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Narcissistic personality and academic underachievement in school age children 1988

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NARCISSISTIC PERSONALITY AND ACADEMIC UNDERACHIEVEMENT IN B . E d . , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1983 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Depar tment o f E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y ) (Gradua t e Programme i n S c h o o l P s y c h o l o g y ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March 1988 (c) T e r r y Man, 1988 SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN By TERRY MAH MASTER OF ARTS i n In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Educational Psychology The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date March 30, 1988 DE-6(3/81) i i ABSTRACT The achievement (as indexed by s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s cores ) of 56 (54 females and 2 males) p r i v a t e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n was s t u d i e d in r e l a t i o n to demographic ( s o c i a l s t a t u s and gender ) , b e h a v i o r a l ( three i n d i c a t o r s of p e r s i s t e n c e ) , d i s p o s i t i o n a l ( c l i n i c a l and psychometr i c measures o f n a r c i s s i s m ) , and a b i l i t y ( O t i s - L e n n o n ) f a c t o r s . A c l i n i c a l procedure and dev ice were developed to augment the i n f o r m a t i o n y i e l d e d by those procedures whose purpose was p r i m a r i l y the g e n e r a t i o n of q u a n t i t a t i v e d a t a . The q u a l i t a t i v e and q u a n t i t a t i v e m a t e r i a l was s t u d i e d toge ther to e x p l o r e F r e u d ' s d i s t i n c t i o n between l i b i d i n a l types , which might be i m p l i c a t e d i n d i f f e r e n c e s in c u l t u r a l ( e . g . , s choo l ) achievement . R e s u l t s are d i s c u s s e d in r e l a t i o n to r e s e a r c h , assessment, and e d u c a t i o n a l i s s u e s . Thes i s S u p e r v i s o r i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE L i s t o f t a b l e s ..v L i s t o f f i g u r e s v i i Acknowledgement v i i i I D e r i v a t i o n and s t a t e m e n t o f t h e p r o b l e m 1 Kohut' s c o n c e p t i o n and a s s e s s m e n t 6 N a r c i s s i s m and s c h o o l a c h i e v e m e n t : r e c e n t work 10 S t a t e m e n t o f t h e p r o b l e m 14 I I Review o f l i t e r a t u r e 16 Scope and d e l i m i t a t i o n 16 The e a r l y work o f F r e u d and t h e r e c e n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f Kohut and K e r n b e r g 17 P s y c h o m e t r i c a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e n a r c i s s i s t i c p e r s o n a l i t y 23 R e cent s t u d i e s on b e h a v i o r a l p e r s i s t e n c e 29 R e c e n t s t u d i e s on a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t 30 D i r e c t l i n e a g e o f the p r e s e n t s t u d y 33 I I I D e s i g n and method...-. 35 H y p o t h e s e s 36 S u b j e c t s ....36 P r o c e d u r e s 37 N a r c i s s ism 38 M e a sures one t o f o u r : a s s e s s m e n t t h r o u g h p r o j e c t i v e s 38 Measure f i v e : p e r s o n a l i t y i n v e n t o r y 48 P e r s i s t e n c e 48 Measure one: " n a t u r a l i s t i c " : In C l a s s O b s e r v a t i o n 48 Measure two: " c o n t r i v e d " : P i c t u r e R e p r o d u c t i o n 49 Measure t h r e e : " c o n t r i v e d " : L e t t e r D e l e t i o n .....50 A b i l i t y 50 A c h i e v e m e n t 51 E v a l u a t i o n 51 IV R e s u l t s 53 S e c t i o n A: d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e sample 55 (1) The h o m o g e n e i t y of t h e sample 55 (2) C o m p a r i s o n o f t h e two s u b s e t s of the sample 57 S e c t i o n B: measurement o f n a r c i s s i s m w i t h p r o j e c t i v e s 67 (1) E v a l u a t i o n of the p r o j e c t i v e instrument 67 (2) Assessment of n a r c i s s i s m with the p r o j e c t i v e and NPI 70 S e c t i o n C: the o b s e s s i o n a l and n o n - o b s e s s i o n a l types 78 (1) D e f i n i n g the o b s e s s i o n a l type 79 (2) D e f i n i n g o b s e s s i o n a l s by c l i n i c a l judgment . . . . 8 0 (3) D e f i n i n g o b s e s s i o n a l s as o v e r a c h i e v e r s . 85 S e c t i o n D: examining r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the m e a s u r e s . . . . 91 (1) N a r c i s s i s m and p e r s i s t e n c e : rank order c o n s i s t e n c y 91 (2) The r e l a t i o n s h i p of the measures to achievement 94 (3) E x p l a i n i n g v a r i a n c e in achievement: r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s 96 D i s c u s s ion .98 S p e c i a l nature of the s t u d y . . . " 98 N a r c i s s i s m : c o n s t r u c t and assessment 100 The m e r i t s of the p r o j e c t i v e instrument and procedures 102 Issues emerging from use of the p r o j e c t i v e instrument 105 (1) Measurement and assessment i s sues 105 (2) P s y c h o l o g i c a l and e d u c a t i o n a l i s s u e s . . 1 0 6 (3) Conceptua l i s sues 107 N a r c i s s i s m , p e r s i s t e n c e , and achievement 108 N a r c i s s i s m and c r o s s - s i t u a t i o n a l p e r s i s t e n c e . . 1 1 0 E v a l u a t i o n of hypotheses 114 Future d i r e c t i o n s 117 G l o s s a r y 120 References 124 Appendix A: p r o j e c t i v e dev i ce 131 Appendix B: r e c o r d form f o r p r o j e c t i v e d e v i c e . . . 1 4 7 Appendix C : NPI 152 LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I Demographic data f o r the aggregate sample 56 II Summary s t a t i s t i c s on the measures of a b i l i t y , r e a d i n g achievement, p e r s i s t e n c e , and n a r c i s s i s m f o r the aggregate sample 58 IIIA Summary of oneway a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e on each independent measure f o r School 1 versus School 2 60 IIIB Summary of C h i - s q u a r e a n a l y s i s of the d i s t r i b u t i o n s of s u b j e c t s on the s o c i a l s t a t u s measure f o r School 1 versus School 2 . . . . 6 2 IIIC Summary of C h i - s q u a r e a n a l y s i s of the d i s t r i b u t i o n s of s u b j e c t s on judged degree of n a r c i s s i s m f o r School 1 versus School 2 63 IV Summary of t o t a l s f o r the 14 s t i m u l u s cards and f o r the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l (R) and p r e s e n t a t i o n a l (P) i n d i c a t o r s on the p r o j e c t i v e measure of n a r c i s s i s m f o r the aggregate sample 68 VA Summary of oneway a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e on each measure f o r s u b j e c t s in the top q u a r t i l e (T) versus s u b j e c t s i n the bottom q u a r t i l e (B) of the p r o j e c t i v e measure of n a r c i s s i s m 71 VB Summary of C h i - s q u a r e a n a l y s i s of the d i s t r i b u t i o n s of s u b j e c t s on o v e r a l l judgment of n a r c i s s i s m f o r the top and bottom q u a r t i l e s of the p r o j e c t i v e 73 VC Summary of C h i - s q u a r e a n a l y s i s of the d i s t r i b u t i o n s of s u b j e c t s on judged degree of n a r c i s s i s m f o r the top and bottom q u a r t i l e s of the p r o j e c t i v e 74 VD Summary of C h i - s q u a r e a n a l y s i s of the d i s t r i b u t i o n s of s u b j e c t s on judged type of n a r c i s s i s m f o r the top and bottom q u a r t i l e s of the p r o j e c t i v e 75 VI Summary of oneway a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e on each measure f o r s u b j e c t s in the top q u a r t i l e (T) versus s u b j e c t s in the bottom q u a r t i l e (B) of the NPI 76 V 1 VIIA C o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s (Pearson r) of the n a r c i s s i s m measures w i th the r e a d i n g achievement and p e r s i s t e n c e measures for o b s e s s i o n a l s ( d e f i n e d b y , c l i n i c a l j u d g m e n t ) . . . . 8 1 VIIB C o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s (Pearson r) of the n a r c i s s i s m measures w i th the r e a d i n g achievement and p e r s i s t e n c e measures f o r n o n - o b s e s s i o n a l s ( d e f i n e d as a l l those not judged as o b s e s s i o n a l s ) 81 VIIIA Summary of oneway a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e on each measure f o r o b s e s s i o n a l s (OB) versus n o n - o b s e s s i o n a l s (N-OB) ( d e f i n e d by c l i n i c a l judgment) 84 VIIIB Summary of C h i - s q u a r e a n a l y s i s of the d i s t r i b u t i o n s of s u b j e c t s on judged degree of n a r c i s s i s m f o r o b s e s s i o n a l s and n o n - o b s e s s i o n a l s ( d e f i n e d by c l i n i c a l judgment) 86 IXA C o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s (Pearson r) of the n a r c i s s i s m measures wi th the r e a d i n g achievement and p e r s i s t e n c e measures f o r o b s e s s i o n a l s ( d e f i n e d as o v e r a c h i e v e r s ) 87 IXB C o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s (Pearson r) of the n a r c i s s i s m measures wi th the r e a d i n g achievement and p e r s i s t e n c e measures for n o n - o b s e s s i o n a l s ( d e f i n e d as other than o v e r a c h i evers ) 87 X Summary of oneway a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e on each measure f o r o b s e s s i o n a l s (OB) versus n o n - o b s e s s i o n a l s (N-OB) ( d e f i n e d by achievement) 90 XIA Cronbach ' s a lpha c o e f f i c i e n t s (CA) showing the rank order c o n s i s t e n c y across the three p e r s i s t e n c e measures f o r s u b j e c t s h igh i n n a r c i s s i s m versus s u b j e c t s low i n n a r c i s s i s m . 92 XIB Cronbach ' s a lpha c o e f f i c i e n t s (CA) showing the rank order c o n s i s t e n c y across the three p e r s i s t e n c e measures f o r o b s e s s i o n a l s versus n o n - o b s e s s i o n a l s 92 XII C o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s (Pearson r) of the independent measures and the r e a d i n g achievement measures (STEP from School 1 and CTBS from School 2) 95 v i i LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGE 1 P l o t of the a b i l i t y measure (Otis-Lennon) and the reading achievement measure (STEP) from School 1 64 2 P l o t of the a b i l i t y measure (Otis-Lennon) and the reading achievement measure (CTBS) from School 2.. 65 3 P l o t of the a b i l i t y measure (Otis-Lennon) and the reading achievement measures from both schools 66 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS My deepest g r a t i t u d e goes to Dr . LeRoy D. T r a v i s , whose i n t e l l e c t u a l s o p h i s t i c a t i o n i n s p i r e d me to undertake and complete t h i s work of p s y c h o l o g i c a l , e d u c a t i o n a l , and c u l t u r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . R a r e l y have I met an i n d i v i d u a l as devoted to the p u r s u i t of knowledge and s c h o l a r l y r e s e a r c h . I am g r a t e f u l to have had the o p p o r t u n i t y to grow and develop both as a c l i n i c i a n and as a r e s e a r c h e r under h i s t u t e l a g e . I wish to extend my s i n c e r e a p p r e c i a t i o n to Dr . John A l l a n and Dr . David W h i t t a k e r f o r t h e i r t h o u g h t f u l c o n t r i b u t i o n s . I would l i k e to express a s p e c i a l note of thanks to Dr . W i l l i a m B. White f o r g i v i n g me h i s exper ience and f r i e n d l y a d v i c e . I a l s o want to thank Miss R o s a l i n d A d d i s o n , Miss U r s u l a B e l l , and Mrs . C h r i s t i n e Addison f o r t h e i r h o s p i t a l i t y and h e l p f u l n e s s . And f i n a l l y , I shou ld thank my f a m i l y f o r t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g , encouragement, and c o n t i n u i n g s u p p o r t . 1 CHAPTER ONE DERIVATION AND STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The problem of underachievement has been one of the most d i s c u s s e d t o p i c s i n education and psychology. The term "academic underachievement" i s d e f i n e d as a l e v e l of s c h o l a s t i c performance that i s not commensurate with one's i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t i e s , as measured by the discrepancy between a s u b j e c t ' s r e s p e c t i v e scores on s t a n d a r d i z e d achievement and i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s . The c o n d i t i o n of underachievement can be produced by d i f f e r e n t concatenations or combinations of f a c t o r s . That i s , j u s t as underachievement v a r i e s i n content or domain, in degree of s e v e r i t y or s e r i o u s n e s s , i n g e n e r a l i t y or c o n s i s t e n c y , and i n i n t r a c t a b i l i t y or i n s e n s i t i v i t y to remediation e f f o r t s , so i t v a r i e s with respect to the f a c t o r s or c o n d i t i o n s which are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i t ( i . e . , i n e t i o l o g y ) . While c e r t a i n matters are commonly a s s o c i a t e d with underachievement (e.g., unfavorable l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s , inadequate i n s t r u c t i o n , sensory impairments), c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s and i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of what personal a t t r i b u t e s might be i m p l i c a t e d i n underachievement have not been very i l l u m i n a t i n g . For example, work on need f o r achievement has been d i s a p p o i n t i n g (Anderson & T r a v i s , 1983). S i m i l a r l y , s e l f s t u d i e s which focus on c o n s t r u c t s l i k e s e l f - c o n c e p t ( A l l p o r t , 1965; E p s t e i n , 1973; Gergen, 1961; Mead, 1934) have a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d l i t t l e i n s i g h t i n t o 2 the problem of underachievement (e.g., S c h e i r e r & Kraut, 1979). Even so, the importance of a f f e c t and p e r s o n a l i t y i n an i n d i v i d u a l ' s endeavors i s d i f f i c u l t to abandon. We i n t u i t i v e l y sense that i t i s the person that i s moved to seek coherence, meaning, or correspondences which help him make h i s way i n the world. Over the years, c l i n i c a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s have o f f e r e d ideas about what impairs people i n t h e i r endeavors. But not a l l these n o t i o n s , i n f a c t few of them, when they are brought under e m p i r i c a l s c r u t i n y , y i e l d or add much to our understanding of what produces underachievement. One avenue that begs f o r e x p l o r a t i o n i s the realm known as a f f e c t i v e d i s o r d e r s and s o - c a l l e d b o r d e r l i n e c o n d i t i o n s . Those of l e s s than acute c h a r a c t e r are normal i n the sense that they are so widespread that people g e n e r a l l y do not r e g i s t e r " o f f i c i a l complaints" by t a k i n g themselves to a t h e r a p i s t f o r r e l i e f . One category of such c o n d i t i o n s i s n a r c i s s i s m . The term " n a r c i s s i s t i c p e r s o n a l i t y " ( p a t h o l o g i c a l n a r c i s s i s m ) , as d e s c r i b e d i n the D i a g n o s t i c and S t a t i s t i c a l Manual of Mental Dis o r d e r s ( T h i r d E d i t i o n ) (DSM I I I ) (1980, pp. 315-317), r e f e r s to a p e r s o n a l i t y d i s o r d e r i n which there are a grandiose sense of s e l f - i m p o r t a n c e or uniqueness; preoccupation with f a n t a s i e s of u n l i m i t e d success, a b i l i t y , power, wealth, beauty, i d e a l love, b r i l l i a n c e , and omniscience; e x h i b i t i o n i s t i c need 3 f o r constant a t t e n t i o n and admiration; c h a r a c t e r i s t i c responses to t h r e a t s to self-esteem (e.g., to c r i t i c i s m , i n d i f f e r e n c e , or d e f e a t ) , such as c o o l i n d i f f e r e n c e or marked f e e l i n g s of rage, i n f e r i o r i t y , shame, h u m i l i a t i o n , or emptiness; and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c disturbances i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , such as f e e l i n g s of e n t i t l e m e n t , i n t e r p e r s o n a l e x p l o i t a t i v e n e s s , r e l a t i o n s h i p s that a l t e r n a t e between the extremes of o v e r i d e a l i z a t i o n and d e v a l u a t i o n , and lack of empathy. The exaggerated sense of s e l f - i m p o r t a n c e may be manifested as extreme s e l f - c e n t e r e d n e s s and s e l f - a b s o r p t i o n . The d i s c u s s i o n s of Kohut (1977) and Kernberg (1975), two of the most h i g h l y regarded a u t h o r i t i e s on t h i s s u b j e c t , r e f l e c t conceptions that are c o n s i s t e n t with t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n ; and i t i s p r i m a r i l y from t h e i r works and those of Sigmund Freud that the present work draws i t s sense of what n a r c i s s i s m e n t a i l s . Freud (1914), with whom t h i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n s t r u c t o r i g i n a t e d , e x p l a i n s that n a r c i s s i s m r e s u l t s from the withdrawl of l i b i d i n a l i n t e r e s t s from e x t e r n a l o b j e c t s and i n d i v i d u a l s , and the subsequent reinvestment of l i b i d o back i n t o the ego. P a t h o l o g i c a l n a r c i s s i s m r e s u l t s from the i n a b i l i t y to r e d i r e c t l i b i d i n a l i n t e r e s t s i n t o e x t e r n a l o b j e c t s and the undue c o n c e n t r a t i o n of l i b i d o i n the ego. 4 This c o n d i t i o n of being i n love with one's own image i s often r e f e r r e d to as " s e l f - l o v e " (Fromm, 1956; Lowen, 1983). The c r i t i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n s and d e f i n i t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d with the concept of n a r c i s s i s m are e l a b o r a t e d i n the context of a d i s c u s s i o n of p e r t i n e n t l i t e r a t u r e ( i n Chapter Two). According to Baker (1979) and the DSM I I I (1980), n a r c i s s i s t i c p e r s o n a l i t i e s tend to overestimate t h e i r a b i l i t i e s and achievements. I n d i v i d u a l s with t h i s d i s o r d e r seek e x t e r n a l admiration and a t t e n t i o n with unusual frequency. Because of t h e i r f r a g i l e self-esteem, they may respond to c r i t i c i s m , disappointment, or defeat with marked f e e l i n g s of rage, followed by f e e l i n g s of i n f e r i o r i t y , shame, and emptiness i n l i g h t of t h e i r " a c t i n g - o u t " behavior ( d i r e c t expressions of c o n f l i c t u a l t ensions i n annoying or a n t i - s o c i a l behavior or i n f a n t a s i e s ) . A c c o r d i n g l y , n a r c i s s i s t i c p e r s o n a l i t i e s are a l s o i n t e n s e l y envious of others, who they p e r c e i v e as being sources of n a r c i s s i s t i c supply (Kernberg, 1974). Of course, such q u a l i t i e s can create d i f f i c u l t i e s f o r persons i n s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s such as those of the s c h o o l . Another q u a l i t y which c l i n i c i a n s a t t r i b u t e to n a r c i s s i s t i c people might be regarded as p o t e n t i a l l y i n i m i c a l to optimal f u n c t i o n i n g i n an e d u c a t i o n a l context. U s u a l l y present i n these i n d i v i d u a l s i s the sense of " n a r c i s s i s t i c e n t i t l e m e n t , " or the expectation of s p e c i a l f a vors without assuming r e c i p r o c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . The grandiose s e l f demands absolute c o n t r o l of the environment. 5 Such i n d i v i d u a l s f e e l as i f they have the r i g h t to c o n t r o l and possess others and to e x p l o i t them without g u i l t f e e l i n g s (Kernberg, 1975). Many teachers might lack sympathy f o r those who manifest such q u a l i t i e s . Indeed, they might express negative r e a c t i o n s toward such i n d i v i d u a l s . These are f u r t h e r reasons f o r stu d y i n g personal dimensions l i k e n a r c i s s i s m and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s with achievement. Of course, such i n v e s t i g a t i o n r e q u i r e s both r e l i a b l e and v a l i d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and obs e r v a t i o n of these v a r i a b l e s . This f a c t may account f o r the p a u c i t y of s t u d i e s . Just as assessment of other p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s has been p r o b l e m a t i c a l ( M i s c h e l , 1968; T r a v i s , V i o l a t o , & White, 1982) assessment of n a r c i s s i s m has been a problem. Even so, some attempts have been made to develop a p p r o p r i a t e i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n and assessment techniques to i d e n t i f y and measure the n a r c i s s i s t i c p e r s o n a l i t y . Progress i n these matters has been notably modest. Several attempts at c o n s t r u c t i n g a measure of n a r c i s s i s m have y i e l d e d mixed r e s u l t s (Grayden, 1958; Harder, 1979; Young, 1959; Ashby, Lee, & Duke, 1979; Raskin & H a l l , 1979, 1981). Such e f f o r t s have not been e s p e c i a l l y assiduous i n making strong l i n k s between the c o n s t r u c t s and c l i n i c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s on the one s i d e and the measures on the other. A l l should n o t i c e Kohut's (1971) c l a i m that the n a r c i s s i s t i c p e r s o n a l i t y i s assessed n e c e s s a r i l y by means which recognize that a m i r r o r i n g or i d e a l i z i n g t r a n s f e r e n c e provides the most 6 t h e o r e t i c a l l y compelling i n d i c a t o r s . The present study attempted to r e s o l v e some of the d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered by previous r e s e a r c h e r s . A c c o r d i n g l y , Kohut's views on t h i s matter warrant a t t e n t i o n . Kohut's Conception and Assessment An a p p r e c i a t i o n , of Kohut's ideas and thoughts r e q u i r e s a grasp of a c e n t r a l idea or concept from the p s y c h o a n a l y t i c l i t e r a t u r e and i t s r e f e r e n t s . The concept i s " t r a n s f e r e n c e . " Transference r e f e r s to the m o b i l i z a t i o n or r e v i v a l of repressed, i n f a n t i l e , o b j e c t - d i r e c t e d , l i b i d i n a l urges that are r e l a t e d to o b j e c t s i n the present. In psy c h o a n a l y s i s , the p a t i e n t re-enacts e a r l i e r experiences and emotions i n r e l a t i o n to the a n a l y s t . But the tr a n s f e r e n c e phenomena are not co n f i n e d only to the ps y c h o a n a l y t i c s i t u a t i o n ; they a l s o appear i n s o c i a l l i f e g e n e r a l l y . Freud (1962, p.83) s t a t e s : Transference a r i s e s spontaneously i n a l l human r e l a t i o n s h i p s j u s t as i t does between the p a t i e n t and the p h y s i c i a n . . . . The l e s s i t s presence i s suspected, the more po w e r f u l l y i t operates.... Psychoanalysis does not crea t e i t , but merely r e v e a l s i t . . . . With these ideas i n mind, we can conside r some of Kohut' s thoughts about n a r c i s s i s m and i t s a p p r a i s a l . In an " i d e a l i z i n g t r a n s f e r e n c e , " says Kohut (1971), the p a t i e n t p e r c e i v e s the t h e r a p i s t as the i d e a l i z e d parent f i g u r e during the a n a l y s i s . The n a r c i s s i s t i c p e r s o n a l i t y 7 w i l l f e e l v u l n e r a b l e to and envious of the i d e a l i z e d parent f i g u r e , as i t represents h i s source of n a r c i s s i s t i c supply. In the course of the a n a l y s i s , the primary defence i s erected against the p o s s i b i l i t y of depending on the a n a l y s t , s i n c e the development of a s i t u a t i o n i n which the p a t i e n t f e e l s dependent immediately r e v i v e s the t h r e a t e n i n g and ego- weakening experiences of o r a l f r u s t r a t i o n , anxiety, depression, anger, and envy from e a r l y c h i l d h o o d . The p a t i e n t e x h i b i t s a c t i n g - o u t behavior, which appears to stem from h i s unconscious f a n t a s i e s of omnipotence, as a defence against f e e l i n g v u l n e r a b l e to the environment and as a d e n i a l of h i s h e l p l e s s n e s s or dependency on others. Acting-out behavior i s f u r t h e r manifested i n the " m i r r o r i n g t r a n s f e r e n c e " (Kohut, 1971), wherein the p a t i e n t sees the t h e r a p i s t as merely an extension of the p a t i e n t ' s p e r s o n a l i t y . Here, the t h e r a p i s t senses that he i s not being p e r c e i v e d as an " i n d i v i d u a t e d person." ( E s s e n t i a l l y , Kohut s t a t e s that an i n d i v i d u a t e d person i s an autonomous i n d i v i d u a l , whose independence of the environment i m p l i e s a g r e a t e r s t a b i l i t y i n f a c i n g d e p r i v a t i o n s , f r u s t r a t i o n s , and other problems.) The p a t i e n t looks to the t h e r a p i s t f o r admiration and acclaim. However, the p a t i e n t i s u n f o r t u n a t e l y unable to acknowledge r e c e i p t of the help and a t t e n t i o n from the t h e r a p i s t , f o r r e c o g n i t i o n of such would arouse intense envy in the p a t i e n t . To defend against f e e l i n g dependent upon and envious of the t h e r a p i s t , and to keep h i s p e r f e c t image of the grandiose s e l f i n t a c t , the 8 p a t i e n t devalues the t h e r a p i s t ' s help. I f confronted or c r i t i c i z e d by the t h e r a p i s t f o r appearing d i s t a n t and unresponsive to treatment, the p a t i e n t u s u a l l y becomes enraged with b i t t e r n e s s and sarcasm i n a n a l y s i s (Kohut, 1971). Subsequently, signs of a sense of "omnipotence" and " n a r c i s s i s t i c rage" become evident. Omnipotence ( f a n t a s i e s of u n l i m i t e d success, power, b r i l l i a n c e , and beauty or a grandiose sense of s e l f - i m p o r t a n c e , i . e . , exaggeration of achievements and t a l e n t s ) i s a s s e r t e d as a d e n i a l of f e e l i n g s of v u l n e r a b i l i t y . N a r c i s s i s t i c rage (a m a n i f e s t a t i o n of the v u l n e r a b l e p a t i e n t ' s a g g r e s s i v e responses to a c t u a l or a n t i c i p a t e d i n j u r y to the aggrandized sense of s e l f , i . e . , the need f o r revenge and the u n r e l e n t i n g compulsion i n the p u r s u i t of undoing a hurt) i s a r e a c t i o n to an experience of i n j u r y to the v u l n e r a b l e grandiose s e l f . P a t i e n t s who are d i f f i c u l t to t r e a t may prompt s e r i o u s " c o u n t e r t r a n s f e r e n c e " problems i n the t h e r a p i s t . The c o u n t e r t r a n s f e r e n c e r e f e r s to the t h e r a p i s t ' s overt and covert r e a c t i o n s to the p a t i e n t ' s acting-out behaviors i n a n a l y s i s . Because of the p a t i e n t ' s r e c a l c i t r a n t d i s p o s i t i o n toward treatment, the t h e r a p i s t i s o f t e n l e f t f e e l i n g h e l p l e s s and impotent. In e f f e c t , the p a t i e n t ' s d e v a l u a t i v e remarks and rage r e a c t i o n s toward the t h e r a p i s t can, q u i t e f r e q u e n t l y , leave the t h e r a p i s t with marked negative f e e l i n g s toward the p a t i e n t . 9 Since t r a n s f e r e n c e phenomena are not r e s t r i c t e d to the t h e r a p i s t - p a t i e n t context, but are found, as we have seen, i n s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s of the most common s o r t , we might have been b l i n d to the s i g n i f i c a n c e of these phenomena i n sch o o l s . The a b i l i t y of teachers to teach n a r c i s s i s t i c p u p i l s can be g r e a t l y impaired by s a i d n a r c i s s i s m . Presumably, n a r c i s s i s m i n teachers would compound such problems. In any case, Kohut's thoughts are p r o v o c a t i v e when we b r i n g them to bear on the problems of teaching and l e a r n i n g . Perhaps our grasp of the underachievement problem w i l l be made more sure and f i r m i f we pursue t h i s matter through r e s e a r c h l i k e the present study. Despite the current i n t e r e s t i n n a r c i s s i s m both as a s o c i e t a l and a c l i n i c a l phenomenon (Berkowitz, 1977; B l e i b e r g , 1984; Bromberg, 1983; Coles, 1977; G o l d s t e i n , 1985; Lasch, 1978) and d e s p i t e the multitude of s t u d i e s conducted on academic underachievement ( H a e r t e l , Walberg, & Weinstein, 1983; Parkerson, Lomax, S c h i l l e r , & Walberg, 1984; Thomas, 1980; Thompson, 1985; V i o l a t o & T r a v i s , 1985) l i t t l e work has been done to c l a r i f y the nature of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between n a r c i s s i s m and underachievement i n s c h o o l . Although evidence which c l a r i f i e s the nature of the r e l a t i o n s h i p of n a r c i s s i s m to e d u c a t i o n a l underachievement i s very scarce, there are reasons to suppose that such understanding may be important to r e s o l v e some of the more i n t r a c t a b l e problems p e r t a i n i n g to the t e a c h a b i l i t y of students with n a r c i s s i s t i c p e r s o n a l i t i e s . To repeat: 10 n a r c i s s i s m "may be a c r i t i c a l f e a t u r e of some underachievement. The work of a small number of res e a r c h e r s suggests that some others are t h i n k i n g along these l i n e s . N a r c i s s i s m and School Achievement: Recent Work Baker (1979) i s one of the few who proposed that the development of n a r c i s s i s t i c d i s t u r b a n c e s impedes s c h o l a s t i c performance. Baker's reasoning, which l i n k s n a r c i s s i s m and underachievement, i s q u i t e c l e a r . N a r c i s s i s t i c i n d i v i d u a l s have an aggrandized image of themselves and are thus unable to accept events which do not confirm the p e r f e c t i o n of the "grandiose s e l f . " Since academic s t u d i e s r e q u i r e an i m p l i c i t admission of ignorance as w e l l as r e g u l a r s t r u g g l e s with d i f f i c u l t i n t e l l e c t u a l m a t e r i a l , one might expect students with high degrees of n a r c i s s i s m to have d i f f i c u l t y . Because these s t r u g g l e s imply c h a l l e n g e to the p e r f e c t i o n of the grandiose s e l f and thereby threaten self-esteem, n a r c i s s i s t i c students might be expected to react with notable anxiety, depression, or n a r c i s s i s t i c rage. These r e a c t i o n s would hinder the c a p a c i t y of such people to think c l e a r l y and study e f f e c t i v e l y . In order to escape from the source of the dysphoria, one would expect these students to withdraw i n t o a s t a t e of apathy and p a s s i v i t y r e g a r d i n g challenges i n s c h o o l . Rather than study harder, they may avoid studying when presented with d i f f i c u l t m a t e r i a l . Avoidance of study could maintain the d e l i c a t e cohesion of the grandiose s e l f i n two ways: f a i l u r e on an exam could be a t t r i b u t e d to lack of study r a t h e r than to lack of a b i l i t y ; 11 however, passi n g an exam without s t u d y i n g v e r i f i e s the sense of b r i l l i a n c e and omniscience. In both cases, work i s minimized and so i s achievement. I f students do not prepare f o r an examination, a c r i s i s u s u a l l y r e s u l t s . These students f e e l h o p e l e s s l y inadequate i f they are unable to s o l v e an e a r l y question. The c r i s i s c r i p p l e s t h e i r a b i l i t y to concentrate; a poor grade i s recei v e d ; and f u r t h e r damage to self-esteem occurs. Some students withdraw f u r t h e r by r e f r a i n i n g from a t t e n d i n g c l a s s e s and even miss important examinations, while others undertake time-consuming a c t i v i t i e s which w i l l r e a f f i r m t h e i r grandiose sense of s e l f . These t a c t i c s i n c r e a s e the p o t e n t i a l f o r academic f a i l u r e and d i m i n i s h self-esteem. At t h i s time, r e p o r t s on e m p i r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of these matters are extremely hard to f i n d . The only one found (besides that of Baker) i s that of V i g i l a n t e (1983), who s t u d i e d students' n a r c i s s i s m and academic performance. She d i s t i n g u i s h e d between healthy n a r c i s s i s m , which she c a l l e d " s i t u a t i o n a l s e l f - p r e o c c u p a t i o n " and p a t h o l o g i c a l n a r c i s s i s m , which she named " c h a r a c t e r o l o g i c a l s e l f - p r eoccupation" (pp. 603-604). In the former s t a t e , the i n d i v i d u a l does not r e q u i r e the e x p l o i t a t i o n of others to maintain h i s self-esteem. Conversely, i n the l a t t e r c o n d i t i o n , the i n d i v i d u a l needs to e x p l o i t others f o r s e l f - g r a t i f i c a t i o n . Kohut (1971) e x p l a i n s t h i s tendency to e x p l o i t others i n notably n a r c i s s i s t i c people as f o l l o w s . He says that 12 n a r c i s s i s t i c p e r s o n a l i t i e s need other i n d i v i d u a l s as e x t e r n a l o b j e c t s f o r m a i n t a i n i n g self-esteem. I f the grandiose s e l f p e r s i s t s i n t o adulthood without m o d i f i c a t i o n , the i n d i v i d u a l i s burdened with an array of i n t e r n a l i z e d and unconscious needs, which cannot be s a t i s f i e d . Without r e a l i s t i c p ersonal standards, healthy n a r c i s s i s m i s impossible, and so the i n d i v i d u a l must c o n s t a n t l y look to the environment f o r admiration and acclaim. A c r u s h i n g l o s s of s e l f - e s t e e m r e s u l t s whenever the craved p e r f e c t i o n i s t i c r e f l e c t i o n s of the grandiose s e l f are not "mirrored" back by the outer world. Thus, i t i s probable that n a r c i s s i s t i c i n d i v i d u a l s engage i n shallow, e x p l o i t a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s with others. V i g i l a n t e ' s (1983) study r e p o r t s data taken from responses to a q u e s t i o n n a i r e she developed to i d e n t i f y and d i f f e r e n t i a t e s u b j e c t s with healthy n a r c i s s i s m from those with p a t h o l o g i c a l n a r c i s s i s m . T h e i r r e s p e c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s with l e a r n i n g processes were a l s o examined. Her f i n d i n g s suggested that both types of s e l f - p r e o c c u p a t i o n were a s s o c i a t e d with l e a r n i n g problems. S p e c i f i c a l l y , students i d e n t i f i e d as having s i t u a t i o n a l s e l f - p r e o c c u p a t i o n had only t r a n s i e n t l e a r n i n g problems, whereas those i d e n t i f i e d as having c h a r a c t e r o l o g i c a l s e l f - p r e o c c u p a t i o n appeared to have c o n t i n u i n g l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s . However, the s u b j e c t s i n the study c o n s i s t e d of a s e l e c t group of u n i v e r s i t y students, who q u a l i f i e d f o r admission i n t o a program of s t u d i e s i n s o c i a l work. A c c o r d i n g l y , the range 13 of her g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s i s unknown. Moreover, other c o n s i d e r a t i o n s must be weighed too. Although Baker (1979) and V i g i l a n t e (1983) both argue that a negative r e l a t i o n s h i p between the n a r c i s s i s t i c p e r s o n a l i t y and academic achievement i s probable, Freudian theory suggests that i n some cases the reverse may be true (Freud, 1931). From t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , one might argue that one of the v a r i e t i e s of the n a r c i s s i s t i c p e r s o n a l i t y (the s o - c a l l e d mixed type known as the n a r c i s s i s t i c - o b s e s s i o n a l ) should be p o s i t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d with academic achievement. In h i s d i s c u s s i o n of " l i b i d i n a l types," Freud (1931) says that a p a r t i c u l a r l i b i d i n a l type i s the most v a l u a b l e v a r i a n t from a c u l t u r a l standpoint. This v a r i a n t , which Freud c a l l e d the " n a r c i s s i s t i c - o b s e s s i o n a l type," i s c u l t u r a l l y i n c l i n e d . Freud says he i s able to p e r s i s t through a d v e r s i t y to meet h i s high standards f o r achievement so that he may be recognized as a s t a l w a r t from a c u l t u r a l p e r s p e c t i v e . Kernberg (1976) adds that some n a r c i s s i s t i c p e r s o n a l i t i e s have the c a p a c i t y f o r a c t i v e and c o n s i s t e n t work i n some areas, which permit them to p a r t i a l l y f u l f i l l t h e i r ambitions of greatness and of o b t a i n i n g admiration and acclaim from others. N a t u r a l l y , t h e i r c a p a c i t y f o r earnest endeavor may be e x e r c i s e d i n the e d u c a t i o n a l realm. This schizm between o r i g i n a l theory and contemporary i n v e s t i g a t i o n c a l l e d f o r i n q u i r y . Therefore, the focus of the present study e n t a i l e d e x p l o r a t i o n of the n a r c i s s i s t i c c o n s t r u c t and the v a l i d i t y of claims that two c o n f i g u r a t i o n s 14 of n a r c i s s i s m — o b s e s s i o n a l and non-obsessional — e x i s t . It a l s o e n t a i l e d e x p l o r a t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s of m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of n a r c i s s i s m to academic achievement. S p e c i f i c p r e d i c t i o n s about these two p u t a t i v e l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e n a r c i s s i s t i c c o n f i g u r a t i o n s and achievement were i n v e s t i g a t e d w i t h i n a sample of p r i v a t e school c h i l d r e n . Statement of the Problem This study was designed to explore the r e l a t i o n s h i p between m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of n a r c i s s i s m and academic achievement i n school-age c h i l d r e n . A study of t h i s nature has both a t h e o r e t i c a l and a pedagogical purpose. Of t h e o r e t i c a l importance i s the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the v a r i a t i o n s of the n a r c i s s i s t i c p e r s o n a l i t y and the d e l i n e a t i o n of the n a r c i s s i s t i c f a c t o r s which i n f l u e n c e c h i l d r e n ' s school performance. Of pedagogical s i g n i f i c a n c e i s the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the psychodynamic events that occur between a teacher and a student i n the classroom s e t t i n g : we have reason to ask i f the i n t e r a c t i o n s resemble those that a r i s e between a t h e r a p i s t and a p a t i e n t i n the p s y c h o a n a l y t i c s i t u a t i o n . As we have seen, Freud (1962, p.83) e x p l i c i t l y claimed that the t r a n s f e r e n c e phenomena were not co n f i n e d to the a n a l y t i c s i t u a t i o n . Transference a r i s e s spontaneously i n a l l human r e l a t i o n s h i p s j u s t as i t does between the p a t i e n t and the p h y s i c i a n . . . . The l e s s i t s presence i s suspected, the more po w e r f u l l y i t operates.... 15 Psychoanalysis does not c r e a t e i t , but merely r e v e a l s i t . . . . The present study attempted to draw p a r a l l e l s between the psychodynamic events that occur between a t h e r a p i s t and a p a t i e n t i n the p s y c h o a n a l y t i c context and those that a r i s e between a teacher and a student i n the classroom s i t u a t i o n . Since n a r c i s s i s t i c f a c t o r s may account f o r the u n t e a c h a b i l i t y of capable students, a c l e a r e r understanding of the psychodynamic events that occur i n the classroom can help us deal with our f e e l i n g s of impotence, f r u s t r a t i o n , and anger at them. Moreover, n a r c i s s i s m may mediate or moderate p e r s i s t e n c e . This p o s s i b i l i t y emerges from the l i t e r a t u r e . 16 CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF LITERATURE Scope and D e l i m i t a t i o n Since Freud's i n t r o d u c t o r y work on n a r c i s s i s m i n the f i r s t years of t h i s century but p r i o r to World War One, the a n a l y t i c a l w r i t i n g s of Kohut and Kernberg, d e s p i t e t h e i r c o n t r a d i c t i o n s , have thrown more l i g h t on t h i s phenomenon of p e r s o n a l i t y . In order to achieve a g r e a t e r understanding of n a r c i s s i s m , the c o n t r a s t i n g t h e o r i e s of these two most prominent a u t h o r i t i e s on the s u b j e c t are worthy of examination. Although both Kohut and Kernberg r e l y on t r a n s f e r e n c e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s i n psychoanalysis as d i a g n o s t i c i n d i c a t o r s of the n a r c i s s i s t i c p e r s o n a l i t y , others have attempted to measure the c o n s t r u c t using q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and i n v e n t o r i e s . A c c o r d i n g l y , the adequacy of these attempts i s a l s o assessed, and the merits of p r o j e c t i v e techniques i s explored as an a l t e r n a t i v e assessment procedure. F i n a l l y , s i n c e t e n a c i t y i n the face of d i f f i c u l t y i s necessary f o r s i g n i f i c a n t e d u c a t i o n a l attainments, p e r s i s t e n c e i s s t u d i e d as an observable b e h a v i o r a l p a t t e r n that mediates the personal psychodynamics and e d u c a t i o n a l performance and attainment f o r persons with whatever degree of n a r c i s s i s m . A c c o r d i n g l y , a review of the recent r e s e a r c h on both p e r s i s t e n c e and achievement, followed by a d i s c u s s i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the n a r c i s s i s t i c p e r s o n a l i t y and b e h a v i o r a l p e r s i s t e n c e to academic 17 achievement concludes a d i s c u s s i o n of l i t e r a t u r e and concepts p e r t i n e n t to the present study. The E a r l y Work of Freud and the Recent C o n t r i b u t i o n s of Kohut and Kernberg Freud (1914) introduced n a r c i s s i s m as a c o n s t r u c t to c l a r i f y the course of human sexual development i n the context of h i s l i b i d o theory. Freud's c e n t r a l tenet was that the l i b i d i n a l c a t h e x i s i n another subject i s object love whereas the l i b i d i n a l investment i n the s e l f i s n a r c i s s i s m . He assumed that the i n d i v i d u a l has a f i x e d q u a n t i t y of l i b i d o . Despite subsequent tran s f o r m a t i o n s i n usage, the term n a r c i s s i s m has nonetheless r e t a i n e d the notion of a p o s i t i v e l i b i d i n a l f e e l i n g toward the s e l f (Drever, 1952; Lasch, 1978). Freud (1914) d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between two developmental stages of n a r c i s s i s m : primary and secondary n a r c i s s i s m . In primary n a r c i s s i s m , a l l l i b i d o i s i n v e s t e d i n the s e l f . The c o n s t r u c t i o n of ego boundaries enables l i b i d o to be i n v e s t e d i n e x t e r n a l o b j e c t s , while some l i b i d o remains attached to the s e l f as r e s i d u a l primary n a r c i s s i s m . In secondary n a r c i s s i s m , l i b i d o i s withdrawn from e x t e r n a l objects and r e i n v e s t e d i n the s e l f , augmenting r e s i d u a l primary n a r c i s s i s m . This withdrawl of love from the object onto the s e l f i s regarded as a p a t h o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n . Freud t h e r e f o r e p e r c e i v e d n a r c i s s i s m to be an immature s e l f - centered s t a t e i n which an i n d i v i d u a l indulges at the expense of object love. 18 B u i l d i n g on Freud's e a r l y work on n a r c i s s i s m are the two prominent psychoanalysts, Heinz Kohut and Otto Kernberg. Th e i r c o n t r a s t i n g viewpoints have ordered what are perhaps the two main schools of thought on the n a r c i s s i s t i c p e r s o n a l i t y d i s o r d e r . Kohut's view on n a r c i s s i s m deviates from Freud's d e f i n i t i o n of the c o n d i t i o n as the investment of l i b i d o i n the s e l f . Kohut (1971, 1972) d e f i n e s n a r c i s s i s m not by the t a r g e t of l i b i d o as between e i t h e r s e l f or o b j e c t , but by the nature of the l i b i d i n a l c a t h e x i s ; the attachment of l i b i d o to s e l f or object i s considered to be n a r c i s s i s t i c i f i t i s " i d e a l i z i n g " ( i . e . , the a n a l y s t serves as an i d e a l i z e d parent image) or " s e l f - a g g r a n d i z i n g " ( i . e . , the a n a l y s t serves as a m i r r o r f o r the p a t i e n t ' s grandiose s e l f ) . These two q u a l i t i e s or s t a t e s p e r t a i n to the two n a r c i s s i s t i c t r a n s f e r e n c e s which Kohut regards as being c r u c i a l f o r an accurate d i a g n o s i s of the n a r c i s s i s t i c p e r s o n a l i t y : the " i d e a l i z i n g t r a n s f e r e n c e " and the "mirror t r a n s f e r e n c e . " In the i d e a l i z i n g t r a n s f e r e n c e , the p a t i e n t ' s e a r l y need f o r merging with an i d e a l i z e d parent image or omnipotent object i s r e v i v e d i n the p s y c h o a n a l y t i c s i t u a t i o n . P e r f e c t i o n i s a t t r i b u t e d to an admired " s e l f - o b j e c t " ( i . e . , the "you are p e r f e c t , but I am part of you" view of the parent f i g u r e ) . In the m i r r o r t r a n s f e r e n c e , the p a t i e n t ' s e a r l y need f o r p a r e n t a l acceptance or " m i r r o r i n g " i s r e v i t a l i z e d i n the assessment s i t u a t i o n . P e r f e c t i o n i s a s c r i b e d to the s e l f ( i . e . , the "grandiose s e l f " or the "I 19 am p e r f e c t " image of the s e l f ) . Kohut emphasizes the importance of a l l o w i n g these t r a n s f e r e n c e s to a r i s e spontaneously, u n i n h i b i t e d by premature i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The emergence of the i d e a l i z i n g and the m i r r o r t r a n s f e r e n c e s r e s p e c t i v e l y r e f l e c t s the m o b i l i z a t i o n of the two n a r c i s s i s t i c c o n f i g u r a t i o n s i n the p a t i e n t : the i d e a l parent image and the grandiose s e l f . Kohut b e l i e v e s that these two n a r c i s s i s t i c s t r u c t u r e s o r i g i n a t e from developmental d e f i c i e n c i e s that can a r i s e between b i r t h and l a t e n c y . Although these n a r c i s s i s t i c c o n f i g u r a t i o n s are a r c h a i c , they are n e v e r t h e l e s s s t a b l e , cohesive, and r e s i s t a n t to fragmentation. This p o i n t i s c r i t i c a l to Kohut, s i n c e i t i s the s t a b i l i t y and cohesiveness of the n a r c i s s i s t i c p e r s o n a l i t i e s that d i s t i n g u i s h e s them from the more p a t h o l o g i c a l , l e s s s t a b l e b o r d e r l i n e p e r s o n a l i t i e s , who are more s u s c e p t i b l e to fragmentation. It i s t h i s s t a b i l i t y and cohesiveness that enables the n a r c i s s i s t i c p e r s o n a l i t y to be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the b o r d e r l i n e . Hence i n the present study, i t was expected that the s t a b i l i t y and cohesiveness of n a r c i s s i s t i c s u b j e c t s would be evidenced by responses that are c o n s i s t e n t across d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s (as opposed to responses that are s i t u a t i o n - s p e c i f i c ) . According to Kohut (1977), both n a r c i s s i s t i c s t r u c t u r e s are n a t u r a l occurrences i n the course of a c h i l d ' s normal development. Under f a v o r a b l e c o n d i t i o n s , the c h i l d matures, and these n a r c i s s i s t i c c o n f i g u r a t i o n s become transmuted and i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the r e s t of the adult p e r s o n a l i t y . The 20 i d e a l i z e d parent image becomes i n t e r n a l i z e d as the i d e a l i z e d superego and provides one's i d e a l s and g u i d e l i n e s , while the grandiose s e l f i s transformed i n t o normal self-esteem, ambition, and s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e . E s s e n t i a l l y , Kohut p o s t u l a t e s that the i d e a l i z e d parent image and the grandiose s e l f p e r s i s t i n t o adulthood as a r e s u l t of a "developmental a r r e s t . " When the transformation of the p r i m i t i v e s t r u c t u r e s stops, they remain un a l t e r e d and detached from the r e s t of the p e r s o n a l i t y . The r e s u l t i s p a t h o l o g i c a l n a r c i s s i s m . (In p a t h o l o g i c a l n a r c i s s i s m , the DSM I I I d e s c r i p t i v e f e a t u r e s of the d i s o r d e r are manifested to a notably greater degree than in normal narcissism.) The p a t i e n t ' s f i x a t i o n at i n f a n t i l e n a r c i s s i s t i c stages of development i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to i n e v i t a b l e s h o r t f a l l s i n maternal care. I f the c h i l d experiences the mothering f i g u r e or another s i g n i f i c a n t caretaker f i g u r e as c o l d , r e j e c t i n g , or d e s t r u c t i v e , i t becomes p a i n f u l l y aware of i t s r e l a t i v e i n s i g n i f i c a n c e and v u l n e r a b i l i t y . I f the c h i l d does not experience maternal empathy, the n a r c i s s i s t i c c o n f i g u r a t i o n s do not become i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the r e s t of the p e r s o n a l i t y . Instead, they remain as a r c h a i c and p r i m i t i v e s t r u c t u r e s , which comprise the core of the n a r c i s s i s t i c p e r s o n a l i t y . Unlike Kohut, Kernberg views the n a r c i s s i s t i c p e r s o n a l i t y as the outcome of the e a r l y development of s p e c i f i c p s y c h o p a t h o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e s rather than the r e s u l t of the a r r e s t e d development of normal n a r c i s s i s t i c 21 c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . Kernberg (1974, p. 216; 1975, pp. 265, 271, 325) de f ines p a t h o l o g i c a l n a r c i s s i s m not merely as the l i b i d i n a l investment in one's s e l f , but as the l i b i d i n a l investment in a p a t h o l o g i c a l , a l though i n t e g r a t e d , s e l f - s t r u c t u r e c a l l e d the grandiose s e l f . The grandiose s e l f i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a f u s i o n of three p a t h o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e s : the " a c t u a l s e l f " ( i . e . , the uniqueness of the c h i l d that was r e i n f o r c e d by e a r l y e x p e r i e n c e s ) ; the " i d e a l s e l f " ( i . e . , the f a n t a s i e s of u n l i m i t e d power, weal th , and beauty that compensated the c h i l d f o r the ego-weakening exper iences of in tense o r a l f r u s t r a t i o n , rage , and envy); and the " i d e a l objec t" ( i . e . , the fantasy of an e v e r - g i v i n g , , e v e r - l o v i n g , and a c c e p t i n g c a r e t a k e r , i n c o n t r a s t to the exper ience i n r e a l i t y ) . E s s e n t i a l l y , Kernberg b e l i e v e s that these s t r u c t u r e s o r i g i n a t e from a " p a t h o l o g i c a l development" that can a r i s e d u r i n g the l a t e o r a l stage of development. L i k e Kohut, Kernberg (1980) c la ims that these p a t h o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e s develop in the e a r l y environment of a c h r o n i c a l l y c o l d parent f i g u r e . The grandiose s e l f serves as a defense aga ins t the c h i l d ' s t raumat i c exper iences of severe o r a l f r u s t r a t i o n and of a world without food and love in the m o t h e r - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p . These i n j u r i o u s exper iences r e s u l t in the c h i l d ' s envy, h a t r e d , and rage toward the c a r e t a k e r . Enraged at the mothering f i g u r e , the c h i l d withdraws a f f e c t i o n from her and i n v e s t s i t i n the grandiose s e l f . The r e s u l t i s p a t h o l o g i c a l n a r c i s s i s m . 22 Both Kohut and Kernberg r e l y on t r a n s f e r e n c e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s i n psychoanalysis as d i a g n o s t i c i n d i c a t o r s of the n a r c i s s i s t i c p e r s o n a l i t y . Kernberg regards the p a t i e n t ' s d e n i a l of the analyst as an independent person as the key d i a g n o s t i c s i g n . The p a t i e n t ' s perception of the analyst as merely an extension of himself r e v e a l s the p a t i e n t ' s grandiose d e n i a l of h i s underlying f e e l i n g s of dependency, v u l n e r a b i l i t y , and inadequacy. Kernberg b e l i e v e s that i d e a l i z e d others represent p r o j e c t i o n s of the aggrandized sense of s e l f , and unacceptable features of the sense of s e l f are p r o j e c t e d onto others who are devalued and regarded as u n r e l i a b l e . A c c o r d i n g l y , the combination of an i n f l a t e d sense of s e l f and a d e v a l u a t i o n of others provides a defense against f e e l i n g dependent upon anyone who i s experienced as f r u s t r a t i n g . Both Kernberg and the DSM III devote co n s i d e r a b l e space to the d e s c r i p t i v e features of the n a r c i s s i s t i c p e r s o n a l i t y . The DSM I I I describes n a r c i s s i s t i c p a t i e n t s as being e x p r e s s i v e l y absorbed in themselves and as having s e r i o u s " d i s t o r t i o n s " i n t h e i r i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . (For example, these d i s t o r t i o n s may take the form of any of the f o l l o w i n g : (1) entitlement: expectation of s p e c i a l favors without assuming r e c i p r o c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ; (2) i n t e r p e r s o n a l e x p l o i t a t i v e n e s s : taking advantage of others to indulge own d e s i r e s or f o r self-aggrandizement; d i s r e g a r d f o r the personal i n t e g r i t y and r i g h t s of others; (3) r e l a t i o n s h i p s that a l t e r n a t e between the extremes of 23 o v e r i d e a l i z a t i o n and d e v a l u a t i o n ; (4) l ack of empathy: i n a b i l i t y to r ecogn ize how others f e e l (DSM I I I , 1980, p. 317)) . Kernberg (1974) d e l i n e a t e s the n a r c i s s i s t i c p a t i e n t s ' tendency to envy others and erec t defenses aga ins t envy ( e . g . , d e v a l u a t i o n , omnipotent c o n t r o l , and n a r c i s s i s t i c w i t h d r a w l ) ; t h e i r tendency to i d e a l i z e those from whom they expect n a r c i s s i s t i c s u p p l i e s , whi le d e v a l u i n g those from whom they expect no th ing ; t h e i r e x p l o i t a t i v e and p a r a s i t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s ; t h e i r sense of e n t i t l e m e n t ; and t h e i r i n a b i l i t y to empathize wi th o t h e r s . Kernberg n o t i c e s the c u r i o u s c o n t r a d i c t i o n that a l though n a r c i s s i s t i c p a t i e n t s have i n f l a t e d s e l f - c o n c e p t s , they mani fes t an i n o r d i n a t e d e s i r e f o r acceptance and a c c l a i m from others to keep t h e i r grandiose sense of s e l f i n t a c t . Psychometr ic Assessment of the N a r c i s s i s t i c P e r s o n a l i t y A f t e r the ideas and work of Kohut (1971, 1972, 1977) and Kernberg (1974, 1975, 1980) were p u b l i s h e d , the d i a g n o s i s of the n a r c i s s i s t i c p e r s o n a l i t y became a t o p i c of growing i n t e r e s t . However, attempts to develop ins truments to measure n a r c i s s i s m have not been s i n g u l a r l y s u c c e s s f u l . Ashby, Lee , and Duke (1979) c o n s t r u c t e d the MMPI N a r c i s s i s t i c P e r s o n a l i t y D i s o r d e r Sca le (NPDS), which c o n s i s t s of 19 s e l e c t e d items from the MMPI. Solomon (1982) d i s c o v e r e d that the NPDS d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between i n d i v i d u a l s wi th h e a l t h y and p a t h o l o g i c a l s e l f - e s t e e m . Al though the NPDS c e r t a i n l y represent s an expedient means of measuring n a r c i s s i s m , i t may not be an acceptab le assessment d e v i c e . 24 Fo r i t does not have the c a p a b i l i t y o f r e g i s t e r i n g t h e t r a n s f e r e n c e phenomena, which a r e t h e c r i t i c a l d i a g n o s t i c i n d i c a t o r s o f t h e c o n s t r u c t i n c l i n i c a l p r a c t i c e . The need f o r a p r o c e d u r e t h a t can g e n e r a t e v a l i d and r e l i a b l e i n d i c a t o r s and y i e l d s u f f i c i e n t v a r i a n c e i n t h e m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f s u c h i n d i c a t o r s i s c r u c i a l t o t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . A c c o r d i n g l y , t h e s e a r c h f o r same y i e l d e d a n o t h e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e / i n v e n t o r y , w hich i s more l i k e l y t o y i e l d a g r e a t e r d i s p e r s i o n i n t e s t s c o r e s t h an would the NPDS. With t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e NPDS, th e l a c k o f a m e a s u r i n g i n s t r u m e n t impeded t h e e m p i r i c a l s t u d y o f n a r c i s s i s m u n t i l R a s k i n and H a l l (1979) d e v e l o p e d t h e N a r c i s s i s t i c P e r s o n a l i t y I n v e n t o r y (NPI) ( s e e Appendix C ) . The a u t h o r s b e l i e v e t h a t t h e NPI p o s s e s s e s d e s i r a b l e p s y c h o m e t r i c p r o p e r t i e s t h a t w i l l f a c i l i t a t e the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f p a t h o l o g i c a l n a r c i s s i s m . The NPI i s a 54 i t e m , f o r c e d - c h o i c e q u e s t i o n n a i r e d e s i g n e d to measure i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n n a r c i s s i s m as a p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t . The c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e d e v i c e was p r e d i c a t e d on the d e s c r i p t i v e f e a t u r e s o f t h e n a r c i s s i s t i c p e r s o n a l i t y d i s o r d e r as s p e c i f i e d i n t h e DSM-III. R a s k i n and H a l l emphasize t h a t o n l y extreme m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f t h o s e s p e c i f i e d b e h a v i o r s c o n s t i t u t e p a t h o l o g i c a l n a r c i s s i s m . The NPI a p p e a r s to be an o b j e c t i v e s e l f - r e p o r t i n v e n t o r y o f n a r c i s s i s m as a p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t . Because o f i t s g r e a t e r number o f items and hence i t s g r e a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y as a m e a s u r i n g i n s t r u m e n t and i t s c a p a c i t y t o 25 y i e l d g r e a t e r v a r i a n c e , the NPI was p r e f e r r e d over the NPDS as a q u e s t i o n n a i r e / i n v e n t o r y measure of n a r c i s s i s m for the c u r r e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The development of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e has been accompanied by s e v e r a l attempts to assess i t s psychometr ic q u a l i t i e s i n c l u d i n g r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y (Emmons, 1981; R a s k i n , 1980; Raskin & H a l l , 1979, 1981). Emmons (1984) f a c t o r analyzed the NPI i n t o four d i s p a r a t e f a c t o r s : " E x p l o i t a t i v e n e s s / E n t i t l e m e n t " , "Leadership / A u t h o r i t y " , " S u p e r i o r i t y / Arrogance" , and " S e l f - A b s o r p t i o n / S e l f - A d m i r a t i o n " and d i s c o v e r e d that a l l of the f a c t o r s except E x p l o i t a t i v e n e s s / E n t i t l e m e n t showed a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n with s e l f - e s t e e m (the S e l f - P e r c e p t i o n I n v e n t o r y ) . (Pearson Product-Moment c o r r e l a t i o n s between s e l f - e s t e e m and each of the four NPI f a c t o r s are as f o l l o w s : r=- .02; r=.53; r=.38; r=.41 r e s p e c t i v e l y . ) Emmons a l s o found that the t o t a l NPI score was p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to the need for uniqueness (the Body S e l f - C o n s c i o u s n e s s Sca le ) ( r= .54) , e x t r a v e r s i o n , and a c t i n g ( e x h i b i t i o n i s m ) (the S e l f - M o n i t o r i n g Sca le ) (r=.52 and r=.55 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . The four v a r i a b l e s : s e l f - e s t e e m , uniqueness , e x t r a v e r s i o n , and a c t i n g accounted f o r 67% of the v a r i a n c e in the NPI measure of n a r c i s s i s m . F i n a l l y , Watson, Grisham, T r o t t e r , and Biderman (1984) found that the E x p l o i t a t i v e n e s s / E n t i t l e m e n t subsca le of the NPI was p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to the NPDS (r=.25) and n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d to three q u e s t i o n n a i r e measures of empathy: the Mehrabian and E p s t e i n Sca le (MEES) ( r= - .24 ) ; the Hogan Empathy Sca le (HES) 26 (r=-.20); and the Smith Empathic P e r s o n a l i t y Questionnaire (SEPQ) (r=-.35). But des p i t e the recent attempts to assess the t e c h n i c a l aspects of the instrument, and des p i t e the apparently f a v o r a b l e evidence of i t s r e l i a b l i l i t y , there remains some s e r i o u s drawbacks to using the NPI as the s o l e measure of n a r c i s s i s m . Although the NPDS and the NPI both represent attempts to assess p a t h o l o g i c a l n a r c i s s i s m , the s t u d i e s designed to v a l i d a t e these instruments u s u a l l y employ c o l l e g e students as s u b j e c t s . The degree of g e n e r a l i z a b i 1 i t y of these r e s u l t s i s unknown. C e r t a i n l y , l i t t l e i s known about how c h i l d r e n perform on these instruments. Furthermore, and most importantly, the use of q u e s t i o n n a i r e s / i n v e n t o r i e s to i d e n t i f y p a t h o l o g i c a l n a r c i s s i s m i s c r i t i c i z e d by Kohut. The e s s e n t i a l d i s t i n c t i o n i s diagnosis by tr a n s f e r e n c e as opposed to diagnosis by symptoms. Kohut (1971, 1977) as s e r t s that n a r c i s s i s m cannot be assessed by symptoms because n a r c i s s i s t i c p a t i e n t s tend to conceal rather than r e v e a l t h e i r c o n d i t i o n to avoid f e e l i n g shame. Questionnaires represent an overt c o n t e n t - o r i e n t e d approach, which i s l i k e l y to produce defenses ( l i k e d e n i a l or d i s g u i s e ) against shame and promote c l o s u r e i n n a r c i s s i s t i c p a t i e n t s . Kohut (1971, 1977) maintains that the n a r c i s s i s t i c p e r s o n a l i t y i s tapped through a tra n s f e r e n c e e i t h e r i n the form of the p a t i e n t ' s d e s i r e to be in the presence of an i d e a l i z e d parent image or the p a t i e n t ' s longing to be mirrored by the a n a l y s t . 27 More i n keeping with Kohut's p s y c h o a n a l y t i c approach to the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of p a t h o l o g i c a l n a r c i s s i s m i s the use of p r o j e c t i v e procedures. P r o j e c t i v e s represent a procedural r e c o g n i t i o n of human s u b t l e t i e s which subvert o b t r u s i v e and impersonal s t a t i c procedures. They are devised to help c l i n i c i a n s gain i n s i g h t i n t o the p a t i e n t ' s psychodynamics and p e r s o n a l i t y i n a non-obtrusive manner which minimizes defenses against d i r e c t i n s p e c t i o n of s e n s i t i v e content. The p a t i e n t ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the t y p i c a l l y ambiguous v i s u a l s t i m u l i may i n d i c a t e the presence of any n a r c i s s i s t i c c o n f i g u r a t i o n s w i t h i n the subject through the emergence of an i d e a l i z i n g or m i r r o r i n g t r a n s f e r e n c e . Because subjects are asked to respond to g e n e r a l l y vague images with t h e i r own c o n s t r u c t i o n s , the p r e s e n t a t i o n of a s e r i e s of stimulus cards i s l e s s l i k e l y to promote defenses against shame and c l o s u r e i n n a r c i s s i s t i c p a t i e n t s s i n c e there i s no apparent reason or s i g n a l f o r defensiveness in these matters. Moreover, the p r o j e c t i o n of q u a l i t i e s which are t h r e a t e n i n g onto content e x t e r n a l to the person allows f o r an a n a l y s i s of such p r o j e c t i o n s f o r signs of n a r c i s s i s m . In a d d i t i o n , Kernberg's (1975) claim that n a r c i s s i s t i c subjects tend to emit a constant p r o j e c t i o n of s e l f and object images may be f u r t h e r j u s t i f i c a t i o n of the use of p r o j e c t i v e s to assess n a r c i s s i s m . Kernberg (p.36) s t a t e s : Constant p r o j e c t i o n of " a l l bad" s e l f and object images perpetuates a world of dangerous, threatening o b j e c t s , against which the " a l l good" 28 s e l f images are used d e f e n s i v e l y , and megalomanic i d e a l s e l f images are b u i l t up. According to Kernberg, n a r c i s s i s t i c s u b j e c t s ' d i s t o r t e d perception of s i g n i f i c a n t p a r e n t a l images together with t h e i r u n r e a l i s t i c s e l f images are e a s i l y p r o j e c t e d onto content e x t e r n a l to the s u b j e c t s . Hence, Kernberg's a s s e r t i o n supports the assessment of n a r c i s s i s m through p r o j e c t i v e s , as do the c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of Kohut. Kohut's c r i t i c i s m of q u e s t i o n n a i r e / i n v e n t o r y measures of n a r c i s s i s m has face v a l i d i t y and must be taken s e r i o u s l y . Since n a r c i s s i s t i c subjects can defend themselves through impression management, the construct v a l i d i t y of p e r s o n a l i t y i n v e n t o r i e s such as the NPI remains questionable. Nevertheless, the NPI was i n c l u d e d i n the current study to d i s c o v e r the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the performances on the NPI to the t r a n s f e r e n c e i n d i c a t o r s (and to the achievement and p e r s i s t e n c e phenomena). It was expected that the r e l a t i o n s h i p between performances on the NPI and performances on the p r o j e c t i v e device ( i . e . , t r a n s f e r e n c e i n d i c a t o r s ) would be negative due to defensive d i s t o r t i o n a s s o c i a t e d with performances on the NPI. Accordingly, the present i n v e s t i g a t i o n adopted Kohut's p o s i t i o n that the n a r c i s s i s t i c p e r s o n a l i t y i s probably best v e r i f i e d d i a g n o s t i c a l l y through the emergence of an i d e a l i z i n g or m i r r o r i n g t r a n s f e r e n c e . The current study included a p r o j e c t i v e procedure as a means to observe the s u b j e c t s ' o r i e n t a t i o n to s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s wherein 29 t r a n s f e r e n c e phenomena a r e i n c i p i e n t or u s u a l . Through a n a l y s i s o f t h e meanings s u b j e c t s p r o j e c t onto a s e r i e s o f ambiguous s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s i n r e s p o n s e t o i n v i t a t i o n s t o t e l l what t h e y i m a g i n e i s h a p p e n i n g , t h e r e i s r e a s o n t o suppose we may t h e r e b y t a p any n a r c i s s i s t i c c o n f i g u r a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e s u b j e c t . The g r a p h i c d e p i c t i o n o f a d u l t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p s was used as t h e s t i m u l u s m a t e r i a l t o w h i c h s u b j e c t s were t o o r i e n t and r e s p o n d . The i n d i v i d u a l s ' i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f the v i s u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s was e x p e c t e d t o r e f l e c t t h e m o b i l i z a t i o n o f s u c h n a r c i s s i s t i c c o n f i g u r a t i o n s as were p r e s e n t . P r o p e r d i a g n o s i s o f t h e n a r c i s s i s t i c p e r s o n a l i t y w i l l f a c i l i t a t e a c l e a r e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f n a r c i s s i s m t o academic a c h i e v e m e n t . The s p e c i f i c p r o c e d u r e s f o r g e n e r a t i n g r e s p o n s e s and f o r a n a l y z i n g and i n t e r p r e t i n g such r e s p o n s e s a r e d e s c r i b e d l a t e r ( i n C h a p t e r T h r e e ) . Recent S t u d i e s on B e h a v i o r a l P e r s i s t e n c e To c l a r i f y t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the n a r c i s s i s t i c p e r s o n a l i t y and s c h o o l a c h i e v e m e n t , the d i r e c t measurement o f b e h a v i o r a l p e r s i s t e n c e was i n c l u d e d i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y . A l t h o u g h b e h a v i o r a l p e r s i s t e n c e i s o f i n t e r e s t i n i t s own r i g h t , t h i s p e r s o n a l a t t r i b u t e a l s o a p p e a r s to be r e l a t e d t o b o t h n a r c i s s i s m and a c h i e v e m e n t . Baker (1979) s u g g e s t e d t h a t some n a r c i s s i s t i c i n d i v i d u a l s l a c k t h e w i l l i n g n e s s to p e r s i s t i n t h e f a c e o f d i f f i c u l t i n t e l l e c t u a l m a t e r i a l b e c a u s e t h e y a r e u n a b l e to t o l e r a t e such p e r s o n a l s t r u g g l e s t h a t c h a l l e n g e t h e p e r f e c t i o n o f t h e g r a n d i o s e s e l f . T r a v i s 30 and V i o l a t o (1982) argue that the d i s p o s i t i o n to p e r s i s t i n e f f o r t s to overcome d i f f i c u l t i e s i s h i g h l y r e l a t e d to achievement. Shrauger and Sorman (1977) found an o v e r a l l p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between p e r s i s t e n c e and performance on an anagram task. T r a v i s and V i o l a t o ' s (1982) contention that the i n d i v i d u a l s who excel i n achievement tend to be those who are disposed to p e r s i s t i n the face of d i f f i c u l t y i s of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t . It r a i s e s Freud's (1931) d e s c r i p t i o n of the n a r c i s s i s t i c - o b s e s s i o n a l p e r s o n a l i t y . Freud e s s e n t i a l l y claims that t h i s l i b i d i n a l type i s able to p e r s i s t through a d v e r s i t y to meet high standards f o r achievement so that he may be h i g h l y regarded from a c u l t u r a l standpoint. Thus, the degree to which n a r c i s s i s t i c i n d i v i d u a l s p e r s i s t i n r e l a t i o n to a s i g n i f i c a n t c u l t u r a l expectation such as achievement in school may provide valuable i n s i g h t i n t o the current problem under i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Recent Studies on Academic Achievement C l e a r l y , academic achievement i s of c u l t u r a l and e d u c a t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . The research l i t e r a t u r e documenting the r e l a t i o n s h i p of student achievement with other v a r i a b l e s i s voluminous. Parkerson, Lomax, S c h i l l e r , and Walberg (1984) st u d i e d the e f f e c t of eight important f a c t o r s on academic achievement: a b i l i t y , " classroom s o c i a l environment, home l e a r n i n g environment, use of media, motivation, peer groups, q u a l i t y of i n s t r u c t i o n , and 31 q u a n t i t y of i n s t r u c t i o n . These r e s e a r c h e r s found, as have many others over the y e a r s , that of the e ight p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s , a b i l i t y was the most powerful p r e d i c t o r of s tudent achievement. S i m i l a r l y , Walberg (1984) conducted ten d i s p a r a t e s t u d i e s of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between achievement and a b i l i t i e s and found that c o r r e l a t i o n s ranged from r - . 5 5 to r= .80 . But d e s p i t e the w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d s ta tus of a b i l i t i e s in e x p l a i n i n g v a r i a n c e in achievement, there s t i l l remains some unexpla ined v a r i a n c e . The c u r r e n t study e x p l o r e d how a f f e c t i v e f a c t o r s l i k e n a r c i s s i s m mediate or moderate achievement through observable p a t t e r n s of behav ior ( i . e . , p e r s i s t e n c e ) upon which achievement depends. The present s tudy i n v e s t i g a t e d how v a r i a n c e that i s unexp la ined by re f erences to a b i l i t i e s and s o c i a l p r i v i l e g e i s a f f e c t e d by n a r c i s s i s m and p e r s i s t e n c e . Much of the prev ious r e s e a r c h on achievement appears to acknowledge the l a r g e c o n s t e l l a t i o n of v a r i a b l e s intended to capture the c o m p l e x i t i e s of s choo l performance. Both theory and r e s e a r c h suggest that academic achievement i s i n f l u e n c e d by numerous f a c t o r s i n c l u d i n g l e a r n e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( e . g . , m o t i v a t i o n , study h a b i t s , a b i l i t i e s ) , soc ioeconomic c o n d i t i o n s , home and schoo l environment, c u l t u r a l contex t , exposure to mass media, peer group, teacher a t t r i b u t e s , q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y of i n s t r u c t i o n , c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s , performance c o n t i n g e n c i e s , and p e r s i s t e n c e ( H a e r t e l , Walberg, & W e i n s t e i n , 1983; P a r k e r s o n , Lomax, S c h i l l e r , & Walberg, 1984; Thomas, 1980; Thompson, 1985; V i o l a t o & 32 T r a v i s , 1985). In an e f f o r t to impose order on apparent chaos, H a e r t e l et a l . (1983) presented eight h o l i s t i c models of student l e a r n i n g i n classroom s e t t i n g s . S t i l l , d e s p i t e much work i n recent years, few f a c t o r s which c o n c l u s i v e l y i n f l u e n c e student performance have been i d e n t i f i e d and explained. Further study of the v a r i a b l e s which a f f e c t academic achievement d e c i s i v e l y seems warranted. The current i n v e s t i g a t i o n examined both psychodynamic and sociodynamic f a c t o r s i n r e l a t i o n to academic achievement. The present study was designed to explore how n a r c i s s i s t i c f a c t o r s and b e h a v i o r a l p e r s i s t e n c e i n f l u e n c e p r i v a t e school c h i l d r e n ' s performances. Of t h e o r e t i c a l i n t e r e s t i s the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the c u l t u r a l l y i n c l i n e d , n a r c i s s i s t i c - o b s e s s i o n a l v a r i a n t of the n a r c i s s i s t i c p e r s o n a l i t y . The n a r c i s s i s t i c - o b s e s s i o n a l l i b i d i n a l type was i d e n t i f i e d by c l i n i c a l judgment and by achievement (as described i n Chapter Three). Of pedagogical importance i s the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and understanding of the t e a c h e r - p u p i l i n t e r a c t i o n s as they are i n f l u e n c e d by phenomena not u n l i k e those which a f f e c t t h e r a p i s t - p a t i e n t exchanges i n the ps y c h o a n a l y t i c context. Proper assessment of the n a r c i s s i s t i c p e r s o n a l i t y may be c r u c i a l f o r ga i n i n g a greater understanding of the r e l a t i o n s h i p of n a r c i s s i s m to academic achievement. This study was an attempt to make a c o n t r i b u t i o n to a more complete understanding of these matters. 33 D i r e c t Lineage of the Present Study The s t u d i e s by T r a v i s and h i s a s s o c i a t e s (e.g., T r a v i s & V i o l a t o , 1982; V i o l a t o & T r a v i s , 1985) provide the l i n e a g e from which the present study comes. The number and type of measures and amount of time which each subject c o n t r i b u t e s n e c e s s i t a t e s a r e l i a n c e on r e l a t i v e l y small samples. As a consequence, the number of subjects from the l e s s populous (more p r i v i l e g e d ) s t r a t a of s o c i e t y has been small in the T r a v i s s t u d i e s . Accordingly, the time was p r o p i t i o u s f o r s e c u r i n g a sample of more p r i v i l e g e d c h i l d r e n so that t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s can become b e t t e r known. The need f o r t h i s information has been summarized by Coles (1977) as well as T r a v i s ( V i o l a t o & T r a v i s , 1985) and Feshbach (1978). In e f f e c t , p e r s o n a l i t y i s d i f f e r e n t i a l l y developed and expressed i n environments which vary. Hence, there i s need to study c h i l d r e n of the p r i v i l e g e d . P r i v a t e school c h i l d r e n were of i n t e r e s t i n t h i s study because they possess above average l e v e l s of " c u l t u r a l c a p i t a l . " The expression denotes the c u l t u r a l resources ( i n t e l l e c t u a l possessions such as knowledge, s o c i a l savvy, t a c t , l i n g u i s t i c refinement, a e s t h e t i c and moral s e n s i b i l i t i e s ) , which are d i f f e r e n t i a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d among i n d i v i d u a l s and groups according to t h e i r p o s i t i o n s in the p o l i t i c a l economy, c u l t u r a l ecology, and s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . Since these are c u l t u r a l resources, they are acquired. Hoffman (1986) asserted that c u l t u r a l c a p i t a l i s needed f o r educational success. S i m i l a r l y , Bourdieu (1984) contended 34 that the c h i l d r e n of the most p r i v i l e g e d elements in s o c i e t y have greater chances f o r e d u c a t i o n a l success because they (by v i r t u e of t h e i r l i f e circumstances) acquire the knowledge, s o c i a l graces, expectations, language, and s o c i a l savvy n a t u r a l l y . In c o n t r a s t , the l e s s p r i v i l e g e d must acquire such c u l t u r a l resources through the investment of e f f o r t and the expenditure of time in order to succeed. Furthermore, Coles (1977) claims that c h i l d r e n from advantaged backgrounds are l i k e l y to have developed a c o n s t e l l a t i o n of expectations or a sense of entitlement from l e a r n i n g to c o n t r o l and organize t h e i r environment to t h e i r l i k i n g and the habit of manipulating that environment and those i n i t . Since so few c h i l d r e n from more p r i v i l e g e d f a m i l i e s are r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e from p u b l i c schools, i t would not be p o s s i b l e to undertake q u a n t i t a t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n s and analyses of the p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s of s i g n i f i c a n c e which are a s s o c i a t e d with p r i v i l e g e . Accordingly, a sample of p r i v a t e school c h i l d r e n was s t u d i e d to explore the nature of s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l l i f e at the p r i v i l e g e d end of the s o c i o - economic spectrum. The present sample of p r i v a t e school c h i l d r e n was of i n t e r e s t because of the need to study how a v a r i e t y of personal a t t r i b u t e s ( i . e . , n a r c i s s i s m and p e r s i s t e n c e ) vary i n c h i l d r e n who come from f a m i l i e s which a f f o r d them possession of s o c i o - c u l t u r a l p r i v i l e g e , and because of the need to understand how p r i v i l e g e d p o s i t i o n a f f e c t s e d u c a t i o n a l development. 35 CHAPTER THREE DESIGN AND METHOD Studies which examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p of socioeconomic st a t u s and a b i l i t y to academic achievement have g e n e r a l l y found high c o r r e l a t i o n s with some unexplained variance (Thompson, 1985; V i o l a t o & T r a v i s , 1985). Although some of t h i s variance may be a t t r i b u t a b l e to measurement e r r o r , i t i s a lso l i k e l y to include variance due to the impact of a f f e c t i v e f a c t o r s . Narcissism may well represent a not i n c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n to t h i s unexplained v a r i a n c e . In the current i n v e s t i g a t i o n , an attempt was made to i d e n t i f y two types of n a r c i s s i s m (obsessionals and non- obse s s i o n a l s ) two ways: by c l i n i c a l judgment and by achievement. In the former procedure, the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between an ob s e s s i o n a l and a non-obsessional was made on the b a s i s of c l i n i c a l judgment before the a c t u a l s c o r i n g of the p r o t o c o l s f o r the p r o j e c t i v e device. The judgment, then, could not be i n f l u e n c e d by the data that was subsequently scored. In the l a t t e r procedure, obsessionals were defined as overachievers (those who show greater achievement than one would expect from given l e v e l s of a b i l i t y and s o c i a l s t a t u s ) . The c r i t e r i o n f o r overachievement was a minimum of a seven p e r c e n t i l e rank discrepancy between a b i l i t y and achievement. A l l others who were not overachieving were c l a s s i f i e d as non-obsessionals. 36 ( I t was expected that n a r c i s s i s t i c - o b s e s s i o n a l s and n a r c i s s i s t i c non-obsessionals could both e x h i b i t high degrees of n a r c i s s i s m . Hence, the b a s i s f o r d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g between the two l i b i d i n a l types was not the degree of n a r c i s s i s m , but rather the degree of p e r s i s t e n c e and subsequently the l e v e l of achievement. N a r c i s s i s t i c - o b sessionals were expected to show greater p e r s i s t e n c e and achievement than n a r c i s s i s t i c non-obsessionals.) Hypotheses (1) Performances on the NPI should be n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d to scores from the p r o j e c t i v e s ( t r a n s f e r e n c e i n d i c a t o r s ) and to the achievement and p e r s i s t e n c e phenomena. (2) For subjects i d e n t i f i e d as n a r c i s s i s t i c - o b s e s s i o n a l , n a r c i s s i s m should be p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to p e r s i s t e n c e . (3) For a l l other subjects (non-obsessionals), n a r c i s s i s m should be n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d to p e r s i s t e n c e . (4) For a l l s u b j e c t s , p e r s i s t e n c e should be p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to achievement. (5) For a l l s u b j e c t s , a b i l i t y should be p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to achievement. Subjects F i f t y - s i x c h i l d r e n e n r o l l e d i n the s i x t h and seventh grades of two p r i v a t e elementary schools s i t u a t e d i n a l a r g e metropolitan center i n Western Canada comprised the subject pool f o r the current i n v e s t i g a t i o n . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the study was voluntary. To ensure that the subjects were able to read and understand the questions on the p e r s o n a l i t y 37 i n v e n t o r y without encounter ing u n f a m i l i a r v o c a b u l a r y and concepts , only s u b j e c t s in the upper i n t e r m e d i a t e age range were i n c l u d e d i n the s tudy . To ensure that c h i l d r e n from the upper soc ioeconomic bracket were s u f f i c i e n t l y represented i n the s tudy, a sample from two p r i v a t e schoo l s was chosen, and a l l s u b j e c t s were asked by t h e i r teacher to g ive a b r i e f w r i t t e n d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e i r p a r e n t s ' o c c u p a t i o n s . These d e s c r i p t i o n s were ana lyzed to a s s i g n each subjec t to one of f i v e c a t e g o r i e s a c c o r d i n g to the top occupat ion in the f a m i l y . The c a t e g o r i e s f o r s o c i a l s t a t u s were e n t r e p r e n e u r , e x e c u t i v e / p r o f e s s i o n a l , m a n a g e r i a l / s m a l l b u s i n e s s , s k i l l e d l a b o r , and c l e r i c a l / h o m e m a k e r . Procedures Regard f o r r e l i a b i l i t y and e c o l o g i c a l v a l i d i t y r e q u i r e s that n a r c i s s i s m and p e r s i s t e n c e should not be assessed in one s i t u a t i o n on ly (Borg & G a l l , 1983; Bronfenbrenner , 1976). For these reasons , m u l t i p l e assessments were i n c o r p o r a t e d in t h i s s tudy . Because the c o r r e l a t i o n between a b i l i t i e s and achievement i s s i g n i f i c a n t and s u b s t a n t i a l (Walberg, 1984), academic a b i l i t y was added to the present s tudy as a t h i r d p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e . A c c o r d i n g l y , the c u r r e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n c l u d e d f o r each subjec t f i v e measures of n a r c i s s i s m (the t o t a l index from the p r o j e c t i v e d e v i c e , o v e r a l l c l i n i c a l judgment, judged degree, judged type , and the NPI s c a l e ) , three measures of p e r s i s t e n c e (In C l a s s O b s e r v a t i o n , P i c t u r e R e p r o d u c t i o n , and L e t t e r 38 Deletion),, p e r c e n t i l e ranks of a b i l i t y (Otis-Lennon School A b i l i t y T e s t ) , as well as p e r c e n t i l e ranks of reading achievement - the c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e - (on e i t h e r the reading subtest of the Sequential Tests of E d u c a t i o n a l Progress (STEP) and the Canadian Tests of B a s i c S k i l l s (CTBS)). Narcissism (Measures One To Four: Assessment Through P r o j e c t i v e s ) A p r o j e c t i v e measure of n a r c i s s i s m was obtained f o r a l l students by p r e s e n t i n g a s e r i e s of stimulus cards each c o n t a i n i n g a graphic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of an a d u l t - c h i l d encounter (see Appendix A). The s e r i e s of cards, with which n a r c i s s i s m was assessed, enabled one to obtain an i n d i c a t i o n of the i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y and i n f e r r e d r e l i a b i l i t y of the p r o j e c t i v e measure; an adequate d i s p e r s i o n of scores, which f a c i l i t a t e s c a l c u l a t i o n of c o r r e l a t i o n s between the v a r i a b l e s of i n t e r e s t ; and an a p p r a i s a l of the construct v a l i d i t y of the NPI. The use of a s e r i e s of stimulus cards o f f e r e d s t i l l another important advantage. It was necessary to c o n t r o l f o r the c o n s i d e r a b l e p o s s i b i l i t y that subjects may have s p e c i f i c (as opposed to more general, s t r u c t u r a l , or p r o t o t y p i c ) r e a c t i o n s to a p i c t u r e of a teacher and a student engaged in a classroom a c t i v i t y . Since the t r a n s f e r e n c e construct i s p r e d i c a t e d on the assumption that a s t r u c t u r a l or p r o t o t y p i c adaptation has been i n t r o j e c t e d , i t was necessary to know whether i n f a c t given r e a c t i o n s are 39 m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of t h i s i n t r o j e c t i o n or whether they are more s i t u a t i o n s p e c i f i c . The m u l t i p l i c i t y and v a r i e t y of stimulus cards, each r e p r e s e n t i n g a d i f f e r e n t a d u l t - c h i l d s i t u a t i o n , allows f o r an e x p l o r a t i o n and p o t e n t i a l c o n t r o l of the s i t u a t i o n s p e c i f i c i t y of s u b j e c t s ' responses. Since the gender of the f i g u r e s i n the depicted s i t u a t i o n s may be a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n s u b j e c t s ' r e a c t i o n s to them, care was taken to ensure that both males and females perceive equivalent s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s and models. A c c o r d i n g l y , the p r o j e c t i v e device c o n s i s t e d of 14 stimulus cards which depict 8 d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s . The adult f i g u r e s i n the 8 s i t u a t i o n s c o n s i s t e d of 5 males and 5 females, and the gender of the subordinate f i g u r e ( c h i l d ) i n each s i t u a t i o n was a l t e r n a t e d as f o l l o w s : (1) a male d e n t i s t with a boy; (8) a male d e n t i s t with a g i r l ; (2) a mother with a son; (9) a mother with a daughter; (3) a female r e c r e a t i o n leader with a boy; (10) a male r e c r e a t i o n leader with a g i r l ; (4) an adult with a c h i l d (both of ambiguous sex); (11) a man and a woman with a c h i l d (sex ambiguous); (5) a female nurse with a boy; (12) a female nurse with a g i r l ; (6) a male teacher with a boy; (13) a male teacher with a g i r l ; (7) a boy scout leader with a boy scout; (14) a g i r l guide leader with a g i r l guide. (See Appendix A f o r more e l a b o r a t i o n on and p l a t e s of the 14 cards.) Each subject was asked to look at each p i c t u r e , imagine what i s happening, and describe what he or she imagined i s 40 taking place between the two f i g u r e s i n the p i c t u r e . Each c h i l d was given a s p e c i f i c set of ve r b a l i n s t r u c t i o n s ( i . e . , "Here i s a p i c t u r e . I want you to look at the p i c t u r e and imagine what i s happening. Then t e l l me what i s happening."). To ensure that the subject's responses were s u f f i c i e n t l y e l a b o r a t e f o r s c o r i n g , the c h i l d ' s account of what i s imagined was supplemented with responses to a s e r i e s of s p e c i f i c supplementary questions ( i . e . , "What i s t h i s person t h i n k i n g ? " (The c h i l d was i n d i c a t e d by p o i n t i n g . ) "How i s he f e e l i n g ? " "What i s t h i s person t h i n k i n g ? " (The adult was i n d i c a t e d by p o i n t i n g . ) "How i s he f e e l i n g ? " "How do they get along?" "Is t h i s person (adult) h e l p i n g t h i s person ( c h i l d ) ? " "How does t h i s person ( c h i l d ) f e e l about t h a t ? " "What does t h i s person (adult) think of t h i s person's ( c h i l d ' s ) work/behavior?" "How does t h i s person ( c h i l d ) react to t h i s person's ( a d u l t ' s ) remarks/actions?" "Does t h i s person (adult) understand what t h i s person ( c h i l d ) i s t h i n k i n g ? " "Does t h i s person (adult) understand how t h i s person ( c h i l d ) i s f e e l i n g ? " ) . (Rather than repeatedly saying " c h i l d " and " a d u l t " in each of the supplementary questions, the words " t h i s person" was used while p o i n t i n g to the appropriate f i g u r e on the stimulus card. In a d d i t i o n , the order of the questions was v a r i e d to make the p r e s e n t a t i o n appear l e s s mechanical.) A l l of the responses were audiotaped to permit a subsequent measure of i n t e r r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y and a n a l y s i s of p r e s e n t a t i o n a l (expression) as we l l as r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l content (signed 41 meaning) (Edelson, 1984). The su b j e c t ' s responses f o r each stimulus card were then t r a n s l a t e d i n t o scores on a p r o t o c o l (see Appendix B or Chapter Four, Table IV (the composite t a b l e ) ) . Notice that each p r o t o c o l contained the scores to a l l 14 cards f o r a p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t . Once the responses were audiotaped, the s c o r i n g and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the responses e n t a i l e d two approaches. In the f i r s t method, each subject i s c l a s s i f i e d by an o v e r a l l c l i n i c a l judgment of h i s performance on the e n t i r e s e r i e s of stimulus cards taken as a whole. This method i s quicker, but i t does not reveal as much f i n e d e t a i l as does the second approach. The second procedure r e q u i r e s the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of r e a c t i o n s to each t e s t item (stimulus card) i n order to generate a t o t a l score (or c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ) f o r a p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t . A s c o r i n g matrix was used to record and designate how the r e a c t i o n s to the t e s t items were c l a s s i f i e d f o r each subject. Because t h i s study i n c o r p o r a t e d what i s perhaps the f i r s t attempt at asse s s i n g n a r c i s s i s m through p r o j e c t i v e s , the more appropr i a t e of the two approaches to s c o r i n g and i n t e r p r e t i n g the responses was not known. Accordingly, a procedure which i n c o r p o r a t e d both approaches was adopted to help shed l i g h t on assessment questions. These c o n s i d e r a t i o n s suggested that a combination of c l i n i c a l judgment and dimension s c a l e scores be incorporated i n the present study. 42 In the former approach, s u b j e c t s were c l a s s i f i e d on the b a s i s of t h e i r responses across the e n t i r e set of s t imulus c a r d s . I n i t i a l l y , each subjec t was c l a s s i f i e d as e i t h e r m a n i f e s t i n g no tab le s igns of n a r c i s s i s m or not showing notab le s igns of n a r c i s s i s m by an o v e r a l l c l i n i c a l judgment. Secondly , those s u b j e c t s who were c l a s s i f i e d as m a n i f e s t i n g notab le s igns of n a r c i s s i s m were given a c a t e g o r i c a l assignment of h i g h , medium, or low based on judgment of the degree of n a r c i s s i s m mani f e s t ed . F i n a l l y , those s u b j e c t s who were c l a s s i f i e d as m a n i f e s t i n g notable s igns of n a r c i s s i s m were i d e n t i f i e d as e i t h e r o b s e s s i o n a l s or non- o b s e s s i o n a l s based on judgment of type . ( T y p i c a l l y , a subjec t was judged as o b s e s s i o n a l i f , f o r example, he s a i d that the c h i l d on a g iven s t imulus card was unhappy about h i s performance because he f a i l e d to meet e x p e c t a t i o n s . Thus, one c h i l d s a i d , "The g i r l i s upset about g e t t i n g a poor grade on her s c i ence p r o j e c t because she knows she c o u l d do b e t t e r , and now she's a f r a i d that her parents w i l l be d i s a p p o i n t e d . " Another s a i d , "The boy i s be ing s c o l d e d by h i s mother f o r not c l e a n i n g up h i s room, so now he's mad at h i m s e l f because h i s mother expects him to have a c l ean room." A l l o thers who were not i d e n t i f i e d as o b s e s s i o n a l s ( i n c l u d i n g those seven who i n i t i a l l y d i d not show notab le s igns of n a r c i s s i s m ) were c l a s s i f i e d as n o n - o b s e s s i o n a l s . These c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s were recorded as per page one on Appendix B. Th i s procedure immediate ly fo l lowed the t e s t i n g s e s s i on and preceded the a c t u a l s c o r i n g of the responses so 43 that the judgment could not be i n f l u e n c e d by the data that was subsequently scored. Subsequently, the subject's responses to each of the 14 stimulus cards were analyzed according to a l i s t of the i n d i c a t o r s of n a r c i s s i s m . Both p r e s e n t a t i o n (expressive) i n d i c a t i o n s and r e p r e s e n t a t i o n (symbolic or verbal) i n d i c a t i o n s were recorded f o r purposes of assessment. A response was scored e i t h e r "1" or "0" depending on whether evidence of n a r c i s s i s m was present i n the subject's response to that card. A score of "1" i n d i c a t e d evidence of n a r c i s s i s m , and a score of "0" denoted a lack of evidence of n a r c i s s i s m . The score (nominal c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ) f o r each item was entered on a s c o r i n g matrix with the 14 stimulus cards forming the columns and the i n d i c a t o r s of n a r c i s s i s m comprising the rows. ( i . e . , f o r each card, a score of "1" was given f o r each i n d i c a t o r that appeared in the subject's response, and a score of "0" was given f o r each i n d i c a t o r that was not present i n the response.) Sub-totals f o r each i n d i c a t o r across each row were entered at the r i g h t of the p r o t o c o l , and sums were generated f o r a t o t a l score. A check procedure c o n s i s t e d of adding column sums, which were i d e n t i c a l to the sum of row sums. The subject's t o t a l score ( i . e . , the t o t a l of both the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l and p r e s e n t a t i o n a l i n d i c e s ) was entered at the bottom r i g h t corner of the p r o t o c o l and was taken as a measure of h i s degree of n a r c i s s i s m . Hence, a p r o j e c t i v e measure of n a r c i s s i s m was obtained by measuring the frequency with 44 which a s u b j e c t m a n i f e s t e d e v i d e n c e o f n a r c i s s i s m ( i . e . , t h e f r e q u e n c y o f "1" r e s p o n s e s ) a c r o s s the s e r i e s o f s t i m u l u s c a r d s . I n d i c a t i o n s o f " i d e a l i z i n g " or " m i r r o r i n g " t r a n s f e r e n c e were t a k e n as e v i d e n c e o f n a r c i s s i s m . O b s e r v a t i o n s o f m a n i f e s t a t i o n s i n t h e t e s t i n g s i t u a t i o n were s c o r e d or t a l l i e d by r e c o r d i n g "1" i n t h e a p p r o p r i a t e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t a b l e s p a c e . C o n c o m i t a n t t o an i d e a l i z i n g t r a n s f e r e n c e was t h e r e v i v a l o f r e p r e s s e d i n f a n t i l e e motions or e x p e r i e n c e s o f i n a d e q u a c y , v u l n e r a b i l i t y , and dependence i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e i d e a l p a r e n t image. A c t i n g - o u t b e h a v i o r was e x p e c t e d t o be e r e c t e d as a p r i m a r y d e f e n c e a g a i n s t the p o s s i b i l i t y o f dependence on the i d e a l p a r e n t f i g u r e ( h e l p e r ) and a g a i n s t n a r c i s s i s t i c envy o f t h e h e l p e r as a s o u r c e o f n a r c i s s i s t i c s u p p l y . S i n c e the s u b j e c t s were e x p e c t e d t o p r o j e c t a c t i n g - o u t b e h a v i o r s as a r e s u l t o f the t r a n s f e r e n c e ( s ) , the p r e s e n c e o f any o f t h e f o l l o w i n g i n d i c a t o r s i n a s u b j e c t ' s r e s p o n s e was t a k e n as e v i d e n c e o f n a r c i s s i s m . Two t y p e s o f e v i d e n c e were r e c o r d e d : r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l ( v e r b a l - s y m b o l i c ) i n d i c a t o r s and p r e s e n t a t i o n a l ( e x p r e s s i v e ) ( e . g . , t o n e , i n f l e c t i o n , or o t h e r n o n - v e r b a l i n d i c a t i o n s o f a f f e c t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n or r e s p o n s e ) i n d i c a t o r s o f : n a r c i s s i s t i c envy; a d e v a l u a t i o n o f h e l p or s u p p o r t ; d e p r e c i a t o r y a t t a c k s on t h e h e l p e r ; and a g g r a n d i z i n g o f t h e s e l f ( m i r r o r t r a n s f e r e n c e ) ( i . e . , o v e r e s t i m a t i o n o f one's a b i l i t i e s and a c h i e v e m e n t s ) . 45 The d e n i a l or absence of any acknowledgement of he lp or support and the d e n i a l or absence of any s ign of dependence were expected to be c r i t i c a l i n d i c a t o r s of n a r c i s s i s m in the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the p r o t o c o l s . Other i n d i c a t o r s ( a c t i n g - out b e h a v i o r s ) i n c l u d e d the f o l l o w i n g : s u b j e c t s ' expressed sense of omnipotence ( i . e . , p r e o c c u p a t i o n with f a n t a s i e s of u n l i m i t e d success , power, b r i l l i a n c e , beauty, or i d e a l l o v e ) ; e x h i b i t i o n i s t i c need f o r in tense or concer ted a t t e n t i o n and a d m i r a t i o n ; f r a g i l i t y of s e l f - e s t e e m ( i . e . , coo l i n d i f f e r e n c e or f e e l i n g s or express ions of rage , revenge, h o s t i l i t y , i n f e r i o r i t y , shame, h u m i l i a t i o n , or emptiness in response to c r i t i c i s m , i n d i f f e r e n c e of o t h e r s , or d e f e a t ) ; sense of e n t i t l e m e n t ; tendencies to e x p l o i t o thers in i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s ; over i d e a l i z a t i o n and d e v a l u a t i o n of o thers in i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s ; and lack of c a p a c i t y f o r empathy. P r e s e n t a t i o n a l ( express ive ) i n d i c a t i o n s i n c l u d e d dynamics of i n f l e c t i o n ; ampl i tude; p i t c h ; cadence; l a b i l i t y of emotion; tone; sense. I l l u s t r a t i v e i n d i c a t o r s for each of the m a n i f e s t a t i o n s are p r o v i d e d in the s c o r i n g guide (Appendix B ) . Mani fe s t evidence of n a r c i s s i s m should bear at l e a s t a " fami ly resemblance" ( W i t t g e n s t e i n , 1953; Bruner , Olv e r , G r e e n f i e l d , et a l . , 1966, p.79) to the example p r o v i d e d f o r a p a r t i c u l a r i n d i c a t o r . While a l l of the above i n d i c a t o r s are dependent upon the p r o j e c t i o n of q u a l i t i e s onto content ( i . e . , o b j e c t s , persons) e x t e r n a l to the s u b j e c t , r e s i s t a n c e to engage in 46 imaginative i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the portrayed content can a l s o be i n t e r p r e t e d as i n d i c a t i v e . For a subject's r e s i s t a n c e to imagine or p r o j e c t i s taken as a c l i n i c a l i n d i c a t o r of n a r c i s s i s m (Brodey, 1965; Kernberg, 1975; Kohut, 1971; Lasch, 1978). The r e l u c t a n c e to engage in imaginative i n t e r p r e t a t i o n (as opposed to mere d e s c r i p t i o n of d e p i c t e d d e t a i l or f e a t u r e s ) can be regarded as i n d i c a t i v e of an i n a b i l i t y to decathect from the immediate s i t u a t i o n , from the o b j e c t i v e d e t a i l of the surround. Lasch (1978) adds that some n a r c i s s i s t i c persons manifest an " i n a b i l i t y to t o l e r a t e the decathexis of current r e a l i t y and to accept the ambiguity of the a n a l y t i c s i t u a t i o n " (p.177). Refusal to make imaginative i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of l i n e drawings was taken as a t e s t of t h i s a b i l i t y to "decathect" and accept ambiguity. Lasch maintains that these s u b j e c t s ' r e s i s t a n c e to suspending the secondary process ( i . e . , to d i s t a n c e themselves from everyday l i f e ) i s a s s o c i a t e d with the f e a r of fantasy. Accordingly, p r o v i s i o n was also made f o r t h i s i n d i c a t o r on the s u b j e c t s ' p r o t o c o l s . No p r o j e c t i o n ( i . e . , an o b j e c t i v e account of the stimulus card) was recorded as "NP" on the s c o r i n g matrix. A frequency count of a su b j e c t ' s "NP" responses was recorded on h i s p r o t o c o l and was i n c l u d e d i n the comparison of h i s performances on the NPI and p r o j e c t i v e measures of n a r c i s s i s m . (No "NP" responses were observed i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the stimulus cards.) 47 D e s p i t e i t s p o t e n t i a l c l i n i c a l v a l u e , a s s e s s m e n t o f n a r c i s s i s m t h r o u g h p r o j e c t i v e s a l s o has i t s l i m i t a t i o n s . B e c a u s e t h e s u b j e c t s were u n a b l e t o i n t e r a c t w i t h t h e h e l p e r / t h e r a p i s t ( a d u l t f i g u r e i n e a c h o f t h e s t i m u l u s c a r d s ) , some i n d i c a t o r s o f n a r c i s s i s m m i g h t n o t a p p e a r i n t h e t e s t i n g s i t u a t i o n . F o r e x a m p l e , i n t h e a b s e n c e o f c r i t i c i s m f r o m t h e h e l p e r / t h e r a p i s t , t h e c h a n c e s o f s e e i n g s i g n s o f n a r c i s s i s t i c r a g e o r s i g n s o f r e v e n g e i n t h e s u b j e c t s were g r e a t l y r e d u c e d . S i m i l a r l y , i t was n o t p o s s i b l e t o s e e t h e h e l p e r / t h e r a p i s t ' s r e a c t i o n s t o t h e s u b j e c t ' s a c t i n g - o u t b e h a v i o r , as i n d i c a t i o n s o f c o u n t e r t r a n s f e r e n c e were p r e c l u d e d . T h i s , i n t u r n , r e d u c e d t h e p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t t h e s u b j e c t s m a n i f e s t e d n a r c i s s i s m i n d i c a t o r s w h i c h a r e t y p i c a l l y e v o k e d by c o u n t e r t r a n s f e r e n c e s i g n s i n t h e c l i n i c a l s i t u a t i o n . I n a d d i t i o n , one o t h e r p o t e n t i a l p r o b l e m was a n t i c i p a t e d : s i n c e t h e use o f p r o j e c t i v e s r e q u i r e s t h a t s u b j e c t s - r e s p o n d v e r b a l l y ( a n d / o r g e s t u r a l l y ) t o t h e s t i m u l u s m a t e r i a l , a w i d e r a n g e o f e x p r e s s i v e c o m p e t ence and c o n f i d e n c e may be e x p e c t e d . T h i s i n c l u d e s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f n o n - r e s p o n s e . At t h i s t i m e , i t i s n o t known w h e t h e r no r e s p o n s e t o a s t i m u l u s c a r d i s due t o a l a c k o f a b i l i t y t o a r t i c u l a t e , o r i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e u l t i m a t e d e f e n s i v e p o s t u r e . W h i l e t h i s q u e s t i o n can f o r m t h e b a s i s o f a f u t u r e s t u d y , i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , t h e t e s t e r a t t e m p t e d t o e l i c i t c o m p l i a n c e t o r e q u e s t f o r i m a g i n a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ; and r e f u s a l t o do so was t a k e n as e v i d e n c e o f n a r c i s s i s m ( f o r t h e r e a s o n s s e t f o r t h a b o v e ) . 48 A c c o r d i n g l y , f or present purposes , no response was recorded as "NR" on the s c o r i n g m a t r i x . F a i l u r e to respond i n i t i a l l y was fo l l owed by encouragement v i a a second attempt to s o l i c i t a response . The t o t a l scores from t h i s p r o j e c t i v e measure were c o r r e l a t e d with the t o t a l NPI scores from the q u e s t i o n n a i r e / i n v e n t o r y measure of n a r c i s s i s m . (Measure F i v e : P e r s o n a l i t y Inventory) A q u e s t i o n n a i r e / i n v e n t o r y measure of n a r c i s s i s m (see Appendix C) was obta ined f o r each subjec t by a d m i n i s t e r i n g the N a r c i s s i s t i c P e r s o n a l i t y Inventory (NPI) (Raskin & H a l l , 1979). The t o t a l NPI scores were c o r r e l a t e d with the t o t a l scores from the p r o j e c t i v e measure of n a r c i s s i s m (as w e l l as wi th the other v a r i a b l e s ) . Other e x p l o r a t o r y analyses a l s o e n t a i l e d use of the s c a l e scores (see Chapter F o u r ) . P e r s i s t e n c e (Measure One - " N a t u r a l i s t i c " : In C l a s s Observat ion) A measure of b e h a v i o r a l p e r s i s t e n c e was obta ined by observ ing the frequency of a s u b j e c t ' s o f f - t a s k behav ior under n a t u r a l i s t i c c lassroom c o n d i t i o n s . The o b s e r v a t i o n of each c h i l d ' s behav ior in the r e g u l a r c lassroom was conducted in two separate 10-minute s e s s i o n s . Observat ions were recorded only a f t e r the s tudents were ass igned i n d i v i d u a l seatwork. Assignments c o n s i s t i n g of r e g u l a r c lasswork ( a r i t h m e t i c problems, language t a s k s , and reading) were attempted by each subjec t without a s s i s t a n c e . Students were c o n s i d e r e d to be on- task i f they appeared to be l o o k i n g at the a p p r o p r i a t e task m a t e r i a l s . P u p i l s were assumed to be 49 o f f - t a s k i f they looked away from the r e l e v a n t task m a t e r i a l s f o r a minimum of three c o n s e c u t i v e seconds. The 10-minute o b s e r v a t i o n p e r i o d s were d i v i d e d i n t o 10-second i n t e r v a l s , and each s u b j e c t ' s behav ior was recorded as e i t h e r on- task or o f f - t a s k for each 10-second segment. O f f - task behav ior was scored "1", whereas on- task behav ior was not s c o r e d . Because two 10-minute r e c o r d i n g s e s s ions were used for each c h i l d , the frequency of o f f - t a s k behav ior in 20 minutes was t a l l i e d for each s u b j e c t . This frequency t a l l y was taken as an index of b e h a v i o r a l p e r s i s t e n c e . One must r e a l i z e that t h i s index of p e r s i s t e n c e i s a negat ive index ( i . e . , a h igh score i n d i c a t e s low p e r s i s t e n c e , whi l e a low score denotes h igh p e r s i s t e n c e . ) A c c o r d i n g l y , f o r purposes of c o r r e l a t i o n a l a n a l y s e s , these scores were transformed so that the index i s p o s i t i v e . The t r a n s f o r m a t i o n equat ion was Pt=100-X, where Pt i s the transformed score for the in c l a s s measure of p e r s i s t e n c e , and X i s the frequency t a l l y of o f f - t a s k behav ior in 20 minutes . (Measure Two - " C o n t r i v e d " : P i c t u r e Reproduct ion) A second measure of b e h a v i o r a l p e r s i s t e n c e was a c q u i r e d by g i v i n g each subjec t paper and crayons and ask ing the c h i l d to reproduce a p r i n t e d c o l o r p i c t u r e to the best of h i s a b i l i t i e s ( V i o l a t o & T r a v i s , 1985). Time on task was used as the index of b e h a v i o r a l p e r s i s t e n c e . Time on task was o p e r a t i o n a l l y de f ined as beg inn ing when the subjec t put the crayon on the paper and t e r m i n a t i n g when he d e c l a r e d 50 completion. (The maximum time allowed f o r t h i s a c t i v i t y was 65 minutes.) Previous research which in c o r p o r a t e d t h i s procedure provides evidence that such performances are c o r r e l a t e d with standardized achievement measures at a respe c t a b l e l e v e l (r=.60) ( V i o l a t o & T r a v i s , 1985). The p i c t u r e used was published i n The Sciences (January/February 1987, volume 27, number 1, page 24). (Measure Three - "Contrived": L e t t e r Deletion) A t h i r d measure of b e h a v i o r a l p e r s i s t e n c e was secured by g i v i n g each subject a six-page h i s t o r y paper i n small p r i n t and a p e n c i l . Each c h i l d was asked to read through the paper and cross out every l e t t e r "e". The subject was als o informed that a p e n c i l maze was p r i n t e d on the back of the h i s t o r y paper and that he may attempt to solve the maze only a f t e r he de l e t e d as many "e's" as he could. Time on task was used as the index of b e h a v i o r a l p e r s i s t e n c e . Time on task was o p e r a t i o n a l l y defined as beginning when the subject put the p e n c i l on the paper and terminating when he turned the paper over to do the maze. (The maximum time allowed f o r t h i s a c t i v i t y was 35 minutes.) A b i l i t y P e r c e n t i l e ranks were derived f o r each subject by r e f e r r i n g to school records of standardized i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t scores (Otis-Lennon School A b i l i t y T e s t ) . Since t h i s t e s t provided an adequate measure of a b i l i t i e s f o r present purposes and was the common metric f o r both schools, the 51 p e r c e n t i l e ranks from the Otis-Lennon was used as the measure of academic a b i l i t y i n t h i s study. Achievement P e r c e n t i l e ranks f o r each subject were derived by r e f e r r i n g to school records of standardized achievement t e s t scores (the Sequential Tests of E d u c a t i o n a l Progress (STEP) (Educational T e s t i n g S e r v i c e , 1971) from School 1 and the Canadian Tests of Basic S k i l l s (CTBS) (King, 1971) from School 2). Since p r o f i c i e n c y i n reading i s necessary f o r academic success, and because reading i s g e n e r a l l y regarded as a powerful i n d i c a t o r of e d u c a t i o n a l achievement, the p e r c e n t i l e ranks from the reading s c a l e s of the STEP and the CTBS were used as the measures of achievement in t h i s study. E v a l u a t i o n For each subject, comprehensive measures of n a r c i s s i s m ( f i v e ) , p e r s i s t e n c e ( t h r e e ) , a b i l i t y (one), and reading achievement (one) were obtained. Pearson c o r r e l a t i o n s were computed to examine the a s s o c i a t i o n s among the v a r i a b l e s f o r the o b s e s s i o n a l and non-obsessional subgroups and f o r the aggregate sample. In a d d i t i o n , oneway u n i v a r i a t e analyses of variance (ANOVA) and Chi-squares were performed to compare ob s e s s i o n a l s and non-obsessionals on the measures. F i n a l l y , m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n analyses were executed to estimate the proportions of variance in achievement which are a s s o c i a t e d with each of the p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s : a b i l i t y , s o c i a l s t a t u s , p e r s i s t e n c e , and n a r c i s s i s m . 5 2 S i n c e n a r c i s s i s m , p e r s i s t e n c e , and a b i l i t y a r e l i k e l y t o o p e r a t e t o g e t h e r t o i n f l u e n c e a c h i e v e m e n t , any i n t e r a c t i o n among the p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s was d i s c u s s e d i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e f i v e h y p o t h e s e s . 53 CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS The present study was designed to explore school achievement i n a sample of p r i v a t e school c h i l d r e n and the i n f l u e n c e of some demographic and personal f a c t o r s on i t . Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t was the impact of p e r s i s t e n c e and n a r c i s s i s m on achievement. Accordingly, along with i n d i c e s of s o c i a l c l a s s and mental a b i l i t i e s (well e s t a b l i s h e d i n f l u e n c e s on s c h o l a s t i c achievement) s e v e r a l measures of p e r s i s t e n c e and n a r c i s s i s m were secured f o r the sample. The l a t t e r was p o s i t e d as a con s t r u c t that represents a p e r s o n a l i t y or d i s p o s i t i o n a l f a c t o r that moderates s t r i v i n g or p e r s i s t e n c e . The r a t i o n a l e f o r p o s i t i n g n a r c i s s i s m as a moderator v a r i a b l e turns on the t h e o r e t i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n between v a r i e t i e s of n a r c i s s i s m which are a s s o c i a t e d i n Freud's work with d i f f e r e n c e s i n c u l t u r a l absorption and attainment. This study incorporated an attempt to i d e n t i f y two v a r i a t i o n s of n a r c i s s i s t i c p e r s o n a l i t y - " n a r c i s s i s t i c - o b s e s s i o n a l s " and "non-obsessionals" - and f a c t o r s which i n f l u e n c e c h i l d r e n ' s school performance. Hypotheses about the r e l a t i o n s h i p of various i n d i c a t o r s of n a r c i s s i s m to achievement and about the a n t i c i p a t e d d i f f e r e n c e s between the two n a r c i s s i s t i c types (as s t a t e d i n Chapter Three) were explored through study of 56 p r i v a t e school c h i l d r e n . The present chapter i s devoted to a d e s c r i p t i o n of the r e s u l t s 5̂ of data analyses which were undertaken to compare the c h i l d r e n des ignated as o b s e s s i o n a l s with the remainder of the sample (the n o n - o b s e s s i o n a l s ) . The e m p i r i c a l r e s u l t s of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n are organ ized to inform the reader about (a) the nature of the sample, (b) the evidence gathered from the p r o j e c t i v e procedures , (c) the data from comparisons made between o b s e s s i o n a l s and n o n - o b s e s s i o n a l s , and (d) the data from the other measures of n a r c i s s i s m , p e r s i s t e n c e , s o c i a l s t a t u s , a b i l i t y , and achievement wi th respec t to the aggregate sample. S e c t i o n A ( d e s c r i p t i o n of the sample) h i g h l i g h t s data on gender c o m p o s i t i o n , s o c i a l c l a s s c o m p o s i t i o n , i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y , achievement, and p e r s i s t e n c e . The d e s c r i p t i o n of the sample should be kept c l e a r l y in mind by the reader who wishes to understand the remainder of the da ta , s i n c e t h i s sample i s not (and was not intended to be) a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample. Indeed, the s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r of the sample must be emphasized at the o u t s e t . S e c t i o n B (measurement of n a r c i s s i s m with p r o j e c t i v e s ) presents data on the p r o j e c t i v e ins trument . These data i n c l u d e an examinat ion of the e f f i c a c y of the 14 s t imulus cards as measured by the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l and p r e s e n t a t i o n a l i n d i c a t o r s of n a r c i s s i s m , as w e l l as a comparison of the p r o j e c t i v e instrument with the NPI. S e c t i o n C (comparing the o b s e s s i o n a l and non- o b s e s s i o n a l types) h i g h l i g h t s the data on o b s e s s i o n a l s and 55 non-obsessionals defined by judgment and by achievement. These data i n c l u d e comparisons of the two v a r i a n t s of n a r c i s s i s t i c p e r s o n a l i t y on a l l the measures. Sectio n D (examination of r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the measures) presents the data f o r the measures of n a r c i s s i s m , p e r s i s t e n c e , s o c i a l s t a t u s , a b i l i t y , and achievement. These data i n c l u d e a d e s c r i p t i o n of the t r a n s s i t u a t i o n a l consistency f o r subjects high i n n a r c i s s i s m versus subjects low i n n a r c i s s i s m and f o r o b s e s s i o n a l s versus non- o b s e s s i o n a l s . The data a l s o i n c l u d e s an examination of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the measures wit h i n the aggregate sample. Section A: D e s c r i p t i o n of the Sample It i s of primary importance to r e a l i z e that a p a r t i c u l a r segment of the school p o p u l a t i o n - p r i v a t e school c h i l d r e n - was purposely s e l e c t e d i n order that more could be learned about these c h i l d r e n v i s - a - v i s some v a r i a b l e s of educational and p s y c h o l o g i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . This, i n e f f e c t , r e s u l t e d i n a sample that was drawn from a h i g h l y a t y p i c a l (unrepresentative) population of c h i l d r e n . (1) The Homogeneity of the Sample Evidence of the homogeneity of the sample i s presented in Table I. F i r s t l y , v i r t u a l l y a l l of the subjects in the sample were g i r l s (54 of 56). Secondly, the m a j o r i t y of the c h i l d r e n i n the sample were from f a m i l i e s where the head of the household was e i t h e r an executive or a p r o f e s s i o n a l (43 of 56). These occupations are t r a d i t i o n a l l y a s s o c i a t e d with 56 Table I Demographic data for the aggregate sample (n=56) School Grade Female/Male R a t i o 1 n = 36 7 n = 36 36/0 2 n = 20 6 n = 20 18/2 B i r t h o r d e r n S i b l i n g s n S o c i a l S tatus (Head) n Only C h i l d 14 None 14 Entrepreneur 5 F i r s t Born 10 One 23 E x e c u t i v e / P r o f e s s i o n a l 43 Midd le 12 Two 13 M a n a g e r i a l / S m a l l Bus iness 7 Youngest 20 Three 5 S k i l l e d Labor 1 Four 1 higher than average l e v e l s of c u l t u r a l as well as economic c a p i t a l . Further evidence of the homogeneity of the sample i s presented i n Table I I . The summary s t a t i s t i c s on the measures f o r the sample i n d i c a t e that these c h i l d r e n are c l e a r l y d i f f e r e n t from those one might expect to f i n d i n the p u b l i c school p o p u l a t i o n . The mean p e r c e n t i l e ranks on a b i l i t y (82.14) and reading achievement (STEP, 81.89 and CTBS, 81.95) are nea r l y one standard d e v i a t i o n above the mean f o r a normal population. Moreover, the mean scores on the In Class (96.46), P i c t u r e Reproduction (61.58), and L e t t e r D e l e t i o n (33.23) measures of p e r s i s t e n c e suggest that these c h i l d r e n are a l s o remarkably p e r s i s t e n t i n tasks that r e q u i r e s t r i v i n g or w i l l f u l e f f o r t with l i t t l e r e t u r n on investment. It was a n t i c i p a t e d i n advance that s e l e c t i n g a r e s t r i c t e d and homogeneous sample would l i k e l y r e s u l t in low variance on some measures of the con s t r u c t s and hence low c o r r e l a t i o n s between measures when values from t h i s sample are considered by themselves ( i . e . , when a h i g h l y homogeneous or unrepresentative sample i s considered). (2) Comparison of the Two Subsets of the Sample The subjects f o r t h i s study were drawn from two p r i v a t e elementary schools to ensure that the sample s i z e was adequate. However, t h i s expediency created a problem because two d i f f e r e n t measures of the c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e (achievement) were provided by the two schools. C e r t a i n l y , 58 Table II Summary s t a t i s t i c s on the measures of a b i l i t y , r e a d i n g achievement, p e r s i s t e n c e , and n a r c i s s i s m for the aggregate sample Measure n Mean + S . D • Range A b i l i t y (Ot i s -Lennon) 50 82. 14 17 . 61 25- 99 Reading Achievement (STEP) 35 81. 89 15. 94 47- 99 Reading Achievement (CTBS) 19 81. 95 17 . 83 46- 99 P e r s i s t e n c e - I n C l a s s 56 96. 46 5 . 79 71-100 P e r s i s t e n c e - P i c t u r e Reproduct ion 36 61 . 58 9. 22 26- 65 P e r s i s t e n c e - L e t t e r D e l e t i o n 56 33 . 23 5 . 21 12- 35 N a r c i s s i s m - N P I 56 16. 07 8. 15 1- 39 N a r c i s s i s m - P r o j e c t i v e T o t a l 56 9. 59 5 . 94 1- 32 + The u n i t s of measure f o r the means are as f o i l o w s : O t i s - L e n n o n - p e r c e n t i l e ranks STEP - p e r c e n t i l e ranks CTBS - p e r c e n t i l e ranks In C l a s s - transformed score (maximum score : 100) P i c t u r e Reproduct ion - minutes (maximum time: 65 minutes) L e t t e r D e l e t i o n - minutes (maximum time: 35 minutes) NPI - raw score (maximum score : 54) P r o j e c t i v e T o t a l - raw score (maximum score : 308) 59 o b t a i n i n g a common metr i c for achievement would have been more d e s i r a b l e , but doing so was not f e a s i b l e . However, s i n c e s t a n d a r d i z e d r e a d i n g achievement scores were a v a i l a b l e from both s c h o o l s , r e a d i n g achievement was used as the dependent v a r i a b l e in t h i s s tudy . The sample s i z e enhancement was necessary even at the cost of hav ing two i n s t e a d of one common measure of achievement. As a consequence of the f a c t that the two schoo l s used d i f f e r e n t s t a n d a r d i z e d achievement t e s t s , i t was necessary to determine whether the two subsets of the sample d i f f e r e d . Two o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s of achievement r e q u i r e d that r e c o g n i t i o n be g iven to two subsets of the sample. Analyses were n e c e s s a r i l y more e l a b o r a t e than was planned because of t h i s c o m p l i c a t i o n . Oneway u n i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e (ANOVA) and C h i - square were used to t e s t the two subsets (as comparison groups) f o r s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s , and the c r i t e r i o n f o r judgment of s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e was p<.05. The means and s tandard d e v i a t i o n s of the measured performances for the two schools are presented in Table I I I A . The r e s u l t s of the ANOVA d i d not i n d i c a t e that there were any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the two groups on i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y , n a r c i s s i s m (NPI and p r o j e c t i v e t o t a l ) , and p e r s i s t e n c e (In C l a s s and L e t t e r D e l e t i o n ) . (The P i c t u r e Reproduct ion measure of p e r s i s t e n c e was not a d m i n i s t e r e d in School 2. Hence, no comparison was made on t h i s measure.) 60 Table IIIA Summary of oneway a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e on each independent measure for School 1 versus School 2 - Measure School n Mean + S . D • A b i l i t y (Ot i s -Lennon) 1 31 85. 77 13. 03 ( F ( l , 4 8 ) = 3 . 6 7 , p=.062) 2 19 76. 21 22. 38 P e r s i s t e n c e - I n C l a s s 1 36 95. 56 6. 47 ( F ( l , 5 4)=2 . 5 6 , p=.116) 2 20 98. 10 3. 95 P e r s i s t e n c e - L e t t e r D e l e t i o n 1 36 34. 08 2. 74 ( F ( l , 5 4 ) = 2 . 7 8 , p=.102) 2 20 31. 70 7. 81 N a r c i s s ism-NPI 1 36 17. 00 8. 86 ( F ( l , 5 4)=1 . 3 2 , p=.256) n 20 14. 40 6. 56 N a r c i s s i s m - P r o j e c t i v e T o t a l 1 36 9. 75 6. 12 ( F ( l , 5 4 ) = 0 . 0 7 , p=.789) 2 20 9. 30 5. 75 + The u n i t s of measure f o r the means are as f o l l o w s : O t i s - L e n n o n - p e r c e n t i l e ranks In C l a s s - transformed score (maximum score : 100) L e t t e r D e l e t i o n - minutes (maximum time: 35 minutes) NPI - raw score (maximum score : 54) P r o j e c t i v e T o t a l - raw score (maximum score : 308) 61 A summary of the C h i - s q u a r e a n a l y s i s on the two schoo l s i s presented i n Tables IIIB and I I I C . The r e s u l t s of the C h i - s q u a r e r e v e a l e d that the only measures where the groups d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y were s o c i a l s t a t u s , wherein c o n s i d e r a t i o n was g iven to the top occupat ion in each f a m i l y (p=.010); and judged degree of n a r c i s s i s m (p=.045). There were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the two groups on the other two judgment c a t e g o r i e s of n a r c i s s i s m : o v e r a l l and type . Moreover, s c a t t e r p l o t s of r e a d i n g achievement wi th a b i l i t y are i l l u s t r a t e d in F i g u r e s 1-3. Upon examinat ion of the three p l o t s , the two subsets do not appear to d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from each o ther , and n e i t h e r of the two subsets appear to d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from the aggregate sample. However, one should s t i l l have r e s e r v a t i o n s about c o l l a p s i n g the two separate se ts of scores f o r r e a d i n g achievement i n t o one common s c a l e . The S e q u e n t i a l Tests of E d u c a t i o n a l Progress (STEP) and the Canadian Tests of B a s i c S k i l l s (CTBS) are d i f f e r e n t t e s t s , and the norms were d e r i v e d from performances from d i f f e r e n t p o p u l a t i o n s . A c c o r d i n g l y , the two subsets w i l l be cons idered s e p a r a t e l y when de termin ing the r e l a t i o n s h i p of r e a d i n g achievement to the independent measures (as s t a t e d in Chapter T h r e e ) , and c o n s i d e r e d together for the purpose of i d e n t i f y i n g the o b s e s s i o n a l and n o n - o b s e s s i o n a l v a r i a n t s w i t h i n the aggregate sample. 62 Table IIIB Summary of Chi-square analysis of the d i s t r i b u t i o n s of subjects on the s o c i a l status measure for School 1 versus School 2 o c c u p a t i o n o f h e a d o f h o u s e h o l d COUNT EXP VAL ROW PCT COL PCT TOT PCT RESIDUAL STD RES ADJ RES s c h o o l 1| 1 e n t r e p r e n e u r e x e c u t i v e / p r o f e s m a n a g e r i a 1 /sma11 s k i 1 1 e d 1 a b o r C O L U M N TOTAL 2| 3 2 3.2 1 .8 60.0% 40.0% 8.3% 10.0% 5.4% 3.6% -.2 . 2 - . 1 .2 -.2 . 2 32 1 1 27.6 15.4 74 . 4% 25 .6% 88.9% 55.0% 57 . 1% 19 .6% 4 . 4 -4.4 .8 -1.1 2.9 -2.9 1 6 4 . 5 2.5 14 . 3% 85. 7% 2.8% 30.0% 1 .8% 10.7% -3.5 3.5 -1.6 2.2 -3.0 3.0 0 1 .6 . 4 .0% 100.0% .0% 5 .0% .0% 1 .8% - .6 .6 - .8 1 . 1 -1.4 1 .4 36 20 64 . 3% 35 . 7% ROW TOTAL 5 8.9% 43 76.8% 7 1 2 .5% 1 .8% 56 100.0% C H I - S Q U A R E 0 . F . S I G N I F I C A N C E 1 1 .38522 O.0098 63. Table IIIC Summary of Chi-square analysis of the di s t r i b u t i o n s of subjects on judged degree of narcissism for School 1 versus School 2 n a r c i s s i s m - judgment of degree h i g h COUNT EXP VAL ROW PCT COL PCT TOT PCT RESIDUAL STD RES ADJ RES sch o o l 1| 1 medium 1 ow COLUMN TOTAL 2| 1 - 1 1 .3 .7 50.0% 50.0% 2. ay. 5.0% 1 .8% 1 .8% - .3 . 3 - .3 .3 • -.4 . 4 14 14 18.0 10.0 50.0% 50.0% 38 .9% 70.0% 25 .0% 25.0% -4.0 4.0 - .9 1 .3 -2.2 2.2 17 2 12.2 6.8 89.5% 10.5% 47 . 2% 10.0% 30. 4% 3.6% 4.8 -4.8 1 . 4 -1.8 2.8 -2.8 4 3 4 . 5 2 . 5 57 . 1% 42 .9% 1 1 .1% 15 .0% 7 . 1% 5 . 4% - . 5 . 5 - .2 . 3 - . 4 . 4 36 20 64 . 3% 35.7% ROW TOTAL 2 3.6% 28 50.0% 19 33 .9% 7 12 . 5% 56 100.0% CHI-SQUARE D.F. SIGNIFICANCE 8.07251 3 0.0445 64 Figure 1 Plot of the a b i l i t y measure (Otis-Lennon) and the reading achievement measure (STEP) from School 1 CN *— -~ 0) 05 i n 0) + i n O 0) m co i n 6 CO HI 10 01 15 >. a i n CN a -— i n £ 10 c i p c (1) i n — r - ! if) *~ — 10 r~ 0 i n , ' if) i n Qi CN CN L I •— LO -— r - T TJ 0) 0 Q. in C i/i (3 O ID C7J o CO + ID i n e u ; - D > a; = i> c ; in a o. CN - n S ~ 65 Figure 2 Plot of the a b i l i t y measure (Otis-Lennon) and the reading achievement measure (CTBS) from School 2 o a. — i - m <c T5 — C DI o c s a • — 66 Figure 3 Plot of the a b i l i t y measure (Otis-Lennon) and the reading achievement measures from both schools _ U I < Q H Z ( J 67 S e c t i o n B: Measurement of N a r c i s s i s m With P r o j e c t i v e s As was s t a t e d in Chapters Two and Three , the c u r r e n t p r o j e c t i n c o r p o r a t e d an attempt to assess the c o n s t r u c t of n a r c i s s i s m through p r o j e c t i v e s . The p r o j e c t i v e instrument and the data generated from i t s use are c e n t r a l f e a t u r e s of t h i s s tudy , and warrant emphasis. (1) E v a l u a t i o n of the P r o j e c t i v e Instrument In view of the known d i f f i c u l t y in a s s e s s i n g n a r c i s s i s m wi th q u e s t i o n n a i r e s (because they t y p i c a l l y i n v i t e de fens ive d i s t o r t i o n and impress ion management), the s a i d p r o j e c t i v e instrument was d e v i s e d . It was designed to a l low f o r an i n s p e c t i o n of the psychodynamics of n a r c i s s i s t i c s u b j e c t s i n a n o n - o b t r u s i v e manner which minimizes defenses aga ins t d i r e c t examinat ion of s e n s i t i v e content . Because s u b j e c t s were asked to respond to g e n e r a l l y vague p i c t u r e s wi th t h e i r own c o n s t r u c t i o n s , there was no apparent reason or s i g n a l f o r defens iveness on these mat t er s . Consequent ly , the p r e s e n t a t i o n of the s e r i e s of 14 s t imulus cards a l lowed for an a n a l y s i s of such p r o j e c t i o n s f o r i n d i c a t i o n s of n a r c i s s i s m . A summary of the aggregate t o t a l s for the 14 s t imulus cards and f o r the d i s t r i b u t i o n s of these t o t a l s across the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l and p r e s e n t a t i o n a l i n d i c a t o r s i s presented in Table IV. The r e l a t i v e y i e l d of each of the 14 s t imulus cards was determined by adding the frequency of i n d i c a t i o n s f o r the cards and the i n d i c a t o r s . It i s noteworthy that the cards do not appear to be e q u a l l y e f f e c t i v e in e l i c i t i n g 68 Table IV Summary of t o t a l s for the 14 s t i m u l u s cards and f o r the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l (R) and p r e s e n t a t i o n a l (P) i n d i c a t o r s on the p r o j e c t i v e measure of n a r c i s s i s m f o r the aggregate sample St imulus C a r d s * * T I n d i c a t o r s 0 of 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 T N a r c i s s ism A L envy R 0 0 0 0 1 0 3 0 0 2 0 1 0 2 9 P 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 devaluate R 3 9 3 0 4 10 5 7 5 2 0 2 6 4 60 P 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 3 d e p r e c i a t e R 2 1 0 0 0 4 2 1 0 0 0 1 3 1 15 P 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 5 aggrandi ze R 0 0 6 34 0 5 2 1 0 1 39 1 3 1 93 P 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 omnipotence R 0 0 1 0 0 3 0 1 0 0 3 0 2 1 11 P 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 a t t e n t ion R 0 0 6 1 1 1 1 3 1 3 1 0 2 4 24 P 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 s e l f - e s t e e m R 4 25 7 3 6 20 16 10 18 4 2 2 21 7 145 P 1 3 1 0 0 3 0 2 0 2 0 1 3 1 17 en t i t l em ent R 0 4 0 0 0 0 3 0 3 0 0 0 1 0 11 P 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 4 e x p l o i t R 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 P 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 i d e a l i z e R 5 12 4 2 6 17 10 7 9 5 0 2 20 12 111 P 2 1 2 0 1 2 1 2 1 1 0 0 0 2 15 empathy R 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 5 P 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 TOTAL 17 57 33 42 20 70 44 35 40 20 48 i o 62 39 537 * * The 14 cards d e p i c t e d the f o l l o w i n g subjec t matter: (1) male d e n t i s t with boy (2) mother wi th son (3) female coach with boy (4) a d u l t wi th c h i l d (5) female nurse with boy (6) male teacher with boy (7) male l eader with boy , (8) male d e n t i s t wi th g i r l (9) mother with daughter (10) male coach with g i r l (11) man and woman with c h i l d (12) female nurse wi th g i r l (13) male teacher wi th g i r l (14) female l eader wi th g i r l (See Appendix A f o r e l a b o r a t i o n of the s t imulus c a r d s . ) (See Appendix B f o r e l a b o r a t i o n of the i n d i c a t o r s . ) 69 signs of n a r c i s s i s m , as evidenced by the t o t a l s f o r the cards. I n t e r e s t i n g l y , the two most productive cards were Cards 6 and 13 (both depict a classroom scene). The two i n d i c a t o r s which appear most f r e q u e n t l y throughout the cards are " f r a g i l i t y of self-esteem" and " i d e a l i z a t i o n . " Moreover, "a g g r a n d i z a t i o n " appears most f r e q u e n t l y i n Cards 4 and 11 (the only two cards wherein the c h i l d i s de p i c t e d as the person i n a p o s i t i o n of power and c o n t r o l ) . "Devaluation of help" (considered to be a c r u c i a l d i a g n o s t i c i n d i c a t o r of narci s s i s m ) was observed r e g u l a r l y and f r e q u e n t l y across the cards, while "envy" and "lack of empathy" were witnessed with l e s s e r frequency. Furthermore, only one i n d i c a t o r ( " e x p l o i t a t i v e n e s s " ) was not apparent i n any of the cards. From examining the scores f o r each of the i n d i c a t o r s , i t i s c l e a r that the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l (verbal-symbolic) i n d i c a t o r s were observed with f a r greater frequency than the- p r e s e n t a t i o n a l (expressive) i n d i c a t o r s . Accordingly, an i n s p e c t i o n of how well the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l and p r e s e n t a t i o n a l i n d i c a t o r s c o r r e l a t e was necessary. To determine the d i r e c t i o n and magnitude of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l and p r e s e n t a t i o n a l i n d i c e s of the p r o j e c t i v e instrument, a Pearson c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t and two rank order c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s (Kendall's Tau and Spearman's Rho) were computed. The Pearson c o r r e l a t i o n revealed that the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s u b t o t a l showed a respectable p o s i t i v e 70 c o r r e l a t i o n wi th the p r e s e n t a t i o n s u b t o t a l of the p r o j e c t i v e ( r= .46) . S i m i l a r l y , the two rank order c o r r e l a t i o n s between the two i n d i c e s uncovered the same f i n d i n g ( K e n d a l l ' s Tau, rs=.34; Spearman's Rho, r s= .41 ) . Moreover, the r e l i a b i l i t y of the p r o j e c t i v e instrument was assessed u s i n g the aggregate sample. A s p l i t - h a l f ( i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y ) t e s t was performed u s i n g the Spearman-Brown prophecy f o r m u l a , which c o r r e c t s f o r a t t e n u a t i o n . The r e s u l t s from the computation i n d i c a t e that the r e l i a b i l i t y of the p r o j e c t i v e i s at a r e s p e c t a b l e l e v e l (equal l eng th Spearman-Brown=.74) (Cronbach's Alpha for f i r s t 7 cards=.44; Cronbach's Alpha for second 7 cards= .49 ) . (2) Assessment of N a r c i s s i s m With the P r o j e c t i v e and NPI With n a r c i s s i s m de f ined a l t e r n a t i v e l y by the t o t a l from the p r o j e c t i v e instrument and by the NPI, comparisons were made between s u b j e c t s h igh in n a r c i s s i s m and those low in n a r c i s s i s m as measured by the two t e s t s . The means and s tandard d e v i a t i o n s of the measured performances for the top and bottom q u a r t i l e s of the p r o j e c t i v e are presented in Table VA. When the p r o j e c t i v e instrument was used as the o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n of n a r c i s s i s m , the r e s u l t s of oneway ANOVA a p p l i e d to s u b j e c t s i n the top versus those in the bottom q u a r t i l e s of the p r o j e c t i v e r e v e a l that subjec t s in the top q u a r t i l e have a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h igher mean score on the NPI measure of n a r c i s s i s m than those f a l l i n g in the bottom q u a r t i l e (F(1 ,24)=5.12 , p=.033). Moreover, subjec t s in the top 71 Table VA Summary of oneway a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e on each measure f o r s u b j e c t s in the top q u a r t i l e (T) versus subjec t s in the bottom q u a r t i l e (B) of the p r o j e c t i v e measure of n a r c i s s i s m Measure Group n Mean* S .D. A b i l i t y (Ot i s -Lennon) T 9 80 . 00 14. 24 ( F ( l , 1 9 ) = 0 . 0 2 , p=.898) B 12 78. 92 21. 54 Reading Achievement (STEP) T 8 81. 38 17. 32 ( F ( i , 1 4 ) = 1 . 0 6 , P- .320) B 8 73. 25 14. 02 Reading Achievement (CTBS) T 3 77. 33 20 . 21 ( F ( l , 7 ) = 0 . 1 0 , p=.766) B 6 81. 83 20 . 70 P e r s i s t e n c e - I n C l a s s * T 12 93. 33 8. 65 ( F ( l , 2 4 ) = 4 . 3 4 , p=.048) B 14 98. 36 2. 47 P e r s i s t e n c e - P i c t u r e Reproduct ion T 8 59. 13 11. 17 ( F ( l , 1 4 ) = 0 . 0 3 , p=.876) B 8 60. 13 13. 79 P e r s i s t e n c e - L e t t e r D e l e t i o n T 12 31. 58 6. 99 (F( l . ,24)=0.17, p=.688) B 14 32. 57 5 . 40 N a r c i s s i s m - N P I * T 12 17. 67 6. 85 ( F ( l , 2 4 ) = 5 . 1 2 , p=.033) B 14 12. 50 4. 74 * S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s at p< + The u n i t s of measure for the . 05 means are as f o i l o w s : O t i s - L e n n o n - p e r c e n t i l e ranks STEP - p e r c e n t i l e ranks CTBS - p e r c e n t i l e ranks In C l a s s - transformed score (maximum score : 100) P i c t u r e Reproduct ion - minutes (maximum time: 65 minutes) L e t t e r D e l e t i o n - minutes (maximum time: 35 minutes) NPI - raw score (maximum score : 54) P r o j e c t i v e T o t a l - raw score (maximum score : 308) 72 q u a r t i l e have a s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower mean score on the In C l a s s measure of p e r s i s t e n c e than those in the bottom q u a r t i l e (F(1 ,24)=4.34 , p=.048). No other s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were observed between the two q u a r t i l e s on the measures of a b i l i t y , r e a d i n g achievement, and the other two measures o f p e r s i s t e n c e . In a d d i t i o n , a summary of the C h i - s q u a r e a n a l y s i s on the top and bottom q u a r t i l e s of the p r o j e c t i v e i s presented i n Tables VB, VC , and VD. The r e s u l t s from C h i - s q u a r e a p p l i e d to the two q u a r t i l e s i n d i c a t e that the s u b j e c t s i n the top q u a r t i l e d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from those in the bottom q u a r t i l e of the p r o j e c t i v e on a l l three judgment c a t e g o r i e s of n a r c i s s i s m ( o v e r a l l judgment, p=.015; judged degree, p=.002; and judged type , p=.008). However, no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found between the two q u a r t i l e s wi th repect to s o c i a l s t a t u s . The means and s tandard d e v i a t i o n s of the measured performances for the top and bottom q u a r t i l e s of the NPI are presented in Table VI . When the NPI was used as the o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n of n a r c i s s i s m , the r e s u l t s from oneway ANOVA a p p l i e d to subjec t s in the top versus those in the bottom q u a r t i l e s of the NPI i n d i c a t e that s u b j e c t s in the top q u a r t i l e of the NPI have a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h igher mean score on the p r o j e c t i v e measure of n a r c i s s i s m than those f a l l i n g in the bottom q u a r t i l e (F(1,27)=4.75, p=.038). No other s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found between the two 73 Table VB Summary of Chi-square analysis of the dis t r i b u t i o n s of subjects on ove r a l l judgment of narcissism for the top and bottom quartiles of the projective n a r c 1 s s i sm COUNT EXP VAL ROW PCT COL PCT TOT PCT RESIDUAL STD RES AOd RES o v e r a l l judgment n o t a b l e s i g n s top 1 2 s bottom 1 c o r e s on 4 s c o r e s 1.00| 2.00| 1 not apparent COLUMN TOTAL 12 7 8.8 10 .2 63 . 2% 36 .8% 100.0% 50 .0% 46.2% 26 .9% 3 . 2 -3 .2 1 . 1 - 1 .0 2.9 -2 .9 0 7 3.2 3 .8 . 0% 100 .0% .0% 50 0% .0% 26 9% -3.2 3 2 -1.8 1 7 -2.9 2 9 12 14 46 . 2% 53 8% ROW TOTAL 19 73 . 1% 7 26 . 9% 26 100.0% CMI-SQUARE D . F . SIGNIFICANCE 5.86583 0.0154 74 Table VC Summary of Chi-square analys is of the d i s t r i b u t i o n s of subjects on judged degree of narciss ism for the top and bottom quart i l e s of the projec t ive narc i ss i sm judgment of degree h i g h COUNT EXP VAL ROW PCT COL PCT TOT PCT RESIDUAL STD RES ADO RES top 12 s bottom 1 c o r e s on 4 s c o r e s 1.00| 2.00| + + 1 med i um 1 ow COLUMN TOTAL 2 0 .9 1 . 1 100 .0% .0% 16 .7% .0% 7 .7% .0% 1 . 1 - 1 . 1 1 . 1 -1 .0 1 .6 - 1 .6 10 4 6 .5 7 . 5 71 .4% 28 .6% 83 .3% 28 .6% 38 .5% 15 .4% 3 .5 -3 .5 1 .4 - 1 . 3 2 . 8 -2 .8 0 3 1 . 4 1 .6 .0% 100 .0% .0% 2 1 .4% .0% 1 1 .5% -1 .4 1 .4 - 1 . 2 1 . 1 - 1 . 7 1 . 7 0 7 3 . 2 3 8 .0% 100 0% .0% 50 0% .0% 26 9% -3 . 2 3 2 - 1 .8 1 7 -2 .9 2 9 12 14 46 .2% 53 8% ROW TOTAL 2 .7% 14 53 . 8% 1 1 3 .5% 7 26 . 9% 26 100.0% CHI-SOUARE D.F. SIGNIFICANCE 14.50340 3 0.0023 T a b l e VD 75 Summary o f C h i - s q u a r e a n a l y s i s o f the d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f s u b j e c t s on j u d g e d t y p e o f n a r c i s s i s m f o r the top and bo t tom q u a r t i l e s o f t he p r o j e c t i v e n a r c i s s i s m - judgment of type COUNT EXP VAL ROW PCT COL PCT TOT PCT RESIDUAL STD RES ADJ RES top 12 s bottom 1 c o r e s on 4 s c o r e s 1 .001 2 .001 1 obsess i ona1 non-obsess1ona1 n o n - o b s e s s i o n a l s ( j u d g e d as s h o w i n g no a p p a r e n t s i g n s o f n a r c i s s i s m ) COLUMN TOTAL 5 1 2 8 3 2 83 3% 16 7% 41 7% 7 1% 19 2% 3 8% 2 2 -2 2 1 3 -1 2 2 1 -2 1 7 6 6 .0 7 0 53 .8% 46 2% 58 .3% 42 9% 26 .9% 23 . 1% 1 .0 - 1 0 .4 - .4 . 8 - .8 0 7 3 .2 3 .8 .0% 100 .0% .0% 50 .0% .0% 26 .9% -3 . 2 3 . 2 - 1 .8 1 . 7 -2 .9 2 .9 12 14 46 .2% 53 .8% ROW TOTAL 6 23. 1% 13 50.0% 7 26.9% 26 100.0% CHI-SQUARE 0 . F . SIGNIFICANCE 9 .64683 0.0080 76 Table VI Summary of oneway a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e on each measure f o r s u b j e c t s in the top q u a r t i l e (T) versus s u b j e c t s in the bottom q u a r t i l e (B) of the NPI Measure Group n Mean + S . D 1 A b i l i t y (Ot i s -Lennon) T 12 81. 83 19. 62 (F(l,23)=0.17, p=.687) B 13 78. 46 21. 53 Reading Achievement (STEP) T 11 92 . 36 7. 17 (F(l,18)=4.12, p=.058) B 9 80 . 33 18. 09 Reading Achievement (CTBS) T 3 63. 67 17. 04 (F(l,6)=0.36, p=.573) B 5 72. 60 22. 03 P e r s i s t e n c e - I n C l a s s T 14 97. 50 3. 11 (F(l,27)=0.00,. p=.946) B 15 97. 40 4. 61 P e r s i s t e n c e - P i c t u r e Reproduct ion T 11 64. 09 3. 02 (F(1,I9)=0..63, p=.438) B 10 62. 20 7. 27 P e r s i s t e n c e - L e t t e r D e l e t i o n T 14 33. 57 •3 . 57 (F(l,27)=0.00, p=.953) B 15 33. 47 5 . 67 N a r c i s s i s m - P r o j e c t i v e T o t a l * T 14 12. 57 7 . 27 ( F ( l , 2 7 ) = 4 . 7 5 , p=.038) B 15 7. 80 4 . 23 * S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s at p<.05 + The u n i t s of measure for the means are as f o l l o w s : O t i s - L e n n o n - p e r c e n t i l e ranks STEP - p e r c e n t i l e ranks CTBS - p e r c e n t i l e ranks In C l a s s - transformed score (maximum score : 100) P i c t u r e Reproduct ion - minutes (maximum time: 65 minutes) L e t t e r D e l e t i o n - minutes (maximum time: 35 minutes) NPI - raw score (maximum score : 54) P r o j e c t i v e T o t a l - raw score (maximum score : 308) 77 q u a r t i l e s on the measures of a b i l i t y , r e a d i n g achievement, and p e r s i s t e n c e . In a d d i t i o n , the r e s u l t s from C h i - s q u a r e a p p l i e d to the two q u a r t i l e s of the NPI r e v e a l that there are no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the two q u a r t i l e s w i th respect to the judgment c a t e g o r i e s of n a r c i s s i s m and s o c i a l s t a tus . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the NPI and the p r o j e c t i v e t o t a l i s yet another t o p i c of i n t e r e s t in t h i s s tudy . As s t a t e d i n Chapters Two and Three , i t was a n t i c i p a t e d that the r e l a t i o n s h i p between performances on the NPI ( i . e . , p e r s o n a l i t y i n v e n t o r y ) and performances on the p r o j e c t i v e dev ice ( i . e . , t r a n s f e r e n c e i n d i c a t o r s - t o t a l of the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l and p r e s e n t a t i o n a l i n d i c e s ) would be negat ive due to de fens ive d i s t o r t i o n a s s o c i a t e d with performances on the NPI (Hypothes is 1) . To determine the d i r e c t i o n and magnitude of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the NPI and the p r o j e c t i v e t o t a l , a Pearson c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t and two rank order c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s ( K e n d a l l ' s Tau and Spearman's Rho) were computed. The Pearson c o r r e l a t i o n between scores on the NPI and scores on the p r o j e c t i v e ( for the aggregate sample) r e v e a l e d a low p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p ( r= .19) . S i m i l a r l y , the two rank order c o r r e l a t i o n s between these two measures of n a r c i s s i s m ( for the aggregate sample) uncovered the same r e s u l t ( K e n d a l l ' s Tau, rs=.17; Spearman's Rho, r s = .23). 78 Although the c o r r e l a t i o n s are not n e g a t i v e , they do i n d i c a t e nonethe less that the two measures are not s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d . The f i n d i n g s might a l so suggest that the two ins truments measure d i f f e r e n t dimensions of n a r c i s s i s m . S e c t i o n C: The O b s e s s i o n a l and Non-Obsess iona l Types Though examinat ion of aggregates i s necessary i n order to a c q u i r e an unders tanding of the nature and t e s t performances of the sample in g e n e r a l , aggregates tend to concea l the nature of t h e i r subgroups. An i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the subgroups w i t h i n an aggregate sample u s u a l l y r e v e a l s v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n about such subgroups and t h e i r r e l a t i o n to the aggregate . In the present s tudy, two subgroups are of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t : the n a r c i s s i s t i c - o b s e s s i o n a l and the non- o b s e s s i o n a l v a r i a n t s of n a r c i s s i s t i c p e r s o n a l i t y . It was expected, as s t a t e d in Chapter Three , that for o b s e s s i o n a l s , n a r c i s s i s m would be p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to p e r s i s t e n c e (Hypothes is 2 ) . It was a l so a n t i c i p a t e d that for non- o b s e s s i o n a l s , n a r c i s s i s m would be n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d to p e r s i s t e n c e (Hypothes is 3 ) . Because the t h e o r e t i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n between the two v a r i a n t s of n a r c i s s i s t i c p e r s o n a l i t y was a pr imary i n t e r e s t of t h i s s tudy , d i f f e r e n c e s between the o b s e s s i o n a l and non- o b s e s s i o n a l types in a d d i t i o n to those p o s t u l a t e d in Hypotheses 2 and 3 were observed. These d i f f e r e n c e s are a l s o worthy of examinat ion . 79 To d e t e r m i n e t h e d i r e c t i o n and magnitude o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between n a r c i s s i s m and p e r s i s t e n c e f o r o b s e s s i o n a l s and n o n - o b s e s s i o n a l s , P e a r s o n c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were computed. In a d d i t i o n , oneway u n i v a r i a t e a n a l y s e s o f v a r i a n c e (ANOVA) and C h i - s q u a r e s were a l s o computed t o e x p l o r e d i f f e r e n c e s between th e two s u b g r o u p s . (1) D e f i n i n g the O b s e s s i o n a l Type To f a c i l i t a t e c o m p a r i s o n s , o b s e s s i o n a l s and non- o b s e s s i o n a l s were each d e f i n e d two ways: by c l i n i c a l judgment and by a c h i e v e m e n t . In the f o r m e r p r o c e d u r e , t h e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n between an o b s e s s i o n a l and a n o n - o b s e s s i o n a l was made on t h e b a s i s o f c l i n i c a l judgment p r i o r to t h e a c t u a l s c o r i n g o f the p r o t o c o l s f o r the p r o j e c t i v e ( s e e C h a p t e r T h r e e ) . In t h e l a t t e r p r o c e d u r e , the marker f o r an o b s e s s i o n a l was o v e r a c h i e v e m e n t ( d e f i n e d as g r e a t e r a c h i e v e m e n t than one would e x p e c t from g i v e n l e v e l s o f a b i l i t y and s o c i a l s t a t u s ) , and a l l o t h e r s who were not o v e r a c h i e v i n g were c l a s s i f i e d as n o n - o b s e s s i o n a l s . A minimum o f a s e v e n p e r c e n t i l e rank d i s c r e p a n c y between a b i l i t y and a c h i e v e m e n t was u s e d as t h e c r i t e r i o n f o r o v e r a c h i e v e m e n t . (The seven p e r c e n t i l e rank d i s c r e p a n c y i s as a r b i t r a r y as any chosen d e m a r c a t i o n . However, b e c a u s e i t a l l o w e d f o r a minimum o f 12 s u b j e c t s to c o m p r i s e t h e o v e r a c h i e v e m e n t group, t h i s c r i t e r i o n was a d o p t e d as a d e q u a t e . W h i l e a h i g h e r d i s c r e p a n c y v a l u e ( e . g . , t e n p e r c e n t i l e r a n k s ) might have been more d e s i r a b l e , t h e s i z e o f the o v e r a c h i e v e m e n t group would have been i n s u f f i c i e n t 80 f o r purposes of comparing subgroups us ing oneway ANOVA. In f a c t , a ten p e r c e n t i l e rank d i s c r e p a n c y would have reduced the number of s u b j e c t s in the overachievement group to on ly 9. ) (2) D e f i n i n g O b s e s s i o n a l s by C l i n i c a l Judgment The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s showing the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the measures of n a r c i s s i s m and p e r s i s t e n c e f o r o b s e s s i o n a l s (de f ined by judgment) are presented in Table VIIA. When c l i n i c a l judgment was used as the procedure f o r d i s c r i m i n a t i n g between o b s e s s i o n a l s and n o n - o b s e s s i o n a l s , the i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s among the v a r i a b l e s i n d i c a t e that f o r o b s e s s i o n a l s , the NPI measure of n a r c i s s i s m shows low and modest p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s wi th the P i c t u r e Reproduct ion and L e t t e r D e l e t i o n measures of p e r s i s t e n c e (r=.21 and r=.42 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) (n=5 f o r P i c t u r e Reproduct ion) but does not appear to be r e l a t e d to the In C l a s s measure of p e r s i s t e n c e ( r= .00) . In a d d i t i o n , the NPI d i s p l a y s moderate p o s i t i v e and moderate negat ive c o r r e l a t i o n s wi th the STEP and CTBS measures of r e a d i n g achievement (r=.69 and r=- .73 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) (n=4 and n=6 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . The p r o j e c t i v e measure of n a r c i s s i s m mani fes t s a modest p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p wi th the L e t t e r D e l e t i o n measure of p e r s i s t e n c e (r=.42) but shows moderate and low negat ive c o r r e l a t i o n s wi th the In C l a s s and P i c t u r e Reproduct ion measures of p e r s i s t e n c e (r=- .50 and r=- .22 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) (n=5 for P i c t u r e R e p r o d u c t i o n ) . Furthermore , the p r o j e c t i v e t o t a l d i s p l a y s modest and low negat ive c o r r e l a t i o n s wi th the STEP 81 Table VIIA C o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s (Pearson r) of the n a r c i s s i s m measures wi th the r e a d i n g achievement and p e r s i s t e n c e measures f o r o b s e s s i o n a l s (de f ined by c l i n i c a l judgment) Measure n NPI P r o j e c t i v e T o t a l Reading Achievement (STEP) 4 . 69 - . 44 Reading Achievement (CTBS) 6 - . 73 - . 0 8 P e r s i s t e n c e - I n C l a s s 12 . 00 - . 50 P e r s i s t e n c e - P i c t u r e Reproduct ion 5 .21 - . 22 P e r s i s t e n c e - L e t t e r D e l e t i o n 12 . 42 . 42 Table VIIB C o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s (Pearson r) of the n a r c i s s i s m measures wi th the r e a d i n g achievement and p e r s i s t e n c e measures for n o n - o b s e s s i o n a l s (de f ined as a l l those not judged as o b s e s s i o n a l s ) Measure n NPI P r o j e c t i v e T o t a l Reading Achievement (STEP) 31 . 19 . 20 Reading Achievement (CTBS) 13 - .22 - .01 P e r s i s t e n c e - I n C l a s s 44 . 00 - . 0 7 P e r s i s t e n c e - P i c t u r e Reproduct ion 31 . 14 . 07 P e r s i s t e n c e - L e t t e r D e l e t i o n 44 . 07 - . 15 82 and CTBS measures of r e a d i n g achievement (r=- .44 and r=- .08 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) (n=4 and n=6 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . It i s noteworthy that wi th the d e f i n i t i o n of n a r c i s s i s m o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d a l t e r n a t i v e l y by the NPI and by the t o t a l of the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l and p r e s e n t a t i o n a l i n d i c a t o r s from the p r o j e c t i v e ins trument , the r e s u l t i n g c o r r e l a t i o n s wi th the In C l a s s and P i c t u r e Reproduct ion measures of p e r s i s t e n c e d i f f e r (r=.00 and r=- .50 f o r the former; r=.21 and r=- .22 f o r the l a t t e r ) (n=5 for the l a t t e r ) . The same i s t rue f o r the STEP and CTBS measures of r e a d i n g achievement (r=.69 and r=- .44 f o r the former; r=- .73 and r=- .08 for the l a t t e r ) (n=4 f o r the former; n=6 f o r the l a t t e r ) . The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s showing the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the measures of n a r c i s s i s m and p e r s i s t e n c e f o r non- o b s e s s i o n a l s (de f ined as a l l those not judged as o b s e s s i o n a l s ) are presented in Table VIIB. For non- o b s e s s i o n a l s , the NPI measure of n a r c i s s i s m shows low p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s wi th the P i c t u r e Reproduct ion and L e t t e r D e l e t i o n measures of p e r s i s t e n c e (r=.14 and r=.07 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) and does not appear to be r e l a t e d to the In C l a s s measure of p e r s i s t e n c e ( r= .00) . In a d d i t i o n , the NPI d i s p l a y s low p o s i t i v e and low negat ive c o r r e l a t i o n s with the STEP and CTBS measures of r e a d i n g achievement (r=.19 and r = - .22 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . The p r o j e c t i v e measure of n a r c i s s i s m shows low negat ive c o r r e l a t i o n s wi th the In C las s and L e t t e r D e l e t i o n measures of p e r s i s t e n c e (r=- .07 and r=- .15 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) but mani fes t s a low p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p wi th 83 t h e P i c t u r e R e p r o d u c t i o n measure o f p e r s i s t e n c e ( r = . 0 7 ) . Moreover, t h e p r o j e c t i v e t o t a l d i s p l a y s low p o s i t i v e and low n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e STEP and CTBS measures o f r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t (r=.20 and r=-.01 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . One s h o u l d n o t i c e t h a t when judgment was used t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e o b s e s s i o n a l s from n o n - o b s e s s i o n a l s ( s e e T a b l e s VIIA and V I I B ) , t h e two s e t s o f c o r r e l a t i o n s o f the measures o f p e r s i s t e n c e and r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t w i t h the p r o j e c t i v e measure o f n a r c i s s i s m appear t o d i f f e r . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y n o t e w o r t h y g i v e n t h e 0 homogeneity o f the sample and the c o r r e s p o n d i n g s m a l l v a r i a n c e on t h e measures. Though the s i z e o f t h e two subgroups d i f f e r , t h e i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s n o n e t h e l e s s s u g g e s t t h a t s c o r e s on the p r o j e c t i v e can be used to d i s c r i m i n a t e o b s e s s i o n a l s from n o n - o b s e s s i o n a l s . The means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s o f the measured p e r f o r m a n c e s f o r o b s e s s i o n a l s and n o n - o b s e s s i o n a l s ( d e f i n e d by judgment) a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e V I I I A . When c l i n i c a l judgment was used as the p r o c e d u r e f o r d i s c r i m i n a t i n g between o b s e s s i o n a l s and n o n - o b s e s s i o n a l s , the r e s u l t s from oneway ANOVA a p p l i e d t o o b s e s s i o n a l s v e r s u s n o n - o b s e s s i o n a l s i n d i c a t e t h a t o b s e s s i o n a l s have a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r mean s c o r e on n a r c i s s i s m than n o n - o b s e s s i o n a l s as measured by the t o t a l o f t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l and p r e s e n t a t i o n a l i n d i c e s o f the p r o j e c t i v e i n s t r u m e n t (F(1,54)=16.16, p=.000). (When measured by each o f the two i n d i c e s i n d i v i d u a l l y , the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l s u b t o t a l (F(1,54)=16.05, p=.000) and the p r e s e n t a t i o n a l s u b t o t a l (F(1,54)=4.24 , p=.044) a l s o r e v e a l 84 T a b l e V I I I A S u m m a r y o f o n e w a y a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e o n e a c h m e a s u r e f o r o b s e s s i o n a l s ( O B ) v e r s u s n o n - o b s e s s i o n a l s ( N - O B ) ( d e f i n e d b y c l i n i c a l j u d g m e n t ) M e a s u r e T y p e n M e a n + S . D • A b i l i t y ( O t i s - L e n n o n ) OB 11 7 9 . 27 1 7 . 5 2 (F ( l , 4 8 ) = 0 . 3 7 , p = . 5 4 6 ) N--OB 3 9 8 2 . 95 17 . 7 7 R e a d i n g A c h i e v e m e n t ( S T E P ) OB 4 8 7 . 75 1 4 . 4 1 ( F ( l , 3 3 ) = 0 . 6 0 , p = . 4 4 3 ) N--OB 31 8 1 . 13 1 6 . 19 R e a d i n g A c h i e v e m e n t ( C T B S ) OB 6 85 . 17 1 4 . 2 2 (F ( l , 1 7 ) = 0 . 2 7 , p = . 6 0 7 ) N--OB 13 8 0 . 4 6 1 9 . 62 P e r s i s t e n c e - I n C l a s s OB 12 9 4 . 75 8 . 4 5 (F ( l , 5 4 ) = 1 . 3 5 , p = . 2 5 1 ) N-- O B 4 4 9 6 . 9 3 4 . 85 P e r s i s t e n c e - P i c t u r e R e p r o d u c t i o n OB 5 5 8 . 60 1 4 . 31 (F ( l , 3 4 ) = 0 . 6 0 , p = . 4 4 4 ) N-- O B 31 6 2 . 0 6 8 . 37 P e r s i s t e n c e - L e t t e r D e l e t i o n OB 12 3 4 . 92 0 . 2 9 (F ( l , 5 4 ) = 1 . 6 1 , p = . 2 1 0 ) N-- O B 4 4 3 2 . 7 7 5 . 81 N a r c i s s i s m — N P I OB 12 1 8 . 0 0 9 . 6 9 ( F ( l , 5 4 ) = 0 . 8 5 , p = . 3 6 0 ) N-- O B 4 4 1 5 . 5 5 7 . 72 N a r c i s s i s m - P r o j e c t i v e T o t a l * OB 12 1 5 . 00 7 . 5 8 (F( l , 54 )=16 .16 , p = . 0 0 0 ) N-- O B 4 4 8 . 11 4 . 4 8 * S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s a t p < . 0 5 + T h e u n i t s o f m e a s u r e f o r t h e m e a n s a r e a s f o l l o w s : O t i s - L e n n o n - p e r c e n t i l e r a n k s S T E P - p e r c e n t i l e r a n k s C T B S - p e r c e n t i l e r a n k s I n C l a s s - t r a n s f o r m e d s c o r e ( m a x i m u m s c o r e : 1 0 0 ) P i c t u r e R e p r o d u c t i o n - m i n u t e s ( m a x i m u m t i m e : 65 m i n u t e s ) L e t t e r D e l e t i o n - m i n u t e s ( m a x i m u m t i m e : 35 m i n u t e s ) N P I - r a w s c o r e ( m a x i m u m s c o r e : 5 4 ) P r o j e c t i v e T o t a l - r a w s c o r e ( m a x i m u m s c o r e : 3 0 8 ) 35 s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the two subgroups . ) No other s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found between o b s e s s i o n a l s and n o n - o b s e s s i o n a l s on the measures of a b i l i t y ( O t i s - L e n n o n ) , r e a d i n g achievement (STEP and CTBS) , p e r s i s t e n c e (In C l a s s , P i c t u r e R e p r o d u c t i o n , and L e t t e r D e l e t i o n ) , and n a r c i s s i s m (NPI) . In a d d i t i o n , a summary of the C h i - s q u a r e a n a l y s i s on o b s e s s i o n a l s and n o n - o b s e s s i o n a l s (de f ined by judgment) i s presented in Table VIIIB . The r e s u l t s from C h i - s q u a r e a p p l i e d to o b s e s s i o n a l s versus n o n - o b s e s s i o n a l s r e v e a l that o b s e s s i o n a l s have a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h igher index of n a r c i s s i s m than n o n - o b s e s s i o n a l s as measured by judged degree of n a r c i s s i s m (p=.003). No other s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found between the two subgroups on o v e r a l l judgment (as to whether s igns of n a r c i s s i s m are notab le or not apparent) and s o c i a l s t a t u s (top occupat ion in the f a m i l y ) . (3)~ D e f i n i n g Obses s iona l s as Overach ievers The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s showing the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the measures of n a r c i s s i s m and p e r s i s t e n c e for o b s e s s i o n a l s (de f ined as o v e r a c h i e v e r s ) are presented in Table IXA. When achievement was used as the procedure f o r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g o b s e s s i o n a l s from n o n - o b s e s s i o n a l s , the i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s among the v a r i a b l e s i n d i c a t e that f o r o b s e s s i o n a l s ( o v e r a c h i e v e r s ) , the NPI measure of n a r c i s s i s m shows a modest p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p with the P i c t u r e Reproduct ion measure of p e r s i s t e n c e (r=.31) (n=5) but mani fes t s low negat ive c o r r e l a t i o n s wi th the In C l a s s and 36 Table VIIIB Summary of Chi-square a n a l y s i s of the d i s t r i b u t i o n s of sub j e c t s on judged degree of n a r c i s s i s m f o r o b s e s s i o n a l s and non-obsessionals ( d e f i n e d by c l i n i c a l judgment) narcissism - judgment of degree COUNT EXP VAL ROW PCT COL PCT TOT PCT RESIDUAL STD RES ADO RES obsessio the rest ROW nals TOTAL 1 .001 1 high medium 1 ow COLUMN TOTAL 21 2.001 + 2 0 4 1 .6 100 0% .0% 16 7% .0% 3 6% .0% 1 6 -1 .6 2 4 -1 .3 2 8 -2 .8 9 19 6 0 22 .0 32 1% 67 .9% 75 0% 43 .2% 16 1% 33 .9% 3 0 -3 .0 1 2 - .6 2 0 -2 .0 1 18 4 1 14 .9 5 3% 94 .7% 8 3% 40 .9% 1 8% 32 . 1% -3 - 1 1 5 3 . 1 .8 -2 1 2 . 1 2 3.6% 28 50.0% 19 33.9% 0 7 7 . 5 5.5 1 2 . 5% .o% 100.0% .0% 1 5 . 9% .0% 1 2 . 5% . 5 1 . 5 . 2 . 6 . 5 1 . 5 + + 12 44 56 .4% 78 .6% 100.0% CHI-SOUARE O.F. SIGNIFICANCE 14.10047 3 0.0028 87 T a b l e IXA C o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s ( P e a r s o n r ) o f the n a r c i s s i s m measures w i t h th e r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t and p e r s i s t e n c e measures f o r o b s e s s i o n a l s ( d e f i n e d as o v e r a c h i e v e r s * * ) Measure n NPI P r o j e c t i v e T o t a l R e a d i n g Achievement (STEP) 5 . 80 .39 R e a d i n g Achievement (CTBS) 7 -.26 -. 12 P e r s i s t e n c e - I n C l a s s 12 -. 17 -.05 P e r s i s t e n c e - P i c t u r e R e p r o d u c t i o n 5 .31 . 23 P e r s i s t e n c e - L e t t e r D e l e t i o n 12 -. 12 -.44 ** The c r i t e r i o n f o r o v e r a c h i e v e m e n t was a minimum o f a s e v e n p e r c e n t i l e rank d i s c r e p a n c y between a b i l i t y and a c h i e v e m e n t . T a b l e IXB C o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s ( P e a r s o n r ) o f the n a r c i s s i s m measures w i t h th e r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t and p e r s i s t e n c e measures f o r n o n - o b s e s s i o n a l s ( d e f i n e d as o t h e r than o v e r a c h i e v e r s ) Measure n NPI P r o j e c t i v e T o t a l R e a d i n g Achievement (STEP) 30 . 19 . 11 R e a d i n g Achievement (CTBS) 12 -.37 . 10 P e r s i s t e n c e - I n C l a s s 44 -.02 -.32 P e r s i s t e n c e - P i c t u r e R e p r o d u c t i o n 31 . 13 -. 10 P e r s i s t e n c e - L e t t e r D e l e t i o n 44 . 11 . 03 88 L e t t e r D e l e t i o n measures of p e r s i s t e n c e (r=- .17 and r=- .12 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . In a d d i t i o n , the NPI d i s p l a y s h igh p o s i t i v e and low negat ive c o r r e l a t i o n s wi th the STEP and CTBS measures of r e a d i n g achievement (r=.80 and r=- .26 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) (n=5 and n=7 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . The p r o j e c t i v e measure of n a r c i s s i s m shows a low p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p wi th the P i c t u r e Reproduct ion measure of p e r s i s t e n c e (r=.23) (n=5) but mani fes t s low and modest negat ive c o r r e l a t i o n s wi th the In C l a s s and L e t t e r D e l e t i o n measures of p e r s i s t e n c e (r=- .05 and r=- .44 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . Furthermore , the p r o j e c t i v e t o t a l d i s p l a y s modest p o s i t i v e and low negat ive c o r r e l a t i o n s with the STEP and CTBS measures of r e a d i n g achievement (r=.39 and r=- .12 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) (n=5 and n=7 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s showing the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the measures of n a r c i s s i s m and p e r s i s t e n c e for non- o b s e s s i o n a l s (de f ined as other than o v e r a c h i e v e r s ) are presented in Table IXB. For n o n - o b s e s s i o n a l s , the NPI measure of n a r c i s s i s m shows a low negat ive r e l a t i o n s h i p wi th the In C l a s s measure of p e r s i s t e n c e (r=- .02) but mani fes t s low p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s wi th the P i c t u r e Reproduct ion and L e t t e r D e l e t i o n measures of p e r s i s t e n c e (r=.13 and r = . l l r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . In a d d i t i o n , the NPI d i s p l a y s low p o s i t i v e and modest negat ive c o r r e l a t i o n s with the STEP and CTBS measures of r e a d i n g achievement (r=.19 and r=- .37 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . The p r o j e c t i v e measure of n a r c i s s i s m shows modest and low negat ive c o r r e l a t i o n s wi th the In C l a s s and 89 P i c t u r e R e p r o d u c t i o n m e a s ures o f p e r s i s t e n c e (r=-.32 and r = - .10 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) b u t m a n i f e s t s a low p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e L e t t e r D e l e t i o n measure o f p e r s i s t e n c e ( r = . 0 3 ) . M o r e o v e r , t h e p r o j e c t i v e t o t a l d i s p l a y s low p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e STEP and CTBS measures o f r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t ( r = . l l and r=.10 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . Here t o o , i t i s n o t e w o r t h y t h a t w i t h t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f n a r c i s s i s m o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d a l t e r n a t i v e l y by t h e NPI and by t h e p r o j e c t i v e i n s t r u m e n t , t h e r e s u l t i n g c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e In C l a s s and P i c t u r e R e p r o d u c t i o n m e a s ures o f p e r s i s t e n c e d i f f e r ( r=-.02 and r=-.32 f o r t h e f o r m e r ; r=.13 and r=-.10 f o r t h e l a t t e r ) . The same i s t r u e f o r t h e CTBS measure o f r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t (r=-.37 and r = . 1 0 ) . As was t h e c a s e w i t h c l i n i c a l j u d g m e n t , one s h o u l d n o t i c e h e r e t o o t h a t when a c h i e v e m e n t was u s e d t o d i s c r i m i n a t e between o b s e s s i o n a l s and n o n - o b s e s s i o n a l s .(see T a b l e s IXA and I X B ) , t h e two s e t s o f c o r r e l a t i o n s o f t h e measures o f p e r s i s t e n c e and r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t w i t h t h e p r o j e c t i v e measure o f n a r c i s s i s m a p p e a r t o d i f f e r . A g a i n , t h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y n o t e w o r t h y g i v e n t h e h o m o g e n e i t y o f t h e sample and t h e c o n c o m i t a n t low v a r i a n c e on t h e m e a s u r e s . And a g a i n , t h o u g h t h e s i z e o f t h e two s u b g r o u p s d i f f e r , t h e i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s n o n e t h e l e s s s u g g e s t t h a t s c o r e s on t h e p r o j e c t i v e can be u s e d t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e o b s e s s i o n a l s f r o m n o n - o b s e s s i o n a l s . The means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s o f t h e me a s u r e d p e r f o r m a n c e s f o r o b s e s s i o n a l s and n o n - o b s e s s i o n a l s ( d e f i n e d by a c h i e v e m e n t ) a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e X. No s i g n i f i c a n t 90 Table X Summary of oneway a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e on each measure f or o b s e s s i o n a l s (OB) versus n o n - o b s e s s i o n a l s (N-OB) (de f ined by achievement) Measure Type n Mean + S . D . A b i l i t y ( O t i s - L e n n o n ) * OB 12 64. 83 18. 93 (F(l,48)=21.71, p=.000) N-OB 38 87. 61 13 . 27 Reading Achievement (STEP) OB 5 84. 80 13. 01 ( F ( l , 3 3 ) = 0 . 1 9 , p=.666) N-OB 30 81. 40 16. 52 Reading Achievement (CTBS) OB 7 80. 00 18. 66 ( F ( l , 1 7 ) = 0 . 1 3 , p=.727) N-OB 12 83. 08 18. 07 P e r s i s t e n c e - I n C l a s s OB 12 97. 75 3 . 19 ( F ( l , 5 4 ) = 0 . 7 5 , p=.390) N-OB 44 96. 11 6. 30 P e r s i s t e n c e - P i c t u r e Reproduct ion OB 5 60. 20 6. 72 (F(l,34)=0.13, p=.723) N-OB 31 61. 81 9. 63 P e r s i s t e n c e - L e t t e r D e l e t i o n OB 12 33. 92 3. 45 (F(l,54)=0.26, p=.612) N-OB 44 33 . 05 5 . 62 N a r c i s s i s m - N P I OB 12 18. 42 8. 82 ( F ( l , 5 4 ) = 1 . 2 7 , p=.265) N-OB 44 15. 43 7. 95 N a r c i s s i s m - P r o j e c t i v e T o t a l OB 12 10. 08 4. 62 (F(l,54)=0.10, p=.749) N-OB .44 9. 45 6. 29 * S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s at p< + The u n i t s of measure f or the . 05 means are as f o i l o w s : O t i s - L e n n o n - p e r c e n t i l e ranks STEP - p e r c e n t i l e ranks CTBS - p e r c e n t i l e ranks In C l a s s - transformed score (maximum score : 100) P i c t u r e Reproduct ion - minutes (maximum time: 65 minutes) L e t t e r D e l e t i o n - minutes (maximum time: 35 minutes) NPI - raw score (maximum score : 54) P r o j e c t i v e T o t a l - raw score (maximum score : 308) 91 d i f f e r e n c e s were observed between the two subgroups on the measures of r e a d i n g achievement, p e r s i s t e n c e , and n a r c i s s i s m . In a d d i t i o n , the r e s u l t s from C h i - s q u a r e a p p l i e d to o b s e s s i o n a l s and n o n - o b s e s s i o n a l s (de f ined by achievement) i n d i c a t e that there are no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the two subgroups wi th respect to the judgment c a t e g o r i e s of n a r c i s s i s m and s o c i a l s t a t u s . S e c t i o n D: Examining R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between the Measures The t r a n s s i t u a t i o n a l c o n s i s t e n c y of s u b j e c t s h igh in n a r c i s s i s m versus s u b j e c t s low in n a r c i s s i s m and of o b s e s s i o n a l s versus n o n - o b s e s s i o n a l s was exp lored across the p e r s i s t e n c e measures. In a d d i t i o n , an examination of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the measures for the aggregate sample was undertaken. (1) N a r c i s s i s m and P e r s i s t e n c e : Rank Order C o n s i s t e n c y The rank order c o n s i s t e n c y of subjec t s h igh in n a r c i s s i s m versus subjec t s low in n a r c i s s i s m and of o b s e s s i o n a l s versus n o n - o b s e s s i o n a l s was examined across the three measures of p e r s i s t e n c e (In C l a s s , P i c t u r e R e p r o d u c t i o n , and L e t t e r D e l e t i o n ) . To compare the c r o s s - s i t u a t i o n a l s t a b i l i t y of the subgroups, Cronbach's Alpha c o e f f i c i e n t s (CA) were computed. The a lpha c o e f f i c i e n t s showing the rank order c o n s i s t e n c y for s u b j e c t s high in n a r c i s s i s m versus s u b j e c t s low in n a r c i s s i s m are presented in Table XIA. The a lpha c o e f f i c i e n t s i n d i c a t e that the s u b j e c t s in the top q u a r t i l e 92 Table XIA Cronbach's Alpha c o e f f i c i e n t s (CA) showing the rank order c o n s i s t e n c y across the three p e r s i s t e n c e measures f o r s u b j e c t s h igh in n a r c i s s i s m versus s u b j e c t s low i n n a r c i s s i s m Subgroup CA n Top q u a r t i l e ( p r o j e c t i v e ) .55 8 Bottom q u a r t i l e ( p r o j e c t i v e ) .15 8 Top q u a r t i l e (NPI) .50 11 Bottom q u a r t i l e (NPI) .07 10 Table XIB Cronbach's Alpha c o e f f i c i e n t s (CA) showing the rank order c o n s i s t e n c y across the three p e r s i s t e n c e measures for o b s e s s i o n a l s versus n o n - o b s e s s i o n a l s Subgroup CA n O b s e s s i o n a l s (judged) .70 5 Non-obses s iona l s (the r e s t ) .13 31 O b s e s s i o n a l s ( o v e r a c h i e v e r s ) .55 5 Non-obses s iona l s (the r e s t ) .38 31 93 of the p r o j e c t i v e show f a r h igher s t a b i l i t y (CA=.55) than those in the bottom q u a r t i l e ' (CA=. 15) . One should n o t i c e that because s u b j e c t s from School 2 do not have the P i c t u r e Reproduct ion measure of p e r s i s t e n c e , the number of s u b j e c t s in both cases i s consequent ly s m a l l e r than one q u a r t e r of the 56 s u b j e c t s i n the t o t a l sample (n = 8 in both c a s e s ) . T h i s f i n d i n g suggests that s u b j e c t s h igh in n a r c i s s i s m (as de f ined by scores on the p r o j e c t i v e dev ice ) are more c o n s i s t e n t in t h e i r p e r s i s t e n c e than subjec t s low in n a r c i s s i s m . (A comparison of the rank order c o n s i s t e n c y of s u b j e c t s judged as h igh in n a r c i s s i s m and those judged as low in n a r c i s s i s m cou ld not be made due to the smal l number of subjec t s i n the former group. S ince only 2 s u b j e c t s were c l a s s i f i e d (judged) as h igh in n a r c i s s i s m , an a lpha c o e f f i c i e n t c o u l d not be computed f o r t h i s group. ) S i m i l a r l y , the computations r e v e a l that the s u b j e c t s in the top q u a r t i l e of the NPI manifest f a r g r e a t e r response c o n s i s t e n c y (CA=.50) (n=l l ) than those in the bottom q u a r t i l e (CA=.07) (n=10). Th i s f i n d i n g suggests that s u b j e c t s h igh in n a r c i s s i s m (as d e f in ed by performances on the NPI) are more s t a b l e or c o n s i s t e n t in t h e i r p e r s i s t e n c e across s i t u a t i o n s than are the low n a r c i s s i s m c o h o r t . The a lpha c o e f f i c i e n t s showing the rank order c o n s i s t e n c y for o b s e s s i o n a l s versus non-obses s iona l s are presented i n Table XIB. The a lpha c o e f f i c i e n t s r e v e a l that o b s e s s i o n a l s (de f ined by judgment) show f a r h igher s t a b i l i t y (CA=.70) (n=5) than n o n - o b s e s s i o n a l s (CA=.13) (n=31). Th i s 94 f i n d i n g i s p r o v o c a t i v e ; but we must s t r e s s the n e c e s s i t y o f c a u t i o n g i v e n t h e s m a l l number o f j u d g e d o b s e s s i o n a l s i n v o l v e d . W h i l e the c o m p u t a t i o n s i n d i c a t e t h a t o b s e s s i o n a l s ( d e f i n e d as o v e r a c h i e v e r s ) m a n i f e s t g r e a t e r r e s p o n s e c o n s i s t e n c y (CA=.55) (n=5) than n o n - o b s e s s i o n a l s (CA=.38) (n = 31),. t h e s m a l l number o f o v e r a c h i e v e r s s i g n a l s need f o r more s t u d y w i t h l a r g e r numbers. (2) The R e l a t i o n s h i p o f the Measures t o Achievement The two s e t s o f r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e s (STEP and CTBS) were examined s e p a r a t e l y t o d e t e r m i n e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the measures o f r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t and t h e i n d e p e n d e n t measures. I t was e x p e c t e d , as s t a t e d i n C h a p t e r T h r e e , t h a t p e r s i s t e n c e would be p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o a c h i e v e m e n t f o r a l l s u b j e c t s ( H y p o t h e s i s 4 ) . I t was f u r t h e r a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t a b i l i t y would a l s o c o r r e l a t e p o s i t i v e l y w i t h a c h i e v e m e n t f o r a l l s u b j e c t s ( H y p o t h e s i s 5 ) . To d e t e r m i n e the d i r e c t i o n and magnitude o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t measures and t h e i n d e p e n d e n t measures, P e a r s o n c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were computed. The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s showing the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e i n d e p e n d e n t measures and the two r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t measures a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e X I I . The i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s among the v a r i a b l e s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t s u b t e s t o f the STEP show's low p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h the P i c t u r e R e p r o d u c t i o n and L e t t e r 95 Table XII C o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s (Pearson r) of the independent measures and the read ing achievement measures (STEP from School 1 and CTBS from School 2) School 1 School 2 Measure STEP** CTBS*** A b i l i t y (Ot i s -Lennon) .63 .83 P e r s i s t e n c e - I n C l a s s .30 - .22 P e r s i s t e n c e - P i c t u r e Reproduct ion .22 P e r s i s t e n c e - L e t t e r D e l e t i o n .11 .00 N a r c i s s i s m - N P I .26 - . 33 N a r c i s s i s m - P r o j e c t i v e T o t a l .14 .04 ** n=35 f o r a l l measures except a b i l i t y (n=30) * * * n=19 f o r a l l measures 96 D e l e t i o n measures of p e r s i s t e n c e (r=.22 and r = . l l r e s p e c t i v e l y ) and a modest p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p wi th the In C l a s s measure of p e r s i s t e n c e ( r= .30 ) . The STEP r e a d i n g s c a l e a l s o mani fes t s a moderate p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n with a b i l i t y (Ot i s -Lennon) ( r= .63) . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between STEP r e a d i n g achievement and a b i l i t y i s i l l u s t r a t e d in F i g u r e 1. In a d d i t i o n , the STEP r e a d i n g s c a l e shows low p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s wi th the NPI and p r o j e c t i v e t o t a l measures of n a r c i s s i s m (r=.26 and r=.14 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , the r e a d i n g achievement subtes t of the CTBS does not appear to be r e l a t e d to the L e t t e r D e l e t i o n measure of p e r s i s t e n c e (r=.00) and shows a low negat ive c o r r e l a t i o n wi th the In C l a s s measure of p e r s i s t e n c e ( r = - . 2 2 ) . ( C u r i o u s l y , t h i s r e s u l t d i f f e r s from that found e a r l i e r wi th the STEP. ) The CTBS r e a d i n g s c a l e a l so shows a s t r o n g p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n with a b i l i t y (Ot i s -Lennon) (r=.83).- The r e l a t i o n s h i p between CTBS r e a d i n g achievement and a b i l i t y i s i l l u s t r a t e d in F i g u r e 2. In a d d i t i o n , the CTBS r e a d i n g s c a l e mani fes t s .modest negat ive and low p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s wi th the NPI and p r o j e c t i v e t o t a l measures of n a r c i s s i s m (r=- .33 and r=.04 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . (3) E x p l a i n i n g Var iance in Achievement: Regress ion A n a l y s i s F i n a l l y , the present i n v e s t i g a t i o n a l so i n c o r p o r a t e d an attempt to determine how v a r i a n c e that i s unexpla ined by re f erences to a b i l i t i e s and s o c i a l s ta tus i s a f f e c t e d by n a r c i s s i s m and p e r s i s t e n c e . M u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n analyses were executed for each of the two samples to es t imate the 97 p r o p o r t i o n s of v a r i a n c e in achievement which are a s s o c i a t e d wi th a b i l i t y , s o c i a l s t a t u s , p e r s i s t e n c e , and n a r c i s s i s m . For the sample which used the r e a d i n g subtes t of the STEP as i t s measure of r e a d i n g achievement, the r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d that only the a b i l i t y measure was s i g n i f i c a n t i n e x p l a i n i n g v a r i a n c e in achievement (p=.003). As ide from a b i l i t y , the measures of s o c i a l s t a t u s , p e r s i s t e n c e , and n a r c i s s i s m d i d not s i g n i f i c a n t l y reduce the unexpla ined v a r i a n c e in achievement. For the group which took the CTBS, the r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d that three measures were s i g n i f i c a n t in e x p l a i n i n g v a r i a n c e in achievement: a b i l i t y (p=.000); the L e t t e r D e l e t i o n measure of p e r s i s t e n c e (p=.019); and the NPI measure of n a r c i s s i s m (p=.040). However, the measure of s o c i a l s ta tus and the remaining measures of p e r s i s t e n c e and n a r c i s s i s m d i d not s i g n i f i c a n t l y reduce the unexpla ined v a r i a n c e in achievement. Al though the r e g r e s s i o n analyses showed that the measures of n a r c i s s i s m and p e r s i s t e n c e g e n e r a l l y d i d not s i g n i f i c a n t l y reduce the unexpla ined v a r i a n c e in achievement, one should not conclude that n a r c i s s i s m and p e r s i s t e n c e are not s a l i e n t f a c t o r s which a f f e c t achievement. Rather , these r e s u l t s were a n t i c i p a t e d p r i o r to the r e g r e s s i o n analyses in l i g h t of the homogeneity of the sample and the r e s u l t i n g smal l v a r i a n c e on the measures. 98 CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSION S p e c i a l Nature of the Study Because of the e x p l o r a t o r y nature of the c u r r e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n , a sample c o n s i s t i n g s o l e l y of p r i v a t e s choo l c h i l d r e n was p u r p o s e l y chosen i n order that more c o u l d be l earned about these c h i l d r e n wi th respect to some v a r i a b l e s of e d u c a t i o n a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l importance . However, t h i s meant that the sample was drawn from a h i g h l y a t y p i c a l ( u n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ) p o p u l a t i o n of c h i l d r e n . The sample i s a t y p i c a l f o r two reasons . F i r s t l y , n e a r l y a l l of the s u b j e c t s are g i r l s . Secondly , c h i l d r e n who a t tend p r i v a t e schoo l s must have parents who are s u f f i c i e n t l y p r i v i l e g e d so that they can a f f o r d to pay the fees and in other ways p r o v i d e an u n u s u a l l y w e l l b u t t r e s s e d support system for these c h i l d r e n . Indeed, the m a j o r i t y of the c h i l d r e n in the sample are from f a m i l i e s where the head of the household i s e i t h e r an e x e c u t i v e or a p r o f e s s i o n a l . In e f f e c t , these c h i l d r e n are c l e a r l y d i f f e r e n t from those one would expect to f i n d in p u b l i c s c h o o l s , as shown by not only the o c c u p a t i o n a l da ta , but by the h igh mean scores on a b i l i t y , r e a d i n g achievement, and p e r s i s t e n c e for the sample as w e l l . It f o l l o w s , then, that because the s u b j e c t s in t h i s s tudy were purpose ly s e l e c t e d from p r i v a t e e lementary s c h o o l s , i t i s h i g h l y probable that the homogeneity of the sample p r e c l u d e d the generat ion of much v a r i a n c e on the 99 measures of the c o n s t r u c t s in t h i s work. It was a n t i c i p a t e d in advance of the data analyses that there would not be s u f f i c i e n t v a r i a b i l i t y on the measures to f a c i l i t a t e the s e t t l i n g of hypotheses or the f o r m u l a t i o n of c o n c l u s i o n s , which cou ld be g e n e r a l i z e d to a more heterogeneous p o p u l a t i o n . So whi le analyses of the sor t one would undertake wi th a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample were c a r r i e d out wi th t h i s sample, they were executed in the s p i r i t of e x p l o r a t i o n r a t h e r than with the i n t e n t i o n of s e t t l i n g hypotheses by r i g o r o u s t e s t i n g . The t e s t i n g of hypotheses about r e l a t i o n s h i p s that are g e n e r a l l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c can only be done when a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample i s s t u d i e d . A c c o r d i n g l y , one must understand the reason f o r s t u d y i n g t h i s sample. C h i l d r e n from advantaged backgrounds appear wi th low frequency in the genera l p u b l i c schoo l p o p u l a t i o n . The r a i s o n d ' e t r e f o r t h i s p r o j e c t was to observe the f a c t o r s of p s y c h o l o g i c a l and e d u c a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t ( n a r c i s s i s m and p e r s i s t e n c e ) in c h i l d r e n of the s o r t drawn from p r i v a t e s c h o o l s . The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the data and the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the f i n d i n g s are d i s c u s s e d in t h i s chapter . The chapter i n c l u d e s a d i s c u s s i o n of: the n a r c i s s i s m c o n s t r u c t and the adequacy of two c o n t r a s t i n g measurement approaches (with respect to the data from the NPI and the p r o j e c t i v e in s t rument ) ; the mer i t s of the p r o j e c t i v e instrument and procedures ; the i s sues that arose from use of the p r o j e c t i v e dev ice ; n a r c i s s i s m as a moderator of p e r s i s t e n c e (with 100 respect to s u b j e c t s h igh in n a r c i s s i s m versus s u b j e c t s low in n a r c i s s i s m and o b s e s s i o n a l s versus n o n - o b s e s s i o n a l s ) ; the hypotheses set f o r t h in Chapter Three; and the d i r e c t i o n s for f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . N a r c i s s i s m : C o n s t r u c t and Assessment The measurement of n a r c i s s i s m with q u e s t i o n n a i r e s was attempted by Raskin and H a l l (1979) wi th the NPI. Al though Raskin and H a l l b e l i e v e that the NPI possesses d e s i r a b l e psychometr ic p r o p e r t i e s that would f a c i l i t a t e the assessment of n a r c i s s i s m , i t does not have the c a p a b i l i t y of r e g i s t e r i n g the t r a n s f e r e n c e phenomena, which both Kohut and Kernberg c o n s i d e r to be c r i t i c a l d i a g n o s t i c i n d i c a t o r s of the c o n s t r u c t in c l i n i c a l p r a c t i c e . This i s concordant wi th Kohut ' s c r i t i c i s m of q u e s t i o n n a i r e and i n v e n t o r y measures of n a r c i s s i s m , f o r they t y p i c a l l y i n v i t e de fens ive d i s t o r t i o n and impress ion management in n a r c i s s i s t i c subjec t s who t r y to concea l r a t h e r than r e v e a l t h e i r c o n d i t i o n to a v o i d f e e l i n g shame. While there has been some work that has found some psychometr ic meri t i n the NPI ( P r i f i t e r a & Ryan, 1984), a f i n d i n g i n the c u r r e n t l i t e r a t u r e prov ides f u r t h e r evidence that the NPI promotes defens iveness in respondents . Auerbach (1984) has r e c e n t l y shown that undergraduates who took the NPI were i n c l i n e d to "manage" the impress ions they convey so that others see them i n a f a v o r a b l e l i g h t . In a d d i t i o n , Auerbach has found that the NPI c o r r e l a t e s r e s p e c t a b l y with a r e c e n t l y developed N a r c i s s i s t i c Sca le of the M i l l o n C l i n i c a l M u l t i a x i a l Inventory (MCMI), and r e p o r t s 101 that the MCMI a l s o e l i c i t s defensive* camouflage, which m a t e r i a l whether s c a l e d or o therwise , r a i s e s doubts about content and c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t i e s . These f i n d i n g s underscore the c o n t e n t i o n ( e . g . , T r a v i s & Mah, 1986) that i n v e n t o r y measures of n a r c i s s i s m l i k e the NPI y i e l d de fens ive output , which i s worthy of study in i t s own r i g h t , but which mis leads the unwary observer . A c c o r d i n g l y , the mer i t s of procedures (such as those which e n t a i l p r o j e c t i v e s ) that c ircumvent d i s g u i s e , that probe the depths covered by s u r f a c e d e t a i l , warrant s e r i o u s a t t e n t i o n . The data generated i n the present study can be s t u d i e d f o r c lues to answer the ques t ion of whether the NPI and the p r o j e c t i v e instrument measure d i f f e r e n t dimensions of n a r c i s s i s m . One n o t i c e s that the two measures t y p i c a l l y produced d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s and c o r r e l a t e d p o o r l y wi th one another . In a d d i t i o n , the t o t a l score from the p r o j e c t i v e s was found to d i s c r i m i n a t e between o b s e s s i o n a l s and non- o b s e s s i o n a l s when c l i n i c a l judgment was used to i d e n t i f y the two v a r i a n t s . (The NPI d i d not d i s c r i m i n a t e between the two t y p e s . ) Given the homogeneity of the sample, t h i s f i n d i n g i s e s p e c i a l l y noteworthy. Hence, the c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y of p e r s o n a l i t y i n v e n t o r i e s l i k e the NPI remains q u e s t i o n a b l e i f they f a i l to produce e m p i r i c a l evidence of F r e u d ' s d i s t i n c t i o n between the l i b i d i n a l types and the m u l t i p l e dimensions of n a r c i s s i s m upon which the d i s t i n c t i o n s depend ( T r a v i s & Mah, 1986). 102 The M e r i t s of the P r o j e c t i v e Instrument and Procedures Desp i te the attempts that have been made to develop a p p r o p r i a t e i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n and assessment techniques to measure n a r c i s s i s m , assessment of t h i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n s t r u c t has been p r o b l e m a t i c a l . A c c o r d i n g l y , the c u r r e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n attempted to r e s o l v e some of the d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered by prev ious r e s e a r c h e r s by e x p l o r i n g the assessment of n a r c i s s i s m with p r o j e c t i v e s . The p r o j e c t i v e procedures were des igned to make s t r o n g conceptua l l i n k s between the c o n s t r u c t of n a r c i s s i s m and i t s c l i n i c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s on the one s i d e and the measures on the o t h e r . E s s e n t i a l l y , the development and use of the p r o j e c t i v e instrument in t h i s study was i n s p i r e d by Kohut ' s (1971) c l a i m that n a r c i s s i s m i s assessed n e c e s s a r i l y by means which recogn ize the emergence of t r a n s f e r e n c e i n d i c a t o r s . The use of p r o j e c t i v e s was a l so supported by Kernberg ' s (1975) a s s e r t i o n that n a r c i s s i s t i c s u b j e c t s tend to emit a constant p r o j e c t i o n of s e l f and objec t images which are e a s i l y p r o j e c t e d onto content e x t e r n a l to the s u b j e c t s . The p r o j e c t i v e s , through the p r e s e n t a t i o n of a s e r i e s of cards d e p i c t i n g s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s wherein the t r a n s f e r e n c e phenomena i s u s u a l , a l lowed for an a n a l y s i s of the s u b j e c t s ' p r o j e c t i o n s for s igns of n a r c i s s i s m . More i m p o r t a n t l y , the development and use of the p r o j e c t i v e dev ice and procedures represent s what i s perhaps the f i r s t attempt to o p e r a t i o n a l i z e the c o n s t r u c t of 103 n a r c i s s i s m so that i t r e f l e c t s the m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l b a s i s f o r e m p i r i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n s which correspond with the t h e o r e t i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n s set out in theory ( i . e . , in F r e u d ' s l i b i d i n a l t y p e s ) . Nowhere e l s e in the l i t e r a t u r e i s there evidence of such conceptua l and c l i n i c a l i n n o v a t i o n . The complex i ty and m u l t i p l i c i t y of t h i s i n v e n t i o n o f f e r s s e v e r a l s a l i e n t f e a t u r e s . The p r o j e c t i v e instrument and procedures are i n p r i n c i p l e capable of r e g i s t e r i n g the t r a n s f e r e n c e phenomena which are e s s e n t i a l f or proper d i a g n o s i s of n a r c i s s i s t i c p e r s o n a l i t y . The p r o j e c t i v e procedures a l s o o f f e r p r o v i s i o n for c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of n a r c i s s i s t i c types by c l i n i c a l judgment as w e l l as by i n v e n t o r y s c a l e s c o r e s . The p r o j e c t i v e instrument i n c o r p o r a t e s m u l t i p l e i n d i c a t o r s of n a r c i s s i s m , each of which c o n s i s t s of two f u r t h e r dimensions: the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l and p r e s e n t a t i o n a l i n d i c e s . (The former are v e r b a l u t t e r a n c e s which s i g n a l denota t ive meaning; and the l a t t e r are e x p r e s s i v e nuances which s i g n a l a f f e c t i v e s t a t e s , commitments, and c o n a t i o n . ) The i n v e n t i o n of the s c o r i n g scheme and the accompanying s c o r i n g matr ix ' (see Appendix B) for s t u d y i n g n a r c i s s i s m was not only c e n t r a l to the present s tudy, but i t a l s o has p o t e n t i a l value in f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . The i n c o r p o r a t i o n of the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l and e x p r e s s i v e dimensions in a d d i t i o n to the a n a l y t i c c a t e g o r i e s ~ for observ ing s igns of n a r c i s s i s m i s m e t h o d o l o g i c a l l y as we l l as c o n c e p t u a l l y i n n o v a t i v e . As a n t i c i p a t e d by T r a v i s and Mah 104 (1986), t h i s s c o r i n g scheme holds promise for an a n a l y t i c framework - one which can be used to q u a n t i f y q u a l i t a t i v e m a t e r i a l . Furthermore , the psychometr ic q u a l i t i e s of the p r o j e c t i v e dev ice are very r e s p e c t a b l e . The s p l i t - h a l f r e l i a b i l i t y ( i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y ) of the p r o j e c t i v e instrument i s s u b s t a n t i a l (Spearman-Brown=.74). In a d d i t i o n , the c o r r e l a t i o n s between the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l and p r e s e n t a t i o n a l s u b t o t a l s of the p r o j e c t i v e (Pearson r=.46; K e n d a l l ' s Tau, r s = . 3 4 ; Spearman's Rho, r s = . 4 1 ) a l s o p r o v i d e evidence df the t e c h n i c a l mer i t s of the p r o j e c t i v e d e v i c e . Al though the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l and p r e s e n t a t i o n a l i n d i c e s c o r r e l a t e at a r e s p e c t a b l e l e v e l , an examinat ion of the composite s c o r i n g matr ix (as was shown in Chapter Four , Table IV) r e v e a l e d that the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l ( v e r b a l - symbol ic ) i n d i c a t o r s were observed with f a r g r e a t e r frequency than the p r e s e n t a t i o n a l ( express ive ) i n d i c a t o r s . Though i t was a n t i c i p a t e d that the p r e s e n t a t i o n a l i n d i c a t o r s would y i e l d the r i c h e s t da ta , the outcome should not be s u r p r i s i n g in view of the nature of the sample, the very l i m i t e d range of d i s c u s s i o n t o p i c s i n and the b r e v i t y of the encounters wi th each of the s u b j e c t s . (Diagnos i s of n a r c i s s i s m through t r a n s f e r e n c e i n d i c a t o r s in p s y c h o a n a l y s i s f r e q u e n t l y r e q u i r e s months and e n t a i l s the genera t ion of wide rang ing t a l k and much a f f e c t . ) A c h a r a c t e r i s t i c observed i n most of the subjec t s examined was an u n d e r l y i n g tone of p o l i t e n e s s and s o c i a l s e n s i t i v i t y . Th i s would 105 suggest that the es tab l i shment of t r u s t in the examiner— subjec t r e l a t i o n s h i p takes more time than the b r i e f p e r i o d s a f f o r d e d in the present s tudy . In e f f e c t , what was n o t i c e d d u r i n g the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the cards were s igns of de ference , c o o p e r a t i o n , acceptab le demeanor, and s o c i a l grace . The s u b j e c t s in the study were, a f t e r a l l , c h i l d r e n from c u l t u r a l l y and economica l ly advantaged backgrounds. Issues Emerging From Use of the P r o j e c t i v e Instrument Some measurement and assessment, p s y c h o l o g i c a l and e d u c a t i o n a l , and conceptua l i s sues which arose from use of the p r o j e c t i v e dev ice and procedures are a l so worthy of d i s c u s s i o n . (1) Measurement and Assessment Issues F i r s t , i t i s probable that the encounters d u r i n g the ses s ions devoted to a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the p r o j e c t i v e instrument and procedures were too b r i e f to a l low the t r a n s f e r e n c e phenomena to develop f u l l y . Th i s would account f o r the r e l a t i v e l y low y i e l d s of the p r e s e n t a t i o n a l i n d i c a t o r s of n a r c i s s i s m (as compared to the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l i n d i c a t o r s ) . M o d i f i c a t i o n of the p r o j e c t i v e instrument and procedures to produce g r e a t e r frequency of e x p r e s s i v e responses should a l low for f u l l e r o b s e r v a t i o n of the t r a n s f e r e n c e i n d i c a t o r s . Second, the need to generate a h igher degree and frequency of a f f e c t i v e responses from the subjec t s r a i s e s a ques t ion of d e l i c a c y : How can s u f f i c i e n t a f f e c t be generated in order to observe the expres s ive i n d i c a t i o n s of 106 n a r c i s s i s m without c r e a t i n g unnecessary (and c e r t a i n l y undesirable) f r i c t i o n between the subject and the examiner? This i s a complex issue which e n t a i l s s o c i a l as well as e t h i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . It i s a s e r i o u s issue which faces the c l i n i c i a n who wishes to assess n a r c i s s i s m through tr a n s f e r e n c e i n a school s e t t i n g . T h i r d , two procedures were inc o r p o r a t e d i n the s c o r i n g of the responses f o r the p r o j e c t i v e s : c l a s s i f i c a t i o n by c l i n i c a l judgment and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n by dimension s c a l e scores. While the former approach was a more expedient means of c l a s s i f y i n g responses, i t was l e s s r e v e a l i n g than the l a t t e r , more systematic procedure. However, the use of both approaches to c l a s s i f y responses o f f e r e d an i n d i c a t i o n of the accuracy of the c l i n i c i a n ' s judgment. Obviously, f u r t h e r e x p l o r a t i o n i s warranted - e s p e c i a l l y with other population samples. Fourth, because the subjects in t h i s study were g e n e r a l l y a r t i c u l a t e , there was l i t t l e evidence of r e s i s t a n c e to engage in imaginative i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the portrayed content of the cards. Hence, t h i s r e s i s t a n c e to p r o j e c t , which Brodey (1965) and Lasch (1978) b e l i e v e d to be a c l i n i c a l i n d i c a t o r of n a r c i s s i s m , was not observed. This s t a t e of a f f a i r s may one day be understood b e t t e r than i t i s p r e s e n t l y . I t s meaning i s unclear. (2) P s y c h o l o g i c a l and Educational Issues Because i t was not p o s s i b l e to observe the a d u l t ' s (helper's) r e a c t i o n s to the subject's acting-out behavior 107 wi th respect to the s t imulus c a r d s , i n d i c a t i o n s of c o u n t e r t r a n s f e r e n c e were p r e c l u d e d . T h i s , in t u r n , p r e c l u d e d the p o s s i b i l i t y of o b s e r v i n g s igns of rage , revenge, or h o s t i l i t y , which are t y p i c a l l y evoked by s igns of c o u n t e r t r a n s f e r e n c e in the c l i n i c a l s i t u a t i o n . However, (as Freud , 1962 asser ted) the c o u n t e r t r a n s f e r e n c e phenomena are not r e s t r i c t e d to the c l i n i c a l s i t u a t i o n , but are a l s o found in s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s of the most common s o r t , i n c l u d i n g those of the s c h o o l . Hence, one must be aware of such i n d i c a t i o n s of n a r c i s s i s m in the e d u c a t i o n a l contex t . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the r e s t r i c t e d range of content and t r a n s i t o r y nature of the encounters d u r i n g the s e s s ions devoted to use of the p r o j e c t i v e procedure d i d not a l low much o b s e r v a t i o n or i n s i g h t i n t o such mat ters . M o d i f i c a t i o n of t h i s procedure and instrument (to i n c l u d e more v a r i e d and e v o c a t i v e m a t e r i a l ) should improve such o p p o r t u n i t i e s for g e n e r a t i n g more o b s e r v a t i o n s and i n s i g h t . (3) Conceptua l Issues In the c u r r e n t "study, an attempt was made to i d e n t i f y o b s e s s i o n a l s and n o n - o b s e s s i o n a l s two ways: by c l i n i c a l judgment and by achievement. Al though the use of c l i n i c a l judgment was an expedient means of i d e n t i f y i n g the c u l t u r a l l y i n c l i n e d v a r i a n t of n a r c i s s i s t i c p e r s o n a l i t y , t h i s procedure y i e l d e d v a l u a b l e i n s i g h t in to the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and assessment of the types and m u l t i p l e dimensions of n a r c i s s i s m with p r o j e c t i v e s . And a l though the second method of d e f i n i n g o b s e s s i o n a l s as overach ievers may 108 not have been a f i n e enough d e f i n i t i o n to a l low for the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of some o v e r a c h i e v e r s in the present sample ( i . e . , i t i s d i f f i c u l t to i d e n t i f y overachievement in a homogeneous sample of c h i l d r e n whose scores are most ly very h igh in both a b i l i t y and achievement) , the d e f i n t i o n i s nonethe less c o n c e p t u a l l y c o r r e c t and in agreement wi th F r e u d ' s d e f i n i t i o n of o b s e s s i o n a l s as s t r i v e r s . S ince t h i s study i n c o r p o r a t e d what may be the f i r s t attempt at i d e n t i f y i n g the two v a r i a n t s of n a r c i s s i s t i c p e r s o n a l i t y u s i n g p r o j e c t i v e procedures , i t i s not known at t h i s time which i s the more a p p r o p r i a t e approach. A c c o r d i n g l y , i t i s s e n s i b l e that both procedures be adopted in subsequent i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . N a r c i s s i s m , P e r s i s t e n c e , and Achievement The c u r r e n t study a l so attempted to c l a r i f y the nature of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between n a r c i s s i s m and underachievement i n s c h o o l . Drawing from the work of Baker (1979), who proposed that the development of n a r c i s s i s t i c d i s t u r b a n c e s impedes s c h o l a s t i c performance, and that of V i g i l a n t e (1983), who found that s e l f - p r e o c c u p a t i o n was a s s o c i a t e d wi th l e a r n i n g problems, i t was supposed that n a r c i s s i s m may be a c r i t i c a l f e a t u r e of some underachievement. A c c o r d i n g to Baker, n a r c i s s i s t i c s u b j e c t s are unable to t o l e r a t e events which do not conf irm t h e i r sense of p e r f e c t i o n and g r a n d i o s i t y . S p e c i f i c a l l y , Baker suggested that some n a r c i s s i s t i c s tudents lack the w i l l i n g n e s s to p e r s i s t in the face of d i f f i c u l t academic m a t e r i a l because they cannot 109 accept personal s t r u g g l e s that challenge the p e r f e c t i o n of the grandiose s e l f . Because academic st u d i e s r e q u i r e r e g u l a r s t r u g g l e s with c h a l l e n g i n g i n t e l l e c t u a l m a t e r i a l , one might expect students with high degrees of n a r c i s s i s m to have d i f f i c u l t y i n school. However, Freud's (1931) contention that n a r c i s s i s m can also be a source of c u l t u r a l accomplishment seems to c o n f l i c t with Baker's (1983) reasoning. Freud e s s e n t i a l l y s t a t e d that a v a r i a n t of n a r c i s s i s t i c p e r s o n a l i t y (the o b s e s s i o n a l type) i s able to p e r s i s t through a d v e r s i t y to meet high standards f o r s i g n i f i c a n t c u l t u r a l attainment so that he may be h i g h l y regarded from a c u l t u r a l p e r s p e c t i v e . S i m i l a r l y , i n the current p s y c h i a t r i c l i t e r a t u r e , there i s r e c o g n i t i o n that many h i g h l y s u c c e s s f u l people meet the c r i t e r i a f o r a n a r c i s s i s t i c d i s o r d e r ( G r i n d l i n g e r , 1986). The c e n t r a l issue of t h i s t h e s i s was to c o n t r a s t o b s e s s i o n a l and non-obsessional n a r c i s s i s m as d i s p o s i t i o n a l f a c t o r s which d i f f e r e n t i a l l y moderate s t r i v i n g . The moderation was expected to occur in two ways: i t was p o s i t e d that (given rough equivalence in a l l else) obsessionals would show greater p e r s i s t e n c e and hence higher achievement than non-obsessionals, and that non-obsessionals would manifest a lower consistency i n t h e i r p e r s i s t e n c e and thus also lower achievement than o b s e s s i o n a l s . A c c o r d i n g l y , i t was b e l i e v e d that overachievement would be an i d e n t i f i a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of obsessionals and that underachievement would be a s a l i e n t feature of those non- 110 o b s e s s i o n a l s who mani fes ted h igh degrees of n a r c i s s i s m and low degrees of s t r i v i n g . As such c o n t r a s t s in l a r g e r and more heterogeneous samples r e v e a l mer i t in t h i s s tudy s t r a t e g y , the f u l l s i g n i f i c a n c e of the present work w i l l be f u l l y e v i d e n t . N a r c i s s i s m and C r o s s - s i t u a t i o n a l P e r s i s t e n c e Because human beings are s i t u a t i o n s e n s i t i v e , t r a i t evidence cannot e a s i l y be e s t a b l i s h e d . Any g iven i n s t a n c e of observed behav ior may be s i t u a t i o n - s p e c i f i c ( i . e . , be a s t a t e exp re s s ion r a t h e r than a t r a i t e x p r e s s i o n ) . Hence, i t was necessary to study the p a t t e r n s across d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s f o r evidence of commonality and c o n s i s t e n c y of response b e h a v i o r , which can be regarded as a p e r s o n a l t r a i t . A c c o r d i n g l y , the degree of rank order c o n s i s t e n c y across the three p e r s i s t e n c e s i t u a t i o n s f o r the o b s e s s i o n a l s and the n o n - o b s e s s i o n a l s was assessed to determine whether the s t r i v i n g p a t t e r n s for these l i b i d i n a l types vary s i g n i f i c a n t l y from one another . The p e r s i s t e n c e pa t t erns suggested that o b s e s s i o n a l s (de f ined e i t h e r by judgment or as o v e r a c h i e v e r s ) were more c o n s i s t e n t than n o n - o b s e s s i o n a l s in t h e i r s t r i v i n g b e h a v i o r . T h i s f i n d i n g supports the o p e r a t i o n a l hypothes i s of t h i s t h e s i s - that o b s e s s i o n a l and n o n - o b s e s s i o n a l n a r c i s s i s m d i f f e r e n t i a l l y moderate s t r i v i n g . In a d d i t i o n , the s t r i v i n g pa t t erns a l so suggested that s u b j e c t s h igh in n a r c i s s i s m (on e i t h e r the p r o j e c t i v e or the NPI) were more s t a b l e or c o n s i s t e n t in t h e i r p e r s i s t e n c e than subjec t s low in I l l n a r c i s s i s m . Th i s l a t t e r f i n d i n g i n d i c a t e s that degree of n a r c i s s i s m a l s o d i f f e r e n t i a l l y moderates s t r i v i n g . One must remember that these d i f f e r e n c e s between the subgroups were observed i n a homogeneous sample wi th low v a r i a n c e on the p e r s i s t e n c e measures. It i s probable that even g r e a t e r d i f f e r e n c e s would be observed in a l a r g e r and more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample of c h i l d r e n . C o n c e i v a b l y , the present sample c o n s i s t e d p r i m a r i l y of the o b s e s s i o n a l type . Th i s p o s s i b i l i t y i s suggested by the data on s t r i v i n g and achievement as w e l l as demographic da ta . A comparison wi th p u b l i c s choo l samples would y i e l d s u i t a b l e and i l l u m i n a t i n g c o n t r a s t s on these v a r i a b l e s . The present r e s e a r c h was c o n s c i o u s l y undertaken with an a t y p i c a l sample to exp lore the c h a r a c t e r of n a r c i s s i s t i c f a c t o r s and b e h a v i o r a l p e r s i s t e n c e a s s o c i a t e d with the schoo l performance of p r i v a t e s choo l c h i l d r e n . E a r l i e r s t u d i e s by T r a v i s and h i s a s s o c i a t e s ( T r a v i s & V i o l a t o , 1982; T r a v i s , V i o l a t o , & White , 1982; V i o l a t o & T r a v i s , 1985) had documented the d i f f i c u l t y of f i n d i n g p r i v i l e g e d c h i l d r e n in samples of p u b l i c s choo l c h i l d r e n in numbers s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e to permit adequate study of s o c i a l c l a s s r e l a t e d d i s p o s i t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s such as those e n t a i l e d h e r e i n . T h i s present work t h e r e f o r e c o n s t i t u t e d an attempt to i d e n t i f y and study the c u l t u r a l l y i n c l i n e d , n a r c i s s i s t i c - o b s e s s i o n a l v a r i a n t of n a r c i s s i s t i c p e r s o n a l i t y , which the t h e o r i z i n g of T r a v i s and others suggest i s most r e a d i l y found in the i n s t i t u t i o n s of the p r i v i l e g e d ( T r a v i s , 1975; 112 T r a v i s , V i o l a t o , & White , 1982; C o l e s , 1977; Feshbach, 1978). F u r t h e r , p r e d i c t i o n s about the r e l a t i o n s h i p of v a r i o u s i n d i c a t o r s of n a r c i s s i s m to achievement, and c o n j e c t u r e s about the a n t i c i p a t e d d i f f e r e n c e s between the two n a r c i s s i s t i c types were i n c o r p o r a t e d in the f o l l o w i n g f i v e hypotheses: (1) Performances on the NPI should be n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d to scores from the p r o j e c t i v e s ( t r a n s f e r e n c e i n d i c a t o r s ) and to the achievement and p e r s i s t e n c e phenomena. (2) For s u b j e c t s i d e n t i f i e d as n a r c i s s i s t i c - o b s e s s i o n a l , n a r c i s s i s m should be p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to p e r s i s t e n c e . (3) For a l l o ther s u b j e c t s ( n o n - o b s e s s i o n a l s ) , n a r c i s s i s m should be n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d to p e r s i s t e n c e . (4) For a l l s u b j e c t s , p e r s i s t e n c e should be p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to achievement. (5) For a l l s u b j e c t s , a b i l i t y should be p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to achievement. While these hypotheses were formulated in accordance wi th the reason ing set f o r t h in the e a r l y s e c t i o n s of t h i s t h e s i s , t h e i r pr imary f u n c t i o n was that of d e f i n i n g and r e f i n i n g f o c a l q u e s t i o n s . As Cronbach (1982) and others (Cook & S h a d i s h , 1986; McCutcheon, 1981; Smith, 1978) say, t h i s i s to be c o n t r a s t e d with the formal and d e f i n i t i v e t e s t i n g of p o s i t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s , s i n c e such formal t e s t s are more s u i t a b l e when n o m o t h e t i c - t h e o r e t i c a l o b j e c t i v e s are pursued through i n v e s t i g a t i o n s wi th r e p r e s e n t a t i v e samples. The present sample, which was drawn from the s i x t h and 113 seventh grades of two p r i v a t e s c h o o l s , was very u n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a l l ' c h i l d r e n of t h i s age. Even so, c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of r e l i a b i l i t y and e c o l o g i c a l v a l i d i t y (Borg & G a l l , 1983; Bronfenbrenner , 1976) were i n c o r p o r a t e d i n that m u l t i p l e assessments were i n c o r p o r a t e d in t h i s s tudy . A c c o r d i n g l y , the study i n c l u d e d f i v e i n d i c e s of n a r c i s s i s m ( p r o j e c t i v e ; o v e r a l l judgment; judged degree; judged type; and NPI); three measures of p e r s i s t e n c e (In C l a s s O b s e r v a t i o n ; P i c t u r e Reproduct ion; l e t t e r D e l e t i o n ) ; a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n for s o c i a l s ta tus ( i n which s u b j e c t s were ass igned to one of f i v e c a t e g o r i e s based on the economic involvement of the p a r e n t s ) ; p e r c e n t i l e ranks of a b i l i t y (Ot i s -Lennon School A b i l i t y T e s t ) ; and p e r c e n t i l e ranks of read ing achievement - the c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e - (on STEP and CTBS r e a d i n g s u b t e s t s ) . R e l i a n c e on s t a n d a r d i z e d measures ( e . g . , of a p t i t u d e and achievement) and other f a c t o r s which are r e g u l a r l y s t u d i e d in connect ion with achievement ( e . g . , p e r s i s t e n c e , s o c i a l c l a s s , and gender) f u r t h e r s e x p l o r a t i o n , e x t r a p o l a t i o n , and s p e c u l a t i o n - a l l of which can extend our u n d e r s t a n d i n g . More than t h i s , and above a l l , the des ign a l lowed f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n of a l l of the f a c t o r s j u s t mentioned i n c o n j u n c t i o n with an essay in c l i n i c a l e x p l o r a t i o n . To determine the a s s o c i a t i o n s among the v a r i a b l e s , Pearson c o r r e l a t i o n s and m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n analyses were executed. The r e g r e s s i o n analyses were a l so performed to es t imate the p r o p o r t i o n s of v a r i a n c e in achievement which 114 are a s s o c i a t e d with each of the p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s : a b i l i t y (one) , s o c i a l s ta tus (one) , p e r s i s t e n c e ( t h r e e ) , and n a r c i s s i s m ( f i v e ) . In a d d i t i o n , oneway u n i v a r i a t e ana lyses of v a r i a n c e (ANOVA) and C h i - s q u a r e s were computed to compare the n a r c i s s i s t i c - o b s e s s i o n a l and the n o n - o b s e s s i o n a l l i b i d i n a l types . The two n a r c i s s i s t i c types were c l a s s i f i e d on the b a s i s of c l i n i c a l judgment and achievement. F i r s t l y , judgment of type was made v i a the c l i n i c i a n ' s f o r m u l a t i o n of an o v e r a l l impress ion of the s u b j e c t ' s responses to the s t imulus cards ) ( p r o j e c t i v e instrument) before the a c t u a l s c o r i n g of the p r o t o c o l (so that the judgment i s not i n f l u e n c e d by the data that i s s c o r e d ) . Secondly , s u b j e c t s were c l a s s i f i e d as o b s e s s i o n a l on the b a s i s of overachievement (h igher achievement than expected from knowledge of a b i l i t y and s o c i a l background) . A l l other s u b j e c t s who were not o v e r a c h i e v i n g were c l a s s i f i e d as n o n - o b s e s s i o n a l . (The c r i t e r i o n for overachievement was a minimum of a seven p e r c e n t i l e rank d i s c r e p a n c y between a b i l i t y and achievement. ) E v a l u a t i o n of Hypotheses (1) It was hypothes i zed that performances on the NPI would be n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d to scores on the p r o j e c t i v e due to de fens ive d i s t o r t i o n a s s o c i a t e d with performances on the NPI. The NPI scores were a l so expected to be n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d to the achievement and p e r s i s t e n c e phenomena. The c o r r e l a t i o n s between the scores on the NPI and the 115 p r o j e c t i v e were not negat ive but i n s i g n i f i c a n t none the l e s s . Such s igns suggest that the two instruments may measure d i f f e r e n t dimensions of the c o n s t r u c t - or may not measure the same c o n s t r u c t . In a d d i t i o n , the NPI a l so c o r r e l a t e d e i t h e r n e g a t i v e l y or i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y with both the achievement and p e r s i s t e n c e measures again as was expected. These are reasons to suspect the c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y of the NPI. (2) It was a n t i c i p a t e d that n a r c i s s i s m i s p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to p e r s i s t e n c e f o r n a r c i s s i s t i c - o b s e s s i o n a l s (de f ined e i t h e r by judgment or by achievement) . However, g iven the nature of the present sample, t h i s p r e d i c t i o n c o u l d not be f u l l y v a l i d a t e d due to the extremely smal l v a r i a n c e s on the p e r s i s t e n c e measures.. As might be expected, the c o r r e l a t i o n s were low to modest because of the homogeneity of s t r i v i n g data in the sample: with respect to the v a r i a b l e s of i n t e r e s t (achievement, a b i l i t y , s o c i a l s t a t u s , p e r s i s t e n c e , and n a r c i s s i s m ) , a l l ranges are very much a b b r e v i a t e d . Moreover, the smal l subset s i z e of both judged o b s e s s i o n a l s and o v e r a c h i e v e r s (n=12 for both) as w e l l as the smal l v a r i a n c e on a l l three measures of p e r s i s t e n c e must a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d . The low v a r i a b i l i t y on the measures in p a r t i c u l a r would account for the low c o r r e l a t i o n s between n a r c i s s i s m and p e r s i s t e n c e . These data (or data from an analogous sample) must be c o n s i d e r e d and ana lyzed together wi th data from s u b j e c t s who would comprise a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample to t e s t the c o n j e c t u r e s p r o p e r l y . 116 (Though n a r c i s s i s m and p e r s i s t e n c e were found to c o r r e l a t e only modest ly f o r o b s e s s i o n a l s (de f ined e i t h e r by judgment or by achievement) , o b s e s s i o n a l s were a l so found to be c o n s i s t e n t in t h e i r p e r s i s t e n c e (a l though the number of o b s e s s i o n a l s was s m a l l ) . Th i s second f i n d i n g may lend credence to the s u p p o s i t i o n that n a r c i s s i s m and p e r s i s t e n c e are p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d for o b s e s s i o n a l s . ) (3) N a r c i s s i s m and p e r s i s t e n c e were expected to be n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d f o r n o n - o b s e s s i o n a l s . Whether de f ined by judgment or by achievement, the c o r r e l a t i o n s for t h i s subgroup were a l s o low to modest. S i m i l a r l y , the low v a r i a b i l i t y on the measures of the c o n s t r u c t s accounts f o r t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n . (Though only modest c o r r e l a t i o n s were found between n a r c i s s i s m and p e r s i s t e n c e for non- o b s e s s i o n a l s (de f ined e i t h e r way), non-obses s iona l s were a l so found to be c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s s t a b l e or c o n s i s t e n t in t h e i r p e r s i s t e n c e than o b s e s s i o n a l s . The s u p p o s i t i o n that n a r c i s s i s m and p e r s i s t e n c e i s n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d for non- o b s e s s i o n a l s may be supported by the l a t t e r f i n d i n g . ) (4) For the aggregate , i t was expected that p e r s i s t e n c e would be p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to achievement. C o r r e l a t i o n s between each of the three measures of p e r s i s t e n c e with each of the two measures for read ing achievement revea l ed a low p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two c o n s t r u c t s . S ince prev ious r e s e a r c h e r s have found a s t rong p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between p e r s i s t e n c e and achievement ( T r a v i s & V i o l a t o , 1982; Shrauger & Sorman, 1977), the low v a r i a n c e on 117 a l l three measures of p e r s i s t e n c e in the c u r r e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s again a l i k e l y e x p l a n a t i o n for the r e p o r t e d f i n d i n g s . (5) A b i l i t y and achievement were p r e d i c t e d to be p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d f o r the aggregate . The r e a d i n g achievement subtes t of the STEP c o r r e l a t e d moderate ly wi th the O t i s - L e n n o n School A b i l i t y Test ( r= .63) , whi le that o f . the CTBS c o r r e l a t e d s t r o n g l y with the s a i d measure of a b i l i t y ( r= .83) . Th i s i s concordant wi th the usua l f i n d i n g s such as those of Walberg (1984), who found that c o r r e l a t i o n s between a b i l i t i e s and achievement i s s i g n i f i c a n t and s u b s t a n t i a l . However, the c o r r e l a t i o n between the STEP r e a d i n g measure and the O t i s - L e n n o n deserves some d i s c u s s i o n . While i t appears that t h i s c o r r e l a t i o n i s the more modest of the two s a i d c o r r e l a t i o n s , one must r e a l i z e that f i r s t , the STEP and the CTBS are d i f f e r e n t t e s t s and the norms were d e r i v e d from performances from d i f f e r e n t p o p u l a t i o n s (with the CTBS norms be ing the more s u i t a b l e of the two), and second, the two c o r r e l a t i o n s were based on d i f f e r e n t sample s i z e s (n=35 f o r STEP; n=19 f o r CTBS) . Future D i r e c t i o n s The c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h provoked the f o r m u l a t i o n of s e v e r a l ques t ions which should inform f u t u re work: (1) What are the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of those subjec t s who are both judged o b s e s s i o n a l s and o v e r a c h i e v e r s ? Al though o b s e s s i o n a l s were de f ined a l t e r n a t i v e l y (by judgment and by achievement) in the present s tudy, s u b j e c t s who f a l l in both 118 c a t e g o r i e s need to be examined in connec t ion with judged o b s e s s i o n a l s and o v e r a c h i e v e r s to exp lore whether any d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t . There i s a l s o reason to b e l i e v e that judged o b s e s s i o n a l s are o v e r r e p r e s e n t e d in the overachievement subgroup. A c l o s e examinat ion of the p r o f i l e s f o r the h igh ach i evers i n the present sample may p r o v i d e c lues which can d i r e c t f u t u r e work. (2) What are the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of those subjec t s who are both n o n - o b s e s s i o n a l s and underach ievers? Non-obses s iona l s need to be examined in r e l a t i o n to underach ievers to determine how they may be i d e n t i f i e d v i s - a - v i s t h e i r performance on the i n d i c a t o r s of the p r o j e c t i v e ins trument . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the present sample i n c l u d e d too few underach ievers to a l low for formal c o r r e l a t i o n a l a n a l y s e s . However, those present have p r o f i l e s in the p r o j e c t i v e data that may be f r u i t f u l l y s t u d i e d for c lues which can guide f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . (3) Would the r e s u l t s obta ined i n the present study have been s i m i l a r for a sample of males? A probe s i m i l a r to the present study needs to be conducted us ing a sample with an e q u i v a l e n t number of males and females to es t imate the d i s t r i b u t i o n of males and females in o b s e s s i o n a l s and non- o b s e s s i o n a l s . A g a i n , we see reason to extend t h i s e x p l o r a t i o n with samples of other c o n t r a s t i n g p o p u l a t i o n s . (4) How can the s e r i e s of s t imulus cards be modi f i ed to generate g r e a t e r a f f e c t in the s u b j e c t s ? The e x i s t i n g s e r i e s of s t imulus cards can be augmented to i n c l u d e more 1 1 9 cards which, d e p i c t the c h i l d i n a ' p o s i t i o n of power. Perhaps t h i s m o d i f i c a t i o n to the p r o j e c t i v e instrument w i l l produce h igher y i e l d s in the p r e s e n t a t i o n a l index of n a r c i s s i s m . (5) What c l u s t e r s may be formed wi th the i n d i c a t o r s on the p r o j e c t i v e measure of n a r c i s s i s m ? A f a c t o r a n a l y s i s needs to be computed to determine the p o s s i b l e groupings among the i n d i c a t o r s on the p r o j e c t i v e d e v i c e . Subsequent ly , p a r t i c u l a r f a c t o r s may be i d e n t i f i e d as a b a s i s f or d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g between o b s e s s i o n a l s and n o n - o b s e s s i o n a l s . (6) How v a l i d i s the p r o j e c t i v e dev ice as a measure of n a r c i s s i s m ? F u r t h e r assessment of the t e c h n i c a l q u a l i t i e s of the p r o j e c t i v e instrument i s necessary to determine i t s v a l i d i t y as a measure of n a r c i s s i s m . The main d i f f i c u l t y wi th t h i s p r o j e c t i s shared with the present s tudy: in the absence of a s o l i d bench mark, concurrent v a l i d i t y i s e l u s i v e . C l e a r l y , the advantage of b e h a v i o r a l c o r r e l a t e s l i k e p e r s i s t e n c e , which can be l i n k e d t h e o r e t i c a l l y as w e l l as e m p i r i c a l l y l i e s in t h e i r promise for p r o v i d i n g an independent and s t a b l e b a s i s f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g b e t t e r unders tand ing of p e r s o n a l i t y or d i s p o s i t i o n a l f a c t o r s that are i m p l i c a t e d in achievement. 120 GLOSSARY Acting out. D i r e c t express ions of c o n f l i c t u a l t ens ions in annoying or a n t i - s o c i a l behav ior or in f a n t a s i e s . Countertransf erence. The a r o u s a l of the a n a l y s t ' s r e p r e s s e d f e e l i n g s by the a n a l y t i c s i t u a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y the t r a n s f e r e n c e by the a n a l y s t of h i s repres sed f e e l i n g s upon the p a t i e n t . Cultural capital. The c u l t u r a l resources ( i n t e l l e c t u a l possess ions such as knowledge, s o c i a l savvy, t a c t , l i n g u i s t i c re f inement , and a e s t h e t i c and moral s e n s i b i l i t i e s ) which are d i f f e r e n t i a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d among i n d i v i d u a l s and groups a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r p laces in the p o l i t i c a l economy, c u l t u r a l eco logy , and s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . S ince these are c u l t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , they are a c q u i r e d n a t u r a l l y . from l i v i n g in p r i v i l e g e d c i r c u m s t a n c e s . Extension of the self. The investment of new o b j e c t s or i n d i v i d u a l s wi th the same meaning and values as were engendered by exper ience wi th objec t s or i n d i v i d u a l s in the pas t , to which the new ones bear no a c t u a l resemblance. In p s y c h o a n a l y s i s , t h i s ex tens ion i s used as a defence aga ins t the p a t i e n t ' s f e e l i n g s of dependence, v u l n e r a b i l i t y , or inadequacy in r e l a t i o n to the a n a l y s t . The p r o p e r t y of a body of occupying space. Grandiose self. A s t a b l e and cohes ive n a r c i s s i s t i c s t r u c t u r e , which i s m o b i l i z e d w i t h i n the p a t i e n t d u r i n g a m i r r o r t r a n s f e r e n c e . Th i s c o n f i g u r a t i o n serves as a defense aga ins t the p a t i e n t ' s t raumat i c c h i l d h o o d exper iences of a c h r o n i c a l l y c o l d parent f i g u r e . It i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by an exaggerated b e l i e f in or f e e l i n g s of one's importance or i d e n t i t y , o f ten mani fes ted by d e l u s i o n s of great wea l th , power, beauty, fame, or a b i l i t y . Ideal parent image. A s t a b l e and cohes ive n a r c i s s i s t i c s t r u c t u r e , which i s m o b i l i z e d w i t h i n the p a t i e n t d u r i n g an i d e a l i z i n g t r a n s f e r e n c e . This s t r u c t u r e represent s the p a t i e n t ' s fantasy of an e v e r - g i v i n g , e v e r - l o v i n g , and a c c e p t i n g c a r e t a k e r , in c o n t r a s t to the exper ience in r e a l i t y . The s t r u c t u r e i s conce ived as be ing p e r f e c t , or b e t t e r than i t i s with an exaggerat ion of i t s v i r t u e s and a m i n i m i z i n g of i t s f a u l t s . Idealizing transference. The m o b i l i z a t i o n of the i d e a l parent image dur ing a n a l y s i s , wherein the p a t i e n t p e r c e i v e s the ana lys t as the i d e a l i z e d parent f i g u r e . 121 In e f f e c t , the p a t i e n t ' s e a r l y need for merging with an omnipotent objec t i s r e v i v e d . Individuated person. One who has achieved the most d i f f e r e n t i a t e d and i n t e g r a t e d s ta t e of p e r s o n a l i t y development. Under p o s i t i v e c i rcumstances , the u l t i m a t e outcome of the path of p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o g r e s s i o n i s a w e l l - a r t i c u l a t e d , s m o o t h - f u n c t i o n i n g p h y s i c a l system w i t h i n the s e l f . Libidinal type. The person, or t h i n g wi th which l i b i d o i s concerned, which provokes or e x c i t e s i n s t i n c t u a l a c t i v i t y r e l a t e d to i t . Mirror transference. The m o b i l i z a t i o n of the grandiose s e l f d u r i n g a n a l y s i s , wherein the p a t i e n t sees the ana lys t as merely an ex tens ion of the p a t i e n t ' s p e r s o n a l i t y . In e f f e c t , the p a t i e n t ' s e a r l y need for p a r e n t a l acceptance i s r e v i t a l i z e d . Narcissism. The c o n d i t i o n of be ing in love with one's own image. N a r c i s s i s m r e s u l t s from the wi thdrawl of l i b i d i n a l i n t e r e s t s from e x t e r n a l o b j e c t s and i n d i v i d u a l s , and the subsequent re investment of l i b i d o back i n t o the ego. P a t h o l o g i c a l n a r c i s s i s m r e s u l t s from the i n a b i l i t y to r e d i r e c t l i b i d i n a l i n t e r e s t s i n t o e x t e r n a l o b j e c t s and the undue c o n c e n t r a t i o n of l i b i d o in the ego. The term i s thus a p p l i e d to h igh v a l u a t i o n of one's own b o d i l y q u a l i t i e s and, by e x t e n s i o n , of one's deeds and persona l q u a l i t i e s . Narcissistic entitlement. The e x p e c t a t i o n of s p e c i a l favors without assuming r e c i p r o c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . Narcissistic-obsessionaJ type. The c u l t u r a l l y i n c l i n e d v a r i a n t of the n a r c i s s i s t i c p e r s o n a l i t y . This p a r t i c u l a r l i b i d i n a l type i s able to p e r s i s t through a d v e r s i t y to meet h igh s tandards for achievement so that he may be h i g h l y regarded from a c u l t u r a l s t a n d p o i n t . Narcissistic personali ty. A p e r s o n a l i t y d i s o r d e r in which there are a grandiose sense of s e l f - i m p o r t a n c e or uniqueness; p r e o c c u p a t i o n with f a n t a s i e s of u n l i m i t e d success , a b i l i t y , power, weal th , beauty, i d e a l l ove , b r i l l i a n c e , and omnisc ience; e x h i b i t i o n i s t i c need for constant a t t e n t i o n and a d m i r a t i o n ; c h a r a c t e r i s t i c responses to t h r e a t s to s e l f - e s t e e m , such as coo l i n d i f f e r e n c e or marked f e e l i n g s of rage, i n f e r i o r i t y , shame, h u m i l i a t i o n , or emptiness; and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c d i s t u r b a n c e s i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , such as f e e l i n g s of e n t i t l e m e n t , i n t e r p e r s o n a l e x p l o i t a t i v e n e s s , r e l a t i o n s h i p s that a l t e r n a t e between the extremes of o v e r i d e a l i z a t i o n and d e v a l u a t i o n , and lack of empathy. 122 Narcissistic rage. A m a n i f e s t a t i o n of the v u l n e r a b l e p a t i e n t ' s aggres s ive responses to a c t u a l or a n t i c i p a t e d i n j u r y to the aggrandized sense of s e l f ( i . e . , the need for revenge and the u n r e l e n t i n g compulsion in the p u r s u i t of undoing a h u r t ) . It i s a v i o l e n t or in tense anger, marked by threatened or a c t u a l a t t a c k . Narcissistic supply. Any source of a d m i r a t i o n , a c c l a i m , a t t e n t i o n , or acceptance , which w i l l r e a f f i r m the p a t i e n t ' s sense of omnipotence. The o v e r i d e a l i z a t i o n of other i n d i v i d u a l s ( i d e a l parent f i g u r e s ) from whom the p a t i e n t expects s a i d s u p p l i e s e x e m p l i f i e s the t y p i c a l l y e x p l o i t a t i v e i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s in which n a r c i s s i s t i c persons engage. Negative transference. The development of a h o s t i l e a t t i t u d e toward the a n a l y s t . The term r e f e r s to the t r a n s f e r e n c e of a negat ive a t t i t u d e , not to a t r a n s f e r e n c e i n a negat ive d i r e c t i o n . Omnipotence. F a n t a s i e s of u n l i m i t e d success , power, b r i l l i a n c e , and beauty or a grandiose sense of s e l f - importance ( i . e . , exaggerat ion of achievements and t a l e n t s ) . Omnipotence i s a s s e r t e d as a d e n i a l of f e e l i n g s of v u l n e r a b i l i t y . The i n d i v i d u a l l i t e r a l l y regards h i m s e l f as able to c o n t r o l a l l the persons around him. Positive transference. The development of an a f f e c t i o n a t e a t t i t u d e toward the a n a l y s t wherein the p a t i e n t overvalues the ana lys t u n r e a l i s t i c a l l y . Primary narcissism. The e a r l y stage when the i n f a n t ' s l i b i d o i s turned toward h i s own body. The p a r t i a l p e r s i s t e n c e of t h i s s tage , or r e t u r n t h e r e t o , i s a major f a c t o r in some neuroses . Secondary narcissism. The withdrawing of l i b i d o from objec t s and i n v e s t i n g i t in the ego, e s p e c i a l l y i n v e s t i n g i t in the image of one's ego b u i l t up in c h i l d h o o d by i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with p a r e n t s . Th i s withdrawl of love from objec t s onto the s e l f i s regarded as a p a t h o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n . Transference. Displacement of a f f e c t from one objec t to another . The process whereby the p a t i e n t s h i f t s a f f e c t s a p p l i c a b l e to another person onto the a n a l y s t . 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J o u r n a l o f S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n , 9 (3 ) , 215-230. V i o l a t o , C , White , W., & T r a v i s , L . D . (1984). Some c o n c u r r e n t , c r i t e r i o n - r e l a t e d data on v a l i d i t y for the Quick Test based on three Canadian samples. P s y c h o l o g i c a l Report s , 54, 775-782. Walberg, H. (1984). S y n t h e s i s of r e s e a r c h on t e a c h i n g . In M . C . Whi t t rock ( E d . ) , T h i r d handbook of r e s e a r c h on t e a c h i n g . Washington, DC: American E d u c a t i o n a l Research A s s o c i a t i o n . Watson, P . J . , Grisham, S . O . , T r o t t e r , M . V . , & Biderman, M . D . (1984). N a r c i s s i s m and empathy: V a l i d i t y evidence f o r the n a r c i s s i s t i c p e r s o n a l i t y i n v e n t o r y . J o u r n a l o f P e r s o n a l i t y Assessment, 48(3) , 301-305. 130 Weiss , H. & Sherman, J . (1973). I n t e r n a l - e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l as a p r e d i c t o r of task e f f o r t and s a t i s f a c t i o n subsequent to f a i l u r e . J o u r n a l of A p p l i e d Psycho logy , 57, 132-136. W i t t g e n s t e i n , L . (1953). P h i l o s o p h i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . New York: M a c m i l l a n . Young, M . F . (1959). An i n v e s t i g a t i o n of n a r c i s s i s m and c o r r e l a t e s of n a r c i s s i s m in s c h i z o p h r e n i c s , n e u r o t i c s , and normals . D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 20, 3394. 131 APPENDIX A PROJECTIVE DEVICE The i n d i v i d u a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of a s e r i e s of s t imulus cards each c o n t a i n i n g a g r a p h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of an a d u l t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p prov ides a p r o j e c t i v e measure of n a r c i s s i s m f o r a l l s u b j e c t s . (The p r o j e c t i v e dev ice i s expected to tap any n a r c i s s i s t i c c o n f i g u r a t i o n s w i t h i n the subjec t v i a the emergence of an i d e a l i z i n g or m i r r o r i n g t r a n s f e r e n c e . ) Use of the dev ice i s p r e d i c a t e d on the assumption that each of the s t imulus cards c a r r i e s equal weight . At t h i s p o i n t , the psychometr ic p r o p e r t i e s of the instrument are not f u l l y known, and p u r s u i t of same w i l l form the b a s i s of a fu ture s tudy . Hence for present purposes , each card i s t r e a t e d as e q u i v a l e n t to any other in the s e r i e s . The p r o j e c t i v e dev ice c o n s i s t s of 14 s t imulus cards which d e p i c t 8 p r o t o t y p i c a l s i t u a t i o n s . A l l but two of these are the subjec t of 2 cards so that the gender of the c h i l d can be a l t e r n a t e d for each scene as f o l l o w s : card 1 - (denta l o f f i c e ) . A male d e n t i s t wi th a boy p a t i e n t . The p a t i e n t i s r e c l i n i n g on the d e n t i s t ' s c h a i r . The d e n t i s t i s s t a n d i n g between the p a t i e n t and a t a b l e of denta l in s t ruments . card 8 - (denta l o f f i c e ) . A male d e n t i s t wi th a g i r l p a t i e n t . As above. card 2 - (bedroom). A mother wi th her son. The boy and h i s mother are s t a n d i n g face to face . The mother i s p o i n t i n g upwards whi le l o o k i n g down at the f l o o r , where objec t s are s c a t t e r e d between the two f i g u r e s . Behind the boy i s a bed with creases in the shee t s . card 9 - (bedroom). A mother with her daughter . As above. card 3 - ( t enn i s l e s s o n ) . A female r e c r e a t i o n l eader wi th a boy s tudent . The student and the r e c r e a t i o n l eader are s t a n d i n g on oppos i t e s ides of the n e t / c o u r t . The r e c r e a t i o n l eader i s h o l d i n g a b a l l in one hand and a racket in the o ther . The student i s watching with h i s racket he ld down. card 10 - ( t enn i s l e s s o n ) . A male r e c r e a t i o n l eader wi th a g i r l s tudent . As above. card 4 - (house) . An adul t with a c h i l d (both of ambiguous sex. The c h i l d i s s tand ing on the ground bes ide a house and i s h o l d i n g up a l a d d e r . The adul t i s s t a n d i n g on the roo f of the house. 132 card 11 - (open s e a ) . A man and a woman with a c h i l d (sex ambiguous). The c h i l d i s s i t t i n g in a boat in the middle of the ocean. Nearby, the man i s s t a n d i n g on top of an over turned s a i l b o a t . The woman i s hanging onto the end of the boat . Signs of rough weather are ev ident in the p i c t u r e . card 5 - (nurse ' s o f f i c e ) . A female nurse wi th a boy p a t i e n t . The p a t i e n t i s s i t t i n g on the edge of a c o t . The nurse i s s t a n d i n g between the p a t i e n t and a t a b l e of medica l in s t ruments . card 12 - (nurse ' s o f f i c e ) . A female nurse wi th a g i r l p a t i e n t . As above. card 6 - ( c l a s s r o o m ) . A male teacher wi th a boy s tudent . The s tudent i s s i t t i n g in h i s desk with an open book before him. The teacher i s s t a n d i n g bes ide the student and i s p o i n t i n g at the open book. c a r d 13 - ( c l a s s r o o m ) . A male teacher and a g i r l s tudent . As above. card 7 - (camp). A boy scout l eader with a boy scout . The boy scout and the scout l eader are s t a n d i n g face to f a c e . The scout l eader i s p o i n t i n g . Signs of n ight are ev ident in the background. card 14 - (camp). A g i r l guide l eader wi th a g i r l gu ide . As above. * * NOTE: The f o l l o w i n g arrangement of the 14 s t imulus cards i s c o n s i s t e n t wi th the order of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .    136 137  139 140 141 1 143  145 146 147 APPENDIX B RECORD FORM FOR PROJECTIVE DEVICE Background Informat ion Name _ Code B i r t h O r d e r / N o . of S i b l i n g s Sex P a r e n t s ' Occupat ions Age Date Tested Grade C l i n i c a l Judgment I n d i c a t e c l i n i c a l judgment before the a c t u a l s c o r i n g of responses . O v e r a l l Judgment: Notable s igns of n a r c i s s i s m No apparent s igns of n a r c i s s i s m Judgment of Degree: High ( ) Medium ( ) Low Judgment of Type: N a r c i s s i s t i c - o b s e s s i o n a l Non-obses s iona l Notes: 148 S c o r i n g Matrix D i r e c t i o n s : For each card, score "1" f o r each i n d i c a t o r that appears i n a s u b j e c t ' s response. Score "0" f o r each i n d i c a t o r that i s not present i n the response. Score "NP" f o r no p r o j e c t i o n ; and score "NR" f o r no response. Record scores f o r both r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l (R) and p r e s e n t a t i o n a l (P) i n d i c a t o r s . ( I l l u s t r a t i v e i n d i c a t o r s f o r each of the m a n i f e s t a t i o n s i s provided i n the s c o r i n g guide. Manifest evidence of n a r c i s s i s m should bear at l e a s t a " f a m i l y resemblance'* to the example provided f o r a p a r t i c u l a r i n d i c a t o r . ) S u b - t o t a l the scores f o r each card- and f o r each i n d i c a t o r . Add the s u b - t o t a l s of both the cards and. the i n d i c a t o r s to d e r i v e a t o t a l score f o r the s u b j e c t . (Check procedure: the sum of the columns should equal the sum of the rows.) Stimulus Cards I n d i c a t o r s of Narcissism 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 T 0 T A L envy R P devaluate R P depreciate R P aggrandize R P omnipotence R P a t t e n t i o n R P self-esteem R P entitlement R P e x p l o i t R P i d e a l i z e R P empathy R P TOTAL 149 PROFILE ANALYSIS C l i n i c i a n s who wish to draw a p r o f i l e should f i r s t t r a n s f e r the s u b j e c t ' s s u b - t o t a l s of the scores f o r each card to the row of boxes below. Then mark an "x" on the dot corresponding to the s u b - t o t a l e d score f o r each card, and draw a l i n e connecting the "x" 's. Stimulus Cards 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Sub-totaled Score 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 150 SCORINGGUIDE I n d i c a t o r s of N a r c i s s i s m and Examples Represen ta t ion ( s igned meaning) a. n a r c i s s i s t i c envy ( e . g . , "The g i r l would give anyth ing to be l i k e her guide l e a d e r . " ) . b . d e v a l u a t i o n of help or support ( e . g . , "They are p u t t i n g the camp in o r d e r . The boy i s doing most of the work, and the scout l eader i s not doing h i s share . The l eader i s n ' t doing much; he's j u s t g i v i n g o r d e r s . " ) . c. d e p r e c i a t o r y a t tacks on the h e l p e r ( e . g . , "She hates her teacher; he's u s e l e s s . " ) . d. a g g r a n d i z i n g of the s e l f ( o v e r e s t i m a t i o n of one's a b i l i t i e s and achievements) ( e . g . , "The g i r l i s the best a t h l e t e in her c l a s s , so she can p lay her own way.") . e. sense of omnipotence (preoccupat ion with f a n t a s i e s of u n l i m i t e d success , power, b r i l l i a n c e , beauty, or i d e a l love) ( e . g . , "The water i s f u l l of sharks , but he w i l l swim across and save the people from drowning ." ) . f. e x h i b i t i o n i s t i c need for constant a t t e n t i o n and admira t ion ( e . g . , "The d e n t i s t keeps s t a r i n g at her because her t ee th are so p e r f e c t . " ) . g. f r a g i l i t y of s e l f - e s t eem (coo l i n d i f f e r e n c e or f e e l i n g s or express ions of rage , revenge, h o s t i l i t y , i n f e r i o r i t y , shame, h u m i l i a t i o n , or emptiness in response to c r i t i c i s m , i n d i f f e r e n c e of o t h e r s , or defeat) ( e . g . , "She f e e l s hurt because her teacher t o l d her to do the assignment over again because i t wasn't good enough. He says she can do b e t t e r , but she doesn' t care; i t ' s j u s t a j u n k i e p iece to pass the t i m e . " ) . h. sense of en t i t l ement ( e . g . , "The boy i s s u r p r i s e d and annoyed that h i s mother d i d not c lean up h i s room f o r h i m . " ) . i . e x p l o i t a t i v e n e s s in i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s ( e . g . , "She i s t r y i n g to be r e a l l y n i ce to her teacher so that she can get i n t o h i s good b o o k s . " ) . j . o v e r i d e a l i z a t i o n and d e v a l u a t i o n in i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s ( e . g . , "The nurse i s h i s f a v o r i t e person; she's a dream.") . ( e . g . , "She th inks she's so grea t ! She's always t e l l i n g him what to eat , how much s leep he needs, when to wash. She makes him s i c k ! " ) . 151 k. lack of capacity for empathy (e.g., "The girl is annoyed with her father because he took so long to fix the roof that he's too tired to take her to the beach, and now she has to help him down too."). Presentation (expression) 1. inflection (harshness of voice). 2. amplitude (loudness of voice). 3. pitch (subdued voice or increasing height of pitch indicating rising emotion). 4. cadence (rapidity of expression indicating increased arousal). 5. lability of emotion (i.e., depression; excitation). 6. tone (meaning implied by tone) (i.e., envy; -regret; sarcasm; shame). 7. sense (soul or vision; organizing or shaping principle) (i.e., Aristotle's six aspects of poetry: melos (melody); lexis (diction); spectacle; mythos (plot); ethos (characters and setting); dianoia (thought). 152 APPENDIX C NPI Naie_; Date Sex Age Educat ion Occupat ion I n s t r u c t i o n s : For each q u e s t i o n , c i r c l e A or B a c c o r d i n g to how you f e e l about y o u r s e l f . Do not s k i p any q u e s t i o n s . Example: A I love l i c o r i c e . B I hate l i c o r i c e . I f you l i k e l i c o r i c e , c i r c l e A. I f you d o n ' t , c i r c l e B. 1. A I am a f a i r l y s e n s i t i v e person . B I am more s e n s i t i v e than most other people . 2. A I have a n a t u r a l t a l e n t for i n f l u e n c i n g peop le . B I am not good at i n f l u e n c i n g people . 3. A Modesty doesn' t become me. B I am e s s e n t i a l l y a modest person . 4. A S u p e r i o r i t y i s something that you a c q u i r e wi th exper i ence . B S u p e r i o r i t y i s something you are born w i t h . 5. A I would do almost anyth ing on a dare . B I tend to be a f a i r l y caut ious person . 6. A I would be w i l l i n g to d e s c r i b e myse l f as a s t r o n g p e r s o n a l i t y . B I would be r e l u c t a n t to d e s c r i b e myse l f as a s t r o n g p e r s o n a l i t y . 7. A When people compliment me I sometimes get embarrassed. B I know that I am good because everybody keeps t e l l i n g me s o. 8. A The thought of r u l i n g the world f r i g h t e n s the h e l l out of me. B I f I r u l e d the world i t would be a much b e t t e r p l a c e . 9. A People j u s t n a t u r a l l y g r a v i t a t e towards me. B Some people l i k e me. 153 10. A I can u s u a l l y t a l k my way out of a n y t h i n g . B I t r y to accept the consequences of my b e h a v i o r . 11. A When I p l a y a game I don' t mind l o s i n g once in a whi1e. B When I p l a y a game I hate to l o s e . 12. A I p r e f e r to b lend in wi th the crowd. B I l i k e to be the center of a t t e n t i o n . 13. A I w i l l be a success . B I'm not too concerned about success . 14. A I am no b e t t e r or no worse than most people . B I th ink I am a s p e c i a l person . 15. A I am not sure i f I would make a good l e a d e r . B I see myse l f as a good l e a d e r . 16. A I am a s s e r t i v e . B I wish I were more a s s e r t i v e . 17. .A I l i k e having a u t h o r i t y over other people . B I don' t mind f o l l o w i n g o r d e r s . 18. A There i s a l o t that I can l e a r n from other people . B People can l e a r n a great deal from me. 19. A I f i n d i t easy to manipulate people . B I don' t l i k e i t when I f i n d mysel f m a n i p u l a t i n g peop le . 20. A I i n s i s t upon g e t t i n g the respect that i s due me. B I u s u a l l y get the respect that I deserve . 21. A I don' t p a r t i c u l a r l y l i k e to show o f f my body. B I l i k e to d i s p l a y my body. 22. A I can read people l i k e a book. B People are sometimes hard to unders tand. 23. A I f I f e e l competent I am w i l l i n g to take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for making d e c i s i o n s . B I l i k e to take the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r making d e c i s i o n s . 24. A I am at my best when the s i t u a t i o n i s at i t s worst . B Sometimes I don't handle d i f f i c u l t s i t u a t i o n s too w e l l . 25. A I j u s t want to be reasonably happy. B I want to amount to something in the eyes of the wor1d. 154 26. A My body i s noth ing s p e c i a l . B I l i k e to look at my body. 27. A Beauty i s i n the eyes of the b e h o l d e r . B I have good ta s t e when i t comes to beauty. 28. A I t r y not to be a show o f f . B I am apt to show o f f i f I get the chance. » 29. A I always know what I am d o i n g . B Sometimes I'm not sure of what I am do ing . 30. A I sometimes depend on people to get th ings done. B I r a r e l y depend on anyone e l s e to get th ings done. 31. A I'm always in p e r f e c t h e a l t h . B Sometimes I get s i c k . 32. A Sometimes I t e l l good s t o r i e s . B Everybody l i k e s to hear my s t o r i e s . 33. A I u s u a l l y dominate any c o n v e r s a t i o n . B At times I am capable of dominat ing a c o n v e r s a t i o n . 34. A I expect a great deal from other people . B I l i k e to do th ings for other people . 35. A I w i l l never be s a t i s f i e d u n t i l I get a l l that I deserve . B I take my s a t i s f a c t i o n s as they come. 36. A Compliments embarrass me. B I l i k e to be complimented. 37. A My b a s i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s to be aware of the needs of o t h e r s . B My b a s i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s to be aware of my own needs. 38. A I have a s t r o n g w i l l to power. B Power for i t s own sake doesn' t i n t e r e s t me. 39. A I don' t very much care about new fads and f a s h i o n s . B I l i k e to s t a r t new fads and f a s h i o n s . 40. A I am envious of other p e o p l e ' s good f o r t u n e . B I enjoy see ing other people have good f o r t u n e . 41. A I am loved because I am l o v a b l e . B I am loved because I g ive l o v e . 42. A I l i k e to look at mysel f in the m i r r o r . B I am not p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t e d in l o o k i n g at mysel f in the m i r r o r . 155 43. A I am not e s p e c i a l l y w i t t y or c l e v e r . B I am w i t t y and c l e v e r . 44. A I r e a l l y l i k e to be the center of a t t e n t i o n . B It makes me uncomfortable to be the center of a t t en t i o n . 45. A I can l i v e my l i f e in any way I want to . B People c a n ' t always l i v e t h e i r l i v e s in terms of what they want. 46. A Being an a u t h o r i t y doesn' t mean that much to me. B People always seem to recogn ize my a u t h o r i t y . 47. A I would p r e f e r to be a l e a d e r . B It makes l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e to me whether I am a l eader or not . 48. A I a m g o i n g t o b e a g r e a t p e r s o n . B I hope I am going to be s u c c e s s f u l . 49. A People sometimes b e l i e v e what I t e l l them. B I can make anybody b e l i e v e anyth ing I want them to . 50. A I am a born l e a d e r . B Leadersh ip i s a q u a l i t y that takes a long time to deve lop . 51. A I wish someone would someday w r i t e my b iography . B I don' t l i k e people to pry in to my l i f e for any reason . 52. A I get upset when people don't n o t i c e how I look when I go out in p u b l i c . B I don' t mind b l e n d i n g i n t o the crowd when I go out in p u b l i c . 53. A I am more capable than other people . B There i s a l o t that I can l e a r n from other people . 54. A I am much l i k e everybody e l s e . B I am an e x t r a o r d i n a r y person .

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