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The effects of anxiety on arousal in sexually dysfunctional women Palace, Eileen Marie 1988

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THE EFFECTS OF ANXIETY ON AROUSAL IN SEXUALLY DYSFUNCTIONAL  WOMEN  By EILEEN MARIE B.A.,  PALACE  Whitman C o l l e g e ,  THESIS SUBMITTED  1981  IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR  THE DEGREE OF  MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE Department  We  accept t h i s to  STUDIES  of Psychology  thesis  the r e q u i r e d  as c o n f o r m i n g standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October ©  Eileen  1988  M a r i e P a l a c e , 1988  In  presenting  degree freely  at  this  the  University  available  copying  of  department publication  for  this or of  thesis  in  partial  of  British  reference  thesis by  for  his  this  thesis  and  The  University  Vancouver,  Date  DE-6  of  scholarly  or  her  for  (2/88)  British  financial  Columbia  Canada  October  12,  1988  of I  1 further  purposes  gain  the  shall  requirements  agree  that  agree  may  representatives.  Psychology of  Columbia,  study.  permission.  Department  fulfilment  be  It not  is  that  the  Library  permission  granted  by  understood be  for  allowed  an  advanced  shall for  the that  without  make  it  extensive  head  of  copying my  my or  written  11  Abstract  The  e f f e c t s of anxiety  investigated  arousal  to determine  on s u b s e q u e n t  i fsexually  to pairings  erotic  dysfunctional  functional or  Eight  women viewed  anxiety-evoking  stimulus  followed  experimental which each  arousal  by a s e x u a l l y  arousing  with  with  Changes a vaginal  anxiety  to  physiological  stimulus.  Non-significant  videotape)  were measured  physiological  genital  arousal  a significantly following  to the strength rated  less sexually  c o r r e l a t i o n s between v a g i n a l a trend  research,  f o r f u n c t i o n a l women.  achieved  Contrary  sexual  t h e n e u t r a l - e r o t i c and  enhanced  women a l s o  revealed  was used i n  with previous  stimulus  as s i g n i f i c a n t l y  ratings  preexposure  As p r e d i c t e d ,  greater  r e s p o n s e s however, b o t h g r o u p s  condition  subjective  arousal  and m a g n i t u d e o f g e n i t a l a r o u s a l  the anxiety  erotic  Consistent  to the n e u t r a l - c o n t r o l  rate  (erotic  videotape)  p h o t o p l e t h y s m o g r a p h , and  significantly  Moreover, d y s f u n c t i o n a l enhanced  i n sexual  women i n b o t h  conditions.  preexposure  relative  videotape)  and  sexually  (travelogue  a self-report rating scale.  than d y s f u n c t i o n a l  were  b o t h p a i r s o f p r e e x p o s u r e and  women showed s i g n i f i c a n t l y  anxie.ty-erotic  and e i g h t  A r e p e a t e d measures d e s i g n  observed  stimuli.  of anxiety-evoking  control  amputation  stimulus.  physiologically subjectively  a neutral  (threatened  subject  experimental  functional  sexually  arousal  f u n c t i o n a l and d y s f u n c t i o n a l  women r e s p o n d d i f f e r e n t i a l l y cues.  sexual  exposure  of their the anxiety-  arousing.  blood  volume and  f o r f u n c t i o n a l and  d y s f u n c t i o n a l women t o e x p e r i e n c e a c c o m p a n i e d by an i n h i b i t e d aroused.  enhanced g e n i t a l  likelihood  of acknowledging  conceptualizations of sexual dysfunction.  and  feeling  T h e s e f i n d i n g s c o n t r a d i c t t h e l i t e r a t u r e on s e x u a l l y  f u n c t i o n a l and d y s f u n c t i o n a l men, and c h a l l e n g e  that  arousal  (1) a n x i e t y a r o u s a l enhances g e n i t a l d y s f u n c t i o n a l women, ( 2 ) h e i g h t e n e d  contradictory cognitive perceptions, response system i s desynchronous, n e c e s s a r i l y process  current  The f i n d i n g s s u g g e s t arousal  i nfunctional  arousal occurs  (3) the female  despite  sexual  ( 4 ) f u n c t i o n a l women do n o t  g e n i t a l c u e s more e f f e c t i v e l y  than  d y s f u n c t i o n a l women, ( 5 ) t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l r e s p o n s e s y s t e m i s imperative in  therapy,  t o d e f i n i n g a r e s p o n s e as s e x u a l  and must be t a r g e t e d  and ( 6 ) common modes o f t r e a t m e n t  increasing parasympathetic the e l i c i t a t i o n  of sexual  d i r e c t e d toward  r e s p o n s e may be c o u n t e r p r o d u c t i v e arousal.  Alternative  s t r a t e g i e s d i r e c t e d toward response synchrony, a c t i v a t i o n , and c o g n i t i v e a t t r i b u t i o n  .and  discussed  treatment sympathetic  are discussed.  p r e l i m i n a r y model o f s e x u a l d y s f u n c t i o n  to  A  i n women i s p r o p o s e d ,  i n terms o f d i r e c t i o n s f o r f u t u r e  research.  i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Abstract  i i  L i s t of Tables L i s t of Figures Acknowledgments  v vi v i i  Introduction Sexually  1 Functional  Men and Women  2  Misattribution  6  Sexually Dysfunctional  Men  7  Sexually  Women  9  Dysfunctional  Attention  t o B o d i l y Cues  Proposed Model o f Sexual Purpose o f t h e Present  11 Dysfunction  Study  15  Method  20  Subjects A p p a r a t u s and M a t e r i a l s P h y s i o l o g i c a l Measurement S u b j e c t i v e Measurement Stimuli D e r o g a t i s Sexual F u n c t i o n i n g D e s i g n and P r o c e d u r e Data  12  Inventory  Reduction  Results Group D i f f e r e n c e s  20 22 22 22 23 24 25 27  i n Sexual  Functioning  28 28  I n t e r n a l V a l i d i t y o f P h y s i o l o g i c a l Measures V a g i n a l B l o o d Volume L e v e l s  30 30  Preexposure S t i m u l i P h y s i o l o g i c a l Sexual A r o u s a l S u b j e c t i v e Sexual A r o u s a l R e l a t i o n s h i p between P h y s i o l o g i c a l and S u b j e c t i v e Sexual A r o u s a l  32 36 39 42  Discussion  45  References  63  Appendix  68  Film  Scale  69  V  L I S T OF  TABLES Page  Table  1.  D i f f e r e n c e s between S e x u a l l y D y s f u n c t i o n a l and Functional Derogatis  Table  2.  Women i n P r o f i l e Sexual  Functioning  A n a l y s i s of Variance  from  the  Inventory.  f o r V a g i n a l Blood  L e v e l s d u r i n g the Onset t o C h a n g e o v e r from  Scores  29  of Preexposure  Volume  31  Stimuli  Preexposure-Experimental  Stimuli. Table  3.  A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e  for Physiological  Arousal  Preexposure  (VBV) d u r i n g  Sexual  33  Stimuli.  Table  4.  A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e f o r P h y s i o l o g i c a l Sexual A r o u s a l (VBV) d u r i n g E x p e r i m e n t a l S t i m u l i .  37  Table  5.  A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e f o r S u b j e c t i v e Ratings of Sexual A r o u s a l d u r i n g Experimental S t i m u l i .  40  Table  6.  P e a r s o n Product-Moment C o r r e l a t i o n s between P h y s i o l o g i c a l (VBV) and S u b j e c t i v e R a t i n g s o f Sexual Arousal d u r i n g Experimental S t i m u l i .  43  vi LIST  OF FIGURES Page  Figure  1.  Mean v a g i n a l  in m i l l i v o l t s  blood  from b a s e l i n e )  and  f u n c t i o n a l women a c r o s s  the  neutral-erotic  volume  (absolute  forsexually 4-second  deviation  34  dysfunctional  time b l o c k s  during  (N-E) and a n x i e t y - e r o t i c (A-E)  condi t i o n s . Figure  2. C o n t i n u o u s measurement  (absolute sexually second and  deviation  dysfunctional  time  dysfunctional  neutral-erotic conditions.  volume  35  from b a s e l i n e ) f o r  t h e n e u t r a l - e r o t i c (N-E)  (A-E) c o n d i t i o n s .  3. Mean s u b j e c t i v e  sexually  blood  and f u n c t i o n a l women a t 0.20  i n t e r v a l s during  anxiety-erotic  Figure  in millivolts  of vaginal  ratings  of sexual  arousal  for  and f u n c t i o n a l women d u r i n g t h e  (N-E) and a n x i e t y - e r o t i c (A-E)  41  vi i ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The a u t h o r w i s h e s t o e x p r e s s h e r a p p r e c i a t i o n t o D r . B o r i s B. G o r z a l k a , a d v i s o r and c o m m i t t e e c h a i r , whose g u i d a n c e and a d v i c e i n a l l s t a g e s o f t h e r e s e a r c h , and c o u r a g e t o c o l l a b o r a t e i n i n i t i a t i n g a new p r o g r a m o f r e s e a r c h i n human s e x u a l b e h a v i o r has made t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n p o s s i b l e . Gratitude i s also expressed to the members o f t h e c o m m i t t e e , D r . Lynn A l d e n f o r h e r a d v i c e , d i r e c t i o n , s u p p o r t , and e n c o u r a g e m e n t ; and D r . W o l f g a n g L i n d e n , f o r h i s t i m e c o n s u l t i n g on p s y c h o p h y s i o l o g i c a l m e t h o d o l o g y and generous p r o v i s i o n of the C a r d i o v a s c u l a r Laboratory. S p e c i a l a p p r e c i a t i o n i s e x p r e s s e d t o Mr. L o r e n M. G r e e n e n , computer s y s t e m s e n g i n e e r , whose t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e c o n t r i b u t e d to an i n n o v a t i v e c o m p u t e r i z e d s y s t e m f o r p h y s i o l o g i c a l d a t a c o l l e c t i o n , r e d u c t i o n , and a n a l y s i s . H i s t e c h n i c a l s u p p o r t from t h e c o n c e p t i o n t o c o m p l e t i o n o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was i n v a l u a b l e . The a u t h o r a l s o w i s h e s t o a c k n o w l e d g e D r . J o h n P. W i n c z e f o r p r o v i d i n g t h e f i l m s used i n h i s o r i g i n a l a n x i e t y p a r a d i g m (Hoon, W i n c z e , & Hoon, 1 9 7 7 ) , and a c c e s s t o h i s f i l m l i b r a r y f o r t h e s t i m u l i s e l e c t e d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y ; and t o D r . J u l i a R. Heiman f o r p r o v i d i n g t h e F i l m S c a l e she h a s d e s i g n e d f o r s u b j e c t i v e measurement o f s e x u a l a r o u s a l . Appreciation i s also expressed to the r e f e r r i n g p h y s i c i a n s and t h e r a p i s t s : D r . R. W. D. S t e v e n s o n , Dr. W i l l i a m M a u r i c e , and D r . George S z a s z ( S h a u g h n e s s y H o s p i t a l S e x u a l M e d i c i n e U n i t ) ; Anne E . D a v i e s , B i a n c a R u c k e r , L o r i Van Humbeck, D r . W i l l i a m C a i r d ( S t . P a u l ' s H o s p i t a l ) , and D r . G e o r g i a Nemetz ( R o y a l C o l u m b i a n H o s p i t a l ) .  1  The  Effects  of  Sexually Anxiety sexual men  arousal  and  women  (e.g.  and  Wolpe,  1958,  anxiety which They  in  terms  assert  natural  is  the  autonomic the  more  the  early  cause and  the  and  inadequacy from  by  Kaplan  of  (1982)  elements  intensely sexual  anxiety  response  assumption  that  anxiety  and  arousal  are  is  there  mutually  with  Treatment  of  sexual  dysfunction  1970)  or  be"  sexual  techniques "non-demand  has  such  so  her  stimuli"  is  the  anxiety  eminently very  response  inhibition  204). and  many  Based that  traditionally  .  on  the  anxiety  as  men a n d  .  of  researchers  procedures  dysfunctional  it  sexual  sexual  arousal  inhibitory,  sexually  the  more  (p.  anxiety-reduction  choice  Johnson,  will  the  known  its  "anxiety  the  1979;  arousal.  sexual  inhibits  up  aroused,  of  both  demands  or  sexual  to  for  because his  that  due  that  make  greatest  of  low  defined  sexual  from  suggests  it  have  simply  disruption  that  of  demand  the  reception  of  1974,  performance  individual  because  treatment  performance  "is  states  impairs  employed  or  dysfunction  physiological Wolpe  (1970)  functioning,  (1974)  sexual  Kaplan,  experiencing  anxiety  blocking  determinant dysfunction  1970;  Johnson  fearful  response  have  sexual  sexual  responding  clinicians  of  of  sexual  sexual  cause  performance  cycle. to  a major  individual  Similarly,  response adverse  fears  distracts  psychological  as  & Johnson,  in  Women  viewed  Masters  effective  a primary  be  leading  responsivity  13).  to  on A r o u s a l  Dysfunctional  Masters  of  that  to  completely  a  1982).  prevent  deterrent  (p.  continues  Anxiety  and  the women.  involved  low  as  "sensate  focus"  (Masters  coitus"  (Kaplan,  1974),  and  more  &  2  recently, muscle  relaxation  relaxation  extinguishing  and  fear  stimuli  Kockott,  Dittman,  Kilmann,  1978;  research  literature  enhance  Sexually  elicited or  Wincze  and  when  demonstrated eliciting sexual  an  arousal,  to  arousal  (1974)  the  found  when  that  preexposure  sexually  & Dekker, Sotile  &  body  of  heightened  on  to  with  anxiety  women  were the  sexual  1982;  anxiety  to  a  than  did  non-anxiety-  a  in  aroused  the  subjects'  responses  research anxiety  and  confederate. and  sexual  sexually  films.  film  Sexual  vaginal  Wolpe's  arousal  They  anxiety-eliciting  anxiety-eliciting  rapidly  card  arousing  with  with  sexually  in  preexposed  sexually  and  Test  or  bridge  attraction.  between  neutral  anxiety  experimental  female  (1977)  of  suspension  subjects  increased  relationship & Hoon  effects  fear-arousing  control  Consistent  of  more  at  arousal.  the  physiologically  stimulus,  sexual-arousal  with  1973;  that  Apperception  subjects  photoplethysmograph. theory  a  attraction  measured  inhibition  to  Thematic  counterbalanced was  aimed  A growing  sexual  shock,  anxiety  Wincze,  female  progressive  Everaerd  however,  crossed  compared  clarify  paired  Obler,  examined  electrical  sexual  Hoon,  functional segments  in  1977;  1976).  inhibit  as  Men a n d Women  situations,  content  order  than  Aron  that  self-reported In  & Caird,  subjects  anticipated  responses  1975;  indicates  such  desensitization,  & Wincze,  & Nusselt,  Functional  Dutton  anxiety  (Caird  rather  procedures  systematic  and  arousing  may  inducing  (1958)  sexual by  an  reciprocal  response,  they  erotic  stimulus  inhibited  attention-control  3  (neutral) contrary aroused rather  stimulus. to  by  Wolpe's the  than that  arousal  are  theory,  erotic  the  suggest  and  However  prior  to  However  anxiety, if  enhanced  level  of  al.  (1977)  Sexual  this  with  was  either  the  In anxiety"  an  the  inhibit  according sexual effects  of  subjects  during  three  subjects  viewed  an  that  elicited  by  the  above  (Norton  males  if  al.  arousal that  and  Barlow,  did  (a) not  stimuli.  a penile the  stimulus  Sakheim, in  anxiety-  "performance  Beck  hypothesis (1983)  functional  Contingent  adequate  male  which  threat  to  segments.  (1970)  in  of  exposure  of  and  conditions  achieve  the  film  analogue  strain  results  following  Johnson's  et  including  following  arousal  counterbalanced  with  Hoon  preexposure  findings,  neutral  on  the  arousal-evoking  than  Masters  they  by  response-evoking  et  stimulus.  1984).  replicated  laboratory  film:  anxiety  & Jehu,  functional  or  anxiety  erotic  evoked  an  a  arousal,  was  by  greater  to  arousal  followed  sexual  provide  anxiety  was  it  experimental  was  the  first,  neutral  that  sexual  of  the  Hoon  to  shock  sexual  with  the  electrical  the  results  on  relationship  systematically  the  These  anxiety  physiologically  examined  of  anxiety-eliciting,  of  sexually  by  alone  depression-evoking  that  the  measured  segment  effort  rapidly  disrupted  sexually  demonstrated  film  If  arousal  and  by  Consistent  study  evoked  (1980)  anxiety,  arousal  evoking  would  al.  followed  gauge.  was  was  stimulus  design  depression, stimuli  et  temporal  condition,  more  stimulus.  effects  stimuli.  sexual  sexually-arousing Wolchik  the  arousal  anxiety  became  preexposure  on  arousal-eliciting  counterbalanced  following  physiological  dependent  the  women  stimulus  neutral  the  in  the  (60%  chance  arousal),  4 (b)  noncontingent  arousal  response),  measured  response  when  the  refutes  arousal  inhibition  and of  facilitatory Lange,  to (b)  sympathetic  male  inhibit  condition. monitoring  anxiety  of  to  three  of  erection  system  obtain  of  (SNS)  erectile  on  relative  to  an  evidence  evidence  as to  an the  by  operationally  traditionally for  and  for  erection the  believed  performance,  Results  demand  to  investigated  hypothesis  (c)  increased  with sexual as  voluntarily,  no-demand  self-monitoring  (spectatoring)  response  no  caused  sexual  demand"  operationalized an  in  due  (1981)  (1974)  Demand  activity.  and m a i n t a i n  be  further  ("spectatoring")  anxiety")  study  increases  Hughes  modes  that  anxiety)  might  arousal,  (a)  the  arousal.  Kaplan's  indicated  tumescence  Similarly,  and  penile  contradictory  adds  and  Further,  "performance  sexual  different  arousal:  subjects  penile  anxiety  of  (c)  on  and  event  was  results  anxiety)  This  that  provides  Feldman,  (1970)  ("performance  instructions  interpretation  the  The  condition.  arousal.  to  arousal  increased  (performance  hypothesis  Zwick,  sexual  nervous  performance  not  of  effects in  anxiety)  and  Sexual  (generalized  no-shock  (b)  unrelated  strain-gauge.  threat  sexual  arousal,  Johnson's  male  penile  anxiety-provoking  Johnson's  self-monitoring  functional  (1978)  sexual  anxiety  inhibit  overall  was  condition.  erection  phenomenon,  effect  the  a  the  of  shock  shock  with  with  size  an  Wincze,  and  regarding defining  on  greatest  relief"  no  (performance  compared  Wolpe's  Masters  Masters  (c)  of  noncontingent  threat  following  "anxiety for  the  contingent  produced (a)  that  contingent  shock  and  (chance  physiologically  indicated the  threat  differential  did  control  and  no  self-  5  physiological  e f f e c t s on  (1970) s t a t e t h a t parasympathetic suggests  that  the  sexual  erectile  was  of  evoking  by  differential as  Anxiety,  The  an  increase  as  the  placebo  the  sympathetic  penile  tumescence.  activity  i n terms o f  termination  the  through arousal-  revealed the  activity,  sexual  no  erotic  control  facilitating  of  anxiety  to a s e x u a l  injection SNS  (1971)  to c l i n i c a l  f u n c t i o n a l men  epinephrine-induced  e f f e c t s only  following  to exposure  the  in  p e n i l e tumescence d u r i n g  compared w i t h  differential  prior  SNS  Johnson  by  Zuckerman  inhibit  increasing  r e s u l t s with  e f f e c t s on  defined  erection  with  therefore  artificially  of e p i n e p h r i n e  film.  stimuli  i s mediated  a p h y s i o l o g i c a l s t a t e analogous  achieved  injections  may  M a s t e r s and  (PNS), and  associated  nervous system a c t i v i t y , Induction  response  nervous system  anxiety,  arousal.  group. caused  loss  of  arousal-eliciting  stimulus. The  r e s u l t s of  functional  men  of a n x i e t y  as  Masters  and  these  s e r i e s of experiments with  women p r o v i d e  defined  by  evidence disconfirming  p e r f o r m a n c e demands  & Johnson, 1970), s e l f - m o n i t o r i n g  & J o h n s o n , 1 9 7 0 ) , and  sympathetic  (Zuckerman, 1 9 7 1 ) , as  a mechanism o f  sexual  arousal  demonstrate  that  differential conditions  (Wolpe, 1958,  or  (Lange e t  a l . , 1 9 8 1 ) , or  (1983) s t u d i e s , e l i c i t s  enhanced  1979; (Masters  activity  Rather, these  arousal  compared  as  i n the  of  studies  e i t h e r causes with  D u t t o n and  arousal.  no  control  e t a l . ( 1 9 8 0 ) , and sexual  role  1974,  reciprocal inhibition  1982).  in sexual  the  spectatoring  nervous system  ( 1 9 7 4 ) , Hoon e t a l . ( 1 9 7 7 ) , W o l c h i k al.  (Kaplan,  in certain conditions, anxiety  effect  sexually  Aron  Barlow  et  6  Misattribution Dutton anxiety their  on  and  Aron  arousal  anxiety  Schachter's  as  may  theory  1962)  provide  emotional  of  which  Aron  states  intense  an  appropriate  require  the  suggest  that  other  stimuli words,  asserts  with  emotions  anxiety  that  elicit  are  present full  arousal  upon  the the  and  context  interpretation 1964;  from  1974),  relabeled and  the  sexual in  cues  sexual  attraction  Hoon  et  arousal  do  al.  interact  subjects  and  stimuli  may  elicited  anxiety-evoking  misattribute  the  stimulus,  further  each  the  other sexual  physiological  as  also  with  perceive  arousal-evoking  if  not  (1977)  In  arousal-evoking  of  research,  states.  anxiety  to  combining  arousal  to  used  states  circumstances  which  on  &  be  attraction as  of  based  may  physiological  sexual  is  Schachter  environmental  & Aron,  role  "misattributing"  respective  exposed  the  faci1itatory  subjects  attention.  subjects  by  This  ambiguous  results  individual's  of  the  (Schachter,  Dutton  is  that  result  that  for  in  object  dependent  the  emotion  (cited  theory  suggest  arousal.  labels  Schachter's that  be  sexual  Singer,  arousal.  (1974)  arousal  sexual  arousal. If due  to  anxiety-evoking a misattribution  functional  individuals,  individuals different instead  to  may  be  learning  perceive  different order  stimuli  patterns  of  anxiety  it  is  making  of  investigate  the  role  as  sexual that  sexual  arousal sexually  anxiety  on  Due  to  their  subjects  may  exhibiting  & Jehu,  arousal  sexually  dysfunctional  thereby  (Norton  arousal  in  dysfunctional  anxiety,  response of  enhanced  attributions.  sexually  arousal  sexual  as  possible  different  histories,  sexual  produce  in  1984).  In  sexually  7  dysfunctional functional  men  and  and  women,  dysfunctional  pairings  of  anxiety-evoking  Further,  in  order  attribution, reactions  affective  and  and  functional  with  erotic  tapes.  al.  the  spectatoring Johnson's to  inhibit  sensate  pleasurable the  in  men  by  in  & Jehu,  1984).  the  emotional  responses.  Kaplan's  condition of  arousal  may men  functional  less  reported erotic  subjects.  as  performance in  the  demand  the  to  to  relax  results  and  be  expected  and  enjoy  indicated  any that  sexual  subjectively  stimuli  as  compared  Further,  it  was  demand,  sexually  and  non-demand  physiological  less  and  Masters  would a  set,  Lange  anxiety  according  The  paired  self-monitoring  parallels  subjects  occur.  the  of  sexual  conditions  performance  condition,  male  arousal  a  sexually  self-reported  hypothesis,  showed  and to  which  second  the  of  performance  (1979)  instructed  cognitive-  preexposure  importance  The  that  comparing  two  analogue  the  patterns  condition,  This  arousal.  sexual  to  differential  investigate  previously,  operationalized  physiological  of  if  differentially  (Norton  investigated  the  tumescence)  sexual  concept  response  first  dysfunctional  sexually  anxiety,  set,  (penile  experienced the  and  sensations  sexually  arousal  The  laboratory  sexual  focus  (1983)  erection.  (1970)  cues  determine  Men  tumescence  described  to  respond  physiological  subjects  an  (1981)  to  dysfunctional  penile  necessary  erotic  the  necessary  Rowland  and  maintaining  and  physiological  and  instructed  et  is  is  subjects  explore  Dysfunctional  Heiman  arousal  it  to  accompanying  Sexually  it  found  to that  increased  functional  subjects  8  and  decreased  sexually anxiety  dysfunctional condition  functional and  the  al.,  that  findings  the  of  was  Wolchik  also  sexual  anxiety  and  The  et  et  to  al.,  al.,  anxiety  with  arousal  finding  both but  1983;  1980).  idea  Dutton  a  and  1974;  the  Hoon  findings  physiological  subjects,  differential  functional  in  the  & Aron,  decreased  the  Johnson's,  with  with  in  performance  arousal  Masters  Combined  of  sexually  that  sexual  dysfunctional  the  arousal  consistent  condition  in  in  sexual  physiological  hypothesis,  arousal  consistent  subjective  contrary  (Barlow  performance  subjective are  increased  subjects  1977;  and  subjects.  experimenters'  previous et  physiological  these  and  data  misattribution  and  dysfunctional  subjects. Beck, also  Barlow,  investigated  functional  and  performance previously et  a l . ,  demand.  by  shock a  shock  This  noncontingent  anxiety men b y  in  Barlow,  in  anxiety  systematically  as  replicated  functional  operationally  defining  "performance  size  difference  subjects'  the  upon  was  contingent  (generalized  to  that  anxiety,  the  sexually  functional  subjects  arousal  in  the  sexually  dysfunctional  The  and  results  of  as  results functional stimuli  operationalized  anxiety)  subjects,  (Barlow  demand"  sexually  condition,  in  The  the  their  males  anxiety-evoking  (performance  anxiety)  conditions.  erection.  between  response found  of  1986)  sexually  sexually  It  (neutral)  arousal  defining  arousal  no-shock  on  (cited  with  context. in  Abrahamson  study  study  significant  threat  of  contingent  dysfunctional  sexual  role  and  dysfunctional  1983),  indicated  a  the  discussed  electrical  and  Sakheim,  in  as  and  increased  sexual  decreased  sexual  as  compared  this  study,  to  the  9 consistent and  with both  the concept  anxiety either  males.  m i s a t t r i b u t i o n , suggest  i n s t r u c t i o n or c o n t i n g e n t  sexual  arousal  in sexually  p h y s i o l o g i c a l sexual  Since  arousal  however,  cognitive  a t t r i b u t i o n s of t h e i r with  Sexually  Dysfunctional  t h e Heiman  The r e s e a r c h  t o compare  discrepant found  women's r e s p o n s e  females e x h i b i t e d  subjective  data.  studies  vaginal  that  no s t u d i e s  volume  have  a sample o f s i x s e x u a l l y  l e s s p h y s i o l o g i c a l sexual (LED) v a g i n a l  recordings,  the sexually dysfunctional  r a t i n g s of sexual  female  to a n x i e t y - e l i c i t i n g  arousal  arousal,  photoplethysmograph, functional  t o t h e a u t h o r s ' h y p o t h e s i s however, blood  women h a s  with  s t i m u l i t h a n a sample o f s i x s e x u a l l y  Contrary  between  may n o t be  f u n c t i o n a l and d y s f u n c t i o n a l  To d a t e ,  by a l i g h t - e m i t t i n g d i o d e  females.  (1983)  of sexual  p h y s i o l o g i c a l and s u b j e c t i v e  W i n c z e e t a l . (1976) f o u n d  to e r o t i c f i l m  or a r o u s a l  Initial  of sexually  dysfunctional  dysfunctional  (cited i n  subjects'  on s e x u a l l y d y s f u n c t i o n a l  women e x p o s e d t o e r o t i c s t i m u l i .  measured  dysfunctional  Women  response patterns  stimuli.  f u n c t i o n a l m a l e s and  i n sexually  anxiety  and Rowland  literature  have s o u g h t  investigated  increased  a s u b j e c t i v e measure  t a k e n a somewhat d i f f e r e n t c o u r s e .  sexual  an e r e c t i o n  shock,  t h e f u n c t i o n a l and d y s f u n c t i o n a l  compared  subjects  upon  that  t h e B e c k , B a r l o w , Sakheim, and Abrahamson  B a r l o w , 1986) s t u d y d i d n o t i n c l u d e arousal  (1983) i n v e s t i g a t i o n ,  as p e r f o r m a n c e demands t o m a i n t a i n  by v e r b a l  decreased  and Rowland  of d i f f e r e n t i a l  defined  physiological  t h e Heiman  despite the  no d i f f e r e n c e was  and f u n c t i o n a l  to the e r o t i c  subjects'  stimuli.  10 Wincze et a l . c o n c l u d e  that  for  the  the  sensitivity  diagnostic  tool for  They s u g g e s t sexual  that  arousal  experimental higher  confounding  the half  the  subjective  Morokoff  sexually  may  of  were p e r c e i v e d as  the  as  negatively  biased.  f i n d i n g that  of  report  other the  possible use  a comparison a design  of Nazi  war  atrocities  1974;  e t a l . , 1980)  prior  would  suggest possibly  that  I f however, t h e  subjective,  was  (Wolchik et a l . )  and  may  have been  These confounds obscure  the  sexually  dysfunctional  to c l a r i f y measures of  the  this  film  functional subjects  f u n c t i o n a l and  to e r o t i c cues.  1983;  in a positive direction i f  physiological  arousal  equal  interpretability  subjective  subjects  sexual  r e l a t i o n s h i p between s u b j e c t i v e  arousal,  to  described  Heiman & Rowland,  p h y s i o l o g i c a l , and  the  for  whereby  film  findings previously  of  group  dysfunctional  d i f f e r e n t p h y s i o l o g i c a l , but  physiological  group to  the  exhibit  In o r d e r  the  none o f  & Aron,  the  of  but  anxiety-evoking.  data  as  women, and  functional subjects  depressing,  arousal  the  Wolchik  the  subjective  of  (1980) r e p o r t  research  Dutton  have b i a s e d  data  perceived  The  dysfunction.  group r a t i n g s  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s u c h as  a dysphoric  Hoon e t a l . , 1977;  it  Heiman  a  t h a n were a c t u a l l y  functional subjects  ( B a r l o w e t a l . 1983;  arousal  and  sexually dysfunctional  viewed  female sexual  dysfunctional  arousal  in this  e r o t i c stimulus.  design  of  subjective  the  evidence  p h o t o p l e t h y s m o g r a p h as  demand c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f  functional subjects  subjects the  equivalent  reflect  factors  married  vaginal  s e t t i n g , causing  experienced.  i n v e s t i g a t i o n provides  identification  the  may  l e v e l s of  unmarried  of  this  Morokoff  and  Heiman  (1980)  and  11  measured  vaginal  pulse  a m p l i t u d e by  p h o t o p l e t h y s m o g r a p h , and response  functional  sample o f e l e v e n  hypothesized treatment  and  (a)  (b)  the  functional  and  The the that  than  Heiman  f u n c t i o n a l and  the  pre-  subjective  sexual  comparison  group,  to  the  functional  and  in physiological  pre-treatment. rated  their  dysfunctional  sexual  subjects.  subjective  sexual  post-treatment.  (1980) r e s u l t s a r e  p h y s i o l o g i c a l , but  equal  responses  to e r o t i c cues, Morokoff  inconsistent  Whereas W i n c z e e t a l .  dysfunctional  different  subjects  subjective and  sexual  p h y s i o l o g i c a l but  arousal  t h e s e same e r o t i c c u e s .  with  reported  exhibit arousal  Heiman c o n c l u d e  groups e x h i b i t equal to  group  g r o u p would  i n p h y s i o l o g i c a l or  a l . (1976) f i n d i n g s .  responses  authors  Cues  M o r o k o f f and  sexually  years  arousal)  increases  functional subjects higher  in  sexually  and  The  ( a ) , the  erotic stimuli  between g r o u p s a t  to B o d i l y  Wincze e t  to h y p o t h e s i s  differences  were f o u n d  Attention  (low  A  p h y s i o l o g i c a l responses equal  the  significantly  e x p e c t e d , no  arousal  group.  dysfunctional  women showed e g u i v a l e n t  response during  as  the  Contrary  S u b j e c t i v e l y however, the  As  age  (adequate a r o u s a l )  post-treatment  group.  dysfunctional  arousal  comparison  on  arousal  sexually  a f t e r treatment.  dysfunctional  functional  demonstrate s u b j e c t i v e  sexual  eleven  f e m a l e s matched  the  the  and  sexual  would e x h i b i t l e s s p h y s i o l o g i c a l and  than  that  that  as  vaginal  s e l f - r a t e d l e v e l s of  females before  were u t i l i z e d  arousal  LED  to e r o t i c s t i m u l i i n a sample o f  dysfunctional  married  an  that  different subjective M o r o k o f f and  these sexual Heiman  12  suggest  that  their  interpretation  f i n d i n g s support  of sexual  a r o u s a l may n o t a t t e n d source  ratings  of a r o u s a l , they  of feedback  women t h e n ,  physiological  contextual  discriminating  (a p e n i s )  may depend  changes  hypothesis  "(low  label the  arousal  One sexual learn If  o r some o t h e r  sexual  arousal  as f u r t h e r a n x i e t y .  that e l i c i t  Model o f S e x u a l explanation  have  difficulty  (1980)  suggest  g e n i t a l sensations, but  affective  state"  paradigm, s u b j e c t s  ( p . 136).  In  who do n o t  on t h e c o n t e x t u a l  they  experience  No e x p l a n a t i o n  cues of the  f o l l o w i n g the anxiety h a s been  i n d i v i d u a l s may  differential  responses  experience to anxiety.  stimuli  a t t r i b u t i o n s o f a n x i e t y and  may be t h a t d y s f u n c t i o n a l women  to c o n d i t i o n a l l y misattribute genital arousal  an i n d i v i d u a l  proposed  Dysfunction  for d i f f e r e n t i a l  arousal-eliciting  specific  1977).  environmental or  women) may e x p e r i e n c e  however, as t o why d y s f u n c t i o n a l  Proposed  (Heiman,  t o i n t e r p r e t p h y s i c a l c h a n g e , may m i s a t t r i b u t e t h e  physiological  attributions  cues to  levels.  t o g e n i t a l c h a n g e s , and r e l y  stimuli,  arousal  subjective  M o r o k o f f and Heiman  a n x i e t y - e r o t i c experimental  environment  their  o f " a t t e n t i o n t o b o d i l y c u e s " may c o m p l i m e n t  them as a n x i e t y  attend  women do n o t have a  on c o n t e x t u a l  c u e s , and t h e r e b y  i n arousal  t h a t women w i t h low  Since  to guide  may m i s l a b e l  the m i s a t t r i b u t i o n h y p o t h e s i s . that  proposing  p h y s i o l o g i c a l c h a n g e s as s e x u a l  Dysfunctional  The  dysfunction  to g e n i t a l cues.  visible  interpret  acognitive-affective  experiences  performance anxiety  either generalized i n the sexual  as a n x i e t y .  a n x i e t y or  encounter  (as i n t h e  13  Barlow  et  a l . ,  sexual  functioning,  through  the  history  of  and  may  this may  nature  specific  of  satisfying  conditioning  identical  the  process  maintains  arousing  analogue  1983  anxiety  and  occur of  anxiety  incidents  1939),  arousal-evoking  of  fear  and  anxiety  is  sexually theory  In  of  would of  this  eliciting elicit  suggest  (1977)  reciprocal  on  in  the  the  such  that as  anxiety.  anxiety,  stimuli.  learn  The  functional  rapid  i n h i b i t i o n theory,  and  is  acquisition of  consistent that  with  a  conditioned stimuli  performance. dysfunctional  sexual  arousal,  described  or  conditioning  misattributions  sexual  of  may  associated  sexual with  she  number  fear  acquire  misattribute  suggests  or  arousal-eliciting  reversed  These  situation  this  occasions,  requiring  decreased  women,  failure  or  (Mowrer,  a more  of  to  theory  to  If  an  affective,  stimuli  i n d i v i d u a l may  be  any  sexual  or  presence  to  he  the  repeated  situations  they  due  in  anxiety  encounter,  situation.  magnitude,  that  avoid  stimuli  with  sexual  m i s a t t r i b u t i o n may  enhanced  sexual  a  stimuli  anxiety  way,  in  individual  physiological,  of  the  physiologically  an  conditioning  nature  strengthens  although  generalized  functioning  to  time,  arousal  learning  contacts  the  sexual  vulnerability  sufficient  consequently  individuals  of  anxiety  the  involving  According  increased  arousing  response and  an  in  over  however,  either  sexual  person's  sexual  to  satisfactory  enhance  The  due  If  sexual  factors.  predispose  further  rapidly  experiences  behavioral the  experiences  response  stimuli.  inadequate  singly-occurring  may  reinforcing  more  the  performance  and  misattribution.  conditioned  situation  experience  study)  with erotic  may  and  earlier  arousal-  by  then  avoidance Hoon  Wolpe's  et  al.  (1982)  preexposure  14  followed  by  anxiety  erotic-anxiety laboratory pattern  pairing  sexual  have  hypothesized  of  the  conditioned  in  sexually  rapid  or  arousal.  may  analogue  Unfamiliarity a more  inhibits  inattention  conditioned  induced  in  The  functional  reversed  dysfunctional  to  bodily  Hoon  cues  misattribution  of  et  al.  women  a  attribution  women.  may  further  sexual  facilitate  arousal  as  anxiety. According subjective sexually erotic  to  sexual  stimuli  increased  dysfunctional the  sexual  less  subjects  arousal  the  in from  with  the  Heiman and  different between (1976)  most  condition.  (b)  both  previously and  Rowland  are  Morokoff  discussed  results and  and  would arousal  least  results  sexual and  Rowland  subjects with  this  than  data  (1983)  in  the  hypothesis.  the  present  hypothesis  subjective  arousal  to  erotic  stimuli  the  Wincze  et  inconsistent Heiman  and  to  dysfunctional  Heiman and  consistent  the  demonstrated  sexual  The  in  compared  the  male  anxiety-  subjects  anxiety  with  dysfunctional are  the  arousal  physiological  condition.  from  arousal  Sexually as  and  demonstrate  as  sexual  conditions,  paradigm,  physiological  groups and  in  in  would  sexual  arousal  and  expected  conditions  the  anxiety-erotic  demand  arousal  genital  be  functional  physiological  with  physiological  subjects  Sexually  neutral-erotic  functional  performance The  and  subjective  functional  trends  as  subjects,  would  dysfunctional  anxiety  and  following  patterns  (a)  misattributing  demonstrate  the  paradigm:  anxiety-erotic  subjects  study  and  subjective  anxiety-erotic  model,  response  functional  misattributing  in  this  however, (1980)  with  contradictory  of  findings.  al. The  15  results equal  with  female  subjective  subjective  responses  of  Purpose The  of  sexually respond cues, and  and  sexually of  both  has  examination  anxiety  females  and a r o u s a l  methodological females  differential  effects  physiologically both  sexually  of  both  eliciting  et  of  a l .  of  (1980)  anxiety  by changes  functional  Hoon  of  An  response  with  (1977)  in vaginal  to  arousal  blood  and d y s f u n c t i o n a l  volume women.  in  (1976) stimuli  anxiety  on  and  p u b l i s h e d , nor and  responses the  with  functional  on s e x u a l  and  investigation  functional  Utilizing  a l .  a l .  erotic  and s u b j e c t i v e  et  erotic  This  (1977)  et  previously  stimuli.  and  and a r o u s a l  and Wincze  sexually  physiological  subjects  arousal.  anxiety  sexual  if  photoplethysmograph)  a l .  females.  effects  determine  female  et  on t h e e f f e c t s  of  to  sexual  Hoon  of  has not been  procedures  and W o l c h i k  of  females'  stimuli  arousal  (LED v a g i n a l  and d y s f u n c t i o n a l  arousal-eliciting  dysfunctional  & Heiman)  the  anxiety-evoking  and f e m a l e s ,  dysfunctional  a comparative  of  measures  (1980)  examine  dysfunctional  on t h e e f f e c t s  males  was t o  sexual  pairings  t h e work  and Heiman  functional  sexually  to  a l . ) , and  stimuli.  study  physiological  (1980)  functional  Morokoff  (Morokoff  and s e x u a l l y  extends  a l .  physiological erotic  et  revealed  Study  (self-rating)  investigation  (Wincze  on s u b s e q u e n t  differentially  et  to  subjects  physiological  the present  functional  subjective  sexually  of  arousal  utilizing  Wolchik  arousal  the Present  purpose  anxiety  but equal  sexual  of  and d y s f u n c t i o n a l  but d i f f e r e n t  different  The  functional  to  combined functional  males, were  the  measured  (VBV),  with  Secondly,  by  16  including  a  Wincze  al.  et  effects  of  subjective (1976)  erotic  (self-rating)  and  Morokoff  stimuli  alone,  dysfunctional  females  elucidate  contradictory  the  physiological exposed  to  measures  functional  and  The  (Morokoff  the  repertoire  more  assesses  individual,  valid  sexual  and  This  show  In  sexual a  have  since of  of of  sexually  scale  matched  Previous  studies  and  similar  scale  experienced  may  preexisting and  scores  (Derogatis)  the  frequency  Experience  relatively  functional  Experience  agreement  a  other  Sexual  experience  matching  several  women w e r e  behaviors  sexual  in  stimulus.  married, with  DSFI  to  sexually  arousing  1978).  experienced  sexual  subjective  subsequent  functional  The  and  anxiety-evoking  Derogatis  years  may  women  and  research  fundamental  method  between  levels  of  behaviors.  from  an  the  sexually  the  sexually  matched  of  both  dysfunctional  number  definition  reliable  and  (Derogatis,  spectrum  addition,  high  the  for  and  on  and  findings  videotape)  the  data  subjective  during  and  from  have  women  ranging  experience  women. men  these of  (DSFI)  These  assessed  and  (1980)  dysfunctional  previous  scores  on  and  arousal,  functional  between  stimulus;  1980;)  groups  sexually  (travelogue  functional  sexual  Heiman's  subjects  extends  subscale  that  (Derogatis).  were  of  physiological  videotape)  study  & Heiman,  assumption  These  videotape)  Inventory  dysfunctional  directly  neutral  First,  Functioning  functional  arousal  amputation  Experience  and  a  present  respects. on  of  on  findings  dysfunctional  (erotic  (threatened  in  and  investigated.  stimuli.  sexual  presentation arousing  arousal  erotic  of  were  measure  by  advanced provide levels  a of  dysfunctional for  women  experimental  and  17 findings  w i t h matched  samples  women may be matched w i t h  of f u n c t i o n a l  t h e f i n d i n g s f r o m r e s e a r c h w i t h men.  Second, s u b j e c t i v e s e x u a l report  items:  genital  feelings."  Morokoff one  "genital  Previous  " s e x u a l l y aroused,"  response.  The d e f i n i t i o n  encompassing,  including  measure a w i d e r  blood  pressure  1983).  i n blood  pulse,  arousal  response  such  change,  sexual  a r o u s a l , or heightened  Previous  studies using  t h e AC s i g n a l  versus  arousal. t h e DC  quantity of vaginal t o t h e AC  VPA) (Beck, reflects  relative  parameters of the  F o r example,  lack of sexual  t h e AC  decreasing arousal.  & Heiman, 1980) and DC  to i n v e s t i g a t e p h y s i o l o g i c a l  arousal  and d y s f u n c t i o n a l women may have y i e l d e d d i f f e r e n t  due t o t h e u s e o f p h y s i o l o g i c a l  necessarily  of sexual  i n c r e a s i n g versus  t h e AC ( M o r o k o f f  (Wince e t a l . , 1976) s i g n a l functional  amplitude,  as d i r e c t i o n a l i t y .  to d i f f e r e n t i a t e  i n order to  i n v a g i n a l o p a c i t y due t o  i t cannot d i s t i n g u i s h  i s unable  used  i s more  v o l u m e ) , as o p p o s e d  changes  Since  signal  that  sexual  study  a r o u s a l was measured u s i n g  (vaginal pulse  changes  results  i n the present  (vaginal blood  pulse  1980) have  t o measure s u b j e c t i v e s e x u a l  sexual  which measures r e l a t i v e  "genital  (Heiman, 1980;  (Heiman & H a t c h ,  T h i s component m e a s u r e s t h e a b s o l u t e  Sakheim, & B a r l o w ,  in  women  range o f s u b j e c t i v e p e r c e p t i o n s  engorgement  signal  used  in genitals,"  p u l s i n g o r t h r o b b i n g , " and "any  physiological  Third, physiological  blood  "warmth  studies with  & Heiman, 1980) and men  item,  signal.  a r o u s a l was d e f i n e d by 5 s e l f -  "Sexually aroused,"  wetness or l u b r i c a t i o n , "  and d y s f u n c t i o n a l  comparable.  i t i s impossible  measures t h a t a r e not  B e c k , S a k h e i m , and B a r l o w  t o a s c e r t a i n any s p e c i f i e d  (1983)  conclude  parameters of the  18  sexual  arousal  however,  allows  magnitude the  more  valid  response  of  for  the  the  the  reliable  AC s i g n a l .  detection  vasocongestive  appropriate  and  using  and  changes  response.  component,  data  of  the  The in  The  DC s i g n a l ,  clarify  previous  DC  signal  direction  and  consistent  use  may  provide  of  more  contradictory  findings. Finally, for  the  present  measurement this  area  1987;  the  of  system  study  is  (i.e.  1980;  Beck  from  intervals.  The  direct  analogue  VBV  0.20  samples  180-second valid  and  to  second  were  reliable and  time  film  data,  graphic  dysfunctional  assessed  both  determined  if  differentially groups. as  sexual  With  transfer  across  and  arousal  of  at  present .0001  each  and  under  to  subject,  system  VBV i n of  subjectively,  identical  1,300  data  and  provides  more  digital  female  and  functional  erotic  it  can  anxiety  are  conditions  arousal  in  women.  misattributing  sexual  changes  preexposure  anxiety  of  provides  millivolt  study  effects  that  the  the  second  study  continuous of  Wolchik,  1-10  the  first  in  calculated  This  physiological  increases  hand  studies  Morokoff &  stimuli.  exposed  expectation  1977;  designed  the  Calhoun,&  80-second  combining  subjects  attributed the  the  representation  physiologically the  have  For  the  a l . ,  in  Previous  recordings  for  samples.  By m e t h o d o l o g i c a l l y and  1980)  reduction  advance  Beggs,  et  polygraph  digital  collected  Hoon  and  arousal.  1986;  designed  experimental  measurement  a l . ,  baseline  technical  sexual  1983;  et  method  collection  a major  & Barlow,  Wolchik  deviations  at  data  physiological  Heiman & R o w l a n d ,  Heiman,  of  cues  and  be  across  anxiety  response  in  arousal  19 functional decreases  women, and m i s a t t r i b u t i n g the sexual  hypothesized 1.  physiological  The s e x u a l l y  replicates  and  arousal  e t a l . (1976)  functional  women, i t was  dysfunctional  group.  [This  and M o r o k o f f & Heiman  (1980)  arousal  to the sexually functional  demonstrate  i n the a n x i e t y - e r o t i c  dysfunctional  g r o u p would arousal  increased  group.  demonstrate  increased  i n the anxiety-erotic [This  systematically  and W o l c h i k e t a l . (1980)  data.]  The s e x u a l l y subjective  dysfunctional  as compared  arousal-eliciting  g r o u p would  and p h y s i o l o g i c a l  sexual  of d i f f e r e n t i a l  stimuli,  i n the  condition.  responses to anxiety  and i n t e r a c t i v e p a t t e r n s o f  cognitive  a t t r i b u t i o n s and p h y s i o l o g i c a l  important  t o (a) t h e c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n  formulation  o f a model o f s e x u a l  development  of e f f e c t i v e women.  demonstrate  arousal  to the a n x i e t y - e r o t i c  the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  dysfunctional  increased  i n the n e u t r a l - e r o t i c  g r o u p would  sexual  t h e Hoon e t a l . (1977)  neutral-erotic Both  anxiety  demonstrate  to the n e u t r a l - e r o t i c c o n d i t i o n .  physiological  increased  sexual  and p h y s i o l o g i c a l s e x u a l  as compared  4.  g r o u p would  to the sexually  and s u b j e c t i v e  as compared  subjective  as  findings.]  The s e x u a l l y  physiological  3.  functional  t h e Wincze  contradictory  condition  response i n d y s f u n c t i o n a l  and s u b j e c t i v e  as compared  investigates  2.  arousal  that:  The s e x u a l l y  condition  sexual  r e s p o n s e , a r e v i e w e d as  of sexual  dysfunction,  arousal,  and (c)  (b)  the  treatment procedures f o r s e x u a l l y  the  20 Method Subjects Sixteen these  subjects,  recruited and  women p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n . comprising  through advertisements  notices  on campus.  involvement  treatment with  their  sexual  current  experience  similar  sexual scale  Index  (GSSI) s u b s c a l e s  functioning.  scores  their  samples  and G l o b a l  functional  group scored  percentile  on b o t h  level for  of sexual  Sexual  variables The  sexually  was g r e a t e r  i n terms o f Subjects  ( i . e . the g l o b a l  than or equal  present  i n the  t o t h e 50th  sexual  n o t be b e t t e r " ) .  to the dysfunctional  dysfunctional  from a l o c a l  therapists letter  subjects  differences  t o t h e mean  relationship The s e x u a l l y g r o u p on t h e  o f age and e x p e r i e n c e .  contacted  A  The S e x u a l  to v a l i d a t e  than or e q u a l  s a m p l e , and t h e i r  g r o u p was matched  DSFI  S a t i s f a c t i o n Index  t h e S F I and GSSI s u b s c a l e s  "above a v e r a g e " t o " c o u l d  functional  and s a t i s f a c t i o n  (40%-60%).  functioning.  greater  functioning  the normative  rated  sexual  orientation,  T h e s e women r e c e i v e d  o f t h e DSFI, were used  with  (M age = 28,  (M = 56.31%, r a n g e = 45%-63%)  normative  (SFI)  heterosexual  or d i s o r d e r s ,  between f u n c t i o n a l and d y s f u n c t i o n a l satisfaction  u n i v e r s i t y newspaper  r e l a t i o n s h i p , no h i s t o r y o f  dysfunctions  to nonpatient  Functioning  i n the l o c a l  an e x c l u s i v e  i n a sexual  f o r sexual  f u n c t i o n a l g r o u p were  Women i n t h e f u n c t i o n a l g r o u p  r a n g e = 22-50) r e p o r t e d current  the s e x u a l l y  Eight of  g r o u p was c o m p r i s e d  h o s p i t a l sexual  medicine c l i n i c  s p e c i a l i z i n g i n the treatment  of i n i t i a l  contact  was s e n t  of eight  of sexual  women  and p r i v a t e  difficulties.  to i n d i v i d u a l s accepted f o r  21  assessment physician  of as  their  experiencing  Participation treatment, medical  in  and  care.  (M = 2 9 . 5 ,  The  subjects  with  range  = 40%-63%)  scored  subscales than  the  (i.e. mean  relationship All which  for  the  vaginal  were  with  DSFI  DSFI. used  to  of  of  two  their The  screen  Subjects  the  absence  less  present  by  telephone,  procedures,  in  sexual  worse").  for  the  films  were  an  During  more  at  including  explicit  Inventory of  dysfunctional  was  experimenters.  Symptom  two  functioning  scheduled  participation  desire,  GSSI  with  in  more  and  sexually  provided  or  SFI  interviewed  were  subject  addition,  the  be  female  for  In  not  and  Each  sexual  "could  and  50.25%,  low  in  both  (M =  one  their  equipment  Brief  with  and  These  for  and  to  were  scores  sample.  sexual  group  relationship,  sample,  applicants  volunteers  regarding  the was  level  or  heterosexual  treatment  on  to  treatment  functioning.  scale  percentile  initially  experimental  the  further  dyspareunia.  abuse.  prior  dysfunctional  diagnosed  with  "adequate"  appointment  the  were  two  50th  sexual  requested  photoplethysmograph  appointment,  the  normative  normative  Interested  completed  the  sexual  the  one  of  sexual  experience  had  and  described.  information  current  to  global  volunteers  time  comprising  Seven  the  rated  course  a  sexual  the  the  referring  dysfunction.  occurred  in  of  below  voluntary,  involvement  group  history  was  their  sexual  exclusive  their  inorgasmia, a  psychogenic  by  an  dysfunctions:  with  described  reported  similar  dysfunctional  reported  the  DSFI  and  affect  22-39)  current  received  group  study  not  women  sexual  a  did  dissatisfaction  two  the  range  orientation,  the  condition  the  detailed  investigation (BSI)  general  subscale  and of  psychopathology  22  for  all  (i.e. Of  subjects  using  elevations  the  subjects  heterosexual fulfilled  session  for  24  hours  the  completion  Apparatus  and  light  encased in  length,  changes device  in  a  in  the  age were  from  All  cutoff  criterion  normative  sample).  experienced  and  above,  scheduled  who for  psychoactive  subjects  were  the  drugs  paid  $20  at  session.  to  blood  in  and  Subjective  probe  measure  a  direct  were  easy  of by  a  (VBV)  cm i n  vaginal  through  Beckman  Type  to  put  place  (Heiman,  levels the  in  wall,  an  affected  reflected  by  the  This  by light  from  the  from Geer  isolator/power  4-channel is  cm  by  conditions.  optical  R611  the  4.45  arousal  Recordings  rectilinear  considered  subject  safe,  without  the  1977).  A self-report of  and  sexual all  as  photodetector  diameter  the  (DC).  diode  904L)  during  transducing  current  measurement.  following  (Clairex  photoplethysmograph  assistance  subjective  light-emitting  1.27  the  channeled on  photoplethysmograph  physiological  volume  opacity  vaginal  The  A vaginal  containing  acrylic  the  wall  experimenter's  immediately  of  abstain  cadmium s e l e n i d e  and m o n i t o r e d  measure  to  the  sexually  criteria  session.  vasocongestion,  comfortable,  to  a  vaginal  polygraph.  BSI  second  1975)  used  and module  supply  for  22-years  measurement.  clear  was  vaginal  gauge  and  measures  changes the  in  mean  as  Materials  & Geer,  source  and  the  the  Physiological (Sintchak  the  volunteers  to  percentile  participate,  requested  prior of  to  GSSI,  and  85th  above  choosing  SFI,  second  sp_  1.25  female  the  the  sexual  rating  arousal  neutral-erotic  and  and  scale  was  anxiety  anxiety-erotic  used  23  conditions. assess  The  perceptions  perceptions sexual  of  (11  the  Likert  of  (1  degree  from  they  (not  at  scale  (1983)  has  determined  emotional Hatch,  reactions  1980;  Morokoff  Subjective aroused, genital  warmth  in  genitals,  pulsing  or  throbbing,  ratings  measures  factor  with  arousal,  greatest  for  and  these five  to  to  7  be  items),  (1  (11  feelings item),  these  from  on  7-point  The  Heiman and  (Heiman,  of  Subjects  items  sensitive  to  positive  items).  (intensely).  a  was  defined  genital and  items levels  sexual  (5  items),  designed  Rowland  indicator  1980;  of  Heiman &  1980).  individually  physiological  change  anxiety  stimuli  arousal  items  (5  adapted  erotic  34  experienced  & Heiman,  sexual  reported  sexual  to  was  of  affects  all)  reaction been  of  negative  subjective and  change  feelings  which 0  comprised  physical  sexual  and  to  is  general  item),  items),  scales  scale  physical  arousal  affects rated  rating  wetness  any were in  by  or  genital  items:  feelings.  analysis  correlated for  with  the  Sexually  lubrication,  investigated  the  arousal  5  as  Self-  a  repeated  of  subjective  the  point  of  correlational  analysis. Stimuli. videotapes: anxiety  Preexposure A neutral  sequence  experimental 3-minute  videotapes  foreplay  and  similar  of  or a  intercourse.  across  repetition.  travelogue  depicting  stimulus,  conditions  The  stimuli  neutral  consisted sequence  threatened erotic  nude  but and  sequence,  content differed  erotic  two  of  couple the  segments  of  an  two  engaging  erotic in  and  The  consisted  slightly  film  3-minute  Antarctica,  amputation.  heterosexual  The  of  of  scenes  order were  to  in was avoid  obtained  24  from the  standardized  behavior  f r o m Dr.  J . P.  found  reliably  evoke s e x u a l  to  subjects results  (personal  confirmed and  the  sexual the  library  Wincze.  study  arousal  These e r o t i c arousal  designed  research  in  sexual  f i l m s have been  in sexually functional 27,  1987).  to a s s e s s  In a d d i t i o n ,  p h y s i o l o g i c a l and  in sexually functional subjects  anxiety-evoking  equivalent  for c l i n i c a l  c o m m u n i c a t i o n , May  from a p i l o t  subjective  film  c a p a c i t y of  sexually arousing  the  value  anxiety  of  the  seguence,  erotic  sequences. Derogatis  Sexual  Functioning  Inventory  standardized  self-report multidimensional  comprised  10  level III.  of  of s e x u a l Drive,  IV.  distinct  functioning:  psychological instrument validated  called prior  interpreted  the  t o the  9 symptom d i m e n s i o n s and DSFI a l s o p r o v i d e s level and  of  sexual  strengths  functioning,  the  Symptom  as  weaknesses Sexual  Normative response p a t t e r n s  X.  Gender  Sexual  measuring  Inventory  (BSI)  diagnostic  empirically  DSFI, and  3 g l o b a l measures  Sexual  p r o f i l e measuring  Global  A f f e c t s , VII.  psychometric  the  current  Experience,  Image, and  a s i n g l e summary s c o r e  and  II.  is a  is  t o measure t h e  subtest  of  DSFI  can  be  a measure of p s y c h o p a t h o l o g y v i a  f u n c t i o n i n g , the  a qualitative  o f her  The  development  independently  Body  is a distinct  Brief  that  designed  IX.  1978).  symptomology  inventory  Symptoms, V I .  VIII. Fantasy,  (Derogatis,  The  I. I n f o r m a t i o n ,  A t t r i b u t e s , V.  Role D e f i n i t i o n , Satisfaction  subtests  (DSFI).  the  (Derogatis, of  the  1975).  subjects'  Functioning  Index  The  global (SFI),  subjects' self-perception  in current Satisfaction  levels Index  have been c o m p i l e d  of  sexual  (GSSI).  f o r both  sexually  25  functional studies  and  have  d y s f u n c t i o n a l females  determined  established  percentile  measure  the  for  dysfunctional 1979;  the  Design  and  The study  women  rankings  & Meyer,  first  to  design that  sexually  functional  male  i n which  each  sequences  on  a  The  of  the  1980;  a  valid  Derogatis  Subjects  to  and  reliable  and  & Melisaratos,  completed  word  "relax,"  followed  began  the  3-minute  n e u t r a l or  the  3-minute  erotic  immediate.  The  180  preexposure  and  (b)  to  anxiety  was  by  was  with  by  a  the  A  DSFI  during  during  the  measures  videotape  color  for  a l . (1980)  across  segment  Changeover  erotic  last  on 80  experimental stimuli:  physiological seconds  stimuli, (a)  arousal  sequences  experimental  monitor.  subjects.  to  i n VBV  exposure  the  stimulus,  and  finally  from  the  stimulus  was  changes  in  preexposure  i n two  Neutral  changes  after  of  was  stimulus  displaying  stimulus.  for  design  television  stimulus,  focused  Sexual  erotic  and  et  preexposure  to  the  experimental erotic.  a l . (1977)  repeated two  present  1-minute n e u t r a l o r i e n t a t i o n  anxiety  of  et  i n the  Wolchik  1-minute  experimental  seconds  and  used  counterbalanced  a  investigation (VBV)  Hoon  presented  anxiety preexposure  arousal  entire  procedure  subjects.  videotapes  pair  or  and  videocassette player  sequence  compared  converted  sexually functional  subjects  subject  Each  the  of  employed  female  sexual  be  Previous  Procedure  functional  neutral  can  indices.  laboratory session.  similar  order  scores  1979).  sexually  used  these  ( t - s c o r e s ) as  (Derogatis,  experimental  was  raw  differentiation  Derogatis  during  that  on  to  pairs erotic,  and of and  were the  neutral  26  and  anxiety  immediately were  also The  two  Subjective  following  exposure  experimental the  initial  female  equipment,  receive  experiment.  They  was  about  learn  variety  of  et  1980).  a l . ,  DSFI  a  for  During in  long-life  Subjects  Subjects to  the  remain  the  following  identical  for  all  the  an  placed on  fully  a  instructed  the  the  to  stimuli  conclusion  of  met  of  with  of  to  consent  A second  the  investigation  reactions  participate  and  the  the  explicit  one  facilities  related  physiological  to  subjects.  tapes in  1-hour  and  session  a  (Wolchik  two  form  to  completed  was  procedure. subjects  inserted  locked  instrument  on  a  was sit  and  high  between  table  for  so  full  were  covered  maintained  at  for  purposes  the  a  that  of  the  the  stimuli,  of  with  10  of  Cidex  subjects the a  screen. light  21.7°  minutes  adaptation,  session.  aid  A  constant  about  in  uses.  view  throughout erotic  vaginal  sterilized  with  quietly  the  room w i t h  was  solution  recliner  experiment possible  use  purpose  room.  clothed  Room t e m p e r a t u r e  the  the  standard  dialdehyde)  was  in  questions  internally The  laboratory  sexually  session,  of  the  subjects  any  choosing  subject  second  as  and  experimental  comfortably  s t i l l  that  including  signed  privacy  of  view  discuss  emotional  monitor  onset as  anxiety  instructions  instructions.  were  to  told  separate  remained  blanket.  and  (activated  television sit  arousal  and  interview,  Subjects  the  the  diagrammed  could  sexual  neutral  telephone  were  sessions  in  scheduled  probe  the  was  verbal  videotapes  laboratory the  to  in  procedure  experimenters  photoplethysmograph,  to  changes  compared.  Following of  stimuli.  C. prior  and  to  Immediately  subjects  completed  27 the  subjective rating  minutes a f t e r of  the  form,  level,  baseline,  i f t h e VBV  decreased the  conclusion order  any  to  response  the  (a) a s s u r e  and  and  level  an  absolute  at  the  had  returned  b a c k w a r d s by  stimulus  comfort  with  their  was  3's  Ten  completion baseline from  100  to  returned  to  presented.  At  s u b j e c t was  the  their  further information  the  debriefed  p r o c e d u r e and  understanding  (c) d i s c u s s  to the  to  readings  s e s s i o n , each  e q u i p m e n t , and acquire  not  When t h e VBV  assess  of s e x u a l  of  answer  the  subjective  regarding  their  stimuli.  d e v i a t i o n of  stimulus)  were c o l l e c t e d preexposure  from  the  and  entire data  The  program  the  preexposure (erotic) the  last  using  Notebook s o f t w a r e using  the  Lotus  as  recorded  ( n e u t r a l or stimulus.  80  the  seconds  1-2-3  VBV  data  of  stimuli.  Data T r a n s l a t i o n  ( 1 9 8 6 ) , then  averaged  spreadsheet  (1983).  p o i n t of g r e a t e s t p h y s i o l o g i c a l s e x u a l  correlational digital  level  seconds of e x p e r i m e n t a l  were c o l l e c t e d  Labtech  f o r each s u b j e c t  from a r e f e r e n c e  during  180  4-second time b l o c k s  analysis  measured  experimental  5 times/second  and  converter  largest  t h e VBV  to the  s u b j e c t ' s VBV  across  a r o u s a l was  p o i n t of changeover  anxiety  the  (b)  experiences  f i v e minutes a f t e r  to c o u n t  their  sequence.  Reduction The  Each  readings  experimental  forms and  reactions  and  arousal.  further questions,  Data  film,  second preexposure  of  instructions  A/D  erotic  s u b j e c t s were a s k e d  facilitate  in  the  s c a l e f o r the p r e c e d i n g  a n a l y s i s , was  VBV  absolute  defined  arousal  f o r each s u b j e c t  d e v i a t i o n from b a s e l i n e  (VBV) as  for the  averaged  28 across  20-second  time  blocks,  during  each  of  the  experimental  conditions.  Results Group  Differences In  and  order  In  to  validate  dysfunctional  analyzed  Sexual  differences  groups,  on m e a s u r e s  of  Functioning  profile  sexual  relationships.  Table  for  observations  independent  functional t-tests  were  determine revealed jt(14)  the  employed, level  of  scores,  jt(14)  of  functioning,  the  Dysfunctional their £  sexual  < 0.01,  in  and  the  foreplay,  ability activity. less  to  were  terms  during  the  length  of  orgasm,  quality  than  and  Specifically, in  sexual  of  functional  current  values  (75%  were  a  in  less  degree  to  the  subjects, overall lower  difference  in  sexual activities. satisfied  with  =  4.39,  t{14) of  sexual of  variation  partners,  in  arousal  intercourse,  fulfilled women  used  subjects  functional in  and  multiple  significantly  length  dysfunctional  analyses  Since  sexual  and  sexual  dysfunctional  subjects,  feeling  activity  DSFI  t-test  reflecting  significantly  and  of  t  weaknesses  foreplay,  were  differences  < 0.001,  frequency  the  Dysfunctional  scores  and  functional  DSFI.  corrected  communication between  achieve  interested  £  overall  than  of  of  sexually  within  sexually  functioning;  behavior  activities,  SFI  strengths  subjects  sexual  scores  reflecting  = 6.38,  of  between  lower  from  results  significance.  sexual  self-perceptions  the  Bonferroni  p_ < 0 . 0 0 1 ,  current  scores  functioning  presents  in p r o f i l e  significantly  = 6.32,  quality GSSI  women  1  between  were  reported  following  sexual  significantly low  sexual  Table 1 Differences between Sexually Dysfunctional and Functional Women in Profile Scores from the Derogatis Sexual Functioning Inventory.  Profile  dj  Dysfunctional (n =8)  Functional (n = 8)  Mean  SD  Mean  SD  i  SFI  14  43.06  4.11  61.25  7.04  6.32**  GSSI  14  38.88  4.91  57.63  6.70  6.38**  Satisfaction  14  39.38  8.55  56.50  6.95  4.39*  Arousal  14  1.25  0.46  2.00  0.00  4.52*  Orgasm  14  1.25  0.46  2.00  0.00  4.52*  Experience  14  50.25  8.46  57.88  7.59  1.90  *p<.01 **p<.001  fO ID  30  desire),  t_(14)  = 4.52, £  lack  of  than  functional  within  orgasm  the  during  For  the purposes  the  designation  clinic  Internal  levels  sexual  of  blood  Physiological  volume  repeated  £  = 0.36.  measures  the  In o r d e r  from  dimensions.  differences  the  sexual  to  the  in Table  2,  with  to  of  preexposure  required of  check  the  preexposure  a  between  to  groups  2 X 2 analysis  repeated  measures  differences  levels  of  validate  levels  that  at  subtracted  stimuli  the  changeover  variance  on t h e  from  the  was  As  (ANOVA),  second  factor,  between  F(l,14)  assumption  from  levels  stimuli,  and c o n d i t i o n s . of  on  no  from VBV  experimental  interaction,  VBV o c c u r r e d  draw  conditions,  i n VBV l e v e l s  the  o f VBV  preexposure  conditions,  Group X S t i m u l i  analyses  and the  experimental to  assumption  between  stimuli,  and  in order  anxiety  VBV b a s e l i n e  = 0.38; Stimuli  i n the  in  of  effect  preexposure  from  These  is  validate  medicine  The s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n  i n VBV o c c u r r e d  and compared  differences  these  scores  Measures  levels.  subjects,  regarding  or  referred  on t h e s e  functional.  = 0.84, £  = 0.07;  study,  scaled  sexually  no s i g n i f i c a n t  £  sample  < 0.01,  as  X Stimuli  F(l,14)  the present  achieved  £  comparison group  changeover  revealed  normative  in millivolts  calculated  women  = 4.52,  reported  dysfunctional,  orienting  presented  the  t;(14)  (75%  sexually  changes  difference  Functional  orgasmic  as  arousal.  nonrandom  activity),  t h e women  for a l l  conclusions  Group  of  and l e s s  therapists  across  conditions  at  of  Validity  Vaginal  the  for  and p r i v a t e  non-clinical  sexual  women.  range  < 0.01,  = 3.83,  F(l,14) that  onset  Groups,  of  = 0.92,  no the  Table  2  Analysis of Variance for Vaginal Blood Volume C h a n g e o v e r  Source  df  M S  6 6 . 1 2 5 0  6 6 . 1 2 5 0  1 0 9 7 . 8 8 0 0  7 8 . 4 1 9 6  3 0 0 . 1 2 5 0  3 0 0 . 1 2 5 0  1 0 9 5 . 8 8 0 0  7 8 . 2 7 6 8  1  7 2 . 0 0 0 0  7 2 . 0 0 0 0  1 4  1 0 9 5 . 8 8 0 0  7 8 . 2 7 6 8  1 4  F  e  0 . 8 4  0 . 3 7 7 2  3 . 8 3  0 . 0 6 7 7  0 . 9 2  0 . 3 5 6 2  subjects  Stimulus  1  Error  Error  S S  1  Error  Group  Stimuli to  s u b j e c t s  G r o u p  Within  of Preexposure  f r o m P r e e x p o s u r e - E x p e r i m e n t a l S t i m u l i  of variation  B e t w e e n  Levels during the Onset  1 4 x  Stimulus  32  experiment between  to  changeover  functional  and  from p r e e x p o s u r e  dysfunctional,  or  to  experimental  stimuli  neutral  or  anxiety  analyses  of  requires  multiple  conditions. Preexposure anxiety  stimuli.  on p h y s i o l o g i c a l  measures  across  assumptions covariance increased  of  time,  conservative  In  type  are  order  I  criterion  likely  to  error,  of  physiological  preexposure  Group  Stimulus  X Time,  arousal  independence  matrices. of  sexual  which  linear  risk  Experimental  to  and  F-test  was  experimental  X Time,  and  effects  of  repeated  statistical  of  variance-  biases  and  the  Greenhouse-Geisser  significance and  the  homogeniety  avoid  the  violate  the  used  for  analyses  all of  Group X Stimulus  Time,  X Time  effects. A Means  2 X 2 X 20 A N O V A , G r o u p X S t i m u l i with  1971), The  was  purpose  that  no  (VBV)  repeated used  to  of  this  analyze  stimulus  across  or  results  in  Table  effects  of  Group,  VBV  (absolute  the  dysfunctional  the  during  Figure  2 presents  no  Stimulus,  and  neutral this  to in  80 to  seconds baseline and  Time.  functional  information  the  neutral  main  or 1  preexposure in  the  form  arousal  or  at  anxiety  changeover, groups.  the  levels)  4-second  mean for  time  conditions. of  The  interaction  presents  across  data.  assumption  sexual  from b a s e l i n e  subjects  anxiety  preexposure  levels  Figure  Block  (Winer,  dysfunctional  significant or  of  Time  factors  physiological  in m i l l i v o l t s  and  two  investigate  functional  reveal  deviation  blocks  last  last  physiological  was  relative  between 3  the  the  differences  preexposure  within  on  analysis  significant  occurred  either  measures  X 4-Second  continuous  Table  3  Analysis of Variance for Physiological Sexual Arousal (VBV) during Preexposure Source  S S  of variation  B e t w e e n  M S  Stimuli F  a  0 . 2 7  0 . 6 0 9 0  s u b j e c t s  G r o u p  1  1 . 3 2 7 4  1 . 3 2 7 4  Error  1 4  6 7 . 8 8 3 0  4 . 8 4 8 8  1  8 . 1 3 5 4  8 . 1 3 5 3  2 . 7 4  0 . 1 1 9 8  1  0 . 9 2 3 5  0 . 9 2 3 5  0.31  0 . 5 8 5 6  Within  G r e e n h o u s e G e i s s e r p.  subjects  Stimulus Group  x  Stimulus  Error  1 4  4 1 . 5 0 1 8  2 . 9 6 4 4  T i m e  3 . 2 7  9 . 2 9 1 8  0 . 4 8 9 0  1.83  0 . 1 5 0 8  3 . 2 7  3 . 3 0 3 5  0 . 1 7 3 8  0 . 6 5  0 . 5 9 9 6  4 5 . 7 6  7 1 . 1 2 7 5  0 . 2 6 7 4  4 . 6 9  5 . 7 3 5 6  0 . 3 0 1 8 7  1.77  0 . 1 3 6 4  4 . 6 9  5 . 5 7 4 4  0 . 2 9 3 3 7  1.72  0 . 1 4 7 4  6 5 . 7 0  4 5 . 4 8 5 2  0 . 1 7 0 8 0  Group  x  Time  Error Stimulus Group Error  x  Time  x Stimulus  x  Time  Figure 1. Mean vaginal blood volume (absolute deviation in millivoltsfrom baseline) for sexually d y s f u n c t i o n a l a n d f u n c t i o n a lw o m e n a c r o s s 4 - s e c o n d t i m e b l o c k s d u r i n g t h e n e u t r a l - e r o t i c ( N - E ) and anxiety-erotic(A-E) conditions.  to  0 . 2 0 - S E C O N DT I M E I N T E R V A L S F i g u r e2 . C o n t i n u o u sm e a s u r e m e n to fv a g i n a l b l o o dv o l u m e ( a b s o l u t e d e v i a t i o n i nm i l l i v o l t sf r o m b a s e l i n e )f o rs e x u a l l yd y s f u n c t i o n a la n df u n c t i o n a lw o m e n a t 0 . 2 0 s e c o n dt i m e i n t e r v a l sd u r i n gt h neutral-erotic(N-E) and anxiety-erotic (A-E) conditions. CO  36  measurement all  subjects)  Visual  the  assumption arousal refute  that  prior  Means to  stimuli  results  for  the  Statistical effects  consistent  with  significantly erotic  more  conditions  p_ = 0 . 0 4 3 8 .  levels  compared = 0.0026.  also  and  to  of  on  of  and  the  of  stimuli,  anxiety  the  sexual and  experimental  effects  conditions.  measures  of  that  Group,  hypotheses,  group  both  findings  arousal  Contrary  to  more  aroused  group,  stimuli,  the  F(l,14)  the  following  computed  of  the  4.  and  Time  group  that was and  F(l,14)  =  anxiety4.91,  consistent  with  significantly anxiety-eliciting =  13.41,  dysfunctional the  between  Table  show  that,  achieved  following  expectation,  in  neutral-erotic  revealed  group  and  Stimulus,  functional the  was  A summary  findings  dysfunctional  functional  sexual  the  within  presented  These  Block  anxiety-eliciting  groups.  is  Time  factors,  arousal  data  significant.  the  two  and  dysfunctional  in  X 4-Second  last  neutral  neutral-control  significantly  for  conditions  validate  levels  experimental  neutral  revealed  than  the  similar  across  stimuli.  preexposure findings  Group X S t i m u l i  aroused  Within  hypothesis,  greater  the  during  accounting  physiological  highly  preexposure  These  the  in  effects  analysis  were  of  measures  functional  anxiety  averaged  Arousal  ANOVA,  the  intervals  demonstrated  hypotheses  repeated  and  analyses.  onset  Sexual  time  VBV means  on p h y s i o l o g i c a l  sexually  £  the  2 X 2 X 45 with  the  differences  investigate  the  of  subjects  to  preexisting  second  neutral  statistical  alternate  A  (0.20  across  Physiological  as  VBV  inspection  support  by  of  group  was  anxiety-eliciting  Table  4  Analysis of Variance for Physiological Sexual Arousal (VBV) during Experimental Source  of variation  B e t w e e n  df  S S  M S  1  2 1 3 8 . 0 6 0 0  2 1 3 8 . 0 6 0 0  Error  1 4  6 0 9 5 . 4 0 4 8  4 3 5 . 3 8 6 0  p_  G r e e n h o u s e Geisser a  4.91  0 . 0 4 3 8 *  1  5 1 0 . 8 9 7 0  5 1 0 . 9 8 7 0  13.41  0 . 0 0 2 6 * *  1  1 7 2 . 4 4 7 0  1 7 2 . 4 4 7 0  4 . 5 3  Error  1 4  5 3 3 . 4 5 9 9  3 8 . 1 0 4 3  T i m e  1.29  6 5 9 . 5 5 7 0  1 4 . 9 8 9 9  6 . 1 2  0 . 0 1 7 6 *  1.29  3 1 9 . 5 3 6 0  7 . 2 6 2 2  2 . 9 7  0 . 0 9 4 4  1 7 . 9 9  1 5 0 8 . 4 9 5 0  2 . 4 4 8 9  2.31  1 3 1 . 7 8 5 0  2 . 9 9 5 1  4 . 6 8  0 . 0 1 3 0 *  2.31  2 9 . 8 9 2 5  0 . 6 7 9 4  1.06  0 . 3 6 5 9  3 2 . 3 2  3 9 4 . 4 0 5 2  0 . 6 4 0 3  subjects  Stimulus Group  x  Group  Stimulus  x  Time  Error Stimulus Group  F  s u b j e c t s  G r o u p  Within  Stimuli  x  Time  x Stimulus  Error *_B<  .05  **_B<  .01  x  Time  0 . 0 5 1 6  38  preexposure, trend,  F(l,14)  F(l,14)  = 4.53,  stimulus  elicited  compared  to  the  Figure  1  functional  women  presents  measurement subjects)  reveal  that  dysfunctional stimuli and  significantly  Significant Time,  Stimulus Simple  X Time  F(1.29,17.99) of  compared  to  enhanced  differences  F(2.31,32.32)  and  deviation  dysfunctional  form  during  of  samples  as  and  genital  and  the  neutral2  continuous averaged  1  greater that  across  all  conditions.  Figures  exhibited  in  Figure  anxiety-erotic  analyses,  the  in  = 8.73,  £  and  2  clearly  arousal  than  anxiety-eliciting  arousal  = 4.92,  £  of  = 0.0176,  also and  = 4.68,  revealed  the  increase  over  time  condition =  £  arousal  F(2.31,32.32)  = 0.0055,  arousal neutral  sexual  = 6.12,  analysis  significant  the  functional  conditions.  conditions,  interaction,  sexual  anxiety  functional  women.  main e f f e c t s a  the  the  blocks  the  time  women  both  F(1.29,17.99)  demonstrated  levels  in  time  in  statistical  women  the  (A-E)  second  functional  in  (absolute  for  neutral-erotic  dysfunctional  across  information  the  the  mean V B V  anxiety-erotic  (0.20  arousal  that  Stimulus  subjects.  4-second  VBV  with  the  A Group X  suggests  sexual  across  across  Consistent  .0516  levels)  same  of  = 0.0026.  baseline  and  this  =  greater  presents  from  (N-E)  £  £  dysfunctional  millivolts  erotic  = 13.41,  0.0106.  that  in  and  arousal that  were for  in £  the =  0.0130.  functional over  in  the  women,  group  time,  significantly  found  these  occurred  greater  anxiety  as  39  Subjective A  Sexual  Arousal  2 X 2 X 5 ANOVA,  measures  on  the  differential  last  two  effects  of  subjective  perceptions  functional  and  the  subjective  the  mean  and  functional  erotic  inspection the  3  found  neutral-erotic  group  themselves  functional  group  conditions. perceptions (4  items)  Figure  None of  were  experienced  physiological  of  sexual  the  more  both  from  arousal, the  (1  findings.  £  aroused  of  do the  =  anxiety-erotic  0.2315. dysfunctional  than  the  and  anxiety-erotic  physical  sexual  revealing  not  =  as  dysfunctional  to  £  both  4.93,  designed  = 0.79,  data  =  the  the  neutral-erotic  F(4,56)  Analysis  that  in  anxiety-  significant  and  = 1.56,  and  and  significantly  no  in  item)  presents  expectation,  arousal  for  visual  F(l,14)  functional  items  3  neutral-erotic  hypotheses,  reveals  results  dysfunctional  and  the  on  sexually  (N-E)  to  the  stimuli  the  for  during  effective  subjective  of  reported  self-report  arousal  investigate  Figure  analysis  sexually  the  differentially  sexual  Results  as  5.  arousal  F(l,14)  3 however,  during  Table  sexual  conditions,  of  A summary  contrary  the  repeated  between  groups  the  of  and  conditions,  between  ratings  Examination rated  arousal  to  to  neutral-erotic  dysfunctional  contrary  subjective  in  that  anxiety-erotic  were  within  Statistical  reveal  with  anxiety-eliciting  sexual  the  X Item  computed  groups.  of  during  sexual  Also  differences  or  of  the  = 0.0434.  groups'  and  and  presented  ratings  Figure  was  arousal  conditions.  of  to  neutral of  is  women  levels  compared £  data  functional  greater  factors,  dysfunctional  subjective  (A-E)  Group X S t i m u l i  assess change  subjectively  0.5340.  parallel  VBV d a t a  the  revealed  that  Table  5  Analysis of Variance for Subjective Ratings of Sexual Source  df  of variation  B e t w e e n  Arousal during Experimental  S S  M S  Stimuli F  a  1.56  0 . 2 3 1 5  s u b j e c t s  G r o u p  1  5 0 . 6 2 5 0  5 0 . 6 2 5 0  Error  1 4  4 5 2 . 9 5 0 0  3 2 . 3 5 3 6  1  1 5 . 6 2 5 0  1 5 . 6 2 5 0  4 . 9 3  0 . 0 4 3 4 *  1  0 . 0 2 5 0  0 . 0 2 5 0  0.01  0 . 9 3 0 5  Within  subjects  Stimulus Group  x  Stimulus  Error  1 4  4 4 . 3 5 0 0  3 . 1 6 7 9  Item  4  2 . 5 6 2 5  0 . 6 4 0 6  0 . 7 9  0 . 5 3 4 0  4  4 . 0 6 2 5  1 . 0 1 5 6  1.26  0 . 2 9 7 0  5 6  4 5 . 1 7 5  0 . 8 0 6 7  4  1 . 5 6 2 5  0 . 3 9 0 6  1.09  0 . 3 6 9 3  4  1 . 4 1 2 5  0 . 3 5 3 1  0 . 9 9  0 . 4 2 1 9  5 6  2 0 . 0 2 5 0  0 . 3 5 7 6  Group  x  Item  Error Stimulus Group  x  x Stimulus  Error  *_p_ <  Item  .05  x  Item  Dysfunctional Functional  Figure 3. Mean subjective ratings of sexual arousal for sexually dysfunctional and functional women during the neutral-erotic (N-E) and anxiety-erotic (A-E) conditions.  42 anxiety  stimuli  than n e u t r a l exhibiting  stimuli  group  subjective  erotic  condition  dysfunctional sexual  subjective  correlation  physical (5  Table  Conversely,  both groups  than the  findings  rated  more s e x u a l l y  t h e f u n c t i o n a l group  coefficients  from  the n e u t r a l -  arousing,  with the  l e v e l s of  i n each c o n d i t i o n .  No  between g r o u p s on t h e  conditions.  with  sexual  arousal,  Arousal  F o r each c o n d i t i o n ,  from b a s e l i n e  subjective change  that  averaged  ratings  (5 i t e m s ) ,  arousal  dysfunctional  women f o l l o w i n g  preexposure.  Since  enhanced  both  general  product-moment f o r sexually  t h e l a r g e s t VBV 20 s e c o n d s , was  arousal  physical  (1 i t e m ) .  (1 i t e m ) ,  change  Results  f o r f u n c t i o n a l or  either neutral  or a n x i e t y  f u n c t i o n a l and d y s f u n c t i o n a l  greater  presented i n  c o r r e l a t i o n s between VBV and  were f o u n d  g e n i t a l responses  condition, but reported  across  of sexual  no s i g n i f i c a n t  of sexual  Pearson  women i n t h e n e u t r a l - e r o t i c and  and f e e l i n g s o f a n x i e t y  self-ratings  Sexual  were c a l c u l a t e d s e p a r a t e l y  and d y s f u n c t i o n a l  6 reveal  achieved  arousal  n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater  r a t i n g s of sexual  deviation  items),  that  of sexual  group  t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e d e g r e e o f a s s o c i a t i o n between VBV  anxiety-erotic  correlated  revealed  arousal  the f u n c t i o n a l  Between P h y s i o l o g i c a l and S u b j e c t i v e  subjective  absolute  i n each c o n d i t i o n .  genital  measure.  order  functional  levels  d i f f e r e n c e s were f o u n d  Relationship In  greater  as s i g n i f i c a n t l y  than  greater  groups, with  group r e p o r t i n g  arousal  significant  and  data  significantly  f o r both  significantly  dysfunctional the  elicited  following  perceptions  women  the a n x i e t y - e r o t i c  of arousal  following  Table  43  6  P e a r s o n  P r o d u c t - M o m e n t  C o r r e l a t i o n sB e t w e e n  P h y s i o l o g i c a l ( V B V )  and Subjective Ratings of Sexual Arousal During Experimental  Stimuli  Dysfunctional r Item  Functional r  N - E  A - E  N - E  A - E  S e x u a l l y A r o u s e d  0 . 4 4 0  - 0 . 0 1 7  0 . 0 7 0  0 . 0 8 8  Breast S e n s a t i o n s  0 . 3 6 0  0 . 5 7 0  0 . 1 9 8  0 . 0 1 5  Warmth in Genitals  0 . 3 1 0  -0.071  -0.041  - 0 . 3 7 0  G e n i t a l W e t n e s s or Lubrication  0 . 3 1 9  - 0 . 0 6 2  0 . 2 1 3  0 . 0 7  Genital Pulsing or Throbbing  0 . 2 7 3  - 0 . 0 1 5  0 . 2 4 8  0.081  A n y G e n i t a l F e e l i n g s  0 . 3 7 0  - 0 . 0 8 2  0 . 2 4 9  - . 0 1 0 7  Faster B r e a t h i n g  - 0 . 1 7 4  - 0 . 1 9 4  0 . 2 2 8  - 0 . 2 2 0  Faster H e a r t R a t e  0 . 3 4 8  - 0 . 2 6 2  - 0 . 1 5 7  -0.409  Perspiration  - 0 . 3 9 0  - 0 . 5 0 6  0 . 2 0 9  - 0 . 3 3 6  Feelings W a r m t h  0 . 0 9 5  - 0 . 3 4 0  - 0 . 1 2 3  - 0 . 4 1 9  0 . 5 4 6  - 0 . 0 5 6  0.041  -0.052  - 0 . 0 5 4  0 . 2 3 2  0 . 5 0 9  -0.031  of  A n y P h y s i c a l Reaction at All A n x i o u s  44  the  neutral  condition,  significantly  VBV and  inversely  related.  between  groups  and  extreme  in  anxiety-erotic  the  (r_ = 0 . 1 7 0 )  stimuli  condition  (£ = - 0 . 0 0 2 )  as  correlations  between  sexual  arousal  functional women  in  ratings were  the of  anxiety  dysfunctional women  to In  report  show  that in  as  correlations sexual  Despite  between  change,  and  arousal  likelihood  of  and  and  the  arousal  even  analyses  eliciting  with  the  strength  general  reported  physical  by  their  an  visual caused genital  to  inhibited  sexual  for  the  women.  felt  anxious.  inspection a highly  the  of  the  significant  arousal  across findings neutral  Non-significant  arousal, revealed  experience  physical a  trend  for  enhanced  acknowledgment  feelings.  The  functional  reported  sexual  women  condition  arousal  arousing.  change,  -0.067)  physiological  women  of  subjective  than  they  the  sexually  dysfunctional  accompanied  of  of  dysfunctional more  and  Mean  positively  likely  stimuli  and m a g n i t u d e  (r_ =  (r_ = 0 . 2 3 2 )  though  women  for  anxiety-erotic  more  more  measures  Similarly,  dysfunctional  be  (£ = 0 . 0 6 8 ) .  dysfunctional  correlated  therefore  to  related  for  VBV and  reporting  to  calculated  neutral-erotic  physiological inversely  non-  functional  women  non-significantly  significantly  functional  genital  rate  functional  condition  both  the  for  but  statistical  anxiety  subjects.  however,  were  sexual  summary,  enhancement all  arousal  women  in  versus  and  condition.  negatively  (£ = - 0 . 0 3 1 ) with  and  more  ("anxious")  non-significantly  correlated  groups,  compared  anxiety-erotic  were  discordance  dysfunctional  therefore as  this  (r_ = - 0 . 0 7 1 )  both to  reports  Mean c o r r e l a t i o n s  reveal  subjective  (r_ = - 0 . 1 4 0 )  functional  data  for  compared  were  subjective  or  45 Discussion The  r e s u l t s of the present  framework clinical  f o rconceptualizing implications  study provide  female  f o r the treatment  women.  Consistent  with  effects  of anxiety  on s u b s e q u e n t  functional  dysfunctional  greater  group  greater  women r e v e a l e d  the hypotheses,  of the  between  that  (hypothesis  arousal  sexually  the f u n c t i o n a l than the (hypothesis  2).  the f u n c t i o n a l group  women and i s c o n s i s t e n t  a l . , 1983; D u t t o n  et  a l . , 1981; W o l c h i k  enhanced  sexual  expectation  Also demonstrated  i n t h e a n x i e t y - e r o t i c as (hypothesis  3).  with  the l i t e r a t u r e  e t a l . , 1980) r e p o r t i n g  arousal  however, t h e d y s f u n c t i o n a l arousal  group a l s o  the d y s f u n c t i o n a l  anxiety-erotic conditions,  significant  as w e l l  (Barlow  anxiety  elicits  Contrary  to  demonstrated  (hypothesis  subjects  the anxiety  enhancement o f g e n i t a l s e x u a l  dysfunctional  sexually  i n t h e a n x i e t y - e r o t i c as  to the n e u t r a l - e r o t i c c o n d i t i o n  than  that  i n f u n c t i o n a l men and women.  summarize, whereas t h e f u n c t i o n a l s u b j e c t s responses  This  & A r o n , 1974; Heiman & Rowland, 1983; Lange  p h y s i o l o g i c a l sexual  compared  contrary  dysfunction i n  r e p l i c a t e s t h e r e s u l t s o f Hoon e t a l . (1977) w i t h  et  and  and s t r o n g  i n the n e u t r a l - e r o t i c c o n d i t i o n  to the n e u t r a l - e r o t i c c o n d i t i o n  functional  greater  arousal  physiological arousal  p h y s i o l o g i c a l sexual  compared finding  with  of sexual  sexual  1) , and t h e a n x i e t y - e r o t i c c o n d i t i o n consistent  arousal,  the hypotheses, a comparison  and d y s f u n c t i o n a l  group demonstrated  sexual  a theoretical  4).  attained during  higher  both  condition arousal  as t h e f u n c t i o n a l g r o u p s .  To genital  the n e u t r a l elicited  a  f o r the This  t o t h e B a r l o w e t a l . and Heiman & Rowland  finding i s  findings  with  46 men  that  anxiety  elicited  an i n c r e a s e  functional  men, and a d e c r e a s e  condition)  in dysfunctional  has  examined  the influence  (below t h e n e u t r a l  men.  women. The p r e s e n t  physiological  sexual  acquisition in  the anxiety  functional effects  arousal  stimulus.  as w e l l  subjective  i n both  findings  to the n e u t r a l women.  groups  f u n c t i o n a l and d y s f u n c t i o n a l observed  et  groups.  rapid  these  (hypothesis  between  greater  subjective  a l . f i n d i n g that  and Heiman  between  than the  1 ) , and t h e that the  women's s u b j e c t i v e  i n the n e u t r a l - e r o t i c to i n v e s t i g a t e t h e Wincze (1980)  results therefore  contradictory  subjective  between  support  f u n c t i o n a l and d y s f u n c t i o n a l  p h y s i o l o g i c a l but equal  arousal  Recall  i n physiological arousal  The p r e s e n t  contrary  i n t h e d a t a may  (hypothesis  2) c o n d i t i o n s .  1) was d e s i g n e d  A difference  revealed.  A trend  f u n c t i o n a l and d y s f u n c t i o n a l  (hypothesis  that  to e x p e c t a t i o n , the  i n the n e u t r a l - e r o t i c  a l . (1976) and M o r o k o f f  different  t o an  f o r both  More i m p o r t a n t l y ,  p h y s i o l o g i c a l measures o f a r o u s a l  findings. was  group r e p o r t e d  group  anxiety-erotic  et  condition  d i f f e r e n c e s were f o u n d  however, where c o n t r a r y  dysfunctional  condition  a more  o f t h e s u b j e c t i v e measures r e v e a l e d  the  and  by e x p o s u r e  i r r e s p e c t i v e of contradictory  t h e h y p o t h e s e s , no s i g n i f i c a n t  comparison  t h a t women's  m a g n i t u d e o f g e n i t a l a r o u s a l (VBV)  to  functional  suggest  perceptions.  Examination  be  investigation  response i n  These e f f e c t s i n c l u d e  and d y s f u n c t i o n a l  occurred  on s e x u a l  arousal i n  o r non-demand  no o t h e r  may be f a c i l i t a t e d  as g r e a t e r  as compared  To d a t e ,  of anxiety  dysfunctional  anxiety-eliciting  i n g e n i t a l sexual  groups  t h e Wincze  women e x h i b i t  sexual  arousal  47  responses and  to  erotic  Heiman f i n d i n g s  subjective that  sexual  similar  functional  to  and  differential erotic  arousal findings  functional  no  lack  subjective explained  of  data by  (hypotheses  the  would  findings  with  sexual  compared women's  (hypothesis  of  however, males,  demonstrate  has  differences  perceptions  different  physiological  stimuli  Morokoff  hypothesized  (1983)  dysfunctional  sexual  arousal  to  group subjective  2).  between  3  and  4).  conditions.  dysfunctional as  were  compared to  reported  greater  (hypothesis  The  present  functional  response  and  following  erotic  the  (anxiety)  of  the  following conditions  subjective  during  condition  functional  neutral-erotic  the  graphed men  results.  the  that  (neutral) the  anxiety-  the the  neutral-  (hypothesis  4).  also  film  pair  differences Heiman and  Self-reported  non-demand reveal  in  mean  and  women  the  dysfunctional  similar  in  hypothesis,  arousal  be  findings  neutral-erotic  the  in  may  condition)  anxiety-erotic  Observation and  the  greater  during  data  differences  with  however,  arousal  reveal  stimuli  (stimulus  between  reported to  functional study  found  differences  physiological  Significant  expectation  3).  the  Consistent  women  Contrary  between-group  within-group  erotic  demand  and  paralleling  arousal  to  as  was  investigation  significant  sexual  (1983)  well  but  the  arousal.  The  between  Rowland  significant  women's  contradict  It  females  anxiety-eliciting  dysfunctional  erotic  responses.  as  No o t h e r  results  physiological  Heiman and  subjective  reveal  anxiety  equal  dysfunctional  in  to  of  These  arousal  the  stimuli.  differences  cues.  or  sexual  Rowland arousal  performance  non-demand  condition  48 elicited as  the  self-reports  dysfunctional  Rowland that  greater  study  with  functional  group.  arousal  in  In  present  study,  the  despite  contradictory  genital  arousal  of  Figures  inversely anxiety,  1  3  this  more  as  in  from  present  study  opposed  to  data  The more  genital  genital  subjective  the  with  the  suggest  higher  levels  all  condition.  enhanced Comparison  subjective  acknowledgment  was of  of  subjects  stimuli.  arousal  well  women  indicating  and  as  Heiman and  anxiety  across  anxiety-eliciting that  functional  report  occurred  physiological  the both  subjects  effect  reveals  related: the  neutral  following  and  the  dysfunctional  sexual the  arousal  Findings  men a n d  and  of  data  enhanced  sexual  are  by  arousal  was  inhibited. Several  explanations  significantly  increased  arousal  sexual  arousal-eliciting  example, genital  although  following  a  addition,  the  in  may  or  and  prevalent  predispose  sexual  film  to  sexual  arousal.  acceptable  not  to  who  interactions.  it  anxiety  may have  As  be a  acceptable  demand  report in  viewed  arousal  inhibits  history  In  sexual  sensations  particularly  previously  as  pairing.  genital  long  in  For  genital  film  to  of  to  be  anxiety  subjective  penguins  may  erotic  attend  This  of  enhanced  that  that  decreased  subject  it  and  finding  conditioning  stimuli,  assumption  subjects  and  pairings  amputation  women  the  compound  of  perceive  contexts.  dysfunctional  nonrewarding  may  believe  erotic  abnormal  anxiety-eliciting  sexually  stimuli  following  threatened  for  social  investigations  (neutral)  inappropriate  First,  women may  sensations  Antarctica  arousal  women.  analogue  account  physiological,  sexual  laboratory  in  may  true  of  of  discussed,  the  49 (1983) s t u d y  Heiman  and  Rowland  demand  instructional  heightened stimuli.  set,  subjective A partial  subjective  ratings  may  demand,  of  arousal  experimental Wincze  the  et  al.  women  was  women  reported  dysfunctional  present  on  the  study  reflect  including  high  reported  of  differential  groups  in  the  Morokoff in  Wincze  and  the  et  of  nature  al.  (1980)  Heiman  level  experimental  or  may  therefore  finding  responses  between  of  subject  conservative to  estimates.  subject  of  more  demand  the  heightened reflect  functional  of  was  Dysfunctional  to  data  that  findings  not  sexual  more  of  a  the  may  not  women,  to,  arousal. social  in  than  Many  attend  equate  women  concordant  may  arousal  functional,  result  these  different  demand;  characteristics.  women,  of  estimates  appear  The  measure.  suggesting  functional  verbalize  his  reflection  slightly  however,  sexually  acknowledge, difficulty  of  lack  that  attempting  subjective  reported  women  a  more  women,  artificially  functional  performance  (non-demand)  the  (1976) c o n c l u d e d  dysfunctional  groups  pattern  arousal-eliciting  subjective  reported  only  and  a  neutral  differences  equal  while  same  the  between  but  functional  the  for  versus  reflect  anxiety  the  employing  stimuli.  physiological and  study  men  following  explanation  therefore  i.e.,  revealed  arousal  (1976) a n d t h e p r e s e n t study,  with  This  than  subject  demand. Second, physiological reflected desire  for  in  the  finding  arousal their  example,  that  dysfunctional  following  subjective reported  women  anxiety-eliciting  ratings. greater  Women w i t h  subjective  exhibit  enhanced  stimuli  may  low  ratings  be  sexual of  arousal  50 than  functional  Relative  to  accustomed  the to  the  stimuli.  Since  they  genital  may  be  stimuli  subjective  enhanced  arousal  of  may  amplify  physiological seeking  demands  be  women,  effects  treatment  may  to  of  perhaps  the  for  attend  condition.  ratings  of  less  arousal  anxiety  sexual  temporarily  create  greater  of  sexual  arousal.  genital to  2).  to  also  functional  with  anxiety  reversed and  for  these  investigate  the  changes  as  neutral  condition.  arousal  in  relative  more  the  to  Accordingly, sensations  in  The  neutral  desire  in  the  to  and  effect  also  functional  for  be  The  anxiety  neutral that  as  this  as  perceive women  to  would  effect  be  In  the of  group to  equate  (hypothesis  with  may  genital  in  responded  conditions  compared  rating  condition  women  be  anxiety.  dysfunctional  effect  neutral  would  of  dysfunctional  increased  the  ratings  condition  arousal  may  dysfunctional  neutral  the  lower  heightened  subjective  anxiety  of  and  dysfunctional  elicit  suggested  would  group.  the  The  in  anxiety-  demand  hypothesis,  subjects  condition  differences  the  was  relative  functional  low  the  arousal  It  result  may  the  misattribution  extreme  the  between-group  greater  dysfunctional  For  greater  in  greater  subject  subjects.  with  condition.  conditioned  addition,  and  differences  reported  women,  arousal  sensations  Consistent  subjects  to  functional  may  between-group  the  the  physiological  relative  (hypothesis  due  sensations,  for  ratings  awareness  be  desire  more m o t i v a t e d  summarize,  eliciting  equate  low  are  social  anxiety-erotic  cues.  To  women,  they  the  group,  enhanced  difficulties,  following  functional  genital  following  women;  subjects  to  1).  genital  higher  51  subjective  ratings  dysfunctional functional  women's  women's  significantly across the  all  present  the  responses  between for  functional  demonstrated decreased to  the  in  or  the  the  condition,  anxiety-erotic  subjects  in  responses  the  responses  finding  is  the  VBV and  (albeit and  lower  anxiety  in  with  physiological  interpretation  that  social  femininity  and  sexual  subjective  and  physiological  arousal  be  reports.  arousal  compared  ratings  were  for  functional  dysfunctional  words,  with  some  higher while  functional  genital  condition  with  arou'sal .  This  It  between  reflected  also  lower  accounting supports  perceptions in  women  some  interpretation  discordance.  may  sexual  as  subjective  discordance  groups  condition  arousal,  above  within  the  reported  neutral-erotic  the  and  but  and  other  condition  higher  2)  subjects  non-significantly)  the  of  and  arousal  subjective  subjective  of  correlations of  Since  genital  In  condition  4).  anxiety-erotic,  reported  consistent and  in  conditions.  subjects  genital  women.  1  arousal  measures  increased  anxiety-erotic  reported  dysfunctional  subjective  physiological  be  interpretation  (hypotheses  significant  the  the  similarity  revealed  arousal  neutral-  the  of  neutral  This  subjective  no  and  the  3 and  dysfunctional  correlated  in  4).  for  effect  would  (hypotheses  significantly  neutral  in  and  subjective  negatively women  study  ratings,  3 and  of  The  ratings,  arousal  groups  ratings  stimuli  subjective  of  account  between  greater  present  neutral  (hypotheses would  women.  anxiety  ratings  findings  neutral  The  increased  greater  significantly  functional  decreased  subjects  subjective  to  than  the of  discordant  for  52 These r e s u l t s a r e c o n s i s t e n t Di  Tomasso  (1985) r e p o r t  physiological audiotaped  and s u b j e c t i v e  correlation  be  the Morokoff  discrepant  fear  considerable  arousal  and Heiman and p r e s e n t  due t o d e s y n c h r o n y  variability.  no s i g n i f i c a n t i n response to  responses The provides  women p r e - and  that  subjective  s t u d y w i t h women  dimensions  of sexual  of the sexual  (1974) r e p o r t e d  are comprised  reflect  that  response  emotional  of s u b j e c t i v e , behavioral, become d i s c o r d a n t  suggest  arousal  may  system.  responses  such  and p h y s i o l o g i c a l  at different rates.  and p h y s i o l o g i c a l measures o f s e x u a l  the i n t e r r e l a t e d but d i f f e r e n t i a l  rate  arousal  of systemic  to e r o t i c cues. importance  of the present  findings  i s the evidence i t  f o r an a l t e r n a t i v e c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n  implications  Current  o f f u n c t i o n a l men e x p o s e d t o  (1980) r e p o r t e d  p h y s i o l o g i c a l and s u b j e c t i v e  Similarly,  and  and Heiman  between t h e  The r e s u l t s from t h e H a l l e t a l . s t u d y w i t h men,  response systems  may  arousal  correlations for dysfunctional  Hodgson and Rachman as  c o r r e l a t i o n s computed  between VPA and s u b j e c t i v e  posttreatment.  that  B i n i k , and  s t i m u l i f o r f u n c t i o n a l women p r e t r e a t m e n t , and s i g n i f i c a n t  negative  and  the H a l l ,  e r o t i c s t i m u l i demonstrated  S i m i l a r l y , Morokoff  erotic  that  with  f o r treatment  models o f s e x u a l  Rowland, 1983; physiological  dysfunction  may s e r v e  ( B a r l o w 1986;  s i t u a t i o n s , and s u b j e c t i v e  effect  p h y s i o l o g i c a l response. and s u b j e c t i v e  that  perceptions  the perception of arousal i n  may r e c i p r o c a l l y  The d e g r e e o f c o n c o r d a n c e  response  systems  women.  Heiman &  as a c u e f o r s u b j e c t i v e  sexual  physiological  arousal  f o rsexually dysfunctional  Rosen & Beck, 1 9 8 8 ) s t a t e arousal  of sexual  i s therefore  between  53  expected that  to  anxiety  subjects from  be  interferes  due  sexual  relatively  to  stimuli.  (anxiety)  arousal  and  to  sexual  are  such  facilitates  further  focus,  and  serves  to  Anxiety  messages  within  detrimental  since  arousal  perceptions  of  individual's arousal is  a  is  that  be  arousal  as  focus  from  cognitive or  "the  and  of  in  immediate  like  on m e n .  Since  physiological  loop,  response  Recent  reviews  that  one  in  were  the  the is  which  subjective an  sexual as  sexual,  and  derived  men p o s s e s s it  of  anxiety  response,  systems of  erotic  processing  response  models  feedback  ultimate  experienced  These  subjects.  functional  Since  physiological  a  which  dysfunctional  the  the  114).  defining  therapy.  synchronous.  (p.  in  conclude  feel  subjectively  collected  a more  will  affect  by  and  theories  dysfunctional  that  They  These  anxiety  sexually  determined  inhibited" may  in  cues  attentional  arousal  state  context.  primary  of  data  (1983) is  in  of  subjects  processing  arousal.  sexual  arousal  situation  self-report  provide  concordant  sexual  will  viewed  central  primarily which  sexual  situation the  arousal  aspects  erotic  enhance  away  physiological  functional  misdirected  may  facilitate  in  cognitive  sexual  focus  autonomic  process  enhances  physiological to  the  proposes  dysfunctional  decreases  and  attributions  inhibit  given  to  in  model  attentional  Sexually  cognitions,  Heiman & Rowland a  further  attend  anxiety  distracting  but  of  sexual  to  or  allows  physiological  proposed  subjects. value  in  subjective  is  subjects,  result  (1986)  arousal  distraction focus  that  inhibit  sexual  This  proposed  that  Barlow's  performance.  effectively  suggest  with  cognitive  arousal  however,  high.  could may  be be  genitals argued more  literature  54  (Rosen  & Beck,  response 1983;  system  Hall The  do  not  that  1988)  et  support  despite  a l . ,  present  parallel  across  reported  all  higher  data  subjective response  by  the  sexual  contradictory  cognitive  in  women.  sexual  response  conditioning distraction does  not  than  enhanced also  subjective  since  equal  found  between  do  ratings  genital  them  dysfunctional  interfere  not  of  arousal  fact was  suggests  some  dysfunctional  from  expressing  subjects  than,functional  subjects  in  the  and  but  process that  found that  genital  was the  that  while  focus,  or  feelings.  prior  and of  cognitive  arousal,  it  processes. physiological  more  no d i f f e r e n c e between  found  female  suggest  cues  either  also  that  data  their  of  different  these  women  enhanced  effect  suggest  processes,  these  reported  Rather,  physiological  groups,  arousal  enhanced  This  subjective  genital  condition,  interpretations  with  The  neutral  women  revealed  dysfunctional  attentional  necessarily  women.  study  enhanced  the  desynchronous,  decrease  possess  prevent  is  findings  relationship.  irrespective  attributions.  may  women  the  occurred  sexual  (Heiman & Rowland  This  stimuli.  history,  dysfunctional  subjective  anxiety  synchronous  and d y s f u n c t i o n a l  the  inhibit  learning  were  this  men.  during  or  Secondly,  functional  from  a  men  facilitated  not  These  system  with  Although  arousal  immediately  responses  derived  did  of  functional  arousal  physiological  functional  with  subjects.  attributions  elicited  evidence  stimuli  sexual  concept  contradicting  findings  anxiety-eliciting  arousal  some  1985)  the  this  groups  that effectively in despite  functional  women  that  social  The  findings  that  sexual  arousal  greater  ratings  of  anxiety  condition  may  dictates  suggest  that  55 dysfunctional decreased or  women do a t t e n d  physiological arousal  inhibition  individual's least  of arousal.  These r e s u l t s s t r o n g l y  as s u b j e c t i v e  previously  from  the present  proposed  dysfunction. generalized  or s p e c i f i c  any  number o f s i n g l y - o c c u r r i n g  experience  affective,  or b e h a v i o r a l  principles  of conditioning  the  stimuli will  or a n x i e t y  associated the  with  i n d i v i d u a l acquires  predispose  misattribution  arousing  that as  they  learn  anxiety.  avoidance  functioning  an i n c r e a s e d i n sexual  v u l n e r a b i l i t y to a situations.  s t i m u l i on r e p e a t e d response  sexual  i n d i v i d u a l s such  enhanced  to t h i s  model,  report  ratings  stimuli  a n x i e t y and  anxiety  subjective  avoids  arousal-eliciting  elicit  According  i n the  In t h i s way,  women c o g n i t i v e l y m i s a t t r i b u t i n g s e x u a l lower  When  occasions,  of anxiety  dysfunctional would  nature of  magnitude, or f a i l u r e i s  with d y s f u n c t i o n a l  These m i s a t t r i b u t i o n s  due t o  involving physiological,  performance.  stimuli.  encounter,  s t i m u l i and c o n s e q u e n t l y  to misattribute  of sexual  either  the a r o u s a l - e l i c i t i n g  a conditioned  i s reversed  i n t o the  In a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e  and a n x i e t y  r e q u i r i n g sexual  a r e s p o n s e as  i n a sexual  sexual  incidents  theory,  presence of a r o u s a l - e l i c i t i n g situations  inadequate  i s of s u f f i c i e n t  sexually  i s at  m i s a t t r i b u t i o n model o f s e x u a l  factors.  a c q u i s i t i o n of fear fear  arousal  i n therapy.  performance anxiety  o r he may a l s o  this  i n d i c a t e t h a t an  i f an i n d i v i d u a l e x p e r i e n c e s  she  sexual  misattribution  i n defining  targeted  exhibit  s t u d y may be i n c o r p o r a t e d  conditioned  In s h o r t ,  sexual  arousal  and must be s p e c i f i c a l l y  Findings  rapid  due t o c o n d i t i o n e d  p h y s i o l o g i c a l l y experienced  as i m p o r t a n t  sexual,  t o g e n i t a l cues but s t i l l  a r o u s a l as  of arousal  when  56 sympathetic subjective with  the  activation perception  occurs of  physiological  attributions,  activation  may  anxiety To  summarize,  conceptualizations  areas:  (1)  both the  sexual  inhibited enhanced  and  response  distraction, enhanced  are  therefore  The for  elicitation  such  non-demand  coitus  toward  as  sensate (Kaplan,  imaginal  extinguishing  arousing effects  and  stimuli may  by  not in  the  genital the  focus  desynchrony women  to  of  report  cognitive  not  and  reciprocally  inhibit  (4)  the  subjective  interactive  understanding  in  experiencing  do  anxiety,  following  arousal  attributions,  attentional  important  findings  techniques  video  subjective  are  in  simultaneously  elicited  responses  dysfunctional  physiological  and  (3)  while  challenge  and  and  treating  functioning.  present  sexually  enhance (2)  arousal.  study  dysfunction  stimuli  their  conditioning,  genital  present  sexual  allows  arousal  equally  sexual  the  however  sympathetic  of  dysfunctional  response  physiological  effects  enhanced  to  of  system  and m i s d i r e c t e d  and  Contrary  effects  the  Their  desynchronous  women,  arousal  genital  impaired  of  context.  dysfunctional  subjective genital  to  from  Anxiety-eliciting  functional  the  facilitates  current  be  system.  due  findings  sexual  may  although  decreased  significantly  a  arousal  response  subjective  be  in  and  inhibit  suggest  women may of  sexual  focus  be  systematic  treatment  muscle  desensitization paired  with  parasympathetic activation  to  the  Therapeutic  & Johnson,  progressive  sympathetic  of  counterproductive  arousal.  responses  increasing  common m o d e s  (Masters  1974),  anxiety  the  that  1970), relaxation,  are  directed  sexually  response. required  for  These the  57  instigation present toward  and  findings altering  arousal effect  as  anxiety  anxiety  inverted  and  clinical  and  the  may  an  both  integrate  on  over  sexual  photoplethysmography restructuring of  and  sympathetic  amount,  be  of  made  For  biofeedback,  excitation  the  or and  and  test  sexual of  the  Although  effective  attend  attribution  the  alleviation  to  Teaching and  perceptions  increase  a  techniques training,  may  sexual  anxiety,  relaxation.  may  fantasy  an  duration  versus  example  exercises  toward  to  subjective  them,  sexual  assumes  beneficial  to  sexual  a  inhibit  cautiously, the  directed  of  in  individual.  women  ignoring  self-mastery  enhance  through  sensations  be  relationship  analogous  activation,  dysfunctional  response.  the  performance  for  component  The  physiological  occurs  intensity,  strategies  or  enhanced  that  a manner  skills  instead  activation  sexual  sympathetic  inhibiting  the  therefore  must  physiological  than  control  the  coping  and  to  may  arousal.  misattribution  suggested  In  may  arousal  functional  rather  on  of  important  has  curve.  focus  utilization  cognitive  improved  applications  treatment  treatment  sympathetic  anxiety  dependent  stimulus,  that  physiological  attending  (1986)  U-shaped  physiological arousal  and  when  Barlow  between  of  suggest  of  conditioned  elicited  context.  and  enhancement  of  combining cognitive  direct  arousal  sense  attributions  rather  than  anxiety. Cantor, what  Zillmann  Zillmann, (cited  transfer  theory"  physical  exercise.  by  and  Bryant  in Cantor exposing The  theory  et men  (1975) al.) to  examined  termed  erotic  suggests  that  the  films  the  effects  "excitation following  misattribution  of  of  58  residual  excitation  will  enhance  that  residual  emotional  ratings  physiological  exercise.  They  tranfer  the  of  the  is  sexual  arousal  patient  for  penile  (Berger penile  of  tumescence  Mathews  for  than  contrary  to  activity  may  and  for  low  the  inhibits the  enhance  et  sexual  of  concept  progress.  arousal  successful  the  case  of  the  and  case and  anxiolytic  case  studies  arousal  dysfunctional (b)  a  Bancroft,  the  study  revealed  desire  During  sympathetic  through  excitation.  woman's  These  explanation,  increases  results  Carney,  necessary capacity  the  in  The  the  requesting  exercise  reported  cause  A common  flow  residual  encounters.  in  the  enhanced  erectile  that  of  findings  involves  of  desire.  arousal  al.  attribute  blood  of  excitation  elicits  increase  (1980)  that  cause  attributions.  administration  finding  of  present  impotence  dysfunction,  that  to  The  heightened  sexual  sexual  Cantor  component  activation  transfer  therapeutic  present  effects  unlikely  sexual  sexual  reported  the  to  Ellison  exercise  female  to  misattribution  subseguent  inhibited  support  rather  to  enhanced  attributed  of  is  exercise  found  the  measurement  excitation  physical  (1978)  diazepam (a)  the  during  treatment  due  It  They  the  cognitive  order the  1987).  treated  prior  arousal  and  Zilbergeld of  in  from  individual  assessment  exercise  & Berger,  a woman  that  for  stimuli.  if  source.  of  response  only  crucial  the  irrespective  to  application  of  a  sympathetic  tumescence  Similarly,  that  novel  arousal  not  original  that  practice  the  its  was  to  physiological  elicited  sexual  conclude  however,  medical  of  arousal  to  excitatory  arousal  inability  arousal  suggest  an  responses  autonomic  self-reported the  from  enhances  women,  suggest direct  that  and SNS  59  instigation (i.e.  and  enhancement  increased  tension)  blood  preparing  (vasocongestion, may  provide  decreases  a  activation. sympathetic If  SNS  effects  of  opposing seems  preparedness, as  enhance anger  sexual that  aggression, sexual  conditionally  enhances are  they  misattributed  physiological Similarly,  individuals,  anger,  anxiety  to  arousal  enhancing  anger  or  be  be  less  of  with  effects  likely  to  the  case  aggression,  paired  aggression.  the  and  of  the  become  produced  that  than  despite  be  failure.  1976)  in  the  to  become  the  SNS  dysfunctional less The  SNS  likely  of  than  sexual  activation  attributed  misattribution  or  anger,  anxiety  sexually may  anger  increase  experienced  accompanying  Conditioned  the  Stoller,  accompanying  reversely  on  have  Since  arousal  fear  performance of  (e.g.  with  also  affectively  be  likely  sexual  effects in  to  may  concluded  arousal.  less  as  may  this  associated  arousal  (1983)  likely  of  literature  theories  sexual  less  may  activation.  therefore  Other  SNS  through  emotions  sexual  or  investigated.  arousal  The  aggression  response.  the  aggression  & Rowland  whereas  been  other  on  by  applications  have  or  misattribution  increases  elicited  arousal.  aggression  fear  further  muscle  arousal  Cognitive  sexual  then  arousal,  respiration,  sexual  clinical  anger,  sexual  Heiman  anger and  fear,  and  encounter,  enhancing  other  enhances  detrimental,  suggest  no  effect  activation  such  for  that  hypothesis  results.  decrease  effect  physiological rate,  tumescence).  activation  activity  potentially  date  heart  individual  physiological  physiological SNS  the  penile  To  general  pressure,  secondary  the  of  as  are  further  anxiety,  60  anger,  aggression,  provides  an  in  of  sexual  effects  to of  component explore  of  the  The  on  of  excitation  primary  criticism  of  anxiety  with and  operationalization  constructs.  Research  have  anxiety  defined  stimuli,  on as  (3)  the (1)  (5)  injections  epinephrine.  of  with  interpersonal  effects  threat,  by  a  These  sexually  performance  conflict.  In  terms  discussed,  Wincze  subjective  difference  between  not  is  arousal,  isolate  that  required the  the  active  enhances  arousal,  in  populations  other  and  found  due  to  of  demand  et  analogue  arousal  of a  anxiety  (4)  sexual  al.  work  (1976)  functional  and  generalizable  the that  home  and  laboratory  functional  and  to  of  and  women  as  that women  experimental or  respond  phenomenon The  the  woman  construct,  the  (6)  parallel  stress,  report  environments.  dysfunctional  and  dysfunctional  characteristics  and  valid  not  concluded  may  a  demand  man o r  arousal  sexual  be  may  arousal  bridge,  performance,  dysfunctional  the  these  sexual  performance  situations  of  the  of  on  suspension  inability  cues  involve  generalization  the  finding  masochism,  regarding  Alternatively,  in  (e.g.  research  situation.  both  and  findings  expectations,  previously  were  and  self-monitoring  experienced  confronted  however,  development  laboratory  crossing  shock  instructions,  anxiety  arousal  paraphilias  arousal  sexual  questionable  film  the  Future  sexual  autonomic  sexual  difficulties.  investigations  (2)  or  contradictory  sympathetic  sexual  for  fetishism).  emotions  effects  enhanced  deviations  elucidate these  as  explanation  exhibitionism,  order  with  fear  intriguing  maintenance sadism,  or  to  occurring  present  responded  with  61  decreased suggest Future  ratings  that  of  women  research  learn  is  of  assessing  anxiety  on  sexual  be  assessed  treatment  The and  directed  enhanced to  may  arousal  develop  response be  toward  that  monitored  the  by  effect  under  it.  of  normative  research  development  may  unobtrusive  the  current  arousal  ignoring  accurate,  so  of  genital  of  may  then  appropriate  strategies. future  relationship  explored  in  sympathetic enhances  order  sexual  hypotheses  are  subjective therapeutic  of  focus  these  It  to  of  continuous  the  low  may  be  stimuli,  may  sexual  response  system  (1)  by  The  of  male  feedback of  arousal  of  anxiety  to  bodily  cues  conditioned  or  as (2)  anxiety lack  arousal  of  perpetuates  effectiveness  of  cognitive  through  genital or  be  Similarly,  increasing  investigated  must  levels  which  arousal  decrement,  toward  ratings  provide  that  arousal.  physiological  erotic  be  arousal  attention  physiological  synchrony  subjective  sexual  process  and  inverted  constructive  sympathetic  directed  synchrony  mimicking  may  heightened  the  individuals.  physiological  techniques  following  cognitive  heightened a  and  maximally  misattribution  perceptions  physiological  in  warranted.  elicits  attentional  the  regarding  anxiety  determine and  the  research  between  arousal  of  misattribution gradually  to  arousal  investigation  VBV  to  generalizability  U-shaped  example  despite respond  sexual  arousal  Additionally,  research  to  required  methods  conditions.  arousal  and  biofeedback  arousal.  For  false  feedback  of  during  exposure  to  valuable  information  and p o t e n t i a l  therapeutic  regarding  the  interventions.  Ultimately, understanding physiological which may  response  the i n t e r p l a y between c o g n i t i v e  systems w i l l  determine  sympathetic a c t i v a t i o n f a c i l i t a t e s  c o n t r i b u t e to the a l l e v i a t i o n  the process  enhanced a r o u s a l ,  of s e x u a l d y s f u n c t i o n .  and by and  63 References B a r l o w , D. H. ( 1 9 8 6 ) . C a u s e s o f s e x u a l d y s f u n c t i o n : The r o l e o f a n x i e t y and c o g n i t i v e i n t e r f e r e n c e . J o u r n a l o f C o n s u l t i n g and C l i n i c a l P s y c h o l o g y , 5_4(2), 1 4 0 - 1 4 8 . B a r l o w , D. H., Sakheim, D. K., & B e c k , J . G. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . A n x i e t y i n c r e a s e s s e x u a l a r o u s a l . J o u r n a l o f Abnormal P s y c h o l o g y ,  9_2, 49-54. B e c k , J . G., & B a r l o w , D. 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Please  any  the  the  circle  film,  I  the of  No.  following  scale  answer  numbers  to  evaluate  honestly  from  1  (not  and  how  you  carefully.  at  all)  to  felt:  1.  Faster  breathing  1  3  4  5  6  7  2.  Faster  heart  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  3.  Perspiration  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  4.  Feelings  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  5.  Any  3  4  5  6  7  of  physical  beat warmth reaction  at  all  Continue  on  to  1 the  next  2  2 page.  70  Code FILM Instructions: felt  during  the  7  (intensely).  During  scale,  the  use  last  film.  Please  any  the  circle  film,  6.  Breast  7.  Warmth  I  the  (Continued)  Please  the  On  SCALE  of  following  scale  answer  numbers  to  evaluate  honestly  from  1  (not  and  how  you  carefully.  at  all)  to  felt:  sensations in  No.  genitals  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  2  3  4  5  6  7  8.  Genital  wetness  or  lubrication  1  9.  Genital  pulsing  or  throbbing  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  10.  Any  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  11.  Sexually  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  3  4  5  6  7  qenital  feelings  aroused  12.  Worried  1  2  13.  Anxious  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  14.  Angry  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  15.  Disgusted  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  16.  Embarrassed  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  17.  Guilty  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  18.  Sensuous  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  19.  A desire  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  2  3  4  5  6  7  to  be  close  to  someone  _  20.  Pleasure  1  21.  Interested  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  22.  Attracted  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  5  6  7  23.  Excited  1  2  3  4  24.  Sexy  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  25.  Dirty  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  26.  Loving  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  27.  Sexually  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  28.  Inhibited  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  29.  Easy  1  2  3  4  5  6  7 7  to  Attractive arouse  1  2  3  4  5  6  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  Offended  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  33.  Bored  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  34.  Feminine  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  for  further  30.  Incompetent  31.  Sexually  32.  turned  off  Please  stop  and  wait  instructions.  


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