sum over a l l independent v a r i a b l e s of b (X - X,) — that i s the m m r d i f f e r e n c e i n earnings, given the male r e t u r n s f o r endowments, produced by d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of the explanatory f a c t o r s between men and women. The p o r t i o n due to d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e t u r n s on the same endowments, pay d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , i s represented by the sum over a l l independent v a r i a b l e s , i n c l u d i n g the constant term, of ( b m - b^)X^. T h i s term r e p r e s e n t s the e f f e c t of d i f f e r e n t r a t e s of r e t u r n s f o r equal endowment f a c t o r s , unequal earnings f o r the same p r o d u c t i v i t y - r e l a t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The e f f e c t of d i f f e r e n c e s i n endowments, and the d i f f e r e n c e i n the rate of 97 re t u r n f o r endowment's i s commonly measured by the male standard, which i s assumed to represent the n o n - d i s c r i m i n a t o r y norm (Gunderson, 1980). The same c a l c u l a t i o n c o u l d be done u s i n g the means and r e t u r n s f o r endowments f o r women as the standard with d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s . Table 18 giv e s the male-female earnings gap i n Canada, and decomposes i t i n t o i t s component p a r t s , based on the separate earnings equations presented i n Table 22. The earnings equations were c a l c u l a t e d u sing m u l t i p l e l i n e a r r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s from a random sample of the 1986 Survey of Consumer Finances. The a n a l y s i s i s r e s t r i c t e d to i n d i v i d u a l s who worked i n the r e f e r e n c e week, r e p o r t g r e a t e r than zero average hours worked per week, report g r e a t e r than zero average weeks work per year, were employed f u l l - t i m e , f u l l year and had no self-employment e a r n i n g s . 98 Table 18. Decomposition of the Male-Female Earnings Gap, Canada 1986, SCF, F u l l Equations Earnings and Components D o l l a r s Percentage 1) Male A c t u a l Earnings 29,010 Male Constant + sum b X m m 2) Female A c t u a l Earnings 19,003 Female Constant + sum b^X^ 3) Female, No D i s c r i m i n a t i o n 24,988 Male constant + sum b Xc m r 4) C o e f f i c i e n t s Component, Wage D i s c r i m i n a t i o n R e s i d u a l 5,985 59.8% sum(b m - b ^ X . m r r 5) Endowment D i f f e r e n c e s 4,022 40.2% sum(X m - X f ) b m m r m 6) O v e r a l l D i f f e r e n t i a l 10,007 100.0% Ym ' Y f  r Note: D o l l a r f i g u r e s are c a l c u l a t e d from the means and r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s i n Table 22. For Tables 18 and 19 the remaining f i g u r e s are a l t e r n a t e l y c a l c u l a t e d as f o l l o w s : (4) = (3) - (2); (5) = (1) - (3); and (6) = (4) + (5) = (1) - (2). Source: See Table 22 f o r the means and r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s (b's) f o r the f u l l r e g r e s s i o n equation. 2. A s s e s s i n g the Impact of Occ u p a t i o n a l and I n d u s t r i a l S egregation Two separate r e g r e s s i o n equations were c a l c u l a t e d f o r both men and women. The f i r s t , c a l l e d the f u l l r e g r e s s i o n equation, i n c l u d e s the e f f e c t s of i n d u s t r i a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l segregation i n the endowment component. Each i n d u s t r i a l and occupation code was a s s i g n e d a value r e p r e s e n t i n g mean earnings f o r each code. The e f f e c t s of o c c u p a t i o n a l and i n d u s t r i a l s e g r e g a t i o n w i l l be i n c l u d e d with the endowment component i n the e x p l a n a t i o n of the earnings gap f o r these c a l c u l a t i o n s . In the p a r t i a l r e g r e s s i o n equation, the o c c u p a t i o n a l and i n d u s t r i a l v a r i a b l e s were excluded. Thus the e f f e c t s of o c c u p a t i o n a l and i n d u s t r i a l s e g r e g a t i o n w i l l be i n c l u d e d i n the c o e f f i c i e n t s component or pay d i s c r i m i n a t i o n component. In e i t h e r case, the c o e f f i c i e n t s component does not s o l e l y represent the l e v e l of pay d i s c r i m i n a t i o n in the work f o r c e . I t i n c l u d e s the e f f e c t s of pay d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , as w e l l as the e f f e c t s of unmeasured v a r i a b l e s (unexplained r e s i d u a l ) , inaccuracy i n the measured v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d e d i n the a n a l y s i s , and other forms of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n and o u t s i d e the labour f o r c e that r e s u l t i n lower r e t u r n s f o r the p r o d u c t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of women. 100 Table 19. Decomposition of the Male-Female Earnings Gap, Canada 1986, SCF, P a r t i a l Equations Earnings and Components D o l l a r s Percentage 1) Male A c t u a l Earnings 29,010 2) Female A c t u a l Earnings 19,003 3) Female, No D i s c r i m i n a t i o n 27,984 4) C o e f f i c i e n t s Component, Wage D i s c r i m i n a t i o n R e s i d u a l 8,981 89. 7% 5) Endowment D i f f e r e n c e s 1 ,027 10. 3% 6) O v e r a l l D i f f e r e n t i a l 10,007 100. 0% Note: D o l l a r f i g u r e s are c a l c u l a t e d from the means and r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s i n Table 23. For Tables 18 and 19 the remaining f i g u r e s are a l t e r n a t e l y c a l c u l a t e d as f o l l o w s : (4) = (3) - (2); (5) = ( 1 ) - (3); and (6) = (4) + (5) = ( 1 ) - (2). Source: See Table 23 f o r the means and r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s (b's) the p a r t r e g r e s s i o n equation. By e s t i m a t i n g both s e t s of equations, i t i s p o s s i b l e to determine the combined impact of o c c u p a t i o n a l and i n d u s t r i a l s e g r egation as the d i f f e r e n c e between the endowment components i n the f u l l e quation, which i n c l u d e s the e f f e c t s of o c c u p a t i o n a l and i n d u s t r i a l s e g r e g a t i o n , and the c o e f f i c i e n t s component in the p a r t i a l equation (Gunderson, 1981). The r e s u l t s of the f u l l - r e g r e s s i o n equation i n Table 18 i n d i c a t e t h a t , i n d o l l a r terms, the o v e r a l l earnings d i f f e r e n t i a l i s $10,007 of which $5,985 or 59.8% can be a t t r i b u t e d to the 101 c o e f f i c i e n t s component (which i n c l u d e the e f f e c t s of wage d i s c r i m i n a t i o n - the lower r e t u r n s for women p o s s e s s i n g the same endowments), and $4,022 or 40.2% a t t r i b u t e d to endowment d i f f e r e n c e s , with o c c u p a t i o n a l and i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n c o n s i d e r e d as endowments. Table 19 give s the r e s u l t s from the p a r t i a l r e g r e s s i o n . I t c a l c u l a t e s the same components, but the e f f e c t s of o c c u p a t i o n a l s e g r e g a t i o n and i n d u s t r i a l s e g r e g a t i o n have not been i n c l u d e d i n the endowment p r o p o r t i o n . The e f f e c t s of d i f f e r e n t o c c u p a t i o n a l and i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s were excluded from the r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s i n the c a l c u l a t i o n of the b c o e f f i c i e n t s . T h i s has the e f f e c t of a s s i g n i n g more of the wage d i f f e r e n t i a l to the c o e f f i c i e n t s component, and l e s s to endowment d i f f e r e n c e s . In t h i s set of c a l c u l a t i o n s , the o v e r a l l d i f f e r e n t i a l i s s t i l l $10,007, of which $8 , 9 8 1 or 89.7% i s a t t r i b u t e d to the c o e f f i c i e n t s component, while $1,026 or 10.3% i s due to d i f f e r e n c e s i n endowments. Taking the d i f f e r e n c e between the two c a l c u l a t i o n s f o r endowments i t i s p o s s i b l e to estimate that o c c u p a t i o n a l and i n d u s t r i a l s e gregation account f o r approximately 29.9% of the o v e r a l l wage d i f f e r e n t i a l when c o n t r o l l i n g f o r the other f a c t o r s i n the equation. In d o l l a r terms, the average male earnings from the 1986 Survey of Consumer Finances data i s $29,010, and average female ear n i n g s were $19,003 which forms a gross unadjusted earnings r a t i o of 0.66 f o r a l l workers i n the sample. I f women had the same p r o d u c t i v e - r e l a t e d endowments as men, i n c l u d i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l 1 02 and i n d u s t r i a l p r o f i l e s , t h e i r earnings would i n c r e a s e by $4,021. T h i s would r e s u l t i n an ad j u s t e d female/male earnings r a t i o of 0.79 ( i . e . $23,025/$29,0l0), as compared to unadjusted r a t i o of 0.66. These same c a l c u l a t i o n s , when the e f f e c t s of o c c u p a t i o n a l and i n d u s t r i a l s e g regation are not accounted f o r , r e s u l t i n an ad j u s t e d female/male earnings r a t i o of 0.69 ($20,029/$29,010). T h i s i n d i c a t e s that o c c u p a t i o n a l and i n d u s t r i a l s e g r e g a t i o n alone accounts f o r 10 (79% - 69%) percentage p o i n t s , or 29.9 percent of the female/male earnings r a t i o . Table 20. Unadjusted and Adjusted Earnings R a t i o from F u l l and P a r t i a l Regression Equations Unadjusted Earnings R a t i o Adjusted Earnings R a t i o , F u l l Regression Equation Adjusted Earnings R a t i o , P a r t i a l Regression Equation From t h i s a n a l y s i s , i t i s not p o s s i b l e t o determine the p r o p o r t i o n of the e f f e c t s of o c c u p a t i o n a l and i n d u s t r i a l s e g r e g a t i o n that are due to d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . To suggest that a l l of the d i f f e r e n c e between the i n d u s t r i a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of men and women i s due to d i s c r i m i n a t i o n would be i n d e f e n s i b l e . The a n a l y s i s does allow the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the e f f e c t of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of men and women between high and low-paying o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s and i n d u s t r i a l s e c t o r s . A method to f u r t h e r decompose o c c u p a t i o n a l and i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s .66 .79 .69 103 i n t o components due to endowment d i f f e r e n c e , and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n (unequal r e t u r n s f o r equal endowments) would i n v o l v e the c a l c u l a t i o n of r e g r e s s i o n equations p r e d i c t i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l and i n d u s t r i a l outcomes from human c a p i t a l and r e l a t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and o c c u p a t i o n a l and i n d u s t r i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Examples of t h i s type of work can be found i n works by Brown, Moon and Z o l o t h (1976 and 1980), and A l d r i c h (1986). The c r e a t i o n of a model p r e d i c t i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l and i n d u s t r i a l attainment i s o u t s i d e the bounds of t h i s study. 3. C o n t r i b u t i o n of I n d i v i d u a l V a r i a b l e s to the Earnings Gap To c l e a r l y understand the a d d i t i o n a l channels through which d i f f e r e n c e s i n earnings a r i s e , i t i s u s e f u l to examine each of the v a r i a b l e s c o n s i d e r e d i n the a n a l y s i s . The c o n t r i b u t i o n of each v a r i a b l e to the o v e r a l l earnings d i f f e r e n t i a l of $10,007 i s presented i n Table 21. The c o n t r i b u t i o n of each v a r i a b l e i s presented f o r both endowment d i f f e r e n c e s and d i f f e r e n c e s a s s i g n e d to the c o e f f i c i e n t s ' component r e f l e c t i n g pay d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , measurement e r r o r , and the e f f e c t of explanatory v a r i a b l e s not i n c l u d e d i n the e q uation. A p o s i t i v e s i g n f o r the entry i n column one i n d i c a t e s an advantage f o r males in endowments, and thus c o n t r i b u t e s to the f a c t o r s i n c r e a s i n g the earnings gap. A negative s i g n f o r the entry r e p r e s e n t s areas where women have a comparative advantage, and c o n t r i b u t e s to a r e d u c t i o n in the earnings gap. Table 21. C o n t r i b u t i o n of Each V a r i a b l e to the Earnings Gap Due to Due to Due to both F u l l Equations Endowments Wage , D i s c r i m i n a t i o n R e s i d u a l V a r i a b l e Names bm(Xm-Xf) (bm-bf)Xf (bmXm-bfXf) Constant 0. ,00 -8101 . 90 -8101. 90 Education -509. ,33 1519. 81 1010. 49 Experience 535. ,69 2304. 1 6 2839. 85 ( S i n g l e ) -630. ,86 -1349. 38 -718. 52 Ma r r i e d 782. ,72 2902. 20 3684. 92 Other -215. ,64 130. 67 -84. 97 (Rural) -256. ,45 -398. 27 -654. 72 Urban < 30,000 18. ,25 -66. 09 -47. 84 Pop 30,000 - 99,999 14. ,27 199. 04 213. 31 Pop 100,000 - 499,999 -3. .37 61 . 20 57. 83 Pop > 500,000 -146. ,82 265. 44 118. 62 ( A t l a n t i c ) -82. ,25 -1654. 00 -1736. 25 Quebec -6. ,80 28. 58 21 . 78 On t a r i o -38, .73 287. 75 249. 02 P r a i r i e s 25. .31 350. 08 375. 40 B r i t i s h Columbia 17. .94 209. 40 227. 34 Average Hours Worked 243. .81 -1120. 23 -876. 43 ( P u b l i c ) 28. .83 -631 . 22 -661 . 06 P r i v a t e -28. .83 1 601 . 79 1572. 95 (Two C h i l d r e n ) 371 . 43 934. 84 1306. 27 No C h i l d r e n 323. , 58 -1970. 48 -1646. 90 One C h i l d 46. .50 -525. 65 -479. 15 Three or More -0. .15 1 1 . 53 1 1 . 38 Occupat i o n ^ ^ 2207, , 1 1 2921 . 86 5128. 97 Industry 756. .29 4976. 30 5732. 59 T o t a l 4021 . 81 5985. 45 10007. 26 Percentage 40.2% 59.8% 100.0% 105 Source: C a l c u l a t e d from the r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s (b's) and the mean values of the explanatory v a r i a b l e s presented i n Table 22. ( i ) T h i s r e p r e s e n t s pay d i s c r i m i n a t i o n as w e l l as the e f f e c t of unmeasured p r o d u c t i v i t y - r e l a t e d f a c t o r s , and i n a c c u r a t e measurement f o r f a c t o r s i n c l u d e d i n the a n a l y s i s . ( i i ) The f i r s t column f o r the Occupation and Industry c a t e g o r i e s r e p r e s e n t s the impact of the mean d i s t r i b u t i o n of men and women acro s s high and low-paying o c c u p a t i o n a l and i n d u s t r i a l c a t e g o r i e s . The second column, l a b e l l e d "Due to Wage D i s c r i m i n a t i o n R e s i d u a l " , r e p r e s e n t s the d i f f e r e n c e between male and female r e t u r n s to moving from a lower paying o c c u p a t i o n a l category to the next higher paying category. The f i r s t column of Table 21 i n d i c a t e s that the main source of f a v o r a b l e male endowments of p r o d u c t i v i t y - r e l a t e d f a c t o r s are d e r i v e d from the gre a t e r number of hours worked, more fa v o r a b l e o c c u p a t i o n a l and i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s , g r e a t e r experience, number of c h i l d r e n , and t h e i r married m a r i t a l s t a t u s . Women possessed more f a v o r a b l e endowments i n l e v e l of educa t i o n , from l o c a t i n g i n l a r g e urban areas as compared to s m a l l e r urban areas, and i n the p u b l i c s e c t o r of work. The e f f e c t of these v a r i a b l e s for women was small compared to the gains made by men i n the endowments of occupation, i n d u s t r y and hours worked. Column two i n d i c a t e s that wage d i s c r i m i n a t i o n operates through g r e a t e r r e t u r n s f o r men i n every category except i n p u b l i c s e c t o r work, no c h i l d r e n and one c h i l d , and hours worked where the rate of r e t u r n per hours worked i s g r e a t e r f o r women than men. As noted above, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to i s o l a t e the components due to pure d i s c r i m i n a t i o n given the q u a l i t y of the 1 06 data. For example, the lower r e t u r n s f o r women from t h e i r measured experience and the i n f l u e n c e of m a r i t a l s t a t u s may be due to the type of education obtained by men and women, or the fr e e choice of married women to c o n t r i b u t e more time and energy to f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . Table 23 pr o v i d e s the same in f o r m a t i o n as Table 22, but the e f f e c t of o c c u p a t i o n a l and i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n has not been i n c l u d e d i n the a n a l y s i s . E f f e c t i v e l y , by e x c l u d i n g these two v a r i a b l e s , t h e i r e f f e c t s have been t r a n s f e r r e d to the column r e p r e s e n t i n g d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . Beyond i n c r e a s i n g the t o t a l percent of the wage d i f f e r e n t i a l a t t r i b u t e d to d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , and the e f f e c t s of other unmeasured f a c t o r s , t h i s t r a n s f e r d i d not change the p a t t e r n of endowment and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n e f f e c t s . Table 22. Earnings Equations f o r Males and Females, F u l l - r e g r e s s i o n Equation ( i ) Unstandardized Regression C o e f f i c i e n t s ( i i i ) Values f o r Females V a r i a b l e Name , . . N Mean X. Coef. b . ( l V ^ Mean X m ( 1 1 ) f f m Values f o r Males Coef. b, m Constant 1.00 Education 4.96 Experience 18.64 (S i n g l e ) M a r r i e d 0.65 Other 0.11 (Rural) Urban < 30,000 0.20 Pop 30,000 - 99,999 0.16 Pop 100,000 - 499,999 0.11 Pop > 500,000 0.34 ( A t l a n t i c ) Quebec 0.16 O n t a r i o 0.25 P r a i r i e s 0.31 B r i t i s h Columbia 0.09 Average Hours Worked 2021.63 ( P u b l i c ) Pr i v a t e (Two C h i l d r e n ) No C h i l d r e n One C h i l d Three or More 0.72 0.59 0.20 0.05 10316.01 1218.21 80 . 7 1 1 1 32.78 1983.22 1464.54 2338.19 2821.96 2807. 12 792.71 1108.43 1171.70 1360.94 -3034.98 365.55 453.78 -242.83 1 .00 4.62 21 .26 0.79 0.04 0.22 0.17 0.11 0.30 0.15 0.23 0.32 0.10 1.82 2214.67 0.75 0.48 0.18 0.11 18417.91 1524.93 204.31 5590.85 3171.11 1140.56 3566.85 3368.36 3581.00 971.35 2278.14 2301.00 3588.56 1 .26 -800.97 •2968.59 •2214.51 -2.61 Occupation 22942.26 0.36 27428.00 0.49 Industry 24813. 1 4 0.32 26279.88 0.52 108 Source: Computed from data from the Micro Data f i l e of the 1986 Survey of Consumer Finances: I n d i v i d u a l s age 15 and over, with and without income, 1985. Notes: ( i ) The sample s^ze i s 2753 f o r women and 4450 f o r men. The c a l c u l a t e d R i s 0.31 f o r women and 0.30 f o r men f o r the f u l l - r e g r e s s i o n equation, and 0.24 f o r women and 0.22 f o r men i n the p a r t i a l r e g r e s s i o n equation. ( i i ) The r e f e r e n c e group f o r the dummy or i n d i c a t o r v a r i a b l e s i s i n d i c a t e d i n parentheses. ( i i i ) The Beta values and the values f o r the F s t a t i s t i c are presented i n Table 25. (i v ) The r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t (b) can be i n t e r p r e t e d as the change in earnings that r e s u l t from a u n i t of change i n the explanatory v a r i a b l e h o l d i n g the other v a r i a b l e s i n the equation c o n s t a n t . For c a t e g o r i c and i n d i c a t o r v a r i a b l e s , b re p r e s e n t s the approximate percentage change i n earnings that r e s u l t from a u n i t change in the c a t e g o r i c or i n d i c a t o r v a r i a b l e . Table 23. Earnings Equations f o r Males and Females, P a r t i a l - r e g r e s s i o n Equation ( i ) 109 Unstandardized Regression C o e f f i c i e n t s Values f o r Females Values f o r Males V a r i a b l e Name ,...Mean X. Coef. b . ( l 1 1 ^ Mean X Coef. b U i ) r r m m Constant 1.00 2902.56 1.00 6951.81 Education 4.96 1720.28 4.62 1961.01 Experience 18.64 91.99 21.26 233.19 ( S i n g l e ) M a r r i e d 0.65 1356.23 0.79 6925.43 Other 0.11 2105.98 0.04 4575.62 (Rural) Urban < 30,000 0.20 1613.51 0.22 1581.71 Pop 30,000 - 99,999 0.16 2687.07 0.17 3644.95 Pop 100,000 - 499,999 0.11 3278.32 0.11 3536.41 Pop > 500,000 0.34 3336.37 0.30 3467.46 ( A t l a n t i c ) Quebec 0.16 707.48 0.15 1173.67 O n t a r i o 0.25 1381.23 0.23 2801.78 P r a i r i e s 0.31 1126.37 0.32 2840.21 B r i t i s h Columbia 0.09 1402.01 0.10 4081.02 Average Hours Worked 2021.63 2.27 2214.67 0.92 ( P u b l i c ) P r i v a t e 0.72 -4585.14 0.75 -2622.33 (Two C h i l d r e n ) No C h i l d r e n One C h i l d Three or More 0.59 250.97 0.20 544.61 0.05 -451.73 0.48 -3591.24 0.18 -2691.91 0.11 -156.53 1 10 4. Regression R e s u l t s The separate r e g r e s s i o n equations f o r men and women are presented i n Table 22. Table 22 c o n t a i n s the values f o r the r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s (b), while Table 24 c o n t a i n s the values f o r the F - s t a t i s t i c s , and the s t a n d a r d i z e d r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s that i n d i c a t e the change i n earnings of the dependent v a r i a b l e f o r a u n i t change i n the independent v a r i a b l e s . From the r e s u l t s of the r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s presented i n Tables 22, 24, and 25, i t i s p o s s i b l e to examine the key f a c t o r s that c o n t r i b u t e to earnings, and i d e n t i f y how they d i f f e r between men and women. Table 22 pr o v i d e s the means and r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r the f u l l equation; Table 24 p r o v i d e s mean percentage change i n earnings from a u n i t change i n the explanatory v a r i a b l e s , and Table 25 pr o v i d e s the s t a n d a r d i z e d r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s and values f o r the F - s t a t i s t i c s . a. Education The r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r the education v a r i a b l e r e v e a l t h at women can expect a 6.41% i n c r e a s e i n earnings while men can expect a 5.26% i n c r e a s e i n earnings from a u n i t change in education l e v e l . Although women can expect a higher percentage change i n earnings, shown i n Table 22 as a l a r g e r value f o r the b c o e f f i c i e n t , the earnings of men in c r e a s e by $1,524 while the 111 earnings of women in c r e a s e by $1,218. T h i s i s due to the f a c t t h a t women begin with lower average ear n i n g s . An examination of the Beta v a l u e s i n Table 25 r e v e a l s , f o r the best f i t t i n g r e g r e s s i o n equations f o r men and women, that education i s the second most important v a r i a b l e i n p r e d i c t i n g the earnings of both men and women, j u s t behind o c c u p a t i o n . b. Experience The d i f f e r e n c e s i n re t u r n s f o r experience are s m a l l . Women can expect a 0.42% in c r e a s e i n earnings from a year of a d d i t i o n a l experience, while men can expect a 0.70% i n c r e a s e . In d o l l a r terms, men can expect earnings to inc r e a s e by $204 f o r a u n i t change i n experience, while women can expect a $80 i n c r e a s e , h o l d i n g the other v a r i a b l e s i n the equation c o n s t a n t . A f t e r e ducation, and occupation, experience i s the most important determinant of ea r n i n g s . I t needs to be noted that t h i s v a r i a b l e i s a measure of p o t e n t i a l experience, and may not a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t the a c t u a l labour f o r c e experience of men and women. Women have h i s t o r i c a l l y had a weaker labour f o r c e attachment, t h e r e f o r e , t h i s v a r i a b l e most l i k e l y overestimates the labour f o r c e experience of women. 1 1 2 c. Cohort Adjusted Estimates of Experience The use of p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s to modify the experience v a r i a b l e f o r s p e c i f i c age cohorts produces a more r e a l i s t i c estimate of labour f o r c e experience. A complete set of t a b l e s for t h i s a d d i t i o n a l r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s i s pr o v i d e d i n Appendix N. The average years of experience f o r women using t h i s method i s reduced from 18.6 to 11.1, while the e f f e c t on the estimate of male experience i s l e s s dramatic, d e c r e a s i n g from 21.3 to 18.7 years. The impact of the cohort a d j u s t e d estimate of experience on the estimate of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n was s i g n i f i c a n t . The estimate of the wage d i s c r i m i n a t i o n r e s i d u a l decreased from 59.8 to 55.7% of the earnings gap. T h i s produced an a d j u s t e d earnings r a t i o of 0.81, l e a v i n g 19 percentage p o i n t s of the earnings gap a t t r i b u t a b l e to d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , r a t h e r than the 21 percentage p o i n t s i n the non-cohort a d j u s t e d a n a l y s i s . The examination of the c o n t r i b u t i o n of each v a r i a b l e to the e x p l a n a t i o n of the earnings gap, (see Table 4A i n Appendix N), r e v e a l s t h at the cohort a d j u s t e d estimate of experience decreased the o v e r a l l importance of experience i n the e x p l a n a t i o n of the earnings gap. The p o r t i o n of the earnings gap due to endowment d i f f e r e n c e s i n c r e a s e d to $2,175.92 from $535.69, while the p o r t i o n due to the wage d i s c r i m i n a t i o n r e s i d u a l decreased from $2,304.16 to $227.61. T h i s s h i f t i s a l s o r e f l e c t e d i n Table 10A in Appendix N. T h i s t a b l e , which shows the impact of a d j u s t i n g for d i f f e r e n c e s endowments and f o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n the 1 13 d i s c r i m i n a t i o n component on the earnings r a t i o , r e v e a l s that endowments are a s i g n i f i c a n t l y more important component of the earnings gap than the d i s c r i m i n a t i o n component. A d j u s t i n g f o r the experience endowment of women would r a i s e the earnings r a t i o from 0.66 to 0.73, while a d j u s t i n g f o r the d i s c r i m i n a t i o n component would not r a i s e the earnings r a t i o from 0.66. With the exception of the estimated e f f e c t of i n d u s t r i a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l s e g r e g a t i o n , the cohort a d j u s t e d estimate of labour f o r c e experience d i d not s i g n i f i c a n t l y change the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the other e x p l a n a t o r y v a r i a b l e s to the earnings of men and women. The use of the cohort a d j u s t e d experience v a r i a b l e r e s u l t e d i n a re d u c t i o n i n the p r o p o r t i o n of the earnings gap that c o u l d be a t t r i b u t a b l e to o c c u p a t i o n a l and i n d u s t r i a l s e g r e g a t i o n . Instead of reducing the earnings of women by 30%, the e f f e c t of o c c u p a t i o n a l and i n d u s t r i a l s e g r e g a t i o n was reduced to only 16%. T h i s a d d i t i o n a l a n a l y s i s shows the importance of the q u a l i t y of a v a i l a b l e data. The r e - d e f i n i t i o n of the experience v a r i a b l e s h i f t e d the e x p l a n a t i o n of the lower earnings of women from d i s c r i m i n a t i o n to t h e i r reduced l e v e l of labour f o r c e experience. d. M a r i t a l S tatus The c o e f f i c i e n t f o r m a r i t a l s t a t u s i n d i c a t e s that women who are married can expect a 5.96% in c r e a s e ($1,132.78) over s i n g l e women, while men can expect an i n c r e a s e of 19.;27% or a $5,590.85 over s i n g l e males. Being separated, widowed or d i v o r c e d had the 1 1 4 oppo s i t e impact on the wages of men compared to women. There i s an expected i n c r e a s e i n the earnings of women who are separated, d i v o r c e d or widowed of 10.44%. Women who are i n t h i s category earn more than women i n the married category, r e l a t i v e to being s i n g l e . For men, the i n d i c a t i o n s are the o p p o s i t e . Separated, d i v o r c e d or widowed men earn l e s s than married men r e l a t i v e to being s i n g l e . Being separated, widowed or d i v o r c e d a c t u a l l y r e s u l t s i n a i n c r e a s e i n expected earnings f o r women, while men can expect to experience a small d e c l i n e i n ea r n i n g s . T h i s perhaps r e f l e c t s a s h i f t i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of domestic r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s from women to men, where women are b e t t e r able or r e q u i r e d to i n c r e a s e t h e i r earnings i n the labour market, and where men must devote more energy to t h e i r own domestic t a s k s . Examining the Beta values r e v e a l s that being married, as compared to being s i n g l e , i s an important determinant f o r earnings f o r men, but not f o r women. e. Urban Area and Region The earnings of men and women i n c r e a s e d with the s i z e of the urban area. While men r e c e i v e d g r e a t e r r e t u r n s than women i n a l l urban s i z e c a t e g o r i e s , f o r women being l o c a t e d i n l a r g e urban areas had a g r e a t e r e f f e c t on t h e i r earnings than i t d i d f o r male ea r n i n g s . The i n d i c a t o r v a r i a b l e s f o r the f i v e i d e n t i f i e d r e g i o n s of Canada show that men and women both r e c e i v e d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of r e t u r n s i n the v a r i o u s r e g i o n s , with the highest r e t u r n s i n B r i t i s h Columbia compared to the r e f e r e n c e category of A t l a n t i c Canada. In a l l r e g i o n s , men r e c e i v e g r e a t e r r e t u r n s than women. f. Average Hours Worked Per Year Th i s a n a l y s i s c o n s i d e r s only i n d i v i d u a l s who were f u l l - t i m e , f u l l - y e a r workers. Thus, the s e l e c t i o n of the sample c o n t r o l l e d f o r the number of hours worked per year by e f f e c t i v e l y e l i m i n a t i n g any s i z a b l e d i f f e r e n c e i n hours worked per year that would have been r e v e a l e d through the i n c l u s i o n of par t - t i m e and part- y e a r workers. The r e s u l t i s th a t average hours worked per year i s not an important v a r i a b l e i n the a n a l y s i s of the earnings d i f f e r e n t i a l between men and women f o r t h i s t h e s i s . g. Sector of Work The v a r i a b l e that i n d i c a t e s the se c t o r of work ( p r i v a t e s e c t o r or p u b l i c s e c t o r ) produced some i n t e r e s t i n g r e s u l t s . Both men and women can expect earnings to in c r e a s e by moving from p r i v a t e s e c t o r to p u b l i c s e c t o r work. The r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e s that women and men earn 15.97 and 2.76%, r e s p e c t i v e l y , l e s s in the p r i v a t e s e c t o r than i n the p u b l i c s e c t o r . F u r t h e r , women can expect a l a r g e r r e d u c t i o n i n earnings than men by being i n the p r i v a t e s e c t o r . Working i n the p u b l i c s e c t o r i s an important f a c t o r i n the earnings of women, as r e v e a l e d by a 1 1 6 r e l a t i v e l y high beta value of 0.14. Women, on average, can expect a $3,034.98 i n c r e a s e i n earnings by moving from the p r i v a t e s e c t o r to the p u b l i c s e c t o r . The advantage f o r men i s s u b s t a n t i a l l y smaller at $800.97. The r e l a t i v e advantage f o r women by working i n the p u b l i c s e c t o r i s supported by the unadjusted earnings r a t i o s of 0.72 f o r p u b l i c s e c t o r workers and 0.63 f o r p r i v a t e s e c t o r workers. Table 24. Mean Percentage Change i n Earnings from a Un i t Change i n the Independent V a r i a b l e ^ ; F u l l Regression Equation Women Men V a r i a b l e Name Constant -54.29% -63.49% Education 6.41% 5.26% Experience 0.42% 0.70% (Si n g l e ) M a r r i e d 5.96% 19.27% Other 10.44% 10.93% (Rural) Urban < 30,000 7.71% 3.93% Pop 30,000 - 99,999 12.30% 12.30% Pop 100,000 - 499,999 14.85% 11.61% E x t r a Pop 100,000 - 499,999 14.77% 12.34% ( A t l a n t i c ) Quebec O n t a r i o P r a i r i e s B r i t i s h Columbia Average Hours Worked ( P u b l i c ) P r i v a t e 4.17% 5.83% 6.17% 7.16% 3.35% 7.85% 7.93% 12.37% 0.01% 0.005 15.97% -2.76% (Two C h i l d r e n ) No C h i l d r e n One C h i l d Three or More Occupation Industry 1 .92% 2.39% •1 .28% 0.0019% 0.0017% •10.23% -7.63% -0.01% 0.0017% 0.0018% Notes: ( i ) From the r e g r e s s i o n equation Y = a + bX ... bX., thus when the mean value s f o r each independent v a r i a b l e are s u b s t i t u t e d i n t o the equation, the mean percentage change i n income from a u n i t change i n the independent v a r i a b l e i s c a l c u l a t e d by (bX/Y)*l00. Where b i s the r e g r e s s i o n 118 c o e f f i c i e n t , X i s the mean f o r each independent v a r i a b l e , and Y i s a c t u a l mean e a r n i n g s . Table 25. F - S t a t i s t i c s ^ i ^  and St a n d a r d i z e d R e g r e s s i o n ^ ^ Values F u l l Regression Equations Women V a r i a b l e Name Men Beta F - S t a t . Beta F - S t a t . Constant 35.65 Education 0.27 Experience 0.10 (S i n g l e ) M a r r i e d 0.05 Other 0.06 (Rural) Urban < 30,000 0.06 Pop 30,000 - 99,999 0.09 Pop 100,000 - 499,999 0.09 Pop > 500,000 0.13 ( A t l a n t i c ) Quebec 0.03 On t a r i o 0.05 P r a i r i e s 0.05 B r i t i s h Columbia 0.04 Average Hours Worked 0.06 ( P u b l i c ) P r i v a t e -0.14 (Two C h i l d r e n ) No C h i l d r e n 0..02 One C h i l d 0.02 Three or More -0.01 Occupation 0.23 Industry 0.14 0.00** 92.59 188.29** 0.25 31.01** 0.19 6.47* 9.70** 8.01** 17.85** 19.51** 31.14** 1 .86 4.18* 5.60* 4.16* 0.58 0.72 0.09 164.65** 59.60** 0.1 6 0.04 0.03 0.09 0.07 0.11 0.02 0.07 0.07 0.07 13.03** 0.03 58.69** -0.02 0.10 0.06 0.00 0.20 0.16 0.00** 269.39** 141.80 79.20** 9.52** 4.12* 34.36** 22.17** 40.60** 2.17 13.76** 1 7 . 1 8 * * 23.91** 6.94** 3.09 31.82** 14.92** 0.00 188.82** 137.43** 1 19 ( i ) ** i n d i c a t e s a s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l of .01 and * i n d i c a t e s a l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e of .05. ( i i ) When v a r i a b l e s d i f f e r s u b s t a n t i a l l y i n u n i t s of measurement, the s i z e of the b c o e f f i c i e n t s does not r e v e a l anything about the r e l a t i v e importance of the v a r i a b l e . To make r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s more comparable Beta weights are c a l c u l a t e d f o r each of the independent v a r i a b l e s . The Beta val u e s are expressed i n a s t a n d a r d i z e d form. The values of the Beta c o e f f i c i e n t s are contingent on the other independent v a r i a b l e s i n the equation. They are a l s o a f f e c t e d by the c o r r e l a t i o n s of the independent v a r i a b l e s and do not a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t the s t r e n g t h of the v a r i o u s independent v a r i a b l e s ( N o r u s i s , 1985). 120 Table 26. R a t i o of Female-to-Male Ea r n i n g s , Adjusted f o r D i f f e r e n c e s i n Endowments, f o r D i f f e r e n c e s i n the C o e f f i c i e n t s Component, and f o r d i f f e r e n c e due to Both F u l l Regression Equation Unadjusted Earnings R a t i o 0.66 Endowment C o e f f i c i e n t Both V a r i a b l e Constant 0.66 0.38 0.38 Education 0.64 0.71 0.69 Experience 0.67 0.73 0.75 ( S i n g l e ) M a r r i e d 0.68 0.76 0.78 Other 0.65 0.66 0.65 (Rural) Urban < 30,000 0.66 0.65 0.65 Pop 30,000 - 99,999 0.66 0.66 0.66 Pop 100,000 - 499,999 0.65 0.66 0.66 Pop > 500,000 0.65 0.66 0.66 ( A t l a n t i c ) Quebec 0.65 0.66 0.66 O n t a r i o 0.65 0.66 0.66 P r a i r i e s 0.66 0.67 0.67 B r i t i s h Columbia 0.66 0.66 0.66 Average Hours Worked 0.66 0.62 0.62 ( P u b l i c ) Pr i v a t e 0.65 0.71 0.71 (Two C h i l d r e n ) No C h i l d r e n 0.67 0.59 0.60 One C h i l d 0.66 0.64 0.64 Three or More 0.66 0.66 0.66 Occupation 0.73 0.76 0.83 Industry 0.68 0.83 0.85 121 Note: The r a t i o s f o r each v a r i a b l e f o r the Endowment component, the C o e f f i c i e n t s component, and the component due to both were c a l c u l a t e d as f o l l o w s : Endowment Component = (b (X - X.) + sumfbrX.))/sum(b X ); r m m r t r mm C o e f f i c i e n t s Component = ((b - b J X , + sum ( b r X r))/sum(bX ); c m r r r t mm Due to Both = ((b X„ - + sum(b-X-))/sum(B X ); mm i f r r mm Where b = the r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t ; X = the mean value of each v a r i a b l e ; and the s u b s c r i p t s m and f represent the v a l u e s f o r men and women, r e s p e c t i v e l y . 1 22 IV SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PUBLIC POLICY Th i s s e c t i o n w i l l summarize the r e s u l t s from the data a n a l y s i s . F u r t h e r , the r e s u l t s w i l l be r e l a t e d to the v a r i o u s t h e o r e t i c a l viewpoints, and i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r p u b l i c p o l i c y w i l l be d i s c u s s e d . The c a l c u l a t i o n s of separate earnings equations f o r men and women, f o r the s e l e c t e d sample, produced an unadjusted earnings r a t i o of 0.66. A f t e r adjustments were made f o r the ten p r o d u c t i v i t y and p r o d u c t i v i t y - r e l a t e d f a c t o r s c o n s i d e r e d i n the a n a l y s i s , i n c l u d i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l and i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s , the r a t i o i n c r e a s e d t o 0.79. T h i s l e f t an earnings gap of $5,985 (1985 d o l l a r s ) that c o u l d not be assigned to any of the measured v a r i a b l e s . The a n a l y s i s of a r e d e f i n e d experience v a r i a b l e i n d i c a t e s that d i f f e r e n t r e t u r n s to experience may not be a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r in the lower earnings of women. The lower l e v e l s of experience for women from t h i s a d d i t i o n a l a n a l y s i s c l e a r l y shows the impact of lower l e v e l s of t h i s endowment on ear n i n g s . While p a r t of the unexplained r e s i d u a l may be exp l a i n e d by v a r i a b l e s not i n c l u d e d i n the a n a l y s i s , or by more c a r e f u l measurement of e x i s t i n g v a r i a b l e s , i t seems l i k e l y that the earnings of women are reduced by at l e a s t 20%, which i s a t t r i b u t a b l e to "an amalgam of d i f f e r e n t forms of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n which, taken together, disadvantage women r e l a t i v e to men", (Denton and Hunter, 1982). D i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s d e f i n e d as d i f f e r e n t r e t u r n s i n earnings f o r equal p r o d u c t i v i t y 123 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , as given by the r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s . Of the t o t a l e arnings gap of 34 percent, approximately 60% of t h i s i s a t t r i b u t a b l e to wage d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , and approximately 40% i s due to d i f f e r e n c e s i n p r o d u c t i v i t y - r e l a t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (the ten explanatory v a r i a b l e s ) . The l e v e l of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s the r e s i d u a l l e f t a f t e r a d j u s t i n g f o r the v a r i o u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The problem with t h i s approach, as d i s c u s s e d i n the methodological s e c t i o n , i s that i t assumes that the wage s t r u c t u r e s of men and women would be equal in the absence of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . F u r t h e r , i t assumes that the value of the v a r i a b l e s c o n s i d e r e d are not, in themselves, due to d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . Some may i n t e r p r e t a l l d i f f e r e n t i a l s between the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of men and women as being due to d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . From t h i s view, a l l of the unadjusted earnings r a t i o i s due to wage and employment d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a g a i n s t women. Thus, how much of the wage d i f f e r e n t i a l t h a t i s due to d i s c r i m i n a t i o n depends upon one's d e f i n i t i o n , and the r e c o g n i t i o n that a comprehensive d e f i n i t i o n of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n c l u d e s the e f f e c t s of f a c t o r s that can not be measured (Holmes, 1976). P u b l i c p o l i c y from the viewpoint that a l l of the wage d i f f e r e n t i a l can be accounted f o r through w o r k - p r o d u c t i v i t y f a c t o r s i s very l i m i t e d . T h i s viewpoint assumes that any d i f f e r e n c e s between men and women are the r e s u l t of " f r e e c h o i c e " , and that women compete with men on an even p l a y i n g f i e l d . T h i s approach sees the unexplained wage gap as an o v e r e s t i m a t i o n of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , that can be e x p l a i n e d by d i f f e r e n c e s i n the q u a l i t y of ed u c a t i o n , job t r a i n i n g , and 124 other p r o d u c t i v i t y d i f f e r e n c e s that are not e a s i l y measured or observed ( L l o y d , 1979) T h i s l i m i t s i n t e r v e n t i o n to s p e c i f i c cases of overt d i s c r i m i n a t i o n on the p a r t of a p a r t i c u l a r employer or o r g a n i z a t i o n . However, given the range of s t u d i e s that have attempted to account f o r the earnings d i f f e r e n t i a l , and the v a r i e t y of f a c t o r s c o n s i d e r e d , i t i s u n l i k e l y that a l l of the gap c o u l d be accounted f o r . I t can be argued that many of the f a c t o r s used to adj u s t the earnings gap, such as past experience, occupation and education, are i n themselves due to i n d i r e c t and past d i r e c t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . Thus, the ad j u s t e d earnings gap becomes the lower l i m i t of the t o t a l e f f e c t of systemic d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a g a i n s t women. T h i s viewpoint allows f o r a broader range of i n t e r v e n t i o n i n the labour f o r c e , and i n a l l the r e l a t e d components of the system to attempt to achieve a g r e a t e r degree of e q u a l i t y between men and women. A. C o n t r i b u t i o n of each Factor to P u b l i c P o l i c y Each of the f a c t o r s c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s a n a l y s i s had an impact on the earnings d i f f e r e n t i a l , and each i s able to pro v i d e support f o r s o c i a l p o l i c i e s that may improve the earnings of women i n the Canadian labour f o r c e . 1 25 1. Education The examination of the earnings r a t i o s f o r d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of education i n s e c t i o n 3. A. showed a c l e a r p a t t e r n of i n c r e a s i n g values f o r the earnings r a t i o s with i n c r e a s e d e d u c a t i o n . Women who o b t a i n higher l e v e l s of education can expect a r e d u c t i o n i n the o v e r a l l earnings gap. On average, women have higher l e v e l s of education than men. Men, however, r e c e i v e g r e a t e r r e t u r n s from i n c r e a s e d education than do women, although the d i f f e r e n c e i n re t u r n s i s l e s s between men and women with higher l e v e l s of education. T h i s i s demonstrated i n Table 26 which shows that e q u a l i z i n g the education l e v e l s of women to those of men would i n c r e a s e the earnings gap by 2.0 percentage p o i n t s , while e q u a l i z i n g the r e t u r n s f o r education would decrease the gap by 7.0 percentage p o i n t s , h o l d i n g other f a c t o r s c onstant. These r e s u l t s are c o n s i s t e n t with those of O r n s t e i n (1983), who concluded that d i f f e r e n c e s i n education l e v e l s d i d very l i t t l e to e x p l a i n the earnings gap, although men r e c e i v e d greater r e t u r n s from education than women. T h i s suggests that women can b e n e f i t from higher l e v e l s of educat i o n , but that i t i s not the low ed u c a t i o n l e v e l of women, but the grea t e r r e t u r n s r e c e i v e d by men f o r the same l e v e l s of education that i s the source of the earnings gap. 2. Experience Comparison of mean earnings f o r experience show that the wages of both men and women r i s e with i n c r e a s i n g experience. That men make g r e a t e r gains from a d d i t i o n a l experience i s shown in both the l a r g e r r a t e of r e t u r n f o r a d d i t i o n a l experience f o r men from the r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s , and i n the decrease i n the value of the earnings r a t i o , from 0.85 for men and women with zero to four years of experience, to 0.60 f o r t h i r t y or more years of expe r i e n c e . However, the a d d i t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n of experience using age cohort s and p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s to a d j u s t the estimate of labour f o r c e experience produced counter r e s u l t s . Women s t i l l earn l e s s f o r the same l e v e l of experience, but the e f f e c t i s small and the reduced l e v e l of experience for women i s more important i n the e x p l a n a t i o n of the earnings gap. A study by Devereaux and Rec h n i t z e r (1980) rep o r t e d that women who had completed u n i v e r s i t y and had four years of continuous labour f o r c e attachment earned 70% of men with s i m i l a r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and experience. However, when compared to a s i m i l a r group with f i v e to nine years of labour f o r c e experience, women were earning j u s t 61% of average male s a l a r i e s . T h i s suggests that the gap i n c r e a s e s with g r e a t e r l e v e l s of experience. T h i s f i n d i n g i s c o n s i s t e n t with the arguments of the "dual labour market" and " i n t e r n a l labour market" t h e o r i s t s who suggest that the placement of women i n jobs o u t s i d e promotional l a d d e r s , or i n secondary labour markets, r e s u l t s i n lower 127 earnings f o r women. The p o s i t i o n of women i n the labour f o r c e c o u l d be improved by both i n c r e a s e d l e v e l s of experience, and by more equal rewards f o r that experience. Programs that attempt to pla c e women i n jobs with g r e a t e r chances f o r promotion, and p o l i c i e s that a l t e r the employers' promotion p r a c t i c e s c o u l d improve women's earnings ( O r n s t e i n , 1983). 3. M a r i t a l S tatus M a r i t a l s t a t u s and the f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s that are c o r r e l a t e d with m a r i t a l s t a t u s are o f t e n presented as the most important f a c t o r i n e x p l a i n i n g the lower earnings of women. I t i s a debate that cannot be e f f e c t i v e l y r e s o l v e d . C l e a r l y , m a r i t a l s t a t u s does a f f e c t the earnings of men and women through the d i v i s i o n of labour w i t h i n the f a m i l y , but i t i s not the s o l e or dominant f a c t o r i n the lower earnings of women. The unadjusted earnings r a t i o i s lowest (.62) f o r married women, and high e s t f o r never-married women (.86). The c o e f f i c i e n t s from the r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s demonstrate that men do r e c e i v e g r e a t e r r e t u r n s than women from marriage, but marriage s t i l l has a p o s i t i v e , though s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower, impact on the earnings of women. However, as a p r e d i c t o r of women's ear n i n g s , m a r i t a l s t a t u s does not s i g n i f i c a n t l y account f o r women's ear n i n g s , nor does the i n c l u s i o n of m a r i t a l s t a t u s i n the c a l c u l a t i o n of ad j u s t e d earnings r a t i o s i g n i f i c a n t l y a l t e r the value of the ad j u s t e d 128 r a t i o (Denton and Hunter, 1982). F u r t h e r , the grea t e r r e t u r n s i n earnings f o r married women over s i n g l e women i s not c o n s i s t e n t with the hypothesis that a woman's m a r i t a l s t a t u s accounts f o r her lower e a r n i n g s . However, the evidence does suggest that the earnings of s i n g l e women are c l o s e r to the earnings of s i n g l e men, because of the op e r a t i o n of a marriage market, and not the labour market (Madden, 1985). The op e r a t i o n of a marriage market r e s u l t s i n a p o p u l a t i o n of s i n g l e men and women who possess s u b s t a n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . For example, i f women with good labour market p r o s p e c t s are not as eager to marry as other women, the op e r a t i o n of a marriage market w i l l r e s u l t i n b e t t e r p a i d women remaining s i n g l e longer, and thus reduce the s i z e of the earnings gap between s i n g l e men and women (Madden, 1985). To the extent that m a r i t a l s t a t u s e n t a i l s a d d i t i o n a l f a m i l y and c h i l d - c a r e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , the p o s i t i o n of women in the labour f o r c e can be improved through the p r o v i s i o n of adequate and a f f o r d a b l e day care, and through more equal d i v i s i o n of household r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s w i t h i n households. While some women can f i n d economic support through marriage, government p o l i c i e s a f f e c t i n g the labour f o r c e should not be p r e d i c a t e d upon the assumption that t h i s i s the means to economic w e l l - b e i n g f o r women. Government can improve day care f a c i l i t i e s , but i t i s u n c e r t a i n that government has a r o l e i n e q u a l i z i n g the household r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s between men and women. To the extent that m a r i t a l s t a t u s i s used as a quick means of a s s e s s i n g the labour 129 f o r c e attachment of women by employers, accurate i n f o r m a t i o n on the committment to work, the r i g h t to work, and the economic n e c e s s i t y of work f o r s i n g l e , married and separated, d i v o r c e d or widowed women would h e l p remove t h i s source of earnings d i f f e r e n t i a l s . 4. Urban S i z e and Region The r e l a t i o n s h i p between urban s i z e and region i n d i c a t e that the r a t i o of women's to men's earnings remains r e l a t i v e l y the same, with the exce p t i o n of l a r g e urban areas which show more f a v o r a b l e earnings r a t i o s . The r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s do r e v e a l gender d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , to the extent that men r e c e i v e g r e a t e r r e t u r n s than women i n a l l c a t e g o r i e s of urban s i z e and r e g i o n . The more f a v o r a b l e earnings r a t i o s i n l a r g e urban areas lends support to the pr o p o s a l that women i n these labour markets are l e s s exposed to the e f f e c t s of monopsony, and perhaps thus have g r e a t e r access to more sources of employment. 5. Sector of Work Women working i n the p r i v a t e s e c t o r experience g r e a t e r earnings d i f f e r e n t i a l than women working i n the p u b l i c s e c t o r . The r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s i n d i c a t e that women would experience g r e a t e r r e t u r n s by moving i n t o the p u b l i c s e c t o r than men. Women experience g r e a t e r l o s s e s by moving from the p u b l i c s e c t o r to the 130 p r i v a t e s e c t o r than do men. These f i n d i n g s are supported by a more d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s conducted by Denton and Hunter (1982) using data from the 1973 Monthly Labour Force Survey. They found that the unexplained earnings gap was l a r g e r i n the co m p e t i t i v e p r i v a t e s e c t o r and smaller i n the p u b l i c s e c t o r . These r e s u l t s counter the n e o c l a s s i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n s which p r e d i c t lower l e v e l s of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a g a i n s t women i n the p r i v a t e s e c t o r due the e f f e c t s of co m p e t i t i v e market f o r c e s . There are no adequate t h e o r e t i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r t h i s f i n d i n g . C l e a r l y , i t i s counter to the ba s i c c o n c l u s i o n s of the n e o c l a s s i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n s . Other approaches that can be con s i d e r e d are the Ma r x i s t and Dual Labour Market t h e o r i e s . From the M a r x i s t p e r s p e c t i v e , i t i s not c l e a r why gender wage d i s c r i m i n a t i o n should be l e s s i n the p u b l i c s e c t o r , s i n c e i t i s assumed that the p u b l i c s e c t o r , or s t a t e , a c t s i n the long term i n t e r e s t of the r u l i n g c l a s s (Denton and Hunter, 1982). Less d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n the p u b l i c s e c t o r does not f u r t h e r the i n t e r e s t of the r u l i n g c l a s s , r e l a t i v e to t h e i r aim of pr e v e n t i n g the development of a c l a s s consciousness which may act a g a i n s t that c l a s s , as i t c r e a t e s a precedent which i s not in the i n t e r e s t of the r u l i n g c l a s s (Denton and Hunter, 1982).- Dual Labour Market theory, which e x p l a i n s the lower earnings of women as the r e s u l t of the d i v i s i o n of jobs i n t o two s e c t o r s , jobs with high pay, good working c o n d i t i o n s , and o p p o r t u n i t y f o r c a r e e r advancement, and jobs that are low p a i d with no chances for advancement f a i l s to e x p l a i n the b e t t e r p o s i t i o n of women i n the p u b l i c s e c t o r . 131 With the f a i l u r e of e s t a b l i s h e d t h e o r i e s to e x p l a i n the i n t e r -s e c t o r a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n the earnings of men and women, the only remaining recourse i s to s p e c u l a t e . The g r e a t e r c o m p e t i t i v e demands i n the p r i v a t e s e c t o r may r e s u l t i n gr e a t e r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a g a i n s t women i n the d r i v e to i n c r e a s e short term p r o f i t s . F u r t h e r , the p u b l i c s e c t o r may have more e q u i t a b l e , and more s t r u c t u r e d pay r a t e s , h i r i n g p r a c t i c e s and promotion p o l i c i e s . T h i s would be more l i k e l y to occur i n the framework of a l a r g e b u r e a u c r a t i c system, as opposed to the more f r a c t u r e d and d i v e r s e environment of the p r i v a t e s e c t o r . 6. Number of C h i l d r e n The r e s u l t s from the a n a l y s i s of the number of c h i l d r e n are somewhat concurrent with the a n a l y s i s of m a r i t a l s t a t u s . The earnings gap i s lowest between men and women with no c h i l d r e n , and i n c r e a s e s i n s i z e as the number of c h i l d r e n i n c r e a s e . Again, having c h i l d r e n does have a negative impact on the earnings of women, judging from the r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s , but the earnings of men improve with i n c r e a s e s i n the number of c h i l d r e n . Undoubtedly, the d i v i s i o n of f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s w i t h i n the household, which women u s u a l l y assume more of than men, a f f e c t s the labour market p o s i t i o n of women, but the l i n k to o c c u p a t i o n a l s e g r e g a t i o n and lower earnings i s l e s s c e r t a i n . The v e r s i o n of the human c a p i t a l theory put forward by Polachek, (1976, 1978, 1979), suggests that women choose c e r t a i n 1 32 occupations that they b e l i e v e to be compatible with r a i s i n g c h i l d r e n . Thus, the earnings of women may be lower due to the e f f e c t s of women " v o l u n t a r i l y " s e l e c t i n g c e r t a i n jobs that they b e l i e v e have work c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t are compatible with f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . Conversely, i t can be argued that women may choose to have fewer or no c h i l d r e n so as to be more compatible with the demands of p a i d employment. Women may not wish to enter jobs that r e q u i r e frequent overtime work, extended absences from home, that do not provide f o r p a r t - t i m e employment, and jobs that i n v o l v e l o n g - d i s t a n c e moves (Boulet, 1984) because of f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . The l a c k of a f f o r d a b l e adequate c h i l d - c a r e may r e q u i r e women to l i m i t t h e i r employment p r o s p e c t s . T h i s may be e s p e c i a l l y t r u e f o r women c a r i n g f o r younger c h i l d r e n ; but the presence of c h i l d r e n may pro v i d e a stronger m o t i v a t i o n , and the economic n e c e s s i t y , f o r women to f i n d work with good wages i n order to pr o v i d e f o r her f a m i l y . "With good wages, a women i s b e t t e r able to obt a i n s a t i s f a c t o r y c h i l d - c a r e arrangements f o r her c h i l d r e n . " (Armstrong and Armstrong, 1975) Again, improved day care, and the more equal d i v i s i o n of household r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s c o u l d improve the p o s i t i o n of women i n the labour f o r c e ; but more d e t a i l e d r e s e a r c h i s needed i n t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p between f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and the p o s i t i o n of men and women i n the work f o r c e . The t r a d i t i o n a l d i v i s i o n of labour w i t h i n the household may be the best s i t u a t i o n f o r the fa m i l y , but i s may not be the best s i t u a t i o n f o r the women, who must pay the long-term c o s t s of lower earnings, lower pensions, 133 and poorer employment prospects i n the event of marriage breakdown. At best, the r e s u l t s from t h i s e m p i r i c a l study, and the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the d i f f e r e n t t h e o r e t i c a l frameworks pro v i d e i n c o n c l u s i v e evidence of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the number of c h i l d r e n and the r e l a t i v e earnings of men and women. 7. Occup a t i o n a l and I n d u s t r i a l Segregation O c c u p a t i o n a l and i n d u s t r i a l segregation c l e a r l y account f o r a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of the earnings gap. E q u a l i z i n g the o c c u p a t i o n a l and i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of men and women, while c o n t r o l l i n g f o r the other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c o n s i d e r e d , would r e s u l t i n an earnings r a t i o of 0.79. Occupat i o n a l and i n d u s t r i a l s e g r e g a t i o n account f o r approximately 30% of the o v e r a l l e a r n i n g s d i f f e r e n t i a l . I t i s not p o s s i b l e , i n t h i s study, to i s o l a t e what p r o p o r t i o n of t h i s i s due to unequal employment o p p o r t u n i t y . J u s t as d i f f e r e n c e s i n experience e x p l a i n part of the earnings gap, part of the d i f f e r e n c e s i n o c c u p a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n may be due to d i f f e r e n c e s i n experience, and other f a c t o r s that are r e l a t e d to o c c u p a t i o n a l attainment. S t u d i e s by Brown, Moon, and Z o l i t h (1980), and Buchele (1981), using wide o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s , attempt to account f o r the d i f f e r e n t o c c u p a t i o n a l attainment p a t t e r n s of men and women. They f i n d , that while o c c u p a t i o n a l s e g r e g a t i o n i s p e r v a s i v e , i t does not e x p l a i n why women earn l e s s than men. Another s i m i l a r U.S. study by A l d r i c h (1986), using 192 1 34 occupations, concluded "that male/female d i f f e r e n c e s i n o c c u p a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n account f o r something l i k e 15 percent of the male/female wage gap." Thus, by f u r t h e r a ccounting f o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n the determinants of o c c u p a t i o n a l attainment, o c c u p a t i o n a l s e g r e g a t i o n becomes a l e s s important, but s t i l l a s i g n i f i c a n t e x p l a n a t i o n of the earnings gap. The desegregation of occupations seems to be a s u f f i c i e n t means to reduce the earnings gap, but i t may not, i n i t s e l f , be enough to s o l v e the problem. B. P o l i c y Conclusions Employment i s the primary means by which income i s d i s t r i b u t e d , (Freeman, 1980), and thus r e p r e s e n t s the most e f f e c t i v e means to ensure the long-term economic w e l l - b e i n g of i n d i v i d u a l s i n our s o c i e t y . The e q u a l i z a t i o n of access to the labour f o r c e , and the r e t u r n s from labour f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s l i k e l y the most e f f e c t i v e avenue f o r government p o l i c y . Government i n t e r v e n t i o n i n the a l l o c a t i o n of household r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , or i n the promotion of m a r i t a l s t a b i l i t y , i s u n l i k e l y to b e n e f i t the economic p o s i t i o n of women. F u r t h e r , i t i s not c l e a r whether there i s a r o l e f o r government to p l a y i n these a r e a s . Government can in c r e a s e welfare expenditures to a l t e r the d i s t r i b u t i o n of income, but t h i s i s a c o s t l y s o l u t i o n , and i s u n l i k e l y to have any long-term b e n e f i t f o r the p o s i t i o n of women. 1 35 Given the number of d i f f e r e n t mechanisms that c o n t r i b u t e to the earnings gap, h i g h l i g h t e d i n the r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s and the many t h e o r e t i c a l viewpoints, the implementation of a broad range of p o l i c i e s i s necessary to e f f e c t i v e l y improve women's s t a t u s . C l e a r l y , the problem of the lower earnings of women i n the labour f o r c e i s not a simple matter to address. The complex i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between the household d i v i s i o n of labour, i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and the f u n c t i o n i n g of the labour market make the formation of e f f e c t i v e p o l i c y d i f f i c u l t . Equal pay laws have not sol v e d the problem of the lower labour f o r c e p o s i t i o n of women. They are an important component of equal treatment, but cannot, in the face of o c c u p a t i o n a l s e g r e g a t i o n , e f f e c t i v e l y address the i n e q u a l i t y between the sexes who work i n sex-segregated jobs, where men and women are not performing s u b s t a n t i a l l y s i m i l a r work (Remick, 1980). In some cases, i t does provide a remedy f o r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , but i t should not be taken as the s o l u t i o n to a problem that r e q u i r e s a d d i t i o n a l programs to decrease wage d i f f e r e n t i a l s ( O r n s t e i n , 1982), and to address the wider e q u i t y , s o c i a l and economic welf a r e o b j e c t i v e s . The a n a l y s i s of the employment data has r e l i e d upon the use of a p r o p o r t i o n a l model of e q u a l i t y . A p r o p o r t i o n a l model assumes that e q u a l i t y has been reached when women are represented in a l l c a t e g o r i e s of occupations with equal pay and equal working c o n d i t i o n s p r o p o r t i o n a l to t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the labour f o r c e ( E i c h i e r , 1984). T h i s i s a u s e f u l approach to fo l l o w f o r the purpose of comparative a n a l y s i s . I t p r o v i d e s a c l e a r 1 36 g u i d e l i n e by which to d e s c r i b e e x i s t i n g i n e q u a l i t y , and provides a measure of the gap between p e r f e c t e q u a l i t y and present i n e q u a l i t y ( E i c h i e r , 1984). N e v e r t h e l e s s , f o r the purpose of deve l o p i n g s o c i a l p o l i c y , such an approach i s not s a t i s f a c t o r y . T r a n s l a t i n g the goal of p r o p o r t i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n t o a c t i o n would i n v o l v e the s t r i c t r e g u l a t i o n of o c c u p a t i o n a l l i c e n c i n g , c o n t r o l of wages, and the placement of workers. The equal o p p o r t u n i t y model i s another approach to e q u a l i t y in employment. E q u a l i t y under t h i s approach i s s a i d to e x i s t when men and women have equal o p p o r t u n i t y to enter s i m i l a r kinds of employment provided they possess s i m i l a r a t t r i b u t e s ( E i c h i e r , 1984). T h i s i s the type of e q u a l i t y p r o v i d e d f o r i n Canada under present human r i g h t s and equal employment l e g i s l a t i o n . T h i s l e g i s l a t i o n , while necessary to achieve e q u a l i t y , has not been s u f f i c i e n t to a l t e r any of the s o c i a l i n d i c a t o r s of employment i n e q u a l i t y . The major problem with t h i s model i s that men and women do not have the same a t t r i b u t e s . Men and women d i f f e r i n education, age, experience, f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , and a b i l i t i e s . E q u a l i t y of op p o r t u n i t y does not d i r e c t l y address any of the is s u e s that c o n t r i b u t e to d i f f e r e n c e s i n employment and re t u r n s from employment. I t ignores many of the u n d e r l y i n g b a r r i e r s that disadvantage women in the labour market. Women who are p r i m a r i l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c h i l d - c a r e , who f o l l o w d i f f e r e n t e d u c a t i o n a l paths, and who are encouraged to enter occupations with l i t t l e chance f o r advancement, w i l l not c a t c h up with men, and can not 137 gain access to s i t u a t i o n s that present them with equal o p p o r t u n i t i e s . What i s r e q u i r e d i s a g r e a t e r e q u a l i t y of o p p o r t u n i t y . E q u a l i t y t h at means t r e a t i n g people the same d e s p i t e t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s , or means t r e a t i n g people as equals by accommodating t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s ( A b e l l a , 1984). T h i s type of e q u a l i t y , while not ensuring the u n r e a l i s t i c goal of equal r e s u l t s , can b r i n g more e q u a l i t y i n t o labour f o r c e outcomes. I t attempts to c o r r e c t the e f f e c t s of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , that may not simply be the r e s u l t of the overt a c t i o n s of bia s e d employers, but occur as systemic d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , and are the unintended r e s u l t of the o p e r a t i o n of our s o c i a l and economic systems. P o l i c y p r o p o s a l s from t h i s p o s i t i o n i n v o l v e both equal access to jobs, and p o l i c i e s that a l t e r the work environment, a l t e r the s t r u c t u r e of domestic r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , and a l t e r the employment r e l a t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of women. Based on the a n a l y s i s of the inf o r m a t i o n presented i n t h i s t h e s i s , with the r e a l i z a t i o n of the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n v o l v e d i n se p a r a t i n g the e f f e c t s of " f r e e c h o i c e " from d i s c r i m i n a t i o n w i t h i n and o u t s i d e the labour f o r c e , the need f o r a d d i t i o n a l r e s e a r c h , and the need f o r the development of s o c i a l p o l i c y to occur i n a context with other p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l and economic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , the f o l l o w i n g recommendations are proposed: 1) Education i s o f t e n c i t e d as an important v a r i a b l e i n the lower economic standing of women. In t h i s a n a l y s i s , women possessed higher l e v e l s of education than men, but s t i l l d i d not r e c e i v e equal r e t u r n s from that education, although, women with higher l e v e l s of education d i d f a r e b e t t e r than t h e i r lower-educated counter p a r t s . Since there i s l i t t l e 1 38 a v a i l a b l e i n the way of a s s i s t a n c e , e s p e c i a l l y f o r women with c h i l d r e n , women should be supported f i n a n c i a l l y to encourage them to a c q u i r e higher l e v e l s of edu c a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y education that i s r e l e v a n t to the job market. 2) The lower labour f o r c e experience of women i s an important component i n t h e i r lower e a r n i n g s . Lower l e v e l s of labour f o r c e experience can be a t t r i b u t e d to the unequal d i v i s i o n of housework between couples and the woman's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c h i l d - c a r e . To reduce the impact of domestic r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s on some women's labour f o r c e experience, f a m i l y r o l e s can be a l t e r e d by encouraging men to share more e q u i t a b l y i n household t a s k s . T h i s can be done i n the same manner as the education campaigns that have a l t e r e d the smoking, d i e t , and e x e r c i s e h a b i t s of Canadians. Working c o n d i t i o n s can be r e s t r u c t u r e d to encourage p a r t -time work and s h o r t e r work weeks. By making these changes a p r a c t i c a l a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r both men and women, part-time work and sho r t e r work weeks can be viewed as p r a c t i c a l a l t e r n a t i v e s r a t h e r than an i n d i c a t i o n of a lack of labour f o r c e commitment (C a l z a v a r a , 1985). A d d i t i o n a l support f o r c h i l d - c a r e in terms of more f a c i l i t i e s and s u b s i d i z e d cost would i n c r e a s e the a b i l i t y of women to p a r t i c i p a t e f u l l y i n the labour f o r c e . For s i n g l e women, and female-headed f a m i l i e s the s o l u t i o n s to approach improving t h e i r economic s t a t u s cannot l i e i n shared domestic r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . These women i n our s o c i e t y need higher welfare r a t e s , more s o c i a l housing, grants f o r c o n t i n u i n g education at the high s c h o o l , c o l l e g e and u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l , and employment placement programs cou l d a l l improve the economic p o s i t i o n of t h i s growing segment of the p o p u l a t i o n . 4) F e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n governing a s s i s t a n c e programs need to be up-dated to r e f l e c t the changes that have occu r r e d i n the f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e of our s o c i e t y . Programs i n e x i s t e n c e that r e f l e c t and r e i n f o r c e t r a d i t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s and b e l i e f s about f a m i l i e s have a negative impact on the a b i l i t y of women to f u l l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n the labour f o r c e ; as w e l l they reduce the a b i l i t y of men to pursue n o n t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s . For example, f e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n r e g a r d i n g unemployment insurance b e n e f i t s f o r maternity leave have d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t new f a t h e r s , so mothers were a u t o m a t i c a l l y the partner who took leave from work, which i n turn reduces t h e i r work experience and any b e n e f i t s that are d e r i v e d from a continuous work p a t t e r n . T h i s l e g i s l a t i o n was m o d i f i e d s l i g h t l y two months age when Benout Bouchard s a i d i n some i n s t a n c e s , new f a t h e r s can have the unemployment insurance i n s t e a d . T h i s l e g i s l a t i o n should be 139 made e q u a l l y a p p l i c a b l e to e i t h e r p a r t n e r , and a l l l e g i s l a t i o n r e l a t i n g to f a m i l y a s s i s t a n c e programs should be a p p l i c a b l e to e i t h e r sex. 5) The s u p e r i o r p o s i t i o n of women i n the p u b l i c s e c t o r suggests that some of the r e g u l a t i o n s and employment g u i d e l i n e s that apply to the p u b l i c s e c t o r need to be extended to the p r i v a t e s e c t o r . Simply seeking employment in the p u b l i c s e c t o r i s not a v i a b l e o p t i o n f o r women given the recent trend to downsizing i n the p u b l i c s e c t o r . 6) O c c u p a t i o n a l and i n d u s t r i a l segregation have been shown to account f o r about 30% of the earnings gap. Further s t u d i e s have shown that i f the endowments of men and women are c o n s i d e r e d , some of which may be due to the e f f e c t s of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , o c c u p a t i o n a l and i n d u s t r i a l s e g r e g a t i o n would account f o r about 15 - 20% of the earnings gap. While t h i s i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower than some r e s e a r c h e r s have r e p o r t e d , i t c o n s t i t u t e s an important source of the earnings d i f f e r e n t i a l . O c c u p a t i o n a l desegregation may be a s u f f i c i e n t means to s u b s t a n t i a l l y reduce the earnings gap, but i t i s not necessary f o r both sexes to have i d e n t i c a l o c c u p a t i o n a l p a t t e r n s (Boulet, 1984). Women should be encouraged to enter occupations where the wages and working c o n d i t i o n s are expected to improve i n the coming years, r e g a r d l e s s of the r e l a t i v e numbers of men and women (Boulet, 1984). However, the p o s i t i o n of women w i l l not n e c e s s a r i l y improve, through t h i s process, without a d d r e s s i n g the d i f f e r e n t r e t u r n s to education and experience between men and women. As was documented i n t h i s t h e s i s , wage d i s c r i m i n a t i o n reduces the earnings of women by at l e a s t 20 percent i n comparison to men. The r e s t r i c t i v e nature of the equal pay l e g i s l a t i o n , given that i t only a p p l i e s to men and women working i n the same establishment doing the same or s i m i l a r work, and given that women and men are o c c u p a t i o n a l l y -segregated and do not do s i m i l a r work, has r e s u l t e d i n i t ' s l i m i t e d impact. However, the expansion and g r e a t e r enforcement of equal pay l e g i s l a t i o n may only r e s u l t i n gre a t e r o c c u p a t i o n a l s e g r e g a t i o n , and reduced employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r women, as employers attempt to h i r e only women f o r c e r t a i n o ccupations t o ensure that the law w i l l not apply to t h e i r e s t a b l i s h m e n t . The implementation of an a f f i r m a t i v e a c t i o n program, which seeks to e l i m i n a t e p r a c t i c e s i n r e c r u i t i n g , h i r i n g , promotion, e t c . which may be d i s c r i m i n a t o r y , and implement programs to remove i n e q u a l i t i e s i n s a l a r i e s , r a t e s of promotion and o c c u p a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n s , combined with equal pay l e g i s l a t i o n would overcome the drawbacks of equal pay l e g i s l a t i o n . 1 40 Neith e r of these l e g i s l a t i v e approaches h e l p women who remain i n t r a d i t i o n a l l y female occupations. Some form of equal pay f o r work of equal value would h e l p overcome t h i s remaining i n e q u a l i t y ( C a l z a v a r a , 1985). At present, equal pay f o r work of equal value laws have been implemented at the F e d e r a l l e v e l and i n Quebec and O n t a r i o . It i s important to note, that while i t i s easy to make recommendations to in c r e a s e spending f o r education, c h i l d - c a r e s e r v i c e s and other a f f i r m a t i v e a c t i o n programs, the value of each a d d i t i o n a l program needs to be assessed. Money spent on s p e c i f i c programs has an o p p o r t u n i t y cost that must be c o n s i d e r e d . C. Problems With Approach The major problem with attempting to i s o l a t e the p r o p o r t i o n of the earnings gap that i s p o t e n t i a l l y due to d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s the d i f f i c u l t y i n i s o l a t i n g the component of the earnings d i f f e r e n t i a l that i s a t t r i b u t a b l e to d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . T h i s i s the r e s u l t of not being able to measure d i s c r i m i n a t i o n d i r e c t l y , but only as a r e s i d u a l a f t e r the e f f e c t s of the v a r i a b l e s which are thought to i n f l u e n c e earnings have been accounted f o r . F u r t h e r , i t i s impossible to separate the e f f e c t s of past d i s c r i m i n a t i o n from the present s i t u a t i o n of women. A l s o , i t i s d i f f i c u l t to separate the e f f e c t s of m o t i v a t i o n or v o l u n t a r y behaviour from the s t a t i s t i c a l f i n d i n g s . For example, does the f a c t that married men have higher earnings than married women r e f l e c t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n the labour f o r c e , or higher l e v e l s of mo t i v a t i o n induced by f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , and the d e s i r e by 141 some women to c o n t r i b u t e to fa m i l y earnings through domestic work? From a p o l i c y p e r s p e c t i v e , the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the sources of the earnings d i f f e r e n t i a l are important, s i n c e they suggest p o t e n t i a l areas f o r the implementation of p o l i c i e s (Gunderson, 1980) designed to address d i f f e r e n c e s in the earnings of men and women. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , because of the complex nature of the subje c t matter, i t i s not e n t i r e l y p o s s i b l e to separate the e f f e c t s of " f r e e c h o i c e " from d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y i f there i s feedback from the presence of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n the labour market to the c h o i c e s women make. For example, i f women have lower e x p e c t a t i o n s of reaching top l e v e l jobs, due to the f a c t that women i n the past have been barred from such p o s i t i o n s , then t h e i r " c h o i c e " not to pursue such jobs i s , i n p a r t , due to past d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . Thus, i t i s not p o s s i b l e to a t t r i b u t e the source of labour market d i f f e r e n t i a l s to e i t h e r " f r e e c h o i c e " or to d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , because the observed outcomes of sex d i f f e r e n c e s are c o n s i s t e n t with e i t h e r cause (Madden, 1985). I t i s a l s o not p o s s i b l e to separate the feedback e f f e c t s of past and present d i s c r i m i n a t i o n from what may seem l i k e an i n d i v i d u a l ' s " f r e e c h o i c e " and the e f f e c t s of that d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , as a l l c h o i c e s are based upon e x p e c t a t i o n s and the l i m i t a t i o n of the s o c i a l and economic environment. Even with these l i m i t a t i o n s , p u b l i c funded programs aimed at a l t e r i n g the p o s i t i o n of women through e d u c a t i o n a l and a d v e r t i s i n g programs, improved c h i l d - c a r e f a c i l i t i e s , and a s s i s t a n c e programs that seek to ensure the w e l l -142 being of the i n d i v i d u a l , as opposed to the present programs which focus on the fa m i l y as the u n i t of a s s i s t a n c e , w i l l h e l p change s o c i e t y and improve the r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n of women whether the problem i s s o - c a l l e d " f r e e c h o i c e " or d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . F u r t h e r , the approach assumes that wages are determined by the assessment of the endowments and c a p a b i l i t i e s of the job hol d e r , but the value of the job or p o s i t i o n i s a l s o an important component of determining wages. Thus the a t t r i b u t e s of the i n d i v i d u a l and the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the job must be co n s i d e r e d in the assessment of earnings d i f f e r e n t i a l s . T h i s was p a r t i a l l y attempted i n the a n a l y s i s of the impact of o c c u p a t i o n a l and i n d u s t r i a l s e g r e g a t i o n , but c o n s i d e r a b l e work remains to be done in a s s e s s i n g the f a c t o r s that are i n v o l v e d i n producing o c c u p a t i o n a l and i n d u s t r i a l s e g r e g a t i o n , and the extent that d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r d i f f e r e n t o c c u p a t i o n a l and i n d u s t r i a l p a t t e r n s . i n r e l a t i o n to the e m p i r i c a l e s t i m a t i o n of the earnings gap there are many problems that remain to be s o l v e d . The most s e r i o u s i s the lack of accurate data on a c t u a l work experience. For those men and women who have p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the labour f o r c e c o n t i n u o u s l y s i n c e completing t h e i r education, the estimate of p o t e n t i a l experience (age minus years of s c h o o l i n g minus s i x ) i s a good estimate of a c t u a l work experience. However, f o r women i n ge n e r a l , t h i s estimate not as ac c u r a t e because t h e i r work experience i s not u s u a l l y continuous. Studies by Robb (1978), S a w h i l l (1973), and others have attempted to c o n t r o l f o r the lack 143 of data on years of experience by s e l e c t i n g groups of men and women that are assumed to have s i m i l a r l e v e l s of expe r i e n c e . For example, never married men and women 35 to 45 years of age. Th i s approach a l s o has d i f f i c u l t i e s as i t s e l e c t s a s p e c i f i c group of people, and produces r e s u l t s that cannot be g e n e r a l l y a p p l i e d to a wider p o p u l a t i o n . D. Areas f o r Further Research Much r e s e a r c h remains to be conducted at the s c a l e of i n d i v i d u a l f i r m s . Researchers who can gain access to d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n on i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n a f i r m can develop a more d e t a i l e d understanding of the e f f e c t of i n t e r n a l p o l i c i e s governing wages, promotions, and employee h i r i n g and placement. F u r t h e r , i t would be p o s s i b l e , through a survey of employees, to determine whether d i s c r i m i n a t i o n o c c u r r e d through the f i r m or by l i m i t a t i o n s imposed on i n d i v i d u a l s by press u r e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o u t s i d e the labour f o r c e . The Employment E q u i t y Act of 1986 may provide many o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t h i s type of res e a r c h . The' Act seeks to ensure that a l l f e d e r a l l y r e g u l a t e d employers, and Crown c o r p o r a t i o n s with 100 employees or more: implement employment e q u i t y , i d e n t i f y and e l i m i n a t e employment b a r r i e r s , achieve a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e work f o r c e , and re p o r t on t h e i r r e s u l t s . The e f f e c t of o c c u p a t i o n a l s e g r e g a t i o n on women's earnings was only examined at a secondary l e v e l . O c c u p a t i o n a l s e g r e g a t i o n , i f o c c u p a t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s are very d e t a i l e d , can e x p l a i n most of the earnings gap, but one has not answered the q u e s t i o n of why the earnings of women are p e r s i s t e n t l y lower than those of men, only s h i f t e d the focus from earnings d i f f e r e n t i a l s to the d i s t r i b u t i o n of women acro s s o c c u p a t i o n s . There are s i g n i f i c a n t unanswered q u e s t i o n s of why women are con c e n t r a t e d i n a few occ u p a t i o n s . To what extent are women choosing these occupations, being a s s i g n e d to them by employers and employment p o l i c i e s of i n s t i t u t i o n s , or being d i r e c t e d to them by e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s at the high school or post -secondary l e v e l ? The development of government p o l i c y , c o n t r o l l i n g the op e r a t i o n of a l l of s o c i e t y ' s i n s t i t u t i o n s , n e c e s s a r i l y takes p l a c e i n the context of e x i s t i n g p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l and economic c o n d i t i o n s . The i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s statement are that as the p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l and economic context of s o c i e t y changes, the e x i s t i n g laws governing our s o c i a l welfare programs, the labour market, and the f a m i l y become outdated and p o s s i b l y i n e q u i t a b l e f o r many groups i n s o c i e t y . The r a p i d growth of the female labour f o r c e r e q u i r e s that we qu e s t i o n the bases upon which e x i s t i n g s o c i a l p o l i c i e s have been developed, and examine the impact of these p o l i c i e s on men, women and f a m i l i e s . There i s always a need to re-examine the impact of e x i s t i n g laws, r e g u l a t i o n s and programs i n l i g h t of s i g n i f i c a n t s o c i a l change. The major c o n f l i c t i n Canadian s o c i a l p o l i c i e s l i e s i n the dichotomy between our b e l i e f i n i n d i v i d u a l e q u a l i t y and eq u i t y , 145 and our use of the fa m i l y u n i t as a b a s i s f o r l e g i s l a t i o n ranging from income a s s i s t a n c e , to t a x a t i o n , to r e s i d e n t i a l zoning. E. C o n c l u s i o n The review of the d i f f e r i n g t h e o r i e s of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , and the e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h conducted i n t h i s t h e s i s and i n other s t u d i e s shows the d i f f i c u l t y of attempting to e x p l a i n and q u a n t i f y the d i s c r i m i n a t i o n that we i n t u i t i v e l y f e e l and see around us. The e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h has shown that i n c r e a s e d education, work experience, and o c c u p a t i o n a l and i n d u s t r i a l d e segregation, w i l l improve the earnings of women, but w i l l not e l i m i n a t e the earnings gap, because even when women have the same endowments as men, women do not r e c e i v e the same r a t e of r e t u r n , earnings, f o r the same l e v e l of q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . Regardless of the debate over how much of the earnings gap i s due to d i s c r i m i n a t i o n or to " f r e e c h o i c e " , there remains a strong case f o r i n t e r v e n t i o n to improve the earnings of women. The magnitude and p e r s i s t e n c e of the earnings gap a f t e r a d j u s t i n g for sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n a wide v a r i e t y of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , i n c l u d i n g some that may represent d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , such as o c c u p a t i o n a l and i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s , makes i t impossible to dis m i s s the e x i s t e n c e of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n the labour market, and ou t s i d e the labour market i n the d i v i s i o n of domestic r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , or the a p p l i c a t i o n of government programs. From a systemic view of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , the e f f e c t of a l l explanatory v a r i a b l e s becomes important f o r the development of p o l i c y , but the implementation of e f f e c t i v e p o l i c y to address t h i s problem i s r e s t r a i n e d by the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n v o l v e d i n c o n c l u s i v e l y i d e n t i f y i n g the sources of the earnings gap. A p p e n d i x A: R e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e 1951, 1961, and 1981 O c c u p a t i o n a l D a t a Women have been and c o n t i n u e t o be o c c u p a t i o n a l s e g r e g a t e d . As employment e a r n i n g s , hou rs worked and j o b o p p o r t u n i t i e s a r e r e l a t e d t o o c c u p a t i o n a l s e g r e g a t i o n i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o i n c l u d e t h e a n a l y s i s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l f a c t o r s o v e r t i m e . The a n a l y s i s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l s e g r e g a t i o n o v e r t i m e i s i m p a i r e d by changes i n o c c u p a t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o v e r t i m e . F o r t h e C a n a d i a n c e n s u s , t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s were n e c e s s a r i l y changed f o r each c e n s u s . To e n a b l e t h e a n a l y s i s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s o v e r t i m e t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l codes f o r t h e 1951, 1961 and 1971 c e n s u s p e r i o d s were r e c l a s s i f i e d t o t h e 1931 c o d e s . Census o c c u p a t i o n a l d a t a changed between e a c h c e n s u s p e r i o d . I t i s not p o s s i b l e t o a s s e s s t h e a c c u r a c y t o t h e r e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , however , an e x p l a n a t i o n o f what was done c a n be p r o v i d e d . Each o c c u p a t i o n a l t i t l e f rom t h e 1951, 1961 and 1971 c e n s u s p e r i o d s was a s s i g n e d t o one o f t h e 1981 o c c u p a t i o n a l t i t l e s . A b r i d g e was c o n s t r u c t e d between t h e 1981 c e n s u s p e r i o d and e a c h c e n s u s y e a r , (1951 , 1961, and 1971) . The b r i d g e f o r 1971 was c o n s t r u c t e d by Census Canada. The g r e a t e s t d i f f i c u l t y i n b r i d g i n g 1951 and 1961 o c c u p a t i o n a l codes t o t h e 1981 c l a s s i f i c a t i o n stems f rom t h e e x p a n s i o n o f o c c u p a t i ona1 g r o u p i n g s . The v a l i d i t y o f d e t a i l e d c o m p a r i s o n s between t h e v a r i o u s c e n s u s p e r i o d s i s v e r y s u s p e c t . The c r e a t i o n o f new and expanded o c c u p a t i o n a l c o d e s , and t h e s h i f t i n g o f o c c u p a t i o n s f rom one c a t e g o r y t o a n o t h e r a r e d i f f i c u l t t o a c c o u n t f o r . F o r e x a m p l e , i n t h e 1951 c e n s u s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n " L a b o u r e r s (not a g r i c u l t u r a l , f i s h i n g , l o g g i n g , o r m i n i n g ) " a c c o u n t e d f o r 6.6% o f t h e t o t a l l a b o u r f o r c e . In 1981, t h e r e was no s e p a r a t e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f l a b o u r e r s . The 1951 c a t e g o r y was d i s t r i b u t e d among t h e d i f f e r e n t o c c u p a t i o n a l c o d e s f o r a p a r t i c u l a r t y p e o f l a b o u r e r . For t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e b r i d g e , t h i s c a t e g o r y was a s s i g n e d t o a r e s i d u a l c a t e g o r y o f " O t h e r " . The f o l l o w i n g f o u r t a b l e s p r o v i d e d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e r e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e 1951, 1961, and 1971 o c c u p a t i o n a l c o d e s t o t h e 1981 o c c u p a t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . 147 A p p e n d i x B: 1981 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n S t r u c t u r e . O c c u p a t i o n a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and S t a t i s t i c s Canada O c c u p a t i o n a l Codes . 1981 O c c u p a t i o n a l T i t l e s 1981 Codes I. GOODS 1. E x t r a c t i v e a . F a r m i n g , H o r t i c u l t u r a l and An ima l Husbandry O c c u p a t i o n s 71 b. F i s h i n g , T r a p p i n g , and R e l a t e d O c c u p a t i o n s 73 c . F o r e s t r y and L o g g i n g O c c u p a t i o n s 75 d . M i n i n g and Q u a r r y i n g I n c l u d i n g O i l and Gas F i e l d 77 Occupat i ons E x t r a c t i v e t o t a l 2 . C o n s t r u c t i o n T r a d e s O c c u p a t i o n s 87 3 . M a n u f a c t u r i ng a . P r o c e s s i n g O c c u p a t i o n s 8 1 , 82 b. M a c h i n i n g 83 c . P r o d u c t F a b r i c a t i o n 85 minus M e c h a n i c s and R e p a i r e r s (858) d . S t a t i o n a r y E n g i n e and U t i 1 i t i e s Equipment O p e r a t i n g and 953 R e l a t e d O c c u p a t i o n s M a n u f a c t u r i n g t o t a l GOODS TOTAL I I . SERVICES 1. D i s t r i b u t i v e a . C l e r i c a l and R e l a t e d O c c u p a t i o n s 41 b. S a l e s (1 ) S a l e s O c c u p a t i o n s , Commodi t ies 513 , 514 (2 ) S a l e s O c c u p a t i o n s , S e r v i c e s 517 (3) S a l e s O c c u p a t i o n s , Other 519 S a l e s t o t a l c . T r a n s p o r t Equipment O p e r a t i n g O c c u p a t i o n s 91 d . M a t e r i a l H a n d l i n g and R e l a t e d O c c u p a t i o n s 93 e . E l e c t r o n i c and R e l a t e d Communicat ions Equipment 955 Operat i ng Occupat i ons f . M e c h a n i c s and R e p a i r e r s (858) g . P r i n t i n g and R e l a t e d O c c u p a t i o n s 951 D i s t r i b u t i v e t o t a l 2 . Consumer a . A r t i s t i c , L i t e r a r y , R e c r e a t i o n a l and R e l a t e d O c c u p a t i o n 33 b. Food and B e v e r a g e P r e p a r a t i o n and R e l a t e d S e r v i c e 612 148 Occupat i ons c . O c c u p a t i o n s i n L o d g i n g and Other Accommodation 613 d . P e r s o n a l S e r v i c e O c c u p a t i o n s 614 e . A p p a r e l and F u r n i s h i n g s S e r v i c e O c c u p a t i o n s 616 f . O t h e r S e r v i c e O c c u p a t i o n s 619 Consumer t o t a l 3 . Advanced a . O t h e r Managers and A d m i n i s t r a t o r s 113/114 minus A d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n T e a c h i n g and R e l a t e d O c c u p a t i o n s (1133) minus A d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n M e d i c i n e and H e a l t h (1134) b. N a t u r a l S c i e n c e s (1 ) O c c u p a t i o n s i n P h y s i c a l S c i e n c e s 211 (2 ) O c c u p a t i o n s i n L i f e S c i e n c e s 213 (3 ) A r c h i t e c t s , E n g i n e e r s and Community P l a n n e r s 214 /215 (4 ) O t h e r O c c u p a t i o n s In A r c h i t e c t u r e and E n g i n e e r i n g 216 (5 ) O c c u p a t i o n s i n M a t h e m a t i c s , S t a t i s t i c s , Systems 218 A n a l y s i s and R e l a t e d F i e l d s N a t u r a l S c i e n c e s t o t a l c . Soc i a1 S c i e n c e s (1 ) O c c u p a t i o n s i n S o c i a l S c i e n c e s 231 (2 ) O c c u p a t i o n s i n Law and J u r i s p r u d e n c e 234 S o c i a l S c i e n c e s t o t a l d . O c c u p a t i o n s R e l a t e d t o Management and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 117 Advanced t o t a l 4 . N o n - P r o f i t a . O f f i c i a l s and A d m i n i s t r a t o r s Un ique t o Government 111 b . E d u c a t i o n (1 ) U n i v e r s i t y T e a c h i n g and R e l a t e d O c c u p a t i o n s 271 (2 ) E l e m e n t a r y and Secondary S c h o o l T e a c h i n g and R e l a t e d 273 Occupat i ons (3) A d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n T e a c h i n g and R e l a t e d F i e l d s 1133 (4) O t h e r T e a c h i n g and R e l a t e d O c c u p a t i o n s 279 E d u c a t i o n t o t a l c . H e a l t h (1 ) H e a l t h D i a g n o s i n g and T r e a t i n g O c c u p a t i o n s 311 (2 ) N u r s i n g , Therapy and R e l a t e d A s s i s t i n g O c c u p a t i o n s 313 (3 ) A d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n M e d i c i n e and H e a l t h 1134 (4) O t h e r O c c u p a t i o n s i n M e d i c i n e and H e a l t h 315 /316 H e a l t h t o t a l d . O c c u p a t i o n s i n R e l i g i o n 25 e . P r o t e c t i v e S e r v i c e O c c u p a t i o n s 611 f . O c c u p a t i o n s i n S o c i a l Work and R e l a t e d F i e l d s 233 O t h e r O c c u p a t i o n s i n S o c i a l S c i e n c e s and R e l a t e d F i e l d s 239 g . O c c u p a t i o n s i n L i b r a r y , Museum and A r c h i v a l S e r v i c e s 235 N o n - P r o f i t t o t a l 149 SERVICES TOTAL I I I . OTHER a . O c c u p a t i o n Not E l s e w h e r e C l a s s i f i e d 99 b. P e r s o n s Not C l a s s i f i a b l e by O c c u p a t i o n 00 S o u r c e : Canada , 1981, S t a n d a r d O c c u p a t i o n a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n M a n u a l , R e f . No. 1 2 - 5 6 5 , S t a t i s t i c s Canada, S t a n d a r d s D i v i s i o n . 150 A p p e n d i x C: T a b l e Showing t h e B r i d g i n g o f 1971 O c c u p a t i o n a l Codes t o t h e 1981 O c c u p a t i o n a l Codes and C l a s s i f i c a t i o n 1981 O c c u p a t i o n a l T i t l e s I. GOODS: 1. E x t r a c t i v e : a . F a r m i n g , H o r t i c u l t u r a l and A n i m a l Husbandry O c c u p a t i o n s b. F i s h i n g , T r a p p i n g , and R e l a t e d Occupat i ons c . F o r e s t r y and L o g g i n g O c c u p a t i o n s d . M i n i n g and Q u a r r y i n g I n c l u d i n g O i l and Gas F i e l d O c c u p a t i o n s E x t r a c t i v e t o t a l : 2 . C o n s t r u c t i o n T r a d e s O c c u p a t i o n s 3 . M a n u f a c t u r i n g : a . P r o c e s s i n g O c c u p a t i o n s b. M a c h i n i n g and R e l a t e d O c c u p a t i o n s c . P r o d u c t F a b r i c a t i n g , A s s e m b l i n g a n d R e p a i r i n g O c c u p a t i o n s d . S t a t i o n a r y E n g i n e and U t i l i t i e s Equipment O p e r a t i n g and R e l a t e d Occupat i ons M a n u f a c t u r i n g t o t a l : GOODS TOTAL: I I . SERVICES: 1. D i s t r i b u t i v e : a . C l e r i c a l and R e l a t e d O c c u p a t i o n s 1981 Codes 1971 Codes and O c c u p a t i o n a l T i t l e s 71 73 75 77 87 8 1 / 8 2 83 85 953 41 71 F a r m i n g , H o r t i c u l t u r a l and An imal Husbandry O c c u p a t i o n s -7131 Farm Management O c c u p a t i o n s 73 F i s h i n g , H u n t i n g , T r a p p i n g and R e l a t e d O c c u p a t i o n s 75 F o r e s t r y and L o g g i n g O c c u p a t i o n s 77 M i n i n g and Q u a r r y i n g I n c l u d i n g O i l and Gas F i e l d O c c u p a t i o n s 87 C o n s t r u c t i o n T rades O c c u p a t i o n s 8 1 / 8 2 +8555*.5 83 85 P r o c e s s i n g O c c u p a t i o n s F u r r i e r s M a c h i n i n g and R e l a t e d O c c u p a t i o n s P r o d u c t F a b r i c a t i n g , A s s e m b l i n g and R e p a i r i n g O c c u p a t i o n s - 8 5 5 5 * . 5 F u r r i e r s - 8 5 8 M e c h a n i c s and Repai rmen E x c e p t E l e c t r i c a l 953 S t a t i o n a r y E n g i n e and U t i l i t i e s Equipment O p e r a t i n g and R e l a t e d O c c u p a t i o n s 41 C l e r i c a l and R e l a t e d O c c u p a t i o n s 151 b. S a l e s : (1 ) S a l e s O c c u p a t i o n s , Commodi t ies 5 1 3 / 5 1 4 (2 ) S a l e s O c c u p a t i o n s , S e r v i c e s 517 (3 ) S a l e s O c c u p a t i o n s , Other 519 S a l e s t o t a l c . T r a n s p o r t Equipment O p e r a t i n g 9t Occupat i o n s d . M a t e r i a l H a n d l i n g and R e l a t e d 93 Occupat i o n s e . E l e c t r o n i c and R e l a t e d Communicat ion 955 Equipment O p e r a t i n g O c c u p a t i o n s f . M e c h a n i c s a n d R e p a i r e r s , n . e . c . 858 g . P r i n t i n g and R e l a t e d O c c u p a t i o n s 951 D i s t r i b u t i v e t o t a l : 2 . Consumer: a . A r t i s t i c , L i t e r a r y , R e c r e a t i o n a l 33 and R e l a t e d O c c u p a t i o n s b. Food and B e v e r a g e P r e p a r a t i o n 612 and R e l a t e d S e r v i c e O c c u p a t i o n s c . O c c u p a t i o n s i n L o d g i n g and 613 O t h e r Accommodat ion d . P e r s o n a l S e r v i c e O c c u p a t i o n s 614 e . A p p a r e l and F u r n i s h i n g s S e r v i c e 616 Occupat i ons f . O t h e r S e r v i c e O c c u p a t i o n s 619 Consumer t o t a l : 3 . Advanced : a . O t h e r Managers and A d m i n i s t r a t o r s 113 /114 b. N a t u r a l S c i e n c e s : (1 ) O c c u p a t i o n s i n P h y s i c a l S c i e n c e s 211 513 and 514 S a l e s O c c u p a t i o n s , Commodi t ies 517 S a l e s O c c u p a t i o n s , S e r v i c e s 519 Other S a l e s O c c u p a t i o n s 91 T r a n s p o r t Equipment O p e r a t i n g Occupat i ons 93 M a t e r i a l s H a n d l i n g and R e l a t e d Occupat i o n s , n . e . c . 955 E l e c t r o n i c and R e l a t e d Communicat ions Equipment O p e r a t i n g O c c u p a t i o n s , n . e . c . 858 M e c h a n i c s and Repa i rmen E x c e p t E l e c t r i c a l 951 P r i n t i n g and R e l a t e d O c c u p a t i o n s +959 O t h e r C r a f t s and Equipment O p e r a t i n g O c c u p a t i o n s , n . e . c . 33 A r t i s t i c , L i t e r a r y , R e c r e a t i o n a l and R e l a t e d O c c u p a t i o n s 612 Food and Beverage P r e p a r a t i o n and R e l a t e d S e r v i c e O c c u p a t i o n s 613 O c c u p a t i o n s i n L o d g i n g and Other Accommodat i o n 614 P e r s o n a l S e r v i c e O c c u p a t i o n s 616 A p p a r e l and F u r n i s h i n g s S e r v i c e Occupat i ons 619 O t h e r S e r v i c e O c c u p a t i o n s 113 and 114 Other Managers and A d m i n i s t r a t o r s - 1133 A d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n T e a c h i n g and R e l a t e d F i e l d s - 1 1 3 4 A d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n M e d i c i n e and H e a l t h 211 O c c u p a t i o n s i n P h y s i c a l S c i e n c e s 152 (2 ) O c c u p a t i o n s i n L i f e S c i e n c e s 213 (3 ) A r c h i t e c t s , E n g i n e e r s and 2 1 4 / 2 1 5 Community P l a n n e r s (4 ) O t h e r O c c u p a t i o n s I n A r c h i t e c t u r e 216 and E n g i n e e r i n g (5 ) O c c u p a t i o n s i n M a t h e m a t i c s , 218 S t a t i s t i c s , Sys tems A n a l y s i s and R e l a t e d F i e l d s N a t u r a l S c i e n c e s t o t a l c . S o c i a l S c i e n c e s : (1 ) O c c u p a t i o n s i n S o c i a l S c i e n c e s 231 (2 ) O c c u p a t i o n s i n Law and 234 J u r i s p r u d e n c e d . O c c u p a t i o n s R e l a t e d t o Management 117 a n d A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Advanced t o t a l 4 . N o n - P r o f i t : a . O f f i c i a l s and A d m i n i s t r a t o r s u n i q u e 111 t o Government b. E d u c a t i o n : (1 ) U n i v e r s i t y T e a c h i n g and R e l a t e d 271 O c c u p a t i o n s (2 ) E l e m e n t a r y and Secondary S c h o o l 273 T e a c h i n g and R e l a t e d O c c u p a t i o n s (3 ) A d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n T e a c h i n g and 1133 R e l a t e d F i e l d s (4 ) O t h e r T e a c h i n g and R e l a t e d 279 Occupat i ons E d u c a t i o n t o t a l c . H e a l t h : (1 ) H e a l t h D i a g n o s i n g and T r e a t i n g Occupat i ons (2 ) N u r s i n g , Therapy and R e l a t e d A s s i s t i n g O c c u p a t i o n s (3 ) A d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n M e d i c i n e and H e a l t h (4 ) O t h e r O c c u p a t i o n s i n M e d i c i n e and H e a l t h H e a l t h t o t a l d . O c c u p a t i o n s i n R e l i g i o n 25 311 313 1134 315 /316 213 O c c u p a t i o n s i n L i f e S c i e n c e s 214 /215 A r c h i t e c t s and E n g i n e e r s 216 Other O c c u p a t i o n s I n A r c h i t e c t u r e and E n g i n e e r i n g 218 O c c u p a t i o n s i n M a t h e m a t i c s , S t a t i s t i c s , Systems A n a l y s i s and R e l a t e d F i e l d s 231 O c c u p a t i o n s i n S o c i a l S c i e n c e s 234 O c c u p a t i o n s i n Law and J u r i s p r u d e n c e 117 O c c u p a t i o n s R e l a t e d t o Management and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 111 O f f i c i a l s and A d m i n i s t r a t o r s U n i q u e t o Government 271 U n i v e r s i t y T e a c h i n g and R e l a t e d Occupat i ons 273 E l e m e n t a r y and Secondary S c h o o l T e a c h i n g and R e l a t e d O c c u p a t i o n s 1133* A d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n T e a c h i n g and R e l a t e d F i e l d s 279 Other T e a c h i n g and R e l a t e d O c c u p a t i o n s 311 H e a l t h D i a g n o s i n g and T r e a t i n g O c c u p a t i o n s 313 N u r s i n g , Therapy and R e l a t e d A s s i s t i n g O c c u p a t i o n s 1134 A d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n M e d i c i n e and H e a l t h 315 /316 Other O c c u p a t i o n s i n M e d i c i n e and H e a l t h 25 O c c u p a t i o n s i n R e l i g i o n 153 e . P r o t e c t i v e S e r v i c e O c c u p a t i o n s 611 611 P r o t e c t i v e S e r v i c e O c c u p a t i o n s f . Occupat i o n s i n S o c i a 1 Work and R e l a t e d F i e l d s O t h e r O c c u p a t i o n s i n S o c i a l S c i e n c e s and R e l a t e d F i e l d s g . O c c u p a t i o n s i n L i b r a r y , Museum a n d A r c h i v a l S e r v i c e s N o n - P r o f i t t o t a l SERVICES TOTAL: I I I . OTHER: O c c u p a t i o n s n o t E l s e w h e r e C l a s s i f i e d P e r s o n s Not C l a s s i f i a b l e by O c c u p a t i o n 233 239 235 99 00 233 +239 235 99 +0000 O c c u p a t i o n s i n S o c i a l Work and R e l a t e d F i e l d s Other O c c u p a t i o n s i n S o c i a l S c i e n c e s and R e l a t e d F i e l d s O c c u p a t i o n s i n L i b r a r y , Museum and A r c h i v a l S c i e n c e s O c c u p a t i o n s Not E l s e w h e r e C l a s s i f i e d O c c u p a t i o n Not S t a t e d S o u r c e o f O c c u p a t i o n a l T i t l e s : Canada , C e n s u s , O c c u p a t i o n a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Manua l , 1971, R e f . No. 1 2 - 5 3 6 , O t t a w a : M i n i s t e r o f I n d u s t r y , T rade and Commerce, I n f o r m a t i o n Canada . 154 A p p e n d i x D: T a b l e Showing t h e B r i d g i n g o f 1961 O c c u p a t i o n a l Codes t o t h e 1981 O c c u p a t i o n a l Codes and C l a s s i f i c a t i o n 1981 O c c u p a t i o n a l T i t l e s 1981 Codes 1961 Codes and O c c u p a t i o n a l T i t l e s I. GOODS 1. E x t r a c t i v e a . F a r m i n g , H o r t i c u l t u r a l and 71 D i v . 7 Farmers and Farm Workers An ima l Husbandry O c c u p a t i o n s b . F i s h i n g , T r a p p i n g , and R e l a t e d 73 D i v . 9 F i s h e r m e n , T r a p p e r s and H u n t e r s Occupat i o n s c . F o r e s t r y and L o g g i n g O c c u p a t i o n s 75 D i v . 8 Loggers and R e l a t e d Workers d . M i n i n g and Q u a r r y i n g I n c l u d i n g 77 D i v . 10 M i n e r s , Quarrymen and R e l a t e d Workers 0 i1 and Gas F i e l d Occupat i ons 2 . C o n s t r u c t i o n T r a d e s O c c u p a t i o n s 87 +810 P lumbers and p i p e f i t t e r s +84 P a i n t e r s , p a p e r h a n g e r s and g l a z i e r s +85 B r i c k l a y e r s , p l a s t e r e r s and c o n s t r u c t i o n w o r k e r s , n . e . c . +83 E l e c t r i c i a n s and r e l a t e d e l e c t r i c a l and e l e c t r o n i c s w o r k e r s - 8 3 3 Power s t a t i o n o p e r a t o r s - 8 3 6 P r o j e c t i o n i s t s , m o t i o n p i c t u r e s +875 R i g g e r s and c a b l e s p l i c e r s , e x c e p t t e l e p h o n e , t e l e g r a p h and power +876 O p e r a t o r s o f e a r t h - m o v i n g and o t h e r c o n s t r u c t i o n m a c h i n e r y , n . e . c . +890 Sect ionmen and t rackmen +920 L a b o u r e r s , n . e . c . c o n s t r u c t i o n i n d u s t r y +70 M i l l e r s , b a k e r s , b r e w e r s and r e l a t e d f o o d w o r k e r s +73 S p i n n e r s , w e a v e r s , k n i t t e r s and r e l a t e d w o r k e r s +76 Papermakers , s t i l l o p e r a t o r s , c h e m i c a l and r e l a t e d w o r k e r s +78 Furnacemen, m o u l d e r s , b l a c k s m i t h s and r e l a t e d meta l w o r k e r s +862 Furnacemen and k i l n m e n , c e r a m i c s and g l a s s +900 Foremen, n . e . c . 3 . M a n u f a c t u r i n g a . P r o c e s s i n g 8 1 / 8 2 155 b. M a c h i n i n g and R e l a t e d O c c u p a t i o n s 83 c . P r o d u c t F a b r i c a t i n g , A s s e m b l i n g 85 and R e p a i r i n g O c c u p a t i o n s d . S t a t i o n a r y E n g i n e and U t i l i t i e s 953 Equipment O p e r a t i n g and R e l a t e d Occupat i ons M a n u f a c t u r i n g t o t a l GOODS TOTAL I I . SERVICES - 9 0 0 Foremen, n . e . c , m a t e r i a l t r a n s p o r t i n d u s t r y - 9 0 0 Foremen, n . e . c , e l e c t r i c i t y , gas and wate r +911 Tobacco p r e p a r e r s and p r o d u c t makers +912 P a t t e r n m a k e r s ( e x c e p t p a p e r ) +913 B o t t l e r s , wrappers l a b e l e r s +914 Paper p r o d u c t s makers +916 Tanners and t a n n e r y o p e r a t i v e s +919 P r o d u c t i o n p r o c e s s and r e l a t e d w o r k e r s +920 L a b o u r e r s , m a n u f a c t u r i n g +75*.5 C a r p e n t e r s , c a b i n e t m a k e r s , s a w y e r s and r e l a t e d w o r k e r s +793 E n g r a v e r s , e x c e p t p h o t o e n g r a v e r s +80/81 M a c h i n i s t s , p l u m b e r s , s h e e t m e t a l w o r k e r s and r e l a t e d w o r k e r s - 8 1 0 P lumbers and p i p e f i t t e r s +86 C l a y , g l a s s and s t o n e w o r k e r s - 8 6 2 Furnacemen and k i l n m e n , c e r a m i c s and g l a s s +917 I n s p e c t o r s , e x a m i n e r s and g a u g e r s , n . e . c . - meta l +71 T i r e b u i l d e r s , v u l c a n i z e r s and o t h e r rubber w o r k e r s +72 L e a t h e r c u t t e r s . T a s t e r s , sewers and o t h e r l e a t h e r w o r k e r s ( e x c e p t g l o v e and garment +74 T a i l o r s , f u r r i e r s , u p h o l s t e r e r s and r e l a t e d worke rs +75*.5 C a r p e n t e r s , c a b i n e t m a k e r s , sawyers and r e l a t e d w o r k e r s +791 J e w e l e r s and watchmakers +918 I n s p e c t o r s , g r a d e r s and s a m p l e r s , n . e . c . +871 B o i l e r f i r e m e n ( e x c e p t s h i p ) +872 S t a t i o n a r y enginemen +878 O i l e r s and g r e a s e r s - mach ine ry and v e h i c l e s ( e x c e p t s h i p s ) +833 Power s t a t i o n o p e r a t o r s +900 Foremen, e l e c t r i c i t y , gas and wate r +920 T r a n s p o r t , commun icat ion and o t h e r p u b l i c u t i l i t y s e r v i c e s - e l e c t r i c i t y gas and wate r 156 D i s t r i b u t i v e a . C l e r i c a l and R e l a t e d O c c u p a t i o n s 41 b. S a l e s (1 ) S a l e s O c c u p a t i o n s , Commodi t ies 5 1 3 / 5 1 4 (2 ) S a l e s O c c u p a t i o n s , S e r v i c e s 517 (3 ) S a l e s O c c u p a t i o n s , Other 519 S a l e s T o t a l c . T r a n s p o r t Equipment O p e r a t i n g 91 O c c u p a t i o n s d . M a t e r i a l H a n d l i n g and R e l a t e d 93 Occupat i o n s e . E l e c t r o n i c and R e l a t e d Communicat ion 955 Equipment O p e r a t i n g O c c u p a t i o n s .3 C l e r i c a l O c c u p a t i o n s +307 C a n v a s s e r s and o t h e r d o o r - t o - d o o r s a l e s m e n +312 Hawkers and p e d l a r s +314 Commercia l t r a v e l l e r s +316 Newsvendors +323 S e r v i c e s t a t i o n a t t e n d a n t s (W o r NP) +325 S a l e s c l e r k s (W o r NP) +327 A d v e r t i s i n g s a l e s m e n and a g e n t s +331 I n s u r a n c e s a l e s m e n and a g e n t s (OA & W) +334 Rea l e s t a t e sa lesmen and a g e n t s +301 Foremen, t r a d e +303 A u c t i o n e e r s +336 S e c u r i t y sa lesmen and b r o k e r s (OA & W) +338 B r o k e r s , a g e n t s and a p p r a i s e r s , n . e . c . +339 Other s a l e s o c c u p a t i o n s +920 L a b o u r e r s , commerce +51 S u p e r v i s o r s o f t r a n s p o r t o p e r a t i o n s +52 O p e r a t o r s , a i r c r a f t +53 O p e r a t o r s , r a i l r o a d +54 O p e r a t o r s , wate r t r a n s p o r t +55 O p e r a t o r s , r o a d t r a n s p o r t +56 Other t r a n s p o r t o c c u p a t i o n s +873 Motermen ( v e h i c l e ) , e x c e p t r a i l w a y +900 Foremen, m a t e r i a l t r a n s p o r t i n d u s t r y +920 L a b o u r e r s , t r a n s p o r t , c o m m u n i c a t i o n and o t h e r p u b l i c u t i l i t y s e r v i c e s -r a i l w a y t r a n s p o r t and o t h e r t r a n s p o r t +874 H o i s t m e n , cranemen, d e r r i c k m e n +877 M a t e r i a l s - h a n d l i n g equipment o p e r a t o r s +88 Longshoremen and o t h e r f r e i g h t h a n d l e r s +587 Postmen and m a i l c a r r i e r s +588 Messengers +57 Superv i s o r s o f commun i c a t i on o p e r a t i ons +582 R a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n equipment o p e r a t o r s +584 Te lephone o p e r a t o r s +585 T e l e g r a p h o p e r a t o r s +836 P r o j e c t i o n i s t s , m o t i o n p i c t u r e +920 L a b o u r e r s ? 157 f . M e c h a n i c s and R e p a i r e r s , n . e . c . 858 g . P r i n t i n g a n d R e l a t e d O c c u p a t i o n s 951 D i s t r i b u t i v e t o t a l 2 . Consumer a . A r t i s t i c , L i t e r a r y , R e c r e a t i o n a l 33 and R e l a t e d O c c u p a t i o n s b . Food and B e v e r a g e P r e p a r a t i o n 612 and R e l a t e d S e r v i c e O c c u p a t i o n s c . O c c u p a t i o n s i n L o d g i n g and 613 O t h e r Accommodat ion d . P e r s o n a l S e r v i c e O c c u p a t i o n s 614 e . A p p a r e l and F u r n i s h i n g s S e r v i c e 616 Occupat i o n s f . O t h e r S e r v i c e O c c u p a t i o n s 619 Consumer t o t a l 3 . Advanced a . O t h e r Managers and A d m i n i s t r a t o r s 113 /114 +82 Mechan ics and r e p a i r m e n , e x c e p t e l e c t r i c a l and e l e c t r o n i c +77 P r i n t e r s , b o o k b i n d e r s and r e l a t e d w o r k e r s +915 P h o t o g r a p h i c p r o c e s s i n g o c c u p a t i o n s +17 A r t i s t s , w r i t e r s and m u s i c i a n s +195 I n t e r i o r d e c o r a t o r s and window d r e s s e r s +196 P h o t o g r a p h e r s +43 A t h l e t e s , e n t e r t a i n e r s and r e l a t e d w o r k e r s +457 A t t e n d a n t s , r e c r e a t i o n and amusement +581 R a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n announcers +413 Cooks +414 B a r t e n d e r s +415 W a i t e r s +411 L o d g i n g and b o a r d i n g house k e e p e r s +417 P o r t e r s , baggage and p u l l m a n +412 Housekeepers ( e x c e p t p r i v a t e h o u s e h o l d ) , m a t r o n s , s t e w a r d s +418 B a b y s i t t e r s (W) +419 Ma ids and r e l a t e d s e r v i c e w o r k e r s +451 B a r b e r s , h a i r d r e s s e r s , m a n i c u r i s t s +455 F u n e r a l d i r e c t o r s and embalmers +466 G u i d e s +452 L a u n d e r e r s and d r y c l e a n e r s +453 E l e v a t o r t e n d e r s , b u i l d i n g +454 J a n i t o r s and c l e a n e r s , b u i l d i n g +459 S e r v i c e w o r k e r s , n . e . c . D i v . 1 M a n a g e r i a l O c c u p a t i o n s - 007 P o s t m a s t e r s (W) - 0 0 8 P u r c h a s i n g a g e n t s and b u y e r s (W) - 0 1 0 Owners and managers, t e a c h i n g and r e l a t e d s e r v i c e s - 0 1 0 Owners and managers , h e a l t h and we1 f a r e 158 b. N a t u r a l S c i e n c e s (1 ) O c c u p a t i o n s i n P h y s i c a l S c i e n c e s 211 (2 ) O c c u p a t i o n s i n L i f e S c i e n c e s 213 (3 ) A r c h i t e c t s , E n g i n e e r s and 2 1 4 / 2 1 5 Community P l a n n e r s (4 ) O t h e r O c c u p a t i o n s In A r c h i t e c t u r e 216 and E n g i n e e r i n g (5 ) O c c u p a t i o n s i n M a t h e m a t i c s , 218 S t a t i s t i c s , Sys tems A n a l y s i s and R e l a t e d F i e l d s N a t u r a l S c i e n c e s t o t a l c . S o c i a l S c i e n c e s (1 ) O c c u p a t i o n s i n S o c i a l S c i e n c e s 231 (2 ) O c c u p a t i o n s i n Law and 234 ou r i s p r u d e n c e d . O c c u p a t i o n s R e l a t e d t o Management 117 a n d A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 4 . N o n - P r o f i t a . O f f i c i a l s and A d m i n i s t r a t o r s U n i q u e 111 t o Government b. E d u c a t i o n (1 ) U n i v e r s i t y T e a c h i n g and R e l a t e d 271 Occupat i o n s (2 ) E l e m e n t a r y and Secondary S c h o o l 273 T e a c h i n g and R e l a t e d O c c u p a t i o n s (3 ) A d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n T e a c h i n g and 1133 R e l a t e d F i e l d s (4 ) O t h e r T e a c h i n g and R e l a t e d 279 Occupat i ons - 0 1 0 Owners and managers, p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n +11 P h y s i c a l s c i e n t i s t s +12 B i o l o g i s t s and a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o f e s s i o n a i s +10 P r o f e s s i o n a l e n g i n e e r s +181 A r c h i t e c t s +182 Draughtsmen +183 S u r v e y o r s +198 S c i e n c e and e n g i n e e r i n g t e c h n i c i a n s , n . e . c . +199 P r o f e s s i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s , n . e . c . +184 A c t u a r i e s and S t a t i s t i c i a n s +187 Computer programmers +186 E c o n o m i s t s +15 Law P r o f e s s i o n a l s +008 P u r c h a s i n g a g e n t s and b u y e r s (W) +188 A c c o u n t a n t s and a u d i t o r s +007 P o s t m a s t e r s (W) +010 Owners and managers, p u b l i c a d m i n s t r a t i o n +920*.5 L a b o u r e r s , p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and n a t i o n a l d e f e n c e +131 P r o f e s s o r s and c o l l e g e p r i n c i p l e s +135 S c h o o l t e a c h e r s +010 Owners and managers , t e a c h i n g and r e l a t e d s e r v i c e s +139 Teachers and i n s t r u c t o r s , n . e . c . 159 c . H e a l t h (1 ) H e a l t h D i a g n o s i n g and T r e a t i n g 311 Occupat i ons (2 ) N u r s i n g , Therapy and R e l a t e d 313 A s s i s t i n g O c c u p a t i o n s (3 ) A d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n M e d i c i n e and 1134 H e a l t h (4 ) O t h e r O c c u p a t i o n s i n M e d i c i n e 3 1 5 / 3 1 6 and H e a l t h O c c u p a t i o n s i n R e l i g i o n 25 P r o t e c t i v e S e r v i c e O c c u p a t i o n s 611 +140 P h y s i c i a n s and Surgeons +141 D e n t i s t s +146 O s t e o p a t h s and c h i r o p r a c t o r s +142 N u r s e s , g r a d u a t e +144 N u r s e s - i n - t r a i n i n g +144 P h y s i c a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l t h e r a p i s t s +416 N u r s i n g a s s i s t a n t s and a i d e s +010 Owners and managers, h e a l t h and w e l f a r e +145 O p t o m e t r i s t s +147 P h a r m a c i s t s +148 M e d i c a l and d e n t a l t e c h n i c i a n s +149 Other h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s +191 D i e t i t i a n s +16 R e l i g i o n p r o f e s s i o n a l s +40 P r o t e c t i v e s e r v i c e o c c u p a t i o n s +920*.5 L a b o u r e r s , p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and na t i ona1 d e f e n c e f . O c c u p a t i o n s i n S o c i a l Work and 233 R e l a t e d F i e l d s O t h e r O c c u p a t i o n s i n S o c i a l 239 S c i e n c e s and R e l a t e d F i e l d s g . O c c u p a t i o n s i n L i b r a r y , Museum 235 and A r c h i v a l S e r v i c e s I I I . OTHER O c c u p a t i o n s n o t E l s e w h e r e C l a s s i f i e d 99 P e r s o n s Not C l a s s i f i a b l e by O c c u p a t i o n 00 +192 S o c i a l w e l f a r e w o r k e r s +194 L i b r a r i a n s +920 L a b o u r e r s , e x c l u d i n g t h o s e engaged i n a g r i c u l t u r e , f i s h i n g , l o g g i n g o r m i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s +980 O c c u p a t i o n not s t a t e d S o u r c e o f O c c u p a t i o n a l T i t l e s : Canada, Census , O c c u p a t i o n a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Manua l , 1961, Re f . No. 12 -506 , O t t a w a : Domin ion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s . 160 A p p e n d i x E: T a b l e Showing t h e B r i d g i n g o f 1951 O c c u p a t i o n a l Codes t o t h e 1981 O c c u p a t i o n a l Codes and C l a s s i f i c a t i o n . 1981 O c c u p a t i o n a l T i t l e 1981 Codes I. GOODS 1. E x t r a c t i v e a . F a r m i n g , H o r t i c u l t u r a l and 71 A n i m a l Husbandry O c c u p a t i o n s b . F i s h i n g , T r a p p i n g , and R e l a t e d 73 Occupat i ons c . F o r e s t r y a n d L o g g i n g O c c u p a t i o n s 75 d . M i n i n g and Q u a r r y i n g I n c l u d i n g 77 O i l and Gas F i e l d O c c u p a t i o n s 1951 Codes and O c c u p a t i o n a l T i t l e s 50 A g r i c u l t u r a l O c c u p a t i o n s 55 F i s h i n g and T r a p p i n g 56 L o g g i n g ( i n c l u d i n g f o r e s t r y ) 60 /61 O c c u p a t i o n s i n m i n e s , q u a r r i e s and o i l w e l l s E x t r a c t i v e t o t a l 2 . C o n s t r u c t i o n T r a d e s O c c u p a t i o n s 87 3 . M a n u f a c t u r i n g a . P r o c e s s i n g O c c u p a t i o n s 8 1 / 8 2 9 1 / 9 2 / 9 3 C o n s t r u c t i o n O c c u p a t i o n s +899 R i g g e r s , n . e . c . +700*.33 Foremen - m a n u f a c t u r i n g and r e p a i r (w) +70 Food P r o d u c t s +710 L i q u o r s and B e v e r a g e s +720 Tobacco P r o d u c t s +757 Tanners +76 T e x t i l e s +80 P u l p , Paper and Paper P r o d u c t s +820 I n s p e c t o r s , e x a m i n e r s , g a u g e r s , n . e . s . - m e t a l (w) +846 Coremakers (w) +825 E l e c t r o p l a t e r s +832 Heat t r e a t e r s , a n n e a l e r s , t e m p e r e r s (w) +845 M o u l d e r s +851 Potmen (w) +854 R o l l i n g m i l l men, n . e . s . (w) +858 W i re d r a w e r s , makers and weavers +859 Other meta l o c c u p a t i o n s +86 N o n - M e t a l l i c M i n e r a l P r o d u c t s +87 C h e m i c a l s b. M a c h i n i n g and R e l a t e d O c c u p a t i o n s 83 +700*.33 Foremen - m a n u f a c t u r i n g and r e p a i r (w) 161 c . P r o d u c t F a b r i c a t i n g , A s s e m b l i n g and R e p a i r i n g O c c u p a t i o n s 85 d . S t a t i o n a r y E n g i n e and U t i l i t i e s 953 Equipment O p e r a t i n g and R e l a t e d Occupat i o n s M a n u f a c t u r i n g t o t a l I I . SERVICES 1. D i s t r i b u t i v e a . C l e r i c a l and R e l a t e d O c c u p a t i o n s 41 (1 ) S a l e s O c c u p a t i o n s , Commodi t ies 513 /514 +794 F i n i s h e r s and p o l i s h e r s - wood +795 Sawyers - wood Wood t u r n e r s +799 Other o c c u p a t i o n s i n wood p r o d u c t s +822 B l a c k s m i t h s , hammermen, forgemen +824 B o i l e r m a k e r s and p l a t e r s +826 E n g r a v e r s , e x c e p t p h o t o e n g r a v e r s +827 F i l e r s , g r i n d e r s , s h a r p e n e r s +835 Mach ine o p e r a t o r s , n . e . c . (w) +836 M a c h i n i s t s +847 P a t t e r n m a k e r s +850 P o l i s h e r s and b u f f e r s - meta l (w) +853 R i v e t e r s and r i v e t h e a t e r s (w) +855 Sheet m e t a l w o r k e r s and t i n s m i t h s +856 T o o l m a k e r s ; d i e makers and s e t t e r s +857 Welders and f l a m e c u t t e r s L a b e l e r s +700*.33 Foremen - m a n u f a c t u r i n g and r e p a i r (w) +73 Rubber P r o d u c t s +743 F u r r i e r s +75 L e a t h e r and L e a t h e r P r o d u c t s - 7 5 7 Tanners +77/78 T e x t i l e Goods and Wear ing A p p a r e l +79 Wood P r o d u c t s - 7 9 4 F i n i s h e r s and P o l i s h e r s - wood - 7 9 5 Sawyers - W o o d t u r n e r s - 7 9 9 Other o c c u p a t i o n s i n wood p r o d u c t s +821 A s s e m b l e r s and makers - e l e c t r i c a l equipment (w) +828 F i t t e r s and a s s e m b l e r s , n . e . s . - meta l +834 J e w e l l e r s and watchmakers +844 M i l l w r i g h t s (w) +852 R a d i o r e p a i r m e n Other ( m i s c ) +890 B o i l e r f i r e m e n +896 O i l e r s , mach inery +895 Power s t a t i o n o p e r a t o r s (w) +897 S t a t i o n a r y e n g i n e e r s (w) +11 C l e r i c a l O c c u p a t i o n s +205 Agents - t i c k e t , s t a t i o n , e x p r e s s (w) +237 Messengers +309 C a n v a s s e r s , d e m o n s t r a t o r s , s o l i c i t o r s (w) +312 C o l l e c t o r s , b i l l s and a c c o u n t s +315 Commerc ia l t r a v e l l e r s (w) 162 (2 ) S a l e s O c c u p a t i o n s , S e r v i c e s 517 (3 ) S a l e s O c c u p a t i o n s , Other 519 S a l e s t o t a l c . T r a n s p o r t Equipment O p e r a t i n g 91 Occupat i o n s d . M a t e r i a l H a n d l i n g and R e l a t e d 93 Occupat i o n s e . E l e c t r o n i c and R e l a t e d Communicat ion 955 Equipment O p e r a t i n g O c c u p a t i o n s f . M e c h a n i c s and R e p a i r e r s , n . e . c . 858 g . P r i n t i n g and R e l a t e d O c c u p a t i o n s 951 959 D i s t r i b u t i v e T o t a l 2 . Consumer a . A r t i s t i c , L i t e r a r y , R e c r e a t i o n a l 33 and R e l a t e d O c c u p a t i o n s b. Food and B e v e r a g e P r e p a r a t i o n and R e l a t e d S e r v i c e O c c u p a t i o n s 612 +317 Hawkers and p e d l a r s +324 Newsboys +328 P a c k e r s and w r a p p e r s , n . e . s . +336 S a l e s c l e r k s +339 S e r v i c e s t a t i o n a t t e n d a n t s +343 Window d e c o r a t o r s and d r e s s e r s +301 Foremen (w) commerc ia l o c c u p a t i o n s +302 A d v e r t i s i n g a g e n t s +333 P u r c h a s i n g agents and b u y e r s (w) +36 F i n a n c i a l O c c u p a t i o n s +304 A u c t i o n e e r s +306 B r o k e r s , a g e n t s , a p p r a i s e r s , n . e . s . +349 O t h e r t r a d e o c c u p a t i o n s +Motormen +20-25 T r a n s p o r t a t i o n O c c u p a t i o n s - 2 0 5 Agents - t i c k e t , s t a t i o n , e x p r e s s (w) - 2 3 5 Longshoremen, s t e v e d o r e s , dock l a b o u r e r s (w) -237 Messengers +894 H o i s t m e n , cranemen, d e r r i c k m e n (w) +235 Longshoremen, s t e v e d o r e s , dock l a b o u r e r s (w) +271 Postmen and m a i l c a r r i e r s (w) +26-29 Communicat ion O c c u p a t i o n s -271 Postmen and m a i l c a r r i e r s (w) - 2 7 4 R a d i o a n n o u n c e r s , b r o a d c a s t e r s (w) +494 M o t i o n p i c t u r e p r o j e c t i o n i s t s +837 Mechan ics and r e p a i r m e n , a i r p l a n e (w) +838 Mechan ics and r e p a i r m a n , a u t o m o b i l e +840 M e c h a n i c s and r e p a i r m e n , r a i l r o a d o r c a r shop +841 Mechan ics and r e p a i r m e n , n . e . s . +81 P r i n t i n g , P u b l i s h i n g , B o o k b i n d i n g +886 P h o t o g r a p h i c o c c u p a t i o n s , n . e . s . +064 A r t i s t s , commerc ia l +063 A r t i s t s , ( e x c e p t c o m m e r c i a l ) ; a r t t e a c h e r s +065 A u t h o r s , e d i t o r s , j o u r n a l i s t s +084 M u s i c i a n s and m u s i c t e a c h e r s +093 P h o t o g r a p h e r s +274 R a d i o a n n o u n c e r s , b r o a d c a s t e r s (w) +492 A c t o r s , showmen, spo r t smen +452 Cooks +443 W a i t e r s and w a i t r e s s e s 163 c . O c c u p a t i o n s i n L o d g i n g and 613 O t h e r Accommodat ion d . P e r s o n a l S e r v i c e O c c u p a t i o n s 614 e . A p p a r e l and F u r n i s h i n g s S e r v i c e 616 f . O t h e r S e r v i c e O c c u p a t i o n s 619 Consumer T o t a l 3 . Advanced a . O t h e r Managers and A d m i n i s t r a t o r s 113 /114 b. N a t u r a l S c i e n c e s : ( 1 ) O c c u p a t i o n s i n P h y s i c a l S c i e n c e s 211 (2 ) O c c u p a t i o n s i n L i f e S c i e n c e s 213 (3 ) A r c h i t e c t s , E n g i n e e r s and 2 1 4 / 2 1 5 Community P l a n n e r s (4 ) O t h e r O c c u p a t i o n s In A r c h i t e c t u r e 216 and E n g i n e e r i n g (5 ) O c c u p a t i o n s i n M a t h e m a t i c s , 218 S t a t i s t i c s , Systems A n a l y s i s and +458 Housekeepers , m a t r o n s , s t e w a r d s +425 L o d g i n g and b o a r d i n g house k e e p e r s (E . o r O . A . ) +432 P o r t e r s (w) +402 B a r b e r s , h a i r d r e s s e r s , m a n i c u r i s t s +403 B o o t b l a c k s +418 Gu ides H o t e l s , c a f e s +435 U n d e r t a k e r s +497 Ushers (w) +414 C l e a n e r s , d y e r s , l a u n d e r e r s +409 Charworkers and c l e a n e r s +416 E l e v a t o r t e n d e r s (w) +422 U a n i t o r s and s e x t o n s (w) +449 Other p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e o c c u p a t i o n s +499 Other Manager 1a 1 Occupa t i ons - 0 5 2 Community o r p u b l i c s e r v i c e - 0 5 3 Government s e r v i c e (w) - 0 5 9 U n s p e c i f i e d n / a +061 A g r i c u l t u r a l p r o f e s s i o n a l s , n . e . s . +062 A r c h i t e c t s +066 C h e m i s t s and m e t a l l u r i g i s t s +072 E n g i n e e r s , c h e m i c a l +073 E n g i n e e r s , c i v i l +075 E n g i n e e r s , e l e c t r i c a l +076 E n g i n e e r s , m e c h a n i c a l +078 E n g i n e e r s , m i n i n g +070 Draughtsmen and d e s i g n e r s +080 L a b o r a t o r y t e c h n i c i a n s and a s s i s t a n t s , n . e . s . (w) +074 S u r v e y o r s +092 A c t u a r i e s +097 S t a t i s t i c i a n s (w) 164 N a t u r a l S c i e n c e s T o t a l c . S o c i a l S c i e n c e s : (1 ) O c c u p a t i o n s i n S o c i a l S c i e n c e s 231 (2 ) O c c u p a t i o n s i n Law and 234 J u r i s p r u d e n c e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s T o t a l d . O c c u p a t i o n s R e l a t e d t o Management 117 and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Advanced T o t a l 4 . N o n - P r o f i t a . O f f i c i a l s and A d m i n i s t r a t o r s Un ique 111 t o Government (1 ) U n i v e r s i t y T e a c h i n g and R e l a t e d 271 Occupat i ons (2 ) E l e m e n t a r y and Secondary S c h o o l 273 T e a c h i n g and R e l a t e d O c c u p a t i o n s (3 ) A d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n T e a c h i n g and 1133 R e l a t e d F i e l d s (4 ) O t h e r T e a c h i n g and R e l a t e d 279 Occupat i ons E d u c a t i o n T o t a l (1 ) H e a l t h D i a g n o s i n g and T r e a t i n g 311 Occupat1ons n / a +079 Judges and m a g i s t r a t e s +081 Lawyers and n o t a r i e s +059 U n s p e c i f i e d +060 A c c o u n t a n t s and a u d i t o r s +099 Other p r o f e s s i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s +322 I n s p e c t o r s , g r a d e r s and s a m p l e r s , n . e . s +052 Community o r p u b l 1 c s e r v i c e +053 Government s e r v i c e (w) +090 P r o f e s s o r s and c o l l e g e p r i n c i p a l s (w) +095 T e a c h e r s - s c h o o l n / a +096 Teachers and i n s t r u c t o r s , n . e . s . +069 D e n t i s t s +088 O s t e o p a t h s and c h i r o p r a c t o r s +089 P h y s i c i a n s and s u r g e o n s +098 V e t e r i n a r i a n s (2 ) N u r s i n g , Therapy and R e l a t e d 313 A s s i s t i n g O c c u p a t i o n s (3 ) A d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n M e d i c i n e and 1134 H e a l t h (4 ) O t h e r O c c u p a t i o n s i n M e d i c i n e 3 1 5 / 3 1 6 and H e a l t h H e a l t h T o t a l d . O c c u p a t i o n s i n R e l i g i o n 25 +086 Nurses - g r a d u a t e +087 Nurses - t r a i n i n g +429 N u r s e s , p r a c t i c a l n / a +067 D i e t i c i a n s +880 D e n t a l mechan ics +885 O p t i c i a n s , l e n s g r i n d e r s and p o l i s h e r s +085 Nuns, and b r o t h e r s , n . e . s . (w) +068 C le rgymen and p r i e s t s 165 e . P r o t e c t i v e S e r v i c e O c c u p a t i o n s 611 f . O c c u p a t i o n s i n S o c i a l Work and 233 R e l a t e d F i e l d s O t h e r O c c u p a t i o n s i n S o c i a l 239 S c i e n c e s a n d R e l a t e d F i e l d s g . O c c u p a t i o n s i n L i b r a r y , Museum 235 N o n - P r o f i t T o t a l I I I . OTHER O c c u p a t i o n s not E l s e w h e r e C l a s s i f i e d 99 P e r s o n s Not C l a s s i f i a b l e by O c c u p a t i o n 00 +091 R e l i g i o u s w o r k e r s , n . e . s . (w) +47 P r o t e c t i v e +094 S o c i a l w e l f a r e w o r k e r s , n . e . s . +082 L i b r a r i a n s (w) +950 L a b o u r e r s (not a g r i c u l t u r a l , f i s h i n g , l o g g i n g o r m i n i n g ) +960 Not s t a t e d S o u r c e o f O c c u p a t i o n a l T i t l e s : Canada , N i n t h Census o f Canada, C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f O c c u p a t i o n s , 1951 R e f . No. 12-506A, O t tawa : Department o f Trade and Commerce. 166 A p p e n d i x F: O c c u p a t i o n a l S t a t i s t i c s f o r t h e 1951, 1961, 1971 and 1981 Census P e r i o d s by Sex f o r Canada, L a r g e , S m a l l and Non-CMAs O c c u p a t i o n a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and T i t l e s Census Year 1951 I. GOODS: 1. E x t r a c t i v e : a . F a r m i n g (71) b. F i s h i n g (73) c . F o r e s t r y (75) d . M i n i n g (77 ) E x t r a c t i v e t o t a l : 2 . C o n s t r u c t i o n (87) 3 . M a n u f a c t u r i n g : a . P r o c e s s i n g ( 8 1 / 2 ) b. M a c h i n i n g (83 ) c . P r o d u c t F a b r i c a t i o n (85) d . U t i l i t i e s (953) M a n u f a c t u r i n g t o t a l : GOODS TOTAL: I I . SERVICES: 1 . D i s t r i b u t i v e : a . C l e r i c a l (41) b. S a l e s : (1 ) Commod i t i es ( 5 1 3 / 5 1 4 ) (2 ) S e r v i c e s (517) (3 ) O t h e r (519) S a l e s t o t a l c . T r a n s p o r t E q u i p . Oper . (91) d . M a t e r i a l H a n d l i n g (93) e . E l e c t r o n i c s and Communic. (955) f . M e c h a n i c s and R e p a i r e r s (858) g . P r i n t i n g (951 5 959) D i s t r i b u t i v e t o t a l : 2 . Consumer: a . A r t i s t i c and L i t e r a r y (33) b. Food and B e v e r a g e (612) c . L o d g i n g (613) d . P e r s o n a l (614) e . A p p a r e l a n d F u r n i s h i n g (616) f . O t h e r (619) Consumer t o t a l : Canada L a r g e CMAs M a l e Female Ma le Female 797 ,874 32 ,567 9 ,752 411 5 0 , 6 7 9 198 2 ,057 0 101,020 19 2 , 3 7 5 0 65 ,273 18 1,018 0 1 ,014 ,846 32 ,802 15,202 411 299 ,412 898 8 0 , 8 8 0 342 186,040 53 ,405 46,571 15,766 187,972 10,386 56 ,625 4 , 6 2 0 136,163 101,757 5 5 , 8 6 5 49 ,688 45 ,452 0 10,951 0 555 .628 165,549 170,012 70 ,074 1 ,869 ,886 199,249 266 ,094 70 ,827 260 ,660 323 ,112 101,976 137 ,879 162,008 114,959 5 8 , 1 3 9 33 ,979 51 ,105 3 ,867 20 ,106 2 ,002 4 ,747 482 2 , 0 3 8 341 217 ,860 119,308 8 0 , 2 8 3 36 ,322 314 ,303 1,280 7 5 , 0 6 5 387 32 ,795 258 8 ,716 6 32 ,210 30 ,794 8 ,077 11,039 130.095 633 3 5 , 4 3 9 282 26 ,164 5 ,885 13,776 2 .804 1 .014 ,087 481 ,270 323 ,332 188,719 18,268 8 ,262 9 , 0 0 9 3 .046 39 ,854 56 ,398 14,133 15,044 9 , 3 4 0 33 ,012 3 , 9 7 8 6 , 8 8 9 3 0 , 3 7 0 100,599 8 , 7 9 0 23,311 9 ,928 16,985 4 , 3 9 5 5 , 2 4 9 46 ,874 18,237 15 ,670 6 . 4 6 0 154,634 233 ,493 5 5 , 9 7 5 5 9 , 9 9 9 167 S m a l l CMAs M a l e Female Non-CMAs M a l e Female 8 , 8 2 3 517 7 7 9 , 2 9 9 31 ,639 61 1 48 ,561 197 497 0 9 8 , 1 4 8 19 1,217 0 6 3 , 0 3 8 18 10,598 518 9 8 9 , 0 4 6 31 ,873 4 3 , 9 7 0 216 174,562 340 2 5 , 9 8 5 7 , 2 8 8 3 0 , 1 8 5 1,765 2 0 , 2 0 9 15,335 5 , 7 1 7 0 82 .095 2 4 , 3 8 8 136,663 2 5 , 1 2 2 113,484 30 ,351 101 ,163 4 ,001 6 0 , 0 9 0 3 6 , 7 3 4 2 8 , 7 8 4 0 303,521 71 ,087 1 , 4 6 7 , 1 2 9 103 ,300 54 ,732 6 9 , 4 8 9 26 ,963 19 ,240 8 , 6 5 8 780 1,047 47 36 ,668 20 ,067 40 ,043 210 3 , 5 3 9 1 4 , 6 4 9 3 , 7 6 8 19,971 120 4 . 8 6 0 1,240 164,462 9 4 , 8 9 5 103,952 115,744 7 6 , 9 0 6 6 1 , 7 4 0 22 ,341 1,085 1 ,662 94 100 ,909 6 2 , 9 1 9 199,195 683 2 0 , 5 4 0 251 19,484 15,987 7 4 , 6 8 5 231 7 , 5 2 8 1,841 5 2 6 , 2 9 3 197,656 3 , 2 3 9 5 , 9 0 4 1,732 3 , 9 4 0 1,492 8 ,234 24 ,541 1,304 8 , 8 9 2 4,181 13,828 3 , 5 5 9 5 , 3 0 0 3 7 , 0 6 4 6 : 0 2 0 19,817 3 , 6 3 0 17 ,640 4 ,041 2 2 , 9 7 0 7 4 , 1 1 8 3 ,912 32 ,462 21 ,942 6 3 , 4 6 0 8 ,177 6 ,477 136,430 3 . A d v a n c e d : a . Non -government A d m i n i s t . ( 113 /114 ) 3 4 1 , 9 0 9 34 ,508 b. N a t u r a l S c i e n c e s : (1 ) P h y s i c a l S c i e n c e s (211) 0 0 (2 ) L i f e S c i e n c e s (213) 2 , 5 9 6 102 (3 ) A r c h . , E n g i n . S P l a n . ( 2 1 4 / 2 1 5 ) 3 6 , 4 0 8 942 (4 ) T e c h n o l o g i s t s and Techn . (216) 2 5 , 6 4 9 6,101 (5 ) M a t h e m a t i c s and S t a t i s t i c s (218) 855 145 N a t u r a l S c i e n c e s t o t a l 6 5 , 5 0 8 7 , 2 9 0 c . S o c i a 1 S c i e n c e s : (1 ) S o c i a l S c i e n c e s (231) 0 0 (2 ) L e g a l (234) 9 , 4 3 3 202 S o c i a l S c i e n c e s t o t a l 9 , 4 3 3 202 d . O t h e r (117) 48 ,002 6 ,764 Advanced t o t a l 464 ,852 48 ,764 4 . N o n - P r o f i t : a . Government A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (111) 2 7 , 5 5 0 2,701 b. E d u c a t i o n : (1) U n i v e r s i t y (271) 4 , 6 1 0 812 (2 ) E l e m e n t a r y and Secondary (273) 2 8 , 2 5 9 7 4 , 3 1 9 (3 ) T e a c h i n g A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (1133) 0 0 (4 ) O t h e r (279) 1 ,063 1,477 E d u c a t i o n t o t a l 3 3 , 9 3 2 7 6 , 6 0 8 c . H e a l t h : (1 ) D i a g n o s i s and Treatment (311) 2 0 , 1 2 5 845 (2 ) N u r s i n g and Therapy (313) 7 , 9 2 7 68 ,302 (3 ) H e a l t h A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (1134) 0 0 (4 ) O t h e r ( 3 1 5 / 3 1 6 ) 2 , 5 2 2 1,445 H e a l t h t o t a l 3 0 , 5 7 4 70 ,592 d . R e l i g i o u s (25) 18 ,405 12,137 e . P r o t e c t i v e (611) 124 ,928 1,074 f . S o c i a l Work (233 S 239) 1,470 2 , 5 2 5 g . L i b r a r y and Museum (235) 274 1,787 N o n - P r o f i t t o t a l 237 ,133 167,424 SERVICES TOTAL: 1 ,870 ,706 930,951 I I I . OTHER: 3 8 1 , 2 4 0 34,121 TOTAL 4 , 1 2 1 , 8 3 2 1,164,321 S o u r c e : Canada , D . B . S . , 1951, N i n t h Census o f Canada, Vo l and i n d u s t r i e s , T a b l e 14, T a b l e 12. 107,099 9 , 158 4 7 , 3 8 3 4 , 1 3 3 187,427 21 ,217 0 0 0 0 0 0 304 16 518 43 1,774 43 15,333 354 6 , 5 7 0 220 14 ,505 368 9 , 4 2 6 2 , 2 8 5 4 ,825 1 ,280 11 ,398 2 , 5 3 6 457 77 214 49 184 19 2 5 , 5 2 0 2 ,732 12,127 1,592 27 ,861 2 , 9 6 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 ,622 107 1,946 29 3 , 8 6 5 66 3 ,622 107 1,946 29 3 , 8 6 5 66 19,898 2 ,983 10,065 1 ,319 18 ,039 2 , 4 6 2 156,139 14,980 71,521 7 ,073 2 3 7 , 1 9 2 26 ,711 6 , 6 1 8 748 7 ,385 662 13,547 1 ,291 1,543 298 1,051 102 2 , 0 1 6 412 6 , 7 1 9 12 ,169 3 ,437 7 ,892 18 ,103 5 4 , 2 5 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 398 477 125 180 540 820 8 , 6 6 0 12,944 4 , 6 1 3 8 ,174 2 0 , 6 5 9 5 5 , 4 9 0 6 ,643 393 3 ,404 163 10 ,078 289 2,751 20 ,592 1,209 11,838 3 , 9 6 7 3 5 , 8 7 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,090 647 534 223 898 575 10,484 21 ,632 5 ,147 12,224 14 ,943 3 6 , 7 3 6 3 ,214 2,831 2 ,074 2,431 13 .117 6 , 8 7 5 24 ,073 297 2 2 , 1 5 9 254 7 8 , 6 9 6 523 611 1 ,245 260 483 599 797 72 667 101 379 101 741 53 ,732 40 ,364 41 ,739 24 ,607 141 ,662 102,453 589 ,178 304 ,062 302 ,263 163,639 9 7 9 , 2 6 5 4 6 3 , 2 5 0 88 ,092 12,087 51 ,411 5 ,202 241 ,737 16 ,832 943 ,364 386 ,976 490 ,337 193,963 2 , 6 8 8 , 1 3 1 5 8 3 , 3 8 2 IV, Labour F o r c e - O c c u p a t i o n s 168 O c c u p a t i o n a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and T i t l e s Census Y e a r 1961 I. GOODS: Canada M a l e Female 1. E x t r a c t i v e : a . F a r m i n g (71) 573 ,098 75 ,868 b. F i s h i n g (73) 35 ,648 274 c . F o r e s t r y (75) 7 8 , 8 2 6 117 d . M i n i n g (77) 6 5 , 1 1 9 22 E x t r a c t i v e t o t a l : 752,691 76,281 2 . C o n s t r u c t i o n (87) 386 ,655 10,108 3 . M a n u f a c t u r i n g : a . P r o c e s s i n g ( 8 1 / 2 ) 344,991 93 ,957 b. M a c h i n i n g (83 ) 287 ,282 13,240 c . P r o d u c t F a b r i c a t i o n (85) 144,968 9 2 , 8 3 5 d . U t i l i t i e s (953) 56 ,321 39 M a n u f a c t u r i n g t o t a l : 833,561 200 ,070 GOODS TOTAL: 1 ,972 ,907 286 ,459 I I . SERVICES: 1 . D i s t r i b u t i v e : a . C l e r i c a l (41) 324,811 509 ,345 b. S a l e s : (1 ) Commod i t ies ( 5 1 3 / 5 1 4 ) 205 ,205 139,981 (2 ) S e r v i c e s (517) 38 ,985 3 , 4 2 9 (3 ) O t h e r (519) 5 2 , 6 9 9 8 ,763 S a l e s t o t a l 296 ,889 152,173 c . T r a n s p o r t E q u i p . Oper . (91) 356 ,517 2 ,371 d . M a t e r i a l H a n d l i n g (93) 105,786 1,403 e . E l e c t r o n i c s and Communic. (955) 14,089 34 ,458 f . M e c h a n i c s and R e p a i r e r s (858) 179,984 739 g . P r i n t i n g (951 S 959) 3 3 , 2 9 0 7 ,765 D i s t r i b u t i v e t o t a l : 1 ,311 ,366 708 ,253 2 . Consumer: a . A r t i s t i c and L i t e r a r y (33) 35 ,591 17,127 b. Food and B e v e r a g e (612) 51 ,180 8 6 , 8 8 0 c . L o d g i n g (613) 10*194 3 6 , 9 4 9 d . P e r s o n a l (614) 41 ,017 156,124 e . A p p a r e l and F u r n i s h i n g (616) 9 ,047 22,601 f . O t h e r (619) 76 ,667 35 ,767 Consumer t o t a l : 223 ,696 355 ,448 3 . Advanced : a . Non-government A d m i n i s t . ( 1 1 3 / 1 1 4 ) 434 ,348 48 ,893 L a r g e CMAs Smal Ma le Female M a l e 16,346 972 16 ,979 2 , 1 6 0 12 351 1,824 5 780 1,678 4 9 , 8 5 8 22 ,008 993 2 7 , 9 6 8 111,301 4 , 9 6 9 7 6 , 3 6 6 97 ,986 40 ,208 6 1 , 7 6 4 92 ,833 5,701 5 8 , 5 8 8 49 ,694 45 ,695 24 ,658 13,703 14 10.647 254 ,216 91 .617 155,657 387 ,525 9 7 , 5 7 9 259,991 133,696 217 ,602 8 2 , 0 6 3 73 ,895 3 8 , 8 2 5 47 ,026 16,800 1,774 9 ,567 19,339 3 ,807 12,097 110,034 44 ,406 6 8 , 6 9 0 100,764 637 6 5 . 9 0 0 27 ,802 328 18 ;219 4 , 0 2 9 11,531 2 , 6 6 6 52 ,514 332 35 ,934 17,960 3 ,802 7 ,355 446 ,798 278 ,637 280 ,826 17,350 6 ,717 8 , 1 5 0 20 ,069 21 ,973 10,267 4 ,176 15,793 2 , 6 2 9 13,858 39 ,083 7 .523 4 , 0 6 9 6 , 9 0 9 1,807 27 ,608 11,573 17,565 87 ,130 102,048 47 ,941 153,382 14,414 86 ,931 CMAs Non-CMAs Female M a l e Female 1,428 5 3 9 , 7 7 3 7 3 , 4 6 8 9 3 3 , 1 3 7 253 6 7 6 , 2 2 2 106 1 5 3 , 5 8 3 17 1.444 702 ,715 7 3 , 8 4 4 1,869 198,988 3 , 2 7 0 17 ,015 185,241 3 6 , 7 3 4 2 , 6 2 8 135,861 4 ,911 16,878 7 0 , 6 1 6 3 0 , 2 6 2 6 31 ,971 19 3 6 , 5 2 7 4 2 3 , 6 8 8 7 1 , 9 2 6 3 9 , 8 4 0 1 ,325,391 149 ,040 138,828 109.052 152 ,915 32 .301 8 4 , 2 8 4 6 8 , 8 5 5 910 12,618 745 2 , 2 5 3 2 1 , 2 6 3 2 , 7 0 3 3 5 , 4 6 4 118,165 7 2 , 3 0 3 433 189,853 1,301 251 5 9 , 7 6 6 825 6 , 6 6 3 7 , 3 9 5 16 ,265 164 9 1 , 5 3 6 243 1,983 7 , 9 7 5 1 ,980 183,785 5 8 3 , 7 4 2 245 ,831 3 , 8 2 5 10,091 6 , 5 8 5 18 ,599 2 0 , 8 4 4 4 6 , 3 0 8 8 , 0 2 0 3 , 3 8 9 13 ,136 3 1 , 1 9 0 19,636 85 ,851 5 , 9 1 5 3 ,171 9 , 7 7 7 10,938 3 1 , 4 9 4 13 ,256 78 ,487 8 8 , 6 2 5 174 ,913 8 , 5 2 6 194,035 2 5 , 9 5 3 169 b. N a t u r a l S c i e n c e s : (1 ) P h y s i c a l S c i e n c e s (211) (2 ) L i f e S c i e n c e s (213) (3 ) A r c h . , E n g i n . S P l a n . ( 2 1 4 / 2 1 5 ) (4 ) T e c h n o l o g i s t s and Techn . (216) (5 ) M a t h e m a t i c s and S t a t i s t i c s (218) N a t u r a l S c i e n c e s t o t a l c . S o c i a l S c i e n c e s : (1 ) S o c i a l S c i e n c e s (231) (2 ) L e g a l (234 ) S o c i a l S c i e n c e s t o t a l d . O t h e r (117) A d v a n c e d t o t a l 4 . N o n - P r o f i t : a . Government A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (111) b. E d u c a t i o n : (1 ) U n i v e r s i t y (271) (2) E l e m e n t a r y and Secondary (273) (3 ) T e a c h i n g A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (1133) (4 ) O t h e r ( 279 ) E d u c a t i o n t o t a l c . H e a l t h : (1 ) D i a g n o s i s and Treatment (311) (2) N u r s i n g a n d Therapy (313) (3 ) H e a l t h A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (1134) (4 ) O t h e r ( 3 1 5 / 3 1 6 ) H e a l t h t o t a l d . R e l i g i o u s (25 ) e . P r o t e c t i v e (611) f . S o c i a l Work (233 S 239) g . L i b r a r y a n d Museum (235) N o n - P r o f i t t o t a l SERVICES TOTAL: I I I . OTHER: TOTAL 10,471 591 3 ,156 255 5 , 5 7 6 360 915 150 4 5 , 8 2 4 182 21 ,095 127 8 7 , 1 2 9 12,353 33 .447 5,671 3 , 145 548 1,756 333 152,145 14,034 60 ,369 6 ,536 2 , 0 2 6 277 1,196 140 12,594 328 5 , 4 7 3 174 14 ,620 605 6 , 6 6 9 314 4 2 , 1 9 9 3 ,217 20 ,939 1 ,648 643 ,312 66 ,749 241 ,359 22 ,912 4 6 , 9 8 0 4 , 7 3 9 10,182 467 8 , 7 7 9 2 ,366 3 ,077 1 ,006 4 9 , 2 1 9 118,807 12 ,650 2 4 , 4 3 9 766 311 298 114 5 , 1 9 6 4 ,805 1,754 1 ,048 6 3 , 9 6 0 126,289 17,779 26 ,607 2 6 , 0 8 8 1,784 9 ,855 886 16 .490 133.432 4 ,975 36 ,862 2 , 7 5 6 2 , 1 2 9 844 678 12,763 12,210 5 , 0 6 8 4 , 2 7 5 5 8 , 0 9 7 149.555 20 ,742 42,701 2 3 , 9 8 2 9 ,733 4 , 8 6 5 2,751 2 0 7 , 2 7 8 5 , 1 0 5 4 0 , 1 1 0 956 5 ,071 5 , 7 8 4 1,865 2 , 5 5 9 630 2 ,809 263 1,119 405 ,998 304 ,014 9 5 , 8 0 6 7 7 , 1 5 9 584 ,372 1 ,434,464 871 ,093 480 ,756 148,239 45 ,409 40 ,616 13,801 705 ,518 1 ,766 ,332 1 ,299 ,234 592 ,136 3 , 7 4 5 199 3 , 5 7 0 137 1,260 118 3 ,401 92 11,371 30 13 ,358 25 2 2 , 5 0 9 3 ,244 3 1 , 1 7 3 3 , 4 3 8 920 154 469 61 3 9 , 8 0 5 3 , 7 4 5 51 ,971 3 , 7 5 3 579 75 251 62 3 , 3 3 9 132 3 , 7 8 2 22 3 , 9 1 8 207 4 , 0 3 3 84 10 ,399 843 10,861 726 141,053 13,321 2 6 0 , 9 0 0 3 0 , 5 1 6 12 ,909 649 2 3 , 8 8 9 3 , 6 2 4 2 , 6 4 0 504 3 , 0 6 2 856 9 , 0 3 3 19,916 2 7 , 5 3 6 7 4 , 4 5 2 241 74 227 123 969 830 2 , 4 7 3 2 ,927 12,883 21 ,324 3 3 , 2 9 8 7 8 , 3 5 8 6 , 3 6 3 420 9 , 8 7 0 478 3 , 9 2 8 3 2 , 9 5 5 7 , 5 8 7 6 3 , 6 1 5 581 437 1,331 1,014 3 , 134 3 ,324 4 ,561 4 ,611 14,006 3 7 , 1 3 6 2 3 , 3 4 9 6 9 , 7 1 8 4 , 4 6 2 2 ,907 14 ,655 4 , 0 7 5 6 4 , 8 4 5 1 ,008 102,323 3 , 1 4 2 1.274 1 ,590 1,932 1 ,635 213 820 154 870 110,592 6 5 , 4 3 4 199 ,600 161,421 580 ,412 341 ,027 1 ,132 ,867 612 ,681 2 5 , 5 5 6 8 .544 8 2 , 0 6 7 2 3 , 0 6 4 865 ,959 389,411 2 , 5 4 0 , 3 2 5 7 8 4 , 7 8 5 S o u r c e : Canada , D . B . S . , 1961, Census o f Canada, Volume I I I , P a r t I, Ref No. 9 4 - 5 0 1 . 170 O c c u p a t i o n a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and T i t l e s Census Year 1971 I. GOODS: 1. E x t r a c t i v e : a . F a r m i n g (71) b. F i s h i n g (73) c . F o r e s t r y (75) d . M i n i n g (77) E x t r a c t i v e t o t a l : 2 . C o n s t r u c t i o n (87) 3 . M a n u f a c t u r i n g : a . P r o c e s s i n g ( 8 1 / 2 ) b. M a c h i n i n g (83) c . P r o d u c t F a b r i c a t i o n (85) d . U t i l i t i e s (953) M a n u f a c t u r i n g t o t a l : GOODS TOTAL: I I . SERVICES: 1 . D i s t r i b u t i v e : a . C l e r i c a l (41) b. S a l e s : (1 ) Commod i t ies ( 5 1 3 / 5 1 4 ) (2 ) S e r v i c e s (517) (3 ) O t h e r (519) S a l e s t o t a l c . T r a n s p o r t E q u i p . Oper . (91) d . M a t e r i a l H a n d l i n g (93) e . E l e c t r o n i c s and Communic. (955) f . M e c h a n i c s and R e p a i r e r s (858) g . P r i n t i n g (951 & 959) D i s t r i b u t i v e t o t a l : 2 . Consumer: a . A r t i s t i c and L i t e r a r y (33) b. Food and B e v e r a g e (G12) c . L o d g i n g (613) d . P e r s o n a l (614) e . A p p a r e l and F u r n i s h i n g (616) f . O t h e r (619) Consumer t o t a l : 3 . Advanced : a . Non -government A d m i n i s t . ( 113 /114 Canada L a r g e CMAs M a l e Female Male Female 386 ,265 106,190 21 ,495 4 .355 2 6 , 6 5 5 520 1,805 45 6 5 , 8 5 0 1,410 3 ,155 75 5 8 , 7 8 5 380 2 ,515 50 5 3 7 , 5 5 5 108,500 28 ,970 4 ,525 5 6 3 , 4 3 5 5 , 1 2 5 151,335 1,685 2 7 5 , 6 9 0 6 0 , 0 5 5 66 ,403 18.310 2 2 7 , 2 6 0 13 ,680 78 ,620 5 , 8 0 5 239 ,710 147,570 99 ,748 72 ,425 4 4 , 7 9 0 355 11 ,080 160 7 8 7 , 4 5 0 221 ,660 255 ,850 96 ,700 1 ,888 ,440 335 ,285 436 ,155 102,910 433 ,385 940 ,180 187,315 392 ,140 451 ,590 230 ,115 165,190 71 ,780 8 4 , 8 3 0 13,165 3 7 , 5 5 0 6 , 8 3 0 3 1 , 5 6 0 4 , 4 8 0 9 ,935 2 ,280 567 ,980 247 ,760 212 ,675 80 ,890 330 ,240 8 , 1 9 0 9 9 , 5 1 5 1,920 165,390 40 ,450 5 0 , 3 4 5 19,950 7 , 8 0 0 505 2 ,565 220 243 ,920 2 , 1 5 0 6 8 , 2 5 0 800 4 2 , 7 0 5 12 ,680 2 2 , 8 6 5 6 ,215 1 ,791 ,420 1 ,251 ,915 643 ,530 502 ,135 5 8 , 5 8 5 2 1 , 8 9 5 28 ,040 10,490 9 8 , 5 8 0 176,015 40 ,310 44 ,525 2 2 , 0 1 5 3 9 , 7 1 0 6 , 0 5 0 10,175 3 2 , 7 5 0 117,290 11 ,300 32 ,885 14 ,150 25 ,005 6 , 7 7 0 8 ,525 158 ,850 8 2 , 0 3 0 5 7 , 3 3 0 2 1 . 9 6 0 3 8 4 , 9 3 0 461 ,945 149,800 128,560 114,980 15 ,530 52 ,400 6 ,745 171 Smal 1 CMAs Non-CMAs M a l e Female Ma le Female 2 8 , 6 9 5 6 , 0 2 0 3 3 6 , 0 7 5 9 5 , 8 1 5 875 35 2 3 . 9 7 5 440 3 , 0 6 5 95 5 9 , 6 3 0 1,240 12 ,410 85 4 3 , 8 6 0 245 4 5 , 0 4 5 6 ,235 4 6 3 , 5 4 0 9 7 , 7 4 0 146 ,330 1,366 2 6 5 , 7 7 0 2 , 0 7 4 6 0 , 0 2 8 11 ,570 149,260 3 0 , 1 7 5 6 6 , 0 3 0 3 , 4 4 0 8 2 , 6 1 0 4 , 4 3 5 6 2 , 0 0 8 2 9 , 5 9 0 7 7 , 9 5 5 4 5 , 5 5 5 11,785 80 2 1 , 9 2 5 115 199 ,850 4 4 , 6 8 0 331 ,750 8 0 , 2 8 0 3 9 1 , 2 2 5 52 ,281 1 ,061 ,060 180,094 131 ,750 295 ,250 114,320 2 5 2 , 7 9 0 124,235 6 9 , 5 7 5 162,165 8 8 , 7 6 0 2 5 , 5 1 5 3 , 9 7 0 2 1 , 7 6 5 2 , 3 6 5 9 , 2 0 0 1,215 12,425 985 158 ,950 7 4 , 7 6 0 196,355 9 2 , 1 1 0 8 0 , 6 5 0 2 , 3 7 5 150,075 3 , 8 9 5 4 3 , 2 3 5 9 ,295 7 1 , 8 1 0 11 ,205 2 , 2 1 0 110 3 , 0 2 5 175 6 2 , 5 2 5 525 113,145 825 11 ,315 3 , 5 6 5 8 ,525 2 , 9 0 0 490 ,635 385 ,880 6 5 7 , 2 5 5 363 ,900 16 ,330 6 ,265 14,215 5 , 1 4 0 2 6 , 4 4 0 5 0 , 1 2 5 3 1 , 8 3 0 8 1 , 3 6 5 5 , 0 0 5 10,255 10 ,960 19 ,280 8 , 6 4 0 3 1 , 2 6 5 12 ,810 5 3 , 1 4 0 3 , 160 7 ,205 4 , 2 2 0 9 , 2 7 5 4 7 , 2 3 5 2 8 , 3 0 0 5 4 , 2 8 5 3 1 , 7 7 0 106 ,810 133,415 128 ,320 199 ,970 2 6 , 2 9 0 4 , 5 9 0 3 6 , 2 9 0 4 , 1 9 5 b. N a t u r a l S c i e n c e s : (1 ) P h y s i c a l S c i e n c e s (211) 3 0 . 2 7 5 4 , 0 3 0 9 ,200 1 ,685 11 ,440 1,275 9 , 6 3 5 1 ,070 (2 ) L i f e S c i e n c e s (213) 14 ,450 4 , 6 6 0 2 ,985 1,655 5 , 0 4 0 1,900 6 , 4 2 5 1,105 (3 ) A r c h . , E n g i n . & P l a n . ( 214 /215 ) 7 9 , 5 8 5 1,335 3 5 , 8 1 5 725 2 5 , 7 2 5 410 18,045 200 (4) T e c h n o l o g i s t s and Techn . (216) 7 0 , 4 9 0 3 , 0 6 0 2 5 , 4 1 0 1 ,365 2 3 , 3 8 0 1,215 2 1 , 7 0 0 480 (5 ) M a t h e m a t i c s and S t a t i s t i c s (218) 2 2 , 2 2 0 4 , 0 2 5 12,030 2 ,290 7 , 8 4 5 1,320 2 , 3 4 5 415 N a t u r a l S c i e n c e s t o t a l 2 1 7 . 0 2 0 17 ,110 85 ,440 7 , 7 2 0 7 3 , 4 3 0 6 , 1 2 0 5 8 , 1 5 0 3 , 2 7 0 c . S o c i a l S c i e n c e s : (1 ) S o c i a l S c i e n c e s (231) 8 . 2 2 5 3 , 2 7 5 3 , 8 7 0 1,320 2 , 8 8 0 895 1,475 1,060 (2 ) L e g a l (234) 19 ,340 1,470 9 ,065 735 6 , 1 5 0 510 4 , 1 2 5 225 S o c i a l S c i e n c e s t o t a l 2 7 . 5 6 5 4 , 7 4 5 12,935 2 ,055 9 , 0 3 0 1,405 5 , 6 0 0 1 ,285 d . O t h e r (117) 158,620 29 ,665 7 0 , 2 2 5 14,235 5 2 , 4 5 0 9 , 0 6 0 3 5 , 9 4 5 6 , 3 7 0 Advanced t o t a l 518 ,185 6 7 , 0 5 0 221 ,000 3 0 , 7 5 5 161,200 2 1 , 1 7 5 135,985 15 ,120 4 . N o n - P r o f i t : a . Government A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (111) 3 3 , 9 5 5 5 . 4 4 5 8 ,055 870 12,895 1,185 13 ,005 3 , 3 9 0 b. E d u c a t i o n : (1 ) U n i v e r s i t y (271) 2 1 , 7 7 0 4 , 7 1 5 7 , 4 3 0 1 ,950 10 ,195 2 , 0 4 5 4 , 1 4 5 720 (2 ) E l e m e n t a r y and Secondary (273) 9 1 , 2 5 0 180,515 2 4 , 7 8 0 49 ,625 2 5 , 0 3 5 4 5 , 6 5 0 4 1 , 4 3 5 8 5 , 2 4 0 (3 ) T e a c h i n g A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (1133) 2 2 , 8 9 0 5 , 9 5 0 5 , 7 0 5 1,550 6 , 4 7 0 1,595 10,715 2 , 8 0 5 (4 ) O t h e r (279) 2 5 , 1 5 5 2 5 , 8 9 5 8 ,925 8 ,390 7 , 7 0 5 8 , 4 6 5 8 , 5 2 5 9 , 0 4 0 E d u c a t i o n t o t a l 161,065 217 ,075 46 ,840 61 .515 4 9 , 4 0 5 5 7 , 7 5 5 6 4 , 8 2 0 9 7 , 8 0 5 c . H e a l t h : (1 ) D i a g n o s i s and Treatment (311) 3 5 , 0 0 5 4 , 1 0 5 13,405 2 ,065 11 ,225 1,270 10,375 770 (2 ) N u r s i n g and Therapy (313) 2 8 , 6 4 5 204 ,500 8 ,235 60 ,080 8 , 8 3 5 6 2 , 3 5 0 11,575 8 2 , 0 7 0 (3 ) H e a l t h A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (1134) 2 , 5 3 0 2 , 3 7 0 840 605 720 695 970 1 ,070 (4 ) O t h e r ( 3 1 5 / 3 1 6 ) 2 0 , 2 2 0 3 4 , 0 8 5 7 ,675 11.995 6 , 2 9 5 12 ,310 6 , 2 5 0 9 , 7 8 0 H e a l t h t o t a l 8 6 , 4 0 0 245 ,060 3 0 , 1 5 5 7 4 , 7 4 5 2 7 , 0 7 5 7 6 , 6 2 5 2 9 . 1 7 0 9 3 , 6 9 0 d . R e l i g i o u s (25) 19 ,880 3 , 7 1 0 4 , 3 1 0 935 4 , 5 2 5 940 11,045 1,835 e. P r o t e c t i v e (611) 195 ,590 7 , 9 3 0 43 ,195 2 ,365 6 9 , 0 7 0 2 , 4 7 0 8 3 , 3 2 5 3 , 0 9 5 f . S o c i a l Work (233 & 239) 19 ,030 17 ,290 6 ,235 6 , 5 3 0 5 . 9 6 5 5 , 9 6 0 6 , 8 3 0 4 , 8 0 0 g . L i b r a r y and Museum (235) 2 , 9 3 0 7 , 4 9 0 1 ,015 3 , 0 2 5 1,135 2 , 3 3 0 780 2 , 1 3 5 N o n - P r o f i t t o t a l 5 1 8 , 8 5 0 504 ,000 139,805 149,985 170 ,070 147,265 2 0 8 , 9 7 5 2 0 6 , 7 5 0 SERVICES TOTAL: 3 , 2 1 3 , 3 8 5 2 , 2 8 4 , 9 1 0 1 ,154 .135 811 ,435 9 2 8 , 7 1 5 6 8 7 , 7 3 5 1 , 1 3 0 . 5 3 5 7 8 5 , 7 4 0 I I I . OTHER: 563 ,900 341 ,005 181,125 113,435 141 ,460 8 6 , 8 3 0 2 4 1 , 3 1 5 140 ,740 TOTAL 5 , 6 6 5 , 7 2 5 2 , 9 6 1 , 2 0 0 1 ,771 ,415 1 ,027 ,780 1 ,461 ,400 8 2 6 , 8 4 6 2 , 4 3 2 , 9 1 0 1 , 1 0 6 , 5 7 4 S o u r c e : Canada , 1971, Census o f Canada , Volume I I I , P a r t I I , Economic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , T a b l e 2 , Ref No. 9 4 - 7 1 5 - 7 2 7 . 172 O c c u p a t i o n a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and T i t l e s C e n s u s Y e a r 1981 I. GOODS: 1. E x t r a c t i v e : a . F a r m i n g (71 ) b . F i s h i n g (73) c . F o r e s t r y (75) d . M i n i n g (77 ) E x t r a c t i v e t o t a l : 2 . C o n s t r u c t i o n (87) 3 . M a n u f a c t u r i n g : a . P r o c e s s i n g ( 8 1 / 2 ) b. M a c h i n i n g (83) c . P r o d u c t F a b r i c a t i o n (85) d . U t i l i t i e s (953) M a n u f a c t u r i n g t o t a l : GOODS TOTAL: I I . SERVICES: 1. D i s t r i b u t i v e : a . C l e r i c a l (41) b. S a l e s : (1 ) C o m m o d i t i e s ( 5 1 3 / 5 1 4 ) (2 ) S e r v i c e s (517) (3 ) O t h e r (519) S a l e s t o t a l c . T r a n s p o r t E q u i p . Oper . (91) d . M a t e r i a l H a n d l i n g (93) e . E l e c t r o n i c s and Communic. (955) f . M e c h a n i c s and R e p a i r e r s (858) g . P r i n t i n g (951 & 959) D i s t r i b u t i v e t o t a l : 2 . Consumer: a . A r t i s t i c and L i t e r a r y (33) b. Food and B e v e r a g e (G12) c . L o d g i n g (613) d . P e r s o n a l (614) e . A p p a r e l a n d F u r n i s h i n g (616) f . O t h e r (619) Consumer t o t a l : 3 . Advanced : a . Non -government A d m i n i s t . ( 1 1 3 / 1 1 4 Canada L a r g e CMAs Ma le Female M a l e Female 375 ,380 106,225 2 5 , 9 3 0 7 ,020 3 8 , 8 2 5 2 , 2 8 0 1.890 155 7 8 , 0 9 0 5 ,075 2 , 9 7 5 295 7 5 . 9 1 5 1,635 2 ,215 35 5 6 8 . 2 1 0 115,215 33 ,010 7 ,505 7 6 8 , 3 5 0 15,270 180,285 4 , 1 3 0 3 7 7 , 3 3 5 108,145 8 5 , 9 8 5 26 ,565 292 .915 21 ,410 8 9 . 5 5 0 8 . 2 7 5 361 ,175 230 ,280 140.220 109,265 5 1 , 5 7 5 1 .070 10.995 325 1 ,083 ,000 360 ,905 326 .750 144,430 2 , 4 1 9 , 5 6 0 491 ,390 540 ,045 156,065 498 ,210 1 ,743 ,330 210 ,345 650 .005 481 ,455 393 ,320 167,250 116,530 104,470 46 ,975 4 1 . 8 7 0 2 0 , 3 9 0 2 7 , 5 6 0 8 ,830 9 , 6 6 5 4 , 4 0 5 613 ,485 449 ,125 218 ,785 141 ,325 439 ,980 30 ,550 123,865 6 , 7 5 0 193,620 5 6 , 4 5 0 6 1 , 7 3 0 27 ,365 9 , 8 0 5 1 .955 3 , 7 8 5 720 359 .420 4 ,845 9 1 , 3 5 5 1,545 5 4 , 5 6 5 28 ,135 2 8 . 2 0 0 11,950 2 , 1 6 9 , 0 8 5 2 , 3 1 4 , 3 9 0 738 ,065 839 ,660 104,675 6 8 , 1 8 0 45 ,960 30 ,150 176,185 364 ,760 72 ,300 86 ,195 18 ,620 44 ,720 6 , 5 8 0 9 , 9 0 0 2 9 . 9 0 0 143,250 11,950 39 .920 13,805 2 9 , 2 5 0 5 , 9 8 0 9 , 5 4 5 206 ,350 139,735 7 0 , 9 7 5 3 4 , 5 5 0 549 ,535 789 ,895 213 ,745 210 ,260 530 ,655 142,650 200 ,950 5 6 , 8 5 5 Smal 1 CMAs Non-CMAs Ma le Female M a l e Female 3 7 , 4 7 5 10,925 3 1 1 , 9 7 5 8 8 , 2 8 0 1 ,775 105 3 5 , 1 6 0 2 , 0 2 0 3 , 7 0 5 310 7 1 , 4 1 0 4 , 4 7 0 14 ,720 310 5 8 , 9 8 0 1 ,290 5 7 , 6 7 5 11 ,650 4 7 7 , 5 2 5 9 6 , 0 6 0 2 0 9 , 4 8 5 4 , 0 6 0 3 7 8 , 5 8 0 7 , 0 8 0 8 5 , 9 7 5 18,695 2 0 5 . 3 7 5 6 2 , 8 8 5 8 8 , 3 8 0 5 , 2 0 0 114 .985 7 , 9 3 5 9 6 , 7 7 0 4 6 , 4 5 5 124.185 7 4 . 5 6 0 13,015 310 2 7 , 5 6 5 435 284 ,140 7 0 , 6 6 0 4 7 2 , 1 1 0 145 ,815 551 ,300 8 6 , 3 7 0 1 , 3 2 8 , 2 1 5 2 4 8 , 9 5 5 155,160 553 ,945 132,705 5 3 9 , 3 8 0 143,125 120,155 171 ,080 156,635 3 3 , 3 8 5 14,885 2 9 , 2 1 5 11 ,700 7 ,405 2 , 4 8 0 10 ,490 1 ,945 183,915 137,520 2 1 0 , 7 8 5 170 ,280 114,510 9 , 1 2 5 2 0 1 , 6 0 5 14 ,675 5 2 , 6 3 5 12 ,220 7 9 , 2 5 5 16 ,865 3 , 0 5 5 540 2 , 9 6 5 695 9 4 , 6 3 0 1,355 173,435 1 ,945 14 ,880 8 , 1 4 0 11,485 8 , 0 4 5 618 ,785 722 ,845 8 1 2 , 2 3 5 7 5 1 , 8 8 5 3 1 , 2 0 5 2 0 , 0 9 5 2 7 , 5 1 0 17 ,935 5 4 , 3 2 0 106,080 4 9 , 5 6 5 172 ,485 5 , 1 7 5 12 ,310 6 , 8 6 5 2 2 , 5 1 0 7 , 9 4 5 3 9 , 3 3 5 10 ,005 6 3 , 9 9 5 3 , 7 6 0 8 , 4 3 0 4 , 0 6 5 11 ,275 6 4 , 5 5 0 4 4 , 9 3 5 7 0 , 8 2 5 6 0 , 2 5 0 166,955 231 ,185 168,835 3 4 8 , 4 5 0 148,050 3 9 , 9 6 5 181,655 4 5 , 8 3 0 173 b. N a t u r a l S c i e n c e s : (1 ) P h y s i c a l S c i e n c e s (211) 3 3 , 9 1 0 7 .755 9 ,405 2 , 4 5 5 13 ,830 3 , 1 8 5 10 ,675 2 , 1 1 5 (2 ) L i f e S c i e n c e s (213) 2 1 , 2 8 5 7 , 7 7 0 3 ,825 2 , 0 5 5 7 , 0 6 0 2 , 7 9 5 10 ,400 2 , 9 2 0 (3 ) A r c h . , E n g i n . & P l a n . ( 2 1 4 / 2 1 5 ) 129,960 6 , 2 2 0 49 ,610 2 , 9 8 5 4 8 , 0 9 0 2 , 1 6 0 3 2 , 2 6 0 1,075 (4) T e c h n o l o g i s t s and Techn . (216) 111,450 14,115 3 7 , 1 2 0 4 , 6 7 0 3 8 , 9 6 5 5 , 5 5 5 3 5 , 3 6 5 3 , 8 9 0 (5 ) M a t h e m a t i c s and S t a t i s t i c s (218) 4 8 , 9 4 5 20 ,105 2 4 , 4 8 0 0 18 ,680 8 , 0 0 0 5 , 7 8 5 2 , 4 4 5 N a t u r a l S c i e n c e s t o t a l 3 4 5 , 5 5 0 55 ,965 124,440 21 ,825 126,625 2 1 . 6 9 5 9 4 , 4 8 5 12 ,445 c . S o c i a l S c i e n c e s : (1 ) S o c i a l S c i e n c e s (231) 17,195 10,600 6 ,560 4 ,385 7 , 1 0 0 3 , 5 5 0 3 , 5 3 5 2 , 6 6 5 (2 ) L e g a l (234) 3 4 , 5 6 5 9 ,835 14,955 4 , 6 3 5 11,785 3 , 4 1 0 7 , 8 2 5 1,790 S o c i a l S c i e n c e s t o t a l 5 1 , 7 6 0 20 ,435 21 ,515 9 ,020 18,885 6 , 9 6 0 11 ,360 4 , 4 5 5 d . O t h e r (117) 183,475 90 ,915 7 6 , 4 6 0 41 ,245 6 5 , 1 0 5 31 ,245 4 1 , 9 1 0 18 ,425 Advanced t o t a l 1 , 111,440 309 ,965 423 ,365 128,945 358 ,665 9 9 , 8 6 5 3 2 9 , 4 1 0 8 1 , 1 5 5 4 . N o n - P r o f i t : a . Government A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (111) 5 2 , 8 1 5 15,245 11 ,790 3 , 3 6 5 2 0 , 7 9 5 5 , 1 8 5 2 0 , 2 3 0 6 , 6 9 5 b. E d u c a t i o n : (1) U n i v e r s i t y (271) 3 2 , 3 8 0 13,645 11,160 5 , 4 4 5 15 ,250 5 , 9 8 0 5 . 9 7 0 2 , 2 2 0 (2) E l e m e n t a r y and Secondary (273) 121,240 228 ,345 31 ,080 6 3 . 8 9 0 3 2 , 5 8 5 6 1 , 7 3 5 5 7 , 5 7 5 102 ,720 (3 ) T e a c h i n g A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (1133) 2 6 , 3 3 0 8 ,055 6 , 7 6 0 3 , 1 1 5 8 , 0 6 5 2 , 7 4 0 11 ,505 2 , 2 0 0 (4 ) O t h e r (279) 4 8 , 4 7 0 57 ,415 16,115 19 ,000 14 ,540 18 ,110 17 ,815 2 0 , 3 0 5 E d u c a t i o n t o t a l 2 2 8 , 4 2 0 307 ,460 6 5 , 1 1 5 9 1 , 4 5 0 7 0 , 4 4 0 8 8 , 5 6 5 9 2 , 8 6 5 127,445 c . H e a l t h : (1) D i a g n o s i s a n d Treatment (311) 5 0 , 2 9 0 10,895 18 ,580 5 , 0 0 5 15 ,965 3 , 5 9 5 15 ,745 2 , 2 9 5 (2 ) N u r s i n g a n d Therapy (313) 3 8 , 7 7 0 327 ,490 12,745 9 1 , 9 4 0 11,095 101,575 14 ,930 133,975 (3 ) H e a l t h A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (1134) 4 , 5 5 5 5 , 3 2 5 1,335 1,700 1,815 1,880 1 ,405 1 ,745 (4 ) O t h e r ( 3 1 5 / 3 1 6 ) 2 9 , 5 3 0 76 ,520 11,055 25 ,220 9 , 6 9 5 2 6 , 6 5 0 8 , 7 8 0 2 4 , 6 5 0 H e a l t h t o t a l 123,145 420 ,230 43 ,715 123,865 3 8 , 5 7 0 133,700 4 0 , 8 6 0 162,665 d . R e l i g i o u s (25 ) 2 5 , 0 0 0 10,675 5 , 3 6 5 3 , 1 2 0 6 ,465 3 , 4 5 0 13 ,170 4 , 1 0 5 e . P r o t e c t i v e (611) 2 3 1 , 3 9 0 32 ,150 5 6 , 0 0 5 8 , 8 7 0 7 8 . 2 2 0 9 , 8 5 0 9 7 , 1 6 5 13 ,430 f . S o c i a l Work (233 & 239) 3 3 , 0 6 5 61 ,170 8 ,915 17,495 10,455 19,345 13 ,695 2 4 , 3 3 0 g . L i b r a r y and Museum (235) 5 , 8 3 5 18,775 1,835 6 ,505 2 , 6 1 0 6 , 1 6 0 1 ,390 6 , 1 1 0 N o n - P r o f i t t o t a l 6 9 9 , 6 7 0 865 ,705 192,740 254 ,670 227 ,555 266 ,255 2 7 9 , 3 7 5 3 4 4 , 7 8 0 SERVICES TOTAL: 4 , 5 2 9 , 7 3 0 4 , 2 7 9 , 9 5 5 1 ,567 ,915 1 ,433 ,535 1 ,371 ,960 1 .320 ,150 1 , 5 8 9 , 8 5 5 1 ,526 ,270 I I I . OTHER: 205 ,970 127,555 55 ,295 3 5 , 7 8 0 5 7 , 0 7 0 3 2 , 9 2 0 9 3 , 6 0 5 5 8 , 8 5 5 TOTAL 7 , 1 5 5 , 2 6 0 4 , 8 9 8 , 9 0 0 2 , 1 6 3 , 2 5 5 1 .625 ,380 1 ,980 ,330 1 ,439 ,440 3 , 0 1 1 , 6 7 5 1 , 8 3 4 , 0 8 0 S o u r c e : C a n a d a , S t a t i s t i c s Canada, Census o f Canada, N a t i o n a l S e r i e s , 1981, V o l . I, R e f . No. 9 2 - 9 3 0 - 9 3 4 . C a n a d a , S t a t i s t i c s Canada, Census o f Canada, P r o v i n c i a l S e r i e s , 1981, Re f . No. 9 3 - 9 6 1 - 9 7 0 . 174 A p p e n d i x H: P e r c e n t a g e o f Female Labour F o r c e i n O c c u p a t i o n a l C a t e g o r i f o r Canada , L a r g e , S m a l l and Non-CMAs, 1951 - 1981 Canada Census Year I. GOODS: 1. E x t r a c t i v e : a . F a r m i n g (71) b. F i s h i n g (73) c . F o r e s t r y (75) d . M i n i n g (77) E x t r a c t i v e t o t a l : 2 . C o n s t r u c t i o n (87 ) 3 . M a n u f a c t u r i n g : a . P r o c e s s i n g ( 8 1 / 2 ) b. M a c h i n i n g (83) c . P r o d u c t F a b r i c a t i o n (85) d . U t i l i t i e s (953) M a n u f a c t u r i n g t o t a l : GOODS TOTAL: I I . SERVICES: 1. D i s t r i b u t i v e : a . C l e r i c a l (41) b. S a l e s : (1 ) C o m m o d i t i e s ( 5 1 3 / 5 1 4 ) (2 ) S e r v i c e s (517) (3 ) O t h e r (519) S a l e s t o t a l c . T r a n s p o r t E q u i p . Oper . (91) d . M a t e r i a l H a n d l i n g (93) e . E l e c t r o n i c s and Communic. (955) f . M e c h a n i c s a n d R e p a i r e r s (858) g . P r i n t i n g (951 & 959) D i s t r i b u t i v e t o t a l : 2 . Consumer: a . A r t i s t i c and L i t e r a r y (33) b. Food and B e v e r a g e (612) c . L o d g i n g (613) d . P e r s o n a l (614) e . A p p a r e l and F u r n i s h i n g (616) f . O t h e r (619) Consumer t o t a l : 1951 1961 1971 3 .9% 11 .7% 21 .6 0 .4% 0 .8% 1 .9 0 .0% 0 .1% 2 . 1 0 .0% 0 .0°/ 0 .6 3 .1% 9 .2% 16 .8 0 .3% 2 .5% 0 .9 22 .3% 21 .4% 17 .9 5 .2% 4 .4% 5 .7 42 .8% 39. .0% 38 . 1 0 .0% 0. .1% 0 .8 23 .0% 19. .4% 22 .0 9 .6% 12. .7% 15 . 1 55. .3% 6 1 . 1% 68. 4 41 . .5% 40. .6% 33, ,8 7. .0% 8. 1% 13. .4 9. .2% 14. 3% 12. .4 35. .4% 33. 9% 30. .4 0. 4% 0. 7% 2. 4 0. 8% 1. 3% 19. 7 48. 9% 7 1 . 0% 6. 1 0. 5% 0 . 4% 0. 9 18. .4% 18. 9% 22. .9 32. .2% 35. 1% 41 . 1 3 1 . 1% 32. 5% 27. 2 58 . 6% 62 . 9% 64. 1 77. 9% 78. 4% 64. 3 76. 8% 79 . 2% 78. 2 63 . 1% 7 1 . 4% 63 . 9 28. 0% 3 1 . 8% 34. 1 60 . 2% 6 1 . 4% 54. 5 175 1981 22 . 1% 5.5% 6. 1% 2 .1% 16.9% 1.9% 22.3% 6.8% 38.9% 2.0% 25.0% 16.9% 77.8% 45.0% 31.0% 24.3% 42.3% 6.5% 22.6% 16.6% 1.3% 34.0% 51 .6% 39.4% 67.4% 70.6% 82.7% 67.9% 40.4% 59.0% 3 . A d v a n c e d : a . Non -government A d m i n i s t . ( 113 /114 ) 9 .2% 10 . 1% 11 .9 b. N a t u r a l S c i e n c e s : (1 ) P h y s i c a l S c i e n c e s (211) - 5 .3% 11 .7 (2 ) L i f e S c i e n c e s (213) 3. .8% 6 .1% 24 .4 (3 ) A r c h . , E n g i n . & P l a n . ( 214 /215 ) 2 .5% 0 .4% 1 .6 (4 ) T e c h n o l o g i s t s and Techn . (216) 19 .2% 12 .4% 4 .2 (5 ) M a t h e m a t i c s and S t a t i s t i c s (218) 14 .5% 14 .8% 15 .3 N a t u r a l S c i e n c e s t o t a l 10 .0% 8 .4% 7 .3 c . S o c i a l S c i e n c e s : (1 ) S o c i a l S c i e n c e s (231) - 12 .0% 28 .5 (2 ) L e g a l (234) 2 .1% 2 .5% 7 . 1 S o c i a l S c i e n c e s t o t a l 2 .1% 4 .0% 14 .7 d . O t h e r (117) 12. .4% 7 . 1% 15 .8 Advanced t o t a l 9 .5% 9 .4% 11 .5 4 . N o n - P r o f i t : a . Government A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (111) 8 .9% 9 .2% 13 .8 b. E d u c a t i o n : (1 ) U n i v e r s i t y (271) 15. .0% 21 .2% 17 .8 (2 ) E l e m e n t a r y and Secondary (273) 72. .5% 70 .7% 66 .4 (3 ) T e a c h i n g A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (1133) - 28 .9% 20 .6 (4 ) O t h e r (279) 58 .1% 48 .0% 50. .7 E d u c a t i o n t o t a l 69 ,3% 66. .4% 57. .4 c . H e a l t h : (1 ) D i a g n o s i s and Treatment (311) 4. 0% 6. .4% 10. .5 (2 ) N u r s i n g and Therapy (313) 89. 6% 89. 0% 87. 7 (3 ) H e a l t h A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (1134) - 43 .6% 48, ,4 (4 ) O t h e r ( 3 1 5 / 3 1 6 ) 36. .4% 48. 62. 8 H e a l t h t o t a l 69. .8% 72. .0% 73. .9 d . R e l i g i o u s (25 ) 39. 7% 28. .9% 15. .7 e . P r o t e c t i v e (611) 0. 9% 2. .4% 3. 9 f . S o c i a l Work (233 & 239) 63 . 2% 53. 3% 47. 6 g . L i b r a r y a n d Museum (235) 86. 7% 81 . .7% 71 . 9 N o n - P r o f i t t o t a l 41 . 4% 42. 8% 49. 3 SERVICES TOTAL: 33 . 2% 35. .7% 41 . 6 I I I . OTHER: 8. 2% 23. 4% 37. 7 TOTAL 22 . 0% 27. .3% 34. 3 176 21.2% 18.6% 26.7% 4.6% 11.2% 29 . 1% 13.9% 38 . 1% 22.2% 28.3% 33 . 1% 21.8% 22.4% 29.6% 65.3% 23.4% 54.2% 57.4% 17.8% 89.4% 53.9% 72.2% 77.3% 29.9% 12.2% 64.9% 76.3% 55.3% 48.6% 38.2% 40.6% A p p e n d i x I: L i s t i n g o f C a n a d i a n Census M e t r o p o l i t a n A reas f o r t h e 1951 - 1981 Census P e r i o d s . Census Year 1951 1961 1971 1981 C a l g a r y C a l g a r y C a l g a r y C a l g a r y Edmonton Edmonton C h i c o u t imi C h i c o u t imi H a m i l t o n H a l i f a x Edmonton Edmonton M o n t r e a l H a m i l t o n H a l i f a x H a l i f a x O t t a w a K i t c h e n e r H a m i l t o n Ham i1 t o n Quebec London K i t c h e n e r K i t c h e n e r T o r o n t o M o n t r e a l London London Vancouve r O t tawa M o n t r e a l Montrea1 Windsor Sudbury Ot tawa Oshawa W i n n i p e g Quebec St C a t h e r i n e s O t t a w a - H u l 1 T o r o n t o S a i n t J o h n Quebec Vancouve r S t . J o h n ' s R e g i n a V i c t o r i a S a s k a t o o n St C a t h e r i n e s Windsor Sudbury S a i n t J o h n W i n n i p e g Quebec S t . J o h n ' s Thunder Bay S a s k a t o o n T o r o n t o Sudbury Vancouver Thunder Bay V i c t o r i a T o r o n t o Windsor T r o i s - R i v i e r e s W i n n i p e g Vancouver V i c t o r i a Windsor W i n n i p e g A p p e n d i x J : L i s t i n g o f L a r g e , S m a l l and Non-CMAs. L a r g e Census M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a s : T o r o n t o , M o n t r e a l , and Vancouver . S m a l l Census M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a s : R e m a i n i n g Census M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a s . N o n - C e n s u s M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a s : T o t a l C a n a d i a n Labour F o r c e minus L a r g e and S m a l l Census M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a s . 178 A p p e n d i x K: L i s t o f V a r i a b l e s t o be u s e d i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e 198G Survey o f Consumer F i n a n c e s . S IZE POSITION TYPE VARIABLE TITLE AND CODES 5 1 -5 N IDENTIFICATION NUMBER 2 6 - 7 N STANDARD GEOGRAPHIC CODE 10 Newfound land 11 P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d 12 Nova S c o t i a 13 New B r u n s w i c k 24 Quebec 35 O n t a r i o 46 M a n i t o b a 47 S a s k a t c h e w a n 48 A l b e r t a 59 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 1 8 N AREA 1 L a r g e u r b a n c e n t r e s w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n o f 500 ,000 o r more 2 L a r g e u r b a n c e n t r e s w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n o f 100,000 t o 499 ,999 3 M i n o r u r b a n c e n t r e s w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n o f 3 0 , 0 0 0 t o 9 9 , 0 0 0 4 O t h e r u r b a n c e n t r e s w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n l e s s t h a n 3 0 , 0 0 0 5 R u r a l A r e a s SCF FINAL UNIVERSAL WEIGHT WAGES AND SALARIES (INCLUDING MILITARY PAY AND ALLOWANCES) TOTAL EARNINGS 3 10 -12 N 7 13 -19 N 7 2 7 - 3 3 N NUMBER 1 211 N Under 6 YEARS OF AGE 0 - 2 A c t u a l number 3 T h r e e o r more 212 N 6 - 1 7 YEARS OF AGE 0 - 2 A c t u a l number 3 T h r e e o r more 249 N MARITAL STATUS 1 S i n g l e ( n e v e r m a r r i e d ) 2 M a r r i e d ( o r l i v i n g common law) 3 O t h e r 179 250 -251 N AGE 15 -75 A c t u a l Age 7G Age 76 o r o v e r 252 N SEX 1 M a l e 2 Female 253 N EDUCATION LEVEL 1 No s c h o o l i n g o r e l e m e n t a r y 2 9 - 1 0 y e a r s o f e l e m e n t a r y and secondary 3 11 y e a r s o f e l e m e n t a r y and s e c o n d a r y 4 12 y e a r s o f e l e m e n t a r y and s e c o n d a r y 5 13 y e a r s o f e l e m e n t a r y and secondary 6 Some p o s t - s e c o n d a r y 7 P o s t - s e c o n d a r y c e r t i f i c a t e o r d i p l o m a 8 U n i v e r s i t y deg ree 259 N LABOUR FORCE STATUS 1 Employed 2 Unemployed 3 Not i n Labour F o r c e 260 N CLASS OF WORKER (CURRENT OR LAST u'OB) 1 P a i d , p r i v a t e s e c t o r 2 P a i d , p u b l i c s e c t o r 3 S e l f - e m p l o y e d 4 U n p a i d f a m i l y worker 5 Never worked b e f o r e 6 L a s t worked more t h a n f i v e y e a r s age 2 6 1 - 2 6 2 N 1971 OCCUPATIONAL CLASSIFICATION (CURRANT OR LAST UOB) 01 - 49 See Append ix L f o r a d e t a i l e d l i s t i n g of o c c u p a t i o n a l c o d e s . 2 6 3 - 2 6 4 N INDUSTRY 01 - 16 See Append ix M f o r a d e t a i l e d l i s t i n g o f i n d u s t r i a l c o d e s . 2 6 5 - 2 6 6 N TOTAL USUAL HOURS WORKED 0 0 - 6 4 A c t u a l hou rs 65 65 o r more hou rs 180 1 2G8 N JOB TENURE (CURRENT JOB) 1 L e s s t h a n 7 months 2 7 - 1 2 months 3 1-5 y e a r s 4 6 - 1 0 y e a r s 5 11 -20 y e a r s G Over 20 y e a r s 7 Not a p p 1 i cab1e 2 2 7 5 - 2 7 6 N WEEKS WORKED LAST YEAR (1982) 00 None 0 1 - 5 2 A c t u a l number o f weeks N WORKED MOSTLY FULL-TIME OR PART-TIME LAST YEAR (1982) 1 F u l l - t i m e 2 P a r t - t i m e 3 D i d n o t work l a s t y e a r N WORK ACTIVITY IN REFERENCE YEAR 1 F u l l - y e a r f u l l - t i m e worke r 2 O t h e r worker 3 D i d n o t work i n r e f e r e n c e y e a r 1 277 1 278 181 A p p e n d i x L: 1980 S t a n d a r d O c c u p a t i o n a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n R e f e r e n c e Code O c c u p a t i o n a l T i t l e and Code M a n a g e r i a l , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and r e l a t e d ( M a j o r g r o u p 11) 0 1 . O f f i c i a l s a n d a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , gov t (111) 0 2 . O t h e r managers and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s (113 , 114) 0 3 . Management a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n r e l a t e d (117) N a t u r a l s c i e n c e s , e n g i n e e r i n g and mathemat ics ( M a j o r g r o u p 21) 04 . P h y s i c a l , l i f e s c i e n c e s , math , s t a t s , systems a n a l y s i s and r e l a t e d ( 2 1 1 , 213 , 218) 0 5 . A r c h i t e c t s a n d e n g i n e e r s (214 , 215) 06 . A r c h i t e c t u r e and e n g i n e e r i n g r e l a t e d (216) 07 . S o c i a l s c i e n c e s and r e l a t e d . R e l i g i o n (Major g roups 2 3 , 25) M e d i c i n e and h e a l t h (Ma jo r g roup 31) 0 8 . H e a l t h d i a g n o s i n g and t r e a t i n g (311) 09 . N u r s i n g , t h e r a p y a n d r e l a t e d (313) 10. O t h e r m e d i c i n e and h e a l t h r e l a t e d (315) 11. A r t i s t i c , l i t e r a r y , r e c r e a t i o n a l and r e l a t e d (Ma jor g roup 33) T e a c h i n g and r e l a t e d (Ma jor g roup 27) 12. U n i v e r s i t y and r e l a t e d (271) 13. E l e m e n t a r y , s e c o n d a r y and r e l a t e d (273) 14. O t h e r t e a c h i n g and r e l a t e d (279) C l e r i c a l and r e l a t e d (Ma jor g roup 41) 15. S t e n o g r a p h i c and t y p i n g (411) • 16. B o o k k e e p i n g , a c c o u n t - r e c o r d i n g and r e l a t e d (413) 17. O f f i c e m a c h i n e and E . D . P . o p e r a t o r s (414) 18. M a t e r i a l r e c o r d i n g , s c h e d u l i n g and d i s t r i b u t i o n (415) 19. R e c e p t i o n , i n f o r m a t i o n , m a i l and message d i s t r i b u t i o n (417) 20 . L i b r a r y , f i l e , c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , o t h e r c l e r i c a l and r e l a t e d (416, 419) S a l e s , (Ma jo r g roup 51) 2 1 . S a l e s , c o m m o d i t i e s (513 , 514) 2 2 . S a l e s , s e r v i c e s and o t h e r s a l e s (517, 519) S e r v i c e ( M a j o r g roup 61) 2 3 . P r o t e c t i v e s e r v i c e (611) 182 24 . Food a n d b e v e r a g e p r e p a r a t i o n 8> r e l a t e d , l o d g i n g a n d a c c o m o d a t i o n (612 , 613) 2 5 . P e r s o n a l , a p p a r e l and f u r n i s h i n g s e r v i c e (614 , 616) 2 6 . O t h e r s e r v i c e o c c u p a t i o n s (619) F a r m i n g , h o r t i c u l t u r a l and a n i m a l husbandry ( M a j o r g r o u p 71) 2 7 . F a r m e r s (711) 2 8 . O t h e r f a r m i n g , h o r t i c u l t u r a l and a n i m a l husbandry (718, 719) 2 9 . F i s h i n g , t r a p p i n g and r e l a t e d (Ma jor g roup 73) 3 0 . F o r e s t r y and l o g g i n g (Major g roup 75) 3 1 . M i n i n g a n d q j a r r y i n g i n c l u d i n g gas and o i l f i e l d (Major g roup 77) P r o c e s s i n g (Ma jo r g roups 8 1 , 82) 3 2 . F o o d , b e v e r a g e and r e l a t e d ( 8 2 1 , 822) 3 3 . O t h e r p r o c e s s i n g o c c u p a t i o n s ( 8 1 1 - 8 1 7 , 823 -829 ) M a c h i n i n g and r e l a t e d (Ma jo r g roup 83) 34 . M e t a l s h a p i n g and f o r m i n g o c c u p a t i o n s (833) 3 5 . O t h e r m a c h i n i n g o c c u p a t i o n s ( 8 3 1 , 835 -839 ) P r o d u c t f a b r i c a t i n g , a s s e m b l i n g and r e p a i r i n g (Ma jor g roup 85) 3 6 . M e t a l p r o d u c t s , n . e . c . ( 8 5 1 , 852) 37 . E l e c t r i c a l , e l e c t r o n i c and r e l a t e d equipment (853) 38 . T e x t i l e s , f u r and l e a t h e r goods (855 , 856) 39 . Wood p r o d u c t s , r u b b e r , p l a s t i c and o t h e r (854, 857 , 859) 4 0 . M e c h a n i c s and r e p a i r m e n e x c e p t e l e c t r i c a l (858) C o n s t r u c t i o n t r a d e (Ma jor g roup 87) 4 1 . E x c a v a t i o n , g r a d i n g , p a v i n g a n d r e l a t e d (871) 42 . E l e c t r i c a l power , l i g h t i n g and w i r e commun ica t ions equ ipment , e r e c t i n g , i n s t a l l i n g and r e p a i r i n g (873) 4 3 . O t h e r c o n s t r u c t i o n t r a d e s (878 , 879) T r a n s p o r t equipment o p e r a t o r s (Ma jo r g roup 91) 44 . Moto r t r a n s p o r t o p e r a t o r s (917) 4 5 . O t h e r t r a n s p o r t equipment o p e r a t o r s ( 9 1 1 - 9 1 5 , 919) 46 . M a t e r i a l h a n d l i n g and r e l a t e d (Ma jor g roup 93) 47 . O t h e r c r a f t s and equipment o p e r a t o r s (Ma jo r g roup 95) 48 . Never worked b e f o r e 49 . L a s t worked more t h a n 5 y e a r s ago 183 A p p e n d i x M: I n d u s t r i a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n R e f e r e n c e Code I n d u s t r i a l T i t l e 0 1 . Agr i c u 1 t u r e 0 2 . O t h e r p r i m a r y 0 3 . M a n u f a c t u r i n g , n o n - d u r a b l e s 04 . M a n u f a c t u r i n g , d u r a b l e s 0 5 . C o n s t r u c t i o n 0 6 . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n & o t h e r u t i l i t i e s 0 7 . W h o l e s a l e t r a d e 0 8 . R e t a i l t r a d e 0 9 . F i n a n c e , i n s u r a n c e and r e a l e s t a t e 10. Community s e r v i c e s 11 . P e r s o n a l s e n v i c e s 12. B u s i n e s s and m i s c e l l a n e o u s s e r v i c e s 13. P u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n 14. Neve r worked 15. L a s t worked more t h a n 5 y e a r s ago 184 A p p e n d i x N: Summary T a b l e s o f t h e A n a l y s i s o f R e c a l c u l a t e d Labour F o r c e E x p e r i e n c e T a b l e 1A. D e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e M a l e - F e m a l e E a r n i n g s Gap, Canada 198G, SCF, F u l l E q u a t i o n s E a r n i n g s and Components D o l l a r s P e r c e n t a g e 1) M a l e A c t u a l E a r n i n g s 2 9 , 0 1 0 M a l e C o n s t a n t + sum b X m m 2) Fema le A c t u a l E a r n i n g s 19,037 Female C o n s t a n t + sum b f X f 3) F e m a l e , No D i s c r i m i n a t i o n 2 3 , 4 5 5 M a l e c o n s t a n t + sum b X , m f 4 ) C o e f f i c i e n t s Component, Wage D i s c r i m i n a t i o n R e s i d u a l 5 , 5 5 5 55.7% s u m ( b m - b f ) X ) . 5 ) Endowment D i f f e r e n c e s 4 ,418 44.3% sum(X - X , ) b m f m 6) O v e r a l l D i f f e r e n t i a l 9 , 9 7 3 100.0% Y - Y . N o t e : D o l l a r f i g u r e s a r e c a l c u l a t e d f rom t h e means and r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s i n T a b l e 6A. F o r T a b l e s 1A and 2A t h e r e m a i n i n g f i g u r e s a r e a l t e r n a t e l y c a l c u l a t e d as f o l l o w s : (4 ) = (3 ) - ( 2 ) : (5) = (1) - ( 3 ) : and (G) = (4) + (5 ) = (1 ) - ( 2 ) . S o u r c e : See T a b l e 6A f o r t h e means and r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s ( b ' s ) f o r t h e f u l l r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n . M CO U l T a b l e 2A. D e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e M a l e - F e m a l e E a r n i n g s Gap, Canada 198G, SCF, P a r t i a l E q u a t i o n s E a r n i n g s and Components D o l l a r s P e r c e n t a g e 1) M a l e A c t u a l E a r n i n g s 29 ,011 2 ) Fema le A c t u a l E a r n i n g s 19 ,003 3 ) F e m a l e , No D i s c r i m i n a t i o n 2 6 , 2 1 2 4) C o e f f i c i e n t s Component, Wage D i s c r i m i n a t i o n R e s i d u a l 7 , 2 0 9 72.0% 5) Endowment D i f f e r e n c e s 2 , 7 9 9 28.0% 6) O v e r a l l D i f f e r e n t i a l 10.007 100.0% N o t e : D o l l a r f i g u r e s a r e c a l c u l a t e d f rom t h e means and r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s i n T a b l e 7A. F o r T a b l e s 1A and 2A t h e r e m a i n i n g f i g u r e s a r e a l t e r n a t e l y c a l c u l a t e d as f o l l o w s : (4 ) = (3 ) - ( 2 ) ; (5 ) = (1) - ( 3 ) ; and (6) = (4 ) + (5 ) - (1 ) - ( 2 ) . S o u r c e : See T a b l e 7A f o r t h e means and r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s ( b ' s ) t h e p a r t r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n . 186 T a b l e 3A. U n a d j u s t e d and A d j u s t e d E a r n i n g s R a t i o f r om F u l l and P a r t i a l R e g r e s s i o n E q u a t i o n s U n a d j u s t e d E a r n i n g s R a t i o 0 . 6 6 A d j u s t e d E a r n i n g s R a t i o , F u l l R e g r e s s i o n E q u a t i o n 0 .81 A d j u s t e d E a r n i n g s R a t i o , P a r t i a l R e g r e s s i o n E q u a t i o n 0 . 7 5 187 T a b l e 4A. C o n t r i b u t i o n o f Each V a r i a b l e t o t h e E a r n i n g s Gap Due t o Due t o Due t o b o t h F u l l E q u a t i o n s Endowments Wage D i s c r i m i n a t i o n V a r i a b l e Names c R e s i d u a r 1 ' bm(Xm-Xf) ( b m - b f ) X f (bmXm-bfXf) C o n s t a n t 0 .00 - 7 3 2 3 .78 - 7 3 2 3 .78 Educat i o n - 5 4 0 . .89 1388 . 14 847, .24 E x p e r i e n c e 2175. .92 227, .61 2403 .53 ( S i n g l e ) M a r r i e d 741 . .23 2978, .51 3719, .74 O t h e r - 1 8 6 .58 130, ,59 - 5 5 . .99 ( R u r a l ) S m a l l U rban 17 .82 - 2 7 9 .91 - 2 6 2 .09 Medium Urban 14. .36 309. .38 323 ,73 L a r g e Urban - 3 . .22 36, .54 33, .32 E x t r a L a r g e U rban - 1 4 2 . .97 215. ,82 72, .85 ( A t l a n t i c ) Quebec - 6 . .63 30. . 10 23. ,48 O n t a r i o - 4 0 .49 305. 06 264. .57 P r a i r i e s 26. .85 352. .97 379. .82 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 18. . 17 208. .74 226. .91 A v e r a g e Hours Worked 237. 08 - 1 0 5 0 . ,81 - 8 1 3 . ,73 ( P u b l i c ) P r i v a t e - 2 3 . .87 1494. 50 1470. 63 (Two C h i I d r e n ) No C h i l d r e n 287. .77 - 1 9 4 1 . 77 - 1 6 5 4 . ,01 One C h i l d 45. .43 - 5 0 2 . ,09 - 4 5 6 . .65 T h r e e o r More - 4 , ,47 8. 83 4. 36 O c c u p a t i o n 2201 . 84 3236. ,56 5438. 39 I n d u s t r y 738 . 01 4593. 06 5331. 07 T o t a l 5555. 36 4418. 05 9973. 41 P e r c e n t a g e 55.7% 44 .3% 100.0% 188 S o u r c e : C a l c u l a t e d f rom t h e r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s ( b ' s ) and t h e mean v a l u e s o f t h e e x p l a n a t o r y v a r i a b l e s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 6A. ( i ) T h i s r e p r e s e n t s pay d i s c r i m i n a t i o n as w e l l as t h e e f f e c t o f unmeasured p r o d u c t i v i t y - r e l a t e d f a c t o r s , and i n a c c u r a t e measurement f o r f a c t o r s i n c l u d e d i n t h e a n a l y s i s . ( i i ) The f i r s t co lumn f o r t h e O c c u p a t i o n and I n d u s t r y c a t e g o r i e s r e p r e s e n t s t h e impact o f t h e mean d i s t r i b u t i o n o f men a n d women a c r o s s h i g h and l o w - p a y i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l and i n d u s t r i a l c a t e g o r i e s . The s e c o n d co lumn , l a b e l l e d "Due t o Wage D i s c r i m i n a t i o n R e s i d u a l " , r e p r e s e n t s t h e d i f f e r e n c e between male and f e m a l e r e t u r n s t o moving f rom a lower p a y i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r y t o t h e n e x t h i g h e r p a y i n g c a t e g o r y . 189 T a b l e 5A. C o n t r i b u t i o n o f Each V a r i a b l e t o t h e E a r n i n g s Gap Due t o Due t o Due t o b o t h P a r t i a l E q u a t i o n s Endowments Wage D i s c r i m i n a t i o n R e s i d u a l 1 1 ' V a r i a b l e Names bm(Xm-Xf) ( b m - b f ) X f (bmXm-bfXf) C o n s t a n t 0 .00 4650 . 16 4650 . 16 Educat i o n - 6 8 9 .93 1117 .08 427 . 15 E x p e r i e n c e 2474 .60 253 .20 2727 .80 ( S i n g l e ) M a r r i e d 921 .55 3717 .60 4639. . 15 O t h e r - 2 7 7 . .37 270. .88 - 6 , ,48 ( R u r a l ) Smal1 Urban 24. .71 - 6 4 .30 - 3 9 .59 Medium Urban 14. .69 132. .85 147 .53 L a r g e Urban - 3 . .37 1. .73 - 1 . .64 E x t r a L a r g e Urban - 1 3 8 . .03 - 8 . .96 - 1 4 6 . .99 ( A t l a n t i c ) Quebec - 7 . .98 75. 23 67. 25 O n t a r i o - 4 9 . 42 368. 24 318. 82 P r a i r i e s 32. 90 531 . 97 564. .88 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 20. 60 250. .09 270. .69 A v e r a g e Hours Worked 172. 88 - 2 5 6 4 . .61 - 2 3 9 1 . 74 ( P u b l i c ) P r i v a t e - 8 7 . 32 1304. 51 1217. 19 (Two C h i l d r e n ) No C h i l d r e n 349. 08 - 2 2 2 9 . 47 - 1 8 8 0 . 39 One C h i Id 55 . 14 - 6 0 8 . 02 - 5 5 2 . 88 T h r e e o r More - 1 3 . 98 11. 00 - 2 . 98 T o t a l 2798. 75 7209. 17 10007. 93 P e r c e n t a g e 28.0% 72.0% 100.0% S o u r c e : C a l c u l a t e d f rom t h e r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s ( b ' s ) and t h e mean v a l u e s o f t h e e x p l a n a t o r y v a r i a b l e s 190 t p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 7A. T h i s r e p r e s e n t s pay d i s c r i m i n a t i o n as w e l l as t h e e f f e c t o f unmeasured p r o d u c t i v i t y - r e l a t e d f a c t o r s , and i n a c c u r a t e measurement f o r f a c t o r s i n c l u d e d i n t h e a n a l y s i s . The f i r s t co lumn f o r t h e O c c u p a t i o n and I n d u s t r y c a t e g o r i e s r e p r e s e n t s t h e impact o f t h e mean d i s t r i b u t i o n o f men and women a c r o s s h i g h and l o w - p a y i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l and i n d u s t r i a l c a t e g o r i e s . The s e c o n d c o l u m n , l a b e l l e d "Due t o Wage D i s c r i m i n a t i o n R e s i d u a l " , r e p r e s e n t s t h e d i f f e r e n c e between male and f e m a l e r e t u r n s t o moving f rom a lower p a y i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r y t o t h e n e x t h i g h e r p a y i n g c a t e g o r y . 19 T a b l e 6A. E a r n i n g s E q u a t i o n s f o r M a l e s and Females F u l l - r e g r e s s i o n E q u a t i o n ( i ) U n s t a n d a r d i z e d R e g r e s s i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s ( i i i ) V a l u e s f o r Females V a l u e s f o r Ma les V a r i a b l e Name , . . . M e a n X , Coe f . b * M e a n X Coe f . b ( i i ) f f m m C o n s t a n t 1 .00 -12161 .22 1 .00 - 19485 .00 Educat i o n 4 .96 1339 .29 4 .62 1619 .44 Exper i e n c e 11 . 13 267 .29 18 .69 287 .74 ( S i n g l e ) M a r r i e d 0 .65 719 .22 0 .79 5294 .51 O t h e r 0 . 11 1556 .59 0 .04 2743 .79 ( R u r a l ) Smal1 U rban 0 .20 2485 .79 0 .22 1113 .70 Medium Urban 0. . 16 1679 .24 0 . 17 3588 .99 L a r g e Urban 0. . 11 2893 .99 0 .11 3220 .20 E x t r a L a r g e Urban 0. .34 2857. .95 0. .30 3487. . 17 ( A t l a n t i c ) Quebec 0. . 16 758. .62 0. . 15 946. .76 O n t a r i o 0. .25 1141. .61 0. 23 2381. .67 P r a i r i e s 0. 31 1302. .45 0. .32 2441. ,06 B r i t i s h Co1umb i a 0. 09 1414. . 17 0. 10 3634. 81 A v e r a g e Hours Worked 2021. 63 1. 75 2214. 67 1. 23 ( P u b l i c ) P r i v a t e 0 . 72 - 2 7 4 7 . 40 0. 75 - 6 6 3 . 02 (Two C h i l d r e n ) No C h i l d r e n 0. 59 645. 52 0 . 48 - 2 6 4 0 . 05 One C h i Id 0. 20 385. 16 0 . 18 - 2 1 6 3 . 50 T h r e e o r More 0 . 05 -261 . 11 0 . 11 - 7 7 . 07 Occupat i on 22942. 26 0 . 35 27428. 00 0 . 49 I n d u s t r y 24813. 14 0 . 32 26279. 88 0 . 50 S o u r c e : Computed f rom d a t a f rom t h e M i c r o D a t a f i l e o f t h e 1986 S u r v e y o f Consumer F i n a n c e s : I n d i v i d u a l s age 15 and o v e r , w i t h and w i t h o u t income, 1985. N o t e s : ( i ) The s a m p l e s ^ z e i s 2753 f o r women and 4450 f o r men. The c a l c u l a t e d R i s .32 f o r women and .30 f o r men f o r t h e f u l 1 - r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n , and .26 f o r women and .23 f o r men i n t h e p a r t i a l r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n . ( i i ) The r e f e r e n c e g r o u p f o r t h e dummy o r i n d i c a t o r v a r i a b l e s i s i n d i c a t e d i n p a r e n t h e s e s . ( i i i ) The B e t a v a l u e s and t h e v a l u e s f o r t h e F s t a t i s t i c a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 9A. ( i v ) The r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t (b) can be i n t e r p r e t e d as t h e change i n e a r n i n g s t h a t r e s u l t f rom a u n i t o f change i n t h e e x p l a n a t o r y v a r i a b l e h o l d i n g t h e o t h e r v a r i a b l e s i n t h e e q u a t i o n c o n s t a n t . For c a t e g o r i c and i n d i c a t o r v a r i a b l e s , b r e p r e s e n t s t h e a p p r o x i m a t e p e r c e n t a g e change i n e a r n i n g s t h a t r e s u l t f r om a u n i t change i n t h e c a t e g o r i c o r i n d i c a t o r v a r i a b l e . 193 T a b l e 7A. E a r n i n g s E q u a t i o n s f o r M a l e s and F e m a l e s , P a r t i a l - r e g r e s s i o n E q u a t i o n U n s t a n d a r d i z e d R e g r e s s i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s V a l u e s f o r Females V a l u e s f o r Ma les . . M e a n X , Coe f . b r ( l 1 1 ^ Mean X Coe f . b V a r i a b l e N a m e ( 1 1 7 f f m m C o n s t a n t 1 .00 647 .01 1. .00 5297 . 17 Educat i o n 4 .96 1840 .22 4, .62 2065 .66 E x p e r i e n c e 11. . 13 304 .49 18. .69 327 .24 ( S i n g l e ) M a r r i e d 0. .65 871. .88 0. 79 6582 .48 O t h e r 0 .11 1616 .35 0. ,04 4078 .94 ( R u r a l ) Sma11 Urban 0. 20 1859. ,41 0. 22 1544 ,23 Medium Urban 0. . 16 2851. ,57 0. , 17 3671 .62 L a r g e U rban 0. .11 3354. .54 0. 11 3369, .96 E x t r a L a r g e Urban 0. 34 3392. .72 0. 30 3366, .60 ( A t l a n t i c ) Quebec 0. 16 669. .55 0. 15 1139. 73 O n t a r i o 0. 25 1410. 02 0 . 23 2906. 92 P r a i r i e s 0. .31 1274. 99 0. 32 2991 .03 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 0. 09 1460. 36 0 . 10 4120. 84 A v e r a g e Hours Worked 2021 . .63 2 . . 16 2214. 67 0. 90 ( P u b l i c ) P r i v a t e 0. 72 - 4 2 4 4 . 84 0 . 75 - 2 4 2 5 . 44 (Two C h i l d r e n ) No Ch i 1 d r e n 0. 59 569. 78 0 . 48 - 3 2 0 2 . 60 One C h i Id 0. 20 460. 61 0 . 18 - 2 6 2 5 . 77 T h r e e o r More 0. 05 - 4 7 0 . 18 0 . 11 - 2 4 1 . 03 T a b l e 8A. Mean P e r c e n t a g e Change i n E a r n i n g s f rom a U n i t Change i n t h e Independent V a r i a b l e F u l l R e g r e s s i o n E q u a t i o n Women Men V a r i a b l e Name C o n s t a n t - 6 3 . .88% - 6 7 . 17% E d u c a t i o n 7. .04% 5 .58% E x p e r i e n c e 1 . .40% 0 .99% ( S i n g l e ) Mar r i e d 3. .78% 18 .25% O t h e r 8. . 18% 9. .46% ( R u r a l ) S m a l l U rban 13. 06% 3, .84% Medium Urban 8. .82% 12, .37% L a r g e Urban 15. 20% 11'. .10% E x t r a L a r g e Urban 15. 01% 12. .02% ( A t l a n t i c ) Quebec 3. .98% 3 .26% O n t a r i o 6. 00% 8. .21% P r a i r i e s 6. . 84% 8. .41% B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 7. 43% 12. .53% A v e r a g e Hours Worked 0. .01% 0. .00% ( P u b l i c ) P r i v a t e - 1 4 . .43% - 2 . .29% (Two C h i l d r e n ) No C h i l d r e n 3. 39% - 9 . . 10% One C h i Id 2. ^02% - 7 . . 46% T h r e e o r More - 1 . 37% - 0 . .27% O c c u p a t i o n 0.0018% 0.0017% I n d u s t r y 0.0017% 0.0017% N o t e s : ( i ) From t h e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n Y = a + bX . . . b X . , t h u s when t h e mean v a l u e s f o r each independent v a r i a b l e a r e s u b s t i t u t e d i n t o t h e e q u a t i o n , t h e mean p e r c e n t a g e change i n income f rom a u n i t change 1n t h e independent v a r i a b l e i s c a l c u l a t e d by ( b X / Y ) * 1 0 0 . Where b i s t h e r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t , X i s t h e mean f o r e a c h independent v a r i a b l e , and Y i s a c t u a l mean e a r n i n g s . 195 T a b l e 9A. F - S t a t i s t i c s ^ and S t a n d a r d i z e d R e g r e s s i o n ^ 1 ' ^ V a l u e s F u l l R e g r e s s i o n E q u a t i o n s Women Men V a r i a b l e Name B e t a F - S t a t . B e t a F - S t a t . C o n s t a n t 49. . 15 0 . 0 0 * * 104. .04' 0 .00 E d u c a t i o n 0. .29 227 . 18** 0. .27 301 .20 E x p e r i e n c e 0. 16 77. , 7 9 * * 0. 22 186. .06 ( S i n g l e ) Mar r i e d 0. .03 2 .65 0, 15 72 .73 O t h e r 0 .05 6. •21 0. .04 7 . 19 ( R u r a l ) Smal1 Urban 0 .07 10 . 7 0 * * 0. .03 3. .96 Medium Urban 0. .09 20 . 4 8 * * 0. .09 35 . 12 L a r g e Urban 0. ,09 20. . 8 6 * * 0. 07 20. .44 E x t r a L a r g e Urban 0 . 14 32. . 8 2 * * 0. 11 38. .85 ( A t l a n t i c ) Quebec 0. .03 1 .73 0. 02 2. .08 O n t a r i o 0, .05 4 . 5 1 * 0. ,07 15. . 19 P r a i r i e s 0. .06 7. . 0 3 * * 0. 08 19. .51 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 0, 04 4. . 56* 0. 08 24, .77 A v e r a g e Hours Worked 0. .06 12, . 26** 0. ,03 6. .62 ( P u b l i c ) P r i v a t e - 0 . . 12 48 . 3 5 * * - 0 . ,02 2. . 13 (Two C h i l d r e n ) No C h i l d r e n 0. .03 1. .88 - 0 . 09 26. .38 One C h i Id 0. .02 0. ,53 - 0 . 06 14. 41 T h r e e o r More - 0 . .01 0. 10 0. 00 0. .01 O c c u p a t i o n 0. 22 153 . 12** 0. 20 189. .94 I n d u s t r y 0. 14 61 . . 7 5 * * 0. 16 132. .03 ( i ) ** i n d i c a t e s a s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l o f .01 and * i n d i c a t e s a l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e o f . 0 5 . ( i i ) When v a r i a b l e s d i f f e r s u b s t a n t i a l l y i n u n i t s o f measurement, t h e s i z e o f t h e b c o e f f i c i e n t s does n o t r e v e a l a n y t h i n g about 196 t h e r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e v a r i a b l e . To make r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s more c o m p a r a b l e B e t a w e i g h t s a r e c a l c u l a t e d f o r e a c h o f t h e independent v a r i a b l e s . The B e t a v a l u e s a r e e x p r e s s e d i n a s t a n d a r d i z e d f o rm . The v a l u e s o f t h e B e t a c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e c o n t i n g e n t on t h e o t h e r independent v a r i a b l e s i n t h e e q u a t i o n . They a r e a l s o a f f e c t e d by t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s o f t h e independent v a r i a b l e s and do not a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e v a r i o u s independent v a r i a b l e s ( N o r u s i s , 1985) . 197 T a b l e 10A. R a t i o o f F e m a l e - t o - M a l e E a r n i n g s , A d j u s t e d f o r D i f f e r e n c e s i n Endowments, f o r D i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e C o e f f i c i e n t s Component, and f o r d i f f e r e n c e due t o B o t h F u l l R e g r e s s i o n E q u a t i o n U n a d j u s t e d E a r n i n g s R a t i o 0 . 6 6 Endowment C o e f f i c i e n t B o t h V a r i a b l e C o n s t a n t 0. .66 0. .40 0 .40 E d u c a t i o n 0. .64 0, .70 0 .69 E x p e r i e n c e 0 .73 0 .66 0 .74 ( S i n g l e ) M a r r i e d 0. .68 0. .76 0 .78 O t h e r 0. .65 0 .66 0 ,65 ( R u r a l ) Sma11 Urban 0. .66 0. .65 0. ,65 Medium Urban 0, .66 0. .67 0 ,67 L a r g e U rban 0. .66 0. 66 0. ,66 E x t r a L a r g e U rban 0. .65 0, ,66 0. ,66 ( A t l a n t i c ) Quebec 0. 66 0, 66 0 ,66 O n t a r i o 0. .65 0. 67 0. ,67 P r a i r i e s 0. 66 0. 67 0. ,67 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 0. 66 0. 66 0. 66 A v e r a g e Hours Worked 0. 66 0. 62 0. 63 ( P u b l i c ) P r i v a t e 0. 66 0. 71 0. 71 (Two C h i l d r e n ) No Ch i 1 d r e n 0. 67 0. 59 0. 60 One C h i Id 0. 66 0. 64 0. 64 T h r e e o r More 0. 66 0 . 66 0. 66 O c c u p a t i o n 0. 73 0. 77 0 . 84 I n d u s t r y 0. 68 0. 81 0. 84 198 N o t e : The r a t i o s f o r e a c h v a r i a b l e f o r t h e Endowment component, t h e C o e f f i c i e n t s component , and t h e component due t o b o t h were c a l c u l a t e d as f o l l o w s : Endowment Component = (b„(X - X , ) + s u m ( b . X - ) ) / s u m ( b X ) ; m m f f f m m C o e f f i c i e n t s Component = ( ( b - b,)X„ + s u m ( b . X . ) ) / s u m ( b X ) ; ^ m f f f f m m Due t o B o t h = ( ( b m X m - B f X f ) + s u m ( b f X f ) ) / s u m ( B m X m ) ; Where b = t h e r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t ; X = t h e mean v a l u e of each v a r i a b l e ; and t h e s u b s c r i p t s m and f r e p r e s e n t t h e v a l u e s f o r men and women, r e s p e c t i v e l y . 199 200 B i b l i o g r a p h y A b e l l a , R o s a l i e Silberman Judge. Report of the Commission on  E q u a l i t y i n Employment. Ottawa: M i n i s t e r of Supply and S e r v i c e s Canada, 1984. A l d r i c h , Mark and Robert B u c h e l l e . The Economics of Comparable  Worth. Cambridge Massachusetts: B a l l i n g e r P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1986. Armstrong, Pat and Hugh Armstrong. A Working M a j o r i t y : What  Women Must Do f o r Pay. 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