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Accounting for the male-female earnings differential : results from the 1986 survey of consumer finances Pelletier, Lou Allan 1988

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ACCOUNTING FOR THE MALE-FEMALE EARNINGS RESULTS FROM THE  DIFFERENTIAL  1986 SURVEY OF CONSUMER FINANCES by  LOU  ALLAN  B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y  PELLETIER  of B r i t i s h  Columbia,  1985  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in  THE (School  We  FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES  o f Community  accept to  THE  this  and R e g i o n a l  t h e s i s as  the required  Planning)  conforming  standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April  1988 1988  In  presenting  degree freely  at  this  the  available  copying  of  department publication  of  in  partial  fulfilment  University  of  British  Columbia,  for reference  this or  thesis  thesis by  this  for  his thesis  and study. scholarly  or for  her  of I  I further  purposes  gain  requirements  agree  that  agree  may be  representatives.  financial  the  shall  It not  is  that  t h e Library  allowed  D e p a r t m e n t o f SCHOOL OF COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING  Date  DE-6(3/81)  APRIL 9 . 1 9 8 8  Columbia  by  understood  permission.  T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f British 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V 6 T 1Y3  an  advanced  shall  permission  granted  be  for  the that  without  for  make  it  extensive  head  of  my  copying  or  my  written  ii Abstract This  study  seeks  to explain  earnings of i n d i v i d u a l from of  the micro  data  individuals  large  file  age 15 a n d o v e r ,  (1980),  Employment the t o t a l  by s e x .  Goyder  by Holmes  (1974),  (1981) a n d O r n s t e i n  earnings account  root  o f many o f t h e p r o b l e m s  traditional mother.  society  adults,  difficult  challenge forsocial  disparity  i s a key component  the a v a i l a b i l i t y  poverty, access incomes  and h o u s e h o l d s  f o r retirement.  participation  i n the labour  household root  solely  policy.  t o address the  composed o f t h e  a n d t h e homemaking  of sexual  s i n g l e and  The m a l e - f e m a l e  and a d e q u a t e h o u s i n g ,  the i n t e r a c t i o n  t h e symptoms.  attempts  earnings  that  f o r women, t h e f e m i n i z a t i o n o f  address  of g r e a t e r  and adequate  the problems  that  female  f o r c e and t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a l t e r n a t e  types, p l a n n e r s and p o l i c y  problem  Thus, t h e  headed by women p r e s e n t s a  To e f f e c t i v e l y  from  i n other  f a c e d by n o n t r a d i t i o n a l  father  of c r e d i t  have r e s u l t e d  To a  (1983).  i n exacerbating problems  to affordable  Finances  (1978),  number o f d u a l - e a r n e r c o u p l e s ,  childless  include  Robb  i s no l o n g e r l a r g e l y  f a m i l y with a working  The g r o w i n g  data  f o r an o v e r w h e l m i n g p r o p o r t i o n  income r e c e i v e d by i n d i v i d u a l s .  Canadian  i n the  income.  f o l l o w s t h e examples p r e s e n t e d  of the earnings d i f f e r e n t i a l  families.  uses  o f Consumer  with and w i t h o u t  examination causes  differences  The s t u d y  o f t h e 1986 S u r v e y  s t u d i e s conducted  Gunderson  of  Canadians  e x t e n t , the study  Canadian  the observed  inequality  makers n e e d  i n the labour  to address the force,  and not  In  the context  position size  of changing  family  o f women, t h e f o c u s o f t h i s  of the male-female earnings  to which t h e e a r n i n g s  factors  from  individual  through  factors  a simple  across a v a r i e t y these the  factors  earnings  regression  two p o i n t s o f v i e w .  on t h e l e v e l  comparison  of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  analysis  i s used  i n ( l ) constant  variables.  Further, to assess  between linear  equations  From t h e s e p a r a t e  terms,  into  earnings  earnings t h r e e p a r t s , due  (2) mean l e v e l s o f t h e  t h e impact  are calculated  that  of o c c u p a t i o n a l and  gap, a s e c o n d  s e t of  do not i n c l u d e  measures o f  and i n d u s t r i a l s e g r e g a t i o n .  calculations  o f 0.66.  productivity  separate  and (3) t h e r e t u r n s o f t h e i n d e p e n d e n t  of separate  women, f o r t h e s e l e c t e d  analysis,  o f men a n d women  using multiple  to estimate  s e g r e g a t i o n on t h e e a r n i n g s  occupational  ratio  t h e impact  of i n e q u a l i t y  t h e wage g a p c a n be p a r t i t i o n e d  variables,  The  First,  analysis.  independent  earnings  of these  Second, t h e i n f l u e n c e of  o f men a n d women, i s a n a l y z e d  to d i f f e r e n c e s  industrial  the extent  of earnings are analyzed  o f mean e a r n i n g s  f o r men a n d women.  equations,  The impact  on e a r n i n g s , and t h e d e g r e e  Regression equations  i s to i d e n t i f y the  gap c a n be e x p l a i n e d by p e r s o n a l , work and characteristics.  of  study  and t h e economic  gap, and t o determine  productivity-related are analyzed  structure  After  earnings equations  sample, p r o d u c e d  adjustments  an u n a d j u s t e d  earnings  were made f o r t h e t e n  and p r o d u c t i v i t y - r e l a t e d  including  f o r men and  factors  considered  i n the  o c c u p a t i o n a l and i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s ,  the  ratio  (1985  i n c r e a s e d t o 0.79.  dollars)  variables. explained careful  While p a r t  measurement o f e x i s t i n g  "an amalgam o f d i f f e r e n t  20 p e r c e n t a g e  together,  disadvantage  1982).  t o any o f t h e m e a s u r e d residual  may  60% o f t h i s  and a p p r o x i m a t e l y  productivity-related Occupational  and i n d u s t r i a l  of t h e e a r n i n g s  i s 0.69. equation  gap.  (Denton and  earnings  returns i n  as given  by t h e  gap of 34  is attributable  t o wage  40% i s due t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n  segregation The a d j u s t e d segregation  account  for a large  earnings  and the p a r t i a l  30% o f t h e e a r n i n g s  regression equation  segregation gap.  ratio,  a r e not c o n s i d e r e d  T h u s , t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e  o c c u p a t i o n a l and i n d u s t r i a l  approximately  taken  characteristics  when o c c u p a t i o n a l a n d i n d u s t r i a l  regression  t o men",  characteristics,  Of t h e t o t a l  that  gap i s a t t r i b u t a b l e  forms o f d i s c r i m i n a t i o n w h i c h ,  women r e l a t i v e  coefficients.  discrimination,  endowments,  i t seems l i k e l y  p o i n t s of the e a r n i n g s  productivity  approximately  proportion  variables,  be  o r by more  D i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s d e f i n e d as d i f f e r e n t  f o r equal  regression  that  gap o f $5,985  by v a r i a b l e s n o t i n c l u d e d i n t h e a n a l y s i s ,  to  percent,  an e a r n i n g s  of t h e u n e x p l a i n e d  least  earnings  left  t h a t c o u l d n o t be a s s i g n e d  at  Hunter,  This  fullindicates  accounts f o r  V  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page  ABSTRACT  i i V  TABLE OF CONTENTS L I S T OF TABLES I.  ix  INTRODUCTION  1  A.  Introduction  1  B.  Changes i n F a m i l y  C.  Theoretical 1. 2.  3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. D.  Structure  and Women's Employment .  Viewpoints  D e f i n i t i o n s of D i s c r i m i n a t i o n N e o c l a s s i c a l Approaches a. Becker's T a s t e Model b. Bergmann's C r o w d i n g H y p o t h e s i s c. Arrow's M o d i f i c a t i o n s Human C a p i t a l Model Monopsony M o d e l Dual Labour Markets Sex-Role S o c i a l i z a t i o n Marxist Theories Summary Earnings D i f f e r e n t i a l s  ,  «.  and P r o d u c t i v i t y  5 9 10 13 14 16 17 18 23 24 26 28 30  Differences 33  II.  METHODOLOGY  38  A.  Introduction  38  B.  Methodological 1. 2. 3. 4.  C.  Issues  . ...  38  Wages V e r s u s Income Relative Verses Absolute Differences Unadjusted and A d j u s t e d Measures P r o d u c t i v i t y Adjustment Techniques a. Sample S e l e c t i o n b. Regression Analyses  39 39 40 42 42 43  Method of A n a l y s i s  45  vi D.  The D a t a  47  1.  Data L i m i t a t i o n s  49  2.  Data S e l e c t i o n  50  E. III.  Specification  of t h e C o n t r o l V a r i a b l e s  52  DATA ANALYSIS A.  Explanatory  56 V a r i a b l e s Considered  Separately  ....  56  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.  E d u c a t i o n and E x p e r i e n c e Marital Status Urban A r e a Region A v e r a g e H o u r s Worked p e r Week S e c t o r of Work Number o f C h i l d r e n O c c u p a t i o n a l and I n d u s t r i a l S e g r e g a t i o n  1. 2.  The O c c u p a t i o n a l S e g r e g a t i o n o f Work 71 H i s t o r i c a l P a t t e r n of Occupational S e g r e g a t i o n , 1951-1981 73 M e a s u r i n g Changes i n O c c u p a t i o n a l Segregation 79 The Impact on Women's E a r n i n g s o f O c c u p a t i o n a l Segregation 82 O c c u p a t i o n a l and I n d u s t r i a l S e g r e g a t i o n i n t h e 1986 S u r v e y o f Consumer F i n a n c e s 86  B.  3. 4. 5. C.  Regression 1. 2. 3. 4.  Analysis  57 61 63 64 66 67 69 71  95  D e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e E a r n i n g s Gap 95 A s s e s s i n g t h e Impact o f O c c u p a t i o n a l S e g r e g a t i o n 98 C o n t r i b u t i o n of I n d i v i d u a l V a r i a b l e s t o the E a r n i n g s Gap 103 Regression Results 110 a. Education 111 b. Experience 113 c. M a r i t a l Status 113 d. Urban A r e a and R e g i o n 114 e. H o u r s Worked . ... 115 f. S e c t o r o f Work 115  vii IV.  SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND  IMPLICATIONS FOR PUBLIC  POLICY A.  122 C o n t r i b u t i o n of each F a c t o r  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.  Education Experience Marital Status Urban S i z e and R e g i o n C l a s s o f Work Number o f C h i l d r e n O c c u p a t i o n a l and I n d u s t r i a l  B.  Policy  C.  Problems w i t h  D.  Areas f o r Further  E.  Conclusion  Appendix  A:  to Public  Policy  ..  124 125 126 127 129 129 131 133  . Segregation  Conclusions  134  Approach  140  Research  143 145  Reclassification o f t h e 1951, 1961, and 1971 O c c u p a t i o n a l Data  147 148  Appendix  B:  1981 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n  Appendix  C:  T a b l e Showing t h e B r i d g i n g o f 1971 O c c u p a t i o n a l Codes t o t h e 1981 O c c u p a t i o n a l Codes and Classification 151  Appendix  D:  T a b l e Showing t h e B r i d g i n g o f 1961 O c c u p a t i o n a l Codes t o t h e 1981 O c c u p a t i o n a l Codes and Classification .. 155  Appendix  E:  T a b l e Showing t h e B r i d g i n g o f 1951 O c c u p a t i o n a l Codes t o t h e 1981 O c c u p a t i o n a l Codes and Classification 161  Appendix  F:  O c c u p a t i o n a l S t a t i s t i c s f o r t h e 1951, 1961, 1971 and 1981 Census P e r i o d s by Sex f o r Canada, L a r g e , S m a l l and Non-CMAs' 167  A p p e n d i x H:  Structure  P e r c e n t a g e o f Female L a b o u r F o r c e i n O c c u p a t i o n a l C a t e g o r i e s f o r Canada, L a r g e , and Non-CMAs, 1951 - 1981 ...  Small 175  Appendix  I:  L i s t i n g o f C a n a d i a n Census M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a s f o r t h e 1951 - 1981 Census P e r i o d s 177  Appendix  J:  Listing  of Large,  Small  and Non-CMAs  178  viii Appendix  K:  List the  Appendix  L:  1980  of V a r i a b l e s 1986  Survey  t o be  used  i n the a n a l y s i s  o f Consumer F i n a n c e s  Standard Occupational C l a s s i f i c a t i o n  A p p e n d i x M:  Industrial  A p p e n d i x N:  Summary T a b l e s o f t h e A n a l y s i s Labour F o r c e E x p e r i e n c e  Bibliography  Classification  of 179  .  182 185  of R e c a l c u l a t e d 186 187  ix L I S T OF TABLES Page Table  Table  1.  2.  A v e r a g e Income o f Husband F a m i l i e s , by W i f e ' s C o n t r i b u t i o n t o F a m i l y Income, 1971 t o 1984  7  Summary o f R a t i o s o f Women's t o Men's E a r n i n g s , Unadjusted and A d j u s t e d f o r V a r i o u s C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Workers and Jobs  35 57  Table  3.  Average E a r n i n g s  by Sex  Table  4.  Average E a r n i n g s  by E d u c a t i o n  Table  5.  Average E a r n i n g s  by E x p e r i e n c e  Table  6.  Average E a r n i n g s  by M a r i t a l  Table  7.  Average E a r n i n g s  by Urban A r e a  Table  8.  Average E a r n i n g s  by R e g i o n by Sex  Table  9.  Average E a r n i n g s  by H o u r s Worked P e r Week  by Sex  58  by Sex  59  S t a t u s by Sex  63  by Sex  64  .  65  by Sex  67  Table  10.  Average E a r n i n g s  by C l a s s  Table  11.  Average E a r n i n g s  by Number o f C h i l d r e n  Table  12.  Table  13.  P e r c e n t a g e o f Women i n E a c h O c c u p a t i o n 1951-1 981 Index o f S e g r e g a t i o n f o r Canada, 1951-1981  Table Table  14. 15.  o f Work by Sex  68  by Sex  ..  70  F o r Canada,  R a t i o of Female-to-Male Average F u l l - t i m e f o r Canada, 1951 - 1981  75 82 Earnings 83  R a t i o of Female-to-Male Average E a r n i n g s F o r Canada, U s i n g The M a l e O c c u p a t i o n a l D i s t r i b u t i o n f o r Men a n d Women  85 87  Table  16.  Average E a r n i n g s  by O c c u p a t i o n  by Sex  Table  17.  Average E a r n i n g s  by I n d u s t r y by Sex  Table  18.  Decomposition of the Male-Female E a r n i n g s Gap, Canada 1986, SCF, F u l l E q u a t i o n  93  98  X  Table  19.  D e c o m p o s i t i o n of t h e M a l e - F e m a l e E a r n i n g s Gap, Canada 1 986, S C F , . P a r t i a l E q u a t i o n s  Table  20.  U n a d j u s t e d and A d j u s t e d E a r n i n g s P a r t i a l Regression Equations  Table  21.  Table  22.  C o n t r i b u t i o n of E a c h V a r i a b l e t o t h e E a r n i n g s Gap E a r n i n g s E q u a t i o n s f o r M a l e s and F e m a l e s F u l l - r e g r e s s i o n Equation  Table Table Table Table  23. 24. 25. 26.  E a r n i n g s E q u a t i o n s f o r M a l e s and P a r t i a l regression Equation  R a t i o from  100 Full  and 102 104 107  Females' 109  Mean P e r c e n t a g e Change i n E a r n i n g s from a U n i t Change i n t h e I n d e p e n d e n t V a r i a b l e  117  F-Statistics Values  118  and  Standardized  Regression  R a t i o of F e m a l e - t o - M a l e E a r n i n g s , A d j u s t e d f o r D i f f e r e n c e s i n Endowments, f o r D i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e C o e f f i c i e n t s Component, and f o r D i f f e r e n c e s due to both  120  1 No one d i s p u t e s t h a t t h e r e i s a pay gap. The d i s p u t e i s o v e r what c a u s e s i t . ( C h a v e z , I.  INTRODUCTION  A.  Introduction  The  purposes of t h i s  over-all in  earnings  2) d i f f e r e n t  extent,  theories  i n the earnings  women, and r e d u c e  planners?  Estimates  are given f o r  i s due t o : 1) d i f f e r e n t  attributes  o f men and women;  productivity-related Detailed  gap.  A review  for a  significant  of a broad  possible explanations  range of  f o r the  o f men and women, and p r o v i d e t h e  analysis.  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the r e s u l t s a r e  reference to the various t h e o r e t i c a l  should  workers  two p a r t s a c r o s s t e n  wage d i s c r i m i n a t i o n .  that o f f e r  to the formation  Why  full-time  of the  o f t h e sex-wage  s e g r e g a t i o n which account  f o r the data  made w i t h  the s i z e  t o t h e i s s u e o f o c c u p a t i o n a l , and t o some  of the earnings  i s given  difference context  labelled  industrial  proportion  of  gap t h a t  r e t u r n s f o r t h e same  i s given  into  characteristics.  i n the p r o d u c t i v i t y - r e l a t e d  attention  sources  The gap i s decomposed  characteristics,  aid  t h e main  p o r t i o n of the e a r n i n g s  levels  are to estimate  gap between male a n d f e m a l e  productivity-related  and  study  Canada, and t o i d e n t i f y  differential.  the  1984)  of p o l i c y  designed  p o s i t i o n s a s an  t o improved  the e a r n i n g s  t h e m a l e - f e m a l e e a r n i n g s gap.  the male-female earnings  A justification  gap be o f i n t e r e s t t o  o f work i n t h i s  substantive area  will  2 depend upon how vary  planning  between one  planning  substantive area  1978).  For  the  defined  as  use  of  to  "the  i n c r e a s e the  (Moore,  1978).  position  and  p u r p o s e s of  definitions  another,  and  likelihood  In t h i s  i n the  case,  planning  efficiently  theory  achieved  thesis,  strives  labour market.  than  i n t e r v e n t i o n can  Economic  planning  not, be  by  planning  to  improve belief  found  i n economic  theory. i s most  through  competition,  a s y s t e m of p e r f e c t  (Oxley,  optimum p e r f o r m a n c e of an  1975).  economic  1)  Efficiency  in production.  2)  Efficiency  i n exchange.  3)  Equity  defined  as  improve  the  others.  criteria  the  welfare  of  of  each s i t u a t i o n  The  three  system are  (Oxley,  in  the  elements  identified  of  as:  1975).  set the c o n d i t i o n s f o r P a r e t o o p t i m a l i t y ,  situation  T h i s does not  distribution  a built  in distribution  to  a further j u s t i f i c a t i o n for  total  two  that  i s more l i k e l y  i s most e f f i c i e n t l y a c h i e v e d  first  the  a r g u e s t h a t optimum w e l f a r e  a b s e n c e of p l a n n i n g  so  result."  where p e r f e c t c o m p e t i t i o n  The  is  conditions  Beyond t h e  planners  planning  or a methodology  of a c h i e v i n g a d e s i r e d  l a b o u r market  i n improvement  this  of  whether  knowledge t o m o d i f y c e r t a i n  of women, i n t h e  intervention result  The  i s d e f i n e d as a p r o f e s s i o n , p h i l o s o p h y  (Moore,  as  is defined.  where t h e  some o n l y imply  resources. i s judged  on  by  reallocation reducing  that there The  of  the  i s only  third criterion  resources  welfare one  of  optimum  requires that  i t s e q u i t y of d i s t r i b u t i o n .  i n c o n t r a d i c t i o n i n the  can  t h r e e e l e m e n t s of  optimum  There i s  3 p e r f o r m a n c e o f an economic distribution, efficiency criteria,  equity  planning  assumptions  failures  with  of rewards p r o v i d e d  t h e market  of which  without  that  i s the  intervention,  as t h e r o o t  system has f a i l e d  c o n d i t i o n s f o r Pareto  efficiency  or equity.  on t h r e e  o f many  urban  t o promote o p t i m a l i t y  These t h r e e used t o o r g a n i z e examined  Finance  t o the market  p o i n t s of c h a l l e n g e this  thesis.  system can  the i n p u t s t o the system;  o r 3) i t s o u t p u t s  (Oxley,  t o the market  First,  outputs  t o the changing  Further  examination  segregation  operation  1975).  s y s t e m c a n be  of the system a r e  family  s t r u c t u r e , and  of the o u t p u t s  force to  of the system  from t h e S u r v e y o f Consumer  S e c o n d , an e x a m i n a t i o n  f o r the e x i s t e n c e  occupational  internal  s y s t e m on t h e b a s i s o f  1)  i n the a n a l y s i s of d a t a  (1986).  explanations  fronts:  the planner  a n d c o n t r i b u t i o n o f women i n t h e l a b o u r  income.  is presented  t h e market  operations;  in relationship  position  optimality provide  The c h a l l e n g e  identified  i t sinternal  family  c a n be i d e n t i f i e d  I f s o c i e t y i s u n w i l l i n g to accept the  avenues t o c h a l l e n g e  occur  s e t of  of p e r f e c t  i n t e r v e n t i o n , t h e most n o t a b l e  distribution  then  some measure o f  1975).  The  and  o f market  equity in  From t h i s  i f one s e e s t h e income d i s t r i b u t i o n  (Ox-ley,  the  and e x c h a n g e .  of d i s t r i b u t i o n .  problems,  2)  a variety  To a c h i e v e  to sacrifice  and t h e many r e s t r i c t i v e  arbitrary and  we must be w i l l i n g  i n production  competition, justify  system.  of s e v e r a l  theoretical  of t h e m a l e - f e m a l e e a r n i n g s gap,  provide  of the labour  some i n s i g h t  market.  i n t o the  And t h i r d , t h e  4 c o n c l u s i o n s and p o l i c y means t o improve through  changes  operations,  judged.  earnings accounted  o f employment  from  economic  concern  dual the  around  The c h a n g i n g inequality problems  cause  attempt  composition  facing  nontraditional parent  affordable  services  —  force  income  i n households  symptoms o f a c c e s s  i t i s noted  that  For  individuals  equality  f o r c e has  headed by women, o f  income f o r women.  o f p o v e r t y , and a c c e s s  although  i n concert with the  families.  families  and o f u n a t t a c h e d  t o a c h i e v e employment  the individual  housing,  Issues of  between men a n d women i n t h e l a b o u r  of l a b o u r  of inadequate  feminization  1979),  i n d i c a t o r of  i n our s o c i e t y .  o f many p u b l i c  of a l l  (Kuch,  i s t h e major  access t o adequate  household  t h e growth o f s i n g l e  importance  f o r 86 p e r c e n t  t h e economic w e l l - b e i n g o f i n d i v i d u a l s and  income h o u s e h o l d s ,  that  than  to planners —  p o v e r t y , and p r o v i s i o n  exacerbated example,  measurable  a l l sources  income  t h e economic h e a l t h o f i n d i v i d u a l s  families.  through  by w h i c h t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e l a b o u r market c a n be  the d i s t r i b u t i o n  revolve  force  i t s internal  of t h e l a b o u r m a r k e t p r o v i d e  As employment  housing,  f o c u s on  policies.  income r e c e i v e d by C a n a d i a n s  central  will  o f women i n t h e l a b o u r  i n t h e i n p u t s t o t h e system,  outputs  indicators,  the  the p o s i t i o n  of t h e t h e s i s  and m o d i f i c a t i o n of i t s o u t p u t s  redistribution The  implications  stresses  Thus,  address  policies  the root  h e a d e d by women, r a t h e r  to c h i l d c a r e , the  t o adequate  affordable  t h e r e a r e many l i n k a g e s  5 between t h e s e  substantive  women i n t h e l a b o u r  and  Change i n F a m i l y  The  focus  the p a r t i c i p a t i o n  earner  as  single  t h e dominant  c o e x i s t s with  and c h i l d l e s s  The  f a m i l y form.  a growing  number  The  of d u a l -  a d u l t s , and households  of changes  h a s c r e a t e d a range o f p r o b l e m s  i n f a m i l y p a t t e r n s , and i n the labour  for individuals  and s o c i e t y  a whole.  household family  number  t h e 1950s, s i g n i f i c a n t and f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e s .  with  steadily  a breadwinning  declined.  of people  parent,  The s h a r e  living  alone,  substantial  and i n f a m i l i e s  was headed by a f e m a l e  doubled  since  increases i n the headed by a l o n e  In 1986, one i n t e n  lone parent,  1971. The number  also increased rapidly  of t h e t r a d i t i o n a l  h u s b a n d and a homemaking w i f e h a s  T h e r e have been  i n c r e a s e o f 59% from  almost  c h a n g e s have o c c u r r e d i n  a m a j o r i t y o f w h i c h a r e women.  families  has  force.  patterns  f a t h e r , a homemaker m o t h e r , a n d  represents  The r e a l i t y  force  i n the household  t h a t a m a j o r i t y o f women now p a r t i c i p a t e  Since  an  shifts  o f women i n t h e l a b o u r  f a m i l y today  h e a d e d by women.  force  social  no l o n g e r  couples,  fact  o f women i n t h e l a b o u r  f a m i l y of a working  many c h i l d r e n traditional  S t r u c t u r e and Women's Employment  on t h e p o s i t i o n  from s i g n i f i c a n t  traditional  the  force.  B.  arises  i s s u e s and t h e economic p o s i t i o n of  o r 590,000  of people  1971. One p e r s o n  from 800,000 t o 1.7 m i l l i o n  from  families,  living  alone  households  1971 t o 1981 a n d  6 of  t h e 1.7 m i l l i o n  (Statistics At  force  participating 1951.  labour  March,  1985).  changes  alone,  (Gerson,  1983).  i n the labour I n 1951, o n l y  one m i l l i o n  i n family patterns  t h e changes t a k i n g p l a c e  labour  since  living  t h e same t i m e ,  reinforce the  Canada  people  t o 54.3.%.  stem  from, and  i n women's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n The p e r c e n t a g e o f women  f o r c e has i n c r e a s e d  significantly  24.4% o f women p a r t i c i p a t e d  f o r c e ; by 1985, t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n  dramatically  were women  i n the  r a t e has i n c r e a s e d  W h i l e women composed  only  22 p e r c e n t o f  the  labour  f o r c e i n 1951, by 1981, women made up 40.6 p e r c e n t o f  the  labour  force  (Statistics  growing p a r t i c i p a t i o n resulted The  ratio  March,  o f women i n t h e l a b o u r  in significant  earnings  Canada,  changes  i n the s i z e  of average f u l l - t i m e ,  o f t h e e a r n i n g s gap. women w o r k e r s  workers has o n l y  (Ostry,  1968), t o 0.60 i n 1970, a n d t o 0.64 i n 1982. i s proposed that  increased p a r t i c i p a t i o n situation economic  t h e changed  h e a l t h of dual  husband  1  Status  i s the only  1  f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e and the market  o f women a r e e s s e n t i a l  indicates a t o the  income a n d f e m a l e - h e a d e d f a m i l i e s .  1 gives the f i g u r e s f o r the percent the  f r o m 0.59 i n 1961  o f women i n t h e l a b o u r  i n which the e a r n i n g s  the  f o r c e has not  full-year  slightly  Yet,  t o male  It  increased  1985).  income  of Canadian f a m i l i e s  recipient,  Table  where  and t h e p e r c e n t o f  S o u r c e f o r 1970 a n d 1982: Statistical Indicators: o f Women Canada, M i c r o l o g Number 87-01527, T a b l e A-2.  families  where b o t h  income.  From  has  1971 t o 1984 t h e p e r c e n t a g e  decreased  the percent  t h e husband a n d w i f e c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e f a m i l y  from  31 p e r c e n t  of f a m i l i e s  income. income  families  From  36 p e r c e n t  time,  19.9 p e r c e n t  Women i n  contributions to family  1971 t o 1984 t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n  1.  A t t h e same  t o 49.5 p e r c e n t .  have made i n c r e a s i n g  i n c r e a s e d from  Table  t o 12 p e r c e n t .  families  where t h e w i f e c o n t r i b u t e s t o h o u s e h o l d  income h a s i n c r e a s e d from traditional  of t r a d i t i o n a l  o f women t o f a m i l y  t o 28 p e r c e n t .  A v e r a g e Income o f Husband F a m i l i e s , by W i f e ' s C o n t r i b u t i o n t o F a m i l y Income, 1971 t o 1984  Husband i s O n l y Husband and W i f e a r e O n l y Income R e c i p i e n t R e c i p i e n t s i n F a m i l y in Family Percent of A l l Canadian F a m i l i e s  Income  Percent of a l l Percent of Wife's Canadian F a m i l i e s Income a s F a m i l y Income  Year 1971 1975 1979 1981 1984  31.3 24.0 19.2 15.1 12.8  Source:  The  36.1 43.5 45.2 47.7 49.5  S t a t i s t i c a l I n d i c a t o r s : S t a t u s of Women Canada, M i c r o l o g Number 87-01527, T a b l e F - 3 . formation  individuals,  o f more f e m a l e - h e a d e d  families,  a s w e l l as t h e dependence of i n t a c t  earnings  of t h e female  earnings  o f women i n t h e l a b o u r m a r k e t .  supported  19.9 15.8 21.6 24.2 28.0  by a s t u d y  partner, highlights  conducted  and u n a t t a c h e d  families  the importance  This position  on t h e of the  i s further  by t h e N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l o f W e l f a r e  8 that  reported  have  fallen  employed.  i n 1979, 65 p e r c e n t  below  The  parent  incidence  lone-parent families  recorded  with  figure  f o r male  Canada,  with unmarried c h i l d r e n types,  families parent  41.1%.  families,  t h e income  headed  among  female-headed  March,  1985).  constitute  point.  lone-parent  need o f s i n g l e  proportion group  The  families i s families  proportion  of  o f a l l low income  i s female-headed families.  parent  a s t h e need o f i n t a c t  lone-parent  As h u s b a n d / w i f e  the largest  30.4% o f a l l low income  as well  by women.  the cut-off  form t h e l a r g e s t  t h e economic  among h o u s e h o l d s  person households and  i s highest  The s e c o n d l a r g e s t  families,  indicate  for  they  of poverty  a r e headed  below  would  household types  47.7% o f a l l f e m a l e - h e a d e d  as b e i n g  (Statistics  family  of a l t e r n a t i v e  of s i n g l e  o f low income  families  corresponding  families  families  i f b o t h p a r e n t s had n o t been  to the concentration  by women, a s a m a j o r i t y  80% o f s i n g l e  20.9%  line  The g r o w i n g p r o p o r t i o n  has c o n t r i b u t e d headed  the poverty  more t w o - p a r e n t  figures  female-headed  families  a women c a n g e n e r a t e w o r k i n g  These  lone-  with  children,  i n the paid  labour  force. The  relationship  between  the c o n t r i b u t i o n  to family  income  made by women, and t h e m a l e - f e m a l e e a r n i n g s gap, a n d t h e incidence distant  of low income  a s one might  relationship changing  among f e m a l e - h e a d e d  think,  (Gunderson,  family  1980).  structures,  incomes a n d t h e i n c i d e n c e  but n e i t h e r  families  i s not as  i s i t a simple  The p r e c e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n  and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p  o f low income  between  of female  has h i g h l i g h t e d the  9 importance as  o f women's income, n o t j u s t a s s e c o n d a r y  the primary  proportion  source of economic w e l l - b e i n g  of Canadian  f a m i l i e s and s i n g l e  "family  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y " argument  setting  wages h i g h e r  but  to d i s p e l the b e l i e f  because they  that  a r e secondary  f o r a growing  individuals.  i s not intended  f o r i n d i v i d u a l s with i ti s fair  income, b u t  This  to j u s t i f y  f a m i l i e s to support, t o pay women l e s s  earners.  We must r e c o g n i z e t h a t a l l a d u l t s have r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e s u p p o r t of t h e m s e l v e s a n d t h e i r c h i l d r e n r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n , and t h a t a l l a r e e n t i t l e d to p o l i c i e s which w i l l f a c i l i t a t e the c a r r y i n g out of t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , r e g a r d l e s s of sex, m a r i t a l , or p a r e n t a l s t a t u s . (Freeman, 1980)  C.  Theoretical  The attempt  following t o account  attempting topics the  section will  explore  t o account  f o r gender d i f f e r e n t i a l s  outside  position  i n the consideration  has a c o n s i d e r a b l e  implementation the  Canadian  factors extent  the labour  theory  responsibilities  employment  of p o l i c i e s  labour  involved t o which  theories  that  Theories  c o v e r a range of  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a n d pay d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n  market, t o s o c i a l i z a t i o n  adopted  several  f o rthe earnings d i f f e r e n t i a l .  from employment  labour  Viewpoints  force  impact  that  market.  The t h e o r e t i c a l  of the issue  of e q u i t y i n  on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a n d  address  through  and f a m i l y  t h e p o s i t i o n o f women i n  the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  i n the i n t e r n a l operations  of the  of t h e system.  The  income d i f f e r e n c e s due t o u n e q u a l pay f o r e q u a l  work, o c c u p a t i o n a l  segregation,  o r d i f f e r e n t q u a l i t i e s of  10 productive  a t t r i b u t e s c a n be a t t r i b u t e d t o sex d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n  the  force  labour  will  depend  approach which u n d e r l i e s T h u s , a key u n d e r l y i n g differences  current  discrimination  on t h e t h e o r e t i c a l  ( G u n d e r s o n and R e i d ,  i n any d i s c u s s i o n force  1981).  of the  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f men and  of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n .  a consideration  1.  the a n a l y s i s  between t h e l a b o u r  women i s t h e q u e s t i o n further,  t o some e x t e n t  of the v a r i o u s  Before  proceeding  d e f i n i t i o n s of  i s needed.  D e f i n i t i o n s of  Discrimination  D i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s a phenomenon w h i c h i s so p e r v a s i v e i n a l l human s o c i e t i e s t h a t t h e r e i s no doubt a t a l l t h a t it exists. I t i s n o t , however, a u n i t a r y phenomenon but a complex o f a number o f r e l a t e d forms o f human b e h a v i o u r , and t h i s makes i t n o t o n l y h a r d t o d e f i n e but f r e q u e n t l y d i f f i c u l t t o comprehend f u l l y (Boulding, 1976). The factors  above q u o t a t i o n involved  differentials. strong be  t o the r e a l i t y  i n the existence There  disagreement  addressed  points  (Kelly,  o f t h e range o f  o f wage and o c c u p a t i o n  i s agreement  that  the problem e x i s t s , but  on t h e s i z e o f t h e p r o b l e m and how i t s h o u l d 1986).  Consequently,  a r e many  definitions  of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ,  expect  economic a n d l e g a l d e f i n i t i o n s o f d i s c r i m i n a t i o n  be  that  consistent  following possible  and " T h e r e  there  w i t h one a n o t h e r . "  three  examples p r o v i d e  ( J a i n and S l o a n e , an i l l u s t r a t i o n  d e f i n i t i o n s of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n  implications  i s no r e a s o n ,  of e a c h t o t h e d i s c u s s i o n  ... t o  1981).  will The  of the range of  i n employment, and t h e of p o l i c y  solutions.  11 First,  discrimination  e m p l o y e r d o e s not applicants is  i n an  consider  an  e m p l o y e r making irrational  of  qualities  necessary  (Hiestand,  technical effects view,  of  with  workers, c o n s i d e r i n g f o r the  the  treatment. abilities  This  of  the  employment  observer  the  hiring  the  job  person  seeking  classification  and  r e f e r r e d t o as screening  of  would and the  job."  perceived,  belong  Sloane,  1981).  A third  v i e w of  are  of  throughout  networks."  by  on  i s not  1986) tied  the  social  bases  requirements  class. and the  This  " . . .  this his on but is  is defined basis  creation  that  the  In  group to which  established  (Kelly,  discrimination  the  i s the  u n j u s t i f i a b l y impacted  people's behaviour  socio-economic  discrimination  of  but  is  ( K e l l y , 1986),  in that  i n d i v i d u a l s f o r employment  only  employer  evaluation persons  not  1970).  discrimination,  r e a l or  ( J a i n and  job,  i f the  in a l l persons  statistical  a  (Hiestand,  discrimination  evident  discrimination  d e f i n i t i o n considers  h i r i n g a p a r t i c u l a r person  necessarily  conception  to  would  t h e i r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and  characteristics,  of  objective  which  t e c h n i c a l p e r f o r m a n c e of  form of  i t i s considered  p e o p l e who  Discrimination  prejudice  respect  c o n c e p t i o n s a t t r i b u t e d t o a c l a s s of  also  the  1970)  judgments or  not  1970).  a t t i t u d e or  "...what an  if  standards to a l l  (Hiestand,  decision  A second d i s t i n c t unequal  i s s a i d to e x i s t  same o b j e c t i v e  a p r o b l e m of  placement  of  the  f o r a p a r t i c u l a r job  v i e w e d h e r e as  result  apply  i n employment  of  the  of they  a class  t o any  of  interaction  i n s t i t u t i o n s and  This  by  systemic d e f i n i t i o n of  12 discrimination directed  considers  activities  operation  of  suggestion that  that  the  an  that  end  (Kelly,  entire the  impact  or  design  report  on  equality  (Abella,  recognizes  i s the  economic  is inherently  is interpreted 1984).  i s that  as The  i n employment,  fundamental problem 1986),  1986), but  s o c i a l and  system  result  intentional action  or  specifically  r e s u l t of  system.  the  There  discriminatory,  is  no  only  inequitable,  whether  Abella  Commission  in line  Royal  w i t h the  discrimination  view  i s systemic  by  that  the  (Kelly,  that:  I t i s not a q u e s t i o n of whether t h i s d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s m o t i v a t e d by an i n t e n t i o n a l d e s i r e t o o b s t r u c t someone's p o t e n t i a l , or whether i t i s t h e a c c i d e n t a l b y - p r o d u c t of i n n o c e n t l y m o t i v a t e d p r a c t i c e s or systems. If the b a r r i e r i s a f f e c t i n g c e r t a i n groups i n a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a l l y n e g a t i v e way, i t i s a s i g n a l that t h e p r a c t i c e s t h a t l e a d t o t h i s a d v e r s e impact may be discriminatory. (Abella, 1984) It  i s t h i s systemic  a c c e p t e d h e r e as public  policy  d e f i n i t i o n of  discrimination  b e i n g most e f f e c t i v e f o r  to a d d r e s s the  position  of  the  women i n the  I t encompasses d i r e c t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n  that  effects  of  the  statistical of  the  discrimination,  s o c i a l and  The  following  (discrimination) each to of  economic  the  explanation  explanations,  and  i s to to  will  of  prejudices,  well  as  e f f e c t s of  of  labour  arises effects the  from  the  of  operation  system.  discussion  theories  this discussion  as  or  is  implementation  force.  personal attitudes  which  of  outline  labour  gain  indicate  employment  an the  the  market  differential major c o n t r i b u t i o n s  differentials.  understanding diverse  of  the  The  of goal  alternative  means t h r o u g h  which  13 differences occur. that  between t h e employment  Moreover,  the purpose  discrimination  question  framework of equity  i s systemic,  labour that  I have r e a c h e d  earnings d i f f e r e n t i a l s  theories  under  the following  Marxist  conclusion  i n t e r r e l a t e d , and not c o m p l e t e l y Employment and  the i n s i g h t s o f f e r e d  by t h e v a r i o u s  t o a c h i e v e a more c o m p l e t e discussion,  categories:  the t h e o r i e s  will  explanation. be o r g a n i z e d  n e o c l a s s i c a l models, d u a l and  market a n a l y s i s ,  Neoclassical  understand  discrimination,  sex-role  socialization,  and  goal-directed  self-interest  Approaches  t h e economic a p p r o a c h  i t i s important  economic a n a l y s i s is  t h e commonly a c c e p t e d  theory.  2.  To  labour  that  o f t h e p o s i t i o n o f women i n t h e  t h e o r e t i c a l approach.  b u t by c o m b i n i n g  the f o l l o w i n g  segmented  to address the  by sex do n o t have one c o m p r e h e n s i v e  i ti s possible  For  may be an  o f t h e many t h e o r e t i c a l v i e w p o i n t s  f o r by any s i n g l e  explanation,  report,  of a  i n employment.  the causes are m u l t i p l e ,  accounted  f o r t h e view  the adoption  by t h e A b e l l a  t o o f f e r an e x p l a n a t i o n market,  and t h a t  support  from w h i c h t o d e v e l o p p o l i c y  From t h e e x a m i n a t i o n attempt  o f men a n d women c a n  i s to indicate  systems approach, as suggested effective  patterns  to explaining  t o n o t e a key a s s u m p t i o n .  i s b a s e d upon t h e a s s u m p t i o n and t h a t  (Gunderson,  i n d i v i d u a l s operate 1983).  employment  that  Most  a l l behaviour  t o maximize t h e i r  Thus, a l l e c o n o m i c  phenomena  f  14  are  the r e s u l t  market  of maximizing  of the a c t o r s  i n the  place.  a.  Starting model  behaviour  Becker's Taste  from t h i s  to define  Model  a s s u m p t i o n , G a r y S. B e c k e r  and e x p l a i n  employment  book, The E c o n o m i c s o f D i s c r i m i n a t i o n ,  developed a  discrimination. Becker  asserts  In h i s that:  Money, commonly u s e d a s a m e a s u r i n g r o d , w i l l a l s o s e r v e a s a measure o f d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . I f an i n d i v i d u a l h a s a " t a s t e f o r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , " he must a c t a s i f he were w i l l i n g t o pay s o m e t h i n g , e i t h e r d i r e c t l y o r i n t h e form o f a r e d u c e d income, t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h some p e r s o n s i n s t e a d o f o t h e r s . When a c t u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n o c c u r s , he must i n f a c t , e i t h e r pay o r f o r f e i t income f o r t h i s p r i v i l e g e . (Becker, 1 957) While  h i s model was d e v e l o p e d  discrimination,  Becker  proposed  for analyzing  of  religion,  race,  other  that  discrimination  sex, c o l o u r ,  that  colour,  differences  social  of race  t h e framework  "...has been  i n the market p l a c e  social  non-pecuniary c o n s i d e r a t i o n s "  recognizes sex,  states  i n the context  class,  (Becker,  i n the a n a l y s i s  c l a s s and p e r s o n a l i t y  because  p e r s o n a l i t y , or 1957) a l t h o u g h he  of race,  religious,  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n do  exist. Discrimination prejudice behaviour. extra  cost  in this  or d i s c r i m i n a t o r y  model  behaviour  I t i s assumed t h a t or lower p r o f i t s  groups of p e o p l e .  As w e l l ,  involves  f o r maximizing  an e m p l o y e r  to avoid  the s u b s t i t u t i o n of  i s willing  associating  some e m p l o y e e s w i l l  with  economic to incur certain  be w i l l i n g t o  1 5 accept (Jain  lower wages t o a v o i d w o r k i n g w i t h and S l o a n e ,  employees and consumers a l l i n c u r c o s t  d i s c r i m i n a t e , the long  non-discriminatory productivity  distribution  r u n outcome o f t h i s model of earnings,  o f men a n d women.  a competitive  advantage, c o m p e t i t i o n (Ornstein,  discriminating  f i r m s would be a b l e  advantage over  i t s competitors,  not  t o change t h e i r perfectly  earnings  to gain a  The  forcing  model does n o t p r o v i d e  employment physical  which  segregation  1983).  empirical  observations  occupation Policy  across  In a market  that i s  men and women c a n be employees and consumers.  an e x p l a n a t i o n  of o c c u p a t i o n a l discriminationin  The model d o e s p r e d i c t t h e  o f men and women between  each o c c u p a t i o n ,  non-  them o u t o f t h e m a r k e t ,  i s s t r o n g l y a s s o c i a t e d with  (Gunderson,  market,  the c o n t i n u i n g d i f f e r e n c e s i n the  by t h e " t a s t e s " o f e m p l o y e r s ,  segregation,  but a g a i n , (Gunderson,  this  individual  i s not c o n s i s t e n t  1983) t h a t  firms with  show s e g r e g a t i o n by  firms.  i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e B e c k e r model a r e a p p e a l i n g t o  advocates of n e o c l a s s i c a l economics.  The model p r e d i c t s t h e  elimination  of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n the labour  market  competitive  a c t i o n s of e m p l o y e r s .  i s necessary t o  correct  gain  competitive  d i s c r i m i n a t o r y behaviour.  competitive,  firms  i s the cure f o r  In a c o m p e t i t i v e  between e q u a l l y p r o d u c t i v e  explained  within  1982).  is a  b a s e d on t h e  As n o n - d i s c r i m i n a t i n g  discrimination  or  group  1981).  Because employers, when t h e y  a disfavoured  present  and p a s t  A l l that  through the  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s the f r e e o p e r a t i o n of  16 the  market, and the e l i m i n a t i o n  monopoly power t h r o u g h  of market  the enforcement  imperfection  of a n t i t r u s t  or  laws  (LaMond,  1974).  b.  Bergmann's C r o w d i n g  Modifications  to Becker's theory  to address the obvious except  personal  labour  market  B e c k e r model  sex  (Gunderson,  hypothesis. restricts  prejudice,  1983).  less  1982).  (1971,  the notion  occupations.  the majority  members o f t h e m i n o r i t y  group exceed  g r o u p be h i r e d  (Ornstein, suggests  that  occupations w i l l  segregation 1974).  This  (Marshall,  than  the crowding  1974).  wage d i f f e r e n t i a l s  rather  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n can  between o c c u p a t i o n s  g r o u p i n t o t h e lower  suggests that  to f i l l the  requiring  o f two o c c u p a t i o n s w i t h e q u a l  status  by o v e r t  a certain  1982).  then  occupation  of a crowding  g r o u p t o c e r t a i n low p r e s t i g e  i n wage d i f f e r e n t i a l s  that  by  by e m p l o y e r s  requirements are d i f f e r e n t ,  for  segregation  behaviour  of h i r i n g  I f the status  i n the  1974) d e v e l o p s  occupational  She d e v e l o p s  Bergmann's a n a l y s i s a l s o  skills.  Bergmann  attempt  i s no r a t i o n a l e ,  to motivate d i s c r i m i n a t i o n  prestigious occupations  result  there  In t h i s model, d i s c r i m i n a t o r y  the minority  will  of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n  that  further, to explain  O n l y when t h e c o s t s level,  shortcoming  (Ornstein,  the  Hypothesis  skill  of the m i n o r i t y result  Bergmann's  are maintained  by  i n lower pay  analysis occupational  wage d i s c r i m i n a t i o n  removes some o f t h e d i f f i c u l t y  equal  (Marshall,  i n accounting f o r  17 Becker's concept association.  t a s t e or d i s t a s t e  As Bergmann's a n a l y s i s c o n s i d e r s  occupations, segregated  o f an e m p l o y e r ' s  this  than  Bergmann's f o c u s earnings  indicates earnings (1968),  segregation  differential.  A Canadian  occupational  point  1961 c e n s u s d a t a , distributions  Ontario  M i n i s t r y of Labour, groups,  distribution  o f men would r a i s e  .66  (Gunderson,  the  1971 C e n s u s d a t a  segregation  found  1983).  accounted  c.  by  study  earnings.  occupational  A  by e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e  Discrimination".  of the  the d i f f e r e n t  male a n d f e m a l e  A study  1971 d a t a  workers  41 p e r c e n t a g e  c o n d u c t e d by t h e  f o r 22 b r o a d  t h a t g i v i n g women t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l  A study  the earnings  f o r about  ratio  c o n d u c t e d by Robb  for Ontario,  found  that  16 p e r c e n t  from  .57 t o  (1978),  using  occupational  of t h e e a r n i n g s gap.  Arrow's M o d i f i c a t i o n s  further extension  K e n n e t h Arrow  source  that  c o n d u c t e d by O s t r y  that  of f u l l - y e a r  using  as t h e source  i s an i m p o r t a n t  found  jobs  1974).  f o r 6.3 t o 7.9 p o i n t s of t h e o r i g i n a l  d i f f e r e n c e i n annual  identical  segregation  i s supported  occupational  using  accounted  on o c c u p a t i o n a l  differentials  e x p l a n a t i o n of  t h a t o f women d o i n g  as men b u t r e c e i v i n g l o w e r pay ( M a r s h a l l ,  of  the status of  model c r e a t e s a more r e a l i s t i c  occupations,  for physical  of the Becker  t a s t e model was  (1974) i n h i s a r t i c l e ,  "Models  In t h e n e o c l a s s i c a l t r a d i t i o n ,  Becker's b a s i c assumptions,  but m o d i f i e s  formulated  for Job Arrow  t h e model  accepts  i n an a t t e m p t  18 to e x p l a i n pressures  why wage d i f f e r e n t i a l s (Ornstein,  male and f e m a l e  1982), w h i l e  labour  force  a r e not e r a s e d  by  competitive  a s s u m i n g an e q u a l l y  (Marshall,  1974).  productive  Arrow a r g u e s  segregation  i s maintained  retraining,  so " . . . m a r g i n a l a d j u s t m e n t s a r e p u n i s h e d , n o t  rewarded"  (Arrow,  Arrow perception taste  replaces  Becker's t a s t e  of r e a l i t y  f o r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n with the  made by t h e e m p l o y e r .  group a r e l e s s p r o d u c t i v e  (Ornstein,  1982).  productive  hired  i f their  I f employers  wages were l o w e r  o f why t h e s e  conflicting  evidence  that  that  than h a v i n g a  members o f t h e in certain  jobs  female workers a r e  female workers w i l l  only  t h a n male wages by a f a c t o r  f o r the p e r c e i v e d beliefs  Rather  or e f f i c i e n t  believe  t h a n male w o r k e r s ,  enough t o compensate question  o f h i r i n g and  1974).  f o r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , employers b e l i e v e  minority  less  p a r t l y due t o t h e c o s t  that  differential.  be large  The  p e r s i s t i n t h e p r e s e n c e of  (Marshall,  1974) i s n o t r e s o l v e d  i n the  model.  3.  The  Human C a p i t a l M o d e l  human c a p i t a l m o d e l , p r e s e n t e d by B e c k e r  ( 1 9 7 4 ) , and B l a u investments Individual  and J u s e n i u s  i n ' human c a p i t a l earning  capital  (England,  aspects  that  power 1984).  contribute  (1964),  Mincer  (1976), contends that the makes l a b o u r  more  i s s e t by t h e v a l u e  productive.  o f i n d i v i d u a l human  The t e r m human c a p i t a l  r e f e r s t o those  t o an i n d i v i d u a l ' s a b i l i t y  t o be  19 productive education turnover The  on t h e j o b . level,  rates  voluntary  invest will  choices  them  occupational Starting  (1976,  intermittent  r a p i d l y (England,  employment  patterns,  While  that  b e c a u s e of f a m i l y  depreciate  (England,  Polachek  will  wage l e v e l s  have  they unequal  (Mincer,  1962).  t h e model t o e x p l a i n choices  o f women.  women's employment i s  responsibilities, with  skill  1984).  Polachek  requirements  Given  their  argues  t h a t do n o t  intermittent  r e a s o n s t h a t women make  choices, with  suggests  and thus g a i n  low human c a p i t a l  from  being  depreciation  1984). t h e human c a p i t a l  discriminatory  model  shifts  p r a c t i c e s t o the i n d i v i d u a l  attainment  patterns  conceptual  and e m p i r i c a l problems  The  the theory  i n terms of v o l u n t a r y  the assumption  economically-motivated  market  I f men a n d women  1978, 1979) e x t e n d e d  segregation  i n t o jobs  labour  and thus they  and d i f f e r e n t  women c h o o s e o c c u p a t i o n s  segregated  by sex i n t e r m s o f t h e  1984).  i n human c a p i t a l ,  attainment  from  than  (Blau,  a b s e n t e e i s m , and  an e x p l a n a t i o n o f  differentials  n o t be e q u a l l y p r o d u c t i v e ,  Polachek  that  against  attributes are:  1984).  model p r o v i d e s  o f women, r a t h e r  differently  occupational  job training,  (Fox and H e s s e - b i b e r ,  and e a r n i n g s  discrimination  o f human c a p i t a l  job experience,  human c a p i t a l  occupational  Examples  determination  because of f a m i l y  the a t t e n t i o n human  from  capital  of men and women, i t s u f f e r s f r o m many  that  (Fox and H e s s e - B i b e r ,  women i n v e s t d i f f e r e n t l y  responsibilities  i n human  i s an a s s u m p t i o n  that  1984). capital i s made  20 outside direct  the model. reference  socialization in  Though t h e human c a p i t a l  to socialization,  that  accounts  t h e home a n d i n c h i l d  theory  could  of  socialization,  sex-role  labour  model  experience  hold no  suggests  human c a p i t a l  require  (England,  seniority  that  1984), o r f e a t u r e s  aspects of the  evidence,  (England,  1984).  to explain evidence, t h e model  proposes that  women would e n t e r  opportunities  f o r increases  and J u s e n i u s  point  dominated o c c u p a t i o n s , F o r example,  States,  occupational presented  by B l a u  i s not supported  nursing  which  require  E x p a n d i n g on o f women aged  t h a t human  capital  and J u s e n i u s  (1976),  empirically.  occupations  The model  w h i c h o f f e r few  i n p r o d u c t i v i t y through  out that  does n o t  segregation.  experience.  some f e m a l e , a s w e l l a s male  require varying  a r e dominated  1984).  which  from t h e 1967 N a t i o n a l  i n the United  suggests that  secretary  jobs,  i n a 1982 s t u d y  theory  skills.  level  England concludes, data  jobs  explanation  (England,  Survey  Further  This entry  with  differences i n job  a r e sex s e g r e g a t e d  to f o r t y - f o u r , using  fails  i n t o jobs  t o t h e a b s e n c e o f women from  Longitudinal  Blau  t o other  women a r e s e g r e g a t e d  up t o s c r u t i n y , b e c a u s e even  thirty  I f Polachek's  of o c c u p a t i o n a l  reference  d e p r e c i a t i o n , and t h a t  contribute  experience,  this  be p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t  responsibilities  1984).  explanation  of sex-role  market.  The low  (England,  i s c o r r e c t , then a complete  makes no  i t i s the process  f o r women's p r i m a r y  rearing  segregation  theory  amounts and t y p e s o f  and t h e o c c u p a t i o n  of e x e c u t i v e  by women, b u t r e q u i r e a s u b s t a n t i a l  21 degree of t r a i n i n g . skills,  some o c c u p a t i o n s  a n d have low p o t e n t i a l  experience  and j a n i t o r i a l  Additionally, investment rewards  f o rproductivity  r e q u i r e few  increases  work ( B l a u a n d J u s e n i u s ,  i f as i s suggested  i n human c a p i t a l  through  Gronau,  the extent  a r e dependent  of labour  on e x p e c t a t i o n s o f  As women e v a l u a t e  investment,  present  and p a s t  women c o u l d  influence their  i f women have lower  reflection  of past  their  l a b o u r market  expected  will  r e t u r n s on  discrimination against  of investment  human c a p i t a l  and p r e s e n t  t h e model  market d i s c r i m i n a t i o n (Weiss  1981).  level  1976).  by t h e m o d e l , d e c i s i o n s on  i n t h e l a b o u r m a r k e t , e m p i r i c a l work u s i n g  underestimate  Thus,  which  c a n be d o m i n a t e d by women o r men -- f o r example,  waitressing  and  As w e l l ,  i n human  investment,  capital.  i t may be a  discriminatory restrictions to  occupational opportunities. The  model h a s shown t h e s t r o n g  education  and e a r n i n g s ,  good p r e d i c t i o n 1982). to  include a variety  effect  between age a n d e a r n i n g s ,  o f income w i t h  In p r a c t i c e ,  relationship  these  expanded  such  a s e d u c a t i o n , work  e t h n i c group, m a r i t a l s t a t u s , and demand-side  characteristics,  such  location,  union  authority  relation  earnings.  a p p r o a c h h a s been  v a r i a b l e s t o capture the  of s u p p l y - s i d e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ,  experience,  and p r o v i d e s a  two v a r i a b l e s ( O r n s t e i n ,  t h e human c a p i t a l of explanatory  between  as o c c u p a t i o n ,  membership, c l a s s  industry, geographical  of worker, time  worked a n d  i n t h e w o r k p l a c e , on t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f  22 Gunderson  (1976) r e p o r t s t h a t when a d j u s t m e n t s a r e made f o r  productivity-related wage d i f f e r e n t i a l percent  f a c t o r s arose productivity  (Gunderson, considered (1976),  presents  from p a s t  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , then a l l  that a l l p r o d u c t i v i t y measured.  (1979),  results  Goyder  Other  (1981),  using a variety  Research conducted  strong evidence  measurement  of d i f f e r e n t  by D e t r a y  that omitted  theory  argues  market.  the assumption  investment choices freely at  i n human c a p i t a l  choose t o a c q u i r e  less  responsibilities. distribution  that  education social,  However, i n a w o r l d  the a b i l i t y  on t h e s i z e o f  individual p r e f e r e n c e s and  I t assumes t h a t women and p u r s u e c e r t a i n family with  and other  an u n e q u a l  o f power, r e s o u r c e s , human c a p i t a l  responsibilities,  imprecise  o f women i n t h e l a b o u r  individual  1984).  wages b e c a u s e o f o t h e r  impact  (1977)  o f men and women.  position  reflects  (Fox and H e s s e - B i b e r ,  lower  and G r e e n b e r g  for a non-interventionist  poorer  f o l l o w s from  (1983)  explanatory  v a r i a b l e s and  approach t o the r e l a t i v e l y This  factors are  and O r n s t e i n  d i f f e r e n c e i n the earnings  Human c a p i t a l  todiscrimination  s t u d i e s by Holmes  of v a r i a b l e s has a c o n s i d e r a b l e  unexplained  but i f the p r e s e n t  wage gap c o u l d be a t t r i b u t e d  and p r e c i s e l y  Gunderson  10 t o 20  t h a t c o u l d be due t o  out of d i s c r i m i n a t o r y p r a c t i c e s ;  1976) g i v e n  similar  This leaves  t h a t none o f t h e p r o d u c t i v i t y - r e l a t e d  d i f f e r e n c e s arose  variables.  the  r e m a i n s a 10 t o 20 p e r c e n t  i s unexplained.  assuming  the unadjusted  found  that  there  o f t h e wage gap a s a r e s i d u a l  discrimination,  of  factors,  and s o c i a l  t o e x e r c i s e freedom o f c h o i c e  jobs  23 differs  greatly  Biber,  from  i n d i v i d u a l t o i n d i v i d u a l (Fox and H e s s e -  1984).  4.  It  Monopsony M o d e l  i s understood  a monopsonist  will  i n economic m o d e l s , t h a t  receive  a wage t h a t  his  or her marginal product  the  economic  competition. a in  local  theories  considered  and J u s e n i u s ,  market a r e a ,  i t uses,  is  A l l of  perfect employer i n  t h e f i r m c a n have an e f f e c t on t h e wage  (Gunderson,  1983).  By c h a n g i n g  the f i r m can, f o l l o w i n g  t o have monopsony power If  i s a large  faces  the value of  1976).  so f a r have assumed  demand, a f f e c t t h e p r i c e o f l a b o u r . said  i s l e s s than  In a s i t u a t i o n where a f i r m  an o c c u p a t i o n  labour  (Blau  a worker who  the assumption  the l o g i c  A firm  (Gunderson,  i s made t h a t  rate  t h e amount o f of supply  in this  and  situation i s  1983).  the supply  of female  labour  more open t o t h e e f f e c t s o f monopsony power b e c a u s e women a r e  tied  t o t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e husband's employment, an argument  could  be made i n s u p p o r t  o f t h e monopsony m o d e l .  argument h a s a l s o been p u t f o r w a r d by B l a u They a r g u e labour less  force  against  women have t h e o p t i o n  and becoming  susceptible One  small  that  and J u s e n i u s  of dropping  a housewife,  But t h e c o u n t e r (1976).  out of the  and t h u s may a c t u a l l y be  t o monopsony power.  i m p l i c a t i o n o f t h e model  i s that  women may be l e s s p r o n o u n c e d  towns o r r u r a l  areas,  because  wage d i s c r i m i n a t i o n  i n large  cities  the influence  than i n  of the  h u s b a n d ' s work l o c a t i o n 1983).  be l e s s  E m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h on t h i s  Gunderson large  will  (1975) f i n d s  cities  aspect  (Gunderson,  i s inconclusive.  t h a t t h e male wage a d v a n t a g e  i s significantly  monopsony m o d e l .  pronounced  smaller, implying  However, a n o t h e r  study  over  support  by G u n d e r s o n ,  women i n f o r the  (1976)  showed t h a t t h e incomes o f men a n d women i n c r e a s e d f o r u r b a n residences, resulting  but that the e f f e c t  i n a decrease  5.  An  Dual  Labour  i n female-to-male  model  f o r men t h a n earnings  w h i c h has  presented  i s the "dual l a b o u r market"  (Marshall,  1974).  hypothesis  i sclearly  women,  ratios.  Markets  economic a p p r o a c h  neoclassical  was l a r g e r  The d u a l o r segmented s t a t e d by M i c h a e l  a challenge to the hypothesis  labour  market  Poire:  The b a s i c h y p o t h e s i s o f t h e d u a l l a b o r m a r k e t was t h a t t h e m a r k e t i s d i v i d e d i n t o two e s s e n t i a l l y d i s t i n c t s e c t o r s , termed t h e ' p r i m a r y ' a n d t h e ' s e c o n d a r y ' sectors. The f o r m e r o f f e r s j o b s w i t h r e l a t i v e l y h i g h wages, good w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s , c h a n c e s o f advancement, e q u i t y a n d due p r o c e s s i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f work r u l e s a n d , above a l l , employment s t a b i l i t y . Jobs i n t h e s e c o n d a r y s e c t o r , by c o n t r a s t , t e n d t o be lowp a y i n g , w i t h poorer working c o n d i t i o n s , l i t t l e chance of advancement; a h i g h l y p e r s o n a l i z e d r e l a t i o n s h i p between w o r k e r s and s u p e r v i s o r s w h i c h l e a v e s wide l a t i t u d e f o r f a v o r i t i s m a n d i s c o n d u c i v e t o h a r s h and c a p r i c i o u s work d i s c i p l i n e ; a n d w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e i n s t a b i l i t y i n j o b s and a h i g h t u r n o v e r among t h e labour force. The h y p o t h e s i s was d e s i g n e d t o e x p l a i n the problems of d i s a d v a n t a g e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y black w o r k e r s i n urban a r e a s , w h i c h h a d p r e v i o u s l y been d i a g n o s e d a s one o f unemployment ( P i o r e , 1972, c i t e d from M a r s h a l l , 1974).  Early  work by P i o r e  expectation the  of the labour  e x i s t e n c e of a d u a l  certain  labour market.  have c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  primary  foster  employment  discrimination, start  employment  (Piore,  other  systemic  i n the primary  attitudes  and p r e f e r e n c e s  unclear.  market  People  because of t h e i r  of w o r k e r s ,  thus  creating a vicious  of i n d i v i d u a l s  jobs  and many of t h e i r p o s i t i o n s i n poor  1983).  market  job to a  i s very  and g r o u p s .  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , whether by p r e f e r e n c e ,  preferences  i n d i v i d u a l s to  undesirable  from t h e i r  of i n d i v i d u a l s  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , combined  The  The c a u s e and e f f e c t a r e  labour  statistical  to  1976).  t o move f r o m a s e c o n d a r y  t o the primary  reinforce  s e c t o r shapes t h e t a s t e s ,  (Gunderson and R e i d ,  t h e economic p o s i t i o n  employer  (Cain,  that confines  are formulated  factors  labour market,  l a b o u r market  i n the secondary  As i t i s d i f f i c u l t  to  o r even random  p o o r work c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ;  low wages  recruitment  the e f f e c t s of  a r e p a i d low wages a n d g i v e n  work c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s jobs with  p a t t e r n s and r o l e  that are a n t a g o n i s t i c to  Further,  ( C a i n , 1976).  less  In h i s a n a l y s i s ,  from l i f e  factors  or s e l f - f u l f i l l i n g prophecy  secondary  to Piore,  i n t h e worker t h a t a r e not c o n d u c i v e  o f bad j o b s  one,  1970).  determinant f o r  t h a t make them sector.  behavioral t r a i t s  character  the  formed  According  workers o f f i n the secondary  characteristics  circle  f o r c e i s an i n d e p e n d e n t  f o r jobs w i t h i n the primary  models t h a t  that  1974, 1975) s t r e s s e s t h a t t h e  g r o u p s have a t t i t u d e s t o work  suitable people  (1970,  with  primary  important Thus,  p r e j u d i c e or  the developed  i n t h e l a b o u r market, can r e s u l t i n  26 earnings  differentials  the primary  between g r o u p s t h r o u g h  or secondary  labour  market  their  (Lundahl  position in  and Wadensjo,  1984). Approaches t o improving directions: protective that  and e x c l u s i o n a r y p o l i c i e s ;  prevent  t h e movement  market  t o the secondary  6.  Sex-Role  A factor  process  of s e x - r o l e  "socialization acceptable  labour  and  (Gunderson,  of occupations  socialization.  paradigm",  this  Frequently  approach  early socialization  Armstrong,  1984).  of e d u c a t i o n  their  social  From t h i s  1983).  that  i s missing, above  called  i s the  a  of labour approach,  t o behave and t h i n k  of c h i l d r e n r e s u l t s  a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o u r  1984).  types  labour  i s now t h e most  way o f e x p l a i n i n g t h e s e g r e g a t i o n  thoughts,  t o the primary  i n t h e e c o n o m i c models d i s c u s s e d  male c h i l d r e n a r e e n c o u r a g e d  masculine  2) b r e a k down t h e b a r r i e r s  Socialization  ( A r m s t r o n g and A r m s t r o n g ,  The  market  basic  market w i t h i t s  the b e n e f i t s of the primary  i n the segregation  as g i v e n ,  labour  from t h e s e c o n d a r y  m a r k e t ; and 3) e x t e n d  taken  t h e m s e l v e s have t h r e e  1) t o b r e a k up t h e p r i m a r y  labour  or  the jobs  by sex female and  differently.  i n feminine patterns  and  (Armstrong  T h i s e n c o u r a g e s men and women t o c h o o s e  and j o b s  that are appropriate  f o r them i n  setting.  This approach  i s clearly  s e t o u t by C o u l s o n  and R i d d e l l .  Most p s y c h o l o g i s t s and s o c i o l o g i s t s a r e now a g r e e d t h a t i n s t i n c t i s of l i t t l e s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the e x p l a n a t i o n  27  of human b e h a v i o u r , w h i c h o v e r w h e l m i n g l y d e r i v e s from what we l e a r n . What we l e a r n d e r i v e s from our c u l t u r e - t h e s e t s o f e s t a b l i s h e d ways of d o i n g t h i n g s d e v e l o p e d i n our s o c i e t y . E a c h i n d i v i d u a l as he grows up i s s o c i a l i z e d ( t r a i n e d ) t o i n t e r n a l i z e ( a c c e p t a s h i s own) t h i s c u l t u r e . T h e r e f o r e , t h e c e n t r a l c o n c e p t in e x p l a i n i n g behaviour i s c u l t u r e . Sex-role entire  r a n g e of  involved variety  process  of ways, gender  Brinton,  i n the 1984).  differences labour  i s a complex p r o c e s s ,  interrelated  i n the  behaviour  the  acquisition  of  a  i s a s s o c i a t e d with c u l t u r e of  result  in occupational market  distinguishing individuals  of  with  between t h e  pursuing  the  sex-role  Brinton, the  occupations determine  young men  ( M a r i n i and  i f these  reflection of  and  of  the  choices realistic  of  and sex  entry  into  approach  is  expectations  of  W h i l e many to choose to choose  expectations  "female" "male"  i t is difficult  a s p i r a t i o n s or are given  studies  to  a  a restricted  set  options. A r m s t r o n g and  against  Armstrong  the  power of  segregation  of work.  an  1984),  reflect  in a  types  (Marini  before  socialization  more l i k e l y  Brinton,  occur  child  occupations.  are  may  1984).  have shown t h a t young women a r e more l i k e l y occupations,  learning  socialization,  a s p i r a t i o n s and  sex-typed  the  particular  o r i e n t a t i o n occur  ( M a r i n i and  A major d i f f i c u l t y  Although  sex-role acquisition  particular As  factors.  i n v o l v i n g an  explanation  ignores  the  of  the  (1984) make a s t r o n g  a socialization The  use  of  position  i n f l u e n c e of  the  paradigm  argument  to e x p l a i n  the  socialization  theory  to  of women i n t h e  labour  force  existing  approach  structures in society.  If  28 the  segregation  appropriate  of occupations  roles,  merely changing  developed  Armstrong,  1984).  especially  those  be c h a n g e d  ideas w i l l  through  our c o n c e p t i o n  women i n t h e l a b o u r  can  i s the result  be c h a n g e d  "The a s s u m p t i o n  independently  i n turn alter  socialization,  of the s i t u a t i o n ,  force should  transmitted  of ideas  about  t h e n by  the p o s i t i o n of  (Armstrong and  i s t h a t a t t i t u d e s and i d e a s ,  through  the s o c i a l i z a t i o n  of other  s t r u c t u r e s , that  t h e c u l t u r e and t h u s  process, these  the segregation."  ( A r m s t r o n g a n d A r m s t r o n g , 1984) Armstrong they  found  and Armstrong  t h a t many women work  b e c a u s e women t h i n k  these  b e c a u s e women t h o u g h t but  because  they  in typically  are appropriate  are the jobs  a c t on t h e i r  at individual  partial  success  ignored  ( A r m s t r o n g and A r m s t r o n g ,  7.  Marxist that  i fstructural  Marxist  b u t from a p o l i c y attitudes will  This  i d e a s do viewpoint,  meet w i t h  only  factors are  1984).  Theories  explanations  keep i t from w o r k i n g 1974).  f o r women, and n o t  i d e a s , and t h a t  and i n s t i t u t i o n a l  of o c c u p a t i o n a l  employers d i v i d e the labour  (Marshall,  jobs  jobs not  t h a t a r e a v a i l a b l e t o women.  and r e i n f o r c e i n e q u a l i t i e s ,  actions d i r e c t e d only  female  i n which  t h e j o b s a r e t h e c o r r e c t r o l e s f o r women,  does n o t deny t h a t p e o p l e justify  (1983) c o n d u c t e d a s u r v e y  together  Marxist  force  sex s e g r e g a t i o n  into  smaller  assume  groups t o  i n opposition to capitalism  theorists  argue t h a t  capitalists  29 employ  t h e " d i v i d e and c o n q u e r  (England,  1984).  means t o l i m i t jobs  identify  as other  with  this  labour is  or decreased  whether  worker  D i s c r i m i n a t i o n by o t h e r  that  t o be c o n s i d e r e d  that employers  motivated  by o t h e r  factors,  show t h a t s e g r e g a t i o n (Marshall, segregation The needs  will  historical to problems  segregated,  solidarity  would  of work.  there  be The  f o r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n t o the  employees  is also a  segregate.  s u c h as p r o f i t ,  i s c o n s i s t e n t with  Further,  factor i t seems  I f employers  i t is difficult  these  other  1974), as e m p l o y e r s do n o t a l w a y s p r o f i t  are to  motives by  the  of workers.  policy  implication  t o be a f u n d a m e n t a l  relationships to occur  of  of women i n t h e  ( M a r s h a l l , 1974). always  1984).  T h e r e a r e many  from t h e d e s e g r e g a t i o n  employer.  sex, as w e l l  by e m p l o y e r s  As women's work has a l w a y s been  a p p r o a c h a s s i g n s most o f t h e emphasis  unlikely  (England,  or sex d i v i s i o n  by  c l a s s e s of  to minimize the  i n e x p l a i n i n g the p o s i t i o n  no b a s i s f o r knowing  needs  helps  1982).  i s seen a s a  in different  segregation  among w o r k e r s  (Gordon,  workers  segments  perspective consists primarily  approach  increased  Thus,  characteristics,  movements  market.  into  t o which people  of t h e use o f r a c e  weaken l a b o u r  of j o b s  each o t h e r .  of s o l i d a r i t y  The M a r x i s t  with  division  the extent  identifiable  development  accounts  The  strategy" against  of t h i s  restructuring  i n s o c i e t y f o r change  (Gunderson,  perspective i s that  1984).  there  o f t h e b a s i c power  i n the area  of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n  30 8.  Summary  From t h i s  survey  e c o n o m i s t s and o t h e r not  one d e f i n i t i v e  internally  of a l t e r n a t i v e social  theory  examination  statement  alternative reached  force.  explanations  similar  theory,  that there  i s no s i n g l e ,  neoclassical,  o f t h e sex s e g r e g a t i o n England  explanation;  Other  i t i s embedded  and Oaxaca  the p o s s i b i l i t i e s  raises  1977).  explanatory  a difficult  Policy  i n systems level."  f o r overlap  Both  between  as competing t h e o r i e s .  l a c k of a d e f i n i t i v e  discrimination (Oaxaca,  regarded  as w e l l as  proposes that there i s  England  identify  authors,  o f work, have  from t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l t o t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l  The  there i s  after h i s  ranging  what a r e commonly  that  of the p o s i t i o n  ( M a r s h a l l , 1974).  1977) s u r v e y i n g  conclusions.  "...no one p a r s i m o n i o u s  explanation  Marshall concludes,  of theory  1984; Oaxaca,  i t i s clear  o f " d i s c r i m i n a t i o n " t h a t p r o v i d e s an  of n e o c l a s s i c a l  systematic (England,  scientists,  c o n s i s t e n t and r e a l i s t i c  of women i n t h e l a b o u r  a p p r o a c h e s t a k e n by  question  theory of with  makers c a n c h o o s e t o :  regard 1)  to policy  address the  c a u s e s o f d i s c r i m i n a t i o n from one o r many o f t h e v i e w p o i n t s o f existing  t h e o r i e s , and a l t e r  operations  of t h e system  understanding  theory,  o r 2)  a c t without  a complete  t h e u n d e r l y i n g causes and address  discrimination, In l i g h t  t h e i n p u t s and t h e i n t e r n a l  or the outputs  of t h e system  the r e s u l t s of  (Oaxaca,  1977).  o f t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f employment d i s c r i m i n a t i o n  the adoption  of the d e f i n i t i o n  of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n as  31 systemic attempt  i s compelling. to reconcile,  I t i s able  1) t h e p r e s s u r e  women a s b a s i c a l l y e q u a l see  any d i f f e r e n c e s  aberration, assumption  Sloane, by  g r o u p s who r e g a r d men a n d  i n terms of t h e i r a b i l i t i e s  i n t h e employment  personal differences  gives  1981),  rise  to differences  approaches,  from t h e  between g r o u p s and i n outcomes  3) t h e m a x i m i z i n g b e h a v i o u r  the n e o c l a s s i c a l  and tend t o  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a s an  2) human c a p i t a l t h e o r i s t s who s t a r t that  individuals  t o m e d i a t e between, a n d  ( J a i n and  of e m p l o y e r s  4) t h e s t r u c t u r a l  predicted  factors  s u g g e s t e d by t h e Monopsony, D u a l L a b o u r M a r k e t , a n d M a r x i s t theories,  a n d 5) t h e s e x - r o l e  differences across  occupations  inequitable or  i n earnings,  s o c i a l i z a t i o n process.  that  and t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f men and women  i s very  difficult  treatment, personal  t o the actors  Given  i n the system  t o assign  abilities, ranging  to prejudice  economic  or  determinants,  from e m p l o y e r s ,  unions,  e m p l o y e e s , c o n s u m e r s , o r government, t h e c o n c e p t  of systemic  discrimination  grounded  evolving  concept  that  socio-economic systemic  pattern  discrimination  i n an  of a complete  provides a basis f o r  understanding  r e l a t i o n s h i p of the various  system.  Policy  discrimination  relationships programs.  of systemic  i s independent  c a u s e and e f f e c t  of  for intervention  d e f i n i t i o n of e q u i t y .  The action  provides a basis  within  actions  seek  components o f t h e  formulated  t o b r e a k down  of the  from t h e i d e a  established  t h e system  through a f f i r m a t i v e  action  Once p o l i c y d e s i g n e d  to a c t i v e l y reverse  the e x i s t i n g  h a s been  implemented,  the cumulative  e f f e c t s of t h e  32  action  will  system,  build  i n t h e o t h e r d i r e c t i o n as components of  attitudes,  individual  laws,  r o l e models,  institutional  economic power o f women, b e g i n  the  practices,  t o change  (Gunderson,  1984). Systemic  discrimination  conscious attempts opportunities. examination f o c u s e s on from  groups and  and  the e x a m i n a t i o n of t h e  required  specific  causes  can  be  skills  and  from  economic  i t does n o t  only  involve  analysis  of t h e  and  under-paid  (Phillips,  1984).  Rather i t  results.  Working  i f certain  given their  From t h i s  be and  and  able to t r e a t to p r e d i c t  (Gunderson,  the expected  1984).  The  to forecast impact  n o t i o n of  Leaving  the  unsatisfactory Undoubtedly, interaction which they  of  expected  future  and  systemic d i s c r i m i n a t i o n  systems are the  of v a r i o u s a c t o r s , operate.  However, an  incomplete  system. the  t o "the  r e s u l t of  i n s t i t u t i o n s , and  does  the  components u n d e f i n e d has  r e s u l t of a t t r i b u t i n g t h e p r o b l e m  socio-economic  changes,  of a l t e r n a t i v e p o l i c i e s  between t h e v a r i o u s components o f t h e  relationships  then  f o r p o l i c y makers t o  not p r e c l u d e the d e f i n i t i o n of t h e components and interrelationship  knowledge,  remedy.  i n e q u a l i t y are necessary  the c a u s e s ,  ability  i d e n t i f i e d , and  Knowledge of t h e u n d e r l y i n g c a u s a l d e t e r m i n a n t s discrimination  the  1984).  r e s u l t s , i t i s determined  to provide a  r e s u l t of  groups  f o r the d i f f e r e n t i a l s are  taken  the  motivation ( P h i l l i p s ,  are under-represented,  the  action  t h i s reason,  intent  the a n a l y s i s  necessarily  to exclude c e r t a i n  For  of  i s not  system".  the  the c o n t e x t i n  understanding  of  33 these  interrelationships  effective, of  the o p e r a t i o n of The  of  goal-directed  concept  employment  policy  does n o t p r e c l u d e t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f policy  that  system.  of s y s t e m i c d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ,  equity  that  i t entails,  by e n c o u r a g i n g p o l i c y  employment  equity  economic p e r s p e c t i v e , consequences  D.  issues  Earnings D i f f e r e n t i a l s  The  empirical  work t h a t  ( 1 9 7 3 ) , Holmes  Goyder  (1981) and O r n s t e i n ( 1 9 8 3 ) .  complete  list  ( 1 9 7 4 ) , Robb  of past s t u d i e s .  r e s e a r c h c a n be f o u n d Agarwal  and J a i n  development for  of l e a s t  differences  explanatory  squares  variables  (1980),  do n o t r e p r e s e n t a summaries o f p a s t  (1976), Gunderson  (1980) and  r e s e a r c h has r e v o l v e d a r o u n d t h e  t h r o u g h t h e use o f a v a r i e t y of  use t o measure t h e e x t e n t and s o u r c e s o f Each  s o u r c e and s e l e c t i o n  conclusions  by  r e g r e s s i o n models d e s i g n e d t o a d j u s t  in productivity  wage d i f f e r e n t i a l s . data  This  Differences  work c o m p l e t e d  (1978), Gunderson  More c o m p l e t e  i n Gunderson  (1978).  and P r o d u c t i v i t y  These  to l i k e l y  1977).  follows p a r a l l e l s  Oaxaca  by  s o c i a l and  a c t as a guide  (Davies,  range o f  Moreover,  i n an h i s t o r i c a l ,  actions  view  c a n make a c o n t r i b u t i o n t o  ( D a v i e s , 1977).  theory can a l s o  of d i f f e r e n t  and t h e broader  makers t o c o n s i d e r a w i d e r  f a c t o r s and i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s placing  seeks t o address the r e s u l t s  difficult.  cross-sectional of. v a r i a b l e s ,  study d i f f e r s  making g e n e r a l  in  its  Table attempt  2 summarizes  to  explain  the  some of  It provides  study,  u n a d j u s t e d and  explanatory variables  variables  used are  definition  of  substantial  variation  adjusted  that  the  in results used  the  i n the  the  to  range  primarily  adjust  the  sex  set  that regression  used  r a t i o s , and analysis.  variables.  i d e n t i f i e d i n each  i s due  through  availability  s i z e of  studies  studies  data  earnings  were u s e d  i n the  r a t i o for these  characteristics 1982).  on  productivity-related  earnings d i f f e r e n t i a l earnings  information  l i m i t e d by  variation  empirical  earnings d i f f e r e n t i a l  analysis. the  the  of  in  the  the The  data,  and  Thus t h e r e  the  is a  discrimination  study.  f r o m 50  The to  80.  to d i f f e r e n c e s  differential  adjusted The in  the  (Gunderson,  35  T a b l e 2.  Summary o f R a t i o s o f Women's t o M e n ' s E a r n i n g s , Unadjusted and A d j u s t e d f o r V a r i o u s C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Workers and J o b s  Study  Data Sources and Population Studied  Gross Unadjusted Ratio  Adjusted Ratio  Oaxaca (1973)  Survey o f Economic O p p o r t u n i t y (1967) U . S . A . , urban workers age +1G  G5  72  e d u c a t i o n , age, r a c e , proxy f o r labour m a r i t a l s t a t u s , h e a l t h , hours o f work,  Holmes  S u r v e y o f Consumer F i n a n c e (1967) Canada, i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h and w i t h o u t income  41  56  a g e , weeks w o r k e d , r e g i o n , s i z e o f u r b a n a r e a , i m m i g r a t i o n s t a t u s c l a s s o f worker, m a r i t a l s t a t u s , o c c u p a t i o n and n a t u r e o f work.  1970 C e n s u s , 3 0 years and o l d e r , Ontario  59  76  age, m a r i t a l s t a t u s , and i n d u s t r y .  60  76  potential experience, marital status, education, time worked, language, o c c u p a t i o n and i n d u s t r y ;  Canadian M o b i l i t y Study 49 S u p p l e m e n t t o t h e 1973 Labour Force Survey, age 18 - 64  67  e d u c a t i o n , o c c u p a t i o n c o d e d by B l i s h e n s c o r e s , h o u r s job i n t e r r u p t i o n s and age.  80  e d u c a t i o n , e x p e r i e n c e , s e n i o r i t y , hours of work, ownership employer s i z e , u n i o n membership, a u t h o r i t y r e l a t i o n s h i p .  (1974)  Robb ( 1 9 7 8 )  Gunderson Goyder  (1980)  (1981)  Ornstein  1970 C e n s u s ,  Ontario  (1983) Q u a l i t y o f L i f e Survey, 3000 c a s e s , 1981  62  Explanatory Variables  education,  force experience, s i z e of c i t y and region.  training,  time worked,  occupation  training, worked,  and  Most a n a l y s i s men  and women.  attempts  that there  The i m p e t u s  to calculate  disagreement that  agree  forthis  gap between  body o f r e s e a r c h , t h a t  an a d j u s t e d e a r n i n g s  on t h e s i z e  the earnings  i s an e a r n i n g s  ratio,  arises  o f t h e gap a n d i t s c a u s e s .  gap i s t h e r e s u l t  of lower  Some a r g u e  work-productivity  among women.  F o r example, women a r e p a i d l e s s b e c a u s e  fewer  less  skills,  training,  and l e s s work e x p e r i e n c e  1985).  They a r g u e t h a t t h e s e  account  when t r y i n g  that and  the e n t i r e  identify  t o determine  f o r these  Other  f a c t o r s past  Previous  the extent  t h e c a u s e by t r a c i n g  adjustments  be t a k e n  they  have  (Calzavara into  a n a l y s t s argue  gap r e p r e s e n t s p a s t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n  ( C a l z a v a r a , 1985).  attempted  should  t o e x p l a i n t h e gap.  t h a t by a c c o u n t i n g  ignored  factors  from  a g a i n s t women  discrimination i s  e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h has  of the e a r n i n g s  t h e impact  have been made f o r v a r i o u s  gap a n d  on t h e gap when  productivity  characteristics. The  results  work i n t h i s average  from  thesis  past  by d e m o n s t r a t i n g  h o u r s worked p e r y e a r ,  distribution  a r e important  earnings  differential.  included  i n the a n a l y s i s ,  through  s t u d i e s have a f f e c t e d  t h e sample  The e f f e c t  where t h e i n d i v i d u a l  1985.  F u r t h e r , the review  i n the accounting  o f h o u r s worked,  process  worked  experience,  and i n d u s t r y  h a s been e s s e n t i a l l y  selection  cases  t h a t p a s t work  occupation  variables  the e m p i r i c a l  which  full-time  of the  while  accounted f o r  selected  only  those  and f u l l - y e a r i n  of the t h e o r e t i c a l  l i t e r a t u r e has  raised  several  questions with  sector  o f work  (private versus public  marital  status  differential.  a n d number First,  because of i t s s t r o n g of  the assumption  that  the  education  i tw i l l  i s proposed  be p o s s i b l e  i n the labour  responsibilities,  children.  in  the regression  impact  i n the analysis but a l s o  because  e a r n i n g s as a r e s u l t of  Second, d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ,  following the  By i n c l u d i n g m a r i t a l i tw i l l  on t h e e a r n i n g s  this  i n the p r i v a t e the a n a l y s i s of  assumption.  can c o n t r i b u t e  by m a r i t a l status  status  and number  be p o s s i b l e  responsibilities  o f women.  in  And  women c h o o s e t o be l e s s  so t h e y  indicated  i n d i c a t o r s of domestic  Through  to explore  market  analysis  t o be l o w e r  sector.  i t i s commonly assumed t h a t  of  these  i s included  women have l o w e r  as opposed t o t h e p u b l i c  productive family  s e c t o r ) , a n d t h e impact o f  r e l a t i o n s h i p to earnings,  discrimination,  data,  third,  of education,  of t h e n e o c l a s s i c a l approach and t h e r o l e o f c o m p e t i t i o n  reducing sector  t o t h e impact  o f c h i l d r e n on t h e e a r n i n g s  lower l e v e l s o f e d u c a t i o n . logic  regard  more t o  a n d number of c h i l d r e n  t o explore  whether  have a n e g a t i v e  38 11 .  METHODOLOGY  A.  Introduction  Using which  data  i s based  from  the  1986  upon t h e A p r i l ,  considering  the e f f e c t s  urban  r e g i o n , average  and  area,  number  of c h i l d r e n ,  measure t h e  impact  t h e e a r n i n g s gap. important issues  involved notes  Survey,  worked p e r y e a r , will  class  be  used  and  Before  the a n a l y s i s  proceeding  with  understanding  type  of  of  related  the  (SCF), and status, of work, to  factors  that  methodological  analysis.  Issues  (1980) p r o v i d e s an  excellent  much of t h e d i s a g r e e m e n t  or a n n u a l unadjusted  stems from  Different  t h e use  results  arise  over  summary of t h e i s s u e s  m e a s u r e s , and  A clear  definitions  interpretation, studies into  and  will  the s i z e  of d i f f e r e n t from  income, a b s o l u t e o r r e l a t i v e measures.  on  i t is  i n t h e a n a l y s i s of t h e m a l e - f e m a l e e a r n i n g s gap.  analysis.  other  hours  regression analysis  Methodological  t h e e a r n i n g s gap  the  Labour Force  of t h e s e human c a p i t a l  involved in this  Gunderson  1985  of Consumer F i n a n c e  of e d u c a t i o n , e x p e r i e n c e , m a r i t a l  t o have a c l e a r  B.  Survey  t h e use  analysis  of  of t h e  results  the male-female e a r n i n g s  gap.  of  of h o u r l y wages  the c o n f u s i o n  the  source  methods of  differences,  understanding reduce  and  He  of  a d j u s t e d or different surrounding this,  and  39  1.  All measure  Wages V e r s u s  Income  m e a s u r e s of t h e m a l e - f e m a l e e a r n i n g s gap r e f e r of l a b o u r  market  examine d i f f e r e n c e s over a s p e c i f i c depends upon attempting  income  ( G u n d e r s o n , 1980).  i n wages p e r u n i t  period  of time.  t h e p u r p o s e of t h e a n a l y s i s .  questions becomes  of p o v e r t y  and  Relative  decreasing  over  For a n a l y s i s  values  tend  (Gunderson,  t i m e stems l a r g e l y  accounts  to increase  work,  due  this will  income  The a b s o l u t e measure  The r e l a t i v e measure  or  of wage  used.  i s the  Over t i m e ,  these  of wages  differences  o f wages by u s i n g  by male wages.  be t h e measure  on  from t h e use of r e l a t i v e  to changes i n the l e v e l  f o r changes i n the l e v e l  f e m a l e wages d i v i d e d  focuses  Differences  between male wages and f e m a l e wages.  1980).  that  o v e r whether t h e wage gap i s i n c r e a s i n g  v e r s u s a b s o l u t e measures of t h e gap. difference  i n the labour  ( G u n d e r s o n , 1980).  Versus Absolute  The d i s a g r e e m e n t  measure  I f the a n a l y s i s i s  income d i s t r i b u t i o n , t h e a n n u a l  t h e more u s e f u l measure  2.  of e i t h e r  of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n  m a r k e t , b o t h m e a s u r e s c a n be u s e d .  Measures can  of t i m e worked, or income  The v a l i d i t y  t o i d e n t i f y the extent  t o some  t h e r a t i o of  In t h e f o l l o w i n g  empirical  40 3.  The  U n a d j u s t e d and  factor  m a g n i t u d e of  the  discrimination adjusted  as  generates  involved  1980).  It  i s the  t h e n any  and pay  discrimination.  men  and  and  amount  to which the  that  and  gap  differences  t r a i n i n g , experience,  conditions. differences  the  factors  and  a r i s e may  unexplained  are  is  in  earnings such  work  be  factors  are  attributed  reflect  the  controlled.  differences  factors  factors,  When p r o d u c t i v i t y that  of  work r e l a t e d  U n a d j u s t e d wage d i f f e r e n c e s  to  the  the  to  wage  gap  Adjusted  i n the  wages  of  women a f t e r a d j u s t m e n t s have been made.  The  degree  discrimination  to which a d j u s t e d is controversial  arises  b e c a u s e the  arisen  due  of  and  discrimination  and  family  quality  Culture,  i n the  differences  discrimination i n the  of  education,  conflict  job  and  training, hiring  B e c a u s e t h e r e may  t h e s e may  be  productivity-  ignore  1980).  have  and  between men  a c q u i s i t i o n of  personal  The  f a c t o r s may  tradition  differences  (Gunderson,  work and  1980).  to  responsibilities.  involved  reflect  (Gunderson,  factors, c o n t r o l l i n g for  s o u r c e s of  wage gaps  productivity-related  a l l contribute  women i n q u a n t i t y practices  value  to d i s c r i m i n a t i o n .  discrimination  related  degree  in productivity  before p r o d u c t i v i t y - r e l a t e d wage g a p s r e f e r  gap,  about  from d i f f e r e n t p r o d u c t i v i t y  education,  responsibilities equal,  most d i s c u s s i o n  i s accepted  legitimately arise l e v e l s of  the  Measures  male-female earnings  for differences  (Gunderson, can  that  Adjusted  To  important the  extent  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  men  that and  women a r o s e  from d i s c r i m i n a t o r y  may be a t t r i b u t a b l e market.  to discrimination,  a l l o f t h e wage gap  i n and o u t s i d e  On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e u n e x p l a i n e d  different  returns  may r e f l e c t  men a n d women r e c e i v e  that  stem  from  factors  example, t h e u n e x p l a i n e d  factors,  such as m o t i v a t i o n  r e s i d u a l , and the  i n labour  outside  residual  the labour  for productive  unobserved gender d i f f e r e n c e s  productivity For  practices,  market  the labour  includes  and a p t i t u d e ,  attributes  that  market.  productivity c a n n o t be  measured. Controlling for  a large  part  discrimination  for productivity-related  o f t h e wage gap does n o t mean  i s not r e s p o n s i b l e  amount o f t h e gap a t t r i b u t a b l e but  assigned  necessary  be  defined  (Agarwal, defined  1980).  The t o t a l  may be t h e same,  discrimination  within the  i n the a c q u i s i t i o n of Thus, i t  t o d i s t i n g u i s h between pay d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ,  which can  a s u n e q u a l pay l e v e l s 1981), employment  as unequal  1981).  f o r employees h o l d i n g  discrimination,  job l e v e l s  (Agarwal,  (Osberg,  to d i f f e r e n c e s directs  outside  account  the labour market.  qualifications market"  factors  that  that  to discrimination  or t o d i s c r i m i n a t i o n  productivity-related is  (Gunderson,  t o wage a n d employment  labour market,  factors  jobs  w h i c h c a n be b r o a d l y  f o r men and women w i t h  1981), a n d d i s c r i m i n a t i o n Discrimination  equal  before  similar  "before the  t h e market  refers  i n t h e s o c i a l i z a t i o n o f men and women w h i c h  them t o o b t a i n  d i f f e r e n t types of e d u c a t i o n ,  different  employment  patterns,  determine  t h e i r earnings  and c o n t r i b u t e s  i n the labour  force.  t o pursue  to factors Thus,  that  employment  discrimination  c a n be due t o d i s c r i m i n a t i o n  force,  as w i t h i n  of  as w e l l  female-dominated occupations,  occupations  (Bergmann,  4.  used  differences. regression  example, working attempts factors on  o f women i n t o  two t e c h n i q u e s  to adjust  those  work.  that  are widely  for productivity-related s e l e c t i o n and  analyses.  sample  differences their  the devaluation  Techniques  The two t e c h n i q u e s a r e sample  a.  The  through  the crowding  Adjustment  (1980) o u t l i n e s  i n the l i t e r a t u r e  force  the labour  1971), a n d u n e q u a l pay f o r e q u a l  Productivity  Gunderson  in  the labour  outside  Sample  Selection  s e l e c t i o n approach c o n t r o l s  productivity-related  by s e l e c t i n g g r o u p s o f men and women t h a t  productivity-related  factors  (Gunderson,  are similar  1980).  For  t h e s e l e c t i o n o f men and women 35-45 y e a r s o f a g e , i n t h e same o c c u p a t i o n to control that  f o ra large  may i n f l u e n c e  and h a v i n g  t h e same j o b t i t l e  number of p r o d u c t i v i t y - r e l a t e d  pay l e v e l s .  i d e n t i f y i n g pay d i s c r i m i n a t i o n .  This  approach  i s focused  43  b.  used  Regression  Analyses  T h e r e a r e two b a s i c  regression  i n the l i t e r a t u r e .  The f i r s t  earnings equation explanatory  by r e g r e s s i n g  variables  dummy v a r i a b l e  techniques involves  (Gunderson,  1980).  male o r f e m a l e on e a r n i n g s w h i l e h o l d i n g  men and women r e c e i v e  t h e same r e t u r n s  factors.  f o rd i f f e r e n t  related  factors  independent  women  (Gunderson,  equations the  differences  regression  of the e f f e c t of being constant  i s that  from  the other  i t assumes  but i t c o n s t r a i n s  the regression  t o be t h e same f o r men and  The r e g r e s s i o n unit  i n the returns  attributable  separate  This  to their  (Gunderson, into  to differences  variable  enables comparisons of  respective 1980).  productivity-  I t also  i t s component  enables the  parts:  a  i n endowments o f  productivity-related  factors,  returns  f o r t h e same p r o d u c t i v i t y - r e l a t e d  receive  earnings  c o e f f i c i e n t s show  o f an e x p l a n a t o r y  f o r men and women.  characteristics  they  that  productivity-related  approach c a l c u l a t e s  e a r n i n g s gap t o be decomposed portion  of a sex  1980).  o f an a d d i t i o n a l  individually  The i n c l u s i o n  l e v e l s of p r o d u c t i v i t y -  variables  f o r men and women.  effect  related  factors,  f o r the other  The s e c o n d  o f an  and d i f f e r e n t payments t o men a n d women  of these  coefficients  the estimation  variables.  The main weakness of t h i s t e c h n i q u e  I t accounts  have been  a measure o f e a r n i n g s on v a r i o u s  e n a b l e s an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  productivity-related  that  and a p o r t i o n  due t o d i f f e r e n t factors  (Gunderson,  1980).  The l a t t e r  market d i s c r i m i n a t i o n returns  i n that  portion  i t represents the d i f f e r e n c e i n  t o men and women f o r s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  t e r m c a n be t h o u g h t o f a s l e g i t i m a t e  differences  upon d i f f e r e n t p r o d u c t i v i t y - r e l a t e d By  occupational  a  outside  or i n s i d e  differences,  earnings  factors in  not accounted  occupational  (Gunderson, involves  omit  equations  included,  to allow  equations,  the left  debate over  (Robb,  a l l variables  what s h o u l d  up t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l  productivity-related  through which d i f f e r e n c e s  variables  solution  to this  earnings equations. with  the occupational  As-  from  differences  problem One variables  without the  the d i f f e r e n c e  between t h e two  d i s t r i b u t i o n on  1978).  f o r which there  i s accurate  be l a b e l l e d d i s c r i m i n a t i o n  (Gunderson,  variables,  gap.  discrimination  the o v e r a l l e f f e c t of o c c u p a t i o n a l  including  such as  to r e f l e c t  i s calculated  By t a k i n g  e a r n i n g s c a n be a s c e r t a i n e d  1980).  t h e r e s i d u a l , which c o n t a i n s the  i s calculated  variables.  based  i n the removal of  control  f o r i n the equation,  and a second e q u a t i o n  occupational  By  occupational  A methodological  equation  force,  from t h e o v e r a l l e a r n i n g s  d i s t r i b u t i o n , and p o s s i b l y  1980).  in returns  may be due t o  the labour  c a l c u l a t i n g two s e p a r a t e  regression  that  The f o r m e r  (Gunderson,  t h i s method r e s u l t s  source of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n  r e s u l t , many s t u d i e s  the  factors  c o n t r o l l i n g f o r some f a c t o r s  discrimination  this  i s a measure o f l a b o u r  1980).  an e x a m i n a t i o n  data,  c a n be  By i n c l u d i n g a l l of the channels  i n e a r n i n g s a r i s e c a n be c o n d u c t e d , and  45  then  arguments over  discrimination  C.  can  the be  separate  on  the  from  equations  explanatory approach because  i s used, i t will  different  and  men.  A  1986  will  be  analysis.  to  determine  are  Regression  The capital  sample  not  of  the  approach  sample  labour  factors,  and  theoretical model w h i c h  f o r the  i n the  b a s i s of  the  implies that  earnings  depends on  the  allow  selection  examination  earnings  amount t h a t  this  level the  level designed  labour  force,  of  approach  the  considers  and  the  population. of  t h a t can  development  of  of women  is primarily  force population,  the  effect  p o s s i b l e sources  produces r e s u l t s  used  This  method,  individual  g e n e r a l l y a p p l i c a b l e to a wider  a p p l i e d , and  individual  the  the  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n the  the  Regression  simultaneously.  f a c t o r s on  the  and  of a l l t h e  a p p r o a c h does n o t  i s pay  Further,  earnings  Finances,  f o r males  sample s e l e c t i o n  selection  analysis allows  determining generally  the  a n a l y s i s of  selection  segment  estimated  considered  a i d i n t h e a n a l y s i s of  a small  results  the  i f there  S u r v e y of Consumer  i n f l u e n c e on  wage d e t e r m i n i n g  discrimination. only  allow  The  1980).  regression analysis.  r a t h e r than  sample  of  cannot  the  v a r i a b l e s t o be  the  and  allow  d i f f e r e n c e s represent  (Gunderson,  the  females u s i n g m u l t i p l e l i n e a r analysis will  these  Analysis  data  earnings  that  discussed  Method of  Based  extent  of  individual be  wage  more  policy.  equations  i s the  of e a r n i n g s individual  of  has  human  an invested  in  acquiring  variables  skills  describing  experience are skills  and  describe  to  force  energy.  It  serve as  w h i c h can  motivation  that  be  or  that  t i m e away f r o m home, i n o r d e r  domestic  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s are  constitute  what a r e  are  intended  affect In  his  her  addition,  a  set  of  industry,  year, c l a s s  of  effects  and  controlled  women i n  the  domestic  i n d i v i d u a l ' s time women, more t h a n  to ensure The  skills  may  that  or men,  require their  human c a p i t a l  and  worker, i s to  variables  knowledge,  i s included  characteristics.  h o u r s worked p e r region,  and  i d e n t i f y the  This  variables. the  They  worker  occupational  and  f o r b e c a u s e of  to account set  that  urban impact  size. of  the  The  segregation  of  men  per  purpose  of  characteristics in earnings.  industrial distribution  the  for  includes  week, h o u r s worked  work s i t u a t i o n w h i c h p r o d u c e d i f f e r e n c e s of  children  earnings.  occupation,  the  men  those c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  i n employment  of  and  productivity-  number of  called productivity-related  differences  these v a r i a b l e s  as  age  and  first.  accumulated  to capture  or  met  which  status,  work r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , t h a t  addition  representing  included  of  f o r an  work  accumulated  defined  of  representation compete  for  marital  status  i s a common a s s u m p t i o n  variables,  are  Thus,  potential  proxies  productivity  may  reject additional  and  broadly  Marital  through the  responsibilities  education  Other v a r i a b l e s  characteristics.  labour  labour market.  a t t r i b u t e s , s u c h as  children,  the  i n the  y e a r s of  knowledge.  affect  will  value  included  personal  number of related  of  and  are women  The  between h i g h and the  sample  necessary  selected to  differences The  these edited  control  to  claim  that  the  1982)  i n the  sectors.  and  competitive public  work v a r i a b l e s  will  city  indicates  earnings  the  regions,  small  towns  on  D.  the  The  are  of  with  may  be  the  across a book  Institute  (Denton and opposed to  i n c l u s i o n of of  private  theme of  is  is consistent  the  class  with  may  monopsony model  more p r e v a l e n t 1975).  to analyze  in  of The  Becker's  vary  across  that  isolated  These the  the  Hunter,  this proposition.  discrimination  (Gunderson, then used  as  week.  estimated  e f f e c t s of  these  earnings.  Data  main d a t a  source  tapes  Statistics  Canada has  a periodic  variables  d i s t r i b u t i o n of  micro data  on  analysis  level  and  sector,  or  earnings  organizing  Thus t h e  the  region  that  functions  variables  The  sector.  discrimination  r e g i o n s and  i n the  is short-lived  private  allow  s i z e and  s i z e and  A major  discrimination  (1971) p r o p o s a l  worker, p u b l i c  i t is  for  h o u r s worked p e r  W a l k e r of V a n c o u v e r ' s F r a s e r  noncompetitive  city  of  Since  employed p e r s o n s ,  y e a r , and  class  industries.  which account  identify differences  distinct Block  of  variables  i d e n t i f y i n g the  by  use  a l l t y p e s of  i n weeks worked p e r  i s used  two  includes  include  variable  sector,  l o w - p a y i n g o c c u p a t i o n s and  for  basis  the  for t h i s research 1986  Survey  conducted  between  1951  the and  of  i s the  Consumer  Survey  of  1971,  and  published  Finances.  Consumer annually  Finances since  1971.  The  represent excluded  1986 98%  The  of  from  1. 2. 3. 4.  Survey  the Canadian p o p u l a t i o n .  the  was  Labour F o r c e  conducted  Survey  Consumer F i n a n c e s families  data  s t a t u s , age, and  job  Additional and  1981  women.  information occupational changes  as a s u p p l e m e n t  The on  for A p r i l  contains  covering earnings  industry  and  groups  and  and  1985.  individual level,  1986  the  Survey  of and  location,  characteristics  by  sex,  work s t a t u s , o c c u p a t i o n ,  tenure. data  was  censuses  also collected on  p u r p o s e of t h i s  data  and  taken  to allow  the data  from  will  relative  importance gap  the  1951,  1961,  the  place  separate While  Survey  through  of  men  i s to provide c o n s i s t e n t  t h e c h a n g e s t h a t have  earnings  from  the o c c u p a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n  in occupational distribution.  overall  The  income, g e o g r a p h i c  education  distribution,  r e v e a l the  t o t w o - t h i r d s of  information for individuals  comparable with  to the  Population  to  are:  sample  characteristics,  marital  1971,  sample  i s designed  r e s i d e n t s of t h e Yukon and N o r t h w e s t T e r r i t o r i e s r e s i d e n t s of I n d i a n R e s e r v e s r e s i d e n t s of m i l i a r y b a r r a c k s i n m a t e s o f i n s t i t u t i o n s s u c h as p r i s o n s , p e n i t e n t i a r i e s , j a i l s , r e f o r m a t o r i e s , mental h o s p i t a l s , TB h o s p i t a l s , s a n i t o r i a , o r p h a n a g e s and homes f o r t h e aged (1983 SCF).  survey  family  of Consumer F i n a n c e s  not  i n the analysis directly  of Consumer F i n a n c e s , i t  of o c c u p a t i o n a l time.  of  distribution  1.  Data L i m i t a t i o n s  There a r e c l e a r attempting detailed  to analyze  information  including  Unfortunately,  1) t h e r e  2)  only  3)  the accurate  formal  education  type i s  some o f t h e same l i m i t a t i o n s  a s many  of o c c u p a t i o n a l  occupation,  individual  public  industry, class  reported  o f w o r k e r , and  incomes r e f e r t o  produced  the majority  of the  i n the a n a l y s i s a r e i n d i c a t o r or  Dummy v a r i a b l e s a r e g i v e n  belongs t o a category,  example, C l a s s o f Work  employed  and 4) i n f o r m a t i o n  f o r 1984.  dummy v a r i a b l e s .  For  industrial  Thus, a j o b h e l d a t t h e time of t h e survey  Many o f t h e v a r i a b l e s u s e d  an  experience  t o t h e r e f e r e n c e week f o r t h e s u r v e y  may n o t be t h e same j o b t h a t earnings  and  classifications;  1985), where t h e a n n u a l f o r 1984.  measure o f work  b e c a u s e of t h e l a c k o f d e t a i l e d  h o u r s worked u s u a l l y r e f e r  earnings  information  i s m e a s u r e d , and i n a c a t e g o r i c a l form;  and i n d u s t r i a l  an i n d i v i d u a l ' s  (April,  of f a c t o r s  of t h i s  i s no d i r e c t  measurement  i s limited  occupational for  occur,  of the workplace, as w e l l as the  base s u f f e r s  sources:  segregation  In  available.  This data other  i s needed on a wide v a r i e t y  employee.  readily  i n the a v a i l a b l e data.  why a n d how d i f f e r e n c e s i n e a r n i n g s  characteristics  individual not  limitations  i s code  or zero  The e s t i m a t e d  o f one when  when t h e y  do n o t .  1 i f the i n d i v i d u a l i s  i n t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r and i s z e r o  sector.  a value  coefficient  i f employed from  i n the  the r e g r e s s i o n  analysis  i s i n t e r p r e t e d as  dependent private  variable,  the p r e d i c t e d d i f f e r e n c e  e a r n i n g s , when an  s e c t o r as o p p o s e d  to the p u b l i c  f a c t o r s are h e l d constant. for  dummy v a r i a b l e s  calculate example,  i f we  marital status:  for  the  450)  =  sum  Married  or  f o r two  = 300;  marital category  can  the  coefficients  i t i s p o s s i b l e to reference category. of  Other be  to  s e c t o r , when a l l o t h e r of a l l t h e  zero,  f o r the excluded  belongs  the  For  three categories  = 450;  then  calculated  as  the  value  (0 - 300  -  -750.  2.  The  Data  Survey  Selection  of Consumer F i n a n c e s  family  structure,  persons  surveyed  income  i n 1985.  variety  of  individual are  The  income f i g u r e s  sources  selection  of  the  employed  a 60% i n the  15 y e a r s and  in addition  sample  from  the  available  sample was  survey  and  income  w i t h and  t o income  taken  reported usually  of  the  the  3)  week, and  r e p o r t e d w o r k i n g more t h a n and  was  from  a  In  survey;  2)  order  the From  the  Consumer  individuals  w o r k i n g more than  were f u l l - y e a r  for a l l  controlled. of  on  without  salaries.  i n the Survey  r e f e r e n c e week o f  full-time  refer  t o wages and  employed;  employed  over,  information  c o m p a r i s o n s of m a l e - f e m a l e e a r n i n g s ,  number of c a s e s  Finances,  contains  characteristics  who  t o make m e a n i n g f u l  total  the  know t h e v a l u e s  for  single  As  always equals  the value  individual  i n the  who:  1) were  were not zero hours  z e r o weeks p e r w o r k e r s , and  year; 5)  self per 4)  were  reported  e a r n i n g s g r e a t e r than sample of c a s e s  that  zero. met  t h e c o s t of c o n d u c t i n g sample of 8,787 c a s e s  A 60%  sample,  t h e above c r i t e r i a  the  statistical  f o r men  and  the  1986  randomly  split  two  s u b - s a m p l e s of  each  and  men  women.  The  t h e e a r n i n g s e q u a t i o n s , and the v a l i d i t y , equations The  were not they  cases  fitted  to the  first  collected  tended  reported  u s u a l hours  on  the average  of  the  hours  worked, b u t  had  worked and  income d i f f i c u l t  with  self-employment  or  that  factors.  differences As  well,  per  week, but  in a year. who  worked  zero earnings  test  in this  for these  study  cases.  who  because  still  F u r t h e r , some i n the year,  f o r the  i s the e x t e n t Thus,  would not  reflect due  investment  Individuals  b e c a u s e one  salaries.  long-term  per  w o u l d make a c c o u n t i n g f o r  i n income would be the  for  the  Individuals  were e x c l u d e d  e a r n i n g s where e x c l u d e d  self-employment  of  to  worked  worked d u r i n g t h e p r e v i o u s  i n wages and  was  i s used  had  investigated  60%  formulate  individuals  time  income from  to  hours  year.  survey  These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  discrimination  i s used  because not  The  2,753 c a s e s  f i t , ( N o r u s i s , 1985)  previous year.  questions  f o r women.  sub-sample  t h e number of weeks t h e y work  r e f e r e n c e week, but  reduce  This provided a  4,450 and  second  to r e p o r t zero average  were e x c l u d e d  to  100%  sample.  data  at the time  a  of Consumer F i n a n c e s  t h e number of weeks worked p e r working  reported  the  taken  analysis.  sub-sample  o r t h e g o o d n e s s of  survey  week, and  Survey  first  was  5,620 c a s e s  sample d e r i v e d from into  r a t h e r than  of  of  sex  i t i s presumed sex  the  that  discrimination,  to a d i f f e r e n t made i n many  s e t of self-  52  employment female  earnings  Further, The  enterprises precludes  this  question  given  the s t a t i c  analysis  work i s i m p o r t a n t  force,  of male-  time-frame of the data.  f o c u s e s on f u l l - y e a r ,  of p a r t - t i m e  women i n t h e l a b o u r  the accurate comparison  full-time  workers.  t o the p o s i t i o n of  but i t i s n o t i n c l u d e d i n t h i s  analysis.  E.  Specification  The  broad  o f The C o n t r o l V a r i a b l e s  sample u s e d  variables  in this  of  control  in  the p r o d u c t i v i t y - r e l a t e d ,  employed p e r s o n s . experience, region,  t o be i n c l u d e d , t o r e f l e c t  These  occupation,  size  a n a l y s i s a l l o w s a l a r g e number the d i f f e r e n c e s  and l a b o u r market c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f  i n c l u d e m e a s u r e s of e d u c a t i o n , i n d u s t r y , time  o f urban a r e a ,  worked, c l a s s  number o f c h i l d r e n ,  of worker,  and m a r i t a l  status. Since data  on t h e a c t u a l  labour  f o r c e i s not a v a i l a b l e ,  actual  work e x p e r i e n c e .  (1973), used  and G u n d e r s o n  as a p r o x y  experience  of y e a r s worked  a proxy  i s defined to represent  (1980),  t h e age and e d u c a t i o n i n the labour  force.  i s r e p r e s e n t e d by:  X = (A - E - 6) where: X = potential A = age; and E = number  i n the  F o l l o w i n g t h e example o f Oaxaca  for experience  of a person  number  experience; of y e a r s  of s c h o o l i n g  completed;  variables are Potential  53 If  work e x p e r i e n c e  the c o m p l e t i o n experience for  both  exhibit  of formal  stronger  calculation  have t a k e n  greater taken  which  than  poor  regression labour  age  the present  estimate  rate.  Survey,  was f u r t h e r  of labour  would  likely that  they  force. m o d i f i e d by t h e t e n u r e h a s been  variable,  force experience  t e n u r e was  rate.  produced  data  were u s e d  To p r o d u c e a b e t t e r on p a r t i c i p a t i o n  t o modify  the estimated  from  estimate  rates f o reight the Monthly  the experience  value  variable.  of t h e e x p e r i e n c e  by t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g  Thus f o r e a c h age c o h o r t , e x p e r i e n c e  of education  by t h e  r e q u i r e d t h a t an a d d i t i o n a l  men and women t a k e n  - 6) m u l t i p l i e d  of labour  to overestimate  underestimate  this  I f t h e l e n g t h o f t e n u r e was  d e f i n e d above was m u l t i p l i e d  This estimate  average,  variable  the labour  employer.  force experience,  - years  women,  o f women, t o t h e e x t e n t  be c o n d u c t e d .  e a c h age c a t e g o r y ,  (age  than  f o r experience.  analysis  participation  o f e d u c a t i o n minus 6  f o r the experience  c a t e g o r i e s f o r both  variable  and p o t e n t i a l  how l o n g t h e i n d i v i d u a l  of the v a r i a b l e  Labour F o r c e For  indicates  as the value  calculation  variable  after  S i n c e males tend t o  experience  o u t from  the value  1973).  f o r c e attachment  the experience  more time  with  The  of  labour  experience  employed  (Oaxaca,  interruption  actual  age minus y e a r s  of the p o t e n t i a l  over-represent  variable,  s c h o o l i n g , then  would be e q u a l  men a n d women  The  i s a c q u i r e d without  female  male e x p e r i e n c e ,  by t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n  force experience labour  equaled  i s l i k e l y , on  f o r c e e x p e r i e n c e and  because the p a r t i c i p a t i o n  rate  54 used r e p r e s e n t s through  time  the average  results  experience  second a n a l y s i s of labour  i n A p p e n d i x N.  results  labour  remaining  Detailed  The t a b l e s  force  force  statistical  T h i s appendix  from t h e a n a l y s i s of t h i s  as the t a b l e s p r e s e n t e d  adjusted  The  accurate.  i s presented  force experience.  same f o r m a t cohort  from t h i s  be more  i n the text.  detailed  labour  will  however, c o m p a r a t i v e l y , t h e  a r e summarized  information the  i n 1985, and n o t t h e a v e r a g e  f o r e a c h age c o h o r t ;  measure o f e x p e r i e n c e The  rate  contains  new e s t i m a t e o f  i n Appendix N f o l l o w t h e i n Chapter  3 f o r t h e non-  experience.  c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e s are:  Education: a categoric variable indicating s c h o o l i n g completed.  the l e v e l of  C l a s s o f Worker: a dummy v a r i a b l e r e p r e s e n t i n g p r i v a t e and p u b l i c s e c t o r wage and s a l a r y w o r k e r s -- p u b l i c s e c t o r employees a r e used a s t h e r e f e r e n c e group. Industry: mean e a r n i n g s f o r e a c h o f t h e t h i r t e e n i n d u s t r i a l c o d e s were c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g t h e 1986 S u r v e y o f Consumer F i n a n c e s , a n d t h e n e a c h i n d u s t r y was c o d e d t o t h e s e mean values. A l i s t i n g o f e a c h i n d u s t r y code a n d t i t l e i s g i v e n i n Appendix L. Occupation: mean e a r n i n g s i n e a c h o f 47 o c c u p a t i o n a l c o d e s were d e r i v e d from t h e 1986 S u r v e y o f Consumer F i n a n c e s , and t h e n e a c h o c c u p a t i o n was c o d e d t o t h e s e mean v a l u e s . A l i s t i n g o f e a c h o c c u p a t i o n a l code a n d t i t l e i s g i v e n i n A p p e n d i x M. H o u r s Worked; i s t h e e s t i m a t e d a c t u a l number o f h o u r s worked i n t h e r e f e r e n c e y e a r ( a v e r a g e h o u r s worked p e r week m u l t i p l i e d by weeks worked l a s t y e a r ) . Marital Status: dummy v a r i a b l e s f o r s i n g l e (never m a r r i e d ) , m a r r i e d ( o r common l a w ) a n d o t h e r ( s e p a r a t e d , widowed o r d i v o r c e d ) , with t h e s i n g l e (never m a r r i e d ) c a t e g o r y used as the r e f e r e n c e group. S i z e o f Urban A r e a : dummy v a r i a b l e s f o r r e s i d e n c e i n u r b a n a r e a s o f g r e a t e r t h a n 500,000; between 100,000 t o 499,000;  55  between 3 0 , 0 0 0 a n d 9 9 , 9 9 9 ; l e s s t h a n 3 0 , 0 0 0 ; a n d r u r a l a r e a s , w i t h t h e r u r a l a r e a c a t e g o r y used as t h e r e f e r e n c e group. Region: dummy v a r i a b l e s f o r C a n a d i a n r e g i o n s o f A t l a n t i c , Quebec, O n t a r i o , P r a i r i e s , a n d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , w i t h A t l a n t i c Canada u s e d a s t h e r e f e r e n c e g r o u p . Number o f c h i l d r e n : dummy v a r i a b l e s f o r t h e number o f n e v e r m a r r i e d c h i l d r e n under t h e age o f 18 i n t h e c e n s u s f a m i l y , w i t h e x a c t l y two c h i l d r e n u s e d a s t h e r e f e r e n c e g r o u p . I n t h e c e n s u s s u r v e y , t h i s v a r i a b l e was c o d e d o n l y f o r p e r s o n s who were heads o r w i v e s i n c e n s u s f a m i l i e s . Other i n d i v i d u a l s who a r e n o t heads o r w i v e s were c o d e d a s h a v i n g zero c h i l d r e n . Earnings: i s t h e dependent v a r i a b l e . The s e l e c t i o n o f t h e sample was d e s i g n e d t o s e l e c t c a s e s where t h e v a l u e s f o r e a r n i n g s i s g r e a t e r than z e r o .  Ill.  DATA ANALYSIS  The  analysis  Finances simple  will  of the data  be c o n s i d e r e d  comparison  variable  such  i n two d i s t i n c t  In t h i s s e c t i o n ,  t h e mean e a r n i n g s  considered,  as d i f f e r e n c e s  multiple  Equation"  which w i l l  control  considered. from is  used  A.  begin  and  third,  analysis  and e a r n i n g s The d a t a  distributions second,  that  may  e x p e r i e n c e , and  S e c o n d , t h e r e s u l t s from two  source  The " F u l l  of data  analysis,  Regression  Equation",  which  excludes  of t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l and  d i s t r i b u t i o n t o t h e s i z e of t h e e a r n i n g s gap.  data  women.  for.  the c o n t r i b u t i o n  Variables  Considered  of each of t h e f a c t o r s  w i t h an e x a m i n a t i o n  variable  explanatory  t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l and i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s ,  Explanatory  The  a  f o r the e f f e c t s of a l l of the v a r i a b l e s  to ascertain  industrial  First,  other v a r i a b l e s  i n education,  i s the primary  The " P a r t i a l  the a n a l y s i s  formats.  regressions are presented.  Regression  o f Consumer  o f men a n d women f o r t h e v a r i a b l e  occupation, a r e not accounted separate  t h e 1986 S u r v e y  o f mean e a r n i n g s a c r o s s e a c h  i s conducted.  influence  from  Separately  considered  o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between  through presented  a comparison will  o f men and women d i f f e r  each  o f mean v a l u e s  indicate,  first,  will  f o r men  how t h e  a c r o s s each c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ;  t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between e a c h a t t r i b u t e a n d e a r n i n g s ; a n d t h e combined  e f f e c t of these  two p a t t e r n s on t h e wage  57 differential. experience then  The  of  than  productivity  earnings  o f t h e sample  3.  earn  experience,  selected for  sample,  than  Cases  66% o f  women.  CASES DIFFERENCE RATIO DISTRIB (M-F) (F/M) 10,047  Total  earn  by Sex  MEAN STD DEV $  Men Women  l e v e l s of  unadjusted f o r  $10,047 more p e r y e a r  Average E a r n i n g s  Sex  job  represents the r a t i o  T h u s , women, i n t h i s  Men, on a v e r a g e ,  Table  ratio  t o men's e a r n i n g s ,  factors.  of  to occur.  i s 0.66 ( T a b l e 3 ) . T h i s f i g u r e  women's e a r n i n g s  men.  increase with  i n e a r n i n g s due t o d i f f e r e n t  c a n be e x p e c t e d  unadjusted  study  i f men have g r e a t e r l e v e l s  women, a n d e a r n i n g s  gender d i f f e r e n t i a l s  experience  this  F o r example,  29,514 19,467  14747 127902 10115 80561  25,632  14032 208463  0.66 100% 100%  Note: The number o f c a s e s i s i n f l a t e d by t h e S u r v e y o f Consumer F i n a n c e s U n i v e r s a l Weight t o p r e - d e t e r m i n e d p o p u l a t i o n t o t a l s .  1.  Tables of  Education  4 and 5 p r o v i d e  cases, d i f f e r e n c e  ratio  of female  women a c r o s s  and E x p e r i e n c e  i n f o r m a t i o n on mean e a r n i n g s ,  between male and f e m a l e  mean e a r n i n g s , t h e  t o male e a r n i n g s , and t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n  the d i f f e r e n t  number  categories f o reducation  o f men a n d  l e v e l s and  58 Table  4. A v e r a g e E a r n i n g s  Education  MEAN STD DEV $  NO SCHOOLING OR ELEMENTARY Men 25,209 Women 14,377 9-10 Men Women  by E d u c a t i o n  by Sex  CASES DIFFERENCE RATIO DISTRIB (M - F ) (F/M). 10,832  12313 7525  YEARS OF ELEMENTARY OR SECONDARY 25,051 11793 16253 15,426 6580 7993  11.5% 6.6% 9,624  12 YEARS OF ELEMENTARY OR SECONDARY Men 27,434 12906 26830 Women 16,714 7543 20028  10,721  13 YEARS OF ELEMENTARY OR SECONDARY Men 27,333 14103 4047 Women 19,854 8862 4044  7,47 9  SOME POST-SECONDARY Men 28,462 Women 19,358  9,104  18475 12030  8.7% 9.6% 0.61 21.0% 24.9% 0.73 3.2% 5.0% 0.68 10.5% 9.9%  9,346  21823 12461  0.70 15.4% 18.6%  11,132 39,568 28,436  0.59  13410 8011  POST-SECONDARY C E R T I F I C A T E OR DIPLOMA Men 30,899 13550 19715 Women 21,553 10585 14945 UNIVERSITY DEGREE Men Women  0.62 12.7% 9.9%  11 YEARS OF ELEMENTARY OR SECONDARY 10,918 Men 26,633 11398 11082 Women 15,715 7146 7773  13531 9128  0.57  14742 5306  0.72 17.1% 15.5%  59 Table  5. A v e r a g e E a r n i n g s  by E x p e r i e n c e  by Sex  % MEAN $  Work E x p e r i e n c e Experience 0-4 Men Women  Years  5 - 9 Men Women  Years  STD DEV  CASES DIFFERENCE RATIO DISTRIB (M - F ) (F/M)  i n Years 2,708 18,440 15,732  10753 8724  9445 9541  25,047 18,064  12405 7552  19118 14158  10 - 14 Y e a r s Men Women  29,346 .21,039  13177 19781 9781 12130  15-19 Men Women  33,272 22,203  15254 17634 12122 11813  20 - 24 Y e a r s Men Women  33,892 22,666  14755 11233  15737 9536  25 - 29 Y e a r s Men Women  33,676 19,334  16536 9372  10825 6358  30 o r More Men Women  29,886 17,968  14636 9804  35362 17025  levels  and  1 5.5% 15.1% 0.67 13.8% 14.7% 0.67 12.3% 11.8% 14,342  Table  8.5% 7.9%  Earnings  of e d u c a t i o n . with  0.60 27.6% 21.1%  4 shows a s t r o n g  and e a r n i n g s .  levels  degree;  0.57  11,918  $14,377 compared  $39,568.  0.72  11,226  of e x p e r i e n c e .  university  14.9% 17.6%  11,069  Years  increased with  0.72  8,307  Years  average  7.4% 1 1.8% 6,983  between e d u c a t i o n  on  0.85  relationship  f o r b o t h men and women  Women w i t h  no s c h o o l i n g  earn  $28,436 f o r women w i t h a  f o r men t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g  Women w i t h a u n i v e r s i t y  degree  f i g u r e s a r e $25,209 still  only earn a  60 little  more t h a n  elementary  education,  substantially The  formal  their  female  o f women's t o men's e a r n i n g s c h a n g e s  c a t e g o r i e s from  education  o f "No S c h o o l i n g o r E l e m e n t a r y "  category  of "13 Y e a r s  i n c r e a s e s moving upward from  size  of Elementary  category  or Diploma".  might  f o rthat category  t h e bottom  education  to the f i f t h  and Secondary", and then  t o 0.68 f o r "Some P o s t  Secondary C e r t i f i c a t e fifth  across  t o 0.72 f o r men a n d women w i t h a u n i v e r s i t y  category  the  earn  a low o f 0.57 f o r men a n d women w i t h no  The r a t i o  slightly  degrees  counterparts.  degree.  drops  no s c h o o l i n g o r  w h i l e men w i t h u n i v e r s i t y  more t h a n  ratio  education  men who r e p o r t e d h a v i n g  Secondary", and " P o s t -  The h i g h v a l u e  be a c c o u n t e d  o f 0.73 f o r  f o r by t h e s m a l l  sample  which a p p l i e s o n l y t o t h e O n t a r i o  school  system. If  differences  earnings should 1983). should  gap, t h e e a r n i n g s  be l a r g e r That  than  thus  was l a r g e l y  the o v e r a l l  gap o f 0.66 ( O r n s t e i n ,  the size  of t h e e a r n i n g s  responsible f o r the earnings  of education  large p a r t of the earnings  On a v e r a g e ,  men, b u t r e c e i v e lower  their  gap.  From t h i s  does n o t a c c o u n t  gap, a l t h o u g h  e d u c a t i o n do f a r e b e t t e r t h a n  than  earnings  within educational categories  reducing  i n the l e v e l  counterparts.  responsible f o r the  i n a l l educational categories  i n only three of the eight c a t e g o r i e s .  differences  of  were l a r g e l y  ratio  i s , the earnings  be c l o s e r ,  education true  i n education  ratio i f This i s  analysis, for a  women w i t h h i g h e r  less  women have h i g h e r  levels  educated levels  r a t e s o f r e t u r n from  of education  that  education.  61 The  calculations  explanation one  years  years  forlevels  f o rthe earnings  experience  earn  on a v e r a g e  w h i c h , mean e a r n i n g s categories.  of E x p e r i e n c e . " in  $15,732.  slightly  of Experience"  earnings  i n c r e a s e from  men r e c e i v e g r e a t e r r e t u r n s f o r i n c r e a s e s  earnings  from  0.85 i n t h e l o w e s t  experience  t o 0.60 i n t h e "30 o r More Y e a r s  category.  The d i s t r i b u t i o n  women and men a r e a l s o  earnings  i n the higher  Marital  Marital  category of  of Experience" of experience f o r  A greater percentage while  o f women  a g r e a t e r percentage of  experience  t h e lower  levels  categories.  of experience  Thus, of .  t o men.  Status  status also  relates  M a r r i e d men a n d women e a r n counterparts.  o f women's t o  r a t e o f r e t u r n women r e c e i v e f o r a d d i t i o n a l  a s compared  2.  different.  gap r e f l e c t s  women, and t h e lower experience  of mean l e v e l s  of experience,  the  $18,440  t o $33,892 f o r "20 t o 24 Y e a r s  men's a v e r a g e  are represented  after  f o r the remaining  i n the d e c l i n e of the r a t i o  men  and h a l f  of E x p e r i e n c e " ,  i s shown  levels  twenty-  increases to  experience  have lower  have  0 t o 4 years of  This figure  "20 t o 24 Y e a r s  decrease  That  Men, on a v e r a g e ,  Women w i t h  F o r men t h e a v e r a g e  "0 t o 4 Y e a r s  provide a clearer  compared w i t h e i g h t e e n  f o r women.  $22,666 f o r women w i t h  for  gap.  o f work e x p e r i e n c e ,  of e x p e r i e n c e  of e x p e r i e n c e  to the l e v e l  more t h a n  S i n g l e women e a r n ,  their  of e a r n i n g s .  single  on a v e r a g e ,  (never  married)  $18,517, w h i l e  married  women e a r n  $19,593; f o r men, t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g  $21,464 and $31,393.  What  i s significant  women's t o men's e a r n i n g s d e c r e a s e s married  category.  category,  The u n a d j u s t e d  ratio  b u t 0.62 f o r t h e m a r r i e d  women g a i n , on a v e r a g e , considerably  higher.  from  from  i s t h a t t h e r a t i o of the s i n g l e  ratio  category.  being married,  While  0.75, an improvement from category  earn  categories, more t h a n Thus,  this  separated,  while  may  indicates  t o the labour  counterparts.  The  Women i n t h i s  d i v o r c e d o r widowed men s t i l l than  their  married  more t h a n  Clearly,  in isolation  of experience, f o r c e than  earn  counterparts. men from  t h e impact  being  of m a r i t a l  of other r e l e v a n t  F o r example, d i v o r c e d , s e p a r a t e d levels  women.  o f t h e o t h e r two  t h a t women b e n e f i t  be c o n s i d e r e d  f o r men a r e  men i n c r e a s e by  category.  women i n e i t h e r  d i v o r c e d o r widowed.  have g r e a t e r  attachment  the married  separated,  men and  d i v o r c e d o r widowed men and women i s  s i n g l e men, b u t l e s s  s t a t u s cannot factors.  more t h a n  both  the gains  The incomes o f m a r r i e d  of separated,  t o the  i s 0.86 f o r t h e s i n g l e  $9,929, compared t o t h e $1,076 i n c r e a s e f o r m a r r i e d earnings  values are  o r widowed  education,  do t h e i r  individuals  and a g r e a t e r  single  or married  63 Table  Marital SINGLE Men Women  6. A v e r a g e E a r n i n g s  MEAN $  Status (NEVER  MARRIED Men Women  by M a r i t a l  STD DEV  %  CASES DIFFERENCE RATIO DISTRI (M - F ) (F/M) 2,947  MARRIED) 21,464 18,517  12987 9844  21 950 20106  (OR COMMON LAW) 31,393 19,593  14524 10002  99991 51333  OTHER Men Women  S t a t u s by Sex  17.2% 25.0% 11,799  78.2% 63.7%  Urban  14328 1 1093  4.7% 11.3%  Area  which t h e respondent variable  that  effect  women w i l l opposed expected  of d i f f e r e n t  labour  or small  markets.  urban a r e a s .  a s day c a r e ,  t o the extent  urban a r e a s .  earnings.  Again,  along  with the  some i n s i g h t  I t i s expected  into  that  Large  urban a r e a s a r e  o f o c c u p a t i o n s and  work, a s w e l l a s a c c e s s t o  that w i l l  that  of the area i n  l o c a t e d i n l a r g e urban a r e a s as  i n w h i c h women c a n f i n d  women i n c r e a s i n g t h e i r supported  the region, provide  b e n e f i t from b e i n g  such  size  This variable,  to provide a greater variety  industries services,  i s located.  identifies  to rural  0 .75  5961 9122  This v a r i a b l e i n d i c a t e s the population  large  0 .62  6,800 27,652 20,852  3.  the  0 .86  increase the p r o b a b i l i t y of  These e x p e c t a t i o n s a r e  the earnings  t h e impact  ratio  i shighest i n  of urban a r e a  c a n n o t be  considered extent and  in isolation  from t h e o t h e r  explanatory  t h a t men a n d women i n l a r g e u r b a n a r e a s  women i n o t h e r  Table  urban  size  7. A v e r a g e E a r n i n g s  factors  differ  to the  from men  areas.  by Urban A r e a  by Sex  % Urban  MEAN  Area  STD DEV  $  POP > 500,000 Men Women  CASES DIFFERENCE RATIO DISTRI (M - F ) ( F/M) 10,174  30,652 20,479  16164 10493  64261 45620  POP 100,000 - 499,999 Men 30,591 Women 19,482  13992 9646  13589 8722  POP 30,000 - 99,999 Men 29,270 Women 19,178  1 2342 9426  15059 8234  URBAN < 30,000 Men Women  28,218 17,736  1 1 928 9375  1 7087 9074  RURAL AREAS Men Women  26,056 16,307  1 3571 8966  17906 891 1  4.  1 0.6% 10 .8% 10,092  0 .66 1 1.8% 10 .2%  10,483  0 .63 1 3.4% 1 1.3%  9,750  I t i s expected  0 .63 14 .0% 1 1. 1%  of o c c u p a t i o n s  i n which t h e respondent  t h a t women w i l l  i n some r e g i o n s a s o p p o s e d  structure  0 .64  Region  located.  located  50 .2% 56 .6% 11,109  This v a r i a b l e i n d i c a t e s the region is  0 .67  t o other  b e n e f i t from regions.  and i n d u s t r y i n s e l e c t  being  The  r e g i o n s o f Canada  may  provide  industries regional impact for  other  traditions,  As w e l l ,  the e f f e c t  earnings  o f women.  women f a r e  There  differently  In B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a  was t h e l o w e s t ,  the highest earnings  The r a t i o  by R e g i o n  Region  MEAN $  STD DEV  ATLANTIC Men Women  26,762 18,034  13067 9277  9049 5097  QUEBEC Men Women  27,864 19,075  13667 9738  30999 20309  ONTARIO Men Women  30,192 20,009  14909 10407  52170 34110  PRAIRIES Men Women  30,090 19,064  15833 9762  22331 12857  BRITISH COLUMBIA Men Women  31,602 19,708  15097 10675  13353 8188  support  in different  w h i l e Quebec and A t l a n t i c  ratios.  8. A v e r a g e E a r n i n g s  i s some  and t h e P r a i r i e s , the  ranged  f o r Quebec t o a low o f 0.62 f o r B r i t i s h  Table  of d i f f e r e n t  employment p r o g r a m s and laws may have an  of the country. ratio  t o b e t t e r - p a y i n g o c c u p a t i o n s and  regions.  on t h e r e l a t i v e  earnings  0.68  than  the expectation that  parts  had  greater access  from  Canada a h i g h of  Columbia.  by Sex  CASES DIFFERENCE RATIO DISTRI (M - F) (F/M) 8,728  0.67 7.1% 6.3%  8,790  0.68 24.2% 25.2%  10,182  0.66 40.8% 42.3%  11,026  0.63 17.5% 16.0%  11,894  0.62 10.4% 10.2%  66 5.  For which the  Average  t h e sample  t a k e n f r o m t h e S u r v e y of Consumer F i n a n c e s ,  e x c l u d e d p a r t - t i m e and p a r t - y e a r  women worked  percent  worked  percent. employed rise  H o u r s Worked Per Week  less  less  The  only  two  and h a l f  through the c a t e g o r i e s  f o r men  f o r men  is  effect  drop  of a v e r a g e h o u r s worked  0.92.  but  "35  t h r o u g h 39  the r e l a t i v e  From t h i s h i g h p o i n t ,  the f i n a l  f o r "40  thru  category.  first  from  hours". e a r n i n g s o f women  29 h o u r s o f work, r a t h e r position impact week.  Women  r a t i o of  the e a r n i n g s r a t i o d e c r e a s e s t o a  44 h o u r s " , and The  per  average  0 t h r o u g h 29 h o u r s p e r week have t h e h i g h e s t  low o f 0.65 in  earnings,  The  i n t h e f o u r t h c a t e g o r y t o 28,480  of h o u r s worked on  are  e x p r e s s e d i n t h e r a t i o o f women's t o men's e a r n i n g s .  working  seven  e a r n i n g s f o r women  i s more c o m p l i c a t e d .  $31,418 f o r t h e t h i r d c a t e g o r y o f The  another  p e r c e n t o f men  Average  c a t e g o r y d o e s have t h e l o w e s t a v e r a g e earnings  p e r c e n t of  t h a n 34 h o u r s p e r week, f o r a t o t a l o f n i n e  t h a n 34 h o u r s p e r week.  pattern  two  t h a n 29 h o u r s p e r week, and  In c o n t r a s t ,  steadily  week.  less  workers,  increase  s l i g h t l y to  e a r n i n g s r a t i o o f 0.92  t h a n b e i n g an  indication  o f women, i s more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  on male e a r n i n g s o f w o r k i n g  less  0.71  for 0 through of the  improved  of the g r e a t e r n e g a t i v e  t h a n 30 h o u r s of work p e r  67 Table  9. A v e r a g e  Earnings  by H o u r s Worked P e r Week by Sex  MEAN STD DEV $ A v e r a g e H o u r s Worked P e r Week  %  CASES DIFFERENCE RATIO DISTRI (M - F ) (F/M)  0 THRU 29 HOURS Men Women  16,542 15,253  13487 9132  516 1524  30 THRU 34 HOURS Men Women  23,357 15,269  17502 7979  2623 5759  35 THRU 39 HOURS Men Women  31,418 20,746  13583 9291  21375 31629  40 THRU 44 HOURS Men Women  28,480 18,462  13132 9485  74283 33205  45 OR MORE HOURS Men Women  31,542 22,254  18257 14406  29105 8444  6.  earnings  i s shown  average,  earn  8,088  0.65 2.1% 7.1% 0.66 16.7% 39.3%  10,018  0.65 58. 1% 41 .2% 0.71 22.8% 10.5%  o f Work  i n Table  10.  sector  and p r i v a t e  Women i n t h e p u b l i c  $6,504 more t h a n women i n t h e p r i v a t e sector  counterparts.  earn  0.63 f o r t h e p r i v a t e  the  public  sector This  $5,402 more t h a n  The e a r n i n g s  and  earnings.  0.4% 1 .9%  9,288  Sector  the public  0.92  10,671  The d i f f e r e n c e between p u b l i c  in  1,289  ratios  sector  could  s e c t o r , on sector.  private  i n d i c a t e that  Men  sector  o f 0.72 f o r t h e p u b l i c  are r e l a t i v e l y better  pattern  their  sector  sector  women w o r k i n g i n  o f f i n terms of average  be a c o n s e q u e n c e  of the fact  that  68 men in  a n d women i n t h e p r i v a t e their  sector,  earnings-related but extensive  the  r e s u l t s which  the  private  Force of  (LFS),  earnings-related  Hunter  found  that  comparisons. lowest  Using  data  from one a n o t h e r  of earnings  was h i g h e s t private  sector."  MEAN  more a g a i n s t  STD DEV  sector,  Labour  Denton and  was t h e same  in their  mean  s e c t o r and  An a d d i t i o n a l  (1986), u s i n g  10. A v e r a g e E a r n i n g s by S e c t o r  o f Work  1973 M o n t h l y  ratios  Use Sample Tape, c o n c l u d e s  public  confirms  i s more e v i d e n t i n  i n the p u b l i c  sector.  by S h a p i r o and S t e l c n e r  tends t o d i s c r i m i n a t e  (1983),  e q u a t e d men a n d women i n t e r m s  a n a l y s i s a s was r e v e a l e d  sector  Sector  from t h e J u l y  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r each  The r a t i o  1981 C e n s u s P u b l i c  Table  discrimination  i n which they  i n the competitive  conducted  more  work by Denton and H u n t e r  the pattern  from t h e r e g r e s s i o n  differ  a t t r i b u t e s t h a n t h e y do i n t h e p u b l i c  indicate that  sector.  Survey  sector  data  "that  study,  from t h e the p r i v a t e  women t h a n does t h e  o f Work by Sex  CASES DIFFERENCE RATIO DISTRI (M - F ) (F/M)  PUBLIC SECTOR Men Women  33,733 24,389  12937 9572  28023 19602  PRIVATE SECTOR Men Women  28,331 17,885  15004 9771  99879 60959  9,345  0.72 21 .9% 24.3%  10,446  0.63 78. 1% 75.7%  69  7.  The  Number o f C h i l d r e n  number o f c h i l d r e n  household It  i s used  i s expected  a s an i n d i c a t o r  t h a t the average  with  t h e number o f c h i l d r e n .  this  trend.  earnings The  children  present  evident. decreasing age  earnings  years  of household  earnings  responsibility.  i n Table  decrease  11 s u p p o r t s  i n c r e a s e , the average  F o r men, t h e t r e n d i s t h e o p p o s i t e .  o f men g e n e r a l l y i n c r e a s e a s t h e number o f  increases.  The e f f e c t  on t h e e a r n i n g s  I t h a s a h i g h v a l u e o f 0.71 f o r c a s e s t o 0.53 f o r c a s e s  of e i g h t e e n  o f age i n t h e  o f women w i l l  The f i g u r e s  As t h e number o f c h i l d r e n  o f women d e c r e a s e .  average  under e i g h t e e n  present  with  five  with  no c h i l d r e n ,  or more c h i l d r e n  i n the household.  ratio i s  under t h e  70 Table  11. A v e r a g e E a r n i n g s  MEAN Number o f C h i l d r e n  by Number o f C h i l d r e n by Sex  STD DEV  $  CASES DIFFERENCE RATIO DISTRI (M - F ) (F/M)  NO CHILDREN Men Women  27,171 19,282  14918 1 0092  65709 49521  ONE CHILD Men Women  30,008 19,855  1 3526 1 0278  21779 15799  TWO CHILDREN Men Women  33,321 20,058  13989 1 0262  28826 1 1 941  THREE Men Women  32,672 18,526  1 5687 8797  1 0328 2923  30,8 16 16,345  1 0641 9685  1 045 335  CHILDREN 27,437 14,548  8583 1877  215 42  7,889  F I V E OR MORE Men Women  Clearly, isolation  of the other  regression  statistical  0.57 8 . 1% 3 .6% 0.53 0 .8% 0 .4%  t h e s e v a r i a b l e s c a n not  0.53 0 .2% 0 . 1%  be c o n s i d e r e d i n  t h a t may i n f l u e n c e e a r n i n g s .  a n a l y s i s t o be c o n d u c t e d  adequate  variables.  14,146  1 2,889  factors  0.60 22 .5% 14 .8%  14,471  e a c h of  0.66 17 .0% 19 .6%  13,263  FOUR CHILDREN Men Women  provides  51 .4% 61 .5% 10,153  CHILDREN  0.71  on a l l f a c t o r s  The  simultaneously  c o n t r o l s f o r the other  related  B.  Occupational  1.  and I n d u s t r i a l  The o c c u p a t i o n a l  Segregation  segregation  of work  W h i l e women have made some p r o g r e s s occupational  s t r u c t u r e , the fact  work  i n the paid  type  of o c c u p a t i o n s  diversification  labour  being  relative  to their  occupations  ('horizontal' segregated. sales,  differentiation  reveals a greater Using that  within  when men and women,  o u t o f 494 o c c u p a t i o n a l  over  D e p e n d i n g on t h e  classification, t o be h i g h l y  like  similar  each o c c u p a t i o n a l  degree of s e g r e g a t i o n  accounted  to a large  in specific  classifications,  organizations  they a r e  of pay.  1976).  c l e r i c a l or j o b s , and  category,  ('vertical'  and i n  segregation)  between male and f e m a l e  d e t a i l e d census o c c u p a t i o n a l  female o c c u p a t i o n s  that  t h e s e x e s may n o t a p p e a r  within  The  women moving  rates, are d i s t r i b u t e d  (Tangri,  occupational  job c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s  found  levels  of the o c c u p a t i o n a l  segregation), Broad  employed  i n d i c a t e t h a t men and women do n o t h o l d  further  jobs.  ways  1984).  m a r k e t ; however,  by sex o c c u r s  participation  in different  and L a v a l l e e ,  the impression  predominantly  segregation  of d i s a g g r e g a t i o n  o f women now  s t r u c t u r e , with  i n the labour  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by l o w e r  Occupational  level  has c r e a t e d  women a r e s t i l l  occupations,  (Boulet  of the o c c u p a t i o n a l  treated equally  extent  that a majority  their  f o r c e has not d r a m a t i c a l l y changed t h e  women h o l d  i n t o most o c c u p a t i o n s ,  in diversifying  codes,  codes, Armstrong t h e twenty-one  f o r 60% o f employed  (1984)  leading  women, w h i l e t h e  72 twenty-one  l e a d i n g male o c c u p a t i o n s  employed men.  This  finding  occupationally-segregated, of  occupations.  of  occupations  segregation. more d e t a i l  indicates that but that  I t i s important c a n have an impact  Generally, than  accounted  they  f o ronly  not only  a r e women  work i n a l i m i t e d  t o note that  male o c c u p a t i o n s  number  the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  on t h e l e v e l  female o c c u p a t i o n s  35.1% o f  of o c c u p a t i o n a l  have been d e f i n e d i n  (OECD,  1985).  I n t e r e s t i n o c c u p a t i o n a l s e g r e g a t i o n stems from t h e f a i r l y e s t a b l i s h e d r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e s e x d i f f e r e n t i a l i n e a r n i n g s and women's c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n a s m a l l number o f o c c u p a t i o n s . ( B e l l e r , 1984) The  more  (Rytina,  'female' 1982).  what an e m p l o y e r  the occupation  i s , the l e s s  The sex c o m p o s i t i o n i swilling  i ttypically  of o c c u p a t i o n s  t o pay t h o s e  pays  can i n f l u e n c e  p e o p l e who work  i n those  occupations. The pay i n p r e d o m i n a n t l y f e m a l e j o b s i s f r e q u e n t l y lower t h a n t h e pay i n male j o b s , and o f t e n t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l s a r e g r e a t e r t h a n c a n be e x p l a i n e d by t h e s k i l l l e v e l s , c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o p r o f i t , or labor supply c u r v e s o f t h e j o b s , o r t h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of t h e j o b s ' incumbents. ( E n g l a n d , 1984) Some o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n across  occupations  voluntary free  may n o t be p r o b l e m a t i c ,  i f they  s o r t i n g out of people and o c c u p a t i o n s  from d i s c r i m i n a t o r y p r e s s u r e s ;  occupational  segregation  represents  o f women a n d men represent the  (Reskin,  but, i f the p a t t e r n of discriminatory practices,  p r o d u c e d by i n t e n t o r t h r o u g h t h e u n i n t e n t i o n a l o p e r a t i o n social  and e c o n o m i c  earnings policy.  1986),  of our  s y s t e m s , and i f i t c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e l o w e r  o f women, i t c o n s t i t u t e s an i m p o r t a n t  object  of p u b l i c  73  2.  The from  Historical 1981  P a t t e r n of O c c u p a t i o n a l  p e r s i s t e n c e of occupational  1951-81  i n Table  according codes  Occupational  Classification  from  table,  Manual.  Canada  were  digit  Standard  The o c c u p a t i o n a l c o d e s were  s o r t e d under t h e a p p r o p r i a t e h e a d i n g s o f E x t r a c t i v e ,  N o n - p r o f i t , a s shown Of  of  the p e r i o d  To c o n s t r u c t t h i s  t h e 1980 S t a t i s t i c s  Construction, Manufacturing, and  over  t o t h e two, t h r e e and some f o u r  occupational  then  12.  segregation  1 2 3 4 f o r 1951 , 1961 , 1971 a n d 1981 , c e n s u s y e a r s  census data classified  i s shown  S e g r e g a t i o n , 1951-  particular  women a c r o s s  Distributive,  Consumer, A d v a n c e d ,  i n A p p e n d i c e s A, B, C, a n d D.  interest  to this  exercise i s the d i s t r i b u t i o n  the various occupations.  While  women's  N i n t h C e n s u s o f Canada. V o l . IV. Labour F o r c e O c c u p a t i o n s a n d I n d u s t r i e s . T a b l e s 12 & 14. L a b o u r F o r c e 14 y e a r s o f age a n d o v e r , by o c c u p a t i o n a n d sex showing age g r o u p , m a r i t a l s t a t u s , a n d t h e number o f w a g e - e a r n e r s for t h e c e n s u s m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s o f c i t i e s o f 100,000 p o p u l a t i o n and o v e r , 1951. C e n s u s of Canada, 7, 8.  1961, C a t a l o g u e  94.501  - 94.517,  Table  C e n s u s o f Canada, C a t a l o g u e 94-715-727, t a b l e 4. Labour f o r c e 15 y e a r s a n d o v e r , by d e t a i l e d o c c u p a t i o n a n d s e x , f o r c e n s u s m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s , 1971. 4  C e n s u s of Canada, 1981, P r o v i n c i a l 961 t o 93-970, T a b l e 10.  S e r i e s , Catalogue  93-  participation  i n the labour  women do n o t e n t e r distributed  distributed 45.4%  evenly  of t h e t o t a l  occupations of  occupations  more e v e n l y  more c o n c e n t r a t e d  i n fewer o c c u p a t i o n s .  Men t e n d  while  t o be  women a r e  In 1951, men were  between goods and s e r v i c e  occupations  with  f o r c e i n each.  I n 1951, women's  were p r e d o m i n a n t l y  i n the service  s e c t o r w i t h 80.0%  i n s e r v i c e s and o n l y  By 1981, a s a l l o c c u p a t i o n s  s e c t o r , t h e male d i s t r i b u t i o n  goods a n d t w o - t h i r d s  period,  rate,  male l a b o u r  occupations.  third  i n an even manner.  across the occupations  a l l women's employment  service  f o r c e has i n c r e a s e d a t a r a p i d  service  w i t h over  shifted  towards t h e  of o c c u p a t i o n s  occupations.  the o c c u p a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n  concentrated  17.1% i n goods  s p l i t one-  During  t h e same  o f women a l s o became more  87.4% o f a l l women w o r k i n g  i n the service  sector. The  c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f women i n c e r t a i n  d e m o n s t r a t e d by c o n s i d e r i n g what p e r c e n t be  occupied  to  their  by women i f t h e y  share  approximately  of the labour  occupations  o f an o c c u p a t i o n  were r e p r e s e n t e d force.  40.6% of t h e t o t a l  and access  make up a b o u t occurs  to occupations,  are over  or under-represented  categories.  Table  occupation.  Occupations  If  resources,  we would e x p e c t  40.0% o f e a c h o c c u p a t i o n .  i n a few o c c u p a t i o n s .  comprised  f o r c e o f Canada.  women and men h a d t h e same p r e f e r e n c e s , s k i l l s , motivation  would  i n equal p r o p o r t i o n  I n 1981, women  labour  c a n be  As e x p e c t e d ,  F o r t h e most p a r t , women  women t o this  only  ( o r men)  i n most o f t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l  12 shows t h e p e r c e n t a g e that a r e over  o f women i n e a c h  50% f e m a l e  from  1951 t o  1981  f o r Canada a r e :  Clerical,  Food and Beverage,  Personal,  Apparel  and F u r n i s h i n g , Elementary  Teaching,  Nursing  and  Museum.  Occupations  Extractive, Transport  Therapy, S o c i a l  held largely  Lodging,  and S e c o n d a r y  Work, and L i b r a r y and  by men from  Construction, Manufacturing,  1951 -1981  are:  Mechanic and R e p a i r ,  Equipment O p e r a t i n g , N a t u r a l S c i e n c e s , D i a g n o s i s and  Treatment,  Table  and P r o t e c t i v e o c c u p a t i o n s .  12.  P e r c e n t a g e o f Women Canada, 1951-81  i n Each O c c u p a t i o n F o r  Percent Point Change Census Y e a r I.  1961  1971  1981  3.1 0.3 23.0 9.6  9.2 2.5 19.4 12.7  21.6 0.9 22.0 15.1  16.9 1 .9 25.0 16.9  1951-81  GOODS  1. E x t r a c t i v e : 2. C o n s t r u c t i o n (87) 3. M a n u f a c t u r i n g : GOODS TOTAL: II.  1951  1 3.7 1 .6 2 .0 7 .3  SERVICES:  1. D i s t r i b u t i v e : a. C l e r i c a l (41) b. S a l e s : c . T r a n s E q u i p Op. (91) d. M a t e r i a l H a n d l (93) e. E l e c t r & Comm (955) f . Mechan R e p a i r (858) g. P r i n t i n g (951 & 959) Distributive total:  55.3 35.4 0.4 0.8 48.9 0.5 18.4 32.2  61.1 33.9 0.7 1 .3 71.0 0.4 18.9 35. 1  68.4 30.4 2.4 19.7 8.1 0.9 22.9 41 . 1  77.8 42.3 6.5 22.6 16.6 1 .3 34.0 51 .6  22 .4 6 .9 6. 1 21 .8 -32 .3 0 .8 15 .7 19 .4  76 Table  12 c o n t i n u e d . . .  2. Consumer: a . A r t a n d L i t e r (33) b. Food a n d B e v e r (612) c . L o d g i n g (613) d. P e r s o n a l (614) e. Appar F u r n i s h (616) f . O t h e r (619) Consumer t o t a l :  31.1 58.6 77.9 76.8 63. 1 28.0 60.2  3. A d v a n c e d : a. Non-govt A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (113/114) 9.2 b. N a t u r a l S c i e n c e s : 10.0 c. S o c i a l S c i e n c e s : 2. 1 d. O t h e r (117) 12.4 Advanced t o t a l 9.5 4. N o n - P r o f i t : a. G o v ' t Admin (111) b. E d u c a t i o n : c. H e a l t h : d. R e l i g i o u s (25) e. P r o t e c t i v e (611) f . S o c i a l Work (233 & 239) g. L i b r a r y and Museum (235) Non-Profit total SERVICES TOTAL: III.  The  21.2 13.9 28.3 33. 1 21.8  1 2.0 3 .9 26 .2 20 .8 1 2.3  8.9 69.3 69.8 39.7 0.9  9. 2 66. 4 72. 0 28. 9 2. 4  13.8 57.4 73.9 15.7 3.9  22.4 57.4 77.3 29.9 12.2  1 3.5 -1 1 .9 7 .6 -9. .8 11 .3  63.2  53. 3  47.6  64.9  1 .7  86.7 41 .4 33.2  81 . 7 42. 8 35. 7  71.9 49.3 41 .6  76.3 55.3 48.6  -10 .4 1 3.9 15 .4  8.2  23. 4  37.7  38.2  30 .0  27. 3  34.3  40.6  18 .6  Canada, C e n s u s o f Economic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 1951, 1961, 1971, 1981. percentage  Electronics Teaching,  o f women i n a l l o c c u p a t i o n s ,  and C o m m u n i c a t i o n s , L o d g i n g ,  Other Teaching,  Museum, h a s i n c r e a s e d f r o m in  8 .3 8 .8 -7 .3 5 .9 4 .8 1 2.4 -1 .2  39.4 67.4 70.6 82.7 67.9 40.4 59.0  1 1 .9 8.4 14.7 15.8 11.5  22.0  Source:  27.2 64. 1 64.3 78.2 63.9 34. 1 54.5  .5 .9 .4 .2 .4 .8 .4  10. 1 8. 4 4. 0 7. 1 9. 4  OTHER:  TOTAL  32 62 78 79 71 31 61  the percentage  Product  except  Elementary  and S e c o n d a r y  F a b r i c a t i o n and L i b r a r y a n d  1951 t o 1981. The l a r g e s t  of women i n o c c u p a t i o n s  has occurred  increases i n the  lower  paying  Health,  occupations  Agricultural,  of C l e r i c a l ,  a n d Consumer  in a limited  occupational  categories.  occupational  c a t e g o r i e s f o r women, ( C l e r i c a l  Sales  (313),  and S e c o n d a r y T e a c h i n g  s i xservice (41),  (614),  (273), and N u r s i n g  These  and Therapy  s i x c a t e g o r i e s c o m p r i s e 63.4%  These  figures  indicate,  i n 1981 o f a l l  with  1971, t h a t t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f women i n t h e s e  occupations distribution  h a s been  increasing,  the exception select  and t h a t t h e b a s i c o c c u p a t i o n a l  o f women h a s n o t c h a n g e d d r a m a t i c a l l y .  In c o m p a r i s o n , f o r men, C l e r i c a l  the s i xl a r g e s t (41), Commodities  Equipment O p e r a t i n g  comprised  service Sales  sector  occupations  (513/514),  Transport  ( 9 1 ) , Non-government A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  ( 1 1 3 / 1 1 4 ) , M e c h a n i c s and R e p a i r e r s only  sector  Commodities  Personal  1951, 64.8% i n 1961, 64.8% i n 1971 and 65.33%  women's employment. of  (612),  number o f  i t i s p o s s i b l e t o show t h e d e g r e e o f c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f  women i n a few o c c u p a t i o n s . in  the largest  ( 5 1 3 / 5 1 4 ) , Food a n d B e v e r a g e  Elementary  Other  occupations.  Women have r e m a i n e d c o n c e n t r a t e d Taking  M a t e r i a l Handling,  (858)  and P r o t e c t i v e ( 6 1 1 ) ,  32.4% i n 1951, 39.9% i n 1961, 32.1% i n 1971 and  78 b  35.5%  i n 1981 o f a l l men's employment.  concentrated  Men a r e n o t a s  i n a s m a l l number o f o c c u p a t i o n s .  In 1971, Non-government A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (113/114) was r e p l a c e d by M a t e r i a l H a n d l i n g ( 9 3 ) . I n 1981, Nongovernment A d m i n i s t r a t i o n was a g a i n one o f t h e t o p s i x male o c c u p a t i o n s . The p e r c e n t a g e d e c r e a s e i n t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f men i n Non-government A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n 1971 i s p r o b a b l y due t o t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and c o d i n g o f 1971 o c c u p a t i o n s t o t h e 1981 s t a n d a r d . The d r a m a t i c d r o p i n t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f women i n t h e E l e c t r o n i c and R e l a t e d C o m m u n i c a t i o n , Equipment O p e r a t i n g O c c u p a t i o n s (955) i s p a r t l y due t o t h e r e p l a c e m e n t o f telephone o p e r a t o r s w i t h e l e c t r o n i c s w i t c h i n g equipment. A l s o , i t i s r e l a t e d t o t h e l a r g e i n c r e a s e i n female c o n s t r u c t i o n w o r k e r s from 1951 t o 1961 (0.3% t o 2 . 5 % ) . The 1961 c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f E l e c t r i c i a n s and R e l a t e d E l e c t r i c a l and E l e c t r o n i c W o r k e r s (83) was a s s i g n e d completely t o the C o n s t r u c t i o n category. As s u c h , i t i n c l u d e s i n d i v i d u a l s who s h o u l d be c l a s s i f i e d a s b e l o n g i n g t o E l e c t r o n i c and R e l a t e d C o m m u n i c a t i o n , Equipment O p e r a t i n g Occupations (955). T h i s r e s u l t e d i n an i n f l a t e d e s t i m a t e o f t h e number o f women i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n t r a d e , and d e f l a t e d e s t i m a t e s o f women i n C o m m u n i c a t i o n ( 9 5 5 ) .  The  following section  occupational  segregation  occupational  codes.^  3.  is  examine t h e c h a n g e s  using data  from  index  i n the  for  1951-81  M e a s u r i n g Changes i n O c c u p a t i o n a l  Trends the  will  47  Distribution  i n o c c u p a t i o n a l s e g r e g a t i o n a r e commonly measured  of  segregation  o f t e n d e f i n e d as  characteristic.  the  Here,  difference  between t h e  occupation  and  their  (Duncan and complete  Duncan,  Segregation  1955).  separation according  segregation  i s determined  p r o p o r t i o n of men  by  by  to a  given  the  o r women i n an  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the  labour  force.  The 7  index  of  segregation  A dissimilarity  index  is similar  to the  index  of  dissimilarity.  shows t h e  extent  t o w h i c h two  distributions  Data f o r P h y s i c a l S c i e n c e s , S o c i a l S c i e n c e s , Teaching A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and H e a l t h A d m i n i s t r a t i o n were not a v a i l a b l e f o r the 1 9 5 1 o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s . The e x c l u s i o n of t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s i n t h e c a l c u l a t i o n of t h e 1 9 6 1 i n d e x of s e g r e g a t i o n , f o r t h e p u r p o s e of c o m p a r i n g t h e 1 9 5 1 and 1 9 6 1 i n d i c e s , had a n e g l i g i b l e e f f e c t on t h e v a l u e of t h e i n d e x . The d i s s i m i l a r i t y i n d e x d i f f e r e n c e s between two  i s the sum of t h e a b s o l u t e d i s t r i b u t i o n s d i v i d e d by two.  n sum  1/2  abs  (P  -  P  )  Where; P ' = N f i / N t i i n category i in year 1 . P. Q = t h e p r o p o r t i o n of t h e t o t a l i n c a t e g o r y i i n y e a r 6l The sum of a l l v a l u e s i n P equals 1 0 0 . The sum of a l l v a l u e s in P equals 1 0 0 . 1  1  N  are is  different.  f o r the index  no d i f f e r e n c e between  indicating or  Values  that  range  from  t h e two d i s t r i b u t i o n s ,  t h e two d i s t r i b u t i o n s  0, meaning  there  a n d 100,  are completely  different,  dissimilar.  o The s e g r e g a t i o n Zero r e p r e s e n t s distributed to t h e i r  may have a v a l u e  i n t h e same manner a c r o s s  complete  do n o t s h a r e interpreted  segregation  0 a n d 100.  segregation,  a l l occupations, force.  a situation  category.  among o c c u p a t i o n s  t o be e q u a l . index  relative  One-hundred where men a n d women  The i n d e x  a s t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f women o r men t h a t  some c o m b i n a t i o n  c a n be would have t o  f o r the occupational  F o r example, a v a l u e  o f 50.0 i n d i c a t e s t h a t  f o r the  50% of men, women, o r  o f t h e two, would need t o change o c c u p a t i o n s i n  f o r segregation,  occupational  i n the labour  any o c c u p a t i o n a l  be r e d i s t r i b u t e d distribution  between  p e r f e c t i n t e g r a t i o n ; men a n d women a r e  representation  represents  order  index  at the l e v e l  represented  by t h e  c a t e g o r i e s , t o be removed.  The s e g r e g a t i o n i n d e x ( S I ) compares t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f men and women i n one t i m e p e r i o d . It calculated as f o l l o w s : SI  n = 1/2 sum  Where:  N . |_ f  N . .- * m  is  | * 100%  N,^ = t h e number o f women i n o c c u p a t i o n i ; N = t h e t o t a l number of women; N . = t h e number o f men i n o c c u p a t i o n i ; = t h e t o t a l number o f men. mi N f  The  value  of  the  various occupations,  index the  sex  t h e d e g r e e of a g g r e g a t i o n 1981). time,  In o r d e r the  d e p e n d s upon t h e composition  relative  size  within occupations,  of o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s  t o compare c h a n g e s  needs t o be  the and  (England,  in a segregation  same number of o c c u p a t i o n s  of  index  used  over  f o r each  year. The  index  categories  of  segregation  u s e d , does n o t ,  occupational  segregation  Beverage o c c u p a t i o n s , d i n e r s and  p r o d u c e d by  by  sex.  For  waiters  and  The  of  detail only  of  segregation  the  at the  horizontal  index  categories,  reached  value  of  segregation  i t s lowest  48.15, but  rose  a summary of  1951  1981.  the  and  employed  in  i n t h e more men  (Reskin,  depending  Segregation  ( B l a u and  f o r Canada, u s i n g  level 2.21  of  1986).  upon  can  the  occur,  (between o c c u p a t i o n a l t i t l e s ) ,  d e c l i n e d from 63.5  provides to  level,  t o be  much h i g h e r  ( w i t h i n job t i t l e s ) ,  of  has  index  be  o c c u p a t i o n a l breakdown.  also vertically, The  can  boys,  extent  i n Food  waitresses,  bus  r e s t a u r a n t s , a r e more l i k e l y  occupational  full  example,  t o be  expensive index  47  however, r e v e a l t h e  women t e n d  c a f e s , while  the  at  i n 1951 the  1971  Ferber, 47  of  but  1986).  occupational  t o 50.36 i n 1981.  The  census p e r i o d with  a  p o i n t s t o 50.36 i n 1981.  index  not  segregation  Table  f o r Canada  from  13  82 T a b l e 13.  Index o f S e g r e g a t i o n 1951-1981  Census  Year  Canada  1 951 1 961 1 971 1981  4.  63.50 58.64 48. 15 50.36  The Impact Earnings  of O c c u p a t i o n a l  From t h e above a n a l y s i s , continue  t o be d o m i n a t e d  have o c c u r r e d . shown some still  While  understand  distribution  female-to-male  to  the o v e r a l l  over  the l a s t  employed  earnings,  ratio  occupations.  between t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l  i t i s useful  t o the r a t i o  t o examine what  happens  when we assume t h a t women have t h e same  Using  a s men, b u t r e t a i n  earnings  the o c c u p a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of  own e a r n i n g s .  shows t h a t t h e e a r n i n g s  gap i s r e d u c e d .  female-to-male  i n c r e a s e d from  earnings  their  the occupational c a t e g o r i e s presented  12, women were g i v e n  the adoption  changes  t h i r t y y e a r s , women a r e  men, b u t r e t a i n e d t h e i r  words,  occupations  i n a few l o w - p a y i n g  the r e l a t i o n s h i p  occupations.  Table  that  on Women's  by one s e x , b u t some s i g n i f i c a n t  occupational distribution  in  i t i s clear  o f men a n d women, a n d i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p  of  within  Segregation  t h e degree of o c c u p a t i o n a l s e g r e g a t i o n has  improvement  predominantly To  f o r Canada,  On t h i s  basis,  Table  14  F o r 1981, t h e r a t i o o f 0.627 t o 0.663.  o f t h e male d i s t r i b u t i o n  In o t h e r  by women would  83 increase  their  average  earnings  from  62.7% t o 66.3% o f men's  earnings.  Table  14.  R a t i o of Female-to-Male Average E a r n i n g s For Canada, U s i n g The M a l e O c c u p a t i o n a l D i s t r i b u t i o n f o r Men a n d Women.  1 951 1961 1 971 1981  For  t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l groups used  desegregation gap.  0.664 0.652 0.666 0.663  of occupations  The r e m a i n i n g  differences  effect  slightly  gap i n t h e e a r n i n g s  i n earnings  identified  study, the  reduce  ratio  i s the r e s u l t of  i s limited  i n Appendix  To t h e e x t e n t  jobs w i t h i n each broad further The results previous  narrow  I, the f u l l  extent  effect of t h i s  t h a t women a r e s e g r e g a t e d  occupational category,  the earnings  occupations.  t o t h e 46 o c c u p a t i o n a l  o f o c c u p a t i o n a l s e g r e g a t i o n on t h e e a r n i n g s  revealed.  the earnings  between men and women w i t h i n  Because the a n a l y s i s categories  would  in this  gap (Gunderson,  of the  gap i s n o t into  low-wage  desegregation  would  1983).  o f t h e number o f o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s on t h e a n a l y s i s c a n be d e m o n s t r a t e d by l o o k i n g a t  s t u d i e s t h a t used  similar  (1976) f o u n d  that the d i s t r i b u t i o n  occupational  distribution  methods.  by G u n d e r s o n  o f women a c c o r d i n g t o t h e  o f men, u s i n g  g r o u p s and 1971 c e n s u s d a t a ,  A study  23 b r o a d  would a c t u a l l y  occupational  have a n e g a t i v e  impact,  lowering  the earnings  ratio  from 0.59 t o 0.58.  c o n d u c t e d by t h e O n t a r i o M i n i s t r y o f L a b o u r data  f o r Ontario,  resulted  but u s i n g  i n an i n c r e a s e  (cited  from G u n d e r s o n ,  strong  relationship  earnings the  332 d e t a i l e d  i n the earnings 1983).  This  level  of d e t a i l  ratio  suggests  of men and women t h a t becomes used  study  ( 1 9 7 6 ) , u s i n g 1971  occupational  between o c c u p a t i o n a l  A  groups,  f r o m 0.57 t o 0.67 that  there  segregation  isa  and t h e  increasingly clear  i n the o c c u p a t i o n a l  with  classification.  An a l t e r n a t e means o f e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e impact o f occupational individual earnings giving  distributions  ratio  receive the  f o r each  on t h e e a r n i n g s  the e f f e c t  i s eliminated.  individual  occupation  of other  contribute  to their  equal  of e a r n i n g s  1.00.  occupational  T h i s method assumes t h a t men a n d women  factors like earnings.  education  c a t e g o r i e s r e g a r d l e s s of or experience  i n men's a n d women's o c c u p a t i o n a l  (3)  the i n t e r a c t i o n  the  effect  interaction account  of these  of o c c u p a t i o n a l term  two c a u s e s .  segregation  i n the c a l c u l a t i o n ,  gap i s  (2)  d i s t r i b u t i o n , and  T h i s method  overstates  by i n c l u d i n g t h e  and by n o t t a k i n g  any d i f f e r e n c e s i n human c a p i t a l  characteristics  that  The m a l e / f e m a l e e a r n i n g s  c a u s e d by (1) d i f f e r e n c e s i n pay w i t h i n o c c u p a t i o n s , differences  By  i n each  o f wage d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n  t h e same pay w i t h i n o c c u p a t i o n a l  level  gap i s t o m a i n t a i n t h e  o f men a n d women, b u t t o make t h e  men a n d women t h e same l e v e l  occupation, groups  segregation  and o t h e r  that contribute to earnings  into  related  (Aldrich,  1986).  85 Table men  a n d women m a i n t a i n  women a d o p t resulted  only  solely  more e q u a l  differences  Table  when  o f men.  earnings  F o r Canada,  ratio  reduces  The r e m a i n i n g  this  o f 0.905 i n t h e female  1981.  earnings  9.5% i s t h e e f f e c t due  occupational distributions.  The  c a n be drawn t h a t t h e r e d u c t i o n i n t h e s e g r e g a t i o n o f would o n l y  reduce  the earnings  wages w i t h i n e a c h o c c u p a t i o n  B a s e d on t h i s a n a l y s i s ,  effect  earnings  own o c c u p a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s , b u t  earnings  by 74.5%, a t t h e l e v e l  significant  of female-to-male  wages w i t h i n o c c u p a t i o n s  to the d i f f e r e n t  occupations  the  their  the full-time  90.5% o f men's.  conclusion  gap  the r a t i o  i n a female-to-male  Equalizing to  15 p r o v i d e s  effect  used  while  the earnings  in this  analysis.  o c c u p a t i o n a l s e g r e g a t i o n has a earnings  gap, a l t h o u g h i f  o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s a n d human  were c o n s i d e r e d  15.  would r e d u c e  of a g g r e g a t i o n  on t h e m a l e / f e m a l e  of d i f f e r e n t  gap by 25.5%,  this  figure  would be  capital  reduced.  R a t i o of Female-to-Male Average E a r n i n g s F o r Canada, 1951-81, U s i n g Male F u l l - t i m e E a r n i n g s f o r Men a n d Women.  1 951 1961 1971 1981  0.938 0.907 0.911 0.905  5.  The  data  directly 1951  O c c u p a t i o n a l and I n d u s t r i a l S e g r e g a t i o n S u r v e y of Consumer F i n a n c e s  from  the Survey  compared w i t h  o f Consumer F i n a n c e s  the data  t o 1981 c e n s u s e s .  on o c c u p a t i o n s  The d a t a  from  p r o v i d e s an i n d i c a t i o n  of the extent  in  force.  the Canadian  indication  years  labour  force.  confirms  the l e v e l  examination  c o d e s from Finances  the survey  with is  by sex c a n o c c u r  industries  dependent,  used  industries,  Finances  found  This figure  i n the  t h e 47 o c c u p a t i o n a l  closely  o f Consumer  industrial  codes.  r e l a t e d , and  The i n d e x  of s e g r e g a t i o n  i s not d i r e c t l y  because the v a l u e  comparable  of the index  t o some e x t e n t , on t h e number of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s Nevertheless,  i t indicates a  d e g r e e o f s e g r e g a t i o n by i n d u s t r y , c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t  fourteen Tables  from  i n both.  f o r occupations,  i n the c a l c u l a t i o n .  substantial only  i s 0.32.  the f i g u r e  of the Canadian  F u r t h e r , the Survey  are very  the l a s t  The i n d e x o f  information for thirteen  I n d u s t r i e s and o c c u p a t i o n s  for  p l a c e over  o f Consumer  census d a t a .  i s 0.52.  from t h e  i t p r o v i d e s a rough  the Survey  segregation calculated  provides  segregation  As w e l l ,  of o c c u p a t i o n a l s e g r e g a t i o n  o f t h e 1951-81  occupational  compiled  of o c c u p a t i o n a l s e g r e g a t i o n  i n the o c c u p a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n  sample d e r i v e d from  1986, i s n o t  t h e 1951 t o 1981 c e n s u s  o f t h e c h a n g e s t h a t have t a k e n  thirty  The  labour  i n t h e 1986  industrial  c o d e s were  16 and 17 p r o v i d e respectively,  included i n the a n a l y s i s .  i n f o r m a t i o n f o r o c c u p a t i o n s and  on t h e mean e a r n i n g s ,  the percentage  of  women and men i n e a c h o c c u p a t i o n a l  and i n d u s t r y  p e r c e n t a g e o f men's a n d women's t o t a l occupation Table  and i n d u s t r y , 16.  Earnings  code, t h e  employment i n a p a r t i c u l a r  and the e a r n i n g s by O c c u p a t i o n  ratio  f o r each.  by Sex  MEAN $  Occupation 01. Officials SOC 111 Men Women  and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , 32,083 13653 33,888 13366 24,241 12046  02. O t h e r managers SOC 113,114 Men Women 03. Management SOC 117 Men Women  STD DEV  CASES DIFFERENCE RATIO DISTRI (M-F) (F/M) govt 1192 969 223  and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s 32,555 18212 25384 36,240 18655 18182 23,252 13022 7202  and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n 31,096 13824 34,434 13494 25,720 12603  9,647  0.72 0.8% 0.3%  12,988  0.64 14.2% 8.9%  related 8587 8,713 5298 3289  0.75 4.1% 4.1%  04.  P h y s i c a l , l i f e s c i e n c e s , math, s t a t s , s y s t e m s a n a l y s i s and r e l a t e d SOC 211,213,218 32,359 15830 4387 14,060 0.60 Men 35,285 15810 3474 Women 21,225 9829 913  2.7% 1.1%  05. A r c h i t e c t s and e n g i n e e r s SOC 214,215 39,944 13237 Men 40,166 13191 Women 30,904 11976  2.7% 0.1%  3552 3467 85  9,262  06. A r c h i t e c t u r e and e n g i n e e r i n g r e l a t e d SOC 216 30,489 11504 2019 (23,005) Men 29,452 10310 1928 Women 52,457 13432 91 07. S o c i a l s c i e n c e s and r e l a t e d , R e l i g i o n SOC 23,25 27,915 16888 4697 8,350 Men 32,215 21351 2278 Women 23,865 9528 2419  0.77  1.78 1.5% 0.1% 0.74 1.8% 3.0%  88 08. Health SOC 311 Men Women  d i a g n o s i n g and t r e a t i n g 43,708 31578 48,741 33628 28,232 16481  09. Nursing, SOC 313 Men Women  t h e r a p y and r e l a t e d 23,168 8657 26,508 9412 22,389 8280  10. Other medicine SOC 315 Men Women 1 1. Art i s t i c SOC 33 Men Women 12. University 271 SOC Men Women  20,509  7094 1 343 5751  4,119  and h e a l t h r e l a t e d 25,976 14703 2678 37,495 26590 520 23,201 7647 2158  and  related 38,533 14940 40,897 16703 34,477 10086  s e c o n d a r y and r e l a t e d 31,157 9879 7401 34,965 9873 2627 29,061 9235 4774  t e a c h i n g and r e l a t e d 30,625 11046 33,984 9822 28,380 11250  15. Stenographic SOC 41 1 Men Women  1282 810 472  and t y p i n g 18,023 8030 20,642 11599 17,980 7954  16. Bookkeeping, a c c o u n t - r e c o r d i n g SOC 413 17,842 8413 Men 23,702 8972 Women 16,869 7907  0.84 1.1% 7.1%  14,295  0.62 0.4% 2.7%  6,421  0.71 1 . 1: 1.1! 0.84 0.6% 0.6%  5,904  0.83 2.1% 5.9%  2646 1060 1586  5,604  10025 159 9866  2,662  0.84 0.8% 2.0% 0.87 0.1% 12.2%  and r e l a t e d 8329 6,833 1 186 7143  17. O f f i c e machine and E.D.P. o p e r a t o r s SOC 414 18,513 8169 2775 Men 26,905 6007 151 Women 18,030 8014 2624  0.58 0.3% 0.2%  l i t e r a r y , r e c r e a t i o n a l and r e l a t e d 24,105 10715 2361 7,804 27,063 10796 1466 19,259 8615 895  13. Elementary, SOC 273 Men Women 14. Other SOC 279 Men Women  546 412 134  8,875  0.71 0.9% 8.9% 0.67 0.1% 3.3%  89 18. M a t e r i a l r e c o r d i n g , s c h e d u l i n g and d i s t r i b u t i o n SOC 415 23,372 8362 4341 7,392 0 71 Men 25,117 8295 3316 Women 17,726 5642 1025  2.6% 1 .3%  19. Reception, SOC 417 Men Women  1 .2% 2.8%  i n f o r m a t i o n , m a i l a n d message d i s t r i b u t i o n 19,732 8651 3796 7,563 0.69 24,171 8204 1568 16,608 7519 2228  20. L i b r a r y , f i l e , correspondence, SOC 416, 419 20,899 8665 Men 25,024 11015 Women 18,960 6451 21. S a l e s , commodities SOC 513, 514 21,148 Men 26,039 Women 13,194  other 7790 2490 5300  13104 12161 13660 7531 6734 4630  22. S a l e s , s e r v i c e s and other s a l e s SOC 517, 519 33,528 20928 4387 Men 39,097 23144 2835 Women 23,356 9979 1552 23. Protective SOC 611 Men Women  service 31,681 32,173 23,339  1 1 227 1 1 1 55 8943  24.  Food and beverage p r e p a r a t i o n accommodation 1 1 571 SOC 612, 613 14, 295 Men 17, 548 16416 Women 12, 142 5702 25. Personal, SOC 614, 616 Men Women  occupations 20,493 9975 23,224 9651 11,787 4494 16,084 16,923 6,650  12939 1 31 79 149  0.76 1 .9% 6.6%  12,844  0.51 5.9% 5.7%  15,741  0.60 2.2% 1 .9%  8,835  0.73 2.8% 0.3%  & r e l a t e d , lodging and 6081 2422 3659  5,407  0.69 1 .9% 4.5%  a p p a r e l and f u r n i s h i n g s e r v i c e 14,273 8526 3735 6,216 18,978 9029 908 12,762 7777 2827  26. Other s e r v i c e SOC 619 Men Women 27. Farmers 71 1 SOC Men Women  3819 3606 213  clerical 6,064  5239 3988 1251  11,437  649 596 53  10,272  0.67 0.7% 3.5% 0.51 3.1% 1 .6% 0.39 0.5% 0.1%  90 28. Other f a r m i n g , h o r t i c u l t u r a l and animal husbandry SOC 718, 719 13,716 8049 1494 4,219 0.71 Men 14,605 8372 1179 Women 10,387 5570 315  0.9% 0.4%  29. Fishing, SOC 73 Men Women  0.1% 0.0%  t r a p p i n g and r e l a t e d 18 ,951 1 0829 18 ,951 1 0829 0 0  30. F o r e s t r y and l o g g i n g SOC 75 30,081 Men 31,342 Women 5,000 31. Mining SOC 77 Men Women  12259 11161 0  18,951  418 398 20  26,342  N/A  0.16 0.3% 0.0%  a n d q u a r r y i n g i n c l u d i n g gas and o i l f i e l d 34,945 15568 1289 34,945 N/A 34,945 15568 1289 0 0 0  32. Food, beverage SOC 821, 822 Men Women  and r e l a t e d 22,569 10150 23,625 9184 19,601 11991  33. Other p r o c e s s i n g o c c u p a t i o n s SOC 811-817, 823- 27,719 10064 Men 28,421 10083 Women 19,264 4408 34. Metal SOC 833 Men Women  108 108 0  shaping  2953 2178 775  4,023  5036 4650 386  9,157  .2550 2409 141  15,497  36. M e t a l p r o d u c t s , n.e.c, SOC 851, 852 23,360 Men 25,468 Women 13,210  2577 2134 443  12,258  electronic 28,578 30,421 18,727  0.68 3.6% 0.5%  35. Other machining o c c u p a t i o n s SOC 831, 835-839 28,108 11220 Men 28,965 10886 Women 13,468 5025  37. Electrical, SOC 853 Men Women  0.83 1 .7% 1 .0%  and f o r m i n g o c c u p a t i o n s 25,740 10549 2593 12,900 26,551 1 031 2 2430 13,651 5393 163  9069 8293 4771  1 .0% 0.0%  0.51 1 .9% 0.2% 0.46 1 .9% 0.2%  and r e l a t e d equipment 11043 2627 11,695 10682 2213 6984 414  0.52 1 .7% 0.5% 0.62 1 .7% 0.5%  91 38. Textiles, SOC 855, 856 Men Women  f u r and l e a t h e r goods 14,054 6093 3400 17,222 7313 611 13,360 5556 2789  39. Wood p r o d u c t s , SOC 854, 857, 859 Men Women  rubber, 20,732 22,242 16,375  plastic 9341 9264 8121  3,862  0.5% 3.5%  and o t h e r 2833 5,867 21 04 729  40. Mechanics and repairmen except e l e c t r i c a l SOC 858 28,477 12108 8568 8,425 8406 Men 28,636 11991 162 Women 20,211 14954 41 . E x c a v a t i o n , 871 SOC Men Women  0.78  0.74 1 .6% 0.9% 0.71 6, 6% 0. 2%  g r a d i n g , p a v i n g and r e l a t e d 27,214 10080 1611 27,214 27,214 10080 1611 0 0 0  E l e c t r i c a l power, l i g h t i n g and w i r e communications equipment, e r e c t i n g , SOC 873 29,530 13003 2423 Men 29,260 13087 2356 Women 39,000 0 67  N/A 1 0  42.  43. Other c o n s t r u c t i o n t r a d e s SOC 878, 879 25,433 10651 Men 25,541 10497 Women 17,361 17202 44. Motor SOC 917 Men Women  transport  operators 23,211 10315 23,702 10333 14,147 3605  47. Other SOC 95 Men Women  h a n d l i n g and r e l a t e d 22,372 10733 23,969 1 0761 15,787 7677  8,180  6326 6001 325  9,555  crafts  4553 3664 889  33 1 .8% 0.1%  4948 4883 65  45. O t h e r t r a n s p o r t equipment o p e r a t o r s SOC 911-915, 919 35,748 14224 1639 Men 35,812 14251 1628 Women 26,260 0 11 46. Material 93 SOC Men Women  installing (9,740) 1  0.68 3, 0, 1% 0.60 4, 7% 0, 4%  9,552  0.73 1.3% 0.0%  8,182  and equipment o p e r a t o r s 27,259 10442 3564 11,339 28,862 9850 3060 17,523 8465 504  0.66 2.9% 1.1% 0.61 2.4% 0.6%  Note:  Complete t i t l e s f o r each of t h e Standard O c c u p a t i o n a l Codes (SOC) a r e p r e s e n t e d i n A p p e n d i x L .  Again, industrial assigning to each  an i n d i c a t i o n  t h e average  individual  earnings  education,  or experience,  occupations  difference  occupational difference increased  in overall from  are equal. the  distribution  earnings  other  difference  that  approach  i n earnings  The e a r n i n g s  due t o observed  ratio  w i t h i n each  occupation  that occupational segregation eighteen percent,  reduces  assuming  that  influence the occupational s t r u c t u r e are  account  f o r 18 o u t o f t h e 34 p o i n t s t h a t c o m p r i s e  consideration.  Thus, o c c u p a t i o n a l s e g r e g a t i o n can  o r 52.9% o f t h e gap, a s s u m i n g  The  i s due t o  wage-determining  from  similar  worked,  of the earnings  removed  gap,  This  o r 42% o f t h e t o t a l  mean e a r n i n g s .  o f women by a f u l l  factors  identical  i s $4,241  indicates  as time  Thus t h i s  0.66 t o 0.84 when e a r n i n g s  This  own.  i n the earnings  and i n d u s t r i e s .  The a v e r a g e  and i n d u s t r y  o f men and women a c r o s s h i g h a n d  assumes t h a t men a n d women have characteristics.  such  i n the determination  of the d i s t r i b u t i o n  low-paying  i n place of t h e i r  of other v a r i a b l e s ,  Thus, t h e r e m a i n i n g  effect  c a n be o b t a i n e d by  f o r each o c c u p a t i o n  i n t h e sample  t h e impact  the  of o c c u p a t i o n a l and  s e g r e g a t i o n on mean e a r n i n g s  eliminates  ratio.  o f t h e impact  the earnings  t h a t men a n d women  possess  characteristics. figures  segregation differences.  forindustries  indicated  that  industrial  d o e s n o t c o n t r i b u t e a s much a s t o t h e income The r e s u l t i n g  difference  i n the average  wages i s  $817,  o r 8.1% o f t h e t o t a l  earnings. leaving  The e a r n i n g s  only  women t h a t and  a three  ratio  percent  These  difference in overall  i s increased  from  of t h e i r  between men and  distribution  f i g u r e s a r e most  of o c c u p a t i o n a l  wage-determining  likely  an o v e r e s t i m a t i o n  and i n d u s t r i a l  segregation  high  and i n d u s t r i a l  of the  on t h e e a r n i n g s and o t h e r  The a n a l y s i s o f t h e  segregation  w i l l be  through the r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s i n the f o l l o w i n g  section.  The r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s w i l l  wage-related impact  f a c t o r s were i n c l u d e d .  of o c c u p a t i o n a l  extended  across  industries.  o f women, b e c a u s e no c o n t r o l s f o r t h e human c a p i t a l ,  effect  mean  0.66 t o 0.97,  gap i n t h e e a r n i n g s  i s due t o t h e e f f e c t  low-paying  effect  observed  characteristics,  of o c c u p a t i o n a l  c o n t r o l f o r the other  and a l l o w  and i n d u s t r i a l  the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  segregation  of the  on t h e e a r n i n g s  of women.  T a b l e 17. E a r n i n g s by I n d u s t r y  STD DEV  by Sex  %  Occupat ion  MEAN $  AGRICULTURE Men Women  14,576 16,117 10,805  1 0463 1 1 1 89 71 47  2307 1638 669  5,311  OTHER PRIMARY Men Women  35,657 37,388 24,696  16568 16682 10561  5105 4409 696  12,691  MANUFACTURING, (non-durable) Men Women  24,828 28,756 17,443  13352 13003 10584  22784 1 4872 7912  17,443  CASES DIFFERENCE RATIO DISTRI (M - F ) (F/M) 0 .67 1 .3% 0.8% 0 .66 3.4% 0.9% 0 .61 1 1.6% 9.8%  94 MANUFACTURING, (durable) Men Women  28 084 30 262 16 701  1 2547 22572 1 21 42 18947 7436 3625  16,701  CONSTRUCTION Men Women  25 683 26 408 18 973  14049 1 3844 14170  7996 721 6 780  18,973  TRANS, COMM, OTHER Men Women  29 809 31 555 23 928  13175 1 3481 1 0062  21 086 16258 4828  23,928  WHOLESALE TRADE Men Women  25 518 28 065 18 007  1 3340 1 3559 9223  1 1 923 8904 3019  18,007  RETAIL TRADE Men Women  18 790 22 871 1 3 642  1 1 248 1 2536 6355  20792 1 1597 91 95  F.I.R.E. Men Women  26 998 36 691 18 878  1 7488 201 65 8761  1 5000 6838 8162  18,878  25 827 30 504 23 ,115  1 3041 1 5797 10195  37048 1 3598 23450  23, 1 1 5  PERSONAL SERVICES Men Women  15 093 18 ,805 12 ,306  1 1463 14708 7042  9857 4226 5631  12,306  BUSINESS Men Women  25 1 1 4 14466 1 5937 28 ,568 21 ,288 1 1 485  1 2920 6790 6130  21,288  29 ,579 33 ,695 21 ,550  1 9073 12609 6464  12,145  COMMUNITY Men Women  SERVICES  SERVICES  PUBLIC ADMIN. Men Women Note:  Complete t i t l e s i n A p p e n d i x M.  1 2934 1 3017 8101  f o r each i n d u s t r i a l  0. 55 14. 8% 4. 5% 0. 72 5. 6% 0% 1 . 0. 76 12. 7% 6. 0% 0. 64 7. 0% 3. 7% 0. 60 9. 1% 11 . 4% 0. 51 5. 3% 10. 1% 0. 76 10. 6% 29. 1% 0. 65 3. 3% 7. 0% 0. 75 5. 3% 7. 6% 0. 64 9. 9% 8. 0%  sector are presented  95 C.  Regression  1.  Decomposition  Following in  the multiple  linear regression section,  gap i n t o two p a r t s .  One p a r t  e a r n i n g s due t o d i f f e r e n c e s  related part  factors,  This  discrimination, acknowledged  regression  equation  represent  inaccuracy  regression  discrimination endowments within  f o r t h e same  The s e c o n d  productivity  l a b e l l e d wage o r pay  that  other  i n t h e measurement  that  of v a r i a b l e s  differences  is o f pay  outside the  f o r ; further,  and i t may u n d e r e s t i m a t e  to the extent  It  the l e v e l  variables  h a v e n o t been a c c o u n t e d  analysis,  i t may  included i n  the l e v e l of  i n the p r o d u c t i v i t y  o f men a n d women a r e t h e r e s u l t o f d i s c r i m i n a t i o n  and o u t s i d e  Calculating  the labour  separate  a l l o w s an e x a m i n a t i o n  using  force.  earnings equations  of returns,  each of t h e e x p l a n a t o r y equations,  of p r o d u c t i v i t y -  t h i s measure may o v e r e s t i m a t e  to the extent  within  the d i f f e r e n c e s  i s c a l l e d t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s component..  that  discrimination  represents  l a b e l l e d t h e endowment component.  component, commonly  outlined  t o decompose t h e  i n endowments  i s due t o d i f f e r e n t r e t u r n s  factors.  technique  i t i s possible,  l i m i t a t i o n s of the approach d i s c u s s e d ,  earnings  the  o f t h e E a r n i n g s Gap  the previous methodological  the  in  Analysis  variables.  f o r men and women  i n t h e form o f e a r n i n g s , f o r The s e p a r a t e  earnings  t h e b e s t - f i t t i n g l i n e a r model, a r e e s t i m a t e d a s :  Y  = Constant  m m  + b . X . ... b .X . ; and ml ml mi mi  Y, = C o n s t a n t r  + b ^ X . . ... b.-X.-; 11 r 1 r i i r  where Y i s t h e a n n u a l  e a r n i n g s , X i s t h e mean v a l u e  of the  explanatory  used  b i s the  estimated  variables  regression  to account  for earnings,  c o e f f i c i e n t s , and t h e s u b s c r i p t s  i n d i c a t e m a l e s and f e m a l e s .  In o t h e r words,  t h e w a g e - p r o d u c i n g endowments o f s u c h experience of  t h e change of  or r e t u r n s t o these  i n earnings  an e x p l a n a t o r y  that  factor  would  constant.  The c o n s t a n t  endowments.  result  earnings  when t h e e x p l a n a t o r y  term  worked,  f o r "b" c a n be  from  They  indicate  factors  i n the equation  factors  thought  an a d d i t i o n a l  while h o l d i n g the other  equation  i s the v a l u e of  f a c t o r s as time  and e d u c a t i o n , and t h e v a l u e s  as the e a r n i n g s  "X"  o f m and f  unit  i n the  represents  have a t h e o r e t i c a l v a l u e o f  zero. The  portion  of the e a r n i n g s  endowments o f w a g e - d e t e r m i n i n g sum o v e r  a l l independent  difference produced men  gap due t o d i f f e r e n c e s  factors  variables  i n earnings, given  o f b (X - X,) — m m r  The p o r t i o n  (b of  m  a l l independent - b^)X^.  due t o d i f f e r e n c e s  variables,  T h i s term  returns f o r equal  that  i s the  factors  i n r e t u r n s on t h e  i s represented  including  between  by t h e sum  the constant  term, of  represents the e f f e c t of d i f f e r e n t  endowment  same p r o d u c t i v i t y - r e l a t e d differences  by t h e  t h e male r e t u r n s f o r endowments,  same endowments, pay d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , over  c a n be r e p r e s e n t e d  by d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f t h e e x p l a n a t o r y  and women.  i n the  factors,  unequal  characteristics.  earnings  rates  f o r the  The e f f e c t o f  i n endowments, and t h e d i f f e r e n c e  i n the rate of  97 return which  f o r endowment's i s commonly i s assumed  (Gunderson,  to represent  1980).  m e a s u r e d by t h e male  the n o n - d i s c r i m i n a t o r y  The same c a l c u l a t i o n  standard,  norm  c o u l d be done u s i n g t h e  means and r e t u r n s f o r endowments f o r women as t h e s t a n d a r d different  results.  Table decomposes earnings  18 g i v e s t h e m a l e - f e m a l e e a r n i n g s i t into  equations  were c a l c u l a t e d random  i t s component presented  using multiple linear  is restricted  report  g r e a t e r than  employed earnings.  full-time,  zero average  zero average full  year  22.  on t h e s e p a r a t e  The e a r n i n g s  equations  regression analysis  o f Consumer  to i n d i v i d u a l s  week, r e p o r t g r e a t e r t h a n  gap i n C a n a d a , and  p a r t s , based  in Table  sample of t h e 1986 S u r v e y  analysis  with  who  Finances.  worked  from  The  i n the r e f e r e n c e  h o u r s worked p e r week,  weeks work  and had no  a  per year,  were  self-employment  98 Table  18.  Earnings 1)  2) 3)  D e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e M a l e - F e m a l e E a r n i n g s Gap, Canada 1986, SCF, F u l l E q u a t i o n s  a n d Components  Dollars  Male A c t u a l E a r n i n g s M a l e C o n s t a n t + sum b X m m Female A c t u a l E a r n i n g s Female C o n s t a n t + sum b^X^  29,010  F e m a l e , No D i s c r i m i n a t i o n M a l e c o n s t a n t + sum b X m r C o e f f i c i e n t s Component, Wage D i s c r i m i n a t i o n R e s i d u a l sum(b - b ^ X . m r r  24,988  Percentage  19,003  c  4)  5,985  59.8%  4,022  40.2%  10,007  100.0%  m  5)  Endowment D i f f e r e n c e s sum(X - X ) b m r m m  6)  Overall Y  f  m  Differential  m ' fr Y  m  Note:  D o l l a r f i g u r e s a r e c a l c u l a t e d from t h e means a n d r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s i n T a b l e 22. F o r T a b l e s 18 a n d 19 the remaining f i g u r e s a r e a l t e r n a t e l y c a l c u l a t e d as follows: (4) = (3) - ( 2 ) ; (5) = (1) - ( 3 ) ; and (6) = (4) + (5) = (1) - ( 2 ) .  Source:  See T a b l e 22 f o r t h e means a n d r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s (b's) f o r the f u l l r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n .  2.  A s s e s s i n g t h e Impact Segregation  Two s e p a r a t e men a n d women. includes in  of O c c u p a t i o n a l  regression equations  The f i r s t ,  the e f f e c t s  called  of i n d u s t r i a l  t h e endowment component.  Each  and I n d u s t r i a l  were c a l c u l a t e d  the f u l l  f o r both  regression equation,  and o c c u p a t i o n a l s e g r e g a t i o n industrial  and o c c u p a t i o n  code  was a s s i g n e d The e f f e c t s  a value  r e p r e s e n t i n g mean e a r n i n g s  of o c c u p a t i o n a l  and i n d u s t r i a l  included  with  earnings  gap f o r t h e s e c a l c u l a t i o n s .  equation,  t h e endowment component  the o c c u p a t i o n a l  excluded. segregation  will  discrimination component  d o e s not s o l e l y  discrimination discrimination, (unexplained included and  In e i t h e r represent  i n t h e work f o r c e .  productive  case,  the labour  force that  be  of the  regression  industrial component  o r pay  the c o e f f i c i e n t s o f pay  I t i n c l u d e s the e f f e c t s  inaccuracy  characteristics  and  the l e v e l  as w e l l a s t h e e f f e c t s  residual),  will  v a r i a b l e s were  i n the c o e f f i c i e n t s  of pay  of unmeasured v a r i a b l e s  i n the measured v a r i a b l e s  i n t h e a n a l y s i s , and o t h e r  outside  In t h e p a r t i a l  of o c c u p a t i o n a l  be i n c l u d e d  component.  segregation  i n the e x p l a n a t i o n  and i n d u s t r i a l  Thus t h e e f f e c t s  f o r each code.  forms of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n  result  of women.  i n lower  returns  f o r the  100 Table  Earnings  19.  and  D e c o m p o s i t i o n of t h e M a l e - F e m a l e E a r n i n g s Canada 1986, SCF, P a r t i a l E q u a t i o n s  Components  Dollars  Percentage  1)  Male A c t u a l  2)  Female A c t u a l  3)  Female, No D i s c r i m i n a t i o n  4)  C o e f f i c i e n t s Component, Wage D i s c r i m i n a t i o n R e s i d u a l  8,981  89. 7%  5)  Endowment D i f f e r e n c e s  1 ,027  10. 3%  6)  Overall  10,007  100. 0%  Note:  By  Earnings  19,003 27,984  Differential  See T a b l e 23 coefficients  e s t i m a t i n g both  determine  t h e combined  segregation full  partial The indicate  as  f o r t h e means and r e g r e s s i o n (b's) the p a r t r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n .  s e t s of e q u a t i o n s , impact  the d i f f e r e n c e  equation,  industrial  is  29,010  D o l l a r f i g u r e s a r e c a l c u l a t e d from t h e means and r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s i n T a b l e 23. F o r T a b l e s 18 and 19 the r e m a i n i n g f i g u r e s a r e a l t e r n a t e l y c a l c u l a t e d as follows: (4) = (3) - ( 2 ) ; (5) = ( 1 ) - ( 3 ) ; and (6) = (4) + (5) = ( 1 ) - ( 2 ) .  Source:  the  Earnings  Gap,  which  results  the  that, in dollar  $10,007 of w h i c h  of o c c u p a t i o n a l component  and  i n the  1981).  full-regression terms, the  $5,985 or  industrial  between t h e endowment components i n  the c o e f f i c i e n t s  (Gunderson, of  o c c u p a t i o n a l and  i n c l u d e s the e f f e c t s  s e g r e g a t i o n , and  equation  of  i t i s p o s s i b l e to  59.8%  equation  overall can  be  in Table  earnings attributed  18  differential to  the  101 coefficients  component  discrimination  (which  - the lower  include the e f f e c t s  returns  f o r women p o s s e s s i n g  endowments), a n d $4,022 o r 40.2% a t t r i b u t e d differences, considered  with  occupational  a s endowments.  partial  regression.  effects  of o c c u p a t i o n a l  have n o t been of  different  excluded  It calculates  included  differential  the r e s u l t s  and i n d u s t r i a l  i n t h e endowment  from t h e  segregation  proportion.  The e f f e c t s  and i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s  the r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s  coefficients.  distribution  t h e same c o m p o n e n t s , b u t t h e  segregation  occupational  from  19 g i v e s  T h i s has t h e e f f e c t t o the c o e f f i c i e n t s  t h e same  t o endowment  and i n d u s t r i a l  Table  o f wage  were  i n the c a l c u l a t i o n  of t h e b  o f a s s i g n i n g more o f t h e wage  component, a n d l e s s  t o endowment  differences. In t h i s still  s e t of c a l c u l a t i o n s ,  $10,007, o f w h i c h  coefficients differences  the o v e r a l l  $ 8 , 9 8 1 o r 89.7% i s a t t r i b u t e d  component, w h i l e i n endowments.  Taking  the d i f f e r e n c e  f o r endowments  occupational  and i n d u s t r i a l s e g r e g a t i o n  of the o v e r a l l  other  factors In d o l l a r  Survey  ratio  between t h e two  i t i s possible t o estimate account  for  that  approximately  wage d i f f e r e n t i a l when c o n t r o l l i n g  f o r the  i n the equation. terms,  t h e a v e r a g e male e a r n i n g s  o f Consumer F i n a n c e s  earnings  to the  $1,026 o r 10.3% i s due t o  calculations  29.9%  differentialis  were $19,003 w h i c h  data  i s $29,010, a n d a v e r a g e  forms a g r o s s  o f 0.66 f o r a l l w o r k e r s  from t h e 1986  unadjusted  i n t h e sample.  same p r o d u c t i v e - r e l a t e d endowments  female  earnings  I f women had t h e  a s men, i n c l u d i n g  occupational  1 02 and  industrial  T h i s would  profiles,  result  their  earnings  i n an a d j u s t e d  would  female/male e a r n i n g s  0.79 ( i . e . $ 2 3 , 0 2 5 / $ 2 9 , 0 l 0 ) , a s compared 0.66. and  T h e s e same c a l c u l a t i o n s , industrial  adjusted This  a r e not accounted  female/male e a r n i n g s  female/male earnings  Unadjusted  of o c c u p a t i o n a l  for, result  i n an  o f 0.69 ( $ 2 0 , 0 2 9 / $ 2 9 , 0 1 0 ) .  and i n d u s t r i a l  segregation  alone  20.  ratio.  U n a d j u s t e d and A d j u s t e d E a r n i n g s R a t i o and P a r t i a l R e g r e s s i o n Equations  Earnings  Ratio, F u l l  Adjusted  Earnings  Ratio,  proportion  Regression  Partial  Equation  Regression  Equation  of o c c u p a t i o n a l  t h e d i f f e r e n c e between  indefensible.  .69  and i n d u s t r i a l  t h a t a r e due t o d i s c r i m i n a t i o n .  distribution  .79  a n a l y s i s , i t i s not p o s s i b l e t o determine the  of the e f f e c t s  segregation  Full  .66  Earnings  From t h i s  from  Ratio  Adjusted  the i n d u s t r i a l  To s u g g e s t  that a l l  and o c c u p a t i o n a l  o f men and women i s due t o d i s c r i m i n a t i o n would be The a n a l y s i s does a l l o w  the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the  effect  of the d i s t r i b u t i o n  paying  o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s and i n d u s t r i a l  to  r a t i o of  f o r 10 ( 7 9 % - 69%) p e r c e n t a g e p o i n t s , o r 29.9 p e r c e n t o f  Table  of  ratio  r a t i o of  to unadjusted  when t h e e f f e c t s  i n d i c a t e s that occupational  accounts the  segregation  i n c r e a s e by $4,021.  o f men and women between h i g h a n d l o w -  f u r t h e r decompose o c c u p a t i o n a l  sectors.  and i n d u s t r i a l  A method  distributions  103 i n t o components due (unequal  returns  calculation industrial  of  for equal  endowments) would  occupational  t h i s t y p e of  Moon and  Zoloth  creation  of  attainment  and  (1976  3.  the  of  each v a r i a b l e  to  the  found  this  presented  f o r b o t h endowment d i f f e r e n c e s  the  The  contribution  c o e f f i c i e n t s ' component  measurement included  error,  i n the  column one  negative  sign  comparative earnings  and  the  equation.  indicates  thus c o n t r i b u t e s  to  an  to  the  f o r the  e f f e c t of  to  factors  entry  Earnings  The  of  contribution  of  of  $10,007 i s  of  each v a r i a b l e  and  differences  sign  f o r males  increasing  which  examine e a c h  is assigned  discrimination,  explanatory  A positive  the  channels through  r e f l e c t i n g pay  advantage  a d v a n t a g e , and  gap.  study.  analysis.  in Table  The  industrial  o v e r a l l earnings d i f f e r e n t i a l  21.  and  Brown,  (1986).  Variables  presented  to  occupational  and  i t is useful  i n the  the  i n works by  Aldrich  additional  in earnings a r i s e , considered  involve  industrial characteristics.  Individual  the  discrimination  related  occupational  bounds of  c l e a r l y understand  variables  be  1980), and  a model p r e d i c t i n g  Contribution Gap  differences  and  work can  and  i s outside  and  equations p r e d i c t i n g  outcomes from human c a p i t a l and  Examples of  the  endowment d i f f e r e n c e ,  regression  characteristics,  To  to  for  variables  the  entry  not  in  i n endowments, the  earnings  and  gap.  A  r e p r e s e n t s a r e a s where women have a contributes  to a reduction  in  the  Table  Full  21.  Equations  Variable  C o n t r i b u t i o n of Each V a r i a b l e t o the E a r n i n g s Gap  Due t o Endowments  Due t o Due t o b o t h Wage , Discrimination Residual  Names bm(Xm-Xf)  Constant Education Experience (Single) Married Other  (bm-bf)Xf  (bmXm-bfXf)  0.,00  -8101 . 90  -8101. 90  -509.,33  1519. 81  1010. 49  2304. 1 6  2839. 85  535.,69 -630.,86 782.,72 -215.,64  -1349. 38 2902. 20 130. 67  -718. 52 3684. 92 -84. 97  (Rural) -256.,45 Urban < 30,000 18.,25 Pop 30,000 - 99,999 14.,27 Pop 100,000 - 499,999 -3..37 Pop > 500,000 -146.,82  -398. 27 -66. 09 199. 04 61 .20 265. 44  -654. 72 -47. 84 213. 31 57. 83 118. 62  (Atlantic) Quebec Ontario Prairies B r i t i s h Columbia  -82.,25 -6. ,80 -38,.73 25. .31 17..94  -1654. 00 28. 58 287. 75 350. 08 209. 40  -1736. 25 21 .78 249. 02 375. 40 227. 34  A v e r a g e H o u r s Worked  243..81  -1120. 23  -876. 43  (Public) Private  28..83 -28..83  -631 . 22 1 601 . 79  -661 . 06 1572. 95  (Two C h i l d r e n ) No C h i l d r e n One C h i l d T h r e e o r More  371 . .43 323., 58 46. .50 -0..15  934. 84 -1970. 48 -525. 65 11 . 53  1306. 27 -1646. 90 -479. 15 11 . 38  Occupat i o n ^ ^  2207,, 1 1  2921 . 86  5128. 97  756..29  4976. 30  5732. 59  4021 . .81  5985. 45  10007. 26  40.2%  59.8%  100.0%  Industry Total Percentage  105 Source:  C a l c u l a t e d from t h e r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s ( b ' s ) and t h e mean v a l u e s of t h e e x p l a n a t o r y v a r i a b l e s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 22.  (i)  T h i s r e p r e s e n t s pay d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a s w e l l a s t h e e f f e c t unmeasured p r o d u c t i v i t y - r e l a t e d f a c t o r s , and i n a c c u r a t e measurement f o r f a c t o r s i n c l u d e d i n t h e a n a l y s i s .  (ii)  The f i r s t column f o r t h e O c c u p a t i o n and I n d u s t r y c a t e g o r i e s r e p r e s e n t s t h e impact of t h e mean d i s t r i b u t i o n o f men and women a c r o s s h i g h and l o w - p a y i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l and industrial categories. The s e c o n d c o l u m n , l a b e l l e d "Due t o Wage D i s c r i m i n a t i o n R e s i d u a l " , r e p r e s e n t s t h e d i f f e r e n c e between male and f e m a l e r e t u r n s t o moving from a l o w e r p a y i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r y t o the next h i g h e r p a y i n g category.  The of  first  column of T a b l e  21  i n d i c a t e s that  t h e main  of  source  f a v o r a b l e male endowments of p r o d u c t i v i t y - r e l a t e d f a c t o r s a r e  derived  from t h e g r e a t e r  occupational  and  number of h o u r s worked, more  industrial  distributions,  number of c h i l d r e n , and t h e i r possessed locating  more f a v o r a b l e  married  a s compared  and  i n t h e p u b l i c s e c t o r o f work.  for  women was  compared  endowments o f o c c u p a t i o n , Column  two  through g r e a t e r public where  returns  s e c t o r work,  The e f f e c t  f o r men  no c h i l d r e n and one c h i l d ,  components due  t o pure d i s c r i m i n a t i o n given  areas,  variables i n the  operates except i n  and h o u r s  i s greater  As n o t e d a b o v e , i t i s d i f f i c u l t  from  worked.  category  t h e r a t e of r e t u r n p e r h o u r s worked  t h a n men.  of these  wage d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n every  urban  made by men  i n d u s t r y and h o u r s  Women  of e d u c a t i o n ,  to smaller  to the gains  i n d i c a t e s that  experience,  marital status.  endowments i n l e v e l  i n l a r g e urban a r e a s  small  greater  favorable  to isolate  worked  f o r women the  the q u a l i t y of the  1 06 data.  F o r example,  measured due  choice  family  23 p r o v i d e s  the  may be  more t i m e a n d e n e r g y  and i n d u s t r i a l  of other  Beyond  22, b u t t h e  d i s t r i b u t i o n h a s n o t been  E f f e c t i v e l y , by e x c l u d i n g  discrimination.  t h e wage d i f f e r e n t i a l  pattern  as Table  t h e i r e f f e c t s have been t r a n s f e r r e d  representing  effects  status  by men and women, o r t h e  t h e same i n f o r m a t i o n  i n the analysis.  variables,  of  of m a r i t a l  their  responsibilities.  of occupational  included  obtained  f o r women from  o f m a r r i e d women t o c o n t r i b u t e  Table effect  returns  e x p e r i e n c e and t h e i n f l u e n c e  t o the type of e d u c a t i o n  free to  the lower  increasing  t h e s e two  t o t h e column the t o t a l  attributed to discrimination,  unmeasured  factors, this transfer  o f endowment a n d d i s c r i m i n a t i o n  percent  and t h e  d i d n o t change  effects.  Table  22.  E a r n i n g s E q u a t i o n s f o r M a l e s and F e m a l e s , Full-regression Equation  Unstandardized Values ,..N  Variable  Name  (11)  Regression  f o r Females  Mean X. C o e f . f  b. f  Coefficients  Values ( l V  ^  (i)  Mean  (iii)  f o r Males  X m m  C o e f . b, m  Constant  1.00  10316.01  1 .00  18417.91  Education  4.96  1218.21  4.62  1524.93  21 .26  204.31  Experience  18.64  80.71  (Single) Married Other  0.65 0.11  1 1 32.78 1983.22  0.79 0.04  5590.85 3171.11  (Rural) Urban < 30,000 Pop 30,000 - 99,999 Pop 100,000 - 499,999 Pop > 500,000  0.20 0.16 0.11 0.34  1464.54 2338.19 2821.96 2807. 12  0.22 0.17 0.11 0.30  1140.56 3566.85 3368.36 3581.00  (Atlantic) Quebec Ontario Prairies B r i t i s h Columbia  0.16 0.25 0.31 0.09  792.71 1108.43 1171.70 1360.94  0.15 0.23 0.32 0.10  971.35 2278.14 2301.00 3588.56  2021.63  1.82  2214.67  1 .26  (Public) Pr i v a t e  0.72  -3034.98  0.75  -800.97  (Two C h i l d r e n ) No C h i l d r e n One C h i l d T h r e e o r More  0.59 0.20 0.05  365.55 453.78 -242.83  0.48 0.18 0.11  •2968.59 •2214.51 -2.61  Occupation  22942.26  0.36  27428.00  0.49  Industry  24813. 1 4  0.32  26279.88  0.52  A v e r a g e H o u r s Worked  108 Source:  Computed from d a t a from t h e M i c r o D a t a f i l e o f t h e 1986 S u r v e y o f Consumer F i n a n c e s : I n d i v i d u a l s age 15 and o v e r , w i t h and w i t h o u t income, 1985.  Notes: (i)  The sample s ^ z e i s 2753 f o r women and 4450 f o r men. The calculated R i s 0.31 f o r women a n d 0.30 f o r men f o r t h e f u l l - r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n , a n d 0.24 f o r women a n d 0.22 f o r men i n t h e p a r t i a l r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n .  (ii)  The r e f e r e n c e g r o u p f o r t h e dummy i n d i c a t e d i n parentheses.  (iii) (iv)  The B e t a v a l u e s a n d t h e v a l u e s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 25.  or i n d i c a t o r  variables i s  f o r the F s t a t i s t i c are  The r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t (b) c a n be i n t e r p r e t e d a s t h e change i n e a r n i n g s t h a t r e s u l t from a u n i t o f change i n the e x p l a n a t o r y v a r i a b l e h o l d i n g the other v a r i a b l e s i n the e q u a t i o n c o n s t a n t . F o r c a t e g o r i c and i n d i c a t o r v a r i a b l e s , b r e p r e s e n t s t h e a p p r o x i m a t e p e r c e n t a g e change i n e a r n i n g s t h a t r e s u l t from a u n i t change i n t h e c a t e g o r i c or i n d i c a t o r v a r i a b l e .  109 Table  23.  Earnings Equations Partial-regression  Unstandardized Values Variable  Name  f o r M a l e s and F e m a l e s , ( i ) Equation  Regression  f o r Females  ,...Mean X. C o e f . Ui) r  b. r  Coefficients  Values  ( l 1 1  ^  Mean X  f o r Males m  Coef.  b  m  Constant  1.00  2902.56  1.00  6951.81  Education  4.96  1720.28  4.62  1961.01  18.64  91.99  21.26  233.19  (Single) Married Other  0.65 0.11  1356.23 2105.98  0.79 0.04  6925.43 4575.62  (Rural) Urban < 30,000 Pop 30,000 - 99,999 Pop 100,000 - 499,999 Pop > 500,000  0.20 0.16 0.11 0.34  1613.51 2687.07 3278.32 3336.37  0.22 0.17 0.11 0.30  1581.71 3644.95 3536.41 3467.46  (Atlantic) Quebec Ontario Prairies B r i t i s h Columbia  0.16 0.25 0.31 0.09  707.48 1381.23 1126.37 1402.01  0.15 0.23 0.32 0.10  1173.67 2801.78 2840.21 4081.02  A v e r a g e H o u r s Worked 2021.63  2.27  2214.67  0.92  Experience  (Public) Private  0.72  -4585.14  0.75  -2622.33  (Two C h i l d r e n ) No C h i l d r e n One C h i l d T h r e e o r More  0.59 0.20 0.05  250.97 544.61 -451.73  0.48 0.18 0.11  -3591.24 -2691.91 -156.53  1 10 4.  Regression  The s e p a r a t e presented  for  regression equations  i n Table  regression  22.  coefficients  the F - s t a t i s t i c s ,  coefficients dependent  Results  that  Table  22 c o n t a i n s t h e v a l u e s  (b), while Table  f o r the  24 c o n t a i n s t h e v a l u e s  and t h e s t a n d a r d i z e d r e g r e s s i o n  indicate  variable  f o r men and women a r e  t h e change  for a unit  change  i n earnings  of the  i n the independent  variables. From Tables that  the r e s u l t s  22, 24, and 25, i t i s p o s s i b l e t o examine  c o n t r i b u t e t o e a r n i n g s , and i d e n t i f y  men a n d women. coefficients  Table  explanatory regression  coefficients  reveal  change  differ  between  24 p r o v i d e s mean change  i n the  f o r the F - s t a t i s t i c s .  f o rthe education  Although  i n earnings,  shown  the earnings  variable  a 6.41% i n c r e a s e i n e a r n i n g s  a 5.26% i n c r e a s e i n e a r n i n g s  level.  coefficient,  how t h e y  Education  t h a t women c a n e x p e c t  education  t h e key f a c t o r s  25 p r o v i d e s t h e s t a n d a r d i z e d  and v a l u e s  regression coefficients  can expect  Table  from a u n i t  and T a b l e  presented i n  t h e means a n d r e g r e s s i o n  equation;  i n earnings  variables,  a.  The  22 p r o v i d e s  f o r the f u l l  p e r c e n t a g e change  men  of the r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s  women c a n e x p e c t i n Table  from a u n i t a higher  22 a s a l a r g e r  while  change i n  percentage  value  f o r the b  o f men i n c r e a s e by $1,524 w h i l e t h e  111 earnings that  o f women i n c r e a s e by $1,218.  women b e g i n  the Beta  values  regression s e c o n d most men  with  i n Table  equations  and women, j u s t  experience,  average earnings.  variable  in predicting  a 0.42% i n c r e a s e i n e a r n i n g s while  men c a n e x p e c t  i n experience, the other  variables  and o c c u p a t i o n , of e a r n i n g s .  a 0.70% i n c r e a s e .  the actual  labour  Women have h i s t o r i c a l l y therefore, force  this  experience  i n the equation experience  experience,  had a weaker  o f women.  of a d d i t i o n a l In d o l l a r  a $80 i n c r e a s e , constant.  i s t h e most  likely  After  important  that this  variable  and may n o t a c c u r a t e l y  force experience  v a r i a b l e most  Women  t o i n c r e a s e by $204 f o r a u n i t  I t n e e d s t o be n o t e d  a measure o f p o t e n t i a l  reflect  of both  are small.  from a y e a r  w h i l e women c a n e x p e c t  is  the earnings  i n returns f o rexperience  change  determinant  i s the  Experience  earnings  education,  fitting  occupation.  t e r m s , men c a n e x p e c t  holding  An e x a m i n a t i o n o f  25 r e v e a l s , f o r t h e b e s t  behind  The d i f f e r e n c e s expect  i s due t o t h e f a c t  f o r men a n d women, t h a t e d u c a t i o n  important  b.  can  lower  This  labour  o f men and women. f o r c e attachment,  overestimates  the labour  11 2 c.  The  Cohort  use o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n  variable  for specific  estimate  of labour  for  this  additional  N.  The a v e r a g e  is  reduced  from  force experience.  of experience  i s less  dramatic,  of  t h e wage d i s c r i m i n a t i o n  of  the earnings  points  gap.  reveals  earnings  importance  differences  r a t h e r than  gap, ( s e e T a b l e  of experience  This table,  for  endowments  which  The  estimate  59.8 t o 55.7%  t h e 21  r a t i o of  gap percentage  t o the  4A i n A p p e n d i x N ) ,  of e x p e r i e n c e  decreased  i n the e x p l a n a t i o n of the  due t o t h e wage d i s c r i m i n a t i o n This shift  experience  of each v a r i a b l e  adjusted estimate  i n A p p e n d i x N.  from  of  analysis.  i n c r e a s e d t o $2,175.92 from  differences  21.3 t o 18.7  an a d j u s t e d e a r n i n g s  The p o r t i o n o f t h e e a r n i n g s  $2,304.16 t o $227.61.  method  on t h e e s t i m a t e o f  from  decreased  of the c o n t r i b u t i o n  of the e a r n i n g s  gap.  the e f f e c t  p o i n t s of the e a r n i n g s  adjusted  i n Appendix  f o r women u s i n g t h i s  was s i g n i f i c a n t .  residual  to discrimination,  t h a t the cohort  the o v e r a l l  s e t of t a b l e s  i s provided  decreasing  T h i s produced  19 p e r c e n t a g e  examination  explanation  portion  of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n  i n the non-cohort  The  realistic  of the c o h o r t a d j u s t e d e s t i m a t e  the estimate  attributable  the experience  A complete  regression analysis  on  0.81, l e a v i n g  Experience  r a t e s t o modify  18.6 t o 11.1, w h i l e  The impact  of  age c o h o r t s p r o d u c e s a more  years  male e x p e r i e n c e years.  Adjusted Estimates  gap due t o endowment  $535.69, w h i l e t h e residual  i s also  decreased  reflected  shows t h e impact  and f o r d i f f e r e n c e s  from  i n Table  10A  of a d j u s t i n g  i n the  1 13 discrimination  component  on t h e e a r n i n g s  endowments a r e a s i g n i f i c a n t l y earnings the  gap t h a n  experience  from  the d i s c r i m i n a t i o n  would not r a i s e  occupational force  the earnings  experience  of the  Adjustingf o r  the earnings  ratio  effect  of i n d u s t r i a l and of labour  change t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f  t o the earnings  adjusted experience  o f men and women.  variable  i n the p r o p o r t i o n of the earnings  attributable  from 0.66.  adjusted estimate  d i d not s i g n i f i c a n t l y  other explanatory v a r i a b l e s  reduction  ratio  of the e s t i m a t e d  segregation, the cohort  The u s e of t h e c o h o r t  t o o c c u p a t i o n a l and i n d u s t r i a l  resulted  ina  gap t h a t c o u l d be segregation.  Instead  r e d u c i n g t h e e a r n i n g s o f women by 30%, t h e e f f e c t o f  occupational  and i n d u s t r i a l  This additional of  component  component.  endowment o f women would r a i s e  With the exception  of  more i m p o r t a n t  reveals that  0.66 t o 0.73, w h i l e a d j u s t i n g f o r t h e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n  component  the  ratio,  available  shifted  data.  analysis  shows  The r e - d e f i n i t i o n  d.  to their  Marital  The c o e f f i c i e n t are married  reduced  earnings  o f women  of l a b o u r  force  a 5.96% i n c r e a s e  Being  variable from  experience.  Status  women, w h i l e men c a n e x p e c t s i n g l e males.  level  of the experience  for marital status indicates  can expect  t o o n l y 16%.  the importance of the q u a l i t y  t h e e x p l a n a t i o n of t h e lower  discrimination  over  s e g r e g a t i o n was r e d u c e d  t h a t women who  ($1,132.78) o v e r  an i n c r e a s e o f 19.;27% o r a  separated,  widowed  single  $5,590.85  o r d i v o r c e d had t h e  11 4 opposite an  impact  expected  divorced earn  on t h e wages  o f men compared t o women.  increase i n the earnings  o r widowed o f 10.44%.  more  than  o f women who a r e s e p a r a t e d ,  Women who a r e i n t h i s  women i n t h e m a r r i e d  category,  F o r men, t h e i n d i c a t i o n s  are the opposite.  divorced  o r widowed men e a r n  than  being  single.  results can  Being  separated,  i n a i n c r e a s e i n expected  expect  to experience  perhaps r e f l e c t s  a shift  responsibilities  from  or  Examining being  men,  t h e Beta single,  married  Separated,  men r e l a t i v e t o  or d i v o r c e d  earnings  t o being  actually  f o r women, w h i l e men  a small d e c l i n e i n earnings. i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n  This  of domestic  women t o men, where women a r e b e t t e r a b l e  required to increase their  where men must d e v o t e  to  widowed  category  relative  single.  less  There i s  more  values  earnings  energy  i n the l a b o u r market, and  to their  own d o m e s t i c  reveals that being married,  i s an i m p o r t a n t  determinant  tasks.  a s compared  f o rearnings f o r  b u t n o t f o r women.  e.  The  Urban A r e a  earnings  urban a r e a .  While  o f men and women i n c r e a s e d w i t h t h e s i z e men r e c e i v e d g r e a t e r r e t u r n s t h a n  urban  size  areas  had a g r e a t e r e f f e c t  earnings.  and R e g i o n  c a t e g o r i e s , f o r women b e i n g  The i n d i c a t o r  on t h e i r variables  of the  women i n a l l  l o c a t e d i n l a r g e urban  earnings  than  f o r the f i v e  i t d i d f o r male identified  r e g i o n s o f Canada show t h a t men a n d women b o t h  receive  levels  the highest  of r e t u r n s i n the v a r i o u s r e g i o n s , with  different  returns  in British  Atlantic  Canada.  Columbia  compared  In a l l r e g i o n s ,  t o the reference  men r e c e i v e  category of  greater  returns  t h a n women.  f.  A v e r a g e H o u r s Worked P e r Y e a r  This  analysis  full-year  workers.  for  considers  i n d i v i d u a l s who were f u l l - t i m e ,  Thus, t h e s e l e c t i o n  t h e number o f h o u r s worked p e r y e a r  eliminating  any s i z a b l e d i f f e r e n c e  would have been r e v e a l e d part-year year  workers.  The sector men  through  The r e s u l t  i s n o t an i m p o r t a n t  differential  less  Sector  o f Work  variable  that  indicates  sector  sector)  i n the a n a l y s i s  that  women c a n e x p e c t the p r i v a t e  a larger  sector.  factor  o f work  than  work.  i n the earnings  by moving  The r e g r e s s i o n  15.97 and 2.76%,  i n the public  reduction  Working  (private  some i n t e r e s t i n g r e s u l t s .  women a n d men e a r n sector  of the earnings  thesis.  earnings to increase sector  that  a v e r a g e h o u r s worked p e r  the sector  produced  to public  i n the p r i v a t e  important  i n h o u r s worked p e r y e a r  i s that  g.  controlled  by e f f e c t i v e l y  between men and women f o r t h i s  or p u b l i c  indicates  of t h e sample  the i n c l u s i o n of p a r t - t i m e and  variable  and women c a n e x p e c t  private  in  only  i n the public  from  analysis  respectively,  sector.  i n earnings  Both  Further,  t h a n men by b e i n g  sector  i s an  o f women, a s r e v e a l e d  by a  11 6 relatively  high  beta value  of  e x p e c t a $3,034.98 i n c r e a s e private  sector  substantially women by  smaller  working  unadjusted 0.63  to the  i n the  earnings  for p r i v a t e  sector.  $800.97. public  r a t i o s of  sector  Women, on  i n e a r n i n g s by  public at  0.14.  The  sector 0.72  workers.  The  average,  moving  from  advantage  relative  the  f o r men  advantage  i s supported  for public  can  by  sector  is for  the workers  and  Table  24.  Mean P e r c e n t a g e Change i n E a r n i n g s from a U n i t Change i n t h e I n d e p e n d e n t Variable^ ;  Full  Regression  Equation Women  Men  -54.29%  -63.49%  V a r i a b l e Name  Constant Education  6.41%  5.26%  Experience  0.42%  0.70%  (Single) Married Other  5.96% 10.44%  19.27% 10.93%  (Rural) Urban < 30,000 Pop 30,000 - 99,999 Pop 100,000 - 499,999 E x t r a Pop 100,000 - 499,999  7.71% 12.30% 14.85% 14.77%  3.93% 12.30% 11.61% 12.34%  4.17% 5.83% 6.17% 7.16%  3.35% 7.85% 7.93% 12.37%  (Atlantic) Quebec Ontario Prairies British  Columbia  A v e r a g e H o u r s Worked (Public) Private  0.01%  0.005  15.97%  -2.76%  (Two C h i l d r e n ) No C h i l d r e n One C h i l d T h r e e o r More  1 .92% 2.39% •1 .28%  •10.23% -7.63% -0.01%  Occupation  0.0019%  0.0017%  Industry  0.0017%  0.0018%  Notes: (i)  From t h e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n Y = a + bX ... bX., t h u s when t h e mean v a l u e s f o r e a c h i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e a r e s u b s t i t u t e d i n t o t h e e q u a t i o n , t h e mean p e r c e n t a g e c h a n g e i n income from a u n i t change i n t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e i s c a l c u l a t e d by ( b X / Y ) * l 0 0 . Where b i s t h e r e g r e s s i o n  118 c o e f f i c i e n t , X i s t h e mean f o r e a c h and Y i s a c t u a l mean e a r n i n g s . Table  Full  25.  Regression  independent  F - S t a t i s t i c s ^ ^ and S t a n d a r d i z e d Values i  Equations Women  variable,  Regression^^  Men  V a r i a b l e Name F-Stat.  Beta  Beta  F-Stat.  35.65  0.00**  92.59  0.00**  Education  0.27  188.29**  0.25  269.39**  Experience  0.10  31.01**  0.19  141.80  (Single) Married Other  0.05 0.06  6.47* 9.70**  0.1 6 0.04  79.20** 9.52**  (Rural) U r b a n < 30,000 Pop 30,000 - 99,999 Pop 100,000 - 499,999 Pop > 500,000  0.06 0.09 0.09 0.13  8.01** 17.85** 19.51** 31.14**  0.03 0.09 0.07 0.11  4.12* 34.36** 22.17** 40.60**  (Atlantic) Quebec Ontario Prairies B r i t i s h Columbia  0.03 0.05 0.05 0.04  1 .86 4.18* 5.60* 4.16*  0.02 0.07 0.07 0.07  2.17 13.76** 17.18** 23.91**  A v e r a g e H o u r s Worked  0.06  13.03**  0.03  6.94**  58.69**  -0.02  Constant  (Public)  3.09  Private  -0.14  (Two C h i l d r e n ) No C h i l d r e n One C h i l d T h r e e o r More Occupation  0..02 0.02 -0.01 0.23  0.58 0.72 0.09  0.10 0.06 0.00  31.82** 14.92** 0.00  164.65**  0.20  188.82**  0.14  59.60**  0.16  137.43**  Industry  1 19 (i)  ** i n d i c a t e s a s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e o f .05.  o f .01 and * i n d i c a t e s  a  (ii)  When v a r i a b l e s d i f f e r s u b s t a n t i a l l y i n u n i t s o f measurement, the s i z e o f t h e b c o e f f i c i e n t s does n o t r e v e a l a n y t h i n g about the r e l a t i v e importance of the v a r i a b l e . To make r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s more c o m p a r a b l e B e t a w e i g h t s a r e c a l c u l a t e d f o r each of t h e independent v a r i a b l e s . The B e t a v a l u e s a r e e x p r e s s e d i n a s t a n d a r d i z e d form. The v a l u e s o f the B e t a c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e c o n t i n g e n t on t h e o t h e r independent v a r i a b l e s i n the equation. They a r e a l s o a f f e c t e d by t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s o f t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s and do n o t a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e v a r i o u s independent v a r i a b l e s (Norusis, 1985).  120 Table  Full  26. R a t i o o f F e m a l e - t o - M a l e E a r n i n g s , A d j u s t e d f o r D i f f e r e n c e s i n Endowments, f o r D i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e C o e f f i c i e n t s Component, and f o r d i f f e r e n c e due t o B o t h  Regression  Equation  Unadjusted Earnings  Ratio  Endowment  0.66 Coefficient  Both  Variable Constant  0.66  0.38  0.38  Education  0.64  0.71  0.69  Experience  0.67  0.73  0.75  (Single) Married Other  0.68 0.65  0.76 0.66  0.78 0.65  (Rural) Urban < 30,000 Pop 30,000 - 99,999 Pop 100,000 - 499,999 Pop > 500,000  0.66 0.66 0.65 0.65  0.65 0.66 0.66 0.66  0.65 0.66 0.66 0.66  (Atlantic) Quebec Ontario Prairies B r i t i s h Columbia  0.65 0.65 0.66 0.66  0.66 0.66 0.67 0.66  0.66 0.66 0.67 0.66  A v e r a g e H o u r s Worked  0.66  0.62  0.62  (Public) Pr i v a t e  0.65  0.71  0.71  (Two C h i l d r e n ) No C h i l d r e n One C h i l d T h r e e o r More  0.67 0.66 0.66  0.59 0.64 0.66  0.60 0.64 0.66  Occupation  0.73  0.76  0.83  Industry  0.68  0.83  0.85  121 Note: The r a t i o s f o r e a c h v a r i a b l e f o r t h e Endowment component, t h e C o e f f i c i e n t s component, and t h e component due t o b o t h were c a l c u l a t e d as f o l l o w s : Endowment Component  (b (X - X.) + s u m f b r X . ) ) / s u m ( b X ); m m r t r mm C o e f f i c i e n t s Component = ( ( b - b J X , + s u m ( b r X r ) ) / s u m ( b X ); m r r r t mm Due t o B o t h = ((b X„ + sum(b-X-))/sum(B X ); mm i f r r mm Where b = t h e r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t ; X = t h e mean v a l u e of e a c h v a r i a b l e ; and t h e s u b s c r i p t s m and f r e p r e s e n t t h e v a l u e s f o r men and women, r e s p e c t i v e l y . r  c  =  1 22 IV  SUMMARY,  This  section  analysis.  will  Further,  theoretical be  CONCLUSIONS, AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PUBLIC POLICY  summarize t h e r e s u l t s  the r e s u l t s w i l l  viewpoints,  be r e l a t e d  and i m p l i c a t i o n s  to the various  f o rpublic  policy  will  discussed. The  calculations  of s e p a r a t e e a r n i n g s  women, f o r t h e s e l e c t e d ratio  o f 0.66.  productivity analysis, the  After  including  dollars)  variables. indicates  significant levels  t o 0.79. could  The a n a l y s i s that  clearly  factors  shows t h e impact While part  explained  by v a r i a b l e s  left  an e a r n i n g s  n o t be a s s i g n e d  i n the  of a redefined  gap of $5,985  t o any o f t h e m e a s u r e d  experience  variable  t o e x p e r i e n c e may n o t be a e a r n i n g s o f women.  of lower  The l o w e r analysis  l e v e l s o f t h i s endowment on  of t h e u n e x p l a i n e d not i n c l u d e d  r e s i d u a l may be  i n the analysis,  measurement o f e x i s t i n g v a r i a b l e s ,  earnings  considered  f o r women f r o m t h i s a d d i t i o n a l  earnings.  careful  This  i n the lower  of e x p e r i e n c e  earnings  and i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s ,  d i f f e r e n t returns  factor  f o r men and  a d j u s t m e n t s were made f o r t h e t e n  occupational  that  equations  sample, p r o d u c e d an u n a d j u s t e d  and p r o d u c t i v i t y - r e l a t e d  r a t i o increased  (1985  the  from t h e d a t a  o r by more  i t seems l i k e l y  that  of women a r e r e d u c e d by a t l e a s t 20%, w h i c h i s  attributable  t o "an amalgam o f d i f f e r e n t forms o f d i s c r i m i n a t i o n  which,  t o g e t h e r , d i s a d v a n t a g e women r e l a t i v e t o men",  taken  (Denton and H u n t e r , different  returns  1982).  Discrimination  i n earnings  f o r equal  i s defined  productivity  as  123 characteristics, total  as g i v e n  e a r n i n g s gap o f 34 p e r c e n t ,  attributable  explanatory The  of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n  f o r the v a r i o u s  a p p r o a c h , as d i s c u s s e d assumes t h a t  characteristics.  of the v a r i a b l e s  characteristics  Further,  can  discrimination that  of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n  n o t be m e a s u r e d  viewpoint  that  (Holmes,  earnings  against  viewpoint the an gap by  assumes t h a t  r e s u l t of " f r e e even p l a y i n g  a s an o v e r e s t i m a t i o n differences  includes 1976).  that  This  depends  a comprehensive  the e f f e c t s of f a c t o r s Public  i s very  any d i f f e r e n c e s  field.  T h u s , how much  i s due t o d i s c r i m i n a t i o n  factors  choice",  r a t i o i s due t o  women.  a l l o f t h e wage d i f f e r e n t i a l  through w o r k - p r o d u c t i v i t y  i t assumes t h a t t h e  due t o d i s c r i m i n a t i o n .  upon o n e ' s d e f i n i t i o n , and t h e r e c o g n i t i o n definition  i s that i t  i n t e r p r e t a l l d i f f e r e n t i a l s between t h e  From t h i s v i e w , a l l o f t h e u n a d j u s t e d  t h e wage d i f f e r e n t i a l  section,  this  a r e n o t , i n t h e m s e l v e s , due t o  o f men and women a s b e i n g  wage and employment  after  o f men a n d women w o u l d be e q u a l  considered  Some may  left  The p r o b l e m w i t h  i n the methodological  t h e wage s t r u c t u r e s  discrimination.  of  40% i s due  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (the ten  i s the r e s i d u a l  the absence of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n .  value  60% o f t h i s i s  and a p p r o x i m a t e l y  in productivity-related  Of t h e  variables).  level  adjusting  coefficients.  approximately  t o wage d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ,  to d i f f e r e n c e s  in  by t h e r e g r e s s i o n  policy  that  from t h e  c a n be a c c o u n t e d f o r  limited.  This  between men and women a r e  and t h a t  women compete w i t h men on  approach  sees the unexplained  of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ,  i n the q u a l i t y of e d u c a t i o n ,  that  c a n be  wage  explained  j o b t r a i n i n g , and  124 other p r o d u c t i v i t y observed  (Lloyd,  cases of overt employer  or  differences  1979)  discrimination  the  limits  intervention  on t h e p a r t  the range of s t u d i e s  f o rthe earnings d i f f e r e n t i a l ,  considered, for.  a r e not e a s i l y  i t i s unlikely  I t c a n be a r g u e d earnings  measured o r to specific  of a p a r t i c u l a r  organization.  However, g i v e n account  This  that  that  that  that  have a t t e m p t e d t o  and t h e v a r i e t y  a l l o f t h e gap c o u l d  many o f t h e f a c t o r s  gap, such as p a s t  experience,  of f a c t o r s  be a c c o u n t e d  used  to adjust  o c c u p a t i o n and  e d u c a t i o n , a r e i n t h e m s e l v e s due t o i n d i r e c t  and past  discrimination.  gap becomes t h e  lower  limit  against  the adjusted  of the t o t a l  women.  intervention  Thus,  This  effect  viewpoint  i n the labour  of systemic allows  force,  equality  A.  support  for a broader  range o f  to achieve  a greater  degree  between men and women.  Contribution  Each of t h e f a c t o r s impact  discrimination  and i n a l l t h e r e l a t e d  components o f t h e s y s t e m t o a t t e m p t of  earnings  direct  of e a c h F a c t o r  considered  on t h e e a r n i n g s d i f f e r e n t i a l , forsocial  policies  women i n t h e C a n a d i a n  labour  that  to Public  in this  Policy  analysis  and each  i s able  had an to provide  may improve t h e e a r n i n g s o f  force.  1 25 1.  The of  Education  examination  education  increasing  expect  i n section  values  education.  greater  although  26  which  levels  while  of education.  little  education  benefit  from  higher  education  men  f o r t h e same l e v e l s  e a r n i n g s gap.  than  levels  low  On  men.  Men, however,  This  than  do women,  i s demonstrated  the education  levels  those  gap, a l t h o u g h  percentage  would  factors  of O r n s t e i n levels  decrease constant. (1983),  d i d very  men r e c e i v e d g r e a t e r  T h i s suggests  of e d u c a t i o n ,  i n Table  o f women t o  gap by 2.0  i n education  women.  average,  between men and women  p o i n t s , h o l d i n g other  to explain the earnings from  gap.  the returns f o reducation  that d i f f e r e n c e s  level  than  are c o n s i s t e n t with  returns  increased  of e d u c a t i o n can  earnings  increase the earnings  gap by 7.0 p e r c e n t a g e  who c o n c l u d e d  levels  levels  p a t t e r n of  with  i n returns i s less  equalizing  results  for different  increased education  shows t h a t e q u a l i z i n g  These  ratios  of education  r e t u r n s from  o f men would  points, the  levels  the difference  higher  those  f o r the earnings  a reduction i n the o v e r a l l  receive  ratios  3. A. showed a c l e a r  Women who o b t a i n h i g h e r  women have h i g h e r  with  of the earnings  but t h a t  t h a t women c a n i t i s not the  o f women, b u t t h e g r e a t e r r e t u r n s r e c e i v e d by of education  that  i s the source  of the  2.  Experience  Comparison wages of b o t h That in men  o f mean e a r n i n g s  men a n d women r i s e  men make g r e a t e r g a i n s  both  the larger  from  value  experience  ratio,  from  Women s t i l l  earn  less  more i m p o r t a n t A study  level  labour  university  f o r c e attachment  and e x p e r i e n c e .  earned  just  61% of a v e r a g e  t h a t t h e gap i n c r e a s e s w i t h This  finding  f o r women i s  t h a t t h e placement or i n secondary  (1980) r e p o r t e d t h a t  70% o f men w i t h  of labour  force  male s a l a r i e s .  similar  experience, This  g r e a t e r l e v e l s of  i s c o n s i s t e n t with  l a b o u r m a r k e t " and " i n t e r n a l  ladders,  but the  However, when compared t o a  women were e a r n i n g  suggest  of experience,  results.  a n d had f o u r y e a r s o f  t o nine years  "dual  counter  i n t h e e x p l a n a t i o n of t h e e a r n i n g s gap.  five  experience.  o r more  rates to adjust  of e x p e r i e n c e  group with  suggests  with  d e f i n i t i o n of  produced  f o r t h e same l e v e l  women who h a d c o m p l e t e d  similar  t o 0.60 f o r t h i r t y  by D e v e r e a u x and R e c h n i t z e r  qualifications  i n the  0.85 f o r men a n d women  force experience  i s s m a l l and the reduced  i s shown  experience f o r  and i n t h e d e c r e a s e  However, t h e a d d i t i o n a l  of labour  experience.  experience  u s i n g age c o h o r t s and p a r t i c i p a t i o n  estimate  continuous  increasing  additional  of e x p e r i e n c e ,  of e x p e r i e n c e .  effect  from  the regression a n a l y s i s ,  zero t o four years  the  with  show t h a t t h e  rate of r e t u r n f o r a d d i t i o n a l  of the e a r n i n g s  years  f o r experience  t h e arguments o f t h e  l a b o u r m a r k e t " t h e o r i s t s who  o f women i n j o b s o u t s i d e  labour markets,  results  promotional  i n lower  127 earnings could  f o r women.  be i m p r o v e d  more e q u a l  The p o s i t i o n  by b o t h  that a l t e r  t h e employers'  3.  Marital  Marital correlated  unadjusted highest  returns  i n e x p l a i n i n g t h e lower be e f f e c t i v e l y  factor earnings  earnings  resolved.  the earnings  i n t h e lower ratio  women from  earnings  i s lowest women  a n a l y s i s demonstrate  than  positive,  practices  could  that are a s t h e most  o f women.  It  Clearly,  o f men a n d women  through  of labour w i t h i n t h e f a m i l y , but i t i s not t h e s o l e  f o r never-married  regression  promotion  ( O r n s t e i n , 1983).  s t a t u s does a f f e c t  or dominant  to  Status  t h a t cannot  the d i v i s i o n  a n d by  f o r p r o m o t i o n , and  with m a r i t a l status a r e often presented  i s a debate marital  of experience,  s t a t u s and t h e f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  factor  force  Programs t h a t attempt  greater chances  improve women's e a r n i n g s  important  increased levels  rewards f o r t h a t e x p e r i e n c e .  p l a c e women i n j o b s w i t h policies  o f women i n t h e l a b o u r  The  (.62) f o r m a r r i e d  (.86).  women, a n d  The c o e f f i c i e n t s  from t h e  t h a t men do r e c e i v e g r e a t e r  marriage,  though s i g n i f i c a n t l y  o f women.  but marriage  lower,  impact  still  has a  on t h e e a r n i n g s o f  women. However, a s a p r e d i c t o r does n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y inclusion earnings  o f women's e a r n i n g s , m a r i t a l s t a t u s  account  f o r women's e a r n i n g s , n o r does t h e  of m a r i t a l s t a t u s i n the c a l c u l a t i o n ratio  significantly  alter  the value  of adjusted  of the adjusted  128 ratio  (Denton a n d H u n t e r ,  earnings with her  f o r married  the hypothesis  of single  women o v e r  market  results  with  good  other  1985).  does suggest  different  of a marriage market, and not t h e The o p e r a t i o n  characteristics.  market p r o s p e c t s  of the earnings  of a marriage  a r e not as eager  single  gap between  longer,  market  possess  F o r example,  o f a m a r r i a g e market  p a i d women r e m a i n i n g  that the  of s i n g l e  o f s i n g l e men and women who  women, t h e o p e r a t i o n  better size  (Madden,  labour  returns i n  women i s n o t c o n s i s t e n t  women a r e c l o s e r t o t h e e a r n i n g s  in a population  substantially  single  the greater  However, t h e e v i d e n c e  men, b e c a u s e o f t h e o p e r a t i o n labour  Further,  t h a t a woman's m a r i t a l s t a t u s a c c o u n t s f o r  lower e a r n i n g s .  earnings  1982).  i f women  t o marry as  will  and thus  result in reduce t h e  s i n g l e men a n d women  (Madden,  1985). To and  f o r c e c a n be i m p r o v e d  a f f o r d a b l e day c a r e ,  household can  that m a r i t a l status e n t a i l s  child-care responsibilities,  labour and  the extent  find  affecting assumption women.  the labour that  this  through the p r o v i s i o n of adequate  within households. through marriage,  force should  that  responsibilities status  has a r o l e  some women policies  well-being f o r  facilities,  but i t i s  i n e q u a l i z i n g the household  between men a n d women.  i s used as a q u i c k  While  government  i s t h e means t o economic  government  d i v i s i o n of  n o t be p r e d i c a t e d upon t h e  Government c a n improve day c a r e  uncertain  marital  support  o f women i n t h e  a n d t h r o u g h more e q u a l  responsibilities economic  the p o s i t i o n  a d d i t i o n a l family  To t h e e x t e n t  means o f a s s e s s i n g  that  the labour  129 force the  attachment  committment  necessity  o f women by e m p l o y e r s ,  accurate  information  on  t o work, t h e r i g h t t o work, and t h e economic  o f work f o r s i n g l e , m a r r i e d and s e p a r a t e d , d i v o r c e d o r  widowed women would h e l p  remove t h i s  source of e a r n i n g s  differentials.  4.  The the  Urban S i z e  and Region  r e l a t i o n s h i p between u r b a n  ratio  o f women's t o men's e a r n i n g s  same, w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n favorable  s i z e and r e g i o n  earnings  of l a r g e  ratios.  The r e g r e s s i o n that  returns  of urban  more  support less  favorable  t o the proposal  exposed  greater  earnings  ratios i n large women i n t h e s e  greater  s i z e and r e g i o n . urban a r e a s  labour  lends  markets a r e  t o t h e e f f e c t s o f monopsony, a n d p e r h a p s t h u s have  Sector  Women w o r k i n g  o f Work  i n the p r i v a t e  earnings d i f f e r e n t i a l regression  greater  men r e c e i v e  a c c e s s t o more s o u r c e s o f employment.  5.  The  that  show more  c o e f f i c i e n t s do r e v e a l  gender d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , t o t h e extent  The  that  remains r e l a t i v e l y the  urban a r e a s which  t h a n women i n a l l c a t e g o r i e s  indicate  returns  experience  sector  t h a n women w o r k i n g  c o e f f i c i e n t s i n d i c a t e that by moving  greater  losses  into the public by moving  experience  greater  i n the public women would sector  sector. experience  t h a n men.  from t h e p u b l i c  sector  Women t o the  130 private  sector  more d e t a i l e d using that  data  t h a n do men. analysis  a r e supported  from t h e 1973 M o n t h l y L a b o u r F o r c e  the unexplained  e a r n i n g s gap was l a r g e r  sector  counter  the n e o c l a s s i c a l  and s m a l l e r  discrimination  effects  findings  c o n d u c t e d by Denton a n d H u n t e r  private  of  These  i n the public  sector.  These  Clearly,  neoclassical considered the  Marxist  perspective,  discrimination assumed t h a t interest  development  the  of  as i t c r e a t e s  theories.  sector,  acts  since  1982).  does n o t f u r t h e r  which  (Denton and H u n t e r ,  into  1982).-  term  Less  the i n t e r e s t  with  position  that  Dual Labour  Market  o f women a s t h e r e s u l t  two s e c t o r s ,  and o p p o r t u n i t y  a r e low p a i d  the better  is  i s not i n the i n t e r e s t of  t h e lower e a r n i n g s  t h e d i v i s i o n of j o b s  jobs that  From  i t  i n the long  (Denton a n d H u n t e r ,  a precedent  which e x p l a i n s  to explain  c a n be  r e l a t i v e t o t h e i r a i m of p r e v e n t i n g t h e  good w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s , and  of the  o f a c l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s w h i c h may a c t a g a i n s t  ruling class  theory,  or s t a t e ,  sector  forthis  why g e n d e r wage  i n the p u b l i c  sector,  i n the public  the r u l i n g c l a s s ,  class,  be l e s s  of the r u l i n g c l a s s  due t h e  conclusions  and D u a l L a b o u r M a r k e t  i t i s not c l e a r  the public  discrimination of  should  to the basic  Other approaches that  a r e the Marxist  levels  forces.  i t i s counter  explanations.  found  results  lower  sector  T h e r e a r e no a d e q u a t e t h e o r e t i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n s finding.  They  i n the competitive  women i n t h e p r i v a t e  o f c o m p e t i t i v e market  (1982)  Survey.  e x p l a n a t i o n s which p r e d i c t  against  by a  jobs with h i g h pay, for career  no c h a n c e s  advancement,  f o r advancement  o f women i n t h e p u b l i c  fails  sector.  131 With  the f a i l u r e  sectoral  differences  remaining demands  of e s t a b l i s h e d  recourse  profits.  i s to speculate.  against  Further,  sector  The g r e a t e r  women i n t h e d r i v e  the public  sector  pay r a t e s , h i r i n g  policies.  would be more l i k e l y  a  large  bureaucratic  diverse  environment  6.  The  short  term  p r a c t i c e s and promotion  of the p r i v a t e  t o occur  i n t h e framework o f  t o t h e more  f r a c t u r e d and  sector.  r e s u l t s from t h e a n a l y s i s  increases  with  of t h e number  the a n a l y s i s  of c h i l d r e n  c h i l d r e n does have a n e g a t i v e from t h e r e g r e s s i o n  of men improve w i t h Undoubtedly,  of m a r i t a l  of c h i l d r e n a r e status.  The  between men a n d women w i t h no c h i l d r e n ,  i n s i z e a s t h e number  women, j u d g i n g  the  to increase  may have more e q u i t a b l e , a n d  system, as opposed  e a r n i n g s gap i s l o w e s t  having  competitive  Number o f C h i l d r e n  somewhat c o n c u r r e n t  and  the i n t e r -  may r e s u l t i n g r e a t e r  more s t r u c t u r e d This  to explain  i n t h e e a r n i n g s o f men a n d women, t h e o n l y  i n the private  discrimination  theories  increases  impact  the d i v i s i o n  of f a m i l y  Again,  on t h e e a r n i n g s o f  coefficients,  i n t h e number  increase.  but the earnings  of c h i l d r e n .  responsibilities  within  h o u s e h o l d , w h i c h women u s u a l l y assume more o f t h a n men,  affects  the labour  occupational version (1976,  m a r k e t p o s i t i o n o f women, b u t t h e l i n k t o  segregation  and l o w e r  o f t h e human c a p i t a l 1978, 1979),  earnings  theory  suggests that  i s less certain.  p u t f o r w a r d by P o l a c h e k ,  women c h o o s e c e r t a i n  The  1 32 occupations children. effects  t h a t they Thus,  b e l i e v e t o be c o m p a t i b l e  the earnings  selecting  b e l i e v e have work c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  c h o o s e t o have with  Conversely,  that  they  that are compatible  with  family  i t c a n be a r g u e d  fewer o r no c h i l d r e n  require frequent  home, t h a t do n o t p r o v i d e involve  responsibilities. require  true  Women may n o t w i s h t o e n t e r work, e x t e n d e d a b s e n c e s  for part-time (Boulet,  their  of c h i l d r e n  economic  n e c e s s i t y , f o r women t o f i n d  better  able  for her f a m i l y .  to obtain  (Armstrong  day  c a r e , a n d t h e more e q u a l  responsibilities  relationship men  could  family,  T h i s may be but t h e  of  1975)  the p o s i t i o n research  force.  Again,  situation  into the  and t h e p o s i t i o n o f  The t r a d i t i o n a l  c o s t s of lower  improved  o f women i n t h e  i s needed  may be t h e b e s t  b u t i s may n o t be t h e b e s t  must pay t h e l o n g - t e r m  good wages i n  household  family r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  w i t h i n the household  and t h e  c h i l d - c a r e arrangements f o r  division  b u t more d e t a i l e d between  work w i t h  and Armstrong,  improve  and women i n t h e work  labour  that  "With good wages, a women i s  satisfactory  children."  force;  prospects.  may p r o v i d e a s t r o n g e r m o t i v a t i o n ,  her  labour  employment, a n d j o b s  f o r women c a r i n g f o r y o u n g e r c h i l d r e n ;  to provide  from  1984) b e c a u s e o f f a m i l y  employment  presence  order  compatible  The l a c k o f a f f o r d a b l e a d e q u a t e c h i l d - c a r e may  women t o l i m i t  especially  t h a t women may  s o a s t o be more  overtime  l o n g - d i s t a n c e moves  certain  due t o t h e  jobs  t h e demands o f p a i d employment.  jobs that  raising  o f women may be lower  o f women " v o l u n t a r i l y "  responsibilities.  with  d i v i s i o n of  situation  f o r the  f o r t h e women, who  earnings,  lower  pensions,  133 and  poorer  employment  prospects  i n t h e event  At b e s t ,  the r e s u l t s  from t h i s  breakdown. the  interpretation  provide  of the d i f f e r e n t  i n c o n c l u s i v e evidence  Occupational  Occupational a  controlling result  and i n d u s t r i a l  f o r the other  i n an e a r n i n g s  segregation  account  differential. proportion  o f 0.79.  f o rapproximately  of t h i s  i s due t o u n e q u a l  part  to occupational  Studies (1981), u s i n g  They  pervasive, Another  considered,  Occupational  study,  employment  explain part  and other  earnings  to isolate  what  opportunity. of the earnings  distribution  may be  f a c t o r s that are  (1980), and Buchele  c a t e g o r i e s , attempt  occupational  attainment  that while  occupational  patterns  U.S. s t u d y  by A l d r i c h  t o account of men a n d  segregation i s  i t d o e s n o t e x p l a i n why women e a r n  similar  and i n d u s t r i a l  attainment.  wide o c c u p a t i o n a l  find,  while  would  30% o f t h e o v e r a l l  by Brown, Moon, and Z o l i t h  the d i f f e r e n t  account f o r  o f men a n d women,  of the d i f f e r e n c e s i n o c c u p a t i o n a l  to d i f f e r e n c e s i n experience,  women.  clearly  E q u a l i z i n g the  I t i s not p o s s i b l e , i n t h i s  gap,  for  gap.  distribution  as d i f f e r e n c e s i n experience  related  Segregation  characteristics  ratio  o f men and women.  segregation  Just  due  earnings  and I n d u s t r i a l  and i n d u s t r i a l  frameworks  o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e  l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of the earnings  occupational  e m p i r i c a l s t u d y , and  theoretical  number o f c h i l d r e n a n d t h e r e l a t i v e  7.  of marriage  less  than  ( 1 9 8 6 ) , u s i n g 192  men.  1 34 occupations,  concluded  occupational  distribution  of  "that male/female d i f f e r e n c e s i n account  t h e m a l e / f e m a l e wage g a p . "  differences  significant The  T h u s , by f u r t h e r  i n the determinants  occupational  f o r something  of o c c u p a t i o n a l  s e g r e g a t i o n becomes a l e s s  like  15 p e r c e n t  accounting f o r attainment,  important,  but s t i l l  a  e x p l a n a t i o n of t h e e a r n i n g s gap.  desegregation  means t o r e d u c e  of occupations  the earnings  seems t o be a s u f f i c i e n t  gap, b u t i t may n o t ,  in itself,  be  enough t o s o l v e t h e p r o b l e m .  B.  Policy  Employment distributed,  Conclusions  i s the primary  (Freeman,  1980), and t h u s  e f f e c t i v e means t o e n s u r e individuals  force,  likely  t h e most e f f e c t i v e intervention  responsibility, unlikely is  not c l e a r areas.  alter  the d i s t r i b u t i o n  t o the  force participation i s policy.  of household  of m a r i t a l s t a b i l i t y , i s  i s a role  o f women.  f o r government  Government c a n i n c r e a s e w e l f a r e  i s unlikely  women.  i n the a l l o c a t i o n  whether t h e r e  of access  f o r government  t h e economic p o s i t i o n  these  and  avenue  labour  or i n t h e promotion  to benefit  economic w e l l - b e i n g of  The e q u a l i z a t i o n  a n d t h e r e t u r n s from  income i s  r e p r e s e n t s t h e most  the long-term  i n our s o c i e t y .  labour  Government  means by w h i c h  o f income, b u t t h i s  t o have any l o n g - t e r m  Further, i t to play in  expenditures to  i s a costly  benefit  solution,  f o r the p o s i t i o n of  1 35 Given  t h e number o f d i f f e r e n t  the e a r n i n g s  gap, h i g h l i g h t e d i n t h e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s a n d t h e  many t h e o r e t i c a l of  policies  viewpoints,  i s necessary  Clearly, labour  the implementation  to e f f e c t i v e l y  the problem of t h e lower  f o r c e i s not a simple matter  interrelationship individual  characteristics,  earnings  o f women.  treatment,  t o address.  effectively  address  sex-segregated substantially  of e f f e c t i v e  policy  difficult.  the i n e q u a l i t y  similar  work  (Remick,  1980).  t o a problem  programs t o d e c r e a s e  of equal  who work i n  the wider analysis  wage d i f f e r e n t i a l s  equity, social  proportional to their  (Eichier,  1984).  ( O r n s t e i n , 1982), and t o  data has r e l i e d  h a s been r e a c h e d  a l l c a t e g o r i e s of o c c u p a t i o n s  with  upon t h e u s e  when women a r e r e p r e s e n t e d equal  p a y and e q u a l  participation  analysis.  objectives.  A p r o p o r t i o n a l model  This i s a useful  the purpose of comparative  b u t i t s h o u l d n o t be  a n d economic w e l f a r e  o f t h e employment  assumes t h a t e q u a l i t y  I n some c a s e s , i t  that requires additional  a p r o p o r t i o n a l model o f e q u a l i t y .  force  force  j o b s , where men a n d women a r e n o t p e r f o r m i n g  as the s o l u t i o n  conditions  component  between t h e s e x e s  taken  The  labour  Equal  i n the face of o c c u p a t i o n a l segregation,  for discrimination,  address  of labour,  and t h e f u n c t i o n i n g o f t h e l a b o u r  does p r o v i d e a remedy  in  The complex  division  They a r e an i m p o r t a n t  but cannot,  range  o f women i n t h e  laws have n o t s o l v e d t h e p r o b l e m o f t h e lower  position  of  of a broad  improve women's s t a t u s .  between t h e h o u s e h o l d  market make t h e f o r m a t i o n pay  mechanisms t h a t c o n t r i b u t e t o  working  i n the labour  approach t o follow f o r  I t provides a clear  1 36 guideline  by w h i c h t o d e s c r i b e e x i s t i n g  inequality,  and p r o v i d e s  a measure o f t h e gap between p e r f e c t e q u a l i t y and p r e s e n t inequality  (Eichier,  developing  social  Translating would  policy,  Nevertheless,  such  equal  o p p o r t u n i t y model  employment.  employment  1984).  This  present  human  legislation, sufficient  i s not s a t i s f a c t o r y .  r e g u l a t i o n of o c c u p a t i o n a l  E q u a l i t y under  when men a n d women have e q u a l of  an a p p r o a c h  o f wages, a n d t h e p l a c e m e n t  The  f o r the purpose of  the goal of p r o p o r t i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n t o a c t i o n  i n v o l v e the s t r i c t  control  in  1984).  provided  they  i s t h e type  possess  i s said  t o enter  similar  employment  to achieve  any o f t h e s o c i a l  to equality to exist  similar  attributes  of e q u a l i t y p r o v i d e d  necessary  to alter  approach  approach  opportunity  r i g h t s and e q u a l while  of workers.  i s another  this  licencing,  kinds  (Eichier,  f o r i n Canada  legislation.  under  This  e q u a l i t y , h a s n o t been  indicators  o f employment  inequality. The not age,  major problem w i t h  this  have t h e same a t t r i b u t e s . experience,  Equality issues  model  i s t h a t men a n d women do  Men and women d i f f e r  family r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ,  o f o p p o r t u n i t y does n o t d i r e c t l y  and a b i l i t i e s . address  any o f t h e  t h a t c o n t r i b u t e t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n employment  from employment. disadvantage responsible  i n education,  and r e t u r n s  I t i g n o r e s many o f t h e u n d e r l y i n g b a r r i e r s  women i n t h e l a b o u r for child-care,  market.  Women who a r e p r i m a r i l y  who f o l l o w d i f f e r e n t  paths,  a n d who a r e e n c o u r a g e d  chance  f o r advancement, w i l l  to enter  that  educational  occupations  with  little  n o t c a t c h up w i t h men, a n d c a n n o t  137 gain  access  to situations  that present  them w i t h  equal  opportunities. What Equality  i s required i s a greater equality t h a t means t r e a t i n g  differences, their not  o r means t r e a t i n g  differences  ensuring  of  into  labour  t h e same d e s p i t e  people  1984).  as equals  T h i s type  g o a l of equal  f o r c e outcomes.  of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ,  social  position alter  and economic  i n v o l v e both  systems.  equal  access  t h e work e n v i r o n m e n t , a l t e r  responsibilities, characteristics  and a l t e r  by accommodating  of e q u a l i t y ,  results,  t h a t may n o t s i m p l y  and a r e the unintended  with  separating within  as systemic  of the o p e r a t i o n of  proposals  from  t o j o b s , and p o l i c i e s  occur  that  related  o f women.  the r e a l i z a t i o n  the e f f e c t s  a n d t h e need  i n a context  considerations,  this  the s t r u c t u r e of domestic  t h e employment  of the d i f f i c u l t i e s  of " f r e e c h o i c e " from  and o u t s i d e t h e l a b o u r  research,  to correct  be t h e r e s u l t  Based on t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d thesis,  while  can b r i n g  but occur  result  Policy  their  I t attempts  the o v e r t a c t i o n s of b i a s e d employers,  discrimination, our  (Abella,  the u n r e a l i s t i c  more e q u a l i t y the e f f e c t s  people  of o p p o r t u n i t y .  force,  t h e need  f o r t h e development  with other p o l i t i c a l ,  in this  involved i n  discrimination for additional  of s o c i a l  social  policy to  and economic  t h e f o l l o w i n g recommendations a r e proposed:  1) E d u c a t i o n i s o f t e n c i t e d a s an i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e i n t h e lower e c o n o m i c s t a n d i n g o f women. I n t h i s a n a l y s i s , women p o s s e s s e d h i g h e r l e v e l s o f e d u c a t i o n t h a n men, b u t s t i l l d i d not r e c e i v e e q u a l r e t u r n s from t h a t e d u c a t i o n , a l t h o u g h , women w i t h h i g h e r l e v e l s o f e d u c a t i o n d i d f a r e b e t t e r t h a n t h e i r lower-educated counter p a r t s . Since there i s l i t t l e  1 38 a v a i l a b l e i n t h e way o f a s s i s t a n c e , e s p e c i a l l y f o r women w i t h c h i l d r e n , women s h o u l d be s u p p o r t e d f i n a n c i a l l y t o e n c o u r a g e them t o a c q u i r e h i g h e r l e v e l s o f e d u c a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y education that i s r e l e v a n t t o the j o b market. 2) The l o w e r l a b o u r f o r c e e x p e r i e n c e o f women i s an i m p o r t a n t component i n t h e i r l o w e r e a r n i n g s . Lower l e v e l s of l a b o u r f o r c e e x p e r i e n c e c a n be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e u n e q u a l d i v i s i o n o f housework between c o u p l e s a n d t h e woman's responsibility for child-care. To r e d u c e t h e impact o f d o m e s t i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s on some women's l a b o u r f o r c e e x p e r i e n c e , f a m i l y r o l e s c a n be a l t e r e d by e n c o u r a g i n g men t o s h a r e more e q u i t a b l y i n h o u s e h o l d t a s k s . T h i s c a n be done i n t h e same manner a s t h e e d u c a t i o n c a m p a i g n s t h a t have a l t e r e d t h e smoking, d i e t , and e x e r c i s e h a b i t s o f C a n a d i a n s . W o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s c a n be r e s t r u c t u r e d t o e n c o u r a g e p a r t t i m e work and s h o r t e r work weeks. By making t h e s e c h a n g e s a p r a c t i c a l a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r b o t h men and women, p a r t - t i m e work and s h o r t e r work weeks c a n be v i e w e d a s p r a c t i c a l a l t e r n a t i v e s r a t h e r t h a n an i n d i c a t i o n o f a l a c k o f l a b o u r f o r c e commitment ( C a l z a v a r a , 1985). A d d i t i o n a l s u p p o r t f o r c h i l d - c a r e i n terms o f more f a c i l i t i e s and s u b s i d i z e d c o s t would i n c r e a s e t h e a b i l i t y o f women t o p a r t i c i p a t e f u l l y i n t h e l a b o u r f o r c e . F o r s i n g l e women, a n d f e m a l e - h e a d e d f a m i l i e s t h e s o l u t i o n s t o approach i m p r o v i n g t h e i r economic s t a t u s cannot l i e i n shared domestic r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . These women i n o u r s o c i e t y need h i g h e r w e l f a r e r a t e s , more s o c i a l h o u s i n g , grants for continuing education a t the high school, c o l l e g e and u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l , and employment p l a c e m e n t programs c o u l d a l l improve t h e economic p o s i t i o n o f t h i s g r o w i n g segment o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n . 4) F e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n g o v e r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e programs need t o be u p - d a t e d t o r e f l e c t t h e c h a n g e s t h a t have o c c u r r e d i n t h e f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e o f o u r s o c i e t y . Programs i n e x i s t e n c e t h a t r e f l e c t and r e i n f o r c e t r a d i t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s and b e l i e f s a b o u t f a m i l i e s have a n e g a t i v e impact on t h e a b i l i t y o f women t o f u l l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e l a b o u r f o r c e ; a s w e l l t h e y r e d u c e t h e a b i l i t y o f men t o p u r s u e nontraditional roles. F o r example, f e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n r e g a r d i n g unemployment i n s u r a n c e b e n e f i t s f o r m a t e r n i t y l e a v e have d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t new f a t h e r s , so m o t h e r s were a u t o m a t i c a l l y t h e p a r t n e r who took l e a v e from work, w h i c h i n t u r n r e d u c e s t h e i r work e x p e r i e n c e a n d any b e n e f i t s t h a t a r e d e r i v e d from a c o n t i n u o u s work p a t t e r n . This l e g i s l a t i o n was m o d i f i e d s l i g h t l y two months age when Benout B o u c h a r d s a i d i n some i n s t a n c e s , new f a t h e r s c a n have t h e unemployment i n s u r a n c e i n s t e a d . T h i s l e g i s l a t i o n s h o u l d be  139 made e q u a l l y a p p l i c a b l e t o e i t h e r p a r t n e r , a n d a l l l e g i s l a t i o n r e l a t i n g t o f a m i l y a s s i s t a n c e p r o g r a m s s h o u l d be a p p l i c a b l e to either sex. 5) The s u p e r i o r p o s i t i o n o f women i n t h e p u b l i c s e c t o r s u g g e s t s t h a t some o f t h e r e g u l a t i o n s a n d employment g u i d e l i n e s t h a t a p p l y t o t h e p u b l i c s e c t o r need t o be e x t e n d e d t o t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r . S i m p l y s e e k i n g employment i n t h e p u b l i c s e c t o r i s n o t a v i a b l e o p t i o n f o r women g i v e n the r e c e n t t r e n d t o d o w n s i z i n g i n t h e p u b l i c s e c t o r . 6) O c c u p a t i o n a l a n d i n d u s t r i a l s e g r e g a t i o n have been shown t o a c c o u n t f o r a b o u t 30% o f t h e e a r n i n g s g a p . F u r t h e r s t u d i e s have shown t h a t i f t h e endowments o f men and women a r e c o n s i d e r e d , some o f w h i c h may be due t o t h e e f f e c t s o f d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , o c c u p a t i o n a l and i n d u s t r i a l s e g r e g a t i o n would a c c o u n t f o r a b o u t 15 - 20% of t h e e a r n i n g s g a p . W h i l e t h i s i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r t h a n some r e s e a r c h e r s have r e p o r t e d , i t c o n s t i t u t e s an i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e o f t h e e a r n i n g s differential. O c c u p a t i o n a l d e s e g r e g a t i o n may be a s u f f i c i e n t means t o s u b s t a n t i a l l y r e d u c e t h e e a r n i n g s gap, but i t i s n o t n e c e s s a r y f o r b o t h s e x e s t o have i d e n t i c a l o c c u p a t i o n a l p a t t e r n s ( B o u l e t , 1984). Women s h o u l d be e n c o u r a g e d t o e n t e r o c c u p a t i o n s where t h e wages and w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s a r e e x p e c t e d t o improve i n t h e c o m i n g y e a r s , r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e r e l a t i v e numbers o f men a n d women ( B o u l e t , 1984). However, t h e p o s i t i o n o f women w i l l n o t n e c e s s a r i l y improve, through t h i s p r o c e s s , without a d d r e s s i n g t h e d i f f e r e n t r e t u r n s t o e d u c a t i o n and e x p e r i e n c e between men and women. As was documented i n t h i s t h e s i s , wage d i s c r i m i n a t i o n r e d u c e s t h e e a r n i n g s o f women by a t l e a s t 20 p e r c e n t i n c o m p a r i s o n t o men. The r e s t r i c t i v e n a t u r e o f t h e e q u a l pay l e g i s l a t i o n , g i v e n t h a t i t o n l y a p p l i e s t o men and women w o r k i n g i n t h e same e s t a b l i s h m e n t d o i n g t h e same o r s i m i l a r work, a n d g i v e n t h a t women a n d men a r e o c c u p a t i o n a l l y s e g r e g a t e d and do n o t do s i m i l a r work, h a s r e s u l t e d i n i t ' s l i m i t e d impact. However, t h e e x p a n s i o n and g r e a t e r e n f o r c e m e n t o f e q u a l pay l e g i s l a t i o n may o n l y r e s u l t i n g r e a t e r o c c u p a t i o n a l s e g r e g a t i o n , and r e d u c e d employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r women, a s e m p l o y e r s a t t e m p t t o h i r e o n l y women f o r c e r t a i n o c c u p a t i o n s t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e law w i l l not a p p l y t o t h e i r e s t a b l i s h m e n t . The i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f an a f f i r m a t i v e a c t i o n p r o g r a m , w h i c h seeks t o e l i m i n a t e p r a c t i c e s i n r e c r u i t i n g , h i r i n g , p r o m o t i o n , e t c . w h i c h may be d i s c r i m i n a t o r y , a n d implement p r o g r a m s t o remove i n e q u a l i t i e s i n s a l a r i e s , r a t e s o f p r o m o t i o n a n d o c c u p a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n s , combined w i t h e q u a l pay l e g i s l a t i o n would overcome t h e drawbacks o f e q u a l pay legislation.  1 40 N e i t h e r o f t h e s e l e g i s l a t i v e a p p r o a c h e s h e l p women who remain i n t r a d i t i o n a l l y female o c c u p a t i o n s . Some form o f e q u a l p a y f o r work o f e q u a l v a l u e would h e l p overcome t h i s r e m a i n i n g i n e q u a l i t y ( C a l z a v a r a , 1985). At p r e s e n t , equal pay f o r work o f e q u a l v a l u e laws have been i m p l e m e n t e d a t the F e d e r a l l e v e l a n d i n Quebec a n d O n t a r i o . It  i s important  t o note,  that while  recommendations t o i n c r e a s e spending s e r v i c e s and other additional  affirmative  i t i s easy  t o make  f o reducation,  action  child-care  programs, t h e v a l u e  p r o g r a m needs t o be a s s e s s e d .  Money s p e n t  of each  on s p e c i f i c  programs h a s an o p p o r t u n i t y c o s t t h a t must be c o n s i d e r e d .  C.  Problems With  The of  major problem w i t h a t t e m p t i n g  the earnings  the d i f f i c u l t y differential result only  it  that  statistical  married  after  situation  motivation  findings.  have been a c c o u n t e d the e f f e c t s  of past  which a r e  for.  Further,  discrimination  Also, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to  F o r example, does t h e f a c t  earnings  than  force,  i s the  d i r e c t l y , but  of the v a r i a b l e s  o f women.  i n the labour  induced  This  of m o t i v a t i o n o r v o l u n t a r y behaviour  men have h i g h e r  discrimination  to discrimination.  the e f f e c t s  to separate  the e f f e c t s  of t h e e a r n i n g s  t o measure d i s c r i m i n a t i o n  to influence earnings  the present  separate  able  the proportion  due t o d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s  t h e component  i sattributable  as a r e s i d u a l  to isolate  i spotentially  in isolating  i s impossible  from  the  gap t h a t  of not being  thought  Approach  married  or higher  by f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ,  women  from  that  reflect  l e v e l s of and t h e d e s i r e by  141 some women t o c o n t r i b u t e  to family  earnings  through  domestic  work? From a p o l i c y p e r s p e c t i v e , of  the earnings d i f f e r e n t i a l  potential 1980)  areas  designed  to address d i f f e r e n c e s  Unfortunately,  subject  matter,  market lower that  women i n t h e p a s t "choice"  discrimination.  Thus,  top level  such jobs  especially  jobs, from  differences is  also  present "free  because the observed  are consistent  not p o s s i b l e  to separate  discrimination  choice"  with e i t h e r  such p o s i t i o n s ,  then  due t o p a s t  to a t t r i b u t e the " f r e e c h o i c e " or  outcomes o f sex cause  (Madden,  the feedback  from what may seem l i k e  and t h e e f f e c t s o f t h a t  i f women have due t o t h e f a c t  s o u r c e o f l a b o u r market d i f f e r e n t i a l s t o e i t h e r to d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ,  i f there  i n the labour  i s , in part,  i t i s not p o s s i b l e  of the  to separate the  F o r example,  have been b a r r e d  not t o pursue  (Gunderson,  nature  from t h e p r e s e n c e o f d i s c r i m i n a t i o n  of r e a c h i n g  suggest  i n t h e e a r n i n g s o f men a n d  from d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ,  t o t h e c h o i c e s women make.  they  of p o l i c i e s  b e c a u s e o f t h e complex  choice"  expectations  their  since  i t i s not e n t i r e l y p o s s i b l e  e f f e c t s of " f r e e feedback  are important,  f o r the implementation  women.  is  the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the sources  1985).  It  e f f e c t s of p a s t and an i n d i v i d u a l ' s  discrimination,  as a l l  c h o i c e s a r e b a s e d upon e x p e c t a t i o n s a n d t h e l i m i t a t i o n o f t h e social  and economic  public  f u n d e d p r o g r a m s aimed a t a l t e r i n g t h e p o s i t i o n  through educational facilities,  environment.  Even w i t h t h e s e l i m i t a t i o n s ,  and a d v e r t i s i n g  and a s s i s t a n c e  programs,  programs that  o f women  improved  seek t o e n s u r e  child-care the w e l l -  142 being  of the i n d i v i d u a l ,  as opposed  focus  on t h e f a m i l y a s t h e u n i t o f a s s i s t a n c e , w i l l  society  a n d improve t h e r e l a t i v e  problem  i s so-called "free choice"  Further, the  in  wages.  of earnings  segregation,  differentials.  but c o n s i d e r a b l e  work r e m a i n s t o be done  the f a c t o r s that a r e involved  occupational  and i n d u s t r i a l  industrial in there  relation  potential  to the empirical estimation  since completing  experience  a good e s t i m a t e this  experience Sawhill  that  o c c u p a t i o n a l and  remain  o f t h e e a r n i n g s gap  t o be s o l v e d .  data  The most  on a c t u a l work  experience.  men and women who have p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e l a b o u r  continuously  general,  and t h e e x t e n t  f o rdifferent  i s the lack of accurate  those  i n producing  patterns.  a r e many p r o b l e m s t h a t  serious For  segregation,  i s responsible  T h i s was p a r t i a l l y  of o c c u p a t i o n a l and  in a s s e s s i n g  discrimination  important  o f t h e j o b must be c o n s i d e r e d  i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e impact  industrial  of t h e j o b  Thus t h e a t t r i b u t e s o f t h e  and t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  t h e assessment  attempted  change  or d i s c r i m i n a t i o n .  o f t h e j o b o r p o s i t i o n i s a l s o an  of determining  individual  help  which  p o s i t i o n o f women whether t h e  of t h e endowments a n d c a p a b i l i t i e s  but the value  component  programs  t h e a p p r o a c h assumes t h a t wages a r e d e t e r m i n e d by  assessment  holder,  t o the present  their  education,  (age minus y e a r s  not as a c c u r a t e  i s not u s u a l l y c o n t i n u o u s .  (1973), and o t h e r s  the estimate of  o f s c h o o l i n g minus s i x ) i s  o f a c t u a l work e x p e r i e n c e .  estimate  force  However, f o r women i n  because t h e i r Studies  have a t t e m p t e d  work  by Robb  (1978),  t o c o n t r o l f o r the lack  143 of d a t a  on y e a r s  women t h a t  of experience  by s e l e c t i n g g r o u p s o f men a n d  a r e assumed t o have s i m i l a r  example, n e v e r m a r r i e d  and produces  a wider  population.  D.  individual  firms.  information detailed  cannot  R e s e a r c h e r s who c a n g a i n  to d e t a i l e d  a f i r m c a n d e v e l o p a more  of the e f f e c t  of i n t e r n a l  i t would be p o s s i b l e , t h r o u g h a s u r v e y  policies and placement. of employees, t o  t h r o u g h t h e f i r m o r by  imposed on i n d i v i d u a l s by p r e s s u r e s and outside  o f 1986 may p r o v i d e  the labour  force.  many o p p o r t u n i t i e s  research.  The' A c t  employers,  a n d Crown c o r p o r a t i o n s  seeks t o ensure t h a t  implement  employment  barriers,  achieve  equity,  with  identify  The Employment f o rthis  Equity  type of  a l l federally  regulated  100 e m p l o y e e s o r more: and e l i m i n a t e  employment  a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e work f o r c e , a n d r e p o r t on  results. The  was  access  wages, p r o m o t i o n s , a n d employee h i r i n g  responsibilities  their  group of  be g e n e r a l l y a p p l i e d t o  determine whether d i s c r i m i n a t i o n o c c u r r e d  Act  This  Research  on i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n  limitations  of age.  as i t s e l e c t s a s p e c i f i c  that  For  r e m a i n s t o be c o n d u c t e d a t t h e s c a l e o f  understanding  governing Further,  results  Areas f o rFurther  Much r e s e a r c h  of e x p e r i e n c e .  men a n d women 35 t o 45 y e a r s  approach a l s o has d i f f i c u l t i e s people,  levels  only  effect  of o c c u p a t i o n a l  examined a t a secondary  segregation,  i f occupational  segregation level.  on women's  earnings  Occupational  classifications  are very d e t a i l e d ,  can  e x p l a i n most of t h e e a r n i n g s  the q u e s t i o n than  those  o f why t h e e a r n i n g s  o f men, o n l y  differentials  choosing and  shifted  employment  occupations, policies  development  occupations.  o f why women a r e  To what e x t e n t assigned  of i n s t i t u t i o n s , at the high  a r e women  t o them by e m p l o y e r s  or being  directed to  school or post-  o f government p o l i c y ,  o f a l l of s o c i e t y ' s i n s t i t u t i o n s ,  i n the context  conditions. political, existing  earnings  o f women a c r o s s  being  lower  level?  operation place  from  unanswered q u e s t i o n s  them by e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s  The  the focus  i n a few o c c u p a t i o n s .  these  secondary  o f women a r e p e r s i s t e n t l y  to the d i s t r i b u t i o n  There a r e s i g n i f i c a n t concentrated  gap, b u t one h a s n o t answered  of e x i s t i n g  political,  The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s social  and e c o n o m i c c o n t e x t  laws g o v e r n i n g  our s o c i a l  c o n t r o l l i n g the n e c e s s a r i l y takes social  statement  and economic  a r e t h a t as the  of s o c i e t y changes, the  welfare  programs, t h e labour  m a r k e t , a n d t h e f a m i l y become o u t d a t e d  and p o s s i b l y i n e q u i t a b l e  for  growth of the female  many g r o u p s  labour  The r a p i d  f o r c e r e q u i r e s t h a t we q u e s t i o n  existing impact  in society.  social  policies  have been d e v e l o p e d ,  of these  policies  on men, women a n d f a m i l i e s .  a l w a y s a need t o r e - e x a m i n e t h e impact r e g u l a t i o n s and programs The  t h e b a s e s upon  major c o n f l i c t  dichotomy  in light  i n Canadian  between o u r b e l i e f  a n d examine t h e  of e x i s t i n g  of s i g n i f i c a n t  social  policies  in individual  which  There i s laws,  social  lies  change.  i n the  e q u a l i t y and e q u i t y ,  145 and  our use o f t h e f a m i l y  from  income a s s i s t a n c e ,  E.  as a b a s i s  to taxation,  forlegislation  to residential  ranging  zoning.  Conclusion  The the  unit  review  empirical  of the d i f f e r i n g  research  conducted  studies  shows t h e d i f f i c u l t y  quantify  the d i s c r i m i n a t i o n  around us. education,  The e m p i r i c a l  eliminate  will  improve  the earnings  in this  that  t h e s i s and i n o t h e r t o e x p l a i n and  we i n t u i t i v e l y  feel  h a s shown t h a t  and o c c u p a t i o n a l the earnings  and see  increased  and i n d u s t r i a l  o f women, b u t w i l l n o t  gap, b e c a u s e even when women have t h e same  endowments a s men, women do n o t r e c e i v e earnings,  o f d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , and  of attempting  research  work e x p e r i e n c e ,  desegregation,  theories  f o r t h e same l e v e l  t h e same r a t e  of r e t u r n ,  of q u a l i f i c a t i o n s .  R e g a r d l e s s o f t h e d e b a t e o v e r how much o f t h e e a r n i n g s g a p is  due t o d i s c r i m i n a t i o n o r t o " f r e e c h o i c e " ,  strong  case  f o r intervention  t o improve  The  m a g n i t u d e and p e r s i s t e n c e  for  sex d i f f e r e n c e s  including  some t h a t  occupational  the earnings  o f women.  o f t h e e a r n i n g s gap a f t e r  may r e p r e s e n t  dismiss  the existence  outside  the labour  From a s y s t e m i c  remains a  adjusting  i n a wide v a r i e t y o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ,  and i n d u s t r i a l  responsibilities,  there  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , such as  d i s t r i b u t i o n s , makes i t i m p o s s i b l e  of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n  market  i n the labour  i n the d i v i s i o n  market, and  of domestic  o r t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f government  to  programs.  view o f d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , t h e e f f e c t o f a l l  explanatory  variables  policy,  the  this  but  problem  conclusively  becomes i m p o r t a n t  implementation  is restrained identifying  by  the  f o r the development  of e f f e c t i v e  policy  the d i f f i c u l t i e s  to  address  involved  s o u r c e s of t h e e a r n i n g s  of  in  gap.  Appendix  A:  R e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of  the  1951,  1961,  a n d 1981 O c c u p a t i o n a l  Data  Women h a v e b e e n a n d c o n t i n u e t o b e o c c u p a t i o n a l s e g r e g a t e d . As employment e a r n i n g s , h o u r s w o r k e d a n d j o b o p p o r t u n i t i e s a r e r e l a t e d t o o c c u p a t i o n a l s e g r e g a t i o n i t i s important t o i n c l u d e the a n a l y s i s of o c c u p a t i o n a l f a c t o r s over time. The a n a l y s i s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l s e g r e g a t i o n o v e r t i m e i s i m p a i r e d by c h a n g e s i n o c c u p a t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o v e r t i m e . For the C a n a d i a n c e n s u s , t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s were n e c e s s a r i l y c h a n g e d f o r e a c h c e n s u s . To e n a b l e t h e a n a l y s i s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s o v e r t i m e t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l c o d e s f o r t h e 1951, 1961 a n d 1971 c e n s u s p e r i o d s w e r e r e c l a s s i f i e d t o t h e 1931 c o d e s . Census o c c u p a t i o n a l d a t a changed between e a c h census p e r i o d . I t i s not p o s s i b l e t o a s s e s s t h e a c c u r a c y t o t h e r e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , h o w e v e r , a n e x p l a n a t i o n o f what was d o n e c a n b e p r o v i d e d . E a c h o c c u p a t i o n a l t i t l e f r o m t h e 1 9 5 1 , 1961 a n d 1971 c e n s u s p e r i o d s was a s s i g n e d t o o n e o f t h e 1981 o c c u p a t i o n a l t i t l e s . A b r i d g e was c o n s t r u c t e d b e t w e e n t h e 1981 c e n s u s p e r i o d and e a c h c e n s u s y e a r , (1951, 1961, and 1971). The b r i d g e f o r 1971 was c o n s t r u c t e d by C e n s u s C a n a d a . The g r e a t e s t d i f f i c u l t y i n b r i d g i n g 1951 a n d 1961 o c c u p a t i o n a l c o d e s t o t h e 1981 c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s t e m s f r o m t h e e x p a n s i o n o f o c c u p a t i ona1 g r o u p i n g s . The v a l i d i t y o f d e t a i l e d c o m p a r i s o n s b e t w e e n t h e v a r i o u s c e n s u s p e r i o d s i s v e r y s u s p e c t . The c r e a t i o n o f new a n d e x p a n d e d o c c u p a t i o n a l c o d e s , a n d t h e s h i f t i n g o f o c c u p a t i o n s f r o m one c a t e g o r y t o a n o t h e r a r e d i f f i c u l t t o a c c o u n t f o r . F o r e x a m p l e , i n t h e 1951 c e n s u s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n " L a b o u r e r s ( n o t a g r i c u l t u r a l , f i s h i n g , l o g g i n g , o r m i n i n g ) " a c c o u n t e d f o r 6.6% o f t h e t o t a l l a b o u r f o r c e . I n 1981, t h e r e was no s e p a r a t e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f l a b o u r e r s . The 1951 c a t e g o r y was d i s t r i b u t e d among t h e d i f f e r e n t o c c u p a t i o n a l c o d e s f o r a p a r t i c u l a r t y p e o f l a b o u r e r . For t h e purpose of t h e b r i d g e , t h i s c a t e g o r y was a s s i g n e d t o a r e s i d u a l c a t e g o r y o f " O t h e r " . The f o l l o w i n g f o u r t a b l e s p r o v i d e d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n f o r o c c u p a t i o n a l c o d e s t o t h e 1981 o c c u p a t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .  the r e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of  147  t h e 1951,  1961,  and  1971  A p p e n d i x B:  1981 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n S t r u c t u r e . O c c u p a t i o n a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n a n d S t a t i s t i c s Canada O c c u p a t i o n a l Codes.  1981 O c c u p a t i o n a l T i t l e s I.  1981  Codes  GOODS  1. E x t r a c t i v e a . F a r m i n g , H o r t i c u l t u r a l and Animal Husbandry O c c u p a t i o n s b. F i s h i n g , T r a p p i n g , a n d R e l a t e d O c c u p a t i o n s c . F o r e s t r y and Logging Occupations d . M i n i n g a n d Q u a r r y i n g I n c l u d i n g O i l a n d Gas F i e l d Occupat i ons Extractive total 2.  71 73 75 77  C o n s t r u c t i o n Trades Occupations  3. Manufactur i ng a. Processing Occupations b. M a c h i n i n g c. Product F a b r i c a t i o n minus M e c h a n i c s and R e p a i r e r s (858) d . S t a t i o n a r y E n g i n e and U t i 1 i t i e s Equipment O p e r a t i n g and Related Occupations Manufacturing t o t a l  87 81,  82 83 85 953  GOODS TOTAL II.  SERVICES  1. D i s t r i b u t i v e a . C l e r i c a l and R e l a t e d b. S a l e s (1) S a l e s O c c u p a t i o n s , (2) S a l e s O c c u p a t i o n s , (3) S a l e s O c c u p a t i o n s , Sales total  Occupations Commodities Services Other  c. d. e.  T r a n s p o r t Equipment O p e r a t i n g O c c u p a t i o n s M a t e r i a l H a n d l i n g and R e l a t e d O c c u p a t i o n s E l e c t r o n i c and R e l a t e d Communications Equipment O p e r a t i n g O c c u p a t i ons f . M e c h a n i c s a n d R e p a i r e r s (858) g. P r i n t i n g and R e l a t e d Occupations Distributive total 2 . Consumer a . A r t i s t i c , L i t e r a r y , R e c r e a t i o n a l and R e l a t e d Occupation b. F o o d a n d B e v e r a g e P r e p a r a t i o n a n d R e l a t e d S e r v i c e  41 513,  514 517 519 91 93 955 951  33 612 148  Occupat i ons c . O c c u p a t i o n s i n L o d g i n g and Other Accommodation d. Personal S e r v i c e Occupations e. Apparel and F u r n i s h i n g s S e r v i c e Occupations f. Other S e r v i c e Occupations Consumer t o t a l  613 614 616 619  3. Advanced a . Other Managers and A d m i n i s t r a t o r s 113/114 minus A d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n T e a c h i n g and R e l a t e d O c c u p a t i o n s (1133) minus A d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n M e d i c i n e and H e a l t h (1134) b. N a t u r a l S c i e n c e s (1) O c c u p a t i o n s i n P h y s i c a l S c i e n c e s 211 (2) O c c u p a t i o n s i n L i f e S c i e n c e s 213 ( 3 ) A r c h i t e c t s , E n g i n e e r s a n d Community P l a n n e r s 214/215 (4) Other O c c u p a t i o n s In A r c h i t e c t u r e and E n g i n e e r i n g 216 (5) O c c u p a t i o n s i n M a t h e m a t i c s , S t a t i s t i c s , Systems 218 A n a l y s i s and R e l a t e d F i e l d s Natural Sciences t o t a l c . S o c i a1 S c i e n c e s (1) O c c u p a t i o n s i n S o c i a l S c i e n c e s ( 2 ) O c c u p a t i o n s i n Law a n d J u r i s p r u d e n c e Social Sciences total d . O c c u p a t i o n s R e l a t e d t o Management a n d A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Advanced t o t a l 4. N o n - P r o f i t a . O f f i c i a l s a n d A d m i n i s t r a t o r s U n i q u e t o Government b. E d u c a t i o n (1) U n i v e r s i t y T e a c h i n g and R e l a t e d O c c u p a t i o n s (2) Elementary and Secondary School T e a c h i n g and R e l a t e d Occupat i ons (3) A d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n T e a c h i n g and R e l a t e d F i e l d s (4) O t h e r T e a c h i n g and R e l a t e d O c c u p a t i o n s Education t o t a l c. Health (1) H e a l t h D i a g n o s i n g and T r e a t i n g O c c u p a t i o n s (2) N u r s i n g , Therapy and R e l a t e d A s s i s t i n g O c c u p a t i o n s (3) A d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n M e d i c i n e and H e a l t h (4) O t h e r O c c u p a t i o n s i n M e d i c i n e and H e a l t h Health total d. e. f.  Occupations in R e l i g i o n P r o t e c t i v e S e r v i c e Occupations O c c u p a t i o n s i n S o c i a l Work a n d R e l a t e d F i e l d s Other O c c u p a t i o n s i n S o c i a l S c i e n c e s and R e l a t e d F i e l d s g . O c c u p a t i o n s i n L i b r a r y , Museum a n d A r c h i v a l S e r v i c e s Non-Profit total  231 234 117  111 271 273 1133 279  311 313 1134 315/316 25 611 233 239 235  149  SERVICES III. a. b.  TOTAL  OTHER O c c u p a t i o n Not E l s e w h e r e C l a s s i f i e d P e r s o n s Not C l a s s i f i a b l e by O c c u p a t i o n  Source: R e f . No.  Canada, 12-565,  99 00  1981, S t a n d a r d O c c u p a t i o n a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Manual, S t a t i s t i c s Canada, Standards D i v i s i o n .  150  A p p e n d i x C:  T a b l e S h o w i n g t h e B r i d g i n g o f 1971 O c c u p a t i o n a l Codes t h e 1981 O c c u p a t i o n a l Codes a n d C l a s s i f i c a t i o n  1981 O c c u p a t i o n a l I.  1981 Codes  Titles  to  1971 Codes a n d O c c u p a t i o n a l  Titles  GOODS: 1. a.  Extractive: F a r m i n g , H o r t i c u l t u r a l and Animal Husbandry Occupations  71  b.  F i s h i n g , Trapping, Occupat i ons  73  73  F i s h i n g , H u n t i n g , T r a p p i n g and Related Occupations  c.  Forestry  75  75  F o r e s t r y and L o g g i n g  M i n i n g and Q u a r r y i n g I n c l u d i n g O i l a n d Gas F i e l d O c c u p a t i o n s Extractive total:  77  77  M i n i n g and Q u a r r y i n g I n c l u d i n g O i l a n d Gas F i e l d O c c u p a t i o n s  2.  C o n s t r u c t i o n Trades  87  87  C o n s t r u c t i o n Trades  3.  Manufacturing:  -7131  and R e l a t e d  and Logging  71  Occupations  d.  Occupations  81/82 +8555*.5  F a r m i n g , H o r t i c u l t u r a l and Animal Husbandry O c c u p a t i o n s Farm Management O c c u p a t i o n s  Occupations  Occupations  a.  Processing Occupations  b.  M a c h i n i n g and R e l a t e d O c c u p a t i o n s  83  83  M a c h i n i n g and R e l a t e d O c c u p a t i o n s  c.  Product F a b r i c a t i n g , Assembling and R e p a i r i n g Occupations  85  85  Product F a b r i c a t i n g , Assembling and Repairing Occupations Furriers M e c h a n i c s and Repairmen Except Electrical  S t a t i o n a r y E n g i n e and U t i l i t i e s Equipment O p e r a t i n g and R e l a t e d Occupat i ons  953  953  41  41  d.  Manufacturing  81/82  -8555*.5 -858  Processing Occupations Furr iers  S t a t i o n a r y Engine and U t i l i t i e s Equipment O p e r a t i n g and R e l a t e d Occupations  total:  GOODS TOTAL: II.  SERVICES:  1. a.  Distributive: Clerical  and R e l a t e d Occupations  151  Clerical  and R e l a t e d O c c u p a t i o n s  b. S a l e s : (1) S a l e s O c c u p a t i o n s , Commodities (2)  Sales Occupations,  (3) S a l e s O c c u p a t i o n s , Sales total  513/514  513 a n d 514  Sales Occupations,  Commodities Services  Services  517  517  Sales Occupations,  Other  519  519  Other  Sales Occupations  c.  T r a n s p o r t Equipment O p e r a t i n g Occupat ions  9t  91  T r a n s p o r t Equipment O c c u p a t i ons  d.  M a t e r i a l H a n d l i n g and R e l a t e d Occupat ions  93  93  M a t e r i a l s H a n d l i n g and R e l a t e d Occupat i ons, n . e . c .  e.  E l e c t r o n i c and R e l a t e d Communication Equipment O p e r a t i n g O c c u p a t i o n s  955  955  f. g.  Mechanics and R e p a i r e r s , n . e . c . P r i n t i n g and R e l a t e d Occupations  858 951  858 951 +959  33  33  Distributive  Operating  E l e c t r o n i c and R e l a t e d Communications Equipment O p e r a t i n g O c c u p a t i o n s , n . e . c . M e c h a n i c s and Repairmen E x c e p t E l e c t r i c a l P r i n t i n g and R e l a t e d O c c u p a t i o n s Other C r a f t s and Equipment O p e r a t i n g Occupations, n . e . c .  total:  2. Consumer: a. A r t i s t i c , L i t e r a r y , Recreational and R e l a t e d Occupations  A r t i s t i c , Literary, Recreational and R e l a t e d Occupations  b.  Food and Beverage P r e p a r a t i o n and R e l a t e d S e r v i c e Occupations  612  612  Food and Beverage P r e p a r a t i o n Related Service Occupations  c.  O c c u p a t i o n s i n L o d g i n g and Other Accommodation  613  613  Occupations in Lodging and Accommodat i o n  d.  Personal  614  614  Personal Service Occupations  e.  Apparel and F u r n i s h i n g s Occupat i ons  616  616  A p p a r e l and F u r n i s h i n g s Occupat ions  619  619  Other  S e r v i c e Occupations Service  f. Other S e r v i c e Occupations Consumer t o t a l : 3. a.  and  Other  Service  Service Occupations  Advanced: Other  Managers and A d m i n i s t r a t o r s  113/114  113 a n d 114 -1133 -1134  b. N a t u r a l S c i e n c e s : (1) O c c u p a t i o n s i n P h y s i c a l S c i e n c e s  211  211 152  O t h e r Managers a n d A d m i n i s t r a t o r s A d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n T e a c h i n g and Related Fields A d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n M e d i c i n e and H e a l t h Occupations  in Physical Sciences  (2)  Occupations  in L i f e Sciences  (3)  A r c h i t e c t s , E n g i n e e r s and Community P l a n n e r s  (4)  Other Occupations and E n g i n e e r i n g  (5)  Occupations in Mathematics, S t a t i s t i c s , Systems A n a l y s i s Related Fields  213 214/215  214/215  Occupations  in L i f e  A r c h i t e c t s and  Sciences  Engineers  216  216  Other Occupations In and E n g i n e e r i n g  218  218  Occupations in Mathematics, S t a t i s t i c s , Systems A n a l y s i s and Related F ields  c. Social Sciences: (1) O c c u p a t i o n s i n S o c i a l S c i e n c e s ( 2 ) O c c u p a t i o n s i n Law a n d Jur i sprudence  231 234  231 234  Occupations Occupations  d.  117  117  O c c u p a t i o n s R e l a t e d t o Management and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  111  111  O f f i c i a l s and A d m i n i s t r a t o r s t o Government  271  271  273  273  1133  1133*  279  279  U n i v e r s i t y T e a c h i n g and R e l a t e d O c c u p a t i ons Elementary and Secondary School T e a c h i n g and R e l a t e d O c c u p a t i o n s A d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n T e a c h i n g and Related Fields Other T e a c h i n g and R e l a t e d O c c u p a t i o n s  311  311  313  313  1134  1134  Natural  Sciences  In A r c h i t e c t u r e  213  and  total  O c c u p a t i o n s R e l a t e d t o Management and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  Advanced  c. Health: (1) H e a l t h D i a g n o s i n g and T r e a t i n g Occupat i ons (2) N u r s i n g , Therapy and R e l a t e d A s s i s t i n g Occupations  (4)  A d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n M e d i c i n e and Health Other Occupations i n Medicine and H e a l t h  Health d.  in Social Sciences i n Law a n d J u r i s p r u d e n c e  total  4. N o n - P r o f i t : a . O f f i c i a l s and A d m i n i s t r a t o r s u n i q u e t o Government b. E d u c a t i o n : (1) U n i v e r s i t y T e a c h i n g and R e l a t e d Occupations (2) Elementary and Secondary School T e a c h i n g and R e l a t e d Occupations (3) A d m i n i s t r a t o r s in Teaching and Related Fields (4) Other T e a c h i n g and R e l a t e d Occupat i ons Education t o t a l  (3)  Architecture  315/316  315/316  H e a l t h Diagnosing and T r e a t i n g Occupations N u r s i n g , Therapy and R e l a t e d A s s i s t i n g Occupations Administrators  i n M e d i c i n e and H e a l t h  Other Occupations Health  i n M e d i c i n e and  total  Occupations  in Religion  25  25 153  Unique  Occupations  in  Religion  e.  Protective Service  Occupations  611  611  Protective Service  f.  O c c u p a t i o n s i n S o c i a 1 Work a n d Related Fields  233  233  O c c u p a t i o n s i n S o c i a l Work Related Fields  Other Occupations i n S o c i a l S c i e n c e s and R e l a t e d F i e l d s  239  +239  Occupations in Library, and A r c h i v a l S e r v i c e s  235  235  99 00  99 +0000  g.  Non-Prof i t SERVICES III.  Museum  Occupations and  Other Occupations i n S o c i a l S c i e n c e s and R e l a t e d F i e l d s Occupations in L i b r a r y , and A r c h i v a l S c i e n c e s  Museum  total  TOTAL:  OTHER:  Occupations not Elsewhere C l a s s i f i e d P e r s o n s Not C l a s s i f i a b l e by O c c u p a t i o n Source of Occupational  O c c u p a t i o n s Not E l s e w h e r e O c c u p a t i o n Not S t a t e d  Classified  Titles: C a n a d a , C e n s u s , O c c u p a t i o n a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n M a n u a l , 1971, R e f . No. O t t a w a : M i n i s t e r o f I n d u s t r y , T r a d e a n d Commerce, I n f o r m a t i o n C a n a d a .  154  12-536,  A p p e n d i x D:  T a b l e S h o w i n g t h e B r i d g i n g o f 1961 O c c u p a t i o n a l C o d e s t o t h e 1981 O c c u p a t i o n a l Codes a n d C l a s s i f i c a t i o n  1981 O c c u p a t i o n a l I.  Titles  1981 Codes 1961 Codes a n d O c c u p a t i o n a l  Titles  GOODS  1.  Extractive  a.  Farming, H o r t i c u l t u r a l and Animal Husbandry Occupations  71  Div. 7  F a r m e r s a n d Farm W o r k e r s  b.  Fishing, Trapping, Occupat ions  73  Div. 9  Fishermen,  c.  F o r e s t r y and Logging Occupations  75  Div. 8  Loggers and R e l a t e d Workers  d.  M i n i n g and Q u a r r y i n g I n c l u d i n g 0 i1 a n d G a s F i e l d O c c u p a t i o n s  77  Div.  Miners,  C o n s t r u c t i o n Trades Occupations  87  2.  3. a.  Manufacturing Processing  and Related  81/82  10  Trappers  and Hunters  Quarrymen a n d R e l a t e d W o r k e r s  +810 P l u m b e r s a n d p i p e f i t t e r s +84 P a i n t e r s , p a p e r h a n g e r s a n d g l a z i e r s +85 B r i c k l a y e r s , p l a s t e r e r s a n d c o n s t r u c t i o n workers, n . e . c . +83 E l e c t r i c i a n s a n d r e l a t e d e l e c t r i c a l and e l e c t r o n i c s workers - 8 3 3 Power s t a t i o n o p e r a t o r s -836 P r o j e c t i o n i s t s , motion p i c t u r e s +875 R i g g e r s a n d c a b l e s p l i c e r s , e x c e p t t e l e p h o n e , t e l e g r a p h a n d power +876 O p e r a t o r s o f e a r t h - m o v i n g a n d o t h e r c o n s t r u c t i o n machinery, n . e . c . +890 S e c t i o n m e n a n d t r a c k m e n +920 L a b o u r e r s , n . e . c . c o n s t r u c t i o n industry +70 M i l l e r s , b a k e r s , b r e w e r s a n d r e l a t e d food workers +73 S p i n n e r s , w e a v e r s , k n i t t e r s a n d r e l a t e d workers +76 P a p e r m a k e r s , s t i l l o p e r a t o r s , c h e m i c a l and r e l a t e d workers +78 F u r n a c e m e n , m o u l d e r s , b l a c k s m i t h s a n d r e l a t e d metal workers +862 Furnacemen a n d k i l n m e n , c e r a m i c s a n d glass +900 F o r e m e n , n . e . c . 155  - 9 0 0 Foremen, n . e . c , m a t e r i a l t r a n s p o r t industry - 9 0 0 Foremen, n . e . c , e l e c t r i c i t y , gas and water +911 T o b a c c o p r e p a r e r s a n d p r o d u c t m a k e r s +912 P a t t e r n m a k e r s ( e x c e p t p a p e r ) +913 B o t t l e r s , w r a p p e r s l a b e l e r s +914 P a p e r p r o d u c t s makers +916 T a n n e r s a n d t a n n e r y o p e r a t i v e s +919 P r o d u c t i o n p r o c e s s a n d r e l a t e d w o r k e r s +920 L a b o u r e r s , m a n u f a c t u r i n g b. M a c h i n i n g a n d R e l a t e d O c c u p a t i o n s  83  +75*.5 C a r p e n t e r s , c a b i n e t m a k e r s , sawyers and r e l a t e d workers +793 E n g r a v e r s , e x c e p t p h o t o e n g r a v e r s +80/81 M a c h i n i s t s , p l u m b e r s , s h e e t m e t a l workers and r e l a t e d workers -810 Plumbers and p i p e f i t t e r s +86 C l a y , g l a s s a n d s t o n e w o r k e r s - 8 6 2 Furnacemen and k i l n m e n , c e r a m i c s and glass +917 I n s p e c t o r s , e x a m i n e r s a n d g a u g e r s , n . e . c . - metal  c.  Product F a b r i c a t i n g , Assembling and R e p a i r i n g Occupations  85  +71 T i r e b u i l d e r s , v u l c a n i z e r s a n d o t h e r rubber workers +72 L e a t h e r c u t t e r s . T a s t e r s , s e w e r s a n d other leather workers (except glove a n d garment +74 T a i l o r s , f u r r i e r s , u p h o l s t e r e r s a n d r e l a t e d workers +75*.5 C a r p e n t e r s , c a b i n e t m a k e r s , sawyers and r e l a t e d workers +791 J e w e l e r s a n d w a t c h m a k e r s +918 I n s p e c t o r s , g r a d e r s a n d s a m p l e r s , n . e . c .  d.  S t a t i o n a r y Engine and U t i l i t i e s Equipment O p e r a t i n g and R e l a t e d Occupat i ons  953  Manufacturing  total  +871 B o i l e r f i r e m e n  ship)  +872 S t a t i o n a r y e n g i n e m e n +878 O i l e r s a n d g r e a s e r s - m a c h i n e r y a n d v e h i c l e s (except ships) +833 Power s t a t i o n o p e r a t o r s +900 Foremen, e l e c t r i c i t y , g a s a n d w a t e r +920 T r a n s p o r t , c o m m u n i c a t i o n a n d o t h e r public u t i l i t y services - e l e c t r i c i t y gas and water  GOODS TOTAL II.  (except  SERVICES 156  Distributive a.  Clerical  and R e l a t e d Occupations  b. S a l e s (1) S a l e s O c c u p a t i o n s , Commodities  41  513/514  .3  Clerical  Occupations  +307 C a n v a s s e r s a n d o t h e r d o o r - t o - d o o r salesmen +312 Hawkers a n d p e d l a r s +314 C o m m e r c i a l t r a v e l l e r s +316 Newsvendors +323 S e r v i c e s t a t i o n a t t e n d a n t s (W o r NP) +325 S a l e s c l e r k s (W o r NP)  (2) S a l e s O c c u p a t i o n s , S e r v i c e s  517  +327 A d v e r t i s i n g s a l e s m e n a n d a g e n t s +331 I n s u r a n c e s a l e s m e n a n d a g e n t s (OA & W) +334 R e a l e s t a t e s a l e s m e n a n d a g e n t s  (3) S a l e s O c c u p a t i o n s ,  519  +301 +303 +336 +338 +339 +920  Foremen, t r a d e Auctioneers S e c u r i t y s a l e s m e n a n d b r o k e r s (OA & W) B r o k e r s , agents and a p p r a i s e r s , n . e . c . Other s a l e s o c c u p a t i o n s L a b o u r e r s , commerce  Sales  Other  Total  c.  T r a n s p o r t Equipment Occupations  Operating  91  +51 +52 +53 +54 +55 +56 +873 +900 +920  Supervisors of transport operations Operators, a i r c r a f t Operators, r a i l r o a d Operators, water t r a n s p o r t Operators, road transport Other t r a n s p o r t o c c u p a t i o n s Motermen ( v e h i c l e ) , e x c e p t r a i l w a y Foremen, m a t e r i a l t r a n s p o r t industry Labourers, t r a n s p o r t , communication and o t h e r p u b l i c u t i l i t y s e r v i c e s r a i l w a y t r a n s p o r t and o t h e r t r a n s p o r t  d.  M a t e r i a l H a n d l i n g and R e l a t e d Occupat ions  93  +874 +877 +88 +587 +588  Hoistmen, cranemen, d e r r i c k m e n M a t e r i a l s - h a n d l i n g equipment o p e r a t o r s Longshoremen a n d o t h e r f r e i g h t h a n d l e r s Postmen and m a i l c a r r i e r s Messengers  e.  E l e c t r o n i c a n d R e l a t e d C o m m u n i c a t i o n 955 Equipment O p e r a t i n g O c c u p a t i o n s  +57 S u p e r v i s o r s o f commun i c a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s +582 R a d i o a n d t e l e v i s i o n e q u i p m e n t operators +584 T e l e p h o n e o p e r a t o r s +585 T e l e g r a p h o p e r a t o r s +836 P r o j e c t i o n i s t s , m o t i o n p i c t u r e +920 L a b o u r e r s ? 157  f.  Mechanics and R e p a i r e r s ,  g.  P r i n t i n g and Related Occupations  Distributive  n.e.c.  951  +77 P r i n t e r s , b o o k b i n d e r s a n d r e l a t e d workers +915 P h o t o g r a p h i c p r o c e s s i n g o c c u p a t i o n s  total  2 . Consumer a. A r t i s t i c , L i t e r a r y , Recreational and R e l a t e d Occupations  b.  +82 M e c h a n i c s a n d r e p a i r m e n , e x c e p t e l e c t r i c a l and e l e c t r o n i c  858  33  +17 A r t i s t s , w r i t e r s a n d m u s i c i a n s +195 I n t e r i o r d e c o r a t o r s a n d window d r e s s e r s +196 P h o t o g r a p h e r s +43 A t h l e t e s , e n t e r t a i n e r s a n d r e l a t e d workers +457 A t t e n d a n t s , r e c r e a t i o n a n d amusement +581 R a d i o a n d t e l e v i s i o n a n n o u n c e r s +413 C o o k s  Food and Beverage P r e p a r a t i o n and R e l a t e d S e r v i c e Occupations  612  c.  O c c u p a t i o n s i n L o d g i n g and Other Accommodation  613  +411 L o d g i n g a n d b o a r d i n g +417 P o r t e r s , b a g g a g e a n d +412 H o u s e k e e p e r s ( e x c e p t household), matrons,  d.  Personal  614  +418 +419 +451 +455 +466  e.  Apparel and F u r n i s h i n g s S e r v i c e Occupat ions  616  +452 L a u n d e r e r s  f.  Other  619  +453 E l e v a t o r t e n d e r s , b u i l d i n g +454 J a n i t o r s a n d c l e a n e r s , b u i l d i n g +459 S e r v i c e w o r k e r s , n . e . c .  Consumer 3. a.  S e r v i c e Occupations  S e r v i c e Occupations  +414 B a r t e n d e r s +415 W a i t e r s  total  house keepers pullman private stewards  B a b y s i t t e r s (W) Maids and r e l a t e d s e r v i c e workers Barbers, hairdressers, manicurists F u n e r a l d i r e c t o r s a n d embalmers Guides and d r y c l e a n e r s  Advanced Other  Managers and A d m i n i s t r a t o r s  113/114  Div.  1 -007 -008 -010  Managerial Occupations P o s t m a s t e r s (W) P u r c h a s i n g a g e n t s a n d b u y e r s (W) Owners a n d m a n a g e r s , t e a c h i n g a n d related services - 0 1 0 Owners a n d m a n a g e r s , h e a l t h a n d we1 f a r e 158  - 0 1 0 Owners a n d m a n a g e r s , administration  b. N a t u r a l S c i e n c e s (1) Occupations i n P h y s i c a l S c i e n c e s (2) Occupations (3)  i n L i f e Sciences  A r c h i t e c t s , Engineers Community P l a n n e r s  (4) Other Occupations and E n g i n e e r i n g  and  211  +11 P h y s i c a l s c i e n t i s t s  213  +12 B i o l o g i s t s a n d a g r i c u l t u r a l profess ionais  214/215  In A r c h i t e c t u r e  216  +10 P r o f e s s i o n a l +181 A r c h i t e c t s  Natural  Sciences  ( 2 ) O c c u p a t i o n s i n Law a n d our i sprudence  occupations,  n.e.c.  +184 A c t u a r i e s a n d S t a t i s t i c i a n s +187 Computer  4. N o n - P r o f i t a. O f f i c i a l s and Administrators t o Government  Unique  b. E d u c a t i o n (1) U n i v e r s i t y T e a c h i n g and R e l a t e d Occupat ions Elementary and Secondary School Teaching and R e l a t e d Occupations  (3) A d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n Teaching and Related Fields (4) Other Teaching and R e l a t e d Occupat i ons  231 234  O c c u p a t i o n s R e l a t e d t o Management and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  (2)  technicians,  programmers  total  c. Social Sciences (1) Occupations i n S o c i a l Sciences  d.  218  engineers  +182 D r a u g h t s m e n +183 S u r v e y o r s +198 S c i e n c e a n d e n g i n e e r i n g n.e.c. +199 P r o f e s s i o n a l  (5) Occupations i n Mathematics, S t a t i s t i c s , Systems A n a l y s i s and Related Fields  public  117  111  +186 E c o n o m i s t s +15 Law P r o f e s s i o n a l s +008 P u r c h a s i n g a g e n t s a n d b u y e r s +188 A c c o u n t a n t s a n d a u d i t o r s  +007 P o s t m a s t e r s (W) +010 Owners a n d m a n a g e r s , p u b l i c adminstrat ion +920*.5 L a b o u r e r s , p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and n a t i o n a l defence  271  +131 P r o f e s s o r s a n d c o l l e g e  273  +135 S c h o o l  1133 279  (W)  principles  teachers  +010 Owners a n d m a n a g e r s , related services  t e a c h i n g and  +139 T e a c h e r s a n d i n s t r u c t o r s ,  159  n.e.c.  c. Health (1) H e a l t h D i a g n o s i n g Occupat i ons  and T r e a t i n g  (2) N u r s i n g , Therapy and R e l a t e d A s s i s t i n g Occupations  (3) A d m i n i s t r a t o r s Health  i n Medicine and  (4) Other Occupations and H e a l t h  Occupations  f.  g. III.  in Medicine  in Religion  311  +140 P h y s i c i a n s a n d S u r g e o n s +141 D e n t i s t s +146 O s t e o p a t h s a n d c h i r o p r a c t o r s  313  +142 N u r s e s , g r a d u a t e +144 N u r s e s - i n - t r a i n i n g +144 P h y s i c a l a n d o c c u p a t i o n a l t h e r a p i s t s +416 N u r s i n g a s s i s t a n t s a n d a i d e s  1134 315/316  25  P r o t e c t i v e Service Occupations  611  O c c u p a t i o n s i n S o c i a l Work a n d Related Fields  233  Other Occupations i n S o c i a l S c i e n c e s and R e l a t e d F i e l d s  239  Occupations in L i b r a r y , and A r c h i v a l S e r v i c e s  235  Museum  +010 Owners a n d m a n a g e r s , welfare +145 +147 +148 +149 +191  h e a l t h and  Optometrists Pharmacists Medical and d e n t a l t e c h n i c i a n s Other h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s Dietitians  +16 R e l i g i o n  professionals  +40 P r o t e c t i v e s e r v i c e o c c u p a t i o n s +920*.5 L a b o u r e r s , p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and n a t i ona1 d e f e n c e +192 S o c i a l w e l f a r e  +194  workers  Librarians  OTHER  Occupations not Elsewhere C l a s s i f i e d  99  +920 L a b o u r e r s , e x c l u d i n g t h o s e e n g a g e d i n a g r i c u l t u r e , f i s h i n g , logging or mining activities +980 O c c u p a t i o n n o t s t a t e d  f oOt cCc luap sa st iiof ni aa lb l eT i b t lye sO:c c uCpaant ai odna , C e n00 sus, Occupational C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Manual, PS eo rusr oc ne s o N Ottawa: Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s .  160  1 9 6 1 , R e f . No.  12-506,  A p p e n d i x E:  T a b l e S h o w i n g t h e B r i d g i n g o f 1951 O c c u p a t i o n a l Codes t o t h e 1981 O c c u p a t i o n a l Codes a n d C l a s s i f i c a t i o n .  1981 O c c u p a t i o n a l T i t l e I.  1981 Codes  1951 Codes a n d O c c u p a t i o n a l  Titles  GOODS  1.  Extractive  a.  Farming, H o r t i c u l t u r a l and Animal Husbandry Occupations  71  50 A g r i c u l t u r a l  b.  Fishing, Trapping, Occupat i ons  73  55 F i s h i n g a n d T r a p p i n g  c.  Forestry and Logging Occupations  75  56 L o g g i n g ( i n c l u d i n g  d.  Mining and Quarrying I n c l u d i n g O i l a n d Gas F i e l d O c c u p a t i o n s  77  Extractive 2.  and R e l a t e d  Occupations  forestry)  i n mines,  quarries  and o i l w e l l s  total  C o n s t r u c t i o n Trades Occupations  3. Manufacturi ng a. Processing Occupations  b.  60/61  Occupations  Machining and R e l a t e d Occupations  87  81/82  83  91/92/93 Construction Occupations +899 R i g g e r s , n . e . c . +700*.33 +70 +710 +720 +757 +76 +80 +820 +846 +825 +832 +845 +851 +854 +858 +859 +86 +87  Foremen - m a n u f a c t u r i n g a n d r e p a i r (w) Food P r o d u c t s L i q u o r s and Beverages Tobacco P r o d u c t s Tanners Textiles P u l p , Paper and Paper P r o d u c t s Inspectors, examiners, gaugers, n . e . s . - metal C o r e m a k e r s (w) Electroplaters Heat t r e a t e r s , a n n e a l e r s , t e m p e r e r s (w) Moulders Potmen (w) R o l l i n g m i l l men, n . e . s . (w) W i r e d r a w e r s , makers a n d w e a v e r s Other metal o c c u p a t i o n s Non-Metallic Mineral Products Chemicals  + 7 0 0 * . 3 3 Foremen - m a n u f a c t u r i n g a n d r e p a i r 161  (w)  (w)  +794 F i n i s h e r s a n d p o l i s h e r s - wood +795 S a w y e r s - wood Wood t u r n e r s +799 O t h e r o c c u p a t i o n s i n wood p r o d u c t s +822 B l a c k s m i t h s , hammermen, f o r g e m e n +824 B o i l e r m a k e r s a n d p l a t e r s +826 E n g r a v e r s , e x c e p t p h o t o e n g r a v e r s +827 F i l e r s , g r i n d e r s , s h a r p e n e r s +835 M a c h i n e o p e r a t o r s , n . e . c . (w) +836 M a c h i n i s t s +847 P a t t e r n m a k e r s +850 P o l i s h e r s a n d b u f f e r s - m e t a l (w) +853 R i v e t e r s a n d r i v e t h e a t e r s (w) +855 S h e e t m e t a l w o r k e r s a n d t i n s m i t h s +856 T o o l m a k e r s ; d i e makers a n d s e t t e r s +857 W e l d e r s a n d f l a m e c u t t e r s Labelers c.  Product F a b r i c a t i n g , Assembling and R e p a i r i n g O c c u p a t i o n s  85  +700*.33 +73 +743 +75 -757 +77/78 +79 -794 -795 -799 +821 +828 +834 +844 +852  d.  S t a t i o n a r y Engine and U t i l i t i e s Equipment O p e r a t i n g and R e l a t e d Occupat ions  Manufacturing II.  953  total  +890 +896 +895 +897  Foremen - m a n u f a c t u r i n g a n d r e p a i r (w) Rubber P r o d u c t s Furriers L e a t h e r and L e a t h e r P r o d u c t s Tanners T e x t i l e Goods a n d W e a r i n g A p p a r e l Wood P r o d u c t s F i n i s h e r s a n d P o l i s h e r s - wood Sawyers -Woodturners O t h e r o c c u p a t i o n s i n wood p r o d u c t s A s s e m b l e r s a n d makers - e l e c t r i c a l e q u i p m e n t F i t t e r s and assemblers, n . e . s . - metal J e w e l l e r s a n d watchmakers M i l l w r i g h t s (w) Radio repairmen Other (misc) B o i l e r firemen O i l e r s , machinery Power s t a t i o n o p e r a t o r s (w) S t a t i o n a r y e n g i n e e r s (w)  SERVICES  1.  Distributive  a.  Clerical  and R e l a t e d Occupations  (1) S a l e s O c c u p a t i o n s ,  Commodities  41  513/514  +11 C l e r i c a l O c c u p a t i o n s +205 A g e n t s - t i c k e t , s t a t i o n , e x p r e s s +237 M e s s e n g e r s  (w)  +309 C a n v a s s e r s , d e m o n s t r a t o r s , s o l i c i t o r s (w) +312 C o l l e c t o r s , b i l l s a n d a c c o u n t s +315 C o m m e r c i a l t r a v e l l e r s (w) 162  (w)  (2) S a l e s O c c u p a t i o n s ,  Services  (3) S a l e s O c c u p a t i o n s , Other Sales c.  +317 +324 +328 +336 +339 +343  Hawkers a n d p e d l a r s Newsboys Packers and wrappers, n . e . s . Sales clerks Service s t a t i o n attendants Window d e c o r a t o r s a n d d r e s s e r s  517  +301 +302 +333 +36  Foremen (w) c o m m e r c i a l o c c u p a t i o n s A d v e r t i s i n g agents P u r c h a s i n g a g e n t s a n d b u y e r s (w) F i n a n c i a l Occupations  519  +304 A u c t i o n e e r s +306 B r o k e r s , a g e n t s , a p p r a i s e r s , +349 O t h e r t r a d e o c c u p a t i o n s  n.e.s.  total  T r a n s p o r t Equipment O p e r a t i n g Occupat ions  91  +Motormen Transportation Occupations A g e n t s - t i c k e t , s t a t i o n , e x p r e s s (w) Longshoremen, s t e v e d o r e s , dock l a b o u r e r s Messengers  +894 H o i s t m e n , c r a n e m e n , d e r r i c k m e n +235 L o n g s h o r e m e n , s t e v e d o r e s , d o c k +271 P o s t m e n a n d m a i l c a r r i e r s (w)  (w) labourers  d.  M a t e r i a l H a n d l i n g and R e l a t e d Occupat ions  e.  E l e c t r o n i c and R e l a t e d Communication Equipment O p e r a t i n g Occupations  955  f.  Mechanics and R e p a i r e r s ,  858  +837 +838 +840 +841  g.  P r i n t i n g and R e l a t e d Occupations  951 959  +81 P r i n t i n g , P u b l i s h i n g , B o o k b i n d i n g +886 P h o t o g r a p h i c o c c u p a t i o n s , n . e . s .  Distributive  n.e.c.  Total  2 . Consumer a. A r t i s t i c , L i t e r a r y , Recreational and R e l a t e d O c c u p a t i o n s  b.  Food and Beverage P r e p a r a t i o n and R e l a t e d S e r v i c e O c c u p a t i o n s  93  +20-25 -205 -235 -237  33  612  +26-29 -271 -274 +494  +064 +063 +065 +084 +093 +274 +492  Communication Occupations Postmen a n d m a i l c a r r i e r s (w) Radio announcers, broadcasters Motion p i c t u r e p r o j e c t i o n i s t s Mechanics Mechanics Mechanics Mechanics  and and and and  repairmen, repairman, repairmen, repairmen,  (w)  (w)  (w)  a i r p l a n e (w) automobile r a i l road o r c a r shop n.e.s.  A r t i s t s , commercial A r t i s t s , (except commercial); a r t teachers Authors, e d i t o r s , j o u r n a l i s t s M u s i c i a n s and music t e a c h e r s Photographers R a d i o a n n o u n c e r s , b r o a d c a s t e r s (w) A c t o r s , showmen, s p o r t s m e n  +452 C o o k s +443 W a i t e r s a n d w a i t r e s s e s 163  c.  O c c u p a t i o n s i n L o d g i n g and Other Accommodation  613  +458 H o u s e k e e p e r s , m a t r o n s , s t e w a r d s +425 L o d g i n g a n d b o a r d i n g h o u s e k e e p e r s +432 P o r t e r s (w)  d.  Personal  614  +402 B a r b e r s , h a i r d r e s s e r s , +403 B o o t b l a c k s +418 G u i d e s Hotels, cafes +435 U n d e r t a k e r s +497 U s h e r s (w)  e.  Apparel  616  +414 C l e a n e r s , d y e r s ,  f.  Other  619  +409 +416 +422 +449 +499  Consumer 3. a.  S e r v i c e Occupations  and F u r n i s h i n g s  Service  S e r v i c e Occupations  (E. or O.A.)  manicurists  launderers  Charworkers and c l e a n e r s E l e v a t o r t e n d e r s (w) U a n i t o r s a n d s e x t o n s (w) Other p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e o c c u p a t i o n s Other  Total  Advanced Other Managers and A d m i n i s t r a t o r s  b. N a t u r a l S c i e n c e s : (1) Occupations i n P h y s i c a l Sciences  (2) Occupations  in L i f e Sciences  (3) A r c h i t e c t s , E n g i n e e r s and Community P l a n n e r s  (4) Other Occupations and E n g i n e e r i n g  In A r c h i t e c t u r e  (5) Occupations i n Mathematics, S t a t i s t i c s , Systems A n a l y s i s and  113/114  Manager 1a 1 O c c u p a t i ons - 0 5 2 Community o r p u b l i c s e r v i c e - 0 5 3 Government s e r v i c e (w) -059 Unspecified n/a  211  213  214/215  +061 A g r i c u l t u r a l p r o f e s s i o n a l s ,  +062 +066 +072 +073 +075 +076 +078  n.e.s.  Architects Chemists and m e t a l l u r i g i s t s Engineers, chemical Engineers, c i v i l Engineers, e l e c t r i c a l Engineers, mechanical Engineers, mining  216  +070 D r a u g h t s m e n a n d d e s i g n e r s +080 L a b o r a t o r y t e c h n i c i a n s a n d a s s i s t a n t s , n . e . s . +074 S u r v e y o r s  218  +092 A c t u a r i e s +097 S t a t i s t i c i a n s (w) 164  (w)  Natural  Sciences  Total  c. Social Sciences: (1) Occupations i n S o c i a l S c i e n c e s ( 2 ) O c c u p a t i o n s i n Law a n d Jurisprudence Social Sciences Total d.  O c c u p a t i o n s R e l a t e d t o Management and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  Advanced 4. a.  234  +079 J u d g e s a n d m a g i s t r a t e s +081 L a w y e r s a n d n o t a r i e s  117  +059 +060 +099 +322  Total  Non-Prof i t O f f i c i a l s and A d m i n i s t r a t o r s t o Government  Unspecified Accountants and a u d i t o r s Other p r o f e s s i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s I n s p e c t o r s , graders and samplers,  111  +052 Community o r p u b l 1 c s e r v i c e +053 Government s e r v i c e (w)  (1) U n i v e r s i t y T e a c h i n g and R e l a t e d Occupat i ons  271  +090 P r o f e s s o r s a n d c o l l e g e p r i n c i p a l s  (2) Elementary and Secondary School Teaching and R e l a t e d Occupations  273  +095 T e a c h e r s -  (3)  Unique  n/a  231  A d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n Teaching and Related Fields  (4) Other Teaching and R e l a t e d Occupat i ons Education Total (1) H e a l t h Diagnosing Occupat1ons  and T r e a t i n g  (2) N u r s i n g , Therapy and R e l a t e d A s s i s t i n g Occupations (3) A d m i n i s t r a t o r s Health  i n Medicine and  (4) Other Occupations and H e a l t h Health d.  in Medicine  1133  311  +069 D e n t i s t s +088 O s t e o p a t h s a n d c h i r o p r a c t o r s +089 P h y s i c i a n s a n d s u r g e o n s +098 V e t e r i n a r i a n s  313  +086 N u r s e s - g r a d u a t e +087 N u r s e s - t r a i n i n g +429 N u r s e s , p r a c t i c a l  Total  Occupations  in Religion  n/a +096 T e a c h e r s a n d i n s t r u c t o r s ,  315/316  25  (w)  school  279  1134  n.e.s  n.e.s.  n/a +067 D i e t i c i a n s +880 D e n t a l m e c h a n i c s +885 O p t i c i a n s , l e n s g r i n d e r s  and p o l i s h e r s  +085 N u n s , a n d b r o t h e r s , n . e . s . +068 C l e r g y m e n a n d p r i e s t s 165  (w)  +091 R e l i g i o u s w o r k e r s , e.  P r o t e c t i v e S e r v i c e Occupations  611  f.  O c c u p a t i o n s i n S o c i a l Work a n d Related Fields  233  Other Occupations i n S o c i a l Sciences and Related F i e l d s  239  g. Occupations Non-Profit Total III.  in Library,  Museum  235  n.e.s.  (w)  +47 P r o t e c t i v e +094 S o c i a l w e l f a r e w o r k e r s ,  +082 L i b r a r i a n s  n.e.s.  (w)  OTHER  Occupations not Elsewhere C l a s s i f i e d  99  P e r s o n s N o t C l a s s i f i a b l e by O c c u p a t i o n  00  Source of Occupational  Titles:  +950 L a b o u r e r s ( n o t a g r i c u l t u r a l , logging or mining) +960 Not s t a t e d  fishing,  Canada, N i n t h Census o f Canada, C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f O c c u p a t i o n s , R e f . No. 1 2 - 5 0 6 A , O t t a w a : D e p a r t m e n t o f T r a d e a n d Commerce.  166  1951  A p p e n d i x F:  O c c u p a t i o n a l S t a t i s t i c s f o r t h e 1 9 5 1 , 1961, 1971 a n d 1981 C e n s u s P e r i o d s by S e x f o r C a n a d a , L a r g e , S m a l l a n d Non-CMAs  O c c u p a t i o n a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and T i t l e s C e n s u s Y e a r 1951 I.  GOODS:  1. E x t r a c t i v e : a . Farming (71) b. F i s h i n g ( 7 3 ) c . F o r e s t r y (75) d. M i n i n g (77) Extractive total: 2.  C o n s t r u c t i o n (87)  3. Manufacturing: a. Processing (81/2) b. M a c h i n i n g (83) c . P r o d u c t F a b r i c a t i o n (85) d. U t i l i t i e s (953) Manufacturing t o t a l : GOODS TOTAL: II.  Canada Male  Female  L a r g e CMAs Male Female  S m a l l CMAs Male Female  Non-CMAs Male Female  797,874 50,679 101,020 65,273 1,014,846  32,567 198 19 18 32,802  9,752 2,057 2,375 1,018 15,202  411 0 0 0 411  8,823 61 497 1,217 10,598  517 1 0 0 518  779,299 48,561 98,148 63,038 989,046  31 , 6 3 9 197 19 18 31 , 8 7 3  299,412  898  80,880  342  43,970  216  174,562  340  186,040 187,972 136,163 45,452 555.628  53,405 10,386 101,757 0 165,549  46,571 56,625 55,865 10,951 170,012  15,766 4,620 49,688 0 70,074  25,985 30,185 20,209 5,717 82.095  7,288 1,765 15,335 0 24,388  113,484 101,163 60,090 28,784 303,521  30,351 4,001 36,734 0 71,087  1,869,886  199,249  266,094  70,827  136,663  25,122 1,467,129  103,300  260,660  323,112  101,976  137,879  54,732  69,489  103,952  115,744  162,008 51,105 4,747 217,860 314,303 32,795 32,210 130.095 26,164 1.014,087  114,959 3,867 482 119,308 1,280 258 30,794 633 5,885 481,270  58,139 20,106 2,038 80,283 75,065 8,716 8,077 35,439 13,776 323,332  33,979 2,002 341 36,322 387 6 11,039 282 2.804 188,719  26,963 8,658 1,047 36,668 40,043 3,539 4,649 19,971 4.860 164,462  19,240 780 47 20,067 210 1 3,768 120 1,240 94,895  76,906 22,341 1 ,662 100,909 199,195 20,540 19,484 74,685 7,528 526,293  61,740 1,085 94 62,919 683 251 15,987 231 1,841 197,656  18,268 39,854 9,340 30,370 9,928 46,874 154,634  8,262 56,398 33,012 100,599 16,985 18,237 233,493  9,009 14,133 3,978 8,790 4,395 15,670 55,975  3.046 15,044 6,889 23,311 5,249 6.460 59,999  3,239 5,904 1,732 3,940 1,492 8,234 24,541  1,304 8,892 4,181 13,828 3,559 5,300 37,064  6 020 19,817 3,630 17,640 4,041 22,970 74,118  3,912 32,462 21,942 63,460 8,177 6,477 136,430  SERVICES:  1. Distributive: a . C l e r i c a l (41) b. S a l e s : (1) Commodities (513/514) (2) S e r v i c e s (517) (3) Other (519) Sales total c . T r a n s p o r t E q u i p . O p e r . (91) d . M a t e r i a l H a n d l i n g (93) e . E l e c t r o n i c s a n d Communic. (955) f . M e c h a n i c s a n d R e p a i r e r s (858) g . P r i n t i n g (951 5 9 5 9 ) Distributive total: 2 . Consumer: a . A r t i s t i c a n d L i t e r a r y (33) b. Food and B e v e r a g e (612) c . L o d g i n g (613) d . P e r s o n a l (614) e . A p p a r e l a n d F u r n i s h i n g (616) f . Other (619) Consumer t o t a l :  167  :  3. Advanced: a . Non-government A d m i n i s t . (113/114) b. N a t u r a l S c i e n c e s : ( 1 ) P h y s i c a l S c i e n c e s (211) (2) L i f e S c i e n c e s (213) (3) A r c h . , E n g i n . S P l a n . (214/215) (4) T e c h n o l o g i s t s and Techn. (216) (5) M a t h e m a t i c s and S t a t i s t i c s (218) Natural Sciences t o t a l c. Soc i a 1 Sc i ences: (1) S o c i a l S c i e n c e s (231) (2) L e g a l (234) Social Sciences t o t a l d. O t h e r (117) Advanced t o t a l 4. N o n - P r o f i t : a . Government A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (111) b. E d u c a t i o n : (1) U n i v e r s i t y (271) ( 2 ) E l e m e n t a r y a n d S e c o n d a r y (273) (3) T e a c h i n g A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (1133) (4) Other (279) Education t o t a l c. Health: ( 1 ) D i a g n o s i s a n d T r e a t m e n t (311) ( 2 ) N u r s i n g a n d T h e r a p y (313) (3) H e a l t h A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (1134) (4) Other (315/316) Health total d . R e l i g i o u s (25) e . P r o t e c t i v e (611) f . S o c i a l Work (233 S 2 3 9 ) g . L i b r a r y a n d Museum ( 2 3 5 ) Non-Profit total SERVICES TOTAL: III.  OTHER:  TOTAL Source:  341,909  34,508  107,099  9 , 158  47,383  4,133  187,427  21 , 2 1 7  0 2,596 36,408 25,649 855 65,508  0 102 942 6,101 145 7,290  0 304 15,333 9,426 457 25,520  0 16 354 2,285 77 2,732  0 518 6,570 4,825 214 12,127  0 43 220 1 ,280 49 1,592  0 1,774 14,505 11,398 184 27,861  0 43 368 2,536 19 2,966  0 9,433 9,433 48,002 464,852  0 202 202 6,764 48,764  0 3,622 3,622 19,898 156,139  0 107 107 2,983 14,980  0 1,946 1,946 10,065 71,521  0 29 29 1 ,319 7,073  0 3,865 3,865 18,039 237,192  0 66 66 2,462 26,711  27,550  2,701  6,618  748  7,385  662  13,547  1 ,291  4,610 28,259 0 1,063 33,932  812 74,319 0 1,477 76,608  1,543 6,719 0 398 8,660  298 12,169 0 477 12,944  1,051 3,437 0 125 4,613  102 7,892 0 180 8,174  2,016 18,103 0 540 20,659  412 54,258 0 820 55,490  20,125 7,927 0 2,522 30,574 18,405 124,928 1,470 274 237,133  845 68,302 0 1,445 70,592 12,137 1,074 2,525 1,787 167,424  6,643 2,751 0 1,090 10,484 3,214 24,073 611 72 53,732  393 20,592 0 647 21,632 2,831 297 1 ,245 667 40,364  3,404 1,209 0 534 5,147 2,074 22,159 260 101 41,739  163 11,838 0 223 12,224 2,431 254 483 379 24,607  10,078 3,967 0 898 14,943 13.117 78,696 599 101 141,662  289 35,872 0 575 36,736 6,875 523 797 741 102,453  1,870,706  930,951  589,178  304,062  302,263  163,639  979,265  463,250  381,240  34,121  88,092  12,087  51,411  5,202  241,737  16,832  4,121,832  1,164,321  943,364  386,976  490,337  193,963 2 , 6 8 8 , 1 3 1  583,382  Canada, D . B . S . , 1951, N i n t h Census o f Canada, Vol a n d i n d u s t r i e s , T a b l e 14, T a b l e 12.  IV,  Labour F o r c e - O c c u p a t i o n s  168  O c c u p a t i o n a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and T i t l e s C e n s u s Y e a r 1961  I.  Canada Male  GOODS:  Female  L a r g e CMAs Male Female  Smal Male  CMAs Female  Non-CMAs Male Female  1. E x t r a c t i v e : a . F a r m i n g (71) b. F i s h i n g (73) c . F o r e s t r y (75) d . M i n i n g (77) Extractive total:  573,098 35,648 78,826 65,119 752,691  75,868 274 117 22 76,281  16,346 2,160 1,824 1,678 22,008  972 12 5 4 993  16,979 351 780 9,858 27,968  1,428 9 6 1 1.444  539,773 33,137 76,222 53,583 702,715  73,468 253 106 17 73,844  2.  386,655  10,108  111,301  4,969  76,366  1,869  198,988  3,270  344,991 287,282 144,968 56,321 833,561  93,957 13,240 92,835 39 200,070  97,986 92,833 49,694 13,703 254,216  40,208 5,701 45,695 14 91.617  61,764 58,588 24,658 10.647 155,657  17,015 2,628 16,878 6 36,527  185,241 135,861 70,616 31,971 423,688  36,734 4,911 30,262 19 71,926  1,972,907  286,459  387,525  97,579  259,991  39,840 1,325,391  149,040  324,811  509,345  133,696  217,602  82,063  138,828  109.052  152,915  205,205 38,985 52,699 296,889 356,517 105,786 14,089 179,984 33,290 1,311,366  139,981 3,429 8,763 152,173 2,371 1,403 34,458 739 7,765 708,253  73,895 16,800 19,339 110,034 100,764 27,802 4,029 52,514 17,960 446,798  38,825 1,774 3,807 44,406 637 328 11,531 332 3,802 278,637  47,026 9,567 12,097 68,690 65.900 18;219 2,666 35,934 7,355 280,826  32.301 910 2,253 35,464 433 251 6,663 164 1,983 183,785  84,284 12,618 21,263 118,165 189,853 59,766 7,395 91,536 7,975 583,742  68,855 745 2,703 72,303 1,301 825 16,265 243 1 ,980 245,831  2. Consumer: a . A r t i s t i c a n d L i t e r a r y (33) b. Food and B e v e r a g e (612) c . L o d g i n g (613) d. P e r s o n a l (614) e . A p p a r e l a n d F u r n i s h i n g (616) f . Other (619) Consumer t o t a l :  35,591 51,180 10*194 41,017 9,047 76,667 223,696  17,127 86,880 36,949 156,124 22,601 35,767 355,448  17,350 20,069 4,176 13,858 4,069 27,608 87,130  6,717 21,973 15,793 39,083 6,909 11,573 102,048  8,150 10,267 2,629 7.523 1,807 17,565 47,941  3,825 18,599 8,020 31,190 5,915 10,938 78,487  10,091 20,844 3,389 19,636 3,171 31,494 88,625  6,585 46,308 13,136 85,851 9,777 13,256 174,913  3. Advanced: a . Non-government A d m i n i s t .  434,348  48,893  153,382  14,414  86,931  8,526  194,035  25,953  Construction  (87)  3. M a n u f a c t u r i n g : a. Processing (81/2) b. M a c h i n i n g (83) c. Product F a b r i c a t i o n d. U t i l i t i e s (953) Manufacturing t o t a l :  (85)  GOODS TOTAL: II.  SERVICES:  1 . D i s t r ibut ive: a . C l e r i c a l (41) b. S a l e s : (1) Commodities (513/514) (2) S e r v i c e s (517) (3) Other (519) Sales total c . T r a n s p o r t E q u i p . O p e r . (91) d . M a t e r i a l H a n d l i n g (93) e . E l e c t r o n i c s a n d Communic. ( 9 5 5 ) f . M e c h a n i c s and R e p a i r e r s (858) g . P r i n t i n g (951 S 9 5 9 ) Distributive total:  (113/114)  169  b. N a t u r a l S c i e n c e s : (1) P h y s i c a l S c i e n c e s (211) (2) L i f e S c i e n c e s (213) (3) A r c h . , E n g i n . S P l a n . (214/215) (4) T e c h n o l o g i s t s and Techn. (216) (5) M a t h e m a t i c s and S t a t i s t i c s (218) Natural Sciences total c. Social Sciences: (1) S o c i a l S c i e n c e s (231) (2) L e g a l (234) Social Sciences total d . O t h e r (117) Advanced t o t a l  10,471 5,576 45,824 87,129 3 , 145 152,145  591 360 182 12,353 548 14,034  3,156 915 21,095 33.447 1,756 60,369  255 150 127 5,671 333 6,536  3,745 1,260 11,371 22,509 920 39,805  199 118 30 3,244 154 3,745  3,570 3,401 13,358 31,173 469 51,971  137 92 25 3,438 61 3,753  2,026 12,594 14,620 42,199 643,312  277 328 605 3,217 66,749  1,196 5,473 6,669 20,939 241,359  140 174 314 1 ,648 22,912  579 3,339 3,918 10,399 141,053  75 132 207 843 13,321  251 3,782 4,033 10,861 260,900  62 22 84 726 30,516  46,980  4,739  10,182  467  12,909  649  23,889  3,624  8,779 49,219 766 5,196 63,960  2,366 118,807 311 4,805 126,289  3,077 12,650 298 1,754 17,779  1 ,006 24,439 114 1 ,048 26,607  2,640 9,033 241 969 12,883  504 19,916 74 830 21,324  3,062 27,536 227 2,473 33,298  856 74,452 123 2,927 78,358  26,088 16.490 2,756 12,763 58,097 23,982 207,278 5,071 630 405,998  1,784 133.432 2,129 12,210 149.555 9,733 5,105 5,784 2,809 304,014  9,855 4,975 844 5,068 20,742 4,865 40,110 1,865 263 95,806  886 36,862 678 4,275 42,701 2,751 956 2,559 1,119 77,159  6,363 3,928 581 3 , 134 14,006 4,462 64,845 1.274 213 110,592  420 32,955 437 3,324 37,136 2,907 1 ,008 1 ,590 820 65,434  9,870 7,587 1,331 4,561 23,349 14,655 102,323 1,932 154 199,600  478 63,615 1,014 4,611 69,718 4,075 3,142 1 ,635 870 161,421  SERVICES TOTAL:  584,372  1,434,464  871,093  480,756  580,412  341,027  1,132,867  612,681  III.  148,239  45,409  40,616  13,801  25,556  8.544  82,067  23,064  705,518 1,766,332 1,299,234  592,136  865,959  389,411 2 , 5 4 0 , 3 2 5  784,785  4. N o n - P r o f i t : a . G o v e r n m e n t A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (111) b. E d u c a t i o n : (1) U n i v e r s i t y (271) (2) E l e m e n t a r y and Secondary (273) (3) T e a c h i n g A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (1133) (4) Other (279) Education total c. Health: (1) D i a g n o s i s and Treatment (311) ( 2 ) N u r s i n g a n d T h e r a p y (313) (3) H e a l t h A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (1134) (4) Other ( 3 1 5 / 3 1 6 ) Health total d. R e l i g i o u s (25) e. P r o t e c t i v e (611) f . S o c i a l Work ( 2 3 3 S 2 3 9 ) g . L i b r a r y a n d Museum ( 2 3 5 ) Non-Prof it t o t a l  OTHER:  TOTAL Source:  Canada, D . B . S . ,  1 9 6 1 , C e n s u s o f C a n a d a , Volume I I I ,  P a r t I,  170  R e f No. 9 4 - 5 0 1 .  O c c u p a t i o n a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and T i t l e s C e n s u s Y e a r 1971 I.  GOODS:  Canada Male  Female  L a r g e CMAs Male Female  Smal 1 CMAs Male Female  Non-CMAs Male Female  1. E x t r a c t i v e : a . Farming (71) b. F i s h i n g (73) c . F o r e s t r y (75) d. M i n i n g (77) Extractive total:  386,265 26,655 65,850 58,785 537,555  106,190 520 1,410 380 108,500  21,495 1,805 3,155 2,515 28,970  4.355 45 75 50 4,525  28,695 875 3,065 12,410 45,045  6,020 35 95 85 6,235  336,075 23.975 59,630 43,860 463,540  95,815 440 1,240 245 97,740  2.  C o n s t r u c t i o n (87)  563,435  5,125  151,335  1,685  146,330  1,366  265,770  2,074  3. M a n u f a c t u r i n g : a. Processing (81/2) b. M a c h i n i n g (83) c. Product F a b r i c a t i o n d . U t i l i t i e s (953) Manufacturing t o t a l :  275,690 227,260 239,710 44,790 787,450  60,055 13,680 147,570 355 221,660  66,403 78,620 99,748 11,080 255,850  18.310 5,805 72,425 160 96,700  60,028 66,030 62,008 11,785 199,850  11,570 3,440 29,590 80 44,680  149,260 82,610 77,955 21,925 331,750  30,175 4,435 45,555 115 80,280  1,888,440  335,285  436,155  102,910  391,225  52,281 1,061,060  180,094  433,385  940,180  187,315  392,140  131,750  295,250  114,320  252,790  451,590 230,115 84,830 13,165 31,560 4,480 567,980 247,760 330,240 8,190 165,390 40,450 7,800 505 243,920 2,150 42,705 12,680 1,791,420 1,251,915  165,190 37,550 9,935 212,675 99,515 50,345 2,565 68,250 22,865 643,530  71,780 6,830 2,280 80,890 1,920 19,950 220 800 6,215 502,135  124,235 25,515 9,200 158,950 80,650 43,235 2,210 62,525 11,315 490,635  69,575 3,970 1,215 74,760 2,375 9,295 110 525 3,565 385,880  162,165 21,765 12,425 196,355 150,075 71,810 3,025 113,145 8,525 657,255  88,760 2,365 985 92,110 3,895 11 , 2 0 5 175 825 2,900 363,900  (85)  GOODS TOTAL: II.  SERVICES:  1 . Distribut ive: a . C l e r i c a l (41) b. S a l e s : (1) Commodities (513/514) (2) S e r v i c e s (517) (3) Other (519) Sales total c . T r a n s p o r t E q u i p . O p e r . (91) d. M a t e r i a l H a n d l i n g (93) e . E l e c t r o n i c s a n d Communic. ( 9 5 5 ) f . M e c h a n i c s and R e p a i r e r s (858) g . P r i n t i n g (951 & 9 5 9 ) Distributive total: 2 . Consumer: a . A r t i s t i c a n d L i t e r a r y (33) b . F o o d a n d B e v e r a g e (G12) c . L o d g i n g (613) d . P e r s o n a l (614) e . A p p a r e l a n d F u r n i s h i n g (616) f . Other (619) Consumer t o t a l :  58,585 98,580 22,015 32,750 14,150 158,850 384,930  21,895 176,015 39,710 117,290 25,005 82,030 461,945  28,040 40,310 6,050 11,300 6,770 57,330 149,800  10,490 44,525 10,175 32,885 8,525 21.960 128,560  16,330 26,440 5,005 8,640 3 , 160 47,235 106,810  6,265 50,125 10,255 31,265 7,205 28,300 133,415  14,215 31,830 10,960 12,810 4,220 54,285 128,320  5,140 81,365 19,280 53,140 9,275 31,770 199,970  3. Advanced: a . Non-government A d m i n i s t .  114,980  15,530  52,400  6,745  26,290  4,590  36,290  4,195  (113/114  171  b. N a t u r a l S c i e n c e s : (1) P h y s i c a l S c i e n c e s (211) (2) L i f e S c i e n c e s (213) (3) A r c h . , E n g i n . & P l a n . (214/215) (4) T e c h n o l o g i s t s and Techn. (216) ( 5 ) M a t h e m a t i c s a n d S t a t i s t i c s (218) Natural Sciences total c. Social Sciences: (1) S o c i a l S c i e n c e s (231) (2) L e g a l (234) Social Sciences total d. Other (117) Advanced t o t a l 4. N o n - P r o f i t : a . Government A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ( 1 1 1 ) b. E d u c a t i o n : (1) U n i v e r s i t y (271) (2) E l e m e n t a r y and Secondary (273) (3) T e a c h i n g A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (1133) (4) Other (279) Education t o t a l c. Health: (1) D i a g n o s i s and Treatment (311) ( 2 ) N u r s i n g a n d T h e r a p y (313) (3) H e a l t h A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (1134) (4) Other ( 3 1 5 / 3 1 6 ) Health total d. R e l i g i o u s (25) e. P r o t e c t i v e (611) f . S o c i a l Work (233 & 2 3 9 ) g . L i b r a r y a n d Museum ( 2 3 5 ) Non-Profit total SERVICES TOTAL: III.  OTHER:  TOTAL Source:  30.275 14,450 79,585 70,490 22,220 217.020  4,030 4,660 1,335 3,060 4,025 17,110  9,200 2,985 35,815 25,410 12,030 85,440  1 ,685 1,655 725 1 ,365 2,290 7,720  11,440 5,040 25,725 23,380 7,845 73,430  1,275 1,900 410 1,215 1,320 6,120  9,635 6,425 18,045 21,700 2,345 58,150  1 ,070 1,105 200 480 415 3,270  8.225 19,340 27.565 158,620 518,185  3,275 1,470 4,745 29,665 67,050  3,870 9,065 12,935 70,225 221,000  1,320 735 2,055 14,235 30,755  2,880 6,150 9,030 52,450 161,200  895 510 1,405 9,060 21,175  1,475 4,125 5,600 35,945 135,985  1,060 225 1 ,285 6,370 15,120  33,955  5.445  8,055  870  12,895  1,185  13,005  3,390  21,770 91,250 22,890 25,155 161,065  4,715 180,515 5,950 25,895 217,075  7,430 24,780 5,705 8,925 46,840  1 ,950 49,625 1,550 8,390 61 . 5 1 5  10,195 25,035 6,470 7,705 49,405  2,045 45,650 1,595 8,465 57,755  4,145 41,435 10,715 8,525 64,820  720 85,240 2,805 9,040 97,805  35,005 28,645 2,530 20,220 86,400 19,880 195,590 19,030 2,930 518,850  4,105 204,500 2,370 34,085 245,060 3,710 7,930 17,290 7,490 504,000  13,405 8,235 840 7,675 30,155 4,310 43,195 6,235 1 ,015 139,805  2,065 60,080 605 11.995 74,745 935 2,365 6,530 3,025 149,985  11,225 8,835 720 6,295 27,075 4,525 69,070 5.965 1,135 170,070  1,270 62,350 695 12,310 76,625 940 2,470 5,960 2,330 147,265  10,375 11,575 970 6,250 29.170 11,045 83,325 6,830 780 208,975  770 82,070 1 ,070 9,780 93,690 1,835 3,095 4,800 2,135 206,750  3,213,385 2,284,910  1,154.135  811,435  928,715  687,735 1 ,130.535  785,740  181,125  113,435  141,460  241,315  140,740  826,846 2,432,910  1 ,106,574  563,900  341,005  5,665,725 2,961,200 C a n a d a , 1 9 7 1 , C e n s u s o f C a n a d a , Volume I I I , T a b l e 2 , Ref No. 9 4 - 7 1 5 - 7 2 7 .  1,771,415 1,027,780 1,461,400  Part II,  Economic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ,  172  86,830  O c c u p a t i o n a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and C e n s u s Y e a r 1981 I.  Titles Canada Male  GOODS:  Female  L a r g e CMAs Male Female  Smal 1 CMAs Male Female  Non-CMAs Male Female  1. E x t r a c t i v e : a. Farming (71) b. F i s h i n g (73) c . F o r e s t r y (75) d. M i n i n g (77) Extractive total:  375,380 38,825 78,090 75.915 568.210  106,225 2,280 5,075 1,635 115,215  25,930 1.890 2,975 2,215 33,010  7,020 155 295 35 7,505  37,475 1 ,775 3,705 14,720 57,675  10,925 105 310 310 11,650  311,975 35,160 71,410 58,980 477,525  88,280 2,020 4,470 1 ,290 96,060  2.  768,350  15,270  180,285  4,130  209,485  4,060  378,580  7,080  377,335 292.915 361,175 51,575 1,083,000  108,145 21,410 230,280 1 .070 360,905  85,985 89.550 140.220 10.995 326.750  26,565 8.275 109,265 325 144,430  85,975 88,380 96,770 13,015 284,140  18,695 5,200 46,455 310 70,660  205.375 114.985 124.185 27,565 472,110  62,885 7,935 74.560 435 145,815  2,419,560  491,390  540,045  156,065  551,300  86,370 1 ,328,215  248,955  498,210 1,743,330  210,345  650.005  155,160  553,945  132,705  539,380  481,455 393,320 104,470 46,975 27,560 8,830 613,485 449,125 439,980 30,550 193,620 56,450 9,805 1 .955 359.420 4,845 54,565 28,135 2,169,085 2,314,390  167,250 41.870 9,665 218,785 123,865 61,730 3,785 91,355 28.200 738,065  116,530 20,390 4,405 141 , 3 2 5 6,750 27,365 720 1,545 11,950 839,660  143,125 33,385 7,405 183,915 114,510 52,635 3,055 94,630 14,880 618,785  120,155 14,885 2,480 137,520 9,125 12,220 540 1,355 8,140 722,845  171,080 29,215 10,490 210,785 201,605 79,255 2,965 173,435 11,485 812,235  156,635 11,700 1 ,945 170,280 14,675 16,865 695 1 ,945 8,045 751,885  Construction  (87)  3. Manufact ur i ng: a. P r o c e s s i n g (81/2) b. M a c h i n i n g ( 8 3 ) c. Product F a b r i c a t i o n d. U t i l i t i e s (953) Manufacturing t o t a l :  (85)  GOODS TOTAL: II.  SERVICES:  1. D i s t r i b u t i v e : a. C l e r i c a l (41) b. S a l e s : (1) Commodities (513/514) (2) S e r v i c e s (517) (3) Other (519) Sales total c . T r a n s p o r t E q u i p . O p e r . (91) d . M a t e r i a l H a n d l i n g (93) e . E l e c t r o n i c s a n d Communic. ( 9 5 5 ) f . M e c h a n i c s a n d R e p a i r e r s (858) g . P r i n t i n g (951 & 9 5 9 ) Distributive total: 2. Consumer: a . A r t i s t i c a n d L i t e r a r y (33) b. F o o d a n d B e v e r a g e (G12) c . L o d g i n g (613) d . P e r s o n a l (614) e. A p p a r e l a n d F u r n i s h i n g (616) f . Other (619) Consumer t o t a l :  104,675 176,185 18,620 29.900 13,805 206,350 549,535  68,180 364,760 44,720 143,250 29,250 139,735 789,895  45,960 72,300 6,580 11,950 5,980 70,975 213,745  30,150 86,195 9,900 39.920 9,545 34,550 210,260  31,205 54,320 5,175 7,945 3,760 64,550 166,955  20,095 106,080 12,310 39,335 8,430 44,935 231,185  27,510 49,565 6,865 10,005 4,065 70,825 168,835  17,935 172,485 22,510 63,995 11,275 60,250 348,450  3. Advanced: a. Non-government A d m i n i s t .  530,655  142,650  200,950  56,855  148,050  39,965  181,655  45,830  (113/114  173  b. N a t u r a l S c i e n c e s : ( 1 ) P h y s i c a l S c i e n c e s (211) 33,910 (2) L i f e S c i e n c e s (213) 21,285 (3) A r c h . , E n g i n . & P l a n . (214/215) 129,960 (4) T e c h n o l o g i s t s and Techn. (216) 111,450 (5) M a t h e m a t i c s and S t a t i s t i c s (218) 48,945 Natural Sciences total 345,550 c. Social Sciences: (1) S o c i a l S c i e n c e s (231) 17,195 (2) L e g a l (234) 34,565 Social Sciences total 51,760 d. Other (117) 183,475 Advanced t o t a l 1 , 111,440 4. N o n - P r o f i t : a . Government A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (111) b. E d u c a t i o n : (1) U n i v e r s i t y (271) (2) E l e m e n t a r y and Secondary (273) (3) T e a c h i n g A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (1133) (4) O t h e r (279) Education total c. Health: ( 1 ) D i a g n o s i s a n d T r e a t m e n t (311) ( 2 ) N u r s i n g a n d T h e r a p y (313) (3) H e a l t h A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (1134) (4) Other (315/316) Health total d. R e l i g i o u s (25) e. P r o t e c t i v e (611) f . S o c i a l Work (233 & 2 3 9 ) g . L i b r a r y a n d Museum ( 2 3 5 ) Non-Prof i t t o t a l SERVICES TOTAL: III.  OTHER:  TOTAL Source:  7.755 7,770 6,220 14,115 20,105 55,965  9,405 3,825 49,610 37,120 24,480 124,440  2,455 2,055 2,985 4,670 0 21,825  13,830 7,060 48,090 38,965 18,680 126,625  3,185 2,795 2,160 5,555 8,000 21.695  10,675 10,400 32,260 35,365 5,785 94,485  2,115 2,920 1,075 3,890 2,445 12,445  10,600 9,835 20,435 90,915 309,965  6,560 14,955 21,515 76,460 423,365  4,385 4,635 9,020 41,245 128,945  7,100 11,785 18,885 65,105 358,665  3,550 3,410 6,960 31 , 2 4 5 99,865  3,535 7,825 11,360 41,910 329,410  2,665 1,790 4,455 18,425 81,155  52,815  15,245  11,790  3,365  20,795  5,185  20,230  6,695  32,380 121,240 26,330 48,470 228,420  13,645 228,345 8,055 57,415 307,460  11,160 31,080 6,760 16,115 65,115  5,445 63.890 3,115 19,000 91,450  15,250 32,585 8,065 14,540 70,440  5,980 61,735 2,740 18,110 88,565  5.970 57,575 11,505 17,815 92,865  2,220 102,720 2,200 20,305 127,445  50,290 38,770 4,555 29,530 123,145 25,000 231,390 33,065 5,835 699,670  10,895 327,490 5,325 76,520 420,230 10,675 32,150 61,170 18,775 865,705  18,580 12,745 1,335 11,055 43,715 5,365 56,005 8,915 1,835 192,740  5,005 91,940 1,700 25,220 123,865 3,120 8,870 17,495 6,505 254,670  15,965 11,095 1,815 9,695 38,570 6,465 78.220 10,455 2,610 227,555  3,595 101,575 1,880 26,650 133,700 3,450 9,850 19,345 6,160 266,255  15,745 14,930 1 ,405 8,780 40,860 13,170 97,165 13,695 1,390 279,375  2,295 133,975 1,745 24,650 162,665 4,105 13,430 24,330 6,110 344,780  1,567,915 1,433,535 1,371,960 1.320,150 1,589,855  1,526,270  4,529,730 4,279,955 205,970  127,555  55,295  7,155,260 4,898,900 2,163,255  35,780  57,070  32,920  93,605  58,855  1.625,380 1,980,330 1,439,440 3,011,675  1,834,080  C a n a d a , S t a t i s t i c s C a n a d a , C e n s u s o f C a n a d a , N a t i o n a l S e r i e s , 1 9 8 1 , V o l . I, R e f . No. 9 2 - 9 3 0 - 9 3 4 . C a n a d a , S t a t i s t i c s C a n a d a , C e n s u s o f C a n a d a , P r o v i n c i a l S e r i e s , 1 9 8 1 , R e f . No. 9 3 - 9 6 1 - 9 7 0 .  174  A p p e n d i x H:  P e r c e n t a g e o f Female Labour F o r c e i n O c c u p a t i o n a l C a t e g o r i f o r C a n a d a , L a r g e , S m a l l a n d Non-CMAs, 1951 - 1981  Canada Census Year I.  1951  1971  1981  GOODS:  1. E x t r a c t i v e : a . F a r m i n g (71) b. F i s h i n g ( 7 3 ) c. Forestry (75) d . M i n i n g (77) Extractive total:  3 0 0 0 3  2.  0 .3%  Construction  (87)  3. Manufacturing: a. Processing (81/2) b. M a c h i n i n g ( 8 3 ) c. Product F a b r i c a t i o n d. U t i l i t i e s (953) Manufacturing t o t a l :  (85)  GOODS TOTAL: II.  1961  .9% .4% .0% .0% .1%  11 0 0 0 9  .7% .8% .1% .0°/ .2%  2 .5%  21 . 6 1 .9 2. 1 0 .6 16 . 8  2 2 . 1% 5.5% 6. 1% 2.1% 16.9%  0 .9  1.9%  .8% .0% .0%  21 .4% 4 .4% 39. .0% 0. .1% 19..4%  17 5 38 0 22  .9 .7 . 1 .8 .0  22.3% 6.8% 38.9% 2.0% 25.0%  9 .6%  12..7%  15 . 1  16.9%  5 5 . .3%  6 1 . 1%  68. 4  77.8%  4 1 . .5% 7. .0% 9. .2% 3 5 . .4% 0. 4% 0. 8% 4 8 . 9% 0. 5% 18..4% 3 2 . .2%  4 0 . .6% 8. 1% 14. 3% 3 3 . 9% 0. 7% 1. 3% 7 1 . 0% 0 . 4% 18. 9% 3 5 . 1%  33, ,8 13..4 12..4 3 0 . .4 2. 4 19. 7 6. 1 0. 9 2 2 . .9 41. 1  45.0% 31.0% 24.3% 42.3% 6.5% 22.6% 16.6% 1.3% 34.0% 51 .6%  31. 58. 77. 76. 63. 28. 60.  32. 62. 78. 79. 71. 31. 61.  27. 64. 64. 78. 63. 34. 54.  39.4% 67.4% 70.6% 82.7% 67.9% 40.4% 59.0%  22 5 42 0 23  .3%  .2%  SERVICES:  1. D i s t r i b u t i v e : a . C l e r i c a l (41) b. S a l e s : (1) Commodities ( 5 1 3 / 5 1 4 ) (2) S e r v i c e s (517) (3) Other (519) Sales total c . T r a n s p o r t E q u i p . O p e r . (91) d. M a t e r i a l H a n d l i n g (93) e . E l e c t r o n i c s a n d Communic. (955) f . M e c h a n i c s a n d R e p a i r e r s (858) g . P r i n t i n g (951 & 9 5 9 ) Distributive total: 2. Consumer: a . A r t i s t i c a n d L i t e r a r y (33) b. F o o d a n d B e v e r a g e ( 6 1 2 ) c . L o d g i n g (613) d. Personal (614) e . A p p a r e l a n d F u r n i s h i n g (616) f. Other (619) Consumer t o t a l :  1% 6% 9% 8% 1%  0%  2%  5% 9% 4% 2%  4%  8%  4%  175  2 1 3 2 9 1 5  3. Advanced: a . Non-government A d m i n i s t . (113/114) b. N a t u r a l S c i e n c e s : ( 1 ) P h y s i c a l S c i e n c e s (211) (2) L i f e S c i e n c e s (213) (3) A r c h . , E n g i n . & P l a n . (214/215) (4) T e c h n o l o g i s t s and Techn. (216) (5) M a t h e m a t i c s and S t a t i s t i c s (218) Natural Sciences total c. Social Sciences: (1) S o c i a l S c i e n c e s (231) (2) L e g a l (234) Social Sciences total d. Other (117) Advanced t o t a l 4. N o n - P r o f i t : a . Government A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ( 1 1 1 ) b. E d u c a t i o n : (1) U n i v e r s i t y (271) (2) E l e m e n t a r y and Secondary (273) (3) T e a c h i n g A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (1133) (4) Other (279) Education t o t a l c. Health: (1) D i a g n o s i s and Treatment (311) (2) N u r s i n g and Therapy (313) (3) H e a l t h A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (1134) (4) Other ( 3 1 5 / 3 1 6 ) Health total d. R e l i g i o u s (25) e. P r o t e c t i v e (611) f . S o c i a l Work (233 & 2 3 9 ) g . L i b r a r y a n d Museum ( 2 3 5 ) Non-Profit total SERVICES III. TOTAL  TOTAL:  OTHER:  10 . 1%  11 . 9  21.2%  -  5 6 0 12 14 8  .3% .1% .4% .4% .8% .4%  11 .7 24 .4 1 .6 4 .2 15 . 3 7 .3  18.6% 26.7% 4.6% 11.2% 2 9 . 1% 13.9%  -  12 2 4 7 9  .0% .5% .0% . 1% .4%  28 7 14 15 11  3 8 . 1% 22.2% 28.3% 3 3 . 1% 21.8%  9 .2% 3..8% 2 .5% 19 .2% 14 .5% 10 .0% 2 .1% 2 .1% 12..4% 9 .5%  .5 . 1 .7 .8 .5  8 .9%  9 .2%  13 .8  22.4%  15..0% 72. .5%  21 .2% 7 0 .7% 28 .9% 48 .0% 66. .4%  17 .8 66 .4 20 .6 50. .7 57. .4  29.6% 65.3% 23.4% 54.2% 57.4%  36. .4% 6 9 . .8% 3 9 . 7% 0. 9% 6 3 . 2% 8 6 . 7% 4 1 . 4%  6. .4% 8 9 . 0% 43 .6% 48. 7 2 . .0% 2 8 . .9% 2. .4% 5 3 . 3% 8 1 . .7% 4 2 . 8%  10..5 87. 7 4 8 , ,4 62. 8 73. .9 15..7 3. 9 47. 6 71. 9 49. 3  17.8% 89.4% 53.9% 72.2% 77.3% 29.9% 12.2% 64.9% 76.3% 55.3%  3 3 . 2%  3 5 . .7%  41 . 6  48.6%  8. 2%  2 3 . 4%  37. 7  38.2%  2 2 . 0%  2 7 . .3%  34. 3  40.6%  -  58 .1% 69 ,3% 4. 0% 8 9 . 6%  -  176  Appendix  I:  L i s t i n g o f Canadian Census M e t r o p o l i t a n f o r t h e 1951 - 1981 C e n s u s P e r i o d s .  Areas  Census Year 1951 Calgary Edmonton Hamilton Montreal Ottawa Quebec Toronto Vancouver Windsor Winnipeg  1961 Calgary Edmonton Halifax Hamilton Kitchener London Montreal Ottawa Sudbury Quebec Toronto Vancouver Victor ia Windsor Winnipeg  1971 Calgary C h i c o u t imi Edmonton Halifax Hamilton Kitchener London Montreal Ottawa St C a t h e r i n e s S a i n t John St. John's Saskatoon Sudbury Quebec T h u n d e r Bay Toronto Vancouver Victoria Windsor Winnipeg  1981 Calgary C h i c o u t imi Edmonton Halifax Ham i1 t o n Kitchener London Montrea1 Oshawa Ottawa-Hul1 Quebec Regina St C a t h e r i n e s S a i n t John St. John's Saskatoon Sudbury Thunder Bay Toronto Trois-Rivieres Vancouver Victoria Windsor Winnipeg  Appendix J : L i s t i n g of  Large,  S m a l l a n d Non-CMAs.  L a r g e Census M e t r o p o l i t a n Areas: T o r o n t o , M o n t r e a l , and Vancouver. Small Census M e t r o p o l i t a n Areas: R e m a i n i n g Census M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a s . Non-Census M e t r o p o l i t a n Areas: T o t a l C a n a d i a n Labour F o r c e minus L a r g e and S m a l l Census M e t r o p o l i t a n  178  Areas.  A p p e n d i x K: L i s t  of  SIZE  POSITION  TYPE VARIABLE T I T L E AND CODES  5  1-5  N  IDENTIFICATION  2  6-7  N  STANDARD GEOGRAPHIC CODE  10 11 12 13 24 35 46 47 48 59 1  8  V a r i a b l e s t o b e u s e d i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e 198G S u r v e y o f Consumer F i n a n c e s .  Newfoundland P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d Nova S c o t i a New B r u n s w i c k Quebec Ontario Manitoba Saskatchewan Alberta B r i t i s h Columbia N  1 2 3 4  NUMBER  AREA  Large Large Minor Other  urban urban urban urban  5 Rural  Areas  3  10-12  N  7  13-19  N  7  27-33  N  centres centres centres centres  with with with with  a a a a  p o p u l a t i o n of 500,000 p o p u l a t i o n o f 100,000 p o p u l a t i o n of 30,000 p o p u l a t i o n less than  o r more to 499,999 t o 99,000 30,000  SCF FINAL UNIVERSAL WEIGHT WAGES AND SALARIES (INCLUDING MILITARY PAY AND ALLOWANCES) TOTAL EARNINGS  NUMBER 1  211  N  U n d e r 6 YEARS OF AGE  0 - 2 A c t u a l number 3 T h r e e o r more 212  N 0-2 Actual 3 Three or  249  N  6-17  YEARS OF AGE  number more MARITAL STATUS  1 S i n g l e (never married) 2 M a r r i e d ( o r l i v i n g common 3 Other  law) 179  250-251  N  AGE  1 5 - 7 5 A c t u a l Age 7G Age 76 o r o v e r 252  N 1  Male  2  Female  253  259  SEX  N  EDUCATION LEVEL  1  No s c h o o l i n g o r  2 3 4 5 6 7 8  9 - 1 0 years of elementary 11 y e a r s o f e l e m e n t a r y a n d 12 y e a r s o f e l e m e n t a r y a n d 13 y e a r s o f e l e m e n t a r y a n d Some p o s t - s e c o n d a r y Post-secondary c e r t i f i c a t e U n i v e r s i t y degree N LABOUR FORCE STATUS  1 2 3  Employed Unemployed Not i n Labour  260  N 1 2 3 4 5 6  and secondary secondary secondary secondary or  diploma  Force  CLASS OF WORKER (CURRENT OR LAST u'OB)  Paid, private sector Paid, public sector Self-employed Unpaid f a m i l y worker Never worked b e f o r e L a s t w o r k e d more t h a n f i v e y e a r s a g e  261-262 01 263-264 01 265-266  elementary  N 49 N 16 N  1971 OCCUPATIONAL CLASSIFICATION (CURRANT OR LAST UOB) See Appendix L f o r a d e t a i l e d l i s t i n g of o c c u p a t i o n a l codes. INDUSTRY See Appendix M f o r a d e t a i l e d l i s t i n g of  i n d u s t r i a l codes.  TOTAL USUAL HOURS WORKED  00-64 A c t u a l hours 65 65 o r more h o u r s  180  1  2G8  N 1 2 3 4 5 G 7  2  N  1  277  278  WEEKS WORKED LAST YEAR  (1982)  None  01-52 1  JOB)  L e s s t h a n 7 months 7 - 1 2 months 1-5 y e a r s 6-10 years 11-20 y e a r s Over 20 y e a r s Not a p p 1 i c a b 1 e  275-276 00  JOB TENURE (CURRENT  A c t u a l number o f N  WORKED MOSTLY F U L L - T I M E OR PART-TIME  1  Full-time  2  Part-time  3  D i d n o t work N  weeks  last  LAST YEAR ( 1 9 8 2 )  year  WORK ACTIVITY full-time  IN REFERENCE YEAR  1  Full-year  2 3  Other worker D i d n o t work i n r e f e r e n c e  worker year  181  A p p e n d i x L:  1980 S t a n d a r d O c c u p a t i o n a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n  Reference Code O c c u p a t i o n a l T i t l e a n d Code M a n a g e r i a l , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and ( M a j o r g r o u p 11) 01. 02. 03.  O f f i c i a l s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , govt (111) O t h e r m a n a g e r s a n d a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ( 1 1 3 , 114) Management a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n r e l a t e d ( 1 1 7 ) Natural sciences, (Major group 21)  04. 05. 06. 07.  e n g i n e e r i n g and mathematics  P h y s i c a l , l i f e s c i e n c e s , math, s t a t s , systems a n a l y s i s and r e l a t e d (211, A r c h i t e c t s a n d e n g i n e e r s ( 2 1 4 , 215) A r c h i t e c t u r e and e n g i n e e r i n g r e l a t e d (216) S o c i a l s c i e n c e s a n d r e l a t e d . R e l i g i o n ( M a j o r g r o u p s 2 3 , 25) M e d i c i n e and h e a l t h  08. 09. 10. 11.  (Major  group  U n i v e r s i t y and r e l a t e d (271) E l e m e n t a r y , s e c o n d a r y and r e l a t e d O t h e r t e a c h i n g and r e l a t e d (279) Clerical  15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.  and r e l a t e d (Major  group  group  33)  27)  (273) group  41)  S t e n o g r a p h i c and t y p i n g (411) • B o o k k e e p i n g , a c c o u n t - r e c o r d i n g a n d r e l a t e d (413) O f f i c e machine and E . D . P . o p e r a t o r s (414) M a t e r i a l r e c o r d i n g , s c h e d u l i n g and d i s t r i b u t i o n (415) R e c e p t i o n , i n f o r m a t i o n , m a i l a n d message d i s t r i b u t i o n (417) L i b r a r y , f i l e , c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , o t h e r c l e r i c a l and r e l a t e d (416, Sales,  (Major  group  51)  21.  S a l e s , commodities  (513,  514)  22.  S a l e s , s e r v i c e s and other s a l e s (517, S e r v i c e (Major  23.  31)  H e a l t h d i a g n o s i n g and t r e a t i n g (311) N u r s i n g , t h e r a p y a n d r e l a t e d (313) O t h e r m e d i c i n e and h e a l t h r e l a t e d (315) A r t i s t i c , l i t e r a r y , r e c r e a t i o n a l and r e l a t e d (Major T e a c h i n g and r e l a t e d (Major  12. 13. 14.  related  Protective service  group  519)  61)  (611) 182  419)  213,  218)  24. 25. 26.  F o o d a n d b e v e r a g e p r e p a r a t i o n 8> r e l a t e d , l o d g i n g and accomodation (612, 613) P e r s o n a l , a p p a r e l and f u r n i s h i n g s e r v i c e (614, O t h e r s e r v i c e o c c u p a t i o n s (619) Farming, h o r t i c u l t u r a l and animal (Major group 71)  27.  Farmers  28.  Other  29.  F i s h i n g , t r a p p i n g and r e l a t e d (Major  30.  F o r e s t r y and l o g g i n g (Major  31.  M i n i n g and q j a r r y i n g  616)  husbandry  (711)  farming,  h o r t i c u l t u r a l and animal husbandry  group  group  groups 81,  Food, beverage and r e l a t e d (821,  33.  Other p r o c e s s i n g occupations (811-817,  f i e l d (Major  group  823-829)  group  Metal s h a p i n g and forming o c c u p a t i o n s  35.  Other  83) (833)  835-839)  P r o d u c t f a b r i c a t i n g , a s s e m b l i n g and r e p a i r i n g (Major (851,  group  36.  Metal products,  37. 38. 39. 40.  E l e c t r i c a l , e l e c t r o n i c and r e l a t e d equipment (853) T e x t i l e s , f u r and l e a t h e r goods (855, 856) Wood p r o d u c t s , r u b b e r , p l a s t i c a n d o t h e r ( 8 5 4 , 8 5 7 , 859) Mechanics and repairmen except e l e c t r i c a l (858) C o n s t r u c t i o n t r a d e (Major group 87) E x c a v a t i o n , g r a d i n g , p a v i n g a n d r e l a t e d (871) E l e c t r i c a l power, l i g h t i n g and w i r e communications equipment, O t h e r c o n s t r u c t i o n t r a d e s (878, 879) T r a n s p o r t equipment o p e r a t o r s (Major group 91)  41. 42. 43.  n.e.c.  77)  822)  34.  machining occupations (831,  73)  82)  32.  M a c h i n i n g and r e l a t e d (Major  719)  75)  i n c l u d i n g gas and o i l  P r o c e s s i n g (Major  (718,  85)  852)  44. 45. 46.  Motor t r a n s p o r t o p e r a t o r s (917) O t h e r t r a n s p o r t e q u i p m e n t o p e r a t o r s ( 9 1 1 - 9 1 5 , 919) M a t e r i a l h a n d l i n g a n d r e l a t e d ( M a j o r g r o u p 93)  47. 48. 49.  Other c r a f t s and equipment o p e r a t o r s Never worked b e f o r e L a s t w o r k e d more t h a n 5 y e a r s a g o  (Major  group  95)  183  erecting,  i n s t a l l i n g and r e p a i r i n g  (873)  A p p e n d i x M:  Industrial  Reference Code Industrial 01. 02. 03. 04. 05. 06. 07. 08. 09. 10. 11 . 12. 13. 14. 15.  Classification  Title  Agr i c u 1 t u r e Other primary Manufacturing, non-durables Manufacturing, durables Construct ion T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , communication & other Wholesale trade Retail trade F i n a n c e , i n s u r a n c e and r e a l e s t a t e Community s e r v i c e s Personal senvices B u s i n e s s and m i s c e l l a n e o u s s e r v i c e s Public administration Never worked L a s t w o r k e d more t h a n 5 y e a r s a g o  utilities  184  A p p e n d i x N: Summary T a b l e s o f t h e A n a l y s i s o f R e c a l c u l a t e d L a b o u r Force Experience Table  1A.  Decomposition of the Male-Female Earnings G a p , C a n a d a 198G, S C F , F u l l E q u a t i o n s  Earnings  a n d Components  Dollars  1)  Male Actual Earnings M a l e C o n s t a n t + sum b X m m  2)  Female A c t u a l E a r n i n g s F e m a l e C o n s t a n t + sum b X f  29,010 19,037 f  3)  F e m a l e , No D i s c r i m i n a t i o n M a l e c o n s t a n t + sum b X , m f  4)  C o e f f i c i e n t s Component, Wage D i s c r i m i n a t i o n R e s i d u a l sum(b - b ) X . m  f  Percentage  23,455  5,555  55.7%  )  5)  Endowment D i f f e r e n c e s sum(X - X,)b m f m  4,418  44.3%  6)  Overall Differential Y - Y.  9,973  100.0%  Note:  Source:  D o l l a r f i g u r e s a r e c a l c u l a t e d f r o m t h e means a n d r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s i n T a b l e 6A. F o r T a b l e s 1A a n d 2A the r e m a i n i n g f i g u r e s are a l t e r n a t e l y c a l c u l a t e d as follows: ( 4 ) = ( 3 ) - ( 2 ) : ( 5 ) = ( 1 ) - ( 3 ) : a n d (G) = ( 4 ) + (5) = (1) (2). S e e T a b l e 6A f o r t h e means a n d r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s (b's) for the f u l l regression  equation.  M  CO  Ul  T a b l e 2A.  Decomposition of the Male-Female Earnings C a n a d a 198G, S C F , P a r t i a l E q u a t i o n s  E a r n i n g s a n d Components  Dollars  1)  Male Actual Earnings  29,011  2)  Female A c t u a l E a r n i n g s  19,003  3)  Female,  26,212  4)  Coefficients  No D i s c r i m i n a t i o n  Percentage  Component,  Wage D i s c r i m i n a t i o n R e s i d u a l  7,209  72.0%  5)  Endowment  2,799  28.0%  6)  Overall  10.007  100.0%  Note:  Source:  Gap,  Differences  Differential  D o l l a r f i g u r e s a r e c a l c u l a t e d f r o m t h e means a n d r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s i n T a b l e 7A. F o r T a b l e s 1A a n d 2A t h e r e m a i n i n g f i g u r e s a r e a l t e r n a t e l y c a l c u l a t e d as follows: (4) = (3) - ( 2 ) ; (5) = (1) - ( 3 ) ; and (6) = (4) + (5) - (1) - ( 2 ) . S e e T a b l e 7A f o r t h e means a n d r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s (b's) the part regression equation.  186  T a b l e 3A.  U n a d j u s t e d and A d j u s t e d E a r n i n g s R a t i o from F u l l and P a r t i a l R e g r e s s i o n Equations  Unadjusted Earnings R a t i o Adjusted Earnings Ratio,  0.66 F u l l Regression Equation  Adjusted Earnings R a t i o , P a r t i a l Regression Equation  0.81 0.75  187  C o n t r i b u t i o n of Each V a r i a b l e t o the Earnings Gap  T a b l e 4A.  Full  Due t o Endowments  Equations  Due t o Due t o b o t h Wage D i s c r i m i nn a t i co n Residuar ' 1  V a r i a b l e Names  bm(Xm-Xf)  Constant  0 .00  (bm-bf)Xf  (bmXm-bfXf)  - 7 3 2 3 .78 - 7 3 2 3 .78  Educat ion  - 5 4 0 . .89  1388 . 14  847, .24  Experience  2 1 7 5 . .92  227, .61  2403 .53  (Single) Married Other  7 4 1 . .23 - 1 8 6 .58  2978, .51 130,,59  3719, .74 - 5 5 . .99  (Rural) Small Urban Medium U r b a n Large Urban E x t r a Large Urban  17 .82 14..36 - 3 . .22 - 1 4 2 . .97  - 2 7 9 .91 309. .38 36, .54 215. ,82  - 2 6 2 .09 323 ,73 33, .32 72, .85  (Atlantic) Quebec Ontar i o P r a i r ies B r i t i s h Columbia  - 6 . .63 - 4 0 .49 2 6 . .85 18.. 17  3 0 . . 10 305. 06 3 5 2 . .97 208. .74  23. ,48 264. .57 379. .82 226. .91  Average Hours  2 3 7 . 08  - 1 0 5 0 . ,81  - 8 1 3 . ,73  (Public) Private  - 2 3 . .87  1494. 50  1470. 63  (Two C h i I d r e n ) No C h i l d r e n One C h i l d Three o r More  2 8 7 . .77 4 5 . .43 - 4 , ,47  Occupation Industry Total Percentage  Worked  - 1 9 4 1 . 77 - 1 6 5 4 . ,01 - 5 0 2 . ,09 - 4 5 6 . .65 8. 83 4. 36  2 2 0 1 . 84  3 2 3 6 . ,56  5 4 3 8 . 39  7 3 8 . 01  4593. 06  5 3 3 1 . 07  5 5 5 5 . 36  4 4 1 8 . 05  9 9 7 3 . 41  55.7%  44.3%  100.0%  188  Source:  C a l c u l a t e d from the r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s ( b ' s ) t h e mean v a l u e s o f t h e e x p l a n a t o r y v a r i a b l e s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 6A.  and  (i)  T h i s r e p r e s e n t s pay d i s c r i m i n a t i o n as w e l l as t h e e f f e c t of unmeasured p r o d u c t i v i t y - r e l a t e d f a c t o r s , and i n a c c u r a t e measurement f o r f a c t o r s i n c l u d e d i n t h e a n a l y s i s .  (ii)  The f i r s t column f o r t h e O c c u p a t i o n and I n d u s t r y c a t e g o r i e s r e p r e s e n t s t h e i m p a c t o f t h e mean d i s t r i b u t i o n o f men a n d women a c r o s s h i g h a n d l o w - p a y i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l and i n d u s t r i a l c a t e g o r i e s . The s e c o n d column, l a b e l l e d "Due t o Wage D i s c r i m i n a t i o n R e s i d u a l " , r e p r e s e n t s t h e d i f f e r e n c e between male and f e m a l e r e t u r n s t o moving from a lower p a y i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r y t o the next h i g h e r paying category.  189  Table  C o n t r i b u t i o n of Gap  5A.  Partial  Equations  Due t o Endowments  Each V a r i a b l e t o t h e  Due t o Due t o Wage Discrimination Residual '  Earnings  both  1 1  V a r i a b l e Names  bm(Xm-Xf)  Constant  (bm-bf)Xf  (bmXm-bfXf)  0 .00  4650 . 16  4650 . 16  Educat ion  - 6 8 9 .93  1117 .08  427 . 15  Exper ience  2474 .60  253 . 2 0  2727 . 8 0  (Single) Married Other  921 .55 - 2 7 7 . .37  3717 .60 2 7 0 . .88  4639. . 15 - 6 , ,48  (Rural) Smal1 U r b a n Medium U r b a n Large Urban E x t r a Large Urban  24. .71 14..69 - 3 . .37 - 1 3 8 . .03  - 6 4 .30 132. .85 1..73 - 8 . .96  - 3 9 .59 147 .53 - 1 . .64 - 1 4 6 . .99  (Atlantic) Quebec Ontario Prairies B r i t i s h Columbia  - 7 . .98 - 4 9 . 42 3 2 . 90 2 0 . 60  7 5 . 23 368. 24 5 3 1 . 97 2 5 0 . .09  6 7 . 25 318. 82 564. .88 270. .69  Average Hours  172. 88  Worked  - 2 5 6 4 . .61 - 2 3 9 1 . 74  (Public) Private  - 8 7 . 32  (Two C h i l d r e n ) No C h i l d r e n One C h i I d T h r e e o r More  3 4 9 . 08 5 5 . 14 - 1 3 . 98  - 2 2 2 9 . 47 - 1 8 8 0 . 39 - 6 0 8 . 02 - 5 5 2 . 88 11. 00 - 2 . 98  2 7 9 8 . 75  7 2 0 9 . 17 10007. 93  Total Percentage Source:  28.0%  1304. 51  72.0%  1217. 19  100.0%  C a l c u l a t e d from the r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s (b's) t h e mean v a l u e s o f t h e e x p l a n a t o r y v a r i a b l e s  and  190  t  presented  in Table  7A.  T h i s r e p r e s e n t s pay d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a s w e l l a s t h e e f f e c t o f unmeasured p r o d u c t i v i t y - r e l a t e d f a c t o r s , and i n a c c u r a t e measurement f o r f a c t o r s i n c l u d e d i n t h e a n a l y s i s . The f i r s t c o l u m n f o r t h e O c c u p a t i o n a n d I n d u s t r y c a t e g o r i e s r e p r e s e n t s t h e i m p a c t o f t h e mean d i s t r i b u t i o n o f men a n d women a c r o s s h i g h a n d l o w - p a y i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l and i n d u s t r i a l c a t e g o r i e s . The s e c o n d c o l u m n , l a b e l l e d "Due t o Wage D i s c r i m i n a t i o n R e s i d u a l " , r e p r e s e n t s t h e d i f f e r e n c e between male and f e m a l e r e t u r n s t o moving from a lower p a y i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r y t o the next higher paying category.  19  T a b l e 6A. E a r n i n g s E q u a t i o n s f o r Males and Females ( i ) F u l l - r e g r e s s i o n Equation  Unstandardized Regression C o e f f i c i e n t s  Values f o r V a r i a b l e Name  Values for  Females  , . . . M e a n X , Coef. (i i) f  b * M e a n f  X  m  (iii)  Males  Coef.  b m  Constant  1 . 0 0 - 1 2 1 6 1 .22  1 .00 -19485 .00  Educat i o n  4 .96  1339 . 2 9  4 .62  1619 .44  11 . 13  267 . 2 9  18 . 6 9  287 .74  (Single) Married Other  0 .65 0 . 11  719 .22 1556 . 5 9  0 .79 0 .04  5294 .51 2743 .79  (Rural) Smal1 U r b a n Medium U r b a n Large Urban E x t r a L a r g e Urban  0 .20 0. . 16 0. . 11 0. .34  2485 . 7 9 1679 .24 2893 .99 2857. .95  0 .22 0 . 17 0 .11 0. .30  1113 .70 3588 .99 3220 .20 3487. . 17  (Atlantic) Quebec Ontar io Prairies B r i t i s h Co1umb i a  0. . 16 0. .25 0. 31 0. 0 9  7 5 8 . .62 1141..61 1302. .45 1414. . 17  0. . 15 0. 23 0. .32 0. 10  946. .76 2 3 8 1 . .67 2 4 4 1 . ,06 3634. 81  2 0 2 1 . 63  1. 75  2 2 1 4 . 67  1. 23  (Public) Pr i v a t e  0 . 72  - 2 7 4 7 . 40  0. 75  - 6 6 3 . 02  (Two C h i l d r e n ) No C h i l d r e n One C h i I d Three o r More  0. 5 9 0. 20 0 . 05  6 4 5 . 52 3 8 5 . 16 - 2 6 1 . 11  0 . 48 0 . 18 0 . 11  - 2 6 4 0 . 05 - 2 1 6 3 . 50 - 7 7 . 07  Exper i e n c e  Average Hours  Worked  O c c u p a t i on  2 2 9 4 2 . 26  0 . 35 2 7 4 2 8 . 00  0 . 49  Industry  2 4 8 1 3 . 14  0 . 32 2 6 2 7 9 . 88  0. 50  Source:  Computed f r o m d a t a f r o m t h e M i c r o D a t a f i l e o f  the  1986 S u r v e y o f Consumer F i n a n c e s : a n d o v e r , w i t h a n d w i t h o u t income,  Individuals 1985.  age 15  Notes: (i)  T h e s a m p l e s ^ z e i s 2753 f o r women a n d 4450 f o r men. The calculated R i s . 3 2 f o r women a n d . 3 0 f o r men f o r t h e f u l 1 - r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n , a n d . 2 6 f o r women a n d . 2 3 f o r men i n t h e p a r t i a l r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n .  (ii)  T h e r e f e r e n c e g r o u p f o r t h e dummy o r i s indicated in parentheses.  (iii) (iv)  The B e t a v a l u e s and t h e v a l u e s f o r p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 9A.  indicator  variables  the F s t a t i s t i c  are  T h e r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t (b) c a n b e i n t e r p r e t e d a s t h e change i n e a r n i n g s t h a t r e s u l t from a u n i t of change i n t h e explanatory v a r i a b l e holding the other v a r i a b l e s in the equation constant. For c a t e g o r i c and i n d i c a t o r v a r i a b l e s , b r e p r e s e n t s t h e a p p r o x i m a t e p e r c e n t a g e change i n e a r n i n g s t h a t r e s u l t f r o m a u n i t change i n t h e c a t e g o r i c o r i n d i c a t o r variable.  193  T a b l e 7A. E a r n i n g s E q u a t i o n s f o r M a l e s a n d F e m a l e s , P a r t i a l - r e g r e s s i o n Equation  Unstandardized Regression C o e f f i c i e n t s V a l u e s f o r Females ..Mean X , Coef. Variable Name ( 1 1 7  f  b  r  (  l  1  Values for 1  ^  Mean X  Males  Coef. m  f  b m  Constant  1 .00  647 .01  1..00  5297 . 17  Educat ion  4 .96  1840 .22  4, .62  2065 . 6 6  Exper ience  11.. 13  304 . 4 9  18..69  327 .24  (Single) Married Other  0. .65 0 .11  8 7 1 . .88 1616 .35  0. 79 0. ,04  6582 .48 4078 .94  (Rural) Sma11 U r b a n Medium U r b a n Large Urban E x t r a Large Urban  0. 20 0. . 16 0. .11 0. 34  1859. ,41 2 8 5 1 . ,57 3354. .54 3 3 9 2 . .72  0. 22 0. , 17 0. 11 0. 30  1544 ,23 3671 .62 3369, .96 3366, .60  (Atlantic) Quebec Ontario Prair ies B r i t i s h Columbia  0. 16 0. 25 0. .31 0. 09  6 6 9 . .55 1410. 02 1274. 99 1460. 36  0. 0. 0. 0.  15 23 32 10  1139. 73 2906. 92 2991 .03 4120. 84  2021 ..63  2 . . 16  2 2 1 4 . 67  0. 90  Average Hours  Worked  (Public) Pr ivate  0. 72  - 4 2 4 4 . 84  0 . 75  - 2 4 2 5 . 44  (Two C h i l d r e n ) No Ch i 1 d r e n One C h i I d Three o r More  0. 59 0. 2 0 0. 05  5 6 9 . 78 4 6 0 . 61 - 4 7 0 . 18  0 . 48 0 . 18 0 . 11  - 3 2 0 2 . 60 - 2 6 2 5 . 77 - 2 4 1 . 03  T a b l e 8A. Mean P e r c e n t a g e Change i n E a r n i n g s from a U n i t Change i n t h e Independent V a r i a b l e Full  Regression Equation  V a r i a b l e Name  Women  Men  - 6 3 . .88%  - 6 7 . 17%  Educat ion  7. .04%  5 .58%  Experience  1 .40% .  0 .99%  (Single) Marr i e d Other  3. .78% 8. . 18%  18 .25% 9. .46%  13. 06% 8. .82% 15. 20% 15. 01%  3, .84% 12,.37% 11'..10% 12..02%  (Atlantic) Quebec Ontario P r a i r ies B r i t i s h Columbia  3. .98% 6. 00% 6. . 84% 7. 43%  3 .26% 8. .21% 8..41% 12..53%  Average Hours  0. .01%  0. .00%  - 1 4 . .43%  - 2 . .29%  Constant  (Rural) Small Urban Medium U r b a n L a r g e Urban E x t r a Large Urban  (Public) Pr ivate (Two C h i l d r e n ) No C h i l d r e n One C h i I d T h r e e o r More  Worked  2.^02%  3. 39%  - 1 . 37%  - 9 . . 10% - 7 . . 46% - 0 . .27%  Occupation  0.0018%  0.0017%  Industry  0.0017%  0.0017%  Notes: (i) From t h e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n Y = a + bX . . . b X . , t h u s when t h e mean v a l u e s f o r e a c h i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e a r e s u b s t i t u t e d i n t o t h e e q u a t i o n , t h e mean p e r c e n t a g e c h a n g e i n income f r o m a u n i t c h a n g e 1n t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e i s c a l c u l a t e d by (bX/Y)*100. Where b i s t h e r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t , X i s t h e mean f o r e a c h i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e , a n d Y i s a c t u a l mean earnings. 195  T a b l e 9A. Full  F - S t a t i s t i c s ^ and S t a n d a r d i z e d  Regression  Equations  V a r i a b l e Name  Women  Regression^ '^Values 1  Men  Beta  F-Stat.  Beta  F-Stat.  49. . 15  0 .00**  104. .04'  0 .00  Education  0. .29  227 . 18**  0. .27  301 . 2 0  Exper ience  0. 16  7 7 ., 7 9 * *  0. 22  186. .06  (Single) Marr i e d Other  0. .03 0 .05  2 .65 6. •21  0, 15 0. .04  72 .73 7 . 19  (Rural) Smal1 U r b a n Medium U r b a n Large Urban E x t r a Large Urban  0 .07 0. .09 0. ,09 0 . 14  10 . 7 0 * * 20 . 4 8 * * 20. . 8 6 * * 32. . 8 2 * *  0. .03 0. .09 0. 07 0. 11  3. .96 35 . 12 20. .44 38. .85  (Atlantic) Quebec Ontario Prairies B r i t i s h Columbia  0. .03 0, .05 0. .06 0, 04  1 .73 4 .51* 7. . 0 3 * * 4. . 5 6 *  0. 02 0. ,07 0. 08 0. 08  2. .08 15.. 19 19..51 24, .77  Average Hours  0. .06  12,. 2 6 * *  0. ,03  6. .62  (Public) Private  - 0 . . 12  48 . 3 5 * *  - 0 . ,02  2. . 13  (Two C h i l d r e n ) No C h i l d r e n One C h i I d T h r e e o r More  0. .03 0. .02 - 0 . .01  1..88 0. ,53 0. 10  - 0 . 09 - 0 . 06 0. 00  26. .38 14. 41 0. .01  Occupation  0. 22  153 . 1 2 * *  0. 20  189. .94  Industry  0. 14  6 1 .. 7 5 * *  0. 16  132. .03  Constant  Worked  (i)  ** i n d i c a t e s a s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l o f l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e of .05.  .01 a n d * i n d i c a t e s a  (ii)  When v a r i a b l e s d i f f e r s u b s t a n t i a l l y i n u n i t s o f measurement, t h e s i z e o f t h e b c o e f f i c i e n t s does not r e v e a l a n y t h i n g about 196  the r e l a t i v e importance of the v a r i a b l e . To make r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s more c o m p a r a b l e B e t a w e i g h t s a r e c a l c u l a t e d f o r each of t h e independent v a r i a b l e s . The B e t a v a l u e s a r e expressed in a s t a n d a r d i z e d form. The v a l u e s o f t h e B e t a c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e c o n t i n g e n t on t h e o t h e r independent variables in the equation. They a r e a l s o a f f e c t e d by t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s o f t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s a n d do n o t a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t t h e s t r e n g t h of t h e v a r i o u s independent v a r i a b l e s ( N o r u s i s , 1985).  197  Table  Full  10A.  R a t i o of Female-to-Male Earnings, Adjusted for D i f f e r e n c e s i n Endowments, f o r D i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e C o e f f i c i e n t s Component, a n d f o r d i f f e r e n c e due t o Both  Regression  Equation  Unadjusted Earnings Ratio  0.66 Endowment  Coefficient  Both  Variable Constant  0. .66  0. .40  0 .40  Educat ion  0. .64  0, .70  0 .69  Experience  0 .73  0 .66  0 .74  (Single) Married Other  0. .68 0. .65  0. .76 0 .66  0 .78 0 ,65  (Rural) Sma11 U r b a n Medium U r b a n Large Urban E x t r a Large Urban  0. .66 0, .66 0. .66 0. .65  0. .65 0. .67 0. 66 0, ,66  0. ,65 0 ,67 0. , 6 6 0. ,66  (Atlantic) Quebec Ontario Prairies B r i t i s h Columbia  0. 66 0. .65 0. 66 0. 66  0, 0. 0. 0.  66 67 67 66  0 ,66 0. ,67 0. ,67 0. 66  Average Hours  0. 66  0. 62  0. 63  (Public) Pr ivate  0. 66  0. 71  0. 71  (Two C h i l d r e n ) No Ch i 1 d r e n One C h i I d T h r e e o r More  0. 67 0. 66 0. 66  0. 59 0. 64 0 . 66  0. 6 0 0. 64 0. 66  Occupation  0. 73  0. 77  0 . 84  Industry  0. 68  0. 81  0. 84  Worked  198  Note: The r a t i o s f o r e a c h v a r i a b l e f o r t h e Endowment component, the C o e f f i c i e n t s c o m p o n e n t , a n d t h e component due t o b o t h were c a l c u l a t e d as f o l l o w s : Endowment  Component  Coefficients Due t o B o t h  = (b„(X - X , ) + s u m ( b . 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