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Deguchi Nao : modernization and new religions Miyata, Mami 1988

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D E G U C H I N A O : M O D E R N I Z A T I O N A N D N E W R E L I G I O N S by MAMI MIYATA B. of Law, Meiji-gakuin University, 1974 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Religious Studies We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 4 1988 © Mami Miyata, 1988 In present ing this thesis in partial fulf i lment of the requ i rements for an advanced d e g r e e at the University of British C o l u m b i a , I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for re ference and study. I further agree that permiss ion for extensive c o p y i n g of this thesis for scholarly pu rposes may be granted by the head of my depar tment or by his o r her representat ives. It is u n d e r s t o o d that c o p y i n g or pub l i ca t ion of this thesis for financial gain shall not be a l lowed wi thout my written pe rmiss ion . Depa r tmen t o f RELIGIOUS STUDIES T h e Univers i ty of British C o l u m b i a Vancouve r , C a n a d a Date A p r i l 2 9 t h , 1988  DE-6 (2/88) A B S T R A C T Japan experienced drastic economic, political, and social changes during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Her modernization process has many notable charactertics. In this paper, I discuss an ideology which governed all aspects of the Japanese people's lives between 1868 and 1945 and the people's reaction to it. This ideology , which is now called Tennosei ideology (the ideology of the Tenno system), was based on the myth that emphasized the divinity of the Tenno (emperor). The Meiji government developed and cultivated Tenno-sei ideology as the theoretical backbone of the government's modernization policy. When one studies the problems of modernization in Japan, Tennosei ideology and the people's reaction to it should not be overlooked. However, it is quite difficult to know how common people, especially those of the lower social strata, reacted to the changes in their lives which were caused by modernization. During the period between the late Tokugawa era and the late Meiji era, many new religious movements were born. Most founders' of those new religions experienced many difficulties firsthand and expressed critical views of modernization. They attracted people who suffered from the economic, political, social, and religious changes occuring during the rapid modernization process. This paper focuses on examining the religious teachings of Deguchi Nao, the founder of Omoto-kyo, because her writings, called Ofudesaki (Tip of A Writing Brush), contain the sharpest criticism against the Meiji government's policies and the Tenno. ii I examine religious currents in the late ninteenth century to find out why a large number of new religious movements developed during this period. Also the background of the Tenno-sei ideology and how the Meiji government systematically made the ideology penetrate into Japanese people's minds are discussed in Chapter One. In Chapter Two, Deguchi Nao's life experiences as the background of her religious teachings are examined. For the purpose of clarifying Nao's religious ideas, I analyze her early Ofudesaki in chapter three. Through Ofudesaki, the Kami, Ushitora-no-Konjin, warned the people that the present world would be demolished unless they repented their sins quickly. Nao used only simple and unsophisticated expressions when she wrote Ofudesaki, but in it one can find her original mythology and view on salvation. In 1899, a man named Ueda Kisaburo (later changed his name to Deguchi Onisaburo joined . Nao's group. Although Onisaburo is considered by present Omoto-kyo followers as a co-founder of the organization, there were fundamental differences between Nao and him. Onisburo's religious and social background are discussed in chapter four. In chapter five, those ofudesaki written between 1896 and 1899 are analyzed, especially focusing on a series of pilgrimages, called Shussu, led by Nao. I also discuss whether it is appropriate to categorize Nao's religious group as a millenarian movement. iii Since the Meiji government was maintained by the myth of a 'divine' Tenno, the existence of a new religion which held an independent mythology could be considered a serious threat to the Tenno and his government. In conclusion, I re-examine the struggle between the Meiji government and the new religious movements as an important element of Japan's modernization process. iv T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S Abstract ••• i i Abbreviations • v i i ^ E X P L A N A T O R Y N O T E v f r i i Acknowledgement 1 x I. I N T R O D U C T I O N 1 II. Religious Currents from the 1840's to the 1890's 10 A. Introduction 10 B. Religious Policies of the Tokugawa Bakufu 11 C. The Rise of Restoration Shinto 16 D. New Religions in the Late Tokugawa Period 21 E. Building the Tenno System and State Shinto 29 III. Deguchi Nao's Life before Her F i r s t Possession 39 A. Introduction 39 B. Nao's life experiences 40 1. Her Childhood 40 2. Nao's Marriage and Her Children 42 3. The Beginning of Nao's Possession 46 C. Socio-political Background 47 D. Nao's Religious and Intellectual Background 54 1. Tamba - the Womb of Shamans 55 2. Nao's Upbringing and Shingaku 58 3. Influence from New Religions 61 E. The Divine Roar 66 IV. The Earliest Ofudesaki and Nao's Religious Activities 72 A. Introduction 72 B. The Basic Characteristics 74 C. The K a m i and the Purpose of His Reappearance 77 D. Rulers and Jinmin (People) 81 E. F a i t h Healing 84 F. Japan's Involvement in War and Nao's Predictions 88 1. Nao's Predictions and the pre-war atmosphere 88 2. Nao's F i r s t Followers 95 V. The E a r l y Life of Deguchi Onisaburo 98 A. Introduction 98 B. Onisaburo's Life Experience 99 C. Deguchi Onisaburo: Religious and Intellectual Background 107 VI. Doctrinal Development in the Ofudesaki 115 A. Introduction 115 B. The Social, Economic and Political Circumstances 118 v C. Ofudesaki Written between 1896 and 1899 122 1. The Condition of the Present World 123 2. The Concept of Kami-gami 129 3. The Salvation 136 D. Ofudesaki Written between 1900 and 1905 152 1. Henj6*-nanshi and HenjfJ-nyoshi 154 E. Shussu 160 F. Ayabe as the Sacred Capital , 172 G. The Death of the Shaman 182 VII. Some Problems and Conclusions 184 VIII. Glossary of Selected Japanese Words 197 Selected Bibliography 204 vi A B B R E V I A T I O N S 1. O.C. The Omoto-kyo library in Kameoka has numerous photocopies of articles which mention Omoto-kyo. Unfortunately, the part which shows the page numbers of the original article is excluded from these photocopies. Thus, O.C. p. 3, means page number 3 of the photocopy, not of the original. 2. O.N. Omoto Nanajunen-shi . 3. O.S. Omoto Shiryud Shusei, Vol. 1. 4. Ofudesaki means Deguchi Nao's writings as a whole. The word ofudesaki without the uppercase "O" signifies one piece of Nao's writing distinguished by the date when it was written, i.e., (ofudesaki, Jan. 1, 1899). E X P L A N A T O R Y N O T E 1. Words written in italics are Japanese words. 2. Those Japanese words which have been adopted into English are not written in italics. 3. Japanese proper nouns other than the names of kami are not written in italics. 4. All Japanese texts have been translated by the author unless otherwise attributed. A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T My interest in the subject of this thesis was first aroused four years ago by Professor William Nicholls and Doctor Moshe Amon who told me about the concepts of modernity and modernization. I have been fortunate enough to be able to explore my interest in the relationship between modernization processes and religious movements under the guidance of Professors Daniel Overmyer, John Howes, and Shotaro Iida. I would like to express my deepest gratitude to them for their kindness and patience. I must thank those friends who have in so many ways given me invaluable support. Dr. Benjamin Davis for convincing me that I was not too old to become a graduate student. Messrs. C. H. Neroutsos and Gordon R. Kadota for giving me wise advice on life. Ms. Donna Brandon, Mrs. Yuko Yasutake, Ms. Constance Lim, Mr. Len Hart, Ms. Michelle Fracheboud, and Mrs. Keiko Tanaka for their friendship. I am also deeply obliged to the people who proof-read the manuscript. To my husband and my parents, I dedicate this thesis in token of my gratitude. 1* I. I N T R O D U C T I O N Japan went through an extended period of economic, political and social changes in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, which culminated, in many ways, in the Meiji. . Restoration of 1868. Aspects of this modernization included industrialization, political centralization, an increasing proportion of landless peasantry and the imposition of Tenno (emperor) rule upon the Japanese people. Many groups within Japanese society, including the very poor, reacted against this modernization. The development of new forms of religion was one of the ways the common people reacted. Omoto-kyo is one of these new religions that began largely as a reaction to these economic, political and social changes. In 1639, the Tokugawa Bakufu 1 established the Sakoku (national isolation) policy, and close the doors of Japan to Western trade and travel until the late nineteenth century with a few exceptions, such as well controlled trade with China and the Dutch. During the period of Sakoku, numerous aspects of Japanese society evolved rapidly. Especially after the 1770's, the Japanese economy and society began to modernize. The development of Rangaku (Dutch Studies) is one example of this. Through a tiny window opening towards the Netherlands many people, such as a medical doctor Maeno Ryotaku (1723-1803) and the astronomer Shiba Kokan (1738-1818), studied Western science with a high level of comprehension. Not only Rangaku students but also a great number of scholars developed positive and rational forms of thought. This wave of xTokugawa Ieyasu (1542-1616) unified Japan by military conquest. He was appointed Seii-taishogun (Barbarian Subduing Generalissimo) by the Tenno (Emperor) in 1603, and established the Bakufu (Shogunate government). Theoretically, the Tenno entrusted Ieyasu to rule the country, but Ieyasu had almost complete power regardless of the emperor. 1 INTRODUCTION / 2 rationalism had wide effects on the population, including merchants and farmers. However, it is important to notice that Japanese "rationalism" is not the same as Western modern rationalism. Sha Seiki aptly pointed out that Japanese rationalism attaches importance to "how to make harmony with nature" rather than "how to manage all by reasons". 2 One can Find typical examples of Japanese rationalism in the dialectic philosophy of Miura Baien (1730-1801), and in the the physics of Yamagata Banto (1748-1821). Japanese artists and writers sang in praise of the liberation of humanity. For example, Ukiyoe was at its zenith of properity in the late eighteenth century, and expressed the beauty of human beings. Economic development was also remarkable. Small manufacturing, like cotton textile production, became common in most rural areas. Active inter-regional trade provided merchants with good opportunities to make a profit. By the middle of the nineteenth century, Japanese modernization had pushed into a new phase. The forces came from within the country as well as from outside. Even though the Tokugawa Bakufu apparently still controlled all the Han (semi-independent feudal domains) 3 through its centralized authority, its foundation had been rapidly weakening mainly as a result of a financial crisis. The Bakufu's economic system that centered on the payment of taxes in kind could not adapt to the changing economic situation, such as the rapid growth of zSha, Seiki, Nihon Kindai Nihyaku-nen no Kozo (The Structure of 200 Years of Modernity in Japan), Tokyo: Kodansha, 1976, pp. 184-190. 3As John W. Hall has pointed out it is not yet clear that the concept of "feudalism" can be applied to Japan. Thus, all English terms relating to "feudalism" are used in a very broad sense in this paper. INTRODUCTION / 3 merchant power based on massive holdings of commercial capital. Threats from outside Japan also threatened the Bakufu's authority. The Western countries, especially the United States, sought new 'markets at this time. In 1853, a mission led by Commodore Perry of the United States Navy arrived at Japan and tried to make Japan open her doors to trade. Perry's arrival with two steam frigates created an immediate fear among both the people and the Bakufu officials, because they knew the Western powers could take military actions against Japan, as the British had done in China during the so-called First Opium War (1840-1842). The Bakufu could not produce an effective response to this situation, and the authority of the Shogun was attacked by scholars, beauracrats and some feudal lords. His authority was also questioned on theoretical grounds by people who were influenced by the schools of Kokugaku (National Learning) that stressed the concept of Sai-sei-itchi (the unity of rites and government). Kokugaku originally developed as the study of Japanese classics, such as the Shinto 4 classic, Kojiki, and Kokugaku scholars came to believe that both spiritual and temporal power should be held by the Tenno, and especially, at the time when Japan is in crisis, the original authority of the state must be restored. Their argument became the foundation of a political movement aiming to overthrow the Tokugawa Bakufu. The restoration movement expanded, and several Han joined the forefront of it. Those Han, such as Satsuma and ChoshQ, had adapted to the changing economy and paid for Western-style military modernization. Finally, on January 3, 1868, 4Shinto is Japan's indigenous religion, and is a loosely structured set of practices, creeds and attitudes held among Japanese people. INTRODUCTION / 4 after a short military struggle, an "imperial restoration" known as the Meiji Restoration was proclaimed, with samurai from the anti-Tokugawa Han in key positions. The government of Meiji Tenno (1852-1912) had a very weak financial and military foundation at its start. The government therefore had to emphasize the Tenno's religious authority in order to justify its political power. As a first step, the government revived the Department of Shinto as one of the highest government bodies, following the ancient court organization. After that, the government kept creating new methods to elevate the Tenno's religious authority. Shinto was systematized and centralized, and its myth was crystallized to provide the Tenno with an unchanging fixed source of authority to rule over his people. This myth became the most powerful ideological tool held by the government for swaying the people. Ironically, while building the Tenno myth, the government eagerly pursued the industrialization and modernization of Japan with the slogan of Bummei-Kaika (culture and enlightenment). Modern Japan was thus intentionally built upon an "irrational" Tenno myth. This is an important key to understanding the modernization of Japan. Japanese people in the late nineteenth century and the early twentieth century experienced rapid and complicated changes in all aspects of their society under the name of modernization. However, it is not easy to know how common people reacted to modernization, mainly because the common people did not have many INTRODUCTION / 5 opportunities to express their views. Studying new religions which emerged during this period, such as Maruyama-kyo, Tenri-kyo, and Omoto-kyo, is an effective way to examine the common people's reaction to modernization. Leaders of these religions, who were usually poor, often expressed critical views of modernization and attracted followers who suffered from the economic, political, social and religious changes occuring during this rapid modernization. This paper will examine the Omoto-kyo 5 because its sacred book called the Ofudesaki (The Tip of A Writing Brush) contains the sharpest criticism of any of the new religions against the government's modernization policies, and points out the fundamental "defects" of modernization. The mythology in the Ofudesaki clearly clashes with the government-supported Tenno myth, and, consequently, questions the Tenno's divinity. Naturally, the government regarded Omoto-kyo as a serious threat to its rule. The Omoto-kyo was founded at Ayabe, Kyoto prefecture, in 1892 when the founder Deguchi Nao (1837-1918) suddenly entered into a possessed state. Nao was a middle-aged widow who had been suffering severe poverty and other predicaments for most of her life. The Kami 6 who possessed her called himself Ushitora-no-Konjin (the Metal Kami of the North-west). Although Nao was illiterate, she began to write a collection of oracles called ofudesaki 7 about one and a half years after her first possession experience. In the Ofudesaki, Ushitora-no-Konjin declared that he had reappeared in the world to reconstruct the whole world. He harshly criticized evils in society O^moto-kyo organizers changed the name of their religious organization manj' times. Presently they call it Omoto (The Great Source), but Omoto-kyo is the most widely used name in scholarly works. 6Kami (pi. Kami-gami) refers to the Shinto concept of god or deity. 7Each oracle is also called ofudesaki. Usually a ofudesaki is distinguished from other ofudesaki by the date when the ofudesaki was written. INTRODUCTION / 6 and in people's minds, and warned people that the present world would be demolished unless people repented their sins quickly. Nao soon won a small but zealous following. In 1899, Ueda Kisaburo (who later changed his name to Deguchi Onisaburo, 1871-1948) joined Nao's group. He had basic knowledge of many religious ideologies and practices, especially of syncretistic Shinto, and was a gifted organizer. Nao's group expanded rapidly. Even though Nao welcomed and recognized his merit, there were fundamental differences between Nao's and Onisaburo's teachings. A typical example of this was that Onisaburo never challenged the Tenno's absolute divinity, but Nao clearly recognized the TennQ as a human. There were also power struggles between Onisaburo and other principal adherents over doctrine and the administration of the group. By the 1910's Onisaburo firmly established his position as the leader of the Omoto-kyo. Many important theological developments occurred under Onisaburo's influence. A more detailed study of the Ofudesaki and his influence will be discussed later. The most significant one was the "Miroku belief 8 Starting about 1915, many passages relating to Miroku began to appear in the Ofudesaki. The Omoto-kyo grew to be a mass organization with wealth and many followers from all social classes by effectively using the mass media to spread its teachings. It advocated the "Restoration" which sought to restore more complete and spiritual Sai-sei-itchi (the unity of rites and office) to the Tenno; it even 8The Maitreya(Mi>o£u) belief is faith in Maitreya-bodhisattava, who, according to Buddhist teaching, will reappear into this world 5,670 million years after the time of Sakyamuni Buddha. INTRODUCTION / 7 prophesied that Ayabe, where Omoto-kyo was born, would become the seat of the Kami's future government. Such teachings inevitably attracted government suppression. Three years after the death of Nao, the first so-called "Omoto incident" took place. The government accused the leaders of omoto-kyo of the crime of lese majeste, a crime against the Tenno. After the first incident, Onisaburo wrote the eighty-one-volume Reikai-Monogatari (The Tale of the Spiritual World) to establish an "official" interpretation of the Ofudesaki. He carried on many colorful activities, including attempting to create a separate state in Mongolia as an actual government of Kami. In 1935, the government attacked Omoto-kyo again. As a result of the severe persecution, Omoto-kyo's religious activities were almost completely halted until the end of World War II. The most fundamental material for examining Omoto-kyS's roots is, needless to say, the Ofudesaki. All of the Ofudesaki were written in Hiragana (Japanese syllabic script) and in a colloquial style. Later, Onisaburo edited the Ofudesaki and added Kanji (Chinese ideographs) to it. As each Hiragana character has no explicit meaning and there are numerous homonyms in the Japanese language, applying Kanji, where each character has an exact meaning, unavoidably limited the meaning of the words in the original Ofudesaki. Unfortunately the original Ofudesaki was lost or destroj^ed when the Omoto incidents took place. However, three volumes of Omoto Shiryo-Shusei (edited by Ikeda Akira, Tokyo: San'ichishobo) were published in 1982, and the corrected Ofudesaki are believed INTRODUCTION / 8 to be rather close to the original. This compilation includes writings by Onisaburo and other Omoto theologians, and even police investigation reports on Omoto-kyo during the first and second Omoto incidents. Thus, this compilation may be the most useful for studying the Omoto-kyo before World War II. The sect has attracted a great deal of attention not only from religious studies specialists, but also from social historians, sociologists and political scientists. The majority of these studies focus on Omoto-kyo under the leadership of Onisaburo. There are few detailed studies on Nao's religious ideology and its background. Murakami Shigeyoshi's Japanese Religion in the Modern Century (translated by Byron Earhart, Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press, 1980) is a rare work available in English that refers to the relationship between modern religious and political, economic, and social conditions in Japan. Murakami mentions the sect in the book as one of the most important religions in the history of modern Japan. Murakami's Kindai Minshii-shuyo-shi no Kenkyu (A Study of the History of Japanese Modern Folk Religions) (Tokyo: Hozokan, 1972) is focused on Nao's religious teachings. Thomas Nadolski's The Socio-political Background of the 1921 and 1935 Omoto Suppression in Japan (Ph. D. dissertation for University of Pennsylvannia, 1975) is focused on the political background of the Omoto incidents, and Ulrich Lins displayed similar interest in his book Die Omoto-Bewegung (The Omoto-kyo) 9According to Yasumaru Yoshio ofudesaki compiled in Omoto Nenpyo are the most similar to the original. Omoto Shiryo Shusei contains many of the ofudesaki from Omoto Nenpyo (edited by Omoto-kyo headquarters, Ayabe: 1924, unpublished to the public). Yasumaru, Yoshio, Deguchi Nao, p. 109. INTRODUCTION / 9 (Miinchen: Oldernbourg Verlag, 1976). Miyata Noboru regards Omoto-kyo as a modern offspring of the tradition of faith in the descent of Miroku. 1 0 Kojima Shin'ichi refers to Nao as a typical shaman working in modern Japan. 1 1 Emily Groszos-Ooms defines Nao's religious group as a typical millenarian cult. 1 2 The main interest of this paper is the first stage of Omoto-kyo's evolution, from Nao's first possession to her loss of power within the growing organization in the 1910's. During this period, Omoto-kyo was small, and the teachings based on the Ofudesaki were not refined. However, it offered salvation to people who were struggling with a life full of sufferings in the lowest stratum of society. The Ofudesaki represented their cry and had the power to expose the real causes of human sufferings as seen by poor, rural Japanese during this period. The most detailed biographical study on Nao is that by Yasumaru Yoshio in his book Deguchi Nao (Tokyo: Asahi Shinbun-sha, 1977). Nao's biographical data in this paper will be cited from Yasumaru's book or The Omoto Nanajunen-shi (The seventy years' history of Omoto) compiled by the Omoto-kyo organization. The organization's headquarters commissioned a group of first class scholars 1 3 to write a comprehensive history of Omoto-kyo in 1964 (Yasumaru worked for this project as a researcher). Though the content of Omoto Nanajunen-shi is not entirely objective or accurate, I feel it to be a satisfactory secondary source. luSee Miyata Noboru's Miroku-shinko no Kenkyu (A Study of the Miroku Beliefs) Tokyo: Miraisha, 1975. uSee Kojima Shin'ichi's Shaman Tanjo (The Birth of Shamans), Tokyo: Dento to Gendai-sha, 1973. 12Emily Groszos-Ooms, Deguchi Nao: Omoto-kyo (M.A. thesis for the University of Chicago, 1984). 13The main writers are Sagi Akio, Matsushima Eiichi, Ueda Masaaki, and Murakami Shigeyoshi. II. R E L I G I O U S C U R R E N T S F R O M T H E 1840'S T O T H E 1890'S A . I N T R O D U C T I O N When Japanese society went through a period of swift transformation in the mid-nineteenth century, economic, political and social changes were clearly reflected in religious change. Throughout Japanese history rulers have recognized that religion could be a vital support of their rule or a great force against them. Therefore, controlling religion has always been an important task for rulers. The Tokugawa Bakufu established a well structured system to control religions. It is important to notice that the Tokugawa Bakufu used religious organizations, especially Buddhist ones, as a part of its governing system, but it did not use religion as a basis of its authority. In other words, the Bakufu was fundamentally based on secular power, and was independent of religious authority. As Yamamoto Shichihei pointed out, the separation of religion and politics was an established tradition among samurai rulers from the thirteenth century on. 1 4 Whenever the Tokugawa Bakufu regarded a religious movement as a threat to social and/or political stability, it suppressed the movement promptly. However, in principle, the Bakufu took a non-interventionist policy towards people's "personal" faith. This attitude is in sharp contrast to the Meiji government's religious policy that used religion as the source of its authority and interfered in all aspects of the Japanese people's lives. 14Yamamoto, Shichihei, Kindai Nihon no Kyozo Jitsuzo (The Virtual and Real Image of Modern Japan) Tokyo: Dosei-sha, 1984, pp. 75-76. 10 Religious Currents from the 1840's to the 1890's / 11 B. R E L I G I O U S P O L I C I E S O F T H E T O K U G A W A B A K U F U The persecution of Christianity was the most important religious policy of the Tokugawa Bakufu. After Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1536-1598) succeeded to Japan's military leadership in 1582, he reversed the policy of Oda Nobunaga (1534-1582) who allowed Christian missionary work, 1 5 and began persecuting Christians in 1587. There were many reasons behind the policy reversal, but one of the main reasons was that Hideyoshi suspected that the Catholic priests were conspiring to take over Japan. The persecution against Christianity began mildly, but became more severe after Tokugawa Ieyasu became the ruler of Japan. In 1614, the Tokugawa Bakufu began to expell all foreign missionaries and some leading Japanese Christians from Japan. The Shimabara Revolt of 1637-38 made the Bakufu determined to exterminate Christianity completely. The Shimabara Revolt was the largest peasant uprising in Japanese history. It was not primarily a religious uprising, but a protest against heavy taxation. However, because some leaders of the revolt were Christian samurai and a majority of the rebels had Christian backgrounds, the Bakufu was convinced that Christianity was a great threat to its rule. Not only Christianity but some Buddhist sects such as Ikko-shu 1 6 and Nichiren-shu Fuju-fuse-ha 1 7 were also persecuted because the lbChristianity was introduced into Japan in 1549 by Roman Catholic missionaries. The missionary work, chiefly carried on by Portugese Jesuits, had been expanding rapidly with the growth of trade between Japan and Europe. 16Ikk6-Shu (Single-minded sect) is another name for the Jodo Shin sect of Buddhism. This sect was founded by Shinran (1173-1263) and became a major form of Pure Land Buddhism in Japan. Large-scale uprisings were carried out by adherents of Ikko-Shu in the late 15th and 16th century. During the Tokugawa period the Bakufu always exercised precautions when dealing with the sect. 17Nichiren-shu was founded by Nichiren (1222-1282) in 1253. Its teaching is based on exclusive faith in the Lotus Sutra. Fuju-fuse-ha founded by Nichio (1565-1630) in 1595 is a branch of Nichiren-shu. It teaches that the true believer of Nichiren-shu should neither receive offerings from nonbelievers nor give Religious Currents from the 1840's to the 1890's / 12 Bakufu regarded these movements as threats to its rule and to social stability. The Tokugawa Bakufu used Buddhist organizations as agents to enforce the ban on Christianity. Every family had to belong to a Buddhist temple and had to prove that all members of the family were Buddhists, not Christians. Each person's birth and death had to be registered at a temple, and the records were used by the Bakufu as the basis for a national census. The temples played many practical roles in the community such as conducting funerals, and educating people. In return, the Bakufu gave support to Buddhist organizations such as financial assistance to build temples, but it carefully eliminated any possibilities that Buddhists would gain secular power to stand against the Bakufu. Although theological studies progressed among Buddhist monk-scholars, monks in local temples lost their religious vitality and generally fell into mere formalism. 1 8 The Tokugawa Bakufu also patronized Neo-Confucianism. Although there were some Confucianists such as Arai Hakuseki (1657-1725) and Yamazaki Ansai (1618-1682) who emphasized the religious aspects in Neo-Confucianism, the Bakufu mainly interested itself in Neo-Confucianism as a philosophy and code of ethics for stabilizing and ordering the state. Confucianism was introduced into Japan in the seventh century, and was kept alive mainly within the Buddhist tradition. Shinto and other folk religions also received some influences from it, such as the Confucian idea of cosmology. Neo-Confucianism is a general term for the interpretation of Confucianism popular in the Sung Dynasty (960-1279) in China. It is a well-unified system of thought including cosmology, humanistic 1 1 (cont'd) them to nonbelievers. The Tokugawa Bakufu persecuted the sect repeatedly from 1608. 18Kishimoto, Hideo, Japanese Religion in the Meiji Era Tokyo: Obunsha, 1956, p. 12. Religious Currents from the 1840's to the 1890's / 13 ethics and political philosophy to interpret all aspects of the world, society and man. There were several schools of Neo-Confucianism, but the one founded by Chu Hsi (1130-1200) (Shushi in Japanese) became dominant in Japan. 1 9 Neo-Confucianism was introduced into Japan and grew in popularity during the Ashikaga period (1392-1573) and reached its zenith' as a tradition separate from other religions during the Tokugawa period. The Bakufu established an official school for samurai named Seido-sho in 1630 to teach Neo-Confucianism and encouraged feudal lords to establish similar schools in their Han (domains). Neo-Confucianism also spread among merchants and farmers. By the end of the Tokugawa period, more than half of the schools established by the local lords became open to non-samurai classes. 2 0 There were many private schools, most of them located in Buddhist temples, to teach . the basic Confucian teachings, as well as language skills and abacus use. Shingaku (the Mind Learning) founded by Ishida Baigan (1685-1744) was the most influential Neo-Confucianism related movement among common people. Baigan was born as the son of a peasant but became a merchant in Kyoto. In addition to his hard work at the shop, Baigan devoted himself to seeking "the model way for human beings." He tried to integrate Confucianism, Shinto and Buddhism, and established his own teachings which provided a new system of ethics for common people. Shingaku was not merely an ideology, but also a i9The Shushi school in the Tokugawa period was established by Hayashi Razan (1583-1657). About this school, see Minamoto Ryoen's Tokugawa Shiso Shoshi (The Historical Outline of Ideology in the Tokugawa period) Tokyo: Chuo Koron, 1973. 20Sha, Seiki, ibid., p. 97. Religious Currents from the 1840's to the 1890's / 14 practical movement attempting to solve social problems. 2 1 However, Baigan and his disciples never criticized the Tokugawa Bakufu, nor paid much attention to the causes of social injustice. Consequently, many local lords, such as the lord Kuchiki of Fukuchiyama (where Deguchi Nao was born) supported and used the Shingaku movement as a tool to make people industrious at work and loyal to their lords. Shinto was not an exception, and the Bakufu exercised surveillance over it. The faith arose out of the prehistoric religious practices in Japan. Early Shinto was a series of religious practices that focused on fertility through methods such as praying to Kami-gami for harvests and having thanksgiving for harvests in a village community. However, in the course of historj', Shinto became a more complex phenomena, ranging from the complicated rites conducted by the TennS at his court to worshipping the Kami of rice fields enshrined in a tiny shrine in a village. Shinto received heavy influences from Buddhism, Confucianism and religious Taoism. 2 2 For example, one Buddhist theory called Honji-Suijaku (literally, original substance manifests traces) is an important theological base of Buddhist-Shinto syncretism. According to this theory, Japanese Kami-gami are the "manifest traces" of certain Buddhas or Bodhisattvas. This theory became widespread after the Tendai and Shingon sect23 of Buddhism were introduced into Japan in the ninth century. Buddhist-Shinto admixture has developed further since Z i Shingaku followers put their efforts into welfare works, such as feeding the poor in Kyoto. About their activities, see Minamoto Ryoen, ibid. (1973), p. 116. 2Religious Taoism was introduced into Japan around the seventh century and developed into a system of belief called Ommyo-do (literally, the Way of Yin and Yang). Ommyo-do includes many magical practices and divinations. 23Shingon-shu was established by Kukai (774-835) after he studied at the Chen-yen Buddhist school. Saicho (767-822) also went to China to study at the T'ien-t'al school of Buddhism and founded Tendai-shu after he returned to Japan. Religious Currents from the 1840's to the 1890's / 15 then. Many Shinto shrines co-existed with Buddhist temples known as Jingu-ji (shrine-temples) where Buddhist priests could chant Buddhist sutras for Kami-gami. In the Tokugawa period, both Buddhist and Shinto affairs were under the jurisdiction of the Jisha-bugyo (the Commissioner of temples and shrines), but the office usually interfered in only secular matters, such as a financial problem or a criminal case, related to a temple or shrine. Most large Shinto shrines were under the control of hereditary religious authorities. From the middle of the twelth century on, the Shirakawa family was appointed to head the Office of Shinto in the Tenno's court, but after the fifteenth century, the Yoshida family became a dominant force in medieval Shinto. The Tokugawa Bakufu gave the Yoshidas official control of Shinto Shrines in 1682. The Shirakawas' authority was also recognized by the Bakufu, but that family's influence was much smaller than the Yoshida's. Needless to say, the root of the Yoshida's and of the Shirakawa's religious authorities was the Tenno who has been seen as the highest Shinto priest. However, the Tennos had lost most of their direct relationships with shrines by the fifteenth century. Even Shinto rites in the court declined in the Muromachi period (1393-1575) because the Tenno had lost power and could not get enough funding to perform such rites. The Tokugawa Bakufu established a system to control the Tenno and his court in 1615 based on the Kinchu Narabini Kuge Sho-hatto (The Ordinances for the Emperor and the Court Nobles). This law regulated the emperor and the nobles' activities, and restricted their political activities. On the other hand, the Bakufu Religious Currents from the 1840's to the 1890's / 16 gave financial support to the Tenno to revive some religious rites in his court. For example, the Niiname-sai (the thanksgiving for rice harvest), the most important rite in the emperor's court, was revived in 1688 after 225 years of absence. Basically, glorifying the Tenno's religous authority was useful to the Bakufu to strengthen its political authority as the Shogun was formally appointed by the him. 2 4 Folk Shinto activities were very active in the Tokugawa period. For example, many people joined Ko (confraternities) and made pilgrimmages to the Ise shrine, Mount Fuji and other sacred places. Peasants kept their village's annual agricultural and other ceremonial cycle active every year. In the large cities like Edo (present Tokyo) and Osaka, merchants paid to make Shinto festivals larger and more pompous. Fujitani Toshio points out that the Tokugawa Bakufu did not suppress such tendencies but encouraged them and used those festivals as vents for people's frustrations with daily life. 2 5 C. T H E R I S E O F R E S T O R A T I O N S H I N T O As mentioned before, Shinto was long overshadowed by foreign traditions such as Buddhism and Confucianism. However, there always had been movements to improve Shinto's inferior role amongst Japanese religions. For example, Kitabatake Chikafusa (1294-1354) wrote Jinno Shoto-ki (The Legitimacy of the Tenno Line) 24Murakami, Shigeyoshi, Tenno no Saishi (The Rites of the Tenno), Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten, 1977, p. 44. 25Fujitani, Toshio, "Kokka Shinto Seiritsu" (The Establishment of State Shinto) Nihon Shukyd-shi Koza, vol.1, pp. 213-290, Tokyo, Sanichi Shobo, 1959, pp. 232-233. Religious Currents from the 1840's to the 1890's / 17 and tried to establish the theological basis for defending the legitimacy of the Tenno's rule and for the supremacy of Shinto. Another example is the theory called Han-Honji Suijaku (Reverse Honji Suijaku) advocated by Yoshida Kanetomo (1435-1511). He asserted that Japanese Kami-gami were the Honji (original substance), and Buddhism and Confucianism were the flowers and branches of Shinto. In the Tokugawa period, the rise of Neo-Confucianism stimulated the theological development of Shinto. In order to gain their independence from Buddhism, Neo-Confucianists such as Fujiwara Seika (1561-1619) and Hayashi Razan (1583-1657) attacked Buddhism and favoured Shinto. 2 6 In addition, Shinto traditionally emphasized "pureness" and "honesty." These concepts were useful for Neo-Confucianists whose goal was to support the Japanese tradition and its political system. 2 7 Stimulation from Neo-Confucianism eventually led Shinto scholars to develop Shinto's own theologies which rejected all foreign influences, even its former ties with Neo-Confucianism. The Kokugaku (National Learning) movement emerged in the early eighteenth century. The father of this movement is Keichu (1640-1701) who tried to revive and reinterpret Japanese classics focusing on Manyo-shu (Collection of a Miriad Leaves), an anthology of Japanese poetry compiled in the eighth century. The instigators of the Kokugaku movement such as Kada Harumitsu (1669-1736) and Kamo Mabuchi (1697-1769) were seeking the true sentiments of the Japanese of antiquity through classical literature. Motoori Norinaga (1730-1801), generally zuEarhart, Bryon, Japanese Religion, Belmont: Dickenson Publishing, 1969, p. 74. 27Fujitani, Toshio, ibid. (1959), p. 225. Religious Currents from the 1840's to the 1890's / 18 recognized as the chief architect of the movement, devoted himself to studying the Kojiki (The Record of Ancient Matters) compiled in 712 by the Tenno's order. The Kojiki tells how Kami-gami, the land of Japan, the Japanese people and the Tenno came into existence. Norinaga showed that the Japanese people of antiquity were ruled by the emperor who purportedly embodied the pure, natural and spontaneous Way of Kami. He asserted that "the Way of Kami" was vividly alive in his day, because the tradition had been inherited through the unbroken lineage of the Tenno. 2 8 Norinaga wanted to restore "true" Japanese spirit, but his ideology did not necessarily demand the restoration of the Tenno's political power directly. 2 9 Norinaga's posthumous disciple Hirata Atsutane (1776-1843) led the Kokugaku movement more deeply into the religious realm connected with politics. He established a new Shinto theory called Fukko Shinto (Restoration Shinto). He asserted the superiority of Shinto and of Japan in general, and that those who created the world and all things on the earth were the Japanese Kami-gami. Thus, there is a difference of kind, raher than of degree, between Japan, the land of Kami-gami, and other countries according to Atsutane. Amaterasu-Omikami was entrusted by Kami-gami to rule Japan. Therefore, the emperor, who is a descendant of the Kami, is the legitimate ruler of Japan. 3 0 Restoration Shinto became the basis of Sonno-ron (the theology of reverence to the Tenno) which later became the rationale for overthrowing the Tokugawa Bakufu. Z8About Motoori Norinaga's view on the Tenno, see Motoori Norinaga's "Naobi no Mi-tama" (The True Way of Mi-tama) Motoori Norinaga Zenshu vol.14, pp. 119-134, Tokyo: Chikuma Shobo, 1968. 29Minamoto, Ryoen, ibid. (1973), pp. 199-200). 30See Hirata Atsutane's Tama no Ma-hashira (The Pillar of Tama), Tokyo: Yuhodo, 1931. Religious Currents from the 1840's to the 1890's / 19 Even though the emperor lost actual control of Japan after the ninth century, special respect for the Tenno long continued as a potent force among the populace. Many historians, such as Wakamori Taro pointed out that the Japanese people traditionally have had strong faith in Kishu (high birth). 3 1 The degree of Kishu depends on how close a person or family is to the Tenno in his pedigree. Even samurai leaders felt they had to prove that they were a part of Kishu to make people follow them. For example, the Tairas, the first samurai clan who gained power over Japan in 1159, stressed that they had a blood relationship with Kammu Tenno (773-806). Such connections with Kishu have been seen as a very important qualification to be a leader of many areas even to a certain extent in modern Japanese society. Another example of special respect for the emperor related to faith in Mi-tama, and the belief that the Tenno had powerful Mi-tama even if they did not have secular power. Mi is an honorific and respectful prefix, and Tama is believed to be something in man which survives the death of his body and continues to live. Tama is sometimes translated as soul. Tama, it is believed, often exerts a strong influence upon other people. For example, a Tenno who dies with resentment may become an extremely strong "force" working a curse upon the people. On the other hand, strong Mi-tama can be a great "force" against evils such as an epidemic. Therefore, people enshrine the Mi-tama of those who die in tragic circumstances to avoid curses and to seek help from the Mi-tama. The Tenno had great Mi-tama potential. This type of faith is called Go-ryo Shinko and was 3 1 Wakamori, Taro, Tenno-sei no Rekishi Shinri (Historical psychology in the Tenno System), Tokyo:Kobundo, 1973, pp. 116-118. Religious Currents from the 1840's to the 1890's / 20 wide spread among the people in the Tokugawa period.32 The third example is the popular worship of Amaterasu Omikami 3 3 which started in the fourteenth or fifteenth century. 3 4 The pilgrimmage to the grand shrine of Ise where Amaterasu-Omikami is enshrined attracted many common people. Rashes of spontaneous group pilgrimmages known as Okagemairi happened about ten times during the Tokugawa period. The largest one occurred in 1830, and nearly five million people (about 16 per cent of the population of Japan at that time) went to the shrine within the period of four months. 3 5 However, Kinugasa Yoshiki argued that the faith in the Ise shrine did not directly relate to the worship of the Tenno as the ruler of Japan, because, for common people, the Ise shrine was the one where the guardian Kami-gami of agriculture were enshrined. 3 6 Amaterasu Omikami was worshipped as the Sun Goddess, not the Tenno's ancestor, and Toyouke Okami who was enshrined in the outer shrine of Ise was worshipped as the chief Kami of agriculture. There are decisive differences between the above mentioned "folk" Sonno-ron among the masses and the Sonno-ron held by people who were influenced by the B2The cult of Go-Daigo Tenno (1288-139) is the most famous example of Go-ryo Shinko. Go-Daigo Tenno tried to overthrow the Kamakura Shogunate to restore the Tenno's direct rule. He was defeated and died in exile. It is believed that this Tenno vowed to revenge himself upon his enemies on his death bed. His Mi-tama is enshrined in many shrines, such as Go-Daigo Jinja in Okayama prefecture. 3Amaterasu-Omikami is believed to be the Sun Goddess, the most important Kami in Shinto mythology and who is believed to be the ancestor of the Tenno. 34Kishimoto, Hideo, ibid. (1956), p. 29. 35Kinugasa, Yasuki, "Bakuhan-sei ka no Tenno to Bakufu" (The Tenno and Bakufu under the Bakufu System) Tennosei to Minshu pp. 79-109, Tokyo: Tokyo University Press, 1976, P. 102. 36Kinugasa, Yasuki,' ibid. (1976), p. 103. Religious Currents from the 1840's to the 1890's / 21 Kokugaku movement, especially Atsutane's ideology. Surely, this latent faith in the Tenno among common people was a supportive condition of the restoration of imperial rule, although it played a very minor role because it seldom connected with concrete political movements. Even the enormous energy behind Okage-mairi was not transformed into a politically revolutionary force. The Kokugaku scholars paid almost no attention to Okage-mairi, and they were not interested in leading this mass movement into a revolutionary movement. 3 7 It is actually not surprising that the Kokugaku scholars took these attitudes, because the majority of them belonged to different social groups than those who joined Okage-mairi, the lowest segment of farmers, merchants or artisans. The scholars were samurai, rich village officials or rich merchants. The Kokugaku movement would not therefore produce the leaders who spoke for the oppressed masses, but prepared the way for the samurai who sought to build a state under the Tenno's rule. D. N E W R E L I G I O N S IN T H E L A T E T O K U G A W A P E R I O D On the surface, political power transferred from the Tokugawa Bakufu to the Meiji government through a coup d'etat led by the samurai of Satsuma, Choshu, Tosa and Hizen han. However, as Hani Goro and many other scholars stress, subtle resistance movements against the Tokugawa Bakufu carried out by the masses contributed to the demolition of the Tokugawa Bakufu. 3 8 The numerous peasant rebellions were a typical example of this. According to Aoki Koji's avFujitani, Toshio, ibid. (1959), p. 236. 38Hani, Goro, Meiji Ishin (The Meiji Restoration), Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten, 1946, pp. 51-52. Religious Currents from the 1840's to the 1890's / 22 estimate, there were over 2,800 uprisings during the Tokugawa period. 3 9 Especially after the Tenmmei famine (1782-1787), peasant rebellions became more common, and a demand for Yonaoshi (the total renewal of the world) was the common aspect of them. Another example of mass movements conflicting with the Bakufu were the rising new religons which sought the fundamental change of the world. These religions provided the masses with new Kami-gami who possessed great power to bring about the renewal and salvation of the entire world. Representative of these movements are Kurozumi-kyo, Tenri-kyo and Konko-kyo. The forerunner of these new religions was Fuji-ko. Since antiquity Mount Fuji had been an object of worship as one of Japan's most sacred mountains. In the early Tokugawa period, Hasegawa Kakugyo (1541-1646) formed a cult called Fuji-ko which emphasized climbing Mount Fuji as a religious act. Fuji-kS's sixth leader Jikigyo Miroku (1671-1733) called himself Miroku Bosatsu (Maitreya-bodhisattva) and foretold the advent of the new world, the world of Miroku. He asserted that people must reform their hearts and behaviour, because the "renewal of man" was the premise of the realization of the world of Miroku. Fuji-ko divided into many sects, but the number of followers grew in the early nineteenth century. According to Murakami Shigeyoshi there were over 400 branches and 70,000 followers in the capital, Edo, in 1841. 4 0 In the teachings of Fuji-ko, there were few anti-authoritarian elements; rather, the faith urged ayAoki Koji, Hyakusho-Ikki no Nenji-teki Kenkyu (A Chronological Study of Peasant Uprisings), Tokyo: Shin-jinbutsu Orai-sha, 1972, p. 13. 40Murakami, Shigeyoshi, Kindai Minshu-shi no Kenkyu (1972), p. 68. Religious Currents from the 1840's to the 1890's / 23 people to pay special respect to the Tenno and Shogun. 4 1 However, Fuji-ko did not teach followers to obey these authorities blindly. For example, its eighth leader, Ito SangyO (1746-1809), clearly asserted in his writing Shimin no Maki (A Volume for People of the Four Classes, 1808) that all men were equal in the sight of the Kami, Sengen Dainichi. 4 2 This view directly conflicted with Bakufu social class policy which strictly divided people into four classes, samurai as the top followed by farmers, artisans and merchants as the lowest. In 1847, Fuji-ko followers appealed to the Bakufu to recognize that the Miroku's descent was imminent and to make the Tenno accept Jikigyo Miroku's teachings.43 This action led the Bakufu to begin suppressing the movement. Two years after the appeal, the Bakufu banned Fuji-ko's nation-wide missionary works completely, though Fuji-ko's teaching focused on moralism, diligence and mutual aid which did not basically conflict with the Bakufu's policies. The Bakufu attached importance to the potential power of Fuji-ko followers which could have become a threat to the state. Another forerunner of these new religions was Nyorai-kyo, founded by a woman named Kino (1756-1826), a farmer of Owari (presently Nagoya) in 1802. She said she was possessed by the Kami of Kompira Gongen, and that this Kami would preach the teachings of Shaka-nyorai, the saviour Kami of the world. 4 4 4iMiyazaki, Fumiko, "Kinsei-matsu no Minshu Shukyo" (The Mass Relgions in the Late Near-modern Ages) Nihon Rekishi No. 344, Tokyo: Toyshikawa Kobunsha, Jan. 1977, p. Ill, 117. 42Murakami, Shigeyoshi, ibid. (1972), pp. 66-67. 43Murakami, Shigeyoshi, ibid. (1972), p. 109. 4Kompira Gongen is a Buddhist-Shinto syncretic Kami that has its origins in the Indian crocodile god of the Ganges, Kumbhira. The Kotohira Shrine where this is enshrined enjoyed great popularity during the Tokugawa period. Religious Currents from the 1840's to the 1890's / 24 Kino's teachings were based on a belief in one central Kami and contained a creation myth. Fujitani Toshio mentioned the possibility of Christian influences on Kino. 4 5 Kino emphasized the equality of all men, and said Shaka-nyorai would save the poor first. In 1858, Kino's missionary work was banned by the government of Owari domain as a hidden Christian cult. Kurozumi-kyo was the first new mass religious movement to estabish itself as a firm religious organization. The founder of Kurozumi-kyo, Kurozumi Munetada (1780-1850), was a low-ranking Shinto priest in Bizen domain (presently Okayama prefecture). In 1812, he lost his parents. As a result of this loss, Munetada was deeply depressed and began suffering from a severe case of pulmonary tuberculosis. Two years later, his condition turned for the worst, but one day he experienced a mystical unity with the Kami of the sun, Amaterasu-Omikami. After the experience, he recovered from the illness and realized the special quality of his soul. He eventually came to believe that he himelf was Iki-gami (a living kami) identical with the Kami of the sun. According to Munetada, Amaterasu-Omikami was the creator of the universe, and if people kept away from egotism and entrusted everything to the Kami they would unite with the Kami and would receive this-worldly benefits and protection from the Kami. Kurozumi-kyo first spread among samurai of the Okayama domain and gradually attracted rich farmers and merchants. By the end of the Tokugawa period, the number of followers reached two hundred thousand. 4 6 4(cont'd) Nyorai (SK: tathagata) is an epithet for a Buddha. 45Fujitani, Toshio, Shinto-Shinko to Minshu, Tenno-sei (Shinto, the Masses and the Tenno System), Tokyo: Horisu Bunka-sha, 1980, p. 138. 46Murakami, Shigeyoshi, Japanese Religion in the Modern Century-, (1980), p. 13. Religious Currents from the 1840's to the 1890's / 25 Murakami Shigeyoshi regards the doctrine of Kurozumi-kyo as a theory which "gave all-out support to the feudal control system" and which "did not directly reflect the suffering of the people." 4 7 On the other hand, Funitani Toshio asserts that Kurozumi-kyo taught that all men were equals as children of Kami, and also sought the emancipation of human nature from the Bakufu's moral controls. 4 8 Even if Munetada did not intend to confront the Bakufu, the formation of a new religious movement which spread a new ideal was seen as a criticism against the Bakufu. As soon as Kurozumi-kyo became a visible movement in the 1840s, the government of Okayama domain began oppressing the religion, and in 1848 samurai belonging to the domain were prohibited from joining it. This wave of new religions produced unique and powerful Kami-gami. The Kami who possessed Nakayama Miki (1798-1887) was the most representative of them. Miki was the wife of a rich farmer in Yamato (presently Nara prefecture), and was a long-time devotee of the Jodo (Pure Land) Buddhist sect. After a long period of self-sacrifice for her husband and family, Miki began being posessed by the Kami later called Tenri-O-no-Mikoto (Heavenly Wisdom King Lord). The Kami made Miki write a collection of auto-written oracles called Ofudesaki (A Tip of Writing Brush), and gave people a strong message of Yonaori (world reform). The Kami of Tenri-kyo was believed to be the Oyagami (the Parent Kami), the most fundamental and true Kami of the world. Tenri-kyo's doctrine has a monotheistic tendency. 4 9 This monotheistic Kami came into Miki's body to bring 4/Murakami, Shigeyoshi, ibid. (1980), p. 13. 48Fujitani, Toshio, ibid. (1908), p. 142. 49Fujitani, Toshio, ibid. (1980), p. 153. Religious Currents from the 1840's to the 1890's / 26 about the total salvation of the world. The salvation would take place in this world, if people cleaned up the eight "dusts" (evil thoughts), such as envy, anger, greed, and if people realized that everything including one's own body was actually a borrowed thing from the Kami. Then people would be able to live Yoki-gurashi (a joyous life). Miki clearly noticed that people had been suffering from ill treatment by the Bakufu, and furiously the inequality among people. She called people who possessed power and money Takayama (the high mountain), and the masses were described as Tanizoko (the valley bottom). The Kami insisted that people must once go down to the Tanizoko to receive salvation. Miki herself experienced the complete material loss of her family property. She understood the experience as the will of Kami. 5 0 Tenri-kyo gradually spread among farmers in Yamato area through miracle healing of illness and aid in safe births. After 1864, Tenri-kyo expanded rapidly and began developing its systematic doctrine. Tenri-kyo's missionary works were not much suppressed by the Bakufu, but were repeatedly disturbed by the people who followed the mountain ascetics and also peformed miracle healings. 5 1 Later, Tenri-kyo became one of the prime subjects of religious oppression under the Meiji government because its doctrine fundamentally contradicted Tenno worship, and its strong anti-authoritarian sentiment was seen as an obstacle to the Tenno's rule. ""Murakami, Shigeyoshi, ibid. (1972), pp. 109-123. 51The mountain ascetics are followers of Shugen-do. This religion is syncretic, combining Shinto belief in mountains as holy places with esoteric Buddhist practices. It emerged in the end of the twelfth century and was quite popular during the Tokugawa period. The ascetics were believed to possess magic power to heal illness and to bring other benefits to believers. Religious Currents from the 1840's to the 1890's / 27 The Kami of Konko-kyo also had unique characteristics, and the faith's doctrine contained the embryos of a modern mass religion. Konko-kyo was founded in 1859 by Kawate Bunjiro (1814-1883) who was born in Bittchu domain (presently Okayama prefecture). Bunjiro, a pious man from his youth, especially feared the curse of Konjin. Konjin is one of the Kami-gami venerated by believers in Ommyo-do, a widespread folk religion derived from Japanized Taoism. Followers believed that Konjin inflicts severe punishment on anyone who violated the direction in which he was dwelling. Bunjiro's life was filled with misfortunes, and he believed that these were caused by Konjin. However, after he was possessed by the Kami, he realized that Konjin was actually the parent Kami of the universe, later called the Tenchi-Kane-no-Kami. This understanding of Konjin is in sharp contrast to the Kami of popular belief. Bunjiro then awakened to a totally different view of the world through his reverse image of Konjin. 5 2 Among new religions founded in the nineteenth century, Konko-kyo's Kami posesed the most clear monotheistic character. 5 3 Bunjiro asserted: Izanagi and Izanami-no-Mikoto are human beings. Amaterasu O m i k a m i is also human and the Tenno who are descendants of her are naturally human . . . . The Tenchi-Kane-no-Kami is the superior Kami, the Kami of Kami-gami. 5 5 R^egarding the life and religous ideology of Kawate Bunjiro, see Murakami Shigeyoshi's Konko Daijin no Shogai (The Life of Konko-Daijin), Tokyo: Kodansha, 1972. 53Fujitani, Toshio, ibid. (1980), p. 16. 54According to Kojiki, Izanagi and Izanami were commanded by the heavenly Kami-gami to give birth to the land of Japan. Amaterasu O m i k a m i was born was Izanagi washed his left eye. 5Kawate, Bunjiro, [oral statement] Konko-Daijin Rikai (Commentary of Konko-Daijin), quoted by Fuitani Toshio in Shinto-Shinko to Minshu Tennosei p. 158. Religious Currents from the 1840's to the 1890's / 28 Bunjiro also asserted that all persons were equal since all of them were the parishioners and children of Konjin. He emphasized that people could receive Okage (this-worldly benefits) from Konjin if they believed in the Kami sincerely and respectfully. He promised healing of illness but recommended receiving medical attention at the same time. Superstitious folk beliefs, such as auspicious and inauspicious days and directions, were criticized by Bunjiro. Konko-kyo did not call for total renewal of the world, but man's inner salvaton. 5 6 After the 1860s Konko-kyo spread throughout Okayama domain where many Kurozumi-kyo followers dwelled. Konko-kyo attracted people who belonged to a lower social stratum than Kurozumi-kyo followers. Like Tenri-kyo, Konko-kyo was suppressed by the mountain ascetics who accused Bunjiro of teaching a heresy. After being oppressed by the government of Okayama domain in 1863, Konko-kyo sought affiliation with the Shirakawa school of Shinto as an official Shinto sect. These new religions of the late Tokugawa period were mainly products of the unstable social conditions and the Bakufu's collapsing control of society. The masses intensely longed for the renewal of the world and for powerful Kami to protect them. New Kami-gami were created, and some of them survived despite severe supression from the Bakufu, established religious organizations and other enemies. Not one became a leading ideology for overthrowing the Tokugawa Bakufu, but they surely eroded the foundation of the Bakufu's rule. New religions continued to represent the cry of the masses after the Meiji Restoration. 5bMurakami, Shigeyoshi, ibid. (1980), p. 16. Religious Currents from the 1840's to the 1890's / 29 Eventually, all of them had to confront State Shinto produced by the Meiji government. E . B U I L D I N G T H E T E N N O S Y S T E M A N D S T A T E S H I N T O On January 3, 1868, the proclamation of the Restoration of Imperial Government was issued in the name of Meiji Tenno, then a boy of 14. The architects of the new government were well aware that the power of the government rested on a flimsy foundation. The new leaders, especially Iwakura Tomomi (1825-1883), believed that it was essential to establish the Tenno's religious authority in order to secure the government's ruling power. Therefore, the government tried numerous means to elevate his religious authority along with establishing State Shinto. The Tenno's religious authority became the foundation of the ruling system known as Tennosei (the Tenno system) that governed all aspects of the Japanese people's lives until 1945. In antiquity, the Tenno's authority originally sprang from his (or her) religious function as the highest chief priest who worshipped Amaterasu-Omikami and other Kami-gami, and thanked them for rice fertility on behalf of all people in the Japanese islands. At the same time, the Tenno himself became the Arahito-gami (the kami appearing as man) through special rites. The most important one was the Onahe-no-Matsuri (now called the Daijosai, the Great Tasting Festival). Even today, the content of the rite is not fully revealed to the public, but scholars have deduced that it is an intimate communion in the course of which the Tenno tastes rice along with his divine ancestress, Religious Currents from the 1840's to the 1890's / 30 Amaterasu-Omikami, and they became one. Thus, he obtains his religious authority as the chief priest as well as Arahito-gami. 5 7 During the seventh century, religious affairs and politics were firmly united in the hand of the Tenno, and he ruled over Japan as the priest-Kami-ruler. However, he lost his actual ruling power after the ninth century, though he kept "nominal" authority. After the sixteenth century, the Tenno could not perform even Shinto rites properly, mainly because of financial difficulties. During the Tokugawa period, the tenno's existence had almost no connection with common people's lives. Although vague respect to the Tenno had always existed in the bottom of the Japanese people's minds, it was not an easy task for the Meiji government to "sell" the Tenno's new politico-religious authority to the masses. Immediately after the revival of the Tenno's rule took place, the government set up the three basic policies in order to establish the system of Saisei-itchi (unity of rites and government) and to transform Shinto into a national religion. First of all, the government revived the Department of Shinto as the highest government bod3', following the ancient court organization. The second policy was to continue the Tokugawa Bakufu's ban on Christianity. The third policy was the separation of Shinto and Buddhism to re-establish Shinto's autonomy from other religions. With a small number of exceptions, Shinto shrines had been heavily influenced by Buddhism. The government ordered the elimination of syncretistic elements, such as separation of Kami-gami from Bodhisattvas or using Buddhist b/About Daijo-sai, see Origuchi, Shinobu's Daijo-sai no Hongi (The Original Meaning of the Daijo-sai), Origuchi Shinobu Zenshil Vol.3, Tokyo: Chuo Koron-sha, 1967, pp. 174-240. Religious Currents from the 1840's to the 1890's / 31 ritual tools, from Shinto shrines. The government also developed policies to remove Buddhism from its previously privileged position under the Tokugawa Bakufu. For example, it confiscated all Buddhist temples' lands in February, 1871. These policies were designed to cut the old tie between Buddhist temples and the people which was cultivated during the Tokugawa period. 5 8 On April 6, 1868, The Five Articles of the Charter Oath, which stated the general principles of the new government was proclaimed. Despite the fact that the Oath contains apparently "democratic" statements, such as: Article 2: All classes, high and low, shall unite in vigorously carrying out the administration of affairs of state. 5 9 strengthening the Tenno's rule is the fundamental purpose of the Oath. The Tenno made the Oath to various Kami-gami, not to the people. In other words, the Tenno vowed to take responsibility to Kami-gami, not to the people. Then, the Tenno's officials came forward to the Kami-gami and the Tenno, and signed their names to a written oath to the emperor. This type of Shinto rite was unprecedented, and was the first time that a Shinto rite directly symbolized the government's political policy. 6 0 The government strove to make the masses understand who and what the Tenno was. Gyoko (literally, the imperial outing) was one of the most effective propaganda methods. Before the Meiji Restoration, the emperor seldom went out b8Tanaka, Akira, Meiji Ishin (The Meiji Restoration) Nihon no Rekishi Vol.24, Tokyo: Shogaku-kan, 1976, p. 174. 59Quoted by S. Morton in Japan, New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1970, p. 150. 60Murakami, Shigeyoshi, ibid. (1977), pp. 47-49. Religious Currents from the 1840's to the 1890's / 32 from his palace in Kyoto. There were only three exceptions during the Tokugawa period, but during the Meiji period (1868-1911) the Tenno did Gyoko more than 102 times and visited numerous places throughout Japan. Through Gyoko, the government propagated the belief that the Tenno had been the legitimate ruler of Japan since she was created. Also, the imperial "divine nature" was systematically cultivated through Gyoko. For example, every place the Tenno rested during Gyoko was later preserved as a holy site. As Miyata Noboru points out, Gyoko has strong ties with traditonal folk faith in Maroudo-gami (The Visitor Kami). 6 1 Maroudo-gami usually does not live in a community but occassionally this Kami visits the community and brings blessings to the people. This type of faith helped to spread the Tenno's "divine image" among the masses during the Meiji period. For example, some people scrambled to get pebbles saying that "If we get the pebbles from the road where the Tenno walked, we will be blessed for a good harvest and have peace in our home." 6 2 The government cleverly used popular psychology to cultivate the faith in the imperial divinity. At the beginning of the Meiji period, people were allowed to see the Tenno marching through their community without any special preparations, but after the middle of the Meiji period the government set a strict standard governing the proper manner of seeing the emperor. 6 3 This included dressing formally and cleaning the road impeccably. The Tenno's "divinization" developed quickly. After the 1890's, the number of Gyoko decreased, but the government encouraged the worship of the Tenno's photographs. In other words, BiMiyata, Noboru, "Minkan-Shinko to Tenno Shinko" (Folk religions and Tenno Worship) Dento to Gendai No.29, Tokyo: Dento to Gendai-sha, 1974, p. 120. 62Haga, Noboru, Meiji Kokka to Minshu (The Meiji State and the People), Tokyo: Yuzankaku, 1974, p. 103. 63Haga, Noboru, ibid. (1974), p. 103. Religious Currents from the 1840's to the 1890's / 33 the emperor became too "divine" to walk among common people. In order to develop the Tenno's religious authority, Shinto was systematized and centralized. In March, 1869, the Meiji Tenno visited the Grand Shrine of Ise. Although the shrine and the Tenno clan had had a close relationship since approximately the Fifth century, the Tenno had never visited the shrine by himself since the time of Jito Tenno (645-697). For the Meiji Tenno's visit to the Ise shrine, the special term Shin'etsu (literally, the Tenno's audience) was used instead of Sampai (worship), because the emperor himself was Arahito-gami and had the same divine authority as those Kami-gami enshrined in the Ise shrine, according to the government officials. 6 4 Through this visit, a strong continuing relationship was established, and the Ise shrine became the highest shrine in the Shinto shrines hierarchy. All Shinto shrines were placed under government control, and by July of 1871 all shrines were categorized into seven ranks from the Ise shrine as the tutelary shrine of the state to numerous tiny shrines labelled as Mukaku-sha (shrines with no rank). Originally, there were many shrines where Kami-gami who did not have specific relations with the Kami-gami revered in Restoration Shinto were enshrined, but the government forced those shrines to enshrine Kami-gami based on Restoration Shinto mythology. The government also established many new large shrines. It began with the establishment of the Tokyo shrine (later called Yasukuni shrine, the national shrine for war dead) where those soldiers who fought with the pro-Tenno side and died in the Meiji Restoration battles were enshrined. Yanagida 04Murakami, Shigeyoshi, ibid. (1977), pp. 54-55. Religious Currents from the 1840's to the 1890's / 34 Kunio pointed out that enshrining a person's Mi-tama (soul) in a "national" shrine was a new religious phneomenon. 6 5 Other examples of the new shrines are the Heian-jingu (enshrining the Mi-tama of Komei Tenno, 1831-1866) and the Yoshino-jingu (enshrining the Mi-tama of Go-Daigo Tenno, 1288-1339). In January 1870, the imperial decree propagating the Great Teaching was issued. The Great Teaching was the "official" Shinto doctrine centered around Tenno worship. In accordance with this doctrine new Shinto festivals were created. There were thirteen important festivals performed directly by the emperor in his court, but all of them were established after the Meiji Restoration. 6 6 These new festivals mainly symbolized the legitimacy of the Tenno's rule. Eventually, the unbroken lineage from Amaterasu-Omikami to the first emperor of Jimmu to the present Tenno was asserted to be the unquestionable "truth", and worship of past successive Tenno was strongly emphasized by the government. The government thrust these new festivals into annual religious activities held by the masses, and gradually eliminated traditional folk religious activities from daily life. New religions such as Tenri-kyo and Maruyama-Kyo (a derivative sect from Fuji-ko) began receiving severe persecution from the government, much worse than under the Tokugawa Bakufu. In the first years of the Meiji period, radical attempts to establish Shinto as the only Japanese religion had been developed, but the government gradually turned Y^anagida, Kunio, "Meiji Taisho-shi" (The History of the Meiji and Taisho periods) Yanagida Kunio Shu Vol.24, Tokyo: Chikuma Shobo, 1963, p. 314. 6Murakami, Shigeyoshi, ibid. (1977), p. 75. Religious Currents from the 1840's to the 1890's / 35 away from those who were influenced by Restoration Shinto. There were two basic reasons for the change. First, radical Shinto revivalism included strong exclusionism which fundamentally contradicted the government's slogan "Culture and Enlightenment." Foreign spokesmen also pressured the Meiji government to eliminate the ban on Christianity, saying all enlightened countries assured religious freedom and separation of religion and government. The second reason was the revitalization of Japanese Buddhism. Buddhist organizations sought the government's official recognition, and the government realized that it was wise to avoid confrontation with Buddhist organizations which still had a strong following. In September of 1871, the Department of Shinto was lowered in status to the Shinto Ministry, which was under the jurisdiction of the Council of State. The ban against Christianity was lifted in 1873. Apparently, the government's attitude toward religion shifted, but the Tenno's religious authority became more and more strongly emphasized. The Ministry of Religious Education was established after the abolition of the Shinto Ministry in 1872. The propagation of the Great Teaching continued through organized national education to implant Tenno worship among the Japanese people. As voices calling for religious freedom and for separation of religion and government grew among Japanese intellectuals, such as Mori Arinori (1847-1889) and Nishi Amane (1829-1897), the government realized that it was neither wise nor practical to transform Shinto into the national religion. As a result, from about 1881 the government began asserting that Shinto was not a religion but the state ritual. After 1882 thirteen religious groups, such as Kurozumi-kyo, Religious Currents from the 1840's to the 1890's / 36 Tenri-kyo, and Konko-kyo, whose doctrines were based on Shinto in a broad sense, were officially recognized as independent religions. These sects were called Kyo-ha Shinto (sect shinto). By this policy, Shinto was divided into State Shinto (non-religious state ritual) and Sect Shinto (religion). State Shinto was, needless to say, given a position higher than Sect Shinto, or Buddhist or Christian sects. All religious groups were supervised by the Bureau of Religions within the Department of Education, and were forced to take part in implanting Tenno worship into the minds of the masses. Any new religion during this period had to become a sub-sect of a Sect Shinto, otherwise its religious activity was seen as illegal and was suppressed by the government. The establishment of "non-religious" State Shinto was of great convenience to the government. On one hand, the government could keep its original slogan Sansei Itchi (Unity of Rites and and Government). On the other hand, it could assert that Japanese people were enjoying religious freedom. Moreover, State Shinto could be used as a powerful tool to cultivate patriotic support of the state in the minds of the Japanese people. The Meiji Constitution of 1889 guarantees religious freedom; Article 28 says: Japanese subjects shall, within limits not prejudicial to peace and order, and not antagonistic to their duties as subjects, enjoy freedom of religious belief. However, this Constitution itself is based on a specific religious belief. For example, Article One says: Religious Currents from the 1840's to the 1890's / 37 The Empire of Japan shall be ruled over by Emperors of the dynasty, which has reigned in an unbroken line of descent for ages past. And Article 3 emphasizes: The person of the Emperor is sacred and inviolable. 6 7 The Tenno's religious authority was legally established by this constitution. Naturally, the religious freedom guaranteed by this constitution is a very limited right. In 1890, the Imperial Rescript on Education was issued. This rescript became the most important basis for education and the actual "scripture" of State Shinto. It emphasized Shinto and Confucian principles which would cultivate the people's loyalty to the state. In schools, especially in elementary schools, students were taught Shinto mythology written in Kojiki and Nihongi as an unquestionable historical truth. Through education, the government tried to convince people that the Tenno had been the legitimate and only ruler of Japan since Amaterasu-Omikami, and that Japan was sacred because the Tenno, who was Arahito-gami, ruled it. Any mythologies which contradicted the official interpretation were severely suppressed. T^hese translations of the Meiji Constitution are quoted from Hugh Borton's Japan's Modern Century (2nd ed.), New York: The Ronald Press, 1970, pp. 569-574. Religious Currents from the 1840's to the 1890's / 38 After the 1890's, State Shinto rapidly grew and became the ideological basis of Japanese ultra-nationalistic militarism. The government relentlessly eliminated any possible resistance to State Shinto, considering it a serious threat to Kokutai (national polity). The Japanese people were becoming involved in wars, justified with State Shinto. The Meiji government made every effort to establish the state around the Tenno. They used mythology, religion, education and many other means. However, it is questionable if the masses completely accepted this belief in the Tenno. Despite heavy suppression from the government, various resistance movements against the government appeared in the Meiji period. Omoto-kyo was one of those movements, and most clearly voiced doubts about the Tenno and the government. III. D E G U C H I N A O ' S L I F E B E F O R E H E R F I R S T P O S S E S S I O N A . I N T R O D U C T I O N Deguchi Nao, who was to become the foundress of Omoto-kyo, was born in 1837 as a daughter of a poor carpenter in the town of Fukuchiyama in the province of Tamba (present-day Kyoto prefecture). Her family was desperately poor. She was therefore forced into domestic work while only ten years old. At the age of nineteen Nao married a carpenter, but this marriage only brought increased misery into Nao's life. In short, Nao had no end to hardships due mainly to poverty. Endurance was the only thing which sustained Nao's life. She suppressed her feelings and endured all pain silently. Nao's early life was not an exceptional one. Rather, her life was typical of people who dwelt in the lower strata of society and could receive no benefit, only distress, from Japan's modernization. It is difficult to know how those people felt about their lives, because most of them lived silently. However, there were some poor people who broke the silence. Nao became one such exception when she was fifty-four years old. On the lunar New Year's day of 1892, Nao entered into a possessed state. The Kami who posessed her gave His name as Ushitora-no-Konjin. This possession changed a humble and reticent woman completely. While in a possessed state Nao told and wrote the Kami's words, full of confidence and authority. Through Nao, the Kami revealed the "meaning" of the distressful lives of Nao and her fellows, and showed people an 39 Deguchi Nao's Life before Her First Possession / 40 image of an ideal world sharply different from the society which the Meiji government was trying to build. Examining Nao's life is very useful for viewing how people in lower social strata went through Japan's modernization process. The record of her life is one of a few exceptional documents which has remained until today. Most of those people did not have any means of recording their lives as a result of a limited vocabulary to express their feelings with, or total illiteracy. At the time only a few literate people were interested in observing poor people's individual lives, because the masses have tended to be treated as a crowd. However, one can hear Nao's sonorous voice telling of the poor people's lives in Japan's transitional period between the end of the Tokugawa Bakufu and the rise of the modern state. This chapter discusses Nao's life experiences and her religious-intellectual background until her first possession, as well as her socio-political environment. These elements are the most important basis of Nao's religious ideas and teachings. B . N A O ' S L I F E E X P E R I E N C E S 1. H e r C h i l d h o o d In 1837, the year when Nao was born, most parts of Japan suffered a terrible famine. This disaster caused irrecoverable damage to the already collapsing Deguchi Nao's Life before Her First Possession / 41 Tokugawa Bakufu. Japan was entering socio-political chaos. Like many of their neighbors, the Kirimuras had been on the verge of starvation when Nao was born into the family. Nao's father, Kirimura Gorosaburo was a poor and incompetent carpenter. Gorosaburo's father as well as his grandfather were known as skillful carpenters and established a good business, but Gorosaburo could not keep the family business going. His negligence of the job due to his dissipation ruined the Kirimura family. To survive, Gorosaburo had to sell houses and other property which he inherited from his father. Nao grew up in a poor artisan's district in the castle town of Fukuchiyama. Family members included Nao's parents, Gorosaburo and Soyo, her step-grandmother, Take, her elder brother, Seibei, Nao, and her younger sister, Ryo. Gorosaburo was an alcoholic and often became violent when drunk. Nao was battered by him repeatedly. For example, one winter when Nao was only two Gorosaburo lost his temper and threw her into the back garden covered with snow. On the . other hand, Nao's mother Soyo was a model woman in the society of the Edo period. She sacrificed herself to serve her husband and to maintain her impoverished family. Undoubtedly, Nao's personality was greatly influenced by the upbringing she received from her mother. Mainly because of Gorosaburo's indolent habits, his family's financial circumstances grew worse and worse. He could not continue his work as a carpenter, and became a street vendor when Nao was six years old. Finally, Gorosaburo died of cholera. As a result, Nao had to begin serving an Deguchi Nao's Life before Her First Possession / 42 apprenticeship as a nursemaid when she was ten. Until she was sixteen years old, Nao worked for several merchants in Fukuchiyama, one after another. Therefore, Nao did not receive any formal education. Consequently, she could not develop her reading and writing, though she learned through her job some practical skills such as spinning and making sweet cake. In particular, her skill at spinning reached an advanced level. All of Nao's masters greatly appreciated her diligence and faithfulness. She also earned a good name by her Filial piety. Nao saved most of her salary for her mother. Her devotion to her mother drew wide attention, even at the office of the fief of Fukuchiyama. As a result, Nao was rewarded by the lord when she was eleven. It can be said that Nao made every effort to follow the ideal example of a young worker, which was based on the way of thought of her masters and other members of the ruling class. 2. N a o ' s M a r r i a g e a n d H e r C h i l d r e n When she was seventeen years old, Nao left her work in Fukuchiyama's merchant district and returned home. Soon after that, Nao was adopted by her maternal aunt, Deguchi Yuri, because Yuri did not have any children who could continue the family name. However, Nao did not get along with her aunt Yuri, and went back home again after half a year. Yuri kept asking Nao to return to the Deguchi family. One day in 1854, Yuri visited Nao and entreated her to serve the Deguchi family's ancestral spirits. Immediately after the visit, Yuri committed suicide. After this tragedy, Nao was often haunted by Yuri's spirit, Deguchi Nao's Life before Her First Possession / 43 and as a result suffered a severe illness. Nao took these experiences very seriously and decided to obey Yuri's last wish. In 1855, when she was eighteen, Nao married a young carpenter, Shikata Toyosuke. Toyosuke was also adopted into the Deguchi family and he changed his name to Deguchi Masagoro. Nao and Masagoro settled in the village of Tsubouchi (later called Hongu) outside the castle town of Ayabe. The fief of Ayabe was adjacent to the fief of Fukuchiyama, but, compared with Fukuchiyama, it was much smaller and poorer. Both its agriculture and industry were underdeveloped and therefore many of the people there had to work away from home. Masagoro was a highly skilled carpenter, but was easily deceived by people. He often mismanaged his business and lost money. Moreover, he never worked when he was not inclined to do so. Consequently, the Deguchis' petty property dwindled and eventually Masagoro had to borrow money from usurers. However, Masagoro was a very light-hearted fellow. He even joked about the poverty of his family, loved drinking sake and enjoyed the performances given by strolling players. Nao's personality was in striking contrast to Masagoro's. Nao tried to shoulder all the troubles in her family and made no complaints against her husband. Although Nao was an obedient wife to Masagoro, their relationship was not a harmonious one. Consequently, disappointment and dissatisfaction kept growing in the depth of Nao's mind. The financial condition of the Deguchis grew worse as the number of children in Deguchi Nao's Life before Her First Possession / 44 the family increased. Nao had her first child, Yone, the year after her marriage. After that she bore ten more children during twenty-five years of marriage. Her youngest daughter Sumi, who later became the second Kyoshu (a spiritual leader) of Omoto-kyo, was born in 1883 when Nao was forty-six. Nao's first daughter, Yone, married a farmer when she was nineteen. Less than half a year later, however, Yone was taken away from the farmer's house by a gambler named Otsuki Shikazo. Then Yone became his common-law wife. Nao felt utterly humiliated by the incident and was enraged at Yone. As a result, Nao kept Yone away from her house. Although Otsuki Shikazo was not a respectable man, he was gifted as a businessman. He opened the first meat shop in Ayabe and was successful. Yone also began her own business as a hair stylist and attracted many customers. Consequently, Shikazo and Yone became relatively rich and lived in a showy manner. It should be noted that eating beef was a newly introduced Western custom for Japanese people at that time. Therefore, a meat shop was a typical business of the modern era. Naturally, Nao disliked Yone's way of life. She felt Shikazo and Yone were earning money improperly through illegitimate businesses. In 1885 when Nao was forty-eight years old, Masagoro was seriously injured falling from the roof of a house he was repairing. He was also attacked by palsy and could not leave his bed for over two years. During this period Nao had to take care of another injured person, her first son Takezo. He had been bound as an apprentice to a carpenter but became sick of his profession and attempted suicide. The attempt was unsuccessful, but he had to be laid up Deguchi Nao's Life before Her First Possession / 45 beside his father. Immediate^  after his wound was cured, Takezo ran away from home. While Masagoro was out of work, Nao had to bear all of the Deguchis' problems. The medical expenses for Masagoro and Takezo were especially difficult. She tried to make money selling sweet cakes, but could not continue due to a lack of money with which to buy ingredients. Eventually, Nao began collecting rags and wastepaper. This hard and grubby job was common among the most destitute women. Nao had to walk around villages not only near Ayabe but also in the Fukuchiyama and Miyatsube areas. In March 1887, Masagoro passed away at the age of sixty. The only thing he left to his fifty-three year old widow was debt and two small children still at home. Nao could not expect help from people around her because they themselves lived on a hand-to-mouth basis. Nao's first daughter Yone could have helped Nao since she was the only person around Nao who had money to spare, but, as mentioned before, Yone and Nao had been on bad terms with each other. Yone often tried to manipulate Nao by offering money, and Nao hated Yone's attitude towards her. Consequently, she had to keep working as a ragpicker. During the summer, Nao sometimes could get a silk spinning job. Since she was a good spinner, she could have earned a large amount of money from the job, but the chances of getting such jobs became smaller and smaller after silk spinning machines were introduced into the Ayabe area. Deguchi Nao's Life before Her First Possession / 46 3. T h e B e g i n n i n g o f N a o ' s P o s s e s s i o n In 1890 Nao's third daughter, Hisa, who had been married to a rich shaman named Fukshima Toranosuke, became mentally deranged after childbirth. Her derangement was understood as a kami possession; therfore, Toranosuke invited a missionary from the Konko-kyo church to perform an exorcism. The missionary succeeded in calming Hisa down. After this experience, Hisa and Toranosuke became zealous followers of Konko-kyo which had been founded in 1859 by Kawate Bunjiro. The faith entered Tamba in the 1880's and quickly grew to be the most popular new religion in the area. Nao was deeply shocked by Hisa's possession and was quite impressed by the Konko-kyo missionary's work on Hisa. Nao brought the goshin-mai (blessed rice, which is a religious object in Konko-kyo) back to her home and enshrined it in her family altar. With this as a start, Nao began to have contact with Konko-kyo. It is often pointed out that the influence of Konko-kyo is clearly seen in Omoto-kyo's teachings. At the end of 1891, a year after Hisa's possession, Yone began to show signs of insanity. She became very violent and broke furniture. Moreover, Yone shouted and ordered her husband to repent of his misdeeds. According to the Ofudesaki (L. Jan. 5, 1902), 6 8 Yone's insanity was destined by Kami for the purpose of making Shikazo reform. Yone's posession gave another severe shock to Nao. Shortly after the incident began, Nao had a series of dreams in which she went into the divine world. 68Yasumaru Yoshio, Deguchi Nao, p. 77. Deguchi Nao's Life before Her First Possession / 47 Then, on the lunar New Year 1892, she was suddenly possessed by an invisible being. Omoto-kyo followers recognize this possession, Nao's first, as the birth of the faith. C. S O C I O - P O L I T I C A L B A C K G R O U N D From the day of her birth Nao was obliged to experience a miserable life, mainly caused by extreme poverty. She grew up in a period of socio-political confusion and changes. Even after the Meiji Restoration took place, the condition of the people in the lower social strata, like Nao, did not improve; rather the new government brought them greater hardship and suffering. The rapid growth of a capitalist economy and industrialization in Japan was realized at the sacrifice of the lives and labor of these poor people. The fief of Fukuchiyama in which Nao was born was a relatively large one in the Tamba area. 6 9 The fief had been ruled by the Kuchiki clan since 1669. When Nao was born in the castle town of Fukuchiyama it was surrounded by rice and mulberry fields. 7 0 At that time, the town had a population of three thousand to four thousand. The majority of people were merchants, because Fukuchiyama was flourishing as B9Fukuchiyama's expected revenue was thirty-two thousand koku of rice per year. One koku is equal to 4.96 imperial bushels, in theory enough to feed one adult for one year. 70Mulberry is food for silkworms. The fief was famous for the silk-raising and the silk manufacturing industry. Deguchi Nao's Life before Her First Possession / 48 a trading port on the bank of the Yura River. 1 However, the government of Fukuchiyama was facing financial difficulties, and it borrowed large sums of money from money lenders in Osaka. Consequently, the government imposed higher taxation upon the people. Economic pressure upon the people became much worse after 1842 when the government of Fukuchiyama introduced a retrenchment policy. For example, the government banned buying and selling luxurious articles such as silk kimonos and jewellry. Natural conditions did not help people either. Similar to the other parts of Japan, the Fukuchiyama area had been hit by continuous bad weather since the beginning of 1830. Consequently, peasants had had a very poor crop year after year. The worst famine occured from 1836 to 1837, the year when Nao was born. The government of Fukuchiyama could not introduce any effective policy to solve its financial difficulty other than squeezing taxes from already starving people. Eventually, a large-scale riot by peasants arose in 1860. Although Nao's family's poverty was caused mainly by her husband's dissipation, in large measure the family's circumstances also reflected the social and economic disorder around the family. In 1853, the year when Nao was adopted by the Deguchi family, Commodore Perry (1794-1858) of the U.S. Navy arrived off Japan and demanded that the Bakufu open the doors of Japan to trade. Five years later Japan signed commercial treaties with the United States and five other European: countries. The beginning of foreign trade had a deleterious effect on Japan's economy. First of all, the excessive demand for articles to be exported, such as silk and tea, ViIto Eizo, Omoto, p. 21. Deguchi Nao's Life before Her First Possession / 49 created a serious inflation in prices in domestic markets. For example, between 1862 and 1866 the price of rice increased six-fold; those of tea, silk and cotton doubled, tripled and quadrupled respectively. 7 2 The outflow of gold through foreign trade also aggravated the disorder of Japan's economy. The long-term developments which would lead to the overthrow the Tokugawa government was entering its final stage at the close of 1857. Japanese society was thrown into an uproar. Riots by hungry farmers or frenzied religious mass movements such as Eejanaika dancing 7 3 occurred very frequently. Nao spent the last years of the Tokugawa period in Ayabe where she settled with her husband after their wedding. The fief of Ayabe was small and its lord did not have direct relations with the leaders who played major roles in politics at that time. Therefore, Ayabe did not take any part in the transformation from the Tokugawa Bakufu to the Meiji government. Right after the establishment of the new Meiji government, the lord of Ayabe returned his land registers to the Tenno, the symbolic act which signified the acceptance of the new political dispensation, in 1868. The government brought funamental change into Japanese society. As its first step, the government took over all land and people hitherto controlled by the Daimyo (feudal lords) in 1869. For the purpose of creating a powerful, wealthy, and autonomous Japanese nation, the Meiji government declared new policies one v;iBorton, Hugh, Japan's Modern Century, p. 66. 73Around 1876, a great number of people in Kyoto and Osaka suddenly joined together and began to dance frantically after they saw miraculous signs, such as paper amulets of the Ise Shrine falling from the sky. They sang clamorous songs with the refrain "Eejanaika" (It doesn't matter, does it?) in ecstacj'. Deguchi Nao's Life before Her First Possession / 50 after another. Among their new policies the establishment of a land-tax system, a conscription system and a compulsory education system were most significant because they constitute the indispensible base for newly introduced modern capitalism. The government made efforts to show the people a bright picture of a "new Japan." Unfortunately, people soon realized that the bright "new Japan" was an illusion, because the condition of life for the masses, especially for poor peasants, deteriorated after the abolition of the Tokugawa Bakufu. The government's program of establishing "modern Japan" inevitably required massive expenses, and the government depended on the revenue from the agrarian sector during the first half of the Meiji period, because neither light or heavy industry had yet become major sources of revenue. Consequently a large number of peasants as well as middle- and small-scale farm owners fell into debt due to the heavy taxes imposed upon them. Eventually, the latter lost their lands and became tenant farmers who suffered by paying excessively high agricultural rent to their landlords. 7 4 Military conscription, introduced in 1873, was also a burden for the masses, because it meant not only forced labor, but a loss of manpower on the land. Moreover, the compulsory education system did not give much benefit to most people in the lower social strata because they could not afford to pay school expenses for their children. These grievances drove the peasants to riot. During the first ten years of the Meiji period, 674 incidents took place at a rate "considerably higher than the V4Landlords payed only the land tax and imposed all other farming expenses upon their tenants as a part of the rent. Thus, rents became exorbitant. Deguchi Nao's Life before Her First Possession / 51 rate for almost any decade during the Tokugawa period."75 Some of the incidents were on a large scale. For example, a riot which took place in 1873 in Fukoka prefecture involved three hundred thousand people incensed by the high price of rice.76 In the same year, two thousand peasants rioted in Ayabe, protesting against the new policies introduced by the Meiji government such as military conscription. These rioters also showed their strong anti-westernization sentiment by doing such things as protesting against the ban on the traditional topknot hair style imposed by the government. 7 7 Although Nao never mentioned her views on this riot, her criticism of the Meiji government's policies shown in the Ofudesaki has something in common with the rioters' remonstrances. During the Edo period both agriculture and industry in the Ayabe area were underdeveloped and very unstable. Cotton and low-quality silk were produced, but they could not bring enough benefit to the people to keep them from poverty. Even after the Meiji Restoration, people's lives in Ayabe changed only slowly. Nao's living conditions were not drastically affected by the change in government, but continued to worsen. Nao's house was located in the village of Tsubouchi (later called Hongu). Those who lived in the village were petty farmers, ruined ex-samurai, peddlars and petty artisans. Nao's daughter Sumi later described her home village as "the Yt>Inoue, Kiyoshi, Meiji Ishin (Meiji Restoration), Tokyo: Chuo Koron-sha, 1966, pp. 390-91. 76Inoue, Kiyoshi, Meiji Ishin (Meiji Restoration), Tokyo: Chuo Koron-sha, 1966, pp. 390-91. 7Yasumaru, Yoshio, Deguchi Nao, p. 64. Deguchi Nao's Life before Her First Possession / 52 village where there were so many unhappy people." 8 According to Sumi, there were an unusually high number of ex-criminals, disabled and mentally-disturbed people in her neighbourhood. Some of them ruined their lives by gambling and dissipation.79 Tsubouchi village was a drift of victims of depressed economic condition and failures who could not go with the tide of the times. Nao's family was not an exception. Unfortunately, these impoverished people treated each other harshly. In one ofudesaki (Feb. 8, 1894),80 Nao condemned her neighbour's selfishness and warned that the village would be called "the village of evil villains" when the New World began, unless the people reformed themselves. The author of Omoto Nanajunenshi emphasizes that Nao was repeatedly forced to see the ugly side of human nature through her life in the village. 8 1 When Nao was adopted into the Deguchi family, it owned some houses and small farm lands. Although it was rather rich among its neighbours, the Deguchis went to ruin rapidly. The main cause of the ruin was Nao's husband's dissipation, but Nao seemed to feel that her family was exploited by her relatives and other people around her. Eventually, the Deguchis lost all their property and failed in 1884. The family had to borrow some money from relatives, leaders of the village and a bank to pay taxes and daily expenses. Nao suffered every year from pressure to pay debts. The Deguchi's bankruptcy occurred during a period of dramatic deflation. As the Japanese capitalistic system developed, inflation became a more and more serious problem every year. V 8 Yasumaru, Yoshio, ibid., p. 61. 7 9 Deguchi, Sumi, Tsukinu Omoide (Unforgettable Memories), quoted in O.N., p. 55. 8 0 O.S., P. 18. 8 1 O.N., p. 55. Deguchi Nao's Life before Her First Possession / 53 Especially when the government issued bonds and paper money to cover military expenditures incurred by the 1877 civil war in Kyushu, the Satsuma Rebellion. Japan's currency sj'stem collapsed into a crisis. Stringent monetary reforms and tax increases were undertaken by Finance Minister Matsukata Masayoshi (1835-1914) in 1881. Matsukata established a tight-money policy and withdrew massive amounts of currency from the market. This drastic deflationary policy led to a great fall in crop prices, and was a hard blow to small farmers. Lower class town people like Nao also received a blow because of higher taxes. Finally, Japan experienced its first genuine capitalistic depression and panic in 1890. 8 2 After her husband was injured in 1885, Nao supported her family be selling sweet cakes or collecting rags. During, the summer she sometimes worked as a silk-spinner. The silk industries in Ikaruga county in which Ayabe was located had been developing much slower than those in the prefectures around Tokyo, but after silk looms were introduced into Ikaruga in 1882 the speed of development quickened. Then, in 1885, the Ikaruga silk industries entered a turning point, because the government of Kyoto prefecture 8 3 decided to encourage the growth of silk industries. The yield of raw silk jumped 65 per cent between the years of 1890 and 1891. The number of silk-spinning factories also grew quickly after 1886. Silk processing was no longer a cottage industry; it was based in management-controlled factories full of machines. Naturally, traditional silk-spinners like Nao lost their jobs, and their lives were completely ^ About "Matuskata deflation" see Johannes Hirschmeier, The Development of Japanese Business, London: George Allen & Unwin, 1981 (second ed.), pp. 83-112. 8 3 Ikaruga county belongs to Kyoto prefecture. Deguchi Nao's Life before Her First Possession / 54 disrupted. It should be noted that 28 people in the Ikaruga county became insane in 1891. 8 4 Two of Nao's daughters, Hisa and Yone, also became insane around that year. There may be some link between industrial development and the number of mentally disturbed persons, because the sudden advent of the machine age might have shaken people's life patterns to the bottom and driven them to deep anxiety. Nao's social environment was filled with numerous disadvantages from the very beginning of her life. She was continuously suffering from severe poverty caused by the successive economic crises of the early Meiji period. People like Nao received very little or no benefit from "modern" reforms introduced by the Meiji government; industrialization, for example, took jobs away from Nao and other silk-spinners. Education is another example. The government set the complusory education system, but none of Nao's children received a proper education because the expenses were too high. These facts are important in understanding the back-ground of the anti-modernization ideas which are found in her Ofudesaki. D. NAO'S RELIGIOUS AND INTELLECTUAL BACKGROUND Until Nao was possessed by Ushitora-no-Konjin, she had seldom or never expressed herself. However, her "ideas", which later became the basis of the Omoto-kyo teachings, had been formed slowly in Nao's mind. Although Nao received neither education in school nor systematic religious training from any institutional religion, she learned many facts of life through her struggle against S 4 Yasumaro, Yoshio, ibid., p. 59. Deguchi Nao's Life before Her First Possession / 55 extreme poverty and other difficulties. These are the most important factors that cultivated Nao's "ideas". Another important element which influenced them came from new relgions, 8 5 especially from Konko-kyo and Tenri-kyo, which were quite active at that time in the province of Tamba. 8 6 Nao's natural disposition, upbringing and the vocational training she received from her employers, as well as the cultural environment of Tamba, these elements were also reflected in her ideas and teachings after her first posession. 1. T a m b a — t h e W o m b o f S h a m a n s As Kojima Shin'ichi and many other scholars have pointed our, Deguchi Nao manifested shamanistic attributes when she was in the possessed state. 8 7 Also she performed prohpecy and faith healing. Those are usually considered shamanistic activities. 8 8 Various types of shamanistic traditions are found in many parts of the world, particularly in northeastern Asia and the central Asia steppe area. Shamanism has also become deeply rooted in Japan since antiquity. Shamans were alwaj'S a part of common people's lives. Shamans solved people's anxieties and gave direction to their lives, especially when Japanese society became very unstable. a b About these new religions that arose at the end of the Tokugawa period, see chapter one. 8 6 Fukchiyama and Ayabe were parts of this province. 8 7 See Kojima Shin'ichi, "Yutopia.Yonaoshi" (Utopia.World Renewal) Nihanjin no Shukyo Vol. 1, Tokyo: Kogei Shuppansha, 1972, p. 245; also Carmen Blacker, Azusa-Yumi (The Catalpa Bow) trans., Akiyama Satoko, Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten, 1979, p. 126. 8 8 Sakurai Tokutaro, Nihon no Shamanizumu (Shamanism in Japan), Vol. 1, Tokyo: Yoshikawa Kobunkan, 1974, pp. 49-83. Deguchi Nao's Life before Her First Possession / 56 Shamans played a more active role among peole and attracted a large number of followers. It is noteworthy that particularly strong shamanistic traditions have existed in the Tamba area since the end of the Yayoi period (around the third century A.D.). According to recent arahaeological studies, the Tamba area was strongly influenced by "Izumo" culture. 8 9 The province of Izumo (present-day Shimane prefecture) was located on the northern coast of Japan, facing the eastern side of the Korean peninsula in which another shamanistic tradition has flourished. The Izumo culture is deeply related to Shinto. Roughly speaking, Shinto mythology can be divided into two streams, namely the Ise line and the Izumo line. The former began with Amaterasu-Omikami, the Sun-goddess who is believed to be the direct ancestor of the Tenno clan. The latter began with Okuninushi-no-Mikoto, the mythical ruler of the nether world and Izumo province. When the Tenno clan took political power in Japan around the sixth century, the Ise line became dominant in Shinto. In Shinto documents such as the Kojiki and Nihongi, which were compiled by the Tenno's order, those kami-gami who belonged to the Izumo line played rather minor roles and were eventually absorbed into the pantheon of the Ise line. However, Kojima Shin'ichi notes that the Izumo Shinto tradition survived in certain areas such as Tamba and Tajima, and the mythology about the kami-gami of Izumo was orally transmitted by the people. 9 0 Around the third century, the Tamba area was under the influence of the Wani clan that was known as the shaman-priesthood lineage of the Izumo line of Shinto. Interestingly, the area where Nakayama Miki, the foundress of Tenri-kyo, was 8 9 Kojima, Shin'ichi, "Utopia: Yonaoshi" p. 259. 9 0 Kojima, Shin'ichi, ibid., p. 262. Deguchi Nao's Life before Her First Possession / 57 born was also under the control of the Wani clan in the fourth century. Kojima speculates that the ancient shamanistic tradition in those areas was the "womb" of modern shamans like Nao and Miki. 9 1 There are several episodes from her early life which may indicate Nao's shamanistic disposition. However, most of these episodes resemble legends for which there is almost no concrete evidence. Even so, some episodes are still worth consideration. For example, when Nao was in her early teens she would sometimes disapppear from her master's home for several days. When she came back she seemed to be distracted, and she told people that she had been on a mountain for ascetic exercises. 9 2 This "legend" suggests that Nao was gifted with the qualities of a shaman. Murakami Shigeyoshi interpreted this legend in a different manner: through these "disappearances", Nao must have gained a strong impression that an action authorized by Kami would relieve her from her master's authority, and make her free from hard labour. 9 3 Another legend says that young Nao often made predictions. Even at the age of six, she foretold that the world of Miroku would come. 9 4 Moreover, there is another episode in which Nao was repeatedly haunted by her aunt Yuri's spirit. This episode clearly shows that Nao had unusually sensitive nerves. As has been mentioned before, Nao's maternal aunt Yuri committed suicide after she entreated Nao to become an adopted heir of the Deguchis. Nao was deeply shocked by this tragedy. Nao believed that Yuri's spirit repeatedly haunted her, and as a result suffered a ^ Kojima, Shin'ichi, Nihon no Shaman (Shamans in Japan) Tokyo: Dento-to-Gendai-sha, 1973 (O.C.). 9 2 Omoto-Kyogakuin ed., Koan Omoto Kyoso-den, Kaiso no Maki (The Biography of the Foundress of Omoto), Ayabe: Omoto Shuppan-kyoku, 1957, p. 10. 9 3 Murakami, Shigeyoshi, Kindai Minshu-shukyo-shi no Kenkyu, p. 201. 9 4 Ito, Eizo, Omoto, p. 26. Deguchi Nao's Life before Her First Possession / 58 severe illness. Nao's extreme physical and mental reaction to this tragedy is another sign that Nao had the potential to become a shaman. Nao's shamanistic disposition had been growing on the soil of the Tamba culture. The influence from the Izumo religious tradition that survived in Tamba is found in the mythological stories of Nao's Ofudesaki. Detailed analysis of this mythology belongs in later chapters. 2. N a o ' s U p b r i n g i n g a n d S h i n g a k u Nao's biographies, which are written by Omoto-kyo followers such as Deguchi Eiji and Its Eizo, emphasize that Nao had been very religious from childhood. 9 5 Those books, however, do not mention which religions influenced Nao. Unfortunately, there is virtually no information available about the religous background of Nao's parents except that they were parishioners of the Fukuchiyama Ikkyu-jinja Shinto shrine, and of the Hoshu-ji temple which belonged to Pure Land Buddhism. However, it would be safe to assume that Nao was familiar with folk religion, which was composed of Buddhism, Shinto, Confucianism, and many other magico-religious beliefs, but that she had almost no chance to study the religious practices of institutionalized religions. Besides folk religion, there was a form of philosophical thought which might have influenced Nao's view of life. It was called Shingaku, 9 6 and was very popular among the people of the urban classes in the Tamba area. 9 5 It6\ Eizo, Deguchi Nao, Tokyo: Kodan-sha, 1984, p. 35; Deguchi, Eiji, Omoto-kyo Jiken (Omoto-kyo Incidents), Tokyo: Sanichi-Shobo, 1970, p. 80. 9 6 About Shingaku, see chapter one, section A. Deguchi Nao's Life before Her First Possession / 59 Since the middle of the eighteenth century, the Tokugawa Bakufu began falling into serious financial difficulty. The instability of the Bakufu's rule affected most local fiefs, including Fukuchiyama, whose govenment had a close relationship with the Tokugawa Bakufu. The Fukuchiyama government was well aware that the government's control over people was weakened. Therefore, the fiefs government changed its ideological policy. The new policy focused on the economy and education. The government made contracts with influential merchants in Fukuchiyama, and tried to monopolize trade. It also made an effort to educate people to be obedient. Actually, this education policy had been developing since 1802 when the lord of Fukuchiyama, Kuchiki Michitsuna, wrote an essay named "Kunjo" (Admonitions) which emphasized Confucian ethics such as loyalty and filial piety. From 1802 on, lecturers sent by the lord walked throughout his fief and propagandized "Kunjo" to the people. As part of the propagation, the lord rewarded "model people" like Nao. "Kunjo" spread without much difficulty, mainly because its teaching was not totally unfamiliar to the common people. The essay was deeply influenced by the Sekimon Shingaku school's interpretation of Confucian ethics. The school was founded by Ishida Baigan who belonged to the merchant class and had played an important role in popular moral culture since the latter half of the eighteenth century. As mentioned in chapter one, Ishida Baigan was born in 1685 in the same province of Tamba where Nao was born. He devoted himself to seeking "the model way for human beings" through studying Shinto theology, Confucianism and Zen Buddhism. Baigan had the experience of enlightenment when he was around forty years old. He felt that Deguchi Nao's Life before Her First Possession / 60 his heart synchronized with the Heart of Nature, and he gained a completely calm state of Baigan taught people that in order to gain a joyful and calm life it is essential to know one's "heart" and "nature." According to Baigan, human nature is originally good and is united with the hearts of heaven and earth. However, human desires and selfishness darken this nature; thus man has lost his heart. If a person is enlightened as to his own nature, there will be no "selfish heart" and then his true heart will become like the sky. Nothing will bother him any longer: He can enjoy a perfect, calm state of mind, and can live an ethically faultless life with no difficulty. Baigan called this state of living Anraku (comfort). Moreover, Baigan set forth clear and plain ethics for the common people and encouraged them (especially the merchants) to work hard at their occupations. Merchants welcomed Baigan's teachings mainly because it showed that there was no contradiction between their practising an ethical life-style and their receiving gain from their trades. Nao's mother, Soyo, practiced faithfully what Lord Kuchiki's Kunjo and Shingaku set out. She bore all her family's difficulties on her shoulders without complaint and was always obedient to her indolent husband. Soyo's attitude towards her life deeply affected Nao. Nao learned how to endure hardships from her mother, and tried to follow Soyo's way of living.97 After Nao began working for merchants she was more influenced by Shingaku 9VYasumaru Yoshio, Deguchi Nao, pp. 22-26. Deguchi Nao's Life before Her First Possession / 61 teachings. She made every endeavor to become a model worker: one who was honest, diligent and obedient to his masters. When she was twelve years old, Nao was commended by the Fukuchiyama government as a model dutiful daughter. Nao's ideas (after she was possessed by Ushitora-no-Konjin) are fundamentally different from Baigan's Shingaku, though the former is strongly influenced by the latter in the following respects: both see honesty and frugality as essential to their teachings. Moreover, they are deeply concerned with Shinto values such as obedience and purity. The most striking difference between the two is of social ideology. Baigan never criticized the Tokugawa government, nor mentioned social injustice. On the other hand, Nao was not as optimistic as Baigan. For a great many people, even if they did live as honestly as young Nao or Soyo, there would not be "Anraku," because severe poverty cannot be overcome by honesty and diligence alone. Nao had a firm belief that Kami's deeds were essential to solving people's problems, and for Nao, concern with political issues was unavoidable. 3. I n f l u e n c e f r o m N e w R e l i g i o n s Even after Nao became an adult her attitude toward life did not change. She did not belong to any religious organizations, but she was quite pious to the spirits of her ancestors, many kami-gami and bodhisattvas. Ito Eizo, an Omoto-kyo follower, stresses that Nao always kept a Shinto family altar and a Deguchi Nao's Life before Her First Possession / 62 household Buddhist altar even though she could not easity afford them. 8 Taciturnity was another aspect of Nao's unchanged personality. She always suppressed her feelings of anger and frustration. Until the day when Nao began to be possessed by Ushitora-no-Konjin perserverance was the only way for her to get through the miserable conditions of her life. Actually such an attitude towards life was not unusual; rather it was a typical attitude in Japanese society at that time. Even today, perseverance and self-sacrifice for the family are often seen as the most important virtues for women. Most of Nao's contemporaries did not express their true feelings, and passed away in silence. However, there were some women who opened their mouths and criticized society and human conditions. They claimed that their words were not their own, but that they came directly from Kami. Those people were called Ikigami (living kami). As was mentioned in chapter one, hundreds of Ikigami appeared between the end of the Edo period and the middle of the Meiji period. The life stories of Ikigami have many common features such as poverty, illness, selfish family members and acquaintances alonf with troublesome children. Many Ikigami tried to find meaning in their miserable lives. Some saw life as religious training in preparation for their divine mission. Others saw it as a test set by Kami-gami. Nao described her life by saying "There is no hardship in life as severe as the one I experienced." 9 9 She, like other Ikigami, tried to find special meanings in the severities of her life. Her experiences are understood not only as a process of cleansing her body and spirit for her divine mission, but also as y 8 Ito, Eizo, Omoto, p. 35. 9 9 Murakami, Shigeyoshi, Kindai Minshu-shukyo-shi no kenkyu, p. 198. Deguchi Nao's Life before Her First Possession / 63 the Kata (prototype) of universal events. Nao seemed to believe that all events that occurred in her life are the Kata of what would happen in the process of world renewal by Ushitora-no-Konjin. For example, according to the Ofudesaki, 1 0 0 each of her children (except the three who died in infancy) played important roles in showing a Kata. Most of her children brought Nao more trouble than happiness, but such trouble was inevitable because their actions were predestined by Kami and they were Kata of those difficulties which would occur in the process of world renewal. The concept of Kata is one of the most important keys to understanding Nao's Ofudesaki and her religious practices. As mentioned in chapter one, a great number of new religions had risen from the chaotic society at the end of the Edo period. 1 0 1 Despite persecution from the Tokugawa Bakufu, and later from the Meiji government, many new religions such as Tenri-kyo, Konko-kyo, and Kurozumi-kyo, were expanding their influence among the unfortunate people in the late nineteenth century. Kurozumi-kyo sent their missionaries to the Tamba area as early as 1860. 1 0 2 Tenri-kyo and Konko-kyo missionary work in the area began in the 1880's. 1 0 3 There is no clear evidence that indicates when Nao began having contact with such new religions, but according to Jitsuden Onao and Onisaburo (True Life Stories of Nao and Onisaburo) 1 0 4 Nao began making frequent visits to the IUU {Ofudesaki, May, 1916), quoted by Yasumaru Yoshio in Deguchi Nao, p. 152. 1 0 1 About new religions that arose in the late Tokugawa period see chapter one, section three. 1 0 2 O.N., p. 52. 103 Murakami, Shigeyoshi, Kindai Minshu-shukyo-shi no kenkyu, p. 200. 1 0 4 Yomimono-jiji ed., Jitsuden Onao and Onisaburo , Tokyo: Jiji Tsushin-sha, 1947. Deguchi Nao's Life before Her First Possession / 64 Tenri-kyo church in Fukuchiyama after she became a rag picker in the late 1880's. Unfortunately, this book is not a scholarly work, and does not provide any concrete basis for its story. Most scholars, such as Murakami Shigeyoshi, infer that Nao came into contact with Tenri-kyo in Kyoto after she was possessed by Ushitora-no-Konjin. 1 0 5 However, it is much more reasonable to believe that Nao had relations with Tenri-kyo before she began to be possessed, because even in her "divine roar" (before she began writing the Ofudesaki, Nao just shouted the words from the Kami) one can find strong influences from the teachings of Tenri-kyo. In the Ofudesaki, Tenri-kyo is seen as one of the Sakibashiri (the forerunners) of Omoto-kyo. Nao obviously shares anti-authoritarian sentiment with Miki. The idea of Yonaori is an especially important key to understanding Nao's idea of Tatekae (world reconstruction). Nao's relationship with Konko-kyQ began when Hisa (Nao's third daughter) became mentally deranged after childbirth. Her derangement was understood as a kami possession; therefore Hisa's husband, Fukushima Toranosuke, invited a missionary from the Konko-kyo church to perform an exorcism. The missionary succeeded in calming Hisa down. After this experience, Hisa and Toranosuke became zealous followers of Konko-kyo, which,after its founding in 1859 by Kawate Bunjiro, entered the Tamba area in the 1880s and quickly grew to be the most popular new religion in the area. As was mentioned before, Nao was deeply shocked by Hisa's possession and was quite impressed by the Konko-kyo missionary's work with Hisa. With this as a iot> Muakami, Shigeyoshi, Kindai Minshu-shukyo-shi no Kenkyu, p. 204. Deguchi Nao's Life before Her First Possession / 65 start, Nao began to have contact with Konko-kyo. It is often pointed out that the influence of Konko-kyo is clearly seen in Omoto-kyo's teachings. Above all, the "reverse" image of Konjin is important. According to a widespread folk religious practice called Ommyo-do, Konjin had been believed to be a minor kami who visited misfortune upon people. However, the founder of Konko-kyo, Kawate Bunjiro, realized that Konjin was actually the parent Kami of the universe. Although Nao's conclusion is different from Bunjiro's, this idea of "reverse" inspired Nao to realize a new view of Kami-gami and of the world. In later chapters, the influence of Tenri-kyo and Konko-kyo upon Nao's teachings will be discussed in detail. At the end of 1891, a year after Hisa's possession, Yone, Nao's first daughter, began to show signs of insanity. It is believed that Yone was possessed by Myoken, originally a bohisattva in Buddhism. 1 0 6 Yone's possession gave another severe shock to Nao. Shortly after the incident began, Nao had a series of dreams in which she went into the divine world. Then, on the lunar New Year 1892, she was suddenly possessed by an invisible being. After this first possession, people around Nao invited several exorcists to help her. Nao herself eagerly wanted to know who possessed her, and visited Konko-kyo churches in the Tamba area to seek a satisfactory interpretation of her experiences. 1 0 0 O.N., p. 79. Deguchi Nao's Life before Her First Possession / 66 E. THE DIVINE ROAR Nao's initial inspired trance continued for thirteen days after the Lunar New Year, 1892. On the first day, Nao was suddenly possessed by an invisible being. She began shouting and awakened her two youngest daughters, Sumi and Ryo, "Go to your sister Yone's house in Nishi-machi! Tell her to light thirty-six candles for her repentance." 1 0 7 Nao ordered them with a very powerful voice, which was far from her usual gentle way of speaking. After this, the invisible being entered and left her at intervals. When the invisible being was in her, Nao roared in a voice which was quite unlike her own, and her body moved without intention. In the beginning she had difficulty in dealing with what was happening to her. She only wished to get rid of the invisible being. Nao's neighbors wondered if Nao had become insane. Nao, when she was not in a trance, felt deeply ashamed of being viewed as "a crazy old woman". It is important to notice that Nao clearly recognized the invisible being as an intruder who was totally different from herself. Therefore, Nao did not think that her own person had been changed. Nao's Keireki-no-Shinyu (revelation on [Nao's] Life Story) 1 0 8 tells us that Nao and the invisible being had many dialogues until she was convinced that the invisible being was a Kami she should follow. A typical dialogue was like the following: Nao: "Who are you?" 1 U Y O.N. p. 81. 108 D u r mg the years between 1901 and 1902, Nao wrote some ofudesaki which related her life's experiences. Those ofudesaki are called Keireki-no-Shinyu (Revelation on [Nao's] Life Story) b3' Omoto-kyo followers. Deguchi Nao's Life before Her First Possession / 67 Invisible being: "I am a Kami named Ushitora-no-Konjin." Nao: "You are trying to deceive me, aren't you?" Invisible being: "I am a Kami. Kami never lie." Nao: "Are you really such a great Kami?" Invisible being: "I am neither a fox nor a badger. I am the Kami who will re-construct the world. This Three-Thousand-World will burst into full bloom like plum blossoms do. The time for Ushitora-no-Konjin finally has come. Without me this world will never be re-constructed. Tenri, Konko, Kurozumi, Myorei are the fore runners. Ushitora-no-Konjin appeared as the last one for cleansing the Three-Thousand-World. Though it may be a high ambition, I will make every endeavour to make this world become the eternal divine one." Nao: "Is it true what you are saying?" Invisible being: "If it is not true, I would not have gone through such hardships all those years." 1 0 9 A person falling into a possessed state was not uncommon at that time. Many mentally disturbed people were believed to be possessed by kami-gami or spirits. In the dialogue above, Nao asked the invisible being: "Aren't you a fox or badger?" because it was believed that a fox and a badger were the manifestation of low spirits which often possessed people and made them act insanely. Naturally, possession by such low spirits was considered shameful. Although the invisible being declared that he was not a low spirit but the Kami who will re-construct the world, Nao had great difficulty accepting that the great Kami would choose an ordinary person like herself to be His messenger. People around Nao invited several exorcists to calm her down, but all of their efforts failed. Nao herself visited some exorcists in order to identify what was Yasumaru, Yoshio, Deguchi Nao, pp. 83-84. Deguchi Nao's Life before Her First Possession / 68 possessing her. One fortune teller told Nao that she was possessed by "something great." On the other hand, a Konko-kyo missionary named Aoki Matsunosuke, whom Nao had greatly respected, slapped Nao in the face and said she was possessed by a badger. Neither could stop Nao's possession. After these unsuccessful attempts to exorcise the the invisible being from Nao, she gradually made up her mind to follow the Kami's orders. The Kami possessed Nao intermittently. Whenever He was inside of her, Nao roared the Kami's words in a loud voice. Nao's neighbors were convinced that Nao had lost her senses. As a matter of course, nobody took Nao's "divine roar" seriously. In June, 1872, Nao went to Kameoka 1 1 0 to work as a silk spinner and visited the Konko-kyo church in the town every night. After she came back to Ayabe in September, Nao again fell into an intensely possessed state for ten days, and in March of the next year Nao was continuously possessed for seventy-five days. About this time in Ayabe there were frequent outbreaks of arson. In April, when a lumber merchant's store in Senda-machi burnt to the ground, Nao was arrested as an arson suspect because she had been heard crying: There will be good signs for waking you up and also bad signs. So you should look carefully at what will happen in this world and reform yourself. If you don't reform in time there is no telling where the sparks will fly. 1 1 1 The real culprit was found the next day and Nao was released. However, Otsuki Shikazo, Nao's son-in-law, had the police order Nao's neighbors to make a small cell for the "crazy woman" where Nao was confined for forty days. She 1 1 0 Kameoka is another small castle town in the province of Tamba. It is about 60 kilometres south-east of Aj'abe. 1 1 1 O.N. p. 88. Deguchi Nao's Life before Her First Possession / 69 naturally felt deeply mortified by this treatment and even contemplated suicide. During this time the invisible being again began to talk to Nao and emphasized that her suffering was indispensable for her special task. Nao replied, "If I keep roaring in a loud voice people will only think me insane and, besides, it's painful to shout so loud. Would you please find some other way to make people know your august will?" In answer the invisible being commanded Nao to take up a writing brush. Nao, however, hesitated to obey this order as she could not write even one word. The invisible being encouraged Nao by saying: "It is not you who will do the writing. It is the Kami who will make you write. So take up a brush and don't doubt my words." Of course there were no writing tools in the cell, but Nao found a nail. It is said that Nao's hand began moving without her volition and scratched some words on a pillar. 1 1 2 This was the beginning of Ofudesaki. From then on whenever Nao was possessed by Kami she wrote ofudesaki instead of roaring. She kept writing them until the very last moment of her life. According to Ito Eizo, Nao did not perform any special rituals when she wrote an ofudesaki, but cleansed herself with water and changed her clothes before sitting at the desk. She usually wrote ofudesaki in her small private room.13 There are a few important points in the content of Nao's "divine roar." First of all, the name of the invisible being is noteworthy. The invisible being called himself Ushitora-no-Konjin. The books Kojiki and Nihongi do not mention this l i Z Ito Eizo, Omoto, p. 56. 113It6 Eizo, Omoto, p. 61. Deguchi Nao's Life before Her First Possession / 70 Kami. In other words, this Kami is not part of the Restoration Shinto pantheon. 1 1 4 Later the Kami called Himself by many names depending on the circumstances. One of the many names He used is Kunitokotachi-no-Mikoto. Interestingly, this is the name of an important Kami in the Restoration Shinto pantheon. The reasons for assuming the name of a Restoration Shinto Kami will be examined later. Ushitora-no-Konjin, the "Metal-kami of the north-east," originated in the teachings of Ommyo-do. 1 1 5 According to folk belief, Ushitora (the north-east) is called Kimon, the demon gate, and is the most ill-omened direction because the power of Yin is concentrated there. There are many konjin in this world and they move around in every direction on a fixed schedule. When a Konjin appears in Ushitora, he becomes wrathful and the severest misfortunes fall upon those who violate the Konjin's laws. The Ushitora-no-Konjin who possessed Nao was totally opposite to the popular belief about this Kami. He was not a Kami of misfortune but the great Kami who would reconstruct the world for the purpose of saving mankind and all other beings. This reversed image of Konjin is similar to the Konjin of Konko-kyo. Therefore many scholars discern strong Konko-kyo influences on Nao. 1 1 6 It is undeniable that Nao was influenced by Konko-kyo since she she had been familiar with the religion since her third daughter Hisa became insane. About Restoration Shinto, see chapter one, section two. 1 1 5 Ommyo-do is Japanized, religious Taoism. See chapter one, section one. 1 1 6 e.g., Hori Ichiro, Folk Religions in Japan, p. 235, and Murakami Shigeyoshi, Japanese Religions in the Modern Century, p. 71. Deguchi Nao's Life before Her First Possession / 71 The second important point in the "mightiness" of the Kami who possessed Nao was that from the very beginning, Nao's Ushitora-no-Konjin appeared full of authority and dignity. The Kami displayed a strong will to bring about the fundamental renewal of the world. This is an essential difference between Nao's Konjin and that of Konko-kyo. The Konjin that possessed Nao declared that He had appeared for the reconstruction of the world. On the other hand, the Konjin of Konko-kyo never mentioned this fundamental renewal of the world. Unlike Konko-kyo's Konjin, Nao's Konjin showed quite strong anti-authoritarian sentiments. For example, when she was arrested as an arson suspect, Nao entered into a trance and roared at the blindness and corruption of the police. After Nao was freed from the cell in which she was confined for forty days, she stayed in the house of her third daughter, Hisa, because Otsuki Shikazo had sold Nao's house and almost all her belongings to raise money to pay Nao's debts. Nao continued working as a rag picker, but began some religious acativities such as faith healing and offering prayers, as well as writing ofudesaki. IV. T H E E A R L I E S T O F U D E S A K I A N D N A O ' S R E L I G I O U S A C T I V I T I E S A . I N T R O D U C T I O N After she was released from detention on May 30, 1893, Nao gradually began attracting people's attention as a faith healer. When Nao visited a house for buying rags or waste paper she often went into the room where the family altar was enshrined and voluntariy cleaned it. Some people were impressed by such pious deeds and began asking her to pray to the Kami to heal the sick in their family. Nao gradually came to be known as Ayabe-no-Konjin-san (the Konjin of Ayabe). As a result, she gained about 40 followers between the winter of 1893 and the spring of 1894. 1 1 7 Meanwhile, Nao kept writing ofudesaki with a cheap small brush on poor quality paper. Nao had almost no philosophical vocabulary, and was not familiar with traditional Shinto or Buddhist terms. However, even in the earliest ofudesaki, Nao clearly expressed her religious ideas in an emphatic tone, using her daily vocabulary. For example: The Three-Thousand-World shall burst at once into full bloom like plum blossoms do. The time for Me, Ushitora-no-Konjin, to reign has come at last! This means the World opened like plum-blossoms shall be Heaven-ruled as evergreen pine trees. Japan is the land of Shinto where things shall never go well without Kami's care. Foreign lands are the world of beasts, the stronger preying upon the weaker-quite devilish. Japan is also becoming the world of beasts. You are so cheated by foreigners as to be quite unconscious of truth. A dark world! If things are left as they go now, order shall never prevail in this land. Therefore, through the manifestation of the Kami's power, Yasumaru, Yoshio, Deguchi Nao, p. 110. 72 The Earliest Ofudesaki and Nao's Religious Activities / 73 the Three-Thousand-World shall be reconstructed. Be prepared! This world shall be transformed into an entirely New World." 1 1 8 (Shohatsu-no-Shinyu) This is the opening passage of the so-called Shohatsu-no-Shinyu (The First Divine Revelation). This ofudesaki is dated New Year's Day 1892, but was actually composed much later. Deguchi Onisaburo edited extracts from the early parts of the Ofudesaki and applied Kanji (Chinese ideographs) to the words which were originally written in Hiragana (Japanese syllabic script). In April 1917, Onisaburo put the above ofudesaki, re-written with Kanji, into an Omoto-kyo missionary magazine called Shinrei-kai (The World of Divine Soul). The following ofudesaki is believed to be one of the earliest; 1 1 9 it was probably written in 1893 or 1894. Provisionally, I will call this E-ofudesaki. The exact date when Nao began writing ofudesaki on paper is not known, but it was probably after the fall of 1893. Among the extant ofudesaki that are dated, the one dated April 8, 1894 is the earliest. 1 2 0 The Three-Thousand-World shall burst at once into full bloom like plum blossoms do. The time for me, Kimon-no-Konjin, to reign has come at last! The Three-Thousand-World shall open simultaneously. I, Ushitora-no-Konjin, sitting on Mount Shumisen, shall care for the world. It has been known since a long long time ago that the time would come. The world shall be in a woeful predicament. The world shall change . . . I, Ushitora-no-Konjin, have been waiting eagerly for this moment to come from time immemorial. The world of evergreen pine trees has come. The world shall be delightful. Japan shall be the land of Kami. Meat shall not be eaten in Japan. There has been no Kami in this world because it has been spiritually polluted. People all over the world, do repent what you have done! TT8" O.S. Vol.1, p. 13. 1 1 9 Kasai, Yasuo, ibid., O.C, p. 7. 1 2 0 Deguchi, Yasuaki, Daichi no Haha (Mother Earth), quoted by Yasumaru Yoshio in Deguchi Nao, p. 102. The Earliest Ofudesaki and Nao's Religious Activities / 74 The world shall return to the origin. You shall be very surprised! 1 2 1 (E-Ofudesaki) Shohatsu-no-Shinyu and E-Ofudesaki are two representative pieces of the earliest ofudesaki. Interestingly, there are distinctive differences between the two. In this chapter, Nao's earliest ofudesaki, especially Shohatsu-no-Shinyu and E-dfudesaki, will be examined to clarify the essence of Nao's ideas and teachings. How such ofudesaki were reflected in Nao's early religious activities will also be discussed. B. T H E B A S I C C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S Firstly, there are notable differences in style between Shohatsu-no-Shinyu and E-ofudesaki The structure of the former is well-arranged and thus it is not hard to follow. However, the ideas and images in the latter are often disconnected and some of the sentences are even incomplete. The Hiragana words are difficult to define because they are often homonymous. However, these apparent weaknesses do not make the E-Ofudeaski inferior to the Shohatsu-no-Shinyu. On the contrary, the E-ofudesaki seems to have more power to move people. Both the Shohatsu-no-Shinyu and the E-ofudesaki are written in colloquial language, but the words in the latter are more natural and related to Nao's daily life with some exceptions such as Jinmin (people). 1 2 2 1 2 1 Quoted by Kasai Yasuo in Kindai Nihon Ryo-i Jitsurok (The Record of Spiritual Phenomena in Modern Japan) Tokyo: Sanga-bo, 1966, O.C, pp. 7-9. 1 2 2 Jinmin: a word for 'people' introduced into the Japanese lexicon in connection with early democratic thought. In Nao's time, the word was usually used among the supporters of the Freedom and People's Rights Movement. The relationship beween Nao and the movement will be discussed later. The Earliest Ofudesaki and Nao's Religious Activities / 75 In daily conservations, we often lose the structure of our discussion; sometimes a sentence is left incomplete. We tend to repeat a specific word or sentence more than necessary and to make grammatical mistakes. We use famliar usage and metaphors frequently. These characteristics are similar to those of E-ofudesaki. As Nao wrote down the words as she had heard them, some words in E-ofudesaki do not fit with standard notation. Even if we treat E-ofudesaki as a record of Nao's thoughts, and not a divine revelation, it is still one of the most important records of language and thought among the common people in late-nineteenth-century Japan. It is important to note that the ideas in E-ofudesaki were formed by Nao's own experience. Although we do find outside influences such as Shingaku, Tenri-kyo and Konko-kyo, Nao re-interpreted them in her own way. As far as E-ofudesaki was concerned, Nao did not "borrow" any ideas or words to lend authority to her writings, but could dignify them with simple, commonly used words. The sentences usually end with a combination of particles such as zo-yo, za-do, and za-zo-yo, shown below: "Ushitora-no-Konjin no yo ni narita zoyo." [The time for Me, Ushitora-no-Konjin, to reign has come at last!] (Shohatsu-no-Shinyu) "Sekai wo tatekae itasu Kami za-zo-yo." [I am the Kami who will reconstruct this world!] (ofudesaki, April 16, 1896) These particles, usually called final particles, are used to indicate the speaker's attitude towards the content of a sentence. More specifically, they are used to The Earliest Ofudesaki and Nao's Religious Activities / 76 indicate the speaker's strong assertion, as in the case with English expressions such as the one emphasized in the sentence below: He is all right, 7 am telling you! Note that as in the above English sentence, Nao's examples are still grammatical without the final particles, but they lose the flavor of strong assertion. The Ushitora-no-Konjin's revelation is exceedingly powerful and unequivocal. There is almost no other revelation of the time as conclusive as Nao's Ofudesaki. For example, the tone of Nakayama Miki's Ofudesaki is much softer than Nao's, even though the Kami of Tenri-kyo promised Yonaori, world renewal. The following words are a part of Miki's Ofudesaki. The Kami, Tenri-o-no-Mikoto, approaches men much more gently than does Ushitora-no-Konjin. "Though I work through Truth, I have no intention of disciplining you by force. Nor shall I smite you with the sword of My tongue, but I will admonish you with the tip of My pen." (I, 22-23) 1 2 3 "If you want to hear, come unto Me to inquire. I will tell you the details of the original cause of all beings." (I, 6) 1 2 4 Nao's style of hand writing is unique and rather illegible. We can find almost no progress or change in her handwriting from the earliest ofudesaki till the last one. It is said that Nao wrote every ofudesaki very quickly and with great force. Is ofudesaki in reality automatic writing? The most ready and seemingly Vl'6 Nakayama, Miki, Ofudesaki (I, 22-23). quoted by Tenri-kyo Overseas Mission Department in Tenrikyo, Tenri City: Tenri-kyo, p. 45. 1 2 4 Nakayama, Miki, Ofudesaki (1,6). Quoted in Tenri-kyo, p. 150. The Earliest Ofudesaki and Nao's Religious Activities / 77 rational answer is that Nao knew and could write Hiragana and a few simple Kanji; Omoto-kyo followers made up the myth of her inability to write for the purpose of making the Ofudesaki look miraculous. Another answer is that Nao believed herself illiterate but she had unconsciously acquired the knowledge of writing during her various work experiences. The third answer is that the Ofudesaki was written miraculously by an illiterate woman. It is difficult to form a conclusion because the first and second answers lack evidence; it is impossible to prove the third answer because it rests on a religious conviction. C . T H E K A M I A N D T H E P U R P O S E O F H I S R E A P P E A R A N C E The most noticeable differences between Shohatsu-no-Shinyu and E-ofudesaki are the names of the Kami-gami and their characters. In E-ofudesaki the Kami-gami's names are mentioned as Ushitora-no-Konjin, Kimon-no-Konjin, Kane-no-Kami and Nokorazu-no-Konjin. All of these are other names of Konjin. Ushitora means the direction of the Northeast. This direction is called Kimon (the demon gate) because it is believed that demons are constantly passing through the Northeast where the power of Yin is concentrated. Konjin is written in Kanji as . Kane-no-Kami is simply another way to pronounce these Kanji. Noko-razu means "without exception." There are numerous Konjins in this world and they are everywhere "without exception." Therefore Konjin is often called Nokorazu-no-Konjin. The names of two other Kami-gami are mentioned in E-ofudesaki, namely Tsuki-no-Kami, the Kami of the Moon, and Hi-no-Kami, the Kami of the Sun. The Earliest Ofudesaki and Nao's Religious Activities / 78 The relationship between Konjin and the two Kami-gami is not clear in the ofudesaki. The sun and the moon had been important objeUCcts of worship in both Shinto and folk religions. This tradition must have affected Nao. Moreover, Tenri-kyo's Kami often calls himself Tsuki-Hi (moon-sun) when He wants to manifest His concern in man through giving light and warmth. This image of Kami might have been adopted by Nao. In Shohatsu-no-Shinyu, the Kami calls Himself Ushitora-no-Konjin, Kami, and Kunitokotachi-no-Mikoto. According to Omoto-kyo's theology, which was established under Deguchi Onisaburo's influence, Ushitora-no-Konjin was originally Kunitokotachi-no-Mikoto. 1 2 5 The Kami had been forced to conceal Himself in the Northeast, therefore He was called Ushitora-no-Konjin. 1 2 6 As mentioned earlier, the Kami-gami in the E-ofudesaki are not related to orthodox Shinto nor to Restoration Shinto, but Kunitokotachi-no-Mikoto holds an important position in Restoration Shinto mythology. According to the Kojiki and Nihongi, He is one of the three first Kami-gami who sprung out of the primeval chaos. The name of Kunitokotachi indicates that He is the original and eternal ruler of the land. Through this Kami, the Ofudesaki forms a theological connection with Kojiki and Nihongi. It is probable that the concept of Kunitokotachi-no-Mikoto was inserted into Shohatsu-no-Shinyu after the Omoto-kyo organization was formed under the leadership of Onisaburo. According to Yasumaru Yoshio, these ofudesaki originally collected in Ito, Eizo, Omoto, p. 63. Deguchi Nao, Ofudesaki (May 5, 1900), O.S. Vol., p. 99. The Earliest Ofudesaki and Nao's Religious Activities 7 79 Omoto-Nempyd (The Chronology of Omoto) are the closest ones to the original.127 Ofudesaki in Omoto-Nempyd dated before 1899 (the year when Onisaburo joined Nao's group) do not contain the name of Kunitokotachi-no-Mikoto. Thus, it is obvious that someone, probably Onisaburo, intentionally linked the Ofudesaki with the mythology related to the Kojiki and Nihongi for the purpose of giving legitimacy and authority to Omoto-ky6 and to avoid giving the impression to the government that Omoto-kyo's mythology contradicted Restoration Shinto mythology which was the basis of the State Shinto. The Kami appeared for the reconstruction of the world, because the world had been dark and full of evil. The world reconstruction must begin by reforming man's soul, which has been polluted by the beastly way of thinking. It is important to notice that both E-ofudesaki and Shohatsu-no-Shinyu stress "return to the origin." The ideal world existed before the present evil world began, and the Kami shall make the world return to its original state. This indicates a basic idea of Omoto-kyo's cosmology, the cyclical movement of Time and the Universe. Japanese people at that time were familiar with this view of time through Buddhism. However, Buddhism does not necessarily see "the olden days" as ideal. Shinto also does not see the original world as perfect. Actually, the beginning of the world is unknown, though there is the beginning of Kami-gami. Time began with the birth of Kami-gami, and it has gone in one direction since then. "The L Z < Yasumaru, Yoshio, Deguchi Nao, p. 108. The original Omoto Nenpyo was compiled around 1923-24 by several leaders of Omoto-kyo, not including Onisaburo. A large part of Omoto Nenpyo is re-corrected in Omoto Shiryo Shusei Vol.1. The Earliest Ofudesaki and Nao's Religious Activities / 80 world is progressing and becoming closer to being perfect forever." 1 2 8 Shinto does not have the idea of "End." Omoto-kyo's image of "return to the origin" is, therefore, based on folk traditions. People have handed down stories about "Utopias" from generation to generation. Buddhism, Shintoism and other folk religions indeed had strong influences upon these "Utopias", but people have imagined their own "Utopias" through their experiences. Miroku-no-yo (the world of Miroku) 1 2 9 and Tokoyo-no-kuni (the world of eternity) 1 3 0 are a few examples of folk Utopias. Images of those Utopias are colorful and diversified, but people's hopes for rich harvests are reflected in almost all images of Japanese Utopias. Ushitora-no-Konjin strongly demands that man reform himself. The Kami appeared as "the Enma of this world." The belief in the King Enma is derived from folk Buddhism. When man dies, his soul has to go to the court of the great King Enma. Enma examines all of the man's thoughts and deeds in his whole life and judges whether he should go to Gokuraku (Buddhist Paradise) or Jigoku (Buddhist Hell). The popular conception of King Enma is very fearful. It is believed that Enma's judgement is severe; if a man tells a lie to Enma, his tongue will be pulled out as punishment. Ushitora-no-Konjin examines man's thoughts and deeds as King Enma does, and His judgement will be as severe as the King's. The Kami declared that He would vanquish all evils with "shocks of TZ° Ueda, Kanji, in his lectures on Shinto held at the University of Alberta in January, 1985. 129 There are many version of Miroku-no-yo, see Miyata, Noboru, Miroku Shinko no Kenkyu, Tokyo: Mirai-sha, 1975. 1 3 0 Tokoyo-no-Kuni is believed to be beyond the sea. Folklore related to this Utopia range from along the Pacific coast in the north of Honshu (the main island) to Okinawa island. See Yasunaga Toshinobu, Nihon no Utopia-shiso (Utopian Ideas in Japan), Tokyo: Hosei-Daigaku Shuppan, 1971, pp. 15-64. The Earliest Ofudesaki and Nao's Religious Activities / 81 earthquakes and thunder, or showers of fireballs" in Shohatsu-no-Shinyu. Ushitora-no-Konjin in the earliest ofudesaki is characterized by His strong intention to reconstruct the world. His dignified words inspire people with awe and His burning anger toward evil urges people to repent their thoughts and deeds. As compared with the Kami-gami of other new religions, the Kami of Omoto-kyo is exceptionally powerful and and uncompromising. Whenever the government persecuted Omoto-kyo, they attacked the idea of Tetakae (world reconstruction). The idea was seen as extremely dangerous to the government. D. R U L E R S A N D J I N M I N ( P E O P L E ) The above mentioned part of E-ofudesaki is a typical example of many ofudesaki which show a strong anti-authoritarian sentiment and awareness of a society unfairly divided into "the high" and "the low." Jiyu-Minken-Undo (the Freedom and People's Right Movement) might have had some influence on Nao's view of "the high" and "the low." Ueda Masaaki presumes that there was a possible link between Nao and Jiyu-Minken-Undo. 1 3 1 The basis of his assertion is that Nao used a special word, jinmin (people) when she was in a possessed state. Nao was using this word as early as her first possession. Jinmin is not a traditional or common word for describing people. The concept of jinmin is based on liberalism and K Ueda, Masaaki and Umesao Tadao, "Deguchi Onisaburo ni okeru Henkaku-no-Shiso," (Deguchi Onisaburo's revolutionary ideas), Tatekae Tatenaoshi, Ayabe: Omoto Honbu, (publishing date unknown, O.C), p. 24. The Earliest Ofudesaki and Nao's Religious Activities / 82 socialism which emphasize the inherent rights of man. At that time, the word was usually used among people who supported the Jiyu-Minken-Undd, a nation-wide political movement that developed in the 1870s. The root of Jiyuu-Minken-Undo can be found in a power struggle within the Meiji government. In 1873, the government split over the issue of Japan's policy toward Korea. The so-called Korean Debate ended in favour of the non-expansionists (who asserted a hands-off-Korea foreign policy) and the losers, such as Itagaki Taisuke and Goto Shojiro, resigned from the government. Itagaki and Goto then organized local political parties; they began to campaign for democratic rights and the establishment of an elected assembly. Those who joined the movement were mainly former samurai and middle class commoners. Jean Jacques Rousseau's Social Contract (1762) and Herbert Spencer's Social Statistics (1850) were very popular books among these people. Many of the Jiyu-Minken-Undd supporters expressed their critical views about the Tenno. The most radical of these was Ueki Emori (1857-1892) who furiously denied the Tenno's sacred authority. Ueki's ideal goal was to establish a republican system of government. 1 3 2 Nakase Toshikazu asserts that it was still possible to express one's views freely about the Tenno in the late 1870s and early 1880s. 1 3 3 However, after, the Jiyu-Minken-Undo began declining in the late 1880s, it became extremely difficult to express one's views about the Tenno Ieraga Saburo, Ueki Emori Kenkyu, (A Study on Ueki Emori), Tokyo: Iwanami-Shoten, 1960. 1 3 3 Nakase, Toshikazu, "Kindai Nihon to Tenno-sei" (Modern Japan and the Tenno System), Kindai Nihon o Do-miruka Vol.2, Tokyo: Hanawa Shobo, 1968, p. 185. The Earliest Ofudesaki and Nao's Religious Activities / 83 because of the pressure from the government. The movement had spread quite quickly and by 1880 as many as 150 local societies existed. In 1881, the first national political party, the Jiyu-to (Liberal party), was born out of this movement on the strength of the Meiji government's promise to estabish a National Diet in 1890. In Tamba, over 200 people belonged to the Rikken-seito, which was a brother party of Jiyu-to. Their campaign was very active despite suppression by the authorities. Jiyu-Minken-Undo became more radical and attracted many new people, especially poor farmers. Since the term jinmin was an uncommon word for describing people and was not used in any writings of Tenri-kyo or Konko-kyo, Nao may have heard Jiyu-Minken-Undo speeches and acquired some words and ideas from the campaign of the movement. Needless to say, this does not necessarily mean that Nao fully understood the ideas of the movement, or agreed with them. For example, one of the specific aims of Jiyu-Minken-Undo was the opening of the Diet. However, in Shohatsu-no-Shinyu, Ushitora-no-Konjin asserts that the opening of the Diet cannot be brought about by jinmin and that He intends to open it Himself. The Diet actually opened in 1890 before the Kami's reappearance, but it was obvious the Diet system hardly reflected the people's voice, because the right to vote was given to only property owners who were heavily taxed, approximately 1.1 per cent of the total population. Nao was sensitive enough to notice such unfairness concerning the Diet. 1 3 4 About the relationship between Jiyu-Minken-Undo and the Diet system, see Nihon no Rekishi (History of Japan) Vol.25, written by Nagai Hideo, Tokyo: The Earliest Ofudesaki and Nao's Religious Activities / 84 Whenever Nao used the word jinmin, it is clear that she used the word as the opposite of "the high" (the governing or rulers). Nao condemned the unfair division of people in society. Nakayama Miki of Tenri-kyo also saw that two divisions existed within society, namely Taka-yama (the high mountain) and Tani-zoko (the bottom of a valley). She strongly criticized those who belonged to Taka-yama making the people who dwelt in Tani-zoko miserable. 1 3 5 In the Ofudesaki, Ushitora-no-Konjin repeatedly promises that He will reconstruct this world and make jinmin and rulers equal. This longing for equals amongst Japanese people can also be found in the teachings of other new religions founded in the late 19th century, including Konko-kyo and Tenri-kyo. Thus, it is likely that the concept of jinmin in Nao's ofudesaki was influenced not only by the Freedom and People's Right Movement but also by these other new religions. E . F A I T H H E A L I N G Almost without exception, the New Religions considered sickness the most basic evil in human life. Therefore, physical healings through faith play an important, often essential, role in these religions. The doctrines of the New Religions define the causes of sickness and show how to remove them. Although they rarely deny that some sicknesses may have a physical cause, they regard physical factors as secondary. Roughly speaking, sickness is seen as a product of a deluded or clouded mind. Miki Nakayama's Mikagurauta (Sacred Songs) clearly shows a typical view of the causes of sickness: i34(cont'd) ShQgakukan, 1976, pp. 360-65. 135 Murakami Shigeyoshi, Kindai Minshil Shukyo-shi no Kenkyu, pp. 117-120. The Earliest Ofudesaki and Nao's Religious Activities / 85 "All suffering comes from man's mind, blame yourself and not others." "Now at last it is revealed: the source of disease is in the mind." (Mikagurauta section 10: 7 and 10) This view deeply connects with her idea of salvation: "In this broad world, there must be many places of salvation." "Yet, here is the place granting you mysterious and wonderful salvation. I grant you safe childbirth and healing of smallpox." (Mikagurauta section 5: 1 and 2) 1 3 6 In the begining, Miki became known through her miraculous power to grant women safe childbirth. Most of Miki's early followers were those she saved from their illnesses. Although Miki was aware that total renewal of the world was necessary, she put her strongest emphasis on faith healing as the entrance to salvation. Konko-kyo also stresses that recovering from sickness depends on human faith in Kami and the condition of the mind: For those who are ill or for those who have endured, harships for generation after generation, the receiving of Kami favour is like that of cleaning a well . . . If faith goes only part of the way, the roots of sickness and affliction cannot be cut. Until the water in the well becomes pure and until the root of sickness and affliction are severed, have faith with whole-hearted devotion and you will regain your health and your prosperity. (Gorikai 28) 1 3 7 At the first stage of Konko-kyo, Kawate Bunjiro won his followers through faith T 3 b Nakayama Miki's Mikagurauta are quoted from Tenri-kyo Gentenshu (The Collection of Original Tenri-kyo Texts), Tenri: Tenri-kyo Headquarters, 1952. 1 3 7 Kawate Bunjiro's Gorikai, quoted from Fujitani Toshio, Shinto-shinko to Minshu Tenno-sei, p. 158. The Earliest Ofudesaki and Nao's Religious Activities / 86 healing, especially of small pox. He denied superstitious healing practices such as spells and magical ceremonies, and encouraged people to pray for Kami's favour along with taking proper medication and enough rest. Bunjiro acted as the mediator communicating the problems of the believers to Kami, and passing the Kami's "favours on to people. Receiving okage (a kami's favour) is the central point in the teachings of Konko-kyo. Their idea of salvation is directly connected with okage. Unlike the above mentioned two religions and many other New Religions, Deguchi Nao did not attac.h weight to faith healing. Although Nao prayed for sick people and made them receive the Konjin's okage, she repeatedly wrote in the ofudesaki that giving physical healing was not the aim of the Konjin's reappearance. The Konjin declares: This Kami is the Kami Who takes care of the world, not a mere Kami of healing sickness. However, for this Kami it is not difficult at all to heal sickness. If you pray with pure heart like a crystal to Me, I will give you great favours." (ofudesaki 1896) 1 3 8 This Kami is not a Kami of healing sickness, but the Kami of healing man's soul . . . Those who have a faithful soul do not need to be afraid of sickness. (ofudesaki 29 June, 1897) 1 3 9 The Konjin demands that people repent their sins and reform their mind, because He is willing to give faithful people His favours, which are much greater than physical healing. He promises that He will bring the whole new world into 1 3 6 O.S. p. 19. 1 3 9 O.S. p. 35. The Earliest Ofudesaki and Nao's Religious Activities / 87 existence if people reform their mind and follow him faithfully. If you wash your heart and follow the Kami, you are certainly given okage. Since this Kami is the One Who gives greater okage, things will be different from before. (ofudesaki 29 September, 1896) 1 4 0 Nao clearly thought that world renewal was much more important than solving people's personal problems. In other words, Nao believed that personal problems would be solved anyways when the present world turned into the new, ideal world. Therefore she did not pay much attention to the causes of sickness in the earliest ofudesaki. In the ofudesaki of 26 May, 1897, Nao wrote that people with faithful hearts will be guarded by the good guardian Kami-gami but those who have unfaithful hearts will be possessed by evil spirits. This may suggest that Nao regarded evil spirits as the cause of sickness and other problems. Some ofudesaki written after Onisaburo joined Omoto-kyo give more detailed explanations of sickness. According to the ofudesaki of 1 July, 1899, if one's heart is polluted by the evil spirit, the physical body becomes a vessel of sickness and eventually one is possessed by the evil sirit of sickness. Therefore, if one's heart becomes as pure as costal, the evil spirit of sickness feels insecure and eventually flees. Nao strongly emphasized the necessity of reforming the human heart. If people do not reform themselves soon, Kami will force them to do so with disasters or other misfortunes: 1 4 U O.S. pp. 20-21. The Earliest Ofudesaki and Nao's Religious Activities / 88 If you do not reform your kokoro I will force you to do so. If people cannot reform themselves the number of people will be decreased by seventy per cent, but if they reform themselves, Kami will help them. (ofudesaki 22 November, 1896) 1 4 1 F . J A P A N ' S I N V O L V E M E N T I N W A R A N D N A O ' S P R E D I C T I O N S According to the Koan Omoto-Kydso-den: Kaiso-no-Maki 1 4 2 (The Biograplry of the Founders of Omoto: Volume of the Kaiso (Deguchi Nao)), Nao predicted the Sino-Japanese war about a year before the war began. 1 4 3 Nao also predicted that there would be another war immediately after the Sino-Japanese War. Her prediction came true when Japan entered the war with Russia in 1904. Even the earliest ofudesaki clearly show that Nao was sensitive to possible social crises, especially wars. She repeatedly stressed that wars would be serious warnings from Kami to Jinmin (people). It is difficult to believe that Nao could find relevant information about the political and economic conditions of the time. However, she appears to have been aware that Japan was facing a critical situation. 1. N a o ' s P r e d i c t i o n s a n d t h e p r e - w a r a t m o s p h e r e Nao's predictions of wars reflected the tense pre-war atmosphere. The following is an outline of the way to war, the process Japan had been going through from 1 4 1 O.S. pp. 21-22.(Omoto Shinyu, Vol.1) 1 4 2 After 1897, Nao sometimes talked about her life experiences in her ofudesaki. Those ofudesaki were later collected and edited as the Koan Omoto-Kydso-den: Kaiso-no-maki , first printed part by part in a magazine called Kami-no-Kuni (The Land of Kami), published by the Omoto-kyo headquarters between 1923 and 1926. 1 4 3 Quoted by Kasai Yasuo in Kindai Nihon Ryoi-Jitsuroku (O.C. p. 10). The Earliest Ofudesaki and Nao's Religious Activities / 89 the beginning of the Meiji period until the outbreak of the Russo-Japanese War. Japan had to modernize herself in order to survive in the modern world; likewise imperialistic expansion and domination were, at least in the eyes of the Meiji leaders, inevitable when Japan had to stand up against threats from Western imperialism. Moreover, rapidly growing Japanese capitalism desperately sought new markets. Japan began to prepare herself for war against foreign countries as if it was a part of her modernization program. Territorial issues in the Meiji period began with the problem of the Ryukyu Islands. Even though the "King of the Liuchius" considered himself the independent ruler of the islands, both China and Japan asserted their sovereignity over Ryukyu. Natuarally the relationship went from bad to worse when the question of Korean independence arose. Japan had harbored territorial ambitions over Korea from the early Meiji period. Korea's geographic situation is like a land bridge between Japan and the Asian continent. In 1875, Japan menacingly sent her naval force to Korea and pressed Korea to open its ports. Eventually Korea accepted an unfair treaty, the Treaty of Kanghwa of 1876, and granted partial extraterritorial rights to Japanese subjects. This was quite similar to Japan's situation when Commodore Perry came to Japan with the American naval force in 1853. Japan's opening of Korea deepened the tension between Japan and China, which insisted on suzerainty over Korea. After that the tension between China and Japan continuously increased and reached a peak when the Tonghak (Eastern The Earliest Ofudesaki and Nao's Religious Activities / 90 Learning), a popular religious group with strong anti-foreign sentiment, revolted in Southern Korea in May 1894. China immeditely sent troops in response to the request of the Korean queen Min-bi (1851-1895). Japan also sent a larger force and demanded that the Korean government adopt a pro-Japanese policy. From this point on, hostilities between China and Japan developed rapidly, and finally declared war against China on August 1 of the same year. As the possibility of war increased, the Meiji government tried to force the people to support its foreign policy. In February 1889, the Tenno promulgated the Meiji constitution. Under this constitution, the state interests were considered more important than the individual's rights. Although basic human rights, such as freedom of speech and of religion were granted, they were strictly limited. As is discussed in chapter one, the government tried to establish the idea of Tenno worship and State Shinto among the masses from the beginning of the Meiji period on. The Tenno worship and State Shinto were developed rapidly during the 1890's, because they were the government's tools to unify people's thinking and to justify militarism. The government's efforts seemed to obtain steady results. Consequently, when the Sino-Japanese War broke out, the majority of Japanese people supported the government's military actions as if they were blinded by the false hope that a war would bring prosperity to their lives. 1 4 4 The Japanese government effectively used the outbreak of the war for turning About the Japanese people's general views on the Sino-Japanese War, see Uno Toshikazu "Nisshin Nichiro" (Sino-Japanese, Russo-Japanese) (Nihon-no-Rekishi, Vol.26), Tokyo: Shogakukan, 1976, pp. 68-82. The Earliest Ofudesaki and Nao's Religious Activities / 91 people's eyes away from internal problems. The opposition acted as if it had no differences with the government. In February 1895, Japan gained a total victory over China. The Japanese people were wildly excited by the victory. Through the Sino-Japanese war, the supposed advantages of military expansionism achieved a deep hold on people's minds. The government easily won support for military. Criticism of the war did not get much attention. However, there certainly existed tragedies because of the war. The families of the war dead often faced serious poverty, because of losing the major providers of their households. Military growth inevitably brought higher taxes and higher commodity prices. The war bereaved were hard hit by the increasing cost of living. Nao herself lost her second son, Seikichi, in a military action when Japan sent an occupation army to Taiwan after the war. The victory's excitement did not last long because the Western powers began to interfere with Japan's activities. The Western powers were apprehensive that Japan had acquired rich colonial territories and other special privileges in China. Right after the Treaty of Shimonoseki was announced on 17 April, 1895, Russia, Germany and France intervened between China and Japan. They forced Japan to refrain from occupying the Liaotung Peninsula. In November 1895, the treaty was revised and Japan gave up Liaotung. The triple Intervention caused fury amongst the Japanese. The Japanese government stirred up public indignation against these European countries, especially Russia, which later acquired Liaotung for herself. The bitter relationship between Russia and Japan was later aggravated and ended in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905. The Earliest Ofudesaki and Nao's Religious Activities / 92 Through the experience of the Triple Intervention, the Japanese government strengthened its policy of Fukoku-Kyohei (enrich the country and strengthen the army). As previously stated, the expansion of military power required heavier taxation, notably a rise in the land tax in 1898, which had a severe influence upon the living conditions of the masses. Because of the increased land tax," landowners raised the farm rents. Naturally, poor landed peasants fell into more distressful living conditions. Consequently, many of them left their home villages and drifted into slums in cities. Factory workers also suffered from the government's Fukoku-Kyohei policj'. The manufacturing industries, especially heavy industries related to armaments such as shipbuilding, showed remarkable growth but working conditions became increasingly worse. Labor disputes and organized walkouts appeared as new social phenomena after 1896. 1 4 5 The Sino-Japanese war definitely accelerated the development of Japanese capitalism, but large and rapid growth also produced "new capitalistic problems" such as the so-called "war between capitalists and workers." Poverty, anxiety, sickness related to poor working conditions; these problems bore down hard on the poor. Many of them sought religious guidance which could reduce their pain. In 1893, Nao received Konjin's order to go to Kara (China). 1 4 6 She did not even have accurate knowledge of the geographic location of China, but she decided to obey Konjin's order. Nao began walking in the direction of Kyoto. It is important to notice that Nao's departure happened shortly after the revolt of the Tonghak. Nao's action reflected the strained social circumstances of that time. Nakamura, Masanaori, "Dainihon-teikoku to Minshu" (Imperial Japan and the Masses), Nihon-minshu no Rekishi Vol.6, Tokyo: Sanseido, 1974, p. 253. 1 4 6 Kara is a traditional Japanese word for China and Cathay, but was often used for describing foreign countries in general during Nao's time. The Earliest Ofudesaki and Nao's Religious Activities I 93 On the way to Kara, Nao went to a Konko-kyo church at Kawaramachi in Kyoto. She showed her Ofudesaki to seven Tenri-kyo teachers, but no one could read them. Nao fell into a possessed state in front of the teachers and Konjin cried through Nao, "Take Me to the war!" However, the Tenri-kyo teachers denied that Nao was possessed by Konjin. After that Konjin ordered Nao to go home. He said that His order to go to China was a test of her loyalty to the Kami. Nao's prediction of a war came true with the Sino-Japanese War. While many Japanese were drunk with victory, Nao realized that people would suffer more from the government's Fukoku-Kyohei policy. Evidently people's sufferings affected Nao's ofudesaki. Nao predicted the Russo-Japanese War in the following way: When the war calmed down, the war actually did not end. If the war had continued Japan surely would have collapse. Therefore I gave you a little rest. As I told you, the next war will be caused by Russia. Everything I have told you through Deguchi's mouth and hands will become reality. (ofudesaki, June 1895) 1 4 7 Because I, the Kami, want to save people, I have been going through hardships. If people in this world do not reform themselves soon enough, something which forces people to be reformed will happen. Therefore, I, the Kami have possessed Nao and I told you everything that will happen in the future. (ofudesaki, 17 September, 1897) 1 4 8 These ofudesaki contain two important points. Even though Konjin warns that the world is going to be in a woeful predicament, the Kami does not want to bring i 4 Y O.S. p. 18 (Omoto Shinyu, Vol. 1) 1 4 8 O.S. p. 40 (Omoto Nenpyo, No. Unknown) The Earliest Ofudesaki and Nao's Religious Activities / 94 mankind the total destruction of the world. He stressed that peole's Kaishin (reforming one's mind) can prevent the final disasters. The second ofudesaki shows that the subject of Konjin's salvation is not only the Japanese but people in the whole world. Although Japanese people have a special task to be Kata (the prototype), i.e. the model of people for the whole world, the Kami does not exclude non-Japanese people from His salvation. Nao is sometimes seen as a narrow-minded nationalist. 1 4 9 but the above mentioned ofudesaki indicate that Nao's idas of salvation is beyond simple exclusive nationalism. An ofudesaki of lunar May, 1898 is another example that shows Nao's sympathy for the foreigners who were affected by wars with Japan: Once a country appears to be weak, (Japanese rulers) try to deprive that country with a strong hand. People in the country cannot say anything, even though they suffer severely from cruel treatment by (Japanese rulers). Those people are also children of Kami. Thus, treating them in such a cruel way is more heartless than the way of beasts. {ofudesaki, fifth month, 1898) 1 5 0 In the above mentioned ofudesaki, Nao clearly criticized Japan's aggressive policy. Her attitude contrasts with those of other religious organizations which had been making compromises with the government to avoid persecution. For example, Tenri-kjro headquarters contributed 10,000 yen to the government right after the outbreak of the Sino-Japanese War for the purpose of showing their loyalty to 1 4 9 For example Thomas Nadolski sees that Nao held anti-foreigner beliefs caused by "a combination of antimodernism and Japanese fundamentalism." Nadolski, The Socio-political Background of the 1921 and 1935 Omoto Suppression in Japan, p. 31. 1 5 0 Quoted by Murakami Shigeyoshi in Kindai Minshushukyo-shi no kenkyu, p. 211. The Earliest Ofudesaki and Nao's Religious Activities / 95 the government. 5 1 2. N a o ' s F i r s t F o l l o w e r s After Nao's prediction about the Sino-Japanese War came true, her spiritual power quickly began attracting wider attention in the Ayabe area. In the autumn of 1894, Nao cured a man named Nishimura Bun'emon who had suffered from depressive insanity. Nishimura was grateful to Nao and asked her to take him to the Konjin's shrine in order to offer thanks. His request embarrrassed Nao because there was no shrine, not even an altar, for the Konjin at that time. This incident shows that Nao had paid little attention to creating religious services or religious symbols for the Konjin. Nao eventually suggested to Nishimura that they go to a Konko-kyo church together, as the Konjin was enshrined there. Thus they visited the Konko-kyo church in Kameoka. Kamejiro Ohashi, a priest of the Kameoka Konko-kyo church, welcomed their visit because he had heard about Nao's healing powers and had been considering recruiting her to spread the teaching of Konko-kyo. He dispatched another priest, Sadajiro Okumura, to Ayabe. Okumura invited Nao to stay at his house and enshrined Konko-kyo's Konjin and Nao's Konjin together. This tie with Konko-kyo was important to Nao's religious development. As mentioned in chapter one, the Meiji government tried to control religion. Thus, any religious activity without official recognition became the object of severe government persecution. After a long battle against government pressures The Earliest Ofudesaki and Nao's Religious Activities / 96 and much compromising with it, Konko-kyo finally received official recognition as an independent religious sect in 1900. Since Nao did not have official recognition, her formal religious activities had to be conducted under the name of Konko-kyo. Nao's followers grew in number as her reputation spread. However, Okumura treated Nao like a housekeeper and did not take her Ofudesaki seriously. Naturally, Nao felt deeply frustrated and repeatedly told her followers that their Kami, Ushitora-no-Konjin, should not be second to the Kami of Konko-kyo, and that Konko-kyo's Kami was a Kami for Japan, while their Kami was a Kami for the world. Another important source of friction between Nao and Konko-kyo was the emphasis she put on Tatekae (world reconstruction) in sharp contrast to Konko-kyo's emphasis on basic moral teachings oriented towards ordinary daily living. The probability is that Konko-kyo was using Nao for her charismatic appeal, and ignoring the content of her message, and this likely became increasingly apparent to Nao, especially around 1896 when she felt that the time for world-renewal was imminent. An ofudesaki from that time says: There is washing yet to be done in this world! It is a very great washing to be done. I shall change the world by this washing. The world will move! The world will be flipped upside down! (ofudesaki, 25 October 1896)152 Another ofudesaki also urges: The Kami of Izumo Taisha will take care of the world. The world will change in the year of Meiji 29 or 30 (1896, 1897) . . . (ofudesaki, 13 January, 1897)153 It>zO.S. p. 21 (Omoto Shinyu, Vol.1) 153O.S. p. 24 (Omoto Nenpyo, No.l, 117-155.) The Earliest Ofudesaki and Nao's Religious Activities / 97 These frustrations were compounded by Nao's dislike of the very business-like manner in which Konko-kyo operated and profited financially. However, despite Nala's frustration, she had to maintain her association with Konko-kyo since her religious activities were prohibited outside of Konko-kyo. Nao's following kept growing in number; by April 1895 she had 360 followers. During this time, Nao asked Shikata Heizo to decipher her Ofudesaki, and he began reading it little by little. The tension between Okumura and Nao reached its peak during the summer of 1895, and she left the church. Konko-kyo sent another priest, Masanobu Adachi, to convince Nao to rejoin, but after more difficulties in 1897 Nao left Konko-kyo for good. In April 1897 she set up her own small church, but the church was repeatedly disturbed by the police who insisted that these religious gatherings were illegal since Nao's group was not officially recognized. Consequently, Nao's group could not practice their religion openly. They longed for someone who could make Ushitora-no-Konjin widely known. Then, in October 1898, Nao was visited by a peculiar-looking young man. The young man, Kisaburo Ueda, later became the co-founder of Omoto-kyo. V . T H E E A R L Y L I F E O F D E G U C H I O N I S A B U R O A . I N T R O D U C T I O N Ueda Kisaburo (later renamed Deguchi Onisaburo) 1 5 4 was a highly ambitious young man who had a small following of his own. One day in the summer of 1889, he happened to read some of Deguchi Nao's ofudesaki and decided to visit Nao in October of that year. At the time Onisaburo met Nao, he had received a certain amount of religious training, and his aspirations for religious power were growing. In looking back, it is quite clear that without the immense influence of this man, the small group of Nao's followers would never have grown into the organization which once attracted a few million followers during the Taisho period (1912-1925). It was Onisaburo who gave the religious organization its present orientation, relegating Nao's central ideas, such as strong criticisms of "modernization" which the Meiji government was pursuing and a fervent hope for the world renewal led by Ushitora-no-Konjin, to relative obscurity. Onisaburo was born in 1871 into a poor peasant family in Anao, a small hamlet four kilometers west of Kameoka. According to the lunar calendar, the date of his birth was the twelveth of July. As with most religious figures, there are many legends surrouding the life of Onisaburo. In an attempt to piece together a plausible history, I have mainly used his autobiographical writing Honkyo Sosei-ki (The Creation of Our Religion) (1972) and Kokyo no Nijuhachi-nen 1 5 4 Murakami, Shigeyoshi, Deguchi Obisaburo, p. 22. 98 The Early Life of Deguchi Onisaburo / 99 (Twenty-eight Years of My Life in My Home Village) (1972); Murakami Shigeyoshi's Deguchi Onisaburo (1973), Deguchi Kyotaro's Kyojin: Deguchi Onisaburo (The Titan: Deguchi Onisaburo) (1967), Yasumaru Yoshio's Deguchi Onisaburo no Shiso (Deguchi Onisaburo's Thoughts) (1977). Among these books, Honkyo Sosei-ki 1 5 5 is the most important one. It was written in 1904 and is representative of Onisaburo's earliest writings. However, this book was not accessible except to a small number of officials until 1972, because some contents of the book contradict the "official" biography of Onisaburo. Also, in section 12, Onisaburo clearly criticizes Nao and her ofudesaki. Although Onisaburo often uses exaggerated expressions in Honkyo Soseiki-ki it is very useful as a guide to the development of thinking in his younger years. B. ONISABURO'S L I F E E X P E R I E N C E The Ueda famly into which Onisaburo was born was rather unique in Anao. Although extremely poor peasants, the family was of good lineage, giving the Uedas a pride disproportionate to their circumstances. Also, while the majority of the villagers were followers of Zen Buddhism, the Ueda family were ardent Shintoists. Onisaburo's maternal grandmother, Uno, in particular, was instrumental in the young Onisaburo's Shinto education. Uno was born in 1848 in Yagi-no-shima, Tamba. One of her brothers, Nakamura Takamichi, was a famous scholar of genrei-gaku (a study of kotodama). Genrei-gaku is an esoteric tradition which teaches that words have souls (kotodama) and if you pronounce a word properly the soul of the word opens the door for understanding the "real" Deguchi Onisaburo, Honkyo Soseki, Deguchi Onisaburo Chosaku-shu Vol.1, Tokyo: Yomiuri Shinbunsha, 1972. The Early Life of Deguchi Onisaburo / 100 meaning of the word. Through her brother, Uno acquired knowledge of genrei-gaku and other subjects, including the classics and Shinto theology. It is safe to say that Uno was an unusually cultured woman for a poor farmer's wife in the late Tokugawa era. Another family member who had an important effect on the young Onisaburo was his grandfather, Kichimatsu, who had died a half year after he was born. On his deathbed, Kichimatsu called Onisaburo and his parents to his bedside and told them, "Every seven generations a great man appears in our Ueda family. Kisaburo is the seventh generation from Maruyama Okyo 1 5 6 therefore he will surely come to be known in the world. After I die I will become a spirit and protect Kisaburo." 1 5 7 After Kichimatsu passed away, Uno repeatedly told the young boy these last words. As a result, Onisaburo was frequently haunted by apparitions of Kichimatsu, and came to believe in the existence of the world of spirits. Despite his famiy's high expectations, health was delicate as a child. He could not attend school until the age of ten because of Kisaburo's poor health. While the growing boy stayed home, Uno taught him basic reading and writing. As a result, Onisaburo's reading ability was probably better than that of other children of his age when he finally entered elementary school in 1880. ^ Maruyama Okyo (1733-1795), painter and founder of the Maruyama School of paintings. He studied painting with the Kano school in Kyoto. Okyo is famous for many large-scale screen and wall paintings including the one for the Imperial Palace in Kyoto. 1 5 7 Deguchi, Onisaburo, "Oitachi-no-ki" (Reminiscences) Deguchi Onisaburo zenshu Vol.5, p. 22. The Early Life of Deguchi Onisaburo / 101 At the age of 14, Onisaburo became a teacher's assistant at his elementary school, but shortly after he was forced to leave the school mainly because of poor relations with his fellow teachers. He had to work at various menial jobs. Due to the sudden switch to a full-scale capitalistic economy, by the late 1870's the social and economic life of farming villages had been destabilized more than ever before. Small farm owners and tenant farmers like the Ueda family, found themselves in increasingly unfavorable financial circumstances. By the 1880's, the Ueda family could no longer afford to pay Onisaburo's educational fees. Thus he was forced into hard labour such as drawing heavy carts and working for a landowner as a menial labourer. Honkyo-Soseiki vividly tells us of young Onisaburo's frustration: "The most piteous people in the world are the poor . . . Because they have to fight to get food, clothing and shelter they do not have enough time for religious practice although' they are granted freedom of religion. They poor have to suffer the fate of a horse or a cow, despite the fact of being born as a man . . . The causes of poverty are the imperfect nature of society and unfairness in distribution of wealth. Anybody who has blood and tears should not cease striving until he attains the goal of saving the world."158 Even though he was busy earning his family's daily food, Onisaburo did not end his studies. He attended night classes at Kongoji temple, learning to read sutras and Chinese classics. According to Omoto Nanajunen-shi, Onisaburo studied the Nihongi and Nihon-gaishi under the guidance of his private tutor, a certain Yajima, at that time. 1 5 9 This fact shows that young Onisaburo's circumstances were difficult, but much better than those of Nao's youth. This difference may lt)8Deguchi Onisaburo, "Oitachi-no-ki" (Reminiscences), Deguchi Onisaburo Zenshu, Vol.5, p. 22. 1 5 9 O.N. p. 123. Nihon-gaishi (Unofficial History of Japan) was written by Rai Sanyo (1781-1832) in 1844. The Early Life of Deguchi Onisaburo / 102 account for their different views on world-renewal and other topics. In 1893, at the age of 22, Onisaburo left home to study veterinary medicine under his cousin Inoue Naokichi in Sonobe, Tamba. Inoue owned a small dairy farm and worked hard at milking and caring for the cows. Although he had limited private time, he arranged and continued to study Japanese classics under a noted Kokugaku (The National Learning) scholar, Okada Korehira (18207-1908). In 1895 Onisaburo gave up his goal to become a verterinarian, but shrewdly used the experience he gained on Inoue's farm. The next year, with financial support from some of his friends, he established a small company named Seinyu-Kan for producing and distributing milk in Anao. Drinking milk was a new custom for the Japanese in the Meiji era. The price of milk was very high. Onisaburo's enterprise grew rapidly in step with the rising tide of modernization sweeping over Japan. This experience is another important key to understanding the differences between Nao and Onisaburo In contrast to Nao's extremely harsh life, Onisaburo's financial circumstances were not adversely effected by modernization. Therefore, anti-modernization sentiments did not flourish in his heart. Onisaburo's business gave him financial security and he began spending money on his hobbies, such as traditional Japanese music (including Joruri and Nagauta) and dancing. However, this prosperity marked the beginning of a crisis period in Onisaburo's life. His father, Kichimatsu, fell seriously ill in 1896. Onisaburo visited several local religious organizations such as Myorei-kyokai, Himorogi-kyokai The Early Life of Deguchi Onisaburo / 103 and Taigen-kyokai, seeking the help of Kami for his father. As a result of this difficulty, his interest in religion increased. However, Yoshimatsu's condition deteriorated and he passed away at the age of fifty-three. OnisaburC was deeply shaken by his father's death. Some people told him that his father's death had occurred because he had cut down a tree standing in the direction of Ushitora (the northwest). Onisaburo took their words to heart and suffered deep remorse. He visited many ascetics and religious organizations such as Myorei-kyokai, Himorogi-kyokai and Taigen-kyokai. 1 6 0 However their teachings were unable to answer his questions. Gradually, Onisaburo lost faith in Kami-gami and interest in his work; he spent his time drinking, chasing women, and fighting. Finally, he was beaten by three village gamblers in a dispute involving a woman. He barely escaped with his life. This incident marked the turning point in his life. When Onisaburo's grandmother and mother found him in his house, they deplored his misconduct. He was deeply moved by their words, and began praying to Kami. In Feb.9, 1898 (the lunar calendar), the day following the attack, Onisaburo left his village and stayed on Mount Takakuma 1 6 1 for a week. Later Onisaburo claimed that he attained spiritual enlightenment by this experience. The present Omoto-kyo calls this event Takakuma-yama Shugyd (the ascetic practices at Mount Takakuma) and sees it as one of the most important religious events These three religious organizations are syncretistic new religions and had their churches in Kameoka. 1 6 1 Mount Takakuma is a small mountain near Anao. According to a local legend, an imperial prince, Anao-no-Miko, had once taken refuge from the court in the mountain during the reign of Buretsu Tenno (499-506). The mountain was seen as a sacred place by local people. The Early Life of Deguchi Onisaburo / 104 in the history of Omoto-kyo. 1 6 2 After the return from Mount Takakuma, He tried to make his "marvellous experience on Mount Takakuma" known among his fellow villagers. He lost his interest in the dairy business and decided to begin his religious mission. He took his friend, Saito Chuichi into partnership to establish a religious group. He convinced his friend that if they established a new religion they could get much profit. 1 6 3 Eventually, Onisaburo opened his own church at Saito's house. At that time Saito suggested to Onisaburo that Onisaburo should engage in faith-healing to show people his religious authority. Although many of his fellow villagers had suspicions about Onisaburo's religious authority, he gradually gained fame as a faith-healer. According to Omoto-Nanajunen-shi, many of his early followers were mentally disturbed people or those who were believed to be possessed by spirits. 164 In the Spring of 1898, a man named Mitsuya Kiemon visited Onisaburo. The man belonged to Inari Kosha (Inari religious association) 1 6 5 in Shizuoka prefecture, and he advised Onisaburo to meet Nagasawa Katsutoshi (1858-1940), the founder of Inari Kosha. Onisaburo set out for Shizuoka in April 1898. Meeting with Nagasawa had a great influence upon Onisaburo. In May 1891, Onisaburo finished his study at Inari Kosha and returned to his i b Z O.N. pp. 144-151. 163 Murakami, Shigeyoshi, Deguchi Onisaburo, Tokyo: Shin-Jinbutsu-Orai-sha, 1973, pp. 48-45. 1 6 4 O.N. p. 153. 1 6 5 Inari-kQsha is a syncretistic new religion established by Nagasawa Katsutoshi in 1892. The teachings of this sect will be discussed in the next section. The Early Life of Deguchi Onisaburo / 105 home. Then he established centers in Sonobe and Kameoka areas for the study of the Inari-Kosha's teachings called Rei-Gakkai (Spirit Study Association). At those centres Onisaburo and his followers practiced an esoteric meditation called Yu-sai (mysterious worship) which he learnt from Nagasawa Katsutoshi. Through the meditation Yu-sai Onisaburo induced a participant of and he judged what kind of Kami or spirit possessed the participant. Onisaburo's followers sometimes fell into a mass trance together while practicing Yu-sai. These religious activities invited suspicion and hostility from relatives and acquaintances of Onisaburo. Consequently, he could not increase the number of his followers and his association was unstable. According to Ito Eizo, who is a modern Omoto-kyo follower, Onisaburo received a revelation from a kami named Komatsu-bayashi-no-Mikoto at this time. The Kami told Onisaburo "Go to the direction of the Ushitora (northwest) as soon as possible. There is a person waiting for you." 1 6 6 Onisaburo obej'ed the Kami's order and began to travel. When he stopped at Yagi for tea, about eight kilometres from his home, he met Nao's third daughter, Hisa. She showed Onisaburo some of Nao's ofudesaki and told him that her mother had been possessed for six years. He replied that he could judge what possessed Nao and accepted her entreaty to visit her mother. Obviously, the above mentioned story is a dramatized version of Onisaburo's first encounter with Nao and her followers. Onisaburo was a highly enterprising person who sought ways to make his Ito, Eizo, Omoto, p. 100. The Early Life of Deguchi Onisaburo / 106 religious group grow. Nao's powerful ofudesaki seemed to attract him. He visited Nao on Oct. 8, 1898. The first meeting between Nao and Onisaburo was unproductive. Nao was not impressed by the peculiar looking young man with blackened teeth, who wore an old-fashioned cape and carried a large valise. When Onisaburo told Nao that he belonged to Inari-Kosha, Nao seemed to misunderstand him as a mere fox worshipper. Onisaburo spent only two days with Nao and went back to Sobobe where he was then living. Although the first meeting seemingly did not form any tie between the two, Nao did not forget Onisaburo mainly because he told her he could judge what kind of Kami of spirit possessed a person. At that time Nao was desperately seeking someone who recognized the true divinity of her Konjin, because she had been deeply frustrated by missionairies who neglected her Kami. Moreover, Nao needed someone who could organize her followers and help them become independant of Konko-kyo. It is believed by that Ushitora-no-Konjin kept insisting in Nao's ofudesaki that Onisaburo was "the very one." 1 6 7 Four months later Onisaburo sent a letter to Nao stating that they should work together. On July 1, 1899, Nao sent one of her close followers Shikata Heizo to ask Onisaburo to come back to Ayabe. The second meeting took place two days later, when Nao was sixty-two years old and Onisaburo was 27. i t j / O.N. pp. 175-176. The Early Life of Deguchi Onisaburo / 107 C. D E G U C H I O N I S A B U R O : R E L I G I O U S A N D I N T E L L E C T U A L B A C K G R O U N D Although Onisaburo received only three years of official schooling, he had many opportunities to cultivate his knowledge. He also acquired many diverse religious experiences. Onisaburo's inquisitive disposition made him interested in various subjects, from Genrei-gaku to veterinary science. Among them, the Restoration Shinto ideas of the Hirata school had a great influence upon him. Despite his family's poverty, Onisaburo learned to read at a young age. As mentioned in the previous section, his grandmother, Uno, taught him reading and writing skills with zeal. Uno also put the idea of "existence of spirits" into his mind firmly. Consequently, Onisaburo had a great interest in religious phenomena. An important incident which inspired his interest religious phenomena occurred when Onisaburo was 13; one of his aunts went insane. It was believed that she was possessed by a fox. Onisaburo often went to her house delivering medicine and witnessed her frantic actions. The aunt died two years later. Murakami Shigeyoshi suggests that she died because of the severe exorcisms she underwent. 1 6 8 During this period, a missionary from Myorei-Kyokai, named Kishimoto Yusuke, visited OnisaburS's home regularly. Kishimoto noticed Onisaburo's disposition and interest in the world of gods and spirits. Onisaburo's Honkyo-Soseki begins with Kishimoto's words telling Onisaburo: "You are a very rare person. You are a man and at the same time you are a woman. You were born to be destined to become a saviour. So why don't you work with The Early Life of Deguchi Onisaburo / 108 us?" 1 6 9 Kishimoto taught Onisaburo fundamental Shinto prayers such as Misogi-harai (purification for daily worship) and Ohari (purification for a semiannual special service). Onisaburo established a close relationship with Myorei-kyokai and his interest in Shinto and other religious phenomena increased. Myorei-Kyokai was a syncretistic Shinto sect founded by Yamanouchi Seishi. The sect worshipped mainly Amano-no-Minakanushi-no-Kami, Takamimusubi-no-Kami, and Kammusubi-no-Kami. These three Kami-gami and Amaterasu-Omikami were the main Kami-gami in State Shinto. Myorei-kyokai was quite supportive of State Shinto. The sect was also influenced by belief in The Lotus Sutra (Skt: Saddharmapundarikasutra), one of the most important Mahayana Buddhist sutras. This sutra teaches the doctrince of the eternal formless aspect of Buddhahood, the dharmakaya, and the absolute truth. 1 7 0 It also contains the concept of Shigan Jodo (The Pure Land on Earth). 1 7 1 As a teenager, Onisaburo had studied The Lotus Sutra at a night class offered by monks belonging to the Kongo-ji temple (Rinzai Zen Buddhist Sect) near his home. As his study progressed, he sometimes gave lectures on the sutra at the temple. 1 7 2 Although he never mentioned The Lotus Sutra as a basis for his thoughts, the influence of the sutra on Onisaburo's thought, especially his idea of nationalism, should not be discounted. We should note the traditional relationship between the message of The Lotus Sutra and Japanese nationalism. The sutra 1 0 9 Deguchi Onisaburo, Honkyo Soseiki, p. 55. 1 7 0 On The Lotus Sutra, see Tamura Yoshio's ( Thoughts of Buddhism) Vol.5, Tokyo: Kadokawa-shoten, 1968. 1 7 1 Tokoro Shigemoto's "Henkaku-shiso to Shiteno Hokekyo" (Hokekyo as the Revolutionary Ideology), Chuokoron, No. 1011, July, 1971. 1 7 2 Murakami, Shigeyoshi, p. 32. The Early Life of Deguchi Onisaburo / 109 has been influential among Japanese Buddhists from an early date. The most famous Japanese follower of the sutra is Nichiren (1222-1282), the founder of the Nichiren Buddhist sect. In the thirteenth century at Kamakura, the capital of the Hojo government, Nichiren, responding to social unrest and an unusually high number of natural disasters, first expostulated on the doctrine of Rissho Ankoku, which means "Establish true Buddhism and on this basis reform the country and make it secure." He believed that "true Buddhism" was only found in The Lotus Sutra. Modern nationalism was growing after the Meiji Restoration and Nichiren's teachings became popular among ultra-nationalists such as Kita Ikki (1883-1937) and Tanaka Chigaku (1861-1939). Religious groups other than the Nichiren sect also believed in The Lotus Sutra, and these groups tended to hold strong nationalistic views. Onisaburo's nationalistic thoughts were cultivated farther by his tutors who were influenced by Koku-gaku (The National Learning); studying Nihon-gaishi (Unofficial History of Japan) is one example of this. Onisaburo became familiar with this book when he was a teenager. Nihon-gaishi was written in 1844 by Rei Sany6( 1781-1832). Rei Sanyo narrated the history of Japan under the rule of different military houses from the twelfth century to the beginning of the Tokugawa Bakufu, and strongly emphasized that the Tenno should rule Japan directly. Rai did not agitate for the overthrow of the Tokugawa Bakufu, but Nihon-gaishi became the "Bible" of the Meiji Restoration movement. Even after the Restoration, the book was popular among ultra-loyalists of the Tenno. The influence of Koku-gaku upon Onisaburo was intensified by studying under The Early Life of Deguchi Onisaburo / 110 Okada Korehira during the period when Onisaburo was working for his cousin, who was a veterinarian in Sonobe. Okada stayed in the Nanyo-ji temple (Soto Zen Buddhist sect) in Sonobe and taught fifteen to sixteen students privately. Okada was a specialist in koka (classic 31-syllable poems). Onisaburo studied koka and could also learn about the Kojiki and the Nihon-gaishi. Unfortunately, Okada left Sonobe and went back to his hometown in Settsu (present Osaka prefecture) in 1894. Okada's teaching stimulated Onisaburo to study Kannagara-no-michi (The Pure Way of the Kami). While Onisaburo was living in Sonobe, he became a follower of Myorei-kj^okai because his toothache was healed by a prayer of Myorei-kyokai. On the other hand, Onisaburo became familiar with scientific ideas through studying veterinary medicine. After he failed the examination in 1895, he gave up studying to become a veterinarian. However, the study left him with basic knowledge of biology, chemistry, physiology and so forth. His father's death in 1897 stimulated Onisaburo's interest in religion. He visited several religious groups such as Myorei-kyokai and Himorogi-kyokai. However, none of these religious teachings satisfied him. He was wandering about until early 1898 when he shut himself in a cave on Mount Takakuma. In Onisaburo's earliest writings such as Honkyo Soseiki, he describes the event simply: "I spent one week on Mount Takakuma for my religious practices." 1 7 3 Later he gives us more dramatic descriptions. There are several versions, but the following is the most common one: 1 7 3 Deguchi Onisaburo, Honkyo Soseiki, p. 75. The Early Life of Deguchi Onisaburo / 111 The night of February ninth, a stranger came to Onisaburo's hut. The man was wearing western clothes. He gave his name as Matsuba-Tengu. Matsuba-Tengu told Onisaburo to take him to Mount Fuji, and covered his head with a cloth wrapper. Then Onisaburo lost his senses. When he came to himself, . he was in Mount Takakuma. He stayed there for a week and was spiritually awakened and, upon returning to his village, began exhibiting his miraculous powers.174 Mount Takakuma is a small mountain near Anao. Staying on a mountain as an ascetic practice is an important form of religious practice in Japan since antiquity. Even in the Izumo-Fudoki (the Izumo Chronicles, 733?), there is a story of an ascetic who shut himself in a mountain cave and experienced a trip to the world of Kami-gami. This tradition has been succeeded by the Japanese mountain religions such as Shugendo. Onisaburo's "enlightenment" story was, therefore, not an unusual phenomenon in Japanese religious tradition. Onisaburo began practicing as the leader of a small religious group after his return from Mount Takakuma, and met the founder of Inari-Kosha, Nagasawa Katsutoshi, who had a great influence upon Onisaburo's religious thoughts. Nagasawa was born in 1848 in Suruga (present-day Shizuoka prefecture). He entered a school when he was twelve and studied, mainly the Chinese classics. Later, after the Meiji government was established, he studied Shinto and came under the influence of the thoughts of Motoori Norinaga and Hirata Atsutane. Nagasawa was a student of Honda Chikaatsu (1823-1887) who had studied under teachers belonging to the Mito Koku-gaku school and Hirata's Restoration school. The most significant basis of Onisaburo's religious thought originated in the IY4Deguchi, Onisaburo Reikai Monogatari Vol.1, Chapter 3, Kyoto; Omoto Kyoten Kanko-Kai, 1971. The Early Life of Deguchi Onisaburo / 112 scholarly lineage of Hirata, Honda, Nagasawa. For example, we can find a significant similarity between Onisaburo's and Hirata's attitude toward foreign (especially Western) thought and technology, and their views on the superiority of Japan. All of Koku-gaku followers took a strong stand against Buddhism and Confucianism because they believed that these two teachings "stained" the true expression of Japanese feelings and culture. Consequently, the Japanese mind was worsened and confused. However, Hirata Atsutane did not hesitate to study or to take an interest in foreign thought and technology. On the other hand, other Koku-gaku scholars like Motoori Norinaga had a strong tendency towards unconditional antipathy against foreign, especially Western, ideas and technology. Hirata's attitude was based on his firm belief in the superiority of Shinto. He stated in his book Shizu no Iwaya (The Rock Cave of Tranquility) (1811) as follows: The art of medicine, though introduced to Japan from abroad, appears originally to have been taught to foreign countries by our own great gods. Later, because of the special needs it meets, this art came to be widely practiced in Japan, and though it may be said to have once been of foreign origins, we are not obliged to dislike it for that reason. 11° Hirata examined Chinese and Indian legends and those of some other countries to find proof that many of those legends originally came from Japan. In his Hirata, Atsutane, "Shizu no Iwaya" (The Rock Cave of Tranquility), Sources of Japanese Tradition Vol.2 (paper-back edition), New York: Columbia University Press, 1958, p. 43. The Early Life of Deguchi Onisaburo" / 113 Kodo Taii (The Elements of the Ancient Way) (1811), Hirata wrote: In the ancient Indian legends the god Musubi176 is called Brahma, the Creator . . . Thus, in all countries, as if by common consent, there are traditions of a divine being who dwells in Heaven and who created all things. These traditions have sometimes become distorted, but when we examine them they afford proof of the authenticity of the ancient traditions of the Imperial Land. There are many gods, but this god stands at the center of them and is holiest of all.177 Hirata attempted to prove the superiority of Shinto and of Japan in general. He asserted that the Kami-gami who created the world and all things on the earth were born in Japan. Japan is, therefore, the country of Kami-gami and her inhabitants are the descendants of Kami-gami. Consequently, there is a difference of kind, rather than of degree, between Japan and other countries. This assertion is based on Hirata's theory of creation. His theory apparently has many characteristics in common with Christianity. Therefore some scholars such as Muraoka Noritsugu and Haga Noboru have pointed out that Hirata was influenced, to a certain extent, by Christianity. 1 7 8 Although Christianity was severely banned by the Tokugawa Bakufu, Hirata somehow managed to get Chinese translations of the Bible and some other literature written by Christian missionaries such as the Jesuit priest Matteo Ricci. As a matter of course, it is debatable how deeply Hirata was influenced by Christianity, but he often borrowed ideas from his "enemies" like Buddhism l v e Takami-musubi and Kami-musubi; Hirata usually regards these two Kami-gami as two aspects of one Creator Kami. 177Hirata Atsune, "Kodo Taii" (The Elements of the Ancient Wa}'), Sources of Japanese Tradition Vol.2, p. 40. 1 7 8 See Muraoka Nortsugu's Norinaga to Atsutane (Norinaga and Atstutane), Tokyo: Shobun-sha, 1957, and Haga Noboru's Henkaku-ki ni okeru Kokugaku (Kokugaku movement in the revolutionary era), Tokyo: San'ichi-shobo, 1975. The Early Life of Deguchi Onisaburo / 114 and Confucianism when he needed additional support for his assertions. Christian concepts of the Creation, Judgement after death, Salvation and so forth might have been useful for Hirata, because he could not find good supporting evidence for his Creation theory in the Kojiki and Nihongi, both of which lack a clear story of "the beginning." Hirata's teaching is not really convincing. It is filled with far-fetched assertions, but has strongly appealed to the Japanese people's emotions, especially when they felt that their country was in crisis. Therefore manj' ultra-nationalists in the late 19th and early 20th centuries followed Hirata's teaching. Onisaburo should be considered as one of them. He used quite similar "logic" to prove the superiority of Japan over other countries and of the Tenno. His attitude toward Western thought and technology strongly resembled Hirata's. On the other hand, Nao did not receive any influence from Hirata or other Koku-gaku scholars. This difference is essential. Their views on the Tenno are incompatible with each other mainly because of this difference. After Onisaburo joined Nao's religious group, there was a long theological conflict between the two. VI. D O C T R I N A L D E V E L O P M E N T IN T H E O F U D E S A K I A . I N T R O D U C T I O N IN July 1899, Onisaburo joined Nao's group. Afterwards he put a lot of effort into amalgamating his religious ideas and Nao's. Onisaburo believed that in order to exists as a religious group, the Ofudesaki should not conflict with the tenets of State Shinto. He therefore tried to connect the Kami-gami mentioned in the Ofudesaki with those Kami-gami in Kojiki or Nihongi. As a result, there are essential differences between ofudesaki written before 1900 and afterwards. Those ofudesaki written between 1896 and 1899 are, therefore, very important for examining Nao's original teachings and her world view. Even though the words used in these ofudesaki are simple and unrefined, Ushitora-no-Konjin's severe criticism of contemporary society and the impurity of human minds, as well as his strong desire for world renewal, are very obvious in them. Onisaburo later realized the deep gap between early ofudesaki and those written after his paricipation in Nao's group, and he rewrote many of Nao's early ofudesaki to smooth out the gap. Consequently, it is difficult to find which ofudesaki really shows us Nao's original teachings. Fortunately, those ofudesaki that were recorded in the Omoto-Nenpyo are believed to be little altered by Onisaburo. 1 7 9 As was mentioned before, during the period from 1896 to 1899, Nao was deeply Onisaburo did not join the work of collecting and editing of Omoto-nenpyo. See O.S. p. 714. 115 Doctrinal Development in the Ofudesaki / 116 frustrated by the irreconcilable conflict with the Konko-kyo teachers who refused to recognize the true authority of Nao's Ushitora-no-Konjin. Immediately after Onisaburo joined Nao's group, Nao decided to make a definitive break from Konko-kyo. They organized a new group named Kimmei-Reigakkai (The Golden Bright Spirit Study Association). However they could not function as an independent religious organization without the government's official recognition. Kimmei-Reigakkai, therefore, became an affiliate of Inari-Kosha as its branch organization. Onisaburo drew up the regulations of the group which emphasized that the movement was particularly devoted to the worship of the Tenno and did not contradict State Shinto. Although Nao recognized the merit of establishing of Kimmei-Reigakkai, she felt from the very beginning the underlying dissonance between Onisaburo and herself. Also there was heavy opposition to Onisaburo among Nao's original followers. The relationship between Onisaburo and Nao would not be calm for the next eight years. Onisaburo introduced new religious knowledge and rituals to Nao and her followers. Among them Chinkon-Kishin 1 8 0 (a method of spirit possession and revelation) is the most notable. As mentioned in chapter four, Onisaburo learnt this method of inducing trances from Nagasawa Katsutoshi of Inari-Kosha. Onisaburo persuaded Kimmei-Reigakkai followers to practice Chinkon-Kishin. Many of them fell into a trance. It was believed that spirits spoke through the people 180 Direct translation: "pacifying the soul and return to divinity." Doctrinal Development in the Ofudesaki / 117 when they fell into a revelatory trance. In the beginning Nao believed that through Chinkon-Kishin Ushitora-no-Konjin's fellow Kami-gami were given an opportunity to reveal themselves and could be freed from their fallen states. 1 8 1 Nao was particularly pleased to hear that Onisaburo claimed to be able to clarify the true identity of Nao's Ushitora-no-Konjin through Chinkon-Kishin. However, she soon came to feel a sense of incongruity with Chinkon-Kishin, because people often showed insane and unconrollable actions and made senseless utterances when they fell into a trance. Onisaburo also used the ritual for curing illness. Nao criticized Onisaburo's overuse of Chinkon-Kishin in a loud voice when she was possessed by Ushitora-no-Konjin. 1 8 2 Nao was also very critical about Onisaburo attaching too much importance to knowledge. Ushitora-no-Konjin repeatedly warns that the world renewal will not be able to be achieved by knowledge. Knowledge is seen as opposed to faith. At the same time, knowledge is seen as a symbol of "modernization" which Nao furiously rejected. During the period between 1900 and 1903, Nao wrote an immense number of ofudesaki. She developed an unsophisticated but unique mythology about Ushitora-no-Konjin and His fellow Kami-gami. Since Nao did not have well polished communication skills to share her religious views with people, she decided to take "actions" to make her followers understand Ushitora-no-Konjin's L b i Ofudesaki dated Aug. 14, 1899 (O.S. p. 82). 1 8 2 Murakami, Shigeyoshi, Deguchi Onisaburo, p. 82. Doctrinal Development in the Ofudesaki / 118 admonitions to human beings. A series of religious actions, mainly pilgrimmages, that were intended to embody the ofudesaki's mythical system were undertaken by Nao and her closest followers, called Shusshu. 1 8 3 Through Shusshu, Nao showed her followers the central tenets of the Ofudesaki and the urgent warning from Ushitora-no-Konjin saying that total catastrophe was imminent. Such messages from Ushitora-no-Konjin expressed by the Ofudesaki and Shusshu reflected the tense social, economic and political circumstances of this period, especially an ominous foreboding of another war. B. T H E S O C I A L , E C O N O M I C A N D P O L I T I C A L C I R C U M S T A N C E S The Sino-Japanese War produced many remarkable effects on the Japanese people and society. For example, feudalistic localism was finally broken down when the Japanese people were awakened to their first "national" crisis. The war united the people into a patriotic body under the name of the Tenno. Then the victory over China gave confidence to the Japanese people that Japan's modernization had been successful and that she had become qualified to be treated as a first class, civilized nation. Since ancient times, Japan had been under the shadow of "great" China. Japanese philosophy and its social order had depended heavily on Chinese guidance, but Japan now emerged from this long historical inferiority complex toward China. Naturally, the people came to feel superior as a result of the Ts"3 Shusshu can be translated as "pilgrimages and religious training." It is an original term of Omoto-kyo. Doctrinal Development in the Ofudesaki / 119 victory over China. However, this uplifted national pride was heavily damaged by the Triple Intervention. 1 8 4 The Japanese people, including their government, were forced to realize that their country still had diplomatic and cultural weaknesses. This bizarre combination of a superiority and inferiority complex in dealing with foreign countries cultivated an exclusive nationalism among Japanese people. This growth of nationalism was strongly related to fear that there was a serious danger of a foreign military invasion. As a result, increasing military power became the first aim of the Japanese government. For example, the government invested all the indemnity received from China as part of the Treaty of Shimonoseki into the military. Military expenditures tripled in the decade from 1893 to 1903. To support such expanding military preparedness, the government decided to promote industrialization, and it took the initiative of accumulating industrial capital for establishing heavy industry. Light industry, especially the textile industry, progressed quite quickly. As Kenneth Pyle points out, "Agriculture played a critical part in making possible the emergence of an industrial society in Japan." 1 8 5 First of all the government filled the expanded national budget by increasing the land tax. Many farmers had more difficulty than ever before paying a fixed annual tax. Even after losing their lands by foreclosure, those farmers, now tenants, groaned under TO By the Treaty of Shimonoseki, signed April 17, 1895, China ceded the Pescadores, Taiwan and the Liaotung Peninsula to Japan. However, within a week of the signing, Germany, Russia and France demanded that the Japanese government renounce possession of the Liaotung Peninsula. This incident is known as the Triple Intervention. 185 pv]e; Kenneth B., The Making of Modern Japan, Lexington: D.C. Heath and Company, 1978, p. 115. Doctrinal Development in the Ofudesaki / 120 the burden of farm rent. Consequently, they or their families had to work in other industrial sectors. Farmers were, therefore, the major source of workers for factories. Most of these factory workers were working in extremely poor working conditions. Nao, through her own experiences, was aware of how severely those workers suffered from the hardships of life. Rapid industrial development began making Japan face "the problems of industrial society," such as clashes between capitalists and labourers. After the Sino-Japanese War, economic activities boomed but higher commodity prices threatened poor factory workers. As a result, strikes began occuring frequently after 1896. Some of the workers were influenced by European socialism and tried to organize craft unions. The government, however, reacted quickly against such movement by passing the Peace Preservation Law of 1900. Strikes and other primary activities of labour unions were banned by this law. Yet, a small number of socialists such as Kotoku Shusui (1871-1911) and Sakai Toshihiko (1870-1933) kept arguing through newspapers, such as the Heimin Shinbun (The Newspaper for the Common People), against militarism, capitalism and imperialism, despite frequent harassment by the government. As mentioned in chapter three, Nao clearly noticed that the apparent prosperity of post Sino-Japanese War Japan would not last long. She strongly felt that the victory over China was not the end of war, but that Japan would be involved in even more serious wars. This indicates that Nao had her eyes open to the reality of Japan in spite of the fact that many Japanese at that time were blindly excited over the military and economic growth of their country. Nao's view of social conditions will be discussed in detail in later sections of this chapter. Doctrinal Development in the Ofudesaki / 121 The tension between Japan and Russia was growing rapidly when the so-called Boxers became active in northern China. The Boxer movement was a semi-religious movement which was anti-Western and anti-Christian. 1 8 6 They attacked the foreign legations in Peking from 20 June to 14 August 1900. Eight countries, including England and France, sent their soldiers to repress the uprising, but Japan and Russia were the only countries which could supply troops speedily. Japan's move was seen with jealous and suspicious eyes by the Western powers. On the other hand, Japan suspected that the powers, especially Russia, would take the opportunity to expand their territories in the Far East. The likelihood of war became real to Japan. On July 30, 1902, Japan signed the Anglo-Japanese Alliance, which was the first military pact on equal terms between a Western and a non-Western nation. In this treaty, England and Japan promised to help each other protect their special interests in China. By this treaty Japan came to be fully involved in the struggle among the world's imperial powers and became an imperialistic nation herself. Nao foresaw the coming war. After 1900, Nao wrote many ofudesaki that showed her strong sense of an impending war which would be the beginning of the world renewal led by Ushitora-no-Konjin. In February 1904, negotiations between Japan and Russia over their interests in Korea and Manchuria failed, and Japan declared war against Russia. From the ^ About the Boxers movement, see Takahashi Kosuke, Giwadan Undo (Boxer Movement), Tokyo: Tokyo Daigaku Shuppankai, 1978. Doctrinal Development in the Ofudesaki / 122 very beginning, Japanese leaders realized that Japan's economic base was not yet strong enough to sustain the war, especially as it was difficult to raise nearly half of the military's expenditures by selling foreign bonds. Naturally the debts became a long-term burden on the Japanese people. On May 27, 1905, two days after Nao came back from her last Shusshu on Meshima island, the Japanese people were overjoyed by the news that the Japanese navy had defeated the Russian Baltic fleet in the Battle of the Japan Sea. At this point many Japanese got drunk with the smell of victory and could not see that heavy taxation, inflation and a depression would hit them soon. However, the Ofudesaki kept warning people that such catastrophes were imminent. Consequently, many of Nao's followers who hoped that world renewal would begin with the Russo-Japanese War left the Kimmei-Reigakkai after the war. C. O F U D E S A K I W R I T T E N B E T W E E N 1896 A N D 1899 As examined in chapter three, Nao showed her simple but clear world view and theological concepts even in the earliest ofudesaki. Without much influence from outside Nao succeeded in developing her original system of religious teaching in a relatively short period. One can see the conceptual development in those ofudesaki written during the period between 1896 and 1899. Such ofudesaki written during the period represent Nao's unrefined but powerful message of salvation, as well as her world view, cosmology and concept of Kami-gami. The contents of these ofudesaki are, therefore, Nao's most fundamental teaching which later would be Doctrinal Development in the Ofudesaki / 123 overshadowed by Onisaburo's religious ideas. 1. T h e C o n d i t i o n o f t h e P r e s e n t W o r l d As stated in E-ofudesaki and Shohatsu-no-Shinyu, 8 7 Nao sees that the present world is dark and thoroughly under the sway of evil spirits, and that society has been turned "upside-down" over the last three thousand years. For example, the legitimate ruler of this world, namely Ushitora-no-Konjin, has been regarded as an evil Kami. Many evil deeds have been recognized as good, and many honest people have suffered from social injustice. In those ofudesaki written during 1896-1899, Nao set forth her views on the condition of the present world in detail. She also explains why this world has been "upside-down," as well as warning that total extinction is imminent. The following are two typical ofudesaki concerning the condition of the present world. This country was originally a good country because it was the land of Kami-gami. However, since Shaka-Nyorai (Shakyamuni) came to this country to spread Buddhism, this country has been growing worse. If Japan leaves the matter as it is now, she will be led by the nose by Gaikoku (foreign countries). Then, Japan will become like Gaikoku . . . Japanese people are so greedy. Therefore they cannot see the true Light. Under the present conditions, Japan is no longer worthy of being called the land of Kami-gami. (ofudesaki, 23 May, 1898) 1 8 8 People in the present world only adorn themselves. Apparently they look even more magnificent than Kami-gami. However, in the eyes of real Kami who created the base of this world, those people are See chapter three about E-ofudesaki and Shohatsu-no-Shinyu. O.S. p. 55, Omoto Nenpyo, (2:105-107) Doctrinal Development in the Ofudesaki / 124 nothing but quadruped beasts with horns on their heads and tails on their hips. This world has become the dark place in which very arrogant monsters dwell. Beasts like tigers or wolves are content as long as there is enough food, but human beings are worse than such beasts: their greed is limitless. They are never satisfied no matter how much they get. Their souls become like Oni (demons) or huge serpents. They then will try to invade other countries or to rob other person's belongings. All these evil phenomena are due to evil Kami-gami who dwell in Russia . . . Wareyoshi-no-Jinmin (selfish people) will have a hard time . . . Although, the Kami has been warning people, His sincere words did not go into people's ears because their ears were filled with "intelligence and knowledge." They imitate the foreign beast, eating meat and wearing Western clothes. They do not humble themselves to Kami-gami. They always talk about money, believing that money is the most important matter of the world. (ofudesaki, 23 June, 1898) 1 8 9 Here we can see Nao's strong anti-foreign sentiment. Buddhism is the symbol of foreign civilization before the Meiji era. Then during the Meiji era Western civilization was brought into Japan. As a result, according to Nao, Japan entered the worst stage of its long process of decline. The Meiji government made a desperate effort to accept Western civilization and the people were swallowed up in the wave of imported civilization. However, Nao perceived its dark side, namely, "greed." Imported Western civilization was based on capitalism, which emphasized the importance of money and stimulated greed. Without any theoretical studies, Nao realized that "immature" capitalism inevitably required exploitation of weak people and weak countries. Greed made people selfish. Wareyoshi (selfishness) was seen by Nao as the dirtiest stain on the human soul. Although Japan was originally the land of Kami-gami, now this country had lost its prestige because it was filled with Wareyoshi. O.S. p. 57 (Shinreikai, June 1917). Doctrinal Development in the Ofudesaki / 125 In the Ofudesaki the term Gaikoku (foreign countries) is often used as a symbol of evil. However, this does not necessarily mean that only Japan is a good country and the rest of the world is evil. Ushitora-no-Konjin clearly points out that Japan also had collapsed, and He has the will to save the whole world, not only Japan, saying: "Konjin is the Kami who protects the whole world." (ofudesaki, 13 July, 1897).190 However, in the above mentioned ofudesaki of 23 June, 1898, the Konjin blames the evil Kami-gami in Russia for having influence upon Japan. It is rather unusual that the Konjin points out the name of a particular country. This sentence gives the impression of an evil Russia attacking a good Japan. This may reflect the tense relationship between Japan and Russia at that time. Another possible cause is that Onisaburo portrayed this nationalistic image of Japan versus Russia when he rewrote the original ofudesaki and printed them in a magazine called Shinrei-kai (The World of Divine Spirits). In the same ofudesaki, Ushitora-no-Konjin accuses those who tried to avoid conscription or ignored the nation's crisis. Moreover, the Konjin urges people to be grateful to the Tenno. Such patriotic messages are not common in early ofudesaki compiled in the Omoto-nenpyo which received a little or no influence from Despite the apparent prosperity, Ushitora-no-Konjin Onisaburo. repeatedly points out how weak Japan is: Japan is originally the land of Kami-gami. Therefore, without O.S. p. 58, Omoto Nenpyo, (2:139-188). Doctrinal Development in the Ofudesaki / 126 Kami-gami's help, Japan cannot survive even for a short while. {ofudesaki, 29 Dec, 1897)191 Through her own experiences, Nao became aware that Japan's rapid growth lacked a firm base. Naturally, Japan, to Nao's eyes, does not have much power of resistance to aggressors. Originally Japan was a good country. It was given a part of Kami-gami's spirits. However, such a good spirit of this country became dusky. Now Japan is just like the foreign countries. Foreign countries are trying to take over Japan. If Konjin does not appear to help Japan, Kami-gami who are protecting this country now will be defeated easily. {ofudesaki, 29 Oct., 1897)192 War is seen as the most important warning that the world renewal is imminent. Actually, the Konjin tells people that war is the first step of the renewal. "The world nearly became a mere muddy tract, but, because I begged Tenchi-no-Onkami-sama (The Great Kami of Heaven and Earth), the overturning of the world will begin with war." {ofudesaki, 1896)193 Nao strongly felt that the victory over China in 1895 was not the end of war but that Japan would be involved in even more serious wars. This indicates that Nao could open her eyes to the reality of Japan in spite of the fact that many Japanese were blindly excited over the military and economical growth of their country. 1 9 1 O.S. p. 50, Omoto Nenpyo, (No. unknown). 192O.S. p. 46 (No. unknown). 1 9 3 O.S. p. 28. Omoto Nenpyo, (1:67-96). Doctrinal Development in the Ofudesaki / 127 Ushitora-no-Konjin also gives warning to people not only by war but in many other ways. "I have shown many mysterious and unusual things as my warnings to people, but people are still doubtful and do not repent of their deeds. If people keep doubting my warnings, I must warn you by natural disasters. Such warnings will be very terrible." (ofudesaki, 4 June, 1898) 1 9 4 Ushitora-no-Konjin often uses very strong and fearful expressions when he warns people that the world renewal is imminent. "There will be great confusion this year. I have warned you since the year of Meiji 25 (1892). The conflagration will burst soon." (ofudesaki, 6 March, 1898) 1 9 5 "When an over-all cleansing of the world begins the people in the high places will be smashed to pieces." (ofudesaki, 30 Nov., 1898) 1 9 6 However, destroying the world is not the Konjin's aim. In the earliest of ofudesaki such as E-ofudesaki, the Konjin is more frightful and less sympathetic to the people.' Nevertheless, in ofudesaki of this period (1896-1899) Ushitora-no-Konjin seems to show his mercy to people more often. For example: "This year, Meiji 30 (1897), was to be the year the population of the world would be decreased by two thirds. But I begged Tenchi-no-Onkami-sama to replace the great disaster with a smaller difficulty, yet people are not grateful to Me at all. Therefore My patience will possibly be exhausted. 1 9 7 (ofudesaki, 29 Sept., 1897) 1 9 4 O.S. p. 56 (2:117-128). 1 9 5 O.S. p. 53 (Omoto-nenpyo, 2:39-49). 1 9 6 O.S. p. 68 (Shinrei-kai, Oct. 1917) 1 9 7 O.S. p. 42 (Omoto-nenpyo, No. unknown). Doctrinal Development in the Ofudesaki / 128 "All things in the world are changing day by day. The world will grow worse, but with the Kami-gami's help it will get better again gradually." (ofudesaki, Jan. 1898). 1 9 8 The above mentioned ofudesaki of 1897 indicates that Ushitora-no-Konjin is not the highest Kami. He works for the superlative Kami, Tenchi-no-Onkamisama (The Great Kami of Heaven and Earth). This superlative Kami still has a plan to change the world drastically by turning the world into a muddy sea, for example. However Ushitora-no-Konjin has been begging the Kami to postpone the plan. There is an interesting difference between ofudesaki which are in Omoto-nenpyo and those in Shinrei-kai and Omoto-Shinyu. In former groups of ofudesaki, Ushitora-no-Konjin tries to prevent the superlative Kami's plan from being put into action. However the Konjin is obviously frustrated because people do not try to repent and to cleanse their souls. The Konjin hints that there is still a possibility of the total destruction of the world. On the other hand, Ushitora-no-Konjin in the latter group of ofudesaki seems to be more optimistic. He promises that the world will be better without total destruction. It is not clear if such an optimistic view in Shinrei-kai and Omoto-Shinyu is based on Onisaburo's influence. However, it is noteworthy that ofudesaki in Omoto-nenpyo hold more radical views of the suffering and evil of the present world and people, as well as more radical images of world renewal. O.S. p. 62 (Shinrei-kai, Jan. 1919). Doctrinal Development in the Ofudesaki / 129 2. T h e C o n c e p t o f K a m i - g a m i Ofudesakis of this period (1896-1899) show some theological developments concerning the attributes of Kami-gami in Nao's mind. The concept of Kami-gami is still very simple, but its originality is remarkable. As mentioned in chapter three, Ushitora-no-Konjin had been exiled and confined in the direction of Ushitora (north-west). People misunderstood him as evil and feared his curses. Only through Nao's Ofudesaki does Ushitora-no-Konjin reveal His real nature. The reason why even Tenshi (Tenno) lost his proper position is that the Konjin, Fudo, the Otohime of the Dragon Palace, the Kami of rock, the Kami of rain, the Kami of wind, the Kami of Are and the Kami of earthquakes have fallen into the lower world. Those Kami-gami were prosperous at the Old Kami-yo (the Age of Kami-gami). Because those Kami-gami have been forced to be in the lower world, this world has not worked as people expected. Among those Kami-gami, Ushitora-no-Konjin was most glorious, therefore He was confined in the direction of Ushitora (north-west) by evil Kami-gami. I, Ushitora-no-Konjin, have felt mortified at the neglect of those Kami-gami. I was given only a small place to live. (ofudesaki, 24 June, 1897) 1 9 9 This Konjin tried to persuade practicing goodness. Even though was too egotistic and forceful. Kami-gami. (ofudesaki, 20 Oct., 1899) 2 0 0 other Kami-gami of His way of His intention was right, His way Thus He was confined by other The above mentioned ofudesaki explained the reason why Ushitora-no-Konjin was confined. Ga (ego) is the key word. During the old Kami-yo (The Age of Kami-gami) Ushitora-no-Konjin was powerful and glorious. He worked very hard i9yO.S. p. 34 (Omoto Nenpyd, No. unknown). 20O.S. p. 85 (Omoto Shinyu, Vol.1). Doctrinal Development in the Ofudesaki / 130 for the sake of goodness and righteousness, but became conceited about His way and His ego was puffed up. When he lost his humility, Kami-gami who could not bear the Konjin's way decided to confine Him in the Ushitora. At the same time the Konjin's fellow Kami-gami such as Otohime (the young princess) of the Dragon Palace and the Kami of rain were forced down to a very low rank. Since then those Kami-gami have been despised or been looked at as malevolent. The problem of Ga is a very important factor when we examine the traditional Japanese way of thinking (we can find a typical example in Ishida Baigan's Shin-gaku). It sees "ego" or "self as the cause of evil thinking and the problem of man's life. To extinguish an individual ego is seen as an ideal state of mind. On the other hand modern thought and living demand that people establish a strong "I." Those people who brought the predawn light of modernization into the world, like Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) and Benedict de Spinoza (1632-1677) stressed the realization of the individual "I" and emphasized that self-preservation was good. 2 0 1 This seventeenth century "egoism" was an important basis of modernization, especially for the growth of capitalism. However, in Ushitora-no-Konjin's eyes, "egoism" meant selfishness. To Nao "egosim" was directly related to avarice and was associated with capitalism, Westernization militarism and other "modern" ideas she did not support. 2 ( n See David G. James' The Lie of Reason: Hobbes, Locke, Bolingbroke, New York: Books for Libraries, 1972, and Dan Levin's Spinoza, the young thinker who destroyed the past, New York: Weybright and Talley (1970). Doctrinal Development in the Ofudesaki / 131 The Ofudesaki clearly criticizes the growth of the modern Ga, stating that people try to further their own welfare and profit without considering others. It emphasizes that even though the Konjin tried to to do the right things, His egoistic and inconsiderate way was unacceptable. In other words, if one selfishly fails to consider the welfare and feeling of others when he carries forward his "right" project, he actually disobeys the rules of Heaven. Therefore the Konjin had to go through extreme hardships for 3000 years to understand the problem of His Ga and to become the true guardian Kami of the world filled with love and compassion. All good Kami-gami in the Ofudesaki are fallen Kami-gami and suffering Kami-gami. These Kami-gami's images directly reflect the lives of Nao and poor people around her who have "fallen" into lower strata of society and suffer from living difficulties. There are deep differences between those who have good fortune and those who are out of luck. Kami-gami cannot overlook such inequality. Therefore the Konjin appeared and will turn over the world. (ofudesaki, 1896) 2 0 2 I, Ushitora-no-Konjin, received instruction from Tsuki-Hi-sama (The Kami of the Sun and Moon) to change the world. I was appointed to take care of all matters in this world. (ofudesaki, 13 July, 1898) 2 0 3 Izumo-no-Taisha-sama will take . care of Japan. I will change the world in the years of Meiji twenty-nine and thirty (1896 and 1897). At this transition stage, great works will be done. One more war will take place. When the battle begins, Ten-Chi-no-Onkami-sama, 'MZ O.S. p. 27 (Omoto Nenpyo, NO.l: 67-97). 2 0 3 O.S. p. 59 (OOmoto Nenpyo, NO.2: 139-188) Doctrinal Development in the Ofudesaki / 132 Daichi-no-Konjin-sama, Nokorazu-no-Konjin-sama and I, Ushitiora-no-Konjin, will appear into the world. The living Kami, Konko-Daijin-dono, will take care of the great place for worship. Uji-gami(s) will take care of each local community. When all Kami-gami appear, will be my assistant. (ofudesaki, 13 Jan., 1897) 2 0 4 The above mentioned three ofudesaki tell us the reason of the Konjin's reappearance in this world. He reappeared in this world to solve inequality and to call for a more equitable social order. The Konjin was appointed for this task by Tsuki-Hi-sama. There is no explanation about the attributes of this Kami. We can only see that this Kami is superior to the Konjin. Some other ofudesaki mention another superior Kami named Ten-Chi-no-Onkami-sama (The Kami of the Heaven and of the Earth). It is not clear whether these two Kami-gami are actually four separate Kami-gami. There are often used interchangeably in the ofudesaki. Yasumaru Yoshio points out that Tsuki-Hi-sama are seen as the supreme Kami(-gami) in many Japanese folk religious traditions, also call their supreme Kami-gami the Kami of Sun and Moon. Moreover, the central Kami in Ise is believed to be the Kami of the sun. However, Yasumaru asserts that Nao's Tsuki-Hi-sama and Amaterasu-Omikami are not necessarily connected. 2 0 5 One ofudesaki written in 1896 says that Nao's soul is a manifestation of Amaterasu-Omikami's younger sister. 2 0 6 This indicates that Nao held naive respect towards the Tenno like many other common people at that time. However, this does not necessarily mean that Nao believed in Amaterasu-Omikami Z U 4 O.S. p. 24 (Omoto Nenpyo, NO.l: 117-155). 205 Yasumaru, Yoshio, Deguchi Nao, p. 143. 2 0 6 O.S. p. 29 (Omoto Nenpyo, No.l: 67-96). Doctrinal Development in the Ofudesaki / 133 as the ancestor of the Tenno and that she was willing to accept State Shinto's mythology. For example, in the above mentioned ofudesaki of Jan. 13, 1898, Ushitora-no-konjin declares that "Jingu-Kogo-sama will be my assistant." 2 0 7 Jinguu-Kogo-sama is a legendary nonreigning empress who was the consort of Chuai Tenno. According to the Nihon-Shoki (720) she lived in the late fourth to fifth century. The legend tells us that after her husband's death she subjugated the Kumaso people who had strongly resisted the Tenno's rule. Then she sailed to Korea to defeat the forces of the state of Silla. This legend depicts the Tenno as the hero who is always in the front protecting Japan from foreign forces. However, in this ofudesaki, Ushitora-no-Konjin is the hero and Jingu-kogfl is His assistant. This can be interpreted that the present Tenno as a descendant of Jingu-Kogo, is also the mere assistant of the Konjin. This view was extremely bold for the social and political conditions of that time. It could easily have invited heavy persecutions from the Meiji government. It is also important to notice that the names of the Kami-gami are in the Ise Shinto tradition or State Shinto mythology. Especially noteworthy is the fact that Uji-gami is included in those names. Uji means clan or lineage group. Early Japanese society was composed of many Uji. Members of each Uji worshipped their deified ancestor, who was believed to look after the Uji's interests and general well-being. The Ise shrine, for example, was originally the family's Uji-gami. After the Uji system began to decline in the medieval period (the 2 0 7 ofudesaki, July 29, 1897 (O.S. p. 39, (Omoto Nenpyo, No. unknown.) Doctrinal Development in the Ofudesaki / 134 thirteenth to sixteenth centuries), the term Uji-gami was used increasingly to refer to a local Kami, Ubusuna-gami, who protected all the inhabitants of a particular region. Therefore, Uji-gami were the closest Kami-gami to the daily life of the common people before the Meiji government compelled observance of State Shinto. In 1871 the Meiji government ordered all Uji-gami shrines to set a special place in each shrine to worship the Ise shrine. Regardless of whether an Uji-gami had connection with the Ise pantheon or not, the local Kami was inserted under the Ise hierarchy. Therefore, to Nao's eyes, Uji-gami were also the Kami-gami who had been "confined" and neglected. These examples indicate tht Nao's religous ideas at this point were still free from the "spell" of State Shinto and strongly criticized it. Ushitora-no-Konjin has another important task when He reappears in this world. Namely, He has to "lift" those Kami-gami who have fallen into this world from the higher world. If the Konjin loses the chance to lift them, those fallen Kami-gami will never be able to be free from their fallen state. Some Kami-gami such as the Kami of Are (commonly known as Kojin) have been treated merely as the Kami of the kitchen fire of guardians of other small matters. Some other Kami-gami such as Fudo have fallen into the Buddhist pantheon. Fudo is considered to be the incarnation of the cosmic Buddha in Esoteric Buddhism. However, in the Ofudesaki the Buddhist pantheon is seen as a lower world than the Kami-gami's world. Therefore, Fudo is seen as an exiled Kami. All of these Kami-gami do not have any connection with the Ise tradition but they have taken firm root in the life of the common people. The time has come. Even Kami (Ushitora-no-Konjin) cannot cross Doctrinal Development in the Ofudesaki / 135 without a bridge. Because (people) built a bridge I could reappear in this world. 2 0 8 (ofudesaki, 6 Aug. 1897) The time is the most awesome matter. When the time has come anything can be done. Even Kami-gami cannot withstand the time. 2 0 9 (ofudesaki, 27 Sept., 1897) These two ofudesaki show that Ushitora-no-Konjin is not omnipotent. He needs man's help. Without Nao's hand He cannot reveal Himself. The Konjin eagerly seeks people's recognition. If people recognize the Konjin as the guardian of the world and as the Kami who will renew this world to the Suisho-no-yo (The Crystal World), He can stop the destruction of the world and execute His great tasks. Only humans can build the "bridge" for Ushitora-no-Konjin to cross into the world. Not only the Konjin but also other fallen Kami-gami need people's recognition. As long as people do not realize the true divinity of those Kami-gami, they cannot "rise" to their original states. At the same time people need the Kami-gami's help to avoid the destruction of the world. Such an idea of interdependence between Kami-gami and people constitutes a characteristic feature of Nao's religious teaching. Another important factor conerning the concept of Kami is the "time." The time is seen as something beyond Kami's hands. If it is not the right time, no Kami can carry out His plan. People, especially farmers, may easily understand the Z U 8 O.S. p. 39 (Omoto Nenpyo, No. Unknown). 2 0 9 O.S. p. 43 (Omoto Nenpyo, NO. unknown). Doctrinal Development in the Ofudesaki / 136 importance of the time through their life experiences such as the right time for seeding or harvest. This idea is actually convenient for a prohpecy of the world renewal. The Ofudesaki often predicts a specific date as the begining of the world renewal. Even though such a prediction fails, there are many excuses. For example, the Konjin begged Tsuki-Hi-sama to put off the plan, or the Konjin wanted to help more people so he decided to wait till more people repented of their sins. The "time" also can be used as a reasonable excuse, because even the Konjin cannot withstand the time. As long as the believers accept such excuses, the prophecy of world renewal keeps its hold on them. In the case of Nao's followers in this period (1896-1899), they held more and more radical expectations of world renewal as the date was delayed. 3. The S a l v a t i o n As Tsushima Michihito and some other scholars point out, the views of salvation of Japanese new religions have not been studied sufficiently "primarily because it was usually thought that the religious goal of the New Religions was only to acquire worldly benefit (genzeriyaku), and that this goal had nothing to do with salvation." 2 1 0 However Tsushima argues that Japanese new religions do have a concept of salvation. Actually, according to him, their view of salvation is the common underlying structure of all the new religions. Roughly speaking, these religious teachings regard the cosmos as a living body or Tsushima Michihito, Nishiyama Shigeru, Shimazono Sasumu and Shiramizu Hiroko "The Vitalistic Conception of Salvation in Japanese New Religion" Japanese Journal of Religious Studies, Vol.6, No. 1-2, March-June 1979, p. 141. Doctrinal Development in the Ofudesaki / 137 a life force with eternal fertility. The bad or negative state is one in which the cosmos and all things in it lose their vitality and harmony. To attain salvation, people must repent and recover harmonious relationships with the cosmos (the original life). When people realize, with their purified hearts, fertility and vitality in their lives, they enter the state of salvation and live joyfully in unity with the deities. 2 1 1 This idea of salvation is based on a strongly optimistic belief, that the cosmos always has the power of self-restoration from a negative state since it is the eternal source of life. Consequently, it is seen that salvation can be achieved relatively easily without radical negation or rejection of the present human condition. In other words, this vitalistic conception of salvation is drastically different from "Eschatological Fundamentalism." According to Tsushima's definition, "Eschatological Fundamentalism holds a pesimistic view of the world and emphasizes a dualistic confrontation between right and wrong . . . The world and human beings are seen as fundamentally evil." 2 1 2 He mentions the Unification Church and the Watchtower movement as examples of "Eschatological Fundamentalism." 2 1 3 Tsushima notes that Nao's Ofudesaki contains the concept of "awaiting the millennium." He argues, however, that the concept of vitalism is is clearly ^ Tsushima, M., ibid. (1979) pp. 140-148. 2 1 2 Tsushima, M., ibid. (1979), p. 158. 2 1 3 Tsushima, M., ibid. (1979), p. 158. Doctrinal Development in the Ofudesaki / 138 presented in Nao's portrayal of the coming world.214 Tsushima does not categorize Omoto-kyo as a religion of "Eschatological Fundamentalism." 2 1 5 Some scholars have views of Omoto-kyo entirely opposite from Tsushima's. Emily Groszos-Ooms is a typical example of these scholars. She asserts that Nao's world view is essentially Millenarian and "Nao's cult as it developed between 1892 and 1905 represents the only case of a full-blown millenarian movement 2 1 6 in Japanese history." 2 1 7 Her definition of "millenarian movement" is based on the definiton of Norman Cohn, E.J. Hobsawn and several other scholars. Norman Cohn defines millenarian movements as follows: 1. Collective, in the sense that it is to be enjoyed by the faithful as a collectivity; 2. Terrestial, in the sense that it is to be realized on this earth; 3. Imminent, in the sense that it is to come both soon and suddenly; 4. Total, in the sense that it is utterly to transform life on earth so that the new dispensation will be no mere improvement on the present, but perfection itself; 5. Miraculous, in the sense that it is to be accomplished by, or with the help of, supernatural agencies. 218 E.J. Hobsbawn argues that millenarian movements represent "a profound total Z i 4 Tsushima, M., ibid. (1979), p. 143. 2 1 5 Tsushima, M., ibid. (1979), p. 158. 2 1 6 Groszos-Ooms' definition of a "millenarian movement" is, roughly speaking, similar to Tsushima's definition of "Eschatological Funamentalism." 2 1 7 Groszos-Ooms, Emily, Deguchi Nao, M.A. thesis for the University of Chicago, 1984, p. 113. 2 1 8 Cohn, Norman, The Pursuit of the Millenium, London: Seeker and Warburg, 1957, p. 15. Doctrinal Development in the Ofudesaki / 139 rejection of the present, evil world and a passionate longing for another, better one." 2 1 9 In other words, they expect radical transformation, not improvements of world conditions. He also points out that millenarian movements often occurred when an agrarian society was undergoing rapid socio-economic change due to "irruption" of capitalism into it. 2 2 0 Groszos-Ooms stresses that the above mentioned definitions of millenarian movements fit Nao's teachings and religious activities, and she considers millenarianism as a conceptual paradigm which plays a central role in Nao's thinking. The paradigm, according to her, focuses on the fundamental duality of good and evil. It rejects a hierarchically organized social order and stresses the horizontal equality among human beings. This paradigm also involves "a notion of sacred authority and divine righteousness which transcends existing authority structures." 2 2 1 In recent years the term "millenarian" has been used by anthropologists, historians and other specialists in a very broad sense. It is indeed a "convenient" label but sometimes this label makes people overlook important factors of a religious teaching and movement. The following are passages from Nao's ofudesaki written between 1896 and 1899 which are seemingly applicable to general definitions of millenarianism. 2 1 9 Hobsbawn, E.J., Primitive Rebels, New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1965, p. 57. 2 2 0 Hobsbawn, E.J., ibid. (1965) p. 67. 2 2 1 Groszos-Ooms, Emily, ibid. (1984), pp. 113-114. Doctrinal Development in the Ofudesaki / 140 This Konjin is not the Kami for healing sickness. I (Ushitora-no-Konjin) will turn whole the Three-Thousand-Worlds upside-down to make them better. (ofudesaki, Sept.l, 1898) 2 2 2 This world has become the world of souls are so full of evil. Thus, in totally dark. But the world will be Repent and reform yourself quickly! (ofudesaki, Aug. 17, 1896) 2 2 3 beasts . . . Jinmin's (people's) the Kami's view, this world is better after a great laundering. The world will be changed in the years of Meiji 29 and 30 (1896-97). At the turning point, great things will happen. There will be one more war. (ofudesaki, Jan. 13, 1897) 224 I have been persuading the Japanese People to reform themselves. If they do not obey me after all, some of them will have to be thinned out. (ofudesaki, Oct. 29, 1897) 2 2 5 When the world will be changed, it [the new world] will become like crystal. (ofudesaki, Oct. 16, 1897) 2 2 6 Ayabe will become the capital . . . If people reform their souls, they will be given even rain as they wish. Everything in the world will go well with you . . . When the world of Kami-gami is established, the span of life will be longer . . . The world will be levelled and there will be no inequality among people. ..People will live in high spirits . . . People will not be steeped in vice. So you will not need to lock even the door of your house. O.S. p. 65 (Shinreikai, Feb. 1913). O.S. p. 20 (Omoto Shinyu, Vol.1). O.S. p. 24 (Omoto Nenpyo, No.l:117-155). O.S. p. 46 (Omoto Nenpyo, No. unknown). O.S. p. 44 (Omoto Nenpyo, No. unknown). Doctrinal Development in the Ofudesaki / 141 (ofudesaki, 1896)27 These ofudesaki, as well as Shohatsu-no-Shinyu and E-ofudesaki, clearly show that Nao saw the present world as dark and evil, and that it should be drastically changed. The change, in Nao's ej'es, is imminent. A Kami named Ushitora-no-Konjin appeared to make this world renewal. It will be very dangerous for people to undergo the the period of change unless they reform themselves and obey Ushitora-no-Konjin. If they do not listen to the Kami's words revealed through Nao's ofudesaki, nor see His warnings through disasters, the population of the world will be reduced by two-thirds by catastrophic events, and eventually the world will become a muddy ocean. On the other hand, if people accept the Kami's words and reform their minds, the world will be renewed to become the world of crystal where people can live in harmony and enjoy modest but ideal agriculturally centered lives. The above mentioned scenario seems to fit into the millenarian paradigm. Yasumaru Yoshio, Murakami Shigeyoshi, Ozawa Hiroshi and many other scholars agree that among the religous teachings of the time, Nao's ofudesaki contains the sharpest criticisms against Meiji government policies, and the strongest rage against "modernization." The ofudesaki also shows unique views of world renewal which are much more drastic than those of other new religions. 2 2 8 However, there are other passages in Nao's Ofudesaki that do not fit within definitions of millenarianism and differ from the millenarian paradigm which Groszos-Ooms sets 'zz< O.S. p. 26-30 (Omoto Nenpyo, No.l, 67-96). 2 2 8 See Yasumaru Yoshio, Deguchi Nao; Murakami Shigeyoshi Kindai Minshu-shi no Kenkyu; Ozawa Hiroshi "Bunmei-Kaika to Dento" Nihon-Minshu no Rekishi, Vol.6. Doctrinal Development in the Ofudesaki / 142 out. First of all, it is questionable whether Nao held an idea of a duality between good and evil. It is true that those Kami-gami Who presently hold sway over the world are called by Nao Aku-gami (evil Kami-gami) and Ushitora-no-Konjin and His fellow Kami-gami Who had fallen and been exiled for three thousand years are called Kekko-na-Kami (good Kami-gami). However, there is no image like the "war between the sons of light and the sons of darkness" in Nao's Ofudesaki. As mentioned in the previous section, The Exile Kami-gami, Ushitora-no-Konjin, was confined because of his Ga. Nao repeatedly wrote that He was confined by "other Kami-gami" or by Yao-yorozu-no-Kami-gami (myriads of Kami-gami), but she never said that Ushitora-no-Konjin was confined by "evil Kami-gami." Those Who confined Ushitora-no-Konjin became Aku-gami, because they have "illegitimately" ruled the world and have not remained in their proper roles. Thus the world has been upside-down and everything in it has been inharmonious. Ushitora-no-Konjin seems to have no intention of annihilating these Aku-gami, saying: Those Kami-gami Who have been in higher places will step down. And those Who have fallen into lower places will rise to the world. Because of these ascents and descents, confusions will be "flowing" into the world. (ofudesaki, April, 1899) 2 2 9 z z y O.S. p. 77 (Omoto Shinyu, Vol. 1) But eventual^: Doctrinal Development in the Ofudesaki / 143 Those Kami-gami Who now dwell on the earth will ascend to the Heaven, and those Who now dwell in the Heaven will descend to the earth to protect and take care of people. {ofudesaki, July 1, 1897) 2 3 0 It is clear that these two groups of Kami-gami are not "absolute enemies," but once they are restored to their original proper roles all of them will be the guarding Kami-gami for the people. This scenario is quite close to Tsushima Michihiko's "vitalistic conception of salvation." It is not surprising that Nao does not hold a clear conception of dualism, because, generally speaking, the Japanese have rejected sharp dichotomies between any subjects, such as God and human beings, absolute and relative, good and evil. As Ruth Benedict points out, in the Japanese mind, the universe, and human life as well, are not "a battlefield between good and evil." 2 3 1 Groszos-Ooms argues that Nao's vision of reality is based on a dualistic notion of purity and pollution. "Nao's affirmation of the new world to come as a perfectly ordered, good and pure state of existence logically rests on her concomittant rejection of the present world as a completely chaotic, evil and polluted place." 2 3 2 Thus Groszos-Ooms assumes that Nao divided the world into two opposing categories: pure (order, good) and polluted (chaos, evil). Her arguement overlooks the fact that, according to the Shinto view of reality, 2 3 0 O.S. p. 36 (Omoto Nenpyo, No. Unknown) 2 3 1 Benedict, Ruth. The Chrysanthemum and the Sword, New York: World Publishing, 1967, p. 190. 2 3 2 Groszos-Ooms, Emily. Deguchi Nao, p. 139. Doctrinal Development in the Ofudesaki / 144 pollution is a secondary accretion 2 3 3 not fundamentally antagonistic to purity. The cosmos and any beings in it are originally pure and essentially unaffected, therefore a negative entity, pollution, can be removed by purification. Since Nao repeatedly uses the expression "laundering the world," her notion of purity does not exactly fit into the millenial vision of the search for purity. 2 3 4 Another factor which seems to be difficult to fit into the millenarian paradigm is Nao's view of an "eschatological" process of world renewal. Nao indeed mentioned in her ofudesaki horrifying visions of destroyng the present world, but she differs from many European millenarian movements such as the Sabbatian movements that began in the seventeenth century, 2 3 5 in that Nao does not see the catastrophe as an inevitable "prelude" to eternal bliss. The Ofudesaki tells us as follows: The whole world was about to become a muddy ocean, but I (Ushitora-no-Konjin) begged Ten-Chi-no-Ogami-sama's pardon for people. I will change the world before it is destroyed that much. (ofudesaki, Dec. 26, 1896) 236 The people's souls are so evil. Therefore I will make many mysterious things happen in the world for the purpose of letting people reform themselves. Some good things will happen as a sign: also some bad things will happen as a warning. "3The Agency for Cultural Affairs, edt. Japanese Religion, Tokyo: Kodansha International, , p. 15. 2 3 4 About the millennial notions of purity and pollution, see Mary Douglas' Purity and Danger. New York: Frederick A. Pranger Publishers, 1966, pp. 162 171. 2 3 5 About the Sabbatian movement, see Gershom Scholem's Sabbatai Sevi, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1973. 2 3 6 O.S. p. 23 (Omoto Shinyu Vol.1) Doctrinal Development in the Ofudesaki / 145 (ofudesaki, Dec. 15, 1896)237 If people do not listen to Ushitora-no-Konjin's warnings, they will experience the catastrophe. People who followed Nao in this period (1896-99) seriously considered that the reformation of people's souls was progressing only a little. Thus, they believed that the world was about to enter a period of catastrophe. 2 3 8 However, such catastrophes can be avoided if they repent of their greed and other evil thoughts and reform themselves. The Crystal World can come without total and sudden destruction of the present world. Moreover, we can find many "reformistic" passages in Nao's Ofudesaki. Kuki Hisao focuses his attention on such passages and asserts that "the change which Japanese new religions seek is never an 180° change but no more than 20-30° change . . . It is not a total revolution but a partical change, an amendment to the reality of the present world." 2 3 9 Kuki further argues that Omoto-kyo's vision of the world to come is also broad and shapeless despite its "showy" expressions like "The Three-Thousand-Worlds burst into full bloom." Kuki notes that Nao repeatedly mentioned the concept of Shusse (success in life) in her Ofudesaki. The following are some of those examples: If people in the world put effort into purifying their souls, good flowers will bloom for them. I (Ushitora-no-Konjin) will make you Z 3 V O.S. p. 22 (Omoto Shinyu, Vol.1) 2 3 8 Yasumaru Yoshio, Deguchi Nao, p. 114-125. 2 3 9 Kuki Hisao. "Shinko Shukyo no Yonaoshi Shiso" (The Ideas of World Renewal in New Religions), Asoka, 1968, April (O.C. p. 1). Doctrinal Development in the Ofudesaki / 146 Shusse depending on the pureness of each of your souls. (ofudesaki, July 26, 1897) 2 4 0 The world began changing. I (Ushitora-no-Konjin) will make even women Shusse from now on. (ofudesaki, Nov. 8, 1897) 2 4 1 Kuki argues that such an emphasis on Shusse is actually similar in mentality to the Meiji government's philosophical basis, namely the cult of Shusse. 2 4 2 Since the government was established, it had been trying desperately to increase "national" advancement. First of all, the government made every effort to change Japan into a civilized country measured by "Western standards." Accumulating money and military power were essential to Japan which wanted to play an important role on an international stage. Japan wanted to Shusse, but Kuki asserts that Nao's vision of world renewal has very little substance. At most, she promised to make people Shusse. 2 4 3 Kuki also points out that the process of the realization of world renewal is very vague in Nao's teaching, although Nao repeatedly warned of the imminence of world renewal. The only thing people can do for realization of the world renewal is Kaishin (repent and reform one's soul). Kuki's above mentioned two points are indeed noteworthy but he is judging Nao's idea only by modern political criteria. At the end of his essay "Shinko-Shukyo no Z 4 U O.S. p. 38 (Omoto Shinyu, Vol. 1) 2 4 1 O.S. p. 48 (Omoto Shinyu, Vol.1) 2 4 2 Kuki, Sahio. ibid. (1968) (O.C. p. 3). 2 4 3 Kuki, Sachio. ibid, (1968) (O.C. p. 3). Doctrinal Development in the Ofudesaki / 147 Yonaoshi-shiso" (The Ideas of World Renewal in New Religions), Kuki writes as follows: Today, there have been many proposals based on scientific studies concerning political revolution or reform, and more than a few of them have been put to the test again and again. Now, it is obvious to everyone that the cry for a Utopian political movement based on religion is nothing but anachronistic. 2 4 4 It is clear that Kuki sees Nao's idea of world renewal as a "non-scientific" political theory with little to offer. Kuki completely disregards the idea of "spiritual" world renewal. Nao's Ofudesaki tells us that renewal begins in the world of Kami-gami, and that reforming one's soul is the most important key to world renewal. This "spiritual" world renewal idea clearly clashed with the Tenno system more strongly than with mundane political ideas, because the Tenno system was based on mythology, and any ideas which challenged the myth were considered to be a serious threat to the government. Kuki also criticizes her vision of the world to come in the ofudesaki, saying that the vision is unimaginative, poor and vague like the shimmer of air. Then, Kuki asserts that the ideas of world renewal held by Japanese new religions are nothing but a "sham" revolutionism, and Nao's teaching is not an exception. 2 4 5 It is true that the image of a changing world in Nao's ofudesaki is far less dramatic than millenarian movements which are influenced by the Christian Kuki, Sachio, ibid. (1968) (O.C. p. 6). Kuki, Sachio, ibid. (1968) (O.C. p. 6). Doctrinal Development in the Ofudesaki / 148 Apocalypse, such as the Jehovah's Witnesses' vision,246 and the image of the world to come is also much less colourful. However, this is a rather natural result of Nao's life experiences in which she totally lacked opportunities to become familiar with established religious images like the Christian Apocalypse and the descent of the future Buddha Maitrej'a which can be found in some Buddhist sutras such as Mi le hsia sheng cheng Fo ching and the twenty-sixth Sutra of the Digha-Nikaya. 2 4 7 Nao might have failed to display a dynamic "millenarian" image of the renewed world but she expressed her search for world renewal in her own words, as stated in chapter two, section D, and chapter three, section B. It is true that Nao's images of the future world are very vague, and there was not much development in this period (1896-99) between the earliest ofudesaki such as E-ofudesaki. The following are typical examples of this period: "Ayabe will become a capital city." "The world will change and all people will be equal." "When the world becomes the world of Kami-gami, people will live much longer." "If people reform their souls rain will fall down whenever needed; everything will happen as wished." 2 4 0 Regarding the Jehovah's Witness movement, see H.H. Stroup's Jehovah's Witnesses, New York: Columbia University Press, 1945. 2 4 7 After Onisaburo joined Omoto-kyo, the idea of Miroku (Maitreya) came to play an important role in the Ofudesaki, and eventually Onisaburo began to be seen as the manifestation of Miroku. Omoto-kyo's official history says that the world of Miroku would come (Omoto Nanajunen-shi, p. 40). However, Yasumaru Yoshio asserts that the idea of Miroku was brought into Omoto-kyo by Onisaburo. (Yasumaru. Deguchi Nao, p. 212.) about the Miroku belief, see Miyata Noboru's Miroku Shinko no Kenkyu (A Study of the Miroku Belief), Tokyo: Miraisha, 1975 Doctrinal Development in the Ofudesaki / 149 (ofudesaki, 1896)248 If you ask for help from Ryugu-sama (the princess of the Dragon Palace), she will give you clothing, food and spending money." (ofudesaki, Oct. 12, 1897)249 And in the ofudesaki of December 13, 1898, Nao stresses that people will live in pious dependence on Kami-gami and Nature. People must respect the fruits of the earth, and this is the first step of faith in Ushitora-no-Konjin. When the world is renewed no one will eat meat. 2 5 0 Like the descriptions in earlier ofudesaki, 2 5 1 Nao's ideal world is one where everyone would live in harmony and comfort. Society would be based on agriculture. It would be simple and frugal, but people would enjoy their lives free from suffering. The Ofudesaki seldom mentions concrete promises made by Ushitora-no-Konjin, but the following ofudesaki contains two concrete promises. When Ushitora-no-Konjin comes out to the world, first of all, I will eradicate Geishas and prostitutes. I will not allow you to gamble. (ofudesaki, Aug. 6, 1899) 252 The growth of Japan's capitalism could not be realized without the burden that agrarian society was bearing in the process of industrialization. Especially after the Sino-Japanese War, the burden was increased because of heavier taxes. Agrarian society was a source of cheap labor for factories. Many people from Z4SO.S. p. 27-29 (Omoto Nenpyo, No. unknown) 249O.S. p. 43 (Omoto-nenpyo No. Unknown) 2 5 0 O.S. p. 70 (Omoto-nenpyo, No.2:463-466). 2 5 1 See chapter two, D and chapter three, C. 2 5 2 O.S. p. 81 (Shinrei-Kai, June, 1917). Doctrinal Development in the Ofudesaki / 150 villages worked under extremely poor conditions. Especially the daughters of poor peasants had to bear miserable lives. Most of them were given a choice only between becoming a factory worker or a prostitute. The number of prostitutes who belonged to the licensed quarters increased drastically after the Sino-Japanese War. In 1899, about fifty-two thousand women worked as legalized prostitutes. Miki Tamio estimated that there were more than 150,000 women working as prostitutes, including Geishas and unauthorized women related to prostitutes. 2 5 3 There were laws which guaranteed a woman's freedom to quit being a prostitute, but these laws did not free these women from related debts. 2 5 4 Therefore, in reality, for prostitues there was almost no way of escaping from the licensed quarters except through death. Under such social circumstances, Ushitora-no-Konjin's promise of eradicating prostitutes had to have strong appeal to people in the lower social strata. Gambling was also a typical source of trouble in poor people's lives. Nao was well aware of this problem through her own experiences. For example, her daughter Yone's common-law husband, Otsuki Shikazo was a professional gambler. Ushitora-no-Konjin gave people the hope that they would be able to live with peace of mind and high spirits, and not have to rely on the vain dreams produced by gambling. The Kami tells the people that they need not worry about food, clothing or other material matters, because Ushitora-no-Konjin's fellow 253Miki, Tamio, "Shakai-mondai no Tojo" (The Rise of Social Problems) Kindai Nihon no Togo to Teiko Vol.2, pp. 160-167. 254 por e x a mpi e : i) ordinance No.22 issued by the Ministry of Justice in 1872; and, 2) ordinance No.44 issued by the Ministry of Home Affairs in 1900. Doctrinal Development in the Ofudesaki / 151 Kami, Otohime of the Dragon Palace, will supply the people with these things.25 These two concrete changes are actually adjustments to Nao's existing world as they change aspects of it, but not its very essence. In this way Nao remains within the vitalistic conception of salvation, although she is the most radical of the new religious leaders. Mainly because of Nao's life experiences, her despair with the present world is much deeper than that of other leaders of new religions at that time, and she sought a more radical renewal of the world. However, Nao's Ofudesaki shows other elements of her view of salvation. Even though Nao strongly rejected the conditions of the present world, world renewal does not necessarily mean "destroying" the foundation or source of life, or "battling" irredeemable evils. This salvation will be attained basically through Kaishin (repenting and reforming one's soul). The images of the salvaged state of the world and of the people's minds are not glorious but modest and easily understood by peole who suffered from living difficulties like those of Nao herself. Though Nao's Ofudesaki seem to contain aspects of an anthropological definition of millenarianism, she remains firmly within the Japanese folk religious tradition which is based on the vitalistic conception of salvation. ofudesaki dated August 23, 1897; O.S. p. 40 (Shinrei-kai, August 1920). Doctrinal Development in the Ofudesaki / 152 D. O F U D E S A K I W R I T T E N B E T W E E N 1900 A N D 1905 As soon as Onisaburo joined Nao's group, Nao began writing ofudesaki in much larger quantity than before. About one third of the ofudesaki compiled in Omoto-nenpyo were written between 1900 and and 1903. 2 5 6 The ofudesaki written in this period show many doctrinal developments in Nao's mind. First of all, Ushitora-no-Konjin's name was changed. In the ofudesaki of November 13, 1899, Nao wrote with a joyful tone " . . . Ushitora-no-Konjin was given the name Kumitakehiko-no-Mikoto and by that I (Ushitora-no-Konjin) could come out into the open." 2 5 7 Onisaburo fulfilled Nao's long hope that someone would recognize Ushitora-no-Konjin's real nature and authority. He claimed that he had the ability to "judge" what kind of Kami-spirit possessed a person. Onisaburo "judged" Ushitora-no-Konjin's true nature and "found" his true name, Kunitakehiko-no-Mikoto. By this, Onisaburo's "authoritative" recognition, the Kami could ascend from his fallen state. It is noticeable that even though the name Kunitakehiko-no-Mikoto sounds much more solemn than Ushitora-no-Konjin, this name also has no connection with the names of Kami-gami mentioned in Kojiki and Nihongi. This means that that Nao's religious ideas were still growing outside of State Shinto. 258 Secondly, some new concepts appeared, in the ofudesaki after 1900. Most of them Z i 3 t i Yasumaru Yoshio, Deguchi Nao, p. 169. 2 5 7 O.S. p. 88 (Omoto Shinyu Vol.1). 2 5 8 Later, after 1905, as the result of Onisaburo's efforts to minimize the differences between the mythology of the Ofudesaki and of State Shinto, Ushitora-no-Konjin was believed to be the manifestation of Kumitokotachi-no-Mikoto who appeared in Kojiki and Nihongi as one of three Kami-gami who created the world. Doctrinal Development in the Ofudesaki / 153 related to the explanation of the relationship between Nao and Onisaburo and of the roles of the two in the course of world renewal. The concept of Henjo-Nanshi (male spirit manifested as female) and Henjo-Nyoshi (female spirit manifested as male) is one of these. Thirdly, those ofudesaki written in this period (1900-1905) reflect the power struggle in the Kimmei-Reigakkai (the name of Nao's group at that time). Large numbers of Nao's original followers defied Onisaburo, who came from outside and had taken an important position in the group. Nao saw the power struggle between them as Kata (the prototype) of what would happen in the world later, namely the power struggle between nations. There also was a long and intense struggle between Nao and Onisaburo. In ofudesaki, Onisaburo was seen as the representation of Chie (knowledge) and Gaku (learning), and Nao represented faith. This struggle was also understood as Kata. To prove that Chie and Ga&ucould not bring about the world renewal, Nao took a series of Shusshu (pilgrimages). Through such religious actions Nao endeavored to assist Ushitora-no-Konjin to actualize world renewal. Many ofudesaki in this period explain the real meaning of these Shusshu. Nao was convinced that the world was about to be drastically changed. Shusshu were the essential preparation for the world renewal. Total catastophe was imminent if people would not repent and obey Ushitora-no-Konjin. Nao clearly sensed that another war that would be much more serious than the Sino-Japanese War would break out soon. Naturally, Nao criticized the present Doctrinal Development in the Ofudesaki / 154 world and the people who control it more strongly than ever before. Many ofudesaki suggest that Nao held a strongly critial view of the Tenno. Her attitude toward the Tenno was extremely bold considering the pressure from the government at that time. Such critical views of the Tenno quickly disappeared from the Ofudesaki after 1905 when Onisaburo established his leadership over Kimmei-Reigakkai. 1. Henjo-nanshi and Henjo-nyoshi As mentioned before, as soon as he accepted Nao's invitation to join her, Onisaburo began organizing Nao's followers. Establishing the Kimmei-Reigakkai was his first step. However, many of Nao's original followers had an antipathy to this newcomer. Although the number of Nao's followers at that time was less than 200, 2 5 9 there was a power sruggle between the principal members. Onisaburo's joining made these struggles more serious. His new religious ideas and rituals, such as Chinkon-Kishin (a method of spirit possession and revelation) which Onisaburo introduced into Nao's group, also repelled many members. On the other hand, Onisaburo showed clearly his talent as an organizer. He attracted new members to the Kimmei-Reigakkai through mainly Chinkon-Kishin and faith healing. Nao's ofudesaki of this period (late 1899 to 1902) often tell of Onisaburo's "true" role for Ushitora-no-Konjin's project of the world renewal. From now on, I will have the two, Deguchi Nao and Ueda Kisaburo (Onisaburo), work for renewing the world. The Kami will put Nao and Ueda to use. Ushitora-no-Konjin and all other Kami-gami will possess z t , y Murakami Shigeyoshi, Deguchi Onisaburo, p. 80. Doctrinal Development in the Ofudesaki / 155 Deguchi Nao and Ueda Kisaburo. {ofudesaki, Aug.l, 1899) 260 From the beginning Nao recognized the importance of Onisaburo and considered him as her partner. This new parternship was reflected in ofudesaki. Ushitora-no-Konjin's partner also began appearing in the Ofudesaki. The ofudesaki of September 25, 1899 2 6 1 tells us that Ushitora-no-Konjin has a wife named Hitujisaru-no-Konjin (the Konjin of the Southwest). The reason why the world renewal had not been progressing quickly was that Ushitora-no-Konjin and Hitujisaru-no-Konjin had been confined separately. Through Nao and Onisaburo, these two Kami-gami became free of confinement and began working together. It is noteworthy that Nao and Onisaburo are not "equal" partners. Nao is the reflection of Ushitora-no-Konjin, and Onisaburo is the reflection of Hitujisaru-no-Konjin. The wife Kami is indispensable but at most an assistant of her husband Kami. We can find other new concepts in ofudesaki written in this period relating to this new concept of the partner Kami-gami, namely Henjo-nanshi and Henjo-nyosi. Henjo-nanshi means that a male spirit manifests itself as a female, and Henjo-nyoshi is the manifestation of a female spirit as a male. 2 6 2 The basic idea of Henjo-nanshi and Henjo-nyoshi was not totally foreign to the z m O.S. p. 80 (Omoto Nenpyo 2:561). 2 6 1 O.S. p. 80 Omoto Nenpyo 2:581-582) 2 6 2 The word Henjo-nanshi is well-known. According to the Lotus Sutra, a woman is incapable of practising the Buddhist path properly. Thus to seek to attain buddhahood she must be transformed into a man with aid from bodhisattvas; then she will be able to attain buddhahood. Doctrinal Development in the Ofudesaki / 156 Japanese people. There are many examples in Japanese mythology of a female disguising herself as a male and vice versa at the time of a crisis when a person needed to intensify her/his spiritual power. For example, according to the Nihongi, one day Susano-no-Mikoto, the younger brother of Amaterasu-Omikami, visited his sister's heavenly domain, but his behaviour was exceedingly rude. Amaterasu-Omikami disguised herself as a male Kami and went to stop her brother from desecrating much of her property. Amaterasu-Omikami said to herself: "Is my younger brother coming with good intentions? I think it must be his purpose to rob my kingdom . . ."So she bound up her hair into knots and tied up her skirts into the form of trousers. (Nihongi: The Chapter of the Age of Kami-gami) 2 6 3 There is another example in the Nihongi in which Prince Yamato-Takeru (4th century A.D.?) was sent to subdue rebels and borrowed clothes from his aunt, Yamato-Hime, who was high priestess at the grand shrine of Ise, in order to disguise himself as a young woman. The story presented in Nihongi is as follows: "Yamato-dake no Mikoto (Yamato-takeru-no-Mikoto) was sent to attack the Kumaso. . . . Now the Kumaso had a leader named Torishi-Kaya, also called the Brave of Kahakami, who assembled all his relations in order to give them a banquet. Hereupon Yamato-dake no Mikoto let down his hair, and disguising himself as a young girl, secretly waited until the banquet should be given by the Brave of Kahakami. (Nihongi: The Chapter of the Keiko Tenno) 2 6 4 According to the Ofudesaki, Henjo-nanshi takes the role of receiving the message 253See the Nihongi translated by William George Aston, London: Allen & Unwin, 1956, p. 34. 2 6 4 Nihongi trans. W.G. Aston, pp. 200-201. Doctrinal Development in the Ofudesaki / 157 from Kami-gami, and Henjo-nyoshi deciphers the message and carries the orders of Kami-gami into effect. As Kojima Shin'ichi points out, such partnerships between a shaman and an assistant have been a part of the Japanese religio-politico tradition since antiquity. 2 6 5 For example, the Wei Chi (The History of the Kingdom of Wei, c. A.D. 297) mentions the ruler of Wa (Japan) named Pimiko (Himiko in Japanese) as follows: She (Himiko) occupied herself with magic and sorcery, bewitching the people. Though mature in age, she remained unmarried. She had a younger brother who assisted her in ruling the country. After she became the ruler, there were few who saw her. 2 6 6 The relationship between Suiko Tenno (first female Tenno, 554-662) and her nephew Prince Shotoku (574-622) is another famous example. In many Japanese new religions we can find similar female spiritual leaders (a shamanistic figure) and a male assistant (organizer) combinations. For example, Tenri-kyo's religious activities began in earnest after Iburi Izo (1823-1907) converted to Tenri-kyo in 1864. Iburi worked with the founder Nakayama Miki for the rest of his life and established the foundations of the Tenri-kyo organization. Another typical example is Rissho-Koseikai. This Buddhist new religion was established in 1938 by two founders. Niwano Nikkyo (1906- ) studied Nichiren's teachings and the Lotus , Sutra and created new teachings that stress the 2 e t > Kojima, Shin'ichi, Nihon Shukyd-shi no Nazo Vol.2 (Enigmas in the History of Japanese religion): Tokyo, Kosei Suppan-sha, 1976 (O.C. page unknown). 2 6 6 Theodore DeBary, ed. Sources of Japanese Tradition, Vol.1, New York, Columbia University Press, 1964, p. 6. Doctrinal Development in the Ofudesaki / 158 importance of ancestor worship. His partner Naganuma Myoko (1889-1957) showed a strong shamanistic disposition. It is said that Naganuma was possessed by Shichimen-Daimydujin, who is believed by Rissho-Koseikai followers to be the guardian Kami of the Lotus Sutra. 2 6 7 This "dual leadership" system in a religious organization usually does not last long. When a religious group becomes an established religious organization, the power of the shaman often fades away, and after the shaman's death the "assistant" often begins monopolizing the position of leader of the religious organization. In the case of Tenri-kyo, Iburi Izo tried to play two roles, one as shaman and one as an organizer after Miki's death in 1887. Then after Iburi's death in 1907, Miki's grandson Shinjiro took over the leadership and tried to establish a refined doctrine, but there was no longer a shamanistic partner for him. Actually, there was a woman named Ueda Naraito whom Miki might have considered as her shamanistic successor. Naraito was adopted by Miki when she was fourteen and was always serving Miki closely. Then, when Miki died, some of the followers expected that Tenrio-no-Mikoto (the Kami of Tenrio-kyo) would possess Naraito, but it is said that Naraito was never possessed by the Kami after all. 2 6 8 However, even if she was possessed she could be ignored by the people organizing the religion as it became a structured organization without the need of a shaman to perpetuate itself. Those people who attached great importance to shamanistic leadership or revelations through a shaman were eventually driven out of "established" religious organizations, and they often ^ Murakami, Shigeyoshi, Gendai Shukyo to Minshu-shugi (Modern Religions and Democracy), Tokyo: Sanseido, 1982, p. 125. 2 6 8 Umehara, Masaki, Hommichi (the name of a New Religion), Kyoto, Shirakawa Shoin, 1975, p. 75. Doctrinal Development in the Ofudesaki / 159 formed new spin-off groups. Hommichi is the most famous religious group which developed from Tenri-kyo. The founder, Onishi Aijiro (1881-1958) claimed that he was the real successor of Tenri-kyo because he received Tenrid-no-Mikoto's revelation directly. 2 6 9 After Onisaburo joined Nao, the small religious group that gathered around Nao inevitably began changing its character. First of all, Onisaburo put effort into "organizing" the followers into an organization that could "legally" carry out its activities. Onisaburo did not hesitate to make the Kimmei-Reigakkai a branch organization of Inari-Kosha in order to get government permission for religious activities. He also wrote the articles of Kimmei-Reigakkai whose contents agreed with the Meiji government's policies, such as emphasizing loyalty to the Tenno. He also eagerly practised faith healing despite the fact that Nao had been asserting that Ushitora-no-Konjin was not a mere Kami for healing sickness. Moreover, Nao was not fully free of doubts about the Rei-gaku (studies about spirits) which Onisaburo introduced into Kimmei-Reigakkai, and about Chinkon-Kishin. Nao realized that her followers were becoming too involved with Chinkon-Kishin and Rei-gaku. As a result they tended to neglect the faith in the Ofudesaki. Nao stressed this as follows in the Ofudesaki. (I) drew Ueda Kisaburo [Onisaburo] toward here on purpose. (I) made him become a chief, but he should be more calm and stable since the About Onishi Aijiro and Hommichi see Umehara Masaki's Tenkei-shano Shukyo Hommichi (The Religion Led by the Receiver of Revelations: Hommichi) Tokyo: Kodo-sha, 1977. Doctrinal Development in the Ofudesaki / 160 conditions in the world are very important now.270 This Hiroma (church) cannot be kept up by Chie (intelligence) and Gaku (knowledge). (ofudesaki, Dec. 27, 1899) 2 7 1 E . S H U S S U According to the Omoto-nanajunen-shi, Ushitora-no-konjin gave a special order to Nao through an ofudesaki written in June, 1900 (by the lunar calender); saying: "For this second reconstruction of the world, please go and worship at Oshima." Apparently, Nao did not know about this island called Oshima, and asked her followers to find out about it. Then, a certain Tatebe brought her the information about a small uninhabited island located off the coast of Tango Peninsula in the Sea of Japan. 2 7 2 Interestingly, this island is in the direction of Ushitora (Northeast) from Ayabe. On July 4, 1900 (June 8th by the lunar calender) Nao set out from Ayabe for Oshima. She took her daughter Sumi, Onisaburo Shikato Heizo (a close follower of Nao) and Kinoshita Keitaro (Nao's other daughter Ryou's husband) with her for this pilgrimage. Visiting Oshima was the first part of a series of Shussu conducted between 1900 and 1905. The word Shusshu is not commonly used by 2 7 0 As mentioned in chapter two, Nao believed events in her religious group would reflect on the world's future, because the group was Kata (the prototype) of the world. Therefore, if Onisaburo did not set down to his religious task, his actions would reflect themselves in unsteady world conditions. 2 7 1 O.S. p. 88 (Omoto-Nenpyo No.2:601) 2 7 2 O.N. pp. 207-208. Doctrinal Development in the Ofudesaki / 161 Japanese people. A direct translation of this word may be "go out and practice." 273 From the begining of 1900, Nao had written many ofudesaki which strongly emphasized that Tatekae (reconstructing the world) was imminent. The following ofudesaki show that Nao believed the world renewal would begin with a large-scale war and natural disasters: If this great world will have to become a muddy sea, I have to reconstruct it from scratch again. Therefore, by all means, I would like to make people Kaishin (reform one's mind) and to turn this world into a better one. {ofudesaki, March 23, 1900) 2 7 4 During the next great war, people will be hit by serious natural disaster. This is not a bluff, but I am giving you a true warning. (ofudesaki, April 27, 1900) 2 7 5 The plan has been suspended because I want to save as many people as possible. However, this year, I will carry out Tatekae (reconstructing the world). Through Deguchi, I have been persuading people to prepare for the world renewal, but that is not enough to make them reform their souls. Consequently some natural disasters may occur (as a warning from Kami-gami). Be prepared! (ofudesaki, March 15, 1900) 2 7 6 Next the world will be involved in a large-scale war. (ofudesaki, May 4, 1900) 2 7 7 Al'6 See the list of Japanese terms in the appendix. 2 7 4 O.S. p. 96 (Omoto-nenpyo, No.3: 55-56). 2 7 5 O.S. p. 98 Omoto-nenpyo, NO 3: 85-87) 2 7 6 O.S. p. 95 (Omoto-nenpyo, No.3: 37-43) 2 7 7 O.S. p. 98 (Omoto-nenpyo, No.3:89) Doctrinal Development in the Ofudesaki / 162 As discussed in chapter three, although Ushitora-no-Konjin warns people that the world may become a muddy sea, He by all means wants to avoid the destructon of the world. He intends to renew this world through the Kaishin of the faithful. Recovering harmony and right order in the world of Kami-gami is also an inevitable part of world renewal. Kami-gami need collaboration from human beings to pursue this task. Nao believed that Shusshu was an indispensable step for world renewal. It is important to notice that Nao tried to show people her religious teaching through symbolic "actions." Such "actions" stood opposed to the "theories" which Onisaburo brought into Nao's group. She had repeatedly stated that world renewal would not be actualized by Gaku (knowledge) and Chie (intelligence). Thus, when Onisaburo began "polishing" the teachings of Kommei-reigakkai (the name of Nao's group at that time) through his knowledge based on Restoration Shinto, Nao attempted to "materialize" the mythology of her Ofudesaki by religious actions. Her actions are not only criticisms of Onisaburo but also of modernization and the Tenno-system. The Meiji government's policy of modernizing Japan had been focusing on technological development. In other words, the government tried to build a modern Japan based on Gaku and Chie. The Tenno system also had been building on Chie and Gaku. As mentioned in chapter one, the government made every effort to re-organize old religious customs and communities in order to introduce a government supported "new religion," namely the worship of the Tenno. (For example, the government decreed in 1868 the complete removal of Buddhist influence from Shinto shrines.) The Tenno worship was promoted by many ways but mainly through education. In other words, the Doctrinal Development in the Ofudesaki / 163 government "planted" the idea of the "divine" Tenno through Gaku (knowledge). Therefore, stating, especially through "actions," an original myth which fundamentally differed from the Tenno myth constituted a strong protest against the Tenno system and the government. Oshima is four kilmetres in circumference, and is thirty km away from the coast. There was a small shrine called Obito-jima Jinjya (The shrine for old sages) on this island. Local people had believed that a man may make the pilgrimage here once in his life, as a kind of coming-of-age ritual, but should not try to make a second visit. Women were absolutely forbidden to set foot on Oshima. 2 7 8 Nao persuaded local ferrymen who were hesitant to depart from the port of Maizuru to the island mainly because of bad weather. Nao cried defiantly: "This is a divine command! We are not to delay even a single hour." 2 7 9 Nao and her followers finally reached a tiny beach on Oshima. They purified themselves at the beach, and then paid their respects at the Obito-jima Jinjya. After these religious activities were completed, the party returned to Ayabe. However, as soon as she returned from Oshima, Nao received another order from Ushitora-no-Konjin. The Kami ordered her to another island called Meshima. The island is located close to Oshima, but is smaller and much less accessible than Oshima. On August 2, 1900, Nao, Onisaburo, Sumi and six other followers left Ayabe 2 7 5 Omoto Foundation edit., Nao Deguchi, Kameoka: Omoto Foundation, 1982, p. 33. 2 7 9 Omoto Foundation edit., Nao Deguchi, Kameoka: Omoto Foundation, 1982, p. 34. Doctrinal Development in the Ofudesaki / 164 for Meshima, a desolate rocky island. The shore around it was all sheer cliffs. Consequently, the party had a hard time finding a landing place. Again, Nao showed her strong will to complete her task. After a long period of attempting to land, finally, the party finally was able to disembark from the boat. Nao conducted purification rituals and built a shrine for Ushitora-no-Konjin, the Princess of the Dragon Palace and other Kami-gami. The following ofudesaki explain the purpose and meaning of these two acts of Shussu: In this world, the only places where Kami-gami have been dwelling are the hills in Meshima and Oshima . . . I have told Deguchi Nao that Oshima is the entrance to the Dragon Palace. {ofudesaki, July 4, 1900) 2 8 0 The reason why I let you go to Meshima and Oshima was to make you carry through the great task of opening the (new) world. (ofudesaki, July 6, 1900) 2 8 1 This Kami who has undergone all sorts of hardships created the world. This suffering Kami is the One Who protects the world. This guardian Kami is the One Who had been dwelling in Meshima . . . ofudesaki, Aug. 29, 1900 2 8 2 According to Nao's teaching, Meshima is the very place where Ushitora-no-konjin had been confined for three thousand years, and the princess of the Dragon Palace and other Kami-gami had fallen down to Oshima. By acts of Shusshu, Oshima and Meshima were "opened" and Ushitora-no-Konjin and His fellow u O.S. p. 103 (Omoto Nenpyo, No. unknown) 1 O.S. p. 104 (Omoto-Shinyu, Vol.2) 2 O.S. p. 113 (Omoto Nenpyo, No. 3: 187-197) Doctrinal Development in the Ofudesaki / 165 Kami-gami became free from their exile. Consequently, the opening of Meshima and Oshima was viewed as the beginning of the world renewal. After the opening of Meshima and Oshima, Nao produced immense numbers of ofudesaki which clearly showed Nao's conviction that the process of world renewal would be quickened. On October 1, 1900, Nao carried out another Shusshu. Ushitora-no-Konjin ordered her to go to "the Dragon Palace on land," but Nao actually did not know where her final destination would be. 2 8 3 Nao asked Onisaburo, Sumi and Shikata Haruzo to come with her for this Shusshu . Yasumaru Yoshio interprets the purpose of this Shusshu as Nao wanting Onisaburo, Sumi and Haruzo to do Kaishin (reforming one's mind) and Wago (being harmonious). 2 8 4 The power struggle between Onisaburo and the old principal members had been intensified since the opening of Meshima and Oshima. Nineteen-year-old Haruzo had shown his shamanistic disposition and was used as a symbolic leader by those who were conducting a campaign to oust Onisaburo from Nao's group. It is interesting to notice why Nao regarded young Haruzo as an important member of her group. The key factor was Haruzo's shamanistic disposition. Onisaburo introduced into Nao's group Chinkon-Kishin (artificially inducing trance technique) but he himself never fell into a possessed state. He was just a Saniwa (the authority who can judge what kind of kami or spirit is possessing the possessed person) who works with his gaku (knowledge). Nao, on the other hand, was possessed by Ushitora-no-Konjin without anyone's help or any rituals. Nao might seen a strong shamanistic potential in Haruzo, 2 6 3 Yasumaru, Yoshio, Deguchi Nao, p. 174. 2 8 4 Yasumaru, Yoshio, Deguchi Nao, p. 175. Doctrinal Development in the Ofudesaki / 166 and attached great importance to his potential to balance a tendency to overestimate knowledge in her group. According to the ofudesaki of September 18, 1900, Nao attached great importance to bringing about harmony between her followers. 2 8 5 Since all the incidents in Nao's group were the Kata (prototype) of world events, in Nao's eyes, harmonizing the principal members was vital to world renewal to produce a harmonious new world. At first Nao and her companions went to Fukushima Toranosuke's (Nao's son-in-law's) house in Yagi. Next day, it is said that Onisaburo became possessed and revealed that their destination should be Mount Kurama, north of Kyoto. 2 8 6 The mountain is famous as the place where the Kurama Temple is situated. The temple was founded in 770, and was originally associated with the Tendai sect of Buddhism which emphasizes esoteric practices. Nao's party arrived at the mountain and practiced an all-night vigil before an inner shrine of the Kurama Temple where Mao-son (Demon King) 2 8 7 is enshrined. According to Omoto-Kyo's official history, Haruzo confessed that he had a terrifying experience during the night, and became completely downcast after the experience. He never spoke in detail of what he had experienced. A month later, on November 13, 1900, he died from sickness. 2 8 8 Unfortunately, Omoto-kyo's official history does not tell much about Haruzo's death but hints that he showed neurotic symptoms after having a "terrifying experience" at Mount Kurama. After Z 8 t > O.S. p. 127 (Omoto Nenpyo No.3: 465-471) 2 8 6 The Omoto Foundation ed., Deguchi Nao, p. 175. 2 8 7 Mao-son is a powerful Kami who has come to Mao-son is a powerful Kami who has come to Earth from the planet Venus 6,500,000 years ago. 2 8 8 O.N., p. 222. Doctrinal Development in the Ofudesaki / 167 his death, anti-Onisaburo members became quiet for a while. It should be noticed that this Shusshu to Kurama was particularly important in establishing Onisaburo's position in the Kimmei-Reigakkai. First of all, the final destination was chosen by Onisaburo, not Nao. This fact indicates that Onisaburo took the initiative in the Shusshu to Mount Kurama. Secondly, the death of Haruzo was advantageous to Onisaburo and shook people who had criticized Onisaburo. A biography of Nao published by the present Omoto-kyo tells an interesting story related to this Shusshu. On the way to Mount Kurama, Nao and her folowers stopped at Kitano Shrine where Sugawara-no-Michizane (845-903) is enshrined. 2 8 9 At the shrine Nao became sad, thinking of the long time Ushiiora-no-Konjin had been confined in the northeast with no one to build a shrine to him or worship him, where there were magnificent shrines such as this dedicated to mere humans. 2 9 0 Unfortunately, there is no evidence of Nao actually saying this. However, if it is true, the words show that Nao was clearly aware of a fundamental difference between a Kami and a Hito-gami (a man enshrined as a kami), and she makes much more a kami than of a Hito-gami. This view relates to her attitude towards the Tenno. The Tenno is nothing but a typical example of Hito-gami, and, naturally to Nao's eyes, Ushitora-no-Konjin should have a dominant position over the Tenno. Needless to say, holding such a view was extremely risky at that time and made her vulnerable to government Sugawara-no-Michizane was a scholar in the Heian period, and, after he died, he became revered as a Kami of learning. 2 9 0 The Omoto Foundation ed., Nao Deguchi, p. 46. Doctrinal Development in the Ofudesaki / 168 prosecution. After the Shusshu to Mount Kurama, Nao shut herself up in a room for 100 days and kept writing ofudesaki which demanded that members of Kimmei-Reigakkai reform their minds and do Tatekae (reconstruction of the world) for the group. 2 9 1 Then, in the spring of 1901, Nao carried out another Shusshu that revealed clearly Nao's idea of the world renewal process, namely "cleansing" the world. On the second month 2, 1901 (lunar calendar), Nao received an order from Ushitora-no-Konjin, saying "Finally, this year is the absolute year of Tatekae. Thus you must visit the Moto-Ise shrine in Tango." This shrine is located thirty-two kilmetres north of Ayabe. According to Nihongi: Sujin Tenno section, Amaterasu-Omikamiz was worshipped within the Tenno's Great Hall, but the Sujin Tenno (early third century) dreaded the power of Kami and did not feel secure with their dwelling in the Great Hall. Thus, the Tenno entrusted Amaterasu-omikami to Toyosuki-iri-bime-no-Mikoto to be worshipped at the village of Kasanuhi in Yamato. 2 9 2 Then Sujin's successor, Suinin Tenno (late third century?), ordered Yamato-hime-no-Mikoto to transfer Amaterasu-Omikami from Kasanuhi to somewhere else. Yamato-hime-no-Mikoto examined several places and finally selected a shrine for Amaterasu-Omikami in the province of Ise. 2 9 3 The local tradition surrounding the Moto-Ise shrine says that on the way to Ise from Kasanuhi, Amaterasu-Omikami was temporarily enshrined in the Moto-Ise shrine. On April 26, 1901, Nao left Ayabe with Onisaburo, Sumi and thirty-nine 2 9 1 Murakami, Shigeyoshi, Deguchi Onisaburo, p. 86. 2 9 2 Nihongi, trans. W.G. Aston, pp. 151-152. 2 9 3 Nihongi, trans. W. G. Aston, p. 176. Doctrinal Development in the Ofudesaki / 169 followers for the Moto-Ise shrine. Before their departure, Ushitora-no-Konjin revealed the purpose of this Shusshu as follows: The crystal water of Ubudarai and Ubugama (two wells in the Celestial Rock Cave) of Moto-Ise was holy and pure, and from ancient times nobody could approach it. Concerning the present Tatekae of the world, I have assigned an important task to people fated to go to Moto-Ise from Omoto of Ayabe 2 9 4 to fetch the crystal water unchanged from ancient times in order to accomplish this Tatekae of the world. (ofudesaki, lunar March 7, 1901) 2 9 5 The drawing of the water from Ubugama and Ubudari had been prohibited and there was a priest on guard to keep everyone away from the sacred water. However, Nao insisted that Ushitora-no-Konjin gave permission to obtain the water. Finally two of her followers succeeded in reaching the cave and returned to Nao with bamboo joints filled with the sacred water. The water was first offered on the altar of Ushitora-no-Konjin. Then followers passed one cylinder around and took a sip each. The remainder was poured into a well on the site of Kimmei-Reigakkai'a headquarters in Ayabe. Later this well was named Kimmeisui (golden bright water). In May, Nao went to Meshima again with thirty-five followers, and poured the water from Ubugama and Ubudari mixed with that of Kimmeisui into the sea between Oshima and Meshima. According to Omoto-kyo's official biography, Nao prayed as follows when she was pouring the water into the sea: Ushitora-no-Konjin, we humbly beseech you, with your power, wide as the Pacific Ocean and deep as the Sea of Japan, to make this pure water from Moto-Ise encircle the sea of the world, turning to clouds, 294Around this period, the word Omoto began to be used to describe Nao's group. 2 9 5 O.N. p. 224. Doctrinal Development in the Ofudesaki / 170 turning to rain, snow and hail, washing away impurities, and building a paradise on earth. 2 9 6 It is said that Nao also made a remark concerning the water poured into the sea, "In three years this water will go around the whole world, and then the world will begin to move. Meanwhile people whose destiny it is to serve the divine plan will begin to gather here. 2 9 7 There are two significant points related to this Shusshii at Moto-Ise. First of all, it became clear that, in Nao's mind, the Tatekae is carried out through purification. The world is impure like a muddy sea. Thus the sacred pure water from Moto-Ise will go around the world to purify it. Purification by clean water has been a long tradition in Japan. Not only Shinto, but Japanese Buddhism and folk religions use water for their purification rituals. As discussed in section B in this chapter, Ushitora-no-Konjin does not really intend to destroy this world. He wants to renew this world through purifying people's minds, the polluted order of the human world and of the kami-gami's world. The world will become pure and harmonious again after purification. The second point is a relationship developed between the Moto-Ise shrine and Nao's group. Moto means origin. Nao transferred traditional sacred water from "original" Ise to Ayabe. This can be interpreted that Nao declared that her group succeeded to the "tradition" from the Moto-Ise. Before and after these Shusshu, Nao repeatedly wrote that Amaterasu-Omikami no longer dwellt in the The Omoto Foundation, Nao Deguchi, p. 51. The Omoto Foundation, Nao Deguchi, p. 51. Doctrinal Development in the Ofudesaki / 171 Grand Shrine of Ise, because the land of Ise had become polluted. 2 9 8 Consequently, Nao's group was the "real" successor of the Ise tradition, and Ayabe became the only pure place where Kami-gami could get together. Just before Nao and her party set out for Moto-Ise, Nao received another order from Ushitora-no-Konjin. The Kami said: If you go to Izumo again, I will show you the function of the journey and will level the world—both the things above and the things below. If you fail to complete this mission, you can never comprehend this coming great event. However, once you achieve this understanding, everything will progress quickly. 2 9 9 Then, on July 1, 1901, Nao, Onisaburo, Sumi and twelve followers left Ayabe for Izumo on foot. On the eleventh day, they reached the Grand Shrine of Izumo. They asked a special favor of the shrine priests, and received the sacred Fire, said to have been kept alight since the Age of Kami-gami. They also brought some water from the well and some earth from the shrine precints back to Ayabe. As mentioned in chapter two, the province of Tamba where Nao was born and lived until her death had deep relations with the Izumo religious tradition. The Izumo line of Shinto tradition has many characteristic myths and rituals which are incompatible with the Ise Shinto tradition. It is important to notice that Nao chose to relate herself to Izumo combined with "original" Ise. Receiving traditional sacred Fire from Izumo symbolized Nao's declaration that her group had become Yasumaru Yoshio, Deguchi Nao, pp. 143-144. ofudesaki, lunar March 7, 1901, O.N. p. 227. Doctrinal Development in the Ofudesaki / 172 the true successor of the sacred fire.300 Ayabe, therefore, became New Izumo as well as New Ise. In other words, Ayabe became the new sacred capital of the world where the Kami-gami Who were working for world renewal assembled. F. A Y A B E A S T H E S A C R E D C A P I T A L Soon after her return from Izumo, Nao sent three pairs of her followers to various places around Ayabe to spread the soil which she brought back from Izumo. The purpose of this mission was to set up the boundaries of a shrine territory. 3 0 1 Even in early ofudesaki written around 1896, Ushitora-no-Konjin predicted that Ayabe would become "the capital," and that the grand shrine for the Kami would be built there. The Kami also foretold through many ofudesaki that the Grand Shrine of Izumo would move to Ayabe. The following are some examples which state that Ayabe is going to be the new sacred shrine-capital: Ayabe will become the capital. It will return to the original state of the world. The shrine for Ushitora-no-Konjin will be built. (ofudesaki, April 25, 1896) 3 0 2 The shrine for the Konjin of Heaven and Earth will be built within the premises of Deguchi Takezo 3 0 3 and Nao in Hongu-Machi, Ayabe, Ikaruga county. The shrine for Ushitora-no-Konjin will be built. Then, eventually, the Great Kami of Izumo will move into (Ayabe). 3 0 0 Murakami, Shigeyoshi, Deguchi Onisaburo. 3 0 1 O.N., p. 231. 3 0 2 O.S., p. 19 (Omoto Shinyu, Vol.1) 3 0 3 Takezo is Nao's first son, and was an official head of the Deguchi family. Thus, the house theoretically belonged to him. Doctrinal Development in the Ofudesaki / 173 (ofudesaki, Nov. 22, 1896)304 I will make Ayabe become the capital and build the shrine for the Konjin. I will make peole visit and worship at Ayabe from Tokyo and even from overseas. (ofudesaki 1896) 3 0 5 All premises within ten Ri (about 40 kilometres) around belong to the shrine precint. Ayabe is the center of it. (ofudesaki, Jan. 24, 1900) 3 0 6 According to a legend related to the Great Shrine of Izumo, all Kami-gami get together and hold a meeting once a year in October in Izumo. 3 0 7 However, Nao taught her followers that Kami-gami had decided to have the gathering in Ayabe in 1892, the year when Nao began to be possessed. It was clear in Nao's mind that Ayabe would become the sacred capital of the world after the five Shusshu were completed. As Mircea Eliade has pointed out, the idea of the sacred "center" can be found in many different myths, rites and beliefs. In his The Sacred and the Profane, Eliade says: For religious man, space is not homogeneous; he experiences interruptions, breaks in it; some parts of space are qualitatively different from others . . . For it is the break effected in space that allows the world to be constituted, because it reveals the fixed point, 3 0 4 O.S. p. 21 (Omoto Nenpyo: No.l, 113) 3 0 5 O.S. p. 30 (Omoto Nenpyo: No.l, 67-96) 3 0 6 O.S. p. 89 (Omoto Shinyu: Vol. No.l) 3 0 7 On 11-17 October (lunar calendar), the Kamiari Matsuri (the Kami-gami being present festival) is held at Izumo Shrine. The ancient name for October was Kannazuki (the month without Kami-gami), because all Kami-gami went to Izumo in October. Doctrinal Development in the Ofudesaki / 174 the central axis for all future orientation. 3 0 8 Among Japanese religions, we can find many examples that fit Eliade's definition of the "sacred center." Mountains such as Mount Fuji and Mount Hakusan have been seen as sacred space and as the central source of power affecting nature and human lives. Tenri-kyo, for example, holds a typical idea of "the sacred center." The founder of Tenri-kyo, Nakayama Miki, taught that the Nakayamas' premises where Miki became possessed by the Kami, Tenrio-no-Mikoto, was the place where the Creation took place. This "sacred center" is called Ji-ba (the original birthplace of man), and Miki called on all human beings to "return" to the Ji-ba to cleanse their souls and to revitalize their lives. 3 0 9 Nao's idea of "sacred" Ayabe was not simply of a "sacred center." Ayabe was, in her mind, the capital of a theocracy ruled by Ushitora-no-Konjin. However, Japan at that time already had "the sacred capital" under the rule of the Tenno. As discussed in chapter one, the Meiji government had made a systematic effort to establish Japan as a "modern nation" based on the Tenno myth. Tokyo was, therefore, not only Japan's political center, but also the "sacred center" of Japan where the Tenno who held sacred authority was seated. Naturally, calling Ayabe "capital" was a bold challenge against the Tenno. In the ofudesaki of January 28, 1902, Nao called Tokyo a Susuki (Japanese 3 0 8 Mircea Eliade, The Sacred and the Profane, trans, by Willard R. Trask, New York: Harper & Row, publishers, 1957, pp. 20 -21. 3 0 9 Tenri-kyo-kyokai Honbu ed., Tenri-kyo Yoran (The Outline of Tenri-kyo's teachings), Tenri City, Tenri-kyo Doyusha, 1966, pp,25-35. Doctrinal Development in the Ofudesaki / 175 pampas grass) which flowers a lot but never has any fruits.310 She saw clearly that Japan's "flowery" prosperity was actually only an appearance. Yasumaru Yoshio pointed out that Nao's criticism of the Tenno was very uncompromising. He quoted the ofudesaki of Feb. 29, 1903 in his book Deguchi Nao to show us Nao's critical view of the Tenno: The world all belongs to the Kami. This Tatekae (the reconstruction of the world) will take place, and the Tenno will be ill at ease, but he actually deserves all he will get. Like commoners, he could not do anything to prevent foreigners from trampling this beloved country, Japan, under foot . . . Tenno, you must decamp! 3 1 1 Yasumaru asserts that the above mentioned ofudesaki is faithful to the original ofudesaki. 3 1 2 Some other ofudesaki contain some strong messages which obviously criticize the Tenno. Most of them are collected in the Omoto Nenpyo which is believed to have received the least influence from Onisaburo. For example, in the ofudesaki of August 30, 1900, Nao sharply criticized the Tenno, saying: Japan's Taisho (head) must have been worried . . . Do you think that Japan could win the last war and the previous one only by her own efforts! If you are such a Taisho, who cannot see the truth about the wars, I will not tolerate you. 3 1 3 There is a blank space after "Japan's Taisho." The editor of Omoto Shiroshusei, Ikeda Akira assumed that the word Tenno-Heika (His Majesty the Tenno) was in the space. 3 1 4 It is obvious that the word Taisho is an allusion to the Tenno in 3 1 0 O.S. p. 158 (Omoto Nenpyo No.4:133) 3 1 1 Yasumaru Yoshio, Deguchi Nao, p. 201. 3 1 2 Yasumaru Yoshio, Deguchi Nao, p. 201. 3 1 3 O.S. p. 114 (Omoto Nenpyo No.3: 205-206) 3 1 4 O.S. p. 114. Doctrinal Development in the Ofudesaki / 176 this context. Nao sharply called the Tenno to account for making Japan's condition worse. The Tenno was, to Nao's eyes, not "a sacred ruler of Japan" but a person who had been deceived by evil spirits and imitated foreign ways, such as wearing Western clothing and eating meat. From the time the earliest ofudesaki were written, Nao had been criticizing the TennG's way of ruling Japan and of conducting the nation's affairs, saying "As long as (the Tenno). is taking a prowl dressed in western clothes, Japan will not be settled." 3 1 5 She wrote more radical criticisms against the TennS during the period between the first Shusshu (July 1900) and the outbreak of the Russo-Japanese war (Feb. 1904). However, it is very difficult to get Nao's view on the Tenno and the system as a whole, because most of the ofudesaki mentioning the Tenno was destroyed by the government when Omoto-kyo was charged with lese majeste in 1911 and 1935, or had their contents altered by Onisaburo to avoid government persecution or to accomodate Onisaburo's own ideas. The present Omoto-kyo organization still keeps some ofudesaki from the public. As discussed in chapter four, there is a fundamental difference between Nao's and Onisaburo's views on the Tenno. Onisaburo was never free from Restoration Shinto's view of the emperor which sees the position as the ideal divine ruler of Japan and the world. Oh the other hand, in Nao's mind, Ushitora-no-Konjin is the ruler of the world, and the emperor had blindly associated himself with the 3 i b O.S. p. 13 (Shohatsu-no-Shinyu). Doctrinal Development in the Ofudesaki / 177 Kami-gami Who had illegitimately ruled for the last three thousand years and made the world become the world of beasts. 3 1 6 The following are typical examples of how Onisaburo might have altered Nao's ofudesaki: (a) "As long as there are seven or eight kings ruling over the world, disputations among those kings will never cease to exist. Therefore, I, Ushitora-no-Konjin, am laying out the plan that (the world) will be ruled by one king." (ofudesaki, June 6, 1903) 3 1 7 (b) "As long as there are seven or eight kings ruling over the world, disputations among those kings will never cease to exist. Therefore there is a plan that (the world) will be by the one king of the divine land of Japan." (ofudesaki 1893) 3 1 8 The ofudesaki (a) is collected from Omoto-nenpyo and (b) from Shinrei-Kai published in 1917, right after the first Omoto incident. Yasumaru Yoshio argues that it is doubtful if the words "the one king of the divine land of Japan" were a part. of Nao's original writing. 3 1 9 Yasumaru's arguement can be supported by the fact that there are no . words in ofudesaki collected in Omoto-Nenpyd which indicate that Ushitora-no-Konjin would choose the Tenno as the future ruler when He would finish His world renewal. On the other hand, in those ofudesaki collected in publications edited by Onisaburo and his followers, there are many phrases hinting that the Tenno is the divine ruler of the world. Moreover, in Onisaburo's own writings he clearly states: Our land of the Sun, Japan, is located in the center of the world . . . The Tenno of Japan is the living Kami and the ruler 3T°See the (ofudesaki of September 9, 1900) as a typical example which shows Nao's view on the Terino. O.S. p. 121 (Omoto Nenpyo, No.3: 373-379) 3 1 7 O.S. p. 213 (Omoto Nenpyo, No.5: 259-296). 3 1 8 O.S. p. 17 (Shinrei-Kai, May 1917 issue). 3 1 9 Yasumaru Yoshio, Deguchi Nao, p. 200. Doctrinal Development in the Ofudesaki / 178 of the world. (Ura-no-Shinyu date unknown but around 1903) 3 2 0 As Onisaburo was gaining more control over the Omoto-kyo organization, he fully developed his views about the "divine" Tenno as the future world ruler. At that point, when he inserted ofudesaki in Omoto-kyo publications such as Shinrei-kai (first published in 1917), he intentionally twisted some words in original ofudesaki for the purpose of filling deep gaps between the message of original ofudesaki and his ideas about the emperor and his rule. As Nao had been revealing her own system of religious thought through ofudesaki and Shusshu, confrontation between Nao and Onisaburo intensified. First of all, Nao did not accept Onisaburo's attitude of compromise with the government. After 1901, the police began strongly pressuring the Kimmei-reigakkai, saying that the group did not have official recognition from the government. Thus they were not allowed to carry on with any religious activities. Nao aserted that "no matter what the police tell us, just ignore them." 3 2 1 However, Onisaburo believed that in order to make the Kimmei-Reigakkai survive, he should incorporate the organization as a subsidiary of the Inari-Kosha 3 2 2 which was officially recognized by the government. On October 15, 1901, Onisaburo went to Sizuoka to visit Nagasawa without telling Nao. Nao became extremely angry at ^ O.S. p~ 499 (Shinrei-kai, July 1918). Ura-no-shinyu means the reverse side Shinyu. Onisaburo called Nao's Ofudesaki the Omote-no-Shinyu (the front side Shinyu), and asserted his shinyu and Nao's shinyu are a pair. 3 2 1 O.N. p. 235. 3 2 2 Onisaburo studied about Chinkon-Kishin under the leader of Inari-Kosha, Nagasawa Katsutoshi in 1898. See chapter four. Doctrinal Development in the Ofudesaki / 179 him and went into seclusion in a shrine on Mount Misen, a mountain located twelve kilometres northeast of Ayabe. The seclusion on Mount Misen was understood by anti-Onisaburo people around Nao as the the definite breach between Nao and Onisaburo, while she explained, in the Ofudesaki, that the confrontation between them was the Kata (proto-type) of a "strength contest" between Kami-gami and knowledge and of the war between Japan and foreign countries. 3 2 3 Nao's rage at Onisaburo is reflected in her ofudesaki as follows: If you think the Woof can carry out the task by itself alone, ignoring the Warp, try to do that! At the beginning a lot of people may come around, but truly sincere people will never join you . . . Ushitora-no-Konjin cannot be a subsidiary of Inari-Kosha, thus we will establish our group independently. (ofudesaki, May 13, 1902) 3 2 4 The Woof symbolized Onisaburo's task and the Warp symbolized Nao's. At first, Nao had expected the Woof and the Warp would work harmoniously for Ushitora-no-Konjin. However, the above mentioned ofudesaki indicate that Nao felt Onisaburo neglected her and the ofudesaki. In the same ofudesaki, Nao also criticized Onisaburo's "selfish and carefree" lifestyle. Even Omoto-kyo's official biography of Nao recognizes the differences in their lifestyles. For example, even in winter Nao refused to warm herself, saying "it was disgraceful to think of one's own comfort while engaging in divine O.S. pp. 162-163 (Omoto Nenpyo, No.4: 183-189). O.S. pp. 162-163 (Omoto Nenpyo, No.4: 183-189). Doctrinal Development in the Ofudesaki / 180 affairs,"325 while Onisaburo did not hesitate to care for his own comfort. To Onisaburo's eyes, Nao's self-discipline was "unreasonable." In his early writings, Onisaburo often openly criticized Nao and her close followers as illogical or unreasonable. For example, in his Michi-no-Omoto (1905) (The Great Source of the Way), he explicitly stated that she and close followers around her were superstitionists and heretics who did not hold proper knowledge of Shinto. 3 2 6 At that time, many followers around Nao were practicing everything the Ofudesaki told them literally. For example, they refused to use western things such as western clothes, lamps and matches. Some of them even used a lantern during the daytime because the ofudesaki says "the world is in the dark." 3 2 7 As the onset of another war approached, Nao and her close followers had a stronger and stronger sense that the critical moment of world renewal was coming. Nao warned her followers that they should lead a more frugal life, because many problems such as food shortages would occur in the course of Tatekae. 3 2 8 Nao's group was becoming alienated from society as time went by between 1901 and 1904. The group quickly fell into financial difficulty, so that even buying paper for writing ofudesaki was a burden for them. 3 2 9 a z b The Omoto Foundation, Deguchi Nao, p. 60. 3 2 6 Deguchi Onisaburo, Michi-no-Omoto, O.S. p. 559. 3 2 7 Yasumaru Yoshio, Deguchi Nao, p. 184. 3 2 8 Yasumaru Yoshio, Deguchi Nao, p. 206. 3 2 9 O.N. p. 282-283. Doctrinal Development in the Ofudesaki / 181 The expulsion agitation against Onisaburo became stronger. In 1903 and 1905 Onisaburo's written works were burnt by some anti-Onisaburo leaders. Omoto Nanajunen-shi recorded that there was even an attempt to assassinate Onisaburo. 330 Finally in 1906, Onisaburo left Ayabe and went to Kyoto where he attended the Koten-Kokyusho (The School and Research Institute for the Japanese Classics and Shinto Theology). Meanwhile, Nao's religious activities intensified when the Russo-Japanese War broke out in 1904. On May 14, 1905, when Japan was in disquiet in anticipation of the arrival of the Baltic Fleet, Nao made another Shusshu to Meshima. Nao believed that this one was the "final" Shusshu, and that world renewal would begin at long last. Omoto-kyo's official history interpreted this Shusshu as Nao going to Meshima to pray for peace. 3 3 1 However, Yasumaru Yoshio argues that Nao's action was based on her expectation of the beginning of Tatekae. In her mind, according to Yasumaru, there was an "eschatological" schema of Japan's defeat leading to "the end of the present world, and to the beginning of Tatekae." 3 3 2 In her ofudesaki, however, Nao only said that the second Shusshu to Meshima was the final Shusshu for the task of "lifting up" those Kami-gami who had fallen into exile. 3 3 3 Thus it is not fully clear if she a a u O.N. p. 261. 3 3 1 The Omoto Foundation, Nao Deguchi, p. 62. 332 Yasumaru Yoshio, Deguchi Nao, p. 220. Yasumaru's definition of "eschatological" is similar to so-called "Apocalyptic eschatology." As we can find in the Old Testament's Daniel and Isaiah, a schema of the process of ending old worlds and beginning new worlds is as follows: Step one — war or other disasters and, eventually, a cosmic catastrophe. Step two - the end of the old world; in other words, the end of old aeon. Step three - a new world of absolute and perfect salvation will appear. 3 3 3 See ofudesaki of May 26, 1905, O.S. pp. 312-13 (Omoto Nenpyo, No.7, 223-231) 12 an example. Doctrinal Development in the Ofudesaki / 182 held a typical exchatological schema, but it is certain that Nao and her followers believed that the Russo-Japanese War would be the beginning of a great change in the world. Their expectations reached a high point, but ended in total disappointment when Japan defeated Russia and the Meiji government bolstered its ruling power over the Japanese people. Most of the followers left Kimmei-Reigakkai and the group fell into an extreme decline with serious financial difficulties. Nao did not stop writing ofudesaki, but kept warning people that the victory over Russia would not make society stable. 3 3 4 However, it was obvious that Nao's cry was no longer reaching people's ears. G. T H E D E A T H O F T H E S H A M A N In 1908, Onisaburo went back to Ayabe. At this point the leadership of the Kimmei-Reigakkai switched from Nao and her close followers to Onisaburo. He moved quickly and made significant changes in the organization. First of all, he re-organized it into Dai-Nihon-Shusai-Kai (The Great Japan Purification Society) which, Onisaburo asserted, was not a religious organization but a research organiztion into "pure shinto." Onisaburo was developing his own nationalistic ideas which emphasized a theocratic society ruled by the divine Tenno. He also developed teachings which established "connections" between the ofudesaki's mythology and the myths told in Doctrinal Development in the Ofudesaki / 183 Kojiki and Nihongi. He used every means, including publishing magazines and sending missionary groups around the Tamba area and beyond, to make his new organization grow. By 1911, Dai-Nihon-Shusai-Kai became a religious group attracting people from all over Japan. 3 3 5 In the spring of 1916, Onisaburo claimed that he saw an island through his "spiritual eyes." Onisaburo sent two followers to search for this island. On June 25, 1916, Onisaburo left Ayabe to open the island of Kami-Shima. This Shusshu was done under the full leadership of Onisaburo. This was a clear declaration of Onisaburo's spiritual equality with Nao, if not his superiority over her. From this point on, many ofudesaki mentioned that Onisaburo's spirit was the spirit of Miroku, the savior who will usher in the world to come. Nao, on the other hand, kept herself from public view. She even stopped writing ofudesaki around 1917. Then, on November 6, 1918, she passed quietly away. Murakami Shigeyoshi, Deguchi Onisaburo, pp. 100-108. VII. S O M E P R O B L E M S A N D C O N C L U S I O N S Although a typological study regarding a modernization process has been developed b3r historians, sociologists, anthropologists and others, each society has been going through its own way of modernization. In the case of Japan, for example, her experiences with industrialization, urbanization and other modernization processes have many characteristics in common with countries such as England and France. On the other hand, Japan's modernization process has elements which fundamentally differ from what other societies have experienced. Speed is one of the notable characteristics of Japan's modernization. If we focus on several elements of modernization, such as industrialization, economic growth and militarization, Japan made rapid strides along the road which industrially advanced western countries had been travelling for four hundred years. She caught up to countries like England and France within a half century. Her "speed" was much faster than that of other modernization late-comers, such as Russia, which began her "modernization process" in the 1860s. 3 3 6 On the other hand, some argue that Japan's modernization did not make much progress until the end of World War II. Mikiso Hane is one of them. He states, "As late as the 1930s, in the famines that struck the northern villages, similar tragedies [starvation, infanticide, abortion, and selling of daughters into prostitution] beset the peasants. All of which leaves one to ask: How modern 3 3 5 About modernization in Russia, see J.N. Westwood's Endurance and Endeavour, London: Oxford University Press, 1973. 184 Some Problems and Conclusions / 185 was 'modern' Japan?"37 Those elements of modernization which I tentatively call "modernity," such as the growth of human rights, democratic thought and equality among all men, made extremely slow progress. There are many possible causes, conditions, and circumstances which made Japan enter her modernization process. Some scholars, such as John Hall and Marius Jansen, have examined "modern" elements in Japanese society in the Tokugawa Period (1604-1868). 3 3 8 Others such as Yamazaki Kozo focus on the development of Capitalism in Japan and the world. 3 3 9 In this paper, we have discussed an ideology which governed all aspects of the Japanese people's lives between the late 19th century and 1945. This ideology at that time was the basis for political unification, the source of nationalism and the justification of expansionism. At other times, it was used by the government as a weapon to suppress a human rights movement and other movements seeking the development of "modernity." In other words, this ideology was developed and cultivated by the Meiji government to be the theoretical backbone of the government's modernization policy. It was based on the myth which emphasized the divinity of the Tenno. This "religious" idology is called Tennd-sei ideology (the ideology of the Tenno system). Tennd-sei and the Japanese people's reaction to it are the factors which should not be overlooked when one studies the problems of modernization in Japan. Hane, Mikiso, Peasants, Rebels, and Outcastes, New York: Pantheon Books, 1982, p. 4. 3 3 8 See John W. Hall edit. Studies in the Institutional History of Early Modern Japan, Princeton University Press, 1968. 339 Yamazaki Kozo, "Nihon no 'Kindai-ka' to Shihon-shugi" (Japan's 'modernization' and Capitalism) Nihon no Kindai-ka wo dd-miruka, Tokyo: Hanawa Shoten, 1968, pp. 206-228. Some Problems and Conclusions / 186 As discussed in chapter one, when the Meiji government was established it did not have a firm base for its power. However, its architects were aware that they had to unify the country as soon as possible in order to resist pressure from Western countries. Establishing a system which related to the external, physical aspects of people's lives, such as the central bureaucratic system, was rather easy compared with centralizing peoples' minds around the new ruler, namely the Tenno. The Tenno, in reality, had very weak foundations supporting his authority as a ruler. The architects of the new government moved quickly to establish the religious authority of the Tenno in order to ensure the legitimacy of the government. The government used all possible means to spread the Tenno myth among the people. The following is the basic concept of the myth: the Heavenly Kami-gami and the Great Ancestress, Amaterasu-Omikami, established the throne and made the succession secure. The line of Tenno in unbroken succession entered into possession thereof and handed it on. The Tenno by means of Shinto ceremonies became one with the divine imperial ancestors. Shinto ceremonies and government were one and the same. The Tenno's right to be the ruler of Japan lies in the "historical fact" that the present Tenno relates directly through and unbroken blood line with those Kami-gami who created Japan and with the founder of the Japanese dynasty. This "anti-modern" myth became the fundamental ideology of "modern" Japan. Sometimes we can find in modern societies a charismatic ruler who is surrounded by "nrystical" stories. For example, James M. Rhodes argues that Hitler's National Socialism was a secular apocalyptic movement and Nazis intentionally built up a quasi-religious "apocalyptic" image, such as the chosen one who would Some Problems and Conclusions / 187 eliminate evil from the face of the. earth, upon Hitler. 3 4 0 However, there is no modern society other than Japan that had such a strong and actual connection between mythology and politics, mainly because in many European societies modernization began with separation of the king's political power from the religious authority of the Christian Church. It is ironic that separation of religion and state was established in Japan much earlier than in many European countries. For example, the Joei shikimoku (basic law code of the Kamakura Shogunate issued in 1232) clearly stated the Kamakura government had no connection with any religious organizations and did not care to which religious organization people belonged. 3 4 1 In other words, the Kamakura Shogunate government did not need support from religious "authority" to establish its power over Japan. Since then religion has basically been regarded as a personal matter, even though all of the shogunate governments were cautious of a religious movement which had the potential to grow into a political movement. However, the "modern" Meiji government actually reversed this tradition. Religion and politics were more tightly connected than ever before. Religious freedom was shattered. Although the Meiji government emphasized that the Tenno's power was "restored" to the way originally practiced in ancient Japan, actually the entire Tenno system based on his politico-religious authority was nothing but a modern invention. For example, according to modern Tennosei ideology, the Tenno is a ^ 5 James M. Rhodes The Hitler Movement, Stanford: Hoover Institution Press, 1980, pp. 29-84. 3 4 1 About the Joei Shikimoku, see Oyama Kyohei edt., Kamakura Bakufu , Nihon-no-Rekishi, vol.9, Tokyo: Shogakukan, 1976. Some Problems and Conclusions / 188 "sacred and inviolable" living Kami. However, in the course of history until the Meiji era, the Tenno had always been the highest priest, and not a Kami himself. He could unite with Kami-gami through ceremonies, but essentially he was a human. Murakami Shigeyoshi argues that the "absolutely divine Tenno" image is essentially different from the traditional Japanese image of the Tenno. 3 4 2 In chapter one, the process of fabricating the divine Tenno is discussed, but more detailed examination is necessary to clarify why "divinization" of the Tenno progressed in such a short period, and who planned it. Once the divine Tenno was "restored," the government used the Tenno's religious authority fully, as a useful instrument to control people. For instance, faith in the divine Tenno effectively checked radicalism and revolutionary sentiment as follows: since the Tenno is a direct descendant of the Kami who created Japan and of the Kami who founded the Dynasty, it is "natural" and "inevitable" that the Tenno holds the ruler's seat. Therefore, any revolutionary sentiments are distractions from "natural" events and hold no legitimate right to overthrow the Tenno's government. Tennd-sei ideology emphasized the "traditional" virtues such as obedience, submissiveness and humility. On the other hand, the Tenno was presented as a model of "modern" man. The bulletins which told the people that the Tenno ate beef or wore western clothes were nothing but the government's modernization propaganda. The Tenno also played an important role in promoting the utilization of electricity, trains, and other "new" things. However, the most effective usage ^ Murakami Shigeyoshi, Gendai Shukyo to Minshu-Shugi (Modern Religions and Democracy), Tokyo: Sansei-do, 1982, p. 31. Some Problems and Conclusions / 189 of Tennosei ideology was for Japan's foreign policy, called Hakko Ichi-u (The Whole World Under One Roof)- The basic idea was as follows: it was the great timeless mission of Japanese people to unite all the races of the world under one roof governed by the divine ruler, the Tenno, who would bring everlasting happiness to mankind. Apparently, the Japanese people believed in the government's modernization policy and marched into the tragic wars with fife music being played by the divine Tenno. We can rather easily discover how "intellectual" people considered the government's modernization policy. Fukuzawa Yukichi (1834-1901), Kitamura Tokoku (1868-1894), and Uchimura Kanzo (1861-1930) are representative of those who criticized modernization policies at that time, saying Japan's modernization was superficial and taking an inappropriate course. 3 4 3 However, it is difficult to know how the masses, especially those who were in the lower social strata, regarded modernization and the government's modernization policy. Studying new religions is one of the few means of listening to the voices of those people. Since the Meiji government was maintained by the Tenno myth, the existence of a new religion which held its own mythology could be a serious criticism of the Tenno and his government, because such an "unofficial myth" might deny the fundamaental right of the Tenno to rule Japan. Deguchi Nao's Ofudesaki raised fundamental questions about Japan's 3 4 3 See Hayashi Tashiyuki edit. Dento to Gendai (Tradition and Modern) Vol.23, September 1973. Some Problems and Conclusions / 190 modernization, as well as the Tenno's rule over Japan. She sharply criticized modernization, saying it would not bring people happiness, but rather would destroy the world. Nao was born into the lowest stratum in Japanese society and struggled against severe difficulties through most of her life. However, she committed herself wholeheartedly to following the moral code which Yasumaru Yoshio calls Tsuzoku-Ddtoku. 3 4 4 Tsuzoku-Ddtoku is a system of conventional morality which was widespread in the late 19th century through religious or ethical movements such as Shin-gaku and Fuji-ko. This moral code taught the importance of loyalty, obedience, sincerity, filial piety and so on, and stressed selfless devotion to family and one's social superiors. It also told that one's diligent labor and righteous behaviour would surely be rewarded. Nao carried out a model life according to Tsuzoku-Ddtoku. However, when the new government was established, things actually became worse. Political and economic changes introduced into Japanese society by the new government eliminated the rewards promised by Tsuzokuu-Dotoku. As for hard work, self-discipline, sacrificing one's personal needs and so on, Nao upheld these virtues, but the only things she got in return were more difficulties. Nao learnt from her painful experiences that Japan was going the . wrong direction. Then one day, Nao changed all the stigmas she had accumulated into charisma. When she was possessed by Ushitora-no-Konjin, she suddenly understood the real Some Problems and Conclusions / 191 meaning of the suffering she had gone through. She also discovered why her virtuous attitude and hard work did not bring her happiness. The world had been ruled by the wrong rulers, and naturally the world itself had become dark and twisted. The mythological story of Ushitora-no-Konjin and His fellow Kami-gami's exile in Nao's ofudesaki strikes against the core of the Tenno-sei ideology. Nao could criticize the government's modernization policy and the Tenno who, to Nao's eyes, had been blindly worsening the condition of Japan, because she was supported by the authority of Ushitora-no-Konjin which, she believed, was much higher and stronger than that of the Tenno. Nao's criticisms were on firm ground, established by her own experiences and confirmed by Ushitora-no-Konjin. She asserted that the present world was filled with greed and Ware-yoshi (selfishness). One may say that Nao saw into the essential character of capitalistic society. Nao showed in the ofudesaki the ideal world where people would be able to live a plain but quiet and anxiety-free life. The Kami who was a higher authority than the Tenno, the Creation myth which differs from the story of the Tenno's ancestors, the image of the ideal world which differs from the one the government had presented as the goal . . . these new religions which held the above mentioned three beliefs had the potential to shake the foundations of the Tenno's government. Maruyama-kyo, Tenri-kyo, Konko-kyo and Omoto-kyo's histories tell us that Japanese people by no means blindly accepted the government's modernization policy. They saw essential "defects" in modernization and sought alternative ways to build and Some Problems and Conclusions / 192 ideal world. However, none of those new religions could grow into a full-scale anti-government or "actual" world-renewal movement. Sooner or later all of the above mentioned new religions compromised with the government and accepted the worship of the Tenno as a central part of their teachings. In the case of Tenri-ky6, the founder Nakayama Miki finished writing her original creation myth named Doroumi-Koki (Ancient Story of Muddy Sea) in 1883. The stories in this book are completely different from those in Kojiki and Nihongi. Soon after Miki's death in 1887 Tenri-kyo took copies of Doroumi-Koki from followers and discarded them. In the case of Omoto-kyo, after Onisaburo won the leadership of the group, he put effort into making connections between the Ofudesaki, Kojiki and Nihongi. He did not hesitate to re-write ofudesaki in order to fill the great gaps between Nao's teachings and Tennd-sei ideology. Later, Onisaburo developed his own ideal image of divine Tenno. Ironically, the government did not tolerate this "private" Tennd-sei ideology and severely suppressed it in 1921 and 1935. Why did all these religions lose their powers of resistance against the government so quickly? The common answer for this question is that the pressure from the government was unbearably strong and compromise with Tenno worship was the only manner of surviving. Indeed, the government was well aware that controlling religions was essential to stabilizing its rule. Government Some Problems and Conclusions / 193 leaders knew that new religions had the potential to hit the weakest point of the Tenno's ruling system, namely the mythological base of its authority as the ruler of Japan. However, it should be noticed that there were almost no religious groups that fought uncompromisingly against Tenno worship. One notable exception is Hommichi. This small religious group is an offshoot from Tenri-kyo, led by Onishi Aijiro (1881-1958). Onishi clearly stated that the Tenno was nothing but a spurious Kami and criticized the Tennosei ideology exhaustively. The government violently suppressed Hommichi twice in 1928 and 1938. Onishi and most of his followers were arrested in 1938 and Onishi received a life sentence. Onishi did not accept Tenno worship at all and the majority of his followers did not turn from their belief in Onishi's teachings. The interesting characteristic of Hommichi was that Onishi was a shaman and was not interested in establishing a religious organization. Onishi realized the dangers involved in becoming a religious organization. He began teaching his religious ideas but did not allow a permanent church to be formed. His followers offered meeting places in turn. 3 4 5 After the death of Nakayama Miki, Tenri-kyo gradually removed shamanistic elements from its teachings. Miki's grandson Shinnosuke took control of the Tenri-kyo and tried to shape its creed and to establish Tenri-kyo as a religious organization. Since Shinnosuke, the leadership has always been held by a descendant of Shinnosuke. Interestingly enough, just as in the case of the Tenno, the blood line from Miki became a qualification to be the leader of the Tenri-kyo. Some Problems and Conclusions / 194 Onishi had doubts about monopolizing religious authority within the Namakyama family. He believed that Tenri-kyo should be led by a person who was chosen by Kami to receive revelations from the Kami. Eventually, Onishi realized that he was the true successor of Miki and could receive revelations from the Kami as Miki had done. 3 4 6 In the case of Omoto-kyo, we can see a similar pattern. When Nao was active as a shaman Omoto-kyo was small but had a strong will to resist the Tenno-sei ideology, but after the failure of her revelation about Japan's tragic defeat in the war against Russia she lost her charisma as a shaman. Onisaburo, an organizer, came into the power and established the Omoto-kyo religious organization. In order to preserve the organization, coping with the Tenno ideology was almost inevitable. Shamanistic elements faded away; even Nao's Ofudesaki began to be treated like a secondary source of Omoto-kyo's teachings. The relationship between a shaman and an organizer in a new religion needs more comparative study in order to find out why most new Japanese religions lost their vitality and why religious leaders often become "mini" Tennos after the shamanistic founders die. For further study, the shaman-organizer relationship can be used as a paradigm. We find this characteristic not only within new Japanese religions, but also in the histories of many other religious organizations in the world. Bryan Wilson shows us the transformation process of a sect becoming a denomination. According to Wilson, "sects are movements of religious protest . . . They rejected the authority of orthodox religious leaders and often, See Umehara Masaki, Hommichi Kyoto: Shirakawa-shoin, 1975. Some Problems and Conclusions / 195 also, of the secular government." 3 4 7 However, many sects soon moved from a position of protest and members lost their distinctive religious identity. Wilson says that through this process they "denominationalise." 3 4 8 He studied mainly Christian sects in North America such as the Seventh Day Adventists and the Mormons. Denominationalization deeply relates to the loss of the prophet-leader of a sect. When a prophet-leader loses his charisma (or he dies), the next leader, often an organizer, takes the sect and makes it become an established stable religious movement. The sect will be denominationalized. The relationship between Nao and Onisaburo can be studied in this light. As discussed in chapter five, some of Nao's teachings satisfy the definitions of millenarian movements which was set by Norman Cohn and other scholars. Still, there are fundamental problems to be solved before we will be able to define Omoto-kyo as a millenarian movement. First of all, in Nao's Ofudesaki, there is no image of an all-out war between the sons of light and the sons of darkness. Nao urged those who illegitimately rule this world to Kaishin (reform one's mind/soul), but never tried to eliminate the "evil" kami-gami & "evil" people. It is still a questionable assertion that a millenarian movement can occur within a culture that does not have a strong sense of dichotomy. 3 4 9 New religions established during the late 19th century and the early 20th century are evidence of the Japanese Jinmin's (people's) consciousness. They opened their eyes to see the change in their own country and the world. They 3 4 7 Wilson, Bryan, Religious Sects, London: World University Library, 1970, p. 7. 3 4 8 Wilson, Bryan, ibid. (1970) pp. 233-242. 3 4 9 See Norman Cohn, Pursuit of the Millenium, London: Seeker & Warburg, 1957. Some Problems and Conclusions / 196 might not know sophisticated words, but they pointed to the dark side of the "glorious" Japanese empire and of modernization. They even showed that there was another path Japan could follow. A tiny humble woman, Deguchi Nao, was one of them, and her message of world-renewal still has the power to appeal to modern people who are seeking a path towards a better world. VIII. G L O S S A R Y O F S E L E C T E D J A P A N E S E W O R D S Akugami ^ Amaterasu-Omikami Ameno-Minakanushi-no-Kami ^ j ^ P Anraku J^ p Arahito-gami ^-tjp Ayabe Bunmei-kaika 0{=^  ^ff\ ^ ^ - l Chie )£U &~ Chinkon-Kishin tfy> X$fr ^ Dainihon-Shusai-kai Q ^  ^ "^-^ T^ N Daijo-sai ^ Deguchi Nao ^ Q & & Deguchi Onisaburo ^ Q Jlnfe^ Eejanaika £ ^  y ^  f j ft Fuji-ko y^> l . ^jt Fudo Fukko-Shinto ^ J [ _ Q ^ T ; 1 L . Fukoku-Kyohei V j g ^ £ > ^ . Fukuchiyama £ p ^ Gaikoku 9V @ Genrei-gaku (Kototama-gaku) ^  \jL^  Genzeriyaku 7^ »\ ^ Gokuraku jj^jj >|p^  197 Glossary of Selected Japanese Words / 198 Goryo-shinko ^ f l p Jfe fafi Goshinmai /ffi fa Gyoko Hakko-Ichiu £ £ N - » y Henjo-nanshi ^ ^  ( OlWOto-Ky5's t*eh1»v) 4^ Henjo-nyoshi ^ j)v^ ( BujoWKisi'S^ r^ .) Hito-gami J i ^ ^ > Hitujisaru-no-Konjin £-V^  (T) Hirata Atutane ^ ' f ^ J ^ J Honji-suijaku £^ ^feifc-. Ikigami ^ £ Inari-k6sha Ise jingu ^ T|g izumo 4* Sin Jiba Izumo-taisha **^» jfy^ J^L*. Jigoku ^fe. Jifc Jingu-Kogo ^ ? J^ j 4_1q Jingu-ji ^ < g ^ JinnQ-shoto-ki ^  ^ It. Jisha-bugyo |f. ^J-^ Jiyu-minken-Undo fa ^  ^ ^ L l l ^ ! Jiyu-to ^ |£l Kaishin t O kami tjj) Glossary of Selected Japanese Words / 199 Kami-gami ^ Kami-shima f^ji Kamimusubi-no-kami Kami-yo ^ ^ Kannagara-no-michi /|"4SL (D Kata 3jc^  Kawate Bunjiro tt\ ^Ok Kekko-na-Kami £ g ^  7^  ^ Kimon Kimmei-Reigakkai ^ t j ^ ^ & ^ S Kishu ^ Kokka Shinto |JJ. ? \ ^ ^ Kokutai Kojin ^ ^> Konjin 7 ^ Konko-Daijin J^Jfo ^ Konko-kyo >§Llftj Kotodama (Kototama) Kunitokotachi-no-Mikoto Jj^^T Kumaso Kunjo |,| ^ Kurama-yama jjj^ J.^ Kurozumi-kyo J ^ * Kurozumi Munetada „ _ . . . Glossary of Selected Japanese Words / 200 Kyoha-Shinto ^  $<L Kyoshu J|5LJ!L Manyo-shu 7^  Mao-son ^ Maroudo-gami 'j^J^ Maruyama-kyo ^  ^ M e i j i 8rV>0 Meshima ^ fP^I Miroku ^ ^ f t Misen-san Misogi-harai j J ^ j j ^ C . Miura Baien .^3?*' Mukaku-SlxW/f£ Njc^a^Miki 4 ? ^  3)- J. Nichiren-shu Fuju-fuse-ha j^ gF ^"^f^ >/$^  Nihongi (Nihonshoki) Q ^  ( Q ^  ^  j^-j^ ^  Niiname-sai ^ Nokorazu-no-Konjin rO "^ T O ) ^ ^ ' ^ Nyorai-kyo ^ "^>L» Ofudesaki ^ . Z f c ^ 0 h a r a i Okage ^ Okage-mairi ^  Pf.^ 1) Okuninishi-no-Mikoto ygj^  "^T .^"j^ Omoto-kyo X>£fet_ Glossary of Selected Japanese Words / 201 Oni fy> Onishi Aijiro & Onmyo-do ^ Oshima Rangaku JS^\ Reigaku \ ^ Rissho-ankoku jr 1 r%P \J^t Ryugu-no Otohime (J") t^^ I. Sakibashiri *) Saisei-itci Saniwa ^j^i Sanpai ^ jp^ Sanzen-sekai r ffi ^ » Seii-taishogun ^ ^ ^ ^ Shigan-jodo ^ i % X Sinetsu ULtlb Shingaku ' Singon-shu ^ Shinto frfr^ Shohatu-no-shinyu ^ TJ-^ 0) Shusse shusshu Sonno-son Suicho-no-Mikoto Taisho . j ^ j f e Glossary of Selected Japanese Words / 202 Takakuma-yama P*^  Takami-musubi-ni-Kami "^g-, ^ ^ Takayama ^ \ A-^  Tamba jfEL. 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