UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The letters of Conrad Aiken and Malcolm Lowry Sugars, Cynthia Conchita 1988

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THE LETTERS OF CONRAD AIKEN AND MALCOLM LOWRY By CYNTHIA CONCHITA SUGARS B.A., The University of British Columbia, 1986 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS I n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (English) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1988 Q C y n t h i a Conchita Sugars, 1988 In p resen t ing this thesis in part ia l f u l f i lmen t o f t h e requ i remen ts fo r an a d v a n c e d deg ree at t h e Univers i ty o f Bri t ish C o l u m b i a , I agree that t h e Library shall m a k e it f reely avai lable fo r re fe rence a n d s tudy . I f u r the r agree that permiss ion fo r ex tens ive c o p y i n g o f th is thesis fo r scholar ly pu rposes may be g r a n t e d by the h e a d o f m y d e p a r t m e n t o r b y his o r her representa t ives . It is u n d e r s t o o d that c o p y i n g o r pub l i ca t i on o f th is thesis f o r f inanc ia l gain shall n o t b e a l l o w e d w i t h o u t m y w r i t t e n pe rm iss ion . D e p a r t m e n t o f T h e Un ivers i ty o f Brit ish C o l u m b i a 1956 M a i n M a l l Vancouver , Canada V 6 T 1Y3 DE-6(3 /81) i i A b s t r a c t The f a s c i n a t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between Conrad A i k e n (1889-1973) and Malcolm Lowry (1909-1957) has formed the s u b j e c t of a number of c r i t i c a l s t u d i e s and f i c t i o n a l t r e a t m e n t s . The s t u d y of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s of v a l u e both f o r i t s b i o g r a p h i c a l i n t e r e s t and l i t e r a r y s i g n i f i c a n c e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n terms of the l i t e r a r y > i n f l u e n c e of one w r i t e r upon the o t h e r . Through A i k e n and Lowry's e n t e r t a i n i n g and e x t r e m e l y a r t i c u l a t e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , one has a c c e s s t o what i s p o s s i b l y the most i n t i m a t e view of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p a v a i l a b l e t o d a t e . A l t h o u g h a number of t h e s e l e t t e r s have been p r e v i o u s l y p u b l i s h e d , o f t e n In i n c o m p l e t e form, In S e l e c t e d L e t t e r s of Conrad A l k e n r ed. Joseph K i l l o r i n , and S e l e c t e d L e t t e r s of Malcolm Lowry f eds. Harvey B r e i t and M a r g e r i e Bonner Lowry, t h r e e - q u a r t e r s of the l e t t e r s have remained u n p u b l i s h e d . T h i s volume p r o v i d e s the f i r s t complete c o l l e c t i o n of A i k e n and Lowry's c o r r e s p o n d e n c e . I t c o m p r i s e s e i g h t y - n i n e l e t t e r s from the two w r i t e r s , i n c l u d i n g photographs, poems, and drawings which t h e y e n c l o s e d i n t h e i r l e t t e r s , w r i t t e n between 1929, the year when Lowry wrote h i s f i r s t l e t t e r of i n t r o d u c t i o n t o A i k e n , and 1954. T h i s c o l l e c t i o n c o n t a i n s the complete t e x t s of a l l l e t t e r s t o g e t h e r w i t h e d i t o r i a l notes and commentary. In a d d i t i o n , i t p r o v i d e s t e x t u a l notes o u t l i n i n g the changes made by each w r i t e r a t the time of c o m p o s i t i o n . These l e t t e r s not o n l y r e v e a l the mutual a d m i r a t i o n of Lowry and A i k e n , and a t times t h e i r j e a l o u s y of each o t h e r , but a r e l i t e r a r y works i n t h e i r own r i g h t . i i i T able of Contents A b s t r a c t . . . i i Acknowledgements i v I n t r o d u c t i o n v i E d i t o r i a l Note x v i i L i s t of A b b r e v i a t i o n s x x i v P a r t I: 1929-1938 1 Pa r t I I : 1939-1941 89 Part I I I : 1942-1954 319 Appendix I 483 Appendix II 498 Works Consulted . 508 i v Acknowledgements I n i t i a l l y I would l i k e t o thank the c o p y r i g h t h o l d e r s of t h e Lowry/Aiken l e t t e r s — M r s . P r i s c i l l a Woolfan, the C o n s e r v a t o r f o r the E s t a t e of M a r g e r i e Lowry, Mrs. Mary Hoover A i k e n , and the H u n t i n g t o n L i b r a r y , San Ma r i n o , C a l i f o r n i a - - f o r t h e i r generous p e r m i s s i o n t o r e p r i n t the l e t t e r s c o n t a i n e d i n the p r e s e n t c o l l e c t i o n . I a l s o g r a t e f u l l y acknowledge the f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t r e c e i v e d from the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Graduate F e l l o w s h i p which was g r a n t e d t o me f o r the two y e a r s of my M.A. program. S p e c i a l thanks i s extended t o my s u p e r v i s o r , Dr. S h e r r i l l G race, who has encouraged and s u p p o r t e d me on the p r o j e c t f o r t h e p a s t two y e a r s , and some time b e f o r e t h a t on my p r e v i o u s work on Lowry. I a l s o acknowledge the f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t r e c e i v e d from Dr. Grace's U.B.C. H u m a n i t i e s and S o c i a l S c i e n c e s R e s e a r c h Grant which e n a b l e d me t o v i s i t the H u n t i n g t o n L i b r a r y i n J u l y 1987. In a d d i t i o n , I w i s h t o thank the two o t h e r members of my committee, Dr. W i l l i a m New and Dr. H e r b e r t R o s e n g a r t e n , f o r t a k i n g the time t o c o n s u l t w i t h me on the t h e s i s and p r o v i d e me w i t h t h e i r s u g g e s t i o n s . I am p a r t i c u l a r l y g r a t e f u l t o the many l i b r a r i a n s i n the UBC S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y Anne Y a n d l e , and the UBC I n t e r - L i b r a r y Loan O f f i c e , f o r t h e i r u n t i r i n g h e l p w i t h t h e p r o j e c t . I am a l s o g r a t e f u l t o the s t a f f of t h e H u n t i n g t o n L i b r a r y and the A s s o c i a t e C u r a t o r of L i t e r a r y M a n u s c r i p t s t h e r e , Ms. Sara Hodson, f o r t h e i r h e l p when I was t h e r e i n the summer of 1987, and t h e i r p a t i e n t and prompt res p o n s e s t o my many r e q u e s t s and q u e r i e s by m a i l . Gordon Bowker has a l s o been a g r e a t h e l p , a n s w e r i n g my " s e a r c h i n g q u e s t i o n s " about Lowry's Cambridge y e a r s . I must a l s o thank Spectrum S o c i e t y and the v a r i o u s people a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t , e s p e c i a l l y E r n i e B a a t z , f o r the generous use of t h e i r computer, w i t h o u t which I c o u l d never have s u r v i v e d the o r d e a l of t y p i n g the m a n u s c r i p t , and f o r u n c o m p l a i n i n g l y s t e p p i n g around me and the many pages of Lowry/Aiken l e t t e r s s c a t t e r e d on t h e f l o o r of t h e i r s t a f f o f f i c e . And f i n a l l y , but most of a l l , I thank P a t r i c k McDonagh f o r h i s k i n d n e s s , h e l p , and encouragement, who w i t h me has endured, f o r the p a s t y e a r , a s e e m i n g l y n e v e r - e n d i n g voyage. I t e l l you t h i s young man So t h a t your o u t l o o k may perhaps be broadened. I who have seen s n o r i n g v o l c a n o e s And d i s m a l i s l a n d s shawled In snow. . . . Malcolm Lowry "I n Cape Cod With Conrad A i k e n " (Douglas Day, Malcolm Lowry, p. 179) v i I n t r o d u c t i o n Conrad A i k e n was twenty y e a r s Lowry's s e n i o r ; o l d enough, I t Is o f t e n s a i d , t o have been Lowry's f a t h e r . A i k e n had p u b l i s h e d more than twenty n o v e l s and books of p o e t r y b e f o r e the p u b l i c a t i o n of Lowry's f i r s t n o v e l ; he was s u f f i c i e n t l y e x p e r i e n c e d , t h e n , t o have been Lowry's l i t e r a r y t e a c h e r and a d v i s o r . A i k e n was a l s o a "man of the w o r l d , " a h a r d - d r i n k i n g , womanizing, s u i c i d a l man who was so I m p r e s s i v e l y and e x c i t i n g l y a p a r t from the "Wesleyan hush" of Lowry's boyhood home as t o have had a marked i n f l u e n c e on the "young E n g l i s h m a n ' s " a t t i t u d e toward h i m s e l f and the w o r l d . In a l l of the s e g u i s e s , A i k e n w i l l i n g l y became something of an I d o l t o h i s young d i s c i p l e . Yet i t was not l o n g b e f o r e w o r s h i p d e v e l o p e d i n t o r i v a l r y . While a d m i r i n g h i s mentor from a f a r , Lowry perhaps a l s o s e c r e t l y c o v e t e d f o r h i m s e l f the more d e s i r a b l e r o l e s : f a t h e r , l i t e r a r y master, t r a g i c h e r o . In the summer of 1984 a p l a y c a l l e d Goodnight D i s g r a c e , by M i c h a e l M e r c e r , opened a t the Shakespeare P l u s F e s t i v a l i n Nanaimo, B r i t i s h Columbia. T h i s p l a y had as i t s s u b j e c t what had f o r some time been a t o p i c of much d i s c u s s i o n and s p e c u l a t i o n among s p e c i f i c l i t e r a r y c i r c l e s : the r e l a t i o n s h i p between Conrad A i k e n and Malcolm Lowry. In t h i s p l a y we see the e x p e r i e n c e d and p r o l i f i c , though r e l a t i v e l y u n s u c c e s s f u l , A i k e n b e i n g g r a d u a l l y absorbed and usurped by the p u p i l whom he g e n e r o u s l y t u t o r s and gu i d e s toward l i t e r a r y s u c c e s s . Of c o u r s e , t h i s i s o n l y one, among many, s i d e s t o the s t o r y . In f a c t , Goodnight D i s g r a c e was by no means the f i r s t t r e a t m e n t v i i of the Aiken/Lowry r e l a t i o n s h i p . Some y e a r s e a r l i e r i n 1952, A i k e n had h i m s e l f i n c o r p o r a t e d much of h i s f r i e n d s h i p w i t h Lowry i n t o h i s f i c t i o n a l i z e d a u t o b i o g r a p h y Ushant. L i k e w i s e Lowry, as he p o i n t s out i n l e t t e r 40 o£ t h i s c o l l e c t i o n , had i n c o r p o r a t e d much of A i k e n i n t o h i s d e p i c t i o n of the Co n s u l i n Under the  V o l c a n o . B i o g r a p h i c a l v e r s i o n s of the r e l a t i o n s h i p a l s o e x i s t : from t h o s e of Douglas Day, M u r i e l Bradbrook, R i c h a r d Hauer C o s t a , and A i k e n ' s second w i f e , C l a r i s s a L o r e n z , t o a c c o u n t s w r i t t e n by the a u t h o r s t h e m s e l v e s . Lowry's l e t t e r t o Seymour Lawrence i n the 1952 A i k e n i s s u e of Wake f o c u s e s p r i m a r i l y on h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h A i k e n . S i m i l a r l y , A i k e n f r e q u e n t l y commented on h i s f r i e n d s h i p w i t h Lowry b o t h i n p r i n t and i n numerous i n t e r v i e w s . Most of t h e s e a c c o u n t s , however, a r e u n d e r s t a n d a b l y and perhaps n e c e s s a r i l y b i a s e d . Each f o c u s e s on a p a r t i c u l a r a s p e c t of the r e l a t i o n s h i p : the f a t h e r / s o n p a i r i n g , the t e a c h e r / p u p i l i n t e r a c t i o n , the v i c t i m / v i c t o r s t r u g g l e , e t c . The p r e s e n t c o l l e c t i o n of Lowry and A i k e n ' s c o r r e s p o n d e n c e p r o v i d e s one of the most complete p i c t u r e s of t h i s much d i s c u s s e d r e l a t i o n s h i p . While s e l e c t Items i n the c o l l e c t i o n have been p r i n t e d e i t h e r p a r t i a l l y or w h o l l y i n the S e l e c t e d  L e t t e r s of Malcolm Lowry and S e l e c t e d L e t t e r s of Conrad A i k e n , t h r e e - q u a r t e r s of t h e s e l e t t e r s have remained u n p u b l i s h e d . T h i s complete c o l l e c t i o n p r o v i d e s what i s perhaps the most i n t i m a t e v e r s i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p a v a i l a b l e thus f a r . Here the s t o r y i s t o l d , b o th o v e r t l y and u n c o n s c i o u s l y , by the p a r t i c i p a n t s t h emselves w i t h i n the v e r y r e l a t i o n s h i p i t s e l f . I t i s n o t , t h e n , a s t o r y t o l d a f t e r the f a c t , b u t , i n the c o n t e x t of t h e i r v i i i l e t t e r s , an e v o l v i n g one, b e g i n n i n g i n 1929 when Lowry wrote h i s f i r s t l e t t e r of I n t r o d u c t i o n t o A i k e n , and e n d i n g , a t l e a s t where the l e t t e r s a r e concerned, w i t h Lowry's ambiguous f a r e w e l l t e l e g r a m i n 1954. The r e s u l t i n g p i c t u r e i s v e r y much a m u l t i f a c e t e d one. I t r e v e a l s , i n f a c t , t h a t no one of the p r e v i o u s a c c o u n t s was wrong, so much as l i m i t e d . I t r e v e a l s a l s o t h a t A i k e n and Lowry's r e l a t i o n s h i p c o n t a i n e d a l l of the elements mentioned e a r l i e r — f a t h e r / s o n , t e a c h e r / p u p i l , v i c t i m / v i c t o r — a n d many more b e s i d e s . , These and o t h e r a s p e c t s of the r e l a t i o n s h i p a r e r e a d i l y a p p a r e n t i n the l e t t e r s . I f , as P a u l T i e s s e n s t a t e s , Lowry " t e a s e d i n t o e x i s t e n c e " h i s f i c t i o n a l f a t h e r / s o n r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h A i k e n ( 4 ) , the r e l a t i o n s h i p , as t h e s e l e t t e r s r e v e a l , p e r s i s t e d . From as e a r l y as 1929 ( l e t t e r 2 ) , b e f o r e a c t u a l l y h a v i n g met A i k e n , Lowry spoke, of h i s " f i l i a l a f f e c t i o n " f o r t h e man " o l d enough t o be t h i s ] f a t h e r " ; l a t e r , i n 1938, i n one o f h i s many " p l e a s f o r h e l p , " Lowry a d d r e s s e d a d e s p e r a t e l e t t e r t o A i k e n w i t h "a mi padre" ( l e t t e r 1 6 ) . Lowry's t r u e f a t h e r , on the o t h e r hand, i s d e s i g n a t e d e i t h e r "the b e w i l d e r e d p a r e n t " ( l e t t e r 2) o r , more r e g u l a r l y i n l a t e r l e t t e r s , "the O.M." ( o l d man). I n i t i a l l y assuming the r o l e of s u b s t i t u t e f a t h e r , i n 1930 A i k e n became Lowry's g u a r d i a n i n l o c o p a r e n t i s . In t h i s c a p a c i t y he c o n t r o l l e d Lowry's f i n a n c e s , p r o v i d e d him w i t h a home d u r i n g s c h o o l v a c a t i o n s , and a c t e d as an i n t e r m e d i a r y , as e v i d e n c e d i n l e t t e r 7, between Lowry and "the o l d man." In time Lowry began t o "usurp the s u c c e s s i o n " of A i k e n ' s own son (Ushant 352). He was, a f t e r a l l , t he i d e a l c h i l d - s u b s t i t u t e f o r such a man as A i k e n , s h a r i n g w i t h h i s mentor not o n l y an e s s e n t i a l l y t r a g i c view of l i f e , but a l s o a l o v e of words and l i t e r a t u r e , and, above a l l , a y e a r n i n g t o w r i t e . Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , A i k e n g r a d u a l l y came t o assume the p a t e r n a l r o l e more f u l l y . In l e t t e r 6 he s c o l d s Lowry f o r r e t u r n i n g home l a t e , i n q u i r e s about h i s p r o g r e s s i n u n i v e r s i t y i n l e t t e r 8, and f i n a l l y a t t e m p t s , i n 1939, t o " r e s c u e " him from h i s p l i g h t i n Vancouver and readopt him. The p r o d i g a l son, however, was not beyond r e p r o a c h from h i s s e l f - e l e c t e d f a t h e r - s u b s t i t u t e . In the e a r l y 1940's, a g a i n f a c e d w i t h the p o s s i b i l i t y of h a v i n g t o t a k e Lowry i n t o h i s home, A i k e n reminded Lowry of p a s t i n f r i n g e m e n t s and warned him a g a i n s t any f u t u r e misdemeanors ( l e t t e r 2 2 ) : . . . I hope y o u ' l l g i v e me your word b e f o r e coming t h a t you're r e a l l y g o i n g t o . . . behave w e l l . . . . No s e c r e t d r i n k i n g s round the c o r n e r , eh? No d i s g r a c l n g s of us w i t h our f r i e n d s , no s c e n e s : and above a l l no c o n t i n u o u s argument as t o the amount of d r i n k a l l o w e d : I'm t o be the boss about t h a t , or i t ' s no go. Lowry's response t o t h e s e c h a s t i s e m e n t s was r e l a t i v e l y sober and s i n c e r e ( i f t h e r e was one t h i n g t h a t A i k e n had which Lowry's f a t h e r d i d n o t , i t was h i s son's r e s p e c t ) ; h i s degree of r e p e n t a n c e was another m a t t e r . Whether or not Lowry would have heeded A i k e n ' s r e p e a t e d warnings we s h a l l never know. The time had f i n a l l y come f o r the c h i l d t o break away from the " B e n e v o l e n t Eye" of t h e f a t h e r and b u i l d a l i f e of h i s own. With M a r g e r i e Bonner, t h i s i s what Lowry s e t out t o do i n D o l l a r t o n . A i k e n ' s r o l e as t e a c h e r i s perhaps more r e l e v a n t t o t h o s e i n t e r e s t e d i n h i s l i t e r a r y i n f l u e n c e on Lowry and v i c e v e r s a . From the v e r y b e g i n n i n g , and t h r o u g h o u t the l e t t e r s , Lowry X p r a i s e s and quotes from A i k e n ' s works, sometimes r e p r o d u c i n g e n t i r e poems from memory. A i k e n ' s c l a i m t h a t Lowry knew Blue  Voyage b e t t e r than he h i m s e l f d i d ("Malcolm Lowry" 101) i s w e l l s u b s t a n t i a t e d by Lowry's f r e q u e n t a l l u s i o n s i n the l e t t e r s t o t h a t and o t h e r s of A i k e n ' s works. As l a t e as 1952 ( l e t t e r 84) Lowry c o u l d s t i l l remember and quote passages from B l u e Voyage. Yet w h i l e Lowry may have been the i n i t i a t o r of t h i s l i t e r a r y r e l a t i o n s h i p , A i k e n was a w i l l i n g and a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t . He a c c e p t e d the r o l e o f l i t e r a r y mentor w h o l e h e a r t e d l y and took i t upon h i m s e l f t o mould h i s p u p i l i n t o a s u c c e s s f u l w r i t e r . I n a 22 J u l y 1929 l e t t e r t o h i s c h i l d r e n ( K i l l o r i n 1 5 3 ), b e f o r e Lowry's a r r i v a l i n M a s s a c h u s e t t s , A i k e n w r i t e s of t h e "young En g l i s h m a n " who i s coming " t o be t a u g h t how t o w r i t e n o v e l s . " L a t e r , i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s and i n Engla n d , he h e l p e d Lowry w i t h h i s p o e t r y and f i r s t n o v e l , " s h a d i n g , a n n o t a t i n g , and c o n n o t a t i n g the d i s b u r s e m e n t s " of U l t r a m a r i n e ( l e t t e r 4) t o such an e x t e n t t h a t Lowry was e v e n t u a l l y t o c a l l the book a mere " s p e c t r e of [ A i k e n ' s ] d i s c a r d e d i d e a s " ( l e t t e r 1 3 ) . The t e a c h e r / p u p i l r e l a t i o n s h i p , t h e n , e x i s t e d from the v e r y b e g i n n i n g . In f a c t , i t may have been the s u c c e s s of the e x p e r i e n c e w i t h Lowry t h a t gave A i k e n the i d e a , some y e a r s l a t e r i n 1938, t o b e g i n h i s summer s c h o o l i n w r i t i n g . However, i f A i k e n perhaps imposed h i s i d e a s and l i t e r a r y t a s t e s too s t r o n g l y onto Lowry's e a r l y w r i t i n g s , Lowry e a g e r l y absorbed what i n f o r m a t i o n and guidance he c o u l d from h i s master. In f a c t , Lowry was not above p a s s i n g o f f A i k e n ' s words as h i s own; h i s i n t e n d e d i n c o r p o r a t i o n i n t o U l t r a m a r i n e of the "bone x i dream" from A i k e n ' s Great C i r c l e i s o n l y the most extreme example ( l e t t e r 8 ) . In l e t t e r 13, Lowry a c t u a l l y l i s t s t h i n g s i n U l t r a m a r i n e which A i k e n , presumably because he had thought them up f i r s t , may "hook o u t" i f he "wants them [ h i m s e l f ] . " A poem, " I n Cape Cod With Conrad A i k e n , " o s t e n s i b l y w r i t t e n by Lowry and p u b l i s h e d i n the March 1930 F e s t i v a l T h e a t r e Programme, i s based upon a dream which A i k e n h i m s e l f had had i n Cape Cod ( K i l l o r i n 153) and which A i k e n had a l s o " p a r t i a l l y t r a n s l a t e d i n t o a poem" (Ushant 167). Lowry used p h r a s e s from A i k e n ' s l e t t e r s f o r s i m i l a r p u r p o s e s . A i k e n ' s " i n d o o r marxmanshlp" pun ( l e t t e r 2 0 ) , f o r i n s t a n c e , appears l a t e r b o t h i n Lowry's poem, "Where D i d That One Go To ' E r b e r t , " and In Under the Vo l c a n o ( 8 ) . S i m i l a r l y , the p r o t o t y p e of "Oedipuss," the C o n s u l ' s c a t i n Under the V o l c a n o ( 8 9 ) , i s A i k e n ' s c a t , a p p e a r i n g by name i n l e t t e r 64. Moreover, A i k e n h i m s e l f has noted, b o t h i n Ushant and e l s e w h e r e , a d d i t i o n a l passages i n Under the Vo l c a n o which were l i k e w i s e i n s p i r e d by h i m s e l f . The l i s t goes on. Not u n t i l much l a t e r , though, was A i k e n e x c e s s i v e l y b o t h e r e d by t h e s e c o n s c i o u s a t t e m p t s a t p l a g i a r i s m . Some time a f t e r the "bone dream" e p i s o d e , i n M e x i c o , he was s t i l l g i v i n g Lowry p o e t r y e x e r c i s e s t o complete ( l e t t e r 1 4 ) , and w e l l i n t o the 1940's Lowry c o n t i n u e d t o send h i s r o u g h l y hewn poems t o h i s master f o r c r i t i c i s m and c o r r e c t i o n : " I know you w i l l t e l l me i f I am f o o l i n g m y s e l f " ( l e t t e r 5 2 ) . Nor d i d A i k e n h e s i t a t e t o g i v e an honest o p i n i o n : " I l i k e the poems m o d e r a t e - l i k e . . . . Freedom comes a f t e r mastery not b e f o r e " ( l e t t e r 5 5 ) . The l i t e r a r y " r e l a t i o n s h i p , " t h e n , grew i n t o what c o u l d be x i i more a p t l y c a l l e d a " l i t e r a r y s y m b i o s i s , " w i t h the p a r t i c i p a n t s e i t h e r w o r k i n g t o g e t h e r , as t h e y d i d w i t h U l t r a m a r i n e and a t l e a s t one poem, "those cokes t o n e w c a s t l e b l u e s , " i n the F e b r u a r y 1931 F e s t i v a l Theatre Review, or i n s t e a d , w o r k i n g s e p a r a t e l y , but c o n t i n u a l l y i n c o r p o r a t i n g the t h o u g h t s and p e r s o n a l i t y of the o t h e r i n t o ever new l i t e r a r y c r e a t i o n s . As f a t h e r and t e a c h e r , A i k e n s t o o d i n a p o s i t i o n of s u p e r i o r i t y t o Lowry; as " s y m b i o t i c s a i l m a k e r s " (Ushant 295), a l e s s o f t e n noted s i d e of the r e l a t i o n s h i p , the two were a t l e a s t e q u a l s . What i s perhaps more o f t e n f o r g o t t e n I s t h a t , d e s p i t e t h e i r age d i f f e r e n c e , he and Lowry were a l s o f r i e n d s . From t h e i r f i r s t meeting i n Cape Cod, the r e c k l e s s and f u n - l o v i n g Lowry no doubt p r o v i d e d A i k e n w i t h an i d e a l c o n f i d a n t e and d r i n k i n g companion a t a time when A i k e n h i m s e l f was e x p e r i e n c i n g a r a t h e r u n s e t t l e d p e r i o d of h i s l i f e a f t e r h i s break-up w i t h h i s f i r s t w i f e , J e s s i e MacDonald, and s e p a r a t i o n from h i s c h i l d r e n . C l a r i s s a L o r e n z ' s ( A i k e n ' s second w i f e ) t a l e s of A i k e n ' s and Lowry's a n t i c s i n Rye p r o v i d e some c l u e s t o t h i s s i d e of t h e i r f r i e n d s h i p ; the r e f e r e n c e s i n the l e t t e r s t o s i m i l a r e p i s o d e s -d r i n k i n g and e a t i n g sausage r o l l s i n the S h i p I n n , l e a v i n g " s u r r e p t i t i o u s vomit under the p i a n o , " engaging i n "communistic t a l k under the banana t r e e s , " e t c . - - p r o v i d e more. F u r t h e r m o r e , l i k e A i k e n , Lowry c o u l d c e r t a i n l y be a s t i m u l a t i n g c o n v e r s a t i o n a l i s t and c o r r e s p o n d e n t ; i n t h i s r e s p e c t t h e y d e f i n i t e l y were, as A i k e n has s a i d , " a s t o n i s h i n g l y en r a p p o r t " ("Malcolm Lowry" 102). Yet perhaps what A i k e n t h r i v e d on most d u r i n g t h e s e y e a r s x i i i was the i n t e n s e a d m i r a t i o n t h a t Lowry had f o r h i s work. In f a c t , w i t h time the t e a c h e r / p u p i l r e l a t i o n s h i p underwent a r e v e r s a l . A i k e n began t o send Lowry c o p i e s of h i s newly p u b l i s h e d books i n o r d e r t o once a g a i n hear the guaranteed and now much needed p r a i s e from h i s o l d p u p i l : B l e s s you Male. . . f o r a l l the g l o w i n g words and numbers and p h i n e p h l a t t e r i n g phrases about my l i t t l e dead s o n n e t s . . . . I rushed t o r e - r e a d the ones you l i k e d . . . i t ' s always such fun t o read one's own t h i n g s t h r o u g h somebody e l s e ' s eyes. . . a k i n d of t w i c e r e f l e c t e d n a r c i s s i s m . ( l e t t e r 58) B e f o r e l o n g the t e a c h e r was a c t u a l l y r e q u e s t i n g h i s p u p i l ' s a d v i c e . In 1944, A i k e n asked Lowry t o suggest some poems he might i n c l u d e i n T w e n t i e t h - C e n t u r y American P o e t r y ( l e t t e r 6 5 ) , and i n 1945, wanted a d v i c e about the s e l e c t i o n f o r h i s C o l l e c t e d Poems: " I v a l u e your judgement more h i g h l y than any o t h e r " ( l e t t e r 69). In both c a s e s Lowry suggested h i s o l d f a v o u r i t e s , t h e ones he had o f t e n quoted i n h i s e a r l y l e t t e r s t o A i k e n , s e l e c t i o n s from The House of Dust, P r i a p u s and t h e P o o l , and even the "Goya" poem from B l u e Voyage. With the p u b l i c a t i o n and immediate s u c c e s s of Under the V o l c a n o f however, the l i t e r a r y r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two became somewhat s t r a i n e d . W h i l e Lowry was s t i l l t h i n k i n g of h i m s e l f as A i k e n ' s " o l d — & n e w - - p u p i l " ( l e t t e r 7 3 ) , A i k e n f e a r e d t h a t the p u p i l might have f i n a l l y s u r p a s s e d the m a s t e r . A l t h o u g h Lowry had, as e a r l y as 1940, i n t e n d e d Under the V o l c a n o t o be "a g e s t u r e on the p a r t of a g r a t e f u l p u p i l t o h i s m a s t e r " ( l e t t e r 4 0 ) , and had even th o u g h t of d e d i c a t i n g the n o v e l t o A i k e n ( l e t t e r 48), A i k e n a p p e a r s t o have t a k e n the unexpected s u c c e s s of h i s f o r m e r l y drunken and u n r u l y protege w i t h some b i t t e r n e s s . x i v I n u n p u b l i s h e d l e t t e r s t o John Davenport and Ed B u r r a i n the H u n t i n g t o n A i k e n C o l l e c t i o n , not t o mention a p u b l i s h e d l e t t e r i n the TLS some y e a r s a f t e r Lowry's d e a t h , A i k e n c o m p l a i n s b i t t e r l y about the many " l i f t i n g s " of h i s own i d e a s i n Under the V o l c a n o , d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t Lowry h i m s e l f had acknowledged t h e s e " t h e f t s " seven y e a r s b e f o r e the p u b l i c a t i o n of the n o v e l i n l e t t e r 40: I t i s the f i r s t book of mine t h a t i s not i n one way or an o t h e r p a r a s i t i c on your work. ( T h i s time i t i s p a r a s i t i c however on some of your w i s e c r a c k s i n Mexico. • • • I f you remember a t the time you s a i d you d i d n ' t mind about t h i s . . . . A i k e n , however, d i d mind. A l t h o u g h he made no mention of h i s f e e l i n g s t o Lowry, he undertook "a s t a r f i s h t u r n of h i s own" w i t h h i s p s e u d o - a u t o b i o g r a p h y Ushant (356, 361). T h i s time i t was he who i n c o r p o r a t e d Lowry's words i n t o a work of f i c t i o n . Lowry remained, perhaps v o l u n t a r i l y , unaware of A i k e n ' s dilemma. A i k e n appears t o have w r i t t e n Ushant p a r t l y i n an attempt t o come t o terms w i t h h i s mixed f e e l i n g s f o r Lowry. H i s p a t e r n a l and b r o t h e r l y a f f e c t i o n had f o r some time been a t war w i t h an i n e v i t a b l e and s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s i n g p e r c e p t i o n of l i t e r a r y r i v a l r y between t h e two. In h i s a u t o b i o g r a p h y , he p r e s e n t s both a s p e c t s of the r e l a t i o n s h i p , i f a d m i t t e d l y w i t h e x c e s s i v e and o v e r l y d r a m a t i c emphasis on the l a t t e r . Y e t , i n l e t t e r 83, b e f o r e s e n d i n g the book t o Lowry, A i k e n d i d at t e m p t t o e x p l a i n i t s purpose: " I p r a y when you read i t you w i l l c o n t i n u a l l y s a y t o y o u r s e l f , t h i s guy l o v e s me, or he wouldn't be so b l o o d y c a n d i d about me." Lowry, however, responded w i t h the p r e d i c t a b l e e x c e s s e s of p r a i s e and absence of c r i t i c a l i n s i g h t : XV "A g r e a t book, i n many ways, t e c h n i c a l l y , a m a r v e l . . . . t h e r e a r e wonders of p r o s e , p r o f o u n d p e r c e p t i o n s and a p p e r c e p t i o n s and c o m p l e x i t i e s e x p r e s s e d i n m i r a c u l o u s l i m p i d i t y . " ( l e t t e r 85) While he complimented A i k e n ' s w r i t i n g s t y l e , Lowry made no attempt t o comment on the book's c o n t e n t . What Ushant c a l l e d f o r from Lowry was a t l e a s t an acknowledgement t h a t he un d e r s t o o d the import of Hambo's r o l e i n the book. B e t t e r y e t , Lowry might have defended h i s p a s t b e h a v i o r and r e l a t e d t o A i k e n h i s own v e r s i o n of the s t o r y of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p . Perhaps i n t h i s r e g a r d Lowry s t i l l remained A i k e n ' s p u p i l , i n c a p a b l e of c o n f r o n t i n g , l e t a l o n e c r i t i c i z i n g , h i s t e a c h e r . The p u b l i c a t i o n of Ushant i s supposed by many t o have r e s u l t e d i n a " l a s t i n g break" between A i k e n and Lowry. In t r u t h , t h e y had p r o b a b l y begun t o d r i f t a p a r t some y e a r s e a r l i e r . T h i s i s not s u r p r i s i n g , c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t t h e y had not seen each o t h e r f o r some f i f t e e n y e a r s . In the meantime t h e y had both r e m a r r i e d , moved t o o p p o s i t e ends of the c o n t i n e n t , and adopted l i f e s t y l e s t h a t were r a t h e r more s e t t l e d than t h e i r e a r l i e r c a r e f r e e and drunken r a m b l i n g s i n Cape Cod, Rye, and Cuernavaca. In f a c t , i n t h e i r l a t e r c o rrespondence one o f t e n f i n d s b o t h w r i t e r s h e a r k e n i n g back t o the e a r l i e r p e r i o d of t h e i r f r i e n d s h i p : the "w o n d e r f u l summer" of 1929 i n Cape Cod, the escapades i n Rye and i t s S h i p I n n , the t r i p t o S p a i n i n 1933, and t h e i r 1937 r e u n i o n i n Cuernavaca, A i k e n ' s "wedding p l a c e . " In e f f e c t , some time i n the l a t e 1940's t h e i r f r i e n d s h i p had s i m p l y stopped p r o g r e s s i n g . Yet t h e i r r e u n i o n i n 1954 c o u l d and s h o u l d have stopped the a t r o p h y i n g p r o c e s s . A i k e n was o v e r j o y e d a t the news of the Lowrys' a r r i v a l i n New Y o r k — " H a l l i l e u h " x v i b e g i n s h i s a n s w e r i n g t e l e g r a m ( l e t t e r 88)--and w i t h some d i f f i c u l t y and l i t t l e n o t i c e made the j o u r n e y from B r e w s t e r . U n f o r t u n a t e l y o l d b e h a v i o r p a t t e r n s r e s u r f a c e d , and Lowry d i d not have the c o u r t e s y t o undertake the r e u n i o n s o b e r . While A i k e n may have a c c e p t e d such b e h a v i o r from h i s son or p u p i l i n the p a s t , Lowry was now no l o n g e r e i t h e r ; the p r o d i g a l son was t h i s t i m e , and f i n a l l y , r e f u s e d the f a t h e r ' s b l e s s i n g . x v i i E d i t o r i a l Note The two major s o u r c e l i b r a r i e s f o r the Aiken/Lowry l e t t e r s a r e the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia L i b r a r y i n Vancouver, which houses t h e Malcolm Lowry M a n u s c r i p t C o l l e c t i o n , and the H u n t i n g t o n L i b r a r y i n San M a r i n o , c o n t a i n i n g the Conrad A i k e n M a n u s c r i p t C o l l e c t i o n . W h i l e a d d i t i o n a l l i b r a r i e s and i n d i v i d u a l s have been c o n t a c t e d , none of the s e brought t o l i g h t any l e t t e r s t h a t were not c o n t a i n e d i n one of the s e two c o l l e c t i o n s . As i s u s u a l l y the case i n such c o l l e c t i o n s of c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , l e t t e r s a r e m i s s i n g . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e of the e a r l y s t a g e s of Lowry and A i k e n ' s c o r r e s p o n d e n c e . S e c t i o n I , s p a n n i n g t h e y e a r s 1929-1938, c o n t a i n s o n l y l e t t e r s from Lowry; no doubt Lowry was too much on the move a t t h i s time of h i s l i f e t o have saved many of h i s p o s s e s s i o n s , l e t a l o n e h i s l e t t e r s . S e c t i o n s I I and I I I r e v e a l a more b a l a n c e d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e between the two, p a r t i c u l a r l y S e c t i o n I I (1939-1941) which c o n s i s t s of an a l m o s t week by week back and f o r t h c o r r e s p o n d e n c e over the c o u r s e of a few months. L e t t e r s from Lowry t h a t appear t o e x i s t as d r a f t s o n l y ( a l t h o u g h even t h i s i s d e b a t a b l e s i n c e Lowry's l e t t e r s were o f t e n s e n t i n f a i r l y rough form) a r e i d e n t i f i e d as such i n a t e x t u a l note a t the end of the l e t t e r . I n a l l c a s e s I have atte m p t e d t o t r a n s c r i b e the l e t t e r s as f a i t h f u l l y as p o s s i b l e from the h a n d w r i t t e n and typed o r i g i n a l s , or p h o t o c o p i e s of t h e s e i t e m s , l o c a t e d i n one of the two s o u r c e l i b r a r i e s . I have i n d i c a t e d the provenance of the l e t t e r s i n the hea d i n g a t the t o p of each, p r o v i d i n g a d e s c r i p t i o n of the x v i i i o r i g i n a l , i t s l o c a t i o n , the e x i s t e n c e of any p h o t o c o p i e s of t h a t o r i g i n a l i n the a l t e r n a t i v e s o u r c e l i b r a r y , and, i f a p p l i c a b l e , the p u b l i c a t i o n r e f e r e n c e . I have been unable t o l o c a t e the o r i g i n a l s , or p h o t o c o p i e s of t h e s e , f o r seven of the l e t t e r s from A i k e n ( l e t t e r s 17, 19, 22, 26, 28, 33, and 7 4 ) . These items a r e p r i n t e d i n Joseph K i l l o r i n ' s S e l e c t e d L e t t e r s of Conrad A i k e n ( 1 9 7 8 ) ; however, s i n c e the l o c a t i o n g i v e n f o r t h e s e items i n t h a t volume i s i n a c c u r a t e , I have had t o r e l y s o l e l y on K i l l o r i n ' s t r a n s c r i p t i o n s f o r the t e x t s of t h e s e l e t t e r s . I n a l l o t h e r c a s e s , the t r a n s c r i p t i o n i s my own, even where the i t e m has been p r e v i o u s l y p u b l i s h e d . T h i s proved t o be n e c e s s a r y s i n c e , i n many c a s e s , the A i k e n l e t t e r s i n S e l e c t e d L e t t e r s of Conrad A i k e n a r e p r i n t e d i n i n c o m p l e t e form, w h i l e items i n S e l e c t e d L e t t e r s of  M a l c o l m Lowry (1969) a r e o f t e n r i d d l e d w i t h unacknowledged d e l e t i o n s , a l t e r a t i o n s , and t r a n s c r i p t i o n a l e r r o r s . The prime t e n e t of my e d i t o r i a l p r a c t i c e has been as c l o s e an adherence t o the o r i g i n a l t e x t of the l e t t e r s as p o s s i b l e . I have t h e r e f o r e chosen t o r e p r o d u c e a l l e r r o r s or i d i o s y n c r a s i e s i n s p e l l i n g , p u n c t u a t i o n , c a p i t a l i z a t i o n , e t c . For example, I have r e p r o d u c e d Lowry's u n p r e d i c t a b l e and o f t e n f a u l t y use of c o l o n s and s e m i c o l o n s , h i s f r e q u e n t use of ampersands, h i s f a i l u r e t o u n d e r l i n e book t i t l e s , h i s a l t e r n a t e use of d o u b l e and s i n g l e q u o t a t i o n marks, and v a r i o u s s p e l l i n g i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s and e r r o r s . In A i k e n ' s c a s e , I have r e t a i n e d h i s i n c o n s i s t e n t c a p i t a l i z a t i o n s , h i s u n u s u a l and o f t e n c r e a t i v e s p e l l i n g s , and even h i s t y p o g r a p h i c a l e r r o r s (where t h e y do not i n t e r f e r e w i t h . the sense of the word or s e n t e n c e ) . x i x O nly i n c a s e s where p u n c t u a t i o n or s p e l l i n g e r r o r s (the l a t t e r a r e u s u a l l y t y p o g r a p h i c a l e r r o r s ) i n t e r f e r e w i t h the meaning have I a l t e r e d the t e x t . Where such c o n f l i c t s o ccur I have always p l a c e d my i n s e r t i o n or a l t e r a t i o n w i t h i n square b r a c k e t s and shown the change i n a t e x t u a l note appended t o the end of each l e t t e r and keyed by page and l i n e number. I have t r i e d t o keep such e d i t o r i a l t a m p e r i n g t o a minimum; however, i n some ca s e s a s p e l l i n g or t y p o g r a p h i c a l e r r o r c o u l d r e n d e r a word u n i n t e l l i g i b l e and i n the s e c a s e s I thought i t n e c e s s a r y t o s t e p i n . I n such c a s e s the o r i g i n a l i s re p r o d u c e d i n a t e x t u a l n o t e . Words i n the t e x t of the l e t t e r s t h a t were p a r t i a l l y i l l e g i b l e I have t r a n s c r i b e d as b e s t I c o u l d and p l a c e d w i t h i n square b r a c k e t s preceded by a q u e s t i o n mark; l u c k i l y t h i s o n l y o c c u r s t w i c e , and o n l y i n Lowry's l e t t e r s . There i s one case where I have made an a l t e r a t i o n f o r my own c o n v e n i e n c e : i n l e t t e r s 14, 16, and 78 I have changed Lowry's square b r a c k e t s t o round ones so as t o a v o i d c o n f u s i o n w i t h my own e d i t o r i a l i n s e r t i o n s . These a r e the o n l y i n s t a n c e s where Lowry uses square b r a c k e t s and I d i d not t h i n k the a l t e r a t i o n was a c r u c i a l one. However, once a g a i n the change i s acknowledged i n a t e x t u a l n o t e . Moreover, a l l d e l e t i o n s , i n s e r t i o n s and o t h e r a l t e r a t i o n s made by the a u t h o r s t h e m s e l v e s a r e shown i n t e x t u a l n o t e s . The d e l e t i o n s , where l e g i b l e , a r e shown e n c l o s e d w i t h i n diamond b r a c k e t s < >, the i n s e r t i o n s w i t h i n wavy b r a c k e t s { }. In some cas e s the a l t e r a t i o n s may appear r e l a t i v e l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t , y e t t o a v o i d a p u r e l y s u b j e c t i v e c h o i c e of my own, I have d e c i d e d t o r e p r e s e n t a l l of t h e s e . The o n l y e x c e p t i o n s a r e the l e t t e r s w hich e x i s t as t y p e s c r i p t s o n l y ( t h e s e are d e s i g n a t e d as such i n the heading a t the t o p of each l e t t e r ) . In t h e s e cases I do not d u p l i c a t e c o r r e c t i o n s of t y p o g r a p h i c a l e r r o r s t h a t were made on the t y p e w r i t e r a t the time the l e t t e r was b e i n g t y p e d . • These I c o n s i d e r e d t o be m e r e l y s l i p s of the f i n g e r which the t y p i s t caught i m m e d i a t e l y as they o c c u r r e d . Moreover, Lowry's w i f e o f t e n typed h i s l e t t e r s f o r him, so t h e s e s o r t s of e r r o r s cannot even be c o n s i d e r e d Lowry's own. I do, however, show a l l a l t e r a t i o n s made by hand i n the t y p e s c r i p t s , even i f t h e s e a r e m e r e l y c o r r e c t i o n s of t y p o g r a p h i c a l e r r o r s . In a d d i t i o n , a l t e r a t i o n s done on the t y p e w r i t e r of a n y t h i n g o t h e r t h a n t y p o g r a p h i c a l e r r o r s ( e g . , d e l e t i o n s of words, e t c . ) are r e p r o d u c e d i n a t e x t u a l note and t h e r e d e s i g n a t e d as h a v i n g been done on the t y p e w r i t e r . F u r t h e r m o r e , e n t i r e l i n e s or paragraphs w r i t t e n by hand i n a t y p e d l e t t e r ( o r v i c e v e r s a ) a r e i d e n t i f i e d as such i n a t e x t u a l n o t e . However, s i n c e a l l s i g n a t u r e s a r e h a n d w r i t t e n , t h e y have not been noted or d e s i g n a t e d i n any p a r t i c u l a r way. Because t h e r e came t o be such a w e a l t h of t e x t u a l n o t e s , I chose not t o key them w i t h s u p e r s c r i p t numbers i n the t e x t of the l e t t e r s ; i n s t e a d t h e y f o l l o w the e x p l a n a t o r y n o t e s a t the end of each l e t t e r and a r e keyed by page and l i n e number ( b e g i n n i n g a t t h e s a l u t a t i o n ) . A l l s u p e r s c r i p t numbers r e f e r t h e r e a d e r t o e x p l a n a t o r y n o t e s appended t o t h e end of each l e t t e r . The o n l y e x c e p t i o n s a r e notes t h a t r e f e r the r e a d e r t o p h o t o g r a p h i c r e p r o d u c t i o n s i n x x i Appendix I . My con c e r n here was t h a t t h e r e a d e r not i n t e r e s t e d i n the t e x t u a l notes might miss the d i r e c t i o n t o the r e p r o d u c t i o n were t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n o n l y p r o v i d e d i n a t e x t u a l n o t e ; I have t h e r e f o r e i n c l u d e d these i n both the e x p l a n a t o r y and t e x t u a l n o t e s . I have not p r o v i d e d e x p l a n a t o r y notes f o r well-known p l a c e s or personages ( K a f k a , M e l v i l l e , H a r t Crane e t c . ) , nor have I f u l l y noted a l l r e l e v a n t p o i n t s of b i o g r a p h i c a l i n t e r e s t when th e s e a r e c o v e r e d i n the i n t r o d u c t o r y p i e c e s a t the b e g i n n i n g of the t h r e e s e c t i o n s . R e p r o d u c i n g the o v e r a l l shape of each l e t t e r , p a r t i c u l a r l y the s p a c i n g and i n d e n t a t i o n , proved a more d i f f i c u l t m a t t e r . A g a i n , I have t r i e d t o r e f l e c t t h i s as b e s t I c o u l d , a l t h o u g h i n many c a s e s i t was d i f f i c u l t t o t e l l what the a u t h o r had h i m s e l f i n t e n d e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n m a n u s c r i p t o r i g i n a l s . In many of the e a r l y l e t t e r s from Lowry, f o r i n s t a n c e , he " i n d e n t s " h i s para g r a p h s from the r i g h t r a t h e r t h a n t h e l e f t - h a n d s i d e . S i n c e i t was i m p o s s i b l e f o r me t o reproduce t h e s e i n my typed t r a n s c r i p t i o n , I have i n d e n t e d them f i v e spaces from the l e f t -hand m a r g i n . A l l o t h e r paragraphs a r e l i k e w i s e i n d e n t e d f i v e s paces u n l e s s the a u t h o r had a p a r t i c u l a r f o r m a t , as A i k e n o f t e n d i d when he i n d e n t e d paragraphs from t h e end of the s a l u t a t i o n . The i n d e n t a t i o n of a l l s a l u t a t i o n s and c l o s i n g s I have t r i e d t o r e f l e c t as c l o s e l y as p o s s i b l e . I n c a s e s where a l e t t e r ' s shape or l a y o u t p r e s e n t e d p a r t i c u l a r d i f f i c u l t i e s , I have i n c l u d e d a photocopy of the o r i g i n a l i n Appendix I , and d i r e c t e d the r e a d e r t o the r e p r o d u c t i o n i n b o t h the e x p l a n a t o r y and t e x t u a l n o t e s . Lowry's q u o t a t i o n s from A i k e n ' s (and o t h e r s ' ) x x i i works, i f i n d e n t e d i n the o r i g i n a l , a r e i n d e n t e d t e n spaces and s i n g l e - s p a c e d . Passages w r i t t e n i n the margins I have i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the t e x t of the l e t t e r s where a p p r o p r i a t e ( u s u a l l y t h e y have been keyed t o a s p e c i f i c p l a c e by the a u t h o r ) and i d e n t i f i e d i n a t e x t u a l n o t e . The o n l y e x c e p t i o n i s l e t t e r 14 where the' m a r g i n a l i a a r e d i r e c t comments on the l i n e s of p o e t r y which t h e y b o r d e r . In some cases I have i n t r o d u c e d dashes w i t h i n square b r a c k e t s on e i t h e r s i d e of the i n s e r t i o n so t h a t t h e s e passages c o u l d be more c l e a r l y i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the t e x t of the l e t t e r . I have double-spaced the t e x t s of the l e t t e r s w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of the address and i n d e n t e d p a s s a g e s ; t h e s e I have s i n g l e - s p a c e d f o r the r e a d e r ' s c o n v e n i e n c e t o s e t them o f f from the main body of the l e t t e r . I n o t h e r ways I have a t t e m p t e d t o r e f l e c t the a u t h o r ' s s p a c i n g ; hence, where l i n e s a r e d o u b l e -spaced i n the o r i g i n a l , I s k i p f o u r spaces i n my t e x t ( e x c e p t when a dou b l e space i s used m e r e l y t o s e p a r a t e p a r a g r a p h s ) . The o n l y p l a c e where I have s u b s t a n t i a l l y a l t e r e d the format of t h e l e t t e r s i s i n the a d d r e s s and date of each. W h i l e I have alw a y s r e t a i n e d the o r i g i n a l w o r d i n g of t h e s e , I have not always r e p r o d u c e d t h e i r l a y - o u t . A i k e n and Lowry were t h e m s e l v e s i n c o n s i s t e n t i n t h i s , a l t h o u g h u s u a l l y the a d d r e s s appears i n the t o p r i g h t - h a n d c o r n e r of the l e t t e r s where I have chosen t o put i t . Because many r e a d e r s w i l l be c o n s u l t i n g the l e t t e r s a c c o r d i n g t o the a d d r e s s from which t h e y were w r i t t e n or the da t e of c o m p o s i t i o n , I thought i t b e s t t o s t a n d a r d i z e the l o c a t i o n of t h e s e f o r q u i c k and easy r e f e r e n c e . S i m i l a r l y , i n o r d e r t h a t the x x i i i tv o be c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e , I have always s e p a r a t e d the address and the date by a double space. A g a i n , though, the d a t e i t s e l f , and i t s "wording," i s always t h a t of the a u t h o r . When no date or a d d r e s s i s w r i t t e n by the a u t h o r , I i n c l u d e my own w i t h i n square b r a c k e t s . These are u s u a l l y based upon i n t e r n a l e v i d e n c e w i t h i n the l e t t e r s and, where a v a i l a b l e , postmarks. Where l e t t e r h e a d paper i s used, I r e p r o d u c e i t s a d d r e s s w i t h i n square b r a c k e t s ( u n l e s s the a d d r e s s i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the time the l e t t e r was w r i t t e n ) and note i t i n a t e x t u a l n o t e . Because t h e y a r e o f t e n u n r e l i a b l e and m i s l e a d i n g , I have not d u p l i c a t e d l i b r a r i a n s ' or o t h e r p e o p l e s ' i n s c r i p t i o n s on the l e t t e r s r e g a r d i n g t h e s e m a t t e r s , e x c e p t f o r Conrad A i k e n ' s and, i n some c a s e s , M a r g e r i e Lowry's, which a r e then r e p r o d u c e d i n a t e x t u a l note o n l y . While d i f f e r e n t p h i l o s o p h i e s r e g a r d i n g e d i t o r i a l p r a c t i c e r e n d er i t i m p o s s i b l e f o r an e d i t o r t o p l e a s e a l l of h i s / h e r r e a d e r s , I hope t h a t t h i s volume w i l l s a t i s f y the m a j o r i t y . In any c a s e , I would r a t h e r be accused of b e i n g t o o m e t i c u l o u s t h a n not s u f f i c i e n t l y s o . While I have t r i e d t o c o n s i d e r the " r e a d a b i l i t y " of the l e t t e r s p r i n t e d h e r e , my p r i m a r y aim has been t o r e p r o d u c e the o r i g i n a l t e x t s as f a i t h f u l l y as p o s s i b l e . List of Abbreviations and Symbols Following is a l i s t of abbreviations and symbols used in this volume: MS manuscript original TS typescript original MSPC photocopied manuscript TSPC photocopied typescript H Huntington Library UBC University of British Columbia til l e g . ] i l l e g i b l e [typo.] typographical error < > deletion << >> deletion within a deletion { } insertion {{ }} insertion within an insertion [ ] editorial interpolation or alteration t? 1 doubtful reading 1 1929-1938 — I too have heard the sea sound i n s t r a n g e w a t e r s — s h - s h - s h l i k e the hush i n a conch s h e l l . . . . 12 March 1931 l e t t e r from Lowry t o A i k e n 2 1929-1938 Some time i n 1927 or 1928, Lowry found i n h i s p o s s e s s i o n a copy of Conrad A i k e n ' s f i r s t n o v e l , B l u e Voyage, and t h e r e began h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the American w r i t e r . At the t i m e , Lowry was c o n c e n t r a t i n g on w r i t i n g the Cambridge p r e v i o u s e x a m i n a t i o n s , a n e c e s s a r y p r e l u d e t o g a i n i n g e n t r a n c e t o the u n i v e r s i t y . In p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the exams, he s t a y e d a t 5 W o o d v i l l e Road i n B l a c k h e a t h , London, a t the "cramming s c h o o l " of the ex-Leys master, J e r r y K e l l e t t (Bradbrook, " L i t e r a r y F r i e n d s " 1 1 ) . I t i s from t h i s a d d r e s s t h a t Lowry wrote h i s f i r s t l e t t e r t o A i k e n a t h i s home In Rye, t o which he r e c e i v e d no r e p l y ; unbeknownst t o Lowry, A i k e n was a t the time h o l d i n g a temporary p o s i t i o n as t u t o r of E n g l i s h a t Harvard U n i v e r s i t y . Lowry wrote a n o t h e r l e t t e r a week or two l a t e r on 12 March 1929, t h i s time a s k i n g A i k e n t o be h i s t u t o r . Lowry's f a t h e r had agreed to a l l o w h i s son t o spend the summer w i t h A i k e n o n l y on the c o n d i t i o n t h a t he f i r s t g a i n e n t r a n c e t o Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y . By the time of t h i s second l e t t e r t o A i k e n , Lowry had been a c c e p t e d by S t . C a t h a r i n e ' s C o l l e g e and, as p r e v i o u s l y agreed upon, h i s f a t h e r was now w i l l i n g t o a p p o i n t A i k e n a g u a r d i a n or t u t o r of h i s son f o r the d u r a t i o n of the summer. A i k e n , who was both i n need of money and impressed by Lowry's knowledge of h i s w r i t i n g s , agreed to the arrangement, t e l l i n g Lowry t h a t i f he were s t i l l i n t e r e s t e d he would have t o make the j o u r n e y a c r o s s the A t l a n t i c t o Cambridge, M a s s a c h u s e t t s (CBC i n t e r v i e w 1961). W i t h i n a month Lowry had a c q u i r e d passage as a s t e e r a g e passenger aboard a cargo s h i p and t r a v e l l e d t o Boston v i a the West I n d i e s t o spend the 3 summer w i t h A i k e n . By O c t o b e r , Lowry had e n t e r e d Cambridge w i t h the i n t e n t i o n of t a k i n g an E n g l i s h T r i p o s . In August of the f o l l o w i n g year A i k e n h i m s e l f r e t u r n e d t o "Jeake's House" i n Rye w i t h h i s second w i f e , C l a r i s s a L o r e n z , and i t was a t t h i s t i me t h a t A r t h u r 0. Lowry put him i n l o c o p a r e n t i s of h i s son. For the next t h r e e y e a r s , Lowry was t o spend a l l of h i s v a c a t i o n s , w i t h i n t e r m i t t e n t v i s i t s t o h i s p a r e n t s i n C h e s h i r e and a t r i p t o Norway i n the summer of 1931, w i t h the A i k e n s i n Rye. These v a c a t i o n s i n c l u d e d a l e n g t h y break i n the summer from J u l y t o O c t o b e r , w i t h a month o f f a t both C h r i s t m a s and E a s t e r . I t i s d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , from September 1930 t o the summer of 1932, t h a t Lowry and A i k e n ' s f r i e n d s h i p and c o r r e s p o n d e n c e i s r i c h e s t . Together t h e y d i s c u s s e d t h e i r mutual a c q u a i n t a n c e s i n Rye and Cambridge, the l i t e r a r y i s s u e s of the t i m e , and t h e i r own w r i t i n g s . I t was a l s o a t t h i s time t h a t t h e y both c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e Cambridge l i t e r a r y magazine, E x p e r i m e n t , and t o g e t h e r composed a poem f o r The  F e s t i v a l T h e a t r e Review p r o t e s t i n g the c e n s o r s h i p of l i t e r a t u r e , "those cokes t o n e w c a s t l e b l u e s . " By June 1932, Lowry had grad u a t e d w i t h a t h i r d c l a s s honours degree i n E n g l i s h . A f t e r a b r i e f v i s i t t o the A i k e n s , he moved t o London where he was t o l i v e f o r the nex t y e a r , s p e n d i n g most of h i s time d r i n k i n g i n London's F i t z r o v i a a r e a and t r y i n g t o p u b l i s h h i s f i r s t n o v e l , U l t r a m a r i n e . He was s t i l l , as he had been s i n c e 1929, d i s c u s s i n g the p r o g r e s s of U l t r a m a r i n e w i t h A i k e n , f e e l i n g i t t o be "a s p e c t r e of [ A i k e n ' s ] own d i s c a r d e d i d e a s " ( l e t t e r 13, p. 7 5 ) . In the s p r i n g of 1933, a few months 4 b e f o r e U l t r a m a r i n e was p u b l i s h e d , he t r a v e l l e d t o Granada w i t h the A i k e n s and t h e i r a r t i s t f r i e n d , Ed B u r r a , and i t was here t h a t he met Jan G a b r i a l whom he m a r r i e d i n P a r i s i n J a n u a r y 1934. The next e x i s t i n g l e t t e r t o A i k e n i s w r i t t e n from Cuernavaca i n 1937, a l t h o u g h Lowry had seen A i k e n i n the i n t e r i m s i n c e l e a v i n g England i n 1934. Jan had l e f t f o r New York a few months a f t e r t h e i r wedding, and Lowry f o l l o w e d her t h e r e i n the F a l l . I t was i n August 1936 t h a t A i k e n p a i d a spontaneous v i s i t t o Lowry i n New York, as d e s c r i b e d by Lowry i n h i s l e t t e r t o Seymour Lawrence which appeared i n the Conrad A i k e n i s s u e of Wake (87-88). In the F a l l of t h a t y e a r , Lowry and J a n moved t o Los Angele s and the n t o A c a p u l c o , s e t t l i n g i n Cuernavaca some time i n December. In the meantime, A i k e n had moved t o Boston where he met Mary Augusta Hoover, an a r t i s t , w i t h whom he was l i v i n g i n the w i n t e r of 1936. The f o l l o w i n g May, he v i s i t e d the Lowrys i n Cuernavaca w i t h Ed B u r r a and h i s s o o n - t o - b e - w i f e , Mary Hoover, w i t h the i n t e n t i o n of o b t a i n i n g a " q u i c k " d i v o r c e from C l a r i s s a L o r e n z ; h i s n o v e l , A Heart f o r the Gods of Me x i c o , i s a f i c t i o n a l a c c o u n t of t h i s t r i p . In the c o u r s e of t h i s v i s i t , Lowry once a g a i n assumed the r o l e of a s o r t of p u p i l under A i k e n ' s t u t e l a g e , composing s o n n e t s i n C h a r l i e ' s Bar f o r A i k e n ' s p e r u s a l ( l e t t e r 14, p. 78). On J u l y 7 t h , t e n days b e f o r e l e a v i n g t o r e t u r n t o En g l a n d , Conrad and Mary were m a r r i e d i n Cuernavaca. The Lowrys' m a r r i a g e , however, was d e t e r i o r a t i n g , and i n December 1937, J an l e f t Lowry and r e t u r n e d t o Los A n g e l e s . As the l a s t two l e t t e r s of t h i s s e c t i o n r e v e a l , Lowry sank i n t o a s t a t e of a l c o h o l i c d e s p a i r , somehow got i n t r o u b l e w i t h the Mexican p o l i c e , and 5 ended up s p e n d i n g C h r i s t m a s and New Year's 1937/38 i n j a i l i n Oaxaca. I t was not u n t i l J u l y 1938 t h a t he, t o o , t r a v e l l e d t o Los A n g e l e s , no doubt i n the hopes of a t t e m p t i n g a r e c o n c i l i a t i o n w i t h J a n . 6 1: From LOWRY t o AIKEN MSPC UBC; B r e i t 3 [ e a r l y 1929] I have l i v e d o n l y n i n e t e e n y e a r s and a l l of them more or l e s s b a d l y . And y e t t h e o t h e r day, when I s a t i n a L y o n s 1 (one of t h o s e grubby l i t t l e p l a c e s which poor Demarest l o v e d , and the g r u b b i e r the b e t t e r , and so do I ) 2 I became s u d d e n l y and b e a u t i f u l l y a l i v e . I read . . . I l a y i n the warm sweet g r a s s on a b l u e May morning, my c h i n i n a d a n d e l i o n , my hands i n c l o v e r , and drowsed t h e r e l i k e a bee . . . b l u e days b e h i n d me s t r e t c h e d l i k e a c h a i n of deep b l u e p o o l s of magic, e n c h a n t e d , s i l e n t , t i m e l e s s . . . days b e f o r e me murmured of b l u e sea mornings, noons of g o l d , green e v e n i n g s s t r e a k e d w i t h l i l a c . . . 3 I s a t o p p o s i t e the Bureau-de-change. The g r e a t g r e y t e a urn p e r s p i r e d . But as I r e a d , I became c o n s c i o u s o n l y of a b l u r of f a c e s : I l e t the t e a t h a t had m y s t e r i o u s l y appeared grow clammy and m i l k s t a r r e d , the h a l f v e a l and ham p i e remain i n i t s c r i n k l y paper; v a g u e l y , as though she had been s p e a k i n g upon a n o t h e r c o n t i n e n t , I heard t h e g i r l o p p o s i t e me o r d e r some more Dundee cake. My p i p e went out . — I l a y by the hot w h i t e sand-dunes . S m a l l y e l l o w f l o w e r s , s a p l e s s and squat and s p i n y , S t a r e d a t the s k y . And s i l e n t l y t h e r e above us, Day a f t e r day, beyond our dreams and knowledge, P r e s e n c e s swept, and over us streamed t h e i r shadows, S w i f t and b l u e , or d a r k . . . 4 7 I p a i d the b i l l and vent o u t . I c r o s s e d the S t r a n d and walked down V i l l i e r s s t r e e t t o the Embankment. I l o o k e d up a t the sea g u l l s , h i g h i n s u n l i g h t . 3 The s u n l i g h t r o a r e d above me l i k e a v a s t i n v i s i b l e s e a . The crowd of f a c e s wavered and broke and f l o w e d . 8 Sometime when you come t o London, Conrad A i k e n , w i l s t hog i t over the way somewhere w i t h me?-7 You w i l l f o r g i v e my p r e s u m p t i o n , I t h i n k , i n a s k i n g you t h i s . I am i n f a c t h a r d l y c o n s c i o u s m y s e l f of my own p r e s u m p t i o n . I t seems q u i t e f a t e d t h a t I s h o u l d w r i t e t h i s l e t t e r j u s t l i k e t h i s on t h i s warm b r i g h t day w h i l e o u t s i d e a man s h o u t s Rag-a-bone, Rag-a-bone. My l e t t e r may not even i n t e r e s t you; I t may not be your i n t e n t i o n ever t o come t o London even t o c h i v y up your p u b l i s h e r s . While on the s u b j e c t of p u b l i s h e r s I might as w e l l s a y t h a t I f i n d a d i f f i c u l t y b o r d e r i n g upon i m p o s s i b i l i t y i n g e t t i n g your Nocturne of Remembered S p r i n g . 8 Have you got a s p a r e copy of t h i s i n R y e 9 t h a t you c o u l d s e l l me? I f you have, i t would be a good excuse f o r you t o w r i t e t o t e l l me so. You c o u l d a l s o t e l l me whether, i f you a r e coming t o London any t i m e , you would have any time t o see me. C h a r i n g X i s o n l y a q u a r t e r of an hour away from h e r e . But perhaps t h i s l e t t e r has i n f u r i a t e d you so much t h a t you have not r e a d thus f a r . t e - t h r u m t e - t h r u m ; t e - t h r u m t e - t h r u m ; 1 0 Malcolm Lowry. 8 E x p l a n a t o r y Notes 1 "Lyons": E n g l i s h tea-room. 2 See A i k e n ' s Blue Voyage (London: G e r a l d Howe, 1927): " I remember t h a t you r e f u s e d t o have t e a w i t h me, a t a Lyons or A.B.C. because t h e y were 'such grubby l i t t l e p l a c e s ' . . . But as f o r me, I l i k e them; and the g r u b b i e r the b e t t e r " ( 3 4 2 ) . W i l l i a m Demarest i s the p r o t a g o n i s t of Blue Voyage; the surname i s of French' o r i g i n meaning "of the e a s t e r n s e a . " 3 See A i k e n ' s " P a l i m p s e s t : A D e c e i t f u l P o r t r a i t , " C o t e r i e 5 (Autumn 1920): 15. Lowry has quoted c o r r e c t l y from the poem ( s t a r t i n g from " I l a y i n the warm sweet g r a s s " ) e x c e p t f o r h a v i n g d e l e t e d the hyphen i n " b l u e - s e a . " The poem i s r e p r i n t e d as p a r t IV, s e c t i o n s i i i and v of A i k e n ' s The House of Dust: A Symphony ( B o s t o n : Four Seas, 1920). Cf. l e t t e r 34, p. 222, i n which Lowry mentions h i s r e a d i n g of " o l d C o t e r i e s . " *• " P a l i m p s e s t : A D e c e i t f u l P o r t r a i t , " 16. ° See A i k e n ' s "Movements from a Symphony: Sudden Death," C o t e r i e 3 (Dec. 1919): "Smiled f o r a moment a t s e a - g u l l s h i g h i n s u n l i g h t " ( 5 6 ) . R e p r i n t e d as p a r t I I , s e c t i o n x of The House of  Dust. 6 See A i k e n ' s "Movements from a Symphony: 'Overtones,'" C o t e r i e 3 (Dec. 1919): " S u n l i g h t above him / Roars l i k e a v a s t i n v i s i b l e s e a " (53) and "The crowd of f a c e s wavers and b r e a k s and f l o w s " ( 5 4 ) . R e p r i n t e d as p a r t I I , s e c t i o n v i i of The House of  Dust. 7 See B l u e Voyage: " ' W i l s t hog i t w i t h me over the way?'" ( 2 ) . The American e d i t i o n - - ( N e w York: S c r i b n e r ' s , 1927)--c o n t a i n s a v a r i a n t s p e l l i n g : " ' W i l l s ' t ' " ( 2 ) . C f . a l s o A i k e n ' s "The Orange Moth," B r i n g ! B r i n g ! and Other S t o r i e s (New York: B o n i & L i v e r i g h t , 1925): "'Where a r e we g o i n g t o hog i t , t o n i g h t ? ' " (162) . B Conrad A i k e n , Nocturne of Remembered S p r i n g and Other  Poems ( B o s t o n : Four Seas, 1917). 9 In 1924 A i k e n bought "Jeake's House" i n Rye, Sussex. At the time of t h i s l e t t e r , however, he was l i v i n g i n Cambridge, M a s s a c h u s e t t s where he was a c t i n g as a t u t o r of E n g l i s h a t Harvard U n i v e r s i t y . Lowry has m i s t a k e n l y assumed t h a t A i k e n i s s t i l l l i v i n g i n E n g l a n d . 1 0 "te-thrum t e - t h r u m " : R e f r a i n r u n n i n g t h r o u g h A i k e n ' s B l u e  Voyage meant t o suggest the sound of a s h i p ' s engine (222, 223, 224, 359, 360). T e x t u a l .Notes The crowd of f a c e s wavered\ The crowd {of f a c e s } wavered My l e t t e r may not even i n t e r e s t you;\ <It> <--this> {My} l e t t e r <of mine> may not even i n t e r e s t you; < p o s s i b l y i t may s t r i k e you as [ i l l e g . ] > . [ the words "<--this> {My} l e t t e r <of mine>" o r i g i n a l l y appeared a t the end of the c l a u s e b e f o r e the s e m i c o l o n ; the t r a n s f e r was i n d i c a t e d by Lowry w i t h an arrow] i m p o s s i b i l i t y i n g e t t i n g \ i m p o s s i b i l i t y <to get> { i n g e t t i n g } w r i t e t o t e l l me s o . \ w r i t e <and> {to} t e l l me so. t e l l me whether, i f you a r e coming t o London any t i m e , you would\ t e l l me {whether,} i f you a r e coming t o London <soon> {any t i m e } , <if> you would away from h e r e . \ away from <me> he r e . 10 2: From LOWRY t o AIKEN MS H; MSPC UBC; B r e i t 4 Tuesday n i g h t . [12 March 1929] S i r . (which i s a c o l d but r e s p e c t f u l exordium) I t has been s a i d by no l e s s a personage t h a n Chamon L a l l once g e n e r a l E d i t o r of a q u a r t e r l y of which you were an American E d i t o r t h a t - - s o r r y I'm wrong. I t has been s a i d by no l e s s a personage than R u s s e l l G r e e n 1 (and I don't s a y t h a t i t i s an o r i g i n a l a p h o r i s m because one of h i s o t h e r s ' S e n t i m e n t a l i t y i s a name g i v e n to the emotions of o t h e r s ' i s s heer Oscar W i l d e ) t h a t the o n l y c r i t e r i o n of l o v e i s the degree of i m p a t i e n c e w i t h which you w a i t f o r the postman. 2 W e l l , I am a boy and you ( r e s p e c t f u l l y a g a i n ) a r e a man o l d enough t o be my f a t h e r , and so I may not t a l k of l o v e i n the way t h a t R u s s e l l Green i n t e n d e d , but a l l the same, I may here s u b s t i t u t e l o v e f o r - - s h a l l we s a y - - f i l i a l a f f e c t i o n and, t o a p p l y the a p h o r i s m , s i n c e I wrote t o you, my a t t i t u d e towards postmen has c o m p l e t e l y changed. Once t h e y were m e r e l y b o u r g e o i s i e b e e t l e s c a r r y i n g t h e i r l o a d s . Now t h e y a r e d i v i n e but h o p e l e s s messengers. The m i r r o r o p p o s i t e the f o o t of my bed r e f l e c t s the window s e t between two m y s t e r i o u s green c u r t a i n s , t o the r i g h t of the head of my bed and t h i s window--I cheat m y s e l f t h a t t h i s i t i s good f o r my h e a l t h — I keep open a l l n i g h t . In t h e m i r r o r I can a l s o see the road b e h i n d me when i t i s l i g h t . E a r l y y e s t e r d a y morning, i t must have been about dawn, when I imagined 11 t h a t I co u l d a c t u a l l y see i n the m i r r o r , I saw a long and never ending p r o c e s s i o n of postmen l a b o u r i n g along t h i s road. The l e t t e r s were d e l i v e r e d and among a great p i l e f o r other people was one f o r me from you. I cannot now remember what you s a i d . You were pleased t h a t I ended o f f my l e t t e r to you with t e - thrum te-thrum: te-thrum te-thrum: 3 but I can't remember an y t h i n g e l s e except your handwriting. Of course i t was, as I r e a l i s e d b i t t e r l y when I woke up, merely a ro s e - f e s t o o n e d i l l u s i o n . 4 You had no i n t e n t i o n of w r i t i n g m e . [ — J c a n ' t express myself p r o p e r l y here s o r r y [ - - ] B u t I'm wandering o f f the p o i n t . The p o i n t i s t h i s . I suppose there are few t h i n g s you would hate more than to be i n v e s t e d with any academic a u t h o r i t y . Well, t h i s I s h a l l say. Next October I am going to Cambridge f o r three or four years to -t r y and get an E n g l i s h T r i p o s and a d e g r e e . 9 U n t i l October I am more or l e s s of a f r e e lance and a p e r p e t u a l source of a n x i e t y to a bewildered parent. The bewildered parent i n q u e s t i o n would be w i l l i n g to pay you 5 or 6 guineas a week (I should say s i x . p e r s o n a l l y , but t a c i t l y ) i f you would t o l e r a t e me f o r any p e r i o d you l i k e to name between now and then as a member of your household. Let me hasten to say t h a t I would e f f a c e myself and not get in the way of your i n s p i r a t i o n when i t comes t o d d l i n g along, that my a p p e t i t e i s f l e x i b l e . a n d u s u a l l y e n t i r e l y s a t i s f i e d by cheese, t h a t although I can't p l a y c h e s s 8 and know l i t t l e of the i n t r i c a c i e s of g l a d i o l i — I too have heard the sea sound i n 12 s t r a n g e w a t e r s — s h - s h - s h l i k e the hush i n a conch s h e l l , T and I can w i e l d a f a i r t e n n i s r a c k e t . A l l I want t o know i s why I c a t c h my b r e a t h i n a s o r t of agony when I r e a d ; The l a z y sea-waves crumble a l o n g the beach With a w h i r r i n g sound l i k e wind i n b e l l s He l i e s o u t s t r e t c h e d on the y e l l o w wind-worn sands Reaching h i s l a z y hands Among the g o l d e n g r a i n s and s e a - w h i t e s h e l l s . . . s And I want to be i n Rye a t t w i l i g h t and l e a n m y s e l f by the w a l l of the a n c i e n t t o w n — m y s e l f , l i k e a n c i e n t w a l l and d u s t and s k y , and the p u r p l e dusk, grown o l d , grown o l d i n h e a r t . 9 Remember when I w r i t e l i k e t h i s , remember t h a t I am not a s c h o o l b o y w r i t i n g a g u s h i n g l e t t e r t o J e f f r e y F a r n o l 1 0 or somebody. (Remember too t h a t you must r e s p e c t me a l i t t l e f o r h a v i n g such an i n t e n s e a d m i r a t i o n f o r your p o e t r y . I know you a r e a g r e a t man i n America and t h a t you have your own s c h o o l of f o l l o w e r s , but t o me--in the d i s m a l c i r c l e i n which I move nobody had ever heard of you, my most i n t e l l e c t u a l moments, such as t h e y a r e , b e i n g spent e n t i r e l y a l o n e , i t was as though I had d i s c o v e r e d you and I l i k e t o p r e s e r v e t h i s a b s u r d i d e a i n my c h i l d i s h mind and g i v e m y s e l f a g r e a t d e a l of unearned c r e d i t f o r h a v i n g done s o . ) 1 1 W e l l , t o c o n t i n u e I won't weary you by e u l o g i s i n g what you know y o u r s e l f t o be good (good i s q u i t e s t u p e n d o u s l y the wrong word but I don't want t o appear t o gush, you u n d erstand.) I know alm o s t b e f o r e you r e p l y - - i f you do r e p l y - - t h a t you a r e e i t h e r away or t h a t you would not have the s l i g h t e s t i n t e n t i o n of a c t i n g f o r the s h o r t e s t p e r i o d of time as my 13 g u a r d i a n and/or t u t o r , but a t any r a t e do you mind r e a d i n g t h i s l e t t e r s y m p a t h e t i c a l l y because you must have been p r e t t y much the same as me i n h e a r t when you were a k i d ? And I do want t o l e a r n from you and t o read your e a r l i e s t and most i n a c c e s s i b l e works and perhaps even your c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o the D i a l . 3 - 2 I go back home (here i s my a d d r e s s — I n g l e w o o d , C a l d y , C h e s h i r e ) next Monday. Nobody reads a t home: the o n l y paper we t a k e i s The B r i t i s h Weekly; t h e r e a r e few books i n the house more e x c i t i n g t h a t R e l i g i o n s and R e l i g i o n by James Hope Moul t o n 1 - 3 ( a l t h o u g h a c a r e f u l s e a r c h e r might f i n d i n a somewhat i n a c c e s s i b l e r e g i o n Donne, C h a t t e r t o n , The S m e l l of L e b a n o n , 1 4 Crabbe's I n e b r i e t y and B l u e Voyage) and a l t h o u g h I have had a c e r t a i n amount of y o u t h f u l s u c c e s s as a w r i t e r of s l o w and s l i p p e r y b l u e s 1 B i t i s as much as my l i f e i s worth t o p l a y a n y t h i n g i n the h o u s e — t h a t doesn't worry me so much--but when t h e y see me w r i t i n g a n y t h i n g s e r i o u s t h e y don't e x a c t l y d i s c o u r a g e me but t e l l me t h a t i t s h o u l d be s u b o r d i n a t e t o my r e a l work. What my r e a l work i s , heaven o n l y knows, as the o n l y o t h e r department t h a t I have had any s u c c e s s i n , i s i n w r i t i n g s e r i o u s l y and t h a t s u c c e s s r a r e l y meant ac c e p t a n c e but q u i t e o f t e n s i n c e r e encouragement from people whose o p i n i o n c o u l d h a r d l y be t a k e n t o be humble. But I don't want t o worry you w i t h a n y t h i n g I've w r i t t e n and indeed a f t e r r e a d i n g t h i s r a c k e t y i n c o h e r e n c e you would p r o b a b l y be e x t r e m e l y a v e r s e t o b e i n g w o r r i e d i n t h a t way. Look here you don't hate me a l r e a d y do you? (hate i s too d i g n i f i e d a word.) Now i_f you a r e i n London any time between when you r e c e i v e t h i s l e t t e r and Sunday ( i n c l u s ) c o u l d you l e t me know, because 14 you see we have put t h i n g s on somewhat of a b u s i n e s s f o o t i n g ? • I c o u l d meet you anywhere i n London. And any t i m e . Between now and Montag. I f not w r i t e t o my a d d r e s s i n the d i s m a l swamp. K l i o k i l o - . ' 1 * C M . Lowry. 15 Explanatory Notes 1 Russell Green (b. 1893) succeeded Chaman Divan L a l l (b. 1892) as editor of the London l i t t l e magazine C o t e r i e f A Quarterly: Art. Prose, and Poetrv. Chaman L a l l acted as editor from 1919-20, Russell Green from vinter 1920-21, and l a t e r , 1925-27, when the journal was continued under the t i t l e Nev Coterie. Conrad Aiken vas an American editor of Coterie from December 1919 -Winter 1921 and "appeared to be the agent between the journal and i t s sizeable number of regular American contributors'* ( T o l l e r s , B r i t i s h L i t e r a r y Magazines 110). A l l three editors included t h e i r own work in the journal. 2 Both aphorisms are exact quotations from Russell Green's "Aphorisms," Coterie 5 (Autumn 1920): 36-37. 3 See l e t t e r 1, n. 10, p. 8. * See Aiken's "Cabaret," Coterie 3 (Dec. 1919): "And dance once more in a rose-festooned i l l u s i o n " (52). This poem vas reprinted as part I I I , section ix of The House of Dust. * Lovry vas accepted at St. Catharine's College, Cambridge in March 1929 and entered the College in October. In June 1932 he received a t h i r d - c l a s s honours degree. Triposes are the examinations taken for the honours degree. " Chess games figure prominently in Blue Voyage. 7 See Blue Voyage: "The sound of the sea came s o f t l y here, muted, l i k e the hush heard i n a conch-shell: Sh-sh-sh" (16) and "...the softened sh. Sh. of the sea" (47). * Aiken, "Movements from a Symphony: 'Overtones,'" 54. Lovry has omitted the period a f t e r " b e l l s , " otherwise the passage i s quoted c o r r e c t l y . See l e t t e r 1, n. 6, p. 8. * See Aiken's "Seven Twilights," Priapus and the Pool and Other Poems (Nev York: Boni & L i v e r i g h t , 1925): Nov by the v a i l of the l i t t l e tovn I lean Myself, l i k e ancient v a i l and dust and sky. And the purple dusk, grovn old, grovn old in heart. (80) x o John J e f f r e y Farnol (1878-1952), English n o v e l i s t ; author of The Broad Highvav (1910) and The Amateur Gentleman (1913) amongst others. 1 1 In fact, Russell Lovry, Malcolm's brother, claims that i t vas he. vho f i r s t introduced Malcolm to Aiken's Blue Voyage (Bradbrook, Malcolm Lovrv: His Art and Earlv L i f e x i i i ) . 16 1 2 A i k e n was a c o n t r i b u t i n g e d i t o r of The D i a l from 1917-19 ( a l t h o u g h h i s name does not appear on the masthead i n 1919) ( J o o s t , Years of T r a n s i t i o n : The D i a l 1912-1920 196). 1 3 James Hope Moulton (1863-1917), c l a s s i c a l s c h o l a r educated a t the Leys S c h o o l and K i n g ' s C o l l e g e , Cambridge; a u t h o r of R e l i g i o n s and R e l i g i o n : A Study of the S c i e n c e of R e l i g i o n .  Pure and A p p l i e d (London: C h a r l e s H. K e l l y , 1913). H i s f a t h e r , Rev. W i l l i a m F i d d i a n M o u l t o n , was a t one time head master of the Leys S c h o o l , Cambridge which Lowry (and h i s b r o t h e r s ) a t t e n d e d from 1923-Easter 1927. 1 4 The S m e l l of Lebanon: Twenty-four S y r i a n F o l k - s o n g s , c o l l . S.H. Stephan, t r a n s . E. Powys Mathers ( [ L e i p z i g ] : T a l y b o n t D y f f r y n M e r i o n e t h , 1928) [ s e l e c t i o n r e p r i n t e d from Modern  P a l e s t i n i a n P a r a l l e l s t o the Song of Songs, 1923]. 1 5 Lowry had by t h i s t i m e , w i t h Ronald H i l l , p u b l i s h e d two songs: Three L i t t l e Dog-Gone M i c e : J u s t the L a t e s t C h a r l e s t o n  F o x - T r o t Ever (London: Worton David L t d . , 1927) and I've S a i d  Good-Bve t o Shanghai (London: B. Feldman & Co., 19 2 7 ) . 1 8 " K l i o k l i o " : A r e c u r r i n g r e f r a i n i n A i k e n ' s Blue Voyage used t o s u g g e s t the c r i e s of s e a g u l l s (304, 305, 307, 309, 310, 312) . T e x t u a l Notes Date [the envelope i s postmarked 13 March 1929] 10.3 once g e n e r a l E d i t o r \ once { g e n e r a l } E d i t o r 10 .10 ( r e s p e c t f u l l y a g a i n ) \ ( r e s p e c t f u l l y { a g a i n } ) 10.18-19 window s e t between two m y s t e r i o u s green c u r t a i n s , t o the r i g h t of the head of my bed\ [the words " s e t between two m y s t e r i o u s green c u r t a i n s , " o r i g i n a l l y appeared a f t e r the word "bed"; the t r a n s f e r was i n d i c a t e d by Lowry w i t h an arrow] 11.1-2 m i r r o r , I saw a l o n g and never e n d i n g p r o c e s s i o n \ m i r r o r , {I saw} a l o n g {and never ending} p r o c e s s i o n 11.2 l a b o u r i n g \ labour<ed>{ing} 11.3-4 g r e a t p i l e f o r o t h e r p e o p l e was\ g r e a t p i l e { f o r o t h e r people} was 11.10-11 of w r i t i n g me.[--]can't e x p r e s s m y s e l f p r o p e r l y here s o r r y ! — ] \ of w r i t i n g me. <You d i d n ' t l i k e the way 17 I asked i f you would have time ever t o see me i n London when you might have time but h a r d l y time enough t o t r o u b l e about h a v i n g a l u n c h on someone you'd never seen. I perhaps d i d n ' t make i t c l e a r enough t h a t I'd go anywhere w i t h i n my r e a c h from P i m l i c o t o the I s l e of Dogs i f o n l y t h e r e was h a l f a chance of s e e i n g you. And then i t i s p o s s i b l e I s h o u l d have s e n t a p o s t a l o r d e r i n a n t i c i p a t i o n f o r Nocturne of Remembered S p r i n g because even i f you hadn't got i t I t a k e i t even though you would have found i t a n u i s e a n c e ( s p e l l i n g mine) you would have s e n t the p o s t a l o r d e r back which would have meant a t l e a s t a c a u t i o u s l e t t e r of some s o r t on i t . > { [ — I c a n ' t e x p r e s s m y s e l f p r o p e r l y here s o r r y ! — ] } 11.11 B u t \ <Sorry> {But} 11.14 I s h a l l s a y \ I < w i l l > { s h a l l } say 11.23 L e t me\ L e t < [ i l l e g . ] > me 12.15 (Remember to o t h a t \ (Remember {too} t h a t 12.16 I know you a r e \ I know <that> you a r e 12.21 p r e s e r v e t h i s a b s u r d i d e a \ p r e s e r v e t h i s < c h i l d i s h absur> ab s u r d i d e a 12.22-3 f o r h a v i n g done s o . \ f o r <having done> <{doing}> {h a v i n g done} so. 12.25 t o be\ <is> {to be} 12.27-8 b e f o r e you r e p l y - - i f you do r e p l y — t h a t you a r e \ b e f o r e you r e p l y { — i f you do r e p l y - - } t h a t you a r e 13.15-16 w r i t i n g a n y t h i n g { s e r i o u s } t h e y s e r i o u s t h e y \ w r i t i n g a n y t h i n g 18 3: From LOWRY t o AIKEN TS H; u n p u b l i s h e d [Inglewood, C a l d y ] [ M a r c h / A p r i l 1929] Comments about the poems: I have i n c l u d e d o n l y the poems which I thought would a i d you i n g e t t i n g a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of what type of person I am. That does not mean t h a t I'm a r a v i n g r a d i c a l or some m a l a d j u s t e d f o o l t r y i n g t o c o m p l a i n about my f o r t u n e s . As a m atter of f a c t , I am q u i t e c a r e f r e e and easy t o get a l o n g w i t h . I have o n l y one word t o s a y i n d e f ense f o r my work and m y s e l f ; we're both young and c o u l d s t a n d a g o o d l y amount of p o l i s h i n g . Mr. A i k e n , I p l e a d w i t h you t o g i v e me a f r a n k c r i t i c i s m and a word of a d v i c e . I need i t b a d l y i n the r i g h t way. And t h a t i s : Do you t h i n k I have any i n d i v i d u a l s t y l e of my own or am I u n c o n c i o u s l y i m i t a t i n g someone's work. I have been t o l d by some t h a t I have a tendency t o r e l y upon Whitman. I t h i n k n o t . I f e e l t h a t my work i s g o i n g t o be and i s d i f f e r e n t b o t h i n t e x t and s p i r i t . But do I show i t . P l e a s e g i v e me your f r a n k e s t o p i n i o n . In my p r e l u d e t o the I r o n and S t e e l s e r i e s , 1 I have p l a c e d m y s e l f b e s i d e s Whitman and Sandburg as a s i n g e r . I f e e l t h a t I have a r i g h t t o . I d i d not i n t e n d the eyes of m o r t a l man t o read a word of the i r o n and s t e e l group u n t i l I had e s t a b l i s h e d m y s e l f as a s i n g e r comparable t o b o t h . Perhaps the day w i l l never come, i f i t d i d n ' t I i n t e n d e d t o d e s t r o y e v e r y word, because I , o n l y a n i n e t e e n y e ar o l d y o u n g s t e r , would be c a l l e d a f o o l f o r 19 a t t e m p t i n g t o even t h i n k m y s e l f a man comparable i n s t a n d i n g t o Whitman and Sandburg. As you r e a d the P r e l u d e p l e a s e remember t h a t I haved l i v e d everyword and t h a t a l l I need i s a b e t t e r medium of e x p r e s s i o n f o r c l e a r e r t h o u g h t s and words. I hope t h a t I w i l l r e c e i v e e i t h e r your honest encouragement or your f r a n k e s t d i s c o u r a g e m e n t . P l e a s e excuse poor t y p i n g . [Poems e n c l o s e d w i t h l e t t e r ] Spiderweb The moment hangs from Heaven l i k e a webbed B r i d g e t o t h a t i n v i s i b l e w h e r e i n N e c e s s i t y ' s d i m e n s i o n s sometimes win Harbors of a i r , from which the s t o r m has ebbed. But we a r e s p i d e r s . And w i t h w a i t i n g eyes We see s a i l by, beyond o l d r e a c h and hope, Doomed wings of a d i s t a n c e , s m a l l as p e r i s c o p e , W h i l e d i n i n g on a d i e t of dead f l i e s : The b l a c k and g o l d , the g r o s s and g u l l i b l e , We a r e t h o s e s p i d e r s who of t h e m s e l v e s have spun Nets of sad time t o sway a g a i n s t the s u n -Broken by s e c r e t s time can never t e l l . A l c o h o l i c I d i e d so many t i m e s when drunk That sober I became L i k e water where a s h i p was sunk That never knew i t s name. Old b a r n a c l e s upon my s i d e s Ringed round w i t h p i t c h and t o s s Were g i v e n me by mermaid b r i d e s , Immaculate as moss. Here now, w i t h n e i t h e r k i n nor q u e s t , I am so f u l l of sea That whales may make of me a n e s t And go t o s l e e p i n me. (Those a n g e l s of the upper a i r Who s i p of the d i v i n e May f i n d a haven h o l i e r but l e s s goodbye than mine.) Dark P a t h By no s p e c i f i c d a r t of g o l d , No s i n g l e s i n g i n g have I found T h i s p a t h . I t t r a v e l s , dark and c o l d , Through dead v o l c a n o e s underground. Here f l i c k e r y e t the s u l p h u r o u s c h a r r e d ends of f i r e s l o n g s i n c e I knew. Long s i n c e , I t h i n k , and t h i n k i n g t h u s , I g n i t e , d a e m o n i c a l l y ; anew. Ye t , b u r n i n g , b u r n i n g , b u r n i n g L o r d , Know how t h i s p a t h must l i k e w i s e come Through m u l t i t u d i n o u s d i s c o r d The a w f u l and the l o n g way home. Sonnet T h i s r u i n now, where m o o n l i g h t walks a l o n e U n c o v e r i n g the cobweb and the r o s e , I have been here b e f o r e ; l o v e d each dim s t o n e ; I f t h e r e were shadows I was one of t h o s e . There l i s t e n i n g , as i n a s h e l l , I heard Through some i n v i s i b l e , u n l e t t e r e d whole One t r u e , i f not a t a l l e t e r n a l , word Wrung from the w e i r d m u t a t i o n s of the s o u l ; P a l a c e or h o v e l , r u i n w i l l a t l a s t Make peace of what i s waste; t a k e f o r a time The hungry f u t u r e and the b l o o d y p a s t I n t o her n i g h t . Only the moon w i l l c l i m b Up broken s t a i r s t o towerd might have been And r e s t a l i t t l e , l i k e some poor, b l i n d queen. c h e e r y a i n ' t t h e y ? S p i r i t took the s p i d e r , don' know why- l o v e 1. 22 E x p l a n a t o r y Notes 1 T h i s was presumably an e a r l y c o l l e c t i o n Lowry had made of h i s poems. No d r a f t of the s e r i e s i s e x t a n t . T e x t u a l Notes [ H a n d w r i t t e n note a t top of page r e a d s : " O r i g i n a l from Male apropos m a t e r i a l s e n t t o C.A. [[Conrad A i k e n ] ] a t Cambridge MASS"] 19.7 P l e a s e excuse poor t y p i n g . \ [ h a n d w r i t t e n by Lowry a t bottom of page] e n c l o s u r e [4 poems; TS H] 23 4: From LOWRY t o AIKEN MS H; u n p u b l i s h e d [St C a t h a r i n e ' s C o l l . Camb.] [October 1930] My dear Conrad Many thanks f o r your l e t t e r ; and a l s o f o r s h a d i n g , a n n o t a t i n g , and c o n n o t a t i n g the d i s b u r s e m e n t s ; 1 m y s e l f have had q u i t e a sm o o t h l y s m i l i n g s o r t of l e t t e r from the o l d man, 2 which presages w e l l f o r the f u t u r e . . . I've moved i n t o new rooms (but the same a d d r e s s ) and spen t y e s t e r d a y d e c o r a t i n g them, and drank a b o t t l e of whi s k e y i n the p r o c e s s . H a l f my books seem t o have been s t o l e n , b l a s t somebody's eyes. But t o make i t worse I c a n ' t remember p r e c i s e l y what I d i d have. My S i r Thomas Browne's gone, anyway, I'm s u r e of t h a t : and a Thomas Heywood, i n the mermaid e d i t i o n , or d i d I l e n d t h a t t o somebody?: and 'Du b l i n e r s , ' - - w h y D u b l i n e r s ? — — 'Experiment' i s o u t . 3 I ' l l send you one as soon as I can l a y hands on a copy. Everybody t h i n k s the f i r s t p r e l u d e ' s s w e l l — b u t most everybody i s m y s t i f i e d by the t h i r d . * Who i s t h i s p e r s o n who must be d i s e m b o w e l l e d , and shown i n the m a r k t p l a t z ? . 3 But I dare say t h e y ' l l f i n d o u t , soon enough. There's a l a r g e p o s t e r of 'Experiment,' w i t h your name i n l a r g e l e t t e r s , and a l l the l i t t l e s u c k e r s i n s m a l l l e t t e r s . Damp from the womb! I p l a y e d hockey f o r Cambridge town a g a i n s t F e n s t a n t o n l a s t S a t u r d a y . I've d e c i d e d on hockey as a g a i n s t r u g g e r , because t h e i r team s e c r e t a r y c a l l e d round ( a c t u a l l y ! ) and s a i d t h a t I was wanted r because I h i t the b a l l f i r m l y and h a r d , and was r e a l l y q u i t e a p e r s o n . I'm p l a y i n g a g a i n s t P e t e r b o r o u g h to-morrow, and T r i n i t y H a l l c o l l e g e on S a t u r d a y , and my own c o l l e g e the week a f t e r next sometime which r e a l l y s h o u l d be damned good f u n . I t p l e a s e s me immensely p l a y i n g a g a i n s t my own c o l l e g e . Yet a t s c h o o l I s h o u l d have hated t o p l a y a g a i n s t my own house. . . S t i l l St Caths i s d i f f e r e n t . I t l o o k s l i k e a b a r r a c k s g e n e r a l l y . The d i n i n g room l o o k s l i k e a mortuary. The c o l l e g e t h a t god f o r g o t ! Or a moloch which, sometimes, r a i s e s i t s stone hand t o s t r i k e — --N e a r l y a l l the o t h e r c o l l e g e s have something c l o i s t r a l and C a n t e r b u r y i a n about them, or have produced a Marlowe or a M i l t o n . I'm h a v i n g d i n n e r t o - n i g h t , i n Pembroke i n G rays' o l d room. And both Crashaw & C h r i s t o p h e r Smart l i v e d i n the same b l o c k ! . . 8 C a n t e r b u r y C a t h e d r a l . C h r i s t , t h a t p l a c e has ceased t o be a f a c t : I f e e l i t , d a r k l y , i n my b l o o d ; i n the v e r y plasm of my b l o o d , as one might say: transmuted--by some k i n s h i p w i t h the i n s e n t i e n t as w e l l as the l i v i n g — i n t o the m a t r i x of my l i f e . The Norman tower. The dark e n t r y . The b a p i s t r y garden. T r i n i t y c h a p e l , where l i e the c a n o n i z e d bones of St W i l f r e d and St Odo! St Odo! . . 7 Or am I a t C r e c y , t h e n , w i t h the B l a c k P r i n c e ? I walk g r a v e l y b e s i d e him. My sword i s i n i t s l e a t h e r n s c a b b a r d . My l e a t h e r n s h i e l d i s embossed w i t h the l i l i e s of F r a n c e , the f l o w e r s - d e - l u c e . The s u r c o a t i s of q u i l t e d c o t t o n , f a c e d w i t h v e l v e t , and embroidered w i t h emblems i n s i l k and g o l d . . . W e l l , my boy, I s h a l l w r i t e you a l o n g l e t t e r , d i c t a t e d to 25 my t y p i s t . Remember what I've s a i d to you about d r i n k and women. I don't want you to get mixed up i n a n y - e r - d r i n k i n g bouts. I never d i d , and look what I am to-day. There's no need to t a l k about t h a t other l i t t l e matter, s e l f - a b u s e , of course not. I know you don't know an y t h i n g about t h a t . You won't even be tempted. None of your b r o t h e r s have been tempted. None of the Lowry-Lbwries of Inglewood-Inglewood have ever drunk, or been tempted i n any way whatsoever. And money—please give me a c a r e f u l account of e v e r y t h i n g you spend--I th i n k you spend too much money on s h o o t i n g , and r e p a i r i n g your g u n -As ever Malcolm I have a gramophone, with 2 r e c o r d s . you don't mind w a i t i n g a l i t t l e while f o r your 'Blue Voyage.'? . . I ' d l i k e a game of ping-pong with you, my god! And a v i s i t to Mr Neeves. B Or a walk through Gods a c r e . 9 E x p l a n a t o r y Notes 1 L o v r y had been s e n d i n g c h a p t e r s of h i s n o v e l , U l t r a m a r i n e r t o A i k e n f o r c o r r e c t i o n s . U l t r a m a r i n e vas p u b l i s h e d i n June 1933 by J o n a t h a n Cape. The m a n u s c r i p t o f U l t r a m a r i n e c o n t a i n e d i n t h e H u n t i n g t o n L i b r a r y ( A l k 3381] i s i n s c r i b e d by A i k e n : "June 4 [1931] 10:30 p.m. Dear M a l c o l m — I v i n d my v a t c h f o r y o u — b u t you s h o u l d be v l n d i n g my v a t c h f o r me. — C i . " 3 " o l d man": L o v r y and A i k e n ' s name f o r Lowry's f a t h e r , A r t h u r 0. L o v r y . A c c o r d i n g t o M u r i e l B r adbrook, i t i s "the r e g u l a r term o f a s h i p ' s c r e v f o r t h e M a s t e r " (Malcolm L o v r y 1 5 ) . In the 1976 N a t i o n a l F i l m Board documentary on L o v r y , V o l c a n o : An Inquiry Into t h e 1,1$$ and, p e a t h of. MfllCOlm hPWry, R u s s e l l L o v r y a l s o r e f e r s t o t h e i r f a t h e r as the " o l d man." s Experiment,, a Cambridge l i t e r a r y magazine, begun i n 1928 under the e d i t o r s h i p of W i l l i a m Empson. The e d i t o r s from 1929 t o 1931, J a c o b B r o n o v s k i and Hugh Sykes, changed t h e e d i t o r i a l p o l i c y and d e c i d e d t h a t t h e magazine " c o u l d r e p r e s e n t non-Cambridge v r i t e r s " ( S a v y e r , B r i t i s h L i t e r a r y Magazines 177); hence t h e I n c l u s i o n o f A i k e n ' s poems, no doubt v i a L o v r y , i n the October 1930 i s s u e . * Conrad A i k e n , "Three P r e l u d e s , " E x p e r i m e n t 6 (Oct. 1930): 33-6. These were l a t e r p u b l i s h e d as p r e l u d e s " I , " "X," and "XXXV" i n A i k e n ' s P r e l u d e s f o r Memnon (Nev York: S c r i b n e r ' s , 1931). 8 See "XXXV," P r e l u d e s f o r Memnon: "God t a k e h i s b o v e l s o u t , and break h i s bones, / And shov him i n the market as he i s . . ." ( 6 4 ) . " M i l t o n r e s i d e d i n C h r i s t ' s C o l l e g e from 1625-1632; M a r l o v e i n Corpus C h r i s t ! from 1581-1587; Thomas Gray i n P e t e r h o u s e from 1734-38 and 1744-56; R i c h a r d Crashav i n Pembroke from 1631-34 and P e t e r h o u s e 1636-38 (he became a F e l l o v o f P e t e r h o u s e i n 1637); and C h r i s t o p h e r Smart vas a F e l l o v o f Pembroke i n 1745. 7 S a i n t W i l f r i d , B i s h o p o f York, and S a i n t Odo of C a n t e r b u r y , Abbot of B a t t l e v e r e b o t h a t one time supposed t o be b u r i e d i n C a n t e r b u r y C a t h e d r a l . In the r e l i c l i s t a t C a n t e r b u r y C a t h e d r a l i s mentioned "a t o o t h of t h e Ven. Odo Abb. of B a t t l e " ( P a r k e r , The C a t h o l i c E n c y c l o p e d i a 11:211). * Tom Neeves vas t h e ovner o f t h e S h i p I n n , Rye vhere L o v r y and A i k e n v o u l d d r i n k t o g e t h e r . See a l s o Lowry's l e t t e r t o Tom Neeves e n c l o s e d i n l e t t e r 84, p. 448. * "God's a c r e " : a cemetery. C f . A i k e n ' s poem, "God's A c r e , " P r l a n u s and the P o o l (Nev York: B o n i & L i v e r i g h t , 1925) 28-31. 28 Textual Notes